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Full text of "First -[eleventh, eighteenth-forty-sixth] annual report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts"



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




University Library 






Public Document 



No. 34 



FOETY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



State Board of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 

1914. 



Approved by 
The State Board or Publication, 



V 



u 



L.' I 



3 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 
1913. 



HENRY P. WALCOTT, M.D., Chairman, 
MILTON J. ROSENAU, M.D., . 
HIRAM F. MILLS, A.M., C.E., 
ROBERT W. LOVETT, M.D., . 
C. E. McGILLICUDDY, LL.B., . 
CLEMENT F. COOGAN, . 
JOSEPH A. PLOUFF, . . 



Secretary. 
MARK W. RICHARDSON, M.D. 

Assistant to the Secretary. 
WILLIAM C. HANSON, M.D. 

Engineer. 
X. H. GOODNOUGH. C.E. 

Pathologist. 
THEOBALD SMITH, M.D. 

Analyst of Food and Drugs. 
HERMANN C. LYTHGOE, S.B. 

Chemist. 
H. W. CLARK. 



OF Cambridge. 
OF Boston. 
OF Lowell, 
of Boston. 
OF Worcester, 
op Pittsfield. 
OF Ware. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 
1 

53 
55 

57 

57,60 

59, 134 

59, 146 

Cemetery, Location of 

183-199 
201 



General Report, ...... 

Supplement, ....... 

1. Water Supply and Sewerage, 

Advice to Cities, Towns and Persons, 

Water Supply, .... 

Ice Supplies, .... 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, 

Pollution of Streams, Manufacturing Wastes, 
Hospitals, Slaughter-house, Nuisances, etc.. 
Examination of Public Water Supplies, 
Examination of Rivers, .... 
Water Supply Statistics, .... 
Lawrence Experiment Station Report for 1913, 

Experiments upon the Purification of Sewage, 

Experiments upon the Purification of Water, 
Effect of Sewage Disposal, 1913, 

2. Food and Drug Inspection, . . . . 

Prosecutions, ...... 

Report of the Analyst, .... 

3. Report upon an Act relative to the Cold Storage of Certain Food Products 

4. Relative to the Sale of Eggs taken from Cold Storage, 

5. Report of the Board relative to the Business of Slaughtering, 

6. Inspection of Dairies, ....... 

7. Report of the Board of the State Examiners of Plumbers, 

8. Report upon the Production and Distribution of Diphtheria Antitoxin and 

Vaccine Virus, ....... 

9. Report upon the Work of the Bacteriological Laboratory, 

Examinations of Cultures for Diphtheria, 

Examinations for Tuberculosis, ..... 

Examinations for Typhoid Fever, .... 

Examinations for Malaria, ..... 

10. Report upon the Work of the State Board of Health relative to the Control 
of Infectious Disease, ....... 

Further Experiments in Poliomyelitis, by M. J. Rosenau, M.D., 

Experiments to determine if Paralyzed Domestic Animals and those 
associated with Cases of Infantile Paralysis may transmit this Dis- 
ease, by Carl Ten Broeck, M.D., with an introductory note by Prof. 
Theobald Smith, ......... 

A Study of an Epidemic of Infantile Paralysis (Acute Epidemic Poliomye- 
litis) occurring in the Southern Connecticut Valley District during 
the Year 1912 (Nov. 1, 1911, to Nov. 1, 1912), by James V. W. 
Boyd, M.D 



213 
243 
263 
265 
339 
355 
369 
372 
381 
417 
429 
435 
475 
495 

501 
513 
515 
521 
525 
532 

533 
535 



558 



578 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Supplement — Conciwded. 

11. Statistical Summaries of Disease and Mortality . ^ ■ 

A General Review of the Vital Statistics of the State, 1913, . 

Returns of Disease and Mortality, • 

Weekly Mortality Returns ' • 

Fatality of Certain Infective Diseases, . ■ "^ , „ 

Official Returns of Notified Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health 
Official Returns of Deaths in Cities and Large Towns, 

12. Report upon the Work of the State Inspectors of Health, 

Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health, . 

Nuisances, . • ■ ■ • ' 

Sanitation of Schoolhouses, 

Drinking Water, . • • • ■ 

Matters relating to Water Supply and Sewerage, 

Sanitation of Factories, Workshops and Mercantile Estabhshments, 

Hygiene of Tenement Workrooms, . • ■ • ,■,■.„ 

Sanitation of Police Station Houses, Lock-ups, Houses of Detention 

Jails, Houses of Correction, Prisons and Reformatories, . 
Slaughterhouse Inspection and Inspectors of Slaughtering, . 
The State Inspectors of Health, ..••;•• 
List of Cities and Towns included in each Health District. . 

Cities and Towns alphabetically arranged 

13. Index, ..•■•■■■ 



PAGE 

603 
605 
611 
612 
618 
620 
642 
681 
683 
729 
730 
731 
731 
736 
739 

741 
746 
747 
749 
754 
761 



GENERAL REPORT. 



In accordance with the provisions of chapter 211 of the Acts of 1905, 
the following report of the work of the several departments of the State 
Board of Health is presented for the fiscal year ended Nov. 30, 1913, 
on which date the Board was constituted as follows : — 

Henry P. Walcott, M.D., Cambridge, Chairman. 

C. E. McGiLLi CUDDY, LL.B., Worcester. 
Clement F. Coogan, Pittsfield. 
Joseph A. Plouff, Ware. 



Milton J. Rosenau, M.D., Boston. 
Hiram F. Mills, A.M., C.E., Lowell. 
Robert W. Lovett, M.D., Boston. 



On March 30, 1913, occurred the death of Dr. Julian A. Mead, mem- 
ber of the Board since October, 1895, concerning whose death it was 
voted at a meeting of the State Board of Health, held April 3, 1913, 
that the following minutes be spread upon the records : — 

Dr. Julian A. Mead became a member of the State Board of Health in 
October, 1895. He was a member of the Board at the date of his death, 
March 13. 1913. He brought to the service of the State the valued knowl- 
edge of a well-trained and experienced practitioner of medicine. He pos- 
sessed qualities of the greatest importance to a member of a Board which 
has such varied functions as are imposed upon this organization. He had 
a large acquaintance with public affairs of many sorts, and he willingly 
gave his time and special knowledge to the work of the Board. Careful 
in arriving at conclusions, he was firm in maintaining them. Courteous, 
friendly and just, he leaves with his associates a happy memory and a sin- 
cere regret for his loss. 

To fill the unexpired term of Dr. Mead, Dr. Milton J. Eosenan was 
appointed by Governor Foss on April 9, 1913. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health, held Oct. 2, 1913, the 
resignation of Dr. Elliott Washburn, State Inspector of Health for the 
South Midland District, was accepted with regret. Dr. Washburn re- 
signed in order to become superintendent of the State sanatorium for 
tuberculosis at Rutland, Mass. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



AXTITYI'HOID IXOCULATTOX. 

Tlie practice of specific inoculation against typhoid fever has made 
considerable progress in Massachusetts during the past year. Especially 
noteworthy has been the introduction of this procedure among the mem- 
bers of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. During the year 21,014 
ampoules of antityphoid vaccine have been distributed for use by the citi- 
zens of the Commonwealth, but of this number 10,526 ampoules were 
utilized by the militia. This immunization of the militia, affecting as 
it does a large body of young men in the prime of life, at an age pecul- 
iarly susceptible to typhoid infection and subject at the time of profes- 
sional maneuvres, at least, to increased exposure to polluted water 
supplies, cannot but have an appreciable effect upon the incidence of 
the disease. 

There is every reason to believe, furthermore, that the practice of the 
inoculation of nurses, inaugurated two or three years ago at a consid- 
ei'able number of training schools throughout the Commonwealth, has 
become increasingly prevalent, with undoubtedly beneficial effects. 

Xo deleterious effects have been reported as yet from the use of anti- 
typhoid vaccine. In one instance a militiaman was said to have died 
a short time after inoculation with typhoid vaccine, but the autopsy 
showed that death was due to other causes. 

Antityphoid inoculation is comiDulsory for the troops of the United 
States army, and the beneficial action produced by this procedure is 
seen in the fact that during the year 1913 only two cases of typhoid 
fever occurred in a personnel of over 80,000 men, and neither of these 
cases died. 

Antimeningitis Serum. 
On Xov. 1, 1913, the Board was able, after a long period of prepara- 
tion under the auspices of Dr. Theobald Smith, to furnish to citizens 
of the Commonwealth, in a manner similar to that employed with the 
diphtheria antitoxin, a curative serum for cerebrospinal meningitis. With 
this serimi the following circular was sent out: — 

State Board of Health, State House, 
Boston, Nov. 1, 1913. 

Aktiheningitis Serum. 

The State Board of Health is prepared to furnish free to physicians and 

citizens of the Commonwealth, in a manner simikir to that employed with 

diphtheria antitoxin, a curative serum for use in cases of cerebrospinal 

meningitis. This antimeningitis serum is obtained from the horse after pro- 



Xo. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 3 

longed treatment with a number of strains of the diplococcus of meningitis. 
It is of no service in other infectious diseases. It is administered subdurally 
and not by the subcutaneous or intravenous route. It is urged, furthermore, 
that whenever a reliable microscopic examination of the cerebrospinal fluid 
withdrawn cannot be made at once, the fluid should be sent to the nearest 
accessible laboratory, or to the laboratory of the State Board of Health. 
The specific diplococci disappear rapidly from the fluid and may not be 
found later than six hours after withdrawal from the spinal canal. 

1. When lumbar puncture (in fourth lumbar space, or higher if necessarj-) is performed 
in a suspicious case, be prepared to inject the serum. If the cerebrospinal fluid withdrawn 
is cloudy make the injection of seriun immediately and without waiting for a bacterio- 
logical examination. The subsequent doses of the serum are to be given only if the Dip- 
lococcus intracellularis has been demonstrated. 

2. Always withdraw as much cerebrospinal fluid as possible at each puncture and 
inject full doses of the serum. Thirty cubic centimeters of serum should be injected in 
every instance in which this quantity of fluid or less has been removed, unless a distinctly 
abnormal sense of resistance in the spinal canal is encountered after as much serum has 
been injected as fluid has been removed. WTien the amount of fluid withdrawn exceeds 
30 cubic centimeters, introduce a large quantity of senma — up to 45 cubic centimeters, 
or even more. In the very severe or fulminating cases inject from 30 to 45 cubic centi- 
meters of serum without reference to the quantity of fluid removed unless abnormal 
resistance is encountered. 

3. In very severe or fulminating cases repeat the injection of serum within the first 
twenty-four hour period, as soon as the symptoms intensify, or, where the condition 
remains stationarj^, after the lapse of the first twelve hours. 

4. In cases of average severity make daily injections of full doses for four days. If 
diplococci persist after the fourth dose, continue the injections until they have disap- 
peared. 

5. If the subjective symptoms, including fever and mental impairment, persist after 
the diplococci have disappeared, or after the four doses have been given, and improve- 
ment is not progressing, wait four days, if the condition is stationary, and then repeat the 
four injections. Should the symptoms have become worse before the expiration of this 
period, the injections should be resumed immediately. 

6. In relapse, which is indicated either by reappearance of the diplococci in the cerebro- 
spinal fluid or recrudescence of the symptoms, the four doses at twenty-four hour intervals 
are to be repeated, and the subsequent treatment is to be conducted as for the original 
attack. 

7. This plan of treatment is to be followed until the patient is free of sjTnptoms, the 
diplococci disappear from the cerebrospinal fluid, or the chronic stage of the disease super- 
venes. The sermn has proven of some benefit in the chronic stages in which the dip- 
lococci are still present in the meninges. When the condition of hydrocephalus has 
been established the injection of seriun into the spinal canal offers little of value. It is 
possible that direct intraventricular injections may be of benefit in this condition. ' 

It is too early as yet to determine accurately the clinical results ob- 
tained from this new serum, but as far as the results go they would 
seem to indicate that this new product of the State Board of Health is, 
at least, equal to if it does not surpass in eiBciency the antimeningitis 
serums which have preceded it. 

1 From directions issued by the Rockefeller Institute, New York (abstracted from paper by Charles 
Hunter Dunn, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1908). 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Anterior Poliomyelitis. 
As a result of a request made by the Board to the last Legislature, 
a further appropriation of $10,000 was made for the study of anterior 
poliomyelitis, and this study has been carried on in 1913 along three 
general lines : — ■ 

1. The cases have been studied clinically by Dr. Carl TenBroeck and 
Dr. Arthur L. Eeagh, acting as special investigators for the Board, and 
also, in a number of instances, by the local State inspectors of health. 

2. Animal paralyses have been studied in the laboratory of Dr. Theo- 
bald Smith. 

3. Experiments looking to a repetition of the positive results obtained 
in 1912 by Prof. Milton J. Eosenau with the bites of the stable fly 
{8tom,o(rys calcitrans) . (See supplement.) 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum. 
During 1913 the Board has continued its intensive work for the pre- 
vention of blindness occurring as a result of ophthalmia neonatorum. 
This work, carried out through the State Inspectors of Health, has been 
of the greatest importance and of a most far-reaching character. In 
this place it is necessary only to state that ^s a result of this campaign, 
carried on since 1909, the announcement could be made in 1913 by 
Mr. Henry Copley Greene, field agent for the Commission for the Blind, 
that the cases of blindness in Massachusetts due to ophthalmia neo- 
natorum in 1912 was but one-half of the number due to the same cause 
in 1911. Further details concerning this campaign will be found in 
that portion of the supplement dealing with the State Inspectors of 
Health. 

The Maintenance of Isolation Hospitals by Cities and Towns. 
The establishment and maintenance of isolation hospitals by cities 
and towns for the better control of diphtheria, smallpox, scarlet fever 
and tuberculosis, etc., have been increasing slowly during the past few 
years. Certain cities, however, having shown themselves negligent in 
establishing such hospitals, it was voted at a meeting of the State Board 
of Health, held Dec. 4, 1913, that the following letter be sent to the 
Attorney-General of the Commonwealth; and as a result of this letter 
the Attorney-General has inaugurated proceedings against these two 
cities with the view to compelling them to establish and maintain such 
hospitals : — 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 5 

Dec. 4, 1913. 
Hon. James M. Swift, Attorney-General, State House, Boston, Blass. 

Dear Sir: — The cities of Lowell and Gloucester have been requested 
by the State Board of Health to establish and maintain hospitals for the 
reception of persons suffering from diseases dangerous to the public health 
as defined by the State Board of Health, and have tlius far failed to comply 
with this request, made in accordance with chapter 613 of the Acts of 1911, 
as amended by chapter 151 of the Acts of 1912. The dates of these requests 
are as follows: Lowell, on Dee. 9, 1911, and Dee. 9, 1912; Gloucester, on 
Dec. 9, 1912, and Aug. 12, 1913. 

The State Board of Health, therefore, respectfully calls the attention of the 
Attorney-General to the facts above stated, with the recommendation that 
such action be taken as will bring about the establishment in these cities of 
such hospitals. 

Your very truly, 

Mark W. Richardson, 

Secretary. 

Venereal Diseases. 

During 1913 there has been a marked increase in the interest taken 
in venereal disease and its relation to the public welfare. It seems 
highly desirable that such disease should be made reportable under cer- 
tain restrictions. In fact, such reporting has been inaugurated in the 
States of Cahfornia and Vermont, and also in the city of New York. 

Chapter 670 of the Acts of 1913 would give the State Board of Health 
the power to require the notification of such diseases, but before deter- 
mining whether or not such reporting should be made obligatory it seems 
essential that laboratory facilities for the proper diagnosis of these dis- 
eases should be provided. 

The Board therefore recommends that an increased appropriation of 
$4:,000 be made in order that these laboratory facilities for the diagnosis 
of venereal disease may be installed. 

The Work of the State Inspectors of Health and Their Salaries. 

The work of the State Inspectors of Health has increased by leaps and 
bounds during the past few years, but the remuneration for these services 
has by no means kept pace with the character of the work done. 

When originally appointed the State Inspectors of Health were ex- 
pected to devote approximately one-half of their time to the service of 
the State. As a matter of fact, however, this service has in practically 
all instances required their undivided attention. 

It seems highly desirable, therefore, that such of these inspectors as 



6 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

are willing to give their entire time to health work should be recom- 
pensed accordingly, and it is recommended that for this purpose an 
increased appropriation of $10,000 be made for the 3^ear 1914. 

Dangers incurred througpi Transportation by Common Carriers 
OF Persons afflicted with Contagious Disease. 

In two instances, at least, during the past year the notice of the Board 
has been called to dangers inflicted upon persons transported by common 
carriers through the almost willful negligence of physicians who have 
sent patients suffering from diphtheria and scarlet fever to neighboring 
towns on railroad trains and trolley cars. 

A review of the law shows no remedy or penalty for such action. The 
Board therefore strongly recommends that legislation be enacted which 
shall protect as far as may be possible the traveling public from persons 
suffering from contagious disease. 

Food and Drug Department. 
The work of the food and drug department has increased markedly 
the past few years, and it seems desirable at this time to increase the 
number of traveling inspectors to five. To cover the salary and incidental 
expenses relating to such an extra inspector an increased appropriation 
of $3,500 is considered advisable. 

Food Eegulations made by Cities and Towns. 
Chapter 448 of the Acts of 1912 (amending section 70 of chapter 56, 
Eevised Laws) makes it obligatory upon cities and towns to submit to 
the State Board of Health for its approval any regulations they may 
make as to the control of the sale of food products. As a result of this 
requirement a considerable number of cities and towns have submitted 
drafts of food regulations, and these have, in the great majority of in- 
stances, been approved. Such food regulations have been submitted by 
the following cities and towns : — 

Boston : milk regulations and ice-cream regulations approved Jan. 2, 1913 ; 

regulations concerning foodstuffs approved Feb. 6, 1913. 
Brockton : milk regulation approved Sept. 4, 1913. 
Fall River: food regulations approved Aug. 7, 1913. 
Lawrence: milk regulation approved Aug. 7, 1913. 
Lynn: reg'ulation for foodstuffs approved May 1, 1913; amendment to food 

regulation approved June 5, 1913. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 7 

New Bedford : food legiilatioiis although submitted in 1913 wex'e not ap- 
proved until .Jan. 1, 1914. 

North Andover: food regulations apjaroved June 5, 1913. 

Peabody: food regulations approved May 1, 1913. 

Pittsfield: food regulation approved June 5, 1913. 

Plymouth : food regulation approved June 5, 1913. 

Revere: food regulation approved .Jan. 2, 1913. 

Salem: food regulations approved May 1, 1913; amendment to food regu- 
lations approved June 5, 1913. 

Waltham : food regulations ajiproved Feb. 6, 1913. 

Winchester: food regulations approved July 3, 1913. 

"Winthroi^ : food regulations api^roved Aug. 7, 1913. 

New Legislation. 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 210. 

An Act to provide for the Reporting of Deaths from Diseases Danger- 
ous TO the Public Health. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

The board of health in cities, and in towns, the board of health, or, where 
no such board is chosen, the selectmen acting as a board of health, shall 
send to the state board of health every week a report of the deaths in their 
city or town, for the Aveek ending Saturday noon, from all diseases declared 
by the state board of health to be dangerous to the public health, upon forms 
to be prescribed by said state board. {Approved February 28, 1913. 

This legislation should be of great assistance to the Board in locating 
cases of notifiable disease, for it happens not infrequently that the first 
notification received as to the presence in a locality of communicable 
disease appears in the death returns. 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 328. 
An Act to authorize Counties to establish and maintain or to provide 

Bacteriological Facilities. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. For the better presentation of the public health and for the 
purpose of securing greater accuracy in the diagnosis of communicable dis- 
eases, county commissioners are hereby authorized to establish and maintain 
bacteriological laboratories, or to provide such laboratory facilities for their 
respective counties, from time to time, as may be deemed advantageous by 
them, and for this purpose may expend such sums as may be necessary from 
the treasury of the county. 

Section 2. No expenditures shall be made under the provisions of this 
act until the laboratories or the laboratoiy facilities established or provided 



8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

iu accordance herewith have been inspected and approved by the state board 
of health. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved March 
21, 1913. 

Tliis act has already been made use of in the western part of the State 
by the establishment of a county laboratory in Pittsfield for the diagnosis 
of communicable diseases. In this way unavoidable delay incident to 
the service maintained by the State Board of Health in Boston is elim- 
inated. 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 538. 

An Act relative to the Sale op Eggs taken from Cold Storage. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Whenever eggs that have been in cold storage are sold at 
retail, or offered or exposed for sale, the basket, box or other container in 
which the eggs are placed shall be marked plainly and conspicuously with 
the words " cold storage eggs ", or there shall be attached to such container 
a placard or sign having on it the said words. If eggs that have been in 
cold storage are sold at retail or offered or exposed for sale without a con- 
tainer, or jDlaced upon a counter or elsewhei-e, a sign or placard, having the 
words " cold storage eggs ", plainly and consi:)icuously marked upon it, shall 
be displayed in, upon or immediately above the said eggs; the intent of this 
act being that cold storage eggs sold at retail or offered or exposed for sale 
shall be designated in such a manner that the purchaser will know that they 
are cold storage eggs. The display of the words " cold storage eggs ", as 
required by this act, shall be done in such a manner as is approved by the 
state board of health. 

Section 2. Violation of any provision of this act shall be punished by 
a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each 
offence. [Approved April 25, 1913. 

In accordance with this law the Board made, on June 5, 1913 (mod- 
ified Aug. 7, 1913), and on Oct. 10, 1913, rules and regulations relative 
to the sale of eggs taken from cold storage. Under this law and the 
above-mentioned regulations, 72 prosecutions were maintained (from 
Oct. 6 to Nov. 30, 1913) by the Board with success, so that at the present 
time persons buying eggs may be reasonably certain as to the character 
of the goods sold. Details of this portion of the Board's work will be 
found in the supplement. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health held Aug. 7, 1913, it was 
voted to modify the regulation made June 5, 1913, to read as follows: — 

The sign or placard required by section 1 of chapter 538 of the Acts of 
1913 to be placed ui)on or immediately above cold storage egg's, or upon the 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 9 

basket, box or other container in which cold storage eggs are placed, shall 
consist of the words " Cold Storage Eggs " printed in uncondensed Gothic 
type, in letters not less than one inch in height, printed in black on a white 
background, no other lettering to appear on or to be attached to said sign 
or placard. (This sign or placard to be used only where eggs are offered 
or exposed for sale.) 

On Oct. 10, 1913, the State Board of Health voted to make the follow- 
ing additional regulation concerning the proper marking of cold storage 
eggs when sold to a purchaser : — 

The marking required by section 1 of chapter 538 of the Acts of 1913, 
to be placed upon the bag, basket, box or other container in which cold 
storage eggs are placed, after having been sold to a purchaser, shall consist 
of the words " Cold Storage Eggs " printed or stamped in uncondensed 
Gothic type, in letters not less than one-half inch in height, in black, purple 
or red ink, no other lettering to appear in connection with the words " Cold 
Storage Eggs". (This method of marking to appear on the bag, basket, 
box or other container in which eggs are delivered to the purchaser.) 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 722. 
Ax Act to prohibit the Manufacture, Sale and Use op Golf Balls con- 
taining Explosives. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful to manufacture or sell or knowingly to 
use in this commonwealth, or to have in possession for the purpose of sale, 
any golf ball containing any acid, fluid, gas or other substance tending to 
cause the ball to explode and to inflict bodily injury. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be punished 
by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars for a first offence, and for any 
subsequent oft'ence by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and im- 
prisonment. [Af)proved May 28, 1913. 

This act was made necessary by the fact that a number of persons had 
been injured, especially as regards their eyesight, from the explosion 
of these specially prepared golf balls. An investigation of certain golf 
balls made by the analyst of the Board showed the following results : — 

Exploding Golf Balls as a Cause of Accidents. 
Two cases of injury to eyesight have come to the notice of the State 
Board of Health recently through the explosion of certain varieties of 
golf balls. It seems that in the manufacture of these balls a small rubber 



10 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



bag about 1 inch in diameter is filled with solutions of differing type. 
The bag is then wound with rubber thread until it has become nearly as 
large as is desired in the finished product. It is then placed in the gutta- 
percha cover. The rubber windings cause great pressure upon the bag. 
and if this pressure is relieved at one point by cutting, the bag bursts 
and in the bursting the contained solution is scattered into the face of 
the person holding it. In view of these accidents the chief analyst of 
the Board has examined a number of golf balls, and those thus far dis- 
covered with liquid centers are given in the list below : — 



Name. 


Manufacturer. 


Nature of Center. 


The Colonel (Star), 
The Colonel (Arch), 
Water Core, .... 

Zodiac, 

Bantam, .... 


St. Mungo Manufacturing Company, 
St. Mungo Manufacturing Company, 
St. Mungo Manufacturing Company, 

Martins, England 

Goodrich Company, 


Zinc chloride solution. 

Zinc chloride solution. 

Water. 

Soft soap and talc. 

Soft soap and red lead. 



Acts of 1913, Chapter 272. 
An Act relative to the Adulteration op Drugs. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

The first paragraph of section eighteen of chapter seventy-five of the Re- 
vised Laws is hereby amended by striking out the words '' falls below ", in 
the eleventh line, and inserting in place thereof the words : — differs ma- 
terially from, — so that tlie said first paragraph will read as follows : — A 
drug shall be deemed to be adulterated : 1. If, when sold under or by a name 
recognized in the United States pharmacopoeia, it differs from the standard 
of strength, quality or purity prescribed therein, unless the order therefor 
requires an article inferior to such standard or unless such difference is made 
known or so appears to the purchaser at the time of the sale. 2. If, when 
sold under or by a name not recognized in the United States pharmacopoeia 
but which is found in some other pharmacopoeia or other standard work on 
materia medica, it differs materially from the standard of strength, quality 
or purity prescribed in such work. 3. If its strength, quality or purity 
differs materially from the professed standaid under which it is sold, [-ip- 
2)roved March 8, 1913. 



This change in the law was made necessary because of the fact that 
certain morphine tablets were found to contain more morphine than was 
stated upon the label, with the result that acute opium poisoning occurred 
in one instance. 



Xo. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 11 

"VYater Supply axd Sewerage. 

The State Board of Health presents herewith a report of its doings 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1913, under the provisions of laws relat- 
ing to the protection of the purity of inland waters, as required by 
chapter 75, section 115, of the Revised Laws. 

The Board has received during the year 211 applications for advice 
with reference to water supply, sewerage, sewage disposal and matters 
relating thereto, a much larger number than in any previous year. 
Of these applications, 139 were in relation to water supply, 19 to 
sources of ice supply, 34 to sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal, 
4 to the pollution of streams, and 15 to miscellaneous matters. 

Water Supplies. 

Public water supplies were introduced during the year in the towns 
of Agawam, East Longmeadow, Egremont (village of South Egremont), 
Mattapoisett, Warren (village of West Warren) and West Brookfield. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in the State, 207, containing by the 
census of 1910 a population of 3,205,835, are provided with public 
water supplies. The remaining towns, 146 in number, contained by 
the census of 1910 a population of 160,581. There are only 6 towns 
in the State, having a population in excess of 2,500, which are not 
provided with public water supplies, viz., Dartmouth, Somerset, Sut- 
ton, Templeton, Tewksbury and Westport. 

Of the 207 cities and towns having public water supplies, 164 are 
supplied wholly or in part from municipal or district works, while 43 
are supplied by water companies. 

The sources of supply used during the last year included 63 natural 
lakes, 78 artificial storage reservoirs, and 110 systems of ground water 
supply, the total number of separate sources used being approximately 
300. Temporary sources of water supply were used in several places, 
under the provisions of chapter 25, section 35, of the Revised Laws, 
during the dry weather of the summer and autumn. 

A severe epidemic of gastroenteritis, traced to the municipal water 
supply, occurred in the town of Peabody in the early part of October, 
1913. As many as 500 cases were investigated by the inspectors of 
the Board, and doubtless a very much larger number of persons was 
affected by the disease. The cases were most numerous iti the early 
hours of October 4, and an investigation was begun at once. 

Bacterial analyses of the water supply on that day showed the 
presence of an unusual number of bacteria in Spring Pond and in the 
water from taps in the town, including those characteristic of sewage. 



12 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

An examination showed the presence of polluting matter on the shores 
of the lake, especially about the ice houses, but also at other points, 
and that the shores of the lake were frequented by fishermen and 
others, as well as by employees about the ice houses. 

In accordance with the recommendations of the Board, the water 
of Spring Pond was shut off, the pipe system flushed, and the town 
supplied from Suntaug Lake. The shores of Spring Pond and the 
region about it were then carefully cleaned, traces of pollution re- 
moved, and a thorough inspection instituted to prevent further con- 
tamination. The epidemic quickly subsided and, though a great num- 
ber of persons was affected, no deaths occurred, and there was no 
sickness at any later time traceable to this cause. 

This epidemic illustrates the great danger that may result from 
using a pond, from which water is supplied directly for drinking, for 
the purpose of fishing and ice supply. 

Rainfall and Stream Floav in 1913. 
Judging from the records of the Sudbury River watershed, the rain- 
fall for the year 1913 was less than the normal in January, February, 
June, July, August and November; it was considerably in excess of 
the normal in March and October and differed but little from the 
normal in April, May, September and December. Owing to the low 
rainfall of the summer months, the flow of the streams was very low, 
the flow in July and August being slightly lower than in the corre- 
sponding months of the previous year, though not as low as in the 
summer of 1910. 

Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplies. 
Under the authority of chapter 75, section 113, of the Revised Laws, 
regulations have been made during the year for the sanitary protec- 
tion of Asnebumskit Brook, used as a source of water supply for the 
city of Worcester. Up to the present time, the Board has made rules 
and regulations for the sanitary protection of the sources of water 
supply of the following cities and towns: — 



Abington and Rockland. 

Amherst. 

Andover. 

Attleborough. 

Braintree. 

Brockton and Whitman. 

Cambridge. 



Chicopee. 
Concord. 
Danvers and Middleton. 

Easthampton. 
Fall River. 
Falmouth. 
Fitchburg. 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



13 



Gardner. 

Great Barrington (Housatonic). 

Greenfield. 

Haverhill. 

Hingham and Hull. 

Holyoke. 

Hudson. 

Lincoln and Concord. 

Lynn. 

Marlborough. 

Maynard. 

Montague. 

Northampton. 

North Andover. 

Northborough. 

Norwood. 

Peabody. 



Pittsfield. 

Plymouth. 

Randolph and Holbrook. 

Rockport. 

Russell. 

Salem and Beverly. 

Springfield. 

Springfield and Ludlow. 

Stockbridge. 

Taunton. 

Wakefield. 

Westfield. 

West Springfield. 

Weymouth. 

Winchester. 

Worcester. 



In making such regulations, it has been the custom, acting under 
the provisions of chapter 467 of the Acts of the year 1907, to dele- 
gate to local authorities the granting or withholding of permits for 
boating, fishing and ice cutting upon the ponds and reservoirs used as 
sources of domestic water supply; but the act provides that in case 
of complaint as to the granting or withholding of such permits, the 
Board may, upon appeal of any aggrieved party, make such orders 
relating thereto as the public health requires. 



Supervision of Water Companies. 

Under the provisions of chapter 319 of the Acts of the year 1909, 
entitled " An Act to provide for the supervision of water companies 
by the state board of health," the Board is authorized to investigate 
complaints in writing relative to the service furnished in any city or 
town, or the charges therefor, etc., and to make "such recommenda- 
tions concerning the reduction, modification or continuation of such 
charges for service, or concerning improvements in the quality of the 
service or extensions of the same, or concerning other matters in the 
premises, as the board shall deem just and proper." In 1913 a further 
act was passed, entitled "An Act relative to the regulation and super- 
vision of water companies," which requires that the Board shall fur- 
nish advice to the Commissioner of Corporations for his guidance in 
proceedings relating to the petition of any w^ater company for author- 
ity to issue capital stock or bonds. 

Under these laws the Commissioner of Corporations has been ad- 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

vised as to the issue of bonds by the Cohasset and the Weston water 
companies. 

Early in the year a petition was received from the board of select- 
men of the town of Great Barrington protesting against the condition 
of the water supplied by the Housatonic Water Works Company in 
the village of Housatonic in that town, and after an examination the 
Board recommended an investigation to determine a practicable plan 
for improving the quality of the water. Subsequently a plan was 
presented, but after consideration of the plan further time for the 
study of the problem seemed desirable, the results of which had not 
been completed at the end of the year. The action of the Board in 
the matters presented is as follows: — 

April 3, 1913. 
To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Great Barrington. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your petition for an examination of the water 
supplied by the Housatonic Water Works Company with a view to improving 
its condition and making it satisfactory for domestic purposes, the Board has 
caused the source of supply of the company to be examined and has investi- 
gated the abihty of the company to construct works necessary for improving 
the quality of the water. 

It is probable, in the opinion of the Board, that the water of Long Pond, now 
used for the supply of Housatonic, can be improved and rendered satisfactory 
by filtration through sand, and it is likely that this plan would prove the most 
economical and otherwise satisfactory one for securing a good water supply 
for the village. The Board has recommended that investigations be made by 
the company to determine the cost of such improvement. A copy of tliis recom- 
mendation is appended. 

As soon as this information has been received, the Board will consider what 
changes, if any, may be required in the charges for water by the company to 
enable it to carry out the necessary improvements. 

April 3, 1913. 
To the Housatonic Water Works Company, Housatonic, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a petition from the selectmen of the town of 
Great Barrington protesting against the present condition of the water supplied 
by the Housatonic Water Works Company, the Board has caused the source 
of water supply used by the company to be examined by one of its engineers 
and samples of the water from these works to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the condition of this supply is much 
the same as at the time of the previous investigation. The water of Long Pond, 
the source from which the supply is taken, is affected by the presence of con- 
siderable numbers of microscopic organisms of a kind which impart to the water 
a disagreeable taste and odor, and it is to the presence of these organisms that 
the objectionable condition of the water in the past few months has been due. 
The conditions are much the same as at the time of the previous examination 



Xo. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 15 

in 1911, when the Board suggested that you investigate the condition of the 
bottom and shores of the pond in order to determine the practicability of im- 
proving the condition of the water by cleaning the shores and bottom or by 
lowering the level of the water, and also that you investigate the probable cost 
of purifying the water by filtration. A copy of the recommendations made by 
the Board at that time is appended hereto. 

A further examination of the condition of the pond indicates that it is shallow, 
that the bottom is covered largely with mud, and it is probable that the best 
practicable and least expensive plan of improving the quality of this water will 
be by filtration through sand. The income of the company, judging by the 
examinations made by the Board, appears to be sufficient to enable it to 
construct suitable works for the satisfactory purification of this water, 
provided it shall be found that such works can be constructed at reasonable 
cost, and at the same time enable the company to pay interest upon its 
bonds, a reasonable dividend on the stock, and provide a proper depreciation 
fund. 

The Board recommends that you cause an investigation to be made and plans 
prepared by an engineer of experience in such matters, to determine the prac- 
ticabiUty and the probable cost of purifying the water of Long Pond by filtra- 
tion through sand. The Board further recommends that the investigation be 
made at the earliest practicable time and that as soon as plans and estimates 
of cost are available, they be submitted for the consideration of the Board. In 
the opinion of the Board, the time required for the necessary investigations and 
the preparation of plans under the existing circumstances should not exceed 
two months. Upon receipt of this information, the Board will consider what 
changes, if any, may be advisable in the charges for water to enable the com- 
pany to improve satisfactorily the quahty of its supply. 

Nov. 6, 1913. 
To Hon. William D. T, Trefry, Commissioner of Corporations. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your application for 
advice as to the amount of stock and bonds which is reasonably requisite to be 
issued by the Weston Water Company, and has caused the works to be examined 
by its engineers. 

According to the information presented, it appears that the petition of the 
water company requests authority to issue capital stock amounting to $32,500, 
in addition to the present capital stock of the corporation amounting to $17,500. 
They also petition for authority to issue $50,000 worth of bonds, making the 
total issue of stock and bonds $100,000, 

The statement of the assets of the company, eliminating items not pertaining 
to the physical plant, show a value slightly exceeding $107,000. An examina- 
tion of the various items making up this value indicates that they are reasonable, 
and the valuation of the pipe lines, which make up more than half of the total, 
is low for present conditions, especially if considerable ledge was encountered 
in the construction of the works. The items of pumping station and machinery 
at the Warren Avenue works appear to be high under present conditions. 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

As a result of the investigations by its engineers, the Board is of the opinion 
that, making allowance for the greater cost of the Warren Avenue pumping 
station and machinery than would be required for present needs; the present 
value of the physical plant is 195,000. 

Boston, Aug. 8, 1913. 
To Hon. William D. T. Trefry, Commissioner of Corporations. 

Dear Sir: — The State Board of Health has considered your appUcation for 
advice as to the amount of stock which is reasonably requisite to be issued by 
the Cohasset Water Company for certain purposes named in its petition for 
authority to increase the capital stock of the said company, a copy of which 
was submitted with your application, and in response to your request has caused 
the locality to be examined by its engineer and has considered the information 
presented as to the purposes for which the new issue of stock is to be used and 
the probable cost of the proposed works. 

According to the information presented, it appears that the petition of the 
water company requests the authority to issue capital stock to the additional 
amount of $19,600 "for the purpose of paying for new construction w^ork, for 
new piping and for the purpose of installing a new filtration plant to remove 
excess of iron and impurities from water." 

The information as to the filtration plant indicates that it is designed to 
filter the water pumped from the well at Beechwood Station through a sand 
filter, designed by Mr. R. S. Weston, for the purpose of removing the excess of 
iron from the water. The capacity of the filter will differ little from similar 
filters already constructed at two other places in the State, and the estimated 
cost of the works, $17,710, should be sufficient for the purpose and is not exces- 
sive. The new construction work referred to in the petition appears upon 
inquiry to be the cost of laying a pipe in King Street, Cohasset, carried out last 
year at a cost of $5,000. This pipe was 5,000 feet in length and, considering 
its size and the probable character of the excavation, the work appears to have 
been done at a reasonable cost. 

The new pipe referred to in the petition is a main pipe constructed in Pond 
Street, the estimated cost of wliich, for a length of 1,600 feet, is $3,400. Con- 
sidering the character of the street in which this pipe is to be laid, the estimate 
appears to be a reasonable one. 

As. a result of the investigation by its engineers, the Board is of the opinion 
that the cost of the items indicated, including the 5,000 feet of pipe laid last 
year, is likely to exceed the amount of capital stock which the petition requests 
authority to issue, assuming that the work will be done in a thorough and satis- 
factory manner, which appears to be the intent of the company from the prep- 
arations being made for carrying out the work. 

Extension of Public Water Supplies. 
In the cities and larger towns of the State where water supplies 
were introduced many years ago, the works have been extended until 
the public w^ater supply has become available. to practically all of the 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 17 

inhabitants. In the smaller places such complete extension of the 
public works is very rarely the case. It is the common rule in towns 
supplied from municipal works, as well as those supplied from water 
companies, to provide water works service only in the more thickly 
settled areas and to extend the works in the more sparsely settled 
districts only to such streets and sections as are likely to furnish 
sufficient income to pay for the cost of construction and maintenance. 
Frequently, such extensions are secured through agreement with the 
prospective water takers that the latter will pay an aggregate amount 
sufficient to cover the interest on the cost of construction of the works. 
It sometimes happens that disagreements arise over the reasonableness 
of making extensions in districts in which there is a doubt as to 
whether the income will pay the interest on the cost of the works, and, 
in the cases of towns supplied by private companies, appeal is some- 
times made to the Board. 

In cities and towns supplied by private companies, the Board is 
authorized by law to advise as to the service rendered, and has in 
one or two cases recommended extensions where the circumstances 
seemed to warrant such recommendations. In the case of municipally 
owned works, however, no authority has been delegated to the Board 
by the Legislature either as to the rates or service, and in cases where 
extensions are desired, unless deemed reasonable by the water depart- 
ment of the city or town, appeal can be had only to the city council 
or to the authority of the town in town meeting. 

It sometimes happens that water works extensions seriously needed 
for the protection of the public health are not made by the town when 
required, and in such cases there is no redress except such as may be 
had through appeal to the Legislature. A case of this sort, in the 
town of Saugus, was brought to the attention of the Board and the 
Board made the following recommendation: — 

Boston, Aug. 8, 1913. 

To the Baker^s Hill Improvement Association, Saugus, Mass., Mr. R. J. Murphy, 

Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — Referring to your request for assistance in an effort to get a 
supply of water necessary for the daily use of the inhabitants of Baker's Hill, 
the State Board of Health has examined the locality and finds that a public 
water supply is greatly needed for the health and comfort of the inhabitants of 
Baker's Hill, where no public water supply is at present available. 

It appears from information furnished by the Saugus water board that the 
elevation of Baker's HiU is such that it is impracticable to supply water from the 
present pipes of the town without pumping. Such cases are not uncommon 
among the cities and towns of the State, and in a number of such cases a water 
supply has been furnished by establishing a small pumping station and stand- 



18 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

pipe, pumping water from the mains already laid to a sufficient elevation to 
supply the houses above the level reached by the existing pipe system. 

In order to provide such a sj^stem in this case, it will be necessary for the 
town to appropriate a sufficient sum of money for the purpose and to construct 
and operate the works. 

In the cases of cities and towns suppUed with water by private companies, 
the Legislature has given power to the State Board of Health to regulate the 
service, but no powers have been granted to this Board by the Legislature to 
regulate the service furnished the cities and towns where the water works are 
owned and operated by the municipality. In case of the neglect of the town 
to provide a water supply in the district in question, the Legislature is the 
only power that can supply relief. In case an appeal to the town fails, it is 
possible that an appeal to the Legislature would secure the necessary action. 

The only action possible for this Board in the existing circumstances is a 
presentation of the facts to the Legislature, which the Board will make in its 
annual report in January, unless relief is afforded by the town before that time. 

Examination of Sewer Outlets. 

Under the provisions of law requiring an annual examination of 
main outlets of sewage and drainage and the effect of sewage disposal, 
the sewer outlets of the various cities and towns have been examined 
during the year. 

The most important main sewer outlets in the State are those of 
the Boston main drainage and the north and south metropolitan 
sewerage districts, which include in the aggregate about one-third of 
the population of the State. 

The sewage of the Boston main drainage district is discharged into 
tide water at Moon Island in the southwesterly part of the harbor. 
The total quantity of sewage discharged from this outlet amounts to 
about 90,000,000 gallons per da^'. The sewage from the Boston main 
drainage district is passed first through a settling tank or grit chamber 
before reaching the pumping station at Calf Pasture, and is subse- 
quently stored in basins at Moon Island and discharged on the first 
two hours of the outgoing tide. In consequence of its storage before 
disposal, the sewage is given far greater opportunity for decomposition 
than the sewage discharged at the main outlets of the metropolitan 
systems. 

The conditions about the Moon Island outlet have been subject to 
frequent and regular examination for many years. From time to 
time chemical and bacterial examinations are made of the waters into 
which this sewage is discharged, both during the period when the 
sewage is being discharged and in the intervening periods between 
discharges. The tidal current into which this sewage is discharged 
is of no great volume and velocity, and the rate of discharge, amount- 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 19 

ing to 20,000,000 gallons per hour, is from six to ten times as great as 
at the outlets of the metropolitan sewerage districts, where the dis- 
charge is continuous throughout the twenty-four hours. Very little 
change has been noted in the conditions about this outlet since it was 
first put in operation thirty years ago. 

The sewage of the north metropolitan sewerage district is discharged 
at Deer Island Light, on the northerly side of the entrance to Boston 
harbor, at all stages of the tide, the quantity discharged there in 1913 
amounting to an average of about 56,000,000 gallons per day. The 
tidal currents passing this outlet are much larger in volume and have 
a considerably higher velocity than those passing the outlet at Moon 
Island, while the rate of discharge is much less, amounting to only 
about 2,300,000 gallons per hour. The sewage is much fresher, and the 
area affected by the discharge at this outlet much smaller, than at 
Moon Island. The outlet is located very close to Deer Island Light 
and, while the sewage ordinarily disappears very quickly within a 
short distance of the outlet, the odors are, nevertheless, objectionable 
to the keepers of the light. There is no question that such objection 
could be removed, and the disposal of the sewage confined to an even 
smaller area than at the present time, by extending the outlet into 
deep water, which can be reached by a short extension of the main 
outfall sewer. 

The Deer Island outlet has been in constant use for over twenty 
years, and frequent examinations of the locality and analyses of the 
water of the harbor in its neighborhood show that no material change 
in the conditions has taken place there. 

The sewage of the south metropolitan district is discharged into the 
great channel known as Nantasket Roads, north of Peddock's Island, 
at all stages of the tide. Here also the tidal volumes and velocities 
are much greater than at Moon Island, and, while the total quantity 
of sewage discharged in 1913 amounted to about 50,000,000 gallons 
per day, or about 60 per cent, of the amount discharged at Moon 
Island, the actual rate of discharge is only about 2,100,000 gallons 
per hour, and the area of sea water visibly affected by the sewage is 
comparatively insignificant. The outlet is a very satisfactory one, 
and nowhere else in the State is so great a quantity of sewage dis- 
posed of effectually and without objection in so small an area. 

No material change has occurred during the year in the conditions 
affecting the outlets of sewers at New Bedford and Fall River. At 
New Bedford the main sewerage works are rapidly approaching com- 
pletion, and it is expected that they will be put in operation during 
the coming year. When these works have been completed they will 
afford a means for diverting the sewage from the numerous outlets 



20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

into New Bedford harbor and Clark's Cove which now cause most 
serious nuisances in those waters. At Fall River the sewage con- 
tinues to discharge into the Taunton River and Mount Hope Bay 
from several independent outlets, which are located upon or very near 
the shores of the river or bay. The conditions about many of these 
outlets are objectionable and could be relieved by the construction 
of extensions which would discharge the dry-weather flow of sewage at 
a reasonable distance from the shore. 

Plans for the improvement of the sewage-disposal system of the city 
of Lynn were rejected by vote of the inhabitants of the city toward 
the end of the year, and new plans will be required before it will be 
practicable to prevent the serious nuisance in" Lynn harbor caused by 
the present main sewer outlet of the city. 

No change has been made during the year in the sewer outlet at 
Beverly, though the question of improving the conditions at this out- 
let has been under consideration by the city for several years. 

The sewage of the city of Salem and town of Peabody is discharged 
into the sea near Great Haste Island in Salem harbor and, as the 
outlet is close to the surface of the sea, the sewage spreads at times 
over a wide area. Such objectionable conditions as are noted about 
this outlet could undoubtedly be prevented by extending it to deep 
water, which can be reached at a point about half a mile east of 
Great Haste Island. 

One of the most satisfactory sewer outlets in the State is that of the 
town of Swampscott, sewage from which is discharged into the sea 
at Dread Ledge at a point where the water is 60 feet in depth. It 
is very difficult to find any traces of sewage in the water immediately 
over this outlet. 

The conditions about the sewer outlets into the principal rivers of 
the State have been examined during the year and will be referred to 
in describing the condition of the rivers. 

Sewage-disposal Systems. 
There are 32 cities and towns in the State which have provided 
works for purifying their sewage or subjecting it to some form of treat- 
ment for the removal of organic matters before final disposal. These 
cities and towns are the following: — 



Amherst. 

Andover. 

Attleborough. 

Billerica. 

Brockton. 



Clinton. 

Concord. 

Easthampton. 

Framingham. 

Franklin. 



No. 34.1 GENERAL REPORT. 21 



Gardner. 

Hopedale. 

Hudson. 

Leicester. 

Lenox. 

Longmeadow. 

Marion. 

Marlborough. 

Maynard. 

Medfield. 

Milford. 



Natick. 

North Attleborough. 

Northbridge. 

North Broolcfield. 

Norwood. 

Pittsfield. 

Southbridge. 

Spencer. 

Stockbridge. 

Westborough. 

Worcester. 



The sewage-disposal systems have been examined from time to time 
during the year, and recommendations have been made and advice 
given in cases where the condition of the works was found to require 
improvement. 

Great improvement has been effected in recent years in the opera- 
tion of the works for purifying the sewage at Marlborough, Clinton, 
Hudson, Natick and Westborough, and these improvements have been 
maintained throughout the past year. There has also been an increase 
in efficiency in the operation of the works for the disposal of the sew- 
age at Hopedale, and considerable work has been done in reconstruct- 
ing underdrains at the disposal works of the town of Andover. 

On the other hand, there has been a material deterioration in the 
efficiency of the disposal works of the town of Framingham, one of the 
oldest plants in the country, where for many years the sewage was well 
purified. The deterioration is due to lack of care in the maintenance 
of the works, and recommendations of the Board as to securing more 
satisfactory operation of the filters have not been followed. 

At several of the other works, namely, those at Amherst, Gardner, 
Leicester, Lenox, Longmeadow^ Medfield and Southbridge, the effi- 
ciency is low on account of lack of attention in the operation of the 
works or of lack of funds for maintenance. 

The new works for the purification of the sewage at Fitchburg were 
under construction during the year, and it is expected that they will 
be available for use in 1914. The works under construction consist 
of a system of settling tanks and trickling filters, followed by sedimen- 
tation of the efiluent, with provision for ultimate filtration through 
sand if found necessary. 

A trickling filter has also been added to the purification works at 
Brockton and was first operated near the end of the year. 



22 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Unsanitary Conditions due to Lack of Sewerage. 
In the annual report of the State Board of Health for 1911 a table 
is given, showing the cities and towns having and not having systems 
of sewerage at that time. From that report it appears that there 
were then 10 towns, having populations in excess of 6,000, in which 
no provision for the collection and disposal of sewage had been made. 
These towns are the following: — 



Weymouth, 
Amesbuiy, 
Dan vers, . 
Braintree, 
Saugus, . 



Population 
in 1910. 



12,S95 
9,894 
9,407 
8,066 
8,047 



Town. 



Bridgewater, 
Marblehead, 
Whitman, 
Rockland, 

Stoughton, 



Population 
in 1910. 



7,688 
7,338 
7,292 
6,928 
6,316 



During the past year the town of Amesbury has completed a system 
of sewerage, and steps have also been taken looking to the construc- 
tion of a sewerage system in the town of Braintree, but in most of the 
other towns conditions, caused by lack of sewerage, are in many cases 
very objectionable. The most notable of these are the conditions at 
Rockland, Stoughton, Danvers and Weymouth, in all of which towns 
there are serious nuisances which are difficult and in most cases im- 
practicable of removal until a sewerage system has been provided. 

The attention of the town of Rockland has been called repeatedly 
to the extremely objectionable conditions existing in the thickly settled 
portions of that town on account of overflow of cesspools and other 
serious nuisances which it is impracticable to relieve. In other places 
— notably Stoughton and Danvers — the streams and water courses 
flowing through the towns, and other waters adjacent thereto, are 
badly polluted with sewage. There is no practicable way of maintain- 
ing proper sanitary conditions in the thickly populated portions of 
these towns unless sewers shall first be provided. 



Pollution of Streams. 

Assabet River. 

The chief pollution of the Assabet River at the present time is 

caused by the discharge of manufacturing waste from the woolen mills 

at Maynard. The Board has repeatedly urged the construction of 

works for the purification of wastes from this establishment, and a 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 23 

beginning has at last been made on this important improvement. 
During the year large tanks for the collection and sedimentation of 
the wastes have been constructed, and plans have been made to con- 
struct drains to convey the various wastes to the tanks. The work 
has progressed slowly, and no improvement in the river has yet been 
effected, its condition during the past year being about the same as 
in other recent years. 

Charles River. 
The Charles River receives at the present time comparatively little 
pollution. One of its tributaries, flowing through the town of Frank- 
lin, is considerably polluted, but plans have been prepared for the 
collection and proper disposal of the sewage and objectionable wastes 
that enter the stream in that town, and preparations are being made 
for constructing the works in the near future. With the removal of 
the pollutions in this town, the river will be quite free from contam- 
ination throughout the greater part of its course. 

Small amounts of polluting matter find their way into the stream 
from factories in Newton, Waltham and Watertown, and from the 
overflows of sewers in Brighton, Cambridge and Boston, but in general 
the pollutions are local in character and the general condition of the 
river is good. 

Chicopee River. 
The Chicopee River, formed by the junction of the Ware, Quaboag 
and Swift rivers in the westerly part of the town of Palmer, is used 
as a place of disposal for the sewage of Ludlow and portions of the 
cities of Springfield -and Chicopee. 

Objectionable conditions have been created at three or four points 
along the river by local sewer outlets, but action by the local author- 
ities, especially in Chicopee, has already relieved the more objection- 
able conditions in this stream, and its condition as a whole is not 
objectionable. 

Concord River. 
While two of the main tributaries of the Concord River, the Assabet 
and Sudbury rivers, are considerably polluted at one or two points, 
the main river receives no important pollutions between Concord and 
the city of Lowell. In the course of the river through the latter city, 
however, it receives much pollution from sewage and manufacturing 
waste, and its condition is at times objectionable. 

The stream has been carefully examined, the sources of pollution 
located, and plans for the prevention of these objectionable conditions 
have been recommended to the authorities of the city of Lowell, 
within the limits of which these objectionable conditions were found. 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Connecticut River. 

This stream is the largest river in the State and receives directly 
the sewage of all of the cities and most of the towns on its banks, 
including Turners Falls in Montague, Hatfield, South Hadley, Holyoke, 
Chicopee, Springfield and West Springfield, and sewage is also dis- 
charged into a number of its tributaries very close to the main stream. 
Notwithstanding the large amount of sewage which the river receives, 
the quantity is small as compared with the flow of this large river, 
and its effect on the condition of the water is noticeable only in the 
neighborhood of some of the sewer outlets in the cities along its course. 

While considerable improvement has been made in recent years in 
sewerage systems along the river, notably at Chicopee, where the prin- 
cipal sewer outlet has been extended into the stream so as to relieve 
a serious nuisance in this neighborhood, further improvement is desir- 
able at a number of other places along the river where sewage is dis- 
charged either upon the banks or in their immediate neighborhood, 
causing the fouling of the shores at times of low water. 

French River. 
This stream is badly polluted, chiefly by manufacturing waste, at 
several points along its course, the most objectionable condition being 
found below Webster, where the river is polluted both by the sewage 
of the town and by a very large quantity of manufacturing waste 
from the large woolen mills at this place. The condition of the river 
below Webster, and as it crosses the State line into Connecticut, has 
become objectionable. 

Hoosick River. 
This river is one of the most seriously polluted streams in the State, 
and its condition in 1913 has remained about the same as in former 
years. Its pollution is caused chiefly by sewage from Adams, North 
Adams and Williamstown, and its condition is most objectionable 
below the main sewer outlet of the city of North Adams. 

Honsatonic River. 

The results of chemical analyses of samples of water from this river 
at various points show a marked increase in the pollution of the stream 
below Pittsfield in 1913 as compared with former years. 

The sources of pollution of this river were carefully investigated 
during the year, the results showing that the chief source of pollution 
is the sewage of the city of Pittsfield, a large part of which has been 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 25 

discharged untreated directly into the stream. The pumping works 
for conveying the sewage of this city to a filtration area in the valley 
of the river 2 miles below are inadequate for the purpose, and an 
enlargement of the filtration area will be necessary to care properly for 
all of the sewage. As a result of its investigations, the Board made 
the following recommendations to the city of Pittsfield: — 

Sept. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Public Works, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Recent examinations of the Housatonic River show that 
through increasing pollution its condition is becoming offensive, especially below 
the city ot Pittsfield. The chief and most objectionable pollution of the river 
is sewage from the city of Pittsfield, a large quantity of which was being dis- 
charged untreated into the river at the time of a recent examination, contrary 
to the provisions of chapter 433 of the Acts of the year 1909. The growth of 
the city has been rapid in recent years, and the available capacity of the works 
for pumping the sewage to the filter beds is inadequate, under existing condi- 
tions, to care for and remove all of the sewage and prevent the pollution of the 
river. 

The filtration works of the city have been well maintained and have produced 
an effluent of good quality, but the area of the filter beds is hmited, and when 
provision is made for preventing the further overflow of sewage into the river 
in the neighborhood of the pumping station or above, and discharging aU of 
the sewage upon the filter beds, the improvement of these works will be neces- 
sary for the effective treatment of all of the sewage. 

The Board recommends that steps be taken at once by the city to make the 
necessary enlargements of its sewerage and sewage-disposal works to provide 
for removing aU of the sewage of the city at all times to the filtration area and 
for its efficient purification there before discharge into the Housatonic River. 
The additional works should include a pumping capacity of at least 1,000,000 
gallons per day in excess of the quantity cared for by the present pumps, and 
it is not unlikely that a still larger capacity wiU be necessary in order to provide 
for the removal of all of the sewage at times of maximum flow. The capacity 
of the pumping plant should be sufficient for the removal of all of the sewage 
at aU times, and the filtration works should be enlarged sufficiently to care for 
the additional quantity of sewage. 

While the chief pollution of the river at the present time is due to 
the sewage of Pittsfield, it is also polluted seriously at Dalton, in the 
valley of the east branch above Pittsfield, and by the sewage of the 
towns of Lenox, Lee and Great Barrington, together with manufactur- 
ing waste in these and other towns. 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Merrimack River. 

The results of a very thorough examination of the sources of pollu- 
tion of the Merrimack River, together with plans and recommenda- 
tions for removing the objectionable conditions found in this stream, 
were reported to the Legislature of 1912, and printed as House Docu- 
ment, No. 2050. 

The investigations show in brief that the chief causes of the objec- 
tionable condition of the river are the sewer outlets in the various 
cities and towns along its banks and the pollution caused by wool- 
scouring waste in the city of Lawrence. The excessive fouling of the 
bed, banks and waters of the river about the sewer outlets in the 
cities of Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill can readily be prevented by 
an improvement of these outlets, plans for which were presented in 
the report of last year, and these improvements can be carried out 
by the municipalities themselves whenever they may see fit to begin 
this work. 

The city of Lowell has already made an excellent beginning on the 
work of improving its sewer outlets, and during the past year has 
completed the extension of the very objectionable sewer outlets at 
West, Fulton and Colburn streets on the north side of the river above 
Central bridge, so that the dry-weather flow of sewage is now dis- 
charged well beyond the low-water shore line and beneath the surface 
of the water at all times. 

The objectionable conditions caused by the discharge of wool- 
scouring waste into the river from various mills in the city of Law- 
rence were brought to the attention of the proprietors of these mills 
at a conference with the Board in December, 1912. "While works for 
treating wool-scouring wastes have already been installed at a number 
of wool-scouring mills in the State, no works have as yet been in- 
stalled by the mills along the river at Lawrence. 

During the past year experimental works were installed at one or 
two of the mills, and the Board is informed that further experiments 
are soon to be begun with a view to designing a method for removing 
the objectionable properties from the wool-scouring wastes. These 
wastes can be treated in a general system which would require col- 
lecting sewers on both sides of the river laid within the channel of 
the stream, and a treatment works near the river below the city, plans 
for which were described in the report of the Board last year and are 
on file in the office of the Board. 

It appears to the Board advisable that a limit be placed upon the 
time in which these objectionable wastes shall be allowed to discharge 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 27 

into the stream, and that a limit of time should also be specified 
within which the work of improving satisfactorily the condition of the 
sewer outlets in the cities and towns along the river shall be completed. 

Nashua River. 

No improvement has taken place in the condition of the north 
branch of the Nashua River, which is very foul for many miles below 
the sewer outlets of Fitchburg and Leominster. 

The construction of sew^ers for the removal of the sewage of Fitch- 
burg and of works for its purification has advanced considerably 
during the past year, but from present appearances they are not 
likely to be completed before the end of 1914. 

The Board has already notified the town of Leominster of the 
necessity of the construction of purification works by that town as soon 
as practicable, but, while plans of sewage-disposal works have been 
prepared, no further action has been taken toward removing the 
sewage of the town from the river and its tributaries. 

Nemasket River. 
This stream, a tributary of the Taunton River, is badly polluted by 
the sewage of Middleborough, Plans for the purification of the 
sewage of this town were made many years ago, but the town has 
never authorized the construction of the works. 

Sudbury River. 

This river continues to receive a large amount of pollution from the 
woolen mills at Saxonville, and, although plans have been prepared 
for the relief of this nuisance, no works for this purpose have yet been 
constructed. 

Taunton River. 

The chief pollution of the Taunton River is caused by the sewage 
of the city of Taunton which is discharged directly into the river in 
the lower part of the city. Permission to continue the use of this 
outlet has been extended from time to time, but, while the most 
recent limit expired on Dec. 1, 1913, works have not yet been con- 
structed by the city, and a petition has been presented to the Board 
by the city authorities for a further extension of the period within 
which the river may be used for the disposal of the sewage. This 
petition is now under consideration. The Taunton River also re- 
ceives considerable pollution by sewage in Bridgewater and several 
of the other towns within its watershed. 



28 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Ten Mile River. 
The condition of this stream shows considerable improvement, and 
no doubt a much greater improvement will be effected with the exten- 
sion of the sewerage systems in Attleborough and North Attleborough 
within the near future. During the past year its condition has been 
less objectionable than in earlier years. 

Three Mile River. 
This stream, one of the principal tributaries of the Taunton River, 
flowing through the towns of Dighton, Foxborough, Mansfield and 
Norton, and a portion of the city of Taunton, receives a large amount 
of pollution, and its condition below Norton, where it is seriously 
fouled by wool-scouring waste from a large woolen mill, has been very 
objectionable in recent years. 

Ware River. 
No material change has taken place during the past year in the 
condition of this stream, which is badly polluted at many points, 
especially in and below the town of Ware. 

Other Rivers. 
No material change has been noted in the condition of the other 
principal rivers in the State as compared with former years. Some 
of them receive considerable pollution, notably the Westfield River 
below Westfield, the Quaboag River below Spencer and at Palmer, 
and the Deerfield River below Greenfield, but in no case is the pol- 
lution so serious as to have caused objectionable conditions up to 
the present time. 

North River in Salem and Peabody. 
A very large amount of work has been done in the examination of 
manufacturing wastes from various establishments situated along the 
North River and its tributaries in Salem and Peabody. The main 
trunk sewer in this valley is designed to receive both the sewage of 
the municipalities and the manufacturing waste from the various 
factories which discharge waste of objectionable character. Soon after 
the construction of this sewer, a great improvement took place in the 
condition of the North River, but more recently there has been a 
serious deterioration, and the examinations of the past year show that 
large quantities of manufacturing waste find their way into the stream 
either directly or through overflows from sewers or connections. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 29 

Authority to make rules and regulations for the trunk sewer has 
been given the Board under the provisions of chapter 104 of the Acts 
of the year 1901, and authority is given to the sewer boards of the 
municipalities to regulate the entrance of matters into their sewers 
under the provisions of chapter 433 of the Acts of the year 1909. 

The greater part of the manufacturing wastes are very foul in 
character and contain excessive quantities of suspended matter which 
tend to form deposits in the sewers. To prevent such deposits, settling 
tanks have been installed at most of the factories, but many — if 
not most — of these are inadequate and unsatisfactory, or ineffi- 
ciently operated, so that they are of little value. 

It has been necessary to examine the wastes from each process in 
practically all the factories and to determine the character and the 
means of treatment necessary to prevent deposits in the sewers. It 
is evident that measures must be taken to prevent the further pollu- 
tion of the river, and that the collection and treatment of the man- 
ufacturing wastes and their admission to the sewers must be regulated 
closely if the serious pollution of the North River is to be prevented 
without causing excessive and unnecessary labor in the maintenance of 
the trunk sewer. Studies for a practicable plan of regulation have 
been carried on as rapidly as possible, but the problem is a difficult 
and complicated one on account of the great number of factories dis- 
charging foul wastes, the difficulty of collecting those which are 
objectionable, and the great difficulty of securing adequate and suitable 
areas for treatment works in a densely populated district. 

Improvement of the Neponset River. 

The condition of the Neponset River, judging from the averages of 
chemical analyses, has been somewhat less objectionable in 1913 than 
in the previous year, this slight improvement very likely being due 
largely to the reduction in the amount of business carried on at some 
of the factories on the river. Considerable further progress has been 
made in the construction of purification works at several of the fac- 
tories, but some of the largest works continue to discharge great 
quantities of polluting matter into the river as in previous years. 

In cases where there has been continued neglect either to build 
works or to consult with the Board concerning them, an information 
has been filed with the Attorney-General. Up to the end of the year 
nine such cases had been referred to that department. 

Rapid progress has been made during the year in the deepening and 
improvement of the channel of the Neponset River for the purpose 
of draining the great area of wet meadows in the central part of its 



30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

watershed, as authorized under the provisions of chapter 655 of the 
Acts of the year 1911. A dredging machine was installed in Hyde 
Park and began work Jan. 28, 1913, and later a second dredging 
machine was set up farther downstream. About half of the work 
necessary for the improvement of the river has already been com- 
pleted, including a large part of the work to be done in the lower 
reaches of the river. The material dredged from the stream has been 
disposed of along the banks of the river, and no objectionable condi- 
tions have thus far arisen from this method of disposal. Compar- 
atively little objectionable matter had deposited in this section of the 
river, the material removed being for the most part sand and gravel 
or hardpan. The inhabitants along the river, and the municipalities 
and corporations concerned in the structures in and about it, have 
in nearly all cases cordially co-operated in the work of improvement 
and adjusted their structures to meet the needs of the new channel. 
At the present rate of progress, the work is likely to be completed 
within the time allowed in the contract. 

Pollution of the Blackstone River. 

By the provisions of chapter 133 of the Resolves of 1913 an ap- 
propriation of $7,500 is made for a new sewer pipe line for the Worces- 
ter State Hospital, with the proviso "that no part of the amount 
authorized for a new sewer pipe line at the Worcester state hospital, 
to connect said hospital with the Worcester system of sewerage, shall 
be used or expended unless the state board of health, after making 
a thorough investigation of the sewerage conditions of the Blackstone 
river, the results of which shall be reported to the general court in 
January, nineteen hundred and fourteen, shall certify to the auditor 
of the commonwealth that the area of filter beds for the purification 
of the sewage of the city of Worcester has been enlarged to an extent 
necessary to filter the additional sewage to be discharged from the 
said Worcester state hospital, and that in their opinion the city of 
Worcester has taken or is taking such action in relation to the puri- 
fication of its sewage that it is desirable from the point of view of the 
public health that the Worcester state hospital shall be connected 
with the sewerage s^'stem of the city of Worcester." 

In accordance with the provisions of this resolve, the condition of 
the Blackstone River has been carefully investigated during the year 
and samples of the water of the river and of the sewage and manu- 
facturing waste, discharging into the stream at various points, have 
been analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the river is polluted to 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 31 

such an extent as to be objectionable below the Cherry Valley district in 
Leicester and for a distance of several miles below the sewage treatment 
works in the city of Worcester. The causes of the objectionable pollu- 
tion of the river are sewage and foul wastes from factories and mills. 
Sewage is discharged into the river at numerous places along its course 
and into the tributaries of the river at various points. The most im- 
portant of the pollutions of the river is that which is caused by the 
sewage and effluent from the sewers and sewage treatment works of 
the city of Worcester. These works were first put into operation in 
1890 in accordance with the provisions of an act of 1886 requiring 
the purification of the sewage of the city before its discharge into the 
river. The original works provided for the chemical precipitation of 
the sewage, the effect of which was to remove about half of the organic 
matter from the sewage treated, including nearly 90 per cent, of the 
suspended matter, but the works treated only the dry-weather llow 
of sewage, and the excess at times of storm continued to discharge 
into the river. Subsequently, in 1893, the precipitation works were 
enlarged, and in later years sand filters were added from time to time 
until they comprise at present an area of 73 acres. 

In 1886, at the time the law was passed requiring the treatment of 
the sewage, the total length of sewers in the city of Worcester was 
56.41 miles, while in 1913 the mileage of sewers and surface drains had 
increased to 222.2 miles. In earlier times the sewers were constructed 
on the combined plan, but the separate system has been employed 
for many years, and at the present time approximately 70 per cent, 
of the sewers are operated on the separate plan. The combined 
sewers, which receive both sewage and rain water, had an aggregate 
length in 1913 of 68.7 miles, and are provided with overflows into 
Mill Brook and the Blackstone River, through which a part of the 
mingled sewage and rain water overflows at times of storm and is not 
treated at the purification works. The quantity of sewage discharged 
directly into the river in this way cannot be definitely stated, but it 
is probably a small percentage of the total quantity. 

The works are carried on under expert supervision, and careful 
records of their operation are maintained and published. The follow- 
ing information has been supplied relative to the quantity of sewage 
treated at the purification works in 1913: — 



32 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Chemical precipitation, . 
Sand filtration, 
Experimental treatment. 
Total, 



Million Gallons. 


Per Cent. 
of Total. 


Total. 


Daily. 


5,170 

1,408 

32 


14.16 
3.86 
0.09 


78.2 

21.3 

0.5 


6,610 


18.11 


100.0 



It further appears that the strongest sewage was treated by sand 
filtration, as far as the area was capable of receiving it, because that 
method of treatment gives the highest degree of purification. The 
remaining sewage was treated by chemical precipitation, with the 
exertion of the small quantity used in the experimental works. 

The results of the treatment of the sewage are carefully observed 
by means of numerous analyses and are recorded in the reports of 
the department having charge of the work. The results of the analyses 
as presented in the last published report show that the combined sew- 
age treatment in 1912 was as follows: — 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Ammoni.i. 


Chlo- 
rine. 






Average 




Free. 


albuminoid. 




Flow 
per Day 




Total. 


Dis- 
solved. 


Sus- 
pended. 


Total. 


Dis- 
solved. 


Sus- 
pended. 


in 
Million 
Gallons. 


Average sewage. 
Average effluent, . 
Per cent, removed. 


2.299 
1.972 
14.22 


.873 
.369 
57.73 


.374 

.305 

18.45 


.499 

.064 

87.18 


12.42 
12.32 


14.20 
5.64 
60.29 


7.58 
4.71 
37.86 


6.62 
0.93 
85.94 


15.74 



The preliminary figures for the year 1913 show the following results 
of the treatment of sewage: — 









[Parts ii 


100,000. 














Ammonia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Oxygen consumed. 


Average 




Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Flow 
per Day 




Total. 


Dis- 
solved. 


Sus- 
pended. 


Total. 


Dis- 
solved. 


Sus- 
pended. 


in 
Million 
Gallons. 


Average sewage, . 
Average effluent, . 
Per cent, removed, 


2.123 
1.733 
18.37 


.721 

.368 
48.96 


.349 
.300 
14.03 


.372 
.068 
81.74 


11.70 
11.15 


13.66 
5.57 
59.26 


6.95 
4.68 
32.68 


6.71 
0.89 

86.74 


18.02 
_ 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



33 



The per cent, of organic matter removed from the sewage has been 
calculated by the sewer department of the city from year to year for 
many years, and the results indicate that the per cent, of organic 
matter removed during the year 1913, judging from the albuminoid 
ammonia, was less than in any previous year. The results as calcu- 
lated by the sewer department of the city are shown in the following 

table: — 

Per Cent. Organic Matter removed from Sewage. 

December to July. 



1909. 



Total amount (by albuminoid ammonia), 
Amount in suspension (by albuminoid ammonia), 
Total amount (by oxygen consumed), . 
Amount in suspension (by oxygen consumed), 



53.3 

85.0 
57.0 
87.8 



1910. 



58.3 
89.9 
60.1 
90.9 



1911. 



58.1 
90.0 
61.4 
91.0 



July to December. 



Total amount (by albuminoid ammonia). 
Amount in suspension (by albuminoid ammonia). 
Total amount (by oxygen consumed), . 
Amount in suspension (by oxygen consumed), 



61.0 
88.1 
69.7 
92.5 



58.5 
87.1 
62.4 

88.5 



57.9 

88.4 
61.7 
85.8 



December to December. 



Total amount (by albuminoid ammonia). 
Amount in suspension (by albuminoid ammonia). 
Total amount (by oxygen consumed), . 
Amount in suspension (by oxygen consumed), 



1912. 



55.6 
86.4 
56.7 
85.4 



60.9 
88.5 
64.9 
86.6 



1913. 



45.5 
81.5 
43.8 
85.6 



54.7 
82.3 
65.1 
87.9 



56.4 


58.4 


58.0 


57.7 


86.4 


88.7 


89.3 


87.2 


61.7 


61.1 


61.5 


60.3 


89.8 


89.7 


88.8 


85.9 



49.0 
81.7 
59.3 
86.7 



The above figures comprise the results of both the chemical treatment and treatment by filtration. 



The table indicates clearly that the efficiency of the purification has 
decreased materially in the past year. The necessity for enlarging 
the plant and improving its efficiency was referred to in the report of 
the superintendent of sewers for 1912 as follows: — 

... So far as known, there have been no complaints, formal or otherwise, from 
the residents of the town of Millbury. From observations and tests, it is be- 
lieved that the condition of the Blackstone River during the last few years has 
been materially better than formerly. With continued rapid growth of popu- 
lation and manufacturing industry, however, it is perfectly evident that it will 
be a matter of only a short time, when the river -wall show marked deterioration 
and afford just cause for complaint by the town of Millbury. It is therefore 
imperative that early steps be taken towards enlarging the plant along the lines 
of greatest efficiency, as indicated by the results of experiment. Meanwhile, it 



34 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

is highly important that the annual appropriation be made sufficient to main- 
tain the present plant at its highest efficiency. 

The annual appropriation last year was no greater than it was ten years ago, 
but during this time the population has increased more than 25 per cent., wages 
have been advanced from 15 to 20 per cent., and the price of stock and tools 
has likewise increased materially. It is, therefore, unreasonable to expect the 
plant to be operated in a most efficient manner without a decided increase in 
the annual appropriation. ... 

The only sewerage system of notable size in the Blaekstone valley 
in Massachusetts, aside from the works of the city of Worcester, is 
that of the town of Northbridge, where the sewage of the village of 
Whitinsville, containing approximately 5,000 inhabitants, is collected 
and disposed of upon sand filters, and the effluent, which has thus far 
been reasonably well purified, is discharged into a tributary of the 
Blaekstone River. While there are no systems of public sewers in 
the valley of the Blaekstone River in Massachusetts other than those 
mentioned above, there are sewers serving small populations in Mill- 
bury, Grafton and Uxbridge, which discharge directly into the river. 

The principal remaining sewage which finds its way into the Black- 
stone River or its tributaries is that which is discharged from factories 
and mills at widely scattered points throughout the valley, the amount 
of which in the aggregate is probably equivalent to the sewage from 
a town of 5,500 inhabitants. 

Aside from the sewage of cities, towns and factories, the most im- 
portant pollutions of the Blaekstone River are the manufacturing 
wastes discharged into the stream from the numerous factories and 
mills located along the river and its tributaries from Cherry Valley, 
several miles above Worcester, to the point where the river flows out 
of the State at Blaekstone. The manufacturing wastes are as a rule 
discharged into the stream at somewhat widely separated villages, and 
the most serious nuisance in the river, caused chiefly by these wastes, is 
in the village of Cherry Valley, where woolen mill waste, mingled with 
a small quantity of sewage, makes the river objectionable and offen- 
sive in the drier part of the year. 

The causes of the nuisance were investigated by the Board in 
1911, and the manufacturers advised of the necessity of taking meas- 
ures to remove the objectionable conditions in this stream. 

In other districts the effect of this sort of pollution is usually notice- 
able only for short distances in the immediate vicinity of the point 
at which the manufacturing waste is discharged, but, upon the main 
stream of the Blaekstone River below Worcester, the effect of the 
manufacturing waste no doubt tends materially to maintain objection- 
able conditions in the river in that part of its course. Statistics as 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



35 



to the quantity and the character of the manufacturing wastes dis- 
charged into the Blackstone River and its tributaries from the mills 
in various towns have been summarized in the appended table. 

A very rough calculation of the comparative quantities of organic 
matter discharged into the river from the sewage-disposal works of the 
city of Worcester, with the aggregate quantity of organic matter, as 
indicated by the albuminoid ammonia in the effluents of the various 
mills throughout the valley of the Blackstone River and its tributaries, 
indicates that the wastes from manufactories in the aggregate con- 
tribute a quantity of organic matter to the river equivalent to about 
one-half that discharged from the treatment works of the city of 
Worcester. This calculation takes no account of the sewage dis- 
charged into the river from factories and mills, nor from the sewers in 
Whitinsville, Millbury, Grafton or Uxbridge, nor of the quantity which 
overflows from the combined sewers in Worcester at times of storm. 

The condition of the Blackstone River has been observed at several 
points for many years by means of chemical analyses, and the results 
of the analyses of samples collected in the months of June to Novem- 
ber, inclusive, in 1913, as compared with those of the past six years, 
1908-13, are presented in the following tables: — 



Blackstone River, helow Cherry Valley. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Date of 
Collection. 



1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 



Residue 
ON Evapo- 
ration. 



20.57 
13.93 
16.42 
21.02 
44.10 
32.32 



3.83 
3.34 
3.92 
4.40 
11.04 
6.52 



Ammonia. 



1531 

0681 
0633 
,1277 
.2514 
.2591 



albuminoid. 



0624 
,0470 
,0489 
.0726 

.2884 
.1623 



.0508 
.0334 
.0387 
.0559 
.1023 
.1122 



CO 



.0116 
.0136 
.0102 
.0167 
.1861 
.0506 



O 



5.76 
3.70 
4.02 
5.70 
10.70 
8.18 



Nitrogen 

AS 



.0020 
.0125 
.0146 
.0080 
.0002 
.0015 



.0007 
.0003 
.0002 
.0005 
.0004 
.0004 



.80 

.85 

1.15 

3.08 

2.06 





Blackstone River 


, above Worcester Sewage-disposal Works. 






1908, . 




.16 


23.67 


5.55 


.0990 


.0291 


.0153 


.0138 


3.23 


.0134 


.0014 


.83 


3.327 


1909, . 




- 


52.97 


18.65 


.1865 


.0381 


.0239 


.0142 


4.80 


.0033 


.0010 


2.09 


8.440 


1910, . 




.15 


50.92 


18.97 


.1933 


.0545 


.0309 


.0236 


4.07 


.0023 


.0009 


2.19 


11.850 


1911. . 




.11 


44.64 


15.70 


.1920 


.0449 


.0212 


.0237 


4.03 


.0170 


.0009 


2.05 


8.167 


1912, . 




.10 


40.05 


10.91 


.2047 


.0352 


.0225 


.0127 


3.58 


.0027 


.0011 


1.69 


6.667 


1913, . 




.10 


35.17 


10.34 


.2767 


.0491 


.0285 


.0206 


3.18 


.0003 


.0008 


1.31 


4.933 



36 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Blackstone River, below Entrance of Chemically Treated Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





o 
O 


Residue 


Ammonia. 


1 


3 
O 


Nitrogen 


1 

1 

a 

5 






RATION. 


1 


albuminoid. 


AS 




Date of 
Collection. 


"3 


d 

m to 


1 


1 



a 


1 


.1 
1 


a 
2 


1908, 


.30 


38.80 


7.63 


.9407 


.1490 


.0781 


.0709 


5.34 


.0040 


.0033 


1.31 


4.017 


1909, 


- 


53.79 


12.12 


1.0567 


.1282 


.0792 


.0490 


6.92 


.0067 


.0075 


1.72 


6.333 


1910, 


- 


52.15 


12.52 


1.0090 


.1654 


.0817 


.0837 


5.68 


.0015 


.0034 


2.17 


5.683 


1911, 


.21 


53.25 


13.15 


.9967 


.1608 


.0651 


.0957 


6.54 


.0152 


.0072 


2.26 


6.067 


1912, 


.23 


48.90 


10.08 


1.1700 


.1673 


.0904 


.0769 


6.12 


.0137 


.0096 


2.40 


4.017 


1913, 


.28 


40.68 


10.46 


.9320 


.1286 


.0719 


.0567 


4.49 


.0158 


.0084 


1.79 


2.960 





Blackstone River, below Worcester Sewage-disposal Works. 






1908, 




.46 


37.70 


6.82 


1.1317 


.1362 


.0919 


.0443 


6.80 


.0078 


.0040 


1.28 


1.383 


1909, 






48.82 


9.29 


1.2200 


.1072 


.0777 


.0295 


8.20 


.0140 


.0069 


1.49 


3.533 


1910, 




- 


52.38 


11.13 


1.3033 


.1265 


.0892 


.0373 


8.07 


.0108 


.0046 


1.85 


3.867 


1911, 




.20 


48.98 


7.93 


1.2633 


.1150 


.0709 


.0441 


8.88 


.0255 


.0123 


1.74 


2.550 


1912, 




.32 


52.23 


7.77 


1.7985 


.1223 


.0777 


.0446 


8.14 


.0118 


.0098 


1.82 


3.317 


1913. 




.27 


45.67 


9.64 


1.1267 


.1228 


.0788 


.0440 


6.41 


.0195 


.0078 


1.61 


2.242 



Blackstone River, at Millbury. 



1908, . ti . 


- 


40.63 


6.34 


1.3424 


.1642 


.0980 


.0662 


9.31 


.0040 


.0016 


1.64 


.946 


1909, 


- 


44.57 


8.05 


1.3500 


.0957 


.0740 


.0217 


8.69 


.0026 


.0066 


1.27 


1.056 


1910, 


.23 


46.98 


9.93 


1.2177 


.1037 


.0609 


.0428 


8.16 


.0027 


.0030 


1.36 


1.817 


1911, 


.61 


46.70 


8.72 


1.2283 


.0990 


.0602 


.0388 


7.82 


.0077 


.0016 


1.24 


.990 


1912, 


- 


42.25 


7.77 


1.4633 


.1632 


.0880 


.0752 


7.21 


.0006 


.0025 


2.23 


1.397 


1913, 


- 


60.32 


11.85 


1.0610 


2085 


.0852 


.1233 


6.07 


.0155 


.0151 


2.53 


2.668 







Blackstone River, at Uxbridge 












1908, 


.31 


16.33 


4.07 


.2387 


.0253 


.0196 


.0057 


3.05 


.0408 


.0071 


.32 


- 


1909, 


.22 


18.31 


4.35 


.3473 


.0273 


.0216 


.0057 


3.64 


.0325 


.0066 


.36 


- 


1910, 


.26 


22.53 


4.69 


.4963 


.0356 


.0302 


.0054 


4.62 


.0498 


.0043 


.41 


.090 


1911, 


.26 


23.10 


3.85 


.3717 


.0293 


.0225 


.0068 


4.15 


.0558 


.0173 


.44 


.074 


1912, 


.21 


21.91 


3.06 


.4897 


.0345 


.0288 


.0057 


4.06 


.0497 


.0137 


.45 


.093 


1913, 


.29 


19.48 


3.70 


.3880 


.0355 


.0281 


.0074 


3.34 


.0382 


.0107 


.49 


.096 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



37 



Blackstone River, at Millville, in Blackstone. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 







Residue 
ON Evapo- 
ration. 


Amm 


ONIA. 






Nitrogen 


a 

§ 

o 
a 

o 






i 


albuminoid. 


AS 




Date of 
Collection. 


"3 
1 


a 
o.-S 

Ot— 1 


1 


> 


1 

3 

CO 


1 


i 


a 
2 


1908. 


.33 


9.85 


2.53 


.1295 


.0232 


.0185 


.0047 


1.78 


.0258 


.0024 


.34 


- 


1909, 


.24 


11.87 


3.17 


.1595 


.0267 


.0220 


.0047 


2.27 


.0225 


.0019 


.38 


- 


1910, 


.30 


13.94 


3.32 


.2350 


.0277 


.0234 


.0043 


3.01 


.0290 


.0013 


.37 


.087 


1911, 


.33 


14.35 


2.79 


.1787 


.0268 


.0222 


.0046 


2.94 


.0355 


.0051 


.43 


.054 


1912, 


.29 


15.20 


2.18 


.2433 


.0283 


.0249 


.0034 


2.91 


.0421 


.0064 


.43 


.074 


1913, . 


.37 


12.92 


2.38 


.1631 


.0281 


.0237 


.0044 


2.44 


.0345 


.0063 


.42 


.065 



It will be seen from these tables that the quantity of organic matter 
as shown by the albuminoid ammonia has varied considerably from 
year to year, being slightly less in 1913 below Cherry Valley, and 
slightly greater between Mill Brook channel and the sewage precip- 
itation works of the city of Worcester than in the year 1912. Below 
the precipitation works, the quantities of free and albuminoid am- 
monia are less than for several years. Farther down the river, at 
Uxbridge and Millville, the conditions have differed but little from 
those of last year. Samples were also collected for analysis at various 
stations along the river in the drier part of 1913, the more important 
results of which are summarized in the following table: — 



Results of the Analyses of Samples taken on Sept. 11, 1913. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 




Free. 


Total 
Albuminoid. 


Just above Worcester sewage-disposal works, . 

Above Millbury 

At Millbury below entrance of Dorothy Brook, 

Just below Millbury line, 

Below Farnumsville, 

Above entrance of Mumford River, 
Below entrance of Mumford River, 




.2260 

1.3400 

1.0600 

1.0500 

.5650 

.2760 

.1260 


.0335 
.1080 
.0630 
.0625 
.0340 
.0278 
.0296 


2.74 
8.45 
6.88 
7.05 
3.45 
3.75 
3.00 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The foregoing tables show that the river is greatly polluted in 
Cherry Valley but that the pollution largely disappears before reach- 
ing the disposal works of the city of Worcester. Below that point the 
river shows the highest degree of pollution found anywhere along its 
course. The effect of the pollution greatly diminishes below the point 
of junction with the Quinsigamond River and diminishes rapidly 
below other important affluents farther downstream. It is evident 
from these tables that by far the most serious pollution of the Black- 
stone River is caused by the sewage and effluent discharged from the 
sewage purification works in the city of Worcester. 

Very thorough experiments have been conducted under the direction 
of the sewer department of the city of Worcester, covering a period 
of several years, for the purpose of obtaining information as to the 
most efficient method of providing for the further purification of the 
sewage, and the results of these investigations have been published 
from time to time, especially in recent reports. These experiments 
and investigations have shown very definitely the lines along which 
the further purification of the sewage can be effected and the objec- 
tionable pollution of the river relieved. They indicate that the cost 
of the necessary additional works, to effect a very great improve- 
ment in the efficiency of the purification of the sewage, may amount 
to an addition of from 30 to 40 per cent, of the amount thus 
far expended for the construction of the disposal and purification 

works. 

The question of the disposal of the sewage of the Worcester State 
Hospital was the subject of consideration by a commission appointed 
by the Legislature of 1909 (chapter 128 of the Resolves of 1909), 
which found that the method of disposal of the sewage of the Worces- 
ter State Hospital was a nuisance, and that the public interests 
required that the nuisance should be prevented as soon as possible and 
a proper method of disposing of the sewage of that institution pro- 
vided. The commission recommended that the sewerage system of 
the Worcester State Hospital be connected with the sewers of the 
city of Worcester and that the sewage of the hospital be disposed of 
thereafter in connection with the Worcester system. Under the Re- 
solve of 1913, already quoted, connection of the hospital sewer with 
the Worcester sewerage system has not yet been made, as the condi- 
tions of the resolve relating to the enlargement of the Worcester 
sewerage system have not yet been fulfilled. 



Pollution of the Blackatone River. 



No. 34.] GENERAL RErORT. 39 



Lawrence Experiment Station. 

The Lawrence Experiment Station has now been in operation for 
more than twenty-five years, and has always been of great value in 
supplying information for the use of the Board in its replies to requests 
for advice from cities, towns, corporations, individuals, etc., on matters 
pertaining to water purification, sewage disposal and purification, 
trade wastes disposal and other sanitary subjects. 

The station has also an educational value, as typical examples of 
well-known methods of treating or purifying sewage and water are 
kept in operation there and are frequently examined by officials con- 
cerned with proposed treatments of water and sewage. The station 
is also frequently visited by students from the engineering schools in 
the State and the instructors in these schools. Further than this 
investigations are constantly being made at the station in regard to 
new or proposed methods of water purification, sewage disposal, etc., 
and practically all the bacteriological examinations of the public water 
supplies of the State are made in the station laboratories. 

Besides studies upon water purification during the year, studies 
upon the disinfection of water, corrosion of pipes, removal of carbonic 
acid, iron and manganese from water, methods of maintaining a fair 
degree of cleanliness of the water used in swimming pools, and of the 
effect of the various constituents of water in storage upon fecal and 
other bacteria, have been made. 

In the studies of sewage treatment or sewage purification 11 inter- 
mittent sand filters, 9 trickling filters, 11 contact filters and 9 special 
filters have been kept in operation. Methods for the preliminary 
clarification of sewage and for the disposal of sewage sludge have been 
further investigated. It has long been recognized that the amount of 
sewage which can be absorbed by a given volume of water without 
producing a nuisance is limited by the oxygen content of that water 
and by the rapidity with which oxygen is taken up by the sewage, 
and studies upon the oxygen requirement of different sewages before 
and after treatment by different sewage-disposal methods have been 
in progress for a number of years. In this connection, during the past 
year a new and promising process for the treatment of sewage by 
aeration, in specially designed tanks, has been devised. By this 
method not only is a greater percentage of the suspended and colloidal 
matters removed than by ordinary sedimentation or chemical precipi- 
tation, but the oxygen requirement of the sewage is so greatly re- 
duced that filters can be successfully operated at very high rates with 
sewage treated in this way. Sewage undergoing this treatment can 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

be clarified to as great a degree as, or perhaps greater than, by chem- 
ical precipitation, and at a much less cost. An extensive investiga- 
tion in regard to the fertilizing value of sewage and sewage sludge has 
also been made during the year. 

Bacterial examinations of 1,800 samples and chemical examinations 
of 750 samples, forwarded by the engineering department to the sta- 
tion during 1913, have been made, and the usual large amount of 
chemical and bacteriological work, made necessary by the investiga- 
tions at the station, has been carried on. 

Propeietaky Medicines. 
During the year one proprietary preparation containing alcohol, and 
with no statement as to the percentage of alcohol, was advertised as 
unsalable at retail, under the provisions of chapter 386 of the Acts of 
1906, namely: — 

Bracer: Artificial Wild Cherry, Flavored and Colored, Straight or Mixed. 

Distribution of Pamphlets. 
That portion of the Board's work concerned with the distribution of 
pamphlets on various public health topics has grown remarkably within 
the last few years, so that at the present time the following literature is 
available for distribution : — 

The Occurrence of Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts in 1908. 

Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts in 1909. 

Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts during 1910. 

The Control of Tuberculosis. 

Directions for Living and Sleeping in the Open Air. (The National Associa- 
tion for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis.) 

The Control of Typhoid Fever. 

Antityphoid Inoculation : Typhoid Prophylactic. 

Hygiene of Occupations: Permanent Exhibit of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Health. 

Hygiene of the Boot and Shoe Industry in Massachusetts. 

The State Board of Health of Massachusetts : A Brief History of its Organi- 
zation and its Work. 

Cholera: Its Nature, Detection and Prevention. (United States Public 
Health Reports.) 

Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis. (United States Public Health Reports.) 

For Mothers with Little Babies: How to take Care of Baby's Health. 

Death in School Drinking Cups. 

Recommendations for the Control of the Stable Fly {Stomoxys calcitrans). 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 41' 

Preventive and Remedial Work against Mosquitoes. (United States Bureau 
of Entomology, Bulletin, No. 88, 1910.) 

Anti-malarial Measures for Farmhouses and Plantations. (United States 
Public Health Reports, No. 105, 1913.) 

The Mosquito Plague of the Connecticut Coast Region and How to Control, 
it. (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin.) 

The Abatement of Nuisances. 

The Sanitary Privy. (United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers' 
Bulletin, 463.) 

The State Board of Health and its Relation to the Milk Problem in Massa- 
chusetts. 

Dont's for Dairymen. 

Address to the State Inspectors of Health of Massachusetts: Typhoid Fever. 

Address to the State Inspectors of Health of Massachusetts : The Suppression 
of Tuberculosis. 

Monthly Bulletin of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

State Board of Examiners of Plumbers. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health, held on Aug. 7, 1913, 
Mr. Charles E. Felton of Brockton was reappointed to the State Board 
of Examiners of Plumbers. 

A brief report of the work carried on by this Board in 1913 appears 
in the Supplement. 

Food axd Drug Inspection. 

The number of samples of foods and drugs collected and examined 
during the year ended jSTov. 30, 1913. was 9,727, and the total number 
since the work was ^egun in 1883 has now reached 223,052. 

During the year 161 prosecutions were made in the various courts of 
the Commonwealth, bringing the total number to 4,272. The details are 
presented in the Supplement. 

Inspection of Liquors. 
The work of the Board in connection with the duties of the office of 
inspector and assayer of liquors, transferred to the Board in 1902, is 
reported upon in the Supplement. 

Inspection of Dairies. 
During the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, 4,493 dairies were examined 
by the Board's veterinarian, and the attention of 1,543 proprietors and 
of boards of health of cities and towns, wherein the dairies were situated 
or the product thereof sold, was called to a total of 5,071 objectionable 
conditions. 



42 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Of the total number of dairies examined, 4,492 were situated in Massa- 
chusetts and 1 in a neighboring State. The details will be found in the 

Supplement. 

Slaughtering Inspection. 

• During the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, there were appointed 460 in- 
spectors of slaughtering in the cities and towns throughout the State, 
this being an increase of 100 over the appointments of 1912; two State 
inspectors of slaughtering were also appointed. 

A more detailed report will be found in the Supplement. 

Cold Storage of Food Products. 

Three State inspectors of cold storage of food products were appointed 
by the Board during the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, to look over the 
cold-storage plants throughout the State. Licenses were issued to 47 
cold-storage warehouses, — an increase of 10 over the number issued in 
1912 (three months, September to November, inclusive). 

Each cold-storage plant renders a quarterly report on all goods placed 
in storage and of the amount of articles of food held by it at the end of 
each quarter. 

For confiscations on account of articles unfit for food found in cold 
storage, as per physical and chemical analyses, see the detailed report in 
the Supplement. 

Sale of Eggs taken from Cold Storage. 
Under this law 72 cases were prosecuted and convicted during the 
year ended Nov. 30, 1913. 

For detailed information see Supplement. 

Vital Statistics, Distribution of Antitoxin and Vaccine, etc. 

Eeports upon Fatality of Certain Diseases, Otficial Eeturns of Deaths 
in Cities and Large Towns, the Vital Statistics of the State, the Pro- 
duction, Distribution and Use of Diphtheria Antitoxin and Vaccine, and 
upon Bacteriological Diagnosis are presented in the Supplement. 



Eoutine Work of the Board. 
Statistical Table for the Year ended Nov. SO, 1913. 
Whole number of samples of food and drugs examined, 
Samples of milk examined (included in the foreg-oing), 
Number of prosecutions against offenders during the yeai 
Number of convictions during the year, 

Amount of fines imposed, 

Number of dairies examined, 



9,727 

6,702 

161 

116 

$2,807.75 
4,493 



Xo. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



43 



Xumber of packages of antitoxin of 1,500 units each issued to 
cities and towns, 

Number of tubes of vaccine issued to cities and towns, 

Number of ampoules of typhoid vaccine, 

Number of bacterial cultures made for diagnosis and release of 
diphtheria in cities and towns, 

Number of examinations made for diagnosis of tuberculosis, 

Number of examinations of blood made for diagnosis of malarial 
infection, 

Number of examinations of blood made for diagnosis of typhoid 
fever, Widal test, 

Number of cultural tests of typhoid fever, 

Number of nitrate of silver solution outfits for use in cases of 
ophthalmia neonatorum, issued to cities and towns, . 

Number of notices of cases of infectious diseases received and re- 
corded under the provisions of chapter 75, section 52, Kevised 
Laws, 



96.891 

112,039 

21,014 

5,332 



1,502 
337 

2,639 



66,249 



Force employed in the General Work of the Board. 

Secretary, ........ 

Assistant to the secretary, 

Clerks, . 

Messengers, ........ 

Supei-v-ising inspector of dairy, slaughtering and cold storage, 

Inspectors of slaughtering, 

Inspectors of cold storage of food products. 

Health District Act : — 

State Inspectors of Health, .... 
Assistants to the State Inspectors of Health, 
Clerks, 

Total, 



Force employed for food and drug inspection : — 
Chemists and assistants, .... 

Inspectors, ...... 

Clerk 



1 
1 
5 
2 

1 
2 
3 

12 
3 
3 

34 



Total, 



Force employed at laboratory (Bussey Institution): — 
Pathologist, 
Expert assistants, 
Laboratorj' assistants, 
Stable helpers, . 

Total, 



1 
2 

5 
2 

lo 



44 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Under the Provisions of Sections 112 to 118 of Chapter 75, Revised Laws. 
Applications for advice from cities, towns and others: — 

Relating to water supply, 139 

Relating to ice supply, 19 

Relating to sewerage and drainage, 34 

Relating to pollution of streams, 4 

Miscellaneous, 15 



Total, 



Number of samples examined at the State House iaborator) 
Chemical examinations of water and sewage, . 
Microscopical examinations of water, 
Special examinations for lead, .... 
Special examinations (field work) for carbonic acid, dis 

solved oxygen and alkalinity, .... 
Other miscellaneous examinations, .... 



211 



8,601 

2,630 

147 

282 
10 



11,670 



Number of samples examined at the Lawrence Experiment Station: 



Chemical examinations of water, sewage, ice and manu- 
factural wastes, 

Chemical examinations of sand, ..... 

Mechanical examinations of sand, 

Bacterial examinations of water, sewage, ice and raanu- 
factural wastes, ........ 

Bacterial examinations of sand, ..... 

Bacterial examinations of shellfish, 



3,180 

101 

28 

5,048 
22 
42 



8,421 



Total, 



20.091 



Force employed at Central office : — 

Chief engineer, 1 

Assistant engineers, 11 



Stenographers and clerks, 
Messenger, 



Force employed at laboratory, Room 502, State House: — 

Chief chemist, 

Assistant chemists 

Biologist, 

Stenographer and clerks, 



18 



12 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 45 

Force employed at Lawrence Experiment Station: — 

Assistant chemists, .....••••-' 

Bacteriologists, 2 

Other assistants and laborers, 4 

8 

Total ordinary force, 38 

The number of applications for advice under the provisions of the acts 
relating to water supply and sewerage, received since July, 1886, when 
these acts first went into operation, is as follows : — 



1886, 








8 


1901, 










105 


1887, 








22 


1902, 










93 


1888, 








28 


1903. 










129 


1889, 








38 


1904, 










125 


1890, 








23 


1905, 










105 


1891, 








53 


1906, 










130 


1892, 








56 


1907, 










125 


1893, 








51 


1908, 










134 


1894, 








53 


1909. 










128 


1895, ^ 








52 


1910, 










139 


1896, '. 








65 


1911, 










176 


1897, 








59 


1912, 










149 


1898, 
1899, 








75 
79 


1913, 










211 










1900, 








104 


Total 










2,515 



Appropkiations. 

The appropriations for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, as recommended 
by the Board in the annual estimates made under the provisions of 
chapter 6, section 26 of the Revised Laws, were as follows: — 



For the general expenses of the Board, 

For the investigation of anterior poliomyelitis, $10,000 00 
Balance from 1912, 1,514 08 

For the inspection of food and drugs, .... 
For the production and distribution of antitoxin and vaccine, 
For the purity of inland waters, ..... 
For the examination of sewer outlets and Neponset River, 
For the super\asion of water companies, . 
For the sanitary condition of the Merrimack River, . 
For the Aberjona River, 



$26,500 00 



11,514 08 

17,500 00 

21,000 00 

36,000 00 

16,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 



46 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



$5,000 


00 


38,800 


00 


500 


00 


5,000 


00 


7,000 


00 


855 


40 



For printing the annual report, . 

State Inspectors of Health, .... 

For the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum. 

For slaughtering and meat inspection, 

For cold storage of food, .... 

For extermination of mosquitoes, balance from 1912, 



Total, $188,669 48 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures under the different appropriations for the year ended 
Xov. 30, 1913, were as follows: — 

General Expenditures. 
Appropriation (including appropriation for typhoid fever) for 

the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, $26,500 00 

Credit by paid to State treasuiy from sales of serum and other 

sources, 106 61 

$26,606 61 

Salaries, $11,120 92 

Traveling expenses, 3,282 97 

Express charges, 94 5o 

Stationery, maps and blue prints, 1,012 18 

Printing, 3,963 95 

Books, subscriptions and binding, 1,066 52 

Advertising, 45 92 

Extra services, 1,176 19 

Messenger, 246 72 

Postage and postal orders, 2,772 66 

Telephone and telegraph messages, ...... 369 21 

Typewriting supplies, repairs and rental, 398 06 

Sundrj' office supplies, . . 491 13 

Laboratory supplies, 384 53 

Labor and materials, 16 45 

Miscellaneous, 164 65 

Total, $26,606 61 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



47 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Resolve relative to the Investigation 
of the Disease known as Anterior Poliomyelitis or Infantile Paralysis 
{Chapter 49, Resolves of 1911 and Chapter 22, Resolves of 1913). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, .... $10,000 00 

Balance from 1912, 1,514 08 

Credit by paid to the State Treasurer on account of sales of ani- 
mals, ^ 40 00 

$11,554 08 

Salaries, $650 00 

Traveling expenses, 120 68 

Printing, 52 47 

Postage, 18 52 

Telephone and telegraph messages, 19 08 

Laboratory supplies, 548 76 

Purchase of animals, 127 40 

Food for animals, 453 54 

Express, 19 33 

Extra seiTices, . 1,257 25 

Labor, 194 43 

Miscellaneous, 62 15 

Total, $3,523 61 



Expenditures under the Provisions of the Food and Drug Acts for the Year 

ended Nov. 30, 1913. 

Appropriation, $17,500 00 

Credit by cash returned to treasury on account of money ad- 
vanced to inspectors, 13 79 



Salaries of analysts. 
Salaries of inspectors, . 
Salary of laboratory assistant. 
Traveling expenses and purchase 
Apparatus and chemicals. 
Printing, .... 

Services, cleaning laboratory. 
Express, .... 

Telephone messages and postage. 
Sundry laboratory supplies, . 



of samples, 



$17,513 


79 


$6,900 


00 


6,180 


01 


214 00 


3,383 18 


390 


24 


161 88 


50 


75 


4 04 


27 


85 


55 


51 



48 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Books, binding and stationery, $53 89 

Extra sennees, 47 62 

Advertising, 1 °" 

Miscellaneous, 19 40 

Total, $17,490 17 

Expenditures for the Production and Distribution of Antitoxin and Vaccine 

for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1913. 

Appropriation, $21,000 00 

Salaries, $8,602 21 

Traveling expenses, " ^- 

Express charges, , , 

Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory supplies, .... 3,605 53 

Books and stationery, 54 70 

Printing, 251 43 

Purchase of animals, °~2 89 

Services of veterinarian, 2 00 

Food for animals, 3,5^3 lo 

Rental of telephone, messages and postage, 48 06 

Extra services, 218 81 

Water, gas, electric lighting and heating, 441 65 

Labor and materials 338 27 

Ice, > 150 32 

Rent, ' '. 2,008 32 

Miscellaneous, 215 27 

Total, $20,377 39 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act to protect the Purity of Inland 

Waters, and to require Consultation with the State Board of Health 

regarding the Establishment of Systems of Water Supply, Drainage 

and Sewerage. 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, . . . $36,000 00 

Credit by amount returned to the State Treasurer, ... 4 65 

$36,004 65 
Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence Experiment 

Station, $29,311 40 

Apparatus and materials, • 1,438 49 

Traveling expenses, 2,079 19 

Express charges, 1,377 71 

Books and binding, 376 13 

Maps and blue prints, 198 27 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 49 

Stationery, drawing materials and typewriter supplies, . . $703 61 

Telephone, telegraph messages and postage, .... 30 52 

Labor, 3 00 

Extra services, 81 55 

Services, collecting samples and reading gauges, .... 226 56 

Miscellaneous, . , 168 42 

Total, $35,994 85 

For the Examination of Sewer Outlets, tinder the Provisions of Section 4, 

Chapter 75 of the Revised Laws. 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, . . . $16,000 00 

Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence Experiment 

Station, $10,569 06 

Apparatus and materials, ........ 1,314 72 

Kent of Lawi'ence Experiment Station, 150 00 

Labor, 17 38 

Traveling expenses, 2,775 30 

Express charges, 377 91 

Telephone and telegraph messages and postage, .... 77 31 

Extra services, 22 59 

Services, collecting samples and reading gauges, .... 12 00 

Books, maps, blue prints and binding, 210 82 

Stationery, drawing matei'ials and typewriting supplies. . . 341 41 

Miscellaneous, 131 04 

Total, $15,999 54 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Supervision of 

Water Companies (Chapter 319, Acts of 1909). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, .... $1,000 00 

Salaries, . . . , , $861 67 

Extra services ... . . 123 75 

$985 42 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Sanitary Condi- 
tion of the Merrimack River (Chapter 505, Acts of 1909). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, . . . $1,000 00 

Salaries. . $776 66 

Traveling expenses, ......... 222 50 

Total, $999 16 



■50 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Aherjona Biver 

(Chapter 291, Acts of 1911). 
Appropriation for the year ended Xov. 30, 1913, . . . $1,000 00 

Salaries, $975 00 

Traveling 24 00 

Total $999 00 



Expenses under the Provisions of the Act to provide for the Establishment 
of Health Districts and the Appointment of State Inspectors of Health 
{Chapter 537, Acts of 1907; Chapters 405 and 543, Acts of 1910; Chap- 
ters 603 and 709, Acts of 1911) for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1913. 

Appropriation, $38,800 00 



of Health 



Salaries of State Inspectors of Health 

Assistants to the State Inspectors of Health, 
Clerical assistants, office of State Board of Health, 

Clerical expenses of State Inspectors of Health, including type 
writing, 

Extra services, office employees, .... 

Extra services, public stenographers, . 

Traveling expenses, State Inspectors of Health, . 

Traveling exi3enses, assistants to the State Inspectors 

Typewriting supplies. State Inspectors of Health, 

Typewriting supplies and rental, office State Board of Health, 

Printing, administrative purposes, 

Printing, public infoitnation, 

Books, 

Office sujjplies, inspectors of health. 

Office supplies, office, State Board of Health 

Laboratory and experimental work. 

Postage, 

Expi-ess, 

Telephone and telegi'aph. 

Miscellaneous, .... 



Total, $35,880 4 



$23,553 


77 


1,277 


87 


2,916 14 


491 


14 


120 


46 


106 


60 


5,060 


76 


221 


34 


10 


10 


132 


35 


571 


72 


95 53 


12 00 


33 


20 


303 


93 


9 


96 


571 


91 


51 


32 


331 


07 


9 


30 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Prevention of 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum {Chapter 458, Acts of 1910). 
Appropriation for the year ended Xov. 30, 1913 $500 00 

Ophthalmia outfits, $300 80 

Total $300 80 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



51 



For carrii'my out the Provisions of the Act relatwe to Slaughlering and 

Bleat Inspection (Chapter 297, Acts of 1911). 
Apiii-opriatioii for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913, . . . .$5,000 00 
Credit by paid to State treasury for the sale of branding outfits. 243 80 



Salaries, 

Traveling expenses. 

Telephone and telegraph. 

Printing. 

Branding outfits, . 

Office supplies and stationery, 

Purchase of typewriter and supplies, 

Extra services, 

Miscellaneous, 



Total, $5,241 54 

For carriiing out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Cold Storage of 

Food Products [Chapter 652, Acts of 1912). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913. . . . .$7,000 00 

Salaries .$5,975 77 

Traveling expenses, 661 48 

Printing, 53 41 

Telephone, telegraph and postage, 6 13 

Extra services, 204 20 

Office and typewriting supplies, 82 75 

Miscellaneous, 15 08 

Total, $6,998 82 



$5,243 80 


$3,622 42 


732 


73 


6 


35 


91 24 


300 


30 


288 


25 


64 


75 


124 50 


11 


00 



HENPtY P. WALCOTT. 
M. J. ROSEN AU. 

HIEA:^r f. mills. 

ROBERT AV. LOYETT. 
C. E. McGILLICUDDY. 
CLEMENT F. COOGAN. 
JOSEPH A. PLOUFF. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



[531 



Water Supply and Sewerage. 



Adyice to Cities, Towns and Persons. 



[55] 



ADVICE TO CITIES, TOWNS AND PERSONS. 



Under the provisions of the Eevised Laws (chapter To, section IIT), 
the State Board of Health is required to 

consult with and advise the authorities of cities and towns and persons hav- 
ing, or about to have, systems of water supply, drainage or sewerage, as to 
the most appropriate source of water supply, and the best method of assur- 
ing its purity or as to the best method of disposing of their drainage or 
sewage with reference to the existing and future needs of other cities, Towns 
or persons which may be affected thereby. It sliall also consult with and 
advise persons engaged or intending to engage in any manufacturing or other 
business whose drainage or sewage may tend to pollute any inland water as 
to the best method of preventing such pollution, and it may conduct experi- 
ments to determine the best methods of the purification or disposal of drain- 
age or sewage. No person shall be required to bear the expense of such 
consultation, advice or experiments. Cities, towns and persons shall submit 
to said board for its advice their proposed system of water supi^lv or of the 
disposal of drainage or sewage, and all petitions to the general court for 
authority to introduce a system of water supply, di'ainage or sewerage shall 
be accompanied by a copy of the recommendation and advice of said board 
thereon. 



_ During the year 191.3 the Board has given its advice to the following 
cities, towns and persons who have applied for such advice under the 
provisions of this act or under special acts relating to water supply and 
sewerage. 

Official communications were made during the year under the provi- 
sions of acts relating to water supplv and to sources of ice supnlv a^ 
follows : — ' 11.'- 

Water Supplt. 



Amherst. 

Andover (well at school). 

Barnstable (Massachusetts Volun- 
teer Militia) (two). 

Belehertown (two). 

Blackstone (Woonsocket Rubber 
Company). 



Boston (Boston Belting Company). 

Braintree (two). 

Bridgewater (well) (two). 

Brookfield. 

Brookfield (Fosler-Moulton Shoe 

Company). 
Cambridge (Y. M. C. A.). 



58 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Canton (Plymouth Rubber Company). 
Canton (Massachusetts Hospital 

School). 
Chelmsford. 

Chelmsford (Silesia Worsted Mills). 
Chelmsford (wells) (two). 
Clinton. 

Dedham (wells). 
Douglas (camp gimmd). 
Dracut (American AYoolen Com- 
pany). 
Dracut (spring). 
Duxbury (wells). 
fJverett (Belmont Hill Spring). 
Fall River (two). 
Fall River (Enterprise Brewing 

Company). 
Fitchburg (two). 
Fitchburg (spring). 
Framingham (Society of St. Vincent 

de Paul). 
Gardner (spring). 
Great Barrington (Housatonic). 
Great Barrington (well in Housa- 
tonic). 
Greenfield (Fire District No. 1). 
Hamilton (Asbury Grove). 
Hamilton (South Hamilton). 
Hanson (well). 

Haverhill. 

Haverhill (spring). 

Holbrook (spring) (two). 

Holden (spring). 

Holyoke (Deane Steam Pump Com- 
pany). 

Lanesborough. 

Lawrence (Arlington Mills). 

Lawrence (Hartig & Miller). 

Lawrence (well at Bay State build- 
ing). 

Lawrence (spring). 

Lawrence (wells) (two). 

Lenox. 

Leominster. 

Lexing-ton (avcU). 

Lincoln. 



Lynn (well). 

Lynnfield (well at school). 

Marion. 

Marshfleld (well in Sea View). 

Medford (well). 

Medway (well). 

Methuen (spring). 

Middleborough. 

Middleton (Haswell Park). 

Milton (well). 

Nantucket (Sachem Spring). 

New Bedford (well). 

Norfolk (Norfolk State Hospital). 

North Adams. 

Northampton (Hampshire County 

Sanatorium). 
North Attleborough (Riley & French ) . 
Northbridge (wells) (two). 
North Reading (water supply of pro- 
posed school). 
Norwood. 

Norwood (F. W. Bird & Son). 
Norwood (well). 

Palmer (Central Vermont Railroad). 
Palmer (Forest Lake Park). 
Palmer (spring). 
Peabody (four). 
Pelham (wells). 

