(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The first fifty years of the Arnold Arboretum"

QK 
479 
H3> 







TY : 

- 



.-rint fro:a Journal of tne Arn- rboretum 

Vol. 



THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

C. S. SARGENT 













Reprinted without change of paging from 

JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM, VOL. III. 

1922 




FORESTRY 
LIBRARY 



A arric.- Forestry. Main Library 



CONTENTS 

THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 
BY C. S. Sargent 



y . < 

>-- 

*, j *! 

_--' 



JOURNAL , * 

*<& *%c&** ^^ 

OF THE 

ARNOLD ARBORJETUM 



* 

* 



VOLUME III JANUARY, 1923 NUMBER 3 

THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

C. S. SARGENT 

By his will signed on the 22d of May, 1868, James Arnold, a merchant 
of New Bedford, Massachusetts, gave one and one-quarter of the twenty- 
four parts into which he divided his residuary estate "To George B. 
Emerson, John James Dixwell and Francis E. Parker Esqrs. of Boston 
in trust: to be by them applied for the promotion of Agricultural, or 
Horticultural improvements, or other Philosophical, or Philanthropic 
purposes at their discretion, and to provide for the continuance of this 
Trust hereafter to such persons, and on such conditions as they, or a 
majority of them, may deem proper, to carry out the intention of the 
donor." 

The senior of these Trustees, Mr. George B. Emerson, a distinguished 
Boston schoolmaster, had long been interested in Natural History, espe- 
cially in trees, and had prepared for the Commonwealth a report on " The 
Trees and Shrubs growing naturally in the Forests of Massachusetts " pub- 
lished in 1846 and an authoritative work on the subject still consulted by 
students of trees. Mr. Dixwell, the second of these Trustees, a successful 
Boston business man, was also a lover and student of trees, and had 
assembled on his place in Jamaica Plain one of the largest and best collec- 
tions of native and foreign trees which was growing at this time in New 
England. Mr. Francis E. Parker, a Boston lawyer, was also one of the 
Trustees under Mr. Arnold's will. Two therefore of the three men 
appointed by Mr. Arnold to administer his bequest for the improvement 
of Agriculture or Horticulture were interested in trees and understood the 
importance to the world of more knowledge in regard to them than could 
at that time be obtained in this country; and it was natural that the idea 
of a scientific station for the study and cultivation of trees should have 
occurred to them. They fortunately realized that such an institution 
could be permanently and safely controlled by Harvard College. 

Mr. Arnold died December 3d, 1869; and on March 29, 1872, the Trus- 
tees under his will and the President and Fellows of Harvard College signed 
an indenture which contained the following provisions : 

" That, Whereas, the said James Arnold, by his last will, devised and 



^85940 



'*28 .* V '::..:. -JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

bequeathed to the said party of the first part one and a quarter twenty- 
fourth parts of the residue of his estate 'in trust, to be by them applied 
for the promotion of agricultural or horticultural improvements, or other 
philosophical or philanthropic purposes at their discretion, and to provide 
for the continuance of this trust hereafter to such persons, and on such 
conditions as they or a majority of them may deem proper to carry out 
the intention of the donor ' ; and 

" Whereas, Benjamin Bussey, late of Roxbury, in the county of Norfolk, 
merchant, deceased, by his last will and testament devised to the said party 
of the second part an estate in remainder subject to certain life estates 
in the estate on which he had lived in said Roxbury, called 'Woodland 
Hill,' consisting of over two hundred acres of land, in trust and confidence 
that they would "establish there a course of instruction in practical agri- 
culture, in useful and ornamental gardening, in botany, and in such branches 
of natural science as may tend to promote a knowledge of practical agri- 
culture and the various arts subservient thereto and connected therewith, 
and cause such courses of lectures to be delivered there, at such seasons 
of the year and under such regulations as they may think best adapted to 
promote the ends designed, the institution so established to be called 
the 'Bussey Institution' ; and 

" Whereas, the said party of the first part have agreed and determined, 
in the exercise of the discretion given them under the will of the said James 
Arnold, that the disposition of the property devised and bequeathed to 
them as aforesaid, in the manner and for the purposes and upon the con- 
ditions hereinafter set forth, is and will be the most suitable and proper 
execution of their trust, and will most effectually provide for the con- 
tinuance of the trust for the future, to carry out the intention of the donor, 

"Now, Therefore, it is agreed, bargained, and covenanted by and 
between the said party of the first part and the said party of the second 
part, as follows: 

" First. The said Emerson, Dixwell, and Parker, trustees, party of the 
first part, in consideration of the covenants, agreements, and undertakings 
of the said President and Fellows hereinafter set forth, do hereby give, 
grant, bargain, sell, convey, assign, and transfer to the said President and 
Fellows of Harvard College, party of the second part, and their assigns 
forever, the whole property and estate devised and bequeathed to them, 
the party of the first part, under and by virtue of the will of the said 
James Arnold, which has been already received or shall be hereafter received 
by the said party of the first part (excepting and reserving therefrom a 
sum sufficient to pay the actual expenses incurred by said party of the first 
part), a schedule of which, so far as received, is hereto annexed, 

" To Have and to Hold the same to the said party of the second part, and 
their assigns forever, in trust, with full power of sale and reinvestment, 
upon the trusts following, namely, 

" That the said party of the second part shall hold the same as a separate 



1022] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 129 

and distinct fund, and shall allow the whole net income thereof (after 
deducting the necessary expenses of managing the same, and also deduct- 
ing, if they see fit, one third part of such net income in each year as is 
hereinafter provided) to accumulate and add the same to the principal, 
until the said fund shall amount, at a just valuation, to one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, and until the land at West Roxbury hereinafter 
described shall come into the possession of the said party of the second 
part as an estate in possession, free of all life tenancies or other encum- 
brances. 

" Second. When both said events shall have happened, that the said 
party of the second part shall accumulate five per centum of the said net 
income, in every year, and add the same to the capital, as a part of the 
said permanent and separate trust fund. 

" Third. That the said party of the second part shall devote the 
remainder of the said net income in every year to the establishment and 
support of an Arboretum, to be called the 

Arnold Arboretum, 

which shall contain, as far as is practicable, all the trees, shrubs, and 
herbaceous plants, either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the 
open air at the said West Roxbury, all which shall be raised or collected 
as fast as is practicable, and each specimen thereof shall be distinctly 
labelled, and to the support of a professor, to be called the Arnold Pro- 
fessor, who shall have the care and management of the said Arboretum, 
subject to the same control by the said President and Fellows to which 
the professors in the Bussey Institution are now subject, and who shall 
teach the knowledge of trees in the University which is in the charge of 
the said President and Fellows, and shall give such other instruction therein 
as may be naturally, directly, and usefully connected therewith. And as 
the entire fund, increased by the accumulations above named, under the 
best management and with the greatest economy, is barely sufficient to 
accomplish the proposed object, it is expressly provided that it shall not 
be diminished by supplementing any other object, however meritorious 
or kindred in its nature. 

But the said President and Fellows shall be allowed to obtain from said 
Arboretum, free of cost, any trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, which, 
in the judgment of the Arnold Professor, can be spared from said Arbore- 
tum without injury thereto, the same to be used for the ornament of the 
College grounds, at Cambridge or elsewhere. 

Fourth. Until the happening of both of the events named in the first 
clause, the said party of the second part may expend one third part of 
said net income in every year, and no more, in such preparation of the land 
hereinafter named, and in such collecting or raising of specimens, and the 
necessary superintendence thereof, as will promote the general and ulti- 
mate purpose above stated, but in no other way." 



130 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

By this indenture Harvard College received as an Endowment for the 
proposed Arboretum $103,847.57 and agreed to use for it about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five acres of its Bussey estate. The land devoted at 
this time to the Arboretum had a frontage on Centre Street from the posi- 
tion of the present Centre Street entrance for about half the distance to 
the corner of Walter Street, on South Street from a point a short distance 
east of the present South Street entrance to the corner of Bussey Street, 
and for about three-quarters the length of the last named street. The 
northern boundary crossed the north meadow about where the group of 
Phellodendrons now stands on the right hand side of the Meadow Road, 
and was often covered with water from the brook from Centre Street 
which discharged its water on the undrained surface of the meadow. 
The low land near the junction of the Meadow, Forest Hills and Bussey 
Hill Roads, now partly occupied by the three small ponds, was an undrained 
swamp. Hemlock Hill was then perhaps more beautiful than it is now for 
since that time several old White Pine-trees which were then in their prime 
and rose high above the Hemlocks have died. The valley of Bussey Brook 
at the northern base of Hemlock Hill was then covered by an almost im- 
penetrable thicket of Alders, and the western boundary of the proposed 
Arboretum crossed the brook a little west of the present grove of Red 
Pines. There was no access to these one hundred and twenty-five acres 
except by a steep cart track from the entrance to the Bussey Mansion 
across land controlled by the Bussey Institution. 

I was appointed Director of the new Arboretum by the President and 
Fellows of the College on November 24, 1873. The prospect of being able 
to establish a useful institution would not have been encouraging if the 
men interested in it had had at that time as much knowledge as hope and 
enthusiasm. For it is safe to say that not one of them had an idea of what 
an Arboretum might be, or what it was going to cost in time and money 
to carry out the provisions of the indenture between the Trustees under 
Mr. Arnold's will and the President and Fellows of Harvard College; 
and certainly not one of them was more ignorant of the subject than the 
man selected to carry out the provisions of this agreement. He found 
himself with a worn- out farm, partly covered with natural plantations of 
native trees nearly ruined by excessive pasturage, to be developed into a 
scientific garden with less than three thousand dollars a year available 
for the purpose. He was without equipment or the support and encour- 
agement of the general public which then knew nothing about an Arbore- 
tum and what it was expected to accomplish. The work of forming a 
nursery, however, was begun at once, greenhouses of the Bussey Institution 
being available for the propagation of the few plants which could at that 
time be found in the neighborhood of Boston. 

In 1873 Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted was engaged in planning and con- 
structing a park system for the City of Boston and suggested that that 
part of the Bussey farm which was to be devoted to the Arboretum might 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 131 

be used with certain restrictions as one of the Boston parks. The sugges- 
tion met with little favor and was opposed by the governing Board of 
the College and by the Park Commissioners of Boston. The press was 
indifferent, and its only enthusiastic supporters were Mr. Olmsted and 
the Director of the Arboretum, and several years of hard semipolitical 
work were needed to make possible Mr. Olmsted's plan. On December 30, 
1882, however, the consent of the Legislature to it having been obtained, 
the following agreement between the City of Boston through its Park 
Commission and the President and Fellows of Harvard College was signed : 
" Whereas the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Boston by 
virtue of the authority conferred upon said Board by chapter one hundred 
and eighty-five of the Acts of the Legislature of Massachusetts of the year 
1875 and by the City Council of said City of Boston, by a certain written 
instrument of even date herewith to be recorded with the Suffolk Registry 
of Deeds have taken and located as and for a public park that tract of 
land in that part of said City known as West Roxbury held by the College 
and by it dedicated to the use of the Arnold Arboretum, so called, together 
with certain adjoining tracts, the property of other persons deemed by said 
Commissioners convenient and necessary for use in connection therewith 
for the purposes and under the powers and limitations set forth in said 
act and acts in addition thereto and amendment thereof And whereas 
by an act of the General Court of Massachusetts passed on the twenty- 
ninth day of March in the year 1880 it was enacted that in case the said 
Board of Park Commissioners deemed it desirable so to take the said 
lands for the said purposes the City was thereby authorized to lease such 
portion of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts so taken as the said 
Board of Commissioners might deem not necessary for use as parkways 
and grounds to the College to be held to the same uses and purposes as the 
said Arboretum was then held under the trusts created by the wills of 
Benjamin Bussey and of James Arnold and for such a term and upon such 
mutual restrictions, reservations, covenants and conditions as to the use 
thereof by the public in connection with the uses of the same under the said 
trusts, and as to the rights, duties and obligations of the contracting parties 
as might be agreed upon between the said Commissioners and the College. 
And the Board of Park Commissioners on the part of the City and the 
President on behalf of the College were respectively authorized to execute 
and deliver the said lease. And whereas the said Board of Park Commis- 
sioners deems such portion of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts 
as is hereinafter described and leased to be not necessary for use as park- 
ways and grounds and considers that the same will be better and more 
advantageously enjoyed and used by the public as a part of the said park 
if the same be leased to the College for the purposes of the said trusts and 
upon such terms and subject to such provisions with regard to the use 
thereof by the public as are hereinafter contained. And it has been 
agreed between the said Commissioners and the College that the same be 



132 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

leased to the College for the term and upon the mutual restrictions, reserva- 
tions, covenants and conditions hereinafter expressed. 

" Now this Indenture witnesseth that the City by virtue and in exercise 
of the power and authority given to it by the said Act and of every other 
power and authority it hereto enabling doth demise and lease unto the 
College all that parcel of land delineated on a plan entitled 'The Arnold 
Arboretum' and to be recorded herewith in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds 
situate in that part of Boston known as West Roxbury and bounded and 

described as follows: 
************* * 

" Excepting and always reserving out of these presents all those parts of 
the said lands delineated and marked on the said plan as driveways and 
parkways and those parts of the same lands delineated and marked A and B 
respectively on the said plan. And granting with the premises hereby 
leased a free and unobstructed right of way upon and over all the said 
excepted parts of the said lands and upon and over the driveways and 
parkways delineated on the said plan and so marked thereon. 

"To have and to hold the premises hereby leased (hereinafter called 
the Arnold Arboretum) unto the College and its successors and assigns 
for the term of One thousand years from the date hereof without impeach- 
ment of waste upon and for the same trusts, uses and purposes as those 
upon and for which the said land held by the College for the purposes of 
the said Arboretum at the said time of the passing of the said Act of the 
year 1880 was then held under the will of Benjamin Bussey and the will 
of James Arnold and a certain indenture dated the 29th day of March in 
the year 1872 and made between George B. Emerson, John J. Dixwell 
and Francis E. Parker as Trustees of the will of the said James Arnold of 
the one part and the College of the other part in which indenture the trusts 
provided for in the said will of James Arnold are declared in pursuance 
of the directions in the said will contained. Yielding and paying therefor 
during the said term the yearly rent of one dollar And the City cove- 
nants with the College and its successors and assigns that the College and 
its successors and assigns shall peaceably hold and enjoy the premises 
hereby leased during the said term without any interference or control of 
the City or any person claiming through or under it. That the City will at 
all times save and keep harmless and indemnified the College and its suc- 
cessors and assigns and keep the premises hereby leased free and discharged 
of and from all taxes and assessments of every description which during 
the said term may be assessed or payable in respect of or charged upon the 
premises hereby leased or any part thereof. That the City will within a 
reasonable time make and finish fit for use of good sound materials and 
in a proper and workmanlike manner the driveways of which the sites 
and dimensions are delineated on the said plan and so marked thereon 
but at a cost not exceeding seventy-five thousand dollars, and that the 
said driveways during the said term shall be repaired and maintained in a 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 133 

proper and substantial manner free of all charge and expense to the College 
and its successors and assigns. That the City will during the said term 
provide and maintain a proper and sufficient police in and about the 
Arnold Arboretum and the said parts excepted from these presents and 
the said roads, avenues, and parkways for the preservation of order and 
good conduct and the observance of the rules hereinafter mentioned or 
provided for. That no public street or highway and no steam or horse 
railway or construction for like purposes shall be laid out through or over 
any part of the Arnold Arboretum except in such places, if any, and in 
such manner as the Park Commissioners and the College shall approve. 
That if the water supply from the sources within the Arnold Arboretum 
which the College has heretofore enjoyed for use in the said Arboretum 
shall at any time be cut off, interrupted or impaired by the City or its 
assigns the City will immediately provide at its own charge and expense 
an equal or superior supply of water for the like use. And that if the 
College, its successors or assigns shall be desirous of taking a renewed 
lease of the said premises for the further term of One thousand years from 
the expiration of the term hereby granted the City or its assigns will upon 
the request and at the expense of the College, its successors or assigns and 
upon its or their executing and delivering to the City or its assigns a 
counterpart thereof forthwith execute and deliver to the College, its suc- 
cessors or assigns a renewed lease of the said premises for the further term 
of One thousand years at the same yearly rent and upon and subject to 
the same restrictions, reservations, covenants, and conditions as are here- 
in contained including this present covenant and so on from time to time 
forever. And the College for itself and its successors and assigns cove- 
nants with the City that the College will not commence or prosecute any 
action, suit or other proceeding against the City for the enforcement or 
recovery of any damages or claim which the College may have or be 
entitled to against the City by reason of the said taking of the said 
Arboretum land by the City. And that the Arnold Arboretum shall at 
all reasonable times be open to the inspection of the public as a part of 
the said Park subject to the rules hereinafter mentioned or provided for. 
Provided, Always, and it is hereby declared that the City shall be at liberty 
to erect and maintain suitable gateways for entrance thereto upon any of 
the said excepted parts and to maintain gates there. And that no pavil- 
ion, kiosk, urinal, museum, greenhouse, stable, shed, or other building 
(except as above provided) shall be erected or maintained within the 
Arnold Arboretum or in any of the said excepted parts or in any of the 
said driveways or parkways without the prior consent of the Park Com- 
missioners and the College. Provided, also, and it is hereby declared and 
agreed that the use of the Arnold Arboretum and of the said excepted 
parts and of the said roads, avenues and parkways by the City and its 
assigns and the College, its successors and assigns and the public shall 
be subject to the rules contained in the schedule hereto annexed and to 



134 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. m 

such additional rules as have been or may from time to time be agreed 
upon between the Park Commissioners and the College. But any of the 
said rules may be altered or annulled by agreement between the Park 



^^Cjpmmissioners and the College." 



