(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "First -[eleventh, eighteenth-forty-sixth] annual report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts"



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




University Library 



,.j,»j..j..j..j..j.^. 



Public Document No. 34 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



State Department of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 

1916. 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



^00 



CONTENTS 



and 



to amend the Public Health 



Laboratories 



Report of the Public Health Council 
Report of the Commissioner of Health 

Act to create a State Department of Health, 

Laws ..... 
Division of Administration . 

Division of Sanitary Engineering and Water and Sewage 
Division of Food and Drugs 
Division of Communicable Diseases 
Di^'^sion of Biologic Laboratories . 
Division of Hygiene .... 
State Examiners of Plumbers 

Milk 

Legislative Recommendations 
Appropriations ..... 

Expenditures . . . . j 

Supplement ...... 

Water Supply and Sewerage 

Water Supplies .... 

Incorporated Districts for Supply of Water 

Private Water Supplies 

Rainfall and Stream Flow in 1915 

Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplie 

Supervision of Water Companies 

Examination of Sewer Outlets . 

Sewage-disposal Systems . 

Insanitary Conditions due to Lack of Sewerage 

Pollution of Rivers .... 

Advice to Cities, Towns and Persons . 
Water Supply .... 

Ice Supplies .... 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal 
Pollution of Streams, etc. 
Examination of Public Water Supplies 
Examination of Rivers 

Water Supply Statistics, Records of Rainfall and 
Methods of Sewage Disposal 
Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories 

Report of Laboratories and Experiment Station 
Experiments upon Purification of Sewage 
Experiments upon Purification of Water 
Report of Division of Food and Drugs . 
Inspection of Slaughtering 
Dairy Inspection ..... 

Chemical Examinations made in Laboratory 
Prosecutions ...... 

Confiscations ...... 

Requests for Extension of Time on Food Products 

Quarterly Report of Articles in Cold Storage 

Nominations of Inspectors of Slaughtering by Local Boards of Health 



Flow 



of Streams 



in Cold-storage Warehouses 



PAGE 

1 



3 
7 
11 
13 
15 
21 
22 
27 
27 
28 
28 
29 
35 
39 
39 
42 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
52 
54 
55 
64 
64,67 
66, 150 
158 
230 
254 
263 
293 
334 
369 
371 
377 
419 
431 
437 
438 
442 
450 
451 
451 
452 
453 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIEar 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Supplement — Concluded. 

Report of Division of Food and Drugs — Concluded 
Reports of Inspectors of Slaughtering 
List of Prosecutions ...... 

Appendix ....... 

Division of Communicable Diseases 

Establishment of Division .... 

Scope of Work ...... 

Subdivision of Epidemiology .... 

Diagnostic Laboratory ..... 

Work of State District Health Officers 
Miscellaneous and Special Work by Division's Personnel 
New Lines of Work recommended 
Report of Epidemiologist ..... 

Scope of Work ...... 

Epidemiological Problems in Massachusetts 
Communicable Disease Statistics 
General Review of Vital Statistics of State, 1915 
Report of Bacteriologist ..... 

Examinations of Cultures for Diphtheria 

Examinations for Tuberculosis 

Examinations for Malaria .... 

Examinations for Typhoid Fever 
Report of State District Health Officers 

District Health Officers ..... 

Work with Local Boards of Health 

Diseases Dangerous to Public Health 

Infant Mortality ...... 

Educational Work ...... 

Hygiene ........ 

Nuisances ....... 

Police Stations, Lockups, Houses of Detention, Jails, Prisons, Houses of Cor- 
rection, Reformatories, etc 
Water Supply and Sewerage 
Clerical Work . 
Travel .... 

Suggestions 
Division of Biologic Laboratories 
Orgam"zation . 
Diphtheria Antitoxin 
Schick Reaction 
Antimeningitis Serum 
Typhoid Prophylactic 
Vaccine Virus . 
Wassermann Test 
Recommendations 
Report of Wassermann Laboratory 
Summary of Antitoxin Work at Antitoxin and Vaccine 
Report of Division of Hygiene 
Infant Mortality 
Lecture Service 
Exhibits . 
Health Weeks . 
School Hygiene 
Pubhcations 
Report of Board of State Examiners of Plumbers 
Index ........ 



Laboratory 



PAGE 

453 

456 

517 

535 

540 

542 

543 

554 

564 

574 

590 

592 

598 

600 

633 

633 

654 

660, 

667 

671 

672 

677 

677 

681 

681 

737 

740 

740 

741 

742 
743 
746 
746 
747 
749 
751 
751 
752 
752 
753 
753 
754 
756 
768 
769 
785 
787 
788 
790 
791 
791 
791 
793 
799 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT . 



State Department of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



For the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1915, the State Department of 
Health was constituted as follows: — 

Commissioner of Health, All.\x J. McLaughlin, M.D. 

Public Health Council. 

Allan J. McLaughlin, M.D., Chairman. 

David L. Edsall, M.D. George C. Whipple, S.B. 

Joseph E. Lamoureltx, M.D. Wm. J. Gallh-an, M.D. 

Wm. T. Sedgwick, Ph.D. John T. Wheel-vntiight. 

REPORT OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH COUNCIL. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 792 of the Acts of 1914, 
Governor Walsh made the following appointments to the Public 
Health Council on Dec. 12, 1914: — 

Chairman. — The Commissioner of Health is a member of the Pubhc Health 
Council, as provided by section 3 of the above-named chapter, and at its 
first meeting, on Dec. 12, 1914, the Council voted that Dr. Allan J. Mc- 
Laughlm, appointed as Commissioner of Health by Governor Walsh, be 
also made chairman of the Public Health Council. Dr. McLaughlin bears 
the rank of surgeon of the United States Pubhc Health Service, and, at the 
request of the Governor, was granted a leave of absence from the service by 
the United States government in order that he might take up the duties of 
Commissioner of Heafth. 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1918. — David L. Edsall, M.D., Cliief, East 
MecUcal Service, Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Edsall's first term 
expired May 1, 1915, at wliich time he was reappointed for a period of 
three j^ears. 



2 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1918. — J. E, Lamoureux, M.D. Dr. Lam- 
oureux's first term expired May 1, 1915, at which time he was reappointed 
for a period of three years. 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1917. — Wm. T. Sedgwick, Ph.D., Professor of 
Biology and PubUc Health, Institute of Technolog5% 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1917. — George C. Wliipple, S.B., Professor of 
Sanitary Engineering, Harvard University. 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1916. — Wm. J. Gallivan, M.D. 

Member, Term to expire May 1, 1916. — John T. Wheelwright, LL.B. Mr. 
Wheelwright was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Dr. M. J. Rosenau, 
who was appointed to the Council on Dec. 12, 1914, but who resigned Jan. 
27, 1915, in order to accept the position of director and pathologist of the 
Division of Biologic Laboratories of this Department. 

From the time of the appointment of the Public Health Council to 
the end of the fiscal year, Nov. 30, 1915, twenty-seven formal meet- 
ings were held, and in addition numerous committee meetings. The 
slate of standing committees of the Council is as follows: — 

Sanitary Engineering {including Housing and Rural Hygiene). — Professors 
Whipple and Sedgwick, Dr. McLaughlin and Mr. Wheelwright. 

Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. — Drs. Edsall, Gallivan, McLauglilin and 
Lamoureux. 

Foods and Drugs. — Professor Sedg\\dck, Drs. Gallivan and Lamoureux, and 
Mr. WheelwTight. 

Finance, Law and Demography. — Dr. McLaughhn, Professor Whipple, Dr. 
Gallivan and Mr. Wheelwright. 

In accordance with section 2, chapter 792 of the Acts of 1914, at 
a meeting of the Public Health Council on Jan. 11, 1916, the Com- 
missioner of Health submitted to the Council a report of the work of 
the Department for the fiscal year 1915, together with recommenda- 
tions for legislation, and it was voted that this report be approved 
and adopted as the report of the State Department of Health for the 
fiscal year 1915. 

REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH. 

In accordance with chapter 792 of the Acts of 1914, which follows, 
the undersigned was appointed by the Governor as Commissioner of 
Health and began his duties as such Nov. 2, 1914. This act provides 
for the abolition of the State Board of Health and the substitution 
therefor of a State Department of Health. 



No. 34.1 ANNUAL REPORT. 



Acts of 1914, Chapter 792. 

An Act to create a State Department of Health and to amend the 

Public Health Laws. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. There is herebj' created a State Department of Health which 
shall exercise all the powers and perform the duties now conferred and imposed 
by law upon the state board of health. The state department of health shall 
consist of a commissioner of health and a public health council. There shall 
also be directors of divisions, district health officers and other emploj'ees as here- 
inafter pro^dded. 

Section 2. The commissioner of health shall be appointed by the governor, 
with the advice and consent of the council, and he shall be a physician skilled in 
sanitary science and experienced in pubUc health admmistration. The term of 
office of the commissioner of health shall be five years. He shall receive an 
annual salary of seventj-'-five hundred dollars and shall devote his entire time to 
his ofiicial duties. The commissioner of health shall be the administrative head 
of the state department of health. His powers and duties shall be to administer 
the laws relative to health and sanitation and the regulations of the department; 
to prepare rules and regulations for the consideration of the pubHc health council; 
and, A\ith the approval of the public health council, to appoint and remove 
directors of divisions, district health officers, inspectors and other necessary 
employees, and to fix their compensation, subject to the approval of the governor 
and council, within the limitations of appropriations therefor. Directors of 
diA-isions and district health officers shall be exempt from ciWl service regulations. 
The commissioner of health shall submit annually to the public health council a 
report containing reconunendations in regard to health legislation; and he shall 
perform all executive duties now required by law of the state board of health and 
such other duties as are incident to his position as chief executive officer. He 
may direct any executive ofiicer or employee of the state department of health 
to assist in the study, suppression or prevention of disease in any part of the 
commonwealth. 

Section 3. The pubhc health council shall consist of the commissioner of 
health and six members, hereinafter called the appointive members, at least 
three of whom shall be physicians, and who shall be appomted by the governor, 
with the ad\-ice and consent of the council. Of the members first appointed, two 
shall hold ofiice until the fii'st day of May, in the year nineteen hundred and 
fifteen, two until the first day of May, in the year nineteen hundred and sixteen, 
and two until the first day of May, in the year nineteen hundred and seventeen, 
and the terms of office of the said members thereafter appointed, except to fill 
vacancies, shall be three years. Vacancies shall be fiUed by appointment of the 
governor, with the ad\dce and consent of the council, for the unexpired term. 
The pubhc health council shall meet at least once in each month, and at such 
other times as they shall determine by their rules, or upon the request of any 
four members, or upon request of the commissioner of health. The appointive 



4 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

members shall receive ten dollars a day while in conference, and their necessary- 
travelling expenses while in the performance of their official duties. It shall be 
the duty of the pubUe health council to make and promulgate rules and regula- 
tions; to take evidence in appeals; to consider plans and appointments required 
by law; to hold hearings; to §ubmit annually to the general court, through the 
governor, a report, including recommendations as to needed health legislation; 
and to discharge other duties required by law; but it shall have no administrative 
or executive functions. 

Section 4. There shall be in the state department of health such divisions 
as the commissioner of health may, with the approval of the public health council, 
from time to time determine. The commissioner of health shall appoint and 
may remove, with the approval of the pubhc health council, a director to take 
charge of each division, and shall prescribe the duties of such division. The 
compensation of directors of divisions shall be fixed by the commissioner of 
health, within the limits of appropriations therefor, and subject to the approval 
of the governor and council. 

Section 5. The commissioner of health, with the approval of the public 
health council shall, from time to time, divide the state into eight health districts 
and shall appoint and may remove a district health officer for each district, with 
the approval of the public health council, at a compensation, subject to the ap- 
proval of the governor and council, not exceeding thirty-five hundred dollars a 
year. The district health officers shall not engage in any other occupation and 
shall give their entire time to the performance of their duties. The commissioner 
of health may, from time to time, order two or more of said district health officers 
to work in one district in order to study, suppress or prevent disease. Each 
district health officer shall have all the powers and perform the duties now pro- 
vided by law for inspectors of health and further shall, under the direction of the 
commissioner of health, perform such duties as may be prescribed by, and shall 
act as the representative of the commissioner of health and under his directors 
shall secure the enforcement within his district of the public health laws and 
regulations. Said district health officers shall be graduates of an incorporated 
medical school admitted to practice in the commonwealth, or shall have had at 
least five years' experience in public health duties and sanitary science. 

Section 6. For carrying out the purposes of this act there shall be appro- 
priated for the purposes of the state department of health, over and above the 
amount already appropriated for the state board of health for the year nineteen 
hundred and fourteen, the sum of ten thousand dollars. 

Section 7. Present employees shall be continued in office until their suc- 
cessors are appointed and quahfied, or until removed by the commissioner: 'pro- 
vided, however, that no employee shall be removed who was appointed, or is now 
emploj^ed, under the provisions of the civil service laws and regulations, other 
than for cause, except division heads and district health officers who shall be 
appointed as hereinbefore provided. 

Section 8. Sections one, two and three of chapter seventy-five of the 
Revised Laws and all other acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are hereby 
repealed. [Approved July 7, 1914- 



ORGANIZATION OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH - JULY 7, 1914 



UNPAID BOARD OF 
SEVEN MEMBERS 



ENGINEERING DIVISION 



WATER AND SEWAGE LABS. 



Chief Engineer 
Asst. Engineers 
Rodnnen 
Draftsman 


1 

11 
4 

1 


Clerical 


6 


Messen3er 


1 



f 


■ 


Chief Chemist 


1 


Asst. Chemists 


8 


Laboratory Asst. 


1 


Clerical 


2 


LAWRENCE EXPT.STA. | 


Asst. Chemists 


2 


Bacteriologist 


1 


Laborator^^ Asst. 


1 


Filter Attendants 


2 


Laborer 


1 


Clerical 


1 




) 



D 



PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORY 



SECRETARY 



lAIRY, COLO STORAGE AND 
1EAT SLAUGHTERING INSPT . 

Supervising Insptr I 
Veterinary Inspectors 2 
Cold Storage Insptrs. 3 
Clerical 3 

Messenger 1 



FOOD &, DRUG 



(Antitoxin and Vaccine) 

Director* j 

Acting Director I 

Expert Assistant I 

Laboratory Assts. 5 

Other Assistants 2 

Janitor I 
Part time* 



INSPECTION 



generalIoffice 



1 



FOOD e. drug' LABORATORV diagnostic^ LABORATORY 



FoodCDrug Insptrs. 4 



Special Investigator I 
Clerical 5 

Messengers 2 



ASST. TO THE 
SECRETARY 



DC 



Analyst 
Asst. Analysts 
Clerical 



Bacteriologist I 

Laboratory Assts. 2 
Clerical I 



State Insptraof Health II 
Nurse I 

Clerical 4 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 5 

The State Board of Health which was thus abolished was organized 
as follows: — 

An unpaid Board of seven members who possessed all executive and adminis- 
trative authority. 

A secretary, wdth no administrative or executive authority, except as delegated 
to him by the Board, but who presumably carried out the orders of the Board. 

An assistant to the secretary whose activities seem to have been ill-defined 
and not in accordance with his title, but who seemed to be in charge of eleven 
part-time medical inspectors of health. 

An engineer, and what was in effect an engineering division under his charge. 

A pathologist in charge of a laboratory producing the diphtheria antitoxin 
and vaccine, at Forest Hills. 

An analyst of food and drugs in charge of a laboratory for examination of 
samples of food and drugs at Room 501, State House. 

A chemist in charge of the sewage experiment station at La\\Tence and of the 
water and sewage laboratory, Room 502, State House. 

A supervising inspector in charge of dairy, slaughtering and cold-storage in- 
spection, with an office and clerical force at 1 Beacon Street, and five inspectors. 

Four food and drug inspectors, under the general control of the secretary. 

A bacteriological laboratory for diagnostic purposes, with a bacteriologist in 
charge. 

A general office with the secretary in charge and a clerical force for files, 
records, financial details and miscellaneous activities which did not come under 
any of the units mentioned above. 

The organization is shown graphically by Diagram No. 1. 

The law provided for a Commissioner of Health who "shall be the 
administrative head of the department." It was further provided 
that the Commissioner of Health "shall perform all executive duties 
formerly required by law of the state board of health and such other 
duties as are incident to his position as chief executive officer." The 
framers of the law, in other words, desired to make responsible one 
full-time official " skilled in sanitary science and experienced in public 
health administration" instead of an unpaid part-time Board of seven 
members. 

The intent of the law is further shown in section 4, which provides 
that "there shall be in the state department of health such divisions 
as the commissioner of health may, with the approval of the public 
health council, from time to time determine." This was intended 
obviously to place proper responsible heads in charge of clearly 
defined divisions in which should be grouped the various scattered 
units formerly operating independent of any executive control except 
such as could be exercised by the former unpaid part-time Board. 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



To meet the needs of the Department in its reorganization into 
divisions, the writer made the following suggestions which were ap- 
proved by the Public Health Council: ^ — 



Division op — 



Director. 



Salary. 



Administration, . . . . 
Communicable Diseases, 

Hygiene, 

Food and Drugs, 
Sanitary Engineering, . 
Water and Sewage Laboratories, 
Biologic Laboratories, . 



E. R. Kelley, M.D., 
S. M. Gunn, . 



H. C. Lythgoe, 
X. H. Goodnough, 
H. W. Clark, . 
M. J. Rosenau, M.D. 



$4,000 00 
1,500 002 
3,000 00 
5,000 00 
4,000 00 
1,500 00 2 



Because of the wise provision of section 4, chapter 792, quoted on 
the previous page, it was possible to create the divisions most sorely 
needed first, leaving for future development other public health activi- 
ties which ultimately must become divisions. For instance, in the 
Division of Hygiene, the work of infant mortality and medical in- 
spection of school children is carried for the present, but undoubtedly 
the time will come when a Division of Child Welfare will be formed 
from these units. 

There is also a possibility of improvement in the consolidation of 
some of the existing divisions when the time is ripe, especially the 
laboratory divisions. At present there are six laboratory units as 
given in the following table: — 



Laboratory. 



Location. 



Water and Sewage Laboratory, 
Lawrence Experiment Station, 
Diagnostic Laboratory, 
Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory, 
Wassermann Laboratory, . 
Food and Drug Laboratory, 



State House. 

Lawrence. 

State House. 

Forest Hills. 

Harvard Medical School . 

State House. 



Two possibilities for consolidation are worthy of consideration. 
First, to combine all laboratory units in one Division of Laboratories, 
and second, to divide the laboratory activities into two classes: 



1 See Diagram No. 2. 



Part time. 



ORGANIZATION OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH —NOV. 30.1915. 



PUBLIC HEALTH COUNCIL 




Directort,Chief Engr. I 
Asst Engineers 12 
Draftsman 1 

Clerical 5 

Messenger I 

ACTIVITIES 
Advice to Cities CTowns 
in regard to water and 
sewage problems 
Field surveys and inves- 
tigations necessitated 
tt7ereby. Special Engineer- 
ing projects imposed 
by the General Court. 



Director t,Chf.Ct?emist 1 


Asst Ctie mists 5 


Biologist 1 


Laboratory Asst. 1 


Clerical 2 


LAWRENCE EXPT STA. 


Asst. Ctiemist 1 


Bacteriologist 1 


Laboratory Asst 1 


FilterAttendant 1 


Laborer 1 


ACTIVITIES 


Investigation of water. 


sewage and trade 


waste problems. 



DirectorandAnalyst I 
Assistant Analysts 4 
Food £. Drug Inspectors 4 
Veterinary ■■ ■■ 3 

Cold Storage ■■ •• 2 
Clerical 3 

Messenger I 

ACTIVITIES 
Examination of milk.food 
£,drugs. Dairy Inspectn. 
Cold Storage Inspection. 
Slaughtering ■■ 
Food Economics. 
Drug Addictions. 
Patent Medicine Frauds. 



Clerical 
Messengers 



ACTIVITIES 

Correspondence. 
Financial. 
Statistical. 
Records. 



Director I 

Epidemiologist I 

Dist Healtti Officers 8 

Bacteriologist 1 

Asst Bacteriologist I 

Laboratory Assts 2 

Clerical 6 

ACTIVITIES 

Prevention of all 
Communicable Dis- 
eases. 



Director* I 

Asst to Director* I 

Health Instructor I 

Field Supervisor I 

Clerical 2 

ACTIVITIES 

Infant tvlortality 
Child Hygiene. 
Industrial Hygiene. 
Rural Hygiene. 
Health Instruction. 



Part time* 



BIOLOGIC LABORATORIES 



Director* I 

Asst. Directors 2 

Expert Asst I 

Laboratory Assts. 5 
Other Assts 3 

Technician I 

Clerical I 

Janitor I 

ACTIVITIES 
Manf &. Distribution of 
Diphtheria Antitoxin 
Smallpox CTyphoid vac- 
cines. Antimeningitis 
serum. Wassermann 
tests for Syptiilis. 
Part time * 



di 



At 
Cc 

H: 

Fo 
Sa 

W£ 

Bii 



th 
m 

ti< 
D 

sp 
th 
fr. 

so 
la 
gi 



Wa 
La 
Di, 
An 
Wa 
Fo 



Fi 
ar 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 7 

water and sewage laboratories (to be a subdivision of the Sanitary 
Engineering Division), and all other laboratories, with the exception 
of the Food and Drug Laboratory, to form a subdivision of the 
Division of Communicable Diseases. The whole question of laboratory 
readjustment has been referred to a special committee of the Public 
Health Council, and a solution of the laboratory problem may be 
expected within the next fiscal year. 

Division of Administration. 

Upon my arrival here I found that the first and most imperative 
need was to relieve the general office of the chaotic mixture of all 
sorts of public health activities with which it was struggling, and to 
establish a Division of Administration whose scope would be limited 
to the details of records and accounts. 

In most departments, the Division of Administration or what cor- 
responds to that division is in charge of a chief clerk, or, as in New 
York, there is in addition to the Commissioner of Health a deputy 
commissioner and a secretary to the Department under whom the 
administrative clerical work is presumably done. Li my opinion there 
is no need, "in Massachusetts, of either a deputy commissioner, a high- 
salaried secretary to the Council or a chief clerk. By apportioning 
the duties and responsibilities of correspondence, accounting, pur- 
chasing, care of property and filing among competent female clerks, 
it is possible for the Commissioner to supervise the work of records 
and accounts by giving a short time each day to this work. 

I believe that there is a double advantage in this system. The 
salary of at least two high-priced men is saved, and the Commissioner 
himself obtains a better grasp of financial details and a closer, more 
direct control of expenditures. The latter advantage more than com- 
pensates for the short time given each day to the work, and for the 
present at least, I do not consider there is any need for additional 
direction in the Division of Administration. A female clerk, who is 
an expert stenographer, is acting as secretary to the Council in a very 
efficient manner at a salary of $1,080 per year, whereas a male secre- 
tary to the Council would demand at least $2,000 per year and 
probably require stenographic and typing assistance as well. 

In order properly to safeguard public property and to secure eco- 
nomical purchasing, it was necessary to initiate certain well-known 
forms, which for some reason were not being employed. 

Experience has taught that in an efficient department central buying 
is a necessity. It is a very careless procedure to permit individuals 
or officials to buy direct, letting the bills come into the central office 



8 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

as they may. This encourages extravagance, is likely to produce defi- 
cits in appropriations, and the executive officer who permits such loose 
methods cannot know what obligations are outstanding. The prac- 
tice of indirect buying which was in use has been stopped, and I 
have instituted a system which corrects this defect. The plan is as 
follows : — 

A director of a division who requires material of any sort makes 
out his requisition on the central office, retaining a copy. From this 
request the central office makes a purchase order on the merchant, 
person or firm furnishing the supplies, a copy being retained in the 
central office and a copy being sent back to the director of the division 
who made the requisition. This copy of the purchase order is checked 
by the director of the division as to quantity and condition, and upon 
this checked order the bill is paid. 

Property Return. 

In every well-regulated business, all property is in the custody of 
some responsible individual who must make an inventory or property 
return of all property at least once each year. All property purchased, 
when turned over to division chiefs, should be charged to them and 
their receipt taken therefor. 

The lack of a property return was probably due to the lack of cen- 
tral buying. I caused an inventory to be made of State property in 
the various divisions, and hereafter once each year a property return 
will be made by each director for his division. Property turned over 
to directors of divisions is now charged to their property return and 
they must certify to the existence or disposition of such property once 
each year. 

An effort was made to cut off useless expenditures, and a notable 
saving in money expended for medical journals, books and binding was 
effected. It is not good policy for a health department to attempt to 
compete with large libraries. Complete files of all foreign medical 
journals may be obtained from the excellent libraries in Boston. It 
is therefore unnecessary for the Department to subscribe for these 
expensive publications, and unjustifiable to spend money for binding 
an incomplete file of such journals, when the use of the complete files 
can be readily obtained without cost to the Department. 

Many other minor changes in office administration were made to 
facilitate the distribution and action upon routine mail, and for the 
simplification of the filing system. 

The central buying system is in satisfactory operation, but much 
remains to be done in order to secure greater economy in buying sup- 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 9 

plies. I see no reason why supplies which aggregate hundreds and in 
some instances several thousand dollars' worth should not be bought on 
contract. Therefore, I have given orders to secure competitive bids, 
with a view to securing contracts for such supplies. 

I believe that money appropriated for a specific purpose should not 
be employed for any other purpose, and conversely I do not believe 
that money appropriated for the general expenses should be used for 
any work which has its own special appropriation. There should be 
a penalty, in my opinion, upon any director of a division who incurs 
a deficit. Estimates should be made with sufficient accuracy so as to 
cover the ordinary average work of the year. There should be an 
emergency or contingent fund to be drawn upon only for emergency 
or exigency which could not have been foreseen, as large epidemics or 
other unusual occurrences. 

How Money should he spent. 
How much money should be spent by a State Department of Health 
in its work of preventing disease among and maintaining the health of 
the people? Surgeon Carroll Fox, United States Public Health 
Service, has had exceptional experience in the study of health depart- 
ments. He has stated that not less than 2 per cent, of the States' 
annual appropriations should be allotted to the health departments. 
In Massachusetts this would mean that the appropriation for the State 
Department of Health should be at least S3G0,000, or about 10 cents 
per capita annually. Appropriations for the Department in round 
figures since 1910 have been made as follows: — 



Year. 



Amount. 



1910 

1911, .... 

1912, .... 

1913, .... 
1914, 

1915, .... 
1916 (amount requested), 



$160,000 00 
176,000 00 
187,000 00 
198,000 00 
195,000 00 
209,000 00 
220,000 00 



This is very much less than the amount recommended by Surgeon 
Fox as a minimum. I believe that the State Department of Health 
should receive not less than 2 per cent, of the total State appropria- 
tions, but this idea is one to be developed gradually. 



10 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

I believe that the first duty of the new Department was to make 
sure that the money (about $200,000) annually appropriated was being 
properly spent, and that an adequate return in life saving and disease 
prevention was being secured before attempting to obtain greatly in- 
creased appropriations. This has been my constant care throughout 
the year, and although the total amount expended was only slightly 
in excess of the previous year, there were many readjustments of ex- 
penditure. Money saved in general expenses was applied to the work 
of the new Division of Hygiene. The Wassermann Laboratory was 
established, two new directors of divisions and an epidemiologist were 
employed, and increased work was done in all of the divisions. 

Work in health departments should be adjusted among the factors 
in the total mortality according to the relative weight of the factors. 
Money should be expended in proportion to the relative weight of the 
factors. The relative weight of the factor is determined by the num- 
ber of deaths due thereto, the amount of economic loss occasioned 
thereby, and the feasibility of prevention and reduction. The table 
on page 11 shows the chief factors in Massachusetts mortality which 
can be classed as more or less preventable. I have charged each of 
these items to one of the divisions, and the director of that division 
understands that such items constitute his problem. He is entirely 
responsible although he will receive assistance from other division 
chiefs in certain phases of his problem. The table contemplates over 
40,000 more or less preventable deaths. Of this number, 25,000, or 
62 per cent., have been charged to the new Division of Hygiene as its 
particular problem. 

It has been said that public health is purchasable, and as health 
officers we will all subscribe to that statement. It is only fair to state, 
however, that a large part of the purchase price must be expended in 
education in personal hygiene, or, as we call it in Massachusetts, 
health instruction. 

I believe that a conservative estimate of the relative weight of that 
portion of the public health problem which for its solution depends 
upon education would not make less than 50 per cent, of the whole. 
In spite of this we have asked for the new Division of Hygiene only 
$15,000, or about 7 per cent, of our total appropriation. This is 
manifestly only a modest beginning, and not less than $30,000 should 
be appropriated for 1917 for child welfare and health instruction 
alone. While no direct recommendation for such increase is necessary 
at this time, the Public Health Council may very properly accentuate 
these facts, so that a recommendation next year will be better under- 
stood. 



No. 34.] 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



11 



Chief Factors in the Mortality for Massachusetts {53,000 Deaths per Year). 



Factor. 



Deaths, i 



Division charged with its 
Reduction. 



Division co-operating in its 
Reduction. 



Infant mortality, 

"Wear and tear" diseases, cir- 
culatory and urinary systems 
Cancer, 



Syphilis, . 

Pneumonia, 

Tuberculosis, 

Diphtheria, 

Measles, 

Scarlet fever. 

Typhoid fever, 

Whooping cough, 
Influenza, . 



10,000 

12,000 

3,500 

2,500 
(?) 
6,000 

5,500 

600 

300 

300 

280 

240 
200 



Hygiene (child welfare). 

Hygiene (health instruc- 
tion). 

Hygiene (health instruc- 
tion). 

Communicable Diseases, 

Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 

Communicable Diseases, 
Communicable Diseases, 



Communicable Diseases. 

Laboratories (Wassermann), 
Communicable Diseases. 



Laboratories (Wassermann), 
Hygiene (health instruction). 
Hygiene (health instruction). 

Hygiene (health instruction). 

Laboratories (antitoxin). Hygi- 
ene. 
Hygiene (health instruction). 

Hygiene (health instruction). 

Sanitary Engineering, Water 
and Sewage Laboratories, 
Hygiene. 

Hygiene (health instruction). 

Hygiene (health instruction). 



' Round numbers. 



Division of Sanitary Engineering and Division of Water and 
Seavage Laboratories. 

The Engineering Division was in existence as a smooth running 
unit under the old State Board of Health. It is in charge of a highly 
efficient engineer, Mr. X. H. Goodnough, who also possesses executive 
ability of a high order. 

The division has been operated together with the Water and Sewage 
Laboratories and the Lawrence Experiment Station, chiefly under ap- 
propriations for purity of inland waters and examination of sewer 
outlets. 

The work of the Engineering Division has increased enormously 
because of the increase in requests for advice from cities and towns. 
The appropriations have not kept pace with this increase, as is shown 
by the follow'ing table : — 



12 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Yeab. 



Appropriations 
for Purity of 
Inland Waters 
and Examina- 
tion of Sewer 
Outlets. 



Number of 
Requests from 

Cities and 
Towns for Ad- 



1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 



$50,000 00 
50,000 00 
50,000 00 
52,000 00 
52,000 00 
52,000 00 



139 
176 
149 
211 
273 
222 



Increase of appropriation, 4 per cent.; increase of work, 60 per cent. 

The field work of the engineers in complying with these requests 
from cities and towns has increased to such exteAt that for three years 
the field force has been overtaxed. A larger sum for field engineering 
is undoubtedly necessary, but was not asked for in 1916 because the 
expenses of the Lawrence Experiment Station were reduced about 
$3,000 and this amount is available for additional field work by the 
engineers. 

A further readjustment of the expenses of the Water and Sewage 
Laboratory will probably be made to permit of a reduction in some of 
the chemical routine examinations and an increase in the bacteriologic 
examinations of public water supplies. 

The splendid work of these two divisions in the past in safeguarding 
the public water supplies of the State is best expressed by the enor- 
mous reduction in typhoid fever as a typical water-borne disease, as 
given in the following table: — 



Deaths from Typhoid Fever in Massachusetts per 100,000, 1896-1914- 

1896-1900, 
1901-1905, 
1906-1910, 
1911, 

1912, . 

1913, . 
1914, 



25.4 

18.0 

13.8 

8.8 

7.7 
7.8 
7.4 



In nearly every instance public water supplies in Massachusetts are 
deUvered unfiltered to the consumers. Twenty per cent, of the com- 
munity is served with ground water, and about 80 per cent, is served 
with surface water. The excellent quahty of these supplies is respon- 



No. 34.] 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



13 



sible for the very low typhoid fever death rate. With a surface water 
supply and a rapidly growing community, the cost of safety is eternal 
vigilance. The enormous storage available is the greatest factor in 
safety, but under the conditions enumerated, close bacteriologic con- 
trol over municipal supplies is necessary. To effect this, more bac- 
teriologic examinations should be made. 

The Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories is under the direc- 
tion of Mr. H. W. Clark, an expert chemist and research worker of 
national reputation. In addition to controlling public water supplies, 
very interesting problems in trades' wastes are being solved in the 
laboratories, and very valuable research work has been done in regard 
to depth of sewage filters and activated sludge. These experiments 
are fully described in Mr. Clark's report. 



Division of Food and Drugs. 

Various units existed under the former State Board of Health which 
could be classified under the general heading of food and drugs. 
There was a food and drug laboratory with an analyst and three 
assistant analysts in the State House. There were four food and drug 
inspectors, under the control of the secretary. There was a meat 
slaughtering inspection and cold storage and dairy division with an 
office at 1 Beacon Street, in charge of which there was a supervising 
inspector with a clerical force and two veterinary inspectors, and a 
cold-storage inspection force of three inspectors. 

These units were consolidated in the new Division of Food and 
Drugs. The analyst, Mr. Hermann C. Lythgoe, was placed in charge 
as director. This consolidation of activities made possible the elimina- 
tion of the office at 1 Beacon Street and the position of supervising 
inspector, carrying with it a salary of $2,500, was also abolished. 
The official who occupied this position was re-employed as a veterinary 
inspector at $1,800, which made it possible to dispense with the 
services of one cold-storage inspector. By combining the two clerical 
forces it was possible to dispense with the services of one stenographer. 

The saving of this consolidation was as follows : — 

Difference between salary of supervising inspector and veterinary 

inspector, 

Salary of cold-storage inspector, 
Salar\' of stenographer, 
Rent of office at 1 Beacon Street, 
Miscellaneous office expenses, . 

$4,100 00 



S700 00 


1,400 00 


1,000 00 


800 00 


200 00 



14 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

I consider it inadvisable to employ any additional inspectors in the 
Food and Drug Division unless they are capable of doing laboratory 
work. Laboratory analysts can be employed for the same or lower 
salaries than inspectors. There is no reason why a chemist or analyst 
should not be able to do inspection work, while an inspector can only 
be used in the field. The present system is faulty because of the 
difficulty in maintaining a proper adjustment between the field force 
and the laboratory. For various reasons the work is subject to fluc- 
tuations, and the analysts are at times overworked. If additional em- 
ployees are authorized, these should be laboratory workers. They 
could then be used in the laboratory when work in the laboratory was 
heavy, and sent out on inspection duty when laboratory work was 
light. 

I believe that a Division of Food and Drugs should contemplate a 
broader field than the mere examination of milk, food and drugs. 
The question of drug addictions, the misuse of so-called household 
remedies, the traffic in dangerous proprietary and quack medicines, all 
present fruitful fields for action. The importance of careful studies 
of food values and food economics, and of an educational campaign 
along these lines, is apparent to any one who takes the trouble to 
observe some of our national faults. The average family either wastes 
food with reckless prodigality, or buys the family supplies with little, 
if any, regard to a correct adjustment of the essentials of a proper 
ration. 

The relation of a proper ration to health is very close, and many 
times ill health and disease are due to an ill-balanced ration costing as 
much or more than a properly balanced ration which would maintain 
the family in health. Studies have been commenced in the Division 
of Food and Drugs upon food values and food economics, and it is 
desirable to use the results in a campaign of education with the co- 
operation of the Division of Hygiene. 

However, the present appropriation must be spent in the enforce- 
ment of existing laws, and if the division is to assume a broader 
attitude and take up these very necessary phases of the food and drug 
problem, either an increased appropriation for these special purposes 
or a change in the wording of the existing statutes will be necessary. 

Mr. Lythgoe was known to be an expert chemist and analyst, and 
as the director of a division he has demonstrated that he is an efficient, 
energetic executive officer as well. 



No. 34.1 ANNUAL REPORT. 15 



Division of Communicable Diseases. 

This new division was created to embrace such work as was being 
done by the former State Board of Health in the suppression of com- 
municable diseases and such additional work as seemed necessary or 
desirable. The proper direction of such a division requires the full 
time of a competent sanitarian, and such a man was secured in the 
person of Dr. Eugene R. Kelley, formerly Commissioner of Health for 
the State of Washington, who was appointed director of the new 
division. 

As far back as 1912, S5,000 had been appropriated for the employ- 
ment of an epidemiologist, but for some reason the appointment was 
never made. On June 1, 1915, an epidemiologist was appointed and 
placed under Dr. Kelley's direction. 

Section 5 of the act creating a State Department of Health provided 
for eight full-time health officers instead of the twelve part-time health 
officers formerly employed. In order to avoid politics and to place 
the appointments on a merit system, regulations were adopted by the 
PubHc Health Council governing these appointments. These regula- 
tions provided for a competitive examination, the details of which will 
be discussed more fully in the report of the Director of the Division 
of Communicable Diseases, which will be found in the supplement. 

The Division of Communicable Diseases is charged with the reduc- 
tion or eradication of communicable disease. Its largest problems are 
tuberculosis, pneumonia, syphilis, diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, 
typhoid fever, whooping cough and influenza. Its organization con- 
sists of a director, an epidemiologist and clerical force, a diagnostic 
laboratory, and a field force of eight full-time district health officers. 
Very interesting details are being worked out to improve methods of 
graphic presentation of disease prevalence, compiling returns, following 
up statistical reports, and various other office routine methods. 

The work of the Diagnostic Laboratory has increased enormously, 
about 12,000 examinations being made in 1914, and about 17,000 in 
1915, an increase of over 40 per cent. This was done without increase 
of appropriation, but was accomplished by overworking the personnel. 
This condition must be met and relieved, and additional money is 
necessary for the diagnostic laboratory. 

The field force of eight district health officers has been very active, 
because, in addition to their work in this division, they have been 
made general representatives of the State Department of Health in 
their districts and given authority and responsibility accordingly. 
They have acted as advisers to local boards of health, and to them and 



16 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to Dr. Kelley belongs the credit of establishing tuberculosis dispen- 
saries in the cities and towns in the Commonwealth with a population 
of 10,000 or over. They have made a complete survey of the State 
in regard to the manner in which medical inspection of schools is 
being carried on, and they have executed a multitude of other duties 
with the maximum of efficiency and the minimum of friction. A great 
deal of Dr. Kelley's time and some of the time of the district health 
officers has been given to the investigation of the milk problem, the 
results of which are published in the report of the Milk Board. 

A complete and interesting account of the work of this division is 
given in Dr. Kelley's report, and I will discuss only some of the most 
important problems in a general w^ay. 



Tuberculosis. 
Certain general conditions affect our ability to deal with the tuber- 
culosis problem. Poverty, alcoholism, bad housing and overcrowding 
are some of these potent though indirect factors in a general condition 
or environment most favorable to a high prevalence of the disease. 
Attacks on these conditions may be classed as indirect attacks upon 
tuberculosis. Our direct attack should follow three lines: — 

1. Hospitalization of hopeless cases in the terminal months of their 
illness. 

2. Establishment and maintenance of dispensaries. 

3. Improvement of physique of children who are below par physi- 
cally. 

While taking an active interest in anything which will improve 
general conditions, we are attempting to follow out vigorously the 
direct attack upon tuberculosis along the lines mentioned above. 

The effort to secure hospital facilities for the hopeless cases nearer 
home than the State sanatoria was necessary because of two reasons: — 

1. Difficulty of retaining patients in the sanatoria during the ter- 
minal months of their illness because of the distance from home and 
friends. 

2. Capacity of State sanatoria was overtaxed by second and third 
stage cases which should be cared for locally. 

It is extremely desirable to provide accommodations near home for 
the hopeless cases, and if these cases are cared for locally, the State 
sanatoria will be available for that type of case in which sanatorium 
treatment is most effective, viz., in the incipient stage. 

The administration of the excellent law providing for the establish- 
ment of hospitals, including tuberculosis hospitals (Revised Laws, 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 17 

chapter 75, section 35, as amended by Statute 1906, chapter 365, 
Statute 1911, chapter 613, Statute 1912, chapter 151, and Statute 
1914, chapter 647), had two serious defects: — 

1. Small cities with a population of from 10,000 to 25,000 might 
have been required to build from 10 to 20 bed hospitals, which would 
be not only very expensive to run, but would possibly have inefficient 
medical service. 

2. Still smaller towns with a population of from 1,000 to 10,000 
would not be required to build hospitals or bear any share of the 
expense of caring for tubercular cases, although they have their share 
of tuberculosis as well as the larger cities and towns. 

After a hearing and statement by the Commissioner of Health 
before the public health committee of the General Court, the following 
resolve was passed: — 

Resolved, That the state department of health be authorized and dh-ected to 
investigate with reference to the advisability of establisliing county or district 
hospitals for the care and treatment of cases of tuberculosis, from cities and towns 
having less than fifty thousand inhabitants. Said department shall report the 
result of its investigation to the next general court on or before the second 
Wednesday in January, and shall accompany its report with such recommenda- 
tions for legislation as it may consider to be advisable. 

In accordance with this resolve a searching and complete investiga- 
tion was made to discover the most economical arrangement in dis- 
tricts of communities under 50,000 population. Experience has shown 
that the most economical unit for a tuberculosis hospital should have 
from 50 to 75 beds, and the districts mapped out by the Department 
provide for hospitals about this size. A report, with recommendations, 
will be submitted to the General Court outlining the districts which 
may be formed of communities having less than 50,000 population. 

The law providing for the establishment and maintenance of tuber- 
culosis dispensaries in cities and towns of 10,000 population or over 
(Statute 1911, chapter 576, as amended by Statute 1914, chapter 408) 
has been enforced by the Department, and at the present time all 
such cities and towns are complying with this law. 

A thorough and intensive survey of the entire State has been made 
to determine in what manner medical inspection of schools is being 
carried on in the various communities, as provided by chapter 502, 
Acts of 1906, under the supervision and direction of the following 
Board appointed by me on June 4, 1915, and assisted by the eight 
district health officers: — 



IS STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Dr. Wm. J. Gallivan, representing the Public Health Council. 
Prof. S. M. GuNN, Director, Division of Hygiene, Chairman. 
Dr. Eugene R. Kelley, Director, Division of Communicable Diseases. 
Dr. Wm. H. Coon, District Health Officer, Recorder. 

Chapter 502, Acts of 1906, provides for compulsory medical inspec- 
tion of schools. In all towns, except one, and in seventeen cities, the 
school physician is appointed and serves under the local school com- 
mittee; in one town and sixteen cities, the school physician is under 
the local board of health. Exclusive of Boston, about S100,000 is 
spent annually in this work, which is done without central control or 
supervision. 

The possibilities of medical inspection of school children in preventive 
medicine are not being realized as fully or as rapidly as is desirable. 
There is a lack of a central directing authority competent to ensure 
uniformity of methods and co-ordination of effort along the lines of 
prevention rather than the detection of disease. Our greatest hope 
for ultimate success in the suppression of tuberculosis, for instance, 
must lie in the prevention of its development in the child with a pre- 
disposition for or latent infection of tuberculosis. 

Syphilis. 

Syphilis as a public health problem has received careful considera- 
tion from this Department during the past year. This subject has 
been neglected in the past, although as a problem of preventable con- 
tagious disease, and in opportunity for life saving, prevention of blind- 
ness, insanity and pauperism, it is second only to tuberculosis. 

Syphilis is a preventable disease. We have exact knowledge of its 
cause, its modes of transmission, its prevention and its cure, yet we 
are not able to say that it is being reduced. What is its relative im- 
portance as a public health problem? It is responsible for more 
deaths than diphtheria, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, measles, whooping 
cough and influenza combined, and it is probably responsible for from 
two thousand to three thousand deaths each year in Massachusetts. 
Syphilis seldom appears on a death certificate. Hidden away under 
a dozen technical titles are thousands of deaths really due to syphilis. 

The economic loss due to syphilis is appalling. It increases enor- 
mously our expenses for the blind, pauper and insane. In Massa- 
chusetts one-fourth of the entire expenses of the State government are 
incurred in the care of its insane. That is, of an amount something 
over $18,000,000, $4,500,000 is expended in equipping and maintaining 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 19 

the institutions under the State Board of Insanity. At least 10 per 
cent, of insanity is due to syphihs, a preventable and curable disease, 
so that the State of Massachusetts expends at least $450,000 annually 
for syphilitic insane. Under these circumstances it would seem sound 
business policy for the State to expend some money in the prevention 
of syphilis. 

We have in salvarsan a specific remedy, which, if used in the early 
stages of syphilis, not only cures the individual but prevents him from 
infecting others. With our exact knowledge of the cause of the 
disease and possession of a specific remedy, why do we not eradicate 
it? Three reasons may be cited which in themselves are sufficient to 
explain our failure to even reduce the ravages of syphilis: — 

1. The prohibitive price of (and since the war, inability to obtain) 
salvarsan; 

2. The natural desire for concealment and secrecy of the individual 
infected with a venereal disease which is looked upon as a social dis- 
grace; and 

3. Lack of knowledge of the prevalence of the disease, and exact 
methods of diagnosis. 

Salvarsan is made in Germany and patented in the United States. 
Its price before the war was from $3 to S4.50 per dose. At present, 
owing to the war, it cannot be obtained from Germany. 

I believe that United States patents were never intended to deprive 
the people of any State of a substance which is necessary for their 
health and welfare. I further believe that the State of Massachusetts 
would be within its rights in manufacturing or in some other way 
procuring salvarsan for free distribution to residents of Massachusetts, 
in view of the fact that it cannot be obtained from Germany. Sal- 
varsan can be made by our chemists. It is being made now in 
England, Japan and Canada, and also in Philadelphia, Pa. 

I believe it is the plain duty of the State government to solve this 
problem, and that an act should be passed providing for free salvarsan 
for residents of Massachusetts. The draft of such a bill will be pre- 
pared and submitted to the Legislature at the proper time. 

Health officers can never expect to handle syphilis as an ordinary 
contagious disease. Placarding houses, quarantining cases, and other 
measures involving publicity are unthinkable in a disease involving 
social disgrace. No experienced health officer who hopes for results 
is foolish enough to attack syphilis in this way. 

Reporting of disease is exacted for two reasons: first, to give knowl- 
edge of and control over cases in an infectious state; and secondly, 
for statistical information. The reporting of syphilis, giving patients' 



20 STATE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

names, should not be required, and the reporting by number should 
depend upon voluntary co-operation rather than compulsion. The 
lack of exact methods of diagnosis has been partially corrected by the 
establishment of a State Wassermann Laboratory for the diagnosis of 
syphilis. The Wassermann Laboratory of the State Department of 
Health, which commenced work June 1, 1915, is now examining over 
one thousand specimens each month. 

I believe that whenever a physician reports the data of a case of 
syphilis, omitting the name and address, and submits a specimen of 
blood which is found positive in our laboratory, the State should send 
him the salvarsan free with which to treat the case. The number, or 
other distinguishing mark sent in by the physician in lieu of the name 
of the patient, should be replaced by a serial number given by the 
State Department of Health, and the physician then requested to 
make future reports or references under the serial number. 

The Wassermann Laboratory was operated for six months in 1915 
for something less than $3,000, but to continue this very necessary 
work for the full fiscal year 1916 will require at least $5,000. This 
amount has been included in the estimates for 1916. 

I realize that syphilis is not a word to conjure with, but I do be- 
lieve that in view of its great importance in loss of life, production of 
blindness and insanity, and enormous economic loss. Legislatures should 
pursue a liberal policy and spend considerable money in combating this 
great plague. 

Some of our larger hospitals and dispensaries are doing splendid 
work in destroying the infection in the carrier of syphilis. Many 
other hospitals and dispensaries should pursue a more liberal policy. 
These other hospitals now refuse to admit syphilis in the early stages, 
although they admit aortitis, aneurism, locomotor ataxia, and other 
diseases which are really syphilis in a later stage. 

As a compensation salvarsan should be furnished free to hospitals 
and dispensaries. The time to eradicate the infection of syphilis is 
in the early stage. The general public must be educated in the 
appalling results of neglected syphilis, and dispensaries, hospitals and 
private physicians should be encouraged and assisted in treating the 
early cases, without allowing them to become cases of locomotor 
ataxia, general paralysis, heart disease or apoplexy. 

It is said that to advertise the marvelous effect of salvarsan, and to 
place it within the reach of the poor, is to put a premium upon vice 
and to absolve the syphilitic from the just punishment of his sins. As 
health officers let us be practical and consider syphilis as a public 
health problem, leaving the academic discussion of its moral and 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 21 

social aspects to others. We may relieve the unfortunate sufferer 
from the punishment of his own misdeeds, but we are also preventing 
this punishment from falling upon women, children and other innocent 
victims. Thousands of cases are acquired innocently from syphilitics, 
and our plain duty is to prevent these infections by eliminating the 
carriers of the disease without regard to their social or moral status. 

Thousands of prisoners and inmates of Federal, State and municipal 
institutions are discharged each year, and these are turned loose with- 
out much regard to their being carriers of disease. In Massachusetts 
I believe that every inmate of a public institution should be tested 
for syphilis, and not discharged from that institution until he or she 
has been properly treated and shown to be no longer capable of in- 
fecting others. 

As a sanitarian and practitioner of preventive medicine I desire to 
accentuate especially the necessity of early treatment in syphilis. 
The cardinal principle of our preventive campaign must be proper 
treatment in the early stages. In the first and second stages of 
syphilis the spirochetes are more easily reached and destroyed by 
salvarsan, hence the chances of complete cure are vastly better than 
if treatment is delayed. The important point in early treatment, 
from the health officer's view, is that the infection is destroyed, and 
open sores and lesions, which are practically certain to cause other 
cases, are prevented. 

Division of Biologic Laboratories. 

These laboratories are engaged in the making of certain biologic 
products and tests for the prevention, cure or diagnosis of some of the 
most important communicable diseases. The products and tests are 
free to citizens of the Commonwealth. 

In the past year over 200,000 doses of diphtheria antitoxin were 
made and distributed. In order to determine the susceptibility or 
immunity of an individual to diphtheria, we now have the Schick 
reaction, a skin test, which is very valuable in saving antitoxin. In- 
dividuals shown to be insusceptible by the Schick test need not be 
treated with antitoxin. The laboratory is now prepared to demon- 
strate to physicians and health officers how to use and to interpret 
the Schick reaction. 

There were 31,355 ampoules of typhoid prophylactic produced and 
distributed in 1915, an increase of about 6,000 over the amount pro- 
duced and distributed in 1914. 

There were 1,100 packages of antimeningitis serum distributed in 



22 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

1915. This is a curative serum, but the laboratory is prepared to 
furnish it in larger quantity if cerebrospinal meningitis should in- 
crease after the war. A vaccine of distinct prophylactic value can be 
prepared at short notice for use as a protective inoculation if the 
necessity for this should arise. 

There were 139,140 doses of vaccine virus made and 104,922 doses 
distributed in 1915. Owing to the prevalence of foot and mouth 
disease, it was difficult to obtain calves and unusual precautions were 
necessary. In order to start afresh and be certain that no infection 
with foot and mouth disease had occurred, it was necessary to destroy 
a large amount of stock vaccine. The package in which the vaccine 
virus is distributed has been improved, and the cost of the same les- 
sened. The circular of instructions which accompanies each package 
has also been rewritten, and it is recommended that the incision or 
scratch method be used in place of the old method of scarification. 
Special care is taken and elaborate tests made to determine the purity 
and potency of the vaccine. 

The Wassermann test is a complex technical method of diagnosing 
syphilis from a specimen of human blood. Its great value will be ap- 
preciated after reading the statement in regard to syphilis as a public 
health problem in another part of this report. In June, 1915, the 
AYassermann Laboratory was established, and at our present rate will 
make over 18,000 tests in the next year. 

We were extremely fortunate in securing as director of the division, 
on a part-time basis, Prof. M. J. Rosenau of Harvard University, 
thus ensuring expert supervision of the highest type as to potency and 
purity of biologic products, accuracy of method, and interpretation of 
biologic tests. Professor Rosenau, besides being professor of preventive 
medicine and hygiene at Harvard University, was for many years 
director of the Hygienic Laboratory of the United States Public Health 
Service in Washington. As head of this laboratory Dr. Rosenau had 
charge of all measures taken by the Federal government to ensure 
potency and purity in biologic products. 

Further details of the work of this division will be found in Pro- 
fessor Rosenau's report. 

Division of Hygiene. 
Health officers are justified in being proud of the achievements in 
the prevention of disease and the reduction of the death rates which 
are recorded in recent years, due largely to official activity. We have 
now reached a point, however, where further progress demands the 
hearty support of the individual citizen, and a wider application of 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 23 

the principles of personal hygiene by the individual citizen himself. 
This means education of the people in their obligations to their neigh- 
bors and in the simple gospel of disease prevention. 

In this campaign we have enlisted the practicing physician as an 
educator in preventive medicine, and I am confident we may count 
on his earnest effort and loyal support. There are the great thousands, 
however, who never or rarely call a physician, and who furnish the bulk 
of infant and tuberculosis mortality. 

I am sure that all practical health officers have found that the 
greatest defect in the average health organization has been the lack 
of a medium for carrying effective sanitary instruction into the home. 
To reach these people, two very effective agencies are in our hands, 
and great results may be obtained if these agencies are properly 
directed, so that uniformity of procedure and co-ordination of effort 
can be secured under a central authority. I refer to the possibilities 
of public health or visiting nurses and to the hygiene of school children. 
In view of the great reductions already effected in the mortality rates 
for tuberculosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, and other diseases, largely 
due to official activity, it may be said in Massachusetts that further 
reductions will be in direct ratio to the number of women employed in 
public health nursing. 

The successful visiting nurse requires, besides a knowledge of the 
prevention of disease, tact, patience, and kindly solicitude for the 
welfare of the poor. Compare the results possible in life-saving by the 
work of such a woman with the results obtained from the work of 
the male sanitary inspector at the same or even a larger salary. 

When we consider the difficulty of carrying health instruction into 
the home, and the apathy, indifference, skepticism and ridicule with 
which the doctrines of disease prevention, however simple, are too 
often received, the prospect for speedy results is not encouraging. We 
must concede that this part of the health officer's problem, in which 
success depends upon the voluntary co-operation of the individual, is 
much more difficult than that which may be solved by the passage and 
enforcement of laws and ordinances. The skepticism, the apathy, the 
passive and even active resistance displayed toward health instruction 
comes largely from an adult population whose early training did not in- 
clude hygiene. The unteachable, unresponsive, I-know-it-all individual 
will probably persist in reaching the goal for which he is headed and 
will eliminate himself in a generation. The effective teaching of the 
principles of hygiene to the school children, especially in the lower grades, 
will develop an adult population in the next generation that will be 
neither apathetic nor skeptical, but will assist the health departments 



24 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the future to teach hygiene where it will be most effective, viz., 
among the school children. 

A very large part of the adult population, however, is not only 
teachable but hungry for the knowledge of how to live a little longer. 
Thousands of deaths due to what has been called the "wear and tear" 
diseases should have been postponed for years. Our efforts to show 
the necessity for hygienic living in preventing premature aging of our 
blood vessels and degeneration of vital organs should be unremitting, 
but here again, if we apply this instruction properly and effectively to 
the school child, we will not, in the next generation, face a constantly 
increasing death rate due to the "wear and tear" diseases. 

To care for this problem of health instruction the new Division of 
Hygiene was created. Its scope will include infant mortality, child 
welfare, medical examination of school children, industrial hygiene, and 
health instruction in general. It will devote much of its energies to 
educational methods through literature, lectures illustrated by moving 
pictures and lantern slides, and personal instruction by its exhibits and 
health instructors. No special legislation can absolve this Department 
from its obligation "to take cognizance of the interests of life and 
health among the citizens of the commonwealth." This obligation 
does not exempt any age group. The hygiene of the child before and 
after entering school, and the hygiene of the worker from the time he 
leaves school, are as much our concern as the hygiene of all other citi- 
zens in the Commonwealth. We have, therefore, in our new Division 
of Hygiene, contemplated child welfare work, including the hygiene of 
school children and industrial hygiene, although certain phases of 
these two fields are covered by the work of other departments of the 
State government. 

I believe that there should be but one State Department of Health, 
and that no State money should be expended for the prevention of 
disease unless under the supervision and control or by the advice of 
the State Department of Health. When other departments of the 
State government feel impelled to enter the field of hygiene or pre- 
ventive medicine, they should consult with and ask the help of the 
State Department of Health rather than attempt to build up miniature 
health departments of their own. 

The possibilities of this division in life-saving and disease preven- 
tion exceed those of all the other divisions combined. When we 
consider the possibilities in prevention of the 10,000 deaths included 
under infant mortality in Massachusetts each year, the possibilities in 
prevention of tuberculosis in the school child, the possibilities of "fitting 
the girl and boy to their job" upon leaving school, and the possibilities 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 25 

in prevention of cancer and the so-called "wear and tear" diseases of 
middle life, we may appreciate the opportunities of the new Division 
of Hygiene. 

In many of the important questions in the field of child hygiene 
now confronting the Division of Hygiene, little or nothing has been 
done by the State. 

A uniform system of prenatal work should be extended to the point 
where proper obstetric advice and care are secured for the mother. 
This involves the question of adequate supervision of midwives and 
maternity hospitals. It is probably not feasible to eliminate midwives 
entirely and at once. Even if possible, by the application of drastic 
law, we should be prepared with some efficient substitute to take the 
place now filled by the ignorant midwife among the very poor. The 
midwife as an institution should not be legalized and perpetuated, as 
at best she can never be anything but a poor makeshift for good 
obstetric care. The extension of prenatal clinics, maternity hospitals, 
and of expert obstetrical advice and care to the poor is the answer to 
the midwife problem. The midwife will be eliminated in time by the 
competition of such prenatal clinics and maternity hospitals as place 
good obstetric advice and care within the reach of the poor. 

There should be a close supervision of day nurseries and of other 
agencies which care for children from the nursing period to school age. 

There should be an accurate survey and record of the physical and 
mental condition of every school child made at least once each year, 
and from these records proper advice given either to maintain this 
physical and mental standard or to better it, if necessary. 

Imagine the possibilities of advice to children who are below par 
physically in preventing tuberculosis and increasing resisting power to 
all diseases! This advice would not always be heeded, but it at least 
could be given in all cases, and in many instances would be heeded. 
Special care should be exercised by the State in safeguarding the health 
and proper development, physically and mentally, of children in insti- 
tutions, to ensure a sanitary environment, proper food and exercise, 
and proper habits of personal hygiene. There should be the same care- 
ful physical and mental survey as in the case of school children, and 
the special needs of defective children should be outlined at least once 
each year. 

The same careful system of physical and mental records should be 
employed to advise the adolescent in selecting a vocation and in pre- 
venting the girl or boy from becoming a "square peg in a round hole." 

A complete survey of the State has been made to determine what is 
being done in the matter of inspection of school children. These 



26 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

records will form the basis from which a uniform effective system may 
be evolved. The law requiring medical school inspection is being 
carried out in the various communities according to the individual 
inclinations of the local authorities. In some cities and towns it is 
being efficiently done; in others, it is worthless as an instrument in 
preventing disease and improving the physical condition of the child. 

By placing stress upon the enormous importance of the maintenance 
of health and the improving of the physical condition of the child in the 
prevention of diseases other than communicable, I do not wish to be 
misunderstood as underrating the importance of the communicable 
diseases. We must keep all the ground we have gained in the fight 
against tuberculosis, diphtheria and typhoid fever, and in syphilis we 
have a communicable disease problem, until this year untouched, 
which will demand our best efforts and which promises brilliant results. 

I wish to accentuate further the fact that the campaign of health 
instruction, while primarily aiming to improve physical standards, to 
increase resisting power and to inculcate "safety first" habits of pro- 
tection against disease, strikes at the heart of the communicable 
disease problem by decreasing the susceptible material by arming the 
susceptible with a knowledge of how to avoid infection. 

The Division of Hygiene, although in existence but a few months, 
has carried out an extensive investigation of infant mortality, and 
now has knowledge of the conditions and mortality rates of 353 com- 
munities in the State. Special intensive studies are being made where 
the rates are highest. In Lowell a particular study was made of deaths 
of infants whose mothers were mill workers. The results of such 
studies as this will be followed by educational work in the locality 
studied. 

In the month of November alone, forty lectures were given and over 
5,000 persons reached in this direct manner. The lectures are illus- 
trated by moving pictures and lantern slides. 

Child welfare exhibits have been prepared and will be sent out in 
charge of health instructors. These exhibits have, besides panels with 
effective illustrations, utensils, clothing and materials for demonstrating 
to mothers how to care for their infants. 

The division has had charge of the Monthly Bulletin for the past 
five months and has greatly improved this educational instrument. 

A baby book entitled "The Baby and You" has been printed and 
is now ready for distribution. It is planned to place this book in the 
hands of every mother as soon as possible after the birth of her child. 

Obviously the Division of Hygiene contains several divisions in em- 
bryo. The work of child hygiene will develop into a Division of Child 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 27 

Welfare within a comparatively short time; industrial hygiene will 
also become a division in due time. In the meantime, these activities 
will be fostered and allowed to grow up in the Division of Hygiene 
until ready for independent existence as divisions. 

The Department was particularly fortunate in securing for the 
director of the new Division of Hygiene Prof. Selskar M. Gunn of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Although on a part-time 
basis, Professor Gunn, because of his dynamic force, has been able to 
accomplish more than other available men would have accomplished 
on full time. To initiate the work of a new division, combining really 
the material for three divisions, and to launch it successfully on the 
very small amount of money available, required just the resourceful- 
ness, the energy and excellent judgment which Professor Gunn has 
displaj'ed. 

Housing. 

The subject of housing is so important and bears such a close rela- 
tion to some of our greatest health problems that the following Board 
has been appointed to study the question in Massachusetts: — 

Prof. G. C. Whipple, representing the Pubhc Health Council. 

Mr. X. H. GooDxouGH, Du-ector, Division of Sanitary Engineering, Chairman. 

Prof. S. M. GrxN, Director, Division of Hj-giene. 

Mr. A. D. Weston, Division of Sanitary Engineering, Recorder. 

This Board is now at work studying existing and proposed laws and 
ordinances and a report will be made late in 1916. 

State Examiners of Plumbers. 

At a meeting of the Public Health Council of the State Department 
of Health on July 6, 1915, it was voted to appoint Mr. David Craig 
as first examiner of the State Examiners of Plumbers, to fill the va- 
cancy caused by Mr. Edward C. Kelley's resignation. 

A brief report of the work carried on by the State Examiners of 
Plumbers will be found in the supplement. 

Milk. 
In Massachusetts the question of milk had been a subject of bitter 
controversy for years, and I was asked to take sides before I had been 
in office one month. It was deemed inadvisable to make legislative 
recommendations until Massachusetts conditions had been studied one 
year under existing law. During the past year a comprehensive study 
of the milk problem has been made by the following Board : — 



28 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Dr. J. E. Lamoureux, representing the Public Health Council. 
Dr. E. R. Kelley, Director of the Division of Communicable Diseases, Chairman. 
Mr. H. C. Lythgoe, Analyst and Director of the Division of Food and Drugs. 
Mr. E. H. Williams, Assistant, Engineering Division, Recorder. 

The above Board was appointed on March 29, 1915, and has been 
assisted in its investigations by the eight district health officers em- 
ployed by the Department. It is believed that all available pertinent 
facts in regard to the milk problem have been secured by this Board, 
and their report, with the recommendations of the Public Health 
Council, will be published in the near future. 

Legislative Recommendations. 
The following specific recommendations are submitted to the Public 
Health Council in regard to necessary health legislation: — 

1. An act providing for district hospitals for the care and treatment of cases 
of tuberculosis from cities and towns having less than 50,000 inhabitants. 

2. An act providing for the detail of a district health officer or other medical 
officer of the State Department of Health for duty with the State Board of Edu- 
cation, for the purpose of supervising the medical inspection of school children. 

3. An act authorizing the State Department of Health to manufacture or 
procure salvarsan, for free distribution to citizens of the Commonwealth. 

4. An act relative to the production, distribution and sale of milk. 

Appkopriations. 
The appropriations for the year ended Nov. 30, 1915, as recom- 
mended by the Commissioner of Health in the annual estimates made 
under the provisions of section 26, chapter 6 of the Revised Laws, 
were as follows: — 

For the general expenses of the Department, $36,400 00 

For the inspection of food and drugs, 17,500 00 

For the salary of the director of the Division of Food and Drugs, . 3,000 00 

For the production and distribution of antitoxin and vaccine, . 24,000 00 

For water supply and sewage disposal, 56,800 00 

For the State Inspectors of Health, 37,500 00 

For the salary of the director of the Division of Communicable 

Diseases, 4,000 00 

For the salary of an epidemiologist, 3,500 00 

For the maintenance of a diagnostic laboratory, .... 5,300 00 

For slaughtering inspection and cold storage, 12,000 00 

For the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, .... 500 00 

For the State Examiners of Plumbers, 5,200 00 

For printing the annual report, 4,000 00 

Total, $209,700 00 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 29 



Expenditures. 
The expenditures under the different appropriations for the year 
ended Nov. 30, 1915, were as follows: — 

General Expenditures. 

Appropriation, $36,400 00 

Credit by transfer to other appropriations, by cash received from 
various sources and returned to State treasury, .... 3,201 83 



$39,601 83 



Salaries, $23,467 22 

Traveling expenses, 1,502 93 

Express charges, 110 11 

Printing and binding, 4,155 10 

Books and subscriptions, 446 45 

Educational work and advertising, 2,164 41 

Stationery, maps and blue prints, 799 63 

Postage and postal orders, 2,438 15 

Telephone and telegraph messages, 452 45 

Type'UTiting supphes and repairs, 313 20 

Laboratorj^ supplies, 251 77 

Sundry office supphes, 922 77 

Health Council, per diem, 1,521 26 

Extra services, 429 60 

Messenger, 209 64 

Rent, 200 01 

Miscellaneous, 91 52 

Total, $39,476 22 

Expenditures under the Provisions of the Food and Drug Acts for the Year ended 

Nov. SO, 1915. 

Appropriation, $17,500 00 

Credit by transfer to appropriation for director of Division of Food 

and Drugs, and by cash received from various sources, . . 1,043 60 

$18,543 60 

Salaries of analysts, $6,056 26 

Salaries of inspectors, 6,239 29 

Salaries of office assistants, 1,100 00 

Traveling expenses, 2,735 89 

Purchase of samples, 423 29 

Apparatus and chemicals, 886 33 



30 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Express, SlO 94 

Printing, 49 60 

Books, maps and stationery, 430 46 

Telephone and telegraph messages and postage, .... 134 25 

Sundry laboratory supplies, 81 95 

Typewriting supplies and repairs, 150 50 

Services (cleaning laboratory), . . • 143 00 

Extra services, 85 83 

Miscellaneous, 14 62 

Total, S18,542 21 

Expenditures for the Productioyi and Distribution of Antitoxin and Vaccine for 
the Year ended Nov. SO, 1915. 

Appropriation, $24,000 00 

Transferred from extraordinary expenses, as authorized by the 

Governor and Council, 1,627 70 

From 1914, balance to cover bills incurred during 1914, ... 6 20 

Credit by cash paid to State treasury, account of scales returned, 6 88 



$25,640 78 



Salaries, $12,296 81 

Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory supplies, 4,134 29 

Traveling expenses, 47 44 

Express charges and carting, 158 12 

Books, stationery and typewriting supplies, 229 47 

Printing, 429 09 

Purchase of animals, 832 84 

Horseshoeing and stable equipment, 10 40 

Services of veterinary surgeon, 22 00 

Food for animals, 3,546 18 

Rental of telephone, messages and postage, 123 63 

Extra ser\dces, 415 90 

Water, gas, electric lighting and heating, 462 54 

Labor and materials, 476 33 

Ice, 128 45 

Rent, 2,012 49 

Miscellaneous, 314 16 

Total, $25,640 14 



No. 34.] 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



31 



Far carrying out the Provisions of the Act to protect the Purity of Inland Waters, 
for the Examination of Seicer Outlets, and for the Examination of the Sanitary 
Condition of Certain Rivers and Water Courses. 

Appropriation for the j'ear ended Nov. 30, 1915, . . . . S56,800 00 

Salaries, including wages of laborers at LawTence Experiment 

Station, ... 
Apparatus and materials, 
Traveling expenses, 
Express charges, 
Printing and binding, 
Maps, blue prints and books. 

Stationery, drawing materials and type\\Titing supplies. 
Telephone, telegraph messages and postage. 

Extra ser\'ices, 

Services, collection of samples and reading gauges, 

Labor, 

Rent, 

Miscellaneous, 

Total, 



$43,706 01 


3,518 71 


3,913 11 


1,622 78 


356 37 


214 50 


1,497 35 


208 45 


12 00 


721 45 


71 10 


150 00 


152 77 


$56,144 60 



Expenses under the Provisions of the Act to provide for the Establishment of Health 
Districts and the Appointment of State Inspectors of Health {Chapter 537, Acts 
of 1907; Chapters 405 and 543, Acts of 1910; Chapters 603 and 609, Acts of 
1911) for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1915. 

Appropriation, 837,500 00 

Credit by paid to State treasury, 170 56 

S37,670 56 



Salaries, S27,209 04 

Traveling, 7,614 74 

Express, 10 60 

Printing, 398 37 

Books and maps, 24 43 

Postage, 615 19 

Tj-pewTiting supplies, 153 58 

Extra services, 671 38 

Telephone and telegraph, 292 42 

Office supplies, 282 43 

Laboratory and experimental work, 366 87 

Research field work, 18 36 

Miscellaneous, 13 15 

Total, §37,670 56 



32 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Expenditures for the Maintenance of a Diagnostic Laboratory for the Year ended 

Nov. 30, 1915. 

Appropriation, $5,300 00 

Credit by received from Peter Gray, account of copper box (re- 
funded), 1 00 

$5,301 00 

Salaries, $4,094 41 

Laboratory supplies, 435 14 

Printing, 304 85 

Stationery, 53 47 

Mailing cases, 317 32 

Office supplies, 38 25 

Typewriting supplies and repairs, 4 95 

Traveling, 2 24 

Miscellaneous, 16 23 

Total, S5,266 86 



F(yr carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to Slaughtering Inspection and 
the Inspection of Food Products treated by Cold Storage. 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1915, .... $12,000 00 

Credit by paid to State treasury, account of sale of branding outfits, 381 60 

$12,381 60 

Salaries, S9,690 58 

Travefing, 2,136 81 

Printing, 63 27 

Branding outfits, 352 45 

Stationery and oflfice supplies, 21 35 

Telephone and telegraph, • • 14 36 

Postage, 55 

Extra services, 25 00 

Typewriting supphes, 4 25 

Purchase of samples, 12 16 

Miscellaneous, 4 10 

Total, S12,324 88. 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 33 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Prevention of Ophthalmia 
Neonatorum (Chapter 458, Acts 1910). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov, 30, 1915, .... SoOO 00 

Ophthalmia outfits, §500 00 



Total, $500 00 

A. J. McLaughlin, 

Commissioner of Health. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



[35] 



Division of Sanitary Engineering. 



137J 



DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



Director and Chief Engineer, X. H. GOODNOUGH. 



Dr. Allan J. McLaughlin, Commissioner of Health. 

Sir: — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
Division of Sanitary Engineering for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915. 

Respectfully, 

X. H. GOODNOUGH, 

Director mid Chief Engineer. 



Water Supply and Sewerage. 



The Department received during the year 224 applications for ad- 
vice with reference to water supply, sewerage, sewage disposal and 
matters relating thereto. Of these applications, 54 were in relation 
to public water supplies, 90 to wells and springs, 22 to sources of ice 
supply, 35 to sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal, 4 to the pol- 
lution of streams, and 19 to miscellaneous matters. 

Water Supplies. 

Public water supplies were introduced during the year in the towns 
of Dartmouth, Groveland, Salisbury and Shrewsbury. The water sup- 
ply of Groveland is obtained from the works of the city of Haverhill, 
that of Dartmouth from the works of the city of New Bedford, and 
the others are from independent sources. A new water district was 
established during the year in the town of Easton to supply the vil- 
lages of South Easton and Eastondale. The supply is obtained from 
the works of the city of Brockton. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in the State, 211, which contained by 
the census of 1915 a population of 3,528,769, are provided with public 
water supplies. The remaining towns, 142 in number, contained by 
the census of 1915 a population of 164,541. 

The following towns, having by the census of 1915 a population in 
excess of 3,000, are not yet provided with public water supplies: — 

Tewksbury, 5,265 

Warren, 4,268 

Templeton, 4,081 

Somerset, 3,377 

Auburn, 3,281 

Westport 3,262 

Water supplies are greatly needed in most of these towns, especially 
in Somerset, Templeton and Warren, in which there are large villages 
dependent wholly for water for domestic purposes on wells and springs. 
The results of analyses of the waters of many of the wells in the 
thickly populated areas in each of the above towns indicate that 
practically all are very badly polluted and unsafe for domestic use. 



40 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

There is also a considerable number of towns, having by the census 
of 1915 a population between 2,000 and 3,000, in many of which water 
supplies are very badly needed. These towns are the following*. — 

Sutton, 2,829 

Seekonk, 2,767 

Bourne, 2,672 

Hanover, 2,666 

Swansea, 2,558 

Wilbraham, 2,521 

Dighton, 2,499 

Acushnet, 2,387 

Wihnington, 2,330 

Rehoboth, 2,228 

Charlton, 2,213 

Harwich, 2,179 

Belchertown, 2,062 

Georgetown, 2,058 

Upton, 2,036 

In many of the above-named towns the wells are badly polluted 
and a serious danger to the public health. 

During the past year an examination has been made of the wells in 
the town of Rowley, which is not provided with a public water supply. 
The population is largely concentrated in the main village, and an 
examination of the mortality statistics in this village, made by the 
Department, has shown that typhoid fever has been excessively 
prevalent in this town for a period of twenty years or more and that 
cases have occurred from time to time at more or less frequent inter- 
vals in nearly all parts of the village throughout that period. The 
results of analyses show that the water of the wells in the thickly 
settled portions of this town is polluted by sewage, in many cases 
most seriously. At most of the dwelling houses in the village the 
water supply is obtained from a well on the premises, and the sewage 
is disposed of by discharging it into a vault or cesspool, also on the 
premises and usually at no great distance from the well. The ground 
on which the village stands is composed largely of strata of gravel and 
fine sand or clay, which extend to a considerable depth and are un- 
derlaid by a very fine sand and lower down by ledge. The water 
supply is usually obtained from wells averaging some 3 feet in diameter 
and 20 feet in depth, and, if dug to the average depth, they seldom 
fail, even in the driest years, since the level of the ground water 
beneath the village does not vary very greatly in height from year to 
year. The water obtained from these 'wells is derived from the rain- 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 41 

fall, a portion of which sinks into the ground. As the town has no 
sewerage system, a large portion of the water which is withdrawn from 
the wells is returned to the ground in the form of sewage through the 
cesspools and other receptacles, and much of it evidently again finds 
its way to the wells. 

There is no way of securing water which is safe for drinking from 
the ground in the thickly settled portion of this town, and for the 
protection of the public health a public water supply from some 
suitable source should be introduced at the earliest practicable time. 
With a proper public water supply, the present method of disposing 
of the sewage would probably not be objectionable and could be con- 
tinued for many years, unless the population becomes more dense 
than is the case at the present time. 

There have been numerous cases of typhoid fever in the village of 
Somerset also, and similar occurrences have taken place in Harwich 
and other villages where the density of population produces condi- 
tions such as those described in the town of Rowley. 

Among the towns in which a decided effort has recently been made 
to secure a public water supply are Warren and Belchertown, places in 
which such supplies are greatly needed. In each town a large majority 
has voted repeatedly for the introduction of water, but a provision 
of the law which requires a two-thirds vote has prevented the carry- 
ing out of legislative acts granting the right to these towns to secure 
a public water supply. Considering the necessity of a public water 
supply in these and many other places, and the importance of a good 
water supply in the protection of the public health in communities of 
considerable size, it is unfortunate that a two-thirds vote is required 
for the introduction of a water supply system. The custom was intro- 
duced many years ago when the question of the success of a pub- 
lic water supply was considered to be a matter of considerable doubt. 
Experience has amply shown that a public water supply quickly be- 
comes self-supporting in towns of such size as those under consider- 
ation, and the continuation of the requirement of a two-thirds vote 
for the introduction of such a supply seems now unnecessary and 
objectionable. 

A further hindrance to the introduction of public water supplies 
by towns and districts results from the change from the former 
method of establishing a sinking fund for the payment of bonds 
issued for such purposes to the practice of issuing serial bonds, the 
effect of which is to require a much larger payment for interest and 
the retirement of bonds in the earlier years after the introduction of 
a water works system than was formerly the case. At the present 



42 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

time, if a town issues bonds on a thirty-year basis at 4 per cent., the 
interest and bond payment together amount in the first year to 7^ per 
cent., whereas the average amount needed for the payment of the 
bonds and interest, if carried out on the sinking fund basis of a fixed 
annual sum, would only be about 5f per cent. The serial bond 
method of payment, however, appears to be the more desirable one, 
at least in the case of the small towns, but the present law makes 
it necessary that one-thirtieth of the bonded indebtedness shall be 
paid off in each year from the time the construction of the works is 
begun. This provision is undoubtedly a desirable one in the case of 
many public works, but in the case of a public water supply a year 
is usually required in which to complete the works, and another year, 
and sometimes two years, usually elapses before the water has come 
into general use. As soon as a general use is established, the town 
or district finds itself in receipt of an income usually nearly or quite 
sufficient to care for the maintenance of the works and pay a part, 
if not all, of the interest and bond retirement requirements of the 
legislative act under which the works were built. Under these circum- 
stances, there seems to be no good reason why a bond should be 
paid off in the first or second year at least after the construction of 
the works is begun. It merely means that the town has to borrow- 
considerably more money than would otherwise be needed for the 
construction of its works, since provision must be made for the pay- 
ment of a bond before the works are completed and of another one, 
or perhaps two, before they have come into general use. No public 
interest would be injured, while on the other hand a considerable 
advantage would accrue, if the first annual payment in the case of 
the original introduction of a water works were deferred for as much 
as three years after the construction of the works was begun. 



Incorporated Districts for the Supply of Water. 
Under the conditions existing in Massachusetts, it is usually im- 
practicable when a town introduces a public water supply to extend 
the service to all the inhabitants of the town. The system is com- 
monly restricted, in the beginning at least, to the most thickly settled 
portion of the town, usually the principal village. When a town con- 
tains two or more villages, as is often the case, it may not be practicable, 
on account of distance or difference in elevation, to extend the works 
to the secondary center without considerable expense. It furthermore 
often happens that a large percentage, if not a majority, of the inhab- 
itants of the town live in scattered farmhouses in areas which would 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 43 

not be supplied by works designed for the most thickly populated 
section, and, in consequence, it is often impracticable for the in- 
habitants of the thickly settled section to obtain a water supply 
through a vote of the town, however badly such a supply may be 
needed in that section. In such cases some other method than town 
ownership must be adopted if the water supply is to be obtained. 
Two methods have been employed in such cases; one, the introduction 
of works through a water company; and the other, the creation of a 
fire, water or water supply district, which constructs and owns the 
works. The number of water companies supplying towns in Mas- 
sachusetts is not large; nevertheless there are 43 towns in which 
water is supplied by water companies, largely on account of the fact 
that the inhabitants of those portions of the town desiring water were 
unable to secure the two-thirds vote required for the introduction of the 
works by the town. The number of towns in the State in which fire, 
water and water supply districts have constructed works for similar 
reasons is 28. 

It has also happened in several of these towns that, when a water 
supply became necessary in other villages than the one originally sup- 
plied, a second district has been created, and thus there are often two 
water or fire districts in the same town, each maintaining an entirely 
distinct system of water works supplying water from separate sources. 
Such an arrangement is objectionable from the point of view of munic- 
ipal economy and may be objectionable in other ways. A notable 
case of the objections to such an arrangement has been brought to 
the attention of the Department during the past year. 

Under the provisions of chapter 169 of the Acts of the year 1887, 
the North Easton Water Company was incorporated and authorized 
to supply the inhabitants of the town of Easton, or any part thereof, 
with water for domestic, manufacturing and other purposes, including 
the extinguishment of fires. This act contained a provision that the 
town of Easton, or the incorporated district therein known as the 
North Easton Village District, should have the right to take, by 
purchase or otherwise, the franchise, property, etc., of the water 
company and operate the works thereafter under the powers of a fire 
district, and the works are now owned and operated by the North 
Easton Village District. This district as established occupies a nearly 
rectangular area about If miles long in a northwesterly and south- 
easterly direction and a little less than 1^ miles wide, located near the 
extreme northeastern corner of the town. It comprises an area of 
about 2j square miles, the total area of the town being 29.4 square 
miles. The northwesterly limits of the district are approximately 



44 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

parallel to the northwesterly boundary of the town and only an 
average distance of about .25 of a mile therefrom. The extreme 
easterly limits of the district are .7 of a mile from the boundary of 
the city of Brockton. 

In the year 1915 a second district was established within the town 
of Easton known as the South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water 
District. This district comprises a section of the town about 5 miles 
long and averaging a little over 1 mile in width lying along the 
easterly border of the town adjacent to Brockton and West Bridge- 
water. Its northerly limit is about 2j miles south of the boundary 
between Easton and Stoughton, and this limit extends from the 
boundary of the North Easton Village District to the boundary line 
of the city of Brockton. The North Easton Village District is sup- 
plied with water from wells situated in the valley of a tributary of 
the Coweeset River within the limits of the district. The South 
Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water District is supplied from 
separate works through an extension of the pipes of the city of 
Brockton. 

The arrangement of the two districts herein described leaves in the 
extreme northeasterly corner of the town of Easton an area about 2j 
miles long in a northerly and southerly direction and from f to 1| 
miles in width which does not form a part of either district and is 
practically wholly cut off from the remaining portions of the town. 
This district, known as Unionville, is inhabited by about ninety- 
families, and, in response to a petition of certain inhabitants thereof, 
the State Department of Health during the past year investigated the 
condition of the water supply in Unionville, as a result of which it 
was found that many of the wells in use were badly polluted, and the 
Department is informed also that many of them have failed during 
the dry seasons that have occurred in recent years. The best prac- 
ticable plan of supplying this village with water cannot be deter- 
mined without an engineering investigation. It is probable that a 
supply could best be obtained in connection with the works of the 
North Easton Village District, but it is possible to supply water to 
this locality from the works of the city of Brockton, and the village 
might be supplied from the works of the South Easton and Easton- 
dale Fire and Water District, though the cost of a supply from the 
latter district would very probably be considerably greater than if 
water were obtained from the North Easton Village District, and the 
system would be less economical in other ways. In view of the 
circumstances, it is desirable that legislation be enacted which will 
enable the village of Unionville to secure a much needed general 
water supply. 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 45 



Private Water Supplies. 

The Revised Laws of Massachusetts provide that the State De- 
partment of Health shall have the general oversight and care of in- 
land waters and of all streams and ponds used by any city, town or 
public institution, or by any water company or ice company as sources 
of water supply, and of all streams and water courses tributary 
thereto, and the Department is further empowered to cause examina- 
tions of such waters to be made to ascertain their purity and fitness 
for domestic use or their liability to impair the interests of the public 
or of persons lawfully using them, or to imperil the public health. 
It is finally provided that plans relating to the introduction of systems 
of water supply shall be submitted to the Department for its advice 
before the works are constructed. No provision whatever is made in 
these laws for the examination of private water supplies and none 
are examined, except in connection with investigations made by the 
Department for specific purposes, relating usually to questions con- 
nected with the investigation of causes of contagious disease. The 
examination of private water supplies is, consequently, left to the 
owner or occupant of the premises upon which the supply is situated. 
The number of public water supplies in the State of Massachusetts 
barely exceeds 200, while the number of private supplies probably 
exceeds 30,000 and may be greatly in excess of that figure. 

The extension of the work of the examination of water supplies to 
all private sources, a question which is raised from time to time, is of 
course impracticable, except at great cost, and on the whole is probably 
unnecessary. There are certain classes of private supplies, however, 
to which it seems desirable in the interest of the public health that 
the oversight of the State should be extended. One of these is the 
water supplies of summer hotels and boarding houses and places of 
public resort, such as picnic groves, camp grounds, etc. The sanitary 
conditions of such premises can be looked after efficiently by the local 
boards of health, but such boards are not usually equipped with 
means for the proper investigation of the water supplies of such places. 
It not infrequently happens that the State Department of Health is 
requested to make examinations of the water supplies of camps and 
other resorts suspected of being the sources of communicable diseases, 
and a considerable number of such examinations has been made in 
past years. It would be much better, however, if the water supplies 
of such places were maintained under supervision at all times and the 
danger of diseases arising from such places avoided. 

Another class of private water supplies somewhat intimately con- 



46 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

nected with the public health comprises the supplies used in the 
washing of utensils on farms and at dairies from which the public 
milk supply is derived. The expense of a proper examination of a 
water supply is a considerable one and is often a more serious tax 
than a farmer or dairy owner feels able to incur. Examinations of many 
such sources have been made in the past at times of prevalence of 
contagious disease, and it would no doubt be much better if provi- 
sion for such examinations were made by law and sources found to be 
dangerous improved or eliminated. 

While the cost of such work would be considerable, it would not 
only aid materially in the further reduction of typhoid fever and 
similar contagious diseases, but would also no doubt be a material 
advantage to the State, especially in the case of summer hotels and 
boarding houses, since it would inform the public as to the safety or 
danger of the water supply of such places. Such examinations would 
no doubt aid materially also in securing better water for use in con- 
nection with dairy farms and in removing in advance a common 
source of suspicion in cases where contagious disease is found to exist. 

A third class of private water supplies which may also have a 
marked effect upon the public health is the spring waters which are 
sold extensively for drinking in many of the cities and towns of the 
State. These waters have been examined by this Department from 
time to time in past years with the result that a number of objection- 
able sources were eliminated. It is now many years since funds have 
been available for making these examinations. Their importance 
appears to justify a sufficient appropriation for the thorough examina- 
tion of these sources and the elimination of those which may be 
injurious to health. 



Rainfall and Stream Flow in 1915. 

The total rainfall throughout the greater part of Massachusetts 
in the year 1915 has differed but little from the average of the past 
forty years, having been on the whole slightly less than the normal, 
as shown by some of the longer rainfall records available in the State. 

While, however, the average rainfall has differed but little from the 
normal, its distribution has been most exceptional. In the month of 
January the total precipitation throughout the State, excepting in the 
extreme northwesterly and northeasterly sections, was generally about 
twice as great as the monthly normal. In February the precipitation 
was about the normal for that month throughout the State. The 
month of March was absolutely without precipitation throughout the 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 47 

State, with the exception of a small area in the mountains west of the 
Connecticut River. The longest records of rainfall available fail to 
show the occurrence in any previous year of a rainless month of 
March at any station within the limits of Massachusetts. In the 
months of April, May and June the rainfall was extremely deficient in 
all parts of the State, though the amount of water in storage was 
generally somewhat greater than at the same time in the very dry 
year of 1911. On the early morning of July 1 occurred the most ex- 
cessive fall of rain in a limited time that has been recorded anywhere 
in Massachusetts for many years. The total precipitation at Boston 
in the period from 1.30 to about 8.00 a.m. on that date amounted to 
4.3 inches, the greater part of which fell in the period from 1.30 to 
4.30 A.M. The precipitation continued excessive through July and 
August throughout the greater portion of the State, except in the 
southeast. In the months of September, October and November the 
rainfall was again deficient, and in December it exceeded the average. 
The efi'ect of this distribution of the rainfall on the water supplies 
of the State has naturally been very different from that which or- 
dinarily obtains. The heavy precipitation in July and August raised 
the level of the ponds and reservoirs and increased the storage of the 
ground water supplies so that no case has come to the attention of 
the Department in which a shortage of water was experienced at any 
time during the year. The rainfall for the month of July was greater 
than in any year since 1897, and the flow of streams in that month 
probably greater than in any year since 1889. The conditions in the 
month of August were much the same as in July and the flow of 
streams excessive for that time of year. The quantity of water in 
storage at this date (Jan. 10, 1916) is greater than for many years, and, 
with an average rainfall in the coming winter and spring, it is reasonable 
to expect that all storage will be completely filled before the beginning 
of summer in 1916. 



Sanitaky Protection of Public Water Supplies. 
Under the authority of section 113, chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, 
the Department has from time to time made rules and regulations for 
the sanitary protection of sources of water supply. The water sup- 
plies so protected are* included in the following list: — 



Abington and Rockland. 

Amherst. 

Andover. 

Attleboro. 



Braintree. 

Brockton and Whitman. 

Cambridge. 

Chester. 



48 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chicopee. 
Concord. 

Danvers and Middleton. 
Easthampton. 
Fall River. 
Falmouth. 
Fitchburg. 
Gardner. 

Great Barrington (Housatonic). 
Greenfield. 
Haverhill. 
Hingham and Hull. 
Holden. 
Holyoke. 
Hudson. 

Leicester (Cherry Valley and Roch- 
dale) . 
Lincoln and Concord. 
Lynn. 

Marlborough. 
Maynard. 
Montague. 
Northampton. 



North Andover. 

Northborough. 

Norwood. 

Peabody. 

Pittsfield. 

Plymouth. 

Randolph and Holbrook. 

Rockport. 

Russell. 

Rutland. 

Salem and Beverly. 

Springfield. 

Springfield and Ludlow. 

Stockbridge. 

Taunton. 

Wakefield. 

Westfield. 

West Springfield. 

Weymouth. 

WiUiamsburg. 

Winchester. 

Worcester. 



Rules and regulations made under the law cited above are enforce- 
able by local authorities and are so enforced in the various cities and 
towns. The rules generally prohibit the cutting of ice on ponds used 
directly as sources of public water supply, but it has been the custom 
of local authorities to grant permits for ice cutting in cases where 
such use had been a practice before the water supply was introduced. 
The examinations of ponds and reservoirs while ice cutting was in 
progress have shown that the process results in the pollution of the 
water and is likely to cause sickness among those who use the water 
for drinking. It has been found impracticable to protect from pol- 
lution the water of ponds and reservoirs upon which ice cutting is 
carried on, even by the most careful inspection, and the practice 
should be discontinued on all ponds and reservoirs from which water 
is supplied directly for drinking. 



Supervision of Water Companies. 
Under the provisions of chapter 787 of the Acts of the year 1914, 
entitled "An Act to provide for the Supervision of Water Companies 
by the Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissioners," the duties 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 49 

of the State Department of Health in relation to this subject ceased 
on July 7, 1914, except as to questions pending when that act be- 
came effective. Those matters were finally acted upon before the end 
of the year 1914. In 1915 an act was passed, chapter 21 of the Gen- 
eral Acts of the year 1915, under which the State Department of 
Health may be required to furnish to the Board of Gas and Electric 
Light Commissioners engineering services and advice for its assistance 
and guidance in proceedings relating to the petition of any water 
company for authorization to issue capital stock or bonds, and in all 
matters connected with the determination by that Board of any ques- 
tion relating thereto and before any authorization is given by the 
Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissioners to issue capital stock 
or bonds. Only a very little work, and that of an informal character, 
has been required of the Department by the Gas and Electric Light 
Commissioners during the past year, but as matters of importance 
relating to those questions may come up at any time, it is recom- 
mended that an appropriation be made available to the Department 
for engineering expenses under that act. It is impracticable to esti- 
mate the amount of money likely to be required for carrying out the 
requirements of that act, but, under the circumstances, an appropri- 
ation of $1,000 would appear to be a reasonable sum to provide in 
191G for the use of this Department in cases where engineering advice 
and assistance are requested by the Gas and Electric Light Com- 
missioners. 

Examination of Sewer Outlets. 
All main sewer outlets discharging into the sea or into tidal waters 
have been examined during the year, and special attention has been 
given to the distances to which sewage could be traced from such 
outlets and its effect upon the waters into which it is discharged and 
upon adjacent shores. At the outlet of the main drainage system of 
the city of Boston at Moon Island, where the sewage is stored in 
reservoirs and discharged in the first two hours of the outgoing tide, 
the conditions now prevailing differ but little from those of former 
years. The quantity of sewage discharged at this outlet in 1915 
averaged about 100,000,000 gallons per day. In the course of the 
passage of this sewage from the city to the Moon Island outlet, it 
passes through settling tanks, or deposit sewers, so called, at the 
pumping station at Calf Pasture, thence through the tunnel and main 
outfall sewer to the reservoirs, where it is stored before discharge. 
In consequence of these conditions, the sewage becomes considerably 
decomposed, and putrefactive processes set in before it reaches the 



50 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

place of disposal. The sewage is discharged through an outlet located 
at the surface of the water and covers a large area by the time the 
reservoirs are emptied. The odor in the neighborhood of the outlet 
and over much of the area in which the sewage is visible is offensive 
for a considerable time after the discharge, though the sewage very 
soon becomes thoroughly mingled with the harbor waters and its 
presence ceases to be noticeable. 

At the outlet of the north metropolitan sewerage district at Deer 
Island the average quantity of sewage discharged during the year 
1915 amounted to 60,000,000 gallons per day. The conditions about 
this outlet have remained much the same as in former years. The 
sewage is discharged continuously throughout the twenty-four hours 
and is rarely noticeable upon the surface of the sea beyond a distance 
of half a mile from the outlet. Greasy matters in the sewage, how- 
ever, form a sleek, so called, upon the surface of the water, which is 
traceable often for considerably greater distances, though having no 
other noticeable effect upon the condition of the harbor waters. This 
outlet is located at the level of low water close to Deer Island Light 
and is objectionable to the keepers of the light. A new outlet is now 
being constructed through which the sewage will be discharged a 
short distance beyond its present location in about 50 feet of water 
at low tide. 

The sewage of the south metropolitan sewerage district is discharged 
at two outlets about 1 mile north of Nut Island at the bottom of one 
of the main channels of the harbor, where the water is approximately 
30 feet in depth at low tide. The outlets are used alternately, except 
at times when there is an excessive flow of sewage due to rain, when 
both outlets are used. During the past year a third outlet has been 
constructed at a point 1,400 feet north of Nut Island to provide re- 
lief at times of high flow in the main sewer. The average daily 
quantity of sewage discharged at the Nut Island outlets during the 
year 1915 was 51,000,000 gallons per day. The sewage discharged at 
these outlets is greatly diluted before reaching the surface of the sea 
and is noticeable over only a small area in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the points of discharge, though sleek is noticeable at times 
at greater distances. 

The outlet of the main sewerage system of the city of New Bed- 
ford has been in use continuously during the past year, and the 
quantity of sewage discharged there has amounted probably to about 
50 per cent, of the total quantity discharged from the city sewers. 
The main intercepting sewer is being extended rapidly, and within a 
short time nearly all of the dry-weather flow of sewage from the city 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 51 

will be discharged through the new outlet. This outlet is located in 
Buzzards Bay about two-thirds of a mile southeast of Clark's Point, 
where the water is 30 feet in depth at low tide. When examined 
during the past year, the sewage was noticeable in the surrounding 
sea water only for a maximum distance of about 200 feet, and evidence 
of its presence could not be detected by chemical or bacterial analysis 
beyond a limit of about one-fourth of a mile from the outlet. In 
fact, notwithstanding the large quantity of sewage discharged here, 
the outlet is very difficult to find. 

No changes have been made in the system of sewage disposal at 
Fall River during the past year. Plans for the improvement of the 
Quequechan River, involving the construction of a main sewer to 
discharge the sewage and storm water from the Quequechan valley 
into Mt. Hope Bay, were approved by the Department in the latter 
part of the year, but the construction of these works has not yet 
been undertaken. 

Early in the year plans for the collection and disposal of the sewage 
of the town of Danvers, including an outlet into Salem Harbor, were 
considered by the Department, and, in view of the advantage to 
Danvers of a sea outlet for its sewage and the great desirability of a 
change in the location of the present sewer outlet of the city of 
Beverly, the Department recommended that the question of a com- 
mon outlet be considered by these municipalities. No definite action 
in the matter has yet been taken by the city and town concerned. 

The sewer outlet at Salem discharges near the surface of the sea 
at low tide, and, in consequence, the sewage spreads at times over a 
wide area. While there is no evidence that it affects any of the 
neighboring shores, the outlet could be greatly improved if extended 
to deep water a short distance beyond its present location. The force 
main through which the sewage is conveyed from the Salem pumping 
station to this outlet was constructed for the use of the city of Salem 
only but is now used for the disposal of the sewage of both Salem 
and Peabody. While adequate for the purpose at present, a larger 
main will be needed at no distant time, and when such a main is 
constructed a new outlet in deep water should be provided. 

The investigations relative to the disposal of the sewage of the city 
of Lynn, and the removal of the great nuisance that now exists along 
the shores of the harbor in the neighborhood of the present sewer 
outlet, have been carried on during the year under the direction of 
the joint board consisting of the State Department of Health and the 
municipal council of the city of Lynn. The results of these investi- 
gations will be presented in a separate report. 



52 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

At the other main sewer outlets discharging into the sea or tidal 
waters there has been no change worthy of note during the past year. 

Plans for a proposed temporary outlet into the sea for the sewage 
of the town of Hull were approved by this Department in 1914, the 
proposed outlet to be located in Hingham Bay on the westerly side 
of the town. The town has prepared plans for disposing of the sewage 
of the central portions of the town, including Nantasket Beach, by 
constructing a sewer from the neighborhood of the highlands at the 
southerly end of Nantasket Beach to an outlet into the sea off Aller- 
ton; and the temporary outlet was designed to give relief to certain 
areas in the town which are badly in need of sewerage until such 
time as the main sewer leading to the permanent outlet has been 
completed. The proper protection of the public health requires the 
removal of the sewage from about the dwelling houses in these areas 
at the earliest practicable time. 



Sewage-disposal Systems. 

The sewage-disposal system of the city of Fitchburg, which was 
completed late in 1914, has been operated regularly during the greater 
part of the year. The operation of the works was interrupted for a 
considerable time late in the year to make certain changes and re- 
pairs. The treatment works consist of five preliminary settling tanks 
with separate compartments for the digestion of sludge, 2.14 acres of 
trickling filters 10 feet deep, containing crushed stone 1 to 3 inches in 
size, and four secondary settling tanks for the sedimentation of the 
effluent after it passes the filters. While the works were in operation 
the analyses showed that they removed about 87 per cent, of the sus- 
pended solids contained in the sewage and somewhat less than 70 per 
cent, of the organic matter, as shown by the albuminoid ammonia. 

The revolving screen and new trickling filter at Brockton have been 
in constant operation during the year, and analyses show that on an 
average 76 per cent, of the suspended solids and about 60 per cent, 
of the organic matter have been removed from the sewage. The sand 
filters at these works, which have an aggregate area of 30 acres, have 
not been maintained at the standard of former years. The capacity 
of these works is inadequate for the efficient purification of all of the 
sewage now being delivered at the works. 

New works for the disposal of sewage from the town of Franklin 
were completed during the year. The works consist of a main sewer 
in the valley of Mine Brook which collects the sewage from all of the 
thickly settled parts of the town, with the exception of a small dis- 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 



53 



trict in the extreme easterly part of the main village, and conveys it 
to settling tanks and filter beds located in the valley of Mine Brook 
a short distance west of tiie village of Unionville. The disposal works 
consist of settling and dosing tanks for the sedimentation of the 
sewage and eleven sand filter beds having an aggregate area of about 
3.24 acres. The effluent of these filters is discharged into Mine Brook. 

At Framingham considerable improvement has been made in the 
operation of the filters by the removal of clogged sand from some of 
the beds and by the construction of additional underdrains. 

At Pittsfield additional filters have been constructed during the 
year, increasing the area available for the disposal of the sewage by 
about 50 per cent. 

At Hopedale the filtration works have been improved and the area 
enlarged by the construction of additional beds, making an aggregate 
filtration area of about 3.79 acres. 

The new filters at Attleboro have operated satisfactorily during 
the year, and the same may be said of nearly all of the other prin- 
cipal sewage-disposal works in the State. In some cases, however, as 
at Southbridge, less care has been exercised than necessary to secure 
the best results, and in two or three cases, especially at Gardner and 
Natick, better methods of applying the sewage to the filters would 
improve the effectiveness of the works. 

The folloAving is a list of the principal sewage disposal works in 
operation in the State: — 



Amherst. 

Andover. 

Attleboro. 

Billerica. 

Brockton. 

Clinton. 

Concord. 

Easthampton. 

Fitchburg. 

Framingham. 

Franklin. 

Gardner. 

Hopedale. 

Hudson. 

Leicester. 

Lenox. 

Longmeadow. 



Marion. 

Marlborough. 

Maynard. 

Medfield. 

Milford. 

Natick. 

North Attleborough. 

Northbridge. 

North Brookfield. 

Norwood. 

Pittsfield. 

Southbridge. 

Spencer. 

Stockbridge. 

Westborough. 

Worcester. 



54 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Insanitary Conditions due to lack of Sewerage. 

About one-half of the cities and towns in the State *which have 
public water supplies are provided with systems of sewerage. While 
the introduction of a public water supply always increases materially 
the quantity of sewage requiring disposal in a city or town, it by no 
means follows that the introduction of a sewerage system becomes 
essential at once upon the introduction of a public water supply. 
The need of sewerage in a populous area varies with the geological 
conditions, and a number of towns of considerable size having public 
water supplies have been able to maintain satisfactory sanitary con- 
ditions without sewerage where the porosity of the soil and depth to 
ground water are adequate for the proper disposal of the sewage in 
vaults and cesspools. There are many towns, however, in which it is 
nearly impracticable to maintain proper sanitary conditions in the 
thickly settled portions at the present time owing to lack of sewer- 
age, chief among these being the towns of Braintree, Bridgewater. 
Danvers, Mansfield, Marblehead, Reading, Rockland, Saugus, Stough- 
ton, Weymouth and Whitman. At best it is usually necessary to 
clean out vaults and empty cesspools at more or less frequent intervals, 
a process in itself inevitably involving a very considerable nuisance. 
Moreover, in the disposal of such waste great care is necessary to 
prevent danger of the pollution of sources of water supply. 

It often happens, however, that, owing to an impervious soil or the 
saturation of the ground by the increasing quantity of sewage dis- 
charged into cesspools in a growing community, the maintenance of 
proper sanitary conditions in the thickly built-up section of a town 
becomes practically impossible. In the spring and at times of heavy 
rain at other seasons of the year, sewage overflows from the cesspools 
to the nearest drain or water course, with the result that conditions 
are created which are likely to be injurious to health. In the towns 
mentioned above the conditions are very objectionable in the densely 
populated areas, and it is impracticable to attempt to obtain relief 
by the enforcement of health regulations unless an adequate means 
of sewage disposal is first provided. 

In practically all of these towns action has already been taken by 
the town toward the introduction of a sewerage system by the prepa- 
ration of plans and estimates of the probable cost of the necessary 
works, but as yet no further action has been taken toward the intro- 
duction of sewerage works. In some of these towns the method of 
disposal of the sewage presents a serious problem and requires co- 
operation with other municipalities or districts, as in the case of 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 55 

Danvers, already mentioned, and also in the case of Reading. In the 
latter case, by direction of the Legislature of 1914, plans for the dis- 
posal of the sewage were made by this Department and the metro- 
politan water and sewerage board, acting jointly, and were presented 
in a report to the Legislature of 1915 (House Document No. 6). As 
a result of this investigation, it was found that it would be very dif- 
ficult and expensive for the town to dispose of its sewage within its 
own limits and that the best method of disposal was the discharge of 
the sewage into the north metropolitan sewerage system through an 
extension of the Stoneham branch of that system. 

Pollution of Rivers. 

The pollution of rivers in 1915 has on the whole been somewhat 
less noticeable than in other recent years on account of the fact that 
the flow of streams in the months of July and August was greater 
than has occurred in those months in a period of a quarter of a 
century. With a deficient rainfall in the months of September, Oc- 
tober and November, the flow of streams fell to less than the average, 
and the eflFect of the pollution of streams became in some cases more 
marked than in previous years. 

In many of the river valleys the factories have recently begun to 
operate more fully than has been the case for a number of years, and if 
present conditions should continue stream pollution is likely to be 
more serious in the coming year than has hitherto been the case, 
unless the rainfall and stream flow are much greater than usual. 

The most seriously polluted rivers in Massachusetts at the present 
time are the Blackstone, the Neponset, and the north branch of the 
Nashua below Fitchburg and Leominster, and the condition of these 
streams in the latter part of the summer and through the autumn was 
very objectionable. The Hoosick, the Assabet, the French and the 
Taunton rivers are also in places very badly polluted. 

Assabet River. 
The condition of the Assabet River shows no material change from 
former years. In the upper portion of its course below Westborough 
and Hudson this river was formerly very seriously polluted, but in 
later years the condition of its upper waters has not been objection- 
able. The examinations of the past year show a slight increase in 
pollution above Maynard. At Maynard the river receives a very 
large quantity of manufacturing wastes, including a considerable 
quantity of sewage from the town, and, while partial works have al- 



56 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ready been installed for the treatment of the manufacturing wastes at 
Maynard, the pollution of the river shows no material change in the 
past three years. The river is a very badly polluted one, and more 
efficient treatment of the manufacturing wastes and sewage at May- 
nard is necessary before the river can be maintained in a satisfactory 
condition. Plans for a sewerage system are under consideration by 
the town of Maynard, and experiments are now being made upon the 
treatment of the manufacturing wastes discharged from the mills, 
the efficient purification of which involves many difficulties and a 
considerable expense. 

Blackstone River. 

The pollution of the Blackstone River was carefully investigated 
in 1913 by direction of the Legislature, and a description of the sources 
of pollution of that stream was presented in the report of the State 
Board of Health for 1913 (House Document, No. 2163, session of 
1914). 

During the past year a new sewer has been completed by the city 
of Worcester which carries a much larger quantity of sewage to the 
disposal works, thus relieving appreciably the pollution of the stream 
above the disposal works as compared with the previous year. Farther 
downstream at Millbury, Uxbridge and Blackstone the river shows 
evidence of more serious pollution than in any former year since 
examinations of the river were begun by this Department nearly 
thirty years ago. 

Charles River. 

The Charles River, which has hitherto received comparatively little 
contamination, has shown evidence of a greater degree of pollution in 
the past year than has ever thus far been recorded. These conditions 
are doubtless due, in part, to the overflow of sewage from inadequate 
sewage-disposal works at the Medfield State Hospital, plans for the 
enlargement of which are now under consideration. This river is used 
to a very great extent as a source of public water supply, the water 
being drawn from wells and filter galleries adjacent to the river, 
especially at Dedham, Brookline, Newton and Waltham. 

In view of the conditions, it is of the utmost importance that the 
river be kept free from sewage pollution. 

The recent installation of a sewerage system and purification works 
at Franklin, which were designed of sufficient size to receive also 
such manufacturing wastes as might reasonably be admitted thereto, 
should assist materially in maintaining the purity of the Charles 
River, provided the manufacturing wastes discharged from the fac- 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 57 

tories in that town are also properly cared for. Further improvement 
will no doubt be made in the condition of the river when the sewerage 
system for the town of Wellesley, now under construction, has been 
completed. 

Chicopee River. 

The Chicopee River in the lower part of its course has been less 
polluted recently than in former years. Farther upstream, below 
Spencer and below Palmer, there have " been somewhat greater evi- 
dences of pollution during the past year than has formerly been the 
case. Among the tributaries of the stream, Chicopee Brook, flowing 
through Monson, has shown a greater degree of pollution in the past 
year than ever before, and the same is true of the Ware River for a 
considerable distance above its junction with the Chicopee River. The 
pollution of Chicopee Brook is caused by sewage and manufacturing 
waste from the town of Monson, and the conditions have now become 
such that sewage-disposal works are necessary to prevent the gross 
pollution of this stream. A sewage-disposal system has also become 
necessary in the town of Ware to prevent the offensive pollution of 
that stream in the lower portion of its course. 

The condition of the other tributaries of the Chicopee River has 
remained about the same as in former years. 

Concord River. 

The Concord River is formed by the junction of the Assabet and 
Sudbury rivers at Concord. The Assabet River, as already indicated, 
is very seriously polluted, chiefly by manufacturing wastes and sewage 
in the town of Maynard, and the pollution is noticeable down to the 
point where this stream joins the Sudbury River. On the Sudbury 
River the chief pollution is that which is caused by the discharge 
of manufacturing wastes from the woolen mills at Saxonville. There 
has been little change in the conditions affecting the pollution of the 
Sudbury River as compared with former years, though somewhat 
more organic matter has been present in its waters than was formerly 
the case. 

The Concord River receives very little pollution throughout the 
greater portion of its course. At North Billerica, about 4 miles above 
its mouth, the river receives a small amount of pollution from the 
mills at that place, though its condition is not objectionable until it 
enters the city of Lowell. Within the limits of Lowell the Concord 
River is badly polluted by sewage and manufacturing wastes down to 
the point where it joins the Merrimack River. 



58 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Connecticut River. 

The condition of the Connecticut River has been rather better 
throughout its course in Massachusetts than has been the case for 
several years, this condition being due no doubt to the fact that the 
flow of the stream in the warmer portion of the year was much greater 
in 1915 than for many years. The river in general is not seriously 
polluted, but objectionable conditions are found in the vicinity of 
certain sewer outlets in the various cities and towns along its bank, 
chiefly in Holyoke and Springfield. In many cases nuisances about 
sewer outlets along the river have been relieved by extending the 
sewers to a point of discharge in the bed of the stream at a sufficient 
distance from the river bank to prevent the sewage from returning 
thereto until it has mingled thoroughly with the river water. 

Of the smaller tributaries of the Connecticut River, the Mill River 
at Northampton shows considerable improvement above the main 
sewer outlet as compared with last year. The better condition of the 
stream this year is probably due largely, however, to the excessive 
flow of water during the summer season as compared with ordinary 
conditions. 

The Manhan River also shows improvement as compared with 
former years, a condition doubtless due to the same cause. 

The main sewer of the town of Amherst, designed to convey the 
sewage of the greater portion of that town to the Connecticut River, 
has been under construction during the past year and is now nearly 
completed. With the completion of this sewer it will be practicable 
to relieve greatly the serious pollution of the Fort River, one of the 
smaller tributaries of the Connecticut. 

French River. 
The French River has become one of the most seriously polluted 
rivers in the State. The pollution of its upper waters is caused chiefly 
by manufacturing waste, and the amount of such pollution is great 
enough to produce objectionable conditions in the river at several 
points along its course above the town of Webster. At Webster the 
river receives the manufacturing wastes from a large woolen mill and 
from cotton mills and print works in addition to the sewage of the 
town, and the condition of the stream below Webster during much of 
the past summer has been very objectionable. The outlets from which 
sewage and manufacturing wastes are discharged into the river at 
Webster are located within about 1.5 miles of the boundary line of 
the State of Connecticut, and the effect of the gross pollution of the 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 59 

stream at Webster is very marked at the point where the river passes 
out of Massachusetts. The circumstances require that the sewage and 
also the more objectionable of the manufacturing wastes discharged 
into the river shall be purified if the stream is to be maintained in 
proper sanitary condition. 

Hoosick River. 

The condition of the Hoosick River below North Adams has been 
better during the past year than in any recent summer season, an 
improvement which is due no doubt to the great dilution caused by 
the heavy rainfall of July and August. The north branch has shown 
somewhat greater evidences of pollution than in previous years, though 
its condition is not objectionable. The waters of the south branch 
below Adams have been less polluted than usual, a condition which 
is due undoubtedly to greater dilution. 

Housatonic River. 

An examination of the Housatonic River shows improvement in 
the condition of the river in 1915 as compared with previous years. 
More care has been taken recently to prevent the entrance of sewage 
into the stream at Pittsfield, and during the past year practically all 
of the sewage has been pumped to the disposal works. These works 
have been enlarged about 50 per cent, during the past year, an im- 
provement which will aid materially in preventing the discharge of 
unpurified or partially purified sewage into the river, but with this 
enlargement the works are no more than sufficient to care for the 
present quantity of sewage. The condition of the river at points 
below Pittsfield has shown improvement as compared with former 
years, a condition which is doubtless due, in part at least, to the 
great dilution caused by the heavy rainfall during the summer. 

Merrimack River. 

The condition of the Merrimack River from the point where it 
enters the State down to the city of Lowell has been about the same 
as in former years. Between Lowell and Lawrence its condition has 
been somewhat better than in former years, an improvement doubt- 
less due to greater dilution. It is probable that more wool-scouring 
waste was discharged into the river at Lawrence than for several 
years, and below Lawrence the river has contained more organic 
matter than ever before, but farther down, near the mouth of the 
river, its condition has been about the same as in previous years. 



60 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doer. 

The following recommendation contained in the report of this Depart- 
ment in 1913 has not yet been carried out: — 

. . . It appears to the Board advisable that a limit be placed upon the 
time in which these objectionable wastes shall be allowed to discharge into the 
stream, and that a limit of time should also be specified within which the 
work of improving satisfactorily the condition of the sewer outlets in the cities 
and towns along the river shall be completed. 

Nashua River. 

The main intercepting sewer designed to intercept the dry-weather 
flow from the sewers of the city of Fitchburg, which formerly dis- 
charged into the stream at numerous points along its course through 
the city, has now been completed nearly to its extreme westerly 
limits, and during 1915 most of the dry-weather flow of sewage has 
been conveyed to the disposal works, situated near the extreme 
southeasterly boundary of the city. The sewage has been treated 
in the settling tanks and trickling filters at the disposal works during 
much of the year, though the operation of the works was discon- 
tinued for a time in order to make necessary repairs. The condition 
of the north branch of the Nashua River below the city, but above 
the disposal works, has been less objectionable than in former years. 
Below the disposal works the river has shown improvement, though 
its condition when the disposal works were not in operation was worse 
than in any former year. A similar condition was found to exist 
throughout the greater portion of the length of the river to the point 
where it joins the south branch at Lancaster. 

The town of Leominster began during the past year the necessary 
preliminary investigations for the construction of a system of sewage 
disposal, and plans for disposal works are in preparation. 

Neponset River. 
The Neponset River has shown no material change during the past 
year as compared with the previous year, though its condition in the 
past three years has been somewhat better than formerly. A general 
description of the conditions along this stream an,d references to the 
works constructed for the prevention of its pollution will be contained 
in a report relative to the improvement of the Neponset River to be 
presented to the Legislature by this Department. 



