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.-rint fro:a Journal of tne Arn- rboretum
THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
C. S. SARGENT
Reprinted without change of paging from
JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM, VOL. III.
A arric.- Forestry. Main Library
THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM.
BY C. S. Sargent
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VOLUME III JANUARY, 1923 NUMBER 3
THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
C. S. SARGENT
By his will signed on the 22d of May, 1868, James Arnold, a merchant
of New Bedford, Massachusetts, gave one and one-quarter of the twenty-
four parts into which he divided his residuary estate "To George B.
Emerson, John James Dixwell and Francis E. Parker Esqrs. of Boston
in trust: to be by them applied for the promotion of Agricultural, or
Horticultural improvements, or other Philosophical, or Philanthropic
purposes at their discretion, and to provide for the continuance of this
Trust hereafter to such persons, and on such conditions as they, or a
majority of them, may deem proper, to carry out the intention of the
The senior of these Trustees, Mr. George B. Emerson, a distinguished
Boston schoolmaster, had long been interested in Natural History, espe-
cially in trees, and had prepared for the Commonwealth a report on " The
Trees and Shrubs growing naturally in the Forests of Massachusetts " pub-
lished in 1846 and an authoritative work on the subject still consulted by
students of trees. Mr. Dixwell, the second of these Trustees, a successful
Boston business man, was also a lover and student of trees, and had
assembled on his place in Jamaica Plain one of the largest and best collec-
tions of native and foreign trees which was growing at this time in New
England. Mr. Francis E. Parker, a Boston lawyer, was also one of the
Trustees under Mr. Arnold's will. Two therefore of the three men
appointed by Mr. Arnold to administer his bequest for the improvement
of Agriculture or Horticulture were interested in trees and understood the
importance to the world of more knowledge in regard to them than could
at that time be obtained in this country; and it was natural that the idea
of a scientific station for the study and cultivation of trees should have
occurred to them. They fortunately realized that such an institution
could be permanently and safely controlled by Harvard College.
Mr. Arnold died December 3d, 1869; and on March 29, 1872, the Trus-
tees under his will and the President and Fellows of Harvard College signed
an indenture which contained the following provisions :
" That, Whereas, the said James Arnold, by his last will, devised and
'*28 .* V '::..:. -JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
bequeathed to the said party of the first part one and a quarter twenty-
fourth parts of the residue of his estate 'in trust, to be by them applied
for the promotion of agricultural or horticultural improvements, or other
philosophical or philanthropic purposes at their discretion, and to provide
for the continuance of this trust hereafter to such persons, and on such
conditions as they or a majority of them may deem proper to carry out
the intention of the donor ' ; and
" Whereas, Benjamin Bussey, late of Roxbury, in the county of Norfolk,
merchant, deceased, by his last will and testament devised to the said party
of the second part an estate in remainder subject to certain life estates
in the estate on which he had lived in said Roxbury, called 'Woodland
Hill,' consisting of over two hundred acres of land, in trust and confidence
that they would "establish there a course of instruction in practical agri-
culture, in useful and ornamental gardening, in botany, and in such branches
of natural science as may tend to promote a knowledge of practical agri-
culture and the various arts subservient thereto and connected therewith,
and cause such courses of lectures to be delivered there, at such seasons
of the year and under such regulations as they may think best adapted to
promote the ends designed, the institution so established to be called
the 'Bussey Institution' ; and
" Whereas, the said party of the first part have agreed and determined,
in the exercise of the discretion given them under the will of the said James
Arnold, that the disposition of the property devised and bequeathed to
them as aforesaid, in the manner and for the purposes and upon the con-
ditions hereinafter set forth, is and will be the most suitable and proper
execution of their trust, and will most effectually provide for the con-
tinuance of the trust for the future, to carry out the intention of the donor,
"Now, Therefore, it is agreed, bargained, and covenanted by and
between the said party of the first part and the said party of the second
part, as follows:
" First. The said Emerson, Dixwell, and Parker, trustees, party of the
first part, in consideration of the covenants, agreements, and undertakings
of the said President and Fellows hereinafter set forth, do hereby give,
grant, bargain, sell, convey, assign, and transfer to the said President and
Fellows of Harvard College, party of the second part, and their assigns
forever, the whole property and estate devised and bequeathed to them,
the party of the first part, under and by virtue of the will of the said
James Arnold, which has been already received or shall be hereafter received
by the said party of the first part (excepting and reserving therefrom a
sum sufficient to pay the actual expenses incurred by said party of the first
part), a schedule of which, so far as received, is hereto annexed,
" To Have and to Hold the same to the said party of the second part, and
their assigns forever, in trust, with full power of sale and reinvestment,
upon the trusts following, namely,
" That the said party of the second part shall hold the same as a separate
1022] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 129
and distinct fund, and shall allow the whole net income thereof (after
deducting the necessary expenses of managing the same, and also deduct-
ing, if they see fit, one third part of such net income in each year as is
hereinafter provided) to accumulate and add the same to the principal,
until the said fund shall amount, at a just valuation, to one hundred and
fifty thousand dollars, and until the land at West Roxbury hereinafter
described shall come into the possession of the said party of the second
part as an estate in possession, free of all life tenancies or other encum-
" Second. When both said events shall have happened, that the said
party of the second part shall accumulate five per centum of the said net
income, in every year, and add the same to the capital, as a part of the
said permanent and separate trust fund.
" Third. That the said party of the second part shall devote the
remainder of the said net income in every year to the establishment and
support of an Arboretum, to be called the
which shall contain, as far as is practicable, all the trees, shrubs, and
herbaceous plants, either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the
open air at the said West Roxbury, all which shall be raised or collected
as fast as is practicable, and each specimen thereof shall be distinctly
labelled, and to the support of a professor, to be called the Arnold Pro-
fessor, who shall have the care and management of the said Arboretum,
subject to the same control by the said President and Fellows to which
the professors in the Bussey Institution are now subject, and who shall
teach the knowledge of trees in the University which is in the charge of
the said President and Fellows, and shall give such other instruction therein
as may be naturally, directly, and usefully connected therewith. And as
the entire fund, increased by the accumulations above named, under the
best management and with the greatest economy, is barely sufficient to
accomplish the proposed object, it is expressly provided that it shall not
be diminished by supplementing any other object, however meritorious
or kindred in its nature.
But the said President and Fellows shall be allowed to obtain from said
Arboretum, free of cost, any trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, which,
in the judgment of the Arnold Professor, can be spared from said Arbore-
tum without injury thereto, the same to be used for the ornament of the
College grounds, at Cambridge or elsewhere.
Fourth. Until the happening of both of the events named in the first
clause, the said party of the second part may expend one third part of
said net income in every year, and no more, in such preparation of the land
hereinafter named, and in such collecting or raising of specimens, and the
necessary superintendence thereof, as will promote the general and ulti-
mate purpose above stated, but in no other way."
130 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
By this indenture Harvard College received as an Endowment for the
proposed Arboretum $103,847.57 and agreed to use for it about one hun-
dred and twenty-five acres of its Bussey estate. The land devoted at
this time to the Arboretum had a frontage on Centre Street from the posi-
tion of the present Centre Street entrance for about half the distance to
the corner of Walter Street, on South Street from a point a short distance
east of the present South Street entrance to the corner of Bussey Street,
and for about three-quarters the length of the last named street. The
northern boundary crossed the north meadow about where the group of
Phellodendrons now stands on the right hand side of the Meadow Road,
and was often covered with water from the brook from Centre Street
which discharged its water on the undrained surface of the meadow.
The low land near the junction of the Meadow, Forest Hills and Bussey
Hill Roads, now partly occupied by the three small ponds, was an undrained
swamp. Hemlock Hill was then perhaps more beautiful than it is now for
since that time several old White Pine-trees which were then in their prime
and rose high above the Hemlocks have died. The valley of Bussey Brook
at the northern base of Hemlock Hill was then covered by an almost im-
penetrable thicket of Alders, and the western boundary of the proposed
Arboretum crossed the brook a little west of the present grove of Red
Pines. There was no access to these one hundred and twenty-five acres
except by a steep cart track from the entrance to the Bussey Mansion
across land controlled by the Bussey Institution.
I was appointed Director of the new Arboretum by the President and
Fellows of the College on November 24, 1873. The prospect of being able
to establish a useful institution would not have been encouraging if the
men interested in it had had at that time as much knowledge as hope and
enthusiasm. For it is safe to say that not one of them had an idea of what
an Arboretum might be, or what it was going to cost in time and money
to carry out the provisions of the indenture between the Trustees under
Mr. Arnold's will and the President and Fellows of Harvard College;
and certainly not one of them was more ignorant of the subject than the
man selected to carry out the provisions of this agreement. He found
himself with a worn- out farm, partly covered with natural plantations of
native trees nearly ruined by excessive pasturage, to be developed into a
scientific garden with less than three thousand dollars a year available
for the purpose. He was without equipment or the support and encour-
agement of the general public which then knew nothing about an Arbore-
tum and what it was expected to accomplish. The work of forming a
nursery, however, was begun at once, greenhouses of the Bussey Institution
being available for the propagation of the few plants which could at that
time be found in the neighborhood of Boston.
In 1873 Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted was engaged in planning and con-
structing a park system for the City of Boston and suggested that that
part of the Bussey farm which was to be devoted to the Arboretum might
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 131
be used with certain restrictions as one of the Boston parks. The sugges-
tion met with little favor and was opposed by the governing Board of
the College and by the Park Commissioners of Boston. The press was
indifferent, and its only enthusiastic supporters were Mr. Olmsted and
the Director of the Arboretum, and several years of hard semipolitical
work were needed to make possible Mr. Olmsted's plan. On December 30,
1882, however, the consent of the Legislature to it having been obtained,
the following agreement between the City of Boston through its Park
Commission and the President and Fellows of Harvard College was signed :
" Whereas the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Boston by
virtue of the authority conferred upon said Board by chapter one hundred
and eighty-five of the Acts of the Legislature of Massachusetts of the year
1875 and by the City Council of said City of Boston, by a certain written
instrument of even date herewith to be recorded with the Suffolk Registry
of Deeds have taken and located as and for a public park that tract of
land in that part of said City known as West Roxbury held by the College
and by it dedicated to the use of the Arnold Arboretum, so called, together
with certain adjoining tracts, the property of other persons deemed by said
Commissioners convenient and necessary for use in connection therewith
for the purposes and under the powers and limitations set forth in said
act and acts in addition thereto and amendment thereof And whereas
by an act of the General Court of Massachusetts passed on the twenty-
ninth day of March in the year 1880 it was enacted that in case the said
Board of Park Commissioners deemed it desirable so to take the said
lands for the said purposes the City was thereby authorized to lease such
portion of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts so taken as the said
Board of Commissioners might deem not necessary for use as parkways
and grounds to the College to be held to the same uses and purposes as the
said Arboretum was then held under the trusts created by the wills of
Benjamin Bussey and of James Arnold and for such a term and upon such
mutual restrictions, reservations, covenants and conditions as to the use
thereof by the public in connection with the uses of the same under the said
trusts, and as to the rights, duties and obligations of the contracting parties
as might be agreed upon between the said Commissioners and the College.
And the Board of Park Commissioners on the part of the City and the
President on behalf of the College were respectively authorized to execute
and deliver the said lease. And whereas the said Board of Park Commis-
sioners deems such portion of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts
as is hereinafter described and leased to be not necessary for use as park-
ways and grounds and considers that the same will be better and more
advantageously enjoyed and used by the public as a part of the said park
if the same be leased to the College for the purposes of the said trusts and
upon such terms and subject to such provisions with regard to the use
thereof by the public as are hereinafter contained. And it has been
agreed between the said Commissioners and the College that the same be
132 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
leased to the College for the term and upon the mutual restrictions, reserva-
tions, covenants and conditions hereinafter expressed.
" Now this Indenture witnesseth that the City by virtue and in exercise
of the power and authority given to it by the said Act and of every other
power and authority it hereto enabling doth demise and lease unto the
College all that parcel of land delineated on a plan entitled 'The Arnold
Arboretum' and to be recorded herewith in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds
situate in that part of Boston known as West Roxbury and bounded and
described as follows:
" Excepting and always reserving out of these presents all those parts of
the said lands delineated and marked on the said plan as driveways and
parkways and those parts of the same lands delineated and marked A and B
respectively on the said plan. And granting with the premises hereby
leased a free and unobstructed right of way upon and over all the said
excepted parts of the said lands and upon and over the driveways and
parkways delineated on the said plan and so marked thereon.
"To have and to hold the premises hereby leased (hereinafter called
the Arnold Arboretum) unto the College and its successors and assigns
for the term of One thousand years from the date hereof without impeach-
ment of waste upon and for the same trusts, uses and purposes as those
upon and for which the said land held by the College for the purposes of
the said Arboretum at the said time of the passing of the said Act of the
year 1880 was then held under the will of Benjamin Bussey and the will
of James Arnold and a certain indenture dated the 29th day of March in
the year 1872 and made between George B. Emerson, John J. Dixwell
and Francis E. Parker as Trustees of the will of the said James Arnold of
the one part and the College of the other part in which indenture the trusts
provided for in the said will of James Arnold are declared in pursuance
of the directions in the said will contained. Yielding and paying therefor
during the said term the yearly rent of one dollar And the City cove-
nants with the College and its successors and assigns that the College and
its successors and assigns shall peaceably hold and enjoy the premises
hereby leased during the said term without any interference or control of
the City or any person claiming through or under it. That the City will at
all times save and keep harmless and indemnified the College and its suc-
cessors and assigns and keep the premises hereby leased free and discharged
of and from all taxes and assessments of every description which during
the said term may be assessed or payable in respect of or charged upon the
premises hereby leased or any part thereof. That the City will within a
reasonable time make and finish fit for use of good sound materials and
in a proper and workmanlike manner the driveways of which the sites
and dimensions are delineated on the said plan and so marked thereon
but at a cost not exceeding seventy-five thousand dollars, and that the
said driveways during the said term shall be repaired and maintained in a
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 133
proper and substantial manner free of all charge and expense to the College
and its successors and assigns. That the City will during the said term
provide and maintain a proper and sufficient police in and about the
Arnold Arboretum and the said parts excepted from these presents and
the said roads, avenues, and parkways for the preservation of order and
good conduct and the observance of the rules hereinafter mentioned or
provided for. That no public street or highway and no steam or horse
railway or construction for like purposes shall be laid out through or over
any part of the Arnold Arboretum except in such places, if any, and in
such manner as the Park Commissioners and the College shall approve.