By this agreement the location of the Arboretum was practically fixed 
for at least one thousand years, for although the College may in the 
future wish to move it to less valuable land it is not possible to conceive 
that the City of Boston will ever consent to abandon the benefit it derives 
from the use of the Arboretum as a public park. By this agreement the 
Arboretum is relieved of the danger of taxation during the period of the 
lease and obtains without expense the protection of the Boston police. 
In return for these benefits the public is admitted to the free enjoyment 
of a public garden maintained with the exception of the roads by the Uni- 
versity. By this arrangement more than two-thirds of the north meadow 
with the land on which the Administration Building now stands and the 
hill behind it was added to the original area of the Arboretum, which also 
gained an entrance from Walter Street and that part of the valley of the 
Bussey Brook between Walter Street and the western boundary of the 
Bussey Farm. In return the Arboretum gave up to the City the land now 
occupied by the Arborway between the old northern boundary of the 
north meadow and the Forest Hills entrance and the wooded slope east of 
the Arborway. 

A few trees along the boundaries had been planted before 1882, but 
the City was slow in building the roads with their adjoining gravel paths, 
and it was not possible to begin planting trees in systematic arrangement 
until 1885, that is at the end of thirteen years devoted to preliminary 
negotiations and the perfection of plans. 

It was soon found that the area which in 1882 was devoted to the 
Arboretum was inadequate for the purpose, and that if even a small 
part of the trees and shrubs which the College had arranged with Mr. 
Arnold's Trustees was to be found in it more land was needed for the 
purpose. Two estates on Centre Street with an area of about eight acres 
between the original western boundary of the Bussey Farm at this point 
and Walter Street were bought by the City for the Arboretum and the 
buildings were removed from them. In 1894 the President and Fellows 
of the College transferred their property west of Bussey Street, with an 
area of seventy-five acres and known as Peter's Hill, to the Arboretum. 
The arrangement made in 1882 with the City of Boston for the ownership 
and control of the original Arboretum was extended to the Peter's Hill 
addition. In 1904 a few friends of the Arboretum bought for it a house 
and about four thousand feet of land on Centre Street between Piince 
and Orchard Streets, Jamaica Plain, near the entrance of that name. 
The house is used as the home for the superintendent, and the grounds 
attached to it as a nursery. For many years the propagation of plants 
for the Arboretum had been carried on on a small piece of ground near 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 135 

the Centre Street entrance, leased from the Trustees of the Adams Nervine 
Asylum for the purpose, and to take the place of these inadequate accom- 
modations a modern greenhouse with cold pits and frames was built in 
1917 on the Centre Street land for a new propagating plant. In 1919 the 
land of the Bussey Institution between South Street and the location of 
the Dedham Branch of the N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R.with an area of sixteen 
acres was bought for it by friends of the Arboretum from the College; 
and in 1922 the hill surrounded by property belonging to the Park Depart- 
ment of Boston, and by Centre and Walter Streets and an unnamed road 
connecting these streets, with an area of fourteen acres, has also been 
bought by friends of the Arboretum and presented to it. The persent 
area of the Arboretum is now therefore approximately two hundred and 
fifty acres. 

NATURAL FEATURES 

Meadows, hills and valleys are found within the boundaries of the 
Arboretum. The ground rises gradually from the great meadow at it* 
north end to the summit of Bussey Hill from which views of the Blue Hills* 
to the south and of Cambridge and Boston are obtained. From the top 
of Bussey Hill the ground drops abruptly to South Street on the south and 
to the west and southwest to the valley which extends from Centre to 
South Streets, and which at the northern base of the second of the Arbore- 
tum hills, Hemlock Hill, is joined nearly at right angles by the valley 
through which Bussey Brook flows from the northwest and enters the 
Arboretum under Walter Street. Through the valley which separates 
the western base of Hemlock Hill from the third and highest of the Arbo- 
retum hills, Peter's Hill, Bussey Street, a highway open to traffic, extends 
from Walter Street at a point near the Walter Street entrance to the 
Arboretum to South Street, and separates Peter's Hill from the rest of the 
Arboretum. The land acquired in 1919 between South Street and the 
railroad drops abruptly at its eastern end from the southern base of 
Bussey Hill to a broad low peat meadow through which a new channel 
for the Bussey Brook has been made; west of this low meadow only a 
narrow strip of higher land separates South Street from the railroad. A 
hill sloping to the north and east on Centre Street and separated by a 
low depression from the base of a slope descending from Walter Street 
and facing the north is the feature of the latest addition to the Arbore- 
tum area. 

The great natural feature of the Arboretum is Hemlock Hill with 
its high steep cliffs rising on the north from the Bussey Brook and 
covered so thickly with Hemlock trees that the rays of the sun rarely 
penetrate to the ground between them. In no other public garden are 
there such cliffs or a more beautiful remnant of a coniferous forest. Oaks 
and other native deciduous leaved trees from one hundred to perhaps two 
hundred years old still cover small areas on each side of the Meadow Road, 



186 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

on Centre Street, and on Bussey Street at the eastern base of Peter's Hill, 
and are valuable in showing several important New England trees in their 
adult state. 

ARRANGEMENT OF THE LIVING PLANTS 

The trees which have been planted are arranged in botanical sequence 
in family groups, the genera of each family and the species of each genus 
being placed together, the arrangement beginning with the Magnolia 
Family at the Jamaica Plain Gate and ending with the Pinaceae at the 
Walter Street Gate. 

That they may show their habit under different conditions several 
individuals of important North American species have been planted close 
together in groups, and at a distance from the group an individual of 
the species is planted with sufficient space about it to insure a full develop- 
ment of branches. A representative of almost every genus stands near a 
drive so that visitors passing along the Arboretum roads and gravel paths 
can obtain an idea of the genera of trees hardy in Massachusetts and of 
their relation to each other. An attempt has been made to place the 
Family groups in positions where the trees may find favorable conditions 
for growth without interfering with the beauty of hills and valleys, and 
of the natural woods. Access to the different groups of all the trees is 
secured by grass-covered paths several miles in length which reach every 
part of the Arboretum and make easy the examination of the trees. 
Hardy shrubs of genera in which there are not species which are trees are 
arranged in the same sequence as the trees in parallel beds ten feet wide 
with a total length of 7765 feet, and separated by grass-covered paths. 
This shrub collection is situated on the level ground near the Forest Hills 
entrance and is surrounded by a trellis on which are grown vines and other 
climbing plants. It has been established for the instruction of gardeners, 
landscape gardeners and others interested in shrubs who can find in it all 
the perfectly hardy species of many genera conveniently arranged for com- 
parative study. Insufficient space in the area devoted to this shrub col- 
lection has made it necessary to arrange the shrubs belonging to genera 
in which some of the species are trees in groups as near as possible to the 
trees of the same genus or Family; as, for example, the Spindle-trees 
(Evonymus) and the Sumachs (Rhus) on opposite sides of the Meadow 
Road, the Lilacs below the Ash-trees on the left hand side of the Bussey 
Road, the Viburnums near the junction of the Bussey and Valley Roads, 
and the Kalmias and Rhododendrons at the base of Hemlock Hill. Large 
numbers of shrubs have also been planted to form margins to the roads 
and an undergrowth among the groups of trees, native shrubs having been 
chiefly used for this purpose in order to preserve as far as possible a New 
England character. Peter's Hill has been used for an extension of the 
Pinetum, for the principal collection of Hawthorns which occupies its 
eastern slope, for a large supplementary collection of Crabapples and species 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 137 

of Pear-trees, and the collection of Poplars and Alders; below the top 
of the hill and near the western boundary of the Arboretum is a large 
mixed plantation of deciduous-leaved trees in which are found some of the 
rarest and most interesting species in the whole collection, for this exposed 
hilltop has proved favorable to the growth of several trees which have not 
flourished in the Arboretum at lower levels. The land between South 
Street and the railroad will be used for new and enlarged collections of 
Poplars and Willows, and the addition between Centre and Walter will be 
chiefly planted with trees which require deep soil and good drainage to 
enable them to grow to a large size and live to old age. 

The regions represented by the living collections are the cool temperate 
and colder parts of North America, Europe and Asia, including the 
higher altitudes of the Himalayas and other more southern mountains. 
No plants from the southern hemisphere, not even from the high Andes, 
southern Chile or the higher mountains of New Zealand have proved 
hardy in tha Arboretum. It is believed that there are now growing in the 
Arboretum between five and six thousand species and varieties of trees 
and shrubs which belong to the following Families and Genera: 

GYMNOSPERMAE 

Ginkgoaceae Larix 

Ginkgo Libocedrus **""" 

Taxaceae Picea. 

Cephalotaxus Pinus 

Taxus Pseudolarix 

Torreya Pseudotsuga 

Pinaceae Sciadopitys 

Abies Taxodium 

Cedrus Thu J a * 

Chamaecyparis Tsuga 
Cryptomeria Gnetaceae 

Cupressus Ephedra 

ANGIOSPERMAE 
MONOCOTYLEDONEAE 

Gramineae Liliaceae 

Arundinaria Smilax 

Phyllostachys Yucca 
Sasa 

DICOTYLEDONEAE 

Salicaceae Myricaceae 

Populus Comptonia 

Salix Myrica 



138 



JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 



[VOL. in 



Leitneriaceae 
Leitneria 

Juglandaceae 
Carya 
Juglans 
Platycarya 
Pterocarya 

Betulaceae 
Alnus 
Betula 
Carpinus 
Corylus 
Ostrya 
Ostryopsis 

Fagaceae 
Castanea 
Fagus 
Quercus 

Ulmaceae 
Celtis 

Hemiptelea 
Pteroceltis 
Ulmus 
Zelkova 

Moraceae 
Maclura 
Morus 

Aristolochiaceae 
Aristolochia 

Polygonaceae 
Atraphaxis 

Chenopodiaceae 
Atriplex 
Eurotia 

Trochodendraceae 
Euptelea 

Cercidiphyllaceae 
Cercidiphyllum 

Ranunculaceae 
Clematis 
Paeonia 
Zanthorrhiza 



Lardizabalaceae 
Akebia 
Decaisnea 
Sargentodoxa 

. Berberidaceae 
Berberis 
X Mahoberberis 
Mahonia 

Menispennaceae 
Cocculus 
Menispermum 
Sinomenium 

Magnoliaceae 
Liriodendron 
Magnolia 
Schisandra 

Calycanthaceae 
Calycanthus 

Anonaceae 
Asimina 

Lauraceae 
Benzoin 
Sassafras 

Cruciferae 
Aethionema 
Alyssum 
Iberis 

Saxifragaceae 
Decumaria 
Deutzia 
Fendlera 
Hydrangea 
Itea 
Jamesia 
Philadelphus 
Ribes 

Schizophragma 
Whipplea 

Hamamelidaceae 
Corylopsis 
Fortunearia 
Fothergilla 
Hamamelis 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 139 



Liquidambar 
Parrotia 
Parrotiopsis 
Sinowilsonia 

Eucommiaceae 
Eucommia 

Platanaceae 
Platanus 

Rosaceae 

Amelanchier 

Cercocarpus 

Chaenomeles 

Chamaebatiaria 

Cotoneaster 

X Crataegomespilus 

Crataegus 

Cydonia 

Dry as 

Exochorda 

Holodiscus 

Kerria 

Maddenia 

Malus 

Mespilus 

Neillia 

Neviusa 

Osmaronia 

Pentactina 

Peraphyllum 

Petrophytum 

Photinia 

Physocarpus 

Potentilla 

Prinsepia 

Primus 

Pyracantha 

Pyrus 

Rhodotypus 

Rosa 

Rubus 

Sibiraea 

Sorbaria 

X Sorbaronia 

X Sorbopyrus 



Sorbus 
Spiraea 
Stephanandra 
Stranvaesia 

Leguminosae 
Amorpha 
Calophaca 
Campylotropis 
Caragana 
Cercis 
Cladrastis 
Colutea 
Coronilla 
Cytisus 
Desmodium 
Genista 
Gleditsia 
Gymnocladus 
Halimodendron 
Hedysarum 
Indigofera 
X Laburnocytisus 
Laburnum 
Lespedeza 
Maackia 
Petteria 
Robinia 
Sophora 
Ulex 
Wistaria 

Rutaceae 
Evodia 
Orixa 

Phellodendron 
Poncirus 
Ptelea 
Ruta 
Zanthoxylum 

Simarubaceae 
Ailanthus 
Picrasma 

Meliaceae 
Cedrela 



140 



JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 



[VOL. ni 



Polygalaceae 
Polygala 

Euphorbiaceae 
Andrachne 
Daphniphyllum 
Securinega 

Buxaceae 
Buxus 

Pachysandra 
Sarcococca 

Empetraceae 
Corema 
Empetrum 

Coriariaceae 
Coriaria 

Anarcardiaceae 
Cotinus 
Rhus 

Aquifoliaceae 
Ilex 
Nemopanthes 

Celastraceae 
Celastrus 
Evonymus 
Pachystima 
Tripterygium 

Staphyleaceae 
Staphylea 

Aceraceae 
Acer 
Hippocastanaceae 

Aesculus 

Sapindaceae 
Koelreuteria 
Sapindus 
Xanthoceras 

Sabiaceae 
Meliosma 
Sabia 

Rhamnaceae 
Berchemia 
Ceanothus 



Hovenia 

Paliurus 

Rhamnella 

Rhamnus 

Sageretia 

Zizyphus 

Vitaceae 
Ampelopsis 
Cissus 
Columella 
Parthenocissus 
Vitis 

Tiliaceae 
Grewia 
Tilia 

Malvaceae 
Hibiscus 
Sphaeralcea 

Dilleniaceae 
Actinidia 

Theaceae 
Gordonia 
Stewartia 

Guttiferae 
Hypericum 

Tamaricaceae 
Myricaria 
Tamarix 

Cistaceae 
Helianthemum 
Hudsonia 

Stachyuraceae 
Stachyurus 

Cactaceae 
Opuntia 

Thymelaeaceae 
Daphne 
Dirca 
Wikstroemia 

Elaeagnaceae 
Elaeagnus 
Hippophae 
Shepherdia 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 141 