No. 34.1 WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 61 



Taunton River. 
The Salisbury Plain River, a tributary of the Taunton River, con- 
tinues to show improvement below the city of Brockton as compared 
with previous years. The Town River, another tributary of the 
Taunton, has shown, on the other hand, a marked increase in pol- 
lution below Bridgewater, and the condition of this stream is rapidly 
becoming objectionable, a condition which is due, in part, to the 
effluent discharged from the Brockton filter beds, to which reference 
has already been made. The Coweeset River, one of the tributaries 
of the Town River which receives effluent from the Brockton filter 
beds, has been very seriously polluted during the past year. The 
Nemasket River, another tributary of the Taunton, is polluted badly 
by the sewage of Middleborough, and the Three Mile River, a tribu- 
tary of the Taunton which enters the main river below the city of 
Taunton, is badly polluted, chiefly by wool scouring and other manu- 
facturing wastes in the town of Norton and the city of Taunton. The 
Taunton River itself below the point where it receives the sewage of 
the city of Taunton has shown a decided increase in pollution during 
the past summer as compared with any previous year. The limit of 
time within which the city of Taunton was to have constructed works 
for the purification of its sewage has expired, but the works have not 
yet been constructed. 

Other Rivers. 

Of the remaining principal river basins in the State, the most im- 
portant are the Millers, the Deerfield and the Westfield. The Millers 
River is polluted by sewage at Winchendon, Athol, Orange and Millers 
Falls, and this pollution has been greater, judging by the chemical 
analyses of the water, than in any previous year. The sewage ef- 
fluent from Gardner, which has not been well purified, has also had an 
unfavorable effect upon the stream during the past year. In general, 
the appearance of the river and its tributaries is not objectionable, 
except in the immediate neighborhood of sewer outlets. 

The Deerfield River is practically an unpolluted stream throughout 
the greater part of its course. Just above its mouth, however, it is 
polluted considerably by the sewage of the town of Greenfield which is 
discharged into the stream after passing through settling tanks. While 
the conditions below this sewer outlet have not been seriously objec- 
tionable during the past year, there is no doubt that, in order to 
maintain the river in proper sanitary condition, further treatment of 
the sewage of Greenfield will be required at no distant time. 

The Westfield River, like the Deerfield, receives comparatively little 



62 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

pollution throughout the greater part of its course. Its chief pollution 
is that caused by the sewage of the town of Westfield which is dis- 
charged into the stream without treatment at points below the town. 
The conditions produced by the disposal of sewage at this point have 
not been objectionable during the past year. 

The Quinebaug River above Southbridge receives very little pollu- 
tion. At Southbridge considerable quantities of manufacturing wastes 
are discharged into the river, and the stream is also polluted con- 
siderably by sewage and a poorly purified effluent from the sewage- 
disposal works of the town. With proper care, the disposal works are 
capable of treating all of the sewage effectively and preventing the 
further serious pollution of the river. Its condition has not, however, 
been seriously objectionable during the past year. 

North River in Salem and Peabody. 
The condition of the North River in Salem and Peabody has shown 
no very material improvement during the past year. The sewerage 
system of Salem and Peabody has not yet been completed by the con- 
struction of a pump well of suitable design to avoid the necessity of 
backing up the sewage in the main sewer in order to operate the 
pumps. Considerable work has been done by manufacturers in the 
town of Peabody in the installation of tanks for the removal of solid 
matter from their wastes, which aids in the creation of deposits in the 
main trunk sewer. It is unlikely, however, that a very material im- 
provement in the condition of the North River can be effected until a 
suitable pump well has been provided and the backing up of the 
sewage in the trunk sewer prevented. More care must also be taken 
in maintaining the settling tanks at the various factories. 

Improvement of the Neponset River. 
The work of improving the channel of the Neponset River, under 
chapter 655 of the x\cts of 1911 and acts in addition thereto, was com- 
pleted early in the year, so far as provided for in those acts. The re- 
sults of investigations upon the further improvement of this river, 
together with a description of the work already done, will be presented 
in a separate report. 

Drainage of Wet Lands. 
The unexpended balance of $24,547.55 of the appropriations aggre- 
gating $25,000, which the departments of agriculture and health were 
directed to expend in the drainage of wet lands, under the provisions 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE. 63 

of chapter 759 of the Acts of 1913 and chapter 596 of the Acts of 1914, 
was early in January, 1915, transferred to the State Forester, to be 
used for the employment of the unemployed. 

The subject of the improvement of wet lands is a very important 
one and will doubtless be taken up again at no distant time. In the 
meantime it is advisable that definite information be collected relative 
to the extent and character of the larger areas of swamp lands in the 
State, and that such preliminary studies be made of the areas most 
suitable and available for drainage as will show with reasonable ac- 
curacy the probable cost of the drainage of such areas and their prob- 
able value after improvement. A great amount of such work is now 
being carried on in several States, especially in the west and south, 
where agricultural lands are at least no more valuable after improve- 
ment than many of the accessible areas of swamp and marsh lands in 
Massachusetts. Such, an investigation would involve no great expense 
and its results would be of great value in ascertaining the advantages 
and probable cost of improving such areas. 

In conclusion, attention is called to the need of additional funds for 
carrying out the laws relative to the protection of inland waters if 
the increase in the pollution of streams lately noticeable is to be 
checked and their excessive pollution prevented. For the effective 
protection of the waters of the State, purification works must be 
established in increasing numbers, and if the State is to continue to 
give such aid as it can with expert advice to cities, towns and man- 
ufacturers in the construction, maintenance and effective operation of 
works for the protection of water and the disposal of sewage and other 
objectionable wastes, it will be essential that additional funds be 
provided for the work. The requisitions upon the Department for 
advice and assistance in matters relating to water, sewerage and the 
disposal of wastes have increased rapidly in the last few years, and, 
with the renewed industrial activity recently noticeable, these demands 
cannot longer be met effectively within the limits of the amount now 
provided for this work. 



64 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Adyice to Cities, Towns and Persons. 



Under the provisions of the Revised Laws (chapter 75, section 117)^ 
the State Board of Health is required to 

consult with and advise the authorities of cities and towns and persons having,, 
or about to have, systems of water supply, drainage or sewerage, as to the most 
appropriate source of water supply, and the best method of assuring its purity 
or as to the best method of disposing of their drainage or sewage with reference 
to the existing and future needs of other cities, towns or persons which may be 
affected thereby. It shall also consult with and advise persons engaged or 
intending to engage in any manufacturing or other business whose drainage or 
sewage may tend to pollute any inland water as to the best method of preventing 
such pollution, and it may conduct experiments to determine the best methods 
of the pmification or disposal of drainage or sewage. No person shall be required 
to bear the expense of such consultation, advice or experiments. Cities, towns, 
and persons shall submit to said board for its advice their proposed system of 
water supply or of the disposal of drainage or sewage, and all petitions to the 
general court for authority to introduce a system of water supply, drainage or 
sewerage shall be accompanied by a copy of the recommendation and advice of 
said board thereon. 

During the year 1915 advice has been given to the following cities,, 
towns and persons who have applied for such advice under the pro- 
visions of this act or under special acts relating to water supply and 
sewerage. 

Official communications were made during the year under the pro- 
visions of acts relating to water supply and to sources of ice supply, 
as follows: — 

Water Supply. 



Arlington. 

ArUngton (well). 

Attleboro (well of J. E. Blake 

Company). 
Attleboro (well in Hebron ville). 
Belchertown. 
Bernardston. 
Billerica (wells of Boston & Maine 

Raihoad car shops). 
Bridgewater (well). 



Canton (Massachusetts Hospital 
School). 

Canton (American Fireworks Com- 
pany). 

Chelmsford (wells) (two). 

Chelsea (well of Rossi Bros. Com- 
pany). 

Chicopee (Willimansett). 

Dalton. 

Dana (springs at Dana Center School) » 



No. 34. 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



65 



Deerfield (Boston & Maine Railroad, 

East Deerfield) (two). 
Dracut (well at Kenwood School). 
Duxbury. 
Eastham (well). 
East Longmeadow (well). 
Easton (North Easton Village Dis- 
trict) . 
Easton (South Easton and Eastondale 

Fire and Water District). 
Easton (Union ville) . 
Enfield (spring). 
Essex (Town Farm). 
Fairhaven (well at Fort Phoenix). 
Fall River (four). 
Falmouth. 
Fitchburg (two). 
Framingham. 

Framingham (well in Saxonville). 
Franklin (wells). 
Gardner (well). 
Georgeto"v\Ti. 

Georgeto\^•n (wells) (two). 
Greenfield. 
Hanover. 

Hanover (wells) (two). 
Harwich (wells in Harwich Center). 

Holj^oke (Valley Paper Company). 

Hubbardston (well). 

Ips'v\'ich. 

Ipswich (well at Rose Tree Inn) (two). 

Lawrence (well at Everett Mills). 

LawTence (well at Wood Worsted 
Mills). 

Lawrence (well at Washington Mills). 

Lenox. 

Lenox (spring in Lenox Dale) . 

Lowell (two). 

Lowell (United States Cartridge Com- 
pany) (two). 

Lowell (spring). 

Lunenburg. 

LjTin (H. P. Hood & Sons). 

Mansfield. 

Marblehead. 

Marion. 



Marshfield (Webster Terrace Land 

Company) . 
Medfield (well). 
Medford (Fulton Spring). 
Milton (well). 

Monson (State Hospital) (two). 
Montague (Turners Falls) (two). 
New Bedford. 
North Adams (two). 
North Attleborough (Webster Com- 
pany) (two). 
Northbridge (Rockdale). 
Northfield (Northfield Schools). 
Norwell (well at school). 
Orange (well at school). 
Oxford (ToA\Ti Farm). 
Palmer (wells and springs). 
Peabody (four). 
Peabody (Crj'stal Spring). 
Provinceto\vTi (wells). 
Reading (well). 
Rowley (wells) (four). 

Salem (two). 

Salem (springs). 

Salisbury, 

Sandwich (water supply of Massachu- 
setts Volunteer INIiUtia). 

Somerset (well). 

Southborough (well). 

Southborough (well at Winchester 
Place) (two). 

Southbridge (well). 

South Hadley (South Hadley FaUs). 

South Hadley (Hadley Mills). 

Sterling (spring). 

Stoughton (well). 

Sutton (wells). 

Swansea (Swansea Dye Works). 

Templeton (well in Baldwinsville). 

Tewksbury (wells at schools). 

TowTisend (To-^nsend Center). 

TjTigsborough (spring). 

Warren. 

Watertown (well). 

Way land. 

Webster (well). 



66 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Wellesley. 




Weston (Riverside Recreation 


Wellesley (spring in Metropolitan 


Grounds). 


Park Reservation). 




Weston (well at boys' camp). 


Westfield. 




Westport (wells) (two). 


West Newbury (well). 




Wilmington (well at High School). 


Weston (Hubbard estate). 




Winchendon (wells). 


Weston (Blake estate). 








Ice Supply. 


Colrain. 




Palmer. 


Duxbury. 




PeppereU. 


Falmouth. 




Pittsfield (Berkshire Street Railway 


Franklin. 




Company). 


Greenfield. 




Salisbury. 


Harvard. 




Southbridge. 


Mansfield. 




Springfield. 


Newton. 







Official communications were made during the year under general 
and special acts relating to sewerage and sewage disposal, as fol- 
lows : — 



Amherst. 

Andover (three). 

Beverly. 

Bridge water. 

Brockton (Brockton Gas Light Com- 
pany). 

Canton (Springdale Finishing Com- 
pany). 

Danvers. 

Danvers (Danvers Leather Company) 
(two) . 

Deerfield (South Deerfield). 

Dracut (American Woolen Company). 

Edgartown (North School). 

Fall River. 

Foxborough. 

Framingham (two). 

Gardner (proposed isolation hospital) 
(two). 

Gardner (Gardner State Colony). 

Haverhill (five). 

Hopedale (Draper Company). 

Huntington. 

Lakeville (Lakeville State Sanato- 
rium). 



Leicester. 

Marion. 

Marlborough. 

Maynard. 

Methuen (Barker School). 

Nahant. 

Northfield (Northfield Hotel Com- 
pany). 

Norwood (Winslow Bros. & Smith 
Company) (two). 

Peabody (T. H. O'Shea Leather Com- 
pany). 

Peabody (J. F. Ingraham Company). 

Peabody (Thayer-Foss Company). 

Pittsfield. 

Sahsbury (Salisbury Beach). 

Stoneham. 

Wakefield. 

Wellesley. 

Westborough. 

Westfield. 

West Springfield. 

Wrentham (State School). 



No. 34.] 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



67 



Miscellaneous. 



Attleboro (Y. IM. C. A.) (two). 

BelchertowTi (proposed school for 
feeble-minded) . 

Beverly. 

Braintree. 

Conway (proposed school for feeble- 
mmded). 

Danvers (two). 

Fairhaven. 

Gardner (contagious disease hospital). 

Lyzm. 

New Bedford. 

Norwood (Norwood Civic Associa- 
tion). 

Peabodv. 



Pittsfield (Coolidge Memorial Hos- 
pital). 

Phnnouth. 

Quincj'. 

Sherborn (Jacob Lander). 

Southborough. 

Southwick (proposed school for feeble- 
minded). 

Watertown. 

Winchester. 

Wintlirop. 

Wobmn. 

Woburn (F. C. Parker & Son Com- 
pany). 

Woburn (Woburn Gas Light Com- 
pany). 



WATER SUPPLY. 

The following is the substance of the official action taken during 
the year in reply to applications for advice relative to water supply: — 



Arlington. 

May 15, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Arlington, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of May 1, 1915, for an 
examination of the w^ater of the Arlington Reservoir and advice as to 
its condition, the Commissioner of Health has caused the reservoir 
and its surroundings to be examined by the engineer of the Depart- 
ment and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that there has been a marked 
increase in the quantity of chlorine and nitrates as compared with 
its condition ten years ago and that the hardness has materially 
increased. The quantity of organic matter present in the water is 
about the same as was the case ten years ago, while the color at the 
present time is considerably less. 

The microscopical examination shows a considerable increase in the 
number of vegetable organisms present in this water as compared 
with its condition ten years ago. 

There has been a marked increase in the population on this water- 
shed in recent years and there are also extensive areas of cultivated 
land within this watershed. While there is no evidence that the water 



68 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

receives direct pollution, it evidently receives much filtered sewage, 
and much larger quantities of nitrates doubtless enter the reservoir 
than was the case in earlier years. These conditions are favorable to 
the presence and growth of microscopic organisms. The bottom of 
the reservoir was never prepared for the storage of water and this 
condition, together with the quantities of nitrates that evidently find 
their way into the reservoir, is very favorable for maintaining growths 
of microscopic organisms, of which the water contains large numbers 
at the present time. These organisms are found in practically all 
ponds and reservoirs, the numbers varying with the food supply pres- 
ent in the bottom of the reservoir or in the water which enters it 
from the watershed. Reservoirs which have been thoroughly pre- 
pared for the storage of water by the removal of all soil and organic 
matter from the area flowed and which receive their waters from un- 
inhabited or sparsely settled watersheds affected but little by pollu- 
tion from dwelling houses and cultivated lands contain few organisms, 
the number rarely being sufficient to affect the appearance, taste or 
odor of the water even upon close inspection. On the other hand, in 
reservoirs, such as that at Arlington, containing considerable food sup- 
ply in the reservoir itself and a very large supply in the waters which 
feed it, organisms are usually present in large numbers, even in such 
abundance as to give the water an objectionable appearance and an 
offensive taste and odor. These conditions are not known to be in- 
jurious to health, even if the water is used for drinking, and it is not 
probable that the water of the Arlington Reservoir will cause objec- 
tionable conditions in the neighborhood or injury to the health of 
those who may resort to the reservoir for bathing or who may use 
the waters drawn therefrom for that purpose. 

Attempts made to restrict the growths of organisms in this reser- 
voir by the use of chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were made 
several years ago, but the character of the organisms growing in this 
water is such that this treatment was found to have comparatively 
little effect in reducing organic growths. 

The water could of course be made more satisfactory by filtration, 
though the expense would be likely to be considerable. There appears 
to be no reason, however, for fearing any danger to health from the 
conditions about this reservoir or the use of its water for bathing at 
the present time. 



No. 34.] AD^^CE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 69 



Belchertown. 

June 4, 1915. 

To the Committee on Water Supply, Belchertown, Mass., Mr. F. M. Fuller, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 14, 1915, an application for its approval, under the provisions 
of chapter 287 of the Special Acts of the year 1915, section 2, of the 
taking of water for the supply of Belchertown from Chambray Brook, 
supplemented with water from the system of tubular wells near Jabish 
Brook east of the village, the use of which was approved by this de- 
partment as a source of water supply for Belchertown in a communi- 
cation to the Belchertown Water Company under date of Oct. 22, 
1913. 

In response to this application, the Commissioner of Health has 
caused the sources of supply to be examined and samples of the 
water to be analyzed. It appears from the information presented 
that Chambray Brook, above the point at which the water would be 
taken for the supply of the village of Belchertown, has a drainage 
area by actual survey of 0.G3 of a square mile and that the small in- 
take reservoir which it is proposed to construct on this brook in the 
beginning will be located at an elevation of about 200 feet above the 
summit of the hill on which the main village of Belchertown is located. 
The investigations also show that it is practicable to build a storage 
reservoir having a capacity of 6 million gallons on this brook by the 
construction of a dam about 36 feet in height and that the amount 
of storage can be made greater in case of need by the construction of 
a higher dam. It is also practicable, instead of constructing a storage 
reservoir, to take water from the system of tubular wells already ap- 
proved by this department as a source of water supply for Belcher- 
town. 

The results of an analysis of the water of Chambray Brook show 
that, while it has at times considerable color, it is very soft and in 
other respects of good quality for the purposes of a public water sup- 
ply and, since the watershed contains only a very few buildings, it 
will be practicable to protect the purity of the supply without serious 
difficulty or expense. 

The quantity of water which Chambray Brook will yield under 
present conditions would not be sufficient in a very dry year to supply 
all of the water that is likely to be required for Belchertown, but with 
a small intake reservoir having a capacity of about one million gallons 
as proposed, however, enough water is likely to be obtained in the 
beginning and until the water supply comes into general use. It will 



70 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

be practicable without serious difficulty to supplement the supply 
readily from the system of tubular wells near Jabish Brook, and with 
this arrangement, using the wells whenever the flow of Chambray 
Brook is insufficient, there is no doubt that an adequate supply of 
good water for all the requirements of Belchertown can be provided 
at all times. 

Having considered the circumstances, the State Department of 
Health hereby approves the taking of water from Chambray Brook, 
supplemented when necessary with water from the tubular wells near 
Jabish Brook, for the supply of the town of Belchertown under the 
provisions of chapter 287 of the Special Acts of the year 1915, and 
also approves the location of the intake dam and reservoir at Cham- 
bray Brook, as indicated on the plan presented, and the location of 
the wells approved by the department under date of Oct. 22, 1913. 

It is important, in order to secure an adequate quantity of water 
for the town at all times, that the works shall be constructed in 
strict accordance with the plans of your engineer, and it is also im- 
portant that a weir be placed at some suitable point in Chambray 
Brook above the proposed intake reservoir and the flow of the stream 
accurately measured to determine its yield and the quantity of stor- 
age that will be necessary or desirable to provide for the best prac- 
ticable development of this stream. The present season has thus far 
proved an extremely favorable one for such an investigation, and it is 
recommended that the weir or measuring station be placed in opera- 
tion at the earliest possible time and daily observations made thereon 
at least during the remainder of the present year. 



Bernakdston. 

Aug. 14, 1915. 

To the Water Supply Committee, Bernardston, Mass., Mr. Hugh E. Adams, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on June 14 an application for advice as to a proposed water supply 
for Bernardston accompanied by plans of suggested works and a report 
by your engineer relative thereto. 

It appears from the information submitted that two schemes of 
water supply for the town have been considered, by one of which the 
water will be supplied by gravity from a reservoir to be constructed 
on Mill Brook about 1| miles west of the village, while by the other 
scheme the water will be taken from the ground at a point in the 
valley of Mill Brook about an equal distance southwest of the village. 
The first cost of the works would be about the same if either plan 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 71 

were adopted, but the cost of maintenance would be much greater in 
the case of the ground water source, the water of which would have 
to be supplied by pumping. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
by the engineer of the Department, has considered the plans and 
information presented and has caused a sample of water from the 
proposed location of the reservoir on Mill Brook to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water of Mill Brook 
is clear, colorless and odorless and naturally of very good quality for 
domestic use. There is some doubt as to the exact area of the water- 
shed above the point at which it is proposed to construct the reser- 
voir, but it is probable that the watershed is ample, with a reservoir 
having a capacity of about 2,500,000 gallons as proposed, to supply 
an adequate quantity of water for all the requirements of the village 
of Bernardston at the present time. The watershed is for the most 
part mountainous and contains very few dwelling houses, but these 
places are so situated that it is advisable that they be acquired by 
the town in case the water supply is taken from this stream in order 
to protect the supply from danger of contamination; and the cost of 
acquiring the dwelling houses within the watershed should be included 
in determining the probable cost of the works for taking water from 
this source. 

An examination of the proposed location for a ground water supply 
does not disclose any very definite indications as to the practicability 
of obtaining an adequate supply of good water for the village in this 
locality. A test of the ground water by means of wells will be neces- 
sary before definite conclusions can be reached as to the practicability 
of obtaining a supply of good water for the village from this locality. 

An examination of the valley of Falls River above the village shows 
that the indications are fully as favorable for obtaining a supply of water 
from the ground at a point on the easterl}^ side of the river a short 
distance north of the village and also at a point on the westerly side 
of the river about f of a mile north of the village as are found in the 
location at present under consideration. 

It is probable that if an adequate supply of good water can be 
obtained in either of the more favorable localities in the valley of 
Falls River above the town, the cost of the works would be consider- 
ably less than the cost of works for taking water from Mill Brook, 
including the expense of protecting the purity of the latter source; 
and considering the circumstances, it is desirable that test wells be 
driven in the localities indicated north of the village to determine 
whether a sufficient supply of ground water of good quality for the 



72 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

requirements of the village can be secured there. If the conditions 
are found to be favorable for obtaining an adequate ground water 
supply in that region, a careful estimate of the cost of the necessary 
works and of the cost of operation and maintenance should be pre- 
pared for comparison with the estimated cost of works for taking 
water from Mill Brook, including the cost of acquiring the lands 
necessary for the protection of the purity of that supply. 

If you decide to make investigations for a ground water supply in 
the valley of Falls River, the Department will, if so requested, make 
the necessary analyses of water from test wells, and when these results 
and the estimates of the cost are available will give you further advice 
as to the most desirable source of supply for the town to adopt. 

BiLLERiCA (Boston and Maine Railroad Car Shops). 

Oct. 21, 1915. 

To Mr. Edwin Mulready, Commissioner of Labor, State Board of Labor and Indus- 
tries, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water used in the car shops of the Boston & Maine Railroad in 
North Billerica and advice as to its use for drinking, the State De- 
partment of Health has caused the sources of supply used by that 
company at that point to be examined and samples of the water to 
be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water from which the 
supply for drinking is obtained is drawn from eight tubular wells 
which are located in the factory grounds just northwest of the power 
house, whence it is pumped through a separate system of pipes, in 
which it is cooled by ice, to the various fountains at which the water 
is supplied for drinking. 

Analyses of water at various points on the tubular well system show 
that it is turbid and colored and that it contains a much greater 
quantity of organic matter than is found in good well waters, to- 
gether with an excessive quantity of iron. There is no indication that 
the water is seriously polluted, and its objectionable condition is un- 
doubtedly due almost wholly to the excess of iron which the water 
contains which makes it objectionable for drinking and other uses, 
chiefly in this case on account of the disagreeable taste and odor. 

The wells are located in gravelly soil but there are large deposits 
of organic matter in the immediate neighborhood and, considering the 
large quantity of water drawn from the wells, it is probable that the 
disagreeable character of the water is due to water which has come 



No. 34.] AD\1CE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 73 

in contact with organic matter in the ground in their neighborhood. 
The water could doubtless be purified and rendered satisfactory for 
drinking by efficient filtration, but the expense of such an improve- 
ment and its maintenance would probably be greater than the cost of 
the introduction of a new supply from some suitable location in the 
neighborhood. 

Oct. 21, 1915. 
To the Boston & Maine Railroad, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from the Commissioner of 
Labor, the State Department of Health has examined the wells from 
which water is obtained for drinking at your shops in Billerica and 
has advised the Commissioner that the water contains a greater quan- 
tity of organic matter than is found in good well waters and an ex- 
cessive quantity of iron which make it objectionable for drinking and 
other uses. A copy of this communication is appended hereto. 

A test well driven last year in the valley of a small brook one-third 
of a mile or more southwest of the wells from which your present 
supply for drinking is drawn was found to contain water of good 
quality. It is advisable, in the opinion of the Department, that a 
further test be made in this region by putting in additional wells, and 
if the results are favorable a pumping test should be made to deter- 
mine the probable quantity and quality of the water obtainable from 
the ground in that region. 

The Department will assist you in such further investigations, if 
you so request, by making the necessary analyses of water and will 
give you further advice relative to the water obtainable in this region 
if the results of the tests are submitted. 

Canton (Massachusetts Hospital School). 

Jan. 18, 1915. 

To the Board of Trustees, Massachusetts Hospital School, Canton, Mass., John E. Fish, 

M.D., Superintendent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for advice as to the use 
of water from a deep tubular well near your boiler house, the Com- 
missioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined and 
samples of the water to be analyzed. 

From the information presented, it appears that the well has been 
driven through from 35 to 50 feet of sand and gravel, then through 
varying strata of clay and sand to rock, which is reached at a depth 
of 238 feet. Drilling was then continued into the rock to a total 
depth of 400 feet. 



74 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Water was pumped continuously from this well from Wednesday, 
October 28, to Friday, December 4, and measurements of the quan- 
tity indicate that the yield during this period amounted to about 25 
gallons per minute, while larger amounts were pumped occasionally 
for short periods. The test was made during a very dry period but, 
considering the fact that the well was being drawn from for the first 
time, it is not probable that it would yield continuously in a very dry 
season as great a quantity of water as was pumped during this test. 
It is probable, however, that the well can be depended upon to yield 
continuously as much as 15 gallons per minute, or 21,000 gallons per 
24 hours, and at times it may possibly yield a somewhat larger quan- 
tity. The quantity of water at present supplied from the works of 
the town of Canton amounts apparently to an average of about 15 
gallons per minute, so that the well can probably be relied upon to 
yield as much water in a very dry period as is now drawn from the 
water supply of the town of Canton. In wet seasons the yield of the 
well may be considerably larger than this estimate. 

The quality of the water of the well is shown by analyses of two 
samples, one of which was collected just before the end of the period 
of pumping. They show that the water, while somewhat hard, con- 
tains very little organic matter and is in most respects of good quality 
for domestic purposes. The quantity of iron, however, is larger than 
is usually found in good ground w^aters, though not at the present 
time sufficient to make the water objectionable for domestic use. 
There appears to be no objection to the use of this water for the 
supply of the school at the present time, but there is danger, judging 
from experience with similar wells, that the quantity of iron will in- 
crease and the water become objectionable for some domestic uses. 
It is advisable, under the circumstances, that the water be analyzed 
from time to time and, if deterioration should occur due to an increase 
in the amount of iron, provision can probably be made to filter the 
water when necessary. 

The Department will make the necessary analyses of water, if you 
so request, as soon as the works for using the water have been 
installed. 

Chicopee (Willimansett). 

Sept. 21, 1915. 
To Hon. William J. Dunn, Mayor of Chicopee, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to a communication to this Department 
from a resident in the neighborhood of Massachusetts Avenue in Wil- 
limansett requesting advice as to obtaining water for the families resid- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 75 

ing in that vicinity, the State Department of Health has caused the 
locality to be examined and a sample of the water from Willimansett 
Brook, which is said to be used as a source of water supply for several 
of the families in this region, to be analyzed. 

The results of an analysis of the water from Willimansett Brook 
show that it is badly polluted, and an examination of the surround- 
ings shows that the stream is exposed to pollution. The use of water 
from this source for domestic purposes is likely to be injurious to the 
public health, and it is recommended that the inhabitants in the 
region be warned of the danger of such use. 

It is understood that petitions have been presented by inhabitants 
in this region to the authorities of Chicopee for an extension of the 
public water supply service of the city to Massachusetts Avenue but 
that no action has been taken on these petitions. It appears, how- 
ever, that one of the water pipes of the city of Chicopee passes the 
westerly end of Massachusetts Avenue, and it is recommended that, 
pending the laying of a water pipe in this locality, a tap from the city 
main be provided at some convenient point near the westerly end of 
Massachusetts Avenue, from which the inhabitants in that region 
can obtain water for drinking. It is further recommended that, for 
the protection of the public health, a water main be extended in 
Massachusetts Avenue at the earliest practicable time. 

Dalton. 

JuxE 9, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Dalton Fire District, Dalton, Mass., Mr. 

F. G. Craxe, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
May 13, 1915, an application for approval by this Department of the 
use of the northerly arm of the Windsor Reservoir as a basin for the 
storage of water for the public water supply of the town of Dalton, 
accompanied bj' a plan of the proposed reservoir and information con- 
cerning the area of its watershed. 

According to the plan presented, the dam will have a length of 
about 510 feet and a maximum height of about 28 feet. The top of 
the dam will be at elevation 1,450, or 2.77 feet above the elevation 
of the spillway of the main dam of the Windsor Reservoir. The new 
reservoir will have a maximum depth of water of about 24 feet, an 
average depth of about 12 feet, and will have a tributary watershed 
apparently of about 1.6 square miles. 

The Department has caused the locality to be examined by its 



76 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

engineer and samples of water from the Windsor Reservoir and from 
May Brook, which will be the chief feeder of the proposed new reser- 
voir, to be analyzed. The results show that the water of May Brook 
is very soft, has little color, and is in other respects of good quality 
for domestic use. 

Regarding the quantity of water which the proposed source will 
yield, the information at present available indicates that, if the intake 
at the proposed new reservoir is placed at a level 12 feet below high 
water, it will probably be capable of yielding about 400,000 gallons 
per day. If the intake is placed at a level 16 feet below high water, 
the quantity made available will be increased by about 35,000 gallons 
per day. 

The plan of enlarging the water supply of Dalton by the construc- 
tion of this reservoir appears to be a practicable and satisfactory one, 
and by the carrying out of the plan a large additional supply of good 
water will be secured. Since the surface of the new reservoir will be 
raised nearly 3 feet higher than that of the present Windsor Reser- 
voir, it is important that all soil and organic matter be removed from 
the new area to be flowed, and it is also advisable that when the 
Windsor Reservoir is drawn down to provide for the construction of 
the new dam any objectionable organic matter that may be found on 
the bottom above the proposed dam shall be removed or covered in 
such a way that the quality of the water is unlikely to be affected 
thereby. There are two dwelling houses within the watershed of the 
reservoir, both of which are situated not far from the shores of the 
proposed new basin. The house on the northerly side of the road 
crossing May Brook just above its entrance into Windsor Reservoir 
should be controlled by the district in order that pollution of the water 
by drainage therefrom may be prevented. There does not appear to 
be danger of serious pollution of the water of the reservoir by drain- 
age from the house on the southerly side of the road at the present 
time, and it is probable that, with careful supervision, danger of pol- 
lution from this house can be prevented. Rules and regulations for 
the sanitary protection of this water supply will be established by the 
Department, however, upon request of your board if found desirable. 

The Department of Health hereby approves the taking of an addi- 
tional supply of water for the Dalton Fire District from May Brook 
and a section of the Windsor Reservoir as shown upon a plan filed 
in this office May 6, 1915. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 77 

Deerfield (East) (Boston & Maine Railroad). 

March, 26, 1915. 

To Mr. J. H. Fltnn, Division Superintendent, Boston & Maine Railroad, Greenfield, 

Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Feb. 25, 1915, for an 
examination of certain water supplies at East Deerfield used for the 
supply of railroad employees in that locality, the Commissioner of 
Health has caused the sources of supply to be examined and samples 
of their waters to be analyzed. 

The ice house spring, so called, was found to be polluted some time 
ago, and you were advised that the water was exposed to pollution. 
Subsequently, the spring was covered and its use prevented for a 
time, but recently the cover has been removed and the water is again 
being used. An analysis of the water of the spring shows that it is 
badly polluted and dangerous for drinking. 

The water of the reservoir located a little over half a mile west of 
the East Deerfield station is also badly polluted and unsafe for domes- 
tic use. 

The Atwood spring, so called, was examined some time ago and 
found to be unsafe for use. A further examination does not show any 
improvement in the conditions affecting this spring. 

The Y. M. C. A. house is supplied from a reservoir on a hill about 
400 feet from the house and 25 feet above the lower floor. The reser- 
voir was practically empty at the time of the examination and the 
water being supplied in the house contained a larger number of bac- 
teria than are found in good drinking water. The reservoir is exposed 
to pollution and is an unsafe source from which to take water for 
drinking. 

There are a number of other open springs in this region which are 
used for drinking and which are unsafe for that purpose on account 
of their exposure to pollution. It was also found in the course of the 
investigation that water from the Deerfield River is supplied for cer- 
tain purposes at the Holbrook House in these yards. This water is 
badly polluted and, while it is not intended for drinking, it is probably 
used at times for that purpose. Much sickness has occurred recently 
among the employees of the Fitchburg Division of the Boston & Maine 
Railroad in the neighborhood of East Deerfield and in the region be- 
yond the Connecticut River, and investigations of this sickness point 
to a source of infection in the neighborhood of the Deerfield yards. 
It is of the greatest importance for the protection of the public 



78 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

health that a supply of safe drinking water be provided for the em- 
ployees of the railroad in this region and that danger of the use of 
any of the polluted springs and reservoirs on the railroad property 
or elsewhere in this section be prevented as effectively as is prac- 
ticable. 

Aug. 26, 1915. 
To the Boston & Maine Railroad, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, an examination has 
been made of the water of a tubular well recently put in by you near 
the roundhouse in the East Deerfield yards, and a sample of the water 
has been analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that this water is badly polluted 
and unsafe for drinking and other domestic purposes. 

A general examination of the conditions about these yards shows 
that, so far as can be judged from surface indications, it will be dif- 
ficult, if not impracticable, to secure a supply of good water in this 
region by means of wells. It is possible that a supply could be ob- 
tained from the higher lands south of the yards by means of a small 
reservoir or other collecting works, but whether a satisfactory supply 
could be obtained in this way is doubtful. The best practicable plan 
of obtaining a supply of good water for the yards appears to be by 
connection with the water supply system of one of the adjacent towns, 
and it is recommended that this matter be taken up at once and a 
supply of good water secured for these yards at the earliest practicable 
time. 

In the course of the examination of the yards at East Deerfield it 
appeared that the sanitary arrangements for the railroad employees 
using these yards are inadequate and unsatisfactory, and it is recom- 
mended that as soon as a satisfactory wat.er supply has been provided 
the question of proper sanitary arrangements be taken up. 

DUXBUKY. 

July 16, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Duxbury, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on June 30, 1915, the following application for advice as to the quality 
of the water of certain wells in Duxbury used as sources of domestic 
water supply. 

There are two (2) wells here in Duxbury that there is a question as to whether 
the water therein is fit for domestic use. If agreeable to you I would like the 
water therefrom analyzed so as to determine its purity. . . . 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 79 

In response to this request, the Commissioner of Health has caused 
the wells indicated to be examined and samples of their waters to be 
analyzed. The water of the well at the Peterson place, so called, on 
Powder Point Avenue showed at the time of the examination the 
presence of considerable numbers of bacteria, though in the condition 
in which it was found at this time the water may not be unsafe for 
domestic use. There are sources of pollution in its immediate neigh- 
borhood, however, and there is great danger that the quality of the 
water will deteriorate at any time and become unfit for domestic use. 
It is recommended that the further use of the water of this well for 
drinking and other domestic purposes be discontinued. 

The water of a well on the Sarah E. Roberts estate on Tremont 
Street contained at the time of the examination a considerably greater 
quantity of organic matter than is found in good well waters and a 
considerable number of bacteria. In its present condition the water 
may, however, be safe for drinking. 

The surroundings of this well are such that it seems probable that, 
if it were effectually covered and the water drawn through a pump, 
instead of by a bucket and chain as at present, the quality of the 
water would improve. It is possible also for waste water to flow back 
into this well. With more efficient protection, it is probable that the 
water of this well could continue to be used with safety for domestic 
purposes. 

Eastham (Well). 

Sept. 8,. 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Eastham, Alass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, received through Dr. 
A. S. MacKnight, State District Health Officer, the State Depart- 
ment of Health has caused an examination to be made of the well at 
the Mayo house, where a case of typhoid fever occurred recently, and 
has caused a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis of a sample of water collected and sent 
in by you show that it is low in bacteria and of good quality for 
domestic use. There is no indication from this analysis that the 
water would be injurious for drinking. 

An examination of the premises shows that there are a vault and 
cesspool in the immediate neighborhood of the well and, while there 
is no present evidence that the water is being contaminated, it is 
advisable that danger of pollution by sewage be prevented by remov- 
ing the vault and cesspool to a distance of at least 100 feet from the 
well. 



80 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

With this change it is probable that the water of the well can con- 
tinue to be used with safety, provided no sewage or other polluting 
matter is deposited upon or into the ground in its immediate neigh- 
borhood. 

Easton (North Easton Village District). 

June 23, 1915. 

To Mr. William H. Ames, Chairman, Board of Water Commissioners of the North 

Easton Village District. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of May 18, 1915, for an 
examination of the wiater of a well located near your pumping station 
at North Easton and advice as to the use of the water for drinking, 
the Commissioner of Health has caused the well and its surroundings 
to be examined by one of the engineers of the Department and samples 
of the water to be analyzed. 

The well, which is known as No. 2, is 8 inches in diameter and 67 
feet in depth and is said to have been sunk largely in rock. 

The results of the analyses show that the water entering this well 
has at some time been considerably polluted by sewage but subse- 
quently quite well purified in its passage through the ground before 
entering the well, and in the condition in which it was found at the 
time of the recent examination the water is probably safe for drink- 
ing. It is not unlikely that the quality of the water will change if 
water is drawn continuously from this well for the supply of the 
town, and there is much danger that deterioration in the quality of 
the water would occur with continued use. 

In view of the circumstances, the source cannot be regarded as a 
desirable one from which to take water for the supply of the town. 
If it is found necessary to use it, however, provision should be made 
for frequent analyses of the water in order that if deterioration occurs 
it may quickly be detected and the further use of the water prevented. 

Easton (South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water 

District). 

Aug. 23, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water 
District, Mr. William N. Howard, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Aug. 14, 1915, the following application for the approval by this 
Department, under the provisions of chapter 232 of the Special Acts 
of the year 1915, of the taking and use of water from Silver Lake for 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 81 

the water supply of the South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water 
District through a contract with the water commissioners of the city 
of Brockton made under the provisions of said act. 

In order to comply with the conditions of the special act of 1915, chapter 232 
in relation to the South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water District, it 
becomes necessary to secure a certificate of approval by the State Department 
of Health of the source of supply and location of dams, reservoir, wells, etc., in 
compliance ^^^th section two of said act. 

The South Easton and Eastondale Fire and Water District is under contract 
with the city of Brockton, which city is furnishing the district with water from 
its regular supply which is Silver Lake, which source of supply has already been 
approved and is under constant inspection by the State Department of Health. 
The attorneys who are passing upon bonds require, however, that a certificate 
of approval from the State Department be furnished as the law states. . . . 

The Department has considered the results of examinations of Silver 
Lake, the proposed source of supply, by the engineer of the Depart- 
ment and finds that the water is of good quality for domestic use and 
the supply adequate for the requirements of the South Easton and 
Eastondale Fire and Water District in addition to those of the city 
of Brockton and the towns now supplied by that city from Silver 
Lake. 

The State Department of Health hereby approves the use of water 
taken from Silver Lake and supplied through the works of the city of 
Brockton for the water supply of the South Easton and Eastondale 
Fire and Water District under the provisions of chapter 232 of the 
Special Acts of the year 1915. 

Easton (Unionville). 

Nov. S, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the North Easton Village District, North 

Easton, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — At the request of the Unionville Improvement So- 
ciety of North Easton for advice as to the condition of the wells in 
Unionville, the State Department of Health has caused the wells used 
as sources of water supply at ten dwelling houses in various parts of 
that village to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that all of these wells are more 
or less polluted, several of them very seriously, so that in their pres- 
ent condition they are not safe sources from which to take water for 
domestic purposes. The Department is further informed that in 



82 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

recent dry seasons many of the wells have furnished an inadequate 
quantity of water for domestic requirements and that some of them 
have become wholly exhausted, the latter including the well used to 
supply the public school in the village. 

It appears that there are some ninety families living in the area 
lying between the northeasterly boundary line of the North Easton 
Village District and the boundary lines of Stoughton and Brockton 
■and that this locality can be more readily supplied with water from 
the North Easton Village District than in any other way. The cost 
of extending works to supply water to Unionville from North Easton 
would not be excessive, and the amount added to the valuation of 
the district if its area were extended to include this section of the 
town would be considerable. The works of the North Easton Village 
District can be made adequate without special difficulty or expense 
to supply all of the water required, both to North Easton and the 
area that would be added if the North Easton system were extended 
to Unionville. 

In view of all the circumstances, it appears to this Department 
that the most practicable way in which Unionville can obtain a water 
supply, which is greatly needed for the protection of public health 
and comfort in that village, is by connection with the water works 
system of the North Easton Village District, and it does not appear 
that such an extension would be seriously objectionable to the latter 
district, either from a financial standpoint or in any other respect. 

The Department will be pleased to confer with you relative to this 
matter at the earliest practicable time, since it is very important that 
the inhabitants of Unionville shall be enabled to provide themselves 
with a suitable system of water supply for domestic use, and if such 
a supply can be obtained from the North Easton Village District the 
necessary legislation can be obtained at the coming session of the 
Legislature. 

Enfield (Spring). 

Nov. 6, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Enfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request for an examination of the 
water of the spring used to supply the house of Mr. George Horr of 
Enfield and advice as to its quality for drinking, and especially as to 
its liability to cause lead poisoning, the State Department of Health 
has caused the spring and its surroundings to be examined and a 
sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The spring is located in an unpolluted region and the water is 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 83 

naturally of good quality for domestic use. Samples of the water 
collected from a faucet in the house of Mr. Horr, however, showed 
the presence of a very large quantity of lead, both in the standing 
and in the running water. The water also contained a comparatively 
large quantity of carbonic acid for several days after the sample was 
collected. The quantity of lead found in these samples was ten times 
as great as the minimum amount that has been known to cause lead 
poisoning, and it is recommended that the use of this water, both for 
drinking and cooking, be discontinued until a pipe of some suitable 
material can be laid in place of the lead pipe now in use. 

Pipes of block tin or of lead lined with tin, if properly made, or of 
iron lined with cement could be used with this water and danger of 
lead poisoning avoided, though it would be essential, if a lead pipe 
lined with tin were used, that the portion of the pipe which enters 
the spring should be wholly of tin or of iron. 

If a change is made in the character of the pipe and a pipe such as 
those suggested is used, the water of this spring' would be safe for 
drinking. 

Essex (Town Farm). 

March 8, 1915. 

To Messrs. Caleb M. Cogswell, John P. Story and George S. McIntire, Board 

of Selectmen, Essex, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Feb. 19, 1915, the 
Commissioner of Health has caused the water supply on the Town 
Farm to be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the supply is obtained 
from two large wells near the Conomo Point Road, the old well, so 
called, being located about j of a mile southeast of the Town Farm, 
and the new well about 400 feet farther south. There are no dwelling 
houses or other buildings in the neighborhood of the wells. 

The information submitted indicates that the water is supplied to 
about seventy-five cottages, occupied only in summer, and to a few 
other buildings, the population supplied in summer being about 750 
persons, while the number using the water in winter is very small. 
The water is pumped to a tank holding about 50,000 gallons and dis- 
tributed through a galvanized iron pipe. 

The results of the analysis of a sample of water collected recently 
from a tap at the Town Farm show that the water is turbid and 
colored and contains a much greater quantity of iron than is found 
in good well waters. In its present condition, the water is probably 
safe for drinking, but the quantity of iron present is great enough to 



84 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

make the water objectionable for some domestic uses. It is advisable 
that a further examination of this water be made in the summer 
season in order that the condition of the water may be determined 
at a time when the draft from the wells is greatest. 



Fall Rivek. 

Feb. 2, 1915. 

To the Reservoir Commission, Fall River, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Nov. 9, 1914, the following application for approval of the pur- 
chase or taking of certain lands in the town of Westport for the pur- 
pose of protecting the water supply of the city of Fall River: 

~The Reservoir Commission of the City of Fall River respectfully make appli- 
cation to the State Department of Health under the laws of the year 190S, chap- 
ter 499, entitled "An Act to provide for the Protection of Sources of Water 
Supply," namely, — to acquire by purchase or otherwise lands in the Town of 
Westport on the easterly side of North Watuppa Pond. The said pond being 
the water supply of the City of Fall River. These lands are within the water- 
shed of the said pond and at present are a danger and a menace to the purity of 
the water supply of the said city. We annex hereto plans and description of 
said lands. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the lands in question to 
be examined and, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 499 
of the Acts of the year 1908, the Public Health Council gave a hear- 
ing upon the petition at its office, Room 143, State House, on Jan. 
26, 1915, after notice published in newspapers of the city of Fall 
River and circulated in the town of Westport. At this hearing no 
person appeared to object to the proposed purchase or taking of the 
lands in question by the city of Fall River for the purpose of pro- 
tecting its water supply. 

From the information presented, it appears that these lands are 
within the drainage area of North Watuppa Pond, the source of water 
supply of the city of Fall River, and that they are now occupied in 
part by piggeries or used for the disposal of refuse in such a way that 
there is danger that the water supply of the city may be polluted 
therefrom. 

After the hearing, the Public Health Council voted to approve the 
purchase or taking of the lands in question, consisting of four parcels 
now or formerly owned by Arthemise M. Freelove, Mary Sumler and 
Jonathan Borden, the location of which is shown upon the plan filed 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 85 

with your application entitled "Reservoir Commission Fall River, 
Mass. Plan showing Lands in North Westport Mass. Supposed to 
be Owned by Arthemise M. Freelove, Mary Sumler and Jonathan 
Borden. To accompany petition of City of Fall River for authority 
to acquire lands in Westport. Scale: 1"=200' Nov. 2, 1914 City 
Engineering Dept. R. C. No. 40." These lands are bounded, meas- 
ured and described as follows: 

. . . Beginning at the southwesterly corner of the land to be described at a 
drill hole in the top of a stone bound set into the ground about Three Hundred 
and twenty (.320) feet easterly of the easterly line of the Ancient Proprietor's 
Way leading northerly from the "Old Bedford Road" so called; said point being 
the Fifth (5th) bound stone, mentioned in the record of condemnation of land 
in Westport by the Reservoir Commission of the City of Fall River, March 7, 
1896 and thence in the recorded line of said condemnation by Jand of said City 
of Fall River, in a course North Forty-Eight (48) degrees Twenty-fom- (24) 
minutes Forty (40) seconds East FWe Hundred and Fifty and Fifty-four One 
Hundredths (550.54) feet or to a drill hole in the top of a stone bound set into 
the ground, being the Sixth (6th) bound stone mentioned in said condemnation; 
thence by land of Said City in a course North, Eleven (11) degrees Fiftj^-five 
(55) minutes Thirty (30) seconds East Four Hundred and Thirty-one and Eighty 
One-hmidredtlis (431.80) feet or to a drill hole in the top of a stone bound set 
into the gromid, being the Seventh (7th) bound stone mentioned in said con- 
demnation and in the southerly line of land now or formerly of Thomas Francis 
for a corner; there making an interior angle of about Ninety (90) degrees and 
rumiing in an Easterly direction by said last named land about Three Hundred 
and Seventy (370) feet or to land now or formerly of Albert S. Sherman for a 
corner; there making an interior angle of about Ninety-two (92) degrees and 
running in a southerly direction by land last named and land of the City of 
Fall River (formerly owned by Thomas B. Sherman) about Eight Hundred and 
Seventy-four (874) feet or to land now or formerly of Cynthia M. Wordell, for 
a corner; there making an interior angle of about Eighty-eight (88) degrees and 
running in a Westerly cUrection by land last named about seven Hundred (700) 
feet or to the point of beginning. 

The above described tract contains about Three and Sixty-two One Hun- 
dredths (3.62) Acres of land now or formerly owned by Arthemise M. Freelove, 
about One and Ninety-two One Hundredths (1.92) Acres now or formerly 
owned by Mary Sumler and about Three and Sixty-Seven One Hundredths 
(3.67) Acres now or formerly owned by Jonathan Borden in which Arthemise 
M. Freelove has certain title. 

The above description is approximate, some of the distances, angles and 
areas being scaled from a plan and is subject to revision from surveys to be 
made if the land is to be acquired. 



86 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Sept. 2, 1915. 

To the Watuppa Ponds and Quequechan River Coynmission, Fall River, Mass., Messrs. 

Philip D. Borden, Charles B. Woodman, John W. Coxjghlin, Daniel J. 

Sullivan, William B. Hawes. 
Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Aug. 27, 1915, the following application for the approval of certain 
plans for improvements in the sanitary and other conditions in the 
valley of the Watuppa Ponds and Quequechan River in the city of 
Fall River. 

The Watuppa Ponds and Quequechan River Commission, acting under author- 
ity of chapter 767, Acts of 1913, and of chapter 238, Acts of 1914, and chapter 
367, Special Acts of 1915, in amendment thereto, is 

. . . authorized and directed to cause a careful investigation of the whole subject 
of the nuisances in and along the Une of the Quequechan river or upon or about lands 
or flats or waters adjacent or near to said river, and of the needs of the city for the 
increase, purification, protection and control of its water supply and the conserva- 
tion and improvement of the waters of the Watuppa ponds and of all brooks, streams 
and water sources contributing thereto; and to make necessary survej-s and exam- 
inations and prepare and submit to the state board of health for its approval, com- 
prehensive plans, showing in detail full and complete methods for abatement of the 
nuisances aforesaid, for the control and direction of the waters of the Quequechan 
river, for proper drains for surface water and sewers for sewage, and for the increase, 
purification, protection and control of the water supply of the city. 

In accordance with these acts detailed plans have been prepared under the 
direction of this Commission by its consulting engineers. Fay, Spofford and 
Thorndike, Boston, for the abatement of the nuisances aforesaid and for the 
protection, control and direction of the waters of the South Watuppa Pond and 
the Quequechan River including such drains for surface water and sewers for 
sewage as appear necessary for these purposes. From time to time, during the 
progress of our work, our engineers have submitted preliminary plans to the 
Chief Engineer of your Department, and have held conferences with him in 
order that we might secure the benefit of his criticisms and advice and be sure 
that the work was being carried out along lines satisfactory to your Department. 

In our original scheme for the improvement it was proposed to conserve the 
surface water draining into the Quequechan River by discharging it into the 
South Watuppa Pond. At a conference on August 3, 1915, representatives of 
your Department informed our engineers of their decision that, to prevent 
further pollution of the w^aters of the South Watuppa Pond, arrangements 
should be made by which this smiace water can ordinarily be discharged into 
the Tamiton River. Our plans have accordingly been revised so that this may 
be done, and a complete set in final form was filed with your Department by 
our engineers on August 20, 1915. 

The Commission now respectfully suggests the formal approval of these plans 
by your Department. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 87 

In connection with the application, plans and descriptions of the 
proposed works have been filed by your engineers showing (1) a main 
conduit fo be constructed from the vicinity of the Sand Bar at the 
outlet of South Watuppa Pond along the Quequechan River to a point 
just above the Watuppa Dam to provide for the flow of the river and 
for the supply of water to the mills for condensing, washing and other 
purposes; (2) a system of sanitary sewers discharging into tide water 
to take the sewage and wastes from the mills which are now dis- 
charged more or less directly into the stream; (3) a system of surface 
water drains to relieve the existing overtaxed combined sewers, thereby 
making practicable the discontinuance of overflows from these sewers 
which at present discharge into the Quequechan River at Plymouth 
Avenue and Quequechan Street; and (4) the filling of certain areas 
of flats on either side of the proposed conduit to a height at least 
equal to full pond level of the South Watuppa Pond. 

The State Department of Health has caused the Watuppa Ponds 
and Quequechan River to be examined and numerous samples of their 
waters collected at various points to be analyzed in connection with 
the investigation of this proposed work and has carefully considered 
the plans and estimates of cost now presented for its consideration. 

The analyses show that, while the waters of South Watuppa Pond 
are of good quality, the waters of the Quequechan River show rapidly 
increasing pollution below the South Pond, and in the drier portion 
of the year the river is grossly polluted throughout much of its course. 
These conditions are worse during the warmer and drier portion of 
the year when, by the drawing down of the pond and the lowering 
of the w^ater in the river, extensive flats in its neighborhood covered 
with deposits from sewage are exposed. Growths of organisms of 
various kinds take place on the flats and in the water and increase 
the nuisance. The nuisance is further aggravated by the fact that 
the water of the river is used very largely for the cooling of engines 
and, in consequence, its temperature is raised to a high degree in the 
drier portion of the year. 

It is essential for the protection of the health of the people of the 
city that these objectionable and unsanitary conditions be removed 
as soon as practicable. The problem involves also other considera- 
tions which, in the interest of the continued prosperity of the city, 
require a material change in the condition of this river. On account 
of the high temperature to which the water is raised in the summer 
season, its value for cooling is rapidly growing less, while, on account 
of the pollution of the water, its use for mechanical and manufactur- 
ing purposes is "also becoming unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the pres- 



88 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ent channel of the river is of an insufficient depth to make available 
for use the great quantity of water that can be made available from 
these ponds. 

Information submitted as to the flow of the Quequechan River in- 
dicates that it falls as low as 8 million gallons per day and sometimes 
to smaller quantities in dry years, whereas with a deeper channel and 
better regulation a constant flow of 20 million gallons, or possibly 
somewhat more, can be maintained at all times, including the driest 

years. 

The plans now presented by your commission are designed to abate 
the nuisance existing in the valley of the river and to secure the full 
value of this water supply for the industries of the city by providing 
for the complete separation of the hot and cold water, by permitting 
a constant supply of cold water much larger than the present minimum 
flow of the river to be discharged down stream in dry seasons, by 
providing an ample supply of cold water to all the principal mills 
along the stream by making available water stored in the South Pond 
at depths lower than that to which it is now possible to draw the 
pond, and, finally, by providing for the return of the hot water from 
the mill condensers to the South Pond, where it will be cooled and 
made available for further use. The plans provide for a main conduit 
consisting of a single structure with three separate channels super- 
imposed on each other, to be laid along the present line of the Que- 
quechan River south of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road from the Sand Bar, so called, at the outlet of South Watuppa 
Pond to a point about 350 feet above the Watuppa Dam. In this 
conduit the cold water channel is placed at the bottom, and the hot 
water channel at the top of the structure, and between the two is a 
surface water channel for the removal of the storm water from the 
watershed draining to the Quequechan River in this region to an out- 
let below the Watuppa Dam. The inlet for cold water and the outlet 
for hot water are widely separated, and provision is made at the 
outlet of the hot water conduit for separating any oil that may be- 
come mingled with the hot water before it is discharged into the pond. 
Provision is also made for turning the hot water into either the sur- 
face water channel or the cold water channel in case of need for the 
prevention of interference by ice. There is also provision for an 
overflow into the South Pond from the surface water channel in case 
the latter should become surcharged in an excessively heavy rain. 
At the lower end of the conduit near the Watuppa Dam, structures 
are provided for the discharge of water down the old channel of the 
river, which is estimated to have a carrying capacity of about 250 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. ^ 89 

cubic feet per second, and a new outfall sewer having a capacity of 
535 cubic feet per second is to be provided for the removal of sewage 
and storm water. This new sewer can also be used in emergencies 
for the removal of flood waters from the South Pond. 

The plans of sewerage and drainage submitted with the application 
provide for the separation of the sewage from the storm water in the 
valley of the Quequechan River and for maintaining separate systems 
in this valley in the future. In the beginning, however, it is only 
proposed to construct such sewers as are necessary to effect a partial 
separation, and especially to reduce and practically prevent the over- 
flow of mingled sewage and storm water into the Quequechan River. 
The plans provide for conveying the sewage to tide water through 
the proposed new outfall sewer previously referred to, having a capac- 
ity of 535 cubic feet per second, at the lower end of which outlet pipes 
are to be provided, one to discharge the higher flows below high water, 
while the other will convey the dry weather flow of sewage to an 
outlet in the Taunton River at a depth of 35 feet below mean high 
water. 

The plans as a whole, in the opinion of the Department, provide 
adequately for removing the nuisance in the valley of the Quequechan 
River, for providing proper sewerage and drainage systems in this 
valley, for conserving the waters of the ^Yatuppa Ponds, and for 
securing to the city certain other very important improvements, and 
the plans are hereby approved. 

It is necessary, in the opinion of the Department, that provision 
be made in the construction of these works and in their operation to 
prevent danger of an injurious flood in this valley by making further 
provision for the temporary storage or disposal of flood waters. Past 
experience has shown that the North Pond has risen as much as 14| 
inches in a single day, and, with the changes that are being made by 
the diversion of water from the watershed of the North Pond to the 
South Pond, there is danger that the water in the South Pond will 
rise to a greater height in a future similar flood, especially if the 
North Pond should happen also to be full at the time of its occur- 
rence. Such floods probably do not occur oftener than once or twice 
in a century, but it is nevertheless important to guard against the 
danger of serious damage from such an occurrence, and it is recom- 
mended that provision be made for allowing the water of the South 
Pond to rise temporarily above full pond to a level which would be 
equivalent to approximately the storage in the upper two feet of the 
South Pond. It will probably be practicable to provide for such an 
emergency without causing serious expense if arrangement for such 



90 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

an occurrence is made in the near future. If it is not found prac- 
ticable to allow the water to rise to so great a height without causing 
serious damage, the level of the South Pond should be kept sufficiently 
below full pond to provide for such a flood. 

The Department also advises that all pollution, so far as practicable, 
be kept out of the South Pond since this water, if unpolluted, will 
continue to be of good quality, while, if allowed to become polluted, 
objectionable organic growths would be likely to appear wdiich would 
make the condition of the lake objectionable, and the quality of the 
water might become seriously impaired for manufacturing and other 
uses. It is furthermore possible that water from the South Pond may 
be required at some time in the future for the domestic water supply 
of the city of Fall River, The consumption of water in the city is 
increasing steadily, and in the past few years quite rapidly, and with 
the recent reduction in its drainage area the quantity of water drawn 
from the North Pond will soon equal the yield of that source in a 
series of very dry years. 

Since final plans for increasing the water supply of the city have 
not yet been selected, the South Pond should be kept in such condi- 
tion that its waters may be used temporarily or permanently for that 
purpose with as little expense as practicable for the removal of sources 
of pollution. 

Dec. 10, 1915. 

To the Watuppa Water Board, Fall River, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Dec. 8, 1915, the following communication requesting its advice as 
to permitting the cutting and harvesting of ice on North Watuppa 
Pond. 

The Watuppa Water Board is about to issue permits for the cutting and 
harvesting of ice on the north pond and I am directed to send j'ou a copy of the 
permit containing various rules and regulations for the protection of the water 
during the time of such cutting and harvesting. 

Will you please look these rules and regulations over and advise us if they 
meet with your approval and if not to suggest to us other rules and regulations 
which in j-our opinion will best protect the pond from pollution. 

Kindly give this matter your earliest attention. . . . 

The question of the practicability of harvesting ice on North 
Watuppa Pond was carefully considered by this department in the 
winter of 1914 when ice cutting was carried on there presumably 
under the most careful inspection by your department, as recom- 
mended by this Department in its communication of Jan. 10, 1914. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 91 

In spite of this careful inspection, the results of the examination 
by this Department at that time showed that the pond was being 
badly polluted, as stated in its communication to you of April 13, 
1914, as follows: 

. . . Samples of water were taken for bacterial analysis at pomts along the 
shores, all of them showing pollution, and at one place where ice was being 
harvested the water on the top of the ice of the pond was found to contain 
850,000 bacteria per c. c, including many of those characteristic of sewage. 

These conditions occurred in spite of the emplojTnent by your department of 
numerous inspectors to prevent the pollution of the pond or its watershed, and 
the results show clearly the impracticabihty of preventing the pollution of a 
water from which ice is harvested in considerable quantities. It may be added 
that similar conditions were found on several other water supplies during the 
past winter from which ice is harvested in considerable quantities for domestic 
pm-poses and where inspection is also provided by the city or town to prevent 
pollution of the water. The results, in the opinion of the Board, are conclusive. 
They show that it is impracticable to protect adequately the purity of the water 
of North Watuppa Pond and continue to use it as a source of ice supply. . . . 

In the opinion of the Department, the proper protection of the 
health of the inhabitants of the city of Fall River requires that the 
cutting of ice from North ^Yatuppa Pond as practiced in the past 
shall be discontinued. If your board decides to again grant permits 
for the cutting or harvesting of ice from this pond, notice should be 
given to all the inhabitants of the city to boil all water used for 
drinking while ice cutting is in progress and to • continue to do so 
until the end of six weeks after ice has disappeared from the pond. 

Full copies of the communications of this Department of April 13, 
1914, and of Dec. 31, 1914, are appended hereto and made a part of 
this communication. 

Dec. 27, 1915. 

To the Watuppa Water Board, Fall River, Mass., Mr. James J. Kirby, Clerk and 

Registrar. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your letter of Dec. 15, 1915, in reply to its communication of Decem- 
ber 10 relative to the cutting of ice on North Watuppa Pond, the 
source of water supply of the city of Fall River. 

The Department has not advised you as to the rules and regula- 
tions which you submitted for the protection of the water during the 
time of ice cutting, because experience has already shown that inspec- 
tion is ineffective and inadequate for the protection of the purity of 
the water. 



92 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

This experience was acquired during the period of cutting ice under 
the inspection of your department in the winter of 1913-14. At that 
time the process was inspected by employees of this Department, and 
conditions were found which showed that the pond was being grossly 
polluted during the period that ice cutting was carried on. These 
conditions were reported to you in a communication from this De- 
partment dated April 13, 1914, and have been repeated in subsequent 
communications. 

Considering the gross pollution that resulted from the cutting of 
ice on North Watuppa Pond under your inspection at that time, the 
Department can see no justification whatever for placing in jeopardy 
the Uves of the inhabitants of the city by a continuation of the use 
of the pond for that purpose. 

Since the powers delegated to your board to permit the cutting of 
ice on the sources of your water supply must be exercised subject to 
such recommendation and direction as shall be given from time to 
time by this Department, and since this Department has repeatedly 
recommended that such permits be not granted, it now directs that 
they shall not be granted by you for such ice cutting, and hence the 
powers delegated to you to grant any such permit no longer exist. 

Falmouth. ^^^ 24, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Town of Falmouth, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water supplied to Falmouth from Long Pond and advice as to 
the cause of the objectionable condition complained of by water takers 
at the present time, the Commissioner of Health has caused the pond 
to be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water of Long Pond 
contains at the present time large numbers of the organism Uroglena 
which is the cause of the objectionable taste and odor in the water. 
While the presence of this organism in large numbers makes the water 
very objectionable, the use of water under these conditions is not 
known to be injurious to health. Complaint caused by the presence 
of the organism Uroglena generally occurs during cold weather, and 
the condition of this organism in the pond at the time of the recent 
examination and its absence from the samples collected from taps in 
town indicate that the growth is diminishing in intensity and will 
probably disappear as soon as the temperature of the water increases. 
Experience at other places indicates that less complaint is likely to 
occur if the flushing of pipes is omitted until the organism has dis- 
appeared from the waters of the pond. 



No. 34.1 ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 93 



FiTCHBURG. • 

Jan. 12, 1915. 

To Messrs. Thomas C. Sheldon, Arthur A. Train and Frank H. Foss, Boa/d of 
Water Commissioners, Fitchburg, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Nov. 11, 1914, the following petition for approval by this Depart- 
ment, under the provisions of chapter 697 of the Acts of the year 
1914, of the taking of certain sources of water supply in Ashburnham 
and Ashby: 

By chap. 697, Acts of 1914, this city is authorized to increase its water supply 
by the building of reservoirs on the Falulah brook watershed at Shattuck's and 
Lovell's sites, so called, take and develop Ashby reservoir in the town of Ashby 
and also Watatic, Ward, Stodge Meadow and Rice ponds with the Souhegan 
river in the towns of Ashby and Ashburnham according to plans formulated by 
Metcalf & Eddy, Boston. 

This is all subject to the approval of the Massachusetts Department of 
Health. 

By the act we are required to take Ashby reservoir within one year of its 
passage, which will be by June 1915, so it seems best to us in view of this fact 
and the financial condition of the city that we rebuild at once the dams at 
Ashby reservoir to raise the high water mark to an elevation of 13 feet (ele^•ation 
1,007 above sea level) above the present high water mark, storing about 747,- 
000,000 gallons. 

Following this to construct a reservoir at Shattuck's on Falulah brook to hold 
about .300,000,000 gallons ^\ith liigh water mark at elevation of 905 above sea 
level. 

We have these surveys and plans nearly finished and ask that you look over 
the sites and reservoirs as per our plans and if satisfactory give your approval. 

The application was accompanied by a plan showing the present 
outlines of the Ashby Reservoir, its outline when raised 13 feet to 
elevation 1,007 above sea level, and an area of land not exceeding 5 
rods in width to be taken about the reservoir when raised as proposed. 
It appears, from the information presented with the application, that 
it is proposed to reconstruct the Ashby Reservoir at the present time 
by building two new dams and to divert its waters into Falulah Brook 
and subsequently into a new reservoir to be known as Shattuck Reser- 
voir, to be constructed on Falulah Brook with a high water mark at 
elevation about 905 above sea level. 

As to the treatment of Ashby Reservoir in preparation for the stor- 
age of water for domestic purposes, it is understood that you propose 
for the present simply to clear thoroughly the additional land which 



94 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

will be flowed by raising the reservoir and that no further preparation 
will be made at the present time. The water of Ashby Reservoir will 
for the present, and until the construction of the Shattuck Reservoir, 
be ,drawn into Falulah Brook and will flow in this brook a distance of 
approximately 2 miles to the Falulah Reservoir, whence it will be 
drawn for the supply of the city. After the construction of the Shat- 
tuck Reservoir, the water will flow into that reservoir a distance of 
nearly a mile and thence in part to Falulah Reservoir and in part to 
the Scott Reservoir, which supplies the high-service system. 

Ashby Reservoir has a muddy bottom and there is little doubt that 
when flowed to the new high water level under the plan proposed the 
water will at times be objectionable in appearance, taste and odor for 
domestic use. It will be necessary, however, for the Ashby water to 
flow a long distance in Falulah Brook, and its quality will no doubt 
be improved thereby. In case it should still be objectionable at times, 
the use of the reservoir can be avoided when desirable by utilizing the 
water of the other sources. The circumstances are such, moreover, 
that if it is ultimately found advisable to improve further the bottom 
of this reservoir, it can be isolated from the system and the work can 
be carried out when necessary. If, however, part of the material re- 
quired for the construction of the dams can be obtained by stripping 
parts of the area to be flowed without adding greatly to the cost, it 
would be best to strip as much of the new area to be flowed as may 
be found practicable for this purpose. 

The State Department of Health has considered your application 
and the plan presented and hereby approves the taking of Ashby 
Reservoir as a source of supply for the city of Fitchburg and also the 
taking of land about the shores of the proposed reservoir as shown 
upon the plan presented. The Department also approves the loca- 
tion of the dams at this reservoir as shown upon the plan submitted. 

Aug. 27, 1915. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the City of Fitchburg, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application received on Aug. 6, 1915, for the approval by this 
Department of the purchase or taking by the city of Fitchburg, under 
the provisions of chapter 697 of the Acts of the year 1914, of certain 
parcels of land in the neighborhood of the Ashby Reservoir and the 
pipe line leading therefrom to Falulah Brook, shown on plans sub- 
mitted with the application, and has caused the parcels indicated to 
be examined by its engineer. 

It appears from the examination that these parcels in some cases 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 95 

contain buildings, drainage from which would tend to pollute your 
water supply, and in other cases are so located that it is important 
for the city to control them for the protection of the purity of the 
water in the reservoir. 

After consideration, the Department voted to approve the taking of 
the lands in question as shown upon the plans filed with your applica- 
tion which bear the following titles: — (1) "Fitchburg Water Works, 
Fitchburg, Mass. Ashby Reservoir Showing Area Flowed 5-rod 
Taking and Adjacent Property. Nov. 1914. Scale 1 in.= 200 ft."; 
(2) "Land owned by Henry B. Houghton near Ashby Reservoir. July 
1915. Scale 1 in.= 200 ft."; (3) "Land owned by Levi W. Mayo near 
Ashby Reservoir. July 1915. Scale 1 in. = 200 ft.", these plans hav- 
ing been filed in this Department on Aug. 6, 1915. 



Framingham. 



Feb. 26, 1915. 



To the Board of Water CommissioJiers, Framingham, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for advice as to the 
probable effect of the water supplied to the town of Framingham upon 
lead pipe if used for services, the Commissioner of Health has caused 
the sources of supply to be examined and samples of Framingham 
water placed in contact with lead service pipes to be analyzed. 

It is understood that the water supply of Framingham is drawn in 
part from the filter gallery near Farm Pond and in part from the Sud- 
bury Aqueduct, the greater portion of the water at the present season 
of the year coming from the filter gallery. 

The results of the test show that this water when standing in con- 
tact with new lead service pipes for a period of a few hours takes up 
a quantity of lead much in excess of the minimum quantity known 
to have caused lead poisoning. Under the circumstances the use of 
lead pipe in connection with this water will involve danger of injury 
to health. 

Franklin (Wells). 

Aug. 14, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Franl-U7i, Mass., Mr. J. Newton Blanchard, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request the State Department 
of Health has examined the water of two wells in Franklin, — one 
located on the property of Miss Frances King on High Street and the 
other at the corner of West Central and School streets, — for the pur- 
pose of advising as to the safety of these sources for domestic use. 



96 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results of an analysis of the water from the well on the King 
place show that, while some of the water entering the well had prob- 
ably been polluted, it was quite well purified in its passage through 
the ground before entering the well, and in the condition in which it 
was found at the time of the examination was probably safe for drink- 
ing. There are sources of pollution at no great distance from this 
well, however, and considering the circumstances it is not advisable 
to use the well as a source of domestic water supply. 

An examination of the water of the well located at the corner of 
West Central and School streets shows that this water has been very 
badly polluted and the source cannot be regarded as a safe one from 
which to take water for domestic use. 

It appears that the public water supply of the town of Franklin is 
available for use on both these premises, and it is recommended that 
water from the public supply be provided and the further use of water 
from these wells discontinued. 



Georgetown. 

May 17, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Georgetown, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health has considered your 
application for advice as to a proposed water supply for the town of 
Georgetown and has caused the locality to be examined by the en- 
gineer of the Department. 

The results of an examination show that the conditions affecting the 
water supply for Georgetown have changed very little since the time 
of the previous consideration of this question in 1897. The two ponds 
located close to the village, Rock Pond and Pentucket Pond, are each 
of them of ample capacity to supply a much greater quantity of water 
than would be required for the uses of Georgetown, but the waters of 
these ponds are highly colored and affected by growths of organisms 
and would be objectionable for domestic use. While the water of 
these sources might be purified, there is no doubt that a ground water 
supply, if a suitable source can be found within the limits of the 
town, would be far more desirable than the water of any of the avail- 
able surface sources, even after purification. 

A careful examination of the region about Rock and Pentucket 
ponds shows that, judging from surface indications, the conditions 
are probably favorable at several points in the neighborhood of these 
ponds for obtaining water from the ground by means of tubular wells 
or other suitable collecting works. The most favorable of these loca- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 97 

tions, so far as can be judged from a surface examination, is in the 
neighborhood of the Parker River just above the point where it is 
crossed by the highway near Rock Pond. The land close to the river 
in this region is meadow and may contain a considerable depth of 
peat, which might have an unfavorable effect upon the water of wells 
located in this ground, but a few hundred feet back from the river 
on the northerly side, there are gravelly or sandy lands where the 
conditions appear to be favorable for obtaining water from the ground. 
A similar condition exists on the south side of the river, though this 
location may be a somewhat greater distance from the town than the 
north side of the stream. Favorable conditions are also found in the 
neighborhood of Pentucket Pond, especially on its southwesterly side, 
where the soil appears to be very coarse and porous, but several cot- 
tages have been constructed in this region and the cost of w^orks here 
might be greater than in the location mentioned above. It is also 
possible that the water of wells near the southwesterly side of Pen- 
tucket Pond might be affected by the nearness of the population in 
the village. The conditions are also apparently favorable for obtain- 
ing water from the ground along the southwesterly side of Rock Pond, 
though the number of cottages in this region might make it difficult 
to obtain a satisfactory supply without a greater expense than would 
be necessary in the case of lands northwest of the pond. There are 
also other localities in which it seems probable that a ground water 
supply can be obtained in considerable quantity. 

It is recommended that as your next step in making investigations 
for a water supply for Georgetown tests be made by sinking wxlls 
first in the neighborhood of the Parker River above Rock Pond and, 
if the results are unsatisfactory there, that they be continued in other 
locations where favorable conditions are found. If a location is found 
where the test wells penetrate a porous soil which yields water freely, 
the tests should be continued to determine whether these conditions 
extend over a considerable area, and samples of the water should be 
examined to determine its suitability for domestic use. As soon as 
a location is found in which water is obtained freely from the test 
wells, it will probably be advisable to make a further test by pump- 
ing from a group of wells at such a rate and for such a length of time 
as may be necessary to determine the suitability of the source for the 
requirements of the town of Georgetown. In case you decide to make 
further investigations, the Department will assist you by making such 
analyses of the water as may be necessary, and when the results of 
tests are available will give you further advice as to a source of water 
supply for the town. 



98 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Greenfield. 

Nov. 29, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Greenfield, Mass., Mr. George F. Merrill, 

Superintendent. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to a proposed extension of your filter 
desio-ned for filtering Green River water into the well near that stream 
and has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers 
and samples of the soil at the site of the proposed filter to be analyzed. 

The plan now proposed provides for enlarging the filter bed near the 
well by extending the area on the side toward the well for an average 
width of about 24 feet so that the southerly edge of the filter will be 
at all points about 80 feet distant from the well. It is also proposed 
to lay a pipe along the edge of the filter nearest the well about I5 feet 
beneath the surface of the filter and about 5 feet below the adjacent 
ground between the filter and the well, through which it is proposed 
to discharge water from Green River into the ground during the winter 
season only, since it is found that cold weather interferes considerably 
with the operation of the present open filter bed. 

The results of the analyses of the material from two test pits within 
the limits of the proposed extension of the filter show that the soil 
in these test pits is a coarse gravel containing many large stones, 
mingled, however, with fine material apparently in sufficient quan- 
tity to produce an effective size of sand ranging from .26 to .32 of 
a millimeter, which, if generally continuous throughout the area be- 
tween the filter and the well, should produce an effective filter. 

The proposed pipe line from which water is to be discharged into 
the ground beneath the edge of the filter is to be laid with open joints, 
and it is probable that water will filter freely into the ground for a 
time. There are times, however, when Green River water carries con- 
siderable silt, and it is likely that the amount of water that will filter 
into the ground will diminish in the future, and it may be necessary 
in time to take up, clean and relay the distribution pipe in order to 
insure its satisfactory operation. If the proposed pipe line operates 
satisfactorily and if it is found that the water is satisfactorily purified 
when applied to the ground in this way, the capacity of the works in 
the winter season may perhaps be still further increased and the satu- 
ration of the ground be made more effective by laying additional dis- 
tribution pipes beneath the surface of the open filter which can be 
used in the cold weather. It is important of course that the sub- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 99 

surface distribution pipes be used only when necessary in winter and 
the open filter used at other times. 

You have also requested advice as to covering the open filter with 
a layer of finer material in order to prevent the clogging of the filter 
by silt, which is sometimes present in a considerable quantity in the 
river water. The analysis of a sample of sand sent in by you from 
a sand bank southwest of the filter shows that it has an effective size 
of .29 of a millimeter, and this sand would be of excellent quality for 
filtration. 

In the opinion of the Department, by covering the filter with this 
sand, it W'ill be practicable to scrape it at the necessary intervals and 
secure its efl&cient operation with less difficulty than under present 
conditions. 

Hanover. 

Mat 14, 1915. 

To the Water Supply Committee of the Town of Hanover, Mass., Mr. Fred W. Phillips, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
April 13, 1915, through your engineer, Mr. E. Worthington of Ded- 
ham, an application for advice as to a proposed source of water sup- 
ply for the town of Hanover, to be taken from the ground by means 
of tubular wells or other works to be located in the neighborhood of 
Silver Brook near the point where it joins Third Herring Brook in 
the northeastern part of the town of Hanover, and in response to this 
application has caused this locality to be examined by the engineer 
of the Department and samples of water from test wells in this locality 
to be analyzed. 

The information furnished by sinking test wells at several points in 
this region shows that the wells in most cases penetrated a porous 
stratum from which water could be drawn quite freely, and the indi- 
cations are that this porous stratum may extend over a considerable 
area in this neighborhood. The watershed draining toward this lo- 
cality is quite extensive and, so far as can be judged from the tests 
thus far made, the indications are favorable for obtaining enough water 
from the ground in this region for all the requirements of the town of 
Hanover. 

Analyses of samples of water from several of the test wells indicate 
that the ground water in this region is likely to be of good quality for 
domestic use. There are no sources of pollution in the region in which 
the test wells were located which appear likely to affect unfavorably 



100 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



the quality of the water taken from the ground, and the location ap- 
pears to be as favorable a one as it is practicable to secure from which 
to take water for the supply of the town. 

In view of the favorable results of the preliminary investigation, it 
is recommended that a further test of the practicability of obtaining 
an adequate supply of good water for Hanover be made by sinking 
a number of wells in this locality and pumping from them at a rate 
of at least 300,000 gallons per day for a period of at least ten days. 
It is important that the water pumped during the test be carefully 
measured and that it be disposed of by discharging it into the brook 
at a sufficient distance below the wells to avoid danger of its affecting 
their yield. It is also important that careful observations of the 
fluctuations in the ground water level be made before, during and 
after the period of pumping and that samples of water be collected 
for analysis at frequent intervals during the test. 

When you are ready to proceed with this test, the Department will 
make the necessary analyses of water and will give you further advice 
as to taking a water supply for the town of Hanover from the ground 
in this region as soon as the results of further tests are available. 



Harwich (Wells in Harwich Center). 

Feb. 27, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Harwich, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request for an examination of cer- 
tain wells in the village of Harwich Center in which a number of cases 
of typhoid fever recently occurred, the Commissioner of Health has 
caused certain of the wells to be examined and samples of their w^aters 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that all of the wells examined con- 
tained a larger quantity of iron than is found in good well waters, 
which makes them objectionable for many domestic uses. This con- 
dition has been found in all of the wells examined in this village. 

The resujlts of an analysis of the water of the well on the premises 
of H. H. Murphy indicate that it is badly polluted and unsafe for 
use. 

The well in the rear of the Highland Hotel is also very badly pol- 
luted and cannot be regarded as a safe source from which to take 
water for drinking. 

The water of the wells on the premises of John H. Drum and C. F. 
Smyser shows no marked evidence of sewage pollution, but these 
waters contain a larger quantity of organic matter than is found in 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 101 

good well waters and are affected by an excess of iron which makes 
them objectionable for domestic use. 

A general water supply is very greatly needed in this village, and 
it is recommended that the town cause an investigation to be made 
at the earliest practicable time with a view to obtaining a general 
water supply for domestic purposes. The Department will assist you 
in making investigations for a water supply, if you so request, by 
making examinations of any sources which you may desire to have 
considered and will advise you as to any plan for a system of water 
supply that you may desire to present. Many towns having less popu- 
lation and valuation than the town of Harwich are already provided 
with public water supplies, and the Department will be pleased to 
supply you with information concerning them, if you wish. 

Ipswich. 

Jan. 18, 1915. 

To the Municipal Water and Light Commission, Ipswich, Mass., Mr. George A. 

ScHOFiELD, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water of Bull Brook and advice as to its use as ^ temporary source 
of water supply by the town of Ipswich, the Commissioner of Health 
has caused the brook and its watershed to be examined and a sample 
of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water of Bull Brook, 
above the point at which you propose to take it for the water supply 
of Ipswich, is not exposed to serious danger of pollution at the present 
time. An analysis of the water shows that the color is less than usual, 
while in other respects it shows no material change from the previous 
examinations. 

In the opinion of the Department, the source is a safe one from 
which to take an additional supply of water for the town of Ipswich 
at the present time. 

Lenox. 

June 9, 1915. 
To the Lenox Water Company, Lenox, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
May 7, 1915, an application for advice as to the proposed new reser- 
voir to be built just below the present large reservoir of the Lenox 
AYater Company, accompanied by a general plan of the proposed 
works. 

The plan provides for constructing a dam about 250 feet in length 



102 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

across the brook which forms the outlet of your present reservoir at 
a point about 350 feet below the dam of the main reservoir. The 
construction of this dam will create a reservoir having an area of 
approximately one acre and an available storage capacity to a depth 
of 8 feet of 1,750,000 gallons. It is estimated that the works will 
cost about $12,000. 

Information is presented with your application showing measure- 
ments of the flow of the brook above and below the Root Reservoirs 
and as to the quantity of water used by the town as shown by the 
records of the Venturi meter recently installed on the main leading 
from Root Reservoir to the distributing reservoir. Observations indi- 
cate that the average consumption of water during the greater part 
of the month of May was about 254,000 gallons, exclusive of a small 
amount yielded by the watershed of the distributing reservoir. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the location of the pro- 
posed reservoir to be examined by the engineer of the Department 
and has considered the information presented. The additional water- 
shed that will be made tributary to your water supply system by the 
construction of the proposed reservoir is insignificant and the chief 
advantage to be obtained from the construction of this reservoir will 
be the interception of leakage past the dam of the Lower Root Reser- 
voir. There are indications that this leakage is considerable when the 
reservoir is full or nearly so, and it probably diminishes gradually as 
the reservoir is drawn down. It is impracticable without actual obser- 
vations of the flow of the brook with different amounts of water in 
the Lower Root Reservoir to determine the additional quantity that 
will be obtained by the construction of the new dam, but an inspec- 
tion of the locality indicates that the amount of water intercepted may 
average from 50,000 to 100,000 gallons per day. The amount will 
vary in different seasons, being less in dry seasons when the reservoir 
is low and greater in wetter seasons when the water in the Root Reser- 
voir is maintained at higher levels than has been the case in recent 
years. The construction of this reservoir will not add to the calculated 
yield of the works as stated in a communication to you from this de- 
partment under date of May 4, 1914, but it will intercept a consider- 
able amount of water which has hitherto been lost by leakage past the 
dam, and if the new dam is carefully built and the leakage effectually 
prevented at the cost estimated in your application, the construction 
of the dam is advisable. 

It is recommended that the bottom of the proposed new reservoir 
be carefully prepared for the storage of water by the removal of all 
soil and vegetable matter from the area to be flowed. 



No. 34.] ADMCE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 103 

By the installation of the Venturi meter on the main pipe leading 
to your distributing reservoir, it will now be practicable to determine 
very closely the quantity of water used by the town. It will also be 
practicable, by means of the fifty meters secured for use on services 
where the consumption of water is thought to be large, to determine 
whether excessive quantities of water are used or wasted on the estates 
to which these meters are applied during the summer season. It is desir- 
able that all of these meters be read at as frequent intervals as prac- 
ticable during the coming summer, not only to note the total quantity 
of water drawn but the variations in flow under varying weather con- 
ditions. It is advisable also that the gates, blow-offs, etc., recom- 
mended in the previous communication be installed as soon as prac- 
ticable. It is also important that the works for drawing water from 
Laurel Lake be maintained in condition for use during the coming 
year, since the rainfall thus far during the present year is much below 
the average and there is great danger of another shortage of water 
unless exceptionally heavy rains shall occur within the next few wxeks. 
If the deficiency in rainfall continues, it will be advisable to begin 
drawing water from Laurel Lake at an earlier time than usual. 



Lowell. 

Aug. 24, 1915. 

To Mr. Jaimes H. Carmichael, Commissioner of Water Works and Fire Protection, 

Loivell, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The' State Department of Health has considered your 
request for advice relative to certain proposed connections between 
the water pipe system of the city of Lowell and that of the Proprietors 
of the Locks and Canals on the Merrimack River, to be used only at 
times of serious fires, and has considered the plans and other informa- 
tion presented therewith. 

The plans provide for connections at the present time to be located 
at three points, viz., one at East Merrimack Street near the Concord 
River between the Prescott Spinning Mill and new mill of the Massa- 
chusetts Cotton Mills, one in Jackson Street opposite the Appleton 
Company's coal shed, and the third at the corner of Race and Hall 
streets. Memoranda as to the proposed connections and the main- 
tenance thereof are submitted with your application as follows: — 

The Insurance Companies, both Mutual and Stock Companies, have ex- 
pressed a strong desire that there be one or more connections between the water 
systems for extinguishing of fires belonging to the "City and to the Locks & 



104 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Canals, to be used especially in case of a breakdown in the mains of the Locks 
& Canals system during an extensive conflagration. 

In pro\ading such connection, the City will no doubt require that it shall be 
impossible for water to flow from the Locks & Canals pipes into the City pipes, 
but that water may when desired by the City flow from the City pipes into 
those of the Locks and Canals pipes. 

To accomplish this a connecting pipe, say 12 inches in diameter, should be 
provided first with two water tight positive gates, one near the City main and 
one near the Locks & Canals main, to be under lock and key of the City, with 
no access thereto by any other party. 

Between these two gates are to be two check valves as constructed by the 
Factory Mutual Insurance Companies opening towards the Locks & Canals 
main and closed towards the City main. Between these two check valves is to 
be a chamber that may be entered and may at any moment be inspected through 
glass, having a small drain open to a sewer by which this chamber may be or- 
dinarily kept free from water and any leakage from any of the gates or valves 
be detected. 

In addition there should be adjacent to the positive gates a pressure gauge 
attached to the City pipe; another attached to the Locks & Canals pipe and 
still another connecting with the chamber between the check valves, all placed 
side by side indicating to the City the difference in pressure in the two systems 
and guiding the City not to allow either of the positive gates to be opened unless 
the pressure in the City main is ample to prevent any water passing from the 
Locks & Canals main towards the City main. 

This apparatus put in and maintained by the City at the expense of the 
Locks & Canals would appear to be a complete safeguard to the health of the 
City and three of them being situated as follows, viz.: one in East Merrimack 
Street, connecting the City 24 inch main with the Locks & Canals 24 inch main, 
or one of its 20 inch branches: a second one on Jackson Street near the Hamil- 
ton Manufacturing Co.'s counting room connecting the City's 16 inch main with 
the Locks & Canals' 12 inch main; and a third, one on Hall Street connecting 
the 20 ini'h City main with the 16 inch Locks & Canals main, — would provide 
means of saving mill property after the Locks & Canals system had been more 
or less disabled and preventing a conflagration sweeping across the mill property 
to the City property beyond. 

The Department of Health has caused the question submitted to be 
considered by its engineer and has examined the plans and information 
presented. It is desirable that, if practicable with safety to the health 
of the city, some means should be provided whereby the two pipe 
systems, those of the city of Lowell and those of the Proprietors of 
the Locks and Canals, could be available to the fullest practicable 
extent for use in case of fire in the city of Lowell. 

The plan presented appears to this Department to provide a prac- 
ticable and reasonably safe method by which the pressure in the water 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 105 

supply system of the Locks and Canals can be supplemented from tl^e 
pipes of the city of Lowell in case of a draft at the time of a fire 
greater than the Locks and Canals mains are capable of supplying 
without serious loss of head. The plan of the proposed connection 
in East Merrimack Street, which is to be followed in the construction 
of the other connections, appears to the Department to be a suitable 
one to adopt. This connection should be constructed in accordance 
with the specifications of the memoranda quoted above, and for addi- 
tional safeguard the Department suggests the adoption by your de- 
partment of a set of rules substantially as follows, to be posted in 
each connection chamber, in the offices of the Department of Water 
Works and Fire Protection of the City of Lowell, and in those of the 
Proprietors of the Locks and Canals on the Merrimack River. 

L The keys of this chamber are to be kept in the possession of a 
person or persons designated from time to time by the Department of 
Water Works and Fire Protection of the City of Lowell. 

2. This chamber shall be opened only by a person or persons author- 
ized to do so by the Department of Water Works and Fire Protection 
of the City of Lowell. 

3. The condition of the chamber, of the gates and of the check 
valves, gages, etc., shall be carefully inspected by the Department of 
Water Works and Fire Protection of the City of Lowell and by the 
Proprietors of the Locks and Canals upon such dates and at such 
times as shall be mutually agreed upon but at least once in each 
calendar year. 

4. The date of the last inspection and the names of the persons 
making the inspection shall be posted in each of the connection cham- 
bers and in the offices of the Department of Water Works and Fire 
Protection of the City of Lowell and of the Proprietors of the Locks 
and Canals. 

5. A written report of each inspection and of the conditions found 
shall be made, both to the Department of Water Works and Fire Pro- 
tection of the City of Lowell and to the Proprietors of the Locks and 
Canals. 

6. The maintenance of the connection chamber shall be in charge 
of the Department of Water Works and Fire Protection of the City 
of Lowell. 

It is also important that the Department of Water Works and Fire 
Protection keep available at all times a competent person to take 
charge of the operation of the gates in each chamber, and each person 
given such charge should be instructed carefully in his duties. The 
department should also post upon the walls of each chamber full in- 



106 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

structions as to the observation of the gages and the operation of the 
gates with reference thereto. These rules should provide that when 
the use of the connections seems likely to be required the person in 
charge of each connection chamber shall observe carefully the gages, 
and when the pressure in the Locks and Canals mains falls below that 
of the city of Lowell to the extent of a certain fixed number of pounds, 
both positive gates shall be opened at once and shall be allowed to 
remain open until the pressure in the Locks and Canals mains rises 
within a fixed amoujat of that in the city mains, when at least one of 
the positive gates should be closed at once. The determination of the 
number of pounds that the Locks and Canals gage should be allowed 
to drop below the city gage before opening the connections will de- 
pend somewhat upon circumstances and should be fixed by the De- 
partment of Water Works and Fire Protection of the City of Lowell. 
It is probable that a difference of 10 pounds would be a reasonable 
one; that is, when the pressure in the Locks and Canals mains be- 
comes 10 pounds lower than that in the city mains the positive gates 
would be opened, and when the pressure in the Locks and Canals 
mains again rises to within 10 pounds of the pressure in the city mains 
the positive gates would be closed. 

After the emergency has passed, both positive gates should be 
closed and the water in the check valve chamber discharged to the 
sewer. It will be essential also that some provision be made for keep- 
ing enough water in the trap of the sewer connection to prevent any 
gases which may be present in the sewer at any time from entering 
the chamber. If it is deemed impracticable to do this, the sewer con- 
nection should be made with a positive gate with a satisfactory ar- 
rangement for opening it whenever it becomes necessary to discharge 
water from the chamber. 

In the opinion of the Department, if the works are constructed ac- 
cording to the plans submitted and are maintained in accordance with 
the suggestions herein contained, danger of contamination of the water 
of the city through these connections can be avoided. 

Dec. 16, 1915. 
To Dr. C. E. Simpson, State District Health Officer, Lowell, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request, the State Department of 
Health has caused an examination to be made of the water supplied 
at the house at 89 Varnum Avenue to determine the presence of lead, 
the results of which show that the quantity of lead, both in the 
sample collected during ordinary use and in the sample collected after 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 107 

water had been standing in the pipe for a considerable time, was less 
than the minimum amount known to have caused lead poisoning. 

An examination has also been made of the water from a tap at 22 
Phillips Street, the results of which show the presence of an excessive 
quantity of lead, even in ordinary use, while the quantity obtained 
from a sample that had been standing in the pipe for a considerable 
time was nearly five times the minimum quantity known to have 
caused lead poisoning. 

The water in both cases is supplied from the works of the city of 
Lowell and copies of these analyses are appended hereto. 



Lunenburg. 

Feb. 2, 1915. 

To the Lunenburg Water Company, Lunenburg, Mass., Emerson W. Baker, Esq., 

President. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Jan. 16, 1915, the following application requesting approval of a 
certain source of water supply for the town of Lunenburg under the 
provisions of chapter 339 of the Acts of the year 1914: 

Under the provisions of Acts of the year 1914, chapter 339, the Lunenburg 
Water Company hereby make application to j^our Honorable Board for approval 
of the source of water supply under said Act, by driven and artesian wells, 
located in Carr's Meadow, so called, in said Lunenburg, upon which test wells 
have recently been driven and operated. 

Investigations for a water supply for Lunenburg have been carried 
on in various localities in the town, the most favorable conditions be- 
ing found in the locality known as Carr's Meadow, situated about f 
of a mile south of the center of the main village of Lunenburg. In 
the latter part of 1914 a test was made in this locality by sinking a 
tubular well, and samples of water taken from this well indicated that 
the ground water in the region was probably of good quality for do- 
mestic use. Furthermore, the test well yielded water quite freely when 
pumping with a hand pump and, in view of the conditions, it was 
determined to make a further and more thorough test for obtaining 
a water supply for the town in this locality. 

For the purpose of this test, nine additional wells were driven in 
two lines, making an angle of 45 degrees with each other, the length 
of one line being 95 feet and the other 120 feet, with five wells in each 
line. In sinking the wells a deep layer of sand and gravel was found 
extending down to a maximum depth of 22^ feet beneath the surface 



108 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

and growing coarser toward the bottom. Hardpan is said to have 
been encountered beneath this gravel layer. 

A pumping test was then made by pumping continuously from nine 
wells for a period of five days between Dec. 31, 1914, and Jan. 5, 1915, 
and during this test samples were collected daily for analysis and ob- 
servations were made upon the variations in the height of the ground 
water in an observation well selected for the purpose. During the 
test water was pumped at an average rate varying from 151,000 to 
184,000 gallons per day, the average rate throughout the test being 
about 175,000 gallons per day. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
and has considered the information presented relative to the location 
and surroundings of the wells and the results of tests as to their prob- 
able yield and the probable quality of the water to be obtained there- 
from. 

The results of the chemical analyses of samples collected during this 
test show that the water is clear, colorless and odorless and in all 
respects of good quality for domestic use. The test was made near 
the end of a period of exceptionally dry weather and, judging from 
the information presented, it is probable that the wells in this loca- 
tion will yield an adequate quantity of water for all the requirements 
of Lunenburg at the present time and can be extended without serious 
difficulty and expense so as to be made adequate for a considerably 
larger population if necessary in the future. 

The Department hereby approves the taking of water from the 
ground in the locality in question as a source of water supply for the 
Lunenburg Water Company, under the provisions of chapter 339 of 
the Acts of the year 1914. 

Mansfield. 

March 16, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, MansHeld, Mass., Dr. W. H. Allen, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water supply of the town of Mansfield and advice as to its condi- 
tion, and also for an examination of certain wells on the estate of 
Joseph Smith and advice as to their use in connection with the milk 
supply, the Commissioner of Health has caused the sources indicated 
to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The water supply of Mansfield shows improvement since the town 
acquired the land for the protection of this source in 1911, and in the 
condition in which it was found at the time of this examination the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 109 

water was practically free from bacteria and of excellent quality in 
other respects. 

An analysis of the water of the well in the field at the rear of the 
house on the Smith estate shows some evidence of previous pollution, 
but at the time of the examination the water was being quite thor- 
oughly purified in its passage through the ground before entering the 
well. The well is exposed to danger of pollution from the surface of 
the ground and in the manner of drawing the water, and the number 
of bacteria present in the water at the time of this examination was 
large. It is probable that if the curb of this well were raised above 
the level of the surrounding ground and securely covered so as to pre- 
vent the entrance of surface water or of watei* falling from the pump 
upon the platform, the source would be a safe one from which to take 
water for domestic purposes. 

The water of the well to the west of the house has not yet been 
examined chemically, but the number of bacteria present was high, 
due probably to the method of drawing the water from the well. It 
is likely that if the curb about this well also was raised above the 
level of the ground and the well was securely covered so as to prevent 
the entrance of surface water, it would supply water of good quality. 
It would be essential, however, to provide a different method of draw- 
ing the water from that in use at present, by which no doubt the well 
may receive considerable bacterial pollution. 

If it is decided to improve the conditions about these wells, a further 
examination of their waters wall be made by this Department, if so 
requested, to determine the condition of the water after danger of 
surface pollution has been eliminated. 

Marblehead. 
To Herbert J. Hall, M.D., Marblehead, Mass. ' ' 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for advice as to the prob- 
able effect upon the water supply of Marblehead of the burying of 
cattle, some of which were afl3icted with the foot and mouth disease, 
at a point in Swampscott not far from the boundary of the town of 
Marblehead, the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to 
be examined and has considered the information presented. 

It appears that on Dec. 5, 1914, during an epidemic of foot and 
mouth disease, about thirty-nine cows were buried at a point about 
2200 feet southwest of well No. 2, so called, one of the principal sources 
of water supply of the town of Marblehead, quicklime being used in 
the burial of the cattle. 



no STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Marblehead water supply, coming chiefly from well No. 2, is a 
ground water source derived from the rainfall which percolates into 
the ground in a large area about the well and filters slowly through the 
ground about the well. It is impossible to say definitely whether the 
ground water from the neighborhood of the point where the cattle are 
buried filters toward the well, but in case this happens, it is likely that 
the water would be thoroughly purified before reaching the well, and 
there is no likelihood whatever that any injury would result to the 
quality of the water which would make it injurious to the health of 
those who use it for drinking. Moreover, before being supplied for 
drinking, this water is again filtered through the well-designed filter 
plant constructed at th'e pumping station. 

Under the circumstances, there need be no apprehension, in the 
opinion of this Department, that the burial of the cattle at the point 
in question will have an injurious effect upon the health of those using 
the water supplied to the town of Marblehead from the works at 
Loring Avenue. 

Maeion. Sept. 15, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Marion, Mass., Mr. George M. Delano, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Aug. 26, 1915, for 
advice as to the use of water from the new wells in the northerly part 
of the town, the State Department of Health has caused the wells and 
their surroundings to be examined and further samples of their waters 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the quality of the water 
remains practically the same as during a pumping test of last year, 
and we are unable to give you at the present time any more definite 
advice concerning the matter than was given under date of Nov. 19, 
1914, the essential points of which were as follows: 

. . . The results of the analyses of samples of water collected during the 
test indicate very clearly that part at least of the water entering these wells has 
at some time been badly polluted. The chlorine, residue and hardness were 
more than twice as great as in the water of your present sources of supply, and 
the nitrates were more than seven times as great. 

In the condition in which the water was found during the test, however,, it 
was probably safe for drinldng. There is, however, an objection to the use of 
such a water for the supply of the town for the reason that, when water is drawn 
in such quantities as will be necessary for all requirements in the drier part of 
the year, the quality is likely to change, and it may deteriorate to such an extent 
as would make it unsafe for drinking. . . . 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. Ill 

Under the circumstances, so long as the water remains about as 
found at the time of the recent test, there appears to be no serious 
objection to its use, but as the quality may change with pumping, it 
is desirable that analyses be made at frequent intervals so that if 
deterioration should occur to such an extent as to render the water 
unsafe for drinking its use could be discontinued. 

It appears to be practicable to obtain a very considerable quantity 
of water at this location but, in view of its quality and danger of 
deterioration if large quantities are drawn, it is advisable that this 
source be maintained and operated strictly as an emergency supply 
and your main supply be drawn from the original source to the full 
extent that that source will yield. 



MoNsoN (State Hospital). 

Aug. 11, 1915. 

To the State Board of Insanity, Mr. Charles E. Ward, Treasurer, State House, Boston, 

Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water of certain test wells recently driven at the Monson State 
Hospital, and advice as to its quality, the State Department of Health 
has caused the wells and their surroundings to be examined and sam- 
ples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the waters taken from test 
wells Nos. 1, 2, 4, and 5 are soft and in their present condition of good 
quality for all domestic purposes. The information supplied as to the 
character of the soil in which the wells were sunk shows that it is 
coarse and porous to a considerable depth and water could be pumped 
very freely from all of the wells with a hand pump. These indications 
are favorable to obtaining a considerable quantity of water from the 
ground in this region by means of tubular wells. While the quality 
is good at the present time, the wells are located quite near the 
Quaboag River which receives considerable pollution, and also at no 
great distance from the sewage disposal area of the hospital. In view 
of these conditions, the Department is of the opinion that, if water 
from this source is to be used for the purposes of a domestic water 
supply in the hospital, a test of the probable yield and equality of the 
water obtained from these wells be made by pumping continuously 
from a group of five or six wells in this region for a period of at least 
a week and at a rate of as much as 100,000 gallons per day. Samples 
of water should be collected daily during this test to determine whether 
any deterioration takes place. If you decide to make a further in- 



112 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

vestigation the Department will assist you by making the necessary 
analyses of water and will give you further advice as to the use of 
water from these wells when the results of further tests are available. 



Nov. 10, 1915. 
To the State Board of Insanitij, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlijmen: — In response to your application of Oct. 21, 1915, 
for advice as to taking water for the supply of the Monson State 
Hospital from the ground northeast of the main building and lying 
between the railroad and the Quaboag River just below the mouth 
of Chicopee Brook, the State Department of Health has caused the 
test wells in the location indicated to be examined and has considered 
the results of a test made by pumping from the wells continuously 
for a period of several days between October 1 and October 8. 

During this test the quantity of water drawn from the wells 
amounted to an average of somew^hat over 200,000 gallons per day. 
Observations of the height of water in test wells in the neighborhood 
of the group of wells from which water was being drawn show that 
the height of the ground water fluctuated apparently with the height 
of water in the Quaboag River, near which the wells are located, one 
of the wells being within about 57 feet of the river and the others at 
greater distances up to about 200 feet from the river. 

The results of the test indicate that a quantity of water adequate 
for the present requirements of the institution can be obtained from 
the ground in the region in which this test was made. 

The results of analyses of samples of water collected from time to 
time during the test show considerable variation but indicate on the 
whole that water of good quality for domestic use can be obtained from 
the ground in this region. If a large quantity of water were drawn 
from the ground in this region a portion of it would be likely to come 
from the Quaboag River by filtration through the ground, and it is im- 
practicable to tell from this limited test to what extent the well water 
is likely to be affected in quality by water filtering from the river toward 
the wells, especially in the drier portion of the year. So far as can 
be judged, however, from the tests thus far made, any water which 
finds its way to the wells from the river is likely to be thoroughly 
purified so long as the quantity of water drawn does not greatly 
exceed the amount of water required for the present supply of the 
institution. If much larger quantities of water should be drawn from 
the ground in the neighborhood of these wells, it is possible that the 
quality of the water would be unfavorably affected by filtration from 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 113 

the river, and there is a further danger that the ground water in this 
region under those circumstances might be affected by effluent from 
the filter beds located several hundred feet west of the wells. 

The quantity of water required by the institution at the present 
time, however, is not large, and, in the opinion of the Department, 
the source is an appropriate one from which to take water for the 
use of this institution at the present time. It is recommended that 
analyses of the water be made from time to time in order that should 
serious deterioration occur the use of the wells can be discontinued. 



Montague (Turners Falls). 

Feb. 3, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Turners Falls Fire District, Turners Falls, 

Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, an examination has 
been made of the water of Lake Pleasant and of a tap in Turners 
Falls to determine the condition of the water and the cause of the 
objectionable taste and odor by which the water supplied to the con- 
sumers is at present affected. 

The results of the examination show that the cause of the trouble 
is the presence of large numbers of the organism Dinobryon, one of the 
Infusoria, which has been known when present in such numbers as 
are found in this case to cause objectionable tastes and odors in the 
waters of other ponds and reservoirs. 

There is no practicable way of preventing the appearance and 
growth of such organisms in Lake Pleasant, and their effects can best 
be removed by filtration of the water. Such abundant growths as 
this, however, are uncommon in the water of this lake which is usually 
of good quality for domestic use and, even when affected by these 
organisms, there is no reason to believe that the water when used for 
drinking is injurious to health. It will be best to avoid opening hy- 
drants or drawing any larger quantity of water through the pipe 
system than necessary while the organisms remain in the water of 
the lake, but as soon as the numbers begin to diminish it will be advis- 
able to flush the pipes thoroughly. 

It is probable that, if the water near the intake were examined 
daily, any improvement in its quality could be noted, but this De- 
partment will, if you desire, have samples examined microscopically 
once or twice a week, if you will collect the samples, and will advise you 
promptly as to the numbers of organisms found on each examination. 
It is impossible to advise you as to how long these objectionable con- 



114 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ditions will continue. Usually they disappear after a period of three 
or four weeks, but they may continue for a considerably longer time 
while ice remains upon the pond. 

May 6, 1915. 
To the Board of Water Comviissioners, Turners Falls, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health has considered your 
letter of April 29, 1915, and enclosures, and also your communication 
of April 26, 1915, relating to seining fish from Lake Pleasant, the 
source of water supply of the Turners Falls Fire District and adjacent 
communities. 

The proposed method of seining the lake is not described but is 
presumably to be carried out with the use of nets operated by men 
in boats and on the shore. The nets and other equipment necessary 
for the work must be hauled to the lake and the work must be done 
upon its shores and waters. 

The operation necessarily involves considerable disturbance of the 
waters of the lake and the danger of introducing infectious matter, 
and under the circumstances the removal of the fish from the lake as 
proposed is not recommended. 

New Bedfokd. 

Oct. 21, 1915. 

To Mr. R. C. P. CoGGESHALL, Superintendent Water Department, New Bedford, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water supply of New Bedford, concerning which a recent communica- 
tion to your department states that the chemical analyses made by this 
Department indicate considerable pollution, the State Department of 
Health has caused your sources of supply to be examined by its engineer 
and has considered the results of analyses of water as shown by the 
records in this Department and by samples collected recently from 
various parts of the system. 

The water supply of New Bedford is taken from Little Quittacas 
Pond, which is supplemented with water flowing from Great Quit- 
tacas Pond, the water of these ponds being derived from an aggregate 
watershed area of 12.85 square miles, of which the area of the ponds 
comprises 2.35 square miles. 

Analyses of the water of Great Quittacas Pond, which is the larger 
of the sources, show that there has been little variation in the quality 
of this source for many years. The amount of chlorine in the water 
is approximately normal for the region, and the average amount pres- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 115 

ent in the samples of water examined in 1914, for example, was a 
little less than was present in the samples examined in the year 1897, 
indicating that there has been no increase in the pollution of the 
water at least within a period of seventeen years. In other respects 
there is no evidence of deterioration within the long period covered 
by the examinations of this source. 

The water of Little Quittacas Pond also, which has normally a low 
color, shows no material change for many years, except a slight in- 
crease in color due to an increasing admixture of the water of Great 
Quittacas Pond, which has a higher color. 

A careful examination of the entire area of the watersheds of these 
ponds shows no evidence that pollution is entering the ponds or their 
tributaries at any point throughout the extent of their watersheds. 
x\t the extreme upper end of Black Brook, a tributary of Great Quit- 
tacas Pond, there are two small villages, but no pollution was found 
to be entering the streams from any of these buildings, and very few 
of them are located in the neighborhood of the streams. 

Many years ago the city wisely purchased the shores of these ponds 
throughout their extent and thus secured immunity from danger of 
pollution of the water by settlements in the neighborhood of the ponds. 
Their shores are clean and free from debris, and the works in general 
are in excellent condition from a sanitary point of view. The only 
dwellings in the country about the ponds are located remote from 
their shores in a region composed of a porous gravelly soil, from which 
there is no danger that serious pollution can find its way into the 
ponds. 

Finally, bacterial examinations of the water at different points 
throughout the system during the present year show that the number 
of bacteria is very low and that the objectionable kinds are absent. 

The results of these investigations show that the water supply of 
New Bedford as taken from these ponds is entirely satisfactory from 
a sanitary point of view and that no treatment of the water, whether 
by chlorine or any other process, is necessary. 

North Adams. 

June 24, 1915. 

To I\Ir. John Martin, Commissioner of Public Works, North Adains, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The State Department of Health has considered your 
request for advice as to the probable effect upon the quality of the 
water of the Notch Brook Reservoir of the continued use of fertilizers 
upon certain lands adjacent to that reservoir in the city of North 



116 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Adams, a plan of which was submitted with your application, and 
has caused the locality to be examined by the engineer of the De- 
partment. 

The watershed of the Notch Brook Reservoir is practically unin- 
habited and the water drawn from it is naturally of good quality for 
domestic use. It is affected at times, in common with most ponds 
and reservoirs, by growths of microscopic organisms which, however, 
while they are not known to be injurious to health, impart to the 
water at times a disagreeable taste and odor. 

The use of fertilizers upon the lands in question, which are located 
on the westerly side of the reservoir and slope quite steeply down to 
the water, undoubtedly results in the introduction into the reservoir 
of substances which have a tendency to foster organic growths. The 
watershed of the reservoir is now practically uninhabited and the city 
of North Adams has secured control of all of the areas from which 
objectionable drainage can enter the reservoir, with the exception of 
the lands in question. 

In view of the circumstances, the Department recommends that 
these lands be acquired by the city at the earliest practicable time 
and that the use of fertilizers thereon be thereafter prevented. 

June 24, 1915. 
To Mr. John Martin, Commissioner of Public Works, North Adams, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The State Department of Health has considered your 
request for an examination of your water supply system, especially 
the Beaman Reservoir, preliminary to putting this reservoir into serv- 
ice for the water supply of the city, and in response to this request 
has caused the water works system of North Adams to be examined 
by the engineer of the Department and samples of the water to be 
analyzed. 

The results of analyses of the water of the Notch Brook Reservoir 
show that no material change has taken place in the quality of the 
water of this source for several years. 

The new Beaman Reservoir was partially filled and completely 
drained out several times between January and April and filled to 
overflowing in May, since which time it has remained full. Several 
analyses of the water have been made by this Department, including 
bacterial analyses of samples taken at the time of the recent inspec- 
tion. The results show that the quality of the water has improved 
rapidly since the reservoir was first filled and that in its present con- 
dition it is of good quality for domestic use. A careful examination 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 117 

of the surroundings of the reservoir shows that all sources of pollution 
have been removed and that all objectionable buildings have been 
either removed from the watershed or were in process of removal at 
the time of this inspection. 

The shores of this reservoir and its surroundings are in excellent 
condition and, in the opinion of this Department, the waters of the 
Beaman Reservoir may now be used at any time for the supply of 
the city. 

NOKTHBRIDGE (RoCKDALE). 

Nov. 11, 1915. 

To the Paul Whitin Manufacturing Company, Northbridge, Mass., Mr. Paul Whitin, 

Manager. 

Gentlemen: — In connection with an investigation as to the occur- 
rence of a number of cases of typhoid fever in the village of Rockdale, 
the State Department of Health has caused the sources of water sup- 
ply in use in the village to be examined and samples of their waters 
to be analyzed. 

It appears that the original supply was drawn from a reservoir or 
filter gallery located in a small valley west of the village and at a suf- 
ficient elevation to provide a small supply of water by gravity. Sub- 
sequently, a number of tubular wells were driven close to the westerly 
side of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad and about 
225 feet south of the most southerly dwelling house on Railroad Street 
in the village, and water is pumped from these wells to the village and 
to the reservoir used in connection with the filter gallery. 

At the time the investigations were made previous to introducing 
the driven well supply, a test of the ground water in this region was 
made by pumping from a test well in this locality for several days. 
During the test analyses of the water indicated that some of the water 
entering the well had been polluted but subsequently purified in its 
passage through the ground, and in the condition in which it was 
found at that time the water was of good quality for domestic pur- 
poses. It was suggested, however, that if a large quantity of water 
were drawn from the ground in this locality the quality might deterio- 
rate. The village has grown rapidly since that time, and recent exam- 
inations show that the water of these wells, which are located rather 
nearer to dwelling houses than the original test well, has greatly de- 
teriorated, though there is no indication that the water has yet 
reached such a condition as to be injurious to health. 

In view of the marked deterioration in the quality of this water, 
however, these wells cannot be considered as safe sources from which 



118 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to take water for domestic use since the quality of the water would 
probably continue to deteriorate in the future and eventually become 
injurious. 

It appears that, while the tubular wells and filter gallery furnish 
the domestic water supply for the village, the pressure from these 
sources is not regarded as sufficient for fire purposes, and at times of 
fire water is admitted to the distribution pipes under pressure from 
the fire protection system of the mill in which Blackstone River water 
is used and also from a reservoir filled with Blackstone River water 
located on an elevation northeast of the village and much higher than 
that of the domestic supply reservoir. There are apparently two con- 
nections between the fire supply and the town supply and it appears 
that when a fire occurs, as happened on September 27th last, the 
water from the Blackstone River supply is pumped into the village 
mains until the fire is extinguished. It is furthermore found that it 
is the practice to notify the inhabitants by a signal as to the opening 
of the gate from the fire supply into the village distribution mains and 
that the inhabitants are instructed not to use the w^ater supply during 
the progress of the fire. On the date mentioned, after the connection 
between the systems was closed, the village mains were thoroughly 
flushed for the removal of the water from the Blackstone River, which 
is said to be the usual practice. When the water from the mains was 
analyzed about one month after the occurrence of the fire, there were 
no indications of the presence of objectionable bacteria in the village 
mains. Nevertheless, the practice of introducing Blackstone River 
water into the town pipes is a very objectionable one and should be 
discontinued at the earliest possible time. 

The Department recommends that an adequate supply of water 
from some source of known purity be provided for this village under 
pressure adequate for all purposes at the earliest practicable time. 
As soon as such a supply is available the connections between the 
fire protection supply in the mill, which draws water from the Black- 
stone River, and the pipes of the village system, through which water 
is supplied for dom^estic use, should be completely removed so that it 
will not be possible for Blackstone River water to enter the distribu- 
tion pipes of the village under any circumstances. Until a new supply 
under adequate pressure has been provided, if it is necessary to intro- 
duce water from the Blackstone River to the mains in case of fire, 
the precautions which you have previously taken should be very 
closely observed, and the inhabitants of the village should further- 
more be notified to boil all water used for drinking. 

The Department will assist you in investigations for a new supply 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 119 

by making the necessary analyses of water and will give you further 
advice in the matter, if you so request, when the results of investiga- 
tions are available. The present is a favorable time for making such 
investigations and, if the work is begun without delay, it may be 
practicable to provide a supply of good water under suitable pressure 
for the requirements of the village within a few weeks. 



NORTHFIELD (NORTHFIELD SCHOOLs). , , 

July lo, 191o. 