That if the water supply from the sources within the Arnold Arboretum
which the College has heretofore enjoyed for use in the said Arboretum
shall at any time be cut off, interrupted or impaired by the City or its
assigns the City will immediately provide at its own charge and expense
an equal or superior supply of water for the like use. And that if the
College, its successors or assigns shall be desirous of taking a renewed
lease of the said premises for the further term of One thousand years from
the expiration of the term hereby granted the City or its assigns will upon
the request and at the expense of the College, its successors or assigns and
upon its or their executing and delivering to the City or its assigns a
counterpart thereof forthwith execute and deliver to the College, its suc-
cessors or assigns a renewed lease of the said premises for the further term
of One thousand years at the same yearly rent and upon and subject to
the same restrictions, reservations, covenants, and conditions as are here-
in contained including this present covenant and so on from time to time
forever. And the College for itself and its successors and assigns cove-
nants with the City that the College will not commence or prosecute any
action, suit or other proceeding against the City for the enforcement or
recovery of any damages or claim which the College may have or be
entitled to against the City by reason of the said taking of the said
Arboretum land by the City. And that the Arnold Arboretum shall at
all reasonable times be open to the inspection of the public as a part of
the said Park subject to the rules hereinafter mentioned or provided for.
Provided, Always, and it is hereby declared that the City shall be at liberty
to erect and maintain suitable gateways for entrance thereto upon any of
the said excepted parts and to maintain gates there. And that no pavil-
ion, kiosk, urinal, museum, greenhouse, stable, shed, or other building
(except as above provided) shall be erected or maintained within the
Arnold Arboretum or in any of the said excepted parts or in any of the
said driveways or parkways without the prior consent of the Park Com-
missioners and the College. Provided, also, and it is hereby declared and
agreed that the use of the Arnold Arboretum and of the said excepted
parts and of the said roads, avenues and parkways by the City and its
assigns and the College, its successors and assigns and the public shall
be subject to the rules contained in the schedule hereto annexed and to
134 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. m
such additional rules as have been or may from time to time be agreed
upon between the Park Commissioners and the College. But any of the
said rules may be altered or annulled by agreement between the Park
^^Cjpmmissioners and the College."
By this agreement the location of the Arboretum was practically fixed
for at least one thousand years, for although the College may in the
future wish to move it to less valuable land it is not possible to conceive
that the City of Boston will ever consent to abandon the benefit it derives
from the use of the Arboretum as a public park. By this agreement the
Arboretum is relieved of the danger of taxation during the period of the
lease and obtains without expense the protection of the Boston police.
In return for these benefits the public is admitted to the free enjoyment
of a public garden maintained with the exception of the roads by the Uni-
versity. By this arrangement more than two-thirds of the north meadow
with the land on which the Administration Building now stands and the
hill behind it was added to the original area of the Arboretum, which also
gained an entrance from Walter Street and that part of the valley of the
Bussey Brook between Walter Street and the western boundary of the
Bussey Farm. In return the Arboretum gave up to the City the land now
occupied by the Arborway between the old northern boundary of the
north meadow and the Forest Hills entrance and the wooded slope east of
A few trees along the boundaries had been planted before 1882, but
the City was slow in building the roads with their adjoining gravel paths,
and it was not possible to begin planting trees in systematic arrangement
until 1885, that is at the end of thirteen years devoted to preliminary
negotiations and the perfection of plans.
It was soon found that the area which in 1882 was devoted to the
Arboretum was inadequate for the purpose, and that if even a small
part of the trees and shrubs which the College had arranged with Mr.
Arnold's Trustees was to be found in it more land was needed for the
purpose. Two estates on Centre Street with an area of about eight acres
between the original western boundary of the Bussey Farm at this point
and Walter Street were bought by the City for the Arboretum and the
buildings were removed from them. In 1894 the President and Fellows
of the College transferred their property west of Bussey Street, with an
area of seventy-five acres and known as Peter's Hill, to the Arboretum.
The arrangement made in 1882 with the City of Boston for the ownership
and control of the original Arboretum was extended to the Peter's Hill
addition. In 1904 a few friends of the Arboretum bought for it a house
and about four thousand feet of land on Centre Street between Piince
and Orchard Streets, Jamaica Plain, near the entrance of that name.
The house is used as the home for the superintendent, and the grounds
attached to it as a nursery. For many years the propagation of plants
for the Arboretum had been carried on on a small piece of ground near
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 135
the Centre Street entrance, leased from the Trustees of the Adams Nervine
Asylum for the purpose, and to take the place of these inadequate accom-
modations a modern greenhouse with cold pits and frames was built in
1917 on the Centre Street land for a new propagating plant. In 1919 the
land of the Bussey Institution between South Street and the location of
the Dedham Branch of the N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R.with an area of sixteen
acres was bought for it by friends of the Arboretum from the College;
and in 1922 the hill surrounded by property belonging to the Park Depart-
ment of Boston, and by Centre and Walter Streets and an unnamed road
connecting these streets, with an area of fourteen acres, has also been
bought by friends of the Arboretum and presented to it. The persent
area of the Arboretum is now therefore approximately two hundred and
Meadows, hills and valleys are found within the boundaries of the
Arboretum. The ground rises gradually from the great meadow at it*
north end to the summit of Bussey Hill from which views of the Blue Hills*
to the south and of Cambridge and Boston are obtained. From the top
of Bussey Hill the ground drops abruptly to South Street on the south and
to the west and southwest to the valley which extends from Centre to
South Streets, and which at the northern base of the second of the Arbore-
tum hills, Hemlock Hill, is joined nearly at right angles by the valley
through which Bussey Brook flows from the northwest and enters the
Arboretum under Walter Street. Through the valley which separates
the western base of Hemlock Hill from the third and highest of the Arbo-
retum hills, Peter's Hill, Bussey Street, a highway open to traffic, extends
from Walter Street at a point near the Walter Street entrance to the
Arboretum to South Street, and separates Peter's Hill from the rest of the
Arboretum. The land acquired in 1919 between South Street and the
railroad drops abruptly at its eastern end from the southern base of
Bussey Hill to a broad low peat meadow through which a new channel
for the Bussey Brook has been made; west of this low meadow only a
narrow strip of higher land separates South Street from the railroad. A
hill sloping to the north and east on Centre Street and separated by a
low depression from the base of a slope descending from Walter Street
and facing the north is the feature of the latest addition to the Arbore-
The great natural feature of the Arboretum is Hemlock Hill with
its high steep cliffs rising on the north from the Bussey Brook and
covered so thickly with Hemlock trees that the rays of the sun rarely
penetrate to the ground between them. In no other public garden are
there such cliffs or a more beautiful remnant of a coniferous forest. Oaks
and other native deciduous leaved trees from one hundred to perhaps two
hundred years old still cover small areas on each side of the Meadow Road,
186 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
on Centre Street, and on Bussey Street at the eastern base of Peter's Hill,
and are valuable in showing several important New England trees in their
ARRANGEMENT OF THE LIVING PLANTS
The trees which have been planted are arranged in botanical sequence
in family groups, the genera of each family and the species of each genus
being placed together, the arrangement beginning with the Magnolia
Family at the Jamaica Plain Gate and ending with the Pinaceae at the
Walter Street Gate.
That they may show their habit under different conditions several
individuals of important North American species have been planted close
together in groups, and at a distance from the group an individual of
the species is planted with sufficient space about it to insure a full develop-
ment of branches. A representative of almost every genus stands near a
drive so that visitors passing along the Arboretum roads and gravel paths
can obtain an idea of the genera of trees hardy in Massachusetts and of
their relation to each other. An attempt has been made to place the
Family groups in positions where the trees may find favorable conditions
for growth without interfering with the beauty of hills and valleys, and
of the natural woods. Access to the different groups of all the trees is
secured by grass-covered paths several miles in length which reach every
part of the Arboretum and make easy the examination of the trees.
Hardy shrubs of genera in which there are not species which are trees are
arranged in the same sequence as the trees in parallel beds ten feet wide
with a total length of 7765 feet, and separated by grass-covered paths.
This shrub collection is situated on the level ground near the Forest Hills
entrance and is surrounded by a trellis on which are grown vines and other
climbing plants. It has been established for the instruction of gardeners,
landscape gardeners and others interested in shrubs who can find in it all
the perfectly hardy species of many genera conveniently arranged for com-
parative study. Insufficient space in the area devoted to this shrub col-
lection has made it necessary to arrange the shrubs belonging to genera
in which some of the species are trees in groups as near as possible to the
trees of the same genus or Family; as, for example, the Spindle-trees
(Evonymus) and the Sumachs (Rhus) on opposite sides of the Meadow
Road, the Lilacs below the Ash-trees on the left hand side of the Bussey
Road, the Viburnums near the junction of the Bussey and Valley Roads,
and the Kalmias and Rhododendrons at the base of Hemlock Hill. Large
numbers of shrubs have also been planted to form margins to the roads
and an undergrowth among the groups of trees, native shrubs having been
chiefly used for this purpose in order to preserve as far as possible a New
England character. Peter's Hill has been used for an extension of the
Pinetum, for the principal collection of Hawthorns which occupies its
eastern slope, for a large supplementary collection of Crabapples and species
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 137
of Pear-trees, and the collection of Poplars and Alders; below the top
of the hill and near the western boundary of the Arboretum is a large
mixed plantation of deciduous-leaved trees in which are found some of the
rarest and most interesting species in the whole collection, for this exposed
hilltop has proved favorable to the growth of several trees which have not
flourished in the Arboretum at lower levels. The land between South
Street and the railroad will be used for new and enlarged collections of
Poplars and Willows, and the addition between Centre and Walter will be
chiefly planted with trees which require deep soil and good drainage to
enable them to grow to a large size and live to old age.
The regions represented by the living collections are the cool temperate
and colder parts of North America, Europe and Asia, including the
higher altitudes of the Himalayas and other more southern mountains.
No plants from the southern hemisphere, not even from the high Andes,
southern Chile or the higher mountains of New Zealand have proved
hardy in tha Arboretum. It is believed that there are now growing in the
Arboretum between five and six thousand species and varieties of trees
and shrubs which belong to the following Families and Genera:
Ginkgo Libocedrus **"""
Cedrus Thu J a *
JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 139
JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 141
142 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
RECORDS AND LABELS
As far as it has been possible to do it the record of every species and
variety of the trees and shrubs planted in the Arboretum has been kept
in a card catalogue and to each has been given a number. The exact
position of each tree in the systematically arranged groups is designated
on the sheets of a large-scale map and with them is kept the detailed
history of each tree in the hope that it will be possible for a stranger to
locate every tree in the collection even if the labels are lost.
To a branch of every important plant in the Arboretum is attached
a small metal label on which the name, origin and card catalogue number
of the plant is stamped with raised letters. These labels are to preserve
records and not for public use. For the instruction of visitors zinc labels
six inches long and four inches wide painted brown with their Latin and
English names and their native country in black letters are fastened with
copper nails to the trunks of large trees at about the height of the eye.
Small trees and large shrubs are furnished with oblong wooden labels about
eight inches long painted white with black letters and hung from a branch
in a conspicuous position; metal labels of about the same size as the trunk
labels and raised a few inches above the surface of the ground are placed
before the plants in the general shrub collection.
THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW PLANTS
In 1872 when Harvard College agreed to obtain as far as practicable
for the Arnold Arboretum all the trees, shrubs and other plants which could
be grown in West Roxbury very few such plants could be found in any
private or commercial collection in the United States, and a large number
of them were still unknown either in this country or in a living state in
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 143
Europe; and for more than forty years continuous efforts have been made
to make it possible for Harvard to make good in its contract with Mr.
Arnold's Trustees. Some progress has been made but there are still regions
of the northern hemisphere to explore, and trees still unknown in Massachu-
setts to be brought here.
At once after his appointment the Director began to obtain plants and
seeds from European botanical and horticultural establishments; and in
December 1878 the Arboretum received from William S. Clark, first
President of the Agricultural College at Sapporo in Japan, its first direct
consignment of seeds from eastern Asia.
The first opportunity to obtain on a large scale for the Arboretum
American plants not then in cultivation in the United States came in 1877
when the Director was asked to prepare for the General Government a
report on the forests and forest wealth of the country. In the prepara-
tion of this report he was obliged to travel into all the forest regions of the
country and to select as assistants the men living in different parts of the
United States best equipped with knowledge of trees and forests. Among
these assistants the Arboretum found friends who continued to help it
during the remainder of their lives and to keep it in constant communica-
tion with all parts of the United States.
During the last forty years the Arboretum has lost no opportunity to
increase the number of species of plants cultivated in the United States
and Europe. Its officers and agents have continued to explore the forests
of North America; they have visited every country in Europe, the Cau-
casus, eastern Siberia and Korea, and have studied every species of tree
growing in the forests of the Japanese Empire from Saghalin to the moun-
tains of Formosa. The most successful of all plant collectors, Mr. E. H.