Lythraceae 
Decodon 

Nyssaceae 
Davidia 
Nyssa 

Araliaceae 
Acanthopanax 
Aralia 

Echinopanax 
Hedera 

Cornaceae 
Cornus 
Helwingia 

Clethraceae 
Clethra 

Pyrolaceae 
Chimaphila 

Ericaceae 
Andromeda 
Arctostaphylus 
Arctous 
Bruckenthalia 
Calluna 
Cassiope 
Chamaedaphne 
Chiogenes 
Daboecia 
Enkianthus 
Epigaea 
Erica 
Gaultheria 
Gaylussacia 
Kalmia 
Ledum 
Leiophyllum 
Leucothoe 
Loiseleuria 
Lyonia 
Menziesia 
Oxydendron 
Phyllodoce 
Pieris 

Rhododendron 
Tripetaleia 



Tsusiophyllum 

Vaccinium 

Zenobia 

Sapotaceae 
Bumelia 

Ebenaceae 
Diospyros 

Styracaceae 
Halesia 
Pterostyrax 
Styrax 

Symplocaceae 
Symplocos 

Oleaceae 

Chionanthus 

Fontanesia 

Forestiera 

Forsythia 

Fraxinus 

Jasminum 

Ligustrum 

Syringa 

Loganiaceae 
Buddleia 

Apocynaceae 
Vinca 

Asclepiadaceae 
Marsdenia 
Periploca 

Boraginaceae 
Ehretia 

Verbenaceae 
Callicarpa 
Caryopteris 
Clerodendron 
Vitex 

Labiatae 
Elsholtzia 
Hyssopus 
Lavandula 
Perowskia 
Teucrium 
Thymus 



142 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

Solanaceae Caprifoliaceae 

Lycium Abelia 

Solanum Diervilla 

Scrophulariaceae Dipelta 

Paulownia Kolkwitzia 

Pentstemon Linnaea 

Veronica Lonicera 

Bignoniaceae Sambucus 

Anisostichus Symphoncarpus 

Bignonia Viburnum 
Catalpa Compositae 

Rubiaceae Artemisia 

Cephalanthus Baccharis 

Leptodermis Chrysanthemum 

Mitchella Pertya 

RECORDS AND LABELS 

As far as it has been possible to do it the record of every species and 
variety of the trees and shrubs planted in the Arboretum has been kept 
in a card catalogue and to each has been given a number. The exact 
position of each tree in the systematically arranged groups is designated 
on the sheets of a large-scale map and with them is kept the detailed 
history of each tree in the hope that it will be possible for a stranger to 
locate every tree in the collection even if the labels are lost. 

To a branch of every important plant in the Arboretum is attached 
a small metal label on which the name, origin and card catalogue number 
of the plant is stamped with raised letters. These labels are to preserve 
records and not for public use. For the instruction of visitors zinc labels 
six inches long and four inches wide painted brown with their Latin and 
English names and their native country in black letters are fastened with 
copper nails to the trunks of large trees at about the height of the eye. 
Small trees and large shrubs are furnished with oblong wooden labels about 
eight inches long painted white with black letters and hung from a branch 
in a conspicuous position; metal labels of about the same size as the trunk 
labels and raised a few inches above the surface of the ground are placed 
before the plants in the general shrub collection. 

THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW PLANTS 

In 1872 when Harvard College agreed to obtain as far as practicable 
for the Arnold Arboretum all the trees, shrubs and other plants which could 
be grown in West Roxbury very few such plants could be found in any 
private or commercial collection in the United States, and a large number 
of them were still unknown either in this country or in a living state in 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 143 

Europe; and for more than forty years continuous efforts have been made 
to make it possible for Harvard to make good in its contract with Mr. 
Arnold's Trustees. Some progress has been made but there are still regions 
of the northern hemisphere to explore, and trees still unknown in Massachu- 
setts to be brought here. 

At once after his appointment the Director began to obtain plants and 
seeds from European botanical and horticultural establishments; and in 
December 1878 the Arboretum received from William S. Clark, first 
President of the Agricultural College at Sapporo in Japan, its first direct 
consignment of seeds from eastern Asia. 

The first opportunity to obtain on a large scale for the Arboretum 
American plants not then in cultivation in the United States came in 1877 
when the Director was asked to prepare for the General Government a 
report on the forests and forest wealth of the country. In the prepara- 
tion of this report he was obliged to travel into all the forest regions of the 
country and to select as assistants the men living in different parts of the 
United States best equipped with knowledge of trees and forests. Among 
these assistants the Arboretum found friends who continued to help it 
during the remainder of their lives and to keep it in constant communica- 
tion with all parts of the United States. 

During the last forty years the Arboretum has lost no opportunity to 
increase the number of species of plants cultivated in the United States 
and Europe. Its officers and agents have continued to explore the forests 
of North America; they have visited every country in Europe, the Cau- 
casus, eastern Siberia and Korea, and have studied every species of tree 
growing in the forests of the Japanese Empire from Saghalin to the moun- 
tains of Formosa. The most successful of all plant collectors, Mr. E. H. 
Wilson, now Assistant Director of the Arboretum, has gathered for it seeds 
and other material of the trees and shrubs and of the Lilies that grow in 
great variety on the mountains which rise from western China to the Tibetaa 
Plateau. Agents of the Arboretum in pursuit of knowledge and material 
have visited the Malay Peninsula, Java, the Himalayas, the high moun- 
tains of east tropical Africa, southern Africa, Australia, Mexico, Peru, Chile 
southward to Terra del Fuego, and the Falkland Islands. One of the results 
of these journeys of the last forty years is the introduction into the United 
States of the plants named in the following list. Those which are pre- 
ceded by a cross are hybrids, and those preceded by an asterisk are believed 
to have been first introduced into cultivation by the agency of the Arbore- 
tum. 

*Abelia Engleriana; *A. Graebneriana; *A. longituba; *A. parvifolia; 
*A. Schumannii; *A. Zanderi. 

*Abies chensiensis; A. conctolor; A. Delavayi; A. Fargesii; *A. Faxoni- 
ana; A. grandis (hardy form from Idaho); *A. holophylla; A. homolepis 
var. umbellata; A. koreana; A. lasiocarpa var. Beissneri; *A. recurvata; A. 
sachalinensis ; *A. sachalinensis var. Mayriana; *A. sachalinensis var. 






144 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

nemorensis; A. sibirica var. nephrolepis; *A. sibirica var. nephrolepis f. 
chlorocarpa; A. spectabilis var. brevifolia; *A. squamata; *A. sutchuenen- 
sis; *A. Veitchii var. olivacea. 

*Acanthopanax Giraldii; A. Henryi; A. innovans; *A. lasiogyne; A. 
leucorrhizus; *A. leucorrhizus var. fulvescens; *A. leucorrhizus var. 
scaberulus; A. ricinifolius; A. sciadophylloides; A. sessiliflorum var. 
parviceps; A. setchuenensis; A. Simonii; A. ternatus. 

Acer barbinerve; A. barbinerve var. glabrescens; A. Buergerianum; 
A. Buergerianum var. trinerve; A. campestre var. hebecarpum; A. cam- 
pestre var. nanum; *A capillipes; A. cappadocicum f. tricaudatum; A. 
carpinifolium; *A. catalpifolium; A. caudatum; A. caudatum var. multi- 
serratum; *A. caudatum var. Prattii; A. caudatum var. ukurunduense; 
A. : cissifolium; A. crataegifolium; A. Davidii; A. diabolicum var. pur- 
purascens; A. discolor; A. distylum; A. Durettii; A. Fargesii; A. flabella- 
tum;- A. Franchetii; A. ginnala; A. ginnala var. aidzuense; A. ginnalavar. 
Semenowii; A. grandidentatum; A. griseum; A. Heldreichii; A. Heldreichii 
var. macropterum; A. Henryi; *A. Hersii; *A. laxiflorum; A. longipes; 
A. mandshuricum; *A. Maximowiczii; A. Mayrii; A. micranthum; *A. 
Miyabei; *A. morrisonense; A. nikoense; A. Negundo (dwarf form) ; *A. 
nudicarpum; *A. Okamotoanum; A. opalus; A. opalus var. tomentosum; 
A. parviflorum; A. pennsylvanicum var. erythrocladum; A. pictum; 
A. pictum var. parviflorum; A. pictum var. tricuspe; *A. pilosum; A. 
platanoides var. acuminatum; A. Pseudo-Platanus var. erythrocarpum; 
A. pseudo-sieboldianum; A. pseudo-sieboldianum var. ambiguum; *A. 
pycnanthum; A. robustum; A. rufinerve; A. saccharinum (dwarf form) ; *A. 
saccharum var. Schneckii; A. Sieboldianum; A. sinense; A. tegmentosum; 
A. tetramerum; A. tetramerum var. betulifolium f. latialatum; *A. tetra- 
merum var. elobulatum f. longeracemosum; A. tetramerum var. tiliifolium; 
A. Trautvetteri; *A. triflorum; A. truncatum; *A. Tschonoskii; *A. 
Tschonoskii var. rubripes; A. zoeschense; A. zoeschense var. elongatum. 

Actinidia callosa var. Henryi; A. chinensis; *A. coriacea; A. Henryi; 
A. melanandra; *A. purpurea; *A. tetramera; *A. venosa. 

*Aesculus arguta; *XA. Bushii; A. chinensis; A. discolor var. mollis; 
A. georgiana; *A. georgiana var. lanceolata; *A. georgiana var. pubescens; 
*A. glabra var. Buckleyi; *A. glabra var. leucodermis; *A. glaucescens; 
*XA. Harbisonii; *XA. mississippiensis; A. turbinata var. pubescens; 
*A. Wilsonii. 

Ailanthus altissima var. sutchuenensis; A. Vilmoriniana. 

*Akebia lobata var. australis. 

Alangium platanifolium. 

Albizzia coreana. 

Alnus cremastogyne; A. fiima; A. firma var. hirtella; *A. fruticosa var. 
mandshurica; A. hirsuta; A. hirsuta var. sibirica; A. lanata; *A. Maxi- 
mowiczii; *A. mollis; A. pendula; *A. sinuata; A. tenuifolia. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 145 

Amelanchier asiatica var. sinica. 

Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. palmiloba; A. brevipedunculata var. 
citrulloides ; A. Delavayana; A. humulifolia; A. megalophylla; A. micans; 
*A. micans var. cinerea; A. Watsoniana. 

Andrachne colchica; *A. phyllanthoides. 

Aphananthe aspera. 

Aralia chinensis; A. chinensis var. glabrescens. 

Ardisia japonica. 

Aristolochia heterophylla; A. Kaempferi; A. manshuriensis; A. 
moupinensis. 

*Artemisia cana; *A. tripartita. 

*Arundinaria Murielae. 

Benzoin cercidif olium ; B. grandif olium ; B. obtusilobum; B. praecox; 
*B. trilobum; *B. umbellatum var. sericeum. 

*Berberis aemulans; *B. aggregata; B. aggregata var. Prattii; B. 
aggregata var. recurvata; B. amurensis; *B. atrocarpa; *B. Beaniana; 
*B. Bergmanniae var. acanthophylla; *B. Boschanii; B. brachypoda; 
B. Bretschneideri ; B. candidula; *B. circumserrata; B. consimilis; B. 
dasystachya; B. diaphana; B. dictyophylla; *B. dictophylla var. eprui- 
nosa; *B. Dielsiana; *B. Francisci-Ferdinandi; B. Gagnepainii; *B. Gil- 
giana; *B. Henryana; B. Julianae; *B. koreana; *B. Liechtensteinii; 
*B. morrisonensis; *B. Mouillacana; *B. Poiretii f. weichangensis; B. 
polyantha; *B. Purdomii; B. Rehderiana; *B. Sargentiana; *B. Sieboldii; 
*B. Silva-Taroucana; B. subcaulialata; *B. thibetica; B. Thunbergii 
var. Maximowiczii; *B. Thunbergii var. minor; *B. Tischleri; *B. tria- 
canthophora; B. Veitchii; *B. Vernae; B. verruculosa; B. Wilsonae; 
B. Wilsonae var. Stapfiana; B. yunnanensis. 

Berchemia volubilis. 

Betula alba var. songarica; B. albo-sinensis; *B. albo-sinensis var. 
septentrionalis; B. chinensis; *B. coerulea; *B. coerulea var. Blanchardii; 
*B. corylifolia; *B. costata; B. davurica; B. Delavayi; B. Ermanii var. 
brevidentata; *B. Ermannii var. Saitoana; B. Ermannii var. subcordata; B. 
fontinalis; *B. fontinalis var. Piperi; B. grossa; B. japonica; B. japonica 
var. kamtschatica; B. japonica var. mandshurica; *B. japonica var. 
szechuanica; B. luminifera; B. mandshurica; B. Maximo wicziana; B. 
Medwediewii; B. microphylla; B. Middendorfii; *B. neo-alaskana; B. 
papyrifera var. kenaica; *B. papyrifera var. subcordata; *B. Potaninii; 
*B. Sandbergii; *B. Schmidtii; B. utilis; B. utilis var. Prattii. 

XBignonia hybrida "Madame Galen". 

Buddleia albiflora; B. Davidii; B. Davidii var. magnifica; *B. Davidii 
var. superba; B. Davidii var. Wilsonii; *B. Lindleyana var. sinuato-den- 
tata; B. nivea; B. nivea var. yunnanensis; *B. officinalis; *B. steno- 
stachya. 

Buxus japonica; *B. microphylla var. koreana. 

Callicarpa dichotoma; C. Giraldiana. 



146 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

Camellia cuspidata. 
Camptotheca acuminata. 
"Campy lotropis Falconer!; C. macrocarpa. 
Caragana Boisii ; *C. Maximo wicziana; *C. sukiensis. 
Carpinus Betulus var. carpinizza; C. Betulus f. fastigiata; C. Betulus f. 
globosa; C. cordata; C. cordata var. chinensis; *C. eximia; *C. Fargesi- 
ana; *C. Fauriei; *C. Henry ana; *C. japonica; *C. laxiflora; C. laxiflora 
var. macrostachya; *C. Tschonoskii; *C. Turczaninovii; C. Turczani- 
novii var. ovalifolia. 
*Carrierea calycina. 

*Carya alba ovoidea *XC. Brownii; *XC. Brownii var. varians; 
*C. Buckleyi; *C. Buckleyi var. arkansana; *C. Buckleyi var. arkansana f. 
paehy lemma; *C. Buckleyi var. villosa; *C. carolinae-septentrionalis; 
*C. cordiformis var. latifolia; X*C. Dunbarii; *C. glabra var. megacarpa; 
*XC. Laneyi; *XC. Laneyii var. chateaugayensis; XC. McAllisteri; 
*C. myristicaeformis; XC. Nussbaumerii; *C. ovalis var. hirsuta; *C. 
ovata var. ellipsoidalis; *C. ovata var. fraxinifolia; *C. pallida; *C. 
texana. 

*Cassiope selaginoides. 

Castanea Henry i; C. mollissima; C. neglecta; C. Seguinii. 

*Castanopsis ceratacantha; *C. platyacantha; C. sclerophylla. 

*Catalpa Bungei; *C. Duclouxii; *C. Fargesii. 

*Cedrelamicrocarpa; C. sinensis. 

*Cedrus libani (hardy form from the Cilician Taurus). 

Celastrus angulata; C. flagellaris; *C. gemmata; *C. glaucophylla; 
C. Hookeri; *C. hypoleuca; C. Loeseneri; *C. Rosthorniana; *C. rugosa. 

Celtis australis; C. Biondii; C. Bungeana; C. caucasica; *C. cerasi- 
fera; C. Douglasii; C. jessoensis; *C. Julianae; *C. koraiensis; *C. 
labilis; *C. laevigata var. Small ii; *C. pumila var. Dearaii; C. reticulata; 
C. Tournefortii. 