To Mr. Ambert G. Moody, Clerk, The Northfield Schools, East Northfield, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The State Department of Health has considered your 
application for advice as to a proposed filter to be located in Bonar 
Glen on Louisiana Brook and has caused the proposed location to be 
examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The plan in general provides for purifying the water of Louisiana 
Brook, and in case of necessity water from Perchog Brook, and using 
it for the domestic supply of the Northfield Schools. The plan shows 
a filter 80 feet by 35 feet, which is to contain a depth of 4| feet of 
filtering material over 6 inches of graded gravel and underdrains. 
From the filter the water will flow to a pump well 15 feet by 50 feet 
by 10 feet in depth having a capacity of 56,000 gallons, whence it will 
be pumped for the supply of the schools. 

Of the samples of sand submitted by your engineer, it is recom- 
mended that the sand obtained from the sand bank near the filter, 
which furnishes material having an effective size of about .22 of a 
millimeter, be used in the construction of the filter. The total filter- 
ing area will amount to about tV of an acre and, if the quantity of 
water used amounts to 125,000 gallons daily as estimated by your 
engineer, the rate of filtration would be a little less than 2,000,000 
gallons in 24 hours. 

In the opinion of the Department the filter, if constructed as pro- 
posed and properly operated, will provide for the efficient purification 
of the water of the brooks which you propose to use. It is of the 
greatest importance that during the time that the water of these 
brooks, or either of them, is being used special care shall be taken to 
prevent polluting matters from entering these streams. It will also 
be advisable, before the filter is put into use in each year, to operate 
the filter and waste the water into the brook for several days and to 
have the filtered water analyzed before the use of the filter is begun. 

By observing the suggestions herein contained, it is probable that 
the filtered water from these streams can safely be used as an auxiliary 



120 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

water supply for the schools. The use of the filtered water from the 
brooks should, however, be regarded as an emergency water supply, 
and efforts should be continued to secure a supply from some unpol- 
luted source by gravity, if practicable, and the filter kept thereafter 
for use only in emergencies. 



OxFOED (Town Farm). 

June 4, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Oxford, Mass., Dr. Robert S. Fletcher, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of May 11, 1915, for 
an examination of the drinking water used at the Oxford Town Farm 
and advice as to its quality, the Commissioner of Health has caused 
the well and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the 
water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of the well is natu- 
rally of good quality for domestic purposes, and the well is not ex- 
posed to danger of pollution by sewage. It appears, however, that 
the water is supplied through lead pipes and a determination of the 
amount of lead in the water as drawn from the pipe shows that it 
contains a quantity of lead much greater than the minimum amount 
that has been known to cause lead poisoning. Under the circum- 
stances, the use of this water as drawn through lead pipe is probably 
injurious to the health of those to whom it may be supplied for 
drinking. 

The Department recommends that the lead pipe through which 
this water is conveyed be wholly removed and a pipe of some suitable 
material which will not be attacked by the water, or if attacked will 
not cause injury to health, be substituted therefor. A pipe of block 
tin or of iron lined with tin or with cement could be used with safety 
with this water, and it is recommended that a pipe of one of these 
kinds be substituted at the earliest practicable time for the lead pipe 
now used. In the meantime and until the lead pipe is removed, it 
is recommended that a supply of drinking water be provided from 
some suitable source not affected by lead pipe. 

The cause of the odor complained of in this water has not been 
ascertained, but there is no reason to believe that the water would be 
injurious to health if drawn through a proper pipe, and a change in 
the pipe may result in the removal of the odor. 

It would be well in changing the pipe to provide for the aeration 
of the water before it enters the pipe, if it is practicable to do so. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 121 

Palmer (Three Rivers). 

Dec. 22, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Palmer, Mass., Mr. W. C. Hitchcock, Clerk. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to the quality of the water of a well 
near the mill pond in Three Rivers and has caused the well and its 
surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the well is sunk in gravel 
about 30 feet from the edge of the river and that there are no build- 
ings within a long distance of the well. The only possible source of 
pollution is the disposal of privy waste upon a garden about 100 feet 
from the well. The well was not in use at the time of the examina- 
tion, and the results of an analysis of the water show that it contains 
rather more organic matter than is found in good well waters. It is 
probable, however, that, if the disposal of privy waste in the neigh- 
borhood of the well were discontinued, the water of this source could 
be used with safety for drinking. It is recommended, however, that, 
in case a large quantity of water is to be drawn from the well for that 
purpose, another examination be made while the well is in use to de- 
termine the quality of the water under those conditions. 

An examination has also been' made at your request of the water 
of the deep well in the lumber yard of the Palmer Mill at Three 
Rivers. This well, as you were advised on July 14 of last year, was 
found at that time to be very badly polluted, and the Department 
recommended that its further use be discontinued. A recent analysis 
shows that the water contains more organic matter than at the time 
of the previous examination, and the use of the water of this well for 
drinking or other domestic purposes cannot be recommended. 

As to the water supplied from springs for use in the Hastings tene- 
ments at Three Rivers, you have already been advised that these 
springs cannot be regarded as safe sources of water supply, and it was 
recommended by this Department in July, 1914, that their further 
use should be discontinued. If another supply has been provided in 
these tenements from some other source than those thus far exam- 
ined, the Department will, upon request, cause an examination of the 
supply to be made and advise you concerning it. 



122 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Peabody. 

Jan. 15, 1915. 

To the Commission of Public Works, Peahody, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Jan. 11, 1915, the following petition for its advice and approval, 
under the provisions of chapter 698 of the Acts of the year 1913, of 
the taking of certain lands for the protection of the purity of the 
water of Spring Pond: 

Pursuant to a vote of the Commission of Public Works of the Town of Pea- 
body, at a meeting held Jan. 7, 1915, I write in accordance with the provisions 
of ciiapter 698 of the Acts of 1913, to obtain advice and approval of the taking 
or acquisition of the land and property in the Town of Peabody shown upon a 
plan by George A. Barnaby, Engineer, dated Oct., 1913, a copy of which plan is 
on file in your office, for the purpose of protecting the water supply of the Town. 

The lands which it is proposed to acquire are located in the Overlea 
District, so called, between Spring Pond Road and the Peabody-Lynn 
town line in the town of Peabody, and as their acquisition by the town 
appears to be necessary for the proper protection of the purity of the 
water of Spring Pond, the Public Health Council on Jan. 12, 1915, 
approved the taking of these lands which are shown upon a plan filed 
in this office on Jan. 4, 1915, entitled "Plan of Spring Pond Water- 
shed showing Houses Included and Town's Property Westerly Side of 
Pond. Scale 1 In. = 100 Ft. October 1913. George A. Barnaby, 
Engineer", and in more detail upon a plan submitted on Dec. 18, 
1914, entitled "Tracing from A Plan of House Lots at Overlea. Sur- 
veyed By I. K. Harris. Scale 1 In.= 50 Ft. March 1914." 

April 6, 1915. 
To Mr. John Boyle, Chairman, Commission of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. 

Deae Sir: — Your letter to the State Department of Health re- 
ceived March 31, 1915, requesting advice as to the purchase of land 
whereon are located the driven wells in the Cedar Pond valley, an 
answer to which is desired before the town meeting on April 7th, has 
been referred to me. 

While the time available is too limited to make it practicable for 
the Department to make an investigation sufficient to advise you very 
definitely in this matter, the questions are much the same as those 
submitted to this Department last year with regard to the water sup- 
ply of Peabody. 

It appears from the report of your Board for 1914 that pumps hav- 
ing a capacity of 3,000,000 gallons in 24 hours have been installed at 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 123 

the wells and that between May 1st and December 5th last, a period 
of about 7 months, an effort was made to pump all of the water pos- 
sible from the tubular wells. The result, as stated in this report, is 
that the total quantity pumped in this period was about 94 million 
gallons, or an average of about 430,000 gallons per day. If in a very 
dry year like 1914 it is impracticable to obtain more than 430,000 
gallons per day between May 1st and December 5th, it will probably 
not be practicable to obtain an average amount throughout a very 
dry year that will exceed double this quantity, and, in fact, the daily 
yield for such a year may be considerably less than double the average 
daily yield of the drier part of 1914. 

The information available indicates on the whole that the addition 
of the tubular wells to the water supply of Peabody would not in- 
crease the supply sufficiently to meet present needs without still con- 
tinuing to draw upon Cedar Pond. 

The quantity of iron in this water during the year 1914 ranged 
from about .2300 parts in 100,000 in January to .3800 parts in 100,000 
in September. The amount fell slightly to .3000 parts in February, 
1915, and rose to .3800 parts in March, 1915. The quantity of iron 
in the water of Suntaug Lake was .0075 parts in 1912, .0080 parts in 
1913, and .0110 parts in 1914. In Spring Pond the average quantity 
of iron present in 1912 was .0248 parts in 100,000, in 1913 it was .0300 
and in 1914 .0325 parts in 100,000. A sample from this pond collected 
in January, 1915, showed .0420 parts in 100,000, and one collected in 
March, 1915, showed .0450 parts in 100,000. 

It will be seen that the quantity of iron in the water of the wells 
is increasing, as you were advised in my previous letter would probably 
be the case, and you will also note that the average quantity of iron 
present in the water of the ponds is also constantly increasing. 

It appears from the conclusions of your Board that the quantity 
of iron in the water has become so great as to make it objectionable 
in coloring skins in the Peabody factories. The quantity has probably 
also become great enough to begin to cause trouble in other ways, and 
it is obvious that the use of the well water can not be continued 
without filtration. 

It is impracticable to determine how much the cost of filtering the 
well water would be without an engineering study to serve as a basis 
for estimates. In any case, should the town decide to take the water 
of the wells, it would still be necessary to provide at once a further 
additional supply beyond the quantity which the wells and the present 
sources will yield, in order to provide adequately for the present needs 
of Peabody in a very dry year. 



124 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It is not advisable under the circumstances to adopt the tubular 
wells as a permanent supply at the present time. It is of the greatest 
importance that the town shall secure as soon as practicable an ade- 
quate supply for present needs and probable future requirements, in 
order to avoid danger of injuring the interests of the town by neglect 
to provide sufficient water of satisfactory quality for all proper domes- 
tic and manufacturing purposes. 

When a definite plan has been selected, it can then be determined 
whether the tubular wells should properly form a part of such a sup- 
ply and, if so, how the water should be treated in order that it may 
be made fit for all the uses of the town. Until this question is studied 
thoroughly it will be impracticable for this Department to advise you 
whether or not the wells can reasonably be utilized as a part of the 
permanent sources of water supply of the town of Peabody. 



April 15, 1915. 
To the Commission of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on March 24, 1915, the following petition for its consent to and ap- 
proval of the purchase or taking of certain lands in the cities of Lynn 
and Salem for the purpose of protecting and preserving the purity of 
the water of Spring Pond, one of the principal sources of water supply 
of the town of Peabody: — 

Pursuant to a vote of the Commission of Public Works, at a meeting held 
Jan. 28th, 1915, I write in accordance with the provisions of chapter 499 of the 
Acts of 1908, to obtain advice and approval of the taking or acquisition of the 
land and property in the Cities of Lynn and Salem shown upon plans by George 
A. Barnaby, Engineer, dated October, 1913, and March, 1914, ... for the 
purpose of protecting the water supply of the Town. . . . 

In response to this petition a public hearing, required by chapter 
499 of the Acts of the year 1908, was held in Room 143, State House, 
Boston, on Tuesday, April 13, 1915, notice of said hearing having 
been given by publication in newspapers circulating in the cities of 
Lynn and Salem and the town of Peabody. 

After the hearing, at which no one appeared to oppose the taking 
of the lands in question by said town of Peabody, the Public Health 
Council upon consideration voted to consent to and approve of the 
purchase or taking by the town of Peabody of the lands in question 
which are in two parcels and are shown upon two plans filed in this 
office on March 30, 1915, one of which is entitled "Plan of Spring 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 125 

Pond Watershed showing houses included and Town's Property. West- 
erly Side of Pond. Scale 1 in.— 100 ft. October, 1913. George A. 
Barnaby, Engineer," and the other entitled "Plan showing Parcels 
A-B-C purchased by Town in 1909 also additional Watershed Line 
near Fay Estate. Scale 1 inch= 100 feet. March, 1914. George A. 
Barnaby, Engineer". 

Oct 21 1915 

To the Commission of Public Works, Peabody, Mass. ' ' 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Oct. 1, 1915, an application for its advice as to the taking and use 
of Cedar Pond as a source of water supply for the town of Peabody, 
and in response to this application has considered the information 
available as a result of examinations of this proposed source of water 
supply and has examined the results of analyses of its waters. 

Cedar Pond has apparently an area of about 12 acres, according to 
surveys by your engineers, and a storage capacity of about 5 million 
gallons. Its drainage area, as measured from the State map, is about 
500 acres, and this area contains a considerable number of dwelling 
houses, though most of them are located remote from the pond. 

Analyses of the water show that it is highly colored and contains 
a considerable quantity of organic matter and is often affected by a 
noticeable taste and odor. The pond is not a desirable source from 
which to take water for drinking, though the water would not be ob- 
jectionable if discharged into Spring Pond and thus given the benefit 
of long storage before it is used by the town. The source has in fact 
been used by the town in this way in past years as an emergency 
source at a time when the quantity of water available for the supply 
of the town had become seriously reduced. The addition of this 
source permanently, however, to the water supply of Peabody w^ould 
add comparatively little to the yield of your present sources of water 
supply and would not postpone for more than a limited period the 
time within which an additional supply will have to be provided to 
meet the requirements of the town in a series of dry years. Further- 
more, the taking of these waters would decrease the amount of water 
available for riparian owners who use the water for manufacturing 
along the brook below the outlet of the pond, and the cost of damages 
would probably be large in proportion to the quantity of water that 
the town would add to the available yield of its sources by the taking 
of this water. 

Under the circumstances, it is not advisable, in the opinion of this 
Department, for the town of Peabody to take Cedar Pond as a per- 
manent source of water supply for the town. 



126 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Provincetown (Wells). 

April 8, 1915. 

To Mr. J. A. Cook, Chairman, Board of Health, Provincetown, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of March 24, 1915, for an 
examination of a sample of water from a certain well in Provincetown, 
which is believed to be the source of infection of a case of typhoid 
fever, the Commissioner of Health has caused the well indicated to be 
examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The well in question is located at 135 Commercial Street, and con- 
sists of a pipe driven into the ground in the cellar of the house. There 
are numerous sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of 
the well, and the results of the analysis show that the water is grossly 
polluted and unfit for domestic use, and it is recommended that the 
further use of the water of this well be prevented at once. 

An examination was also made of the well on Kiley Street in a 
house in which a case of typhoid had recently occurred. It was im- 
practicable to obtain a sample of water from this well, but its location, 
— directly under the sink in the kitchen and only about six feet from 
the discharge pipe from the sink, — indicates that it is probably un- 
safe for domestic use. The public water supply of the town is avail- 
able to this place and should be supplied to this dwelling, and the 
further use of the water of this well prevented. 

Row^ley (Wells). 

Feb. 4, 1915. 
To Mr. Joseph A. Dodge Edgehrook Farm, Rowley, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Jan. 4, 1915, for an 
examination of the water of a well at your house in Rowley in which 
a case of typhoid fever has occurred, the Commissioner of Health has 
caused the well and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of 
the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water contains a much 
greater quantity of organic matter and much higher numbers of bac- 
teria than are found in good well waters. There are sources of pol- 
lution at no great distance from the well and, considering the circum- 
stances, the source cannot be considered a safe one from which to take 
water for drinking, and it is recommended that its further use for 
that purpose be discontinued. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 127 

Feb. 12, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen and Board of Health, Rowley, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Upon notification by you in the latter part of last 
year of the existence of certain cases of typhoid fever in Rowley, an 
investigation was made to determine, if practicable, the probable 
source of the disease. 

It was found that, while in one or two cases the disease may have 
been contracted out of town, the infection for the most part was prob- 
ably caused by conditions existing in the village. A general examina- 
tion was then made of the sanitary conditions in the town, and es- 
pecially in the main village, and in the course of this investigation 
the sources of water supply and methods of sewage disposal have 
received careful consideration. 

The study of the occurrence of typhoid fever in the town of Rowley 
shows that this disease has been unusually prevalent there over a 
period of many years, cases of the disease having occurred repeatedly, 
usually with intervals of several months and sometimes of several 
years, in certain portions of the village. The general examinations 
show that the sanitary conditions of the town are in most respects 
satisfactory, but the examination of the well waters at houses where 
cases of typhoid fever have occurred has shown that in all cases these 
waters are grossly polluted. 

In view of the conditions found at these places, the examination 
was extended generally throughout the main village, and samples of 
water were collected from sixty-three wells in all parts of the village. 
The results of these examinations show that the waters of practically 
all of the wells used as sources of water supply are polluted, and most 
of them grossly polluted, evidently by sewage from vaults and cess- 
pools used for the disposal of the sewage of the various dwelling 
houses. 

In view of these conditions, the Commissioner of Health is of the 
opinion that the wells from which the inhabitants of the village ob- 
tain their supplies are unsafe sources from which to take water for 
drinking and, considering the excessive prevalence of typhoid fever 
in this town for a period of many years, it is recommended that the 
town take such action as is necessary to provide a public water supply 
from a source of known purity at the earliest practicable time. Until 
such a supply is available, the Commissioner recommends that you 
notify the inhabitants of the village of the danger involved in the 
further use of the well waters in this village for drinking and to boil 
all water taken from these wells before using it for that purpose. 



128 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Nov. 9, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Rowley, Mass., Mr. J. N. Dummer, Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with your request of Oct. 19, 1915, 
for an examination of the water of a well owned by Mrs. Stephen 
Pierce and located on Jellison Road, Rowley, the State Department 
of Health has caused the well and its surroundings to be examined 
and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

It appears that the well is of the ordinary dug type lined with brick 
and is used as a source of water supply by two families in neighboring 
houses. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of this well is very 
badly polluted and unfit for domestic use. 

The Department recommends that the further use of the water of 
this well for domestic purposes be discontinued. 

On Feb. 12, 1915, this Departinent sent a communication to your 
board relative to the serious pollution of the ground water throughout 
the main portion of the village of Rowley and its relation to the con- 
tinued prevalence of typhoid fever in the town over many years, 
recommending that the question of a public water supply for the 
thickly settled portion of the town be taken up at once for considera- 
tion. The Department requests information as to what action the 
town has taken toward the prevention of the great amount of unneces- 
sary sickness in the town of Rowley and the efficient protection of the 
public health there by the introduction of a supply of pure water. 

Salem. t io imr 

Jan. 12, 1915. 

To the Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board, Salem, Mass., Hon. Nathan Matthews, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Dec. 10, 1914, the following application for the advice and approval 
of the Department, under the provisio"ns of chapter 700 of the Acts 
of the year 1913, of a plan for a canal and conduit designed as a part 
of a works to divert water from the Ipswich River into Wenham Lake: 

The Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board organized under chapter 700 of 
the Acts of 1913, hereby applies to your board for its approval of the plans pre- 
pared by Messrs. Hazen & Whipple for the diversion of the Ipswich River water 
to Wenham Lake by means of a canal, pumping plant and conduit, as more par- 
ticularly appears in a report signed by Mr. Hazen under date of Nov. 27, 1914, 
enclosed herewith, and four several plans dated Nov. 17, 1914, also herewith 
submitted. If the department wishes the specifications which accompanied Mr. 
Hazen's plans a copy will be sent. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 129 

The application was accompanied by a plan showing the location of 
the proposed works. Upon this plan is shown the line of a proposed 
canal extending from a point near the right or eastern bank of the 
Ipswich River about 4,200 feet below the point where it is crossed by 
the Newburyport turnpike to a proposed pumping station to be located 
about 700 feet northwest of Cherry Street; thence a force main to 
discharge into a conduit which extends to low ground about 700 feet 
southeast of Cherry Street whence an open channel is shown leading 
to an outlet on the southerly side of Cedar Street at the edge of a 
shallow basin connecting with Wenham Lake. 

The Commissioner of Health has examined the locality and the 
Public Health Council has considered the application and plans pre- 
sented and has conferred with the Chairman of the Salem and Beverly 
Water Supply Board and a representative from the town of Topsfield. 
After consideration it was voted to approve the plan submitted by 
the Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board under the provisions of 
chapter 700 of the Acts of the year 1913 subject to the following 
conditions: 

1. The point of intake at the Ipswich River to be fixed at a subse- 
quent time by the State Department of Health. 

2. The times of pumping into the lake to be subject to the regula- 
tion of the State Department of Health. 

3. The banks of the canal to be constructed and maintained in such 
manner and form as the State Department of Health shall direct, with 
a view to preventing water from the surface of Wenham Swamp from 
entering the canal. 

4. A covered conduit or pipe line to be substituted for the open 
channel from the divide south of the proposed pumping station to 
Wenham Lake, the outlet to be placed at or near the shore of the 
lake about 400 feet south of Cedar Street. 

5. Bacterial examinations of the water of Ipswich River and Wen- 
ham Lake to be made monthly and reported to the State Department 
of Health. 

No provision is made in the plan for a measuring station, which 
remains to be established before water is diverted. 

June 23, 1915. 

To the Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board, Salem, Mass., Mr. Nathan Mat- 
thews, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 11, 1915, the following petition for the approval by this 
Department, under the provisions of chapter 309 of the Special Acts 



130 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the year 1915, of the point of taking of the waters of the Ipswich 
River by the cities of Salem and Beverly. 

The Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board hereby applies, under the pro- 
visions of special acts of 1915, ch. 309, to the State Department of Health for 
authority to take and divert the waters of the Ipswich River and its tributaries 
at a point approximately six hundred feet easterly of the bridge of the Newbury- 
port branch of the Boston and Maine railroad over said river, as more particu- 
larly shown by a plan herewith submitted by Mr. F. A. Barbour of even date. 

The petition was accompanied by a plan showing the proposed point 
of taking. 

In response to this petition the State Department of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and on June 23, 
1915, gave a hearing in regard to this question after notice to the 
Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board and to the boards of select- 
men of the towns of Topsfield and Wenham. At this hearing no ob- 
jection was made to the taking and diversion of the waters of the 
Ipswich River by the Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board at the 
point designated in the petition and shown upon the plan submitted 
therewith. 

After consideration, the Department passed the following vote: 

Voted, That the State Department of Health hereby designates as the ])oint 
on the Ipswich River at which the Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board 
may take and divert the waters of the Ipswich River and its tributaries for 
the purposes set forth in chapter 700 of the Acts of the year 1913, as amended 
by chapter 309 of the Special Acts of the year 1915, a point on said river 600 feet 
easterly of the bridge of the Newburyport Branch of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad, as shown upon a plan filed in this office on May 11, 1915, entitled 
" Salem and Beverly Water Supply Board. Map to accompany application to 
State Department of Health under Special Acts of 1915, Chapter 309. May 
11, 1915. F. A. Barbour, Engineer." 

Salisbury. 

May 15, 1915. 
To the Salisbury Water Supply Covipany, Salisbury, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, the State Department 
of Health has considered your plan of water supply for the town of 
Salisbury on which you indicate as the source of supply ground water 
in the valley of Chase Pond Brook, so called, in the northerly part of 
the town, and has considered the results of the examination of the 
locality by members of the Department. 

It appears from the information available that the watershed of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 131 

this brook is practically uninhabited and that the water flowing in 
the brook consists chiefly of ground water of good quality for the 
purposes of a public water supply. Measurements of the flow of the 
brook in the latter part of the year 1914, in a very dry season, indi- 
cate that the quantity of ground water obtainable in this valley is 
suflScient for the present requirements of the town of Salisbury. 

In view of the circumstances, the Department approves the taking 
of ground water from the valley of Chase Pond Brook as a source of 
water supply for the Salisbury Water Supply Company, under the 
provisions of chapter 243 of the Special Acts of the year 1915. 

When the works now under construction for obtaining ground water 
in this valley have been completed to such an extent as will make it 
practicable to determine the probable yield and the quality of the 
water, the Department will advise you further as to these works and 
as to extensions of the collecting system if and when such extensions 
are found desirable. 

Sandwich (Massachusetts Volunteer Militia). 

July 15, 1915. 

To Frank P. Williams, M.D., Colonel, Medical Department, M. V. M.. Surgeon- 
General, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request, the Commissioner 
of Health has caused a further examination of Peter's Pond in Sand- 
wich to be made and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the conditions have not 
changed materially since the pond was examined by this Department 
two years ago. In its present condition it may safely be used as a 
source of domestic water supply. Whether or not it would be safe 
to use after a camp has been located near the shores would depend 
on the care that is taken to prevent the pollution of the water by 
bathing or by sewage or refuse from the camp. If the danger of such 
pollution is considerable, it would be advisable to install a few tubular 
wells and secure the water for the supply of the camp from the ground 
in that manner rather than from the pond. 

It is understood that the pond is also used as a source of domestic 
water supply by one or more of the cottages near its shore, and it is 
important that danger of the pollution of the water supply of these 
cottages shall be prevented. 



132 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

SOUTHBOROUGH (WiNCHESTEE PlACE). 

June 29, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Southborough, Mass., Mr. Charles F. Choate, Jr., Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of May 27, 1915, for 
an examination of the water supply of the Winchester place on Main 
Street, Southborough, the Commissioner of Health has caused the 
locality to be examined by one of the engineers of the Department 
and samples of water from a well used as the source of water supply 
by the occupants of these premises to be analyzed. 

The well from which the water supply is taken is the same source 
that was in use last year, and the results of the recent analyses again 
show that this water is grossly polluted and likely to injure the health 
of those who may use it for drinking. It is recommended that the 
further use of this well as a source of domestic water supply be effec- 
tually prevented. 

The sewage of the buildings on the Winchester place is at present 
discharged into two cesspools, both of which are adjacent to a barn 
in the rear of the property and about 25 feet from the well. 

The information submitted to the Department indicates that these 
cesspools have been in use for less than a year and that the sewage 
has overflowed upon the ground in their neighborhood and caused 
complaint from adjacent estates. At the time of the examination by 
this Department, the odor in the barn cellar was extremely offensive 
and the ground beneath a layer of sand in the bottom of the barn 
cellar was saturated with sewage. Sewage was also standing upon 
the surface of the ground at one or two points south of the barn, and 
there were indications that the sewage had percolated into the cellar 
of a building on adjacent property. 

The past four months has been an exceptionally favorable time for 
the disposal of sewage by means of cesspools on this property on 
account of the fact that there has been an extreme deficiency of rain- 
fall during this period; in fact, there has been almost a continuous 
deficiency in rainfall for a period of more than a year. Notwithstand- 
ing these favorable conditions, the quantity of sewage discharged from 
this property not only saturates the soil throughout a large portion of 
it, but causes the sewage to stand in places upon the surface of the 
ground. 

These facts show clearly that it is impracticable to dispose of the 
quantity of sewage at present discharged from these buildings by 
means of cesspools within the property without causing a nuisance 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 133 

in the neighborhood. In the opinion of the Department, the further 
occupancy of these buildings should be prevented until provision has 
been made for the disposal of the sewage in such a manner as will 
prevent further nuisance and danger to the public health. 

To the Board of Health, Southborough, Mass. ' ' 

Gentlemex: — In accordance with your request of July 23, the 
State Department of Health has caused the well near the highway on 
the Winchester place in Southborough to be examined and a sample 
of the water to be analyzed. 

The well in question is of the ordinary type dug to a depth of about 
28 feet and, when examined, contained from eight to ten feet of water. 
It is located very close to the street line and in a populous district. 
There are three cesspools on the property within a distance of less 
than 100 feet from the well. 

The results of the analysis of the wa'ter show that it has been grossly 
polluted by sewage and is unfit for domestic use. The Department 
recommends that the further use of the water of this well for drinking 
and other domestic purposes be effectually prevented. 



SOUTHBRIDGE (WeLl). 

Aug. 13, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Southbridge, Mass., Mr. Albert R. Brown, Agetit. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
a well at a farmhouse in Southbridge, which you have reason to be- 
lieve is seriously polluted, and also for an examination of a source of 
ice supply from which ice is taken for domestic purposes in the town, 
the State Department of Health has caused the localities to be exam- 
ined and samples of the water and ice supplies in question to be 
analyzed. 

An examination of the well, which is located on the Lombard place 
about a mile south of the center of the town, shows that there are 
sources of pollution in its immediate neighborhood, and an analysis 
of the water shows that it is grossly polluted and unsafe for domestic 
use. It is recommended that the further use of the water of this well 
for domestic purposes be prevented. 

The source of ice supply referred to in your application is a reser- 
voir which it appears was formerly used for the water supply of the 
town. The reservoir has considerable population on its watershed but 
there were no indications of serious direct pollution of the water at 



134 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the time of this examination. The sample of ice taken from the ice- 
house on the shore of the pond was found, upon examination, to be 
of good quality for domestic use. 

In the opinion of the Department, this reservoir can safely be used 
as a source of ice supply while the conditions remain as at present. 
It is important, however, that snow ice, including the first inch of ice 
that forms upon the pond, be removed before using. 

South Hadley (South Hadley Falls). 

June 18, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, South Hadley Falls, Mass., Mr. Charles 

O'Gara, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of May 4, 1915, for 
advice as to the advisability of granting the request of a gas company 
asking permission to lay mains across Buttery Brook at two places, 
the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
and has considered the condition of the South Hadley water supply 
and the character of the water obtained from the sources now in use. 
There appears to be no reasonable objection to the construction of 
gas mains across Buttery Brook at the points proposed. 

The results of the examination show, however, that there are many 
possible sources of pollution wuthin the watershed of Buttery Brook 
and that there is much danger of injury to the health of the inhabit- 
ants of the town if the use of this source is continued under present 
conditions. The cause of this danger is due to the large population 
situated upon this watershed in the village of Fairview, located partly 
within the town of South Hadley and partly within the limits of the 
city of Chicopee. The city of Chicopee has recently constructed a 
sewer to remove the sewage from the portion of the Fairview water- 
shed within the limits of that municipality, but nothing appears to 
have been done toward providing proper sewerage for the population 
within the limits of South Hadley. 

It is probable that, if sewerage wer.e provided in connection with 
the general sewerage system for all of the houses within this water- 
shed in the village of Fairview, the danger of the pollution of the 
water supply would be lessened, though with so large a population on 
the. watershed it will be extremely difficult to prevent all pollution of 
the brook which enters your reservoir. 

In view of the circumstances, further provision should be made for 
the protection of the health of the inhabitants of South Hadley from 
the danger of the use of Buttery Brook Reservoir as a source of water 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 135 

supply. This probably can be clone by filtering the water supplied 
to the town, though the cost of construction and maintenance of filters 
would add considerably to the cost of your water supply system. 

The examinations that have been made of the water of the Leaping 
Well Reservoir, which is also used as a source of water supply for 
South Hadley, show that this water contains at times excessive num- 
bers of organisms which make the water very objectionable for domes- 
tic use, but, notwithstanding the growths by which this reservoir is 
affected, its water would doubtless be safer for drinking than that of 
the Buttery Brook Reservoir. 

The Commissioner of Health recommends that an improved water 
supply be provided for the use of the town of South Hadley at the 
earliest practicable time, either by filtering the water of the present 
sources through proper filtration works, or by securing water of good 
quality from other sources. 

Sterling (Speing). 

Feb. 24, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Sterling, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from the State Inspector 
of Health for an examination of the water of a spring used as a source 
of water supply on the premises of Charles Greenwood where a case 
of typhoid fever recently occurred, the Commissioner of Health has 
caused the spring and its surroundings to be examined and a sample 
of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that at the present time the water 
of the spring is of good quality and safe for domestic use. 

An examination has also been made of the well at the Walton farm 
from which place milk was obtained for use b}^ the Greenwood family. 
This well is located beneath the cellar of the house near the wall under- 
neath the sink. 

The analysis shows that the water is very badly polluted and unfit 
for use. It is recommended that the further use of the water of this 
well be prevented. 

Stoughton (Well). 

June 21, 1915. 
To Mr. William T. Allex, Stoughton, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The Commissioner of Health, in reply to your request 
of May 29, 1915, for advice as to the use of the water of a well at 
Glen Echo Park in Stoughton, has caused the well and its surround- 
ings to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 



136 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It appears that this well is likely to be used by a considerable num- 
ber of people during the coming summer who live in cottages in the 
immediate neighborhood. 

The results of the examination show that the water of the well con- 
tains more organic matter than is found in good well waters, but in 
the condition in which it was found at the time of the recent exam- 
ination the water was probably safe for drinking. There are, however, 
numerous sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of the 
well when the cottages in its neighborhood are occupied in the sum- 
mer season, and sewage is being discharged in a considerable quantity 
upon the ground about it. There is much danger that the quality of 
the water would deteriorate and the source become an unsafe one 
from which to take water for domestic purposes. 

It is advisable that a water supply be provided for the use of the 
inhabitants of this neighborhood from a well or other source located 
at a sufficient distance from cottages or other buildings to prevent 
danger of the contamination of the water by sewage therefrom. 

Sutton (Wells). 

Feb. 5, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Sutton, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from Mr. C. N. Woodbury 
of Sutton, the Commissioner of Health has caused an examination of 
a well on his premises to be made, and a copy of the recommendations 
of the Commissioner relative thereto is enclosed herewith. 

During this investigation an examination was also made of the water 
of the town well located in front of the town hall on South Street near 
Main Street in Sutton. The results of this examination show that the 
water of the town well is of much the same character as that found 
in the Woodbury well and, in the opinion of the Commissioner, this 
well also is an unsafe source from which to take water for drinking. 

It is recommended that the town take up at the earliest practicable 
time the question of providing an adequate public water supply for 
use in the thickly settled districts of the town. The Department will 
be pleased to assist in such investigations by making the necessary 
analyses of water from any sources which you desire to have consid- 
ered and will advise you relative to a water supply when you have the 
results of investigations to present. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 137 

Feb. 5, 1915. 
To Mr. C. N. Woodbury, Sutton, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of a 
well recently put in at Sutton, from which you propose to sell water 
for drinking, the Commissioner of Health has caused the well and its 
surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water contains a much 
larger quantity of organic matter and a larger number of bacteria than 
are found in good well waters and that it is also very hard. 

Judging from the information presented, the well is sunk to a depth 
of about ISO feet, largely in rock, and an examination of the surround- 
ings shows that sewage is discharged either upon or into the ground 
at a number of places at no great distance from the well by which the 
ground water is exposed to pollution. There are also other sources of 
pollution at no great distance and, under the circumstances, the well 
cannot be regarded as a safe source from which to take water for 
drinking and should not be used for that purpose. 



TOWNSEND (TOWNSEND CeNTEr). 

July 1, 1915. 
To Mr. Albert S. Howard, Toimisend, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of June 15, 1915, for 
advice as to the quality of the water of a well located between the 
Squannacook River and Wilson Brook which you propose to use as 
a source of water supply for certain dwelling houses in the village of 
Townsend Center, the Commissioner of Health has caused the well 
and its surroundings to be examined by one of the engineers of the 
Department and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis of a sample of water taken from the test 
well show that, while some of the water entering the well has been 
slightly polluted, it has subsequently been well purified in its passage 
through the ground, and in the condition in which the water was found 
at the time of this examination it was safe for drinking. 

The circumstances are such, however, that the character of this 
water will probably depend to a considerable extent upon the quan- 
tity of water drawn from the ground in this location. If the quantity 
drawn is limited to the amount required by the schoolhouse and one 
or two dwelling houses for domestic purposes, it is likely that the 
quality of the water will continue to be satisfactory while the condi- 
tions in this region remain as at the present time. If, however, a 
larger quantity of water should be drawn, there is danger that de- 



138 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

terioration would occur on account of the nearness of the source to 
populated portions of the village of Townsend. Under the conditions, 
it is necessary that, if the water drawn from the ground in this locality 
is used for domestic purposes, the quantity be limited as suggested 
herein. 

Tyngsborough (Spring). j^^^ 24, 1915. 

To Dr. Charles E. Simpson, Slate District Health Officer, Lowell, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of July 8, 1915, the State 
Department of Health has made an examination of the water supplied 
to the family of H. F. Cady in Tyngsborough to determine whether 
it is affected by an excess of lead. 

The results of the analyses show that the water is drawn through 
a lead pipe f of an inch in diameter and about 1000 feet in length 
running to the house from a spring on the hill southwest of the build- 
ings. The results of the analyses show that the water when standing 
over night contained nearly f of a part of lead, and more than I of a 
part of lead in 100,000 was found in the sample when the water was 
running. This is more than seven times the minimum quantity of 
lead known to have caused lead poisoning. 

The quality of the water of the spring appears to be satisfactory in 
other respects, and if the pipe were changed and a pipe of other mate- 
rial substituted therefor, the water of the spring would probably be 
safe for drinking. A pipe of tin or of lead lined with tin would be 
satisfactory, but the most desirable pipe to use would be an iron pipe 
lined with cement. Such a pipe can be obtained ready to lay at a 
reasonable cost, and the substitution of such pipe for the lead would 
not involve an excessive expense. 

It is recommended that the lead pipe be removed without delay 
and that the further use of this water for drinking and cooking be 
discontinued at once until a pipe which will not be attacked by the 
water has been provided. 

Warren. ,, , H,^-,r 

March 1, 1915. 

To the Water Supply Committee, Warren, Mass., Mr. Frank E. Gleason, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health has considered your 
application for advice with reference to a water supply for the town 
of Warren and has caused the locations in which investigations for a 
water supply have been made to be examined by the engineer of the 
Department and samples of water from test wells in these localities 
to be analyzed. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 139 

The sources now being considered with a view to obtaining a water 
supply for Warren are those which have already been considered in 
connection with previous investigations, viz., the region about Comins 
Pond south of the tovv-n and the valley of the Quaboag River north- 
east of the town. 

The results of analyses of samples of water from test wells near 
Comins Pond indicate that the ground water in that region is of excel- 
lent quality for water supply purposes, and so far as these limited 
tests show, the soil conditions are favorable for obtaining water freely 
from the ground. The watershed is somewhat limited, however, and 
a thorough test will be necessary to determine whether an adequate 
quantity of water for the requirements of ^Yarren can be obtained 
from the ground in this region. 

The tests made in the valley of the Quaboag River above ^Yarren 
indicate that the ground water in this region also is naturally of excel- 
lent quality for domestic purposes. The tests have not been carried 
far enough, however, as yet to show whether an adequate quantity of 
water for tlie supply of Warren can be obtained from the ground in 
this region, though one of the wells examined yielded water very freely 
w4ien pumping with a hand pump. 

From the investigations thus far made, it is likely that good water 
can be obtained in either location, but the conditions in the valley of 
the Quaboag River appear on the whole to be more favorable for obtain- 
ing an adequate quantity of water for Warren on account of the larger 
watershed available than is the case in the neighborhood of Comins 
Pond. It is recommended that you continue the investigations by sink- 
ing a sufficient number of test wxlls in the vallej' of the river above 
Warren to ascertain w^hether a porous stratum exists in this locality 
from which it is likely that an adequate quantity of good water can be 
obtained for the supply of the town. If as a result of further tests 
the conditions are not found to be favorable there, further tests should 
then be made in the valley near Comins Pond. 

The conditions in the town of Warren are such that a public water 
supply is very greatly needed there for the adequate protection of the 
public health, and it is recommended that measures be taken to pro- 
vide such a supply at the earliest practicable time. 

The Department will assist you in further investigations, if you so 
request, by making the necessary analyses of water and will give you 
further advice with reference to a water supply for Warren when the 
results of further tests are available. 



140 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Wayland. 

Oct. 22, 1915. 

To the Wmjland Water Board, Cochituate, Mass., Mr. Clarence S. Williams, Clerk. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your appHcation of Oct. 4, 1915, as to a certain proposed plan of im- 
proving the water supply of Wayland, has considered the plan pre- 
sented by your engineer, and has examined the results of analyses of 
the water of your present sources of supply. 

The results of these analyses show that the water of the lower basin 
on Snake Brook, from which your supply is drawn, is one of the most 
highly colored waters used for water supply purposes in the State. 
The water is also at times affected by growths of organisms which 
impart to the water a disagreeable taste and odor. These conditions, 
while objectionable, are not known to be injurious to health, and since 
the water of your reservoir does not appear to be exposed to serious 
danger of pollution at the present time, the water is undoubtedly safe 
for drinking. 

The water of the upper basin, so called, located just above the 
lower basin, is more highly colored and contains a larger quantity of 
organic matter than the water in the lower basin, and there is further- 
more a swamp above the upper basin having an area of about 32.4 
acres, through which the water flows very slowly, and it undoubtedly 
derives a large part of its color and organic matter through contact 
with the vegetable matter in this swamp. 

^ According to the reports relating to the water works, a large part 
of the original area flowed by the reservoir was covered with a thick 
vegetable growth when the reservoir was originally constructed, but 
since that time considerable money has been expended in improving 
the lower basin and removing mud and other organic matter from the 
shallow portions. The upper basin, however, is still quite shallow and 
has a mud bottom. 

The plan now submitted provides for the construction of a small dike 
across the lower end of an arm of the lowxr basin through which the 
water of the upper basin overflows and for laying a pipe from the 
wasteway of the lower basin up to a manhole to be constructed on 
the west bank of the upper basin just above the proposed dike. This 
pipe is designed to remove flood waters, which would naturally pass 
through the lower basin around that basin to an outlet into the waste- 
way below the dam. The proposed pipe line and appurtenances ap- 
pear to be adequate for the purpose for which they are designed, the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 141 

cost of the works would be comparatively small, and it is probable 
that the construction of these proposed works would result in some 
improvement in the quality of the water supplied to the town, but 
the water would undoubtedly continue to be highly colored and would 
contain at times growths of organisms which would impart to it a 
noticeable taste and odor. The improvement would be more effective 
if, in addition to the proposed works, the swamp above the upper 
basin were properly drained so that water from the watershed about 
it would be conveyed quickly to the reservoir and water were pre- 
vented from standing upon the swamp for any considerable time, but 
even with this improvement added, the water supplied to the town 
would still have the characteristics which make it objectionable at 
the present time, though in a less marked degree. 

The water could be materially improved by proper filtration, but 
filtration is impracticable without pumping since the head under which 
the water is supplied is naturally very small. 

In view of the unsatisfactory quality of the water and the low pres- 
sure under which it is supplied, and especially in view of the probable 
cost of an effective improvement of this water, it seems advisable for 
the town to investigate the practicability of securing a supply of 
ground water either from Natick, from which water is obtained occa- 
sionally under .present conditions, or from independent works, which 
might be located in the neighborhood of Lake Cochituate at no great 
distance from the village. The initial cost of a new supply would not 
be great and, while there would be the added cost of pumping, it 
would be practicable to extend the works to supply other very thickly 
settled portions of the town, and the cost of a new supply under the 
circumstances would not be likely to be a serious added burden above 
the cost of the improvements proposed in the present source. 

Considering the circumstances, it is the opinion of this Department 
that it is inadvisable to attempt improvement of the present supply 
unless the improvement is going to be great enough to insure a water 
of satisfactory quality, and the Department recommends that you 
investigate the practicability and cost of obtaining a water supply 
from the town of Natick or from independent sources in the neighbor- 
hood of the village, designing the works with a view to supplying 
other portions of the town, to which it is advisable that the public 
service be extended. 



142 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Wellesley. q^^ 21, 1915. 

To the Water and Electric Light Department, Wellesley, Mass., Mr. Charles E. Fuller, 

Manager. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water of certain new tubular wells shown on a plan submitted 
with your application which you desire to add to the collecting system 
of water supply for the town of Wellesley, the State Department of 
Health has caused the wells and their surroundings to be examined 
and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that these wells are located 
south of Worcester Street a short distance below Longfellow's Pond 
in a region at present free from possible sources of pollution. The 
wells vary from 28 to 40 feet in depth and yielded water very freely 
when pumped with a hand pump. They are sunk in porous material 
and are likely to furnish a considerable addition to the yield of your 
present system of water supply. 

Analyses of the water of the wells indicate that it is of about the 
same quality as that of your present system and, in the opinion of 
the Department, these wells are suitable sources from which to take 
an additional water supply for Wellesley. 

An examination has also been made, in accordance with your re- 
quest, of the water of the old filter gallery near the pumping station, 
the results of which show that this water at the present time is of 
good quality and safe for drinking. It is possible that a continued 
draft from the filter gallery may be followed by a change in the char- 
acter of the water, and it is advisable, if water is to be drawn from 
this source, that it be analyzed from time to time in order that its 
use may be discontinued if the quality should deteriorate to such an 
extent as to require such action. 

An analysis of the water of the new driven well on the Morse land 
on the southerly side of Rosemary Brook indicates that the ground 
water in this locality is probably of good quality for domestic purposes. 

Wellesley (Metropolitan Park Reservation). 

June 9, 1915. 

To the Metropolitan Park Commission, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
through Mr. John L. Gilman, Superintendent Charles River Upper 
Division of the Metropolitan Park Reservation, an application for an 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 143 

examination of a spring located in the Metropolitan Park Reservation 
in ^Yellesley and advice as to the quality of the water for drinking, 
and in response to this application the Commissioner of Health has 
caused the spring to be examined and a sample of the water to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of the spring has 
been at some time polluted but subsequently quite well purified in its 
passage through the ground before entering the spring, and in the con- 
dition in which it was found at the time of this examination the water 
was probably not injurious for drinking. There are several dwelling 
houses on the ground not far from the spring the sewage from which 
is disposed of in cesspools, two of them within about 160 feet of the 
spring, and it is possible that the quality of the water maj' deteriorate 
and the water become unsafe for drinking. 

If the use of the water is to be continued, it should be analyzed from 
time to time and, if serious deterioration occurs, its further use for 
drinking prevented. 

Westfield. 

April 1, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Westfield, Mass., Mr. John L. Hyde, Engineer. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for advice as to im- 
proving the water supply of Westfield by metering the services and 
by the construction of a storage reservoir on the Granville supply, 
the Commissioner of Health has examined the information presented 
as to the water supply of Westfield and has considered the conditions 
affecting the purity of your sources of supply. 

The supply is now drawn in part from a storage reservoir in Mont- 
gomery, the capacity of which is given as 184 million gallons, in part 
from a distributing reservoir, holding about 4,500,000 gallons, two 
miles below the storage reservoir, and in part from the watershed of 
Tillotson Brook and an adjacent stream known as Japhet Brook, 
having an aggregate drainage area of 6.25 square miles, on which there 
are no storage reservoirs. 

It appears that during the dry summer and autumn of 1914 the 
quantity of water used was such as to reduce the amount available in 
your storage reservoir to 76 million gallons, and you estimate that if 
business conditions had been normal the amount would have been 
reduced to less than 50 million gallons. In either case the quantity 
of water available in the latter part of 1914 was too small to be re- 
garded as an adequate provision for an emergency in a growing town 
like Westfield. With normal business conditions, had the dry season 



144 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

begun earlier or continued longer, as has been the case in certain 
earlier years for which records of rainfall are available, the town would 
undoubtedly have experienced a shortage of water. 

The plan of metering all of the services in the town, which it is 
understood you now propose, is an excellent one to adopt under the 
circumstances, since, unless meters are introduced, the consumption 
of water will inevitably increase and become very excessive at no 
distant time. The quantity of water used per capita in 1914 in the 
town of Westfield exceeded considerably the maximum consumption 
of water in any city or town in the State in which practically all of 
the services are metered, and the general use of meters in Westfield 
would undoubtedly reduce very considerably the quantity of water 
required for the supply of the town. The amount of reduction in th.e 
consumption of water that could be effected by the general use of 
meters cannot be very definitely predicted. It appears that 21.6 per 
cent, of the quantity of water used in 1914 passed through 69 meters, 
indicating that there are a number of large users of water in the town, 
and it is not to be expected that any permanent reduction would be 
effected in the use of water by manufacturers in the future. It is 
likely, on the contrary, that the amount will increase materially as 
business conditions improve. Nevertheless, the general introduction 
of meters will undoubtedly effect a considerable saving in the use of 
water, possibly as much as 20 per cent, in the beginning, and, while 
the consumption of water per capita will doubtless increase in the 
future, the general metering of the supply will prevent the use of 
water from becoming excessive. 

Even if meters are generally applied, the necessity for provision for 
an additional supply will not be postponed, since if the town con- 
tinues to grow the increase in the consumption of water will in any 
case require an enlargement of the supply in the immediate future. 

The plan of enlarging the supply by the construction of a reservoir 
at the Junction site, so called, above the present point of intake on 
Tillotson Brook, has been carefully investigated, and you have already 
been advised by this Department that this site is the most favorable 
location at which to construct a reservoir, and this method appears 
to be the best practicable plan of increasing the water supply of the 
town. The adoption of this plan will also have the very great ad- 
vantage that it will provide for improving the quality of the water 
on this watershed by storage before it is introduced into the town. 
A storage reservoir of the capacity proposed would be a most potent 
instrument in the destruction of disease-producing bacteria, and the 
construction of the proposed reservoir on this watershed would elim- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 145 

inate the great danger that now exists of pollution of the water of 
this source by visitors to the watershed and by the inhabitants still 
dwelling upon it. 

In view of all the circumstances, it appears to the Department of 
the highest importance, both in providing an adequate water supply 
for the future requirements of this growing town and for the protec- 
tion of the health of the users of water, that the work of the con- 
struction of this reservoir be begun without delay and completed at 
the earliest practicable time. 



Weston (Hubbard Estate). 

Oct. 22, 1915. 
To Mr. Charles W. Hubbard, Westo7i, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request for an examination 
of the condition of your water supply, which supplies some twelve 
dwelling houses in Weston, and advice as to its quality, the State 
Department of Health has caused the sources of supply to be exam- 
ined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The sources examined are three wells located in the valley of a' 
small tributary of Charles River which enters that stream about 800 
feet above the Park Road Bridge. The principal well, which is located 
at a point about 1,600 feet from the river and about 25 feet south of 
the brook, is about 12 feet in diameter and about 25 feet in depth, 
having been sunk to ledge. There appear to be no dwelling houses 
on the watershed of this well, and analyses of the water show that 
at the time of this examination it was of good quality for domestic 
use. 

The remaining wells are located near the mouth of the brook, one 
about 350 feet and the other about 150 feet from the river. There 
appear to be no sources of pollution in the region about these wells, 
and an analysis of the water of the lower well indicates that the water 
is of good quality for domestic use. 

The well located about 300 feet from the river is used but little at 
the present time and was not examined. The quality of the water at 
the time of a former examination was found to be satisfactory. 

An analysis of a sample of water taken from the house of one of 
the water takers to determine the probable cause of criticism of the 
quality of the water shows the condition of the water at this place 
to be much the same as that in the well. The water contained a 
somewhat greater quantity of iron than is found in the water from 
other points on the system, and it is not unlikeh^ that criticism of the 



146 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

quality of the water may be due to lack of flushing of the pipe through 
which the water is supplied. 

It is probable that a thorough flushing at such intervals as may be 
found necessary would remove any possible cause of complaint. 



Weston (Blake Estate). 

June 4, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Weston, Mass., Mr. Robert N. Hoyt, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water supply of the Blake estate in Weston and advice as to its 
use for domestic purposes, the Commissioner of Health has caused the 
source of supply indicated to be examined and samples of the water 
to be analyzed. 

According to the information available, this water supply is taken 
from a well 20 feet in diameter and 34 feet deep, from which the 
water is pumped to an open reservoir having a capacity of 250,000 
gallons, whence it is supplied to some twenty water takers, the total 
quantity of water used averaging somewhat over 13,000 gallons per day. 
There appear to be no sources of pollution on the watershed of the 
well, and analyses of the water indicate that it is of good quality for 
domestic use. The water as stored in the reservoir deteriorates some- 
what on account of its exposure to light and is apparently affected 
somewhat by growths of microscopic organisms, the presence of which 
in water used for drinking is not known to be injurious to health. 

In the opinion of the Commissioner of Health, this source of water 
supply is safe for domestic use and can continue to be used with 
safety while the conditions about it remain as at the present time. 

Weston (Riverside Recreation Grounds). 

July 23, 1915. 

To the Metropolitan Park Commission, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for advice as to a pro- 
posed water supply for the Riverside Recreation Grounds in the town 
of Weston, the State Department of Health has examined the results 
of a test made by pumping from a group of three wells on the south- 
westerly bank of the river just below the railroad embankment of the 
Boston & Albany Railroad, and has caused the locality to be exam- 
ined by one of its engineers. 

It appears that a group of three tubular wells 2| inches in diameter 
have been sunk at the location indicated to a depth of about 37 feet 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 147 

at a point about 100 feet below the foot of the railroad embankment 
and 35 feet from the river. These wells are said to have penetrated 
a stratum of coarse sand after passing through about 17 feet of river 
silt and 13 feet of very fine sand or clay. A test of the yield of these 
wells was made on June 18 and 19 by pumping continuously from the 
wells for a period of 31 hours at a rate of about 68,000 gallons per 
day, and samples of water were collected during the course of this 
test. 

The results of the analyses show that the water, while somewhat 
harder than the waters obtained from this valley for the supplies of 
Dedham, Newton, Brookline and Waltham, is on the whole of good 
quality and suitable for domestic use. The results of the test indicate, 
furthermore, that an ample quantity of water for the present require- 
ments of the Recreation Grounds can be obtained from wells in the 
location in which this test was made. 

The only important sources of pollution in the region about these 
wells are the cesspools on the Recreation Grounds, and it is under- 
stood that provision has been made for discontinuing the use of these 
cesspools and discharging the sewage into the sewerage system of the 
city of Newton. 

Under these conditions and in view of the results of the test, the 
Department is of the opinion that water from wells in the location in 
which the test was made may safely be used for drinking and other 
purposes on the Recreation Grounds. 

Westport (Wells). ^^^ 15^ 1915 

To the Board of Health, Westport, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
certain wells in Westport at houses in which cases of typhoid fever 
have occurred, the Commissioner of Health has caused the wells in- 
dicated to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

Three of these wells, located respectively at the houses of Manuel 
Perry, Frank Verria and Anton Verria, have been examined at pre- 
vious times. The well of Manuel Perry, concerning which the State 
Board of Health advised on Oct. 7, 1912, that the further use of the 
well should be discontinued, shows by the recent examination a very 
great deterioration in quality, indicating that its use is unsafe. The 
previous recommendation of this Department should be immediately 
carried out and the further use of this water for drinking or other 
domestic purposes prevented. 

The well at the premises of Anton Verria was found to be so objec- 



148 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tionable at the time of the previous examination in 1913 that it was 
recommended that the further use of this well should be discontinued. 
The recent examination again shows that the water of this well is 
grossly polluted, and the recommendation of the Department made 
two years ago should be carried out at once. 

The well at the premises of Frank Verria shows no great change 
from its condition at the time of the previous examination. Certain 
improvements recommended at that time have been made, but others 
have not yet been carried out. It is probable that this well might 
be used with safety for drinking if the stone curbing of the well were 
laid up in cement mortar from a level 3 or 4 feet below the present 
top of the well to a height of a foot above the surface of the ground 
about it to prevent the entrance of surface water, and by covering 
the well so as to prevent pollution getting into it from the top, as 
advised in the communication of this Department on June 16, 1913. 

The well on the premises of Clifton L. Tripp appears to be so lo- 
cated that it is not exposed to serious danger of pollution by sewage 
from the house or barn. This well could probably continue to be used 
with safety, provided it is properly walled up and covered as recom- 
mended in the case of the well of Anton Verria. A pump should be 
provided at this well so arranged that the waste water will not flow 
back through the platform into the well. With the changes suggested, 
the water of this well may probably be used with safety. 

To the Board of Health, Westport, Mass. ' 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water of a well located west of the barn on the premises of Anton 
Verria, the Commissioner of Health has caused the well to be exam- 
ined and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

There are sources of pollution at no great distance from the well, 
and the analyses show that the water is grossly polluted and unsafe 
for drinking and other domestic purposes. 

The character of the water of the other well on these premises, 
referred to in the communication of this Department under date of 
May 15, 1915, is such that it is not probable that any cleaning such 
as you suggest would be likely to result in securing water from this 
well which would be safe for drinking and other domestic purposes. 

In addition to the foregoing, the following cities, towns and persons 
have been advised relative to spring waters, waters used for the supply 
of factories, public wells or wells used by a number of families; but 



No. 34.] AD\1CE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 149 

as these matters are for the most part of minor importance, the com- 
munications have not been printed. Copies of them are on file in the 
office of the Department: — 

Arlington, well. 

Attleboro, well of J. E. Blake Company. 

Attleboro, well in Hebronville. 

Bridgewater, well. 

Canton, well and spring of American Fireworks Company. 

Chelmsford, wells (two). 

Chelsea, well of Rossi Brothers Company. 

Dana, springs at Dana Center School. 

Dracut, well at Kenwood School. 

East Longmeadow, well. 

Fairhaven, well at Fort Phoenix. 

Framingham, well in Saxon ville. 

Gardner, well. 

Georgetown, wells (two). 

Hanover, wells (two). 

Holyoke, well of Valley Paper Company. 

Hubbardston, well. 

Ipswich, well at Rose Tree Inn (two). 

Lawrence, well at Everett Mills. 

LawTence, well at Wood Worsted jVIills. 

Lawrence, well at Washington Mills. 

Lenox, spring in Lenox Dale. 

Lowell, water supply of United States Cartridge Company (two). 

Lowell, spring. 

Ljom, well of H. P. Hood & Sons. 

Marshfield, well of Webster Terrace Land Company, 

Medfield, well. 

Medford, Fulton Spring. 

Milton, well. 

North Attleborough, well of The Webster Company (two). 

Norwell, well at District No. 1 School. 

Orange, well at North Orange School. 

Peabody, Crystal Spring. 

Reading, well. 

Rowley, well of H. C. Foster. 

Salem, springs. 

Somerset, well. 

Southborough, well. 

South Hadley, well at Hadley Mills. 

Swansea, well at Swansea Dye Works. 

Templeton, well in Baldwinsville. 

Tewksbury, wells at schools. 



150 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

"Watertown, well. 
Webster, well. 
West Newbury, well. 
Weston, well at boys' camp. 
Wilmington, well at High School. 
Winchendon, wells. 

ICE SUPPLIES. 

The following is the substance of the official action taken during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to ice supplies: — 

COLRAIN. 

Dec. 16, 1915. 
To Mr. George S. Mathys, Colrain, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your application for advice as to the 
use of ice to be cut from a pond on the Deerfield River for domestic 
purposes, the State Department of Health has caused the pond and 
its surroundings to be examined and has considered the results of 
analyses of the water of the river, by which the pond will be chiefly 
supplied. 

The pond is located below one of the main dams on the Deerfield 
River by means of which the water is diverted into the stream at a 
point considerably below the pond from which the ice is to be taken. 

Under the circumstances, the water of the pond will be made up of 
water occasionally overflowing or leaking past the dam above the 
pond and water from the tributary watershed between the dam and 
the pond. The Deerfield River receives very little pollution above 
this ice pond, and the local watershed is practically free from sources 
of pollution. At times of freshet, however, or overflow from the river 
above at a time when ice has formed on this pond, the ice may become 
flooded by river water. 

In view of the conditions, the Department is of the opinion that 
the only practicable way of obtaining ice of good quality for domestic 
purposes from this pond will be to remove the first inch of ice that 
forms upon the pond, and also all ice that forms above it by flooding, 
and to retain for use only the clear ice that forms beneath the flrst 
inch. It is also important that all ice containing particles of foreign 
matter be rejected. 

If these recommendations are followed, it is probable that the clear 
ice from this source may safely be used for domestic purposes. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 151 



DUXBURY. 

March 26, 1915. 

To Mr. Charles W. Eaton, Secretary, Board of Health, Duxbury, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of March 3, 1915, for an 
examination of Tack Pactory Pond, so called, and advice as to its use 
as a source of ice supply, the Commissioner of Health has caused the 
pond and its surroundings to be examined and samples of the water 
and ice to be analyzed. 

The results of these examinations show that the pond is not exposed 
to serious danger of pollution and the ice taken therefrom is of good 
quality for domestic use. 

You have also requested an examination of the water of a well at 
Chase's Bog, so called, used for drinking and domestic purposes by 
the inhabitants of buildings in that locality. 

The results of an examination of this well show that there are 
sources of pollution in its immediate neighborhood, and an analysis of 
a sample of the water shows that it is grossly polluted and unfit for 
domestic use. It is recommended that further danger of the use of 
the water of this well for drinking, and other domestic purposes be 
prevented. 

Falmouth. 

Feb. 2, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Falmouth, Mass., Mr. T. L. Swift, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
Nye's, Morse's and Jones's ponds and advice as to their use as sources 
of ice supply, the Commissioner of Health has caused an examination 
of these ponds to be made and samples of the water and ice therefrom 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the ice taken from each of 
these ponds was practically free from bacteria and of good quality for 
domestic use. 

A further examination has also been made of the ice from Shiverick's 
Pond, which has been examined in previous years. The results show 
that the ice formed there during the present season is of good quality 
for domestic use, the ice both at the surface and bottom of the cake 
having been found to be practically free from bacteria. 

In using ice from these ponds, all snow ice and ice containing par- 
ticles of foreign matter should be rejected. 



152 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Franklin. 

May 24, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Franklin, Mass., Mr. J. Newton Blanchard, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
Green's Pond, so called, located about a mile south of the railroad 
station in Franklin, and advice as to its use as a source of ice supply 
for domestic purposes, the Commissioner of Health has caused the 
pond and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water at this time was 
highly colored and contained a large quantity of organic matter, much 
of which was apparently of vegetable origin. 

There is a piggery, together with several receptacles for sewage, in 
the immediate neighborhood of the pond which it is understood the 
owner proposes to remove before the pond is used as a source of ice 
supply. 

In the opinion of the Department, judging from the results of the 
examination of the locality, there is no reason to doubt that, if all of 
the sources of pollution in the immediate neighborhood of the pond 
were removed and the watershed kept free from pollution, the pond 
might safely be used as a source of ice supply for domestic purposes. 

Greenfield. 

April 29, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Greenfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — At the request of Dr. Lyman A. Jones, State In- 
spector of Health, this Department has considered the question of the 
probable effect of the location of a piggery at the Hawkes place, on 
the Turners Falls Road, upon the use of Graves Pond, so called, as 
a source of ice supply. « 

The information presented indicates that the place is to be used as 
a piggery for the disposal of the garbage of the town and that the pigs 
will have access to the small brook flowing from Maynard Pond into 
Graves Pond. A recent examination has shown that Graves Pond is 
not exposed to danger of serious pollution which would affect the 
safety of its use as a source of ice supply, provided the ice were 
treated in the manner recommended in a communication from this 
department on April 28, 1913. It is very probable, however, that if 
the location proposed should be used as a piggery, the brook entering 
the pond would be seriously polluted and the pollution of the pond 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 153 

might become so serious as to make it an ol)jectionable source from 
which to take ice for domestic purposes. 

In locating a piggery for the purpose proposed it is important that 
it should not be so placed as to pollute any pond, spring or stream 
used as a source of water or ice supply for domestic purposes. 

Aug. 13, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Greenfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
ice ponds used by the Greenfield Ice and Trucking Company as 
sources of ice supply for domestic use and for the Boston & Maine 
Railroad, the State Department of Health has caused the sources of 
supply to be examined and further samples of water and ice from one 
of the sources to be analyzed. 

It appears from this examination that there has been no material 
change in the conditions affecting the use of Wrights Pond and May- 
nard Pond as sources of ice supply since the last examination of those 
sources was made, and the Department sees no reason to amend the 
advice already given to your Board relative to the use of ice from 
those sources. 

The examination of Graves Pond shows that, while there have been 
some changes within its watershed, the soil in the area about the pond 
is quite porous and there is no indication that the water is being pol- 
luted to such an extent as to affect the quality of the ice at the present 
time. An analysis of a sample of ice from this pond shows that its 
quality is, on the whole, somewhat better than at the time of the 
previous examination in 1913. In the opinion of the Department the 
ice fropi this pond may safely be used for domestic purposes provided 
the recommendation contained in the previous reply is carried out, — 
that is, that all snow ice, including the first inch of clear ice that 
formed upon the pond, be removed before using and all ice containing 
particles of foreign matter be rejected. 

Harvaed. 

May 24, 1915. 
To Mr. L. Kingston Savage, Harvard, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of 
Bare Hill Pond and advice as to the quality of the ice cut therefrom, 
the Commissioner of Health has caused the pond and its surroundings 
to be examined and samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that there is ver}- little pollution 



154 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the pond in the season of the year when ice is cut, and the circum- 
stances are such that the ice is not exposed to serious danger of 
pollution. 

The results of an analysis of a sample of the ice show that it is of 
good quality for domestic purposes. 

It is advisable in selling ice from this source to remove from the 
ice, before using, all of the snow ice, including the first inch of clear 
ice that formed upon the pond. It is also recommended that all ice 
containing particles of foreign matter be rejected. 



Mansfield. 

Oct. 21, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Mansfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to the character of the ice taken from 
certain ponds in Mansfield and has caused the ponds and their sur- 
roundings to be examined and samples of the water and ice to be 
analyzed. 

Willis Pond, one of the sources concerning which information is 
desired, is located on a small tributary of the Canoe River in the 
northeasterly part of the town. Its watershed contains few habita- 
tions and the water is not exposed to serious danger of pollution. 
The pond is quite shallow, however, and the ice in an ice house near 
the shore of the pond appeared to contain considerable foreign matter. 
An analysis of a sample of this ice shows that it contains more organic 
matter and a larger number of bacteria than are found in good ice. 
It is probable, however, that ice which could safely be used for domes- 
tic purposes could be obtained from this pond, provided all snow ice 
and the first inch of clear ice that formed upon the pond be removed 
before using and all ice containing particles of foreign matter rejected. 

Kingman & Hodges' Pond, another source concerning which advice 
is desired, is located on the Rumford River in the southerly portion of 
the village of Mansfield. The watershed of this pond includes a large 
part of the villages of Foxboro and Mansfield and contains within 
its limits probably 3000 persons. One of the tributaries of this pond 
is polluted by sewage discharged from the town of Foxboro, and this 
and other tributaries receive considerable pollution in the course of 
their flow through the town of Mansfield. 

At the time of a previous examination in 1905 your board was 
advised that "The analysis shows the first inch of ice frozen and the 
snow ice above to be dangerously polluted and unfit for use. The 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 155 

clear ice below the first inch might be used if free from foreign matter." 
The results of the recent examination show that the pollution of the 
pond has increased and analyses of the water and of ice cut there- 
from show that, while the ice might be used for refrigerating purposes, 
it cannot be considered safe for domestic use where it is likely to come 
in contact with food or be placed in drinking water. 



Newton. q^^ ^9^ 1915 

To the Crystal Lake Ice Company, Newton Center, Mass., Mr. Robert M. Clark, 
Treasurer and General Manager. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
Crystal Lake in Newton and advice as to its use as a source of ice 
supply, the State Department of Health has caused the lake to be 
examined and samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The region about Crystal Lake is quite thickly populated but is 
quite thoroughly sewered, and the results of an analysis of the water 
do not show evidence of serious pollution. The analysis of a sample 
of ice collected from an ice house near the shore shows that it is of 
good quality for domestic use. 

In the opinion of the Department, ice which may safely be used for 
domestic purposes can be obtained from this lake, provided the first 
inch of ice that forms upon the lake, together with all ice that forms 
above it, is removed before using and that ice containing particles of 
foreign matter is rejected. 

Palmer. j3^^ 22, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Palmer, Mass., Mr. W. C. Hitchcock, Clerk. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, the State Department 
of Health has caused an examination to be made of a pond on Bur- 
leigh Brook, located about 1| miles north of the village of Palmer, 
and also of the watershed tributary thereto. 

The examination shows that the watershed of the brook contains 
no dwelling houses from which sewage might pollute the stream, and 
the pond is, in the opinion of the Department, a suitable source from 
which to take ice foradomestic purposes.. It is recommended that in 
using the ice from th* source the first inch of ice that forms upon 
the pond and all snow ice forming above it be rejected, including all 
ice containing particles of foreign matter. 

If these recommendations are observed, this pond can be used with 
safety as a source of ice supply. 



156 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Pepperell. 

May 6, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Pepperell, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of April 23, 1915, for 
an examination of the ice contained in the ice house of S. M. Nokes, 
recently destroyed by fire, the Commissioner of Health has caused 
the locality to be examined and samples of the ice to be analyzed. 

The results of this examination show that the samples of ice exam- 
ined were of good quality for domestic use and free from objection- 
able odor. In the opinion of the Department, this ice can safely be 
used for domestic purposes. 

PiTTSFiELD (Berkshire Street Railway Company). 

Feb. 26, 1915. 

To the Berkshire Street Railway Company, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the spring of Daniel C. French, having an outlet near the Monument 
Mills Power Company's plant in Glendale in the town of Stockbridge, 
and advice as to the use of the water for drinking in the cars used 
in interstate traffic, the Commissioner of Health has caused the source 
indicated to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of the spring, though 
very hard, is clear and colorless and contains little organic matter and 
is probably safe for drinking. 

Your application also requests advice as to the quality of the ice 
taken from Hart's Pond near the village of Housatonic in the town 
of Great Barrington, and an examination of the water and ice of this 
source has also been made by direction of the Commissioner of 
Health. 

The results of the examination show that the ice formed upon this 
source during the present winter is of good quality for domestic use. 
There are few houses in the neighborhood of the pond and one privy 
within 200 feet of its shores. While the ice formed during the present 
winter is satisfactory, it is advisable that the possible sources of pol- 
lution on the shores of the pond be examined during the coming sum- 
mer and steps taken to prevent danger of the direct pollution of the 
water of the pond. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 157 



Salisbury. 

Feb. 20, 191.5. 
To Mr. Enoch E. Sawyer, Ferry Road, Salisbury, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of 
Getchell's Pond in Salisbury and advice as to its use as a source of 
ice supply, the Commissioner of Health has caused the pond and its 
surroundings to be examined and samples of the water and ice to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that, while the ice contains a 
somewhat greater quantity of organic matter than is found in good 
ice, it is of good quality for domestic use. It is probable that ice 
harvested from this source may be used with safety for domestic pur- 
poses, provided that the first inch of ice that forms upon the pond, 
including all snow ice, be removed before using and all ice containing 
particles of foreign matter be rejected. 

SouTHBRiDGE (see page 133). 

Springfield. 

Oct. 22, 191.5. 
To Mr. Edw.'Uid Fitzgerald, Indian Orchard, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of a 
proposed location for a reservoir on Bircham Bend Brook, from which 
you propose to take ice for domestic purposes, the State Department 
of Health has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and a sample of the water of the brook to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the watershed contains 
but little population, and with a suitable reservoir it is probable that 
ice which is safe for domestic purposes can be obtained from this 
source. 

An examination has also been made of the proposed location of the 
reservoir from which the ice is to be taken. According to informa- 
tion submitted, the reservoir will be about 10 feet deep at the dam 
and 4 feet deep near the upper end, and the area is to be cleared of 
objectionable organic matter when the reservoir is constructed. 

It is probable that with the proposed reservoir as described ice can 
be obtained from Bircham Bend Brook at the location indicated which 
will be of good quality for domestic purposes. 



158 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 

The following is the substance of the official action taken during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to sewerage and sewage 
disposal: — 

Amhekst. 

Feb. 25, 1915. 

To Mr. C. E,. Elder, Chairman, Sewer Commissioners, Amherst, Mass. 

Deae Sir: — The Commissioner of Health has considered your ap- 
plication of Jan. 23, 1915, for advice relative to the disposal of the 
sewage of Amherst by various methods available and the plans and 
information relative thereto and has caused the locality to be exam- 
ined by one of the engineers of this Department. 

The sewerage system of Amherst has been under construction for 
many years and at the present time the sewage from about one-third 
of the inhabitants of the sewered districts is conveyed by gravity to 
the Connecticut River, while the greater portion of the sewage from 
the remaining population is discharged upon filter beds located near 
East Street, though small quantities of sewage are also disposed of 
upon small filter beds off Pleasant Street and off Dana Street, the 
latter beds being near the densely populated part of the village. The 
area of filter beds at the principal disposal area — that at East Street 
— is now about two acres. The material of which these filters are 
composed is rather fine but well suited for the purification of sewage 
if applied at a proper rate. The filters are capable of being operated 
efficiently at a rate of about 40,000 gallons per acre per day and, 
though they may be operated for short periods at a greater rate, it 
will not be practicable to maintain a materially higher rate of opera- 
tion than that indicated and secure a satisfactory effiuent. 

The quantity of sewage discharged at this area, as shown by various 
measurements, has ranged from 140,000 to more than 600,000 gallons 
per day, and during a large part of the year the average quantity is 
too great for purification on the present filters. This variation is 
caused by excessive leakage into the main sewers, and if it is decided 
to continue the treatment of the sewage at the present disposal works 
it will probably be less expensive to relay the main sewer than to 
construct an adequate area of filter beds for the purification of all of 
the sewage. 

It is probable that, if the sewers were relaid and made tight, the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO\\nS[S. 159 

maximum flow of sewage would be greatly reduced, but it would still 
no doubt be necessary to provide at least six acres of filters for the 
proper treatment of the sewage. The total cost of relaying the main 
sewers, making the necessary improvements in the existing works and 
constructing the additional works necessary to provide for the proper 
treatment of the sewage at this area, would probably amount to at 
least $28,500, and additions of course will be required to the filter 
beds from time to time in the future if the town continues to grow. 

The estimated cost of extending a branch sewer from the main 
trunk sewer leading to the Connecticut River to the junction of the 
Snell Brook sewer is estimated by your engineer at about $20,000, 
while the cost of extending the sewer around Amherst College to a 
connection with the Central or Maple Brook sewer would add about 
$6,000. These extensions would serve about 2,000 people, and, by 
extending the main sewer in the form of an inverted siphon across 
the valley of Maple Brook through Dickinson Street, a considerable 
additional population would be served. The estimated total cost of 
these extensions as given by your engineer is $28,000. These exten- 
sions would have the advantage of providing sewerage for houses in 
the westerly section of the town, especially on Northampton, Amity 
and Brighton streets. Sunset Avenue and Pine Court. It would also 
make it practicable to provide sewerage for Amherst College and 
finally to discontinue the use of the Dana Street filtration area, which 
is undesirably near the thickly settled part of the town. If this plan 
were carried out, not only would the expense of enlarging and im- 
proving the East Street area be avoided, but the increased cost of 
maintenance of that area would also be avoided. There would still 
be a small population which would continue to drain most readily to 
the East Street filters, but this population would be so small that the 
present filters could probably be utilized to care for the sewage there- 
from for several years in the future, and if it should be found desirable 
at any future time, the use of the East Street area could be wholly 
discontinued and the disposal of the remaining sewage that would be 
tributary thereto could be effected by pumping it into the Connecticut 
River system. 

There is no question that, if the town is to continue to discharge 
sewage at the East Street filtration area, a great addition to this area 
must be made without delay, and provision must also be made for 
the proper care and maintenance of these filters at all times. 

Under the circumstances, it is probable that the most satisfactory 
and economical method of disposing of the sewage of Amherst will 
be to discharge it into the Connecticut River through an extension 



160 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the sewers now connected with that outlet. It is recommended 
that works be constructed during the coming year for the diversion 
of all of the sew^age practicable from the East Street filters into the 
Connecticut River and that the sewage now discharged at the Dana 
Street filters be discharged into the new system and the use of those 
filters discontinued. 

If this recommendation is adopted, provision should still be made 
for maintaining the East Street filters in the most efficient possible 
condition during the time that must elapse before the sewage is 
diverted into the Connecticut River system. 



Andovfr. 



Jan. 18, 1915. 



To the Board of Public Works, Andover, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Complaint has been made to this Department by 
certain residents on Central Street in Andover that sewage has over- 
flowed from the Phillips low level pumping station of the Andover 
sewerage sj'stem into the adjacent brook, causing objectionable pollu- 
tion of the brook, and, by direction of the Commissioner of Health, 
an examination of the locality has been made by this Department, 

It appears that the sewage of Phillips and Abbott streets is col- 
lected at a small reservoir near the junction of those streets and thence 
pumped automatically into the general sewerage system of the town. 
The pumping apparatus appears to be unsatisfactory, however, and 
an overflow has been constructed from the pumping station to cess- 
pools on the north bank of the brook about 1,000 feet southwest of 
Phillips Street, through which sewage passes to the brook. 

An examination of the brook indicates that overflows took place, 
from these cesspools during the period of low flow in the latter part 
of last year, and the bed of the brook for some distance below the 
outlet was found to be badly polluted by sewage matters and organic 
growths usually associated with sewage. In view of the conditions 
found at this time, it is evident that the stream is likely to be a serious 
nuisance in dry weather, and it is recommended that provision be 
made for the proper disposal of this sewage, either by constructing 
an adequate and efficient pumping station and equipment or by some 
other plan, early in the coming spring so that further objectionable 
pollution of this brook shall bei prevented before the coming of hot 
weather. 

The Department will be pleased to advise you as to any plan of 
relief which you may desire to present and will be glad of information 
as to what action the town decides to take in this matter. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 161 



Fkb. 2.5, 1915. 
To the Board oj Health, Andover, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of February 20, the 
Commissioner of Health has considered the need of sewerage in the 
so-called Abbott Village section of the town of Andover and the report 
of one of the engineers of the Department upon the conditions exist- 
ing in this locality. 

The results of the examination show that Abbott Village is thickly 
built up, the number of dwelling houses for a mile of highway being 
as great as, or greater than, is found in towns in which sewerage sys- 
tems have already been found necessary. Many of the houses in the 
district, moreover, are occupied by two or more families, and two or 
three large boarding houses are included in this section. 

So far as the information submitted shows, much difficulty has been 
experienced in securing proper disposal of sewage by means of vaults 
and cesspools, and difficulty is caused by the overflow of sewage from 
cesspools and drains in the midst of this populated district. Further- 
more, sewage in considerable quantity from private drains is dis- 
charged in one or two places in the neighborhood of the Shawsheen 
River, whence it finds its way directly into the stream, and there are 
several privies overhanging the river in the village, a most objection- 
able method of disposing of sewage under the circumstances. 

The results of the examination indicate that the present method 
of disposing of sewage in this village is a very serious menace to the 
public health, and it is recommended that steps be taken at the earliest 
practicable time in the coming year to provide sewers for all of the 
thickly settled portions of this important district of the town. 

Plans for the sewers of this district have already been considered 
and were approved by this Department in connection with the general 
sewerage system of the town several years ago, so that the construc- 
tion of works can be begun as soon as the necessary action is taken 
by the town. 

Oct. 1, 1915. 

To the Board of Public Works, Andover, Mass., Mr. Fr.\nk L. Cole, Superintendent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
your sewage filter beds and advice as to the necessary extension of 
the works, the State Department of Health has caused the filter -beds 
to be examined and has considered the results of analyses of the sew- 
age applied and of the effluent therefrom. 

The present filter beds have an aggregate area of 3.65 acres. The 



162 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

filters have recently been improved, the underdrains reconstructed in 
a large part of the area, and the works are now operated at an average 
rate .of about 60,000 gallons per acre per day. It is necessary, how- 
ever, in view of the large quantity of sewage to be brought to the 
works frpm the Abbott Village and the low level areas, which will 
probably add at least an average of 60,000 gallons per day to the 
quantity of sewage now discharged at the works, to provide addi- 
tional filters for the proper disposal of the sewage. 

The condition of the efiluent from these filters was very satisfactory 
in the earlier years, but later on the effluent deteriorated gradually 
and contained a large quantity of iron and a greater quantity of 
organic matter than is found in well-filtered sewage effluents. Re- 
cently, however, there has been an improvement in the operation of 
these filters and the quality of the effluent has shown more thorough 
purification. It will be essential, however, in order to maintain this 
improvement, to provide an additional filtration area, and a further 
addition should be made to provide for the additional quantity of 
sewage to be discharged at the works. In the opinion of the De- 
partment, an addition of at least 1^ acres should be made immediately 
and a further addition during the next season sufficient to increase 
the area to as much as 6 acres. The additions should also include 
provision for extra sludge drying beds, the area available for that 
purpose at the present time being les,s than half the amount required. 

"When plans for the additional works have been prepared, the De- 
partment will be pleased to advise you concerning them and also to 
examine samples of the material which you propose to use, if you so 
request. 

Beverly. 

June 29, 1915. 
To Hon. Herman A. MacDonald, Mayor of Beverly, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Several years ago a petition was presented to this 
Department by the city of Beverly requesting its advice relative to 
certain proposed plans for intercepting and outfall sewers for the city 
of Beverly designed to divert the sewage from the present sewer out- 
lets of the city to a point in the sea near Great Haste Island. Action 
on these plans was postponed from time to time by the Department 
at the request of the city authorities, the last suggestion for postpone- 
ment stating that, on account of the importance of the undertaking, 
sufficient time should be allowed for consideration of the matter by 
the public and inviting a recommendation by this Department. 

In the meantime, the city has grown and the objectionable condi- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 163 

tions due to the discharge of sewage at the main outlet have increased 
materially as compared with the conditions at the time the petition 
was presented. The sewage is discharged not far from the shore in 
such quantity that, under certain conditions, floating matters from 
the sewage are deposited upon the beach to the east of the outlet 
which is used by large numbers of people in the summer season. 
These conditions are a serious menace to the health of the city, and 
it is important that some relief be provided or the objectionable con- 
ditions will grow worse as the city grows, and with increased use of 
this beach it is very desirable that the city shall remove its sewage 
from the present main sewer outlet at the earliest practicable time. 

It happens that at the present time the town of Danvers also has 
the question of sewerage under consideration, and one of the methods 
of disposal presented by their engineers for the consideration of that 
town is a plan for discharging the sewage of the town into the sea, 
providing a joint arrangement can be made with the city of Beverly. 
There would no doubt be considerable economy for both Danvers and 
Beverly if an arrangement could be made whereby the same outfall 
sewer and outlet could be used by both, and, in the opinion of the 
State Department of Health, it is advisable that Beverly and Danvers 
should consider jointly the practicability of disposing of their sewage 
by a joint plan. 

If such a plan is found impracticable, however, the city of Beverly 
should, in the opinion of the Department, proceed with plans for re- 
moving its sewage from the present main outlet to some suitable 
place of disposal at the earliest practicable time. 



Bridgewater. 

April 3, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Bridgewater, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your further request for advice relative to the disposal of the sewage 
of the town in accordance with the plans submitted in the early part 
of 1914 and has also considered the probable effect of the discharge 
of sewage into the Town River at a point close to the village of 
Bridgewater and at other points farther down the river. 

The flow of the Town River where it passes the village of Bridge- 
water is very small in dry summer seasons. It is materially increased 
no doubt by the eflSuent from the sewage disposal works of the city 
of Brockton, but even with this increase of flow it is unlikely that 
the river could receive unpurified sewage from any considerable por- 



164 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion of the village without becoming a nuisance. The district from 
which you propose to collect the sewage at the present time includes 
only a comparatively small section of the main village, the sewage 
from some portions of which already enters the stream, and if the 
sewage from this small section should be discharged into the riveir 
after thorough sedimentation it might not create seriously objection- 
able conditions in the stream within the next two or three years. 

The circumstances are such, however, that the use of the river for 
sewage disposal at the point propose^, even for the short period dur- 
ing which it might perhaps be used without objection so far as the 
condition of the river immediately below it is concerned, would be a 
violation of the provisions " of existing laws. 

The Bridgewaters Water Company owns wells on the banks of the 
river which have been used until recently and may again be used for 
the water supply of the town, and water is also drawn from the river 
for certain purposes by the State Farm at Bridgewater and may be 
used for drinking by the inhabitants of that institution. The dis- 
charge of sewage into a river on whose banks such works are located 
is prohibited under the provisions of chapter 75, section 124, of the 
Revised Laws which is as follows: — 

Section 124. No sewage, drainage, refuse or polluting matter, of such kind 
and amount as either by itself or in connection with other matter will corrupt 
or impair the quality of the water of any pond or stream used as a source of 
ice or water supply by a city, town, public institution or water company for 
domestic use, or render it injurious to health, and no human excrement, shall 
be discharged into any such stream or pond, or upon their banks if any filter 
basin so used is there situated, or into any feeders of such pond or stream within 
twenty miles above the point where such supply is taken. 

In view of the provisions of this law, it seems to the Department 
that the discharge of sewage into the Town River, or even into the 
Taunton River in the neighborhood of the village of Bridgewater, is 
not permissible unless treated to such an extent that the effluent will 
not corrupt or impair the water of the stream into which it is dis- 
charged, and this Department cannot advise the discharge of sewage 
from Bridgewater into any stream in the neighborhood of the village 
unless it has been purified to such an extent as in the opinion of the 
Department will comply with the statute quoted above. 

Furthermore, experience shows that when a sewerage system is in- 
trbduced into a town its advantages are rapidly extended throughout 
the thickly settled section, and such would no doubt be the case in 
the town of Bridgewater. It is very probable that, if sewage from 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 165 

the town were discharged into the river as proposed through a sys- 
tem controlled by the town, an efficient purification of the sewage 
would become necessary in any case within a very short time. 

In view of the circumstances, it is recommended that investigations 
be made and plans prepared for works for the treatment of the sewage 
to such an extent as will secure compliance with the existing law. 
In selecting a location for the disposal works, it is important to secure, 
if practicable, a location where the conditions are such that the works 
can be enlarged when necessary to provide adequately for the future 
treatment of all of the sewage of the town so far as can now be fore- 
seen. The Department will assist you in further investigations for 
the disposal of the sewage, if you so request, by making the necessary 
examinations of proposed locations and of soils which may be sug- 
gested for the disposal of the sewage, and will give you further advice 
in the matter of the disposal of the sewage of the town when you 
have the results of these investigations to present. 

Brockton (Brockton Gas Light Company). 

To the Brockton Gas Light Compamj, Brockton, Mess. ■^^^- ^^' ^^^^- 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for an investigation of the method of disposing of 
the wastes from your works at Brockton and advice relative thereto 
and has caused the locality to be examined and samples of the wastes 
to be analyzed. 

It appears from the examination that the wastes discharged from 
the manufacture of water gas are of an oily and tarry nature, highly 
colored, and usually give off a rather strong gas works odor. Measure- 
ments of the wastes on different days during the past few weeks show 
that the waste from the water-gas plant amounts to about 7,500 gal- 
lons per day and that discharged from the relief holder to about 5,400 
gallons per day. In addition to these wastes a small quantity of 
waste from the ammonia purifier is discharged into a cesspool which 
is about 15 feet in diameter and 20 feet in depth. This cesspool is 
located about 25 feet from the Vinegar Swamp drain. The general 
wastes from the water-gas plant are discharged into a concrete tank 
10 feet by 8 feet in plan and 3 feet 8| inches deep, having "a capacity 
of about 2,200 gallons, whence they flow upwards through two filter 
or strainer cribs, so called, said to contain one layer of coke breeze 
and two layers of sand, each layer having an area of about 43 square 
feet and a thickness of 3 to 5 inches, the effluent from which is dis- 
charged into the Vinegar Swamp drain. 



166 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



With the quantity of waste being discharged from the water-gas 
plant at the time the measurements were made, the rate of operation 
of the filters was about 7,700,000 gallons per acre per day. Very little 
suspended matter is removed from this waste in its passage through 
the tank and filters. 

The waste from the relief holder is discharged through a similar 
tank and filter, the tank having a capacity of about 1,400 gallons 
and each of the three layers of the filter an area of about 82 square 
feet. Judging from the measurements of the quantity of this waste, 
the rate of operation of this filter at the time of the examination was 
about 2,900,000 gallons per acre per day. The effluent, which con- 
tains more ammonia than that from the water-gas plant, is discharged 
with that effluent into the Vinegar Swamp drain. 

A comparison of the analyses of the Vinegar Swamp drain above 
and below the gas works indicates that the effluents discharged from 
the works into the drain increase the pollution of the water, and a 
comparison of the analyses of Salisbury Plain River above and below 
the outlet of the drain indicates that the wastes discharged into the 
river from the drain increase somewhat the pollution of the river, 
though there has been an improvement in the condition of the river 
during the past year as compared with earlier years. - 

The results of these examinations indicate that a more efficient 
purification of the wastes discharged from your works is desirable 
and can probably be effected without great difficulty. Studies of 
these and similar wastes by the chemist, of this Department show 
that, by treating the wastes with lime in a precipitation tank and 
subsequently filtering them through a sand filter of adequate size, 
they can be discharged into the Vinegar Swamp drain and the Salis- 
bury Plain River without objection. 

The Department recommends that the wastes be collected into a 
sedimentation tank of much larger size than the tanks now in use 
and that lime be applied to the wastes in this tank in the proportion 
of 2 to 3 pounds per thousand gallons of wastes. A tank in two 
compartments, each holding 3,000 gallons, would be sufficient for the 
purpose while the quantity of wastes remains as at the time of the 
examination. If the depth of the wastes in the tank were 4 feet, the 
total area of this tank would be 10 feet by 20 feet. With two com- 
partments with a baffle board and weir between, an adequate period 
of sedimentation will be secured. The tanks should of course be so 
designed that the sediment can be removed from them at frequent 
intervals. The total quantity of lime required for the treatment of 
the wastes if the quantity is about the same as that indicated by the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 167 

recent measurements would be about 35 pounds per day. The effluent 
from this tank should be discharged upon a sand filter operated at a 
rate no greater than 500,000 gallons per acre per day. With the 
present quantity of wastes, that rate would require a filter having 
an area of 1,100 square feet. It should be constructed of fine gravel 
or coarse sand, with a depth of at least 3 feet of filtering material 
with suitable underdrains. 

In the opinion of the Department, if the wastes are treated with 
lime in suitable tanks as herein suggested and subsequently filtered 
through sand filters at the rate indicated, the effluent can be dis- 
charged into the Vinegar Swamp drain and the Salisbury Plain River 
without objection. 



Canton (Springdale Finishing Company). 

Feb. 13, 1915. 
To the Springdale Finishing Company, Canton, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you, 
through your counsel, Henry F. Buswell, Esq., on Nov. 2, 1914, the 
following communication requesting advice relative to the chemical 
treatment of the wastes from your factory at Canton: 

By direction of my client, the Springdale Finishing Co., of Canton, I have to 
state to you the experiments which the Company has been making in the chem- 
ical treatment of wastes resulting from the operation of its factory, with the 
view of lessening, or wholly removing the offensive odor of such wastes. 

(1) The liquid holding the wastes in suspensiq|^ has been treated with copper 
sulphate (blue-stone) and sodium bi-chromate, with the result of very materially 
lessening, but not wholly removing, the offensive quality of the wastes. 

(2) For several weeks, the organic matter remaining after treatment (1) was 
treated with calcium oxy chloride. The result of this treatment was not satis- 
factory. 

(3) The wastes consist of organic matter, in suspension, mostly sulphides, 
which, in the course of evaporation, give out offensive hydrogen sulphide. For 
the last tln-ee weeks, as the liquid enters the catch-basins, it has been treated 
with ferrous sulphate, producing a black precipitate of iron sulphide. It is too 
early, as yet, to make sure of this treatment; but, so far, it promises excellent 
results. 

(4) We intend to try, further, a treatment with aluminum sulphate, should 
treatment (3) prove not entirely satisfactory. 

My client would be obliged for any suggestions which the State Board of 
Health may be able to make in the matter of the chemical treatment of offensive 
wastes. It seems obvious that such treatment, if satisfactory, must afford the 
surest means of effecting the desired result. 



168 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In response to this application, the Commissioner has caused further 
studies to be made at your works and at the Lawrence Experiment 
Station of the purification of the wastes from this' factory, the results 
of which confirm those of previous investigations. They show that 
these wastes as examined recently are practically of the same char- 
acter as in former years, varying in color from yellowish to nearly 
black, and that they pollute very seriously the tributary of the Ne- 
ponset River into which they are discharged. 

The investigations further show that when these wastes are treated 
with Kme in the proportion of 5,000 pounds per million gallons, about 
40 per cent, of the organic matter is removed and that when filtered 
through sand a clear, slightly colored, non-putrescible effluent com- 
paratively low in organic matter is obtained. Filtration can be car- 
ried on at a higher rate by using the preliminary treatment with lime 
than if this treatment is omitted, or, in other words, the area of filters 
required for the purification of the wastes will be less if the lime treat- 
ment is used than if the waste is discharged upon the filters without 
such preliminary treatment. 

The question of the use of various precipitants in the treatment of 
these wastes has been very thoroughly studied at the Lawrence Ex- 
periment Station in connection with the treatment of numerous other 
manufacturing wastes from factories in all parts of the State for many 
years, and the results of these experiments have been published from 
time to time in the annual reports of the Department, especially in the 
report for 1909. 

It does not appear to be necessary for you to make further studies 
such as outlined in your 'Counsel's letter, and such further studies 
would operate to delay the construction of works for the proper treat- 
ment of these wastes. 

It is recommended that you begin at the earliest practicable time 
the construction of works for the proper purification of these wastes. 
The department has already advised you, under date of May 11, 1914, 
as to the character of the works in its opinion necessary for the proper 
treatment of these wastes. Unless the construction of works for the 
proper treatment of these wastes is begun in the early spring, it will 
be my duty to present the facts to the Public Health Council for such 
action as they may deem desirable in the circumstances. 



No. 34.1 ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 169 



Danvers. 

June 29, 1915. 

To the Sewer Committee, Danvers, Mass., Mr. Lester S. CorcH, Clerk. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 29, 1915, the following application for advice with reference 
to a proposed system of sewerage and sewage disposal for the town of 
Danvers. 

We herewith present the plan for a proposed sewerage system for the Town 
of Danvers, Mass., together with the report of our engineers, Messrs. McClin- 
toek & Woodfall, and respectfully request that your Board examine and take 
such action as is necessary under the law, and report your findings to our Board. 

The application was accompanied by a report of your engineers, 
Messrs. McClintock & Woodfall, outlining the results of investiga- 
tions as to the collection and disposal of the sewage, together with a 
plan showing the proposed system for the collection of the sewage of 
the town. These investigations have included studies of various 
methods of sewage disposal, and detailed information is presented con- 
cerning three of these methods: — (1) the disposal of the sewage by 
intermittent filtration upon land in the extreme northerly part of the 
town; (2) the treatment of the sewage by trickling filters located 
southwest of Folly Hill; (3) the disposal of the sewage into the sea 
either jointly through the sewerage system of the city of Beverly or 
through a joint outlet, which may be used also by the city of Beverly, 
through which the sewage would be conveyed to an outlet in deep 
water southeast of Great Haste Island. The investigations have shown 
that, by any of the plans considered, pumping of the sewage would be 
necessary, and the design of the collecting system has included the 
selection of a location for a pumping station adapted for use with any 
of the systems of disposal that may ultimately be adopted. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused an examination of the pro- 
posed location of the sewerage system and of the various disposal 
works to be made by the engineer of the Department and has con- 
sidered the plan and report submitted therewith. 

The town of Danvers with one exception is the largest in the State 
unprovided with a system of public sewers, and the local waters are 
very badly polluted by sewage from private sewerage systems, and 
especially by wastes from the various tanneries and other manufac- 
turing industries in the town. These pollutions are such as to cause 
very serious nuisances at several points in the neighborhood of the 



170 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

town and to cause also seriously objectionable conditions in the Dan- 
vers River, where great areas of flats are exposed at low tide. These 
flats are becoming increasingly polluted with sewage, and very offen- 
sive conditions are likely to result unless the sewage and objectionable 
manufacturing wastes are removed from the waters about the town to 
a proper place of disposal. 

The results of the studies for a system of sewers capable of serving 
all the thickly settled parts of the town show that, while the collec- 
tion of all of the sewage by gravity at ope point involves considerable 
difficulty on account of the character of the topography of the town, 
it is practicable, by means of main sewers in the different valleys, to 
collect all of the sewage at a point near Porter River just east of 
Liberty Street, from which the sewage can be pumped conveniently 
either to disposal works on land or to an outlet into the sea. 

An examination of the various areas found to be available for the 
purification of the sewage by intermittent filtration shows that the 
area best suited for the purpose, both in location and character of 
soil, is the tract known as the Connor Farm in the extreme northerly 
part of the town. This area is located in a sparsely, inhabited region, 
and the soil over a large portion of it is of excellent quality for the 
purification of sewage by intermittent filtration. The contour of the 
land is well adapted for the economical construction of filter beds, and 
an ample area is available to serve the town for many years in the 
future. The cost of conveying the sewage to this point is considerable, 
however, on account of its elevation and distance from the town, and 
the discharge of the effluent into the very small stream that passes 
near this area might be objectionable, and it might be necessary to 
convey the effluent from the filters in a pipe to the Ipswich River. 
It is practicable, however, to dispose of all of the sewage of the town 
at this place for many years in the future at a cost which is not exces- 
sive as compared with the cost of the disposal of the sewage at other 
places in the State, where the quantity of sewage requiring disposal 
is similar to that which is likely to be collected by a general system 
of sewerage in the town of Danvers. 

The second method of sewage disposal considered by your engineers 
provides for the filtration of the sewage through trickling filters to be 
constructed near the southwesterly base of Folly Hill in the extreme 
easterly part of the town. These filters would be constructed of broken 
stone and the sewage would be discharged upon them at frequent in- 
tervals in the form of spray. The plans submitted provide for the 
construction of half an acre of filters with a depth of 7 feet, with pre- 
liminary settling tanks for the treatment of the sewage, secondary 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 171 

settling tanks for the settling of the effluent from the trickling filters, 
which would contain a large quantity of suspended matter, and a 16- 
inch cast-iron pipe to convey the effluent from the secondary settling 
tanks to the Danvers River. The latter pipe wo did also be utilized 
to convey the sludge to a tank boat, in which it would be transported 
to a point of discharge into the sea. 

The location selected for these works near the base of Folly Hill 
appears to be a convenient one for the purpose and, with suitable 
works properly operated, it wull be practicable to treat the sewage at 
this place without creating objectionable conditions in the neighbor- 
hood. 

The third plan of disposing of the sewage considered by the engineers 
provides for discharging it into the sea at a point southeast of and 
not far from Great Haste Island where the depth of water at low tide 
is 35 feet. Two plans are considered by your engineers, one providing 
for a sewer, force main and outlet to be used jointly by the town of 
Danvers and city of Beverly, and the other providing for a joint outlet 
pipe only from the shore of Beverly Harbor near the present outlet of 
the Beverly sewer to the proposed point of discharge near Great Haste 
Island. 

The present sewer outlet of the city of Beverly is located in the 
immediate neighborhood of the shores of Beverly Harbor, and the 
discharge of the increasing quantities of sewage through that outlet 
has become seriously objectionable, and a new outlet for the sewage 
is under consideration by that city. If Danvers and Beverly should 
make a joint arrangement for the disposal of their sewage through a 
single outfall pipe, there is no doubt that a material saving in the 
cost of disposing of the sewage of both municipalities could be effected. 
The estimates of cost of works submitted by your engineers indicate 
that the first cost of a sea outlet would be greater than that of any 
of the other methods considered, but the cost of maintenance of a sea 
outlet would be much less than the maintenance of filtration works. 
Bringing all the estimates together and making due allowance for in- 
terest, bond payments and maintenance of works, the annual cost of 
a sea outlet would probably be greater than that of disposing of the 
sewage at Folly Hill, though less than that of purifying the sewage by 
intermittent filtration at the Connor Farm. 

There is little doubt that very material enlargements in works for 
the purification of the sewage within the limits of the tow^n would be 
necessary from time to time in the future, and it is probable, under 
the circumstances, that an outlet into the sea, provided a satisfactory 
arrangement could be made with the city of Beverly, would be less 



172 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

expensive than any method by which the sewage could be disposed of 
upon land within the town. 

In view of all the circumstances, it is the opinion of the State De- 
partment of Health that the best practicable and most economical 
method of disposing of the sewage of the town of Danvers will be to 
discharge it into the sea in connection with the sewage of the city of 
Beverly, provided a satisfactory arrangement for a joint outlet can 
be made with that city. 

Inasmuch as legislation will no doubt be necessary in order to en- 
able the municipalities to act jointly in this matter of sewage disposal 
or to authorize either of them to dispose of its sewage into the sea, it 
is important that the question of joint action be considered in the 
near future so that such legislation as may be deemed desirable may 
be secured at the next session of the Legislature. 

If it is not foand practicable for the town of Danvers to dispose of 
the sewage into the sea, the plan of treating it on trickling filters near 
Folly Hill appears to be the most desirable, under the circumstances, 
for the town to adopt. 

Danvers (Danvers Leather Company). 

M.\RCH 1.3, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Danvers, Mass., E. H. Niles, M.D., Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — Since receiving your request for an investigation of 
the offensive odors said to be caused by a drain running from the 
factory of the Danvers Leather Company along the property of the 
Boston & Maine Railroad to a meadow in the vicinity of the Bay 
State Street Railway Company's car barns, which were found to be 
a nuisance, the Commissioner of Health has caused the character of 
the discharge from the factory of the Danvers Leather Company to 
be examined and has caused experiments to be made to determine 
a practicable method of treating this waste in such a way as to pre- 
vent further objections after its discharge into the drain. 

The total quantity of water being used in this factory at the time 
of these investigations was a little less than 100,000 gallons per day, 
and the total quantity of manufacturing waste about 83,000 gallons 
per day. The sewage from the factory is kept separate from the 
manufacturing waste and is disposed of in a cesspool. The stock at 
this factory which consists of scrap leather, paper, jute, etc., is treated 
in machines similar to those employed in paper mills, and the manu- 
facturing waste consists almost wholly of the waste water from the 
machines. This waste at the time of the examination was being passed 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 173 

through two trenches and four settling basins and subsequently dis- 
charged into an open trench terminating in a swamp about 2,400 feet 
from the factory. The treatment was designed to retain as much as 
possible of the matters in suspension in the waste and prevent them 
from entering the drain. The treatment of the waste by sedimenta- 
tion alone, however, is not as efficient as desirable in order to prevent 
objectionable conditions in the drain. The experiments that have 
been made with this waste, however, show that it is apparently very 
easily clarified and rendered inoffensive by chemical precipitation with 
aluminum sulphate applied at the rate of 2,000 pounds per million 
gallons. By treating the waste with this substance in suitable tanks, 
a very large portion, probably 90 per cent., of the organic matter is 
removed and an inoffensive, straw-colored effluent is obtained which 
is stable, as shown by laboratory tests. 

There is ample space in the yard for the construction of settling 
tanks of proper capacity to allow the treatment of the wastes with 
aluminum sulphate. By providing for this treatment with tanks of 
suitable design, it is probable that the waste liquid could be allowed 
to flow from the factory into the drain without creating objectionable 
conditions. It will be necessary to design the tanks so that they can 
be cleaned readily from time to time and to provide for the disposal 
of the sludge at some suitable place. 

June 9, 1915. 
To the Dnnvers Leather Company, Danvers, Alass. 

Gentlemen: — In reply to your request of April 23, 1915, for ad- 
vice with reference to the efficiency of the save-all through which your 
wastes are passed before discharging them into the drain from which 
they find an outlet to a tributary of the Danvers River, the Commis- 
sioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined and samples 
of your wastes before and after passage through the save-all to be 
analyzed. 

It appears that the system of sedimentation formerly in use at this 
factory has been discontinued for the present and the wastes are 
treated only by passage through the save-all. The analyses show that 
there is practically no change in the condition of the wastes as a result 
of the use of the save-all, and the wastes discharged to the final out- 
let are little, if any, improved by its use. The reason for this is that 
the wastes contain little or no fiber and the suspended matters are 
light and flocculent. The wastes, as you have already been advised, 
can be efficiently treated by chemical precipitation in suitable tanks 
using alum as a precipitant, the quantity of alum required being about 



174 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

2,000 pounds per million gallons, which would be equivalent to about 
166 pounds per day for a quantity of effluent amounting to 83,000 
gallons per day, which was the amount being discharged from the 
factory at the time of the last examination. 

It is recommended that works for the efficient treatment of the 
waste be constructed at the earliest practicable time. 



Deerfield (South Deerfield). 

Oct. 21, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Deerfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to the disposal of sewage from the two 
hotels at South Deerfield and the plan submitted therewith and has 
caused the locality to be examined by its engineer. 

The plan provides for the construction of a sewer designed primarily 
for the removal of sewage from the Lathrop Hotel and the Hotel 
Warren, located at or near the junction of Elm, Main and Sugarloaf 
streets, and for conveying it to a tank, designated as a catch basin on 
the plan, to be constructed on the westerly side of Sugarloaf Brook 
about 100 feet south of Sugarloaf Street. This catch basin, as shown 
on the plan, is to be 16 feet square, with its nearest side about 3 or 
4 feet from the edge of the brook, and is to be provided with an over- 
flow pipe 25 feet in length laid with open joints parallel to and at a dis- 
tance of about 10 feet from the brook. 

It would be advisable, in the opinion of the Department, to modify 
this plan of disposal by constructing, instead of the catch basin, two 
cesspools 6, or if practicable 8, feet in diameter and so arranged as 
to provide a depth of 4, or possibly 5, feet of liquid, and to construct 
an overflow pipe from the second cesspool discharging into a small 
sub-surface filter to be located farther down stream. The sub-surface 
filter could best be constructed by excavating the material over an 
area of about 25 feet in length and 10 feet in width bordering the 
brook to a depth of about 3 feet and filling this area to the level of 
the original surface of the ground with coarse sand or gravel suitable 
for, the filtration of sewage. The sewage should be discharged into, 
this filter through a pipe connected with the overflow pipe from the 
second cesspool and laid longitudinally along the inner edge of the 
filter farthest from the stream, with its joints open and the top of 
the pipe at a depth of about one foot below the finished surface. 

The works herein suggested will probably operate satisfactorily for 
a time in disposing of the sewage of the hotels and preventing the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 175 

serious pollution of the brook, but they provide at best only a tem- 
porary method of disposing of this sewage. It will probably be neces- 
sary occasionally to clean out the first cesspool and perhaps also the 
second cesspool, and it will probably also be found necessary from 
time to time to dig up, clean and relay the pipe laid along the edge 
of the filter bed. 

The present conditions in the village of South Deerfield as regards 
the disposal of sewage are very objectionable, and there are indica- 
tions that Sugarloaf Brook is seriously polluted by sewage from other 
sources than the hotels in question. A proper system of sewerage is 
very greatly needed in this village, and as the village is so situated 
that a gravity outlet for the sewage into the Connecticut River can 
very probably be secured, the construction of a sewerage system would 
not be difficult nor its cost a serious burden upon the town, since 
under existing laws much of the cost would necessarily be assessed 
upon the estates benefited by the sewers. 

The Department recommends that your board take such action as 
will secure the preparation of the necessary plans for sewerage and 
the installation of such a system at the earliest practicable time. The 
Department will be pleased to advise you as to any plan or plans of 
sewerage that you may desire to present as soon as the results of a 
careful investigation of the subject are available. 

Dracut (American Woolen Company). 

Oct, 14, IS 15. 

To the American Woolen Company, Lawrence, Mass., Mr. William S. Whitney, 

Supervising Engineer. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Sept. 27, 1915, for 
an examination of the sand in the filter beds at the Beaver Brook 
Mills in the village of Collinsville, in the town of Dracut, and advice 
as to the removal of the material from the surfaces of these filters, the 
State Department of Health has caused the filters to be examined and 
samples of the sand and also of the applied wastes and effluent from 
the filters to be analyzed. 

The results of the examinations show that at this time only two of 
the six filter beds available {pr the disposal of wastes at this mill were 
free from flooding, and samples of sand have been collected at various 
depths from these two filters. Examinations have also shown that 
the sand at the surfaces of these filters has become badly clogged to 
a depth of at least 6 inches and that it contains an excessive quantity 
of organic matter and a very considerable quantity of fats. In the 



176 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

opinion of this Department, it is essential that the clogged sand at 
the surfaces of these filters be removed and an equal depth of clean 
sand of suitable- quality be provided in its place. Judging from the 
filters examined, it is not difficult to determine the depth to which 
clogging has extended in these filters, and it is important that when 
the improvement is made all of the sand containing organic matter, 
that is the sand showing discoloration, shall be removed. When the 
new sand is applied, the work should be done under competent engi- 
neering supervision in order that there may be no stratification be- 
tween the surface of the old sand and the new layer. 

The information available to the Department shows that at the 
time these filters were constructed the quantity of wastes discharged 
from this mill amounted to about 400,000 gallons per day, while in- 
formation as to the quantity of wastes at present discharged from 
these works indicates that the amount is much greater than formerly, 
probably as great as 700,000 gallons per day. Furthermore, the quan- 
tity of organic matter contained in the raw wastes applied to these 
filters at the present time is considerably greater than was the case at 
the time the filters were first used. 

Under the circumstances, it is obvious that these filters are of in- 
adequate area to provide properly for the purification of the quantity 
of wastes at present discharged from this mill, and it, is essential, in 
order to secure their proper purification, that an additional area of 
filters amounting to at least 3| acres shall be made available at the 
earliest practicable time. It is also very desirable that the suggestions 
made by your department as to lengthening the openings between the 
settling tanks be carried out in order to reduce the velocity of' flow 
near these openings and improve the sedimentation of these wastes. 
Your further suggestion as to the screening of these wastes is a very 
desirable one to adopt since experience has shown that by screening 
and sedimentation a very considerable quantity of organic matter can 
be removed from these wastes before they are carried to the filters. 

An examination of the underdrains in the northerly filter shows at 
the present time little evidence of clogging, but with the application 
of excessive quantities of wastes to the filters there is danger that the 
underdrains will eventually become clogged. 

It is recommended that the improvement of the filters and the other 
changes herein suggested be carried out at the earliest practicable 
time in order that serious danger of further injury to the present fiilters 
may be avoided. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 177 

Edgartown (North School). 

May S, 1915. 

To Mr. Fraxk W. Saunders, State Inspector of Buildings, New Beaford, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for advice a§ to the prac- 
ticability of disposing of the sewage of the North School, so called, in 
Edgartown, by means of cesspools, the Commissioner of Health has 
caused the location of the proposed school to be examined and has 
considered the information presented. 

The elevation of the ground water in the school yard is about 9.2 
feet below the surface of the ground at the present time, and the level 
of the ground water appears to be much the same over a considerable 
area in the vicinity of the school. The elevation of the floor of the 
compartment to be used for water closets is about 5.3 feet above the 
present level of the ground water. 

At the time of this examination, however, the elevation of the 
ground water was undoubtedly abnormally low, and there are indica- 
tions that at other times the ground water rises to a level within 3.5 
feet of the level of the floor on which the water closets are to be lo- 
cated. The discharge of the sewage from the water closets into the 
ground would, moreover, have a tendency to raise still further the 
ground water level. Under ordinary conditions, the ground water 
level would probably not rise sufficiently to reach the level of the 
basement, but it is not certain that at periods of high rainfall the 
ground water level would not rise to such a height as to interfere with 
the proper disposal of the sewage. By distributing the sewage from 
two or more cesspools with radiating pipes, it would be distributed 
over a wider area and a material raising of the ground water level 
might thus be avoided. While this plan might not operate satisfac- 
torily, the circumstances are such that there appears to be no better 
way at present of providing for the disposal of the sewage of this 
school. If the building could be raised somewhat, the probability of 
the success of the plan would be increased. If it is not practicable 
to raise the building and if objectionable conditions result from any 
rise in the ground water level, it may be necessary to pro\ade for 
lowering the level of the ground water by means of a drain laid to 
an outlet into tide water. 

In view of the circumstances, it is recommended that the level of 
the water closets be raised as much as practicable and the sewage 
spread over as wide an area as can be made available. If trouble 
should be experienced in the disposal of the sewage it will be neces- 



178 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

sary either to lower the level of the ground water by means of a drain 
to tide water or to provide a sewer to convey the sewage to some 
point where it can be disposed of without objection. 



Fall River. 



Maech 24, 1915. 



To the Watuppa Water Board, Fall River, Mass., Mr. R. F. Hatfenreffer, Jr., 

President. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you, 
through your consulting engineer, on Feb. 18, 1915, the following 
application for advice relative to a proposed plan for disposing of 
the sewage and wastes at the Fall River water works pumping station: 

By direction of Mr. R. F. Haffenxeffer, Jr., President of the Watuppa Water 
Board, Fall River, Mass., I am sending you herewith a copy of ray report and 
accompanying plan upon the matter of sewage disposal at the Fall River Pump- 
ing Station. 

It is the desire of the Watuppa Water Board that your department review the 
plan and recommendation made in the report and if satisfactory approve the 
same or make such comments thereon as seem desirable. 

The application states that there are in and about the pumping 
stations at the present time from 15 to 20 persons, including the 
family of the chief engineer, and that it is not expected that the 
number will exceed 25 persons for many years to come. Allowing 
50 gallons of sewage per capita, the total amount of sewage to be 
disposed of is estimated to be 1,250 gallons per day. 

Two schemes are presented for the disposal of the sewage, by one 
of which the sewage is to be collected in a steel tank 3 feet in diam- 
eter and 7 feet deep, to be located in the basement of the main pump- 
ing station. From this tank the sewage is to be pumped by an ejector, 
arranged for automatic operation, to a sand filter bed to be located 
about 200 feet from the main pumping station. The filter bed is to 
be 25 feet in diameter with an average depth of 3| feet of sand, and 
the effluent is to be discharged into the proposed intercepting drain 
now being constructed along the westerly shore of North Watuppa 
Pond. The total cost of this scheme is estimated at $1,830. 

The second plan provides for collecting the sewage in a tank as 
above, whence it will be pumped through a force main to the top of 
the Bedford Street hill, where the sewage will be discharged into an 
8-inch vitrified sewer, to be constructed in Bedford Street to a con- 
nection with an existing sewer at Eastern Avenue. The estimated 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 179 

cost of this plan is $3,910. The latter figure includes, however, the 
vitrified pipe sewer in Bedford Street costing about $1,100, which will 
eventually be useful for the sewerage of this street. 

The report also mentions certain other wastes requiring disposal at 
the pumping station, viz., (1) water blown from the boilers, (2) con- 
denser water from the pumps, and (3) a small amount of oily waste. 
It is proposed to discharge the water blown off from the boilers into 
the intercepting drain, and the condenser water from the pumps, after 
passing through certain oil traps, is also to be discharged into the 
intercepting drain. It is proposed to dispose of the oily waste, said 
to be small in amount and collected in a tank in the basement, into 
the ash heap in the rear of the building, while the sink waste is to 
be discharged into the intercepting drain. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the plan to be examined 
and has considered the information presented. The estimate of the 
quantity of sewage does not appear to be excessive and, in view of 
the desirability of disposing of sink wastes in connection with the 
sewage, it is likely that the quantity indicated may represent the 
average quantity of sewage requiring disposal continuously. With the 
size of the filter proposed, the rate of filtration would be about 111,000 
gallons per acre per day, and with such a rate, even with the most 
efficient care, there might be trouble in the operation of the filter. 

Considering the circumstances, it is advisable that the area of the 
filter be made at least as much as twice as great as proposed, and it 
may be found desirable to enlarge the area still further at no distant 
time in the future. 