Plainville (Whiting & Davis Com- 
pany). 
Plymouth (spring at Manomet 

kuffs). 
Princeton (wells). 
Provincetown. 
Randolph & Holbrook. 
Reading (Massasoit Spring). 
Rockport. 
Salem. 

Salisbury (Salisbury Beach). 
Sandwich (Massachusetts Volunteer 

Militia) . 
Saugus (Baker's Hill). 
Saugus (town pump). 
Scituate. 
Sharon. 
Shelburne Falls (well). 



Xo. 34.] 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



59 



Shirley (wells). 

Shrewsbury ( three ) . 

Shutesbury (springs). 

Somerset (two). 

Spencer (Isaac Prouty & Co.). 

Sterling. 

Sterling (wells) (two). 

Stongbton (two). 

Sturbridge ( wells ) . 

Swansea (wells). 

Townsend (wells). 

Walpole (F. W. Bird & Son). 

Watertown (^-Etna Mills). 



West Brookfield. 

Westfield (Pequot Park). 

Weston (well on Sibley Road). 

Weston (Hastings Organ Factory). 

Westport (wells) (two). 

West Stockbridge. 

Westwood (well at Colburn School), 

West wood (well of H. F. Mylod). 

Williamsburg (two). 

Winchester (well). 

Woburn (well). 

Worcester. 



Amherst. 

Auburn. 

Canton. 

Cbicopee. 

Fall River. 

Georgetown. 

Greenfield. 

Hyde Park. 

LaAvrence. 

Lynn. 

Marshfield. 



Ice Supply. 

Milton. 

Northampton. 

Palmer. 

Pittsfield. 

Rockland. 

Southwiek. 

Westford. 

Westport. 

Winchendou. 

Worcester. 



OflBcial commimications were made during the year under general and 
special acts relating to sewerage and sewage disposal, as follows : — 

Norwood (Dr. Lewis H. Plimpton). 
Rockland (New System Laundry). 
Rockland (E. T. Wright Company). 



Amherst. 

Andover. 

Barnstable. 

Chelmsford (Middlesex County Train- 
ing School). 

Chicopee (Fairview). 

Chicopee (Chicopee Falls). 

Dartmouth. 

Duxbury. 

Easthampton. 

Foxborough. 

Franklin. 

Hull. 

Maiden (Boston Rubber Shoe Com- 
pany). 

Manchester. 



Russell. 

South Hadley (two). 

Springfield (House of the Good 
Shepherd). 

AValpole (Lewis Manufacturing Com- 
pany). 

Waltham (Pond End School). 

Ware. 

Westfield. 

Weymouth (Laundry in South Wey- 
mouth). 

Wilmington (C. S. Harriman & Co.). 

Winchendon. 



60 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub Doc 



Miscellaneous. 



Agawam (two). 

Cohasset. 

Everett (N, E. Gas and Coke Com- 



Lexingtoii. 
Lowell (two), 
I\rmbury. 



pany). I Northbridge. 



Hampshire County (County Commis- 
sioners) (two). 

Haverhill. 

Hyde Park (New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad). 



Pittsfield. 
Tisbury. 
Uxbridge. 
Weston (two). 
Westport. 



Water Supply. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to water supply : — 

Amherst. 

Oct. 30, 1913. 
To the Amherst Water Company, Amherst, Mass., Mr. L. Dwight Hills, President. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Sept. 27, 1913, relative 
to using Amethyst or Orient Brook as a temporary water supply if neces- 
sary, the State Board of Health has caused the locality to be examined by 
one of its engineers and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

Since filing your application, the quantity of rainfall has been such 
that it is probable that a further supply of water than that furnished 
by your regular sources will not be required. Nevertheless, it is advisable 
to make provision for an additional supply of water in case the flow of 
streams and the supply in your reservoirs should again become deficient. 

The examination of Amethyst Brook indicates that it is not at present 
desirable to take water for the supply of the towm from that stream at 
the point at which water was diverted last year. In case an additional 
supply becomes necessary, it will be best to take the water from Buffum 
Brook, a tributary of Amethyst Brook, at a point about 1^/4 ^^liles 
upstream from the former intake and about 200 feet above the Xorth 
Eoad from Amherst to Pelham. 

It appears to be practicable to divert the water of this stream by a 
short pipe line into a tributary of your lower reservoir by gravity, and in 
that case a considerable additional supply can be obtained at a compara- 
tively small cost. It is essential, in the opinion of the Board, if the 
water company is to supply water enough for the requirements of the 
town in future, that it shall either increase the capacity of its reservoirs 
or secure an additional supply from a suitable source, or reduce very 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 61 

materially the consumption of water in the to\yn. It is evident that there 
is a great, and probably unnecessary, loss of water from your mains by 
waste or leakage, or both, and the cause of the excessive use of water in 
the town should be ascertained as soon as" practicable, and unnecessary 
use and waste prevented. 

It is understood that the meter designed for the measurement of all of 
the water delivered into the pipes of the town will shortly be put into 
operation, and as soon as the meter is available for use an investigation 
should be made, with the assistance of an engineer of experience in such 
matters, to ascertain what leakage, if any, takes place along the pipe lines 
and in what districts in the town excessive consumption of water occurs. 
It is also important to install service meters as rapidly as possible until 
all water is delivered to consumers through meters. 

If it is found, as a result of this investigation, that it is impracticable 
to reduce materially the consumption of water by the town, the Board 
recommends that measures be taken at the earliest practicable time to 
introduce an additional supply of water sufficient with the present sources 
to furnish all of the water required by the town at all times. 

Barnstable (Massachusetts Volunteer Militia). 

June 12, 1913. 
To Alaj. Frank P. Williams, Medical Corps, M. V. M., Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of the Xcrth and Middle Cotuit ponds, and advice as to the use 
of these waters for drinking, the State Board of Health has caused the 
locality to be examined by one of its engineers and has considered the 
results of analyses of samples of water from these ponds. 

The investigations show that the conditions affecting these ponds are 
much the same as at the time of a previous examination in 1908, when 
the Board advised your department that the water was naturally of good 
quality and probably safe for drinking, but that with a camp of soldiers 
near its shores it would be essential to guard the purity of the water 
carefully. 

It is understood that the camp now proposed will be near the north- 
easterly shore of the North Cotuit Pond, and under these conditions it 
would be best not to take water from that pond for drinking during the 
encampment. If taken from either of the other ponds it would be neces- 
sary under the circumstances to guard carefully the purity of the water. 

An examination has also been made of a spring not far from the house 
on the northeasterly shore of the North Cotuit Pond, and the results 
show that the water at the time this examination was made was probably 
safe for drinking. If the spring is carefully covered and provision made 



62 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

for drawing the water with a pump in such a way as to prevent its 
polkition, this water could prohably be used with safety for drinking. 

The safest plan of supplying water to this camp will be by sinking 
tubular wells near the pond at points unaffected by danger of local pol- 
lution, and there is no doubt that an adequate supply of good water can 
he obtained in this way at no great expense. 

June 12, 1913. 
To Maj. John H. Sherburne, 1st Battalion Field Artillery, M. V. M., Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of the well at the Benjamin E. Blossom farm in West Barnstable, 
and advice as to its quality for drinking, the State Board of Health has 
caused the well and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the 
water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination indicate that the water contains an 
excessive quantity of iron, which imparts considerable color and turbidity 
to the water and may at times give it a noticeable taste. There are no 
sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of the well, however, 
and, except for the objectionable appearance and taste, the water in the 
condition in which it was found at this time was probably safe for 
drinking. 

It is not a desirable drinking water, however, and a better supply 
should be provided for future requirements if the use of this localit}^ is to 
be continued. It is important that the well be covered securely, and it 
will be advisable to draw the water wholly by means of a pump. 



Belchertowx. 

June 16, 1913. 

To the Belchertown Water Com-pany, Belchertoum, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of June 5, 1913, for an 
examination of certain tubular wells in the vicinity of Jabish Brook, and 
advice as to their use as sources of water supply for the village of Belcher- 
town, the State Board of Health has caused the wells and their surround- 
ings to be examined by its engineer and has also considered the results 
of a pumping test made recently to determine the probable quantity and 
quality of the water obtainable from the ground in this region. 

The results of a number of analyses of the water collected while pump- 
ing from the wells between May 6 and ]\Iay 16 of the present year indi- 
cate that the water is of good quality for the purposes of a domestic water 
supi)ly. The quantit^^ of water pumped during the greater part of the 
pumping test was much greater than would be required for the water 
supplv of Belchertown for domestic purposes, but observations of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 63 

height of the ground water in the test wells during and after the test 
siiow that its level decreased rapidly while pumping and recovered very 
slowly after the test was completed. Considerable rain fell during the 
test, and under the circumstances it is doubtful in the opinion of the 
Board whether these wells would furnish enough water for the require- 
ments of the \illage. It is not unlikely, moreover, that considerable water 
will eventually be used by the railroads and in dry seasons for the water- 
ing of gardens and irrigation of crops, and under the circumstances it is 
not probable that these wells would furnish an adequate quantity of water 
for all the requirements of the village after the water has come into 
general use. 

The conditions appear to be more favorable for obtaining an adequate 
quantity of water on the southwesterly side of Jabish Brook farther down- 
stream at a point where a test well was put in last year, and it is pos- 
sible also that an ample supply of water could be obtained from wells 
a short distance farther upstream from the wells used during the recent 
test. 

In view of the circumstances, the Board recommends that further tests 
be made and a location secured if practicable where the porous soil is of 
such a depth and covers such an extent of territory that it is likely that an 
adequate quantity of water can be secured. The Board will assist you in 
further investigations, if you so request, by making the necessary analyses 
of water and will give you further advice as soon as the results of further 
tests are available. There would be no objection to the use of the water 
of the wells re<?ently tested in connection with water from other wells in 
tlie neighborhood in case an additional quantity of water can be obtained 
from some other location in the immediate neighborhood. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Belchertoivn Water Company, Belchertoum, Mass., Mr. M. C. Baggs, Treasurer. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Sept. 2, 1913, for 
approval by the State Board of Health, under the provisions of chapter 
350 of the Acts of the year 1912, of the taking of a water supply for 
Belchertown from the ground near Jabish Brook by means of tubular 
wells, the Board has considered the results of a pumping test made l)y 
pumping from several wells from August 21 to 27 and again from Sep- 
tember 29 to October 2. 

During these tests water was pumped from the wells at rates ranging 
from 144.000 to 158,000 gallons per day during the first period, and at 
a rate of somewhat over 200,000 gallons per day during the second period, 
. and after these tests the ground water level recovered very rapidly. 

An examination of the locality by one of the engineers of the Board 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

shows that, excepting the cultivated lands which it is proposed to acquire, 
there are no sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of the 
wells, and the quality of the water as shown by the analyses of a number 
of samples sent in by you at various times during the tests is satisfactory 
for domestic purposes. 

It is probable, in the opinion of the Board, that an adequate quantity 
of good water for the requirements of Belchertown, so far as can now be 
foreseen, can be obtained from wells in the location in which this test 
was made, and the Board approves the taking of water from wells in this 
location for the supply of the town under the provisions of chapter 350 
of the Acts of the year 1912. 

Bkaixteee. 

March 25, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Braintree, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
waters of Great Pond, from wliich the water supply of Braintree is now 
being taken, and advice as to its quality, especially with reference to com- 
plaints of an objectionable color, taste and odor of the water, the State 
Board of Health has caused the pond and its watershed to ])e examined 
and samples of the water from the pond and its tributaries and from the 
water pipes in the town to be analyzed. 

The results of these and previous examinations show that the water of 
Great Pond is affected at times by a high color and a disagreeable taste 
and odor, and these objectionable conditions were quite marked at the 
time of the recent examination. 

The disagreeable taste and odor which affect the water at the present 
time are probably due largely to the presence in the water of considerable 
numbers of the microscopic organism S}Tiura, which imparts to water a 
disagreeable taste and odor even when present in small numbers. The 
presence of these organisms in water used for drinking is not known to 
be injurious to health, though they render the water very disagreeable 
for drinking and other domestic uses. 

The watershed of Great Pond is quite thickly populated, and analyses 
of its waters show that the tributaries of the pond receive considerable 
pollution. The population within the watershed already probably 
amounts to 1,500, or 430 persons per square mile, and besides the dwell- 
ing houses and a 'small institution there are numerous barns and other 
outbuildings within this watershed, as well as large areas of cultivated 
land, some of which are heavily fertilized. 

The water is also unfavorably affected by standing in contact with 
the organic matter in the swamps on its watershed, especially a large 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 65 

swamp at the upper end of the pond nearly equal in area to the pond 
itself, which is flooded at high water to a slight depth. The pond is also 
quite shallow, with a muddy bottom over parts of its area, upon which 
weeds and water plants grow in considerable abundance. 

Under these conditions it is unlikely that any material improvement in 
the quality of the water will take place in the future, and with the further 
increase of population on the watershed its quality is likely to deteriorate. 
Without doubt considerable improvement could be effected in the quality 
of the Avater of this pond by lowering its level so as to prevent the flood- 
ing of the swamp at the upper end, and by drainage and other improve- 
ments in its watershed, including the construction of sewers in the more 
densely populated parts of the area; but lowering the pond would dimin- 
ish its yield, and it is unlikely that any improvements that it is prac- 
ticable to make in this way — unless at great expense — will prevent a 
reeui-xence from time to time of the objectionable conditions of which 
complaint is now made. 

The best practicable plan of effecting a satisfactory improvement in 
the condition of this water is by filtering it through sand, and in that 
way not only would a further safeguard be provided against danger of 
injury to the public health from the pollution of the water, but the ob- 
jectionable color would be satisfactorily reduced and the disagreeable taste 
and odor removed. 

The improvement of the quality of the water of Great Pond could 
probably be effected at less expense by joint action on the part of all of 
the towns using this pond as a source of water supply, and if it is decided 
to filter the water a joint filtration works would be much less expensive 
than separate works at each of the pumping stations. 

It is very important, in the opinion of the Board, that early action be 
taken by the towns interested to improve the conditions affecting the 
water supply taken from this pond, and the Board reconnnends that these 
towns consider without delay the question of improving the quality of 
the water by filtration and of making more adequate provision for pre- 
venting the pollution of the pond and its tributaries. It is of especial 
importance at the present time that the rules and regulations for the 
sanitary protection of this pond shall be strictly enforced. 

The Board will, upon request, give you such advice or assistance as it 
can in further investigations as to the improvement and protection of 
this water supply. 



66 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioriers, Braintree, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for the establishment of rules and regulations for the sanitary pro- 
tection of Little Pond in Braintree similar to those now in force at 
Great Pond, and has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers. 

The results of this examination show that the area of watershed of 
Little Pond is about half a square mile, and that it contains at the pres- 
ent time approximately 150 dwelling houses and a probable population 
of 650 persons, or about 1,300 persons per square mile of watershed. 
There are also many barns and other buildings in the immediate vicinity 
of the shores of the lake, and at many of the places examined there are 
privies, cesspools, sink drains and other sources of pollution within 100 
feet of the water. In the course of the examination numerous deposits 
of fecal matter and other foul matters were found along the shores of 
the pond, in many cases within a few feet of the water. 

There are no sewers within the watershed of Little Pond, and under 
the existing conditions it is impracticable, in the opinion of the Board, 
to protect the purity of this water efficiently by the enforcement of sani- 
tary regulations unless a system of sewers for the removal of sewage and 
other foul matter from the watershed is provided, or unless the water 
is efficiently filtered. 

In past years water has been taken from the filter gallery near the 
shores of this pond; but the ground water upon the side of the pond 
on which the filter gallery is situated is very badly polluted by the 
sewage from the numerous dwelling houses in this neighborhood, all of 
which is deposited upon or in the ground in this region, and the analyses 
of the water of the filter gallery show that it is badly polluted, evidently 
by sewage from these dwellings. 

Under the circumstances it is not advisable, in the opinion of the 
Board, to use either the water of Little Pond or that of the filter gallery 
for the supply of the town under present conditions, and if it should 
become essential to introduce either of these waters temporarily into the 
water supplv pipes of the town, it should either be treated with a disin- 
fectant or the water takers should be notified to boil the water thoroughly 
before using it for drinking. 

The Board recommends that the question of the further use of Little 
Pond or the filter gallery for the water supply of Braintree be given im- 
mediate consideration, and, if it is decided to use water from either of 
these sources in future, the town should either construct a system of 
sewerage within this watershed and connect therewith all dwelling houses 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 67 

and other buildings from \vhicli polluting matters ma}- find their way 
into the pond or filter gallery, or provide an efficient system of filtration 
by which all of the water will be filtered before being supplied to the 
town. If it is decided to carry out either of these plans and then con- 
tinue the use of this watershed, the Board will adopt such regulations 
as may be required for the adequate protection of the quality of the water. 
It is not improbable, in the opinion of the Board, that, under the exist- 
ing conditions, the cost of improving efficiently the quality of the waters 
of Little Pond or the filter gallery so that these waters may be used with 
safety for domestic purposes might be greater, all things considered, than 
the cost of a supply of good water from some other source. 

Brookfield. 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Brookfield, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your request for an examination ,, of 
certain available sources of additional water supply for the town of 
Brookfield, and advice as to the practicability of their use for that pur- 
pose, the State Board of Health has caused the sources indicated to be 
examined and samples from the present and proposed sources to be 
analyzed. 

One of the sources is a well 13 feet square and 9 feet deep, located about 
a quarter of a mile southeast of the Brookfield railroad station and 50 
feet from the Quaboag River. It appears that the well was sunk through 
coarse sand or gravel to clay or hardpan, and that when used for the 
supply of the town in the summer of 1912 it yielded water quite freely, 
but for a limited time. 

The analyses of the water indicate that under present conditions it is 
probably safe for domestic use. There is a considerable population at 
no great distance from the well, but at the present time the drainage 
from this population does not appear to be affecting the ground water 
in the neighborhood of the well. It is impossible to determine without 
further investigations whether the quality of the ground water in this 
region would remain satisfactory or would change materially in case a 
considerable quantity, such as would be required for the supply of the 
town, should be drawn from wells or other works in this region. 

In order to determine whether an adequate supply of good water for 
the requirements of the town could be obtained from the ground in this 
region, it would be necessary to sink a number of wells and test them by 
pumping for a period of several days. It would not apparently add very 
materially to the cost of works if, instead of locating a well at the point 
where the present well is situated, it should be constructed from half a 



68 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

mile to a mile farther east, and, considering the circumstances, it appears 
to be desirable that further tests should be made in this region to de- 
termine the possibility of obtaining there an adequate supply of good 
water for the requirements of the town at all times. 

The other source mentioned in your application is the ground in the 
valley of the brook northwest of the village, but it does not appear that 
any tests have been made in this locality which would furnish any definite 
information as to the possibility of obtaining an adequate supply of good 
water in this region. 

The Board recommends, as the first step in securing an additional 
supply of good water for the requirements of the town, that you cause 
tests to be made, both in the valley of the brook northwest of the town 
and in the region east of the present well near the Quaboag Eiver, to de- 
termine the character of the soil and the probable quantity and quality 
of water obtainable from the ground in these regions. These tests should 
be made under the direction of an engineer of experience in matters re- 
lating to ground-water supplies, and if favorable conditions are found 
a pumping test should be made by pumping from a group of wells at 
that place for several days. 

The Board will assist you in further investigations, if you so request, 

by making the necessary analyses of water, and will give you further 

advice in the matter when the results of further investigations are 

available. 

Cambridge (Y. M. C. A.). 

May 27, 1913. 
To the Young Men's Christian Association, Cambridge, Mass. 

Gextlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
waters of the Belmont Crystal and Eobbins springs, located respec- 
tively in Belmont and Arlington, the State Board of Health has caused 
the springs and their surroundings to be examined and samples of their 
waters to be analyzed. 

The water of the Belmont Crystal Spring contained at the tune of the 
last examination a slightly greater quantity of organic matter than in 
former times, but in other respects it has shown little or no change in 
quality for many years. The amounts of chlorine and nitrates present in 
this water are larger than the normal for the region, but the number of 
bacteria is low. The watershed of the spring is uninhabited, and the 
presence of the abnormally high chlorine and nitrates is undoubtedly due 
to the fertilizer applied to the cultivated lands about the spring. In the 
opinion of the Board the water of this spring is at present safe for drink- 
ing, and if the fertilizing of the land about the spring should be dis- 
continued, the quality of the water would no doubt be greatly improved 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 69 

and the spring could continue to be used with safety so long as the water- 
shed about it remains uninhabited as at present. 

An examination of the water of Bobbins Spring in Arlington shows 
that the use of some of the springs from which water was formerly taken 
has been discontinued, and only one of the springs was in use at the time 
of this examination. The quality of this source has varied considerably 
for several years, showing on the whole a slight deterioration. The re- 
sults of the analysis indicate that this water at the time of the recent 
examination was safe for drinking; but dwelling houses have been con- 
structed recently upon lands about the spring, and, unless these houses 
shall be connected with the sewer, there is danger that the wastes dis- 
charged from them may affect unfavorably the quality of the water. 
The Board recommends that the water of this source be examined from 
time to time in the future, in order that its use may be discontinued if 
detmoration occurs. 



Cantox (Massachusetts Hospital School). 

May 21, 1913. 
To the Board of Trustees, Massachusetts Hospital School, Canton, Mass. 

Gen-tlemen : — In reply to your request for advice as to a water supply 
for the Massachusetts Hospital School, to be obtained from drilled wells 
on the grounds of the hospital, the State Board of Health has caused 
the locality to be examined by its engineer and has considered the in- 
formation presented as to tests already made with a view to obtaining 
a well-water supply for the institution. 

It appears that the pressure under which water is supplied from the 
works of the town of Canton is insufficient for adequate fire protection 
and that the expense of obtaining an adequate supply of water from the 
Canton works would be large. The tests made in various parts of the 
grounds of the hospital with a view to obtaining a ground-water supply 
have not been favorable, all of the test wells having been driven to rock 
without obtaining any considerable quantity of water. 

Under these circumstances there is considerable doubt as to whether 
an adequate supply of water for the institution could be obtained by 
drilling a deep well or wells in the rock, and there is also uncertainty as 
to the quality of the water that might be obtained in that way. An ex- 
amination of the region about the hospital indicates that on adjacent 
lands east of the hospital grounds in the neighborhood of Eeservoir Pond 
the soil is coarse and porous, and the conditions appear to be favorable 
for obtaining an adequate supply of water by means of tubular wells. 

The Board recommends that as the next step in your investigations for 



70 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

obtaining a water supply for the institution you cause test wells to be 
driven in the lower grounds not far from Eeservoir Pond east of the in- 
stitution to determine whether a porous stratum exists in this region 
from which an adequate supply of water can be secured. The Board will 
assist you in further investigations, if you so request, by making analyses 
of samples of water, and will give you further advice in the matter when 
additional information is available. 

Chelmsford. 

Sept. 2, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Chelmsford Water District, Chelmsford, 

Mass. 

Gentlemex : — In response to your request for the approval of the 
taking of water from the ground in the valley of Eiver Meadow Brook, 
about half a mile southeast of Chelmsford Center, as a source of water 
supply for the Chelmsford Water District, the State Board of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined and has considered the results of a 
test made by pumping from a group of wells in this location for a period 
of about six days between August 8 and August 14. During this test 
water was pumped from eight wells at a rate of about 300,000 gallons per 
day, and measurements of the height of the gi-ound water in observation 
wells at several points in the neighborhood before, during and after the 
test, considered in connection with the quantity of water pumped, in- 
dicate that an adequate supply of water for all the present requirements 
of the Chelmsford Water District can be obtained from the ground in 
this locality. 

The results of analyses of samples of water taken daily throughout the 
test show that it is soft, free from iron, and in all respects of good 
quality for the purposes of a public water supply. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of chapter 641 of the Acts of 
the year 1913, hereby approves the taking of a water supply for the 
Chelmsford Water District from wells in the location in which this test 
was made. 

At the present time the region about the wells is uninhabited, and the 
source does not appear to be exposed to danger of pollution. It is de- 
sirable, however, in the opinion of the Board, that the district should 
eventually acquire a considerable area of land about the wells to protect 
the purity of the water. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 71 

Clinton. 

Sept. 18, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Clinton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to 3-our request for advice as to the com- 
plete removal of the organic matter found in a large depression in the 
bottom of He}"wood Pond, so called, which you are now enlarging and 
improving for use as a storage reservoir, the State Board of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and has caused samples 
of the soil from the area in question to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the deposit in question consists 
almost wholly of diatomaceous earth containing a considerable per- 
centage of nitrogen. Experiments with it show, furthermore, that water 
standing upon it takes up color, and there is little doubt that if this 
deposit were left in the reservoir it would affect very unfavorably the 
quality of the water. 

The Board recommends that the deposit be removed if practicable, 
and if it is not found practicable to remove it the best plan would be to 
cover it to a depth of at least 12 inches with hardpan or similar material 
from the higher parts of the reservoir bottom or the adjacent hillsides. 
It appears that a large quantity of this material has been deposited along 
the sides of the reservoir above the high-water line, where it is exposed 
to the action of rains and is likely to be washed into the water. It is 
impracticable to remove this material, and the best plan would be to 
seed it with grass so as to grow a sod as soon as possible. 

Dracut (American Woolen Company). 

Aug. 18, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Dracut, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water supplied by the American Woolen Company in Collinsville, and 
advice as to its quality, the State Board of Health has caused the wells 
to be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water of these wells is 
quite hard and contains an excessive quantity of iron, a part of which 
precipitates from the water on standing. While there are no indications- 
that the water in its present condition is injurious to health, the presence 
of the excess of iron makes it very objectionable for many domestic 
purposes. 

At the time of the introduction of water from these wells, the Board 
advised concerning them in part as follows : — 



72 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

. , . Analyses of samples of water from test wells . . . show that it is 
soft, nearly colorless, and free from odor, and is otherwise of good quality 
for the purposes of a public water supply. Whether the water will remain 
satisfactory when the quantity required for the supply of Collinsville is 
drawn continuously from wells at this place cannot be predicted with cer- 
tainty. The meadow in which the wells are located contains a considerable 
depth of peaty soil and is subject to flooding- at times of high water in the 
brook, and water drawn from wells in similar locations has in some cases 
deteriorated after a longer or shorter period of use and become objectionable 
on account of an excess of iron. The chances of deterioration in this case 
can apparently be materially lessened by draining the meadow so that water 
will not stand upon it for a very considerable time, and it appears to be 
feasible to provide drainage at no great expense. . . . 

At the time of the recent examination it was evident that the gromid 
about the wells is kept flooded more or less continuously during the 
greater part of the year. This condition has undoubtedly led to the 
deterioration in the quality of the water, and it is very doubtful whether. 
even if the flooding of the meadows should now be discontinued, the 
quality of the water of these wells would improve sufficiently to make it 
satisfactory for domestic use. 

Considering the circumstances, it is advisable that the use of these 
wells be discontinued and a supply introduced as soon as practicable 
from some source which will furnish water of good quality. 

To the American Woolen Company, Collinsville, Mass. ' ' 

Gextlemen : — In response to a request from the board of health of 
Dracut, the State Board of Health has caused an examination to be made 
of the water supplied by you in the village of Collinsville, and finds that 
the water has greatly deteriorated on account of the presence of an excess 
of iron and become very objectionable for many domestic purposes. 

The Board recommends that a supply of water of good quality be intro- 
duced in this village at the earliest practicable time. 

A copy of the advice of the Board to the board of health of the to^\Ti 
of Dracut is enclosed herewith. 

DuxBURY (Wells). 

Dec. 4, 1913. 
To (he Board of Health, Duxhiiry, Mass., Mr. Charles W. Eaton, Secretary. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
certain wells in South DuxbTiry and advice as to the use of their waters 
for domestic purposes, the State Board of Health has caused the wells 
indicated to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^^^'S. 73 

The waters of the wells at the Point school and at the grammar school 
on Washington Street appear to be very badly polh;ted and unsafe for 
drinking. The well at the South Duxbury school shows less evidence of 
pollution than the others, but the water at the time of this examination 
was slightly turbid and contained greater numbers of bacteria than are 
found in good well waters. Under the circumstances it cannot be re- 
garded as a safe source from which to take water for drinking. It is prob- 
able that a well could be located west of the school, at a greater distance 
from danger of pollution, from which water might be obtained that would 
be safe for drinking. 

The water of the well at Partridge Academy is similar in many respects 
to that of the South Duxbury school, and it is advisable that water from 
a source of known safety should be provided as soon as practicable and 
the use of this well discontinued. 

Samples of water have also been examined from four private wells, 
viz., the house of E. S. Grover on Stetson Street and the houses of Dr, 
Spaulding, H. E. Hunt and H. E, Merry on Washington Street. One 
of these wells apparently contains a considerable amount of sea water, 
and all of them were found to be polluted, some of them containing 
more chlorine and nitrates than are found in ordinary sewage effluents. 
In the opinion of the Board all of these wells are unsafe sources from 
which to take water for drinking or other domestic purposes. 

The results of the examination of these wells show, on the whole, much 
the same conditions as were found in the course of the investigations of 
last July, The continued discharge of sewage into vaults and cesspools 
in the thickly settled areas in this town pollutes the ground water drawn 
for drinking from adjacent wells, and the objectionable conditions will 
inevitably grow worse until a public water supply is provided and the 
use of these wells discontinued. 

The Board again recommends that the question of introducing a pub- 
lic water supply be taken up and a satisfactory general supply introduced 
at the earliest practicable time. 

Everett (Belmoxt Hill Sprixg). 

May 24, 1913. 
To Mr. A. J. D.\Y, Purchasing Agent, Barrett Manufacturing Company, 297 Franklin 

Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of March 31, 1913, for in- 
formation as to the condition of the water of the Belmont Hill Spring, 
so called, in Everett, the State Board of Health has caused the spring 
and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be 
analvzed. 



74 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results of the analysis shoAv that the water has at some time been 
■very badly polluted and not subsequently thoroughly purified in its 
passage through the ground before entering the spring. There is also 
evidence that the quality of the water has deteriorated in recent years. 
The spring is located in a populous district where the ground water is 
evidently subject to pollution, and, considering the circumstances, in the 
opinion of the Board this spring is not a safe source from which to take 
water for drinking. 

Fall Eiver. 

April 28, 1913. 
To Hon. James H. Kay, Mayor, and Chairman of Reservoir Commission, Fall River ^ 

Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on March 
8, 1913, the following communication requesting its approval of the 
modification of the general plan for protecting the purity of the water of 
Xorth Watuppa Pond approved by this Board on March 2, 1911 : — 

The Keservoir Commission, on Dee. 16, 1912, voted to carry out at once 
and began work upon a modification of its general plan for protecting the 
purity of North Watuppa Pond, approved by you March 2, 1911, the modi- 
fication being to divert Cress Brook from its present channel, at a point 
about 135 feet easterly of Freelove Street and discharge it into Highland 
Brook, about 1,000 feet westerly of Meridian Street through a 30-inch con- 
duit, instead of directly into the proposed intercepting conduit; but has been 
stopped and prevented from carrying this to completion on account of cer- 
tain claims and injunctions by parties claiming rights in the land and water 
to be occupied. 

The reasons for this modification of the general plan were : — 

The necessity for diverting Cress Brook away from the water works pump- 
ing station, in advance of the completion of the proposed intercepting con- 
duit, the start of which has already been delayed nearly two years since the 
approval of the general plan by your Board. 

The successful negotiation with Samuel Hyde, who owns all the abutting 
land between New Boston Road and Freelove Street, upstream from the 
AVatuppa Reservation, through which Cress Brook runs, for the easement 
across his land at a reasonable price and reasons for anticipating serious 
objection from him to the original plan for taking in this brook. 

The additional storage for the waters of Cress Brook to be furnished by 
the Highland Brook basin. 

The approval of this modification of the general jilan is requested from 
your Board, in order that the City may acquire by condemnation, land for 
this Cress Brook diversion, under section 1 of chapter 437 of the Acts of 
1909, if the work is further delayed by these claims and injunctions. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^\'XS. 75 

The work of constructing the conduit to divert Cress Brook was begnu on 
Dee. 17, 1912, at the southerly edge of the site of the proposed Highland 
storage basin shown on the plan approved by your Board March 2, 1911, 
and also shown by red "A" on R. C. blue print Xo. 323-R which accom- 
panies this application. The work was pushed as rapidly as the weather 
permitted until Dee. 31st, when it was stopped by a restraining order from 
the Court issued upon application for injunction on part of an abutter 
claiming rights in the proposed street, from New Boston Road north in 
which the pipe was being laid. This was followed by legal notices fx-om 
another abutter and from parties owning land through which Highland 
Brook flows, claiming damages for the diversion and there seems no prospect 
of settlements being effected at reasonable terms, if at all. At the time of 
stopping the work, 269 feet of pipe had been laid and a total of 425 feet 
of trench opened. Nothing has been done since the stopping of work and 
the City is at a weekly expense of nearly fifty dollars for watchmen, etc. 
The red line on the accompanying blue print shows the pipe laid. 



The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered your application and the plan presented 
therewith. 

Judging from the information available as to the flow of these streams 
at different seasons of the year and the conditions affecting the move- 
ment of water in the lake, it is probable that, if the w^aters of Cress 
Brook were diverted into Highland Brook, they would require several 
weeks longer to reach the water works intake than at the present time. 
Under the circumstances and considering the extra storage available on 
the watershed of Highland Brook for the regulation of flow into the 
conduit, the Board approves the plan of constructing a conduit from 
Cress Brook to Highland Brook, as shown in the plans submitted on 
March 8 and April 3, 1913. The Board wishes it understood that, while 
the proposed change of outlet of Cress Brook to Highland Brook has 
advantages, especially during the construction of the proposed intercept- 
ing conduit and to some extent thereafter, it is not to be taken as in 
any sense replacing the conduit, which should be pushed to completion 
as early as practicable. It will be essential, of course, to enlarge some- 
what the size of the main intercepting conduit between Cress Brook 
and Highland Brook to allow for the change in the point of admission 
of the water of Cress Brook. 

The plans approved bear the following titles: " Eeservoir Commission. 
Fall Eiver, Mass. Plan Showing Proposed Diversion of Cress Brook, 
Scale: 1 inch = 200 feet. Eevised Feb. 24, 1913. R. C. Xo. 323-R'' 
and " City of Fall River, Mass. Reservoir Commi=sion. Plan Showing 



76 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Cress Brook and Proposed Diversion to Highland Brook and Proposed 
Intercepting Drain. Courses are referred to true meridian. Scale: 1 
inch ='50 feet. March 24, 1913. E. C. No. 3G7." 



Dec. 23, 1913. 
To the Reservoir Commission, Fall River, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to authoriz- 
ing the cutting of ice upon North Watuppa Pond, the source of water 
supply of the city of Fall Eiver, and the leasing of city lands ahutting 
the pond for the storage of ice thereon, the Board has caused the locality 
to be examined and has considered the information presented at the 
hearing given at this office at your request on Dec. 16, 1913. 

The city of Fall Eiver began many years ago to acquire the lands 
within the watershed of North Watuppa Pond for the protection of the 
purity of the water, and at the present time some two-thirds of the land 
within the watershed has passed within the control of the city. It was 
found impracticable to purchase at a reasonable cost enough of the lands 
in the westerly part of the watershed, chiefly in the watersheds of Cress 
and Highland brooks, to protect adequately the purity of the waters 
tributary to the pond in this region, and after a thorough study you 
have devised a plan for diverting the flow of water from populated areas 
in this region into the South Watuppa Pond. 

With the construction of this conduit, which should be completed at 
the earliest possible time, little further expenditure will be required to 
enable the city to secure and adequately protect for the future use of 
its inhabitants as a source of domestic water supply this great reservoir, 
so well suited for that purpose both in its location and the character of 
its waters. 

In the course of the work of securing the lands about the pond and 
protecting this water supply, it appears that it has been the plan of the 
city to acquire the ice house properties in order to prevent danger of 
contamination of the waters of the pond from its continued use for the 
cutting, storage and handling of ice. This danger, in the opinion of the 
Board, cannot be ignored. In order to harvest and remove any consid- 
erable quantities of ice, it is necessary to introduce within the watershed 
and upon the surface of the pond considerable numbers of men and 
horses. Observations of the conditions imder which ice is cut, stored and 
handled, even on lakes where these operations are subject to an inspec- 
tion which is intended to be adequate, show that these processes may 
result in the serious contamination of the water, — in a recent case be- 
ing the probable cause of a most serious epidemic. 

Furtliermore, from the information presented at the hearing, it does 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES .\ND TOWNS. 77 

not appear to be necessary to use North Pond as a source of ice supply 
in order to secure an adequate quantity of good ice for the inhabitants 
of Fall Eiver at reasonable cost. Ice which may be safely used for 
domestic purposes can undoubtedly be obtained from large portions of 
the South Pond, and other ponds were indicated at the hearing from 
which ice of good quality can be secured at distances from the city in- 
volving little greater haulage than would be the case if ice were taken 
from the North Pond. 

In view of the circumstances and the information presented, it seems 
to the Board unnecessary to use North Watuppa Pond as a source of ice 
supply and, considering the danger to the purity of the drinking water 
of the city that would inevitably result from such use, the Board recom- 
mends that the further use of North Watuppa Pond as a source of ice 
supply be discontinued at the earliest practicable time. 

FiTCHBURG. 

April 17, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Fitchburg, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest, received through your engineers, Messrs. Metcalf & Eddy of Bos- 
ton, for advice as to the quality of the water of Wyman Reservoir in 
relation to its use as a source of water supply for the city of Fitchburg, 
and has caused the reservoir and its surroundings to be examined by 
one of its engineers and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

This examination was made at a time of the year when the condition 
of the water of ponds and reservoirs is usually at its best, and the results 
of the chemical analysis showed that the color of the water at this time 
was slight and the quantity of organic matter not excessive. The micro- 
scopical examination showed the presence of organisms of kinds which 
have been known to impart very disagreeable tastes and odors to the 
waters of ponds and reservoirs when present in considerable numbers. 
It is probable that organisms grow in this water in greater abundance 
at other seasons of the year than at the time when the recent examina- 
tion was made. 

Wyman Reservoir was not constructed with a view to its use as a 
source of domestic water supply, and, while a reservoir formerly existed 
on this site for many years, its size was much enlarged when the new 
dam was built a few years ago, and a considerable area of the portion 
flowed is said to be covered deeply with mud. There is also a con- 
siderable population within the watershed, which is largely increased in 
summer when the cottages near the reservoir are occupied, and the 
reservoir and its tributaries already receive considerable pollution. 



78 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Under the circumstances it is not unlikely that the quality of the water 
is quite different in the summer and autumn from its condition as found 
at the time of the recent examination. 

The Board is unable to advise you definitely at the present time as 
to the probable quality of the water of Wyman Reservoir at other seasons 
"of the year, but, judging from such information as is available concerning 
it and experience with other reservoirs, it is likely that in order to obtain 
satisfactory water from this source either the condition of the reservoir 
and its watershed must be improved or the water must be efficiently 
filtered. It is probable that the improvement of the water can be effected 
more economically by sand filtration than by any other plan, and if this 
plan were adopted the water could probably still be supplied to the city 
by gravity. 

The question whether Wyman Reservoir is the most appropriate source 
of water supply of the city of Fitchburg has not been considered by the 
Board, it being understood that you are investigating also sources to 
the north of the city, which were examined by the engineer of the Board 
last year and for the development of which it is understood that plans 
are now being prepared. As soon as your investigations are completed 
the Board will, upon request and the receipt of plans and estimates of 
the cost of works, consider such other sources as may be available and 
advise you as to the most appropriate plan for securing an additional 
water supply for the city. 

Aug. 18, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the City of Fitchburg, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication for advice relative to increasing the water supply of the city of 
Fitchburg, in which your proposed plans are outlined as follows : — 

This city having outgrown its present water supply we have had engineers 
look up a larger sujoply and from their report we have decided to recom- 
mend, subject to your approval, the following scheme : — 

To build a dam at Shattucks on the Falulah Brook at an elevation that 
would supply water to Overlook Reservoir, said dam would hold about 
291,000 gallons, and also to secure the rights in Ashby Reservoir and divert 
the flow of that watershed into the brook supplying Shattucks Reservoir. 

Ashby Reser\-oir is of shallow flowage and muddy bottom but by drawing 
it down the brook and storing it in this reservoir the quality would we think 
become satisfactory. 

Later when an increased supply is needed to raise tlie level of Ashby 
Reservoir 10 feet by dams at each end and build a permanent dam at Wa- 
chusett Lake, and raise the level there about 10 feet. The expense of the 
whole scheme has been estimated at about $300,000. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^VNS. 79 

We wish your opinion of this plan and would refer you to report in the 
possession of your engineer for details of not only this scheme but the whole 
subject of an increased supply that we have considered. 

Accompanying the application is a report of your engineers, Messrs. 
Metcalf and Eddy of Boston, containing the results of the investigation 
of the available methods of enlarging the water supply of the city of 
Eitchburg, together with estimates of the quantity of water to be obtained 
from the various sources used in connection with your present supplies 
and the probable cost of the necessary works for the development of 
these sources for the use of the city. 

From these investigations it appears that the practicable methods of 
increasing the supply of water for the city are (1) the construction of 
additional storage reservoirs on Falulah Brook above the present Falu- 
lah Eeservoir; (2) raising the level of Wachusett Lake; and (3) the 
taking of water from Ashby Reservoir north of the Ealulah Brook water- 
shed. It also appears that investigations show that additional watersheds 
can be developed, if necessary, northwest of Ashby Eeservoir and the 
water obtained therefrom brought to the city by gravity through Ashby 
Eeservoir and Falulah Brook. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
the conditions affecting the development of an additional water supply 
for the city of Fitchburg and the results of the investigation presented. 
The city of Fitchburg is growing rapidly, and the quantity of water used 
for manufacturing purposes is large, probably amounting to an equiva- 
lent of 34 gallons per day for each inhabitant of the city. The quantity 
of water supplied to the city is unfortunately not all measured, so that 
it is impracticable to determine accurately the amount used at the pres- 
ent time. It is evident, however, that the yield of the present sources is 
no more than equal to the present requirements in a dry season. Much 
of the water is supplied through meters, and there has been a great re- 
duction in unnecessary use and waste of water since the introduction of 
meters was begun, and it is no doubt possible to effect a considerable 
further saving when meters have been provided for all services. While 
by the introduction of meters a considerable further reduction in the 
consumption of water could doubtless be made, it is necessary, in the 
opinion of the Board, on account of the growth of the city, to provide an 
additional water supply at the earliest practicable time. 

An examination of your present sources of supply shows that, while 
most of these sources are quite fully developed, large quantities of water 
go to waste from Falulah Brook in the wetter portion of the year, owing 
to lack of storage. The studies of your engineers show that it is prac- 



80 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ticable to construct reservoirs upon this stream at several points, the most 
favorable being just above the present Falulah Eeservoir at the lower 
end of the watershed and in the neighborhood of Shattucks, so called, 
about a mile farther upstream. Your engineers recommend that reser- 
voirs be constructed at these points, the lower one of which is designated 
as the Lovell Eeservoir and the upper one as the Shattuck Eeservoir. 
Calculations of the probable yield of your sources of supply indicate that 
by the construction of these two reservoirs, and by using them in connec- 
tion with the present sources, the probable yield of your entire works 
would be increased from about 3,700,000 gallons per day to about 5,900,- 
000 gallons per day, — a quantity sufficient to meet the requirements of 
the city probably for the next ten years, assuming that the growth of 
the city continues about as in the past. When the capacity of these 
sources has been reached it will be possible to increase the supply further 
by the acquisition of Ashby Eeservoir and the subsequent raising of its 
water level. The watershed of Ashby Eeservoir is adjacent to that of 
Falulah Brook on the north, and its waters can be drawn by gravity into 
Falulah Brook. It is also possible to increase materially the storage ca- 
pacity in Wachusett Lake by increasing the height of the dam at its 
outlet. The increase in the yield resulting from the enlargement of 
Wachusett Lake, however, would be small compared with the increase 
obtainable from the use of Ashby Eeservoir. The increase obtainable by 
raising Wachusett Eeservoir in the beginning would be comparatively 
small, and if this course were adopted a further additional supply would 
very soon become necessary. 

Considering all of the circumstances, it appears to the Board that the 
most appropriate method of increasing the water supply of the city of 
Fitchburg at the present time is to provide additional storage on Falu- 
lah Brook. The water of this brook, while slightly colored, is in other 
respects of good quality for domestic purposes and the watershed is 
sparsely populated; but on account of the very small storage now pro- 
vided, the water of this watershed during much of the year is delivered 
to consumers quite directly without the sanitary advantages of storage 
for a considerable time. 

The investigations of your engineers show that it is practicahle to con- 
struct two reservoirs of considerable size on Falulah Brook. The pro- 
posed Lovell Eeservoir, located near the lower end of the watershed, 
would be more expensive, but it would hold a considerably larger quantity 
of water than the proposed Shattuck Eeservoir. The Shattuck Eeservoir 
would be at a higher level than the Lovell Eeservoir, and it would be 
practicable to divert the water of the former into the high-service system 
of the city. It is probable, however, that the present sources of supply 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 81 

are sufficient for the high-service districts for a considerable time in the 
future. 

It appears to the Board that there are decided advantages, especially 
from a sanitary point of view, in the construction of the Lovell Reservoir, 
near the lower end of the Falulah watershed, in the beginning, and thus 
secure for this watershed the sanitary protection due to storage which 
is available for all of the other watersheds. Moreover, a greater increase 
in the yield of your sources of supply can be secured by the construction 
of the Lovell Eeservoir than would be the case if the Shattuck Reservoir 
were constructed in the beginning, the difference being about 500,000 gal- 
lons per day. 

From a careful study of all of the conditions, the Board is of the 
opinion that it is advisable to construct the Lovell Reservoir in the be- 
ginning, to be followed by the construction of the Shattuck Reservoir 
whenever the need of a further supply becomes apparent. When the 
watersheds froili which your supply is now drawn have been developed 
by the construction of these reservoirs, the additional supply obtainable 
by increasing the storage capacity of Wachusett Lake would be compara- 
tively small and it would be necessary within a very short time to se- 
cure a supply from other watersheds. Investigations show that it is 
practicable to divert water from Ashby Reservoir into the Falulah Brook 
watershed by gravity, and, in the opinion of the Board, this method of 
increasing your water supply after the proposed development of Falulah 
Brook is completed will probably be the most appropriate and satisfactory 
that it is practicable to adopt. By the development of this watershed, 
with the proposed additional storage reservoirs on Falulah Brook, the 
supply of water available for the city can be increased to double the 
quantity available at the present time. The plans further show that 
it will probably be practicable to obtain a very large additional supply 
from the upper waters of the Souhegan River, when a further quantity 
is required, and divert it into the Ashby watershed by gravity. 

The Board recommends the construction in the beginning of the 
Lovell Reservoir, so called, on Falulah Brook, to be followed by the con- 
struction of the Shattuck Reservoir as soon as a further supply becomes 
necessary. The Board further recommends that you secure the right to 
take water from Ashby Reservoir and the watersheds northwest thereof, 
from which the Ashby Reservoir can be supplemented by gravity. The 
Board also recommends that Venturi meters, or other suitable measuring 
devices, be installed on all the sources of water supply of the city and 
an accurate record of the daily consumption maintained at all times. 
It is also advisable that all water supplied to consumers, including city 
departments, public fountains, etc., shall be metered. 



82 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Greenfield (Fire District No. 1). 

June 13, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of Fire District No. 1, Greenfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health received from you on 
June 4, 1913, an application for its advice relative to, and approval of, 
a proposed plan for obtaining an additional supply of water for Fire 
District No. 1 of Greenfield from the ground on the easterly side of 
Green Eiver about half a mile north of the present pumping station on 
that stream and south of the highway bridge near the boundary between 
Greenfield and Leyden. 

The application is accompanied by a plan showing the contour of the 
ground in the region in which it is proposed to locate the collecting 
well and the location of test wells which have been driven in this region 
to determine the depth of porous soil and the character of the ground 
water. This plan also shows two possible locations for a dam on Green 
Eiver for diverting the water of that stream onto the ground in the 
vicinity of the proposed collecting well and the lands which it is pro- 
posed to acquire for the development and protection of the proposed 
supply. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the plan presented and the results of the 
tests made in 1911 with a view to securing an additional supply of 
water from the ground in this locality. The results of the analyses 
of samples of water collected at that time showed the ground water of 
this locality to be of very good quality for domestic purposes. The tests 
also showed that the wells penetrated a porous soil several feet in depth 
extending below the level of the river, and these conditions — taken in 
connection with the character of the soil in the region about the proposed 
well, which appears to be favorable for the absorption of a considerable 
portion of the water falling upon the ground — are favorable for obtain- 
ing a large quantity of water from wells or other collecting works in 
this region. 

The plan provides, however, in case the quantity of water obtainable 
from the proposed well or other additional works in this locality should 
not prove sufficient for the requirements of the district at all times in 
connection with the present sources, for diverting water from Green 
River above the highway bridge into trenches or areas in the neighbor- 
hood of the proposed well for the purpose of supplementing the yield 
of ground water. 

In the opinion of the Board the plan is an appropriate one for in- 
creasing the water supply of the fire district, and, used in connection 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 83 

with the present sources, is likely to provide an additional quantity of 
water for all requirements — if reasonably used — until the population 
becomes much greater than at the present time. It is important, in case 
the water of Green Eiver shall be diverted to the proposed trenches or 
filter beds upon the ground near the wells, that the trenches or filters 
should not be located nearer than 100 feet from the well, and it is 
also important that these trenches or filters be located at places where 
the soil to a depth of as much as 4 feet is composed of sand suitable 
for filtration. The area of land which it is proposed to acquire in the 
beginning is a reasonable one for the purpose under the conditions ex- 
isting at the present time. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of chapter 497 of the Acts 
of the year 1913, approves the taking of an additional water supply from 
the ground on the easterly side of the Green Eiver and the lands in- 
dicated upon the plans submitted with your application and the location 
of the well shown thereon. 

Hamilton (Asbury Grove). 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Hamilton, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — ^In the course of an investigation of the sanitary con- 
ditions at Asbury Grove in Hamilton, the State Board of Health has 
caused an examination to be made of a number of wells located in this 
densely populated area and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the waters of these wells are 
practically all polluted to a greater or less extent, evidently by the sewage 
deposited upon the ground in a large number of receptacles located in 
the neighborhood of the dwelling houses about the grounds. Some of 
these wells show evidence of more serious pollution than others, the 
most seriously polluted being the well near the car office, the well on 
the westerly side of Mudge Avenue, just south of Mt. Zion Avenue, the 
well at the corner of Kingsley and Mudge avenues, the well in the pas- 
sageway between Olin and Essex avenues, and the well in a stable on 
Asbury Avenue, opposite Maple Avenue; but all of the other wells show 
evidences of pollution, and experience with such wells indicates that 
with the existing conditions the quality of the water of these wells is 
likely to deteriorate further in the near future. 

Under the circumstances it is very important, in the opinion of the 
Board, that an adequate supply of good water for domestic purposes 
shall be provided for use in this thickly settled community. The Board 
recommends that every effort be made to secure the introduction of a 
supply of good water for this densely populated area before the coming 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of another summer season, and the further use of the wells located in 
the immediate neighborhood of dwelling houses, or other possible sources 
of pollution, prevented. 



Hamilton (South Hamilton). 

Dec. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Hamilton, Mass., Mr. Geokge W. Fitz, Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
private wells in South Hamilton and advice as to the conditions affecting 
the wells in that village, the State Board of Health has caused a num- 
ber of wells in various parts of the village to be examined and samples of 
their waters to be analyzed. 

This examination included nine driven wells, some of which were 
located in the more densely populated parts of the village and others on 
the outskirts. These wells consisted of an iron pipe from 11/^ to 21^ 
inches in diameter, driven usually to a depth of from 18 to 57 feet, 
though in some cases wells were sunk to depths of from 72 to 90 feet. 
Where tubular wells are used, no cases were found of pollution of the 
well by surface drainage, but in all cases there were numerous privies 
and cesspools at no great distance from the wells, and pollutions of the 
ground water have a very decided effect upon the condition of the water 
taken from the wells. The waters of all of these wells were found to be 
polluted, many of them to such an extent as to be unsafe for domestic use. 

Among these the worst were the wells of G. Adams, A. W. Chandler, 
Mrs. McGlaufiin, the well at the South School and the well of J. W. 
Eoberts on Pleasant Street. The further use of these wells should be 
prevented. 

The quality of well waters in such locations as these is subject to con- 
siderable change from time to time, owing to variations in the circum- 
stances affecting their pollution, and their condition may be worse at 
other seasons of the year than at the time of this examination. 

An examination has also been made of two additional wells at Asbury 
Grove, one being a dug well near the house of J. W. Mann, and the other 
a new tubular well near the Tabernacle in Asbury Grove. The water 
of these wells at the present time is probably safe for drinking, but both 
wells show some evidence of pollution and both are located in populous 
districts. In each case there are sources of pollution at no great distance 
from the wells and the quality of their water is likely to deteriorate with 
continued use. 

The conditions are such at the present time in the village of South 
Hamilton that it is evidently impracticable for the householders in the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 85 

greater part of the village to secure a supply of water which is safe for 
drinking upon their own premises, and it appears to the Board that the 
introduction of a general water supply from some suitable source is es- 
sential for the adequate protection of the public health in this village. 
Your attention has already been called in a previous communication to 
the condition of wells in Asbury Grove, where much the same conditions 
were found, and the circumstances are such that it would probably be 
practicable to supply both Asbury Grove and South Hamilton from the 
same source at less expense than would be necessary for the supply of 
these villages from separate sources. 

The Board recommends that the matter of a public water supply in 
the thickly settled portions of Hamilton be taken up without delay 
and the preliminary investigations made at the earliest practicable time. 
Wlien the necessary information has been obtained to determine the most 
appropriate source of water supply and the probable cost of works, the 
town will have been supplied with the requisite information to enable it 
to give due consideration to this important question. 



Haverhill. 

Aug. 8, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Haverhill, Mass., Mr. Chester Bryant, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with your request of July 25, 1913, an 
examination of Crystal Lake and its surroundings shows that there are 
about forty-three summer cottages or camps on the shores of the lake, all 
of which are provided with privy vaults located generally in the rear of 
the buildings and 50 feet or more from high-water mark in the lake. 
While no cases of direct pollution of the lake were found at this time, it 
was found that in some cases the privies are so located that there appears 
to be danger that at times of heavy rain some of the contents may be 
washed over the ground and enter the lake. It is uncertain, also, whether 
sufficient care is exercised in the disposal of other refuse matter from the 
cottages near this water supply to prevent pollution of the lake therefrom. 

The Board has recommended to the Haverhill Water Board the strict 
enforcement of the rules and regulations adopted by this Board for the 
sanitary protection of this lake and of other sources of water supply of 
the city on Feb. 1, 1912. While these rules are designed for enforcement 
by the water department, the sanitary conditions about the lake are, 
nevertheless, within the Jurisdiction of your board, and your board can 
take action to prevent nuisances, sources of filth and causes of sickness 
in the territory about the lake notwithstanding these rules. The powers 
of a local board of health over water supplies within its jurisdiction are 



86 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

quite fully set forth in the decision of the Supreme Court in the case 
of Stone V. Heath, 179 Mass. 385, and the following extracts from that 
decision are important in this connection : — 

The jurisdiction over nuisances given to town boards of health by Pub. 
Sts. e. 80, §§ 20-27, is summary in its nature, and the orders made there- 
under are not subject to judicial examination and revision at the instance of 
parties affected by them before they are carried out. After they are carried 
out, however, the questions whether there was a nuisance, and, if so, whether 
it was caused or maintained by the parties charged therewith, may be 
litigated. 

St. 1897, c. 510, does not give the State Board of Health exclusive juris- 
diction of nuisances affecting the purity of the sources of water supply. 
There is nothing in that statute which takes away or limits the power of 
local boards of health to deal with nuisances in their respective jurisdictions. 

Under Pub. Sts. c. 80, section 20, giving town boards of health the power 
to examine into, destroy, remove or prevent " all nuisances, sources of filth, 
and causes of sickness " within the town, those boards have jurisdiction over 
nuisances affecting the purity of the water supply as well as other causes 
of sickness. 

Under the circumstances it is probable that your board can aid greatly 
to prevent nuisances about this lake in case of need, especially by co- 
operation with the water department. 

Aug. 8, 1913. 
To the Board oj Water Commissioners, Haverhill, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from the local board of 
health, the State Board of Health has caused an examination to be made 
of the conditions about Crystal Lake with reference to the possible pol- 
lution of the lake from population living about it, and, while no place 
was found at which the lake is being directly polluted at the present 
time, the conditions are such that there is danger that pollution from 
some of the privies and other places of deposit of sewage or refuse may 
at times of heavy rain be washed or carried over the ground to the lake. 

The Board recommends that the conditions about the lake be carefully 
inspected and that the rules and regulations for the sanitary protection 
of the lake adopted by this Board Feb. 1, 1912, be strictly enforced. It 
is also advisable that the other sources of supply, especially Johnson's 
Pond, be carefully examined and that the strict enforcement of sanitary 
regulations be established about those sources. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 87 

Lanesboeough. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Water Committee, Lanesborough, Mass., F. C Downing, M.D.,iSecretary. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request the State Board of Health 
has caused a further examination to be made of Eice Brook and Newton 
Brook, which are now being considered as sources of water supply for 
Lanesborough, and further samples of water from these streams to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the examination show no material change in the con- 
ditions as shown by the previous investigation. The watershed of New- 
ton Brook above the point at which it is proposed to take water is un- 
inhabited, and the water, though somewhat harder than desirable, is 
of good quality for domestic purposes. The flow of the stream appears 
to be well maintained in dry weather, and it is likely that, with a suit- 
able reservoir, an adequate quantity of water for the requirements of 
the town can be obtained from this source at all times. 

Eice Brook is a less desirable source, having at least two groups of 
farm buildings on its watershed, while the flow of the stream appears 
to be less in the drier part of the year in proportion to the area of 
watershed. 

Judging from the results of the investigations, the Board is of the 
opinion that a suitable water supply for Lanesborough can be obtained 
from Newton Brook at less cost than from any of the other sources 
suggested. 

Lenox. 

Dec. 15, 1913. 
To the Lenox Water Company, Lenox, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to a request received on Oct. 22, 1913, 
from the selectmen of Lenox for an examination of your reservoir, which 
at that time was nearly dry, the State Board of Health has caused the 
reservoir and its surroundings to be examined and samples of the water 
to be analyzed. 

The work of scraping the bottom of the reservoir was being carried 
on at that time, and analysis of the water showed the effect of this work. 
Further analyses have been made since this work was completed and the 
reservoir filled, and the most recent one indicates that the water has 
now returned to a condition in which it may safely be used for drinking. 

The experience of the past summer shows very conclusively that the 
quantity of water that your present sources are capable of supplying is 
inadequate for the requirements of the town of Lenox in the summer 



88 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

season. It is possible that the yield of your present watershed can be 
increased materially by providing additional storage either above or 
below the present reservoir. There also appear to be other sources from 
which an additional supply might be obtained. 

Before it will be practicable to advise definitely as to the most appro- 
priate method of increasing the water supply, it is essential that a care- 
ful engineering study be made and the necessary information collected 
to determine the probable quantity and quality of water that can be 
obtained from available sources and the probable cost of the works. 
The Board recommends that the investigation be made under the direc- 
tion of an engineer of experience in matters relating to water supply 
and that the information be collected at the earliest practicable time. 
As soon as the results of the investigations are available the Board will, 
upon request, advise you as to enlarging and improving the water supply 
of the town. 

There are indications that a considerable quantity of water is lost 
from the mains and service pipes of the company by waste and leakage. 
The Board further recommends that a Venturi meter, or other measur- 
ing device, be installed upon the main leading from the reservoir to 
the town and that careful records of the consumption of the water be 
kept in the future. If the results of these observations disclose an ex- 
cessive amount of leakage, it is not improbable that this will have a con- 
siderable bearing upon plans for an additional supply. 



Leominster. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Leominster, Mass., Mr. W. H. Chase, Chair- 
man. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your com- 
munication of Sept. 8, 1913, requesting its advice as to the wisdom of 
allowing the cutting of ice on the reservoirs of the town of Leominster, 
especially Fall Brook Eeservoir, and has caused the locality to be ex- 
amined by one of its engineers. 

Fall Brook Eeservoir is an artificial basin constructed and owned by 
the town. It has an area of about 82.5 acres, a drainage area of about 
1.26 square miles and a storage capacity of about 386 million gallons. 
The water in this reservoir is supplied to the town by gravity, the reser- 
voir being connected directly with the distribution system. The use of 
the reservoir for storage produces considerable fluctuations in its surface 
level, the water usually overflowing in the spring in the period of high 
flow of streams, while in the summer and late fall in dry years it is 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 89 

drawn to levels considerably below full pond. As the town grows and 
the use of water increases, the fluctuations in the level of the water in 
this source are likely to increase, and in .very dry years the amount of 
water in storage when ice-cutting would begin might be much less than 
the full capacity of the reservoir. 

If this reservoir is to be used as a source of ice supply it will be es- 
sential, in harvesting the ice by the methods commonly employed at the 
present time where considerable quantities of ice are harvested, to in- 
troduce numbers of men and horses not only within the watershed but 
upon the surface of the ice of the reservoir itself. The experience of 
the Board in the matter of the use of water-supply ponds and reservoirs 
as sources of ice supply has shown that the pollution of the water is 
practically inevitable, and very serious pollutions caused by the use of 
reservoirs as sources of ice supply have been found recently in cases 
where thorough sanitary rules have been established for the protection 
of the water supply. 

In the opinion of the Board the use of Fall Brook Eeservoir as a 
source of ice supply would inevitably involve pollution of the water, and 
the health of the inhabitants of the town would be exposed to danger 
of very serious injury. In the consideration of this question the Board 
has assumed that the ice houses would be located at some point outside 
the watershed; if located within the watershed the danger of pollution 
of the water would be even greater. 

The objections to the cutting of ice on the Haynes or Morse reservoirs 
are even more serious, notwithstanding the fact that the waters of these 
reservoirs flow through the distributing reservoir before entering the 
city. The cutting of ice on either of the storage reservoirs would re- 
quire the introduction of numbers of men and horses into the watershed 
of the distributing reservoir at a time when the condition of the ground 
is such that danger of the pollution of the water of the reservoirs is 
especially great. The storage capacity of the distributing reservoir is 
small, and at times of high flow, especially in the late winter and early 
spring, the water in this reservoir changes frequently, so that the value 
of the storage obtained there is slight, and pollution entering this reser- 
voir would quickly enter the supply pipes of the town. 

After careful consideration of this question the Board recommends 
that the town of Leominster prevent the use of its reservoirs as sources 
of ice supply and avoid the great danger to the health of the inhabit- 
ants of the town involved in such use. 



90 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Lincoln. 

April 12, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Town of Lincoln, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — Complaint having been made of an objectionable tur- 
bidity and color which affect the water drawn from faucets in Lincoln, 
the State Board of Health has caused the water supply of the town to 
be examined and samples of the water from various parts of the water- 
distributing system to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water drawn from faucets 
near the ends of the pipes at various points about the boundaries of the 
town is generally turbid and highly colored and contains such a quantity 
of iron as to make it objectionable for many domestic uses; but these 
conditions are not confined to the dead ends of the mains, being found 
in some cases at other points in the town. Practically no complaints 
have been made by consumers living along those streets in which the 
water is supplied through cement-lined mains, and at one of the dead 
ends where a suitable blow-off has been provided and used there appears 
to be no trouble for a time after the use of the blow-off. 

Some of the most serious complaints are from a locality in which a 
new pipe has been laid within a few months, indicating that the trouble 
in this case is probably due to conditions affecting the water before it 
reaches this section of the pipe. 

It appears to be the custom to flush the pipes by opening hydrants in 
the neighborhood of places where complaint is made, and so far as 
the Board is informed only one regular blow-off valve has been installed 
in any part of the system. 

The water of Sandy Pond is naturally very soft and of excellent 
quality for domestic purposes, and such waters act somewhat more 
readily upon the material of pipes and upon the substances with which 
they come in contact than do the waters of less purity which contain 
larger amounts of mineral matter. 

The system has been in use for many years, and the results of the 
examination indicate that considerable iron rust has accumulated in 
the pipes, which, on account of the inadequate facilities for flushing, is 
now being carried out of the mains into the service pipes of the water 
takers. It is probable, also, that a part of the trouble is due to service 
pipes, which are largely galvanized iron and which after a few years' 
use are seriously attacked by the water. 

In the opinion of the Board the condition of this water can be very 
greatly improved and thereafter maintained in a much better condition 
than at the present time by a thorough and regular flushing of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOA\^'S. 91 

mains throughout the town, and especially in those portions thereof 
where the circulation of water is small. 

It is impracticable to flush the pipes • satisfactorily by opening the 
hydrants, the best plan being to provide regular blow-ofiE valves of suit- 
able size leading from the mains at the dead ends and at other con- 
venient points on the pipe lines in thinly settled districts, especially in 
the low places where suspended matter in the water has apparently a 
tendency to collect in greater quantities than elsewhere. These blow-offs 
should be installed at the earliest practicable time, and the system should 
then be given a thorough flushing for the purpose of removing the ac- 
cumulated suspended matter from the pipes. After this has been 
accomplished the pipes should be flushed regularly and with sufficient 
frequency to prevent the occurrence of further accumulations. 

The water discharged from the blow-offs can be allowed to run ulti- 
mately into any convenient body of water, since it contains nothing 
which is injurious to health. 

In future extensions to these works it is advisable to use cement-lined 
pipes for mains and also cement-lined or tin-lined pipes for services. 



Marion. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Marion, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of Oct. 1, 1913, for advice 
as to an additional water supply for the town of Marion, the State Board 
of Health has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered the results of tests made by sinking tubular wells in the 
'valley of the brook flowing from Bear Swamp just above its junction 
with Benson's Brook, in the valley of which the present wells are located. 

These tests consisted of sinking four tubular wells from 37 to 40 feet 
in depth and pumping from them for a sufficient time to obtain suitable 
samples of water for analysis. It was found that water could be pumped 
quite freely from these wells, but analyses of samples of the water sent 
in by you show that it is of much less satisfactory quality than that 
of your present sources of supply, the water showing evidence of pre- 
vious pollution, probably caused by the discharge of sewage or sewage 
effluent from the sewage filter beds of the town into the adjacent brook. 

In view of these conditions and the danger of more serious pollution 
at times of high flow when the ground about the wells is probably 
flooded, it appears to the Board inadvisable for the town to take water 
from this locality. The Board recommends that further investigations 
be made with a view to securing water from the ground in the valley 



92 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of one of the streams in this region not affected by the discharge from 
the filter beds. 

The valley of Doggett's Brook east of that stream between the Marion- 
Eochester line and the highway from Marion to Rochester is free from 
danger of sewage contamination, and if suitable soil is found here it is 
probable that ground water of good quality could be obtained. The 
conditions also appear to be favorable for obtaining water of good 
quality on the northerly side of the Sippican River above the mouth of 
the brook flowing from the filter beds. It is advisable in making these 
further tests that they be carried out under the direction of an engineer 
of experience in such work. The preliminary test wells should be dis- 
tributed so as to obtain general information as to the territory explored 
and the subsequent tests made in the locality in which the most favor- 
able conditions are found. 

The Board will assist you in further investigations by making the 
necessary analyses of water and will, upon request, give you further 
advice in this matter when the results of further tests are available. 

MiDDLEBOROUGH. 

May 24, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Middleborough, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has received the following 
application from you through your engineer for advice as to certain pro- 
posed plans for the treatment of the water supply of Middleborough for 
the removal of the iron, which makes the water objectionable for many 
domestic purposes : — 

On behalf of the Middleborough Water Works, I am sending you by 
messenger a set of plans and specifications for the new deferization plant 
at Middleborough. As you know, the water supplied the town contains 
about 1.5 parts of iron and 1.0 parts of manganese per million; and after 
a series of experiments and studies in which I have been gTcatly assisted by 
the results furnished from your laboratory, the plans and specifications now 
sent you have been worked out. 

As I understand the matter, the consent of the Board is not required in 
a ease of this kind where improvements for aesthetic reasons only are con- 
templated, but I would respectfully ask your advice in the pi'emises. 

The plans submitted with the application provide for the construction 
of an aerator, a preliminary sprinkling filter of coke, a subsiding basin 
and two covered sand filters having an aggregate area of about one-tenth 
of an acre, equipped with the usual appurtenances of such filters. From 
the filters the water will flow to a regulator house and thence to the fil- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 93 

tered-water reservoir, having a capacity of about 45,000 gallons, whence 
the water will be pumped for distribution to the town. 

The Board, having examined the plans and the specifications relative 
to the size and quality of the coke and sand to be used in the filters, is 
of the opinion that the proposed works, if constructed in accordance with 
the plans and properly operated, will provide for the satisfactory puri- 
fication of the present water supply of the tovra. of Middleborough. 

MiDDLETON (Has WELL Pakk). 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Middleton, Mass. 

Gentlemex : — In connection with an investigation of the sanitary 
conditions at Haswell Park at Middleton, the State Board of Health 
has caused two public wells at the park to be examined and samples of 
their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis indicate that the waters of these wells at 
the time of this examination, though showing some evidence of previous 
pollution, were probably safe for drinking. There appears to be some 
difficulty in obtaining water from these wells at times when the ground 
water is low, and, in consequence, objectionable water is said to be used 
at times to prime the pumps. 

It is important that an effective method of supplying water in this 
park shall be installed at the earliest practicable time and that the 
present method of drawing the water be discontinued. There are sources 
of pollution at no great distance from the present wells, and it is not 
unlikely that the quality of their waters will deteriorate with continued 
use. It is important that, if these wells are to continue to be used as 
sources of water supply in this place, the water shall be analyzed from 
time to time in order that its use may be discontinued if deterioration 
occurs. 

Norfolk (Norfolk State Hospital). 

Sept. 29, 1913. 
To Irwin H. Neff, M.D., Superintendent, Foxborough State Hospital, Foxborough, 

Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of a tubular well located on the game preserve at the Norfolk 
State Hospital and advice as to its suitability for drinking, the State 
Board of Health has caused the well and its surroundings to be ex- 
amined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The well had not been pumped clear at the time of this examination, 
but so far as can be judged from this test, the indications are that the 



94 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

water would be of good quality for drinking. There appear to be no 
sources of pollution in the neighborhood of the well at the present time, 
and as long as these conditions continue it is probable that this well 
can safely be used as a source of drinking water supply for this part of 
the hospital grounds. 

North Adams. 

Dec. 4, 1913. 
To the Committee on Water Supply of the City Council, North Adams, Mass., Mr. S. 

MacVeigh, Chairman. 
Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you, 
through Mr. F. B. Locke, Commissioner of Public Works, the following 
application for advice as to a proposed additional water supply for North 
Adams, accompanied by outlines of the plans of the proposed works : — 

The City Council of North Adams has (subject to approval by the Board) 
accepted the report of the Special Committee on Water Supply. This report 
recommends the adoption of the plans for a storage reservoir on the stream 
commonly known as the Lillie brook in the vicinity of the Beaman and 
Paul places in North Adams. The plans now in the hands of the Board 
show in a general way the principal features of the proposed changes. 
Briefly stated they provide for a storage basin of about 200,000,000 gallons' 
capacity. Provision is to be made for conducting the surplus waters from 
the Notch brook into the new basin by means of a cement, concrete or iron 
conduit starting from the westerly end of the Notch dam and running north- 
westerly about one-half mile to the head waters of the Lillie brook, whence 
the water will find its way to the new basin by way of the natural water 
course. It is also intended to bring a portion of the surplus waters from 
Broad brook by means of the present 24-inch supply main and a new con- 
nection between this 24-inch main and the new basin. This connection will 
probably consist of two 18-inch pipes so arranged that they can both be 
used to deliver water into the new reservoir when the flow is large in Broad 
brook; or, when the flow is small one 18-inch pipe will take water into the 
basin and the other will furnish water to the city. The proper valves and 
pressure regulators will be installed to accomplish the results indicated. 

The members of the Council Committee ask that the Board, after consider- 
ing the plans, will inform them as to their conclusion regarding the proposed 
extensions as early as convenient. 

Subsequently, the following further request was received for advice 
as to additional water supply : — 

Regarding the subject of additional water supply for the City of North 
Adams: The Council Committee on water supply have requested me to say 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS, 95 

that when the Board renders its findings on the proposition now under con- 
sideration, the Committee would be glad to also know your views on the 
following propositions : — 

I. As to the feasibility of obtaining a sufficient supply for the needs of 
the city by sinking wells on the Notch brook watershed above the present 
storage reservoir. 

II. As to whether the Board would advise attempting to get a sufficient 
supply by enlarging the present storage basin in the Notch by excavation 
above the present dam or by enlarging the dam by strengthening and 
raising it. 

III. As to whether the city should undertake, considering all our local con- 
ditions, to find an underground supply before going ahead with the i^ropo- 
sition of obtaining the necessary storage to carry the city through a very 
dry season. 

IV. As to the amount of storage that should be provided for in case it 
should be decided to depend upon storage rather than undergTound supplies. 

V. As to whether, considering the conditions, the Board would feel in- 
clined to favor an attempt to get the necessary storage on the Broad brook 
watershed or would favor an attempt to enlarge the supply from the Broad 
brook by driving wells. 

These various methods of securing water have been advanced and are urged 
more or less strenuously by their several advocates. They have all been 
considered by the Committee, and the views of the Board upon any or all 
of them would be highly ai3preciated. 

On November 25 a report by Prof. W. 0. Crosby, geologist, relative 
to the various schemes, was also submitted, and further information has 
been supplied by the commissioner of public works at the request of 
the Board. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered the proposed plans and the information submitted relative 
thereto. The plans and reports of your engineers indicate that it is 
practicable to construct on Lillie Brook a storage reservoir having a 
capacity of 200,000,000 gallons and a drainage area of about 1.35 square 
miles. The plans provide further for diverting into the Lillie Brook 
watershed the surplus flow of Notch Brook, and it is also found to be 
practicable, by a change in the intake at Broad Brook and the construc- 
tion of a pipe line of no great length, to divert water from the Broad 
Brook supply into the proposed Lillie Brook Eeservoir. 

Notch Brook and Broad Brook together, as at present developed, are 
capable of yielding about 1,700,000 gallons per day, and by the con- 
struction of the proposed reservoir on Lillie Brook the capacity of the 
works will probably be increased to somewhat more than 2,800,000 gal- 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Ions per day, a quantity adequate for the present requirements of the 
city, even at the present high rate of water consumption. 

The Board has also considered carefully the other plans suggested in 
your application. The first of these plans proposes the sinking of wells 
in the Xotch Brook watershed above the present storage reservoir. The 
conditions in this watershed are such that there is no probability of the 
existence of any large storage of water in the ground above the reservoir 
that does not now find its way into the present basin, and there is no 
likelihood that an additional supply could be obtained in this valley 
which would increase materially the yield of your present sources. The 
plan does not appear to be worthy of further consideration. 

As to the second plan, the increase of storage in the Notch Brook 
valley: The information presented by your engineers shows, as a result 
of their investigations, that the fall of this brook is very rapid and 
that, in order to construct storage reservoirs of considerable size, a very 
high dam or dams would be required. From the information presented 
it would be impracticable, in the opinion of the Board, to increase the 
storage on this watershed unless at a very great expense. 

In regard to the third question, as to whether it is advisable for the 
city, considering the circumstances, to make investigations relative to ob- 
taining a ground-water supply before constructing a storage reservoir: 
The Board has considered the results of a superficial examination of the 
territory in North Adams where the conditions appear to be most 
favorable for obtaining a ground-water supply. From these investiga- 
tions it appears probable that enough water for the supply of North 
Adams might be obtained in the valley of the south branch of the 
Hoosick Eiver above the city, and it is possible that an adequate addi- 
tional supply could be obtained from the ground in the valley of the 
north branch of the Hoosick River in Clarksburg near the Vermont line. 
The results of the analyses of such samples of water as have been col- 
lected from the ground in the valley of the south branch of the Hoosick 
River above North Adams show these waters to be excessively hard, even 
where not affected by drainage from populated territories, and it is 
very doubtful, in the opinion of the Board, whether water that will be 
satisfactory in quality could be obtained from the ground at any point 
in this valley within reasonable distance of North Adams. In the 
valley of the north branch of the Hoosick River the waters are said to 
be softer, but the most favorable territory in which to sink wells in 
this region contains large areas of cultivated lands and a considerable 
population, and it is probable that the ground water would be affected 
unfavorably by these conditions. It is impracticable to determine with- 
out a thorough test whether a sufficient quantity of water of suitable 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 97 

quality for domestic purposes could be obtained in this region. The 
district appears to be the most favorable one, however, all things con- 
sidered, in which to make tests for a . ground-water supply for North 
Adams in case it should be found necessary or desirable to attempt to 
secure a supply in that way. 

As to the fourth question, as to the amount of storage that should 
be provided for in case it is decided to depend upon storage rather than 
an underground water for an additional supply to the city : It may be 
said that the proposed additional storage of 200,000,000 gallons will 
bring the yield of all the watersheds of the city up to an amount a little 
in excess of the quantity now used. It is obvious under the circumstances 
that a storage of 200,000,000 gallons, including the additional water- 
shed made available by the proposed reservoir, will be but little more 
than sufficient for the present needs of the city. With a smaller storage 
than that proposed it would probably be necessary to cut down the use 
of water in order to avoid a shortage in dry seasons. 

In regard to the fifth question, as to whether, considering the con- 
ditions, it is advisable to attempt to obtain the necessary storage on 
the Eroad Brook watershed above your present intake either by the 
construction of a reservoir or by drawing ground water from tubular 
wells: The information submitted by your engineers indicates that the 
slope of this brook is so great that it is impracticable to construct reser- 
voirs of any considerable size except by the construction of very high 
dams, which would be very expensive. The geological conditions also 
appear to be such that the practicability of constructing a suitable 
reservoir on this stream is somewhat doubtful, and under the circum- 
stances the expense might be very large. 

As to the practicability of obtaining a ground-water supply in this 
valley, a definite recommendation cannot be made, since no tests of the 
character of the soil have been undertaken in that region. From the in- 
formation presented, however, and a general examination of the locality, 
there appears to be no probability that a large quantity of ground water 
could be obtained in this valley by means of wells or other works. 

After a consideration of the various plans and the information pre- 
sented relating thereto, the Board is of the opinion that the most ap- 
propriate method of increasing the water supply of North Adams will 
be by the construction of the proposed reservoir on Lillie Brook with 
a capacity of at least 200,000,000 gallons. If, in the further studies 
preliminary to the construction of this reservoir, it is found to be pos- 
sible to increase its size, it is very desirable that its capacity be en- 
larged to the greatest extent found practicable. The reservoir is at such 
an elevation that water can be supplied to the city by gravity, and yet 



98 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

it is low enough to make it possible to increase its yield by diverting 
into it the surplus water of Notch Brook, making it certain that it can 
be filled in the spring of each 3'ear, even should its capacity be increased 
considerably beyond that now proposed. It appears to be possible, also, 
by slight changes at the intake of Broad Brook Reservoir, to divert the 
water from Broad Brook into the proposed Lillie Brook Reservoir when 
there is an excess flowing in that stream. It is not likely that for 
several years, at least, the additional quantity of water which Broad 
Brook is capable of supplying to this reservoir will be necessary to 
maintain an adequate storage for the requirements of the city, but the 
water of Broad Brook is considerably softer than that of Notch Brook 
and some improvement in the quality of the water in this respect would 
be effected by diverting some of this water into the Lillie Brook Reser- 
voir. Such a pipe line would also save a part of the water which now 
wastes from Broad Brook in times of summer rains. 

While the connection of Broad Brook with the proposed Lillie Brook 
Reservoir does not appear to be necessary at the present time, it is de- 
sirable to make a provision for such a connection in future. In the 
construction of the proposed Lillie Brook Reservoir it is advisable to 
remove the surface soil and other organic matter from the area to be 
flooded, but it is also important to examine carefully the character of 
the soil that will be exposed to the water, and if clay is -encountered 
which is likely to cause serious turbidity provision should be made for 
covering it in such a way as to prevent its affecting the quality of the 
water. 

It is evident from the investigations already made that the consump- 
tion of water in the city is excessively great and could be materially re- 
duced by the introduction of meters. It is advisable, as the first step in 
the prevention of unnecessary waste, to introduce Yenturi meters or some 
other system of measuring accurately all of the water delivered into the 
pipes for the supply of the city, and the Board recommends that such 
systems of measurement be instituted at the earliest practicable time 
and a careful record kept of the daily quantity of water used by the city. 
If it is then found impracticable to keep the consumption within reason- 
able limits by careful inspection, it will be advisable to begin without de- 
lay the application of meters to all service pipes. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 99 



Northampton (Hampshire Couxty Tuberculosis Sanatorium). 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the County Commissioners oj Hampshire County, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your request for an examination of 
Day Brook and advice as to its use as a source of water supply for the 
proposed tuberculosis sanatorium in the northerly part of Northampton, 
the State Board of Health has caused the locality to be examined by one 
of its engineers and has considered the information presented. 

It is impracticable to estimate the quantity of water that would be 
used in this institution and upon its grounds, but there is probably 
little doubt that the quantity required will equal 50,000 gallons per day 
during the summer season, at least, and may eventually amount to a 
much larger quantity. 

Day Brook drains an apparently uninhabited area of about .52 of a 
square mile. The watershed is steep and, according to information sub- 
mitted by you, the flow of the brook sometimes falls to 10,000 gallons 
per day in a dry summer. 

In order to secure an adequate quantity of water for the uses of the 
sanatorium from this stream it would be necessary to construct a storage 
reservoir of considerable size at some point within its watershed. Such 
a reservoir might be built at a point southwest of the hospital, but this 
site is not a very desirable one. The cost of such a reservoir would be 
large, and the quality of the water would be likely to be less satisfactory 
than that obtainable from the Northampton water works. Such a reser- 
voir would also inevitably be exposed to considerable danger of pollu- 
tion and, under the circumstances, the Board does not recommend the 
adoption of this plan for supplying water to the proposed institution. 

If it is found desirable to obtain an independent water supply for 
the institution it would probably be best to secure it if possible from 
tubular wells, either in the valley of Day Brook or in the valley of 
Mill Eiver east of the proposed institution. If it is decided to obtain a 
ground-water supply for the institution, the Board will assist you by 
making the necessary analyses of water and will give you further 
advice in this matter when the results of tests are available. 

From the information at present available it appears to the Board 
probable that the most appropriate method of securing a water supply 
for this institution will be by pumping water from the works of the city 
of Northampton. 

You have also requested advice as to the location of a sewage-disposal 
system and as to the material to be used for filter beds. 

The locality indicated for the construction of filter beds is about 500 



100 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

feet west of the highway along Mill Eiver and 200 feet north of the 
southern property line of the institution. The soil at the location in- 
dicated is not apparently of a suitable character for the purification of 
sewage by intermittent filtration, and it is proposed to obtain sand or 
gravel from a gravel pit located about half a mile southeast of the village 
of Leeds, An examination of this gravel pit indicates that soil suitable 
for the filtration of sewage can probably be obtained from it and that 
an ample quantity can probably be secured here for the purpose. 

In considering the location of filter beds for the institution it is very 
important that they shall be sufficiently remote from the roadway lead- 
ing to the buildings to avoid offence to visitors, and they should, of 
course, be at a sufficient distance from the sanatorium to avoid dan- 
ger that objectionable odors will be noticeable in the vicinity of the 
buildings. The location selected appears to be at a sufficient distance 
from the proposed buildings, and if the roadway leading to the buildings 
shall be located 400 feet or more from these filter beds it is likely that 
the danger of objectionable odors being noticeable along the roadway 
will be avoided. It will be advisable, however, to plant trees thickly 
about the area to assist in preventing the escape of objectionable odors. 

It is important, in the opinion of the Board, before locating the 
filters, to make a careful examination of the soil in this region by means 
of test pits, since it is possible that material suitable for filtration can 
be found at some point in this neighborhood, and in that case the cost 
of the necessary works might be materially reduced. 

When plans of the proposed filters have been prepared the Board will 
give you advice concerning them, if you so request. 

Norwood 

Jttly 15, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Norwood, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 

July 2, 1913, the following application for advice as to a proposed plan 

for filtering the water supplied to the town from Buckmaster Pond : — 

The Water Commissioners of the Town of Norwood desire your advice and 
submit for yonr approval, plans of a slow sand filter, which it is proposed to 
construct at Buckmaster Pond. 

It is proposed to filter the water from Buckmaster Pond and use it in 
connection with the new Purgatory Brook well-water supply (which supply 
is at times inadequate for the needs of the town). Buckmaster Pond will 
furnish about 500,000 gallons of water per day throughout the year. The 
quality is at times unsatisfactory, particularly during the summer months 
when the water becomes affected by tastes and odors, caused by possible vege- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 101 

table growths. It is proposed to use the filter during the summer and fall 
only. During the winter and spring months the supply will be pumped from 
the Purgatory Brook source. 

The filter will have an area of 13,000 sq. ft. or a little less than one-third 
of an acre. A clear-water well having a capacity, when full, of 375,000 
gallons, will be eonstinicted in connection with the filter. 

The plan provides for aerating the water both before going onto the filters 
and after passing through the filter. 

In operating the filter it is not i^roposed to exceed a rate of over four 
million gallons per acre per day. 

The present maximum daily consumption of water during the dry months 
is approximately 900,000 gallons. The Buckmaster Pond water in its present 
state is unsatisfactory for domestic use and the Commissioners desire the 
approval of the plans submitted in order that they may proceed with the 
construction the present summer. 

The application was accompanied by general plans of the proposed 
filter prepared by your engineer and l3y information relating to the 
operation of a small experimental filter during a period of several weeks 
before the plans were submitted. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered the plans presented and the results of analyses of samples 
of water sent in by you from the experimental filter from time to time 
during the past two months. 

The plans in general provide for filtering the water after aeration 
through an uncovered sand filter containing Sl/o feet of filtering ma- 
terial at a rate of not more than four million gallons per acre per day. 
Provision is made for the aeration of the water after leaving the filter 
and for a storage well of suitable capacity to receive the water after 
filtration. 

The filter is designed chiefly for the removal of the objectionable taste 
and odor by which this water is at times affected on account of the pres- 
ence of microscopic organisms in considerable numbers. When such 
organisms are present in very large numbers, as was the case in the 
year 1892, it would probably be impracticable to remove the objection- 
able taste and odor efficiently by single filtration such as now proposed; 
but it is many years since the pond has been affected by the presence of 
very large numbers of organisms during the months from April to 
November, inclusive, and if the proposed works are properly constructed 
and operated they will probably remove the objectionable taste and odor 
from the water during the greater part of the year. Under the circum- 
stances it does not appear to be advisable to provide a more thorough 



102 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

filtration of the water of this pond than is proposed in the plans now 
presented. 

In the opinion of the Board filtration of the water of Biickmaster 
Pond, as shown by the proposed plans, is the best practicable method 
of improving its quality at the present time. It is important that the 
storage in Buckmaster Pond shall be drawn upon as fully as practicable 
during the summer months so as to relieve the draft on the tubular 
wells, which under the scheme proposed are to be depended upon for 
the entire supply during the winter season. While the supply of water 
from the two sources is adequate for the present requirements of the 
town, it is important that a continued effort be made to prevent the 
waste of water, since otherwise, if the town continues to grow rapidly, 
the supply from both sources may at no distant time become inadequate 
for all requirements. 



Palmer (Central Vermont Railroad Station). 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To Mr. G. L. Gibbs, Agent Central Vermont Railroad Company, Palmer, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for advice as to the water 
of the Palmer Water Company, used for the supply of the railroad sta- 
tion in the town, the State Board of Health has caused the source of 
supply and its surroundings to be examined and has considered the 
results of analyses of samples of water. 

The supply of the Palmer Water Company, as taken from the reser- 
voirs now in use, is of good quality for domestic purposes. It is neces- 
sary for the protection of this supply that the water.shed be subjected 
to careful inspection in order that danger of pollution may be promptly 
detected and its effects prevented. Xo objectionable conditions were 
found, however, at the time of the recent inspection. 

The supply of water which these reservoirs are capable of yielding is 
inadequate for the village of Palmer in dry seasons, and it has been 
necessary in past times to draw water from temporary sources. The 
Board has frequently recommended that an additional supply be pro- 
vided by the water company which will be adequate at all times for the 
requirements of the village, but these recommendations have not yet 
been carried out. The water of the reservoirs is affected at times by a 
noticeable taste and odor due to growths of microscopic organisms, but 
the presence of these organisms in water is not known to be injurious 
to health, and in the opinion of the Board the water of the reservoirs 
as supplied to the village at the present time is safe for domestic 
purposes. 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 103 

Whenever the yield of the reservoirs becomes inadequate, however, 
the quality of the water supplied to the town is dependent upon the 
character of the source from which a temporary supply is taken. 



Peabody. 

Jan. 17, 1913. 
To the Commission of Public Works, Peabody, Mass., Mr. Charles A. Leary, Engineer. 
Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to the 
advisability of taking water from Humphrey's Brook without filtration 
for the purpose of increasing the water supply of the town of Peabody, 
the State Board of Health has caused the brook and its watershed to 
be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The water of this brook is naturally of good C|uality for water supply 
purposes, the color ordinarily being low and the quantity of organic 
matter present not excessive. The watershed contains two small lakes, 
near one of which are several summer camps. The total number of 
dwelling houses, exclusive of summer camps, is about forty, some of 
which are unoccupied, and the population within the watershed at pres- 
ent is probably less than fifty persons per square mile. 

The soil throughout the greater part of the watershed is evidently 
coarse and porous, and it is probable that much of the waste discharged 
from dwelling houses and buildings on the watershed is well purified 
before entering the brook or its tributaries ; but there are several groups 
of farm buildings and a number of piggeries from which polluting mat- 
ters probably find their way at times into the streams. An examination 
shows that in many of these cases it is practicable, by providing proper 
means of disposal for household wastes and by relocating or discontinu- 
ing some of the other sources of pollution, to prevent objectionable 
drainage from entering the streams directly. 

If in connection with these improvements suitable sanitary regula- 
tions are established and enforced, it is probable that water taken from 
the brook without filtration can be used with safety for domestic pur- 
poses if pumped, as proposed, into Suntaug Lake at some point near 
the present outlet and delivered thence into Spring Pond before being 
supplied to the town. 

It may be that larger numbers of pigs or other animals are kept on 
this watershed at other seasons of the year than was found to be the 
case at the time of the recent examination, and if so the purchase of 
lands and buildings may in some cases be necessary. The Board is of 
the opinion, however, that, Avith the conditions under which it is pro- 
posed to supply this water, it can be adequately protected from pollu- 



104 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion in the manner herein suggested at much less expense than would 
be required in case it were necessary to filter all of the water taken 
from the streams. 

Oct. 11, 1913. 
To the Board of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to the prompt notice of the Board of 
Health of an extensive epidemic of diarrhoeal disease in Peabody on Oct. 
3 and 4, 1913, the State Board of Health began, on the latter date, an 
investigation in co-operation with the local board to determine the ex- 
tent and nature of the epidemic and its probable cause. 

Up to the present time nearly 500 cases have been located, information 
concerning them collected, and the location of the cases plotted upon a 
map of the town. The great majority of cases occurred on Friday night 
and Saturday, and they were so distributed as to indicate very strongly 
that the water supply was the cause of the trouble. 

Samples of water were collected for chemical and bacterial examina- 
tion from all parts of the system on Saturday, October 4, and on Mon- 
day, October 6, and a thorough examination has been made of the 
conditions about the various reservoirs and of other circumstances af- 
fecting the public water supply. 

In the course of this investigation many deposits of fecal matter have 
been found in the neighborhood of the ice houses along Spring Pond, 
some of which was deposited in the bottom of the pond exposed by the 
drawing down of the water; also along the shores of the pond on the 
opposite side near its outlet; on the shores of the outer basin near the 
pumping station within a few inches of the point where water flows 
from the outer basin to the inner basin adjacent to the pumping sta- 
tion; in the old crib located in the outer basin but not now used; and 
a small amount at the edge of the distributing reservoir. The deposits 
are no doubt due in part to visitors to the locality, a number of whom 
were seen fishing along the basin and Spring Pond at different times 
during the investigation, and in part to those engaged in the handling of 
ice in and about the ice houses and in making improvements and re- 
pairs about these buildings. 

The conditions are such that the water supply may have been pol- 
luted from any or all of these deposits. Bacterial examinations, more- 
over, show the presence of fermenting bacteria in Spring Pond, the 
basins and reservoir, and in various parts of the distributing system, 
together with bacteria characteristic of sewage. 

While the specific cause of the epidemic of October 3 and 4 cannot 
be definitely stated at the present time, the conditions about the sources 
of water supply of the town, especially about Spring Pond, the basins 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 105 

and reservoir, are extremely unsanitary and a great menace to the health 
of the users of the water. The Board recommends that the use of the 
water of Spring Pond and the basins be completely discontinued for 
the present and that the supply be drawn from Suntaug Lake and the 
tubular wells, if they are available for use at the present time. At the 
same time the water should be drawn out of the distributing reservoir 
and the mains thoroughly flushed, and the water therein should be re- 
placed with water from the lake. 

It is further recommended that after the removal of the deposits of 
excrement about Spring Pond, the basins and the reservoir, to which 
attention has already been called, fishing in the ponds and basin be 
prevented, and that the rules and regulations already established by 
this Board for the sanitary protection of the waters used for the water 
supply of Peabody be strictly enforced. 

If the town is to continue to use Spring Pond as a source of water 
supply the Board again recommends that the shores of the pond be 
acquired at the earliest practicable time and the further use of the 
pond for the cutting of ice and its storage along the shores prevented. 
It is also important to secure control of other portions of the watershed 
from which polluting matters are likely to enter the pond. There is 
considerable leakage from Brown's Pond through the pipe line leading 
to the basin, and it is important that this leakage be prevented until 
such time as the plan to be followed by the town relative to Brown's 
Pond has been carried out. 

In the course of this investigation the Board has found a number of 
places in the town where the private water supplies of factories, used for 
fire protection or other purposes, are connected with the public water 
mains, being separated only by check valves, and — judging from in- 
formation available to the Board — there is much danger that the water 
from the fire supplies may enter the mains at times of fire or when the 
fire pumps are tested. It is important, in the opinion of the Board, 
that this practice shall be discontinued. Until this can be done the 
most reliable check valves available should be substituted. 

The Board repeats its recommendation that all drinking water be 
thoroughly boiled before being used and that this practice be continued 
until all of the water at present in the pipe system has been completely 
removed. 



lOG STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Dec. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. 

Gextle:v[en : — Following the epidemic of October last, the State 
Board of Health has caused samples of water to be collected at frequent 
intervals from the various sources of water supply available for the 
town of Peabody in order to advise you as to the further use of water 
from these sources for the supply of the town. 

The results of the analyses of the waters of Spring Pond continued 
to show the presence of objectionable bacteria for several weeks after 
the epidemic, but recent samples from the pond collected on Dec. 2 and 
9, 1913, indicate that the objectionable bacteria have disappeared from 
the pond and the basin, and judging from the results of these analyses 
there is nothing to indicate that the water is now objectionable for 
drinking. 

It is very important that the pond and basin and their surroundings 
be continued under careful inspection in order that danger of pollution 
of these waters may be prevented or their use again discontinued if 
necessary. 

If ice cutting is allowed on Spring Pond during the coming winter, 
the Board recommends that the use of the water of the pond for the 
supply of the town be discontinued while ice cutting is in progress 
and that the water be not again used until the results of analyses show 
that it may be supplied to the town with safety. 

Copies of the most recent analyses are enclosed herewith. 

Dkc. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
the watershed of Cedar Pond and advice as to its use as a source of 
water supply, the State Board of Health has caused the pond and its 
surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the watershed of the pond 
contains a number of dwelling houses, most of which, however, are lo- 
cated quite remote from the pond, and the source does not appear to be 
exposed to serious danger of pollution from these dwellings at the pres- 
ent time. 

It was found in the course of this examination that no sanitary facili- 
ties are provided at the pumping station connected with the wells located 
a short distance below the pond, and if water is to be taken from the 
outlet of the pond in the neighborhood of this pumping station it is 
exposed to danger of pollution from the employees at this place. In 
any case it is advisable that proper sanitary conveniences be provided 
at this place as soon as possible. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 107 

It is understood that the request for the advice of the Board relative 
to Cedar Pond is with a view to its use as a temporary water supply 
until the question of the future supply of Peabody can be acted upon by 
the town, and in the opinion of the Board the pond may reasonably be 
used for that purpose under the provisions of chapter 25 of the Eevised 
Laws, section 35. 

Provixcetowx. 

March 25, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Provincetown, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of the tubular wells used for the water supply of Provincetown 
and advice as to the cause of the increase in chlorine and its probable 
effect on the quality of the water, the Board has caused the wells to be 
examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

An examination of the records of aualyses of this water since the new 
works at Xorth Truro were established in 1908 shows that the chlorine 
increased slowly from about 2.0 parts in 100,000 early in 1908 to about 
2.5 parts in 100,000 in the early part of 1910, and subsequently in- 
creased more rapidly until the amount reached 3.6 parts in 100,000 in 
the latter part of 1912. 

Examinations of the water of the individual wells from which the 
supply is drawn show that the amount of chlorine is smallest in the 
wells farthest from the sea, but in wells Xos. U, 16 and 18 the quantity 
of chlorine found in these examinations was much greater, especially 
toward the end of the period of the day's pumping, than in any of the 
other wells. The cause of this excess in chlorine has not yet been ascer- 
tained. It will very likely be found to be due to some variation in the 
character of the formation in which the wells are sunk rather than to 
any matter deposited or discharged upon the ground in the region about 
the wells. 

It is probable, in the opinion of the Board, that if the three wells 
mentioned were shut off and new wells put in east of wells Xos. 1 and 
2, the quantity of chlorine in the water as a whole would be decreased, 
though very likely there would be some increase in the amount of 
chlorine in the wells adjacent to Nos. 14, 16 and 18. 

"Under the circumstances it seems best to add a few wells at the 
easterly end of the present lines and to discontinue the use of the wells 
giving the larger amounts of chlorine, and the Board recommends that 
this change be made. If you decide to make this change the Board 
will, upon request, examine the water of the new wells as they are put 
in and will advise you concerning its quality. If, after the new wells 



108 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

have been connected with the pumps, a further test of the entire supply 
should seem advisable to determine the effect of the changes upon the 
quality of the water, the Board will make a further examination if you 
so request. 

The quantity of chlorine found in the water at the present time is not 
sufficient to affect its quality for domestic purposes, and the water in 
general continues to be of as excellent quality as when the works were 
first put in. 

Randolph and Holbrook. 

March 25, 1913. 

To the Joint Board of Water Commissioners of the Towns of Randolph and Holbrook, 
Mass., Mr. William F. Barrett, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from the Board of Water 
Commissioners of the town of Braintree for an examination of the water 
of Great Pond and advice as to its quality, the State Board of Health has 
made an examination of the pond and its watershed and has reported 
the results, together with its recommendations, to the Board of Water 
Commissioners of the town of Braintree. 

Inasmuch as this pond is used as a source of water supply by the 
towns of Randolph and Holbrook, a copy of these recommendations is 
sent you herewith for your consideration. 



ROCKPORT. 

March 25, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Rockport, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice in regard to 
the condition of the watershed surrounding the pond from which you 
take your water supply, and also as to the best plan of increasing the 
supply, the Board has caused Cape Pond and its surroundings to be 
examined by one of its engineers and has considered such information 
as is available relative to the sources from which an additional supply 
might be obtained. 

The examination of the watershed of Cape Pond discloses a number 
of sources from which the water is exposed to pollution at the present 

time. 

A considerable quantity of very foul waste from a glue works on 
High Street now finds its way into the swamp which borders the north- 
erly end of the pond and probably affects unfavorably the quality of 
the water. 

At the time of the recent examination ice cutting was in progress 
upon the pond and several horses and a large number of men were at 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 109 

work there. No sanitary conveniences appeared to be provided for the 
men, and the conditions in the woods at places near the eastern shore 
of the pond were very filthy. Pollution from this locality in case of 
heavy rain would be washed into the pond. 

There are several cottages near the shores of the pond about some 
of which the conditions were very objectionable and likely to cause 
serious pollution of the water. There are indications, also, that the 
pond is used to a considerable extent for boating and fishing in summer. 

The Board recommends that the waste from the glue factory be 
diverted from the watershed, that the foul deposits found in the neigh- 
borhood of the ice houses and elsewhere be removed, and that in the 
future the rules and regulations adopted by this Board for the sanitary 
protection of Cape Pond be strictly enforced. If it is not then found 
practicable to prevent danger of pollution of the pond, it would be best 
for the town to acquire control of the lands about the shores of the pond. 

The pollution of Cape Pond is no doubt one of the causes of the poor 
quality of the water, which often contains large quantities of organic 
matter and is affected at times by disagreeable tastes and odors, due 
to the presence of large numbers of microscopic organisms. 

An examination of the pond indicates that the bottom is covered 
largely with mud, and there is an extensive area of swamp on the 
watershed, the level of which is but little above the level of the water in 
the pond. The water is not very highly colored, however, and its quality 
could no doubt be greatly improved by ordinary filtration through sand. 

It is evident from the examination of the records of the fluctuations 
in level of the water in Cape Pond for several years past that the 
quantity of water drawn from this source already equals its capacity in 
a series of very dry years and that provision must be made without 
delay for future requirements of the town. It is inadvisable, in the 
opinion of the Board, to raise the level of Cape Pond in connection with 
any plans for securing a large supply of water, since thereby the ob- 
jectionable swamp at its upper end would be flooded and the quality of 
the water injured. 

The consumption of water per inhabitant in Eockport is larger than 
in most towns of similar size, due undoubtedly, in part at least, to the 
temporary large increase of population in the summer season, and no 
doubt in part, also, to waste or leakage. It is probable that the con- 
sumption of water could be reduced somewhat by the general introduc- 
tion of meters, but it is unlikely that a sufficient reduction in the use of 
water could be made in this way to make certain that the yield of Cape 
Pond would be adequate for the requirements of the town for any con- 
siderable time in the future. Nevertheless, if the consumption of water 



no STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

per inhabitant should show a tendency to increase, it would be advisable 
to apply meters generally to the service pipes in the town, as is now 
being done in many of the other towns in the State. 

The sources from which it appears probable that the water supply 
of Eockport can be most easily supplemented are Alewife Brook and 
its tributaries, especially a tributary which enters the brook from the 
northwest a little over half a mile below the pond. The latter stream 
drains an uninhabited watershed about twice as large as the drainage 
area of Cape Pond, and it appears to be practicable to divert water from 
this source into Cape Pond by gravity. Judging from a general exami- 
nation of the locality, it is probable that, if it is found practicable to 
divert the water from this stream into Cape Pond by gravity, the water 
supply of Eockport can be supplemented from this source at less cost 
than from any other in this region. 

The Board recommends that you cause the necessary surveys and 
investigations to be made to determine the practicability and probable 
cost of supplementing Cape Pond with water from the stream indicated, 
and that at the same time investigations be made to determine the 
practicability of supplementing the supply from any other portions of 
the Alewife Brook drainage area or adjacent watersheds which appear to 
be available for the purpose. The Board will assist you in these investi- 
gations by making the necessary analyses of water and will give you 
further advice in this matter when you have the results of investigations 
to present. 

SALEil. 

Feb. 6, 1913. 
To Mr. P. J. Kelley, Director of Public Works, Salem, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Jan. 21, 1913, for an 
examination of the water of Miles Eiver above the point where it crosses 
the pipe line leading from Longham Eeservoir to ^yenham Lake, with 
a view to the temporary use of this water as an emergency supply for 
the cities of Salem and Beverly, under the provisions of section 25 of 
chapter 35 of the Ee vised Laws, the State Board of Health has caused 
the proposed source of supply to be examined by one of its engineers 
and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The examination of the watershed shows that there has been only one 
dwelling house constructed within it since the previous examination in 
1911 and that it will be practicable, by the enforcement of sanitary 
rules and regulations, to secure adequate protection of this water for 
the limited period Avithin which its use is practicable. 

The results of the examination of the water of Miles Eiver show 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWN'S. Ill 

that at the present thue this water is of somewhat hetter quality than 
at the time of the previous examination and that it does not differ 
materially from the water of Wenham Lake and Longham Eeservoir. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of the law above mentioned, 
hereby approves Miles Eiver at the point where it crosses the pipe line 
leading from Longham Eeservoir to Wenham Lake as a proper source 
of water supply for temporary use, the water drawn from this source to 
be discharged into Wenham Lake. The Board recommends that before 
the water is used the possible sources of pollution at the various build- 
ings on the watershed be carefully inspected and sanitary rules and regu- 
lations established. 

Salisbury (Salisbury Beach). 

Jan. 2, 1913. 
To the Hon. George F. Haley, Director, Artesian Water Com-pany, Salisbury, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for the examination of the water of the wells used by the Artesian 
Water Company for the supply of Salisl)ury Beach and has caused the 
wells and their surroundings to be examined and samples of the water 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the examinations show that the wells are located in 
low, sandy upland in Salisbury adjacent to the salt marshes, which are 
flooded at high tides, and there are no dwelling houses or other sources 
of contamination in the immediate neighborhood. 

The water supplied to Salisbury Beach from these wells is very hard 
and it is affected by the presence of an excessive quantity of iron, which 
renders it very objectionable for many domestic uses. The water of 
some of the wells contains, also, a very large quantity of chlorine, though 
the average quantity found in the water supplied to the beach has not 
been sufficient to affect its taste. 

The information submitted to the Board indicates that the supply 
from these wells has been inadequate for the requirements of the beach, 
and considering its poor quality the Board is of the opinion that the 
source is not a suitable one from which to take water for domestic 
purposes. 

It is understood that you propose to make tests, with a view to 
obtaining a better water supply, by sinking wells at points farther back 
from the sea, but these tests have not yet been begun. 

The plan of taking water from the ground appears to be the most 
practicable method of securing an adequate independent supply for 
Salisbury Beach, and the Board recommends that careful tests be made 
by sinkins: wells at the localities in which the conditions appear to be 



112 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

favorable for obtaining a suitable supply for this district. The Board 
will assist you in further investigations, if you so request, by making 
the necessary analyses of water, and will give you further advice as to 
a water supply for Salisbury Beach when you have the results of further 
tests to present. 

Sandwich (Massachusetts Volunteer Militia). 

July 31, 1913. 
To Frank P. Williams, M.D., Surgeon General, M. V. M., Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of Tis- 
paquin Pond in Middleborough and Peters Pond in Sandwich, the State 
Board of Health has caused these ponds to be examined and samples of 
their waters to be analj'zed. 

The water of Tispaquin Pond is highly colored and contains much 
organic matter, derived doubtless from vegetation in swamps within the 
watershed of the pond. There are very few dwelling houses on the water- 
shed of the pond, however, and there was very little danger of its serious 
pollution at the time of this examination. With a camp of militiamen 
located in its neighborhood, the chief possible source of pollution to the 
pond would be from the men themselves. If properly protected from 
pollution by campers or others near its shores or near either of the 
brooks tributary to the pond, this pond could probably be used tem- 
porarily as a source of water supply without injury to health. 

The condition of Peters Pond was found to be much the same as at 
the time of the previous examination in 1909, The water is colorless, 
nearly clear and naturally of good quality for domestic purposes. There 
is very little population near the pond, and with the conditions that 
exist there its waters can be used with safety, providing it is protected 
from local pollution, especially in case a camp should be established on 
or near its shores. 

The water supplied on the State Farm in Bridgewater is filtered 
water of the Taunton River, which has long been the source of supply 
of this institution for drinking. There is no reason to suspect that its 
quality is objectionable for that purpose. 

Saugus (Baker's Hill). 

Aug. 7, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Saugus, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to a petition from certain residents on 

Baker's Hill, in the town of Saugus, the State Board of Health has 

caused the locality to be examined and finds that there is no available 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 113 

water supply for a considerable number of houses on this hill at the 
present time. The population of this region appears to be growing- and 
It appears to the Board that the lack of a public water supply in this 
section constitutes a serious danger to the public health which should 
be relieved at the earliest possible time. It is practicable for the town 
to provide a water supply in this section, without special difficulty, by 
means of a suitable pumping station and pipe system, and the Board 
recommends that an adequate system be provided there at the earliest 
practicable time. 

SCITUATE. 

Aug. 7, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Scituaie, Mass., Dr. H. F. Cleverly, Chairman. 

Gextlejiex : — In response to your request of July 31, 1913, the 
State Board of Health has examined the results of a recent inspection 
of the sources of water supply of the town of Scituate and of analyses 
of samples of water from these sources of supply and from faucets in 
various parts of the town. 

It appears that at the time of this examination water was being sup- 
plied to the town from three sources, two of which — the tubular'' wells 
and the Beaver Dam Spring — have long been used as sources of water 
supply for the town. The results of the recent examination show no 
material change in the quality of the water of either of these sources for 
several years. The water of the wells is quite hard and shows evidences 
of the presence of population at no great distance from the wells, but the 
water is thoroughly purified in its passage through the ground and the 
quantity of organic matter present is very low. The water of the 
Beaver Dam Spring is in all respects of very good quality for domestic 



use. 



A third source of supply has recently been developed in order to 
provide for the great increase that has taken place in the consumption 
of water in the town. This supply is drawn from a pond on First Her- 
ring Brook near Greenbush and is delivered to the town after filtration 
through a sand filter recently completed. 

The population on the watershed of this brook is small and there are 
no houses in the immediate neighborhood of the stream. The water is 
naturally highly colored at this time of the year and contains a large 
quantity of organic matter, due to contact of the water with vegetable 
matter in the swamps and small ponds within the watershed. ^While 
the high color of this water .gives it a somewhat objectionable appear- 
ance as compared with the water of the driven wells and Beaver Dam 
Spring, and it cannot be used with safety for domestic purposes before 



114 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

filtration, it is probable that the quality of the water will improve after 
the filter has been longer in use and the pumping system is completed, 

A partial supply of water for the northern part of Scituate has been 
obtained at times in the past from the works of the Cohasset Water 
Company, but it does not appear that any water is being drawn from 
that source at the present time. 

From the results of the examination there does not appear to the 
Board to be any reason to doubt that the quality of the water now being 
supplied to the town is such that it may safely be used for domestic 
purposes. 

Shaeox. 

June 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Town of Sharon, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
May 27, 1913, through Edmund H. Talbot, Town Counsel, an application 
under the provisions of section 1 of chapter 128 of the Acts of the year 
1913 for the approval by the Board of the taking of certain lands and 
underground sources of water supply necessary for the purpose of ex- 
tending and increasing the water supply of the town of Sharon by means 
of driven wells and for preserving the purity of the water. The appli- 
cation is accompanied by a plan showing the location of the wells and 
the area of land which it is proposed to acquire in connection therewith. 

The Board' has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered the plan presented and the records of tests made in this 
locality for the purpose of obtaining an additional water supply for the 
town of Sharon. The results of these tests having been favorable for 
obtaining an adequate supply of water of good quality for the require- 
ments of the town from the ground in this locality, the Board hereby 
approves the taking of the area of land shown upon the plan presented, 
and the taking of water from the ground by means of wells in this land, 
subject to the recommendations contained in its letter of advice to the 
Board of Water Commissioners of Sharon under date of Feb. 11, 1907. 