Cephalotaxus drupacea var. sinensis; *C. nana. 

*Ceratostigma Willmottianum. 

*Cercidiphyllum japonicum var. sinense. 

*Cercis racemosa. 

Cercocarpus montanus. 

*Chaenomeles lagenaria var. Wilsonii. 

*Chamaebatiaria millefolium. 

Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana var. Fletcheri; C. Lawsoniana var. lyco- 
podioides; C. Lawsoniana var. tamariscifolia; *C. obtusa var. breviramea; 
*C. obtusa var. formosana. 

Chionanthus retusus. 

*Chloranthus serratus. 

Chrysanthemum sibiricum. 

Chrysothamnus pumilus. 

*Citrus ichangensis. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 147 

*Cladrastisplatycarpa; C. sinensis; *C. Wilsonii. 

Clematis apiifolia; *C. apiifolia var. obtusidentata; C. Armandii; 
*C. Armandii f. Farquhariana; *C. chiisanensis; C. chinensis; C. colum- 
biana; *C. Delavayi; *C. Fargesii; *C. Fargesii var. Soulieana; C. glauca 
var. akebioides; *C. glauca var. angustifolia; C. Gouriana; * G. Gouriana 
var. Finetii; *C. gracilifolia; *C. grata var. grandidentata; *C. grata var. 
lobulata; *C. heracleaefolia var. ichangensis; C. lasiandra; *C. macro- 
petala; C. montana var. rubens; C. montana var. Wilsonii; *C. montana 
var. Wilsonii f. platysepala; C. paniculata var. dioscoreaefolia; *C. 
Pavoliniana; *C. Pierotii; *C. Prattii; C. pterantha; C. Rehderiana; C. 
serratifolia; *C. Spooneri; C. tangutica; *C. tangutica var. obtusiuscula; 
C. trullifera; C. uncinata; C. Veitchiana. 

*Clematoclethra actinidioides; *C. integrifolia; *C. lasioclada var. 
grandis; *C. scandens. 

Clerodendron trichotomum var. Fargesii. 

*Clethramonostachya; C. Fargesii. 

Cocculus trilobus. 

*Columella oligocarpa. 

*Comanthosphace sublanceolata. 

Coriaria japonica; C. sinica. 

Cornus alba var. Kesselringii; C. alba var. Rosenthalii; C. Bret- 
schneideri; C. contro versa; *C. florida f. xanthocarpa; *C. Hemsleyi; C. 
Hessei; C. Koenigii; *C. koreana; C. kousa (Chinese form) ; C. officinalis; 
C. paucinervis; C. poliophylla; C. pumila; C. sanguinea var. atrosan- 
guinea; C. sanguinea var. viridissima; C. stolonifera var. coloradensis; 
C. stolonifera var. flaviramea; C. Walteri. 

*Corylopsis glabrescens; *C. Gotoana; *C. platypetala; C. sinensis; 
C. Veitchiana; *C. Willmottiae. 

Corylus avellana var. contorta; C. chinensis; C. heterophylla; *C. 
heterophylla var. sutchuenensis; C. mandshurica; C. Sieboldiana; C. 
tibetica. 

*Cotinus americanus. 

Cotoneaster acutifolia; *C. acutifolia var. villosula; C. adpressa; C. 
ambigua; C. amoena; *C. apiculata; C. bullata var. macrophylla; C. 
buxifolia var. vellaea; C. Dammeri; C. Dielsiana; *C. Dielsiana var. 
elegans; *C. divaricata; *C. foveolata; C. Franchetii; C. Henry ana; C. 
horizontals; C. horizontalis var. perpusilla; *C. hupehensis; C. ignava; 
C. moupinensis; *C. multiflora var. calocarpa; *C. nitens; C. obscura; 
*C. obscura var. cornifolia; C. racemiflora var. Veitchii; *C. racemiflora 
var. microcarpa; *C. racemiflora var. soongorica; *C. salicifolia; *C. 
salicifolia var. floccosa; C. salicifolia var. rugosa; C. Zabelii; *C. Zabelii 
var. miniata. 

X Crataegomespilus Dardari; XC. Dardari var. Asnieresii; XC. 
grandiflora. 

*Crataegus abjecta; *C. acclivis; *C. acerba; *C. acuminata; *C. 



148 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. ni 

acutifolia; *C. acutiloba; *C. admiranda; *C. ad vena; *C. affinis; *C. 
alacris; *C. allecta; *C. alnorum; *C. ambitiosa; *C. ambrosia; *C. 
amnicola; *C. amoena; *C. amplifica; *C. anomala; *C. apiomorpha; 
*C. apposita; *C. aprica; *C. aquilonaris; *C. arcana; *C. arcuata; 
*C. ardua; *C. arduennae; *C. aridula; *C. arkansana; *C. arnoldiana; 
*C. ascendens; *C. aspera; *C. asperata; *C. asperifolia; *C. assurgens; 
*C. ater; *C. atrorubens; *C. attenuata; *C. angustata; *C. aulica; 
*C. austera. 

*Crataegus baccata; *C. Balkwillii; C. barbara; *C. barrettiana; 
*C. Barryana; *C. Bartoniana; C. Bartramiana; *C. Bealii; *C. beata; 
*C. Beckiana; *C. bedfordensis; *C. bella; *C. bellica; *C. bellula; *C. 
benigna; *C. Berlandieri; *C. Bicknellii; *C. Bissellii; *C. blairensis; 
*C. Blanchardii; *C. blanda; *C. blandita; *C. bona; *C. Boothiana; 
*C. brachypoda; *C. bracteata; *C. Brainerdii; *C. brazoria; *C. Brit- 
tonii; *C. Brockwayae; *C. Brownietta; *C. Brunetiana; *C. Bushii. 

Crataegus caesariata; *C. caesia; *C. caliciglabra; *C. callicarpa; *C. 
callophylla; *C. callosa; *C. calvescens; *C. Calvenii; *C. canadensis; 
*C. Canbyi; *C. candens; *C. Carrierei; C. celsa; *C. cerasina; *C. 
cestrica; *C. chadsfordiana; *C. champlainensis; *C. Chapmanii; *C. 
chateaugayensis; *C. chippewarensis; *C. Clintoniana; *C. coccineata; 
*C. coccinioides; *C. coerulescens; *C. cognata; *C. coloradensis; *C. 
Colorado; *C. colorata; *C. columbiana; *C. comata; *C. compacta; 
*C. comparata; *C. compta; *C. condensa; *C. conferta; *C. confinis; 
*C. confragosa; *C. congestiflora; *C. conjuncta; *C. conspecta; *C. 
conspicua; *C. consarta; *C. contigua; *C. contortifolia; *C. contortula; 
*C. corporea; *C. crassifolia; *C. Crawfordiana; *C. cristata; *C. cruda; 
*C. crudilis; *C. Crusgalli var. oblongifolia; *C. Crus-galli var. ovalifolia; 
*C. Crus-galli var. rubescens; *C. culta; *C. cuprea; *C. cupulifera; *C. 
cyanophylla. 

*Crataegus dacrioidea; *C. dallasiana; *C. Damei; *C. dasyphylla; 
*C. Dawsoniana; *C. Dayana; *C. debilis; *C. definata; *C. delawaren- 
sis; *C. delecta; *C. delectabilis; *C. delectata; *C. deltoides; *C. De- 
losii; *C. delucida; *C. demissa; *C. densiflora; *C. desueta; *C. Dewey- 
ana; *C. Dewingei; *C. diaphora; *C. diffusa; *C. digna; *C. dilatata; 
*C. disjuncta; *C. dissimilis; *C. dissona; *C. divergens; *C. diversifolia; 
*C. divida; *C. Dodgei; *C. Douglasii var. Suksdorfii; *C. drymophila; 
*C. dsungarica; *C. dumetosa; *C. dumicola; *C. Dunbari; *C. durobri- 
vensis. 

*Crataegus Eamesii; *C. Eastmaniana; *C. Eatoniana; *C. Edsonii; 
*C. effera; *C. efferta; *C. effulgens; *C. Eganii; *C. Egglestonii; *C. 
Ellwangeriana; *C. elongata; *C. Emersoniana; *C. Engelmannii; *C. 
enucleata; *C. erecta; *C. errata; *C. erythrocarpa; *C. erythropoda; 
*C. Evansiana; *C. exclusa; *C. exigua; *C. exornata. 

Crataegus fallsiana; *C. Faxonii; *C. fecunda; *C. ferentaria; *C. 
ferox; *C. Ferrissii; *C. ferta; *C. fertilis; *C. filipes; *C. finitima; *C. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 149 

firma; *C. flabellata; *C. flagrans; *C. flammea; *C. flavida; *C. fiorea; 
*C. florifera; *C. fluviatalis; *C. foetida; *C. foliata; *C. Fontanesiana; 
*C. Forbesae; *C. formosa; *C. fortunata; *C. Fretzii; *C. fructuosa; 
*C.fucosa; *C. fulgens; *C.fulgida; *C. Fulleriana; *C.furcata. 

*Crataegus gaudens; *C. Gaultii; *C. gemmosa; *C. geneseensis; 
*C. genialis; *C. georgiana; *C. gilva; *C. glabrata; *C. glabrifolia; 
*C. glabriuscula; *C. glariosa; *C. glaucophylla; *C. globosa; *C. 
gloriosa; *C. gracilipes; *C. gratiosa; *C. gravida; *C. gravis; *C. grig- 
nonensis; *C. Grubneri. 

*Crataegus Habereri; *C. Halliana; *C. hamata; *C. Handyae; *C. 
Hargeri; *C. heidelbergensis; *C. Heldreichii; *C. Helenae; *C. hiemalis; 
*C. Hillii; *C. hirtella; *C. hispidula; *C. Holmesiana; *C. Holmesiana 
var. tardipes; *C. honesta; C. horridula; *C. Howeana; *C. hudsonica; 
*C. hystricina. 

*Crataegus ideae; *C. illecebrosa; *C. illinoiensis; *C. illuminata; *C. 
improvisa; *C. inaudita; *C. incaedua; *C. incerta; *C. incisa; *C. 
inducta; *C. induta; *C. infera; *C. infesta; *C. insignis; *C. insolens; 
*C. insolita; *C. inspirata; *C. integriloba; C. intricata; *C. inusitula; 
*C. invisa; *C. irrasa. 

*Crataegus Jackii; *C. jasperensis; *C. Jenningsii; *C. jejuna; *C. 
Jonesae; *C. joyana; *C. jozoana. 

*Crataegus Keepii; *C. Kellermanii; *C. Kennedy!; *C. Kinzerae; 
*C. kingstonensis; C. Korolkowii. 

*Crataegus laetans; *C. lanceolata; *C. Laneyi; *C. lanigera; *C. 
lanuginosa; *C. larga; *C. lasiantha; *C. latifrons; *C. latisepala; *C. 
laurencensis ; *C. laurentiana; *C. lauta; *C. laxiflora; *C. leioclada; 
*C. leiophylla; *C. lemingtonensis; *C. Lennoniana; *C. lenta; *C. 
leptophylla; *C. leptopoda; *C. Lettermanii; *C. leucorum; *C. levis; 
*C. limaria; *C. limosa; *C. littoralis; *C. livoniana; *C. lobulata; *C. 
locuples; *C. longipedicellata; *C. ludoviciana; *C. luminosa; *C. 
lutensis; *C. luxuriosa. 

*Crataegus Macauleyae; *C. macera; *C. Macounii; *C. macrocalyx; 
*C. macrophylla; *C. macropoda; *C. macrosperma; *C. magnifolia; 
*C. maineana; *C. maligna; *C. marcida; *C. Margaretta; *C. Marga- 
retta f. xanthocarpa; *C. Maribella; *C. matura; *C. Maxim owicziana; 
*C. media; *C. medioxima; *C. Menandiana; *C. menstrata; *C. merita; 
*C. metniculosa; *C. micella; *C. michiganensis; *C. micrantha; *C. 
microsperma; *C. miniata; *C. miranda; *C. missouriensis; *C. mitis; 
*C. modesta; *C. modica; *C. Mohrii; *C. mollipes; *C. mollis; *C. 
monstrata; *C. montivaga; *C. munita. 

*Crataegus napaea; *C. nemoralis; *C. neo-Bushii; *C. neo-fluvialis; 
*C. neo-londinensis; *C. nescia; *C. nitens; *C. nitida; *C. notabilis; *C. 
notha; *C. nuda; *C. numerosa; *C. nutans. 

*Crataegus Oakesiana; *C. oblita; *C. ogdensburgensis; *C. olivacea; 
*C. opica; *C. opulens; *C. ornata; *C. otiosa; *C. ovata; *C. ovatifolia. 



160 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

Crataeguspachyphylla; *C. Paddockeae; *C. padifolia; *C. Paineana; 
*C. Painteriana; *C. palliata; *C. pallidula; *C. Palmeri; *C. paradoxa; 
*C. parciflora; *C. Parkae; *C. parviflora; *C. parvula; *C. pastorum; 
*C. patrum; *C. paucispina; *C. pausiaca; *C. Peckii; *C. pectinata; 
*C. pedicellata; *C. pellucidula; *C. pennsylvanica; *C. Pennypackeri ; 
*C. pentandra; *C. peoriensis; *C. pequotorum; *C. peramoena; *C. 
perampla; *C. peregrina; *C. perjucunda; *C. perlaeta; *C. perlevis; 
*C. permera; *C. perrara; *C. persimilis; C. persistens; C. philadelphica; 
*C. phleboxia; *C. pilifera; *C. pilosa; *C. pinguis; C. pinnatifida; C. 
pinnatifida var. major; C. pinnatiloba; *C. Piperi; *C. pisifera; *C. 
placida; *C. plana; *C. platycarpa; *C. polita; *C. polyclada; *C popul- 
neaj *C. porrecta; *C. Porteri; *C. praeclara; *C. praecogna; *C. 
praestans; *C. pratensis; *C. Pringlei; *C. Proctoriana; *C. prominens; 
*C. promissa; *C. prona; *C. propixa; *C. propria; *C. pruinosa; *C. 
pubifolia; *C. pudens; *C. pulcherima; *C. pulchra; *C. pumila; *C. 
punctata var. canescens; *C. punctata var. moselemensis; *C. punctata 
var. mutabilis; *C. pura; *C. pusilla; *C.puta; *C. putata; *C. pygmaea; 
*C. pyrifonnis; *Crataegus quercina; *C. quinebaugensis. 

*Crataegus radiata; *C. radina; *C. radiosa; *C. Randiana; *C. 
recordabilis; *C. relicta; *C. remota; *C. repentina; *C. repulsans; *C. 
reses; *C. retrusa; *C. Reverchonii; *C. rhombifolia; *C. rigida; *C. 
rivalis; *C. Robesoniana; *C. Robinsonii; *C. robusta; *G. rotunda; 
*C. rotundata; *C. rotundifolia var. aboriginum; *C. rubicunda; *C. 
rubicundula; *C. rubrifolia; *C. rubrocarnea; *C. rudis; *C. rufipes; *C. 
ruricola; *C. rustica; *C. rutila. 

*Crataegus saeva; *C. saligna; *C. sarniensis; *C. saturata; *C. Saun- 
dersiana; *C. saxatilis; C. scabra; *C. scabrida; *C. scitula; *C. Searsii; 
*C. seclusa; *C. secta; *C. sejuncta; *C. sera; *C. serena; *C. sertata; 
*C. setosa; *C. severa; *C. sextilis; *C. shirleyensis; *C.sicca; *C. sidera; 
*C. simulans; *C. simulata; *C. sinistra; *C. sitiens; *C. Slavinii; *C. 
Smlthii; *C. sordida; *C. spatiosa; *C. speciosa; *C. spinulosa; *C. 
stenophylla; *C. Stonei; *C. stolonifera; *C. Streeterae; *C. strigosa; 
*C. strongylophylla; *C. structilis; *C. suavis; *C. submollis; *C. sub- 
orbiculata; *C. succincta; *C. swanensis. 