In view of the probability that the proposed sewer in Bedford Street 
under the second plan would be useful for the sewerage of this street 
at no distant time, the difference in cost of the two plans suggested 
is not likely to be considerable. It would be preferable to avoid if 
possible the location of a sewage filter bed in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of your pumping station, and while the discharge of the effluent, 
if thoroughly purified at all times, into the intercepting drain would 
be permissible, this effluent will contain a large quantity of nitrates 
which would tend to maintain growths of organisms in the uncovered 
parts of the conduit and in the water of the South Pond in the neigh- 
borhood of the outlet. 

Considering all of the conditions, the Commissioner of Health is of 
the opinion that the discharge of the sewage into the Bedford Street 
sewer is the most efficient and satisfactory method of disposal to 
adopt. It is recommended that in providing for the disposal of the 
sewage by this plan, provision be made for discharging all of the sew- 



180 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

age, including that from sinks and bath tubs, into the Bedford Street 
sewer. The water blown off from the boilers is unpolluted, and its 
discharge into the intercepting drain appears to be an unobjectionable 
method of disposal for this waste. The condenser water, if freed from 
oil, can also be discharged into the intercepting conduit without ob- 
jection. The remaining small amount of oily waste, together with oil 
separated from the condenser water, should be disposed of in some 
suitable way where it will not affect either the water of the pond or 
the conduit. The oil should in any case of course be kept out of the 
sewage. 

FOXBOROUGH. 

Feb. 24, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Foxhorough, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has received from 
you the following application for the approval of certain plans of sew- 
age disposal in Foxborough: 

Will you consider the plans for sewage disposal on land North of Elm St. and 
Easterly of N. Y., N. H. & H. R.R. in Foxboro, to be submitted by J. J. Van- 
Valkenburgh, C. E., and advise us if you will approve the same. . . . 

The plan submitted with the application shows a proposed sewer 
extending northeasterly in Leonard Street from your present sewer 
to a point on the easterly side of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad, thence in a generally southerly direction in lands now 
owned, or the taking of which has been approved by this Department, 
to filter beds which it is proposed to construct on the northerly side 
of Elm Street from 300 to 700 feet east of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad. It is proposed to use these works for the puri- 
fication of the sewage from the present main sewer and such addi- 
tional sewage as may be discharged into the sewers of the town in 
the future until such time as the quantity of sewage shall equal the 
capacity of the filters indicated on the plan, which is estimated by 
your engineer to be about 180,000 gallons per day. 

In response to this application, the Public Health Council gave a 
hearing at its office. Room 143, State House, on Jan. 26, 1915, after 
notice by publication in newspapers circulating in Foxborough and 
notice to the authorities of the town of ^Mansfield. At this hearing 
objection was made by the authorities of Mansfield to the establish- 
ment of filters in the location proposed chiefly on account of the 
small size of the brook into which the effluent would discharge and 
the fear that this stream might be permanently polluted, thus in- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 181 

creasing the already objectionable conditions in the central portion 
of Mansfield due to the discharge of sewage and waste from that town 
into these ponds. It was stated that the town of Mansfield has al- 
ready under consideration plans for the construction of a system of 
sewerage to remove objectionable conditions from the waters within 
its limits and desires to avoid any danger of objectionable pollution 
of any stream which enters the ponds in the thickly settled portion 
of the town. 

Plans for the disposal of the sewage of Foxborough have been under 
consideration by the town for several years, and this Department has 
considered plans both for the temporary disposal of the sewage flow- 
ing from the present sewer of the town of Foxborough upon land near 
Elm Street and a general plan for the disposal of all of the sewage of 
the town upon an area near South Street mentioned at the hearing. 
In the latter case the effluent would enter the Wading River, which 
flows through the westerly part of Foxborough and Mansfield ulti- 
mately into the Taunton River. 

The taking of the lands near Elm Street for the temporary disposal 
of the sewage then being discharged from the sewer of the town of 
Foxborough was approved by the State Board of Health on May 1, 
1913, after a hearing. Subsequently on May 14, 1914, a sewerage 
committee of the town of Foxborough submitted the following applica- 
tion for further advice relative to the disposal of the sewage of the 
town: 

Having been appointed by the Town of Foxborough, a Committee to bring 
in at a special town meeting before June 1st necessary votes for action upon 
the sewerage disposal plan of Mr. J. J. VanValkenburgh of 1908 (Near Elm St.) 
we have, after investigating, not been able to convince ourselves that to adopt 
that plan, would not be short sighted and ultimately most expensive and un- 
satisfactory. We understand you approved the plan near Elm Street for a 
temporary proposition, and later as developed to attempt to make it more 
permanent. 

Anxious to get all possible light on the subject for ourselves, and to assist us 
in convincing others, we should be pleased if you would advise us your best 
judgment on the following: 

1. Would you approve such plans now? 

2. The least that can be done, taking present drain and caring for it alone, 
near Elm St. is estimated to cost $13,000.00. Would this not be wasteful expen- 
diture and short sighted, with an adequate disposal site at South Street per- 
mittmg an all gravity system, and enabling at an estimated expense of $60,000.00 
— serving all the central and Eastern part of the town and the State Hospital? 

3. The Elm Street disposal, being located as it is, so very near to the line of 
traffic — R. R., Trolley and Main Highway — the latter having electric light 



182 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

and water to the Mansfield line, would it not soon become objectionable and 
tend to prevent growth in this direction? 

4. If Elm Street should be adopted, how many years before the probabilities 
are that a change to such as the South Street disposal would be desirable or 
compulsory? 

We should be pleased to have your reply before May 20th if possible. 

The State Board of Health on May 22, 1914, after replying to 
certain specific questions, made the following recommendation: 

... In conclusion, the Board urges such action in the matter of sewerage in 
Foxborough as will prevent without further delay the objectionable conditions 
resulting from the very serious pollution of the west branch of the Rumford 
River by the sewage now discharged south of Leonard Street. This nuisance 
can be prevented by disposing of this sewage on filter beds near Elm Street but, 
so far as the Board can now judge, there seems to be no doubt that the most 
economical and desirable plan for the town of Foxborough to adopt in the be- 
ginning will be the plan which provides for the disposal of all of the sewage of the 
town upon the South Street area, thus allowing for the gradual extension of the 
sewerage system throughout the village. . . . 

A full copy of this reply is appended. 

It appears that there is a demand for the extension of sewerage in 
the village of Foxborough and that it is desirable that sewers be ex- 
tended there as soon as practicable, and if works should be constructed 
for the temporary disposal of the sewage of the present sewer and the 
use of the present sewer were restricted to the connections which have 
thus far been made therewith, the plan might operate to delay the 
necessary extension of sewerage facilities in other parts of the village. 
If, on the other hand, additional connections were made with the 
present system, the quantity of sewage requiring disposal in the valley 
of this brook near Elm Street would increase in the future. 

After further consideration of the plans and information presented 
to the Public Health Council, and in view of the representations made 
at the hearing, it appears to the Council inadvisable for the town of 
Foxborough to construct works for the disposal of sewage on the land 
near Elm Street in the valley of the stream leading to Mansfield, 
since it would probably be necessary within a few years to provide a 
larger area than your plans now contemplate for the disposal of the 
sewage. It appears that there is another area available for the dis- 
posal of the sewage of the town to which the sewage can be delivered 
without excessive cost and the use of which would be unlikely to be 
objectionable either to neighboring inhabitants or other communities. 

A comparison of the probable cost to the town of Foxborough, 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 183 

based on the estimates of cost of the two plans submitted at the 
hearing, of disposing of the sewage of the town for a period of ten 
years on the land near Elm Street, and subsequently constructing 
works for the disposal of all of the sewage on land near South Street, 
with the cost of delivering the sewage to the latter area in the begin- 
ning indicates that the annual cost to the town might be about the 
same in each case during that period. 

In view of the circumstances, the Council does not approve the 
construction of works for the disposal of the sewage of Foxborough 
on land near Elm Street as proposed in the application presented. 



Framingham, 

Jan. 9, 1915. 

To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, Fraviingham, Mass., Mr. F. E. Barrp:tTi 

Clerk. 

Gentlemen: — In answer to your verbal request for information 
relative to the operation of your sewage disposal works during the 
year 1914 and for suggestions as to improvements to be undertaken 
during 1915, it appears from looking over the analyses of samples of 
sewage and effluent collected during 1914 that there has been a falling 
off in the efficiency of the purification. Inspections of the filters have 
shown that sewage remains, sometimes for long periods, on the sur- 
faces of the beds, a condition which is due in part, at least, to the 
impervious character of the surface material, and probably also in 
part to lack of proper underdrainage; and a very objectionable odor 
is noticeable frequently in the vicinity of the beds. These objection- 
able conditions appear to be increasing from year to year. 

This Department has recommended methods of improving the con- 
dition of these filters on several occasions, and, while the work of 
carrying out several of these recommendations has been begun, es- 
pecially in providing a more even distribution of the sewage over the 
filter beds, much remains to be done to bring the filters into a satis- 
factory condition. From the records kept of the distribution of the 
sewage and from inspection it appears that a large part of the sewage 
has been discharged, of late, onto beds recently reconstructed, though 
a greater number of the beds has been used each day than has been 
the case in previous years. It is, however, impossible to distribute 
the sewage properly over the filters until the distribution pipes lead- 
ing to the various filters are enlarged, as has been recommended, and 
this is particularly necessary now that an additional and larger force 
main has been installed. 



184 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Recommendations made on various occasions by this Department, 
relative to discharging heavy concentrated sewage pumped from the 
bottom of the reservoir during the latter part of the period of pump- 
ing and early in the following period of pumping onto two or three 
of the more isolated beds, have not been followed; but, instead, this 
concentrated sewage, containing great quantities of suspended matter, 
has been discharged onto a large number of the beds, thereby having 
a tendency to decrease their efficiency. 

During the past year some of the fine material has been removed 
from certain of the beds and additional underdrains have been in- 
stalled. This work should be completed as soon as possible and all of 
the filters brought into a condition of highest practicable efficiency. 

It is now evident that the better distribution of the sewage and the 
work already undertaken will not result in a material improvement 
in the capacity of the filters unless the other recommendations already 
made on several occasions are carried out. 

The town of Framingham is growing very rapidly and the quantity 
and strength of the sewage has probably increased as rapidly as in 
any other town in the State, but the capacity of the disposal works 
has not been materially increased. An increase in capacity is needed 
and further increase will be required when sewers now being planned 
are put into use. The town is again advised to carry out to comple- 
tion under competent engineering supervision the recommendations 
made by the State Board of Health under date of Feb. 2, 1914, which 
are as follows: 

. . . The Board recommends that the filters be carefully examined and so 
much of the surface soil as is heavily impregnated with organic matter removed. 

The Board renews its recommendations relative to the use of all of the filter 
beds so far as possible each day and that the distribution pipes be enlarged 
where necessary in order that the entire quantity may be discharged onto any 
one or two beds at a time. The heavy sewage pumped from the bottom of the 
reservoir toward the end of the pumping and that discharged from the force 
main early in the morning should be disposed of regularly upon filters especially 
set apart for that purpose and located as far as possible from the highways. 
The beds best suited to this purpose appear to be beds 15, 16 and B, and if these 
filters are used for this purpose they will have a tendency to increase the effective- 
ness of the remaining filters for the disposal of the ordinary sewage. 

It is also important to keep out of the sewers all manufacturing waste of such 
character as tends to unreasonable clogging of the filter beds. At one of the 
factories at which settling tanks have been provided for the removal of objec- 
tionable matters before the discharge of these wastes into the sewers, the Board 
is informed that settling tanks have not been properly maintained and that, in 
consequence, objectionable matter finds its way into the sewers. The settling 



No. 34.] ADWCE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 185 

tanks should be inspected by your department at frequent intervals and if they 
are not kept in proper condition for the most efficient sedimentation, the further 
discharge of these wastes into the sewers should be prevented. 

In consequence of the growth of the towTi and the increase in the quantity of 
sewage, it is essential to make a material improvement and enlargement in the 
facilities for purifying the sewage. The inefficiency of these works for the last 
two years cannot contuiue without causing serious damage and possible injury 
to the public health, and the Board recommends that the improvements in the 
works herein suggested be carried out to completion at the earliest practicable 
time in the coming spring. 

Your attention is also called to the provisions of chapter 433 of the 
Acts of the year 1909, entitled "An Act to provide for the Proper 
Maintenance and Enlargement of Works for the Treatment or Puri- 
fication of Sewage." 

JuxE 4, 191.5. 

To the Joint Committee on Sewerage Extension of the Town of Framingham, Mass., 
Mr. Arthxik C. Winch, Secretary. 

Gextlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 5, 1915, an application for the approval of an extension of the 
sewerage system of the town of Framingham to serve the villages of 
Framingham Centre and Saxonville, accompanied by plans of the pro- 
posed works prepared by the town engineer, Mr. J. J. VanValken- 
burgh, C.E. 

The plans provide for the construction of a main sewer in the valley 
of the Sudbury River, beginning at a point near Franklin Street south 
of Maple Street and extending through the valley of the river and 
across the stream at several points, to a proposed reservoir and pump- 
ing station to be located near the northerly bank of the river west of 
Elm Street in Saxonville, whence the sewage is to be pumped to the 
present filtration area at Eastern Avenue and Speen Street in the 
town of Natick, where the sewage will be purified in connection with 
the sewage of the main sewerage system of the town. 

The main sewer will be 15 inches in diameter at its upper end and 
will then gradually increase to a point below Framingham Centre, 
from which point to the pumping station the diameter of the sewer 
will be 20 inches. Owing to the fact that the sewer wuU be laid in the 
immediate neighborhood, and in places beneath the bed, of the Sud- 
bury River, it is proposed to construct the main sewer of iron pipe 
laid like a water pipe to prevent the entrance of ground water. At 
Saxonville the collecting basin and pumping station are designed and 
so located as to provide for receiving the sewage from all of the thickly 
settled portions of that village at the present time, including such 



186 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

portion of the sewage and waste from the mills as it may be deemed 
necessary or desirable to admit to the sewers. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be exam- 
ined by the engineer of the Department and has considered the plans 
and information presented. The plan supersedes the former plans of 
separate pumping stations at Framingham Centre and Saxonville and 
is undoubtedly a great improvement over those plans, since it is likely 
not only to provide adequate sewerage for these villages at less ex- 
pense than by a separate system for each village but will also provide 
sewerage for other territory which may be developed in the future 
without the construction of separate works. The location of the pro- 
posed reservoir and pumping station at Saxonville is a satisfactory one 
and, if properly constructed and operated, they will not be objection- 
able in the neighborhood. 

The plans submitted do not show additional filter beds, which will 
be required for the disposal of the sewage of Framingham Centre and 
Saxonville when sewers have been introduced into these villages. The 
Department is informed, however, that it is the intention of the town 
to construct about four acres of additional filter beds, increasing the 
total filtration area of the town to 24.75 acres. This addition will 
doubtless be adequate to provide for the extra sewage that is likely 
to be brought to the filtration area in the beginning by the construc- 
tion of sewers in these villages, but, after the sewers have come into 
general use, additional filters are likely to be required, and, in case 
any of the wastes from the Saxonville Mills are taken into the system, 
the filters should be enlarged adequately for all requirements before 
these wastes are received into the sewers. 

In the opinion of the Department, the system proposed is an efiicient 
and satisfactory method of collecting and disposing of the sewage of 
the villages of Framingham Centre and Saxonville and, with the en- 
largement of the works suggested, the filtration works will be adequate 
when the improvements now being m^de there are completed to pro- 
vide satisfactorily for the efficient purification of all the sewage of 
the town. It will be necessary, however, to enlarge the filtration 
works from time to time to meet the increasing quantity of sewage 
that is likely to be received into the system as the sewers in the new 
areas come into general use. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 187 

Gardner (Proposed Isolation Hospital). 

May 7, 1915. 

To the Hospital Building Committee, Gardner, Mass., Mr. Fkank C. Dunn, Acting 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of April 10, 1915, the 
Commissioner of Health has caused an examination to be made of 
the soil in certain test pits in locations available for the disposal of 
the sewage of the proposed isolation hospital, the results of which 
show that the material is too fine for the proper disposal of sewage. 

Judging from the results of these tests, it will be impracticable to 
dispose of the sewage of the hospital by means of cesspools, and the 
best practicable plan will be to construct a filter bed about 50 feet 
square, upon which the sewage can be delivered in pipes laid about 
one foot beneath the surface. It will be advisable to build a tank to 
receive the sewage, so located that the overflow from this tank will 
discharge into the sub-surface distribution pipes on the filter. The 
filter should be at least 5 feet in depth and suitably underdrained, 
and with proper care the underdrainage can be discharged into a 
stream not used as a source of water supply. Provision for the proper 
disposal of sludge from the tank should be provided, and it is im- 
portant that the filter be designed and constructed under the super- 
vision of some one experienced in such work. 

Aug. 24, 1915. 

To the Hospital Building Committee, Gardner, Mass., Mr. Frank C. Dunn, Acting 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, a further examination 
was made early in the present summer of the conditions about the 
proposed isolation hospital in Gardner in order to determine the prac- 
ticability of disposing of the sewage of that institution temporarily by 
means of cesspools on the grounds. 

The results of the examination indicate that it will probably be 
practicable in the beginning to dispose of the sewage without creating 
objectionable conditions by discharging it into cesspools constructed 
along the southeasterly side of the hill on which the hospital is situ- 
ated. By this plan the sewage will be first received in a tank and 
thence discharged through a series of cesspools placed about 25 feet 
apart, to which the sewage would flow in pipes laid with open joints 
in trenches filled with coarse material. The cesspools should be ap- 
proximately the same level following the contour of the hill, or at 



188 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

least with only a slight slope from one cesspool to the next. It is 
probable that with two, or at most three, cesspools, the sewage can 
be cared for satisfactorily in the beginning. The trenches between 
the cesspools should be at least 3 feet in deptH, filled with broken 
stone, and with a pipe 6 inches in diameter laid with its bottom at a 
level approximately 18 inches below the surface of the trench. It 
will be practicable, if necessary, to lay additional trenches radiating 
from the last cesspool along the side of the hill, if further extension 
is found necessary. 

By carrying out this plan it is probable that the sewage can be 
cared for without creating objectionable conditions, especially while the 
region southeast of the institution remains uninhabited as at the pres- 
ent time. Whenever the disposal of the sewage by this plan becomes 
unsatisfactory, a filter bed can be provided as advised in a previous 
communication, unless it shall be found practicable to dispose of the 
sewage at that time satisfactorily in some other way. 



Gardnek (Gardner State Colony). 

July 13, 1915. 
To the State Board of Insanity, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to a proposed system of sewage disposal 
for the Gardner Cottages, so called, of the Gardner State Colony and 
has examined the plans prepared by Mr. J. J. VanValkenburgh pre- 
sented therewith. 

The plans are understood to provide only for the disposal of the 
sewage from the Gardner Cottages, so called, located on the northerly 
side of one of the highways leading from Gardner to South Ashburn- 
ham and containing at the present time a total number of patients 
and attendants amounting to 133. The plans provide for disposing 
of the sewage by intermittent filtration upon filters to be constructed 
on low ground in the valley of a small brook southwest of the high- 
way which passes the cottages. The soil in this location is not adapted 
to the purification of the sewage by intermittent filtration and the 
filters are to be constructed artificially of sand and gravel to be 
brought to this location from the railroad. The works are to consist 
of four filter beds each 25 feet by 50 feet and a sludge bed 25 feet by 
40 feet, all to be underdrained by a 6-inch main underdrain laid 
through each row of beds with 3-incli lateral underdrains placed 10 
feet apart, the depth of material over the underdrains being about 
4.5 feet. It is estimated from the quantity of water used at the cot- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 189 

tages that the quantity of sewage will amount to about 8,000 gallons 
per day, and with this quantity the rate of filtration would be about 
70,000 gallons per acre per day. The sewage will be discharged to the 
filters by gravity after first passing through a sludge tank to a flush 
tank holding about a day's flow of sewage, from which the discharge 
to the filters will be automatic. 

The plans as a whole provide a practicable and satisfactory method 
of disposing of the sewage of this group of buildings belonging to the 
Gardner State Colony. 

The size of the filters as proposed on the plans presented is adequate 
for the purification of the present quantity of sewage if the filters are 
properly operated and receive the necessary care, but there would be 
considerable advantage in the maintenance of the filters if a somewhat 
larger area were provided in the beginning, and it is recommended 
that the area be made somewhat larger than proposed, if practicable, 
when the works are first constructed. 

The operation of the filters could probably be carried on satisfac- 
torily for several years at least with a somewhat smaller dosing tank 
than is proposed, and the size of this tank could be reduced to 6,000 
gallons without serious objection since its capacity could be readily 
enlarged at a later time if an enlargement should be found desirable. 

The effluent from these filters will be discharged into a stream flow- 
ing through the grounds of the colony, and it will be essential, in 
order to maintain the stream in proper sanitary condition, that the 
filters shall be properly maintained at all times and that the discharge 
of any crude or imperfectly purified sewage into this brook shall be 
prevented. 

Havekhill. 

Jan. 18, 1915. 
To Hon. Albert L. Bartlett, Mayor of Haverhill, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The Commissioner of Health has considered the ap- 
plication of the City Engineer, Mr. Louis C. Lawton, for advice rela- 
tive to a proposed sewerage system in Groveland Street near the 
Groveland Bridge in Haverhill and has examined the plan presented 
therewith. The plan provides for constructing a sewer designed to 
carry both the sewage and surface water in Groveland Street and ad- 
jacent streets from Keeley Street to an outlet into the Merrimack 
River at Groveland Bridge. The main sewer will have a diameter 
of 24 inches to the bank of the river, from which point a 12-inch 
cast-iron pipe is to be laid beneath the bottom to an outlet in the 
river about 80 feet from shore and 4.25 feet below mean low water. 



190 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It is proposed to provide an overflow for the discharge of sewage and 
storm water at times of storm from a manhole near the bank of the 
river at about the level of high water. 

An examination of the locality shows that the point at which it is 
proposed to locate the outlet is one of the original city landings, which 
does not appear to be used to any great extent at the present time, 
but there are a coal pocket and pier below the outlet which interfere 
with the flow of the river at this point, and it is important that the 
dry-weather flow of sewage should be carried to a point where there 
is a good current at all times. 

The plan in general is a satisfactory one for the collection and dis- 
posal of the sewage from the district in question under the existing 
circumstances, but in order to insure the discharge of the dry-weather 
flow of sewage into a good current at all times, it is advisable to ex- 
tend the outlet somewhat farther than shown on the plan submitted. 
If carried tb a point about 50 feet beyond the outlet indicated, or 130 
feet from shore, the outlet is likely to be a satisfactory one at all 
times. 

The plan of discharging the mingled sewage and storm water in 
excess of the capacity of the 12-inch pipe through an overflow at the 
bank of the river appears to be the best that it is practicable to adopt. 
Overflows are not likely 'to be frequent, and objectionable conditions 
are unlikely to result from this plan of disposing of an excessive flow 
at times of storms. It is suggested, however, that, if practicable, the 
main 24-inch sewer above the outlet be constructed with its invert at 
the lower end at or above grade 6.87, that is about the level of mean 
high water, so that water would not ordinarily back into the sewer. 

With the modifications suggested, the plan, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner, is a satisfactory one to adopt at the present time. 



March 22, 1915. 
To Hon. Albert L. Bartlett, Mayor of Haverhill, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
Feb. IS, 1915, through Mr. Louis C. Lawton, City Engineer, an ap- 
plication for advice as to a proposed outlet for the disposal of the 
dry-weather flow of the Main Street sewer in the Bradford district, 
accompanied by a plan showing the proposed works. The plan pro- 
vides for laying a 16-inch iron pipe from a point a short distance back 
of the present outlet of the sewer to a point of discharge in the Mer- 
rimack River about 175 feet from the southerly abutment of the Main 
Street bridge. According to the plan, the depth of water over the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO\A^^S. 191 

pipe at the location of the proposed outlet at low tide will be 2.75 
feet. 

The proposed extension is intended to convey the dry-weather flow 
of sewage to an outlet in the river, allowing the mingled sewage and 
storm water flowing at times of rain in excess of the capacity of the 
submerged pipe to discharge at the present outlet near the bank of 
the river. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
and has considered the plan presented. The proposed pipe line is of 
adequate capacity for conveying the dry-weather flow of sewage, to- 
gether with a considerable portion of the water flowing at times of 
storms, to the outlet in the river, whence the sewage is unlikely to 
return to cause the fouling of the banks. 

The depth of water at the proposed outlet is not great since the 
main channel of the river is considerably farther to the north and it 
would be desirable to extend the sewer to deeper water but, consider- 
ing the circumstances, the outlet is a permissible one, and its con- 
struction will relieve the very objectionable nuisance now caused by 
this sewer outlet. The main sewer just above the outlet is laid on 
a steep grade, and it is recommended that the invert of this sewer 
near the lower end be raised in such a way as to form a suiGBcient dam 
to insure the diversion of the entire dry-weather flow into the pro- 
posed extension at all times. Danger of clogging at the junction of 
the pipe with the main sewer may be avoided if the shape of the 
main sewer in this section is changed somewhat so as to decrease the 
velocity of flow past the end of the submerged pipe. 

It is advisable also that the sharp angle shown in the main outlet 
pipe beneath the abutment be avoided so far as practicable by the use 
of a curved pipe at this point, which will tend to reduce danger of clog- 
ging. It is recommended that the pipe be laid below the bed of the 
river. 

The plan with the modifications suggested herein will provide satis- 
factorily for relief from the very serious nuisance now existing at this 
sewer outlet. 

July 15, 1915. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Haverhill, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your communication relative to the construction of a septic cesspool, 
so called, at the Bradford Pumping Station and has caused the locality 
to be examined by one of its engineers. 

The plan apparently pro\-ides for the disposal of the sewage from 



192 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the engineer's house alone, and it appears that the location for a 
septic tank, so called, and a pipe distribution system for the disposal 
of the eflBuent from the tank has been selected on the westerly side of 
the house at a point about 75 feet from the shore of Johnson's Pond. 

It is proposed, if this method of disposal is installed, to allow the 
sewage to filter through the ground to the pond instead of removing 
it from the neighborhood, as it is understood is now done about four 
times each year. The Department is not informed as to the character 
of the soil or the depth to ground water, though apparently the soil 
in this region is quite coarse and porous, judging from surface indica- 
tions, and the ground water level is probably low. 

In the opinion of the Department, the safest plan of disposing of 
the sewage from this pumping station is to remove it from the water- 
shed, as is done at the present time, using such methods of removal 
as will avoid polluting the ground within the watershed. It is prob- 
able, however, that, if the soil is porous and the depth to ground 
water considerable, the sewage could be purified effectively by dis- 
charging it from the proposed new cesspool into pipes laid with open 
joints 2 or 3 feet below the level of the ground. If so placed that the 
cesspool itself and the radiating drains were all more than 50 feet 
from the pond, it would comply with the rules for the protection of 
the water supply. 

It is recommended that, before the construction of these works is 
begun, a test of the ground be made, either by sinking tubular wells 
or a deep pit, to obtain information as to the character of the soil and 
depth to ground water. 

The Department will be pleased to give you further advice in this 
matter upon your request when the results of the further tests sug- 
gested are available. ! 

Sept. 21, 1915. 
To Hon. Albert L. Bartlett, Mayor of Haverhill, Mass. 

Dear Sie: — The State Department of Health received through 
Louis C. Lawton, City Engineer, on Aug. 27, 1915, the following ap- 
plication for advice relative to changing the location of the proposed 
sewer around Lake Saltonstall in the city of Haverhill. 

I hereby make application to you for advice relative to changing the aline- 
ment of a portion of the proposed sev/er around Lake Saltonstall, this city. 
The general plan of this sewer was approved by the board in 1899. By the 
proposed change a portion of the sewer will pass through the bottom of the 
lake. This will be an improvement upon both the alinement and the grade 
and also reduce the cost of construction. The sewer will be constructed of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 193 

double strength vitrified pipe thoroughly imbedded in and surrounded by Port- 
land cement concrete. Under separate cover I am sending plans and profile 
showing the proposed construction. 

The plans accompanying the application show the location of the 
sewer, a part of which is beneath an arm of Lake Saltonstall near its 
southeasterly end not far from the present intake of the water works. 
The proposed sewer as it enters the Lake Saltonstall watershed is to 
be 15 inches in diameter, laid on a grade of .167 per cent., and will 
have a capacity of about 1,650,000 gallons per day. Farther down, 
the size of the sewer is to be enlarged to 24 inches in diameter, and 
it is to be laid on grades varying from .167 to .66 per cent. It is 
proposed to construct the sewer throughout of double strength vitri- 
fied pipe, the portion beneath the lake to be embedded in and sur- 
rounded by Portland cement concrete. 

The State Department of Health has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers and has considered the plans and 
information submitted. The proposed sewer will have an outlet into 
the Mill Street sewer, which slopes rapidly to the Merrimack River, 
and if due care is taken not to introduce so great a quantity of storm 
water as to cause a surcharging of the sewer, there should be no over- 
flow of sewage from the sewer within the watershed of the lake. It 
is of the greatest importance, however, that this sewer shall be main- 
tained in proper condition, and if danger of surcharging or overflow 
of sewage ever appears, the use of Lake Saltonstall as a source of / 
water supply should at once be discontinued. It is recommended that 
the portion of the sewer beneath the lake and for 50 feet on either 
side be laid of cast iron pipe with lead joints, constructed after the 
manner of a water pipe, and that it be thoroughly tested for the dis- 
covery of leaks before its use as a sewer is begun. 

Lake Saltonstall is already exposed to considerable danger of pol- 
lution from the population dwelling within its watershed and from 
visitors to the shores of the lake, and the source is not, under present 
conditions, a desirable one from which to take water for domestic pur- 
poses on account of its exposure to danger of pollution, though up to 
the present time efficient inspection has prevented serious injury to 
the quality of the water. The danger of serious pollution of this lake 
will increase as the population in its neighborhood becomes greater, 
and more thorough restriction of access to the lake is desirable in 
order to prevent danger of serious pollution of the water. If there 
should be a considerable further increase in the population within the 
watershed of the lake, this source is likely to become an unsafe one 



194 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

from which to take water for domestic purposes, unless the water is 
filtered or treated in such a way as to remove the effects of pollution. 

The construction of the proposed sewer within the watershed, if 
carried out as proposed with the modifications herein suggested, will 
afford an additional protection to this water supply, provided the sewer 
is maintained at all times in proper working order. 

In the colirse of construction of the proposed sewer it will be essen- 
tial to introduce considerable numbers of laborers and teams into the 
watershed of this water supply, and it is recommended that the use 
of the lake as a source of water supply be discontinued before con- 
struction is begun and that the lake be not again used as a source of 
water supply until a period of at least two months has elapsed after 
the work of constructing the sewer has been completed and all refuse 
resulting from construction has been removed. 

Nov. 9, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Haverhill, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request, the State Department 
of Health has examined the plans submitted of a proposed tank and 
filter to be used for the disposal of the sewage at the engineer's house 
at Johnson's Pond and has caused a sample of the soil at the location 
of the proposed works to be analyzed. 

The plan provides for constructing a tank 4 feet by 7 feet in plan 
and 6 feet in depth inside, having a capacity of about 1,000 gallons, 
into which the sewage will be received and from which it will flow to a 
trench 15 feet long, 4 feet wide and 4 feet deep to be filled with broken 
stone and covered with natural soil to a depth of about one foot. The 
effluent will discharge into the broken stone in the trench through 
the loose joints of a tile pipe laid along the top of the layer of stone. 

An analysis of the soil at the location of the proposed trench indi- 
cates that it is quite fine but that it will probably absorb a consider- 
able quantity of sewage which will filter gradually through the ground 
toward the pond. 

The Department has caused the locality to be examined by one of 
its engineers and has considered the plans and information presented 
therewith. Considering the size of the cesspool and the proposed 
trench, and in view of the character of the soil about the trench, it 
is probable that by this plan the sewage from the engineer's house 
can be disposed of without objection or danger of serious pollution 
of the pond for a considerable time in the future. How long a time 
the plan would operate satisfactorily would depend to a considerable 
extent on the quantity of sewage discharged from the dwelling and 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 195 

cannot be estimated definitely. It is probable that in time th,e trench 
of broken stone would become clogged, and it would then be neces- 
sary to remove and thoroughly clean the material and trench in order 
to secure effective disposal of the sewage. 

As stated in a previous communication, the Department is of the 
opinion that the safest plan of disposing of the sewage from the pump- 
ing station and engineer's house is to remove it from the watershed 
as at the present time, using such methods as will avoid polluting 
the ground within the watershed. The plan now proposed, however, 
will probably provide for the disposal of the sewage without danger 
of serious pollution of the pond for a considerable time in the future. 

In view of the fact that the buildings are located near the shore of 
the pond beside the intake, it will be essential that the operation of 
these sewage disposal works be carefully inspected at frequent inter- 
vals, and if any signs are found that unpurified sewage is finding its 
way to the surface of the ground in the neighborhood, the use of the 
works should be discontinued at once and the sewage carted directly 
from the tank to a point outside the watershed. It will be essential 
in any case to note the condition of the tank from time to time and 
the accumulation of sediment therein and to clean out and remove 
this sediment at such intervals as may be necessary. 

Under the circumstances, it is advisable to retain the present tank 
for use in case the new system requires cleaning or for any other 
emergency. , 

HoPEDALE (Draper Company). 

To the Draper Company, Hopedale, Mass. ' 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 29, 1915, through your engineers, Messrs. Metcalf & Eddy 
of Boston, an application for the approval of certain changes and 
improvements in the filtration area used for the disposal of the sew- 
age of the town which are outlined in the communication of your 
engineers as follows: 

Bed No. 1. — Raise inlet pipe approximately 6 inches and add 6 inches in 
depth of new sand. 

Bed No. 2. — Lower the lateral drains and main collector to secure the full 
benefit of the filtering material now in place. This may necessitate lowering 
the main drain through Bed No. 1, or laying a new drain through this bed. 

Raise inlet pipe approximately 3 inches and add 6" in depth of new sand. 

Bed No. 3. — Remove all sand and excavate enough material to allow a 
minimum depth of 2^ feet of sand. Put in new underdrains and main collector, 
as per M. & E. Plan No. 3099, D-580. 



196 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

'Bed No. 4. — Reconstruct in a manner similar to No. 3, as per plan. The 
sand and gravel in Beds Nos. 3 and 4 will be utilized in the reconstruction so 
far as practicable and the waste material will be used for filling, in preparation 
for the construction of the proposed new filter bed No. 8. 

Bed No. 5. — Abandon the use of this bed for the present, connecting the inlet 
pipe with the distributor on Bed No. 6. 

Bed No. 6. — Pro\dde two lines of underdrains, connecting with the main 
drain from Beds Nos. 1 and 2. This bed is to be reserved for emergency use at 
times of high sewage flow, or when one or more beds are temporarily out of 
use. 

Bed No. 7. — Add approximately 6 inches in depth of new sand. 

Bed No. 8. — (Proposed new bed.) Strip all loam and fill to proper sub-grade, 
where necessary, with waste material from beds Nos. 3 and 4. Lay new drains 
as per plan. Build necessary dikes. Bring to proper grade with sand. 

A manhole is to be built as shown on plan and gates provided to control the 
flow onto No. 4 or No. 8. A box distributor is to be provided for this bed, similar 
to those on the other beds. 

Repairs on Distributors. — The present box distributors are to be repaired or 
replaced, if necessary. Special care will be taken to have these distributors set 
level, as well as to see that the surface of each bed is made as nearly level as 
practicable. 

Sand Supply. — The Draper Company has at their sand pits a large supply 
of sand of excellent quality. 

The application is accompanied by a general plan of the filtration 
area showing the proposed new works. It appears that the present 
filtration works of the Draper Company, which dispose of the sew- 
age of the town of Hopedale, consist of seven filters having a net 
area of 3.29 acres. The material of which these filters are composed 
is very variable in character, some of it being very fine and nearly 
impervious to water. The area is underdrained, but the underdrains 
in some of the beds are very shallow and in general do not average, 
according to the information presented, naore than 3 feet in depth. 
The efficiency of these filters is low and it appears that they have 
been incapable at times of providing for the disposal of all of the 
sewage discharged from the town, the quantity of which averaged in 
1914 about 144,000 gallons per day with a maximum flow in the 
month of April of about 228,000 gallons per day. 

The plans presented provide for raising the distribution pipes from 
which sewage is applied to the filters, lowering the underdrains, re- 
moving some of the poor material, and providing underdrainage having 
a mean depth of between 2| and 3 feet. The sand which it is pro- 
posed to use is to be hauled from a sand bank about f of a mile dis- 
tant. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 197 

The State Department of Health has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers and has considered the plans and 
information presented therewith. In view of the fact that the present 
filters do not appear to be capable of caring for all of the sewage at 
all times, it is very important that they be enlarged and improved at 
the earUest practicable time. The plans now proposed provide for 
increasing the area by the construction of an additional filter and for 
improving the underdrainage so that the depth of sand over the 
underdrains will be at a minimum of 2.5 feet and will average 3 
feet or more. 

Examinations of samples of the sand from the sand bank from which 
it is proposed to take the material for the improvement of the present 
filters and for the construction of the proposed new filter show that, 
while this material is quite variable in character, some of it being 
quite fine, material of good quality for the purpose can be obtained 
from this location. By using the best of the available material, sand 
of excellent quality for sewage purification can be obtained from the 
location indicated. 

With the improvements proposed and the construction of the addi- 
tional filter, the area available for the purification of sewage will be 
about 3.79 acres and the average rate of operation, judging from the 
measurements of 1914, will be about 38,000 gallons per acre per day, 
and the rate during the month of maximum flow 60,000 gallons per 
acre per day. 

With an average rate no greater than this, an eSluent can be ob- 
tained from these works which can be discharged into the Mill River 
without danger of creating objectionable conditions. It is doubtful 
whether a much higher rate can be maintained with these filters, 
however, than is here indicated, and if the average quantity of sew- 
age delivered to the works shall increase materially, a further addi- 
tion to the works should be made. 

With the improvements proposed, provided sand of the best quality 
is used and provided the sewage is distributed over as much of the 
area as possible each day, these, works will be capable of purifying 
as efficiently as is necessary at the present time all of the sewage now 
discharged at these filters, and the Department approves the plans 
presented. 



198 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Huntington. 

Aug. 7, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Huntington, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to a proposed system of drainage and 
sewerage for the village of Huntington and the plans submitted there- 
with through your engineer, and has caused the locality to be exam- 
ined by the engineer of the Department. 

The plans provide for utilizing the present drains, four of which 
discharge into the west branch of the Westfield River, — two on the 
easterly side and two on the westerly side of the stream, — and the 
other into the east branch of the Westfield River at East Main Street 
a short distance above the dam. In addition to these drains it is 
proposed to construct three new outlets, one into the millpond on the 
east branch of the Westfield River opposite the junction of East Main 
and Crescent streets, and the other two into the west branch on its 
westerly side. The most important of these outlets will be 24 inches 
in diameter and will receive the drainage and sewage from the greater 
part of that portion of the village lying west of the west branch. 
This outlet is to be located about 500 feet below the Main Street 
bridge and well below the thickly settled portion of the village. The 
other proposed outlet into the west branch is to be 10 inches in diam- 
eter and is to be located about 475 feet below the dam above the 
woolen mill. 

There does not seem likely to be any objection to the discharge of 
sewage and drainage from the village of Huntington into the east 
and west branches of the Westfield River as now proposed, provided 
that the outlets of the drains are so located that the discharge will 
take place at all times below low water in the river. This will ap- 
parently be practicable without serious diflSculty in the case of all 
the drains except the proposed 10-inch drain above the woolen mill. 
In dry weather most of the water of the river will be discharged 
through the canal to the woolen mill and there will be comparatively 
little water at times to dilute the sewage from this outlet, but the 
quantity of sewage to be discharged here in the beginning will be 
very small and there are no dwellings at present in the immediate 
vicinity of the river in this location. If this drain should give trouble 
in the futiu-e the outlet can be extended if necessary to some point 
farther down stream. 

The flow of the Westfield River at the present time is ample for 
the prompt and effective dilution of all of the sewage likely to be 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 199 

discharged from the proposed drainage system in Huntington. The 
plan shows, however, a location for a disposal works to which the 
sewage can be conveyed for treatment if at any future time the dis- 
charge of the sewage into the river should create objectionable con- 
ditions. 

In view of the circumstances, the Department is of the opinion 
that the discharge of the sewage into the river without treatment is 
a reasonable method for disposing of the sewage at the present time, 
and is recommended with the understanding that the sewage shall 
be removed from the river and purified or subjected to such form of 
treatment as may seem desirable whenever such treatment is recom- 
mended by this Department. 

Lakeville (Lakeville State Sanatorium). 

Oct. 15, 1915. 

To the Lakeville State Sanatorium, Lakeville, Mass., Sumner Coolidge, M.D., 

Superintendent. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for advice as to the condition of the present system 
of sewage disposal of the Lakeville State Sanatorium and as to the 
advisability of securing additional land for the disposal of sewage and 
has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers. 

It appears that the total number of patients and attendants at this 
institution at the present time is approximately 360 and that the 
quantity of sewage requiring disposal is probably from 30,000 to 
40,000 gallons per day. 

The sewage from the buildings is at present discharged into series 
of from three to five cesspools constructed for each of the various 
buildings. After passing through these cesspools the sewage is dis- 
charged intermittently into trenches from 3^ to 5 feet in depth filled 
with coarse stone, whence it filters into the ground. The soil about 
these trenches is composed for the most part of very fine sand, with 
coarser material in some places and clay in others. 

By this method it has been practicable up to the present time to 
dispose of the sewage of the institution without creating seriously 
objectionable conditions, but the conditions are such that it will prob- 
ably soon be necessary to provide additional drains or to dig up, 
clean and relay the drains now in use. The cesspools and distribu- 
tion drains are located in the immediate neighborhood of the insti- 
tution buildings, and there are indications that the water supply of 
the institution, taken from wells not far from the buildings, is be- 



200 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

coming affected by the discharge of sewage into the ground in their 
neighborhood. Considering the circumstances, it is advisable that 
adequate provision be made for the disposal of all of the sewage of 
the institution upon suitable filter beds at the earliest practicable 

time. 

In the course of this investigation, the Department was informed 
that plans are being made for securing an area of about 96 acres of 
land southeast of the institution for dairy purposes, and it appears 
to be practicable to use a very small part of this area for the disposal 
of sewage. The results of an examination show that filter beds can 
be located on this area at a level of 25 feet or more below the present 
cesspools and that most, if not all, of the sewage can be conveyed to 
this area by gravity. Much of the soil exposed in two test pits in 
this area appears to be well suited for the purification of sewage by 
intermittent filtration, and it is probable that, if a sufficient area — 
as much as 2 acres — were provided, all of the sewage from the insti- 
tution could be purified thereon in a more satisfactory way than will 
be practicable by the continued use of the present works. 

If it is decided to use the lands about the proposed new sewage 
disposal area for dairy purposes, it will be essential to fence the dis- 
posal area adequately and to convey the effluent in a pipe line to 
some point where it is unlikely to be used for drinking or any other 
purpose. 

The Department recommends that definite plans for the purifica- 
tion of the sewage of the institution be prepared at the earliest prac- 
ticable time, and as soon as such plans are available, the Department 
will give you further advice relative thereto, if you so request. 



Leicestee. 

Nov. 12, 1915. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Leicester, Mass., Mr. H. O. Smith, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for approval by this 
Department of the discharge of ground water from the underdrain 
of the sewerage system of the Leicester Water Supply District into 
a small brook at the point where it is crossed by Pine Street south- 
west of the village of Leicester, the State Department of Health has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples 
of the water flowing from the underdrain to be analyzed. 

The results of the most recent analyses show that the water flow- 
ing from the underdrain at the present time is practically clear, color- 
less and free from objectionable odor and that it contains no more 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^^^S. 201 

organic matter than is ordinarily found in a surface water. In the 
opinion of the Department, the discharge of this water into the brook 
at Pine Street would not be likely to create objectionable conditions 
in that stream at the present time. 

The Department is informed that its recommendations of Oct. 29, 
1914, relative to the complete separation of the underdrains from the 
sewers and the removal of all sewage from the underdrains has been 
thoroughly carried out so that no sewage is now discharged into the 
underdrain at any time, and so long as these conditions continue it 
is unlikely that the character of the water flowing from the under- 
drain will vary materially from what it was found to be at the time 
of the recent examination. 

In view of the circumstances, there appears to the Department no 
objection to the discharge of the underdrain into the brook at Pine 
Street as now proposed, so long as the character of this water remains 
about the same as at the present time. It is advisable, however, that 
samples of the water of the underdrain and of the brook below the 
underdrain be collected for analysis from time to time in order that, 
if any change occurs in the future in the character of the water dis- 
charged from the underdrain or objectionable conditions are created 
in the brook below the point of discharge, the underdrainage water 
can be diverted from the brook or such other measures taken as may 
be necessary to prevent the occurrence of objectionable conditions in 
the stream. 

Marion. 

Nov. 8, 1915. 

To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, Marion, Mass., Mr. Howard S. Blanken- 

SHiP, Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Oct. 23, 1915, the following application for advice as to the con- 
struction of a proposed relief valve and pipe line designed to provide 
an overflow from your present sewerage system into a town ditch to 
relieve the system of storm water and ground drainage during the 
winter and early spring months, said rehef valve to be closed during 
the drier portion of the year. 

We have sent under another cover a Blue Print of proposed Relief Valve 
& Pipe, from manhole on south side of Town Ditch opposite land of Mrs. 
Sylvia C. Knowlton, Pipe to discharge into Town Ditch, the details of wliich 
are set forth on Print. 

The purpose of said pipe is to relieve sewer of storm water during wdnter 
months & will not be used during the summer. . . . 



202 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



In the construction of the sewerage system of Marion, large quanti- 
ties of ground water were encountered, and measurements show that 
at times there is a very large leakage of water into the sewers in the 
wetter portion of the year, chiefly in the winter and early spring 
months. The Department is informed that underdrains were laid 
beneath some of the sewers when the works were constructed but that 
on account of the low level of the system as compared with the sea it 
has not been practicable to provide outlets for these drains at a 
sufficiently low level to relieve the pressure of ground water about the 
sewers and the leakage into the system. 

The plan now proposed is to discharge a part of the flow in the 
sewers, chiefly the night flow in the winter and early spring, into a 
town drain which discharges into Sippican Harbor at a point about 
600 feet southeast of the junction of Ryder and Front streets. The 
town drain is an 18-inch pipe and discharges at a point where the 
bottom of the sea is only shghtly exposed at low water. There is a 
small area of flats immediately north of the outlet which is uncovered 
at low water, but the Department is informed that these flats are not 
used for bathing and that no shellfish of any kind are taken from this 
region. 

In view of the circumstances, the Department is of the opinion that 
a temporary discharge from your sewerage system during the night 
only, and then only in the months from November to April inclusive, 
is permissible for the present. 

The large quantity of leakage into the sewerage system in Marion is 
causing the town considerable expense, both for the maintenance of 
the system and the purification works, and the cost is not only likely 
to continue in the future but may increase materially as time goes on. 
It is, consequently, very important that steps be taken without delay 
to diminish the amount of this leakage, so far as practicable. It is 
possible that an examination of the system may show that the greater 
part of the leakage is confined to a comparatively few sections of the 
system and that by rebuilding these, with iron pipe if necessary, a 
large part of the leakage can be prevented. If, however, it is found 
that serious leakage occurs in a considerable portion of the system, it 
will be necessary to rebuild the leaky sections so as to bring the system 
into satisfactory condition. 

The Department recommends that you begin at once investigations 
as to the best plan of preventing unnecessary leakage into the sewerage 
system of the town. When the results of the investigation are avail- 
able, the Department will advise you as to the best practicable plan 
for preventing excessive leakage into your sewerage system and further 
unnecessary cost for construction and maintenance. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 203 



Marlborough. 

June 9, 1915. 

To the Board of Water and Sewage Commissioners, Marlborough, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on May 11, 1915, the following application for advice as to a proposed 
system of sewerage for Ward 6 in the northwesterly part of the city 
of Marlborough: 

We respectfully ask your advice in regard to the proposed extension of the 
sewer system in this city as shown on the plans sent under another cover known 
as the Ward Six Sewer Extension. 

The work under consideration at tliis time is shown in red on the general 
plan, together with plan and profile of proposed trunk line: tliis serves one 
hundred and thirty-seven dweUings, with a population of seven hundred and 
sixty. The levels of this district are such as to prevent the flow of the sewage 
by gravity to the adjoining system. Three plans were considered for its dis- 
posal: viz., Pumping, New Filter Beds, and a Trunlc Line to connect mth 
the main trunk line at Phelps Street as shown on plan; this last seems to us 
as the best all things considered, it ^vill also provide for the disposal of the 
sewage from the district shown in yellow on general plan when the extension 
is made there. 

The application was accompanied by a plan and profiles of the 
proposed system of sewers prepared by your engineer, Mr. W. J. 
Simonds, and later further information was submitted by your superin- 
tendent, Mr. George A. Stacy, at the request of this Department, con- 
taining portions of the report of your consulting engineers, Messrs. 
Metcalf & Eddy, relating to the proposed sewers. 

The Public Health Council has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of the engineers and has considered your application and the 
plans presented therewith. The section of the city of Marlborough for 
which sewerage is now to be provided lies in the extreme northwesterly 
part of the city on land sloping to the north, and the topographic con- 
ditions are such that the sewage cannot be discharged into the present 
system by gravity. 

In view of the fact that the capacity of the present system is in- 
sufficient at times for the removal of all of the sewage to the filtration 
area, it is not advisable that additional sewage should be discharged 
into the present system until provision for its enlargement has been 
made. It appears to be impracticable to secure a suitable area for a 
separate works for the disposal of the sewage of this district except 
at large expense. The studies have shown, however, that it is practi- 
cable to collect the sewage of the district in question and convey it by 



204 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

gravity in a sewer extending around the westerly, northerly and 
easterly sides of Ockoocanganset Hill to the valley of Mowry Brook, 
and thence in the valley of that brook to a point of connection with 
the present main sewer of the town at Phelps or Mowry streets, 
through which the sewage will flow to the present filter beds. A 
sewer laid on the lines proposed would have the advantage that it 
would be capable of providing sewerage for other districts in Marl- 
borough which cannot be served by existing systems whenever sewerage 
in those districts may become necessary, and in view of the circum- 
stances, the proposed plan appears to the Public Health Council as the 
best that it is practicable to adopt for the disposal of the sewage of 
the portion of Marlborough under consideration. 

The sizes and grades of the proposed main sewer appear to be 
adequate for all requirements, so far as can now be foreseen, provided 
the sewers are constructed under competent engineering supervision 
and that all storm water, and so far as possible all ground water, are 
excluded from the sewers. This will necessitate not only the careful 
construction of the main sewer but careful inspection of all connections 
made with the sewers in the future. 

It is understood that a portion of the main sewer, which is to be 
laid through a meadow, is to be constructed of iron pipe laid like a 
water pipe, and this is an excellent plan to adopt, wherever practicable, 
for portions of the line where the main sewer is to be laid below the 
level of the ground water. 

It appears from the report of your consulting engineers that, while 
definite information as to the sizes and slope of the various sections of 
the existing main trunk sewer between the point at which it now over- 
flows onto the auxiliary filter beds and the filtration area is not avail- 
able, the capacity of this sewer is probably capable of removing not 
only the maximum quantity of sewage which is now discharged into 
it, but also the extra quantity that will be brought in by the proposed 
Ward 6 extension without causing the backing up of the sewage and 
excessive overflow onto the auxiliary filter beds or surcharging the 
main sewer between this connection and the filtration area. 

It is very probable that some relief will have to be provided for the 
main sewer of the city of Marlborough at no distant time, and the 
additional quantity of sewage brought in by the Ward 6 sewer will 
undoubtedly make necessary the relief of the main sewer at an earlier 
time than would otherwise be the case. Nevertheless, the plan of dis- 
charging the sewage into the main sewer at the point indicated 
appears to be an advisable one under the circumstances. 

The capacity of the present Marlborough filter beds has been found 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 205 

sufficient since tlie recent enlargements were made to provide for the 
satisfactory purification of all of the sewage now delivered to these 
filters, and it is probable that the additional quantity of sewage 
brought in by the Ward 6 extension can be cared for in addition to 
the present quantity without necessitating an immediate addition to 
the works, provided the sewers are so laid that the leakage of storm 
water and ground water into the system is reduced to a minimum. 
If on the completion of the system the leakage is found to be large, it 
will doubtless be necessary to enlarge the filters soon after the sewers 
are completed. 

Under the circumstances it is impracticable to advise you definitely 
at the present time as to the enlargement of the Marlborough filter 
beds to provide for the additional sewage that will be brought in from 
the Ward 6 district, and the question of the necessity for further en- 
largement can safely be left until the observations shall show the 
probable amount of increase in the quantity of sewage discharged at 
the filtration area. It is recommended that a survey be made of the 
size and grade of the present main sewer of the city of Marlborough, 
its capacity carefully determined, and if it is found that the capacity 
is likely to be insufficient to remove all of the sewage likely to be dis- 
charged into it without increasing materially the overflow of sewage 
to the auxiliary filter beds, the capacity of this sewer should be in- 
creased at the earliest practicable time. 

With the recommendations contained herein, the Public Health 
Council hereby approves the plan for the collection and disposal of 
sewage of the portion of Ward 6 in the city of Marlborough as de- 
scribed in the reports and information submitted and shown on the 
plan presented entitled "General Plan of Proposed Sewer Extension in 
Ward Six, Marlborough, Mass.* Showing Streets to be Sewered and 
Gravity Line Connection to Present Main Trunk Line Sewer. Scale: 
1 in. = 500 ft. April, 1915. W. J. Simonds, Civil Eng." 

Maynard. 

Feb 25 1915 
To the Sewerage Committee of the Town of Maynard, Mass. ' ' 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
through your engineer, Mr. F. A. Barbour, of Boston, the following 
application for advice relative to a proposed system of sewerage and 
sewage disposal for the town of Maynard. 

I am authorized by the Sewerage Committee of the town of Maynard to 
present for your examination and approval plans and report of a proposed 
sewerage system and sewage treatment works. 



206 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

As the detailed estimates and the profiles of the lateral sewers are presumably 
not necessary for your examination of the problem, these are not included, 
but will be submitted if you so desire. 

The design of the treatment works includes settling tanks and sprinkling 
filters, but in view of the fact that it will be several years before more than 
3,000 people will be connected with the sewers, the Sewerage Committee re- 
quests your consideration of the feasibility of first constructing the settling 
tanks and subsequently adding the filters at such date as may be required by 
your department. 

The application was accompanied by plans of the proposed system 
of sewerage by which the sewage is to be collected and conveyed to 
disposal works to be located on the westerly bank of the Assabet 
River about half a mile below the thickly settled portion of the town. 
The greater part of the population of the town of Maynard is con- 
tained in the main village located in the valley of the Assabet River, 
which flows through the town from the southwest to northeast. 

On the southeasterly side of the river the American Woolen Com- 
pany owns and operates a system of sewerage w^hich at the present 
time serves 121 of their tenements, the sewage being disposed of by 
pumping to a filtration area located about f of a mile east of the 
center of the village. This method of disposal can probably be con- 
tinued for a time at least, but provision has been made for including 
these houses in the general system of the town. In the remaining 
portion of the village there are a number of storm water drains, some 
of which receive sewage, and the plan provides for diverting the 
sewage from these drains into the new system. 

The topography of the town is such that in designing the proposed 
new system it has been found practicable with little extra cost of 
construction to divide the town into high and low level districts, the 
sewage from the former of which will flow to the proposed disposal 
works by gravity, while that from the latter will have to be pumped 
after passing through the preliminary treatment tanks. The elevation 
of the main outlet sewer for the low level district is shown upon the 
plans at grade 154, while the invert of the main sewer of the high 
level district at its lower end will be at elevation 170. In two or 
three places in the collecting system the use of inverted siphons is 
found necessary. 

It is further proposed in connection with the collecting system to 
lay underdrains beneath the sewers in places where ground water is 
likely to be encountered in order to reduce as much as practicable the 
leakage of ground water into the sewers. 

The disposal works, which have been designed on a basis of an 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 207 

estimated daily flow of 500,000 gallons per day with an allowance for 
future extensions when necessary, consist of an Imhoff tank of such 
capacity that when flowing at the rate of 500,000 gallons per day the 
sewage will be about 2.4 hours in passing through the tank, a sprink- 
ling filter I of an acre in area and 7 feet in depth, with a secondary 
setthng tank having a capacity above the pyramidal hopper bottom of 
about 20,000 gallons, and sludge beds having an area of 2,000 square 
feet to receive the sludge from the Imhoff tank. The plan also in- 
cludes other necessary appurtenances, including dosing tanks for the 
sprinkling fiJter and pumping machinery. 

Since it is not proposed to construct any of the high level intercept- 
ing sewers in the beginning, all of the sewage will be conveyed to the 
disposal works through the low level interceptor, and the sewage after 
passing through the Imhoff tank will be pumped to the filter. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of the engineers of the Department and has considered the 
plans and information presented. 

The system is well designed for collecting the sewage from all of the 
thickly settled portions of the town and disposing of it, so far as 
practicable, by gravity in a satisfactory manner. Special care has 
been taken in the design of the system to exclude ground water, and 
it is very important that the precautions suggested be fully carried 
out in the construction of the works, since an excessive and unneces- 
sary amount of leakage into the sewers would entail, a large extra 
expense in the construction of the works and an unnecessary annual 
outlay in their operation and maintenance. 

The introduction of inverted siphons appears to be necessary at 
certain points in the system, and their use is not likely to give trouble 
in connection with a system like this if they are properly constructed 
and all surface water is excluded from the sewers so far as possible, as 
proposed. 

The disposal works are adequate for the treatment of the sewage 
likely to be discharged into the system for several years after the 
works are built, and, if constructed as designed, they are likely, with 
proper care in maintenance and operation, to purify the sewage 
sufficiently to permit its discharge into the Assabet River without 
further treatment until the quantity of sewage requiring disposal 
exceeds considerably the amount likely to be discharged into the 
system in the earlier years of the operation of the works. 

In view of the condition of the Assabet River, it is advisable, in the 
opinion of the Department, to construct the sprinkling filter in the 
beginning, including the secondary settling tanks required for the 



208 STATE DEPAETMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

sedimentation of the effluent from this filter. While the experience 
in the operation of sprinkling filters for the disposal of the sewage of 
cities and towns in this climate is somewhat limited, the indications 
are that a sprinkling filter of greater depth would secure a better 
effluent and make it practicable to operate the filter at a higher rate 
than with shallower filters and secure an equally satisfactory effluent. 
It is suggested that, if practicable, this modification be made in the 
construction of the filter. The efficiency of the filter will also depend 
upon the size of stone to be used which remains to be determined 
before the works are constructed. 

The works as a whole are well designed for the collection and dis- 
posal of the sewage of Maynard and, with the modifications herein 
suggested, will provide adequately for the purification of the sewage 
until the population becomes greater than at the present time. 



Methuen (Barker School). j^^ 23, 1915. 

To Mr. Walter M. Hastings, Chairman, School Commiltee, Methuen, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for an examination of the 
sanitary conditions at the Barker School, so called, at the corner of 
Lowell and Forest streets in Methuen, and advice as to the disposal of 
sewage therefrom, the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality 
to be examined by one of the engineers of the Department and has 
considered the information presented. 

It is understood that it is now planned to change the sanitary 
arrangements at this school by providing flush water-closets in the 
basement to discharge into a tank and thence into a private sewer 
which has an outlet on the ground south of the junction of Lowell and 
Orchard streets, where the sewage of several houses and considerable 
storm water are already discharged. 

It is estimated that the total quantity of sewage to be disposed of 
from the school would be about 2,500 gallons per day. This sewage, if 
discharged through a septic tank as proposed, would become putrid, 
and the quantity is such that, in connection with the other sewage dis- 
charged from the present sewer, there would be danger that a serious 
nuisance would be created at the outlet of the sewer. There is Httle 
doubt, however, that a suitable filter bed might be constructed in the 
neighborhood of the present sewer outlet to receive the sewage and, 
with a suitable filter bed, the sewage could be purified to such a 
degree that there would be no objection to discharging the effluent 
from the filter upon the adjacent ground or into a neighboring water 
course. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 209 

If it is not practicable to secure an area of land on which to dispose 
of the sewage near the outlet of the present sewer, the best plan 
would probably be to construct a large cesspool in the rear of the 
schoolhouse lot not far from the present privies, with a trench along 
the northerly and westerly sides of the lot leading to another cesspool 
in the southwesterly corner, whence the overflow could be discharged 
into the sewer. 

Judging from the information furnished by a test pit which has 
already been dug in these grounds, the cesspools should be as much as 
6 feet in depth and the trench between them 3 feet wide and at least 
5| feet in depth. The lower 3 feet of the trench should be filled with 
broken stone | inch in diameter or thereabouts or coarse gravel, and 
a distribution pipe about 6 inches in diameter should be laid with un- 
cemented joints with its bottom about one foot beneath the surface of 
the broken stone or gravel in the trench. The discharge pipe from the 
first cesspool should have an elbow at its upper end so arranged that 
the sewage will flow out of the cesspool about one foot beneath the 
surface of the sewage. It will be impracticable to provide water- 
closets at the level of the basement if used in connection with cesspools, 
and provision will have to be made to place them at a sufficiently high 
level to avoid danger of interference with their operation by reason 
of the height of the ground water. With this arrangement it is 
possible that the sewage from the building could be disposed of for a 
few years without serious difficulty or expense. 

It would be much better, however, to take care of the sewage from 
this school in connection with that of the dwelling houses in the 
neighborhood temporarily upon a filter bed south of Lowell Street for 
a few years until a system of sewerage can be provided for this section 
of the town. 

Nahant. 

March 2, 1915. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Nahant, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you, 
through your engineer, Mr. Ernest W. Bowditch of Boston, an appli- 
cation for advice with reference to two proposed sewer outlets on the 
northerly and southerly sides respectively of Little Nahant, through 
which it is proposed to dispose of the sewage of that section of the 
town by discharging it directly into the sea, and in response to this 
request the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be 
examined. 

The plan submitted provides for collecting the sewage of the north- 



210 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

erly part of this small peninsula by means of sewers in Nahant Road, 
Wilson Road, Lennox Road, and Simmons Road and discharging it 
at an outlet near the northeasterly end of the peninsula about 160 
feet from shore at a point where the water is 4 feet in depth at low 
tide. For the southerly part of the peninsula the plan provides for 
sewers in Little Nahant Road, Simmons Road, Baker Road and 
Wilson Road, leading to an outlet also located about 160 feet from 
shore and 500 feet southeast of the eastern point of the peninsula 
where the depth of water is about 4 feet at low tide. 

The sewers are designed for the removal and disposal of the domestic 
sewage from the territory indicated on the plan, and, on account of 
the small area of the peninsula and the probability that many of the 
dwellings will be occupied only during the summer season, the quantity 
of sewage to be disposed of will be small. 

Under the circumstances, the discharge of sewage at the proposed 
outlets is unlikely to create objectionable conditions in the adjacent 
waters unless the quantity of sewage discharged at these points be- 
comes much greater than seems reasonable to expect at the present 
time. 

In view of the circumstances, it is recommended that the sewage be 
discharged at the outlets indicated on the plan without treatment 
until such time as an increase in the quantity of sewage, or other 
change in the conditions, makes a treatment of the sewage, or an 
extension of the outlets to deeper water, necessary or desirable. 



NORTHFIELD (NOETHFIELD HOTEL CoMPANy). 

April 6, 1915. 

To the Northfield Hotel Company, Northfield, Mass., Mr. Ambert G. Moodt, 

Manager. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
March 31 the following application for advice as to the proposed 
system of sewerage for that portion of the village of Northfield not 
already sewered lying north of Warwick Brook. 

The Northfield Hotel Company of Northfield, Mass., submit for your ap- 
proval plan of a Sewerage System. The- plan in general provides for the dis- 
posal of the sewage from that portion of the Village (not already sewered) 
lying North of Warwick Brook as shown on the accompanying plan. The 
sewage from this portion of the village will flow by gravity to a common main 
outlet, discharging into the Connecticut River at a point about 1,000 feet 
north of the Central Vermont Railway Bridge. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 211 

It is proposed to construct the sewer from the River as far as The North- 
field Hotel at present. In the future, an intercepting sewer will be laid through 
the valley to a point near the Seminary Farm Buildings. The sewers will pro- 
vide outlets for lateral sewers in North Lane, Pine and Aldrich Streets and 
Glenwood Avenue on the west, and also for any street that may be constructed 
on the easterly side of the valley. 

The application is accompanied by a general plan of the proposed 
system showing the location of the main sewers, together with their 
sizes and grades. 

The system as a whole appears to be well adapted for the collection 
and disposal of the sewage of that portion of the village of Northfield 
which it is designed to serve, and the sizes and grades of the sewers 
insure an ample capacity for the disposal of all of the sewage at all 
times. In fact, the size of that portion of the main sewer in Highland 
Avenue might be reduced from 12 inches to 10 inches in diameter and 
that portion in private land between Highland Avenue and the farm 
buildings from 12 inches to 8 inches in diameter without danger of 
interfering with the efficiency of the system if the sewers are properly 
and carefully laid. The location of the outlet in the Connecticut 
River, according to the information submitted, would be about 20 
feet beyond the river bank at low water at which point the outlet 
would be covered by about 4 feet of water at times when the river is 
low. It is possible to extend the outlet to a point about 40 feet from 
low water where the outlet would be covered with 6 feet of water at 
periods of low flow, and it is advisable that the outlet be carried out 
at least as far as that point. This point is approximately 80 feet 
from the top of the river bank. 

With an outlet located at the point herein suggested, the discharge 
of the sewage into the Connecticut River is, under existing conditions, 
a permissible method of disposal for the sewage of the portion of the 
village of Northfield shown on the plan presented. It is very im- 
portant that these sewers and their future extensions be constructed 
strictly upon the separate plan in order that unnecessary expense for 
separating the sewage from the storm water may be avoided in case 
treatment of this sewage before its discharge into the river should 
become necessary at some future time. 



212 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Norwood (Winslow Bros. & Smith Company). 

June 9, 1915. 
To Hon. Henry C. Attwill, Attorney-General, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of May 5, 1915, for an 
examination and report upon plans of Messrs. Metealf & Eddy, 
Engineers, of Boston, in relation to the proposed trickling filter for the 
treatment of liquid manufacturing waste from the tannery of the 
Winslow Brothers & Smith Company at Norwood, the Commis- 
sioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined and has con- 
sidered the plans presented. The Commissioner has also considered 
the results of an experiment upon the purification of the waste from 
their works made by the Winslow Brothers & Smith Company, 
under the direction of their engineers, by applying this waste to a 
small trickling filter of broken stone 7| feet in depth, operated at an 
average rate of about 750,000 gallons per acre daily, twenty-four 
hours per day, with one day's rest in seven, for a period of about one 
year from May, 1914, to April, 1915. This experimental filter has an 
area at the surface of about 850 square feet, or 0.02 of an acre, and 
the filtering material consists of broken stone between 1 inch and 2 
inches in diameter. The effluent from this trickling filter was dis- 
charged into a settling tank having a capacity of about 2,200 gallons, 
and thence to a sand filter having an area of about 200 square feet 
and a depth of about 4 feet, with suitable underdrains. The Com- 
missioner of Health has also considered the results of experiments 
carried on at the Lawrence Experiment Station upon the treatment of 
this waste by filtration through both trickling and sand filters at 
various times. 

Based on the experiments of their engineers, the Winslow Brothers 
& Smith Company now propose to construct a permanent plant for 
the treatment of the waste from their works, the proposed plant to 
consist of a trickling filter about one acre in area and 7.5 feet in 
depth, the filtering material to consist of broken stone from 1 inch to 
2 inches in diameter. About f of an acre of this filter is to be built 
in the beginning. 

It is apparently estimated by the engineers from their investigations 
that the quantity of waste to be treated will not be greater than 
500,000 gallons per day and that, in consequence, the rate of operation 
of the proposed filter will be between 600,000 and 700,000 gallons per 
acre per day. The average character of the waste before treatment, as 
shown by analyses made by this Department, is as follows, in parts 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 213 

in 100,000: — total solids, 377.8; suspended solids, 35.1; loss on 
ignition, 69.1; loss on ignition, suspended, 26.1; free ammonia, 4.3; 
total albuminoid ammonia, 2.0; oxygen consumed, 23.9. If the pro- 
posed trickling filter gives results equal to those of the experimental 
filter which has been operated at Norwood for the past year, and there 
is no reason to expect that the results from the large filter will differ 
materially from those of the experimental filter if the latter is main- 
tained imder competent engineering supervision, it is to be expected 
that, if the applied waste remains of about the same character as 
during the period of this test, the character of the effluent of the 
trickling filter will be about as follows, in parts in 100,000: — total 
solids, 349.1; suspended solids, 28.6; loss on ignition, 42.6; loss on 
ignition, suspended) 19.2; free ammonia, 1.8; total albuminoid 
ammonia, 1.5; oxygen consumed, 13.9. 

The effluent of the trickling filter is to be passed through sedi- 
mentation tanks and then discharged into Hawes Brook. The analyses 
of the effluent of the experimental sedimentation tanks have averaged 
as follows during the period of its operation, in parts in 100,000: — 
total solids, 323.7; suspended solids, 11.3; loss on ignition, 30.8; 
loss on ignition, suspended, 6.2; free ammonia, 2.0; total albuminoid 
ammonia, 1.0; oxygen consumed, 9.8. 

The examinations of this settled effluent indicate that it is capable 
of further decomposition, and the discharge of this quantity of waste 
containing so great a quantity of organic matter into the river would, 
in the opinion of the State Department of Health, be a violation of the 
provisions of chapter 360 of the Acts of the year 1906. 

The Winslow Brothers & Smith Company, however, have also con- 
ducted an experiment upon the treatment of this effluent after sedi- 
mentation by filtration through sand, the average results of analyses 
of the effluent of the experimental sand filter during the period of its 
operation having been as follows, in parts in 100,000: — total solids, 
309.7; suspended solids, 2.7; loss on ignition, 18.2; loss on ignition, 
suspended, 0.8; free ammonia, 0.6; total albuminoid ammonia, 0.3; 
oxygen consumed, 4.9. These results indicate that the treatment of 
the general waste from these works by the trickling filter and settling 
tanks as proposed and subsequent filtration through sand filters will 
effect a reasonably satisfactory purification of these wastes. The area 
of sand filters already constructed at their, works appears to be ade- 
quate for such further filtration of the effluent from the trickUng filter 
and settling tanks which they now propose to construct without 
material addition to the works. 

In the opinion of the State Department of Health, if the works 



214 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

proposed by Messrs. Metcalf & Eddy for purifying these wastes are 
constructed and their operation continued under competent engineering 
supervision, and if the effluent from these proposed works is subse- 
quently filtered through the sand filters already in existence, with 
such improvement as may be found necessary in these filters, the 
works will then be capable of providing adequately for the best 
practicable purification of the wastes from this factory so long as they 
do not exceed an average quantity from month to month of 500,000 
gallons per day. 

The Commissioner deems it desirable to call your attention to the 
fact that the works now proposed do not provide for the treatment of 
the rinse water from wool scouring which contains a considerable 
quantity of organic matter, the amount being sufficient at times at 
least to cause serious pollution of Hawes Brook. It is recommended 
that, if this rinse water is not to be treated separately with such 
effectiveness as to remove the objectionable and polluting matters 
therefrom, it be included with the general waste from the factory and 
the works enlarged sufficiently to provide for the proper treatment of 
all the waste. 

Aug. 24, 1915. 
To Winslow Brothers & Smith Company, Norwood, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with the provisions of chapter 360 
of the Acts of the year 1906, section 2, the State Department .of Health 
hereby advises you that the best practicable and reasonably available 
means of rendering harmless the waste or refuse discharged by you 
at your works at Norwood into Hawes Brook, a tributary of the 
Neponset River, is in the opinion of the Department the construction of 
a trickling filter of adequate size to be used in connection with settling 
tanks and sand filters by which said waste or refuse shall be treated. 

The Department is of the opinion that with such works of adequate 
size the refuse and waste of the quantity and character now being 
discharged by you into Hawes Brook can be purified to such an extent 
that they will not thereafter be injurious to the public health or tend 
to create a public nuisance. 

Upon the construction of the trickling filter of adequate size operated 
in connection with the necessary settling tanks, experience may show 
that the maintenance and operation of sand filters for the further 
treatment of the effluent from the trickling filter will be unnecessary 
to insure that there will be no violation of the provisions of chapter 
360 of the Acts of the year 1906, and in that case you will of course 
not be required under the present law to maintain and operate them. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 215 

The Department realizes that by giving this advice it can in no 
way protect you from prosecutions under the provisions of the act, 
but feels confident that if the advice given is followed out the results 
obtained from the use of these filters will be such as not to warrant 
prosecution on the part of prosecuting officials. 

Peabody (T. H. O'Shea Leather Company). 

June 15, 1915. 
To Mr. Frank Emerson, Tovm Engineer, Peabody, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request, an examination has been 
made of your proposed plans for a settling tank at the works of the 
T. H. O'Shea Leather Company in Grove Street, Peabody, and a 
further examination has been made of the quantity and character of 
the wastes discharged from these works. 

The results of these examinations show that, as stated by the 
owners of the tannery, the amount of the waste liquors has been 
somewhat reduced and amounted at the time of the recent examina- 
tion to about 16,000 gallons per day. Furthermore, the character of 
the wastes has been considerably improved owing to the changes in 
the processes carried on at the works. 

The plan submitted provides for a settling tank in the rear of the 
tannery having a capacity of about 12,500 gallons. It is to be 19 feet 
in length, 11 feet in width, and will have an effective depth of about 
8 feet. The bottom of the tank is designed to slope toward a valley 
in the center, and the valley will slope toward the side from which the 
sludge is to be discharged. The wastes entering the tank will be dis- 
charged into a trough across one end from which it will overflow over 
the edge of the trough into the settling tank, and a similar arrange- 
ment is to be provided at the outlet of the tank. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of the engineers of the Department and has considered the 
plan presented. 

The capacity of the tank appears to be adequate for the proper 
sedimentation of these wastes, which contain a very large proportion 
of suspended matter. It is not advisable to provide a deep baffle in 
the middle of the tank as proposed, but one or two scum boards should 
be placed near the outlet of the tank to arrest the flow of floating 
matter from the tank. The slopes of the bottom of the tank are 
probably not sufficient to cause the sludge to flow toward the central 
valley and, under the circumstances, unless the slopes are to be much 



216 . STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

steeper, at least 45 degrees or preferably 60 degrees, it would be better 
to make the bottom of the tank nearly level, with a deep valley as 
proposed through which to discharge the sludge. 

It may be necessary in the future to use a coagulant to secure more 
efficient sedimentation. This could be done by introducing about 100 
pounds of lime per day for the present daily flow, and it will be 
desirable to make provision in the construction of a tank for intro- 
ducing a coagulant in the future. 

While the proposed tank, with the modifications suggested, will 
probably remove from these wastes all of the solid matter that it is 
practicable to remove by sedimentation, the location of the tank is 
such that it will apparently be very difficult to draw off and properly 
dispose of the sludge therefrom. It is very important, if the settling 
tank is to be operated satisfactorily, that it be drawn off at frequent 
intervals so as to prevent the accumulation of sludge therein and 
consequent material reduction of the period of sedimentation. There 
appears to be available land for the location of this tank outside of the 
building, and it is recommended that it be so located that the sludge 
can readily be discharged from the tank and removed from the 
neighborhood. If it is found practicable to change the location of the 
tank, it would probably be of advantage to construct the tank in two 
compartments having an aggregate capacity somewhat greater than 
that proposed for the single tank. 



Peabody (J. F. Ingraham Company). 

June 16, 1915. 
To Mr. Frank Emerson, Town Engineer, Peabody, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for advice as to a pro- 
posed settling tank and sludge bed at the tannery of the J. F. Ingra- 
ham Company used for the sedimentation of their wastes before their 
discharge into the trunk sewer, a further examination of the works 
has been made and additional samples of the wastes have been 
analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the wastes from this tannery 
contain a very large quantity of solid matter, a large proportion of 
which is in solution, and that it is not practicable to remove any 
great quantity of matter from these wastes by sedimentation. The 
wastes contain much grease and a considerable quantity of fine dust 
which collect upon the surface of the liquid when standing and can 
be readily removed. 

The quantity of wastes at the time of the recent measurements 
amounted to about 4,000 gallons per day, and when mixed with lime 



No. 34.] AD\^CE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 217 

in sufficient amount a large quantity of organic matter is precipitated. 
Consequently, there is little doubt that, when mixed in the sewers 
with waste containing large quantities of lime, there will be a precipi- 
tation of organic matter from these wastes. The quantity of the 
wastes, however, is small, so that serious trouble may not be caused if 
they are passed through a suitable settling tank before discharge into 
the sewers. 

It is advisable to make certain changes in the details of the design 
of the tank as submitted in order to facilitate its operation. As now- 
designed, the bottom of the tank slopes toward the middle and there 
is a longitudinal slope from the inlet to the outlet end of the tank. 
The sludge is of such a character that it will chng to the bottom 
unless the slopes are made considerably steeper than shown in this 
design, and if it is impracticable to secure slopes toward the center 
of as much as 45°, or preferably 60°, it would be better to make the 
bottom of the tank practically level, since the sludge could be removed 
therefrom with less difficulty than from sloping sides unless the slope 
w^as sufficient to insure the flow of the sludge to the lower end of the 
tank. 

The plan of admitting the waste liquor to the tank by discharging 
it into a trough from which it will overflow in a thin film along the 
full width of the tank is an excellent one to adopt, and with this 
arrangement it is not advisable to place a screen or a deep baffle in 
the middle of the tank, as shown on the plan. It w-ill probably be 
sufficient if scum boards are placed near the outlet of the tank to 
intercept the grease and dust. 

The proposed sludge bed is of inadequate capacity to receive the 
sludge discharged from the proposed tank and should be enlarged 
materially. It may be difficult to build a sludge bed large enough to 
receive the entire contents of the tank, and in that case provision 
should be made for drawing off the supernatant liquor in the tank 
back to the pump w^ell before discharging the sludge from the tank. 
It will consequently be necessary to provide a sludge bed in any case 
that will be of such capacity that, if used in connection with the pump 
well as suggested, it will be capable of receiving the full discharge from 
the tank. 

It is important to locate the sludge bed at a sufficient level above 
the ground water and above the elevation of the water in the brook 
to insure its proper operation at all times. 

An inspection well or other means of obtaining access to the effluent 
from the tank, in order that it may readily be examined, should of 
course be provided in accordance with the regulations established by 
this Department. 



218 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Peabody (Thayer-Eoss Company). 

June 23, 1915. 

To the Thayer-Foss Company, Peabody, Mass., Mr. Harry I. Thayer, President 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
June 11, 1915, an application for advice as to proposed sedimentation 
tanks for the treatment of your wastes at Peabody before discharging 
them into the sewerage system of the town, accompanied by plans of 
the proposed works prepared by your engineer. 

The plans provide for the collection of all the wastes from the 
tannery into an existing tank located beneath the tannery floor, from 
which they will be discharged into a proposed pump well 4 feet by 
6 feet in plan and about 13 feet deep. From this pump well the 
wastes are to be pumped to a group of sedimentation tanks arranged 
in pairs. The first tank of each pair is to be 8 feet by 8 feet in plan 
and 9 feet 3 inches deep and is expected to collect hair in suspension 
in the wastes. From these "hair tanks" so called, the waste Hquors 
are to overflow into sedimentation tanks 30 feet by 8 feet 2 inches in 
plan and having a mean depth of about 7 feet. These tanks are to be 
in duplicate, the capacity of each of the "hair tanljs", so called, 
being about 4,000 gallons, and the capacity of each of the settling 
tanks about 12,800 gallons. Sumps are to be provided in the bottom 
of each of the latter tanks in which suction pipes are to be placed for 
removing the sludge by pumping to a sludge-drying bed to be con- 
structed adjacent to the tanks. Sludge beds are also to be provided 
to receive the sludge from the "hair tanks". All sludge beds are to 
be provided with underdrains having an outlet in the existing tank 
under the tannery. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of the engineers of the Department and has considered the 
plans presented. 

The quantity of wastes discharged from this factory has been found 
at times to amount to as much as 80,000 gallons per day, and the 
period of sedimentation provided by the proposed settling tanks, on 
the basis of a flow of 80,000 gallons in ten hours, would be 2.1 hours 
when one pair of tanks is in use and 4.2 hours when both pairs of 
tanks are in use. If the tanks are properly maintained and operated 
together, it will be practicable to remove the heavier matters from 
these wastes and prevent the further discharge of such matters into 
the sewers. It is suggested that provision be made for discharging 
the wastes into the so called "hair tanks" over a weir, instead of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 219 

through a single pipe about 3 feet above the bottom of each tank as 
is proposed at present. It is also advisable that the screens between 
the outlet of the setthng tanks and the sewer be made of bars placed 
much closer together than proposed or preferably of a mesh screen 
having a mesh of not over j of an inch. In the construction of the 
screen chamber it would apparently be practicable to leave an opening 
back of the screens for the inspection of the wastes discharging into 
the sewer, which would afford more convenient access to these wastes 
than the 10-inch pipe proposed. If this arrangement is not practi- 
cable, however, a pipe of larger diameter than 10 inches should be 
used. 

In order to secure efficient results in the operation of these works, 
frequent cleaning of the tanks will be necessary, and it is essential 
that, at times of cleaning when the tanks are draw^n off, the discharge 
of sludge into the screen chamber and thence to the sewer shall be 
avoided. With the present arrangement, by which a gate will be open 
in the side of the tank at a certain elevation above the bottom, there 
is much danger that, if a considerable amount of sediment has accumu- 
lated in the tanks, a portion of it will be drawn off with the wastes 
and be discharged through the screen chamber into the sewer. It 
would be much better if the whole contents of the tanks could be 
discharged upon the sludge bed and the sludge bed made large enough 
for that purpose. If not, it would be advisable to arrange for drawing 
off the liquor in the tanks through floating arms, or some such arrange- 
ment as would avoid danger of discharging sludge into the sewer. If 
floating arms are impracticable, it would probably be better to draw 
off one of the tanks at a time, discharging the supernatant liquor into 
the pump well and pumping it w^ith the wastes to the settling tanks 
in operation while the other two tanks are being cleaned. There 
would seem to be no great difficulty in making this arrangement, and 
with such an arrangement danger of discharging large quantities of 
sludge into the sewer would be avoided. 

The Commissioner of Health is of the opinion that the proposed 
tanks, with the modifications suggested, 'will, provided the tanks are 
properly operated, remove from these wastes the heavier matters 
which are likelv to cause trouble in the sewers. 



220 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PiTTSFIELD. 

Aug. 12, 1915. 
To the Board of Public Works, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on July 20, 1915, through your engineer, an application for advice as 
to a proposed extension of the sewage disposal works of the city of 
Pittsfield, accompanied by two plans of the proposed works marked 
Sheets 1 and 2 entitled "City of Pittsfield. Addition to Filtration 
Beds." 

The plans presented provide for increasing the present filtration 
area by the construction of eleven filters having an aggregate net area 
of about 9.56 acres northeast of the present filters, and by the con- 
struction of about 4.26 acres of additional filters along the southerly 
side of the present filtration area. Samples of the soil from test pits 
in the area in which these filters are to be located have already been 
examined by this Department, the results showing that the material 
in the proposed northeasterly extension is in general of excellent 
quality for the purpose, while that south of the present filter beds is 
quite fine, much of it being of rather poor quality for the purification 
of the sewage by filtration. 

It is proposed to underdrain the filters of the northeasterly addition 
by the construction of underdrains at depths ranging from 3.5 to 4.5 
feet, the underdrains being placed 35 to 45 feet apart. In the south- 
erly addition the underdrains are to be similar but it is proposed to 
place the drains not more than 30 feet apart. 

The plans also provide for extending the distribution pipes so as to 
convey the sewage to the additional areas. It is understood, further- 
more, that the plans are to include the underdrainage of the filters 
bordering the railroad, and that further improvements are under con- 
sideration in this region which will enable the city to utilize more 
fully the capacity of these filters in the future. 

The Department has caused the locality to be examined by its 
engineer and has examined the plans presented. The proposed 
additional filter beds will increase the area available for the disposal of 
the sewage of the city of Pittsfield about 50 per cent, and will make 
the aggregate area available for this purpose about 41.42 acres. The 
rate of filtration will thereby be reduced from about 128,000 gallons 
per acre per day, which is the rate at the present time, to about 
79,000 gallons per acre per day with the quantity of sewage now 
discharged at the area. This rate will be somewhat diflScult to main- 
tain, and in view of the fact that the city is growing rapidly the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 221 

additions now being made will no more than bring the filtration area 
up to the present requirements, and still further provision for the 
disposal of the sewage of the city will be needed in the immediate 
future unless some reduction can be made in the quantity of sewage 
requiring treatment. 

There is no doubt that a large portion of the water supplied to the 
city of Pittsfield is wasted and that much of this waste finds its way 
into the sewers. The total quantity of water consumed by the city in 
1914 amounted to about 5,800,000 gallons per day, or about 150 
gallons per person. This quantity is, as you have already stated in 
your report to the City Council, out of all proportion to the require- 
ments of the city, and it is probable that some reduction might be 
made in the quantity of sewage if the excessive waste of water were 
prevented. 

It is advisable under the circumstances that a careful survey of the 
water distribution system be made to determine whether there is any 
considerable leakage therefrom. If no considerable leakage is found it 
is then advisable that a thorough inspection be made of all the water 
fixtures within the premises of consumers of water and that meters 
be placed where any leakage or excessiv^e use or waste of water is dis- 
covered. Experience shows, however, that while it is practicable to 
reduce for a time the waste of water in a city or town by inspection of 
the water fixtures, it is impracticable as a rule to secure permanent 
reduction in the waste of water except by a practically universal 
application of meters. 

It is possible also that some further reduction in the quantity of 
sewage requiring disposal might be made by reducing the amount of 
leakage into the sewers, but the expense of the elimination of leakage 
might be larger than the cost of providing additional purification 
works. It is nevertheless worth while to make a careful examination 
of the sewers to determine whether there is any particular sewer or 
area in the city in which there is more leakage than in other portions, 
and whether a material reduction in the flow of sewage can be made 
by eliminating that leakage. If it is found impracticable, however, 
to reduce the flow of sewage by the elimination of leakage into the 
sewers or a reduction in the waste of water, it will be necessary for the 
city to provide immediately for the further enlargement of its sewage 
disposal works. 

The Department, after considering the plans presented, is of the 
opinion that they will, if carried out as proposed, provide an im- 
portant and much needed addition to the sewage disposal works of the 
city. The efficiency of the proposed additional filters at the southerly 



222 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

side of the filtration area may be found to be considerably less than in 
other parts of the area, but in that case it will probably be practicable 
to increase the efficiency of these filters by constructing in the finer 
portions trenches of coarser material to which the sewage could be 
applied. These filters, however, may in practice be found to operate 
in a reasonably satisfactory manner. 

The Department recommends that the question of reducing the 
quantity of sewage by the prevention of leakage be taken up at the 
earliest practicable time, and if such prevention is not found practi- 
cable, that the question of further enlarging your sewage purification 
works be given immediate consideration. 

Salisbury (Salisbury Beach). 
To the Salisbury Water Supply Company, Salisbury, Mass. ' 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your application for the approval of plans for a system of sewerage 
and sewage disposal for that portion of Salisbury known as Salisbury 
Beach and has examined the plans presented. 

These plans provide for collecting the sewage of Salisbury Beach 
into a main sewer to be laid along the westerly side of the beach 
from the New Hampshire line to an outlet into Black Rock Creek at a 
point about two thirds of a mile south of the point where the creek, 
or canal, is crossed by the road leading from Salisbury to the beach. 
The southerly end of the beach is to be served by a sewer running 
northerly to a junction with the main sewer a short distance above its 
outlet, and there are to be tributary sewers to serve various sections 
of the beach not served by the main sewer. 

The discharge of sewage into Black Rock Creek is to be regulated 
by means of a tank, located just above the sewer outlet, in which the 
sewage will be collected during the incoming tide and discharged 
automatically on the outgoing tide. The plans presented show a tank 
of two compartments, each 30 feet in length by 8 feet in width by 
7.5 feet in depth, thus having a total capacity of about 25,000 gallons. 
The outlet of this tank as shown on the plans presented is a pipe 20 
inches in diameter, at the upper end of which are double 18-inch tide 
gates designed to close the outlet of the tank during the period of the 
incoming tide and until the water on the outgoing tide has fallen below 
the level of the sewage in the tank. 

The Commissioner of Health and members of the Department have 
examined the locality relative to the need of sewerage at Salisbury 
Beach and the proposed plan of collecting and disposing of the sewage. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO\\T>JS. 223 

In the opinion of the Department, an improved sewerage system is 
greatly needed in this densely populated area, both to provide more 
extended means for the collection of the sewage and to prevent as 
soon as practicable the discharge of the sewage upon the beach which 
at the present time creates very objectionable and unsanitary con- 
ditions in the summer season when the beach is used for bathing. 
The proposed method of disposing of the sewage by discharging it into 
Black Rock Creek is a permissible one to adopt under the circum- 
stances and if, on account of the increasing quantity of sewage dis- 
charged there or from other cause, the conditions become objectionable 
in the future the sewage can be disposed of either by purification upon 
filter beds or by discharge into the Merrimack River near the outlet 
of Black Rock Creek, where a suitable outlet can be located. 

The proposed location of the storage tank and outlet into the creek 
at a point about 3,300 feet south of Broadway appears to be a reason- 
able one to adopt at the present time, and if objectionable conditions 
should subsequently occur by reason of the discharge of sewage into 
the creek at this point the outlet can be extended to a point of dis- 
charge 1,800 feet farther down stream whenever necessary without 
changing the location of the tank. Moreover, the tank can be used as 
a pump well if treatment of the sewage or its discharge into the 
Merrimack River becomes necessary at some future time. It is ad- 
visable that the tank be built in the beginning to have a capacity of 
not less than 25,000 gallons, that its floor be placed at about 2.6 feet 
above mean low water, and that the tank be provided with at least 
. two manholes to give access for cleaning and proper circulation of air 
wherever cleaning may be necessary. 

The sewers should be constructed and maintained strictly on the 
separate plan and the entrance of surface water and ground drainage 
prevented so far as possible, in order that the quantity of sewage to be 
disposed of may be reduced to a minimum. The careful construction 
of all connections with the sewers is also essential to this end. It is 
recommended that a sufficient number of connections be made between 
the sewers and the water mains to insure proper flushing of the sewers 
whenever necessary, and it is further suggested that an emergency out- 
let be provided from the main sewer above the tank or that a by-pass 
be constructed around the tank in order to discharge the sewage 
directly into the creek whenever it shall become necessary to dis- 
continue the use of the tank for repairs or other cause. 

With the modifications herein suggested, the disposal of the sewage 
of Salisbury Beach into Black Rock Creek by discharging it from a 
tank on the outgoing tide at a point at least 3,300 feet below Broad- 



224 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

way is hereby approved, said outlet to be discontinued and the 
sewage to be discharged at some point farther down the creek or 
disposed of in some other suitable manner whenever, by reason of the 
increase in the quantity of sewage discharged or the occurrence of 
objectionable conditions in the creek, or other cause, a change in the 
outlet becomes necessary. 

Stoneham. g^^ g^ ^9J5 

To Mr. C. J. Sweeney, Superintendent Public Works, Stoneham, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The State Department of Health has considered your 
application for advice as to the proposed location of a main sewer in 
the Lincolnville District in Stoneham and has caused the locality to 
be examined by one of "its engineers. 

The plans and report of your consulting engineer submitted with the 
application provide for the sewerage of a district in the southwesterly 
section of the town draining naturally through a small tributary of 
Sweetwater Brook, a branch of the Aberjona River, This district 
contains at the present time nearly fifty houses and, owing to the very 
fine subsoil and underlying ledge, much difficulty has been experienced 
in the proper disposal of the sewage from these dwellings. 

The plan provides for the construction of a main sewer 8 inches in 
diameter laid on a steep grade through low wet land between Glen 
Road and Atwood Avenue from the neighborhood of Park Street to 
an existing sewer in Maple Street. It is proposed to provide an under- 
drain beneath this sewer for the collection of ground water which is 
to be discharged into the brook just below West Hancock Street. 

There appears to be no more practicable location for the proposed 
main sewer in existing streets or elsewhere than in the low land in the 
neighborhood of the brook, and a right-of-way can undoubtedly be 
secured there by a purchase or taking under existing laws. 

The plan as a whole appears to be the best practicable method of 
providing a main sewer outlet for the district described in your 
application, and the Department recommends its adoption. 

Wakefield. 

To the Wakefield Water and Sewerage Board, Wakefield, Mass. ^^^ '^' ^^^^" 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on April 30, 1915, the following application for the approval of a pro- 
posed sewer in Park Avenue, Dell Avenue, Stedman Street and private 
land between Wakefield-Stoneham town line and Converse Street : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 225 

Your approval of the proposed sewer, in Park Ave., Dell Ave., and Stedman 
Street is requested. Sho-wTi on profile left at your office. 

The location of sewers in these streets was shown on a plan of 
sewerage approved by the State Board of Health in February, 1901, 
but being in dotted lines their construction w^as not approved at that 
time. The plan now presented — which is a slight modification of the 
plan previously presented — was considered and approved by^j^the 
Public Health Council at its meeting held on May 4, 1915. 



Wellesley. Jtjne 25, 1915. 

To the Sewerage Committee of the town of Wellesley, Mass., Mr. W. H. Blood, Jr., 

Chairmxm. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on June 22, 1915, an application for the approval by the Department, 
under the provisions of chapter 567 of the Acts of the year 1907, of a 
system of sewerage for the town of Wellesley, accompanied by a plan 
of the proposed works. 

Upon receipt of this application, the State Department of Health 
gave notice of a hearing upon said plan at its office. Room 143 State 
House, on June 23, 1915, at 11.00 a.m., by publication of said notice 
in "The Townsman." 

At this hearing no one appeared to object to the plan presented by 
the engineer of the town. After the hearing and a consideration of 
the plan, the Department voted to approve the system of sewerage 
proposed for the town of Wellesley and shown on the plan accompany- 
ing the application, said plan being entitled, "Sewerage for Wellesley, 
Mass., 1915. Ernest W. Bowditch, Engineer, Boston, Mass." (Scale: 
1"=600'). 

Westborough. j^ j4^ 19^5 

To the Board of Sewer Commissioners, Westborough, Mass., Mr. Ira M. Beaman, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
April 26, 1915, the following application for advice as to the ad- 
visability of admitting to the Westborough sewers the waste from the 
proposed bleaching department of the Westborough Weaving Com- 
pany. 

We have received an application from the Westboro Weaving Company to 
dispose of the waste from their proposed bleaching department through our 



226 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

public sewers. We understand that they wall use chloride of lime and sulphuric 
acid in solution in some form. We request that they submit to your board 
details as to the chemicals and the quantities and the method of disposal of 
the same into the sewer. We should be pleased to have, as early as possible, 
an opinion from the State Department of Health as to whether it would be 
safe to accept this sewage on the conditions that they wish to put it into the 
sewers. 

The information submitted to the Department is to the effect that 
the materials, consisting of braids, tapes, etc., are to be first boiled 
for several hours in a kier containing about 5,000 gallons of water to 
which caustic soda is added, and subsequently rinsed through fresh 
water. They are then- to be treated in an acid bath which it is said 
will be discharged not oftener than twice a year. After this treatment, 
the materials will be washed twice, about 5,000 gallons of water being 
used each time, though with certain qualities of product it is expected 
that a much larger quantity of water may be used. The average 
amount of waste liquor from this establishment, as nearly as can be 
determined, will be about 50,000 gallons per week, the discharge taking 
place on two days only, except occasionally when an extra amount of 
dilute wash water will be discharged. 

The Commissioner of Health has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of the engineers of the Department and samples of the various 
wastes to be analyzed. Analyses of the waste from various processes 
similar to those to be carried on at these works show that the waste 
liquor, discharged from the treatment in the kier with caustic soda 
contains a large quantity of organic matter even after the second wash, 
and the acid waste has an acidity of from 98 to 155 parts in 100,000. 

Investigations have also been made to determine the probable effect 
of these wastes upon the Westborough sewage in case they should be 
admitted to the sewers. The results of the investigations indicate that 
these w^astes, if they do not exceed in actual volume 50,000 gallons 
per week, may probably enter the Westborough sewers and pass to the 
filtration area without causing objectionable conditions in the sewers 
or affecting unfavorably the operation of the filtration plant, provided 
this quantity of waste is discharged in such a way as to be distributed 
quite evenly throughout the twenty-four hours on at least six days of 
the week. It is important, furthermore, that, before discharge into 
the sewers, the acid liquor should always be mixed and neutralized by 
the alkaline discharge. It is not certain, however, that some further 
treatment of these w^astes will not be required at the works before they 
are admitted to the sewers so as to insure their thorough mixture at all 
times. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 227 

If these wastes are admitted to the sewers, it is recommended that 
they be admitted only on the condition that the discharge into the 
sewers be placed in charge of a chemist or engineer at the works, whose 
duty it will be to insure their being discharged into the sewer through- 
out at least six days of the week, and on the further condition that, 
if it shall be found at any time that the discharge tends to create 
objectionable conditions in the sewers or at the filter beds, it shall be 
discontinued at once. 

Westfield. 

June 9, 1915. 

To the Board oj Selectmen, Westfield, Mass., Mr. John L. Hyde, Town Engineer. 

Gentlemen: — The Commissioner of Health received from you on 
May 21, 1915, through Mr. John L. Hyde, Town Engineer, an ap- 
plication for advice as to a proposed system of sewers for the district 
adjacent to FrankHn Street between Congress and Lloyd's Hill streets, 
the sewage to be discharged into an existing 20-inch drain leading 
from the State road at a point about 650 feet west of Congress Street 
to the Westfield River, and in response to this application has caused 
the locality to be examined and has considered the plan presented. 

The reason given for discharging the sewage into the storm water 
drain in this manner is to relieve the present sewerage system, which 
is already overtaxed at some seasons of the year. It is very important, 
in the opinion of the Department, that sewage and storm water be 
kept wholly separate in the town of Westfield, in view of the fact that 
it will be necessary for the town at no distant time to provide for the 
purification of its sewage before its discharge into the Westfield River 
or its tributaries, and, under these conditions, it is essential to keep 
storm water separate from the sewage in order to avoid excessive cost 
in the construction and maintenance of sewage disposal works. 

In view of the fact that the present sewerage system of the town is 
overtaxed, it is not of course advisable to discharge a further addi- 
tional quantity of sewage into the system until relief has been pro- 
vided. Under these circumstances, the discharge of the sewage of the 
district in question temporarily into a storm water drain appears to be 
the least objectionable method of disposal to adopt at the present 
time. In the construction of the sewer, however, provision should be 
made to exclude all roof water and, so far as practicable, all storm 
water, as well as ground water, and if need arises for removing storm 
water, separate pipes should be provided for that purpose. 

It is recommended that studies be made and plans prepared at the 
earliest practicable time for the enlargement of the sewerage system of 



228 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the town and relief from the present surcharging of the sewers at 
certain times, and these plans should include the diversion of the 
sewage of the Franklin Street district indicated on your plan from the 
storm water drain and its disposal in connection with the sewage of 
the other portions of the town. 

West Springfield. 
To the Board of Selectmen, West Springfield, Mass. March 11, 1915. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Feb. 24, 1915, re- 
ceived through your engineers, for advice as to a proposed plan of 
sewerage in the valley of Block Brook having an outlet into the 
Westfield River, the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality 
to be examined and has considered the plan presented. 

The plan provides for sewers in Westfield Street running easterly 
from Ohio Avenue and westerly from the neighborhood of Wilder 
Terrace to a main sewer in the valley of Block Brook through which 
the sewage from these sewers and from tributary sewers in Ohio 
Avenue and Rogers Avenue will be conveyed to a proposed outlet 
into the Westfield River. 

It is evident from an examination of the locality that surface 
drainage is needed in portions of this region, but in order to remove 
any considerable portion of the surface water from the region which 
these sewers are designed to serve, it would be necessary either to 
construct sewers of very large size to convey the entire flow of sewage 
and surface water to the Westfield River or to provide overflows into 
Block Brook. It is not desirable that Block Brook in this region, 
which is hkely to become populous at no distant time in the future, 
should be polluted by sewage, even though pollution would occur only 
at times of rain. If all surface water, and so far as practicable all 
ground drainage, were kept out of the sewers, pipes of much smaller 
size than proposed would be adequate for the disposal of all of the 
sewage of the district. There is, moreover, no objection to the dis- 
charge of surface drainage, if not polluted by sewage, into Block Brook 
or any of its tributaries. By utilizing the existing watercourses, 
deepening and improving them if necessary, adequate drainage can be 
provided with short drains in the streets emptying into the nearest 
watercourses, and in this way drains of comparatively small size will 
be adequate for all requirements. 

Under the circumstances, it is recommended that the sewers be con- 
structed strictly on the separate plan and that all surface water, and 
so far as practicable ground drainage, be excluded. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 229 

The discharge of the sewage into the Westfield River without treat- 
ment appears to be a reasonable method of disposal to adopt at the 
present time, but if the conditions should change and this method of 
disposal become objectionable, the use of this outlet is to be dis- 
continued or a satisfactory method of purification of the sewage pro- 
vided when required by this Department. The location of the outlet 
into the Westfield River as proposed appears to be a satisfactory one, 
but it is essential that the pipe be carried out into the stream to a 
sufiicient distance from the bank so that it may be covered at times of 
low water and the sewage may mingle quickly with the current of the 
river and avoid fouling the banks. 

When the details of the outlet into the Westfield River are prepared, 
we will advise you concerning them, if you so request. 



Wrentham (State School). 



Sept. 22, 1915. 



To the Wrentham State School, Wrentham, Mass., Dr. George L. Wallace, Super- 
intendent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a communication from Elias A. 
Wood of Norfolk relative to the operation of the sewage filter beds at 
the State School, the State Department of Health has caused the 
locality to be examined and samples of the effluent from the filter beds 
to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination do not show that at the present 
time the effluent causes a nuisance in the brook below the filter beds, 
and no odor was noticeable in their neighborhood. There are growths 
of organisms in the brook below the filter beds which are very probably 
fostered in part at least by the nitrates in the sewage effluent. The 
filter beds were in a satisfactory condition at the time of the exami- 
nation, but the siphon leading to the filters does not operate satis- 
factorily and should be reconstructed. It is advisable also that 
distribution troughs be constructed on the filters or other means 
provided for distributing the sewage more evenly over the filters and 
that all of them be used, so far as practicable, each day, except such 
beds as may be out of use for the purpose of cleaning. It would be of 
advantage in the operation of the filters, and doubtless also in the 
maintenance of proper conditions in the brook, if the State should 
acquire control of the channel of the brook and of land on either side 
so that the bed of the stream could be lowered and its channel kept 
clear of growths of organisms and other obstructions. 



230 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It is recommended that the control of the brook be acquired and 
that the changes herein suggested be made at the earliest practicable 
time. 

Sept. 22, 1915. 
To Harold E. Fales, Esq., Badaracco Block, North Attleborough, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Since receiving your communication of July 14, 1915, 
relative to the complaint of Mr. Elias A. Wood of Norfolk as to the 
operation of the filter beds at the State School at Wrentham, the 
State Department of Health has caused these filters to be examined 
and samples of the sewage applied to the filters and efHuent therefrom 
to be analyzed. 

The recent examinations show that the operation of these filters 
has been materially improved and that they are at present being 
operated in a satisfactory manner. Under the conditions now existing 
there appears to be no cause for complaint of the condition of these 
filters or of the effluent therefrom. 

A copy of a communication to the superintendent of the institution 
relative to these filters and the conditions in the brook below them is 
enclosed. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The following is the substance of the .official action taken during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to the pollution of 
streams and miscellaneous matters: — 



Attleboro (Y. M. C. a.). 

Sept. 22, 1915. 

To the Health Department, Attleboro, Mass., Ralph P. Kent, M.D., Health Officer. 

Gentlemen: — In reply to your request for an examination of the 
swimming pool at the Young Men's Christian Association in Attle- 
boro and advice as to its condition, the State Department of Health 
has caused the pool to be examined and samples of water from the 
pool and of water supplied thereto to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water in the pool con- 
tains a very large amount of free and albuminoid ammonia, is high 
in chlorine and contains a large number of bacteria. It is evident 
from these results that the water is very badly polluted, probably by 
urine. It is recommended that the water be drawn entirely out, the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 231 

bottom and sides of the tank thoroughly cleansed, and that thereafter 
an effort be made to prevent the further serious pollution of the pool 
by those who use it. 

Dec. 31, 1915. 
To the Health Department, Attleboro, Mass., Ralph P. Kent, M.D., Health Officer. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Oct. 20, 1915, stating 
that the swimming pool at the Young Men's Christian Association 
had been thoroughly cleaned and requesting a further examination 
thereof, the State Department of Health has caused the pool to be 
examined and additional samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the quantity of organic 
matter at the inlet of the swimming pool has been greatly reduced and 
that a large reduction has also been effected in the quantity of organic 
matter present in the water standing in the pool. The water still con- 
tains a considerable quantity of organic matter, however, and a large 
number of bacteria, though the number of objectionable bacteria 
present was small. 

The condition of the pool is on the whole greatly improved and does 
not now differ materially from that of similar pools. The water in this 
pool should be analyzed from time to time and the pool emptied and 
cleansed at sufficiently frequent intervals to keep it in proper sanitary 
condition. 

Belchertown (Proposed School for Feeble-minded). 

Nov. 29, 1915. 
To the State Board of Insanity, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health has considered 
your applications received Oct. 21 and Nov. 8, 1915, for advice as to 
certain proposed locations for a school for the feeble-minded in the 
western part of the State and has caused the three localities indicated, 
situated respectively in the towns of Conway, Belchertown and South- 
wick, to be examined by one of its engineers. 

The area which it is proposed to acquire in the town of Conway is 
situated in the northerly part of that town and borders the southerly 
side of the Deerfield River between Bear River and South River. A 
branch of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, North- 
ampton Division, passes along the border of this tract adjacent to the 
Deerfield River with a station at the southeasterly edge of the tract, 
and there are two stations on the Fitchburg Division of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad adjacent to a part of the tract. The station at 



232 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Bardwell Ferry on the Fitchburg Division is approximately opposite 
the middle of the tract and is connected therewith by a highway 
bridge, from which a road passes through the area. There is also a 
trolley Hne parallel to the South River at the southerly edge of the 
tract. 

The elevation of the area as shown upon the State topographical 
map ranges from about 260 feet to 550 feet above mean sea level in 
the southerly part of the tract and 840 feet near its northwesterly 
limits. The area slopes to the northeast and the higher lands of the 
northern portion are covered with heavy timber, while most of the 
southern portion is cleared and largely under cultivation. 

The Department is informed that the proposed institution may 
contain ultimately a population of 2,000, and the area has been 
examined with a view to obtaining a water supply for an institution of 
that size. There are numerous small springs in the central portion of 
the tract, but a general examination fails to show any location within 
its limits from which it is Hkely that an adequate quantity of good 
water for the requirements of the institution could be obtained. 
Water could be taken from one of the rivers adjacent to the area by 
constructing a reservoir and purifying the water by filtration, but the 
cost of a water supply under such conditions would be large. It is 
probable that a supply could be obtained at less cost by constructing 
a reservoir upon one of the small brooks in this region, the water of 
which might be used without filtration, if a location could be obtained 
within a reasonable distance of the area which it is proposed to 
acquire. So far as can be judged from the State map, however, the 
streams in the immediate neighborhood of this area are small and a 
careful study would be necessary before it would be practicable to 
determine whether or not a suitable water supply could be obtained in 
that way at a reasonable cost, but the indications for a gravity 
supply are very poor. 

The disposal of sewage from the buildings on this area would 
probably be a simple matter, since the sewage could probably be dis- 
charged after sedimentation directly into the Deerfield River without 
serious objection so long as the condition and uses of that stream 
remain as at the present time. 

The Belchertown site is located west of the central part of the 
village of Belchertown and is bordered along its northwesterly side by 
the tracks of the Central Massachusetts and the Central Vermont 
railroads, each of which has a station at Belchertown cjose to the 
easterly limit of the tract. As shown upon the State map, the ele- 
vation of the ground in this area ranges from about 360 to 480 feet 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 233 

above sea level and slopes in a northwesterly direction toward Bachelor 
Brook. Two small brooks, uniting near the northwesterly portion of 
the area, discharge into Bachelor Brook about a mile north of the 
tract. The southwesterly part of the tract is covered largely with a 
growth of heavy timber, and there are limited areas of woodland at 
other points in the central portions of the tract. The land in the 
neighborhood of the streams is swampy in places and much of it is 
covered at present with a dense growth of alders and other under- 
brush. 

Judging from surface indications, a water supply for an institution 
at this location could probably be obtained from the ground within the 
limits of the area. It will probably also be practicable to locate 
sewage filters within this tract for the purification of the sewage of the 
institution, and, on account of the location, an efficient system of 
sewage disposal will be necessary. Since the best location for a water 
supply is in the valley of the main stream which drains the tract, it 
will be essential that any sewage disposal area located within this 
watershed shall be so placed that it will not affect the quality of the 
water supply. The best practicable location for filter beds appears to 
be in the southwesterly portion of the tract. 

The Southwick site, so called, is located about midway between the 
thickly settled portions of the towns of Southwick and Westfield, and 
only a very small portion is within the latter town. The land slopes 
generally to the east, the greater part of it being within the watershed 
of Slab Brook, so called, though the extreme northerly portions of the 
area slope toward the northeast and the southwesterly portions toward 
the west and south. 

It is impracticable to determine from a general examination of this 
area whether or not it will be possible to obtain a suitable water 
supply for the institution from any source within the tract, though a 
ground water supply might perhaps be obtained in the lower grounds 
in the southeasterly part of the area. The best plan of securing a 
water supply would probably be to take water from the works of the 
city of Springfield, the principal pipe line of which passes about half 
a mile north of the northerly portion of the tract. It may also be 
possible to obtain water from the town of Westfield by extending a 
suitable pipe line from the Westfield system to this area. 

The disposal of the sewage from buildings located upon this tract 
may involve a considerable expense, since a very efficient purification 
of the sewage is necessary, and even with the most efficient purifica- 
tion practicable, objection may be made to the discharge of the 
effluent into any of the neighboring streams. It will probably be 



234 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

feasible, however, to locate adequate sewage filters in the north- 
easterly part of the tract for the purification of the sewage, but if it 
should not be found desirable to discharge the effluent into any of the 
adjacent streams, the effluent could undoubtedly be disposed of 
satisfactorily by conveying it to an outlet in the Westfield Little 
River, a distance of about 1^ miles. It is probable that the effluent 
could be discharged into the Westfield Little River by gravity, though 
a survey will be necessary before this question can be determined. 
The elevation of this area ranges from 250 to a maximum of about 
440 feet above mean sea level, and much of the higher ground is 
covered with a heavy growth of wood. The easterly part of the tract 
consists largely of cultivated land, and there is very little swamp 
except at two or three places near the sources of two small streams 
in the southwesterly part of the tract. 

The nearest railroad line to this tract is that between New Haven 
and Northampton with a station at Southwick, about 2| miles south- 
east of the area. 

Comparing the three tracts so far as the practicability of securing 
an efficient water supply is concerned, it appears likely that con- 
siderable difficulty might be encountered in securing a proper water 
supply at reasonable cost for the Conway tract, while a water supply 
for the Southwick tract could probably be secured from the Springfield 
or the Westfield pipe lines without special difficulty, though it would 
probably be necessary to pump the water from the former source at 
least in order to supply it under sufficient head. It seems likely that 
an adequate water supply can be obtained within the limits of the 
Belchertown tract without special difficulty, and the expense would 
not be likely to be much greater than the expense of obtaining a water 
supply for the tract at Southwick, so far as can be judged from the 
limited information available at the present time. 

As regards sewage disposal, less difficulty is likely to be encountered 
at the Conway tract than in either of the other locations, while at 
Southwick the disposal of the sewage is likely to involve considerable 
expense. So far as can be judged then from the information at present 
available, the cost of efficient systems of water supply and sewerage, 
taken together, is likely to be less on the whole at the Belchertown 
area than at either of the others, and probably somewhat less at the 
Southwick area than at Conway, where, while sewage disposal appears 
to be a simple matter, the securing of a suitable water supply system 
is likely to prove a difficult problem. 



No. 34.1 ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 235 



Beverly. 

Jan. 29, 1915. 

To Mr. Augustus P. Loring, Jr., Chairman, Planning Board, Beverly, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Your request for information concerning the Dane 
Street bathing beach and the information relative to the conditions 
affecting the bathing on this beach have been considered by the 
Commissioner of Health. 

In answer to your first question, the most recent examinations of 
this beach have shown that floating matters discharged at the Beverly 
sewer outlet, located about 700 feet from the westerly end of the 
beach, are at times cast up upon the beach as far east as Ocean 
Street in the period of the year when the locality is used for bathing. 
Under these circumstances, there is danger to the public health in the 
continued use of this beach for bathing. 

With regard to your second question, whether if a bathhouse were 
erected on the beach there would be any chance in the future of 
public bathing privileges being cut off by this Department on account 
of the pollution of the water, it is impracticable to give you any 
definite reply. It may be said, however, that there is no law at 
present in force which gives this Department power to prevent the 
use of this beach for bathing. 

As to the third question, since the cause of the pollution of the 
water near the beach is the discharge of sewage from the Beverly 
sewer outlet, it is probable that the conditions at the beach will be 
dependent to a large extent upon the quantity of sewage discharged 
at this outlet and that the conditions will vary with the direction of 
the wind and the state of the tide. The quantity of sewage discharged 
at the present outlet will of course increase in the future with the 
growth of the city. 

In answer to the fourth question, there appears to the Department 
no method by which the condition of the water at this beach can be 
improved except by removing the sewer outlet from its present location 
to some point where the sewage will not be carried back upon the 
beach. 

The question of disposing properly of the sewage of the city of 
Beverly has been before this Department several times in the past 
and has been under consideration by the city of Beverly for several 
years. It seems to the Department important that the question of 
properly disposing of the sewage shall be thoroughly investigated and 
a suitable place of disposal provided at the earliest practicable time. 



236 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Braintree. 