The land, the taking of which is herein approved, is bounded, measured 
and described as follows : — 

A certain parcel of land situated in Sharon in the County of Norfolk and 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts bounded and described as follows: Begin- 
ning at a stone bound on the westerly side line of the i^roposed relocation 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company at land of 
heirs of Patrick J. Carroll, thence running north 46° 16' west by said land 
of said heirs of Patrick J. Carroll and by land formerly of Burkhardt 488.80 
feet bv ditch to middle of brook; thence north 35° 30' west by land of owners 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 115 

unknown and by laud of heirs of Elianor Choate 654.07 feet to a stone 
bound; thence north 50° 38' east by land of heii"S of Elianor Choate and 
by land of heirs of John A. Bowman 711.60 feet to a stone bound; thence 
south 64° 30' east 360.85 feet to a stone bound; thence north 8° east 150.15 
feet to a stone bound: thence north 47° 15' east 383.92 feet hy Bowman 
heirs and by George W. Field to Crossmoor Road; thence easterly 59.53 
feet by Crossmoor Road by an arc to the left of which arc the radius is 
979.92 feet; thence south 47'' 15' west 413.70 feet; thence south 8° west 
148.50 feet, all by land of George "W. Field and land of heirs of John A. 
Bowman; thence south 64° 30' east hy land of heirs of John A. Bowman 
27.20 feet to a stone bound; thence on the same course by land of George 
W. Field 205 feet to the middle of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook; thence up 
stream by the thread of the stream of said brook bounded easterly by laud 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company about 540 
feet; thence south 62° 33' east by said land of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad Company 113.50 feet to a stake in the westerly side 
line of relocation of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany; thence southwesterly by said side line 623.50 feet to a stone bound 
by an arc to the left of which arc the radius is 5819.65 feet; thence south 
19° 29' west by said side line 117.91 feet to a stone bound at the point of 
beginning and containing 17.31 acres. 



Shirley (Wells). 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Shirley, Mass. 

Gentlemex : — In response to a request from the State Inspector of 
Health, the State Board of Health has caused a number of private wells 
in the village of Shirley Center to be examined and samples of their 
waters to be anal3'zed. 

One of the most important of the wells is the town well, so called, and 
the analysis of the water of this well shows that it is badly polluted and, 
in the opinion of the Board, unsafe for drinking or other domestic pur- 
poses. The water of a driven well in a barn on the Sweetser place near 
by appears to have been used at times to prime the pump at the town 
well. An examination of the Sweetser well shows that it is located in 
the cellar of a barn containing much manure and other organic matter 
and that there is another barn, also containing polluting matter, at no 
great distance from the well. The analysis of the water of the well shows 
that it is considerably polluted and, in the opinion of the Board, it is 
unsafe for domestic use. The water from this well should not be used 
for priming the town pump. 

The second well examined is located in the yard of the unoccupied 
house of John Faerrar. An analvsis of this water shows that it is very 



116 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

badly polluted and unfit for domestic use. The same is true of the water 
of a well located beneath the kitchen at the house of Mrs. Felton ; there 
are sources of pollution very close to this well, and the condition of the 
water as shown upon analysis is very objectionable. 

An examination has also been made of a spring, located in a wood- 
land about a mile west of the village, from which water is taken at times 
for drinking. There are no sources of pollution in the neighborhood of 
this spring, and the water is naturally of good quality for domestic pur- 
poses. It is exposed to danger of surface pollution and could readily be 
protected by walling and covering the spring, and if this were done the 
spring would undoubtedly yield water of very good quality. 

The conditions in this village are such that a suitable public water 
supply is greatly needed, and the Board recommends that such a supply 
be provided at the earliest possible time and the further use of the pol- 
luted wells be discontinued. 

Shrewsbury. 

July 11, 1913. 
To Mr. W. S. Knight, Worcester, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of Har- 
low's or Newton Pond, a tributary of Lake Quinsigamond, in the north- 
western part of the town of Shrewsbury, the State Board of Health has 
caused the pond and its watershed to be examined and a sample of the 
water to be analyzed. 

The results show that at the time of this examination the water had 
considerable color and contained a larger quantity of organic matter than 
is found in good pond waters. There was a considerable growth of water 
plants in the pond, the bottom of much of which is evidently muddy, and 
it is probable that this water if used for domestic purposes would be 
affected at times by noticeable tastes and odors which would make it un- 
pleasant for drinking. The watershed of the pond contains many farm- 
houses, and the enforcement of sanitary regulations would be essential 
in order to protect the water from pollution. 

There are several localities on the banks of the pond and elsewhere in 
the town in which it appears to be practicable to obtain an adequate sup- 
ply of good ground water which would be by far more satisfactory for 
domestic use than the water of Harlow's Pond, and such a source would 
be far more appropriate and desirable for the supply of the lake district 
in Shrewsbury, or for the village itself, than water from Harlow's Pond. 
Moreover, a supply of ground water would be likely to be less expensive 
than from the pond in question, and under the circumstances, in the 
opinion of the Board, it is not advisable to consider the use of the water 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^^^s"S. 117 

of Harlow's Pond for tlie supply of any part of Shrewsbury until the 
possibility of securing a supply of ground water has been thoroughly 
tested. 

Sept. IS, 1913. 
To the Committee on Water Supply, Shrewsbury, Mass., Mr. R. E. Allen, Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has -considered your re- 
quest of Sept. 13, 1913, for advice as to the advisability of making 
certain tests with a view to obtaining a water supply for the town of 
Shrewsbury from the valley of Hop Brook, near Temple Hill in South 
Shrewsbury, and has considered the results of the analyses of samples of 
water from test wells in this location. 

According to the information submitted to the Board these test wells 
penetrated a porous soil to a depth of about 18 feet, and at that level 
water could be drawn freely from these wells with a hand pump. Below 
that level fine material was encountered in each of the wells from which 
no water could be obtained. 

The results of analyses of samples of water from the test wells indi- 
cate that the ground water in this locality is probably of good quality for 
domestic purposes. 

Regarding the quantity of water obtainable from the ground in this 
locality, it is impracticable to give you a definite estimate without a 
further test. The depth of porous material is not favorable to obtaining 
a large supply of water from the ground in this region, but, in view of 
the comparatively small quantity of water required for the supply of 
the town, it is not unlikely that an adequate quantity could be obtained 
from the ground in this location by means of suitable works. 

Considering the circumstances, it appears to the Board advisable to 
make a pumping test in this location by pumping continuously from a 
number of wells for a period of as much as a week or ten days at a 
rate as great as would be required for the supply of the village, ^^^len 
the results of such a test are available it will be practicable to determine 
definitely whether it is likely that enough water could be obtained from 
the ground at this place for the requirements of the town in the matter 
of a public water supply. The Board will assist in this test by making 
the necessary analyses of water, and when the results are available will 
give you further advice as to the practicability of obtaining a water 
supply for the town at this place. 



lis STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Committee on Public Water Supply, Shrewsbury, Mass., Mr. R. E. Allen, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication for advice relative to a water supply for the town of Shrews- 
bury, to be taken from the ground in the valley of Hop Brook about a 
mile southeast of the village, and has examined the results of a pumping 
test recently made by pumping from a group of five wells in this region 
for a period of about eight days, from Nov. 3 to 11, 1913. 

It appears that the porous material in this region extends only to a 
depth of about IS feet below the surface of the ground and, while it 
yields water freely, it was not practicable to pump at a higher rate than 
170,000 gallons per day for the greater part of the test. This rate of 
pujQping, however, was maintained without difficulty, and the water in 
the wells quickly recovered its former height after pumping was dis- 
continued. Considering the high rainfall immediately preceding and at 
the time of this test, the results would have been more conclusive if a 
higher rate of pumping could have been maintained. 

Judging, however, from the results of this test and other information 
as to the conditions affecting a ground-water supply from this region, it 
appears to the Board probable that, with a system of tubular wells of 
considerable extent in this valley, enough water can be obtained there 
for the present requirements of the town after water has come into gen- 
eral use. Since it appears that it is not intended to supply water from 
this source to the growing population in the neighborhood of Lake Quin- 
sigamond, it is probable that, unless an extraordinary demand for water, 
not now foreseen, should arise, enough water can be obtained in the local- 
ity in which this test was made to supply the town for a considerable 
period of years in the future. 

Analyses of the water collected from time to time during the pumping 
test show that it is soft and in other respects of good quality for domestic 
purposes. 

Considering the results of this investigation, the Board is of the opin- 
ion that the source is an appropriate one for the water supply of the 
present village of Shrewsbury. 

Somerset. 

July 15, 1913. 
To the Water Supply Committee, Somerset, Mass., Mr. Owen J. Eagan, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to 5'our application of July 8, 1913, for 
advice as to the practicability of obtaining a water supply from the 
ground in the valley of the Labor in Vain Creek in the neighborhood of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^^'NS. 119 

the Pierce and Donovan farms, where tests have recently been made, the 
State Board of Health has caused the locality to be examined and samples 
of the water from two of the test wells to be analyzed. 

The results of these analyses indicate that the ground water at the 
Pierce farm is affected somewhat at present by the cultivation of the soil 
in the immediate neighborhood, but in other respects — except for the 
hardness — the waters of these wells are apparently of good quality for 
domestic purposes, and the hardness is not materially greater than the 
hardness of the waters used for domestic purposes in many of the towns 
in the State. If the cultivation of the soil were discontinued it is not 
unlikely that the hardness would diminish. 

Pegarding the probable quantity of water obtainable from the ground 
in this region, it is impracticable to advise you definitely with the informa- 
tion at present available. Several of the test wells penetrated a porous 
stratum from which water could be pumped very freely, and while there 
are indications that the porous soil may extend over a considerable area, 
its depth as shown by the test wells thus far driven was not great, and 
the area which may drain toward them is somewhat limited. It does 
not appear, however, from the investigations thus far made that the con- 
ditions in other parts of the town are more favorable for obtaining a 
supply of ground water sufficient for all requirements than in the locality 
where these tests have been made. 

On account of its location the source will be a favorable one from 
which to supply the town economically in case an adequate supply can 
be secured there, and considering all of the circumstances the Board is 
of the opinion that it is advisable to make further tests in this locality 
before making investigations elsewhere. 

The Board recommends that you put in additional wells in the region 
in which the recent tests were made and test them by pumping continu- 
ously at a rate of at least 200,000 gallons per day, and preferably a some- 
what higher rate, for a period of as much as two weeks. The water 
pumped during this test should be discharged directly into the brook 
at a point at least 100 feet below the wells, and if practicable at a greater 
distance. In addition to the wells connected with the pump, three or 
four observation wells should be put in — one in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the test wells and the others at a distance of 300 or 400 feet 
from these wells — and observations made once each day of the height 
of the ground water, beginning before the pumps are started and con- 
tinuing for a period of at least ten days after the test is completed. The 
Board will assist you in these investigations by making the necessary 
analyses of water and advises that a sample of water be collected daily 
while the test is in progress. In case the conditions for obtaining water 



120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

are unfavorable, it may not be necessary to continue the test for as long 
a period as two weeks. Upon notice that the test is about to begin, the 
Board will make the necessary further examinations and arrange for 
the collection of samples. 

Dec. 16, 1913. 

To the Committee on Water Supply of the Town of Somerset, Mass., Mr. Owen J. Eagan, 

Chairman. 

Gextlemek' : — The State Board of Health has considered .your appli- 
cation for advice as to a plan for obtaining a water supply for Somerset 
from the ground in the vicinity of the reservoir north of Swansea village 
and has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and samples 
of water from test wells in this region to be analyzed. The Board has 
also considered carefully the results of the thorough investigation made 
by the town of Somerset with a view to securing an adequate water sup- 
ply /or its inhabitants within its corporate limits. These investigations 
consisted of an examination of all of the valleys within the limits of the 
town and the sinking of wells in all places where the conditions appeared 
to indicate that it might be possible to obtain a considerable quantity of 
water. 

The results of these tests were in all cases very unfavorable except in 
the valley of Lal)or in Vain Creek near its head waters in the northerly 
part of the town. As a result of tests in various parts of this valley it 
was found that the only apparently favorable location in which ground 
water of good quality could be obtained was near Wilson's Lane on the 
Pierce farm in the valley of this stream. In this location it was found 
practicable to sink test wells to a depth of from 20 to 30 feet which would 
yield water very freely when pumping with a hand pump. The water 
upon examination was found to be of good quality, and in view of the 
circumstances it was deemed essential to test more completely the prob- 
able quantity and quality of water that could be obtained from the 
ground in this locality. 

A pumping test was accordingly made by pumping from eight wells, 
averaging about 22 feet in depth, for a period of about nine days, begin- 
ning on September 10. At the beginning of this test water was pumped 
on the first day at an average rate of a little over 300,000 gallons per 
day, but the level of the ground water lowered and the rate of pumping 
steadily decreased in subsequent days until it fell to a rate of al^out 
95,000 gallons per day. Upon stopping the pump and observing the 
rise of the ground water, it was found to be many days before it returned 
to the level at which it stood when pumping began, notwithstanding the 
occurrence of a very considerable rainfall during this period. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 121 

While the water furnished by these wells was found to be of good 
quality for domestic purposes, the test showed very conclusively that it 
would be impracticable to obtain an adequate quantity of water for the 
supply of Somerset from the ground in this region, and the tests as a 
whole fail to show any other location within the limits of Somerset 
from which it would be practicable to obtain an adequate supply of good 
water for all the requirements of the town. 

Subsequent to these tests further investigations were made with a 
view to obtaining a water supply at the nearest practicable point to the 
boundaries of the town. The results of a general examination of the 
territory in the region bordering the boundaries of the town of Somerset 
indicate that the most favorable place, judging from surface indications, 
in which it might be practicable to obtain an adequate quantity of good 
ground water was in the lower part of the valley of Lewin Brook, a short 
distance northwest of the village of Swansea, and test wells have been 
sunk by your committee both on the easterly and westerly sides of 
this brook near the reservoir in the lower part of its watershed. These 
tests show that the ground on both sides of this reservoir is composed of 
very coarse and porous material to a considerable depth, and the test 
wells yielded water very freely while pumping with a hand pump. 
Analyses of these waters indicate that the quality would probably be 
satisfactory for domestic purposes. 

While it has been impracticable for your committee with the funds 
available to make a more thorough test at the present time as to the 
probable quantity and quality of ground water obtainable in this location, 
the tests thus far made arc sufficiently favorable to warrant the belief 
that an adequate quantity of water for the requirements not only of 
Somerset but also of the town of Swansea can be obtained from the 
ground in that region. Moreover, this location is a favorable one from 
which to supply water to all parts of Somerset, and water could also 
be supplied very economically from works in this region to the thickly 
settled portions of the town of Swansea. 

In the opinion of the Board the investigations thus far made are 
favorable for obtaining an adequate supply of water from the ground in 
the valley of Lewin Brook, and this location appears to be the most appro- 
priate and available source from which to obtain a water supply for the 
to^\Ti of Somerset. It is likely that an ample quantity of water can be 
obtained in this location for the to^^Ti of Swansea also, in case that to^^Ti 
should desire to introduce a public water supply. 

If the further tests that are desirable before the construction of works 
is entered upon shall confirm the results of the tests thus far made, there 



122 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

is no doubt that it would be more economical for Somerset and Swansea 
to obtain their water supplies from joint works in this valley than by the 
construction of separate systems. 



Spencer (Isaac Prouty & Co.). 

Jan. 13, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Spencer, Mass., Dr. J. C. Austin, Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request the State Board of Health 
has caused the water supplies used in the factory of Isaac Prouty & Co. 
to be examined and samples of these waters to be analyzed, and the Board 
has also caused an investigation to be made of the typhoid cases which 
have occurred recently in the town with a view to determining the prob- 
able source of the disease. 

The results of the investigation show that two cases of typhoid ap- 
peared in a house near the banks of Cider Mill Pond in October and 
]^ovember, and the Board is informed that an investigation of the prem- 
ises shows that the sewage from this house is discharged directly into the 
pond. Since that time eleven persons have been attacked by the disease, 
all of whom are employees in the factory of Isaac Prouty & Co. 

An examination of the sources of water supply in this factory shows 
that the buildings are piped vnth. water from the public supply to be 
used for drinking; that water is also supplied from a tubular well for 
washing; and that, furthermore, there is a connection by which water 
can be pumped from Cider Mill Pond to be used in the boilers. Faucets 
connected with the drinking water supply and with the tubular well 
supply are located at the sinks, and notices are posted to show which is 
the drinking water ; but notices were not found at all of the faucets, and 
there is opportunity for operatives to drink from either faucet in some 
cases without notification as to the difference in the water. When water 
is pumped from Cider Mill Pond it enters the system of pipes through 
which wash water is supplied to the sinks. 

The recent analyses show that the driven well water supplied to this 
factory contains more bacteria than are found in good well waters, and 
the chemical analysis also shows evidence that the water has been pol- 
luted and subsequently not thoroughly purified before entering the well. 
The bacterial analysis of Shaw Pond water supplied to the factory shows 
that bacteria are practically absent from this water. 

Considering the fact that Cider Mill Pond has evidently been polluted 
by the discharges from typhoid patients, and that this water has been 
supplied frequently to the wash-water pipes and thus can be and prob- 
ably is used for drinking by operatives in the factory, the indications 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^A'NS. 123 

point very strongly to this water as the source of the disease. The Board 
recommends that you require that all pipes supplying water from Cider 
Mill Pond or from the tubular well at any point on the premises of this 
factory where it may be used for drinking be immediately cut off, and 
that in the future no connections from which water may be taken for 
drinking be allowed with any pipes except those which supply town 
water. 

The Board also recommends that a sewer be extended so as to inter- 
cept the sewage from houses in the region along Cider Mill Pond, in- 
cluding the ones in which the first cases of typhoid fever occurred. 



Steklij^tg. 

Dec. 23, 1913. 
To the Sterling Advancement Association, Committee on Water Supply, Sterling, Moss. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to a pro- 
posed source of water supply for the village of Sterling, to be taken from 
the ground in the valley of a brook a little over half a mile northeast 
of the village, the State Board of Health has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers and a sample of the water of a spring 
in this locality to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of the spring has at 
some time been considerably polluted but subsequently quite well purified 
in its passage through the ground, indicating that the ground water in 
this region may be affected somewhat by the pollution in the valley above, 
though it may possibly be due to local pollution. 

The watershed available for a water supply in this locality is quite 
limited, but, if a deep layer of porous soil of considerable extent exists 
in this region, it is possible that an adequate quantity of water for the 
present requirements of the village can be obtained from the ground in 
this neighborhood. While the conditions appear to be more favorable 
for obtaining ground water at either of the localities suggested by the 
Board at the time of the previous examination in 1908, one being the 
valley below Smith's Spring a half mile north of the village, and the 
other being the valley of Lydes Brook west of the village, it is, never- 
theless, possible that enough water for the requirements of the town may 
be obtained in the neighborhood of the location now proposed, or farther 
down the valley of this stream. 

The Board is unable to give you more definite advice until tests have 
been made which will show the character of the soil and the probable 
quantity of water that can be ol^tained from wells in this region. The 
Board recommends that further tests be made by means of tubular wells, 



124 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

both at this place and in the other localities in which the conditions ap- 
pear to be favorable for obtaining an adequate water supply for the town. 
The Board will assist you in these investigations by making the neces- 
saiT analyses of water, and when the results of tests are available will 
give you further advice as to the sources of water supply for the village. 



Stoughton. 

Jan. 3, 1913. 
To the Board of Health and the Water Board, Stoughton, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In connection with an investigation as to the causes 
of the occurrence of cases of typhoid fever recently in the town of 
Stoughton, an examination has been made of the condition of the water 
supply of the town in accordance with your request. 

It appears that the supply is taken from Muddy Pond Brook above 
Leonard's Brook, and an examination of the watershed indicates that it 
contains several dwelling houses and small areas of cultivated lands. The 
water is drawn directly from the brook, and under the circumstances 
the source cannot be regarded as a safe one from which to take water for 
drinking. 

The pipe line leading from the brook to the pumping station passes 
beneath Steep -Hill Brook, which receives large quantities of sewage and 
manufacturing waste from Stoughton and the waters of which are highly 
polluted. Investigations of former years have indicated that this pipe 
line is not tight, but in the course of the recent tests there was no evi- 
dence of leakage from Steep Hill Brook directly into the pipe. 

Prom the tests thus far made the Board finds no direct evidence that 
the sickness is due to the water supply, but there is no doubt that the 
source of supply now used is exposed to danger of pollution, as the town 
has already been advised. The Board again recommends that measures 
be taken by the town to secure a water supply which will be safe from 
pollution. The indications are very favorable for obtaining an adequate 
supply of excellent water at a reasonable cost from the ground in the 
valley of Muddy Pond Brook, as the Board has advised at previous times, 
and the Board again recommends that steps be taken to secure such a 
supply as soon as possible. In the meantime the watershed should be 
placed at once under thorough inspection to learn if any fecal matter is 
entering the brook. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 125 

Jan. 8, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Stoughton, Mass. 

Gentle^^ien : — Your letter of Jan. 6, 1913, is received, with a re- 
quest for information in answer to the following questions : — 

In connection with investigations as to the causes of the occurrence of 
cases of typhoid in other parts of the State, has the State Board found 
"direct evidence" that the sickness was due to the water supply, i.e., in 
large water supplies, not wells'? If such "direct evidence" has been found, 
please cite a few particular instances. Briefly, what constitutes " direct 
evidence " that a water supply is a cause of cases of typhoid fever? 

On undertaking such an examination as was recently made of the Stough- 
ton water supply, did the State Board anticipate that " direct evidence " of 
the water supply being the cause of typhoid would be found even if the 
cause of the sickness was in the water supply? 

Did the State Board make an examination to determine whether or not 
the specific germ which causes typhoid was actually present in the water 
supply ? 

Will the State Board snbmit a report of their chemical and bacteriological 
findings in the recent examination'? 

In answer to your first question, it may be said that for many years 
there has been no occurrence in Massachusetts of typhoid fever attribut- 
able to the larger water supplies, that is, none since the use of water from 
running streams was discontinued many years ago. In places outside 
the State epidemics directly traceable to large water supplies have oc- 
curred, such as the epidemic at Butler, Pa., described in books and re- 
ports relating to this subject. 

In answer to your second questioA — " . . . did the State Board 
anticipate that direct evidence of the water supply being the cause of 
typhoid would be found even if the cause of the sickness was in the 
water supply ? " — it may be said that it is often very difficult to obtain 
satisfactory evidence as to the actual manner of infection of a water 
supply by typhoid fever, even when the circimistances indicate clearly 
that the water supply is the cause of the disease. 

The difficulty of determining the source or manner of infection of 
the water supply by typhoid fever will be more readily understood if the 
circumstances under which the investigation must necessarily be made are 
kept clearly in mind. In the present case, assuming that the infection 
is due to the water supply, it appears from the records submitted by your 
board that the first case was reported on December 21 ; other cases were 
reported subsequently on December 23, 26, 31, and on January 1 and 3. 
The investigations of your board as to the onset of the disease indicated 



126 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

that the onset in two cases occurred on December 4 and 5, and in the 
others, so far as known, between December 10 and 14, except one case, 
which occurred on December 21. The cases of December 4 and 5 pre- 
sumably received their infection about j^ovember 20, while in the bulk of 
the cases infection presumably occurred between November 25 and the 
first few days of December, so that there elapsed a period of three weeks 
between the time when infection occurred and the first case was reported. 
When such cases continued to come in, information was collected as to 
the movements of patients before sickness, the sources of food, milk and 
water supply, and the other data necessary to form a judgment as to the 
probable source of the disease, the results in this case showing that the 
only source of possible infection common to all or most of the cases was 
the public water supply. The work of investigation was as prompt and 
eflScient as practicable, yet by the time suspicion pointed to the water 
supply as a possible source of infection as many as four weeks had 
elapsed after the infection must have taken place. Assuming that the 
disease was caused by the water supply, the fact that the bulk of the 
cases developed between December 10 and 14 would indicate that what- 
ever pollution may have occurred to cause this infection must have 
affected the water supply only for a very limited period. Since the oc- 
currence of cases had practically ceased by the time the question of the 
agency of the water supply in producing the disease had arisen, it was 
obvious that examinations of the water supply would not show its con- 
dition at the time the infection occurred. 

In answer to your third question, as to whether an examination was 
made to determine whether or not the specific germ which causes typhoid 
fever was actually present in the water supply, of course no such test 
was made, nor is it practicable — ' except possibly in very rare instances — 
to determine whether typhoid fever bacteria are present in water under 
such circumstances as occurred in this case. The common bacterial test 
to determine the presence of pollution in a water supply is the deter- 
mination of the Colon bacillus, and this was found to be present in 90 
per cent, of the samples of your water supply examined in the recent 
test. Moreover, the numbers of bacteria present were high, and in other 
respects the results of the bacterial examination were unfavorable. 

While no direct evidence has been found of the infection of the water 
of your water supply by discharges from typhoid fever patients, there is 
ample evidence from the investigations of the Board that it has been and 
is greatly exposed to pollution by visitors within the watershed, traces of 
whose presence were found along the streams above your intake. 

Most of the water of Leonard's Brook under ordinary conditions is 
diverted away from the intake, but there is leakage through the diversion 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. ' 127 

dam, and at times of higher flows in the brook the water overflows the 
diversion dam and enters Muddy Brook from which your supply is 
directly drawn. The watershed of Leonard's Brook contains a large 
ice house at which there are no sanitary conveniences, and there are evi- 
dences that not long ago work was carried on in the brook in repairing a 
dam. It also appears that some time last fall, manure, into which 
privy waste had been mixed, was spread upon the ground in the neigh- 
borhood of Leonard's Brook, and there is evidence that a similar method 
of disposal of privy waste has taken place in the watershed of Drake's 
Brook. Hunters, woodchoppers and others were found to be present 
within the watershed, for whom, of course, no sanitary conveniences 
exist. 

Under such conditions the water supply could easily be infected and 
yet no trace of the manner of infection be found several weeks later 
when the disease has made its appearance. 

Cases of typhoid fever occur in which the patient, although capable of 
spreading infection, is not confined to the house or prevented from going 
about his usual occupations, and there are, besides, the cases of the 
bacillus carriers, so called, who may be apparently in perfect health, yet 
be capable of spreading the disease. 

Under the conditions found in your watershed the danger of infection 
of your water supply, taken as it is directly from a running stream, is 
very serious. 

The Board recommends that the town begin at once the work of se- 
curing a good water supply adequately protected from danger of pollu- 
tion. Such a supply can probably be obtained from your present water- 
shed at a very reasonable expense. Until such a supply is secured, the 
watershed should be rigidly inspected daily and all practicable measures 
taken to prevent pollution. It will also be best that all water used for 
drinking be boiled or that the supply be treated temporarily with hypo- 
chlorite of lime under proper supervision until a safe supply has been 
introduced. 

Copies of the recent chemical and bacterial analyses of your water sup- 
ply are appended. 

TowNSEXD (Wells). 

Dec. 5, 1913. 

To the Board of Health, Townsend, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to the request of Dr. H. B. Boynton, 
agent of your board, and Mr. H. C. Knight, Superintendent of Schools, 
the State Board of Health has caused certain wells in Townsend to be 
examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 



128 ■ STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The well at the Center School, at the junction of Pleasant and School 
streets, is located near the center of the densely populated part of the 
village but was not being used regularly at the time of this examination. 
A sample was obtained, however, and the results of the analysis show that 
the water has at some time been considerably polluted and not subse- 
quently well purified in its passage through the ground before entering 
the well. Considering this result in connection with previous analyses 
of this water, it appears that its quality is very variable, showing at times 
when it has been in use a greater amount of pollution than at the present 
time. In the opinion of the Board the well is an unsafe source from 
which to take water for drinking. 

The well of W. A. Russell, School Street, is located in the cellar of the 
house, which is in a thickly populated part of the village. The results 
of the analysis show that the water entering this well has at some time 
been seriously polluted and not subsequently completely purified in its 
passage through the ground before entering the well. Under the circum- 
stances, the source cannot be regarded as a safe one from which to take 
water for drinking. 

An examination of the well of W. G. Domina, Smith Street, shows 
that it is well protected from pollution at the surface, but the results of 
the analysis show that the water has at some time been very badly pol- 
luted and not subsequently completely purified in its passage through 
the ground before entering the well. In the opinion of the Board the 
well is an unsafe source from which to take water for drinking. 

The well at the school on Main Street in West Townsend is not pro- 
vided with a pump, the water being drawn by lowering a pail. There 
are sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of the well, as 
in the case of the other wells examined, and the results of an analysis of 
water show that it receives considerable pollution. In the opinion of the 
Board the source is not a safe one from which to take water for drinking. 

A public water supply is greatly needed in the thickly settled portions 
of Townsend, and a supply of good water adequate for the requirements 
of the town can be obtained at a comparatively small cost. In view of 
the great danger to the public health from the continued use of the pol- 
luted wells in the thickly settled parts of the town, the Board recom- 
mends the introduction of a public water supply a.t the earliest prac- 
ticable time. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 129 



"West Brookfield. 

Jan. 2, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, West Brookfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for the approval, under the provisions of chapter 373 of the Acts 
of the year 1911, of the taking of water for the supply of the town of 
West Brookfield from a system of tubular wells to be located on the 
southwesterly shore of Wickaboag Pond, and has caused the locality to 
be examined by its engineer and considered the results of a pumping 
test made by pumping from a group of wells in this locality from 
November 29 to December 7, inclusive. 

The results of analyses of samples of water collected at frequent in- 
tervals during the test show that it is soft and in all other respects of 
good quality for the purposes of a public water supply. 

The quantity of water pumped during the test was considerably in 
excess of the quantity likely to be required for the supply of West Brook- 
field at the present time, and the results of observations of the height of 
the ground water in the neighborhood during the test, together with 
other information affecting the wells, indicate that the yield is likely to 
be adequate for the requirements of the village at all times, unless the 
quantity of water used shall become much greater than is required at the 
present time. 

The Board approves the taking of water for the supply of West 
Brookfield from the ground at the location at which the test was made 
and approves the general location of the wells used in this test. There 
are small areas near the wells which are flooded at times of high water 
in the pond, which it is understood you propose to improve by removing 
the organic matter and filling to the level of high water. These im- 
provements are very desirable in order to preserve the quality of the well 
water. 

An adequate area of land should be acquired to prevent the location of 
buildings or other structures at any point in the neighborhood of the 
wells from which polluting matter might enter them by passing over or 
through the ground. 

If you desire more definite advice concerning the acquirement of lands 
for the protection of the water supply the Board will, upon the sub- 
mission of a plan showing the area which you propose to acquire, advise 
vou concerning it. 



130 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

West Stockbridge. 

Oct. 2, 1913. 

To the Committee on Water Supply, West Stockbridge, Mass., Mr. W. W. Bartlett, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
the Cheever Ore Pit, so called, located about two miles north of the 
village of West Stockbridge, and advice as to the use of water from this 
locality for the supply of the village, the State Board of Health has 
caused the source indicated to be examined by one of its engineers and 
a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the Cheever Ore Pit is an 
abandoned iron mine which has become filled with ground water. N"o 
tests have been made to determine the quantity of water that can be 
obtained from this source, but the area of the watershed appears to be 
extremely limited and it is improbable that it will supply by gravity 
enough water for the requirements of the village at all times. 

Considering the conditions, the source does not appear to the Board 
to be a desirable one from which to attempt to obtain a water supply 
for West Stockbridge. 

An examination has also been made of Pauls Brook in the neighbor- 
hood of Stevens Glen, where this stream has a drainage area of about 
one square mile. The brook would probably supply an adequate quantity 
of water for the requirements of the village, but the brook is exposed 
to considerable danger of pollution, especially from visitors to Stevens 
Glen, and — considering the circumstances — the source is not a de- 
sirable one in the opinion of the Board from which to take water for 
domestic use. 

The Board recommends that you have a careful investigation made, 
with the assistance of an engineer of experience in water supply investi- 
gations, to determine the most available source or sources for the supply 
of the town. The Board will, upon request, assist you in these investi- 
gations by making the necessary analyses of water and will advise you 
as to the most appropriate source of supply for the town when the re- 
sults of further investigations are available. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 131 



Williamsburg. 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Williamsburg, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to taking 
an additional water supply for the town of Williamsburg temporarily 
from Mill Eiver at a point about half a mile north of the village, the 
State Board of Health has caused the Mill Eiver and its watershed to 
be examined and a sample of water to be analyzed. 

At the time of this examination the water was turbid and had an 
unpleasant odor, caused possibly by a recent rain. 

The watershed of this stream is extensive and contains numerous 
dwelling houses, some of which are near the stream or its tributaries. 
While it does not appear that the stream was being directly polluted at 
the time this examination was made, the water is exposed to such 
danger of pollution that, in the opinion of the Board, it is not advisable 
to use it for domestic purposes unless it is boiled or, if practicable, 
effectually treated with disinfectant; and if it is necessary to introduce 
this water immediately into the supply pipes of the town, all of the 
water takers should be warned to boil the water before using it for 
drinking. 

The supply main of the city of Northampton, leading from Mountain 
Street Eeservoir, passes through the valley of Beaver Brook apparently 
at no great distance from the supply mains in Haydenville, and if prac- 
ticable it would be best to secure an auxiliary supply from that source 
so as to avoid the use of Mill Eiver in the future. 

The Board recommends that investigations be made without delay 
for the purpose of securing a permanent additional supply for the town 
of Williamsburg, so that the necessity of taking water from temporary 
sources may be avoided. 

Dec. 15, 1913. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Williamsburg, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Nov. 25, 1913, for 
the establishment of sanitary rules and regulations for the protection of 
the purity of the water of Unquomonk Brook, the source of water supply 
of Williamsburg, the State Board of Health has caused an examination 
of the watershed to be made by one of its engineers and has considered 
the information presented as to the conditions now existing there. 

From this examination it appears that a hospital for tuberculosis 
patients is now being constructed within this watershed, and it is evi- 
dent that the sewage therefrom must be disposed of at some point within 



132 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the watershed, while the drainage of all the grounds around the build- 
ings will flow to the reservoir. It appears to the Board that the opera- 
tion of a tuberculosis hospital within this watershed, under the condi- 
tions existing there, would be a serious menace to the purity of the 
water, and considering its location it appears to the Board impracticable 
to protect adequately the purity of your source of water supply by any 
rules and regulations which might now be made. 

The Board recommends that the town acquire at once the hospital 
property, which if necessary can be taken under existing laws, and that 
the use of these buildings for hospital purposes in the future be pre- 
vented. When this property has been acquired and the location of a hos- 
pital there prevented, it will be practicable, in the opinion of the Board, 
by the adoption of sanitary rules and regulations, to protect adequately 
the purity of your water supply. 

WOECESTER. 

Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, 
rules and regulations were made by the Board on May 1, 1913, for pre- 
venting the pollution and securing the sanitary protection of the waters 
of Asnebumskit Brook and its tributaries, used by the city of Worcester 
as a source of water supply. 

In addition to the foregoing, the Board has advised the following 
cities, towns and persons relative to spring waters, waters used for the 
supply of factories, public wells or wells used by a number of families; 
but as these matters are for the most part of minor public importance, 
the communications of the Board in these cases have not been printed. 
Copies of them are on file in the office of the Board : — 

Andover, well at North School. 

Blackstone, wells of Woonsocket Rubber Company, Millville. 

Boston, well of Boston Belting Company. 

Bridgewater, wells (two). 

Brookfiekl, well of Foster-Monlton Shoe Company. 

Canton, well of Plymouth Rubber Company. 

Chelmsford, wells (two). 

Chelmsford, well of Silesia Worsted Mills. 

Dedham, wells. 

Douglas, spring at Douglas Camp Ground. 

Draeut, spring. 

Fall River, wells of Enterprise Brewing Company. 

Fitchburg, spring in Boston & Maine Railroad yard. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 133 

Frainingham, water supply of Society of St. Vineeut de Paul, 

Gardner, spring. 

Great Barringlon, well in Housatonie. 

Hanson, well. 

Haverhill, spring. 

Holbrook, springs (two). 

Holden, spring. 

Holyoke, wells of Deane Steam Pump Company. 

Lawrence, wells (two). 

Lawrence, spring. 

Lawrence, well of Arlington Mills. 

Lawrence, well of Hartig & Miller. 

Lawrence, well at Bay State Building. 

Lexington, well. 

Lynn, well. 

Lynnfield, well at school. 

Marshfield, well at Sea View. 

Medford, well on Boulevard Heights. 

Medway, well. 

Methuen, spring. 

Milton, well. 

Nantucket, Sachem Spring. 

New Bedford, well. 

North Attleborough, well of Riley & French. 

Northbridge. wells (two). 

North Eeading, water supply of school. 

Norwood, well of F. W. Bird & Son. 

Norwood, well. 

Palmer, water supply at Forest Lake Park. 

Palmer, spring. 

Pelham, wells. 

Plainville, wells of Whiting & Davis Company. 

PljTnouth, spring at Manomet Bluffs. 

Princeton, wells. 

Reading, Massasoit Spring. 

Saugus, town pump. 

Shelburne Falls, well. 

Shutesbun;, springs. 

Sterling, wells (two). 

Sturbridge, wells at schoolhouses. 

Swansea, wells. 

Walpole. spring of F. W. Bird & Son. 

Watertown, wells of ^tna Mills. 

Westfield. well in Pequot Park. 

Weston, well on Siblev Road. 



134 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Weston, well at Hastings Organ Factory. 
Westport, wells (two). 
Westwood, well at Colburn School. 
Westwood, well of H. F. Mylod. 
Winchester, well. 
Woburn, well. 

Ice Supplies. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to ice supplies : — 

Amherst. 

Feb. 24, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Amherst, Alass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
an ice pond on Amethyst Brook in the easterly part of Amherst, from 
which ice is harvested for general purposes, the State Board of Health 
has caused the pond and its surroundings to be examined and samples 
of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the pond is an artificial one 
of no great depth and that the brook which flows into the pond is pol- 
luted by the discharge of sewage from a factory and dwelling house about 
half a mile above the pond. The analyses of samples of ice from this 
pond show that it contains a larger quantity of organic matter than is 
found in good ice, but the number of bacteria in the samples examined 
was very small. 

Under the existing circumstances the only way in which ice taken 
from this pond can be used with safety is by removing from the ice, after 
cutting, all snow ice, including .the first inch of clear ice that formed 
upon the pond, and rejecting all ice containing particles of foreign mat- 
ter. If this plan is strictly followed it is probable that the clear ice cut 
from this pond may safely be used for domestic purposes. The discharge 
of sewage into tlie brook above the pond should be prevented if the use 
of the pond as a source of ice supply is to be continued. 

Auburn. 

Feb. 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Auburn, Mass., Mr. John J. Allen, Secretary. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
Pondville mill pond and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply, 
the State Board of Health has caused the pond and its surroundings to 
be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 135 

From the information presented to the Board it appears that it is 
proposed to cut ice from the lower part of the pond at a point about 
0.3 of a mile above the dam at Pondville. The pond is apparently a 
little over a mile in length and has a maximum depth of about 20 feet. 
The location from which the ice is to be cut is in the deeper and wider 
section of the pond. An examination of the watershed shows that the 
water receives little direct pollution, but sewage is apparently discharged 
into one of the tributaries of the pond from a factory in West Millbury, 
where from 30 to 40 persons are employed. This pollution should be 
discontinued immediately and the sewage disposed of in some suitable 
place where it will not pollute the pond. 

In the opinion of the Board ice may safely be taken for domestic 
purposes from the mill pond at Pondville, providing that all snow ice, 
including the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the pond, is removed 
before the ice is used, and that all ice containing particles of foreign 
matter is rejected. 

Canton. 

Dec. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Canton, Mass., Mr. W. A. Bense, Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for a further examina- 
tion of Dean's Pond and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply, 
the State Board of Health has caused the pond and its surroundings to 
be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the brook which enters the 
pond drains a territory containing a considerable population and that 
it receives considerable pollution, but it does not appear to be directly 
polluted from the houses mentioned in your communication. It also 
receives considerable soot and ashes from the railroads. 

The results of the examination do not show that the conditions differ 
materially from those found at the time of the examination in 1912, 
when the results of the analysis of a sample of the ice indicated that it 
could be used with safety for domestic purposes. 

The circumstances affecting this pond are such, however, that it is of 
the greatest importance that the ice shall be carefully inspected when 
harvested to insure the carrying out of the requirements recommended 
last year ; these were that the first inch of ice that forms upon the pond, 
including all snow ice or ice which may have formed above it, shall be 
removed, and that all ice which contains particles of foreign matter shall 
be rejected. 

When ice of sufficient thickness again forms upon this pond the Board 
will, if you so request, make an examination of it and advise you further 
as to the continued use of this source. 



136 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Chicopee. 

Dec. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Chicopee, Mass., Mr. Charles J. O'Brien, Secretanj. 

Gentlemex : — In response to your request of Dec. 4, 1913, for an 
examination of the water of a pond from which it is proposed to harvest 
ice to sell for domestic purposes in Chicopee, the State Board of Health 
has caused the pond and its surroundings to be examined and a sample 
of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the watershed of the pond is 
uninhabited, that the pond itself is fed mainly by springs, and that its 
waters are not exposed to pollution. 

In the opinion of the Board the source is a safe one from which to 
take ice for domestic purposes. 

Fall Eiver (Arctic Ice Company). 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Fall River, Mass., Mr. Samuel B. Morriss, Agent. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
ice stored in the houses of the Arctic Ice Company on South Watuppa 
Pond and advice as to its quality, the State Board of Health has caused 
the locality to be examined and samples of the ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the ice found in these 
houses consists in part of snow ice and in part of clear ice, and the analy- 
ses show that the clear ice beneath the snow ice may safely be used for 
domestic purposes, but the Board recommends that all snow ice, includ- 
ing the first inch of clear ice, be removed before using. 

There appears to be no doubt that ice of good quality for domestic 
purposes can be obtained from South Watuppa Pond, but it is advisable 
that this recommendation be carried out with all ice used from that 
source. 

Georgetown. 

June 5, 1913. 
To Mr. George O. Putnam, Danvers, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of Eock 
Pond in Georgetown and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply, 
the State Board of Health has caused the pond and its surroundings to 
be examined and samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the ice found in the ice 
house on the shore of the pond is of good quality for domestic purposes. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 137 

Greenfield. 

April 28, 1913. 
To the Greenfield Ice and Trucking Company, Greenfield, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your request for an examination of 
three ponds from which you are proposing to supply ice for domestic pur- 
poses in Greenfield, the State Board of Health has caused the ponds and 
their surroundings to be examined and samples of the water and ice to 
be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the ponds are not exposed 
to danger of serious pollution, and the ice from each of these ponds 
appears to be of good quality. The Board recommends that all snow 
ice, including the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the ponds, be 
removed before using, and all ice containing particles of foreign matter 
be rejected. With these precautions ice from these three ponds can con- 
tinue to be used with safety while the conditions affecting them remain 
as at present. 

Hyde Park. 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To Mr. Ernest W. Flagg, Hyde Park, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your request for an examination of Sprague 
Pond in Hyde Park and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply, 
the State Board of Health has caused an examination of the pond to be 
made and a sample of ice from an ice house on the shore to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the pond receives consider- 
able pollution from surface drainage of a rather densely populated area 
near the pond and is exposed to wash from the railroad tracks near its 
southerly shore. Much fioating matter was observed on the water at the 
time of the examination, due, no doubt, largely to cinders and ashes 
from the railroad. 

The analysis of the ice from one of the ice houses on the shore of the 
pond shows that it contains a larger quantity of organic matter than is 
found in good ice, but the number of bacteria in this sample was low 
and this ice was probably safe for domestic use. 

In order to obtain ice from this pond that would be safe for domestic 
purposes it would be essential to remove from the ice, before using, all 
snow ice, including the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the pond, 
and to reject all ice containing particles of foreign matter. With careful 
inspection, to see that these requirements are carried out, it is probable 
that the clear ice obtained from this source would be safe for domestic 
purposes while the conditions affecting the pollution of the pond are no 
more objectionable than at the present time. 



138 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



La WHENCE. 

May 1, 1913. 
To the Lawrence Ice Company, Lawrence, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to the use 
of ice from Great Pond, or Lake Cochickewick, in North Andover, and 
Mystic Pond in Methuen, the State Board of Health has examined the 
sources and finds that both are satisfactory as sources of domestic ice 
supply. Analyses of samples of the ice show that it is of good quality. 

Lynn. 

June 11, 1913. 
To Mr. Walter Creamer and Others, Lynn, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on May 
6, 1913, the following petition relative to the sale of certain ice cut from 
Flax Pond in the city of Lynn: — 

We, the undersigned citizens of Lynn, Mass., being consumers of ice cut 
from Flax Pond which is located in said Lynn hereby make complaint to 
the State Board of Health and allege that said ice is impure and injurious 
to the health of those who use said ice. 

This complaint is made under section 59 of chapter 75 of the Revised 
Laws of Massachusetts, and such other chapters and sections as are appli- 
cable thereto. . . . 

In accordance with the requirements of chapter 75 of the Bevised 
Laws, section 59, the State Board of Health has held a hearing after 
notice to the parties interested, and after repeated examinations of speci- 
mens of the ice obtained from this pond, and investigations of the sur- 
roundings of the pond, has issued the following order : — 

An Order relative to the Sale of Ice taken from Flax Pond in the City of 

Lynn. 
At a meeting of the State Board of Health held on the fifth day of June, 
1913, upon the complaint in writing of not less than twenty-five consumers 
of ice cut from Flax Pond in the city of Lynn and sold or held for sale, 
alleging that said ice is impure and injurious to health, after notice to the 
parties interested of the time appointed for the hearing and after hearing 
said parties it is the judgiaent of said Board that the public health requires 
that the State Board of Health, acting under Revised Laws, chapter 75, 
section 59, make the following order, which is hereby made : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 139 

Ice cut from Flax Pond in the city of Lynn during the winter of 1912-1913 shall 
not be sold or held for sale for domestic pin-poses. It may, however, be used for cool- 
ing where it will not come in contact with food or drinking water. 

The Board will consider the results of any investigations which may 
be made by the ice companies relative to the use of ice cut in future from 
this pond. 

Marshfield. 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Marshfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to a request for an examination of a pond 
near Highland Street, Marshfield Hills, and advice as to its use as a 
source of ice supply, the State Board of Health has caused the pond and 
its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water of the pond 
and of the ice from an ice house near the shore of the pond to be 
analyzed. 

The results of this examination show that the pond is not at the pres- 
ent time exposed to any notable danger of pollution from the buildings 
on its shore or within its watershed which would affect materially its 
use As a source of ice supply. A considerable amount of salt water, re- 
sulting from the freezing of ice cream at a shop near the shore of the 
pond, flows into the pond, but it was not especially harmful at the time 
this examination was made. This waste water could easily be diverted 
to advantage into the stream below the pond. 

An analysis of the water of the pond shows that it contains a con- 
siderable quantity of vegetable matter, and the ice contains more organic 
matter than is ordinarily found in good ice. The number of bacteria in 
the ice was low, however, and in the opinion of the Board it may safely 
be used for domestic purposes. It is advisable, in the use of ice from 
this pond, to reject the ice containing particles of foreign matter and to 
remove, before using, all snow ice, including the first inch of clear ice 
that forms upon the pond. 

Milton. 

March 25, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Milton, Mass., Mr. A. W. Draper, Secretary. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of February 6 for an ex- 
amination of the water and -ice of the ponds of Pope and Turner, situated 
near Blue Hill Parkway and Central Avenue, respectively, and the water 
of Pine Tree Brook, the Board has caused the sources of supply to be 



140 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

examined and samples of water and ice from the brook and ice ponds to 
be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the brook receives consider- 
able pollution, especially from the portion of its watershed between 
Pope's Pond and Turner's Pond. There has been very little change in 
the quality of the water as compared with former years. 

The results of the analyses of samples of ice from these ponds differ 
but little from those of former years. They show that ice from these 
ponds contains a rather larger quantity of organic matter than is found 
in good ice, but the clear ice from both ponds at the time of the recent 
examination was practically free from bacteria. In the opinion of the 
Board, ice harvested from these ponds may safely be used for domestic 
purposes, provided the snow ice and the first inch of clear ice which 
forms upon the pond are removed before using and all ice containing 
particles of foreign matter is rejected. 

NOETHAMPTON. 

May 21, 1913. 
To Mr. George R. Turner, Agent Board of Health, Northampton, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your application of April 22 for an ex- 
amination of the ice from certain ponds in Northampton and advice as 
to its quality, the State Board of Health has caused the ponds to be ex- 
amined and samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The ponds in question are known as Norwood Pond, located near the 
highway between Northampton and Easthampton, Eocky Hill Pond, lo- 
cated about half a mile northwest of Norwood Pond, and Pice Pond, 
located about a mile south of the village of Leeds. 

The watershed of Rice Pond is uninhabited, and the watershed of 
Eocky Hill Pond is very sparsely populated and that pond does not ap- 
pear to be exposed to serious danger of pollution. Norwood Pond also 
appears to be adequately protected from danger of pollution at the 
present time. 

Samples of ice harvested during the past year from all of these sources 
have been found upon analysis to be of good quality, and in the opinion 
of the Board these ponds can continue to be used with safety as sources of 
ice supply. The Board renews its recommendations as to the treatment 
of ice from these sources as contained in its communication to your 
board dated Oct. 4, 1906, a copy of which is appended. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 141 



Palmer. 

Sept. 18, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Palmer, Mass. 

Gextlemen : — In response to a request the State Board of Health 
has caused an examination to be made of the ice found in an ice house 
near a small meadow on Park Street, about half a mile southeast of the 
village. The Board is informed that this ice was obtained from an area 
of meadow which is flowed in the winter season to a depth of about four 
feet. 

The results of an analysis of a sample of ice from this ice house does 
not show that this ice is objectionable for domestic purposes. The pond 
is located very close to the village, however, and there appear to be 
dwelling houses on the watershed of the pond, polluting matters from 
which may be carried into the pond at times of heavy rain. 

Under the circumstances, in the opinion of the Board, it is important, 
if ice is to continue to be used in future from this pond for domestic 
purposes, to remove from the ice, before using, all snow ice, including 
the first inch of ice that forms upon the pond, and to reject all ice con- 
taining particles of foreign matter. It is important that these recom- 
mendations be carefully followed in case ice from this source is to be 
used for domestic purposes. 

PiTTSFIELD. 

March 25, 1913. 
To Mr. W. H. Eaton, Secretary, Pittsfield Country Club, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for a further examination of 
Morewood Lake and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply, the 
Board has caused the lake and its surroundings to be examined and a 
sample of the ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the conditions are much the 
same as at the time of the previous examination in 1901. 

It is probable that a small quantity of water from Wanpenum Brook, 
which is exposed somewhat to pollution, finds its way into the lake at 
times, but the results of the recent examination of a sample of the ice 
show that it is of good quality and suitable for domestic purposes. It is 
advisable that provision be made for preventing the water of Wanpenum 
Brook from entering the lake at any time so long as the lake is used 
as a source of ice supply. 

The Board further recommends that all snow ice, including the first 
inch of ice that forms upon the lake, be removed before using and all 
ice containing particles of foreign matter be rejected. 



142 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rockland. 

March 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Rockland, Mass., Dr. Joseph Frame, Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Feb. 17, 1913, for an 
examination of the ice recently harvested from Cushing's Pond in Eock- 
land and advice as to its qualit}^, the Board has caused the pond and its 
surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water and ice to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the conditions affecting the 
quality of the water of this pond are much the same as were found at 
the time of the previous examination in 1909. The pond is very badly 
polluted by sewage from many sources, especially by the overflow from 
large cesspools located near the stream a short distance above the pond. 

A sample of the ice, consisting of about 6 inches of clear ice and 
2 inches of snow ice, taken from an ice house near the shore of the pond 
has been analyzed, and the results show that the snow ice contained an 
excessive quantity of organic matter and a very large number of bacteria 
and would be unsafe for domestic use. The clear ice contained more 
organic matter than is found in good ice, but the number of bacteria 
was low. 

In the opinion of the Board this ice is unsafe for domestic purposes. 

SOUTHWICK. 

Jan. 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Health of the Town of Southwick. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for advice as to the use of the Congamond Ponds in Southwick as 
a source of ice supply and as to preventing the pollution of these waters, 
and has caused the ponds and their surroundings to be examined by one 
of its engineers and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The ponds were examined in 1905 relative to their use as a source of 
ice supply, at the request of the authorities of the city of Holyoke, and 
the Board recommended at that time that the clear ice harvested from 
these sources might safely be used for domestic purposes. The recent 
examination shows that, while a few additional summer cottages have 
been built in the neighborhood of the ponds, very little change has taken 
place in their surroundings since the time of the previous examination. 
Most of the dwellings about the ponds are summer cottages, rarely occu- 
pied later than the middle of November, and, considering the location of 
the houses about the ponds and the porous character of the soil, there 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 143 

is little probability that the ponds are seriously polluted from these 
buildings. 

The only source from which pollution appears to be finding its way 
into the ponds at the present time is a cesspool at the Lake House, and 
it is probable that by the construction of suitable cesspools in the rear of 
this hotel, so arranged that one will overflow into another, this nuisance 
can be prevented if the cesspools are cleaned when necessary. It is also 
advisable that sanitary conveniences be provided for the laborers about 
the ice houses, and the enforcement of these provisions comes within the 
powers of your board under existing laws. 

It has not been practicable to obtain from these ponds a suitable sample 
of ice during the present season, but in the opinion of the Board ice of 
good quality can be obtained from these ponds, provided that all snow 
ice and the first inch of clear ice which forms upon the pond be removed 
before using and that all ice containing particles of foreign matter be 
rejected. 

The Board has also examined, in accordance with your request, the 
water supply of the railroad station and dwelling houses in its neighbor- 
hood, which the Board is informed is taken from Great Brook. 

An examination of this brook shows that it is exposed to such danger 
of pollution from the inhabitants on the watershed that it cannot be 
regarded as a safe source from which to take water for drinking, and the 
Board recommends that its use for that purpose be discontinued and a 
water of good quality provided from an unpolluted source. 

Westfoed. 

July 3, 1913. 
To Miss M. A. Gage, Lowell, Mass. 

Dear Madam : — In response to your request for an examination of ice 
cut from Forge Pond and advice as to its quality, the State Board of 
Health has caused the pond to be examined and a sample of ice from an 
ice house at Forge Village near the outlet of the pond to be analyzed. 

The results show that this ice, while containing a rather greater amount 
of organic matter than is found in good ice, contains a low number of 
bacteria and is, in the opinion of the Board, safe for domestic purposes. 

Westport. 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Fall River, Mass. 

Gentlemen" : — In response to your request of Aug. 12, 1913, for an 
examination of the ice in an ice house near the cranberry bog of David 
Ouellette, lying between the Fall Eiver & New Bedford Eailroad and 



144 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the New Bedford highway a short distance from Davis Eoad in the town 
of Westport, the State Board of Health has caused the cranberry bog 
from which ice is cut to be examined and a sample of the ice in the ice 
house to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the snow ice in the sample ex- 
amined was of very poor quality and should not be used in contact with 
food or drinking water, but that the clear ice beneath the snow ice, while 
containing a somewhat larger quantity of organic matter than is usually 
found in good ice, is probably safe for domestic purposes. 

It appears that it is the custom to flow the cranberry bog to a depth of 
about 3 1/2 feet in the winter with water from the brook draining through 
the cranberry bog from the northwest, and an examination of the sur- 
roundings of the cranberry bog and the watershed of the brook does not 
show that they are exposed at the present time to very serious danger of 
pollution, and while the conditions affecting the cranberry bog remain as 
at the present time it is probable that ice may be harvested from it with 
safety, provided it is subject to careful inspection to insure the removal 
of all snow ice, including the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the 
pond, and to secure the exclusion of all ice containing particles of foreign 
matter. If these restrictions are carried out in future, ice from this 
source can probably continue to be used with safety for domestic pur- 
poses while the conditions remain as at the present time. 

WiNCHEXDON. 

May 1, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Winchetidon, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
ice taken from Bullardville Pond, Pequoig Pond and Whitney's Pond, in 
Winchendon, and advice as to its quality, the State Board of Health has 
caused the sources indicated to be examined and samples of the water 
and ice to be analyzed. 

Neither Bullardville Pond nor Pequoig Pond is exposed to serious 
danger of pollution, and both ponds are suitable sources of ice supply. 
The ice harvested from these sources during the past winter apparently 
consisted largely of clear ice with very little snow ice on top, and the re- 
sults of the analyses show that the ice contains a somewhat greater quan- 
tity of organic matter than is found in good ice. It would be best to 
remove from the ice, before using, all snow ice, including the first inch of 
clear ice that forms upon the ponds, and it is advisable, also, to reject 
all ice containing particles of foreign matter. 

The conditions affecting Whitney's Pond do not appear to have 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 145 

changed materially since 1909, when the last examination was made. 
At that time the Board made the following recommendations : — 

The conditions aft'ecting this source of supply do not appear to have 
changed very materially since the time of the previous examination in 1906, 
when the Board advised you as follows concerning the use of ice from this 
jiond : — 

. . . The mill pond is large and quite deep, but it receives considerable pollution 
from mills on the stream which enters it. In order to obtain ice from this pond 
which may safely be used for domestic purposes it will be necessary to remove from 
the ice, when harvesting, the first inch that formed upon the pond, including all 
snow ice and ice formed by flooding, and retain for use only the clear ice forming 
beneath the first inch. It is also important that all ice containing particles of foreign 
matter be rejected. 

It appears that these recommendations have been carefully followed in 
harvesting the ice cut from this pond during the past winter. The results 
of the analysis of a sample of ice taken recently from one of the ice houses 
on the shore of this pond show that it is of good quality, and, in the opinion 
of the Board, this ice may safely be used for domestic purposes. The recom- 
mendations contained in the previous communication of the Board should 
still be followed while ice is taken from this source for domestic purposes. 

If the recommendations made by the Board continue to be carried out, 
it is probable that ice harvested from this source can be used for domestic 
purposes with safety. 

May 1, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Winchendon, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In the course of the examination of Whitney's Pond, 
used as a source of ice supply, it has been found that considerable waste, 
including sewage, is discharged into the streams which feed the pond, 
especially at two mills located above the pond. 

It is not difficult to dispose of the sewage and wastes from these mills 
satisfactorily in such a way that they will not pollute the streams feeding 
Wliitney's Pond, and the Board recommends that the further pollution 
of the pond by sewage from these mills be prevented. 

Worcester. 

March 27, 1913. 
To the Board of Trustees of the Worcester State Hospital, Worcester, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In accordance with a request for an examination of 
the ice taken from Lake Quinsigamond for use in the hospital and advice 
as to its quality, the State Board of Health has caused the locality from 



146 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

which the ice is taken to be examined and a samj^le of the ice harvested 
during the present year to be analyzed. 

The sample of ice analyzed in the course of the recent examination 
was 7 inches in thickness and consisted only of clear ice. The results of 
this analysis show that this sample contained rather more organic matter 
than is found in good ice, but the number of bacteria was low, and the 
ice in the opinion of the Board is probably safe for domestic purposes. 

Lake Quinsigamond receives considerable pollution from many sources, 
though the pollution is probably less in the winter season when ice is 
harvested than at other times. It is probable that the use of ice from 
this source can be continued with safety, provided that all snow ice, in- 
cluding the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the lake, be removed 
before using and all ice containing particles of foreign matter be re- 
jected. 

Sewerage axd Sewage Disposal. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to sewerage and sewage 
disposal : — 

Amherst. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, Amherst, Mass. 

Gextle:hex : — In response to the request of your engineer, the 
State Board of Health has caused an examination to be made of the East 
Street sewage disposal, area of the town of Amherst and has considered 
the results of the operation of the filters and the measurements of the flow 
of sewage discharged upon them. 

The aggregate area of filters now available for use amounts to about 2 
acres, and the average flow of sewage as measured at various times during 
the past three years has been found to range from 14:0,000 gallons per 
day to more than 600,000 gallons. The present area of filters is prob- 
ably capable of purifying satisfactorily the entire flow of sewage when 
the quantity does not exceed the smaller figure mentioned above, but 
for the disposal of the sewage when the flow amounts to as much as in- 
dicated by the higher figure, the area of filters required would be l)etween 
8 and 10 acres. 

It is obvious that these wide variations in the. flow of sewage are due 
to leakage into the sewerage system, and it will probably be less expensive 
for the town to reconstruct such portions of the sewers as may be neces- 
sary to prevent excessive leakage than to attempt to build and maintain 
a filtration area of adequate capacity to purify the sewage at all times. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 147 

The Board recommends that a careful study of the sewerage system 
be made without further delay to determine its condition and the prac- 
ticability of preventing excessive leakage into the sewers. When the re- 
sults of this investigation are available, it will be practicable for the 
Board to give you more definite advice as to the disposal of the sewage 
of the portion of the town served by this system. It is very important, 
in the opinion of the Board, that the investigations necessary for the de- 
termination of this question be made without delay in order that the 
work of improving the sewage disposal system of the town may be en- 
tered upon as soon as practicable. 



AXDOVER. 

Feb. 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Public Works, Andover, Mass. 

Gentle:sien" : — The results of the examinations of the Andover sew- 
age disposal works made by the State Board of Health show that the 
efficiency of the purification of the sewage of the town by the filter beds 
has been diminishing for several years and has now become quite unsatis- 
factory. Moreover, the examination of the works shows that a consider- 
able quantity of sewage is discharged untreated directly into the Shaw- 
sheen Eiver. 

It is probable that, unless the condition of your filtration works is 
greatly improved, the character of the effluent will grow rapidly worse 
and result in a continued and increasing pollution of the Shawsheen 
Eiver. 

The filters at the present time are seriously clogged, and large parts 
of the area remain covered with sewage for long periods, a condition 
which is unfavorable for the proper operation of the filters. An exami- 
nation of the filter beds shows that the underdrains in some of them at 
least are not in a proper condition to drain the filters satisfactorily, and 
lack of efficient underdrainage is one of the chief causes of the unsatis- 
factory operation of these filters. The filters in which the underdrains 
have been recently relaid by your department are operating more satis- 
factorily than the others. 

The quantity of sewage discharged upon these filters is such that the 
average rate of operation amounts to about 70,000 gallons per acre per 
day. This quantity is greater than filters containing material of the 
character found in this area are capable of purifying satisfactorily. As 
already stated the filters, moreover, do not treat all of the sewage, a con- 
siderable quantity of which is discharged untreated into the Shawsheen 
Eiver, and it is understood that you propose to extend the sewerage 



148 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

system in the near future, thus increasing the quantity of sewage to be 
cared for. It is essential under the circumstances that the condition of 
the filter beds shall not only be improved, but that the area shall be 
enlarged. 

The Board recommends that the underdrains in all of the filters which 
have become seriously clogged be relaid under proper inspection and 
that the filters be subsequently carefully leveled and adequate provision 
made for distributing the sewage evenly to all parts of the area of each 
filter. It is further recommended that the gates upon the distributing 
pipes from which sewage is discharged upon the filters be repaired or 
renewed so as to prevent leakage and the constant discharge of small 
quantities of sewage upon the filters, as is the case at the present time. 

The Board further recommends that the filtration area be enlarged 
and that all of the sewage of the town be conveyed to the area and 
purified. The discharge of crude sewage directly into the Shawsheen 
Eiver should be discontinued as soon as the improvements at the filtra- 
tion area are completed. 

Barxstable. 

May 27, 1913. 
To Alfred Crocker, Jr., Barnstable, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your request 
of ^lay 10, 1913, for advice as to the probable need of sewerage in the 
village of Barnstable in case a water supply should be introduced there 
and has caused the conditions existing in the village to be examined by 
one of its engineers. 

The questions which you have submitted are the following : — 

1. On the above facts if water is installed, in the opinion of the State 
Board of Health, will it be necessary to have a sewerage system for the 
village ? 

2. In the opinion of the State Board of Health would not a sewerage sys- 
tem with a cesspool for each house which has a water supply be sufficient^ 

3. Are there any records which show what proportion of the towns that 
have water supply do not have sewerage systems'? If so what is the propor- 
tion of towns? Are you willing to state what are some of the towns some- 
what similar in conditions to what I have described that have water supply 
and do not have sewerage system"? 

An examination of the conditions existing in the portions of Barnstable 
ir. which it is proposed to introduce a water supply indicates that there 
are about 220 houses scattered along about 71/2 miles of streets in which 
the water pipes may eventually be laid. The houses for the most part 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 149 

are on large lots in which wells are located from which the domestic 
water supply is now ohtained, and the surplus water is disposed of by 
cesspools located on each lot. Throughout the thickly settled portions 
of the town the soil appears to be porous and well adapted for the disposal 
of sewage by the methods now in use. 

The conditions are favorable for the continued disposal of the sewage 
after a public water supply has been introduced, in accordance with the 
practice at the present time, and, unless great quantities of water are 
allowed to run to waste, there is little doubt but that the present methods 
of sewage disposal can be continued in the future until the village be- 
comes more densely populated than at the present time. Moreover, if a 
sewerage system should be put in there is no necessity for discharging 
the sewage into any of the waters about the town in such a way as to 
cause their pollution. A large number of the inland cities and towns at 
the present time purify their sewage upon land, and the conditions for 
such disposal in Barnstable are much more favorable than ordinarily 
found elsewhere for the purification and satisfactory disposal of sewage. 

Eegarding the information asked for in your cjuestion Ko. 3, as to 
vrhat proportion of towns that have water supplies are also provided with 
sewerage systems, the Board finds that there were in 1912 approximately 
195 of the cities and towns in the State provided with public water sup- 
plies and that of these, 104, or 53 per cent., have sewerage systems, A 
list of the towns having and not having sewerage systems will be found 
in the annual report of the Board for 1911 (pages 384-394), and a list 
of the towns having and not having public water supplies will be found 
in the annual report for 1910 (pages 209-219). Extracts from the re- 
ports mentioned giving these pages are sent you herewith. You will find 
from these tables that there are 26 towns in the State having a popula- 
tion in excess of that of Barnstable, by the census of 1910, which are 
not provided with sewerage systems, though most of them have had pub- 
lic water supplies for many years. 



Chelmsford (Middlesex Couxty Training School). 

Dec. 22, 1913. 

To the Middlesex County Commissioners, East Cambridge, Mass., Mr. Levi S. Gould, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to the disposal of the sewage from the Middlesex 
County Training School at North Chelmsford, and the report of your 
engineers submitted therewith, and has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of its engineers. 



150 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In the report of your engineers two plans are considered, one pro- 
viding for the disposal of the sewage by discharging it into one of the 
sewers of the city of Lowell, and the other for discharging it into tanks 
or cesspools at each building and disposing of it by subsurface filtration. 
Estimates of the cost of the two plans of disposal indicate that the dis- 
charge of the sewage into the sewerage system of the city of Lowell would 
cost somewhat more in the beginning than its disposal upon the grounds 
of the school. If the plan of disposal upon the grounds of the school 
should be adopted, it would be necessary to clean the receiving tanks for 
the sewage at frequent intervals, and this offensive sludge would doubt- 
less have to be disposed of within the school grounds. Moreover, ex- 
perience with subsurface filtration shows that it is necessary to dig up, 
clean and relay the distribution pipes from time to time in order to keep 
the filters in successful operation. 

Under the circumstances, while the first cost of connecting with the 
Lowell sewers would be greater than the cost of disposal of the sewage 
of each building separately, there is very little doubt that in the end dis- 
posal into the Lowell sewers would be the less expensive plan to adopt. 

An examination has also been made of the practicability of collecting 
the sewage from all of the buildings and disposing of it at some point 
within the grounds of the institution, but the soil of the areas which 
might be used for that purpose is not suitable for such use and such a 
method of disposing of the sewage does not appear to be practicable in 
this case. 

Considering all of the circumstances, the best plan of disposing of the 
sewage of this school, in the opinion of the Board, is to discharge it into 
the sewers of the city of Lowell, provided that a satisfactory arrangement 
for that method of disposal can be made. 

Chicopee (Fairview). 

June 16, 1913. 
To Hon. Frank A. Rivers, Mayor of Chicopee, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — Complaint has been made to this Board of the unsani- 
tary conditions existing in parts of the village of Fairview in the ex- 
treme northwesterly part of the city of Chicopee, and in response to this 
complaint the State Board of Health has caused the locality to be ex- 
amined by one of its engineers. 

It appears from this examination that, while the surface soil in the 
village is largely composed of sand, the subsoil is composed of very fine 
material and the ground-water level in many places is quite close to the 
surface. In consequence, it is extremely difficult to construct suitable 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND' TOWNS. 151 

cesspools which will dispose of household waste without overflowing, 
especially in the spring when the ground water is highest. The condi- 
tions in parts of the village are very objectionable, and in the wetter 
parts of the year it is necessary to clean out the cesspools frequently. 

As no night-soil carts are available, it appears that the contents of the 
cesspools are pumped upon the surface of the ground, thus increasing 
the objectionable odors caused by the present method of disposing of the 
sewage. 

In view of these conditions it is necessary, in the opinion of the Board, 
for the protection of the public health in this village, to provide as soon 
as practicable adequate means for the proper disposal of the sewage. It 
appears to be practicable to convey sewage by gravity to an outlet into 
the Connecticut Eiver, and it may be possible to make an arrangement 
with the town of South Hadley for the disposal of the sewage into one 
of the sewers in that town which has an outlet into the Connecticut Eiver 
near the Chicopee boundary at a point where the conditions do not appear 
to be objectionable. 

The conditions in Fairview can be improved materially by providing 
night-soil carts for the cleaning out of cesspools, and the material re- 
moved from the cesspools can be disposed of in this way at some point 
sufficiently remote from the village where it will not create a nuisance. 
The Board recommends that the city of Chicopee cause an investigation 
to be made as soon as practicable to determine the best available plan of 
collecting and disposing of the sewage of the village of Fairview, and 
that in connection with this plan the question of providing drainage for 
lowering the ground water in the village be also considered. In the 
meantime it is advisable to provide suitable night-soil carts for cleaning 
out and removing the contents of the cesspools in the village at such 
intervals as may be necessary to prevent overflow. 

\Alien you have prepared plans for the sewerage and drainage of the 
village of Fairview, the Board will, upon request, give you further advice 
as to the improvement of the sanitary conditions in the village. 

Chicopee (Chicopee Falls). 

July 28, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Chicopee, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest of July 16, 1913, for advice as to a plan for removing the objec- 
tionable conditions along the bank of the Chicopee River in the rear of 
the works of the Fisk Rubber Company at Chicopee Falls, due to the 
discharge of crude sewage directly into the river at points above, and has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers. 



152 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results of the examination show that the discharge of sewage at 
the principal sewer outlets in that section of the city pollutes badly the 
banks of the river for a considerable distance below the outlets, and with 
the growth of the district and the occupation of the banks of the river 
below the sewer outlet for manufacturing purposes, the effect of the pol- 
lution has become seriously objectionable. 

The scheme for improvement suggested is to construct an intercepting 
sewer along the southeasterly bank of the river to remove the dry- 
weather flow of sewage from the present sewer outlets, together with the 
sewage from other small sewers discliarging into the river farther down- 
stream, and to discharge this sewage into the river at a point about a 
third of a mile below the present main sewer outlets. The point chosen 
for the new outlet is about opposite an area which it will be practicable 
to utilize in the future for the treatment of the sewage in case it shall 
be decided to subject it to some form of treatment before discharging it 
into the stream in this neighborhood. 

It appears to the Board necessary, for the protection of the public 
health, that the discharge of sewage at the present sewer outlets in 
Chicopee Falls, except such as may overflow at times of storm, should 
be discontinued, and it is also desirable that this sewage should either be 
purified or conveyed to some suitable outlet into the Connecticut Eiver. 
In either case it will be necessary to convey the sewage farther down- 
stream, and the plan of discharging it temporarily at the point suggested, 
about a third of a mile below the present outlets, appears to be a reason- 
able one to adopt at the present time. AATiile this outlet should be re- 
garded as a temporary one, to be discontinued as soon as it is practicable 
for the city to provide a more satisfactory means of disposal of the 
sewage, the Board recommends that the outlet be carried out into the 
river at least 50 feet from the shore to a point where it will be covered 
with water at all times. 

The Board recommends that at the time of making this extension an 
investigation be made by the city to determine the best practicable plan 
for the ultimate disposal of this sewage, in order that the works now 
constructed may conform as nearly as may be to plans for the final 
disposal of the sewage. 

As soon as plans have been prepared for the proposed extension the 
Board will, if you so request, advise you concerning them. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 153 

Dartmouth. 

June 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Dartmouth, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to the construction of a sewer or main drain to be 
laid in Eogers Street from the Eussell Mills Eoad to an outlet into 
Clark's Cove, as shown upon a plan submitted with the application. 
Subsequent to submitting this application you verbally informed the en- 
gineer of the Board that, in view of the objection to the discharge of 
sewage into Clark's Cove at the point proposed, you desire the advice of 
the Board simply as to the construction of the proposed main drain for 
the purposes of the removal of surface water and ground drainage only, 
leaving the question of the disposal of sewage for this region to be con- 
sidered at a future time. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the plan presented. In the opinion of the 
Board the proposed plan is an appropriate method of providing for the 
collection and disposal of the surface water and ground drainage of the 
district which it is designed to serve, provided sewage, sink drainage 
and other objectionable matters be excluded from the drain. 

The outlet of the drain may under the circumstances, if desired, be 
located nearer tlie high-water line than shown on the plan presented. 

DUXBURY. 

Aug. 13, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Duxbury, Mass. 

Gentle:mex : — In response to your request for an examination of a 
sewer outlet in Duxbury and advice as to a plan for disposing of the 
sewage of the Powder Point School, the State Board of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined hy one of its engineers and has con- 
sidered the information presented. 

It does not appear that the recommendations of this Board made 
several years ago relative to the disposal of sewage in this locality have 
been carried out, and an examination shows that the sewage from the 
buildings formerly used for the school, together with that from adjacent 
buildings, is discharged into a sewer running toward the bay, and that 
sewage leaks quite freely upon the flats from openings in the sewer. 
It further appears that your board has required the discontinuance of 
this nuisance and the proper disposal of the sewage. 

The soil in the neighborhood of tlie Powder Point School is not well 



154 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

adapted to the disposal of sewage in cesspools, and considering the prob- 
able number of persons that will occupy the buildings and the adja- 
cent houses used in connection there it is not practicable, in the opinion 
of the Board, to dispose of the sewage satisfactorily by that method. 

The best plan to adopt in the existing circumstances would probably be 
to construct a subsurface filter bed, which could be located in a small 
area of low land about 400 feet south of the old school building and 
east of the houses connected with the school. It will be necessary to re- 
move the soil at this location and replace it with sand of suitable quality 
for sewage purification which can be obtained at no great distance. The 
filter should have an area of at least 3,000 square feet for a population of 
75 to 100 persons, assuming that the quantity of sewage will be kept as 
small as possible by preventing the unnecessary use and waste of water 
at fixtures discharging into the sewer. 

The sewage, after first passing through a settling tank, should be dis- 
charged into the filter through pipes laid with open joints, with their 
bottoms at least one foot below the surface of the sand, and the filter 
should be thoroughly underdrained by tile pipes which may be connected 
with the present sewer pipe. Distributing systems and subsurface filters 
such as this become clogged aft^r a longer or shorter period of use, and 
the distributing pipes must be cleaned and relaid under such conditions 
as here proposed at least as often as once in two years. The settling 
tank will require cleaning from time to time, and the contents would 
probably require removal in a suitable cart. They should be disposed of 
at some place where they will not be objectionable. The design of the 
settling tank and filter and the construction of the works should be car- 
ried out under the direction of an engineer of experience in matters re- 
lating to sewage disposal. 

In the opinion of the Board it will be increasingly difficult to prevent 
the pollution of the fiats along this coast by sewage, unless a system of 
sewers is constructed for the densely populated portions of the town and 
a suitable system of disposal provided. The disposal of sewage in these 
thickly settled areas by the ordinary methods of vaults and cesspools is 
already causing the serious pollution of the wells in these areas, and 
for the purpose of ascertaining the condition of these wells the Board 
has caused a number of them to be examined and samples of their waters 
to be analyzed. The results show that several of the wells examined are 
polluted, some of them seriously. There are certain of these wells that 
should not longer be used for domestic purposes; these are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Well of E. H. Ellison, well at the Powder Point School, well of E. E. 
Chandler, well of Miss E. Ellison — all in the neighborhood of Powder 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 155 

Point — well of Harry Gushing, South Duxbury, well at E. Sweetser's 
store, well of Dr. N. K. Noyes, Duxbury. 

The results of the examination as a whole show that this town is 
greatly in need of a good public water supply. It is probable that an 
adequate supply of good water for the requirements of the thickly settled 
portion of the town could be secured at a cost which would not be a 
serious financial burden upon the inhabitants. 

The Board recommends that the question ^ of introducing a public 
water supply be taken up and considered by the town at the earliest pos- 
sible time and that the necessary investigations be made and plans pre- 
pared to determine the most appropriate source of supply and the 
probable cost of the works. It is practicable at a small expense to de- 
termine definitely the feasibility of securing an adequate supply of good 
water within a reasonable distance of the thickly settled portion of the 
town and to estimate very definitely the cost of the works. 

Should the town decide to make investigations for a water supply, the 
Board will assist in making the necessary analyses of water and will 
advise as to any plan that the town may present for consideration. 



Easthamptox. 

Oct. 31, 1913. 

To the Board of Public Works, Easthampton, Mass., W. C. Tannatt, Jr., Town 

Engineer. 

CtExtlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to the discharge of sewage from a proposed sewer 
near the Mt. Tom Junction Station of the Boston & Maine Eailroad into 
the Connecticut Eiver opposite the said station and has caused the local- 
ity to be examined by one of its engineers. 

The plans presented provide for the disposal of the sewage of a small 
but somewhat thickly settled area in the neighborhood of Mt. Tom Junc- 
tion, containing at the present time approximately 125 inhabitants. In 
constructing the outlet, however, it is proposed to use larger pipe than is 
necessary for the disposal of the sewage of the Mt. Tom district alone, 
with the idea eventually, it is understood, of conveying the sewage from 
the main sewer system of the town of Easthampton to an outlet into the 
Connecticut Eiver in this neighborhood. 

The proposed sewer outlet in the Connecticut Eiver as shown upon the 
plans is about 40 feet out from the bank of the river at the summer water 
level and is to be located at such an elevation that it will ordinarily be 
completely submerged, though possibly exposed at times of extreme low 
water. 



156 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

After a careful consideration of all of the circumstances the Board 
concludes that the best practicable plan of disposing of the sewage from 
the proposed sewers in the vicinity of Mt. Tom Junction is to discharge 
it into the Connecticut Eiver. The discharge of sewage from this dis- 
trict into the river can prol^ably be allowed to continue for several years, 
but the adoption of this outlet is subject to the condition that it shall 
be extended such further distance into the river as may be necessary in 
case objectionable conditions arise and that the sewage shall be removed 
from the river and purified whenever such treatment shall become 
necessary. 

For the disposal of the entire sewage of the town of Easthampton the 
outlet proposed would, in the opinion of the Board, l^e very objectionaljle 
under the existing circumstances. It is possible, however, that an outlet 
might be selected at some point in this part of the river at which the 
sewage of Easthampton might be discharged without objection for a 
period of several years, provided it were subjected to eflficient sedimenta- 
tion and screening before final disposal. The necessary sedimentation 
and screening could very likely be carried on at the present disposal area, 
using the present works so far as they are suitable. It is probal^le, how- 
ever, that further treatment woidd become necessary in case the sewage 
of the town is discharged into the Connecticut Eiver, and the likelihood 
of such necessity arising in the future should be taken into account in 
considering any change in the present plan of disposing of the sewage. 

Before deciding upon the disposal of the sewage of the town by dis- 
charge into the Connecticut Eiver, the Board recommends that the whole 
question be carefully investigated and comparative plans prepared show- 
ing the cost of the disposal of the sewage into the Connecticut Eiver by 
some satisfactory plan as compared with the cost of purification of the 
sewage and the discharge of the effluent into the Manhan Eiver, as at 
present. The present disposal area is inadequate for the treatment of the 
sewage of the town, and it is important that further means for the treat- 
ment of the sewage shall be provided at the earliest practicable time. As 
soon as the results of the suggested investigations are presented, the Board 
will advise you as to the best available plan for the disposal of the sewage 
of the town. 

FoXBOROrGII. 

May 1, 1913. 
To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Foxborouqh. 

GENTLE:iiEX : — Tlie State Board of Health received from you on 
April 21, 1913, a petition for the approval by the Board, under the pro- 
visions of chapter 49, section 1. of the Eevised Laws, of the purchase or 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 157 

taking of certain lands in the town of Foxborougli for the purification 
and disposal of sewage, accompanied by a plan and a description of the 
lands which it is proposed to acquire, which are situated in the town of 
Foxborough al)Out three-quarters of a mile south of the Foxborough rail- 
road station on the easterly side of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad and south of Leonard Street. 

In response to this petition the Board, after having caused an exami- 
nation of the lands to be made by one of its engineers, gave a public 
hearing, as required by law, at its office, Eoom 143, State House, on 
Thursday, May 1, 1913, at 11.30 a.m., due notice of said hearing having 
been given by publication in the Foxborough " Eeporter." After the 
hearing, at which no one appeared to oppose the taking of the lands in 
question by said town, the Board upon consideration voted to approve 
the purchase or taking of the lands indicated upon the plan submitted 
for the purification and disposal of sewage, said lands, which are in four 
parcels having an aggregate area of about 49 acres, being bounded, meas- 
ured and described as follows : — 

The 1st parcel which belongs to the W. T, Cook Pleirs is situated on 
the southerly side of Leonard Street and is bounded and described as fol- 
lows : — 

Beginning at the intersection of the easterly location line of the N. Y. N. H. 
& H. K.R. with the southerly Hne of Leonard street thence N 64° — 01' E 
on the line last mentioned one hundred and twenty two (122) feet to 
a point at land of U. W. Boyden; thence S 26° — 09' E on the westerly 
line of land of said Boyden four hnndred forty seven and five tenths 
(447.5) feet to a point in the wall at land of Timothy F. Lynch; thence 
S 49° — 41' "W" on the northerly Ime of land of said Lynch one hundred 
and seventy five (175) feet to a point on the easterly location line of the 
N. Y. N. H. & H. R.R.; thence N 20° — 04' W on said location line four 
hundred ninety one and forty eight one hundredtlis (491.48) feet to the 
point of beginning. This parcel contains one and fifty four one hundredths 
(1.54) acres. 

The 2nd parcel which belongs to Timothy F. Lynch is situated on the south- 
erly side of the parcel above described and is bounded and described as 
follows : — 

Beginning at the intersection of the easterly location line of the N. Y. 
N. H. & H. R.R. with the southerly line of the parcel above described, thence 
N 49° — 41' E on the said southerly line one hundred and seventy five (175) 
feet to a point in the wall at land of U. W. Boyden; thence S 26° — 09' E 
on land of said Lynch two hundred sixty and five tenths (260.5) feet to a 
point in the wall at land of W. T. Cook Heirs; thence S 29°— 29' W on 
the northerly line of land of said Cook Heirs thirty four (34) feet to a 
point; thence S 36° — 56' W one hundred ninety five and five tenths (195.5) 



158 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

feet to a point on the easterly location line of the N. Y. X. H. & H. R.R.; 
thence N 20° — 04' W on said location line three hundred thirty two and 
six tenths (332.6) feet to the point of beginning. This parcel contains one 
and two hundred and sixty three one thousands (1.263) acres. 

The 3rd parcel which belongs to the W. T. Cook Heirs is situated on the 
northerly side of Elm Street and is bounded and described as follows : — 

Beginning at the intersection of the northerly line of Elm street with the 
easterly location line of the N. Y. N. H. & H. R.R. thence N 20° — 04' W 
on the said location line thirteen hundred thirteen and nineteen one hun- 
dredths (1313.19) feet to a point in the wall on land of Timothy F. Lynch; 
thence N 36°— 56' E ou the southerly line of land of said Lynch "one hun- 
dred ninety five and five tenths (195.5) feet to a point; thence N29° — 39'E 
thirty four (34) feet to a point; thence N 25° — 30' E one hundred seventy 
two and three tenths (172.3) feet to a point; thence N 50° — 38' E three 
hundred seventy and seventy five one hundredths (370.75) feet to stub at 
land of the Town of Foxborough; thence S 28°— 13' E on said Town land 
one hundred six and eight tenths (106.8) feet to a stake and stones; thence 
S 27° — 06' E three hundred fifty seven and six tenths (357.6) feet to a 
point at the end of a wall at land of R. S. Carpenter; thence S 25° — 05' W 
on the westerly line of land of said Carpenter four hundred twenty two 
and eight tenths (422.8) feet to the end of a stone wall; thence S25° — 21'E 
on said wall one hundi'ed and twenty six (126) feet to a point; thence 
S 23° — 59' E on said wall one hundred ninety five and seven tenths (195.7) 
feet ; thence S 24° — 07' E on said wall two hundred eighty and six tenths 
(280.6) feet to a point in the wall on the northerly line of Elm Street; 
thence S 55° — 36' W on said northerly line eight hundred nineteen and 
forty two one hundredths (819.42) feet to the point of beginning. This 
parcel contains twenty four and fifty five one hundredths (24.55) acres. 

The 4th parcel which belongs to the W. T, Cook Heirs is situated on the 
southerly line of Elm Street and is bounded and described as follows: — 

Beginning at the intersection of the easterly location line of the N. Y. 
N. H. & H. R.R. with the southerly line of Ehm Street thence N 55° — 30' E 
on the line last mentioned eight hundred and thirty (830) feet to the inter- 
section of walls at land of Charles G. Wilbur; thence S 80°— 20' E on 
the southerly line of land of said Wilbur seventy seven (77) feet to a point 
in the wall; thence S 29° — 45' E on said wall one hundred and ninety 
eight (198) feet to a point; thence S 31° — 00' E on said wall one hundred 
and five (105) feet to a point; thence S 29° —45' E on said wall sixty two 
(62) feet to a point; thence S 7° — 30' E on said wall thirty one (31) feet 
to a point; thence S 29°— 15' E on said wall eighty one (81) feet to a 
point; thence S 21°— 45' E on said wall fifty six (56) feet to a point at 
the intersection of two walls at land of E. V. Rosenbuseh; thence 
S 61° — 15' W on the northerly line of land of said Rosenbuseh three hun- 
dred and ninety (390) feet to a point at the intersection of two walls; 
thence S 22° — 39' E on the westerty line of land of said Rosenbuseh three 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 159 

hundred sixty three and sixty five one hundredths (363.65) feet to a point; 
thence S 0° — 44' E eighty one and t\Yo tenths (81.2) feet to a point; 
thence S 5° — 34' E one hundred twenty nine and seven tenths (129.7) 
feet to a point; thence S 15'— 07' W thirty six and five tenths (36.5) 
feet to a point; thence S 12° —43' W fifty nine and three tenths (59.3) feet 
to a point; thence S 9° — 02' W sixty two and five tenths (62.5) feet to a 
point; thence S 17° — 18' W six:ty nine and six tenths (69.6) feet to a 
point; thence S 9°— 19' W ninety two and eight tenths (92.8) feet to 
a point; thence S 1° — 47' W one hundred fifty four and nine tenths (154.9) 
feet to a point; thence S 7° — 24' E fifty nine and six tenths (59.6) feet 
to a point in a wall at land of S. S. Wilbur Heirs; thence S 73° —16' W 
on the northerly line of land of said Wilbur Heirs thirty five (35) feet to 
a point; thence S 85°— 56' W fifty three and five tenths (53.5) feet to a 
point; thence N 89° — 46' W one hundred ninety five and five tenths (195.5) 
feet to a point on the easterly location line of the N. Y. N, H. & H. R.R. 
thence N 20° — 04' W on said location line thirteen hundred sixty seven and 
forty nine one hundredths (1367.49) feet to the point of beginning. This 
parcel contains twenty one and seventy two one hundredths (21.72) acres. 

Your petition also requests the advice of the Board relative to the 
construction of certain sewage disposal works upon the lands described 
above, but in accordance with your suggestion the Board postponed action 
upon this part of your application until further details of your plan have 
been presented. 

Franklin. 

April 12, 1913. 
To the Board oj Water and Sewer Commissioners of the Town of Franklin, Mass. 

Gextlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
March 25, 1913, an application under the provisions of chapter 613 of 
the Acts of the year 1912, for the approval by the Board of plans of a 
proposed system of sewerage and sewage disposal for the town of Frank- 
lin, which in general provide for the collection of the sewage from the 
westerly or larger portion of the main village and the objectionable por- 
tions of the manufacturing wastes, which are now discharged into and 
seriously pollute Mine Brook, and conveying them to disposal works to 
be located on the easterly bank of Mine Brook, about one and three- 
quarters miles northwest of the center of the village, where it is to be 
purified by intermittent filtration and the effluent discharged into the 
brook. 

In accordance with the provisions of said chapter 613 of the Acts of 
the year 1912, the State Board of Health gave a hearing on the proposed 
plans at its office, Eoom 143, State House, Boston, on April 3, 1913, after 



160 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

notice of the hearing had been given by the Board by publication in the 
Franklin " Sentinel." At the hearing no person appeared to object to 
the approval of the plans presented. 

After the hearing the Board voted to approve the proposed system of 
sewerage and sewage disposal as shown upon the five plans submitted 
with the application and bearing the following titles : — 

1. Franklin Sewerage. Plan Showing Location of Sewers. Franklin. Mass. 
January, 1913. J. J. VanValkenburgh, C.E. Scale — 1 inch = 200 Feet. 

2. Franklin Sewerage. Plan Showing Location of Trunk Sewer and Fil- 
tration Field. Franklin, Mass. January, 1913. J. J. VanValkenburgh, 
C.E. Scale — 1 inch = 200 Feet. 

3. Franklin Sewerage. Topogi'aphical Plan of Filtration Field Showing 
Location of Proposed Filters and Trunk Sewer. Franklin, Mass. January, 
1913. J. J. VanValkenburgh, C.E. Scale — 1 inch = 60 Feet. 

4. Franklin Sewerage. Plan of Filtration Areas Showing Sj'stems of Dis- 
tribution and Underdrainage. Franklin, Mass. January, 1913. J. J. Van- 
Valkenburgh, C.E. Scale — 1 inch = 40 Feet. 

5. Franklin Sewerage. Plan Showing Details of Reservoir. Franklin, 
Mass. January, 1913. J. J. VanValkenburgh, C.E. Scale — 1 inch = 4 
Feet. 

It is proposed to construct the sewers upon the separate plan excluding 
storm water and ground drainage so far as practicable. It is very im- 
portant, in the opinion of the Board, that this plan be strictly adhered 
to in order that the full capacity of the sewers may be available for the 
removal of sewage and manufacturing wastes, and also to limit the area 
necessary for the purification of the sewage and wastes, and consequently 
the cost of constructing and maintaining the works. 

The area of filters which it is proposed to construct is likely to be 
sufficient for the requirements of the town in the beginning, and it ap- 
pears to be possible to provide additional filtering area north of the filter 
beds now proposed, either by the construction of trickling filters or addi- 
tional filter beds. With settling tanks of the capacity proposed it would 
be advisable in the beginning, and until the sewers have come into 
general use, to use only half of the tanks at a time and clean them 
frequently to avoid putrefaction of the sewage and objectionable results 
therefrom. 

The Board has already advised you relative to the disposal of the 
manufacturing wastes into the proposed sewers in a communication under 
date of Nov. 23, 1912, and it is important that the suggestions made in 
that communication be closely followed in the admission of these wastes 
to the public sewers. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 161 



Hull. 

Oct. 22, 1913. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Hull, Mass., jMr. James Jeffrey, Clerk. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for advice as to a suitable place of disposal for the sewage of 
Sagamore and Hampton hills, Hull, and has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers. 

The district in which it is proposed to construct sewers has an area of 
approximately 50 acres and is stated to contain at the present time 
upwards of 230 houses. The population is already quite dense, and, as 
the soil of the hills is fine and will absorb but little water, the cesspools 
overflow upon the ground and create very objectionable conditions. It 
has evidently become impracticable to dispose of the sewage of the higher 
parts of this district satisfactorily by means of cesspools, and a sewerage 
system should be provided at the earliest possible time. 

Considerable sections of the town are already provided with sewers 
discharging through as many as six outlets, three of which are in the 
northerly part of the town and three toward the southerly end. The 
northerly outlets, one at Windmill Point, another about a third of a mile 
northeast of Telegraph Hill, and the third about one-quarter of a mile 
west of Point Allerton, appear to be unobjectionable with the quantity 
of sewage now discharging there. No serious complaint appears to have 
arisen from two outlets in the extreme southeasterly part of the town, 
which discharge directly into the sea, but the sewage of Nantasket, which 
is discharged into the head of the channel near the steamboat landing, 
is the probable cause of objectionable odors noted in this locality at 
times, and it is unlikely that the discharge of sewage can be long con- 
tinued at this point without creating objectionable conditions. 

The outlet suggested for the sewage of Sagamore and Hampton hills 
is located in the Weir Eiver at a point about 1,900 feet west of the shore 
at the lowland lying between the hills. At this point the depth of water 
at low tide — according to the coast survey charts — is about 8 feet, and 
in the neighborhood of this outlet extensive flats are exposed at times 
of low tide. An alternative outlet is suggested off Sunset Point, where 
the water at low tide is about 17 feet in depth, and in the neighborhood 
of this location, also, there are large areas of flats which are exposed 
at low tide. 

The quantity of sewage to be discharged at the proposed outlet in the 
beginuing will probably not exceed 100,000 gallons per day, but the 
region is growing rapidly and the quantity of sewage will doubtless in- 
crease in the near future. The shores of Sunset Point and World's End 



162 STATE EOAPJ) OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc 

are used already for bathing, and are likely to be used to an increasing 
extent for this purpose in the not distant future, and the waters about 
the suggested outlets are used considerably for boating. Under the 
circumstances, it is not desirable, in the opinion of the Board, to .dis- 
charge the sewage from Sagamore and Hampton hills at either of the 
outlets suggested. 

It appears to the Board very important that before an outlet is selected 
for the sewage of the areas in question, the whole question of the collec- 
tion and disposal of the sewage of these portions of Hull and of other 
sections which seem likely to require sewerage in the near future, includ- 
ing the section from which sewage is now discharged near the steamboat 
wharf, be thoroughly investigated and a place of disposal selected which 
is likely to be unobjectionable. So far as now appears, such an outlet 
can probably be found north of Point Allerton where, if the sewage is 
discharged into deep water, the danger of creating objectionable condi- 
tions will probably be avoided. 

^Mien a definite plan for the sewerage of the districts in the town 
likely to require sewerage at no distant time in the future has been 
selected, it may be practicable to build portions of the system from time 
to time and to utilize temporary outlets at some point or points into 
Hingham Bay. or some of its arms, without creating objectionable con- 
ditions. 

The Board recommends that the investigations suggested be made at 
the earliest practicable time, and when the results are available the Board 
will, upon request, advise you as to the plans in general and as to the 
disposal of the sewage of Sagamore and Hampton hills or other areas at 
temporary outlets, if such outlets are found necessary or desirable. 

Maldex (Bostox Eubber Shoe Compaxy). 

Aug. 8, 1913. 
To the Boston Rubber Shoe Company, Maiden, Mass. 

Gextlemex: — In response to your request of July 16, 1913, for an 
examination of the industrial wastes of your factory to determine 
whether these wastes are of such a quality that they may be discharged 
into the Maiden Eiver or should be disposed of into the sewers, the State 
Board of Health has caused the locality to be examined and samples of 
the wastes to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the waste water from the 
boiling, washing and grinding of rubber contains a large quantity of 
organic matter which should be disposed of into the sewers, as should 
also the wastes from the carboni.^ing of old rubber. These wastes, how- 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 163 

ever, coutain large quantities of matter in suspension vvliicli can easily 
be removed by sedimentation, and the wastes should not be discharged 
into the sewer until after they are passed through properly designed set- 
tling tanks for the removal of such heavy matters as will settle out on 
standing. The period of sedimentation required, judging from the re- 
cent examination, should be at least two hours. The tanks should be 
designed by an engineer of experience in the construction of such works, 
and will require cleaning at sufficiently frequent intervals to maintain 
them in proper operation. The tanks should be so designed that the 
settled sludge can be discharged upon strainers of sand, cinders or coke, 
with proper drains leading to the sewer. After draining, the solid mat- 
ter should be removed to some unobjectionable place of disposal. 

The dye wastes also contain large quantities of organic matter, part of 
which is in suspension. These wastes if discharged into the Maiden 
River would cause serious discoloration of the water, besides polluting it 
considerably, and in the opinion of the Board it is advisable that they 
be disposed of by discharging them into the sewers. These wastes are 
ordinarily discharged at a high temperature and would be objectionable 
if admitted to the sewers in that condition, and they should also be 
passed through tanks for cooling, including the removal of such sus- 
pended matters as can be removed by sedimentation. 

The wastes from the rinsing after dyeing contain very little organic 
matter and may be discharged into drains leading direct to the Maiden 
River. These wastes and other waters used for cooling or any other 
purpose where they are not contaminated should be kept out of the 
sewers and dischara:ed into the river. 



Maxchester. 

April 3, 1913. 

To the Committee on Sewerage of the Town of Manchester, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Feb. 26, 1913, an aj^plication for advice as to a proposed system of 
sewerage for the town of Manchester as described in the report and 
shown upon the plans of your engineer presented therewith. 

These plans provide for the collection of the sewage of the more 
thickly settled portions of the town into a receiving basin, to be located 
on the northerly side of the Gloucester Branch of the Boston & Maine 
Railroad, between Church and Beach streets, whence it is proposed to 
pump the sewage through a cast-iron force main 14 inches in diameter 
and about 9,500 feet in length to a settling tank of the Imhoff type on 
House Island, from which the sewage will be discharged into the sea 



164 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

off the southerly end of the island at a point where the depth of water, 
according to the coast survey charts, is about 42 feet at low water. 

You have also asked advice as to the discharge of the sewage directly 
into the sea in the same general locality without settling tanks on House 
Island. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the report and plans presented. The quan- 
tity of sewage to be disposed of will depend very largely upon the care 
used in the construction of the sewers and the connections therewith, and 
it will probably be several years before the amount will reach 300,000 
gallons per day. It appears that the question of disposing of the sewage 
upon land within the limits of the town by any of the methods available 
for that purpose has been carefully considered, but that no suitable lo- 
cation for this purpose has been found. The plan of disposing of the 
sewage by discharging it into the sea has also been considered and recom- 
mended by your engineer, and in the opinion of the Board this method 
of disposal is the best that it is practicable to adopt. 

The location of the proposed settling tanks on House Island would 
add considerably to the cost of the work, and there would be likely to be 
a noticeable odor about such works. It would be best, in the opinion of 
the Board, in the beginning at least, to omit the construction of these 
tanks and discharge the sewage directly into the sea as pumped from 
the reservoir. If the quantity of sewage should increase, or floating 
matters should ever be noticeable in the neighborhood of the outlet, set- 
tling tanks could be provided if necessar}', though it is probable that a 
satisfactory removal of suspended matters could be effected by screening 
at the pumping station without danger of causing objectionable condi- 
tions at any point. In the design of the works at the reservoir and pump- 
ing station provision should be made, so far as practicable, for the future 
screening of the sewage in case further treatment should ever be found 
desirable. The plans of the works provide for a reservoir having a ca- 
pacity of not less than 100,000 gallons. It is desirable that the size of 
the reservoir be as small as practicable in order to avoid decomposition 
of the sewage therein, and a capacity of less than 100,000 gallons should 
be adequate for the purpose for several years. 

The location of the outlet now proposed in the deep water outside of 
House Island appears to be a satisfactory one, but it is possible that by 
eliminating the tanks on House Island the location might be changed 
somewhat and a saving thereby effected in the cost of the force main. 
Before locating the outlet definitely, the Board recommends that suitable 
surveys and soundings be made, together with observations of the move- 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 165 

ments of the currents, in order that the force main and the point of 
discharge may be as favorably located as practicable for the economical 
and satisfactory disposal of the sewage. 

XoEwooD (Dr. Lewis H. Plimpton). 

To Dr. Lewis H. Plimpton, Norwood, Mass. ' ' 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your proposed 
plan for disposing of the sewage of certain houses in Norwood and has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers. 

It appears that the proposed sewerage system is intended to provide 
for the disposal of the sewage of about twenty dwelling houses on the 
westerly side of Washington Street and on either side of Eock Hill Street 
in the extreme southwesterly portion of Norwood near the Walpole 
boundary. The ground upon which these dwellings stand is apparently 
composed largely of ledge, so that it is impracticable to dispose of the 
sewage satisfactorily by means of cesspools, and a general system of 
sewerage is evidently essential to the maintenance of proper sanitary con- 
ditions in this locality. 

The plan presented provides for collecting the sewage in a 4-inch pipe 
sewer and conveying it to a subsurface filter bed having an area of about 
.13 of an acre, to be located about 150 feet east of Washington Street and 
nortli of Water Street, and about 100 feet from the Neponset Eiver. 

Examinations of the soil from test pits in this locality show that 
much of it is rather fine for the disposal of sewage by subsoil filters, 
but the underlying surface soil near the westerly extremity of the pro- 
posed filter appears to be of better quality for the purpose than any 
other place. The two cesspools used for the disposal of sewage at the 
present time are to be continued in use, and it is probable that the quan- 
tity of sewage to be disposed of by the proposed filter, in the beginning 
at least, will not exceed 3,500 gallons per day. Under these conditions 
it is probable that the proposed filter, which will have an area of .13 of 
an acre, will be adequate, with proper care in its construction and main- 
tenance, for the purification of the sewage. It is advisable, however, 
that the filter be quite thoroughly underdrained with drains laid at 
least three feet below the level of the distribution pipes. 

Filters of similar design to that proposed have been operated satis- 
factorily in many places for the disposal of domestic sewage, but experi- 
ence shows that the distribution pipes through which the sewage is 
applied to the filter usually become clogged after a longer or shorter 
period of use and must then be taken up, cleaned and relaid, in order to 
secure continued satisfactory operation of the filters. 



166 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

EocKLAXD (Xew System Laundry). 

To the Rockland New Systein Laundry, Rockland, Mass. ' 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you through 
your engineers, Messrs. E. B. and C. L. Hayward of Brockton, on June 
12, 1913, the following application for advice as to the disposal of wastes 
from the Rockland New System Laundry : — 

"We are sending herewith a pencil tracing of the laundry and outlying 
lands of the Rockland New System Laundry. 

They have asked us to prepare plans for the disposal of the waste from 
their laundry and we would like to have your Engineer examine the premises 
and make such recommendations to us in the matter as j'ou deem advisable. 

We have not given the matter much study as yet and are sending you 
the information we have in hand in order that no time may be lost as they 
desire to get their plant in working order at as early a date as possible. 

Their present capacity is 312 washings per week using 135 gallons per 
wash. On Mondays they do 156 washings. They wish to arrange for a 
capacity of 200 washings for three days or 27,000 gallons per day for three 
days. 

The laundry is located on Bigelow Avenue in the town of Rockland very 
near Union Street. 

The application is accompanied by a sketch of the laundry and existing 
tank and cesspool, and subsequently a plan was submitted showing the 
proposed new works for the disposal of these wastes. 

It appears that the wastes from the laundry amount to from 18,000 
to 20,000 gallons per day for three days in each week, and the plans pro- 
vide for disposing of the Avastes upon a subsurface filter with an area 
of about .3 of an acre and a depth of about 4.14 feet. The plans provide 
for the distribution of the waste upon this area from thirty-one lines of 
4-inch distribution pipe, with an aggregate length of about 2,950 feet, 
and for ten lines of 4-inch underdrain laid 12 feet apart, discharging 
into a small stream probably tributary to Weymouth Back River. 

The distribution system, according to the plans, is divided into four 
sections, and the pipes are to be laid about 6 inches below the surface 
of the filter. The distance between the invert of the distribution pipes 
and that of the underd rains averages about 3.3 feet. It is proposed in 
the operation of the Avorks to discharge the wastes first into a tank of 
field stone 6 feet by 8 feet in plan and 4 feet in depth, from which they 
will overflow into a cesspool 12 feet in diameter and 8.5 feet in depth, 
whence the overflow will be discharged upon the filter beds. It is pro- 
posed to remove the sludge intercepted by the settling tank and cesspool 
in niffht soil carts. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 167 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plans presented. The land in the rear of 
the laundry is comparatively flat, and apparently not more than 21/2 feet 
above high- water level in an adjacent pool. The soil as shown by test 
pits appears to be composed of loam and muck at the surface, underlaid 
with fine sand containing a small amount of gravel, and very fine sand 
or clay is found in the easterly portion of the lot. The soil is of poor 
quality for sewage disposal purposes, but it is understood that it is pro- 
posed to construct the filters of coarse material from a gravel pit located 
not far from the laundry. 

By constructing the filter bed of suitable coarse sand or gravel, with 
an effective depth of 3.5 feet, it will be practicable in the opinion of the 
Board to dispose of the wastes from this laundry satisfactorily, provided 
an adequate area is prepared for the purpose and the filter receives the 
necessary care. In such filters the subsurface distribution pipes gradu- 
ally become clogged, and it is necessary after a longer or shorter period 
of use to dig up, clean and relay these pipes. It is best to lay them at a 
depth of at least one foot below the surface, covering and surrounding the 
pipes with coarse gravel graded to small sizes in order to keep the sand 
from entering the pipes. In order to provide for a depth of filter of 3.5 
feet and for laying the distribution pipes at a depth of at least one foot, 
it will probably be necessary to raise the laundry machinery, to pump the 
wastes or to loAver the water in the pool receiving the effluent of the 
proposed filter. The area which it is proposed to construct is somewhat 
limited for the purpose, and it is quite likely that the distribution pipes 
will become clogged and require relaying at more frequent intervals than 
if a much larger area were provided. It is desirable, in the opinion of the 
Board, to provide an area of as much as 0.5 of an acre in the beginning, 
since better results are likely to be secured if the filtration area is of 
ample size. In case the quantity of waste discharged from the laundry 
is increased at any future time, the area of the filter beds should be pro- 
portionately increased to care properly for the wastes. 

It is important to pass the wastes through a settling tank or fine screen 
before discharging into the distribution pipes, in order to reduce the 
closging as much as practicable, and it may be necessary, in order to 
provide adequate preliminary treatment for the wa'^tes, to pump them 
to suitable tanks or screen chambers prepared for the purpose. 

If the filter beds are properly constructed of suitable material with 
an effective depth of 3.5 feet it is probable, in the opinion of the Board, 
that the proposed plans, with the modifications herein suggested, would 
provide satisfactorily for the disposal of these wastes so long as the filters 
are maintained in efficient working condition. 



168 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

EocKLAXD (E. T. Wright Company). 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the E. T. Wright Company, Rockland, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The attention of the State Board of Health having 
been called to the projiosed construction of a filter bed on the northerly 
side of Webster Street and east of Liberty Street for the purification of 
sewage from your factory, the Board has caused the locality to be ex- 
amined with reference to the possibility that the proposed new works 
might create objectionable conditions in the neighborhood. 

Subsequently, through your engineer, Mr. E. Worthington, the advice 
of the Board was requested as to a proposed plan for disposing of this 
sewage, the construction of works having already been begun. 

It appears that the quantity of sewage discharged from the factory — 
Judging from the water consumption — is slightly less than 5,000 gallons 
per day and that this sewage at present discharges into three cesspools 
in the neighborhood of the factory south of Webster Street, through 
which an overflow pipe leads to a large cesspool on the easterly side of 
a brook north of Webster Street. The soil in which this cesspool is lo- 
cated appears to be rather fine, and the sewage rises to the surface in an 
open pool west of the cesspool, which has been the cause of complaint. 

According to the plan presented, it is proposed to construct two filter 
beds near this cesspool having an aggregate area of about .15 of an acre. 
The filter beds are apparently to be constructed with one foot of stone on 
the bottom covered with a stratum of sand and gravel 2 feet in thick- 
ness, the sand and gravel to be obtained from a sand bank in the region. 
It does not appear that it is proposed to provide underdrainage for these 
filters other than the coarse stone forming the substratum. 

Considering the elevation of the surface of the filters as compared with 
the level of the l)rook, there is likely to be difficulty in operating these 
filters satisfactorily unless their surfaces can be raised or the level of the 
brook lowered. In any case, in the opinion of the Board, in order to 
purify this sewage adequately it is advisable to construct filters having 
a depth of at least 4 feet of sand thoroughly underdrained and having 
an area equal to that indicated in your plans. Open filter beds in this 
region will be likely, unless they receive much more than usual care, to 
give off objectionable odors at times, which may be noticeable at a con- 
siderable distance from the filters. It would be best, in the opinion of 
the Board, to apply the sewage to the filters in pipes laid about one foot 
beneath the surface of the filter and so constructed that the sewage can 
pass into the sand from properly protected open joints in these pipes. 
Subsurface filters of this sort have been used successfully for the disposal 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 169 

of sewage in similar quantities at several places, but with such filters the 
distribution pipes become clogged after a longer or shorter period of use, 
depending upon the rate of operation of the filters, and must be taken 
up, cleaned and relaid in order to maintain the filters in proper oper- 
ation. 

The Board recommends the construction of a filter of this kind for the 
disposal of the sewage of the factory until such time as the town shall 
provide an adequate sewerage system capable of preventing further con- 
tamination of local waters and other objectionable conditions. 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Rockland, Mass. 

Gextlemen^ : — Enclosed herewith is a copy of the advice of the State 
Board of Health to the E. T. Wright Company relative to the disposal 
of sewage from their factory in Eoekland. 

The Board again calls attention to the great need of a system of sewers 
for the maintenance of proper sanitary conditions in the thickly settled 
portions of the town of Eoekland. 

EUSSELL. 

June 9, 1913. 
To Mr. E. D. Parks, Chairman, Board of Selectmen, Russell, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your applica- 
tion for its advice as to the discharge of the sewage of the village into 
Bradley Brook and has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers. 

The results of the examination show that it is proposed to discharge 
the sewage from the main portion of the village into the northerly chan- 
nel of Bradley Brook, at a point where it will be crossed by a proposed 
new highway about 1,200 feet from the mouth of the brook. 

Assuming that the flow of Bradley Brook is well maintained in the 
summer season, the total quantity flowing in both channels would hardly 
be sufiicient for the proper dilution of the sewage of Eussell in the drier 
part of the year, and if the sewage from the streets indicated were to be 
discharged into the northerly channel of the brook there is little doubt 
that a serious nuisance would soon be created. There would probably also 
be serious objection to discharging the sewage into the main brook, unless 
at some point below the suspension bridge. 

The best point for disposing of the sewage would be to discharge it 
into Westfield Eiver at the mouth of the brook. It may be possible, also, 
to extend the sewer through Main Street and discharge the sewaee 



170 STATP: board of health. [Pub. Doc. 

directly into the river beneath or near the highway bridge. At either 
location it is probable that the sewage could be disposed of satisfactorily 
for several years without objection. 

It is probable that at some future time it will be necessary to purify 
the sewage of the village before discharging it into the river, and it is 
advisable that the storm water be kept out of the sewers or, if admitted, 
that the connections be so made that the storm Avater can readily be 
diverted if necessary. 

South Hadley. 

March 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, South Hadley, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you, 
through your engineers, on Jan. 28, 1913, an application for advice as 
to a proposed system of sewers for South Hadley Center and WoodlawTi, 
accompanied by plans of the proposed sewers and outlet and a report 
describing the proposed works. 

The plans provide for collecting the sewage from these villages and 
the. sewage from Mount Holyoke College, which now pollutes Stony 
Brook, into a system of pipe sewers connected with branch mains in 
College Street running toward the valley of Stony Brook, where they 
connect with the main sewer which it is proposed to lay in the valley 
of Stony Brook to convey the sewage to an outlet into the Connecticut 
Eiver opposite the mouth of the brook. The plans also provide for sewers 
in the valleys of two small tributaries of Stony Brook Avhich will connect 
with the main sewer at the outlets of these tributaries below College 
Street. The sewers are to be constructed upon the separate plan and all 
storm water excluded. It is understood that no definite plans have yet 
been made for underdrainage of the sewers but that underdrains will be 
laid when the works are constructed if found necessary. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plans and information presented. The 
plans in general appear to provide adequately for the collection of all of 
the sewage from the present thickly settled portions of South Hadley 
Center and Woodlawn and for conveying it to the Connecticut River by 
gravity. The main sewer is of suflficient capacity to serve a considerably 
larger population than is now found in the district which this sewer is 
capable of serving by gravity, provided all storm water and ground drain- 
age, so far as practicable, are excluded from the sewers. 

