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fidence, THE untiring activity and liberality of 








This book, the first part of which contains the First Grammar of the 
hitherto unwritten and unexplored Language of the Bontoc Igorot, is based 
exclusively on the material which the Author has obtained personally from 
the lips of several groups of Igorot who were on exhibition in Chicago dur- 
ing the Summer and Autumn of 1906 till October 9, and in 1907 from May 
28. to August 20. They were under the management of Messrs. Felder, 
Krider and Schneidewind, altogether some ninety men and women, having 
been conducted to the United States by Mr. Schneidewind from their homes 
at Bontoc in the very heart of North Luzon and from several other towns in 
the valley of the Rio Chico de Cagayan. 

In the Autumn of 1906 the first group was joined by another contingent 
of about thirty men and women who had been scattered at dififerent places 
over this country. By a decision of a Federal Court they were ordered to 
be reunited and transferred to Chicago, there to await the day for their re- 
turn to Bontoc. On the spacious field at the Riverview Park this unfor- 
tunate second group found well built houses and humane treatment, after 
sad experience to the contrary; their intelligence and keen sense of justice 
persuaded them that the manifold wrongs had been inflicted upon them, at 
their first contact with our civilization, by one individual only, their former 
manager, and not by the Ciovernment. When these Igorot who were kept 


away from their homes since their departure for tlie St. Louis World's 
Exposition had been permitted to return — penniless but rich in ex- 
perience — to their country, five members of their group had to remain 
about two months in Riverview Park and several months longer in various 
cities and towns as witnesses in behalf of the United States in some ap])ar- 
cntly endless lawsuits against their unscrupulous former manager. Sev- 
eral of these natives also helped the Author greatly in collecting material 
from the s|)oken language. And so did Agpauwan, a young man from 
Alab, who remained in Chicago under the care of Mr. George E. Ellis. Civil 
Engineer of the Federal Signal Company, in order to attend school at dif- 
ferent places. 

Considerable difficulties were encountered during the first time which 
the Author spent with the Igorot at tlicir campfire, their forge, under the 
roofs of their huts, observing them throwing spears, contesting in sham- 
battles, singing, dancing, thrashing, preparing their meals, constructing rice- 
terraces, making spears, plaiting hats, moulding pottery, forming pipes, 
weaving, etc. The difficulties .seemed at first even unsurmountable, for none 
of those whom the Author met at first understood English sufficiently well 
to comprehend questions or to give explanations. (Nor do the Igorot em- 
ploy any method or possess any knowledge of committing their language or 
thoughts to any kind of writing whatsoever). Thus it became necessary to 
force the way into their idiom by their idiom. But what had appeared, in 
the beginning, to be almost a misfortune, proved afterwards to be a blessing: 
the necessity of using in the research almost exclusively their vernacular, 
through which the investigator succeeded in gaining genuine and correct 
material, such as in many other ]\Lala}()-Polynesian idioms is collected from 
unreliable translations of the Bible, from prayerbooks, manuals for priests, 
reports of unphilological officials, traders, missionaries and similar sources. 
No book of this kind exists as yet in the Bontoc Igorot vernacular. 

Only during the last four days of the Igorot's sojourn in 1906 a young 
Bontocman of .surprising intelligence and a quickly acquired, remarkable 
knowledge of English, Falonglong, called "Antero Cabrera." returned from 
other states to Chicago and furthered essentially the revision of the material 
previously gained. Thus the Author became convinced that the treasure 
he had gathered, thanks to the assistance of Anauwasal, Bugti. Julio Balinag 


(an Ilocano settler at Bontoc, knowing Spanish and Bontoc Igorot), Mo- 
leng, Liblib, Domingo, Agpauwan, Falengno, Fumnak, Taynan and many 
others, stood the test and could be relied upon. 

His investigation, pioneer-work throughout, produced furthermore am- 
ple evidence that any attempt to apply to this idiom the rules of the much 
simpler constructions of the Malay Language would be futile. The truth 
of a passage in Prof. Dr. Renward Brandstetter's book "Malaio-polyne- 
sische Forschungen," 2. Reihe, III, p. 23, was thus virtually proven. As 
it is refreshing to see time-honored dogmas shattered by better knowledge, 
this passage from one of the excellent books of that great scholar shall be 
quoted here: 

"Ein Hauptgrund, dass immer noch so viele schiefe Anschauungen 
fiber die malaio-polynesischen Spracherscheinungen im Umlauf sind, liegt 
darin, dass die betrefifenden Forscher das Malaiische als Basis verwenden, 
um sich ihre Ansichten vom MP Sprachbau zu bilden, wahrend dieses von 
alien MP Idiomen vielleicht am unfrucp.tbarsten fiir solche Studien ist." 

While the material was taken down during the first few weeks without 
any definite plan, the fascinating success soon induced the Author to proceed 
sj'stematically. Henceforth it was his aim to elicit from the Ignrot as many 
examples as possible, illustrative of grammatical rules already sketched, and 
to collect an extensive Vocabulary of genuine Bontoc Igorot words. But, 
as a matter of no less importance, he ne\-er neglected to take down also from 
the Igorot's mutual conversation as many phrases as he could obtain, al- 
though the significance of most of them was quite obscure, at that first period 
of his research. This practice furnished excellent training for the ear; 
several months later the revision of this material, found by the wayside, but 
conscientiously committed to writing, proved it to be of greater value than 
had been expected. 

When eight months later, on May 28. 1907, a large group of difTerent 
Igorot came to Chicago (among them only Falonglong and a woman, Suyo 
from Basao, had been here before), the entire harvest of the former year 
was gone over, especially with Falonglong's clever assistance, and that of 
Matyu, Oloshan, Langagan, Tjumigyay, Kalangad, Abakid and Angay, 
Akunay, Tongay, Bumegda, Kodsoo, Fanged and others. Several chapters 
of the Granmiar were completed, new sections were added, the Vocabulary 


was increased, and the extremely important third i)art of tliis Ijook, the 
Texts — the only Texts existing of that language — -were dictated by Mat- 
vn, Fanged and Falonglong. As the .Vnthor had meanwhile memorized his 
\'ocalnilary and practiced his grammatical rules, he was able to converse 
without difficulty with these most sympathetic people, men of astonishing in- 
telligence, inborn independence and frankness, strong principles of honesty, 
kind disposition, a vivid desire for learning, and blessed with the divine gift 
of healthy humor; men so different from the crowd that visited their village 
at the "White City." They readily comprehended the advantages of what 
we are accustomed to call civilization. Several Igorot were wise enough not 
to wish a great deal of it in exchange for their strenuous and poor life and 
their desirable qualities and simple but deep religious feelings. . . 

And how kindly did they i)romise, on their own accord, to furnish still 
more information concerning their customs and ceremonies, their legends 
and traditions, prayers, songs, their "old language"' (said to be preserved in 
one distant settlement), when the Author would come to their country to live 
among them! Thus confidence created confidence. 

The use of their vernacular from the very outset did not only yield an 
enormous quantity of linguistic material, nearly twice as much as is con- 
tained in the Grammar and Vocabulary (thanks to the Igorot's far-going 
patience !) , but it enabled the investigator also to gain a more intimate knowl- 
edge of the intellectual capacity and the mode of life of the Igorot. Many 
a statement of travelers in the Bontoc region that was held out to them for 
verification, met with an ironical smile, or with general shaking of their 
heads. It may also be said that the attempts at conversing of several vis- 
itors in their village at Chicago who claimed to have ac(|uired a knowledge 
of their idiom at the Igorot's home in the I'hiliiipines, were a complete fail- 
ure, in each single instance. 

Students of the IJontoc Ig(')rot Language who wish to read about this 
tribe and their home will find no little information in a number of articles and 
in books treating of the IMiilippines in general and of the liontoc region in 
partictdar. Nothing of this kind should be sought in this work, written 
with the intention of furnishing material for further philological studies. A 
few sources for information shall be mentioned; l)Ul the Author by no means 
intends to give a complete bibliographical list, as, for instance, an extract 


from Retana's "Biblioteca Filipina," or from the book with the same title by 
the eminent scholar T. H. Pardo de Tavera, published in 1903 at Washing- 
ton, under the Direction of the Library of Congress and the Bureau of In- 
sular Affairs. 

The numerous articles and "Abhandlungen" by Prof. Dr. Ferd. Blu- 
mentritt, especialh' his ''Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen, mit 
einer Karte der Philippinen; Gotha, J. Perthes, 1882" (page 25-31), based 
on obsolete material, compiled with praiseworthy endurance from doubtful 
sources, will not give reliable information concerning our people, however 
interesting the various theories of the Author may be. Also Prof. Semper's 
article in Vol. 13 of the "Erdkunde," p. 00-96, contains peculiar errors. More 
reliable seems to be Dr. Hans Meyer's lecture on the Igorot in the "Zeitschrift 
fiir Ethnologic, '" Vol. 15, 18S3, Pag. 377-300. (Dr. ]\Icyer has visited the 
Igorot in their country). 

The Eig'hth Volume of the "Publicationen aus dem Kgl. Ethnograph- 
ischen jMuseum zu Dresden: Die Philippinen. I. Nord-Luzon. von A. B. 
Meyer und A. Schadenberg. 1890" shows on 18 tables with excellent illustra- 
tions some implements and arms of the Igorot among those of other tribes. 
In the introduction preceding these tables wherever the "Ignrot'-names for 
several objects are given, they are almost unexceptionally wrong, i. e., 
they are not the names under which the Bontocmen know these objects. 

In his report in the "Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic," Vol. 20, 1888, p. 34 ff. 
Dr. Alexander Schadenberg gives a concise, interesting account of the Igorot. 
As the Igorot admitted, this report contains many correct statements; it ap- 
pears to be more trutlrful than other articles published before. He describes 
their bodilv and mental characteristics, family life, childl)irth, couvade, nam- 
ing, the "pabafungan" and "olog," trial-marriages and permanent mar- 
riages, tattoo, dress, ornaments, weapons, household utensils and imple- 
ments, agriculture, domestic animals, hunting and fishing, food, dwellings, 
head-hunting, festivals and ceremonies, dances, continuous feuds, skill as 
iron-workers, forges, councils of old men, smoking pipes, superstitions, anito- 
cuU, medicines. Imrial, wood-carving, rattanwork, etc. 

The latest popular book is the monograph of Dr. Albert Ernest Jenks 
on the Bontoc Igorot, published by the Ethnological Survey of the Philippine 
Islands (whose director Dr. Jenks was at that time), Manila, 1905. This 


l)ook treats at Icngtli, with various additions, in a pleasing stvle wliat Scliad- 
cnberg and partially his predecessors had published in their concise contribu- 
tions to ethnolog}-. A great many photographs taken by Dr. Jenks, Ch. 
INIartin and Hon. Dean C. \\'orcester, Secretary of the Interior, render the 
book particularly valuable. It is quite remarkable as the report of a five 
months' sojourn of its Author in the Bontoc area. Wherever Dr. Jenks 
draws from reliable sources — he mentions gratefully several collaborators 
in his preface — his book contains plausible statements. It is of course 
rather difficult to determine which parts have been obtained (through inter- 
preters) directly from the Igorot, or from other persons. Dr. Jenks. travel- 
ing in different parts of the Islands during a comparatively short season, had 
evidently no time to become acquainted with the rudiments of the Bontoc 
vernacular. The few phrases interspersed in a few passages, in a rather 
strange language, are sufficient evidence of this fact. Only a few of these 
phrases were intelligible ; most could not be recognized by the Igorot as their 
idiom, although now and then a word could be discerned or reconstructed. 
In the appendix to the book, a chapter with the proud title "Language," its 
Author has exerted himself supra crepidam ; we find there on pp. 230 and 231 
a few vague and rather misleading notes on a few pronouns and personal 
suffixes of the verb, quotations from Otto Scheerer's manuscri])t on a differ- 
ent idiom, on the Nabaloi Dialect, spoken bv the Ibaloi in the province of 
Benguet, and also a passage borrowed from ^Maxwell's ^Manual of the Ma- 
lay Language (p. 58). These two pages show clearly that Dr. Jenks devot- 
ed practically no time — and no sympathy — ■ to even a superficial study of 
the structure of the Bontoc Language. Of considerablv greater value is the 
\7)cabulary of ncarlv 700 terms, which is imblished bv Dr. Jenks as the main 
part of his chapter "Language," drawn from a good source or good sources. 
It is ai)preciated deservedly in the Preface to the Part II of this book. 

As the reader observes, the Author has strictlv refrained (with one ex- 
ception) from (|uoting from grammars on other ]\1P Languages and from 
entering into any comparative i)hilological studies in the present book, al- 
though he is in possession of copious material — reliable and unreliable — 
for the sludv of comparative vocabularies and syntax of MP idioms. He 
considered it his task, as stated above, to furnish material for such studies, 
to contribute at least a certain amount of reliable material for comparative 


research, which ought to be based upon tlie results of new, uninfluenced in- 
vestigations — fieldwork — into the various idioms as spoken by the natives, 
and not upon rehgious Iwoks made by missionaries and their apjircntices. It 
were best to consider the entire fiekl of Phihppine Languages as yet un- 
touched and to begin anew to study (but not without personal svmpathv with 
the natives! ) '^'jene Prachtwerke des malaiischen Baustils, die philippini- 
schen Sprachen, die ohnehin aus iiusseren Griinden den meisten Forschern 
kaum erreichbar sind" (G. von der Gabelentz^ Sprachwissenschaft, 2. Aufl. 
von Albrecht Graf von der Schulenburg). 

It is indeed a pity to observe the squandering of time, energy and sa- 
gacity upon antiquated and questionable material that should be thoroughly 
weeded out before comparative studies are attempted. 

While composing the Grammar several methods of arranging the mate- 
rial suggested themselves. The Author concluded — indeed not without 
hesitation — that it would be more convenient for students trained in the 
Grammars of Indogermanic Languages, if he would retain, with slight modi- 
fications, the customary order of the chapters in such grammars, if he would 
treat first the article, then the noun, pronoun, adjective, etc., just as if the 
Bontoc Language would distinguish the same grammatical categories as 
the Indogermanic Languages. This method seemed helpful for acquiring 
knowledge of the idiom. But for practice the student must absolutely aban- 
don those former conceptions of etymology and syntax which he may have 
gained from his previous studies of the classical or modern Germanic or 
Romance Languages; the sooner he can free himself completely from cling- 
ing to his former notions of the structure of a language and adapt himself 
to new categories of linguistic elements, the earlier he will succeed in enter- 
ing into the s]iirit of this admirable idiom. The Author endeavors to assist 
the students with all possible means, on each single page of the Grammar. 
Therefore in many passages literal translations — of course in recklessly 
mutilated English and sometimes in German, French, Spanish, Latin etc. — 
have been added to the free translation into our idiom. It is hoped that 
thereby the comprehension of many a construction in Igorot vernacular will 
be facilitated. 

An abundance of examples accompany the rules of the Grammar. Most 
serve to illustrate the same rule from various viewpoints which only the stu- 


(lent who ])rocee(ls from chapter to cha])tcr w iU uiulcrsiand. Some examples 
have heen added with tlie intention of not leaving valuable material mould 
in the Author's desk. These apparently superfluous examples may further 
the advanced student's investigation beyond the scope of the rule to which 
they are attached. 

A considerable amount of un])ublished material is still at hand; parts of 
it will be communicated, u])on recjuest^ to scholars and students who wish 
additional examples for rules established in this (jrammar or for other sci- 
entific purposes. 

Particularlv in the first ]iart of the Grammar the f|uantities of syllables 
are marked; to avoid errors as much as possible, the sim])le rule: any syllable 
that is not marked long is short, seemed hardlv sufficient for English read- 
ers, as experience has shown. 

Accents are placed on most words, as the stress does not always fall u])nu 
the long syllable. [Long syllables are scarcely longer than short syllables!] 
As all examples are recorded exactly as thev were obtained from the Igorot, 
and as the men pronounced the same word in the same construction often 
with changed sounds and accents, it happens that .some inconsistency pre- 
vails in orthography, accents and c|uantity. This is due to the natives' elocu- 
tion, but not to the Author. He does not consider himself entitled to create 
a normal Igorot Language, but he is bound, in a work of this character, to 
write down each word as he heard it from the men who appeared to use the 
purest language. And thus it is hoped that this book comprises trustworthy 
material for further studies. Each word and phrase has been repeatedly 
verified by various single individuals, bv small and larger groups of men and 
women, young and old, at different times and occasions, often employed un- 
expectedly in conversation, and special care was taken not to tire a man, as 
there is danger lest tired men answer so as to please the inquirer. 

Words of the llocano and other idioms have lieen eliminated in so far 
as they seem not to be coni])letelv adopted bv the r>ontoc Igorot. In doubt- 
ful instances the supposed foreign origin is indicated bv: (Hoc.?). When 
a i^hrase or word was unanimously declared (fretiuentlv even with a distinct 
disdain!) to be an Tlocanism, it was branded as such: (Hoc.) Words of 
S])anish origin are marked: (Sp.). \'ariants are sometimes added to the 
original ; they are .placed in brackets. The form in brackets is not meant to 


be less correct or less usual, or to be the only variant. Nor shall the omis- 
sion of variants indicate that none exists. 

Numbers in [ ] denote sections of the Grammar. If a capital precedes 
the number, the example is selected from the Texts in Part III. 

The capitals signify: 


Battle of Caloocan 


Palpalama and Palpalaking 


Headhunters' Return 


The Rat and the Brothers 




The Stars 







Most of the Illustrations have been chosen from more than a hundred 
and fifty similar photographs taken by Mr. P. C. Abbott, the Manager of 
Poole's Printing House in Chicago. Mr. Abbott manifested great interest 
in the Igorot and in their welfare. I am indebted to him for the permission 
of using his admirable collection of plates; for some pictures I am indebted 
to Mr. Felder, ]\Ir. R. Earle, Mr. H. W. Fulton and others. 

The student will take notice of a list of Addenda and Corrigenda at the 
end of the book. 

Dr. piiii,. Carl Wilhe;lm Seidenadel. 
Chicago, October eighteenth, 1907. 








Interchanged Sounds 














Swarabhakti in Loan-Words 


Consonant- Assimilation 


kekkck for kctkek 


Tenuis changes to Media be- 

fore Liquida 


Media changes to Tenuis be- 

fore Tenuis 


N changes to M before La- 



Intervocalic / 


Final / 

1 8. 



Final Mediae 


F changes to B or P. before 

a consonant 


Doubling of Consonants 

Bf, gk\ dt for /f, kk, it 
24. Syllables 

Glottal Check 

Quantity of Syllables 



30, 21, 2,-- Articles )iau. san 
33-36. Personal Article si 
^7. Pleonastic Article 

Article repeated 

Collective Article tja 
tjakami, tjaftja 



Genitive Indicator -n 

Copula ya 

Substantive; form 

45. Proper Names, Geograph. 


46. No Gender or Inflection 

47. Male, female 

48. 49, 50, 51. Plural 

52, 53, 54, 55. Prefix Ka- 
56. Sufifix -an 























1 01 

57. Suffix -an 
-ail with names of persons 

and towns 
-an suffixed to \'"erbals 

iFmntok; IgOrot 
Min-, Nin-: owner 
In-: profession 
/;;- accomplished result ; con- 
crete noun 
In- (Infix) : imitation, image 
Tovs, with redupl. root 
"With a dog, a cane" 
Part of the body affected 
Infix uni: trade, skill 
Verbal Nouns 
75. Case Relations 

"Compound Nouns:" si 
Material with ay 
Apposition with ay 
. ili'd ppintok, dto'd Longfny 

Loan Words 
-84. Personal Pronouns 

Case relations of the Per- 
sonal Pronouns 
siya ay laldki, fafayi 
Pronouns as Subject 
Personal Endings of Verbs 
Omission of Object 
Locative particles na and sa 
Apposition to Personal Pro- 
98. Demonstrative Pronouns 

Na, sa, tjdy as Pronouns 
. A'flv, tjdy: "here is, are" 
Possessive Suffixes 
Nan preceding nouns with 
Possess. Suffixes 




1 10. 

1 12. 










Accent shifting caused by 

the Suffix 
Use of the Possessive Suf- 
nan dmak — si dma 
Possessives as verbal Suf- 
kda, "property" 
''kOa" with nouns 
Possessives with nouns in 

-an, -en 
Reflexive : dn'ak, body 
Intensive: tsadlo 
Primitive Adjectives 
116. Place of the attributive 
Predicative Adjective 
Verbalized Adjective 
Adjectives with iiin 

Adjectives with in 

Adjectives with ma-, na- and 
Adjectives of Material 

Redupl. Adjectives 


Perephrastic Comparison 


Lack of privative prefixes 

"height, length" etc. 

Indefin. Pronoun. Somebody 


"a certain" 



No, not any 


Much, many, more, most 


Some, several, a few 











1 6-1. 


Other, different 

Every, each 

Any whatever 

"That (thing)" 

The one — the other 

Generahzing "one" 

The same 

anoka; auin 


Who? sfnu? 

What? ngdgf 

How much ? kadf ' 

which? ngag ay., what kind 

Introduction to the Verh 

VerbaHzation of Roots 
Personal and Possessive 

Personal and Possessive 

Verbs from one root 
Personal and Possessive 

Verbs in their Common 

158. Voices, Tenses, Moods 
Verbals: Nomen actionis 

and Nomen agentis 
Various Modifiers 
Personal Verbs: Definition 
Meaning of Personal Verbs 
Paradigm of a Personal 

Third person singular 
Pronoun with 3rd singular 
Copula ya between subject 

and personal verb 
Pre- and Infixes 

In- with a few Possess. Verbs 
172. Um- 





Um- : to become 


Um-: pointing to future 


Ma- (Deponentia) 


Mang- combined with Sub- 
stantives and verbal end- 


Mang- with certain verbal 
roots forming personal 


The Preterite 


"Augment :" in 


Preterite of adverbs of time 



Endings of the Preterite 


Future Prefix ad- and End- 



185. Um- omitted in Imperative 

186. Urging Particles with Im- 


187. Ta: cohortative 

188. Ed, ct: Conjunctive Particle 

189. Periphrasis of 3rd person 


190. iiidka; dyka etc. 

191. Conjunctive 

192. Nom. agentis; Participle, In- 


193. Nomen agentis with min- 

194. Nomen actionis 

105. Possessive Endings to Nom- 
en actionis 

196. -an: adverbial signification; 

mostly locative 

197. Examples of Nomina action- 


198. Constructions with Personal 


199. Object of Personal Verbs 

200. Place of Subject 

201. Subject of \a 



Apposition to ist or 2nd 



Possessive \'erl)s. Dctini- 



Nomen Actionis; Nonns 




Place of the "Subject" 


"Snbiect" ])recedes; verl) has 






208. "Subject" foHows (in Geni- 

tive), ver]) no enchno-; 
but sometimes -tja in plu- 

209. "Subject" in Genitive; proof 

210. Our subjective Genitive 

changes to possessive 

211. Personal Pronoun preced- 

ing- Xomen actionis 

212. Roots with -en, -an, i- 

213. \'erbalization of Root 

214. The "direct object" 

215. Employment of the various 

verbalizing Particles in 
Relation of the "direct Ob- 
ject" to the -i'li- Ycvh 
The ( )biect of the -an- \'crbs 
The Object of the /- \'erbs 
(Foot-Note concerning the 
erroneous doctrine of 
"the Three Passives" in 
other l'hili|:)pine Lan- 
2i(). The -en Conjugal inn 

220. Phonetic changes of the root 

when verbalized 

221. Paradigms for -c'li \'erbs 

222. Accent 

223. The -an Conjugation 















F'aradignis for -an \'erbs 

The /'- Conjugation 

Paradigms for i- \'crbs 

Prefix /- and radical / 

\'erbs with ending -ak: Per- 
sonal \'erbs or: -an ^'erbs 
or : /- X'erbs 

Xomen actionis of /- \'erbs 
with Genitive Indicator: 

Preterite: //;- 

/;;- as prefix and as infix 

/;;- as prefix to ;'- A'erbs 
which drop /-, Exceptions 

Prefix Pa : in pa 

^f changes to A" in the Pre- 
and 2T,/. Suffixes and Endings 
in the Preterite 

\"erbs with -ck in the Preter- 

Preterite of verbs in -zi<ek 

Patkilek and fadlck, 
totdyek. fayc^kck 

Future of Possessive \'erbs 



Xomen actionis (.and "Infin- 

Infinitive of the Preterite of 
certain A'erbs in -en: o 


X^omen actionis in Future 

Xomen agentis 

Meaning of the Xomen 

Xomen agentis as noun 
Xomen agentis governing an 

object (Genitive Object.) 


251. I\Iang-i-pa 279. 

252. Mang-; 111 in g- 

253. -an dropped. Exceptions 280. 

254. Nomen agentis does not take 

personal endings 

255. Exceptions: Nomina agentis 281. 

as personal Verbs 2S2. 

256. Paradigms of Nomina agcn- 

tis 283. 

Regular and anomalous 284. 

257. Nomen agentis with possess- 285. 

ive endings 

258-260. Special A^erbal Forms ^S^y. 

261. "For whom", "to whom": 28S. 

Root -ail ; possessive end- 
ings 289. 

262. Instrument: {-, Root, pos- 290, 

sess. endings 

263. Place: inaiig, Root, -an, pos- 293. 

sessive endings 294. 

264. Stronger Emphasis 295. 
264. The Passive 296. 
266. Formation 297. 
267,268. Prefixes ;;;(7-. ;h7-, fl'(///;(7- 29S. 

269. Agent with Passive Verbs 299. 

270. Ma and /.• nil 300. 

271. ]\Ia and pa-: ma pa-: or: pa 301. 

dropped; or: inaFpa 302. 

272. Nomen actionis in the Pas- 303. 

sive 304. 

273. Examples for Passive 305. 

274. Paradigms for Passive; the 306. 

Passive Nomen actionis 307. 

275. Examples for Passive Con- 308. 

structions 309. 

276. Partic. Pres. Pass, as Partic. .VO- 

necessitatis 311. 

2/y. Emphasis. Introduction 312. 

278. Subject emphasized 313. 

The preceding Subject 
slightly emphasized 

Verb has endings and Sub- 
ject follows with ligature 
ay ("Apposition") 

Subject with Nom. agentis 

Nomen Agentis emphasizing 
the Verb 

Object emphasized 

Various other elements em- 

Person "for whom" empha- 

Place emphasized 

Time, Manner, Degree em- 

Promiscuous Examples 

291, 292. Reduplication of 

Idiom: "kapcm ay kapcii" 


Pin- pang- 








Modifiers of Verbs 

Bd\ "Conjunctive" 

Nget: ngiii 



Afus; iptjas 








Sniiiyoak yajtgkay; Apid- 

INIodifying Verbs 

Ikad; dla 







Nor, neillier 



"Relative Clauses" 

Relat. Nominative 

Relat Genitive 

Relat. Dative 

Relat. Accusative 

Relat. Time, Place 

Relat. Instrument 

Prepositions with Relatives; 

Personal Pronouns as ante- 
cedent ; indefinite anteced- 

7'.s-(7 in Rel. Glauses 

Nomcn actionis as anteced- 

Interrogative Sentences 

Question bv intonation 


Xgiii in Ouestions 

Yes ! »c» 

Sill II wilb cojjula 

,S7;/;/ wilb \'erb, as subject 

Sinn as Accusative sul)ject 


Sinn as Dative 

349. Prepositions governing sinn 

3 BO- 
SS r- 













Sinn ay., ngdg a\'.. 


Into? nalpdak: I come 

Kad? when? 
Kad? how much ? 
How many times? 

How long? Plow small? etc. 
Indirect Ouestions 
To Be 
363. JJ'oda; (aykfu'ay/) 
Idiomatic phrases for our 

To Become: iiiii- 
To Have 
Numerals : Cardinals and 

Ordinal Ad\-erbs 
Numerical Idioms 
Compound Prepositions: 

possessive suffixes of 

^^erbs with prepositional no- 
Locative Preposition : is 
Is: rest at, motion to; motion 

Is: rest at.... 
Is: motion toward 
Is: preceding the object of 

Personal Verbs 




Is after certain Verbs 




As-: Dative 


Kay or I'ay 


Is: motion from,. 


Mam pay 


Is: Partitive (Separation) 




Is: Example.s for "partitive" 


Adji ; ma adji 


Is, after ma/ id 


Kan or Pan 


Is, after fake' 11 and kctjeng 




Is. with adverbs 




Is: by, witb passive \'erbs 




Is : instrnmental 




Is. with adjectives for ad- 







Is: temporal 


Tsdka la sa 


Other idiomatic uses of is. 


En. 'n 


Is: introducing clauses of 



purpose or obligation 




Is repeated, by attraction 




Prepositional Phrases 




Sakciiig- in front of 


"Adverbial Conjunctions : 


SakSng- near by 

also, too 


Tscigok- behind 


Kctjeng. thereupon 


Fucg with 


Et. cd: then 


Tsaiiii within 




Ampon until 


KctJL^ng with iscfcd 


KiUTcva between 


Kef, ya kef and then 


Tsao under 


Koydkcd etc. and then 


Oshon on top 


Inferential: "therefore" 


Tongtju above 


Subordinate Con junctions 


Idiomatic prepositional 






Adverbial Expressions 




Simple and compound Ad- 







Adjectives as Adverbs 


As often as 


Adverbs of Place 


As long as 


Adverbs of Time 


As soon as 


Adverbs of Quality and 


Because, fay 



Conditional Sentences 


Adverbs of Quantity 


Concessive Clauses 




Just as if 


455. Final Clauses 

456. Result Clauses 

457. Declarative "that" 

458. Object Clauses dependent 

upon various Verbs 

459. kanj [414] 

460. Equivalents for our Depend- 

ent Infinitive 

461. Participles, used with nouns 

expressing fitness : eat- 
able etc. 

462. Interjections 


National Appellatives 
Proper Names 
Geographical Names 

Preface — Vocabulary 


Preface — Texts 


The Headhunters' Return 

The Battle of Caloocan 

The Rat and the Brothers 

The Stars 



The Monkey 

Palpalama and Palpaldking 



Addenda. Corrigenda. 




I. The Language of the Bontoc Igorot belongs to the Malayo-Polyne- 
sian family. It is spoken by the Igorot inhabitants of the town of Bontoc, or 
FMfitok, the capital of the subprovince Bontoc, situated in the narrow valley 
of the Rio Chico, in the mountainous interior of North Luzon. 

Practically the same language, but with dialectic variations, is spoken in 
certain towns of the Bontoc region. The exact number and location of these 
towns can not be determined, as the existing maps and sketches of the Bontoc 
region seem to be inadequate; nor is it possible to ascertain the number of the 
Igorot using this vernacular, since fiction, facts and phantasy seem to be 
mingled in the official reports of many years. 

A list of the names of most of the towns, in Bontoc pronunciation, is 
given in an Ajipendix to the Grammar. 


2. The Alphabet of the Bontoc Igorot is expressed in this Grammar, 
Vocabulary and the Texts with these letters: 


a as in father; sometimes obscured as in draw. 

a as in fair. 

e and e as in men. 

e as a in made. 

e vowels fluctuating between e and i. 

i as in rib, machine. 


as in no, pole. 

M vowels fluctuating between o and u. 

as in G. Konig, or F. feu. Final b is frequently followed by 

a scarcely audi])le y. 
u as in rule, pull. 

u as in G. triil), or 1". niur; sometimes like Russian jeriii. 


All Dipbthongs are vocrdic witb a final consonantal sound y or w. 


nearly like ai in aisle. 

ey nearly like ey in eye, or ei in lieigbt. 

by as in F. feuille. 

oy as in boy. 

uy as in F. fouille. 

f(V as in F. tuyau. 

an, ao, aB as in bow; between an, ao, aiPl and a following vowel a semi- 
vocalic glide^ IV is inserted; as in tbe name AnaiPeivasal. 

ou in tbis combination o is a distinctly pronounced, very short 




as in bed. 
as in door, 
as in fine, 
as in get. 

k as in kind. 

/ as in live. 

fii as in me. 

n as in now. 

p as in pin; l)Ut williDUl tbe following .spiritus asper and often 

near b. 
J as in sec; always voiceless. 

t softer tban Fngiisb t, near d. witbout tbe following sjjiritus 

w as in winter; a consonantal u. 

y as in yard; .always conson.anlal. 

ng as in ring or song. 


sh as in shield. 

dj as ill gem. 

tj as in check; dj and // are dentals, not palatals; frequently 

they are near ds and ts. (d and t "mouille."') 

C, h, q. r, z\, X, ::, and the English fricative fh are not in the Igorot Al- 
phabet. (C and li are used here in the combination sh and in the dialectic 
guttural ch.) 


3. Dialectic variations and individual inconsistency in pronunciation 
caused some difficulties in writing down the words, as they were spoken by 
Igorot from these towns: Bontoc, Samoki, Alab, Tukukan, Basaz*^ Sag- 
ada, Tagkong, Sabangan, Konogan. Often an Igorot pronounced a word 
dififerently at different times, being evidently unconscious of the variation. 


A, which has usually a clear sound, is sometimes obscured, especially in 
unaccented syllables. In a few words initial a is interchanged with /, as 
in diwtji, ipdt, the preposition is or id: indtji, apdt, as or ad. e and i are 
always close and therefore constantly interchanged; often o is pronounced 
instead. Thus "he makes" is : kapSna, kaptna, kapiiia, kapSna. Cold : 
Idteng, Idting, Idteng. Also ey and oy are interchanged : padSyek and 
padSyck, "I kill." 

Close and u (as above: c and ;') are interchanged; intermediate 
sounds, represented by tk, seem to be preferred: kdyo, kayB, kdyii: wood. 


The following interchanges occur : 

between / and b ; fafdyi and babdyi : woman ; fdto and ha to : stone. 

between p and b ; btlak and pilak : money. 

between k and g; kimvdnik and gimvdnik: 'T said." 

between t and d; tomSliak and domSliak: I return. 

between dj and d ; djtla and dtla : tongue. 


between tj and ts and dj and d; fjdkaiiif, tsdkdmf, djakamf, ddkamt : we. 
between sh and s; dsiPi, dshH : dog. 

In a few particles p interchanges with k\- pay, kay: pan, kaii; pin, kin. 
(In this book the forms with /, p, k, t, dj, tj are preferred, because 
Bontoc men used them mostly. Collateral forms are given occasionally 
in [].). 

Very rarely the combinations -kyii and -k'^ii were interchanged with a 
guttural like cJi in Scotch loch, or in G. wachen ; cJi was found but twice, in 
collateral forms: aclin for cfkyu, day; and indngdchu for mdngdk°u, thief. 


After the dialectic and individual interchanges some phonetic changes 
shall now be considered. 


4. Vowel Assimilation takes ])lace occasionally, as: toniOlfak for 
tumSliak, I return; mcAktsagak for madktsagak, I fall. 

/ of the prefi.x in changes to c or e before k and tj or ts, as engkdliak, I 
speak; entsdnoak, I work. 

5. Contraction is rare; even in a series of like vowels each is pro- 
nounced distinctly, as : sumd-d-ak , I go home. But also these slurred forms 
occur in rapid conversation: mdniibldk for manubldak, I smoke; aktSna for 
aktSi^na, "he carries;" flantdko for ildentdko, "we see." 

6. Synaeresis is found in: uiayd (or niid) for md/fd, "not existing;" 
frequently the prefix ma- before an ;'- Verb is united into one syllable: vidtgto 
(or: mfgto) for ma/tgto, being held. 

7. Aphacresis takes place after a preceding vowel: ndn Idldki' ntsdno, 
the man works, for i'ntsuno ; thus the ligature 'y for ay;'n for the particle 


en; 's or 'sh for the preposition is. Aphaeresis afifects mostly e, e and i. 
(Notice: Melicano for Sp. Americano, Ginaldo for Agninaldo.) 

8. Syncope. In Verbal Roots a short vowel between two consonants 
is dropped, if prefixes or suffixes are agglutinated. Examples: Root: 
afed: dptek, "I meet;" R. tjipab: ndtpab, having been caught; R. tsi'tno: 
mddno [matno], being worked; pdshong, sea: pSshngek {pSsnck\, 'T inun- 
date;" R. piten: pftnck, I break, ndpten, broken; R. sibfad: mdsfad, being 
answered; so of tSlo {tolS\, three; lima, five; katlSck; kalmdek, "I divide 
into three, into five parts." 

9. Apocope: f for ta, that; / [sh'] for the personal article si, before 
a vowel, if the preceding word ends in a vowel. Other instances are very 

10. Swarabhakti occurs regularly in loanwords, if a mute is separated 
from the following liquid, as: Sp. tren, Ig. tSlen; Sp. tranvia, Ig. tdldbia 
[taldnfia] ; Sp. cruz, Ig. kolosn [kdiush]. 


11. Assimilation. The nasal ng of the prefixes mang- and pang- 

changes : 
before b, f, p to m, and the b, f, p disappear; 
before d, t, dj, tj, ds, ts, and also before .y to n, and these ini- 
tial consonants disappear. 
Before g and k the nasal ng remains unchanged, but g and k dis- 
Examples will be found in the sections treating of the Nomen agentis. 
But if ng is not the termination of mang- or pang-, the letters s, k, etc., do 
not disappear; as: dngsdn, much; ydj/^A'a_v, only. 