July 2, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Braintree, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Nov. 28, 1914, the 
State Department of Health has made observations of the odors from 
the burning cinder pile of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad between Braintree and South Braintree for several months 
past and has not found at any time that objectionable odors were 
noticeable beyond a few hundred feet from the fire, and in no case in 
the last four months has any odor been noticeable at any of the 
dwelling houses in the neighborhood that could be distinguished from 
the odor noticeable from the roundhouse in which the locomotives are 
kept. The fire appears to have been effectually confined by means of 
trenches to an area of about four acres and has been gradually 
diminishing. So far as the investigations of this Department show, the 
odors from this area do not appear to constitute a nuisance. 

The Department will be pleased to continue the observations, if 
you think it desirable to do so, and will inform you from time to 
time as to the results. , 

Conway (Proposed School for Feeble-minded). (See Belcher- 
town.) 

Danvers. 

May 12, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Danvers, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request from the board of health of 
Peabody, the Commissioner of Health has caused an examination to 
be made of the condition of the clams taken from the flats in the 
Danvers River near Danversport, and a copy of the communication 
from this Department to the board of health of Peabody is enclosed 
herewith. 

The Department will communicate to you the results of further 
investigations of the condition of clams in the Danvers River, the 
investigation of which is now being made. In the meantime, it is 
advisable that your department give notice to the public of the 
danger involved in the use of clams for food from the area indicated. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. . 237 

Oct. 6, 1915. 
To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Complaint having been made that clams are taken 
from polluted areas in the Dan vers River and offered for sale as food, 
the State Department of Health has caused an examination of the 
Danvers River and its estuaries to be made to determine the sources 
of pollution thereof and the condition of the waters and flats therein 
and has caused samples of clams from these flats to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the flats and waters along 
the Beverly shore between Woodberrys Point and Tucks Point are 
very badly polluted by sewage from the main sewer outlet of the city 
of Beverly and that clams from these flats are unsafe for use as food. 

The flats near the junction of the Bass River with the Danvers 
River and all of the flats examined in the Danvers . River west of the 
Boston and Maine Railroad bridge and in the estuaries of the Danvers 
River, known as the North River, the Waters River, the Crane River 
and the Porter River, are badly polluted and clams taken therefrom 
are unsafe for food. 

As a result of its investigations, the State Department of Health 
finds that the flats within the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor west 
of a line drawn from Woodberrys Point to Old Hospital Point are 
contaminated by sewage or manufacturing waste and that shellfish 
taken therefrom are unsafe for use as food. The Department hereby 
requests the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game to prohibit the 
taking of any clams or quahogs from the flats and waters herein de- 
scribed until further notice. 

Faikhaven. 

Dec. 14, 1915. 

To the Fairhaven Improvement Association, Fairhaven, Mass., C. E. P. 
Thompson, M.D., Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the water of New Bedford harbor at the foot of Pease Street, Fair- 
haven, where the location of a public bathing pavilion is being con- 
sidered, the State Department of Health has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers and samples of the water to be 
analyzed. 

There is a sewer outlet of the town of Fairhaven at the Fairhaven 
end of the New Bedford bridge north of the proposed location of the 
bathhouse and two other main outlets at Union Wharf about one- 
third of a mile south of this location. A large quantity of sewage is 



238 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

also still discharged into New Bedford Harbor from numerous sewer 
outlets on the New Bedford side. 

The results of analyses of the sea water show that it contains con- 
siderably more free ammonia than is found in the sea water of the 
bay, but the pollution at the present time is not serious and the loca- 
tion indicated appears to be the best that it is practicable to secure 
along this shore for the purpose in view. It is probable that the 
pollution of the harbor will diminish with the extension of the New 
Bedford intercepting sewer, and if the waters along the Fairhaven 
shore should become seriously polluted from the Fairhaven outlets the 
objectionable conditions could probably be removed by extending these 
outlets to a greater distance from the shore. 

In view of the conditions, the waters of the harbor at the foot of 
Pease Street can probably be used with safety for bathing unless 
pollution of the harbor in this region by sewage becomes greater than 
at the present time. 

Gardner (Contagious Disease Hospital). 

March 5, 1915. 
To the Hospital Building Committee, Gardner, Mass., Mr. Seth Hetwood, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your communication received through 
Mr. Harold Field Kellogg, architect, of Boston, relative to a conta- 
gious disease hospital to be located on the southerly slope of Bickford 
Hill in Gardner, the Commissioner of Health has caused the locality 
to be examined and has examined the general features of the plan 
presented. 

The plan provides for a hospital with accommodations for eighteen 
patients which will care for contagious diseases, though the plans do 
not show a ward for tuberculosis. 

The building will be supplied with water from the Gardner water 
works, and the supply should be adequate and^ satisfactory. 

The hospital is so situated that the sewage can, if desired, be dis- 
charged into one of the sewers of the town of Gardner by gravity, 
and this would be the best plan of disposing of the sewage. The 
hospital will be located at a considerable distance from the nearest 
town sewer, however, and it is thought probable that considerable rock 
might be encountered in laying a pipe to connect with that sewer, and 
in view of these circumstances it is planned to dispose of the sewage, 
for the present at least, by a tank and a system of cesspools with 
underground drains, through which the sewage will leach into the soil. 
It is impracticable to make an examination at this season of the year 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 239 

which would determine definitely whether or not it would be possible 
to dispose of the sewage by cesspools. If the soil is sufficiently porous 
to absorb the quantity of sewage discharged from the hospital and 
prevent unpurified sewage from overflowing onto the surface of the 
ground, this method of disposal can be used without objection. If, 
however, the soil is unsuitable for the disposal of the sewage satis- 
factorily by this method, it may be necessary to construct a sub- 
surface filter by hauling sand or gravel to a suitable location in the 
neighborhood of the hospital. If constructed in this way, a filter 50 
feet square, having an area of 2,500 square feet, would probably be 
sufficient, providing the filtering material were as much as 5 feet in 
depth. The sewage could then be disposed of through pipes beneath 
the surface of the filter, which should be properly underdrained. • 

As soon as the conditions become favorable in the spring, it is 
advisable that the soil be carefully examined to determine whether the 
disposal of the sewage in cesspools and underground drains is likely to 
be practicable under the circumstances. The Department will assist 
you in this investigation, if you so request, by making the necessary 
examinations of the soil as soon as conditions are favorable for such 
examinations and will then advise you further as to the best practi- 
cable plan of disposing of the sewage. 

The location and plans are approved subject to further consideration 
of the matter of sewage disposal. 

^^'^^^- May 7, 1915. 

To Messrs. Daniel H. Hollis, John E. Cheever, Frank Vaile and Others, Lynn, 

Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your petition for an examination of 
the three clam flats in the vicinity of the city of Lynn and advice as 
to whether the clams obtained therefrom may safely be used for food, 
the Commissioner of Health has caused the flats indicated to be ex- 
amined and samples of clams taken therefrom to be analyzed. 

Of the samples collected in Lynn Harbor all were found to contain 
bacteria characteristic of sewage. These clams are probably affected 
by sewage discharged upon the flats in this neighborhood and are 
unsafe for use for food. The clams from all of the flats examined 
within the Pines River were found to be badly polluted and unfit for 
use. The clams taken near Little Nahant showed a wide variation 
in the number of bacteria present, the number present at times being 
very high, and in view of these results this area cannot be regarded as 
a safe source from which to take clams for food. 



240 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The least polluted clams were found on the ocean side of the Point 
of Pines, but even here the clams taken at different times from this 
flat have shown considerable variation. Those collected in the latter 
part of March were low in bacteria, and at that time these clams were 
probably safe for domestic use, but samples collected about a month 
later showed the presence of greater numbers of bacteria, including 
those characteristic of sewage. Under the circumstances, these clams 
also must be regarded as unsafe for food. 

Clams were found abundantly in all the flats examined in Lynn 
Harbor but, until some provision has been made for removing the 
sewage which now greatly pollutes these flats, the use for food of clams 
taken from these areas would be likely to cause sickness and cannot 
be approved at the present time. 

New Bedford. ^^^^^ 13^ ^gi5 

To the Board of Health, New Bedford, Mass., Mr. William G. Kirschbaum, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for advice as to a 
change in the location of the public bathhouses from the westerly 
shore of Buzzards Bay to a location on the easterly shore of Clark's 
Cove at the end of Valentine Street, about 2,000 feet north of the 
screen house on the intercepting sewer, the Commissioner of Health 
has caused the locality to be examined and samples of the sea water 
at the proposed location to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the sea water at this point 
is badly polluted by sewage at the present time and the location is 
not a safe one for the purpose proposed. It appears, however, that 
the sewage of the main intercepting sewer is at present being dis- 
charged through a temporary outlet near the screen house, and this 
sewage on an incoming tide spreads along the shore in a northerly 
direction toward the proposed location for the new bathhouse. ^ 

The condition of the sea water in this region is probably much 
worse than it will be after the temporary discharge of sewage at the 
screen house has been discontinued. Under the circumstances it is 
probable that if a further examination of the sea water at the location 
indicated were made two or three weeks after the discharge of sewage 
at the screen house bad been discontinued, the results would show a 
great improvement in the condition of the water. If the discharge of 
sewage at the temporary outlet is discontinued in the near future, the 
Department will be pleased to make a further examination with refer- 
ence to constructing a bathhouse at the location indicated, if you so 
request. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 241 

Norwood (Norwood Civic Association). 

Jan. 18, 1915. 

To the Norwood Civic Association, Norwood, Mass., Mr. Walter E. Marshaix, 

Business Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination 
from time to time of the water of your swimming pool in Norwood and 
advice as to its condition, the Commissioner of Health has caused the 
pool to be examined and samples of the water to be analyzed. ^?ai 

The information presented shows that the pool is about 20 feet long 
by 60 feet wide with a depth of from 5 to 8 feet and has a capacity 
when filled to the usual level of about 75,000 gallons. It is used by 
about 500 persons per month, and regulations have been made relative 
to the taking of shower baths previous to entrance into the pool and 
to the sterilization of bathing suits. 

In connection with the pool there is an apparatus for filtering the 
water consisting of three filters, which are washed apparently every 
other day, the waste water being discharged into the sewer. 

The pool was filled originally with water from the Norwood town 
supply on Oct. 1, 1914, and about 5,000 gallons have since been 
added. The total quantity of water filtered each day amounts, judging 
from the information presented, to about 40,000 gallons, or about 55 
per cent, of the capacity of the pool. The filtered water is treated 
with soda, alum and hypochlorite of lime and returned to the pool. 

The results of the examination show that the condition of the water 
from a bacterial standpoint is much the same as that of other swim- 
ming pools in the State which have been examined by this Department. 
The filtration of the water is not very efficient, and the effluent of the 
filters is little better than the water supplied to them from the pool. 
The method of applying disinfectants is not accurate and, notwith- 
standing the filtration and disinfection of the water, large numbers of 
bacteria are present at times in the water of the pool. 

It is probable that a better result might be obtained if hypochlorite 
were applied directly to the water of the pool each night after use of 
the pool for the day had ceased, instead of applying it to the water 
delivered to the filters. 

Judging from the examinations of the various swimming pools that 
have come under the observation of the Department, a careful exam- 
ination of those using the pools and an insistence upon their cleanliness 
and health seems to be the best method of protecting, so far as prac- 
ticable, the health of the bathers. This precaution is advisable in any 



242 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

case, even though material improvement is made in the efficiency of 
the filters and the disinfection of the water. It is advisable, however, 
that a more efficient filtration be secured if possible and that a change 
be made in the method of disinfection of the water as herein suggested. 



Peabody. 

May 12, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Peabody, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request for an examination of 
the clams taken from the Danvers River near Danversport, the Com- 
missioner of Health has caused the flats indicated to be examined and 
samples of the clams to be analyzed. 

The Danvers River in this region is grossly polluted by sewage and 
tannery waste, and analyses of twelve samples from this region showed 
that in every case the clams were grossly polluted and unfit for use as 
food. 

The board of health of Danvers has been notified of the danger to 
the public health in the continued use of clams from this locaHty. 

In view of the results found, it is necessary to prevent the taking of 
clams for food in this section of the Danvers River. It is not unlikely 
that other areas are also affected by the pollution of this river and, 
treating your application as a complaint under chapter 91, section 113, 
of the Revised Laws, the Department will investigate the extent of 
the polluted flats and determine the areas from which the taking of 
clams for food should be prohibited. 

PiTTSFIELD (COOLIDGE MEMORIAL HoSPITAL). 

Nov. 29, 1915. 
To Mr. A. W. Shaw, Office of Overseers of the Poor, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your communication relative to the 
proposed plans for the Frederick Shurtleff Coolidge Memorial Tuber- 
culosis Hospital at Pittsfield, the State Department of Health has 
caused the location of the proposed hospital to be examined by one of 
its engineers and has examined the general plans. 

The location indicated is a point about half a mile northeast of the 
village of Barkerville, about 60 feet above the level of the southwest 
branch of the Housatonic River and a short distance south of the Pitts- 
field Anti-Tuberculosis Camp. There is at this point a small knoll 
and the hospital will be located on the southeasterly side of this knoll, 
though the upper floors will be above its top. The site is located well 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 243 

away from the highways but is easily accessible from the electric car 
line from Pittsfield. 

The plans provide for a building about 130 x 30 feet in plan and 
two stories in height. A cellar is to be constructed under all but the 
sleeping porches. Provision is made in the beginning for eight patients 
and one nurse, and four maids' rooms, one bath and a large unfinished 
room are to be provided in the attic. 

The hospital is to be supplied with water from one of the city water 
mains which has been recently extended to this neighborhood and, 
while the elevation is considerable, it is probable that an adequate 
quantity of water can be obtained in this way. 

The plan of sewage disposal provides for a digestion tank, so called, 
a siphon chamber, and some 1,600 feet of tile pipe, to be laid 2 feet 
below the surface of the ground in the area to the east of the hospital 
on ground sloping to a small brook running from Mud Pond to the 
river. The soil in this locality does not appear to be porous, but since 
the number of patients and attendants is not likely to exceed fifteen, 
it is probable that the plan of sewage disposal proposed will operate 
for a time without serious difficulty. If the population of the hospital 
is enlarged, provision will probably have to be made eventually for the 
construction of a sub-surface filter for the disposal of the sewage, the 
effluent from which can be discharged into the Housatonic River. 

The location of the proposed hospital appears to be a satisfactory 
one for the purpose, and the provisions for water supply and sewerage, 
considering the small number of patients that is likely to be accom- 
modated at this hospital in the beginning, appear to be adequate. 



Plymouth. 

May 7, 191.5. 
To the Board of Health, Plymouth, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Some time ago, at your request, an examination was 
made of the Newfield Street marsh, so called, in Plymouth, the drain- 
age of which was being considered at that time by the town. 

The results of that examination showed that the marsh has an area 
of a little less than two acres, situated about 68 feet above sea level, 
and that there is a pool in the middle of the marsh having an area 
of about 3,800 square feet. 

The information submitted indicated that this marsh had an objec- 
tionable odor in the summer season, and it is possible that it is also 
a breeding place for mosquitoes. 

In view of these conditions, it seems important that this marsh be 



244 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

either drained or filled so as to prevent injury to the health of the in- 
habitants of the neighborhood. 

If the town has not yet decided to drain or fill the marsh and it is 
likely to remain in its present condition during the coming year, it 
should be carefully examined, and if objectionable conditions are found, 
measures should be taken to prevent injury to the health of the resi- 
dents in the neighborhood until the matter of permanent improvement 
can again be considered by the town. This Department will be 
pleased to give you or the board of selectmen further advice in this 
matter if any further action is deemed necessary. 



QUINCY. 

Aug. 20, 1915. 

To Messrs. Frank F. Taylor, Harry B. McIntire, George W. Mitchell and 

Others, Quincy, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your petition for an examination of 
Wollaston Beach at the mouth of Sachem Brook, where you state there 
is an objectionable odor, the State Department of Health has caused 
the locality to be examined by its engineer and has considered the in- 
formation presented. 

The results of the examination show that Sachem Brook drains 
an area of about one square mile, of which 90 per cent, is within the 
limits of the city of Quincy. Sewers are extended quite generally 
through the watershed, and sewers have been provided in the im- 
mediate neighborhood of the brook at its outlet in practically all the 
streets which have thus far been developed, and there is no indication 
that the brook is polluted seriously by sewage. At North Central 
Street the water of the brook when examined recently had a high 
color due to contact with organic matter in swamps, a condition 
which would not be injurious to the health of those living along the 
banks of the stream. 

In the lower part of its course, just above its mouth, the brook was 
originally a tidal estuary and its bottom is covered with mud. The 
stream is also considerably polluted by organic matter caused by the 
dumping of rubbish upon its banks at various places within its water- 
shed. While the condition of the brook is not wholly satisfactory, 
how^ever, nothing was noted in the course of this examination which 
would cause a nuisance in the neighborhood of its outlet. Near the 
mouth of Sachem Brook the stream is crossed by the Quincy Shore 
Boulevard of the Metropolitan Park 83- stem, and below this bridge a 
basin has been dredged for the use of yachts. In this basin seaweed 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 245 

tends to accumulate and, unless removed from time to time, it decays 
and causes objectionable odors. Two yacht club houses have been 
constructed in this locality, the sewage from which is discharged 
directly into the water beneath the buildings. The beach in this 
region is used by a large number of people for bathing in the summer 
season, and the discharge of sewage from these buildings is a very 
objectionable method of disposal and probably injurious to health. 

In view of these conditions the Department has communicated the 
matter to the authorities of the city of Quincy and has recommended 
that the yacht club sewage be disposed of into the sewers of the city 
of Quincy. A copy of these recommendations is enclosed herewith. 

To the Board of Health, Quincy, Mass. ^^^^- ^^' ^^^^■ 

Gentlemen: — In response to a petition from certain residents in 
the neighborhood of the mouth of Sachem Brook along the Quincy 
Shore Boulevard, the State Department of Health has caused the 
locality to be examined by its engineer and finds that seriously ob- 
jectionable conditions are caused in this neighborhood by the discharge 
of sewage from the yacht clubs directly into the water beneath the 
buildings. This beach is used to a large extent for bathing in the 
summer season, and there is no doubt that the present method of 
disposal of sewage from these buildings is a menace to the public 
health. 

The sewers of the city of Quincy appear to be available for the 
disposal of this sewage, and it is recommended that connections be 
made with the Quincy sewers at the earliest practicable time and the 
further discharge of sewage into the water near this beach prevented. 

Sherborn (Jacob Lander). 
To Mr. Jacob Lander, Sherborn, Mass. '^^^^ 2^' ^^^•^• 

Dear Sir: — The State Department of Health has considered your 
application for the approval of the use of a barn and fixtures which 
have been constructed for the purpose of conducting a slaughtering 
business in the town of Sherborn and has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of the engineers of the Department. 

The proposed slaughterhouse is to be located off Beaver Street, about 
half a mile southeast of the village of Framingham, close to low ground 
adjacent to Beaver Dam Brook, one of the feeders of Lake Cochituate, 
one of the sources of supply of the metropolitan water district. 

It would be very difficult to maintain a slaughterhouse in this loca- 



246 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion in such a manner as to prevent the creating of objectionable 
conditions and, in view of all the circumstances, the Department voted 
not to approve the use of the barn and fixtures in question for the 
purposes of a slaughterhouse. 

SOUTHBOROUGH. q^^ 26, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Southborough, Mass., Mr. Charles F. Choate, Jr., 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with a request from your board, the 
State Department of Health has caused an examination to be made 
of the Winchester property at Southborough to determine what 
changes are necessary to put it in a sanitary condition. 

The buildings on this property consist of two wooden houses, to one 
of which there is a barn attached, and a small brick building contain- 
ing two rooms. 

The main building, which is three stories in height and which con- 
tains six rooms on the lower floor, five on the middle floor and two 
in the attic, is provided with but a single water closet with partial 
fixtures for two others. The building to the west, containing a store 
on the lower floor and eight rooms for dwelling purposes on the second 
floor, is provided with two water closets and two sinks. The toilet 
rooms in the two large houses are located near the center of the house 
in each case and have no method of ventilation, which is a violation 
of present-day building laws. Changes should be made in these build- 
ings so that a toilet room will be provided for each family that occu- 
pies them, and each toilet room should have an outside window. The 
toilet room in the small brick building is provided with a suitable 
window. 

All the litter and refuse should be removed from the floors and 
cellars of the larger buildings and these buildings should be thoroughly 
cleaned. In addition to removing the refuse from the buildings, clean- 
ing them thoroughly and providing proper fixtures, the buildings 
should be properly painted. The small brick building when examined 
appeared to be in satisfactory condition. 

The only water supplies available on these premises are two wells, 
both of which are grossly polluted so that the water is unfit for 
domestic use. It is impracticable to obtain water of suitable quality 
for domestic use upon these premises under existing conditions, and if 
the buildings are again occupied water for domestic purposes will have 
to be obtained from some suitable source elsewhere. The water from 
the wells might be used for the flushing of water closets, provided no 



No. 34.] ADMCE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 247 

connections are maintained through which the water could be used for 
drinking or other domestic purposes. 

The sewage of these buildings was formerly disposed of in cesspools 
in the rear of the buildings, whence it overflowed upon the ground, a 
portion of it finding its way into the barn cellar, the condition of 
which was made very objectionable. Since the buildings were vacated, 
the effects of this nuisance have practically disappeared. It is prob- 
able, however, that if the existing cesspools were again used objec- 
tionable conditions would again occur. 

The best practicable plan of disposing of the sewage of the main 
buildings, and probably the only plan under which a nuisance can be 
avoided, will be to collect the sewage in a suitable tank built in two 
compartments so arranged that the sewage will enter one compartment 
and will thence overflow to the second compartment. Each compart- 
ment should be approximately 10 feet in diameter and 6 feet in depth. 
The contents of the tank should be removed as often as necessary in 
odorless excavator carts. The frequency of cleaning the tank will, of 
course, depend upon the number of inhabitants in the buildings. As- 
suming that the property will not be occupied by more than twenty 
persons, which would be the approximate capacity of the present 
buildings, exclusive of the small brick building, under modern building 
laws, the tank would probably require cleaning about every other week. 
If the number of inhabitants in the two larger buildings were restricted 
to ten, it is possible that the sewage could be disposed of without 
nuisance in cesspools upon the property from which a part of it V\'ould 
leach away, though the contents would doubtless still require removal 
at intervals, especially in periods of more than average rainfall. The 
sewage of the small brick building could probably be disposed of in 
an ordinary cesspool in the rear of the house since the number of 
occupants of this building would necessarily be very small. 

SouTHWicK (Proposed School for Feeble-mikded). 
(See Belchertowx.) 

WaTERTOWN. t^ n lAic 

Dec. 9, 1915. 

To the Board oj Health, Watertown, Mass., Mr. Charles F. Horan, Agent. 

Gentlemen: — The State Department of Health received from you 
on Dec. 7, 1915, the following application for advice relative to per- 
mitting the keeping of about 3,000 horses at the Union Stock Yards 
in Watertown. 



248 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Recently there has been filed at the office of the local board of health an 
application, made in the name of the Boston and Maine Railroad company, 
for a license or permit to keep or stable 3,000 horses at the Union Stock Yards 
in Watertown. Following a public hearing on the matter, the Board of Health 
— feeUng that the keeping of such a large number of horses might become 
a nuisance — denied the application. 

The Boston and Maine company has later filed a petition for reconsidera- 
tion, and this petition is at present being considered by the local board. 

The Board of Health has instructed me to ask the advice of the State De- 
partment of Health in this matter, and request that — if possible — a sani- 
tary engineer from the department visit the yards and advise us as to the 
possibility of having the yards used for 3,000 horses (the yards being without 
any drainage) without it becoming a nuisance. . . , 

In accordance wath your request, the State Department of Health 
has caused the yards and their surroundings to be examined by its 
engineer and has considered the information relating thereto. 

It is understood that the yards are to be used simply as a resting 
place for horses which are being transported from Chicago to be 
shipped on vessels from Boston Harbor to foreign countries, that the 
horses will be in the yards only for a few hours at a time, and that 
the number of animals present will vary greatly from day to day, 
though the yards will be in continuous use. As the horses to be 
handled have alw^ays lived in the open, it is not considered necessary 
to provide bedding or any other shelter than the open sheds, and the 
process of removing manure will, consequently, be a simple one. The 
yards have been used for cattle for many years, though in lesser 
numbers in recent years than formerly, and it is obvious that the 
drainage of the yards has hitherto been satisfactory'. An examination 
of the soil in many parts of the yards shows that it is generally porous 
and easily drained, and to facilitate the further ready drainage of these 
yards the area to be occupied by the horses has recently been covered 
with engine ashes or cinders to a depth of several inches. 

The Department is informed that the yards were provided with a 
drainage system several years ago which appears to be operating sat- 
isfactorily at the present time, judging from such examinations as 
it has been practicable to make. It is possible that the system is 
more or less obstructed in one or two places and at the culverts 
through which the drainage passes beneath Arsenal Street and Charles 
River Road. The drain discharges ultimately into the Charles River. 

With the use of the yards for horses as proposed, the amount of 
drainage requiring disposal may be somewhat greater at times than it 
has been in past years, due to the fact that the yards are now being 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 249 

piped for water and that in the process of watering horses some of 
the water may be wasted. The amount of such waste, however, is 
unimportant as compared with the rainfall that the system now 
removes. 

It is of course necessary that the drainage system be properly main- 
tained, and in connection with the proper maintenance of the drainage 
system it is essential of course that the gratings over the entrances 
to the drains should be kept free from obstruction. 

As a result of the examinations made by its engineers, this Depart- 
ment advises you that there is, in its opinion, no danger of injury to 
the public health nor other reasonable objection to the use of these 
yards for the purpose proposed. 

Winchester. 

Sept. 21, 1915. 

To the Board of Health, Winchester, Mass., C. J. Allen, M.D., Secretary. 

Gentlemen : — On June 4, 1915, there was filed with the State 
Department of Health a communication from your board giving the 
vote of the town meeting and the results of the investigation of a 
town committee relative to the pollution of the Aberjona River and 
its tributaries. 

In their report they mention first that "At the Beggs and Cobb 
tanning plant there is a large amount of material leaking from vats 
and leaching from the contents of the tanning pits after they have 
been dumped outside that eventually finds its way into the stream, 
and measures should be taken to control this contamination." The 
Beggs and Cobb tannery have, in accordance with the recommenda- 
tions of this Department, discontinued dumping the contents of their 
tanning pits and settling tanks in such a w^ay that they are in danger 
of being washed into the stream. A great amount of material that 
has previously been dumped by this company upon the ground in the 
neighborhood of their works is affected by the rainfall and there is 
necessarily a leaching from this deposit towards neighboring streams. 
We are unable to find, however, that there is any direct pollution of 
the stream from these works such as would come within the provisions 
of chapter 291 of the Acts of 1911. 

Mention is also made by the committee of a settling basin at the 
gelatine factory near Cross Street, where at one place a channel affords 
free access between the basin and the river. Recent examinations show 
that this channel is very small, that there is very little flow through 
it, and the waste found flowing in it was not of such a character as 



250 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to noticeably pollute the stream into which it discharged. The two 
drains mentioned in your letter are not now discharging offensive 
waste into the stream. 

The report also refers to the discharge of oil in condensing water 
into the stream and also acid from the chemical works at North 
Woburn. While the oil affects the appearance of the stream, it does 
not appear to create at any point a nuisance within the meaning of 
the act. There is also no indication that the discharge of acid drainage 
from the chemical works into the stream, though objectionable for 
certain reasons, is injurious to the public health or tends to create a 
public nuisance. 

This Department has issued notice and directed the discontinuance 
of the discharge of waste matters into the stream at points where it 
found such conditions existing, and apparently most of these recom- 
mendations have been faithfully carried out. Only two cases have 
been discovered during the past summer where foul waste has been 
permitted to enter the river or its tributaries, and these were appar- 
ently temporary conditions. Nevertheless, the parties have been 
notified that such discharge must cease, and the objectionable condi- 
tions have been remedied. 

In our recent examinations we have found nothing in the river 
waters indicating direct pollution of the stream or its tributaries at 
the present time. There is, however, considerable indirect pollution of 
these waters which seems inevitable under the circumstances. There 
are numerous tanneries in this valley in the neighborhood of which 
large quantities of tannery waste have been deposited for many years 
in the past, and the rainfall undoubtedly takes up matters from these 
deposits which find their way eventually to the streams, partly no 
doubt after more or less purification by passing through the ground. 
It is impracticable to prevent or remove this pollution. There is also 
the pollution of the streams that is inevitable in a densly populated 
valley and which comes from the cultivation of fields and gardens, 
from the washings of streets, yards and courts, from public dumps, 
and from the dumping of refuse and waste matter elsewhere, some 
of which is carried into the streams. A considerable amount of such 
pollution takes place in the valley of the Aberjona River and makes 
some of the streams unsightly and objectionable, not only after heavy 
rains but at other times. 

In some cities where streams flow through populous districts lands 
have been taken along their banks and their channels greatly im- 
proved. Several years ago the town of Winchester made plans for 
improving a portion of the Aberjona River which have thus far not 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 251 

been carried out. It seems essential, in the opinion of the Depart- 
ment, in order to maintain the streams in Winchester in a satisfactory 
sanitary condition, that the control of their channels should be secured 
by the town and that the}' should be improved to such an extent that 
they can be kept free from debris and the sources of pollution more 
readily detected. 

This letter is sent your board in order to inform you as to the con- 
ditions that have been found by this Department to exist in the 
streams in the valley of the Aberjona River. The Department will 
continue its efforts to secure the prevention of the pollution of these 
streams, so far as its powers extend under existing laws, but it is 
evident that something further is necessary in order to maintain the 
streams in a more satisfactory condition than at the present time. 
This Department is prepared to co-operate with your board or with 
any of the authorities of the valley at any time in efforts to secure 
further improvement of the streams in this valle3^ 



WiNTHROP. 

May 13, 1915. 
To Hon. Edgar H. Whitney, House of Representatives, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request, the State Department of 
Health has caused a further examination to be made of the flats on the 
westerly side of Winthrop in the neighborhood of Chelsea Point and 
samples of the clams to be analyzed. 

The results show that the clams all about this point are badly 
polluted and contain large numbers of bacteria. They are unsafe to 
use for food. A copy of the results of analyses of samples taken both 
in the years 1914 and 1915 is enclosed herewith, together with a map 
which will show the location in which the samples were taken. 

WOBURX. 

Sept. 21, 1915. 
To the Board of Health, Wohurn, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Your communication of July 14, 1915, stating that 
on June 9, 1915, you notified all factories in Woburn warning them 
against violations of chapter 235 of the Acts of the year 1907 by 
allowing polluting matter to flow into Russell Brook or its tributaries, 
Avas duly received by the State Department of Health. 

This Department has caused examinations of the streams in Woburn 
to be made during the past summer and has found two cases of pollu- 



252 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion, one of which was caused by a tannery, and has given notice that 
prosecution will follow any further discharge of such wastes into any 
of the streams. Aside from the pollutions already noted, the De- 
partment has not found any other cases of serious direct pollution of 
the streams from the tanneries or other works in the city of Woburn. 
Nevertheless, the streams show evidence of considerable pollution, 
which, in view of the conditions in this valley, it is impracticable to 
wholly prevent. In the course of many years large quantities of 
organic matter, chiefly from the tanneries, have been deposited upon 
the ground at many places in this valley, and the natural effect of 
the rainfall is to carry matters from these deposits, partly in solution 
and partly in suspension, into the streams. The prevention of the 
pollution of the streams in this manner appears to be impracticable 
under present conditions. Furthermore, the streams receive much 
pollution from the cultivation of fields and gardens, the washings of 
streets and yards, the dumping of refuse, and other serious pollutions 
which are inevitable in a populous territory such as that in Woburn 
drained by Russell Brook and its tributaries. 

In some places in the city of Woburn the streams have been cov- 
ered and these channels are not in a condition for satisfactory inspec- 
tion, but inspection of the open channels in the thickly settled portions 
of the city shows that, in addition to pollution from the causes already 
mentioned, these channels are rendered unsightly and objectionable 
by the presence of refuse of various kinds, including tin, old iron and 
other debris, which have collected upon their banks and bottoms. 

It is impracticable, in the opinion of the Department, to maintain 
these streams in a wholly satisfactory condition until their channels 
have been improved to such an extent that they can be kept free 
from debris and pollution can be more readily detected. Such im- 
provements have been made in the channels of streams in thickly 
populated districts in other cities, and the conditions have become 
such in Woburn that an improvement of the natural drainage channels 
in the populous districts at least is very desirable. 

This Department will continue to make every effort to prevent the 
pollution of streams in the valley of the Aberjona River and its 
tributaries to the extent of its powers under existing laws, and will 
be pleased to co-operate with your board and any of the authorities of 
towns in the valley in an effort to secure further improvement in the 
channels of the streams which will make it possible to maintain them 
in a much better sanitary condition than is practicable at the present 
time. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 253 



WoBURN (F. C. Parker & Son Company). 

Sept. 10, 1915. 
To F. C. Parker & Son Company, Woburn, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The recent examination of your premises has 
shown that manufacturing wastes were overflowing from them into 
Russell Brook in sufl^icient quantities and of such strength as to 
seriously pollute the brook. 

On May 14, 1913, you were notified, under the authority of chapter 
291 of the Acts of the year 1911, to desist from such pollution. 

The matter is again brought to your attention in order that you 
may take such action in the near future as will prevent further pollu- 
tion of the brook. Otherwise it will be the duty of the State Depart- 
ment of Health to take action under the provisions of the act above 
quoted, a copy of which is enclosed herewith. Your special attention is 
called to the penalty clause, section 4. 

Woburn (WoBrRN Gas Light Company). 

Sept. 10, 1915. 
To the Wohurn Gas Light Company, Woburn, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — An examination of Russell Brook flowing past your 
works in Woburn shows evidence that it is polluted by gas wastes to 
such an extent as to impart an offensive odor to the brook at times 
below your works. 

You are notified that the pollution of this brook by wastes from 
your works is contrary to the provisions of chapter 291 of the Acts 
of the year 1911 and you are advised to take action without delay to 
prevent further pollution of the brook by these wastes. 



254 



STATE DEPARTIMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 



The usual chemical analyses of the principal sources of public water 
supply in the State have been made during the year and are presented 
in the two following tables, the first of which contains averages of 
analyses of the surface-water supplies and the second the averages of 
analyses of the ground-water supplies. 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources for the Year 1915. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









a 

> 

w 

c 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


1 

g 






Source. 






ALBUMINOID. 










City or Town*. 




"O 


ss 






u 
o 
"o 
O 


2 a 


1 


O 


0) 

•a 

a 

AS, 

EC 


1 

o 

.30 
.32 
.36 


5 


1 


a 
o 


a 


Metropolitan Water 
EHstrict. 


Wachusett Reservoir, up- 
per end. 

Wachusett Reservoir, 
lower end. 

Sudbury Reservoir, 


.26 
.11 
.14 


3.59 
3.22 
3.87 


.0022 
.0023 
.0027 


.0168 
.0138 
.0193 


.0028 
.0022 
.0042 


.0026 
.0023 
.0027 


,0000 
.0000 
,0000 


.41 
.24 
.25 


1.0 
1.0 
1.3 




Framingham Reservoir 

No. 3. 
Hopkinton Reservoir, . 


.13 
.63 


3.66 
4,11 


.0036 
.0030 


.0191 
,0257 


.0034 
.0033 


.37 
.39 


.0022 
.0022 


.0000 
,0000 


,27 
,66 


1.3 

1.2 




Ashland Reservoir, 


.58 


4.21 


.0034 


.0277 


.0047 


.37 


.0025 


.0000 


.67 


1.3 




Framingham Reservoir 

No. 2. 
Lake Cochituate, . 


.91 
.19 


5.60 
6.12 


.0060 
.0068 


.0320 
.0238 


.0053 
.0052 


.46 
.66 


.0041 
.0029 


.0000 
,0000 


,81 
.39 


1.4 

2.4 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir, 


.15 


3.71 


.0020 


.0163 


.0029 


.35 


.0036 


.0000 


.26 


1.4 




Weston Reservoir, . 


.12 


3.78 


.0021 


.0165 


.0031 


.38 


.0027 


,0000 


.25 


1.3 




Spot Pond, . 


.06 


3.73 


.0023 


.0167 


.0028 


.40 


.0004 


,0000 


.22 


1.4 




Tap in State House, 


.15 


3.68 


.0015 


.0151 


.0021 


.38 


,0046 


,0000 


.25 


1.4 




Tap in Revere, 


.08 


3.79 


.0013 


.0145 


.0017 


.39 


,0014 


,0000 


.18 


1.5 




Tap in Quincy, 


.11 


3.68 


.0012 


.0139 


.0018 


.39 


,0059 


,0000 


.23 


1.4 


Abington, 


Big Sandy Pond, . 


.05 


3.60 


.0023 


.0175 


.0039 


.73 


,0010 


.0000 


.10 


0.8 




Little Sandy Pond, 


.00 


4.77 


.0044 


.0178 


.0063 


1.64 


,0010 


,0000 


.12 


0.7 


Adama, 


Dry Brook, . 


.35 


6.58 


.0014 


.0145 


.0023 


.14 


,0050 


.0000 


.59 


3.5 




Bassett Brook, 


.02 


3.56 


,0013 


,0070 


,0015 


.13 


,0047 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


Amherst, 


Amethyst Brook large 


.61 


4.00 


.0032 


,0210 


.0061 


.20 


,0023 


.0000 


.64 


O.S 




reservoir. 
Amethyst Brook small 


.26 


3.71 


.0018 


.0133 


.0014 


.20 


,0040 


.0000 


.33 


0.8 




reservoir. 
Lower Reservoir, . 


.50 


3.99 


.0028 


.0128 


.0013 


.21 


.0053 


.0000 


.45 


1.0 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



255 



Averages oj Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









1 

a 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


■6 

<u 

B 
o 






Source. 






ALBUMINOID. 










City or Town. 




-a 


i 

c 






O 


2 c 
5.2 i 


i 


"3 
1 


c 

1 o 


1 

3 
O 


1 

oi 


.1 

2 


a 

1 


Andover, 


Haggett's Pond, 


.12 


3.82 


.0037 


.0185 


.0012 


.43 


.0012 


.0000 


.24 


1.4 


Ashburnham, 


Upper Naukeag Lake, . 


.02 


2.58 


.0015 


.0097 


.0017 


.17 


.0015 


.0000 


.12 


0.7 


Ashfield, 


Bear Swamp Brook, 


.33 


4.87 


.0016 


.0143 


.0012 


.16 


- 


- 


- 


2.6 


Athol, . 


Phillipston Reservoir, . 


.45 


4.12 


.0139 


.0407 


.0118 


.21 


.0037 


.0000 


.78 


0.9 




Buckman Brook Reser- 


.35 


4.01 


.0081 


.0328 


.0108 


.17 


.0035 


.0000 


.59 


0.9 




voir. 
Inlet of Filter, 


.78 


5.31 


.0093 


.0321 


.0067 


.17 


.0049 


.0000 


1.09 


1.3 




Outlet of Filter, . 


.63 


5.30 


.0043 


.0213 


- 


.19 


.0076 


.0000 


.98 


1.5 


Barre, . 


Reservoir, 


.17 


3.65 


.0070 


.0264 


.0063 


.24 


.0020 


.0000 


.42 


1.1 


Blandford, . 


Freeland Brook, 


.05 


2.90 


.0004 


.0055 


.0009 


.22 


.0225 


.0000 


.04 


0.9 


Brockton, 


Silver Lake, . 


.10 


3.53 


.0034 


.0141 


.0022 


.67 


.0057 


.0000 


.22 


0.6 


Cambridge, . 


Upper Hobbs Brook Res- 


.70 


7.13 


.0090 


.0403 


.0054 


.51 


.0094 


.0000 


.68 


2.5 




ervoir. 
Lower Hobbs Brook Res- 


.12 


7.13 


.0046 


.0294 


.0053 


.55 


.0029 


.0000 


.34 


2.9 




ervoir. 
Stony Brook Reservoir, 


.55 


7.17 


.0041 


.0309 


.0054 


.62 


.0110 


.0000 


.54 


2.7 




Fresh Pond, . 


.24 


6.65 


.0111 


.0313 


.0101 


.66 


.0138 


.0001 


.39 


2.9 


Cheshire, 


Thunder Brook, 


.00 


5.10 


.0004 


.0047 


.0005 


.13 


.0073 


.0000 


.07 


3.3 




Kitchen Brook, 


.01 


5.07 


,0019 


.0073 


.0011 


.13 


.0043 


.0000 


.08 


3.1 


Chester, 


Austin Brook, 


.12 


3.17 


.0012 


.0108 


.0024 


.15 


.0025 


.0000 


.23 


1.4 




Horn Pond, . 


.20 


3.62 


.0017 


.0128 


.0023 


.14 


.0023 


.0000 


.38 


1.6 


Chicopee, 


Morton Brook, 


.07 


3.85 


.0012 


.0062 


.0004 


.19 


.0035 


.0000 


.08 


0.9 




Cooley Brook, 


1.04 


4.03 


.0051 


.0247 


.0045 


.18 


.0030 


.0000 


.39 


1.4 


Colrain, 


McClellan Reservoir, 


.05 


6.95 


.0009 


.0094 


.0011 


.18 


.0057 


.0000 


.13 


4.1 


Concord, 


Nagog Pond, . 


.05 


2.85 


.0018 


.0147 


.0010 


.37 


.0012 


.0000 


.15 


0.5 


Dalton, 


Egypt Brook Reservoir, 


.28 


3.72 


.0020 


.0127 


.0013 


.11 


.0103 


.0000 


.50 


1.3 




Cady Brook, 


.40 


4.91 


.0014 


.0149 


.0016 


.09 


.0033 


.0000 


.55 


2.0 


Danvers, 


Middleton Pond, . 


.50 


5.87 


.0025 


.0222 


.0032 


.45 


.0012 


.0000 


.58 


1.9 


Deerfield (South), 


Roaring Brook, 


.07 


6.20 


.0026 


.0090 


.0015 


.19 


.0025 


.0000 


.13 


3.5 


Egremont (South), 


Goodale Brook, 


.01 


3.78 


.0005 


.0033 


.0002 


.12 


.0015 


.0000 


.05 


2.3 


Fall River, . 


North Watuppa Lake, . 


.14 


4.30 


.0034 


.0223 


.0047 


.66 


.0021 


.0000 


.35 


1.1 


Falmouth, 


Long Pond, 


.00 


3.33 


.0027 


.0126 


.0018 


.95 


.0012 


0000 


.09 


0.4 


Fitchburg, . 


Meetinghouse Pond, 


.11 


3.14 


.0086 


.0204 


.0026 


.23 


.0012 


.0000 


.27 


0.9 




Scott Reservoir, 


.16 


3.01 


.0075 


.0219 


.0055 


.21 


.0022 


.0000 


.33 


0.6 




Wachusett Lake, . 


.11 


2.62 


.0065 


.0204 


.0039 


.19 


.0020 


.0000 


.26 


0.7 




Falulah Brook, 


.22 


3.16 


.0063 


.0146 


.0023 


.20 


.0020 


.0000 


.34 


0.6 



256 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Continued. 









6 

0, 
> 

a 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 
o 






Source. 






ALBUMINOID. 










City or Town. 




•^ 


tn 






6 


2 fl 
S o 


1 


t 


a 


1 

o 

.31 


1 
i5 


1 


a 

o 


o 

a 

-3 

X 


Gardner, 


Crystal Lake, 


.08 


4.75 


,0023 


,0193 


.0032 


,0022 


,0000 


.19 


1.8 


Gloucester, . 


Dike's Brook Reservoir 


.28 


4,35 


,0037 


,0189 


.0033 


1,01 


,0012 


,0000 


.27 


0.5 




Wallace Reservoir, . 


.44 


4,84 


,0061 


,0246 


.0063 


1,18 


.0007 


.0000 


,39 


0.8 




Haskell Brook Reservoir 


.31 


4.41 


,0033 


,0168 


,0025 


.97 


,0010 


,0000 


,22 


0,5 


Great Barrington, 


East Mountain Reservoir 


, .13 


5.55 


.0076 


,0156 


,0041 


.14 


,0030 


,0000 


,25 


3,6 




Green River, . 


.01 


8.64 


,0021 


,0064 


.0008 


.16 


,0137 


,0000 


,05 


6.1 


Great Barrington 

(Housatonic). 
Greenfield, . 


Long Pond, . 

Glen Brook Upper Reser 


.05 
- .06 


8.63 
5.27 


,0054 
,0036 


,0243 
,0098 


.0029 
.0022 


.15 
.19 


,0050 


,0000 


,14 


5.8 
3.1 




voir. 
Glen Brook Lower Reser- 


.06 


5,43 


,0035 


,0101 


.0019 


.20 


,0057 


,0000 


.12 


3.2 


Hadley, 


vou*. 
Hart's Brook Reservoir 


.09 


3.87 


.0011 


,0062 


.0008 


.23 


,0020 


,0000 


.09 


1.5 


Hatfield, 
Haverhill, 


Running Gutter Brooli 

Reservoir. 
Johnson's Pond, 


.07 
.17 


4.65 
5.43 


.0030 

,0024 


,0070 
,0216 


.0013 
,0033 


.22 
.55 


,0175 
,0017 


,0000 
,0000 


.11 
,30 


2.0 

2.3 




Crystal Lake, 


.16 


4.16 


.0018 


,0203 


,0026 


.39 


,0020 


,0000 


,31 


1.2 




Kenoza Lake, 


.19 


5.12 


.0019 


,0201 


.0028 


.50 


,0014 


.0000 


,39 


2.0 




Lake Saltonstall, . 


.09 


7.13 


,0027 


,0184 


.0018 


.71 


,0017 


,0000 


,22 


3.0 




Lake Pentucket, . 


.14 


5.04 


.0025 


.0192 


.0029 


.46 


,0022 


,0000 


,34 


2.2 




Millvale Reservoir, 


.69 


5.85 


.0040 


.0268 


.0040 


.40 


,0022 


,0000 


,57 


2.0 


Hingham, 


Accord Pond, 


.19 


4.34 


.0029 


.0180 


.0031 


.75 


,0022 


.0000 


,34 


1.0 


Hinsdale, 


Reservoir, 


.29 


2.62 


.0107 


,0165 


.0027 


.10 


,0064 


,0000 


,26 


0.9 


Holden, 


Muschopauge Lake, 


.04 


3.11 


.0017 


.0133 


.0020 


.34 


,0017 


,0000 


,15 


0.9 


Holyoke, 


Whiting Street Reservoir 


, .07 


5.08 


.0043 


,0178 


.0032 


.23 


0022 


,0000 


,17 


2.3 




Fomer Reservoir, . 


.36 


4.05 


,0021 


,0185 


,0037 


.17 


,0042 


,0000 


,38 


1.3 




Wright and Ashley Pond 


.10 


5.04 


,0034 


,0192 


,0034 


.18 


,0017 


,0000 


,24 


2.5 




High Service Reservoir 


.11 


4,22 


,0043 


.0232 


,0040 


.19 


,0022 


,0000 


,30 


1.5 




White Reservoir, . 


.28 


3.99 


.0075 


.0259 


.0059 


.17 


,0032 


,0000 


,41 


1.4 


Hudson, 


Gates Pond, . 


.07 


3.62 


.0043 


.0203 


.0041 


.25 


,0022 


,0000 


,21 


1,5 




Fosgate Brook, 


.43 


13.19 


,0275 


,0291 


,0082 


,27 


,0177 


,0002 


,58 


5.7 


Hu"atington, 


Cold Brook Reservoir, 


.20 


3.34 


,0006 


,0085 


.0010 


.14 


,0013 


,0000 


,25 


1.0 


Ipswich, 


Dow's Brook Reservoir 


.39 


6.30 


.0052 


.0239 


.0051 


.86 


,0064 


,0000 


,51 


2.2 


LawTence, 

Lee, . . . 


Merrimack River, fil 

tered. 
Codding Brook Uppei 

Reservoir. 
Codding Brook Lowei 

Reservoir. 
Basin Pond Brook, 


- .23 
.14 

• .13 
.65 


5.77 
3.90 
5.00 
4,15 


.0052 
.0010 
,0012 
,0028 


.0076 
.0091 
.0117 
,0198 


,0004 
.0022 
.0024 


.46 
.14 
.14 
.11 


,0350 
,0040 
,0025 
,0035 


,0001 
,0000 
,0000 
,0000 


,40 

,14 
,14 
,58 


1.7 
1.7 
2.1 
1.4 



No. 34. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



257 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc, — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









a 

> 

c 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


s 

a 
o 






Source. 






ALBUMINOID. 










City ob Town. 




tJ 


• 






"o 
O 


■S OS 


1 


"^ 
^ 


o 
a 

1 o 


a 
1 

O 
.11 


is 


i 

1 


a 

& 

o 


1 


Lenox, . 


Reservoir, 


.05 


7.35 


0031 


.0087 


.0011 


0037 


.0000 


.12 


5.2 


Leominster, . 


Morse Reservoir, . 


.22 


2.94 


.0132 


.0252 


.0069 


.20 


.0042 


.0000 


.32 


0.4 




Haynes Reservoir, 


.32 


3.11 


.0284 


.0494 


.0194 


.17 


.0017 


.0000 


.42 


0.5 




Fall Brook Reservoir, . 


.12 


2.55 


.0032 


.0181 


.0042 


.22 


.0017 


.0000 


.25 


0.5 


Lincoln, 


Sandy Pond, . 


.04 


4.86 


.0030 


.0193 


.0034 


.40 


.0020 


.0000 


.13 


1.8 


Longmeadow, 


Cooley Brook, 


.08 


4.94 


.0069 


.0086 


.0015 


.27 


.0095 


.0001 


.08 


2.4 


Lynn, . 


Birch Reservoir, . 


.23 


5.40 


.0074 


.0252 


.0056 


.73 


.0020 


.0000 


.35 


2.0 




Walden Reservoir, . 


.47 


6.91 


.0086 


.0278 


.0048 


.85 


.0040 


.0000 


.61 


2.6 




Hawkes Reservoir, 


.79 


8.47 


.0093 


.0393 


.0065 


.92 


.0025 


.0000 


.94 


3.3 




Saugus River, 


.96 


10.06 


.0107 


.0444 


.0095 


1.12 


.0075 


.0001 


.88 


4.3 


Manchester, . 


Round Pond, 


1.19 


6.91 


.0043 


.0347 


.0054 


1.01 


.0017 


.0000 


.82 


1.4 




Gravel Pond, 


.09 


4.47 


.0024 


.0172 


.0019 


.95 


.0012 


.0000 


.16 


1.1 


Marlborough, 


Lake Williams, 


.09 


4.62 


.0039 


.0194 


.0029 


.52 


.0040 


.0001 


.22 


1.6 




Millham Brook Reser- 


.52 


5.54 


.0067 


.0301 


.0052 


.43 


.0072 


.0000 


.46 


1.7 


Maynard, 


voir. 
White Pond, . 


.34 


3.37 


.0013 


.0173 


.0017 


.29 


- 


- 


- 


1.1 


Milford, 


Charles River, filtered, ". 


.28 


6.56 


.0013 


.0087 


- 


.38 


.0064 


.0000 


.25 


3.0 


Montague, 


Lake Pleasant, 


.06 


2.89 


.0018 


.0139 


.0032 


.18 


.0018 


.0000 


.12 


0.7 


Nantucket, . 


Wannacomet Pond, 


.06 


6.63 


.0040 


.0153 


.0034 


2.21 


.0010 


.0000 


.14 


1.3 


New Bedford, 


Little Quittacas Pond, . 


.29 


4.46 


.0037 


.0214 


.0034 


.62 


.0012 


.0000 


.51 


1.0 




Great Quittacas Pond, . 


.38 


4.34 


.0035 


.0219 


.0033 


.62 


.0015 


.0000 


.59 


0.9 


North Adam.s, 


Notch Brook Reservoir, 


.06 


7.31 


.0025 


.0073 


.0008 


.11 


.0023 


.0000 


.12 


5.8 




Broad Brook, 


.14 


4.01 


.0019 


.0079 


.0011 


.11 


.0046 


.0000 


.29 


2.0 




Beaman Reservoir, 


.06 


7.33 


.0031 


.0135 


.0032 


.12 


.0028 


.0000 


.13 


5.0 


Northampton, 


Middle Reservoir, . 


.27 


4.02 


.0028 


.0179 


.0033 


.16 


.0032 


.0000 


.37 


1.8 




Mountain Street Reser- 


.09 


3.73 


.0011 


.0111 


.0023 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 


.19 


1.7 




voir. 
West Brook, . 


.12 


4.55 


.0008 


.0094 


.0020 


.14 


.0035 


.0000 


.17 


1.9 


North Andover, . 


Great Pond. . 


.17 


5.07 


.0027 


.0191 


.0036 


.52 


.0015 


.0000 


.21 


1.9 


Northborough, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.72 


4.81 


.0051 


.0281 


.0035 


.31 


.0022 


.0000 


.87 


1.1 


Northbridge, 


Cook Allen Reservoir, . 


.31 


3.35 


.0034 


.0166 


.0040 


.27 


.0050 


.0000 


.25 


0.5 


North Brookfield, 


Doane Pond, . 


.39 


3.50 


.0069 


.0315 


.0062 


.21 


.0020 


.0000 


- 


1.2 




North Pond, . 


.47 


3.70 


.0081 


.0376 


.0131 


.22 


.0015 


.0000 


.47 


0.9 


Northfield, . 


Reservoir, 


.20 


3.25 


.0008 


.0087 


.0007 


.16 


.0017 


.0000 


.37 


1.0 


Norwood, 


Buckmaster Pond, 


.12 


4.56 


.0119 


.0208 


.0056 


.60 


.0094 


.0000 


.20 


1.4 



258 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Continued. 





Source. 


O 


o 
a 

t 
H 

a 
o 

2 fi 
s O 

o t- 


Ammonia. 


6 

1 

O 
.16 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


-d 

I 

« 
a 
o 

a 
>. 

X 

o 








ALBUMINOID. 




1 




City or Town. 


"3 
o 




§ 
■a 


Orange, 


Reservoir, 


.09 


3.18 


.0011 


.0057 


,0008 


,0010 


,0000 


.13 


0.9 


Palmer, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.21 


3.52 


.0039 


.0138 


,0027 


.17 


,0020 


,0000 


.19 


0.9 


Peabody, 


Brown's Pond, 


.18 


4.61 


.0050 


,0202 


.0030 


.97 


,0048 


,0000 


.27 


1.3 




Spring Pond, . 


.29 


6.00 


.0061 


,0213 


.0047 


.79 


,0077 


,0000 


.37 


2.2 




Suntaug Lake, 


.05 


5.38 


.0088 


,0215 


.0031 


1.02 


,0022 


.0000 


.16 


2.5 


Pittsfield, 


Ashley Lake, . 


.20 


3.27 


0041 


,0170 


.0016 


.11 


,0045 


.0000 


.32 


1.6 




Ashley Brook, 


.18 


6.61 


.0031 


.0116 


.0016 


.12 


,0037 


,0000 


.31 


4.6 




Hathaway Brook, . 


.01 


9.41 


.0008 


.0053 


.0004 


.14 


,0120 


,0000 


.12 


7.3 




Mill Brook, . 


.42 


5.74 


.0041 


,0161 


,0018 


,14 


,0225 


0000 


.57 


2.7 




Sacket Brook, 


.15 


6.90 


0011 


,0069 


.0002 


.13 


,0081 


,0000 


.20 


4.9 




Farnham Reservoir, 


.66 


5.60 


.0046 


,0244 


.0037 


.13 


,0220 


.0000 


.89 


2.1 


Plymouth, 


Little South Pond, 


.01 


2.69 


.0025 


.0220 


.0048 


.69 


,0010 


.0000 


.10 


0.2 




Great South Pond, 


.00 


2.81 


.0032 


,0179 


.0042 


.71 


,0007 


.0000 


.10 


0.2 


Randolph, . 


Great Pond, . 


.39 


5.61 


.0035 


.0217 


.0021 


,81 


,0027 


.0000 


.59 


1.5 


Rockport, 


Cape Pond, 


.21 


14.00 


,0045 


.0245 


.0074 


5.47 


,0015 


0000 


.20 


2.6 


Russell, 


Black Brook, . 


.23 


3.82 


rooii 


.0108 


.0009 


.16 


,0047 


.0000 


.22 


1.4 


Salem, . 


Wenham Lake, 


.36 


7.54 


.0117 


.0316 


.0088 


1.02 


,0115 


.0000 


.45 


2.7 




Longham Reservoir, 


1.28 


8.53 


.0114 


.0498 


.0157 


1.09 


,0176 


.0000 


1.15 


2.2 


Shelburne, 


Fox Brook, 


.04 


5.30 


.0006 


,0049 


.0011 


.11 


,0025 


.0000 


.09 


3,0 


Southbridge, 
South Hadley, 


Hatchet Brook Reservoir 

No, 3. 
Hatchet Brook Reservoir 

No. 4. 
Leaping Well Reservoir, 


.22 
.26 
.09 


3.58 
3.04 
3.53 


,0048 
,0057 
,0060 


,0207 
,0221 
,0298 


.0035 
.0046 
.0153 


.21 
.20 
.21 


.0029 
.0019 
.0062 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.30 
.34 
.09 


0.9 
0.7 
0.9 




Buttery Brook Reser- 


.08 


4.29 


,0083 


,0115 


.0029- 


.34 


.0267 


.0000 


.04 


1.1 


Spencer, 


voir. 
Shaw Pond, . 


.03 


2.57 


,0010 


,0136 


.0012 


.22 


.0015 


.0000 


.12 


0,9 


Springfield, . 
Stockbridge, 


Westfield Little River, 

filtered. 
Lake Averic, 


.17 
.12 


4.01 

7.71 


,0015 
,0030 


,0093 
,0232 


.0058 


.16 
.12 


.0051 
.0042 


.0000 
.0000 


.23 


1.2 
5.4 


Stoughton, . 


Muddy Pond Brook, 


.14 


3.76 


,0006 


,0087 


,0017 


.43 


,0057 


.0000 


.20 


1.0 


Taunton, 


Assawompsett Pond, 


.20 


4.01 


.0034 


,0198 


,0027 


.61 


,0007 


.0000 


.41 


0.9 




Elder's Pond, 


.09 


3.87 


.0026 


,0197 


.0027 


.62 


,0010 


.0000 


.31 


0.8 


Wakefield, . 


Crystal Lake, 


.28 


5.64 


.0092 


,0291 


.0044 


.84 


.0026 


.0000 


.39 


2.1 


Wareham (Onset), 


Jonathan Pond, 


.00 


2.69 


.0014 


,0098 


.0010 


.70 


.0007 


,0000 


.06 


0.3 


Way land. 


Snake Brook Reservoir, 


1.26 


5.98 


.0087 


.0404 


.0038 


.43 


.0030 


.0000 


1.00 


1.6 


Westfield, . 


Montgomery Reservoir, 


.61 


3.51 


.0056 


,0264 


.0033 


.17 


.0017 


.0000 


.74 


0.5 



No. 34. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



259 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. 

(Parts in 100,000.] 



Concluded. 









i 

o. 

> 

w 

a 
o 

Pi 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


13 
o 

6 

c 

8 

s 






Source. 


"o 
O 


1 


ALBUMINOID. 


a 

O 
.16 


1 


1 

2 




City or Town. 


"5 
1 


■a 

<o 

T3 

a 

t o 


u 

(A 


Westfield— Cow., . 


Tekoa Reservoir, . 


.42 


3.53 


0040 


.0174 


.0030 


.0025 


.0000 


.47 


0.5 




Tillotson Brook Reservoir, 


.10 


3.23 


.0014 


.0099 


.0015 


.18 


.0107 


.0000 


.14 


0.6 


West Springfield, . 


Darby Brook Reservoir, 


.18 


5.43 


.0083 


.0273 


.0127 


.32 


.0070 


.0000 


.23 


2.8 




Bear Hole Brook, filtered. 


.03 


7.30 


0008 


0059 


- 


.24 


0045 


.0000 


- 


4.5 


Weymouth, . 


Great Pond, . 


.35 


4.46 


.0040 


.0172 


.0012 


.70 


.0017 


.0000 


.55 


1.0 


Williamsburg, 


Reservoir, 


.14 


4.79 


.0014 


.0090 


.0010 


.16 


.0005 


.0000 


.22 


1.7 


Winchester, . 


North Reservoir, . 


.08 


4.07 


.0051 


.0172 


.0021 


.48 


.0009 


.0000 


.17 


1 o 




South Reservoir, . 


.08 


4.02 


.0031 


.0170 


.0027 


.44 


.0016 


.0000 


.14 


1.6 




Middle Reservoir, . 


.15 


3.76 


.0056 


.0268 


.0040 


.47 


.0021 


.0000 


.25 


1.4 


Worcester, 


Bottomly Reservoir, 


.27 


5.68 


.0050 


.0230 


.0023 


.23 


.0177 


.0000 


.42 


2.2 




Kent Reservoir, 


.16 


4.24 


.0028 


.0195 


.0035 


.30 


.0042 


.0000 


.30 


1.6 




Leicester Reservoir, 


.20 


3.96 


.0051 


.0183 


.0023 


.28 


.0047 


.0000 


.35 


1.3 




Mann Reservoir, 


.12 


4.04 


.0026 


.0167 


.0021 


.25 


.0070 


.0000 


.28 


1.5 




Upper Holden Reservoir, 


.15 


2.94 


.0009 


.0096 


.0013 


.27 


.0032 


.0000 


.21 


0.7 




Lower Holden Reservoir, 


.12 


3.00 


.0024 


.0163 


.0029 


.25 


.0019 


.0000 


.25 


0.9 



Averages of Chemical Anakjses of Ground-water Sources for the Year 1915. 



[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 


"o 
O 


at 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

'% 
O 

.70 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 

-3 




City or Town. 


i 


■6 
,1 

< 


i 
1 


o 


a 
o 


Acton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


9.17 


.0006 


.0023 


.1567 


.0000 


3.6 


.007 


Adams, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.06 


3.62 


.0012 


.0058 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


2.0 


.007 


Amesbury, 


Tubular wells, . 


.31 


19.00 


.0028 


.0053 


.59 


.0030 


.0000 


9.4 


.290 


Ashland, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.22 


.0004 


.0017 


.43 


.0045 


.0002 


1.2 


.006 


Attleboro, 


Large well. 


.03 


4.88 


.0006 


.0061 


.58 


.0217 


.0000 


1.8 


.009 


Avon, 


Wells 


.00 


5.70 


.0005 


.0018 


.65 


.1445 


.0000 


1.9 


.006 


Ayer, 


Large well. 


.00 


7.18 


.0004 


.0026 


.84 


.0513 


.0000 


2.5 


.007 




Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.57 


.0005 


.0026 


.26 


.0060 


.0000 


2.2 


.007 


Barnstable, 


Tubular wells, . 


00 


3.75 


.0008 


.0028 


1.15 


.0027 


.0000 


0.7 


.008 



260 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



— Continued. 





Source. 




a 

eg 
2 & 


Ammonia. 


f3 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


i 






City os Town. 






§ 


P 








a 


3 ^ 


8 


, B 

< 


3 
o 

.38 






a 

-0 


m 

o 


Bedford, . 


Large well, 


.03 


3.66 


.0006 


.0034 


.0032 


,0000 


1.2 


.026 


Billerica, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.18 


7.33 


.0022 


.0065 


.52 


.0044 


.0000 


2.7 


.062 


Braintree, 


Filter-gallery, . 


.11 


10.30 


.0014 


.0105 


1.38 


.129o' 


.0000 


3.0 


.012 


Bridgewater, . 


Wells 


.03 


6.05 


.0012 


.0031 


.74 


.0315 


,0000 


1.9 


.045 


Brookfield (East), . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


2.91 


.0004 


.0018 


.24 


,0066 


,0000 


0.5 


,009 


Brookline, 


Tubular wells and filter- 
gallery. 
Springdale well. 


.19 


9.02 


.0044 


.0083 


.76 


.0172 


.0001 


4.6 


,050 


Canton, . 


.00 


3.70 


.0003 


.0030 


.44 


.0077 


,0000 


1.3 


,009 




Well near Henry's Spring, . 


.03 


4.80 


.0006 


.0051 


.55 


.0254 


,0000 


1.5 


,007 


Chelmsford (North), 


Tubular wells, . 


.10 


4.79 


.0089 


.0080 


.61 


.0363 


.0000 


1.8 


,032 


Chelmsford (Center), 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


7.37 


.0003 


.0016 


.61 


.0855 


.0000 


2.6 


,005 


Chicopee (Fairview), 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.37 


.0003 


.0018 


.19 


.0260 


.0000 


1.0 


,016 


Cohasset, 


Tubular wells No. 2, 


.07 


14.84 


.0008 


.0073 


1.98 


.1120 


.0000 


5.7 


,019 




Filtered water, 


.53 


9.78 


.0014 


.0158 


1.54 


.0038 


.0001 


3.0 


,031 


Dedham, 

Deerfield (Fire Dis- 
trict). 
Douglas, . 


Large well and tubular 

wells. 
Wells 

Tubular wells, . 


.04 
.00 
.00 


10.76 

4.77 
4.74 


.0017 
.0005 
.0005 


.0060 
.0029 
.0025 


1.16 
.16 
.40 


.1020 
.0011 
.0367 


,0000 
,0000 
,0000 


4.3 
2.6 
1.5 


,008 
,010 
049 


Dracut (Water Sup- 
ply District). 

Dracut (CoUins- 
ville). 

Dudley, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


9.00 


.0005 


.0020 


.56 


,0481 


.0000 


4.3 


Oil 


Tubular wells, . 
Tubular wells, . 


.10 
.00 


6.72 
3.54 


.0006 
.0005 


.0086 
.0023 


.45 

.27 


.0352 
.0047 


.0000 
,0000 


2.6 
1.2 


,016 
,006 


Duxbury, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.96 


.0005 


.0019 


.83 


.0183 


.0000 


0.5 


,006 


Easthampton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


7.15 


.0001 


.0017 


.16 


.0250 


.0000 


3.8 


,009 


Easton, . 


Well 


.00 


5.02 


.0007 


.0024 


.67 


.0355 


.0000 


1.7 


,007 


Edgartown, 


Large well. 


.00 


3.04 


.0002 


.0017 


.94 


,0013 


.0000 


0.4 


,006 


Fairhaven, 


Tubular wells, . 


.53 


8.32 


.0014 


.0149 


1.07 


.0522 


.0000 


2.6 


Oil 


Foxborough, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.33 


.0008 


.0035 


.50 


,0380 


.0000 


1.3 


,019 


Framingham, . 


Filter-gallery, 


.04 


8.70 


.0068 


.0087 


1.06 


,0150 


.0001 


3.8 


,014 


Eranklin, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.96 


.0004 


.0021 


.56 


,0263 


.0000 


1.6 


.009 


Grafton, 


Filter-gallery, 


.05 


10.45 


.0017 


.0044 


1.23 


.1237 


.0000 


4.5 


.007 


Granville, 


Well 


.01 


4.25 


.0003 


.0030 


..15 


.0050 


.0000 


1.5 


Oil 


Groton, . 


Large well. 


.01 


5.96 


.0002 


.0040 


.26 


.0015 


.0000 


3.1 


Oil 


Groton (West Groton 
Water Supply Dis- 
trict). 

Hingham, 


Tubular wells, . 

Wells 


.00 
.14 


4.72 
5.85 


.0002 
.0061 


.0015 
.0076 


.21 

.77 


,0180 
,0168 


.0000 
,0000 


2.5 
1.8 


,007 
,009 


HoUiston, 


Large well, 


.56 


5.39 


.0046 


.0206 


.45 


,0035 


,0000 


1.3 


.170 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



261 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 



[Parts in 100,000.] 





WN. Source. 


O 


ci 

si 


Ammonia. 


o 

a 

1 

o 

1.40 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 
•a 

C3 




City or To 


i 


"2 
"3 

< 


1 

1 


1 


1 


Hopkinton, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


15.05 


.0004 


.0026 


.2967 


.0000 


6.0 


.017 


Kingston, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.74 


.0001 


.0014 


.73 


.0078 


.0000 


1.1 


Oil 


Leicester {C. 

Valley and '. 

dale Water Si 

District). 
Littleton, 


lerry Wells, .... 

^och- 

ipply 

. Tubular wells, . 


.05 
.00 


5.28 
3.78 


.0048 
.0001 


.0058 
.0021 


.32 
.23 


.0042 
.0184 


.0000 
.0000 


2.2 
1.7 


.010 
.006 


Lowell, 


. Boulevard wells (tubular), 


.33 


6.43 


.0293 


.0081 


.42 


.0191 


.0000 


2.8 


.146 


Manchester, 


. Wells 


.00 


12.33 


.0003 


.0021 


1.99 


.1223 


.0000 


4.3 


.014 


Mansfield, 


. Large well. 


.00 


3.90 


.0003 


.0012 


.47 


.0513 


.0000 


1.2 


.006 


Marblehead, 


. Wells and brook, filtered, . 


.15 


22.08 


.0010 


.0086 


4.51 


.0136 


.0000 


8.3 


.016 


Marion, . 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.29 


.0004 


.0023 


.75 


.0258 


.0000 


1.1 


.006 


Marshfield, 


. Well 


.00 


17.45 


.0003 


.0021 


5.50 


.1200 


.0000 


3.7 


.014 


Mattapoisett, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.25 


.0004 


.0022 


.99 


.0517 


.0000 


2.2 


.006 


Medfield, 


. Spring, .... 


.01 


3.83 


.0006 


.0045 


.39 


.0073 


.0000 


1.3 


.007 


Medway, . 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


7.00 


.0003 


.0021 


.57 


.0413 


.0000 


2.9 


.007 


Merrimac, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.73 


.0003 


.0022 


.55 


.0100 


.0000 


2.8 


.015 


Methuen, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.30 


7.97 


.0024 


.0109 


.48 


.0130 


.0000 


3.2 


.082 


Middleborough 


. Well 


.31 


7.14 


.0048 


.0097 


.70 


.0322 


.0001 


2.5 


.321 




Filtered water, . 


.05 


6.41 


.0007 


.0054 


.72 


.0315 


.0001 


2.3 


.034 


Millbury, 


. Well 


.00 


4.68 


.0005 


.0047 


.36 


.0072 


.0000 


1.7 


.010 


Millis, 


. Spring 


.00 


9.80 


.0003 


.0011 


.82 


.1750 


.0000 


3.6 


.008 


Monson, . 


Large well, 


.03 


3.80 


.0002 


.0033 


.20 


.0088 


.0000 


1.2 


.007 


Natick, . 


. Large well. 


.00 


9.15 


.0004 


.0030 


.78 


.0257 


.0000 


4.6 


.005 


Needham, 


. Well No. 1, . . . 


.01 


7.25 


.0003 


.0033 


.75 


.0973 


.0000 


2.5 


.006 




Well No. 2, . . . 


.00 


7.03 


.0006 


.0035 


.78 


.0800 


.0000 


2.6 


.007 




Hicks Spring, . 


.02 


6.68 


.0006 


.0034 


.76 


.1010 


.GOOD 


2.0 


.006 


Newburyport, 


Wells and springs. 


.06 


7.52 


.0019 


.0064 


.76 


.0258 


.0001 


3.0 


.025 


Newton, . 


. Tubular wells and filter- 
gallery, 
gh; . Wells, .... 


.06 


6.67 


.0010 


.0047 


.55 


.0263 


.0000 


2.8 


.014 


No. Attleborou 


.00 


5.62 


.0005 


.0019 


.51 


.0175 


.0000 


2.2 


.009 


Norton, . 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.48 


.0001 


.0017 


.41 


.0022 


.0000 


1.3 


.006 


Norwood, 


. Tubular wells, . 


.03 


10.91 


.0007 


.0042 


.63 


.0409 


.0001 


4.9 


.025 


Oak Bluffs, 


. Springs, .... 


.00 


4.20 


.0007 


.0023 


.95 


.0167 


.0000 


0.8 


.010 


Oxford, . 


. Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.68 


.0002 


.0014 


.34 


.0277 


.0000 


1.7 


.007 


Palmer (Bonds^ 


irille), Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.52 


.0003 


.0025 


.19 


.0165 


.0000 


1.8 


.034 


Peabody, 


. Tubular wells, . 


1.39 


8.85 


.0346 


.0243 


.78 


.0035 


.0000 


3.1 


.810 



262 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 



[Parts in 100,000. 





Source. 


O 


d 

.0 

o S 

o a 

(2 


Ammonia. 


a 

2 
o 

.22 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


-a 

1 




City or Town. 


i 


■6 
■© 

< 






s 

1— 1 


Pepperell, 


Tubular wells, . 


,00 


3.42 


.0002 


.0022 


.0032 


.0000 


1.3 


.007 


Plainville, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5,05 


.0002 


.0018 


.36 


0018 


.0000 


2.1 


.014 


Provincetown, 


Tubular wells in Triu-o, . 


.00 


12.70 


.0003 


.0021 


4.91 


.0034 


.0000 


2.7 


.014 


Reading, . 


Filter-gallery, 


.65 


19.47 


.0367 


.0185 


4.23 


.0116 


.0001 


5.0 


.473 




Filtered water, . 


.25 


26.12 


.0014 


.0128 


3.82 


.0164 


.0008 


11.8 


.019 


Scituate, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


16.97 


.0000 


.0028 


3.45 


.1775 


.0001 


5.5 


.008 


Sharon, . 


Well 


.00 


11.86 


.0004 


.0014 


1.53 


.2200 


.0000 


4.9 


.004 




Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.54 


.0000 


.0011 


.49 


.0334 


.0000 


1.6 


.007 


Sheffield, 


Spring, . . . . 


.00 


3.37 


.0015 


.0019 


.11 


.0037 


.0000 


1.8 


.006 


Shirley, . 


Well, 


.00 


4.42 


.0002 


.0018 


.46 


.0778 


.0000 


1.4 


.005 


South Hadley (Fire 

District No. 2). 
Tisbury, . 


Large well, 

Well 


.00 
.00 


3.80 
4.25 


0004 
.0001 


.0014 
.0020 


.18 
.91 


.0377 
.0070 


.0000 
.0000 


1.3 
0.7 


.008 
.008 


Uxbridge, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.12 


.0005 


.0026 


.59 


.0592 


.0000 


1.8 


.006 


Walpole, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.80 


.0003 


.0024 


.47 


.0312 


.0000 


1.9 


.015 


Waltham, 


Old well 


.10 


8.54 


.0038 


.0045 


.81 


.0149 


.0000 


3.7 


.052 




New well, .... 


.00 


7.72 


.0021 


.0045 


.70 


.0192 


.0000 


3.4 


.010 


Ware, 


Wells 


.00 


6.18 


.0002 


.0024 


.41 


.0863 


.0000 


2.2 


.005 


Wareham (Fire Dis- 
trict). 
Warren (West), 


Tubular wells, . 
Large well, 


.00 
.00 


3.26 
5.32 


.0005 
.0007 


.0017 
.0026 


,60 
.17 


.0035 
.0068 


.0000 
.0000 


0.8 
1.9 


.007 
009 


Webster, 


Wells 


.02 


3.96 


.0014 


.0045 


.34 


.0108 


.0000 


1.4 


Oil 


Wellesley, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


10.03 


.0005 


.0028 


1.13 


.0623 


.0000 


4.4 


.010 




Well at Williams Spring, . 


.00 


16.05 


.0033 


.0032 


1.51 


.6533 


.0000 


5.8 


.012 


Westborough , . 


Filter basin. 


.03 


3.08 


.0017 


.0109 


.30 


.0012 


.0000 


1.0 


.015 


West Brookfield, 


Tubular wells,' . 


.00 


4.21 


.0003 


.0016 


.24 


.0200 


.0000 


1.1 


.008 


Westford, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.02 


0003 


.0013 


.18 


.0120 


.0000 


1.6 


Oil 


Weston, . 


Well 


.16 


7.55 


.0012 


.0092 


.64 


.0272 


.0000 


3.2 


.008 


Winchendon, . 


Wells 


.11 


3.36 


.0036 


.0050 


.17 


.0076 


.0000 


1.0 


.153 


Woburn, . 


Wells 


.00 


11.25 


.0014 


.0042 


1.50 


.0257 


.0000 


5.4 


.005 


Worthington, . 


Springs 


.00 


2.52 


.0006 


.0026 


.14 


.0032 


.0000 


1.0 


.016 


Wrentham, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.95 


.0004 


.0016 


.40 


.0352 


.0000 


1.2 


.006 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 263 



Examination of Eivers. 



All of the important rivers of the State were examined during the 
year and the condition of each is described on pages 55 to 62. 

The flow of streams during the year was quite abnormal. In the 
months of January, February and December the flow was somewhat 
greater than the average. In the months of March, April, May and 
June the flow was the lowest that has been recorded on the Nashua 
River since observations of the flow of that stream were begun in 
1897. The great rainfall of July produced the highest flow for that 
month with the exception of July, 1897, and the flow for August was 
the highest on record, being four times the average flow for that 
month. In September, October and November the flow on the Nashua 
River was slightly less than the normal. 

The records of flow of the Sudbury River for the year 1915, com- 
pared with other years in the long period covered by the observations 
on that stream, show that the flow for the month of July, 1915, was 
the highest ever recorded since observations on that stream were 
begun in 1875, and the flow for the month of August was the highest 
for that month within that period except in the year 1889. 

The influence of this excessive flow of streams during the warmest 
months of the year was to reduce very greatly the effect of the pollu- 
tion of streams in the period of the year when objectionable conditions 
are likely to be most noticeable. On the other hand, there was a 
marked increase in manufacturing as compared with previous years, 
and notwithstanding the great dilution caused by the high flow of 
streams in the summer season the pollution of the rivers, as shown by 
chemical analyses, was more noticeable than in previous years. 

The results of chemical examinations of the following rivers are 
presented herewith: — 



Assabet. 

Blackstone. 

Charles. 

Chicopee. 

Concord. 

Connecticut. 



Deerfield. 

French. 

Green. 

Hoosick. 

Housatonic. 

Merrimack. 



264 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Mill (Northampton). 

Miller's. 

Nashua. 

Nemasket. 

Neponset. 

Quaboag. 

Quinebaug. 



Salisbury Plain. 

Shawsheen. 

Sudbury. 

Taunton. 

Ten Mile. 

Ware. 

Westfield. 



Blackstone River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 56. 



BLiACKSTONE RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Blackstone River, below Cherry Valley. 













[Parts in 100,000.] 
















o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

_o 
la 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


■6 

a 

a 
8 
a 

6 






i 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


"3 


ID 


3 

o 
H 


■a 

1 
.3 

Q 


1 

3 


1 




a 

u 

W 


1908, . 


- 


20.57 


3.83 


.1531 


.0624 


.0508 


.0116 


5.76 


.0020 


.0007 


- 


- 


1909, 






.35 


13.93 


3.34 


.0681 


.0470 


.0334 


.0136 


3.70 


.0125 


.0003 


.80 


- 


1910, 






.32 


16.42 


3.92 


.0633 


.0489 


.0387 


.0102 


4,02 


.0146 


.0002 


.85 


- 


1911, 






- 


21.02 


4.40 


.1277 


.0726 


.0559 


.0167 


5.70 


.0080 


.0005 


1.15 


- 


1912,1 






- 


44.10 


11.04 


.2514 


.2884 


.1023 


.1861 


10.70 


.0002 


.0004 


3.08 


- 


1913, 






- 


32.32 


6.52 


.2591 


.1628 


.1122 


.0506 


8.18 


.0015 


.0004 


2.06 


- 


1914, 






- 


44.73 


7.27 


.3430 


.1857 


.1379 


.0478 


12.83 


.0000 


.0001 


2.12 


- 


1915, 






- 


19.23 


5.15 


.0985 


.1142 


.0785 


.0357 


3.08 


- 


- 


1.89 


- 



1 August omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXMIINATION OF RIVERS. 



265 



BLACKSTONE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Watee from Blackstone Ri\t;r, etc. — ■ 

Continued. 

Blackstone River, between Mill Brook Channel and the Sewage Precipitation Works 

of the City of Worcester. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











o 

6 


Residue on 

EVAPOR.'i.TION. 


Ammonia. 


O 


Nitrogen 






8 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


1 


d 


"3 


■6 
1 


a 
o 
0. 

3 

m 


1 
t 


.1 

2 


a 
1 

03 


1887 


0.91 


- 


- 


.2686 


.1741 


- 


- 


1.35 


.0160 


- 


- 


1888, 








0.76 


- 


- 


.2658 


.1112 


.0557 


.0555 


1.50 


.0382 


.0041 


- 


1889, 








0.86 


- 


- 


.3980 


.1430 


.0772 


.0658 


1.32 


.0177 


.0026 


- 


1890, 








1.14 


9.92 


3.03 


.2107 


.1246 


.0673 


.0573 


1.07 


.0250 


.0015 


2.9 


1891, 








1.10 


17.42 


5.59 


.4913 


.1950 


.1127 


.0823 


2.29 


.0192 


.0037 


5.0 


1892, 








0.52 


20.75 


6.30 


.3547 


.1433 


.0708 


.0725 


2.43 


.0227 


.0108 


6.1 


1893, 








0.40 


16.98 


4.55 


.1480 


.0588 


.0240 


.0348 


1.01 


.0115 


.0015 


6.3 


1894, 








0.66 


16.93 


4.76 


.0548 


.0380 


.0236 


.0144 


0.74 


.0115 


.0005 


4.4 


1895, 








0.49 


14.17 


4.50 


.0613 


.0414 


.0243 


.0171 


0.92 


.0163 


.0006 


3.4 


1896, 








0.51 


12.90 


2.93 


.0780 


.0415 


.0282 


.0133 


0.97 


.0147 


.0015 


3.4 


1897, 








0.85 


26.45 


7.68 


.1130 


.0674 


.0362 


.0312 


0.89 


.0090 


.0024 


4.2 


1898, 








0.33 


17.42 


5.62 


.0857 


.0619 


.0260 


.0359 


0.96 


.0053 


.0010 


4.6 


1899, 








0.14 


34.38 


10.60 


.2583 


.0788 


.0390 


.0398 


- 


- 


.0004 


14.3 


1900, 








0.05 


16.48 


3.38 


.1068 


.0518 


.0210 


.0308 


1.03 


.0107 


.0012 


3.6 


1901, 








0.23 


31.03 


11.68 


.1410 


.0548 


.0309 


.0239 


- 


- 


.0023 


13.8 


1902, 








0.10 


46.15 


12.47 


.2453 


.0728 


.0274 


.0454 


- 


- 


.0010 


16.5 


1903, 








0.18 


24.06 


6.80 


.2836 


.0750 


.0472 


.0278 


- 


- 


.0027 


8.4 


1904,' 








0.12 


44.68 


17.08 


.1228 


.0434 


.0225 


.0209 


- 


- 


.0008 


14.7 


1905, 








0.21 


50.36 


19.49 


.0952 


.0492 


.0203 


.0289 


- 


- 


.0003 


29.3 


1906, 








0.11 


40.07 


15.25 


.0688 


.0421 


.0189 


.0232 


- 


.0032 


.0002 


20.3 


1907, 








0.04 


44.07 


17.67 


.0613 


.0343 


.0180 


.0163 


- 


- 


.0003 


- 


1908, 








0.16 


23.67 


5.55 


.0990 


.0291 


.0153 


.0138 


3.23 


.0134 


.0014 


- 


1909, 








- 


52.97 


18.55 


.1865 


.0381 


.0239 


.0142 


4.80 


.0033 


.0010 


- 


1910, 








0.15 


50.92 


18.97 


.1933 


.0545 


.0309 


.0236 


4.07 


.0023 


.0009 


- 


1911, 








0.11 


44.64 


15.70 


.1920 


.0449 


.0212 


.0237 


4.03 


.0170 


.0009 


- 


1912, 








0.10 


40.05 


10.91 


.2047 


.0352 


.0225 


.0127 i 


3.58 


.0027 


.0011 


- 


1913, 








0.10 


35.17 


10.34 


.2767 


.0491 


.0285 


.0206 


3.18 


.0003 


.0008 


- 


1914, 








0.14 


35.03 


8.23 


.2993 


.0771 


.0510 


.0261 


3.85 


.0012 


.0018 


- 


1915. 








0.13 


39.00 


11.68 


.2383 


.0050 


.0392 


.0258 


2.96 


- 


- 


- 



266 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BliACKSTONE BIVEB. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone Rb^er, etc. 

Continued. 

Blackstone River, below Sewage Precipitation Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 






1 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Yeah. 


O 


o."S 

CD C 

1-1 




5 


a 

0. 
CO 


1 


1 


i 

■a 
1 


1890, .... 


0.97 


11.36 


3.10 


.2907 


.1492 


.0722 


.0770 


1.46 


.0270 


.0018 


3.9 


1891, 








1.05 


22.25 


6.60 


.6367 


.1508 


.0883 


.0625 


2.61 


.0233 


.0040 


6.2 


1892, 








0.63 


26.80 


7.75 


.5240 


.1810 


.0958 


.0852 


3.13 


.0137 


.0050 


10.3 


1893, 








0.51 


30.00 


7.13 


.5680 


.1453 


.0900 


.0553 


2.76 


.0285 


.0126 


10.9 


1894, 








0.40 


29.30 


5.86 


.6189 


.1390 


.1113 


.0277 


2.63 


.0212 


.0071 


10.6 


1895, 








0.71 


22.15 


5.18 


.3246 


.0898 


.0597 


.0301 


1.86 


.0267 


.0063 


7.3 


1896, 








0.30 


26.03 


6.53 


.2831 


.0898 


.0600 


.0298 


2.10 


.0217 


.0118 


9.7 


1897, 








0.73 


25.98 


4.97 


.3650 


.1122 


.0782 


.0340 


1.61 


.0207 


.0063 


6.9 


1898, 








0.23 


25.63 


6.73 


.3064 


.0868 


.0560 


.0308 


1.55 


.0132 


.0119 


9.2 


1899, 








0.14 


44.02 


9.67 


.5251 


.1707 


.0912 


.0795 


3.26 


.0108 


.0068 


16.1 


1900, 








0.22 


24.57 


4.48 


.4430 


.1249 


.0621 


.0628 


2.13 


.0110 


.0145 


7.3 


1901, 








0.09 


31.12 


6.90 


.4580 


.1293 


.0772 


.0521 


3.42 


.0090 


.0058 


10.8 


1902, 








0.15 


49.62 


13.38 


.7296 


.1284 


.0736 


.0548 


2.97 


- 


.0033 


12.5 


1903, 








0.39 


31.08 


9.48 


.3880 


.1080 


.0545 


.0535 


- 


- 


.0062 


10.4 


1904, 










50.25 


13.73 


.6381 


.1523 


.0601 


.0922 


- 


- 


.0027 


16.9 


1905, 








0.19 


.59.84 


17.97 


.4936 


.0985 


.0597 


.0388 


- 


- 


.0008 


29.3 


1906, 








0.19 


49.69 


11.42 


.6330 


.1818 


.0580 


.1238 


- 


.0055 


.0130 


15.0 


1908, 








0.30 


38.80 


7.63 


.9407 


.1490 


.0781 


.0709 


5.34 


.0040 


.0033 


- 


1909, 








- 


53.79 


12.12 


1.0567 


.1282 


.0792 


.0490 


6.92 


.0067 


.0075 


- 


1910, 








- 


52.15 


12.52 


1.0090 


.1654 


.0817 


.0837 


5.68 


.0015 


.0034 


- 


1911, 








0.21 


53.25 


13.15 


.9967 


.1608 


.0651 


.0957 


6.54 


.0152 


.0072 


- 


1912, 








0.23 


48.90 


10.08 


1.1700 


.1673 


.0904 


.0769 


6.12 


.0137 


0096 


- 


1913,1 








0.28 


40.68 


10.46 


.9320 


.1286 


.0719 


.0567 


4.49 


.0158 


0084 


- 


1914, 








0.25 


43.46 


9.08 


.8577 


.1114 


.0770 


.0344 


4.87 


.0038 


0091 


- 


1915, 








0.13 


39.45 


6.77 


.6370 


.1032 


.0575 


0457 


3.58 


- 


- 


- 



1 September omitted. 



No. 34.1 



EXAMINATION OF RR'ERS. 



26/ 



BLACKSTOXE BIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. — 

Continv£d. 

Blackstone River, at Uxhridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


A.M.MONIA. 


6 
a 

O 


Nitrogen 

1 AS — 






d 

2 


ALBUMINOID. 




Yeah. 


'5, 




1 


-3 
> 

1 


■a 

a 

a 

a. 
§ 


i 

1 " 
1 
1 




a 

1 


1887 


.39 


- 


- 


.1129 


.0271 


- 




0.79 


.0360 


- 


- 


1888, 








.38 


6.42 


1.52 


.1155 


.0288 


.0222 


.0066 


0.68 


.0310 


.0007 


- 


1889, 








.32 


- 


- 


.1133 


.0296 


.0192 


.0104 


0.66 


.0.333 


0009 


- 


1890, 








.26 


8.86 


2.12 


.1629 


.0231 


.0174 


.0057 


0.79 


.0259 


0005 


2.9 


1891, 








.20 


10.16 


2.61 


.2280 


.0175 


.0117 


.0058 


1.04 


; 0425 


.0007 


3.6 


1892, 








.13 


9.36 


1.88 


.2840 


.0227 


.0162 


.0065 


0.99 


.0313 


0007 


3.1 


1893, 








.24 


11.74 


2.37 


.1985 


.0207 


.0140 


0067 


1.20 


.0623 


.0050 


4.2 


1894, 








.35 


13.07 


2.03 


.1456 


.0243 


.0183 


.0060 


1.57 


.0673 


.0050 


4.9 


1895, 








.56 


12.95 


2.69 


.0906 


.0258 


.0182 


.0076 


1.34 


.0631 


.0065 


4.7 


1896, 








.33 


12.68 


2.67 


.1129 


0257 


0221 


.0036 


1.38 


.0477 


.0091 


5.0 


1897, 








.48 


11.60 


2.47 


.1029 


.0280 


.0215 


.0065 


1.32 


'.0652 


.0051 


4.3 


1898, 








.49 


10.59 


2.78 


.0801 


.0264 


.0219 


.0045 


1.00 


.0470 


.0076 


3.8 


1899, 








.18 


18.34 


3.11 


.2490 


.0359 


.0310 


.0049 


2.17 


.0510 


.0141 


7.4 


1900, 








.19 


13.42 


2.04 


.2260 


.0347 


.0257 


.0090 


1.76 


.0558 


.0060 


5.0 


1901, 








.22 


13.91 


2.67 


.3159 


.0285 


.0240 


.0045 


1.50 


.0195 


.0035 


5.0 


1902, 








.15 


14.17 


2.56 


.3462 


0270 


.0218 


.0052 


1.95 


.0210 


0018 


4.9 


1903, 








.30 


13.16 


2.52 


.3030 


.0262 


.0215 


.0047 


1.74 


.0210 


.0024 


4.4 


1904, 








.20 


13.78 


2.74 


.2399 


.0282 


.0214 


.0068 


2.12 


.0408 


.0022 


4.6 


1905. 








.21 


16.34 


2.55 


.3928 


.0246 


0203 


.0043 


2.65 


.0175 


.0025 


5.0 


1906, 








.19 


14.73 


3.10 


.2218 


.0242 


.0200 


.0042 


2.10 


.0252 


.0009 


4.2 


1907, 








.37 


14.23 


2.58 


.2331 


.0238 


.0182 


.0056 


2.36 


.0330 


.0040 


4.5 


1908, 








.31 


16.33 


4.07 


.2387 


.0253 


.0196 


.0057 


3.05 


.0408 


.0071 


- 


1909, 




, 




.22 


18.31 


4.35 


.3473 


.0273 


.0216 


.0057 


3.64 


.0325 


.0066 


- 


1910, 








.26 


22.53 


4.69 


.4963 


.0356 


.0302 


.0054 


4.62 


.0498 


.0043 


- 


1911, 








.26 


23.10 


3.85 


.3717 


.0293 


.0225 


.0068 


4.15 


.0558 


.0173 


- 


1912, 








.21 


21.91 


3.06 


.4897 


.0345 


.0288 


.0057 


4.06 


.0497 


.0137 


6.5 


1913, 








.29 


19.48 


3.70 


.3880 


.0355 


.0281 


.0074 


3.34 


.0382 


.0107 


5.5 


1914, 








.25 


23.72 


2.84 


.5285 


.0355 


.0284 


.0071 


4.55 


.0482 


.0154 


7.2 


1915, 








.30 


19.63 


2.75 


.3068 


.0381 


.0302 


.0079 


3.10 


- 


- 


6.3 



268 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



blackstone river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. 

Concluded. 

Blackstone River, at Millville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


o 
a 

la 
o 


Nitrogen 






6 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 


id 
o.ti 

m O 
m M 

e3" 


"S 

I 


T3 

5 


•a 
g 


1 

1 


1 


a 
1 


1887, 








.31 


- 


- 


.0468 


.0220 


- 


- 


0.51 


.0210 


- 


_ 


1888, 








.41 


5.22 


.1.40 


.0467 


.0296 


.0233 


.0063 


0.50 


.0278 


.0004 


- 


1889, 








.38 


- 


- 


.0499 


.0273 


.0213 


.0060 


0.45 


.0167 


,0003 


- 


1890, 








.26 


6.71 


2.24 


.0736 


.0196 


.0152 


.0044 


0.53 


.0229 


,0003 


2.3 


1891, 








.24 


7.48 


2.35 


.1105 


.0384 


.0234 


.0150 


0.72 


.0308 


.0006 


2.2 


1892, 








.37 


6.70 


1.62 


.1143 


.0294 


.0210 


.0084 


0.63 


.0217 


.0002 


2.0 


1893. 








.23 


7.43 


1.73 


.0677 


.0119 


.0087 


.0032 


0.77 


.0385 


,0011 


2.6 


1894, 








.47 


8.42 


2.16 


.0510 


.0172 


.0139 


.0033 


0.89 


.0273 


.0012 


2.8 


1895, 








.51 


8.67 


2.55 


.0356 


.0233 


.0180 


.0053 


0.90 


.0383 


.0024 


3.2 


1896, 








.35 


8.53 


1.69 


.0484 


.0237 


.0180 


.0057 


0.97 


.0413 


.0027 


3.3 


1897, 








.45 


7.66 


1.98 


.0509 


.0258 


.0210 


,0048 


0.92 


.0445 


,0019 


3.1 


1898, 








.51 


7.12 


2.17 


.0325 


.0240 


.0193 


.0047 


0.63 


.0240 


.0023 


2.5 


1899, 








.20 


12.50 


2.44 


.1310 


.0301 


.0247 


.0054 


1.31 


.0310 


.0049 


4.6 


1900, 








.29 


9.33 


1.82 


.1168 


.0254 


.0219 


.0035 


1.15 


.0417 


.0039 


3.4 


1901, 








.31 


8.62 


2.13 


.1420 


.0288 


.0227 


.0061 


0.87 


.0155 


.0006 


3.1 


1902, 








.28 


9.43 


2.24 


.1623 


.0284 


.0238 


.0046 


1.20 


.0195 


,0010 


2.8 


1903, 








.33 


8.46 


1.85 


.1397 


.0233 


.0189 


.0044 


1.10 


,0192 


,0010 


2.9 


1904, 








.29 


8.71 


2.06 


.1079 


.0235 


.0201 


.0034 


1.26 


.0337 


,0009 


2.9 


1905, 








.28 


10.76 


2.03 


.1956 


.0311 


.0222 


.0089 


1.67 


,0207 


.0008 


2.9 


1906, 








.37 


9.02 


2.15 


.1526 


.0306 


.0251 


.0055 


1.27 


.0188 


,0006 


2.4 


1907, 








.37 


10.43 


2.21 


.1521 


.0240 


.0181 


.0059 


1.61 


,0247 


.0014 


3.1 


1908, 








.33 


9.85 


2.53 


.1295 


.0232 


.0185 


.0047 


1.78 


.0258 


,0024 


3.4 


1909, 








.24 


11.87 


3.17 


.1595 


.0267 


.0220 


.0047 


2,27 


.0225 


,0019 


- 


1910, 








.30 


13.94 


3.32 


.2350 


.0277 


.0234 


.0043 


3.01 


.0290 


.0013 


- 


1911, 








.33 


14.35 


2.79 


.1787 


.0268 


.0222 


.0046 


2.94 


,0355 


0051 


- 


1012, 








.29 


15.20 


2.18 


.2433 


.0283 


.0249 


.0034 


2.91 


.0421 


0064 


- 


1913, 








.37 


12.92 


2.38 


.1631 


.0281 


.0237 


.0044 


2.44 


.0345 


0063 


- 


1914, 








.28 


14.33 


2.78 


.2245 


.0304 


.0243 


0061 


2.78 


.0233 


0065 


- 


1915, 








.42 


13.55 


2.02 


.1379 


.0361 


.0267 


0094 


2.12 


- 


- 


- 



No. 34. 



EXAINIINATION OF RIVERS. 



269 



Charles River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 56. 

CHARLES RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Charles Rwer. — A^^ERAGES for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Charles River, above Milford. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









" 




Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


f 

3 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 




c 




"S 


TJ 






m 




6 


"3 
1 


0."S 

CO C 


t 




1 
s 


G 
o 

a 
CO 


a 
1 

O 


1 


.1 

i 1 c 


1 

X 

15 


i 

oi 

w 


1899, 


.28 


3.98 


1.70 


.0017 


.0248 1 


.0223 


.0025 


.27 


.0027 


.0003 


48 


0.6 


1900, 








.49 


3.93 


1.67 


.0017 


.0251 


.0231 


.0020 


.25 


.0030 


.0000 


64 


0.5 


1901, 








.46 


4.30 


2.48 


.0066 


.0286 


.0247 


.0039 


.25 


.0060 


.0002 


65 


0.6 


1902, 








.58 


4.42 


1.90 


.0025 


.0248 ; 


0210 


.0038 


.29 


.0057 


.0001 


VO 


1.1 


1903,1 








.55 


4.17 


1.86 


.0015 


.0203 


.0171 


.0032 


.28 


.0080 


.0001 


68 


0.8 


1904,2 








.49 


3.95 


1.83 


.0117 


.0267 


.0209 


.0058 


.33 


.0035 


.0001 


62 


1.1 


1905,3 








.55 


3.77 


1.62 


.0020 


.0229 


,0201 


,0028 


.31 


.0033 


0001 


56 


0.8 


1906,3 








.62 


4 05 


1.90 


.0032 


.0257 


0230 


.0027 


.30 


0073 


0001 


68 


0.6 


1907, 








.43 


3.79 


1.59 


.0020 


.0198 


.0173 


.0025 


.32 


.0047 


.0001 


48 


0.8 


1908, 








.36 


3.11 


1.43 


,0023 


.0198 


0171 


.0027 


.33 


.0025 


.0001 


42 


0.5 


1909, 








.31 


3.52 


1.62 


0030 


,0207 


.0176 


0031 


.32 


.0012 


0000 


39 


0.7 


1910, 








.37 


3.47 


1.34 


.0042 


0231 


0204 


0027 


.37 


.0011 


.0001 


46 


0.8 


1911, 








.40 


3.94 


1.48 


,0036 


,0210 


.0183 


0027 


.42 


,0007 


,0000 


66 


1.1 


1912, 








.38 


3.62 


1.29 


0037 


,0226 


0182 


0044 


.37 


.0018 


.0001 


4b 


1.0 


1913,3 








.47 


4.40 


1.50 


.0060 


,0245 ; 


0222 


.0023 


.39 


.0023 


.0002 


49 


0.9 


1914,3 








.34 


4 03 


1.43 


.0046 


,0228 1 


.0178 


.0050 


.41 


.0000 


.0000 


35 


0.9 


1915,3 








.75 


5.00 


2.27 


.0039 


.0296 


.0260 


.0036 


.41 


~ 


~ 


84 


1.1 



' October omitted. 



2 Two months. 



3 Three months. 











Charles River 


below Milford 












1898, 


.63 


10.47 


3.08 


.1195 


.0597 


.0422 


0175 


2.47 


.0473 


0064 


M 


2.4 


1899. 






.50 


12.52 


3.12 


.3487 


.1345 


.0.S03 


0542 


3.00 


.0053 


.0008 


1.12 


2.6 


1900, 






.56 


12.85 


2.65 


.7123 


.0764 


.0563 


0201 


2.74 


.0140 


.0055 


.93 


3.1 


1901, 






.63 


9.52 


3.37 


.1419 


.0451 


.0317 


.0134 


1.40 


.0422 


,0048 


.86 


2.6 


1902, 






.52 


10.74 


3.38 


.2118 


.0658 


.0406 


.0252 


2.21 


.0236 


,0049 


1.02 


2.7 


1903,1 






.49 


9.03 


2.85 


.2237 


.0479 


.0277 


0202 


1.36 


,0.396 


.00.50 


.66 


2.5 


1904,2 






.50 


9.20 


2.94 


.2105 


,0508 


,0.350 


.0158 


1.44 


.0513 


.0055 


.63 


2.6 


1906,3 






.68 


8.76 


2.90 


.1536 


,0568 


.0427 


.0141 


1.64 


.0160 


.0012 


.92 


2.0 


1907, 






.54 


12.95 


2.83 


.4607 


.0864 


.0.525 


.0339 


2.94 


.0352 


,0021 


.86 


3.2 


1908, 






.48 


1 10.81 


3.48 


.3925 


.0598 


.0347 


0251 


1.79 


.0218 


,0049 


.64 


- 


1909, 






.50 


12.66 


4 07 


.5658 


0479 


.0399 


0080 


1.89 


0273 


,0064 


.72 


- 


1910, 






.57 


15.21 


3.83 


.8038 


.0640 


.0499 


.0141 


3.01 


,0248 


.0082 


.88 


4.2 


1911, 






.58 


14.12 


3.64 


.2881 


.0447 


.0323 


0124 


2.51 


0785 


0114 


' .75 


4.4 


1912, 






.47 


1 15.99 


3.24 i .5413 


0480 


0370 


.0110 


2.67 


,0880 


.0101 


I .64 


5.5 


1913, 






.58 


13.58 


3.65 


.2918 


.0536 


.0361 


.0175 


1.94 


.0505 


OlOS 


.96 


3.8 


1914. 






.48 


12.47 


2.87 


.2817 


.0470 


,0368 


.0102 


1.74 


.0298 


.0085 


i .74 


3.3 


1915, 






.72 


12.00 


3.58 


.1327 


.0587 


.0344 


.0243 


1.61 


~ 


~ 


[ 1.04 


3.1 



1 November omitted. 



2 Four months. 



3 June omitted. 



270 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CHABL.ES RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River, etc. — Concluded. 
Charles River, opposite Pumping Statiori of Brookline Water Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 
evapor.4tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 




























ALBUMINOID. 








3 
a 




Year. 




d 




"S 


T3 

0) 






ffl 




u 

O 


"S 


ID bt 


i 


a 


> 

1 


a 




Si 

OS 

u 


1 


a 


a 






























O 


H 


>A 


£ 


H 


p 


CO 


.44 


iz; 


Z 


o 


K 


1887, 


.83 


5.37 


1.62 


.0013 


.0282 




_ 


.0087 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1888, 








.98 


4.87 


1.92 


.0014 


.0264 


0240 


,0024 


.37 


0062 


.0002 


- 


- 


1895, 








.74 


4.91 


2.08 


.0004 


0237 


,0207 


.0030 


.48 


0055 


,0001 


.75 


1.5 


1897, 








1.02 


5.36 


2.45 


.0012 


,0288 


,0262 


,0026 


.43 


,0067 


0001 


.86 


1.5 


1898, 








.87 


5.22 


2.40 


.0012 


,0303 


,0281 


.0022 


,39 


0035 


,0001 


.92 


1.4 


1899, 








.46 


5.03 


1.92 


0011 


.0262 


0230 


,0032 


.45 


,0025 


,0001 


.62 


1.5 


1900, 








.56 


4.96 


1.60 


0018 


,0252 


,0229 


,0023 


.46 


0020 


,0000 


.70 


1.4 


1901, 








.92 


5.45 


2.60 


,0020 


,0314 


,0275 


.0039 


.41 


,0047 


,0001 


.95 


1.4 


1902, 








.52 


5.46 


2.03 


0031 


,0234 


0211 


,0023 


.57 


,0045 


,0001 


.64 


1.6 


1903, 








.71 


6.22 


2.30 


.0031 


,0240 


,0223 


,0017 


.53 


,0065 


.0001 


.80 


1.5 


1904, 








.51 


5.24 


2.17 


0021 


,0224 


,0208 


,0016 


.55 


,0060 


0001 


.67 


1.6 


1905,1 








.84 


5.93 


2.60 


,0029 


.0318 


.0277 


,0041 


.54 


0056 


.0002 


.92 


1.5 


1906, 1 








1.05 


6.00 


2.77 


0039 


,0294 


,0267 


.0027 


.53 


0032 


0001 


1.17 


1.4 


1907,1 








.63 


6.15 


2.40 


,0022 


,0246 


0228 


,0018 


.64 


0026 


0001 


.73 


1.7 


1908, 1 








.55 


5.93 


2,29 


,0035 


,0248 


0222 


,0026 


.65 


0036 


0002 


.61 


1.7 


1909, 2 








.65 


5.75 


2.00 


,0023 


,0254 


,0236 


.0018 


.69 


.0015 


,0001 


.75 


1.5 


1910, 








.60 


6.71 


2.79 


,0028 


.0289 


0260 


,0029 


.83 


0013 


0001 


.72 


1.8 


1911, 








.85 


7.42 


3 02 


,0040 


,0302 


0258 


.0044 


.80 


.0032 


,0001 


1.10 


2.0 


1912, 








.56 


6 30 


2.07 


0043 


,0298 


,0237 


,0061 


.85 


0012 


0001 


.69 


2.1 


1913, 








.74 


7.32 


2.27 


,0053 


,0342 


0300 


,0042 


.85 


.0043 


,0002 


.86 


2.0 


1914, 








.55 


7.10 


1.87 


.0055 


.0314 


,0265 


.0049 


.92 


.0032 


.0001 


.66 


2.1 



1 Five months. 





Charles River, 


opposite Pumping 


Station of Waltham Water Works. 




1887, 


.67 


6,02 


1.62 


.0029 


,0274 






.48 


,0043 








1888, 








.82 


5,47 


1.88 


.0035 


0310 


0265 


0045 


.41 


.0087 


0002 


_ 


_ 


1897, 








.95 


6.06 


2,45 


.0056 


,0322 


,0299 


.0023 


.53 


,0073 


0002 


.83 


1.9 


1898, 








.81 


5,74 


2.46 


,0050 


,0329 


,0296 


.0033 


.44 


.0043 


.0001 


.85 


1.6 


1899, 








.41 


5,50 


1,81 


,0047 


,0264 


,0248 


,0016 


.51 


,0051 


,0002 


.52 


1.9 


1900, 








.52 


5.93 


1.68 


,0064 


,0282 


,0259 


,0023 


.53 


.0070 


0002 


.58 


1.7 


1901, 








.82 


5.93 


2,72 


0065 


,0322 


,0289 


,0033 


.44 


.0067 


,0002 


.85 


1.8 


1902, 








.45 


6.21 


1,97 


,0084 


,0258 


,0228 


.0030 


.62 


0077 


0003 


.59 


2.0 


1903, 








.64 


6 06 


2,21 


,0078 


,0267 


,0239 


,0028 


.58 


.0084 


,0003 


.71 


2.0 


1904, 








.55 


6.08 


2 22 


0002 


,0317 


,0266 


,0051 


.62 


,0095 


0002 


.62 


2.0 


1905, 








.79 


6,29 


2,54 


0077 


0363 


0308 


,0055 


.58 


.0075 


0002 


.80 


1.7 


1906, 








1.00 


6.70 


2.58 


0063 


0335 


,0297 


0038 


.59 


.0038 


,0002 


.98 


1.8 


1907, 1 








.58 


6.22 


2.24 


.0067 


.0278 


.0247 


,0031 


.63 


.0058 


0002 


.65 


2.0 


1908, 








.62 


6.50 


2.49 


,0048 


.0344 


.0284 


,0060 


.69 


.0027 


0001 


.64 


1.9 


1909, 








.54 


6.79 


2,36 


,0063 


0349 


,0298 


.0051 


.76 


,0026 


,0002 


.53 


2.0 


1910, 








.59 


7.37 


2,87 


.0078 


0336 


0299 


0037 


.81 


.0037 


0003 


.56 


2.4 


1911, 








.75 


7.47 


2,95 


0086 


,0343 


,0308 


,0035 


.85 


,0030 


,0003 


.87 


2.3 


1912, 








.57 


7.59 


2,32 


0095 


,0320 


,0280 


,0040 


.92 


,0038 


.0002 


.63 


2.6 


1913,2 








.68 


7.68 


2,54 


0083 


,0437 


,0378 


.0059 


.91 


,0041 


0003 


.74 


2.3 


1914, 








.52 


7.45 


1,98 


0117 


.0353 


,0297 


.0056 


.92 


,0030 


0002 


.57 


2.6 


1915, 


.93 


8.30 


2.97 


0131 


,0475 


,0407 


.0068 


.91 


- 


- 


1.11 


2.3 



1 July omitted. 



2 June omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



271 



Chicopee River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river and its tributaries 
during the year 1915 will be found on page 57. 

chicopee river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee Rfver and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusrt;. 

Ware River, below Ware. 

[Farts in 100,000.1 











N 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 
'C 
o 


NiTKOGEN 
AS — 


d 

s 

2 
O 
o 
C 








albuminoid. 




Yeah. 


"3 




'3 


1 
1 


T3 

o 
a 


0) 


1 


a 
























t§ 




o 
O 


^ 




t. 

f^ 


H 


Q 


3 

M 


O 


iz; 


Z C 


s 


1898, 


.64 


4.42 


1.94 


.0028 


.0332 


.0250 


.0082 


.19 


.0025 


.0003 


77 


1.0 


1899, 








.46 


4.82 


1.77 


.0052 


.0371 


,0268 


.0103 


.25 


.0015 


.0004 


66 


0.9 


1900, 








.51 


4.93 


1.64 


.0066 


.0321 


.0243 


,0078 


.25 


.0030 


.0003 


73 


1.1 


1901, 








.73 


4.79 


2.15 


.0082 


.0300 


.0242 


,0058 


.18 


.0044 


.0002 


84 


13 


1902, 








.76 


4.86 


2.17 


.0071 


.0348 


.0252 


,0096 


.23 


.0040 


,0003 


93 


1.0 


1903, 1 








.68 


4.83 


2.18 


.0072 


.0345 


.0240 


.0105 


.25 


.0034 


.0003 


78 


0.8 


1904, 1 








.60 


5.60 


2.36 


,0043 


.0411 


,0285 


.0126 


.29 


.0046 


.0004 


72 


1.1 


1908, 








.56 


7.38 


2.86 


.0265 


.0418 


.0264 


.0154 


.37 


.0033 


.0005 


80 


- 


1909, 1 








.61 


8.63 


3.05 


.0354 


.0569 


. 0357 


.0212 


.44 


.0015 


.0006 


98 


- 


1910, 








.57 


9.82 


4.39 


.0655 


.0622 


.0426 


.0196 


.60 


,0040 


.0011 


84 


- 


1911, 








.70 


9.15 


3.37 


.0396 


,0554 


,0375 


.0179 


.48 


.0015 


0003 


98 


- 


1912, 








.62 


10.93 


3.23 


.0592 


.0717 


.0491 


.0226 


.61 


.0015 


.0014 


96 


- 


1913, 








.66 


9.74 


2.97 


.0525 


.0634 


,0432 


.0202 


.51 


,0023 


.0005 


96 


- 


1914, 








.60 


10.47 


3.15 


'0501 


.0704 


,0488 


,0216 


.53 


.0012 


.0006 


82 


- 


1915, 








.76 


9.43 


3.41 


.0317 


,0746 


,0427 


.0319 


.42 


~ 


1 


16 


" 



' September omitted. 













Quaboag River, heloxo Palmer. 












1899, 


.35 


4.54 


1,68 


.0048 


,0252 


.0208 


,0044 


.26 


.0060 


.0002 


.44 


1.1 


1900, 








.40 


4,56 


1,58 


0008 


.0218 


.0176 


,0042 


.26 


.0002 


,0001 


.48 


1.2 


1901, 








.42 


4.32 


1.74 


,0043 


.0255 


.0202 


.0053 


.23 


.0052 


.0002 


.53 


1.1 


1902. 








.41 


4.55 


1.64 


,0077 


.0242 


.0196 


.0046 


.33 


.0085 


,0002 


.53 


1.2 


1903, 








.44 


4.36 


1.67 


.0090 


,0242 


.0186 


.0056 


.27 


.0092 


.0033 


.51 


1.0 


1904, 








.40 


4.68 


1.70 


.0191 


.0253 


.0195 


,0058 


.31 


.0082 


.0002 


.50 


1.1 


1908, 








.36 


5.31 


1.98 


0061 


.0207 


.0149 


,0058 


.40 


.0070 


.0003 


.42 


- 


1909, 








.31 


5.43 


1.95 


,0008 


0211 


,0165 


,0046 


.41 


.0058 


.0003 


.47 


- 


1910, 








.44 


6.05 


2.28 


,0043 


,0238 


.0168 


.0070 


.52 


.0057 


.0003 


.73 


- 


1911,1 








.39 


5.94 


2.08 


,0000 


,0191 


.0145 


.0046 


.44 


.0032 


.0002 


.53 


- 


1912, 








.40 


7.63 


2,08 


,0087 


,0209 


.0144 


.0065 


.46 


0068 


0001 


.58 


- 


1913,2 








.58 


7,67 


1.81 


0108 


.0278 


.0164 


.0114 


.46 


.0042 


,0001 


.61 


- 


1914, 








.49 


6.62 


1.62 


0144 


.0243 


.0176 


.0067 


.49 


.0045 


.0004 


.35 


- 


1915, 








.56 


6.00 


2.12 


0128 


.0336 


.0236 


.0100 


.40 




~ 


.62 





1 Four months. 



- June omitted. 



272 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CHICOPEE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Concluded. 

Swift River, below Bondsville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





8 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 

.3 
u 


Nitrogen 


13 

a 

a 

8 

a 

6 






Evaporation. 


£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Yeab. 


3 

o 




"3 
o 


% 
1 

.a 

Q 


1 


1 


1 

1 


o 

a 


1908,1 . 


.34 


5.45 


2.42 


.0047 


.0217 


.0132 


.0085 


.21 


.0013 


.0002 


.44 


- 


1909,2 . ; 


.40 


4.00 


1.70 


0016 


.0196 


.0139 


0057 


.22 


.0000 


.0001 


.60 


- 


1910, 


.33 


5.28 


2.05 


0031 


.0261 


.0196 


.0065 


.25 


.0010 


.0001 


.60 


- 


1911, 


.48 


5.05 


2.12 


,0021 


.0278 


.0193 


.0085 


.21 


.0007 


.0000 


.74 


- 


1912, 


.28 


5.02 


1.92 


.0047 


.0268 


.0184 


.0084 


.21 


.0008 


.0001 


.54 


- 


1913, . 