Wilson, now Assistant Director of the Arboretum, has gathered for it seeds
and other material of the trees and shrubs and of the Lilies that grow in
great variety on the mountains which rise from western China to the Tibetaa
Plateau. Agents of the Arboretum in pursuit of knowledge and material
have visited the Malay Peninsula, Java, the Himalayas, the high moun-
tains of east tropical Africa, southern Africa, Australia, Mexico, Peru, Chile
southward to Terra del Fuego, and the Falkland Islands. One of the results
of these journeys of the last forty years is the introduction into the United
States of the plants named in the following list. Those which are pre-
ceded by a cross are hybrids, and those preceded by an asterisk are believed
to have been first introduced into cultivation by the agency of the Arbore-
*Abelia Engleriana; *A. Graebneriana; *A. longituba; *A. parvifolia;
*A. Schumannii; *A. Zanderi.
*Abies chensiensis; A. conctolor; A. Delavayi; A. Fargesii; *A. Faxoni-
ana; A. grandis (hardy form from Idaho); *A. holophylla; A. homolepis
var. umbellata; A. koreana; A. lasiocarpa var. Beissneri; *A. recurvata; A.
sachalinensis ; *A. sachalinensis var. Mayriana; *A. sachalinensis var.
144 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
nemorensis; A. sibirica var. nephrolepis; *A. sibirica var. nephrolepis f.
chlorocarpa; A. spectabilis var. brevifolia; *A. squamata; *A. sutchuenen-
sis; *A. Veitchii var. olivacea.
*Acanthopanax Giraldii; A. Henryi; A. innovans; *A. lasiogyne; A.
leucorrhizus; *A. leucorrhizus var. fulvescens; *A. leucorrhizus var.
scaberulus; A. ricinifolius; A. sciadophylloides; A. sessiliflorum var.
parviceps; A. setchuenensis; A. Simonii; A. ternatus.
Acer barbinerve; A. barbinerve var. glabrescens; A. Buergerianum;
A. Buergerianum var. trinerve; A. campestre var. hebecarpum; A. cam-
pestre var. nanum; *A capillipes; A. cappadocicum f. tricaudatum; A.
carpinifolium; *A. catalpifolium; A. caudatum; A. caudatum var. multi-
serratum; *A. caudatum var. Prattii; A. caudatum var. ukurunduense;
A. : cissifolium; A. crataegifolium; A. Davidii; A. diabolicum var. pur-
purascens; A. discolor; A. distylum; A. Durettii; A. Fargesii; A. flabella-
tum;- A. Franchetii; A. ginnala; A. ginnala var. aidzuense; A. ginnalavar.
Semenowii; A. grandidentatum; A. griseum; A. Heldreichii; A. Heldreichii
var. macropterum; A. Henryi; *A. Hersii; *A. laxiflorum; A. longipes;
A. mandshuricum; *A. Maximowiczii; A. Mayrii; A. micranthum; *A.
Miyabei; *A. morrisonense; A. nikoense; A. Negundo (dwarf form) ; *A.
nudicarpum; *A. Okamotoanum; A. opalus; A. opalus var. tomentosum;
A. parviflorum; A. pennsylvanicum var. erythrocladum; A. pictum;
A. pictum var. parviflorum; A. pictum var. tricuspe; *A. pilosum; A.
platanoides var. acuminatum; A. Pseudo-Platanus var. erythrocarpum;
A. pseudo-sieboldianum; A. pseudo-sieboldianum var. ambiguum; *A.
pycnanthum; A. robustum; A. rufinerve; A. saccharinum (dwarf form) ; *A.
saccharum var. Schneckii; A. Sieboldianum; A. sinense; A. tegmentosum;
A. tetramerum; A. tetramerum var. betulifolium f. latialatum; *A. tetra-
merum var. elobulatum f. longeracemosum; A. tetramerum var. tiliifolium;
A. Trautvetteri; *A. triflorum; A. truncatum; *A. Tschonoskii; *A.
Tschonoskii var. rubripes; A. zoeschense; A. zoeschense var. elongatum.
Actinidia callosa var. Henryi; A. chinensis; *A. coriacea; A. Henryi;
A. melanandra; *A. purpurea; *A. tetramera; *A. venosa.
*Aesculus arguta; *XA. Bushii; A. chinensis; A. discolor var. mollis;
A. georgiana; *A. georgiana var. lanceolata; *A. georgiana var. pubescens;
*A. glabra var. Buckleyi; *A. glabra var. leucodermis; *A. glaucescens;
*XA. Harbisonii; *XA. mississippiensis; A. turbinata var. pubescens;
Ailanthus altissima var. sutchuenensis; A. Vilmoriniana.
*Akebia lobata var. australis.
Alnus cremastogyne; A. fiima; A. firma var. hirtella; *A. fruticosa var.
mandshurica; A. hirsuta; A. hirsuta var. sibirica; A. lanata; *A. Maxi-
mowiczii; *A. mollis; A. pendula; *A. sinuata; A. tenuifolia.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 145
Amelanchier asiatica var. sinica.
Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. palmiloba; A. brevipedunculata var.
citrulloides ; A. Delavayana; A. humulifolia; A. megalophylla; A. micans;
*A. micans var. cinerea; A. Watsoniana.
Andrachne colchica; *A. phyllanthoides.
Aralia chinensis; A. chinensis var. glabrescens.
Aristolochia heterophylla; A. Kaempferi; A. manshuriensis; A.
*Artemisia cana; *A. tripartita.
Benzoin cercidif olium ; B. grandif olium ; B. obtusilobum; B. praecox;
*B. trilobum; *B. umbellatum var. sericeum.
*Berberis aemulans; *B. aggregata; B. aggregata var. Prattii; B.
aggregata var. recurvata; B. amurensis; *B. atrocarpa; *B. Beaniana;
*B. Bergmanniae var. acanthophylla; *B. Boschanii; B. brachypoda;
B. Bretschneideri ; B. candidula; *B. circumserrata; B. consimilis; B.
dasystachya; B. diaphana; B. dictyophylla; *B. dictophylla var. eprui-
nosa; *B. Dielsiana; *B. Francisci-Ferdinandi; B. Gagnepainii; *B. Gil-
giana; *B. Henryana; B. Julianae; *B. koreana; *B. Liechtensteinii;
*B. morrisonensis; *B. Mouillacana; *B. Poiretii f. weichangensis; B.
polyantha; *B. Purdomii; B. Rehderiana; *B. Sargentiana; *B. Sieboldii;
*B. Silva-Taroucana; B. subcaulialata; *B. thibetica; B. Thunbergii
var. Maximowiczii; *B. Thunbergii var. minor; *B. Tischleri; *B. tria-
canthophora; B. Veitchii; *B. Vernae; B. verruculosa; B. Wilsonae;
B. Wilsonae var. Stapfiana; B. yunnanensis.
Betula alba var. songarica; B. albo-sinensis; *B. albo-sinensis var.
septentrionalis; B. chinensis; *B. coerulea; *B. coerulea var. Blanchardii;
*B. corylifolia; *B. costata; B. davurica; B. Delavayi; B. Ermanii var.
brevidentata; *B. Ermannii var. Saitoana; B. Ermannii var. subcordata; B.
fontinalis; *B. fontinalis var. Piperi; B. grossa; B. japonica; B. japonica
var. kamtschatica; B. japonica var. mandshurica; *B. japonica var.
szechuanica; B. luminifera; B. mandshurica; B. Maximo wicziana; B.
Medwediewii; B. microphylla; B. Middendorfii; *B. neo-alaskana; B.
papyrifera var. kenaica; *B. papyrifera var. subcordata; *B. Potaninii;
*B. Sandbergii; *B. Schmidtii; B. utilis; B. utilis var. Prattii.
XBignonia hybrida "Madame Galen".
Buddleia albiflora; B. Davidii; B. Davidii var. magnifica; *B. Davidii
var. superba; B. Davidii var. Wilsonii; *B. Lindleyana var. sinuato-den-
tata; B. nivea; B. nivea var. yunnanensis; *B. officinalis; *B. steno-
Buxus japonica; *B. microphylla var. koreana.
Callicarpa dichotoma; C. Giraldiana.
146 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
"Campy lotropis Falconer!; C. macrocarpa.
Caragana Boisii ; *C. Maximo wicziana; *C. sukiensis.
Carpinus Betulus var. carpinizza; C. Betulus f. fastigiata; C. Betulus f.
globosa; C. cordata; C. cordata var. chinensis; *C. eximia; *C. Fargesi-
ana; *C. Fauriei; *C. Henry ana; *C. japonica; *C. laxiflora; C. laxiflora
var. macrostachya; *C. Tschonoskii; *C. Turczaninovii; C. Turczani-
novii var. ovalifolia.
*Carya alba ovoidea *XC. Brownii; *XC. Brownii var. varians;
*C. Buckleyi; *C. Buckleyi var. arkansana; *C. Buckleyi var. arkansana f.
paehy lemma; *C. Buckleyi var. villosa; *C. carolinae-septentrionalis;
*C. cordiformis var. latifolia; X*C. Dunbarii; *C. glabra var. megacarpa;
*XC. Laneyi; *XC. Laneyii var. chateaugayensis; XC. McAllisteri;
*C. myristicaeformis; XC. Nussbaumerii; *C. ovalis var. hirsuta; *C.
ovata var. ellipsoidalis; *C. ovata var. fraxinifolia; *C. pallida; *C.
Castanea Henry i; C. mollissima; C. neglecta; C. Seguinii.
*Castanopsis ceratacantha; *C. platyacantha; C. sclerophylla.
*Catalpa Bungei; *C. Duclouxii; *C. Fargesii.
*Cedrelamicrocarpa; C. sinensis.
*Cedrus libani (hardy form from the Cilician Taurus).
Celastrus angulata; C. flagellaris; *C. gemmata; *C. glaucophylla;
C. Hookeri; *C. hypoleuca; C. Loeseneri; *C. Rosthorniana; *C. rugosa.
Celtis australis; C. Biondii; C. Bungeana; C. caucasica; *C. cerasi-
fera; C. Douglasii; C. jessoensis; *C. Julianae; *C. koraiensis; *C.
labilis; *C. laevigata var. Small ii; *C. pumila var. Dearaii; C. reticulata;
Cephalotaxus drupacea var. sinensis; *C. nana.
*Cercidiphyllum japonicum var. sinense.
*Chaenomeles lagenaria var. Wilsonii.
Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana var. Fletcheri; C. Lawsoniana var. lyco-
podioides; C. Lawsoniana var. tamariscifolia; *C. obtusa var. breviramea;
*C. obtusa var. formosana.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 147
*Cladrastisplatycarpa; C. sinensis; *C. Wilsonii.
Clematis apiifolia; *C. apiifolia var. obtusidentata; C. Armandii;
*C. Armandii f. Farquhariana; *C. chiisanensis; C. chinensis; C. colum-
biana; *C. Delavayi; *C. Fargesii; *C. Fargesii var. Soulieana; C. glauca
var. akebioides; *C. glauca var. angustifolia; C. Gouriana; * G. Gouriana
var. Finetii; *C. gracilifolia; *C. grata var. grandidentata; *C. grata var.
lobulata; *C. heracleaefolia var. ichangensis; C. lasiandra; *C. macro-
petala; C. montana var. rubens; C. montana var. Wilsonii; *C. montana
var. Wilsonii f. platysepala; C. paniculata var. dioscoreaefolia; *C.
Pavoliniana; *C. Pierotii; *C. Prattii; C. pterantha; C. Rehderiana; C.
serratifolia; *C. Spooneri; C. tangutica; *C. tangutica var. obtusiuscula;
C. trullifera; C. uncinata; C. Veitchiana.
*Clematoclethra actinidioides; *C. integrifolia; *C. lasioclada var.
grandis; *C. scandens.
Clerodendron trichotomum var. Fargesii.
*Clethramonostachya; C. Fargesii.
Coriaria japonica; C. sinica.
Cornus alba var. Kesselringii; C. alba var. Rosenthalii; C. Bret-
schneideri; C. contro versa; *C. florida f. xanthocarpa; *C. Hemsleyi; C.
Hessei; C. Koenigii; *C. koreana; C. kousa (Chinese form) ; C. officinalis;
C. paucinervis; C. poliophylla; C. pumila; C. sanguinea var. atrosan-
guinea; C. sanguinea var. viridissima; C. stolonifera var. coloradensis;
C. stolonifera var. flaviramea; C. Walteri.
*Corylopsis glabrescens; *C. Gotoana; *C. platypetala; C. sinensis;
C. Veitchiana; *C. Willmottiae.
Corylus avellana var. contorta; C. chinensis; C. heterophylla; *C.
heterophylla var. sutchuenensis; C. mandshurica; C. Sieboldiana; C.
Cotoneaster acutifolia; *C. acutifolia var. villosula; C. adpressa; C.
ambigua; C. amoena; *C. apiculata; C. bullata var. macrophylla; C.
buxifolia var. vellaea; C. Dammeri; C. Dielsiana; *C. Dielsiana var.
elegans; *C. divaricata; *C. foveolata; C. Franchetii; C. Henry ana; C.
horizontals; C. horizontalis var. perpusilla; *C. hupehensis; C. ignava;
C. moupinensis; *C. multiflora var. calocarpa; *C. nitens; C. obscura;
*C. obscura var. cornifolia; C. racemiflora var. Veitchii; *C. racemiflora
var. microcarpa; *C. racemiflora var. soongorica; *C. salicifolia; *C.
salicifolia var. floccosa; C. salicifolia var. rugosa; C. Zabelii; *C. Zabelii
X Crataegomespilus Dardari; XC. Dardari var. Asnieresii; XC.