The plan of the proposed outlet provides for conveying the sewage 
through a 16-inch cast-iron pipe to an outlet in the river about 200 feet 
from the northerly side of the bridge across Stony Brook -at it? mouth 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 171 

and about 100 feet from the general shore line of the river at a point 
^vhere the water is several feet in depth at the ordinary low-water stage 
of the river. 

Owing to the topographical conditions in the valley of Stony Brook, 
through which the proposed main sewer is to be laid, numerous changes 
in the direction of the sewer appear to be necessary, and these changes 
in direction have been made at manholes to provide for inspection and 
cleaning. The line appears to be a practicable one, although it is pos- 
sible that in the final construction it can be straightened and improved. 
Numerous manholes along this line will be submerged at times of high 
Avater in the Connecticut Eiver, and there will doubtless be times under 
these conditions when sewage will escape from the manholes. It is un- 
likely, however, that any sewage will flow out of the manholes at points 
in the neighborhood of the village, and such overflows along the main 
sewer are not likely to be objectionable. It is possible that at some 
future time it will be advisable to avoid danger of the escape of sewage 
from the manholes, and in that case it would be necessary to raise these 
manholes above the level of the hydraulic gradient. Such extension does 
not appear to be necessary at the present time. 

The disposal of the sewage by discharging it directly into the Con- 
necticut Eiver appears to be the best that it is practicable to adopt under 
the existing conditions. The discharge of sewage into the river can prob- 
ably be allowed to continue for many years, but the adoption of this 
outlet is subject to the condition that the sewage shall be removed from 
the river and purified M^henever purification shall become necessary. 

In the opinion of the Board the plan in general is a suitable one for 
the sewerage of South Hadley Center and Woodlawn and the method of 
disposal the best that it is practicable to adopt at the present time. 

July 11, 1913. 
To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, South Hadley, Mass. 

Gentle:\iex : — The State Board of Health received from you on June 
18, 1913, the following application for advice as to the discharge of 
sewage from the Woodlawn District in South Hadley into Stony Brook : — 

Om' board of sewer commissioners of the town of South Hadley wish to 
make of you a formal application for permission to discharge the sewerage 
for that section of the town known as the Woodlawn District into Stony 
Brook. This is shown on the map which you have on file at your office. 

In making this application we wish it distinctly understood that it is done 
for the sake of affording temporary relief for the district mentioned. 

It is the present intention of the board as outlined to your Mr. Whittet 
to continue this trunk sewer as fast as the financial condition of the town 



172 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

will warrant to its outlet at the Connecticut River. We have no intention 
whatever of letting this remain as a permanent discharge in the brook but 
the financial condition of our town is such that we believe this a wise course 
to be followed out at the present time. 

The Woodlawn District is situated mostly on high, flat land adjacent 
to College Street and contains apparently at the present time about 
twenty dwelling houses and an estimated population of a little less than 
100 persons. The proposed outlet for the sewage from this district into 
Stony Brook is to be located below College Street bridge, about two miles 
above the point where the brook enters the Connecticut Eiver. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the plan presented. There is no doubt that a 
system of sewerage is greatly needed in the village of Woodlawn, where 
the soil is not adapted to the satisfactory disposal of domestic sewage by 
means of cesspools, and it is very important to provide an adequate 
method of sewage disposal in this locality at the earliest practicable time. 

The quantity of sewage that would be discharged into Stony Brook 
from this village is small, even compared with the flow of Stony Brook, 
but Stony Brook evidently receives considerable pollution from other 
sources in the village, and the discharge of any considerable amount of 
crude sewage directly into the stream would be likely, in the opinion of 
the Board, to be objectionable. 

"While the dijfficulty and expense of providing a proper means of disposal 
for the sewage of the village are considerable, on account of the topo- 
graphical conditions and the length of sewer required to reach the Con- 
necticut Eiver, there appears to the Board no better or less expensive 
plan of disposing of the sewage of the thickly settled areas in the valley 
of Stony Brook and preventing the objectionable pollution of the stream 
than by conveying it to an outlet into the Connecticut River. 

Under the circumstances the Board is unable to advise the discharge 
of sewage into Stony Brook, as proposed, except that the small amount of 
sewage that would be contributed by the twenty houses or thereabouts in 
Woodlawn may be discharged temporarily into the brook below the junc- 
tion with the second tributary about 3,000 feet below College Street. It 
is important, in the opinion of the Board, that the discharge of sewage 
into the brook be discontinued, and all the sewage of the village should be 
conveyed to the Connecticut River at the earliest practicable time. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 173 

Springfield (House of the Good Shepherd). 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Mother Superior, House of the Good Shepherd, Springfield, Mass. 

Dear Madam : — In response to your request, made through the State 
Inspector of Health, the State Board of Health has caused an examina- 
tion to be made of the House of the Good Shepherd in Springfield with 
a view to suggesting a plan of sewage disposal for this institution which 
will obviate the objections to the present method. 

The results of the examination indicate that the quantity of sewage 
may be about 18,500 gallons per day, and it also appears that there is no 
sewer of the city of Springfield in the neighborhood of the institution 
into which the sewage can be discharged by gravity. 

Under the circumstances, there appear to be two practicable plans for 
a satisfactory improvement in the method of sewage disposal at this 
institution; one, by the construction of a sewer between 1,100 and 1,200 
feet in length in a northwest direction to the city sewer in Benton 
Avenue and pumping the sewage to that sewer. Pumping could prob- 
ably be done automatically, if electric power is used, with a comparatively 
little outlay for the care and operation of the works, but in the construc- 
tion of the sewer it would probably be essential to obtain a right of way 
over private land, and the practicability of employing this method of 
disposal would depend upon the ability to secure the right to cross in- 
tervening land not belonging to the institution. The other method of 
effecting a satisfactory disposal of the sewage would be to construct 
filtration works south, east or northeast of the institution and to purify 
the sewage by filtration until such time as a city sewer is available for 
its disposal. 

There appear to be adequate areas for the treatment of sewage upon 
lands of the institution in such a way as will produce a satisfactory 
effluent which can be turned into the neighboring stream without objec- 
tion and at the same time not create a nuisance in the neighborhood. 

As to which of these plans would be the more economical it is im- 
practicable for the Board to advise you with its present information. 
The Board recommends that you have the matter investigated by an 
engineer of experience in such matters and estimates of the cost of dis- 
posing of the sewage by each plan prepared. Wlien the results of these 
investigations are available the Board will, if you so request, give you 
further advice as to the disposal of the sewage from this institution. 



174 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Walpole (Lewis MaxufacturiisG Company). 

May 24, 1913. 

To the Lewis Manufacturing Companrj, Walpole, Mass. 

Gentlemen" : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication of April 21, 1913, and the plan submitted therewith, for 
advice as to the disposal of wastes from your factory in Walpole, as- 
suming that the capacity of the works will be increased 25 per cent, and 
eventually to about double its present capacity, and has caused the lo- 
cality to be examined by one of its engineers. 

Measurements of the wastes discharged from your works at the pres- 
ent time indicate that the total quantity amounts to about 100,000 gal- 
lons per day, and analyses show that the wastes from the first boil or keir 
discharge, from the first wash after boiling and from the absorbent boil, 
so called, — amounting to about 16,000 gallons per day, — contain large 
quantities of organic matter which require purification before being dis- 
charged into the river. The wastes from the other processes did not con- 
tain at the time of this examination so great a quantity of organic matter 
as to require treatment before being discharged into the river. 

Under present conditions the wastes requiring treatment and those 
requiring no treatment are both discharged into the river through the 
same pipe, and there are indications that at times some of the wastes 
other than those requiring purification are discharged into the settling 
tanks and thence upon the filter beds, while at other times some of the 
wastes requiring purification are discharged untreated into the river. 

The settling tanks used at the present time have a capacity of about 
7,500 gallons. They are divided into two compartments and are prob- 
ably large enough, if properly operated, to provide adequate sedimenta- 
tion for a quantity of waste not exceeding 16,000 gallons per day. So 
far as the Board is informed, these tanks are not operated in such a 
way as to secure satisfactory sedimentation of the wastes; in fact, it 
appears that the tanks are cleaned out at very rare intervals, and neces- 
sarily, under the circumstances, except for a few days after cleaning, they 
are of little value in their effect upon the purification of the wastes. 
Moreover, considerable floating matter which might be arrested in the 
tanks evidently goes over to the filter beds through lack of proper scum 
boards. 

It is probable that a large part of the suspended matter in these 
wastes could be removed by properly operated settling tanks. The tanks 
should be cleaned out at as frequent intervals as is necessary to secure 
the best results from sedimentation, and it is probable that they should 
be emptied at least as often as once in ten days. By providing proper 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 175 

scum boards a large part of the suspended matter which floats to the 
surface can be prevented from escaping from the tanks. It is possible 
also that, by the use of chemicals, precipitation of a considerable addi- 
tional portion of the organic matter could be effected in these settling 
tanks and the rate at which the filter beds could be operated would be 
increased. 

The filter beds now in use have an area of about 8,800 square feet, 
which is less than was recommended by the Board in its communication 
of Dec. 3, 1908, for the treatment of these wastes. It is probable that 
with proper care of the settling tanks an area of 12,000 square feet of 
filters would provide adequately for the purification of the wastes at pres- 
ent discharged from the factory. In order to provide for double this 
quantity of waste, which it would be necessary to treat in case the fac- 
tory were enlarged to the maximum extent indicated in your applica- 
tion, it would be necessary to provide an area of at least 24,000 square 
feet of filters, assuming that the process will not be materially changed 
from the process in use at the present time. 

The present filters have not been cleaned as often as desirable, and 
in addition to being somewhat unsightly in consequence of lack of suf- 
ficient care it is probable that they have caused some odor in the neigh- 
borhood. There is little doubt, however, that with proper care of the 
filters danger of objectionable odors in the neighborhood would be very 
largely avoided. 

Of the lands suggested for the purification of these wastes, the lots 
near the corner of West and Station streets and those along the easterly 
side of Station Street are nearer the village than it is desirable to use for 
this purpose. The land southwest of Elm Street north of the river and 
the areas north of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Eailroad 
would be satisfactory for the purpose, provided suitable material were 
obtained and the filters properly constructed thereon. 

In the opinion of the Board, if you can secure a sufficient area of land 
within a reasonable distance of your factory of such extent that it would 
be practicable for you to construct thereon filters having an aggregate 
area of at least 24,000 square feet, it will be practicable for you — if the 
capacity of the works is not more in the future than described — to 
purify the foul portions of your manufacturing wastes sufficiently so as 
to prevent causing objectionable conditions in the river. Such filter beds 
are somewhat unsightly and, though they need not be seriously objection- 
able on account of odor if properly cared for, it is nevertheless advisable 
that they be located at some point as far as practicable from the densely 
populated part of the village. If located near a highway or not far 
from other buildings it is best to screen them from view by planting 



176 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

trees and shrubs about them. In constructing additional filter beds it is 
advisable to so locate the outlets of underdrains that samples of the 
effluent can be obtained from time to time so as to determine its quality 
and the efficiency of the purification effected by the filters. 

It is also important that settling tanks of suitable design and capacity 
be provided to secure the best results from sedimentation, and finally it 
is very important that the settling tanks, both those now in use and any 
hereafter constructed, shall be emptied at frequent intervals and that the 
surfaces of the filter beds shall be cleaned as often as is necessary to keep 
them in most efficient working order. 

The sludge from the settling tanks can probably be dried upon sludge 
beds before final disposal, provided the sludge beds are so located that 
they will not be objectionable. Otherwise, the sludge should be removed 
to some suitable place of disposal in proper carts. 

\YALTHA:\r (PoxD ExD School). 

Sept. 24, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Waltham, Mass., Mr. A. L. Moody, Agent. 

Gextle:mex : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for advice as to the disposal of sewage from the Pond End School, 
so called, and the plans submitted subsequently by the city engineer. 

It appears that the school is intended to accommodate 40 pupils in the 
primary grades, and it is estimated that the total quantity of water that 
would be used for the school and the probable quantity of sewage would 
be about 500 gallons per day. The plans provide for collecting the sewage 
in a settling tank and discharging it upon an artificial filter bed com- 
posed of suitable sand and gravel having an area of 750 square feet and 
a total depth of about 51/2 feet. It is proposed to apply the sewage to the 
filter through subsurface drains of open-jointed pipe laid about 18 inches 
below the surface of the filter. The purified effluent will flow into an 
adjacent water course. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plans and information presented and con- 
cludes that the best method of disposing of the sewage of this school will 
be to discharge it ultimately into the sewerage system of the city of 
"Waltham since, according to the information available to the Board, the 
length of sewer required would be about 3,500 feet and the cost probably 
not more than $5,000, exclusive of land damages. 

Until a sewer has been provided to remove the sewage of the school to 
an outlet into the AValtham system, the plan presented appears to be the 
best that it is practicable to adopt. With a system of subsurface filtration 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 177 

such as is here proposed the distributing pipes through which the sewage 
is delivered to the filter usually become clogged after a longer or shorter 
period of use, and it is necessary to dig up, clean and relay these pipes 
from time to time in order to maintain the filters in successful operation. 
It is very important, if the filters shall be constructed for the temporary 
disposal of the sewage from this school, that the area prepared shall be 
at least as large as proposed and that the work shall be carefully carried 
out under the supervision of your engineer. 



Ware. 

Jan. 6, 1913. 
To the Board of Health of the Town of Ware. 

Gextlemex: — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Dec. 28, 1912, a report upon the Cheever Swamp nuisance in Ware, pre- 
pared by your engineer, Mr. James L. Tighe, together with a plan for 
relieving the nuisance. 

The plan provides for a sewer to be extended from the present town 
sewer in West Street northerly toward West Main Street and then toward 
the west in the rear of the houses on that street, into which all of the 
sewage from the various houses in the neighborhood of the swamp can 
be discharged by gravity. The plan also provides for lowering the present 
12-inch drain pipe and extending it to a point near the southerly end of 
the swamp, and it is suggested that more thorough drainage can be pro- 
vided by extending this drain to a point near the northerly end of the 
swamp and laying lateral drains to provide thorough drainage for all 
parts of the area. 

The Board has examined the plan presented and is of the opinion that 
this plan, if properly carried out, will provide adequately for relieving 
the nuisance now caused by the inefficient drainage of this swamp, pro- 
vided the further recommendation for the removal of objectionable organic 
matter now deposited there and the prevention of further accumulations 
of foul matter is strictly enforced. The sewer and drain, if properly 
laid, are adequate for the purposes for which they are designed, and it is 
advisable that the further suggestion of the engineer be carried out as 
to extending the drain and providing laterals for the more thorough drain- 
age of the area. It will probably be found desirable, in addition, to 
raise the level of the area by filling ; and, if so, this improvement can be 
made later if deemed necessary. 



178 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Westfield. 

June 9, 1913. 
To Mr. John L. Hyde, Town Engineer, Westfield, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on. May 3, 
1913, the following application for advice relative to a proposed sewer in 
Curtis and Atwater streets in the to-UTi of Westfield : — 

... At a recent town meeting it was voted to build a sewer for house 
drainage on Curtis street, which is on the north side of the river and runs 
west from Atwater street a distance of three hundred feet. 

The contour of the gi'ound is such that it cannot be drained into Parker 
Ave., and the elevation of the present sewer on Poehassic will not allow it 
to drain that way. 

It is therefore proposed to connect it with the storm-water sewer on At- 
water street. There are at present sis houses on Curtis St. . . . 

The proposed sewer is located north of the Westfield Eiver near the 
westerly limits of the thickly settled portion of the town. The plan sub- 
mitted with the application provides for constructing a sewer in Curtis 
Street to Atwater Street, and thence through Atwater Street to an outlet 
in the Westfield Eiver opposite the foot of that street. The sewer is to 
be built on the combined plan to receive both sewage and storm water 
and will have a diameter of 8 inches in Curtis Street and 10 inches in 
Atwater Street. 

The Board has caused the locality to l)e examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plan presented. While there are very few 
houses in this portion of the town as yet, sewers appear to be necessary to 
remove the sewage from the neighborhood of the dwelling houses, and 
drainage is also desirable for the relief of this district. 

It is of the greatest importance in the opinion of the Board that the 
sewage and the storm water should be kept wholly separate in the town 
of Westfield, because with continued growth it will be necessary for the 
to-wn at no distant time to provide for the purification of its sewage before 
it is discharged into the Westfield Eiver or its tributaries. In the case 
of the proposed sewer on Curtis and Atwater streets it will be difiicult and 
expensive to provide for discharging the sewage at the present time into 
any of the existing sewers of the town, and under the circumstances it is 
permissible, in the opinion of the Board, to dispose of the sewage from 
Curtis Street by discharging it temporarily into the river at the foot of 
Atwater Street. Provision should be made in the beginning for the sep- 
aration, so far as practicable, of the sewage from the storm water in this 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 179 

district, and roof waters should be kept wholly separate from the sewage 
and discharged into the sewer or drain through separate pipes. 

It is also important tliat the sewer be extended into the river to a point 
at least 40 feet beyond high-water mark and at such an elevation that 
the outlet will be entirely submerged at times of low water in the stream. 

Subject to these conditions, the Board is of the opinion that the pro- 
posed plans may reasonably be adopted for the sewerage of the district 
in question to meet the present emergency. 

Weymouth (Lauxdry ix South Weymouth). 

To Mr. W. H. Dyer, South Weytnouth, Mass. ^^^^- *' ^^^^■ 

Dear Sir : — In response to a complaint of an objectionable odor in 
the vicinity of your laundry at South Weymouth, the State Board of 
Health has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and 
finds that the works constructed for the disposal of the wastes therefrom 
do not appear to be operated satisfactorily at the present time. 

An examination of the filters upon which the wastes are disposed indi- 
cates that the underdrainage is not satisfactory and also that the charac- 
ter of the material is not as favorable for the disposal of the wastes as 
was indicated from the limited number of test pits which were dug to 
show the character of the material at the time the works were proposed. 
There are also indications that the quantity of wastes from this laundry 
is greater than at the time the plans of the works were prepared. 

The Board recommends that the filters be thoroughly underdrained with 
drains laid with their bottoms at a depth of as much as 5 feet below the 
surface of the filters and that these underdrains be given a free outlet 
into the brook. If it is found impracticable to lay drains at this level, the 
elevation of the filters should be raised even if it should be necessary to 
pump the wastes. The soil of the filter beds should also be examined 
and the portions found to be unsatisfactorv' for purification purposes 
should be removed and suitable sand or gravel substituted therefor. The 
Board further recommends that the work of improvement of these works 
should be done under the supervision of an engineer of experience in 
matters relating to the disposal of sewage. 

Sewerage facilities appear to be greatly needed in this portion of Wey- 
mouth, in common with other thickly settled areas in the town, and the 
most satisfactory plan of disposing of these wastes will be in connection 
with a general system of sewerage in the village. Until such a system 
is available, however, there appears to be no more practicable plan than 
filtration for disposing of these wastes without creating objectionable 
conditions in the neighborhood or polluting the adjacent stream. 



180 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Sept. 4, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Weymouth, Mass. 

Gentlemex : — In response to a complaint of objectionable odors in 
the neighborhood of a laundry in South Weymouth, and a request for 
advice as to the disposal of the wastes therefrom, the State Board of 
Health has advised as to a plan for treating these wastes, and a copy 
of this advice is enclosed herewith for your information. 

It will be very difficult, in the opinion of the Board, to maintain satis- 
factory sanitary conditions in this thickly settled district unless a system 
of sewerage is provided for the removal of sewage and objectionable 
wastes. The Board recommends that the question of sewerage for the 
thickly settled portions of Weymouth be taken up by the town at its 
earliest opportunity and plans for the necessary works prepared. It 
will then be practicable to construct portions of the system from time to 
time as they become necessary. The Board is prepared to advise as to 
any plan of sewerage and sewage disposal that the town may desire 
to present. 

Wilmington- (C. S. Haeriman & Co.). 

Sept. 4, 1913. 
To Messrs. C. S. Harriman & Co., North Wilmington, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Aug. 21, 1913, through your engineers, Messrs. Metcalf & Eddy of Boston, 
plans for the purification of the wastes from your tannery in Wilmington, 
accompanied by a report describing the proposed works. 

Estimates of the quantity of the wastes discharged from the tannery 
indicate that they amount to from 75,000 to 100,000 gallons per day at 
the present time, and an analysis indicates that they may contain some- 
what less organic matter than wastes discharged from similar works 
elsewhere. 

The plans submitted provide for collecting these wastes into two sedi- 
mentation tanks, each having a capacity of about 15,000 gallons, from 
which they will flow to a dosing tank having a capacity of 20,000 gallons, 
whence they will be pumped to sand filters having an area of about two 
acres, to be located on the westerly side of the Boston & Maine Eailroad, 
southeast of the tannery. Sludge drying beds having an approximate 
area of .18 of an acre are shown upon the plans. 

Examinations of the location of the proposed filter beds indicate that 
much sand can probably be found there which will be suitable for purify- 
ing the wastes, and it is proposed to provide additional filtering material 
from a gravel bank in the neighborhood. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 181 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the plans presented and is of the opinion that, 
if carried out as jiroposed, they will provide adequately for the purifica- 
tion of the wastes from this tannery while the quantity is no greater than 
it is estimated to be at the present time. 

The wastes from this tannery appear to contain somewhat less organic 
matter than those from similar tanneries elsewhere, but the samples ex- 
amined did not include the waste liquor from the lime vats. It appears 
that these tanks are emptied at infrequent intervals, and it is probable 
that a special sludge drying bed might l)e used to advantage for the dis- 
posal of this waste at such times, thus keeping it separate from the other 
wastes. 

The elevation of the filter beds al)Ove the brook into which the effluent 
will be discharged is not shown upon the plans. It is desirable that the 
filters be elevated sufficiently above the level of this Ijrook to make it 
practicable to provide for the further treatment of the wastes in case 
such treatment sliould be found desirable in the future. 

The Board further recommends that when completed the works be 
placed under the care of a competent person trained in the operation of 
such works, under the supervision of your engineers. 

"WlXCHEXDOX. 

Mat 21, 1913. 

To the Sewer Commissioners, Winchendon, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health has considered your peti- 
tion for the approval of a system of sewerage in the town of AYinchendon, 
with a temporary outlet into Millers Eiver, the scheme being outlined in 
your petition as follows : — 

We, the unclersigned, Sewer Commissioners of the Town of Winchendon, 
hereby respectfully petition for your approval for so much of the system 
of sewerage as is shown in red, on a plan submitted herewith, the outlet 
to be into Millers Kiver at the point indicated for a tempoi-ary outlet; with 
the approval of the Board of additions of streets connecting with the streets 
marked in red, where sewers seem to be most needed, should the Commis- 
sioners find that the amount of the appro iiriation which will be in their 
hands, \-iz., $100,000.00, will allow of such extensions. 

The application is accompanied by a plan showing the streets in which 
it is proposed to construct sewers in the beginning, also the line of the 
main sewer, the location of the filtration area, and the location of a pro- 
posed temporary outlet for the sewage into l^Iillers River about 700 feet 
below the lowest dam in town. 



182 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The plan is similar in most respects to the plan presented for the con- 
sideration of the Board in 1906 and provides for the ultimate disposal 
of the sewage upon land on the east side of Millers Eiver, about two miles 
west of the main portion of the town, in a sparsely settled region where 
the conditions are favorable for the satisfactory purification of the sewage. 
The plans provide for constructing the main sewer down the valley of 
Millers Eiver from the center of the town to a point within a quarter of 
a mile of the proposed filtration area, whence the sewage will be diverted 
into Millers Eiver through a temporary pipe line about 1,200 feet in 
length. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered your application and the plan presented therewith. Millers 
Eiver at the point at which it is proposed to discharge the sewage drains 
an area of about 56 square miles, and the flow of the river, judging from 
the information available to the Board, falls to a very small quantity in 
the summer season in dry years. The river already receives considerable 
pollution from the factories and mills along its course above the proposed 
temporary sewer outlet, and the discharge of a quantity of sewage such 
as would be collected by the proposed sewer system would be likely to 
create a nuisance in the river. 

At a point opposite the proposed filtration area the river is joined by 
a large stream from the north, and its drainage area at the highway cross- 
ing just below this area is 50 per cent, greater than at the temporary out- 
let proposed on the plan submitted. It is probable that a limited amount 
of sewage could be discharged temporarily into the river below the high- 
way bridge without causing seriously objectionable conditions, provided 
the sewage were first treated in settling tanks for the removal of sus- 
pended matters which would create objectionable conditions in the 
stream. 

The proposed filtration area contains soil well suited to the purification 
of sewage by intermittent filtration. The land is quite level and filter 
beds can be constructed upon it at a reasonable cost. An ample area ap- 
pears to be available for the purification of all of the sewage of the town 
until the population becomes considerably greater than at the present 
time, and there are other areas on the opposite side of the river which can 
be used in case of need. 

The general system of collecting the sewage of the town in a system 
of pipe sewers, from which storm water and ground drainage are excluded 
so far as practicable, and disposing of it by intermittent filtration upon 
filter beds to be located on the area indicated in the northwestern part of 
the town appears to the Board the best practicable method of providing 
for the collection and disposal of the sewage of the tovrn. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 1S3 

The Board does not approve the proposed temporary outlet shown upon 
the plan submitted, but recommends that the main sewer be extended to 
the proposed filtration area in the beginning and that the necessary 
settling tanks, screens and sludge beds for the removal, so far as prac- 
ticable, of the suspended matter in the sewage be constructed in the be- 
ginning. In the opinion of the Board it will be permissible during the 
construction of the works to discharge the sewage into Millers Eiver 
through a temporary outlet to be located not more than 600 feet above 
the bridge on the Eoyalston Eoad, this outlet to be used for the disposal 
of the sewage only during the construction of the proposed works, the dis- 
charge of the sewage into the river to be discontinued in any case on 
July 1, 1918, unless earlier required by the Board, after which the sewage 
is to be purified upon the area shown upon the plan submitted with your 
application. 

The Board recommends that the detailed plans for the settling tanks, 
filter beds and temporary outlet for the sewage be submitted for its con- 
sideration before the construction of the works is begun. 

Miscellaneous. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to the pollution of 
streams and miscellaneous matters : — 

Agawam. 

Oct. 1, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Agawam, Mass. 

Gextle:\iex : — Complaint has recently been made of the pollution 
of the water of Three Mile Brook near Eiverside Park in Agawam, and 
an examination shows that the stream still receives pollution by wastes 
from the works of the Agawam Company, though the cause of the re- 
cent complaint relates to conditions near the mouth of the brook below 
the point where the stream receives the discharge from a distillery. 
The wastes from this works are of a character to cause very serious pol- 
lution of a stream no larger than Three Mile Brook at times in the sum- 
mer season when the water is low, and in order to prevent the nuisance 
it will be necessary either to purify these wastes or divert them from the 
stream. It would be very difficult and expensive to treat these wastes in 
such a way that they might be discharged into the brook without causing 
objectionable conditions, and unless the entire quantity can be otherwise 
disposed of the best practicable plan will probably be to discharge them 
through a sewer having an outlet into the Connecticut Eiver. 



184 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The condition of the upper portions of Three Mile Brook below the 
works of the Agawam Company appears also to be objectionable, and 
no work appears to have been done in carrying out the recommendations 
of this Board of Oct. 3, 1912. 

The Board recommends that the proprietors of these establishments be 
required to take such steps for the treatment of their wastes before their 
discharge into the brook as will prevent a nuisance resulting therefrom, 
or that provision be made for the removal of these wastes to a suitable 
outlet or outlets in the Connecticut Eiver. 

Dec. 5, 1913. 
To the Board of Health, Agawam, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request, received through Dr. J. 
V. W. Boyd, State Inspector of Health of that district, the State Board 
of Health has caused an examination to be made of the sanitary condi- 
tions in the thickly settled district in the extreme northerly part of 
Agawam near the Westfield Eiver and has caused samples of water 
from a spring and well in this district, from which water is taken for 
drinking, to be analyzed. 

It appears that no system of public water supply has yet been pro- 
vided in this densely populated area, and the examination shows that 
the conditions now existing in this district are unfavorable to health. 
The most important source of water supply for drinking is apparently 
Lj-nch's Spring, so called, located a little over 100 feet north of Church 
Street upon ground sloping toward the river. There are a numlDer of 
dwelling houses on the slopes above the spring, and an analysis of the 
water shows that it is considerably polluted, though at the time of this 
examination it was probably not unsafe for drinking. 

Another source of supply which was examined is the well of John 
Dalio, located in the basement of his dwelling house. An analysis of 
the water of this well shows that it is badly polluted and unsafe for 
drinking. 

While the condition of this village is extremely unsanitary, there is no 
doubt that a very great improvement could be effected at once in the pro- 
tection of the public health by the introduction of a public water supply, 
and the Board recommends that the water pipes of the town be extended 
to the district at the earliest possible time and the further use of objec- 
tionable wells and springs prevented. When a public water supply has 
been provided, such further improvements can be made as shall then be 
found necessary or desirable. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 185 

EvEEETT (New England Gas and Coke Company). 

April 12, 1913. 
To Mr. Dudley P. Bailey, Everett, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request of Feb. 7, 1913, the 
State Board of Health has investigated the escape of odors from the 
works of the New England Gas and Coke Company and has sent a com- 
munication to the company relative to this matter, a copy of which is 
enclosed herewith. 

In case relief from the objectionable conditions complained of is not 
experienced within a reasonable time, the Board should be notified of 
the fact. 

April 12, 1913. 
To the New England Gas and Coke Works, 111 Devonshire Street, Boston, Alass. 

Gentlemen : — Complaints having been made to this office that dur- 
ing the past winter residents of portions of the city of Everett have been 
annoyed by objectionable odors from the New England Gas and Coke 
Works, the State Board of Health has caused observations to be made 
by its agents to determine the cause of complaint. 

The results of this examination show that on numerous occasions in 
February and March odors, which were undoubtedly derived from your 
works, were observed within distances extending from half a mile to 
a mile and a half from the works. The investigations further show 
that there has been a practical absence of odors from the works for sev- 
eral years until the middle of the past winter, indicating that some 
change in the method of operation or the materials used at the works, 
or lack of the usual care in carrying out the various processes, causes 
the escape of odors therefrom. 

The experience of the past few years shows that the works can be so 
operated as to prevent annoyance to the inhabitants of Everett by odors 
from these works, and the Board recommends that you make an investi- 
gation as to the cause of the escape of objectionable odors in the past 
two months and take such steps as may be necessary to restore the former 
efficiency of the works in respect to the prevention of odors. 

Hampshire County (County Commissioners). 

June 5, 1913. 
To the County Commissioners of Hampshire County. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request, received through Dr. 
John S. Hitchcock, State Inspector of Health, for advice as to certain 
sites sugsrested for the location of the proposed tuberculosis hospital for 



186 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Hampshire County, the State Board of Health has caused the sites in- 
dicated to be examined by its engineer and has considered the informa- 
tion presented concerning them. Of the eight sites proposed, three are 
within the limits of the city of Xorthampton and live are in the town of 
AVilliamsburg. 

The first site examined is on what is locally known as Baker's Hill, 
situated about midway between the villages of Bay State and Florence. 
According to the State map this hill has an elevation of 320 feet above 
sea level and about 120 feet above the level of Mill Eiver, which passes 
near the foot of the hill. A hospital on this site could easily be supplied 
with water from the water works of the city of Xorthampton, and the 
sewage could be disposed of without difficulty into the Xorthampton city 
sewers, but a serious objection to the use of this location is the nearness 
of numerous dwelling houses on the easterly and southerly slopes of the 
hill, and under the circumstances the Board does not recommend its 
adoption. 

Site Xo. 2, known as the Seth Warner place, is located on the slope of 
a hill 420 feet high, situated about midway between the villages of 
Florence and Leeds. The summit of this hill and its westerly slope are 
for the most part covered with trees, while the southeasterly slope would 
form an excellent site for a hospital at an elevation of between 300 and 
350 feet above sea level. An institution at this place could easily be 
supplied with water from the water works of the city of Xorthampton, 
and the sewage could be disposed of into the Northampton city sewers. 
The location, while close to both electric and steam transportation facili-. 
ties, is nevertheless well removed from any dwelling houses and is, in 
the opinion of the Board, an appropriate location for the proposed 
hospital. 

Site No. 3 is located on the southwesterly slope of Main's Hill, about 
three-quarters of a mile northeast of the village of Leeds. A supply of 
water for an institution at this location could be secured without diflS- 
culty from the Mountain Street main of the Northampton water works, 
which passes at the foot of the slope. The sewage would have to be 
disposed of by means of purification works constructed on the property, 
and the construction of such works would be expensive inasmuch as 
there does not appear to be any material of suitable quality for sewage 
purification upon the lands in question. The site is somewhat removed 
from transportation facilities and its exposure is not a very desirable 
one for such an institution. 

Site No. 4, on the northwesterly side of Walpole's Hill, so called, 
appears to be the most undesirable of the sites indicated for the location 
of the proposed tuberculosis hospital. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO\^'XS. 1S7 

The fifth location indicated is on White's Hill, somewhat less than 
a mile north of the village of Haydenville. This site is at such an ele- 
vation that any buildings constructed upon it could not be supplied with 
water by gravity either from Williamsburg or from any of the reservoirs 
of the city of Northampton, and the water supply of the institution, 
Avhether secured from the works of either of those municipalities or 
from independent sources, would have to be pumped. The sewage would 
also have to be disposed of on the grounds of the institution, but it is 
probable that satisfactory sewage disposal works could be located at some 
point on the easterly or southerly slope of this hill. The site is some- 
what inaccessible and would be expensive to develop, and for these 
reasons it is much less desirable than site Xo. 2. 

The sixth location suggested is on the southerly slope of a hill locally 
known as Hosford's Hill in Williamsburg. Water from the public 
works of the town of Williamsburg could probably be supplied to build- 
ings on the lower slopes of this hill without special difficulty, but if 
buildings should be constructed upon the higher slopes, where a more 
desirable location is found, it would be necessary to pump the water to 
some suitably elevated tank in order to furnish water to the institution 
under adequate pressure. The sewage would have to be purified by means 
of works especially constructed for the purpose, the cost of which in this 
location would be considerable. The site is in other respects a favorable 
one and appropriate for the purpose in view, though not as desirable as 
site Xo. 2, already described. 

Site Xo. 7 is located on the easterly slope of a ridge extending in a 
northerly and southerly direction west of Wright Brook. An adequate 
water supply could probably be obtained under suitable pressure for 
buildings on this site without extra pumping, but the sewage would 
have to be disposed of by means of special works constructed in the 
valley of Wright Brook. The disposal of the sewage would not be 
especially difficult at this place, as an ample quantity of gravel appears 
to be available for the purpose. The situation is in a rather narrow 
valley at no great elevation above the bottom lands, and it is not as 
desirable a one as sites No. 3 or No. 6. 

Site No. 8 is located on what is known as the Breckinridge Place on 
the southeasterly slope of a ridge extending in a northerly and southerly 
direction north of the main village of Williamsburg. There is little 
doubt that an adequate supply of water for buildings at this site could 
be furnished from the public works of the town of Williamsburg with- 
out extra pumping. The disposal of the sewage would require the con- 
struction of special works in the valley of a small stream flowing south 
into the Mill Eiver. There might be difficulty in locating the sewage 



188 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

disposal works in an unobjectionable location at this site, but by placing 
the buildings at a sufficiently high elevation a suitable location could 
probably be found. The site is, on the whole, a less satisfactory one 
than sites ISTos. 2 and 6, to which reference has already been made. 

As a result of the examination, the Board is of the opinion that site 
No. 2 is the most desirable of all those mentioned and that site Xo. 6, 
with the buildings located on the southerly slope of the hill near the 
summit, would also be suitable for the purpose, though less satisfactory 
than site No. 2. 

Aug. 7, 1913. 
To the County Commissioners, Hampshire County, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of July 30, 1913, for 
advice as to two additional sites suggested for the location of the proposed 
tuberculosis hospital for Hampshire County, the State Board of Health 
has caused these sites to be examined by one of its engineers and has 
considered the conditions affecting their use for the purpose proposed. 

One of these sites is located about half a mile north of the village of 
Leeds on the westerly side of the Mill Eiver, a short distance south of 
the boundary between Northampton and Williamsburg. The elevation 
of the land at the highest part of this location is about 500 feet above 
sea level, and the ground slopes from this elevation to the east, south and 
west. There are places on both the southeast and southwest slopes well 
adapted for the location of a hospital and within a very short distance of 
the electric railway. There are no dwelling houses in the immediate 
neighborhood of this location. 

The best practicable plan of supplying water to an institution at this 
place would probably be to take water either from the water supply 
svstem of the town of Williamsburg, from which the institution could 
be supplied by gravity, or to pump water from the system of the city of 
Northampton, the pressure in which is not sufficient to supply a hospital 
at the location in question by gravity. In order to obtain a water supply 
from the Williamsburg system legislative action would probably be neces- 
sary, but the Williamsburg supply could probably be furnished at some- 
what less cost than a supply from the Northampton system. A con- 
siderable expense would also be necessary to provide a proper system of 
sewage disposal, since special works would have to be constructed for 
this purpose, there being no available sewer into which the sewage could 
be discharged in the region about the hospital. 

Notwithstanding the probable considerable cost for water supply and 
sewerage for an institution in this location, it appears to be a desirable 
one for the purpose. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 189 

The other site is located on the westerly side of Mill Eiver about 
half a mile west of the village of Bay State. A part of the land at 
this site is elevated 100 feet or more above the Mill Eiver valley, and 
most of it slopes in a northeasterly direction toward Mill Eiver from 
a tableland situated in the southwesterly part of the area. There is 
considerable population at no great distance from this land, but buildings 
could be so located that there would be no dwelling houses in their im- 
mediate neighborhood. A water supply for a hospital at this location 
could be obtained from the Northampton supply, though there is some 
doubt as to whether the pressure would be sufficient without a pump. 
The sewage could be cared for by a connection with the Northampton 
system. 

While tlie cost of a hospital in this location might be less than at 
the site near Leeds already considered, the location does not possess the 
natural advantages of the latter, and its exposure is not a very desirable 
one for the proposed hospital. In the opinion of the Board the proposed 
site near Leeds is an appropriate one for the location of the proposed 
hospital, and a much more desirable location than the one suggested near 
Bay State. 

Haverhill. 

Aug. 13, 1913. 
To Mr. Louis C. Lawton, City Engineer, Haverhilll, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your applica- 
tion for advice as to a proposed plan for improving the condition of 
Little Eiver, which you describe as follows : — 

I desii'e to obtain the advice of your Board relative to a i^roposed plan for 
improving Little River in this city from Washing-ton Square to Winter 
Street. 

On account of the rough and iiTeguIar character of the present river bot- 
tom refuse material collects at various places, which during the dry summer 
season, when the water is low, and the bed is exi^osed, becomes objectionable. 

Our plan is to construct a smooth concrete pavement in the bed of the 
river, sloping to a central depression, on a true established gTade. With 
this pavement jjroperly constructed, the dry weather flow Avould be confined 
to the center, and the surface of the concrete could be easily kept clean. . . . 

In response to this application the Board has caused Little Eiver in 
the portion of its course in which it is proposed to improve the channel, 
this portion being included between Winter Street and Washington 
Square, to be examined by one of its engineers and has considered the 
plan presented. 



190 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results of the examination of the river show that at the present 
time the channel of the stream throughout its length hetween Winter 
Street and AYashington Square is bordered for the most part by rough 
stone walls which are in many places out of repair, while the bottom is 
very irregular, being covered largely with stones and especially with 
large quantities of detritus, including tin cans, wooden boxes and much 
other refuse. 

The water of the river above Winter Street is used for manufacturing, 
a large part of the flow at the present season of the year being used in 
various processes in the mills along the stream, and at the time of the 
examination the entire flow of the stream below Winter Street was 
highly colored with manufacturing waste. By carrying out the plan sug- 
gested the bottom of the channel would be materially improved, and by 
reconstructing or repairing the side walls the channel could be brought 
into such condition that — if floating matters are kept out of it and the 
bottom is kept free from detritus — its sanitary condition would be satis- 
factory ; but the experience with similar channels flowing through densely 
populated districts has been that they are used to a very great extent 
as places of deposit for such materials as are now found in the channel of 
Little Eiver, including much foul organic matter, and it is very difiicult, 
if not impracticable, even with careful inspection and frequent cleaning, 
to keep such channels in proper condition. 

In the opinion of the Board the best practicable plan of preventing 
eSiciently further nuisance from the channel of Little Eiver will be to 
cover the channel completely with a suitable structure capable of carrying 
off the flow of the stream at times of extreme freshet. The cost of such 
a channel will of course be much greater than the cost of improving the 
bottom of the stream alone, and — since it is very desirable that a ma- 
terial improvement in this stream should be made at the earliest possible 
time — it is advisable to improve the bottom of the channel by covering 
it with concrete as proposed, and in carrying out this work to provide, 
so far as practicable, for the final covering of the channel throughout its 
length from Winter Street to Washington Square. TJntil the channel is 
covered the Board recommends that its use as a place of deposit for 
refuse of any kind be prevented, so far as possible, and that the channel 
be cleaned at the necessary intervals to maintain it in a satisfactory sani- 
tary condition. 

The Board further recommends that foul manufacturing waste and 
other polluting liquids be disposed of into the sewers and the pollution of 
the stream be prevented. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 191 



Hyde Park (New York, New Ha vex & Hartford Eailroad). 

June 5, 1913. 

To Mr. F. K. Irwin, Superintendent of Bridges and Buildings, New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad, New Haven, Conn. 
Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request of April 26, relative to 
improving the character of the waste discharged from the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Eailroad yards into the Neponset Eiver near 
Eeadville, the State Board of Health has caused the locality to be ex- 
amined and finds that the wastes from your works consist at present 
of water from car washing and other cleaning operations incidental to re- 
pair work, steam exliaust and roof and area drainage from the works. 
' An examination of the waste shows that, while it contains a sufficient 
quantity of oil to have an objectionable effect upon the river, the amount 
is not great enough, compared with the total flow of the waste water from 
the works, to be separated by the use of the oil separator which you have 
suggested. So far as can be judged from an inspection of the works and 
information supplied as to the sources of the waste discharged into the 
drain, it appears that the waste from the boiler and engine rooms prob- 
ably contributes by far the greater part of the oil which goes into the 
river, and it is probable, also, that if the oil contained in the wastes 
from these rooms should be eliminated the objection caused by the dis- 
charge of these wastes into the river, so far as it is caused by the oil 
they contain, would be removed. The wastes contain, however, a con- 
siderable quantity of organic matter, and it may be necessary after the 
removal of the oil to discharge the objectionable portions of these wastes 
into the sewer. 

The Board recommends that you investigate first the practicability of 
separating the wastes from those parts of the works from which large 
quantities of oil are discharged, and that as soon as this separation has 
been effected investigations be made as to the treatment of these wastes 
for the extraction and recovery of the oil they contain. After the 
separation of the oily portion of the wastes has been effected, it will be 
practicable to determine what portion, if any, of these wastes will re- 
quire to be discharged into the sewer or to receive further treatment 
before beinsr dischara^ed into the river. 



192 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Lexixgtox. 

Feb. 6, 1913. 

To the Cemetery Committee of the Town of Lexington, Mr. Alonzo E. Locke, 

Chairman. 

Gextle:\iex: — The State Board of Health has considered your pe- 
tition of Aug. 24, 1912, requesting approval by the Board of the use for 
cemetery purposes of certain lands, forming a portion of the Monroe 
estate in the town of Lexington, and has caused the locality to be ex- 
amined by one of its engineers. 

The lands in question are situated within the watershed of the Arling- 
ton Eeservoir, the former source of water supply for the town of Arling- 
ton, the control of which is retained by the town for the purpose of a 
reserve water supply, though not used for domestic consumption. 

The Board gave a hearing to the authorities of the town of Arlington 
on Sept. 0, 1912, at which hearing it was stated on behalf of the town 
of Arlington that the said town " retains control of these lands for the 
purpose of a reserve water supply to be used not for human consumption 
but for sprinkling the lawn at the new town hall, sprinkling streets, and 
other similar uses." 

The Board, acting imder the provisions of chapter 379 of the Acts of 
the year 1909, hereby approves the use for cemetery purposes by the town 
of Lexington of the lands shown upon the plans submitted with the 
application. 

The location and boundaries of the lands herein approved are shown 
upon a plan on file at this office, entitled : " Lexington. Plan showing 
the relation of the land held under lease by the Breck-Eobinson Xursery 
Co., and other land which the Town of Lexingion proposes to take for 
a Cemetery, and the works of the Old Arlington Supply. Scale 1 
inch = 300 feet." 

Lowell. 

Aug. 25, 1913. 
To Hon. James E. O'Donnell, Mayor, Lowell, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health has considered your request 
as to the advisability of using certain lands as a site for a contagious 
disease or tuberculosis hospital, or both, the lands in question being 
described as follows : — 

The land in question comprises about 20 acres of a plot of 59 acres pur- 
chased by the city in 1900, for the purpose of enlarging and protecting its 
, Boulevard well plant so called. In 1900 when the Boulevard well plant was 
enlarged by the installation of more wells it became necessary to cross the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES f AND ^TOWNS. 193 

Boulevard, and the Cushing farm, so called, 35V2 acres, was purchased. 
" But to preserve the water from possible contamination it was deemed ad- 
visable to buy all the land west of the tenninus of Pawtucket Boulevard 
as far as the Cushing land adjoining Tyngsborough Boulevard and extending 
back about 750 feet." (Water Board Report for 1900.) 

The land suggested as a possible site for the hospital is the northerly 
jjortion of the above-described property and runs southerly from Yarnum 
Avenue to Fowler road, and is remote from the well jilant. 

In response to this request the Board has caused the locality to be 
examined and finds that the land in question has a general slope toward 
the Boulevard wells, so called, from which the water supply of the city 
is now obtained. The city has acquired considerable- areas of land in 
the vicinity of these wells in order to protect its sources of water supply 
from pollution, and the lands which are suggested as a location for a 
contagious disease or tuberculosis hospital form a part of these lands. 

The examination of the territory shows that drainage from the area 
indicated must inevitably flow toward the wells, and the occupation of 
these lands for hospital purposes would affect unfavorably the quality of 
the water obtained therefrom. 

Under the circumstances the Board does not recommend the use of the 
lands in question for a contagious disease or tuberculosis hospital. 



Xov. 6, 1913. 
To the Municipal Council of the City of Lowell, Mass. 

Gextlemex : — In response to your vote of October 21, "• that the 
State Board of Health be requested to send a representative to examine 
the various proposed contagious hospital sites and make a report as to 
wliat site or sites, in his Judgment, is best adapted for the erection of a 
building for the care of tuberculosis," the location of the several pro- 
posed sites was obtained from the mayor and each was carefully examined 
by a committee of the Board. 

Of the eight sites proposed, two are, in the opinion of the Board, very 
well adapted for the purpose. One on Chelmsford Street, designated 
as the Hope estate, is about 5,500 feet from City Hall. It includes about 
six acres and rises to a site for buildings about 80 feet above water. It 
overlooks all neighboring buildings with free air from distance in all 
directions. The high ground with a southerly slope is well situated for 
perambulation. There is vacant land a little higher to the northeast. 
Existing homes are much lower and 200 or 300 feet from the building 
site. Street cars are on adjoining street 50 feet below, and steam rail- 
road is 1,700 feet distant. 



194 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The other site is on the northwest side of Seventh Avenue, Pawtucket- 
ville, hetween Mt. Hope Street and Mt. Grove Street prolonged. It con- 
tains about five acres, being about 700 feet on Seventh Avenue and about 
314 feet wide. It is about 7,000 feet from City Hall, with street car lines 
1,000 feet east and 1,000 feet west. There is a water pipe in front and 
sewers near each end. Much of the area has a growth of pine trees, is 
nearly level at about 65 feet above water in the river above the dam, with 
a gentle southerly slope and with a steep slope to the northeast at one 
end. The surface is well above the land in all directions, except to the 
northwest, where unoccupied land rises perhaps 15 feet higher. 

With the addition of two acres of this higher land, the Board is of 
opinion that this site is the best adapted for a tuberculosis hospital 
among those proposed. Without this addition the Hope estate on 
Chelmsford Street is preferable. 

MiLLBURY (see Xorthbridge). 

JSTORTHBRIDGE. 

June 5, 1913. 

To the Boards of Selectmen of the Towns of Northbridge, Uxbridge and Millbury and 
the Board of Health of the Town of Millbury. 
Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
March 19, 1913, the following application for its advice relative to the 
condition of- the Blackstone Eiver : — 

Under the authority of Chapter 433 of the Acts of the Year 1909, the 
Selectmen of the towns of Millbury, Uxbridge, Northbridge, Grafton and 
Blackstone respectfully request your advice and assistance i:pon the following 
questions : — • 

First: As to whether or uot the Blackstone River in the Town of Millbury 
is so polluted as to be a public nuisance. 

Second: As to the manner in which the Blackstone River is polluted, and 
the parties that are responsible for its condition. 

Third: As to whether or not the City of Worcester is removing from 
its sewage, before its discharge into the Blackstone River, the offensive and 
polluting properties and substances therein, so that after its discharge in 
said River, either directly or through its tributaries it shall not create a 
nuisance or endanger the public health. 

Fourth: As to the most available and appropriate means for the Town 
of Millbury to adopt to correct the present objectionable conditions. 

In response to this application the Board has caused an examination to 
be made of the sources of pollution of the Blackstone Piiver and has 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 195 

examined the information available as to the condition of the stream and 
the records of analyses at various points within the limits of the State. 

The sanitary condition of the Blackstone Eiver has been investigated 
by the Board, at the request of the town of Millbury, on three previous 
occasions during the past twenty-two years — in 1891, 1895 and 1906 
— and a copy of the statement of the Board in the latter year is ap- 
pended to this communication. 

In the upper part of the watershed of the Blackstone Eiver, Kettle 
Brook, one of its principal tributaries, is badly polluted and its condi- 
tion made objectionable partly by sewage but chiefly by wastes from 
woolen mills in the village of Cherry Valley in Leicester and Worcester. 
Farther downstream the river and its tributaries receive considerable 
additional pollution chiefly from mills in Worcester and Auburn, but 
before entering the thickly populated part of the city of Worcester the 
river passes through a number of large ponds and its condition is greatly 
improved. 

At Quinsigamond — below Worcester but above the outlets of the 
effluent from the Worcester sewage disposal works — the quantity of 
organic matter in the river water, as represented by the albuminoid 
ammonia, was slightly less in 1913 than in 1905, the time when the 
observations were made upon which the previous advice of the Board 
was based. 

In the town of Millbury — below all of the outlets from the Worcester 
sewage disposal works — the quantity of organic matter in the river 
water in 1912 was greater than for several years. 

Farther down the river at Uxbridge the quantity of free ammonia in 
the river water was nearly 25 per cent, greater in 1912 than in 1905, 
and the albuminoid ammonia was about 40 per cent, greater. At Mill- 
ville, on the other hand, the quantity of organic matter in the river 
water, as represented by the albuminoid ammonia, was less in 1912 
than in 1905. 

The chief source of pollution of the river is the effluent discharged 
from the sewage disposal works of the city of Worcester, including sewage 
overflowing into the river at times of storm, l)ut the river also receives, 
either directly or through its principal tributaries, much pollution from 
other sources, especially from factories and mills. These wastes consist 
for the most part of waters used in the washing and dyeing of cloth 
and of sewage chiefly from factories, the total quantity of the latter dis- 
charged into the river and its tributaries below the city of Worcester 
being equivalent, probably, to the constant flow of sewage from about 
4,000 people. 

In the period between the year 1905 — the time when the observations 



196 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

were made upon which the previous reply was based — and tlie year 
1912 the population of the city of Worcet^ter increased about 19.5 per 
cent, and the total mileage of sewers about 17.9 per cent., while the 
total quantity of sewage treated at the works has also shown a material 
increase. According to the records of the sewer department of the city 
of Worcester, the percentage of organic matter removed from the sewage 
by all methods of treatment, judging from the albuminoid ammonia, 
was 61.5 in 1905 and 57.7 in 1912, while upon the basis of the oxygen 
consumed the percentage removed was 58,2 in 1905 and 60.3 in 1912. 

The total cost of the sewage disposal works of the city of Worcester 
increased between the years 1905 and 1912 nearly 30 per cent., ex- 
clusive of the cost of construction of a new outfall sewer, while the total 
amount expended for maintenance in 1912 was about 7 per cent, less, 
according to the reports, than in 1905. 

It is impracticable at the present season of the year to make an ex- 
amination of the river which would indicate at all satisfactorily its con- 
dition in the drier portion of the year, and it is necessary to base con- 
clusions as to its comparative condition at the present time and its 
condition in previous years upon the information available for 1912. 
Judging from this information, the condition of the Blackstone Eiver 
below the Worcester sewage disposal works in the town of Millbury has 
shown but little change for many years. The river is offensive for a long 
distance below the city of Worcester, and the effects of the pollutions 
which it receives are noticeable for many miles. 

As to the manner in which the Blackstone Eiver is polluted, and the 
parties that are responsible for its condition, the Board finds that the 
chief pollution is caused by the discharge of crude and partly purified 
sewage from the city of Worcester. 

The total length of sewers in the city of Worcester is 159.37 miles, of 
which 93.32 miles, or 58.5 per cent, are constructed upon the separate 
plan, but there still remain 66.05 miles of so-called " combined " sewers 
from which mingled sewage and storm water overflow into the river at 
times of heavy rain. It also appears that in 1912, of the total quantity 
of sewage, about 26.8 per cent, was treated by sand filtration and about 
88 per cent, of the organic matter removed therefrom, while about 72.4 
per cent, of the sewage delivered at the disposal works was treated by 
chemical precipitation and from 38 to 43 per cent, of the organic matter 
removed therefrom previous to discharge into the river. 

The river is also polluted by sewage and manufacturing waste from 
numerous factories and mills, part of which are situated in the valley 
of the Blackstone Eiver and its tributaries above Worcester, chiefly in 
the towns of Leicester and Auburn, and part in the valleys below that 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 197 

city. These pollutions consist chiefly of wastes from the scouring and 
dyeing of yarns and the washing and dyeing of cloth, together with the 
sewage of operatives in numerous mills and of certain sewers in Millbury, 
the total quantity of sewage discharged into the river below Worcester 
being equivalent, probably, to the total flow of sewage from a population 
of about 4,0U0. 

As to the third question in your application, viz., ''as to whether or 
not the City of Worcester is removing from its sewage, before its dis- 
charge into the Blackstone Eiver, the offensive and polluting properties 
and substances therein, so that after its discharge in said Eiver, either 
directly or through its tributaries it shall not create a nuisance or en- 
danger the public health," the Board finds that, while a part of the sewage 
of the city is receiving adequate purification, a large part of it is still 
discharged into the river after treatment which removes less than 40 
per cent, of the total quantity of organic matter contained therein 
and that the nuisance in the river in the town of Millbury is due chiefly 
to pollution by the sewage of the city of Worcester. 

"As to the most available and appropriate means for the To^^^l of 
Millbury to adopt to correct the present objectionable conditions," it 
appears to the Board that a remedy is provided under the provisions of 
chapter 331 of the x4.cts of the year 1886. While this chapter 331 of the 
Acts of 1886 applies to the chief source of pollution of the river, viz., the • 
sewage disposal for the city of Worcester, there are other considerable 
sources of pollution of the river from factory wastes and from sewage 
extending all the way along the river and on its tributaries from Cherry 
Valley to Blackstone. These alone would probably not produce a 
nuisance at Northbridge, TJxbridge and Millbury, but they add to the 
nuisance there existing. 

If it were thought desirable by the inhabitants of the valley, an act 
like that now existing in regard to the Xeponset Eiver might be effectual 
in removing all of the sources of pollution. 

TiSBURY. 

Aug. 2, 1913. 
To the Tisbury Water Works, Vineyard Haven, Mass., J. E. Rowland, Treasurer. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to the lo(3a- 
tion of a dwelling house for the engineer at the water works pumping 
station near Tashmoo Pond, the State Board of Health has caused tlie 
locality to be examined by one of its engineers and has considered the 
information presented. 

The water of the spring from which your supply is obtained is of 



198 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

excellent quality, and it is important that the dwelling house be so 
located that the gronnd water will not be polluted by the discharge of 
sewage from the house. 

An examination of the locality indicates that by constructing the 
house about 320 feet northeast of the spring the sewage can be disposed 
of at some point north of the vault now used for that purpose, and the 
conditions affecting the water drawn from your spring would probably 
not be noticeably changed. It is important that no receptacle for sewage 
be located any nearer the spring than the vault now used, and it is also 
advisable that the use of fertilizers on the lands about the spring and 
between the spring and the proposed dwelling house should be avoided. 



UXBPJDGE (see XOETHBRIDGE). 

Weston. 

Jan. 17, 1913. 

To the Board of Trustees of the Riverside Recreation Grounds, Weston, Mass., 
Mr. H. S. Upham, Manager. 

CtENTLEMEN : — In response to your request for an investigation of 
the water suppl}', sewerage and general sanitary conditions about the 
Eiverside Eecreation Grounds in AYeston, the State Board of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples of 
water from the well and from the swimming pool to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the ground water in this locality 
is very badly polluted and unsafe for drinking, though the condition of 
the water of the swimming pool at this time was not such that it would 
be objectionable for the purposes for which it is used. 

The present plan of disposing of the sewage is to discharge it into 
cesspools from which it finds its way, either through overflow drains or 
by seepage through the ground, to the river. This method of disposal of 
the sewage is undoubtedly the cause of the very serious pollution of the 
ground water in the locality, as shown by the analyses of the water of 
the well and the swimming pool. 

The Board recommends that the further use of the well, which is situ- 
ated directly between the principal cesspools and the river, be prevented. 
The sewage should be collected and disposed of at some point at a much 
greater distance from the swimming pool than at the present time, and 
this change should be made with as little delay as possible, for with the 
continued pollution of the ground water the water supplied to the swim- 
ming pool is likely to be increasingly polluted. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 199 

The extent of the grounds appears to be such that it ma}^ be possible 
to dispose of the sewage at such a distance from the buildings as to pre- 
vent pollution of the swimming pool and at the same time secure a 
water supply at a sufficient distance from the place of sewage disposal 
to avoid danger that its quality will be affected thereby. If the saving in 
expense which can be effected by securing a water supply on the grounds 
will make it worth while, a careful investigation should be made, under 
the direction of an engineer of experience in such matters, to determine 
a practicable plan of sewage disposal and water supply for the grounds. 
If you decide to make investigations for a water supply the Board 
will, if you so request, advise you as to any plan you may wish to present. 

Westport. ' 

Jan. 6, 1913. 
To Mr. Joseph Le Fkancois, Westport, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The Board is informed that 3'ou are putting up a slaugh- 
terhouse, known as the Cornell slaughterhouse, for use for the purpose of 
slaughtering animals, and an examination of the locality shows that this 
slaughterhouse is located within the watershed of the Xorth Watuppa 
Pond, used by the city of Fall Eiver as a source of water supply and 
subject to rules and regulations for the sanitary protection of this supply 
made under the provisions of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws. 

From an investigation of the locality by the State Inspector of Health, 
and information supplied by you, it appears that all of the drainage from 
the slaughterhouse is to be discharged into a water-tight sump or well, 
the contents of which are to be pumped into water-tight wagons and 
transported and disposed of on farm lands outside of the watershed of 
the North Watuppa Pond. If these plans are strictly carried out the 
purity of the water, in the opinion of the Board, will be protected, and 
the Board approves the plans as described for the collection and disposal 
of the wastes from this slaughterhouse. 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 



The usual chemical analyses of the principal sources of public water 
supply in the State have been made during the year and are presented in 
the two following tables, the first of which contains averages of analyses 
of the surface-water supplies and the second the averages of analyses of 
the ground-water supplies. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources for the Year 1913. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 






a 

W 

a 



Ammon 


lA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


-6 


g 

3 

a 









ALBUMINOID. 








CiTT OR Town. 












o 
■3 



II 


^ 


3 



a 


u 


1 
1 




2 


u 
>. 

X 





a 
-a 
■3 

X 


Metropolitan Water 
District. 


Wachusett Reservoir, up- 
per end. 

Wachusett Reservoir, 
lower end. 

Sudbury Reservoir, 


.25 
.10 
.13 


3 55 

3 17 
3.79 


.0020 
.0021 
.0025 


.0148 
.0132 
.0160 


.0027 
.0016 
.0028 


.31 
.29 
.34 


.0014 
0012 
0042 


.0000 
0000 
.0000 


.38 
.25 
.26 


10 
10 
14 




Framingham Reservoir, 

No. 3. 
Hopkinton Reservoir, . 


.14 

.58 


3.70 
4.45 


.0028 
0030 


.0166 
.0209 


.0034 
.0024 


.34 

.41 


.0031 
0022 


.0000 
.0000 


.27 
.70 


1.4 
1.3 




Ashland Reservoir, 


.67 


4.24 


.0033 


.0266 


.0041 


.33 


0013 


0000 


.76 


1.3 




Framingham Reservoir, . 

No. 2. 
Lake Cochituate, . 


.85 

.20 


5.55 
6.93 


.0047 
.0025 


.0303 
.0328 


.0034 
.0141 


.44 

.71 


.0036 
.0000 


.0001 
0000 


.94 

.39 


1.6 

2.6 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir, 


.15 


3.94 


0020 


.0153 


.0027 


.35 


.0041 


0000 


.26 


1.4 




Weston Reservoir, . 


.12 


3.76 


.0023 


.0142 


.0021 


.35 


0057 


.0000 


23 


1.5 




Spot Pond, . 


.08 


3.61 


.0016 


0176 


.0035 


.37 


.0006 


.0000 


.21 


1.4 




Tap in State House, 


.13 


3.93 


.0015 


0145 


.0025 


.35 


.0062 


0000 


.24 


1.5 




Tap in Revere, 


.09 


3.71 


.0016 


.0145 


0019 


.38 


.0009 


.0000 


.21 


15 




Tap in Quincy, 


.11 


3.77 


.0014 


.0121 


.0008 


.35 


.0079 


0000 


24 


1.6 


Abington, 


Big Sandy Pond, . 


.09 


3.57 


.0036 


0155 


.0022 


.69 


0006 


0000 


.15 


5 




Little Sandy Pond, 


.00 


4.20 


.0040 


.0112 


.0023 


1.46 


.0036 


0000 


.11 


5 


Adams, 


Dry Brook, . 


.21 


7.28 


.0027 


.0098 


.0016 


.12 


.0080 


.0000 


29 


4.2 




Bassett Brook, 


.03 


4.38 


0032 


0056 


.0009 


.10 


.0030 


0000 


.10 j 18 


Amherst, 


Amethyst Brook large 


.48 


4.05 


0043 


.0143 


.0016 


.17 


.0005 


.0000 


59 


8 




reservoir. 
Amethyst Brook small 


.19 


3.4S 


.0033 


0124 


.0028 


.19 


0007 


0000 


28 


10 




reservoir. 
Lower Reservoir, . 


.31 


3.93 


0032 


.0161 


.0043 


.17 


.0010 


0000 


.48 


8 



204 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



etc. — Continued. 





Source. 




a 

a 
o 


Ammoni.\. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

s 

3 

a 

g 








ALBUMINOID. 








City or Town. 




•o 


oi 






o 
O 


2 c 

'S C3 


fe 


"3 
o 

Eh 


-a 
a 

02 


i 

'% 

2 1 
*^ ! 

.38 


i 
1 


1 


c 

in 
M 

>1 

X 

o 


■a 

S3 


Andover, 


Raggett's Pond, 


.13 


3.92 


.0028 


0206 


.0027 


.0000 


0000 


32 


1.5 


Ashfiold, 


Bear Swamp Brook, 


.31 


5.50 


.0009 


.0166 


.0019 


.13 


.0003 


.0000 


.49 


2.6 


Athol. . 


Phillipston Reservoir, . 


.45 


4.67 


0017 


.0501 


.0246 


.21 


.0013 


.0001 


.75 


1.0 




Buckman Brook Reser- 


.25 


4.02 


.0028 


.0247 


.0067 


.18 


.0013 


.0000 


.41 


1.2 


Barre, . 


voir. 
Reservoir, 


.15 


3 98 


.0028 


.0171 


.0029 


.22 


.0022 


.0000 


26 


1.4 


Blandford, 


Freeland Brook, 


.06 


3.48 


0010 


0051 


.0005 


.18 


.0182 


.0000 


.12 


1.8 


Brockton, 


Silver Lake, . 


.10 


3.58 


0032 


.0160 


.0035 


.62 


.0004 


.0000 


.21 


6 


Cambridge, . 


Upper Hobbs Brook Res- 


.61 


6 75 


.0069 


.0342 


.0061 


.50 


.0073 


.0001 


.77 


2 5 




ervoir. 
Lower Hobbs Brook Res- 


.16 


6.55 


.0047 


.0291 


.0066 


.52 


0021 


.0001 


37 


2.6 




ervoir. 
Stony Brook Reservoir, . 


.48 


6.82 


.0035 


0263 


.0039 


.62 


.0111 


.0001 


64 


2.7 




Fresh Pond, . 


.26 


7.02 


.0089 


.0304 


.0097 


.69 


0127 


.0003 


45 


2.9 


Chashire, 


Thunder Brook, 


.01 


6.45 


.0028 


.0067 


.0016 


.12 


.0095 


.0000 


.08 


4.4 




Kitchen Brook, 


.01 


5.60 


.0015 


.0044 


.0010 


.11 


.0025 


0000 


.08 


4.1 


Chfister, 


Austin Brook, 


.14 


3 34 


.0050 


0094 


.0022 


.14 


.0025 


.0000 


.25 


15 


Chicopee, 


Morton Brook, 


.10 


4.06 


.0017 


.0079 


.0017 


.14 


.0030 


0000 


.11 


1.1 




Cooley Brook, 


.31 


4.20 


.0037 


0116 


.0025 


.15 


.0017 


.0000 


.30 


1.2 


Colrain, 


McClellan Reservoir, 


.07 


6.31 


.0015 


.0087 


.0014 


.14 


.0039 


0000 


.15 


3 5 


Concord, 


Nagog Pond, . 


.05 


3.03 


.0015 


.0131 


.0015 


.33 


.0007 


.0000 


.17 


0.7 


Dalton, 


Egypt Brook Reservoir, 


.30 


3.65 


.0017 


.0113 


.0008 


.10 


.0030 


.0000 


45 


1.6 




Cady Brook, . 


.34 


5.13 


.0014 


.0118 


.0011 


.11 


.0040 


0000 


49 


2.8 


Danvera, 


Middleton Pond, . 


.55 


5.01 


.0033 


0192 


.0018 


.43 


.0005 


.0000 


.72 


18 


Deerfield (South),. 


Roaring Brook, 


.06 


6.34 


.0028 


0109 


.0025 


.17 


.0027 


.0001 


15 


3 3 


Fall River. . 


North Watuppa Lake, . 


.17 


4 27 


0027 


0232 


.0050 


.66 


0007 


0000 


32 


1.0 


Falmouth, 


Long Pond, 


.01 


3.38 


.0020 


0125 


.0020 


.99 


.0000 


0000 


12 


0.4 


Fitchburg, 


Meetinghouse Pond, 


.10 


3.21 


.0041 


.0197 


.0028 


.21 


0008 


0000 


24 


0.8 




Scott Reservoir, 


.12 


2.77 


.0043 


.0222 


.0055 


.25 


0003 


0000 


30 


0.6 




Wachusett Lake, . 


.10 


2.97 


.0041 


.0155 


.0024 


.20 


.0003 


0000 


.21 


0.7 


Gardner, 


Crystal Lake, 


.08 


5.01 


.0022 


.0153 


.0022 


.31 


.0027 


.0000 


19 


2.1 


Gloucester, . 


Dike's Brook Reservoir, 


.26 


4.35 


0045 


0173 


.0026 


.86 


0012 


0000 


33 


0.4 




Wallace Reservoir, . 


.45 


4.78 


.0028 


.0290 


.0105 


1.05 


0007 


0000 


.52 


0.4 




Haskell Brook Reservoir, 


.34 


4.40 


0039 


.0159 


.0035 


.91 


.0002 


.0000 


.28 


0.4 


Great Barrington, 


East Mountain Reservoir, 


.10 


5.24 


.0057 


0121 


.0049 


.15 


OOOO 


0000 


.15 


3.2 




Green River, . 


.00 


10.12 


0027 


0044 


.0008 


.15 


.0213 


0000 


08 


8.2 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



205 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. 

IParts in 100,000.] 



Continued. 





Source. 




o 
a 

> 
H 

a 
o 


.\mmoni.4. 




Nitrogen i 

A-S 


■6 

i 

3 
B 

o 








ALBUMINOID. 








City or Town. 




•B 








"o 
O 


'35 03 

0) fn 


Urn 


1 


a 


1 

o 


1 

2 


1 
2 


V 

c 
>, 

X 

o 


o 
a 

•a 
a 

X 


Great Barrington 

(Housa tonic). 
Greenfield, . 


Long Pond, . 

Glen Brook Upper Reser 


.07 
.01 


8.33 
5 34 


0036 
.0021 


.0195 
.0090 


.0033 
.0015 


.15 
.17 


0006 
.0050 


.0000 
0000 


.22 
.12 


6 9 
3.1 




voir. 
Glen Brook Lower Reser- 


.02 


5 04 


.0019 


0084 


.0019 


.17 


.0055 


0000 


.12 


3.2 


Hadley, 


voir. 
Hart's Brook Reservoir 


.10 


4.17 


.0014 


0085 


0022 


.20 


.0000 


0000 


.15 


1.7 


Hatfield, 
Haverhill, 


Running Gutter Brook 

Reservoir. 
Johnson's Pond, 


.15 
.17 


4 55 

5 30 


.0023 
0042 


0104 
0218 


.0015 
.0029 


.19 
.50 


0217 

0008 


.0000 
0000 


.20 
33 


2.0 
2 1 




Crystal Lake, 


.24 


3 46 


.0023 


0197 


.0024 


.36 


0004 


0001 


.40 


13 




Kenoza Lake, 


.19 


4.50 


.0030 


.0205 


.0032 


.42 


.0007 


.0000 


.39 


2 




Lake Saltonstall, . 


.07 


6.42 


.0028 


.0195 


.0024 


.60 


0003 


0000 


.21 


2 5 




Lake Pentucket, 


.12 


4.99 


.0033 


.0243 


.0059 


.50 


.0002 


.0000 


28 


2 1 




Millvale Reservoir, 


.74 


6 17 


.0038 


0287 


.0050 


.41 


.0012 


.0000 


.86 


2.1 


Hingham, 


Accord Pond, 


.22 


3.83 


0023 


.0169 


.0028 


.66 


.0002 


0000 


37 


0.6 


Holden, 


Muschopauge Lake, 


.06 


3.12 


.0013 


.0119 


.0013 


.33 


0008 


0000 


13 


12 


Holyoke, 


Whiting Street Reservoir 


.09 


5 14 


0035 


.0176 


.0028 


.24 


0004 


.0000 


17 


2 7 




Fomor Reservoir, , 


.36 


3 56 


0022 


0143 


.0016 


.16 


0014 


0000 


40 


14 




Wright and Ashley Pond 


.14 


4.84 


.0050 


.0202 


.0050 


.20 


0004 


0000 


27 


2,7 




High Service Reservoir 


.11 


4.09 


0034 


.0221 


.0050 


.19 


.0002 


.0000 


.26 


19 


Hud.9on, 


Gates Pond, . 


.08 


3.47 


.0036 


.0178 


.0021 


.27 


.0007 


0000 


22 


12 




Fosgate Brook, 


.56 


13.48 


.0072 


0301 


.0069 


.26 


0924 


.0000 


86 


5 6 


Hunting'on, 


Cold Brook Reservoir, 


.27 


4 15 


0013 


0109 


.0019 


.14 


.0007 


.0000 


.38 


12 


Ipswich, 


Dow's Brook Reservoir 


.28 


6 03 


0044 


0189 


0039 


.77 


.0056 


0001 


41 


2 1 


Lawrence, 
Lee, 


Merrimack River, fil- 
tered. 
Codding Brook Uppei 


.23 
.16 


6.17 
3 83 


003S 
0013 


0096 
.0099 


.0015 


.47 
.12 


.0361 
.0008 


0001 
.0000 


39 
24 


15 
16 




Reservoir. 
Codding Brook Lowei 


.10 


5 83 


0014 


.0083 


.0012 


.13 


0028 


.0000 


20 


3 4 




Reservoir. 
Basin Pond Brook, 


.35 


3.83 


.0024 


0136 


.0030 


.12 


0031 


0000 


,48 


14 


Lenox, . 


Reservoir, 


.10 


7.63 


.0020 


.0099 


.0024 


.11 


0025 


.0000 


,18 


5 6 


Lecmin<!ter, . 


Morse Reservoir, . 


.20 


2.77 


.0057 


.0253 


.0066 


.24 


0009 


0000 


33 


0,5 




Haynes Reservoir, 


.26 


3.04 


0182 


.0355 


.0110 


.21 


0016 


0001 


.35 


0,4 




Fall Brook Reservoir, 


.09 


2.47 


.0021 


.0146 


.0029 


.21 


.0004 


.0000 


.25 


0.6 


Lincoln, 


Sandy Pond, . 


.00 


4.95 


.0022 


.0163 


.0030 


.35 


0002 


.0000 


17 


1.9 


Longmeadow, 


Coolcy Brook, 


.15 


5.10 


.0038 


.0123 


.0031 


.24 


.0042 


.0002 


.18 


2.2 


Lynn, . 


Birch Reservoir, . 


.43 


5.99 


0078 


.0278 


.0055 


.78 


0031 


.0001 


59 


2.3 




Walden Reservoir, . 


.56 


6. '44 


.0087 


.0255 


.0030 


.79 


.0036 


.0001 


69 


2 6 



206 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Arerages of CJmnical Analyses of Surface- 


water Sources, 


3tC.- 


— Continued 






[Part 


s in 100,000.] 






Source. 




"o 
O 


o 
a. 

? 

w 

a 

o 

-§■2 


Ammoni.^. 


6 

a 

_o 

o 

1.00 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■73 

a 

o 
o 

a 

& 

X 

o 






1 


ALBUMINOID. 


1 
g 






CiTY OR Town. 






c 

■s 


Lynn — Con., 


Hawkes Reservoir, 


.93 


8.74 


0084 


0409 


.0059 


0072 


0001 


1.05 


3.7 




Sausus River, 


1.02 


10.49 


0076 


.0382 


.0044 


1.18 


0022 


.0001 


1.22 


4 5 


ManchBster, . 


Round Pond, 


1.05 


5.97 


.0064 


.0309 


.0040 


.85 


0007 


0000 


1.02 


1.5 




Gravel Pond, . 


.13 


3.89 


0018 


0171 


.0020 


.88 


.0005 


.0001 


.25 


0.9 


Marlborough, 


Lake Williama, 


.10 


5.03 


.0029 


.0206 


.0037 


.00 


.0020 


0001 


.20 


1.8 




Millham Brook Reser- 


.43 


5.22 


.0054 


.0261 


.0054 


.46 


0051 


0001 


.55 


2.0 


Maynard, 


voir. 
White Pond, . 


.15 


3.14 


.0013 


.0120 


.0021 


.28 


.0015 


.0000 


.24 


0.6 


Milford, 


Charles River, filtered, . 


.20 


4.06 


0016 


.0084 


- 


.37 


.0105 


0000 


.29 


1.3 


Montague, 


Lake Plea.sant, 


.06 


2.97 


.0015 


0090 


.0013 


.18 


0015 


0000 


.13 


0.6 


Nantucket, 


Wannacomot Pond, 


.11 


6.38 


0030 


.0172 


.0056 


2.11 


0000 


0000 


.13 


1.3 


New Bedford, 


Little Quittacas Pond, . 


.26 


3.88 


,0018 


.0192 


.0031 


.54 


.0002 


.0000 


.40 


0.9 




Great Quittacas Pond, . 


.42 


4.07 


.0017 


.0199 


.0015 


.55 


0002 


.0000 


.59 


0.9 


North Adams, 


Notch Brook Reservoir, 


.08 


7.23 


.0020 


.0052 


.0009 


.09 


.0003 


0000 


.11 


6.0 




Bro."»d Brook, . 


.19 


3.89 


.0026 


.0135 


.0058 


.09 


0075 


.0000 


.34 


2.2 


Northampton, 


Middle Reservoir, . 


.27 


4.64 


.0024 


.0164 


.0033 


.16 


.0018 


0001 


.36 


1.8 




Mountain Street Reser- 


.10 


3.80 


0012 


0103 


.0025 


.13 


.0002 


0001 


.17 


1.9 




voir. 
West Brook, . 


.18 


4.45 


0013 


.0098 


.0021 


.15 


0012 


0001 


.25 


2.0 


North Andover, . 


Great Pond, . 


.15 


4.79 


.0034 


.0204 


.0034 


.45 


0002 


.0000 


.26 


1.7 


Northborough, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.55 


4.27 


.0033 


.0246 


.0065 


.28 


.0010 


.0000 


.64 


1.3 


Northbridge, 


Cook Allen Reservoir, . 


.19 


3.26 


.0044 


.0306 


.0177 


.24 


.0006 


.0000 


.27 


0.5 


North Brook field, 


Doane Pond, . 


.42 


3.55 


.0040 


.0280 


.0057 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.49 


0.9 




North Pond, . 


.48 


3 45 


.0039 


.0279 


.0064 


.18 


.0010 


.0000 


.57 


0.9 


Northfield, . 


Reservoir, 


.16 


3.10 


.0009 


.0059 


.0003 


.14 


0030 


0000 


.27 


1.0 


Norwood, 


Buokmaster Pond, 


.13 


5 20 


.0175 


.0257 


.0034 


.63 


.0055 


0001 


.26 


1.7 


Orange, 


Reservoir, 


.13 


3.25 


.0013 


.0060 


.0015 


.14 


0010 


.0000 


.13 


0.7 


Palmer, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.21 


3.57 


.0040 


.0164 


.0039 


.17 


.0008 


.0000 


.24 


0.8 


Peabody, 


Brown's Pond, 


.19 


4.83 


0025 


.0215 


.0040 


.93 


0033 


.0001 


.33 


1.2 




Spring Pond, . 


.23 


7.36 


.0067 


.0184 


.0040 


.76 


.0023 


.0001 


.36 


3.0 




Suntaug Lake, 


.06 


4.98 


0024 


.0189 


.0025 


.96 


0013 


0000 


.18 


2.6 


Pittsfield, 


Ashley Lake, . 


.35 


3.49 


.0013 


.0231 


.0079 


.10 


.0006 


0000 


.48 


1.4 




Ashley Brook, 


.20 


5.74 


0014 


.0125 


.0024 


.12 


.0052 


.0000 


.33 


3 9 




Hathaway Brook, . 


.05 


9.54 


0007 


0049 


.0004 


.13 


0138 


0000 


.12 


8.4 




Mill Brook, . 


.21 


5 55 


0028 


01-30 


.0024 


.11 


0081 


0001 


.33 


2 9 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



207 



Averages of Chemical Aiialyses of Surface-ivater Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




a 

03 

d 
o 


A.MMONIA. j 




Nitrogen 

AS 


"2 
e 

3 

o 








ALBUMINOID. 








CiTT OR Town. 




•d 








O 

a 


2 a 




"5 
1 


1 

a 


aj 
a 
't. 

O 


1 
1 

2 


*t-> 

2 


a. 

a; 
>. 

X 

o 


a 
3 


Pittsfield — Co/i., . 


Sacket Brook, 


.13 


6.89 


.0006 


.0066 


.0014 


.11 


.0056 


.0000 


.23 


5 2 




Farnham Reservoir, 


.43 


4.61 


.0027 


0190 


.0038 


.11 


.0061 


.0001 


.66 


2 


Plymouth, . 


Little South Pond, 


.02 


2.57 


.0020 


.0164 


.0026 


.66 


.0002 


.0000 


.12 


0.3 




Great South Pond, 


.00 


2.53 


.0020 


.0120 


.0019 


.66 


.0000 


.0000 


.09 


0.3 


Randolph, . 


Great Pond, . 


.42 


4.94 


0024 


.0202 


.0024 


.65 


.0027 


.0000 


.53 


1.3 


Rockport, 


Cape Pond, . 


.21 


12.63 


.0033 


.0250 


.0078 


4.63 


.0003 


.0000 


.26 


2.2 


Russell. 


Black Brook, . 


.19 


4.16 


.0012 


.0094 


.0015 


.14 


.0019 


.0000 


.28 


1.1 


Salem, . 


Wenham Lake, 


.27 


7.53 


.0105 


.0254 


.0076 


.95 


.0067 


0002 


41 


2.8 




Longham Reservoir, 


.86 


7.31 


0048 


.0291 


.0093 


.89 


0184 


0001 


.88 


2.2 


Shelburne, . 


Fox Brook, 


.05 


5.62 


.0005 


.0048 


- 


.12 


.0009 


.0000 


- 


3.1 


Southbridge, 


Hatchet Brook Reser- 


.26 


3.19 


0037 


.0189 


.0019 


.20 


.0022 


0000 


.35 


8 




voir No. 3. 
Hatchet Brook Reser- 


.33 


3.60 


.0044 


0226 


.0040 


.20 


.0032 


.0000 


.39 


0.8 


South Hadley, 


voir N'o. 4. 
Leaping Well Reservoir, 


.09 


3.27 


.0374 


.0250 


.0088 


.21 


.0023 


.0005 


.14 


0.7 




Buttery Brook Reser- 


.08 


3.95 


.0070 


0118 


.0042 


.27 


.0214 


.0001 


.09 


1.0 


Spencer, 


voir. 
Shaw Pond, . 


.07 


2.70 


.0017 


.0158 


.0023 


.20 


0021 


.0000 


.18 


1.0 


Springfield, . 


Westfield Little River, 


.16 


3.45 


.0009 


.0080 


_ 


.15 


.0039 


.0000 


- 


1.1 


Stockbridge, . 


filtered. 
Lake Averic, . 


.15 


6 56 


.0027 


.0179 


.0024 


.12 


.0017 


0000 


.26 


4 2 


Stoughton, . 


Muddy Pond Brook, 


.20 


3.82 


.0007 


.0073 


.0012 


.36 


0052 


.0000 


.19 


1.1 


Taunton, 


-•Vssawompsett Pond, 


.25 


3.89 


.0029 


.0190 


.0027 


.55 


.0003 


.0000 


.41 


0.7 




Elder's Pond, 


.08 


3.36 


.0022 


.0175 


.0019 


.54 


.0000 


.0000 


.27 


6 


Wakefield, . 


Crystal Lake, 


.19 


5.53 


.0036 


.0260 


.0051 


.84 


.0035 


.0001 


.35 


2 3 


Warehara (Onset), 


Jonathan Pond, 


.02 


2.57 


.0014 


.0085 


.0012 


.65 


.0002 


.0000 


.11 


0.2 


Wayhnd, 


Snake Brook Reservoir, 


1 19 


5.64 


.0058 


.0333 


.0046 


.36 


.0022 


.0000 


1.14 


1,8 


West field, . 


Montgomery Reservoir, 


.45 


3.13 


.0062 


.0217 


.0053 


.15 


.0008 


.0000 


.55 


0.3 




Tekoa Reservoir, . 


.37 


2.79 


.0034 


.0159 


.0032 


.15 


.0008 


.0000 


.43 


03 




Tillotson Brook Reser- 


.14 


3.09 


.0025 


.0081 


.0013 


.17 


0005 


.0000 


.22 


5 


West Springfield, . 


voir. 
Darby Brook Reservoir, 


.19 


5.82 


.0119 


.0204 


.0095 


.29 


.0085 


.0001 


.25 


3 




Bear Hole Brook, filtered, 


.05 


7.09 


.0008 


.0051 


- 


.23 


.0053 


.0000 


- 


4.3 


Weymouth, . 


Great Pond, . 


.53 


4.25 


.0032 


.0218 


.0039 


.51 


.0009 


.0000 


.62 


0.7 


Williamsburg, 


Reservoir, 


.15 


3.87 


.0028 


0092 


.0011 


.15 


.0007 


.0000 


.20 


19 


Winchester, . 


North Reservoir, . 


.09 


4.16 


.0024 


.0192 


.0040 


.48 


.0007 


0000 


.21 


.1.7 




South Reservoir, . 


.07 


3.65 


0051 


0167 


.0032 


.45 


.0012 


.0000 


.17 


16 




Middle Reservoir, . 


.15 


3 69 


0048 


0243 

1 


.0053 


.46 


0014 


.0000 


.25 


15 



208 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-ivater Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




1 
> 

a 

a 




Ammonia. 




XlTBOGEN 

AS 


■6 

i 

3 

a 

9 








ALBUMINOID. 








City or Town. 




■d 


. 






o 

a 


2 
-§■2 
■£2 


6 
£ 


3 
^ 


a 



1 

o 

.27 


1 


.1 




>> 

O 


o 

a 

1 

X 


Worcester, 


Bottomly Reservoir, 


.22 


5 59 


0029 


.0198 


.0033 


0238 


.0000 


.42 


2.3 




Kent Reservoir, 


.20 


4.63 


.0030 


.0173 


.0033 


.33 


.0082 


.0000 


.34 


1.8 




Leicester Reservoir, 


.18 


401 


.0044 


0155 


.0025 


.26 


.0052 


0000 


.33 


15 




Mann Reservoir, 


.13 


4.66 


.0026 


.0171 


.0030 


.29 


.0123 


.0000 


.30 


1.7 




Upper Holden Reservoir, 


.20 


3.55 


.0026 


.0166 


.0044 


.26 


.0071 


0000 


.32 


10 




Lower Holden Reservoir, 


.13 


3.54 


0053 


.0135 


.0029 


.25 


.0062 {.0000 


.25 10 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Growid-water Sources for 

[Parts in 100,000.) 



the Year 1913. 





i 

Source. 


o 

"5 


c 
.2 ! 

%%\ 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

■| 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

a 
IS 




City or Town. 


£ 


•6 
'o 

< 


1 


1 


d 
2 


Acton, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


8.49 


.0012 


0021 


.50 


.1029 


.0000 


3.3 


006 


Adams, . 


Tubular wells, . 


00 


13.50 


.0000 


0010 


.11 


.0420 


.0000 


10.0 


.005 


Amesbury, 


Tubular wells, . 


.12 


17.00 


0009 


.0022 


.56 


.0000 


.0000 


8.6 


.050 


Ashland, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5 23 


.0005 


.0021 


.36 1 


.0007 


0000 


11 


009 


.^ttleborough, . 


Large well, 


.02 


3.93 


.0006 


.0049 


.44 


0050 


0000 


2.1 


.004 


Avon, 


Wells, .... 


00 


6 27 


.0008 


.0028 


.55 


.1173 


.0000 


2.1 


.005 


Ayer, 


Large well. 


.00 


7.20 


.0006 


.0028 


.92 


.0690 


0000 


2.8 


006 




Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.75 


.0005 


.0016 


.22 


.0075 


0000 


2.8 


.009 


Barnstable, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.72 


.0003 


.0016 


1.13 


.0012 


.0000 


0.4 


.005 


Bedford, . 


Large well. 


.01 


4.22 


.0010 


0028 


.37 


0014 


.0000 


1.2 


012 


Billerica, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.19 


7.12 


0027 


0067 


.41 


0017 


0000 


2.5 


049 


Braintree, 


Filter-gallery, . 


.14 


10.12 


.0015 


.0107 


1.25 


.1950 


.0000 


3.5 


.014 


Bridgewater, . 


Wells, .... 


.17 


11.16 


0006 


0033 


.65 


.0192 


0000 


4 5 


077 


Brookfield (East), . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


2 71 


.0004 


.0019 


.22 


.0029 


0000 


4 


.003 


Brookline, 


Tubular wells and filter- 


23 


9.50 


.0056 


.0081 


.78 


.0161 


.0001 


4 4 


.046 


Canton, . 


gallery. 
Springdale well, 


.02 


4.42 


.0005 


0018 


.43 


.0087 


.0000 


1.4 


.010 




Well near Henry's Spring, . 


.04 


5.30 


.0009 


0036 


.51 


0328 


0000 


19 


004 



No. 34.] EXA:\nXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



209 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Continued. 





Source. 


o 

6 


o S 

St 


Ammonia. 


.s 

o 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

a 




City or Town. 


i24 


-6 
'o 


1 


1 


e 


Chelmsford (North), 


Tubular wells, . 


14 


1 

4.62 


.0044 


0079 


.48 


.0358 


0007 


1.8 


036 


Chicopee (Fairview), 


Tubular wells, . 


05 


4.30 


.0009 


0018 


.15 


.0038 


0002 


1.3 


031 


Cohasset, 


Tubular wells No. 2, 


.05 


14.33 


.0007 


.0061 


1.89 


.1483 


.0001 


6.2 


006 




Filter-gallery, . 


.53 


13.60 


.3629 


.0171 


1.21 


.0032 


.0025 


6.0 


123 




Large well, 


.69 


6 97 


.0077 


.0165 


1 04 


0009 


.0000 


1.9 


.143 


Dedham, 
Douglas, . 


Large well and tubular 

wells. 
Tubular wells, . 


03 
.04 


10.10 
4.96 


.0015 
0012 


0044 
.0019 


1.03 

.38 


.1317 
.0381 


.0000 
.0000 


4.0 
1.7 


.004 
.032 


Dracut (Water Sup- 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


8.86 


0005 


.0020 


.54 


.0736 


.0000 


4.2 


.009 


ply District). 
Dracut (Collins- 


Tubular wells, . 


.13 


9.30 


.0015 


.0066 


.42 


.0270 


.0000 


4.0 


.028 


ville) . 
Dudley, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.54 


.0003 


.0024 


.26 


.0039 


.0000 


1.2 


.003 


Easthampton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.80 


0005 


.0014 


.15 


.0221 


.0000 


3.8 


.003 


Easton, . 


Well 


.00 


4.85 


0007 


.0028 


.55 


.0610 


.0000 


1.6 


.004 


Edgartown, 


Large well. 


.00 


3.00 


.0007 


.0019 


.87 


.0008 


.0000 


0.4 


.004 


Fairhaven, 


Tubular wells, . 


.45 


6.98 


.0011 


.0101 


1.01 


.0340 


.0000 


2.5 


.008 


Foxborough, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.70 


.0009 


.0013 


.44 


.0370 


0000 


1.2 


004 


Framingham, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


.02 


10.47 


.0074 


.0069 


1.12 


.0195 


.0000 


4.6 


.009 


Franklin, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.24 


.0008 


.0019 


.53 


.0336 


.0000 


1.8 


.018 


Grafton, 


Filter-gallery, . 


.04 


12.90 


.0011 


.0039 


1.68 


.2900 


.0000 


4.9 


.004 


Granville, 


Well 


.00 


4.30 


.0004 


.0021 


.13 


.0080 


.0000 


2.4 


.007 


Groton, . 


Large well. 


.00 


6.00 


.0004 


.0022 


.22 


.0022 


.0000 


2.8 


.008 


Groton (West Groton 
Water Supply Dis- 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.69 


.0004 


.0018 


.20 


.0142 


.0000 


2.8 


.003 


trict). 
Hingham, 


Wells 


.04 


5.67 


.0017 


.0045 


.75 


.0220 


.0000 


18 


.005 


HoUiston, 


Large well, 


.55 


5.06 


.0036 


.0160 


.41 


.0012 


.0001 


1.5 


.076 


Hopkinton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


14 50 


.0002 


.0021 


1.20 


.3550 


.0000 


5.2 


.005 


Kingston, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.70 


.0007 


.0017 


.74 


.0065 


.0000 


1.0 


.004 


Leicester, 


Wells, .... 


.12 


7.80 


.0006 


.0047 


.44 


.1113 


.0000 


3.1 


.010 


Leicester (Cherry 
Valley and Roch- 
dale Water Supply 


Wells, .... 


.06 


5 55 


.0053 


.0063 


.31 


.0089 


.0000 


2.5 


.004 


District). 
Littleton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4 52 


.0005 


.0019 


.26 


.0462 


.0000 


1.9 


.003 


Lowell, 


Boulevard wells (tubular). 


30 


6.22 


.0377 


.0064 


.38 


.0162 


.0001 


2.9 


.115 


Manchester, 


Wells, . . . . 


.00 


11.95 


.0007 


.0023 


1 97 


.1617 


0000 


3 9 


.013 


Mansfield, 


Large well, 


.00 


5.05 


.0002 


.0018 


.46 


.1380 


.0000 


1.7 


.005 


Marblehead, 


Wells and brook, filtered, . 


.30 


46.57 


.0010 


.0109 


15.02 


.0156 


.0000 


15.6 


.029 



210 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 





Source. 


"o 

O 


c 

Of o, 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

d 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

B 




City or Town. 




< 


1 

2 


1 

"S 


S 

l-H 


Marion, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.86 


.0004 


.0015 


.67 


.0176 


.0000 


1.1 


005 


Marshfield, 


Well 


.01 


19.47 


.0006 


.0037 


6.67 


.1575 


.0000 


5.0 


.004 


MedSeld, 


Spring 


.00 


3.73 


.0005 


.0023 


.36 


.0047 


.0000 


1.2 


.003 


Medway, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


7.14 


.0004 


.0019 


.56 


.0497 


.0000 


3.0 


.004 


Merrimac, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.02 


.0004 


0015 


.50 


.0207 


.0000 


2.4 


.007 


Methuea, 


Tubular wells, . 


.25 


7.91 


.0026 


.0082 


.45 


.0134 


.0001 


3.3 


.051 


Middleborough, 


Well 


.25 


6.42 


.0058 


.0061 


.66 


.0320 


.0001 


2.5 


.184 


Millbury, 


Well 


.06 


5.23 


.0007 


.0039 


.42 


.0282 


.0000 


2.2 


.014 


Millis, 


Spring 


.00 


9.12 


.0003 


.0015 


.78 


.1975 


.0000 


3.7 


.009 


Monson, . 


Large well. 


.00 


3.72 


.0007 


.0020 


.18 


.0075 


.0000 


1.2 


.004 


Natiek, . 


Large well, 


.00 


9.27 


.0003 


.0027 


.72 


.0275 


.0000 


4.7 


.003 


Needham, 


Well No. 1, 


.00 


6.65 


.0005 


.0028 


.71 


.1017 


.0000 


2.6 


.003 




Well No. 2, . . . 


.00 


6.03 


.0006 


.0030 


.72 


.0933 


.0000 


2.6 


.003 




Hicks Spring, . 


.02 


6.27 


.0007 


.0032 


.70 


.1283 


.0000 


2.4 


.004 


Newburyport, 


Wells and springs, 


.06 


7.39 


.0012 


0078 


.92 


.0153 


.0000 


3.1 


.018 


Newton, 

No. Attleborough, . 


Tubular wells and filter- 
gallery. 
Wells, .... 


.07 
.00 


7.30 
5.04 


.0018 
.0006 


.0074 
.0023 


.59 
.45 


.0378 
.0174 


.0000 
.0000 


3.1 
2.2 


.020 
.010 


Norton, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.56 


.0005 


.0019 


.41 


.0011 


.0000 


1.2 


.007 


Norwood, 


Tubular wells, . 


.05 


18.27 


.0009 


.0040 


.57 


.0482 


.0001 


9.4 


.038 


Oak Bluffs, 


Springs, .... 


.00 


4.02 


.0008 


.0030 


.93 


.0117 


.0000 


0.7 


005 


Oxford, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.94 


.0005 


.0017 


.36 


.0606 


.0000 


1.7 


.003 


Palmer (Bondsville), 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


5.04 


.0007 


.0018 


.17 


0142 


.0000 


1.9 


.040 


Peabody, 


Tubular wells, . 


.35 


12.43 


.0166 


0079 


.69 


.0028 


.0000 


5.2 


.417 


Pepperell, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.49 


0004 


.0020 


.21 


.0007 


.0000 


1.6 


.005 


Plainville, 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


5.19 


.0003 


.0018 


.35 


.0003 


.0000 


2.2 


.032 


Provincetown, 


Tubular wells in Truro, . 


.00 


9.76 


.0004 


.0015 


3.56 


.0039 


.0000 


1.8 


.005 


Reading, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


.71 


13.31 


.0224 


.0175 


3.17 


.0030 


.0001 


3.2 


.219 




Filtered water, . 


.28 


22.79 


.0017 


.0121 


3.10 


.0085 


.0031 


11.7 


.022 


Scituate, . 


Tubular wl41s, . 


.00 


17.15 


.0006 


.0018 


3.59 


.2333 


.0000 


6 2 


005 


Sharon, . 


Well, 


.00 


11.45 


,0003 


.0013 


1.41 


.2700 


.0000 


4.7 


.002 


Sheffield, 


Spring 


.01 


3.45 


.0012 


.0019 


.09 


.0037 


.0000 


1.7 


004 


Shirley, . 


Well, 


.00 


4.60 


.0005 


.0016 


.45 


.0863 


.0000 


1.3 


.003 


South Hadley (Fire 

District No. 2). 
Tisbury, . 


Large well, 

Wei! 


.00 
.01 


3.85 
4.72 


.0005 
.0005 


.0019 
0017 


.15 

.97 

1 


.0300 
0022 


.0000 
.0000 


1.2 
0.4 


.004 
.007 



No. 34.] EXAIMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



211 



Averages of Chemical Atiahjses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 





Source. 





a 


§ 

IS P. 

3 a 

14 


Am.moni.^. 


6 


Nitrogen 

A3 


1 




City or Town. 




-6 

'3 

1 a 

is 

< 


1 


.2 
'B 




2 


Uxbridge, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.49 


0004 


.0026 


.62 


.0901 


.0000 


1.9 


.003 


Walpole, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.25 


.0003 


.0019 


.41 


.0298 


.0000 


1.8 


.003 


Waltham, 


Old well 


.05 


8.12 


.0020 


.0046 


.95 


.0262 


.0000 


3.7 


.021 




New well, .... 


.00 


8.26 


.0011 


.0047 


.75 


.0223 


.0000 


3.6 


.005 


Ware, 


Wells 


00 


6.32 


.0004 


.0017 


.40 


.1208 


.0000 


2.3 


.003 


Wareham (Fire Dis- 
trict). 
Webster, 


Tubular wells, . 

Wells, .... 


00 
01 


3.40 

4.27 


.0007 
.0011 


.0017 
.0029 


.59 
.35 


.0010 
,0205 


.0000 
.0000 


0.6 
1.8 


.005 
.013 


Wellesley, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


9.72 


.0004 


.0024 


1.05 


.0772 


.0000 


4.4 


.003 




Well at Williams Spring, . 


.00 


14.53 


.0027 


.0028 


1.41 


.6400 


.0000 


5.6 


.005 


Westborough, . 


Filter basin. 


.02 


3.35 


.0016 


.0099 


.30 


.0002 


.0000 


0.8 


.015 


Westford, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.99 


.0005 


.0014 


.18 


.0036 


.0000 


1.8 


.006 


Weston, . 


Well 


.01 


7.82 


.0006 


.00.30 


.73 


.0920 


0000 


2.9 


,004 


Winchendon, . 


Wells, .... 


.17 


4.10 


.0023 


.0062 


.15 


.0050 


.0000 


1.2 


.036 


Woburn, 


Wells, .... 


.00 


10,93 


.0011 


.0046 


1.48 


.0280 


.0000 


4.8 


.005 


Worthington, . 


Springs 


.06 


2.49 


.0014 


.0043 


.10 


.0047 


.0000 


0.9 


.023 


Wrentham, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.72 


.0004 


,0017 


.32 t 

i 


0260 


0000 

1 


1.0 


.003 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



[213] 



EXAMIiNATION OF RIVERS. 



All of the important rivers of the State have been examined during 
the year, and the condition of each is described on pages 22 to 38. 

The rainfall in the year 1913 Avas higher than the average and was 
almost exactly the same as in the year 1912, The distribution was also 
much the same up to near the end of September, when a heavy rainfall 
set in, and the excess of precipitation in the month of October amounted 
to 3.33 inches. The effect of this distribiition of the rainfall was to 
produce a slightly higher flow of streams in the late winter and early 
spring, and a somewhat less flow during the summer months, than in 
the previous year. The average flow was much the same as in the pre- 
vious year. Under these conditions, with the very low flow of the 
streams in the warm summer months, the effect upon the more seriously 
polluted streams was very noticeable during the warmer part of the year. 

On nearly all of the important streams of the State, stations were es- 
tablished many years ago at which samples of water have been collected 
for chemical examination to determine the changes taking place from 
time to time in the condition of the water. The samples are for the most 
part collected during the six drier months of the year, from June to 
November inclusive, since in that part of the year the dilution of sewage 
in polluted streams is least and the effect of pollution most noticeable. 
In a few cases samples are collected monthly throughout the year. Dur- 
ing the year 1913 chemical analyses were made of samples of water col- 
lected from the following streams at monthly intervals, in some cases 
during the entire year: — 

Assabet. Miller's. 

Blaekstone, Nashua. 

Charles. Xemasket. 

Chieopee. Xeponset. 

Concord. Quaboag. 

Connecticut. Quinebaug. 

Deerfield. Salisbury Plain. 

French. Shawsbeen. 

Green. Sudbury. 

Hoosick. Taunton. 

Housatonic. Ten ]Mile. 

Merrimack. Ware. 

Mill (Northampton). Westfield. 



216 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Blackstone River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on pages 30-38. 

bla.ckstone river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Blackstone River, below Cherry Valley. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





"3 
O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


1 

O 


Nitrogen 


s 

1 
g 

M 
>, 
X 

O 






Evaporation. 


i 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


1 


d 

m d 


3 
e2 


■a 

> 


g 

p. 

§ 

CO 


1 


2 

'B 


a 


1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912,1 . 

1913, 


.35 
.32 


20.57 
13.93 
16.42 
21.02 
44.10 
32.32 


3.83 
3.34 
3.92 
4.40 
11.04 
6.52 


.1531 
.0681 
.0633 
.1277 
.2514 
.2591 


.0624 
.0470 
.0489 
.0726 
.2884 
.1628 


.0508 
.0334 
.0387 
.0559 
.1023 
.1122 


.0116 
.0136 
.0102 
.0167 
.1861 
.0506 


5.76 
3.70 

4 02 

5 70 
10 70 

8.18 


.0020 
.0125 
.0146 
.0080 
.0002 
.0015 


.0007 
.0003 
.0002 
.0005 
.0004 
.0004 


.80 

.85 

1.15 

3.08 

2.06 


- 



' August omitted. 



Blackstone River, between Mill Brook Channel and the Sewage Precipitation Works 

of the City of Worcester. 



[Parts in 100,000. 















Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 




a 




■6 


7. 






i 




o 


"3 


0-9 


6 


1 


_> 


13 
1 




1 
2 


1 


a 
a 

1 




o 
O 


o 


^" 


f=H 


^ 


Q 


3 


O 


Z 


2; 


w 


1887, .... 


0.91 


_ 


_ 


.2686 


.1741 


_ 


_ 


1.35 


0160 


_ 


_ 


1888 










0.76 


_ 


_ 


.2658 


.1112 


,0557 


,0555 


1 50 


.0382 


0041 


- 


1889 










0.86 


_ 


_ 


.3980 


.1430 


,0772 


,0658 


1.32 


.0177 


.0026 


- 


1890 










1.14 


9.92 


3 03 


.2107 


1246 


.0673 


,0573 


1.07 


.0250 


0015 


2.9 


1891 










1.10 


17.42 


5.59 


.4913 


.1950 


1127 


,0823 


2.29 


0192 


.0037 


5 


189? 










0.52 


20.75 


6.30 


.3547 


1433 


,0708 


0725 


2 43 


,0227 


,0108 


6 1 


1893 










0.40 


16.98 


4.55 


.1480 


.0588 


.0240 


,0348 


1.01 


.0115 


,0015 


6 3 


1894 










0.66 


16.93 


4.76 


.0548 


.0380 


0236 


0144 


74 


0115 


.0005 


4.4 


1895 










0.49 


14.17 


4 50 


0613 


0414 


0243 


0171 


92 


0163 


.0006 


3,4 


1896 










0.51 


12.90 


2.93 


.0780 


0415 


0282 


,0133 


97 


,0147 


0015 


3 4 


1897 










0.85 


26.45 


7.68 


.1130 


.0674 


,0362 


,0312 


0,89 


,0090 


,0024 


4 2 


1898 










0.33 


17.42 


5.62 


0857 


.0619 


,0260 


0359 


0,96 


.0053 


.0010 


4 6 


1899 










0.14 


34.38 


10.60 


.2583 


.0788 


0390 


0398 


- 




.0004 


14.3 


1900 










05 


16.48 


3.38 


.1068 


,0518 


.0210 


,0308 


1 03 


0107 


0012 


3.6 


1901 










0.23 


31.03 


11.68 


.1410 


.0548 


0309 


0239 


- 


- 


0023 


13,8 


190? 










0.10 


46.15 


12.47 


.2453 


.0728 


,0274 


.0454 


- 


- 


,0010 


16.5 


1903 










0.18 


24.06 


6.80 


.2836 


.0750 


,0472 


.0278 


- 


- 


.0027 


8.4 


1904 










0.12 


44.68 


17.08 


.1228 


.0434 


0225 


.0209 


- 


- 


.0008 


14.7 


1905 










21 


50 36 


19.49 


0952 


.0492 


.0203 


,0289 


- 


- 


.0003 


29.3 


1906 










0.11 


40.07 


15.25 


.0688 


.0421 


0189 


,0232 


- 


.0032 


.0002 


20 3 


1907 










04 


44.07 


17.67 


.0613 


0343 


0180 


.0163 


- 


- 


.0003 


- 


1908 










0.16 


23 67 


5.55 


.0990 


,0291 


.0153 


.0138 


3,23 


0134 


.0014 


- 


1909 












52.97 


18.55 


.1865 


0381 


,0239 


0142 


4,80 


,0033 


.0010 


- 


1910 










0.15 


50.92 


18.97 


.1933 


.0545 


.0309 


.0236 


4,07 


,0023 


.0009 


- 


1911 










0.11 


44.64 


15.70 


.1920 


.0449 


.0212 


.0237 


4 03 


,0170 


.0009 


- 


191? 










0.10 


40.05 


10.91 


.2047 


.0352 


.0225 


.0127 


3 58 


,0027 


,0011 


- 


1913 










0.10 


35.17 


10.34 


.2767 


0491 


,0285 


.0206 


3.18 


.0003 


.0008 


" 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



217 



BLACKSTONE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. 

C'o7itinued. 

Blackstone River, below Sewage Precipitation Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











i 

"3 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


IB 

a 
■E 
_o 
3 
O 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 






(^ 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


3 






i 


1 
1 

3 
CO 


1 


1 


1 

a 

03 
X 


1890, 








0.97 


11.36 


3 10 


.2907 


.1492 


.0722 


.0770 


1.46 


.0270 


.0018 


3.9 


1891, 








1.05 


22.25 


6.60 


.6367 


.1508 


.0883 


.0625 


2.61 


.0233 


.0040 


6.2 


1892, 








0.63 


26.80 


7.75 


.5240 


.1810 


.0958 


.0852 


3.13 


.0137 


.0050 


10.3 


1893, 








0.51 


30.00 


7.13 


.5680 


.1453 


.0900 


.0553 


2.76 


.0285 


.0126 


10.9 


1894. 








0.40 


29.30 


5.86 


.6189 


.1390 


1113 


.0277 


2.63 


.0212 


.0071 


10.6 


1895, 








0.71 


22.15 


5.18 


.3246 


.0898 


.0597 


0301 


1.86 


.0267 


.0063 


7.3 


1896, 








0.30 


26.03 


6.53 


.2831 


.0898 


.0600 


.0298 


2.10 


.0217 


.0118 


9.7 


1897, 








0.73 


25.98 


4.97 


.3650 


.1122 


.0782 


.0340 


1.61 


.0207 


.0063 


6.9 


1898, 








0.23 


25.63 


6 73 


.3064 


.0868 


.0560 


.0308 


1.55 


.0132 


.0119 


9.2 


1899, 








0.14 


44.02 


9.67 


.5251 


.1707 


.0912 


0795 


3.26 


.0108 


.0068 


16.1 


1900, 








0.22 


24 57 


4 48 


.4430 


.1249 


0621 


.0628 


2.13 


.0110 


.0145 


7.3 


1901, 








0.09 


31.12 


6.90 


.4580 


.1293 


.0772 


.0521 


3.42 


.0090 


.0058 


10.8 


1902, 








0.15 


49.62 


13 38 


.7296 


.1284 


.0736 


.0548 


2.97 


- 


.0033 


12.5 


1903, 








0.39 


31 08 


9 48 


.3880 


.1080 


.0545 


.0535 


- 


- 


.0062 


10.4 


1904, 








- 


50.25 


13.73 


.6381 


.1523 


0601 


0922 


- 


- 


.0027 


16.9 


1905, 








0.19 


59.84 


17.97 


.4936 


.0985 


0597 


.0388 


- 


- 


.0008 


29.3 


1906, 








0.19 


49.69 


11.42 


,6330 


.1818 


.0580 


.1238 


- 


.0055 


.0130 


15.0 


190S, 








0.30 


38.80 


7.63 


.9407 


.1490 


.0781 


.0709 


5.34 


.0040 


.0033 


- 


1909, 








- 


53.79 


12.12 


1.0567 


.1282 


.0792 


.0490 


6.92 


.0067 


.0075 


- 


1910, 








- 


52.15 


12.52 


1.0090 


.1654 


0817 


0837 


5.68 


.0015 


.0034 


- 


1911, 








0.21 


53 25 


13.15 


.9967 


.1608 


.0651 


.0957 


6.54 


0152 


.0072 


- 


1912, 








0.23 


48.90 


10.08 


1.1700 


.1673 


.0904 


.0769 


6.12 


.0137 


.0096 


- 


1913,1 








0.28 


40.68 


10.46 


.9320 


.1286 


0719 


0567 


4.49 


.0158 


.0084 


- 



1 September omitted. 



218 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



BLACKSTONE RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Wateb from Blackstone River, etc. — 

Continued. 

Blackstone River, at Uxbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Year. 



1887, 

1888, 

1889, 

1890, 

1891, 

1892, 

1893, 

1894. 

1895, 

1896, 

1897, 

1898, 

1899, 

1900, 

1901, 

1902, 

1903, 

1904, 

1905, 

1906, 

1907, 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913, 



O 



Residue on 
Evaporation. 



.39 

.38 

.32 

.26 

.20 

.13 

.24 

.35 

.56 

.33 

.48 

.49 

.18 

.19 

.22 

.15 

.30 

.20 

.21 

.19 

.37 

.31 

.22 

.26 

.26 

.21 

.29 



6.42 



10.16 
9.36 
11.74 
13.07 
12.95 
12.68 
11.60 
10.59 
18.34 
13.42 
13.91 
14.17 
13.16 
13.78 
16.34 
14.73 
14.23 
16.33 
18.31 
22.53 
23.10 
21.91 
19.48 



1.52 

2.12 

2.61 

1.88 

2.37 

2.03 

2.69 

2.67 

2.47 

2.78 

3.11 

2.04 

2.67 

2.56 

2.52 

2.74 

2.55 

3.10 

2.58 

4.07 

4.35 

4.69 

3.85 

3.06 

3.70 



ALBUMINOID. 