.36 


5.32 


1.95 


0024 


.0296 


.0204 


.0092 


.26 


.0008 


.0001 


.58 


- 


1914, 


.35 


4.97 


1.67 


.0037 


.0304 


0219 


.0085 


.20 


.0025 


.0002 


.55 


- 


1915, 


.46 


4.95 


1.83 


.0052 


.0269 


.0202 


.0067 


.24 


- 


- 


.64 


- 



' Three months. 



2 Two months. 







Chicopee River 


above Chicopee. 










1908,1 . 


.42 


5.21 


1.98 


.0100 


.0240 


.0177 


.0063 


.33 


.0056 


.0003 


.62 


- 


1909,2 . 


.38 


5.82 


2.08 


.0094 


.0220 


.0162 


.0058 


.36 


.0046 


.0004 


.46 


- 


1910, 


.45 


6.14 


2.06 


.0099 


0239 


.0191 


.0048 


.44 


.0052 


0003 


.50 


- 


1911, 


.48 


6.12 


2.10 


.0081 


.0275 


.0184 


.0091 


.42 


.0067 


.0004 


.57 


- 


1912, 


.41 


6.83 


2.03 


.0159 


,0287 


.0221 


.0066 


.50 


.0108 


.0005 


.47 


- 


1913, 


.43 


6.68 


2.13 


.0146 


.0302 


.0211 


.0091 


.44 


,0067 


.0006 


.50 


- 


1914, 


.33 


6.50 


2.00 


.0163 


.0278 


.0212 


.0066 


.51 


.0095 


.0008 


.40 


- 


1915, 


.61 


6.45 


1.98 


.0168 


.0295 


.0242 


.0053 


.39 


- 


- 


.64 


- 



1 October omitted. 



2 September omitted. 



No. 34.1 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



273 



Concord River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river and its tributaries 
during the year 1915 will be found on pages 55 and 57. 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusive. 

Sudbury River, below Saxonville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


o 

a 
S 

a 
8 

a 

1 
o 






8 


ALBUMINOID. 




Ybab. 


1 


4 

O.tS 
3" 




1 
1 


CI 
1 




1 


1 

1 


1901, . 


.84 


7.22 


3.37 


.0073 


.0624 


.0431 


.0193 


.38 


.0050 


.0005 


1.05 


1.9 


1902, 






.38 


6.39 


2.57 


.0150 


.0424 


.0272 


.0152 


.60 


.0103 


.0005 


.55 


2.2 


1903, 






.52 


7.77 


2.78 


.0028 


.0549 


.0296 


.0253 


.65 


.0080 


.0002 


.83 


2.1 


1904, 






.48 


9.58 


3.57 


.0569 


.0587 


.0385 


.0202 


.87 


.0193 


.0032 


.88 


2.5' 


1906,1 






.67 


6.88 


2.90 


.0258 


.0525 


.0381 


.0144 


.56 


.0058 


.0004 


.92 


1.9, 


1907,2 






.65 


9.07 


3.28 


.1357 


.0653 


.0347 


.0306 


.84 


.0063 


.0004 


.84 


2.1 


1908,' 






.44 


9.67 


3.72 


.0039 


.0634 


.0374 


.0260 


1.06 


.0128 


.0009 


.69 


- 


1909, 






.43 


6.81 


2.59 


.0174 


.0330 


.0256 


.0074 


.64 


.0043 


.0005 


.64 


- 


1910, 






.49 


9.78 


3.45 


.0454 


.0606 


.0345 


.0261 


.83 


.0040 


.0010 


.65 


- 


1911, 






.37 


9.03 


3.08 


.0287 


.0410 


.0281 


.0129 


.92 


.0120 


.0009 


.54 


- 


1912, 






.49 


8.83 


2.75 


.0238 


.0366 


.0253 


.0113 


1.19 


.0137 


.0031 


.72 


- 


1913, 






.69 


7.28 


2.56 


.0152 


.0347 


.0291 


.0056 


.90 


.0185 


.0023 


.77 


- 


1914, 






.51 


9.62 


3,03 


.0292 


.0439 


.0276 


.0163 


1.13 


.0220 


.0042 


.61 


- 


1915, 






.97 


6.67 


2.75 


.0129 


.0408 


.0319 


.0089 


.73 


- 


- 


1.04 


- 



1 June omitted. 



* Three months. 



3 August omitted. 







Assabet River, above Westborov^h. 










1909, . 


.56 


6.01 


2.20 


.0048 


.0217 


.0194 


.0023 


.36 


.0015 


.0001 


.69 


- 


1910. . 


.90 


7.37 


3.12 


.0029 


.0251 


.0229 


.0022 


.38 


.0035 


.0001 


.86 


- 


1911, . 


.97 


8.02 


3.39 


.0061 


.0441 


.0354 


.0087 


.45 


.0023 


.0002 


1.20 


- 


1912, . 


.72 


7.00 


2.36 


.0073 


.0255 


.0228 


.0027 


.44 


.0061 


.0002 


.87 


- 


1913, . 


1.25 


8.26 


3.73 


.0095 


.0469 


.0392 


.0077 


.46 


.0007 


.0002 


1.55 


- 


1914. . 


.92 


7.37 


2.78 


.0088 


.0356 


.0304 


.0052 


.41 


.0034 


.0001 


.98 


- 


1915, . 


1.56 


8.08 


4.02 


.0046 


.0463 


.0406 


.0047 


.46 


- 


- 


1.74 


- 



274 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CONCORD RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Continued. 

Assabet River, below Westborough. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

1 

o 


Nitrogen 


13 

a 

d 
o 

a 
O 






Evaporation. 


6 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Yeah. 


o 




O 


13 
o 

"o 
Eg 


o 

o 

w 
3 
CO 


1 


1 


i 

1 


1909, 

1910, . 

1911, . 

1912, . . 
1913, 

1914, . 
1915, 


1.70 

2.23 
.83 
.66 

1.15 
.80 

1.62 


19.24 
17.07 
12.09 
12.71 

9.67 
10.21 

9.46 


8.91 
7.00 
4.01 
4.01 
4,21 
3.14 
4.28 


.4140 
.2898 
.0556 
.0975 
.0152 
.0089 
.0118 


.2281 
.1334 
.0460 
,0419 
.0448 
.0399 
,0539 


.1616 
.1018 
.0373 
.0357 
.0401 
.0339 
.0438 


.0665 
,0316 
.0087 
.0062 
.0047 
.0060 
.0101 


1.94 
2.16 
1.87 
2.20 
1.08 
1.59 
.87 


.0005 
.0078 
.0967 
.1998 
.1078 
.0195 


.0005 
.0018 
.0121 
.0132 
.0016 
.0005 


2.90 
2.20 
1.24 
.95 
1.37 
1.01 
1.83 


- 



Assahet River, above Hudson. 



1908,1 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913,2 

1914, 

1915, 







.49 


5.97 


2.16 


.0044 


.0241 


.0200 


.0041 


.54 


.0072 


.0003 


.59 






.39 


6.37 


2.33 


.0070 


.0306 


.0261 


.0045 


.52 


.0037 


,0002 


.50 






.57 


6.90 


3.08 


.0058 


.0346 


.0296 


.0050 


.61 


.0055 


,0002 


.67 






.57 


6.82 


2.51 


.0059 


.0295 


.0248 


.0047 


.57 


.0077 


.0002 


.81 






.45 


6.51 


2.13 


,0075 


.0297 


.0234 


.0063 


.62 


.0108 


.0002 


.59 






.65 


8.48 


2.81 


,0168 


.0386 


.0327 


.0059 


.70 


.0046 


.0002 


.79 






.44 


6.80 


2.10 


.0066 


.0275 


,0222 


.0053 


.65 


.0060 


.0001 


.53 






.82 


6.48 


2.63 


.0064 


.0325 


,0305 


.0020 


.55 


- 


- 


1.02 



1 September omitted. 



2 November omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAJNIIXATION OF RIVERS. 



275 



CHEatflCAL EXAAQNATION OF WaTER FROIM CONCORD 

TARiES, ETC. — Continued. 
Assabet River, below Hudson. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



concord river. 

River am) its Tribu- 









i 


residi7e on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. | 


6 
.S 

O 


NlTHOQEN 
AS — 


1 

a 
o 
o 

a 

6 








albuminoid. 




Yeab. 




to C 


o 


1 
.2 
Q 


■d 

■§ 

a 

1 

CO 


1 
u 




a 

1 


1898. . 


.79 


5.61 


2.38 


.0062 


.0335 


.0291 


.0044 


.39 


.0063 


.0003 


.87 


1.6 


1899, 






.50 


8.30 


3.01 


.0205 


.0457 


.0383 


.0074 


.80 


.0020 


.0004 


.73 


2.1 


1900, 






.48 


8.05 


2.05 


.0382 


,0501 


.0362 


.0139 


1.27 


.0028 


.0007 


.72 


2.0 


1901, . 






.66 


5.47 


2.38 


.0193 


.0375 


.0295 


.0080 


.79 


.0107 


.0005 


.91 


1.8 


1902, 






.64 


7.06 


2.69 


.0189 


.0464 


.0330 


.0134 


.84 


.0077 


.0005 


.74 


1.9 


1903,1 . 






.51 


5.71 


2.17 


.0092 


.0287 


.0222 


.0065 


.56 


.0073 


.0006 


.60 


1.7 


1904,2 






.44 


7.67 


2.60 


.0329 


.0375 


.0312 


.0063 


1.43 


.0073 


.0005 


.64 


1.9 


1908, 






.51 


9.17 


3.50 


.0198 


.0396 


.0294 


.0102 


1.32 


.0072 


.0005 


.82 


- 


1909, 






.51 


8.81 


3.26 


.0161 


.0403 


.0296 


.0107 


.98 


.0022 


.0002 


.64 


- 


1910, 






.69 


13.83 


3.83 


.0413 


.0428 


.0337 


.0091 


1.27 


.0048 


.0002 


1.24 


- 


1911, 






.64 


12.83 


4.30 


.0817 


.0532 


.0400 


.0132 


.90 


.0043 


.0003 


1.06 


- 


1912, 






.78 


18.08 


3.99 


.0939 


.0752 


.0494 


.0258 


1.02 


.0053 


.0002 


1.28 


- 


1913,3 






.76 


13.29 


3.34 


.0727 


.0704 


.0577 


.0127 


1.07 


.0036 


.0004 


1.28 


- 


1914, 






.57 


11.88 


3.10 


.0720 


.0601 


.0436 


.0165 


.98 


.0042 


.0002 


1.03 


- 


1915, 






.90 


8.25 


3.17 


.0144 


.0466 


.0356 


.0110 


.59 


- 


- 


1.16 


- 



1 June omitted. 



2 Three months. 



5 November omitted. 



Assabet River, above Maynard. 



1904, 

1906, 

1907,1 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 

1913, 

1914, 

1915, 





.53 


5.65 


2.30 


.0046 


.0275 


.0231 


.0044 


.64 


.0035 


.0001 


.63 






.75 


5.53 


2.26 


.0065 


.0290 


.0254 


.0036 


'.48 


.0035 


.0002 


.97 






.68 


5.35 


1.80 


.0047 


.0255 


.0211 


.0044 


.50 


.0043 


.0002 


.73 






.52 


6.91 


2.32 


.0093 


.0288 


.0248 


.0040 


1.03 


.0030 


.0002 


.62 






.43 


6.18 


2.13 


.0068 


.0343 


.0277 


.0066 


.72 


.0023 


.0001 


.62 






.54 


7.70 


2.82 


.0098 


.0337 


.0291 


.0046 


.98 


.0017 


.0003 


.64 






.57 


7.67 


2.33 


.0087 


.0327 


.0277 


.0050 


.85 


.0065 


.0004 


.73 






.57 


7.92 


2.15 


.0058 


.0316 


.0242 


.0074 


1.06 


.0032 


.0002 


.65 






.60 


7.85 


2.27 


.0085 


.0372 


.0296 


.0076 


1.03 


.0028 


.0003 


.73 






.46 


7.02 


2.39 


.0069 


.0373 


.0308 


.0065 


.82 


.0014 


.0002 


.53 






.92 


7.08 


2.63 


.0104 


.0403 


.0336 


.0067 


.63 


- 


- 


1.03 



I Four months. 



276 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



River and its Tribu- 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord 
TARiES, ETC. — Concluded. 

Assabet River, below Maynard. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 

3 

a 
o 

s 

o 






i 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


3 

o 


3" 


"3 
o 


a 
> 

1 
.2 
Q 


-2 

a 
m 


1 

1 


1 

2 




1898, . 


.77 


5.93 


2.59 


.0020 


.0387 


.0301 


.0086 


.43 


.0030 


.0003 


.89 


1.5 


1899, 






.51 


6.70 


2.21 


.0185 


.0414 


.0327 


.0087 


.73 


.0043 


.0003 


.62 


1.7 


1900, 






.50 


5.72 


1.73 


.0217 


.0386 


.0304 


.0082 


.70 


,0031 


.0002 


.59 


1.4 


1901, 






.73 


6.57 


2.67 


.0211 


.0428 


.0351 


.0077 


.45 


.0052 


.0002 


.90 


1.6 


1902, 






.69 


7.27 


2.87 


.0099 


.0592 


.0381 


.0211 


.57 


.0033 


.0002 


.83 


1.6 


1903, 






.61 


6.40 


2.58 


.0170 


.0457 


.0322 


.0135 


.48 


.0037 


.0003 


.83 


1.6 


1904, 






- 


8.48 


3.21 


.0143 


.0678 


.0412 


.0266 


.74 


.0043 


.0002 


1.05 


1.7 


1906, 






.88 


6.68 


2.64 


.0290 


.0448 


.0312 


.0136 


.58 


.0047 


.0003 


.91 


1.6 


1907,1 






.79 


7.64 


2.76 


.0299 


.0391 


.0274 


.0117 


.69 


.0060 


.0003 


.86 


1.6 


1908, 






.45 


11.46 


3.98 


.0675 


.0684 


.0381 


.0303 


1.37 


.0028 


.0012 


.89 


- 


1909, 






- 


13.97 


4.21 


.1208 


.0991 


.0529 


.0462 


1.22 


.0007 


.0006 


1.34 


- 


1910, 






.69 


13.15 


4.68 


.0708 


.0685 


.0446 


.0239 


1.82 


.0038 


.0006 


.85 


- 


1911, 






.58 


12.73 


4.17 


.0738 


.0650 


.0408 


.0242 


1.41 


.0060 


.0006 


1.08 


- 


1912, 






- 


12.94 


3.92 


.1205 


.0771 


.0494 


.0277 


1.46 


.0026 


.0010 


1.04 


- 


1913, 






.60 


10.60 


3.01 


.0746 


.0597 


.0394 


.0203 


1.34 


.0311 


.0007 


.85 


- 


1914, 






.33 


11.58 


2.87 


.0705 


.0595 


.0378 


.0217 


1.32 


.0056 


.0002 


.73 


- 


1915, 






.69 


10.78 


3.25 


.0509 


.0610 


.0353 


.0257 


1.27 


- 


- 


.99 


- 



1 Four months. 

Concord River, at Billerica. 



1902, 


.68 


^.98 


2.18 


.0091 


.0347 


.0272 


.0075 


.53 


.0052 


.0004 


.78 


1.7 


1903, 






.64 


5.71 


2.26 


.0097 


.0317 


.0258 


.0059 


.49 


.0058 


.0005 


.72 


1.8 


1904, 






.64 


6.05 


2.31 


.0077 


.0341 


.0255 


.0086 


.55 


.0072 


.0002 


.75 


1.7 


1908, 






.37 


8.04 


2.65 


.0107 


.0251 


.0216 


.0035 


.96 


.0104 


.0005 


.54 


- 


1909, 






.49 


7.71 


2.78 


.0128 


.0298 


.0267 


.0031 


.75 


.0058 


.0013 


.65 


- 


1910, 






.49 


7.31 


3.00 


.0142 


.0325 


.0292 


.0033 


1.01 


,0055 


.0004 


.58 


- 


1911, 






.45 


11.14 


4.05 


.0181 


.0525 


.0287 


.0238 


1.16 


.0132 


.0008 


1.14 


- 


1912,1 






.53 


10.90 


3.08 


.0187 


.0433 


.0274 


.0159 


.97 


.0140 


.0008 


.82 


- 


1913, 






.57 


7.63 


2.38 


.0089 


.0355 


.0312 


.0043 


.98 


.0073 


.0003 


.77 


- 


1914, 






.41 


8.78 


2.20 


.0096 


.0335 


.0284 


.0051 


1.10 


.0072 


.0005 


.50 


- 


1916, 






.88 


7.92 


2.93 


.0157 


.0411 


.0375 


.0036 


.84 


- 


- 


1.05 


- 



September omitted. 



No. 34. 



EXAIMINATION OF RIVERS. 



277 



Connecticut River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 
1915 will be found on page 58. 

connecticut river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Connecticut River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Connecticut River, at Northjield Farms. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 



















i 










6 

a 

1 






13 

8 
a 
iiii 




Yeab. 


i 




"3 


-a 


^3 

a 

a 

o 

p. 




'C 


1 




o 


^ 




(£ 


H 


p 


3 


O 


iz; 


Z 


6 


w 


1899, . 


.30 


7.32 


2.17 


.0016 


.0189 


.0158 


.0031 


.11 


.0023 


.0001 


.85 


3.6 


1900, 






.47 


6.24 


2.11 


.0023 


.0190 


.0154 


.0036 


.09 


.0030 


.0001 


.95 


2.9 


1901, 






.31 


6.12 


2.39 


.0016 


.0146 


.0122 


.0024 


.10 


.0037 


.0002 


.72 


3.2 


1902, 






.30 


5.57 


2.02 


.0014 


.0124 


.0110 


.0014 


.08 


.0057 


.0001 


.60 


2.9 


1903, 






.23 


6.83 


2.18 


.0037 


.0169 


.0143 


.0026 


.14 


.0028 


.0002 


.68 


3.4 


1904,1 






.27 


6.44 


2.44 


.0023 


.0158 


.0130 


.0028 


.12 


.0038 


.0001 


.73 


3.4 


1906. 






.34 


6.50 


2.17 


.0040 


.0201 


.0181 


.0020 


.14 


.0023 


.0002 


.76 


3.2 


1907,2 






.36 


5.91 


2.06 


.0020 


.0141 


.0122 


.0019 


.16 


.0048 


.0002 


.66 


3.0 


1908,3 






.28 


8.33 


2.78 


.0058 


.0200 


.0177 


.0023 


.22 


.0018 


.0001 


.70 




1909, 






.29 


7.32 


2.89 


.0031 


.0142 


.0124 


.0018 


.16 


.0017 


.0002 


.82 


_ 


1910, 






.31 


7.52 


3.10 


.0064 


.0174 


.0152 


.0022 


.17 


.0018 


.0001 


.77 


_ 


1911, 






.32 


7.28 


2.44 


.0066 


.0172 


.0143 


.0029 


.16 


.0022 


.0001 


.70 


_ 


1912, 






.36 


7.43 


1.63 


.0066 


.0185 


.0148 


.0037 


.16 


.0012 


.0001 


.70 


_ 


1913, 






.31 


7.78 


2.31 


.0077 


.0174 


.0131 


.0043 


.17 


.0020 


.0002 


.65 


_ 


1914, 






.29 


8.03 


2.73 


.0056 


.0182 


.0137 


.0045 


.17 


.0012 


.0001 


.70 


_ 


1915, 






.30 


7.08 


2.08 


.0031 


.0162 


.0124 


.0038 


.17 


~ 




.60 


- 



1 July omitted. 



2 Four months. 



8 June omitted. 











Connecticut River, below Springfield. 










1888, 


.35 


5.34 


1.24 


.0032 


.0182 


.0143 


.0039 


.15 


.0082 


.0002 






1899, 






.33 


6.61 


1.99 


.0093 


.0238 


.0195 


.0043 


.23 


.0042 


.0003 


.67 


3.1 


1900, 






.44 


6.64 


1.90 


.0098 


.0250 


.0176 


.0074 


.20 


.0034 


.0002 


.89 


3.1 


1901, 






.32 


6.03 


2.34 


.0061 


.0190 


.0153 


.0037 


.18 


.0048 


.0003 


.65 


3.0 


1902, 






.31 


5.83 


2.13 


.0002 


.0180 


.0140 


.0040 


.16 


.0055 


.0005 


.61 


3.0 


1903, 






.30 


6.12 


2.04 


.0098 


.0202 


.0147 


.0055 


.24 


.0058 


.0004 


.61 


2.7 


1904, I 






.22 


5.22 


1.87 


.0098 


.0187 


.0125 


.0002 


.21 


.0047 


.0002 


.48 


2.4 


1906,2 






.35 


7.14 


2.61 


.0082 


.0204 


.0161 


0043 


.24 


.0026 


.0004 


.71 


2.8 


1907,3 






.38 


6.27 


2.46 


.0069 


.0163 


.0131 


.0032 


.24 


.0050 


.0003 


.67 


2.9 


1908, 






.32 


8.58 


2.61 


.0214 


.0223 


.0165 


.0058 


.38 


.0040 


.0004 


.81 




1909, 






.29 


6.02 


2.25 


.0079 


.0156 


.0118 


.0038 


.22 


.0018 


.0003 


.65 


_ 


1910, 






.33 


8.67 


3.60 


.0155 


.0241 


.0188 


.0053 


.37 


.0028 


.0003 


.89 


_ 


1911, 






.38 


7.66 


2.56 


.0140 


.0181 


.0147 


.0034 


.28 


.0018 


.0005 


.70 


_ 


1912, 






-.31 


8.22 


3.02 


.0136 


.0228 


.0161 


.0007 


.16 


.0022 


.0004 


.74 


_ 


1913,4 






.31 


7.96 


2.50 


.0178 


.0242 


.0181 


.0061 


.35 


.0038 


.0004 


.68 


_ 


1914, 






.29 


7.92 


2.50 


.0185 


.0243 


.0178 


.0065 


.30 


.0023 


.0003 


.82 


_ 


1915, 






.35 


7.15 


2.38 


.0091 


.0216 


.0151 


.0005 


.24 


- 


- 


.69 


- 



1 Three months. 



2 June omitted. 



3 Four months. 



* September omitted. 



278 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Deekfield River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 61. 



DEERFIEIiD RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Deerfield River and Tributary. 
— Averages for Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Deerfield River, at Shelburne Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
AS — 


a 


















o 






i 




d 

a 






3 
to 

o 

a 

bO 
>> 




Year. 


"3 




"3 


1 


a 


2 


'C 


a 




o 


o 






o 




3 














O 


H 


hJ 


fe 


H 


P 


O 
.09 


^ 


^ 


O 


W 


1901, . 


.34 


4.02 


1.82 


.0057 


.0200 


.0171 


.0029 


.0078 


.0001 


.63 


1.7 


1902, 








.29 


3.62 


1.46 


.0051 


.0151 


.0126 


.0025 


.08 


.0055 


.0002 


.51 


1.7 


1903,1 








.26 


3.74 


1.35 


.0023 


.0131 


.0113 


.0018 


.09 


.0038 


.0002 


.44 


1.5 


1904, 








.24 


4.15 


1.52 


.0040 


.0115 


,0097 


.0018 


.11 


.0110 


.0001 


.39 


2.1 


1908, 








.33 


4.93 


1.93 


.0017 


,0128 


.0108 


.0020 


.14 


,0030 


.0001 


.44 




1909, 








.26 


4.56 


1.62 


.0009 


.0150 


,0129 


.0021 


.12 


,0005 


.0001 


.47 


- 


1910, 








.26 


4.62 


1.69 


.0025 


.0141 


.0108 


.0033 


.13 


.0010 


.0001 


.45 


- 


1911, 








.35 


4.80 


1.88 


.0035 


.0156 


,0119 


.0037 


.13 


,0027 


,0000 


.59 


_ 


1912,2 








.29 


4.48 


1.65 


.0024 


,0149 


,0122 


.0027 


.11 


,0008 


.0001 


.42 


_ 


1913, 








.39 


4.55 


1.30 


.0049 


,0213 


.0164 


.0049 


.12 


,0007 


.0000 


.53 


_ 


1914. 








.45 


4.80 


1.57 


.0062 


.0222 


.0167 


.0055 


.17 


,0022 


.0003 


.56 


_ 


1915, 








.27 


4.58 


1.44 


.0042 


.0149 


.0121 


,0028 


.16 


- 




.39 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 October omitted. 













Green River, below 


Greenfield. 












1903, 


.05 


7.75 


2.23 


,0152 


.0143 


.0086 


.0057 


21 


.0078 


.0005 


.15 


3.9 


1904, 








.07 


6.93 


2.01 


.0151 


.0382 


.0138 


.0244 


28 


.0100 


.0006 


.22 


3.8 


1908, 








.17 


11.06 


2.97 


.0665 


.0337 


.0131 


.0206 


45 


,0043 


,0011 


.33 




1909, 








.14 


7.82 


2.54 


.0459 


.0333 


.0151 


.0182 


37 


,0038 


,0011 


.23 


_ 


1910, 








.17 


8.33 


3.16 


.0775 


.0284 


.0169 


.0115 


37 


,0025 


.0012 


.23 


_ 


1911, 








.21 


9,23 


2.44 


.0684 


.0228 


.0115 


.0113 


48 


,0033 


.0014 


.37 


_ 


1912, 








.17 


18.02 


2.71 


,0099 


.0352 


.0092 


.0260 


23 


.0017 


.0003 


.44 


_ 


1913, 








.12 


8.25 


2.25 


.0203 


.0198 


.0103 


.0095 


26 


,00.30 


.0003 


.22 


_ 


1914, 








.13 


9.15 


1.60 


.0426 


.0234 


.0135 


.0099 


38 


.0038 


.0007 


.17 


_ 


1915,1 








.10 


6.95 


1.15 


.0348 


.0184 


.0102 


.0082 


28 


- 




.20 


- 



1 Four months. 











Deer 


field River, 


below Green River. 










1908, 


.26 


7.35 


2.28 


.0075 


,0154 


.0098 


.0056 


.20 


.0025 


.0002 


.37 




1909, 






.28 


5.55 


1.83 


.0043 


,0121 


.0104 


.0017 


.14 


.0012 


.0001 


.41 


- 


1910, 






.24 


5.82 


2.37 


.0093 


.0128 


.0112 


.0016 


.16 


.0008 


.0003 


.31 


_ 


1911, 






.34 


5.82 


2.06 


.0078 


,0143 


.0106 


.0037 


.16 


.0025 


.0005 


.52 


_ 


1912, 






.25 


5.23 


1.63 


.0070 


.0140 


.0107 


.0033 


.17 


,0030 


.0001 


.37 


- 


1913, 






.28 


5.39 


1.60 


.0113 


,0257 


.0183 


.0074 


.17 


,0063 


.0002 


.39 


_ 


1914, 






.30 


5.68 


1.80 


,0124 


.0182 


.0143 


.0039 


.19 


.0020 


.0001 


.43 


_ 


1915,1 






.22 


5.41 


1.28 


.0211 


,0195 


.0128 


.0067 


.20 


" 


" 


.34 


" 



1 Four months. 



No. 34. 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



279 



Fkench River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 58. 

french river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from French River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

French River, below Webster. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


o 
a 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


o 

a 

3 

i 
o 

a 

6 






(5, 


albuminoid. 




Yeab. 


o 


d 


3 

o 
E-i 


T3 
(!) 

Q 


73 
0) 

a 

0) 

a 

3 


1 
03 


.1 




1899, . 


.44 


5.67 


2.07 


.0238 


.0612 


.0384 


.0228 


.42 


.0024 


.0007 


.66 


1.6 


1900, 






.52 


5.79 


2.10 


.0202 


.0475 


.0357 


.0118 


.46 


.0062 


.0007 


.78 


1.5 


1901, 






.50 


5.29 


2.25 


.0090 


.0390 


.0265 


.0125 


.33 


.0044 


.0002 


.75 


1.2 


1902, 






.42 


4.92 


1.99 


.0057 


.0391 


.0264 


.0127 


.39 


.0038 


.0002 


.65 


1.2 


1903, 






.48 


4.67 


1.88 


.0049 


.0352 


.0241 


.0111 


.40 


.0058 


.0002 


.72 


0.9 


1904, 






.44 


6.02 


2.18 


.0267 


.0434 


.0281 


.0153 


.58 


.0042 


.0004 


.70 


1.3 


1906, 






.61 


5.08 


2.19 


.0063 


.0353 


.0246 


.0107 


.40 


.0038 


.0003 


.81 


0.9 


1907,1 






.54 


6.28 


2.62 


.0117 


.0544 


.0304 


.0240 


.49 


.0035 


.0004 


.69 


1.2 


1908, 






.44 


7.17 


2.82 


.0086 


.0507 


.0310 


.0197 


.61 


.0037 


.0010 


.81 


- 


1909, 






.50 


7.42 


2.61 


.0267 


.0638 


.0385 


.0253 


.77 


.0055 


.0012 


.72 


- 


1910, 






.44 


8.27 


3.55 


,0512 


.0527 


.0321 


.0206 


.78 


.0016 


.0021 


.79 


- 


1911, 






.57 


10.23 


3.17 


.0219 


.0652 


.0405 


.0247 


.89 


.0015 


.0004 


.94 


- 


1912, 






.49 


9.78 


3.77 


.0420 


.0745 


.0399 


.0346 


.82 


.0060 


.0021 


.87 


- 


1913, 






.53 


8.42 


2.93 


.0345 


.0641 


.0358 


.0283 


.72 


.0042 


.0007 


.86 


- 


1914, 






.40 


8.50 


2.48 


.0500 


.0675 


.0399 


.0276 


.72 


.0018 


.0027 


.69 


- 


1915, 






.53 


8.38 


3.02 


.0472 


.077^ 


.0448 


.0330 


.80 


- 


- 


.88 


- 



1 Four months. 



280 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HOOSICK RiVEK. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 59. 



HOOSICK RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Hoosick River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Hoosick River, at Williamstown. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 




No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



281 



HousATONic River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 59. 

HOUSATONIC RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic E,i\rER and its 
Bp^nches. — Averages for Six Months, from June to No\'ember, 

INCLUSrVT3. 

East Branch, below Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. | 


o 
a 
•s 

3 
O 


Nitrogen 


I 

§ 

8 

a 

I 
o 






Evaporation. 


6 
1 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


o 


o."S 

Oi-i 


"3 
"o 
H 


> 
P 


■6 
a 


1 
03 


1 


i 

a 


1903, . 


.32 


9.75 


2.92 


.0118 


.0226 


.0153 


.0073 


.25 


.0142 


.0006 


.56 


6.8 


1904,1 






.28 


9.02 


3.15 


.0117 


.0248 


.0175 


.0073 


.26 


.0113 


.0005 


.47 


6.2 


1907,2 






.42 


9.40 


3.00 


.0286 


.0284 


.0186 


.0098 


.28 


.0060 


.0010 


.50 


6.4 


1908,3 






.29 


12.76 


3.57 


.0327 


.0250 


.0177 


.0073 


.40 


.0140 


.0011 


.47 


- 


1909, 






.26 


12.60 


4.37 


.0431 


.0305 


.0215 


.0090 


.33 


.0087 


.0007 


.44 


- 


1910, 






.30 


12.98 


5.26 


.0437 


.0233 


.0182 


.0051 


.40 


.0080 


.0012 


.48 


- 


1911,1 






.29 


12.03 


4.26 


.0231 


.0253 


.0169 


.0084 


.37 


.0060 


.0011 


.54 


- 


1912,1 






.28 


13.08 


3.18 


.0358 


.0337 


.0236 


.0101 


.43 


.0123 


.0010 


.62 


- 


1913, 






.32 


15.34 


3.60 


.0526 


.0405 


.0259 


.0146 


.48 


.0073 


.0019 


.69 


- 


1914,* 






.24 


13.82 


3.27 


.0509 


.0351 


.0271 


.0080 


.47 


.0087 


.0015 


.53 


- 


1915, 






.37 


11.98 


3.23 


.0527 


.0304 


.0236 


.0068 


.35 




- 


.60 


- 



1 Three months. * Two months. ' November omitted. 

West Branch, below Pittsfield. 



* Four months. 



1903, . 


.29 


10.43 


2.83 


.0100 


.0210 


.0143 


.0067 


.23 


.0143 


.0006 


.46 


7.4 


1904,1 






.15 


12.27 


3.50 


.0137 


.0423 


.0217 


.0206 


.35 


.0050 


.0004 


.35 


7.8 


1908,2 






.20 


13.28 


3.68 


.0210 


.0301 


.0194 


.0107 


.26 


.0026 


.0009 


.36 


- 


1909, 






- 


11.00 


2.87 


.0070 


.0283 


.0175 


.0108 


.24 


.0010 


.0003 


.25 


- 


1910, 






.22 


13.85 


4.98 


.0218 


.0446 


.0218 


.0228 


.40 


.0012 


.0011 


.40 


- 


1911,1 






.19 


12.73 


4.70 


.0090 


.0317 


.0184 


.0133 


.26 


.0030 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1912,1 






.17 


12.60 


2.70 


.0081 


.0360 


.0197 


.0163 


.29 


.0037 


.0005 


.41 


- 


1913, 






.30 


18.72 


5.10 


.0870 


.0779 


.0397 


.0382 


.78 


.0020 


.0008 


.82 


- 


1914,3 






.20 


14.62 


2.75 


.0288 


.0495 


.0313 


.0182 


.45 


.0017 


.0011 


.61 


- 


1915,4 






.34 


16.62 


3.72 


j.0671 


.0691 


.0359 


.0332 


.65 


- 


- 


.63 


- 



1 Three months. 



2 November omitted. 



3 Four months. 



* September omitted. 



282 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



housatonic river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic River 
Branches, etc. — Concluded. 

Southwest Branch, at Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



AND ITS 





^■"~ 




6 


Residtje on 
Evaporation. 


x^MMONIA. 


6 

'Eh 

M 

o 


Nitrogen 


1 

a 
8 

a 

1 

O 






i 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


o 


O.tS 

3" 


"3 


T3 

> 

s 


-6 

a 

CO 






1 


1899, 


.17 


14.92 


2.58 


.0040 


.0353 


.0211 


.0142 


.16 


.0108 


.0004 


.37 


9.2 


1900, 






.14 


14.87 


2.15 


.0192 


.0335 


.0229 


.0106 


.21 


.0107 


.0008 


.35 


10.2 


1901, 






.14 


13.20 


3.87 


.0051 


.0302 


.0197 


.0105 


.16 


.0096 


.0004 


.41 


9.4 


1902, 






.11 


12.30 


3.09 


.0057 


.0224 


.0136 


.0088 


.12 


.0108 


.0005 


.37 


8.7 


1903, 






.10 


11.63 


2.37 


.0045 


.0162 


.0109 


.0053 


.11 


.0115 


.0003 


.25 


8.8 


1904,1 






.15 


12.45 


3.63 


.0116 


.0455 


.0223 


.0232 


.34 


.0040 


.0018 


.35 


7.8 


1907,2 






.31 


10.78 


2.30 


.0040 


.0258 


.0168 


.0090 


.20 


.0025 


.0003 


.39 


8.2 


1908,' 






.18 


15.17 


4.89 


.0210 


.0269 


.0159 


.0110 


.23 


.0036 


.0007 


.38 


- 


1909, 






.17 


14.82 


4.41 


.0041 


.0265 


.0153 


.0112 


.23 


.0082 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1910, 






.17 


14.45 


5.25 


.0049 


.0196 


.0135 


.0061 


.17 


.0045 


.0006 


.30 


- 


1911,1 






.14 


12.62 


3.35 


.0013 


.0224 


.0131 


.0093 


.19 


.0110 


.0005 


.34 


- 


1912,1 






.12 


15.02 


3.08 


.0017 


.0172 


.0111 


.0061 


.21 


.0170 


.0007 


.31 


- 


1913, 






.13 


15.97 


3.34 


.0037 


.0221 


.0157 


.0064 


.20 


.0115 


.0009 


.32 


- 


1914,4 






.16 


15.05 


2.30 


.0098 


.0259 


.0166 


.0093 


.24 


.0072 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1915, 






.14 


15.25 


2.95 


.0070 


.0243 


.0159 


.0084 


.26 


- 


- 


.30 


- 



1 Three months. 



2 Two months. 



3 November omitted. 



< Four months. 









Housatonic River, below Great Barrington. 








1908, 


.18 


14.97 


3.69 


.0106 


.0269 


.0172 


.0097 


.43 


.0107 


.0011 


.36 


- 


1909, 






.16 


14.91 


4.41 


.0067 


.0247 


.0173 


.0074 


.47 


.0078 


.0012 


.35 


- 


1910, 






.22 


14.97 


5.32 


.0128 


.0233 


.0181 


.0052 


.51 


.0090 


.0021 


.34 


- 


1911, 






.19 


14.42 


5.29 


.0178 


.0217 


.0157 


.0060 


.45 


.0087 


.0045 


.40 


- 


1912,1 






.22 


14.56 


3.79 


.0123 


.0272 


.0189 


.0083 


.47 


.0120 


.0028 


.42 


- 


1913, 






.21 


18.60 


5.48 


.0117 


.0444 


.0265 


.0179 


.67 


.0085 


.0030 


.77 


- 


1914,2 






.22 


17.62 


4.22 


.0147 


.0372 


.0268 


.0104 


.69 


.0112 


.0023 


.42 


- 


1915, 






.23 


15.83 


3.60 


.0142 


.0296 


.0183 


.0113 


.46 


- 


- 


.47 


- 



1 August omitted. 



* Four months. 



No. 34. 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



283 



Merrimack River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 
1915 will be found on page 59. 

merrimack river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Merrimack River. — A\t:rages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusht:. 

Merrimack River, above Lowell. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. | 




Nitrogen 


-3 
O 

s 

a 
8 








ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Yeae. 




a 




■6 


•6 






i 




U 

o 

6 


"3 
1 






O 


1 

s 


■X} 

a 
o 
ft 

m 


a 

'u 

O 




1 


a 

o 

o 


1 


1887, . 


.45 


4.08 


1.10 


.0024 


.0156 




_ 


.17 


.0078 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1888, . 






.32 


3.47 


1.01 


.0014 


.0161 


.0137 


.0024 


.16 


.0082 


.0002 


- 


- 


1889, 






.37 


- 


- 


.0028 


.0166 


.0143 


.0023 


.17 


.0067 


.0001 


- 


- 


1890, . 






.34 


3.85 


1.58 


.0025 


.0148 


.0123 


.0025 


.14 


.0106 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


1891, 






.27 


3.73 


1.47 


.0029 


.0147 


.0111 


.0036 


.17 


.0080 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


1892, 






.39 


3.75 


1.37 


.0028 


.0139 


.0106 


.0033 


.15 


.0097 


.0002 


- 


1.6 


1893, 






.25 


3.47 


1.13 


.0028 


.0141 


.0110 


.0031 


.17 


.0072 


.0001 


.38 


1.1 


1894, 






.29 


3.86 


1.32 


.0037 


.0140 


.0114 


.0026 


.19 


.0042 


.0001 


.36 


1.2 


1895, 






.43 


3.97 


1.61 


.0019 


.0197 


.0151 


.0046 


.24 


.00.54 


.0001 


.55 


1.2 


1896, 






.44 


3.85 


1.41 


.0049 


.0181 


.0149 


.0032 i 


.18 


.0053 


.0002 


.66 


1.0 


1897, 






.54 


3.62 


1.68 


.0030 


.0181 


.0148 


.0033 


.16 


.0077 


.0001 


.52 


0.9 


1898, 






.39 


3.93 


1.74 


.0032 


.0197 


.0171 


0026 


.19 


.0047 


.0001 


.51 


1.0 


1899, 






.20 


3.88 


1.45 


.0050 


.0205 


.0166 


.0039 


.22 


.0055 


.0002 


.38 


1.2 


1900, 






.23 


3.72 


1.21 


.0068 


.0215 


.0158 


.0057 


.23 


.0038 


.0002 


.44 


1.3 


1901, 






.38 


4.32 


1.98 


.0060 


.0208 


.0172 


.0036 


.20 


.0042 


.0002 


.69 


1.2 


1902, 






.38 


3.81 


1.59 


.0056 


.0163 


.0142 


.0021 


.17 


.0043 


.0001 


.64 


0.9 


1903, 






.30 


4.00 


1.55 


.0058 


.0171 


.0129 


.0042 


.23 


.0040 


.0002 


.59 


1.1 


1904, 






.33 


4.61 


1.92 


.0077 


.0194 


.0153 


.0041 


.23 


.0047 


.0002 


.69 


1.3 


1905, 






.40 


4.30 


1.95 


.0112 


.0202 


.0160 


.0042 


.25 


.0038 


.0002 


.71 


1.1 


1906, 






.37 


4.64 


1.84 


.0100 


.0201 


.0174 


.0027 


.26 


.0032 


.0002 


.71 


1.2 


1907, 






.38 


4.60 


1.88 


.0079 


.0194 


.0135 


.0059 


.28 


.0043 


.0002 


.62 


1.2 


1908, 






.29 


4.67 


1.80 


.0125 


.0195 


.0141 


.0054 


.36 


.0048 


.0003 


.64 


1.3 


1909, 






.31 


5.16 


2.38 


.0185 


.0213 


.0161 


.0052 


.36 


.0018 


.0002 


.68 


1.5 


1910, 






.37 


5.11 


1.78 


.0242 


.0221 


OlSO 


.0041 


.35 


.0035 


.0007 


.68 


1.4 


1911, 






.39 


5.32 


2.09 


.0166 


.0219 


.0165 


.0054 


.36 


.0033 


.0006 


.65 


1.5 


1912, 






.40 


5.16 


1.94 


.0165 


.0223 


.0175 


.0048 


.32 


.0013 


.0003 


.88 


2.0 


1913,1 






.36 


5.56 


1.66 


.0162 


.0277 


.0189 


.0088 


.39 


.0030 


.0003 


.70 


1.8 


1914, 






.30 


5.32 


1.74 


.0170 


.0255 


.0181 


.0074 


.35 


.0037 


.0003 


.61 


1.6 


1915, 






.46 


5.43 


2.18 


.0140 


.0273 


.0205 


.0068 


.32 


~ 


"" 


.79 


1.3 



1 June omitted. 



284 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MERRIMACK RIVER. 



Chemical Examination op Water from Merrimack River, etc. 

Concluded. 

Merrimack River, above Lawrence. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


§ 
'% 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


'6 

a 

m 

CI 

8 
a 

6 








ALBUMINOID. 




Yeab. 


"3 
o 




"3 


T3 
> 

S 


-0 
o 

g 
ft 


1 


1 


i 


1887, . 


.47 


4.82 


1.24 


.0027 


.0211 


- 


- 


.22 


.0097 


- 


- 


- 


1888, 






.32 


3.64 


1.13 


.0029 


.0197 


.0153 


.0044 


.18 


.0074 


.0003 


- 


- 


1889, 






.35 


- 


- 


.0047 


.0212 


.0176 


.0036 


.20 


.0053 


.0002 


- 


- 


1890, 






.37 


4.27 


1.56 


.0061 


.0187 


.0148 


.0039 


.19 


.0068 


.0002 


- 


1.6 


1891, 






.21 


4.06 


1.37 


.0066 


.0179 


.0138 


.0041 


.21 


.0090 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


1892, 






.46 


4.25 


1.50 


.0054 


.0186 


.0155 


.0031 


.19 


.0087 


.0002 


- 


1.5 


1893, 






.40 


4.25 


1.62 


.0084 


.0172 


.0138 


.0034 


.23 


.0057 


.0003 


.52 


1.3 


1894, 






.32 


3.82 


1.35 


.0086 


.0174 


.0142 


.0032 


.25 


.0043 


.0001 


.40 


1.3 


1895, 






.52 


4.45 


1.97 


.0068 


.0251 


.0194 


.0057 


.30 


.0067 


.0003 


.60 


1.5 


1896, 






.46 


4.24 


1.70 


.0100 


.0224 


.0181 


.0043 


.25 


.0067 


.0005 


.57 


1.3 


1897, 






.58 


4.06 


1.67 


.0061 


.0222 


.0190 


.0032 


.21 


.0053 


.0002 


.53 


1.0 


1898, 






.44 


4.46 


1.87 


.0076 


.0262 


.0208 


.0054 


.25 


.0050 


.0005 


.59 


1.3 


1899, 






.24 


4.42 


1.57 


.0138 


.0277 


.0207 


.0070 


.32 


.0052 


,0004 


.43 


1.3 


1900, 






.27 


4.22 


1.35 


.0126 


.0249 


.0190 


.0059 


.32 


.0050 


.0003 


.46 


1.3 


1901, 






.44 


4.73 


1.90 


.0100 


.0280 


.0205 


.0075 


.28 


.0070 


.0006 


.65 


1.5 


1902, 






.42 


4.40 


1.85 


.0110 


.0231 


.0180 


.0051 


.26 


.0038 


.0003 


.65 


1.1 


1903, 






.37 


4.66 


1.73 


.0111 


.0226 


.0166 


.0060 


.31 


.0052 


.0005 


.64 


1.4 


1904, 






.31 


4.67 


1.-80 


.0211 


.0247 


.0170 


.0077 


.33 


.0053 


.0004 


.62 


1.4 


1905, 






.44 


4.92 


2.01 


.0177 


.0242 


.0183 


.0059 


.38 


.0040 


.0005 


.74 


1.2 


1906, 






.39 


5.30 


2.12 


.0170 


.0263 


.0215 


.0048 


.40 


.0027 


.0005 


.72 


1.4 


1907, 






.40 


*4.92 


1.80 


.0293 


.0253 


.0175 


.0078 


.41 


.0047 


.0005 


.59 


1.3 


1908, 






.33 


5.61 


2.19 


.0354 


.0303 


.0196 


.0107 


.57 


.0052 


.0006 


.74 


1.5 


1909, 






.33 


6.28 


2.04 


.0336 


.0262 


.0196 


.0066 


.53 


.0025 


.0007 


.67 


1.7 


1910, 






.39 


- 




.0266 


.0242 


.0183 


.0059 


.53 


.0125 


.0008 


.57 


1.6 


1911, 






.23 


8.22 


3.10 


.0240 


.0286 


.0227 


.0059 


.53 


.0118 


.0007 


.65 


1.6 


1912, 






.21 


6.49 


2.62 


.0241 


.0225 


.0188 


.0037 


.52 


.0151 


.0006 


.59 


1.3 


1913, 






.25 


7.46 


2.93 


.0245 


.0224 


.0185 


.0039 


.57 


.0167 


.0007 


.61 


1.5 


1914, 






.23 


6.85 


2.62 


.0280 


.0246 


.0201 


.0045 


.59 


.0190 


.0003 


.59 


1.7 


1915, 






.33 


7.05 


2.83 


.0183 


.0230 


.0177 


.0053 


.47 


.0139 


.0002 


.69 


1.6 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



285 



Miller's River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 61. 

MIL,t,ER'S RIVER. 

Chemical ExAivnNATiON of Water from Miller's River. — Averages for 
Sex Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Miller's River, below Miller's Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


i 

O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 
8 
a 
S) 

6 






Evaporation. 


6 

s 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


"3 


a 


3 

o 


s 


a 

a 

a 

02 


1 

is 




m 

Pi 


1908, . 


.54 


4.59 


2.06 


.0054 


.0233 


.0181 


.0052 


.34 


.0060 


.0002 


.64 


- 


1909, 






.54 


4.38 


1.84 


.0035 


.0207 


.0181 


.0026 


.34 


.0030 


.0002 


.60 


- 


1910, 






.55 


5.48 


2.28 


.0068 


.0231 


.0202 


.0029 


.44 


.0075 


.0002 


.68 


- 


1911, 






.66 


5.98 


2.58 


.0056 


.0258 


.0220 


.0038 


.35 


.0052 


.0002 


.90 


- 


1912, 






.51 


5.30 


2.17 


.0047 


.0242 


.0202 


.0040 


.42 


.0060 


.0002 


.61 


- 


1913, 






.59 


5.65 


1.88 


.0056 


.0315 


.0231 


.0084 


.36 


.0081 


.0002 


.69 


- 


1914, 






.44 


5.17 


1.85 


.0073 


.0251 


.0204 


.0047 


.36 


.0068 


.0003 


.49 


- 


1915, 






.88 


5.77 


2.75 


.0092 


.0311 


.0256 


.0055 


.31 


- 


- 


.93 


- 



286 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Nashua River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 60. 



nashua river. 

Chemical Examination op Water prom Nashua River. — Averages por 
Six Months, prom June to November, inclusive. 

North Branch of Nashua River, below Fitchburg. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









o 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. | 




Nitrogen 


13 
o 

a 



o 
o 

a 

bO 
>. 
X 

O 






0> 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 




d 


o 


1 


a 
t 


1 
1 


.1 


i 

1 


1893, 


.70 


8.32 


2.38 


.0562 


.0405 


.0289 


.0116 


.73 


.0097 


.0030 


.73 


2.2 


1894, . 






.66 


9.18 


2.22 


.0987 


.0425 


.0308 


.0117 


.99 


.0123 


.0034 


.64 


2.4 


1895, 






.71 


9.42 


2.72 


.1387 


.0493 


.0381 


.0112 


1.08 


.0088 


.0014 


.82 


2.6 


1896, . 






.57 


9.27 


2.62 


.0898 


.0537 


.0384 


.0153 


.95 


.0127 


.0030 


.71 


2.4 


1897, 






.67 


7.62 


2.50 


.0512 


.0518 


.0389 


.0129 


.71 


.0112 


.0009 


.79 


2.1 


1898. 






.56 


7.02 


2.37 


.0688 


.0629 


.0399 


.0230 


.56 


.0097 


.0016 


.72 


1.8 


1899, 






.53 


10.12 


2.95 


.1507 


.0848 


.0537 


.0311 


1.03 


.0055 


.0013 


.83 


2.4 


1900, 






.42 


9.55 


2.42 


.1575 


.0825 


.0479 


.0346 


1.03 


.0080 


.0015 


.73 


2.6 


1901, 






.42 


8.45 


2.58 


.0964 


.0508 


,0347 


.0161 


.67 


.0080 


.0013 


.69 


2.2 


1902, 






.39 


7.83 


2.42 


.1070 


.0557 


.0407 


.0150 


.68 


.0072 


.0012 


.71 


1.9 


1903, 






.38 


7.21 


2.10 


.1200 


.0471 


.0281 


.0190 


.73 


.0095 


.0014 


.62 


1.7 


1904, 






.33 


9.05 


2.70 


.1858 


.0596 


.0341 


.0255 


.88 


.0077 


.0015 


.70 


2.1 


1905, 






.48 


7.66 


2.33 


.1284 


.0568 


.0354 


.0214 


.73 


.0053 


.0008 


.89 


2.1 


1906, 






.47 


7.68 


2.16 


.1037 


.0558 


.0356 


.0202 


.75 


.0083 


.0020 


.68 


2.0 


1907, 






.50 


10.77 


2.72 


.2180 


.0654 


.0350 


.0304 


1.24 


.0065 


.0012 


.72 


2.8 


1908, 






.52 


15.05 


3.60 


.2605 


.0861 


.0494 


.0367 


1.58 


.0033 


.0016 


1.04 


- 


1909, 






.52 


15.85 


3.42 


.3220 


.0958 


.0563 


.0395 


1.87 


.0027 


.0014 


1.02 


- 


1910, 






.60 


20.11 


4.90 


.4047 


.1235 


.0789 


.0446 


2.29 


.0017 


.0009 


1.03 


- 


1911, 






.51 


19.38 


5.57 


.2848 


.1035 


.0566 


.0469 


2.37 


.0027 


.0015 


1.15 


- 


1912, 






.57 


19.52 


4.99 


.2380 


.1007 


.0560 


.0447 


2.20 


.0032 


.0019 


1.22 


- 


1913, 






.40 


23.45 


4.97 


.2770 


.1064 


.0561 


.0503 


2.02 


.0028 


.0013 


1.42 


5.0 


1914, 






.41 


26.93 


5.78 


.3260 


.1156 


.0662 


.0494 


2.60 


.0020 


.0006 


1.55 


5.9 


1915,1 






.41 


14.68 


3.52 


.0578 


.0745 


.0296 


.0449 


1.26 




- 


.94 


3.1 



1 October omitted. 



No. 34. 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



287 



NASHUA RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Nashua River, etc. — Concluded. 
North Branch of Nashua River, at Lancaster. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


13 
I 


























albuminoid. 








3 




Year. 




a 




•d 


i. 






« 




o 


"3 


c-2 


6 


li 


1 


a 


1 




S 

U 


d 


5 




6 


o 


^" 


£ 


^ 


Q 




O 


% 


^; 


O 


a 


1892, 


.48 


9.75 


2.10 


.0422 


.0274 


.02.37 


.0037 


1.11 


.0450 


.0010 


_ 


3.0 


1894, 






.49 


8.07 


1.97 


.0215 


.0226 


.0182 


.0044 


.97 


.0295 


.0011 


.49 


2.2 


1895, 






.51 


8.28 


2.39 


.0318 


.0272 


.0214 


.0058 


1.01 


.0284 


.0034 


.56 


2.3 


1896, 






.57 


6.97 


2.17 


.0253 


.0322 


.0253 


.0069 


.66 


.0167 


.0034 


.60 


2.0 


1897, 






.65 


5.45 


- 2.03 


.0225 


.02',)0 


.0221 


.0069 


.40 


.0153 


.0015 


.68 


1.5 


1898, 






.48 


6,33 


2.10 


.0409 


.0345 


.0263 


.0082 


.56 


.0227 


.0033 


.51 


1.7 


1899, 






.39 


7.60 


2.33 


.0739 


.0365 


.0305 


.0060 


.75 


.0153 


.0028 


.60 


2.0 


1900, 






.29 


7.17 


1.55 


.0545 


.0326 


.0264 


.0062 


.81 


.0202 


.0039 


.52 


2.1 


1901, 






.37 


6.72 


2.14 


.0432 


.0329 


.0240 


.0089 


.54 


.0087 


.0021 


.58 


1.9 


1902, 






.40 


7.96 


2.66 


.0757 


.0.324 


.0267 


.0057 


.70 


.0188 


.0043 


.58 


1.8 


1903, 






.36 


6.95 


2.35 


.0473 


.0260 


.0201 


.0059 


.58 


.0258 


.0034 


.52 


1.6 


1904, 






.32 


8.01 


2.18 


.0803 


.0318 


.0267 


.00.51 


.80 


.0267 


.0040 


.53 


2.0 


1905, 






.34 


7.20 


2.13 


.0616 


.0296 


.0227 


.0069 


.70 


0207 


.0044 


.50 


1.9 


1906, 






.44 


7.34 


2 12 


.0519 


.0311 


.0240 


.0071 


.72 


.0238 


.0027 


.56 


2.0 


1907, 






.44 


8.34 


2.33 


.0600 


.0294 


.0232 


.0062 


.89 


.0333 


.0084 


.53 


2.1 


1908, 






.40 


10.69 


2.73 


.1075 


.0309 


.0259 


.0050 


1.28 


.0405 


.0090 


.58 


- 


1909, 






.44 


12.26 


3.41 


.1556 


.0330 


.0284 


.0046 


1.46 


.0360 


.0066 


.60 


- 


1910, 






.45 


13.44 


3.82 


.1655 


.0462 


.0366 


.0096 


1.63 


.0388 


.0108 


.70 


- 


1911, 






.51 


15.64 


4.10 


.3067 


.0828 


.0408 


.0420 


1.95 


.0208 


.0083 


.92 


- 


1912, 






.45 


12.65 


3.10 


.1252 


.0438 


.0275 


.0163 


1.68 


.0343 


.0083 


.72 


- 


1913, 






.43 


15.45 


3.02 


.2292 


.0533 


.0386 


.0147 


1.75 


.0133 


.0053 


.80 


4.2 


1914, 






.39 


16.80 


3.15 


.2147 


.0466 


.0336 


.0130 


1.94 


.0262 


.0115 


.67 


4.1 


1915, 






.42 


12.10 


3.49 


.0757 


.0465 


.0294 


.0171 


1.31 


- 


- 


.68 


2.4 











Nashua River, at Pepperell. 












1899, 


.28 


6.91 


2.19 


.0167 


.0248 


.0221 


.0027 


.78 


.0137 


.0008 


.46 


2.1 


1901, 






.37 


6.00 


2.06 


.0154 


.0266 


.0230 


.0036 


.45 


.0092 


.0005 


.55 


1.9 


1902, 






.37 


5.81 


2.07 


.0118 


.0184 


.0167 


.0017 


.49 


.0162 


.0006 


.51 


1.7 


1903, 






.35 


5.15 


1.57 


.0097 


.0180 


.0152 


.0028 


.44 


.0128 


.0008 


.55 


1.6 


1904, I 






.30 


6.23 


1.93 


.0111 


.0206 


.0171 


.0035 


.58 


.0243 


.0008 


.44 


1.9 


1908, 






.32 


10.85 


3.40 


.0317 


.0295 


.0202 


.0093 


1.45 


.0194 


.0008 


.63 


- 


1909, 






.38 


14.29 


4.62 


.0354 


.0376 


.0291 


.0085 


1.95 


.0211 


.0017 


.92 


- 


1910, 






.37 


14.77 


4.14 


.0128 


.0329 


.0252 


.0077 


1.93 


.0207 


.0008 


.81 


- 


1911, 






.40 


12.10 


3.77 


.0423 


.0393 


.0293 


.0100 


1.31 


.0213 


.0048 


.62 


- 


1912,2 






.48 


12.52 


3.28 


.0223 


.0409 


.0254 


.0155 


1.46 


.0204 


.0017 


.75 


- 


1913,3 






.43 


11.99 


2.79 


.0515 


.0405 


.0276 


.0129 


1.15 


.0164 


.0019 


.73 


- 


1914,4 






.31 


12.67 


2.75 


.0595 


.0459 


.0286 


.0173 


1.27 


.0132 


.0027 


.59 


- 


1915, 






.46 


8.25 


2.27 


.0222 


.0328 


.0237 


.0091 


.85 


- 


- 


.63 


~ 



1 Three months. 



2 No\'ember omitted. 



3 Four months. 



* Two months. 



288 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Neponset River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 60. 



neponset river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Neponset River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Neponset River, at Hyde Park. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

_o 
3 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


1 

§ 
o 

a 

g> 
>. 

i«i 
o 






8 


ALBUMINOID. 




Yeah. 


3 

o 


d 
a -2 

.0.15 


1 


> 


1 
a 
o 
0, 


1 


i 
is 


i 

d 


1887, 


1.18 


8.20 


2.22 


.0053 


.0402 


- 


- 


.98 


.0077 


- 


- 


- 


1888, . 






1.12 


7.77 


2.37 


.0040 


.0392 


.0358 


.0034 


1.08 


.0074 


.0003 


- 


- 


1893, 






1.27 


8.60 


2.68 


.0233 


.0370 


.0282 


.0088 


1.47 


.0045 


.0009 


1.00 


2.6 


1894, 






1.19 


12.87 


3.03 


.0196 


.0466 


.0333 


.0133 


2.31 


.0033 


.0002 


1.03 


4.1 


1895, 






.97 


10.01 


3.07 


.0341 


.0440 


.0373 


.0067 


1.51 


.0042 


.0001 


1.05 


3.7 


1896, 






1.26 


10.41 


3.12 


.0162 


.0431 


.0395 


.0036 


1.68 


.0033 


.0001 


1.26 


3.3 


1897, 






1.30 


11.64 


3.34 


.0336 


.0494 


.0417 


.0077 


1.81 


.0037 


.0001 


1.31 


4.0 


1898, 






1,28 


8.82 


3.52 


.0161 


.0505 


.0398 


.0107 


1.02 


.0023 


.0002 


1.30 


2.7 


1899, 






1.14 


16.24 


4.51 


.0264 


.0936 


.0693 


.0243 


2.20 


.0032 


.0002 


1.76 


5.7 


1900. 






1.10 


10.59 


2.99 


.0400 


.0576 


.0381 


.0195 


1.45 


.0048 


.0005 


1.07 


3.2 


1901, 






1.43 


13.26 


5.09 


.0224 


.0802 


.0591 


.0211 


1.69 


.0036 


.0006 


1.82 


4.2 


1902, 






1.02 


12.57 


4.19 


.0360 


.0640 


.0547 


.0093 


1.72 


.0035 


.0004 


1.29 


4.0 


1903, 






1.29 


14.21 


4.95 


.0278 


.0811 


.0638 


.0173 


1.86 


.0034 


.0010 


1.71 


4.5 


1904, 






1.08 


16.22 


5.68 


.0631 


.1007 


.0777 


.0230 


2.07 


.0037 


.0005 


1.67 


5.6 


1905, 






1.22 


21.88 


6.68 


.0813 


.1043 


.0861 


.0182 


3.44 


.0028 


.0006 


2.22 


6.6 


1906, 






1.35 


13.47 


4.42 


.0549 


.0875 


.0674 


.0201 


2.21 


.0025 


.0008 


1.85 


3.9 


1907, 






.90 


22.58 


6.31 


.1201 


.1412 


.0961 


.0451 


3.81 


.0042 


.0004 


1.94 


6.9 


1908, 






- 


25.40 


7.19 


.1132 


.1209 


.0844 


.0365 


5.08 


.0027 


.0006 


2.01 


8.8 


1909, 






- 


28.69 


9.08 


.1723 


.1218 


.0898 


.0320 


5.35 


.0027 


.0009 


2.02 


10.0 


1910, 






- 


31.37 


10.16 


.1740 


.1333 


.1000 


.0333 


5.84 


.0010 


.0002 


2.96 


10.4 


1911, 






1.24 


18.82 


5.49 


.0786 


.0727 


.0539 


.0188 


3.36 


.0025 


.0007 


1.86 


7.1 


1912, 






.82 


26.02 


6.45 


.1241 


.1020 


.0707 


.0313 


4.18 


.0017 


.0012 


2.31 


9.2 


1913, 






1.02 


26.13 


6.22 


.0533 


.0757 


.0494 


.0263 


3.93 


.0020 


.0007 


2.29 


7.9 


1914, 






.93 


20.27 


4.37 


.0754 


.0697 


.0484 


.0213 


3.43 


.0025 


.0008 


1.31 


5.2 


1915,1 






1.23 


19.67 


6.30 


.0530 


.1078 


.0649 


.0429 


2.42 


- 


- 


1.92 


6.3 



1 Four months. 



No. 34.] 



EXAJVIINATION OF RIVERS. 



289 



QuiNEBAUG River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 62. 

qtji]o:baug river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Quinebaug River. — A\t:bages 
FOR Six Months, from June -to November, inclusive. 

Quinebaug River, below Southbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. | 


6 

a 

1 
o 


Nitrogen 


■6 
. o 

a 

a 
8 
S 

O 








ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


"3 




1 


-a 
1 


T3 

a 
m 


1 

03 




1 


1898, . 


.64 


4.18 


2.00 


.0064 


.0372 


.0309 


.0063 


.18 


,0050 


.0003 


.66 


0.8 


1899, 






.44 


4.32 


1.72 


.0071 


.0298 


.0229 


.0069 


.23 


,0048 


.0002 


.54 


1.2 


1900, 






.40 


4.31 


1,56 


.0168 


.0324 


.0211 


.0113 


.25 


,0024 


.0003 


.52 


1.0 


1901, 






.42 


4.52 


1.67 


.0147 


.0232 


.0158 


,0074 


.19 


,0050 


.0005 


.45 


1.7 


1902, 






.36 


4.12 


1.45 


.0068 


.0224 


.0179 


.0045 


.24 


,0054 


.0002 


.43 


1,2 


1903,1 






.39 


3.84 


1.37 


.0076 


.0225 


.0181 


.0044 


.24 


,0043 


.0002 


.52 


1.0 


1904, 






.40 


4.17 


1.57 


.0086 


.0247 


.0189 


.0058 


.26 


,0068 


.0002 


.53 


1,2 


1908, 






.46 


6.82 


2.31- 


.0075 


.0277 


.0174 


.0103 


.33 


,0038 


.0003 


.57 


- 


1909, 






.40 


5.48 


1.99 


.0087 


.0275 


.0219 


.0056 


.37 


,0077 


,0003 


.56 




1910, 






.40 


6.20 


2.27 


.0104 


.0334 


.0246 


.0088 


.42 


,0032 


,0004 


.53 


- 


1911,1 






.50 


5.92 


2.09 


.0180 


.0308 


.0240 


.0068 


.41 


,0067 


,0002 


.66 


- 


1912,2 






.41 


7.35 


2.40 


.0152 


.0397 


.0272 


.0125 


.52 


,0025 


,0004 


.59 


- 


1913,1 






.39 


6.08 


1.88 


.0201 


.0283 


.0219 


.0064 


.59 


,0075 


,0007 


.53 


- 


1914, 






.52 


11.93 


2.36 


.3033 


.0514 


.0323 


.0191 


2.41 


,0078 


,0052 


.47 


- 


1915, 






.68 


7.56 


2.49 


.1499 


.0457 


.0327 


.0130 


.82 


- 


- 


.91 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 Two months. 



290 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Taunton River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river and its tributaries 
in the year 1915 will be found on page 61. 



TAUNTON RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Taunton River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Taunton River, below Taunton. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

1 

O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


B 

a 

8 

a 

>. 
O 






£ 


albuminoid. 




Yeah. 


"3 
o 


d 


"3 


-0 
o 
> 

5 


T3 

0) 

a 

K 

CO 




1 


d 
Id 

03 


1898, 






1.56 


6.64 


3.30 


.0109 


.0345 


.0314 


.0031 


.61 


.0082 


.0003 


1.51 


1.3 


1899, 






.93 


6.31 


2.48 


.0176 


,0317 


.0279 


.0038 


.72 


.0060 


.0004 


1.04 


1.2 


1900, 






.71 


6.89 


1.91 


.0205 


.0286 


.0258 


.0028 


1.06 


.0112 


.0006 


.76 


1.5 


1901, 






1.01 


6.15 


2.45 


.0293 


.0275 


.0255 


.0020 


.76 


.0134 


.0005 


.92 


1.6 


1902,1 






.94 


6.92 


2.36 


.1902 


.0363 


.0308 


.0055 


1.29 


.0116 


.0012 


.90 


1.4 


1903, 






.96 


7.06 


2.60 


.0542 


.0270 


.02.34 


.0036 


1.10 


.0177 


.0013 


1.02 


1.7 


1904, 






.95 


6.49 


2.60 


.0855 


.0319 


.0264 


.0055 


.94 


.0137 


.0008 


1.06 


1.3 


1906,2 






1.41 


7.37 


3.11 


.0401 


.0385 


.0331 


.0054- 


.95 


.0162 


.0008 


1.36 


1.4 


1907,3 






.94 


7.16 


2.62 


.1031 


.0343 


.0282 


.0061 


1.05 


.0115 


.0009 


1.05 


1.7 


1908, 






.73 


7.66 


2.52 


.0469 


.0278 


.0226 


.0052 


1.31 


.0108 


.0011 


.74 


- 


1909, 






.90 


12.97 


3.87 


.0416 


.0303 


.0263 


.0040 


3.49 


.0105 


.0014 


.88 


- 


1910, 






1.04 


19.62 


5.69 


.0658 


.0376 


.0305 


.0071 


6.82 


.0110 


.0027 


.93 


- 


1911, 






1.04 


9.65 


2.80 


.0385 


.0330 


.0270 


.0060 


1.73 


.0205 


.0015 


1.04 


- 


1912, 






1.17 


10.35 


2.95 


.0461 


.0366 


.0295 


.0071 


1.76 


.0173 


.0015 


1.03 


- 


1913, 






1.09 


18.58 


4.24 


.0506 


.0377 


.0334 


.0043 


5.94 


.0130 


.0015 


1.07 


- 


1914, 






.92 


18.10 


3.33 


.0701 


.0389 


.0323 


.0066 


5.95 


.0100 


.0020 


.88 


- 


1915, 






1.35 


9.38 


3.38 


.0469 


.0465 


.0374 


.0091 


1.24 


- 


- 


1.34 


- 



1 September omitted. 



2 June omitted. 



3 Four months. 



No. 34. 



EXMIINATION OP RIVERS. 



291 



Ten Mile River. 



TEN MILE RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Ten Mile River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Ten Mile River, below Attlehoro. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









t4 

o 

a 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

1 
"2 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


o 

a 

a 
8 
a 

o 






1 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


"3 




3 

o 


■a 
> 

SB 

5 


1 
a 

0. 


1 


.1 

2 


a 


1899, 






.71 


6.39 


2.15 


.0072 


.0379 


.0288 


.0091 


.62 


.0133 


.0004 


.74 


1.7 


1900, 






.47 


6.19 


1.60 


.0125 


.0363 


.0241 


.0122 


.84 


.0155 


.0004 


.49 


1.8 


1901, 






.46 


6.09 


2.12 


.0084 


.0290 


.0202 


.0088 


.71 


.0222 


.0004 


.51 


1.8 


1902, 






.41 


6.49 


1.83 


.0073 


.0394 


.0237 


.0157 


.88 


.0212 


.0004 


.52 


1.9 


1903, 






.36 


7.48 


2.39 


.0282 


.0346 


.0200 


.0146 


.84 


.0315 


.0020 


.53 


1.8 


1904, 






.44 


8.89 


2.97 


.0931 


.0527 


.0332 


.0195 


1.03 


.0532 


.0033 


.58 


3.5 


1906,1 






.48 


17.57 


6.45 


.1586 


.0914 


.0490 


.0424 


1.07 


.0638 


.0121 


.92 


7.9 


1907,1 






.42 


19.07 


6.14 


.6036 


.1471 


.0830 


.0641 


1.73 


.2014 


.0100 


1.18 


7.5 


1908, 






.40 


10.89 


3.27 


.1108 


.0483 


.0294 


.0189 


1.37 


.0364 


.0035 


.61 


- 


1909, 






.47 


11.23 


2.88 


.4322 


.0626 


.0380 


.0246 


1.51 


.0263 


.0086 


.78 


- 


1910, 






.29 


12.05 


3.32 


.2422 


.0545 


.0330 


.0215 


1.98 


.0357 


.0051 


.48 


- 


1911, 






.76 


11.94 


3.58 


.0604 


.0506 


.0302 


.0204 


1.55 


.0382 


.0036 


.94 


- 


1912, 






.39 


28.98 


11.42 


.1056 


.0750 


.0287 


.0463 


1.92 


.0368 


.0075 


.75 


3.6 


1913, 




- . 


.64 


13.55 


3.33 


.0951 


.0630 


.0303 


.0327 


1.90 


.0242 


.0069 


.84 


- 


1914, 






.51 


15.32 


3.09 


.1909 


.0673 


.0401 


.0272 


1.73 


.0300 


.0087 


.77 


- 


1915,1 






.88 


11.10 


3.30 


.0954 


.0494 


.0346 


.0148 


1.37 


- 


- 


.98 


3.2 



1 June omitted. 



292 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Westfield River. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1915 
will be found on page 61. 



westfield river. 

Chemical Examination cf Water from Westfield River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Westfield, River, helow Westfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









8 

"o 
O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 

si 

a 
o 

fl 
o 

O 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


"3 
1 


a 

g:l 

1-5 


3 

o 
Eh 


1 

1 
.2 
Q 


. m 
-d 

a 

K 


1 

i 


1 
1 


i 
1 


1902, 






.22 


4.21 


1.60 


.0062 


.0144 


.0118 


.0026 


.14 


.0062 


.0002 


.39 


1.9 


1903, 






.15 


3.68 


1.30 


.0037 


.0127 


.0105 


.0022 


.16 


.0088 


.0003 


.28 


1.8 


1904, 






.21 


4.16 


1.59 


.0067 


.0152 


.0119 


.0033 


.16 


.0068 


.0001 


.38 


1.9 


1906,1 






.21 


4.65 


1.48 


.0086 


.0161 


.0135 


.0026 


.18 


.0035 


.0003 


.29 


2.1 


1907, 






.24 


4.49 


1.63 


.0053 


.0137 


.0111 


.0026 


.21 


.0075 


.0003 


.31 


2.0 


1908, 






.17 


5.27 


2.19 


.0218 


.0161 


.0116 


.0045 


.27 


.0063 


.0006 


.28 


- 


1909, 






.22 


5.56 


1.68 


.0179 


.0187 


.0143 


.0044 


.26 


.0075 


.0005 


.34 


- 


1910, 






.13 


6.71 


2.39 


.0214 


.0143 


.0120 


.0023 


.30 


.0304 


.0010 


.21 


- 


1911, 






.25 


5.86 


2.03 


.0272 


.0162 


.0133 


.0029 


.28 


.0077 


.0008 


.38 


- 


1912,2 






.13 


6.40 


2.08 


.0286 


.0189 


.0130 


.0059 


.34 


.0204 


.0014 


.24 


- 


1913, 






.23 


6.75 


1.78 


.0247 


.0215 


.0147 


.0068 


.30 


.0292 


.0012 


.36 


- 


1914, 






.15 


6.50 


1.72 


.0255 


.0255 


.0161 


.0094 


.33 


.0101 


.0013 


.26 


- 


1915, 






.23 


5.70 


1.78 


.0191 


.0224 


.0159 


.0065 


.27 


- 


- 


.38 


- 



1- Four months. 



2 September omitted. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



293 



Water Supply Statistics. 



During the year 1915 water supplies were introduced in the towns 
of Dartmouth (population 5,330), Groveland (population 2,377), 
Salisbury (population 1,717) and Shrewsbury (population 2,794). 

The water supplied in the town of Dartmouth is obtained from the 
works' of the city of New Bedford, and in Groveland from the works 
of the city of Haverhill, while in each of the other two towns the 
water is obtained from independent works. A new water district was 
established during the year in the town of Easton, to supply the vil- 
lages of South Easton and Eastondale with water obtained from the 
works of the city of Brockton. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in Massachusetts allof the 35 cities and 
176 of the towns are provided with public water supplies. The fol- 
lowing table gives a classification by population of the cities and 
towns ha\'ing and not having public water supplies at the end of the 
year: — 



Population (1915). 


Number of 

Places of Given 

Population 

having 

Public Water 

Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Number of 
Places of Given 
Population 
not having 
Public Water 
Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places_ 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Under 500, .. 
500-999, 
1,000-1,499, . 
1,500-1,999, . 
2,000-2,499, . 
2,500-2,999, . 
3,000-3.499, . 
3,500-3,999, . 
Above 4,000, 










6 
21 
• 12 
17 
20 
6 
7 
122 


4,569 
27,759 
21,685 
37,819 
54,895 
19,928 
26,444 
3,335,670 


40 
37 
24 
20 
9 
6 
3 

3 


13,270 
28,196 
29,589 
33,947 
19,992 
16,013 
9,920 

13,614 


Totals, . 


211 


3,528,769 


142 


164,541 



The 211 cities and towns having public water supplies are classified 
in the following table according to the dates when a fairly complete 
system of water supply was first introduced : — 



294 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Years. 


Number of 
Public Water 

Supplies 
introduced. 


Years. 


Number of 
Public Water 

Supplies 
introduced. 


Previous to 1850 

1850-1859, inclusive, 
1860-1869, inclusive. 


5 
4 
9 
45 
70 


1890-1899, inclusive, 
1900-1909, inclusive, 
1910-1915, inclusive (six years), 
Total 


34 
21 

23 


1870-1879, inclusive, 
1880-1889, inclusive. 


211 



The following table gives certain statistics relative to the number of 
cities and towns and the total population supplied with water from 
surface and ground-water sources: — 



Sources of Water Supply. 



Number of 
Cities and 

Towns 
supplied. 



Per Cent. 

of Cities 

and Towns 

supplied. 



Population 
supplied. 



Per Cent, of 

Total 

Population 

of All Cities 

and Towns 

supplied. 



Surface, 
Ground, 

Surface and ground, 
Total, . 



110 
78 
23 



100 



2,809,412 
539,165 
180,192 



3,528,769 



100 



The first table presented show^s that although but 60 per cent, of 
the cities and towns in the State are provided with public water sup- 
plies, the total population of the places supplied is 96 per cent, of the 
total population of the State. The populations given in this table 
were obtained by using the total population of the cities and towns 
supplied, and are somewhat greater than the actual number of persons 
to whom the public water supply is available, but the difference is not 
great. With the exception of the town of Tewksbury, all of the towns 
in the State having a population in excess of 5,000 are now supplied 
with water, and there are only 6 towns having a population in excess 
of 3,000 which are not provided with public water supplies. These 
towns are as follows : — 



Town. 


Population. 


Town. 


Population. 


Tewksbury 

Warren, 

Templeton, 


5,265 
4,268 
4,081 


Somerset, 

Aubiu-n, 

West port, 


3,377 
3,281 
3,262 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



295 



At the present time the water works are owned either by the munici- 
pality or by a water, water supply or fire district in all of the cities and 
133 of the towns, while in 43 towns the works are owned by private 
companies. The following table gives the classification by population 
of the cities and towns which own their water works and those which 
are supplied with water by private companies: — 



Population in 1915. 


Cities and Towns 
OWNING Water Works. 


Cities and Towns 

SUPPLIED WITH Water bt 

Private Companies. 


Number. 


Total 
Population. 


Number. 


Total 
Population. 


Under 1,000 

1,000-1,999 

2,000-2,999 

3,000-3,999, 

4,000-4,999, ....'. 

5,000-5,999 

6,000-6,999 

7,000-7,999 

Over 8,000 


2 
23 
28 

7 

7 
17 
10 

7 
67 


1,241 
33,846 
69,407 
25,263 
31,251 
93,855 
66,316 
52,937 
2,979,893 


4 
10 
9 
6 
2 
3 
3 

6 


3,328 
15,598 
23,307 
21,109 

9,476 
16,117 
18,778 

67,047 


Total, 


168 


3,354,009 


43 


174,760 



The tendency toward municipal ovvnership of water works is shown 
in the following table, giving, for the census years since 1890, the total 
population of all cities and towns supplied with water, the total' popu- 
lation of those supplied by private companies and its percentage of the 
total population of all places supplied: — * 



Year. 



Total 
Population 
of All Cities 
and Towns 

provided 

with Public 

Water 

Supplies. 



Population 

of Towns 

supplied 

by Private 

Companies. 



Per Cent, of 

Total 
Population 

supplied 
with Water. 



1890, 
1895, 
1900, 
1905, 
1910, 
1915, 



1,924,812 
2,237,017 
2,505,301 
2,792,490 
3,171,055 
3,528,769 



318,319 
212,579 
236,809 
193,290 
159,730 
174,760 



16.5 
9.5 
9.2 
6.9 
5.0 
5.0 



296 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



The foregoing table shows that at the end of the year 1915 the total 
population of the towns supplied with water by private companies was 
only 5 per cent, of the total population of all of the cities and towns 
supplied with w^ater, and there are only 12 towns having a population 
in excess of 5,000 which are supplied by private companies. These 
towns are as follows : — 



Town 


Population 
(1915). 


t 

Town. 


Population 
(1915). 


Southbridge, 

Milford 

Dedham, 

Palmer, 

Bridgewater, 

Northbridge 


14,217 
13,684 
11,043 
9,468 
9,381 
9,254 


Fairhaven, 

Ludlow 

Grafton 

Amherst, 

Millbury, 

Hingham, 


6,277 
6,251 
6,250 
5,558 
5,295 
5,264 



The population and valuation of all of the cities and towns in 
Massachusetts in 1915 are given in the following table, which also con- 
tains certain information relative to the ow^nership of the water works 
and the date of their introduction into those places so provided,- the 
cities and towns being arranged according to their population in 1915: — 



City or Town. 



Boston, . 
Worcester, . 
Fall River, . 
New Bedfobd, 
Cambridge, . 
Lowell, 
Springfield, 
Lynn, 

Lawrence, . 
somervillb, . 
Brockton, 

HOLYOKE, 

Haverhill, . 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



1848 
1845 
1874 
1869 
1856 
1872 
1874 
1871 
1875 
1867 
1880 
1873 
1802 



Ownership. 



City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 
City, 



Population 

in 1915 of Cities 

AND Towns. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 

Supplies. 


745,439 
162,697 
124,791 
109,568 
108,822 
107,978 
102,971 
95,803 
90,259 
86,854 
62,288 
60,816 
49,450 


- 



Valuation, 
1915. 



$1,573,164,500 
180,074,186 
107,153,345 
111,465,763 
130,997,710 
92,954,197 
190,402,170 
92,333,285 
82,785,245 
77,444,399 
54,450,391 
65,551,223 
44,680,117 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



297 







Public Water Supply. 


POPULATION 

IN 1915 OF Cities 
AND Towns. 




CiTT OR Town. 


Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 


Ownership. 


With 

Water 
Supplies. 


Without 

Water 

Supplies. 


Valuation, 
1915. 


Malden, 




1870 


City, . 






48,907 


- 


$42,925,091 


Chelsea, 




1867 


City, . 






43,426 


- 


30,084,560 


Newton, 




1876 


City, . 






43,113 


- 


86,451,659 


QUINCT, . 




1884 


City, . 






40,674 




43,803,965 


FiTCHBUBO, 




1872 


City, . 






39,656 


- 


40,547,574 


PiTTSFIELD, 




1855 


City, . 






39,607 


- 


40,872,870 


Everett, 




1867 


City, . 






37,718 


- 


32,805,950 


Salem, . 




1868 


City, . 






37,200 


- 


43,364,600 


Taunton, 




1876 


City, . 






36,161 


- 


26,832,231 


Brookline, 




1875 


Town, . 






33,490 


- 


125,759,129 


Medford, 




1870 


City, . 






30,509 


- 


31,449,950 


Waltham, 




1873 


City, . 






30,154 


- 


31,981,000 


Chicopee, 




1845 


City, . 






30,138 


- 


20,385,240 


Revere, 




1884 


City, . 






25,178 


- 


23,444,600 


Gloucester, 




1885 


City, . 






24,478 


- 


26,263,201 


Beverly, 




1868 


City, . 






22,959 


- 


44,680,057 


North Adams, 


1861 


City, . 






22,035 


- 


16,615,361 


Northampton, 


1871 


City, . 






21,654 


- 


18,920,031 


Peabody, 




1799 


Town, . 






18,625 


- 


15,135,200 


Attleboro, 




1873 


City, . 






18,480 


- 


22,374,610 


Westfield, 




1874 


Town, . 






18,411 


- 


12,785,922 


Leominster, 




1873 


Town. . 






17,646 


- 


13,788,640 


Melrose, 




1870 


City, . 






16,880 


- 


19,002,880 


Watertown, 




1885 


Town, . 






16,515 


- 


19,839,700 


Woburn, 




1873 


City, . 






16,410 


- 


13,520,865 


Gardner, 




1882 


Town, . 






16,376 


- 


11,543,652 


Framingham, 


1885 


Town, . 






15,860 


- 


17,187,700 


Newburyport, 


1881 


City, . 






15,311 


- 


12,656,186 


Marlborough, 


1883 


City, . 






15,250 


- 


11,307,191 


Arlington, 


1872 


Town, . 






14,889 


- 


17,771,213 


Southbridge, . 




1880 


Southbridge 1 


Vater Supply 


[^om- 


14,217 


- 


8,276,549 


Methuen, 




1875 


pany. 
Town, . 






14,007 


- 


9,733,743 


Weymouth, 




1885 


Town, . 






13,969 


- 


12,887,929 


Milford, . 




1881 


Milford Water Company, 




13,684 


- 


10,472,092 


Adams, . 




1874 


Adams Fire District, . 




13,218 


- 


7,042,971 


Clinton, . 




1882 


Town, 




13,192 


- 


9,470,884 


Plymouth, 




1855 


Town, . 






12,926 


- 


14,299,615 



298 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



City or Town. 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



Ownership. 



Wakefield, 

Winthrop, 

Greenfield, 

Webster, 

West Springfield, 

Danvers, 

Natick, . 

Dedham, 

Norwood, 

Saugiis, . 

Winchester, 

Easthampton, 

Athol, . 

Palmer, . 

North Attleborough 

Bridgewater, 

Ware, 

Braintree, 

Northbridge, 

Middleborough 

Milton, . 

Amesbury, 

Belmont, 

Andover, 

Montague, 

Marblehead, 

Whitman, 

Stoneham, 

Swampscott, 

Rockland, 

Stoughton, 

Reading, 

Maynard, 

Hudson, 



1883 
1884 
1870 
1881 
1875 
1876 
1874 
1881 
1885 
1878 
1873 
1870 
1875 
1886 
1908 
1884 
1888 
1886 
1887 
1889 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1887 
1890 
1887 
1896 
1909 
1885 
1883 
1883 
1885 
1887 
1886 
1891 
1889 
1884 



Town, 

Town 

Greenfield Fire District No. 1, . 

Town 

Town, 

Town 

Town, 

Dedham Water Company, . 

Town 

Town, 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Palmer Water Company (Palmer), 

Boston Duck Company (Bonds- 

ville). 
Town, 



Bridgewater Water Company, 

Town, 

Town, 



Whitin Machine Works (Whitins- 

ville). 
Middleborough Fire District, 



Town 

Town, 

Town, 

Town 

Turners Falls Fire District, 

Millers Falls Water Supply Dis- 
trict. 

Lake Pleasant Water Supply Dis- 
trict. 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town, 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 



Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 



With 

Water 

SuppUes. 



12,781 
12,758 
12,618 
12,565 
11,339 
11,177 
11,119 
11,043 
10,977 
10,226 
10,005 
9,845 
9,783 

9,468 

9,398 
9,381 
9,346 
9,343 
9,254 
8,631 
8,600 
8,543 
8,081 
7,978 

7,925 

7,606 
7,520 
7,489 
7,345 
7,074 
6,982 
6,805 
6,770 
6,758 



Without 

Water 

SuppUes 



Valuation, 
1915. 



$12,452,780 

16,906,450 

13,700,489 

9,015,783 

10,444,515 

8,604,150 

9,293,250 

15,990,095 

17,053,994 

7,137,876 

18,920,825 

7,856,021 

6,693,425 

5,369,650 

9,562,969 
4,239,728 
5,527,005 
9,485,815 
5,739,990 
4,962,035 

33,681,817 
6,781,910 

11,409,543 
8,944,395 

6,003,984 

11,460,406 
5,759,618 
6,095,860 

15,989,509 
5,479,908 
4,350,454 
7,999,523 
4,175,418 
4,280,795 



No. 34.1 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



299 



City or Town. 



Concord, 

Great Barrington, 

Needham, 

Franklin, 

Wellesley, 

Fairhaven, 

Ipswich, . 

Ludlow, . 

Grafton, 

Spencer, . 

North Andover, 

Westborough, 

Winchendon, 

Mansfield, 

Blackstone, 

Abington, 

Canton, . 

Amherst, 

Lexington, 

Walpole, . 

Orange, . 

Dartmouth, 

Millbury, 

Tewksbury, 

Hingham, 

Chelmsford, 
South Hadley, 
Wareham, 

Easton, . 

Monson, . 

Barnstable, 

Uxbridge, 



PcBLic Water Supplt. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



1S73 
1867 
1888 
1890 
1884 
1884 
1894 
1894 
1873 
1886 
1883 
1898 
1879 
1896 
1888 
1911 
1887 
1889 
1880 
1884 
1896 
1873 
1915 
1895 

1880 
1907 
1914 
1872 
1911 
1894 
1908 
r 1887 
{ 1915 
1895 
1912 
1879 



Ownership. 



Town 

Great Barrington Fire District, . 

Housatonic Water Works Com- 
pany (Housatonic). 
Town, 



Town 

Town 

Fairhaven Water Company, 

Town 

Ludlow Manufacturing Company, 
Grafton Water Company, . 

Town, 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Mansfield Water Supply District, 
Woonsocket, R. I., Water Works, 

Town, 

Town 

Amherst Water Company, . 

Town, 

Town, 

Town 

Town 

Millbury Water Company, . 

Hingham Water Company, . 

North Chelmsford Fire District, 

Chelmsford Water District, . 

South Hadley Fire District No. 1, 

South Hadley Fire District No. 2, 

Onset Water Company, 

Wareham Fire District, 

North Easton Village District, . 

South Easton and Eastondalc Fire 

and Water District. 
Town 



Barnstable Water Company, 
Town 



POPULATIOX 

IN 1915 OF Cities 
AND Towns. 



With 

Water 

Supplies 



6,681 

6,627 

6,542 
6,440 
6,439 
6,277 
6,272 
6,251 
6,250 
5,994 
5,956 
5,925 
5,908 
5,772 
5,689 
5,6)46 
5,623 
5,558 
5,538 
5,490 
5,379 
5,330 
5,295 

5,264 
5,182 

5,179 

5,176 

5,0C4 

5,004 
4,995 
4,921 



Without 

Water 

Supplies, 



5,265 



Valuation, 
1915. 



$9,527,350 

10,392,283 

9,010,865 
5,065,217 
20,684,270 
4,501,594 
5,719,240 
5,618,262 
3,825,768 
3,629,010 
6,042,049 
3,342,715 
4,447,007 
4,523,040 
2,465,488 
3,763,381 
6,838,814 
6,388,168 
10,028,177 
7,535,002 
4,030,408 
5,753,325 
3,399,117 
1,861,780 
8,737,150 

4,514,610 
3,407,453 
6,680,145 

7,285,854 

1,978,410 
9,470,655 
4,360,270 



300 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CiTT OR Town. 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



Ownership. 



Randolph, 
Agawam, 
Lee, 

Dudley, . 
Rockport, 
Provincetown, 
Warren, . 
Templeton, 

Dracut, . 

Williamstown, 
Falmouth, 
Dalton, . 

Foxborough, . 

East Bridgeivater, 

Medfield, 

Hardwick, 

Barre, 

Oxford, . 

Somerset, 

Leicester, 

Auburn, . 

Westport, 

Billerica, 

Lenox, 

Nantucket, 

Holbrook, 

North Brookfield, 

Manchester, . 

Medway, 

Westford, 

Pepperell, 

Sutton, . 

Cohasset, 

Shrewsbury, . 



1877 
1881 
1910 
1895 
1893 



1900 
1906 
1859 
1899 
1884 
1891 
1912 
1888 
1889 
1887 
1895 
1906 

1891 
1911 



1898 
1875 
1878 
1888 
1893 
1892 
1911 
1908 
1909 

1886 
1915 



Town 

Town, .... 
Berkshire Water Company, 

Town, 

Town 

Town, 



American Woolen Company (Col- 

linsville). 
Dracut Water Supply District, . 

Williamstown Water Company, . 

Town 

Dalton Fire District, . 

Foxborough Water Supply Dis- 
trict. 

East Foxborough Water Supply 
District. 

Town 



Medfield Water Company, . 

George H. Gilbert Manufacturing 

Company. 
Town, 



Oxford Water Company, 



Leicester Water Supply District, 

Cherry Valley and Rochdale 
Water District. 



Town 

Lenox Water Company, 
Wannacomet Water Company, 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town, 

Westford Water Company, . 
Town 

Cohasset Water Company, . 
Town, 



Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 



With 

Water 

Supplies 



4,734 
4,555 
4,481 
4,373 
4,351 
4,295 



Without 

Water 
Supplies. 



4,022 

3,981 
3,917 
3,858 

3,755 

3,689 
3,648 
3,596 
3,476 
3,476 



3,322 



3,246 
3,242 
3,166 
2,948 
2,947 
2,945 
2,846 
2,843 
2,839 

2,800 
2,794 



4,268 
4,081 



3,377 



3,281 
3,262 



2,829 



Valuation, 
1915. 



$3,167,150 
3,271,785 
3,192,491 
2,501,264 
4,085,090 
2,452,213 
2,666,885 
2,025,073 

2,589,538 

5,372,365 
16,991,255 
5,717,438 

2,816,130 

2,901,169 
2,428,976 
3,135,484 
2,832,245 
2,108,931 
1,837,798 

2,514,107 

1,786,575 
2,456,575 
5,507,928 
8,477,062 
4,674,185 
1,782,825 
2,045,584 
20,052,880 
1,832,690 
2,426,079 
2,355,442 
1,549,929 
9,875,915 
2,978,363 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



301 







Public Water Supply. 


Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 


Valuation. 
1915. 


City or Town. 


Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 


Ownership. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 

Supplies. 


Holliston, 


1891 


Holliston Water Company, . 


2,788 


- 


$2,147,329 


Ayer, 


1887 


Town, 


2,779 


- 


2,439,172 


Seekonk, 


- 


- 


- 


2,767 


1,875,780 


West Bridgewater, . 


1911 


Town 


2,741 


- 


1,875,074 


Deerfield, 




r 1903 
1 1911 


South Deerfield Water Supply 

District. 
Deerfield Water Supply District, 


i 2,739 


- 


2,651,768 


Bourne, . 




- 


- 


- 


2,672 


7,409,125 


Hadley, . 




1905 


Hadley Water Supply District, . 


2,666 


- 


2,231,764 


Hanover, 




- 


_ 


- 


2,666 


2,287,980 


Hopedale, 




1881 


Milford Water Company, . 


2,663 


- 


8,919,744 


Scituate, 




1901 


Scituate Water Company, . 


2.661 


- 


5,938,950 


Hatfield, 




1896 


Town, 


2,630 


- 


2,047,646 


Norton, 




1912 


Norton Water Company, 


2,587 


- 


1,676,800 


Lancaster, 




1885 


Town 


2,585 


- 


7,038,992 


Kingston, 




1886 


Town 


2,580 


- 


1,706,196 


Swansea, 




- 


_ 


- 


2,558 


1,951,853 


Wilbraham, 




- 


_ 


- 


2.521 


1,675,621 


Holden, . 




1905 


Town, 


2,514 


- 


1,910,232 


Dighton, 




- 


- 


- 


2,499 


1,732,867 


Hopkinton, 




1884 


Town 


2,475 


- 


1.985.402 


Sharon, . 




1885 


Town 


2,468 


- 


3,907,095 


Wrentham, 




1908 


Town 


2,414 


- 


1.605,450 


Acushnet, 




- 


_ 


- 


2,387 


1,217.710 


Groveland, 




1915 


Town, 


2,377 


- 


1,386,298 


Weston, . 




1896 


Weston Water Company, 


2,342 


- 


8,710,857 


Groton, . 




f 1897 
1 1912 


Groton Water Company, 

West Groton Water Supply Dis- 


2,333 


- 


4,595,237 


Wilmington, 




- 




- 


2,330 


2,109,711 


Hull, . 




1882 


Hingham Water Company, . 


2,290 


- 


9,221,893 


Shirley. . 




1903 


Shirley Village Water District, . 


2,251 


- 


1,387,834 


Rehoboth, 




- 


_ 


- 


2,228 


1,070,243 


Charlton, 






_ 


- 


2,213 


1,430,784 


Douglas, 




1910 


Town 


2,179 


- 


1,335,060 


Harwich, 




- 


_ 


- 


2,179 


1,817,658 


Avon, 




1890 


Town, 


2,164 


- 


1,126,528 


Acton, 
Williamsburg, 




1912 
1903 


West and South Water Supply 

District. 
Town 


2,151 
2.118 


- 


2,514,410 
1,214,010 



302 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 





PuBiiic Wateb Supply. 


Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 


Valuation, 
1915. 


City or Town. 


Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 


Ownership. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 
Supplies. 


Merrimac, 


1904 


Town, 


2,101 


- 


$1,396,476 


Belchertown, . 


- 


- 


- 


2,062 


1,000,855 


Ashburnham, 


1870 


Town 


2,059 


- 


1,165,865 


Brookfield, 


1889 


Town 


2,059 


- 


1,538,107 


Georgetown, . 


- 


- 


- 


2,058 


1,377,270 


Upton, . 


- 


_ 


- 


2,036 


1,307,489 


Way land. 


1878 


Town 


2,033 


- 


3,018,196 


Ashland, 


1911 


Town 


2,005 


- 


1,434,985 


Bellingham, . 


- 


- 


- 


1,953 


1,025,145 


East Longmeadow, 


1913 


Town, 


1,939 


- 


1,407,095 


Duxbury, 


1914 


Duxbiu-y Fire and Water District, 


1,921 


- 


3,905,044 


Stockbridge, . 


1862 


Stockbridge Water Company, 


1,901 


- 


4,517,515 


Southborough , 


- 


- 


- 


1,898 


2,364,784 


Rutland, 


1896 


Town, 


1,895 


- 


943,170 


Hamilton, 


- 


. - 


- 


1,879 


6,692,140 


Sheffield, 


1897 


Sheffield Water Company, . 


1,862 




1,133,365 


Colrain, . 


1902 


Colrain Fire District No. 1, 


1,829 




916,439 


Dennis, . 


- 


_ _ - 


- 


1,822 


1,506,080 


Townsend, 


- 


- 


- 


1,812 


1,445,334 


Raynham, 


- 


- 


- 


1,810 


990,968 


Northborough, 


1882 


Town 


1,797 


- 


1,988,242 


Hanson, . 


- 


- 


- 


1,796 


1,545,500 


Longmeadow, 


1895 


Town, 


1,782 


- 


3,616,360 


Northfield, . 


1900 


Northfield Water Company, 


1,782 


- 


1,510,986 


Marshfield, . 


1890 


Brant Rock Water Company, 


1,725 


- 


2,801,453 


Salisbury, 
Carver, . 


1915 


Salisbury Water Supply Com- 
pany. 


1,717 


1,701 


1,709,445 
2,119,850 


Sherborn, 


- 


_ 


- 


1,696 


2,397,878 


Essex, . • , 


- 


_ 


- 


1,677 


1,325,773 


Chatham, 


- 


_ 


- 


1,667 


2,000,580 


Freetown, 


- 


_ 


- 


1,663 


1,145,260 


Stiu-bridge, 


- 


_ 


- 


1,618 


955,100 


Lunenburg, , . 


- 


- 


- 


1,610 


1,615,154 


Westminster, . 


- 


- 


- 


1,594 


1,002,925 


Newbury, 


- 


- 


- 


1,590 


1,669,018 


Buckland, 


- 


- 


- 


1,569 


2,041,021 


Norwell, 


- 


- - - 


- 


1,563 


1,384,674 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



303 



City or Town. 



Cheshire, 

West Newburj' 

Sandwich, 

Lake-\-ilIe, 

Marion, . 

Shelburne, 

Rowley, . 

Westwood, 

Millis, . 

Huntington, 

Yarmouth, 

Plainville, 

Sterling, . 

Nahant, . 

Bedford, 

Southwick, 

Mattapoisett, 

Chester, . 

Pembroke, 

Tisburj-, 

West Boylston, 

Lincoln, . 

Middleton, 

North Reading, 

West Brookfield, 

Sunderland, . 

West Stockbridge, 

Edgartown, 

Norfolk, . 

Hinsdale, 

Oak Bluffs, 

Littleton, 

Conway, 

Sudburj', 

Topsfield, 

Erving, . 

Orleans, . 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



Ownership. 



1876 



1908 
1912 



1891 
1899 

1909 

1885 
1909 

1913 
1893 

1887 

1874 
1876 

1913 
1883 
1873 
1906 

1889 
1890 
1912 



Cheshire Water Company, 



Town 

Shelburne Falls Fire District, 



Town 

Huntington Fire District, 

Town 



Town, 
Town, 



Town, . 

Chester Fire District, 

Town, . 



Town, 
Town, 



Town 

Sunderland Water Company, 
East Mountain Water Company, 
Edgartown Water Company, 

Hinsdale Fire District, 

Cottage City Water Company, . 

Town 



Millers Falls Water Supply Dis- 
trict. 



Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 


Valuation, 
1915. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 
Supplies. 


1,535 


- 


$888,289 


- 


1,529 


1,115,974 


- 


1,500 


1,525,350 


- 


1,491 


1,284,540 


1,487 


- 


5,630,830 


1,484 


- 


1,961,266 


- 


1,481 


2,049,156 


- 


1,448 


4,511,538 


1,442 


- 


1,473,059 


1,427 


- 


774,305 


- 


1,415 


2,557,779 


1,408 


- 


1,058,460 


- 


1,403 


1,370,079 


1,387 


- 


8,439,491 


1,365 


- 


1,988,789 


- 


1,365 


937,995 


1,352 


- 


2,346,428 


1,344 


- 


854,481 


- 


1,337 


1,246,735 


1,324 


- 


2,158,536 


- 


1,318 


1,029,610 


1,310 


- 


5,173,511 


1,308 


- 


923,994 


- 


1,292 


993,306 


1,288 


- 


1,051,401 


1,278 


- 


725,267 


1,277 


- 


606,330 


1,276 


- 


1,429,475 


- 


1,268 


1,171,344 


1,257 


- 


784,943 


1,245 


- 


2,004,325 


1,228 


- 


1,266,194 


- 


1,220 


836,230 


- 


1,206 


1,615,970 


- 


1,173 


4,294,828 


1,168 


- 


1,100,898 


- 


1,166 


4,830,613 



304 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



City or Town. 



Rochester, 

Stow, 

Whately, 

Clarksburg, 

Lynnfield, 

Harvard, 

Russell, 

Lanesborough, 

Hubbardston, 

Wenham, 

New Marlborough 

Dover, . 

Ashfield, 

Berkley, . 

Charlemont, 

Becket, . 

Tyngsborough 

Gill, 

Southampton, 

Wellfleet, 

Brimfield, 

Mend on, 

Ashby, . 

Berlin, 

Royalston, 

Granby, . 

Enfield, 

Princeton, 

Bernardston, 

Granville, 

Boylston, 

Brewster, 

Leverett, 

Bolton, . 

Burlington, 

Petersham, 

Boxford, 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



Ownership. 



1911 



1904 



Town, 



Ashfield Water Company, 



Riverside Water Company, 



Population 

IN 1915 op Cities 

AND Towns. 



With 

Water 

Supplies. 



Without 

Water 
Supplies 



1,104 



994 



951 



Granville Centre Water Company, 



784 



1,160 
1,127 
1,118 
1,114 
1,112 
1,104 

1,089 
1,084 
1,068 
1,030 



985 
977 
973 
967 

950 
936 
934 
933 
922 
865 
802 
828 
806 
800 
790 

783 
783 
779 
768 
751 
727 
714 



Valuation, 
1915. 



351,051,558 

1,476,537 

759,836 

299,414 

1,345,205 

2,042,247 

1,784,891 

781,737 

793,775 

3,662,150 

894,885 

8,274,936 

913,101 

571,277 

609,700 

091,305 

753,430 

515,851 

602,789 

856,895 

657,691 

742,305 

790,021 

670,330 

, 747,654 

748,157 

805,690 

1,415,147 

694,783 

541,634 

570,825 

883,995 

383,144 

782,831 

973,437 

1,040,642 

1,353,713 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



305 







Public Water Supply. 


Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 


Valuation, 
1915. 


City or Town. 


Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 


Ownership. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 

Supplies. 


Dana, 


- 


_ 


- 


712 


$468,883 


Hampden, 




- 


- 


- 


670 


486,065 


Truro, . 




- 


_ 


- 


663 


519,200 


Cummington, 




- 


- 


- 


660 


370,101 


Halifax, . 




- 


_ 


- 


638 


694,061 


New Salem, 




- 


- 


- 


625 


397,950 


Blandford, 




1909 


Blandford Fire District, 


623 


- 


692,964 


Worthington, 




1911 


Worthington Fire District, . 


618 


- 


382,845 


Egremont, 




1913 


South Egremont Water Company, 


599 


- 


569,602 


Plympton, 




- 


- 


- 


599 


465,513 


Bichmond, 




- 


- 


- 


564 


654.269 


Sandis field, 




- 


- 


- 


564 


434,528 


Chesterfield, 




- 


_ 


- 


559 


371,629 


Eastham, 




- 


- 


- 


545 


479,495 


Oakham, 




- 


- 


- 


527 


386,087 


Savoy, . 




- 


- 


- 


524 


196,755 


Hancock, 




• - 


- 




514 


452,706 


Pelham, . 




- 


- 


- 


499 


441,302 


Carlisle, . 




- 


- 


- 


490 


660,527 


Wans-ick, 




- . 


- 


- 


477 


455,270 


Paxton, . 




- 


- 


- 


471 


421,493 


New Braintree, 


- 


- 


- 


453 


422,262 


Otis, 


- 


- 


- 


442 


299,764 


West Tisburj^ 


- 


- 


- 


441 


663,559 


Westhampton, 


- 


- 


- 


430 


272,082 


Florida, . 


- 


- 


- 


427 


583,117 


Hawley, . 




- 


- 


- 


427 


245,158 


Greenwich, 




- 


- 


- 


426 


262,060 


Rowe, 




- 


_ 


- 


424 


252,521 


Phillipston, 




- 


- 


- 


390 


305,668 


Wendell, 




- 


- 


- 


388 


549,332 


Heath, . 




- 


- 


- 


383 


245,940 


Plaiafield, 




- 


- 


- 


375 


195,573 


Windsor, 




- 


_ 


- 


375 


294,192 


Dunstable, 




- 


- 




362 


425,695 


Monterey, 




- 


- 




358 


1 387.695 


Leyden, . 




- 


- 


- 


344 


1 246,671 



306 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



City ok Town. 



Wales, 

Tyringham, 

Boxborough, 

Middlefield, 

Prescott, 

Monroe, . 

Shutesbury, 

Goshen, . 

Chilmark, 

Washington, 

Alford, . 

Mashpee, 

Montgomery, 

Tolland, . 

Peru, 

Gay Head, 

Holland, 

Gosnold,, 

Mount Washington 

New Ashford, 



Public Water Supply. 



Date of 
Intro- 
duction. 



Ownership. 



Population 

IN 1915 OF Cities 

AND Towns. 


With 

Water 

Supplies. 


Without 

Water 

Supplies. 


- 


337 


- 


327 


- 


326 


- 


325 


- 


299 


- 


296 


- 


292 


- 


289 


- 


. 288 


- 


275 


- 


271 


- 


263 


- 


230 


- 


199 


- 


195 


- 


175 


- 


159 


- 


155 


- 


95 


- 


92 



Valuation, 
1915. 



$262,240 
353,277 
305,554 
217,883 
215,229 
251,403 
382,861 
245,952 
405,393 
306,271 
206,318 
358,760 
160,815 
263,173 
174,047 
45,090 
123,760 

- 809,570 
145,821 
73,670 



Consumption of Water. 

Records of the consumption of water are kept in nearly all of the 
cities and towns where water is pumped, and in several places supplied 
by gravity Venturi meters have been installed to measure the quantity 
supplied. 

The following table gives statistics with regard to the consumption 
of water in the year 1915 in those cities and towns from which records 
could be obtained. The daily consumption of water per inhabitant 
given in this table has been obtained by dividing the average daily 
consumption by the total population of the city or town as determined 
by the census of 1915. The quantity obtained in this manner is some- 
what less than the actual consumption per person using the water 
because there are in all cities and towns a greater or less number of 
persons who do not use the public supply. This difference is most 
marked in some towns which contain villages to which the public water 



No. 34.1 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



307 



supply has not been extended, and in towns where the works have been 
in operation but a short time and where water has not come into gen- 
eral use. In a few of the towns the population during the summer 
months is much greater than is shown by the census returns, and in 
such cases the consumption per inhabitant as given in the table is 
higher than it would be if allowance were made for the increased popu- 
lation in the summer. AYith a few exceptions, however, the difference 
between the census returns and the actual population supplied is not 
great. 

Consimption of Water in Various Cities and Toicns in 1915. 





Popu- 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City os Town. 




Gallons 




Gallons 






Gallons. 


per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 






Gallons. 


per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 


Metropolitan Water 
District:' — 
Arlington, 


1,201,300 
14,889 


104,771,000 
825,000 


87 
55 


Attleboro, 
Avon, 


18,480 
2,164 


937,000 
79,000 


51 
37 


Belmont, . 


8,081 


425,000 


53 


Ayer, 


2,779 


173,000 


62 


Boston, . 


745,439 


77,652,000 


104 


Bedford, 


1,365 


44,000 


32 


Chelsea, . 


43,426 


2,901,000 


67 


Beverly, 


22,959 


1,605,000 


70 


Everett, . 


37,718 


2,599,000 


69 


Billerica, 


3,246 


251,000 


77 


Lexington, 


5,538 


359,000 


65 


Braintree, 


9,343 


498,000 


53 


Maiden, . 


48,907 


2,243,000 


46 


Brockton, 


62,288 


2,479,000 


40 


Medford, . 


30,509 


1,245,000 


41 


Brookline, 


33,490 


2,750,000 


82 


Melrose, . 


16,880 


852,000 


50 


Cambridge, . 


108,822 


8,957,000 


82 


Milton, 


8,600 


339,000 


39 


Canton, . 


5,623 


313,000 


56 


Nahant, . 


1,387 


162,000 


117 


Chelmsford, . 


5,182 


88,000 


17 


Qmncy, . 


40,674 


2,512,000 


62 


Clinton, . 


13,192 


637,000 


48 


Revere, . 


25,178 


1,485,000 


59 


Concord, 


6,681 


457.000 


68 


Somerville, 
Stoneham, 


86,854 
7,489 


5,807,000 
374,000 


67 
50 


Danvers and Mid- 

dleton. 
Dedham, 


12,485 
11,043 


1,306,000 
973,000 


105 

88 


Swampscott, . 


7,345 


436,000 


59 


Dudley, . 


4,373 


104,000 


24 


Watertown, 


16,515 


1,025,000 


62 


Duxbury, 


1,921 


48,000 


25 


Winthrop, 


12,758 


700,000 


55 


East Bridgewater, . 


3,689 


83,000 


23 


Abington and Rock- 
land. 
Acton, 


12,720 


619,000 


49 


Easthampton, 


9,845 


619,000 


63 


2,151 


45,000 


21 


East Longmeadow, 


1,939 


21,000 


11 


Agawam, 


4,555 


108,000 


24 


Easton, . 


5,064 


137,000 


27 


Amesbury, 


8,543 


454,000 


53 


Edgartown, . 


1,276 


66,000 


52 


Amherst, 


5,558 


539,000 


97 


Fairhaven, 


6,277 


333,000 


53 


Andover, 


7,978 


655,000 


82 


Fall River, . 


124,791 


6,086,000 


49 


Ashland, 


2,005 


29,000 


14 


Falmouth, 


3,917 


418,000 


107 


» Including ] 


Vcwton, V, 


hich is wit] 


xin the Di 


strict, but supplied fro 


m indopo 


ndent work 


3. 



308 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Towns in 1916 — Continued. 





Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. f^^^ 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 

per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 

per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 


Fitchburg, 


39,656 


3,530,000 


89 


Montague and Erv- 9,093 


662,000 


73 


Foxborough, . 


3,755 


194,000 


52 


mg. 
Nantucket, . 


3,166 


211,000 


67 


Framingham, 


15,860 


783,000 


49 


Natick, . 


11,119 


683,000 


61 


Franklin, 


6,440 


357,000 


55 


Needham, 


6,542 


405,000 


62 


Gardner, 


16,376 


808,000 


49 


New Bedford, 


. 109,568 


7,647,000 


70 


Gloucester, 


24,478 


1,313,000 


54 


Newbury port. 


15,311 


1,013,000 


66 


Grafton, 


6,250 


126,000 


20 


Newton, 


43,113 


2,830,000 


66 


Greenfield, 


12,618 


1,171,000 


93 


North Andove 


r, . 5,956 


295,000 


50 


Groton, . 


2,333 


115,000 


49 


North Attleboi 


■ough, 9,398 


349,000 


37 


Holliston, 


2,788 


72,000 


26 


North Brookfi 


3ld, . 2,947 


222,000 


75 


Holyoke, 


60,816 


6,211,000 


102 


Norton, . 


2,587 


92,000 


36 


Hudson, 


6,758 


255,000 


38 


Norwood, 


10,977 


991,000 


90 


Ipswich, 


6,272 


341,000 


54 


Oak Bluffs, 


1,215 


229,000 


184 


Lancaster, 


2,585 


83,000 


32 


Orange, . 


5,379 


131,000 


24 


Lawrence, 


90,259 


4,006,000 


44 


Peabody, 


18,625 


2,629,000 


141 


Lincoln, . 


1,310 


202,000 


154 


Pepperell, 


2,839 


105,000 


37 


Littleton, 


1,228 


32,000 


26 


Pittsfield, 


39,607 


5,630,000 


142 


Longmeadow, 


1,782 


83,000 


47 


Plainville, 


1,408 


27,000 


19 


Lowell, . 


107,978 


5,427,000 


50 


Plymouth, 


12,926 


1,300,000 


101 


Ludlow, . 


6,251 


157,000 


25 


Provincetown 


4,295 


228,000 


53 


Lynn and Saugus, 


106,029 


6,385,000 


60 


Randolph and 

brook. 
Reading, 


Hoi- 7,682 


352,000 


46 


Manchester, . 


2,945 


400,000 


136 


6,805 


224,000 


33 


Mansfield, 


5,772 


446,000 


77 


Rockport, 


4,351 


238,000 


55 


Marblehead, . 


7,606 


512,000 


■ 67 


Salem, . 


37,200 


3,699,000 


99 


Marion, . 


1,487 


98,000 


66 


Sharon, . 


2,468 


115,000 


47 


Marlborough, 


15,250 


592,000 


39 


Shirley, . 


2,251 


74,000 


33 


Mattapoisett, 


1,352 


41,000 


30 


Southbridge,- 


14,217 


654,000 


46 


Maynard, 


6,770 


230,000 


34 


Springfield, 


. 102,971 


10,116,000 


98 


Medway, 


2,846 


89,000 


31 


Stoughton, 


6,982 


325,000 


47 


Merrimac, 


2,101 


104,000 


50 


Taunton, 


36,161 


2,222,000 


61 


Methuen, 


14,007 


630,000 


45 


Tisbury, 


1,324 


138,000 


104 


Middleborough, 


8,631 


329,000 


38 


Wakefield, 


12,781 


592,000 


46 


Milford and Hope- 
dale. 
Millbury, 


16,347 


776,000 


47 


Walpole, 


5,490 


632,000 


115 


5,295 


204,000 


39 


Waltham, 


30,154 


2,294,000 


76 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



309 



Consumption oj Water in Various Cities and Towns in 1915 — Concluded. 





Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 






Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 

per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 


CrrT or Town. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 

per 
Inhabi- 
tant. 


Ware, . 

Wareham, 

Webster, 

Wellesley, 

West Bridgewater, . 

West Brookfield, . 

Westfield, 

Westford, 


9,346 
5,176 

12,565 
6,439 
2,741 
1,288 

18.411 
2,843 


453,000 

148,000 

553,000 

470,000 

69,000 

45,000 

1,844,000 

94,000 


48 
29 
44 
73 
25 
35 
100 
33 


Weston, . 

Whitman, 

Winchendon, 

Winchester, 

Woburn, 

Worcester, 

Wrentham, 




2,342 
7,520 
5,908 
10,005 
16,410 
162,697 
2,414 


106,000 
187,000 
210,000 
556,000 
1,996,000 
12,818,000 
104,000 


45 

25 
36 
56 
122 
79 
43 



Rainfall. 