*Crataegus abjecta; *C. acclivis; *C. acerba; *C. acuminata; *C.
148 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. ni
acutifolia; *C. acutiloba; *C. admiranda; *C. ad vena; *C. affinis; *C.
alacris; *C. allecta; *C. alnorum; *C. ambitiosa; *C. ambrosia; *C.
amnicola; *C. amoena; *C. amplifica; *C. anomala; *C. apiomorpha;
*C. apposita; *C. aprica; *C. aquilonaris; *C. arcana; *C. arcuata;
*C. ardua; *C. arduennae; *C. aridula; *C. arkansana; *C. arnoldiana;
*C. ascendens; *C. aspera; *C. asperata; *C. asperifolia; *C. assurgens;
*C. ater; *C. atrorubens; *C. attenuata; *C. angustata; *C. aulica;
*Crataegus baccata; *C. Balkwillii; C. barbara; *C. barrettiana;
*C. Barryana; *C. Bartoniana; C. Bartramiana; *C. Bealii; *C. beata;
*C. Beckiana; *C. bedfordensis; *C. bella; *C. bellica; *C. bellula; *C.
benigna; *C. Berlandieri; *C. Bicknellii; *C. Bissellii; *C. blairensis;
*C. Blanchardii; *C. blanda; *C. blandita; *C. bona; *C. Boothiana;
*C. brachypoda; *C. bracteata; *C. Brainerdii; *C. brazoria; *C. Brit-
tonii; *C. Brockwayae; *C. Brownietta; *C. Brunetiana; *C. Bushii.
Crataegus caesariata; *C. caesia; *C. caliciglabra; *C. callicarpa; *C.
callophylla; *C. callosa; *C. calvescens; *C. Calvenii; *C. canadensis;
*C. Canbyi; *C. candens; *C. Carrierei; C. celsa; *C. cerasina; *C.
cestrica; *C. chadsfordiana; *C. champlainensis; *C. Chapmanii; *C.
chateaugayensis; *C. chippewarensis; *C. Clintoniana; *C. coccineata;
*C. coccinioides; *C. coerulescens; *C. cognata; *C. coloradensis; *C.
Colorado; *C. colorata; *C. columbiana; *C. comata; *C. compacta;
*C. comparata; *C. compta; *C. condensa; *C. conferta; *C. confinis;
*C. confragosa; *C. congestiflora; *C. conjuncta; *C. conspecta; *C.
conspicua; *C. consarta; *C. contigua; *C. contortifolia; *C. contortula;
*C. corporea; *C. crassifolia; *C. Crawfordiana; *C. cristata; *C. cruda;
*C. crudilis; *C. Crusgalli var. oblongifolia; *C. Crus-galli var. ovalifolia;
*C. Crus-galli var. rubescens; *C. culta; *C. cuprea; *C. cupulifera; *C.
*Crataegus dacrioidea; *C. dallasiana; *C. Damei; *C. dasyphylla;
*C. Dawsoniana; *C. Dayana; *C. debilis; *C. definata; *C. delawaren-
sis; *C. delecta; *C. delectabilis; *C. delectata; *C. deltoides; *C. De-
losii; *C. delucida; *C. demissa; *C. densiflora; *C. desueta; *C. Dewey-
ana; *C. Dewingei; *C. diaphora; *C. diffusa; *C. digna; *C. dilatata;
*C. disjuncta; *C. dissimilis; *C. dissona; *C. divergens; *C. diversifolia;
*C. divida; *C. Dodgei; *C. Douglasii var. Suksdorfii; *C. drymophila;
*C. dsungarica; *C. dumetosa; *C. dumicola; *C. Dunbari; *C. durobri-
*Crataegus Eamesii; *C. Eastmaniana; *C. Eatoniana; *C. Edsonii;
*C. effera; *C. efferta; *C. effulgens; *C. Eganii; *C. Egglestonii; *C.
Ellwangeriana; *C. elongata; *C. Emersoniana; *C. Engelmannii; *C.
enucleata; *C. erecta; *C. errata; *C. erythrocarpa; *C. erythropoda;
*C. Evansiana; *C. exclusa; *C. exigua; *C. exornata.
Crataegus fallsiana; *C. Faxonii; *C. fecunda; *C. ferentaria; *C.
ferox; *C. Ferrissii; *C. ferta; *C. fertilis; *C. filipes; *C. finitima; *C.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 149
firma; *C. flabellata; *C. flagrans; *C. flammea; *C. flavida; *C. fiorea;
*C. florifera; *C. fluviatalis; *C. foetida; *C. foliata; *C. Fontanesiana;
*C. Forbesae; *C. formosa; *C. fortunata; *C. Fretzii; *C. fructuosa;
*C.fucosa; *C. fulgens; *C.fulgida; *C. Fulleriana; *C.furcata.
*Crataegus gaudens; *C. Gaultii; *C. gemmosa; *C. geneseensis;
*C. genialis; *C. georgiana; *C. gilva; *C. glabrata; *C. glabrifolia;
*C. glabriuscula; *C. glariosa; *C. glaucophylla; *C. globosa; *C.
gloriosa; *C. gracilipes; *C. gratiosa; *C. gravida; *C. gravis; *C. grig-
nonensis; *C. Grubneri.
*Crataegus Habereri; *C. Halliana; *C. hamata; *C. Handyae; *C.
Hargeri; *C. heidelbergensis; *C. Heldreichii; *C. Helenae; *C. hiemalis;
*C. Hillii; *C. hirtella; *C. hispidula; *C. Holmesiana; *C. Holmesiana
var. tardipes; *C. honesta; C. horridula; *C. Howeana; *C. hudsonica;
*Crataegus ideae; *C. illecebrosa; *C. illinoiensis; *C. illuminata; *C.
improvisa; *C. inaudita; *C. incaedua; *C. incerta; *C. incisa; *C.
inducta; *C. induta; *C. infera; *C. infesta; *C. insignis; *C. insolens;
*C. insolita; *C. inspirata; *C. integriloba; C. intricata; *C. inusitula;
*C. invisa; *C. irrasa.
*Crataegus Jackii; *C. jasperensis; *C. Jenningsii; *C. jejuna; *C.
Jonesae; *C. joyana; *C. jozoana.
*Crataegus Keepii; *C. Kellermanii; *C. Kennedy!; *C. Kinzerae;
*C. kingstonensis; C. Korolkowii.
*Crataegus laetans; *C. lanceolata; *C. Laneyi; *C. lanigera; *C.
lanuginosa; *C. larga; *C. lasiantha; *C. latifrons; *C. latisepala; *C.
laurencensis ; *C. laurentiana; *C. lauta; *C. laxiflora; *C. leioclada;
*C. leiophylla; *C. lemingtonensis; *C. Lennoniana; *C. lenta; *C.
leptophylla; *C. leptopoda; *C. Lettermanii; *C. leucorum; *C. levis;
*C. limaria; *C. limosa; *C. littoralis; *C. livoniana; *C. lobulata; *C.
locuples; *C. longipedicellata; *C. ludoviciana; *C. luminosa; *C.
lutensis; *C. luxuriosa.
*Crataegus Macauleyae; *C. macera; *C. Macounii; *C. macrocalyx;
*C. macrophylla; *C. macropoda; *C. macrosperma; *C. magnifolia;
*C. maineana; *C. maligna; *C. marcida; *C. Margaretta; *C. Marga-
retta f. xanthocarpa; *C. Maribella; *C. matura; *C. Maxim owicziana;
*C. media; *C. medioxima; *C. Menandiana; *C. menstrata; *C. merita;
*C. metniculosa; *C. micella; *C. michiganensis; *C. micrantha; *C.
microsperma; *C. miniata; *C. miranda; *C. missouriensis; *C. mitis;
*C. modesta; *C. modica; *C. Mohrii; *C. mollipes; *C. mollis; *C.
monstrata; *C. montivaga; *C. munita.
*Crataegus napaea; *C. nemoralis; *C. neo-Bushii; *C. neo-fluvialis;
*C. neo-londinensis; *C. nescia; *C. nitens; *C. nitida; *C. notabilis; *C.
notha; *C. nuda; *C. numerosa; *C. nutans.
*Crataegus Oakesiana; *C. oblita; *C. ogdensburgensis; *C. olivacea;
*C. opica; *C. opulens; *C. ornata; *C. otiosa; *C. ovata; *C. ovatifolia.
160 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
Crataeguspachyphylla; *C. Paddockeae; *C. padifolia; *C. Paineana;
*C. Painteriana; *C. palliata; *C. pallidula; *C. Palmeri; *C. paradoxa;
*C. parciflora; *C. Parkae; *C. parviflora; *C. parvula; *C. pastorum;
*C. patrum; *C. paucispina; *C. pausiaca; *C. Peckii; *C. pectinata;
*C. pedicellata; *C. pellucidula; *C. pennsylvanica; *C. Pennypackeri ;
*C. pentandra; *C. peoriensis; *C. pequotorum; *C. peramoena; *C.
perampla; *C. peregrina; *C. perjucunda; *C. perlaeta; *C. perlevis;
*C. permera; *C. perrara; *C. persimilis; C. persistens; C. philadelphica;
*C. phleboxia; *C. pilifera; *C. pilosa; *C. pinguis; C. pinnatifida; C.
pinnatifida var. major; C. pinnatiloba; *C. Piperi; *C. pisifera; *C.
placida; *C. plana; *C. platycarpa; *C. polita; *C. polyclada; *C popul-
neaj *C. porrecta; *C. Porteri; *C. praeclara; *C. praecogna; *C.
praestans; *C. pratensis; *C. Pringlei; *C. Proctoriana; *C. prominens;
*C. promissa; *C. prona; *C. propixa; *C. propria; *C. pruinosa; *C.
pubifolia; *C. pudens; *C. pulcherima; *C. pulchra; *C. pumila; *C.
punctata var. canescens; *C. punctata var. moselemensis; *C. punctata
var. mutabilis; *C. pura; *C. pusilla; *C.puta; *C. putata; *C. pygmaea;
*C. pyrifonnis; *Crataegus quercina; *C. quinebaugensis.
*Crataegus radiata; *C. radina; *C. radiosa; *C. Randiana; *C.
recordabilis; *C. relicta; *C. remota; *C. repentina; *C. repulsans; *C.
reses; *C. retrusa; *C. Reverchonii; *C. rhombifolia; *C. rigida; *C.
rivalis; *C. Robesoniana; *C. Robinsonii; *C. robusta; *G. rotunda;
*C. rotundata; *C. rotundifolia var. aboriginum; *C. rubicunda; *C.
rubicundula; *C. rubrifolia; *C. rubrocarnea; *C. rudis; *C. rufipes; *C.
ruricola; *C. rustica; *C. rutila.
*Crataegus saeva; *C. saligna; *C. sarniensis; *C. saturata; *C. Saun-
dersiana; *C. saxatilis; C. scabra; *C. scabrida; *C. scitula; *C. Searsii;
*C. seclusa; *C. secta; *C. sejuncta; *C. sera; *C. serena; *C. sertata;
*C. setosa; *C. severa; *C. sextilis; *C. shirleyensis; *C.sicca; *C. sidera;
*C. simulans; *C. simulata; *C. sinistra; *C. sitiens; *C. Slavinii; *C.
Smlthii; *C. sordida; *C. spatiosa; *C. speciosa; *C. spinulosa; *C.
stenophylla; *C. Stonei; *C. stolonifera; *C. Streeterae; *C. strigosa;
*C. strongylophylla; *C. structilis; *C. suavis; *C. submollis; *C. sub-
orbiculata; *C. succincta; *C. swanensis.
"Crataegus taetrica; *C.tantula; *C. tarda; *C. tardipes; *C. Tatnal-
liana; *C. tenax; *C. tenella; *C. tenera; *C. tenuiloba; *C. tenuisepala;
*C. texana; *C. Thayeri; *C. tomentosa; *C. torta; *C. tortuosa; *C.
trachyphylla; *C. trahax; *C. trianthophora; *C. tribulosa; *C. tripar-
tita; *C. triumphalis; *C. truculenta;
*Crataegus umbratilis; *C. umbrosa; *C. uniqua; *C. uplandia; *C.
urbana; *C. uticaensis.
*Crataegus vaga; *C. vallicola; *C. varians; *C. vegeta; *C. velutina;
*C. venulosa; *C. venusta; *C. venustula; *C. verecunda; *C. verrucu-
losa; *C. vicina; *C. vicinalis; *C. villicarpa; *C. villiflora; *C. villipes;
*C. virella; *C. viridimontana; *C. viridis; *C. vittata; *C. vivida.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 151
*Crataegus Websteri; *C. Wheeleri; *C. Williamsii; *C. wilmorensis;
Cryptomeria japonica var. globosa nana.
Cy tisus albus var. schipkaensis ; XC. Beanii; C. elongatus; C. glabres-
cens; C. nigricans; C. nigrescens var. Carlierii; C. purgans; C. scoparius
var. Andreanus f . compactus.
Daphne altaica; D. altaica var. Sophia; D. caucasica; D. genkwa
(Chinese form); *D. Giraldii; D. retusa; *D. tangutica.
Davidia involucrata; D. involucrata var. Vilmoriniana.
*Desmodiumserriferum; *D. spicatum; D. tiliaefolium.
*Deutzia coreana; D. discolor; *D. glabrata; D. glomeruliflora; *D.
grandiflora; *D. hypoleuca; D. longifolia; *D. longifolia var. elegans;
D. mollis; D. parviflora; D. parviflora var. ovatifolia; *D. pulchra; D.
purpurascens; *D. Schneideriana var. laxiflora; D. setchuenensis; D.
setchuenensis var. corymbiflora; D. Vilmorinae; D. Wilsonii.