12. In Bontoc the regular form ketkek is changed to: kekkek, "I 
know." Other similar assimilations seem not to occur. 


13. Before a liquid the tenues k, p. f become frequently mediae g, b, d. 

14. Before a tenuis a media changes sometimes into a tenuis. 

15. N before labials is rarely assimilated to m. N before g and k 
becomes »<:. 

16. Intervocalic / is sometimes inserted, and / between two a is fre- 
([uently dropped; also / between two other vowels is lost in certain words. 
{ The ecthlipsis of intervocalic / seems to be one of the characteristics of the 
dialect of the town Alab, as: iyAlabak, I am an Alab-man, is usually pro- 
nounced: iyAdbak.) 

Examples: L inserted; patkSlek [patkSlck], "I stop," from Root t'ke 
[t'ko]; inakdlantja, their weeping, from R. aka; from fda, a servant: 
fddlck, "I send out;" nalikaldyan for iiaikalayaii : written or scratched (G. 
ciiigcritct ) 

L lost: umdddk for umdldak, I get; dyka for dlika, come! pod iov polS, 
ten; the verb "to bring" has throughout double forms: iydik and iydlik. 

17. Final / becomes often a sonant lic|uid. similar to / in our word 

18. Lal)dacismus is found in all loanwords with r; Ricardo becomes: 
Licaldso; insurrectos: cnsnliktosh ; oras: Slas; cargador: kalgadsdl; libro; 

19. F, p, k, f, dj, tj, change respectively into b, g, d, when they become 
final consonants, especially in certain verbal forms. 

Final b.g.d are often scarcely audible; they come then near a spiritus 
Icnis. (In doubtful cases these sounds were elicited by inducing an Igorot 
to sufifix the possessives, which arc, after consonants: A'o and iiio, my and 
thy or 3'our, but, after vowels: k and in.) 


20. Before a consonant f changes into h {or p) \ and (//, ds, tj, ts into 
d or t. 


21. Without any evident reason consonants are frequently doubled. 
One of them goes with the preceding, one with tlie following vowel : 
am/dm-md, old men; tjeng-ngek, "I hear." 

22. F, k, t are usually not doubled (but in kekkek, I know) ; the mediae 
are placed before these letters instead, as: /;/', gk, dt. A momentary pause 
intervenes between h and f, g and k, d and t: mdmdg-kid, girl; fob-fdl-lo, 
young man ; Mdlig-kong, name of a town ; ndd-tjongao, lost. 


23. A word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs. 
One intervocalic consonant goes with the next vowel ; two intervocalic con- 
sonants are divided and distributed among two syllables. Ng and the com- 
binations dj, tj, ds, ts are considered as one sound. 

Examples: t-to-li-td-ko, "we give back;" eng-kd-U-ak,l s'^Qsk; Ie\- 
tjin-mi, "we like;" nin-tsu-no-tjd, they worked; f-tsao-tsdo-ko, "I give;" 
tdm-wtn, year. 

24. When dividing words into syllables (which several Igorot did as 
cleverly as if they had been schooled), the final consonant of some prefixes 
was of ten doubled : maiig-iigS-to, cooking. 

25. Glottal Check. In certain uncompounded words a single conso- 
nant between vowels is pronounced with the preceding vowel and separated 
by a distinct pause, a Glottal Check, from the following vowel, similar to 
the hiatus between two vowels. The occurrence of the Glottal Check is 
strictly idiomatic; the words (mostly dissyllabic) in which it is employed can 
only be learned by observation. In these Examples the Glottal Check is 
marked by / : 




an older brother 



SI nag /t 

several brothers 
and sisters 










not [adt] 




a town 


like unto 

Kin /dang 

a town 


big stone hammer 


a section of Bontoc 


winnowing tray 


a proper name 

am /hi 



26. Syllables are mostly short. Lengthening is usually caused by 
accent or construction; lengthened syllables are but little longer than short 


27. Great inconstancy prevails in accentuation. In dissyllabic words 
the accent is usually on the paenultima. If in polysyllabic words the ante- 
paenultima is accented, a lesser accent is placed on the ultima. 

Sometimes words consisting of the same sounds but of different mean- 
ing are distinguished by different accentuation. 

In composition with affixes the accent is sometimes shifted, as will be 
shown in subsequent chapters. 


28. Reduplication, expressing various ideas, as intensity, frequency, 
repetition, etc., is most common. The different forms of reduplication and 
their employment will be discussed later. 


29. The Bontoc Igorot speaks his language in a "straightforward and 
harsh manner :" "intsaotsdowish ya inliltdek." He is not ashamed of betray- 
ing emotion in his intonation; yet any excess of emotion, especially if 
expressed by pathetic chanting intonation, a characteristic of some towns. 


is imitated by the Bontoc Igorot not without humor. — At the time of cre- 
ation or a Httle later his language and his manner of using it was so unfit 
for commercial persuasion, that his God, Lumdwig, deemed it wise to trans- 
fer the salt and clay (for pottery) to other towns and to more suave sales- 
men [see: Liundwig i8 to 26]. Since those days the Bontoc Igorot prefers 
warring and making spears, shields and axes and tilling the soil to the pur- 
suit of trade. He is proud of his idiom, which he speaks rapidly and as 
negligently as he chooses at times, with a manly and sympathetic voice. 


30. The Articles are nan or san, slf, tja. 

31. Nan and safi are used with appellatives denoting persons, animals 
and things, concrete and abstract, of all genders, in singular and plural. 
These articles correspond to our definite article "the;" they are also used in 
most cases where we use the indefinite article and, with generic force, where 
we omit the article. 

(There is no indefinite article in Bontoc Igorot; ha, one, is a numeral, 
but has not been weakened to an indefinite article. In the combination nai: 
isa it means a certain one^ or, if repeated as correlative, the one — the other. 
It is much more emphatic than our indefinite article. How an indefinite 
direct object of an English verb is expressed in Igorot, by the "personal 
verb" and the preposition is, but without any article, will be explained in 

In Igorot the article denotes rather that a substantive is taken as a 
whole than that it is definite. 

2)2. Na}i and san are not inflected. They consist of the locative 
adverbs (which serve also as personal and as demonstrative pronouns) na, 
here, or sa, there, and the agglutinated "ligature" n. 

Nan is always used in conversation with appellatives; it is also used 
exclusively with Nomina actionis and Nomina agentis of Verbs, and with 
names of towns after the preposition is, if the speaker is present at the town. 


San is found in narrative, folklore, songs, etc. It is used with sub- 
stantives which have been mentioned before in a story or which are sup- 
posed to be familiar to the listener. A number of examples in the Texts 
and its close relation to sa, there and that, permit sometimes to translate san 
by phrases like: that well known, that above mentioned, that familiar.... 

No definite rule for the use of san can be established. The Igorot 
interchanged it, in each case, without hesitation to nan. 

Examples : 

nan lahiki the man nan kdyang the spear 

nan fafdyi the woman nan pfnang the ax 

nan ongonga the child nan kaldsay the shield 

nan dstPi the dog is nan F ant ok in Bontoc ^ 

nan fiituk the pig is nan Tukiikan in Tucucan' 

nan dfong the house is nan Mdnfla in Manila ' 

san tdkii the (already mentioned) people. 

if the speaker 
is in B., T. M. 

^^. The Personal Article si consists of .s-, which represents probably 
the article element, and i, which possesses demonstrative force. Si, in its 
original form s' [or sli'], is often affixed to the final vowel of a preceding 

34. Si is employed as a definite article with the nominative (and "accu- 
sative") of 

1. Proper names of Persons. 

2. Substantives denoting kinship, where si is interchangeable with 

Examples: si AnaBzvdsal; si MSlcng; si Fihnnag; si Falonglong (i. 
c. "Anf^ro") ; si Akiinay; si Angay; si Tdkay; si Silyo. 

si dmd the father si yiin/d the older brother or sister 

si tnd the mother si anofji the younger brother or sister 

si dsdwwd the husband or wife si fkid the grandfather 

,S';' preceding a proper name with an initial vowel and following a word 
willi a final vowel is changed to .s-" or sli' in these examples: 

hito s' Ant(fro? where is Antero? 

inmdli sh' Ohishan Oloshan has come 

snnida s' dnidnd his fatlicr comes home 

dydkanyn sh' fnd call mother! 


S' [sh'] is also found sometimes with proper names beginning with a 
consonant: tinmoli sh' Fdnged, Fanged has returned; j-/nn sh' MdtyB? who 
is Matyu? mantlbla s' Bmgti, Bugti smokes. 

Si is closely connected with the proper name or term of kinship and can 
not be used, if a modifier precedes, as "^t he good father :";mn (not: si) kdzvl's 
ay dmd; the three uncles: nan toloy dUtdi'V. 

Nan seems also to be preferred, if dmd and tnd have the possessive suf- 
fixes of the first person singular, my; nan dmdk, my father; nan tndk, my 

35. Si forms also compounds with some personal pronouns, as sdk/Sn, 
I; stkd, thou; siyd, he; sttodl, that; stnii, who? etc. 

36. The personal article si must not be confounded with the inverted 
form of the locative preposition is; in phrases like: olon sids&, dog's head; 
pdlik si pinang, axe-handle ; tengdn si Idff, midnight ; sold dt son si Melikdno, 
American soldier — si is of course not the article; [see 76]. 

2,7. Pleonastic use of articles occurs also, but rarely, as : mtS nan si 
Anamzvdsal? where is Anauwasal? nan si Liimdnug, the Igorot's God 

38. In a series of substantives the article is placed to each : nan ktpan 
yd nan ti1 fay y a nan pfndngdsJi yd nan gdngsd, the knife, spear (blade), 
ax (blade) and gong. 

3c;. The Collective Personal Article. If some substantives — usually 
two — proper names or terms of kinship, are connected by "and" (in this 
case: ken) the Collective Article tjd [tsd] is placed sometimes before the 
series, and no other article is employed with any of the following words : 

tjd Oldshdn ken Langdgdn zuoddytjd 'snd, Oloshan and Langagan are here. 

tjd Pdlpdldmd ken Pdlpdldking, Palpalama and Palpalaking. 

tjd dmd ken Tnd, father and mother; tjd yfin/d ken dnOtjf, the older and the 

younger brother; tjd Bmm^gdd ken Kodsod ken Foteng, B., K. and F. 

[also: tjd B. ken K. ya si F.] 


"The parents" is sometimes expressed by one substantive, father, mother, 
preceded by tjd: tja amdnd, lit. they his father; tjd inand, ht. they his 
mother, [T. 9]. 

The use of the Collective Personal Article is not at all common ; the con- 
struction : si dmd ya si hid, father and mother, is preferred. 

Tja is also found in combination with pronouns in dual and i)lural, as: 
tjditd, we both (you and I) ; tjdkdmf, we; tjdftjd, they; tjd tond, these; tjd 
todf, those^ etc., and as suffix derived from jM-onouns. \'?^?^, 106, 195.] 

Other remarks about the use of the Articles will be found in several fol- 
lowing sections of this Grammar. 


40. Between words which are thnut^ht to be in close connection with 
each other some particles are placed which may I)e called Ligatures. 

The origin of these Ligatures is as yet unknown ; here it ma}' suffice to 
say that they are used very extensively, according to distinct rules which 
are given in several subsequent chapters of this Grammar. 

Here only a few remarks are made, such as are considered necessary for 
some knowledge of the function of the Ligatures. 

41. Ay or 'y serves as a connective l)et\veen a substantive and its 
attributive adjective wliich can either ])recede or follow: 

nan fdnig ay dfoug the small house 
)ia)i bdyo ay dntjo the high tree 

or : 
nan kdyo'y dnfjo 

or between a substantive and its numeral: Ipdt ay ffttitg, four pigs; 

or between a substantive or pronoun and apposition: nan IgOlot ay fPeintok, 

the Igorot, Bontocmen ; s/kd'y yiin/d, you, as the older brother ; 
or between thing and material: singat ay fdlhiog, an earring of gold; 
or between demonstrative jjronoun ;ind sul)slantive: nanndy ay nuhiok, this 

chicken ; 


or between our "antecedent and a relative clause:" into nan laldki ay 

nangdld is nan fdlfcg? where is the man who took the spear? 
or, in our grammatical conception, before a dependent infinitive : liytjck ay 

ilmiiy, I want to go; 
or before a "participle" modifying a verb: khnvdninay niangzvdn?, he said 

saying ; 
and in a number of other instances to be treated in various sections of this 

Ay is unaccented, often scarcely audible. If the preceding word ends 
in an open syllable, this Ligature is usually attached, in the form 'y, to the 
final vowel, especially to a, 0, Pt, sometimes to 11, rarely to c' or i, but never 
to a diphthong. 

Av has no equivalent in the Indo-Germanic languages; it cannot be 
translated. However, words like "namely," or the relative pronoun with the 
copula may facilitate, if necessary, the comprehension of ay in many cases 
where it is used. Thus ay will occasionally be rendered in this book by 
"who (which) is, are, was, were." 

But it should always be kept in mind, that this is by no means a direct 
translation or equivalent of a\'\ it is only a means for explaining certain con- 
structions in which av occurs. 

42. The Ligature -n attached to the final vowel of a substantive or 
Nomen actionis followed by an other substantive or pronoun, indicates that 
these words stand in a relation to each other, the English equivalent for which 
would be a possessive genitive or a subjective genitive. The word with the 
suffixed -;; is the nomen regens, the next word names the possessor or agent. 

nan fohdngan nan Wdkl the pipe of the man 

ttdlin nan fdhfdlld the young man's giving back, or "the young man 

gives back." 

43. Ffl, which may be considered a Ligature, serves as copula between 
a substantive and the subsequent predicative substantive, adjective or active 
"participle" (i. e. verbal adjective of a "personal verb") ; the coupla ya can 
only be used, if these predicative elements follow the subject. (Between 
subject and active participle, ya is frequently omitted.) 

nan laldkt ya nan dlhvidko the man is my friend; 

nan kdyiPc ya dntjo the tree is high; 

nan mdmdgkid ya innidlt the girl "is having come," has come. 


The copula ya must be employed between the subject and the following 
passive participle (of a "possessive verb") : 

nan lahiki ya tiafdliPid the man was bound (imprisoned). 

'i'his copulative ya must be distinguished from the conjunction va, and, 
also from the aftirmativc particle ya. [4-3-] 


44. Primitive Substantives in Bontoc Tgorot consist mostly of a dissyl- 
labic root and are usually accented on the ])aenultima: 

did head tjdpan foot 

fiidii moon, month ogsd deer 

/// land, town kdyang spear 

mdta eye \mdta\ tjihium water 

Trisyllabic: dydzvan water buffalo (wild) 
dsdBzva husband or wife 
tpmkao people, nation 

Some appear in redui)licated form: 

Persons : Idldki man fafdy/ woman 

fdbfdllo young man mdmdgkid 

dm/dmd old man in/fnd old woman 

Animals and Things : dydydni bird tjdtjon locust 

Ul^ng a fish fdkfdk frog Otot rat 

tjdtjo mouse flnolofdlo butterfly P^^gf^'S l'"blic forest 

sdso breast kdko fingernail pdpdt/tay grove 

45. The derivation and meaning of proper names and of geographical 
names (of which a list is given in the Appendix to the Grammar) seems to be 
forgotten by the Igorot, nor is it possible to determine etymologically their 

46. Substantives in Bontoc Igorot ha\e neither gramni;itic;d gender 
nor inflection to indicate case or number. 


sun, day 


way, road 

I find 






k did say 






voung girl 



47. To distinguish sex of persons and animals the words Idldki or 
fafdyt, male or female^ are placed after the substantive, connected by ay. 

asdmwd'y laldki husband 

asdBzva 'y fafdyi wife 

dnak ay laldki son 

dnak ay fafdyi daughter 

dsU'y laldki male dog 

dsU'y fafdyi female dog 

yun/d'y laldki 
yun/a'y fafdyi 
fktd ay laldki 
fkid ay fafdyi 
kitjing ay laldki 

older brother 
older sister 

kitjing ay fafdyi she-goat 

The distinction "male" or "female" is omitted, if the sex is unimportant 
or understood from the context. 

Some (domestic) animals have, as in most languages, special names for 
the male and the female and also a name for the species, as : 
ntonok chicken katPtwttan cock mangdlak hen (finf>ds chicklet) 
fdftlk hog f/?d boar oko sow {amok young pig) 

nSang tame water buffalo tSt/o bull kdmfdkyan cow (of nSang). 

48. With a few exceptions, there is no plural form. Frequently the 
context and also the suffixes of verbs are showing the number. 

nan kdyU yd ant jo the tree is high, or: the trees are high 
nan dydydni tiimdydo the bird flies 
nan dydydin tnindydotja the birds fly. 

49. These substantives have reduplicated plural forms: 
laldki man Idldldkl men 

fafdyi woman fdfdfdyi [fdbfdfdyi] women 

fobfdllo young man fdhfdfdlld young men 

mdmdgktd girl mdmdmdgktd girls 

dnak child (offspring) • dndndk children 

In various manners the following words form their plural: 
ongongd child (any young human being) remains either unchanged, or has 

ongdngd, or borrows the form dndndk, children. 
dm/dmd old man dm/dmmd old men in/tnd old woman indnnd 
old women (but dmd father and tnd mother remain unchanged). 

Notice the Dual and Plural : sindki two brothers or sisters, sindg/i 
several brothers or sisters, cf. [60]. 

In narrative these unusual forms were found: dniok young pig: 
dmomok, mangdldk hen: mangmangdldk and kaif^zvitdn cock: kdkdeizvftdn 
[L. 44]. 


50. There is no particle in Bontoc Igorot indicating the phiral of nouns. 
Neither dngsan nor am/in serve as such particles. They express 
much, many or all, as in English. 

51. If numerals, or other expressions denoting more than one, pre- 
cede the substantives which have plural forms, the singular forms are often 
used, san fdlo'y fdbfdlld the three young men [L. 83]. 


By afifixing certain particles to a root, sometimes with reduplication, 
groups of substantives are formed wliicli possess each common characteris- 

Although many combinations formed thus are strictly idiomatic and 
cannot be classified, the general force of some formative particles can be 
defined as follows: 

52. Ka- denotes sometimes that one object is meant in its entireness, 
or several together as a whole: 
kadlongan the coffin {alongan), hiding with all its parts the wife of 

Luinchvig [L. Si ] 
kdtdydan the large l)askct into which the girl crawled [T. 4] {tdycldn) 
kdtj^num the river (/;?';; joh; water) ; G. Gewiisser 
kdmSnok hen with chicklcts {mSnok) 

katciklPt personality (fdkei) ; G. das Wesen des Mamies [ L. 34] 
kasokSlong receptacle, basket for an enemy's head [H. 4] cf. [56] 

53. Ka- and gemination of a dissyllabic root, or reduplication of the 
first two syllables of a trisyllabic, produces Collectives; if a predicate fol- 
lows, it is regularly in plural. 

kaldldldhikt all men, the whole crowd; G. die Mannschaft 
kdfCil'Cifdffiyl all women, or also: each woman of the assembly 


kamdmamdmdgkid all the girls, each girl 
kaongdongonga all the children, each child 
kdhfindflndlyen every married man 
kdtdkBtdkm every person 

kdafongdfong each house, the whole group of houses 
kdak^dkyn each day of a certain period 
kadsmasn all the dogs, each dog of a pack 
kdlifdltfdo a mass of clouds ; G. das Gewolke 

54. Ka- and numerals denote companionship: 

nan kadjdak my companion 

nan kdpdtmi our four companions (?pdt, four) 
nan kdnhmni our six companions (tht^ni, fnfm, six) 

nan kdbudiiu our five companions (Ifnid, five) 

55. Ka- and root (and -na, which is the possessive suffix of the third 
person singular: his, her, its, and without which such substantives were 
rarely obtained) forms abstract substantives: 

nan kadntjSnd its height; kdd nan kaantjon nan kdyiP(? how much (is) 

the height of the tree? how high is the tree? 
nan kdtit/hvdna its truth 
nan kddsedjilna {kddsdjdnd\ its thickness 
nan kdddsdivfnd its distance 

nan kdktek knowledge (from the verbal root k't'k: know) 
nan kdfdbfdyidnd his sister, G. "das Weibliche." 

56. -.-J;/, a locative suffix of most extensive use, denotes a place; fre- 
quently the prefix ka- is employed with the same root: 

kdpdyBdn place for ricefield 
kdkdymdn place for wood 
kadpuydn fireplace 
kdtj^nmndn waterplace 
fdlogniddn battleplace 
opodpdn forge {opSop, bellows) 
oUngdn place for charcoal 


kdpdtdtjhndn place where iron is kept 

pdhCif^ngdn a community house, where certain ceremonies are performed, 
and a sleeping place for old men and boys. 

-an is the ending of many nouns denoting a vessel, receptacle; taydan 
basket, tonnan jar, saktilan water-vessel. With verbs denoting to fill, put 
into, these nouns have often prefix ka- and suftix -an. 

57. --•/;; is also the ending of many towns in Luzon; so we find in the 
Bontoc area: Tiikilkdn; Sabdngdn; Dsdlikdn [Delican]; Sdkdsdkan; 
Figfkdn; Fiildkdn; Tit/p/dn, etc. and some Ato (town sections) in Bontoc: 
Fdtdydn; Ldozvtngdn; Sigttjdn; Pokisdn; Liizvdkdn; Ungkdn. And also 
some proper names of men end in -an, as Lang/dgdn, OlSshdn, Ddydpdn, 

58. -An is suffixed to verbals which are formed into nouns denoting 
locality; these abound in Igorot Language. Like verbs, such nouns have 
even temporal forms, for the present and preterite. 

mdsityepdn sleeping place, ndsity^pdn a former sleeping place 

trikfjuan or kdtuktjdan sitting place, seat, "chair" 

inotddn cooking place, pret. ninotSan 

dnttji^an warming place 

nialp»an, ndlpfta)i place from which one comes, came 

mdtdk^an, natdklPtan place where people live, lived 

tdtdlibtian dancing place 

pdlitjan place where knives can be sharpened, whetstone. 

59. Pang- denotes that a person or a thing belongs to a place or object. 

pangdto belonging to a section of a town, being a member thereof, an dto 

pangdfong a member of a household, members of the same family. 
pangdlo front legs of animals, parts connected with the Old, head (pangdlo 

means in "old language:" the oldest brother, "head brother," now 

called y/ln/d) 
pdmfltgdn a section of the mountain range {pang + fllig; Sandhi rules f 1 1 ] ) 
pangfgndn a handle of a shield, etc. {tgnak "I hold") 


60. Shi- is the prefix of union; it is usually combined with pang: 
sinpcing-, rarely with assimilation: simpang-. 
sinag/l brothers and sisters together, G. die Geschwister 
sinpdngdfong one family 

siiipdiiiillgan one whole section of a mountain 
sinpdngill all inhabitants of a town or country 
sinpdugdpo the parents and grandparents of one family 
smpdngdiuik the children and grandchildren of one family 
sinpangdlhvid all friends together 
sinkdsiid the brothers-in-law [L. 71] 
stndsdlPCzvd husband and wife; G. Ehepaar 

Notice these terms in which only the parents arc named : 
sindmd father with his child or children [M. 11 ] 
sinind mother with her child or children 

61. /- placed before the name of a town or region denotes the inhab- 

nan fFmntok the Bontocmen ISdnuiki; iyAntcddo 

nan tTukdkan the man or men from T. iMdUgkong [iiuMallgkong] 

nan tAldb the Alabmen [iyAab] See: [B. 6; L. 13-18] 

Here belongs the etymology of the name Igorot. Igolof [IkOldt], 
Span. Igorrotes and Ygorrotes, is said by Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera in his 
"Etimologia de los Nombres de Razas de Filipinas (cf. M. Lillo, Distrito de 
Tepanto, p. 17) to consist of /- and the root golot, which means in Tagalog, 
as Tavera says, a mountain chain; hence IgOlot (or: fGSlot) is equivalent 
to "mountaineer," in German "Bergsassen." — • 

If this be correct, the Igorot have adopted their name from a foreign 
tribe. They have no explanation to ofifer for their tribal appellative. 

62. Mill- and ;;/;;- agglutinated to an object denotes its owner or pos- 
sessor. Min- is the present, n'ui- the preterite prefix; the latter is in com- 
mon use, without reference to time past. Min- expresses rather: attaining 
possession now, than: having possession. 

nindfong owner of a house niiiongoiigd person to whom a child belongs 
ninfdlfcg owner of a spear nimvdnis owner of a geestring, loincloth 

ninsdklong owner of a cap^ hat ninnSang owner of a bufifalo 
ninplnang owner of an ax ninfdpiiv owner of rice wine 


63. /;;- ])refixed to words indicates tlieir connection with verbs of the 
"personal" class; they are verbal adjectives, similar to participles in active, 
used substantively, as infSliPi, a watchman, iiifiiyan, a sorcerer, inshiibok, 
[insiibok], a conjurer of disease. 

64. Substantives with the infix -/;/- are connected with the idea of the 
product of an accomplished action, as: 

kindsil, findli, kinisid, tinokno kinds of plaited rattan 
kiiidyB gathered wood 
tfnOod a married man's hat 

(Also "equipped with:" sinalazvftan, a spear with many barbs: sahfzvit.) 

65. /;;- infixed into the reduplicated root denotes an accomplished 
imitation, as: tinaktdklX (from tdkm, person, man), a human figure carved 
in wood, such as on spoon handles, on the bowls of certain brass pipes, etc. 

66. The names of toys show a reduplicated root, by which probably the 
stammering of children attempting to speak is imitated. 

fafdlfcg a toy spear dbdfoiig a toy house 

asdslPt a dog made of clay kabkdfdyo a toy horse 

notuiciiig a toy buffalo papdyo a model of a rice i)lantation 

No other Diminutives seem to exist, except the names for toys, models, 
imitations; if "little," "small" shall be expressed, the adjective fanfg is used; 
nan fan/g ay tdfBn si kdyi^, the leaflet of a tree. 

67. The animal or thing with which one walks, comes, goes, or which 
one carries is expressed by either iiiaitg- or ;;;/;;- prefixed to the reduplicated 
forms of substanti\-es ; the Sandhi rules for iiiaiig- arc given in [11]. 

(These prefixes form also with verbal roots "participles of active" or 
Nomina agentis ; the following examples are probably hybrids between nouns 
and verbal adjectives). They are connected with substantives or pronouns, 
like participles, by ay: umdlt nan laldki ay inaiiiipfnang, the man comes 
with an ax, carrying an ax ("axing"). 


Examples with niaiig- 

manosoklong with a hat mauatafdgo with tobacco 

maimtilfay with a spear iiidiiithidpay with bread 

mdmofobdnga with a pipe maugakdlcfsay with a shield 

mamafdto with a coat inamabaugam with a glass 

luangikniulfa with the double basket called: kiinata 

Examples with nun-: 
minktkhncita [mingkikhndta] with the "kimata" 
mandldn styd'y minkikimdta he walks carrying a "kimata" 
minkdkdyif^ with wood minJmkmlmn with straw 

minddpiiy with fire minpdpdtdtjtm with iron 

minddsjpi with a dog mintjdtjSmun with water 

minkokdkevd with shoes niiiniidmoiidk with a chicken 

minpdpdkiiy with rice iniiifrifdtiik with a pig 

minodleng with coal iiiiususiHad with a letter 

minkdkdfdyo with a horse uiintmtiifay with a spear 

minkdkdpis with cotton mintololfeg with a key 

Possessive suffixes are omitted in these combinations : he comes with his 
spear: umdli styd'y mintiPitnfay. 

68. The part of the body which is wounded, hit, struck etc., is expressed 
by the infix -in- placed into the reduplication of substantives with initial con- 
sonants ; to those with an initial vowel in- is prefixed and the initial vowel is 
doubled. Possessive suffixes which are otherwise commonly used with parts 
of the body must be omitted in these combinations. 

Examples: I hit him with a spear in his arm. Arm: lima, redupl. 
lilima, li with infix -in-: lint-; form: linilfnia Translation: kinaydngko 
styd is nan linilima. Thus: wounded in the 

thigh dinidipay shoulder binobokd 

head inoolo eye mindmdtd 

upper part of the thigh inoipipo ear kinokozveng 

belly binobodo [finofSto] mouth tinotopek 

leg sinistki knee kinokongkongo 

foot tjindtjdpan heart pinoposo 

6g. Persons skilled in trade or profession are denoted by the particle 
iini- inserted into the reduplication of a substantive (or verbal root) begin- 


ninj^- with a consonant; words with an initial vowel double this vowel and 
take mil- as ])refix. By the reduplication the customary, repeated occupa- 
tion, the trade is indicated. 

Root: kaeb; kunidkaeb, a maker; 

Root: shafad, plane; sJinmashctfad, a car])enter, builder; 

kumakdeb is fdngd, potter, or: fiiiiiafdiii^a; 

fatek, tattoo; fnmafdtck, a tattooer ; 

falognid, battle; fumabfalognid, warrior; 

irreg. : fufihnsha, smith ; 

dsin, salt; itmadsin, salt vendor. 

70. The most numerous class of Substantives consists of \^erbals: 
Nomina ag'cntis (concrete nouns) and Nomina actionis (abstract nouns). 
The extent of this class of nouns may be imagined, if we consider that — 
speaking here only in general terms — the English Transitive \'erb (or 
what is named so) is not represented in Bontoc Igorot by a \'erb, but bv a 
verbal noun, a Nomen actionis (with active, but not passive character!) with 
the sufifixes -cii, or -an, or the prefix /-, and, in addition, possessive endings. 
Thus e. g. does kdpek not say : I make, but : my making, G. mein Machen, 
Ital. il mio far; and Icytjentdko: our desire or desiring, G. unser Sehnen. 
And aydkantja means "they call" in F.nglish, but it says: their calling; the 
aim reached bv their calling, etc. 

(For this reason transitive verbal phrases are marked by " " in their 
translation, as this is far from being literal ) . 

Only this much here about these nouns which will be treated fully in the 
chapters on the Verb, where also the characteristics of the Nomen agentis 
(as: the bringer, the killer, the finder) will be discussed. Being nouns and 
having frequently the article they ought to be mentioned in this chapter on the 


71. Substantives and tiieir articles are uninilected in B.ontoc Igorot. 
There is absolutely no "DeclenNidii" to express cases; l)ut in I'.ontoc Igorot 



These Constructions : 

Correspond to the Enghsh : 

The appellatives with the article iion 
or sail, and proper names and terms of 
kinship with the article si or tja. 


Nominative and Accusative. 

The appelative with its article fol- 
lowing a Nomen regens (or "gover- 
nor") ; 

Proper names and terms of kinship 
following a Nomen regens, without 
article si; the collective article tja is 
however, retained fL. 20; t,/] ; 

The Substantive denoting the agent 
following the Nomen actionis. 


The locative Preposition is [si, 's 
'sli] before appellatives with (or with- 
out) article; 

The Preposition kcii before proper 
names and terms of kinship ; the article 
si must be dropped, but tja is retained. 

Possessive or Subjective Geni- 

xA^ll other Case Relations, as, for 
instance: objective genitive, parti- 
tive genitive, dative, accusative 
after "personal" verbs, ablative, 
locative, instrumentalis, agent of 
passive verbs (i. e. verbal forms 
with prefix ma- or )ia-), etc. etc. 


ad I. and H. The position of our subject and object in constructions 
with verbs which we consider customarily transitive, but which are of a 
totally different nature in Bontoc Igorot (and are called in this book briefly 
"possessive verbs"), will be explained in later chapters of this Grammar. 

ad n. The Nomen regens, be it a substantive or a Nomen actionis, 
obtains the ligature -11. if it ends in a vowel [42]. 

ri??FlAR x5 


Examples. The Nomen regens with final consonant : 
«c« dfong nan laldki the house of the man 
nan tjcipan nan ongunga the foot of the child 
nan kaldsay nan fumabfaWgnid the shield of the warrior 
nan okokf/d Fcingcd the story of Fang-ed 
nan klpan cimd tlie knife of father 

kdnan nan Igcllot the saying of the Igorot; "the Igorot says" [kandn\ 
abfoluten nan fobfafdyi the believing of the women; "the women believe" 

The Xomen regens with final vowel : 
nan dsiP/n nan dlhvidko the dog of my friend 
nan tlin nan iFmntok the land (town) of the Bontocmen 
nan dlon nan nSang the head of the buflfalo 
si dman Tdynan Taynan's father 

ligton nan fobfdUo the boy's holding; "the boy holds" 
isublin nan laldki the man's changing; "the man changes" 
ngdg nan ffjiin Bmgti? what (is) the showing of Bugti? "what does Bugti 

ngdg nan fbfdkan fna? what (is) the asking of mother? "what does mother 

ad. HI. Dative, etc. : /tsaofsdona nan fobdnga is jian alhi'idna "he 
gives the pipe to his friend" 

ftjum nan ibit ken Mdty^ "show the earring to Alatyu!" 
uiydlina nan kdytffi ken fndna "he brought the wood to his mother" 
inlld}ni angsan is nan dlhvidyf^ "we saw many of your friends" 
sfya nan )iidnfbi?t'sh nan kdyi^ "he (is) the cutter of the tree" 
niangdngkd)nrs >ta)t indkan we are eating the food (Ex. of a "personal 

unii)uhnka's nan tjc'nuin drink tlie water! (Ex. of a "personal verb") 

Other examples are given in the chapter on "Prejwsitional Terms" [^77 
397; 40S]. 

72. Sometimes ])leonastic constructions are found, as: is nan ken 
Antero, to Antero; is nan ken aindfja. to their father \L. ^i)]. lo or at their 
father's house. 

73. Since terms of kinshij) niav Iia\e the article si as well as nan, the 
phrase: "the house of father" is either: nan dfong dmd here tlie article si 
nmst be omitted!), or: nan dfong nan dmd. 


74. Exceptions. If emphasized, place, cause, instrument, time, the 
indirect object or dative, etc., can be made the subject (i. e. in our, but not the 
Igorot's conception ! ) of pecuhar verbal forms ; in this case the rules of the 
use of is and ken do not hold, but different constructions are employed. [25S- 

75. The Nomen regens of a possessive genitive obtains sometimes the 
possessive suffixes -na, his, her, its; and tja, their; nan fiitukna nan 
am/dma, lit. "his pig of the old man," nan kaldsaytjd nan f^sml, lit. "their 
shields of the enemy." This pleonastic construction was, however, rejected 
by some Igorot. 

76. If a substantive stands in attributive relation to an other substan- 
tive (in which case some languages form compound nouns), the preposition 
is, in its inverted form si is placed between them. The attributive substantive 
which is to be taken in a generalizing sense follows the other ; the ligature -n 
is used with the preceding noun if it ends in a vowel: 

olon si (igsd deer's head, G. Hirschkopf 

nan dtep si dlang the granary roof 

fobdn si dsm dog's tooth 

tmngan si Old "headbone," skull 

nan kalfn si I golot the Igorot language 

dnak si kdak son of a monkey 

tofBn si pdkiiy rice leaf 

dnak si Lumdzvig "Linndv.'ig-son" [L. i] 

tengan si lafi midnight 

pdlek si ptnang ax handle 

nan labldbon si kokSok si indnok the beginning of cock's crow [B. 24] 

/y. But if the attribute denotes material, origin, etc., the ligature ay is 
used: afong ay bato, stone house; kipan ay giil/lya, steel knife; htja'y 
fiituk, pork. 

78. A substantive in apposition with an other is connected with it by 
ay: si AnaUwdsal ay alhvidko ya inmi'iy Anauwasal, my friend, has gone; 



Af°tP( ay flin nan Ildko ad Funtok Afiui, the settlement of the Ilocanos 

in Bontoc ; 
nan laldki ay nan ifinan nan niaindgkid ya )ia(iSy the man, tlie father 

of the girl, has died. 

79- The substantives "town," "mountain," "section or (fto," are con- 
nected with the following' name by is, id, ad: nan fli'd Fmntok, the town 
of Bontoc; nan filig ad Pokis, the mountain Pnkis; nan dto'd Ldngfiiy, the 
town section called Longfiiy. 


80. Besides some words and phrases with which the Ilocanos living in 
a section of Bontoc have infected the Bontoc idiom, a number of words have 
been urged upon the Igorot by inevitable civilization ; these words are nearly 
all Spanish, with the phonetic changes, if necessary. See [10, 18]. 

While probably most of these Loan W'ords are gi\-en here, others can 
be found in the Vocabularv. 

hammer jnanf/lyo {inartillo) 

wagon kalimdto (carroinafo) 

horse kafdyo (caballo) 

cow fdka (z'aca) 

hour dla, Slash, dlas (liora) 

book liblo (libro) 

flag bandila (bandera) 

tramway taldbya, taldnfya, 

falabfya (franvia) 
street, highway kdlsa (calcada) 
school escxiila 
hat soniblJlo {sombrero) 
socks inJdiasli (jiicdias) 
soldier soldcidso, soldsddso 
cane, staff faston, fastSn (baston) 
tobacco tafdgo {f abaca) 
steamshi]) bdbfd, bCibdU {vapor) 
American Mclikdno 

Filipinos FilipfnosJi 

town chief plesiddntc (presidente) 

picture taldfo, lifaldto (rctrato) 

dollar pjsosli, pJsliosh (peso) 

Sunday, week doniingko (Domingo) 

watch Ifll^sh (rcloj) 

cross kmllPlsh, kdlosli (cruc) 

pound Ifbla (libra) 

coal kalifOn (carbon) 

room kudlto (cuarto) 

trousers pantalSn 

shoes sabdtosh (capatos) 

soap safiin (jabon) 

Some i'roiier Names: 

Ricardo l.ikdldso 
Antero AntClo, AntCro 
Maria Mdl\a 



Si. The Personal Pronouns are: 

Singular Dual Plural 

sdkSn [sak/e)t, I. incl. tjdftd we two, L incl. tjdtdko we (us) 

sdk/Sn\, I (me) i. e. you and I L excl. tjdkdmt we (us) 

stkd thou (thee), (us two) H. tjdkdy» you 

you HL tjdftjd they (them) 
sfya he (him), 

she (her), it 

82. The Personal Pronouns are combinations of the article si in sing- 
ular, and of tja in dual and plural, with other particles. 