1129 
1155 
1133 
1629 
2280 
2840 
1985 
1456 
0906 
1129 
1029 
0801 
,2490 
.2260 
.3159 
.3462 
.3030 
2399 
.3928 
.2218 
.2331 
.2387 
.3473 
.4963 
3717 
4897 
3880 



0271 

0288 

0296 

0231 

0175 

0227 

.0207 

.0243 

0258 

.0257 

.0280 

.0264 

.0359 

.0347 

,0285 

,0270 

.0262 

.0282 

0246 

0242 

0238 

0253 

0273 

0356 

0293 

0345 

0355 



0222 

0192 

0174 

0117 

0162 

0140 

.0183 

.0182 

,0221 

.0215 

.0219 

.0310 

0257 

,0240 

,0218 

,0215 

0214 

0203 

0200 

0182 

0196 

0216 

0302 

0225 

,0288 

0281 



0066 
0104 
0057 
0058 
0065 
0067 
,0060 
,0076 
,0036 
,0065 
,0045 
,0049 
,0090 
0045 
0.052 
0047 
0068 
0043 
0042 
0056 
0057 
0057 
0054 
,0068 
.0057 
.0074 



O 



Nitrogen 

AS 



0.79 I 

0.68 j 

0.66 

0.79 

1.04 

0.99 

1.20 

1.57 

1.34 

1.38 

1.32 

1.00 

2.17 

1.76 

1.50 

1.95 

1.74 

2 12 

2.65 

2.10 

2.36 

3.05 

3.64 

4.62 

4.15 

4.06 

3.34 



0360 
0310 

0333 
0259 
0425 
0313 
0623 
0673 
0631 
,0477 
,0652 
0470 
,0510 
.0558 
.0195 
0210 
0210 
0408 
0175 
0252 
0330 
0408 
0325 
0498 
0558 
.0497 
.0382 



0007 

0009 
0005 
0007 
0007 
0050 
0050 
0065 
0091 
.0051 
.0076 
,0141 
.0060 
.0035 
.0018 
.0024 
.0022 

0025 
.0009 

0040 
,0071 
.0066 
,0043 

0173 
,0137 
.0107 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



219 



BLACKSTOXE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. 

Concluded. 

Blackstone River, at Millville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











o 

6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 
1 

O 


Nitrogen 

AS 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


i 




"3 
1 


1 


•a 
o 

02 


i 


1 


1 


1887, . . . . 


.31 


- 


- 


.0468 


.0220 


- 


- 


0.51 


.0210 


- 


- 


1888. 








.41 


5.22 


1.40 


.0467 


.0296 


.0233 


.0063 


0.50 


.0278 


.0004 


- 


1889, 








.38 


- 


- 


.0499 


.0273 


.0213 


.0060 


0.45 


0167 


0003 


- 


1890, 








.26 


6.71 


2.24 


.0736 


.0196 


.0152 


.0044 


0.53 


.0229 


.0003 


2.3 


1891, 








.24 


7.48 


2.35 


.1106 


.0384 


.0234 


.0150 


0.72 


.0308 


.0006 


2.2 


1892, 








.37 


6.70 


1.62 


.1143 


.0294 


.0210 


0084 


0.63 


0217 


0002 


2.0 


1893, 








.23 


7.43 


1.73 


.0677 


.0119 


.0087 


.0032 


0.77 


.0385 


.0011 


2.6 


1894, 








.47 


8.42 


2.16 


.0510 


.0172 


.0139 


.0033 


0.89 


0273 


.0012 


2.8 


1895, 








.51 


8.67 


2 55 


.0356 


.0233 


.0180 


.0053 


0.90 


0383 


.0024 


3.2 


1896, 








.35 


8.53 


1.69 


0484 


0237 


.0180 


.0057 


0.97 


.0413 


.0027 


3.3 


1897, 








.45 


7.66 


1.98 


.0509 


.0258 


.0210 


.0048 


0.92 


.0445 


.0019 


3.1 


1898, 








.51 


7.12 


2.17 


0325 


.0240 


.0193 


.0047 


63 


0240 


.0023 


2.5 


1899, 








.20 


12.50 


2.44 


.1310 


.0301 


.0247 


.0054 


1.31 


.0310 


.0049 


4.6 


1900, 








.29 


9.33 


1.'82 


.1168 


.0254 


.0219 


.0035 


1.15 


.0417 


.0039 


3.4 


1901, 








.31 


8.62 


2.13 


.1420 


.0288 


.0227 


.0061 


0.87 


.0155 


0006 


3.1 


1902, 








.28 


9.43 


2.24 


.1623 


.0284 


0238 


.0046 


1.20 


.0195 


.0010 


2.8 


1903, 








.33 


8.46 


1.85 


.1397 


.0233 


.0189 


.0044 


1.10 


.0192 


.0010 


2.9 


1904, 








.29 


8.71 


2.06 


.1079 


.0235 


.0201 


.0034 


1.26 


.0337 


.0009 


2.9 


1905, 








.28 


10.76 


2.03 


.1956 


.0311 


.0222 


.0089 


1.67 


.0207 


.0008 


2.9 


1906, 








.37 


9.02 


2.15 


.1526 


.0306 


.0251 


.0055 


1.27 


.0188 


.0006 


2.4 


1907, 








.37 


10.43 


2.21 


.1521 


.0240 


.0181 


.0059 


1.61 


.0247 


.0014 


3.1 


1908, 








.33 


9.85 


2.53 


.1295 


.0232 


.0185 


.0047 


1.78 


.0258 


.0024 


3.4 


1909, 








.24 


11.87 


3.17 


.1595 


.0267 


.0220 


.0047 


2.27 


.0225 


.0019 


- 


1910, 








.30 


13.94 


3.32 


.2350 


.0277 


.0234 


.0043 


3.01 


.0290 


.0013 


- 


1911, 








.33 


14.35 


2.79 


.1787 


.0268 


.0222 


.0046 


2.94 


.0355 


.0051 


- 


1912, 








.29 


15.20 


2.18 


.2433 


.0283 


.0249 


.0034 


2.91 


.0421 


.0064 


- 


1913, 








.37 


12.92 


2.38 


.1031 


.0281 


.0237 


.0044 


2.44 


.0345 


.0063 


- 



Note. — The sewage purification works of the city of Worcester were put in opveration in 1S90, since 
which time a portion of the sewage of the city has been treated. The works were enlarged in 1893, and 
since that time practically all of the dry-weather flow of sewage has been treated. 



220 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Charles Eiver, 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 will 
be found on page 23. 



charles river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Charles River, above Milford. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


3 

i 

3 

3 









albuminoid. 




Year. 




a 




'i 


T) 






m 




o 


3 


c-2 
o.t: 


6 


"3 




13 

a 
3 

03 




1 


.1 


a 


a 




d 


e2 


Qh-i 


fo 


^ 


Q 


O 


Z 


iS c 





1899, 


.28 


3.98 


1.70 


0017 


0248 


.0223 


.0025 


.27 


0027 


0003 


48 


6 


1900, 






.49 


3.93 


1.67 


,0017 


0251 


0231 


0020 


.25 


,0030 


,0000 


64 


0.5 


1901, 






.46 


4.30 


2.48 


.0066 


0286 


0247 


.0039 


.25 


0060 


,0002 


65 


0.6 


1902, 






.58 


4.42 


1.90 


.0025 


.0248 


.0210 


0038 


.29 


0057 


0001 


70 


1.1 


1903,1 






.55 


4.17 


1.86 


.0015 


.0203 


0171 


0032 


.28 


,0080 


,0001 


68 


0.8 


1904,2 






.49 


3 95 


1.83 


.0117 


,0267 


,0209 


0058 


.33 


0035 


0001 


62 


1.1 


1905,3 






.55 


3.77 


1.62 


.0020 


.0229 


0201 


0028 


.31 


0033 


0001 


56 


0.8 


1906,3 






.62 


4 05 


1.90 


0032 


.0257 


02.30 


0027 


.30 


0073 


0001 


68 


6 


1907, 






.43 


3.79 


1.59 


.0020 


.0198 


0173 


,0025 


.32 


0047 


0001 


48 


0.8 


1908, 






.36 


3.11 


1.43 


0023 


0198 


0171 


0027 


.33 


0025 


0001 


42 


0.5 


1909, 






.31 


3 52 


1.62 


,0030 


.0207 


.0176 


,0031 


.32 


,0012 


,0000 


39 


0.7 


1910, 






.37 


3.47 


1.34 


.0042 


,0231 


,0204 


0027 


.37 


,0011 


,0001 


46 


0.8 


1911, 






.40 


3.94 


1.48 


.0036 


,0210 


,0183 


,0027 


.42 


0007 


0000 


56 


1.1 


1912, 






.38 


3.62 


1 29 


0037 


0226 


,0182 


0044 


.37 


,0018 


0001 


45 


1.0 


1913,3 






.47 


4.40 


1.50 


.0060 


.0245 


.0222 


0023 


.39 


.0023 


0002 


49 


0.9 



1 October omitted. 



2 Two months. 



3 Three months. 











Charles River, 


below Milford. 












1898. 


.63 


10 47 


3,08 


,1195 


,0597 


,0422 


.0175 


2.47 


,0473 


0064 


.69 


2.4 


1899, 






.50 


12 .52 


3.12 


,3487 


1345 


0803 


.0542 


3,00 


0053 


,0008 


1 12 


2.6 


1900, 






.56 


12.85 


2,65 


,7123 


,0764 


,0563 


,0201 


2.74 


,0140 


0055 


.93 


3.1 


1901, 






.63 


9 52 


3.37 


1419 


0451 


,0317 


0134 


1.40 


,0422 


0048 


.86 


2.6 


1902, 






.52 


10 74 


3.38 


.2118 


,0658 


,0406 


,0252 


2,21 


02.36 


,0049 


1.02 


2.7 


1903,1 






.49 


9 03 


2.85 


.2237 


.0479 


,0277 


,0202 


1,36 


,0.396 


0050 


.66 


2.5 


1904,5 






.50 


9.20 


2.94 


.2105 


0508 


0350 


.0158 


1.44 


0513 


.0055 


.63 


2.6 


1906,3 






.68 


8 76 


2.90 


. 1536 


0568 


.0427 


.0141 


1 64 


.0160 


0012 


.92 


2.0 


1907, 






.54 


12 95 


2,83 


.4607 


.0864 


.0.525 


.0339 


2.94 


0352 


0021 


.86 


3.2 


1908, 






.48 


10,81 


3,48 


3925 


0.598 


,0347 


0251 


1.79 


,0218 


0049 


.64 


- 


1909, 






.50 


12 66 


4,07 


,.5658 


.0479 


,0399 


,0080 


1,89 


0273 


,0064 


.72 


- 


1910, 






.57 


15.21 


3,83 


,8038 


,0640 


,0499 


0141 


3,01 


,0248 


0082 


.88 


4.2 


1911, 






.58 


14 12 


3.64 


,2881 


,0447 


.0323 


,0124 


2,51 


.0785 


0114 


.75 


4.4 


1912, 






.47 


15.99 


3,24 


5413 


0480 


.0370 


0110 


2 67 


,0880 


0101 


.64 


5.5 


1913, 






.58 


13.58 


3.65 


,2918 


.0536 


.0361 


0175 


1.94 


.0505 


.0108 


.96 


3.8 



1 November omitted. 



2 Four months. 



3 June omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



221 



CHARLES RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River, etc. — Concluded. 
Charles River, opposite Pumping Station of Brookline Water Works. 



[Parts in 100,000.] 









"o 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


i 

■u 


Nitrogen 


o 

6 
g 

a 

8 

a 

O 






Evaporation. 

1 


V 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


3 
^ 


a 


"5 
o 
H 


> 

Q 


i 

-a 
a 

o 

ft 
§ 


i 

1 


.1 


1 


1887, 

1888, 

1895, 

1897, 

1898, 

1899, 

1900, 

1901, 

1902, 

1903, 

1904, 

1905,1 

1906,1 

1907,1 

1908,1 

1909,2 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913, 






.83 
.98 
.74 

1.02 
.87 
.46 
.56 
.92 
.52 
.71 
.51 
.84 

1.05 
.63 
.55 
.65 
.60 
.85 
.56 
.74 


5.37 
4.87 

4 91 

5 36 
5.22 
5.03 
4.96 
5 45 
5.46 
6.22 
5.24 

5 93 
6.00 

6 15 
5.93 

5 75 
6.71 
7.42 

6 30 
7.32 


1.62 
1.92 

2.08 
2.45 
2 40 

1 92 
1.60 

2 60 
2.03 
2 30 
2.17 
2.60 
2.77 
2.40 
2.29 
2 00 
2.79 
3.02 
2.07 
2.27 


.0013 
.0014 
.0004 
0012 
.0012 
.0011 
.0018 
.0020 
.0031 
.0031 
.0021 
.0029 
.0039 
0022 
1.0035 
0023 
.0028 
.0040 
0043 
.0053 


.0282 
.0264 
.0237 
.0288 
0303 
.0262 
.0252 
.0314 
.0234 
0240 
.0224 
0318 
0294 
0246 
.0248 
0254 
.0289 
.0302 
0298 
0342 


.0240 
0207 
.0262 
.0281 
.0230 
0229 
.0275 
.0211 
0223 
.0208 
.0277 
.0267 
.0228 
.0222 
.0236 
.0260 
.0258 
0237 
.0300 


.0024 
.0030 
.0026 
.0022 
.0032 
.0023 
0039 
.0023 
.0017 
.0016 
0041 
.0027 
0018 
0026 
.0018 
.0029 
0044 
0061 
0042 


.44 
.37 

.48 
.43 
.39 
.45 
.46 
.41 
.57 
.53 
.55 
,54 
.53 
.64 
.65 
.69 
.83 
.80 
.85 
.85 


.0087 
.0062 
.0055 
.0067 
0035 
.0025 
.0020 
0047 
0045 
.0065 
0060 
0056 
.0032 
.0026 
.0036 
0015 
.0013 
.0032 
.0012 
.0043 


.0002 
0001 
.0001 
.0001 
0001 
0000 
.0001 
.0001 
0001 
.0001 
.0002 
.0001 
0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0002 


.75 
.86 
.92 
.62 
.70 
.95 
.64 
.80 
.67 
.92 

1.17 
.73 
.61 
.75 
.72 

1.10 
.69 
,86 


1.5 

1.5 
14 
1.5 
1.4 
1.4 
1.6 
15 
16 
1.5 
1.4 
1.7 
1.7 
15 
1.8 
2 
2.1 
2.0 



1 Five months. 



2 Two months. 





Charles River, 


opposite Pumping Station of Waltham Water Works. 




1887, 


.67 


6.02 


1 62 . 


0029 


.0274 


_ 


_ 


.48 


0043 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1888, 






.82 


5.47 


1.88 


0035 


.0310 


.0265 


0045 


.41 


.0087 


.0002 


- 


- 


1897, 






.95 


6.06 


2.45 


.0056 


0322 


.0299 


.0023 


.53 


0073 


.0002 


.83 


1.9 


1898, 






.81 


5 74 


2 46 


0050 


.0329 


.0296 


0033 


.44 


0043 


.0001 


.85 


1.6 


1899, 






.41 


5 50 


1.81 


.0047 


.0264 


.0248 


0016 


.51 


.0051 


.0002 


.52 


19 


1900, 






.52 


5.93 


1.68 


.0064 


.0282 


.0259 


0023 


.53 


.0070 


.0002 


.58 


1.7 


1901, 






.82 


5.93 


2.72 


.0065 


.0322 


.0289 


.0033 


.44 


.0067 


.0002 


.85 


1.8 


1902, 






.45 


6.21 


1.97 


.0084 


.0258 


.0228 


.0030 


.62 


.0077 


0003 


.59 


2.0 


1903, 






.64 


6.06 


2.21 ' 


.0078 


0267 


.0239 


.0028 


.58 


.0084 


.0003 


.71 


2.0 


1904, 






.55 


6.08 


2.22 


0062 


.0317 


.0266 


0051 


.62 


.0095 


.0002 


.62 


2,0 


1905, 






.79 


6.29 


2.54 


.0077 


0363 


0.308 


0055 


.58 


.0075 


.0002 


,80 


l.V 


1906, 






1.00 


6.70 


2.58 


.0063 


0335 


0297 


.0038 


.59 


.0038 


.0002 


.98 


1,8 


1907, » 






.58 


6 22 


2.24 


.0067 


.0278 


.0247 


0031 


.63 


.0058 


.0002 


.65 


2,0 


1908, 






.62 


6 50 


2 49 


.0048 


0344 


.0284 


.0060 


.69 


.0027 


0001 


.64 


1,9 


1909, 






.54 


6.79 


2 36 


.0063 


0349 


.0298 


.0051 


.76 


.0026 


.0002 


,53 


2.0 


1910, 






.59 


7.37 


2.87 


.0078 


.0336 


.0299 


0037 


.81 


.0037 


.0003 


.56 


2.4 


1911, 






.75 


7 47 


2.95 


.0086 


0343 


0308 


00.35 


.85 


0030 


0003 


.87 


2.3 


1912, 






.57 


7.59 


2.32 


.0095 


.0320 


.0280 


0040 


.92 


.0038 


.0002 


.63 


2.6 


1913,2 




.68 


7.68 


2.54 


.0083 


.0437 


.0378 


.0059 


.91 


.0041 


.0003 


.74 


2.3 



1 July omitted. 



• June omitted. 



222 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Chicopee Eiyer. 
A general statement of the condition of this river and its tributaries 
during the year 1913 will be found on pages 23 and 28. 

chicopee river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusive. 

Ware River, below Ware. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue ox 
evapokation. 




Ammoni.v. 




Nitrogen o 

AS E 


























oi 






3 
3 

8 




Year. 




a 




tj 


5 






«• 








a-2 








'J 


El 


S 


SR 




o 




o 


" 


o.-S 


i 


1 


o 




g 


03 
u 


'E 


® 


7. 




O 


H 


^- 


& 


H 


Q 


g 

CO 


o 


z 


^ c 




a 


1898, 


.64 


4.42 


1.94 


.0028 


.0332 


.0250 


.0082 


.19 


.0025 


,0003 


77 


1.0 


1899, 








.46 


4.82 


1.77 


.0052 


.0371 


.0268 


.0103 


.25 


.0015 


.0004 


66 


0.9 


1900, 








.51 


4.93 


1.64 


.0066 


0321 


.0243 


.0078 


.25 


.0030 


.0003 


78 


1.1 


1901, 








.73 


4.79 


2.15 


.0082 


.0300 


.0242 


.0058 


.18 


.0044 


,0002 


84 


1.3 


1902, 








.76 


4.86 


2.17 


0071 


.0348 


.0252 


0096 


.23 


.0040 


.0003 


93 


1.0 


1903,1 








.68 


4.83 


2.18 


.0072 


,0345 


.0240 


0105 


.25 


.0034 


.0003 


78 


0.8 


1904,1 








.60 


5.60 


2.36 


0043 


0411 


,0285 


.0126 


.29 


.0046 


,0004 


72 


1.1 


1908, 








.56 


7.38 


2 86 


.0265 


,0418 


,0264 


.0154 


.37 


.0033 


.0005 


80 


- 


1909,1 








.61 


8.63 


3.05 


.0354 


,0.569 


,0357 


0212 


.44 


.0015 


,0006 1 


98 


_ 


1910, 








.57 


9.82 


4.39 1 


.0655 


,0622 


,0426 


0196 


.60 


.0040 


,0011 


84 


- 


1911, 








.70 


9.15 


3.37 ! 


0396 


0554 


.0375 


.0179 


.48 


.0015 


,0003 1 


98 


_ 


1912, 








.62 


10 93 


3.23 


.0592 


0717 


0491 


0226 


.61 


,0015 


,0014 1 


95 


_ 


1913. 








.66 


9.74 


2.97 


.0525 


0634 


.0432 


.0202 


.51 


.0023 


,0005 i 
! 


96 


- 



1 September omitted. 



Quaboag River, below Palmer. 



1899, . 


.35 


4.54 


1.68 


.0048 


.0252 


.0208 


.0044 


.26 


.0060 


.0002 


.44 


1.1 


1900, 






.40 


4.56 


1,58 


0038 


.0218 


.0176 


0042 


.26 


,0062 


0001 


.48 


1.2 


1901, 






.42 


4 32 


1.74 


0043 


,0255 


.0202 


.0053 


.23 


.0052 


,0002 


.53 


1.1 


1902, 






.41 


4,55 


1 64 


.0077 


.0242 


.0196 


0046 


.33 


.0085 


0002 


.53 


1.2 


1903, 






.44 


4.36 


1.67 


0090 


,0242 


.0186 


,0056 


.27 


.0092 


,0033 


.51 


1,0 


1904, 






.40 


4,68 


1.70 


,0191 


.0253 


0195 


,0058 


.31 


0082 


0002 


.50 


1.1 


1908, 






.36 


5 31 


1,98 


0061 


.0207 


.0149 


.0058 


.40 


.0070 


0003 


.42 


- 


1909, 






.31 


5.43 


1.95 


,0068 


0211 


,0165 


.0046 


.41 


0058 


,0003 


.47 


- 


1910, 






.44 


6.05 


2.28 


.0043 


.0238 


.0168 


.0070 


.52 


.0057 


.0003 


.73 


- 


1911,1 






.39 


5.94 


2.08 


0060 


,0191 


.0145 


.0046 


.44 


0032 


.0002 


.53 


_ 


1912, 






.40 


7.63 


2.08 


.0087 


,0209 


.0144 


.0065 


.46 


.0068 


0001 


.58 


- 


1913,2 






.58 


7.67 


1.81 


.0108 


.0278 


.0164 


.0114 


.46 


.0042 


.0001 


.61 


~ 



1 Four months. 



2 June omitted. 







s 


wijt River, beloio Bondsville. 












1908,1 . 


.34 


5.45 


2.42 


.0047 


0217 


.0132 


.0085 


.21 


.0013 


.0002 


.44 




1909,2 . 


.40 


4.60 


1.70 


.0016 


.0196 


.0139 


.0057 


.22 


.0000 


.0001 


.60 


- 


1910, 


.33 


5.28 


2.05 


.0031 


.0261 


0196 


.0065 


.25 


.0010 


.0001 


.60 


- 


19il, 


.48 


5.05 


2.12 


0021 


.0278 


.0193 


.0085 


.21 


.0007 


0000 


.74 


- 


1912, 


.28 


5.02 


1.92 


.0047 


.0268 


.0184 


.0084 


.21 


.0008 


.0001 


.54 


- 


1913, 


.36 


5.32 


1.95 


.0024 


.0296 


.0204 


.0092 


.26 


.0008 


.0001 


.58 


~ 



1 Three months. 



2 Two months. 



No. 34.] 



exa:vtinatiox of rivers. 



223 



chicopee river. 

Chemical Ex.\mixation of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Concluded. 

Chicopee River, at Indian Orchard. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





o 

6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

_o 
3 
O 


Nitrogen 


•6 
£ 

3 

0! 

a 
8 

a 

>, 

6 






Ev.\P0R.\TION. 


i 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


1 


g:l 


i 

e2 


■6 
> 

G 


-§ 

a 

n 

3 




S 


4> 
C 

S3 
K 


1908,1 . 


.42 


5.21 


1.98 


.0100 


.0240 


.0177 


.0063 


.33 


.0056 


.0003 


.62 


_ 


1909,2 . 


.38 


5.82 


2.08 


.0094 


.0220 


.0162 


.0058 


.36 


.0046 


.0004 


.46 


- 


1910, 


.45 


6.14 


2.06 


.0099 


.0239 


0191 


.0048 


.44 


,0052 


0003 


.50 


- 


1911, 


.48 


6.12 


2.10 


0081 


.0275 


0184 


.0091 


.42 


.0067 


0004 


.57 


- 


1912, 


.41 


6.83 


2.03 , 


.0159 


.0287 


.0221 


.0066 


.50 


.0108 


.0005 


.47 


- 


1913, 


.43 


6.68 


2.13 


.0146 


.0302 


.0211 


.0091 


.44 


.0067 


.0006 


.50 


" 



1 October omitted. 



2 September omitted. 



Concord Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river and its trilnitaries 
during the year 1913 ^yill be found on pages .22, 23 and 27. 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusive. 

Sudbury River, below Saxonville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. | 




Nitrogen 

AS 


HI 

B 

3 

g 








albuminoid. 




Year. 




d 




'6 


.2 






^ 




O 


3 


J" 




1 

Eh 




1 

3 


1 


1 

2 


2 


a 
o 

6 


c5 


1901, 


.84 


7.22 


3.37 


.0073 


.0624 


0431 


.0193 


.38 


.0050 


.0005 


1.05 


1.9 


1902, 






.38 


6.39 


2.57 


.0150 


.0424 


0272 


.0152 


.60 


.0103 


.0005 


.55 


2.2 


1903, 






.52 


7.77 


2.78 


.0028 


0549 


.0296 


0253 


.65 


.0080 


.0002 


.83 


2.1 


1904, 






48 


9.58 


3.57 


.0569 


.0587 


.0385 


.0202 


.87 


.0193 


.0032 


.88 


2.5 


1906,1 






.67 


6.88 


2.90 


.0258 


.0525 


.0381 


.0144 


.56 


.0058 


.0004 


.92 


1.9 


1907,2 






.65 


9 07 


3.28 


.1357 


.0653 


.0347 


.0306 


.84 


.0063 


.0004 


.84 


2 1 


1908,3 






.44 


9 67 


3.72 


,0039 


0634 


.0374 


0260 


1.06 


.0128 


.0009 


.69 


- 


1909. 






.43 


6.81 


2.59 


.0174 


.0330 


.0256 


0074 


.64 


.0043 


.0005 


.64 


- 


1910, 






.49 


9.78 


3.45 


.0454 


.0606 


.0345 


.0261 


.83 


.0040 


.0010 


.65 


- 


1911, 






.37 


9.03 


3.08 


.0287 


.0410 


.0281 


.0129 


.92 


,0120 


.0009 


.54 


- 


1912, 






49 


8.83 


2.75 


.0238 


.0366 


.0253 


,0113 


1.19 


,0137 


.0031 


.72 


- 


1913, 






.69 


7.28 


2.56 


.0152 


.0347 


.0291 


.0056 


.90 


.0185 


.0023 


.77 


" 



1 June omitted. 



2 Three months 



3 Augu.st omitted. 



224 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



CONCORD RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Continued. 

Assabet River, above Westborotigh. 

IParts in 100,000.] 





a- 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


c 
1 

o 


Nitrogen 


-6 

o 

B 
s 

a 
o 

S 

bD 
>i 
X 

O 






Evaporation. 




albuminoid. 


AS 




Yeah. 


1 

e2 


a 

M to 


13 




i 
> 

1 
s 


■6 

a 
a 

a. 

s 


i 
1 


1 

2 


i 

a 

1-^ 


1909, 


.56 


6.01 


2.20 


.0048 


.0217 


.0194 


.0023 


.36 


.0015 


.0001 


.69 


- 


1910, 


.90 


7.37 


3.12 


.0029 


.0251 


.0229 


0022 


.38 


.0035 


.0001 


.86 


- 


1911, 


.97 


8.02 


3.39 


.0061 


.0441 


.0354 


.0087 


.45 


.0023 


.0002 


1.20' 


- 


1912, 


.72 


7.00 


2.36 


.0073 


.0255 


.0228 


.0027 


.44 


.0061 


.0002 


.87 


- 


1913, 


1.25 


8.26 


3.73 


.0095 


.0469 


.0392 


.0077 


.46 


.0007 


.0002 


1.55 


- 







Assabet River, below Westborough. 










1909, 


1.70 


19.24 


8.91 


.4140 


.2281 


.1616 


.0665 


1.94 


.0005 


.0005 


2.90 


- 


1910, 


2.23 


17.07 


7.00 


.2898 


.1334 


.1018 


.0316 


2.16 


.0078 


.0018 


2.20 


- 


1911, 


.83 


12.09 


4.01 


.0556 


.0460 


.0373 


.0087 


1.87 


.0967 


.0121 


1.24 


- 


1912, 


.66 


12 71 


4.01 


.0975 


.0419 


.0357 


.0062 


2.20 


.1998 


.0132 


.95 


- 


1913, 


1.15 


9.67 


4.21 


.0152 


.0448 


.0401 


.0047 


1.08 


.1078 


.0016 


1.37 


- 







Assabet River 


above Hudson. 












1908," . 


.49 


5.97 


2.16 


.0044 


.0241 


.0200 


0041 


.54 


.0072 


0003 


.59 


- 


1909. . 


.39 


6.37 


2.33 


.0070 


.0306 


0261 


.0045 


.52 


.0037 


0002 


.50 


- 


1910, 


.57 


6.90 


3.08 


.0058 


.0346 


.0296 


.0050 


.61 


.0055 


,0002 


.67 


- 


1911, 


.57 


6.82 


2 51 


0059 


.0295 


.0248 


.0047 


.57 


.0077 


.0002 


.81 


- 


1912, 


.45 


6.51 


2.13 


.0075 


.0297 


.0234 


.0063 


.62 


.0108 


.0002 


.59 




1913,2 


.65 


8.48 


2.81 


.0168 


.0386 


.0327 


.0059 


.70 


.0046 


.0002 


.79 





' September omitted. 



November omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



225 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Continued. 



Assabet River, below Hudson. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











C 

"o 

Q 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


i 


Nitrogen 


E 

3 

a 

8 
§ 
>. 

o 






Evaporation. 


i 

fa 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


"3 
o 


a 
fl-2 

sr 


"3 


13 
O 
> 


■d 

t 
o 

3 

m 


1 

2 


1 


a 
-a 


1898, 

1899. 

1900, 

1901, 

1902, 

1903,1 

1904,2 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913,3 








.79 
.50 

.48 
.66 
.64 
.51 
.44 
.51 
.51 
.69 
.64 
.78 
.76 


5.61 
8.30 
8.05 
5.47 
7.06 
5.71 
7.67 
9 17 
8 81 
13.83 
12.83 
18.08 
13.29 


2.38 
3.01 
2.05 
2.38 
2.69 
2.17 
2.60 
3.50 
3.26 
3.83 
4.30 
3.99 
3.34 


0062 
.0205 

0382 
.0193 
.0189 
.0092 
.0329 
.0198 
.0161 
.0413 
.0817 
.0939 
.0727 


.0335 
.0457 
.0501 
.0375 
.0464 
.0287 
.0375 
.0396 
.0403 
.0428 
.0532 
.0752 
.0704 


.0291 
.0383 
.0362 
.0295 
.0330 
.0222 
.0312 
0294 
.0296 
.0337 
.0400 
.0494 
.0577 


.0044 
.0074 
.0139 
.0080 
.0134 
.0065 
.0063 
.0102 
.0107 
.0091 
.0132 
.0258 
.0127 


.39 

.80 

1.27 

.79 

.84 

.56 

1.43 

1.32 

.98 

1.27 

.90 

1.02 

1.07 


.0063 
.0020 
.0028 
0107 
.0077 
.0073 
.0073 
.0072 
.0022 
.0048 
.0043 
.0053 
.0036 


0003 
0004 
.0007 
0005 
.0005 
.0006 
0005 
.0005 
.0002 
.0002 
.0003 
.0002 
.0004 


.87 

.73 

.72 

.91 

.74 

.60 

.64 

.82 

.64 

1.24 

1.06 

1.28 

1.28 


1.6 
2.1 
2.0 
1.8 
1.9 
1.7 
1.9 



June omitted. 



.' Three months. 



5 November omitted. 



Assabet River, above Maynard. 



1904, . 


.53 


5.65 


2.30 


.0046 


.0275 


.0231 


.0044 


.64 


.0035 


.0001 


.63 


1.6 


1906, 








.75 


5.53 


2.26 


.0065 


0290 


0254 


0036 


.48' 


0035 


0002 


.97 


1.5 


1907, » 








.68 


5.35 


1.80 


.0047 


0255 


.0211 


.0044 


.50 


0043 


.0002 


.73 


1.6 


1908, 








.52 


6 91 


2 32 


.0093 


0288 


.0248 


.0040 


1.03 


.0030 


.0002 


.62 


- 


1909, 








.43 


6.18 


2.13 


0068 


0343 


.0277 


0066 


.72 


0023 


.0001 


.62 


- 


1910, 








.54 


7.70 


2.82 


.0098 


.0337 


.0291 


.0046 


.98 


.0017 


.0003 


.64 


- 


1911, 








.57 


7.67 


2.33 


.0087 


0327 


.0277 


0050 


.85 


.0065 


.0004 


.73 


- 


1912, 








.57 


7.92 


2.15 


.0058 


0316 


0242 


.0074 


1 06 1 


0032 


.0002 


.65 


- 


1913, 








.60 


7.85 


2.27 


.0085 


0372 


.0296 


0076 


1.03 


0028 


0003 


.73 


- 



1 Four months. 



226 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord 
TARiES, ETC. — Concluded. 

Assahet River, below Maynard. 



River and its Tribu- 













[Parts in 


100,000.] 
















o 
o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


13 
■| 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

<u 

S 

a 

8 

1 

I 
o 






fe 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


3 




■i 

o 
H 


■n 


■6 

a 

IS 
0, 

3 


1 


1 

'B 


1 


1898, . 


.77 


5.93 


2 59 


0020 


.0387 


.0301 


0086 


.43 


0030 


.0003 


.89 


1.5 


1399, . 






.51 


6.70 


2.21 


0185 


0414 


0327 


.0087 


.73 


.0043 


0003 


.62 


1.7 


1900, 






.50 


5.72 


1 73 


0217 


0386 


.0304 


.0082 


.70 


0031 


.0002 


.59 


1.4 


1901, . 






.73 


6.57 


2 67 


0211 


0428 


0351 


.0077 j 


.45 


0052 


0002 


.90 


1.6 


1902, 






.69 


7.27 


2.87 


.0099 


.0592 


.0381 


.0211 


.57 


0033 


.0002 


.83 


1.6 


1903, 






.61 


6.40 


2.58 


.0170 


0457 


.0322 


.0135 


.48 


0037 


0003 


.83 


1.6 


1904, 






- 


8.48 


3.21 


0143 


0678 


.0412 


0266 


.74 


0043 


.0002 


1.05 


17 


1906, 






.88 


6.68 


2.64 


.0290 


0448 


.0312 


.0136 


.58 


0047 


0003 


.91 


1.6 


1907,1 






.79 


7.64 


2.76 


.0299 


.0391 


.0274 


.0117 


.69 


.0060 


.0003 


.86 


1.6 


1908, 






.45 


11.46 


3.98 


.0675 


.0684 


0381 


.0303 


1,37 


.0028 


.0012 


.89 


- 


1909, 






- 


13.97 


4.21 


.1208 


.0991 


.0529 


.0462 


1.22 


.0007 


.0006 


1.34 


- 


1910, 






.59 


13.15 


4.68 


.0708 


.0685 


.0446 


.0239 


1.82 


0038 


.0006 


.85 


- 


1911, 






.58 


12.73 


4.17 


.0738 


.0650 


.0408 


.0242 


1 41 


0060 


0006 


1.08 


- 


1912, 






- 


12.94 


3.92 


.1205 


.0771 


.0494 


.0277 


1.46 


.0026 


.0010 


1.04 


- 


1913, 






.60 


10 60 


3.01 


.0746 


.0597 


.0394 


0203 


1.34 


0311 


.0007 


.85 


- 



1 Four months. 



Concord River, at Billerica. 



1902, . 


.68 


5.98 


2.18 


.0091 


,0347 


,0272 


0075 


.53 


0052 


0004 


.78 


1,7 


1903, 






.64 


5.71 


2.26 


0097 


,0317 


,0258 


0059 


.49 


,0058 


.0005 


,72 


1,8 


1904, 






.64 


6.05 


2 31 


0077 


,0341 


0255 


,0086 


.55 


0072 


0002 


.75 


1.7 


190S, 






.37 


8 04 


2 65 


0107 


,0251 


0216 


,0035 


.96 


,0104 


.0005 


,54 


- 


1909, 






.49 


7.71 


2.78 


.0128 


,0298 


.0267 


,0031 


.75 


,0058 


,0013 


.65 


- 


1910, 






.49 


7 31 


3.00 


0142 


,0325 


,0292 


,0033 


1.01 


,0055 


0004 


,58 


- 


1911, 






.45 


11.14 


4.05 


,0181 


,0525 


,0287 


.0238 


1.16 


0132 


.0008 


1.14 


- 


1912,1 






.53 


10 90 


3 08 


0187 


0433 


,0274 


.0159 


.97 


,0140 


,0008 


,82 


- 


1913. 






.57 


7 63 


2.38 


0089 


0355 


.0312 


.0043 


,98 


,0073 


,0003 


.77 


- 



1 September omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



227 



CoxxECTicuT River, 
A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 1913 
will be found on page 21. 

connecticut river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Connecticut River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Connecticut River, at Northfield Farjns. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■6 


































3 
1 




Ye.vr. 




a 






i 


o 


. 




i 






3 


n bo 


i 


"3 


> 

1 


a 


a 

3 
o 




.2 

B 


a 
>> 


a 

■E 




O 


^ 


,3" 


^ 


^ 


Q 


3 
CO 


■z 


z 


o 


03 


1899, 


.30 


7.32 


2.17 


.0016 


.0189 


0158 


.0031 


.11 


.0023 


0001 


.85 


3.6 


1900, 








.47 


6.24 


2 11 


.0023 


.0190 


0154 


0036 


.09 


.0030 


.0001 


.95 


2 9 


1901, 








.31 


6.12 


2.39 


0016 


.0146 


0122 


.0024 


.10 


0037 


.0002 


.72 


3.2 


1902, 








.30 


5.57 


2 02 


0014 


.0124 


.0110 


.0014 


.08 


.0057 


0001 


.60 


2.9 


1903, 








.23 


6 83 


2.18 


0037 


.0169 


.0143 


0026 


.14 


,0028 


,0002 


.68 


3.4 


1904,1 








.27 


6 44 


2.44 


.0023 


.0158 


.0130 


.0028 


.12 


,0038 


,0001 


.73 


3 4 


1906. 








.34 


6 50 


2.17 


.0040 


.0201 


.0181 


.0020 


.14 


,0023 


,0002 


.76 


3.2 


1907, 2 








.36 


5 91 


2.06 


0020 


.0141 


.0122 


.0019 


.16 


.0048 


,0002 


.66 


3 


1908,3 








.28 


8 33 


2.78 


0058 


.0200 


.0177 


.0023 


.22 


.0018 


,0001 


.70 




1909, 








.29 


7.32 


2.89 


0031 


.0142 


0124 


.0018 


.16 


.0017 


,0002 


.82 


_ 


1910. 








.31 


7 52 


3.10 


.0064 


.0174 


0152 


0022 


.17 


,0018 


,0001 


.77 


_ 


1911, 








.32 


7.28 


2.44 


0066 


.0172 


.0143 


.0029 


.16 


.0022 


0001 


.70 


_ 


1912, 








.36 


7.43 


1.63 


.0066 


.0185 


.0148 


.0037 


.16 


0012 


,0001 


.70 


_ 


1913, 








.31 


7.78 


2 31 


.0077 


.0174 


0131 


.0043 


.17 


.0020 


0002 


.65 


- 



1 July omitted. 



^ Four months. 



' June omitted. 











Connecticut River 


, below Springfield. 










1888, 


.35 


5 .34 


1 24 


0032 


,0182 


0143 


.0039 


.15 


.0082 


0002 






1899. 






.33 


6 61 


1 99 


0093 


0238 


0195 


.0043 


.23 


.0042 


.0003 


67 


3 1 


1900, 






.44 


6 64 


1,90 


0098 


.0250 


0176 


.0074 


.20 


0034 


,0002 


89 


3 1 


1901, 






.32 


6.03 


2,34 


0061 


.0190 


.01.53 


.0037 


.18 


.0048 


.0003 


65 


3,0 


1902, 






.31 


5 83 


2,13 


0062 


.0180 


0140 


0040 


.16 


0055 


0005 


61 


3 


1903, 






.30 


6.12 


2,04 


,0098 


.0202 


0147 


0055 


.24 


.0058 


,0004 


61 


2,7 


1904,' 






.22 


5 22 


1 87 


0098 


.0187 


0125 


0062 


.21 


.0047 


,0002 


48 


2 4 


1906.2 






.35 


7.14 


2 61 


,0082 


.0204 


0161 


0043 


.24 


.0026 


.0004 


71 


2 8 


1907,3 






,38 


6 27 


2 46 


0069 


.0163 


0131 


0032 


.24 


.0050 


.0003 


67 


2,9 


1908, 






.32 


8,58 


2 61 


0214 


.0223 


0165 


.0058 


.38 


0040 


,0004 


81 




1909, 






.29 


6 02 


2 25 


0079 


.0156 


0118 


0038 


.22 


0018 


0003 


65 


_ 


1910, 






.33 


8,67 


3.60 


.0155 


0241 


,0188 


.0053 


.37 


.0028 


0003 


89 


_ 


1911. 






.33 


7,66 


2.56 


,0140 


.0181 


,0147 


0034 


.28 


.0018 


0005 


70 


_ 


1912. 






.31 , 


8 22 


3.02 


,0136 


.0228 


,0161 


.0067 


.16 


0022 


0004 


74 


_ 


1913, < 




.31 1 


7,96 


2.50 


,0178 


.0242 


.0181 


.0061 


.35 


0038 


,0004 


68 


- 



' Three months. 



2 June omitted. 



' Four months 



♦ September omitted. 



228 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Deeefield Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 28. 



deerfield river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Deerfield River and Tributary. 
— Averages for Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Deerfield River, at Shelhurne Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











o 

6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

_o 
3 
o 


Nitrogen 


■o. 
o 
E 

a 

8 
a 
g 

O 






Evaporation. 


6 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


1 


a 

a -2 
o.t: 

1 M 


1 

e2 


-a 

1 

P 


73 

■d 
1 


1 


.1 

2 




1901, 

1902, 

1903,1 

1904, 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912,2 

1913, 








.34 
.29 
.26 
.24 
.33 
.26 
.26 
.35 
.29 
.39 


4.02 
3.62 
3.74 
4.15 
4.93 
4.56 
4.62 
4.80 
4.48 
4 55 


1.82 
1.46 
1.35 
1.52 
1.93 
1.62 
1.69 
1.88 
1.65 
1.30 


0057 
.0051 
0023 
0040 
.0017 
,0009 
.0025 
0035 
.0024 
.0049 


0200 
.0151 
.0131 

0115 
.0128 

0150 
.0141 
.0156 
.0149 

0213 


.0171 
.0126 
.0113 
.0097 
.0108 
0129 
.0108 
.0119 
.0122 
.0164 


.0029 
.0025 
.0018 
0018 
0020 
0021 
.0033 
0037 
.0027 
.0049 


.09 
.08 
.09 
.11 
.14 
.12 
.13 
.13 
.11 
.12 


.0078 
.0055 
.0038 
0110 
0030 
0005 
0010 
0027 
.0008 
.0007 


.0001 
0002 

.0002 
0001 

.0001 
0001 
0001 
0000 
0001 
0000 


.63 
.51 
.44 
.39 
.44 
.47 
.45 
.59 
.42 
.53 


1.7 
1.7 
15 
2.1 



1 Four months. 



' October omitted. 













Green River, below Greenfield. 












1903, 


.05 


7.75 


2.23 


.0152 


.0143 


.0086 


.0057 


.21 


0078 


,0005 


.15 


3 9 


1904, 








.07 


6 93 


2.01 


0151 


.0382 


.0138 


.0244 


.28 


.0100 


.0006 


.22 


3.8 


1908, 








.17 


11 06 


2.97 


0665 


.0337 


0131 


0206 


.45 


0043 


.0011 


.33 


- 


1909, 








.14 


7.82 


2.54 


.0459 


.0333 


0151 


0182 


.37 


0038 


0011 


.23 


- 


1910, 








.17 


8 33 


3.16 


0775 


.0284 


0169 


.0115 


.37 


0025 


0012 


.23 


- 


1911, 








.21 


9.23 


2.44 


.0684 


0228 


0115 


0113 


.48 


.0033 


.0014 


.37 


- 


1912, 








.17 


18 02 


2 71 


0099 


0352 


.0092 


0260 


.23 


.0017 .0003 


.44 


- 


1913, 








.12 


8.25 


2.25 


0203 


.0198 


.0103 


.0095 


.26 


0030 .0003 


.22 


" 



Deerfield River, below Green River. 



1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 




0075 .0154 
0043 .0121 
0093 1.0128 
0078 I 0143 
0070 1.0140 
.0113 .0257 



.0098 


.0056 


.20 


.0025 


.0002 


.37 


0104 


.0017 


.14 


0012 


0001 


.41 


0112 


.0016 


.16 


0008 


.0003 


.31 


.0106 


.0037 


.16 


.0025 


.0005 


.52 


.0107 


.0033 


.17 


.0030 


.0001 ( 


.37 


.0183 


0074 


.17 


,0063 


.0002 , 


.39 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



229 



Frekch Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 21. 



FRENX'H RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from French River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

French River, below Webster. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









o 

8 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


(U 

B 

m 

a 
o 

a 
O 






£ 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


3 


d 


1 


Q 


T3 

1 

§ 
02 


1 

1 


1 

2 


1 
a 

1 


1899, 


.44 


5.67 


2.07 


.0238 


.0612 


.0384 


.0228 


.42 


.0024 


.0007 


.66 


1.6 


1900, 






.52 


5.79 


2.10 


.0202 


.0475 


.0357 


.0118 


.46 


.0062 


.0007 


.78 


15 


1901, 






.50 


5.29 


2.25 


.0090 


0390 


0265 


.0125 


.33 


.0044 


.0002 


.75 


12 


1902, 






.42 


4.92 


1.99 


.0057 


.0391 


.0264 


.0127 


.39 


0038 


.0002 


.65 


1.2 


1903, 






.48 


4 67 


1.88 


.0049 


.0352 


.0241 


.0111 


.40 


.0058 


.0002 


.72 


0.9 


1904, 






.44 


6.02 


2.18 


.0267 


.0434 


.0281 


.0153 


.58 


.0042 


.0004 


.70 


1.3 


1906, 






.61 


5.08 


2.19 


.0063 


.0353 


0246 


.0107 


.40 


0038 


0003 


.81 


9 


1907,1 






.54 


6.28 


2.62 


.0117 


.0544 


.0304 


.0240 


.49 


.0035 


0004 


.69 


1.2 


1903, 






.44 


7.17 


2.82 


.0086 


.0507 


.0310 


.0197 


.61 


0037 


0010 


.81 


- 


1909, 






.50 


7.42 


2.61 


0267 


.0638 


0385 


.0253 


.77 


.0055 


.0012 


.72 


- 


1910, 






.44 


8.27 


3 55 


.0512 


0527 


0321 


.0206 


.78 


.0016 


.0021 


.79 


- 


1911, 






.57 


10.23 


3.17 


0219 


.0652 


.0405 


.0247 


.89 


0015 


.0004 


.94 


- 


1912, 






.49 


9 78 


3.77 


.0420 


0745 


0399 


.0346 


.82 


0060 


0021 


.87 


- 


1913, 






.53 


8 42 


2.93 


.0345 


.0641 


0358 


.0283 


.72 


.0042 


0007 


.86 


- 



' Four months. 



230 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



HOOSTCK ElVER. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the vear 1913 
will be found on page 24. 



hoosick river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Hoosick River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Hoosick River, at Williamstoivn. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









i 

o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


T3 

s 

d 
a 

8 
a 

>i 

X 

O 






8 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


o 


a 

0.- 


3 


o 

Q 


1 

1 

3 
CO 


1 


.1 


i 

o 

a 

1 


1887, . 


.22 


12 05 


1.22 


.0065 


.0190 


- 


- 


.23 


.0232 


- 


- 


- 


1888, 






.12 


10 82 


1.90 


.0026 


0210 


.0142 


.0068 


.27 


.0247 


.0015 


- 


- 


1894, 






.37 


13 56 


2.74 


0166 


.0361 


.0224 


.0137 


.50 


.0102 


0014 


.42 


9 


1895, 






.34 


14 20 


3.26 


.0190 


0424 


.0241 


.0183 


.63 


.0090 


.0020 


.53 


9 


1896, 






.21 


11.71 


2 39 


0295 


0267 


.0172 


.0095 


.39 


.0133 


.0018 


.33 


8.6 


1897, 






.26 


11.32 


2.39 


.0174 


0312 


.0173 


.0139 


.30 


.0265 


.0011 


.31 


7.9 


1898, 






.27 


10 46 


2.38 


.0223 


0311 


.0210 


.0101 


.31 


0170 


.0007 


.34 


6.6 


1899, 






.30 


15 21 


3 31 


.0252 


.0622 


.0379 


.0243 


.64 


.0070 


.0029 


.62 


8.3 


1900, 






.28 


14.20 


2.79 


.0433 


.0547 


0301 


.0246 


.60 


.0087 


.0043 


.58 


7.8 


1901, 






.27 


13 02 


3.70 


.0400 


.0520 


.0250 


.0270 


.43 


.0152 


0024 


.53 


7.3 


1902, 






.22 


10 62 


2,87 


.0069 


.0307 


.0172 


.0135 


.34 


0123 


.0014 


.40 


6 4 


1903, 






.17 


10 50 


2 37 


0272 


.0264 


0151 


.0113 


.29 


.0183 


0019 


.33 


7.5 


1904, 






.13 


12 30 


3 23 


0677 


0310 


.0191 


0119 


.45 


.0203 


.0024 


.29 


8.3 


1905, 






.20 


11.09 


2 81 


.0295 


.0265 


0156 


.0109 


.32 


.0123 


.0015 


.31 


5 6 


1906, 






.31 


13.28 


3 63 


0415 


.0489 


.0252 


.0237 


.47 


.0147 


.0030 


.43 


6.0 


1907, 






.25 


11 80 


2 93 


0431 


.0390 


.0231 


.0159 


.47 


.0135 


.0021 


.39 


7.9 


1908, 






.23 


14 00 


3.86 


.0559 


0323 


.0195 


.0128 


.54 


.0085 


.0023 


.37 


- 


1909, 






.23 


15 46 


4 09 


.0496 


.0382 


.0243 


.0139 


.62 


.0060 


.0035 


.41 


- 


1910, 






.30 


13 06 


4.43 


0320 


0336 


.0219 


.0117 


.52 


.0102 


.0018 


.41 


- 


1911, 






.26 


12.38 


3.77 


.1153 


.0492 


.0232 


.0260 


.58 


.0065 


.0022 


.43 


- 


1912, 






.24 


15.05 


3.35 


0365 


0464 


.0280 


0184 


.73 


.0058 


.0025 


.45 


9 3 


1913, 


.13 


17 57 


3.78 


.0638 


0489 


0310 


.0179 


.88 


.0053 


.0024 


.49 


9 2 



No. 34.] 



exa:\jination of rivers. 



231 



HOUSATONIC ElVER. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 24. 



housatonic river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic River and its 
Branches. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, 
inclusive. 

East Branch, below Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









u 

o 

a 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


a 
O 


Nitrogen 


-i 

■a 

3 

a 

8 

a 

s> 
6 






Evaporation. 


i 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


i 


d 


o 
H 


1 

"o 

Q 


•a 
a 

0. 

s 


1 


1 


i 


1903, . 


.32 


9.75 


2 92 


.0118 


.0226 


.0153 


.0073 


.25 


.0142 


.0006 


.56 


6.8 


1904,1 






.28 


9 02 


3.15 


0117 


0248 


0175 


0073 


.26 


.0113 


.0005 


.47 


6.2 


1907,2 






.42 


9.40 


3 00 


0286 


0284 


.0186 


0098 


.28 


0060 


.0010 


.50 


6.4 


1908,5 






.29 


12.76 


3.57 


.0327 


0250 


0177 


0073 


.40 


.0140 


0011 


.47 


- 


1909, 






.26 


12.60 


4.37 


.0431 


.0305 


.0215 


.0090 


.33 


.0087 


.0007 


.44 


- 


1910, 






.30 


12.98 


5.26 


0437 


0233 


0182 


.0051 


.40 


.0080 


0012 


.48 


- 


1911. > 






.29 


12.03 


4.26 


.0231 


.0253 


.0169 


.0084 


.37 


0060 


.0011 


.54 


- 


1912, « 






.28 


13 08 


3.18 


0358 


.0337 


.0236 


0101 


.43 


.0123 


.0010 


.62 


- 


1913, 






.32 


15.34 


3.60 


.0526 


.0405 


.0259 


0146 


.48 


.0073 


.0019 


.69 


- 



1 Three months. 



2 Two months. 



' November omitted. 







West Branch, 


below Pittsfield. 












1903, 


.29 


10.43 


2.83 


.0100 


.0210 


.0143 


.0067 


.23 


0143 


.0006 


.46 


7.4 


1904,1 . 


.15 


12 27 


3.50 


.0137 


.0423 


.0217 


.0206 


.35 


.0050 


.0004 


.35 


7.8 


1908,2 . 


.20 


13.28 


3.68 


.0210 


0301 


.0194 


.0107 


.26 


.0026 


.0009 


.36 


- 


1909, . 


- 


11.00 


2.87 


.0070 


0283 


.0175 


0108 


.24 


.0010 


.0003 


.25 


- 


1910, 


.22 


13.85 


4 98 


0218 


0446 


.0218 


.0228 


.40 


.0012 


.0011 


.40 


- 


1911,' . 


.19 


12.73 


4.70 


0090 


0317 


0184 


0133 


.26 


0030 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1912,' . 


.17 


12 60 


2.70 


0081 


0360 


.0197 


0163 


.29 


.0037 


.0005 


.41 


- 


1913, 


.30 


18.72 


5.10 


0870 


0779 


.0397 


0382 


.78 


0020 


.0008 


.82 


- 



' Three months. 



2 November omitted. 



232 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



HOUSATONIC RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic River and its 
Branches, etc. — Concluded. 

Southwest Branch, at Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









C 

O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


■g 

O 


Nitrogen 


i 

8 

a 

>. 

6 






[S 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


1 
^ 


a 

2" 


1 


T3 
> 

s 


■a 

a 
a 

3 


1 


1 


i 

a 

d 


1899, . 


.17 


14.92 


2.58 


.0040 


.0353 


.0211 


.0142 


.16 


.0108 


.0004 


.37 


9.2 


1900, 






.14 


14.87 


2.15 


.0192 


0335 


.0229 


.0106 


.21 


.0107 


.0008 


.35 


10 2 


1901, 






.14 


13.20 


3.87 


0051 


0302 


0197 


.0105 


.16 


.0096 


0004 


.41 


9.4 


1902, 






.11 


12.30 


3.09 


0057 


.0224 


.0136 


.0088 


.12 


.0108 


.0005 


.37 


8.7 


1903, 






.10 


11.63 


2.37 


0045 


0162 


.0109 


.0053 


.11 


0115 


.0003 


.25 


8.8 


1904,1 






.15 


12.45 


3.63 


.0116 


0455 


.0223 


.0232 


.34 


0040 


.0018 


.35 


7.8 


1907,2 






.31 


10.78 


2.30 


.0040 


0258 


0168 


.0090 


.20 


.0025 


0003 


.39 


8.2 


1908,3 






.18 


15.17 


4.89 


.0216 


.0269 


.0159 


.0110 


.23 


.0036 


.0007 


.38 


- 


1909, 






.17 


14 82 


4.41 


0041 


0265 


0153 


0112 


.23 


.0082 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1910, 






.17 


14.45 


5.25 


0049 


0196 


.0135 


.0061 


.17 


.0045 


.0006 


.30 


- 


1911,1 






.14 


12.62 


3.35 


.0013 


.0224 


.0131 


0093 


.19 


.0110 


.0005 


.34 


- 


1912,1 






.12 


15.02 


3.08 


0017 


0172 


.0111 


.0061 


.21 


.0170 


.0007 


.31 


- 


1913. 






.13 


15.97 


3.34 


.0037 


.0221 


.0157 


.0064 


.20 


.0115 


.0009 


.32 


- 



1 Three montha. 



' Two months. 



' November omitted. 





Housatonic River, below Ch'eat Barrington 










1908, 


.18 


14 97 


3.69 


0106 


.0269 


0172 


0097 


.43 


.0107 


0011 


.36 


- 


1909, . 


.16 


14.91 


4.41 


.0067 


0247 


0173 


0074 


.47 


.0078 


0012 


.35 


- 


1910, . 


.22 


14.97 


5.32 


.0128 


.0233 


.0181 


.0052 


.51 


.0090 


0021 


.34 


- 


1911, . 


.19 


14 42 


5.29 


.0178 


.0217 


.0157 


.0060 


.45 


.0087 .0045 


.40 




1912,1 . 


.22 


14.56 


3.79 


0123 


0272 


0189 


.0083 


.47 


.0120 


0028 


.42 


- 


1913, . 


.21 


18.60 


5 48 


.0117 


.0444 .0265 


.0179 


.67 


.0085 


0030 


.77 


- 



1 August omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMIXATIOX OF RIVERS. 



233 



Merrimack River, 
A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 
1913 will be found on page 26. 

merrimack river. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Merrimack River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Merrimack River, above Lowell. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









— 


6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


01 

a 

o 


Nitrogen 


13 

B 

3 

a 

8 
§ 

X 

O 






£ 


albuminoid. 


A3 




Year. 




J" 


i 

o 


■6 
> 


Q. 
3 


i 
1 


1 

'B 
2 


i 

X 


1887, 








.45 


4.08 


1.10 


.0024 


.0156 


- 


- 


.17 


.0078 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1888, 








.32 


3.47 


1.01 


.0014 


.0161 


.0137 


.0024 


.16 


.0082 


0002 


_ 


- 


1889, 








.37 


- 


- 


.0028 


0166 


.0143 


.0023 


.17 


.0067 


.0001 


_ 


_ 


1890, 








.34 


3.85 


1.58 


.0025 


.0148 


.0123 


.0025 


.14 


.0106 


.0002 


_ 


14 


1891, 








.27 


3.73 


1.47 


.0029 


.0147 


.0111 


.0036 


.17 


.0080 


.0002 


- 


14 


1892, 








.39 


3.75 


1.37 


.0028 


.0139 


.0106 


.0033 


.15 


.0097 


0002 


_ 


16 


1893, 








.25 


3.47 


1.13 


.0028 


.0141 


.0110 


.0031 


.17 


.0072 


.0001 


.38 


11 


1894, 








.29 


3.86 


1.32 


.0037 


0140 


.0114 


.0026 


.19 


.0042 


0001 


.36 


12 


1895, 








.43 


3.97 


1.61 


.0019 


.0197 


.0151 


.0046 


.24 


.0054 


0001 


.55 


12 


1896. 








.44 


3.85 


1.41 


.0049 


.0181 


.0149 


.0032 


.18 


.0053 


.0002 


.66 


10 


1897, 








.54 


3.62 


1.68 


.0030 


.0181 


0148 


.0033 


.16 


.0077 


0001 


.52 


0.9 


1898, 








.39 


3 93 


1.74 


.0032 


.0197 


.0171 


.0026 


.19 


.0047 


0001 


.51 


1.0 


1899, 








.20 


3.88 


1.45 


.0050 


.0205 


.0166 


.0039 


.22 


.0055 


.0002 


.38 


12 


1900, 








.23 


3.72 


1.21 


.0068 


.0215 


.0158 


.0057 


.23 


.0038 


.0002 


.44 


13 


1901, 








.38 


4.32 


1.98 


.0060 


.0208 


.0172 


.0036 


.20 


.0042 


0002 


.69 


12 


1902, 








.38 


3.81 


1.59 


.0056 


.0163 


.0142 


.0021 


.17 


.0043 


.0001 


.64 


9 


1903, 








.30 


4.00 


1.55 


.0058 


.0171 


.0129 


.0042 


.23 


.0040 


.0002 


.59 


11 


1904, 








.33 


4.61 


1.92 


.0077 


.0194 


.0153 


.0041 


.23 


.0047 


.0002 


.69 


13 


1905, 








.40 


4.30 


1.95 


.0112 


.0202 


.0160 


.0042 


.25 


.0038 


.0002 


.71 


11 


1906. 








.37 


4.64 


1.84 


.0100 


.0201 


.0174 


.0027 


.26 


.0032 


.0002 


.71 


12 


1907, 








.38 


4.60 


1.88 


.0079 


.0194 


.0135 


.0059 


.28 


.0043 


.0002 


.62 


12 


1908, 








.29 


4.67 


1.80 


.0125 


.0195 


.0141 


.0054 


.36 


.0048 


.0003 


.64 


13 


1909. 








.31 


5.16 


2.38 


.0185 


.0213 


.0161 


.0052 


.36 


.0018 


.0002 


.68 


15 


1910, 








.37 


5.11 


1.78 


.0242 


.0221 


.0180 


.0041 


.35 


.0035 


.0007 


.68 


14 


1911. 








.39 


5.32 


2.09 


.0166 


.0219 


.0165 


.0054 


.36 


.0033 


.0006 


.65 


15 


1912, 








.40 


5.16 


1.94 


.0165 


.0223 


.0175 


.0048 


.32 


.0013 


.0003 


.88 


2 


1913,1 








.36 


5.56 


1.66 


.0162 


.0277 


.0189 


.0088 


.39 


0030 


0003 


.70 


18 



' June omitted. 



234 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



MERRIMACK RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Merrimack River, etc. — 

Concluded. 

Merrimack River, above Lawrence. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 




Amm 


ONIA. 




.1 
o 

O 


Nitrogen 


Q 

s 

3 

a 
8 

a 

1 

o 






i 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


5 
^ 


a 
a -2 

o-- 


i 


> 

1 
5 


a 

o 
0. 

B 

CO 


1 
1 


1 

2 


a 


1887, 


.47 


4.82 


1.24 


,0027 


.0211 


- 


- 


.22 


.0097 


- 


- 


- 


1888, 








.32 


3 64 


1.13 


0029 


0197 


0153 


,0044 


.18 


.0074 


.0003 


- 


- 


1889, 








.35 


- 


- 


.0047 


.0212 


.0176 


.0036 


.20 


.0053 


.0002 


- 


- 


1890, 








.37 


4 27 


1.56 


.0061 


.0187 


.0148 


.0039 


.19 


.0068 


0002 


- 


1.6 


1891, 








.21 


4.06 


1 37 


.0066 


.0179 


.0138 


.0041 


.21 


0090 


0002 


- 


14 


1892, 








.46 


4.25 


1.50 


.0054 


.0186 


.0155 


.0031 


.19 


.0087 


.0002 


- 


1.5 


1893, 








.40 


4.25 


1.62 


.0084 


.0172 


.0138 


.0034 


.23 


0057 


0003 


.52 


1.3 


1894, 








.32 


3 82 


1.35 


.0086 


.0174 


.0142 


.0032 


.25 


.0043 


.0001 


.40 


13 


1895, 








.52 


4 45 


1.97 


.0068 


.0251 


.0194 


.0057 


.30 


.0067 


.0003 


.60 


15 


1896, 








.46 


4 24 


1.70 


,0100 


.0224 


.0181 


0043 


.25 


.0067 


0005 


.57 


1.3 


1897, 








.58 


4 06 


1.67 


.0061 


.0222 


.0190 


.0032 


.21 


0053 


.0002 


.53 


1.0 


1898, 








.44 


4.46 


1.87 


.0076 


.0262 


.0208 


.0054 


.25 


.0050 


.0005 


.59 


1.3 


1899, 








.24 


4 42 


1.57 


0138 


0277 


.0207 


.0070 


.32 


0052 


0004 


.43 


1.3 


1900, 








.27 


4.22 


1 35 


0126 


0249 


,0190 


.0059 


.32 


.0050 


0003 


.46 


1.3 


1901, 








.44 


4 73 


1.90 


.0100 


0280 


.0205 


.0075 


.28 


.0070 


.0006 


.65 


15 


1902, 








.42 


4.40 


1.85 


.0110 


0231 


.0180 


.0051 


.26 


.0038 


.0003 


.65 


1.1 


1903, 








.37 


4 66 


1.73 


.0111 


.0226 


,0166 


.0060 


.31 


.0052 


,0005 


.64 


1.4 


1904, 








.31 


4.67 


1.80 


.0211 


.0247 


.0170 


.0077 


.33 


.0053 


.0004 


.62 


1.4 


190.5, 








.44 


4 92 


2.01 


.0177 


.0242 


.0183 


,0059 


.38 


.0040 


.0005 


.74 


12 


1906, 








.39 


5.30 


2.12 


.0170 


.0263 


.0215 


.0048 


.40 


.0027 


0005 


.72 


1.4 


1907, 








.40 


4.92 


1.80 


.0293 


.0253 


.0175 


.0078 


.41 


.0047 


0005 


.59 


13 


1908, 








.33 


5.61 


2.19 


.0354 


.0303 


0196 


.0107 


.57 


.0052 


0006 


.74 


1.5 


1909, 








.33 


6.28 


2.04 


0336 


.0262 


.0196 


.0066 


.53 


.0025 


.0007 


.67 


1.7 


1910, 








.39 


- 


- 


.0266 


.0242 


,0183 


.0059 


.53 


0125 


0008 


.57 


1.6 


1911, 








.23 


8.22 


3.10 


.0240 


.0286 


,0227 


.0059 


.53 


,0118 


.0007 


.65 


1.6 


1912, 








.21 


6.49 


2.62 


.0241 


.0225 


.0188 


.0037 


.52 


0151 


.0006 


.59 


1.3 


1913, 








.25 


7.46 


2.93 


.0245 


.0224 


.0185 


,0039 


.57 


.0167 


0007 


.61 


1.5 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



235 



Miller's Eiver. 



MILLER'S RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Miller's River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Miller's River, below Miller's Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000. 




236 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Nashua Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 37. 



nashua river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Nashua River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

North Branch of Nashua River, below Fitchburg. 

[Parts in 100,000. | 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


S 

s 

13 
O 

a 

<a 
>> 
O 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


"3 
o 


a 
§1 

3" 


O 


■6 
> 

Q 


-d 
g 

0. 

3 


i 
1 


.1 


a 


1893, . 


.70 


8.32 


2.38 


.0562 


.0405 


.0289 


.0116 


.73 


0097 


0030 


.73 


2.2 


1894, 








.66 


9.18 


2.22 


.0987 


.0425 


0308 


0117 


.99 


0123 


0034 


.64 


2.4 


1895, 








.71 


9.42 


2.72 


.1387 


.0493 


.0381 


0112 


1.08 


.0088 


0014 


.82 


2.6 


1896, 








.57 


9.27 


2.62 


0898 


0537 


0384 


.0153 


.95 


0127 


0030 


.71 


2.4 


1897, 








.67 


7.62 


2.50 


0512 


0518 


.0389 


0129 


.71 


.0112 


0009 


.79 


2.1 


1898, 








.56 


7.02 


2 37 


0688 


.0629 


.0399 


0230 


.56 


.0097 


0016 


.72 


1.8 


1899, 








.53 


10.12 


2.95 


.1507 


.0848 


0537 


.0311 


1.03 


.0055 


0013 


.83 


2 4 


1900, 








.42 


9 55 


2 42 


1575 


0825 


0479 


0346 


1.03 


0080 


J0015 


.73 


2 6 


1901, 








.42 


8 45 


2 58 


.0964 


.0508 


.0347 


.0161 


.67 


0080 


.0013 


.69 


2 2 


1902, 








.39 


7.83 


2 42 


.1070 


0557 


.0407 


.0150 


.68 


.0072 


.0012 


.71 


19 


190.3, 








.38 


7.21 


2.10 


.1200 


0471 


.0281 


.0190 


.73 


0095 


0014 


.62 


17 


1904, 








.33 


9.05 


2.70 


.1858 


.0596 


.0341 


.0255 


.88 


0077 


0015 


.70 


2.1 


1905, 








.48 


7.66 


2.33 


.1284 


.0568 


.0354 


0214 


.73 


.0053 


.0008 


.89 


2.1 


1906, 








.47 


7 68 


2.16 


1037 


.0558 


0356 


0202 


.75 


0083 


0020 


.68 


2.0 


1907, 








.50 


10.77 


2.72 


.2180 


.0654 


.0350 


.0304 


1 24 


0065 


0012 


.72 


2.8 


1908. 








.52 


15 05 


3.60 


.2605 


.0861 


.0494 


.0367 


1 58 


0033 


0016 


1.04 


- 


1909. 








.52 


15 85 


3.42 


.3220 


.0958 


.0563 


.0395 


1.87 


.0027 


0014 


1 02 


- 


1910, 








.60 


20.11 


4.90 


4047 


.1235 


.0789 


0446 


2 29 


0017 


0009 


1 03 


- 


1911, 








.51 


19.38 


5.57 


.2848 


.1035 


.0566 


0469 


2.37 


.0027 


0015 


1.15 


- 


1912, 








.57 


19.52 


4.99 


.2380 


1007 


0560 


0447 


2.20 


0032 


0019 


1 22 


- 


1913, 








.40 


23 45 


4.97 


.2770 


.1064 


0561 


0503 


2.02 


0028 


0013 


1 42 


5 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



237 



NASHUA RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Nashua River, etc. — Concluded. 
North Branch of Nashua River, at Lancaster. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









o 

a 


Residue on 


Ammoni.\. 


i 

O 


Nitrogen 


-a 

B 
s 
c 

8 

a 

0) 

6 






EVAPOR.^TION. 


£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


1 


a 


1 


■a 


-2 

a 

§ 

to 


1 
S 


1 

2 


i 

o 

a 

-0 
=3 


1892, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 






.48 
.49 
.51 
.57 
.65 
.48 
.39 
.29 
.37 
.40 
.36 
.32 
.34 
.44 
.44 
.40 
.44 
.45 
.51 
.45 
.43 


9.75 
8 07 
8.28 
6.97 
5.45 
6 33 
7.60 
7.17 
6.72 
7.96 
6.95 
8.01 
7.20 
7.34 
8.34 
10.69 
12.26 
13.44 
15.64 
12 65 
15.45 


2 10 

1 97 
2.39 
2.17 

2 03 
2.10 
2.33 
1.55 
2.14 
2 66 
2.35 
2.18 
2.13 
2.12 
2.33 
2 73 
3.41 
3.82 
4.10 
3.10 
3.02 


.0422 
0215 
0318 
0253 
.0225 
.0409 
.0739 
.0545 
.0432 
.0757 
.0473 
.0803 
0616 
.0519 
.0600 
.1075 
.1556 
.1655 
.3067 
.1252 
2292 


.0274 
.0226 
.0272 
.0322 
.0290 
.0345 
.0365 
.0326 
0329 
0324 
,0260 
.0318 
0296 
.0311 
.0294 
0309 
0330 
0462 
.0828 
0438 
.0533 


.0237 
.0182 
.0214 
.0253 
0221 
0263 
0305 
0264 
.0240 
0267 
0201 
0267 
0227 
.0240 
0232 
0259 
,0284 
,0366 
,0408 
.0275 
.0386 


.0037 
.0044 
.0058 

0069 
.0069 
.0082 
.0060 
,0062 
,0089 

0057 
.0059 
.0051 

0069 
.0071 

0062 
.0050 
,0046 
.0096 
.0420 

0163 

0147 


1.11 

.97 

1.01 

.66 

.40 

.56 

.75 

.81 

.54 

.70 

.58 

.80 

.70 

.72 

.89 

1.28 

1.46 

1.63 

1.95 

1.68 

1.75 


0450 
.0295 
0284 
0167 
0153 
.0227 
0153 
.0202 
.0087 
0188 
,0258 
0267 
0207 
,0238 
0333 
.0405 
.0360 
.0388 
,0208 
,0343 
.0133 


.0010 
,0011 
,0034 
0034 
.0015 
0033 
.0028 
.0039 
.0021 
.0043 
.0034 
.0040 
,0044 
.0027 
0084 
0090 
0066 
.0108 
,0083 
,0083 
.0053 


.49 
.56 
.60 
.68 
.51 
.60 
.52 
.58 
.58 
.52 
.53 
.50 
.56 
.53 
.58 
.60 
.70 
.92 
.72 
.80 


3.0 
2.2 
2 3 
2 

1 5 
17 

2 
2.1 
19 
1.8 
16 
2.0 
1.9 
2 
2 1 

4.2 



Nashua River, at Pepperell. 



1899, 


.28 


6 91 


2.19 


.0167 


.0248 


.0221 .0027 


.78 


.0137 


.0008 


.46 


2 1 


1901, 








.37 


6.00 


2.06 


.0154 


.0266 


0230 0036 


.45 


.0092 


.0005 


.55 


1,9 


1902, 








.37 


5 81 


2 07 


0118 


.0184 


.0167 i 0017 


.49 


0162 


.0006 


.51 


1,7 


1903, 








35 


5.15 


1 57 


.0097 


.0180 


0152 


.0028 


.44 


0128 


0008 


.55 


1,6 


1904,1 








.30 


6.23 


1.93 


0111 


.0206 


0171 


.0035 


.58 


,0243 


,0008 


.44 


1.9 


1908, 








.32 


10 85 


3.40 


0317 


.0295 


.0202 


0093 


1 45 


.0194 


.0008 


.63 


- 


1909, 








.38 


14.29 


4.62 


0354 


,0376 


.0291 


,0085 


1 95 


,0211 


.0017 


.92 


- 


1910, 








.37 


14 77 


4.14 


.0128 


,0329 


.0252 ,0077 


1 93 


0207 


,0008 


.81 


- 


1911, 








.40 


12.10 


3 77 


0423 


0393 


,0293 1, 0100 


1 1 31 


0213 


.0048 


.02 


- 


1912,2 








.48 


12.52 


3.28 


,0223 


0409 


.0254 


,0155 


1,46 


0204 


.0017 


.75 


- 


1913,3 








.43 


11.99 


2.79 


.0515 


.0405 


.0276 


.0129 


1 15 


0164 


0019 


.73 


" 



1 Three months. 



2 November omitted. 



' Four months. 



238 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Nepoxset Eiver. 



NEPONSET RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Neponset River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Neponset River, at Hyde Park. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Year. 



1887, 

1888, 

1893, 

1894, 

1895, 

1896, 

1897, 

1898, 

1899. 

1900, 

1901, 

1902, 

1903, 

1904, 

1905, 

1906, 

1907, 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913, 



U 



1.18 
1.12 
1.27 
1.19 
.97 
1.26 
1.30 
1.28 
1.14 
1.10 
1.43 
1.02 
1.29 
1.08 
1.22 
1.35 
.90 



1.24 

.82 

1.02 



Residue on 
Evaporation. 



8,20 
7.77 
8.60 
12.87 
10.01 
10.41 
11.64 
8.82 
16.24 
10.59 
13.26 
12 57 
14.21 
16.22 
21.88 
13.47 
22.58 
25.40 
28 69 
31 37 
18,82 
26.02 
26.13 



2.22 
2.37 
2.68 
3 03 
3.07 
3.12 
3.34 
3.52 
4.51 
2.99 
5.09 
4.19 
4.95 
5.68 
6.68 
4.42 
6.31 
7.19 
9.08 
10.16 
5,49 
6.45 
6,22 



Ammonia. 



(^ 



ALBUMINOID. 



0053 

0040 
0233 
0196 
0341 
0162 
0336 
0161 
0264 
,0400 
.0224 
.0360 
-0278 
.0631 
.0813 
.0549 
,1201 
.1132 
.1723 
.1740 
.0786 
.1241 
.0533 



0402 
0392 
0370 
0466 
0440 
0431 
0494 
0505 
0936 
.0576 
.0802 
.0640 
.0811 
.1007 
.1043 
.0875 
.1412 
.1209 
.1218 
.1333 
.0727 
.1020 
.0757 



0358 
0282 
0333 
0373 
0395 
0417 
0398 
.0693 
.0381 
.0591 
,0547 
.0638 
.0777 
.0861 
.0674 
.0961 
.0844 
.0898 
.1000 
.0539 
.0707 
.0494 



0034 
0088 
0133 
0067 
0036 
0077 
0107 
0243 
.0195 
.0211 
.0093 
.0173 
.0230 
.0182 
.0201 
.0451 
.0365 
.0320 
.0333 
.0188 
.0313 
.0263 



1.08 
1.47 
2.31 
1 51 
1.68 
1.81 
1.02 
2.20 
1.45 
1.69 
1.72 
1 86 
2,07 
3 44 
2.21 
3.81 
5.08 
5 35 
5.84 
3 36 
4.18 
3.93 



Nitrogen 



0077 
0074 
0045 
0033 
0042 
0033 
0037 
0023 
0032 
.0048 
.0036 
0035 
.0034 
.0037 
0028 
.0025 
.0042 
.0027 
.0027 
.0010 
,0025 
.0017 
.0020 



0003 
0009 
0002 
0001 
0001 
0001 
0002 
,0002 
0005 
,0006 
,0004 
,0010 
.0005 
0006 
.0008 
.0004 
0006 
,0009 
.0002 
.0007 
.0012 
0007 



1.00 
1.03 
1.05 
1.26 
1.31 
1.30 
1.76 
1.07 
1.82 
1.29 
1.71 
1.67 
2.22 
1,85 
1,94 
2.01 
2.02 
2.96 
1.86 
2.31 
2.29 



2,6 
4.1 
3.7 
3.3 
4.0 
2.7 
5.7 
3 2 
4.2 
4.0 
4.5 
5.6 

6 6 
3.9 
6,9 
8.8 

10.0 
10,4 

7 1 



No. 34.] 



EXAMIXATIOX OF RIVERS. 



239 



QUIXEBAUG ElVEK. 



QUINEBAUG RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Quinebaug River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Quinebaug River, below Southbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 











C 

O 


Re.sidce on 
Evaporation. 


Ammoni.a. 


■§ 


NiTEOGBN 


■6 
« 
B 

w 

a 

8 

a 
S) 

>> 

6 






f^ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 




4 


o 




•a 

a 

1 


1 


.1 


1 

c 

■3 

X 


1898, 


.64 


4.18 


2.00 


.0064 


0372 


.0309 


0063 


.18 


0050 


.0003 


.66 


8 


1899, 








.44 


4.32 


1.72 


0071 


0298 


.0229 


0069 


.23 


.0048 


0002 


.54 


12 


1900, 








.40 


4.31 


1 50 


0168 


0324 


0211 


0113 


.25 


0024 


0003 


.52 


10 


1901, 








.42 


4.52 


1 67 


0147 


.0232 


0158 


0074 


.19 


.0050 


0005 


.45 


1.7 


1902, 








.36 


4 12 


1.45 


.0068 


.0224 


.0179 


0045 


.24 


.0054 


0002 


.43 


12 


1903, t 








.39 


3.84 


1.37 


.0076 


0225 


.0181 


0044 


.24 


0043 


0002 


.52 


1.0 


1904, 








.40 


4.17 


1 57 


0086 


0247 


.0189 


0058 


.26 


.0068 


0002 


.53 


12 


1908, 








.46 


6.82 


2 31 


_0075 


.0277 


.0174 


.0103 


.33 


0038 


0003 


.57 


- 


1909, 








.40 


5.48 


1 99 


.0087 


.0275 


.0219 


.0056 


.37 


.0077 


0003 


.56 


- 


1910, 








.40 


6.20 


2 27 


0104 


0334 


0246 


.0088 


.42 


0032 


.0004 


.53 


- 


1911,1 








.50 


5.92 


2.09 


0180 


0308 


.0240 


.0068 


.41 


0067 


.0002 


.66 


- 


1912,2 








.41 


7.35 


2.40 


.0152 


0397 


.0272 


.0125 


.52 


0025 


.0004 


.59 


- 


1913,1 








.39 


6.08 


1.88 


0201 


0283 


0219 


.0064 


.59 


.0075 


.0007 


.53 


- 



' Four months. 



2 Two months. 



240 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Taunton Eiveb. 
A general statement of the condition of this river and its tributaries 
in the year 1913 will be found on pages 27 and 28. 



taunton biver. 

Chemical Examination op Water from Taunton River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Taunton River, below Taunton. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









"o 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

■§ 
3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 
s 

a 
8 
a 

So 
>> 

6 






o> 
1 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


1 
^ 


a 
m a 


1 


T3 

o 
> 

1 


-a 
o 

-a 
a 

1 

02 


1 


1 

'S 


§ 

■H 


1898, 


1.56 


6.64 


3.30 


.0109 


.0345 


.0314 


0031 


.61 


.0082 


.0003 


1.51 


1.3 


1899, 






.93 


6 31 


2.48 


.0176 


.0317 


.0279 


.0038 


.72 


.0060 


.0004 


1.04 


1.2 


1900, 






.71 


6.89 


1.91 


0205 


0286 


-0258 


.0028 


1 06 


0112 


0006 


.76 


1.5 


ISOl, 






1.01 


6 15 


2 45 


0293 


0275 


.0255 


0020 


.76 


.0134 


.0005 


.92 


1.6 


1902,1 






.94 


6 92 


2 36 


.1902 


.0363 


.0308 


0055 


1.29 


.0116 


.0012 


.90 


1.4 


190.3, 






.96 


7.06 


2.60 


.0542 


.0270 


.0234 


0036 


1.10 


0177 


.0013 


1.02 


1.7 


1904, 






.95 


6.49 


2.60 


.0855 


.0319 


.0264 


.0055 


.94 


0137 


.0008 


1.06 


1.3 


1906,2 






1.41 


7.37 


3.11 


.0401 


.0385 


.0331 


.0054 


.95 


0162 


0008 


1.36 


1.4 


1907,3 






.94 


7.16 


2 62 


.1031 


.0343 


.0282 


.0061 


1.05 


.0115 


.0009 


1.05 


1.7 


1908, 






.73 


7 66 


2.52 


.0469 


.0278 


.0226 


.0052 


1.31 


.0108 


.0011 


.74 


- 


1909, 






.90 


12.97 


3.87 


.0416 


.0303 


.0263 


.0040 


3.49 


.0105 


.0014 


.88 


- 


1910, 






1.04 


19.62 


5.69 


0658 


.0376 


.0305 


.0071 


6.82 


.0110 


.0027 


.93 


- 


1911, 






1.04 


9 65 


2.80 


.0385 


.0330 


.0270 


.0060 


1.73 


.0205 


.0015 


1.04 


- 


1912, 






1.17 


10 35 


2 95 


.0461 


.0366 


.0295 


.0071 


1.76 


0173 


.0015 


1.03 


- 


191.3, 






1.09 


18.58 


4.24 


.0506 


.0377 


.0334 


0043 


5.94 


.0130 


.0015 


1.07 


- 



September omitted. 



2 June omitted. 



3 Four months. 



No. 34. 



exajviination of rivers. 



241 



Ten Mile Rivee. 
A general statement of the eoudition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 28. 

TEJf MILE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination op Water from Ten Mile River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Ten Mile River, below Attleborotigh. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









o 
o 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 
o 

B 

3 
C 

8 
a 

1 
O 






6 

ft) 


albuminoid. 


6 

a 

1 




Year. 


1 


rn a 


1 


-a 
o 

5 


■a 
o 
■V 

a 

a 


1 


1 


o 

a 
•H 

a 


1899, 


.71 


6.39 


2.15 


.0072 


.0379 


.0288 


.0091 


.62 


.0133 


.0004 


.74 


1.7 


1900, 






.47 


6.19 


1.60 


.0125 


.0363 


.0241 


.0122 




84 


.0155 


.0004 


.49 


1.8 


1901, 






.46 


6.09 


2.12 


.0084 


0290 


.0202 


.0088 




71 


.0222 


.0004 


.51 


1.8 


1902, 






.41 


6.49 


1.83 


.0073 


.0394 


.0237 


.0157 




88 


.0212 


.0004 


.52 


1.9 


1903, 






.36 


7.48 


2.39 


.0282 


.0346 


.0200 


.0146 




84 


.0315 


.0020 


.53 


1.8 


1904, 






.44 


8.89 


2.97 


.0931 


.0527 


.0332 


.0195 




03 


.0532 


.0033 


.58 


3 5 


1906,1 






.48 


17.57 


6.45 


.1586 


.0914 


.0490 


.0424 




07 


.0638 


.0121 


.92 


7.9 


1907, 1 






.42 


19.07 


6.14 


.6036 


.1471 


.0830 


.0641 




73 


.2014 


.0100 


1.18 


7.5 


1908, 






.40 


10.89 


3.27 


.1108 


.0483 


.0294 


.0189 




37 


.0364 


.0035 


.61 


- 


1909, 






.47 


11.23 


2.88 


.4322 


.0626 


.0380 


.0246 




51 


.0263 


.0086 


.78 


- 


1910, 






.29 


12.05 


3.32 


.2422 


.0545 


.0330 


.0215 




98 


.0357 


.0051 


.48 


- 


1911, 






.76 


11.94 


3.58 


.0604 


0506 


0302 


.0204 




55 


.0382 


.0036 


.94 


- 


1912, 






.39 


28.98 


11.42 


.1056 


.0750 


.0287 


.0463 




92 


.0368 


.0075 


.75 


3.6 


1913, 






.64 


13.55 


3.33 


.0951 


.0630 


.0303 


.0327 




90 


.0242 


.0069 


.84 


- 



1 June omitted. 



242 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



"WeSTFIELD PiIVEIl. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 28. 



westfield river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Westfield River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Westfield River, below Westfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









"o 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


AlVtJMONIA. 


a 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-a 
S 

3 

a 
8 

a 

>> 

O 






6 
£ 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


"a 
o 


a 


"3 
o 


o 
> 

5 


a 
a 

3 

m 


1 
1 


1 
1 


i 

a 

03 


1902, 


.22 


4 21 


1.60 


.0062 


.0144 


.0118 


.0026 


.14 


.0062 


.0002 


.39 


1.9 


1903, 






.15 


3 68 


1.30 


.0037 


.0127 


.0105 


.0022 


.16 


.0088 


.0003 


.28 


18 


1904, 






.21 


4.16 


1.59 


.0067 


.0152 


.0119 


.0033 


.16 


.0068 


.0001 


.38 


19 


1906,1 






.21 


4 65 


1.48 


.0086 


.0161 


.0135 


.0026 


.18 


.0035 


.0003 


.29 


2.1 


1907, 






.24 


4 49 


1.63 


.0053 


.0137 


.0111 


.0026 


.21 


.0075 


.0003 


.31 


2.0 


1908, 






.17 


5 27 


2-19 


.0218 


.0161 


.0116 


.0045 


.27 


.0063 


.0006 


.28 


- 


1909, 






.22 


5 56 


1.68 


.0179 


.0187 


.0143 


.0044 


.26 


0075 


.0005 


.34 


- 


1910, 






.13 


6 71 


2.39 


.0214 


.0143 


.0120 


.0023 


.30 


.0304 


.0010 


.21 


- 


1911, 






.25 


5.86 


2.03 


.0272 


.0162 


.0133 


.0029 


.28 


.0077 


.0008 


.38 


- 


1912,2 






.13 


6 40 


2.08 


.0286 


.0189 


.0130 


.0059 


.34 


.0204 


.0014 


.24 


- 


1913, 






.23 


6.75 


1.78 


.0247 


.0215 


.0147 


.0068 


.30 


.0292 


.0012 


.36 


- 



I Four months. 



' September omitted. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS; 



EECORDS OF EAINFALL AND FLOW OF STREAMS. 



[243] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



During the year 1913 public water supplies were introduced into the 
towns of East Longmeadow (population 1,553), Egremont (population 
605), Mattapoisett (population 1,233), AYarren (population 4,188), and 
West Brookfield (population 1,337). The works in East Longmeadow, 
Mattapoisett and West Brookfield are owned by the town, but those in 
Egremont are owned by the South Egremont Water Company and water 
is supplied only in the village of South Egremont, while in Warren the 
works are owned by the Warren Cotton Mills and supply water only in 
the village of West Warren. A public water supply was also introduced 
into the town of Agawam (population 3,501), a very small portion of 
which had previously been supplied with water by a private company. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in Massachusetts, all of the 33 cities and 
17-1 of the towns are provided with public water supplies. The follow- 
ing table gives a classification by population of the cities and towns 
having and not having public water supplies at the end of the year: — 



Population, 1910. 


Number of 

Places of Given 

Population 

having 

Public Water 

Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Number of 
Places of Given 
Population 
not having 
Public Water 
Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Under 500, . 
500-999, 
1,000-1,499, . 
1,500-1,999, . 
2,000-2,499, . 
2,500-2,999, . 
3,000-3,499, . 
3,500-3,909, . 
Above 4,000, 












7 

21 

13 

21 

12 

8 

5 

120 


5,538 
26,237 
22,798 
46,583 
33 ,.334 
26,167 
18,164 
3,027,014 


39 

40 

29 

20 

12 

2 

1 

2 

1 


13,020 
29,344 
35,526 
35,293 
26,710 
5,726 
3,078 
7,506 
4,378 


Totals, . 


207 


3,205,835 


146 


160,581 



From the above table it will be seen that although but 59 per cent, 
of the cities and towns in the State have a public water supply, the 
total population of the places supplied is 95 per cent, of the total popu- 



246 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



lation of the State. The populations given in this table were obtained 
by using the total population of the cities and towns supplied and are 
somewhat greater than the actual number of persons to whom the public 
water supply is available, but the difference is not great. All of the 
towns in the State having a population in excess of 5,000 are now sup- 
plied with water, and there are only 6 towns having a population in 
excess of 2,500 which are not provided with public water supplies. These 
towns are as follows : — 



Town. 


Population, 
1910. 


Town. 


Population, 
1910. 


Dartmouth, 

Templeton, 

Tewksbury, 


4,378 
3,756 
3,750 


Sutton, 

Westport 

Somerset, 


3,078 
2,928 
2,798 



At the present time the water works are owned either by the munic- 
ipality or by a water, water supply or fire district in all of the cities 
and 131 of the towns, while in 43 towns the works are owned by private 
companies. The following table gives the classification by population 
of the cities and towns which own their water works and those which are 
supplied with water by water companies : — 



Population, 1910. 



Number 
of Places of 

Given 

Population 

owning Water 

Works. 



Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



Number 
of Places of 
Given Popula- 
tion supplied 
with Water by 
Private 
Companies. 



TotaH 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



Under 1,000, 
1,000-1,999, . 
2,000-2,999, . 
3,000-3,999, . 
4,000-4,999, . 
5,000-5,999, . 
6,000-6,999, . 
7,000-7,999, . 
Above 8,000, 
Totals, . 



2,251 
35,804 
52,273 
27,212 
55,128 
87,513 
52,608 
36,945 
2,696,170 



3,287 
13,231 
27,644 
17,119 
22,675 
15,939 

7,688 
52,348 



164 



3,045,904 



1.59,931 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 247 

From the above table it will be seen that the total population of all 
places supplied by private companies is only 5 per cent, of the total 
population of all of the cities and towns supplied with water, and there 
are only 9 towns having a population in excess of 5,000 which are sup- 
plied by private companies, namely, Milford, Southbridge, Dedham, 
Xorthbridge, Palmer, Bridgewater, Grafton, Pairhaven and Amherst. 



Consumption of Water. 

Eecords of the consumption of water are kept in nearly all of the cities 
and towns where water is pumped, and in several places supplied by 
gravity Venturi meters are used to measure the quantity supplied. 

The following table gives statistics with regard to the consumption 
of water in the year 1913 in those cities and towns from which records 
■could be obtained. The populations for the year 1913 as given in the 
table were obtained by adding ihree-fifths of the increase in population 
between 1905 and 1910 to the population as determined by the census 
of the latter year. The daily consumption of water per inhabitant has 
been obtained by dividing the average daily consumption by the esti- 
mated total population of the city or town in 1913. The quantity ob- 
tained in this manner is somewhat less than the actual consumption per 
person using the water because there are in all cities and towns a greater 
01- less number of persons who do not use the public supply. The dif- 
ference between the number of inhabitants and the number of consumers 
would account to a large extent for the low rate per inhabitant in some 
of the towns which contain villages to which the public water supply 
has not been extended and in towns where works have been in operation 
but a short time, and where, in consequence, water has not come into 
general use. In some towns the population during the summer months 
is much greater than that shown by the census returns, and in such 
cases the consumption per inhabitant as given in the table is higher 
than it would be if allowance were made for the increased population 
in the summer. \Yith a few exceptions, however, the difference is not 
orreat. 



248 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Statistics relating to the Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Toims. 



City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1913. 


Average 

Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1913. 


Daily 
Con; 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
Gallons), 
1913. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1913. 


Average 

Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1913. 


Daily 
Con-- 

sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(Gallons), 
1913. 


Metropolitan Water 
District: i — 

Arlington, 


1,149,752 

12,098 


106,737,000 

786,000 


93 
65 


Cambridge, . 
Chelmsford, . 


109,282 
5,464 


10,549,000 
56,000 


97 
10 


Belmont, 


6,251 


464,000 


74 


Clinton, 


13,057 


613,000 


47 


Boston, . 


731,813 


79,391,000 


108 


Concord, 


7,021 


505,000 


72 


Chelsea, . 


37,758 


2,880,000 


76 


Danvers and Mid- 

dleton. 
Dedham, 


10,779 


1,237,000 


115 


Everett, . 


36,108 


2,436,000 


07 


10,190 


1,121,000 


110 


Lexington, 


5,151 


359,000 


70 


Dudley, 


4,536 


152,000 


34 


Maiden, . 


48,224 


2,226,000 


46 


Easton, . 


5,277 


145,000 


27 


Medford, . 


25,228 


1,234,000 


49 


Edgartown, . 


1,201 


57,000 


47 


Melrose, . 


16,567 


1,137,000 


69 


Fairhaven, 


5,654 


395,000 


70 


Milton, 


8,446 


332,000 


39 


Fall River, . 


127,415 


5,636,000 


44 


Nahant, . 


1,341 


169,000 


126 


Falmouth, 


3,086 


475,000 


154 


Quincy, . 


35,382 


2,699,000 


76 


Foxborough, . 


4,162 


230,000 


55 


Revere, . 


21,555 


1,385,000 


64 


Framingham, 


13,788 


775,000 


56 


Somerville, 


82,014 


5,958,000 


73 


Franklin, 


5,879 


307,000 


52 


Stoneham, 


7,545 


414,000 


55 


Gardner, 


16,311 


774,000 


47 


Swampseott, . 


6,842 


420,000 


61 


Gloucester, 


23,430 


1,263,000 


54 


Watertown, 


13,845 


869,000 


63 


Grafton, 


6,097 


123,000 


20 


Winthrop, 


11,991 


690,000 


58 


Groton, . 


2,096 


97,000 


46 


Abington and Rock 


12,992 


706,000 


54 


Holliston, 


2,740 


64,000 


23 


land. 
Amesbury, 


10,526 


503,000 


48 


Holyoke, 


62,408 


6,900,000 


111 


Andover, 


7,702 


676,000 


88 


Hudson, 


7,059 


296,000 


42 


Ashland, 


1,733 


24,000 


14 


Ipswich, 


6,120 


285,000 


47 


Athol, . 


9,339 


748,000 


80 


Lancaster, 


2,499 


100,000 


40 


Attleborough, 


18,323 


995,000 


54 


Lawrence, 


95,397 


3,898,000 


41 


Avon, 


2,080 


92,000 


44 


Lincoln, 


1,207 


207,000 


172 


Ayer, 


3,044 


171,000 


56 


Littleton, 


1,235 


41,000 


33 


Bedford, 


1,245 


33,000 


27 


Lowell, . 


113,137 


5.799,000 


51 


Beverly, 


20,706 


1,827,000 


88 


lyynn and Saugus, 


105,836 


6,366,000 


60 


Billerica, 


2,757 


166,000 


CO 


Manchester, . 


2,706 


383,000 


142 


Braintree, 


8,778 


545,000 


62 


Mansfield, 


5,746 


502,000 


87 


Bridgewater and 
East Bridgewater. 
Brockton, 


11,728 
62,328 


325,000 
2,585,000 


28 
41 


Marblehead, . 
Marion, . 


7,415 
1,719 


479,000 
125,000 


65 
73 


Brookline, 


30,406 


2,708,000 


89 


Marlborough, 


14,883 


561,000 


38 



1 Including Newton, which is within the district but supplied from independent works. 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



249 



Statistics relating to the Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Towns — 

Concluded. 



City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1913. 


Average 

Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1913. 


Daily 

Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(Gallons), 

1913. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1913. 


Average 

Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1913. 


Daily 

Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(G.-illons), 

1913. 


Maynard, 


6,737 


267,000 


40 


Reading, 


5,900 


244,000 


41 


Merrimac, 


2,393 


97,000 


41 


Rockport, 


4,069 


303,000 


74 


Methuen, 


13,111 


600,000 


46 


Rutland, 


1,761 


109,000 


62 


Middleborough, 


9,010 


338,000 


38 


Salem, . 


47,339 


3,889,000 


82 


Milford and Hope- 
dale. 
Millbury, 


15,897 
4,805 


854,000 
166,000 


54 
35 


Sharon, . 
Shirley, . 


2,445 
2,407 


145,000 
66,000 


59 
27 


Montague and Erv- 


7,957 


607,000 


76 


Southbridge, . 


13,547 


744,000 


55 


ing. 
Nantucket, . 


2,981 


223,000 


75 


Springfield, . 


99,458 


10,710,000 


lOS 


Natick, 


10,020 


556,000 


55 


Stoughton, 


6,530 


282,000 


43 


Needham, 


5,471 


344,000 


63 


Taunton, 


36,234 


2,338,000 


65 


New Bedford, 


110,026 


7,761,000 


71 


Wakefield, . 


12,086 


684,000 


57 


Newburyport, 


15,113 


1,130,000 


75 


Walpole, 


5,426 


564,000 


104 


Newton, 


41,593 


2,889,000 


69 


Waltham, 


28,765 


2,714,000 


94 


North Andover, 


6,078 


251,000 


41 


Ware, . 


8,882 


455,000 


51 


North Attleborough, 


10,572 


447,000 


42 


Wareham, 


4,367 


184,000 


42 


North Brookfield, . 


3,350 


202,000 


60 


Webster, 


12,404 


478,000 


39 


Norton, . 


2,823 


104,000 


37 


Wellesley, 


4,947 


389,000 


79 


Norwood, 




8,784 


708,000 


81 


West Bridgewater, . 


2,366 


65,000 


27 


Oak Bluffs, 




1,052 


195,000 


185 


Westfield, 


17,504 


1,822,000 


104 


Orange, . 




5,104 


133,000 


26 


Weston, . 


2,115 


126,000 


60 


Peabody, 




17,295 


2,587,000 


150 


Whitman, 


7,755 


252,000 


32 


Pepperell, 




2,764 


115,000 


42 


Winchendon, . 


5,525 


171,000 


31 


Plainville, 




1,436 


31,000 


22 


Woburn, 


15,852 


1,744,000 


110 


Plymouth, 




12,754 


1,308,000 


103 


Worcester, 


156,697 


11,749,000 


75 


Provincetown, 


4,373 


196,000 


45 


Wrentham, 


1,932 


93,000 


48 


Randolph and Hol- 
brook. 


7,461 


476,000 


64 











PiAINFALL. 

The normal rainfall in Massachusetts, as deduced from long-continued 
observations in various parts of the State, is 44.73 inches. The average 
rainfall for the year 1913 in these places was 41.18 inches, a deficiency 
of 3.55 inches. The year was the tenth in succession in which the rain- 
fall was less than the normal, the accumulated deficiency at the end of 



250 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



the year being 41.95 inches. There was an excess of precipitation in 
the months of March, April and October, and a deficiency in the other 
nine months. The greatest excess in any month occurred in October, 
when the rainfall was 7.21 inches, or 3.33 inches greater than the normal, 
and the greatest deficiency occurred in June, when the rainfall was 1.06 
inches, or 2.18 inches less than the normal. 

The following table gives the normal rainfall in the State for each 
month, as deduced from observations at various places for a long period 
of years, together with the average rainfall at those places for each month 
during the year 1913 and the departure from the normal: — 



Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1913 
(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 

1913 
(Inches). 


Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1913 

(Inches) . 


Excess or 
Defi- 
ciency 
in 1913 

(Inches) . 


January, . 


3.73 


3.15 


—0 58 


August, . 


4.23 


3.22 


—1.01 


February, 


3.60 


3 03 


—0 57 


September, 


3.50 


3.38 


—0.12 


March, 


3.94 


5 04 


+ 1.10 


October, . 


3.88 


7.21 


+3.33 


April, 


3 59 


3 99 


+ 0.40 


November, 


3.90 


2.42 


—1.48 


May, 


3 71 
3.24 


3.44 
1 06 


—0.27 
—2.18 


December, 
Total, 


3.67 


3.49 


—0.18 


June, 


44.73 


41.18 


—3.55 


July, 


3.74 


1.75 


—1.99 











Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 

The average fiow of the Sudbury Eiver during the year 1913 was 
733,000 gallons per day per square mile, or 73 per cent, of the normal 
flow for the past thirty-nine years. The flow was in excess of the normal 
in the months of Apiil and October but less than the normal in the 
other ten months of the year. The greatest excess occurred in the month 
of April and the greatest deficiency in the months of February, March 
and June. During the months of July and August the flow was less than 
the evaporation from the water surfaces of the reservoirs, so that the 
fiow in those months is represented by a minus quantity. The average 
flow for the driest six months, June to November, inclusive, Avas 180,000 
gallons per day per square mile, which is the largest flow recorded for a 
similar period since 1907. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Sudbury Eiver 
during each month of the year 1913 and the normal flow of that stream, 
as deduced from observations during thirty-nine years, from 1875 to 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



251 



1913, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The area of the 
watershed of the Sudbury Eiver above the point of measurement is 75.3 
square miles. 



Table sJwiving the Average Monthly Flow of the Sudbury River for the Year 1913, 
in Cubic Feet -per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area, and in Million 
Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, Departure from 
the Normal Flow. 











" 


Normal Flow. | 


Actual Flow in 1913. | 


Excess or Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


January 


1.844 


1.192 


1.611 


1.041 


—0.233 


—0.151 


February, 










2.625 


1.696 


1.166 . 


0.754 


—1.459 


—0.942 


March, 










4.302 


2.780 


3.233 


2.090 


—1.069 


—0.690 


April, . 










3.097 


2.002 


3.453 


2.232 


+0.356 


+0.230 


May. . 










1.644 


1.063 


1.342 


0.867 


—0.302 


—0.196 


June, . 










0.756 


0.489 


0.230 


0.149 


—0.526 


—0.340 


July, . 










0.238 


0.154 


—0.096 


—0.062 


—0.334 


—0.216 


August, 










0.351 


0.226 


—0.083 


—0.054 


—0.434 


—0.280 


September, 








0.363 


0.235 


0.136 


0.088 


—0.227 


—0.147 


October, . 








0.678 


0.438 


0.749 


0.484 


+0.071 


+0.046 


November, 








1.205 


0.779 


0.743 


0.480 


—0.462 


—0.299 


December, . 








1.540 


0.995 


1.132 


0.732 


—0.408 


— 0.2G3 


Average 


forw 


'hole 


year 




1.548 


1.000 


1.134 


0.733 


—0.414 


—0.267 



In the annual report of the State Board of Health for the year 1911 
(pages 254 to 260) and for the year 1912 (page 258) tables were pre- 
sented giving the record of the rainfall upon the Sudbury Eiver water- 
shed and the yield expressed in inches in depth on the watershed (inches 
of rainfall collected) for thirty-eight years, from 1875 to 1912, inclusive. 
The corresponding record for the year 1913, together with the average 
for tlie whole period of thirty-nine years, is given in the following 
table : — 



252 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Sudbury River Watershed. 













For 


THE Year 1913. 


Mean fob 


Thirty-nine Years, 
1875-1913. 


Month. 
















Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 




collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


January 


3.17 


1.857 


58.5 


4.08 


2.126 


52.1 


February, 










2.82 


1.215 


43.1 


4.13 


2.756 


66.7 


March, 










5.75 


3.727 


64.8 


4.46 


4.959 


111.2 


April, . 










4.25 


3.852 


90.6 


3.54 


3.456 


97.7 


May, . 










3.97 


1.547 


39.0 


3.33 


1.895 


57.0 


June, . 










1.98 


0.257 


13.0 


3.03 


0.843 


27.8 


July, . 










3.60 


—0.111 


—3.1 


3.55 


0.274 


7.7 


August, 










3.64 


—0.095 


—2.6 


3.85 


0.404 


10.5 


September, 










3.77 


0.152 


4.0 


3.46 


0.405 


11.7 


October, 










5.53 


0.863 


15.6 


3.92 


0.782 


19.9 


November, 










2.65 


0.828 


31.3 


3.82 


1.345 


35.2 


December, 










3.18 


1.305 


41.1 


3.82 


1.775 


46.5 


Totals ai 


ida\ 


erag( 


JS, 




44.31 


15.397 


34.8 


44.99 


21.020 


46.7 



The following table gives the record of the yield of tlie Sudbury Eiver 
watershed for each of the past thirty-nine years, the flow being expressed 
in gallons per day per square mile of watershed, in order to render the 
table more convenient for use in estimating the probable yield of water- 
sheds used as sources of water supply : — 

Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile.^ 



Month. 



1875. 



1876. 



1877. 



1878. 



1879. 



1880. 



January, ..... 
February, .... 

March, ..... 
April, ..... 

May, 

June, 

July 

August 

September, .... 
October, ..... 
November, .... 
December, .... 

Average for whole ye.ir, . 
Average for driest six months. 



103,000 

1,496,000 

1,604,000 

3,049,000 

1,188,000 

870,000 

321,000 

396,000 

207,000 

646,000 

1,302,000 

584,000 



643,000 

1,368,000 

4,435,000 

3,292,000 

1,139,000 

222,000 

183,000 

405,000 

184,000 

234,000 

1,088,000 

454,000 



658.000 

949,000 

4,813,000 

2,394,000 

1,391,000 

597,000 

202,000 

121,000 

60,000 

632,000 

1,418,000 

1,289,000 



972,000 
574,000 



1,135,000 
384,000 



1,214,000 
502,000 



1,810,000 

2,465,000 

3,507,000 

1,626,000 

1,394,000 

506,000 

128,000 

475,000 

160,000 

516,000 

1,693,000 

3,177,000 



700,000 

1,711,000 

2,330,000 

3,116,000 

1,114,000 

413,000 

158,000 

395,000 

141,000 

71,000 

206,000 

462,000 



1,121,000 

1,787,000 

1,374,000 

1,168,000 

514,000 

176,000 

177,000 

119,000 

80,000 

101,000 

205,000 

175,000 



1,452,000 
532,000 



894,000 
230,000 



578,000 
143,000 



' The area of the Sudbury River watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces 
amounting to about 2 per cent, of the whole area, from 1875 to 1878, inclusive, subsequently increasing 
by the construction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent, in 1879, to 3.5 per cent, in 1885, to 4 per cent, 
in 1394 and to 6.5 per cent, in 1893. The watershed also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, 
though covered with water at times, are not included in the above percentages of water surfaces. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



253 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons -per Day -per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 



1881. 



1882. 



1883. 



1884. 



1885. 



1886. 



January 

February, .... 

March 

April 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, .... 

October, 

November, .... 
December, .... 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months. 



415,000 

1,546,000 

4,004,000 

1,546,000 

965,000 

1,338,000 

276,000 

148,000 

197,000 

186,000 

395,000 

775,000 



1,241,000 

2,403,000 

2,839,000 

867,000 

1,292,000 

529,000 

86,000 

55,000 

306,000 

299,000 

210,000 

314,000 



979,000 
330,000 



862,000 
211,000 



335,000 

1,033,000 

1,611,000 

1,350,000 

938,000 

300,000 

115,000 

78,000 

91,000 

186,000 

205,000 

193,000 



995,000 

2,842,000 

3,785,000 

2,853,000 

1,030,000 

417,000 

224,000 

257,000 

44,000 

83,000 

175,000 

925,000 



1,235,000 

1,354,000 

1,572,000 

1,815,000 

1,336,000 

426,000 

62,000 

240,000 

121,000 

336,000 

1,178,000 

1,174,000 



1,461,000 

4,800,000 

2,059,000 

1,947,000 

720,000 

203,000 

115,000 

94,000 

118,000 

146,000 

673,000 

1,020,000 



533,000 
145,000 



1,129,000 
200,000 



901,000 
391,000 



1,087,000 
223,000 



Month. 

January, 

February, .... 

March, ..... 

April, 

May, 

June, ..... 

July, 

August 

September, .... 

October 

November, .... 
December 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months, 



1887. 



1888. 



1889. 



1890. 



1891. 



1892. 



2,589,000 

2,829,000 

2,868,000 

2,620,000 

1,009,000 

414,000 

114,000 

214,000 

111,000 

190,000 

368,000 

643,000 



1,053,000 

1,951,000 

3,237,000 

2,645,000 

1,632,000 

422,000 

117,000 

380,000 

1,155,000 

1,999,000 

2,758,000 

3,043,000 



2,782.000 

1,195,000 

1,339,000 

1,410,000 

880,000 

653,000 

633,000 

1,432,000 

824,000 

1,230,000 

1,941,000 

2,241,000 



1,254,000 

1,529,000 

3,643,000 

1,875,000 

1,366,000 

568,000 

108,000 

132,000 

458,000 

2,272,000 

1,215,000 

997,000 



3,018,000 

3,486,000 

4,453,000 

2,397,000 

582,000 

414,000 

149,000 

163,000 

203,000 

210,000 

305,000 

544,000 



1,870,000 
943,000 

1,955,000 
871,000 

1,259,000 
428,000 
214,000 
280,000 
229,000 
126,000 
697,000 
485,000 



1,154,000 
234,000 



1,697,000 
953,000 



1,383,000 
944,000 



1,285,000 
747,000 



1,315,000 
239,000 



781,000 
327,000 



254 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


January, . 


433,000 


693,000 


1,034,000 


1,084,000 


845,000 


1,638,000 


February, 












1,542,000 


991,000 


541,000 


2,676,000 


1,067,000 


3,022,000 


March, 












3,245,000 


2,238,000 


2,410,000 


3,835,000 


2,565,000 


2,604,000 


April, 












2,125,000 


1,640,000 


2,515,000 


1,494,000 


1,515,000 


1,829,000 


May, 












2,883,000 


840,000 


636,000 


360,000 


915,000 


1,246,000 


June, 












440,000 


419,000 


174,000 


399,000 


962,000 


530,000 


July, 












158,000 


161,000 


231,000 


95,000 


658,000 


231,000 


August, . 












181,000 


209,000 


229,000 


57,000 


591,000 


1,107,000 


September, 












108,000 


150,000 


89,000 


388,000 


182,000 


369,000 


October, . 












221,000 


374,000 


1,379,000 


592,000 


94,000 


1,160,000 


November, 












319,000 


836,000 


2,777,000 


659,000 


909,000 


1,986,000 


December, 












797,000 


716,000 


1,782,000 


657,000 


1,584,000 


1,799,000 


Average for whole year. 


1,037,000 


770,000 


1,152,000 


1,019,000 


991,000 


1,450,000 


Average for driest six months. 


237,000 


356,000 


460,000 


314,000 


564,000 


777,000 



Month. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


January, 


2,288,000 


794,000 


437,000 


1,763,000 


1,736,000 


477,000 


February, 












1,381,000 


3,800,000 


300,000 


1,674,000 


2,279,000 


882,000 


March, 












4,205,000 


3,654,000 


2,755,000 


4,199,000 


3,454,000 


2,999,000 


April, 












2,521,000 


1,350,000 


4,204,000 


1,885,000 


2,261,000 


3,294,000 


May, 












511,000 


1,312,000 


2,954,000 


743,000 


351,000 


1,745,000 


June, 












66,000 


316,000 


753,000 


303,000 


1,987,000 


419,000 


July, 












19,000 


—18,000 


306,000 


66,000 


445,000 


62,000 


August, . 












—35,000 


—34,000 


424,000 


135,000 


307,000 


170,000 


September,, 












94,000 


65,000 


305,000 


178,000 


130,000 


397,900 


October, . 












115,000 


186,000 


412,000 


506,000 


492,000 


191,000 


November, 












304,000 


663,000 


474,000 


444,000 


363,000 


289,000 


December, 












220,000 


1,096,000 


2,695,000 


1,779,000 


582,000 


269,000 


Average for whole year. 


973,000 


1,082,000 


1,342,000 


1,140,000 


1,190,000 


931,000 


Average for driest six months. 


93,000 


194,000 


445,000 


271,000 


388,000 


228,000 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



255 



Yield of the Sudhury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Concluded. 



Month. 

Januarj-, ..... 
February, .... 

March, 

April 

May 

June, 

July, 

August, ..... 
September, .... 

October, 

November, .... 
December, .... 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months, 



1905. 



1906. 



1907. 



1908. 



1909. 



1910. 