*Diervilla florida var. venusta; D. japonica; D. japonica var. sinica;
*D. Maximowiczii ; D. Middendorfiana.
Dipelta floribunda; D. ventricosa;
Ehretia acuminata; E. Dicksonii.
Elsholtzia polystachya; *E. Stauntonii.
*Enkianthus campanulatus var. albiflora; E. campanulatus var.
Palibiniana; E. cernuus var. rubens; E. deflexus; E. quinqueflorus var.
serrulatus; *E. subsessilis.
Euptelea Franchetii; *E. pleiosperma; E. polyandra.
*EvodiaDaniellii; E. glauca; E. Henryi; E. hupehensis; *E. ofBcinalis;
Evonymus acanthocarpa; *E. alata var. aperta; *E. aquifolium; E.
Bungeana; E. Bungeana var. semipersistens; E. cornuta; *E. elegantis-
sima; E. lanceifolia; E. Maackii; E. macroptera; E. nana; E. oxyphylla;
E. planipes; *E. porphyrea; *E. radicans var. microphylla; *E. radicans
152 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
var. acuta; *E. radicans var. vegeta; E. sanguinea; *E. Sargentiana; E.
Exochorda Giraldii; *E. Giraldii var. Wilsonii; X E. macrantha; E.
*Fagus Engleriana; *F. japonica; *F. longipetiolata; *F. lucida; F.
orientalis; *F. Sieboldii; F. sylvatica var. dawyckii.
Foresteeria neomexicana; *F. pubescens.
*Forsythia ovata; *F. suspensa f. pubescens; F. suspensa var. Fortune!
f. atrocaulis; X F. intermedia var. spectabilis.
*Fraxinus americana var. crassifolia; F. anomala; F. Bungeana; F.
chinensis; F. chinensis var. rhynchophylla; F. dumosa; F. elonza; F.
glabra; F. holotricha; F. Hookeri; *F. Lowellii; F. Mariesii; F. obliqua;
F. obovata; F. oxycarpa; F. parvifolia; F. parvifolia var. monophylla; F.
parvifolia var. nana; F. Paxiana; F. platypoda; F. potamophila; *F.
profunda; F. pubinervis; F. Regelii; F. retusa var. Henry i; F. rotundi-
folia; F. rotundifolia var. pendula; F. Spaethiana; F. tamariscifolia;
*F. texensis; F. velutina var. coriacea; F. velutina var. glabra; F.
Veltheimii; F. Willdenowiana; F. xanthoxyloides.
*Gaultheriaadenothrix; *G. cuneata; *G. moupinensis; G. Veitchiana.
*Gleditsia horrida; G. macracantha; G. sinensis; *XG. texana.
Glycyrrhiza suffrutescens; G. uralensis.
Grewia parviflora; *G. parviflora var. glabrescens.
*Hamamelis incarnata; H. japonica; H. japonica var. arborea; H.mollis;
*H. vernalis; *H. virginiana var. rubescens.
*Helwingia chinensis; H. japonica.
*Holboellia coriacea; *H. grandiflora.
Hydrangea anomala; H. arborescens var. urticifolia; H. Bretschneideri;
*H. Bretschneideri var. setchuenensis; *H. Davidii; H. hirta; H. involu-
crata; H. longipes; H. opuloides var. cyanoclada; H. opuloides var. ser-
rata; H. Rosthornii; *H. Sargentiana; H. strigosa; H. strigosa var.
macrophylla; *H. villosa; H. xanthoneura; H. xanthoneura var. glabres-
cens; *H. xanthoneura var. Wilsonii.
*Hypericum aureum; *H. Buckleyi; *H. galioides; H. patulum var.
*Idesia polycarpa var. vestita.
Ilex aquifolium var. chinensis; *I. ciliospinosa; I. corallina; I. crenata
var. munmularia; I. decidua; I. Fargesii; I. fragilis; *I. Franchetiana;
*I. geniculata; I. integra; I. leucoclada; I. longipes; *I. macrocarpa;
*I. monticola; *I.opaca var. xanthocarpa; *I.pedunculosa; I. pedunculosa
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 153
f. continentalis; I. Pernyi; I. Pernyi var. Veitchii; I. purpurea var. Old-
hamii; *I. rugosa; I. serrata; *I. serrata var. argutidens; *I. Sugerokii;
*I. szechwanensis; *I. verticillata var. chrysocarpa; I. yunnanensis.
*Indigofera amblyantha; I. decora; I. hebepetala; I. Kirilowii; *I.
Jasminum Beesianum; J. lanceolarium ; J. urophyllum.
Juglans boliviensis; J. cathayensis; *J. formosana; XJ. intermedia;
J. regia var. sinensis; J. rupestris; J. Sieboldiana var. cordiformis.
*Juniperus chinensis var. Sargentii; *J. communis var. Jackii; *J.
communis var. nipponica; *J. conferta; J. formosana; *J. Pinchotii;
J. rigida; *J. scopulorum; J. squamata var. Fargesii; *J. squamata var.
Wilsonii; *J. taxifolia.
Kalmia caroliniana; K. cuneata; *K. hirsuta; *K. latifolia var. obtus-
ata; *K. latifolia f. polypetala.
Larix dahuriea; L. dahurica var. japonica; *L. dahurica var. Principis
Rupprechtii; XL. eurolepis; *L. Kaempferi var. minor; *L. Lyallii; *L.
Mastersiana; *L. occidentalis; XL. pendula; L. Potaninii; L. sibirica.
*Lespedeza Buergeri; *L. Buergeri var. praecox; L. cyrtobotrya.
*Leucothoe Gray ana; *L. Keiskei; *L. recurva.
"Ligustrum acuminatum; L. acuminatum var. macrocarpum; Ligus-
trum acutissimum; L. Delavayanum; L. Henryi; L. Quihoui.
Liquidambar formosana; *L. formosana var. monticola.
Liriodendron chinense; L. Tulipifera var. fastigiatum.
Lithocarpus cleistocarpa; L. Henryi.
Lonicera alseuosmoides; L. Altmannii L. Altmannii var. hirtipes; L.
Altmannii var. pilosiuscula; L. angustifolia; L. arborea var. persica; L.
arizonica; L. bella; L. bracteolaris; L. chaetocarpa; L. Chamissoi; *L.
demissa; L. deflexicalyx; L. discolor; *L. Ferdinandii; L. Ferdinandii var.
leycesterioides; L. Giraldii; L. gynochlamydea; L. Henryi; *L. hetero-
loba; L. hispida; L. involucrata var. flavescens; L. involucrata var.
humilis; L. involucrata var. serotina; L. Koehneana; *L. Korolkovii; L.
Korolkovii var. floribunda; L. lanceolata; L. Maackii; L. Maackii var.
podocarpa; *L. Maackii var. podocarpa f. erubescens; L. Maximowiczii;
*L. Maximowiczii var. sachalinensis; L. microphylla; L. minutiflora; L.
Morrowii; *L. moupinensis; *XL. muendeniensis; *XL. nausea viensis;
L. myrtilloides; L. Myrtillus; L. nervosa; *L. nitida; *L. notha; L.
pileata; *L. praeflorens; L. prostrata; L. purpurascens; L. pyrenaica;
L. quinquelocularis; L. rupicola; L. Ruprechtiana var. calvescens; *L.
Ruprechtiana var. xanthocarpa; L. saccata; *L. Schneideriana; L.
Semenovii; L. similis var. Delavayi; L. spinosa var. Alberti; L. Standishii
154 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. m
var. lancifolia; *L. strophiophora; *L. subaequalis; *L. subdentata; L.
syringantha; L. syringantha var. Wolfii; *L. szechuanica; L. tangutica;
*L. tatsienensis ; *L. tenuipes; L. thibetica; L. tomentella; L. trago-
phylla; L. trichosantha; L. utahensis; L. Vilmorinii; L. Webbiana; L.
xerocalyx; L. xylosteoides.
*Maackia amurensis var. Buergeri; *M. chinensis; *M. Fauriei;
Maddenia hypoleuca; *M. Wilsonii.
*Magnolia Dawsoniana; M. denudata var. purpurascens; *M. kobus
var. borealis; *M. Nicholsoniana; M. officinalis; *M. parviflora (Korean
form); *M. salicifolia; *M. Sargentiana; *M. Sargentiana var. robusta;
*Malus baccata f. Jackii; M. baccata var. mandshurica; *M. bracte-
ata; *M. coronaria var. Charlottae; *M. coronaria var. elongata; XM.
Eleyi; M. florentina; M. floribunda var. brevipes; *M. formosana; *M.
glabrata; *M. ioensis var. Bushii; *M. ioensis var. Palmeri; *M. kan-
suensis; *M. kansuensis var. calva; *M. Komarovii; *M. lancifolia; XM.
magdeburgensis ; M. micromalus; M. Prattii; M. prunifolia var. rinki; *M.
prunifolia var. rinki (cult. Korea); M. pumila var. Niedzwitzkyana; M.
robusta var. persicifolia; *M. Sargentii; M. Sieboldii; *M. Sieboldii var.
arborescens; *M. Sieboldii var. calocarpa; M. sikkimensis; *M. spontanea;
XM. sublobata; M. theifera; M. theifera f. rosea; *M. toringoides; *M.
transitoria; M. trilobata; *M. Tschonoskii; M. yunnanensis; M. zumi.
*Meliosma Beaniana; M. cuneifolia; M. myriantha; *M. pendens;
*M. tenuis; M. Veitchiorum.
*Menziesia ciliicalyx; *M. multiflora; M. pentandra; *M. purpurea.
Morus acidosa; *M. cathayana; M. mongolica; *M. notabilis.
*Neillia longiracemosa; N. sinensis; *N. thibetica.
Osmanthus armatus; *O. serrulatus.
*Osteomeles Schwerinae var. microphylla.
Ostrya carpinifolia; *O. japonica; *O. Knowltonii.
Paeonia Delavayi; *P. Delavayi var. angustiloba; *P. suffruticosa
Parthenocissus Henry ana; P. himalayana; *P. himalayana var. rubri-
folia; *P. laetevirens; P. Thomsonii.
*Paulownia Mikado; *P. tomentosa var. lanata.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 155
Phellodendron amurense; P. chinense; P. Lavalleii; *P. sachalinense.
*Philadelphus argyrocalyx; P. Delavayanus; P. incanus; P. Magda-
lenae; *P. microphyllus; P. pekinensis; P. pekinensis var. brachybotrys;
P. purpurascens; *P. sericanthus var. Rehderianus; *P. serpyllifolius; P.
Schrenkii var. Jackii; P. subcanus; P. tenuifolius.
Photinia Beauverdiana var. notabilis ; *P. Davidsoniae ; *P. subumbel-
lata; P. villosa var. laevis; P. villosa var. sinica.
Phyllodoce glanduliflora; *P. nipponica.
Picea Abies var. aclada; P. Abies var. conica elegans; P. Abies var.
decumbens; P. Abies var. dumosa; P. Abies var. elegans; P. Abies var.
nidiformis; P. Abies var. pachyphylla; P. Abies var. prostrata; P. Abies
var. pygmaea globosa; P. Abies var. pyramidalis compacta; P. Abies var.
pyriformis; P. Abies, var. repens; *P. ascendens; *P. asperata; *P.
asperata var. notabilis; *P. asperata var. ponderosa; *P. aurantiaca; *P.
Balfouriana; *P. Breweriana; P. complanata; *P. Engelmannii; *P.
glauca var. albertiana f. conica; P. glauca var. compacta globosa; P.
glauca var. nana; P. Glehnii; *P. heterolepis; *P. koraiensis; *P. Koya-
mai; *P. Meyeri; *P. montigena; *P. morrisonicola; P. omorika; *P.
pungens var. compacta; *P. purpurea; *P. retroflexa; P. rubra var.
virgata; *P. Sargentiana; P. Watsoniana; *P. Wilsonii.
*Pieris nana; P. ovalifolia var. lanceolata; *P. taiwanensis.
Pinus Armandi; P. echinata; P. leucodermis; P. peuke; P. pumila;
P. sinensis; *P. sinensis var. densata; *P. sinensis var. yunnanensis; P.
Strobus var. fastigiata; *P. Strobus var. prostrata.
*Pittosporum daphniphylloides; P. glabratum; *P. heterophyllum;
*Populus adenopoda; *XP. Andrewsii; X P. generosa; *P. koreana;
P. lasiocarpa; *P. Palmeri; P. Petrowskiana; P. Sieboldii; *P. szechu-
anica; P. tomentosa; *P. tremula var. Davidiana; *P. tremula var. David-
iana f. tomentella; *P. Wilsonii.
*Potentilla fruticosa var. albicans, *P. fruticosa var. parvifolia; P.
fruticosa var. Purdomii; P. fruticosa var. tenuifolia; P. fruticosa var.
Veitchii; P. Vilmoriniana.
Prinsepia sinensis; *P. uniflora.
*Prunus alabamensis; *P. alleghaniensis; *P. alleghaniensis var.
Davisii; XP. amygdalo-persica; P. apetala; P. armeniaca var. mikado;
156 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
*P. australis; P. baldschuanica; *P. bicolor; *P. brachypoda var. pseu-
dossiori; P. Buergeriana; P. campanulata; P. canescens P. cerasifera
var. divaricata; P. concinna; *P. Conradinae; *P. Cuthbertii; *P.
cyclamina; P. dasycarpa; P. dasycarpa var. salicifolia; P. Davidiana; *P.
dehiscens; *P. Dielsiana; *P. discadenia; P. emarginata; *P. glyptocarya;
*P. gracilis; *P. Gravesii; *P. hortulana var. pubens; P. humilis; P.
incana; P. incisa; *P. incisaf. serrata; P. Jacquemontii; *P. japonica var.