83. Sak/Sn consists of si, the pronominal particle ak and the suffix-^n, 
which is also employed with a group of "possessive verbs" (Engl, "transi- 
tives"). -01 indicates that the action named by the verbal root affects an 
object (in an active sense, not after the erroneous traditional doctrine as 
one of the "three Passives!") ; thus in Bontoc Igorot the individual "F' is 
represented not merely as a personality, but as a personality of energy, being 
not idle or indifferent, or even passive and suffering. 

Stkd, consisting of si and the pronominal element ka, is the pronoun 
used exclusively in addressing any single person. 

Sfyd, consisting of si and probably a combination of i and ya, is used 
mostly for persons; for things, "it," sometimes the locative adverbs wo^ denot- 
ing an object near the speaker, or sa, an object near the person addressed, 
are employed. 

In tjakami and tjakaym there is, besides the article tjd and the pro- 
nominal suffixes -mi and -yiP(, an element ka which is probably collective, 
like the prefix ka [52 f.]. 

The i in tjatta and tjattja is probably the contracted ligature ay: 
tjaitja for tjd ay tjd {?)- or a demonstrative element. 

84. Bontoc Igorot has, besides the three persons in singular and plural, 
a pronoun for the first person dual; this pronoun must be used, if the speaker 


includes one person whom he addresses. It expresses : we two, you and I ; 
ego et tu. The other missing dual forms must be circumscribed. We two, 
my companion and I (but not the person addressed), is: tjakamt ay djiia; 
you two: tjakdyd ay djua, etc. 

The first person plural has two forms : 

a. An inclusive form tjdtdko, including person or person addressed; 
all persons included in "we" must be more than two: we all, you included; 
ego et z'os; nos et tu; nos ct z'os. 

b. An exclusive form tjakamt, excluding the person or persons ad- 
dressed : we alone but not you. 

85. Case Relations. The form of the Personal Pronoun nominative 
and accusative is alike in Igorot. 

The possessive genitive of the Personal Pronoun is expressed by posses- 
sive suffixes agglutinated to the object possessed. [loiff.]. 

All other or oblique case relations are indicated by ken (which is called 
in this book a preposition, and not an oljlique case of the personal article!) 
Thus we may establish this paradigm (of the Singular) : 

Nomin. and Accus. sak/iln sfka sfya 

Possessive Gen. Suffix -ko, -k [loi] -mo, -m -na 

Object Gen. and other Oblique Cases ken sak/hi ken sfka ken sfya 

(not: kenka) 

The paradigm of the Dual and Plural is formed analogically. 

cS6. When it is considered necessary to distinguish sex, laldki, man, or 
fafdyi, woman, is placed with the ligature a\ after the pronoun. (Used 
very rarely) : sfya'y laldki, he; stya'y fafdyi, she. 

87. The personal pronouns, as subjects of verbs, are only used to em- 
phasize the agent. They are placed before or after a "personal" verb; but 
they must precede a "possessive" verb. 

88. The personal pronouns are used as suffixes of a certain category of 
verbal combinations, but in these shortened forms: 


Singular Dual Plural 

1. -ak I. -ta I. incl. -takm, -tdko 

I. excl. -kdmt 

2. -ka n. -kdyu, -kdym 

3. (no suffix) HI. -tja 

(Verbs with these suffixes are called in this book briefly: personal verbs; 
some of them correspond to our intransitives.) 

89. The English accusatives him, her, it, them, referring to a substan- 
tive mentioned before are usually omitted. Likewise the datives of the pro- 
nouns are omitted after verbs of giving, showing, bringing, telling, if self- 
understood; the Igorot say: "give the iron," for: "give us the iron." 

90. The locative particles nd and sd, standing for "it" or "them" (things 
only!), do not begin a sentence. They are used mostly, in this meaning, as 
accusatives. Their preposition for the oblique cases is : is, or by metathe- 
sis: si [sJi']. 

91. The modifiers of personal pronouns are connected by ay: 

sdk/^n ay iFnntok I, a Bontocman 

tjdkdy^ ay fobfafdyi ! ye women! 

tjdtdko'y /pat umiiytdko we four are going 

stkd'y tjiiy you there 

tjdkdmt ay nay we here 

stnm nan inmdli? — sdk/hi. fjdkdnit. who has come? — L We. 

sfnm nail aydkam? st ka ya styd "whom do you call?" you and him 

fjdftd admandlantd we two, you and \, shall go 

inm/iy sfyd he (she) has gone 

itsaotsdomo sa ken tjdkdmt! "give it to us!" 

ttjiim nan fdngd ken styd! "show him the pot!" 

tjdtdko kumaibtdko is nan dfong we are going to build the house 

intdsli' tna? ddtk intla where is mother? "I have not seen (her)" 

ddtk kekken st yd "I do not know him (her)" 

styd'y fafdyi kckk^na sa "she, she knows it" 

sdk/in tinmOliak adugkd I have returned yesterday 


tinniSllka stka'y alhvidko you my friend have returned 

tjcikdml pakddnenmii nan fasixl we, "we expel the enemy" 

kckki'nypi tjditjd "you know them" 

tjditjd ya sdk/hi adumdUkdmt they and 1 shall come 

kdnim sa! — mdngangka si sd! "eat it!" 

indkd'sh sd! give it (to me) 

iydik sd ken stkd "I bring it to you" 

sdk/dn ya sfkd i)itcdi^ctd'snd I and you stay here 


92. The Demonstrative Pronouns are compounds of articles, demon- 
strative particles and locative adverbs. 

The articles used in these combinations arc si and tja for persons, nan 
and (rarely) san for things. 

93. The Demonstrative Pronouns are both, disjunctive and conjunctive; 
in the latter case the ligature oy is used; there are, however, a few examples 
where nan takes the place of ay. 

94. Tlic following pronouns are used in reference to persons: 

Singular Plural 

shond this tjdtond these 

sttoshd that (near) fjdfoslid those (near) 

sttodl that (distant) tjdtodl those (distant) 

si: article; to: demonstrative particle; na, slia [for: sa], di [for: tjiiy] : 
locative adverbs. 

If the.i)reccding word ends in a vowel, sffodi, etc.. is often changed to 
the unaccented s'todl or sh'todi; as an enclitic it is pronounced with the 
preceding word, which is then accented on the ultima. 

intd s'todl? where is this man? intS s'tdnd? where is that man? 
sttodl paymS sh'tond tliis or that persun 


95. Also the personal pronoun sfya is used as a demonstrative pro- 
noun ; in fact, no distinct line can be drawn between these two classes of pro- 

96. When s/foiia, s/fosha, sftodi are placed in possessive or subjective 
genitive, si is dropped; in other case relations in singular ken precedes tona, 
toslia, todi ; ken is accented. 

nan olon todl the head of that nmi andk fond the child of this 

As these examples show, todi. foslid, tona draw the accent on the ultima 
of the preceding word. 

aliwidko s'todf that (is) my friend 
sttodi ay lalaki that man 
kekkhn si tona? "do you know this i)erson?" 
tdjiiak nan tafdgo ken todi "I give the tobacco to that man" 
tlaentdko tjdtond "we see these" 
klnwdnind ken tjdtodi "he told those people" 

97. These pronouns are used in reference to things, but also sometimes 
to persons: Singular and Plural: ndntona, ndntosha, ndntodi (sdntodi). 

They remain unchanged in possessive and subjective genitive ; in oblique 
cases they are governed by the preposition is. 

If disjunctive, they point to a thing already mentioned. 

intjdsanini ndntodi "we have found this one" 
adsibSend ndntodi ay kdyB "he will cut down that tree" 

98. More frequently we find: nanndy, this, these, and nantjUy 
\nantidy\ that, those; they refer, if disjunctive, to distinctive things. 
(nanndy is probably: nan na ay.) Both are usually connected by ay with 
substantives ; these substantives may denote persons and things. Instead 
of the form nannay we find often nan ay nay with the substantive inter- 
posed. (Also plural forms: nanndytja, nantjdytja, nantosdtja, nantodttja 

nanndy ay wdnga; nan wanga'y nay this river 
nantjUy ay fobdnga that pipe 


nanndy ay mamamd gkid these girls 

Hae}n nan djiia'y fcflfci^; leyfjem nanndy payiuo naiitj/lyF "you see the 

two spears; do you want tliis or that?" /djdaiti nanndy! "give me 


99. The locative adverbs na, but more commonly sa and tji or tjay 
[tjdy\ serve also as disjunctive pronouns, referring to indefinite objects, as 
Fr. ceci and cela. The oblique cases are: is sa, si sa; is na, si na; is tjfiy; is 
tji; they are identical with local adverbs: hither or here; thither or there. 

(There is no possessive or subjective genitive of na, sa and ///'). 

ngag saf what is that? 

iydiin sa k^n todi ! "bring that to him!" 

ItndgoantdkiPt sa "we have bought that" 

ayk^ lalPiivd tji? is that bad? kdzvfs sa! this is good; all right. 

100. Nay and tjf/y \tjdy\ ])laced at the beginning of a phrase mean: 
here is, there is, Fr. voici, voila. 

nay si and tji! there is the younger brother ! 
fjiiy nan Idnidn! there is the wild hog! 

(The gesture of pointing is usually executed by protruding the jaw). 


loi. Possessive Suffixes — equivalent to the possessive genitive of the 
personal pronouns — are employed in Bontoc Igorot, instead of our posses- 
sive pronouns: 
Possessor, Owner: — Tn Singular In Dual In Plural 

1. -/eo, but -/: after pure \-o\vels : my I. -/a^ our, i. e. 1. mc\.-tdke>( ,-idko 

2. -})}(), but -;;/ after pure vowels: of us (wo, our 

thy, your or:yourand I. cxclus. -;;//^ our 

3. -na his, her, its. mine. 11. -yu. -yn, youv 

111. -tja, their 
(For Dual and I. inch and 1. excl. Plural see [H4J) 


102. Substantives with these suffixes are preceded by the article. 

103. These suffixes, except -k and -m, have sometimes the tendency of 
drawing the accent of the substantive, or of any word combined with them, 
to its ukima. Sometimes the final vowel of a dissyllabic is lengthened. 

104. The Possessives are used most extensively, not only with terms of 
kinship and parts of the body and in cases where they are indispensable, but 
also where they appear to be self-evident. Especially the frequent use of -na 
and -^ya is in many instances strictly idiomatic. (For their pleonastic use 
with a consecutive possessive genitive see [75])- 

Collectors of vocabularies will frequently obtain a concrete substantive 
with possessive suffixes, as: olok or olorn or olona, my, your, his head, 
(instead of the form: Old, head), if he points to another man's or his own 

105. If the suffix -A", my, is used with "father" or "mother," it seems 
customary to employ the article nan; without this suffix to employ si: 
my father: nan dinak, or: si ania; my mother: nan fndk, or: si ina. 

Examples : 
nan soklongko (soklong, hat), )ian soklongmo, nan soklongna, nan soklongfa, 

nan soklongtdkPt, nan soklungnii, nan soklongyPt, nan soklcnigtja: 

my, thy, his, etc., hat or hats. 
nan afongko, nan dfongnio, nan dfongnd, nan dfongta, nan dfongtdkft, 

etc. : mv, thy, his, etc., house or houses. 
nan kipdngko, nan kipdnmo, nan kipdna (for kipdn-na): my, thy, etc., 

si (or: nan) ydn/ak, si (or: nan) yf/n/ani, si (or: nan) yfin/dna: my, thy, 

etc., older brother. 
nan dsBk, nan dsmm, nan dsmna: my, thy, his dog 

nan ilik, nan tlim, nan tllna, nan tlinii: my, thy, his, our country or town. 
nan dndkko, nan dndknio: my, your child. 
nan tnfdyko, nan tufdynw: my, your spear. 

nan indta: our mother (Dual) ; the mother of us two, you and me. 
nan indtjay djda: the mother of the two. 
nan indnii: our mother (the addressed person being not her child). 


nan inatako: our mother (if more than two children of her speak to one 

nan ijokcfiPiko, nan tjokilftnio, nan tjokdfnia: my, your, his hag- "tjokatv." 

(Final diphthongs are consonantal [2]). 

106. These possessive suffixes are combined witli various Parts of 
Speech, not only substantives. 

One of their most important functions consists in their denoting the 
pronominal subject of our "transitive" verbs; these are in Bontoc Igorot 
not verbs in our sense, but verbal nouns, Nomina actionis, as mentioned 
before [70], to which the possessive suffixes are agglutinated to distinguish 
the person of the agent. For this reason they are termed in this book "pos- 
sessive" verbs, opposite to the "personal" verbs [i53ff.]. 

Their use in these combinations will be treated in the chapters on the 
Verbs [195] ; it shall be merely indicated here in a few examples: 

Nom. act. Icytjen, loving, liking, wishing; IgytjentdkiPi, our liking, wish- 
ing, "we love, like, wish;" Ger. unser Wiinschen. 

Nom. act. itjasan, finding (place of finding) ; itjasanypi. your finding- 
place, "you find." 

Nom. act. ilabo, beginning; ildbona, his, her, its beginning, "he, she, it 

Nom. act. isubli, changing; fsublik, my changing; Ger. mein W'echseln, "I 

Nom. act. ibfaka, asking; ibfCikani, thy asking, "thou askest, you ask." 

107. Disjunctive possessives are expressed by combinations with the 
root kda, which denotes ownership, possession, property, but only material 
ownership, not of persons, parts of one's body, qualities, etc. 

kdak is used often without the article nan. 
nan kdak or kdak: my property, or: mine; )ian kdani, tliine, yours; nan 
kodnCi, his, hers, its; nan kdata, ours (of us two); na)i koatdk^, 
ours; nan kodinf, ours; nan koayiv, yours; na)i koiltjCi, theirs. 

Examples : 
nan afougko ya nan kdani my house and yours 

nan ndangtja ya )ian kdainf their buffaloes (Sp. "carabao") and ours 
nan kutUllPdno ya nan kodnd your nightcap and hers 

With the cojjula ya, is, are, was, were, etc. [43] (tlie ;irtick' nan is 
omitted) : 


nanndy ay dfong ya kOak this house is mine, belongs to me 
dngsdn ay kafdyo ya kodnd many horses are his 
nan pdtdtjiin ay tjfiy ya kodtdko that iron is ours 

Other phrases : 

aykS kdain sa? is that yours? does that belong to you? {aykS: interroga- 
tive particle) 

into nan kodtsa [for: kddfja]f where is theirs? 

nan kOan nan altwidyu the property of your friend, that of your friend 
{koa with final n, see [42]) 

nan dsi°(k ya nan kdan ydn/ak (or: nan ydn/ak) my dog and that of my 
older brother 

nan btldkmo ya nan kOan Abdkfd your money and that of Abakid 

But with persons: nan anOtjik ya nan anOtjim my younger brother 

and yours ; si asdi°nvak ya si asdif^wam my wife and yours 

And with parts of the body: nan It mam ya nan Ifmdna your hand 

and his; nan nidfak paymo nan mdtdna my eye or his 

Observe these phrases: 

nay nan falfc'gko; into nan kdan Mtileng? here is my spear; where is 

ddik findsa nan sillddnw; findsak nan kSan AntSro I did not read your 

letter ; I read Antero's. 

108. Rarely we find koa in attributive connection with nouns; if so, 
the possession is emphasized: nan kdak ay dfong, my property, namely: a 
house; or: my own house; nan kOam ay fiitiik, your pig (not mine). 

109. The sentence: "the house is mine" is also circumscribed by: I am 
the house-owner: sak/hi nan nindfong; this construction is indeed pre- 
ferred by the Igorot ; cf. [62]. 

And so they say for: whose house is this? sfnff( nan nindfong av navf 
lit. who is the house-owner here (or: this). 

It may be said here also that "owner" in general means: niinkod or 
ninkSd; these words are participles or Nom. agentis and require is or si 
before the following object. Sak/iln nan minkSd is nan dfong: I (am) 
the owner of the house; the house is mine. (And: inkoak is I own, pos- 
sess) ; nan minkSa is nan dsin, is nan fdnga, the owner of salt, of pottery 
[L. 20;25]. 


I lo. Some substantives ending in -c";; or -an are akin to verbal nouns or 
really verbals. If the suffixes tor "my" and "thy" shall be added to these, 
their final ;; is dropped, and as they end then in vowels, -k or -/;; is suffixed: 
as : 

»a;/ //;'_vt"/'a;;, the sleeping place: nan niasiiycpak, )ian masilycf^ain, my, 
thy sleeping place. 

But others have the suffixes -ko and -mo: nan kipang_ko, nan kipdnino, 
mv, thv knife. 


III. Instead of Reflexive Pronouns Igorot Language uses the word 
dwak, body, with possessive suffixes, unless a verb contains the reflexive 
idea within itself. 

kidfdna nan awdkna "he bites himself 

akdshak nan dzvdkko "I heal myself" 

nan laldki phiadSyna nan dzvdkna the man killed himself 

But, e. g., funisak, I wash myself, without object, as the verl) is reflex- 
ive bv its form as a "middle." 

112. Recijirocality is not expressed by any pronoun, but by the verbal 
prefix /// -asi [301 ]. 


113. The Intensive Pronoun -self- is tsddlo. 

sak/chi tsddlo I myself sitodi tsddlo ho himself 

nan aliwidko tsddlo my friend himself 
nan fafafdyi tsddlo the women themselves 
kinwdntna tsddlo "he said" (so) himself 

Observe the idiomatic use of tsddlo in these passages from Texts: 
intjdndna tsddlo nan niangdk"u he found at last the thief [S. 2.] 



adtscidlo finncingdnak I shall indeed (or : finally) awake [S. 12] {ad- is 
the prefix of future tense) 

adtsddlo fiunltjang (To satisfy their mother complaining of the bad kind- 
ling wood, her two sons gather well-dried sticks, saying:) "this surely 
(or: at last) will burn!" [K. 3] 

fpcngko tsddlo "I try it myself" 

adtsddlo tsilnock "I myself shall work" 

nan laldki tsddlo inindli'snd the man himself came here 

sak/Sii tsddlo inilak "I myself saw" (it) 

sak/Sn tsddlo nan nangfla ken sfya "I myself saw him" (I myself 'am' 
the observer of him). 


114. The number of primitive Adjectives is limited in Bontoc Igorot. 
Adjectives are not inflected to distinguish singular or plural or gender. 
Thev appear often in a reduplicated form, which serves to intensify the 
quality expressed by the Adjective. Not all Adjectives, however, admit 
reduplication, as e. g. Idteng, cold; and some are found only in the redupli- 
cated form, as e. g. tjaktjdki, big, large. 

Examples : 

good j 

beautiful , 

honest, etc.) 


thoroughlv bad 

high ■ ) 










Simple Form 


ant jo 



Id ten z 





(or, by gemination: antjodntjo) 

fdnfdnig (A douI)tful plural form: 
fandnig is the only plural form ob- 
tained of an adjective.) In [L. 53, 
54, 55] occurs: fdnabfdnantg! 


very big: tjaktjagoa [tjaktagoag, 
tjaktjagoRa: R is a sound between 
r and 1 in this word]. 

(No redupl. form) 


Simple Form Reduplicated 

warm dtong atdtong 

hot nia)ncitong 

black \ 

blue ', ugitld (itnigffid: painted or dyed black) 

dark brownj 

red kflad (iugkflad) 

white pdkao (in- or impdkao) 

yellow fdkFngf 

green kdg fd'kyi^ (lit. like moss) 

brown kag t/lin (lit. like a "rice bird") 

Some adjectives are identical with substantives, as dmdma, old (man), 
ongongd young (child) ; for "old" and "new," of things, see the Vocabu- 
lary. Observe: an old house: afoiifong adsdngddnm (lit. a house "for a 
long time"). 

115. The attributive adjective either precedes or follows the substan- 
tive, apparently without distinction as to emphasis; good, bad, small, big 
usually precede. In either case the ligature ay is necessary. 

nan kdivts ay laldki the good man 
nan kdldsay ay inngltid the black shield 
si TJHUifgydy ay dmdma old Tjumigyay 
nan andntjo'y kdym the very high tree 
nan nOang ay tjaktjagoa the very big bufifalo 
nan kdzvts ay alkvidko my good friend 

116. \'cr]5al adjectives or participles follow the sul^stantive: 

nan fdnga'y nafdkash the broken ]wt 
nan kdym ay madttkad the falling tree 

1 17. Tile predicative adjective cither jH-ecedes the subject without cop- 

kdzi'fs nan fdlfeg the spear is good 


fdnfg si andkko my child is little 
mamdtong nan patatjim the iron is hot 
pihi nan lalaldki the men are poor 

Or it follows the subject, connected by the copula ya : 
nan fafdyi ya kdwts ay ilaen The woman is beautiful ("good to see") 
nan mamamdgkid ya fdnfg the girls are little 
nan kdtjeng ya adsdmed the brass is heavy 
nan fobfafdllo ya abaffkas the young men are strong 

118. If the subject of a predicative adjective is a personal pronoun, the 
adjective obtains the personal suffixes [88] and is thus verbalized: 

1. antjoak I am tall 

2. ant j Oka you are tall 

3. antjS siya he, she, it is tall 
D. antjSta we two are tall 
L inch antjotdko we are tall 

I. excl. antjokdmt we are tall 
n. antjdkdym you are tall 

HI. antjotjd they are tall 

Also constructions like these occur: sfka ya dntjo, tjdkdym ya kdtvh ; 
but the first persons are always suffixed. After the third singular, which 
has no suffix, a pronoun (or other subject, if it does not precede) as sfya, 
sitodi, sa, na, or tji must be placed: kdzvts siya, he is good; kdwts sa, that 
is sfood. 

119. Progressive quality, or transition of a quality into a higher de- 
gree, is expressed by adding to these verbalized forms the particle nm as 
prefix, before an initial vowel ; but as infix, if the adjective begins with a con- 
sonant. As infix iiin is placed between the initial consonant and the first 

umanfjdak I am getting tall, or taller 
niiidsdikak I am getting short, or shorter 
kiDiidivisak I am getting good, or better 
fumdnfgak I become small, or smaller 
pumiisiak I become poor, or poorer 
gumadsdngyinak I grow rich 


To form the preterite the "augment" /;;- is combined with um, u being 
dropped: /;;/;/- (not: iiinii-) ; these forms designate a condition that has been 
attained: iiiiiiontjcfak, I have become, grown tall; finmdnigak, I have 
become small; pininifsiak, I have become poor; luincitcng, it is turning cold; 
linmdtcng, it has turned cold. 

1 20. Certain adjectives with the prefix in- denote a quality or condition 
which has been attained; as ngffid, black, but inngftid, blackened; dtong, 
warm; indtoiig, having turned warm; pOkao, white; iiipSkao (impdkao), 
dyed white. 

Only with the prefix in- are: /nyaniis, soft; i)iycipc'in, light; inhinisit, 
sweet; inpakdsJuleng, sour; inaklid, bitter, etc. 

121. Some adjectives with the prefixes nia- and na- are really passive 
participles: napdlid, sharp; uidftkod, lean, emaciated; nialdfosh, naked; 
nadigdigko, crooked. Ma- represents in participles of passive the present, 
na- the preterite; in these verbal adjectives nia- and na- are generally used 
without distinction of tense; na- is preferred. 

If with adjectives of this combination the Progressive Quality shall be 
indicated [119], nia- or na- must be dropped, before nni- is added; e. g. 
maffkod changes to fnnifkod: getting lean. 

Adjectives denoting material are lacking; they must l)e circumscribed 
as follows: a wooden house, ?;«» dfong ay kdyB. [41] 

122. Adjectives, in their simple form or reduplicated, may be modified 
by adverbs such as : 

very, too tsdtsdnid fsatsdina ay Idtc'ng very cold, too cold 

a little dk/t akft ay dtong a little warm 

less dkdkit akakit ay napdlid less sharp 

Observe the plirases: 

akakit nan Idtcng adzvdnl mo addgkd lit. less the cold to-day than yes- 

nan titfax akakit nan pdlidna mo nan pinang lit. the spear, less its sharp- 
ness than (that of) the ax. 


123. Comparative. For comparative the reduplicated (intensifying) 
forms are used. 

"Tlian," and in comparisons of equality "as," is : mo. (Mo is also a con- 
junction meaning-: if and: when; and an affirmative particle: verily [425] ) 

aiidntjo nan kdyn tno tian dfong the tree is higher than the house 
nannciy ay patatjini ya kdgazvis mo nan gill/lya this iron is better than 

amdmadk mo tjaltjd I am older than \.\\ty;oiig6ngddk mo... I am younger 

nan kipdngko ya napalhipdlid mo nan plndngmo my knife is sharper than 

your ax 
nan hd ya asasd/'k mo nan /sd the one is shorter than the other 

If an adjective has no reduplicated form, tsatsdmd is employed: 
tsatsdmd'y Idteng mo nan tjuldhi colder than hail (ice) 

124. Comparison may also be circumscribed by two antithetic phrases 
in juxtaposition; as: for "the tree is higher than the house" say: "the tree is 
high; the house is small;" dntjo nan kdyB, fdntg nan dfong 
Or more emphatically: andntjo nan kdyB, fanfdnig nan dfong 

(This does, of course, not "imply that the house is really small; it is only 
said to be small in comparison with the tree.) 

125. The Superlative idea is expressed by adding to a Comparative 
phrase the words: mo dmtn. "than all;" nan tjtiy ay fobfdllo ya abafikas 
mo nan dmhi ay fobfafdllo, this young man is the strongest; lit. "stronger 
than all voung men." 

126. There are no negative or privative prefixes in Bontoc Igorot (as 
in English: H»happy, //ztemperate, t//.s-consolate ) ; the negatives ddf, mfd 
or maid, igd etc. are used instead. 

127. In some constructions the abstract noun derived from the adjec- 
ti'^'e [55] is used: 

kdd nan kddntjOii nan kdyB? "how much is the height of the tree" ("how 
high" can not be expressed literally) 


kad nan kaddsoivfn nan ivdngd ya nan ill? how far is tlie river from the 

kddgna nan kaantjSn nannay ay lolo ya nantji'iy "equal (is) the length of 

this stick and that" 
nan kdyU ya kdg nannay nan kddsdjdna [i6], the tree is equally as thick 

as that (pointing at another tree) 
kad nan fai^zvfnaF how old is he? ("how many his years") 
nannay ay ongdnga na^ngdn mo nan andkko this boy is older ("more 

grown") than my son. 


128. Somebody, Anybody is expressed sometimes by tdkpi, a person; 
nay nan tdk^, here is somebody; ayki way takw 'sna? is anybody here? 
tdkl^ innidli 'sJina, somebody has come. 

Most frequently it is circumscribed by the idiomatic verb zvodd 
[woddy] : there is, there exists, Fr. il y a. 

wodd nan innidli ay tdkM "there is a person having come," somebody has 

zvodd nan pinaddyko "there is a killing-object of mine," I have killed 

wodd nan mamitkaM ken sfka "there is a caller of you," somebody calls you. 

In phrases with the interrogative particle ayk^ we find zvay for wodd: 

aykSway k^kkeni ad Fdlig? "is there a knowing-object of yours at Barlig?" 

do you know anybody at Barlig? 
aykiway ildcni? "is there an object of your seeing?" do you see anybody? 
aykS zvay in/ lam is nan dsBk? "did you see any dog of mine?" 

129. Something, Anything is expressed 1)\' a similar circumscription: 

zvoddy nan idjdak ken tjdkdy// "there is an object of my giving to you," 

I have something for you. 
zvodd nan insdktt ken sak/hi "there is a hurting to me/" something 

hurts me. 


130. A certain: nan tsa'y.... 

nan tsa'y ongongd adumdli ao/donH a certain child (whom you know — 
whom I shall not name) will come soon. 

131. Nohody is expressed by the idiomatic ma/td, the negative of 
wodd; it signifies non-existence: "there is no...." Maid [mfd; mayd] 
requires special constructions which will be discussed in the chapters on 

viatd fdki'i "there is no person," nobody. 

mafd intlak is tdkl^ "there is not my seeing of persons," I see nobody. 
ta maid inangdk°u si sa "that there be not any (stealer) thief of this," that 
nobody steals this. 

132. Nothing: maid ildck "there is no seeing object of mine," I do 

not see anything 
maid kodna there is no property of his, he has nothing 
admaid aldem "there will not be any taking-object of you," you will not 

receive anything. 

133. No, Not any is also circumscribed by maid: 
nan fafd^iva maid fllig the world (had) no mountains [L.i] 
maid kaldsayna "there is no shield of his," he has no shield 
maid kdnck is ttndpay "there is not my eating of bread," I do not eat 

any bread 
mafd iydlna's patatjlm "there is no liringing of his of any iron," he does 

not bring any iron. 
mid pay asdiPizvak "there is not any wife of mine," I have no wife 

maid intjdsa)iml's sfngsing we did not find any rings 

Fdkt'n [fak8n\ means "not this but something different;" observe the 
example: fdkhi patatj/m nanndy, kdfjiug nanndy, this is no iron, this is 
brass. [323] 

134. All: dmin; takes frequently the article; it is connected with 
nouns by ay, if dmin is preceded by nan ; in this case it means usually all, 
i. e. the whole. 


amhi nan koak all my property onfn nan anandkko all my children 
ainin ay tdkB all people (in the world) )ian ainfn ay takiPt all (those) 

nan amtn ay dfong the whole house 
amfn ay takiPc ay angdngaliid all bad peojile 
a))ifn nan fsa'y mSnok one whole chicken 
nan amtn ay fatdi^zua the whole world 
nan amtn ay tU the whole town amtn nan tit all towns 
nan amtn ay fiituk the whole pig' 

amtn nanndy ay fandnig ay dfong all these little houses 
amtn nan djiia'y mdtam both of your eyes 
entsunSkdmt amtn we all are working; we work together 
iydim amtn )ian bildkmo bring all your money 
inmtnumak is nan amtn ay tjthmm I drank all the water 
adildena amtn he will see all (persons or things) 
makifdlognidtdko amtn! let us all fight! 
amtngkdmt ay IgSlot iimiiykdmiay nmdla is nan kafiitftffituk ya kadslnP/dshn 

we all, we Igorot, went to take all pigs and each dog. [B. 12.] 
amhitdko ay lalaldki woddy soklongtdko we all have, each man. our hats. 
Idiom: ketjeng tji this is all; this is the end 
is nan sin (one single) dkyu during the whole day, all day long 

135. Much, Many: dngsdn; dydkd; with the ligature ay. 

dngsdii ay tdklV many persons; angsan ay tjcni^on nnich water; angsan 

nan aydydm the birds are many 
angsdnkd)nt [angsangkdmt^^ we are many; so: angsdntdko, dngsdnkdyd 
[angsangkdy/t], dngsanfjd; aydka ay fcngd many llowers; 
aydka'y btlak nuich money 
Too much, too many: tsafsdma ay dngsdn. 
Very much, great many: angdngsdn. 
angdngsan nan tdk^ ay nap^an is nan tat^zvtn ay inmfiy great many ]ieo- 
ple were burnt to death last year. 
More: \ angdngsdn; adddsd. angdngsdn nan lalaldki mo nan fafafdyi 
Most: j See also: [363] there are more men than women 

ttsaotsdomo adddsd give (me, us) more! 
kadgna just as much; woddy ken sak/Jn ay kddgna T have just as much 


136. Few: akff ay.... akakit ay.... Too few: tsatsdma'y aki't ay.... 

akl't ay alkvidko few friends of mine; akit nan alhcidko my friends are 
few; dki'tkami we are few; akftkay^ you are few; akftjd nan tdkB 
there are few people (here) ; akakit ino... less than... 

137. Some, Several, A Few is often expressed by the "personal" 
forms of the Verbs: knnidibak (instead of the "possessive" form kdpck) is 
dfong, I build some houses. — Or circumscribed: wodd nan nahalddkan is 
nan indddpat, zvodd nan nabaldfikan is nan kitongfja some were shot in 
their hands, some in their foreheads. [B. ^2] 

nan fdpt^na u))u1ytja's ill. nan tapChia uniilytja's pdgpdg some go into the 

town, some into the forest, (nan fdp^na: a "part") 
Also: nan dkif ay... ildck nan aktt ay lalaldki "1 see a few men" (or: 

zvodd nan lalaldki ay ildck). 
kekkck nan tdpin nan tdklPi ad Alah [not: tdp(^na\\ or: wodd nan kc'kkck 

ay iAlab 'T know" several people at Alab. 
And: ndkdfls ay.... nan nakaf/s ay dsei some dogs 
pinadSytja nan ndkdfls ay fmsfil "they killed several enemies" 
nan ndkdfls ay aydyani ya ndtpdb several birds were caught 
nay nan Inbfdn. i)idka's ndkdfls! here are oranges, give me some ! 

138. An Other, a different one: tckkcn; an other of the same kind: 

nan tt^kkcn ay tdkm the other people; nan tckkcn ay aydyani different 
birds ; fdk^n sfya, tckkcn not he, but another 

nan ti^kkcn ay kaldsay: a dift'erent shield; nan tb/dn nan kaldsay: an 
other shield of the same kind, as a model, {ib/d is also "a com- 

tc'kkcn nan adunidU an oihcr one will come 

If "an other" means "one more," it is expressed by dkls, or kdsln, again. 

indka's sin bdngai^ is tjhi&ini dkis, or: kdsingka umda's sin bdngaiPi... give 
me an other (one more) glass of water. 

is kasin an other time, the next time 


139. Every, Each: washtjfn. — Also expressed by the prefix ka- and 
gemination (or re(hiplication) of llie first two syllables [53]. 

wasJitjin mdsilycp! let every one sleep! 

am!)i ay lalalctki -a'aslitjfn itmis! let each of the men wash himself! 

waslitjingkamt entsuno every one of us is working (tvashfjin takes the 
suffixes, either personal or possessive, from the verbal form! ) 

zvashtjintdkB makifdlSgnid! let us all fight! let every one fight! 

zvashtjtn ken tjdtdktX every one of us 

zvashtjtn t jinn pah si kocfna every one catches his [L. 60] 

zvashtjina ySiry is abafongna nan tvadwddna every one takes to his home 
his i)ortion of meat [L. 66] 

washtjimnl every one of us ivasiitjintdko every one of us (you included) 

zvasJitjtnyB ilden sa every one of you sees that; zvashfjinkdyd umflcng 
every one of you is resting 

zvaslitjintja inmdngmang every one of them performs a ceremony (sacri- 
fices ) 

zvaslitjfngkdin/ hinidyao every one of us is running 

Sin fsa (numerals signifying "one") occurs sometimes designating 
"each :" 

nay nan told'y laldki; sin isa ken tjaJtja zvodd nan kaldsayna ya nan djiia'y 
falfi'gna here are three men, each has a shield and two spears 

And: dnii'n; amfn ay tdkn (or: katdki^ftdkiPt) everybody 

Each single one: djda'y phosh nan itsaotsdoko is nan ha'y tdk^ "I give" 
two pesos to each single man 

nan dinfu ay kdngnnn everything 

140. Any, whatever: mliiy [dlliy, i^ldi] (which is also the equivalent 
for our "never mind") is used in combination with other pronouns thus: 

eildy stnf( any person whatever; aydkam ^Idy sfnW ken tjdttjd call 
anyone of them you please; fukdzi'dnyft nan Pildy sfnff call any- 

elildy ngdg anything at all, any whatever, dngneny/^ nldy ngdg, "do any- 
thing you please." For "i^ldy }igdg'' we hear often: ''i^U^ngdg." 

Tliat thing: nan sdiia; iydiiii nan sdna, bring that thing! 

141. The one — the other: nan /sd — nan Jsd; nan /sang—nan /sang. 


142. The generalizing "one," Ger. man, Fr. on, is usually expressed 
by the third person plural, vw ndngantja, ttmistja if one has eaten, one 
washes himself. 

143. The same: nan kadgna; (^a^, like), kdg tosd, the same as 
this ; kdg ken sfya the same as he ; kdg ken todi the same as that (per- 
son) ; nan kddgko my equal. Ger. meinesgieichen ; nan kddgino ay laldki 
the same man as you, one like you. 

"The very same" is sometimes rendered by dkis, also; and by the 
"emphatic" construction: {nan) kdym nan inilak dkh "the tree I saw 
also," I saw the same tree. 

144. Strictly idiomatic seem to be dnoka and dntn. Like "deina" in 
Greek, anoka denotes sometimes a person (or thing) which the speaker can- 
not or will not name, as in the exclamation: dai^t, anokd nd, dllkd! ho! 
some one! come! Sometimes, however, it precedes a proper name, as: daPi ! 
dnokd na, Antt^ro, pangdlikd'snd! he! Antero come quickly here! 

And with the character of a demonstrative : si anokd Mdtym nan 
ninokSkud this man, Matyu, is the narrator. 