The normal yearly rainfall in Massachusetts as deduced from long- 
continued observations in various parts of the State is 44.62 inches. 
The average rainfall for the year 1915 in these places was 44.47 inches, 
a deficiency of 0.15 of an inch. The year was the twelfth in succession 
in which the rainfall has been less than the normal, the accumulated 
deficiency at the end of the year being 48.37 inches, or 3.75 inches 
more than the total rainfall in a normal year. There was an excess of 
precipitation in the months of January, February, July, August and 
December, and a deficiency in the other seven months of the year. 
The greatest excess in any month occurred in July, when the average 
rainfall was 8.15 inches, or 4.36 inches greater than the normal, and 
the greatest deficiency occurred in March, w^hen the average rainfall 
was only 0.06 of an inch, or 3.84 inches less than the normal. 

The following table gives the normal rainfall in the State for each 
month as deduced from observations at various places for a long period 
of years, together with the average rainfall at those places for each 
month during the year 1915 and the departure from the normal: — 



310 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1915 
(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 
1915 

(Inches). 


Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1915 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 
1915 

(Inches). 


January, . 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 




3.77 
3.60 
3.90 
3.59 
3.67 
3.20 
3.79 


6.77 
4.32 
0.06 
2.34 
1.76 
1.88 
8.15 


+3.00 
+0.72 
—3.84 
—1.25 
—1.91 
—1.32 
+4.36 


August, . 
September, 
October, . 
November, 
December, 

Total, 


4.26 
3.43 
3.84 
3.87 
3.70 


6.77 
1.39 
3.02 
2.61 
5.40 


+2.51 
—2.04 
—0.82 
—1.26 
+ 1.70 


June, 
July, 


44.62 


44.47 


—0.15 



Although the average annual rainfall for the entire State during the 
year 1915 was but slightly less than the normal for a long period of 
years, its distribution was very unusual. In the month of January the 
average rainfall was very nearly twice the normal, being slightly more 
than the normal in the extreme northeasterly and northwesterly parts 
of the State but from two to three times the normal in the extreme 
southeasterly part of the State, where it amounted to 10.75 inches 
at New Bedford, 10.00 inches at Fall River, 9.93 inches at Taunton, 
9.38 inches at Plymouth and 9.15 inches at Hyannis. With two 
or three exceptions the rainfall in the month of February was fairly 
uniform throughout the State and averaged but slightly more than the 
normal. In the month of March there was no appreciable precipita- 
tion at stations in the easterly and northeasterly sections of the State, 
but at most of the remaining stations some measurements were re- 
corded, although at but few did the amount exceed .10 of an inch, the 
maximum being .41 of an inch recorded at Williamstown. An exam- 
ination of the records available fails to show any previous year in 
which the average rainfall during the month of March was as low as 
in the year 1915. In the months of April, May and June the rainfall 
was less than the average for those months, and at the end of June the 
total accumulated deficiency for the first six months of the year 
amounted to 4.60 inches. Early in the morning of the first of July, 
however, the greatest fall of rain that has been recorded for many years 
occurred throughout the entire State, with the exception of the extreme 
southeasterly portion. On July 8 and 9 another storm occurred, 
which was general throughout the State and during which the rainfall 
was unusually heavy. During the remainder of the month the pre- 
cipitation was frequent and of appreciable amounts, so that the total 
for the month was more than twice the average for a long period of 
years. In August the rainfall was also in excess of the normal, and at 
the end of that month there was an accumulated excess for the first 
eight months of the year of 2.27 inches. In September, October and 
November the rainfall was less than the normal for those months, 
while in December it was again in excess of the normal. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



311 



Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 

The average flow of the Sudbury River during the year 1915 was 
719,000 gallons per day per square mile, or 73 per cent, of the normal 
flow for the past forty-one years. The flow was in excess of the normal 
in the months of January, February, July and August, but less than 
the normal in the other eight months of the year. The greatest excess 
occurred in the month of August and the greatest deficiency in the 
month of March. The average flow for the driest six months, June to 
November, inclusive, was 480,000 gallons per day per square mile, or 
the greatest flow for such period since the year 1898. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Sudbury River 
during each month of the year 1915 and the normal flow of that 
stream, as deduced from observations during forty-one years, from 
1875 to 1915, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The 
area of the watershed of the Sudbury River above the point of meas- 
urement is 75.2 square miles. 



Table showing the Average Daily Flow of the Sudbury River for Each Month in 
the Year 1915, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area 
and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, 
Departure from the Normal Flow. 

i 











NoHM.u, Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1915. 


Excess or 


Defictenct 




Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Month. 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Sqiiare 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


MUe. 


Mile. 


MUe. 


January, .... 


1.8.50 


1.196 


2.520 


1.629 


+0.670 


+0.433 


February, . 








2.605 


1.684 


2.893 


1.870 


+0.288 


+0.186 


March, 








4.228 


2.733 


0.918 


0.593 


^3.310 


—2.140 


April, . 








• 3.057 


1.976 


0.912 


0.590 


—2.145 


—1.386 


May, . 








1.632 


1.055 


0.395 


0.255 


—1.237 


—0.800 


June, . 








0.723 


0.467 


0.156 


0.101 


—0,567 


—0.366 


July, . 








0.269 


0.174 


1.617 


1.045 


+1.348 


+0.871 


August, 








0.383 


0.248 


1.808 


1.168 


+1.425 


+0.920 


September, 








0.342 


0.221 


0.059 


0.038 


—0.283 


—0.183 


October, 








0.651 


0.421 


0.357 


0.231 


—0.294 


—0.190 


November, 








1.160 


0.750 


0.404 


0.261 


—0.756 


—0.489 


December, . 








1.507 


0.974 


1.390 


0.898 


—0.117 


—0.076 


Average for w 


rhole 


year 




1.528 


0.988 


1.113 


0.719 


—0.415 


—0.269 



The following table gives the rainfall upon the Sudbury River 
watershed and the total yield expressed in inches in depth upon the 
watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the past forty-one 
years, from 1875 to 1915, inclusive, together with the average for the 
entire period of forty-one years: — 



312 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Sudbury River Watershed. 









1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


Month. 


3 


'6 

1 


(2 


3 

a 


1 


■t 

Pi 




i 


il 


January, . 






2.42 


0.184 


7.6 


1.83 


1.147 


62.7 


3.22 


1.174 


36.5 


February, 






3.15 


2.411 


76.5 


4.21 


2.282 


54.2 


0.74 


1.529 


206.9 


March, 






3.74 


2.862 


76.5 


7.43 


7.911 


106.5 


8.36 


8.586 


102.7 


April, 






3.23 


5.263 


162.9 


4.20 


5.683 


135.4 


3.43 


4.132 


120.3 


May, 






3.56 


2.119 


59.5 


2.76 


2.031 


73.5 


3.70 


2.482 


67.0 


June, 






6.24 


1.501 


24.0 


2.04 


0.383 


18.8 


2.43 


1.031 


42.5 


July, 






3.57 


0.573 


16.0 


9.13 


0.326 


3.6 


2.y5 


0.360 


12.2 


August, . 






5.53 


0.706 


12.8 


1.72 


0.723 


42.0 


3.68 


0.216 


5.9 


September, 






3.43 


0.358 


10.4 


4.62 


0.318 


6.9 


0.32 


0.103 


31.9 


OctoDer, . 






4.85 


1.152 


23.8 


2.24 


0.417 


18.6 


8.52 


1.127 


13.2 


November, 






4.83 


2.248 


46.5 


5.76 


1.878 


32.6 


5.80 


2.447 


42.2 


December, 






0.94 


1.041 


110.7 


3.62 


0.809 


22.3 


0.87 


2.300 


264.4 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges, . 


45.49 


20.418 


44.9 


49.56 


23.908 


48.2 


44.02 


25.487 


57.9 







'• 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


Month. 


"3 


■d 

-- o 
la -2 

f 


'6 

. » 

II 


.9 


■6 

^1 

■3" 


■d 

il 

Pi 


3 

'3 
Pi 


1 

3:S 


•d 
. o 

II 

Ph 


January, . 






5.63 


3.228 


57.3 


2.48 


1.249 


50.4 


3.57 


2.000 


.56.0 


February, 






5.97 


3.972 


66.5 


3.56 


2.756 


77.4 


3.98 


2.982 


74.9 


March, 






4.69 


6.256 


133.4 


5.14 


4.156 


80.9 


3.31 


2.451 


73.9 


April, 






5.79 


2.807 


48.5 


4.72 


5.379 


114.1 


3.11 


2.017 


65.0 


May, 






0.96 


2.487 


260.2 


1.58 


1.987 


125.8 


1.84 


0.917 


50.0 


June, 






3.88 


0.873 


22.5 


3.79 


0.713 


18.8 


2.14 


0.303 


14.2 


July, 






2.97 


0.229 


7.7 


3.93 


0.281 


■ 7.1 


0.27 


0.315 


5.0 


August, . 






6.94 


0.848 


12.2 


6.51 


0.705 


10.8 


4.01 


0.212 


5.3 


September, 






1.29 


0.277 


21.5 


1.88 


0.243 


12.9 


1.60 


0.138 


8.6 


October, . 






6.42 


0.921 


14.3 


0.81 


0.126 


15.6 


3.74 


0.181 


4.8 


November, 






7.02 


2.922 


41.6 


2.68 


0.355 


13.2 


1.78 


0.354 


19.9 


December, 






6.37 


5.667 


89.0 


4.34 


0.825 


19.0 


2.83 


0.312 


11.0 


Totals and < 


ivera 


ges, . 


57.93 


30.487 


52.6 


41.42 


18.775 


45.3 


38.18 


12.182 


31.9 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



313 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — Continued. 






1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


Month. 


5 
a 




•d 

. o 

11 


3 


■6 
« 

ll 
.2 8 


11 

,? 

PL| 


3 

a 


S 

<^ 8 
■3 


J ■ 

0-3 
I, « 


January, . 






5.56 


0.740 


13.3 


5.95 


2.213 


37.2 


2.81 


0.597 


21.2 


February, 






4.65 


2.491 


63.6 


4.55 


3.872 


85.2 


3.87 


1.664 


43.0 


March, 






5.73 


7.142 


124.6 


2.65 


5.064 


191.2 


1.78 


2.873 


161.4 


April, 






2.00 


2.669 


. 133.4 


1.82 


1.497 


82.1 


1.84 


2.330 


126.3 


May, 






3.51 


1.721 


49,0 


5.07 


2.304 


45.5 


4.19 


1.673 


40.0 


June, 






5.39 


2.309 


42.8 


1.66 


0.913 


54.9 


2.40 


0.518 


21.6 


July, 






2.35 


0.493 


21.0 


1.77 


0.154 


8.7 


2.68 


0.206 


7.7 


August, 






1.38 


0.264 


19.4 


1.67 


0.099 


5.9 


0.73 


0.140 


19.1 


September, 






2.62 


0.340 


13.0 


8.74 


0.529 


6.0 


1.52 


0.157 


10.4 


October, . 






2.95 


0.331 


11.2 


2.07 


0.534 


25.7 


5.60 


0.331 


5.9 


November, 






4.09 


0.682 


16.7 


1.15 


0.362 


31.5 


1.81 


0.354 


19.5 


December, 






3.96 


1.383 


34.9 


2.30 


0.561 


24.5 


3.55 


0.345 


9.7 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges, . 


44.17 


20.565 


46.6 


39.40 


18.102 


45.9 


32.78 


11.188 


34.1 











1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


Month. 


3 

"a 


T3 
= 

3= 


■d 
. « 

11 

t. « 

PL, 


3 

'3 


•d 


■d 
. « 

11 
0-3 

(2 


3 

a 
1 


•d 



-d 
11 

PL, 


January, . 








5.09 


1.775 


34.9 


4.71 


2.203 


46.8 


6.36 


2.606 


40.9 


February, 








6.54 


4.742 


72.5 


3.87 


2.182 


56.4 


6.28 


7.734 


123.2 


March, 








4.72 


6.752 


143.1 


1.07 


2.805 


262.1 


3.61 


3.672 


101.7 


April, 








4.41 


4.925 


111.8 


3.60 


3.133 


86.9 


2.22 


3.361 


151.1 


May, 








3.47 


1.838 


53.0 


3.48 


2.383 


68.4 


3.00 


1.285 


42.9 


June, 








3.44 


0.719 


20.9 


2.87 


0.735 


25.7 


1.47 


0.350 


23.9 


July, 








3.67 


0.399 


10.9 


1.43 


0.111 


7.8 


3.27 


0.206 


6.3 


August, 








4.65 


0.458 


9.8 


7.18 


0.429 


6.0 


4.10 


0.168 


4.1 


September, 








0. 5 


0.076 


8.9 


1.43 


0.209 


14.7 


2.90 


0.203 


7.0 


October, . 








2.48 


0.148 


6.0 


5.09 


0.599 


11.8 


3.24 


0.260 


8.0 


November, 








2.65 


0.302 


11.4 


6.09 


2.033 


33.3 


4.64 


1.161 


25.0 


December, 








5.17 


1.650 


31.9 


2.72 


2.094 


77.0 


4.97 


1.819 


36.6 


Totals and i 


ivera 


ges, 


47.14 


23.784 


50.5 


43.54 


18.916 


43.4 


46.06 


22.825 


49.5 



314 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — Continued. 











1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


Month. 


Pi 




. o 
II 


3 


"d 


^1 


3 

'a 
C4 



^1 

Is 


-d 

. » 

(2 


January, .... 


5.20 


4.619 


88.8 


4.15 


1.878 


45.3 


5.37 


4.963 


92.4 


February, 






4.78 


4.558 


95.3 


3. 68 


3.255 


88.3 


1.65 


1.926 


116.4 


March, 








4.90 


5.116 


104.4 


6.02 


5.775 


95.9 


2.37 


2.388 


100.9 


April, 








4.27 


4.522 


106.0 


2.43 


4.566 


188.3 


3.41 


2.434 


71.4 


May, 








1.16 


1.799 


154.5 


4.82 


2.912 


60.3 


2.95 


1.569 


53.3 


June, 








2.65 


0.714 


26.9 


2.54 


0.728 


28.7 


2.80 


1.128 


40.3 


July, 








3.76 


0.204 


5.5 


1.41 


0.209 


14.9 


8.94 


1.130 


12.6 


August, . 








0.28 


0.382 


7.2 


6.22 


0.677 


10.9 


4.18 


2.554 


61.2 


September, 








1.32 


0.191 


14.5 


8.59 


1.994 


■ 23.2 


4.60 


1.422 


30.9 


October, . 








2.83 


0.339 


12.0 


4.99 


3.566 


71.4 


4.25 


2.194 


51.6 


November, 








2.67 


0.636 


23.8 


7.22 


4.761 


65.9 


6.29 


3.351 


63.3 


December, 








3.88 


1.147 


29.6 


5.40 


5.428 


100.6 


3.14 


3.997 


127.3 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges. 


42.70 


24.227 


56.7 


57.47 


35.749 


62.2 


49.95 


29.056 


58.2 











1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


Month. 


3 

a 


-6 


=il 


■d 


3 
■3 


•d 

¥ 

Pi 


•d 
. a) 

il 


3 


•d 

¥ 

Pi 


-d 
. 

Oo 


January 


2.53 


2.237 


88.4 


7.02 


5.383 


76.7 


5.85 


3.335 


57.0 


February, 








3.51 


2.463 


70.3 


5.23 


5.616 


107.3 


3.14 


1.574 


50.1 


March, 








7.73 


6.498 


84.0 


6.48 


7.944 


122.7 


4.06 


3.488 


85.9 


April, 








2,64 


3.236 


122.3 


3.91 


4.138 


106.0 


0.83 


1.504 


181.1 


May, 








5.21 


2.437 


46.8 


2.01 


1.0.39 


51.7 


5.58 


2.245 


40.2 


June, 








2.03 


0.980 


48.3 


3.77 


0.714 


18.9 


2.76 


0.739 


26.8 


July, 








2.46 


0.191 


7.8 


3.39 


0.266 


7.8 


4.23 


0.382 


9.0 


August, . 








3.87 


0.235 


6.1 


4.73 


0.290 


6.1 


4.44 


0.500 


11.3 


September, 








6.00 


0.790 


13.2 


2.38 


0.350 


14.7 


2.84 


0.396 


13.9 


October, . 








10.51 


4.053 


38.6 


3.83 


0.375 


9.8 


' 1.17 


0.224 


19.2 


November, 








1.20 


2.097 


174.7 


3.09 


0.526 


17.0 


5.80 


1.204 


20.7 


December, 








5.31 


1.776 


33.5 


3.68 


0.971 


26.3 


1.13 


0.865 


76.9 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges. 


53.00 


26.993 


50.9 


49.52 


27.612 


55.8 


41.83 


16.456 


39.3 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



315 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — Continued. 











1893. 


1894. ; 


1895. 


Month. 


3 

13 

1 




Pi 


"fl 


T3 

Pi 


11 




-d 

11 

"e'o 


. (9 

il 

I. w 


January, .... 


2.92 


0.773 


26.4 


4.09 


1.236 


30.2 


4.06 


1.844 


45.4 


February, 








8.20 


2.485 


30.3 


3.91 


1.596 


40.8 


1.39 


0.871 


62.5 


March, 








3.07 


5.789 


157.7 


1.43 


3.992 


278.2 


2.98 


4.299 


144.2 


April, 








3.60 


3.668 


101.7 


3.42 


2.832 


82.9 


5.25 


4.341 


82.7 


May, 








6.61 


5.143 


77.8 


4.24 


1.498 


35.4 


2.02 


1.134 


56.1 


June, 








2.38 


0.759 


31.9 


1.15 


0.723 


62.6 


2.77 


0.301 


10.8 


July. 








2.57 


0.282 


11.0 


3.26 


0.287 


8.8 


5.04 


0.411 


8.2 


August, . 








5.41 


0.322 


5.9 


2.03 


0.373 


18.4 


4.15 


0.409 


9.9 


September, 








1.74 


0.187 


10.8 


2.63 


0.258 


9.8 


2.30 


0.153 


6.7 


October, . 








4.07 


0.395 


9.7 


5.34 


0.668 


12.5 


10.68 


2.460 


23.0 


November, 








2.20 


0.550 


25.1 


3.43 


1.442 


42.1 


6.63 


4.794 


72.4 


December, 




' 




4.86 


1.421 


29.2 


4.81 


1.277 


26.5 


3.35 


3.179 


94.9 


Totals and 


avera 


ges. 


48.23 


21.774 


45.2 


39.74 


16.182 


40.7 


50.62 


24.196 


47.8 









1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


Month. 


5 

'3 


■d 

.£8 


■d 

11 

/? 




•d 

(U 


•d 
. o 

11 

(2 


3 

■3 

Ph 


•73 



=3! 
¥ 

Pi 


•1 

11 
Oo 


Janiaary 


2.39 


1.933 


80.9 


4.00 


1.507 


37.6 


6.83 


2.922 


42.8 


February, 






7.18 


4.466 


62.2 


2.91 


1.718 


59.0 


4.49 


4.809 


108.5 


March, 






5.24 


6.841 


130.7 


3.66 


4.575 


125.0 


2.40 


4.645 


193.5 


April, 






1.57 


2.579 


164.3 


2.82 


2.615 


92.7 


4.66 


3.158 


67.8 


May, 






2.57 


0.641 


24.9 


4.37 


1.632 


37.3 


3.22 


2.222 


68.9 


June, 






3.22 


0.689 


21.4 


4.46 


1.661 


37.3 


2.48 


0.915 


36.9 


July, 






2.51 


0.170 


6.8 


5.44 


1.174 


21.6 


4.09 


0.411 


10.1 


August, 






2.40 


0.102 


4.3 


3.51 


1.053 


30.0 


8.17 


1.974 


24.2 


September, 






7.72 


0.669 


8.7 


2.94 


0.315 


10.7 


2.62 


0.637 


24.4 


October, . 






3.76 


1.055 


28.0 


0.47 


0.168 


35.7 


6.71 


2.069 


30.8 


November, 






3.02 


1.137 


37.7 


6.40 


1.570 


24.5 


6.93 


3.429 


49.5 


December, 






2.12 


1.171 


55.1 


5.21 


2.827 


54.3 


3.28 


3.208 


97.7 


Totals and 


avers 


iges, . 


43.70 


21.453 


49.1 


46.19 


20.815 


45.1 


55.88 


30.459 


54.5 



316 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — Continued. 











1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Month. 


3 


=51 


•1 

11 


3 


a) 

."si 


13 

11 


3 

1 


13 

=51 

¥ 


•73 

11 

Oo 


January, .... 


4.18 


4.082 


97.7 


4.96 


1.417 


28.6 


1.82 


0.779 


42.7 


February, 








4.91 


2.225 


45.3 


9.14 


6.123 


67.0 


1.52 


0.483 


31.7 


March, 








7.01 


7.501 


107.0 


6.35 


6.518 


102.6 


6.57 


4.912 


74.8 


April, 








1.90 


4.351 


229.0 


2.58 


2.330 


90.2 


8.60 


7.257 


84.4 


May, 








1.45 


0.911 


62.8 


4.32 


2.341 


54.2 


7.23 


5.269 


72.9 


June, 








2.51 


0.114 


4.6 


2.99 


0.545 


18.3 


1.38 


1.299 


94.1 


July, 








3.22 


0.035 


1.1 


2.42 


-0.032 


—1.3 


5.71 


0.545 


9.6 


August, . 








1.43 


—0.063 


—4.4 


2.26 


—0.060 


—2.7 


4.57 


0.756 


16.5 


September, 








3.95 


0.162 


4.1 


3.36 


0.112 


3.3 


3.30 


0.527 


15.9 


October, . 








2.69 


0.206 


7.7 


3.83 


0.331 


8.6 


2.82 


0.734 


26.0 


November, 








2.18 


0.525 


24.1 


5.70 


1.144 


20.1 


2.90 


0.819 


28.3 


December, 








1.78 


0.392 


22.0 


2.74 


1.955 


71.4 


' 9.69 


4.808 


49.6 


Totals and 


avera 


ges. 


37.21 


20.441 


54.9 


50.65 


22.724 


44.9 


56.11 


28.188 


50.2 









1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


Month. 


3 

"a 


•d 

4) 


■d 

. <u 

11 
O-o 


3 

"a 


1 

¥ 


-d 
. o 

Oo 


3 

CI 


■d 

II 

0*0 


•d 

. a) 
C g 


January 


2.52 


3.145 


125.1 


3.80 


3.096 


81.4 


4.87 


0.851 


17.5 


February, 






6.18 


2.697 


43.6 


3.95 


3.672 


93.0 


3.00 


1.472 


49.1 


March, 






5.34 


7.491 


140.3 


6.63 


6.161 


92.9 


2.72 


5.349 


196.8 


April, 






4.13 


3.254 


78.8 


2.99 


3.903 


130.5 


8.87 


5.685 


64.1 


May, 






1.86 


1.325 


71.3 


0.93 


0.625 


67.4 


2.65 


3.112 


117.7 


June, 






2.89 


0.523 


18.1 


9.25 


3.431 


37.1 


2.80 


0.723 


25.8 


July, 






2.94 


0.117 


4.0 


2.77 


0.794 


28.7 


1.96 


0.111 


5.7 


August, . 






3.40 


0.240 


7.1 


3.67 


0.547 


14.9 


3.86 


0.303 


7.8 


September, 






4.54 


0.308 


6.8 


1.75 


0.225 


12.8 


5.80 


0.685 


11.8 


October, . 






4.44 


0.902 


20.3 


4.72 


0.877 


18.6 


1.64 


0.348 


21.2 


November, 






1.45 


0.767 


52.7 


1.56 


0.626 


40.2 


1.73 


0.499 


28.8 


December, 






6.38 


3.173 


49.8 


3.14 


1.038 


33.1 


2.92 


0.481 


16.5 


Totals and 


avera 


ges, . 


46.07 


23.942 


52.0 


45.16 


24.995 


55.3 


42.82 


19.619 


45.8 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



317 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — Continued. 









1905. 1 


1906. 


1907. 


Month. 


3 

a 

a 






3 


¥ 


■6 

11 


3 

"a 
"a 


=31 
¥ 


"d 

gJ 


January, .... 


5.26 


2.516 


47.8 


2.47 


2.012 


81.5 


3.28 


2.411 


73.4 


February, 






2.20 


0.531 


24.2 


2.92 


1.676 


57.4 


2.17 


1.005 


46.2 


March, 






3.15 


4.456 


141.6 


6.32 


4.297 


68.0 


1.91 


2.958 


154.6 


April, 






2.72 


2.837 


104.3 


2.88 


3.364 


116.6 


3.41 


2.774 


81.5 


May, 






1.31 


0.530 


40.3 


5.66 


1.890 


33.4 


3.63 


1.584 


43.6 


June, 






5.00 


0.806 


16.1 


3.91 


1.220 


31.2 


3.53 


1.314 


37.2 


July, 






5.47 


0.316 


5.8 


3.42 


0.709 


20.7 


1.86 


0.015 


0.8 


August, . 






2.70 


0.204 


7.6 


3.02 


0.321 


10.6 


1.07 


—0.186 


-17.4 


September, 






6.88 


2.152 


31.3 


3.30 


0.034 


1.0 


8.76 


0.934 


10.7 


October, . 






1.54 


0.282 


18.3 


3.40 


0.538 


15.8 


4.17 


1.321 


31.7 


November, 






2.07 


0.481 


23.3 


2.69 


0.834 


31.1 


6.12 


3.450 


56.4 


December, 






4.01 


1.583 


39.5 


4.49 


1.175 


26.2 


4.47 


3.624 


81.1 


Totals and 


avers 


iges, . 


42.31 


16.694 


39.5 


44.48 


18.070 


40.6 


44.38 


21.204 


47.8 









1908. 1 


1909. 1 


1910. 


Month. 


3 


-d 
o 

1- 


-6 

11 

(2 


3 

a 

'i 


-6 

¥ 


-a 

11 


3 

"3 


Rainfall 
collected. 


.1 

11 


January 


3.60 


3.434 


95.4 


3.98 


0.700 


17.6 


5.39 


2.657 


49.2 


February, 






4.56 


2.564 


56.3 


5.80 


3.684 


63.6 


5.06 


2.979 


58.9 


March, 






3.82 


4.026 


105.5 


4.26 


3.093 


72.7 


0.85 


3.486 


408.7 


April, 






1.88 


1.929 


102.6 


4.67 


2.970 


63.6 


2.75 


1.151 


41.9 


May, 






5.51 


1.865 


33.9 


2.42 


1.791 


73.9 


1.29 


0.495 


38.4 


June, 






0.86 


0.335 


38.9 


2.81 


0.413 


14.7 


4.68 


0.891 


19.0 


July, 






3.71 


—0.025 


-0.7 


1.59 


—0.216 


—13.5 


2.03 


—0.182 


—9.0 


August, . 






4.57 


0.181 


4.0 


2.93 


-0.080 


—2.7 


2.62 


—0.130 


-5.0 


September, 






0.97 


—0.141 


—14.5 


4.74 


0.257 


5.4 


2.49 


0.008 


0.3 


October, . 






2.55 


0.083 


3.3 


1.12 


—0.091 


—8.1 


1.86 


—0.091 


-^.9 


November, 






0.98 


0.122 


12.5 


3.38 


0.142 


4.2 


4.13 


0.304 


7.4 


December, 






3.14 


0.243 


7.7 


4.05 


0.469 


11.6 


2.49 


0.395 


15.8 


Totals and 


averi 


iges, . 


36.15 


14.616 


40.4 


41.75 


13.132 


31.5 


35.64 


11.963 


33.6 



318 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected, etc. — • Concluded. 











1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Month. 


3 

"3 


Is 


■d 

il 

a 
Ph 


3 


■d 


o 


"a 
1 


t 

si 

Ph 


-d 


January, . 








2.88 


0.925 


32.1 


2.94 


1.299 


44.1 


3.17 


1.857 


58.5 


February, 








2.77 


1.128 


40.7 


2.77 


1.998 


72.2 


2.82 


1.215 


43.1 


March, 








3.59 


2.042 


56.9 


6.46 


5.515 


85.3 


5.75 


3.727 


64.8 


April, 








2.81 


2.461 


87.4 


4.37 


3.859 


88.3 


4.25 


3.852 


90.6 


May, 








1.01 


0.567 


56.1 


4.55 


2.580 


56.7 


3.97 


1.547 


39.0 


June, 








2.53 


0.367 


14.6 


0.46 


0.255 


56.1 


1.98 


0.257 


13.0 


July, 








3.19 


—0.025 


—0.8 


3.24 


—0.137 


—4.2 


3.60 


-0.111 


—3.1 


August, . 








4.94 


0.036 


0.7 


3.05 


—0.053 


—1.7 


3.64 


—0.095 


—2.6 


September, 








2.75 


0.131 


4.8 


1.76 


-O.049 


—2.8 


3.77 


0.152 


4.0 


October, . 








3.69 


0.528 


14.3 


2.35 


—0.024 


-1.0 


5.53 


0.863 


15.6 


November, 








4.62 


1.024 


22.2 


3.64 


0.285 


7.8 


2.65 


0.828 


31.3 


December, 








3.60 


1.620 


44.9 


5.13 


0.882 


17.2 


3.18 


1.305 


41.1 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges, 


38.38 


10.804 


28.2 


40.72 


16.410 


40.3 


44.31 


15.397 


34.8 











1914. 


1915. 


Mean for Fortt-One 
Years, 1875-1915. 


Month. 


3 

"a 
Pi 


•d 

!s1 


•d 

^1 


3 

"d 
1 


'6 

r 


■d 
. a) 


3 

a 
1 


•d 

f 


■d 
. 

11 


January, . 






3.85 


1.619 


42.1 


6.51 


2.906 


44.7 


4.14 


2.133 


51.6 


February, 








4.07 


1.625 


39.9 


3.58 


3.013 


84.1 


4.12 


2.734 


66.4 


March, 








4.57 


5.404 


118.0 


0.05 


1.058 


2,227.4 


4.36 


4.875 


112.0 


April, 








5.10 


4.061 


79.6 


2.48 


1.018 


41.0 


3.55 


3.411 


96.1 


May, 








3.08 


2.765 


89.7 


1.74 


0.455 


26.1 


3.28 


1.882 


57.4 


June, 








1.90 


0.008 


0.4 


3.65 


0.174 


4.8 


3.02 


0.807 


26.7 


July, 








3.44 


0.190 


5.5 


8.12 


1.865 


23.0 


3.65 


0.311 


8.5 


August, . 








3.82 


0.277 


7.3 


5.87 


2.084 


35.5 


3.90 


0.442 


11.3 


September, 








0.29 


-0.234 


—79.8 


1.10 


0.066 


6.1 


3.33 


0.381 


11.5 


October, . 








1.60 


—0.105 


—6.6 


2.95 


0.412 


14.0 


3.84 


0.751 


19.6 


November, 








2.53 


0.168 


6.7 


2.79 


0.451 


16.2 


3.76 


1.294 


34.4 


December, 








3.46 


0.446 


12.9 


5.09 


1.602 


31.5 


3.84 


1.738 


45.2 


Totals and 


avera 


ges. 


37.71 


16.224 


43.0 


43.93 


15.104 


34.3 


44.79 


20.759 


46.4 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



!19 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the Sudbury 
River watershed for each of the past forty-one years, the flow being 
expressed in gallons per day per square mile of watershed in order to 
render the table more convenient for use in estimating the probable 
yield of watersheds used as sources of water supply: — 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile. ^ 



Month. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


January, 


103,000 


643,000 


658,000 


1,810,000 


700,000 


1,121,000 


February, 












1,496,000 


1,368,000 


949,000 


2,465,000 


1,711,000 


1,787,000 


March, 












1,604,000 


4,435,000 


4,813,000 


3,507,000 


2,330,000 


1,374,000 


April, 












3,049,000 


3,292,000 


2,394,000 


1,626,000 


3,116,000 


1,168,000 


May, 












1,188,000 


1,139,000 


1,391,000 


1,394,000 


1,114,000 


514,000 


June, 












870,000 


222,000 


597,000 


506,000 


413,000 


176,000 


July, 












321,000 


183,000 


202,000 


128,000 


158,000 


177,000 


August, . 












396,000 


405,000 


121,000 


475,000 


395,000 


119,000 


September, 












207,000 


184,000 


60,000 


160,000 


141,000 


80,000 


October, . 












646,000 


234,000 


632,000 


516,000 


71,000 


101,000 


November, 












1,302,000 


1,088,000 


1,418,000 


1,693,000 


206,000 


205,000 


December, 












584,000 


454,000 


1,289,000 


3,177,000 


462,000 


175,000 


Average for whole year, . 


972,000 


1,135,000 


1,214,000 


1,452,000 


894,000 


578,000 


Average for driest six months, 


574,000 


384,000 


502,000 


532,000 


230,000 


143,000 



MOXTH. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


Januan,', 


415,000 


1,241,000 


335,000 


995,000 


1,235,000 


1,461,000 


February, 












1,546,000 


2,403,000 


1,033,000 


2,842,000 


1,354,000 


4,800,000 


March, 












4,004,000 


2,839,000 


1,611,000 


3,785,000 


1,572,000 


2,059,000 


April, 












1,546,000 


867,000 


1,350,000 


2,853,000 


1,815,000 


1,947,000 


May, 












965,000 


1,292,000 


938,000 


1,030,000 


1,336,000 


720,000 


June, 












1,338,000 


529,000 


300,000 


417,000 


426,000 


203,000 


July, 












276,000 


86,000 


115,000 


224,000 


62,000 


115,000 


August, . 












148,000 


55,000 


78,000 


257,000 


240,000 


94,000 


September, 












197,000 


306,000 


91,000 


44,000 


121,000 


118,000 


October, . 












186,000 


299,000 


186,000 


83,000 


336,000 


146,000 


November, 












395,000 


210,000 


205,000 


175,000 


1,178,000 


673,000 


December, 












775,000 


314,000 


193,000 


925,000 


1,174,000 


1,020,000 


Average for whole year, . 


979,000 


862,000 


533,000 


1,129,000 


901,000 


1,087,000 


Average for driest sLx months. 


330,000 


211,000 


145,000 


200,000 


391,000 


223,000 



» The area of the Sudbury River watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces 
amounting to about 2 per cent, of the whole area, from 1875 to 1878 inclusive, subsequently increasing 
by the construction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent, in 1879, to 3.5 per cent, in 1885, to 4 per cent, 
in 1894 and to 6.5 per cent, in 1898. The watershed also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, 
though covered with water at times, are not included in the above pejcentages of water surfaces. 



320 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


January, 


2,589,000 


1,053,000 


2,782,000- 


1,254,000 


3,018,000 


1,870,000 


February, 










2,829,000 


1,951,000 


1,195,000 


1,529,000 


3,486,000 


943,000 


March, 










2,808,000 


3,237,000 


1,339,000 


3,643,000 


4,453,000 


1,955,000 


April, 










2.020,000 


2,045,000 


1,410,000 


1,875,000 


2,397,000 


871,000 


May, 










1,000,000 


1,632,000 


880,000 


1,366,000 


582,000 


1,259,000 


Juno, 










414,000 


422,000 


653,000 


568,000 


414,000 


428,000 


July, 










114,000 


117,000 


633,000 


108,000 


149,000 


214,000 


August, . 










214,000 • 


380,000 


1,432,000 


132,000 


163,000 


280,000 


Soptenihcr, 










111,000 


1,155,000 


824,000 


458,000 


203,000 


229,000 


October, . 










190,000 


1,999,000 


1,230,000 


2,272,000 


210,000 


120,000 


November, 










368,000 


2,758,000 


1,941,000 


1,215,000 


305,000 


607,000 


December, 




ar, 






643,000 


3,043.000 


2,241,000 


997,000 


544,000 


485,000 


Average for wliolc yc 


1,154,000 


1,697,000 


1,383,000 


1,285.000 


1,315,000 


781,000 


Average for driest six months, 


234,000 


053,000 


944,000 


747,000 


239,000 


327,000 



Month. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


January, 


433,000 


693,000 


1,034,000 


1,084,000 


845,000 


1,638,000 


February, 












1,542,000 


991,000 


541,000 


2,676,000 


1,067,000 


3,022,000 


March, 












3,245,000 


2,238,000 


2,410,000 


3,835,000 


2,565,000 


2,604,000 


April, 












2,125,000 


1,640,000 


2,515,000 


1,494,000 


1,515,000 


1,829,000 


May, 












2,883,000 


840.000 


636,000 


360,000 


915,000 


1,246,000 


June, 












440,000 


419,000 


174,000 


399.000 


962,000 


530,000 


July, 












158,000 


161,000 


231,000 


95,000 


658,000 


231,000 


August, . 












181,000 


209,000 


229,000 


57,000 


591,000 


1,107,000 


Soptomber, 












108,000 


150,000 


89,000 


388,000 


182,000 


369,000 


October, . 












221,000 


374,000 


1,379,000 


592,000 


94,000 


1,160,000 


November, 












319,000 


830,000 


2,777,000 


659,000 


909,000 


1,986,000 


December, 












797,000 


716,000 


1,782,000 


657,000 


1,584,000 


1,799,000 


Average for whole >'car, 


1,037,000 


770,000 


1,152,000 


1,019,000 


991,000 


1,450,000 


Average for driest six months. 


237,000 


356,000 


460,000 


314,000 


564,000 


777,000 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



321 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day -per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 



January 

February, 

March, ...... 

April, 

May 

June 

July 

August, 

September, 

October, . 

November, 

December, 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months. 



1898. 



1900. 



2,288,000 

1,381,000 

4,205,000 

2,521,000 

511,000 

66,000 

19,000 

—35,000 

91,000 

115,000 

304,000 

220,000 



973,000 
93,000 



794,000 

3,800,000 

3,654,000 

1,350,000 

1,312,000 

316,000 

—18,000 

—34,000 

65,000 

186,000 

663,000 

1,096,000 



1901. 



1,082,000 
194,000 



437,000 

300,000 

2,755,000 

4,204,000 

2,954,000 

753,000 

306,000 

424,000 

305,000 

412,000 

474,000 

2,695.000 



1902. 



1903. 



1,342,000 
445,000 



1,763,000 

1,074,000 

4,199,000 

1,885,000 

743,000 

303,000 

06,000 

135,000 

178,000 

506,000 

444,000 

1,779,000 



1,140,000 
271,000 



1,736,000 

2,279,000 

3,454,000 

2,261,000 

351,000 

1,987,000 

445,000 

307,000 

130,000 

492,000 

363,000 

582,000 



1904. 



1,190,000 
388,000 



477,000 

882,000 

2,999,000 

3,294,000 

1,745,0(J0 

419,000 

62,000 

170,000 

397,000 

191,000 

289,000 

269,000 



931,000 
228,000 



Month. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


January, 


1,410,000 


1,128,000 


1,351,000 


1,925,000 


392.000 


1,490,000 


Februarj', 












330,000 


1,041,000 


624,000 


1,536,000 


2,286,000 


1,849,000 


March, 












2,497,000 


2,409,000 


1,658,000 


2,257,000 


1,734,000 


1,954,000 


April, 












1,643,000 


1,949,000 


1,607,000 


1,117,000 


1,721,UUU 


667,000 


May, 












297,000 


1,059,000 


888,000 


1,046,000 


1,004,000 


277,000 


June, 












467,000 


707,000 


761,000 


194,000 


239,000 


516.000 


July, 












177,000 


398,000 


9,000 


—14,000 


—121,000 


—102.000 


August, . 












114,000 


180,000 


—104,000 


102,000 


-^5,000 


—73.000 


September, 












1,246,000 


19,000 


541,000 


—82,000 


149,000 


5.000 


October, . 












158,000 


301,000 


741,000 


47,000 


—51,000 


—51.000 


November, 












279,000 


483,000 


1,998,000 


71,000 


82,000 


176.000 


December, 












887,000 


659,000 


2,032,000 


136,000 


263.000 


221,000 


.\verage for whole year, 


795,000 


860,000 


1,010,000 


694,000 


625,000 


570,000 


Average for driest six months. 


403,000 


341,000 


471,000 


44,000 


40,000 


29,000 



322 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile- 

Concluded. 



Month. 


19]]. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Mean for 
Forty-one 

Years, 
1875-1915. 


January, 


519,000 


728,000 


1,041,000 


908,000 


1,629,000 


1,196,000 


February, 






700,000 


1,197,000 


754,000 


1,009,000 


1,870,000 


1,684,000 


March, . 






1,144,000 


3,092,000 


2,090,000 


3,029,000 


593,000 


2,733,000 


April, 






1,426,000 


2,235,000 


2,232,000 


2,353,000 


590,000 


1,976,000 


May, 






318,000 


1,447,000 


867,000 


1,550,000 


255,000 


1,055,000 


June, 






213,000 


148,000 


149,000 


5,000 


101,000 


467,000 


July, . 






—14,000 


—77,000 


—62.000 


107,000 


1,045,000 


174,000 


August, . 






20,000 


—29,000 


—54,000 


156,000 


1,168,000 


248,000 


September, 






76,000 


—28,000 


88,000 


—135,000 


38,000 


221,000 


October, 






296,000 


—14,000 


484,000 


—59,000 


231,000 


421,000 


November, . 






593,000 


165,000 


480,000 


97,000 


261,000 


750,000 


December, 






908,000 


494,000 


732,000 


250,000 


898,000 


974,000 


Average for whole j^ear, . 


514,000 


779,000 


733,000 


772,000 


719,000 


988,000 


Average for driest six months. 


152,000 


26,000 


180,000 


29,000 


480,000 


379,000 



Note. — The recorded yields, subsequent to the year 1897, are less accurate than those for previous years, 
particularly during months of small yield, due to unavoidable inaccuracies in the measurement of large 
quantities of water received from, the Wachusett Reservoir. 



Nashua River. 

The average flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River above 
Clinton during the year 1915 was 942,000 gallons per day per square 
mile, or 88 per cent, of the normal flow for the past nineteen years. 
The flow was in excess of the normal in the months of January, 
February, July, August and December but less than the normal in the 
other seven months of the year. The greatest excess occurred in the 
month of August and the greatest deficiency in the month of March. 
The average flow for the driest six months, May to October, inclusive, 
was 666,000 gallons per day per square mile, the greatest flow for such 
a period since the year 1907. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Nashua River 
during each month of the year 1915 and the normal flow of that 
stream as deduced from observations during nineteen years, from 
1897 to 1915, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The 
area of the watershed of the Nashua River above the point of measure- 
ment was 119 square miles from 1897 to 1907 and 118.19 square miles 



No. 34.1 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



323 



from 1908 to 1913, inclusive. Since Jan. 1, 1914, the city of Worcester 
has been diverting water from 9.35 square miles of this watershed for 
the supply of that city, leaving the net watershed area 108.84 square 
miles. In the calculations of yield allowance has been made for water 
overflowing from the Worcester area. 



Table showing the Average Daily Flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River 
for Each Month in the Year 1916, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile 
of Drainage Area and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drain- 
age Area; also, Departure from the Normal Flow. 











Normal Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1915. 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

MUe. 


January, . . . . 


1.907 


1.233 


3.190 


2.062 


+1.283 


+0.829. 


February, 








2.148 


1.388 


3.034 


1.961 


+0.886 


+0.573 


March, 








4.002 


2.587 


0.885 


0.572 


—3.117 


—2.015 


April, . 








3.269 


2.113 


1.433 


0.926 


—1.836 


—1.187 


May, . 








1.812 


1.171 


0.704 


0.455 


—1.108 


—0.716 


June, . 








1.083 


0.700 


0.353 


0.228 


—0.730 


—0.472 


July, . 








0.635 


411 


1.676 


1.083 


+1.041 


+0.672 


August, 








0.684 


0.442 


2.564 


1.657 


+1.880 


+1.215 


September, 






0.509 


0.329 


0.244 


0.158 


—0.265 


—0.171 


October, 






0.779 


0.504 


0.599 


0.387 


—0.180 


—0.117 


November, 






1.165 


0.753 


0.770 


0.498 


—0.395 


—0 255 


December, . 






1.822 


1.178 


2.103 


1.359 


+0.281 


+0.181 


Average 


for w 


hole 


year, 


1.6-49 


1.066 


1.458 


0.942 


—0.191 


-0.124 



The following table gives the rainfall upon the Nashua River water- 
shed and the total yield expressed in inches in depth upon the water- 
shed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the past nineteen years, 
from 1897 to 1915, inclusive, together with the average for the entire 
period : — 



324 



STATE- DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Watershed. 











1897. 


1898. I 


1899. 


Month. 


3 


US 

.S o 


T3 


"a 
Pi 


-a 
to 

?.| 
.5 o 

Cj 


T3 

gj 


a 


-d 
1 

as 

Pi 


■6 

0-3 
Ph 


January 


3.46 


1.420 


41.0 


6.65 


2.787 


41.9 


2.93 


3.731 


127.3 


February, 








2.86 


1.500 


52.4 


3.30 


2.635 


79.8 


5.12 


1.757 


34.3 


March, 








4.01 


4.922 


122.7 


2.27 


5.509 


242.7 


6.75 


4.952 


73.4 


April, 








2.32 


2.818 


121.5 


4.43 


3.500 


79.0 


1.94 


5.829 


300.5 


May, 








5.06 


2.075 


41.0 


3.38 


2.480 


73.4 


1.33 


1.538 


115.6 


June, 








5.11 


2.039 


39.9 


3.11 


1.429 


46.0 


5.51 


0.969 


17.6 


July, 








8.65 


2.572 


29.7 


3.01 


0.593 


19.7 


3.82 


0.631 


16.5 


August, . 








3.47 


1.599 


46.1 


10.61. 


2.363 


22.3 


3.20 


0.421 


13.2 


September, 








1.93 


0.656 


34.0 


3.15 


1.166 


37.0 


4.11 


0.431 


10.5 


October, . 








0.94 


0.434 


46.2 


7.21 


2.691 


37.3 


2.72 


0.437 


16.1 


November, 








7.62 


2.214 


29.1 


6.81 


3.746 


55.0 


1.94 


0.742 


38.2 


December, 








6.41 


4.059 


63.3 


3.99 


3.676 


92.1 


2.03 


0.640 


31.5 


Totals and 


avera 


ges. 


51.84 


26.308 


50.7 


57.92 


32.575 


56.2 


41.40 


22.078 


53.3 









1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


Month. 


3 

c 


■d 
ffi 

— a 


•6 

. <D 
11 

OS 

u ^ 

Ph 


i 

a 


13 

.S8 
Pi 


-d 
Ph 


3 

'3 
Pi 


-d 

(U 

'a'o 


. o 

II 

Up 

Ph 


January, .... 


4.56 


1.420 


31.1 


1.75 


0.926 


52.9 


2.72 


2.990 


109.9 


February, 






8.69 


6.532 


75.2 


1.13 


0.574 


50.8 


4.91 


2.258 


46.0 


March, 






6.19 


6.639 


107.3 


5.82 


4.849 


83.3 


5.27 


7.120 


135.1 


April, 






2.76 


2.727 


98.8 


9.64 


8.605 


89.3 


4.36 


3.728 


85.5 


May, 






4.34 


2.467 


56.8 


7.02 


4.867 


69.3 


2.24 


1.839 


82.1 


June, 






3.59 


0.998 


27.8 


1.51 


1.701 


112.6 


2.51 


0.708 


28.2 


July, 






3.20 


0.388 


12.1 


5.66 


0.851 


15.0 


3.87 


0.521 


13.5 


August, . 






3.18 


0.351 


11.0 


4.58 


0.913 


19.9 


3.95 


0.529 


13.4 


September, 






3.46 


0.220 


6.4 


3.10 


0.552 


17.8 


4.26 


0.416 


9.8 


October, . . 






2.90 


0.504 


17.4 


3.70 


1.154 


31.2 


6.36 


1.696 


26.7 


November, 






6.44 


1.510 


23.4 


2.43 


0.892 


36.7 


0.93 


1.095 


117.7 


Decenlber, 






3.15 


2.800 


88.9 


9.36 


5.766 


61.6 


7.20 


3.295 


45.8 


Totals and avera 


ges. 


52.46 


26.556 


50.6 


55.70 


31.650 


56.8 


48.58 


26.195 


53.9 



No. 34. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



325 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nash^la River Watershed — 

Continued. 







1 


1903. 1 


1904. 


1905. 


Month. 


3 

P3 


-a 
o 

'3 
Pi 


■6 

§1 

O o 


"3 
"a 


1 

'a'o 
.S 

c3 


■6 \ 
I. 


"a 

"s 

■3 

Pi 


-d 


— ■ 

.ss 

03 


•6 
a g 


January, .... 


2.85 


2.256 


79.2 


4.02 


1.176 


29.3 


6.10 


2.258 


37.0 


February, 






4.42 


3.436 


77.7 


2.66 


1,547 


58.2 


1.72 


0.729 


42.4 


March, 






6.58 


6.107 


92.8 


3,40 


5,361 


157.7 


3.95 


5.358 


135.7 


April, 






3.10 


3.864 


124.6 


7.45 


5,149 


69.1 


2.60 


2.792 


107.4 


May, 






1.24 


1.015 


81.9 


2.99 


2,671 


89.3 


0.83 


0.794 


95.7 


June, 






10.37 


3.678 


35.5 


3.44 


1,315 


38. 2 


4.88 


0.935 


19.2 


July, 






3.43 


1.114 


32.5 


3.84 


0.886 


23.1 


5,39 


0.651 


12.1 


August, . 






3.88 


0.846 


21.8 


3.68 


0,633 


17.2 


3,09 


0.573 


18,5 


September, 






2.93 


0.647 


22.1 


5.30 


0.853 


16.1 


6,90 


2.119 


30,7 


October, . 






4.43 


1.228 


27.7- 


1.78 


0.620 


34.8 


1,81 


0.654 


36.1 


November, 






2.36 


1.095 


46.4 


1.62 


0.591 


36.5 


2.52 


0.763 


30,3 


December, 






3.99 


1.702 


42.7 


2.88 


0.784 


27.2 


3.79 


1.816 


48.0 


Totals and averages, . 


49.58 


26.988 


54.4 


43.06 


21.586 


50.1 


43.58 


19.442 


44.6 




1906. 




1907. 




1908. 




Month. 




"6 


J 

a § 


3 
■3 


•6 

Pi 


•d 
. <o 

II 

0-3 




3 
■3 


■6 

=il 

|8 


■d 

a § 

(2 


January, .... 


2.59 


2.018 


77.9 


2.84 


2.601 


91.6 


3.40 


3.101 


91.2 


February, 






2.74 


1.654 


60.4 


2.32 


1,115 


48.0 


4,82 


2.896 


60.0 


March, 






5.17 


3.317 


64.2 


1.82 


3,028 


166.3 


2,77 


3.910 


141.2 


April, 






3.12 


3.640 


116.7 


2.65 


2.479 


93.5 


2,62 


2.191 


83.5 


May, 






6,58 


2.734 


41,5 


2.96 


1.722 


58.2 


5,34 


2.524 


47.3 


June, 






5.95 


2.043 


34,3 


3.54 


1.334 


37.7 


1.29 


0.696 


54,0 


July, 






5.52 


1.299 


23.5 


3,03 


0.597 


19.7 


3.85 


0.393 


10,2 


August, 






4.34 


1.055 


24.3 


1,26 


0.155 


12.3 


6.49 


0.790 


12,2 


September, 






2.61 


0.478 


18.3 


9,50 


1.399 


14.7 


1.04 


0.151 


14,5 


October, . 






3.95 


0.945 


24.0 


5,68 


2.465 


43.4 


2.12 


0*282 


13.3 


November, 






2.25 


1.294 


57.5 


5,74 


4.384 


76.4 


1.05 


0.216 


20.6 


December, 






4.26 


1.417 


33.3 


4.40 


3.499 


79.5 


3.03 


0.691 


22.8 


Totals and 


aver 


ages, . 


49.08 


21.894 


44.6 


45.74 


24.778 


54.2 


37.82 


17.841 


47.2 



326 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Watershed 

Continued. 











1909. 


1910. 




1911. 




Month. 


3 

a 


.si 


. » 
II 
^1 


3 

'3 


■6 
.98 


. 4) 

1" 


3 

"a 


3- 
'si 

■3 


id 

8 


January 


3.52 


1.056 


30.0 


5.86 


3.293 


56.2 


2.91 


1.379 


47.5 


February, 








6.10 


4.119 


67.5 


5.24 


2.972 


56.7 


2.43 


1.007 


41.4 


March, 








4.38 


3.798 


86.8 


1.09 


4.708 


432.7 


3.79 


2.389 


63.0 


April, 








5.71 


4.181 


73.3 


3.01 


1.785 


59.2 


2.22 


2.404 


108.5 


May, 








2.65 


2.162 


81.6 


2.13 


1.085 


51.0 


1.59 


0.822 


51.6 


June, 








3.03 


1.090 


36.0 


4.36 


1.422 


32.6 


2.37 


0.606 


25.5 


July. 








4.25 


0.416 


9.8 


1.52 


0.110 


■ 7.2 


2.53 


0.101 


4.0 


August, . 








3.59 


0.345 


9.6 


3.87 


0.332 


8.6 


5.46 


0.335 


6.1 


September, 








3.90 


0.358 


9.2 


2.86 


0.250 


8.7 


3.04 


0.313 


10.3 


October, . 








1.70 


0.160 


9.4 


1.40 


0.122 


8.7 


5.24 


1.280 


24.4 


November, 








1.68 


0.626 


37.2 


4.17 


0.612 


14.6 


4.14 


1.786 


43.1 


December, 








4.00 


0.9.58 


24.0 


2.34 


0.697 


29.8 


3.01 


1.903 


63.2 


Totals and 


avera 


ses. 


44.51 


19.270 


43.3 


37.85 


17.388 


45.9 


38.73 


14.325 


37.0 











1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


Month. 


■3 


-d 


■3.2 

"So 
.S 


-d 
O' 

I- « 


3 

s 

■3 


-d 
.3 8 


■d 

M 


3 

'3 


■d 

§■§ 
.S 

03 
Ph 


•d 
. a) 

1" 


January, .... 


2.57 


1.392 


54.2 


3.38 


2.522 


74.7 


3.40 


1.765 


52.0 


February, 








2.42 


1.547 


63.8 


2.55 


1.397 


54.7 


3.58 


1.903 


53.2 


March, 








5.69 


5.050 


88.8 


5.58 


4.037 


72.4 


4.33 


5.595 


129.1 


April, 








4.06 


3.938 


97,0 


3.90 


3.597 


92.2 


4.91 


4.476 


91.2 


May, 








5.76 


3.206 


55.7 


3.71 


1.852 


49.9 


3.01 


3.031 


100.6 


June, 








0.48 


0.571 


119.6 


0.90 


0.483 


53.5 


2.00 


0.547 


27.4 


July, 








2.65 


0.240 


9.1 


2.37 


0.034 


1.4 


3.92 


0.588 


15.0 


August, . 








2.89 


0.224 


7.8 


3.05 


0.107 


3.5 


4.50 


0.465 


10.3 


September, 








2.17 


0.154 


7.1 


4.44 


0.377 


8.5 


0.15 


—0.020 


—14.0 


October, . * 








2.53 


0.258 


10.2 


6.02 


1.209 


20.1 


1.88 


0.243 


12.9 


November, 








4.02 


0.762 


18.9 


2.59 


1.139 


43.9 


2.97 


0.364 


12.3 


December, 








4.95 


1.414 


28.5 


2.73 


1.704 


62.5 


3.89 


0.664 


17.1 


Totals and 


ivera 


ges. 


40.19 


18.756 


46.7 


41.22 


18.458 


44.8 


38.54 


19.621 


50.9 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



327 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Watershed 

Concluded. 







1915. 




Meax fob Nineteen Years, 










1897-1915. 




Month. 
















Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 




collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


January 


6.31 


3.678 


58.3 


3.78 


2.198 


58.2 


February, . 








3.32 


3.159 


95.3 


3.70 


2.249 


60.8 


March, 








0.06 


1.021 


17,00.6 


4.15 


4.614 


111.1 


April, . 








1.80 


1.599 


88.9 


3.82 


3.648 


95.5 


May, . 








, 1.67 


0.811 


48.5 


3.36 


2.089 


62.2 


June, . 








3.18 


0.393 


12.4 


3.53 


1.208 


34.2 


July, . 








8.60 


1.932 


22.4 


4.17 


0.732 


17.6 


August, 








6.90 


2.955 


42.8 


4.32 


0.789 


18.3 


September, . 








1.53 


0.273 


17.8 


3.49 


0.568 


16.3 


October, 








3.05 


0.690 


22.6 


3.44 


0.899 


26.1 


November, . 








3.12 


0.859 


27.5 


3.39 


1.300 


38.3 


December, . 








5.11 


2.424 


47.5 


4.24 


2.101 


49.6 


Totals and a% 


erage 


-s, 




44.65 


19.794 


44.3 


45.39 


22.395 


49.3 



The following table gives a record of the yield of the Nashua River 
for each of the past nineteen years, the flow being expressed in gallons 
per day per square mile of watershed: — 



Yield of the A'^ashua River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile. ^ 



Month. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


January, 


796,000 


1,563,000 


2,092,000 


796,000 


519,000 


February, 










931,000 


1,635,000 


1,090,000 


4,054,000 


356,000 


March, 










2,760,000 


3,088,000 


2,776,000 


3,722,000 


2,718,000 


April, 










1,632,000 


2,027,000 


3,376,000 


1,580,000 


4,986,000 


May, 










1,163,000 


1,390,000 


862,000 


1,382,000 


2,729,000 


June, 










1,131,000 


828,000 


561,000 


578,000 


985,000 


July, 










1,442,000 


333,000 


354,000 


217,000 


477,000 


August, 










896,000 


1,325,000 


236,000 


197,000 


512,000 


September, 










380,000 


676,000 


250,000 


127,000 


320,000 


October, . 










243,000 


1,509,000 


245,000 


282,000 


647,000 


November, 










1,283,000 


2,170,000 


430,000 


875,000 


517,000 


December, 










2,275,000 


2,061,000 


359,000 


1,570,000 


3,234,000 


Average for whole year, . 


1,253,000 


1,551,000 


1,051,000 


1,264,000 


1,507,000 


Average for driest six months, . 


886,000 


1,013,000 


312,000 


377,000 


576,000 



I The area of the watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 
2.2 per cent, of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent, in 1903, to 3.6 per cent, in 1904, 
to 4.1 per cent, in 1905, to 5.1 per cent, in 1906, to 6 per cent, in 1907, to 7 per cent, in 1908, 1909 and 1910, 
to 6.5 per cent, in 1911, to 6.8 per cent, in 1912, to 7.0 per cent, in 1913 and to 7.4 per cent, in 1914 and 1915. 



328 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Nashua River Watershed in Gallons fer Day -per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1908. 


January, 


1,676,000 


1,265,000 


659,000 


1,266,000 


1,132,000 


February, 












1,401,000 


2,133,000 


927,000 


452,000 


1,027,000 


March, 












3,992,000 


3,423,000 


3,008,000 


3,004;000 


1,860,000 


April, 












2,159,000 


2,238,000 


2,984,000 


1,617,000 


2,109,000 


May, 












1,031,000 


569,000 


1,498,000 


445,000 


1,533,000 


June, 












410,000 


2,131,000 


762,000 


542,000 


1,184,000 


July, 












292,000 


624,000 


497,000 


365,000 


728,000 


August, 












297,000 


474,000 


355,000 


321,000 


591,000 


September, 












241,000 


375,000 


494,000 


1,228,000 


277,000 


October, . 












950,000 


639,000 


347,000 


367,000 


530,000 


November, 












635,000 


634,000 


343,000 


442,000 


749,000 


December, 






XT, 






1,848,000 


954,000 


440,000 


1,018,000 


794,000 


Average for whole ye 


1,248,000 


1,285,000 


1.025,000 


926,000 


1,043,000 


Average for 


drie 


st six 


mon 


ths. 




471,000 


626,000 


413,000 


541,000 


613,000 



Month. 

January, 

February, .... 

March, 

April 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September 

October, 

November, .... 
December, .... 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months, 



1907. 



1908. 



1909. 



1910. 



1,458,000 

692,000 

1,697,000 

1,436,000 

965,000 

773,000 

335,000 

87,000 

810,000 

1,382,000 

2,540,000 

1,961,000 



1,180,000 
725,000 



1,738,000 

1,736,000 

2,192,000 

1,269,000 

1,415,000 

403,000 

220,000 

443,000 

88,000 

158,000 

125,000 

387,000 



592,000 

2,556,000 

2,129,000 

2,422,000 

1,212,000 

632,000 

233,000 

193,000 

208,000 

90,000 

363,000 

537,000 



1,846,000 

1,845,000 

2,639,000 

1,034,000 

608,000 

824,000 

62,000 

186,000 

145,000 

68,000 

354,000 

391,000 



847,000 
238,000 



918,000 
270,000 



828,000 
201,000 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



329 



Yield of the Nashva River Watershed in Gallons per Day fcr Square Mile — 

Concluded. 



Month. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Mean for 
Nineteen 

Years, 
1897-1915. 


January, 


780,000 


1,414,000 


900,000 


2,002,000 


1,233,000 


February, 










927,000 


867,000 


1,181,000 


1,961,000 


1,388,000 


March, 










2,831,000 


2,263,000 


3,137,000 


572,000 


2,587,000 


April, 










2,281,000 


2,083,000 


2,593,000 


926,000 


2,113,000 


May, 










1,797,000 


1,038,000 


1,699,000 


455,000 


1,171,000 


June, 










331,000 


280,000 


317,000 


228,000 


700,000 


July, 










135,000 


19,000 


329,000 


1,083,000 


411,000 


August, . 










125,000 


60,000 


261,000 


1,657,000 


442,000 


September, 










89,000 


219,000 


—12,000 


158,000 


329,000 


October, . 










145,000 


678,000 


136,000 


387,000 


504,000 


November, 










442,000 


660,000 


211,000 


498,000 


753,000 


December, 










793,000 


955,000 


372,000 


1,359,000 


1,178,000 


Average for whole year, 


891,000 


879,000 


934,000 


942,000- 


1,066,000 


Average for driest six m.onths, . 


210,000 


318,000 


208,000 


666,000 


522,000 



Merrimack River. 
The flow of the Merrimack River has been measured for many years 
at Lawrence, above which place the river has a total watershed area 
of 4,663 square miles, which includes 118^ square miles on the South 
Branch of the Nashua River, 75 square miles on the Sudbury River 
and 18 square miles tributary to Lake Cochituate, or a combined 
area of 211 ^ square miles from which water is drawn at the present 
time for the supply of the Metropolitan Water District. The flow as 
measured at Lawrence includes the water wasted from these three 
watersheds, which, in the wet months of the year, is very consider- 
able, but which becomes very small in the dry months. Records of the 
quantity of water wasted have been kept by the Boston Water Board 
and by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board, and these quan- 
tities have been deducted from the flow as measured at Lawrence. 
The area of the three watersheds has also been deducted from the 
watershed area above Lawrence, so that the net watershed area above 
that point was 4,567 square miles in 1880, 4,570 square miles in the 
years 1881 to 1897, inclusive, and 4,452 square miles since the latter 
year. 

1 Including 9.35 square miles from which water is drawn for the supply of the city of Worcester. 



330 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



The average flow of the Merrimack River during the year 1915 
amounted to 1.250 cubic feet per second, or 812,000 gallons per day, 
per square mile of drainage area, or 85 per cent, of the normal flow 
for the past thirty-six years for which records are available. The 
flow was in excess of the normal in the months of February, July, 
August, September and December and less than the normal in the 
remaining seven months of the year. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of this stream during 
each month of the year 1915 and the normal flow as deduced from 
observations during thirty-six years, from 1880 to 1915, inclusive, the 
following table has been prepared: — 



Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River at Laurence 
for the Year 1916, in Cubic Feet -per Second per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area; also, Departure from the Normal Flow. 



Month. 


Normal Flow, 
1880-1915. 


Actual Flow 
in 1915. 


Excess or 
Deficiency. 


January, . . 


1.307 


1.080 


—0.227 


February, 




















1.443 


1.742 


+0.299 


March, . 




















2.753 


1.485 


—1.268 


April, . 




















3.674 


1.788 • 


-1.886 


May, . 




















2.174 


1.126 


—1.048 


June, 




















1.177 


0.489 


—0.688 


July, . 




















0.723 


1.810 


+1.087 


August, 




















0.686 


2.064 


+1.378 


September, 




















0.640 


0.655 


+0.015 


October, 




















0.812 


0.657 


—0.155 


November, 




















1.125 


0.874 


—0.251 


December, 




















1.228 


1.303 


+0.075 


Average f 


or w 


lole : 


^ear. 




1.479 


1.256 


—0.223 



The following table gives the record of the net flow of the Merri- 
mack River at Lawrence for each of the past thirty-six years, the flow 
being expressed in cubic feet per second per square mile of net drainage 
area: — 



No. 34.1 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



331 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Laurence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile. 



Month 




1S80. 


1S81. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


January, 


. 1.618 


0.504 


1.604 


0.442 


1.019 


1.137 


2.859 


1.644 


1.388 


2.619 


February, 








2.687 


1.027 


2.016 


0.634 


2.054 


0.938 


3.798 


2.823 


1.818 


1.345 


March, . 








2.292 


3.641 


3.483 


0.861 


3.339 


0.738 


2.581 


1.769 


2.168 


2.385 


April, . 








2.358 


3.511 


2.268 


3.382 


5.656 


3.967 


4.931 


4.788 


5.377 


2.408 


May, 








1.209 


3.101 


2,320 


1.854 


2.585 


1.838 


1.478 


3.001 


4.539 


1.437 


June, 








0.696 


1.094 


1.963 


1.100 


0.893 


0.917 


0.714 


1.786 


1.228 


1.164 


July, . 








0.646 


0.751 


0.687 


0.684 


0.500 


0.623 


0.497 


1.458 


0.548 


0.782 


August, 








0.554 


0.611 


0.470 


0.423 


0.461 


1.191 


0.435 


1.866 


0.577 


1.087 


September, 








0.490 


0.549 


0.812 


0.266 


0.426 


0.632 


0.434 


0.918 


1.540 


0.750 


October, 








0.388 


0.545 


0.678 


0.432 


0.400 


0.749 


0.471 


0.682 


2.656 


1.220 


November, 








0.929 


1.157 


0.505 


0.627 


0.522 


1.988 


1.538 


0.966 


2.888 


1.924 


December, 








0.580 


1.832 


0.472 


0.515 


1.022 


1.496 


1.296 


1.337 


3.181 


2.812 


Average for w 


hole year. 


1.204 


1.527 


1.440 


0.935 


1.573 


1.351 


1.753 


1.92Q 


2.326 


1.661 


Average for driest six 
months. 


0.598 


0.785 


0.604 


0.491 


0.534 


0.992 


0.671 


1.205 


1.573 


1.073 



Month 




1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


January, 




1.492 


2.823 


1.836 


0.645 


0.661 


0.626 


1.419 


0.745 


1.613 


1.657 


February, 








1.656 


2.851 


0.925 


1.081 


0.933 


0.507 


1.941 


1.000 


1.638 


1.032 


March, . 








3.326 


5.041 


1.562 


2.281 


3.115 


1.258 


4.510 


2.294 


4.042 


2.479 


April, . 








3.728 


4.645 


1.774 


3.359 


2.401 


4.289 


3.967 


3.839 


3.316 


5.757 


May, . 








3.096 


1.601 


2.215 


4.202 


1.525 


1.360 


0.971 


2.209 


2.399 


2.121 


June, 








1.716 


0.990 


1.272 


0.963 


1.317 


0.664 


0.769 


2.769 


1.416 


0.667 


July, . 








0.691 


0.633 


1.040 


0.522 


0.498 


0.565 


0.446 


2.359 


0.585 


0.556 


August, 








0.745 


0.538 


1.051 


0.564 


0.370 


0.477 


0.441 


1.105 


0.776 


0.467 


September, 








1.833 


0.556 


0.863 


0.608 


0.400 


0.366 


0.683 


0.603 


0.636 


0.447 


October, 








2.648 


0.467 


0.467 


0.790 


0.493 


0.863 


1.134 


0.482 


1.372 


0.401 


November, 








1.918 


0.540 


1.420 


0.736 


0.772 


2.047 


1.454 


1.274 


2.094 


0.625 


December, 








1.418 


0.899 


0.859 


1.166 


0.661 


2.025 


0.952 


2.262 


1.871 


0.622 


Average for w 


hole year, 


2.022 


1.799 


1.274 


1.410 


1.095 


1.254 


1.557 


1.745 


1.813 


1.403 


Average for driest six 
months. 


1.542 


0.605 


0.950 


0.697 


0.532 


0.716 


0.741 


1.348 


1.146 


0.519 



332 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile ■ — ■ Concluded. 



Month. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


January, 


0.748 


0.752 


2.268 


1.684 


0.584 


0.S55 


1.705 


1.411 


1.946 


February, 










3.520 


0.546 


1.196 


1.979 


0.644 


0.503 


1.133 


0.667 


1.648 


March, 










3.441 


2.063 


6.011 


6.031 


2.719 


2.349 


1.677 


1.728 


2.499 


April, 










4.087 


5.568 


3.801 


3.375 


4.494 


3.615 


3.591 


2.923 


2.652 


May, 










2.185 


3.342 


2.255 


0.979 


3.843 


1.169 


2.269 


2.034 


2.570 


June, 










0.878 


1.656 


1.187 


2.224 


1.016 


0.931 


2.262 


1.190 


0.932 


July, 










0.407 


0.644 


0.970 


1.032 


0.624 


0.600 


1.106 


0.749 


0.522 


August, . 










0.420 


0.989 


0.844 


0.734 


0.573 


0.606 


0.741 


0.431 


0.668 


September, 










0.338 


0.588 


0.774 


0.530 


0.653 


1.706 


0.422 


0.664 


0.379 


October, . 










0.564 


0.913 


1.600 


0.826 


0.816 


0.727 


0.549 


1.433 


0.330 


November, 










1.304 


0.654 


1.285 


0.665 


0.604 


0.760 


0.707 


2.914 


0.354 


December, 










1.486 


2.054 


1.755 


0.825 


0.407 


1.274 


0.566 


2.177 


0.420 


Average for wliole year. 


1.615 


1.647 


1.995 


1.740 


1.415 


1.258 


1.394 


1.527 


1.243 


Average for driest six months, . 


0.652 


,0.907 


1.110 


0.769 


0.613 


0.888 


0.682 


1.083 


0.445 



Month. 


1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Mean for 
Thirty- 
six Years, 
1880-1915. 


January, 


0.677 


1.043 


0.624 


0.802 


1.775 


0.734 


1.080 


1.307 


February, 


1.563 


0.973 


0.482 


0.706 


0.987 


0.958 


1.742 


1.443 


March 


1.695 


3.611 


1.248 


2.773 


3.372 


3.245 


1.485 


2.753 


April, 


3.404 


2.445 


3.045 


4.323 


2.490 


4.954 


1.788 


3.674 


May 


1.951 


1.509 


1.360 


2.297 


1.442 


2.880 


1.126 


2.174 


June, 


0.948 


1.077 


0.551 


1.304 


0.899 


0.737 


0.489 


1.177 


July 


0.447 


0.398 


0.266 


0.412 


0.393 


0.559 


1.810 


0.723 


August, 


0.376 


0.458 


0.328 


0.499 


0.306 


0.434 


2.064 


0.686 


September, .... 


0.369 


0.397 


0.435 


0.485 


0.387 


0.445 


0.655 


0.640 


October, 


0.422 


0.300 


0.918 


0.733 


0.791 


0.303 


0.657 


0.812 


November, .... 


0.388 


0.457 


1.049 


1.239 


0.967 


0.356 


0.874 


1.125 


December 


0.504 


0.335 


1.284 


1.069 


1.046 


0.437 


1.303 


1.228 


Average for whole year, 


1.062 


1.084 


0.966 


1.387 


1.238 


1.337 


1.256 


1.479 


Average for driest six months, 


0.418 


0.391 


0.591 


0.739 


0.624 


0.422 


1.092 


0.860 



No. 34]. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



333 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers. 
The following table shows the weekly fluctuation during the year 
1915 in the flow of the three streams just described, namely, the 
Sudbury River at Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua River 
above Clinton, and the Merrimack River at Lawrence. The flow of 
these streams, particularly that of the Sudbury and of the South 
Branch of the Nashua River, serves to indicate the flow of other 
streams in eastern Massachusetts. The area of the Sudbury River 
watershed is 75.2 square miles anjj of the South Branch of the Nashua 
River 118.19 square miles. The net watershed area of the Merrimack 
River is 4,452 square miles. 



Table shoiving the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the Nashua 
and Merrimack Rivers for the Year 1915 in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 
Mile of Drainage Area. 





Flow in Cubic Feet per 
Second per Square Mile. 


Week ending 
Sunday — 


Flow in Cubic Feet per 
Second per Square Mile. 


Week ending 
Sunday — 


Sudbury 
River. 


South 
Branch 
Nashua 

River. 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Sudbury 
River. 


South ■ 
Branch 
Nashua 

River. 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Jan. 3, 
10, 
17, 
24, 
31, 

Feb. 7, 

14, 
21, 
28, 

Mar. 7, 
14, 
21, 
28, 

Apr. 4, 
11, 

18, 
25, 

May 2, 

9, 

■ 16. 

23, 

30, 

June 6, 
13, 
20, 
27, 


0.272 
1.419 
2.500 
5.442 
1.606 

1.552 
1.796 
4.122 
4.128 

1.599 
1.118 
0.828 
0.509 

0.672 
1.409 
1.011 
0,466 

0.797 
0.417 
0.193 
0.789 
0.027 

—0,045 
0.103 
0.096 
0.008 


0.574 
2.275 
2.654 
7.373 
1.618 

1.938 
1.373 
3.081 
5.744 

1.195 
0.908 
0.728 
0.719 

1.010 
2,069 
1.685 
0,995 

1.001 
1.132 
0.605 
0,677 
0,371 

0,176 
0,215 
0.451 
0.197 


0.353 
0,030 
0,843 
2,102 
1.113 

0.721 
0.911 
1,468 
3.869 

2,509 
1,341 
1.043 
1.155 

1.069 
1.461 
3.118 

1.487 

1.633 
1.732 
1.130 
0.816 
0.666 

0.560 
0,431 
0.422 
0.515 


July 4, 
11, 
18, 
25, 

Aug. 1, 

8, 
15, 

22, 
29, 

Sept. 5, 
12, 
19, 
26, 

Oct. 3, 
10, 
17, 

24, 
31, 

Nov. 7, 
14, 
21, 

28, 

Dec. 5, 
12, 
19, 
26, 


2.543 
2.483 
1.215 
0.746 

0.717 
4.276 
2.163 
0.695 
0.308 

0.788 

0.151 

—0,496 

0.138 

0.185 
1.071 
0.272 
0.088 
0.091 

0.033 
0.193 
0.763 
0.533 

0.442 
0,845 
2.011 
1.954 


2.280 
2.447 
1.140 
0.775 

1.738 
7.131 
1.983 
0.779 
0.827 

0.429 
0.225 
0.306 
0.339 

0.306 
0,843 
0,611 
0.424 
0.386 

0.340 
0.212 
1.616 
0.834 

0.681 
0.344 
2,531 
3.393 


0.896 
3.250 
2.047 
1.007 

1.224 
2.907 
2,600 
1,519 
1.637 

0,896 
0,608 
0.571 
0.626 

0.575 
0.725 
0.719 
0.692 
0.618 

0.655 
0.657 
0.945 
1.182 

0.960 
0,735 
0.712 
1.539 



334 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Methods of Sewage Disposal. 



The systems of sewage disposal in use by large cities in this State 
and elsewhere may be divided into three general classes, — (1) dis- 
posal by chemical methods, (2) dispfosal by filtration or the so-called 
bacterial methods, and (3) disposal by dilution. 

Chemical Precipitation. 

Works for the chemical treatment of sewage have been in operation 
in the city of Worcester for many years continuously under the 
charge of competent experts, and the results of this method of treat- 
ment have been published fully in the reports of the department 
having charge of the sewers. 

The chemical precipitation works at Worcester have cost about 
$270,000. The total quantity of sewage treated by this process in the 
year 1915 averaged 11,960,000 gallons daily, and for the treatment 
of this sewage 2,289 tons of lime were used, or 1,048 pounds per mil- 
lion gallons of sewage treated. 

Concerning this treatment and its effect, the following statements 
are quoted from the annual report of the superintendent of sewers of 
the city of Worcester for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915: — 

There has been a decided increase in the amount of lime used, as compared 
with last year — 2,289 tons, an increase of 214 tons. This represents 1,048 
pounds per milUon gallons of sewage. The increase is due to an attempt to 
thoroughly treat all acid iron doses wliich come while operating chemical pre- 
cipitation. In spite of the great amount of work which has been done in an en- 
deavor to have these wastes more evenly distributed and of a more dilute nature 
by a slower discharge we find that it is necessary to use large quantities of lime 
in a very short period of time in order to maintain an alkaline treatment through- 
out the dose. 

The sludge produced by chemical precipitation amounted to 23,347,000 gal- 
lons, an average of 5,346 gallons per million gallons of sewage treated. This is 
the greatest volume of sludge produced per million gallons of sewage in recent 
years and is due to the treatment of the iron doses. The resulting sludge from 
the treatment of these doses is light and flocculent and decreases in volume by 
compacting or standing. The actual quantity of dry solids per million gallons 
of sewage was 1.24 tons. 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 335 

It was impossible to press all the sludge produced by chemical precipitation 
and 4,950,000 gallons, containing 1,251 tons of dry solids, were pujnped on to 
the old sludge beds. The remainder of the sludge, 18,397,000 gallons, was 
pumped to the storage basins, 3,164,000 gallons of clear water drawn off, and the 
remaining sludge pressed. There has been hauled to the dump by the trolley 
motor car 16,973 tons of cake, containing 4,8S7 tons of dry solid matter. The 
farmers continue to haul about 3,500 to 4,000 tons each year. 

During each winter it is necessary to remove from the six roughing basins 
of our chemical precipitation plant the accumulation of refuse which has come 
from the milk of lime tanlcs, consisting principally of sand, unburnt lime and a 
small proportion of sludge. In February 651 cubic j^ards of tliis refuse were 
removed at a cost of $410.04, representing 63 cents per cubic yard. The first 
two basins retained about five-ninths of the total quantity. 

The effluent from chemical precipitation is of slightly improved qualit}^ over 
that of last year. The removal of total organic matter, measured by albuminoid 
ammonia is 41.64 per cent.; of suspended organic matter, 76.56 per cent.; both 
figures are slightly greater than those of last year. 

The total cost of the operation of these works in the year 1915 is 
given in the report as follows: — 



Total. 



Per Million 
Gallons. 



Cost of chenaical precipitation, 
Sludge pressing. 

Total 



823,127 39 
19,223 78 



S5 29 
4 93 



542,351 17 



SIO 22 



' The Worcester sewage contains much iron, which is an advantage in this treatment. 

The cost includes a portion of the amount expended for the main- 
tenance of a laboratory in connection with the operation of these works. 

The sewage is delivered to the precipitation works by gravity, and 
the effluent is discharged also by gravity into the Blackstone River. 
It will be seen that under efficient operation by experts at the city 
of Worcester the total removal of organic matter from the sewage is 
only about 40 per cent., and of the suspended organic matter about 
75 per cent. The effluent from such a works is capable of causing ob- 
jectionable conditions if discharged into most of the rivers of the State, 
but where an adequate quantity of water for its proper dilution is 
available at all times and where the danger of the organic matter 
causing a nuisance upon neighboring shores or flats exposed by the 
tide can be avoided, this method is permissible. 



336 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Filtration. 

The second general method of sewage disposal is that of filtration, 
or bacterial treatment sometimes so called, and at the end of 1915 
there were 34 cities and towns in the State having an aggregate popu- 
lation of about 538,000 which had provided works for the filtration 
of a part or all of their sewage. This treatment is effected in a variety 
of ways, the principle being practically the same in each. Two gereral 
methods of applying this treatment have been found successful in 
actual practice in the disposal of sewage in Massachusetts communi- 
ties. The first of these methods, and the one which has been longest 
in use, is intermittent filtration of the sewage through beds of sand or 
gravel, a method which has been found most efficient and satisfactory 
for the purification of the sewage of most of the cities and towns 
mentioned in the appended tables. This method is used for the dis- 
posal of part cf the sewage of the city of Worcester where upon 72.6 
acres of filter beds constructed of sand and gravel a quantity of 
sewage amounting to an average of 4,459,000 gallons per day was 
treated during the year 1915. The total cost of these filters, not in- 
cluding land, was about $4,300 per acre. The total cost of mainte- 
nance in the year 1915 was $17,988.90, or about $11.06 per million 
gallons of sewage treated. The rate of operation was about 61,000 
gallons per acre per day. 

Another large works in which this method is also used for the 
purification of the sewage is that of the city of Brockton, where a 
large part of the sewage amounting to an average of 1,449,000 gallons 
per day is treated on an extensive area composed of sand and gravel 
suitable for the purpose. The total cost of these filters, not including 
land, was about $3,500 per acre, and the cost of maintenance in the 
year 1915 was $10.20 per million gallons. The rate of operation of 
these filters was about 48,000 gallons per acre per day. 

It is no doubt practicable with such a system of treatment to reduce 
the area of filters required by preliminary treatment of the sewage in 
sedimentation tanks, though no material saving in expense is likely 
to be effected by any practicable preliminary treatment, nor is it 
likely that a very material reduction in the area of the filters, even in 
the beginning, would be effected thereby. 

In some cases objectionable odors arising from the sludge removed 
from the settling tanks have led to the abandonment of the settling 
tanks. At three of the sewage-disposal works, namely, Attleboro, 
Spencer and Westborough, the sewage is discharged on to the filter 
beds without preliminary treatment, and at Worcester the portion 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 337 

of the sewage treated by the sand filters receives very little treat- 
ment previous to filtration. At Brockton, Clinton, Concord, Framing- 
ham, Marion, Natick and Pittsfield reservoirs are provided from 
which the sewage is pumped to the filter beds. Formerly the heavier 
matters settling out in these reservoirs were pumped to beds set apart 
for the purpose, but now, with the exception of one or two of these 
places, the sludge is distributed over the various filters with the 
sewage. When the heavier suspended matters are not removed by 
settling tanks the work of cleaning the filter beds is somewhat in- 
creased, but the objectionable features, due to the disposal of sludge, 
are considerably reduced. 

The second method of filtration is known as the sprinkling or trick- 
ling filter and consists in applying the sewage in a fine ^ray at fre- 
quent intervals to filters 5 to 10 feet in depth composed of broken 
stone with a diameter usually of 1 to 3 inches. The sewage is com- 
monly first treated for sedimentation, sometimes in two-story sedi- 
mentation tanks known as Imhoff tanks, and the effluent also requires 
treatment in settling tanks for the removal of suspended matters 
therefrom. The results of the operation of such filters show that they 
are less effective in the purification of sewage than intermittent sand 
filters, but a suflScient degree of purification can be effected by this 
method of filtration to render the effluent satisfactory, provided it is 
subsequently diluted in an adequate body of water. Such works have 
recently been constructed in the cities of Fitchburg and Brockton, and 
in the former city have been in operation for about a year, treating an 
average of about 2,000,000 gallons per day. These works have cost 
thus far about $321,000 and have an estimated capacity for filtering 
5,000,000 gallons of sewage per day, while the tanks have sufiicient 
capacity for treating effectively about 6,800,000 gallons per day. 
The total area of filters in use is 2.14 acres. The tanks are of the 
Imhoff design and afforded a period of sedimentation with the flow 
measured in 1915 of about two and three-quari;ers hours. These 
tanks were partially reconstructed during the year, but the operation 
of the trickling filter has presented no difficulty. The cost of operation 
thus far has been about $11.50 per million gallons. 

One of the objections to this method of disposing of sewage, as in 
the case of other treatment works, is the difficulty of securing a loca- 
tion for the works where danger of a nuisance can be avoided. The 
operation of the trickling filters at both Brockton and Fitchburg has 
been attended by offensive odors, but at Brockton — due to the fact 
that the filter is largely surrounded by a thick growth of trees — these 
odors have not been noticeable in any populated neighborhood. 



338 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



The Activated Sludge Method of Sewage Disposal. 

In the course of the experimental work at the Lawrence Experiment 
Station, Mr. H. W. Clark, chemist of the State Department of Health, 
began in 1912 experiments upon the treatment of sewage with growths 
of organisms and aeration. This work is described in the annual 
report of the State Board of Health for the j^ear 1912, and in sub- 
sequent reports. 

These experiments have been continued and have been taken up and 
further developed both at Lawrence and elsewhere in this country and 
abroad. The results of the experiments thus far made indicate that 
by aerating sewage in tanks designed for the purpose containing 
sludge, the sewage, after the sludge in the tanks becomes seeded with 
the necessary organisms, can within a few hours under favorable con- 
ditions be purified apparently nearly to the degree of purification 
effected by trickling filters. The experiments indicate, furthermore, 
that the process can be carried on at such rates that this method may 
be a practicable one for the treatment of the sewage of cities and 
towns. The process is still in its experimental stage, however, and 
awaits the tests of practical experience on a considerable scale. So far 
as the experiments show, a very considerable area of tanks would be 
required for the treatment of any large quantity' of sewage, and a large 
quantity of air would be required in the process. It is impracticable 
at the present time to indicate with certainty whether or not serious 
odors will attend this process. There seems danger, however, that 
considerable odor may arise from such works in view of the large 
quantities of air that must be passed through the sewage. 

Screening. 

Coarse screens or racks are commonly employed in connection with 
sewage-disposal works, especially where the sewage is pumped or 
where it passes through siphons or tunnels, for the purpose of remov- 
ing larger objects which might injure pumping machinery or obstruct 
pipes or conduits. Such screen? are usually constructed of bars set 
from half an inch to an inch apart and intercept only the larger 
objects floating in the sewage, including small amounts of paper, 
rags, etc. 

Fine screening, on the other hand, is a method of sewage treatment 
designed to remove the smaller organic particles in suspension and 
thus reduce the quantity of organic matter in the sewage. The screen- 
ing of sewage for this purpose is carried on at a number of works in 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 339 

this country and at numerous works abroad, commonly in connection 
with a further process of sewage treatment. In Massachusetts this 
method is employed at Brockton in connection with sewage disposal 
works there for the removal of a part of the suspended organic matter 
from the sewage before its application to the filters. 

The efficiency of screens appears to depend to a considerable extent 
upon the character of the sewage treated, and their effect is appar- 
ently much the same as that of sedimentation when treating sewages 
of the character commonly discharged from cities and towns in Massa- 
chusetts. The method has certain advantages which may make its 
employment desirable, especially in cases where the removal of the 
larger particles of suspended organic matter from sewage is desirable, 
as, for example, before the discharge of fresh sewage into a river or 
waterway having an adequate fiow for the proper dilution of the 
sewage. 

Disinfection. 

The disinfection of sewage for the purpose of destroying disease 
germs by the introduction of a chemical such as hypochlorite of 
lime is practised at some of the disposal works in this country and 
abroad, though there is no case in which the sewage or effluent from 
an existing works in Massachusetts is treated in this way. It is 
practicable by treating well-clarified sewage effluents to reduce very 
greatly the number of bacteria contained therein, and the method 
may be employed to advantage where the effluent is discharged into 
waters subsequently used for water-supply purposes or into waters 
in which shellfish are grown. Its efficiency in the treatment of raw 
sewage containing considerable quantities of suspended matter is com- 
monly of little practical value, and its advantages are most valuable in 
the further improvement of effluents from treatment works where a 
high degree of purification of the sewage is desirable. 

Detailed information regarding the more important sewage filtration 
works will be found after the discussion of the next method of sewage 
disposal. 

Disposal by Dilution. 
The disposal of sewage by dilution is a method commonly em- 
ployed by cities and towns in Massachusetts situated on the larger 
rivers or bordering upon the sea. A description of the various sea 
outlets now in use, of the circumstances affecting these outlets, and the 
results obtained at each is given below. 



340 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Boston Main Drainage Outlet. 

The oldest of the important modern sewer outlets through which 
large quantities of sewage are discharged into the sea is the Moon 
Island outlet of the main drainage system of the city of Boston, com- 
pleted and first put in operation in January, 1884. 

The sewers of the city of Boston were constructed originally upon 
the combined plan receiving both sewage and storm water, and the 
sewage was discharged originally at numerous outlets into the harbor 
and other waters about the city where it produced most objectionable 
conditions. It was impracticable to convey all of the flow of the 
sewers to a suitable place of disposal, and when the main drainage 
works, so called, were designed, of which the Moon Island outlet is a 
part, provision was made for taking all of the dry-weather flow of 
the various sewers, together with a quantity of storm water equivalent 
to about one-fourth of an inch of rain in twenty-four hours over the 
area drained by the sewers. This arrangement was not applied equally 
throughout the district, however, since there were certain low areas 
in the southern part of the city subject to flooding at times of heavy 
rain when the tide was high, and provision was made in the design for 
favoring these low areas by taking a greater proportion of the flow of 
storm water therefrom and a smaller quantity from the higher districts, 
thus relieving to some extent the flooding of streets and buildings in 
the lower sections of the city. 

For several years after the construction of the works the area tribu- 
tary to the main drainage system included only that portion of the city 
of Boston lying south of Charles River. The design provided, however, 
for the admission of sewage temporarily from neighboring areas and 
for the subsequent construction of a system of intercepting sewers at a 
higher level to relieve the main drainage works when the capacity of 
the latter had been reached. In 1892, upon the completion of the 
Charles River valley sewer, sewage from the cities of Waltham and- 
Newton, the towns of Brookline and Watertown, and the Brighton 
district of the city of Boston was discharged into the main drainage 
system, and still later, by the completion of a sewer in the Neponset 
valley, sewage was brought to the Moon Island outlet from the towns 
of Dedham, Hyde Park and Milton. In the districts added to the 
main drainage system outside the city of Boston the sewers had been 
constructed on the separate plan and storm water was excluded, but 
the addition of considerable quantities of sewage reduced the capacity 
of the main drainage system for the removal of storm water from areas 
sewered on the combined plan in the city of Boston and caused the 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 341 

discharge of large quantities of mingled sewage and storm water into 
local waters. 

In 1904 the high-level sewerage system was completed and the sew- 
age of the Charles and Neponset river valleys, including also the sewage 
of the high levels in the West Roxbury and Dorchester districts of the 
city of Boston, was removed to a new outlet known as the Nut Island 
outlet, near Peddocks Island in Boston Harbor, and the conditions 
affecting the Moon Island outlet were restored as contemplated in the 
original design. In more recent years it has been found necessary, in 
order to prevent the excessive pollution of local waters, to separate the 
sewage from the storm water in the territory tributary to the Charles 
River within the limits of the city, and further provision has been 
made for the relief of the low areas in the southern districts by pump- 
ing the mingled sewage and storm water into the harbor at times of 
heavy rain. In consequence of these changes there has been con- 
siderable variation in the quantity of sewage delivered at the Moon 
Island outlet, the maximum quantity having been reached just pre- 
vious to the completion of the high-level sewer in 1904. 

The average quantity of sewage discharged at the Moon Island out- 
let amounts at the present time to about 100,000,000 gallons per day. 
The sewage of the intercepting sewers is all delivered at a pumping 
station at Calf Pasture, where it is elevated several feet to deposit 
sewers, so called, which are small settling tanks designed for the sedi- 
mentation of sand and other heavy matters, and is then conveyed 
through a tunnel beneath Dorchester Bay to reservoirs at Moon 
Island, whence it is discharged into the sea, generally in the first two 
hours of the outgoing tide. In consequence of its slow passage through 
the intercepting sewers and the deposit sewers at Calf Pasture and 
its storage in the reservoirs at Moon Island previous to discharge, the 
sewage becomes considerably decomposed and putrefied when it reaches 
the outlet and has a more offensive odor than that of fresh sewage. 

The sewer outlet at Moon Island is located at the northerly 
corner of the island, and the sewage is discharged at the level of the 
water. The sewage passes out of the harbor chiefly between Long and 
Rainsford islands and after each discharge becomes thoroughly mingled 
with the water of the sea and does not return on the incoming tide. 

Numerous chemical analyses have been made from time to time of the 
sewage discharged at this outlet and of the waters of the harbor in the 
region through which the sewage flows, the results of which show that 
the sewage, while becoming diluted quite rapidly, has a tendency 
to float away from the outlet upon the surface of the water in a 
shallow layer, which on the whole, however, notwithstanding the 
great quantity of sewage discharged, amounting to about 25,000,000 



342 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



gallons per hour, mingles quickly with the water and is usually dis- 
persed within an hour after the discharge has ceased. 

The following table shows the results of analyses of samples of the 
sewage and of the sea water within about 1,000 feet of the outlet 
before and during a discharge in August, 1915: — 







Parts in 100,000. 


















Bacteria 










1 






Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


ALBUMINOID AMMONIA. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 




Total. 


In Solu- 
tion. 


In Sus- 
pension. 


Moon Island Wharf, before discharge, . 


.0175 


.0175 


.0130 


.0045 


1,620.0 


- 


Sewage flowing from Moon Island reser- 
voirs. 
600 feet off gate house, surface, 


2.4700 
.5600 


.9590 
.3760 


.3490 

.0680 


.6100 
.3080 


272.0 
1,260.0 


100,800 


600 feet off gate house, 20 feet below 

surface. 
At farther limit of sewage field, 1,000 feet 

from outlet. 


.0450 
.2130 


.0490 
.1350 


.0275 
.0590 


.0215 
.0760 


1,590.0 
1,570.0 


28,000 
144,000' 



The foregoing samples are probably fairly representative of the 
conditions at this outlet. As the sewage field moves away from the 
outlet it passes chiefly around the southerly end of Long Island and 
continues toward the sea in a northeasterly direction, chiefly between 
Long and Rainsford islands. On calm days the sewage greatly dis- 
colors the water for a distance of from half a mile to a mile from the 
outlet and remains for a time upon the surface of the sea, which is 
covered with a greasy fllm. This film is very thin and usually extends 
well beyond the area otherwise affected by the sewage. The area 
covered by the sewage or in which sewage is recognizable varies 
greatly with the condition of the sea. On very calm days the area 
affected is extensive, covering 600 to 700 acres of the harbor surface 
between Moon, Long and Rainsford islands. Under ordinary condi- 
tions, however, the area visibly affected by the sewage is smaller, and 
when a considerable wind is blowing the area in which the sewage is 
noticeable is much less than in calm weather. 

Under ordinary conditions the sewage mingles rapidly with the 
water and quickly ceases to be recognizable after the discharge has 
ceased. Analyses of the water of the harbor through which this sewage 
is discharged twice daily show that its effect rapidly disappears and 
that the sewage does not return on the incoming tide. Analyses of 
the water from various stations in different parts of the area over 
which this sewage flows twice daily are given in the following table, 
the location of the stations at which the samples were taken being, 
shown on the chart which follows the table: — 



No. 34.] 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



343 



^ 



CO 



cq 









'J? 


'. . 


ii 


o 






-S' 


H 


Cn 


S 


B 









^ 
























« 


9s 




1 1 


1 


1 


o 


1 


o 


1 


O 


1 




J» 


















c 






PS ^ 


S 


icT 








M 




" 










e. s 


OJ 


























< 














































B^ 


1 


o 


1 1 


1 


1 


o 


1 


o 


1 


o 


o 




^S 


s 












o 




o 
oo 


o 




« a 


o 






















O 


CQ 


o 


























^ 




























o 
^ 


o 








o 




o 




o 










o 








o 




o 


' 


in 


' 










i" 








t^ 




















t^ 








t* 








r^ 








H 


<M 


._r 












^ 












2 


< 


























S 

o 


















































6 


o 


O O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






5 


a 


o 


M lO 


o 


s 


o 


U5 


in 


in 


o 


o 










— >n 


CO 




»o 




■^ 




K 












t^ t~ 


-^ 


t^ 






t~ 


S 


i^ 










3 


^ 


t-h' »-7 


^ 


^ 


^ 


7 








~ 








m 




























^ 




























<u 


J? 








in 




in 




o 




o 






IB 


t>. 








t-~ 




m 




CO 








O 


N 




















O 

o 




a 


o 


1 1 


1 


1 


o 


1 


o 


1 


o 


1 


§ 




° i 
5S 


M 






















^ 




< 






















g 




















































m 




a s 


i 


o 


O lO 


o 


>o 


o 


»o 


in 


in 


in 


o 


<• 








o o 


o 


o 


o 
o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


PL, 


































-*i 




























o 


U5 








o 




M 




o 










a> 


























< 


fa 


S 








(M 








cs 










o 








o 




O 




c= 










o 




1 1 


1 


1 




t 




1 










Z 




























o 


^ 


























s 


««J 


























s 




























■<! 




























fa 
m 




o 


O 1--5 


o 


*o 


X5 


X5 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


O 05 


CO 


•o 


-^ 


o 


o 


CO 


•* 


CJ 






<M 


r^ T-H 


lO 




C^ 


PO 


« 


<M 










pj 




o o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






b 


CO 


"^ 


^__^ 


. ^ 


, 
















a> 




^ 


o 


o 




^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 












o 


o 






o 




o 


o 








^ 




CJ 






<M 




CO 


in 






) 






























■* 




o 


00 




in 


oo 


m 




i 






























. 


^ 




















■* 


n cq 


t^ 


CO 




OS 




Oi 


c^ 


CO 






M 


o o 


n 


o 


■* 


o 






C<I 


S 




a t. c3 
















CO 




CO 


eo 




g|^ 


























"s 






> — ^ — ■ 


• — ^ 


— • 
















^ 


























o 




















































H 


























-<; 


























H 


























»M 




































S«5 




1.-5 




5' 


IM 


Tj* 


■<j* 



344 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

From this table it will be seen that at station 31, located 400 feet 
from the outlet, the surface of the sea was covered with sewage prac- 
tically in an undiluted condition. At station 3, a distance of 4,200 
feet from the outlet, two hours after the sewage was discharged, that 
is, at about the end of the discharge, the quantity of sewage in the 
water, as indicated by the albuminoid ammonia, was 24 per cent., 
and as indicated by the free ammonia about 41 per cent., of the 
amount found at station 31, located 400 feet from the outlet. At 
station 15, a distance of 8,200 feet from the outlet, the organic matter 
present in the sea water, as shown by the free and albuminoid am- 
monia, is no greater than the average of the harbor waters in the 
inner parts of the harbor. 

During the period when the sea is covered with sewage from this 
outlet the odor is objectionable when sailing through the sewage field, 
and this condition prevails for a period of two to three hours on each 
tide. During the summer season temporary deposits of sludge from 
the sewage take place along the wall adjacent to the sewer outlet, 
but these deposits are carried away by the winter storms. There is no 
evidence that matters from the sewage tend to accumulate upon the 
bottom of the harbor or the adjacent shores in this region, except the 
temporary deposits already referred to, caused by the eddying of the 
sewage against the long wall at the easterly end of Moon Island. 

So far as can be judged from numerous careful examinations, the 
•conditions about this outlet have shown no noticeable change since 
the works were first established thirty-two years ago. The pollution 
of a considerable area of the sea to such an extent as to be offensive 
to sight and smell, as happens in the neighborhood of this outlet at 
the time the sewage is discharged, especially on calm days, is objec- 
tionable, and no doubt the objections to this condition will increase 
with the rapidly increasing use of the harbor as a place of recreation 
in the summer season and the undoubtedly increasing attention that 
is paid by the public to objectionable conditions caused by offensive 
odors. 

Before the outlet was constructed careful observations of the tidal 
currents were made by means of floats and the probable course taken 
by the sewage ascertained as carefully as practicable. The actual 
results have shown the accuracy of the conclusions drawn from the 
preliminary tests. The outlet represents the first important works 
constructed in Massachusetts to dispose of large quantities of sewage 
by dilution in the water of the sea. 



No. 34.1 METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 345 



North Metropolitan Sewer Outlet. 
The next important sewer outlet constructed for the disposal of 
sewage into the sea is that of the north metropolitan sewerage system, 
designed in 1889 and put in operation early in 1894. This outlet is 
tocated near the Deer Island beacon at the northerly side of the en- 
trance to Boston Harbor, and the sewage is discharged at about the 
level of low water. The sewage brought to this outlet is collected from 
the cities and towns of Arlington, Belmont, Lexington, Woburn, 
Winchester, Wakefield, Stoneham, Melrose, Maiden, Everett, Medford, 
Somerville, Cambridge, Revere and Winthrop, and the Charlestown 
and East Boston districts of the city of Boston. The sewers in most 
of the cities and towns of the north metropolitan sewerage district 
are constructed upon the separate plan, but the sewers in the older 
sections of the district, especially in Cambridge, Somerville, Chelsea, 
and the Charlestown and East Boston districts of Boston, are con- 
structed upon the combined plan and receive both sewage and storm 
water. In this case, as in Boston, the dry-weather flow of sewage and 
a certain portion of storm water are admitted to the system, and 
the remainder of the flow at times of storm is discharged into local 
waters. 

In the course of the investigations relative to the disposal of the 
sewage of the north metropolitan system, careful studies were made 
of the volume and movement of the tides near the outer end of Deer 
Island, the results showing that a much larger volume of water would 
be available at this point for the dilution of the sewage than is the 
case at Moon Island and that the velocity of flow of tidal currents is 
considerably greater than in the smaller channel into which the Moon 
Island sewage is discharged. 

As a result of these studies the conclusion was reached that the 
sewage could be discharged to advantage at all stages of the tide with 
less effect upon the waters of the harbor than if large quantities were 
discharged at one time, and the plan selected provided for continu- 
ous discharge at all stages of the tide. The actual results obtained by 
this method of sewage disposal corresponded to the conclusions reached 
as the result of the careful preliminary investigations. The sewage 
brought to this outlet is discharged as it comes, without storage at any 
point. There are several pumping stations along the line of the main 
sewer and its tributaries, and while the flow is continuous, on account of 
the great length of the system, a part of the sewage is many hours in 
reaching the outlet. The sewers of this system receive large quantities 
of manufacturing waste from tanneries, rendering works and other estab- 



346 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

lishments, and the total quantity of sewage discharged in the year 
1915 amounted to 60,300,000 gallons per day, or about 111 gallons per 
person connected with the sewers, the total population connected with 
the sewers amounting to 542,575. On the incoming tide the sewage 
flows toward the harbor and is noticeable under most favorable con- 
ditions for somewhat more than half a mile from the outlet. Toward 
high tide the sewage can be detected in the water on fairly calm days 
for a distance of three-quarters of a mile, and the oily film known as 
"sleek" is usually observable over a larger area. During the outgoing 
tide the sewage flows directly to sea and is detectable at about the 
same distances as on the incoming tide, though in a somewhat narrower 
area. As the quantity of sewage discharged at this point increased 
it covered a larger area of the sea and was noticeable at times on 
vessels passing into and out of the harbor and became objectionable 
to the keepers of the light. It has been decided to extend this outlet 
to deep water, which is reached within a short distance of the present 
outlet, and the works for this extension are already under construction. 

Salem and Peabody. 

Following the installation of the outlet of the north metropolitan 
sewerage system at Deer Island, works were designed for the disposal 
of the sewage of Salem and Peabody into Salem Harbor near Great 
Haste Island. These works were designed in 1895 but were not con- 
structed until 1906. The average quantity of sewage discharged at 
this outlet in 1915 was 7,560,000 gallons per day. The outlet is lo- 
cated at a point in Salem Harbor where the depth of water is 7 feet 
at low tide, and the sewage is discharged continuously at the approxi- 
mate rate at which it is received at the pumping station, the average 
rate of discharge consequently being a little over 300,000 gallons per 
hour. 

The effect of the discharge of sewage at this outlet has been observed 
from time to time since it was first used, and samples of the water 
of Salem Harbor in the neighborhood of the outlet and elsewhere have 
been analyzed from time to time. An examination of this outlet in 
1915 shows that the area of the sea visibly affected by the sewage 
varies greatly with different conditions of wind and tide. With winds 
of considerable velocity the area affected is limited to less than 1,000 
feet from the outlet, while in very calm days the sewage is noticeable 
for a maximum distance of half a mile, though the thin oily film 
known as "sleek" is noticeable for greater distances. 

There is no doubt that the outlet could be greatly improved and 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 347 

the area of the sea affected by the sewage very materially diminished 
if the outlet were extended to deep water, which can be reached at 
no great distance beyond its present location. 



The Disposal of Sewage from the South Metropolitan System 
INTO THE Sea North of Peddocks Island. 

The sewage disposal works of the south metropolitan system were 
designed in 1899-1900 and completed in 1904. The system receives 
the sewage of the cities and towns in the Charles and Neponset river 
valleys formerly tributary to the Boston main drainage system, the 
sewage of the higher districts in the southerly part of the city of 
Boston, and the sewage of the city of Quincy. The estimated popu- 
lation connected with the sewers in this system in 1915 was 300,435, 
and the total quantity of sewage discharged during the year 1915 was 
52,300,000 gallons per day, or 174 gallons per person connected with 
the sewers. The main sewer operates wholly by gravity, but the sew- 
age of the Charles River valley district, and of a portion of the Back 
Bay district of the city of Boston tributary to this system, is pumped 
into the upper end of the high-level sewer at Roxbury. A part of the 
sewage of Quincy also is pumped into the main sewer in that city. 
The sewer terminates at Nut Island, whence two pipes are laid be- 
neath the bottom of the sea to outlets into the deep channel known as 
Nantasket Roads in the southerly part of Boston Harbor, one outlet 
being located 1 mile north of Nut Island and the other 1,500 feet 
easterly therefrom. The depth of water over the westerly outlet at 
low tide is 27 feet and over the easterly outlet 30 feet. 

In the course of the studies which led to the selection of these out- 
lets the experience acquired in the disposal of sewage at the sewer 
outlets already described was carefully considered, especially the rapid 
disappearance of the sewage when thoroughly diffused in' water, and 
the outlets were placed at the bottom of the sea at a point where 
a large quantity of water is available for dilution at all times in order 
to secure a greater diffusion of the sewage than takes place where the 
outlet is located near the surface of the sea. The results of the dis- 
charge of sewage at these outlets show the great advantages in the 
dilution of the sewage obtained where the discharge takes place at a 
considerable depth as compared with discharge near the surface of the 
sea. In order to determine the degree of dilution of the sewage that 
takes place before it reaches the surface and the condition of the sea 
water immediately over the outlets, samples of water were taken very 
carefully immediately over the outlet in use at different times in the 



348 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



past year. In the first test, made on Aug. 25, 1915, samples were 
collected from a tug when passing immediately over the outlet. The 
results of the analyses show that the quantity of free and albuminoid 
ammonia present in the water at this time amounted to about 5 per 
cent, of that found in the sewage, while the maximum number of 
bacteria was less than 2 per cent, of the number present in the sewage. 
It was found, moreover, at this time that the effect of the sewage upon 
the sea water near the outlet diminished with very great rapidity as 
the distance from the outlet increased, and later on additional samples 
were taken with the aid of rowboats immediately over the outlet 
itself. 

The results of these tests with analyses of the sewage flowing from 
the sewer at this time, together with samples taken at different depths, 
are shown in the following table: — 



Table showing Analyses of the Sewage and of the Water immediately over the Nut 
Island Sewer Outlet, Oct. IJf, 1915. 







Parts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 


















Hour 

A.M. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


ALBUMINOID AMMONIA. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 




Total. 


In Solu- 
tion. 


In Sus- 
pension. 


Sewage, .... 


8.30 


1.7600 


.4500 


.1400 


.3100 


53.5 


610,000 


Surface over outlet. 


9.13 


.1440 


.0590 


.0280 


.0310 


1.560.0 


316,800 


Surface over outlet, 


9.33 


.1950 


.0725 


.0305 


.0420 


1,620.0 


290,400 


Surface over outlet. 


9.53 


.2400 


.0770 


.0385 


.0385 


1,540.0 


277,200 


Surface over outlet, 


10.13 


.1220 


.0550 


.0235 


.0315 


1,570.0 


38,200 


10 feet below surface, . 


10.20 


.0750 


.0340 


- 


- 


1,650.0 


25,080 


20 feet below surface, . 


10.25 


.0480 


.0175 


- 


- 


1,690.0 


- 



In the above tests the maximum amount of albuminoid ammonia 
found in any of the samples collected immediately above the outlet 
was 14 per cent, of the amount present in the sewage, while the aver- 
age quantity of free ammonia obtained in the surface samples was 10 
per cent, of the amount found in the sewage. The maximum amount 
of free ammonia found in any sample was 17 per cent, of that of the 
sewage, and the average amount 14 per cent. 

Samples were collected at the same time in the line in which sewage 
was flowing from the outlet and at various distances therefrom. The 
average results of the analyses of several samples at each station are 
shown in the following tables: — 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



349 



Samples of Harbor Water collected in Path taken hxj the Sewage from the Nut 

Island Outlet. 







Hours 

after 

Release 

of Floats. 


Miles 

from 

Outlet. 


Feet 

from 

Outlet. 


Parts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 
per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


Station. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 

Am- 
monia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Screen house (sewage), . 


- 


- 


- 


1.7600 


.4500 


53.5 


610,000 


A (at outlet), . 




- 


- 


- 


.1753 


.0659 


1,572.5 


230,650 


B 




0.50 


0.04 


200 


.0555 


.0210 


1,670.0 


26,080 


C 




1.00 


0.05 


260 


.0242 


.0165 


1,710.0 


525 


D 




1.50 


0.27 


1,400 


.0330 


.0177 


1,765.0 


46,220 


E 




2.62 


0.47 


2,500 


.0165 


.0145 


1,720.0 


850 


G 




2.87 


0.66 


3,500 


.0130 


.0140 


1,730.0 


180 



Samples of Harbor Water collected from Points outside Path of Seioage from the 

Nut Island Outlet. 





Hours 

after 

Release 

of Floats. 


Miles 

from 

Outlet. 


Feet 

from 

Outlet. 


Parts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 
per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


Station. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 

Am- 
monia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


F 

H 

I 

J 


2.70 
2.95 
3.12 
3.28 


0.82 
0.43 
0.23 
0.28 


4,300 
2,300 
1,200 
1,500 


.0100 
.0170 
.0120 
.0115 


.0175 
.0115 
.0095 
.0130 


1.740.0 
1,720.0 
1,740.0 
1,750.0 


700 

4,800 

130 

400 



It will be noted that in the sample collected at Station D, 1,400 
feet from the outlet, the amount of free ammonia represents less than 
2 per cent, and the amount of albuminoid ammonia 4 per cent, of the 
quantity present in the sewage. 

The remaining samples collected at greater distances show the pres- 
ence of very much smaller quantities of organic matter, and numerous 
examinations along the path which this sewage takes, determined with 
the aid of floats and at various times, fail to show a quantity of free 
ammonia exceeding 0.0170 parts in 100,000 or an amount of albumi- 
noid ammonia exceeding 0.0175 parts in 100,000. A comparison of the 
analyses of harbor waters in the immediate neighborhood of this outlet 



350 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



and along the course followed by the sewage with waters in other parts 
of the harbor shows that, except within a distance of about 1,400 feet 
from the outlet, the quantity of free and albuminoid ammonia in the 
water is no greater at the surface of the harbor and at points 20 feet 
below the surface than is found in the harbor waters at points far 
removed from sewer outlets. 

Samples of Harbor Waters collected at Points remote from Seirer Outlets. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 





Free Ammonia. 


Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 




Surface. 


Twenty 
Feet 
below 

Surface. 


Surface. 


Twenty 
Feet 
below 

Surface. 


Hingham Bay, 

In the outer channels of harbor along a line running approx- 
imately northwest from Point Allerton. 
Off Outer Brewster Island 

Ocean off East Point, Nahant 


.0159 
.0178 
.0065 
.0060 


.0169 
.0132 
.0115 


.0137 
.0160 
.0120 
.0135 


.0141 
.0160 
.0165 



The total number of bacteria found in the sample of sea water col- 
lected off Nahant was 300 per cubic centimeter. Samples taken from 
the sea several miles beyond Outer Brewster Island on the incoming 
tide indicate that the quantity of free ammonia in the water of the sea 
many miles from the coast is 0.0025 of a part in 100,000 and the 
bacteria 25 per cubic centimeter. 

Comparisons of the foregoing tests show very clearly that the waters 
of the harbor generally are higher in bacteria and in organic matter, 
as shown by the free and albuminoid ammonia, than the waters of 
the sea, a condition which is inevitable in view of the large quantity 
of waste matter that must find its way into the waters near the coast, 
not only from sewer outlets but from the sewage and waste from 
vessels, and especially from rivers and other waters flowing into the 
sea from populous areas such as those which surround Boston Harbor. 
The examination of the sea beyond a distance of 1,400 feet from the 
Nut Island outlet at the time the recent test was made failed to show 
any sewage matter or other effect objectionable to the senses. Further- 
more, the analyses of the water in the region beyond this limit, when 
compared with waters along the beaches used by large numbers of 
bathers in the summer season, indicate that, so far as pollution goes 
or any visible effect of the sewage, the condition of the harbor water 
was better beyond a distance of 1,400 feet from this sewer outlet than 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



351 



the waters used by large numbers of bathers at the beach resorts near 
the city. 

A comparison of the results of analyses of the waters from different 
bathing beaches with the analyses of waters about the Nut Island 
sewer outlet at the time of the test in October last is shown in the fol- 
lowing table: — 

Table showing Comparison of Analyses of Sea Water off the Nut Island Outlet with 

Sea Water at Popular Beaches. 

Nut Island Outlet. 



Distance from Outlet. 


Free Ammonia 
(Parts in 100,000). 


Bacteria 


Miles. 


Feet. 


Cper Cubic Centimeter). 


0.47 
0.65 


2,500 
3,500 


.0165 
.0130 


850 
180 



Samples collected at the Surface of the Sea at Various Points in Front of Bathhouse at 

Nahant Beach, i 





Free 
Ammonia 
(Parts in 
100,000). 


Bacteria 

(per Cubic 

Centimeter). 


B. CoLi.2 


Analysis 
Number. 


0.1 Cubic 

Cen- 
timeter. 


1.0 Cubic 

Cen- 
timeter. 


10.0 Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


100 Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


124963 
124964 
124965 
124966 
124967 


.0500 
.0200 
.0100 
.0720 
.0145 


200 
101 
100 
432 
500 
















+s 



+ 
+ 


+3 



+s 
+ 
+ 



Samples from Surf along Revere Beach, July 18, 1915. 



124968 


.0520 


1,200 


+s 


+s 


+ 


+ 


124969 


.0590 


3,700 





+3 


+ 


+3 


124970 


.0550 


2,100 





+ 


+ 


+ 


124971 


.0570 


2,400 





+ 


+3 


+ 


124972 


.0490 


1,500 


+3 


+3 


+ 


+ 


124973 


.0380 


2,200 





+ 


+ 


+ 


124974 


.0280 


5,600 





+ 


+s 


+ 


124975 


.0115 


7,900 





+ 


+ 


+ 



1 Samples collected on July 18, 1915, with large numbers of bathers along the beach. 

2 -t- signifies presence of B. coli. s signifies presence of sewage streptococcus. 