1,410,000 
330,000 

2,497,000 

1,643,000 
297,000 
467,GC0 
177,000 
114,000 

1,246,000 
158,000 
279,000 
887,000 



1,128,000 

1,041,000 

2,409,000 

1,949,000 

1,059,000 

707,000 

398,000 

180,000 

19,000 

301,000 

483,000 

659,000 



1,351,000 

624,000 

1,658,000 

1,607,000 

888,000 

761,000 

9,000 

—104,000 

541,000 

741,000 

1,998,000 

2,032,000 



1,925,000 
1,536,000 
2,257,000 
1,117,000 
1,046,000 

194,000 
—14,000 

102,000 

-82,000 

47,000 

71,000 

136,000 



795,000 
403,000 



860,000 
341,000 



1,010,000 
471,000 



694,000 
44,000 



392,000 
2,286,000 
1,734,000 
1,721,000 
1,004,000 

239,000 
—121,000 
-^5,000 

149,000 

—51,000 

82,000 

263,000 



1,490,000 

1,849,000 

1,954,000 

667,000 

277,000 

516,000 

—102,000 

—73,000 

5,000 

—51,000 

176,000 

221,000 



625,000 
40,000 



570,000 
29,000 



Month. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Mean for 
Thirty-nine 

Years, 
1875-1913. 


January, 


519,000 


728,000 


1,041,000 


1,192,000 


February, 














700,000 


1,197,000 


754,000 


1,696,000 


March, 














1,144,000 


3,092,000 


2,090,000 


2,780,000 


April, 














1,426,000 


2,235,000 


2,232,000 


2,002,000 


May, 














318,000 


1,447,000 


867,000 


1,063,000 


June, 














213,000 


148,000 


149,000 


489,000 


July, 














—14,000 


—77,000 


62,000 


154,000 


August, . 














20,000 


—29,000 


54,000 


226,000 


September, 














76,000 


—28,000 


88,000 


235,000 


October, . 














296,000 


—14.000 


484,000 


438,000 


November, 














593,000 


165,000 


480,000 


779,000 


December, 














908,000 


494,000 


732,000 


995,000 


Average for whole year, 


514,000 


779,000 


733,000 


1,000,000 


Average for driest six months. 




152,000 


26,000 


180,000 


385,000 



Note. — The recorded yields, subsequent to the year 1S97, are less accurate than those for previous 
years, particularly durin? months of small yield, due to unavoidable inaccuracies in the measurement 
of large quantities of water received from the Wachusett Reservoir. 



256 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Nashua Biver. 

The average flow of the South Branch of the Nashua Eiver above 
Clinton during the year 1913 was 879,000 gallons per clay per square 
mile, or 81 per cent, of the normal flow for the past seventeen years. 
The flow was in excess of the normal in the months of January and 
October, but less than the normal in the other ten mouths of the year. 
The greatest excess occurred in the month of January, and the greatest 
deficiency in the months of February, March and June. The average 
flow for the driest six months, June to November, inclusive, was 318,000 
gallons per day per square mile, or 60 per cent, of the normal flow for 
such a period during the last seventeen years. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Nashua Eiver 
during each month of the year 1913 and the normal flow of that stream, 
as deduced from observations during seventeen years, from 1897 to 1913, 
inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The area of the water- 
shed of the Nashua River above the point of measurement was 119 square 
miles from 1897 to 1907, inclusive, and 118.19 square miles since the 
latter year. 



Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River 
for the Year 1913, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area, and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; 
also, Departure from the Normal Flow. 









— 


Normal Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1913. 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


January, .... 


1.854 


1.198 


2.188 


1.414 


+0.334 


+0.216 


February, . 








2.115 


1.367 


1.342 


0.867 


—0.773 


—0.500 


March, 








4.136 


2.673 


3.501 


2.263 


—0.635 


—0.410 


April, . 








3.334 


2.154 


3.224 


2.083 


—0.110 


—0.071 


May. . 








1.829 


1.182 


1.607 


1.038 


—0.222 


—0.144 


June, . 








1.161 


0.750 


0.433 


0.280 


—0.728 


—0.470 


July. . 








0.582 


0.376 


0.030 


0.019 


-0.552 


—0.357 


August, 








0.590 


0.382 


0.092 


0.060 


—0.498 


—0.322 


September, 








0.556 


0.359 


0.338 


0.219 


—0.218 


—0.140 


October, 








0.824 


0.532 


1.049 


0.678 


+0.225 


+0.146 


November, 








1.237 


0.800 


1.021 


0.660 


—0.216 


—0.140 


December, . 








1.879 


1.214 


1.478 


0.955 


—0.401 


—0.259 


Average for w 


hole 


year 




1.672 


1.081 


1.360 


0.879 


—0.312 


—0.202 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



257 



In the annual report oi' the State Board of Health for the year 1911 
(pages 265 to 367) and for the year 1912 (page 264) table? were pre- 
sented giving the record of the rainfall upon the Xashua River water- 
shed and the yield expressed in inches in depth upon the watershed 
(inches of rainfall collected) for sixteen years, from 1897 to 1912, in- 
clusive. A corresponding record for the year 1913, together with the 
average for the entire period of seventeen years, is given in the following 
table : — 

Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Watershed. 





For THE Year 1913. 


Me.^n for Seventeen Ylars. 
1897-1913. 


Month. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent, 
collected. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent, 
collected. 


January, .... 
Februarjs ... 
March, .... 

April, 

May, .... 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, .... 

October, .... 

November 

December 


3.38 
2.55 
5.58 
3.90 
3.71 
0.90 
2.37 
3.05 
4.44 
6.02 
2.59 
2.73 


2.522 
1.397 
4.037 
3. 597 
1.852 
0.483 
0.034 
0.107 
0.377 
1.209 
1.139 
1.704 


74.7 

.54.7 

72.4 

92.2 

49.9 

53.5 

1,4 

3.5 

S.5 

20.1 

43.9 

62.5 


3.65 
3.73 
4.38 
3.88 
3.48 
3 . Ii4 
3.92 
4.15 
3.81 
3.56 
3.43 
4.21 


2.137 
2.216 
4.768 
3.719 
2.109 
1.295 
0.670 
0.681 
0.620 
0.950 
1.381 
2.166 


58.5 
59.4 
108.8 
96.0 
60.6 
35.5 
17.1 
16.4 
16.3 
20.7 
40.3 
51.5 


Totals and averages, . 


41.22 


18.458 


44.8 


45.84 


22.712 


49.5 



The following table gives a record of the yield of the Nashua Eiver 
watershed for each of tlie past seventeen years, the i\o\v being ex])ressed 
in gallons per day per square mile of watershed : — • 



Yield of the Nashua River Watershed 


//( (iallo 


ns per Day per 


Square 


Mile. » 


Month. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


January, ....... 


796,000 


1,563,000 


2,092,000 


796,000 


519,000 


1,676,000 


February, ...... 


931,000 


1.635,000 


1,090,000 


4,0.54,000 


356,000 


1,401,000 


March, ...... 


2,760,000 3,088,000 


2,776,000 


3,722,000 


2,718,000 


3,992,000 


April, 


1,632,000 12,027,000 


3,376,000 1 1,580,000 


4,986,000 


2,159,000 


May, 


l,163,fK)0 


1,. 390,000 


862,000 


1,382,000 


2,729,000 


1,031,000 


June, 


1,181,000 


828,000 


561,000 


578,000 


985,000 


410,000 


July, 


1,442,000 


333,000 


354,000 


217,000 


477,000 


292,000 


August, 


896,000 


1,. 325,000 


236,000 


197,000 


512,000 


297,000 


September, 


380,000 


676,000 


250,000 


127,000 


320,000 


241,000 


October, 


243,000 


1,. 509,000 


245,000 


282,000 


647,000 


950,000 


November, 


1,283,000 


2,170,000 


430,000 


875,000 


517,000 


635,000 


December, 


2,275,000 


2,061,000 


359,000 


1,570,000 


3,234,000 


1,848,000 


Average for whole vear, . 


1,253,000 


1,551,000 


1,051,000 


1,264,000 


1,507,000 


1,248,000 


Average for driest six months. 


886,000 


1,013,000 


312,000 


377,000 


576,000 


471,000 



' The area of the watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 
2.2 per cent, of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent, in 1903, to 3.6 per cent, in 1904, 
to 4.1 per cent, in 1905, to 5.1 per cent, in 1906, to 6 per cent, in 1907, to 7 per cent, in 1908, 1909 and 1010, 
to C.5 per cent, in 1911, to O.S per cent in 1912 and to 6.9 per cent, in 1913. 



258 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Nashua River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Concluded. 



Month. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 




1,265,000 


659,000 


1,266,000 


1,132,000 


1,458,000 


1,738,000 




2,133,000 


927,000 


452,000 


1,027,000 


692,000 


1,736,000 




3,423,000 


3,008,000 


3,004,000 


1,860,000 


1,697,000 


2,192,000 




2,238,000 


2,984,000 


1,617,000 


2,109,000 


1,436,000 


1,269,000 




569,000 


1,498,000 


445,000 


1,533.000 


965,000 


1,415,000 




2,131,000 


762,000 


542,000 


1,184,000 


773,000 


403,000 


Jiily, 


624,000 


497,000 


365,000 


728,000 


335,000 


220,000 




474,000 


355,000 


321,000 


591,000 


87,000 


443,000 




375,000 


494,000 


1,228,000 


277,000 


810,000 


88,000 


October, ....... 


689,000 


347,000 


367,000 


530,000 


1,382,000 


158,000 




634,000 


343,000 


442,000 


749,000 


2,540,000 


125,000 


December 


954,000 


440,000 i 1,018,000 


794,000 


1,961,000 387,000 


Average for whole year, . 


1,285,000 


1,025,000 1 926,000 


1,043,000 


1,180,000 


847,000 


Average for driest six months. 


626,000 


413,000 541,000 


613,000 


725,000 


238,000 















Mean for 


Month. 


1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Seventeen 

Years, 
1897-1913 




592,000 


1,846,000 


773,000 


780,000 


1,414,000 


1,198,000 




2,556,000 


1,845,000 


625,000 


927,000 


867,000 


1,367,000 


March, ,....•• 


2,129,000 


2,639,000 


1,339,000 


2,831,000 


2,263,000 


2,673,000 




2,422,000 


1,034,000 


1,393,000 


2,281,000 


2,083,000 


2,154,000 




1,212,000 


608,000 


461,000 


1,797,000 


1,038,000 


1,182,000 




632,000 


824,000 


351,000 


331,000 


280,000 


750,000 


July 


233,000 


62,000 


57,000 


135,000 


19,000 


376,000 




193,000 


186,000 


188,000 


125,000 


60,000 


382,000 




208,000 


145,000 


181,000 


89,000 


219,000 


359,000 


October, ...... 


90,000 


68,000 


718,000 


145,000 


678,000 


532,000 




363,000 


354,000 


1,035,000 


442,000 


660,000 


800,000 


December, 


537,000 


391,000 j 1,067,000 


793,000 955,000 


1,214,000 


Average for whole year. 


918,000 


828,000 


682,000 


891,000 


879,000 


1,081,000 


Average for driest six months. 


271,000 


201,000 


327,000 


210,000 


318,000 


532,000 



Merrimack River. 
The flow of the Merrimack Eiver has been measured for many years 
at Lawrence, above which place the river has a total watershed area 
of 4,663 square miles, which includes 118 square miles on the South 
Branch of the Nashua Eiver, 75 square miles on the Sudbury Eiver and 
18 square miles tributary to Lake Cochituate, or a combined area of 
211 square miles from which water is drawn at the present time for the 
supply of the Metropolitan Water District. The flow as measured at 
Lawrence includes the water wasted from these three watersheds, which, 
in the wet months of the year, is very considerable, but which becomes 
very small in the dry months. Becords of the quantity of water wasted 
have been kept by the Boston Water Board and by the Metropolitan 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



259 



Water Board, and these quantities have been deducted from the flow as 
measured at Lawrence. The area of the three watersheds has also been 
deducted from the watershed area at Lawrence, so that the net area was 
4,570 square miles up to 1898, at which time the Nashua Eiver was 
diverted, 4,451 square miles from March 1, 1898, to Jan. 1, 1908, and 
4,452 square miles since the latter date. 

The average flow of the Merrimack Eiver during the year 1913 was 
83 per cent, of the normal flow for the past twenty-six years for which 
records are available. The flow was in excess of the normal in the months 
of January and March, but less than the normal in the other ten months 
of the year. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of this stream during 
each m^onth of the year 1913 and the normal flow as deduced from ob- 
servations during twenty-six years, from 1888 to 1913, inclusive, the 
following table has been prepared : — 



Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River for the Year 1913 
in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, Departure 
from the Normal Flow. 



Month. 


Normal 
Flow. 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Actual Flow 
in 1913. 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Excess or 
Deficieno" . 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, . 

June, . 

July, . 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 




- 
















1.323 
1.278 
2.911 
3.641 
2.188 
1.214 
0.685 
0.622 
0.670 
0.920 
1.194 
1.306 


1.775 
0.987 
3.372 
2.490 
1.442 
0.899 
0.393 
0.306 
0.387 
0.791 
0.967 
1.046 


+0.452 
—0.291 
+0.461 
—1.151 
—0.746 
—0.315 
—0.292 
—0.316 
—0.283 
—0.129 
-0.227 
-0.260 


Averag 


i for whol 


; yea 


r, 


1.496 


1.238 


-0.258 



260 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



The following table gives the record of the net flow of the Merrimack 
River for each of the past twenty-six years, the flow being expressed in 
cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area : — 



Floio of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile of Drainage Area. 



Month. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


January, 


1.388 


2.619 


1.492 


2.823 


1.836 


0.645 


0.661 


February, 












1.818 


1.345 


1.656 


2.851 


0.888 


1.081 


0.933 


March, 












2.168 


2.385 


3.326 


5.042 


1.562 


2.281 


3.115 


April, 












5.377 


2.408 


3,728 


4.645 


1.774 


3.359 


2 401 


May, . 












4.539 


1.437 


3.096 


1.601 


2.215 


4.202 


1.525 


June, . 












1.228 


1.164 


1.716 


0.990 


0.834 


0.963 


1.317 


July. . 












0.548 


0.782 


0.G91 


0.633 


1.040 


0.522 


0.498 


August, 












0.577 


1.087 


0.745 


0.538 


1.051 


0.564 


0.370 


September, 










1.540 


0.750 


1.833 


0.556 


0.863 


0.608 


0.400 


October, 










2.656 


1.220 


2.648 


0.467 


0.467 


790 


0.493 


November, 










2.896 


1.924 


1.918 


0.540 


1.420 


0.736 


0.772 


December, 










3.181 


2.812 


1.418 


0.899 


0.859 


1.166 


0.661 


Average for whole year. 


2.326 


1.661 


2.022 


1.799 


1.234 


1.410 


1.095 


Average for driest six months, . 


1.574 


1.073 


1.542 


0.606 


0.946 


0.697 


0..532 



Month. 1895. 

1 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


January, 


0.626 


1.419 


0.745 


1.613 


1.657 


0.748 


0.753 


February, 












0.507 


1.941 


1.000 


1.638 


1.032 


3.520 


546 


March, 












1.258 


4.510 


2.294 


4.043 


2.479 


3.441 


2.0M 


April, 












4.289 


3.967 


3.839 


3.317 


5.758 


4.088 


5.569 


May, . 












1.360 


0.971 


2.209 


2.400 


2.121 


2.185 


3.335 


June, . 












0.664 


0.769 


2.769 


1.417 


0.667 


0.878 


1.657 


July, . 












0.565 


0.446 


2.359 


0.585 


0.556 


0.407 


646 


August, 












0.477 


0.441 


1.105 


0.776 


0.468 


0.420 


989 


September, 










0.366 


0.683 


0.603 


0.636 


0.447 


0.338 


0.588 


October, 










0.863 


1.142 


0.482 


1.371 


0.401 


0.564 


0.913 


November, 










2.047 


1.454 


1.274 


2.094 


0.625 


1.304 


0.663 


December, 








■ 


2.025 


0.952 


2.262 


1.871 


0.622 


1.498 


2 053 


Average for whole year, 


1.254 


1.558 


1.745 


1.813 


1.403 


1.616 


1.648 


Average for driest six months, . 


0.716 


0.741 


1 347 


1.146 


0.520 


0.652 


0.909 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



261 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Laurence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 
Mile of Drainage Area — Concluded. 



Month. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


January, . 




2.268 


1.684 


0.584 


0.855 


1.696 


1.411 


1.946 


February. 












1.195 


1.979 


0.644 


0.503 


1.133 


0.667 


1.648 


March, 












6.011 


6.032 


2.719 


2.350 


1.678 


1.728 


2.499 


April, 












3.801 


3.375 


4.495 


3.616 


3.591 


2.923 


2.652 


May, . 












2.256 


0.979 


3.844 


1.169 


2.269 


2.034 


2.570 


June, . 












1.187 


2.224 


1.032 


0.931 


2.262 


1.190 


0.932 


July, . 












0.971 


1.032 


0.624 


0.600 


1.106 


0.749 


0.522 


August , 












0.S44 


0.734 


0.573 


0.606 


0.741 


0.431 


0.668 


September, 












0.774 


0.530 


0.653 


1.706 


0.422 


0.664 


0.379 


October, 












1.600 


0.823 


0.816 


0.727 


549 


1.433 


0.330 


November, 












1.285 


0.665 


0.604 


0.760 


0.707 


2.914 


0.354 


December, 












1.756 


0.825 


0.408 


1.274 


0.567 


2.177 


0.420 


Average for whole >'ear, 




1.996 


1.740 


1.416 


1.258 


1.393 


1.527 


1.243 


Average for driest six months, 


1 no 


0.767 


0.613 


0.888 


0.682 


1.083 


0.445 















Mean for 


Month. 


1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Twenty- 
six years, 
1888-1913. 


January, 


0.677 


1.043 


0.624 


0.802 


1.775 


1.323 


February, 








1.563 


0.973 


0.482 


0.706 


0.987 


1.278 


March. 








1.695 


3.611 


1.248 


2.773 


3.372 


2.911 


April, . 








3.404 


2.445 


3.045 


4.323 


2.490 


3.641 


May, 








1.951 


1.509 


1.360 


2.297 


1.442 


2.188 


June, 








0.948 


1.077 


0.551 


1.304 


0.899 


1.214 


July. 








0.447 


0.398 


0.266 


0.412 


0.393 


0.685 


August, 








0.376 


0.458 


0.328 


0.499 


0.306 


0.622 


September, . 








0.369 


0.397 


0.435 


0.485 


0.387 


0.670 


October, 








0.422 


0.300 


0.918 


0.733 


0.791 


0".920 


November, . 








0.388 


0.457 


1.049 


1.2,39 


0.967 


1.194 


December, 








0.504 


0.335 


1.284 


1.069 


1.046 


1 306 


Average for whole year. 


1 1.062 


1.084 


0.966 


1.387 


1.238 


1.496 


Average for driest six months. 


0,418 

I, 


0.391 


0.591 


0.740 


0.624 


0.884 



262 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. Xo. 34. 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimaclc Rivers. 
The following table shows the weekly fluctuation during the year 1913 
in the flow of the three streams just described, namely, the Sudbury 
Eiver at Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua Eiver above 
Clinton, and the Merrimack River at Lawrence. The flow of these 
streams, particularly that of the Sudbury and of the South Branch of 
the Xashua River, serves to indicate the flow of other streams in eastern 
Massachusetts. The area of the Sudbury River watershed is 75.3 square 
miles and of the South Branch of the Nashua River 118.19 square miles. 
The net watershed area of the Merrimack River is 4,452 square miles. 



Table shoioing the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the Nashua 
and Merrimack Rivers for the Year 1913 in Cubic Feet -per Second per Square 
Mile of Drainage Area. 







Flow in Cubic Feet per 




Flow in Cubic Feet per 




Second 


PER Square Mile. 


Week ending 


Second 


PER Square Mile. 


Week ending 




South 
Branch 






South 
Branch 




Sunday. 


Sudbur>' 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Sunday. 


Sudbury 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 


Jan. 5, 


2.939 


3.321 


1.984 


July 6, 


—0.074 


0.039 


0.381 


12, 


1.815 


2.431 


1.766 


13. 


—0.273 


—0.082 


0.454 


19, 


1.532 


2.146 


1.512 


20, 


—0.178 


—0.031 


0.424 


26, 


1.373 


2.071 


1.970 


27, 


—0.113 


—0.063 


0.338 


Feb. 2, 


0.971 


1.514 


1.373 


Aug. 3, 


0.287 


0.282 


0.326 


9, 


0.827 


1.085 


1.124 


10, 


—0.121 


0.062 


0.348 


16, 


0.526 


0.867 


0.781 


17, 


—0.419 


—0.034 


0.327 


23, 


1.328 


1.555 


0.802 


24, 


—0.178 


0.094 


0.327 










31, 


—1.022 


0.291 


0.252 


Mar. 2, 


2.643 


2.378 


1.228 










9, 


1.696 


1.639 


1.142 


Sept. 7, 


1.433 


0.340 


0.364 


16, 


2.763 


3.135 


2.247 


14, 


—0.169 


—0.066 


• 0.323 


23, 


2.752 


2.696 


4.726. 


21, 


0.044 


0.553 


0.273 


30, 


5.636 


6.487 


5.870 


28, 


0.492 


0.606 


0.549 


Apr. 6, 


3.241 


3.215 


3.627 


Oct. 5, 


0.138 


0.340 


0.472 


13, 


3.471 


4.515 


2.371 


12, 


0.223 


0.507 


0.553 


20, 


5.649 


3.969 


2.730 


19, 


0.438 


0.432 


0.492 


27, 


2.225 


1.791 


1.770 


26, 


1.542 


2.270 


0.996 


May 4, 


1.831 


1.746 


1.746 


Nov. 2, 


1.136 


1.295 


1.377 


11, 


0.500 


0.918 


1.180 


9, 


0.427 


1.035 


0.776 


18, 


0.710 


0.753 


0.846 


16, 


0.937 


1.170 


1.446 


25, 


2.148 


2.196 


1.130 


23, 


0.661 


1.052 


0.909 










30, 


0.965 


0.939 


0.779 


June 1, 


1.598 


2.713 


2.649 










8, 


1.040 


0.718 


1.487 


Dec. 7, 


0.788 


1.756 


0.908 


15, 


0.309 


0.290 


0.764 


14, 


1.392 


1.443 


1.426 


22, 


0.085 


0.415 


0.593 


21, 


0.679 


0.899 


0.946 


29, 


—0.154 


0.198 


556 


28, 


1.831 


1.938 


0.908 



REPORT 

OF THE 

Lawrence Experiment Station 

1913. 

[263] 



Work of the Lawrence Experiment Station for 

1913— THE Purification of Sewage and Water 

AND Investigations upon Allied Subjects.' 



Bv H. W. Clark and Stephen DeM. Gage. 



During the year ending Xov. 30, 1913, the following main lines of 
work and study were carried on at the experiment station : ( 1 ) Studies 
upon the aeration of sewage in a new form of tank. These studies showed 
that by aeration in tanks constructed and operated like the one described 
beyond, a remarkable reduction of suspended and colloidal matters in 
sewage can be obtained at a cost certainly no greater than by chemical 
precipitants and probably considerably less. The sewage, owing to a 
reduction of its suspended and colloidal matters and partial oxidation 
by aeration, can be purified at very high rates of filtration througli sand 
and trickling filters. The sewage, moreover, after aeration has lost its 
offensive odor and filtration can proceed without nuisance from the dis- 
semination of these odors in the neighborhood of the filters. If sufficient 
aeration is given, the sewage is rendered nonputref active and stable. (2) 
Studies upon clarification of sewage by the ordinary methods of sedi- 
mentation, chemical precipitation and straining. (3) Studies of the dis- 
posal of sludge in tanks from 17 to 30 feet in depth. These studies were 
made with sewages of various kinds and had for their chief object 
the determination of the physical character and the odor of the sludge 
when drawn from such tanks after varying periods of storage and de- 
composition. It was shown by these studies that the deeper the tank, 
other things being equal, the less the odor of the sludge and the more 
easily it is handled, drained and dried owing to improvement in its 
physical character. Other features of this study are described beyond, 
such as the effe#t of added iron and lime, of fermentation, agitation, the 

1 The work has been carried on under the general supervision of Hiram F. Mills, A.M., C.E., member 
of the State Board of Health, with Mr. H. W. Clark, chemist to the Board, in direct charge. Mr. Stephen 
DeM. Gage, biologist, and Mr. George O. Adams, chemist, are the principal assistants at the station. A 
full account of the experiments at the Lawxence Experiment Station during the years 1888 and 1889 is 
contained in a special report of the State Board of Health upon the purification of sewage and water (1890). 
A similar account for the years 1890 and 1891 is contained in the report of the Board for 1891. Since 1891 the 
results have been published yearly in the annual reports. A review of twenty-one years' experiments 
upon the purification of sewage was published in the report for 1908 and a similar review of experiments 
upon the purification of manufactural wastes was published in the report for 1909. 



266 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

destruction of fatty matters, the percentage of water in the various 
sludges after treatment, the loss of nitrogen, changes in nitrogenous mat- 
ters, etc. (4) A study and review of the fertilizer value of sewage and 
sewage sludge, including studies of the availability of the fertilizing ma- 
terials in agriculture. (5) Continued studies of intermittent sand, con- 
tact and trickling filter methods of purifying sewage. This included, 
besides the operation of sand, contact and trickling filters, an investiga- 
tion concerning the relative capacity for purification and volume of 
sewage filtered per acre daily of trickling filters with depths of from 4 
to 10 feet. (6) Studies of manufacturing wastes. These studies in- 
cluded an interesting investigation in regard to a new method for the 
disposal of tannery sewage. (7) Studies of the oxygen requirement of 
different sewages and the point to which dissolved oxygen in a stream can 
be reduced by sewage matters without producing a nuisance. (8) 
Studies of the influence of carbon in sugar and other carbohydrates upon 
nitrification with reference to the disposal of wastes from breweries, 
sugar refineries, etc. (9) Studies of water filtration by different types 
of filters, together with special laboratory studies of the tolerance for 
considerable amounts of hypochlorite disinfectants which certain types 
of bacteria apparently acquire in swimming pools. (10) Studies to de- 
termine the effect of various amounts of CO2 and other constituents of 
water upon the length of life of fecal and other bacteria in water. (11) 
Bacterial examinations of 1,800 samples of water forwarded to the station 
by the engineering department of the Board. 

At the station, moreover, typical examples of the various established 
processes for the treatment of water and sewage are kept in operation, 
and their method of procedure and relative efficiency is often demon- 
strated to city and town officials who are concerned with the installation 
and management of water or sewage purification works and to students 
and others who are interested in the subject. That this feature is appre- 
ciated is evident from the large number of persons who visit the station 
each year in search of information and from the number of engineering 
schools in this State that have made a visit to the station a regular part 
of their instruction to students in sanitary engineering. 

Character of the Sewage used in the Experiments. 
The sewage used at the experiment station is pumped through a 21/2- 
inch pipe about 4,400 feet long, from the Lawrence Street sewer which 
drains the streets, houses and stores of the most densely populated sec- 
tion of the city of Lawrence. The inlet to this pipe is located well above 
the entrance of any of the large mills, and is provided with a strainer 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



267 



with perforations about % of an inch in diameter, by which paper, rags, 
etc., are largely strained out of the sewage. As received at the station 
the sewage is a strong domestic sewage in which the suspended matters 
have been quite thoroughly disintegrated during passage through the pipe. 

'■ Lawrence Street sewage " is the average of samples collected weekly 
from the sewer near the point where the sewage enters the pipe through 
which it is drawn to the experiment station ; " regular station sewage " 
is the average of samples collected four times each day of the sewage as 
it reaches the experiment station ; " sewage applied to Filters ISTos. 1, 6 
and 9A " is the average of daily samples of all the sewage applied to the 
large intermittent filters situated out of doors. 

The average analyses of the various representative samples of sewage 
collected during the year are shown in the following table : — 

Lawrence Street Sewage. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



fe 


Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 




Nitrogen 


-a 

B 


IS 






Nitrogen. 


AS 


o 


05 




ALBUMINOID. 
































a 




d 
.2 


6 


. 




S 

o 




e 


^ 


"3 
1 


3 
"o 
w 

a 


i 


a 


o 

o 


1 
1 




>> 

X 

O 


so 

PQ 


64 


2.08 


.59 


.38 


2.23 


1.60 


11.45 


.07 


.0061 


6.86 


2,707,000 



Regular Station Sewage. 



3.67 .58 .28 1.20 0.55 13.36 



4.73 3,724,000 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 6 and 9 A. 



3.79 .52 



1.07 



12.57 



Average Solids. 

Regular Sewage. 
[Parte per 100.000.1 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Losson pj^gj 
Ignition. 


71.4 


31.6 


39.8 


48.0 


15.4 


32.6 


23.4 


16.2 


7.2 



208 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Preliminary Treatments for the Clarification of Sewage. 
Studies upon the clarification of sewage as a preliminary to filtration 
by sedimentation in open tanks and in a tank filled with layers of slate, 
by straining through a layer of anthracite coal and by chemical precipita- 
tion with sulphate of alumina, were continued during 1913. Studies 
were also made upon the clarification of sewage by aeration and sedi- 
mentation. 

Sedimentation in Open Tanks. 
The chief settling tank at the station is cylindrical in form with a bot- 
tom sloping at an angle of 60°. Sewage enters this tank near the bottom 
and rises slowly to an outlet near the top, the period of sedimentation 
while sewage is flowing through being about two hours and the vertical 
velocity about 1 inch per minute. About 1,000 gallons of sewage were 
treated daily in this tank throughout the year. The sludge deposited 
in the tank is drawn off through a blow-off valve at the bottom three 
times each week. The average removal of suspended matter occurring 
in this tank during the year was about 46 per cent., as shown by 
Kjeldahl nitrogen in suspension, and about 0)8 per cent., as shown by 
the total and organic solids in suspension. The total removal of organic 
matter from the sewage was about 31 per cent., as shown by total 
Kjeklahl nitrogen, and about 35 per cent., as shown by the total organic 
solids. The composition of the wet sludge was as follows : — 



Average Sludge. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 





Average. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


.Solids: — 

Total, 

Organic, 


2,766 
1,678 


4.316 
2,891 


545 

278 


Insoluble matters: — 

Total, 

Organic, 


2,529 
1,601 


4,121 
2,769 


471 
250 


Organic nitrogen: — 

Total, 

Insoluble, 


66 .■) 
59 3 


115 3 
101.0 


11.7 
9.5 


Free ammonia, 


14 f> 


24.0 


5 2 


Oxygen consumed 


201 


310 


47 


Fats 


422 


805 


70 



Xo. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 269 



Sedimentation in Tanks filled with Layers of Slate. 

Tank N'o. 376, having a superficial area of /^ooo of '^^^ acre, was first 
put into operation on July 9, 1909, and contains 37 horizontal layers 
of roofing slate spaced % of an inch apart, separated hy small concrete 
hlocks, the exposed surface available for the deposition and destruction of 
sludge being about -'Jl-i square inches for each gallon of sewage contained 
within the tank. During December this tanlc was dismantled and the 
amount of sludge present and its distribution upon the various slate 
layers were determined. At this time the total amount of sludge present 
was equivalent to about 354,000 pounds per acre, or about 594 pounds for 
each million gallons of sewage which had been passed through the tank. 
The tank was then rebuilt and a portion of the sludge which had been 
removed was uniformly redistributed over the various slate layers, the 
amount of sludge returned being equivalent to about 50,000 pounds per 
acre. Operation was begun again on Jan. 1, 1913, the tank being oper- 
ated like a contact filter as in previous years. It was completely filled 
with sewage once each day, allowed to stand one hour, then drained 
f^lowly and allowed to rest one week in every six. During the year there 
was a loss of open space in the tank of about 13 per cent. During three 
of the one-week resting periods there was no appreciable change in the 
capacity, but during each of the other resting periods there was a small 
decrease in the proportion of the open space occupied by deposited mat- 
ters, the increase in open space during these periods averaging about 
2 per cent. 

As has been explained in previous reports, although this tank is 
operated like a contact filter, other than in the removal of matters in 
suspension there is comparatively little change in the character of the 
sewage which is passed through it. For this reason, this process has 
been classed with the clarification processes rather than with the contact 
filters. During February and March, after the tank was rebuilt, a small 
amount of nitrification was noticed, the average amount of nitrates pro- 
duced averaging .18 and .31 parts per 100,000, respectively. During fol- 
loM'ing months, however, nitrification was very feeble and at no time 
during the year was a stable effluent obtained. So far as actual purifi- 
cation was concerned, the practice of resting the tank one week in six 
appeared to have little effect. In a settling tank as usually constructed 
and operated, the outlet is so located that the sludge is not distributed to 
any extent by the outflowing sewage or by the flow of sewage over it. 
In a tank of this kind, however, the sludge deposited upon the slates is 
very likely to be disturbed by the sewage flowing across it while the tauk 



270 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

is being emptied, this being especially true of any sludge which has been 
deposited on the bottom of the tank in the vicinity of the outlet. For 
this reason sewage clarified by this method usually contains somewhat 
more suspended matters than ordinary settled sewage, while the effluent 
is frequently heavily charged with suspended matters for a short time 
after the outlet is opened. 

Precipitation with Sulphate of Alumina. 
Throughout the year sewage was treated daily with sulphate of alumina 
in the proportion of 1,000 pounds per million gallons (7 grains per gal- 
lon) and allowed to stand for four hours before the clarified supernatant 
sewage was drawn off from the precipitated sludge. The average removal 
of suspended organic matters from the sewage by this process was about 
71 per cent., as shown by determinations of loss on ignition, and about 
66 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations. The total 
removal of organic matters averaged about 47 per cent., as shown by 
loss on ignition, and 37 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen determi- 
nations. 

Precipitation with Ferrous Sulphate. 
During December and January the experiments upon the precipitation 
of sewage with ferrous sulphate and caustic soda were continued. As 
explained in the last report these experiments were primarily designed 
to furnish a sludge of high iron content and larger amounts of coagulant 
were used than would ordinarily be considered necessary had clarification 
of the sewage been the only object in view. The ferrous sulphate used 
was the form commercially known as sugar sulphate of iron, containing 
about 65 per cent, of actual ferrous sulphate, and caustic soda was used 
instead of lime to produce the necessary alkalinity on account of the 
greater ease with which its strength can be controlled in experiments 
where small amounts of caustic alkalinity are needed. The average 
amount of ferrous sulphate added during these two months was about 
877 pounds per million gallons (6 grains per gallon), and the average 
amount of caustic used was about 738 pounds (5.1 grains per gallon). 

As the chemicals were added in excess of the amounts needed for 
clarification, the removal of suspended matters was very complete, aver- 
aging about 90 per cent., as shown by the total solids in suspension; and 
the removal of organic matters in suspension was about 95 per cent., as 
shown by loss on ignition, and about 91 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl 
nitrogen determinations. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



271 



Straining through Anthracite Coal. 
Strainer E. — This strainer, containing 13 inches in depth of buck- 
wheat coal, and first put into operation on Feb. 1, 1901, was continued 
in operation throughout the year at a rate of 1,000,000 gallons per acre 
daily. As has been explained in previous reports, this strainer continues 
to be operated at this rate year after year without renewal of material 
or any appreciable amount of surface treatment being necessary, and at 
the same time removes a considerably greater amount of suspended mat- 
ters from the sewage than is the case with any of the other preliminary 
clarification processes which are under investigation. During 1913 sur- 
face treatment was required but once, the strainer being raked to a depth 
of 3 inches on February 14. The average removal of suspended matters 
during the year was about 76 per cent., as shown by total solids, and 
the removal of organic matters in suspension was about 74 per cent., as 
shown by loss on ignition, and about 72 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl 
nitrogen determinations. 

Average Analyses. 

Settled Station Sewage. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



P^ 


Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 




Nitrogen 


E 


3 






Nitrogen. 


A3 


u 






ALBUMINOID. , 










o S 
































X 




M 






e 
.2 




.2 


<0 






o 




S 


i 


1 


3 

"o 

CO 

c 


"3 
1 


3 


s 

6 


1 
1 




1 

6 


11 

CQ 


65 


3.76 


.43 


.25 


.83 .48 


13.37 


- 


- 


3.19 


2.301.000 



Effluent from Slate Tank No. 376. 



.52 



.97 



12.96 



.11 



.0002 



3.25 



2.707,000 



Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 



4.93 



12.28 



2.62 



1,383.000 



Effluent from Strainer E. 



3.86 



.40 



.30 



.57 



13.12 



2.78 3,257.500 



Sewage precipitated with Ferrous Sulphate. 



4.62 



.16 



.40 



.32 



11.90 



1.72 



I Two months, December and January. 



272 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Solids. 

Settled Station Sewage. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


56.6 


20.7 


35.9 


49.0 


15.6 


33.4 


7.6 


5.1 


2.5 



Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 



16.9 



35.6 



33.9 



6.4 



1.7 



Effluent from Strainer E. 



54.8 



19.1 



14.9 



34.3 



5.6 



Sewage precipitated with Ferrous Sulphate. * 



14.0 



65.0 



53.1 



3.1 



> Two months, December and January. 

Studies of the Effect upon Sewage Sludge of Storage ix Deep 

Tanks. 

The first suggestion in regard to the retention of shidge in compart- 
ments separated from the main settling or septic tank was made at tlie 
Lawrence Experiment Station in 1899,i and tanks constructed after 
this manner were operated there in that and the following years and 
have been described in the Lawrence reports. From this early Lawrence 
work, the Hampton tank of Travis and the so-called ImhofE tank have 
been developed. This was stated many years ago by Dr. Travis and more 
recently by Dr. Imhoff in a paper read last year before the International 
Congress of Demography and Hygiene at Washington. 

The imperial patent office of Germany in the case of Imhoff v. Travis, 
more than a year ago, made the following statements regarding the claims 
presented in this case and quoted below : — 

Claim J'. — Process for the biological treatment of sewage bv means of 
separate treatment of the solid and liquid constituents characterized by the 
following: The sewag-e passing through one or more closed or open settling 
si^aces at such a speed as to permit the lighter particles to come to the sur- 
face and the heavier to sink to the bottom and to pass through openings in 

1 H. W. Clark. Report of Lawrence Experiment Station, 1899-1900, etc. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 273 

it with a portion of the liquid into a liquefying space situated below the set- 
tling spaces, in which they are partly decomposed and liquefied through bio- 
logical action, whence the liquid passes out of the liquefying space over 
weirs, etc. 

Claim 2. — Apparatus for carrying out Claim 1 characterized as follows : 
Combining the settling chamber (a) and the liquefying chamber (h) in a 
closed tank, etc. 

Tliese and other contentions of the various parties to this suit are long 
and need not be quoted here. The judgment rendered a year ago, how- 
ever, states in part as follows : — 

It need not be settled here whether these differences are material or not, 
as it is clear that compared with the purification plant described in the 
report of the experimental station at Lawrence of the State Board of Health 
of Massachusetts, Boston, 1899 (thirty-first annual report, page 422), the 
protected process contains nothing new, which is contended by the claimant. 
The purification process there employed according to this report is exactly 
the same as that of the patent attacked. The sewage was passed through or- 
dinary settling tanks and the sludge collected at its bottom was at the same 
time flushed into a septic tank, where alone it was subject to septieization. 
The defendants contend, however, from the fact that only ordinary settling- 
spaces are mentioned in the Boston report, and that nothing is said about 
the continuous removal of the sludge out of the settling spaces, it must be 
concluded that the process described in the report was only worked inter- 
mittently and that a continuous flow through the plant as in the case of the 
patent attacked, had not taken place. These contentions are, however, not 
justified, etc. 

In many published data in regard to the results of the Imhoff tank, 
claims are made that the sludge from tanks of this construction is more 
easily disposed of than sludge from ordinary settling and septic tanks, 
and that it is almost invariably odorless. WHiile it is true that sludge 
from any sewage may under some conditions become odorless by long- 
continued bacterial decomposition whereby the organic and mineral mat- 
ters are rendered of a humus-like consistency, it has seemed possible 
that the lack of odor noted in the sludge from many Imhoff tanks is due 
rather to the composition of the sewage entering these tanks than to the 
construction and operation of such tanks. Attention was called some 
years ago ^ to the fact that the sludge from the septic tanks at Birming- 
ham, England, was odorless and the theory was advanced that this char- 
acteristic was due largely to the fact that large quantities of copper and 
iron salts entered the Birmingham sewage owing to the main industries 

» H. W. Clark. Some Observations of Methods, Cost and Results of Sewage Purification Abroad. 



274 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the city. Eecently, attention has been called to this, also, by Mr. 
A7atson, engineer of the sewage-disposal works of Birmingham. Essen, 
Germany, where the Imhoif tank was first used, and the surrounding 
district are devoted to iron industries, and much iron must be present 
in the sewage. At "Worcester, Mass., also, the sludge from an acid iron 
sewage has been successfully treated experimentally by this process. 

Certain studies upon this subject of differences in sludge were begun 
at the station early in 1912, five tanks IT feet in depth being put into 
operation, , each receiving sludge from a different sewage or sludge to 
which iron had been applied. These tanks are not claimed to be Imhoff 
tanks but seemed suitable for this study, and into each of them sludge 
was introduced through a pipe reaching some distance below the surface. 
This sludge when introduced contained from 93 to 99 per cent, of water, 
as will be explained later. 

A portion of the data obtained during 1912 was presented in the report 
for tliat year. These experiments were continued through 1913 with 
various additional tanks, and the complete results covering the studies 
during both years are summarized in the following pages. 

Operation of Sludge Tanhs. 
Ten of the tanks used in the experiments were 17 feet in depth and 
one, Tank S, 30 feet in depth. Each was completely filled with wet 
sludge from the sedimentation or chemical precipitation of sewage or 
with sludge to which certain chemicals were added and, after filling, 
portions of wet sludge of the same kind were added to the tanks at 
\\eekly intervals, displacing an equal volume of the supernatant liquid 
which collected above the sludge formed by the settlement of the heavy 
solid matters. These weekly additions to the tank were made through a 
pipe extending well below the surface, thus effectively preventing any 
of the suspended matters of the wet sludge added from being carried off 
with the overflowing liquid. After the sludge had been held in the tank 
for a period of two months, and at regular monthly intervals thereafter, 
portions of the heavy sludge were withdrawn from the bottom of the 
tank for examination. By this procedure the conditions were similar to 
those obtained in the Imhoff tank, the sludge being subjected to storage 
and decomposition action under gradually increasing pressure as it 
worked its way to the bottom of the tank. The details of operation of 
tlie various tanks were as follows : — 

Tanl: I was operated from Jan. 17, 1912, to April 19, 1913, with 
sludge from the settling tank receiving Lawrence sewage at the experi- 
ment station. During the last eight months of the experiment a small 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 275 

amount of water was forced in at the outlet at intervals to stir up the 
sludge and to help the elimination of matters which had been rendered 
soluble. Fermentation became active in this tank after it had been in 
operation about seven months. 

Tanl- J was operated from Jan. 20, 1912, to Jan. 8, 1913, receiving 
sludge obtained by precipitation of Lawrence sewage with copperas and 
caustic soda. As applied to the tank this sludge contained iron (Fe02H2) 
equivalent to about 20 per cent, of the total solids, and had the odor of 
hydrocarbons so noticeable when cast iron is dissolved in acid. Fermenta- 
tion became established in this tank during the first two months and 
continued until the experiment was stopped. 

Tank K, operated from Feb. 4, 1912, to Jan. 8, 1913, received sludge 
from the sedimentation of the waste liquors from a tannery. As applied 
to this tank this sludge contained a large amount of chemicals from the 
tanning process. Little or no active fermentation was observed in this 
tank although there was a marked change in the character of the sludge. 

Tank L was operated from March 22, 1912, to Jan. 8, 1913, with a 
mixture of three parts of the settled sewage sludge applied to Tank I 
and one part of the iron-precipitated sludge applied to Tank J. The 
amount of iron (FeOoHo) in this sludge was equivalent to about 8 per 
cent, of the total solids. Fermentation occurred in this tank, but never 
became very active. 

Tanl- .¥ was operated from May 3, 1912, to Oct. 29, 1913, with sludge 
from the settling tank at the Andover filtration area. On December 16 
lime equivalent to about 1 per cent, by weight was mixed with the sludge 
in the tank, and after that date a similar amount of lime was added to 
the sludge entering the tank, to increase the alkalinity of the sludge and 
hasten the breaking down of insoluble organic matters. After April 10, 
1913, a small amount of water was forced in through the outlet at in- 
tervals to stir up the sludge and to remove some of the organic matter 
which had been rendered soluble. Active fermentation was not observed 
in this tank at any time during the period of about eighteen months it 
was in operation. 

Tanl- N was operated from Jan. 17 to May 9, 1913, with sludge from 
the settling tank at the experiment station, to which hydrate of alumina 
had been added. In the amounts added the AIO3H3 produced a similar 
alkalinity to that produced in the sludge for Tank J by the ferrous 
hj'drate present, but unlike the latter the aluminum does not form com- 
binations with the sulphur compounds. Fermentation became active in 
this tank after about four months. 

Tank was operated from Jan. 20 to April 10, 1913, with sludge from 
the Andover settling tank. In this tank the experiment was tried of 



276 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

blowing air in at the outlet for a short time each day to stir up the sludge. 
The experiment proved unsuccessful. No fermentation was noted in 
this tank at any time and the sludge drawn from it was always in a very 
oifensive condition. 

Tanl- P was operated from Jan. 20 to Oct. *29, 1913, with sludge from 
the Andover settling tank. A small amount of water was forced in at 
the outlet occasionally to stir up the sludge and assist in the elimination 
of soluble matters. No active fermentation occurred at any time in this 
tank, but after the first four or five months more or less gas came to the 
surface when the tank was jarred. 

Tanl- Q was operated from April 11 to Oct. 29, 1913, with sludge fiom 
the settling tank at the experiment station, to which lime in the pro- 
portion of about 154 grains per gallon had been added. Fermentation 
became active in this tank during the second month and continued until 
the experiment was discontinued. 

Tank R was operated from April 18 to Oct. 29, 1913, with sludge 
from the Andover settling tank, to which sufficient copperas and caustic 
soda had been added to make the amount of Fe02H2 in the sludge 
equivalent to about 20 per cent, of the total solids. Although no notice- 
able fermentation occurred in this tank there was a marked improve- 
ment in the character of the sludge withdrawn after the first two months. 

Tanl S was operated from May 23 to Oct. 29, 1913, with sludge from 
the settling tank at the station. In order to study the effect of higher 
pressures this tank was made 30 feet in depth instead of 17 feet in depth, 
as was the case with the tanks previously described, thus doubling the 
hydrostatic pressure upon the sludge in the bottom of the tank. Fermen- 
tation became active in this tank during the second month of operation. 

Effect of Storage upon Odor of Sludge. 
As a result of these experiments it was evident that the production of 
an inoffensive sludge by storage in deep tanks is in a considerable meas- 
ure dependent upon the character of the sludge placed in the tanks, but 
that in certain cases, at least, slight changes in the operation of the tank 
or the addition of certain chemicals to the sludge may be sufficient to 
make the process effective so far as the production of a comparatively 
odorless sludge is concerned. In practically every instance where an 
odorless sludge was produced, fermentation was more or less active within 
the tank. In Tank S, which was 30 feet deep and started during warm 
weather, sludge from the settling tank at the experiment station always 
became odorless after two months' storage. In Tank I sludge from the 
same source continued to be decidedly offensive through seven months' 
operation of the tank, and although the latter part of this period was in 



No. U.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 277 

warm weather, feniientation was not active. When the contents of Tank 
1 were agitated occasionally, however, by forcing a small quantity of 
water in at the bottom of the tank, fermenting action increased and the 
sludge drawn from the tank was odorless, but whether the fermentation 
started as the result of the agitation or whether it would have started as 
the result of warmer weather, could not be determined. Storage was 
not effective in producing any appreciable reduction in offensiveness of 
the sludge from the Andover settling tank, and even stirring the contents 
of this tank, as was tried in Tanks M and P or by forcing air up through 
the tank as was tried in Tank 0, also caused no appreciable decrease of 
odor. The presence of considerable amounts of chemicals appears, in 
some cases at least, to have assisted in the production of a nonodorous 
sludge during storage. The tannery sludge which contained large 
amounts of the chemicals from the tanning process became odorless after 
a short storage in Tank K, and the sludge obtained by precipitation of 
Lawrence sewage with iron and caustic soda became practically odorless 
during storage in Tank J. The addition of iron to the sludge from the 
Andover settling tank before treatment in Tank E, and the addition of 
lime to the sludge from the Lawrence settling tank before treatment in 
Tank Q, also appeared to assist in the production of odorless sludges, 
while the Lawrence sludge to which hydrate of alumina was added de- 
veloped a benzol-like odor and became inoffensive after storage in Tank 
N. In the case of the mixed sludges of relatively low iron content 
treated in Tank L and in the case of addition of lime to the Andover 
sludge treated in Tank M, the odor became somewhat ammoniacal and 
less offensive than previously, but in neither case was an odorless sludge 
produced. 

Sulphides in Sludge. 
It is well known that many organic compounds found in sewage con- 
tain sulphur, and that the offensive odors resulting from putrefying or- 
ganic matter are in a greater or less measure due to the breaking down 
of these sulphur compounds and to the liberation of hydrogen sulphide 
or other ill-smelling sulphur compounds. As already stated, it is quite 
possible that the fact that an odorless sludge is produced by bacterial 
forces in certain cases and an offensive sludge is produced under similar 
conditions at other places may be due to the fact in the first case that the 
sewage or sludge contains certain substances such as hydrate of iron, 
which will combine with and fix these malodorous sulphur compounds 
as fast as they are liberated. Throughout these experiments samples of 
the various sludges were treated with acid, and the HoS driven off and 
determined by absorption with standard iodine solution. By this method. 



278 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



both H2S and sulphur present as sulphides are shown as HoS, but other 
forms or combinations of sulphur which might be present in the sludge 
are not shown. 

From the results of these tests little or no relation between the amount 
of sulphides present in the sludge and the offensiveness or nonoffensive- 
ness of that sludge is apparent. The Andover sludge after treatment in 
Tanks M and P contained very small amounts of H2S, but was always 
very offensive, while the sludge from the Lawrence sewage after treat- 
ment in Tanks I and S was practically odorless, although yielding more 
than three times as much H2S as the sludges from Tanks M and P. The 
amounts of HoS found in the sludges from Tanks J and E, which were 
of high iron content, were considerably larger than the amounts found 
in the same sludges after treatment in other tanks, but without the ad- 
dition of chemicals. Both of these sludges were comparatively odorless. 
The sludge from Tank L, containing some iron, never became inoffensive, 
but yielded about three times the amounts of H2S as the sludges from 
Tanks J and R, which were practically odorless and contained about 
four times as much iron. The sludge in Tanks N and Q contained large 
proportions of aluminum hydrate and lime, respectively, the latter of- 
which would combine with H2S to form stable sulphides, while the former 
would not form such combinations. Both of these sludges became odor- 
less, and the H2S found in each was practically the same and much less 
in amount than was found in sludges from Tanks I and S which con- 
tained no added chemicals. 

The average amount of sulphides in each of these various sludges was 
as follows : — 



Tank. 


Parts 
per 100,000 

(H.S). 


Tank. 


Parts 
per 100,000 

(H28). 


I 

J 

K 

L 

M 


35 
51 
27 
120 
15 


N, 

P 

Q 

R, 

S, 


27 
11 
29 
17 
36 



Water Content and Ease of Draining. 
A point of very practical importance when considering the disposal 
of sludge is the amount of water carried by that sludge, and the pro- 
portion of that water which may be eliminated when the sludge is drawn 
off onto draining beds. A reduction in the water content of a sludge 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 279 

from 98 per cent, to 96 per cent, will result in a reduction of about 
50 per cent, in the bulk of that sludge, while a further reduction in 
water content to 90 per cent, will cause a shrinkage in the amount of 
sludge to be handled to about one-tenth its original volume. Throughout 
these experiments careful determinations have been made of the amount 
of water in the various sludges before and after storage in the different 
tanks, and in the sludge draA\Ti from the tanks after draining for a 
period of ten days on a filter of coarse sand. 

There are two different methods used in expressing the moisture con- 
tent of sludge. Most writers upon sewage treatment consider the water 
and the soluble matters which it contains as component parts of the 
sludge, and in determining water content include the matters dissolved 
in the water as a part of the dry sludge. Other writers, however, con- 
sider the suspended or nonsoluble matters only as sludge, and include 
everything in solution in the water as part of the water content of the 
sludge. As to which method is correct depends upon the viewpoint and 
the purpose of the results. The soluble matters add a certain weight to 
the sludge if it has to be handled in a wet condition, but in draining a 
certain proportion of the loss of weight is due to the soluble matters 
which have drained away with the water. The amount of soluble matters 
in ordinary sewage sludge is such a small proportion of the total weight 
that the difference in the water content expressed upon either basis is 
relatively small, but in order that the results obtained in different places 
may be compared, the basis on which those results were computed should 
be known. 

The percentage of water in the sludges applied to the various tanks 
at different times varied from 93 per cent, to over 99 per cent., the average 
water content of most of them being about 98 per cent. After storage in 
the tanks, the percentage of water in each sludge was always much re- 
duced, the greatest reduction during storage occurring in the tannery 
sludge treated in Tank K, in which the water content was reduced to 
about 88 per cent., corresponding to a reduction in bulk of about Td per 
cent. This sludge was of such consistency after tank treatment that, 
when piled up in irregular heaps upon the draining bed, it would retain 
its form, — a condition which was obtained with none of the other sludges 
studied. A much smaller compaction and reduction of water content 
occurred when considerable proportions of iron were present, and the 
same fact was observed in the case of the Lawrence sludges, to which 
considerable amounts of lime or aluminum hydrate had been added. 
The average water content of the untreated sludges after storage was 
about 91 per cent., and the average proportion of water in the heavily 
chemically treated sludges after storage was about 93 to 94 per cent. 



280 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



The occurrence or nonoccurrence of active fermentation in these tanks, 
which as previously pointed out was an important factor in the production 
of an inoffensive sludge, apparently had little effect upon the water con- 
tent of the sludge as drawn from the tanks. On the other hand, an im- 
provement in the drainability of the sludge almost always followed the 
occurrence of fermentation in any of the tanks. Stirring the sludge and 
removal of soluble matters by forcing water in at the outlet also appears 
to have favorably affected the drainability of the sludge in the case of 
Tanks I and M, although it apparently was of little effect in the case of 
Tank P. The lowest water content obtained after draining any of the 
sludge drawn from the various tanks was about 55 per cent., this being 
the proportion of moisture in the drained sludge from Tank K, in Novem- 
ber, 1912, and in that from Tank L in July, 1912. The lowest average 
moisture content was obtained in the case of the tannery sludge from 
Tank K, which contained about 61 per cent, water after draining. The 
chemically treated sludges from Tanks L, N and Q, and the natural 
sludge from the 30-foot Tank S, all averaged less than 68 per cent, water 
after draining. On the other hand, the heavily iron-treated sludge from 
Tank J and the natural sludges from the Andover and Lawrence sewages 
treated in Tanks M and I, respectively, averaged 77 and 78 per cent, 
water even after being drained for ten days. 

The water content of the various sludges before and after storage and 
after draining are shown in the following table : — 













Per Cent. 


Water in Sludges. 






Tank. 


SLTTDGE 


ENTERING TANK. 


SLUDGE DRAWN FROM 
TANK. 


SLUDGE 


AFTER DRAININO 
TEN DAYS. 




Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 




age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


I, . . . 


98 3 


99 5 


95 1 


91 3 


93 2 


89.7 


76 6 


84.0 


70 8 


J. 






98.2 


99 8 


95 


93 3 


96 5 


85 7 


76.8 


84.0 


54 9 


K, 






97.7 


99 2 


93 3 


88.1 


96 6 


84.4 


69 3 


78 


55 2 


L, 






98 2 


99.6 


96 


91.1 


95 8 


88.7 


67 1 


75.0 


55 7 


M. 






98.8 


99 4 


98.1 


91.6 


98 6 


89 2 


77.6 


81 8 


68 


N, 






96 9 


97 4 


96 4 


94 3 


97 


91 6 


63 8 


65 


62 7 


P. 






98 7 


99 2 


98 1 


91 2 


92 7 


90 3 


72 5 


77 


63 1 


Q. 






97 9 


99.6 


95 9 


93 7 


95 5 


92.1 


63 6 


65 


62 7 


R. 






98 1 


98 1 


98.1 


95 2 


97 8 


92 6 


60 9 


617 


60 


s, 






97.9 


98.8 


96.4 


91 3 


92 1 


90 1 


65 9 


68 


64 6 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 281 

Changes in the Composition of Sludge during Storage. 

The changes occurring in the composition of sewage sludge during 
storage result from two entirely different causes, one mechanical and the 
other biochemical. During storage the particles of sludge in the bottom 
of the tank, under the influence of gravity and the pressure of the sludge 
and water above, are compacted and pressed together and more or less 
water and water-soluble matters are squeezed out mechanically. At the 
same time, bacteria and other microscopical life may be active in breaking 
down the complex-suspended solids into simpler forms, some of which are 
soluble in water and others of which are in the form of free gases, which, 
when sufficiently large in amount, tend to overcome the mechanical 
effect of gravity and pressure and to loosen up and in some cases float 
the sludge. The two forces, mechanical and biolytic, or biochemical, 
are at work simultaneously, and it is impossible to entirely separate the 
results of one process from the other. The major effect of the mechani- 
cal forces is in the reduction of the water content, which is discussed 
in another chapter, although even in the change in the water content 
the biolytic action undoubtedly plays an important part by changing 
the size and shape and also the specific gravity of the particles of in- 
soluble matter which make up the sludge mass. The composite effect 
of these two forces is to be noted in the analyses of the sludge before and 
after storage in the various tanks. In every case a large increase is to 
be observed in the total and suspended solids and in the organic nitrogen, 
oxygen consumed and fats in the sludge after passage through the tank, 
which are due in a large measure to the concentration of the sludge and 
the elimination of water. In every case, also, there was a large increase 
in the soluble organic matters and in the free ammonia in the sludge 
after storage, which must be attributed to the breaking down of the 
organic matter by biolytic action. 

In order to determine the whole amount of decomposition occurring 
in the various tanks, it is necessary to take into consideration, also, the 
average composition of all the sludge which remained in the tank at the 
end of each experiment and of the supernatant liquid displaced by the 
addition of fresh sludge to the tanks, and also the soluble matters 
washed out of the sludge by the introduction of water at the outlet 
where such practice was tried. These various factors have been included 
in the computations of the efficiency of the various sludge tanks, as 
shown in a following table. There was a great difference in the effect 
of storage in the different tanks. The total reduction of suspended solids 
in the untreated Lawrence sludge in 16-foot Tank I was about 19 per 
cent., and in 30-foot Tank S was nearly 30 per cent. Fermentation was 



282 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

more active in the latter tank, so that the superior results obtained can- 
not be entirely attributed to the use of the deeper tank. In the case 
of Tank I, breaking down of the suspended matters was apparently has- 
tened to some extent during the latter portion of the experiment by the 
occasional introduction of water at the outlet. In the case of the Law- 
rence sludges containing hydrate of iron in Tanks J and L, and the 
sludge containing hydrate of alumina in Tank N, the reduction in in- 
soluble matters during storage was somewhat less than in the case of 
the sludges from the same source without added chemicals. Treatment 
with lime, however, appears to have helped the breaking down of the 
suspended matters, the average reduction in Tank Q being over 50 per 
cent. In the case of the Andover sludge in Tanks M and P, there was 
practically no reduction in the amount of insoluble matters, and addi- 
tion of lime in the case of Tank M, and the introduction of water at the 
outlet in the case of Tank P, apparently had little effect. In the Andover 
sludge which had been treated with hydrate of iron (Tank E), how- 
ever, the reduction in insoluble matters was about 78 per cent., the 
largest reduction observed in any of the tanks. 

The changes in the fat content are of particular interest, as the fats 
are among the most resistant to hydrolytic action of the organic com- 
pounds in sewage, while their presence in considerable amounts un- 
favorably affects the consistency and drainability of the sludge. With 
one exception there was a considerable reduction in fat content of the 
different sludges during storage. In the case of the tannery sludge in 
Tank K, there is an apparent increase in fat content which cannot be 
satisfactorily explained. In Tanks M and E the proportion of fats 
destroyed was between 30 and 44 per cent., in Tanks I and L it was 
between 40 and 50 per cent., while in Tanks J and iST the destruction of 
fats amounted to about 70 per cent., and in Tanks Q and S about 80 
per cent, of the fats in the sludge was destroyed. So far as can be de- 
termined from the results, there is little apparent relation between the 
character of the sludge treated or the method of operation and the de- 
struction of fats in the various tanks. 

While there was a marked change in the nitrogenous constituents of 
the various sludges, there was much less variation in the reduction of 
total and insoluble inorganic nitrogen in the various tanks than was the 
case in the total insoluble matters and fats. The smallest reduction in 
total organic nitrogen was about 22 per cent, in Tanks M and S, and the 
largest was about 48 per cent, in Tank E. In seven of the tanks the 
reduction in insoluble organic nitrogen was between 30 and 40 per cent., 
while in Tanks P and S the reduction was about 26 and 23 per cent., 
respectively, and in Tank Q the reduction was about 42 per cent. The 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



283 



presence of lime, aluminum hydrate and ferrous hydrate in considerable 
amounts appears to a certain extent to have assisted in the breaking down 
of the insoluble organic matters of the sludges, in each case the chemical 
sludge showing a greater reduction in insoluble organic nitrogen than 
the same sludge without added chemicals. Judging from the results, lime 
was somewhat more effective in this respect than either of the other 
chemicals, and in the one case where it was tried, the aluminum hydrate 
was somewhat more effective than the ferrous hydrate. In nearly all 
of the tanks more than half of the nitrogen released by the breaking 
down of organic nitrogen was found as free ammonia either in the water 
mixed with the sludge or in the overflow from the tank. In the case 
of the aluminum-treated sludge in Tank N, however, only about one- 
sixth of the nitrogen from the decomposition of organic matters was 
found as free ammonia, while in Tanks P and S there was an increase 
in free ammonia considerably larger than can be accounted for by the 
reduction in the organic nitrogen. In six of the ten tanks included in 
the computations there was apparently an increase in total nitrogen. In 
every case except one, this apparent increase is small and might have been 
due to sampling errors. The results on Tank P, however, show an ap- 
parent increase in total nitrogen in the tank of about 19 per cent., which 
is too large to be attributed to sampling errors, but which cannot be 
otherwise explained. In the case of Tanks M, Q, R and N there Avas a 
loss in total nitrogen of about 10, 14, 18 and 25 per cent., respectively. 

The average analysis of the various sludges before and after storage 
in the different tanks, and the amount of decomposition effected in those 
tanks, are shown in the following tables : — 



Sludges Applied to Tanks. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Solids. 




Kjeldahl 










1 




Nitrogen. 






TOTAL. 1 


IN SOLUTION. 1 


Free 
Am- 




Oxygen 
; con- 




Tank. 














Fats. 






Loss on 




Loss on 


monia. 




In So- 


sumed. 






Total. 


Ig- 
nition. 


Total. 


Ig- 
nition. 




Total. 


lution. 


! 
i 




I, 


1,783 


1,151 


67 4 


28 5 


8 46 


48 1 


0.72 


133 


294 


J. 






1,867 


882 


76 


24 3 


7.46 


39 6 


0.34 


216 


108 


K, 






2,483 


1,342 


170 


53 7 


11.29 


50 3 


82 


238 


274 


L, 






1,858 


1,075 


69 9 


26 7 


8 37 


42 1 


52 


155 


210 


M, 






1,361 


978 


138 9 


62 7 


9 16 


45 


3 71 


120 


240 


N, 






3,217 


1,953 


104 9 


30 4 


11 37 


77 9 


67 


211 


479 


P, 






1,455 


1,151 


109 2 


61 7 


7.50 


45 


2.80 


106 


407 


Q. 






2,209 


1,154 


106 9 


45 7 


13 35 


48 4 


2 92 


163 


262 


T? 






2,509 


1,306 


642 8 


110 4 


8 00 


54 6 


11 74 


172 


552 


s, 






2,148 


1,082 


59 1 


20.9 


10 86 


49 8 


0.61 


189 


251 



284 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Effluent from Sludge Tanks. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Solids. 


Free 
Am- 
monia. 


KjELDAHL 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 






TOTAL. 


IN SOLUTION. 


Nitrogen. 




Tank. 


Total. 


Loas on 

Ig- 
nition. 


Total. 


Loss on 

Ig- 
nition. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Fats. 


I. • 


8,908 


5,244 


240.1 


120.0 


52.00 


192.9 


1.99 


619 


1,015 


J. 






6,848 


2,912 


126.4 


64.2 


40 20 


123 9 


1 67 


732 


236 


K, 






12,269 


6,677 


385.6 


182,8 


54.00 


170.3 


2.40 


924 


2,137 


L. 






9,003 


3.875 


131.1 


68.3 


52 74 


141.6 


1.65 


708 


426 


M. 






8,788 


5,825 


588.8 


324.5 


49 86 


163.6 


23.56 


571 


1,031 


N, 






5,094 


2,823 


123 5 


53 9 


18.83 


87.7 


1.00 


299 


302 


P, 






7,603 


5,439 


210.6 


100.6 


30 50 


179.7 


2.29 


618 


1,756 


Q, 






7,230 


3,346 


195.9 


89.2 


70.25 


135.9 


1.61 


577 


873 


R. 






4,121 


2,056 


470 3 


175.7 


33.53 


68.8 


0.76 


295 


806 


s. 






7,465 


2,992 


163.6 


39 6 


53.00 


150.0 

1 


1.34 


625 


451 



Efficiency of Various Sludge Tanks. 

















Per Cent. Reduction. 


Per Cent. 
Organic 


Tank. 


Total 
Insoluble 
Matters. 


Total 
Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Insoluble 
Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Fats. 


Nitrogen 
changed to 

Free 
Ammonia. 


I, 


18 6 


28 9 


30.3 


49.0 


19 


J, 














11.6 


32 9 


33.7 


69 8 


27 9 


K, 














16 8 


31 6 


32 5 


13 2' 


19 7 


L, 














14 3 


29.1 


30 


43 4 


19 7 


M, 














3 6 


22 4 


37.7 


30 5 


11 1 


N. 














16 9 


34 5 


36.0 


71.7 


6 


P, 














3 2 


23.6 


26.2 


17.9 


45 


Q. 














51.5 


42.2 


42.3 


80.5 


31 1 


R, 

s. 














78 1 
29 9 


48 3 
21.7 


35 7 
22 7 


33 1 

79.3 


28 3 
30 8 



' Increa.se. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 285 



Bacteriology of Sludges. 

Throughout the investigation counts have been made of the total num- 
bers of bacteria and of anaerobic bacteria on agar after four days at room 
temperature and of the total and red colonies on litmus-lactose agar after 
twenty-four hours at body temperature on the various sludges before and 
after treatment in the tanks, and tests for B. coli have been made on 
all samples in successive dilutions. 

There was a large fluctuation in the bacterial content of the various 
sludges which may be attributed in part to the fact that the sludges not 
only contained large numbers of bacteria but were also of such consistency 
that it was difficult to obtain representative samples. In all but two of 
the tanks the average bacterial results show a reduction in the numbers 
of bacteria in the sludge during storage ranging from about 73 per cent, 
in the case of Tank S to nearly 99 per cent, in the case of Tank P. A 
similar reduction is also to be noted in the numbers of anaerobes in these 
sludges, and a somewhat larger reduction in the numbers of bacteria of 
the types growing at body temperature. In the case of Tanks Q and E, 
not only was the reduction in body temperature bacteria much less than 
in the other tanks, but there was an increase in the total bacteria in the 
sludge in both tanks and a small increase in the anaerobic bacteria in the 
case of Tank E. From a sanitary viewpoint the most interesting fact is 
the marked reduction in bacteria of the colon type. The greatest de- 
stniction of B. coli is to be observed in the case of Tank M. In nearly 
40 per cent, of the samples of sludge applied to this tank, 1,000,000 or 
more bacteria of this type were found, while in the tank effluent, B. coli 
could not be found in 1 cubic centimeter in over 40 per cent, of the 
samples examined and was absent in 10 cubic centimeters in about one- 
fourth of the samples. Even in the case of Tank Q, from which no 
sample of the stored sludge was obtained containing less than 100 B. coli, 
the average reduction was about 99.6 per cent. 

On certain of the sludge samples counts were also made of the num- 
bers of sulphide-producing bacteria by the use of agar to which a sus- 
pension of bismuth subnitrate had been added. The number of such 
samples was much smaller than those analyzed by the regular procedure 
and for this reason the average results of these special tests are not 
strictly comparable with the other bacterial averages. In the majority 
of instances the numbers of bacteria determined on the bismuth media 
were very much smaller than on the regular media, and this fact must 
also be taken into account in considering the results of these tests, as it 
is quite probable that the sulphide-forming bacteria may also have been 
reduced in similar proportion. In the sludge from Tank P, however, the 



286 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



numbers of bacteria on the bismuth media were higher than on the regu- 
lar media. In general, omitting the apparently abnormal results obtained 
in the case of Tank P, the sludges in which the largest numbers of 
sulphide bacteria were found were also those in which the largest amounts 
of sulphides were found by analysis. Furthermore, in the case of the 
sludges from Tanks I and S from which 35 and 36 parts HoS were 
obtained, the numbers of sulphide bacteria found were about 11 and 16 
per cent., respectively, of the total bacterial count, while in the case of 
sludges M and E from which only about one-half as much HoS was 
obtained, the numbers of sulphide bacteria were only 6 and 3 per cent., 
respectively, of the total numbers of bacteria in the sludge. 

The average results of the various bacterial examinations are shown in 
the following tables : — 



Average Numbers of Bacteria. 











Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 




Tank. 


20° 


C. 


40" 


C. 


Sulphide- 




Total. 


Anaerobes. 


Total. 


Red. 


producing 
Bacteria. 


I, . 


f Applied, 


19,019,000 


8,461,500 


1,372,200 


1,183,600 


1,600,000 


I Effluent, 






473,600 


516,800 


9,400 


5,300 


120,000 


J. . 


f Applied, 
" [ Effluent, 






3,681,000 


838,100 


157,700 


133,900 








383,500 


51,500 


8,400 


3,500 


- 


K, . 


f Applied, 
' [ Effluent, 






9,370,000 
1,419,300 


914,200 
16,600 


676,100 
42,100 


262,300 
16,800 


- 


L, . 


[■ Applied, 
" [ Effluent, 






12.257,000 


4,058,500 


661,800 


599,000 


- 






732,500 


47,600 


8,800 


2,800 


- 


M, . 


1 Applied, 
' [ Effluent, 






19,057,000 


13,658,600 


5,452,400 


4,863,600 


1,200 






1,239,500 


158,200 


25,700 


19,300 


950 




f Applied, 
" 1. Effluent. 






25,514,000 


17,457,000 


1,124,000 


912,900 


- 








1,045,000 


792,500 


12,200 


850 


69,000 


P. . 


f Applied, 






39,083,000 


26,867,000 


8,652,000 


7,632,000 


- 


, 1. Effluent, 






474,500 


347,.300 


9,700 


1,425 


128,000 


Q, . 


f Applied, 
i Effluent, 






8,063,000 


6,759,000 


210,500 


161,800 


235,000 






9,090,000 


5,663,000 


166,500 


45,800 


1,305,000 


R, . 


f Applied, 






360,000 


620,000 


52,000 


36,000 


- 


■ ■! 

[ Effluent, 






528,800 


660,700 


22,200 


13,900 


20,000 


S, . 


f Applied, 






11,580,000 


15,540,000 


626,000 


514,000 


657,500 


' 1 Effluent, 






3,090,000 


6,993,000 


112,600 


74,100 


750,000 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



287 

















Summary 


of Bacterial Results. 










Per Cen-t. Reditction. 




Per Cent, of 


Tank. 


■20" 


C. 


40' 


C. 


Bacteria in 
Stored Sludge 




Total. 


Anaerobea. 


Total. 


Red. 


producia? 
Sulphides. 


I 


97.5 


99.3 


99 6 


93 9 


16 


J. 














89 6 


94.7 


97 4 


93 9 


- 


K, 














84 9 


93.8 


93 6 


98 2 


- 


L. 














94 1 


98 7 


99 5 


98 8 


- 


M, 














93 5 


98 8 


99 5 


99 6 


5 9 


N. 














95.9 


95 5 


98 9 


99.9 


6 6 


P. 














98.8 


98.7 


99 9 


99 9 


73 61 


Q. 














12 8 = 


16 2 


20 8 


71.8 


8 1 


R. 














47.02 


6.6« 


57 3 


61 4 


3 1 


s, 














73.4 


55.0 


82.0 


85 6 


11 1 








Pro 


babb 


• abn 


or 


mal. 






2 Increase 





Results of B. Coll Tests. 









Per Cent, of S.vmples containing B. Coli. 




Tank. 


10 
c. c. 


1 

c. c. 


1 
c. c. 


.01 
c. c. 


.001 
c. c. 


.0001 
c. c. 


.00001 
c. c. 


.000001 
c. c. 


I, . 


Applied, . 


100 


100 


100 


96 


96 


93 


44 


11 


. Effluent, 




100 


73 


27 


18 


9 











J. . 


f Applied, 
' [ Effluent, 




100 
100 


100 
78 


100 
67 


100 
44 


88 
22 


59 
11 


6 







K. . 


f Applied, 
" (, Effluent, 




100 


100 


78 


67 


33 


11 










100 


86 


29 


14 


14 


14 








L, . 


f -Applied, 
t Effluent, 




100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


74 


42 


5 




100 


100 


50 


17 














M, . 


1 .Applied, 
I. Effluent, 




100 


88 


81 


75 


69 


63 


56 


38 




75 


58 


25 


8 














N, . 


f Applied, 




100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


72 





[ Effluent, 




100 


100 


100 

















P, . 


f Applied, 
' [ Effluent, 




100 


72 


43 


29 


29 


14 










100 


100 




















Q. . 


f Applied, 
' [ Effluent, 




100 


100 


88 


75 


63 


50 


25 


13 




100 


100 


100 


100 


50 











R, . 


f .A.pplied, 




100 


72 


43 


29 


29 


14 








[ Effluent, 




100 


100 


50 


25 


25 











S, . 


f Applied, 




100 


100 


80 


80 


80 


80 


60 


20 


' 1 Effluent, 




100 


100 


100 


75 


25 












288 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Aeration of Sewage. 
During an investigation on the effect of pollution of water on fish life 
during 1911 and 1912, it was observed that a marked clarification resulted 
after air had been blown through sewage for a time, and that when 
growtlis of certain green algse occurred in the aerated sewage, it remained 
saturated wath oxygen without further aeration. The results of certain 
preliminary experiments which were made during 1912 for the further 
study of these points were described on pages 290 to 292 of the report 
for that year. During 1913 experiments along this line were continued 
and a method of treating sewage by aeration in tanks containing layers 
of slate was evolved, by which not only was the putrescibility of the sew- 
age very largely reduced but a very complete removal of suspended and 
colloidal matters was also obtained. This aerated, clarified sewage can 
be further purified by filtration at higher rates than have hitherto been 
practical in sewage disposal. Furthermore, the sludge resulting from the 
collected suspended and other matters is nonoffensive, easily drainable 
and can be readily disposed of without creating a nuisance. 

Former Studies. 

The idea of using mechanical aeration in sewage purification is not 
new. More than thirty years ago the value of aeration in connection with 
precipitation with lime was extensively studied by Dr. Angus Smith, and 
in his report to the Local Government Board (England) in 1882, he 
shows that putrefaction is delayed and the subsequent formation of 
nitrates is facilitated by agitation of the treated sewage with a current 
of air. 

In 1884 aeration of sewage was studied by Dupre and Dibdin,^ who 
concluded that aeration had comparatively little effect upon the sewage 
and waters with which they experimented. In 1888 a British patent was 
issued to Messrs. Hartland and Kaye-Parry for a process of sewage treat- 
ment which included a chamber in which air was blown through the 
sewage. In 1890 and 1891 investigations on the effect of agitation and 
aeration upon the organic content of water and of mixtures of water and 
sewage were made by the late Dr. Drown - in the laboratories of the Mas- 
sachusetts State Board of Health, and by Mason and Hine ^ at Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, and studies of the change in the character of the 
Niagara River after passing over Niagara Falls were made by Professor 
Leeds.* In each of these investigations it was concluded that the oxi- 

1 Report of Royal Commission on Metropolitan Sewage Discharge, Vol. 2, 1884. 

2 Twenty-third Annual Report of Massachusetts State Board of Health, 1891. 

3 Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol 14, 1891. 
< Quoted by Mason. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 289 

dation of organic matters in water was not hastened to any great extent 
by agitation and aeration. The late Colonel Waring/ after a series of 
experiments at Newport, E. I., from 1892 to 1894, constructed a plant 
at Wayne, Pa., in which sewage in a tank had a current of air blown 
through it for several hours, and was then passed through filters which 
were also artificially aerated. 

Investigations on the value of artificial aeration of sewage filters of 
coarse material were begun at the Lawrence Experiment Station - in 
1891 and continued until 1898, and similar experiments were made by 
Lowcock ^ in England in 1892. These experiments were upon the aera- 
tion of filters, however, and not of sewage held in tanks. 

In 1910 experiments upon aeration of sewage were made upon a 
somewhat larger scale by Black and Phelps * in connection with investi- 
gations on the discharge of sewage into New York harbor. In these lat- 
ter studies a change in the degree of stability or putrescibility rather 
than a change in the organic content of the sewage appears to have 
been the principal object, and it was shown that under proper condi- 
tions of aeration a considerable reduction in putrescibility could be ac- 
complished. In none of these various investigations does any change in 
the character of the suspended matters or any clarification of the sewage 
appear to have been noted. 

Development of the Lawrence Process. 
The process developed at the Lawrence Experiment Station, however, 
as regards its efficiency in collecting suspended and colloidal matters 
and thereby producing a clarification of the sewage, which is fully as 
important as the reduction in putrescibility, is entirely new. 

Method and Results of First Aeration Experiments. 
On April 16, 1912, new experiments were started at Lawrence to study 
the effect of aeration of sewage and also the effect of aeration combined 
with the action of green algfe. At the same time, three small sand filters 
were started to determine the efi^cct of these preliminary treatments upon 
the subsequent purification of the sewage by filtration, one of the filters 
being operated as a control with unaerated sewage and the other two re- 
ceiving sewage after treatment by these different methods. For con- 
venience the sewage prepared according to each of these different methods 
will be designated by the number of the filter to which it was applied. 

1 Rafter and Baker. Sewage Disposal in the United States, 1894, p. 535. 

2 Reports of Massachusetts State Board of Health, 1891 to 1898, inclusive. 

3 Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 1893. 

* Report to Board of Estimate and Apportionment on Discharge of Sewage into New York Harbor, 
March 23, 1911. 



290 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Sewage clarified by straining was used. The sewage for Filter No. 446 
was aerated continuously for twenty-four hours and then allowed to settle 
for one hour, and the sewage for Filter No. 447 was seeded with 20 
per cent, of sewage containing a strong growth of green algae (mainly 
Scenedesmus and Protococcus), the mixture being aerated for twenty- 
four hours, and then allowed to stand an additional twenty-four hours 
to permit further growth of algae. Throughout this experiment, aeration 
was carried out in gallon bottles, air being supplied by an ordinary 
Eichards pump. During the first three months the bottles used were 
cleaned at frequent intervals but during the greater part of the experi- 
ment the bottles used in aerating the sewage for Filter No. 446 were 
cleaned only when green growths occurred on the glass, while after these 
first months those used in aerating the sewage for Filter No. 447 were 
not cleaned. 

The effect upon the sewage of aeration and of aeration combined with 
algal inoculation was quite different, especially during 1912, when the 
culture of algae was active. From April 16 to July 28, when settled 
sewage was used, aeration reduced the free ammonia 32 per cent, and 
the Kjeldahl nitrogen 38 per cent., while inoculation and aeration gave 
a reduction of about 44 per cent, in free ammonia and about 23 per cent, 
in Kjeldahl nitrogen. In both processes the reduction in oxygen con- 
sumed was about 43 per cent. The reduction in soluble nitrogen, however, 
in both sewages during this period was remarkable, averaging about 45 
per cent, in the aerated sewage and about 50 per cent, in the inoculated 
sewage. During this period, nitrification of the sewage in either set of 
bottles was not suspected, and no tests were made for nitrates and nitrites. 
During August, however, the aerated sewage contained nitrites and small 
amounts of nitrates, and the inoculated sewage contained over 1.5 parts 
per 100,000 nitrates, and judging from the low free ammonia, it is evi- 
dent that nitrification was active in the "^ green growth '' bottles during 
the greater part of this period. After July 29 settled sewage was used 
instead of strained sewage for these experiments. Up to Feb. 4, 1913, 
the aerated sewage v-as prepared as before, but after October 2 the 
extra twenty-four-hour period allowed for the growth of algae after 
aeration of the inoculated sewage was discontinued, a large number 
of experiments having shown that practically all of the oxidation and 
nitrification of this sewage occurred during the twenty-four-hour aeration 
period. Comparing the effect of these two treatments during the 
period from July 29, 1912, to Feb. 4, 1913, it will be noted that the 
purification of the sewage by combined aeration and algal inoculation 
was somewhat better than wlien aeration alone was practiced. In 
the oxidation of carbonaceous matters, as shown by the oxygen con- 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 291 

sumed, both processes were of equal efficiency, the average reduction 
in oxygen consumed being about 64 per cent, in each ease. The re- 
duction in total nitrogen and in free ammonia in the inoculated sew- 
age, however, — about 66 per cent, and 39 per cent., respectively, — is 
somewhat greater than the reduction in these constituents, 61 and 31 per 
cent., respectively, in the plain aerated sewage. A considerable part of 
the greater efficiency of the combined process in the reduction of nitrog- 
enous matters can be attributed to the much greater amount of nitrifica- 
tion which occurred in the sewage containing algae, the average amount 
of nitrates in the aerated sewage being about 0.13 parts per 100,000, 
while in the inoculated and aerated sewage the nitrates averaged 1.14 
parts per 100,000, or nearly nine times as high. In August, 1912, when 
the nitrates in the inoculated sewage averaged 1.68 parts per 100,000, 
there was a reduction of over 86 per cent, in the free ammonia and over 
60 per cent, in the organic nitrogen and oxygen consumed. 

Owing to a decrease of vigor in the culture of algse used to inoculate 
the sewage, the growths during the greater part of 1913 were very feeble, 
and during this period nitrification was much less active in the in- 
oculated sewage. Notwithstanding the less active nitrification, however, 
the reduction in free ammonia in this sewage during the period from 
February to November, inclusive, averaged 52 per cent., or about 13 
per cent, higher than during the preceding period. The reduction in 
other forms of unoxidized nitrogen and in carbonaceous matters during 
this last period, although better than during the first period when 
strained sewage was used, was someAvhat less than in the second period 
when nitrification was most active. -It was particularly noted in this 
experiment that the heavier the green growth on the sides of the 
aerating bottles, the clearer the aerated sewage; in fact, in many in- 
stances the sewage prepared by this process compared favorably in 
appearance with effluents from sand filters. 

On February 4 the period of aeration for the sewage for Filter No. 446 
was reduced from twenty-four to twelve hours. On March 1 the aeration 
period was reduced to eight hours, and on May 1 it was further reduced 
to six hours. The change from twenty-four hours' to twelve hours' 
aeration was manifested by a reduction in oxidized nitrogen (that is, 
nitrates and nitrites together) from about 0.38 parts per 100,000 to about 
0.06 parts per 100,000, and with the further reduction in aeration to 
eight hours or less, the amount of oxidized nitrogen in the aerated 
sewage became inappreciable. The reduction in free ammonia became 
successively less with the reduction in the amount of aeration, the per- 
centage removal of this body dropping from 31 to 24 per cent, with the 
change from twenty-four hours' to twelve hours' aeration and to 14 per 



292 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

cent, with the change to eight hours' aeration. Little change is to be 
noted in the removal of organic nitrogen or carbonaceous matters as the 
results of cutting the aeration period to twelve hours, but with the change 
in aeration from twelve hours to eight hours and then to six hours, the 
elimination of organic nitrogen dropped from 67 per cent, to 42 per 
cent, and then to 24 per cent., and the elimination of carbonaceous mat- 
ters as shown by oxygen consumed dropped from 63 per cent, to 48 per 
cent, and then to 24 per cent. 

Aerating Tanlc. 
Following up the observation that an extremely well clarified sewage 
was obtained when there was a heavy growth upon the sides of the 
aerating bottles, a new aeration tank was put into operation on January 2 
in order to study the effect of aeration upon a somewhat larger scale and 
to furnish a supply of aerated sewage for the operation of a trickling 
filter. This tank as originally constructed contained layers of roofing 
slate placed in a horizontal position 1 inch apart for the deposition and 
collection of suspended and colloidal matters. The air, supplied by a 
small motor-driven blower, is distributed through a perforated pipe laid 
on the bottom of the tank. At the start the sewage was aerated twenty- 
four hours. On February 10 the aeration period was reduced to ten 
hours. On March 20 and again on April 22 the deposits on the slates 
were washed off with a stream of city water. On May 1 the period of 
aeration was reduced to eight hours, and on May 9 it was further reduced 
to seven hours. On May 13 the slates were again washed off with city 
water. On May 17 the aeration period was reduced to six hours. Up to 
June 26 the volume of air used was equivalent to about 200,000 cubic feet 
per hour per million gallons. On June 27 the aeration period was re- 
duced to five hours and the flow of air was reduced to 100,000 cubic feet 
per million gallons of sewage. On July 8 the tank was reconstructed, 
the slates being removed, washed and replaced in a vertical position 1 inch 
apart. About 1/2 inch of sludge was found deposited on each of the 
slates, this sludge being well fermented and nonoffensive. After recon- 
struction the tank was operated as before, the sewage Taeing aerated five 
hours with a volume of air equivalent to about 150,000 cubic feet per 
million gallons per hour. On September 9 the volume of air applied was 
reduced to 25,000 cubic feet per million gallons per hour. After Septem- 
ber 9 the sewage entering the tank was passed through an aerator of the 
dash-plate type in order that there might be some dissolved oxygen in the 
sewage when the air-blast was started. 

The various changes in the methods of operating this tank produced 
far less difl'erence in the efficiency of the process than might be expected 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 293 

from the wide difference in the period of aeration, and in the volume of 
air used at different times. At no time during the year was the efficiency 
of this tanl<: equal to the efficiency of- the similar process carried out in 
bottles described above. The greatest efficiency was obtained during the 
second period when the sewage was aerated for ten hours with air equiva- 
lent to 200,000 cubic feet per million gallons of sewage. During this 
period the average reduction in free ammonia was about 20 per cent., and 
the reduction in Kjeldahl nitrogen and in oxygen consumed was about 
56 and 61 per cent., respectively. The fact that the efficiency was greater 
during this period than during the preceding period when the sewage 
was aerated for twenty-four hours can probably be attributed to the fact 
that the period of five weeks was insufficient for the establishment of the 
gelatinous film upon the slates upon which the efficiency of the process in 
a large measure depends. With the gradual reduction in the length of 
aeration from ten hours to six hours, a lessening of the proportion of free 
ammonia and organic matters removed from the sewage is to be observed. 
During July and part of August, after the slates had been placed in a 
vertical position and the aeration reduced to five hours with air equivalent 
to 100,000 cubic feet per hour per million gallons, the reduction in free 
ammonia was about 15 per cent., but the reduction in organic nitrogen 
and in carbonaceous matters was less than during any of the previous 
periods. Here again the value of the gelatinous growths is to be ob- 
served, ilie reduction in Kjeldahl nitrogen during the part of August 
after the gelatinous film had been re-established being more than five 
times as great as in July when the slate surfaces were comparatively 
clean. During the last four months otthe year when only 25,000 cubic 
feet of air per million gallons were used for five hours, the reduction in 
Kjeldahl nitrogen was about 56 per cent., or equal to the best of any of 
the preceding periods, and there was also a slight increase in the elimina- 
tion of carbonaceous matters. 



Stability of Tanh Effluent. — Progressive Effect of Aeration. 

During the early part of the operation of this tank, when the aeration 
period was ten hours or more, a considerable proportion of the samples 
of the aerated sewage showed no signs of putrefaction even after incu- 
bation. During the latter part of the experiment, however, with greatly 
reduced aeration, the results of stability tests were less satisfactory. 
Unlike the bottle experiments there was never any appreciable amount 
of nitrification within this tank, the largest amount of nitrates found 
in any sample being .07 parts per 100,000. 

A number of series of samples have been collected from this tank at 



294 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



hourly intervals in order to study the progressive effect of aeration. The 
results of two such series, one with a rather weak sewage and one with a 
sewage of about average strength .are shown in the following table. It 
will be noted that there was a progressive reduction in both albuminoid 
ammonia and oxygen consumed in each series, but that the greatest re- 
duction was obtained during the first few hours. On the other hand there 
was little or no change in the free ammonia for some hours, and only 
during the latter part of the aeration period is any reduction to be ob- 
served. These results serve to confirm and explain the very different 
results obtained with different periods of aeration in both this tank and 
in the bottle experiments. 



Progressive Change in Sewage during Aeration. 







[Parts per 100,000.] 










Weak Sewage. 


Average Sewage. 




Free 
Ammonia. 


Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Free 
Ammonia. 


Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Start, 


1.40 


.57 


3.80 


4.70 


.46 


3.70 







Per Cent 


Reduction 








After one hour, . 





16 


21 





5 


30 


After two hours, 





35 


38 





13 


41 


After three hours, 





46 


49 





26 


45 


After four hours. 


7 


53 


55 





41 




After five hours. 


14 


58 


58 





44 




After six hours. 


29 


58 


59 


4 


44 


51 



Ejfed of Tanh on Clarification. 
Soon after the tank was put into operation the slates and sides of the 
tank became covered with a heavy brownish gray growth of a gelatinous 
consistency, which appeared to collect mechanically the suspended mat- 
ters and a large part of the colloidal matters of the sewage. After aera- 
tion was stopped, clear sewage could be drawn from the tank immedi- 
ately, the suspended matters being practically held by the growth upon 
the slates. Without taking into consideration the value of oxidation, 
which is amply shown in the results of the filtration of this sewage, the 
process as carried out in this tank produced a much better clarification 
of the sewage than did any of the clarification processes operated at the 
station with the single exception of the one in which the sewage was 
precipitated with excessively large quantities of copperas and lime. The 
smallest average removal of total and organic matters in suspension was 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 295 

over 77 per cent., and during the earlier portions of the experiment 
when air was applied at a high rate for from ten to twenty-four hours, 
the removal of suspended matters averaged over 90 per cent. During 
the last four months of the year when only 25,000 cubic feet of air per 
million gallons of sewage was applied for only five hours, the removal 
of total and organic matters in suspension averaged 82 and 80 per cent., 
respectively. 

Character of Sludge in Tank. 
With the slates in horizontal position it was necessary to remove the ac- 
cumulated matters from them by flushing at intervals, but during the 
latter portion of the experiment with the slates in a vertical position the 
jelly-like masses sloughed ofE from time to time in large flakes and 
settled almost immediately to the bottom of the tank. The sludge which 
is contained in the last inch or so of sewage in the bottom of the tank 
has been run to waste in these experiments. This sludge, owing to the 
fact that it is formed under strictly aerobic conditions, is inoffensive, of 
much lower water content than the sludge from other clarification proces- 
ses, and resembles quite closely the sediment discharged from trickling 
filters. In practice it should be possible to dispose of this sludge with 
much less trouble than is the case with the sludges resulting from the 
usual preliminary treatments. 

Depth of Sewage and Cost of Treatment. 

In this experimental tank the working depth of sewage was only about 
15 inches. In practice, however, it would probably prove more economical 
to use tanks of greater depth, since the increased cost of power to force 
the air through a deeper layer of sewage would probably be more than 
offset by the reduced cost of construction and by the fact that a given 
volume of air would be brought in contact with a much greater volume 
of sewage. For this reason the volumes of air used in these experiments 
have been computed and stated on the basis of a working depth of sewage 
of 5 feet. "With this depth of sewage, assuming electric power at 4 cents 
per kilowatt, it would cost about $1.85 to treat 1,000,000 gallons of 
sewage for five hours with 25,000 cubic feet of air per hour. 

The average results of these various experiments are shown in the 
f ollowinsf tables : — 



296 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Relative Efficiency of Different Aeration Processes. 

Aerated Sewage ajjplied to Filter No. 446. ' 



Period. 



Hours. 



Aerated. Settled 



April 16 to July 28, 1912, . 
July 29, 1912 to Feb. 3, 1913, 
Feb. 4 to 28, 1913, . 
March 1 to April 30, 1913, . 
May 1 to Nov. 30, 1913, . 



Volume of 
Air used. 2 



Unlimited 
Unlimited 
Unlimited 
Unlimited 
Unlimited 



Per Cent. Reduction. 



Free 
Am- 
monia. 



KJELDAHL NITRO- 
GEN. 



Total. 



37 
61 
67 
42 
24 



In So- 
lution. 



Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 



Inoculated and Aerated Sewage applied to Filter No. 447. ^ 



April 16 to July 28, 1912, . 
July29, 1912, toJan. 31, 1913, 
Feb. 1 to Nov. 30, 1913,4 . 



24 


Unlimited 


44 


23 


50 


43 


24 3 


Unlimited 


39 


66 


67 


64 





Unlimited 


52 


59 


55 


59 



Effluent Aeration Tank applied to Filter No. 449.^ 



Jan. 2 to Feb. 9, 1913, 


24 





200,000 


7 


41 


30 


59 


Feb. 10 to April 30, 1913, . 


10 





200,000 


20 


56 


27 


61 


May 1 to May 16, 1913, . 


7i' 





200,000 


3 


51 


7 


41 


May 17 to June 26, 1913, . 


6 





200,000 


8 


42 


25 


51 


July 1 to Aug. 31, 1913, . 


5 





100,000 


15 


37 


29 


41 


Sept. 1 to Nov. 30, 1913, . 


5 





25,000 


13 


56 


35 


44 



1 Strained sewage used up to July 29; settled sewage after that date. 

2 Cubic feet per million gallons per hour based on tank 5 feet in depth. 

3 Extra twenty-four hours allowed for growth of alg£e until Oct. 3, 1912. 

4 Algae culture very feeble. 

6 Raw sewage used throughout. 

6 Eight hours' aeration May 1 to 8; seven hours' aeration May 9 to 16. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



297 



Average Analyses of Seicages before and after Aeration. 

Strained Sewage before Aeration applied to Filter A'o. 445. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl N. 










Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 




Oxy- 
gen 


Period. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


con- 
sumed. 


Aprilieto July 28, 1912, . 


3.08 


.33 


.25 


.65 


.54 


- 




2.24 



Settled Sewage before Aeration applied to Filter No. 44o. 



July 29, 1912, to Nov. 30, 1913, 



3.59 



40 .26 



75 .48 



Raw Sewage before Aeration applied to Filter No. 449. 



Jan. 2 to Nov. 30, 1913, 



3.83 



34 1.17 



Aerated Sewage applied to Filter No. 446. 



April 16 to July 28, 1912, . 
July 29, 1912, to Feb. 1, 1913, 
Feb. 4 to 28, 1913, 
March 1 to April 30, 1913, . 
May 1 to Nov. 30, 1913, 



2.08 
2.47 
2.28 
3.08 
2.92 



.22 
.16 
.20 
.26 
.28 



.17 
.12 
.14 
.18 
.17 



.41 
.29 
.32 
.44 
.54 



.30 
.20 
.22 
.34 
.32 



0.13 
0.06 
0.02 
0.02 



.2547 
.0020 
.0040 
.0003 



Inoculated and Aerated Sewage applied to Filter No. 447. 






April 16 to July 28, 1912, . 


1.73 


.25 


.13 


.50 


.27 


- 


- 


1.27 


July 29, 1912, to Jan. 31, 1913, 


1.46 


.15 


.10 


.25 


.17 


1.14 


.0542 


1.05 


Feb. 1 to Nov. 30, 1913, 


1.72 


.17 


.11 


.31 


.21 


0.69 


.0505 


1.16 



Effluent Aeration Tank applied to Filter No. 449. 



Jan. 2 to Feb. 9, 1913, 


4.63 


.43 


.34 


.98 


.62 


0.02 


.0001 


2.20 


Feb. 10 to April 30, 1913, 


2.84 


.30 


.23 


.56 


.41 


0.02 


.0000 


1.89 


May 1 to 16, 1913, 


3.70 


.25 


.23 


.42 


.39 


0.02 


.0000 i 


1.76 


May 17 to June 26, 1913, 


4.95 


..33 


.25 


.63 


.48 


0.03 


.0001 


1 82 


July and August, 1913, 


2.75 


.23 


.17 


.45 


.32 


0.04 


.0015 


1.72 


September, October and Novem- 
ber. 1913. 


3.15 


.31 


.26 


.51 


.44 


0.01 


.0001 


2.09 



298 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Solids. 

Raw Sewage before Aeration applied to Filter No. 449. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Unfilterbd. 


Filtered. 


Period. 


Total. 


Loss 
on Igni- 
tion. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss 
on Igni- 
tion. 


Fixed. 


Jan. 2 to Nov. 30, 1913, .... 


66.6 


27.1 


39.5 


48.7 


16.4 


32.3 



Effluent from Aeration Tank applied to Filter No. 449. 



Jan. 2 to Feb. 9, 1913 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Feb. 10 to April 30, 1913, 


41.3 


13.2 


28.1 


39.5 


11.8 


27.7 


May 1 to 16, 1913, 


44.3 


13.4 


30.9 


40.9 


11.8 


29.1 


May 17 to June 26, 1913, 


47.4 


13.6 


33.8 


45.7 


12.2 


33.5 


July and August, 1913, .... 


42.4 


10.5 


31.9 


41.1 


9.5 


31.6 


September, October and November, 
1913. 


48.6 


15.3 


33.3 


45.7 


13.3 


32.4 



FiLTEATION OF AeEATED SeWAGE. 

Intermittent Sand Filters Nos. U5, Ji.k6 and W and Trickling Filter 

No. U9. 
On April 16, 1912, three small filters, each containmg 43 inches in 
depth of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter, Avere put into opera- 
tion to study the purification of sewage which had been treated by aera- 
tion and by combined aeration and inoculation with algae. At the start 
each filter was operated at the rate of 50,000 gallons per acre daily. Filter 
N'o. 445 receiving strained sewage, Filter No. 446 receiving strained sew- 
age which had been aerated for twenty-four hours and allowed to settle 
for one hour, and Filter No. 447 receiving strained sewage which had 
been inoculated with algffi and then aerated twenty-four hours and allowed 
to stand for twenty-four hours more for the development of algae growth. 
Active nitrification commenced in all of these filters within a short time 
after they were put into operation. On May 17 the rate of the two 
filters receiving aerated sewage was increased to 75,000 gallons; on 
May 31 to 100,000 gallons; on June 17 to 120,000 gallons; and on July 1 
to 175,000 gallons per acre daily. On this latter date the amount of 
strained sewage applied to Filter No. 445 was increased to 75,000 gallons 
per acre daily. Beginning on July 29, settled sewage was applied to Fil- 
ter No. 445 and was used in preparing the sewages applied to Filters Nos. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 299 

4-1-6 and 447. On August 9 and August 23, respectively, the rates of 
Filters Jios. 446 and 447 were increased to 200,000 and then to 225,000 
gallons, and on August 30 the volume of unaerated sewage for Filter 
^o. 445 was increased to 100,000 gallons per acre daily. On September 5 
the volume of inoculated sewage applied to Filter No. 447 was increased 
to 250,000 gallons per acre daily. On October 23 the method of pre- 
paring the sewage for Filter No. 447 was changed and after this date 
the inoculated sewage was applied to this filter after being aerated twenty- 
four hours, the additional twenty-four hours previously allowed for algae 
growth being discontinued. Up to about the 1st of September the 
various filters had readily adjusted themselves to the gradually increasing 
rates at which the sewage was applied, and the effluents continued to be 
of excellent quality. Early in October, however, the quality of the efflu- 
ents from Filters Nos. 446 and 447 began to deteriorate and it became 
evident that the rates of 225,000 and 250,000 gallons, respectively, at 
which these filters were being operated were somewhat too high. On 
October 10, therefore, the rates of these two filters were temporarily re- 
duced to 175,000 and 200,000 gallons, respectively. On October 20 the 
am.ount of inoculated sewage applied to Filter No. 447 was increased to 
225,000 gallons, and on October 31 the amount of aerated sewage for 
Filter No. 446 was increased to 200,000 gallons per acre daily. Filter 
No. 447 was not prepared to assimilate its dose at this rate, and on 
December 6 it was again necessary to reduce the rate of this filter to 
200,000 gallons. On this date, also, the amount of unaerated sewage 
for Filter No. -145 was increased to 125,000 gallons per acre daily. On 
Jan. 3, 1913, the rates of Filters Nos. 446 and 447 were increased to 
225,000 gallons per acre dail.y, and after this date the sewage for these 
filters was applied in two doses some hours apart instead of in a single 
large dose as formerly. 

The rate of 125,000 gallons at which the unaerated sewage was applied 
to Filter No. 445 during the greater part of December proved to be too 
high, and the effluent from this filter was of very poor quality during 
the latter part of December and the early part of January. On Jan- 
uary 10 this rate was reduced to 100,000 gallons. At this rate little 
improvement in the effluent occurred, and on February 7 the amount of 
sewage for this filter was further reduced to 50,000 gallons per acre daily. 
At this low rate a gradual improvement in the efficiency of the filter was 
noted, and on ]\Iarch 21 it was again attempted to apply the sewage at a 
rate of 100,000 gallons per acre daily. With the higher rate, however, 
the effluent again became of poor quality, and it became evident that the 
filter had become overloaded with stored organic matter and that the 
rates at which it had been attempted to operate it were excessive. On 



300 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

April 11, therefore, the rate was again redviced to 50,000 gallons, and 
little improvement being noted dnring the next two months, on June 6 
the rate was reduced to 25,000 gallons per acre daily. N'o appreciable 
improvement in the work of the filter occurred even at this low rate and 
from June 23 to June 30 the filter was rested. After resting, with the 
filter operated at a rate of 25,000 gallons, nitrification again became 
active, and on July 12 the amount of settled sewage applied was increased 
to 50,000 gallons, at which rate the filter was operated with reasonably 
good success during the remainder of the year. 

On January 24 the rates of Filters Nos. 446 and 447 were increased 
to 250,000 gallons, and on February 1 these rates were further increased 
to 275,000 gallons per acre daily. Prior to February 4 the sewages for 
both of these filters had been aerated twenty-four hours. After this 
date, however, the aeration period for the sewage for Filter No. 446 was 
reduced a niimber of times from February 4 to February 28, the aeration 
period being twelve hours, from March 1 to April 24, 8 hours, and from 
April 25 to the end of the year, 6 hours. The result of reducing the 
period of aeration, as has already been shown, was that the sewage applied 
to this filter during the last ten months of the year contained much larger 
amounts of organic matter and this organic matter was less completely 
oxidized than was the case previous to this time. ISTotwithstanding this 
fact the effluent from the filter continued to be of excellent quality, and 
on June 25 it was possible to increase the rate to 300,000 gallons and to 
operate the filter from August 20 to the end of the year at a rate of 
350,000 gallons per acre daily without any appreciable reduction in 
efficiency. 

The reduction in the vitality of the algs growth in the inoculated 
sewage, and the consequent decrease in the nitrification in this sewage 
during aeration which was noted during the greater part of 1913, appears 
to have had comparatively little effect upon the quality of the effiuent 
obtained from Filter jSTo. 447. On March 28 the rate of this filter was 
increased to 325,000 gallons; on April 4 to 400,000 gallons; and on 
April 11 to 450,000 gallons per acre daily. The increase in the volume 
of sewage applied daily from 275,000 gallons to 450,000 gallons in a 
period of about two weeks proved to be somewhat more than the filter 
could accommodate, and on April 18 the rate was decreased to 350,000 
gallons per acre daily. On April 25, however, it was possible to again 
increase the rate to 400,000 gallons, and on August 20 to 450,000 gallons, 
without affecting tlie efficiency of the filter. 

At the end of the year analyses of the sand from these filters showed 
that the penetration of organic matter into the filter material was some- 
what greater in the case of the two filters which received the compara- 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 301 

tively clear aerated sewage than in the case of the filter which received 
the unaerated sewage at a very much lower rate. The total amount of 
organic matter accumulated within these filters during their twenty 
months of operation was not widely different, however, Filter No. 445 
which received unaerated sewage at an average rate of about 68,000 gal- 
lons per acre daily containing stored matters equivalent to about 1,850 
pounds nitrogen per acre, while Filter No. 446, which received the 
aerated sewage and was operated at a rate which averaged somewhat 
more than three times as high, contained about 2,170 pounds nitrogen, 
and Filter No. 447, which was operated with the inoculated sewage at an 
average rate more than four times as high, contained about 1,900 pounds 
nitrogen per acre. 

Filter No. JfJfQ, containing 10 feet in depth of pieces of broken stone, 
all of which will pass through a 2-inch ring and none through a 1-inch 
ring, was put into operation on Jan. 2, 1913. Throughout the year the 
sewage applied to this filter was clarified and partially oxidized by treat- 
ment in the aeration tank filled with slate described previously. One of 
the principal objects of this portion of the investigation was to determine 
at what rate a filter of this type could be successfully operated with 
such a sewage, and throughout the year it was the practice to increase 
the rate whenever an improvement in the quality of the effluent seemed 
to indicate that a larger volume of the aerated sewage could be handled 
by the filter. At the start the rate of operation was 1,000,000 gallons 
per acre daily, and the sewage was aerated twenty-four hours. During 
the last week in January nitrification became established within the 
filter, and on February 6 the rate was increased to 1,500,000 gallons per 
acre daily. On February 10 the aeration period was reduced to ten 
hours. This reduction in aeration appeared to have little effect on the 
work of the filter, and on February 14, 21 and 28 and on March 7 
and 13, or at intervals of about one week for five weeks, the volume 
of sewage applied was increased to 500,000 gallons per acre daily. Fol- 
lowing this last increase it required about three weeks for the filter to 
adjust itself to the 4,000,000 gallon rate at which it was being operated. 
On April 4 the rate was increased to 4,500,000 gallons, on April 11 to 
5,000,000 gallons, and on April 17 it was increased to 6,000,000 gallons 
per acre daily. During May the period of aeration which the sewage re- 
ceived was reduced from ten hours to eight hours, then to seven and 
finally to six hours, and on June 26 the time of aeration was reduced to 
five hours and the volume of air used reduced from 200,000 to 100,000 
cubic feet per hour per million gallons. On May 22, or after being 
operated for five weeks at a 6,000,000-gallon rate, the volume of sewage 
applied to this filter daily was increased to 7,000,000 gallons per acre 



302 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



daily, and five weeks later on June 26 this rate was increased to 7,500,000 
million gallons. On July 7 a further increase in the rate to 8,000,000 
gallons was made. On July 8 the tank in which the sewage was aerated 
was rebuilt, and the slates cleaned and placed in a vertical position, and, 
as previously explained, for a time the aerated sewage was less well 
oxidized and contained a greater proportion of suspended matter than 
previously. The various changes in the operation of the aeration tank, 
however, appear to have had comparatively little effect upon the efficiency 
of the filter, and on August 4 and August 11 the rate was increased to 
8,500,000 and then to 9,000,000 gallons, and on October 1 a still further 
increase to 10,000,000 gallons per acre daily was made, at which rate the 
filter was satisfactorily operated until the end of the year. 

The average rates and quality of the effluents from these various filters 
throughout their entire periods of operation are shown in the following 
tables : — 

Effluent from Filter No. 4^5. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Color. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen as 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Date. 


Free. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


1912. 

April, .... 


50,000 


.09 


1.2600 


.0260 


1.13 


.0080 


0.28 


4.0 


May, . 






50,000 


.05 


1.7660 


.0388 


2.00 


.0190 


0.16 


3.4 


June, . 






50,000 


.04 


0.2506 


.0146 


3.78 


.0037 


0.10 


2.2 


July. . 






75,000 


.04 


0.2028 


.0130 


2.54 


.0018 


0.11 


2.1 


August, 






100,000 


.03 


0.0616 


.0116 


2.94 


.0018 


0.11 


2.1 


September, 






100,000 


.03 


0.3140 


.0177 


2.06 


.0009 


0.16 


3.5 


October, 






100,000 


.04 


0.1399 


.0138 


3.31 


.0012 


0.11 


3.2 


November, 






100,000 


.04 


0.0250 


.0150 


2.90 


.0008 


0.15 


4.3 


December, 






121,000 


.06 


0.2063 


.0349 


3.24 


.0003 


0.19 


4.7 


191 

January, 


3. 




107,400 


.06 


0.4987 


.0364 


3.25 


.0002 


0.19 


5.0 


February, 






60,900 


.09 


3.4400 


.0555 


0.44 


.0001 


0.32 


14.4 


March, 






67,300 


.06 


2.7700 


.0345 


5.36 


.0005 


0.19 


7.2 


April, . 






68,000 


.05 


2.3000 


.0430 


0.34 


.0002 


0.28 


12.6 


May, . 






50,000 


.10 


4.6800 


.0532 


0.76 


.0002 


0.31 


16.7 


June, . 






30,900 


.09 


4.2300 


.0493 


0.33 


.0009 


0.27 


14.6 


July, . 






41,300 


.05 


4.8400 


.0328 


4.14 


.0066 


0.19 


6.8 


August, 






50,000 


.04 


1.1900 


.0260 


1.83 


.0032 


0.22 


5.7 


September, 






50,000 


.06 


2.0050 


.0285 


0.61 


.0026 


0.32 


11.2 


October, 






50,000 


.06 


3.2860 


.0376 


1.52 


.0000 


0.22 


12.6 


November, 






50,000 


.03 


1.2200 


.0190 


1.32 


.0001 


0.19 


10.0 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



303 



Effluent from Filter No. U6. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Quantity 




Ammonia.. I 


NiTRO 


3EN AS 








applied. 
Gallons 


Color. 










Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Date. 




Albu- 


Ni- 


Ni- 




per Acre 
Daily. 




Free. 


minoid. 


trates. 


trites. 






1912. 


















April, .... 


50,000 


.02 


0.9000 


.0200 


0.46 


.0002 


0.13 


2.7 


May, . 








62,500 


.03 


0.8760 


.0218 


2.59 


.0073 


0.11 


2.3 


June, . 








111,500 


.03 


0.0216 


.0115 


3.02 


.0003 


0.08 


1.7 


July, . 








158,700 


.03 


0.0622 


.0106 


2.62 


.0004 


0.10 


1.7 


August, 








200,900 


.04 


0.0254 


.0110 


2.50 


.0049 


0.10 


2.0 


September, 








225,000 


.05 


0.0394 


.0200 


2 30 


.0996 


0.10 


2.2 


October, 








191,300 


.08 


0.0646 


.0320 


2.35 


.0008 


0.21 


2.9 


November, 








200,000 


.07 


0.0105 


.0286 


2.84 


.0004 


0.21 


3.4 


December, 








200,000 


.08 


0.0163 


.0375 


3.14 


.0134 


0.21 


2.9 


1913. 


















January, 


229,800 


.04 


0.0105 


.0254 


2.82 


.0051 


0.17 


2.7 


February, 








275,000 


.06 


0.1013 


.0367 


3.38 


.0003 


0.23 


4.0 


March, 








275,000 


.12 


0.1778 


.0478 


3.07 


.0004 


0.31 


3.8 


April, 








275,000 


.09 


0.0386 


.0356 


2.84 


.0004 


0.27 


3.5 


May, . 








275,000 


.12 


0.0170 


.0366 


2.94 


.0003 


0.26 


3.4 


June, . 








295,800 


.15 


0.0420 


.0366 


3.28 


.0004 


0.30 


3.3 


July, . 








300,000 


.16 


0.0211 


.0297 


2.29 


.0004 


0.37 


3.9 


August, 








319,200 


.15 


0.0170 


.0234 


2.11 


.0005 


0.40 


3.7 


September, 








350,000 


.14 


0.0096 


.0264 


2.84 


.0005 


0.36 


4.9 


October, 








350,000 


.19 


0.0379 


.0366 


2.84 


.0003 


0.39 


3.8 


November, 








350,000 


.18 


0.0941 


.0425 


2.67 


.0004 


0.40 


3.0 



Effluent from Filter No. U7. 



1912. 


















April, . 