"Crataegus taetrica; *C.tantula; *C. tarda; *C. tardipes; *C. Tatnal- 
liana; *C. tenax; *C. tenella; *C. tenera; *C. tenuiloba; *C. tenuisepala; 
*C. texana; *C. Thayeri; *C. tomentosa; *C. torta; *C. tortuosa; *C. 
trachyphylla; *C. trahax; *C. trianthophora; *C. tribulosa; *C. tripar- 
tita; *C. triumphalis; *C. truculenta; 

*Crataegus umbratilis; *C. umbrosa; *C. uniqua; *C. uplandia; *C. 
urbana; *C. uticaensis. 

*Crataegus vaga; *C. vallicola; *C. varians; *C. vegeta; *C. velutina; 
*C. venulosa; *C. venusta; *C. venustula; *C. verecunda; *C. verrucu- 
losa; *C. vicina; *C. vicinalis; *C. villicarpa; *C. villiflora; *C. villipes; 
*C. virella; *C. viridimontana; *C. viridis; *C. vittata; *C. vivida. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 151 

*Crataegus Websteri; *C. Wheeleri; *C. Williamsii; *C. wilmorensis; 
*C. Wilsonii. 

*Crataegus xanthophylla. 

Cryptomeria japonica var. globosa nana. 

*Cunninghamia Konishii. 

Cy tisus albus var. schipkaensis ; XC. Beanii; C. elongatus; C. glabres- 
cens; C. nigricans; C. nigrescens var. Carlierii; C. purgans; C. scoparius 
var. Andreanus f . compactus. 

Dalbergia hupeana. 

Daphne altaica; D. altaica var. Sophia; D. caucasica; D. genkwa 
(Chinese form); *D. Giraldii; D. retusa; *D. tangutica. 

Daphniphyllum humile. 

Davidia involucrata; D. involucrata var. Vilmoriniana. 

Debregeasia longifolia. 

Decaisnea Fargesii. 

*Decumaria sinensis. 

*Desmodiumserriferum; *D. spicatum; D. tiliaefolium. 

*Deutzia coreana; D. discolor; *D. glabrata; D. glomeruliflora; *D. 
grandiflora; *D. hypoleuca; D. longifolia; *D. longifolia var. elegans; 

D. mollis; D. parviflora; D. parviflora var. ovatifolia; *D. pulchra; D. 
purpurascens; *D. Schneideriana var. laxiflora; D. setchuenensis; D. 
setchuenensis var. corymbiflora; D. Vilmorinae; D. Wilsonii. 

*Diervilla florida var. venusta; D. japonica; D. japonica var. sinica; 
*D. Maximowiczii ; D. Middendorfiana. 

Dipelta floribunda; D. ventricosa; 

Dipteronia sinensis. 

*Disanthus cercidifolius. 

*Echinopanax elatus. 

Ehretia acuminata; E. Dicksonii. 

Elsholtzia polystachya; *E. Stauntonii. 

Emmenopterys Henryi. 

*Enkianthus campanulatus var. albiflora; E. campanulatus var. 
Palibiniana; E. cernuus var. rubens; E. deflexus; E. quinqueflorus var. 
serrulatus; *E. subsessilis. 

*Epigaea asiatica. 

Eucommia ulmoides. 

Euptelea Franchetii; *E. pleiosperma; E. polyandra. 

Eurotia lanata. 

Euscaphis japonica. 

*EvodiaDaniellii; E. glauca; E. Henryi; E. hupehensis; *E. ofBcinalis; 
*E. velutina. 

Evonymus acanthocarpa; *E. alata var. aperta; *E. aquifolium; E. 
Bungeana; E. Bungeana var. semipersistens; E. cornuta; *E. elegantis- 
sima; E. lanceifolia; E. Maackii; E. macroptera; E. nana; E. oxyphylla; 

E. planipes; *E. porphyrea; *E. radicans var. microphylla; *E. radicans 



152 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

var. acuta; *E. radicans var. vegeta; E. sanguinea; *E. Sargentiana; E. 
subsessilis. 

Exochorda Giraldii; *E. Giraldii var. Wilsonii; X E. macrantha; E. 
serratifolia. 

*Fagus Engleriana; *F. japonica; *F. longipetiolata; *F. lucida; F. 
orientalis; *F. Sieboldii; F. sylvatica var. dawyckii. 

Foresteeria neomexicana; *F. pubescens. 

*Forsythia ovata; *F. suspensa f. pubescens; F. suspensa var. Fortune! 
f. atrocaulis; X F. intermedia var. spectabilis. 

*Fortunearia sinensis. 

*Fraxinus americana var. crassifolia; F. anomala; F. Bungeana; F. 
chinensis; F. chinensis var. rhynchophylla; F. dumosa; F. elonza; F. 
glabra; F. holotricha; F. Hookeri; *F. Lowellii; F. Mariesii; F. obliqua; 
F. obovata; F. oxycarpa; F. parvifolia; F. parvifolia var. monophylla; F. 
parvifolia var. nana; F. Paxiana; F. platypoda; F. potamophila; *F. 
profunda; F. pubinervis; F. Regelii; F. retusa var. Henry i; F. rotundi- 
folia; F. rotundifolia var. pendula; F. Spaethiana; F. tamariscifolia; 
*F. texensis; F. velutina var. coriacea; F. velutina var. glabra; F. 
Veltheimii; F. Willdenowiana; F. xanthoxyloides. 

*Gaultheriaadenothrix; *G. cuneata; *G. moupinensis; G. Veitchiana. 

Genista radiata. 

*Gleditsia horrida; G. macracantha; G. sinensis; *XG. texana. 

Glycyrrhiza suffrutescens; G. uralensis. 

Gordonia axillaris. 

Grewia parviflora; *G. parviflora var. glabrescens. 

Gymnocladus chinensis. 

*Hamamelis incarnata; H. japonica; H. japonica var. arborea; H.mollis; 
*H. vernalis; *H. virginiana var. rubescens. 

Hedysarum multijugum. 

*Helwingia chinensis; H. japonica. 

Hemiptelea Davidii. 

*Holboellia coriacea; *H. grandiflora. 

Hydrangea anomala; H. arborescens var. urticifolia; H. Bretschneideri; 
*H. Bretschneideri var. setchuenensis; *H. Davidii; H. hirta; H. involu- 
crata; H. longipes; H. opuloides var. cyanoclada; H. opuloides var. ser- 
rata; H. Rosthornii; *H. Sargentiana; H. strigosa; H. strigosa var. 
macrophylla; *H. villosa; H. xanthoneura; H. xanthoneura var. glabres- 
cens; *H. xanthoneura var. Wilsonii. 

*Hypericum aureum; *H. Buckleyi; *H. galioides; H. patulum var. 
Henryi. 

*Idesia polycarpa var. vestita. 

Ilex aquifolium var. chinensis; *I. ciliospinosa; I. corallina; I. crenata 
var. munmularia; I. decidua; I. Fargesii; I. fragilis; *I. Franchetiana; 
*I. geniculata; I. integra; I. leucoclada; I. longipes; *I. macrocarpa; 
*I. monticola; *I.opaca var. xanthocarpa; *I.pedunculosa; I. pedunculosa 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 153 

f. continentalis; I. Pernyi; I. Pernyi var. Veitchii; I. purpurea var. Old- 
hamii; *I. rugosa; I. serrata; *I. serrata var. argutidens; *I. Sugerokii; 
*I. szechwanensis; *I. verticillata var. chrysocarpa; I. yunnanensis. 

*Indigofera amblyantha; I. decora; I. hebepetala; I. Kirilowii; *I. 
Potaninii. 

Itea ilicifolia. 

Jasminum Beesianum; J. lanceolarium ; J. urophyllum. 

Juglans boliviensis; J. cathayensis; *J. formosana; XJ. intermedia; 
J. regia var. sinensis; J. rupestris; J. Sieboldiana var. cordiformis. 

*Juniperus chinensis var. Sargentii; *J. communis var. Jackii; *J. 
communis var. nipponica; *J. conferta; J. formosana; *J. Pinchotii; 
J. rigida; *J. scopulorum; J. squamata var. Fargesii; *J. squamata var. 
Wilsonii; *J. taxifolia. 

Kalmia caroliniana; K. cuneata; *K. hirsuta; *K. latifolia var. obtus- 
ata; *K. latifolia f. polypetala. 

Koelreuteria apiculata. 

Kolkwitzia amabilis. 

Laburnum caramanicum. 

Larix dahuriea; L. dahurica var. japonica; *L. dahurica var. Principis 
Rupprechtii; XL. eurolepis; *L. Kaempferi var. minor; *L. Lyallii; *L. 
Mastersiana; *L. occidentalis; XL. pendula; L. Potaninii; L. sibirica. 

Leptodermis oblonga. 

*Lespedeza Buergeri; *L. Buergeri var. praecox; L. cyrtobotrya. 

*Leucothoe Gray ana; *L. Keiskei; *L. recurva. 

"Ligustrum acuminatum; L. acuminatum var. macrocarpum; Ligus- 
trum acutissimum; L. Delavayanum; L. Henryi; L. Quihoui. 

Liquidambar formosana; *L. formosana var. monticola. 

Liriodendron chinense; L. Tulipifera var. fastigiatum. 

Lithocarpus cleistocarpa; L. Henryi. 

Lonicera alseuosmoides; L. Altmannii L. Altmannii var. hirtipes; L. 
Altmannii var. pilosiuscula; L. angustifolia; L. arborea var. persica; L. 
arizonica; L. bella; L. bracteolaris; L. chaetocarpa; L. Chamissoi; *L. 
demissa; L. deflexicalyx; L. discolor; *L. Ferdinandii; L. Ferdinandii var. 
leycesterioides; L. Giraldii; L. gynochlamydea; L. Henryi; *L. hetero- 
loba; L. hispida; L. involucrata var. flavescens; L. involucrata var. 
humilis; L. involucrata var. serotina; L. Koehneana; *L. Korolkovii; L. 
Korolkovii var. floribunda; L. lanceolata; L. Maackii; L. Maackii var. 
podocarpa; *L. Maackii var. podocarpa f. erubescens; L. Maximowiczii; 
*L. Maximowiczii var. sachalinensis; L. microphylla; L. minutiflora; L. 
Morrowii; *L. moupinensis; *XL. muendeniensis; *XL. nausea viensis; 
L. myrtilloides; L. Myrtillus; L. nervosa; *L. nitida; *L. notha; L. 
pileata; *L. praeflorens; L. prostrata; L. purpurascens; L. pyrenaica; 
L. quinquelocularis; L. rupicola; L. Ruprechtiana var. calvescens; *L. 
Ruprechtiana var. xanthocarpa; L. saccata; *L. Schneideriana; L. 
Semenovii; L. similis var. Delavayi; L. spinosa var. Alberti; L. Standishii 



154 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. m 

var. lancifolia; *L. strophiophora; *L. subaequalis; *L. subdentata; L. 
syringantha; L. syringantha var. Wolfii; *L. szechuanica; L. tangutica; 
*L. tatsienensis ; *L. tenuipes; L. thibetica; L. tomentella; L. trago- 
phylla; L. trichosantha; L. utahensis; L. Vilmorinii; L. Webbiana; L. 
xerocalyx; L. xylosteoides. 

*Lysionotus pauciflorus. 

*Maackia amurensis var. Buergeri; *M. chinensis; *M. Fauriei; 
M. Tashiroi. 

Maddenia hypoleuca; *M. Wilsonii. 

*Magnolia Dawsoniana; M. denudata var. purpurascens; *M. kobus 
var. borealis; *M. Nicholsoniana; M. officinalis; *M. parviflora (Korean 
form); *M. salicifolia; *M. Sargentiana; *M. Sargentiana var. robusta; 
M. Wilsonii. 

*Malus baccata f. Jackii; M. baccata var. mandshurica; *M. bracte- 
ata; *M. coronaria var. Charlottae; *M. coronaria var. elongata; XM. 
Eleyi; M. florentina; M. floribunda var. brevipes; *M. formosana; *M. 
glabrata; *M. ioensis var. Bushii; *M. ioensis var. Palmeri; *M. kan- 
suensis; *M. kansuensis var. calva; *M. Komarovii; *M. lancifolia; XM. 
magdeburgensis ; M. micromalus; M. Prattii; M. prunifolia var. rinki; *M. 
prunifolia var. rinki (cult. Korea); M. pumila var. Niedzwitzkyana; M. 
robusta var. persicifolia; *M. Sargentii; M. Sieboldii; *M. Sieboldii var. 
arborescens; *M. Sieboldii var. calocarpa; M. sikkimensis; *M. spontanea; 
XM. sublobata; M. theifera; M. theifera f. rosea; *M. toringoides; *M. 
transitoria; M. trilobata; *M. Tschonoskii; M. yunnanensis; M. zumi. 

*Meliosma Beaniana; M. cuneifolia; M. myriantha; *M. pendens; 
*M. tenuis; M. Veitchiorum. 

*Menziesia ciliicalyx; *M. multiflora; M. pentandra; *M. purpurea. 

Morus acidosa; *M. cathayana; M. mongolica; *M. notabilis. 

*Neillia longiracemosa; N. sinensis; *N. thibetica. 

Nothopanax Davidii. 

Orixa japonica. 

Osmanthus armatus; *O. serrulatus. 

*Osteomeles Schwerinae var. microphylla. 

Ostrya carpinifolia; *O. japonica; *O. Knowltonii. 

Ostryopsis Davidiana. 

Pachystima myrsinites. 

Paederia tomentosa. 

Paeonia Delavayi; *P. Delavayi var. angustiloba; *P. suffruticosa 
(wild form). 

Parrotiopsis Jacquemontiana. 

Parthenocissus Henry ana; P. himalayana; *P. himalayana var. rubri- 
folia; *P. laetevirens; P. Thomsonii. 

*Paulownia Mikado; *P. tomentosa var. lanata. 

*Pentactina rupicola. 

*Pentapanax Henryi. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 155 

*Periploca sepium. 

Petrophytum caespitosum. 

Phellodendron amurense; P. chinense; P. Lavalleii; *P. sachalinense. 

*Philadelphus argyrocalyx; P. Delavayanus; P. incanus; P. Magda- 
lenae; *P. microphyllus; P. pekinensis; P. pekinensis var. brachybotrys; 
P. purpurascens; *P. sericanthus var. Rehderianus; *P. serpyllifolius; P. 
Schrenkii var. Jackii; P. subcanus; P. tenuifolius. 

Photinia Beauverdiana var. notabilis ; *P. Davidsoniae ; *P. subumbel- 
lata; P. villosa var. laevis; P. villosa var. sinica. 

Phyllodoce glanduliflora; *P. nipponica. 

Picea Abies var. aclada; P. Abies var. conica elegans; P. Abies var. 
decumbens; P. Abies var. dumosa; P. Abies var. elegans; P. Abies var. 
nidiformis; P. Abies var. pachyphylla; P. Abies var. prostrata; P. Abies 
var. pygmaea globosa; P. Abies var. pyramidalis compacta; P. Abies var. 
pyriformis; P. Abies, var. repens; *P. ascendens; *P. asperata; *P. 
asperata var. notabilis; *P. asperata var. ponderosa; *P. aurantiaca; *P. 
Balfouriana; *P. Breweriana; P. complanata; *P. Engelmannii; *P. 
glauca var. albertiana f. conica; P. glauca var. compacta globosa; P. 
glauca var. nana; P. Glehnii; *P. heterolepis; *P. koraiensis; *P. Koya- 
mai; *P. Meyeri; *P. montigena; *P. morrisonicola; P. omorika; *P. 
pungens var. compacta; *P. purpurea; *P. retroflexa; P. rubra var. 
virgata; *P. Sargentiana; P. Watsoniana; *P. Wilsonii. 