352 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The samples generally were collected about 100 feet from shore, 
but sample 124975 was collected 600 feet from shore and beyond the 
line of bathers, these samples being taken at about high tide. 

The appearance and the general condition of the water at these 
bathing beaches were not objectionable at the time these samples were 
collected, though a marine growth (Cladophora) was present in a con- 
siderable quantity in the water along the Nahant Beach. The results 
show clearly that the waters at the surface of the harbor are not 
affected in the neighborhood of the sewer outlets at Nut Island by the 
ordinary quantity of sewage discharged there in such a way as to be 
noticeable or even detectable by chemical analysis beyond a limit of 
less than half a mile in the region immediately about the outlet itself. 
These examinations were made when the rate of discharge was ap- 
proximately 1,380,000 gallons per hour and when the depth of water 
over the outlet was about 30 feet. 

Other Deep-sea Outlets. 

In view of the very satisfactory results obtained from the discharge 
of sewage into deep water north of Nut Island, this practice has been 
followed in the construction of new outlets into the sea since that time 
at Swampscott, New Bedford and Manchester. 

At Swampscott the sewage is discharged at a point where the 
depth of water at low tide is approximately 50 feet, and while the 
average quantity of sewage discharged at this outlet amounts only to 
about 1,000,000 gallons per day, the sewage in this case is stored in a 
reservoir before discharge, so that it has been practicable, by storing 
the sewage as long as jpossible, to obtain a rate of discharge at this 
outlet amounting to 3,100,000 gallons per day for a period of one and 
one-quarter hours. The results of this test were similar to the experi- 
ence at Nut Island. Observations about the outlet during this period 
show that the presence of the sewage is not noticeable to sight or 
smell beyond a very limited area extending some 300 feet from the 
outlet, and that the quantity of organic matter in the water at a distance 
of 1,300 feet from the outlet was no greater, as shown by chemical 
analysis, than is found in waters bordering populous shores remote 
from sewer outlets. 

A new deep-sea outlet has recently been constructed for the city 
of New Bedford, the population of which by the census of 1915 
amounted to 109,568. This sewer outlet is located at a point 3,300 
feet south of the extreme end of Clark's Point in Buzzards Bay, where 
the depth of water at low tide is about 30 feet. A very careful 
examination was made of this outlet on two occasions during the past 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



353 



year, and samples were collected along the line taken by floats launched 
at the sewer outlet. The results of these observations show that 
sewage was noticeable only in a limited area in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the outlet and was not traceable with certainty by chemi- 
cal or bacterial analysis beyond a distance of 1,000 feet. 

The results of the observations at New Bedford and Swampscott are 
shown in the following table, and the locations of the stations at 
which samples were taken are indicated on the accompanying chart: — 



Table showing Resvlts of Analyses of Water in the Path of the Sewage from the 
New Bedford Sewer Outlet. 

Aug. 9, 1915. 





Hours 

after 

Release 

of 
Floats. 


Dis- 
tance 
from 
Outlet 
(Miles). 


Dis- 
tance 

from 
Outlet 
(Feet). 


Pasts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 


Station. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 
Am- 


Chlo- 
rine. 


per 

Cubic 

Cen-; 

timeter. 












moma. 






A (outlet) 


- 


- 


- 


.1276 


.0323 


1,589.0 


- 


1 


0.52 


0.21 


1.100 


.0025 


.0225 


1,710.0 


- 


2, 


1.02 


0.44 


2,600 


.0025 


.0180 


1,690.0 


- 


3 


1.52 


0.82 


4,300 


.0025 


.0165 


1,690.0 


- 


4 


1.99 


1.14 


6,030 


-1 


-1 


-1 


- 


5 


2.48 


1.46 


7,680 


.0005 


.0195 


1,690.0 


- 



1 Bottle broken. 







Sept. 24, 1915. 










A (outlet), ; . . . 


- 




- 


.0207 


.0224 


1,697.0 


219,850 


6 


0.32 


0.15 


800 


.0165 


.0205 


1,740.0 


2,650 


7 


0.82 


0.35 


1,800 


.0077 


.0125 


1,755.0 


27 


8 


1.32 


0.49 


2,600 


.0045 


.0096 


1,757.0 


17 


9, 


1.82 


0.60 


3,150 


.0072 


.0114 


1,735.0 


63 


10 


2 32 


0.92 


4,900 


.0050 


.0140 


1.757.0 


95 



354 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table showing Results of Analyses of Water collected from Stations outside the Area 
affected by Sewage from New Bedford. 

Aug. 9, 1916. 





Hours 

after 

Release 

of 
Floats. 


Dis- 
tance 
from 
Outlet 
(Miles). 


Dis- 
tance 

from 
Outlet 
(Feet). 


Parts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 


Station. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 

Am- 
monia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


11 

12, 


0.77 
1.18 


0.61 
0.65 


3,200 
3.400 


.0100 
.0120 


.0145 
.0160 


1,740.0 
1,722.5 


- 



Sept. 24, 1916. 



13 


0.53 


1.17 


6,180 


.0025 


.0125 


1,750.0 


25 


14 


2.17 


1.00 


5,280 


.0060 


.0165 


1,750.0 


99 


15 


2.87 


0.61 


3,200 


.0025 


.0095 


- 


65 


16 


3.03 


1.25 


6,580 


.0065 


.0140 


- 


163 



Table showing Results of Analyses of Water in the Path of the Sewage from the 
Swampscott Sewer Outlet. 

July 19, 1916. 



A (outlet), 



- 


- 


- 


.0758 


.0395 


1,648.8 


0.83 


0.310 


1,600 


.0085 


.0125 


1,690.0 


2.07 


0.470 


2,500 


.0045 


.0125 


1,700.0 


2.90 


0.630 


3,300 


.0085 


.0170 


1.690.0 



Oct. 1, 1916. 



A (outlet) 


- 


- 


- 


.1264 


.0417 


1,702.5 


99,750 


1 


0.18 


0.028 


150 


.0405 


.0320 


1.700.0 


38,800 


2 


0.68 


0.057 


300 


.0330 


.0370 


1,725.0 


21,500 


3 


1.18 


0.250 


1,300 


.0127 


.0225 


1,750.0 


2,400 


4, 


1.68 


0.310 


1,600 


.0033 


.0140 


1,765.0 


13 


5 


2.18 


0.390 


2,100 


.0030 


.0130 


1,740.0 


66 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



355 



Table showing Results of Analyses of Water collected from Stations outside the 
Area affected by Sewage from Swampscott. 

July 19, 1915. 





Hours 

after 

Release 

of 
Floats. 


Dis- 
tance 

from 
Outlet 
(Miles). 


Dis- 
tance 

from 
Outlet 
(Feet). 


Parts in 100,000. 


Bacteria 


Station. 


Free 
Ammo- 
nia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 

Am- 
monia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


9 

10 

11 


2.32 

_i 

0.32 


0.360 
0.140 
1.570 


1,900 

740 

8,300 


.0050 
.0055 
.0035 


.0085 
.0110 
.0110 


1,608.0 
1,700.0 
1,700.0 


; 



1 Eleven minutes before. 



Oct. 1, 1915. 



12 


2.12 


0.390 


2,100 


.0045 


.0100 


1,740.0 





13 


2.33 


0.210 


1,100 


.0025 


.0100 


1,810.0 


22 


14, . . -. 


2.43 


0.230 


1,200 


.0015 


.0100 


1,760.0 






Comparing the various sea outfalls where sewage is discharged into 
deep water, especially those of the south metropolitan district, New 
Bedford and Swampscott, it is found that the dilution of the sewage 
by the time it reaches the surface of the sea is very great, amounting 
so far as shown by the albuminoid ammonia to about 85 per cent, 
in the case of the south metropolitan outlet at Nut Island, where the 
quantity discharged at a single outlet amounts to 2,500,000 gallons 
per hour, to 98 per cent, in the investigations conducted at Swamp- 
scott, where the discharge during the period of observation was at the 
rate of 3,000,000 gallons per day, and to 94 per cent, at New Bedford. 
These comparative results are shown in the following table: — 



356 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



cc 



05 








t< 


•jBAomay; 


00 


00 


CO 05 1 


■^ 






•inao j9d^ 


03 


03 


03 OS 


00 




s 


















•* 




t- lO 







Ph 




CO 




m CO 


10 




s 


•jlBj^no WAO 







M -H (rq 

000 








I'dV^tk ''SS 





d 


d ^- 


t 

















(0 










000 














000 




l: 


•aSBMag 


§ 





§ s § 




o 




to 


N 


d »-< "5 




o 














Pi 
















•IBAOxna'jj 


00 


00 


CO OS 1 


1 






•!>uao jaj 


OJ 


OS 


OS OS 








t- 


in 


W5 










>o 


Oi 


cq t^ 






s 


ja^'BAi Bag 





cS 


d 


° ° i 


1 




» 
B 




















000 






00 
















E 


•e3BM9g 





£0 


>o cq (M 

.-t CO 


1 


z 




•IBAotaaH 





10 


OS OS 1 


cq 


< 

o 


d 
z 


•^nao jaj 


en 


00 


t- 00 


CO 




<N 


01 


i-H 00 »0 





P4 



K 
H 

e 


D 


•n^j^no JaAo 
ja^'B/^ Bag 






d 


m 
^ ° l^' 




i 


§ 


^ 






















n 












000 





?> 









000 






m 





•eSBMag 


i 


"5 


rt CO 10 










'^ 


d 


d d CO 

U5 







^ 


"IBAoraa'}! 


C5 


CO 


1 1 1 


•^ 




z 
s 


•;>nao jaj 


03 


05 




<o 




g 




















■* 


e<i -H lo 







S 

H 


•nB^no jaA.0 
ja^BAi Bag 







d 


rt t^ 
g 

<~i ^ 






a 










<M 



















<M 


<M 







d 






2 










•aSBAOg 


00 


CO 


1 - 1 ^ 




b 


CD 




.-( 


d 


10 






u 


















•jBAoraay; 


CO 


•« 


1 1 1 


, 


H 

Z 
H 


•()uao jej 





OJ 


















S 




CO 




CO 






S 


"HBj^no jaAO 
ja^BA\ Bag 


d 






CJ 

cq ^H 
000 

00^- 


1 


















<M 


CM 









CO 

















El 


•aSBAiag 


00 


•0 

d 


10 


1 










_g 


.S -2 
























- 


3 


03 '3 










& 




"S 










§ 


Id 


§ a 


u 











g 


a a . 


s 











a 


§ "^ ° 










,g 


03 


"3 d 








-2 




1=1 <=> 










1 


'0 


1 1 5 

















3 








, 


S 


^^ 


p. 








s 


Is c: 


CJ O-rt - ® 


C8 










^Sgg.S 










C3 


c 


tH 










~ — r "^ ^ ^ 


4^ 










"3 = 


Sg p. _ 












-fjC: 


mO m ia--3 













O" 


.^rt 3 — ja 


c8 








P^ 


H 


Q 02 


m 



£jocoA/onof>5/or/orfs Q 

or yv/?/c/t k 





/.ocor/or? a^sSro/Zo/TS 



No. 34.] METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 357 

Furthermore, by setting off floats at the various outlets and taking 
samples along the path taken by the sewage, as indicated by the 
floats, it was found that the quantity of organic matter attributable to 
sewage in the water into which the sewage is discharged, so far as 
shown by chemical analysis, falls within a period of less than an 
hour after the discharge of the sewage to an amount comparable with 
that found in waters bordering populous shores distant from sewer 
outlets and in waters adjacent to bathing beaches used by large num- 
bers of people. 

The results of the experience with the various systems of sewerage in 
the State having outlets into the sea show conclusively that this 
method of disposal may result in great nuisances where large quanti- 
ties of sewage are discharged near the shores and in shallow waters. 
Even when discharged into large tidal volumes the sewage, if dis- 
charged at the surface, may spread over a considerable area before 
becoming thoroughly diffused in the water of the sea. But where the 
sewage is discharged at the bottom of the sea in depths of 30 feet 
or more of water, where the tidal volume is at all times ample for the 
dilution of the sewage, the sewage mingles rapidly with the sea water, 
becoming diluted by the time it reaches the surface of the sea to an 
extent comparable in degree of purification with that effected by the 
most efficient methods of sewage disposal. Even when large quantities 
of sewage are discharged at one point, as at Nut Island in Boston 
Harbor, the area of surface of the sea over which the sewage can be 
seen reaches less than half a mile from the outlet, and beyond that 
distance the effect upon the waters of the sea, as shown by chemical 
and bacterial analysis, is no different from that which is caused by 
other conditions, such as pollution from shipping and the natural 
washings from populated shores. 



CONDITION OF SEWAGE-DISPOSAL WORKS. 

During the year the town of Franklin completed the construction of 
its sewage-disposal works, but they were not put into operation until 
about the end of the year and no analytical results have been ob- 
tained. The works consist of settling and dosing tanks and 11 sand 
filter beds, having an aggregate area of about 3.24 acres, constructed 
of sand and gravel of good quaUty for the purpose and suitably under- 
drained. 

At Andover, where an extension of the sewer system is under con- 
struction, an additional sludge bed has been provided and a large 



358 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



V 



quantity of soil has been handled preparatory to increasing the area 
of filter beds. 

At Hopedale the filtration works have been improved and extended, 
the addition making an aggregate filtration area of 3.79 acres. 

At Framingham considerable attention has been given to the filters 
in the removal of clogged surface soil and in the construction of addi- 
tional underdrains, so that at present 11 of the various filter beds are 
adequately underdrained and their efficiency increased. 

At Pittsfield the area of the sewage filters has been increased nearly 
50 per cent., so that early in 1916 the aggregate area of filters available 
will be about 41.15 acres. The quantity of sewage discharging upon 
these filters has been increased greatly during the last two or three 
years, and a further additional area will soon be required for the ade- 
quate purification of this sewage. 

A large part of the sewage now discharging at the Amherst sewage- 
disposal works will soon be diverted to the Connecticut River through 
sewers constructed during the year, but it will still be necessary to use 
the existing works for the disposal of the sewage of a portion of the 
town. 

Owing to the heavy rainfall in January, July and August there has 
been in general a slightly greater amount of leakage into the various 
sewerage systems than usual. On the whole the year has been a 
rather difficult one for the successful management of sewage-disposal 
works, but very little complaint due to overflow of sewage or to offen- 
sive odors arising from the various works has reached this Depart- 
ment. It has been observed, however, that more care is required for 
the efficient operation of many of the filtration works. It is still 
very difficult for the municipal officers having charge of sewerage 
works to obtain a sufficient appropriation for the proper maintenance 
and necessary extensions of such works. 

The following tables contain the results of chemical analyses of 
sewage and efiluent from the more important sewage-disposal works, 
together with general information as to the design, construction and 
maintenance of the works : — 



No. 34.] 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



359 







•B»«J 


.-HCMOiOM 


.*to-^moo 


OOCVIOCOO 


O'i'COCOOO 
COIOOIM-* 


00 O ■* LO CD 
•rH«(M-*0 


Cl(» 


eo-*»ocooo 


oaio-Hcooo 


00t~CO .-KM 


co-<)<eot~io 


■*lO'i<NCO 


t».io 


o 


•pajain^ 




OOtDtO 


I:^ IT- O ^^ 

ira coooo 
o o o o 


OC^iO CD 
CDt^r)< O 

ooo o 


r->oo iM 
inous -.ji 
ooo -^_ 


00 -H 

•ra(M 


•paaa^igun 


eocooio<N 

■* CM o (Moa 

cq eo (M c<5 CO 


coooo 

COC^.-l 


Ot^OuO 
C0t^c350 
N — (MC4 


1M(M05 CO 
-HCM rt CO 


OIM(M ta 
c5(N -H IM 


OO 
(MO 

.<)ioo' 


naSoj' 


^TN iq^pptH 




CMOOiOlM 


-(*« O -^ Cs •.# 


o-.s<ocoo 

00 CO CO COO 


— COCOOO 

oooor-t^ t^ 


com 

coo 


rtrtrtlMCSI 


-H-HCOCOCO 


<N-*« (M 


.H.-CrtrHN 


-HM.^ .-1 


(M(M 


2; 
o 

O 


O 


•paja^nj 




STj<coeiiCi 


OiCOCOCDOO 
CD lO t-Cq O 


iraco'.i<-H(M 

COt-lMOOO 


OOt-COOCO 
IM.-1 t^t^CO 


lOCq 
0-* 


coeoMOto 


(Mcot^ooin 


U5 00U5«CCi 


■*co.-i-*>o 


CO CO CO .-"W3 


com 


•paiajignn 




■.^.OOOOQO^H 
(Mr-lcslMiO 


00 CO »c coo 
ococo oa t- 




CO-hOOOO 
CO — O-*'* 


0(M 

moo 


I0t~i0-*05 


•^lOCOCOOi 


C5 -.** 00 .-H Ca 


t--*co>oo 


>OrtiO(Mt~ 


<MO 




•anuoiTio 


00 OO 00 00 00 


iMcoint^oj 

co-.a<o-*co 




eooort — -H 

OOW5 00COU3 


ooooo CO CO 
CO(M-H-<0 


ot^ 


■*t~oo-<iib. 


■^t^O»ft o 


t>ioeoco-* 


ooo cow* 


■<in:~ lO evj .-1 


— "" 


■A 
O 


Q 
O 

B 


•papnadsng 




Tj< WCOOOOi 

CO cor- 00 lO 


l£5 05b-05 O 
COOCOrHO 


ot^omco 

CO CM-* CO CO 


coooo CO -.«< 
COCOCOM-OH 


00 -H 

t>.o 




•paAiossiQ 


ir5(M t^ r-> -^ 


^ooo-*co 

COCOOCO— 1 


K5 — CO t~ LO 




r-oo COO'S' 

■fl-OOlOCMlO 


•<J<CO 




^T^T^ 


" 








•I«*ox 


OOOOiO-<J< 


sgsss 


OOCOCOIO 
cocoes COM 


.-^ t- COOO ^H 


CO CD lO CO 00 

oo>rtocoo 


lOOO 
(MO 


„ -- -«- „o. -, ^ - ^ „ 


•aai^ 


OCKIMOtM 
t- t^ 03 02 C31 


lOCOlOCOO 

oo«cnN 


C5 W3I-..CO (M 


ssass 


oo.*toio 

•*rtCO<MIM 


-.J4CO 
1M(M 


cQcceoioco 


CsllNiO-*0» 


COIOC4 to 


coco «■* 


CCICOCOrHCO 


co<^^ 


O 

<! 
« 
O 

< 

> 

•A 

: 

2 

H 

P3 


15 

O 

s 

o 

M 

^: 
o 


'papnadsng 


w<j<!OcnQO 

OO -# O C-- o 


I^^rtOOCO 


COOOtJ. 1-.0 

co>o™coco 


CO >o N w> -.It 
^OO (M '.J< CO 


OiO-HOCO 
CO^ — .— .(M 


00 OO 
(MO 


o.-. o t^ o 


OOOCS003 


0(MCO-*1M 
— i^lM IM 


t^c^ooo 


-ss-'-s 


>rao 


•paApssiQ 


t^^(Moor~ 


C5 050CO (N 
CO(MOt-0 


§Scom3 


OO — OO 
■*(Ml^COO 


<M ^^t-CO t^ 

oa>>or-tn 


o>o 

(Mtr- 


CO (M c<j ecco 


OOrtCOCOO 


CO OCOlOCO 


00-*.*lM t^ 


-.CO«t-CO 


IflOO 












•IBjox 


ooooot^ira 


^lOiOiOCO 


CO O •* Oi -cjl 


C^iOCOiC*" 
00 OJ 05 t-00 


-H CO 00 CO o 
t-COCOOO t- 


5Si 


(MCO(M"5"5 


t~.-IMrJIOO 
(MC^CDCOCO 


CO CO OS 05 00 
COt-CO CO 


i-o -< T}< cq o 

COCM— iNCO 


tMco — l-H^^ 

<M.*OI-H(M 


ooo 
-*co 


D 

a 

BS 
§ 


•papnadsng 


<M00»^O03 


^(•eqococo 


oco coooo 

.-•■OcoiOtr- 


Oint^com 

.-HCOOOrf -H 


»Or^(M t-co 

(MOO CO coo 


(MCO 


(MCOIM — C3 


oooooo -< 


■*comoo2 

(M>0!M (M 


000<N (N CD 
IM -^ «(M 


iOO-^iOt^ 


CO(M 


•paAiosstQ 


t^CSCOOO N 
CO CO -^ 00 00 


•*QOOOt>-0 
OCD'^-.J^OO 


t^r-i^t^co 

CO o-.** t^ ^^ 


t^ (Mr- in 00 

COO<M t^ t^ 


OOOOlOCOt^ 
t-.-(CO CDt~ 


•4>o 


OC0 05-#tO 

meocooio 


■.»*coocooo 

(MC0CD5O-* 


C»(MU50IM 
COiOCOrtUS 


«.tJ<OCC O 
lO-^ — IN O 


.-■OC:co(M 
CO-* cvltM-a< 


?:s 


•I'B^^OX 


eOCDQO lO o 

cocqoinoo 


ooooo coco 


t^co QC Cq C3 


l^t-^ ooco 

t-CO .-< .-tO 


CO iO t- O CO 

OO — ooo 


gi2 


(MCO .-'O CO 

tOtO>OC2 0> 


rfOOO^O 


C0U5OC0— 1 
CO O CO C<J 00 


-HIM(M — CO 


t- — — o o 


OO 






o 

Eh 

« 

o 

!- 
& 
O 


1 


Amherst,' .... 
Andover, . . . . ' 

Brockton 


Concord, .... 

Fitchburg 

Framingham, 

Gardner (Gardner area). 


















Hopedale, 
Hudson, 
Leicester, > . 
Marion, i 
Marlborough, 


Milford, 

Natick, 

North Attleborough, i 

Northbridgo, 

Norwood, 


Pittsfield, . 
Southbridgo, 
Sponccr, 
stockbridge, » 
Wcstborough, 


Worcester (day), . 
Worcester (night), 



360 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 







•e?'Bj[ 


4.85 
7.47 
5.07 
9.06 
28.22 


9.04 
2.19 
21.14 
16.15 
4.47 


4.95 
3.65 
4.71 
1.37 
3.50 


6.30 
4.54 
1.49 
3.50 
4.06 


4.18 
4.54 
4.24 
2.45 
6.06 


c<; 


'na3oi:>T^ IR-Bpiatg; 


riOO (Mt^-^ 


C<1 OO^J" 


CO OaOCS^- 
NOOOOtOO 


CO-*Tl<OJU5 
CO CO CO 00 CO 


^HIOCO O O 
O0coir-l>t^ 


to 


rH-HTlCqiM 


—1 TOC3— 1 


-H.-H -H 


«-. rt 


-"-"-• -' 


o 

PS 
M 


•paja^n,a 


omuscoo 

t^cOOOOtM 
O OO ,-H ^H 


1 1 OOO 


eOco OO 
O'lOO 


OOCMCTl (M 


kCOO UO , ■<*< 
OOO 1 ^ 


OO 

•o 


•pajaijgufi 


COC^OMO) 
•OtMOOOl 
1-1 —1 (TJ TO CC 


CO 00 CO 

1 i«^S 


ot^o»o 
, -a<iM02co 

1 -HCOC-J,-l 


'-t CM-^ 00 
COt»<00 , o> 


oo(M in 




H 

o 
O 


2 
P 
to 
/? 
o 

o 


•p3ia:HTj 


3.77 
3.93 
3.33 
9.58 
6.41 


2.21 
3.01 
7.38 
8.28 
2.73 


3.38 
4.55 
1.90 
1.26 
3.73 


3.42 
3.73 
1.01 
2.30 
4.36 


3.28 
4.55 
3.76 
1.79 
5.33 


o 


•paaa:Hgu£i 


5.87 
4.92 
5.18 
14.23 

9.78 


4.24 
3.48 
13.98 
13.28 
3.89 


4.24 
6.01 
' 2.64 
1.93 
4.99 


5.04 
4.84 
1.21 
2.85 
7.80 


5.33 
5.68 
5.60 
2.40 

7.48 


o 


•anuojqa 


10.99 
8.74 
8.18 

14.18 

7.28 


4.32 
7.34 
10.05 
15.47 
5.41 


5.83 
29.54 
3.97 
3.40 
9.41 


9.55 
8.58 
4.33 
4.74 
18.98 


4.68 
8.32 
5.18 
2.16 
11.03 




< 

5 
o 

< 


d 
o 


■papuadsng 


Ocs t^co w^ 


■^cccooo O 

CO ,-iC^OOCO 


••lioeooo 

CM •<»<•-. ,-1 CO 


ot^totoo 

COtNOi-H-* 


COCO OSCO -^ 


00 












•paAjossiQ 


iO»O»Ot^00 


■*c^oi<^ 

coco OCO T*4 


OOCOT«t~-* 


35! 22??^ 


t^OcOO-^ 
-^lOiOCMiO 






rHrt 








•l«*ox 


OOOOOiii*-^ 


00 I^CO CSJTJ* 


t^ CO CO CO 00 


S;=2§S 


CO CO to CD 00 
00 t^ OS CO OS 




"'"' 


-H(M 


^ 






•eaj^ 


2.95 
4.39 
3.93 
5.86 
3.92 


2.05 
2.12 
5.15 
4.96 
3.69 


4.40 
5.18 
1.69 
.83 
4.87 


3.48 
3.53 
.77 
2.45 
3.93 


2.49 
4.16 
3.64 
1.26 
3.25 


^ 


! O 

< 
« 
o 

•< 
> 
H 

;s 
o 

H 



g 




S 
o 

S5 
O 

o 


•papuadsng 


13.66 
6.05 
10.06 
23.55 
30.08 


18.75 
3.09 
39.19 
40.82 
5.75 


5.50 
11.80 
4.24 
4.61 
8.04 


7.78 
7.05 
1.28 
3.38 
12.16 


11.69 
5.86 

10.11 
4.10 

14.23 


OO 


•paAjossiQ 


13.57 
14.08 
12.82 
23.43 
23.57 


8.69 
9.87 
23.66 
23.73 
10.02 


13.18 
24.07 
8.33 
5.34 
12.22 


15.27 
14.20 
4.29 
8.77 
12.94 


11.02 
14.89 
11.57 
7.73 
13.47 


O 
CM 


•IB^ox 


27.23 
20.13 
22.88 
46.98 
53.65 


27.44 
12.96 
62.85 
64.55 
15.77 


18.68 
35.87 
12.57 
9.95 
20.26 


23.05 
21.25 
5.57 
12.15 
25.10 


22.71 
20.75 
21.68 
11.83 
27.70 


00 


p 

P5 

< 
§ 


•papuadsng 


15.23 

7.19 
12.15 
26.91 
39.98 


20.94 

4.50 

48.00 

48.06 

6.78 


6.55 
13.40 
7.14 
6.50 
9.74 


9.69 
8.35 
1.57 
4.38 
14.82 


15.25 
7.70 

11.82 
5.37 

17.06 


f2 

CO 


•paAiossiQ; 


45.90 
40.02 
39.43 
62.90 
56.82 


24.04 
32.55 
60.48 
63.47 
28.70 


32.93 
96.00 
24.43 
16.77 
40.68 


45.55 
44.02 
19.53 
22.37 
58.58 


31.78 
37.75 
29.35 
23.63 
42.77 


•* 

CO 


■I«»oi 


61.13 
47.21 
51.58 
89.81 
96.80 


44.98 
37.05 
108.48 
111.53 
35.48 


39.48 
109.40 
31.57 
23.27 
50.42 


55.24 
52.37 
21.10 
26.75 
73.40 


47.03 
45.45 
41.17 
29.00 
59.83 


to 

O 

to 
o 














§ 

o 












Tanks, 
Tank, 
None, 

Revolving screer 
None, 2,3 . 


None, 3 
Imhoff tanks. 
None, 3 
None, 
Tanks, 


Tanks, 

Tanks, 

Tank, 

None, 

Tanks, 


Tanks, 
None, 3 
Tanks, 
Tanks, 
Tank, 


None, 3 

Tanks, 

None, 

None, 

None, 






H 

K 
O 

6 












C3 

3 

1 


Amherst,' 

Andover, .... 

Attleboro, 

Brockton, 

Clinton 


Concord 

Fitchburg, 
Framingham, . 
Gardner (Gardner Area), 
Gardner (Templeton area). 














Hopedale, 
Hudson, . 
Leicester, i 
Marion,! . 
Marlborough, . 


Milford, . 
Natick, . 
North Attleborough 
Northbridge, . 
Norwood, 


Pittsfield, 
Southbridge, . 
Spencer, . 
Stockbridge, i . 
Westborough, . 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



361 






Oh .S 



2 ru 



O 

s 



e 

^ 



CO 



^ 
^ 



1-3 

< 





, 


"^ t.' 1^ ^ 




*j 


-3 




Tanks. 


. ffl s ^ ■"■" 

, , t. O'g 03 So 

1 -p|^ II 




o 


5 
S3 


.^i 


! ^ 
'a 


3 S'S-Sl -3 


i 


_e 


O bC 


o 












equcncy of Cle 


1 o 1 t, IB y.X c3 cS o S 

c ^ a oU a o a to 


Sees 

Sou 


§ 

o 
is a '^ 




o 

i 

o 

c 


f^ 


O HO >^>^0 


OH 


>«:^ 


mS 


O 


■(smoH) s^TSodgQ 








^^ 




! on sure^noo jiubx Sni 


"7,7^ 1"?1 


T? 


iV 


7V 




j -ranss^ 'uoi;B;naraip3g 


X "S §2 


ii? 


^ 


:s;:s: 




i JO poiJ8<j 9:t'Braix6jddv 


>o 


CO 




r-^ 










— o 


CO 'I' 


00 C^ 


00 


H 




cst^^co-.** OOtOOi 


-JtiO 








s 

; ° 


pa^^ajx JO pandas 


OOO-^i^t^iO IC Oi CC 


o>c:i 


-*"1" 


OD 00 


o 






■*co 


^Ht-4 


.-O 


t^ 


a 


•a3BM9g MB'JJ 


-H ^_ t>. ^ CO M "O Oi 


■*oi 


co'>o 


Si'^ 


OJ 


o 






















cqcM 


'"r' 


00 


! 


■paAotnaj '^nao Jaj 


IM-*C<5tO-* ^t~0 














oo 


en o 


St; 


(M 




•aSBAiag 


oo-*o — •* enot- 










1 & 


pa^jBaJX JO pa^ag 


■.Jft^OSC^-^ •^CO'^ 


coo 


rtCO 


^^ 








^CT> 


coco 


OOO 


rt 




•aSBMag M^a 


CO -^ CO o 00 00 r^ CO 


oco_ 

CTCO 


co"i>^ 


tdi6 


lO 


1 -- 






OiO 


coo 


(MO 


t^ 




•paAoraaa '^uao jaj; 




-*co 








•aSBAiag 


t — C^ CO 00 o^ ■*?* ^^ ^ 
OOOJM-'J'OO OOtO 


§s 


(NOO 


OOO 
00 CO 


CO 


a S 
o p 
>< in 


pa^Bsix JO psn^^S 


l^^.J<COCO ^'OC^ 


•*iO 


-<(M 


r-io 


•* 






OiO 


in CO 


lO-H 


CJ 


1 '-^ 


•aSBAiag MBH 


■* o 02 ", lo ^ "=; "! 


cit-^ 


CO "5 


o'rf' 


o 


1 1 








CQO 


(M-H 




1 " < 

si 


■paAoraai '^naQ ja j 


c^ cow »o-*o 








■^ 








OOO 


coco 


'S 


■aS'BMag 


OO OO •* ■* tr^ t^COCO 










pa^BaJX JO pa^iag 


rl ^^ 














LO— • 


inc<i 


(M CO 


00 


•aSBAiag MB^ 


GOO^Ct^t^ cocoes 










H 




















r-(M 


QOU5 


eoio 


CO 





•paAoraaj •!^^^o ja<j 


t^ I— 1 1^ CD t^t^t^ 
















t^OO 


(MO 


CO 


z 9 

1 H 3 

ft o 


■aSBAiag 


§q — mSt^ «ra-*-H 










pa^Baij, JO pap^ag 


lCt^cO'.*<CO COCOt^ 


005 


«•* 


•Jtlr- 








OOO 


C;£2 


""J:; 


CO 














1 02 


•aSBMag jttB'a; 




OiO 


C-)C-1 


COO 


o 


1 








rt-H 




(M 


1 










■ft 


a 








>>^ 


2". 








§ 


■s^g 


■ -gj • 








p* 


Form 
relimi 
reatm 


Mfi 








, 


.5 5 








gd 


oa" -.^ ia to IK m - 


.s^ 


ss 


.iTrS 


a-2 


' PhC-i 


a a >-a c c c c 


c a 


a a 




O 03 




(SeSOflia C3c3c3 


ci c3 










HH 


HH 


ir<b^ 


o 


15 


• • ■ • c . . • 

o 

• • • -"ft • • • 




1 

o . 






H 


a 

o 


.a 


1^ 






o 


moO^ ^- c3 C_2 


3 


So 

11 
ll 


© 
o 






-<<Hii,0 WHh:i 


SS 


^;^ 


•^ 



o| 






I i 

O t3 
•^ O 
ft ° 



~ ""^ 11^ 
.2 'E <; =* 

sag 

ft ^ "t! 3 

a & > I 

eg > S P5 



362 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



1 



►4a 



05 



t 

3 



•< ^ 






Pi, ^ 

CO 



^ 



Pi, 



e si 



^ ^ 

^ s 

■o 

s -< 



0^ 



o 

n 
< 



00 ,ij S 









3 an 
and 
feet 
rom 


® fc'i 


ol-^ffe 










m as^.- 


■•" ^ ^ 8 -S 










c3 om"" 












i 




fl i p I- a 

1 ^§& 












S|«" 










M o^-a 










it c3 0) » 




o £ go 










J3 C3 c3 O 


5h^^ 


•g^ss-ia 










H 




(S 














J^ 






















•S^B^ 


OS CO 




CO 


00 


















ii 


•paja^n^ 


§ § 


' 


i 


1 
















« 


•p8ia:)igufi 


2 g 


1 


2 


1 








en t-- 




Ol 




a 


a 


•paaa^nj 




1 


. 




O 




to CO 




m 






CJ to 




CO 




O 


•paja^ignfi 












o 












Z 






o 




t^ 




H 




•sa:HJ^!N 




1 




















O 


■>S 




































^ 




•sa^Bj:jtj^ 


' i 


' 


?^ 


1 








to Oi 




to 








•enuojqo 


m -< 


' 


cj ' 


1 




d 


•papnadsng 




N 


s 

■* 


o 
to 


■< 


o 






















t? 


s 




CO ^ 








o 

s 
< 


(5 












■[■^%ox 


00 00 

M 05 


Oi 


to 1^ 

CO 




















•aaj^ 




■* 


lfl> o 


>o 









O (M 










•papnadsng 


to 1^ 
























1^ 












g 














o 


2 




"=■ SS 










•paAiossiQ 




1 


" 1 


1 


5 


o 
































OO 




< 


S 


■[V^OJ, 










> 
o 


J 


























(33 -41 




(M' 




p 


•papnadsng 




o> 


m <Si 


















m 






































M 


•paAIOSSTQ 




1 


■^ 1 


1 
















•«! 




ira •* 




■»< 
















H 




t^ C2 










g 


"IB^Oi 








g 
























lO 










73 tT 




Jj o 


i.-^ 




























.S cs 




















a <C 














OS fi 




i'H. 










^ o 3 


13 


1^ •«" 










Mia a 


> 
o 


"S . o 


©13 








1^ s 

13 o ^ 




(D • to i3 
■5 fc-i E_: G 

"S3 -t: 










g'5 1 

12 1 






fitcl 








02 W 


Ol 


W flH 


fL. 



No. 34.] 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



363 






M • o o-S 

o S-- _, .. ^ 



03 -^ 

<D bfi 

Co • 
Oo >, 

Oo"0 
o o g 

MX! fe 

03 oj eS 



Ct3 --3 g 
o c ^ o-« 
•^ C3 ^ C « 






'^pD 



^ to a>'^ 
03 tl m 2 
M 75 



is O e b 



> g o -S 



., 0) a) o !3 







,_, 




































'"' 




'"' 








1 II 1 II 


III 1 II 





CO -H 



00 .-I 



lO .-H 



r-l O ^ 

to 

(M — i - 



lO ^ 



3 d 


3 




S3 
2"g 




-«" 


.a 
-a-d 


^3 


u 


> 

O 


^P 




> 
o 


^s 


03 o 


a 
s 








o 














^1 
1- 


c 


a 
8 


T3* 


> 


S 

0) 


!.l 


w 


Ph 


w 




PM 


Ph 



364 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 5. — Average Results of the Analyses of Monthly Samples of Effluent 

from Sand Filters. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



City or Town. 

/ 


o 

c3 > 


d 

'a 
B 

a 
<; 

o 

2 


-a 
§ 

x> a 

-as 


o 


■? 

1 
Z 


1 


Q 


Amherst,^ 


36.85 


2.06 


.1198 


12.18 


.0250 


.0052 


1.533 


Andover.s 


37.83 


1.40 


.1668 


7.69 


.5354 


.0226 


.163 


Brockton (sand filters used foi 

sewage). ^' 
Brockton (sand filters used for set 

ling filter effluent). 
Clinton, 2 .... 


scr 
tied 


jenec 
;rick 




44.38 
42.85 
32.83 


3.82 

1.84 

.51 


.1415 
.1017 
.0847 


14.20 
13.21 
5.23 


.0944 
.1857 
.0970 


.0054 
.0086 
.0129 


1.660 
.708 
.253 


Concord,* .... 








20.60 


.43 


.0193 


4.50 


.2878 


.0009 


.013 


Framingham,2 








40.47 


1.85 


.0973 


9.02 


.2303 


.0097 


2.026 


Gardner (Gardner area), 








35.87 


1.14 


.0898 


6.27 


1.2500 


.0039 


.091 


Gardner (Templeton area),^ 








34.11 


1.82 


.1888 


6.69 


.6978 


.0178 


.150 


Hopedale,'' .... 








29.21 


1.86 


.1703 


5.70 


.4090 


.0120 


.536 


Hudson, .... 








84.32 


.92 


.1006 


29.87 


.8354 


.0067 


.197 


Leicester,! .... 








24.40 


.37 


.0797 


3.98 


.2483 


.0058 


.171 


Marion, 1 .... 








22.15 


,32 


.0508 


4.71 


.5117 


.0038 


.053 


Marlborough, 2 








38.95 


.45 


.0418 


7.84 


1.1762 


.0045 


.019 


Milford 








34.80 


.87 


.0751 


8.45 


.8558 


.0093 


.146 


Natick, .... 








32.57 


1.16 


.0814 


7.74 


.1991 


.0179 


.748 


North Attleborough,! . 








18.50 


.06 


.0134 


4,06 


.3421 


.0007 


.008 


Northbridge, 








22.28 


.59 


.0997 


4.59 


.4104 


.0155 


.052 


Norwood 








53.40 


.95 


.0823 


19.39 


.2985 


.0244 


.511 


Pittsfield,2 .... 








33.26 


.73 


.0847 


4.57 


.3536 


.0164 


.209 


Southbridge, 2 








30.35 


2.82 


.1057 


7.25 


.0359 


.0012 


2.163 


Spencer, .... 








21.78 


.59 


.0505 


3.97 


.5263 


.0173 


.062 


Stockbridge,i,2 . 








23.82 


.13 


.0505 


2.66 


.3075 


.0087 


.131 


Westborough, 2 








28.37 


.36 


.0595 


5.94 


.8661 


.0160 


.061 


Worcester, .... 








63.98 


1.41 


.1188 


13.33 


.1928 


.0247 


1.555 



1 Every other month. 

2 Regular samples from two or more underdrains combined in one average. 
' February, March and April omitted. 

* February, April and June omitted. ' 

Note. — Attleboro effluent omitted, as very little effluent has as yet been collected in the underdrains. 
Concord filters not underdrained, but purified sewage forms a spring from which the samples, repre- 
sented by the above analysis, were collected. 



No. 34.] 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



365 



Table No. 6. — Efficiency of Sand Filters (arranged in Order of Per Cent, 
of Albuminoid Ammonia removed). 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Free Ammonia. 


Total Albumi- 
noid Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


f|l 


City or Town. 


.2 

"a 

< 




1 
<s 

o 


1 
"ft 
0. 


a 

p 


-2 

> 

1 

O 
1 


6 
bC 

1 

m 

"a 
p. 
< 


§ 


Rate of Operation 
Even Distribi 
(Gallons per Acre 
Day).i 


Concord, ' 


2.05 


.43 


79 


.68 


.0193 


97 


4.32 


4.50 


121,000 


Gardner (Gardner area), ^ . 


4.96 


1.14 


77 


2.22 


.0898 


96 


15.47 


6.27 


64,000 


Marlborough 


4.87 


.45 


91 


.84 


.0418 


95 


9.41 


7.84 


33,000 


Spencer, 


3.64 


.59 


84 


.95 


.0505 


95 


5.18 


3.97 


48,000 


Clinton, 


3.92 


.51 


87 


1.46 


.0847 


94 


7.28 


5.23 


36,000 


Framingham, 


5.15 


1.85 


64 


1.73 


.0973 


94 


10.05 


9.02 


33,000 


Westborough, 


3.25 


.36 


89 


.98 


.0595 


94 


11.03 


5.94 


65,000 


Hudson, 


5. IS 


.92 


82 


1.36 


.1006 


93 


29.54 


29.87 


34,000 


North Attleborough 


.77 


.06 


92 


.18 


.0134 


93 


4.33 


4.06 


107,000 


Milford 


3. 48 


.87 


75 


.82 


.0751 


91 


9.55 


8.45 


47,000 


Brockton (filters for screened sewage), 


5.86 


3.82 


35 


1.49 


.1415 


90 


14.18 


14.20 


48,000 


Pittsfield, 


2.49 


.73 


71 


.83 


.0847 


90 


4.68 


4.57 


105,000 


Worcester 


3.24 


1.41 


56 


1.25 


.1188 


90 


14.79 


13.33 


61,000 


Natick, 


3.53 


1.16 


67 


.71 


.0814 


89 


8.58 


7.74 


57,000 


Norwood 


3.93 


.95 


76 


.76 


.0823 


89 


18.98 


19.39 


81,000 




2.95 


2.06 


30 


.83 


.1198 


86 


10.99 


12.18 


187,000 


Marion, 


.83 


.32 


61 


.36 


.0508 


86 


3.40 


4.71 


190,000 


Southbridge, 


4.16 


2.82 


32 


.76 


.1057 


86 


8.32 


7.25 


81,000 


Stockbridge, 


1.26 


.13 


90 


.36 


.0505 


86 


2.16 


2.66 


- 


Brockton (filters for settled trickling 
filter effluent). 


3.58 


1.84 


49 


.62 


.1017 


84 


12.16 


13.21 


94,000 


Northbridge, 


2.45 


.59 


76 


.49 


.0997 


80 


4.74 


4.59 


70,000 


Andover, 


4.39 


1.40 


68 


.81 


.1668 


79 


8.74 


7.69 


75,000 


Leicester, ....... 


1.69 


.37 


78 


.37 


.0797 


78. 


3.97 


3.98 


194,000 


Hopedale, 


4.40 


1.86 


58 


.72 


.1703 


76 


5.83 


5.70 


29,000 


Gardner (Tenapleton area). 


3.69 


1.82 


51 


.74 


.1888 


75 


5.41 


6.69 


64,000 



1 See also Table No. 8. 

' See note at foot of Table No. 5. 

» These filters given long periods of rest when necessarj-. 



366 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 7. — Filter Effluents arranged according to the Amount of Nitrates 

in Effluent. 



[Parts in 100,000. 





NiTBOGEN AS 


Iron in 
Effluent. 


Total 
Albuminoid 


City or Town. 


Nitrates in 
Effluent. 


Nitrites in 
Effluent. 


Ammonia 

in Applied 

Sewage. 


Gardner (Gardner area) 


1.2500 


.0039 


.091 


2.22 


Marlborough 


1.1762 


.0045 


.019 


.84 


Westborough, 


.8661 


.0160 


.061 


.98 


Milford 


.8558 


.0093 


.146 


.82 


Hudson, 


.8354 


.0067 


.197 


1.36 


Gardner (Templeton area) 


.6978 


.0178 


.150 


.74 


Clinton 


.6970 


.0129 


.253 


1.46 


Andover, 


.5354 


.0226 


.163 


.81 


Spencer 


.5263 


.0173 


.062 


.95 


Marion, 


.5117 


.0038 


.053 


.36 


Northbridge 


.4104 


.0155 


.052 


.49 


Hopedale, 


.4090 


.0120 


.536 


.72 


Pittsfield - . 


.3536 


.0164 


.269 


.83 


North Attleborough 


.3421 


.0007 


.008 


.18 




.3075 


.0087 


.131 


.36 


Norwood, 


.2985 


.0244 


.511 


.76 


Concord, 


.2878 


.0009 


.013 


.68 


Leicester, 


.2483 


.0058 


.171 


.37 


Framingham, 


.2303 


.0097 


2.026 


1.73 


Natick, 


.1991 


.0179 


.748 


.71 


Worcester, 


.1928 


.0247 


1.555 


1.25 


Brockton (sand filters used for settled trick- 
ling filter effluent). 

Brockton (sand filters used for screened sew- 
age). 

Southbridge 


.1857 - 

.0944 

.0359 


.0086 
.0054 
.0012 


.708 
1.660 
2.163 


.62 
1.49 

.76 




.0250 


.0052 


1.533 


.83 



No. 34. 



METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



367 



■a 



• -. e3 0) fe o^ oj t. t^ 



; w» J ^ O^ „ „ 



w- 












]<at 



o oo o o o 
CD CD o <=> o o 



00 t^ C^ -^OiC 



oo rJH CO ^H ' CO ■■ 



ooo ooooo ooooo oooo 

OOO CD ^ O O CD O O C> C3 O OOOO 

OOO 0> CD O O O ooooo O CD ^ O 



CO Ci Ci CO -^ lO O t^ oo O oo .^ CO CD 



O iOO OOeo 



to o c:i o CO CD o o 



c^ CO to o t-* CO CO o eq CO oa 



(M T-< 



.CDOO — OOC 



to oo to o 
oo 1 co-*co 



oo OCD -"^ 
CO lO to Oi 

to I o coco 



hQ 



j» to 

fH O 



O Q 



o5 a 






^<2 



oo OOO 

O O OOO 



QO O to »0 CO CO I>- 
T-,CO (M '^ tr* CO *0 



"^r CO lo CO c^ o c^ 



oo OOO 

C) O Oi O o 



cVw5 c; lO c 






OOO OOO 

OOO Oi O) G5 



OOOOO OOOOO CD O O O O OOOO 

.^ — 11 — ir — ,(— ir-i , — 'OOCDiO CSOOO!^ ^OOO 

O O O lO O O Oi Oi o o o o o_ 

l_;j .-- ^ w*_^^^ — rj3 ^^OiOOtC iCOOCD-rjT S<5P^^ 

-**io-* c>ooooo ot^cqoico '-'IP^'^22 SS^£st2 

_i. ,-= -i ~Ij ,— . ^*-h rrf^ ^—r *v^ _j fi-i *M r^ t~^ ^fM r^ «-i CO ^* CO ^H 



^ CO 0> -^ O CO 00 ,-( 



»— ICO'^ t* t^ -Tj* t- CO O -^ CO ^ 



fl o 






ft H fi b ,5 S 






^ O C- 1 ^ooos 



1 C5^oo or--t— 1-4'^ 

tijwJi.-^ c^j C0*00 (MOOO'*!J<-H 
,-( CD C*l iO ^H Oi •-« CO -^ ^ 00 -^ 



to CO --^ fH »0 lO ,-1 f-tO MtO ■«1<COt*COO -^OWO"^ 

oo O oo CO CO t*- lO 05 C^ CO !>• lO CO -^ «D 00 kO '— • O »0 
r^ C^ mCNCsl CSI ^H r-l i-H i-H T-H kO »-< ^H t^ 



00 (M »-^cOOCOCO oo W b* O -^ Ci CO -^ t^ I 

oo OS OOiOCOt^CD IOCMOO»OCO *— «Ci»Ot-^C 



,-1 O --I 



^ ,-H .-( i-HCO »-t 



^3 



£ ffl O 



pq 












•w 


S 










^ 


a o 




J3 




!^ 



dSSow W»3SSS ^^2;2;S ccm^j 



s-^g a 

C3 p] O o 

ffl M c « 
^ g cj cS 

"°'r >.^ 

'SiJ'^ a 
o'S'^ 2 

rtco cS^S 

McO ^ C3 

2§a-« 



"J tH 
c =^ 

CJO 
bO - 

.2 ° 



ii ti n ft 

e s Sa 

r-ra . oE-t 

O 3 £ O 
""^S Men 

nT3 t.o 

-" C 3 te O) 

c a a 2 « 

oo«j5o 



368 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



a |a 

:: oj 

o 

2 I .§•§ 

-a 1^ 
>o 



a o 



o ® © 
§ 2.9 

o a ^ 

C fc. ^ 

OH 



"3 "3 =3 

S (^ s 

2 03 3 

aaa 

Odd 

c c a 
OOO 



a 9 >> a 

.5.2 ci •- 

*^->^'^ t^ 
o « .^ 2 
^ » >> -g 

■*^ +J D _ 

— =« > t:^ 

5J OJ ® O "^ 

c3 -•-> cS.S C3 

Sr, a & a 



O O 



1 >>S 



o S) o o 

" S " ^ 

a a a a 

^ m & ,« 



5 o:2 o 
o .. o .- 

^a^a 
>.^ >>-g 

0_ d. 

<B c3 O C3 

c c a 1^ 

c3 c3 c3 2 

aaaa 

o o o g 

s e a & 
OOOH 






s 




^^ 


a 




a ni 


a 




a^ 


M 




^•H 


^ 




^S-n 






to t; 




f\ 








J3 




ja (3 


r> 


"" 


O •- 








•- 




q43 


F 


03 




D. 




*j 






p 




X3 


-a US 






+^ ca 






^ d 


— ' 





5^ -- p — 



a a 



OOO 



a > g 

K O ai 

Om 



Q, IS 

a a 



82 «« 

—tJ >-■ a ca r. 



- a-o o 

a ® 03 M 
a m o 
^"a 03 



a".2 a 
o .w-ja 



S^^ 



a o o 

a O. 



il 



§ a■Sg- 
.- ^ a: -3 (- 

■^- a g M 
!!"'§« 

=Sl1a1 

t; 03-d.P CO 
^ " So-d 
■".SS S o O 

03 s-^ s^ 2 

p^p^ wo 



■S a M 
_^'«i: a 

T! C3 o 03 
•gXi-d to 

fe 03 Sg 

a p o<„ 

^ 3 ..— • 

■2^ 03 S 

8182 
Occ 



" a a 

a-- o 

S,-^ a 
-d a 03 

a '»~^ 
03J3 2 
•^ .. 03 

C-0 a-g 
c3 a o3 g 

p ^ 

o"a £ p 
a S S 3 

« O o o 

OOm 



^.Sop-t; 
a-d to-2 „ 
gSp=^-9 

03 a ^"o 

-rt*^ a^a 

- g t" p o3 

5 03 _, tD M 

f^ n i3 P 

"SaSi^a 



03 



o 



CMS « 



a O" . . 
« a . 
>, "^ p . 

u T! 2 P 

■o -Sa^g 

03 ^1^.9^3 

M So a-S 

!=• P — .1," O 
.O p ~ " ^- 3 

, ^ > > p O 
S'n. a 03 > "" 

a '^■dT3 to 
D*-:) a a-a o 

-d 9 '^ "^S S 
boT. 3 03 a a 

t„ m m <» 03 c3 
O P p p to to 

TS c3 £ ""dT) 
Cr? c3 c3 O O 
S O-O O O O 

M oooo 



a 3 a 

^-ial^- 
p 9 =^^ p 

M g (O^ bD 

J >>a 2i2 



ua- 



o . ..-^ 

" §"3 S p-Sg 

> a t._ d 2 t- 

2 a Mg 2 feiu) 

C £3 03 - L- c3 03 

°3 a-Tj !- f -d-d 
-d o a.2 a o a 

a '^•73. 2 03 OS 

CO S-73t3 a-d-d 
.ti o o a."? o o 

03 CO O 3 h O O 

fe OiBAOO 



o ti-0 aS' 

o3 c3 rt *2 P 



ITS o mo 



OOO o<» I 



C<l •ot--^oo 



I eoooo 

(M OO-^iO 

o»o 



a) O g g p 

Q t5-sfe 






I 



»0 .^ CO CO ••i* iO CO lO <0 »0 Ti4 CD .* -.^ I lO lO U3 CO 



1 "d m • 

° S 03 O-^ 

■s-g-s'-^ o 

C3 to Oli t* 

p a r^-o^ 

Jh O g-d o 



CO lO tMCS 

-"■SS 2222 oo 

SI . - - - g§ 

Ol CO CI 00 



^So S^CO 



1-HO 1-H r-l„ 

C5 05 _ Oi __ C5 

1-H 1— I c^ *-H CO r>- 03 T-H GO 






2 « - 

o o a 

" o .9 

<m 6 



OH 1 



■2^ 
§2 



WhjS S S 12: 



^ p ^ 



O O O..W g c, 2 



Division of Water and Sewage 
Laboeatoeies. 



[369] 



DIVISION OF WATER AND SEWAGE 
LAEOEATORIES. 



Director and Chemist, H. W. CLARK. 



Dr. Allan J. McLaughlin, Commissioner of Health. 

Sir: — I have the honor to present herewith the following report of 
the Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories for the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1915. 

Respectfully, 

H. W. CLARK, 

Director and Chemist. 



Eepoet of Laboeatories and Experiment Station. 



The Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories comprises labora- 
tories in the State House and the experiment station and its labora- 
tories at Lawrence. The work of the Division is carried on very 
largely under the provisions of the act entitled, " An Act to protect 
the Purity of Inland Waters of the State." Work is also called for 
by the provisions of many of the special acts defining the duties of the 
Department of Health, in regard to specific questions or matters of 
public welfare and public health as related to water supply, sewerage, 
etc. The general and special laws have to do with the public water 
supplies of the State, the improvement or the prevention of pollution 
of ponds, rivers, streams and, in fact, the condition of all the inland 
waters of the Commonwealth, including the bays and estuaries along 
the shore. Many of the special acts have to do with specific questions 
in regard to water, as the acquirement, development and control of 
watersheds, the study and improvement of certain rivers, the construc- 
tion of sewers, the purification of sewage, the treatment of manu- 
facturing wastes, etc. 

At the State House laboratories chemical and microscopical exam- 
inations of water supplies from ponds, lakes, storage reservoirs, dis- 
tributing reservoirs, filter galleries, tubular and driven wells, efiluents 
from water filters, etc., are made, and also many examinations of 
water for new water supplies or enlargement of water systems already 
in existence. Examinations of rivers, polluted and otherwise, of sew- 
age and the effluents from sewage purification plants, together with 
examinations of trade wastes and the effluents from filters treating 
these wastes, are made. Much work is also done at times in regard 
to the action of the water of certain towns and cities on lead and 
other service pipes, — this in connection with corrosion, lead poison- 
ing, etc. Special work coming up from time to time involving various 
chemical analyses and experiments is carried on; for example, exam- 
ination of air from sewers; examination of deposits in water pipes 
for the information of city and town w^ater departments; the exam- 
ination of water to show its fitness for boiler use; examination of 
spring waters sold to the public; examination of drinking water sup- 



372 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

plied on railroad trains and in mills and factories; examination of 
sands from sewage filter beds in use or proposed for use in order to 
give the necessary information in regard to the availability, the quality 
or the degree of clogging of this sand by organic matter after a period 
of use, and laboratory investigations as to the best methods of analysis 
for special work. 

The Lawrence Experiment Station, established by authority of the 
Legislature in 1887, has always been the investigating or research labor- 
atory of the Department for nearly all questions that have to do 
with the treatment and purification of water, sewage, trade wastes, 
and many allied subjects. It is also the laboratory where up to the 
present time all the bacterial work of the Department in connection 
with these Lawrence studies is done, and also where the bacterial 
examinations of samples from water supplies, rivers, wells, etc., are 
made. At the station many sewage and trade waste filters and a few 
water filters are in operation at the present time, principally for the 
study of particular problems brought before the Department, and for 
illustration of methods of purification and treatment of water and 
sewage. Many other investigations are always under way having to 
do with matters, information in regard to which is required of this 
Department by the State. 

The laboratory work, especially the analytical work at the State 
House laboratories, is closely allied with the work of the Engineering 
Division. Many of the laboratory studies and analytical results are 
incorporated in and appear only in the reports of the Department 
coming from that Division, or in the advice of the Department to 
cities and towns, etc. In all this work the director of the Division of 
Water and Sewage Laboratories is in frequent consultation with the 
engineer of the Department, or his principal assistants. Twenty-one 
special reports were made by this Division during the year to the En- 
gineering Division on subjects connected with water purification, sew- 
age purification, treatment of manufacturing wastes, etc. 

During 1915 a more thorough and systematic bacterial study of 
many of the principal water supplies of the State was made than in 
previous years, and tables presenting the results of these studies are 
given in this report. 

At the Lawrence Experiment Station 50 filters and other devices 
for the treatment of water, sewage, etc., were maintained in operation 
during the year, and special studies, the brief details of which are 
given in a subsequent portion of this report, were made upon the fol- ' 
lowing subjects : — 

1. Studies in regard to sewage sludge and its disposal in a new form 
of stabilizing tank. 



No. 34.] REPORT. 373 

2. Studies in regard to available nitrogen in sludge, and processes 
for increasing its availability for commercial purposes. 

3. Studies of the factors controlling the putrescibility of river de- 
posits, especially the influence of the ratio of carbon to nitrogen. 

4. Studies of the purification of sewage by aeration and growths, 
both by slate colloiders and by the activated sludge process. 

5. Studies of the greater rate eflBciency of deep trickling filters 
compared with shallow filters, and the cause of this efiiciency. 

6. Studies in regard to the purification of the waste liquors from 
paper mills, tanneries, leatherboard mills, wool-washing establishments, 
cloth-bleaching processes, etc. 

7. Studies of shellfish pollution. 

8. Studies of water sterilization by ultra violet rays. 

9. Studies of sterilization of water by liquid chlorine. 

10. Studies of improvement of water by the removal of iron, etc. 
In carrying out the analytical work of this Division made necessary 

by the samples forwarded to this laboratory by the Engineering Di- 
vision, and for the studies enumerated here and various other minor 
studies called for by the work of the Department, the following amount 
of analytical work was done: — 

Laboratory, Room 540, State House. 
Chemical examinations of water, sewage, wastes, etc., . . 7,250 

Microscopical examinations of water, 2,438 

Special examinations for lead and manganese, .... 198 

Special examinations (field work) for carbonic acid, dissolved 

oxygen, alkalinity, turbidity and color, 268 

Examinations of fats, arsenic, zinc and other miscellaneous 

examinations, ■ . . 563 



Lawrence Experiment Station. 
Chemical examinations of water, sewage, ice and manuf actural 

wastes, 3,090 

Chemical examinations of sand, 85 

Mechanical examinations of sand, . . ■ . . . . . 75 

Bacterial examinations of water, sewage, ice, manufactural 

wastes and sand, 4,559 

Bacterial examinations of shellfish, 135 



10,717 




As stated previously, many bacterial analyses of certain water 
supplies were made during the year, and a summary of the work is 
given in the following table: — 



374 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Results of Bacterial Examinations of Water Supplies of Cities. 







Average Number of 


Per Cent, of Samples in 






Bacteria per 


which 


B. Col 


were found 




Num- 
ber of 
Sam- 
ples. 


Cubic 


Centimeter. 




IN 


— 


Cities. 


4 
Days, 
20° C. 


24 hours, 
37° C. 


0.1 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 


1.0 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 


10 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meters. 


100 
Cubic 




Total. 


Red. 


Centi- 
meters. 


Attleboro, ..... 


3 


8 

















33 


Boston (Metropolitan): — 

City proper 

Stoneham, Spot Pond, 


36 

27 


82 
162 


20 
6 


1.9 
1.0 










8 
4 

/ 1 
I 11 


31 
26 


North Suburban, 


102 


104 


9 


1.0 








16 
11 


South Suburban, 


28 


85 


17 


0.8 











{ ■!. 


Brockton (including Whitman), . 


11 


112 


1 


0.9 











9 


Cambridge: — 
Fresh Pond, intake, . 
Taps in city, .... 


13 
29 


89 
182 


20 

26 


2.0 
0.5 



3 



3 




10 


46 
47 


Chicopee, 


3 


123 


8 


1 








33 


100 


Fall River: — 

Cress Brook 

Highland Brook, 


5 
9 


3,960 
918 


70 
83 




7.4 



11 



11 


40 
56 


100 

78 
/ 86 
I 141 


Terry Brook, .... 


7 


421 


14 


1.4 


14 


14 


58 


Five other inlets to Watuppa 

Lake. 
Watuppa Lake, intake. 


5 
21 


80 
80 


9 
6 


4 
0.2 






20 



60 
14 


100 
62 


FlTCHBURO: — 

Reservoirs and taps, . 


7 


137 


5 


1.4 








14 


29 


Gloucester, .... 


10 


119 


10 


5.6 











10 


Haverhill (including Bradford), 


13 


96 


7 


1.4 


8 





f 54 
1 81 


) - 


Holyoke, 


3 


35 


5 


0.3 











33 


Lawrence 


355 


50 


8 


1.7 





3* 


28 


70 


Ltnn, 


5 


160 


4 


0.6 





20 


20 


60 


Marlborough, .... 


5 


35 


2 











20 


40 


New Bedford, .... 


22 


31 


2 











f 18 
I 51 


1 23 


Newburyport 


6 


71 


9 


1.0 











33 


Newton, 


4 


33 


3 














/ 25 
1 251 


Northampton, .... 


3 


36 


7 


0.7 














Salem: — 


















Ipswich River at Topsfield, 


14 


458 


68 


9 


19 


56 


/ 100 
I 61 


} 100 


Wenham Lake, upper end and 

inlets. 
Wenham Lake, P. S. tap, . 
City taps, 


} - 

14 
12 


832 

81 
64 


45 

10 
11 


6.0 

0.6 
0.4 






7 


25 



7 


/ 45 
I 51 
13 
36 


65 
51 
68 
57 


Springfield, .... 


2 


24 


1 

















Taunton 


5 


48 


1 











20 


20 


Waltham, 


5 


6 


1 














20 


WOBURN, 


4 


9 




















Worcester 


14 


248 


10 


0.4 








7 


50 



1 Per cent, of samples in which sewage streptococcus was found. 



No. 34. 



REPORT. 



375 



Results of Bacterial Examinations of Water Supplies 


of Towns. 






Num- 
ber of 
Sam- 
ples. 


Average Number op 

Bacteria per 

Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Samples in 
which b. coli were found 

in — 


Towns. 


4 
Days, 
20° C. 


24 HOURS, 

37° C. 


0.1 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 


1.0 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 


10 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meters. 


100 
Cubic 




Total. 


Red. 


Centi- 
meters. 


Abington (including Rockland), . 


6 


12 


2 














17 


Adams, 


8 


89 


23 


25 





25 


/ 100 
1 251 


100 
13 » 


Amesbury, 


4 


8 




















Athol 


3 


290 


20 














33 


Braintree, 


6 


536 


6 


0.5 








f 17 
1 171 


} 100 


Bridgewater, 


3 


8 


3 

















Brookline 


4 


8 


2 








25 


25 


/ 50 
1 25» 


Clinton, 


3 


53 


17 


2.3 








33 


100 


Concord, 


4 


12 


1 














50 


Danvers, 


4 


262 


10 


0.8 





50 


75 


100 


Dedham, 


4 


5 


2 














50 


Framingham, .... 


3 


25 


2 











/ 33 
\ 331 


} 33 


Gardner, 


4 


229 


1 

















Hudson, 


3 


16 


1 














67 


Ipswich, 


4 


41 


29 


13 











50 


Marion, 


5 


24 


1 











80 


100 


Maynard 


4 


103 


4 


1 











25 


Middleborough 


3 


1 


2 

















Milford, 


4 


76 


2 


0.3 








/ 50 
\ 251 


1 " 


Natick 


4 


5 

















25 


North Attleborough, 


3 























Northbridge (Whitinsville), . 


4 


161 


27 


7 








75 


100 


Norwood, 


4 


24 


1 











25 


100 


Peabody 


4 


142 


8 


2 








50 


75 


Plymouth, 


3 


59 


28 


14 














Reading, 


3 


8 


3 

















Salisbury, 


6 


12 


1 











17 


67 


Southbridge, 


4 


52 


5 


0.8 








25 


75 


Stoughton 


3 


31 


2 


0.3 








67 


f 100 
\ 671 


Wakefield: — 
Crystal Lake, intake, 


14 


77 


31 


5.7 








14 


/ 29 
1 71 


Tap in P. S. and town taps. 


52 


49 


23 


2 















1 Per cent, of samples in which sewage streptococcus was found. 



376 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Results of Bacterial Examinations of Water Supplies of Towns — Concluded, 



Towns. 



Webster, 
Weymouth, 
Winchendon, 
Winchester, 



Num- 
ber of 
Sam- 
ples. 



Average Number of 

Bacteria per 

Cubic Centimeter. 



4 
Days, 
20° C. 



24 HOURS, 

37° C. 



Total. Red 



Per Cent, op Samples in 
WHICH B. CoLi were found 

IN — 



0.1 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 



1.0 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meter. 



10 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meters. 



100 
Cubic 
Centi- 
meters. 



• 
No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 377 



Experiments upon the Purification of Sewaoe and 

Water at the Lawrence Experiment Station 

during the year 1915. 



Character of the Sewage used in the Experiments. 

The sewage used in former years at the station was pumped from 
the Lawrence Street sewer through a 2§-inch pipe about 4,400 feet 
long. For much of this distance the pipe is laid in the bed of the 
Merrimack River, and sections of the pipe have been replaced from time 
to time as it has become weakened from cori'osion. 

Early in the summer of 1915 a considerable amount of leakage of 
river water into the pipe began, and gradually increased. An un- 
usually high river during the summer months made it impossible to 
repair the pipe, and, indeed, it was evident that it was a case of re- 
newing and relaying the entire pipe line if sewage was still to be 
obtained from the Lawrence Street sewer. It seemed on the whole 
more advisable to extend the old pipe from the point at which it 
enters the river to the Osgood Street sewer, so called, on the opposite 
bank of the river. 

This sewer has been built since the station was established, and 
drains a less densely populated section than the Lawrence Street 
sewer. By September 13 the extension was completed, the pipe being 
extended about 100 feet into the sewer beyond the connection from 
the mill, located directly over the outlet. The sewage is at present 
considerably weaker than the old supply and reaches the station in a 
fresher condition, the pipe through which it is pumped being only 
about one-third as long as the old pipe. 

"Regular station sewage" is the average of samples collected four 
times each day of the sewage as it reaches the experiment station; 
"settled station sewage" is the same sewage settled for at least two 
hours in a cylindrical tank; "sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 6 and 
9A" is the average of daily samples of all the sewage applied to the 
large intermittent filters situated out of doors. 

The average analyses of the various representative samples of sew- 
age collected during the year are shown in the following table: — 



378 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Analyses. 

Regular Station Sewage from Dec. 1, 1914, to Sept. 13, 1915. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 



Ammonia. 






Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 






ALBUMINOID. 




Bacteria 
per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Free. 


Total. 


In 
Solution. 


Total. 


In 

Solution. 


2.86 


.42 


.22 


.97 


.48 


8.44 


3.30 


2,563,000 



Regular Station Sewage from Sept. 13, to Dec. 1, 1915. 



2.11 



.38 



4.73 



3.03 



1,669,000 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 6 and 9 A. 



2.43 



.83 



6.84 



Average Solids. 

Regular Station Sewage. 

(Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Fn.TERED. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


46.1 


20.2 


25.9 


35.8 


12.4 


23.4 


10.3 


7.8 


2,5 



Preliminary Treatments for the Clarification of Sewage. 

Comparative studies of the clarification of sewage by sedimentation, 
by sedimentation preceded by aeration in slate tanks, by straining 
through coal and by chemical precipitation have been continued dur- 
ing 1915. 

Sedimentation in Open Tanks. 

All the sewage applied to the filters in the filter house, amounting to 

about 1,000 gallons a day, is clarified by at least two hours' settling in 

a cylindrical tank with a bottom sloping at an angle of 60° and from 

which sludge is drawn at least twice a week. The average weight of 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



379 



dry suspended matter per million gallons removed by this tank from 
the sewage pumped from the Lawrence Street sewer was 592 pounds, 
and from the Osgood Street sewer, 472 pounds; that is, the per cent, 
of suspended solids removed from the former was 61.2, and from the 
latter, 44.9. 

Precipitation 7vith Sulphate of Alumina. 
Throughout the year sewage was treated daily with from 3.5 to 7 
grains per gallon of sulphate of alumina. After four hours' settling the 
clarified sewage was drawn from the sludge to be applied to trickling 
Filter No. 457 and sand Filter No. 432. The average removal of sus- 
pended solids was 54.4 per cent. 

Straining through Anthracite Coal. 
Strainer E, containing 12 inches in depth of buckwheat coal and 
first put into operation in 1901, was operated at a rate of 1,000,000 
gallons per acre daily throughout the year. The surface of the strainer 
was raked four times to relieve clogging, and finally on November 26 
an inch of sludge was removed and the upper 3 inches of coal removed, 
washed and replaced. The average removal of suspended solids was 
62.1 per cent. 

Average Analyses. 

Settled Station Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 



Free. 



ALBUMINOID. 



Total. 



In 
Solution. 



Kjeldahl Nitrogen. 



Total. 



.58 



In 
Solution. 



.38 



Chlorine. 



Oxygen 
consumed. 



Bacteria 
per Cubic 
Centimeter. 



Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 


3.05 


.27 


.17 


.60 


.35 


7.75 


1.81 


582,000 


Effluent from Strainer E. 


2.45 


.23 


.16 


.56 


.35 


6.79 


1.93 


506,000 



380 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Solids. 

Settled Station Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unpiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


39.0 


15.2 


23.8 


34.6 


12.0 


22.6 


4.4 


3.2 


1.2 



Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 



36.6 



12.4 


24.2 


31.9 


9.2 


22.7 


4.7 


3.2 



1.5 



Effluent from Strainer E. 



32.5 



11.0 


21.5 


28.6 


8.3 


20.3 


3.9 


2.7 



Studies of Sludge, 

Fertilizing Value. — The utilization of se'wage sludge for fertilizer 
purposes -was one of the earliest problems of se'wage disposal. Up to 
the present time, ■with fe'w exceptions, ho'wever, sludge has been con- 
sidered -without commercial value on account of the large proportion 
of fats and -water present. In several places in England processes 
have been installed to remove part of the fats, and the sludge is then 
sold and used as a fertilizer. Any process that concentrates the sludge 
or increases the relative percentage of nitrogen present, increases its 
value. The activated sludge process is of considerable promise in this 
latter respect. 

Available Nitrogen. — The only satisfactory test of the value of a 
fertilizer is its use in actual practice. There are a number of labora- 
tory tests -which are claimed to give results comparable -with actual 
tests, and one of these (described by Jones in the Journal of Industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry, 4, 438) was used on a number of sludges 
at the Lawrence Experiment Station. The process consists in digest- 
ing a sample containing about .05 of a gram of organic nitrogen in a 
flask containing 15 glass beads, 20 cubic centimeters of water and 
100 cubic centimeters of alkaline permanganate (25 g KMn04 and 150 
g NaOH per liter). The flask is connected with a condenser, to the 
outlet of which a receiver-'containing standard acid has been attached. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 381 

The digestion is continued thirty minutes at a temperature just below 
the distillation point, and then 95 cubic centimeters are distilled off, 
the whole procedure taking ninety minutes. The organic nitrogen 
converted to ammonia by this process is considered available for plant 
growths. This process does not, however, show what effect the fats 
would have in actual practice. 

Five samples of sludge from Lawrence sewage, containing on an 
average 2.88 per cent. N, when tested by this method gave percentages 
of available nitrogen or availabilities of from 40 to 71 per cent, with 
an average of 58 per cent. Press cake from a wool-degreasing plant 
gave 37 per cent, of available nitrogen, which is about that found for 
peat. Peat is known to have little direct fertilizing value, in spite of 
the fact that it may contain over 3 per cent, of nitrogen. At the 
other extreme, dried meat scraps had an availability of 89 per cent. 
A sample of light, unmanured loam gave an availability of 68 per 
cent. Jones gives availabilities slightly below 65 per cent, for the 
organic nitrogen of medium grade tankage, cottonseed meal and com- 
mercial fertilizer. From these results it would seem that if the fats 
which run from 20 to 25 per cent, in this Lawrence sludge were re- 
moved, the organic nitrogen would be as valuable as much of the 
organic nitrogen used in fertilizers. 

Available Nitrogen in Trickling Filter Sediment. — The organic nitro- 
gen of the sediment from trickling filters gave an availability of 68 
per cent. This sediment contained 3.73 per cent, of nitrogen and 
less than 1 per cent, of fats, and should be much more valuable than 
the sewage sludge. Besides the nitrogen, sewage sludge contains from 
1 to 3 per cent, of P2O5. 

Effect of Age. — To determine what effect aging sludge has on 
availability, fats, etc., 12 gallon bottles were filled with sludge con- 
taining 1 per cent, of solid matter and the contents of one bottle were 
analyzed each month. As usually happens in a series of this sort, 
there were occasional irregularities in the results. There was little 
difference in the analyses after the sixth month and little change in the 
availability, there being an increase from 55 per cent, at the start to 
60 per cent. The fats dropped from 27.4 per cent, at the start to 7 
per cent. The changes in the per cent, of nitrogen in the sludge were 
the most irregular, decreasing from 4.21 per cent, to below 3 per cent. 
The per cent, loss on ignition decreased from 70 per cent, at the start 
to around 50 per cent. At no time was there any great increase in the 
organic matter in solution, showing that the nitrogen and organic 
matter lost must have disappeared as gas. 

These results indicate that only slight improvement in the fertilizer 



382 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

value of sludge results from the simple aging of sludge in contact with 
sewage. Similar results, extending over a shorter period, were ob- 
tained from sludge which had been drained of as much moisture as 
possible. Probably none of these sludges went through the biological 
changes that occur in Imhoff or similar tanks, as they were all putres- 
cent after several months. 

Processing. — The most promising way of utilizing sewage sludge is 
by one of the processing methods. In the "wet-mixed" process base 
goods, consisting of any dry nitrogenous trade wastes, are mixed in 
a closed chamber with rock phosphate and the requisite amount of 
sulphuric acid to make acid phosphate and allowed to stand several 
days until cool. Under these conditions more or less hydrolysis takes 
place and the inert organic matter is broken up into a variety of 
simpler compounds, many of which are utilized directly by plants or 
are readily converted by soil bacteria to plant food. The only diffi- 
culty in such use of sludge would be the cost of drying and removing 
fats. 

Hydrolysis. — Much work has been done by agricultural and physio- 
logical chemists on the hydrolysis of proteid bodies. It was thought 
that by applying their methods to the nitrogenous bodies in sludge 
some information might be obtained as to the nature of the changes 
taking place when a sludge becomes non-putrescible, and as to why 
this change takes place more readily in some sludges than in others. 
The method of Van Slyke ^ was followed. The time required for the 
work upon each sample is so considerable that not enough analyses 
were made to show satisfactory, definite results in this respect. 
Lathrop's ^ results show that hydrolysis in the "wet-mixed" process 
mentioned above is nearly as complete as in the Van Slyke laboratory 
process, so that the results at Lawrence show roughly at least what 
would have occurred in actual practice if the "wet-mixed" process 
were applied to sludge. 

The following table, showing representative results of analyses made 
at Lawrence, gives the per cent, of the total nitrogen appearing in the 
various organic compounds after ten hours' hydrolysis with boiling 
hydrochloric acid. These analyses show that an increase in available 
nitrogen can be obtained from sewage sludge, the same as from "base" 
goods, by the wet process. 

1 Journal Biological Chemistry, 10, 15-55. 

2 United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 158, p. 15. 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



383 



Per Cent, of Total Nitrogen. 



LawTence 
Sludge. 



Andover 
Sludge. 



Brockton 
Sludge. 



Degreasing 
Press Cake. 



Form of nitrogen: — 

Insoluble, ....... 

Amide, ....... 

Humin, 

Diamino acid fraction: — 

Arginine, 

Histidine, 

Lysine, 

Monoamine acid fraction: — 
Amino, ....... 

Nonamino, .....-■ 

Per cent, availability of nitrogen by alkaline 
permanganate test. 



6.1 
13.7 
3.3 



7.9 
16.7 
2.3 



48.6 
3.8 



50.0 



5.8 
3.9 
1.3 



18.3 
0.0 

7.8 



57.9 
6.3 



43.0 



14.0 
9.5 
5.3 



8.5 
7.9 
3.0 



38.0 
14.3 



38.0 



6.1 
13.2 
5.9 



10.3 
6.4 
1.3 



48.7 
5.4 



37.0 



Stabilizing Sludge by Oxidation. 

All the processes of digesting sludge to render it less offensive and 
more easy to handle — from the septic to the Imhoff tank — are car- 
ried on under anaerobic conditions. In experiments to hasten the 
stabilizing of sludge in an activated sludge tank the addition of ni- 
trates was found to be so efficient that it was decided to continue 
experiments along this line. During June sludge, amounting to 21.5 
gallons and containing 95 per cent, of water, was placed in one com- 
partment of a galvanized iron tank (No. 470), 2§ feet deep, 2| feet 
wide and 4 feet 2 inches long. This tank was divided into two nearly 
equal compartments by a wooden partition with openings 18 inches 
above the bottom of the tank. From 20 to 30 gallons of well-nitrified 
effluent from a sand sewage filter were passed into the tank daily. 
During the first few weeks active but inoffensive methane fermentation 
occurred and a scum tended to form at the surface which it was 
necessary to break in order to allow intimate contact between the 
sludge and effluent. It is probable that during this period insufficient 
nitrate oxygen was present. The sludge, however, became dense and 
inoffensive. 

During September and October 48 gallons of sludge containing 5 
per cent, of solids was again run into the tank. Sand filter effluents 
were added as before until December, when the tank was again emp- 
tied. The sludge at this time was inoffensive. The overflow from the 
tank was at times somewhat turbid but generally clear and always 
inoffensive. Whenever a well-nitrified effluent is available, this method 
offers a means of rendering sludge inoffensive without expensive deep 
tanks. 



384 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



For convenience in expressing results, the sludges have been calcu- 
lated to volumes of sludge containing 5 per cent, solids, and the filter 
effluents to a basis of 2.0 parts in 100,000 of nitrates. On this basis, 
during the first three months of operation, one volume of effluent was 
added daily for each volume of sludge. During the second three 
months only 0.61 volume of effluent was added for each volume of 
sludge. 

Average analyses are shown in the following tables, and the great 
destruction in the tank of matters determined as "loss on ignition," 
and of fatty matters, will be noted: — 

Average Sand Filter Efflv^nts applied to Tank No. J^IO. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Date. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen as 


Free. 


Albuminoid. 


Nitrates. 


1915. 

June 1 to August 31, inclusive, 

September 1 to November 30, inclusive. 


.0521 
.0696 


.0166 
.0141 


2.00 
2.00 



Average Overflow of Tank No. 470. 



June 1 to August 31, inclusive, . 
September 1 to November 30, inclusive. 



1.20 
0.71 



.1200 
.1200 



0.21 
0.14 



Analyses of Sludge on a Dry Basis, Sludge added to Tank No. 470. 





Per Cent. 


Date. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 


Fats. 


1915. 
June, 

September and October, 


66.4 
70.0 


2.27 
3.80 


28,7 
30.9 





Sludge drawn from 


Tank No. 470. 






September 

December, 


44.9 
31.0 


1.23 
2.01 


5.5 
19.0 



No. 34.1 PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 385 



Carbon Monoxide in Gases from Fermenting Sewage Sludges. 

A number of deaths from inhaling carbon monoxide in sewers hav- 
ing recently occurred in Massachusetts, it was thought desirable to 
determine the volume of carbon monoxide in the gases coming from 
fermenting sewage sludge such as might collect in such sewers. 
Samples of station sludge were collected in carboys and allowed to 
stand until fermentation took place, when 4-liter samples of gas were 
collected for analysis. Analyses in previous years showed that these 
gases consisted of from 50 to 75 per cent, methane, the remainder 
being nitrogen and carbon dioxide. 

The method of analysis employed at this time was that used by 
Kinnicut^ and others, and consists in passing the gas through fuming 
sulphuric acid, then through a tube containing lumps of caustic .soda 
and then a U-tube containing iodine pentoxide heated to 150° C. in 
an oil bath. The iodine set free is titrated, and from the amount of 
iodine the carbon monoxide is calculated. Kinnicut and Seidell^ used 
this method for small amounts of carbon monoxide, largely diluted 
with air and containing only small amounts of hydrocarbons. In the 
Lawrence work the carbon monoxide was diluted largely with methane 
and possibly other hydrocarbons. Methane is not supposed to be 
oxidized by the iodine pentoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons are 
supposed to be absorbed by fuming sulphuric acid. 

The results obtained must be considered as representing the maxi- 
mum amount of carbon monoxide present, and are subject to an un- 
certain correction. The first lot of sludge stood from April 24 to 
June 23, and 10 4-liter samples of evolved gas were collected and 
analyzed. The maximum carbon monoxide value found was .009 
per cent., and the average .005 per cent. The second lot of sludge 
stood from June 23 to August 13, and 23 4-liter samples of gas were 
analyzed. The maximum carbon monoxide found was 0.19 per cent., 
and the average 0.132 per cent. The third lot of sludge stood from 
August 20 to October 8, and 15 4-liter samples were analyzed. The 
maximum carbon monoxide found in the gas was 0.14 per cent., and 
the average was 0.098 per cent. 

These results indicate that it is extremely unlikely that dangerous 
amounts of carbon monoxide are formed from fermenting sewage 
sludge. 



1 Journal of American Chemical Society, 22 (1900), 14. 

2 Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 6, 321. 



386 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Relation between the C/N Ratio in Muds or Deposits, and 
THE Production of Offensive Odors under More or Less 
Anaerobic Conditions. 

While determining the oxygen absorptive powers of certain samples 
of mud from river beds, etc., it was noticed that some developed 
offensive odors and others did not even when they absorbed approxi- 
mately the same amount of dissolved oxygen. To study the reason 
for this, the following study was made: From 1 to 4 inches of mud of 
known composition was placed in gallon bottles filled with water and 
closed with rubber stoppers fitted with two glass tubes, one reaching 
nearly to the bottom and the other just through the stopper. Aerated 
tap water was introduced through the longer tube and portions with- 
drawn through the shorter tube for examination. The conditions in 
the mud were thus kept anaerobic, while fresh water was introduced 
often enough to keep a small amount of dissolved oxygen in the 
supernatant water, imitating conditions in the beds of ponds and 
streams. Dissolved oxygen and odors were determined daily. 

In the following table of results it will be noticed that when the 
C/N ratio was low, offensive odors were formed, even though the 
actual amount of nitrogen was lower than in a sample that did not 
produce offensive odors, and it was very evident that the kind of 
changeable organic matter and not the amount determines whether or 
not a deposit will be offensive. It appears also that the ratio between 
C and N will give an indication of the result. In this experiment 
the muds having the largest amount of fats and the lowest C/N ratio 
were the ones giving the most offensive odors. 





Per Cent. 


C/N 
Ratio. 




Sample from — 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Carbon. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Fats. 


Odor. 


Merrimack River, 
Salt water flat, . 
Merrimack River, 
Polluted pond. 
Storage reservoir, . 


10.5 
5.0 
7.8 
5.0 

15.0 


4.20 
2.00 
3.12 
.2.00 
6.00 


.500 
.120 
.240 
.190 
.370 


1.08 

0.17 
0.27 


8.4 
17.0 
13.0 
10.5 
16.2 


Offensive. 

Vegetable, not offensive. 

Slightly offensive. 

Offensive. 

Vegetable, not offensive. 



No. 34.1 PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 387 



Purification of Sewage by Aeration with the Aid of Biological 

Growths. 

In 1911 and 1912 studies were made at Lawrence in regard to the 
life of fish in polluted waters, and in water containing in some cases 
much, and in others little, dissolved oxygen. In the course of this 
investigation many interesting data were obtained in regard to the 
part that growths of algae, largely Protococcus, Scenedesmus and Monas, 
played in the consumption of CO2 and the liberation of oxygen. 
Weak sewage in sealed bottles was found to be partially purified 
when these organisms were present. Further, forced aeration and the 
presence of growths gave remarkable purification results in these 
bottle experiments (Report of Massachusetts State Board of Health, 
1912, pp. 344, 345). 

Immediately following this work, that is, in April, 1912, three and 
one-half years ago, quite extensive experiments were begun in regard 
to the purification of sewage by aeration aided by bacterial and 
microscopic growths. This work was for a month or two carried on 
in gallon bottles and carboys, and we found that by twenty-four hours' 
aeration we could obtain a sewage or bottle effluent which was stable 
and contained at times nitrates equal to 1.5 parts in 100,000 (Report 
of Massachusetts State Board of Health for 1912, p. 291). This was 
the first recorded successful work and method of purifying sewage 
in mlume; that is, without the aid of filtering media. This was the 
work shown to Dr. Fowler of Manchester, Eng., in August, 1912, and 
which he mentions in his discussion of Ardern and Lockett's paper 
(Journal of Society of Chemical Industry, May 30, 1914). His state- 
ment as applied to Ardern and Lockett's activated sludge work, so 
called, is as follows : — 

It is only right to admit that the work was really due to a visit to the experi- 
ment station at Lawrence, Mass., where I (Fowler) saw sewage which had been 
completely purified by twenty-four hours' aeration. 

In our work with gallon bottles the sewage was emptied from them 
daily, leaving only the growths on the sides and bottoms of the 
bottles, these growths and the sides of the bottles being also, of course, 
covered with a sewage slime. Fowler's first experiments were almost 
identical with this Lawrence work. Following our first work, a tank 
containing a few layers of slate was put into operation late in 1912. 
Growths, brown and gray in color (Massachusetts State Board of 
Health Report for 1912, p. 292), soon covered these slate layers, and 
sewage slime was also prominent. These growths, aided by aeration 



388 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

and the circulation of the sewage in the tank caused by the air cur- 
rents, collected not only suspended matters, but also a large percent- 
age of the colloidal matters of the sewage; bacterial oxidation occurred, 
and again as with the bottle experiments, stable and well-clarified 
effluents were obtained by twenty-four hours' treatment in this tank. 
To sum up the work so far, then, it is plain that many investigators 
at home and abroad, including Drown, Dupre and Dibdin, Mason and 
Hine, Black and Phelps, Fowler and others, had sought to purify 
sewage by direct chemical oxidation by air currents and had failed. 
At Lawrence, however, we discovered the efficiency of growths in 
aiding the purification of sewage by aeration and changed the current 
of investigation along this line of work. The work up to Dec. 1, 
1914, has been given in previous reports. 

Aerating Tank No. 449, started in January, 1913, was continued 
without change throughout 1915. Tanks Nos. 458 and 459, started 
April 13, 1914, were continued as last year up to March 16, 1915, 
when enough of the slates were removed to make the area of slate per 
gallon of sewage one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of Tank 
No. 449. All 3 tanks were now operated with regular sewage. The 
square feet of slate surface per gallon of sewage treated was from this 
date as follows: Tank No. 449, 1.09 square feet; Tank No. 458, 
.55 square feet; and Tank No. 459, .27 square feet. On October 6 
the period of aeration was increased from five to six hours, and 
throughout the year the volume of air applied was maintained at 
50,000 cubic feet per hour per million gallons of sewage on a basis of 
a working depth of 5 feet of sewage. 

As far as can be judged from the work during the year, the effluent 
from a slate aerating tank will be of practically the same quality 
whether the sewage treated is fresh or septic. The removal from the 
sewage of suspended solids by the tanks with the smaller amounts of 
slate was slightly better than by Tank No. 449, while the removal of 
colloids, as shown by reduction of Kjeldahl nitrogen remaining after 
filtration through filter paper, was about the same. Practically none 
of the effluents from these 3 aerating tanks were absolutely stable. 

The method of operation of secondary aerating Tank No. 449B, 
receiving the effluent from aerating Tank No. 449, was changed a 
number of times during the year. ~ During the last two months of 
the year the period of aeration was eight hours. Nitrification was 
fairly good during this period and about 90 per cent, of the samples 
were stable. 

The following tables show the reduction of organic matter, matters 
in suspension and colloidal matter by these tanks: — 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



389 



Average Analyses. 

Regular Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 449, 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL 


Chlo- 
rine. 






Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 






ALBUMINOID. 


NiTKOGEN. 


Nitrogen as — 


Bacteria 
per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


Free. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


3.07 


.46 


.30 


1.03 


.63 


8.50 


- 


- 


3.25 


2,563,400 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 449. 



2.69 



.18 



0.49 



.37 



7.70 



.000 



.0013 



1.62 1,196,000 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 449B after Eight Hours' Aeration. 



4.40 



.030 



.0007 



1.17 



Settled Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 458, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



3.45 



.42 



.27 



0.95 



7.09 



2.96 1,466,000 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 468, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



3.07 



.24 



.18 



0.53 



.35 



9.00 



.000 



.0003 



1.86 915,000 



Regular Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tanks Noa. 458 and 459, March 15 to Dec. 1, 

1915. 



.42 



.27 



0.95 



.57 



7.09 



2.96 2,563,000 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 458, March 15 to Dec. 1, 1915. 



2.00 



.17 



.14 



0.40 



.26 



6.30 



.000 



.0013 



1.46 



1,202,000 



Regular Station Sewage applied to Septic Tank No. 459, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



3.28 



.55 



.35 



1.13 



10.30 



4.49 2,563,000 



Septic Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 459, Dec. 1, 1914, io March 15, 1915. 



3.25 



.25 



0.58 



.45 



.80 



2.41 1,580,000 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 459, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



3.20 



.26 



0.48 



.38 



9.40 



.000 



.0002 



807,000 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 459, March 15 to Dec. 1, 1915. 



1.96 .19 



.36 



6.70 



.000 .0006 1.61 1,202,000 



390 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Solids. 

Regular Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 449. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltebed. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


TotaL 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


46.8 


21.6 


25.2 


35.8 


13.6 


22.2 


11.0 


8.0 


3.0 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 449. 



34.8 



10.9 



23.9 



29.6 



9.7 



19.9 



5.2 



1.2 



4.0 



Settled Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 468, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1916. 



41,1 



25.2 



37.8 



13.7 24.1 



3.3 



2.2 



1.1 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 458, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



36.6 



12.2 24.4 



34.2 



10.6 



23.6 



2.4 



1.6 



0.8 



Regular Station Sewage applied to Aerating Tanks Nos. 468 and 459, March 15, 1915, to 

Dec. 1, 1915. 



20.7 25.4 34.4 11.2 



23.2 



11.7 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 458, March 15 to Dec. 1, 1915. 



8.1 



16.9 



7.6 16.2 



1.2 



0.5 



0.7 



Regular Station Sewage applied to Septic Tank No. 469, Dec. 1, 1914, to'March 15, 1915. 



59.4 



27.8 31.6 



16.5 



27.5 



Septic Sewage applied to Aerating Tank No. 459, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



41.7 



15.9 



25.8 



37.1 



23.6 



4.6 



2.4 



2.2 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 459, Dec. 1, 1914, to March 15, 1915. 



12.4 



34.5 



10.9 



23. 



1.5 



0.4 



Effluent from Aerating Tank No. 459, March 15 to Dec. 1, 1915. 



28.6 9.2 



19.4 



26.0 



7.1 18. 



2.6 



2.1 



0.5 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 391 

An activated sludge tank, so called, No. 465, was put into operation 
on February 15. This tank is 26 inches in diameter, 4 feet deep, with 
a conical bottom, and has a capacity of 110 gallons, exclusive of the 
cone. Air is applied at the point of the cone, insuring a good circula- 
tion of the sludge. During the first month sludge from trickling 
filters, a sewage settling tank and some deposits from the slate tanks 
were placed in this tank until it was about one-fifth full of concentrated 
sludge. As the air supply was then arranged, air was not available 
during the night, hence the dissolved oxygen became exhausted, and 
more or less septic action set in during the night. It was undoubtedly 
a mistake to add the sludge more rapidly than it could be rendered 
stable by the tank. After a month's aeration there was little im- 
provement, the sludge being still foul-smelling and not settling readily. 

On September 13 a continuous supply of air became available, and 
average samples were collected for analysis at the end of five hours' 
and twenty-four hours' aeration. Beginning October 6 samples were 
collected after three and eight hours' aeration, and the sludge was 
continuously aerated to maintain aerobic conditions. Eighty-eight 
per cent, of the samples after three hours' aeration and settling and 
all samples after longer aeration were stable on incubation. The 
heavy part of the activated sludge settles readily in a few minutes, 
but the finer, light-colored matter settles more slowly and sedimenta- 
tion is not complete in one hour. The longer the time of aeration the 
more readily the fine matter settles. During the latter part of the 
year, however, the tank was in good operation, and a clear, nearly 
odorless effluent containing some nitrates was invariably obtained. 

Analyses are shown in the following tables: — 



392 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 465 after Three Hours' Aeration and One Hour 
Settling, Sept. 13 to Oct. 6, 1916. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Nitrogen 

AS — 




Turbidity. 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Oxygen 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


sumed. 


Slight, 


1.45 


.15 


.11 


.40 


.29 


4.20 


.100 


.0014 


1.13 



Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 465 after Twenty-four Hours' Aeration and One 
Hour Settling, Sept. 13 to Oct. 6, 1916. 



Slight, 



0.63 .12 .08 .28 .22 4.40 .230 .0032 0.82 



Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 466 after Five Hours' Aeration and One Hour Set- 
tling, Oct. 6 to Dec. 1, 1916. 



V. slight. 



0.85 


.13 


.09 


.33 


.24 


4.48 


.160 


.0033 



0.98 



Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 466 after Eight Hours' Aeration and One Hour 
Settling, Oct. 6 to Dec. 1, 1916. 



V. slight, . 



0.36 .10 .07 .26 .18 4.06 .140 .0020 0. 



The following analyses show the changes taking place in the sludge 
in the aerating tanks, and the increase in nitrogen and the decrease 
in fatty matters is very marked. Experience at Lawrence has shown 
that the more stable sludge or filter sediment is, the lower will be the 
per cent, of fats present. 



Per Cent. 



Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 



Fats. 



Regular sewage sludge, 

Deposits from Aerating Tank No. 449, . 
Deposits from Aerating Tank No. 458, . 
Deposits from Aerating Tank No. 459, . 
Deposits from Activated Sludge Tank No. 465, 



3.12 
4,06 
4.99 
3.54 
4.06 



20.2 
4.3 
5.0 
2.1 
4.2 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



393 



Operation of Trickling Filters. 

During 1915 15 trickling filters receiving sewage and 4 receiving 
trade wastes were operated at the station. Filters Nos. 135 and 136 
have been in operation sixteen years, and Filter No. 248 eleven years. 
All of these filters received sewage clarified by some form of treatment 
during the year. Filters Nos. 135 and 136 are 10 feet in depth, and 
Filter No. 248 is 6 feet deep. Every sample of the effluent from 
Filters Nos. 135 and 136 and 72 per cent, of the samples of effluent 
from Filter No. 248 were stable. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these 3 filters are shown 
in the following table: — 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 135. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 



2,145,000 



Appear- 
ance. 



2.2 



.28 



0.76 



AI/BUMINOID. 



.18 



.40 



Nitrogen 

AS — 



.0318 



1.71 



4.6 



t-, o 
o <.> 

p. ® 



78,600 



Effluent from Filter No. 136. 


1,357,700 


2.6 


.30 


0.84 


.23 


.11 


.37 


8.44 


1.40 


.0247 


1.86 


4.8 


133,000 


Effluent from Filler No. 248. 


1,389,900 


3.0 


.36 


1.45 


.34 


.17 


.68 


7.86 


1.20 


.0284 


2.40 


7.4 


592,000 



The Depth of Filtering Material and Trickling Filter • 

Efficiency. 

It has been long recognized at Lawrence that the maximum results 
in efficiency of purification and volume of sewage purified in trickling 
filter sewage purification are obtained when the filter is of considerable 
depth and is constructed of comparatively fine material. There is un- 
doubtedly a maximum depth beyond which the additional efficiency 
obtained is not commensurate with the additional cost of construe- 



394 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



tion and which interferes with filter aeration, and a minimum depth 
below which economical rates of filtration cannot be maintained. In 
co-ordination/- with the depth, a filtering material should be selected 
that will have the greatest efficiency at that depth when the filter is 
operated at economical rates and yet be coarse enough to preclude 
clogging of the filter, and, if possible, surface pooling. 

On May 1, 1913, 4 new trickling filters were put into operation at 
the station, to determine at what rates trickling filters constructed 
of different depths and of the same material must be operated in order 
to obtain effluents of equal quality. Each of these filters is con- 
structed of pieces of broken stone between f of an inch and If inches 
in size. Filter No. 452 is 4 feet in depth; Filter No. 453, 6 feet; 
Filter No. 454, 8 feet; and Filter No. 455, 10 feet. The sewage ap- 
plied to each has been clarified by sedimentation. We have attempted 
to operate each filter at such a rate that the effluents will contain 
about 1.5 parts nitrates in 100,000, this being the amount of nitrifi- 
cation which previous experience at the station has shown to be neces- 
sary, in order to insure stable effluents in trickling filter purification. 

Early in 1914 these filters reached a condition of equal biological 
activity, and it was possible to so adjust their rates that practically 
equal effluents were obtained. 

The average rates of operation and analyses of the effluents from 
these filters for the years 1914 and 1915 are given in the following 
tables: — 

Average Analyses of Effluents, 1914' 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Depth 

(Feet). 


Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Ammonia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Nitrogen 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 




Filter 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 


Per 
Cent, of 


Nunaber. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


Samples 
Stable. 


452 
453 
454 
455 


4 

6 

8 

10 


332,700 

585,100 

1,801,000 

3,733,000 


1.8600 
1.2900 
1.3575 
1.7275 


.3050 
.2950 
.3715 
.3900 


.2006 
.1796 
.2292 
.2616 


13.20 
13.30 
12.98 
13.48 


1.63 
1.81 
1.66 
1.76 


.0065 
.0128 
.0126 
.0081 


1.89 
1.79 
2.17 
2.38 


85 
95 
97 
86 



No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



395 



Average Analyses of Effluents, 1915. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Bacteria 
per 
Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


Filter 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Kjel- 
dahl 
Nitro- 
gen. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


AS — 


Number. 


Total. 


In So- 
lution. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


452 
453 
454 
455 


466,400 

805,500 

1,767,250 

3,501,000 


1.2354 
1.2179 
1.1808 
1.1162 


.2450 
.2104 
.2684 
.2131 


.1856 
.1371 
.1688 
.1631 


.5517 
.4320 
.5375 
.4835 


9.12 
9.26 
9.47 
8.62 


1.03 
1.07 
1.00 
1.26 


.0050 
.0160 
.0068 
.0035 


1.89 
1.62 
1.84 
1.80 


444,800 
318,400 
200,000 
347,500 



All of these filters are constructed of comparatively fine broken 
stone averaging about 1 inch in diameter, and they are, of course, 
operated under ideal conditions; that is, under such supervision and 
care as it is almost impossible to actually duplicate with municipal 
filter plants. This does not affect their comparative results, however. 
Judging from these results, the deeper filters are much more economi- 
cal than the shallower filters, as they allow greater rates, foot for 
foot. The maximum average rate of filtration per foot of depth with 
filters of the depths studied, with equal nitrification and stability of 
effluent, during 1915, was as shown in the following table: — 



Gallons filtered per Acre Daily per Foot of Filter Depth, with Equal Nitrification 

and Stability Results. 



According 
to 1915 
Rates 

(Gallons). 



With a 4-foot filter, . 
With a 6-foot filter, . 
With an 8-foot filter, 
With a 10-foot filter. 



116,600 
134,250 
220,906 
350,100 



After looking at these results the question, of course, arises as to 
the cause of the great rate-efficiency of the deeper filters. Why should 
a filter 10 feet deep allow not simply a rate two and one-half times as 
great as a 4-foot filter with equal purification, but a rate five or six 
times as great? The explanation when worked out is comparatively 
simple, and shows these striking results to be due simply to the 
hydraulics of the flow of the sewage through the filtering material. 
Twenty-five years ago in the first special report of the Lawrence 
Experiment Station, the flow of water through sand filters was de- 



396 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

scribed.^ This description, based upon experiments then made, showed 
that when water or sewage is applied to a sand filter, which at the time 
of application contains much water in its interstitial spaces, some of 
the applied water will, especially in filters of coarse sand, pass by the 
held interstitial water, instead of pushing it before it and appear at 
the filter outlet ahead of a large percentage of the held water. This 
held water is really partly interstitial water and partly absorbed water; 
that is, water held or absorbed by the organic matter lodged in the 
filter. 

Now, the rate and purification results in the operation of trickling 
filters of different depths have to do with this flow of water and the 
progressive mixture of the applied with the held water in filters of 
broken stone or other coarse material, and with filtering depths vary- 
ing in the cases cited in this report from 4 to 10 feet. In the early 
work only sand filters 5 feet in depth were studied. 

In this recent work a factor was revealed, not noticed in the sand 
filter studies of twenty-five years ago, which affects the results very 
materially. This is the simple fact, that the deeper the trickling filter 
up to a certain point the greater the tendency of the applied water 
to mix or mingle with the held water, instead of passing by this held 
water. This tendency to mingle as the filter depth increases, and to 
push the held water towards the underdrains, is great enough to cause 
a large percentage of the sewage passing through a 10-foot filter to be 
not simply twice as long in passing as through a 5-foot filter, but five 
or six times as long. Conversely, the rate of the deep filter may, on 
account of this, be from fiye to six times that of the shallow filter 
with equal purification results. This is illustrated by the following 
diagrams. 

On these diagrams are data from experiments made at Lawrence in 
regard to the flow through the 4 trickling filters, — the rate and puri- 
fication results of which were shown in the table, — namely. Filters 
Nos. 452, 453, 454 and 455, 4, 6, 8 and 10 feet deep, respectively. 
On the first diagram, the results are shown when each filter was being 
operated at the rate of 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily. In order to 
determine the time of passage of the water or sewage through the 
filters operated at this rate, and the degree of mingling of applied 
and held sewage, enough salt was placed at a definite time in the 
applied sewage to raise the chlorine 100 parts in 100,000, this amount, 
of course, being readily detected in the filter effluent, and increased 
chlorine in the effluent, due to the large application, being detected 
with equal readiness. 

After the application of this salt sewage to each filter, samples of 

1 Special report for 1890, Purification of Sewage and Water. 



No. 34.1 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



397 



the effluent were collected every few minutes for the determination 
of chlorine. Examining the diagrams it will be seen that 50 per cent, 
of the salt sewage applied to Filter No. 452 appeared at its outlet in 
about twelve minutes, mingled with 50 per cent, of the held sewage; 
that is, the chlorine had increased to 50 parts or more in 100,000 
parts; that with the 10-foot filter operating at the same rate, an hour 
and three-quarters elapsed before an effluent containing 50 per cent, 
of the salt sewage reached the underdrains; that is, instead of being 




TtM£ /N HOURS 



two and one-half times as long, or thirty minutes, most of this salt 
sewage was nine times as long in passing the deep as in passmg the 
shallow filter. The results are given with 4 filters, and perhaps for 
clearness the flow may be summarized as follows: — 

With a 4-foot filter, as stated, 50 per cent, of the salt sewage ap- 



398 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



peared at the outlet in twelve minutes, 75 per cent, in eighteen min- 
utes, and the remainder came slowly, mingled with the "held" sewage 
through many hours. With Filter No. 453, 6 feet in depth, 50 per 




T/M£ /y HOUffS 

cent, appeared in eighteen minutes, 75 per cent, in forty-two minutes, 
and the remainder appeared as with the first filter, mingled with the 
held sewage through many hours. With Filter No. 454, 8 feet in 
depth, the elapsed times were forty-eight minutes and one and one- 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 399 

half hours, respectively, while with the 10-foot filter, as stated, the 
elapsed times were one and three-quarters hours and three and one- 
half hours, respectively. In other words, with equal rates of operation, 
50 per cent, of the sewage applied to the 4-foot filter reached the filter 
outlet mingled with 50 per cent, of the held sewage twelve minutes 
after its application, while with the 10-foot filter, one hundred and 
twenty-five minutes elapsed before 50 per cent, of the applied salt 
sewage reached the filter outlet mingled with 50 per cent, of the 
held sewage. 

It follows, then, that at this rate — 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily 
— 50 per cent, of the sewage is subjected at the most to only twelve 
minutes' bacterial action in the 4-foot filter, while in the filter 10 feet 
deep, 50 per cent, receives at the most one hundred and twenty-five 
minutes' bacterial action. 

Now to reverse the application of the data gained in this way, these 
4 filters were operated at rates of 500,000, 800,000, 1,500,000 and 
2,500,000 gallons 'per acre daily at the time of a second experiment. 
Applying salt sewage as before and collecting and determining the 
chlorine in samples from the outlets, make clear, as will be seen by an 
examination of the diagram, that with these rates the applied and 
held sewage were about equally intermingled, hence were about equal 
periods of time in passing through each filter. Through the shallow 
filter operating at a rate of 500,000 gallons per acre daily, 50 per cent, 
of the salt sewage appeared in fifty minutes; through the 6-foot filter, 
operating at a rate of 800,000 gallons per acre daily, 50 per cent, ap- 
peared in fifty-five minutes; through the 8-foot filter, operating at a 
rate of 1,500,000 gallons per acre daily, a little divergence was noted, 
owing perhaps to slight clogging in this filter, as 50 per cent, of the 
applied salt sewage was seventy-seven minutes in reaching the filter 
outlet; but through the 10-foot filter, operating at a rate of 2,500,000 
gallons per acre daily, 50 per cent, of the salt sewage reached the filter 
outlet in one hour; that is, this Filter No. 455, two and one-half times 
as deep as Filter No. 452 and operated at a rate five times as great, 
gives equal time for sewage purification to occur as given by the shal- 
low filter operating at one-fifth the rate and hence equal purification. 
It is evident, moreover, from the diagram that the rate of the deep 
filter could have been at least 3,000,000 gallons per acre daily. These 
results show very clearly the reasons for the great economy of deep 
compared with shallow trickling filters. These filters are constructed 
of stone between f of an inch and 1^ inches in diameter. Filters of 
larger or smaller stone allow differing times of passage and degree of. 
intermingling, hence different but comparative results. 



400 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Trickling Filters Nos. 472, 473, 474 and 475. 

Filters Nos. 472 to 475, inclusive, were put into operation on April 
10, 1915. They are similar in construction to Filters Nos. 452 to 455, 
inclusive, except that the stone is much coarser, and they are oper- 
ated in the same manner as these latter filters in a study of the rates 
of operation necessary for equal efficiency of filters from 4 to 10 feet 
deep. The average rate of Filter No. 472 for the year was rather 
higher than it should have been, as shown by the low nitrates and 
degree of stability of its effluent, compared with the effluents from 
the other filters of this series. Apparently, Filter No. 475 might have 
been operated at a somewhat higher rate. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these 4 filters are given 
in the following table, and on diagrams beyond are presented the 
same facts in regard to these filters of coarser material as on the pre- 
vious diagrams concerning the depth and efficiency of Filters Nos. 
452 to 455, inclusive. These diagrams show that the deeper filter, 
No. 475, 10 feet in depth, can operate at a rate six or seven times 
as great as Filter No. 472, 4 feet in depth, with the same efficiency 
and purification. 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 472. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Appbab- 


Ammonia. 


2 
1 




Nitrogen 


13 

a 

3 

a 
o 


o 

'2 


Quantity 


ANCE. 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 


3 
o 


applied. 








a 
o 








Gallons 












•73 


o 




• 




oj a 


per Acre 
Daily. 




S 


<B 


"3 


3 
1 


a 






a 

o 

>> 














h-t 














Ch 


O 


fc. 


Eh 


W 


O 


'Z 


2 


d 


w 


464,200 


3.0 


.39 


1.3000 


.2530 


.1764 


.5800 


7.71 


0.57 


.0257 


2.00 


1,217,140 



Effluent from Filter No. 473. 



616,200 



3.0 


.39 


0.8257 


.2429 


.1649 


.5003 


7.60 


0.99 


.0204 


1.96 



798,571 



Effluent from Filter No. 474. 



674,600 



2.8 



0.9897 



.1906 



.5467 



7.62 



0.87 



.0272 



1.86 640,700 



Effluent from Filter No. 475. 



738,100 2.6 .37 0.7386 .2316 .1429 .5047 7.93 1.74 .0265 1.74 700,000 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



401 



too 


/ 2 3 4 


' S ff 7 




^^ 
















75 














50 


1 










No. 472 






25 


1 






/P«y/ 


e /.OOO.OO 


^a/s. ^Ci 


■eds/Vy 




"^iSo 


















^~ 75 


y 


^ 














^ 50 


/ 








F/LT£:/=? 


A/0.473 








/ 






/?«y 


^e /.OOO.C 


'>00^3/S., 


icrea^/V) 


' 




/ 
















1 7'S- 



















>^ 50 


/ 


X 






F/LTER 


A/O. 474 

1 F^f>-f- 






S 25 


/ 






/Pd 


fe/.OOO.C 


00 ^a/s.a 


cred^/'/y 




^>.2 


/ 
















/oo 

75 



















SO 






^ 


^--^^^ 


F/LTER 


Afo. 47S 






25 




y 


y" 


P3 


Depth t 
fe /.OOO.C 


Feet 
00 (f^/s. 


"jcre ct3/t 


y 





_^^ 

















3 4 

T/M£ /N/^0U/9S 



402 
/oo 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

/ g 3 4- ^ S , 6 7 




3 4- S 



StabiliUj of Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 452 to 1^5, inclusive, and Trick- 
ling Filters Nos. 47S to 475, inclusive. 



Per Cent, op Samples. 



FiLTEB Number. 



452, 
453, 
454, 
455, 
472, 
473, 
474, 
475, 




No. 34. 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



403 



Ahsorytion of Oxygen by Trickling Filter Effluents. 

When Filters Nos. 452, 453, 454 and 455 were started, 1.50 parts in 
100,000 of nitrogen as nitrates was selected as the standard to be at- 
tained by all 4 filters to insure satisfactory effluents. With the appli- 
cation of weaker sewage during part of the year and the use of the 
Osgood Street sewage since September, the nitrates have dropped to 
about 1.0 parts in 100,000. 

The average amount of oxygen absorbed from nitrates and dissolved 
oxygen by these effluents during twenty-four hours' incubation at 70° 
F. is shown in the following table: — 



Oxygen absorbed from — 



Nitrates 

Dissolved oxygen, 

Total, 

Average total since filters were started. 



[Parts in 100,000. 



Effluent 

from Filter 

No. 452. 



0.75 
0.40 



1.15 
1.27 



Effluent 

from Filter 

No. 453. 



0.79 
0.38 



1.17 
1.12 



Effluent 

from Filter 

No. 454. 



0.77 
0.22 



0.99 
0.97 



Effluent 

from Filter 

No. 455. 



0.93 
0.16 



1.09 
1.24 



Method of Rating the Size of Beoken Stone used in the Con- 
struction OF Trickling Filters. 
All crushed or broken stone is screened through circular, rotary 
screens having round openings, and it has been customary to express 
the size of the pieces of such stone as being between the diameter of 
the ring through which all the pieces will pass and the diameter of 
the ring through which none of the pieces will pass. Both the angle 
of the screen and the speed of rotation have a decided influence on 
the size of the pieces passing a given sized ring or opening. The min- 
eralogical nature of the stone also influences the shape and hence the 
volume of each piece of stone passing through the rings. Therefore, 
mistakes and inaccuracies arise in expressing the size of the pieces 
used in the construction of trickling filters. This can be largely 
obviated, however, by expressing size as the actual volume of each 
piece of stone, calculating this from the average weight and specific 
gravity of a number of selected pieces. Making this rating of the 
broken stone used in the trickling filters at Lawrence has given the 
following results: — 



404 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Filter Number. 



Average Volume 

of Pieces of 

Stone (Cubic 

Centimeters). 


Size of Screen 
(Inches). 


0.52 


K-1 


0.52 


H-1 


3.03 


_i 


5.06 


1-2 


3.90 


^A-m 


3.73 


M-m 


4.06 


H-m 


5.33 


H-m 


4.88 


1-2 


4.82 


1-2 


4.51 


1-2 


25.2 


- 


27.8 


- 


28.5 


- 


29.4 


- 



135, 
136, 
248, 
449, 
452, 
453, 
454, 
455, 
457, 
458, 
459, 
472, 
473, 
474, 
475, 



1 Twenty-five per cent, finer than 1. 



Operation of Contact Filters. 

Contact Filters Nos. 175 and 421 to 4^8, inclusive, and Secondary Con- 
tact Filters Nos. 44-3 and 456. 

During 1915 11 contact filters were operated, one of which, No. 175, 
has been in operation for about fifteen years in a study of permanency; 
8 were started during 1911 in a comparative study upon the effect of 
different methods of operation; and 1 was started during 1912 as a 
secondary contact filter, receiving the effluent from a primary contact 
filter. Filter No. 456 was started last year to study the effect on loss 
of open space of sewage which had been clarified by treatment in a 
slate aerating tank. 

Filter No. 175, first put into operation in June, 1901, is constructed 
of coke of such size that all will pass through a sieve having a 1-inch 
mesh, 75 per cent, through a sieve having a §-inch mesh and prac- 
tically none through a sieve with a j-inch mesh. This filter has always 
received sewage that has passed through a coke or coal strainer; it is 
filled once daily in one dose, stands full two hours before draining 
and is allowed to rest every sixth week. The loss of open space at 
the end of the year was 35 per cent. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



405 



Studies of the Effect of Methods of Operation of Contact Filters. 
Filters Nos. 421 to 4^8, inclusive. — These 8 filters were first put 
into operation on Jan. 18, 1911. Each is constructed of 33 inches in 
depth of pieces of soft coal clinker having a diameter between j and 
Ij inches, and is operated with settled sewage. The difference in the 
methods of operating these filters is shown in the following table: — 



Filter 
Number. 



Method of Filling. 



Contact 
Period 
(Hours). 



Number 

of Cycles 

Daily. 



421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 



Rapidly from surface, 

Rapidly from surface,