50,000 


.05 


1.1400 


.0260 


0.50 


.0010 


0.22 


2.9 


May, . 




62,500 


.03 


0.3398 


.0175 


3.09 


.0047 


0.11 


2.0 


June, . 




111,500 


.03 


0.0314 


.0114 


2.92 


.0004 


0.08 


1.9 


July, . 




158,700 


.02 


0.0440 


.0110 


2.25 


.0003 


0.09 


1.5 


August, 




200,900 


.02 


0.0079 


.0109 


2.14 


.0004 


0.09 


1.5 


September, . 




247,900 


.05 


0.0167 


.0168 


2.00 


.0009 


0.15 


1.9 


October, 




225,000 


.11 


0.0224 


.0268 


2.17 


.0008 


0.20 


2.6 


November, . 




225,000 


.11 


0.1096 


.0359 


2.79 


.0041 


0.23 


3.4 


December, . 




204,000 


.09 


0.0411 


.0400 


2.95 


.0129 


0.22 


2.3 


1913. 


















January, 


229,700 


.05 


0.0110 


.0256 


2.62 


.0005 


0.17 


2.5 


February, . 




275,000 


.05 


0.0402 


.0308 


2.94 


.0003 


0.J8 


3.2 


March, 




280,800 


.10 


0.0184 


.0398 


2.90 


.0003 


0.30 


2.8 


April, . 




393,000 


.13 


0.4640 


.0404 


2.43 


.0006 


0.37 


4.8 


May, . 




400,000 


.09 


0.0306 


.0302 


2.79 


.0002 


0.26 


4.8 


June, . 




400,000 


.10 


0.0478 


.0.348 


2.56 


.0021 


0.26 


4.6 


July, . 




400,000 


.11 


0.0090 


.0230 


2.03 


.0004 


0.28 


2.5 


August, 




419,200 


.17 


0.0067 


.0218 


2.07 


.0004 


0.33 


3.1 


September, . 




450,000 


.12 


0.0388 


.0244 


2.63 


.0003 


0.37 


4.3 


October, 




450,000 


.13 


0.0178 


.0252 


2.57 


.0024 


0.34 


4.0 


November, . 




450,000 


.14 


0.0359 


.0228 


2.21 


.0003 


0.40 


3.5 



304 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Aerated Sewage applied to Filter No. 449- 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 


Chlor- 
ine. 


Nitrogen as 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Bacteria 
per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 




ALBUMINOID. 


Nitrogen. 




Free. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


3.42 


.30 


.25 


.57 


.43 


11.92 


.02 


.0003 


1.93 


1,681,000 



Effluent from Filter No. 449- 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. 


a 

01 

3 
2 


6 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 
<a 
B 

a 

a 
o 
o 

a 

1 

o 


3 




fe 


albuminoid. 


o 


Date. 




_o 
"3 
O 




ci 
o 

a 


1 


.1 


11 


1913. 

January, 


1,000,000 


0.5 


.50 


4.4700 


.2437 


.1747 


.5433 


11.87 


0.26 


.0463 


1.45 


795,000 


February, . 


1,854,000 


0.3 


.33 


2.4300 


.1250 


.0970 


.2.525 


8.75 


1.57 


.0219 


1.02 


855,000 


March , 


3,714,000 


0.4 


.37 


1.9574 


.2540 


.1380 


.4760 


11.68 


1.58 


.0094 


1.66 


90,300 


April, 


5,037,000 


0.4 


.33 


.6170 


.1488 


.1016 


.3124 


11 52 


2.28 


.0180 


1.20 


160,000 


May, . 


6,282,000 


0.6 


.32 


1.7900 


.1356 


.0956 


.2580 


12.96 


2.54 


.0312 


1.21 


122,500 


June, . 


6,800,000 


0.5 


.33 


2.3300 


.1100 


.0767 


.2637 


14.53 


2.28 


.0413 


1.17 


46,000 


July, . 


7,055,000 


0.3 


.34 


.6620 


.0724 


.0608 


.1938 


14,60 


2.22 


.1152 


1.01 


150,000 


August, 


8,117,000 


1.4 


.32 


.7676 


.1036 


.0660 


.2426 


11.40 


1.39 


.0376 


1.15 


750,000 


September, . 


8,602,000 


1.0 


.33 


1.0650 


.1180 


.0705 


.2440 


13.65 


2.05 


.0256 


1.78 


360,000 


October, 


10.000,000 


1.4 


.31 


1.1120 


.1132 


.0892 


.2446 


11.32 


1.42 


.0460 


1.07 


55,000 


November, . 


9,869,000 


1.3 


.36 


1.5600 


.2030 


.0970 


.5098 


12.30 


1.33 


.0285 


1.91 


24,000 


Average, 


6,212,000 


0.7 


.35 


1.7055 


.1479 


.0970 


.3219 


12.23 


1.72 


.0383 


1.33 


309,800 



Studies of the Effect of Caebon upon Nitrification. 
Filters Nos. 403 and 416. 
In the report for 1911 the results of certain experiments were given in 
which it was shown that nitrification in sand filters was checked or en- 
tirely prevented when the applied sewage contained excessive amounts of 
carbonaceous matters, and it was further shown that there is apparently 
a certain ratio between the carbon and nitrogen which cannot be exceeded 
for any length of time without impairing nitrification, but that sand 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 305 

filters may cofitinue to nitrify even when the applied sewage contains 
enormous amounts of carbon, provided that the carbon content of the 
sewage be increased slowly so that the filter may gradually adapt itself 
to the changing conditions, and provided, also, that the nitrogen content 
of the sewage be also increased so that the amount of carbon shall not be 
more than ten to twelve times the amount of nitrogen. 

Filters Nos. 403 and 416, each containing 42 inches in depth of sand 
of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter, were first put into operation on 
Nov. 10, 1910, receiving settled sewage from which the suspended mat- 
ters had been removed by filtering through paper, at a rate of 50,000 
gallons per acre daily. From Feb. 2 to Aug. 10, 1911, these filters were 
used in the carbon-nitrogen studies, cane sugar and ammonium chloride 
being added to the sewage applied to Filter No. 403, and cane sugar 
alone being added to the sewage for Filter No. 416, the results obtained 
during this period being included in the discussion in the report for 

1911, From Aug. 11 to Nov. 15, 1911, the filters were continued in 
operation without sugar being added to the applied sewage to eliminate 
the effect of any carbonaceous matters which had been stored during the 
period when sugar was added. On Nov. 16, 1911, the application of 
sugar to Filter No. 416 was resumed, Filter No. 403 being continued in 
operation with the same sewage, without added sugar as a control. Dur- 
ing the following thirteen months the amounts of sugar regularly added 
to the sewage for this filter were equivalent to 35 parts carbon per 100,000, 
the total carbon in the sewage varying between 38 and 43 parts and the 
ratio of carbon to nitrogen fluctuating between 9.5 and 19.2. During 
the first eight months nitrification continued within the filter unim- 
paired. In July when the carbon-nitrogen ratio was over 19, nitrification 
began to decrease, and the nitrates in the effluent continued to decrease 
through August and the greater part of September, although both the 
total carbon applied and the carbon-nitrogen ratio were much lower than 
in the previous months. Early in October, however, nitrification again 
increased and continued active through November. Beginning Dec. 16, 

1912, and continuing through 1913, the practice was to add gradually 
increasing amounts of sugar until nitrification was checked, then to stop 
the application of sugar until nitrification was re-established. On Decem- 
ber 16 the carbon added as sugar was increased to 60 parts, and on Jan. 3, 

1913, to 70 parts per 100,000. With this large amount of carbon, and a 
carbon-nitrogen ratio of about 18, the nitrates in the effluent decreased 
rapidly, and on January 22 nitrification had practically ceased. On 
January 24 the added carbon was reduced to 35 parts, and, no increase 
in nitrification being noted, on January 31. the application of sugar was 
stopped. During February nitrification again became established, and 



306 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

begiuning February 28 sugar equivalent to 35 parts carbon was added to 
the applied sewage. During March the nitrates in the effluent never fell 
below 4 parts per 100,000, although the sugar was increased to 50 parts 
on March 7, to 70 parts on March 14, and to 100 parts per 100,000 on 
March 28, the corresponding carbon-nitrogen ratios being thereby in- 
creased to 15, then to 21 and finally to 29. With the application of sew- 
age of this character, nitrification gradually decreased, and on April 18, 
when tlie nitrates had dropped to about ^4 part, the sugar was reduced 
to 70 parts per 100,000. During the ensuing two weeks, with sewage 
containing over twenty times as much carbon as nitrogen, nitrification 
steadily increased, and on May 1 the effluent contained nearly 3 parts 
nitrates per 100,000. On May 2 the sugar was again increased to 100 
parts, but as the nitrates began to decrease the added carbon was again 
reduced to 70 parts on May 16. One week later, however, the nitrates 
in the effluent had increased to over 4 parts per 100,000, and the amount 
of sugar added was again raised to 100 parts per 100,000, and on June 6 
the added carbon was increased to 125 parts per 100,000, making the 
carl)on-nitrogen ratio of the sewage over 33. Even with this large pro- 
portion of carbon in the sewage, nitrification continued in the filter for 
about three weeks in gradually decreasing amounts, but during the first 
three weeks in July the nitrates in the effluent dropped to less than 
0.1 part per 100,000. From July 25 to August 8 sugar was omitted from 
the applied sewage, and during this period nitrification again became 
active within the filter. From August 9 to the end of the year sugar 
equivalent to 70 parts carbon per 100,000 was added to the sewage each 
day. During the last three weeks in August with a nitrogen-carbon ratio 
of over 23, the nitrates in the effluent averaged about 0.85 part per 
100,000. In September the ratio dropped to 20, owing to an increase 
in the nitrogen content of the sewage, and the nitrates in the effluent 
increased to an average of 1.67 parts per 100,000. During October and 
November, however, A\-hen the carbon-nitrogen ratios were about 25 and 
22, respectively, a number of samples were ol)tained in which practically 
no nitrates were found. Throughout the entire two years of this experi- 
ment Filter No. 403, which was operated at the same rate as a control, 
receiving the same sewage without added sugar, continued to furnish an 
effluent containing high nitrates. 

There are a number of points of interest to l)e noted in the results of 
this experiment during the past two years. In a certain measure the 
results confirm the observations made in the report for 1910 as to the 
close connection between the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the sewage 
and the occurrence of nitrification within the filter. In a number of in- 
stances, however, nitrification continued to be active in this filter when 



No. U.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 307 

the carbon-nitrogen ratios were much higher than those which caused 
a cessation of this function in the filters experimented with during 1910, 
and also it was possible to operate this filter successfully through long 
jjeriods during the past 3'ear with a sewage in which the proportion of 
carbonaceous matter was much higher than that which caused a total ces- 
sation of nitrification during the earlier portion of the experiment. In 
many instances the amounts of sugar were increased so rapidly as to 
check nitrification completely, but in every case a return to sewage 
without added sugar, or a reduction in the amount of sugar added, for a 
short period resulted in a re-establishment of nitrification. In numer- 
ous experiments in previous years it has been proved that nitrification 
may continue in the presence of an excess of a variety of substances 
which are apparently detrimental to that process, provided that the 
filter be accustomed to the presence of such substances in the sewage 
by applying them in gradually increasing amounts, although nitrification 
will be checked or completely destroyed by the sudden appearance of 
much less amounts of the same substance. In a certain measure this 
fact has been confirmed in these experiments, and there is every reason 
to believe that the filter might have been successfully operated with 
sewage containing even greater proportions of carbonaceous matter had 
the carbon content been increased more gradually. The effect of an 
excess of sugar and possibly of other carbonaceous matters appears to 
be cumulative, as in many cases nitrification continued for some weeks 
in the presence of a considerable excess and then rapidly decreased as 
though checked by the accumulation of some substance within the filter 
in whose presence the formation of nitrates could not proceed. Wlien 
the application of an excessive amount of carbonaceous matter was 
stopped, nitrification usually was re-established within a short time, and 
the nitrates continued to increase sometimes for a number of weeks after 
the application of sugar was resumed. Subsequently, however, a diminu- 
tion in nitrification frequently occurred, although no increase had been 
made in the carbon content of the applied sewage. It should be noted, 
also, that the effluent from the filter which received sugar contained larger 
amounts of free ammonia than did that from the filter which received 
no sugar. The difference in free ammonia, however, is not sufficient to 
account for the lower amount of nitrates, as during the last two years 
only about 69 per cent, of the applied nitrogen has been found in the 
effluent from Filter No. 416, while about 89 per cent, of the nitrogen 
applied to Filter No. 403 has been found in the effluent. 

Analyses of the sand at the end of 1913 showed that there was a con- 
siderable difference in the stored nitrogen in these two filters. At this 
time Filter No. 403, which received sewage low in carbon, contained 



308 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



nitrogen equivalent to about 1,260 pounds per acre, while Filter No. 416, 
which received the same amount of nitrogen each day with the addition 
of considerable carbon, contained about 5,810 pounds nitrogen per acre, 
or more than four times as much. Attention should be called to the fact 
that the amount of organic nitrogen stored in Filter No. 416 at the end 
of the year was nearly three times as great as the total amount of organic 
nitrogen applied to this filter during its entire period of operation. As 
all of the organic matter applied was in the soluble form, this large 
amount of stored nitrogen cannot but indicate that not only was a con- 
siderable proportion of the soluble organic nitrogen converted into the 
insoluble form but also that more or less free ammonia or elementary 
nitrogen or both must have been changed to insoluble organic nitrogen. 
It is Avell known that free ammonia and atmospheric nitrogen may under 
certain conditions be converted into proteid nitrogen, and the probability 
that this action may occur to a certain extent in sewage filters has been 
stated in previous reports a number of times. In the case of Filter 
No. 403, which was operated as a control with the same sewage without 
added carbon, no such phenomenon occurred, nor has it been previously 
observed with any of the numerous sewage filters which have been studied 
at the experiment station during the past twenty-six years. It is quite 
possible, however, that the clogging which has been noted at the station 
and elsewhere when sand filters were operated with sewage containing an 
undue proportion of highly carbonaceous trades wastes may have been 
due to a phenomenon similar to that noted in the case of Filter No. 416. 
The results of the operation of these two filters are shown in the follow- 
ing tables : — 





Sewage applied to Filter No. 403. 








Period. 


Free 
Am- 
monia. 


Kjel- 
dahl 
Nitro- 
gen. 


Total 

Nitro- 
gen. 


Chlor- 
ine. 


Carbon 
added 

as 
Sugar. 


Total 
Carbon. 


Ratio of 
Carbon 

to 
Nitro- 
gen. 


Xov. 16, 1911, to Nov. 30, 1913, 3.70 


.52 


3 57 


13 10 





6 2 


1.7 



Sewage applied to Filter No. 416. 



Nov. 16, 1911, to Dec. 15, 1912, 


3 61 


.53 


3 50 


13 61 


35 


41 2 


11 8 


Dec. 16, 1912, to Jan. 30, 1913, 


4.35 


.63 


4 21 


10 20 


60 


67,2 


15 9 


Feb. 1 to 27, 1913, 


3 00 


.66 


3 13 


10 60 





7.1 


2 3 


Feb. 28 to July 24, 1913, 


3 72 


.46 


3 52 


13 52 


96 


101 7 


29 


July 25 to Aug. 8, 1913, . 


3 50 


.32 


3 20 


16 00 





5 2 


1.62 


Aug. 9 to Nov. 30, 1913, 


3 55 


.43 


3 35 


13 85 


70 


76 2 


22.8 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



309 



Effluent from Filter No. 4.OS. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Ammonia. 


Nitrogen .vs 


Period. 


Free. 


Albuminoid. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


Nov. 16, 1911, to Nov. 30, 1913, 


.3087 .0202 


3.39 


.0005 





Effluent from Filter No. 416. 






Nov. 16, 1911, to Dec. 15, 1912, 




0.4895 


.0206 


1 54 


.0003 


Dec. 16, 1912, to Jan. 30, 1913, 




0.1126 


.0197 


0.69 


.0001 


Feb. 1 to 27, 1913, . 




2 5600 


.0480 


0.71 


.0001 


Feb. 28 to July 24, 1913, . 




1 2898 


.0360 


2.45 


.0031 


July 25 to Aug. 8, 1913, . 




1.7000 


.0340 


0.63 


.0017 


Aug. 9 to Nov. 30, 1913. . 




1.6450 


.0286 


0.77 


.0004 



TXTEEMITTEXT SaXD FILTERS OPERATED WITH UNTREATED SeWAGE. 

Filters Nos. 1, 2, h, 5C, 6, 9 A and 10. 
These seven sand filters are each ^^oo of an acre in area, and are 
situated out of doors. At the end of 1913 Filters Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 6 
had been operated continuously for nearly .twenty-six years, and Filters 
Nos. 9A and 10 had been operated twenty-three and nineteen years, 
respectively. Eegular station sewage without preliminary clarification 
has always been applied to these filters, and for some years it has been 
the practice to apply only as much sewage to each filter as can be treated 
without increasing the amount of organic matter stored within the filter. 
Since 1893, a period of twenty years, all of these filters have been operated 
without the removal of any sand from the surface. The depth and size 
of sand of which each of these filters is constructed, the date when first 
put into operation, the total volume of sewage treated upon each filter 
since it was started, and the volume of sewage applied daily during 1913, 
are shown in the following table : — 











Actual 


Volume of 






Effective 




Volume of 


Sewage 




Depth 


Size of 


Date first 


Sewage 


applied Daily 




(Feet). 


Sand 


operated. 


applied since 


during 1913 






(Millimeter). 




Start 
(Gallons). 


(Gallons per 
Acre). 


1 


5 


48 


Jan. 10, 1888 


2,617,312 


47,900 


2, 










5 


08 


Dec. 19. 1887 


1,477,871 


38.500 


4, 










5 


04 


Dec. 19. 1887 


901,756 


20.9001 


5C, 










5 


22 


July 20, 1905 


632,260 


47,700 


6, 










3 2-3 


35 


Jan. 12, 1888 


2,147,584 


46,600 


9A, 










5 


17 


Nov. 18. 1890 


2,160,289 


47,400 


10. 










5 


0.35 


July 18, 1894 


775,100 


12,5002 



1 Three times each week. = Fifty thousand gallons applied daily to one-fourth of the surface. 



310 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Tempekatuee of Aib. 
The air temperatures at Lawrence for each month from 1904 to 1913, 
inclusive, are shown in the following tables : — 



Temperature of Air at Lawrence for Ten Years, 1904-1913 inclusive (Fahrenheit 

Degrees) . 





1904. 


1905. 


1906. 




1907. 






F 


fi 






f= 


f. 






S 


E 






i 


£ 








3 


3 






3 


a 






3 


3 






3 


3 








F 


f= 






P. 


B 






E 


E 






E 


E 








II 


?;3 


m 


+3 


o"^ 


a's 


m 


^ 


^'^ 




m 


■.^ 




a:s 


S 


^ 






J3 


0) 


'gs 


fc^ 


X> 


% 




fe^S 


J3 


1 


o'^ 


gs 


bi 


s 
» 














> 
























< 


< 


K 




< 


< 


a 


h-1 


< 


< 


W 


J 


■< 


< 


^ 


J 


January, 


27 


9 


39 


-17 


30 


13 


47 


-8 


40 


20 


65 


4 


33 


11 


53 


-11 


February, 


28 


9 


46 


-11 


30 


9 


44 


-5 


36 


13 


54 


-4 


29 


6 


49 


-13 


March, 


41 


24 


66 


-1 


43 


23 


69 


6 


58 


20 


62 


3 


43 


24 


68 


9 


April, 


.58 


33 


70 


19 


.57 


35 


78 


25 


57 


34 


75 


22 


51 


31 


74 


21 


Mav, . 


7?^ 


48 


89 


34 


69 


45 


84 


32 


70 


44 


88 


32 


63 


40 


79 


30 


June, 


7,") 


53 


92 


39 


76 


53 


90 


38 


77 


54 


87 


40 


78 


52 


93 


38 


July, . 


82 


fil 


93 


46 


85 


61 


96 


48 


82 


62 


92 


51 


83 


61 


90 


51 


August, 


79 


.56 


90 


41 


78 


56 


88 


42 


83 


61 


92 


48 


81 


56 


95 


44 


September, . 


70 


.51 


84 


30 


69 


50 


79 


31 


73 


51 


88 


31 


72 


53 


84 


36 


October, 


."ifi 


3fi 


68 


18 


60 


36 


78 


23 


59 


39 


71 


21 


58 


35 


71 


19 


November, . 


44 


22 


.5.5 


8 


47 


24 


61 


9 


45 


30 


64 


18 


50 


29 


5/ 


18 


December, 


30 


11 


44 





39 


20 


59 


2 


31 


15 


46 


-5 


41 


23 


61 


11 



The first two columns under each year are averages, respectively, of the maximum and minimum 
temperatures registered by a self-recording thermometer which is read each day at 4 p..ii. The highest 
and lowest temperatures in each month are shown in the third and fourth columns. 









1908. 


1909. 


1910. 




s 


n 






s 


c 






E 


£ 








3 


3 






3 


3 






3 


3 








Fi 


E 






E 


E 






E 


E 








§>'** 


S'S 


"S 


^ 


as 


s;a 


1^ 


^ 


al 


©'3 


S 


•*i 




is 


0/ 


ji 






fe'^ 




1 


s^ 




■a 


i 




> 


> 




















2i 




< 


< 


a 


>-i 


< 


< 


s 


hJ 


< 


< 


X 


January, 


38 


18 


58 


-3 


36 


16 


57 


-5 


36 


18 


49 


-8 


February, 






34 


13 


57 


-7 


42 


18 


54 


-7 


37 


13 


58 


-8 


March, . 






47 


24 


66 


9 


42 


25 


52 


15 


51 


27 


76 


12 


April, 






57 


32 


83 


18 


58 


34 


82 


21 


65 


38 


77 


28 


May, 






71 


46 


87 


31 


70 


43 


83 


31 


71 


46 


85 


36 


June, 






83 


55 


91 


37 


81 


55 


93 


42 


77 


53 


90 


42 


July, 






87 


61 


97 


47 


84 


59 


95 


43 


87 


63 


95 


52 


August, . 






80 


57 


90 


40 


82 


56 


94 


43 


79 


57 


89 


47 


.September, 






78 


52 


88 


36 


73 


48 


82 


35 


74 


51 


84 


39 


October, . 






65 


38 


82 


23 


62 


25 


80 


21 


65 


43 


85 


22 


November, 






49 


30 


67 


18 


54 


31 


72 


17 


45 


34 


59 


19 


December, 






39 


19 


64 


-2 


34 


18 


51 


-4 


40 


19 


52 






No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



311 



Temperature of Air at Lawrence for Ten Years, 1904-1913 inclusive (Fahrenheit 

Degrees) — Concluded. 









1911. 1 


1912. j 


1913. 




s 



E 

> 

< 


S 
s 
S 

1-2 

% 
< 




1 


e 

g 

> 

< 


i 

E 

is 
> 


1 


1 
1 


E 

3 

E 

is 


E 

3 
C 

P 

< 


1 


1 
3 


January, 


39 


19 


61 


1 


27 


10 


49 


-9 


45 


22 


58 


7 


February, 






34 


14 


54 


1 


35 


14 


52 


-5 


35 


11 


58 


-4 


March, . 






46 


22 


64 


7 


40 


23 


63 


4 


53 


27 


74 


1 


April, 






62 


32 


89 


17 


58 


34 


76 


23 


59 


35 


80 


22 


May, 






81 


49 


103 


28 


72 


46 


87 


31 


68 


42 


82 


33 


June, 






80 


53 


89 


46 


81 


51 


91 


37 


81 


50 


91 


40 


July, 






92 


62 


107 


49 


85 


67 


100 


45 


86 


59 


98 


50 


August , . 






82 


57 


94 


48 


78 


54 


88 


40 


82 


54 


97 


42 


September, 






73 


49 


85 


32 


74 


50 


87 


34 


74 


47 


88 


30 


October, . 






61 


38 


70 


24 


64 


40 


81 


28 


62 


45 


70 


29 


November, 






49 


29 


67 


18 


54 


32 


68 


18 


53 


31 


69 


19 


December, 






44 


27 


65 


11 


43 


25 


63 


9 


41 


18 


53 


10 



During recent years the surfaces of Filters Xos. 1, oC, 6 and 9A 
have been leveled during the greater part of the summer, but have been 
thrown up into trenches and ridges about 1 foot wide and 1 foot deep, 
respectively, during the winter. "When the surface is leveled, the applied 
sewage is distributed over the entire surface of these filters, but when 
trenched, the sewage is applied only to the trenches. The surfaces of 
Filters Nos. 2 and 4 are arranged in circular trenches, which are filled 
with coarser sand than that of which the filters are constructed. The 
trenches in Filter No. 2 are 1 foot wide and 2 feet deep, filled with sand 
of an effective size of 0.19 millimeter, while those in Filter No. 4 are 
about 14 inches wide and 1 foot deep, filled with sand of an effective 
size of 0.48 millimeter, the surface of the sand in the trenches of each 
filter being below that of the remainder of the filter. The sewage is ap- 
plied to these trenches of coarser sand throughout the year and grass is 
permitted to grow on the ridges in the summer. Filter No. 10 differs 
from the other filters in the fact that no underdrains are beneath the 
sand except immediately around the outlet pipe. A partition, extending 
3 feet below the surface of the filter, separates the quarter of the surface 
which is farthest from the underdrains from the remainder of the surface 



312 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

and to this quarter of the surface the sewage is applied, the other three 
quarters of the surface being covered with a layer of loam 8 inches in 
depth, except for a strip about 2 feet wide extending across the filter 
which is left open to provide ventilation. During the winter the surfaces 
of all these filters, except Xo. 10, were protected to some extent by loose 
board covers placed over the trenches. 

The principal features in the operation of these filters during 1913 
were as follows: From December 7 to March 15 the trenches of all the 
filters except Xo. 10 were covered with boards. On January 27, that 
portion of Filter No. 10 to which sewage is applied was dug over to a 
depth of 6 inches and the rate of this filter was reduced to 10,000 gallons 
per acre daily. On March 24 the surface of that portion of Filter No. 10 
to which sewage was applied and the sand in the trenches of each of the 
other filters was dug over to a depth of 6 inches, and Filters Nos. 1, 5C, 
6 and 9 A were leveled. From August 25 to August 31, inclusive, all of 
the filters were rested, and on August 30 the surfaces of Filters Nos. 1, 
5C, 6 and 9A, the trenches of Filters Nos. 2 and 4, and the working sur- 
face of Filter No. 10, were dug over to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. On 
November 17 the working surface of each of these filters was again dug 
over to a depth of 6 inches and the surfaces of Filters Nos. 1, 50, 6 and 
9A were trenched for the winter. That portion of the surface of each 
filter to which sewage was applied was raked 1 inch deep seven times 
during the period from December 7 to March 15, and once each week 
during the remainder of the year. A total depth of 13 inches of snow 
and about 1 inch of ice was removed from the surface of Filter No. 10, 
which was unprotected by board covers during the winter. 

As in previous years, when the practice of applying only so much or- 
ganic matter as could be assimilated by each filter was followed, the 
work of these filters has been very satisfactory. For a number of years 
the effluent from Filter No. 10 has been of somewhat inferior quality 
to that from other filters containing a similar grade of sand, and dur- 
ing the early part of the winter a still further deterioration in the 
quality of this effluent was noted. Although the total volume of sewage 
applied daily to this filter during the past few years has been only about 
30,000 gallons per acre daily, that sewage has been applied to only one- 
fourth of the surface, and the net rate, therefore, on the working sur- 
face of the filter for some years has been about 120,000 gallons per acre 
daily, a much higher rate than it has been found to be good practice 
with the other outdoor filters at the station. It is quite evident, 
therefore, that this filter has been overworked during the past few years. 
The effect of reducing the rate of this filter to a figure corresponding 
more nearly to the rates of the other filters, that is, to 10,000 gallons 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



313 



per acre daily for the entire filter, or 40,000 gallons per acre daily for 
the actual working surface of the filter, became evident in the rapidly 
improved quality of the effluent, and throughout the greater part of the 
year this effluent has been of much better quality than in preceding years, 
and has compared favorably with those obtained from the other out- 
door filters. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these filters are shown in 
the following tables : — 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filler No. 1. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 
applied. 


Tempera- ' 
TURE (De- 1 
GREES F.). 1 


Length of 
Time 
Sewage 

remained 

on 

Surface 

(Minutes). 


Appe.^r- \ 
ance. 

1 


Ammonia, i 

1 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen \ 

AS 1 


i 
e 

a 
O 


< 


'Jo 

6 


Gallons 
per .Aicre 
Daily 
for Six 
Davs in a 
Week. 


6 

t 


a 
o 

S 




O 

a 


1 


h 

it 

— 13 


1 

6 


3 

2 




47,900 


60 


56 


21 


0.1 


.13 


.4515 


.0435 


11.95 


4.24 


.0007 


.47 


1.51 


6,600 


Effluent from. Filter No. 2. 


38,500 


60 


53 


51 


0.1 .11 


.1246 


.0246 


11.92 


3.31 


.0003 


.39 


1.21 


560 


Effluent from Filter No. 4. 


20,900 


60 53 


18 

1 


0.0 


.05 


.0400 


.0173 


11.35 


3.94 


.0002 


.25 


0.9' 


280 


Effluent from Filter A'o. oC. 


47,700 


60 


55 


38 0.2 i .15 


.4395 


.0431 


11.43 


4.12 


.0002 


.49 


1.21 


9,300 


Effluent from Filter No. 6. 


46,600 


60 


55 


65 


0.1 


.15 


.3509 


.0459 


11.38 


3.76 


.0013 


.50 


1.41 


13,100 






Effluent from Filter No. 9 A. 






• 


47,400 


59 


56 


1 
87 1 0.0 

i 


.15 


.2947 


.0342 


11.87 


3.26 


.0001 


.47 1.31 


1,970 


Effluent from Filter No. 10. 


. 12,500 


60 


57 


28 


0.4 


.13 


.5547 


.0938 


11.05 


2.74 


.0008 


.79 


3.7 


18,100 



1 Acid. 



314 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Intermittent Sand Filters operated with Clarified Sewage. 
Filters Nos. 429, 430, 431 and 432. 

These four filters were first put into operation on Feb. 1, 1911, to 
study the efi^ect of operating a series of filters with different sewages at 
such rates that the amounts of organic matter applied to each filter 
shall be practically the same. Each of these filters is Hoooo of an acre 
in area and is constructed of 5 feet in depth of sand of an effective size 
of 0.25 millimeter. Eegular station sewage has been applied to Filter 
Xo. 429 at a rate of 80,000 gallons per acre daily throughout the year. 
Each of the other filters received the same sewage after a portion of the 
organic matters had been removed by processes for preliminary clari- 
fication, Filter No. 430 receiving settled sewage. Filter No. 432 receiv- 
ing the effluent from coal Strainer E, and Filter No. 432 receiving sewage 
which had been clarifi.ed by precipitation with sulphate of alumina, the 
volume of clarified sewage applied to each of these filters being so 
adjusted that the amount of organic matter applied to each should be 
approximately the same as that applied to Filter No. 429, which re- 
ceived the unclarified sewage. As a convenient and quickly determined 
basis of comparison, the Kjeldahl nitrogen of the sewages was used 
to compute the rates of the filters receiving clarified sewage, and those 
rates fluctuated from time to time as the nitrogen of the different sew- 
ages varied. The nitrogen content of the untreated sewage applied to 
Filter No. 429 varied from .77 part per 100,000 to 1.85 parts per 100,000, 
averaging about 1.34 parts. The nitrogen of the settled sewage applied 
to Filter No. 430 varied between .52 part per 100,000 and .96 part per 
100,000 and averaged .79 part per 100,000. The nitrogen content of 
the strained sewage for Filter No. 431 varied from .53 part per 100,000 
to 1.01 parts per 100,000 and averaged .75 part per 100,000, while that 
of the chemically precipitated sewage applied to Filter No. 432 fluctuated 
between .41 part and 1.21 parts, the average for the year being .76 part 
per 100,000. The average rate of Filter No. 429 for the year was 79,800 
gallons per acre daily. The rate of Filter No. 430 varied from 106,000 
to 190,000 gallons per acre daily at different times, the average rate for 
the year being 145,800 gallons. The rate of Filter No. 431 varied be- 
tween 80,000 gallons and 250,000 gallons, and averaged 120,300 gallons 
per acre daily, and the rate of Filter No. 432 varied between 92,000 
gallons and 225,000 gallons, the average rate for the year being 140,900 
gallons per acre daily. 

It has not always been possible to predict the nitrogen content of these 
various sewages with any degree of accuracy and to adjust the rates in 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 315 

advance in accordance with the difference in the strength of the dif- 
ferent sewages, and in some months there has been a wide difference in 
the amount of nitrogen applied to tlie different filters. In order to 
eliminate the effect of this error, it has been the practice to carry a plus 
and minus nitrogen account for each filter from month to month and to 
correct for any decided excess or deficiency in the nitrogen applied by 
raising or lowering the rates during the following months. At the end 
of the year organic nitrogen equivalent to about 6,850 pounds per acre 
had been applied to Filter Xo. 429 during the period of thirty-four 
months which it has been operated, while Filter Xo. 430 had received 
about 25 pounds and 35 pounds less, respectively. In the case of Filter 
Xo. 431, however, the deficiency in total nitrogen applied amounted to 
about 300 pounds, which will have to be corrected during the ensuing 
year. 

All of these effluents were highly nitrified throughout the year, the 
amoiint of nitrates produced being greater than the alkalinity of the sew- 
age could care for, with the result that the effluents were acid during 
the greater part of the year. As was the case during 1912, the effluent 
from the filter receiving untreated sewage contained considerably more 
nitrates than that from the filters receiving clarified sewage, while the 
effluent from the filter receiving chemically precipitated sewage was more 
highly nitrified than that from the filters receiving strained or settled 
sewage. On the basis of the total amount of nitrogen oxidized to ni- 
trates, however, the filters receiving the precipitated and the settled 
sewage have l)een more active during the past two years, the average 
number of units of nitrates produced during the year being 398 for 
Filter Xo. 429, 530 for Filter Xo. 430, 461 for Filter Xo. 431, and 585 
for Filter Xo. 432. 

During the year the surface of Filter Xo. 429 was dug over to a depth 
of 3 inches six times to relieve clogging, and the surface of each of the 
other filters was treated in the same manner four times. 

The average results of the analyses of average samples of the applied 
sewages, and the effluents from each of these filters, are shown in the 
following tables: — 



316 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



3.81 



3.86 



4.93 



Average Aiialyses. 

Untreated Sewage applied to Filter No. 429. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Ammoni.\. 


Kjeldahl Nitro- 


c 

_o 
3 
O 


c 
c; 

C 
>. 

X 

C 


o 
3 




ALBUMINOID. 


gen. 

1 


o 


Froe. 


Total. 


d 
.2 

"§ 

1 
a 


"3 
1 


a 
.2 

3 

"o 
a 


a! c 

05 


4.8.5 


.71 


.40 


1.34 


.76 


12.55 


4.68 


3,724,000 



Settled Sewage applied to Filter No. 430. 



.32 



3.07 



Strained Sewage applied to Filter No. 431. 



.30 



.75 



.57 



13.12 



2.78 



Chemically Precipitated Sewage applied to Filter No. 432. 



.41 



.28 



.76 



.54 



12.28 



2.62 



2,301,000 



3,257,500 



1,383,000 



Average Solids. 

Untreated Sewage applied to Filter No. 429. 

[Parts per 100,000.) 



UXFILTERED. | 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


T,„.„, Loss on 
Total. Ignition. 


Fixed. 


714 316 


39.8 


48.0 


15 4 


32.6 


23 4 16 2 


7 2 



56 6 



54.8 



Settled Sewage applied to Filter No. 430. 



20.7 



35.9 



49.0 



33.4 



7.6 



5 1 



Strained Sewage applied to Filter No. 431. 



19.1 



35.7 



49.2 



14.9 



34.3 



5 6 



4 2 



Chemically Precipitated Sewage applied to Filter No. 432. 



14 



16 9 35 6 



46 1 



12 2 33.9 



4 7 1 1.7 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



317 



Average Aiiahjses. 

Effluent from Filter Xo. 439. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





^ 


Appear.^nce. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 




,o 














o 


3 


Quantity 
















applied. 


P " 








•o 








7 


o o 





t M 








o 








c 


ao 


Gallon.? 


sQ 


.M 






a 




oi 






<sE 


per Acre 




T3 






a 


o 


.s 


c 


'fen 


Daily. 


0. 


.£ 
3 




<u 


3- 


2 


2 


'tj 


X 






H 


H 


U 


£ 


H 


O 


S 


s 


O 


P3 


79,800 


54 





.04 


.3006 


.0262 


12.23 


4.99 


.0008 


.28 


450 



Effluent from Filter No. 430. 



145,800 I 55 



2358 .0339 12 



3.63 .0005 



.33 



17,400 



Effluent from Filter No. 431. 



120,300 57 



0.1 



.05 



2943 .0320 13.22 3.92 .0008 



34 8,650 



Effluent from Filter No. 432. 



140,900 54 1 .06 .7666 .0417 12 41 4.24 .0030 .36 2,000 



Operation of Trickling Filters. 
FilUrs Nos. 135, 136, 21^8, 360, U9, 452, 453, 454 and 455. 

During 1913 nine trickling filters were in operation at the station. 
Two of these filters, ISTos. 135 and 136, have been in operation foiuteeu 
years; Filter ISTo. 248, nine years, and Filter jSTo. 360 has been operated 
continuously for about five years. All of these filters received sew- 
age clarified by settling during the whole or greater part of the year. 
Filter No. 449, which was started at the beginning of the year to de- 
termine to what extent the rate of a trickling filter might be increased 
by thorough aeration of the sewage applied to it, has already been de- 
scribed and discussed on page 301 of this report. Filters Xos. 452 and 
455, inclusive, were started during 1913 to determine at what rate 
trickling filters of different depths must be operated in order to obtain 
effluents of equal quality. The results obtained with these four filters are 
given in a following chapter. 

Filters Nos. 135, 136 and 248 are each constructed of broken stone of 
such size that all the pieces will pass through a screen with a 1-inch mesh, 
40 per cent, through a screen with a I'o-inch mesh and only 4 per cent. 



318 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

through a screen with a 14-inch mesh. Each of these filters is /4oooo 
of an acre in area and is contained in a tank with openings for ventila- 
tion in the sides. Filters Xos. 135 and 136 are each 10.5 feet in depth 
and were first put into operation in Xovember, 1899; Filter No. 248 is 
6 feet in depth and was first put into operation in May, 1904. Filter 
Xo. 360, first put into operation in Xovember, 1908, is square in section, 
has a superficial area of %oooo of an acre and is constructed of 8 feet, 
9 inches in depth of pieces of broken stone having a mean diameter be- 
tween 1 and 2 inches. x\s originally constructed the stone was held in 
place by open cobwork sides, but on December 1 the sides of the filter 
were closed. The sewage applied is uniformly distributed over the sur- 
face of each of these filters by automatic tipping basins discharging into 
perforated pans. Filters Xos. 135 and 136 were operated seven days 
each week with a rest of one hour each morning and afternoon, while 
filters Xos. 248 and 360 were operated continuously six days each week 
and allowed to rest on Sunday. Filters Nos. 135, 248 and 360 were 
operated at rates of 2,000,000 gallons per acre daily throughout the year. 
During 1912 Filter No. 136 was operated at a gradually increasing 
rate with sewage which had been very completely clarified by precipita- 
tion with ferrous sulphate. This was to determine to what extent the 
rate of a trickling filter may be increased and still produce a satisfactory 
effluent when the sewage applied to it has been so treated as to remove 
practically all suspended matters. During December the clarified sewage 
was applied to this filter at a rate of 4,750,000 gallons per acre daily, 
and the effluent continued to be highly nitrified and entirely stable. On 
January 1 the rate was further increased to 5,250,000 gallons per acre 
daily. Following this last increase in rate, nitrification within the filter 
decreased rapidly, and the effluent became heavily charged with iron. 
On January 14 the surface of the filter was dug over to a depth of 
3 inches to relieve clogging. On January 24 a gradual reduction in 
the rate was begun in an endeavor to re-establish active nitrification. 
On February 1 the rate had been reduced to 1,000,000 gallons per acre 
daily without any appreciable improvement in the quality of the efflu- 
ent. On February 12 the surface was dug over to a depth of about 
6 inches and the filter was rested for one week; on March 17 the filter 
was again rested for one week. With this treatment and the application 
of settled sewage at a rate of 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily, nitrifica- 
tion improved and the effluent became of satisfactory quality and re- 
mained so during the remainder of the year. 

Early in February the upper layers of material in Filter Xo. 248 be- 
came so badly clogged that the applied sewage would not enter. On Feb- 
ruarv 7, 4 inches of stone were removed from the surface, the material 



No. 3-i.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



319 



remaining in the filter was dug over 8 inches deep and the filter was 
rested for one week. After drying for one week, the 4 inches of stone 
which had been removed had so improved in appearance that it was re- 
turned to the surface without washing. With this treatment the filter 
was successfully continued in operation throughout the remainder of 
the year. 

With the exceptions noted, the effluents from the deep filters, Nos. 135 
and 13G, were highly nitrified and entirely stable throughout the year. 
The effluents from Filters Nos. 248 and 360 were also well nitrified l)ut 
often putrescible. As explained in previous reports, the underdrain sys- 
tem of Filter No. 360 is divided into three distinct collecting areas of 
equal size, and analyses of the effluent from each of these sections, as 
well as the average effluent from the entire filter, are shown in the 
accompanying tables : — 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 133. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Appear- 


Ammonia. 


CD 






Nitrogen 


-a 

3 


ibic 


Quantity 


ance. 

1 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS 


C 


applied. 








. 


1 















a 


Z 










B.% 


Gallon.? 


>> 










_ 


(U 


K 




u 




per Acre 


-a 








3 


•d 


c 


S 


.2 


a 


'fee 


Daily. 


J2 
3 

H 


o 
O 




1 


O 
CO 

a 


"a! 


•s, 

o 


1 


s 


O 


•2 g 

m 


1,867,000 


1.6 


,30 


0.7852 


.2405 


,1462 


0.4534 


13.03 


3.67 


.0045 


1.70 


66,800 



1,402,000! 1.6 ! .29 



Effluent froyn Filter No. 136. 



14617 .3166 



.1607 



.5864 



12 88 



.0173 



124,400 



Effluent from Filter No. 248. 



1,855,000 2 6 .34 1.9980 .4371 .2083 .8253 13.58 1.73 .0103 j 2.53 356.000 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 (Section A.) 



2.7 .36 1.8167 .4013 .2020 .7247 13.25 1 1.26 .0143 2.39 699.100 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 {Section B). 



2 6 .36 1.9367 .4246 .2043 .7444 13 08 i 1 07 .0137 \\ 2 41 969,100 



320 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Analyses — Concluded. 

Effluent from Filter No. 360 {Section C). 
[Part3 per 100,000.] 





Appe.ir- 


Ammonia. 


c 
2 




Nitrogen 


-a 

o 

£ 

3 


•J 


Quantity 


ANCE. 




ALBUMINOID. ^ 


AS 


U 


applied. 














S ^ 












e 


Z 










S.^ 


Gallons 


£■ 


















§ 


cag 


per Acre 


-a 








3 


33 




B 


S 


a 




Daily. 




a 


i 


03 
1 


a 


2 
"3 


o 






>> 

X - 
O 


- 


2.6 


.36 


1.9604 


.4146 


.2103 


.7379 


12.93 


.94 


.0123 


2.37 


851,800 



1,708,000 



2.6 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 {Entire Filter). 



1.9043 



.4135 I .2028 



.7357 



13.09 1.09 



0134 2.39 



746,600 



Stability of Effluents from Trickling Filters, 1913. » 













Depth 
of Filter 
(Broken 
Stone). 


Nitrates 

(Parts per 

100,000). 


Per Cent, of Samples. 


Filter Number. 


Putrescible. 


Doubtful. 


Stable. 


135, 


10.5 Feet. 


3.67 


0.0 


0.0 


100.0 


136, . 










10.5 Feet. 


2.66 


0.0 


0.0 


100.0 


248, . 










6.0 Feet. 


1.73 


37.1 


2.9 


60.0 


248,* 










6.0 Feet. 


1.73 


6.5 


0.0 


93.5 


360A, 










8.0 Feet. 


1.26 


54.0 


0.0 


46.0 


360B, 










8.0 Feet. 


1.07 


59.5 


S.l 


32.4 


360C, 










8.0 Feet. 


0.94 


62.2 


2.7 


35.1 


360,2 










8.0 Feet. 


1.13 


20.0 


3.3 


76.7 


449.5 










10.0 Feet. 


0.02 


79.2 


4.2 


16.6 


449. . 










10.0 Feet. 


1.72 


0.0 


0.0 


100.0 


452, . 










4.0 Feet. 


1.08 


16.7 


0.0 


83.3 


453, . 










6.0 Feet. 


1.04 


0.0 





100.0 


454, . 










8.0 Feet. 


1.53 


0.0 


0.0 


100.0 


455, . 










10.0 Feet. 


1.85 


5.9 


0.0 


94.1 


1 Putres 


cibil 


tv is 


dete 


rmine 


d bv incubatin 


e a samnle in 


a full, tightly 


stoppered bott 


le at 80° F. If 



no odor or blackening of sample is noted within five days, sample is recorded as stable. If odor is pro- 
duced without blackening, sample is recorded as doubtful. Both odor and blackening indicate putre.s- 
cibility. 

' .\fter settling. 

' .\erated sewage applied. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 321 



Relative Rates Necessary to obtain Effluents of Equal Quality 
FROM Trickling Filters of Different Depths. 

Filters Nos. 452, J^BS, .IfdJf. and 455. 
On May 1, 1913, four new filters were put into operation to determine 
at what rates trickling filters constructed of different depths of the same 
material must be operated in order to obtain efliuents of equal quality. 
Each of these filters is %oooo of an acre in area and is constructed of 
pieces of broken stone between % inch and li/j inches in size. Filter 
No. 452 is 4 feet in depth; Filter No. 453, 6 feet; Filter No. 454, 8 feet; 
and Filter No. 455, 10 feet. Sewage clarified by sedimentation was 
applied to each of these filters. After maturing, it was attempted to 
operate each filter at such a rate that the effluent would contain about 1.5 
parts per 100,000 nitrates, this being the amount of nitrification which 
previous experience at the station has shown to be necessary in order to 
insure efliuents which will be completely stable at all times. At the start, 
each filter was operated at a rate of 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily. 
On August 15 the two deep filters, Nos. 454 and 455, were producing 
well-nitrified effluents, and the rate of each was increased to 1,250,000 
gallons per acre daily. As the effluents from the two shallow filters had 
not up to this time contained the prescribed amount of nitrates, the rate 
of Filter No. 452 was reduced to 500,000 gallons and that of Filter 
No. 453 to 800,000 gallons per acre daily. At these rates the amount 
of nitrification in the deep filters continued to increase, and during 
October and the early part of November the rate of the 8-foot filter was 
gradually increased to 2,000,000 gallons per acre daily and that of the 
10-foot filter to 2,500,000 gallons per acre daily. Even with the low 
rates employed, however, the efliuents from the two shallow filters did 
not average up to tlie required standard, and during the last two months 
of the year the rates of these two filters were gradually reduced until 
during November the average rate of the 4-foot filter was only about 
140,000 gallons and that of the 6-foot filter 400,000 gallons per acre 
daily. Practically the whole period since these filters were started has 
been consumed in establishing proper nitrification within the two shallow 
filters. At the end of the year all of the filters were yielding effluents 
of satisfactory quality, but it is probable that the discrepancy between 
the rates of the shallow and deep filters is much too great and that the 
former, now that they have been properly matured, can without doubt 
be operated at considerably higher rates without affecting the quality 
of the effluent. This can only be determined by the operation of the 
filters during the ensuing year. 



322 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Analyses of the effluents from these filters, when operated at the dif- 
ferent rates, are sliown in the following tables : — 



Effluent from Filter No. 452. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 

2 


a 
■| 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


o 

s 

3 

a 
o 

a 
>. 

X 

O 


13 




ance. 


i 


ALBTTMINOID. 


o 


1913. 


13 


"o 
O 


3 

o 
Eh 


a 
.2 

"3 

1 

a 


1 


1 


II 

V 


May, . 


963,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.27 


.1914 


- 


- 


June, . 


972,000 


4.0 


.35 


1.1000 


.3500 


.2400 


.6800 


14.60 


0.76 


.0380 


1.80 


- 


July, . 


985,000 


2.0 


.26 


1.6750 


.3800 


.2320 


.6800 


15.40 


0.82 


.0480 


2.68 


860.000 


August, 


692,000 


1.0 


.25 


0.9500 


.3050 


.2040 


.7500 


17.20 


1.60 


.1200 


2.20 


250,000 


September, . 


460,000 


3.0 


.25 


1.9000 


.1900 


.1520 


.3800 


13.60 


0.61 


.1080 


1.60 


370,000 


October, 


246,000 


1.5 


.30 


1.2500 


.2500 


.1680 


.4700 


12.00 


1.61 


.0280 


2.12 


80,000 


November, . 


142,000 


2.0 


.40 


1.5750 


.2400 


.1720 


.4000 


13.20 


1.88 


.0040 


1.50 


305,000 


Average, . 


637.100 


2.2 


.30 


1.4083 


.2858 


.1947 


.5600 


14.33 


1.08 


.0768 


1.98 


373,000 



May, . 


963,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


- 


0.35 


.1229 


- 


- 


June, . 


1,076,000 


3.0 


.35 


1.0500 


.3100 


.1920 


.5000 


14.60 


1.03 


.0060 


1.33 


- 


July, . 


1,000,000 


1.0 


.24 


1.5250 


.1650 


.1120 


.2600 


15.00 


1.22 


.0440 


1.34 


250,000 


August, 


831,000 


2.0 


.20 


1.9000 


.2000 


.1720 


.3300 


17.00 


1.13 


.0450 


1.60 


140,000 


September, . 


736,000 


3.0 


.25 


1.6400 


.1900 


.1440 


.3400 


13.80 


0.85 


.1160 


1.48 


220,000 


October, 


556,000 


1.5 


.30 


0.9000 


.1400 


.1240 


.2800 


12.40 


0.93 


.0280 


1.28 


160,000 


November, . 


424,000 


1.0 


.35 


1.0500 


.1700 


.1360 


.2800 


12.60 


1.75 


.0070 


1.16 


83,000 


Average, . 


798,000 


1.9 


.28 


1.3442 


.1958 


.1467 


.3317 


14.23 


1.04 


.0527 


1.37 


170,600 



Effluent from Filter No. 434- 



May, . 


963,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.62 


.1129 


- 


- 


June, . 


1,000,000 


4.0 


.35 


0.6000 


.2100 


.1600 


.4000 


15.00 


1.73 


.0036 


1.28 


- 


July, . 


1,000,000 


1.0 


.28 


1.0500 


.1300 


.1080 


.2500 


15.00 


1.74 


.0280 


1.30 


240,000 


August, 


1,038,000 


1.5 


.20 


1.3500 


.1650 


.1240 


.3200 


16.80 


1.73 


.0350 


1.68 


110,000 


September, . 


1,150,000 


3.0 


.25 


0.8000 


.1760 


.1600 


.3700 


14.40 


1.90 


.1200 


1.32 


140,000 


October, 


1,528,000 


1.5 


.30 


0.8500 


.2900 


.1680 


.5200 


11.00 


1.52 


.0320 


2.36 


180,000 


November, . 


1,940,000 


2.0 


.30 


1.0750 


.3300 


.2160 


.6.500 


12.60 


1.45 


.0220 


1.96 


610,000 


Average, . 


1,231,300 


2.2 


.28' 


0.9542 


.2168 


.1560 


.4183 


14.14 


1.53 


.0505 


1.65 


256,000 



No. 34.1 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



323 



Effluent from Filter No. 455. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 


a 

a 

2 

03 

'S 


1 

o 

o 


Nitrogen 


01 

S 

3 

a 

8 

a 

O 


'2 




ance. 


1 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 


o 


1913. 


>> 

-3 
IS 

H 


O 


3 
O 


d 

3 

1 

d 

1—4 


1 

2 


.1 


« 


May, . 


963,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.07 


.2903 


- 


- 


June, . 


1,100,000 


4.0 


.35 


0.9000 


.2800 


.2200 


.4800 


14.00 


1.73 


.2100 


1.60 


- 


July, . 


963,000 


1.0 


.28 


0.5750 


.2150 


.1240 


.4400 


15.20 


3.04 


.0720 


1.88 


500,000 


August, 


1,038,000 


1.5 


.23 


1.2500 


.1650 


.0800 


.3400 


16.80 


1.54 


.0150 


1.64 


230,000 


September, . 


1,150,000 


3.0 


.28 


0.6750 


.2600 


.1840 


.4400 


13.60 


2.00 


.0960 


2.00 


300,000 


October, 


1,833,000 


2.0 


.30 


0.9500 


.2200 


.1680 


.4600 


12.40 


2.04 


.0240 


2,00 


130,000 


November, . 


2,440,000 


3.0 


.40 


1.5500 


.3800 


.2880 


.6500 


11.20 


2.51 


.0120 


2.20 


420,000 


Average, . 


1,355,300 


2.4 


.31 


0.9833 


.2533 


.1773 


.4683 


13.87 


1.85 


.1028 


1.89 


316,000 



Operation of Contact Filters. 

Contact Filters Nos. 175 and 421 to 1^28, inclusive, and Secondary 
Contact Filter No. US. 

Filter No. 115, first put into operation in June, 1901, is constructed of 
pieces of coke of such size that all will pass through a sieve having a 
1-incli mesh, 75 per cent, through a i/o-inch mesh, and practically none 
through a sieve with a 14-inch mesh. This filter has always received 
sewage that has passed through a coal strainer, being filled once daily in 
one dose, allowed to stand full two hours before draining, and being 
allowed to rest every sixth w^eek. The material in this filter was re- 
moved, washed and replaced in December, 1911, the working depth of 
material after rebuilding being 49 inches. Nitrification was active in 
this filter throughout the year, and with the exception of a short time 
in February the effluent was completely stable at all times. 

Filters Nos. .h21 to Ji2S, inclusive, were first put into operation on 
Jan. 18, 1911, to study the effect of operating similar contact filters by 
different methods. Each is ^/^oooo of an acre in area, is constructed of 
33 inches in depth of pieces of soft coal cinders having a diameter be- 
tween 14 and 11/4 inches, and is operated with settled sewage. In these 
particulars, all of the filters are identical. Each filter differs from the 
others, however, either in the manner in which the sewage is applied, in 
the number of times it is filled daily, or in the time the sewage is allowed 



324 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



to remain within the filter. Filters Nos. 421 to 436, inclusive, are filled 
from the top, the sewage being run directly on to the surface of the filters 
at such rates that the filter is completely filled in about two minutes. 
Filter No. 427 is filled at the same rate, the sewage entering at the 
bottom of the filter and rising gradually through the material, thus 
displacing the air. Filter No. 428 is filled by means of a tipping basin 
discharging into a perforated pan placed 1 foot above the surface, the 
sewage entering the filter in small well-distributed doses, the rate of 
apphcation being so regulated that about one hour is required to fill the 
filter. Filters Nos. 424 to 428, inclusive, are each allowed to stand 
full one hour before draining; Filter No. 423 is allowed to stand full 
two hours; and Filters Nos. 422 and 421 are allowed to stand full four 
hours and eight hours, respectively, before draining. Filter No. 425 is 
filled twice daily ; Filter No. 426 is filled three times daily, and each of 
the other filters is filled once daily. In this series of eight filters, there- 
fore, comparative studies are in progress of the effect of different details 
of operation. In Filters Nos. 421 to 424, inclusive, the effect of contact 
periods varying from one to eight hours in length are being studied on 
filters operated one cycle daily; in Filters Nos. 424, 425 and 426 the 
effect of operating filters one, two and three complete cycles daily is 
being compared; and in Filters Nos. 424, 427 and 428 we have a com- 
parison of the effect of different methods of applying the sewage to 
filters which are otherwise operated in the same manner. The differ- 
ences in the operating details of these filters are shown in the following 
table : — 



Filter 
Number. 



421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 



Met'hod of Filling. 



Contact 
Period 
(Hours). 



Rapidly from surface, ........ 

Rapidly frona surface, 

Rapidly from surface, 

Rapidly from surface 

Rapidly from surface, ......•• 

Rapidly from surface 

Rapidly from bottom , ....... 

Slowly from surface, with distributor 12 inches above surface, 



Number 

of Cycles 

Daily. 



In the accompanying tables a regular gradation may be noticed in the 
various nitrogenous constituents of the effluents from the four filters in 
which the sewage was allowed to remain for different lengths of time, 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 325 

the smallest amounts of both free and albuminoid ammonia and also of 
nitrates being found in the effluent from the filter in which the contact 
period was eight hours, while the largest amounts of each of these ingre- 
dients was found in the effluent from that filter in which the sewage 
remained only one hour. Unlike the results obtained with trickling 
and other filters in which the purification process is mainly oxidation, 
however, the results of stability tests do not follow the nitrates, about 
half of the samples from the filter yielding the highest nitrates being 
putrescible, while no putrescible samples were obtained during the year 
from the filter in which the sewage was held for eight hours and in 
which any nitrates which had been formed during the resting stage had 
been again reduced during the long period the sewage was standing 
within the filter. In the case of the three filters operated, respectively, 
one, two and three cycles daily, there was comparatively little difference 
between the quality of the effluents of the filters operated one and two 
cycles, but while the amount of nitrates produced by the filter operated 
three cycles daily was slightly less than the amounts produced by the 
filters operated a lesser number of cycles, the reduction in the ammonias 
by this filter was slightly greater and the proportion of stable samples 
obtained was considerably greater. Filter No. 427, which was filled from 
the bottom, produced an effluent of slightly poorer quality than either of 
the other filters operated in the study of methods of applying sewage, 
v/hile nitrification was slightly more active in the filter which received 
sewage which had been aerated, although the proportion of stable samples 
obtained from this filter was somewhat less than in the case of the filter 
operated in the usual manner. 

Double Contact Filtration. 
Filter No. H3. — ^-^oooo of an acre in area and constructed of 21 
inches in depth of broken stone pebbles, all of which will pass a screen 
with a i/o-inch mesh, 43 per cent, through a screen with a 14-inch mesh 
and practically none of which will pass a screen with a i/^-inch mesh 
was put into operation on April 21, 1912, to study the purification re- 
sulting from the treatment of settled Lawrence sewage by filtration 
through two successive contact filters. The effluent from Filter No. 425, 
which is described above, was applied to this filter at an average rate 
of about 549,000 gallons per acre daily, the filter being filled twice each 
day and allowed to stand one hour before draining. As the two filters are 
arranged, the effluent from Filter No. 425 falls about 2 feet, striking upon 
a dash plate on the surface of Filter No. 443, and flows thence into the 
filter, therebv receiving a certain amount of aeration in its passage from 



326 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



the primary to the secondary filter. Nitrification was active in this filter 
throughout the year and the effluent was completely stable at all times. 
Average analyses of the effluents from these various contact filters are 
shown in the following table : — 



Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 176. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Appear- 


Ammonia. 


a 

o 

M 
O 




Nitrogen 


Quantity 
applied. 


ance. 




albuminoid. 


AS 












■*^ 


















a 


2; 








Gallons 
per Acre 


>. 

^ 








3 


1 


6 
a 


i 


s 


DaUy. 


13 


S 


6 


"3 


^ 


2 
"3 


^ 


g 


'C 




H 


o 
O 


£ 


^ 


d 


M 


O 


z 


z 


495,400 


4.3 


.37 


1.2100 


.2265 


.1643 


.4058 


13.43 


2.09 


.0275 



770,800 



Efflxient from Filter No. 421. 


279,300 


3.7 


.32 


1.4958 


.2617 


.2067 


.4854 


13 25 


.13 


.0009 


1.66 


869,600 


Effluent from Filter No. 4£2. 


277,700 


4 


.34 


1.6792 


.2679 


.2023 


.5053 


13.23 


.37 


.0082 


1.69 


927,500 


Effluent from Filter No. 423. 


312,300 


4.4 


.34 


1.8313 


.2967 


.2323 


.5891 


13.15 


.41 


.0276 


1.98 


1,171,700 



Effluent from Filter No. 4^4. 



304,900 



4.4 


.34 


1.8667 


.3004 


.2307 


.6108 


13.00 


.55 


.0360 


2.14 



1,166,300 



Effluent from Filter No. 425. 


548,700 


4.9 


.35 


1.8719 


.3450 


.2546 


.6821 


12.78 


.56 


.0161 


2.26 


1,415,300 


Effluent from Filter No. 426. 


599.000 


5.2 


.35 


1.6921 


.3092 


.2361 


.6482 


12.78 


.44 


.0238 


2.18 


1,106,700 


Effluent from Filter No. 427. 


324,200 


5.4 


.35 


1.8792 


.3085 


.2467 


.6522 


13.20 


.34 


.0157 


2.34 


1,279,200 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



327 



Average Analyses — Concluded. 
Effluent from Filter No. ^28. 











[Parts per 


100,000.] 














Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. 


d 
o 

bO 

s 




Nitrogen 

AS 


i 




Quantity 




ALBUMINOID. 


o 


applied. 












in 












Gallons 
per Acre 


>. 

^ 








a 
.2 


2 

13 


a 


i 


^ 


O 

a 


El 


Daily. 


J2 
3 


g 


6 


1 


o 


2 


3 


g 


*n 




3g 




H 


U 


f^ 


H 




M 


. o 


g 


s 


O 


fa 


304,100 


4.6 


.33 


1.7896 


.2971 


.2173 


.5968 


12.65 


0.89 


.0789 


1.98 


962,100 



Effluent from Secondary Filter No. 443. 



548,700 3.3 



32 1.2583 .3042 .2143 



6171 12.90 1.52 .0312 2.00 919,200 











Stability of Effluents from Contact Filters, 1913. 






Filter Number. 


Nitrates 
(Parts per 
100,000). 


Per Cent, of Samples. 




Putrescible. 


Doubtful. 


Stable. 


175, 




2.09 


0.0 


3.1 


96.9 


376, 
















.11 


100.0 


0.0 


0.0 


421, 
















.01 


0.0 


33.3 


66.7 


422, 
















.37 


5.5 


22 2 


72.3 


423, 
















.41 


44.4 


11.2 


44 4 


424. 
















.55 


55.6 


5.6 


38.8 


425, 
















.56 


55.6 


16.6 


27.8 


426, 
















.44 


5.6 


16.6 


77.8 


427, 
















.34 


38.8 


5.6 


55.6 


428, 
















.89 


33.3 


5.6 


61.1 


Seconc 


ary contact Filter No. 443, 




1.52 


0.0 


0.0 


100.0 



Clogging of Contact Filters and Effect of Resting. 

At the present time Filters Nos. 421 to 428, inclusive, have been in 
operation nearly three years; secondary Filter No. 443, about twenty 
months; and Filter No. 175, about two years since the material was re- 
moved and waslied. 

The loss of capacity by Filter No. 175 during the A'ear was about 8 
per cent., and at the end of the year the original capacity of the filter 
had been reduced about 29 per cent. In the case of secondary Filter No. 
443, accumulated matters occupied about one-fourth of the original 



328 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

open space at the end of the year, although there was a slight gain in 
capacity during 1913. The results of capacity measurements on Filters 
Nos. 421 to 428, inclusive, however, are of particular interest since in 
this series of filters we may compare directly the effect of different oper- 
ating details upon the deposition and retention of solids within the filter 
materials. In the four filters in which the sewage was held for different 
periods the two filters in which the contact period was eight hours and 
four hours, respectively, have lost about one-third of their capacity dur- 
ing the thirty-four months they have been in operation, while the two 
filters in which the contact period was one and two hours, respectively, 
have lost only about one-fourth of their capacity. During the year there 
was a slight loss in open space in each of these filters, but no regular 
difference which can be attributed to difference in operation can be de- 
tected in the results. In the series in which the three filters, Nos. 424, 
425 and 426, are filled once, twice and three times daily, respectively, 
the greatest reduction in capacity, 53 per cent., occurred in the filter filled 
three times daily, and the least reduction, 26 per cent., occurred in the 
one filled only once each day. The total volume of the deposit in these 
filters is not strictly proportional to the volume of sewage which each 
receives daily. The filter operated three complete cycles daily lost con- 
siderably more capacity during 1913 than did either of its companion 
filters, but the accumulation of deposited matters in these other two 
filters during the past year is not in agreement with the volumes of 
sewage applied to them. 

All of these contact filters were rested one week in every six through- 
out the year, capacity measurements being made immediately before 
and after each resting period. Except in a very few instances there 
was a regain in capacity in each of these contact filters as a result 
of resting. The largest average regain, 7 per cent., was obtained on 
Filter No. 426, which contained the greatest amount of deposited mat- 
ters, and this filter also showed the largest individual regain as the result 
of any single resting period. Filter No. 175 showed an average regain of 
nearly 5 per cent, during resting, but in the case of the other filters the 
regain was somewhat less. Filters Nos. 175, 421 and 443 all show in- 
dividual regain in capacity amounting to over 7 per cent., and Filter No. 
425 showed a regain of over 6 per cent, on one occasion. In a few in- 
dividual instances it was found that the capacity of a tank decreased 
slightly during the resting period, and at the present time no satisfac- 
tory explanation can be given for such an apparently abnormal occur- 
rence. The comparatively small loss of open space by these filters during 
the year was undoubtedly in a large measure the result of the practice 
of resting such filters systematically. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



329 



The loss of capacity of each of these filters and the effect of resting 
upon the capacity are shown in the following table : — 

Loss of Capacity of Contact Filters and Effect of Resting (Per Cent.). 





Time 
operated 
(Months). 


Total 

Loss since 

Start. 


Loss 

during 

1913. 


REGAir* AFTER RESTING 

One Week. 


Filter Number. 


Average. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


175 


23' 


29 > 


8.3 


4.7 


7.3 


1.6 


421 


34 


32 


5.6 


1.5 


7.5 


4 42 


422 


34 


33 


4.3 


1.7 


4.5 


0.0 


423 


34 


25 


3.8 


1.5 


4.0 


0.0 


424 


34 


26 


5.1 


1.5 


2.7 


0.0 


425 


34 


33 


2.9 


2.8 


6.4 


1.5' 


426 


34 


53 


12.9 


7.0 


10.9 


1.9 


427 


34 


21 


3.7 


2.0 


3.8 


0.0 


428 


34 


25 


1.3 


1.5 


2.7 


0.0 


443 


20 


25 


3.42 


2.5 


7.3 


0.0 



' Since washing material. 



2 Gain. 



Sedimentation and Eefiltration of Effluents from Contact and 

Trickling Filters. 

Filters Nos. ^2, 4U and J^-kS. 
During 1913 three experiments upon the further purification of ef- 
fluents from filters of coarse material by sedimentation and refiltration 
were continued. In one of these experiments the effluent from trickling 
Filter No. 360 was passed through a continuous-flow settling tank and 
applied to secondary Filter No. 442. In another, the effluent from the 
double contact system, consisting of contact Filters Nos. 425 and 443, 
was settled and applied to intermittent sand Filter No. 444, while in 
the third, the effluent from trickling Filter No. 248 was passed through 
Filter No. 448, in which a settling tank and upward flow filter are 
combined. 

Sedimentation of Effluents. 

Since March 1, 1912, the effluent from trickling Filter No. 360 has 
been passed through a settling tank preparatory to refiltration on Filter 
No. 442. This tank, which is a modified form of Imhoff tank, is cylin- 
drical, with a conical bottom sloping at an angle of 60°, inside of which 
is a smaller tank of similar design. The inner, or settling chamber, is 
provided with a slot in the bottom through which the deposited solids 
pass into the outer or digestion chamber. The effluent from the trickling 



330 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



filter enters and flows to the bottom of the inner tank through a central 
pipe, is there deflected to the outer rim of the tank and rises slowly to 
the top, where it overflows to a storage tank from which it is drawn, as 
required for application to the secondary filter. The average rate of 
vertical flow in the settling tank is about 0.9 inch per minute, the 
effluent being about thirty minutes in passing through the tank. The 
upper side of the central deflector is cone shaped, to facilitate the flow 
of any deposited matters toward the opening into the digestion chamber. 
The outer or digestion chamber has a capacity of about two and one-half 
times the capacity of the settling compartment. The average removal of 
suspended matters in the tank during the year, as shown by albuminoid 
ammonia determinations, was about 43 per cent. On April 22, 1913, 
there was a heavy scum about one inch thick in the digestion chamber 
and heavy sludge nearly up to the opening from the settling compart- 
ment. On this date the tank was emptied. On August 7 heavy sludge 
equivalent to about 7 per cent., and on October 7 heavy sludge equivalent 
to about 4 per cent, of the capacity of this chamber, was withdrawn. 
Sludge equivalent to about 97 pounds of dry matter per million gallons 
of effluent was deposited in this tank. 

The composition of the various samples of sludge from this tank is 
shown in the following table : — . 





1913. 


Per Cent. 

Water. 


Per Cent, of Drt Sludge. 




Organic 
Matter. 


Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Fats. 


Floating matter, . 


April 22, . 


93.3 


73.1 


4.23 


7.8 


Bottom sludge, . 


April 22, . 


94.6 


48.3 


2.93 


2.3 


Bottom sludge, . 


August 7, . 


97.3 


54.0 


.3.31 


1.4 


Bottom sludge, 


October 7, . 


96.5 


58.6 


4.11 


0.1 


Bottom sludge, ... 


December 3, 


95.0 


57.1 


3.43 


1.8 



Throughout the year the effluent from secondary Filter No. 443 was 
passed into a settling tank and allowed to settle for one hour before being 
applied to intermittent sand Filter No. 444, The sludge was withdrawn 
from this tank each day. The average removal of suspended matters by 
this tank, as shown by albuminoid ammonia determinations, was about 
43 per cent. 

Intermittent Filtration of Settled Effluents. 

Filters Nos. 442 and 444 are each %oooo of an acre in area, and are 
constructed of 4 feet in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.26 milli- 
meter. Filter No. 442 was first put into operation on March 1, 1912, 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 331 

and received the settled effluent from trickling Filter Xo. 360 at a rate 
of 400,000 gallons per acre daily throughout the year. Filter No. 444 
was first put into operation on April 1, 1912, and received the settled 
effluent from secondary contact Filter No. 443 at a rate of 400,000 gal- 
lons per acre daily. The settled effluents applied to each of these filters 
have been divided into two doses applied at intervals four hours apart. 
The principal points in the operation of these two filters during the 
year were as follows : The surface of Filter No. 442 was raked to a depth 
of 3 inches to relieve clogging on January 27, February 10, March 8 and 
March 26. On April 17 the surface of this filter had become badly 
clogged and 2 inches of material were removed and the filter allowed to 
rest one week. The surface of Filter No. 444 was raked to a depth of 
3 inches once each month in January, February and March, no surface 
treatment being required during the remainder of the year. As the con- 
tact filter whose effluent is applied to this filter is allowed to rest one week 
in every six, it was necessary to allow this filter to rest during the cor- 
responding period?, and the systematic resting has undoubtedly been 
very beneficial to the work of the filter and the ease with which it has 
been kept in good operating condition. Nitrification was active in both 
filters throughout the year, and the effluents were of excellent quality at 
all times. 

Com'bined Sedimentation and Uptvard FiUroiion. 
Filter No. 448, ^soooo of an acre in area, was first put into operation 
on May 20, 1912. It is constructed of 2 feet in depth of pieces of coke 
between % and '*/\q i^^ch in diameter, supported 1 foot above the bottom 
of the tank by a %-inch mesh wire screen, the filter material being car- 
ried in a separate inner tank, which is removable for purposes of in- 
spection. The effluent from trickling Filter No. 248 flows directly to the 
sedimentation chamber below the coke, where it receives about two hours' 
storage, then rises through the coke and overflows at the top, the average 
rate of the filter during the year being about 3,000,000 gallons per acre 
daily. The filter was operated throughout the year without any treatment 
to relieve clogging being necessary. The average removal of suspended 
matters during the year, as shown by albuminoid ammonia determina- 
tions, was about 43 per cent. Except in the removal of suspended mat- 
ters, there has been no further purification of the effluent from Filter No. 
248 during its passage through this tank, and the final effluent has 
always been turbid and highly colored with iron. At the end of the year, 
after being in continuous operation for about eighteen and one-half 
months, the filter material was removed, and the amount of sludge held 
within the sludge compartment and the filter material were determined. 
The total amount of stored matters was equivalent to about 111 pounds 



332 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



per million gallons of effluent which had been passed through it since 
it was started, about two-thirds of the stored matters being in the form 
of sludge in the sedimentation chamber and the other third being con- 
tained in the interstices of the filter proper. 

The composition of the sludge in the settling compartment and of the 
clogging matters washed from the filter material was as follows : — 





Per Cent. 
Water. 


Per Cent, of Dry Sludge. 




Loss on 
Ignition. 


Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Fats. 


Sludge in settling compartment, . 
Sludge washed from filter material, 


95.9 


44.7 
40.0 


3.85 
2.20 


.25 
.15 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Settled Effluent from Trickling Filter No. 360 applied to Filter No. 443. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 



Appear- 
ance. 



1.8700 



ALBUMINOID. 



.3132 



.1902 



6154 13.11 



Nitrogen 

AS 



1.13 .0145 



2,15 



2,1.35,000 



Settled Effluent from Contact Filter No. 443 applied to Filter No. 444. 


- 


- 


- 


1.1100 


.2327 


.1822 


.4963 


13 58 


1.56 


.0155 


1.69 


875,000 


Effluent from Filter No. 442. 


375,000 0.5 


.20 


0.2373 


.0535 


- 


- 


12.46 


2.86 


.0019 


0.67 6,600 


Effluent from Filter No. 444. 


329,100 


0.4 


.19 


0.0794 


.0451 


- 


- 


12.83 


2.25 


.0034 


0.56 


17,800 


Effluent from Combined Sedimentation and Upward Filtration Tank No. 443. 


3,230,000 


1.9 


.38 


1.8083 


.3404 


.2097 


.7328 13.38 


1.12 


.0142 


2 34 


492,100 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



333 



Average Bacterial Efficiency of Sewage-disposal Systems. 
Untreated Sewage. 





Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent, op Bacteria 

REMOVED. 




20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 




TotaL 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


Lawrence street sewage, 
Lawrence regular sewage, 


2,707.000 
3,724.000 


400.200 
409,600 


346,800 
358.500 


- 


- 


- 



Preliminary Clarification Treatments. 



Lawrence settling tank, 
Slate tank No. 376, 
Aerated and settled sewage. 
Chemical precipitation. 
Strainer E. . 



2,301.000 


244,000 


206,800 


38.20 


40 50 


2,707,000 


392,500 


334,500 


27.20 


4.00 


1.684,000 


151,300 


120,600 


54.80 


63.20 


1.383.000 


200.400 


178,800 


62.90 


51.30 


3.258.000 


333,800 


264,600 


12.30 


18.50 



Intermittent Sand Filters. 



No. 1, 

2, 

4. 

5C, 

6, 

9A, 

10, 

429, 

430, 

431, 

432. 



6,600 


2.700 


2,330 


560 


19 


14 


280 


23 


11 


9,300 


3.300 


2,700 


13,100 


4,250 


3,700 


1,970 


193 


150 


18,100 


430 


290 


450 


110 


100 


17,400 


10,800 


9,700 


8,650 


4,450 


4.100 


2,000 


860 


790 



99.82 
99 85 
99.92 
99.75 
99 65 
99 95 
99.51 
99 99 
99 24 
99.74 
99.86 



99.34 
99.99 
99.99 
99.20 
98.97 
99 53 
99 89 
99 73 
95 57 
98.67 
99.57 



Trickling Filters. 



No. 135. 
136, 
248, 
360A. 
360B, . 
360C, . 
360 (entire), 
449, 



66,800 
124,400 
356,000 
699,100 
969,100 
851.800 
746,600 
309,800 



8,800 
37,800 
56,400 
38,000 
35.300 
38.100 
33,300 

5,230 



6,950 


97.10 


26,300 


94.60 


47,000 


84 50 


34,800 


69.70 


30,800 


58.00 


34.800 


63.00 


29,800 


67.60 


3,960 


81.50 



96 40 
84.50 
76.90 

84 50 

85 50 
84.40 

86 40 
96 54 



334 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Efficiency of Sewage-disposal Systems — Concluded. 
Trickling FiZters ^ Concluded. 



No. 452, 
453, 
454, 
455, 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 



20° C. 



373,000 
170,600 
256,000 
316,000 



40° C. 



Total. 



31,300 
21,500 
41,700 
19,100 



Red. 



28,800 
17,600 
37,200 
16,300 



Per Cent, of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 



20° C. 



83.80 
92.55 



40° C. 



Total. 



87.20 
91.20 
82 90 
92.20 



Red. 



86.10 
91.50 
82.00 
92.10 



Contact Filters. 



No. 175, 
421, 
422, 
423, 
424. 
425, 
426, 
427, 
428, 



770,800 


136,300 


124,400 


76.40 


59.30 


869,600 


133,800 


121,000 


62.20 


43.00 


927,500 


151,700 


132,100 


59.80 


37.70 


1,172,000 


180,000 


154,200 


49.20 


26.20 


1,166,300 


169,200 


141,300 


49.20 


30.70 


1,415,300 


184,300 


160,000 


38.30 


24.50 


1,106,700 


177,100 


152,100 


51.80 


27.50 


1,279,200 


305,800 


262,500 


44.40 


25 001 


982,100 


140,600 


126,300 


58 30 


42.20 



53.20 

40.00 

36.20 

25.50 

31.90 

22.70 

26.50 

27.001 

39.20 



Secondary Contact Filter. 



No. 443, 



919,200 127,900 111,800 35 40 30.40 30.00 



Effluent from Settling Tanks. 



Settled effluent, trickling Filter No. 360, 

Settled effluent, secondary contact Fil- 
ter No. 443. 



2,135,000 


32,400 


29,800 


186.001 


2 70 


875,000 


141,700 


134,700 


4.80 


9 301 



00 

20 401 



Combined Effluent from Settling Tank and Upward-flow Filter. 




Effluent from Filter No. 448, 


492,100 


37,500 


33,800 


26.201 


33.50 


28.00 


Secondary Intermittent Sand Filters. 


No. 442 

444 


6,600 
17,800 


1,160 
3,230 


1,045 
3,150 


99.69 
97.96 


96.42 
97.73 


96.49 
97.67 



1 Increase. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 335 

Further Studies on the Purification of Tannery Waste. 

Experiments on the purification of tannery wastes have been in 
progress at the station since 1895. The results of the experiments dur- 
ing the first fifteen years were summarized in the report for 1909, and 
the results obtained during 1910 were given in the report for that year. 
In the following pages are summarized the results of further studies 
which have been made during the past three years. 

The waste liquors from one of the main tanneries investigated consist 
of a mixture derived chiefly from the processes of wool scouring, skin 
washing, tanning and dyeing, together with the drainage from the toilet 
rooms. The mixed wastes are passed through a settling basin, and at 
times have also been treated with copperas or with alum, to increase the 
removal of suspended matters. After passing through this settling tank, 
the waste usually contained a large amount of soluble matter and a small 
amount of suspended matter and was usually colored by the wastes from 
the dyeing. Moreover, a large proportion of the total solids remaining 
after settling were of an inorganic or mineral nature. Experiments at the 
station in former years indicated that this settled waste could be satis- 
factorily purified on sand filters, but when it was attempted to carry out 
this process at the tannery, the sand filters rapidly became clogged and 
could only be kept in operation by very frequent removal and replace- 
ment of the clogged sand. In 1911 studies were started to ascertain 
what further preliminary treatment was necessary in order that sand 
filters might be satisfactorily operated. 

- Sedimentation followed by Sand Filtration. 
Filter No. 435, containing 42 inches in depth of sand of an effective 
size of 0.25 millimeter, was put into operation on May 13, 1911. The 
effluent from the tannery settling basin, after being settled for an addi- 
tional twenty-four hours in the laboratory, was applied to this filter at 
a rate of 75,000 gallons per acre daily. The effect of the extra period 
of sedimentation was to reduce the organic matters about 15 per cent., 
as shown by loss on ignition, and about 18 per cent, and 20 per cent., as 
shown, respectively, by Kjeldahl nitrogen and oxygen consumed determi- 
nations. Nitrification became established in the filter during the latter 
part of June, and the effluent was clear and of good quality throughout 
the experiment. After the first few months, however, the surface of the 
filter became clogged by the suspended and colloidal matters which even 
the extra period of sedimentation had failed to remove, and throughout 
the remainder of the experiment frequent scraping or other surface treat- 



336 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ment was required to keep the filter in good working condition. During 
the period of tvv^o and one-half years this filter was continued in opera- 
tion, the total depth of sand removed by scraping was about 12 inches. 
These experiments confirm the results obtained at the tannery and show 
that even the prolonging of the settling period for an additional twenty - 
four hours would not sufficiently clarify the waste to enable sand filters 
to be operated without clogging. The experiments also show the neces- 
sity of continuing experiments of this kind over a considerable period, 
and wliile the possibility of obtaining a good purification by sand filters 
was shown by earlier experiments, the filters to which the effluent from 
the settling tank at this tannery were applied experimentally in former 
years were operated for too short a period to indicate the very serious 
difficulties which might be expected through clogging. 

Precipitation with Flue Gas or COo followed hy Sand Filtration. 
Filter No. HI, operated from Jan. 13, 1912, to Sept. 30, 1913, at a 
rate of 100,000 gallons per acre daily, was an exact duplicate of Filter 
No. 435. The effluent from the tannery settling tank applied to this filter 
was treated by blowing flue gas or CO2 through it for about one-half 
hour, and then allowing it to settle for about ten to fifteen minutes. 
When the waste contained the red coloring matter which usually was 
characteristic of it, the result of the flue gas treatment was to produce 
rapid coagulation of the colored suspended or colloidal matters, the super- 
natant liquor after a short period of sedimentation being clear and of a 
light straw color. During warm weather the characteristic red color was 
usually absent from the settled waste when received, and as the character 
of the raw wastes was not materially different, it is possihle that the 
character of the waste had been changed by fermentation in the settling 
tank. At such times a precipitation similar to that obtained with CO2 
was effected by the addition of a slight excess of hydrochloric acid, the 
supernatant liquor being again made alkaline before application to the 
filter. The effect of the precipitation treatment was to reduce the 
organic matter about one-third, as shown by loss on ignition, and about 
30 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen and by oxygen consumed 
determinations. Nitrification became established shortly after the filter 
was started, and the effluent was highly nitrified throughout the experi- 
ment, although at times it was slightly turbid and of somewhat higher 
color than the effluent from Filter No. 435. Operating at a higher rate 
than Filter No. 435, this filter showed no signs of clogging during the 
period of about twenty months it was operated. The results obtained 
in this experiment indicate that in the case of this particular waste. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



337 



treatment with flue gas for a short period may so improve the clarifica- 
tion in the settling tank that the tank effluent may be successfully 
purified upon sand filters without undue clogging of the filter material. 
The average analyses of the effluents from these filters, of the treated 
waste applied to them, and the condition of the sand in each filter at 
the end of the experiment, are shown in the following tables : — 

Average Chemical Analyses. 

Effluent from Tannery Settling Tank as received. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Solids. 


Ammonia. 


a 
Si 

a 

2 


Nitrogen 

AS 


B 
3 


o 

a 

& 
>> 

X 

O 


1 

o 




Year. 


1 


d 
o 




1 


3 

J3 ■ 


1 
1 




'3 

< 


1911 

1912 

1913 


229 
270 
354 


56 
69 
62 


173 
201 

292 


3.08 
3.10 
3.74 


1.16 
1.76 
1.29 


2.57 
4.03 
2.86 


- 


; 


9.97 
12.32 
13.74 


40.7 40.7 
32.4 32.4 
45.0 45.0 



Resettled Waste applied to Filter No. 435. 



1911, 
1912, 
1913, 



210 


46 


164 


3.11 


0.91 


1.97 


- 


- 


7.32 




251 


58 


193 


3.10 


1.35 


3.05 


- 


- 


10.45 


- 


326 


54 


272 


3.13 


1.24 


2.73 


- 


- 


10.92 


40.7 



40.0 





Waste 'i 


orecipitated with COS applied to Filter No. 44^ 








1912, . 




263 


47 


216 


3.08 


1.12 


2.55 


- 


- 


8.26 


36.4 


36.4 


1913, . 




356 


45 


311 


3.71 


0.91 


1.98 


- 


- 


10.62 


36.5 


36.5 



Effluent from Filter No. 433. 



1911 


- 


- 


- 


.7342 


.0473 


- 


2.69 


.0348 


.41 


14.0 


14.0 


1912 


- 


- 


- 


.3354 


.0634 


- 


3.17 


.0006 


.61 


16.4 


16.4 


1913 


- 


- 


- 


.1561 


.0685 


- 


3.87 


.0001 


.91 


18.4 


18.4 



Effluent from Filter No. 44^' 



1912 


- 


- 


- 


0.5956 


.1169 


- 


3.88 


.0028 


1.20 


16.7 


16.7 


1913 




- 


- 


1.0003 


.1775 


- 


3.37 


.0023 


1.88 


12.8 


12.8 



338 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Analyses of Sand from Filters. 

Filter No. 435. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Ammonia. | 






Free. 


Albuminoid. 


CaCOs. 


Average of 12 inches removed by scrapings. 
Average of sand remaining in filter, .... 


0.63 
0.45 


40.4 
13.2 


276 
220 


Filter No. Ul. 


Average of upper 12 inches, 

Average of lower 30 inches, 


0.85 
0.25 


26.5 

8.8 


144 
144 



No. 34.1 PURIFICATION OF WATER. 339 



Purification of Water. 



Lawrence City Filters. 

The source of the water supply of the city of Lawrence is the Merri- 
mack Eiver. Two filters are in use to purify this water. The older filter 
was constructed in 1893, and dividing walls separating it into three sec- 
tions were built in 1902. The average depth of sand in this filter is 
about 4 feet, and the net filtering area is about 2.3 acres. As originally 
constructed, this filter contained two different grades of sand, the por- 
tions of the filter immediately over the underdrains being of finer sand 
than the remainder of the filter. Through the operations of scraping, 
washing and replacing sand, the two grades of sand have become quite 
thoroughly mixed in the upper layers of the filter, and at the present 
time this upper sand has an effective size of approximately 0.25 milli- 
meter. This filter is not covered and has an earth bottom through which 
some ground water finds its way into the underdrains and becomes mixed 
with the filtered water. The average rate of operation during the past 
few years has been about 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily. 

In November, 1907, a modern covered filter of concrete construction 
was put into operation to supplement the supply of filtered water from 
the old filter. This filter is three-quarters of an acre in area and contains 
about 414 feet in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter. 
The average rate of operation during 1913 was about 3,000,000 gal- 
lons per acre daily. The effluents from both of these filters flow into 
the same pump-well from which they are pumped into the distributing 
reservoir. There was comparatively little difference in the degree of 
purification produced by these two filters, as shown by the average 
a,nalyses. As has been the case for the last few years, the effluent from 
the older filter was slightly better bacterially than that from the covered 
filter, which is operated at a much higher rate. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these two filters, and of 
samples from other points on the Lawrence water supply system, are 
shown in the following tables : — 



340 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



^ 


Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. j 


3 
O 


Nitrogen 


s 

n 
S 
8 

a 

o 
to 

d 


1 


>> 






1 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 


» 


a 

a 

Eh 


1 


"o 


"3 
O 


a 
a 


1 

2 


.1 


a 


51 


0.3 


.33 


.0170 


.0216 


.0180 


.45 


.020 


.0005 


.60 


.0523 


1.3 


1.7 


Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter) . 


53 


0.1 


.18 


.0118 


.0099 


- 


.48 


.032 


.0004 


.44 


.0973 


1.6 


2.0 


Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter (New Filter) . 


53 


0.0 


.17 


.0038 


.0099 


- 


.44 


.027 


.0003 


.46 


.0294 


1.3 


1.7 


Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 


53 


0.1 


.22 


.0062 


.0102 


- 


.47 


.034 


.0002 


.41 


.0673 


1.5 


1.9 


Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 


54 


0.2 


.23 


.0038 


.0096 


- 


.47 


.036 


.0002 


.40 


.0733 


1.5 


1.8 


Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 


54 


0.1 


.22 


.0030 .0097 


- 


.47 


.037 


.0001 


.38 


.0694 


1.5 


1.8 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 


Per C' NT OP 

, Samples 
containing B. Coli. 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


1 c. c. 




20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


100 c. c. 


7,400 


225 


175 


- 


- 


- 


100.0 


100.0 



Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter (.Old Filter). 



41 



15.7 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



341 



Average Bacterial Analyses — Concluded. 
Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New Filter) . 



Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 


Per Cent, of 

Samples 

containing b. coli. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


1 c. c 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


100 c. c. 


51 


8 


5 


99.3 


96 5 


97.1 


30.5 


90.0 



Mixed Effluents as pumped to Distributing Reservoir. 



7 4 



25.3 90.7 



40 



Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 



13.1 



87.3 



Water from, a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



36 



81.8 



39 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



78.0 



Average Solids. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 
[Part.=? per 100,000.] 



Unpiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


6.7 


2.7 


4.0 


6.2 


2.4 


3.8 


0.5 


0.3 


0.2 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter) . 



6.4 


2.3 


4.1 


- 


- 






- 


- 


Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New Filter). 


5.8 


2.1 


3.7 

1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



342 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Solids — Concluded. 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


6.1 


2.2 


3.9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



4.0 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



1 2.2 3 



Filtration through a Shallow Sand Filter with Disinfection. 

Filter No. 8A, %oo of ^^ acre in area and first put into operation on 
Sept. 26, 1893, contained about 21 inches in depth of sand of an effective 
size of 0.28 millimeter at the beginning of the year. This filter has 
been operated with canal water at a rate of 3,000,000 gallons per acre 
daily. During the year this filter was scraped to relieve clogging eleven 
times, the average volume of water filtered between scrapings being about 
79,000,000 gallons per acre, and the average time between scrapings 
being about twenty-five days. During the first four months of the year 
high bacterial counts were obtained on occasional samples of the effluent 
from this filter, and high body temperature counts were obtained at 
relatively frequent intervals. Attention was called in the last report to a 
similar condition during 1912, especially during the first few days after 
the filter was scraped, and it was stated that this was undoubtedly due 
to the fact that the effective depth of the filter had been reduced below 
the limit of safety. In the usual practice of operating slow sand filters, 
it is customary to replace the sand removed by scraping at reasonably 
frequent intervals, so that under ordinary conditions the effective depth 
of the filter never becomes reduced to any great extent. With this and 
certain other experimental filters at the station, however, the practice 
has been to continue scraping the filter until an insufficient depth of sand 
is indicated by the bacterial analyses of the effluent, and then to rebuild 
the filter to the desired depth with new sand. 

Instead of restoring the depth of sand in the spring of 1913, the 
operation of the filter was continued and hypochlorite of lime was added 
to the applied water throughout the last eight months of the year in 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF WATER. 343 

order to study the effect of combined disinfection and filtration through 
a shallow layer of sand. On April 15, when the application of hypo- 
chlorite was begun, the effective depth of sand within the filter was about 
18 inches. The disinfectant was added directly to the water as it flowed 
upon the filter, the volume of water upon the surface being equivalent 
to about six hours' flow of the filter. The proportion of disinfectant used, 
one part per million available chlorine, was that which long series of 
experiments in previous years had shown to be necessary for the treat- 
ment of Merrimack Eiver water. 

In April and November a number of high counts were obtained on the 
disinfected water as applied to the filter. As much trouble was ex- 
perienced with the chemical feed in these months, these high counts can 
undoubtedly be attributed to irregularities in the amount of disinfectant 
added to the water. During the six months, May to October, inclusive, 
the average destruction of bacteria by disinfection was about 99.5 per 
cent, as shown by room temperature counts, and about 95 per cent, as 
shown by body temperature counts. In three of these six months, B. coli 
appear to have been entirely eliminated, judging by tests in 1 cubic centi- 
meter of the disinfected water, but in the other three months, bacteria 
of the colon type were found in a small proportion of the samples. The 
effluent from the filter has been of good quality bacterially since the 
application of disinfected water to it was begun. The average number of 
bacteria in the effluent during this period was 11 per cubic centimeter, 
and the highest average in any one month was 23 per cubic centimeter. 
Only one sample containing more than 50 bacteria per cubic centimeter 
has been obtained from this filter during this period. In two of the 
months when the numbers in the disinfected applied water were very 
low, the effluent from the filter contained more bacteria than the water 
applied to it, and in one other month the numbers were unchanged by 
filtration. The average for the eight months, however, shows a removal 
of nearly 85 per cent, of the total bacteria and of about 58 per cent, of 
the body temperature types during filtration, a very satisfactory result 
when the small bacterial content of the applied water is taken into con- 
sideration. In three of the eight months B. coli was not found in the 
disinfected water before or after passing the filter, in three other months 
there was a reduction by filtration in the proportion of samples contain- 
ing this organism. In July, however, B. coli was found in the same 
proportion of samples of both applied water and effluent, and the test 
organism was found in 11 per cent, of the effluent samples, although not 
found in any of the samples of the disinfected water applied to the filter. 
Average analyses of the river water before and after disinfection, and 
of the effluent from this filter, are shown in the following tables : — 



344 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Without Disinfection. 





MERRIMACK RIVER WATER. 












Before 
Disinfection. 


After Disinfection. 


Effluent, Filter No. 8A. 


1912-13. 


BACTEHIA PER C. C. 


BACTERIA per C. C. 


Per Cent, 
of 1 Cubic 
Centimeter 

Samples 
containing 

B. Coli. 


BACTERIA PER C. C. 


Per Cent. 




20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


of 1 Cubic 
Centimeter 




15 




1 


T3 


1 


•6 


Samples 

containing 

B. Coli. 


December, 
January, . 
February, 
March, 


11,300 
9,800 

19,500 
8,600 


570 
350 
340 
240 


500 
310 

240 
180 


- 


- 


- 


- 


115 

80 
95 
58 


12 
9 

12 
11 


9 
7 
9 
5 


50 

50.0 

28.6 

0.0 


Average, . 


12,300 


375 


310 


1 - 


- 


- 


- 


87 


11 


8 


32.1 



With Disinfection. 



April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September 

October, 

November 


, 


2,200 
1,500 
1,900 
2,600 
500 
4,900 
11,300 
5,450 


80 
130 

170 
240 
70 
170 
290 
230 


45 
90 
93 
150 
38 
85 
230 
190 


350 
12 
8 
6 
6 
8 

28 
160 


29 
11 
9 
8 
4 
6 
13 
14 


13 

2 

2 
2 
1 

5 
7 


0.0 
0.0 
5.9 
5.6 
0.0 
0.0 
11.1 
33.3 


23 
10 
9 
4 
6 
9 
12 
16 


10 
5 
4 
3 
1 
6 
3 
8 


3 
1 


1 



1 
1 
4 


0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
5.6 
0.0 

11.1 
5.6 

13.3 


Averaj 


?e. 


3,800 


170 


115 


72 


12 


4 


7.0 


11 


5 


1 


4.5 









Bacterial Efficiency. 










Of Disinfection. 


Of Filter. 


1912-13. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


December 

January, .... 
February, .... 
March, .... 


- 


- 


- 


99.9 
99.2 
99.5 
99.3 


97.9 
97.4 
96.5 
95.4 


98.2 
97.7 
96 3 
97.2 


Ave 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August 

Septem 

Octobei 

Novem 


rage, 

jcr, 
aer, 




84.1 
99.2 
99.6 
99.8 
98.8 
99.8 
99.8 
97.1 


63.8 
91.5 
94.7 
96.7 
94.3 
96.6 
95.5 
93.9 


71.1 
97.8 
97.8 
98.7 
97.5 
100.0 
97.8 
96.3 


99.5 

93.6 
16.7 
12.5 1 
33.3 
0.0 
12.5 I 
67.2 
90.0 


96.8 

65.6 
54.5 
55.5 
62 5 
75.0 
0.0 
77.0 
42.8 


97.4 

77.0 
50 

100 
50 

100 
_i 

80.0 
42.8 


Ave 


rage 




97.3 


90.9 


94.6 


39 5 


54.1 


62.5 



I Increase. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF WATER. 345 



Sand Filters operated with Merrimack River Water at Dif- 
ferent Rates. 

Filiers Nos. J^ll and Jfl9 were first put into operation Dec. 28, 1910, 
as a part of a study of the effect of the rate upon the hygienic efiiciency 
and economy of operation of sand filters. At the beginning of the year 
Filter jSTo. 417 contained 49 inches and Filter No. 419 contained 46 
inches in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter. Merri- 
mack River water has been applied to Filter iSTo. 417 at a theoretical 
rate of 2,500,000 gallons per acre daily and to Filter jSTo. 419 at a theo- 
retical rate of 10,000,000 gallons per acre daily throughout the year. 

During the greater part of the year the effluent from Filter No. 417 
has contained considerably higher numbers of bacteria than has the 
effluent from Filter No. 419, which is operated at a rate about four 
times as high, the average numbers for the year being 104 and 72, re- 
spectively. This apparently abnormal result has been confined to the 
room temperature counts, the numbers of bacteria of the body tempera- 
ture types, and also the proportion of samples containing B. coli in 1 
cubic centimeter being about twice as great for Filter No. 419 as for 
its companion filter operating at a much lower rate. The occurrence 
of high room temperature counts in the effluents from these filters has 
been noted and commented upon in previous reports, and has been due 
to the occurrence of growths of bacteria, usually of a single species within 
the filter. While of no sanitary importance, in this specific instance the 
growths of such bacteria have been sufficient to entirely obscure the true 
effect of the different rates of operation and to destroy the value of the 
experiment so far as the room temperature counts are concerned. During 
May attempts were made on two different occasions to eliminate the 
growths within Filter No. 417 by treating the applied water with a high 
concentration of calcium hypochlorite. On May 12 disinfectant equiva- 
lent to about 10 parts per million available chlorine was added early in 
the morning to the water on the surface of this filter. Samples collected 
late in the afternoon and on the following day showed high numbers of 
practically a pure culture of the organism which we had been trying to 
eliminate. On May 22 the applied water was treated early in the morn- 
ing with calcium hypochlorite in the proportion of 20 parts available 
chlorine per million. Samples collected on the afternoon of this day 
contained very low numbers of bacteria, but on the following days high 
counts were obtained and the troublesome species were again very con- 
spicuous. So far as the chemical quality of the water was concerned 
there was practically no difference in the character of the effluents from 
these filters during the year. The low-rate filter, however, caused a much 



346 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

greater reduction in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water during 
the greater part of the 5'ear than did the high-rate filter, although at 
times, especially during June, July and August, the dissolved oxygen 
in the river water was practically all used up in passing through either 
of these filters. 

One of the most interesting features of these filters was the rela- 
tive amount of surface treatment necessary to keep them in operation 
at the prescribed rates. Prior to Dec. 1, 1913, each filter was surface 
washed when necessary to relieve clogging. During the present year, 
however, a method of treatment similar to that in vogue at certain 
municipal filters has been tried. This method consists in raking the 
filter to a depth of from 1 to 2 inches on two successive occasions when 
surface treatment becomes necessary, and scraping the filter to a slightly 
greater depth than customary under the older scraping practice when the 
surface becomes clogged for the third time. That is to say, relief by 
raking is tried twice in every case before scraping is resorted to. Under 
this procedure, the surface of Filter No. 417 was raked three times and 
was scraped once during the year. After the first two rakings the filter 
was operated 74 and 115 days, respectively, before surface treatment was 
again required, while following the single scraping, the filter was operated 
for 87 days before surface treatment was again necessary. The average 
volume of water filtered between raking and the next surface treatment 
was about 235,000,000 gallons, while following the single scraping, about 
219,000,000 gallons were filtered before surface treatment was again 
required. The attempt to follow the same procedure with Filter No. 419, 
which was operated at a rate of 10,000,000 gallons per acre daily, re- 
sulted in the surface being raked twenty-five times and scraped thirteen 
times during the year. The average result of raking Filter No. 419 has 
been to permit an interval of seven days' operation before surface treat- 
ment was again necessary, while the average interval following scraping 
was about nine and one-half days. The longest interval following any 
single raking was sixteen days, and in two cases the period following 
was only about two days, and in one case, surface treatment was again 
required on the next day after raking. The longest operating interval 
following any scraping was nearly 22 days, but in two cases the interval 
following was only three days, and in another case this interval was only 
two days. The average volume of water filtered in the intervals follow- 
ing raking was about 68,000,000 gallons, and the average volume in the 
intervals following scraping was about 83,000,000 gallons per acre. 
Comparing the records of these two filters, it will be noted that more 
than nine times as much surface treatment was required to keep the filter 
in operation at a 10,000,000 rate as was required to maintain a rate one- 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



347 



fourth as great. On the basis of the volume of water filtered for each 
surface treatment, the record of the low-rate filter is also much superior, 
the average volume of water passed by this filter between scraping and 
the next succeeding surface treatment being about 2.6 times as great, 
and the average volume filtered in the periods following raking being 
about 3.4 times as great as the volumes passed by the high-rate filter 
during similar periods. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these two filters are shown 
in the following tables : — 

Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Effluent from Filter No. 417. ' 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, op 

Samples 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing 
B. CoLi. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


104 


6 


2 


98.4 


97.5 


98.9 


23.9 



Effluent from Filter No. 419. 



98. 



95.4 



46 8 



Double Filtration. 

Upward Filtration through Coarse Material folloioed by Sand Filtration. 
Filters Nos. 389 and 2S6. 
Filter No. 3S9, Hoooo of an acre in area, was first put into operation 
on April 14, 1910. This filter is constructed of 6 inches in depth of wood 
charcoal, supported upon a i/4-inch mesh galvanized-wire screen placed 
13 inches above the bottom of the tank. Overlying the charcoal and 
separated from it by a %-inch mesh copper screen is 24 inches in depth 
of broken stone pebbles of an effective size of 4.4 millimeters. The 
canal water enters at the bottom, passes upward through the filter mate- 
rial and overflows through an orifice placed 3 inches above the surface 
of the stone, the available loss of head with the filter in operation being 
about 10 inches. This filter has been operated at a rate of 10,000,000 
gallons per acre daily throughout the year. When the filter becomes 
clogged to such an extent that the water will not pass at the prescribed 
rate, it has been the practice to reverse the flow through the filter for a 
short time to remove the clogging matters. During the early part of the 
year reversal of the flow for a period of about thirty minutes was sufii- 



348 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

cient to restore the filter to good operating condition, but as the deposited 
matters have accumulated within the deeper layers of the filter it has 
been necessary to gradually increase the time of washing, and during the 
last half of the year about one hour has been required to wash the filter 
properly. In all, this filter has been washed by reversed flow thirty-two 
times during the year, or on an average about once in eleven days. The 
average volume of water filtered between washings was about 109,000,000 
gallons per acre. The longest run of the filter lasted from Oct. 23, 1912, 
to Jan. 3, 1913, a i>eriod of sixty-eight days, during which about 700,- 
000,000 gallons per acre were filtered. The shortest run of the filter, 
forty-six hours, occurred in April, when less than 16,000,000 gallons per 
acre were filtered before the filter became clogged. During the year there 
were twenty periods when the interval between washings was less than 
ten days, and twelve periods when this interval was five days or less. 
It is quite evident that only a portion of the clogging matters is re- 
moved by reversing the flow, and that it is only a question of a short 
time before these matters will have accumulated to such an extent that 
little or no relief will be obtained by washing, and the filtering material 
will have to be removed and washed. In the last report attention was 
called to the very remarkable degree of purification accomplished by this 
filter, especially when the coarse nature and small depth of material and 
the high rate are taken into consideration. In 1913 the effluent was 
of even better quality than during the previous year, and during a con- 
siderable portion of the time compared favorably with effluents from 
the other slow sand filters. The average removal of turbidity by the filter 
was about 67 per cent., the removal of color was about 18 per cent., 
and the reduction in free and albuminoid ammonia was about 68 per 
cent, and 39 per cent., respectively. Bacterially, the work of the filter 
was even more satisfactory. The total removal of bacteria averaged over 
96 per cent., and the removal of the bacteria of the body temperature 
types was about 90 per cent. Throughout the year in only two samples, 
one collected in February and one in October, was a count of more than 
1,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter obtained, while about 92 per cent, of 
the samples contained less than 500 bacteria per cubic centimeter, and 
over 36 per cent, contained less than 100 per cubic centimeter. 

Secondary Filter No. 2S6 was first put into operation on Jan. 20, 1906. 
This filter is Hoooo of ai^ acre in area, and during 1913 contained 
about 29 inches in depth of sand of an effective size of about 0.21 milli- 
meter. The effluent from upward-flow Filter No. 389 has been applied 
to this filter throughout the year at a rate of 5,000,000 gallons per acre 
daily. During the year the surface of this filter was scraped eight times 
to relieve clogging. From July 2, 1912, to Feb. 7, 1913, a period of 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



349 



one hundred and seventy-one working days, the filter was operated with- 
out surface treatment of any kind being necessary, and from March 8 to 
July 11 the filter was operated ninety-four days without scraping, the 
volume of water filtered during these two periods being about 875,000,000 
gallons and 463,000,000 gallons per acre, respectively. During August 
and September, however, owing to growths of algae on the surface, it 
was necessary to scrape the filter at an average interval of about once 
in seven days. As these filters are arranged, the effluent from roughing 
Filter No. 389 is collected in a storage tank and thence pumped to a 
supply tank, from which it flows to the secondary filter, certain portions 
jof the primary effluent receiving twelve to eighteen hours' storage. Dur- 
ing this process there is usually a considerable increase in the total 
bacterial content of the water before it reaches Filter No. 286, and, 
frequently, there is an increase in the body temperature counts. The 
resulting water as it reaches the secondary filter usually has a high 
bacterial content, but being well purified chemically and practically free 
from suspended matters is an exceedingly difficult water to purify bac- 
terially. The average removal of bacteria by the secondary filter was 
about 86 per cent., but the final effluent contained shghtly more bacteria 
than did the effluent from the roughing filter. On the basis of the re- 
moval of bacteria of the body temperature types and of B. coli, however, 
the secondary filter and the double filtration system were reasonably sat- 
isfactory. 

The average chemical and bacterial results obtained by this system of 
double filtration are shown in the f ollovv^ing tables : — 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Merrimack River (Canal) Water applied to Experimental Filters. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 





"SO 

B 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

1 
3 
o 


Nitrogen 


S 

3 

3 
8 

d 

t? 

O 


o ci 




Quantity 


ance. 


^ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


3 


o 
"o 
O 


i 

Eh 


a 
.2 

3 
CD 

a 


1 


1 
i5 


< 


- 


50 


0.3 


.23 


.0151 


.0227 


.0169 


.44 


.019 


.0004 


.58 


47.5 


1.2 



Effluent Slow Sand Filter No. 8 A. 



2,949,000 50 0.0 .15 .0038 .0103 



.47 



035 .0000 .43 24.5 1.1 



350 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Chemical Analyses — Concluded. 

Effluent Sand Filter No. 417. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appeab- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


13 


a) cj 




Quantity 
applied. 


ANCE. 




ALBUMINOID. 




AS 


§ 


























Gallons 


3 <0 


>. 








.9 








8 




>> 


per Acre 




"O 








3 





1 


1 


S 
o 


3 


Daily. 


0. 

S 


J2 


o 
O 


fin 


O 


o 
M 

a 


3 
o 


1 
g 






< 


2,488,000 


52 


0.0 


.16 


.0062 


.0102 


- 


.44 


.030 


.0002 


.42 


21.8 


1.3 



Effluent Sand Filter No. 419. 



9,680,000 51 0.6 .16 .0040 .0109 



44 .029 .0000 .43 28.1 1.1 



Effluent Upward Flow Roughing Filter No. S89A. 



9,589,000 51 0.1 .19 .0064 .0139 



.43 .029 .0003 .47 38.0 1.2 



Effluent Secondary Filter No 286. 



4,780,000 53 0.0 .17 .0024 .0113 



43 .036 .0001 .43 43.9 1.3 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Effluent from Roughing Filter No. 389. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, of 
Samples 




40^0. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


B. CoLi. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


235 


26 


14 


96.4 


89.2 


92.2 


71.5 



Effluent from Filter No. 389 after Storage as applied to Filter No. 286. 



1,975 



741. 0» 



0.0 



61.4 



Effluent from Secondary Filler No. 286. 



270 



64.6 



64.2 



33.9 



* Percentage increase during storage. 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



351 



Eefiltration of Lawrence City Water. 

Filter No. SJjSA, %oooo of an acre in area and first put into opera- 
tion in March, 1908, is constructed of 33 inches in depth of sand of an 
effective size of 0.35 millimeter. In previous years this filter has been 
operated with river water as No. 343. From December 1 to June 30 the 
filter was out of operation. Begirming July 1 and continuing through- 
out the year, filtered water from the Lawrence city mains has been 
applied to the filter at a rate of 5,000,000 gallons per acre daily, pri- 
marily as a study of the removal of iron from water by slow sand filters 
operated at a reasonably high rate, and also as a continuation of the 
studies upon double filtration. No surface treatment of this filter has 
been required during the five months it has been in operation. The re- 
moval of iron has varied from about 30 per cent, to about 70 per cent, 
at different times, the average removal being about 48 per cent. The 
average removal of color by this filter was about 24 per cent. After the 
first month of operation the effluent from this filter seldom contained 
more than 10 bacteria per cubic centimeter, the average bacterial ef- 
ficiency during the last four months being about 84 per cent., a very 
satisfactory result when the low numbers of bacteria in the city water 
applied to it are taken into consideration. There was a slight increase 
in the numbers of bacteria of body temperature types during two of 
these months, however, although the actual numbers of bacteria of 
these types were so very low that the computation of bacterial efficiency 
from them has little or no practical significance. It should be noted, 
however, that B. coli were not found in any sample of the effluent, 
although bacteria of this group were present in about one-fifth of the 
samples of the applied water. 

The average analyses of the effluent from this filter are shown in the 
following tables : — 

Effluent from Filter No. 843 A. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appeab- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


"d 


a J. 








Quantity 


ANCB. 










B 


qo 








applied. 
















2 


















13 










a • 






1913. 


Gallons 


>> 






O 




1 






"O ""d 


^ 






per Acre 


■3 






'a 

a 

XI 


a 

1 


i 


a 


>l.-s 


.9 






Daily. 


5 


o 


§ 


1 


'B 




ifel 


M 








H 


6 


f^ 


< 


O 


^ 


•z 


o 


5 


< 




July, . 


5,328,000 


0.0 


.13 


.0028 


.0080 


.74 


.019 


.0000 


.49 


48.7 


1.9 


.0200 


August, 


5,322,000 


0.0 


.15 


.0010 


.0064 


.76 


.034 


.0000 


.42 


52.8 


2.1 


.0200 


September, . 


5,148,000 


0.0 


.12 


.0032 


.0088 


.86 


.039 


.0000 


.33 


52.2 


2.3 


.0500 


October, 


5,322,000 


0.0 


.12 


.0014 


.0054 


.76 


.033 


.0000 


.39 


57.5 


1.8 


.0220 


November, . 


5,269,000 


0.0 


.13 


.0016 


.0088 


.54 


.043 


.0000 


.40 


56.2 


1.5 


.0500 


Average, . 


5,277,800 


0.0 


.13 


.0020 


.0075 


.73 


.034 


.0000 


.41 


53.5 


1.9 


.0324 



352 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Effluent from Filter No. 3 43 A. 





Bactekia 


PEK Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of 

Samples 

containing 

B. COLI. 


1913. 


20° C. 


40° C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Ic. C. 