Nakaii; P. Lannesiana f. albida; P. Lannesiana f. benitoranowo; P. Lan-
nesiana f. botanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. chosiuhizakura; P. Lannesiana
f. fudanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. fukurokuju; P. Lannesiana f. gijozakura;
P. Lannesiana f. gozanomanioi; P. Lannesiana f. hatazakura; P. Lannesi-
ana f. higurashi; P. Lannesiana f. horaisan; P. Lannesiana f. jonioi; P.
Lannesiana f. kokesimidsu ; P. Lannesiana f. mazakura; P. Lannesiana
f. mikurumakaisi ; P. Lannesiana f. miyako; P. Lannesiana f. ohsibayama;
P. Lannesiana f. sobanzakura; P. Lannesiana f. sumizome; P. Lannesiana
f. surugadainioi; P. Lannesiana f. takinioi; P. Lannesiana f. temari; P.
Lannesiana f. yedozakura; P. Laucheana; P. Laurocerasus var. schip-
kaensis; *P. lobulata; P. Maackii; *P. malifolia; *P. Maximowiczii;
*P. mexicana; *P. mexicana var. fultonensis; P. niicrocarpa; *P. micro-
meloides; *P. mira; P. emarginata var. mollis; P. nana; P. nana var.
caucasica; P. nana var. transcaucasica; P. nipponica; P. nipponica var.
kurilensis; *P. orthosepala; P. Padus var. Albertii; P. Padus var. com-
mutata; P. Padus var. heterophylla; P. Padus var. parviflora; P. Padus
var. sibirica; *P. perulata; P. Petunikovii; *P. pilosiuscula var. barbata;
*P. pilosiuscula var. media; *P. pleiocerasus; *P. pleuroptera; *P.
plurinervis; *P. polytricha; P. prostrata; *P. pubigera var. obovata; *P.
pubigera var. Prattii; *P. Reverchonii; P. rufomicans; P. salicina (wild
form); *P. serrula var. tibetica; P. serrulata var. pubescens; P. serrulata
var. pubescens f. meigetsu; P. serrulata var. pubescens f. taizanfukun; P.
serrulata f. rosea; *P. serrulata var. sachalinensis; P. serrulata var.
sachalinensis f. horinji; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f. kokonaye; P.
serrulata var. sachalinensis f. ohnanden; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f.
sekiyama; P. serrulata var. sachalinensis f. shogetsu; P. serrulata var.
sachalinensis f. udzuzakura; P. serrulata var. spontanea; P. serrulata var.
spontaneaf. kosioyama; P. serrulata var. spontanea f. praecox; P. sibirica;
P. Sieboldii f. yokihi; P. Ssiori; *P. stellipila; *P. subhirtella; *P. sub-
hirtella var. ascendens; *P. tatsienensis var. stenadenia; P. tomentosa;
P. tomentosa var. endotricha; P. triloba var. normalis; *P. variabilis;
*P. venosa; *P. virens; P. virginiana var. demissa f. pachyrrachis; P.
virginiana var. leucocarpa; *P. Watsonii; P. Wilsonii var. leiobotrys; P.
*Ptelea Baldwinii; *P. isophylla; P. polyadenia.
Pterocarya hupehensis; P. Paliurus; P. rhoifolia.
1922] SARGENT, FIRSTY FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 157
Pterostyrax corymbosum; P. hispidum.
*Pyracantha Gibbsii; P. Koidzumii.
Pyrus amygdalif ormis ; P. amygdaliformis var. oblongifolia; P. Bal-
ansae; P. betulaefolia; P. Bretschneideri; *P. Calleryana; *P. Calleryana
var. dimorphophylla; *P. Calleryana var. Fauriei; *P. Calleryana var.
tomentella; P. communis var. cordata; P. communis var. cotinifolia; P.
communis var. f ascicularis ; P. communis var. pyraster; *P. Kawakamii;
P. Korshinskyi; P. Michauxii; P. pashia; P. persica; P. phaeocarpa; P.
phaeocarpa var. globosa; P. Pyrainus; P. serotina; *P. serrulata; P.
ussuriensis; *P. ussuriensis var. hondoensis; P. ussuriensis var. ovoidea.
*Quercus aliena; *Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; *Q. aliena var. acute-
serrata f. calvescens; Q. aquifolioides var. rufescens; *Q. arkansana; Q.
Baronii; XQuercus Bebbiana; *Q. ellipsoidalis; *Q. Engleriana; Q.
Gambelii; Q. Gilliana; Q. glandulifera; *Q. glauca var. gracilis; XQ.
guadalupensis ; Q. Gunnisonii; *Q. Havardii; *XQ. Jackii; *Q. Laceyi;
*XQ. Leana; *Q. leptophylla; *Q. liaotungensis; Q. libani var. angusti-
folia; Q. lyrata; Q. macedonica; Q. macranthera; *Q. mongolica; *Q.
mongolica var. grosseserrata; *Q. Muehlenbergii var. Brayi; *Q. nigra
var. tridentifera f . microcarya; *Q. nitescens; Q. oxyodon; *Q. pachyloma;
*X Q. Rehderi; Q. pontica; *XQ. Robbinsii; Q. robur var. pectinata;
*Q. rubra var. pagodaefolia; *XQ. runcinata; Q. semicarpifolia; Q.
serrata; Q. serratifolia; Q. sessiliflora var. insecata; Q. sessiliflora var.
Louettei; *Q. Shumardii; *Q. Shumardii var. Schneckii; *Q. stellata var.
Boyntonii; XQ. subfalcata var. microcarpa; Q. toza; *Q. undulata; *Q.
utahensis; *Q. utaliensis var. submollis; Q. variabilis; *Q. velutina var.
Rhamnus costata; R. crenata; *R. dumetorum; *R. dumetorum var.
crenoserrata; R. fallax; *R. heterophylla; *R. hupehensis; *R. koraiensis;
*R. leptacantha; R. leptophylla; *R. Leveilleana; R. nipponica; *R.
paniculiflora; R. parviflora; *R. Rosthornii; *R. Sargentiana; *R.
Schneideri; R. utilis; R. virgata.
*Rhododendron alabamense; *R. Albrechtii; R. ambiguum; *R.
Amesiae; R. argyrophyllum; R. argyrophyllum var. cupulare; R. Augus-
tinii; *R. austrinum; *R. bracteatum; R. calophytum; *R. Chapmanii;
R. concinnum; *R. Davidsonianum; R. decorum; R. discolor; *R.
Edgarianum; R. Faberi; R. Fargesii; R. flavidum; *R. floribundum; R.
Fortune! var. Houlstonii; *R. galacteum; *R. Hanceanum; *R. Hunne-
wellianum; R. hypoglaucum; R. indicum; *R. insigne; R. intricatum;
R. japonicum; *R. japonicum f. aureum; *R. Keiskei; R. linearifolium
var. macrosepalum ; R. longesquamatum; *R. longistylum; R. lutescens;
R. maculiferum; R. Mariesii; *R. Metternichii; R. micranthum; *R.
Morii; *R. moupinense; R. mucronulatum; R. mucronatum f. sekidera;
*R. mucronulatum var. ciliatum; *R. nipponicum; *R. obtusum var.
JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
japonicum; *R. obtusum var. Kaempferi; *R. obtusum var. Kaempferi f.
multicolor; R. Oldhami; R. orbiculare; R. oreodoxa; R. pachytrichum;
*R. phoenicium var. tebotan; R. pittosporaefolium; R. polylepis; *R.
prunifolium; R. Przewalskii; *R. pseudochrysanthum; R. reticulatum;
*R. rubropilosum; *R. Sargentianum; R. scabrum; R. Schlippenbachii;
*R. Searsiae; *R. semibarbatum; *R. serrulatum; R. Smirnovii; R.
Souliei; *R. stamineum; *R. strigillosum; R. sutchuenense; R. taliense;
*R. Thayerianum; *R. tosaense; T. Tschonoskii; R. Ungerni; *R. vio-
laceum; R. Wasonii; R. Watsonii; *R. Websterianum; *R. Weldianum;
*R. Weyrichii; *R. Williamsianum; R. yanthinum; *R. yedoense var.
Rhododendron obtusum var. japonicum f.
" Azuma Kagami "
" Kimigayo "
"Shintoki No Hagasane"
Rhus Potaninii; R. punjabensis var. sinica; *R. sylvestris; *R. tri-
chocarpa; *R. trilobata; R. verniciflua.
Ribes aciculare; R. alpestre; *R. alpestre var. giganteum; R. alpinum
var. pumilum; *R. ambiguum; R. burejense; *R. cognatum; R. dikuscha
var. appendiculatum ; R. f asciculatum ; R. fasciculatum var. chinense;
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 159
X R. fuscescens; R. Giraldii; R. glaciale; *R. glaciale var. angustisepala;
R. grossularioides ; *R. Henryi; R. heterotrichum; *R. himalayense var.
atropurpureum ; R. himalayense var. urceolatum; *R. japonicum; *R.
laurif olium ; R. laxiflorum; R. leptanthum; R. longeracemosum; *R.
longeracemosum var. Wilsonii; R. luridum; *R. magellanicum; R. mand-
shuricum var. subglabrum; R. Maximowiczii; *R. mescalerium; R.
Meyeri var. turkestanicum ; R. montigenum; R. moupinense; *R. moupi-
nense var. laxiflorum; R. orientale; *R. parvulum; *R. petiolare; R.
petraeum; R. petraeum var. altissimum; R. petraeum var. Biebersteinii;
*R. pinetorum; *R. Pringlei; R. procumbens; R. saxatile; R.Spaethianum;
R. stenocarpum; XR. succimbrum; R. tenue; Ribes tricuspe; R. ussuri-
ense; R. Vilmorinii; *R. viscosissimum.
Robinia Hartwigii; *R. neomexicana.
*Rosa adenosepala; R. amblyotis; *R. Bakeri; R. banksiopsis; *R.
bella; *R. bella var. pallens; R. caudata; R. corymbulosa; R. Davidii;
R. Davidii var. elongata; R. Ecae; *R. filipes; R. foliolosa; R. Gentiliana;
R. Giraldii var. venulosa; *R. glomerata; R. Helenae; R. Hugonis; R.
jaluana; *R. koreana; R. longicuspis; *R. Lyonii var. alba; *R. Mc-
Dougalii; *R. Macounii; *R. Maximowicziana var. Jackii; *R. Maximo-
wicziana var. pilosa; R. Moyesii; R. Moyesii f. rosea; R. multibracteata;
R. multiflora; *R. multiflora var. cathayensis; *R. Murielae; R. omeiensis;
*R. omeiensis var. chrysocarpa; R. omeiensis f. pteracantha; *R. Palmeri;
R. persetosa; *R. Prattii; *R. pyrifera; R. Roxburghii var. hirtula;
R. Roxburghii var. normalis; R. Rubus; R. saturata; R. sertata; R. seti-
poda; *R. Spaldingii; R. spinosissima var. altaica; R. spinosissima
"Doininic Sampson"; R. spinosissima "Iris"; R. spinosissima "Jupiter";
R. spinosissima "King of the Scots"; R. spinosissima "Plato"; R. spino-
sissima var. pusilla; R. spinosissima "Pythagoras"; *R. stellata var.
mirifica; R. subserrulata; *R. suffulata; R. Sweginzowii; R. tuschetica;
*R. ultramontana; R. Wichuraiana; R. Willmottiae.
Rubus adenophorus; *R. amabilis; *R. amnicolus; R. Andrewsianus;
R. arcticus; *R. arundelanus; R. aurantiacus; *R. biflorus var. quinque-
florus; *R. biformispinus; R. caesius var. turkestanicus; R. chroosepalus;
R. corchorifolius; R. coreanus; R. crataegifolius; R. flagelliflorus; *R.
flosculosus; R. flosculosus f. parvifolius; R. Fockeanus; R. Gentilianus;
R. geophilus; *R. Giraldianus; *R. glandicaulis; R. Henryi; R. hupe-
hensis; R. ichangensis; R. innominatus; R. innominatus var. Kuntzeanus;
R. inopertus; R. irenaeus; *R. Jeckylanus; *R. junceus; R. Koehneanus;
R. Lambertianus ; *R. lasiostylus var. dizygos; R. macilentus; R. melano-
lasius; R. mesogaeus; *R. multiformis; *XR. neglectus; *R. orarius;
R. Parkeri; R. parvifolius; *R. peculiaris; R. platyphyllus; R. Play-
fairianus; *R. plicatifolius; R. pungens; *R. recurvans; *R. recurvicau-
lis; *R. recurvicaulis var. inarmatus; R. semierectus; R. setchuenensis;
*R. setosus; *R. spectabilis var. vernus; *R. tardatus; R. thibetanus; R.
trianthus; *R. tricolor; R. vicarius; R. xanthocarpus.
160 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
*Sabia latifolia; *S. Schumanniana.
*Salix Bockii; *S. cardiophylla; *S. cathayana; *S. eriocarpa; *S.
Fargesii; *S. Gilgiana; *S. hypoleuca; *S. jessoensis; *S. koreensis; *S.
macroblasta; *S. magnifica; *S. Matsudana; *S. moupinensis; *S.
phanera; *S. purpurea var. multinervis; *S. Rehderiana; *S. subfragilis;
Sambucus canadensis f. maxima; *S. canadensis var. subtomentosa; S.
microbotrys; S. melanocarpa; S. racemosa var. Sieboldiana; *S. Schweri-
Sarcococca Hookeriana var. digyna; S. Hookeriana var. humilis;
*Sassafras randaiensis; S. tzumu.
Schizandra chinensis; *S. glaucescens; S. grandiflora; S. Henryi; S.
nigra; S. propinqua var. sinensis; *S. rubriflora; *S. sphenanthera.