Observe the similar use of dntn: dntn na! you here! (Thus the pot- 
ters from Samoki announce their coming with their ware: anlntjd! nay si 
fdngd ma! Ye people,, here are pots! ) 


145. The Interrogatives require peculiar constructions which will be 
explained in later chapters. Here they are merely enumerated and illus- 
trated by a few examples. As these show, the Interrogatives obtain in cer- 
tain phrases the personal suffixes. 

146. Who? Whom? sinmf consists of the article si and the interrog- 
ative element nm. No copula is used after sfnM. 

stnm tjt? who is there, who is that? 


stnm nan zvodd'shna? who is here? 

stniPi nan ivodd'sh dfong? who is in the house? 

shimka? who are you? shmtja? who are they? 

147. What? ngdgF 

ngdg sd? what is this? ngdg tjt wliat is tliat? (but: ngCig means: bad) 
ngdgkd mdn ken BPtmegtsd? ht. what are you to Bumegtsa? i. e. how are 
you related to him? 
"What did you say?", "what?" is expressed by the interjection: nan? 
pronounced with rising intonation. 

148. How much? How many? kdd? 

kdd nan fpisinl? how many are the enemies? kad ay f&tslPllf how many 

kadtdko? how many are we? kadkdyioi? how many are you? 
kad ay tiifay? how many spears? 

140. Which? I -- ^ / \ ' /.I ■ \ 

What kind of? j •^'"^"''•••f Persons) : ngag fly...( things) 

sinB ay fafdyi? which woman? sfni"/ ay fohfdfdyif which women? 

ngdg ay kdym? which tree, or trees? 

ngdg ay nleng nanndy? what kind of coal is this? 

ngdg ay ktpdn nan kSam? which knife is yours? 

ngdg ay kdnfyab nan kodyvc'sna? which of these shields are 3^ours? 

r^, ,1 ^ ^ ^- ui^ids: ay fan^a nan natdkasIiF \ whkh pot 

Observe the two constructions: -^ ^-^ - ' . ,^ '■_-, ; ^ > • 1 19 

ngag nan fanga ay nafakash? j is broken s 

ngdg ay fdlfeg nan l^ytjcui? which spear "do you want?" or: ngdg nan 

fdlfcg ay ICytjem? 

ngdg ay fobdnga nan l£ytjc'n nan laldki/ which pipe "does the man want?" 




150. "Verbs" of the Bontoc Tgorot Language consist of Roots with 
Prefixes, Infixes or Suffixes. The root is employed either as verbal adjec- 
tive (participle), or as verbal noun. (In certain constructions, the partici- 
ples and verbal nouns approach the character of our Infinitives.) 

151. The Roots are mostly dissyllabic. They are either primitive ver- 
bal roots, or substantives, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, pronouns; in short, 
nearly every Part of Speech may serve as Root and is verbalized in various 

Primitive \'erbal Root : anab "find" and pck 'T find" (my finding) 

Substantive: fdlf^g spear falfekek "I hit with a spear" 

Adjective: asdfk short pddsdlkek "I shorten" 

Negative: ddi adlk I "refuse;" I do not; I deny, etc. 

Numeral : ha one pdisack 'T leave alone" 

Adverb: isna here isndak I stay here 

Pronoun: sfnu who? sindka? who are vou? 

152. By combination with certain particles the roots can be verbalized 

i). Verbals with the prefixes (infixes) /»-, »;»-, maiig-, ma-, etc. ; these 
verbals obtain the personal suffixes ("endings") -ak, -ka etc. [88]. With- 
out endings, the verbals of this category are most similar to our participles 
or verbal adjectives (especially of intransitives) : going, having gone, sleep- 
ing, lost etc. 

They emphasize the condition or state in which the subject is, or the 
action performed by the subject ; the action is considered of greater import- 
ance than the object. 

2). Verbals with the character of verbal nouns, Nomina actionis; the 
action named by these verbals afl:'ects a definite object of considerable 
importance. Such verbal formations correspond, in most instances, to our 


transitive verbs. They are formed by adding two kinds of particles to a 

a) the transitive characteristics -en (suffix), or -an (suffix), or i- (prefix) ; 

b) possessive suffixes ("endings"). By these possessive endings [io6] 
our subject of a transitive verb is represented, if the subject is a personal 
pronoun; if the subject is a substantive, see [205-210]. 

153. In this book the Verbals are classified according to their end- 
ings, as: 

a) Personal Verbs; ending in -ak, -ka, -fa, -fako, -kaiiii etc. (The 
term "Intransitives" which would be quite appropriate for many verbs of 
this category would be misleading, as many of them are used also as tran- 
sitives, though with less transitive force than the verbs of the class b.) 

(By naming them "Actives" they would not be distinguished from 
those of class b, which are likewise Actives, although they are called by a 
time-honored wrong term, "Passives" in other M. P. Languages. Less 
incorrect is the term "Genus Relativum" for class b.) 

b) Possessive Verbs; these are all transitive (in our conception); in 
fact, they are nouns, Nomina actionis, with Possessive endings. 

154. Practically most primitive verbal roots and many other roots can 
be transformed into both. Personal and Possessive verbs, by employing 
various particles, as: 

Verbal Root; kaeb; Personal Verb: i) inkdchak T am making, building 

2) kuuuli'hak I am going to make now 
Possessive Verb : kapck I make, I am making 
Adjective Root : dtong; 

Personal Verb: i) inatongak \ i\m \\-s.Ym {litongak) 

2) iimdtongak I am getting warm 
Possessive Verb : padtongck 1 make warm 

155. Verbs are confined, in this Grammar, to the categories "Personal" 
and "Possessive" only according to their common use, i. e. in active declara- 
tive main sentences. Their common forms (such as given in tlie \'ocabu- 
lary) will be treated first. 


In certain constructions, discussed later at length, the verbs of one cate- 
gory are transplanted into the other category ; when this takes place, their 
particles must be changed accordingly. (Some of these constructions are: 
Strong emphasis of the direct, the indirect object, the agent, place, time, 
instrument, cause, person for whom an action is performed; the Passive; 
Constructions corresponding, as it were, to our relative clauses ; some inter- 
rogative sentences etc.) 


156. The Voices are the Active and the Passive. 

The Personal Verbs are only found in the Active Voice. 

The Possessive Verbs occur either in the Active or Passive Voice ; the 
Active construction is much preferred to the Passive. 

( The term "las tres pasivas" unfortunately invented some centuries ago 
by Spanish Grammarians for the three active conjugations in other Philip- 
pine languages (but not Bontoc Igorot!) must be rejected as erroneous. But 
since practically all Philippinists and Copyists of more or less obsolete Philip- 
pine Grammars are clinging to the wrong designation, it seems proper to 
give a few verbs here in their 

Active and Passive 


I. and 2. Sing, leytjck, Icytjein; my, thy liking mah^yadak, lualeyddka 

I am, thou art liked 
f]ikdiO(zi'ak, fukdiotzcam; mafitktJiPnvanak, 

my, thy calling; maf ukdiPtzvangka 

I am, thou art called 
itafongko, itafonmo; my, thy uiditdfonak, maitafongka 
hiding; (but not: being hid- I am, thou art hidden 
den by me, thee! ) 

157. The Tenses are: Present, Preterite, Future. 

1 58. The [Moods are : Indicative and Imperative. 

1 59. \'erbals are : Nonien actionis, Nomen agentis . 


1 60. By reduplication, prefixes, auxiliaries, adverbs, particles many 
temporal and modal variations are expressed, as the immediate past, pluper- 
fect, conjunctive, optative, conditional, causative, authoritative, frequenta- 
tive, intensive, cooperative, potential, reciprocal, emphasis of the several ele- 
ments of a sentence, etc. 


161. "Personal Verbs" is an abbreviated term for: \'erbs with end- 
ings derived from the Personal Pronouns [88]. These verbs include both, 
intransitives and certain transitives; thev have no Passive. 

162. Personal verbs express: 

The state or condition of a person or a thing; "to be." 

laldkiak I am a man ; alhvidak T am a friend ; kdwhak I am good ; 

toldkdmi we are three; ndyak I am here, Fr. mc voici : 

intdkdml? where are we? siniika? who are you? 

kadkayii? how many are you? si Molengak I am Moleng 

IgolStkdmt wearelgorot; fdkSngka it is not you, but another person; 

iSamoktkdmt we are Samokimen, from Samoki. 

The change from one condition into another (with the particle um) ; 
"to become, get, grow." 

umalkvidak I am becoming a friend; fumdnigak I am getting small; 
nindtongak I am getting warm; fionul/'iigef it grows dark. 

Intransitive action. 

iimdliak J come ; iim iiyak I go ; intdktakak I run ; 
tumdktjikak I am sitting; masuyepak I sleep; 
matatdki°(ak I am alive; intedCcak I remain at a place; 
zvoddak [zvuddyak] I exist, am present. 

Transitive action with more stress on the verb than on a definite o])iect, 
the object being indefinite or general or taken in a partitive sense, as: I eat 
meat; I build houses; I smoke tobacco; I get some wood. Personal verbs 


with transitive force, as these examples contain, are formed from the same 
root as their cognate, the possessive verbs ; the latter, however, govern a 
definite object which is of no less importance than the verb, as : I build the 
mayor's house, I smoke this cigar, I eat the meat. 

Thus in Bontoc Igorot the question "what are you doing?" would be 
answered by a personal verb in the sentence: 'T am reading letters" 
(infdsaak is siilad) ; but by a cognate possessive verb in the sentence: "I 
am reading my son's letter" (fasdck nan si/lad nan andkko). 
mdngdnak is nan find pay leatl^read; kdnek nan find pay I eat the bread; 
(both manganak and kanck have the root kan). 

Sometimes the personal verb is intransitive or medial, while the cog- 
nate possessive verb is transitive: fangonck I wake somebody up; 
fumdngonak I wake up from my sleep. 


163. Paradigms of the Personal Verb 

S. I niasilycpak I sleep entsihioak I work 

2 masuyepka thou sleepest entsunoka thou workest 

3 niasilyep (sfya) he, she, it sleeps entsiind he, slie, it works 
D. masuyeptd we both sleep entsilnSta we both work 

P. L incl. niasuyepfdko we sleep entsnnotdko we work 

I. excl. niasnye pkdmi we sleep entsundkdmf we work 

II. masuyepkaym you sleep entsnndkdyPi you work 

III. masnyeptja they sleep entsunStja they work 

164. The third person singular lias no sutiix; it represents the simplest 
verbal form of the personal verbs and is identical with the verbal adjective 
or participle; it corresponds also to our infinitive in certain constructions. 

nan ongongd ay masdycp the sleeping child 
I/ytjck ay mas dye p adivdni I like to sleep now. 

165. The personal pronouns he, she, it are placed after this third per- 
son form, while the other persons do not require any additional personal pro- 
nouns, unless the subject shall h^ emphasized: 

umdli Siva he comes, or: she comes; inndli sf\a ax fafdvi she comes 


sika entsiindka you, you work ; tjatdko cntsnnoidko it is you and we 
who are working; sak/hi ilmi'iyak I for my part, I go. 

As the examples show, the personal endings are also suffixed, if the 
personal pronouns precede the verb. But if the sul^stantive to which "he. 
she, it" refers has been mentioned immediately before^ siya is omitted: intd 
si Kaldngad? masilycp. where is Kalangad? he sleeps. 

1 66. A singular substantive is sometimes connected bv the copula \a 
with the following verbal form : 

nan mamdgkid masi/yep, or: na)i i)ia)iufgkid ya )}iasiiycp, the girl sleeps. 

(But if the subject is in i^lural and if ya is em])loyed, the verb has the 
ending -tja: nan lalaUiki ya entsunStja. This construction was used by 
the Igorot in but few examples.) 


167. Personal Verbs from primitive verlial roots require, without 
any exception, the prefix in- or the prefix or infix »»;-, -um-. 

Personal Verbs from other roots are sometimes combined with these 

The Prefix In- 

168. The Prefix ///- \c'n-, en-, dn-\ indicates simply that a root is 
transformed into a verb. In this function, /;;- is never infixed; it precedes 
both, vowels and consonants. 

In some instances /;/- signifies rather a stale or condition than an action, 
an action going on without climax, sometimes an action in a quiescent state, 
as it were: infmsi°dak: I am hostile, continue to be hostile. 

Personal verbs derived from substantives appear in two forms occasion- 
ally, with this prefix, or without it, while the meaning of the verb remains the 
same. The u of /;;- is verv rarely assimilated to a subsequent consonant ; but 
l^efore k we find usually ng for ;;. PJefore k and //" or ts the prefix ;';;- 
appears often as eng- or en-. 

Verbs with in-: 

inltpayak I play inogiddak I am afraid indkdak T weep 

inanitjmak I keep warm infdsaak I read inlagfOak I work for wages 



inlaldyadak I rejoice indfoyak I weave insosdngctak I am angry 

infalognidak I fight inicd^cak I remain inkatibak I bite 

cutsdiwak I work cngkdliak I speak engkotsongak I crawl 

engkc^ftjcnak I flinch fiflisi°(lak, iuf&isi?(lak I am an enemy 

169. The prefix in- \en-, en-, dn-\ occurs only with personal verbs; in 
very few exceptions it is found with possessive verbs, as: 

endjiiadjilack I doubt engkasldngck I mix engkakaozvdek I place in 
the centre. 

If other possessive verbs begin with in, this is no prefix, l)Ut belongs to 
the root, as: inumck I drink, inttek I boil, infak I close. 

The prefix in- shall not be confounded with the "augment" in- which 
is pre- or infixed to verbs, as a temporal particle, indicating the preterite. 

The Pre- or Infix Uni- 

170. Uni- [i°(m-, oni-\ is used exclusively with Personal Verbs. Uni is 
prefixed to initial vowels ; if there is an initial consonant, urn enters the root 
and takes its place between the initial consonant and the vowel of the first 

Root a/?: umdliak I come; 'Root fangon: fnindngonak I awake. 

171. Uni is emploved to express various ideas in connection with per- 
sonal verbs: in many cases it is used strictly idiomatically and indefinably. 
It indicates sometimes that the action is performed by the subject upon him- 
self or concerning himself (similar to a Greek Middle and certain German 
reflexive verbs). 












I rest 

I wait 

I wash myself 

I drink 

I stand 

I stop 

I sit down 

I sit in Ig"6rot fashion 

I vomit 

I am silent 

I spit 


172. Since motion concerns preeminently the subject ("I move my- 
self"), mil- is found with the verbs of coming-, going, etc. Such are: 

fnniivak I go lumcfyaoak I run away sumdaak I come home 

UDuiliak I come tiiiiufyaoak I fly sihiikcpak I enter 

kitDufdnak I go away fumcUdak I go out snmcikunak 1 approach 

bumdnddak I come down t&imdliak I return fumdhvagak I go to work 

kiimdlabak I climb kumtjdngak I cross !n»a (/.y^Wva^ I go far away 

173. Um denotes also, especially with substantives and adjectives, to 
l:)ecome. to be transformed, to pass from a condition into a more intense or 
higher phase of the condition (as: I am getting stronger) : 

umalkvidak I become a friend fnmfkasak I am getting stronger 

fiim&smlak I become an enemy iiiiuiiiuiak I am growing old 

djnmadjdldak I get bloody pumokaoak I am turning white 

puiiidsiak I become poor, poorer ngnmftidak I am getting dark 

giDiiadsdngyenak I get richer kiimiladak I am getting red 
te^mofoak I grow nginndtjdnak I transform myself, change 

kumdyiPtak I become wood, a tree bmndfoak I am changed into stone 

kiiiuollini^ak I become an eagle 

174. Um indicates in certain compositions that an action will be per- 
formed in the near future ; sometimes it makes a verb an inchoative. Its effect 
is seen bv comparing the meaning of verbs of the ;//- category with those hav- 
ing itm. 

kiimdibak is dfong I am going to build houses 
inkdibak is dfong I am building houses 
umbgiddak 1 shall fear, I begin to be afraid 
inbgiddak 1 am afraid 
imiasdi^zvdak I shall soon mary 
inasdiPCivdak I celebrate my wedding 
uiiidfoak I shall cook. I am starting to cook 
inOtoak I cook 

tumcngaoak I shall have a holiday 
intcngaoak I celebrate a holiday 

(Thus the r.ontocmcn announce a holiday set down by certain men 
acting as priests by the call: tnmcngaotdko .' or: intcngaotdko /) 

nmiPttjdn it is going to rain ; inpctjdii it is raining 



The Prefix Ma- 

175. The Prefix ma-, which is the Passive Prefix of possessive verbs, 
denotes that the subject is being put or has been put into the condition named 
by the root. Frequently such verbs convey a passive idea, as : "I fall" con- 
veys the idea of an outward cause of my falling, "I am thrown down;" or: 
'T sink," the idea "I am being drowned." Often the conception of a middle pre- 
vails in these verbs with ma. (Ma- before f becomes sometimes ?n/ and mi.) 

masiiycpak I sleep mad S yak I am dying 

malitjotigak I forget mifiiegak I go with, accompany 

niasisicngak I take leave ma/ftyadak I prosper 

maenganak I grow imaydgyagak I fall down (without former 

matdkiPtak I live \ contact with the ground) Synonyms: 

\^rnisc1kaP(ak\ maclktsagak [nicdktsagak] 
I madiigdugak I fall over (from standing on 
■I the ground) Synonym : 

I madukcidak 
misl ptjagak I stumble and fall 

The Prefix Maiip- 

176. The Prefix Man o'- (>iiam, man-, see [11]) combined with substan- 
tives denotes an action connected with the thing mentioned, as these exam- 
ples show: 




I walk on a road, travel 




I pray 




I go hunting with dogs 




I gather wood 

sakfj/ian water vessel 


I get water (sufifix -an is 



fish basket 


I catch fish with the kOyBg 


war sono- 


I sing a war song 


g industrial song 

marigayfhvengak I sing while working 

tdki a 

kind of sweet potatoes 


I dig tSki 


[pdltiO(g] gun 


I shoot 




I dance 


woman's dance 


I dance 


a man's dance 


I dance a tddjek 


a pantomimic solodance 


I dance (with ax, shield, 


gdngsa gong j/zaH^cr^m^^aa^ I dance striking the o-an.^^a 

falcfdong bean uiamalddongak I gather beans 

kdfj"it a species of fish \nangdtfnak I catch fish 

177. Mang- forms, in coniI)ination with possessive verbs, Nomina 
agentis (the "helper, giv'er, finder," etc.); these do not take the personal 
endings, as: the helper, mamddjang; lam the helper: sak/in (nan) 
mamddjang. But the following Nomina agentis are treated as personal 
verbs, i. e. the personal endings are suffixed to them : 

kdnck I eat mangdnak I eat mangdngka, mdngdn etc. 

tsubldck I smoke indniibldak I smoke manubldka, mannbla etc. 

fakdkck I cut off heads inaiiidkdak (one k dropped) I go headhunting 

178. Other Prefixes with personal verbal forms will be treated in 


179. The Preterite is formed l)y using the particle /«-, wliich shall be 
called here "augment'' to distinguish it, by a brief term, from the prefix iii- 
of some personal verbs. 

iSo. Augment /;z- is combined with the ])article ;////- to: iiim-. {11 is 
elided; ;/ is not assimilated). 

The / of the augment iu is dro])ped, if a verb has the jirclix in-: we find 
in the Preterlite: in- + in = iiiii-. 

Verbs with the ])refixes ma- or luaiig-. main-, man- change these into ;u7- 
or nang-, nam-, nan- in the Preterite. 

umfnuniak I drink inmfnnmak I drank; umdliak I come inmdliak 

! came 
kumdlabak 1 climb kinnidlabak lclini])ed; tP/mcHiak T return 

tinmOliak I returned 

But n of nm- is not dropped, if ;/;;/- is followed by a consonant: 



sinnkepak I enter sin/nnkepak I entered 

/hndjanak I arrive inilmdjdnak I arrived (the position of wn- in 

umdjanak is irregular) 

ingkycitak I swim ningkydtak I swam 
ini4tjan it rains ni)ii4tjan it rained 
inokok/ldak I narrate ninokokiidak I narrated 
inkdebak I make ninkdebak I made 
insdkltak I am sick nfnsdkitak I was sick 
enfsiindak I work nentsdnoak I worked 
engkdliak I speak nengkdliak I spoke 
judngdnak I eat ndnganak I ate 
masdycpak I sleep nasdycpak I slept 
uiandldnak I walk itaiidlanak I walked 
mafdkP/ak I live iiatdkf^ak I lived 

i8i. Personal verbs derived from substantives, adjectives, adverbs, 
etc., have the preterite augment only, if they have the particles /;/- or znu-. 
Otherwise the past is expressed by adding adverbs of time, as adsdugddiiin 
"some time ago," to the present forms. 

lumdteng it turns cold linmdteng it turned cold 

infalognfdak I fight ninfalogntdak I fought 

inongongdak I am young, a child; uiuongongdak I was young, a child 

umdfongak I am getting warm iniiidtongak I was getting warm 

alfzvidak I am a friend altwidak adsdngdduni I was a friend formerly 

182. The verbal endings of the preterite are the same as those of the 
present : 

imndliak I came hundlita we two came iniiidlitdko we came (incl.) 

iiiiiidlika thou earnest inmdlfkdmi we came (excl.) 

inmdli (siya) he, she, it came inmdUkdyLOi you came 

imndlitjd they came 


183. In the Future Tense the prefix ad- [at-] precedes the forms of the 
Present without any phonetic or other changes ; the endings are the same 
as in the Present. 


adumdliak I shall come; adti^tmoliak I shall return; adcntsihwak I 

shall work 
adaltwidak 1 shall be a friend ; adfinndnigak 1 shall l)econie small 
adinsdkitak I shall be sick; adiiidngdnak I shall eal 

adpumusiak I shall become poor 

adliiindtcng it will be cold; nan fdtnk adlumdmlshija the pigs will be fat; 
adkmnazi'iskdyi'^( you will be good ; adumiiykdmi is dforig we shall go 



184 The Imperative employs the same forms as the Present Indicative; 
they are shown in this example: 

umfiyka! go! 

iimiiy! he may go! cf. [189] 

nmii\'td! let us two go! "go with me" (if but one person is addressed) 

uiuiiytdko! let us (all) go! 

itiiiiiykdyn ! go ye! 

imu/ytjd! they may go! let them go! cf. [189] 

18 V The particle iiin is sometimes dr()pi)ed in the Im])erative: 

dlika! (and: uiiuUikd) come! 

sddta! (and: siniiddfa) let us two go home! [M. 11.] 
handtka! (and: Immandtka) come down! 
kadngkdypt ! (and: kiiii!aaiigkayi4) go away! 

186. Certain urging or entreating Particles, as: iiidii, kayd, iiid ddjl 
are often placed after an imjKM-ativc: 

dllkdvi^ vidii! come then! iiiaunhlakd kdyd! come, smoke! Ger. rauche 

nur einmal! 
iiiaiigaxfkvciigka mo ddji! sing, do please! Ger. so singe doch! Fr. chante 

done ! 

(In conversation these particles are closely connected with the preceding 
verb, as enclitics: unaccented kdyd draws the accent of the verb to the 
ultima. ) 


187. In narration and songs the conjunction td, that, in order that, 
(always expressing vohtion) is placed occasionally before imperatives, 
especially before the first persons: fa lumalaytdko... let us call hither... 

ta umiiytdko pma istjt let us first go there! [L. 69] 
ta mangdyBta let us two get wood! 

188. The particle cd [et, 'd, 7], used to express a "conjunctive" mood, 
follows sometimes an imperative; the command is thus softened to a request: 

dlika'd! you ought to come! [L. 75.] 

umdfongkay&i man ed! you ought to get married! [L. 47.] 
sad fa' d id fobfiiy we two ought to go home ; come, let us go home! [M. 11.] 
sadka'd man! go, pray! sadfa'd ma ddji ay sindiiia! let us, pray, go 
together as father and son! [i\I. 11.] 

189. The third persons of the imperative are usually circumscribed by 
sentences like: I want, tell, order him to come; kdiiak fa iimdli sfya, etc. 

190. Observe the isolated imperative (no indicative form could be 
ascertained) : indka, indkdym! give! iiidka is kdyfc! give (me) some 
wood! [indka' s or indka' sh are the usual forms.] 

And these forms are used in agitated conversation for dllkd! come! : 
dyka! tka! ikd kayal 'kd kciya! and in plural: fkdyPt man! dkdyo mdn! 


191. The conjunctive is used very rarely; it is indicated by placing cd 
[ef, 'd] after the verb : umalidk cd I ought to come, I may come, nmdlika'd 
itmdli'd etc. Other modal forms of the verb or phrases with the force of 
conjunctive are given in the chapters on particles and auxiliary verbs {ngin, 
ngef, ck, tck, tsak etc.) and adverbs. 


192. The simple verbal form, without endings, as found in the third 
person singular of the present and preterite, serves in most constructions 


where English employs participles or infinitives, as: nan fdsBl ay itmi'iy 
the enemy "who is" [41] going, the going enemy; si yiln/ak ay ininali 
my brother who has arrived; nan kdyB ay niadi7kad the falling tree; 
nan kcJyB ay nadiikad the fallen tree. 

nmogiddak ay t^nnSli I am afraid to return; inabfd'linak av niandlan 
I am able to walk; flodlJdko'y cngkdU 1 must speak. 

sinPf nan u^ndH.' who "is the comer?" who comes? sfnlPt nan ndn^^an? 
who is the one havinsf eaten? who has eaten? 

193. The Nomen agentis has sometimes the ]irefix niin-, pret. nin-, 
which is employed with verbs that have the prefix /;;-, en-. 

sl'm^ nan niengkaU? who is the speaker? sinP( )tan ninsdlad.' who is 
the one having written (from insiiladak). 


194. The \'erbal Noun, expressing an action as a thing, i. e. by a sub- 
stantive with or without article (the coming, das Kommen, ro ixdcv^ il venir, 
el venir etc.), is extensively employed in various constructions, when, for 
instance, place, time, cause etc. shall be emphasized. It is preceded by the 
article nan. 

The Nomen actionis of Personal \^erbs is formed by suffixing -an to 
the "Infinitive;" possessive endings are furthermore suffixed to -an-, in order 
to indicate the agent, as in: my coming, her singing, our fighting. 

If the agent is expressed by a substantive, the possessive ending is 
dropped in singular, and the Nomen actionis ends in -an ; in plural the pos- 
sessive ending -tja is rarely dropped. The substantive follows, as a Subject- 
ive Genitive, in our conception. 

195. In the first and second singular the n of -an is dropped and the 
endings arc, because added to a vowel, -k. ( for -ko) and -;;/ (for -n^o^. \ 101 | 
The third singular ends in -ana (for aii-na). 

196. An- refers to several advcrl^ial relations: local, temi^oral. causal 
etc. ; because it occurs mostly in locative phrases, and since it is the forma- 
tive of substantives denoting place [56 f], it may be called a locative suffix. 


197. Examples. The Nomen actionis of imufli is umalfan, of higkall: 

With possessive suffixes : 

S. I. uiiidli + an + k(o) : uuuiliak, nan iimdUak my coming, 

mein Kommen (to be distinguished grammatically from 
the same form in the Indicative) 

2. umali + an + ni(o) : iimaliam, nan iinulliani thy coming, 

dein Kommen 

3. uniali + an + na : unidltana, nan uindlfdna his, her, its coming 
D. I. imidlfanfa: nan nuialfanfa the coming of us two 

P. I. inch itjiialfantciko: nan umalfantdko our coming 

I. excl. umaliannii: nan innalfajvnf our coming 
n. unidlfa)iyn : )ian ujnalfanyi^/ your coming 

HI. uinalfanfja: nan uina!fa)ifja their coming 

(The following examples are antici])ated from later chapters!) 
pdgpag nan niasuyepanfdko the (public, communal) forest is our sleeping 

place; in the forest we sleep 
i)ito nan niangandnym? where is your eating place? where do vou eat? 
into nan nangandnypif where is your "past" eating place? where did you 

kad nan adiinidUani? at what time will 3'Ou come? 
{nan) zvdnga nan entsdndan nan laldki the river is the man's working 

place; at the river the man is working 
{nan) falognid nan iDiialiantdko "the battle is the reason, cause of our 

coming; on account of the battle we come" 
ill nan intcdicdntja nan lalaldki the town is the men's dwelling place; in 

the town the men are dwelling 
nan taPiivtn ay innifiy nan nentsuniiannif last year "was our working 

time," last year we worked 
into nan unuiyantja nan IgOlot where is the going aim of the Igorot? 

where do the Igorot go? 


198. The subject of Personal A'erbs (but not the agent of Nomina 
actionis) is in the nominative. 

199. The object of personal verl)s requires the preposition is, or ( if 
a proper name, a personal pronoun, a term of kinship, a demonstrative pro- 


noun witli si-) the preposition ken [/iff. 85] : iniifinniiak is nan tjennm 
I drink the water; inangdntja is nan nicJkan they eat the food; 
puniadSytja's ff/tug they slaughter pigs; kuinaibkanii si sa we are 
going to make this; siimidak ken Agpdpcivan I wait for Agpauwan; 
unuiyakak ken stka I call you; pnuiadSytja ken fodi they kill this one; 
nnuiyaktja ken dnandktja they call their children. 

200. Place of the subject in afifirmative declarative sentences. The 
personal pronouns, used only if the subject shall be emphasized, precede the 
verb; onlv the pronoun of the third singular, siya, usually follows the verb: 

sak/c^n nmdliak I come; tjakduii ningkydtkami we were swimming; 
tjattja intaktdktja they run; innidli stya he came; sika knnuddhka 
you climb; indka sftodl this one cries; sak/tUi ya sika ya sfya 
manublCitdko I, you and he are smoking; sak/hi ya sfya adnmilcngkami 
I and he will rest. 

201. The Substantives, demonstrative and indefinite Pronouns. 
Numerals, as subjects, either precede or follow the verlj. 

If these subjects precede, the copula ya (for singular and plural and 
all tenses) is often placed between subject and verb; but never if the sub- 
ject follows. 

)ian ongonga inas/h'ep ; nan ongcfnga ya niasdyep the child sleeps 

nan alnvid engkdlitja: nan alfwid ya cngkdlitja (rarely: ya engkalf, which 

is declared to be incorrect) the friends speak 
Or: masdycp nan ongonga; engkdlitja nan alfwid. 
si Bdigti finmOli; or: si Bdigti ya tinniSli; or: tinnuili si Bdtgti Bugti 

has returned. 
sftodl sninda; or: snnida sftodl this one comes home, into the house. 
entsfinotja anifn all arc working; more idiomatic than: amfn entsihiotja. 
)nalifjongtja nan alfwid ken tjakdym the friends forget you 
kdldldldldki ya linmaydolja all the men, each, have fled. 
nan d)ndina ya nmilengija the old men are resting 
nan djda'y fohfafdllo sinnidtja is nan pdgpag; nan fsa ya inasdyep ya nan 

fsa ya kinnidlah is nan kdypt two young men are wailing in the 

forest ; one sleeps and the other has climbed on a tree 
nalftjong nan mamdgkid ken sak/Sn the girl has forgotten me 
adnindli s' dina the father will come; nnuito s' fna is tdki the mother is 

going to cook sweet potatoes. 


202. The substantive suliject in the first and second person follows the 
verb connected by ay : 

nianalFfcngkaml ay IgOlot we Igorot are dancing 
engkdlika'y altzvidmi you speak as our friend 
entsHudkaym ay lalaldki you, men, work. 

In this position the substantive is evidently (as the ligature indicates) 
considered as being in apposition with a pronominal subject: we, as Igorot; 
as has been expressed in the second example. So also in the imperative : 

alikdyi^i ay altwidko! come ye, my friends {ay: you "who are" my friends) 
infalognidtdko ay Igolot! let us fight as Igorot! 

Ay does not connect aiii/ii; titm/'/kfjiitciko aiiifn let us all sit down! 


203. "Possessive A^erbs" is an abbreviated term for: A'erbalized Roots 
with Possessive Sufiixes. 

204. By verbalizing a root, i. e. attaching to it the particles -aii, or: 
-en, or: /-, we obtain verbal nouns, Nomina actionis. If we translate these 
freely, we may use transitive verbs, which are their equivalent in English. 

205. The subject of our transitive verbs is expressed, if it is a personal 
pronoun in English, by the possessive suffixes in Bontoc Igorot. [106] 

aiiapeiitdko our seeking; "we seek" 

fayddjantja their paying; "thev pay" 

itgtok my holding; "I hold" 

tjipdp^na his (her, its) catching; "he (she, it) catches" 

Without possessive endings: and pen or: )ian and pen, seeking, Ger. 
das Suchen; fayddjan, paying (as verbal noun, not participle, in English). 


206. If the English subject of a transitive verb is a substantive, dem- 
-ative or indefinite pronoun, it may precede the Igorot Xom. actionis, or 

onstrative or 
follow it 

207. If the subject precedes the Xom. actionis. it is in the X'ominative 
(Cas. rectus), i. e. a Xominative pendens; the Xom. actionis receives the 
sufifix -na in singular, -fja in plural. 

nan lalctki sibm^na nan kdyVi the man, his cutting: the tree; "the man 

cuts the tree" 
nan fohfafdyi agtdentja nan saktj/lan tlie women, their carrying: the jars 
nan dndnak kanihitja nan nuikan the children, their eating: the rice. 

208. If the "subject" follows the Xom. actionis (a construction 
employed often, particularly after subordinate conjunctions, or in sentences 
introduced by "then, thereupon" [436; 438]), it may be thought to be in the 
genitive. The X'^omen actionis has usually no possessive ending; but see 
[280]. If the Xom. actionis ends in a vowel, the "genitive-indicator" -n 
[42] is attached to it. 

kdnen nan ongonga nan inciting the child's eating: the pounded rice (rice- 
isdcd kandn nan fobfafdllo then the saying of the young men: "then the 

young men say." Or: 
isdtja'd kandn ay fobfafdllo [280] then their saying (of them, namely:) 

the young men. 
flden nan dsB nan Sgsa the dog's seeing: the deer 
fckdslientja nan fobfafdllo nan fdlfcg their throwing, the young men's: 

the spears (better: fekdshen) 
ibfakan todt the asking of this (man) ; "he asks." (Or: sttodi ibfakdna, 

with suffix, because the subject precedes the verb) 

ibfakan: the Xom. act. ibfaka and ligat. -n 
isublin nan fafdyi nan bflak the woman's changing: the money 

tsnblin: the Xom. act. tsubli and ligat. -n 
iigton nan laldki nan kantyab the man's holding: the shield 

tfs.ton: the Xom. act. lif^to and ligat. -n 

209. The substantive subject following the Xomen actionis is evidently 
in a genitive relation to the verbal noun. 


As proof thereof we must consider these facts : 

1 ) The possessive endings of the Nom. act. represent the genitive of 
the personal pronouns; there the agent of our transitives is in the genitive, 
hence also the substantive following the Xom. act. is in genitive. 

2) The ligature or "genitive indicator" -n points unmistakably to the 
following genitive. 

3) The personal article si is omitted, if a proper name or term of kin- 
ship follows the Nom. act. cf. [71 II] 

kctjciig kaiufii Palpaldma thereupon the saying of Palpalama ; or: there- 
upon Palpalama says. 

itdliii Anfc^ro nan kipdngko Antero's returning: my knife 
itSUn: the Nom. act. itoli and ligat. -n 

palftjen todl nan ptnang the sharpening of this man; the ax 
todl: subjective gen. of sitodl. 

210. What appears to our conception as a subjective genitive, is pre- 
sumably a possessive genitive to the mind of the Igorot; to him an action is 
little different from a thing, "because it has a name;" the agent is then the 
"possessor" of this "tiling." However, nouns in juxtaposition, as a Nomen 
regens and the following noun, may be conceived as a comjiound noun In' 
the Is'orot — and others. 

211. If the agent is expressed in English bv a ])ers()nal pronoun and 
shall be em])hasized, it precedes the Xom. act., as a nominative ])endens 
[207], and the Xom. act. has the possessive ending: 

tjaka)iii ICytjennif nan istjd \\"e, our liking: the meat 
sak/^n isdddko nan kahfsayko I, mv laying down : mv shield 

Pjcfore discussing the relation of our direct object to the Nomen acti- 
onis, it is necessary to explain the formation of the Nomen actionis of the 
Possessive Verbs. 

212. If roots shall be formed into Nomina actionis, they receive (after 
certain phonetic changes [220]) one of these verbalizing particles : 

I. the suffix en (but no prefix) 

II. the suffix -an (but no prefix) 

III. the prefix /- (but no suffix) 


213. By combination with one of these particles the root is transformed 
into an Active \'erbal Xoun. The particles indicate that the action named 
by the root passes from the agent to an object. They give the Active \'er- 
bal Xoun transitive force. 

214. The direct object, if not emphasized, follows the verb; if the sub- 
ject is placed after the verb, the direct object comes usually third. 

215. It is impossible in Bontoc Igorot Language to determine — for 
common use! — by the meaning of the root, which of the three verbalizing 
particles must be employed in transforming a root into a Xomen actionis. 
("Common use" means: a verb used in a simple afifirmative declarative main 
sentence, in which no element is emi)hasized, and which is in the active 
voice. ) 

The Latin versus memoriales invented by Spanish gram- 
marians for Tagdloi:; — a rather scholastic than schol- 
arly attempt of classifying verbs according to their 
meaning and form — prove to be a complete failure, if 
applied to Bontoc Igorot Language. — It will be neces- 
sary to memorize each verb as it occurs in common use 
with its proper suffixes -eu, -an. or prefix /-, as given 
here and in the Vocabularv. 