August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 


4 
4 
8 
8 


3 

2 
3 
2 





1 


0.0 

0.0 
0.0 
0.0 


Average 


6 


3 





0.0 



Bacterial Content of Sand in Water Filters at Different Depths. 
The. question has sometimes been asked as to what extent the bac- 
terial content of the sand within a water filter was influenced by the 
character of the water applied, or by the rate at which the filter was 
operated. In a number of the earlier reports tables showing the num- 
bers of bacteria in the sand collected at different depths of certain water 
filters have been presented and discussed. Most of these studies were 
made, however, before the tests for bacteria of the colon type and de- 
terminations of the numbers of bacteria of the body temperature types 
had been included in the routine methods for bacterial analysis of water. 
During the past year studies of the bacterial content of the sand at 
different depths in a number of different water filters have been made, 
and the results of one series of analyses from each of five different filters 
are shown in an accompanying table. All of these samples were collected 
at an interval of seven days or more after any disturbance of the surface 
by washing, scraping or raking in order that the results might be com- 
parative so far as possible. Discussion of these results, and of the in- 
fluence of the various factors which might influence them, will be 
deferred until further data have been obtained, these results being 
presented here only to indicate the variations which may possibly be 
produced by the different factors in the operation of these filters. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



353 



Table showing Bacterial Content of Sand at Different Depths in Filters operated 

ivith Different Waters. 

Filter No. 417- — Rirer Water applied. 
A equals less than 1,000; B equals less than 100; C equals less than 50. 





Per 


Bacteri.4 per Gra.m of 
Dry Sand. 


Smallest Weight of 

Dry Sand in which 

Following Types were 

FOUND (Grams). 


I-. ™.„ Cent, of 


20° C. 


40° C. 


ure. 

• 


Total. 


Red. 


Ferment. 
Organism. 


B. Coli. 


Sewage 
Strepto. 


Surface, 

1 inch, 

6 inches, . 
12 inches, . 
24 inches, . 
36 inches, . 
48 inches, . 


26.7 
17.0 
8.1 
7.8 
7.2 
6.7 
6.8 


176,800 
96,000 
6,500 
6,500 
•4,300 
9,600 
5,400 


4,800 
9,000 
1,000 
1,200 
1,500 
375 
500 


1,500 

120 

• 55 

c 

C 

c 
c 


.0000733 

.000830 

.00919 

.00922 

.0928 

.933 

.0932 


.0000733 

.0830 

.00919 

.00922 

.0928 

-1 

.932 


_i 

.0083 
.00919 
.922 
.0928 

-1 
_i 



Filter No. 419. — River Water applied. 



Surface, 


24.5 


1,518,000 


8,600 ! 


5,900 


.0000755 


.000755 


,0000755 


1 inch. 


19.5 


80,600 


5,600 


1,000 


.000805 


.000805 


-1 


6 inches, . 


14.0 


32,500 


2,000 


600 


.00860 


.0086 


_i 


12 inches, . 


11.3 


10,700 


450 ; 


57 


.000887 


.0887 


.0887 


24 inches, . 


8.9 


3,000 


8,200 1 


550 


.0911 


.911 


-I 


38 inches, . 


9.2 


3,850 


700 j 


C 


.00908 


.0908 


.0908 



Filter No. 8 A. — Disinfected River Water applied. 



Surface, 


21.5 


44,500 


47,000 


A 


.0000785 


.00785 


_i 


1 inch. 


17.9 


9,200 


5,000 


B 


.0821 


.0821 


.0821 


6 inches, . 


9.6 


4,100 


2,200 


C 


.0904 


.904 


_i 


12 inches, . 


9.3 


2,400 


3,900 


C 


.907 


.907 


.907 


18 inches, . 


17.1 


6,100 


3,600 


C 


.829 


-1 


_i 



1 Not found in 1 gram of wet sand. 



354 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



Table showing Bacterial Content of Sand at Different Depths in Filters operated 
xcith Different Waters — Concluded. 

Filter No. 286. — Effluent from Roughing Filter No. 389 applied. 
A equals '.ess than 1,000; B equals less than 100; C equals loss than 50. 





Per 
Cent, of 
Moist- 
ure. 


Bacteria per Gh 
Dry Sand. 


am of 


Smallest Weight of 

Dry Sand in which 

Following Types were 

FOUND (GR.IMS). 


Depth. 


20° C. 


40° 


C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Ferment. 
Organism. 


B. Coli. 


Sewage 
Streptft. 


Surface, 


25.6 


201,000 


5,400 


135 


.00744 


.0744 


.0744 


1 inch, 


18.3 


24,400 


4,300 


610 


.0817 


.0817 


.0817 


6 inches, . 


11.0 


51,500 


2,000 


110 


.0890 


.0890 


.0890 


12 inches, . 


9.6 


6,100 


1,.330 


110 


.0904 


.0904 


.904 


24 inches, . 


8.0 


3,400 


2,725 


•550 


.0920 


.0920 


.0920 





Filter No 


. 343. — Lawrence City Water 


applied. 






Surface, 


8.6 


25,100 


4,600 


3,900 


.0914 


.0914 


.914 


1 inch. 


6.2 


35,300 


3,000 


3,000 


.0938 


_i 


.1 


6 inclies, . 


6.6 


3,000 


3,700 


3,700 


.934 


_i 


_i 


12 inches, . 


7.4 


3, .500 


22,100 


20,000 


.0926 


.0926 


_i 


26 inches, . 


5.4 


3,700 


5,700 


3,000 


.946 


_i 


_i 



■ Not found in 1 gram of wet sand. 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



(355] 



The Effect of Sewage Disposal. 



The cities and towns in this State having works for the purification 
of a part or all of their sewage are 32 in number and contain an aggre- 
gate population, according to the census of 1910, of about 450,000, — 
about 13 per cent, of the total population of the State. Various methods 
of preliminary treatment of the sewage are employed at these works, but 
the method of final purification is in each case by intermittent filtration 
through sand or gravel, and soil of this character well suited for the 
purpose is found commonly in nearly all parts of this State. 

Samples of sewage, settled sewage and effluent have been collected 
from most of the works as often as once a month for chemical examina- 
tion, the results of which are summarized in the following tables. In 
the cases of the smaller towns, such as Billerica, Lenox, Maynard and 
North Brookfield, no information of special interest has been obtained 
and no data concerning the works in these towns are given in the tables. 

All of the sewage-disposal works have been examined frequently during 
the year by the engineers of the Board, the efficiency of their operation 
observed, and recommendations have been made as to the maintenance 
and operation of the works with a view to securing more satisfactory 
results. 

Several of the disposal works of the State, on account of the increase 
in the quantity of sewage or from other causes, are of insufficient capacity 
for the treatment of all of the sewage discharged upon them at all times, 
and satisfactory results in the treatment of the sewage at these works 
cannot be effected until they have been materially enlarged. In other 
cases the chief cause of inefficient operation of sewage-disposal works 
is lack of proper care in the maintenance of the filters, due commonly 
to the lack of sufficient funds for the purpose. Mechanical devices must 
receive proper attention if they are to be maintained in use, and no 
disposal works can long be maintained in successful operation without 
adequate care. Moreover, nothing is saved in the end by inadequate 
attention to filters and other sewage-disposal works, since the cost of 
restoring such works to proper operation is usually great after a period 
of neglect. iSTegligence in maintenance may also lead to damage suits, 
as has been the case in a number of instances. 

Special observations covering several hours' duration have been made 



358 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

during the year of the rate of flow and of the character of sewage at 
many of the places, and the results of the measurements are given in 
Table Xo. 8. These examinations indicate that even in dry weather a 
considerable quantity of ground water enters the sewers in many places. 

A considerable amount of work has been done during the year at 
Andover in reconstructing the underdrainage system and at Eramingham 
in adding new underdrains. Xew works are under construction in 
Franklin, and plans are being prepared to abandon the works at Long- 
meadow and to discharge the sewage into the Connecticut Eiver. An 
additional area of sand filters of three acres was constructed during the 
year at Norwood, but the new beds were not in operation at the end of 
the year. The sewerage system and the sewage-disposal works at Attle- 
borough were put in operation during the summer, but only nine beds 
were used and no effluent was collected in the underdrainage system 
until the end of the year. 

The trickling filter at Brockton was put into operation early in the 
fall, but it had not been in operation a sufficient length of time at the 
end of the year to furnish efficient results. The revolving screen through 
which the sewage is passed has given considerable trouble during the 
year, the sewage having a bad effect on the material of which the screen 
is constructed, and the operation of the trickling filter was interrupted on 
two or three occasions on account of the poor preliminary treatment of 
the sewage. The trickling filter has an area of one-half an acre and is 
constructed of stone varying between li/o and 3 inches in size 6 feet deep. 
The rate of operation at the end of the year was about 1,600,000 gallons 
per acre per day. The effluent of this filter is passed through a tank 
which affords an average period of sedimentation of about four and 
one-half hours, whence it is passed on to sand filters set apart from the 
sand filtration area for this purpose. The rate of operation of these sand 
filters was approximately 400,000 gallons per acre per day at the end 
of the year. The results of the operation of this plant, while given in 
the following tables, should not be used in comparison with the other 
results owing to the fact that the filter was in operation simply during 
the fall at a time when the highest efficiency in the purification of sewage 
cannot be expected. 

Considerable progress has been made during the year on works con- 
sisting of five preliminary settling tanks with separate compartments foi- 
the digestion of sludge, three acres of trickling filters of crushed stone. 
1 to .3 inches in size and 10 feet deep, and four secondary settling tanks 
for the treatment of the sewage of the city of Fitchburg. 



No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



359 



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•papuadsng 



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1 oc I— ' c^ »-^ GO 00 '-• to i— ' r^ lo ■«*' 00 OS 



c^ocoosi^ c^ix>0'-oo -Hco'-'oo^*' c-itri-^CiCN) »oco.-i: 



r>-ioco»ot^ r^ooM 



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wooc-icoco c<ji^osc;t^ c^iC'-'c~-»io co-— '•^■^c^ r-Tj<»-H^ 



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•papnadsng 



•paA(oesiQ 



l^ox 



ooeot^»^co co-^ococo oscocoo-** 

t-»OOC^01»-' C»OCOt^'-t oococoos 

loooo-^co r^xf-*i-oo> o^^c■l^>-■«*' 

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UO CO CO CJ »-l CO CO 00 c^ t^ o 






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— o»o^co coco "^eo c^'^cjiC'^ coe^'-'C^co 



•papuadsng 



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r-- CO b- »c t^ oo ^^ "** (^ o ^ O *-< CO 00 00 o ic CO ; 



O CO <^ O : 
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eO-SwcoO-^ CI CO t;< '<*"•*< uo-^^^c^ -^ Cl ci Cs co -^ co « c^ co «0 



i^eor^ooo ot^cicoco »cO'-'Oco ocogo^'<»< ?2tr'^^2 S 

r-cOC*»C*0 COLOOS-^kO COCOOSrPO »CCOOOCO OOOiOCCO o 

tsJNC^cor^ i^cocooouo oscooO'^ 

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!2 "o o '" 

§§,|So 
oj t: X ^ ^ 



360 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 





■naSoajix n'^piafH 


1.02 
1.70 
1.11 

2.26 


1 


■T-t— lOS t^ 


U5 


Cq -rt* -^ C-J M 

ojosco tom 


00 00 1«-Ht^ 

— coco -HCO 


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O OS t<« iO CD 


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CO 




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— — — 






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o 




















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OCMOO o 

COO-H— • -* 


2 


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o c^oo t^ 

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00 t^ CO -H 
lOO »rt -^ 
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CO 




ii 

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2.64 
4.90 
2.36 
9.04 


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k-O 


QOCOOOOS 
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ot-oococo 


r.t^ — _> — 

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5 




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co' 




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iC QO »0 CI Oi 


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4.67 
7.74 
8.27 
19.10 


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12.03 
16.78 
11.60 

18.85 


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16.70 
24.52 
19.87 
37.95 


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7.91 
10.30 

9.67 
22.30 


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43.12 
32.60 
53.39 


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1 

o 




Amherst (settled), . 
Andover (settled), . 
Attleborough, ' 
Brockton (screened), 
Brockton, (trickling filter efflu- 
ent). = .... 


>. • 

c • 

o 

i 

11 

II 
11 

P9 


Clinton (settled). 
Concord, .... 
Framinghani, . 
Gardner (Gardner area), 
Gardner (Templeton area) 
(settled), 


Hopedale (settled), . 
Hudson (settled), . 
Leicester (.settled), . 
Marion, . . . 
Marlborough (settled), 


Milford (settled) 
Natick, .... 
North Attleborough (settled), 
Northbridge (settled), 
Norwood (settled), . 


Pittsfield, 

Southbridge (settled), 
Spencer, .... 
Stockbridge, 
Wcstborough, . 



No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



361 






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sr 



362 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 4. — Character of Sewage. 



ClTT OR TOWX. 


Constituents of Sewage other than of Domestic Origin. 


Amherst, .... 


Small quantity of dye wastes from straw hat shops. Considerable ground 
water. 


Andover, .... 


Little or no manufacturing waste. 


Attleborough, . 


Little or no manufacturing waste. 


Brockton, 


Considerable quantity of shoe shop wastes. 


Clinton, .... 


Small quantity of wool-scouring and cotton mill wastes. 


Concord 


No manufacturing wastes. 


Framingham, 


Wastes from a factory in which leatherboard is manufactured and from one 
in which paper is colored, gummed, etc. Small quantity of hat .shop 
wastes. 


Gardner, .... 


Very little if any manufacturing wastes. Ground water at times. 


Hopedale, .... 


No manufacturing waste. 


Hudson, .... 


Wastes from a tannery and factory in which rubber is handled. .\l.?o shoe 
shop wastes. 


Leicester, .... 


Considerable ground water. 


Marion, .... 


Considerable ground water. 


Marlborough, 


Shoe shop wastes and small quantity of dyehouse wastes. 


Milford 


Shoe shop wastes and small quantity from straw shop and from a factory 
in which rubber is handled. 


Natick, .... 


Shoe shop wastes and considerable ground water. 


North Attleborough, 


Considerable ground water. 


Northbridge, 


Little or no manufacturing wastes. 


Norwood 


Tannery wastes and bindery wastes. 


Pittsfield 


Woolen mill wastes. 


Southbridge, 


Small amount of wastes from optical works. Roof water. 


Spencer, .... 


Shoe shop wastes. 


Stockbridge, 


Considerable ground water. 


Westborough, 


Wastes from a hat shop and small amount from a tannery. Considerable 
ground water in wet weather. 


Worcester, .... 


Acid wastes from wire works. Dye wastes. Wastes from tanneries and 
woolen mill.a. 



Xo. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



363 



Table No. 5. — Average Results of the Analyses of Samples of Effluent from 
Filters (arranged in Order of Amount of Albuminoid Ammonia). 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



City or Town. 



North Attleborough, 

Concord, 

Marlborough,' 

Milford, 

Clinton,' 



Marion, 

Spencer, 

Stockbridge,' 

Northbridge, 

Amherst, 



Westborough, ' 
Pittsfield,' . 
Framingham,' 
Norwood, 
Natick, 



Gardner (Gardner area), 

Southbridge, ' 

Hudson, 

Hopedale, 

Worcester, 



Andover,' ....... 

Brockton,' 

Leicester, ....... 

Gardner (Templeton area),' 

Brockton (effluent of .?e"ondary sand filters). 



03 > 



18.30 
25.87 
43.12 
40.41 
34.39 

15.44 
25.28 
23.19 
22.73 
27.70 

29.85 
33.45 
38.64 
76.57 
34.36 

41.71 
28.16 
92.50 
29.79 
62.36 

29.84 
44.29 
27.91 
35.72 
44.05 



Ammonia. 



.04 
.19 
.26 
.38 
.18 

.29 
.71 
.25 
.31 
.98 

.26 
.25 

1.80 
.96 

1.13 

1.36 
1.89 
.72 
1.39 
2.16 

2.15 
3.32 
1.05 
1.96 
2.39 



_ a 
o *" 



.0111 
.0137 
.0252 
.0292 
.0367 

.0377 
.0381 
.0405 
.0488 
.0494 

.0509 
.0518 
.0624 
.0639 
.0642 

.0673 
.0725 
.0770 
.0965 
.1143 

.1363 
.1381 
.1411 
.1674 
.1695 



3.18 
4.27 
7.67 
9.02 
5.07 

3.08 
5.07 
2.78 
4.03 
10.08 

4.90 
4.58 
8.68 
28.45 
7.08 

6.51 
6.40 

34.13 
5.34 

13.02 

7.25 
12.10 
5.44 
7.74 
10.52 



Nitrogen 



.6266 

.9240 

2.1528 

1.3917 

1.3892 

.3042 
.5370 
.2274 
1.0433 
.1078 

1.3336 
.8550 
.2023 
.3105 
.5463 

2.1463 

.0790 

1.0267 

1.1617 

.2130 

.2169 
.1146 
.1786 
.8015 
.3450 



.0031 
.0207 
.0039 
.0067 
.0044 

.0075 
.0036 
.0030 
.0168 
.0081 

.0216 
.0101 
.0061 
.0707 
.0155 

.0100 
.0078 
.0196 
.0069 
.0181 

.0134 
.0114 
.0252 
.0250 
.0135 



.21 
.21 
.37 
.43 
.52 

.54 
.52 
.47 
.54 

.66 

.54 

.54 

1.00 

1.07 

.68 

.70 
.96 

.65 

.78 

1.92 

1.20 
1.87 
1.53 
1.33 
1.62 



.005 
.008 
.009 
.037 
.078 

.225 
.277 
.110 

.028 
.602 

.037 

.021 

2.042 

1.038 

.584 

.065 

1.937 

.214 

.084 

2.060 

.638 
2.668 
.502 
.077 
.245» 



' Samples from two or more underdrains combined in one average. 
2 Two in October and two in November only. 



564 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 6. — Efficiency of Sand Filters (arranged in Order of Per Cent. Re- 
moval of Albuminoid Ammonia). 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Free Ammonia. 


ToT.\L Albuminoid | 
Ammonia. 


OXTQEN CONSUMED. 


City or Town. 


Ap- 
plied 
Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 
Cent. 

re- 
moved. 


Ap- 
plied 

Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 
Cent. 

re- 
moved. 


Ap- 
plied 
Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 
Cent. 

re- 
moved. 


Marlborough, . 


5.46 


.26 


95 


.76 


.0252 


97 


5.29 


.37 


93 


Concord, .... 


2.03 


.19 


91 


.46 


.0137 


97 


4.24 


.21 


95 


Gardner (Gardner area), . 


6.05 


1.36 


78 


1.95 


.0673 


97 


12.41 


.70 


94 


Framingham, . 


4.54 


1.80 


60 


1.46 


.0624 


96 


12.32 


1.00 


92 


Milford 


.3.74 


.38 


90 


.58 


.0292 


95 


4.20 


.43 


90 


Spencer 


3.77 


.71 


81 


.82 


.0381 


95 


5.60 


.52 


91 


Westborough, . 


2.96 


.26 


91 


.82 


.0509 


94 


5.35 


.54 


90 


Clinton 


3.47 


.18 


47 


.59 


.0367 


94 


4.88 


.52 


89 


North Attleborough, 


.64 


.04 


94 


.16 


.0111 


93 


1.15 


.21 


82 


Hudson 


4.73 


.72 


85 


.98 


.0770 


92 


6.67 


.65 


90 


Northbridge, . 


3.32 


.30 


91 


.54 


.0488 


91 


3.66 


.54 


85 


Norwood, 


3.64 


.96 


74 


.70 


.0639 


91 


10.18 


1.07 


90 


Worcester, 


3.45 


2.16 


37 


1.23 


.1143 


91 


11.05 


1.92 


83 


Amherst, .... 


1.90 


.98 


48 


.50 


.0494 


90 


3.65 


.66 


82 


Natick, .... 


3.35 


1.13 


66 


.63 


.0642 


90 


5.23 


.68 


87 


Pittafield, 


1.97 


.25 


87 


.46 


.0518 


89 


3.84 


.54 


86 


Brockton, 


5.80 


3.32 


43 


1.24 


.1381 


89 


12.28 


1.87 


85 


Stockbridge, 


1.40 


.25 


82 


.32 


.0405 


89 


2.72 


.47 


83 


Marion 


1.09 


.29 


74 


.26 


.0377 


86 


1.83 


.54 


70 


Hopedale, 


4.93 


1.39 


72 


.63 


.0965 


85 


4.07 


.78 


81 


Andover, . . . . 


5.20 


2.15 


59 


.83 


.1363 


84 


6.31 


1.20 


81 


Southbridge, . 


2.95 


1.89 


36 


.45 


.0725 


84 


3.11 


.96 


69 


Leicester, . . . . 


4.37 


1.05 


76 


1 ■'' 


.1411 


79 


5.91 


1.53 


74 


Gardner (Templeton area) 


, 4.42 


1.96 


56 


.76 


.1674 


78 


4.63 


1.33 


71 



No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



365 



Table No. 7. — Filter Effiimits arranged according to the Amount of Nitrates 

in the Effluent. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Nitrogen as 


Iron in 
Effluent. 


Total 
Albuminoid 


CiTT OR TOWX. 


Nitrates in 
Effluent. 


Nitrites in 
Effluent. 


Ammonia 

in Applied 

Sewage. 


Marlborough, 




2.1528 


.0039 


.009 


.76 


Gardner (Gardner area). 








2.1463 


.0100 


.065 


1.95 


Milford 








1.3917 


.0067 


.037 


.58 


Clinton, 






•< 


1.3892 


.0044 


.078 


.59 


Westborough, 








1.3336 


.0216 


.037 


.82 


Hopedale, 








1.1617 


.0069 


.084 


.63 


Northbridge, . 








1.0433 


.0168 


.028 


.54 


Hudson, 








1.0267 


.0196 


.214 


.98 


Concord, 








.9240 


.0207 


.008 


.48 


Pittsfield, 








.8550 


.0101 


.021 


.46 


Gardner (Templeton area), 








.8015 


.0250 


.077 


.76 


North Attleborough, 








.6266 


.0031 


.005 


.16 


Natick, .... 








.5463 


.0155 


.584 


.63 


Spencer, .... 








.5370 


.0036 


.277 


.82 


Norwood, 








.3105 


.0707 


1.038 


.70 


Marion 








.3042 


.0075 


.225 


.26 


Stockbridge, . 








.2274 


.0030 


.110 


.32 


Andover, 








.2109 


.0134 


.638 


.83 


Worcester, 








.2130 


.0181 


2.060 


1.23 


Framingham, 








.2023 


.0061 


2.042 


1.46 


Leicester, . . , 








.1786 


.0252 


.502 


.67 


Brockton, 








.1146 


.0114 


2.668 


1.24 


Amherst, 








.1078 


.0081 


.602 


.50 


Southbridge, . 








.0790 


.0078 


1.937 

1 


.45 



36G 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



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No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



367 



Table No. 9. — Extent of Works and Rate of Operation. 



City or Town. 


Popula- 
tion, 
Census of 
1910. 


Length of 

Sanitary 
Sewer.'i 
(Miles). 


Estimated 
Average 

Quantity 
Treated 
(Gallons 

per Day). 


Number 

of In- 
termittent 

Sand 

Filters, not 

including 

Sludge 

Beds. 


Net 

Filtration 

Area 

(Acres). 


Estimated 
Average 
Rate of 

Operation 

with even 

Distribution 

(Gallons 

per Acre 

per Day). 


Amherst, 


5,112 


7.3 


375,000 


6 


2.00 


188,000 


Andover, . 


7,301 


11.4 


350,000 


20 


3.65 


96,000 


Attleborough, 


16,215 


30.2 


250,000 


26 


15 50 


16,000 


Brockton, . 


56,878 


71.8 


2,175,0001 


37 


37.00 


59,000 


Clinton, 


13,075 


19.7 


1,090,000 = 


27 


26.23 


42,000 


Concord, 


6,421 


8.3 


422,0002 


4 


3.30 


128,000 


Framingham, 


12,918 


20.9 


700,0002 


20 


20 75 


34,000 


Gardner: — 














Gardner area, . 1 
Templeton area, J 


14,699 


26.3 


1 135,000 
[ 600,000 


20 
26 


2 50 
10 00 


54,000 
60,000 


Hopedale, . 


2,188 


4.8 


150,0002 


7 


3 25 


46,000 


Hudson, 


6,743 


8.5 


276,000 


23 


9.00 


31,000 


Leicester, 


3,237 


2.6 


70,000 


8 


.36 


194,000 


Marion, 


1,460 


- 


110,0002 


8 


.66 


167,000 


Marlborough, 


14,579 


26.0 


750,000 


33 


20 90 


36,000 


Milford, 


13,055 


17.1 


513,000 


15 


9 30 


55,000 


Natick, 


9,866 


14.8 


720,000- 


14 


12.60 


57,000 


North Attleborough, . 


9,562 


16.1 


600,000 


16 


7.00 


86,000 


Northbridge, 


8,807 


11.4 


244,000 


24 


6.00 


41,000 


Norwood, . 


8,014 


13 


500,000 


6 


6.64» 


75,000 


Pittsfield, . 


32,121 


- 


1,903,0002 


35 < 


25.90 


74,000 


Southbridge, 


12,592 


13.3 


900,000 


11 


8.50 


106,000 


Spencer, 


6,740 


11.0 


450,000 


12 


9.30 


48,000 


Westborough, 


5,446 


9 5 


425,000 


12 


5 80 


73,000 


Worcester, . 


145,986 


168.15 


3,860,000« 


75 


74.30 


52,000 



1 .Amount pumped to filters. About 800,000 gallons daily treated by the half acre trickling filter, 
sedimentation and subsequent filtration through sand during October and November. 

2 Amount pumped. 

' Three acres of filters under construction. 

' Includes sludge beds. 

5 Includes 68.7 miles for sewage and surface water. 

5 .\niount treated by sand filters only. 



368 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 






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a s 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



1369] 



FOOD AND DKUG INSPECTION. 



The report of the chief analyst presents in detail the work of this 
department for the year ended Nov. 30, 1913. The following per- 
sonnel comprised the laboratory force: — 



Hermann C. Lythgoe, 
Charles H. Hicket, 
Lewis I. Ndrenberg, 
Clarence E. Marsh, 
Horace F. Davis, '■ 



Chief Analyst. 
First Asst. Analyst. 
Second Asst. Analyst. 
Third Asst. Analyst. 
Inspector. 



Daniel E. McCarthy, 
Frederick L. Marion, 
Maurice P. Crowe, 
Patrick T. McDonough, 



Inspector. 
Inspector. 
Inspector, 
Inspector, 



The number of samples examined during this period, together with 
a summary of work done since the passage of the law in 1882, 
follows: — 

Food and Drug Inspection {1882-1913). 





Years. 


Summary. 


1913. 


Total, 
1882-1913. 


Niimber of samples of milk examined 

Number of samples above standard, 

Number of samples below standard, 

Number of samples of other kinds of food examined (not milk), . 

Number of samples of good quality, 

Number of samples adulterated, as defined by the statutes, . 

Number of samples of drugs examined, 

Number of samples of good quality, 

Number of samples adulterated, as defined by the statutes, . 

Total examination of food and drugs 

Total samples of good quality, 

Total samples not conforming to the statutes, 


6,702 
5,020 
1,682 

1,632 

1,351 

281 

1,393 

1,189 

204 

9,727 
7,560 
2,167 


127,296 
84,851 
42,445 

70,593 
57,491 
13,102 

25,163 
17,242 
7,921 

223,052 
159,584 
63,468 



Section 7 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws provides that the 
State Board of Health "shall annually report to the general court the 
number of prosecutions made under the provisions of sections six- 
teen to twenty-seven, inclusive, and an itemized account of the 
money expended in carrying out the provisions thereof;" and in 
accordance with this provision the following report is made. 

The total number of prosecutions entered during the fiscal year 
ended Nov. 30, 1913, was 161. Of these, 116 resulted in conviction, 
2 were dismissed by order of the court, 1 dismissed for lack of juris- 
diction and 1 nol prossed. There are 28 cases pending on appeal to 
the Superior Court. 

The amount paid in fines was $2,922.75, which brings the sum total 
to $93,882.39. 



1 H. F. Davis retired March 31, 1913. From April 1 to August 31, the position was filled by F. J. 
Harrington, and on September 1 P. T. McDonough was appointed permanently. 



372 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Prosecutions. 
The following table presents the statistics relative to the prosecu- 
tions which have been conducted under the food and drug acts since 
the beginning of work in 1883 (Revised Laws, chapter 75, sections 
16 to 27): — 

Number of Complaints entered in Court. 



Year. 


Food 

and Other 

Articles 

(not 

including 

Milk). 


Drugs. 


Milk. 


Total. 


Convic- 
tions. 


Fines 
imposed. 


1883 


- 


5 


4 


9 


8 


-1 


1884 












2 


1 


45 


48 


44 


-1 


1885 


2 










50 


1 


68 


119 


103 


-1 


1886 


3 










10 


- 


10 


20 


19 


-1 


1887 












30 


- 


34 


64 


60 


-J 


1888 












22 


- 


43 


65 


61 


$2,042 00 


1889 












74 


- 


66 


140 


124 


3,889 00 


1890 












78 


- 


24 


102 


96 


3,919 00 


1891 












96 


5 


49 


150 


135 


2,668 00 


1892 












52 


12 


72 


136 


123 


3,661 70 


1893 












26 


3 


67 


93 


92 


2,476 00 


1894 












14 


- 


76 


90 


77 


2,625 00 


1895 












13 


11 


68 


92 


86 


2,895 30 


1896 












7 


- 


68 


75 


74 


2,812 20 


1897 












13 . 


1 


51 


65 


64 


2,756 60 


1898 












10 


- 


54 


64 


62 


2,060 98 


1899 












19 


2 


26 


47 


45 


1,432 66 


1900 




• 








45 


5 


44 


94 


89 


1,890 70 


1901 












30 


- 


65 


95 


90 


1,874 70 


1902 












25 


3 


48 


76 


74 


2,617 98 


1903 












34 


1 


44 


79 


70 


1,297 66 


1904 












6 


6 


50 


62 


57 


1,509 00 


1905 












209 


27 


77 


313 


275 


8,486 00 


1906 


4 










177 


60 


171 


409 


383 


7,316 00 


1907 












123 


63 


147 


333 


290 


6,546 00 


1908 












76 


138 


219 


433 


386 


8,300 30 


1909 












72 


44 


180 


296 


267 


5,666 74 


1910 












112 


26 


119 


257 


244 


5,395 21 


1911 












49 


30 


82 


161 


147 


4,015 91 


1912 












20 


36 


65 


121 


111 


2,805 00 


1913 












36 


19 


106 » 


131 


116 


2,922 75 



1 No record kept. 
' To May 1, 1886. 
3 Four months only. 



* Fourteen 
'One case 



months, from Sept. 30, 1905. 

was on account of obstruction of an inspector. 



No. 34.] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



373 



The nature of the oflFences brought to the attention of the courts 
during the year, the names of the defendants, the places where the 
offences were committed, the dates of trial or indictment, and the 
results of the prosecutions, are set forth in the following table: — 



For Sale 





f Milk not of Good Standard Quality. 




Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 
of Total 
Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Herbert, Benjamin, 


Acushnet, . 


10.061 


Apr. 


3, 1913 


Conviction. 


Blake, Horace S., 








Ashland, . 




9.64> 


May 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Blake, Horace S., 








Ashland, . 




10.561 


May 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Root, Warren H., 








Bernardston, 




10.401 


Oct. 


23. 1913 


Conviction. 2 


Cunningham, Paul, 








Bolton, 




9.783 


May 


31, 1913 


Conviction. 


Piercy, F. W., 








Braintree, . 




10.67 


Aug. 


21, 1913 


Conviction. 2 


Winn, G. Edward, 








Burlington, 




10.66 


May 


13, 1913 


Conviction. 


Baker, John, 








Cambridge, 




10.471 


Apr. 


30, 1913 


Discharged. 


Davis, Palmer, 








Carlisle, 




11.13* 


Aug. 


23, 1913 


Discharged. 


Wilson, George, . 








Cohasset, . 




11.201 


Oct. 


3, 1913 


Conviction. 2 


Kirch ner, Jacob F., 








Dalton, 




10.481 


Nov. 


21, 1913 


Conviction. 


Seabury, Robt. F., 








Dartmouth, 




6.941 


July 


29, 1913 


Conviction. 


Souza, Anthony, . 








Dartmouth, 




9.761 


July 


29, 1913 


Conviction. 


Farrington, Fred 0., 








Dedham, . 




10.261 


Oct. 


30, 1913 


Conviction. 2 


Bartlett, Walter E., 








Easthampton, 




9.544 


Nov. 


12, 1913 


Conviction. 


Levonis, John, 








Easthampton, 




11.201 


Nov. 


19, 1913 


Conviction. 


Levonis, John, 








Easthampton, 




9.74* 


Nov. 


19, 1913 


Conviction. 


Boucher, August, 








Franklin, . 




10.761 


Oct. 


9, 1913 


Conviction. 


Atwater, Jos. A., . 








Gloucester, 




10.70 


Aug. 


14, 1913 


Conviction. 


Rogers, J. King, . 








Gloucester, 




9.661 


Oct. 


20, 1913 


Conviction . 2 


Spittle, Thos. E., 








Gloucester, 




8.881 


Nov. 


29, 1913 


Conviction.' 


United Fisheries Co., 








Gloucester, 




11.404 


Jan. 


15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Waldron, Geo. E., 








Gloucester, 




3.001 


Nov. 


29, 1913 


Conviction. - 


Waldron, Geo. E.. 








Gloucester, 




3.00 


Nov. 


29, 1913 


Conviction.* 


WUde, G. Fred, Jr., 








Harvard, . 




9.941 


Oct. 


7, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Wilde, G. Fred, Jr., 








Harvard, . 




9.941 


Sept. 


26, 1913 


Dismissed. ' 


Moores, Hersey C, 








Haverhill, . 




8.841 


July 


30, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Poplaski, Josephine, 








Haverhill, . 




10.061 


July 


30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Burgess, Geo. W., 








Hingham, . 




10.941 


Oct. 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Burgess, Geo. W., 








Hingham, . 




10.881 


Oct. 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 



1 Addition of water alleged in complaint. 
' Appealed to upper court; case pending. 
' Skimmed milk; cans not marked. 



* Removal of cream alleged in complaint. 
' Dismissed for want of jurisdiction. 



374 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Milk not of Good Standard Quality — Continued. 



Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 
of Total 
Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Schnopt, Augustus, 


Hinsdale, . 


11.121 


Nov. 


21 


1913 


Conviction. 


Higgins, Charles, 


Hopkinton, 


12.201 


Sept. 


3 


1913 


Conviction. 


Loring, Alfred H., 


Hull 


9.201 


Sept. 


23 


1913 


Conviction. 


Sullivan, Eugene, 


Lawrence, . 


9.661 


Feb. 


7 


1913 


Conviction. 


Basher, John 


Lexington, 


10.501 


Jan. 


31 


1913 


Conviction. 


Britt, Patrick 


Lexington, 


11.082 


Aug. 


23 


1913 


Conviction. 


Wheeler, George, .... 


Lincoln, 


10.801 


Aug. 


25 


1913 


Conviction. 


Moody, James E 


Lowell, 


9.463 


Mar. 


15 


1913 


Discharged. 


Corrigan, Edward P., . 


Maiden, 


10.621 


Apr. 


18 


1913 


Conviction. 


Wiseberg, Simon, 


Maiden, 


10.822 


Nov. 


18 


1913 


Conviction. 


Lord, Arthur W 


Maynard, . 


12.00'- 


Jan. 


11 


1913 


Conviction. 


Forbes, Harvey W 


Melrose Highlands, . 


12.701 


Nov. 


18 


1913 


Discharged. 


Coffin, Ralph W., 


Mendon, 


11.601 


Sept. 


3 


1913 


Conviction. 


Dagdigin, Avidis, 


Methuen, . 


10.921 


Feb. 


7 


1913 


Conviction. 


Givani, Leo, .... 


Milford, . 


10.761 


Sept. 


3 


1913 


Conviction. 


Johnson, John W., 


MUford, . 


12.121 


Sept. 


3 


1913 


Conviction. 


Rotman, Harris 


Millis, 


11.982 


Oct. 


9 


1913 


Con\'iction. 


Cabot, Walter Channing, . 


Nantucket, 


12.302 


Sept. 


19 


1913 


Conviction. 


Ewen, H. L 


Nantucket, 


10.46 


Aug. 


29 


1913 


Conviction. 


Holdgate, Frank 


Nantucket, 


12.121 


Sept. 


11 


1913 


Conviction. 


Burks, Ernest W., 


Natick, 


9.663 


Oct. 


21 


1913 


Conviction. 


Sweatt, Fred W 


Natick, 


11.20 


Apr. 


12 


1913 


Conviction. 


Lanzon, David, .... 


New Bedford, . 


10.801 


July 


29 


1913 


Conviction. 


Kelleher, Dennis, 


Newburyport, . 


11.442 


June 


23 


1913 


Conviction. * 


Jasper, George 


Norwood, . 


10.801 


Oct. 


30 


1913 


Discharged. 


Moore, Frank, .... 


Orange, 




11.741 


Jan. 


9 


1913 


Conviction. 


Benz, Charles 


Pittsfield, 




10.001 


May 


9 


1913 


Conviction. 


Benz, John C 


Pittsfield, 




10.821 


May 


9 


1913 


Conviction. 


Dallava & Co., S 


Pittsfield, 




11.481 


Oct. 


10 


1913 


Conviction. 


Foley, James 


Pittsfield, 




11.521 


Oct. 


10 


1913 


Conviction. 


Kirchner, Nicholas, 


Pittsfield, 




12.061 


Oct. 


10 


1913 


Conviction. 


Savery, Harvey B 


Pittsfield, 




10.581 


May 


9 


1913 


Conviction. 


Kennard,' Harrison G., 


Quincy, 




12.042 


May 


17 


1913 


Conviction. 


Kennard, Harrison G., 


Quincy, 




7.821 


May 


17 


1913 


Conviction. 



1 Addition of water alleged in complaint. 

2 Removal of cream alleged in complaint. 



3 Skimmed milk; cans not marked. 

* Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



No. 34.1 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



375 



For Sale of Milk 


not of Good Standard Quality 


— Concluded. 


Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 
of Total 
Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Collins, Michael J., . 


Randolph, 


12.041 


July 


16, 1913 


Conviction. 


Arkin, Fannie, 






Revere, 




10.181 


Sept. 


12, 1913 


Conviction. 


Brown, Charles H., 






Revere, 




11.501 


Oct. 


17, 1913 


Conviction. 


Flynn, Edward, . 






Revere, 




10.702 


July 


8, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Flynn, Edward, . 






Revere, 




10.802 


July 


8, 1913 


Conviction. 3 


Hirsche, Myron J., 






Revere, 




11.301 


Sept. 


12, 1913 


Discharged. 


Trask, Howard H., 






Revere, 




10.901 


Aug. 


28, 1913 


Conviction. 


Deinlein, Albert, . 






Richmond, 




11.062 


Oct. 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Nugent, Geo. C, 






Rockport, . 




11.762 


Oct. 


6, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Higgins, William, 






Saugus, 




12.402 


July 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Nicholson, George F., 






Saugus, 




12.102 


July 


10, 1913 


Dismissed. * 


Peterson ,Oscar, . 






Saugus, 




8.582 


July 


10, 1913 


Conviction. 


Williams, Edward, 






Spencer, 




10.302 


Nov. 


7, 1913 


Conviction. 


Rugg, Luther W., 






Sterling, 




9.682 


Jan. 


16, 1913 


Conviction. 


Scott, Warren F., 






Stoneham, 




11.542 


Nov. 


26, 1913 


Dismissed.* 


Wetherbee, Charles W., 






Stow, 




11.542 


Jan. 


11, 1913 


Conviction. 


Mason, Thos. L., . 






Swansea, . 




11.501 


Sept. 


30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Mason, Thos. L., . 






Swansea, . 




9.662 


Sept. 


30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Ballou, Albertus H., 






Ware, 




7.362 


May 


22, 1913 


Conviction. ' 


Rynn, John, 






Wayland, . 




11.561 


Oct. 


16, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Simon, Christ V., 






West Boylston, 




10.622 


May 


21, 1913 


Conviction.' 


Crawford, Charles 0., 






Westford, . 




10.202 


Mar. 


3, 1913 


Discharged. 


Gates, Lewellyn F., 






Westford, . 




10.182 


Mar. 


3, 1913 


Conviction. 


Dudley, Alvin L., 






Weston, 




10.362 


Sept. 


5, 1913 


Conviction. 


Perry, Manuel, 






Westport, . 




11.462 


Jan. 


14, 1913 


Conviction. 


Carter, Walter D., 






Wilmington, 




11.402 


Feb. 


8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Carter, Walter D., 






Wilmington, 




11.702 


Feb. 


8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Holmes, Charles, 






Wilmington, 




9.562 


Feb. 


8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Doucette, Andrew, 






Woburn, . 




7.872 


May 


14, 1913 


Conviction. 


Given, James, 






Woburn, . 




11.401 


Nov. 


1, 1913 


Conviction. 


McDevitt, Michael, 






Woburn, 




10.102 


Nov. 


1. 1913 


Conviction. 


Winn, G. Edward, 






Woburn, 




11.76 


Nov. 


1, 1913 


Pending. 



1 Removal of cream alleged in complaint. 

2 Addition of water alleged in complaint. 



' Appealed to upper court ; case pending. 
< Dismissed by order of the court. 



376 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Milk containing Foreign Matter. 



Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 
of Total 
Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Dudley, Alvin L., . . . 
Dudley, Alvin L 


Weston, 
Weston, 


10.521 
10.902 


Sept. 5, 1913 
Sept. 5, 1913 


Conviction. 
Dismissed.' 



For Sale of Milk containing Added Foreign Matter. 



Barnes, Thomas W., 
Dudley, Alvin L., 



Dartmouth (North), 
Weston, 



11.88 
13.05 



Dec. 10, 1912 
Dec. 27, 1912 



Conviction.* 
Conviction. 







For Obstruction of Irispector. 






Name. 


Place. 


Date. 


Result. 


Breen, Fred, 


Boston, .... 


June 20, 1913 


Conviction. 





For Sale of Adulterated Cream. 






Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Alden Bros. Co., 


Winthrop, 


Water. 


Nov. 17, 1913 


Conviction. 



For Sale of Adxdterated Ice Crean 


I. 




Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 
of Fat. 


Date. 


Result. 


Bushway Ice Cream Co., . 
Bushway Ice Cream Co., . 
Highley, Samuel, 
Todd, Henry 


Waltham, . 
Waltham, . 
Woburn, 
Nantucket, 


4.48 
4.34 
4.70 
3.58 


Sept. 15, 1913 
Sept. 15, 1913 
Oct. 25, 1913 
Sept. 19, 1913 


Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



For Sale of Adulterated Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products. 





H.IMBTJRG STE.4.K. 






Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Albany Cash Market, 
Barrett, C. H 


Pittsfield, 
Gloucester, 


Sulphuric acid, . 
Benzoic acid, 


Nov. 21, 1913 
Dec. 31, 1912 


Conviction. 
Discharged. 



• Contained flies. 
2 Contained dirt. 



3 Dismissed by order of the court. 

* Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



No. 34.] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



377 



For Sale of Adulterated Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products — Continued. 





C.4.NNED Herring. 






Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Nourse, Newell E., . 
Siegel Co., Henry, 


Boston, 
Boston, 


Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 


Dec. 31, 1912 
Jan. 3. 1913 


Conviction. 
Nol pressed. 



Canned Sardines. 



Houghton & Dutton Co., . Boston, 



Decomposed, 



. Jan. 7, 1913 Conviction.' 



Shrimp. 



The Mohican Co., 
The Mohican Co., 



Springfield, 
Springfield, 



Compound of boron. 
Compound of boron. 



May 16, 1913 
May 16, 1913 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Lard. 



Livingstone, Geo., 
Pike, Samuel P., 



Chelsea, 
Lowell, 



Compound, 2 
Cotton seed oil, 



Oct. 30, 1913 
Mar. 25, 1913 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Oleomargarine. 



Hull, Lester, 


Nantucket, 


No sign in store. 


Sept. 11, 1913 


Conviction. 


Hull, Lester, 


Nantucket, 


No sign on container. 


Sept. 11, 1913 


Conviction. 


Livingstone, Geo., 


Chelsea, . 


Not marked, 


Oct. 30, 1913 


Conviction. 



Broken-out Eggs. 



Bay State Egg Co., . 
Bay State Egg Co., . 
Brown, Morris, . 
Goldsmith, Wall Co., 
Goldsmith, Wall Co., 
Goodrich, John A., . 
Standard Egg Co., 
Standard Egg Co., 
White Star Egg & Fruit Co., 
White Star Egg & Fruit Co., 
White Star Egg & Fruit Co., 



Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
Boston, 



Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 



Nov. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
July 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Nov. 



27, 


1912 


18, 


1913 


18, 


1913 


23, 


1913 


28, 


1913 


28, 


1913 


18, 


1913 


18, 


1913 


18, 


1913 


18, 


1913 


27, 


1912 



Conviction.! 

Conviction.' 

Conviction.! 

Pending. 

Conviction.! 

Conviction. 

Conviction.! 

Conviction.! 

Conviction, i 

Conviction. ! 

Pending. 



! Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



' Compound; not marked. 



378 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Adulterated Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products — Concluded. 

Maple Suoar. 



Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar. 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar, 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar. 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar. 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar. 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 


Adams, Oscar D., 


Springfield, 


Cane sugar. 


Apr. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 



Cider. 



Aquila, John, 


Boston, . 


Benzoic acid. 


Jan. 30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Fay, John J., . 


Boston, 


Benzoic acid. 


Jan. 30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Hacking, Andrew, 


Stoneham , 


Benzoic acid. 


Nov. 19, 1913 


Conviction. » 


Hession, James W., . 


Boston, . 


Benzoic acid. 


Feb. 19, 1913 


Conviction. 


Rendozzo, John, 


Boston, . 


Benzoic acid. 


Jan. 30, 1913 


Conviction. 


Tekmejian, Agajohn, 


Boston, . 


Benzoic acid. 


Jan. 30, 1913 


Conviction. 



Ice. 



North Shore Ice DeliveryCo., Lynn, 



Condemned ice, 



July 23, 1913 Conviction. 



For Sale of Adulterated Drugs. 

Alcohol. 



Dupree, Hector, 
Stanick, John, . 
Bernier & Co., 
Ryan, S. A., & Co., Inc. 
Choiniere, Hector, 
Kokocinski, Waldyslaw, 
Lilla, Michael A., 



Dudley, . 
Dudley, . 
Easthampton, 
Springfield, 
Ware, 
Webster, . 
Webster, . 



Deficiency 
Deficiency 
Deficiency 
Deficiency 
Deficiency 
Deficiency 
Deficiency 



in strength, 
in strength, 
in strength, 
in strength, 
in strength, 
in strength, 
in strength. 



Mar. 4. 1913 

Mar. 4, 1913 

Nov. 19, 1913 

May 29, 1913 

Apr. 25, 1913 

Mar. 4, 1913 

Mar. 4, 1913 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction, 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Spirit op Camphor. 



Farrell, Thos. H., 



Pittsfield, . Deficiency in strength, Nov. 21, 1913 Conviction 



• Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



No. 34.1 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



379 



For Sale of Adulterated Drugs — Concluded. 

Tincture of Iodine. 



Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Sorel, Honorious J., . 
Burke Drug Co., 
Lerche, Albert E., 


Easthampton, . 
Marlborough, . 
Springfield, 


Deficiency in strength, 
deficiency in strength. 
Deficiency in strength, 


Nov. 19, 1913 
May 17, 1913 
May 29, 1913 


Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Spirit of Peppermint. 



Davies, Cyrus, . 


Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Feb. 26, 1913 


Conviction. 


Burke Drug Co., 


Marlborough, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


May 17, 1913 


Conviction. 


Traufaglia, Vincent, . 


Revere, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Oct. 15, 1913 


Conviction. 





Sweet Spirit of Nitre. 






Waite, Dr. Clarence A., 


Pittsfield, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Nov. 21, 1913 


Conviction. 


Goddu, Joseph R., 


Salem, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Jan. 8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Hawthorne Pharmacy, 


Salem, 


Deficiency in strength, 


Jan. 8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Upton, Jesse F., 


Salem, 


Deficiency in strength, 


Jan. 8, 1913 


Conviction. 


Middlesex Drug Co., . 


Stoneham, 


Deficiency in strength, 


Nov. 19, 1913 


Pending. 



None of the cases reported as pending in the last preceding report 
have been settled. 

The amount paid in fines was $2,922.75, as follows: — 

Milk and milk products, $2,257 75 

Foods other than above, 325 00 

Drugs, 340 00 

$2,922 75 



The total number of samples of food, drugs, liquors and poisons 
examined during the year was as follows: — 

Milk, e,702 

Food 1,632 

Drugs, 1,393 

Liquors, 75 

Poisons, 141 

Articles held in cold storage, 83 

10,026 



380 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 

Expenditures under the Provisions of the Food and Drug 
Acts for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1913. 

Appropriation, $17,500 00 

Credit by cash returned to treasury on account of money advanced 
to inspectors, 13 79 

$17,513 79 

Salaries of analysts,' $6,900 00 

Salaries of inspectors, 6,180 01 

Salary of laboratory assistant, 214 00 

Traveling expenses and purchase of samples, 3,383 18 

Apparatus and chemicals, 390 24 

Printing, 161 88 

Services, cleaning laboratory, 50 75 

Express, 4 04 

Telephone messages and postage, 27 85 

Sundry laboratory suppUes, 55 51 

Books, binding and stationery, 53 89 

Extra services, 47 62 

Advertising, • . . . . 1 80 

Miscellaneous, 19 40 

Total, $17,490 17 

During the year 1913, two cases reported as pending in 1908 have 
been settled; one for obstruction of an inspector, and one for sale of 
adulterated cider, both of which were placed on file. 

Of the cases reported as pending in 1911, three for the sale of adul- 
terated milk have been settled; one was placed on file, and the other 
two cases resulted in conviction and fine; one case for the sale of adul- 
terated maple sugar was placed on file; two cases for the sale of adulter- 
ated yeast and one for the sale of adulterated vinegar were nol prossed, 
and one case for the sale of adulterated alcohol was placed on file and 
fine imposed. 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



By Hermann C. Lythgoe. 



1381) 



EEPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



By Heemann C. Lythgoe. 



Dr. Mark W. Richaedson, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of 

Health. 
Dear Sir: — I lierewith submit my report on the analysis of food and 
drugs for the year ending Nov. 30, 1913. 

Milk and Milk Products. 
During the year 6,702 samples of milk were collected, of which 1,682, 
or 2o.l per cent., were below the legal standard, 358 contained added 
water, 90 were skimmed and not .so labeled, 26 were skimmed milk prop- 
erly labeled and sold as such, and 1 sample contained formaldehyde. 
This is the second sample of preserved milk collected since 1908. The 
usual statistics of milk are as follows : — 







Milkf 


ram Cities and Towns. 








LoC.UylTT. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 

Stand- 
ard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Pure 

Milk. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Abington, 


20 


- 


20 


12.26 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Adams, . 


17 


1 


18 


11.80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Andover, 


22 


3 


25 


10.96 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Amesbury, 


30 


3 


33 


12 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Arlington, 


57 


8 


65 


11.00 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Athol, . 


23 


4 


27 


9 00 


1 


- 


2 


- 


Attleborough, 


28 


4 


32 


10.70 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Ayer, 


5 


- 


5 


12.40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Belmont, 


4 


- 


4 


12 16 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Beveblt, 


16 


1 


17 


11.92 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Boston, 


2 


1 


3 


9 26 


- 


2 


- 


- 


Braintree, 


73 


11 


84 


10 67 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Bridgewater, . 


29 


3 


32 


11 80 


- 


- 


- 


- 



384 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from Cities and Toions — Continued. 



LoCALITr. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Pure 

Milk. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stance.s. 


Brockton, . 


61 


13 


74 


11.58 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Brookfield, 


11 


2 


13 


11.90 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


Brookline, 


93 


12 


105 


11.80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Burlington, 


19 


10 


29 


10 40 


- 


- 


2 


- 


C.WIBRIDGE, . 


70 


24 


94 


10 47 




1 


1 


- 


Canton, . 


22 


3 


25 


11.30 




- 


- 


- 


Chelmsford, . 


7 


2 


9 


12 06 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Chelse.^, 


72 


7 


79 


11 50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Chicopee, 


48 


22 


70 


10 44 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Clinton, 


25 


7 


32 


11 32 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Concord, 


6 


3 


9 


11 80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Dalton, . 


6 


- 


6 


12.20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Danvers, 


28 


24 


52 


11 14 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Dartmouth, . 


37 


17 


54 


9.74 


- 


1 


8 


- 


Dedham, 


7 


14 


21 


10.26 


- 


- 


3 


- 


Easthampton, 


22 


9 


31 


9 54 


- 


2 


1 


- 


EVEKETT, 


56 


17 


73 


11.41 


- 


- 


- 


- 


F.ILL RrvER, 


89 


14 


103 


9 30 


- 


2 


1 


- 


FiTCHBURG, . 


17 


6 


23 


11 56 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Foxborough, . 


13 


- 


13 


12 36 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Framingham, 


64 


12 


76 


9.64 


- 


1 


1 


- 


Franklin, 


47 


6 


53 


10.76 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Gardner, 


15 


1 


16 


11 67 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gloucester, 


104 


106 


210 


8.88 


- 


1 


36 


- 


Greenfield, 


39 


12 


51 


10 40 


- 


- 


11 


- 


Haverhill, . 


58 


27 


85 


8,84 


- 


3 


10 


- 


Hingham, 


81 


15 


96 


9.50 


2 


- 


4 


- 


HoUiston, 


18 


3 


21 


12 12 


- 


- 


- 


- 


HOLYOKE, 


54 


7 


61 


12 10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hopkinton, . 


11 


3 


14 


11 56 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hudson, 


24 


3 


27 


8 24 


- 


1 


3 


- 


Hull, 


7 


9 


16 


8.10 


- 


- 


4 


- 


Lawrence, . 


63 


22 


85 


9.22 


- 


8 


2 


- 


Leicester, 


12 


6 


18 


11,80 


- 




- 


- 


Lenox, . 


14 


1 


15 


12.06 


- 


- 


- 


- 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



385 



Milk from Cities and Towns — Continued. 



Locality. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Pure 

Milk. 


Watered 

Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Lexington, 




8 


4 


12 


11.08 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Lowell, 




95 


24 


119 


9.56 


- 


2 


- 


- 


Ludlow, 




10 


20 


30 


11.06 


- 


- 


13 


- 


Lynn, . 




141 


12 


153 


9.80 


1 


- 


1 


- 


Malden, 




93 


13 


106 


10.82 


- 


1 


3 


- 


Mansfield, 




13 


1 


14 


12.00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Marlborough, 




29 


- 


29 


12.16 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Maynard, 




13 


5 


18 


11.86 


- 


■- 


- 


- 


Medford, 




63 


24 


87 


10.66 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Melrosb, 




30 


5 


35 


11.86 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Middleborough, 




13 


3 


16 


11.26 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Milford, . 




79 


11 


90 


9.73 


2 


- 


6 


- 


Millbury, 




10 


5 


15 


9.47 


1 


- 


- 


- 


MiUis, . 




8 


5 


13 


9.80 


~ 


3 


- 


- 


Montague, 




17 


2 


19 


11.18 


- 


- 


2 


- 


Nantucket, 




79 


8 


87 


10.46 


- 


5 


2 


- 


Natick, . 




60 


14 


74 


9.50 


2 


3 


1 


- 


Needham, 




11 


- 


11 


12.40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Bedford, 




146 


58 


204 


9.02 


- 


5 


9 


- 


Newburyport, 




48 


8 


56 


11.44 


- 


4 


- 


- 


Newton, 




88 


14 


102 


11.20 


- 


2 


- 


- 


Northampton, 




25 


10 


35 


11.04 


- 


- 


- 


- 


No. Attleborough, 




30 


2 


32 


11.46 


- 


- 


- 


- 


North Easton, 




13 


5 


18 


11.98 


- 


- 


- 


- 


North Reading, 




11 


- 


11 


12.74 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Norwood, 




31 




35 


11.66 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Oak Bluffs, 






14 


11 


25 


11.36 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Palmer, . 






12 




13 


11.90 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Peabody, 






26 




28 


10.28 


- 


1 


- 


- 


PlTTSFIELD, 






262 


91 


353 


10.00 


1 


1 


24 


- 


Plymouth, 






15 


- 


15 


12.17 


- 


- 


- 


- 


QUINCY, 






119 


32 


151 


7.82 


- 


7 


5 


- 


Randolph, 






11 


5 


16 


11.40 


- 


4 


- 


- 


Reading, 






25 


3 


28 


10.82 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Revere, . 






50 


29 


79 


10.70 


- 


4 


4 


- 



386 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from Cities and Towns — Concluded. 



Locality. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


3i,;^.v,„j Skimmed 

=^w „= sold as 
«°d^ Pure 
Su'-'^- Milk. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 

con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Ricbmond, . 


21 


6 


27 


11.60 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Rockland, 


28 


- 


28 


12.20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Salem, . 


26 


6 


32 


11.60 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Saugus, . 


8 


- 


8 


12.40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sherborn, 


10 


1 


11 


11.58 


- 


- 


- 


- 


SOMEBVILLE, . 


87 


10 


97 


9.50 


2 


- 


- 


- 


Southbridge, . 


29 


6 


35 


12.00 


- 


- 


- 


.- 


South Framingham, 


26 


3 


29 


12.00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Spencer, 


36 


9 


45 


10.30 


- 


- 


2 


- 


Springfield, 


123 


22 


145 


3.18 


- 


2 


2 


H 


Stoneham, 


39 


13 


52 


9.50 


2 


- 


3 


- 


Stoughton, 


24 


6 


30 


10.70 


- 


3 


- 


- 


Swampscott, . 


11 


- 


11 


12.50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Taunton, 


42 


4 


46 


9.68 


1 


1 


1 


- 


Templeton, . 


14 


1 


15 


12.10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Uxbridge, 


11 


- 


11 


12.40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wakefield, 


13 


2 


15 


11.90 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Walpole, 


8 


6 


14 


11.36 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Waltham, 


68 


25 


93 


5.14 


4 


- 


9 


- 


Ware, . 


31 


18 


49 


7.36 


- 


1 


2 


- 


Wareham, 


12 


3 


15 


11.20 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Watertown, . 


54 


10 


64 


8.66 


3 


1 


- 


- 


Webster, 


22 


- 


22 


12.20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wellesloy, 


12 


- 


12 


12.42 


- 


- 


- 


- 


West Newbury, 


2 


2 


4 


11.50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


West Springfield, . 


41 


9 


50 


10.38 


1 


- 


1 


- 


Whitman, 


27 


7 


34 


11.53 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Williamstown, 


13 


3 


16 


11.92 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wilmington, . 


21 


2 


23 


10.56 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Winchester, . 


38 


7 


45 


11.40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Winthrop, 


15 


4 


19 


10.80 


- 


1 


- 


- 


WOBURN, 


36 


22 


58 


10.30 


- 


- 


3 


- 


Worcester, . 


62 


23 


85 


10.62 


- 


4 


1 


- 


Totals, . 


4,354 


1,139 


5,493 


3.18 


23 


80 


187 


1 



1 Formaldehyde. 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



387 



Milk from Suspected Producers. 



Locality. 


Above 

Standard. 


Below 

Standard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 
Milk not 
marked. 


Watered 

Milk. 


Arlington 


12 


11 


23 


11.02 


- 


~ 


Ashby, . 






12 


- 


12 


12.30 


- 


- 


Bedford, 






5 


5 


10 


11.20 


1 


- 


Billerica, 






6 


16 


22 


11.20 • 


- 


- 


Bolton, 






8 


17 


25 


10.52 


- 


- 


Carlisle, 






2 


2 


4 


11.13 


2 


- 


Chelmsford, 






10 


11 


21 


11.32 


- 


1 


Cheshire, 






5 


2 


7 


11.18 


- 


3 


Dalton, 






12 


5 


17 


10.40 


- 


3 


Danvers, 






11 


16 


27 


11.30 


- 


- 


Dartmouth, . 






3 


15 


18 


6.94 


- 


14 


Dedham, 






14 


4 


18 


11.54 


- 


- 


Dracut, 






5 


1 


6 


11.02 


- 


- 


FiTCHBURQ, . 






4 


15 


19 


10.44 


- 


- 


Gloucester, 






9 


16 


25 


10.60 


- 


- 


Groton, 






11 


7 


18 


11.60 


- 


- 


Hamilton, 






28 


14 


42 


11.00 


- 


- 


Haverhill, 






12 


16 


28 


9,40 


- 


- 


Hingham, 






13 


1 


14 


11.60 




1 


Lawrence, . 






3 


14 


17 


10.76 


2 


- 


Lexington, . 






- 


20 


20 


10.30 


- 


18 


Lincoln, 






8 


7 


15 


10.80 


- 


2 


Littleton, 






22 


13 


35 


9.94 


1 


8 


Maynard, 






3 


6 


9 


11.70 


- 


- 


Medfield, . 






5 


- 


5 


12.46 


- 


- 


Mendon, 






8 


4 


12 


11.42 


- 


- 


Methuen, 






23 


28 


51 


10.06 


- 


19 


Millis, . 






13 


47 


60 


10.56 


3 


- 


North Andover, 






11 


19 


30 


10.52 


- 


6 


Norwood, 






23 


25 


48 


10.20 


- 


5 


Plaistow, N. H., 






4 


14 


18 


10.36 


2 


6 


Rutland, 






2 


- 


2 


13.08 


- 


- 


Saugus, 






7 


11 


18 


8.40 


- 


8 


Sherborn, 






7 


7 


14 


11.05 


- 


- 


Somerset, 






26 


22 


48 


9.20 


- 


10 


Southampton, 






18 


7 


25 


11.36 


2 


- 



388 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from Suspected Producers — Concluded. 



Locality. 


Above 
Standard. 


Below 
Standard. 


Total 
Samples. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 
Milk not 
marked. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Stow, . 

Swansea, 

Wayland, 

Westborough, 

Westford, 

Westminster, 

Weston, 

Weymouth, 

Wilmington, 

WOBURN, 








35 
5 
3 

5 
9 

20 
41 


11 
8 
2 
5 

16 
1 

12 
5 

13 

15 


46 
13 
5 
5 
21 
10 
12 
5 
33 
56 


11.24 
9.66 
12.00 
9.78 
10.18 
12.00 
10.26 
9.06 
8.36 
7.73 


1 


7 

4 
9 

12 
5 

10 
17 


Totals, . 


483 


506 


989 


6.94 


14 


168 



Summary of Milk Statistics. 



Locality. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 

Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 
Solids in 
Lowest 
Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Skimmed 

Milk 

not 

marked. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
contain- 
ing 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Milk from cities and 

towns. 
Milk from suspected 

producers. 
Miscellaneous milk 

samples. 


4,354 
483 
183 


1,139 
506 
47 


5,493 
989 
220 


3.18 
6.94 
11.37 


23 
3 


80 
14 


187 

168 

3 


1 


Totals, . 


5,020 


1,682 


6,702 


3.18 


26 


94 


358 


1 



No. 34. 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



389 



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No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 391 

The adulterated milk samples were in greater number than those in 
previous years, due to the large number of samples collected from sus- 
pected producers and the high ratio of adulteration in these samples. 
The majority of these suspected producers were selling milk to milk 
dealers in whose possession was found adulterated milk. Many times it 
was necessary to trace the samples through several people before reaching 
the man who was doing the actual adulteration; the adulterated samples, 
therefore, are much greater in number than would be shown by a syste- 
matic collection of milk from the retail dealers throughout the State. 
The tests for pasteurized milk and for old milk as described in the report 
of last year, were carried on during the year, and the figures obtained are 
given in the table of the summary of milk statistics by months. During 
the months of May, June, July and August, many of the samples come 
from such a long distance that they arrive in the laboratory too late to 
be examined that day. For this reason the figures obtained for old milk 
have been omitted from the table during these months, because such re- 
ports would manifestly be unfair to the milk supply. Three and three- 
tenths per cent, of the samples examined during the cold weather gave 
precipitate with 68 per cent, alcohol and 3.5 per cent, reduced methylene 
blue solution within one hour, showing that these samples were too old 
for use as food when examined. These figures, while undoubtedly high, 
owing to the fact that the samples were examined in some cases several 
hours after being taken, show that there is considerable old milk sold, 
and these conditions will continue to exist until there is some uniform 
and adequate inspection along sanitary lines as well as the present in- 
spection for quality. The average quality of milk collected shows the 
same seasonal variation as in previous years. The milk for the 
month of July showed the lowest average solids of all samples that 
has been recorded for several years, owing to the large number of 
adulterated samples collected during this month. The quality of the 
pasteurized samples was slightly below that of the average raw samples, 
but not sufficiently so to show any form of systematic adulteration which 
might be carried on. During the month of July, however, a large num- 
ber of samples were taken from restaurants, many of which proved to be 
both pasteurized and skimmed, and some of which were below standard 
by reason of their being skimmed to an extent too small for detection. 
The skimming in these cases had been practised in the restaurants, either 
deliberately by removal of cream for use with coffee and cereal, or acci- 
dentally by improper mixing when milk was sold by the glass. The 
actual figures for the pasteurized milk as put out by the dealers would 
therefore be slightly higher than the figures given. 



392 STATE BOARD OF IIEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Milk of Known Purity. 
During the past six years neariy 500 samples of known purity milk 
have been examined in the laboratory, representing about 440 samples 
from individual cows and the balance from herd. These samples were 
obtained from Guernsey, Ayrshire, Dutch Belted and Holstein, as well 
as from cross-breed or grade cows. All the samples were examined for 
solids, fat, proteins, ash and lactose, and the serum was prepared by one 
or more methods from each sample. A summary of these analyses is 
given in the table. The variation in the composition of milk is due 
primarily to the breed of the cow, but it is more or less influenced by the 
period of lactation and the season of the year. In order to show the 
seasonal variation and variation according to the period of lactation 194 
samples were chosen, representing the milk from grade Holstein, grade 
Durham, Ayrshire and grade Ayrshire cows whose period of lactation 
was known. This selection of cows eliminated 'to a great extent the in- 
fluence of different breeds, as the abnormally high Jersey and Guernsey 
milk and the abnormally low milk from Holstein and Dutch Belted cows 
is not represented. These samples were then arranged according to 
months, but owing to the small number of samples obtained in some 
months it was impossible to get a representative average and the averages 
were accordingly made by seasons. 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



393 



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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



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No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



395 



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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



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No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 397 

These same analyses were then arranged by period of lactation, and 
for a reason similar to that stated above it was found necessary to make 
the averages according to periods of months instead of for single months. 
It so happens that the average period of lactation in the milk arranged 
by seasons was very uniform, so that these two tables are practically un- 
influenced by each other, and the figures show that both these variations 
exist in milk; and according to these samples the variation according to 
season seems to be greater than that according to period of lactation. 
There is a relationship existing between the protein-fat ratio and tke 
refractive index of the milk serum which is more noticeable in the case 
of the copper serum of the samples reported above, owing to the fact 
that a greater number of samples were examined by this method. In 
milk samples with a protein-fat ratio above 0.8 very few are found with 
a refractive index above 39.0, and with samples with a protein-fat ratio 
below 0.70 no samples were found with a refraction below 37.0, and a 
number of them were above 39.0. In the case of the acetic serum few of 
the samples with a protein-fat ratio below 0.70 gave serums which re- 
fracted less than 41.0, and of the sour serums obtained none refracted 
less than 40, with a protein-fat ratio of 0.70 or less. It is possible by 
using the protein-fat ratio as well as the refractive index of the serum, 
to detect samples of watered milk which would not be detected by de- 
pending upon the refractions of the serum alone. The use of the ash 
of the sour serum as well as the refractive index of the serum is a distinct 
advantage in detecting added water, as the mineral matter present has 
but little influence upon the refractive index of the serum, and if the 
sample is found watered by both methods the possibility of its being 
produced by a sick or otherwise abnormal cow is eliminated. 

Cream. 
Two hundred and nine samples were examined, of which 27 were 
found to be adulterated or below the standard; 7 of these samples were 
below the standard of 15 per cent, fat, and the balance contained added 
water. At first, it vras impossible to reconcile the presence of added 
water with the high fat content of these samples, but subsequent in- 
vestigation has shown the reason. There has been recently introduced 
a machine called the " homogenizer," which is capable of making thin 
cream thick by reason of the fact that it can break up the milk-fat 
globules into very small pieces. It is also possible to take unsalted "but- 
ter and milk or skimmed milk, and by means of this machine produce 
an article which resembles cream. As butter usually contains from 12 
to 16 per cent, of added water, introduced during the washing of the 



398 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



butter after churning, the resulting cream made from this butter will 
give reactions for added water if the fat is sufficiently high. The 
method used for examining the cream is to prepare a copper serum 
in the same manner as for milk, using, of course, a larger quantity of 
cream than of milk on account of the enormous volume of the precipitate. 
The examination of 97 samples of market cream by this method gave 
results varying from 37.0 to 39.0 on the scale of the Immersion Eefracto- 
meter. Samples which fell below 36.5 were further examined by pre- 
paring an ash of the sour serum. A large quantity of cream is necessary 
for this purpose as the amount of serum is very small. After souring, 
the cream was shaken in a bottle until the fat had been turned into butter, 
then the serum was poured off and filtered, and the ash was determined 
on a 25 cubic centimeter portion of the serum. Experiments made on 
cream separated in the laboratory showed that the composition of the 
cream serum was identical with that obtained from milk from which 
the cream was made. All samples of cream which were reported adul- 
terated gave copper serums refracting below 36.0 and sour serum with 
ash below .730 per cent., the refractions varying from 33.8 to 36.0 and 
the ash of the sour serum from .544 to .723 per cent. The following 
table shows the variation in refraction of serum found in 84 samples of 
commercial cream not declared adulterated : — 



Number of Samples. 


Fat 
(Per Cent.). 


Average Fat 
(Per Cent.). 


Average 

Copper 

Refraction 

(Per Cent.). 


6 


6.6-15 


10.1 


38.2 


12 


15-25 


18.9 


37.4 


35 


25-35 


30.1 


37.8 


31 


35-44 


38.8 


37.8 


84 


6.6-44 


30.6 


37.8 



Highest copper refraction, 39.0. 



Lowest copper refraction, 37.0. 



There are two reasons why this product is on the market. In the first 
place it is an easy way to produce a large amount of cream at short 
notice when the demand for cream is high and the supply of milk is low. 
The storage butter is easily kept within reach, and there is sufficient 
skimmed milk in the creamery to emulsify with the butter. The second 
reason is that such cream is cheaper than pure cream. Butter fat is 
cheapest in the form of butter and most expensive in the form of milk. 
One pound of butter fat in the form of milk (4 per cent, fat) at 32 cents 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



399 



per 8V^-quart can costs 47 cents per pound, and in the form of butter 
(80 per cent, fat) at 25 cents per pound costs 31 cents per pound. There 
is also a saving in the cost of transportation of butter over that of milk 
or cream. 

This product cannot be shipped in interstate commerce as cream, and 
the frozen product made from it cannot be shipped under the name of ice 
cream according to the decision of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Whether or not it can be sold in Massachusetts as cream 
has not as yet been passed upon by the courts (pleas of guilty having 
been made in all cases disposed of to date). It seems, however, that the 
sale of this product should be legalized, as it appears not to be unwhole- 
some and no objections have been raised against its use other than those 
stated above. Cream being made from milk naturally contains all the 
constituents of milk but in different proportion, all the constituents ex- 
cept the fat becoming less as the fat increases, for if cream containing 
100 per cent, fat could be prepared, the other constituents would be re- 
duced to zero. The following table, showing the variation of the compo- 
sition of cream, has been prepared upon the above assumption, and the 
figures agree within the limits of analytical error with analyses of samples 
of pure cream : — 

Variation in Composition of Cream (Per Cent). 



Fat. 



Proteins. 



Ash. 



Sugar. 



5. 

10, 
15, 
20. 
25, 
30, 
35, 
40, 
45, 
60, 
55, 



2.83-3.49 
2.68-3.31 
2.53-3.12 
2.38-2.94 
2.23-2.75 
2.08-2.57 
1.94-2.39 
1.79-2.20 
1.65-2.02 
1.50-1.83 
1.34-1.65 



0.70-0.75 
0.66-0.71 
0.63-0.68 
0.59-0.64 
0.55-0.60 
0.52-0.56 
0.48-0.51 
0.44-0.48 
0.41-0.45 
0.37-0.40 
0.33-0.38 



4.78^.96 
4,50-4.70 
4.26-4.44 
4.02-4.18 
3.75-3.92 
3.50-3.65 
3.26-3.39 
3.00-3.13 
2.73-2.87 
2.50-2.61 
2.26-2.35 



Food exclusive of Milk. 
There were 1,633 samples of food, exclusive of milk, examined during 
the year, of which 281 were found to be adulterated. The summary of 
statistics of food will be found on page 406. Under the several headings 
only such food as requires special mention will be discussed. 



400 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Baking Powder. 

One sample was sold without the necessary label stating the name of 
each ingredient. This was the Pilgrim Baking Powder, and was an 
alum phosphate powder. 

Butter. 

Fifty-eight samples of butter were examined, of which 6 were adulter- 
ated. These consisted of 3 samples of oleomargarine, 1 sample of reno- 
vated butter and 2 samples of rancid butter. Fifteen samples of oleo- 
margarine properly labeled and 7 of renovated butter properly labeled 
were obtained. 

Canned Fish. 
Five samples of smoked sardines and anchovies were examined, of 
which 4 were found to be decomposed. The methods of examination will 
be discussed in the report on the examination of cold-storage products. 

Cider. 

Fifty-one samples were examined, of which 34 were adulterated. These 
consisted of 2 samples containing salicylic acid, 1 of which also contained 
benzoic acid, and 32 samples which contained benzoic acid. Seven 
samples contained benzoic acid and were properly labeled, 1 sample con- 
tained sugar and was properly labeled, and 1 sample contained added 
water. 

Cocoa. 

Eighteen samples were examined, all of which were found pure. De- 
terminations of moisture, fat, ash, fiber, pentosans and cocoa red were 
made upon all samples. The results of these analyses are shown in the 
following table: — 





Moist- 
ure (Per 
Cent.). 


Fat (Per 
Cent.). 


Fat-free Substance. 






Ash (Per 
Cent.). 


Fiber (Per 
Cent.). 


Pento- 
sans (Per 
Cent.). 


Cocoa Red 
(Per Cent.). 


Highest, .... 
Lowest, .... 
Average, .... 
Dutch process, average, . 


4.80 
2.60 
3.87 
4.76 


25.07 
15.07 
19.95 
24.37 


7.78 
5.80 
6.58 
9.87 


8.32 
5.33 
6.35 
6.24 


4.55 

3.97 
4.44 
4.47 


16.22 
11.17 
14.06 
13.47 



Five samples of cocoa made by the so-called Dutch process, which con- 
sists in treating the cocoa with alkali, were examined, and the average 



No. 3-1.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



401 



results obtained are shown in the table. These samples were all labeled in 
a proper manner. This style of cocoa is easily distinguished from the 
other cocoa by the higher ash content. 

Coffee. 
Twenty-one samples were examined, 9 of which were adulterated with 
chicory, cereal, or both. Four samples containing chicory were cor- 
rectly labeled. All samples were examined for fat, cold-water extract 
and reducing sugars, the results of which are shown in the following 
table : — 




Good samples: 
Highest, . 
Lowest, 
Average, . 

Bad samples: - 
Highest, . 
Lowest, 



Co7ifectionery. 

Two samples of confectionery were reported adulterated, 1 of which 
was peanut taflEy containing 1 per cent, of stones, each stone about the size 
of a peanut, and 1 sample of marshmallow kisses, which contained 2.5 
per cent, of paraffin. Six samples of marshmallows were examined for 
sulphur dioxide, with negative results. A number of samples of Easter 
eggs were examined for talc, with negative results, the coating in all 
cases being starch and beeswax. Four samples of candy alleged to have 
caused sickness were sent in, and nothing injurious was found in any 
of them. 

Eggs. 

Eighty-nine samples of eggs were examined, of which 2-i were de- 
composed; 2 of these decomposed samples were of eggs in the shell, the 
balance were broken-out eggs. The eggs were examined, as reported in 
the 1911 report, for ammonia and acidity, and the following table has 
been compiled from the results obtained during this and previous 
years : — 



402 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 





Number 
of 


Milligrams op Ammonia 
PER 100 Grams. 


Acidity Cubic Centimeters 
N/10 Alkali per 100 Grams. 


















Samples. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


Fresh eggs 


28 


1.30 


0.39 


0.84 


26 


15 


20.5 


Storage eggs, 


50 


3.33 


1.04 


2.39 


27 


17 


22.0 


Broken-out rotten eggs, 


122 


18.40 


6.20 


- 


60 


21 


- 


Whole rotten eggs, 


1 


9.84 


- 


- 


20 


- 


- 


Frozen whole rotten eggs, 


1 


12.90 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



Flavoring Extracts. 
Lemon Extract. — Ten samples were found adulterated and 52 were 
found pure. The polarization was determined upon all samples, and the 
citral was determined upon those samples polarizing zero. A number of 
citral determinations, however, were made upon samples running high 
in lemon oil, and the results of these analyses are given in the following 
table : — 





Lemon Oil (Per Cent.). 


Citral (Per Cent.). 


Number of S-\mples. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


15 

4 

8 


9.2 
1.2 
0.0 


4.2 
0.4 
0.0 


6.6 

0.67 

0.00 


0.353 
0.170 
0.300 


0.143 
0.075 
0.011 


0.252 
0.145 
0.156 



It will be noticed that the citral content of the samples containing 
the oil was much higher in the pure than in the so-called terpeneless 
extracts, 3'et there was more or less citral present in the latter, showing 
that this form of extract possesses some flavoring value. 

Vanilla Extract. — Forty-one samples were examined, 5 of which were 
weak extracts reinforced with vanillin, or contained coumarin. In the 
majority of these extracts determinations of vanillin, coumarin and lead 
number were made. These results, including those obtained from the 
tinctures of vanilla obtained from drug stores and the analyses made by 
Winton, have been plotted. This plot shows that in pure extract as the 
lead number decreases the vanillin increases, therefore it is easy to dis- 
tinguish by this means an extract reinforced with vanillin from an ex- 
tract low in vanilla. 

Wintergreen Extract. — The single sample of wintergreen extract 
found adulterated was labeled 3 per cent, wintergreen oil, and contained 
but 1.82 per cent. The balance of the extracts were either up to strength 
or were properly labeled. 



No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 403 



Fruit Juices. 
Fruit Juices. — Eighteen samples of grape juice, 1 of grape fruit 
juice and 19 of lime juice were examined and found to be pure. Two 
samples of lime juice were found adulterated, one, of J. P. W. von Laer 
& Co. of Boston, contained 50 per cent, water, without any statement to 
this effect being on the label. Another sample, put up by Delano, Pot- 
ter & Co., was labeled 50 per cent, added water and contained 63 per 
cent, added water. 

Ice Cream. 
One hundred and thirty-two samples were examined, 123 of which con- 
tained more than the 7 per cent, of fat required by the statute. This fat 
standard is abnormally low. Most States which have ice-cream stand- 
ards require from 12 to 15 per cent, fat, and the figures obtained from 
the samples examined warrant such a standard as being reasonable. 
Ninety-three and two-tenths per cent, of the total samples examined 
were above the fat standard, containing an average of 11.95 per cent. fat. 
Eighty-four samples, or 63.6 per cent, of the total samples, contained 
more than 10 per cent, fat, the average fat for these samples being 
13.61 per cent. Sixty-four samples, or 48.50 per cent., contained more 
than 12 per cent, fat, with an average of 14.46 per cent. In view of 
these results it seems feasible that the minimum fat standard for ice 
cream should be raised from 7 per cent, to at least 10 per cent, and pos- 
sibly 12 per cent, without any injustice to the dealer. The method used 
for the determination of fat was that described by H. F. Lichtenberg 
(Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., 1913, 786) : weigh into a 10 per cent. 
Babcock milk bottle 9 grams of melted sample ; add 20 cubic centimeters 
of glacial acetic acid, specific gravity, 1.049, mix well and add 10 cubic 
centimeters of sulphuric acid, specific gravity 1.83; mix again and pro- 
ceed as in the regular Babcock test; multiply the reading of the fat 
column by 2 to get the per cent, of fat. This method is inclined to give 
results a trifle low; therefore, upon all samples showing less than 7 per 
cent, fat, the following method was performed to obtain the correct per- 
centage of fat: weigh a 10-gram portion into a beaker, dilute with water 
containing a little asbestos, mix thoroughly, add some copper sulphate 
solution and filter; wash, dry and extract the precipitate with ether in 
a continuous extraction apparatus ; evaporate the ether and weigh the fat. 



404 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Ja7ns and Jellies. 

Sixty samples of jams and jellies were examined, 1 of which contained 
preservative without being so labeled. Of the balance, 3 samples of 
fruit jams, 1 of jelly and 1 of maraschino cherries contained preserva- 
tives and were properly labeled; 4 samples of fruit jams contained apple 
and were properly labeled. No adulteration was detected in the balance 
of the samples. 

Lard. 

Sixty-eight samples of lard were examined, of which 48 were pure 
lard, 13 were compound lard correctly labeled, and 7 compound lard 
incorrectly labeled. The compounds were the usual mixtures of cotton- 
seed oil with beef stearin, lard stearin or both ; 1 sample, however, sold as 
lard consisted of hydrogenized oil. 

Maple Sugar. 
One hundred and five samples were examined, 41 of which contained 
more or less cane sugar. The amount of cane sugar was distributed about 
as follows : — 

90 per cent, cane sugar, 6 samples. 

80 per cent, cane sugar, . 3 samples. 

60 per cent, cane sugar, 2 samples. 

50 per cent, cane sugar, 5 samples. 

40 per cent, cane sugar, 9 samples. 

30 per cent, cane sugar, 4 samples. 

20 per cent, cane sugar, 12 samples. 

Meat Products. 
One hundred and sixty-six samples of meat products were examined, 
32 of which were adulterated. One sample of canned meat was decom- 
posed. Thirteen samples of hamburg steak contained preservatives and 
were properly labeled, 2 samples contained sodium benzoate and 6 sodium 
sulphite without the necessary label, 1 sample was decomposed, the other 
30 samples were free from preservatives. One sample of mince meat 
contained sodium benzoate and was not so marked, 1 sample contained 
preservative and was properly labeled, and the balance of 8 contained no 
preservative. Fifty samples of sausages were found to be pure, 6 samples 
contained cereal and were properly marked, ^1 samples contained cereal 
and were not marked, and 1 sample was decomposed. 



No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 405 



Non-alcoJiolic Drinks. 
Eighty-two samples of soft drinks were examined, none of which were 
reported as adulterated. Seventy-nine samples were examined for pre- 
servatives; all but 1, which was properly labeled, were found free from 
preservatives. Sixty samples were examined for glucose, with negative 
results, and the same samples were examined for saccharine, in 26 of 
which it was present. It was reported to us that carbonated water was 
being manufactured from flue gas, and that the gas used was not 
thoroughly purified before being introduced into the water. As a result 
of this complaint, 3 syphons of carbonated water were examined for car- 
bon monoxide, with negative results. 

Olive Oil. 
Forty-three samples of olive oil were examined, 2 of which contained 
65 and 100 per cent., respectively, of cottonseed oil; 1 sample contained 
cottonseed oil and was properly labeled; another sample gave the Hal- 
phen reaction for cottonseed oil, but a determination of other constants 
gave the same figures that would be expected from pure olive oil, showing 
that the adulterant was present to an extent less than 1 per cent. 

Proprietary Foods. 
One sample of Bracer Wild Cherry was examined and found to contain 
8.72 per cent, alcohol. 

Shrimp. 
Eighteen samples were examined, 1 of which was preserved with so- 
dium benzoate and was correctly labeled, 2 contained borax and were not 
so labeled, and 3 were decomposed. 

Soda Water Syrups. 
Sixty-five samples of soda water were obtained, 32 of which contained 
benzoic acid. At the same time 7 samples of college ices were obtained, in 
1 of vdiich benzoic acid was found. The dealers were all sent notices to 
place signs in their stores in order to notify their customers that the 
fruit syrups used there contained sodium benzoate. 

Table Sauces. 
One sample of Armour's tomato bouillon contained benzoic acid; 3 
samples of catsup and pickles were examined and found to contain 
sodium benzoate, according to the statement upon the label; the other 
10 samples were free from preservatives. 



406 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Vinegar. 
Four samples were below the standard in acidity, 1 of which was a 
sample of hard cider containing 6.17 per cent, alcohol, 1.76 per cent, 
acid; another was a sample of wine vinegar containing 7.40 per cent, 
alcohol and 2.86 per cent, acid; 1 sample of molasses vinegar contained 
4.42 per cent, acid, and 1 sample of cider vinegar contained 4.36 per 
cent. acid. Two samples of cider vinegar were slightly below the stand- 
ard for solids, containing 1.75 and 1.76 per cent, solids; 1 sample of 
cider vinegar contained 1.34 per cent, solids; 2 samples of molasses vine- 
gar were submitted as cider vinegar. 



Summary of Statistics of Food exclusive of Milk. 







■d 








•6 








S 








S 






ii> 


2 






6 


s 






a 


ffi 






a 


o 






'3 
a 


3 


1 




a 


"a 


1 




O 


■o 


o 




O 


-a 


o 




O 


< 


H 




O 


< 


h 


Baking powder, 


5 


1 


6 


Flavoring extracts — Con. 








Bread, . 




1 


- 


1 


Lemon, .... 


52 


19 


71 


Breakfast foods, 




1 


- 


1 


Maple, 


1 


- 


1 


Buckwheat fiour, 




1 


- 


1 


Orange, .... 


1 


- 


1 


Butter, . 




52 


6 


58 


Peppermint, 


7 


- 


7 


Cake frosting, . 




1 


- 


1 


Vanilla 


36 


5 


41 


Canned fisli, . 




1 


4 


5 


Wintergreen, 


9 


1 


10 


Canned fruits and ■( 


•egetables, 


9 


- 


9 


Fruit juice: — 








Canned soup, . 




3 


- 


3 


Grape 


18 


- 


18 


Cider, 




17 


34 


51 


Grape fruit 


1 


- 


1 


Cocoa, 




18 


- 


18 


Lime, ...... 


19 


2 


21 


Coffee, . 




12 


9 


21 


Honey 


15 


- 


15 


College ices, . 




6 


1 


7 


Horse-radish, .... 


2 


- 


2 


Condensed milk. 




8 


- 


8 


Ice cream 


123 


9 


132 


Confectionery, 




46 


2 


48 


Jams and jellies. 


59 


1 


60 


Cordials, . 




4 


- 


4 


Lard, 


61 


7 


68 


Corn meal. 




1 


- 


1 


Maple sugar 


64 


41 


105 


Cream, 




182 


27 


209 


Maple syrup, .... 


14 


2 


16 


Cream of tartar, 




19 


- 


19 


Mat6 


1 


- 


1 


Dried fruits, . 




3 


1 


4 


Meat products: — 








Eggs, 




65 


24 


89 


Canned meats. 


17 


1 


18 


Flavoring extracts: — 








Frogs' legs, .... 


2 


- 


2 


Ginger, .... 


2 


- 


2 


Hamburg steak, . 


44 


8 


52 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



407 



Summary of Statistics of Food exclusive of Milk — Concluded. 



Meat products — Con 

Head cheese, 

Mince meat, 

Pork chops, . 

Pressed meat, 

Sausages, 

Tripe, . 
Molasses, 
Non-alcoliolic drinlcs. 
Nuts, 
Olive oil, . 
Oysters, . 
Peanut butter, 



22 



Pickles, . 

Proprietary foods. 

Rice, 

Salad dressing, 

Shrimp, . 

Soda water syrups. 

Spices, 

Syrup, 

Table sauce, . 

Tea, 

Vinegar, . 

Wine, 

Totals, 



1,351 



281 



18 

1 

2 

5 

18 

65 

32 

7 

14 

2 

23 

2 



1,632 



Drugs. 
One thousand three hundred and ninety-three samples of drugs were 
examined, of which 204 were adulterated. Only such drugs as deserve 
special comment will be discussed. 

Alcohol. 
Eighty-six samples were collected, of which 14 were below the stand- 
ard; 10 of these were approximately 70 per cent, and 1 each was approxi- 
mately 30, 40, 50 and 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Aspirin Tablets. 
Five samples of 5-grain aspirin tablets were obtained and examined. 
They were found to contain from 4.16 to 5 grains per tablet. The melt- 
ing point of the aspirin obtained was foujid to vary from 124.5° to 
129.5° C; the melting point of pure aspirin is 135. The low melting 
point obtained is due to a small amount of salicylic acid which is gen- 
erally present as a decomposition product in commercial aspirin. The 
samples were examined for acetanilid and other similar substances with 
negative results. 



408 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Denatured Alcohol. 
Four samples of denatured alcohol and 1 sample of wood alcohol were 
obtained, all of which were sold with the necessary poison label. 

Elixir of Potassium Bromide. 
Twenty samples were examined, 3 of which were below the National 
Formulary strength, containing, respectively, 71, 75 and 78 per cent, of 
the required amount of potassium bromide. 

Olive Oil. 
Twenty-eight samples were obtained from drag stores, all of which 
were pure olive oils. The value of the inspection work of the department 
can be seen by a study of the results of analyses of drug samples of 
olive oil during the past twelve years. In 1901, 27 per cent, of the total 
samples collected were adulterated; in 1902, 29 per cent.; in 1903, 31 
per cent.; in 1904, 29 per cent.; in 1905, 7 per cent.; in 1906, 13 per 
cent.; in 1907, 0.80 per cent.; in 1908, 3.2 per cent; 1909, 9.2 per cent.; 
and in 1910 to 1913, inclusive, all the samples were pure. 

Proprietary Drugs. 

Thirty-four samples were examined, 1 of which, a sample of Quinine- 
Wliiskey put up by the Quinine- Whiskey Company, Louisville, Ky., con- 
tained 30.01 per cent, alcohol by volume, without bearing the necessary 
label stating this fact. The proprietary medicines containing acetanilid, 
phenacetine and morphine were all correctly labeled. There are upon 
the market at present certain proprietary medicines containing strych- 
nine, over the sale of which the law has no control. A sample of olive 
tablets was found to contain strychnine, aloes and atropine. Some of 
these tablets are said to have killed a child in this State. Samples of 
Make-Man-Tablets were found to cont&,in strychnine, and no doubt other 
proprietary drugs could be obtained in which strychnine could be found. 
Samples of unusual combinations were submitted in broken packages. 
One was an Obesity Powder, for external use only. Directions: use % 
to 1 tcaspoonful with 3 volumes of water, and rub. This consisted 
largely of magnesium carbonate and perfume. Prolaxo tablets, made by 
the same person, contained magnesium carbonate, with a small amount 
of a bitter principal; no alkaloids or acetanilid, etc., were detected. 
Fermostop Tablets, made by the same person, were found to contain 
magnesium carbonate, and to be free from alkaloids, acetanilid, etc. 
A sample of catarrh powder, sold by a peddler in the city of Salem and 



No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 409 

submitted by the local board of health, was found to contain 48 per cent, 
cane sugar, 46 per cent, sodium bicarbonate and 6 per cent, of an herb 
resembling slippery elm bark. 

Quinine Pills. 
Thirty-six samples of 2-grain quinine pills were examined, 2 of which 
contained, respectively, 1.66 grains and 1.73 grains of quinine sulphate 
per pill; the balance contained about 2 grains per pill, according to the 
requirement of labels on the packages. 

Spirits. 
Seven hundred and forty-nine of the various forms of spirits were ex- 
amined, of which 129 were adulterated. The single samples of whiskey 
and bay rum were of the quality required by the Pharmacopoeia; all of 
the other varieties of spirits contained some adulterated samples. 

Precipitated Sulphur. 
Thirty-one samples were examined, 4 of which were adulterated, con- 
taining, respectively, 2, 12, 22 and 42 per cent, calcium sulphate. Cal- 
cium sulphate is present in these preparations as the result of improper 
manufacture. The Pharmacopoeia directs that the sulphur be dissolved 
in lime, precipitated with hydrochloric acid and washed until free from 
lime salts. Sulphuric acid is sometimes used as a precipitant, which 
causes the separation of a large amount of insoluble calcium sulphate. 
The only reason for using sulphuric acid is for the purpose of filling the 
product with calcium sulphate as an adulterant. 

Tinctures. 
Three hundred and seventy-six samples of tinctures were examined. 
53 of which were adulterated. ISTo adulteration was detected in the 
samples of tinctures of capsicum, digitalis and sweet tincture of rhubarb. 
The single sample of tincture of ginger examined was either diluted with 
alcohol, or insufficient ginger or partly exhausted ginger was used in 
its preparation. Of the 58 samples of tincture of vanilla examined, 6 
were the compound tincture of vanillin described in the National For- 
mulary. The following table shows the variation from the United States 
Pharmacopceial requirements of the various spirits and tinctures found 
adulterated : — 



410 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 







Number 


of Samples. 
















Per Cent, op U. S. P. Strength. 






Totals. 










1 














90 


80 


70 


60 


50 


40 


30 


20 


10 







Tinctures: — 
























Ferric chloride, 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


1 


Iodine, 


11 


10 


8 


4 


4 


2 


- 


1 


1 


- 


41 


Spirits: — 
























Anise 


- 


2 


6 


2 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


15 


Camphor, .... 


- 


5 


3 


6 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15 


Nitrous ether, 


- 


7 


10 


13 


10 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


46 


Gaultheria 


- 


2 


1 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


Lemon, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


4 


Peppermint 


1 


10 


7 


10 


3 


4 


2 




- 


6 


43 



Mercurial Ointment. 
The 2 samples reported adulterated were obtained from one dealer, 
and consisted of blue ointment below the required strength. 



Summary of Drv^ Statistics. 



Character of Sample. 


6 
a 

'B 

g 


■a 
1 


4 


Character of Sample. 


6 

_a 
'5 
a 

o 

a 


■6 
S 

< 


4 
s 


Alcohol 


72 


14 


86 


Potassii bitartras, . 


1 


- 


1 


Aqua hamamelidis, 


13 


- 


13 


Proprietary drugs, 


33 


1 


34 


Aqua hydrogenii dioxidi, 


3 


- 


3 


Pulvis effervescens compositus, 


1 


- 


1 


Aqua rosse 


1 


- 


1 


Quinine pills, .... 


34 


2 


36 


Aspirin tablets, 


5 


- 


5 


Sodii boras, .... 


4 


- 


4 


Calx chlorinata, 


1 


- 


1 


Sodii phosphas. 


2 


- 


2 


Cera flava 


3 


- 


3 


Spiritus aetheris nitrosi, . 


88 


46 


134 


Denatured alcohol, 


4 


- 


4 


Spiritus anisi, .... 


52 


15 


67 


Elixir potassii bromidi, . 


17 


3 


20 


Spiritus camphorae, 


180 


15 


195 


Gin, 


3 


- 


3 


Spiritus frumenti, . 


1 


- 


1 


Glycerinum, .... 


1 


- 


1 


Spiritus gaultherise. 


57 


6 


63 


Insecticide, 


1 


- 


1 


Spiritus limonis, 


5 


4 


9 


Oleum amygdalzeexpressum, . 


18 


- 


18 


Spiritus menthee piperita, 


236 


43 


279 


Oleum oliva 


28 


- 


28 


Spiritus myrcia;. 


1 


- 


1 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



411 



Summary of Driig Statistics — Concluded. 



Character op Sample. 


6 
a 
'B 
a 
o 
O 


■a 
1 


1 


Character of Sample. 


6 
a 
'3 
a 
o 
O 


3 

i 

"a 

T3 

< 


1 


Sulphur prsecipitatum, . 
Tinctura capsici, 
Tinctura digitalis, . 
Tinctura ferri chloridi, . 
Tinctura iodi, .... 


27 
6 
2 
4 
226 
1 


4 

1 

41 


31 
6 

2 

5 

267 

1 


Tinctura vanillffl, . 
Tinctura zingiberis, 
Unguentum hydrargyri, 
Unguentum zinci oxidi, . 

Wood alcohol 

Totals 


52 

4 

1 
1 


6 

1 
2 


58 
1 
6 
1 
1 


Tinctura rhei dulcis, 


1,189 


204 


1,393 



Inspection of Liquors. 
The police department of 16 cities and towns submitted 75 samples of 
liquors, of which 50 contained more than 1 per cent, and 25 less than 
1 per cent, of alcohol. The table below gives the number and character 
of the samples obtained from the different localities. The attendance of 
the assistant analysts has been required in the lower courts of Attle- 
borough, Barnstable, Lawrence, Lynn, Northampton and Quincy, and in 
the Superior Court of Hampshire County. 









Summ 


ar%j of Liquor 


Statistics. 




Locality. 


b 


i 






6 
a.S 

I— < 


i 
c8.a 

a 


Miscellaneous and Remarks. 


1 


Attleborough, 

Barnstable, 

Boston, . 

Danvers, 

Dedham, 

Foxborough, 

Lawrence, 

Lee, 

Lynnfield, 

Lvnn, 

Millis, . 

Quincy, . 

Revere, . 
Rockport, 
Royalston, 
Waltham, 




3 

1 

5 
1 

10 
2 


1 
1 

2 

23 

1 


1 

1 

1 

4 
2 


- 

1 


2 


1 

2 
3 


4 (2, unknown; 2, malt extract), 

3 (1, unknown; 1, preserved fruit; 
1, Jamaica ginger and cider). 


5 

4 
6 
1 
5 
3 
1 
1 
1 
16 
1 
3 

23 
2 

1 
2 


Totals, 


22 28 


9 


1 


2 


6 


7 - - 75 



412 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Examination of Poisons. 
One hundred and forty-one samples of poison were submitted during 
the year, 7 of which were declared legal and 131 illegal. One hundred 
and three of these samples were submitted by the Boston police, 31 by 
the Watch and Ward Society, 3 by the district police, and 1 each by the 
Plymouth and Cambridge police. Concord Eeformatory, and Pish and 
Game Commission. The sample submitted by the Pish and Game Com- 
mission consisted of a small ball of grease found in the woods, apparently 
for the purpose of killing wild animals; this sample contained strych- 
nine. The sample submitted by the police department of Plymouth con- 
sisted of a mixture of a powder with some oats and dirt in a bag; the 
powder was found to be arsenious oxide. A note accompanying the 
package stated that this powder 'was being used to poison horses. One 
sample obtained from the Boston police had the appearance of plant 
stems, etc., coarsely ground; morphine was found in this sample. Two 
of the samples submitted by the district police were wine and granu- 
lated sugar, of which both were found free from poison ; the other samples 
submitted by the district police consisted of celery on which was a green 
deposit ; this deposit was found to contain copper. The sample submitted 
by the Cambridge police was cocoa, all prepared for drinking, and was 
obtained from a man who suspected somebody was attempting to poison 
him; no poison was detected in the substance. A sample of milk was 
submitted by the Boston police department and was found to contain 13 
per cent, of commercial wood alcohol. This was said to have been pre- 
pared for a woman by her husband. He was tried in the court of East 
Boston and held for the grand jury. The grand jury reported no bill. 

Summary of Poison Statistics. 









>. 




a 






















































































s 




(D H 




■Hr^ 






s 

I 

1 
o 


1^ 
o 
so 

3 


o 

O 

a 
o 


1 


a 
-a 


o 

o 

s 


-a 
a 

t 


o 




n 


o 


O 


i5 


6h 


CL, 


^ 


H 


Morphine sulphate, 


30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


12 


42 


Morphine pills or tablets, .... 


7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


10 


Substance containing morphine, 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Heroin, 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Heroin tablets 


19 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


21 


Gum opium, 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


16 


Opium ash 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


Cocaine hydrochloride, .... 


25 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


30 


Proprietary medicines containing cocaine, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


3 


Alleged poisons 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


- 


8 


Blood 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Totals 


103 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


31 


141 



No. 34.] REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 413 

Examination of Articles in Cold Storage. 
Eighty-three samples of articles held in cold storage were submitted, 
to see whether or not they could be destroyed, of which 45 were reported 
decomposed and 38 not decomposed. The character of these samples is 
shown in the accompanying table. The methods used in the examination 
of these samples were the determination of ammonia by the Folin method 
and the determination of total nitrogen. The samples were first passed 
through a meat chopper and a 5-gram sample weighed into a cylinder. 
Water, sodium, carbonate solution and potassium oxalate solution, to- 
gether with a little oil, were added, and a current of ammonia free air 
was blown through the liquid, after which it was passed into a 100 cubic 
centimeter flask containing 2 cubic centimeters of tenth normal acid in 
50 cubic centimeters of water. The blast was discontinued after two 
hours, the contents of the flask were treated with 5 cubic centimeters of 
Nessler's solution, previously diluted with 25 cubic centimeters of water, 
and made up to the mark. The ammonia was then determined in this 
solution by comparison in a Dubosque colorimeter, with a standard am- 
monia solution treated in the same way with the Nessler solution. The 
total nitrogen was determined by the Gunning method, using a 1 to l^/o 
gram sample. The ammonia was calculated first as milligram to 100 
grams of sample, and second as per cent, of total nitrogen as ammonia. 
This latter figure is of course independent of all constituents except the 
nitrogen, and shows the relative deterioration of the protein substances. 
At present all samples containing less than 0.50 per cent, of the total 
nitrogen in the form of ammonia have been declared good. The average 
figure obtained from the samples declared good is about 0.35 per cent. 
The following table gives the summary of the examination of these 
samples, together with those examined in the course of the regular in- 
spection of foods : — 



414 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Summary of Analyses of Meat and Fish for Decomposition. 



Samples reported undecomposed. 
Canned fish: — • 

Highest, 

Lowest 

Average 

Chicken: — 

Highest, 

Lowest, 

Average 

Beef, moose and venison: — 

Highest 

Lowest, 

Average 

Samples reported decomposed. 
Canned fish: — 

Highest, 

Lowest 

Average, ....... 

Chicken: — 

Highest 

Lowest, 

Average, 

Poultry other than chicken: — 

Highest 

Lowest, 

Average 

Beef, moose and venison: — 

Highest, 

Lowest, 

Average, 



Ammonia 

Milligrams per 

100 Grams. 



8.5 
1.5 

4.7 

20.1 

7.3 

16.0 

16.8 
6.3 
11.0 

91.0 
18.3 
31.8 

25.3 
18.8 
22.1 

40.3 
17.2 
35.9 

63.4 
22.4 
42.7 



Nitrogen 
(Per Cent.). 



3.77 
2.99 
3.27 

4.86 
3.23 
4.26 

4.23 
2 77 
3.46 

4.11 
2.99 
3.53 

4.23 
3.11 
3.68 

4.48 
3.11 
3.61 

4.34 
3.63 
3.93 



_ Total 
Nitrogen as 
Ammonia 
(Per Cent.). 



0.26 
0.10 
0.14 

0.50 
0.26 
0.38 

0.50 
0.23 
0.33 





2.60 




0.56 




0.90 




0.52 




0.69 




0.60 




1,29 




0.51 




0.72 




1.66 




52 




1.09 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



415 



Summary of Cold-storage Statistics. 



Character of 
Sample. 


■ i 

o 

o 


a 

a 

• Q 


"3 
1 


Character of 
Sample. 


"a 

8 
o 


£ 
o 

Q 




Beef, . 
Broilers, 
Butter, . 
Chickens, . 
Ducks, . 
Eggs, 
Fowl, . 
Goose, . 
Heart, . 






1 
1 
1 

14 

1 
1 

1 


2 

11 
2 
15 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
3 
1 

25 
2 

16 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


Mutton chops 
Pigeons, 
Plover, . 
Pollock, . 
Sand peep. 
Squab, . 
Squid, . 
Turkeys, 
Venison, 
Totals, 






3 
4 

1 

2 

1 
1 
2 
4 


2 

1 

3 

1 
4 


3 
4 
2 

2 
2 
4 
1 

8 


Kidney, 
Liver, 


38 


45 


83 



General Summary. 



Legal. 



Illegal. 



Totals. 



Milk, 

Foods exclusive of milk, 

Drugs, 

Totals, 
Cold storage, . 
Poisons, . 
Liquor, 

Totals, 



5,020 
1,351 
1,189 



7,655 



1,682 

281 
204 



2,371 



6,702 
1,632 
1,393 



7,560 


2,167 


9,727 


38 


45 


83 


7 


134 


141 


50 


25 


75 



10,026 



Respectfully submitted, 

HERMANN C. LYTHGOE. 



REPORT UPON AN ACT 



RELATIVE TO THE 



Cold Stoeage of Certain Food Peoducts. 



1417] 



Eeport on the Business of Cold Storage. 



The subject of the preservation of articles of food for future use, 
through the medium of refrigeration or cold storage, has been one to 
which we have given particular attention during the past year. One 
inspector has been stationed at the cold-storage warehouses every day, 
with instructions to note the effect of refrigeration on all articles of 
food. This necessitated a close physical examination of the goods when 
placed in cold storage and a chemical analysis of the same articles of 
food when taken out of storage within the statutory period of twelve 
calendar months. As a result of many such examinations we feel quite 
satisfied that only shght changes take place in their condition during 
storage, provided proper refrigeration has been maintained. 

I am aware there is a more or less prevalent idea in the mind of the 
public that cold storage is for the purpose of providing a place to re- 
store articles that, for some reason, have become unfit for food to a 
condition whereby they may be made edible, but our observations have 
convinced us that this idea is erroneous. We find that articles of food 
in the verj' best condition do not come out in exactly the same condition 
in which they were when placed in storage; that there is always a change 
from the original condition due to age, if nothing else. We also find 
that articles of food which, for some reason, have become decomposed, 
tainted, soiled, or otherwise unfit for food, when placed in storage will 
be even more unfit for food when taken out. Cold storage is not in- 
tended to redeem articles unfit for food but is for the purpose of pre- 
serving them as near as possible to their original condition when placed 
in storage. It is therefore obvious that the effect has been to make cold 
storage an indispensable factor in the present system of storing, pre- 
serving and distribiiting the food supply of the country. 

It is established that cold storage is a practical means of successfully 
conveying perishable food products to the consumer without harmful 
exposure to heat or anything that might cause their deterioration, making 
it possible for articles of food to be delivered to the consumer in a whole- 
some condition. 

The leading commodities subject to cold storage are perishable food- 
stuffs of seasonable production, including such articles as fresh meats, 
fresh meat product^., fresh food fish, poultr}^, eggs and butter. 



420 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It is well known that the production of these commodities is confined 
to certain seasons of the year; for example, the heavy-producing season 
for eggs is in the months of April, May and June, whereas, the season 
for the heavy production of butter is in June, July and August. The 
season for poultry is not so confined as it is for eggs, and the same can, 
be said of fish, although certain, fish are caught in the largest volume 
during certain periods, sometimes within two weeks and often extending 
over two months. Were it not for cold storage, a large quantity of these 
articles would become so altered that they would be unfit for food and 
would, consequently, have to be destroyed, thereby causing an unneces- 
sary destruction of good food, adding to the high cost of living. It is 
at this point that cold storage enters to save and distribute the output of 
these perishable foodstuffs by carrying the surplus of the fresh season 
over to meet the shortage of the later season. 

The above is the function cold storage plays in the proper preserva- 
tion of articles of food, and our observations have shown us that such 
a position is being met in a practical way through refrigeration or cold 
storage. 

On the other hand, there is the possibility of cold storage being used 
by speculators for the purpose of buying large quantities of food in the 
flush of the season, depositing them in cold storage until such time as 
a shortage in such commodities occurs, and then placing them on the 
market when large profits can be realized. When this occurs, it is an 
abuse of cold storage, and should not be used to discount the practical 
good effect of cold storage in the preservation of foodstuffs. 

Notwithstanding the above commercial advantages from a speculative 
point of view, the fact remains that cold storage is a practical and neces- 
sary method of preserving articles of food for future use. 

During the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1913, the inspectors of cold 
storage under this Board visited every cold-storage plant within the 
Commonwealth a number of times. Most of the places are kept in 
good sanitary condition and appear to be well-conducted, and the pro- 
prietors and managers all show a disposition to cooperate with this 
Board in the enforcement of the law governing the business of cold 
storage. 

During the year it became necessary to condemn and destroy a large 
amount of articles intended for food on account of decomposition, taint, 
decay and being soiled; also, accidents to the refrigerating machinery. 
These were condemned on physical examination or chemical analysis, 
and were disposed of by rendering, incinerating, burial, or loaded with 
garbage and taken to sea. 



No. 34.] COLD STORAGE. 421 

At the beginning of the year, Dec. 1, 1912, there were thirty-seven 
licensed cold-storage warehouse plants, while forty-seven were licensed 
Nov. 30, 1913. 

It was also found necessary to prosecute some of the depositors of 
goods in cold storage for retaining such articles in cold storage over 
twelve calendar months; also, for removing goods that had been in cold 
storage over twelve calendar months, without permission from this Board. 

Nineteen requests for an extension of time on goods in cold storage 
over twelve calendar months were made and granted by the Board for 
the reasons given on each request, as will be seen in the following table : — 



422 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 





o 


O 


o 


o 


CD 


© 


(B 


(D o 


© 


O 












,^j 
















bO 


be bl 








bC bO 




















o3 


C3 


cj 


C3 C3 




















































o 


^ 


o 


i^ 


^ 


^ 


i^ 


o 


o o 


i^ 


S 


S 


2 2 


2 


2 







-Hi 

o d 


CO 


X 


m 


TO 


m 


OJ 


02 


m m 


03 


00 






m 




03 m 


T3 


boS 


bhS 


th2 


tn2 


.r2 


bn2 


biS bbS 


bh2 


m2 


h-nS 


M:Sbb:s 


^r2 


hn2 


bi2 bi)3 


ti .. 


o 


a o 


a o 


c o 


a o 


a o 


a o 


a o a o 


a o 


a o 


a o 


a o a o 


a o 


a o 


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No. 34.] 



COLD STORAGE. 



423 



During the month of N'ovember, 1933, the following convictions were 
secured because goods were held in cold storage longer than twelve 
calendar months, without the consent of the State Board of Health : — 



Name of Dependant. 


Place. 


Result. 


Thomas Soracco 

Edwin E. Winkley, 


Boston 

Lynn, 


Fined $10. 
Case filed. 



Also, on account of secreting goods in a cold-storage warehouse to pre- 
vent inspection : — 



Name of Defendant. 


Place. 


Result. 


Charles E. Barrett 


Lynn, 


Case filed. 



Annual Report of Goods placed in Cold Storage for the Year 1913. 



Article. 



Cases. 



Dozens. Packages. Pounds 



Eggs, case 

Eggs, broken, 

Butter, 

Poultry, 

Game, 

Meat, fresh 

Meat products, fresh (except in process 

of manufacture). 
Fish, fresh food, 



796,029 

23 

13 

1,287 

23 

1,5453 

1005 

1,011 



23,880,870 
13 

i2\H 



1,259 

506,7831 

39,990 

2,0272 
44,70H 

9,640 
10,3056 



Totals, 



800,031 



23,881,317TA: 



614,705 



' Includes 36,085 tubs and 544 boxes. 

' Includes 13 boxes and 14 crates. 

' Includes 1,021 boxes and 129 barrels. 



1,020,403 
28,271,831^ 

9,765,709 

33,1501^ 
12,010,842 

2,198,229H 
17,818,558 



71, 118,723 J^ 



* Includes 1 barrel. 

' Reported as boxes. 

' Includes 6,314 barrels and S gallons. 



Annual Report of Goods held in Cold Storage. 



Article. 



Eggs, case. 
Eggs, broken. 
Butter, . 

Totals, . 



Cases. 



1,427,660H 
127 
960 



1,428,747>^ 



Dozens. 



42,826,045 
341 

47,900 



42,874,286 



Packages. 



1,348K 
461,340' 



462,6881^ 



' Includes 74 tubs. 



2 Includes 204 pounds print butter. 



Pounds. 



53,489 
47,229,395)^2 



47,282,884Ji 



424 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examinations of Cold Storage Goods made by the State Board of Health. 



Articles. 



Number 

found to be 

of Good 

Quality. 



Number 

found to be 

Unfit for 

Food. 



Total 

Number of 

Samples 

examined. 



Beef, . 
Br