Picrasma quassioides. 

*Pieris nana; P. ovalifolia var. lanceolata; *P. taiwanensis. 

*Pilostegia viburnoides. 

Pinus Armandi; P. echinata; P. leucodermis; P. peuke; P. pumila; 
P. sinensis; *P. sinensis var. densata; *P. sinensis var. yunnanensis; P. 
Strobus var. fastigiata; *P. Strobus var. prostrata. 

Piptanthus concolor. 

*Pittosporum daphniphylloides; P. glabratum; *P. heterophyllum; 
P. truncatum. 

Platanus Wrightii. 

Platycarya strobilacea. 

Poliothyrsis sinensis. 

Polygonum multiflorum. 

*Populus adenopoda; *XP. Andrewsii; X P. generosa; *P. koreana; 
P. lasiocarpa; *P. Palmeri; P. Petrowskiana; P. Sieboldii; *P. szechu- 
anica; P. tomentosa; *P. tremula var. Davidiana; *P. tremula var. David- 
iana f. tomentella; *P. Wilsonii. 

*Potentilla fruticosa var. albicans, *P. fruticosa var. parvifolia; P. 
fruticosa var. Purdomii; P. fruticosa var. tenuifolia; P. fruticosa var. 
Veitchii; P. Vilmoriniana. 

Prinsepia sinensis; *P. uniflora. 

*Prunus alabamensis; *P. alleghaniensis; *P. alleghaniensis var. 
Davisii; XP. amygdalo-persica; P. apetala; P. armeniaca var. mikado; 



156 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

*P. australis; P. baldschuanica; *P. bicolor; *P. brachypoda var. pseu- 
dossiori; P. Buergeriana; P. campanulata; P. canescens P. cerasifera 
var. divaricata; P. concinna; *P. Conradinae; *P. Cuthbertii; *P. 
cyclamina; P. dasycarpa; P. dasycarpa var. salicifolia; P. Davidiana; *P. 
dehiscens; *P. Dielsiana; *P. discadenia; P. emarginata; *P. glyptocarya; 
*P. gracilis; *P. Gravesii; *P. hortulana var. pubens; P. humilis; P. 
incana; P. incisa; *P. incisaf. serrata; P. Jacquemontii; *P. japonica var. 
Nakaii; P. Lannesiana f. albida; P. Lannesiana f. benitoranowo; P. Lan- 
nesiana f. botanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. chosiuhizakura; P. Lannesiana 
f. fudanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. fukurokuju; P. Lannesiana f. gijozakura; 
P. Lannesiana f. gozanomanioi; P. Lannesiana f. hatazakura; P. Lannesi- 
ana f. higurashi; P. Lannesiana f. horaisan; P. Lannesiana f. jonioi; P. 
Lannesiana f. kokesimidsu ; P. Lannesiana f. mazakura; P. Lannesiana 
f. mikurumakaisi ; P. Lannesiana f. miyako; P. Lannesiana f. ohsibayama; 
P. Lannesiana f. sobanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. sumizome; P. Lannesiana 
f. surugadainioi; P. Lannesiana f. takinioi; P. Lannesiana f. temari; P. 
Lannesiana f. yedozakura; P. Laucheana; P. Laurocerasus var. schip- 
kaensis; *P. lobulata; P. Maackii; *P. malifolia; *P. Maximowiczii; 
*P. mexicana; *P. mexicana var. fultonensis; P. niicrocarpa; *P. micro- 
meloides; *P. mira; P. emarginata var. mollis; P. nana; P. nana var. 
caucasica; P. nana var. transcaucasica; P. nipponica; P. nipponica var. 
kurilensis; *P. orthosepala; P. Padus var. Albertii; P. Padus var. com- 
mutata; P. Padus var. heterophylla; P. Padus var. parviflora; P. Padus 
var. sibirica; *P. perulata; P. Petunikovii; *P. pilosiuscula var. barbata; 
*P. pilosiuscula var. media; *P. pleiocerasus; *P. pleuroptera; *P. 
plurinervis; *P. polytricha; P. prostrata; *P. pubigera var. obovata; *P. 
pubigera var. Prattii; *P. Reverchonii; P. rufomicans; P. salicina (wild 
form); *P. serrula var. tibetica; P. serrulata var. pubescens; P. serrulata 
var. pubescens f. meigetsu; P. serrulata var. pubescens f. taizanfukun; P. 
serrulata f. rosea; *P. serrulata var. sachalinensis; P. serrulata var. 
sachalinensis f. horinji; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f. kokonaye; P. 
serrulata var. sachalinensis f. ohnanden; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f. 
sekiyama; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f. shogetsu; P. serrulata var. 
sachalinensis f. udzuzakura; P. serrulata var. spontanea; P. serrulata var. 
spontaneaf. kosioyama; P. serrulata var. spontanea f. praecox; P. sibirica; 
P. Sieboldii f. yokihi; P. Ssiori; *P. stellipila; *P. subhirtella; *P. sub- 
hirtella var. ascendens; *P. tatsienensis var. stenadenia; P. tomentosa; 
P. tomentosa var. endotricha; P. triloba var. normalis; *P. variabilis; 
*P. venosa; *P. virens; P. virginiana var. demissa f. pachyrrachis; P. 
virginiana var. leucocarpa; *P. Watsonii; P. Wilsonii var. leiobotrys; P. 
yedoensis. 

Pseudotsuga japonica. 

*Ptelea Baldwinii; *P. isophylla; P. polyadenia. 

Pterocarya hupehensis; P. Paliurus; P. rhoifolia. 

Pteroceltis Tatarinowii. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRSTY FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 157 

Pterostyrax corymbosum; P. hispidum. 

*Pyracantha Gibbsii; P. Koidzumii. 

Pyrus amygdalif ormis ; P. amygdaliformis var. oblongifolia; P. Bal- 
ansae; P. betulaefolia; P. Bretschneideri; *P. Calleryana; *P. Calleryana 
var. dimorphophylla; *P. Calleryana var. Fauriei; *P. Calleryana var. 
tomentella; P. communis var. cordata; P. communis var. cotinifolia; P. 
communis var. f ascicularis ; P. communis var. pyraster; *P. Kawakamii; 
P. Korshinskyi; P. Michauxii; P. pashia; P. persica; P. phaeocarpa; P. 
phaeocarpa var. globosa; P. Pyrainus; P. serotina; *P. serrulata; P. 
ussuriensis; *P. ussuriensis var. hondoensis; P. ussuriensis var. ovoidea. 

*Quercus aliena; *Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; *Q. aliena var. acute- 
serrata f. calvescens; Q. aquifolioides var. rufescens; *Q. arkansana; Q. 
Baronii; XQuercus Bebbiana; *Q. ellipsoidalis; *Q. Engleriana; Q. 
Gambelii; Q. Gilliana; Q. glandulifera; *Q. glauca var. gracilis; XQ. 
guadalupensis ; Q. Gunnisonii; *Q. Havardii; *XQ. Jackii; *Q. Laceyi; 
*XQ. Leana; *Q. leptophylla; *Q. liaotungensis; Q. libani var. angusti- 
folia; Q. lyrata; Q. macedonica; Q. macranthera; *Q. mongolica; *Q. 
mongolica var. grosseserrata; *Q. Muehlenbergii var. Brayi; *Q. nigra 
var. tridentifera f . microcarya; *Q. nitescens; Q. oxyodon; *Q. pachyloma; 
*X Q. Rehderi; Q. pontica; *XQ. Robbinsii; Q. robur var. pectinata; 
*Q. rubra var. pagodaefolia; *XQ. runcinata; Q. semicarpifolia; Q. 
serrata; Q. serratifolia; Q. sessiliflora var. insecata; Q. sessiliflora var. 
Louettei; *Q. Shumardii; *Q. Shumardii var. Schneckii; *Q. stellata var. 
Boyntonii; XQ. subfalcata var. microcarpa; Q. toza; *Q. undulata; *Q. 
utahensis; *Q. utaliensis var. submollis; Q. variabilis; *Q. velutina var. 
missouriensis. 

*Reevesia pubescens. 

Rhamnella franguloides. 

Rhamnus costata; R. crenata; *R. dumetorum; *R. dumetorum var. 
crenoserrata; R. fallax; *R. heterophylla; *R. hupehensis; *R. koraiensis; 
*R. leptacantha; R. leptophylla; *R. Leveilleana; R. nipponica; *R. 
paniculiflora; R. parviflora; *R. Rosthornii; *R. Sargentiana; *R. 
Schneideri; R. utilis; R. virgata. 

*Rhododendron alabamense; *R. Albrechtii; R. ambiguum; *R. 
Amesiae; R. argyrophyllum; R. argyrophyllum var. cupulare; R. Augus- 
tinii; *R. austrinum; *R. bracteatum; R. calophytum; *R. Chapmanii; 
R. concinnum; *R. Davidsonianum; R. decorum; R. discolor; *R. 
Edgarianum; R. Faberi; R. Fargesii; R. flavidum; *R. floribundum; R. 
Fortune! var. Houlstonii; *R. galacteum; *R. Hanceanum; *R. Hunne- 
wellianum; R. hypoglaucum; R. indicum; *R. insigne; R. intricatum; 
R. japonicum; *R. japonicum f. aureum; *R. Keiskei; R. linearifolium 
var. macrosepalum ; R. longesquamatum; *R. longistylum; R. lutescens; 
R. maculiferum; R. Mariesii; *R. Metternichii; R. micranthum; *R. 
Morii; *R. moupinense; R. mucronulatum; R. mucronatum f. sekidera; 
*R. mucronulatum var. ciliatum; *R. nipponicum; *R. obtusum var. 



158 



JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 



[VOL. m 



japonicum; *R. obtusum var. Kaempferi; *R. obtusum var. Kaempferi f. 
multicolor; R. Oldhami; R. orbiculare; R. oreodoxa; R. pachytrichum; 
*R. phoenicium var. tebotan; R. pittosporaefolium; R. polylepis; *R. 
prunifolium; R. Przewalskii; *R. pseudochrysanthum; R. reticulatum; 
*R. rubropilosum; *R. Sargentianum; R. scabrum; R. Schlippenbachii; 
*R. Searsiae; *R. semibarbatum; *R. serrulatum; R. Smirnovii; R. 
Souliei; *R. stamineum; *R. strigillosum; R. sutchuenense; R. taliense; 
*R. Thayerianum; *R. tosaense; T. Tschonoskii; R. Ungerni; *R. vio- 
laceum; R. Wasonii; R. Watsonii; *R. Websterianum; *R. Weldianum; 
*R. Weyrichii; *R. Williamsianum; R. yanthinum; *R. yedoense var. 
poukhanense. 

KURUME AZALEAS 

Rhododendron obtusum var. japonicum f. 



"Agemaki" 

"Aioi" 

"Asagasumi" 

"Aya Kammuri" 

" Azuma Kagami " 

"Benifude" 

"Bijinsui" 

"Fudesute Yama" 

"GoshoZakura" 

"HachikaTsugi" 

"HanaAsobi" 

"ftinodeNoTaka" 

"Ho5" 

"ImaShSjo" 

"Irohayama" 

"Kasane Kagaribi" 

"Kasumi Gaseki" 

"KatsuraNoHana" 

" Kimigayo " 

"Kirin" 

"Kiritsubo" 

"KumoNoUye" 

"KuraiNoHimo" 

"KurenoYuki" 

"NaniWagata" 



"Oino Mezame" 

"Omoine" 

"Osaraku" 

"Osaraku Seedling" 

"Otome" 

"Rasho Mon" 

"Sakura Tsukasa" 

"Saotome" 

"Seikai" 

"ShinSeikai" 

"ShinUtena" 

"Shintoki No Hagasane" 

"Suetsumu" 

"SugaNoIto" 

"Suiyohi" 

"Takasago" 

"TamaNoUtena" 

"Tamafuyo" 

"Tancho" 

"Tsuta Momiji" 

"Ukamuse" 

"WakaKayede" 

"Yayehiryu" 

"Yorozuyo" 



Rhus Potaninii; R. punjabensis var. sinica; *R. sylvestris; *R. tri- 
chocarpa; *R. trilobata; R. verniciflua. 

Ribes aciculare; R. alpestre; *R. alpestre var. giganteum; R. alpinum 
var. pumilum; *R. ambiguum; R. burejense; *R. cognatum; R. dikuscha 
var. appendiculatum ; R. f asciculatum ; R. fasciculatum var. chinense; 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 159 

X R. fuscescens; R. Giraldii; R. glaciale; *R. glaciale var. angustisepala; 
R. grossularioides ; *R. Henryi; R. heterotrichum; *R. himalayense var. 
atropurpureum ; R. himalayense var. urceolatum; *R. japonicum; *R. 
laurif olium ; R. laxiflorum; R. leptanthum; R. longeracemosum; *R. 
longeracemosum var. Wilsonii; R. luridum; *R. magellanicum; R. mand- 
shuricum var. subglabrum; R. Maximowiczii; *R. mescalerium; R. 
Meyeri var. turkestanicum ; R. montigenum; R. moupinense; *R. moupi- 
nense var. laxiflorum; R. orientale; *R. parvulum; *R. petiolare; R. 
petraeum; R. petraeum var. altissimum; R. petraeum var. Biebersteinii; 
*R. pinetorum; *R. Pringlei; R. procumbens; R. saxatile; R.Spaethianum; 
R. stenocarpum; XR. succimbrum; R. tenue; Ribes tricuspe; R. ussuri- 
ense; R. Vilmorinii; *R. viscosissimum. 

Robinia Hartwigii; *R. neomexicana. 

*Rosa adenosepala; R. amblyotis; *R. Bakeri; R. banksiopsis; *R. 
bella; *R. bella var. pallens; R. caudata; R. corymbulosa; R. Davidii; 
R. Davidii var. elongata; R. Ecae; *R. filipes; R. foliolosa; R. Gentiliana; 
R. Giraldii var. venulosa; *R. glomerata; R. Helenae; R. Hugonis; R. 
jaluana; *R. koreana; R. longicuspis; *R. Lyonii var. alba; *R. Mc- 
Dougalii; *R. Macounii; *R. Maximowicziana var. Jackii; *R. Maximo- 
wicziana var. pilosa; R. Moyesii; R. Moyesii f. rosea; R. multibracteata; 
R. multiflora; *R. multiflora var. cathayensis; *R. Murielae; R. omeiensis; 
*R. omeiensis var. chrysocarpa; R. omeiensis f. pteracantha; *R. Palmeri; 
R. persetosa; *R. Prattii; *R. pyrifera; R. Roxburghii var. hirtula; 
R. Roxburghii var. normalis; R. Rubus; R. saturata; R. sertata; R. seti- 
poda; *R. Spaldingii; R. spinosissima var. altaica; R. spinosissima 
"Doininic Sampson"; R. spinosissima "Iris"; R. spinosissima "Jupiter"; 
R. spinosissima "King of the Scots"; R. spinosissima "Plato"; R. spino- 
sissima var. pusilla; R. spinosissima "Pythagoras"; *R. stellata var. 
mirifica; R. subserrulata; *R. suffulata; R. Sweginzowii; R. tuschetica; 
*R. ultramontana; R. Wichuraiana; R. Willmottiae. 