216. Since the Nomen actionis possesses active force — as has become 
evident through many various experiments with the spoken language — the 
relations of the direct ol)jcct or accusative, in our conception, to the Xomen 
actionis with -en is: 

a) Either the object of the Xom. act. is in tlic accusative; it is gov- 
erned by the Xom. act. which has its transitive force in the suffix -en. If 
we represent this transitive force of -en by our verbs "to affect,'' or "to 
concern" or "to innuence." we obtain this translation; 
dptck nan alfzvidko my meeting affects my friend ; Ger. mein Begegnen 

betrifft meinen Freund 
Icytjcnmf tjattja: our liking concerns them 
tokSnena nan ongunga: his advising influences the cliild 


h) Or the object is in the predicative nominative; the transitive force 
of -en may be indicated by words like "aim/" "object:" 
pitdngeny^c nan kdyPt your si)htting-aim (is) : the wood 
aldentdko nan folfeg our taking-object (is): the key 
kdpi'n Ant(?ro nan kdyayig Antero's making-aim (is): the spear 
or: si Antcro kapSna nan kdyang Antero, his making-aim: the spear 
anient ja nan pdkiiy tlieir reaping-aim (is) : the rice 

217. The relation of the object to the Nomen actionis with suffix -an 
is analogous to the construction mentioned in [216], if we assume the pos- 
sibility that -an is probably identical with -a^n, or merely a variation of -^;;, 
in this combination with Nom. actionis. The following theory seems to be 
more plausible: 

-An is the locative particle, as affixed to substantives in [56-58]. The 
object is the place where the action named by the Active Xom. act. "takes 
place," to which it tends; it is the end of the action. We can translate: 

aydkantdko nan aliwidtdko our calling-end (is) : the man 
fadjangantja nan fetsi^l their helping-place (is) : the enemies 
nan fobfafdyi labfdantja nan Idfid the women, their washing-place (is) : 
the skirts. 

( The enumeration of analogous instances, where we find a fusion of 
place with the direct object, in many languages, is beyond the scope of this 
book. ) 

218. The relation of the ol)ject to Nomina actionis with the prefix i- 
appears to be the same as that to Nom. act. with -en ; i- performs here a 
similar function as -en does there; /- directs the action towards the aim, the 

(/- may be compared with our prefix be- in bespeak, bestride, befall; 
or it may represent the preposition is ; and may then be compared with : 
invade, offend, persuade, provide, and other prepositional compounds.)* 

* However convenient for minds trained, to some extent, in Latin the Doctrine of the Three 
Passives has appeared, centuries ago, to its inventor, and however credulously his disciples clung to 
this perverse interpretation of the Active Verbal Xoun (Nom. actionis) in Tagalog and in the dia- 
lects of several other tribes — in the Bontoc Igorot Language the Verbal Noun is certainly not passive, 
but active in its character. 

If a Passive is wanted, there is one on hand, in all tenses and moods of Igorot [265-276] : prefix 
ma- -|- root -f- personal endings. Experiments with the Igorot by means of their own vernacular (but 


In certain cases i- points to a per si in in whose behalf another acts, and 
to the tool which a person nses in performing' or executing that whicli the 
Xoni. act. names. 

ffafoiii^ko nail soklongiia my hidinc;- affects his hat. mv liiding-oljiect : his 

if(iliyi4 nan siilad ken Ohishan your giving l)ack (is) the letter, to Oloshan. 
itsaotsdoko nan istja is nan (isp/ my giving-aim : the meat, to the dog 
isibJna nan pfnant^ is nan Icdyn his cutting-tool: the ax. for the wood. 
ikahak sika is nan tf/fay my i)roviding-aim ( with the spear ) : you. 

not through interpreters) proved iniH^piitablv their correct consciousness of an active and a passive 

The fact that the Three Passives Fallacy has been propagated in good faith for about two cen- 
turies and is still indefatigably copied and republislied and taught, shows (as also other factors do) 
how necessary it is to revise and to compare the "Artes" of time-honored "authorities" and the entire 
material of sacred books, catechisms, confessionals, prayer books, with the living dialects spoken by 
the natives. The result of such future careful investigations into the people's vernacular, the collec- 
tion of tales and songs in the unbiased dialects of the different tribes ought to be most welcome to 
Comparative Philologists who seem to rely only on the unreliable material at hand, faute de mieux, 
material collected by unphilological compilers, with a few admirable exceptions, such as Totancs, Min- 

The un felicitous term of the Three Passives (which may have sprung from its originator's in- 
ability to distinguish between the Gerundium and the Gerundivuni) was employed unscrupulously in 
many grammars and learned articles and papers onvarious Philippine dialects; Bontoc Igorot excepted. 
The Three Passives and their alleged application occur, for instance, in : 

Fr. Francisco Lopez, Gram. Ilocana (1628), corregida y aumentata por el P. Carro, 3. edic. 
Malabon 1896; p. 151. [aramiden: ser hecho, o lo que es hecho]. 

Fray Sebastian de Totanes, Arte de la Lengua Tagala, Sampaloc 1796, p. 31, reiniprcso Manila 
1850, p. 29, 30, 31 ff. Binondo 1865, p. 28, 29, 30 flf. 

Toribio Minguella de las Mercedes, Ensayo de Gramatica Hisp.-Tagala,, Manila 1878, p. 37-41. 

Const. Lendoyro, The Tagalog Language, etc. Manila 1902, p. 83 ff. 

P. Fr. Raymundo Lozano, Cursos de L. Panayana, Manila 1876, p. 36, 2i7, 41. 42. 

P. Fr. Jose Naves, Gram. Hisp.-Ilocana (1876), 2. edic. Tambobong 1892. p. 217, 337. 

Alonso Mentrida, .Arte de la L. Bisaya-Hiligayna, de la Isla de Panay) Manila 1818, p. 45, 52, 
6(\ 72. Corrcgido por el P. Jose .■\paricio, Tambobong 1894, pp. 60-81. 

Fr. Felix Guillen, Gram. Bisaya, Malabon 1898, p. 54 ff. 
Fr. Ramon Zueco, Metodo del Dr. Ollendorff . . . adaptado al Visaya, Manila 1884, p. 18 ff. 

Fr. Joaquin de Coria, Nueva Gram. Tagalog, Madrid 1872, p. 165, 169, 171-177 ff. 

P. Jacinto Juanmarti, Gr. de la L. de Maguindanao, Manila 1892, p. 41-47. 

P. Fr. Francisco de S. Josef, Arte y Reglas de la L. Tagala, 1832 (imprenta nueva de Don Jose 
Maria Dayot, por Tomas Oliva), p. 129 ff. 

Fr. Jose Hevia Campomanes, Lecciones de Gram. Ilispano-Tagala, Manila 1872, p. 70 ff. 3 ed. 
1S83. p. 76-91; 4 cd. 1888, p. 76 ff. 

I'r. Diego Bergaiio, Arte de la L. Pampanga, nucvam. anad. 1736, p. 44-65. 

Fr. Jose Maria Fausto de Cuevas, .Arte nucvo do la L. Ybanag, Manila 1854. 2 ed. p. 143 ff. (de 
los verbos pasivos de simple significacion). 

R. P. Fr. Francisco Encina, Arte . . . L. Cebuana, 2 ed. Tambobong 1895, p. 77. 

Mariano Cuartero, Arte del Idioma Bisaya-Hiligaino, Guadalupe 1896,, p. 42. 

Julius Miles, Metodo teorico-practico . . . L. Tagalog, Barcelona 1887, p. 45. 

Prof. Dr. Renward Brandstetter : Tagalen und Madagassen, Luzcrn 1902, p. 66; but cf. Brand- 
stetter, Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen, p. 35, Sect. 66. 

.•\ristide Marre, Granunairc Tagalog, s'Gravenhage 1902, p. 35-37. 


(Sentences like the last cannot be translated literally, not even by the 
most barbarous distortion of our idiom. They will be treated in other 
chapters, where it will be shown, how even the indirect object, the instru- 
ment and other elements can be made the subject, or the direct object of 
special forms of the Nonien actionis. ) 

The discussion of the constructions in the examples of -en, -an, i- Verbs 
given in [216-218] was attempted for the purpose of facilitating- translation 
and retranslation and with the assumption that there were in Bontoc 
Igorot cases of the substantive, distinctions between nominative and accu- 
sative, which do, in fact, not exist ; the Bontoc Igorot does not distinguish 
between Casus rectus and obliquus. 

Prof. Dr. H. Kern, Over de Taal der Philippijnsche Negrito's. In : Bijdragen tot de Taal- 
Land-en Volkenkunde van Neerlandsch Indie, 1882, VI Deel, 2, p. 246. 

Sprachvergl. Bemerk. z. Negrito Vocabular, IX. Bd. d. Publicat. aiis d. Kgl. Ethnographischen 
Museum zu Dresden, fol. 49. 

Georg von der Gabelentz, Sprachwissenschaft, 2 Aufl., p. 363. 

Friedrich Miiller, Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, II. Bd. II. Abtli., p. 137. (The Passive 
in the Tagala). Miiller adds to "this was eaten by you" : "this be your eating; dies sei dein Essen" 
as being "more exact" ! 

James Byrne, in his excellent work, full of deep thoughts. General Principles of the Structure 
of Language, Vol. I, p. 272, on Tagala, shows better intuition when quoting sect. 58 of the Grammar 
by Francisco de S. Josef, where he distinguishes between "more" and "less" passive elements : p. 274, 
"the passive element prevails most in the i- conjugation" . . . ; p. 275. 1.3 "the -in and -an conjuga- 
tions are less passive." 




219. The root receives the suffix -en and the possessive endings which 
designate the agent. 

In singular the )i of -eii is dropped (absorbed), when the endings are 
added. As the Nom. act. ends, after dropping ;/, in the vowel e, the singu- 
lar endings are: 
-k (for: ko), -III (for: -mo) ; the combinations are therefore: -ck,-em [-/»/], 

-eiia [-ona]. 
Root: fckash Nom. act. fckdsJii'n "to throw;" fckdshck, fekdsliem, 

220. Before taking the verbalizing afifix -en, the root midergoes cer- 
tain phonetic changes. If the last syllable of the root contains a short e 
(and in some cases an a), it is syncopated. 

The final media is changed to tenuis; final b preceded by a, 0, iPt, u 
changes into /". Final (/ changes in Bontoc Igorot into dj or //; other towns 
retain (/; Init if final d is preceded by a consonant, after e lias been synco- 
pated, it changes to t. Between the final diphthong ao [aff] and -ck the 
consonant zv is often inserted. 






I make 
(lit. "my making") 





I cut 

"my cutting' 



I meet 



I divide 



I climl) 



1 make 



I want, like 



I eat 



1 bind 



1 drink 



1 wii)e 



I seek 



I sting 



I lose 



I cook 



1 pierce 

k't'k [/> 

H^tkck] ki 

^n^kck T know 



I pull 

/ asa 


1 read 




1 pursue 




b sikpck I enter 


bisk/ck I tear 

fayit fdyiick I pound rice 


fckdshck I throw 



Root kan eat 

Root ila 

see Root fckash throw 

Norn. act. k(fiicn 

Noni. act. 

ilaen Nom. act. fckdshen 






kdnein [kchiiin] 

flat'm [fla 

iiii] fckdshcm [fckdshiin] 


kan^na [kandna\ 








incl. kancntdko 




excl. kdnemnf 








kail thi t ja [ ka)i Jii fsa ] 



222. The accent is in i. singular ahvays on the paenultima. The accent 
of the 3. singular is on the antipaenultima, if the i. singular has more than 
two syllables; but on the paenultima, if the i. singular has only two syl- 
lables. The same rule holds for the dual and 3. plural. Lengthening occurs 
only in the 3. singular, if it is accented. 

In the I. excl. and 2. plural the ultima is short and accented; also the 
anti-paenultima is slightly accented. 

The ending of the i. incl. plural has a sharp accent: -fdko; the sec- 
ond vowel before this ending has a slight accent. 


223. The root, changed as with the -en verbs [220], receives the (loca- 
tive) sufifix -an and the possessive endings ; the 11 of the suffix -an is dropped 
(or absorbed) in the singular. 

Root : faiigeb Nom. act. tdngfan to close tdngfak, tdngfam, tangfdna 

etc. I close 


fay ad faydfjak I pay 

fadjang fadjdngak I help 

ka/i°ib ka/mfak \ka/mpak\ I dig 

lago lagSak I buy 


fukaB fftkaiommk I call 

uash udshak I wash 

pt?( pmak I burn 

fatek fdfkak I tattoo 




Par ad 



tangeb close 


ayag call 


tckiiah open 

Nom. act. 



, act. 


Xom. act. 















tan gf lint a 



I. incl. 




L excl. 












For the accents see [. 



225. The unchanged root receives the prefix /-. which is sometimes 
contracted with an initial / of the root. /- before an initial vowel (except /) 
is often pronounced iy- or V- 

ifgtok and fgtok I hold. iydik or ydik I bring 

The possessive endings of the i. and 2. singular are -ko, -mo, if the 
root terminates in a consonant or diphthong; but -k, -//;, if in a vowel. The 
final media is sometimes chansfed into the tenuis. 



Root : 

djua give 



: toU give back 


labo begin 

Nom. act. 




, act. itiili 

Nom. act. 











id j liana 




id j data 



L incl. 




I. excl. 

id j dam I 














d']xi show 


ton id plant 


Root : tsaotsao 


: di 

phthong) give 

Nom. act. 





Nom. ; 


. itsdotsao 

















I. incl. 




I. excl. 












For th 

e accents see 


227. It must be distinguished wliether an initial i is the prefix of the i- 
conjugation, or whether initial ;' belongs to the root; in the latter case the 
verb belongs to the -en or to the -an conjugation, as for instance: 

iydpck I count; Fnnnick I drink; itjdsak I find; tkak I do; 
fznak I hold. 

228. Observation. — Verbs ending in the i. singular in -ak belong to 
one of the three different conjugations : 

a) to the personal verbs: tunniktjdak I sit; 2. sing, tiinnikfj/fka; I. incl. 


b) to the -an verbs: itjasak I find; I. incl. itjdsantdko (with n!) 

c) to the i- verbs: ibfdkak I ask; I. incl. ibfdkatdko (without n!) 

Personal verbs can be recognized in many cases by the particles nni 
and /;/, or by their intransitive meaning. In order to distinguish between 
the -an and the /- verbs, the ;'- verbs in common use are given here: 

ibfdkak I ask fstjak I ea.t meat [/fsfjak] isapatdak I swear 

idjf/ak I give hdak I take home an oath (Ilo- 

fpaifizvak I forbid fsdkdnak I prepare cano?) 

ipdflak I show ikisiiak I stir with a spoon iyf/yak I let 

229. The Nomina actionis of /'- verbs which end in a vowel, receive 
the ligature ("genitive indicator") ;/, if a singular subject follows them 
[42, 208 f.]. 



kctjcng idjcian fna nan tindpay ken andkna and tlicii the mother gives 

some bread to her child; (idjifa + lig. -;; ) 
ngCv^ nan isdan Fangedf "what (is) the l)ringing home of Fanged?" 

what does Fanged bring home? (isda + hg. n) 
ildbon nan fafdyi ay cntsiino ''the woman's beginning to work,"" the 

woman begins to work {ildbo + Hg. n) 
ngdg nan iydin nan alhvidna? what (is) the bringing of his friend? what 

does his friend bring? {iydi [ydi] + Hg. n) 

(This lig. -;/ should not be mistaken for a final consonant of the Nom. 



230. The "^Augment.'" The characteristic of the Preterite of the Pos- 
sessive \'erbs is the Particle /;;, the "Augment." [179] 

231. In- is prefixed to verlis of the -en and -an class beginning with 
a vowel or diphthong"; but -in- is infixed, or placed between the initial con- 
sonant and the following vowel of verbs beginning with a consonant. 

fadjdngak finadjdngak I helped 
tsnbldck tsindblak I smoked 

[tju-; fj is taken as one con.sonant! ] 
sibdck sinfbok I cut 

fguak intgnak 1 held 

I'nfak infnfak I covered 



I took 



I boiled 


i not ok 

I cooked 



I called 



1 did 



1 rubbed 

232. \"erbs of the /'- conjugation take /;;- as a i)refix, but drop their /-: 

id j dak indjdak I ga\-e 

itsaotsdoko intsaotsdoko I gave 

tbfdkak hifdkak I asked 

itdlik fntolik T returned 

But if the augment, when ])refixed, would cause the accunuilation of 
consonants, /- is retained: 

igtok infgtok 1 held 


ftnok iiiffnok I used as tool 
fsfjak in/stjak I ate meat 

233. A'erbs with the causative prefix pa- [295] take regularly /;/- as a 
prefix : 

papilsfck I make poor, inpapf/sik 

pddfoitgck. inpadtoiigko I made warm 

paogiddek, inpaogiddko I caused to fear, I frightened 

Likewise those with the authoritative prefix /^a- : 

patckudfck, inpafckudbko I ordered to open 

padlfck, inpadlik I made go 

pasikpck, inpaskc' pko I ordered to go into 

234. A'erbs with prefixes with initial in change this into n in the pre- 
terite. (Such prefixes are: ma-, iiiang-, iniii-, iiiaka-, iiiiki- etc., the force 
of which will be treated later.) 

235. Notice the changes of the Preterite forms of these Verbs: 

The \'erl)s: have in the Preterite: 

iifiiiniinck I think ninimnimko 

endjuadjudck I doubt ncndjuadjudck 

engkasldngck I mix nenkasldngck 

enkakaozi'dck I place in midst nenkakaowdek 

scsiinkek I remember scsininckko 

pi fuck I break pintcngko 

pitnek I fill pinok 

fj<-^itg/i^gck I hear tjhig/ngck 

sikpck I enter sinkSpko 

kekkek I know kintekko 

ISytjck I like lincyddko 

yddngekek I do with energy iiivadngckck 

ti'lkck I pierce tinlekko 

tc'pitgek I measure tinpcngko 

kdnak I say kinzvdnik 

singtek I sting sininzetko 




fckdshck I throw 
sddek I expect 
hnsek I wash 
tsnnock I work 


Other more or less anomalous preterite forms are given in the \'ocab- 

The Suffixes and Endino-s in the Preterite 

236. Verbs of the -an conjugation keep -an in the preterite. 
Verbs of the -en conjugation drop the suffix -en. 
Verbs of the /- conjugation drop the ])refix /-. [-3- 


237. Since the Nomen actionis of the -<7;; and /- verljs is not changed 
in its final sound, the preterite of the -an and /- conjugations has the same 
endings as the present: in the i. singular k after final vowel, ko after 
final consonant. But -en verl)s take the possessive endings directly to their 
roots. Hence they end, in i. and 2. singular in -ko. -mo, if the root ter- 
minates in a consonant, but in -k, -;;;, if the root has a final vowel. (A few 
exceptions are given below.) 






fayad pay 

-faka ask 

-fiicg take along 

Noni. act. 








Preterite i. 

finaydtjak I paid 

infdkak I asked 

infui^gko I took along 













1. inch 




I. excl. 
















ala take 

kmuo( move 

kalab climb 

kail eat 

Nom. act. 

aid en 









Preterite i. 





I took 

I moved 

I climbed 

I ate 










kind II a 





kind lit a 

I. incl. 





I. excl. 















So: otdck I cook; iiuitok 
fayiick I pound; findyiik 
aiitck I reap; indiiik 
inftck I boil; infiiitko 
andpck I seek; indnapko 
dptck I meet : iiidfctko 
dktsdkck I drop ; iiuiktsdkko 
idpck [ydpck] I count ; iiiyd pko 
falotjck I bind ; fiiialotko 

ildck I see ; iiillak 
sibdck I cut ; sinfbok 
kapidek I pray; kind piak 
fmdshck I finish; fiiiPidshko 
falfnck I turn over; finaliiigko 
iikdyck I let alone ; iiittkdyko 
kdpck I make; kiiiadpko 
ipffck I press ; iuipftko 
afo'iick I remove; indtongko 
loiilOiick I roll ; Unonlon^ko 

tjatdkck I divide; tjinatakko 

See also [335], where some anomalous preterite forms are given 

238. A few verbs end in preterite in -ck; as the dual and plural show, 
thev do not drop the sufiix -en. Their preterite endings are the same as 
their endings in the present. Those found are: 

diignck I make; indngnck 

tjcng/ngek I hear ; tjiiig/iigck 

endjuadjiidck I doubt; nciidjuadjndck [235] 

engkasldngck I mix; lu'ngkasldiigck [235] 

enkakaozvdck I put in midst; nciikakaozvdck [22,^] 

kdozvek {kaozvdk\ I caress; kindozvck [kinaozvok] 

yadngekek I do with energy ; inyadiigckck 

ipddngck [ipddiigok] I insult ; tiipadiigck [fiipadiigok], (probably an i- 

itjfikck I tell, warn; iiitjf/kck, (probably an /- verb: itjdkok) 


239. The preterite of verbs with inserted w is: 

fckk°rnvck I borrow; teuk°iiko 

pitsidwck I cross ; pinitsioko 

tjongdowck I lose; tjinongdoko 

paaymek I insult ; inpaaymko 

lushkdozvek I pierce; limishkaoko 

apaydozvck I pursue ; inapaydoko 

palakdidwck I ward off (a stroke) ; iupalakdioko [^t,;^] 

ak°r/wck [ak'°i1ck] I siti\\\ inak°/1ko 

240. Intervocalic / in the present is dropped in the preterite of : 

pafktVck [pafkiilck] I stop; inpdtkek [iupdfkok] 
fddlck I send out ; fiiidak 

Thus 3' before the ending of tapaydyck [tapaydck] I carry in my hand 
is dropped in the preterite: tiiiapdyak. 

totciyck I speak to; I address, has in the preterite: tinotOyak. 
faySkck [fatkek] I whip; findyko 

(See [235] and the Vocabulary.) 


241. In the Future the particle ad- [«/-] is prefixed to the forms of 
the present ; ad- is not assimilated. 

adkdnck I shall eat; adfadjdngak I shall help; adildbok I shall 
l)cgin; adaldc'na he will take; adpttncnyd you will break; 

adkdp(}ntja they will make. 


242. The particle cd \ct\, 'd ['/] indicates in some cases a "conjunc- 
tive" [191] ; it follows the verb. (Various modal ideas, expressed by aux- 
iliaries, adverbs etc., will be discussed in later chapters.) 

kdneni cd j'ou ought to, you should eat, you would eat. 
sagfdtck cd I should carry, I would carry. 
ibfakatdko'd we ought to ask, we should ask. 


THE imperative; 

243. The Imperative has the same forms as the Present Indicative; 
the conjunction ta, that, (expressing the voHtive or purpose) precedes some- 
times the I. person dual and plural, rarely singular. Also forms with fol- 
lowing cd [242] serve to express a less exacting command or a request. 

kamiieni! kami<enyi?(! hasten! tgtom! tgtoym holdfast! 

ta paddyentdko nan f^tsi'^l! let us kill the enemies! 

ildck cd nan piiyo I ought to see the rice plantation, let me see... 


244. The Nomen actionis corresponds to our 'Tnfinitive." Its char- 
acter and formation have been treated in [204, 212, 213 fl:'.] for the Present 

In the Preterite the possessive endings of the Indicative are dropped: 

kina^pko I made : kiniicb; inotok I cooked: inoto; inaydkak I 
called: inaydkan; lincyddko I wanted, liked: lineyad; infakak 
I asked: infaka; intonitko I planted: intonid. 

(As -an verbs retain -an in the indicative of the preterite [236], -an 
is also kept in the Nom. act. of the preterite: infkan, "the having made" 
(to have made). 

finayddjan "the having paid," linagOan "having bought." 

245. Observe the Nom. act. in the preterite of these verbs: 

indngnck I made: indngnen 
tjing/ngek I heard: fjing/ngd [tj'mg/ngdy] 
kindozvck I caressed, embraced : kindozvo 
inyadngckck I did with energy : inyadngekd 
inpddngck I insulted: inpddngd [inpddngoy] 
inpddkck I stopped : inpddko 

246. The Nom. act. in the future is formed by prefixing ad- to the 
Nom. act. of the present : adkdpen, "to be about to make," adibfaka "to 
be about to ask." It is used rarely; regularly the present takes its place. 



247. The Nomen agcntis is formed by addin"- lo the root tlic prefixes: 
mang- for the present; naiig- for tlie ])reterite; adiuaiig- for the future. 
After the Sandhi rules given in [ 1 1 | lining- clianijes to main- or man-. 
The ])refix of verbs with initial / is //;/;/-, ;;/»-, admin-: the onlv posses- 
sive \'erb, which was found to begin with ;;, takes min-: nlmniinck,\ think; 
Nom. ag. : ;»z;;;?/;//;n';;/, thinking or thinker. See [176; 192]. 

24S. The Nomen agentis denotes the agent of the action indicated bv 
the root; it corresponds frequently to our Nom. ag. as: writer, singer, 
reader, orator. If used attributively with a substantive, connected by «v, 
it can be translated by our participles in active. 

nan fofcfyi oy mangitonid the woman as planter, the planting woman, the 
woman who plants. 

249. The Nomen agentis is a concrete noun and takes as such regu- 
larly the article nan. 

250. The Nomen agentis governs an object; this is inv;iriablv pre- 
ceded by the preposition is [\s% '.?//, si]. Before nouns which take the per- 
sonal article, ken is employed. — (Here the construction with is. respectivclv 
hen, represents, in our conception, an objective genitive.) 

nan mangcu'h is nanncly ay fufay the maker of this spear: he who makes 

this spear. 
nan mangdyag ken AgpciL'Vivan the caller of Agpauwan; the one calling 

nan lutngan si sa the one having eaten this 
nan mainalBd kSn todi the one who fetters him 
nan naiigfla ken sfka the one who saw you 

251. If a verl) has the causative or aulhorilati\-e prefix f2<)5J /it?-, this 
is changed to if^a- when inang- is ])relixed. 

pdCitSngek I make warm; nan mangipdatong 
pdalfck 1 cause to come ; nan mangipadli 


252. Mang- changes sometimes to iiiiiig-, if the verb has an initial /'. 
Fsublik I change; nan rnangisffbli or nan mingisubli 

253. /- Verbs retain / after niang-; -an verbs drop -an in the Nom. ag. 

itsa&ftsdioiko I give; nan )nangitsdi''{tsaPC tlie giver, giving 
fgtok Iliold; nan inaugfgto the holder 
fnkdpnvak I call; nan inanii1kai<^c the caller 
fadsdngak I help; nan manufdsang the helper 

But rt;j- is retained in : fkak. I do; uiangikan. dktak, I give; 
mangdktan; and in some others which are dissyllabic in i. sing, present. 

254. The Nomen agentis does not take the personal endings in phrases 
like : I am the writer, you are the helper, we are the makers. In such 
constructions the personal pronouns (or sul)stantives) precede the unchanged 
Nom. ag. 

sak/thi nan mangdcb is nan kaldsay I am the maker of the shield. 
slka nan mangydi's nan kdyp( you are the bringer of the wood. 
siya nan ndngan is nan indkan^ he is the one who ate the food (rice). 
tjatdko nan niainddsang ken tjaftja we are the helpers of them; it is we 
who help them. 

255. Only a limited number of Nomina agentis formed thus from 
verbal roots are treated as personal verbs ; such are : 

tsnbldck I smoke; N. ag. mannbla; Pers. verb: nianubldak, mannbldka, 

mantibla etc. 
kdnck I eat; N. ag. mangan; Pers. verb: nidngdnak, inangdngka, nidngan, 

inanganfdko etc. 

Thus niaindkaak I go head-hunting, from fakdkck; niatndknakak 
I go to work, from fokndkck. See [176; 177]. 

256. Examples of Nomina agentis derived from the present indicative: 
Verbs with initial vowel : 
andpck I seek niangdnab{p) itafongko I hide mangitdfon 


aldck I take mangdla tgtok T hold mangfgto 

iydik I l)ring' mangiydi [}iiangyai] ogpdtck \\n\\\7i\\:\.y inangdgpad{t) 

inftck I boil iiiaiigfnid(f) otdck I boil mangoto 

dfoik I weave inaugdfoy iidslwk I wash maugdasli 

abfoldick \ believe mangabfdlPni ukdtjak I cut the neck iiiaiigdkaf{(l) 

angangdck I love mangangango ukdyck I let alone mangdkay 

egzvdtck I lift mangcgzvadit) ipCitlak I show ("make see") 

idjdak I give maiigidjda uiangipafla 

\'erbs with initial />, /", p. (but not causative pa-^ : 

biskfck I tear inaiii/ski paddyck T slay, kill mamddoy 

fangonek I awake inoiiidiigdii pikStck I curve mamikot[d] 

fakdshek I dash, l)reak iiiaindkash potlougck I cut oft' maiiiotloiig 

fmdslick I finish manwiasli pilfck T choose luainfli 

faydtjak I pay inanidyat(d) 

W^rbs with the causative prefix pa-: 

papusfck I make poor niaiigipapdsi padjaldck I make bloody 
pafitjdngck I make burn maitgipadjdla 

viangipafitjang patuktjdck I set mangipatdktjn 
pah°(dkck I make boil inaiigipaldiag 

pangnydshck I aftlict mangipangdyush 

A'erl)S with initial d, f, s, ds. dj. fs. tj. sli : 

dasidck I roast iiiaiiasfo tokdiick I advise, teach iiiaiidkoii 

digkdck I bend maii/gko sagfdfck I carry iiiaiid gfat[d] 

fckiidfak I open inanokuab sibdek I cut inanfbo 

suntck \ turn inandni tjatdkck I divide maiidtak 

sis/tak I sweep nianfs/i tjongdozi'ck I lose iiuviouga/^ 

suUick I learn inaiidlii tsiddek I open my eye nianiad 

soiigsongck I smell iiiaiioiigsojig tjciWeinak T irrigate inaneu^in 
siibdkak I blow luaiidbok [)naiidiilfi>n] 

\'crbs with initial g, k: 

gatldek [katldek] I divide into three parts maiigdflo 

kildyak I peal uiangHay kagdek I chew mangdga 

kdnek I eat mdngan 

\'erl)s with initial /: 

lafdkck I cut up (animals) langOck I dry uiinldngo 

iiiifildfak lafdsliak I undress luliildfosli 

labfdak I wash (cloth) miiddbfa lidSdck I hurt by bending 
lagdak 1 buy niinldgo Diiitlfdod 


lakatjick I saw lonWnek I roll minlonlon 

minldkcitji (Ilocano) likitshek I turn minlfknsii 

\erbs with ;/, 11^: 

nfninhnck I think im'iinfiiuiim ngotngotak I gnaw minngotngot 

The following- list (to be supplemented from the Vocabulary) contains 
some \'erbs with more or less anomalous Nomina agentis. In many of these 
forms we recognize the root which has been transformed to make the pres- 
ent and which appears again in the Nom. agentis: 

dktak I give luaiigdktaii [-53] 
dngnck I make iiiaiigditgnen 
dptck I meet niangcffcd 
fddlck I send out iiiaiiuid 
fayekck I whip miDiiaig 
fekdshek I throw indmkas [mduikasJi] 
feleyek I tire iiidinley 
tgnak I hold uiangignan 
ikak I do niangtkan 
kdnak I speak luaiigwdiii 
kdpek I make uiangdeb[p^ 
kMfak I bite inaiigt^'dfaii 
kSkkek I know mdngtck 
Hdshck I surround miiilfzvish [miiilfiisli] 
pitnck I break mdmten [nidmetcu] 
pdak \piiak] I destroy by fire i>idiiunH 
pinek I fill mdmnm 
sddek I expect maned 

scseiukek I remember vidiuiick [iiioiudiniick] 
sibfdtck I answer mdnfad{i\ 
sikpck I enter mdnkcp [mdngkep] 
singtek I sting maningcd[t] 

suliiok [siildok] I teach siiiiidlio^ (the partic. of the personal verb, not 
the N. ag., probably to distinguish from iiiaiidh^t, of: siildck learn) 
tdugfak I close mandngch 
telkek I pierce (ears) mdnlck 
tSnimck I press mdnuwy 
tepngek I measure indnpeng 
tjeng/ngck I hear mdii/iigd [indn/iigdy] 
tjipdpck I catch iiidiipab[p] 
totoyck I address, speak to iiianotSya 


tsnndek I work mdn/nm 

yddngekek I do with energy ininyadni^ckb\dy] 

257. The Nomen agentis does not admit the personal endings, as has 
been stated [254] ; l)Ut in certain constructions (such as "relative clauses" 
with our "relative" in dative; or in interrogative sentences with "to whom?" 
where? when? etc.) it takes the locative suffix -an, and, in addition, the pos- 
sessive endings; the result are these untranslatable forms: 

mangitsdotsao "giver" mangidjiia "giv^er" mangdeb[p] "maker" 

1. mangitsaotsdoak mangidjiidak niangdc'pak 

2. niangitsaotsdomn mangidjiiaam viangdepaui 

3. iiiangifsaofsdodiia mangidjuddua mangdepdna 
D. inaugitsaotsdoaufo Jiiaugidjiidaiita uiangdepatita 

I. inch Jiiaiigifsaofsaoaiifdko mangidjudantdko mangdepantdko 
I. excl. niaugitsaofsdodmiu iiiaugidjiidaiun/ uiaiigac'pdiiiii/ 
n. iitangitsaotsdoany/t maiigidjiidanyn iiiangdcpdnyH 

HI. iiiangifsoofsdoanfja iiiaiigidjndantja mangdc'pdtitja 
A few examples anticijjated from a later chai)ler will show the use of 
these forms ; 
nan laldki ay nangitsaotsdoantako is nan kanfyab "the man to whom we 

have given the shield." 
into nan nan/ngSlani is )ian aydyani? "where did you hear the bird?" 

(the / in nan/ngSlain is eu])honic; [16]) 
,s-/;/;/ nan mangitsaotsdoan nan fafdyi is nan hildkna? "to whom does the 
woman give her money?" (since the subject follows, the ending -na 
is dropped.) 
into nan niangitafOndna is nan tdfay? "where does he hide the spear?" 
into nan admangdepan nan alhvidino is nan dfongnaF "where will your 

friend build his house?" 
kad nan niangdepanyn is nan fobdngak? "when do you make my pipe?" 
into nan mangipdyak si sa? "where shall T put this?" 

(These examples are given here merely to show the forms of the Nom. 
ag., but not to illustrate the construction of these sentences!) 

It becomes evident, from these examples, that the Nom. agentis has 
been transformed into a Nom. actionis. 

It is necessary to use, in Active, the Xomen agentis (but not the verbal 
stem) of a possessive verb, when the locative suffix -a)i shall be added; e. g. 
if -an shall be suffixed to andpck, I seek, it cannot be suffixed directly to 
the stem anap, but must be suffixed to the Nomen agentis: mangdnapan. 
See examples: [331, 333, 335]. 



258. The Verbal Forms treated in [205 to 257] are those commonly 
used. They are perfectly sufficient to connect in declarative main sentences 
the usual elements of a sentence: subject, predicate, direct and indirect 
object, place, instrument, time, manner, etc., with each other. We find, how- 
ever, in this Language rarely more than two adverbial phrases (besides sub- 
ject, predicate and object) in one sentence. 

But by employing special verbal forms the person in whose 
behalf, for whom an action is performed, or the instrument used in the action, 
or the place, time, cause, where, when, why the action takes place, took, will 
take place, can be made the "subject" or "object," as we should say. If 
this construction is chosen by the Bontoc Igorot, the other elements are 
governed by the prepositions is and kcii, as the examples will show. 

(But these prepositions are omitted after Passive Verbal Nouns with 
the locative suffix -an; see the first four examples on page 105). 

259. Thus for instance the equivalent for: "we kill the wild buffalo 
with the spears in the forest" is in common conversation: 

padSyciifdko nan ayaivan is iiaii pcigpcig is nan titfay (our killing-aim: 
the buft'alo, in the forest, with the spears) 

But we shall find forms of the verb which enable us to say: 

Our killing-place: the forest, for the buffalo, with spears; or 

Our killing-tool : spears, for the buffalo, in the forest ; or, if we kill the 

animal for a friend, for his wedding feast : 
Our killing "benefits": the friend, (killing of) the buft'alo in the forest. 

All these sentences are constructed by means of certain verbal forms 
made from one and the same root. But not all roots seem to be capable of 
being thus transformed; while some can not be used thus on account of 
their meaning, others are not used thus for idiomatic reasons. 

260. The rules for the special verbal forms, for their use and their 
corresponding combination with prefixes, suffixes and endings are firmly 
established; while no definite rules can be stated for the forms of the -en, 


-an and i- verbs in their common use [215], i. e. no reason can be 
found, why a possessive verb made from a verbal root belongs, in its com- 
mon use, to the -an, or to the -e)i, or to the i- Conjugation respectively. 