Schizophragma integrifolium; S. integrifolium var. molle.
Securinega fluggeoides; S. ramiflora.
Sibiraea laevigata var. angustata; S. tomentosa.
Sinomenium acutum; S. acutum var cinereum.
*Smilax discotis var. concolor; *S. longipes; *S. megalantha; *S. mem-
sperm oides; *S. scobinicaulis; *S. Sieboldii; *S. trachypoda; *S. vaginata.
Solanum Dulcamara var. chinense.
*Sophora affinis; S. japonica var. pyramidalis; S. japonica var.
pubescens; *S. japonica var. vestita; S. viciifolia.
Sorbaria Aitchisonii; S. arborea; *S. arborea var. glabrata; *S. arborea
var. subtomentosa; S. assurgens; S. stellipila.
XSorbaronia Dippelii; XS. fallax; XS. heterophylla.
XSorbopyrus auricularis; XS. auricularis var. bulbiformis.
*Sorbus alnifolia; *S. alnifolia var. lobulata; *S. alnifolia var. submol-
lis; S. angustifolia; S. Aria var. Decaisneana; S. caloneura; S. chamae-
mespilus; S. commixta; *S. commixta var. rufo-ferruginea; *S. Conradinae;
S. discolor; *S. Esserteauiana; *S. expansa; S. Folgneri; S. Folgneri var.
pendula; S. Hostii; *S. hupehensis var. aperta; *S. japonica var. calo-
carpa; *S. Koehneana; *S. megalocarpa; *S. megalocarpa var. cuneata;
*S. meliosmifolia; S. Mougeotii; *S. multijuga; *S. multijuga var. micro-
donta; *S. munda f. subarachnoidea; *S. munda f. tatsienensis ; S. occi-
dentalis; *S. pallescens; *S. plantierensis; S. pohuashanensis; *S. ran-
daiensis; *S. Rehderiana; S. sambucifolia; *S. Sargentiana; *S. scalaris;
S. scopulina; S. serotina; *S. setschwanensis; *S. unguiculata; S. Vilmo-
rinii; S. Wilsonii; S. Zahlbruckneri.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 161
X Spiraea arguta; XS. assimilis; XS. blanda; S. bullata; S. calcicola;
S. canescens; S. dahurica var. canescens; S. dasyantha; XS. Foxii; S.
gemmata; S. Henryi; S. japonica var. acuminata; *S. japonica var.
ovalifolia; *S. koreana; S. longigemmis; S. lucida; XS. macrostachya;
XS. Margaritae; XS. microthyrsa; *S. Miyabei var. glabrata; *S. molli-
folia; XS. mollis; XS. multiflora; S. myrtilloides; S. nipponica; XS.
notha; XS. nudiflora; *S. obtusa; XS. oxyodon; XS. pachystachya;
XS. pikoviensis; S. prunifolia var. simpliciflora; S. pubescens; *XS.
pyramidata; XS. revirescens; *S. Rosthornii; *S. Sargentiana; XS.
Schinabeckii; XS. semperflorens ; XS. superba; *S. sylvestris; XS.
syringiflora; *S. trichocarpa; XS. tristis; *S. ulmifolia (Korean form);
S. vaccinifolia; S. Veitchii; *S. virginiana var. serrulata; S. Wilsonii.
*Stachyurus chinensis; S. praecox.
*Staphylea Bolanderi; S. holocarpa; S. holocarpa var. rosea.
*Stranvaesia Davidiana; S. Davidiana var. undulata.
Styrax Hemsleyanus; *S. Shiraiana; *S. Veitchiorum; *S. Wilsonii.
XSymphoricarpos Chenaultii; *S. oreophilus; *S. sinensis.
*Syringa affinis; *S. dilatata; *S. formosissima; XS. Henryi var.
eximia; XS. Henryi var. Lutece; S. Koehneana; *S. Komarowii; *S.
Komarowii var. Sargentiana; *S. microphylla; *S. Palibiniana; *S. pin-
natifolia; S. reflexa; *S. Rehderiana; S. Sweginzowii; S. tomentella; S.
vulgaris (wild type) ; S. Wolfii.
Taxus brevifolia (from Idaho and Montana) ; *T. chinensis.
*Tetrastigma obtectum var. pilosum.
*Thuja koraiensis; T. plicata (hardy Idaho form); T. plicata var.
*Thujopsis dolobrata var. Hondai.
Tilia caroliniana; *T. caroliniana var. rhoophila; T. floridana; *T.
insularis; T. intonsa; *T. Maximo wicziana; T. Miqueliana; T. Oliveri;
T. tuan; *T. tuan var. chinensis.
*Tripetaleia bracteata; *T. paniculata.
*Tsuga caroliniana; T. chinensis; *T. yunnanensis.
Ulmus Bergmanniana; U. foliacea var. umbraculifera; *TJ. japonica;
U. laciniata; *U. laciniata var. nikoensis; U. punaila var. pinnato-ramosa;
*U. serotina; *U. Wilsoniana.
JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM
Vaccinium Buergeri; V. ciliatum; *V. fragile; *V. hirsutum; V. hir-
tum var. Smallii; V. japonicum; V. membranaceum; *V. moupinense;
*V. praestans; V. scoparium; *V. urceolatum.
Viburnum betulifolium; V. bitchuense; *V. bracteatum; V. buddlei-
folium; *V. Canbyi; *V. cinnamomifolium; V. cylindricum; *V. dasyan-
thum; V. Davidii; V. erosum; *V. erubescens var. Prattii; V. foetidum
var. rectangulum; *V. furcatum; V. Henryi; V. hupehense; V. ichangense;
*V. kansuense; V. lobophyllum; *V. lobophyllum var. flocculosum; *V.
molle; V. mongolicum; V. phlebotrichum; V. propinquum; V. rhytido-
phyllum; V. Sargentii; *V. Sargentii f. flavum; V. shensianum; V. thei-
ferum; *V. urceolatum; V. utile; V. Veitchii; *V. Wilsonii; V. Wrightii.
Vitis amurensis; XV. Baileyana; V. betulifolia; V. Coignetiae; V.
Davidii; V. Davidii var. cyanocarpa; V. flexuosa; V. flexuosa var.
parvifolia; V. pentagona; *V. pentagona var. bellula; V. Piasezkii; V.
pulchra; V. reticulata; *V. Thunbergii var. sinuata; V. vinifera (form
cultivated at Peking).
*Xylosma racemosum var. pubescens.
Zanthoxylum alatum var. planispinum; Z. Bungei; Z. dissitum; *Z.
Piasezkii; Z. piperitum; Z. setosum.
The following hybrid trees and shrubs have been made at the Arbore-
tum or have appeared in it spontaneously :
Forsythia intermedia var. primulina
W. C. Egan
Rhod. obtusum v. arnoldianum
During the last twenty-three years special attention has been given at
the Arboretum to the study and cultivation of North American Hawthorns.
Previous to 1899 some twenty species and varieties only had been recog-
nized by botanists, but in that year a number of the plants raised from
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 163
seeds collected principally in Missouri in 1880 flowered and produced fruit,
and showed characters so distinct from those of any of the described species
that a critical study of the genus as it appears in North America seemed
desirable. In carrying out this investigation specimens have been collected
in every state of the United States and in every Province of the Dominion of
Canada, and 4269 different lots of seeds have been planted at the Arbore-
tum and some two hundred thousand plants have been raised. No less
than 1056 species and varieties have been distinguished by botanists in
these twenty-three years and of these 672 species and varieties have been
described by the Director of the Arboretum.
The living collection of these trees and shrubs which are often conspicu-
ous in spring and autumn from the beauty and abundance of their flowers
and highly colored fruits now contains seven hundred and thirty-five spe-
cies and varieties, and make one of the interesting features of the Arbore-
tum. Thousands of these plants raised at the Arboretum have been dis-
tributed in this country and Europe; and nearly complete collections have
been established in the parks of Rochester, New York, and in England.
The necessity of a collection of dried plants for the correct determina-
tion of the living collections and for successful dendrological studies was
felt in the earliest days of the Arboretum, but it was not until 1878 that the
beginning of an herbarium was made. In that year Mr. John Robinson
of Salem came to the Arboretum as curator of the proposed herbarium and
began to gather specimens for it. Four years later he was succeeded as
curator by Mr. Charles E. Faxon who remained in general charge of the
herbarium until his death in 1918. He was succeeded by Mr. Alfred Render
who is now the curator. The herbarium, which is confined to specimens
of trees, shrubs and suffrutescent plants, now contains two hundred thou-
sand sheets and a large number of fruits. It is hoped that it will be
extended until it contains a representative of every ligneous plant in the
world from the Arctic Circle of the two hemispheres to the equator. The
divas now best represented in the herbarium are those of North America
and eastern Asia. Plants, however, are found in it from all the conti-
nents, and from nearly every country, and the only regions botanically im-
portant which are not represented are Madagascar, New Caledonia and
The first important collections of North American plants were made in
1880 and 1881 by the Director and his assistants engaged in preparing for
the general government a report on the forests and forest wealth of the
United States. The study of North American trees and shrubs begun
forty years ago has been steadily continued to the present time, and large
quantities of material have been gathered for the herbarium in every part
of the country by officers of the Arboretum and collectors employed for the
purpose. The herbarium received its first Asiatic plants in 1892 when the
164 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
Director brought back from Japan a collection of about one thousand
specimens. It was later enriched by the specimens collected in Japan,
northern China and Korea by Mr. J. G. Jack of the Arboretum staff, by
Purdom, Meyer, Sargent and Hers in northern China, by Henry in western
China, by the collections of E. H. Wilson in western China, Korea and the
entire Japanese Empire of about 8500 specimens, by the specimens collected
by C. Schneider in southwestern China, and by several collections of the
plants of the Philippine Islands made under the direction of the Philippine
Bureau of Science.
The herbarium contains several collections made from trees and shrubs
cultivated in Europe. The most important of them were made by Mr.
George Nicholson in the Royal Gardens at Kew, by Dr. C. Naudin at the
Villa Thuret at Antibes in France, by A. Render and C. Schneider chiefly
in Germany, and by H. Zabel of Muenden, Germany, containing the types
of the numerous species, varieties and hybrids published by him.
The attempt has been made in the Arboretum herbarium to show in
the case of important trees the varieties and range of the species, and from
one hundred to three hundred sheets are occasionally devoted to the illus-
tration of a single species and its varieties; in the case of trees like Oaks
and Hickories the sheets are accompanied by many bottles of nuts.
The Pinaceae is the family best represented in the Arboretum her-
barium. All the genera and all the species of this Family are represented
with the exception of six Araucarias from New Caledonia, two species of
Callitris and three species of Agathis from northern Australia, one Juniper
from San Domingo and another from the Azores. Many of the species are
represented by long series of specimens and by enough cones to show the
range of their variation.
The herbarium contains the types of nearly all the new Chinese species
published by the Arboretum in Plantae Wilsonianae, the new species pub-
lished in Garden and Forest, in Trees and Shrubs, and in the Journal of
the Arnold Arboretum, and of the new species and varieties of Crataegus,
Carya, Quercus, Tilia, Aesculus and other genera published by the Director.
In its early years the office of the Arboretum and the herbarium and
Library were established in a house in Brookline controlled by the Director,
but in 1892 Mr. Horatio Hollis Hunnewell, a constant and devoted friend
to the Arboretum, as have been his sons, furnished the money for the
brick building near the Jamaica Plain entrance, and late in that year the
offices for administration, the herbarium and the library were moved into it.
This building also contains a collection of specimens of the wood and bark
of most of the trees of the United States, a gift with the cases in which they
are arranged of the late Morris K. Jesup of New York. In 1905 a fireproof
four-storied wing was added to the Administration Building to contain
the herbarium which is now arranged in steel cases extending to the ceiling
of the low-studded and well lighted rooms conveniently arranged for the
study of the specimens.
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 165
The Library of the Arboretum now contains 35,500 bound volumes and
8000 pamphlets. It was begun in 1873 when the Director bought for his
own use a few books needed for the arrangement of the future Arboretum.
This small library was gradually increased and when a few years later it
was determined to prepare at the Arboretum an account of the trees of
North America additional works on dendrology and descriptive botany
essential to the production of that work were obtained by him. In 1892
the six thousand volumes which had by that time been accumulated were
presented by the Director to the University, accommodations for a library
having at that time been provided by the Arboretum.
The Arboretum Library contains the books in all editions and languages
devoted to the description of trees. Its collection of Floras partly devoted
to trees and monographs of genera in which trees and shrubs are described,
is a large one. The collections of books and papers descriptive and cul-
tural of various groups of plants like Conifers, Rosa, Rhododendron, Cra-
taegus, Quercus, Salix, etc., are as nearly complete as it has been possible to
make them. A complete collection of the works of Linnaeus is found in
the Library; and it is believed that outside the walls of the British Museum
there is not a more complete collection of the books relating to plants pub-
lished in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The collection of books of
travel in which occur descriptions of trees or aspects of vegetation is a large
and interesting one and contains a few rare volumes. Little attention has
been paid to books relating to the description and care of the fruit trees
usually cultivated in cold countries, for such works on pomology are found
in libraries devoted to horticulture. There are, however, a large number of
books relating to the history and cultivation of trees and shrubs valued for
special- products like tea, coffee, cocoa, oranges and their allies, cinchona,
olives and the mulberry in its relation to the manufacture of silk as it has
seemed desirable that this library should contain all books relating to
woody plants with the exception of those which are more valuable in a
purely horticultural library. There is not a complete collection of books
on forestry in the Arboretum library, although it contains much that has
been written on this subject especially that which is descriptive of the early
efforts at forest management in the United States and Europe. Only a few
books on paleobotany, vegetable pathology, physiology and entomology
are now found in it. Its rapid growth in directions of more immediate
importance in the arrangement and study of the collections of living plants
has made it impossible to devote to these subjects the attention their
importance demands. Such books will in time find a place in the library
intended to furnish the best possible opportunity for the study of trees.