Rubus adenophorus; *R. amabilis; *R. amnicolus; R. Andrewsianus; 
R. arcticus; *R. arundelanus; R. aurantiacus; *R. biflorus var. quinque- 
florus; *R. biformispinus; R. caesius var. turkestanicus; R. chroosepalus; 
R. corchorifolius; R. coreanus; R. crataegifolius; R. flagelliflorus; *R. 
flosculosus; R. flosculosus f. parvifolius; R. Fockeanus; R. Gentilianus; 
R. geophilus; *R. Giraldianus; *R. glandicaulis; R. Henryi; R. hupe- 
hensis; R. ichangensis; R. innominatus; R. innominatus var. Kuntzeanus; 
R. inopertus; R. irenaeus; *R. Jeckylanus; *R. junceus; R. Koehneanus; 
R. Lambertianus ; *R. lasiostylus var. dizygos; R. macilentus; R. melano- 
lasius; R. mesogaeus; *R. multiformis; *XR. neglectus; *R. orarius; 
R. Parkeri; R. parvifolius; *R. peculiaris; R. platyphyllus; R. Play- 
fairianus; *R. plicatifolius; R. pungens; *R. recurvans; *R. recurvicau- 
lis; *R. recurvicaulis var. inarmatus; R. semierectus; R. setchuenensis; 
*R. setosus; *R. spectabilis var. vernus; *R. tardatus; R. thibetanus; R. 
trianthus; *R. tricolor; R. vicarius; R. xanthocarpus. 



160 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

*Sabia latifolia; *S. Schumanniana. 

*Sageretia pycnophylla. 

*Salix Bockii; *S. cardiophylla; *S. cathayana; *S. eriocarpa; *S. 
Fargesii; *S. Gilgiana; *S. hypoleuca; *S. jessoensis; *S. koreensis; *S. 
macroblasta; *S. magnifica; *S. Matsudana; *S. moupinensis; *S. 
phanera; *S. purpurea var. multinervis; *S. Rehderiana; *S. subfragilis; 
*S. Wallichiana. 

Sambucus canadensis f. maxima; *S. canadensis var. subtomentosa; S. 
microbotrys; S. melanocarpa; S. racemosa var. Sieboldiana; *S. Schweri- 
niana. 

*Sapindus Drummondii. 

Sarcococca Hookeriana var. digyna; S. Hookeriana var. humilis; 
S. ruscifolia. 

*Sargentodoxa cuneata. 

*Sassafras randaiensis; S. tzumu. 

Schizandra chinensis; *S. glaucescens; S. grandiflora; S. Henryi; S. 
nigra; S. propinqua var. sinensis; *S. rubriflora; *S. sphenanthera. 

Schizophragma integrifolium; S. integrifolium var. molle. 

Securinega fluggeoides; S. ramiflora. 

Sibiraea laevigata var. angustata; S. tomentosa. 

*Sinofranchetia chinensis. 

Sinomenium acutum; S. acutum var cinereum. 

*Sinowilsonia Henryi. 

*Smilax discotis var. concolor; *S. longipes; *S. megalantha; *S. mem- 
sperm oides; *S. scobinicaulis; *S. Sieboldii; *S. trachypoda; *S. vaginata. 

Solanum Dulcamara var. chinense. 

*Sophora affinis; S. japonica var. pyramidalis; S. japonica var. 
pubescens; *S. japonica var. vestita; S. viciifolia. 

Sorbaria Aitchisonii; S. arborea; *S. arborea var. glabrata; *S. arborea 
var. subtomentosa; S. assurgens; S. stellipila. 

XSorbaronia Dippelii; XS. fallax; XS. heterophylla. 

XSorbopyrus auricularis; XS. auricularis var. bulbiformis. 

*Sorbus alnifolia; *S. alnifolia var. lobulata; *S. alnifolia var. submol- 
lis; S. angustifolia; S. Aria var. Decaisneana; S. caloneura; S. chamae- 
mespilus; S. commixta; *S. commixta var. rufo-ferruginea; *S. Conradinae; 
S. discolor; *S. Esserteauiana; *S. expansa; S. Folgneri; S. Folgneri var. 
pendula; S. Hostii; *S. hupehensis var. aperta; *S. japonica var. calo- 
carpa; *S. Koehneana; *S. megalocarpa; *S. megalocarpa var. cuneata; 
*S. meliosmifolia; S. Mougeotii; *S. multijuga; *S. multijuga var. micro- 
donta; *S. munda f. subarachnoidea; *S. munda f. tatsienensis ; S. occi- 
dentalis; *S. pallescens; *S. plantierensis; S. pohuashanensis; *S. ran- 
daiensis; *S. Rehderiana; S. sambucifolia; *S. Sargentiana; *S. scalaris; 
S. scopulina; S. serotina; *S. setschwanensis; *S. unguiculata; S. Vilmo- 
rinii; S. Wilsonii; S. Zahlbruckneri. 

Sphaeralcea remota. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 161 

X Spiraea arguta; XS. assimilis; XS. blanda; S. bullata; S. calcicola; 
S. canescens; S. dahurica var. canescens; S. dasyantha; XS. Foxii; S. 
gemmata; S. Henryi; S. japonica var. acuminata; *S. japonica var. 
ovalifolia; *S. koreana; S. longigemmis; S. lucida; XS. macrostachya; 
XS. Margaritae; XS. microthyrsa; *S. Miyabei var. glabrata; *S. molli- 
folia; XS. mollis; XS. multiflora; S. myrtilloides; S. nipponica; XS. 
notha; XS. nudiflora; *S. obtusa; XS. oxyodon; XS. pachystachya; 
XS. pikoviensis; S. prunifolia var. simpliciflora; S. pubescens; *XS. 
pyramidata; XS. revirescens; *S. Rosthornii; *S. Sargentiana; XS. 
Schinabeckii; XS. semperflorens ; XS. superba; *S. sylvestris; XS. 
syringiflora; *S. trichocarpa; XS. tristis; *S. ulmifolia (Korean form); 
S. vaccinifolia; S. Veitchii; *S. virginiana var. serrulata; S. Wilsonii. 

Spondias axillaris. 

*Stachyurus chinensis; S. praecox. 

*Staphylea Bolanderi; S. holocarpa; S. holocarpa var. rosea. 

Stewartia monadelpha. 

*Stranvaesia Davidiana; S. Davidiana var. undulata. 

Styrax Hemsleyanus; *S. Shiraiana; *S. Veitchiorum; *S. Wilsonii. 

Sycopsis sinensis. 

XSymphoricarpos Chenaultii; *S. oreophilus; *S. sinensis. 

*Syringa affinis; *S. dilatata; *S. formosissima; XS. Henryi var. 
eximia; XS. Henryi var. Lutece; S. Koehneana; *S. Komarowii; *S. 
Komarowii var. Sargentiana; *S. microphylla; *S. Palibiniana; *S. pin- 
natifolia; S. reflexa; *S. Rehderiana; S. Sweginzowii; S. tomentella; S. 
vulgaris (wild type) ; S. Wolfii. 

*Taiwania cryptomerioides. 

Tapiscia sinensis. 

Taxus brevifolia (from Idaho and Montana) ; *T. chinensis. 

Tetracentron sinense. 

*Tetrastigma obtectum var. pilosum. 

*Thuja koraiensis; T. plicata (hardy Idaho form); T. plicata var. 
nana. 

*Thujopsis dolobrata var. Hondai. 

Tilia caroliniana; *T. caroliniana var. rhoophila; T. floridana; *T. 
insularis; T. intonsa; *T. Maximo wicziana; T. Miqueliana; T. Oliveri; 
T. tuan; *T. tuan var. chinensis. 

*Triosteum Fargesii. 

*Tripetaleia bracteata; *T. paniculata. 

Tripterygium Regelii. 

Trochodendron aralioides. 

*Tsuga caroliniana; T. chinensis; *T. yunnanensis. 

*Tsusiophyllum Tanakae. 

Ulmus Bergmanniana; U. foliacea var. umbraculifera; *TJ. japonica; 
U. laciniata; *U. laciniata var. nikoensis; U. punaila var. pinnato-ramosa; 
*U. serotina; *U. Wilsoniana. 



162 



JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 



[VOL. m 



Vaccinium Buergeri; V. ciliatum; *V. fragile; *V. hirsutum; V. hir- 
tum var. Smallii; V. japonicum; V. membranaceum; *V. moupinense; 
*V. praestans; V. scoparium; *V. urceolatum. 

Viburnum betulifolium; V. bitchuense; *V. bracteatum; V. buddlei- 
folium; *V. Canbyi; *V. cinnamomifolium; V. cylindricum; *V. dasyan- 
thum; V. Davidii; V. erosum; *V. erubescens var. Prattii; V. foetidum 
var. rectangulum; *V. furcatum; V. Henryi; V. hupehense; V. ichangense; 
*V. kansuense; V. lobophyllum; *V. lobophyllum var. flocculosum; *V. 
molle; V. mongolicum; V. phlebotrichum; V. propinquum; V. rhytido- 
phyllum; V. Sargentii; *V. Sargentii f. flavum; V. shensianum; V. thei- 
ferum; *V. urceolatum; V. utile; V. Veitchii; *V. Wilsonii; V. Wrightii. 

Vitis amurensis; XV. Baileyana; V. betulifolia; V. Coignetiae; V. 
Davidii; V. Davidii var. cyanocarpa; V. flexuosa; V. flexuosa var. 
parvifolia; V. pentagona; *V. pentagona var. bellula; V. Piasezkii; V. 
pulchra; V. reticulata; *V. Thunbergii var. sinuata; V. vinifera (form 
cultivated at Peking). 

Whipplea modesta. 

*Xylosma racemosum var. pubescens. 

Zanthoxylum alatum var. planispinum; Z. Bungei; Z. dissitum; *Z. 
Piasezkii; Z. piperitum; Z. setosum. 

The following hybrid trees and shrubs have been made at the Arbore- 
tum or have appeared in it spontaneously : 



Roses 



Arnoldiana 

Dawson 

Farquhar 

Ida 

Lady Duncan 

Minnie Dawson 



Aesculus Harbisonii 

Cornus arnoldiana 

Berberis notabilis 

Betula Jackii 

Forsythia intermedia var. primulina 

Hypericum arnoldianum 

Hypericum Dawsonianum 

Hypericum nothum 

Loniceraamoenavar. arnoldiana 



Pauline Dawson 

Jacksonii 

Sargent 

Seashell 

W. C. Egan 



Malus arnoldiana 
Malus Dawsoniana 
Prunus arnoldiana 
Pterocarya Rehderiana 
Pyrus congesta 
Rhododendron Anneliesae 
Rhod. obtusum v. arnoldianum 
Sorbus arnoldiana 
Viburnum Jackii 



HAWTHORNS. 

During the last twenty-three years special attention has been given at 
the Arboretum to the study and cultivation of North American Hawthorns. 
Previous to 1899 some twenty species and varieties only had been recog- 
nized by botanists, but in that year a number of the plants raised from 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 163 

seeds collected principally in Missouri in 1880 flowered and produced fruit, 
and showed characters so distinct from those of any of the described species 
that a critical study of the genus as it appears in North America seemed 
desirable. In carrying out this investigation specimens have been collected 
in every state of the United States and in every Province of the Dominion of 
Canada, and 4269 different lots of seeds have been planted at the Arbore- 
tum and some two hundred thousand plants have been raised. No less 
than 1056 species and varieties have been distinguished by botanists in 
these twenty-three years and of these 672 species and varieties have been 
described by the Director of the Arboretum. 

The living collection of these trees and shrubs which are often conspicu- 
ous in spring and autumn from the beauty and abundance of their flowers 
and highly colored fruits now contains seven hundred and thirty-five spe- 
cies and varieties, and make one of the interesting features of the Arbore- 
tum. Thousands of these plants raised at the Arboretum have been dis- 
tributed in this country and Europe; and nearly complete collections have 
been established in the parks of Rochester, New York, and in England. 

THE HERBARIUM 

The necessity of a collection of dried plants for the correct determina- 
tion of the living collections and for successful dendrological studies was 
felt in the earliest days of the Arboretum, but it was not until 1878 that the 
beginning of an herbarium was made. In that year Mr. John Robinson 
of Salem came to the Arboretum as curator of the proposed herbarium and 
began to gather specimens for it. Four years later he was succeeded as 
curator by Mr. Charles E. Faxon who remained in general charge of the 
herbarium until his death in 1918. He was succeeded by Mr. Alfred Render 
who is now the curator. The herbarium, which is confined to specimens 
of trees, shrubs and suffrutescent plants, now contains two hundred thou- 
sand sheets and a large number of fruits. It is hoped that it will be 
extended until it contains a representative of every ligneous plant in the 
world from the Arctic Circle of the two hemispheres to the equator. The 
divas now best represented in the herbarium are those of North America 
and eastern Asia. Plants, however, are found in it from all the conti- 
nents, and from nearly every country, and the only regions botanically im- 
portant which are not represented are Madagascar, New Caledonia and 
New Guinea. 

The first important collections of North American plants were made in 
1880 and 1881 by the Director and his assistants engaged in preparing for 
the general government a report on the forests and forest wealth of the 
United States. The study of North American trees and shrubs begun 
forty years ago has been steadily continued to the present time, and large 
quantities of material have been gathered for the herbarium in every part 
of the country by officers of the Arboretum and collectors employed for the 
purpose. The herbarium received its first Asiatic plants in 1892 when the 



164 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

Director brought back from Japan a collection of about one thousand 
specimens. It was later enriched by the specimens collected in Japan, 
northern China and Korea by Mr. J. G. Jack of the Arboretum staff, by 
Purdom, Meyer, Sargent and Hers in northern China, by Henry in western 
China, by the collections of E. H. Wilson in western China, Korea and the 
entire Japanese Empire of about 8500 specimens, by the specimens collected 
by C. Schneider in southwestern China, and by several collections of the 
plants of the Philippine Islands made under the direction of the Philippine 
Bureau of Science. 

The herbarium contains several collections made from trees and shrubs 
cultivated in Europe. The most important of them were made by Mr. 
George Nicholson in the Royal Gardens at Kew, by Dr. C. Naudin at the 
Villa Thuret at Antibes in France, by A. Render and C. Schneider chiefly 
in Germany, and by H. Zabel of Muenden, Germany, containing the types 
of the numerous species, varieties and hybrids published by him. 

The attempt has been made in the Arboretum herbarium to show in 
the case of important trees the varieties and range of the species, and from 
one hundred to three hundred sheets are occasionally devoted to the illus- 
tration of a single species and its varieties; in the case of trees like Oaks 
and Hickories the sheets are accompanied by many bottles of nuts. 

The Pinaceae is the family best represented in the Arboretum her- 
barium. All the genera and all the species of this Family are represented 
with the exception of six Araucarias from New Caledonia, two species of 
Callitris and three species of Agathis from northern Australia, one Juniper 
from San Domingo and another from the Azores. Many of the species are 
represented by long series of specimens and by enough cones to show the 
range of their variation. 

The herbarium contains the types of nearly all the new Chinese species 
published by the Arboretum in Plantae Wilsonianae, the new species pub- 
lished in Garden and Forest, in Trees and Shrubs, and in the Journal of 
the Arnold Arboretum, and of the new species and varieties of Crataegus, 
Carya, Quercus, Tilia, Aesculus and other genera published by the Director. 

In its early years the office of the Arboretum and the herbarium and 
Library were established in a house in Brookline controlled by the Director, 
but in 1892 Mr. Horatio Hollis Hunnewell, a constant and devoted friend 
to the Arboretum, as have been his sons, furnished the money for the 
brick building near the Jamaica Plain entrance, and late in that year the 
offices for administration, the herbarium and the library were moved into it. 
This building also contains a collection of specimens of the wood and bark 
of most of the trees of the United States, a gift with the cases in which they 
are arranged of the late Morris K. Jesup of New York. In 1905 a fireproof 
four-storied wing was added to the Administration Building to contain 
the herbarium which is now arranged in steel cases extending to the ceiling 
of the low-studded and well lighted rooms conveniently arranged for the 
study of the specimens. 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 165 

THE LIBRARY 

The Library of the Arboretum now contains 35,500 bound volumes and 
8000 pamphlets. It was begun in 1873 when the Director bought for his 
own use a few books needed for the arrangement of the future Arboretum. 
This small library was gradually increased and when a few years later it 
was determined to prepare at the Arboretum an account of the trees of 
North America additional works on dendrology and descriptive botany 
essential to the production of that work were obtained by him. In 1892 
the six thousand volumes which had by that time been accumulated were 
presented by the Director to the University, accommodations for a library 
having at that time been provided by the Arboretum. 