261. The combination: i + Root + an + possessive endings is used, if 
the person f o r \v h o m an action takes place shall be made the ''object'" 

of a transitive verb. 

kdpck I make ; Root kaeb : i + kab + an + ko becomes, after dropping n 
and adding k to the final a: tkdbak "1 provide a man by making" 

tkabak sftodl is tnfay I make a spear for him 

(In common discourse: kdpck nan t/1fay ken todi.) 

lotdak )taii lalaUiki is iiuikan I cook food for tlie men; or also: fotdak is 

mdkan nan lalaldki; (In c. d. : otoek nan mdkan is nan lalaldki) 
fpaddyak nan tdkB is fdtui^ I kill pigs for the people 
iydiak is shigsing nan aliividko I l)ring a ring to my friend 
iotoantdko nan ongdnga's mdkan we cook food for the children 
isibdak si ina is kdyo I cut down a tree for the mother (In c. d. : sibdck 

nan kdyo ken ina) 
idigkdak slka is nan Idlo I l)end the stick for you 
itpapak tjdttja is nan aydyain I catch the birds for them (tjipdpek: I 

ialdannii nan fobfafdyi is nan kdtj''l°( we catch the fish for the women 

(In c. d. : aldennil nan kdtfn is nan fobfafdyi) 
ilabfdantja nan fohfafdllo nan zvdnis they wash the breech-cloth for the 

fpttdngana sak/on is nan kdyo he splits the wood for me 

tnpitangana: he split... adipitdngana: he will split. . . 
nan auidina fkdpdna stka is nan kdnfyab the old man makes for you a 

nan mamaindgkid ikldyanfja fja/fja'sli tdki the girls peal "toki" for them 
inlagdam si Antero is ktpan you bought a knife for Antero 
adisagfdtannil slka is nan kdngni^innio we shrill carry your baggage 

("things") for you 
itekndfani nan dpo is nan pdnguan! ()])en the door for the master! 

262. The combination: i -j- Root -I- possessive suffixes is used, if the 
instrument or tool used in making something shall be treated as the 


"object" of a transitive verb. (In i. and 2. singular -ko or -mo is added to 
roots ending in a consonant or diphthong, otherwise the endings are: -k 
or -;;/) potlongck I cut off; Root potlong\ ipotloiigko 'T use as tool" 
or: my tool is.... 

ipotloiigko nan pfnang is nan Olo I cut off the head with the ax 
istbom nan pfnang is nan kcfyo you cut down the tree with the ax 
ikokStnii nan kfpan is nan istjd wc cut the meat with the knife 
iOto\i°( nan cipuy is nan nidkan you cook the rice with tlie fire 
idigkok nan Ifniak is nan IcHo 1 l)cnd the stick with my hand 
itpdpna nan U'ngcn is nan ayayaui he catclies the liirds with the snare 
iCildtdko nan Okad is nan katj^'Pt we catch the fish with the net 
ildfdtja nan sdffin is nan fddson they wash the coat with soap 
infdigna nan lolo'sh nan dsPt he struck the dog with the stick 
ipifdngyB nan zvdsay is nan kdyo! split the wi:)od with the ax! 
adika^pko nan kdyo is nan dfong I shall make the house of wood (mate- 
rial, not instrument! ) 
ikld\tja nan kfpan is nan toki thev peal the "toki" with the knives, 

ildgonii nan falfdog si nOang we buy the cattle with (for) gold 
tsdgfatnii nan pokdnii nan dgPtb we carry the boxes on our shoulders 
itangSpko nan tolfeg is nan pdngnan I close the door with the key 
ifjataktdko nan kfpan is nan dind pay we divide the bread with the knive 

intcknd pko nan tdlog is nan dgPdi J opened the box with a chisel 
ftnick nan Ifniak is nan nidnok I press the chicken with my hand 

isfs/ik nan sh/i 's nan tjfla I sweep the yard with the broom 
ftnok nan kdykay is nan pdytt I work, I till the rice field with the pole 

"kaykay" (itnok from: tsilnSck, I work) 
ipnoni nan Ifmani is nan toiinan von fill the jar with your hand (fpnok: 

intangcpnii nan Ifg/o 'sh nan iayddn we covered the basket with the cover 

Thus also: ikdlik nan fdlognid ken sfya I speak of the war to him 
ingkdlitdko nan dnanaktdko wc spoke about our children. 

263. The Place can be made the subject by using verbal forms with 
the locative suffix: -an. This suffix is attached to verbal forms in the Act- 
ive with the prefix niang-, if the verb belongs to the category of the "pos- 


sessive verbs;" the sentence is always introduced by the sulistantive (or loca- 
tive adverb) denoting the place: 

nail pdgpag nan uiaiiibciak is nan kayo "the forest is mv cuttin,c^-place" 

for wood (for: sibciek nan kdyo is nan pdgpag T cut the wood 

in the forest) 
/;(;;; fjfla nan niangotdanmi is nan tndkan the yard is our cooking-place 

for rice (for: otocnuii nan nufkan is nan fjfla) 
(ifong nan nianigkaanini is nan kilo in ihc house we bend the stick (for: 

digkiH'iuni nan lo'lo is nan dfong) 
fli nan tnaindlotjak is nan fistPil in the town T bind the enemy (for: 

falStjck nan f»si°{l is nan tli) 
Ziufnga nan niangaldanfcfko is nan Ifleng in tlie river we caught the fish 

(for: inalatdko nan Ifleng is nan zvdnga) 
nan zvdnga nan menlabfdan nan inainaindgkid is nan zvdnis in the river 

the girls are washing the breech cloth (for: nan niamanidgkid 

labfdanfja nan zvdnis is nan zvdnga) 
nan dfong nan nianiitdngana is nan kdyo he splits the wood in the house 

(for: pitdngena nan kdyo is nan dfong) 
istji nan manglaydnmi is nan toki yonder we peal the ''toki" (for: 

kildyanmi nan toki istji; manglayanini, syncop. from: 

lli nan inangaptantdko ken Mcileng in the town we meet Moleng, the 

town is our meeting-place for Aloleng (for: aptcntdko si MSleng 

is nan fli ) 
dfong nan uiangacpdnyB is nan fobdnga in the house you make the pipes 
tjfla nan inkaepantdko is nan tiifay in the yard we make spears (for: 

inkacptdko is nan tdfay is nan tjfla; inkdebak: the personal vb. 

instead of the possessive: kdpck) 
dgt^eb nan inangitafSnannu is nan bildknii in the box we hide our money 
fsna nan nasnycpanfdko here was our sleeping-place (for: nasiiycptdko 


The same verbal forms with suffix -an are employed, if time or cause 
shall be expressed. See [288], first example. 

264. While thus some stress is laid ui)on the elements treated as "sub- 
jects" or "objects," stronger emphasis is expressed l)y placing the impor- 
tant substantive or pronoun etc. at the beginning of a sentence, followed 
by nan and the Nomen actionis. This construction will be treated later. 



265. The Passive in Bontoc Igorot is formed py prefixing: 

Ilia-, in present; ;/«-, in preterite; adma- {atma-\, in future; to the root of 
verbs. The endings are Personal. 

266. -en Verbs drop -en ; -an Verbs retain -an ; i- Verbs retain i-. 

In the Passive of -an Verbs the personal endings -ak, -ka, -ta, -tdko, 
-kami, kayi, -tja are added to -an, but the final n of -an is not dropped. 

267. The prefixes )na-, na-, achna-, denote the passive state or con- 
dition, named by the root; these passive forms are to be considered verbal 
adjectives. They are often used as adjectives and connected with substan- 
tives bv ax; they follow the substantive, with which they are connected 

268. The verbal root undergoes the same phonetic changes as treated 
in preceding chapters. 

269. The agent of the passive verb is governed by the preposition is 
or ken. 

270. Ma- prefixed to /- Verbs is freciuently contracted with /- into 

Likewise ni- and adnu-. Also may-, nay- and admay- is heard some- 

271. The causative prefix pa- is retained, if stress is laid upon the 
action; but pa- is dropped after nia,- if more stress is laid upon the state 



or condition. Cf. Ger. : das Haus wird (niapa-) gebaut; das Haus ist 
(ma) gebaut. Sometimes i is inserted between ma- and -pa-: mafpa-). 

272. The Passive has also a Nom. actionis, with possessive suffixes, 
preceded by the locative suffix -an. Ex. nan malipdsantja their being 

273. Examples of Passive forms ("present participles in passive" or 
being held; being sent; being called etc.). 






"passive verbal adjectives 

alack I take madia 
pilick I choose mapili 
padSyck I kill mapdddy (luit 

mdddy: dead) 
agtSek I carry niddgfo 
otdck I cook inaofo 
tokOnek I advise mdtoki^ni 
initck I boil mdtnit[d] [indyinit 
fwidshck I finish maf»ash 
fakdshck I break mafdkash 
fckdshck I throw mdbkash 

kdnck I eat mdkan ("food") 
fdhifjek I bind mdfdlmd 
Uytjck I want maleyad 
fjoiigdozuck I lose niatjongao 
dptck I meet mad fed 
kdpck I make makdeb 
sibfdtek I answer mdsfad 
pttnek I break mdpten 
kSkkek I know mdktck 
tjipdpek I catch mdtpab 
itafongko I hide mdttdfon 

ngtok I hold, keep mdlgto 

fsabfutko 1 suspend mdisdbfud 
ildbok I begin maildbo 

I expect mdsed 
I enter nidskep 

I pierce mdtlek 
I fill mdpno 
I work mdtno 

kdozvek I embrace, caress 

makdowd [oy] 
tjeng/ngek I hear mdtngo [oj] 
patkSlck I stop mdipdtko {dy\ 
sesenikck I remember mdsmek 
temmek I press mdtmo [mdtmdy] 
if ok I make wet matfoy {ndboy: 

kc'dfak I bite niakchlfaii 
p»ak I burn mapttan 
aydkak I call indaydkan 
ukdtjak I cut the neck indiikdtjan 
ikak I do iiidfkaii 
fgiiak I hold nidfgiian 
ftjdsak I find nidffjasan 
dktak I give inddktan 
fdydfjak I pay mafaydtjan 
kflayak I peal iiiakldya)i 

(j dropped) 
fsiiblik I change mdfsiibli 

iydik I bring mdiydi [mdiydli] 
ipailak I show mdipaila 



idjiiak I give mdidjiia [nifdjiia] 
isdak I take home uidiscia 
ibfdkak I ask xiaibfdka 

Other passive forms are given in the Vocabulary. 

isluinok I burn maishiino 
idjiik I show nifdju 
dnsnek I do jiiddiii^iu'ii 




falStjek I bind 

aydkak I caU 

isf/blik I change 




being bound 

being ca 


lieing changed 



iiiaayd kanak 


I am bound 

I am ca 


I am changed 






mafdli?(d (sfya) 


maisfibli isfya) 





L incl 




L excl 













nafdliP(dak I was bound naaydkanak I was called naisiibliak 
I was changed (with Personal Suffixes). 


adinafdhoidak I shall be bound admaaydkdnak I shall be called 
admasiibliak I shall be changed (with Personal Suffixes). 

The 'T n fi n i t i v e" has the same form as the "Participle:" inafdlBd; 
nafdli°id; admafdlmd. 

The Imperative does not exist ; any theoretical forms and any 
experimentative use of them in sentences were unexceptionally denied, 
"because you can not tell a man what shall be done to him".... (But the mis- 
named "Three Passives" (the "Genus Relativum," my Active "Possessive 
Verbs") were put in the Imperative without hesitation; this shows also that 
the -en, -an and i- verbs are conceived to be Active Nomina agentis.) — 


The N o m e n a c t i o n i s of the Passive has (as is the case with all 
personal verbs [194]) the locative suffix -an and possessive endings: nan 
mapadS\an the condition of being killed. 

nan mapaddyak my being killed ; nan niapadSyam thy being killed; 
nan niapaddyana his being killed ; nan niapadSyanini our being 
killed; nan uiapadSyanypi your being killed etc. 

These forms are employed in certain constructions, as "relative clauses" 
(as we say), interrogative sentences etc. 

Although Passive constructions occur now and then, the Active is 
much preferred in common conversation. 

275. Examples. 

nan fcllfct:^ ya niakcfeb is nan alkvidko the s|)ear is made by my friend 

nan dfong ya nakdcb kSn todl the house has been Imilt by him 

ndtpab nan a\d\'ani is nan laldki the 1)ird has been caught by the man 

nafnkdfnvanak ken dnia 1 was called bv the father 

nan isa'y laldki ya napdddy is nan fmsfd one man was slain by the enemy 

slka niaaydkdngka'sli nan fafdyi you are called l)y the woman 

nan ongSnga ya naikilykiiy ken indna the child was /ocked to sleep by 

its mother 
nan nSang ya nayogyog ken sak/Sn the buffalo has been stabbed by me 
admaf alo gnl dkaml" s nan fmsBl we shall be attacked by the enemy 
natka/Mp nan dzvak the body has 1)cen buried 
nan pdngi'>ian ya natdngfan is nan fiidi the door has been locked with a 

nadlatja nan snlddmo your letters have been received 
sfnB nan napadSy is nan fioisfd? who is the one killed by the enemy? 

who was killed 
nafdkash nan fdnga the pot is broken ; nan fanga ay nafdkash the 

l;)roken pot 
nan fdnga ya nafdkash the pot is broken 
nan ffttug ya napadSyfja is nan lalaldki tlu' ])igs have been killed by the 


niafadsdngau nan ongongd ken tjdkdin/ the boy is being hel]ied bv us 

niajgto nan dsP( is nan fafdyi the dog is kept by the woman 

nan bildktja ya naifdfnn is nan fdkn their money was hidden I)y the 

is dfong ya natdngfan nan pdngp(an in the house the doors were closed 
nan pddsog ya maitonid the rice is planted 


276. Sometimes the context shows that the participle present of the 
passive expresses necessity, Hke a Latin gerundiviim, or a participium 

nan laid lei ay )tiafdliP(d can mean: the man who is being bound; or: the 
man who is to be bound. Thus: uanndy ay ctfong ya maildgo 
this house is to be sold. 

nan kafdyo ya mafdig ay mafdig the horse must be whipped (repetition 
of the participle; explained later!) 
It expresses also ability in a passive sense: maimim: drinkable; 

mdkan: eatable; hence: "food, boiled rice." 


2yj. The construction of affirmative declarative sentences has been 
treated in several previous sections: [41; 43; 71; 89; 118; 165; 198-202; 
205-211 ; 214-219; 254] ; in only few of these constructions a certain element 
of a sentence was emphasized, as in [200; 211; 254]. The constructions 
explained in [258-263] express a moderate stress on the words denoting 
the indirect object, instrument, place, time etc. 

But if strong emphasis shall be laid upon a certain element, special 
constructions are employed. Usually the word considered of preeminent 
importance is placed at the beginning of a sentence ; verbal nouns of various 
forms and force follow it. These forms have been given in foregoing sec- 
tions; occasionally allusions were made to their practical use. This latter 
shall now be discussed. 

278. A P r o n o m i n a 1 S u b je c t is emphasized by placing the per- 
sonal pronouns to both, personal and possessive verbs. The verb retains its 
endings; the personal pronoun precedes or follows the personal verb; but it 
always precedes the possessive verb. ( In the latter case it is a nominative 
pendens, as: We — , our finding the chain.) 

sak/in umdliak I come; sifka umfiyka you go; tinmSlitja tjditja 
they returned; tjdkami klPonddngkdmi we go away; tjatdko 
umalhvidfdko we shall become friends; tjdkdym admafaleedkaym 
you will be bound (imprisoned). 


sak/^n fckdshck nan fdlfeg I throw the spear; tjakamf inidlimi nan 
taydan we returned the basket; sika idpini nan bilak you count 
the money; sitodl atOnena nan kdyo he (tliat one) removes the 
wood; tjdtdko otSentdko nan Istja we cook the meat ; tjdkayH 
sagfdtenym nan fdgshong you carry the bundle ; tjattja padSycntja 
nan dsB they slaughter the dog; stiodi iydiiia nan fonga he 
brings the pot. 

279. The S u b s t a n t i V e S u 1) j e c t either precedes or follows the 
predicate without being emphasized by its various position ; yet it appears 
that the preceding substantive subject is slightly emphasizes sometimes. 

jian laldki inmdli'sna the man has come here; nan niamamdgkid inmiiyfja 
(or: ya inmfiytja) the girls have gone; si Anti^ro fasdena nan 
si'ilad Antero reads the letter; nan f^isiPil pinip/antja dngsan ay 
dfong the enemies burnt many houses; si Tjnmtgyai palttjcna 
nan ptnang Tjumigyai sharpens the axe; si AnaiPczvdsal fnpai^ftna 
ken sak/in nan kdzvh ay kdldsay Anauwasal has sent me a fine 

jSo. If the vSubject follows a possessive verb in the singular, it has 
been said above [208] that the verb is without ending, and the following 
subject may be thought to be in the "genitive:" 

kctjeng tjipdpen B/^gti nan sdfag then Bugti catches the wild chicken 
(or: si B/tgti tjipdpcna....) 

But sometimes, mostly in narrative, the verb retains its possessive end- 
ing and the substantive, thus emphasized, is connected with the preceding 
verb by ay\ this construction is always employed if the possessive verb is 
in the singular with its full endings, and frequently if it is in the plural. The 
substantive is, as the ligature (7V indicates, in a])])(>sition with the subject 
rc])resented by the ending of the verb. 

Thus we may say, instead of: Kctjeng and pen nan fobfdUo nan 
tjokdpnia then the young man seeks his pocket (bag) - - : Kctj(Jng 
andpcna ay fobfdUo nan tjokdK^na, lit.: then the seeking-object of him 
(-;;<;), as a youlh, his ])ocket. — Here the subject is emphasized by being 
placed in apposition with the verbal endino- -na. We may translate freely: 
then he, the young man, seeks his pocket. 

As the exam])lc shows, the article nan is omitted after (7V in this con- 


281. The Subject is much stronger emphasized, if it is followed by 
the Nom. agentis which takes the article nan ; with personal verbs the "parti- 
ciple" is used. [192, 193; 247-257] 

sdk/en nan mangcieb is nan cifong I am the maker of the house; it is I 

who made the house 
sika nan innidli you are the "comer;" it is you who came 
nan ongonga nan nasilycp isnd the child is the one who slept here 
tjakamt nan nangan is nan mating We, we have eaten the pounded rice 
tjakavpi nan mafala you are those who are sent out (passive verbal 

forms belong to the personal verb category; hence the "participle" is 

tjakayd nan namda [namdla] ken tjattja you, you sent them out! 
shona nan nangydi is nan pdkiiy this is the one who brought the rice 
sak/Sn nan nidnno'sna I, I am working here 
sitona'y fafdyi nan ndngtek ken todl this woman, she knew him 
nan fdsBl nan nampian is nan aniin ay dlang it was the enemy who burnt 

down all the granaries 
si Angay nan nangdeb is nan tjokdmko Angay, she made my pocket 
si Tdynan nan nangzvdni si sa Taynan, he has said so ("he was the teller 

" of it") 
stka nan mdn/ngo ken sak/hv you, you hear me 
nan maniamdgkid nan mangilay is nan foki the girls, they are pealing the 

nan altwidna nan iidnfad ken sfya his friend it was who answered him 
nan anidnia nan ninldfak is iian fdtng it was the old man who cut up the 

nan lalaldki nan minlonlon is nan bdto the men, they roll the stones 
nan d po nan admamdyad is nan lalaldki the master, he will pay the men 
si dma nan na)nfli Father, he has chosen 
sak/hi nan inanidngon ken indta I, I awake our mother. 

(As in questions beginning with who? or what? as subject of the sen- 
tence, the subject is emphasized, the Nom. ag. is employed in such cases; see 
[345] ; only two examples shall be given here: 

sfnM nan mangzvdni si sa who is "the saver" of this? who says so? 
ngag nan imnad? what is it that happened?) 

282. The Nom. agentis employed in the foregoing sentences which 
emphasizes the subject, lays also some stress on the verb ; the verb, as Nom. 
ag., is certainly of greater importance in this construction than its object. 


A V e r b may also be emphasized, i. e. the action may be represented of 

greater importance than the object, by employing the personal verbal forms 

instead of the possessive verbal forms. 

kdpek nan afong, means: I build the house; the house is of similar impor- 
tance as my building it; 

inkdebak is dfong, means: I am busy building, "houses" being of less 
importance than my occupation. See [162]. 

(The intensive forms of verbs by which their importance is raised will 
be treated later in the chapters on Reduplication, Modal Auxiliaries, 
Adverbs etc.) 

283. The "Accusative O b j e c t," as we should say, is strongly 
emphasized by being placed at the beginning of a sentence, followed by the 
Xomen actionis with its endings; this Nom. act. must take the article. (The 
Copula ya is used sometimes. (In this construction the article of the substan- 
tive, at the beginning of the sentence is usually omitted; as these examples 
show : 

dfong nan kdpck a house I make (lit. house is my making) 
dsM ya nan paddyentdko the dog we kill 
stka nan leytjek "you are my liking," it is you whom I like 
laldki nan inaydkan nan ongonga it was a man that the child called 
ogsa ya nan intlami 's nan pdgpag a deer we saw in the forest 
fdtng nan adpadSycntja the pig they will slaughter 
{nan) dfong nan kdpi'n nan laldki a house it is the man builds 
{nan) ongonga nan fadsdngan nan laldki it is a child that the man helps 
k aid say nan tgtok a shield I keep 
kaldsay ya nan fgton nan fmsul a shield the enemy keeps {fgton, -n: 

genit. indicator) 
anandktja nan itdfon nan fobfafdyi mo umdlitja nan fi^siPtl their children 

the women hide, if the enemies come 
fohfdllo nan findlBdym is nan ili a }'oung man it was you fettered in the 

btlak nan itSlina the money he returns 
bilak nan itOlin nan laldki it is money that the man returns {it(ili)i, -n: 

ligature, "genitive indicator") 
(Since in questions with the accusatives whom? what? which? the direct 
ojjject of transitive verbs is emphasized, the same construction is employed 
there [346] 
sfniffi nan ildeny^? whom do you see? 


ngag nan angn^ntjaf what are they doing? 

ngdg ay tiifay nan l^ytjen nan altwidmo? which spear does your friend 
Hke? (ht. which spear is "the Hking of your friend?") 

284. If the person for who m, the instrument with which, 
the place where, the time when, the reason wliy an action is performed 
shall be still more emphasized than by the special verbal forms given in [258- 
264], these elements are placed at the beginning of a sentence; verbal com- 
binations (with nan) follow, that are derived from the special verbal forms. 

285. Emphasis of the Pe r s o n for whom an action takes place. 

shona ay laldki nan tkabak is nan soklong for this man I make the hat 
sitodi ay fobfdllo nan ikaepdnym is nan sokod {ikabdnym\ for that boy 

you make the spear 
tdk^ nan iotoanfdkB is nan nidkan for the people it is that we cook the 

si ina nan isib&iam is nan kdyo for the mother you cut the wood 

Frequently the Nom. agentis form with ntang-, main-, man-, with the 
suffix -an and possessive endings is used : 

dpomi nan mamalmtjanmi {mamaMdsanmt\ is nan mangdk"u for our 
master we bind the thief; or: dpomi nan ifalndsanmi is nan 
niangdk°u. The construction with the Nom. ag. is preferred. (It 
is used exclusively in cjuestions beginning with : to whom? for 
whom? [347,348]) 

stnB nan nangitsaotsdoam is nan sfilad? to whom did you give the 

286. Emphasis of the Instrument with which an action is accom- 

manttlyo nan itiktl'kna is nan patatjim with the hammer he strikes the iron 
katjina nan ifalBdtdko is nan laldki with the chain we bind the man 
iSlo nan ifaigko ken stya with a stick I strike him 
fdlfeg nan ipadSyko is nan fmsl^l with the spear I kill the enemy 
pinang nan ifakdgmi is nan Old with the axes we cut off the heads 
fliti nan intangebko is nan pdnguan witii the lock I fastened the door 
manttlyo nan inkdeb nan fufihnshak is nan tdfay with a hammer the 
smith made the spear 


namidy nan ifckwdpmo is nan dglP(b! with this open the box! 
nanndy nan ingkiboui^na is nan lolo with this he liroke the stick 
nanndy nan ifaignio is nan dsB with tliis von strike the dog 

(Questions Ijeginning with "with what?" "with which tool?" have the 
same construction: ngdg nan ikokStmo is nan htja? with what do you 
cut the meat? ) 

287. Emphasis of the Place where an action is performed. Cf. [263]. 

(The locative Nom. verbale has invariably the prefixes of the Nomen 
agentis.) With possessive verbs: 

nan dnia nan niangis/ogdna is nan kdyo the garden is his "planting- 
place" for the tree; in the garden he plants the tree 

ka/dpd/df>an nan manfktikdna is nan patatjhn the forge is the place 
where he hammers the iron 

li'ikam nan mingitdfonam is nan shiika in the grass you conceal the 
"shuka" i. e. a pointed wooden stick placed in the ground and di- 
rected against the enemy. 

sftjog nan ningipaydntja is nan dlo into the "sitjog" (a basket used also 
as fish net) they placed the head 

pdgpag nan manibriak is nan kdyP( in the forest I cut the wood; or also: 
is nan pdgpag nan manib»ak is nan kayiPc in the forest is my 
cutting-place for wood; or: sib»ck nan kdyB is nan pdgpag 

dfong nan manigk^canmi is nan Idlo in the house we bend the stick 

/li nan namalofjantja is nan frtsi'^l in the town they imprisoned (hound) 
the enemy 

wdnga nan mcnlabfdanyi°( is nan zvdnis you wash the breech cloth in the 

tjfla nan nwngacbantdko [or: inkapantdko] is nan fdfay we make the 
spears in the yard 

With i)ersonal ver])s: 

pdgpag nan entsfhioak, enfsdnoani, entsfnwdna, cntsihiodnta In the for- 
est I work, you work, he works, we two work etc. 

nanndy ay dfong nan nadSyana this house is the place where he died 

nanndy ay tli nan nadSyan nan aindna this town is the place where his 
father died 

pdgpag nan intcdccantdko the forest is our abode, (the "place where we 

kdyo nan intcddcan nan aydyam the tree is the home of the bird 


(Questions with where? whither? whence? [353] have the same con- 
strnction : 

info nan man gitafS nana is nan apongna? where does he hide his neck- 

288. The same Constructions are employed to emphasize adverbial 
phrases or terms referrinj^ to Time, Manner, Degree, etc. These terms are 
placed at the beginning of a sentence, followed by verbal nouns. 

Time: ndkship nan inumtsdnamni ad Fmntok it was afternoon, when we 

arrived at Bontoc. [B. 56.] 
Degree: tsatsdma nan uinipadslajn ken sak/Sn very much you reproach 

me. [L. 51.] 
Material: nanndy ay kdyB nan kdpck is sokod from this wood I make a 

spear shaft. Constr. [283] 
ndntona'y patatjtm nan kapentdko is tiifay of this iron we 

make spear blades. Constr. [283] 
Quantity: dngsan nan indldna ay katfu great many were the fish he 

caught. [P. 2.] 
Price: saldpi nan nangilagoantdko is nan kaydng for fifty cents we sold 

the spear. 

289. Recapitulation. — Promiscuous Examples, illustrating various ver- 
bal forms in various cases of Emphasis. 

Common construction: paddyck nan dyawan [aydzvan] is nan fdfay is 

nan pdgpag I kill the buffalo with the spear in the forest 

Subject emph. sak/in nan mamaddy is nan dydzvan 

Subject emph. and personal verb: sak/in pumddoyak is nan dydzvan is.... 
Object, emph. dydzvan nan padSyek is nan tilfay is nan pdgpag 

dydzvan nan padSyenfako we kill....; nan pinadoynii we 
killed; nan adpadSyemni we shall kill... 
Instrument emph. tdfay nan ipadSyko is nan dydzvan; preterite: nan 

inpaddyko fut. : nan adipadSyko 
Place emph. pdgpag nan papadSyan is nan dydzvan (the redupl. papad — 

denotes "our customary hunting-ground") 
Instr. emph. with passive: fdfay nan naipadSy is nan dydzvan is nan 

pdgpag with the spear the buffalo was killed in the forest 


Common construction: 
otdenmi nan flnayiPl is nan bdyBk is dfong we cook the (shelled) rice in 

the pot (kettle) in the house 
(preterite: indtomi nan makan is nan bayH^k...) {mdkan: rice that is 

Subject emph. tjakdml nan mangdto is nan findyiPt is nan bdyt^k is.... 
Person, for whom, emph. tdki<^ nan iotoanmi is nan findyiPc is nan.... 
Object emph. ftndym nan otOentdko is nan bdyBk is dfong 
Place ("the pot") emph. bdyi^k nan mangotoantdko is nan findyiP( is 

Place ("the house") emph. dfong nan mangoioantdko is nan nuikan 

Common construction: -an verbs 

ka/nfanmt nan Idta we dig the ground 

Emphas. li/ta nan ka/»fanmi the ground we dig 

fhna nan ka/iifanmi the garden we dig 

kdykay nan ikd/mpmi with the pole we dig 

gadsdngyen nan entsiinodnmi for the rich man we work (but: 

gadsdngyen nan ikd/dipnii means: we bury the rich man) 

Passive: Common constr. nan pdnguan ya nafdngfan the doors are 
Emphas. closed 

is dfong ya natdngfan nan pdnguan in the house the doors are closed 
tolfeg nan ma/itdngeb is nan pdnguan with the key the doors are closed 
tjdtdko nan ma/itangfdnan nan pdnguan (the agent emphasized!) by us 

the doors are closed 
("For the father the door is closed" was changed by the Igorot into: 
the father says: let the door be closed; si dma kandna en : maitdngep nan 

Common construction : /- verbs 
itSlitja nan btlak tliey return tlie money 
Emphas. tjaltja nan niangitoli is nan bilak they are the persons who 

bilak nan itOlitja tlie money it is that they return 

dfong nan mangitolfantja is nan bilak in the lumsc they return the money 
fdlfdog nan mangisublfantja is nan bilak for gold they change the "silver" 
(For the women they change the money; the silver into gold: falTdog 
nan mangisublfantja is nan bilak ay kdan nan fobfafdyi; lit. : "as the 
women's property" [i07fif.]) 
Passive: Common constr. nan bilak ya maisiibli \mtsubli\ ken tjakamf 

the money is changed by us 



tjatdko nan niaisiibllan nan bflak by us the money is changed ("we (are) 

the place for — the being changed — of the money) 
dfong nan maisublfan nan bilak in the house the money is changed 
falfdog nan maisublfan nan bilak for gold the silver is changed 
nan bflak ya maisiibli ay koan nan fobfafdyi the silver is changed for the 


Common constr. nan laUiki ila gona nan dsB the man sells the dog 
Emphas. lalaki nan mangiUlgo is nan <7si» it is the man who sells the dog 
(isni nan ild gon nan lalaki it is the dog that the man sells (n: 

dfong nan ma}igilagdan nan lalaki is nan asft in the house the 

btlak nan mangilagoana is nan afong for silver he sells the 

si amdna nan ilagda)ia is )ian pdki'iy for his father he sells the 


Passive: Common constr. nan asiP{ ya maildgo the dog is sold 
Emphas. lalaki nan mailagSan nan asn by the man the dog is sold 

afong nan nailagSan nan asi?e in the house the dog was sold 
bflak nan nailagoan nan afong for silver the house was sold 
si d)na )ian niailagJan nan pak'iiy for the father the rice is sold 

Common constr. idjutdko nan kdyu we show the tree 
Emphas. tjatdko nan }nangfdju is nan kdyB we, we show the tree 
kdyin nan idjutdko the tree it is we show 

pdgpag nan mangidjnantdko is nan kayn in the forest we 

show the tree 
litjengko nan mangfdjuk is nan k'ayi°( with my finger I show the 

lalaldki nan mangidjnantdko is nan kayft to the men we show 
the tree 
Passive: Common constr. nan kdyi<H ya mafdjn ken tjatdko the tree is 

shown by us 
Emphas. tjatdko nan maidjdan nan kdyi^t by us the tree is shown 

pdgpag nan )naidj/1an nan kdyB in the forest the tree is shown 

Common constr. itdfongko nan klpan I hide the knife 
Emphas. sak/hi nan mangitdfon is nan kfpan it is I who hide the knife 
klpan nan itafongko it is the knife I hide 


dgBb nan mangitdfonak is nan kfpan in the box I hide the 

dgHb nan mangitafonantdko 's nan kfpan in the box we hide 

the knife 
nan alhvidko nan mangitdfonak is mm kfpan for my friend I 
hide the knife 
Passive: Common constr. nan kfpan ya maitd fan the knife is hidden 
Emphas. dgflh nan maitafonan nan kfpan in the l)ox the knife is hidden 

Common constr. nan padsog ya maitonid is nan fohfdfdyi the rice is 

pLanted by the women 
Emphas. tjatdko nan maitonftsan nan padsog by us the rice is planted 
[s inserted: dental mouille] 
pdyo nan maitonftsan nan padsog in the rice field the rice is 

si fna nan maitonftsan nan padsog for mother the rice is planted 

Common construction: -en verbs 

fal^itjenym nan laldki you bind the man 

Emphas. tjakdym nan niamdlmd si nan laldki you, you Ijind the man 
laldki nan faldtjenyd the man it is that you bind 
dfong nan mamal^tjanyi^ is nan laldki in the house you bind 

the man 
katjlna nan ifdlKidym is nan laldki with a chain you bind the 

polisfa nan mamalddsanyi"/ is nan laldki for the constabler you 
bind the man 
Passive: Common constr. nan laldki ya nafdlPfd the man was bound 
Emph. tjakdy^ nan mafal^dsan [mafal»dan] nan Idlaki by }()u the man 
is l)ound 
dfong nan nafal^dsan nan laldki in the house the man was bound 
katjfna nan maifdlnd nan laldki with a chain the man is bound 
polisfa nan nafalftdsan nan laldki for the constabler the man was 

Personal verbs. Common construction: 

entsunSkdnu is nan pdyo we work in the rice field 
Emph. nan pdyo nan i'ntsunodnmi in the rice field we are working 
nan pdyo nan cntsdnoan nan laldki in the r. the man works 
kapdgpag nan tMmaydman nan aydyam in the forest the birds fly 
kdykay nan itnotdko with a pole we work (itno- from tsunSck, 
possess, vb.) 


pdyak [pdyog, hdyak\ nan ifayai^tja with wings they fly 
pdyak nan itdyaiPc nan aydyarn with wings the birds fly 
gadsdngycn nan eiitsmwantdko for the rich man we work 
gdyad nan itaydevantja, ta iyditja nan tjSo for the young birds 

they fly away, that they bring them food 
tsna nan intedScdnmi here we stay 
isna nan nintedcedna here lie stayed 


290. Bontoc Igorot Language makes extensive use of reduphcated ver- 
bal forms. 

Reduplication is either partial, as fangfangOnck I wake up, or gemi- 
nation, as mdnganmdngdnak I eat. Usually only the root is redupli- 
cated and prefixes precede the reduplicated form ; there are, however, some 

291. The reduplicated form of the verb represents, as it were, an image 
of the action: as the action is repeated, thus the root, or parts of it are 
repeated. Repeated or iterative action is identical with the frequentative; 
and the eft'ect of repeated action is intensive. Continuative or durative 
action may be thought to consist of constantly repeated action. Thus redup- 
licated verbs express: repetition; intensity ; continuation; duration; contin- 
ued contemporaneous action; the repeated action may affect several objects 
and thus this verbal form can express the idea of plurality of objects (I 
make repeatedly a spear=I make some spears); intensity involves occa- 
sionally comparison (I like exceedingly = I prefer, I like better). — Thus 
many various meanings can be imparted to a verb by reduplicating its root ; 
but in Bontoc Igorot reduplication does not express tense, as present or 
future. — The meaning must in many instances be determined from the 
context ; but often we find reduplicated forms used idiomatically apparently 
without definable reason ; sometimes the desire of an emotional speaker to 
depict most vividly nuist account for the reduplicated form. 

(Besides this method of expressing repeated, intensive, continued 
action certain adverbs, auxiliaries and other verbs may be used for the same 


292. Examples. 

Hbfdkak: ihfdkdfakak I ask often; I ask many people; I inquire eagerly... 

Preterite: infakdfdkak; Nom. ag. mangibfdkctfdka 
i\dik \ydik]: ydiydik T bring frequently; I keep bringing 
a\dkak: dyddydkak 1 call often, I call several persons... 
nmdUak: uiiullidliak I come often; inmalidliak I used to come 

( imialdliak 1 come nearer) 
iiidkaak: iudkddkdak I cry loud; I continue crying... 
nmfnumak: uiiiinitfniiiuak T drink again and again, I keep drinking 
mdngauak: inangaiuudiigaiiak I eat often; I am eating (at the same 

time, meanwhile) 
limiiyak: um/hnilyak I go repeatedly; I walk on... 
knyittjck: kiiyiikuydtjck I pull strongly; "I i)ull and pull"... 
tBmSliak: tPnuoli^uuiliak I return several times, I continue returning... 
ktbklfak: klbklklbkifak I rub hard, I keep rubbing... 
ildck: tlaildck [ilildek] I see repeatedly; I observe, keep looking... 
kdnak: kdnakanak I talk much; (prefer. : kiiizi'dkiinvdnik!) 
ipaoltko: ipaotpaottko I send repeatedly, I continue to send... 
nijitk: idjuTdjuk I show often, carefully... 

titiintkfjdak: t ihmikt j dtiikt j dak I sit often, I am sitting, I continue to sit 
kogSngck: kogokogongek I strike vigorously, I give many blows... 
aldek: alddldck \ take again and again, I take several things... 
inlilhvisak : hilhvtlhvtsak I keep on walking; T walk around... 
kamuck: kakamdck I hasten more; kakamuck ay mandlan I go faster 
ahindyck: alahindyek I retard; alalundyck ay engkdlt I speak more 

ICytjek: Icylc'ytjck T like Iietter, I prefer... 

masdycpak: masuycsuyepak I continue to sleep, I sleep profoundly... 
engdkliak: cngkalikdliak I keep talking... 