The library is fortunate in the possession of a large number of complete
sets of rare periodicals including two hundred which are now discontinued;
it receives regularly the numbers of three hundred serials more or less de-
voted to trees and their cultivation.
166 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
In 1904 Miss Ethelyn M. Tucker joined the staff of the Arboretum to
assist in the care of the library and to prepare a Catalogue of its contents.
In 1918 she was appointed Librarian. The books in the library have been
systematically arranged by her under the system usually followed in Ameri-
can libraries and are fully and completely catalogued. When Miss Tucker
began in 1904 to prepare the manuscript for a printed Catalogue the library
contained 10,000 volumes; when the first volume of the catalogue was
printed in 1914 the number had increased to 30,000. The printed catalogue
is contained in two quarto volumes. The first, which is devoted to peri-
odicals and to authors and titles, contains 782 two-column pages, and in
the second volume, which appeared in 1917 contains 542 two-column pages,
the books are arranged according to subjects.
Early in the formation of the library it became evident that to build up
a dendrological library and to carry on at the Arboretum a critical study
of trees and other woody plants more information about the literature of
trees than could be found in any printed bibliography was necessary. To
meet this difficulty a plan was carefully worked out for a bibliography to
contain a reference to every book, every magazine article and every paper
in the Transactions of Learned Societies relating to trees or shrubs in all
languages published before the end of the nineteenth century. This
work was entrusted to Mr. Alfred Rehder, at that time assistant in the
Herbarium, who began work on it in March 1900, and devoted his time to it
until the printing of the last volume was finished. During the preparation
of this book Mr. Rehder visited every library in the eastern United States
in which botanical or horticultural books are found, and during two visits
in Europe extending over a period of twenty-seven months studied in
the botanical libraries of Great Britain, France, Spain, Denmark, Norway,
Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia. The name of this work is
the Bradley Bibliography as it was partly paid for from the income of a
gift made in 1897 to the Arboretum by Miss Abby A. Bradley of Hingham
as a memorial to her father William Lambert Bradley. The first two vol-
umes devoted to an enumeration of works on Dendrology, were issued
in 1911, and in 1912. Volume iii. devoted to Arboriculture and the
Economic Properties of Woody Plants appeared in 1915; volume iv. con-
taining an enumeration of works on Forestry, in 1914, and the fifth and
final volume, which contains the Index of Authors and Titles and a
subject Index of the whole work, in 1918. The five volumes of the Bradley
Bibliography contain rather more than one hundred thousand titles of
books and papers relating to trees and shrubs printed on three thousand
seven hundred and eighty-nine two-column quarto pages.
Other works prepared in the Library and Herbarium and published by
the Arboretum are,
The Pines of Mexico (1909) and a monograph of the Genus Pinus (1914)
by Mr. George R. Shaw; The Plantae Wilsonianae (in 3 vol. 1913-17),
being an account of the plants collected in western China by E. H. Wilson
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 167
for the Arboretum; The Cherries of Japan (1916) by Mr. Wilson; The
Conifers and Taxads of Japan (1916) by Mr. Wilson; A Monograph of
Azaleas by Messrs. Wilson and Render (1921); twelve volumes of the
Bulletin of Popular Information (1911-22); the first three volumes of the
Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1919-22); and an illustrated Guide to
the Arnold Arboretum (1911) with a second edition in 1921.
The following are some of the works which have been prepared by the
Director in this library but were not published by the Arboretum : Report
on the Forests of North America, being the ninth volume of the Final
Reports of the Tenth Census of the United States (1884); The Woods of
the United States with an account of their structure, qualities and uses
(1885); The Silva of North America in fourteen volumes with seven hun-
dred and forty plates (1891-1902); Trees and Shrubs; illustrations of new
or little known ligneous plants, prepared chiefly from material at the
Arnold Arboretum (1905-1913), largely by officers of the Arboretum. The
ten volumes of Garden and Forest, a journal of horticulture, landscape art
and forestry (1887-1897), were edited in the Arboretum library, in which
Mr. Alfred Rehder has prepared the descriptions of a large part of the trees
and shrubs included in Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horticulture and
in the second edition of that work, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horti-
The Arboretum collection of photographs now contains nine thousand
six hundred pictures of trees and shrubs, types of vegetation, gardens and
scenery. The photographs are mounted on cards 11% inches long and 9J^
inches wide and are arranged systematically in steel drawers. The two
thousand eight hundred pictures made by Wilson in eastern Asia and
Australasia form the most valuable and interesting part of; this collection.
The Arboretum photographs have been carefully catalogued by Miss
Tucker and can be easily and quickly examined. This collection proves
to be an important and useful addition to both the Library and Herbarium.
The Arboretum in the conception of its managers is a museum
founded and carried on to increase the knowledge of trees. This they have
endeavored to do by a collection of living plants arranged for convenient
examination and study, by the distribution of surplus material obtained
in the Arboretum explorations, and by the publication of the results of the
dendrological investigations carried on in its laboratories. That they have
been at least partly successful is shown by the standing of the Arboretum
in the estimation of the men in different countries best able to judge of its
No attempt has been made to give instruction at the Arboretum to
168 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. HI
classes of University undergraduates. A few special students, often in
recent years from China and Japan, are received by Professor J. G. Jack
who for many years now has given field lessons during the spring and
autumn months among the collections of trees. In the answers to the
letters which come to the Arboretum, as to all museums, asking for infor-
mation, help and instruction are freely given.
The Arnold Arboretum is not a School of Forestry or of Landscape
Gardening. It is a station for the study of trees as individuals in their
scientific relations, economic properties and cultural requirements and
possibilities. On the information gathered in museums like the Arnold
Arboretum successful silviculture and landscape gardening are dependent,
for silviculture is the cultivation on a large scale of the trees most valuable
in a particular locality, and landscape gardening demands a knowledge
of the individual plants which can be naturally associated for the decoration
of parks and gardens.
No account of the Arnold Arboretum is complete without mention of
two remarkable men who have died in its services.
CHARLES EDWARD FAXON, one of three brothers who devoted the best
part of their lives to the study of Natural History, was born in 1846 in
Jamaica Plain where he died in 1918. As a boy he had begun to study the
New England flora and to show his ability to draw by his copies in color of
Audubon's pictures of birds. Before 1870 he had made most of the colored
drawings to illustrate Eaton's "Ferns of North America"; and from 1879
to 1884 he was instructor in botany at the Bussey Institution. In 1882
when the plan was made to prepare at the Arboretum an illustrated work
on the trees of North America Faxon was invited to make the drawings for
it. At this time he took charge of the herbarium and library which he
continued to manage until his death. His knowledge of botany, especially
of the flora of eastern North America, his love of books and his remarkable
faculty for learning foreign languages were of great value in the organiza-
tion and care of these departments. During twenty-one years Faxon was
engaged on the seven hundred and forty-four drawings which illustrate the
" Silva of North America," and during his twenty-six years of service for
the Arboretum nineteen hundred and twenty-four of his drawings of plants
were published. To his work he brought enthusiasm, industry, good taste,
a thorough understanding and love of his subjects, an unusually skilful
pencil, and skill in microscopic analysis. No other American botanical
artist has had his experience and industry, and no one has contributed
more to the reputation of the Arboretum and the value of its publications.
JACKSON T. DAWSON was the first superintendent of the Arboretum and
continued to fill this position and that of propagator until his death in the
summer of 1916. Born in the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1841 Dawson
was brought when a child to this country by his mother and when eight
years old was started in gardening in an uncle's nursery in Andover, Massa-
chusetts. He served for three years in a Massachusetts regiment during
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 169
the Civil War and was several times wounded. On his discharge from
service in 1864 Dawson entered the employ of Hovey & Company of Cam-
bridge, at that time one of the important commercial nurseries of the
United States. In 1871 he was made head gardener of the School of Horti-
culture at the Bussey Institution by Francis Parkman, the first professor
of that department in the School, a position which he filled for three years
when he became superintendent of the Arboretum. Dawson had the real
love for plants and an exceptional knowledge of them. As a plant propa-
gator it is not possible that any one could have been his superior. No
problem in propagation was ever too difficult for him to solve. At the
Arboretum he was compelled to work in crowded quarters with insufficient
appliances, and in spite of this handicap he raised for the Arboretum during
his forty-two years of service probably more than a million plants, and
there are now few public or private gardens in the northern hemisphere
which have not been enriched by his labors. Dawson served the Arbore-
tum faithfully and made many friends for it ; and without his assistance it
would have been impossible to make the collections of living plants what
they are today.
During its first fifty years the area occupied by the Arboretum has been
increased from one hundred and twenty-five to two hundred and fifty acres.
The endowment has been increased from $103,847.57 to $808,175.75, and a
construction fund of $129,257 immediately available for improvements
has been accumulated.
The greatest collection of the hardy trees and shrubs of the northern
hemisphere has been made and arranged, and many new plants largely
discovered through its explorations have been distributed.
It has established the largest and most important herbarium in the
world devoted exclusively to preserving the records of trees and shrubs,
and a library which within the limits of its special subjects is not surpassed.
More important than these are the friendly relations it has established with
the students and cultivators of trees in all parts of the world, for through
these relations it will be able to increase and extend its usefulness.
In discussing the future of the Arboretum and its needs it must be re-
membered that during its first half century it has been managed not merely
as a New England museum but as a national and international institution
working to increase knowledge of trees in all parts of the world and as
anxious to help a student in Tasmania or New Caledonia as in Massachu-
setts. An institution with such ambitions must be equipped to answer any
question about any tree growing in any part of the world which may be
addressed to it. During the first fifty years of the Arnold Arboretum only
the foundations of such an establishment have been laid, but in laying
these foundations some of the needs of the future are made clear. These
170 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VOL. in
First : The collection of more information about the trees in many parts
of the world than can now be found here. Such information can be ob-
tained only in small part by correspondence and the information which the
Arboretum needs can only be successfully obtained by agents sent out to
obtain it. It is desirable that the work which the Arboretum has begun
in eastern continental Asia should be continued and if possible completed.
The flora of the coastal region north of latitude 45, including Kamtschatka,
is still very imperfectly known. From this region trees and shrubs, still
unknown in gardens, which will grow in New England can probably be
obtained. Explorations in the northern part of Kansu, the great northwest
province of China, may also be expected to enrich northern gardens. The
flora of China south of the Yang-tze-kiang River and east of the Poyang
Lake is still little known; and the trees of Cochinchina (Tonkin, Annam
and Siam) are still badly represented in the Arboretum herbarium; and
Harvard College will not have fulfilled its agreement with the Arnold
Trustees until it has caused to be explored through the Arboretum the
forests which cover the ranges of the Altai Mountains which form the
southern boundary of central Siberia and the great interior region south of
If the Arboretum is to become a great institution for gathering and
spreading information about trees and allied plants specimens and a series
of photographs of every species of tree in the world should be found in its
herbarium. The work which it has accomplished in its first fifty years in
North America and the Japanese Empire should be extended over the rest
of the world. For the trees of the tropics this is now important as tropical
forests are fast disappearing to make room for plantations of rubber-pro-
ducing and other economic plants. The best soil is selected for these
plantations, and as with few exceptions the largest and best individuals of a
species are produced in the best soil, many species, or certainly their best
representatives, must disappear, and in the future the student of trees must
depend for any knowledge of many trees on the material and information
preserved in institutions like the Arnold Arboretum. The exploration of
the tropical forests of the world will require perhaps a century and a large
expenditure of money to accomplish. It is work that this Arboretum
should begin and steadily push forward.
Second: The Arboretum requires a properly equipped department for
the study of the diseases of trees in this country and in other parts of the
Third: The Arboretum requires a department in which the study of
insects dangerous to trees and the methods for their control can be carried
on in connection with the other investigations undertaken by the Arbore-
tum and controlled by it.
Fourth: The Arboretum needs a department for the breeding of new
races of plants. The world already owes much to the intelligence and skill of
the plant breeder. He has increased the value of many farm crops and has
1922] SARGENT, FIRST FIFTY YEARS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 171
produced shrubs which are the chief ornament of many gardens. Less has
been done in attempting to improve trees by the mixing of different species.
Hybrid trees especially among Oaks often occur in this country. Several
of these trees are already in this Arboretum where they grow more rapidly
and are often hardier than their parents. Natural hybrids of Poplar-trees
are common and often grow more rapidly than their parents ; and a number
of hybrid Poplars have been raised artificially in Europe and promise to
become valuable trees. One of the largest, hardiest and most rapid-grow-
ing of all Elm- trees is a natural hybrid between two European species.
The best Hickory- nuts are produced by trees which are natural hybrids;
and one of the largest and handsomest hybrid Oak-trees in the United
States has also been artificially reproduced by crossing the two species which
were the parents of the natural hybrid. Judging by what little is now
known about hybrid trees it does not seem improbable that new races of
trees may be produced artificially which will contribute materially to the
value of the forest products of the world and increase the beauty of parks
and gardens. The Arnold Arboretum with its great collections and its
connection with the principal cultivators of plants is now the best place for
breeding new trees and shrubs in the United States. Plant breeders from
all parts of the country send to it for the material needed in their work but
this work can best be done here.
Fifth : A Rose Garden and a Rock Garden if planned comprehensively
would add much to the horticultural value of the Arboretum, and bring
many visitors to it.
Only a larger endowment is needed to make possible these Arboretum
activities and extensions.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
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