The Arboretum Library contains the books in all editions and languages 
devoted to the description of trees. Its collection of Floras partly devoted 
to trees and monographs of genera in which trees and shrubs are described, 
is a large one. The collections of books and papers descriptive and cul- 
tural of various groups of plants like Conifers, Rosa, Rhododendron, Cra- 
taegus, Quercus, Salix, etc., are as nearly complete as it has been possible to 
make them. A complete collection of the works of Linnaeus is found in 
the Library; and it is believed that outside the walls of the British Museum 
there is not a more complete collection of the books relating to plants pub- 
lished in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The collection of books of 
travel in which occur descriptions of trees or aspects of vegetation is a large 
and interesting one and contains a few rare volumes. Little attention has 
been paid to books relating to the description and care of the fruit trees 
usually cultivated in cold countries, for such works on pomology are found 
in libraries devoted to horticulture. There are, however, a large number of 
books relating to the history and cultivation of trees and shrubs valued for 
special- products like tea, coffee, cocoa, oranges and their allies, cinchona, 
olives and the mulberry in its relation to the manufacture of silk as it has 
seemed desirable that this library should contain all books relating to 
woody plants with the exception of those which are more valuable in a 
purely horticultural library. There is not a complete collection of books 
on forestry in the Arboretum library, although it contains much that has 
been written on this subject especially that which is descriptive of the early 
efforts at forest management in the United States and Europe. Only a few 
books on paleobotany, vegetable pathology, physiology and entomology 
are now found in it. Its rapid growth in directions of more immediate 
importance in the arrangement and study of the collections of living plants 
has made it impossible to devote to these subjects the attention their 
importance demands. Such books will in time find a place in the library 
intended to furnish the best possible opportunity for the study of trees. 
The library is fortunate in the possession of a large number of complete 
sets of rare periodicals including two hundred which are now discontinued; 
it receives regularly the numbers of three hundred serials more or less de- 
voted to trees and their cultivation. 



166 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

In 1904 Miss Ethelyn M. Tucker joined the staff of the Arboretum to 
assist in the care of the library and to prepare a Catalogue of its contents. 
In 1918 she was appointed Librarian. The books in the library have been 
systematically arranged by her under the system usually followed in Ameri- 
can libraries and are fully and completely catalogued. When Miss Tucker 
began in 1904 to prepare the manuscript for a printed Catalogue the library 
contained 10,000 volumes; when the first volume of the catalogue was 
printed in 1914 the number had increased to 30,000. The printed catalogue 
is contained in two quarto volumes. The first, which is devoted to peri- 
odicals and to authors and titles, contains 782 two-column pages, and in 
the second volume, which appeared in 1917 contains 542 two-column pages, 
the books are arranged according to subjects. 

Early in the formation of the library it became evident that to build up 
a dendrological library and to carry on at the Arboretum a critical study 
of trees and other woody plants more information about the literature of 
trees than could be found in any printed bibliography was necessary. To 
meet this difficulty a plan was carefully worked out for a bibliography to 
contain a reference to every book, every magazine article and every paper 
in the Transactions of Learned Societies relating to trees or shrubs in all 
languages published before the end of the nineteenth century. This 
work was entrusted to Mr. Alfred Rehder, at that time assistant in the 
Herbarium, who began work on it in March 1900, and devoted his time to it 
until the printing of the last volume was finished. During the preparation 
of this book Mr. Rehder visited every library in the eastern United States 
in which botanical or horticultural books are found, and during two visits 
in Europe extending over a period of twenty-seven months studied in 
the botanical libraries of Great Britain, France, Spain, Denmark, Norway, 
Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia. The name of this work is 
the Bradley Bibliography as it was partly paid for from the income of a 
gift made in 1897 to the Arboretum by Miss Abby A. Bradley of Hingham 
as a memorial to her father William Lambert Bradley. The first two vol- 
umes devoted to an enumeration of works on Dendrology, were issued 
in 1911, and in 1912. Volume iii. devoted to Arboriculture and the 
Economic Properties of Woody Plants appeared in 1915; volume iv. con- 
taining an enumeration of works on Forestry, in 1914, and the fifth and 
final volume, which contains the Index of Authors and Titles and a 
subject Index of the whole work, in 1918. The five volumes of the Bradley 
Bibliography contain rather more than one hundred thousand titles of 
books and papers relating to trees and shrubs printed on three thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-nine two-column quarto pages. 

Other works prepared in the Library and Herbarium and published by 
the Arboretum are, 

The Pines of Mexico (1909) and a monograph of the Genus Pinus (1914) 
by Mr. George R. Shaw; The Plantae Wilsonianae (in 3 vol. 1913-17), 
being an account of the plants collected in western China by E. H. Wilson 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 167 

for the Arboretum; The Cherries of Japan (1916) by Mr. Wilson; The 
Conifers and Taxads of Japan (1916) by Mr. Wilson; A Monograph of 
Azaleas by Messrs. Wilson and Render (1921); twelve volumes of the 
Bulletin of Popular Information (1911-22); the first three volumes of the 
Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1919-22); and an illustrated Guide to 
the Arnold Arboretum (1911) with a second edition in 1921. 

The following are some of the works which have been prepared by the 
Director in this library but were not published by the Arboretum : Report 
on the Forests of North America, being the ninth volume of the Final 
Reports of the Tenth Census of the United States (1884); The Woods of 
the United States with an account of their structure, qualities and uses 
(1885); The Silva of North America in fourteen volumes with seven hun- 
dred and forty plates (1891-1902); Trees and Shrubs; illustrations of new 
or little known ligneous plants, prepared chiefly from material at the 
Arnold Arboretum (1905-1913), largely by officers of the Arboretum. The 
ten volumes of Garden and Forest, a journal of horticulture, landscape art 
and forestry (1887-1897), were edited in the Arboretum library, in which 
Mr. Alfred Rehder has prepared the descriptions of a large part of the trees 
and shrubs included in Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horticulture and 
in the second edition of that work, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horti- 
culture. 

PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Arboretum collection of photographs now contains nine thousand 
six hundred pictures of trees and shrubs, types of vegetation, gardens and 
scenery. The photographs are mounted on cards 11% inches long and 9J^ 
inches wide and are arranged systematically in steel drawers. The two 
thousand eight hundred pictures made by Wilson in eastern Asia and 
Australasia form the most valuable and interesting part of; this collection. 
The Arboretum photographs have been carefully catalogued by Miss 
Tucker and can be easily and quickly examined. This collection proves 
to be an important and useful addition to both the Library and Herbarium. 

EDUCATION 

The Arboretum in the conception of its managers is a museum 
founded and carried on to increase the knowledge of trees. This they have 
endeavored to do by a collection of living plants arranged for convenient 
examination and study, by the distribution of surplus material obtained 
in the Arboretum explorations, and by the publication of the results of the 
dendrological investigations carried on in its laboratories. That they have 
been at least partly successful is shown by the standing of the Arboretum 
in the estimation of the men in different countries best able to judge of its 
usefulness. 

No attempt has been made to give instruction at the Arboretum to 



168 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. HI 

classes of University undergraduates. A few special students, often in 
recent years from China and Japan, are received by Professor J. G. Jack 
who for many years now has given field lessons during the spring and 
autumn months among the collections of trees. In the answers to the 
letters which come to the Arboretum, as to all museums, asking for infor- 
mation, help and instruction are freely given. 

The Arnold Arboretum is not a School of Forestry or of Landscape 
Gardening. It is a station for the study of trees as individuals in their 
scientific relations, economic properties and cultural requirements and 
possibilities. On the information gathered in museums like the Arnold 
Arboretum successful silviculture and landscape gardening are dependent, 
for silviculture is the cultivation on a large scale of the trees most valuable 
in a particular locality, and landscape gardening demands a knowledge 
of the individual plants which can be naturally associated for the decoration 
of parks and gardens. 

No account of the Arnold Arboretum is complete without mention of 
two remarkable men who have died in its services. 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON, one of three brothers who devoted the best 
part of their lives to the study of Natural History, was born in 1846 in 
Jamaica Plain where he died in 1918. As a boy he had begun to study the 
New England flora and to show his ability to draw by his copies in color of 
Audubon's pictures of birds. Before 1870 he had made most of the colored 
drawings to illustrate Eaton's "Ferns of North America"; and from 1879 
to 1884 he was instructor in botany at the Bussey Institution. In 1882 
when the plan was made to prepare at the Arboretum an illustrated work 
on the trees of North America Faxon was invited to make the drawings for 
it. At this time he took charge of the herbarium and library which he 
continued to manage until his death. His knowledge of botany, especially 
of the flora of eastern North America, his love of books and his remarkable 
faculty for learning foreign languages were of great value in the organiza- 
tion and care of these departments. During twenty-one years Faxon was 
engaged on the seven hundred and forty-four drawings which illustrate the 
" Silva of North America," and during his twenty-six years of service for 
the Arboretum nineteen hundred and twenty-four of his drawings of plants 
were published. To his work he brought enthusiasm, industry, good taste, 
a thorough understanding and love of his subjects, an unusually skilful 
pencil, and skill in microscopic analysis. No other American botanical 
artist has had his experience and industry, and no one has contributed 
more to the reputation of the Arboretum and the value of its publications. 

JACKSON T. DAWSON was the first superintendent of the Arboretum and 
continued to fill this position and that of propagator until his death in the 
summer of 1916. Born in the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1841 Dawson 
was brought when a child to this country by his mother and when eight 
years old was started in gardening in an uncle's nursery in Andover, Massa- 
chusetts. He served for three years in a Massachusetts regiment during 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 169 

the Civil War and was several times wounded. On his discharge from 
service in 1864 Dawson entered the employ of Hovey & Company of Cam- 
bridge, at that time one of the important commercial nurseries of the 
United States. In 1871 he was made head gardener of the School of Horti- 
culture at the Bussey Institution by Francis Parkman, the first professor 
of that department in the School, a position which he filled for three years 
when he became superintendent of the Arboretum. Dawson had the real 
love for plants and an exceptional knowledge of them. As a plant propa- 
gator it is not possible that any one could have been his superior. No 
problem in propagation was ever too difficult for him to solve. At the 
Arboretum he was compelled to work in crowded quarters with insufficient 
appliances, and in spite of this handicap he raised for the Arboretum during 
his forty-two years of service probably more than a million plants, and 
there are now few public or private gardens in the northern hemisphere 
which have not been enriched by his labors. Dawson served the Arbore- 
tum faithfully and made many friends for it ; and without his assistance it 
would have been impossible to make the collections of living plants what 
they are today. 

FUTURE NEEDS 

During its first fifty years the area occupied by the Arboretum has been 
increased from one hundred and twenty-five to two hundred and fifty acres. 
The endowment has been increased from $103,847.57 to $808,175.75, and a 
construction fund of $129,257 immediately available for improvements 
has been accumulated. 

The greatest collection of the hardy trees and shrubs of the northern 
hemisphere has been made and arranged, and many new plants largely 
discovered through its explorations have been distributed. 

It has established the largest and most important herbarium in the 
world devoted exclusively to preserving the records of trees and shrubs, 
and a library which within the limits of its special subjects is not surpassed. 
More important than these are the friendly relations it has established with 
the students and cultivators of trees in all parts of the world, for through 
these relations it will be able to increase and extend its usefulness. 

In discussing the future of the Arboretum and its needs it must be re- 
membered that during its first half century it has been managed not merely 
as a New England museum but as a national and international institution 
working to increase knowledge of trees in all parts of the world and as 
anxious to help a student in Tasmania or New Caledonia as in Massachu- 
setts. An institution with such ambitions must be equipped to answer any 
question about any tree growing in any part of the world which may be 
addressed to it. During the first fifty years of the Arnold Arboretum only 
the foundations of such an establishment have been laid, but in laying 
these foundations some of the needs of the future are made clear. These 
are, 



170 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in 

First : The collection of more information about the trees in many parts 
of the world than can now be found here. Such information can be ob- 
tained only in small part by correspondence and the information which the 
Arboretum needs can only be successfully obtained by agents sent out to 
obtain it. It is desirable that the work which the Arboretum has begun 
in eastern continental Asia should be continued and if possible completed. 
The flora of the coastal region north of latitude 45, including Kamtschatka, 
is still very imperfectly known. From this region trees and shrubs, still 
unknown in gardens, which will grow in New England can probably be 
obtained. Explorations in the northern part of Kansu, the great northwest 
province of China, may also be expected to enrich northern gardens. The 
flora of China south of the Yang-tze-kiang River and east of the Poyang 
Lake is still little known; and the trees of Cochinchina (Tonkin, Annam 
and Siam) are still badly represented in the Arboretum herbarium; and 
Harvard College will not have fulfilled its agreement with the Arnold 
Trustees until it has caused to be explored through the Arboretum the 
forests which cover the ranges of the Altai Mountains which form the 
southern boundary of central Siberia and the great interior region south of 
these mountains. 

If the Arboretum is to become a great institution for gathering and 
spreading information about trees and allied plants specimens and a series 
of photographs of every species of tree in the world should be found in its 
herbarium. The work which it has accomplished in its first fifty years in 
North America and the Japanese Empire should be extended over the rest 
of the world. For the trees of the tropics this is now important as tropical 
forests are fast disappearing to make room for plantations of rubber-pro- 
ducing and other economic plants. The best soil is selected for these 
plantations, and as with few exceptions the largest and best individuals of a 
species are produced in the best soil, many species, or certainly their best 
representatives, must disappear, and in the future the student of trees must 
depend for any knowledge of many trees on the material and information 
preserved in institutions like the Arnold Arboretum. The exploration of 
the tropical forests of the world will require perhaps a century and a large 
expenditure of money to accomplish. It is work that this Arboretum 
should begin and steadily push forward. 

Second: The Arboretum requires a properly equipped department for 
the study of the diseases of trees in this country and in other parts of the 
world. 

Third: The Arboretum requires a department in which the study of 
insects dangerous to trees and the methods for their control can be carried 
on in connection with the other investigations undertaken by the Arbore- 
tum and controlled by it. 

Fourth: The Arboretum needs a department for the breeding of new 
races of plants. The world already owes much to the intelligence and skill of 
the plant breeder. He has increased the value of many farm crops and has 



1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 171 

produced shrubs which are the chief ornament of many gardens. Less has 
been done in attempting to improve trees by the mixing of different species. 
Hybrid trees especially among Oaks often occur in this country. Several 
of these trees are already in this Arboretum where they grow more rapidly 
and are often hardier than their parents. Natural hybrids of Poplar-trees 
are common and often grow more rapidly than their parents ; and a number 
of hybrid Poplars have been raised artificially in Europe and promise to 
become valuable trees. One of the largest, hardiest and most rapid-grow- 
ing of all Elm- trees is a natural hybrid between two European species. 
The best Hickory- nuts are produced by trees which are natural hybrids; 
and one of the largest and handsomest hybrid Oak-trees in the United 
States has also been artificially reproduced by crossing the two species which 
were the parents of the natural hybrid. Judging by what little is now 
known about hybrid trees it does not seem improbable that new races of 
trees may be produced artificially which will contribute materially to the 
value of the forest products of the world and increase the beauty of parks 
and gardens. The Arnold Arboretum with its great collections and its 
connection with the principal cultivators of plants is now the best place for 
breeding new trees and shrubs in the United States. Plant breeders from 
all parts of the country send to it for the material needed in their work but 
this work can best be done here. 

Fifth : A Rose Garden and a Rock Garden if planned comprehensively 
would add much to the horticultural value of the Arboretum, and bring 
many visitors to it. 

Only a larger endowment is needed to make possible these Arboretum 
activities and extensions. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 

Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



IDHBOT" 

5' SO Forestry Building 



LD 21-100n-7,'52(A2528sl6)476 



,| UC ,,?, WLE LIBRARIES 




495940 



QK479 

H3S3 

Forestry