293. Greater intensity is expressed by repetition of a verb, with the 
interposed ligature a\[ the second time the verb is in the "infinitive." 

ciitsundka ay ciilsdiw von must work; vou work most strenuously... 

ibfakam ay ibfdka you must ask 

mafttkaMzvd II gkdygi ay mafiikdnii'an you must be called 

nan lalaldki mafukdBivant ja ay inafnkdBzvan the men must be called 

nan kdyo niasfbo ay masfbo the tree must be cut down 

kdpem ay kdpen nan dfong you must make the house 


sagfeJtem ay sagfaten nan kayo you must carry the wood 

insula dka 'y insiilad aswdkas you must write to-morrow 

nan laldki fayadsdna ay fdyddsan nan fda the man must pay the servant 

nan lalaldki fadjdngantja'y fadjdngan nan fobfafdyi the men must help 

the women 
nan fdtug indpadSy ay mdpddSy adzvdni the pig must be killed now 
nan dsU admd paddy ay admd paddy aswdkas the dog must be killed 

nan mangdk'^u majdllPid ay nia^dlBd the thief must be bound (imprisoned) 
nan kafayo niafdig ay niafdig the horse nutst be whipped 

(This construction is not used in the preterite). 


294. The character of some prefixes and their efifect upon verbal roots 
have been treated in previous sections, as: 

uin- prefix or infix of Personal verbs [170-174] 

in- en- prefix of Personal verbs [16S] 

in- the preterite "augment" [180, 230] 

mang- mam- man- min- the prefixes for Nomina agentis [247; 193] 

i- the prefix of a certain category of verbs [226-230] 

ma- the passive prefix [265 ff cf. 175] 

ad- the temporal prefix for the future tense [183, 241]. 

Of great importance are the following prefixes which modify the action 
expressed by the Nom. actionis : 

295. PA- 

Pa- (and ipa-), prefixed to roots (primitive verbal roots or substan- 
tives, adjectives, adverbs etc. used as roots), produces causative or facti- 
tive verbs ; sometimes they express that the subject orders or tells an other 
to perform an action (authoritative verbs: "I make you come"). 

If tun- or mang- are prefixed to pa-, i is inserted between these prefixes: 
nniipa- mangipa-. 


If the passive particle ma- is used in combination witli pa-: mapa- 
(prctcr. iiapa-), the resuUing form conveys the verbal idea; if pa- is omit- 
ted, the form is rather an adjective, than a "passive ])articiple" with verbal 
force, [-'/il [Frequently i is inserted between ma- and pa-: iiiaipa-] 

The causative verbs belong to the -en class in active; in passive they 
are personal verbs. [265] 

diitjo tall; paantjdck I make tall, I lengthen; preter. inpadntjok; 

pass, mapadntjo or: maipadntjo being made tall 
plhi poor; papustck I make poor inpapilsik ; inaipapftsi 
gadsdngyen rich; pagadsdngycnck 1 enrich 
asdik [dsdik\ short; paasdtkek I shorten 
djdla blood ; padjaldck I make bloody, I cause to bleed 
stli splendor, ray; pasiltck I cause to shine, I cast light, reflect light 
umdliak I come; pdalfck [pdlfck] I order to come. I make come 
ntasdycpak I sleep ; pasuyCpck I put to sleep 
intedi^cak I stay ; patcdeck I order to stay 
tumuktjiiak I sit; patiikfjdek I set 
timogiddak I am afraid; paogiddck I frighten; pret. inpaogidtko; 

mapadgiad frightened; maSgiad afraid 
isa one; paisdck I leave alone; »;o/'a/.vo, left alone; mafsa alone 
Idteng cold; palafchigck I make cold 
tofo leaf; personal causative vb. nmipatofoak 1 cause to sprout forth, 

I make grow 
tekudfck I open; patcknafck I order to open j L. 4,^] 
sfkpek I enter ; paslkpck I make enter 
tjenmm water; patjc^'iigimck [patjdiii^mck] I cause to melt 
ngitid black, kllad red; pangt thick, pakTladek I make black, red 
dtong warm; padtSngek I make warm; napadtong (iiaipadtoitg) 

having been warmed; madtong being warm 
ildck I see ; ipallak I make see i. e. I show 
tumdyao/ak Iflv; patavdowhia ad tjd\a "she makes (him) fly to the 

sky"[S. 7'] 

engkdliak 1 speak; pakalick I cause to speak ; I endow with speech : 
(Lumdzvig) san djiia, pakalihia tjaftja is nan kalin si iSadsdnga: 
"Lumawig made the two si)eak the language of Sadanga-men." 
. [L. 14] ^ ' 

inkydtak T swim pakydtcntdko nan dnandk kl us make the boys swim! 

kl^mdanak 1 go out ; pakddnck 1 expel, preter. inpakdangko 


(pa- in: padSyek [patdyck; in Bontoc not: pdtdyek] I kill, slay, seems 
to have become an integral part of this verb as the position of the 
infixed augment indicates: pinadSyko I killed; mapadSy means: 
killed, slain; mddoy: dying, or : having just died; naddy: dead) 

Verbs with authoritative meaning govern the person which is ordered 
as direct object, but the object affected by the action is preceded by the prep- 
osition is: 

papitdngck nan laldki is nan kdyo I order the man to split the wood 
nan fafdyi paotoena nan andkna is nan findyi'^ the woman makes her 
daughter cook the rice. 

296. PIN- 

Pin- or kin- [bon-, ben-, pen-] with possessive, and pang- with per- 
sonal verbs (before consonants sometimes panga- placed after the prefix in: 
tnpdnga) denotes cpiick, vivid action. Pin- is prefixed to the root and the 
verb has possessive endings. In the preterite pin- is replaced by nin-. 
{Pin- seems therefore to be used with preterite forms i. e. without suffix 
-en, if prefixed to -e)i verbs.) 

pinkakdngko (root: kan-) I eat cpiickly; pret. ningkdkdngko 

pinsikepko I enter quickly; pret. nhisikepko 

pangasuycpak or inpdugas/lycpak I sleep quickly, fall asleep quickly; 

(in)pangdyak [pangfiyak; pangSilak] I go quickly; ninpangSyak. — 

pangfiyka! go quickly! 
pangatsnbldak I smoke forthwith 
pangatcdeeka' shna stay here immediately! 
pinka^bnw nan dfong! make the house "just now!" 
pinfdyddsak I pay immediately; pret. ninfayddsak 
kinppniok I fill at once 
kindlak or pinalah I take quickly 

kinkatinak I step c|uickly, tread upon; pret. ninkatenak 
£npdngakaliak I speak fast 
kinipaottko or pinipaohko I send quickly 
pangatuktjnkayffc! sit down quickly 

pinaydkani nan fafdyi! call the woman quickly, right now ! 
pinigndna nan dsB he holds the dog quickly 
pinistfdym nan istja! eat the meat quickly 


pinapiiyam! make fire at once! (synon. : kauwdm ay mangdpuy! hasten 

to make fire! ) 
ninapiiydna nan clpny he built the fire quickly 
kinpafitjdngc'm nan kdyo! li<^ht ("make burn") the wood at once! 
pangdlika! come quickly! pangdl/kayn man! come ye then, at once! 
inpangastkcbak I enter quickly 
inpangafdkfakak I run immediately 
pinfekdsJiko nan bdto is nan fi4sPd I throw f|uickly the stone against the 

pinpikfshna nan sdlad he tears quickly the letter 
pinpad/ongtdko nan gdngsa! let us quickly strike the gong! 
pi)itdngfani nan pdngnan! close the door quickly! 
inpangafdlaak I go out quickly {fiiindlaak I go out) 
pinknyutko I pull fast 

pinpadSynw nan fdtng! kill the pig quickly! 
nfnpadSyna nan dsU he killed the dog at once 
pintji paptdko nan monok! let us quickly catch the chickens! 
pindtomnt nan fdnga we remove the pots quickly (atonck) 
pinkadngko I take away immediately {kadnck) 
pinfdllPcdmo sitodl! bind him quickly! 
pinpakddnck I drive away quickly (notice the present form!) 

The prefix pin- is also used in threatening: 

mo adl'ka PnnSbfad ken sak/Jn, pinpad/dak s/ka! if you do not untie me, 

I strike you (immediately)! [P. lo. ] 
ydiin, ydini nan ptnang fa pinpaddyta na! bring, bring the ax, that we 

(two) kill this one! [R. ii.] 
mo adikdyei lumdyao pintgnak tjdkaypi! if you do not run, I shall hold 


And in our temporal clauses with "as soon as" pin- is prefixed to the 
verb of the main sentence: mo fjipapcnfdko nan aydyam, pinpaddytdko 
tjdltja: when we catch the birds, we kill them ((uickly; or: as soon as we 
catch the birds, we kill them. 

297. KA- 

Ka- prefixed to the redu])licated root denotes action completed in the 
immediate past : I have just now finished - -. T just did - -, I completed 
recently. Ka- coml)ined with a root which has no endings denotes a condi- 
tion that has been entered some time ago, as /v'o/<-/;;_gr) having become dry, 


kaJdliak I came just now; kalal/kdiui is san ffbikdf we came tliis very 

kaininuuiak I just drank 
katsubtsiibldak I just smoked 
kadkadjdlanak I just walked 

kakakdcpko nan dfong I made the house just now, a short while ago 
kabkabekdsliko nan fdlfcg I threw the spear just now {fckdslick) 
kakalkaliak I have spoken a little while ago 
kaititjdsnii nan singsing we just found the ring (ffjasak) 
kaangdngnck I just did 

kabk^abdkashko nan bdngao I just broke the glass (fakdshck) 
kafukfukdiVko si dnia I just called the father (I'dkaiTcvak) 
kaayaydgko si BiPigti I just called Bugti (aydkak) 
kaigtgnak I just held 
kakakzvdnik I just told (kdnak) 
kaandnapko nan soklongnw I just sought your hat 
kakckSkedko [kakekdkofko] nan Ifniak I just cut my hand {kbkStjck 

kakakdkangko nan indkan I just ate the food, rice ikdnck) 
kasJiupslinppdkko [kashubsliubpdgko] nan laldki I just hit the man 

kashitbsluibpdgnii nan fptsPfl is nan fdlfcg we hit the enemy with the 

spears just now 
kaililak nan alitaPcko I just saw my uncle 
kafkafjengck [katkadengck] I just heard 
kakakddnak I just went out (knnidanak) 

kapkapniko nan kfpan is nan shdlong I just put the knife into the basket 
kaSoyak I just went [kadiilyak: uniiiyak I go] 
kasusuyeptja is nan dngan they just slept in the "angan" (low chamber 

in a house, like a large box) 
ka/otStok nan tsfja I just cooked the meat 

In this negative sentence {ad/kanii: we do not...) ka- denotes "rarely:" 
adlkanii kaistjalstja is dse>t we eat rarely a dog (dogs). 

In sentences with igd [igdy\ "not yet," "not," the passive prefix is 
ka-, instead of nia- or na-, attached to the unreduplicated root: 

iga kddto not yet cooked iga kakdcb not yet made 

iga kakokini not yet cut iga kdpno not yet filled 

iga kaistja not yet eaten 


iga kakdeb nan itjfdja "tlicir bird (i. e. omen) was not accomplislied/' 

their omen did not turn out favoral)ly 
nadto nan makan the rice is cooked; iga kaOto nan iiuikan the rice is 

not yet cooked 

Ka- prefixed to the redupHcatcd root which must take personal end- 
ings expresses pretended action ("I do as if I...) : 

kakdebkdebak is nan dfong I act as if I were building a house 

katsunoisiinoak I do as if I were working 

kafniiminiimkdyB is nan tjhinni you only act as if you were drinking the 

kash it ycsJii? yc pt ja they pretend to sleep 

nan laldki kafsdlafsdlan [kadjaladjdlan] the man pretends to walk 
kasakitsakittja nan soldddso the soldiers pretend to be sick 
kakazvikazvhka you j^rctend to be good 

The preterite and future are expressed by adverbs of time, as : 
adsdngadlVm "some time ago;" or: aH^diPtni "soon" etc. 

298. MAKA- 

MCika- preterite: ndka- future: adnidka- expresses ability of act- 
ing; verbs combined with this i)refix take i)ersonal endings. 

niakdtpabak is nan Sgsa I am able to catch the deer 

makakdebkami is nan dfong we can build the house 

wakakekidak [niakakokddak] is nan fsfja I can cut the meat 

makatsnbldak is nan tafdgo I can smoke tobacco 

makasuy^pkaym you can sleep 

makadjdlauak I am able to walk 

makafalognidtdko mo wodd nan pinangtdko ya nan falfcgtdko we are 

able to fight, if we have our battle-axes and spears 
makasibi^ka 'sh nan kdyo ya niakapifdngka you can cut down and split 

the wood 
makatdyao nan aydyam the bird can fly 
inakakydtkaini's nan wdnga we can swim in the river 
makaSoyak I can go \niakat1iiyak] 

(Ability is also expressed by the modal auxiliary: mafdlfn-; 
mafdlinak ay inkyat I can swim ; mafaUngko ay kap^n nan dfong I 
am able to build the house.) Cf. [317] 


299. NAKA- 

Naka- prefixed to roots denotes accomplished action (I have finished 
doing). It is probably the preterite of maka- and means then: I have 
been able to do.. .and have done... The verb takes personal endings. [Per- 
sonal verbs obtains the suffix -an] 

nakasiiladak is nan sftlad I have finislied writing the letter 
nakatuktjiianak I have been sitting 

nakdkanak is nan tindpay I have finished eating the bread 
nakakaJpkami is nan kmtlaPc we have finished making the night cap 
nakatdnidtja nan fobfafayi is nan pddsog is nan payo the women have 

finished planting the rice in the "sementera." 
nakaotdkanii is nan mdkan we have finished cooking the rice 
nakakapldak I have finished praying, performing a ceremony 
nakalongshdtanak I have finished cutting (the big tree across, in the 

nakasuyepanak I have finished sleeping (also: I had slept) 
nakasangfiianak I have finished the "sangfu"-ceremony (sacrificing a pig) 
nakatsubldanak I have finished smoking 
nakatsundanak I have finished working 
nakakalfanak I have finished speaking 

300. MAKI- 

Maki-, or niiki- prefixed to the root which takes personal endings 
denotes an action performed by cooperation or in companionship with others. 

makikdebak is nan dlang I build a granary with others assisting me 

niakidliak I come together with others 

admakifotdyak I shall converse with... ken tjattja with them 

mikionongak I fight in company with my comrades 

mikifalognidak I go to battle with my friends 

mikiyaiak is nan nwnok I bring with others the chickens 

mikitsnndkami we work together, in cooperation 

mikililhvidak I play with others 

mikikdngkdmi we eat together ; makfkan ken tjattja he eats with them 

mikifdyiPitdko we pound rice together 

mikikdyak I go with others, I accompany (synon. mifiicgak I go with...) ; 

nan fiitug mikikoy ken todt [makiSyak, makiiiyak, makidayak] the 

pig goes with him 
makikalitdko let us speak together 


mikitsubhitja tlicy are smoking together 

makitoto'yak ken AnaiPrcvdsal I speak with Anauwasal 

inakifalognidtdko auifiil let us all fight! (synon. zcaslitjiiifako luakifalSg- 

uid! [139]) 
luakidlki'iduiko we are mutual friends 

301. I NASI- 

The combination: /;/ + asi + root with personal endings expresses 
reciprocal relations. -asi- has the collateral form : -osi-. There is no 
reciprocal pronoun in Bontoc Igorot. 

inasi/ilatciko : iiiasi/ihfkanii ; i!iasl/ildkayi4, iiiasi/iUffja: we, vou. they 

see each other 
iiiasiktckftfko we know each other preter. iiinasikicktdko 
inasikallkaiui we speak with each other 
inasitokoiigkaiiii we teach each other, we advise each other 
nan dsl°l iiiasikatJhfja [InasikotSbtja] the dogs bite each other 
inasiktekfja nan lalaldki the men know each other 
inasiflata we two see each other 
nan dndnak inasikogongija the children strike each other, preter. 

ninasikogongtja fut. adinasikogdngtja 
inasit jcn gu gSkanii we hear each other 
inasiinandpkdmi we seek each other (from the personal vb. indnapak I 

am seeking) 
na)i fafdyi ay nax ya sak /I'n inasikfekkdini this woman and I know each 

fiddhWi! inangdsiniaddytdko! forward! let us all kill each other (die 

together) ; (a battle cry-) 
cnasilcyadtdko we like each other [diiasilcyadfdko] 
ct akit yangkay ay cnasipaddykauii ax Igolot and only little (was lacking 

that) we Igc'irol killed each other | P.. 47. | 

302. MA + AN- 

\n order to express sudden action certain personal verbs take the lire- 
fixes n\a followed bv an; nia'an is prefixed to roots with an initial vowel, 
1)Ut if a root begins with a consonant, ma is prefixed and an is placed after 
the initial consonant. (;//(;- seems to indicate the passive, the agency of an 
outward force.) 


(These combinations are nearly equivalent to those with the prefix piii- 
or pang-) 
jiiiiogiddak I fear ina/aiiogiddak I fear suddenly : { iiiapaiigogiddak: 

I am startled by fear) 
fiiiiurkfjikak I rise matandktjikak I rise suddenly 
tiiimiktjiiak I sit down inatanuktjf/ak I sit down suddenly 
tiungSyak I stop matanilgSyak (ii inserted) I stop at once 
tumdyai'^ak I fly matandyaPiak I fly suddenly preter. iiafandyai''mk 

303. NINGKA- 

Niiigka- or niiika- prefixed to roots forms verbal adjectives which denote 
a condition w^hich has been completely attained. This prefix is evidently 
the combination of the preterite of ;/;/';;. used frequently with personal verbs 
(as Nom. ag. prefix also!), and of ka- signifying accomplished action. 
[193: 297] 

It is possible that such combinations take personal endings, although 
only forms without endings have been collected : 
ningkaldiigo nan kdyo the wood is perfectlv dried, drv 
ninkdOto nan mdkaii the rice is ready cooked, has been cooked some time 

nan kdyo ya iiiiikasfbB the tree is already cut down 
ninkaddy nan tdkl°i the persons are already dead 
ninkafdsa nan sillddnio your letter has been read before 
ninkakdeb nan fdfay the spear is ready, has been made 
nan tstja ya ninkakSkdd [ninkakc'kct] the meat is already cut 
ninkatckndfan, ningkatdiigfan nan pdngnan the door is already opened, 

As the use of most i^refixes, also the use of ningka- is idiomatically 
confined to certain verbs, while other verbs require a different construction. 


304. As the Prefixes treated in tlie preceding chapters serve to express 
certain moods or tenses of the verb, so there exist in Bontoc Igorot also 
some modifying "auxiliaries"' with similar functions. 


Only the most common of these are mentioned licre ; others can be found 
in the chapter on Adverbs [409-416]. 

Some of these temporal and modal "auxiliaries" have the (|ualities of 
particles, others those of ver1)alized adverbs, others those of verbs. 

Several of these "auxiliaries" are particles without endings, as: cd, nget, 
ngiii ; they follow the verb with its endings. 

Several precede the verb (without ligature ay) ; they take to themselves 
the personal, respectively possessive endings from the verb. The verb a])pears 
as "Infinitive." Such are: ck, fck, hsak, dfiis, tptjas, tsa, kaiikaii/. 

Several are connected by ay with the subsequent "Infinitive;" they have 
their own (uninfluenced) endings; as: sdiia, tjifjftja, tjdkasko. 


305. Ell [cf], '(/ [7| following the \-erb exi)resses usually an obligation 
( I ought ; I should ) and sc^metimes it indicates the irreality of a condition or 
action, as is expressed by our conjunctixe or conditional. ( I should or 
would, might; be, become, act etc.). In a few instances "od" was used 
instead of cd. Cf. [188 ; 242] . 

If a verb modified by cd has to give U]) its en<lings to a ])rcceding vcr- 
lialized adverb, cd takes its place after the adverb. 

Ed is also found after other categories of words, not only after verbs; 
it expresses also there the idea of irreality or obligation, as a few exam- 
])les will illustrate. 

tiiiiufvaivdk cd I should fly; [pronounced as enclitic: tuuuiyaiPidkcd] 

inStokd'd you ought to cook (otdck: possess, vb. ; inotoak personal vb.) 

alikdvii'd man! you ought to come "now!" Sngka'd man! you ought to go! 

kdpim cd nan dfoug you ought to build the house 

fukdBzvantja'd nan ongonga they ought to call the child 

uniiivdk cd 1 should go; unif/yka'd: uniily cd ; uiniiyfdko'd : itmiiykdyl^'d ; 

unuiytja'd etc. 
nan fohfafdyi uindlitja'd is dfong the women ought to come into the house 
tjaitja inafSyfja'd is nan zvdnis they ought to weave the breech cloth 
nan lalaldki kap^ntja'd nan fdngkan the men ought to make the spears 
intcdcdkayiPi'd isna you ought to stay here 
potlongentdko'd nan iSkod we ought to cut off the post supporting the 

nan fobfafdllo infalognftja'd the young men ought to fight 
aintn inkakdniutjd'd all ought to hasten 
inkakdmudk ed ay timi'iy I ought to hasten to go 


mangantdko'd inia, isafdko'd entsiino let us first eat, tlien work {isa, then, 

takes the ending from entsiino!) 
engkalidk od [for: cd] I should speak 
nan fanfcfnig ken tjakdy&i aoni'd stya nan tsaktsdki the sniahest among 

you may soon be {aoni: soon) the largest 
cd tsatsdnia nan Icyddko ay mangfla ken slka "great would be my joy to 

see you" 
engka'd, dnia you ought to go, father [Mi 5.] 
sddta'd id fohffly let us two go to the town (home) [Mil.] 
nan niaddji tsani inpaydi ay slicngedko'd ya nafdngosh that (meat) which 

you used to have brought to me (i. e. to send), that it should be my 

food, was rotten [M. 7] slicng^'dnio'd: [M. 8] 
paddyentdko'd na\ let us kill this! [S. 5] 

ta od akndlak na let me watch this [S. i] od [ed] precedes here the verb! 
tSk od ilacn tsaltsa [fjaftja] I should like to go to see them [L. 2y-] 
tck cd llacn nan inidldgna I ought to go to see "sonny" f]\l. 5] 
fjiiy kasnn cd ijipdpcn that (pig) you should again (kas-ini) catch; 

kasini took the ending from tjipapen; hence cd follows kasini [L. 64] 
tjiininjfa man cd\ so let us celebrate our wedding! [L. 52] aHollows the 

kasinyi^i'd ySi, fa iflak od fjdkay» you ought to bring here again (the 

fire) ; let me watch you! [L. 10] 
inabfuyfikayd'd ya naSto san asfn (God spoke:) you ought to boil (salt- 
water), and the salt was boiled. [L. 18] 
inlagSkayiPi'd you ought to sell it (the salt) [L. 18-] 
isndcd [isnd cd\ nan tdktsun nan asin ay nay here be the "seat" of the 

salt [L. 20] 
san kinatj^unio'd igdaka inniaktan ken sak/chi (of) your fish (which you 

had caught) you would not give me any [P. 13] 
enta'd enldpis is fnnata let us two go to clear the soil for our garden [R. i] 


306. The particles ngct and ngin are employed to form the potential 
or dubitative mood; they are equivalent to our: possibly, prol)ably, perhaps. 
Ngin is always post-positive. In declarative sentences ngct is used, ngin 
occurs only in interrogative sentences, and sometimes in sentences declara- 
tive in form, but interrogative in sense. 

Our sentences depending on such phrases like "I hope that ... I 
expect that, I suppose that, I anticipate that," are rendered in Bontoc Igorot 


usually by declarative sentences with iigcf\ the verbs "hope, expect, antici- 
pate" etc. are omitted. 

Xgct takes also the future ])rcli.\ ad- from the verb: ddiigcf. 

The particle amdy often precedes nget. aMciy ngct sftodi perhaps he 

aiPidy nget mamasi'iycp he is perhaps sleeping-; he may be sleeping; I think 
he sleeps 

adn':!_ci iniul'li s'iuOtji \si aiidtji] my younger brother may come, will per- 
haps come 

adiigct kapdJia [kapSiia] nan segfi he will probably make the rain hat 

a\k^ [ayko] ngin mndli? will he probably come? wird er wohl konmien? 
(avkc> is an interrogative particle) 

oPuiy nget wodd'sna he is perhaps here; he may be here 

aP(d\ nget is tola' y dlas perhaps in three hours, ("at 3 o'clock"), in aliout 
3 hours 

adnget tonuilitja nan tdkPi is nidksip the peo|)le will return, f tliink, in 
the afternoon 

andy nget i^'oddtja is k'aeskueldan we presume, they are in the school- 

aBd\ nget ninted^cka'd Manila you were probably living in Manila 

aVldy nget ivodd'stjt nan fafdyi the woman may be here 

adnianubldka ngin you will probably smoke; will you? 

aykSka ngin mndli. ^ will you probably come? 

adnget nindliak I presume I shall come 

andv nget is nan tekken ay dfong ])robably in the other house (without 
verl) ) 

amdy nget innidli he may have come 

ai°(dy nget ^iigak slia this is a lie, I presume, [slia: sa] 

nay kay kS'tjeyn ngin ay ntafsa is nannay fakilnUita "here you like perhaps 
to l)e left alone, on this earth" (ironical; sense interrogative) [S. 11] 


307. Ek and Tek are verbs of motion, expressing: I go, in order to 
. . . They precede the verb which is in the "Infinitive" and take to them- 
selves the verbal endings; no ligature is employed between these "auxil- 
iaries" and the following verb. 

Ek means T go; tek I should, ought to go, let me go! I have to go; 
(/ may stand for /«, a conjunction expressing xolilion or purpose: that 1 
go). These "auxiliaries" express real motion; not futurity alone as our 
"I am going to write" for: I shall write. Fr. je vais ecrire for: j'ecrirai. 


The forms of ck and tck, after liaving taken the endings from the verhs 
depending on them, are: 

Personal : Possessive : 

1. ek tck ck tck 

2. engka teiigka cm [dm] tciii [torn] 

3. en [on] ten c^na [dna] teiia [tSiia] 
D. enta tcnta cut a tent a 

I. inch cntdko tcnta ko cntdko tcntdko 

L excl. cngkami tciigkdml cmnf [dniiu] tcnmf [toiimf] 

n. cngkaym tcngkayfi cnypt tcnyn 

111. entja tcntja entja [ontja] ttUitja 

(Instead of the first sing, of tlie personal form usually the possessive 
form is employed; the correct form: cnak is found in l)ut few examples). 
ck mdngan I go to eat ; tck mangan I ought to go to eat ; I must go to 
eat now: also: tck cd mangan [306] 

Tck followed hv cd produces desiderative mood (hut the notion of 
going is retained) : 

tck ed cntsf/no I should like to go to work 
tentdko'd infalognid we should like to go to fight 

But with second or third person it expresses obligation : 
tengka'd nmilcng you ought to go to rest 
ten cd unuiy he ought to go 

entsa'd [cntja'd] masdycp they ought to go to sleep 
ennil and pen nan bflak we go to seek the money 
engkaml manalffcng we go to dance 

engka\m indiiab si sa you go to seek it (indnapak: personal verb) 
engak knmdlab is nan kdyo I go to climb upon a tree (or: ck kumdlab) 
dna aydkan nan andkna he goes to call his child 
en ttmdxak is nan andkna he goes to call his child {unidyakak: person. 


ck flaen I go to see; nan fafdyi ana ilai'n the woman goes to see 

em iydi nan fdnga you go to bring the pot 

ketjeng en aydkan nan laldki then the man goes to call (ending omitted 

because the subject follows) 
ketjeng Sua aydkan nan laldki then he goes to call the man 
cnym ildbo you go to begin 
cngkdyn InmdyaB you go to flee 

ennak [cnak, engak] duns I go to wash myself; or: ck dmis 
cns:ka}iii mangdyB we go to get wood 



ck uiiujla si aj^ity I go to get fire, light 

ek umda [uindla] 'sli patatjtm I go to get iron 

engkamf umda 'sh lalaldki is entsinio ken tjakami we go to get some men 

to work for us 
ciuni alden nan pafafj/in we go to take tlie iron (aldck: i)oss. vb. ; 

nmdlaak: pers. vb.) 
cntdko manutka we go to get heads 

cntja nas/h'Cp tliev went to sleep. The preterite is expressed by the pres- 
ent of ck combined with the ])reterite of the dependent verb. 
cnfja nani:^dyiP( ay sindki the two brother went to get wood [K. i] 
ti^ngkdmi nianfj;dyl°{ si lipat let us go to get dry sticks, branches [K. 2] 
cnta inanidlid is nan kdnianta let us two go to sharpen our axes [K. 3] 
ta enta alden san inllak ay naldngoldngo let us get (the wood which) I 

saw, that is very dry [K. 3] 
ck londyak is fanfandivi 1 go to call a hawk [K. 12] 
tek od tlaen tjaitja I should like to go to see them [L. 27] 
Sna aydkan san laldki she goes to call the man [L. 40] 
\a Sna aydkan san fold'y fofdUo and he goes to call three voung men 

tck sa/pt'n nan pdshong let me (I like to) dam off the water [P. i] 

Ek and tck are employed in affirmative declarative sentences only: in 
negative and interrogative sentences the verb uiniiyak, I go, must be used. 
Ek is also found sometimes without any dependent verb: cngkay»! go ye! 
engka man! go then! enta'd ad LdnaB! let us two go to Lanau! [L. 51 ] 
This use of ek is probably limited to imperative (and hortatory) forms. 


308. Issak precedes, as a future "auxiliary," the 'Tnfinitive" of the 
present of verbs: it takes the personal or possessive endings to itself from 
the verb. Its forms are then: 

Personal : 



issdak [ issdk ] 











T. incl. 



I. cxcl. 










Besides expressing- futurity, issa is used frequently to express a 
request, a mild Imperative : you will bring, please ! — come to-morrow, 
will you? 

issdkami umf/y is fll we shall go to town (soon, after a while etc.) 

issdiiii kapen nan pabafnn^^an we shall then build the community house 

isscika Hindu then you will come 

fssa uini'iy sttodi Is nan fhna then this one will go into the garden 

issavft paddyen nan ff/tuk y<.)U will kill the pig 

issani \<di nan si'dad you will bring the letter 

issdkayn niasilycp you will sleep 

issani ifgfo uaii dsi°( you will hold the dog 

issdtja niadSy they will die 

issdna itOli nan bflak he will then give back the money 

fssain ydi nan kdfjing asv.'dkas/ will you bring the brass to-morrow? 

issakayn iinidii is nan fliini is Jian fafnvfn ay nmdiif will you come into 

our country next year ? 
a^dlMni issdak nnifry very soon I shall go 
issani indnak nan nuifing '"you will have as child" the pounded rice [T. 7] 

(inandkko: there is a child of mine; inanakmo etc.) 
issani indnak nan fsain inpaiydi ay sengedko there will be (henceforth) 

your son the food you caused to be brought to me [M. 6] 
issani indnak nan dnak nan kinapiduain there will be your child the daugh- 
ter of your second wife [M. 12] 
issdka fiiindiigon ken sak/en you will awake me [S. 10] 
ta issak en Inindgo's tabfdgo'y Finalok nay that I shall go to buy tobacco 

of Finalok [Song: H. ly] 
mo ko man, fay finh^yko una, issani tjipdpen! why, certainly, because I 

made it (the pig) first tired, you will catch it! [L. 63] 
ta issdta mangBdmdjfdji av i/ininum that we two shall be the last to 

drink [L. 74] 
issdk umipatdfo'sh tjeni'^tin T shall create water [L. 69] 
issdkayn iiiadSy aniln vou will all die 
nan f»sP(l issdtja iinidli is nan inastjlm the enemies will come in the night 


309. Afusak or dfiisko (rarely its synonym: fptjasak or iptjdsko) 
preceding the Preterite "Infinitive" of verbs, denote an action already 
accomplished; this construction is about equivalent to our pluperfect or to 
phrases with the adverbs "already, before, formerly." The forms, having 
taken the ending's of the followina: verb, are: 


Personal : Possessive : 

1. (ifiisak fpljdsak dfusko iptjdsko 

2. dfuska iptjdska dfus>no iptjdsino 

3. dfus ipfjas dfnsna ipfjdsna 
D. dfiisfa fptjasfa dfiisfa iptjdsta 

I. incl. Cifnstdko iptjastdko dfiistdko ipfjasfdko 

I. cxcl. clfiiskainf iptjaskamt afiisin/ iptjasmi 

n. dfiiskaydf iptjaskaym dfusy^i iptjasy^ 

III. dfiisfja iptjdsfja dfiisfja iptjdstja 

dfusko fiiiavdljini I had paid, 1 paid already, I ])aid before 

iptjdsko fiiiukdi'Y:C(iii 1 had called 

dfiisna intpit he had pressed 

iptjdsmi InpaPnl iiaii tolfc<^ we sent the keys before 

dfus iiiiudv s/ldna this man had already gone 

dfusino kinwdni kcu sak/Sn you told me before 

afdskami nasdycp is nantjfli ay dfong we slept before in yonder house 

iptjaskdyA. ncngkdU }'ou had spoken 

nan dsH dfus inminum is nan tjennni the dog had drunk the water 

;;(/;/ lalaldki dfustja ninfaldt^nid is nan pdgpag the men had already fought 

in the forest 
afdskaym naJiigan [ncngan] you have already grown 
dfusak nentsihio I had worked 
dfusko kindi'b nan siugsing I had made the ring 
afdskamt nandlan we had already walked 
nan ongonga dfusua piuadfly nan kdak is nan fdto the boy had killed the 

monkey with a stone 
dfusini intjasan nan isa'y Jtlog is nan kaindnok we had fnnnd mie egg in 

the chicken 
nan fafdyi dfusna findnfan nan pdnguan the woman had closed the door 

si d)na dfusna infla s/ka the father had seen you 
nan alhvidnw dfustja fnfdha your friends had asked before 
afusnii infstja we had eaten meat 

nan tjotjS dfnsna tj/ng/ngo nan kOsha the nnuise had heard the cat 
si Funinak dfusna inshdno nan kdylPt I'mnnak had burned the wood 
}ian )nandk''u dfusna intdfon nan hflak the thief had hidden the money 
si fna dfusna infdju ken s/'ka nan fjdkal"/ the mother had shown }-ou the 

iptjdska inindy id Feinlok? ha\e vou been in iJontoc before? ("had you 

irone" ) 


(if list ja napadSy nan fp(sBl the enemies had been slain 

afuskdinf naayakan we have been called before 

nan kdyi<k dfns nasfbo the tree has been cut down before (long ago) 

nan ayayain iptjas ndtpab the bird had been caught 

nan fnsnl iptjdstja napdkan the enemies had been expelled. 


310. Tsd, [tjd] a most extensively employed "auxiliary," precedes 
the verb, takes the endings from the verb and, in the future tense, also its 
prefix ad-\ it is used in present, preterite and future. Tsd is connected with 
the following verb, as if it were a prefix, forming one word. 

The basal meaning of tsa is: frequency; from this all other meanings 
are easily derived. 

By isa the verbal action is represented as frequent, repeated, custom- 
ary, continued (i. e. "frequent" in uninterrupted succession; an action dis- 
solved into its single moments succeeding rapidly), contemporaneous (i.e. 
continued parallel to an other action), affecting several different objects 
(i. e. repeated with each new object) or objects of the same kind (in plural). 

Tsd can therefore be translated, for instance, by "often," "I use to," 
by our "progressive present or past or future," "I keep on . . . ," "mean- 
while," "at the same time;" its meaning becomes evident from the context. 
The Igorot are most conscientious in the use of tsd ; they would never employ 
it to express a single unrepeated or discontinued action. 

Tsd is used also in connection with Nom. actionis if they are preceded 
by the article nan ; it stands between the article and the Nom. acti- 
onis. (Some forms of tsak which resemble the personal pronouns should 
not be confounded w'ith these!) 

tsdk [tsdk] 

tsdna (without ending: tsd) [20S] 
tsd mi 
tsdtja {tsdtsa\ 

As the following examples show, the verbs are sometimes in their 
reduplicated forms, which alone, even without tsd-, would suffice to denote 
repeated, continued etc. action [290-294]. 



tsdak [tsdk] 







I. inch 


I. excl. 





tsdtja [tsd tsa 


tsdak masiiycp I use to sleep; tsaak masuycp isiia I '"always" sleep here 
tsdak nasiiycp I used to sleep; I was sleepinj;- meanwhile; I continued to 

adtsdak masuyep I shall often sleep; I shall sleep meanwhile 
tsak dni^ni'n I use to do; I frequently do; I do sometimes, I do at the same 

tsak indngnen I used to do; I did often; I was doint^; I continued to do 
tsdkdmi entsiino we work usually; hut: tjdkcuiii entsnnOkdmi we work, 

it is we who work [87] 
tsdak uuidlidli I come often 
tsdtja Jiiaiigan they usually eat; hut tjattja maugdntja they eat [personal 

pron. tjattja] 
tsdmi angnedngnen we make often 
tsdak manilbla I smoke usually; I often smoke; manuhldak T smoke 

just now 
tsdtja indla they took frequently; they used to take 
tsdka maliugct you are perspiring (continued) 

tsatdko nalingct we were perspiring- (e. g. "while working"; contempor- 
tsdak mandblatsilbla I smoke often; (or: manublatsubldak) 
nan lalaldki tsdtsa mandblatsilbla the men smoke often, usually 
masuycpak tsdka dkis entsiino I sleep, you (again) are working; or; I 

sleep while you are working (at the same time) 
infdsaak tsakdy// dkis ensdlad I read while you are writing (dkis : 

nan auid]na tsd mandbla is nan kaapdyan the old man is used to smoke at 

the fire place 
tsdk kdpen, tsdk kindeb nan find'od T make. I made usually the cap (of 

Bontoc men) 
tsdmi kindeb addgka nan tdfay we made yesterday the spears (several 

ohjects; our making was repeated with each spear) 
adtsdmi padSyen nan fdtug we shall kill the pigs, several pigs (our kill- 
ing will be repeated with each single pig) 
nay si tsdk tsfhioen tiiere is work for me to do; "1 am busy" lit.: there 

is for my "continous" working (si = is) 
tsdk flaen T usually see tsak infla 1 usually saw ddtsak flaen T shall 

often sec 
tsd inamfngsan ay untdli he comes sometimes; lit. "frciiuently one time 

he comes" nuun/)igsa>i: once, one time 
tsdka))il )nanubla is sinpamfngsan we smoke sduictimes 


fssan tsdyu inkdepan [inkapdn] is dfong tsdak umtlcng while you are 
building a house, I am resting. — inkdepan: from the pers. vb. 
inkdebak \inkdcpak\ is the Nom. actionis, with suffix -an ; tsa takes 
-yxi, i. e., your building. Issaii requires the Nom. act. -Construction, 
as will be explained later. 

tsdin dngkay mangmangzvantan you keep on talking only (in fun) ; you 

are only joking (Nom. act. with suffix -an; of vb. kanak I say) 
itssan tsdfsa entsiinoan during their working, while they are working, 

(Nom. act.) 
ketjcng tsdmi padSyen nan fdtng nan iKdndson then we kill the pigs of 

the inhabitants of Candon (several objects; repeated act) [B. 9] 
ketjeng tsdnii sikpen nan dfong si iTakiitjing ct tsdmi pindla nan fddsotja 

then we entered the houses of the people of Takutjing and quickly 

took their coats away [B. 10] 
tsdfja nmaldli is tsogokini ct isdtja kankdnan... they always come to our 

rear and keep saying... [B. 13] 
ketjeng tsdmi itsdotsao nan kohkoh si fdtug ya nan aktt ay mdkan then 

we give (them) the pigskins and a little rice 
fssam indnak nan tsam inpaiydi ay sengi^dko you will have as your son 

"your repeatedly sending, my food". — (ydik I bring; ipaydik I 

cause to bring, I order to bring; inpaiydi: Nom act. in preterite.) 
mahd dahadan gan is nan tsak anoban ay Idman ya nan ogsha meat (put 

into the rice) of what I often hunted, wild pig and deer [M. 8] 
ketjeng nan laldki tsdiia tsamvdden nan shengcdna, tsdna ikd/i^p then 

the boy, as often as he received his food, he buried it [M. 4] (His- 

tor. Present) 
ximdy ya tsa kokStjen alitd/ona nan htja he goes (to his uncle's), and his 

uncle was just cutting meat (contemp. action) [R. 23] ; tsa: ending 

omitted, because the "subject" follows (in genitive; nomin. : si 

alitd/ona) [208] 
indiditmko ya tsa kokStjen alitd/ok nan htja I was peeping and just then 

my uncle cut the meat [R. 24] 
nan mOting ay kanakkandna tsak idjiladji'ia the pounded rice she often 

asked for I always gave her (Histor. Present) [T. 8] ("whenever 

she asked — I gave") 
tsd et madngkay nan oiiasli then always (each time) the sugar cane is 

eaten up [S. i ] 
ta od akndlak na nan tsa mangdngkay is nan onash! let me watch here 

the "one frequently eating" the sugar cane! [S. i] 


va kcfjcng pay nan fsang ay kananak ay oka is tsciini tsnktsnkcfnan and 
all there is, is that single sow with its young which we are raising 
( "for our often feeding") fL. 45 1 

nan tsdk ibfakcifaka ken tjakaypi "iny telling you often."' what I told you 
so often [L. 22]. 


311. Kan kanf expresses immediate future, and also an action or event 
that is almost completed or that would almost have taken place. Kdnkan^ 
takes the endings from the vcrl) which it precedes. Its forms are: 

Personal : 














[. inch 



[. excl. 









iak man "an I shall soon eat 

kankanika cntsihio 

you will soon 

kankdni engkdll sllodi he will soon speak 
kankanttja kumdlab is nan kdyo tja Fdiiinak ken Bmgfi Funm.-d< and 

Bugti will soon climb upon a tree 
kankdnik fekdslien nan fdlfeg I shall immediately throw the spear 
kankantm iydi nan palatjhn you will soon bring the iron 
si yun/a kankantna padOycn nan fdtug the older brother will soon kill tiie 

kankdnik fakdshcn nan bdngam I shall soon break the glass; synon. : 

fakdshek nan bdngaB is aiPuiftni (very soon) 
kankanfak nadktsag [nedkisag] I came near falling, I almost fell 
nan dndnak kankanltja naydgyag the children almost fell 
kankdni)!! findkasli nan bangaPt you came near breaking the glass 
kankanimi ffndasli nan tsundcnmi we have rdmosl linished our working 
nan fdnga kankanf niakdeb tlie pot is almost made 

nan ongonga kankanfna padd\cn nan mdton the boy almost hit the mark 
nan kftjo kankanfna pinadSy nan lalaldki lightning almost killed the men 
nan lalaldki kankanftja napaddy is nan kftjo the men were almost killed 

by lightning 


kankdii/ ay fsa'y o'las almost (soon) one hour 


312. Kdsfii means: again, once more. It is sometimes followed by 
the unchangeable adverb dk/s = also, likewise, again, of which it seems to 
be a permutation. 

Kdstn precedes the verb, takes the endings from the verb, and in 
future tense also its prefix ad-. Its forms are: 

Personal: Possessive: 

1. k as in ah kdstk 

2. kasingka kastm 

3. kasin kasfna 
D. kastta [kasinta] kasfnta 

I. inch kasitdko [kasintdko] kasintdko 

I. excl. kasfngkaini kasinmi 

II. kasiugkdyiO( kastnym 

III. kasftja [kas/ntja] kashttja 

kasinak cntsiino I work again adkasffa iiiiuly we two shall go again 
kashigkdyH inmdli you have come again kastngka iiiaiigdycng! sing 

kasintdko fckdsheii nan fdlfcg! let us throw the spears once more! (Or: 

fekashentdko dkis nan falfeg!) 
kas/ni kdpen sa! make this again! repair this! 
nan dsB kasfna tjtnpah nan dydyain the dog caught the bird again 
adkastntja uniali nan fohfafdyi the women will come again 
kashigka umda! take again ! 
kasin dkis maiPczvdkas it is (was) again to-morrow, "on the following 

day" [M. 3] 
kashi dkis maldf! it is again night fS. 8] 
kasftja dkis toindli san djdan kiPtnipdnya the two companies returned 

again [B. 34] 
kctjcng maiPizvdkas va kasfnii fbfdkd then it is morning and we ask again 

kasi'tja kdndn they sav again [B. 60] 
kctjcng niaP/zvdkas dkis nan tdlon ya kasftja dkis unuly nan sindki then 

it is again to-morrow (i. e. "on the next day") "the time," and again 

the two brothers go out... [R. 4] 
kasfnyn'd ySi you ought to bring again [L. 10] 
tjui kasfin cd tjipdpen that one you ought to catch again [L. 64] 


kcfjc'iii^ kasfiia akis /^(iiiloiigen then lie drove (tlie pii;') also again up 

stream | E. 64] 
V(/ kasfi! dkis umdiiak sail uaCimascingan and the widower became again 

father [ L. 88] 
kasiiitciko mntla let tis again lonk for... [11. 16] 
kasitja finmdngon; ketjcng kasttja pad ci yen tjattja they had again come 

to life; then they killed them ( i. e. Enmawig's sons) once more [L. 92] 

Observe these phrases: iian kas/k incima my stepfather (my "again- 
father") ; nan kas/ni infna your stepmother; nan kasfna infna his 

is kasfn \a is kdsfn again and again; kasl'n aszi'dkas, or: kdsht iszvdkas, 
or : is kds/n wdkas day after to-morrow ; kds/n adugka, or : is 
kdstn ngka day before yesterday 

kasfn ya kasfn tsdan: one time and an other time not; in these 

passages: aykctdko kasfn inogiadgiad ya kasfn tsdan.' are we 
cowards at one time and at an other time not? [B. 2'/\ 
aykSka kasfn inadka ya kasfji tsdan.' do you cry at one time and 
at an other time not? (why do you cry sometimes?) [K. 14 J 


The following "auxiliaries'" are connected with the \erl) ])y ay: they 
do not take two kinds of endings; the "dependent" verb is in the "Infini- 
tive," or sometimes in the form of the Nomen agentis. (Our copula "to 
be" is inherent to this category of Auxiliaries.) Some important "auxilia- 
ries" of this class are given here; others will be enumerated in the cha])tcrs 
on the Adverbs. 


313. Sdnd means: very soon; in a moment ; it refers to the immediate 
future and can not be employed with any past tense. Usually the verb is 
in the present tense, rarelv in llie future. 

In connection with verbs sdnd remains either unchanged, i. c. sdna 
without endings and the main \'erl) takes endings; 

or sdna takes the personal (never the possessive) ending.s, while the 
main verb has no endings. 


Tn citlier case tlie ligature a_v follows sdna. 

The ionns oi siiiia: Sing.: sdnaak; sctndka; sana; Dual: sdiiafa; 
Plural : sdnatako; sandkdmi ; sdiulkdym; sdndtja. 

(Possessive verbs retain their ending usually in the third singular, as 
sdna has no ending in this person) 

sdnaak av umdli or sdna 'y itiiidliak I come "in a moment" 
sdiialca'v itnidli or sdiia'y iiindl/ka you come in a moment 

sdiia'y umdli he will come immediately 
sdndkdni! ay iividli or sdnd'y miidltkdinl we shall come at once 
sdnaak ay uidngan is nan vufkan. I come just now to cat the rice; I am 

going to eat now 
sdnaak ay andpen nan fcilfcg or sdnaak ay mangdnab is nan tolfcg or 

sdna'y aiidpck nan tolfcg I shall seek the key immediately 
sdna'y adunifiyak is Hi I shall go to town at once 
sdnaak ay ]naniblP( is nan kdyfi I shall cut the wood very soon 
sdna 'y sibmentdko nan kdyB we shall cut the wood forthwith 
nan laldki sdna'y fekdshena nan kdyang the man will immediately throw 

the spear 
nan fafdyi sdna'y umdli the woman will come at once 
sdna'y kapSnnii nan tiifay; or: sandkdmi ay mangdeb is nan tufay; or: 

sandkami ay kapen nan tiifay we shall make the spear immediately 
sdnaak ay nianglla is nan ongonga I shall go to see the child at once 
sdnaak ay aydkan s/ka; or: sdnaak ay maugdyak ken s/ka I call you at 

(The participial form of the main verb ( Nom. agentis) is preferred 
to the "Infinitive"; sdnaak ay mamddsang "I shall immediately be a 
helper" is preferred to: sdnaak ay fadsdngan I help at once) 

Observe the use of sdna! as answer upon an order ; as : pan gall kdyM 
amin! Ans. sdna! come all quickly! Ans. "in a moment! " Ger. ''gleich! " 
If any object is thrown to someone, his attention is called by: "sdna 
kay!" (A" ay is an affirmative particle); as: isdna'd kandn ken anotjlna 
en "sdna kd...y! then he called to his younger brother (while throwing 
down his legs to him) : "now! here! here it comes!" [K. 7] 
kctjeng kdndn amdtja en "sdna kay nan tjenPnn!" thereupon their father 

said: "here comes the water! " Ger. "gleich kommt das W'asser! " 



314. TjHjltja means: still, yet; it has usually personal endings and is 
connected with the verb by ay ; if tjitjftja has endings, the verb is without 


'J'he verl) is usually i)rcccdod by tsa fdi" //(/], iudicating the coniiuua- 
lirin of the ciindition or action [310]. — lM-e(|uently the personal form is 
used instead of the possessive form of transitive verbs: inkaebak instead 
oi kcipck, I make; intstmidak instead of tsimtdek, I sew; these personal 
verbs appear in their participial forms: inkdi'b, intstmid. 

The forms are: Sing.: tjitjttjdak; tjitjftjdka; tjitjttjd; Dual: 
tjitjltjata; Plural: fjitjftjafako; tjiijitjakdmi; tjitjltjdkdyB; tjitjifjdtja. 

tjitjttjaka'y tja iiu'm^^ivi you are still eating 

tjitjitja ay tsdyt^ kdnen nan makanf are you still eating the rice? 

tjitjttja'y tsdui kdpcn nan afong you are still building the house 

tjitjitja ken sak/Jn nan kipdngko I have yet the knife (lit. "yet to me my 

tjitjitjdkdmf ay tsa entsdno we are yet working 

tjitjitjdkdyiPi ay tja manalffcngf are you still dancing? 

tjitjttjaka'y tsa manubla you are still smoking 

nan fobfafdyi ya tjitjitjdtja'sna the women are still here 

tjitjttjaak ay tsa inkdeb is tdfay or : tjitjftja ay kdpck nan tdfay I am 
still making spears 

nan ongonga tjitjftja 'y insaklt the child is still sick 

tjitjttjaak ay tsa mamotlong is nan kdym I am still cutting wood; or: 
tjitjttja ay potlongck nan kdym 

tjitjifjdkaiiii ay tsa mdngan is nan toki we are still eating the "toki" 

fjifjifjdtja nan fobfafdyi ay tja intstmid is nan fddso the women are still 
sewing the coat 

si Tongav ya tjitjttjd is nan Chicago Tongay is still in Chicago 

si Mdleng ya tjitjttja id Pfnitok adsdngdduni Moleng was still in Bontoc 

ayk^ tjitjttja shWntc'ro tsna.^ Is Antero still here? 

nan ydn/ak tjitjttja'y tja inkdeb is nan dfongna my brother is still build- 
ing his house 

tjitjttja 'y tgtok nan dsm is nan dfongko I still keep the dog in my house 

tjitjttjaak ay inkdeb is nan singsing I am still making rings 


315. Tjdkasko [tsdkasliko, tjdngkasko], always with the possessive 
endings, is connected with the participle or Xom. agentis of the following 
verb by the ligature ay\ it expresses sudden, immediate action. 

The forms are: Sing, tjdkasko; tjdkasino; tjdkasna : Dual: tjdkasta; 
riural: tjakastdko; tjdkasmt; tjdkasyfi; tjakdstja. 


tsdkashko 'y enfsfhio I work forthwith preter. tjdkashko'y neiifsfnw; 

flit, adtjclkasko 'y eiifsuiw 
fid'casliko a\ iiiditi^aii I eat immediately 
issaii iuallan iiait laldki, iiaii aycfzcaii fsdkasna ay lum(i\al°( when the man 

came, the huffalo ran suddenh' awav; 
issan tangfain nan pdngiian. tjdkasna'y fnniolfngct as soon as you close 

the door, it turns dark (at once) 
tsdkashtja 'y hinuiyaPt immediateh' thev started running away [B. 35] 
kctjeng tjdngkasnii ay sihnkep is nan pdgpag then we went at once into 

the forest [P). 49] 
iscicd tjdkasna ay tiinidyaPt ya enkufkok and then he flew immediately 

away and cried : kn/kn/t/ko! [K. 16] 
isdcd dinhiuni nan kds/ldna ya fsdkaslina ay inangifsd'kosh is nan katsipasJi 

then his brother-in-law drinks and He (i. e. Liimdzvig) pushes him 

immediately into the rock. [L. 76] 
tjdkashna ay nangitdli is nan kfj^an he returned the knife at once 
tjdkashtja'y ndnikash is na)i bdto they suddenly hurled stones (fckdslick 

I throw ) 


316. Snuiydak ydngkay [dngkay] conveys the idea of doing some- 
thing exclusively (as ydngkay = only, in this phrase expresses) ; it has per- 
sonal endings only and requires the ligature ay. 

Its forms are: Singular: sumydak [shumydak, sPnnydak] ; suniydka; 
silmya; Dual: suniydta; Plural: sumyatdko; suniydkdnii ; snniyakdypi ; 

Preter. sinnniydak ydngkay Fut. adsnniydak yangk'ay 

sJiuniydka ydngkay ay fiinidktjii you do nothing l)ut sit down; "'you are 

not active" 
situiyakdyp^ ydngkay ay engkdll yon are onlv speaking 
sihnya yangkay ken sfka ay zvodd nan soklongino you alone have a hat 

("it is only for you, that there is your hat") 
sdinya ydngkay ken todf ay zvodd nan kawfs ay fddsona he alone has a 

good coat 
sinuniydak yangkay ay inmali I alone have come 

siiinydka ydngkay ay inkdeb is kdntyab you do nothing but make shields 
suniydka dngkay ay kdzvfs nan kJani you always "take the good thing for 

sumyatdko ydngkay ay niandbla we do nothing but smoke 


In a similar way dpid- [dbid-, dbild-] is used to express the same idea; 
hut (ipild- takes either personal or possessive endings and ay is omitted; 
therefore it lielongs to the "auxiliaries" enumerated in [307-312] hut is 
treated here as heing synonymous to siimydak. 

dpidak ydngkay c'litsdiio 1 do nothing else hut work 

dbi'td angkay mdngan sfya he is only eating 

dl)idko ydngkay kdpen nan fdiiga I do nothing hut make the pots 

dbiidiia ydngkay fbfdka he only asks 

dbiidini ydngkay pitdugcn nan kdyl°( \\c onlv s])lit the wood 


317. In Igorot there are numerous verhs which govern, as we should 
sav, a Dependent Infinitive. Many of these verhs may he found in the 
Vocabulary; onlv the most important shall he given here. The "Depend- 
ent Infinitive" is ])receded by the ligature ay. 

yadngckck I strive, I use energy, force, zeal 

yadngckck ay cntsinw I work hard 

yadngckcm ay ^ngkdll you speak loud 

yaangckcntdko ay mangdgong let us box vigorously! 

inyadngckck ay finukdp/'ivan 1 called loud 

nayadngckS ay nafpid he was pressed hard 
yaakftko, yaahintko "I do a little" [yaalundyko] 

yaakftnii ay c'ligkdl/ we speak in a low lone 

yaahinfko ay enfsfhio 1 work a little 
kanidck 1 hasten; Preter. klndniRk 

kanifh'ni ay londx! go ([uicklv 

kamdcna ay iiiangdc'!' is nan dfougna he builds his house 

kindnii^k ay innidii I came in haste 

kakaindck ay intdktak I run faster (Comparative expressed 
by reduplication) 

kakanuicnyd ay nianalffcng d.-uice faster! 


alnndyck I do slowly; alahinciyck I do more slowly, very slowly 
alalundyein ay ^ngkdll ! speak more slowly 
inalahindyko ay iinmoli [tioonOliX 1 relurned more slowly, 

very slowly 
le\tjck I want, like ; Icyle'yfjclc I prefer 

levfjck ay ihninniii I want to drink 

leytjenmi ay tiPcmoli id Fmntok we want to return to 

iSytjenuit ay llaeti >iaii fli we like to see the city 
leyleytjentdko ay istja nan monok mo nan dsB we prefer 

eating a chicken to eating" a dog; we rather eat chicken 

than dog 
ISytjck Sitka ay titmukfju I want you to sit down 
l^yfjeinnf tsatsdma 'y fjeiig/iigen sa we like very much 

to hear this 
lincyddtja ay huiiily they wanted to go (or: ay ihniiy; but 

the preterite follows usually the preterite of the govern- 
ing verb) 
ildbok I begin 

ildbom ay entsdno! begin to work! 

ildbotdko'y infalognid let us begin to fight 

inldbotja'y pitdngen nan kdym they began to split the 

wood (or: ay pinftang nan kayi°{ ; or: ay uiauiftang is 

nan kaye^ ) 
adildboini ay otoen nan findya we shall begin to cook the 

rice (or: ay inangdto is nan ftiidyiPt) 
tnmgdyak I stop {dlPankdyak; domgdyak etc.] 

tiimgSyak ay niandlan I stop running 

tinnmgSytja [dinPnnkStja] ay nandlan they stopped running 

tunigSykdmi ay entsdno fay maid kdypc we cease from 

working, because there is no wood 
amkSck; fi^dsliek I finish, end; are used frequently in their passive: 
nadiiiko and nafmasJi, followed by an other passive. But also the 
active occurs sometimes: 

amkdck ay ntdiigan I finish eating 
indmkok ay ndngan I finished eating 
amkdentdko ay entsdno let us end our working! 
fmdshenym ay mangdeb is nan diang! finish your building 

the granary! 
finBdshna'y pindlid [or: ay palitjen; or: ay namdlid is...] 

nan plnangna he finished sharpening his ax 


luiit fstja ya nacimko ay iicuito the meat is cooked, lias 

been cooked, is fmished cookinj^ 
nan tilfay ya nacimko ay nakdeb the siJear is already made, 

is finished 
nadmko'y nasiilchlan nan siHad the letter is already written 
nal/4asli ay nafsfniid nan fddso the coat is finished sewing 
iyakakydko [iai;ak''i1ko\ I continue (all day; day, sun = dkyii) 

iyakakydko ay cntsdno I work all day long; I continue 

iyakakyf/na 'y iiintjan it rains all dav long 
("To continue" is also expressed by kas/n [312] : kasfngka'y 
entsdno go on working! continue working) 
iphigko I try ifiJngko ay inang-i^^'diii I try to say 

if^i'ngko ay dptcn sika I try to meet you (or: ax ))iangdfcd 

ken sika) 
ipcngtja ay inn i Id go si fdnga they try to sell pots 
(pafsdslick, I try, is Ilocano, hut used also in Bontoc) 
iyf/yak T let, j^ermit 

iydyaini tjakaypi ay sdmk'ep is dfongmi we let you enter 

our houses 
iy/lyani sak/chi ay ilaen sa! let me see that! 
iyiiyatja nan laldki ay umdli 'sna they let the man come 
pandl'^rdiak 1 do immediateh', directly; I do as the first thing 

panaMshani ay niandhla you smoke immediately 
pandl^sJiak ay mangdan is nan soklOngko I take off my 

hat immediately (vb. kadnck: I take off) 
sihnkep san Liundwig ya pandeVshana nan tji'ni^ni ay 
mangfbfdka Lumawig enters and asks directly for water 
(His first act is asking...) [L. 41] 
panal^slianfdko'y nidngan is nan indkaJi let us eat the 
rice, as the first we do 
mabfdlfi: [niafdlfn] "possible" or "able," is common to Bontoc Igorot and 
to Ilocano; with personal or possessive endings it means: I can, I am 
able, and expresses mostly physical ability; menial ability is chiefiy 
expressed by kc^kkck, I know (cf. I'^r. poni'iur and saroir). 

The use of the endings seems to lie uncertain; with i)ersonal verbs both 
mabfdluiak [mafdlfnak] and mabfalfngko [mafdl/ngko] are employed; 
possessive verbs prefer mdfaltngko [mabfalfngko]. — Some Igorot rejected 
the use of the personal endings. 


iiiabfalfiigko ay kdpcn nan dfong I can build the house 

niafallnnio ay kdnen nan tind[^ay you can eat the bread 

mafdlina 'y fgto nan kfj^an he can keep the knife 

kekkhifja'y id pen nan bilak they can (understand to) count the money 

inabfdlinfja 'y palakdiSzven nan fdlfcg they can ward off tlie s]K\ars 

mafalinyi^i ay iilan sfya you can watch him [lilden; lildck I watch] 

mabfalingko or niabfdlinak ay uindli I am able to come 

mafdlinak ay niasuycp I can sleep (or: niabfalfngko) 

nafdlinak ay Jiasdyc/^ I was able to sleep 

nabfdlina'y kindlab nan kdyPt he was able to climb the tree 

viafal/nnio'y fgto sa vou can keep this, hold this 

niabfdlfn ay nnidli nan niaindgkid it is possible that the .qirl comes (or: 

adngct nnidli nan niamagkid [306] ) 
adl inabfdlln ay nniilcng isna it is not possible to rest here 
kekkentja ay niangildgo is fdnga they can (know to) sell jars [cf. L. 18] 
aykSka adt mabfalin ay fi^nnatdktjikf can you not remain standing? 
ngag^nini adt niabfal/'n ay sagfdft'ii nan kdyiPi ay nay? why can we not 

carry this wood? 
mabfalin: it is possible, it may be; (Hoc. bdlhi, power, ability) 
dngnem nan niabfal/nino do what is possible for you, do what you can 
niabfdlfna ay dniln he can do everything, everything is possible to him. 

31S. Combinations of possessive suffixes with roots, which are sub- 
stantives, serve sometimes as "auxiliaries" or modifiers of verbs; as 

ikad custom, habit, usage (but: tkad n\e2.n?,: care) 
fkddko ay )}iasuycp it is mv custom to sleep; I use to sleep 
ikddini ay indngan si dsiPt it is our custom to eat dogs; we are wont to eat 

dogs ; w'e use to eat dogs 
nafmash nan fsilno, ikddtja ay uniileng after (lit. "finished") the work they 

use to rest 
ikddini ay buniddong is nan dtdto we use to sit on the stones at the coun- 
cil house 
fnkadko ay itnidli I used to come [inkadko: my "former" custom]. 

dla the direct way; followed by the copula ya : 
dlak ya IdyaPt mv direct way is "to flee;" I flee at once 

dlani ya shihnkep is nan Slog your direct way is entering the girl's dormi- 
tory; you enter directly the girl's dormitory 
kctjcng dlan son andkna ya knmdlab is kdyo then his son immediately 
climbed upon a tree [M. 12] 


timdyka ad KandsSn ketjStig dlam ya ad F/nttok you go to Candon and 

from there directly to Bonloc 
kctjeng dlami ya nan pdgpag ct loslif/'tdmi ya ad Scrwdntcs tlicn \vc weiU 

directly into the forest and we came out (''our egress") at Cervantes 

[B. 54]. 
For similar phrases consult the XOcahulary. 


319. The use of the difl'erent negatives in Bontoc Igorot is determined 
by strict rules. 

The negatives are: ddf; igd: ma /id; fdkhi; fsdan. Tliey are also 
employed, according to certain rules, as the particle of answer: "no". 

As the following discussion will show, the negatives take to themselves 
the endings of verbal forms and are thus verbalized. 


320. Adt, not, is used as simple negative with verbs, especially in the 
present and future, but rarely with past tenses. Ad/ is also the negative 
particle for prohibitive imperative; and with the conjunction fa it expresses 
negative purpose "that not; lest". 

Ad/ affects a whole sentence or a single word. In the hitler case it 
corresponds sometimes to our privative prefixes uii-, in-, dis- etc. ; there are 
no privative particles found in combination with any words in Bontoc Igorot. 

Ad/ whh the endings taken from the verb appears in these forms: 

Personal : Possessive : 






ad/ mi 











. inch 


. excl. 







In future adt takes (besides the endings) also the future prefix ad- 
from the verb. 

adiak uiiuili I do not come adfk kekken I do not know 

adadikami uiiiflcng we shall not adadFiiii sagfafeii sa we shall not 

rest carry this 

adf c'lifsfhio sfva he does not work adfna kdpen nan (ffong he does not 

build the House 
adadfkaiii/' iiniiiy istjt we shall not go there 
nan laJaki adf htindyaioi the man does not run 
nan ongauga adltja liikyat is nan zvanga the children do not swim in the 

nan fafciyi adfna ahu'n nan kffan the woman does not take the knife 
nan uiamanidgkid adftja fakdsJu'ii nan fdiiga the girls do not break the jars 
adfk leytjeii sa I do not like that 

adfka engkdlf! do not speak! adfkaym engkdlf! do ye not speak! 
adfka engkdkdlf is mldy ngdg is sa ken fodf do not say anything whatso- 
ever of this to him ! 
adf tit/fiva not true, "'untrue;" adf kdvjfs not good, not fair, "unfair"' 
adf kag nanndy not like this, "dissimilar" 
adfmi fkad ay htmdyaPi is nan fdlognid it is not our custom to run away 

in battle 
adfnii fjcng/iigc'n tjakayv/ we do not hear you 
si UgaiO{g adfua sibden nan kdyo Ugaug does not cut the wood 
nmdgiddka? — adfak! are you afraid? — no! (I am not) 
nnuiykaym? — adfkanif! are you going? — no! 
nan kdyB ya adf tjaktjdki the house is not large 
adf tit/tiva nan kalfna his words are not true 
adfka! ddfka! don't! don't! (if the verb which the speaker has in his mind 

is a personal verb) 
adfm! adfni! don't! don't! (if the speaker has a possessive verb in his 

adfka kag fafayi ay indka do not cry like a woman! 
adf kdvofs sa: ngdg sa! this is not good; this is bad! 
adfmi leytjen ay infedec'sua we do not like to stay here 
nan adfk engkalfan "my not speaking" (negat. Nom. act.) 

From the root adf the posssessive verb: adfek, pret. inddik, passive 
mdddi, is derived, meaning: I deny, refuse, forbid, "let not: adfck sfka ay 
fhniiv I forbid you to go; adfenmi tjaffja'y engkalf we let them not 
ayketdko ngaungdni [ngan/ngdni\ ad FK^ntok? are we near Bontoc? 

adf! no! 


aykSkaiiisakit.' arc you sick? ddf! no! (ddfak!) 

nm/iykainf ad Manila fa cngkdiiif 'iikcfc'b is tiliiisfla; kctjc'ng adf nan idkn 

let us ^o 1(1 Manila lliat \vc make a nioai; then tlie people "do not," 

refuse to go [B. 41 ] 
kctjcng kandna en "untriykdini'd man!" kctjt'ng adfna then he says: "'let 

us go!" then he does not permit (us to go) [B. 48] 
kaud)ia ay mangu'dni en "bandtka ta mangantdko!" isdcd adf she says 

(saving) : "come down, that we may eat!" then (her son) docs not 

(come down) | K. 16 1 
kandnfsa on [kananija en] "ifdlani nan sagnini.'": kctjc^ng ddl they say: 

''come out to dance! (lit.: take out your dancing;): then she does 

not [L. 87] 
sadta'd fobffiy: kctjc^ng adf let us two go home; then he docs not, he 

refuses [M. 11] 
adniagc^nta is nan fdnfdnfg ay dfong let us two live alone in the little 

hui; adf san and kna his son refuses. [M. 14 f. J 
adf indfdlfn sa! this is impossible 
adfak mafdllPcd I am not bound, not a prisoner 
adfkamf maaydkan ken fodf we are not called by him 

Although adf is the negative for verbs in the present and future, it 
is also employed occasionally (instead of : iga) with the preterite: 
adfk lindgo nan kdpis I did not buy the cotton 
adfnii fnpaPffd nan kafdyo we did not send the horse 
adfkamf innidii we did not come. 


321. I gd or fgdy. not, not at all, is the negative for the preterite; 
employed sometimes with the present; it emphasizes the negation. Igd \s 
not used with the imperative or the future. It takes from the verb the per- 
sonal or possessive endings. Its forms are: 

1 'ersona 












igd fa 


I. incl. 



I. excl. 



igdkdyd igdykdyei 
igdfja igdyfja 






igdy mo 



igd fa 





igdy mi 






(The forms igcfyko and /gdyiito seem to be used very rarely). 
The verl) is in the preterite and sometimes in the present; ]nit even in 
tlie latter case iga expresses a past tense: 

igdak uiniix I did not o-q, I never went 

igdykami mast/yep we did not sleep (or: iiasiiycp) 

igdna fakdshen nan tocinan he did not break the small jar (or: findkash) 

igam tdju sa is nan aliwidmo }'ou never showed this to your friends 

igdyko [igak] kdnen sa I liave never before eaten this 

fgd iniudli sfya he did not come 

igdyko sindgfad iian kinidta I did not carry the double-basket "kiinafa" 

igand tlaen sa (infla) we did not see it 

ayk^kayB nasdyep? — igdkaiiii! did you sleep? — no! (we did not) 

ayk^ nakaOto sfya? — igd ! did he iinish cooking? — no! ( he did not) 

Passive forms have the prefix ka-. instead of ina- and Jia-. if connected 
with the negative igd : 

igd kakSkct [kak^ket] nan isija the meat was not cooked 

igd kadfo nan findyp( the rice was not cooked (is not yet done) 

nan fanga ya igd kapdyan the jar is not filled, was not filled completely 

nan fdlfcg ya igd kakdeb the spear was not made, is not yet ready 

Pokis \a ketjeng si iga kali neb Pokis alone was not inundated (by the 

Great Flood) [L. 5I 
isdtja'd ya mangdyK^ ya igd kakdeb nan itjfitja; isdtjad te^niSli then they 

went to the woods ("made a ceremony") and the omens did not turn 

out favorably ("were not done, accomplished") ; thereupon they 

returned [L. 68] 
Igd kdtSy not yet dead, almost dead 
igay kdpno not yet full, not quite full 


^22. Md/td is a Personal Verb, not a negative particle; it denotes 
non-existence and can be translated literally by: there is not; there is no; 
Ger. es ist nicht vorhanden ; es gibt nicht. — This basal meaning of nia/ld 
must be kept in mind, if its various employment shall be understood; in 
fact, all its constructions become perspicuous, if we dissolve them into sen- 
tences with ''there does (do) not exist." 

nia/id is often translated by its equivalent: not any, no, nothing; 
verbs in connection with this idiomatic negative must be in their Nomen 
actionis; as the Igorot say: ''there is not any making-of-yours of jars:"' 


ma/td hapchiyfi is fdnga; the Xom. act. appears without nan ; the ohject of 
the Noiii. act. can he considered to be an objective genitive, lience it is pre- 
ceded ])}• /.S-. nia/td has as personal verb these forms: nui/idak T am not 
present; ma/ldka; nia/id [uifd]: uia/fdla; nia/Idtdko; ma/idkcnnf; 
nia/idkdy^i ; mafdtjd. 

(As ina//d means "there is not existing; tliere is not present," we shall 
find [362f.] a verl), the opposite of nia/ld, which exi)resses existence, "there 
is: zvodd.) 

Ma/id, being an independent verb, does not take the endings of otlier 
verbs (as ot// and / o-c/ do) ; it has a future form: adma/fd; the following 
verb, Xom. act., does not take the future prefi.x. 

ma/ld ndan;^ there is no buffalo (here) 
ma/td tdkn'sna tliere is no person here; nol)ody is here 
ma /id kdnck there is no eating-of-mine ; I eat nothing; I do not eat any- 
ma /id kanihiypf you do not eat anything 
ma/ld kindni^ko I did not eat anything 
ad ma/ld kdnc'n I shall not eat anything 
ma /I'd nafdkiisli nothing is broken 

,s-;' Fdngcd ya ma/ld isnd Fanged is not present here. The negative 
answer upon a question like: "is Fanged here?" is not adt, but: ma/td. 

ma/td dsB no dog; ma/td kdyn no wood ; ma/td fpisi"d no enemy 

ma/td tnfjdsak 1 found nothing; "there is not my-having-found" 

ad ma/td tljdsain you will not find anything 

ma/td dsm is iiitlak or: ma/td intlak is dsn I did not see any dog 

(Lit.: I. there exists not (any) dog for my seeing; 2. there exists 
not m\- seeing of any dog.) 

ma/idak tsna addgka I was not here yesterday 
ma/td siva tsna adwdni he is not here to-day or: sly a ya ma/ld isna 

ma/td cntsdiio noljody is working (there exists not any working man, 

any worker) 
ma/id fsuno^na he does not work anything 
ad)na/td entsftno nobody will work 
ma/td mdngfck si sa nobody knows that ("there exists none knowing 

ma/td minli'yad ay niangitsdofsao ken stya nobody wants to gi\-e to him 
ma/ld inasdvc/^ nobody slec])s 
ma/td inkdi'b is idfay no])ody makes spears (pcrs. vb. inkdchak is...) 


ma /hi uaiigfgiiaii is nan asm nobody was holding the dog- ("there was 

not any holder of the dog") 
ma/ld mamdyad is nan lalaUiki nobody is paying the men 

(As these examples show, maid in the meaning "nobody" requires not 
the Nomen actionis, but the Nomen agentis or "Participle;" the reason 
becomes evident by the literal translation.) 

mid naniadSy is nan lalaki noliody has killed the man (there was not any 

slayer of the man) 
nta/ld innidli nobody has come (there is none having come) 
nia/id tdkm is niakapadSy ken todi nobody can slay this one ("there is 

none as to be able to slay") 
ma/id nimnimko is kdnak ken stka I do not think of anything, which I 

might tell vou ( "there is not mv-thinking for my-telling to you") 
ma/ id andpcna he does not seek anything; ma//d mangdiiab si sa 

nobody seeks it 
sfnm nan fpisPdf — ma/i'd! who is the enemy? — Nobody! (there is none) 
ngdg nan koiok foslid' — ma/fd! what is the use of this? — nothing! 
ma/id koidkmo! ma/ld nongnongmol "there is no advantage for you; 

you are 'good for nothing!' " 
itdfonmo amin nan bildkmo fa ma/id mangdk'^u hide all your money, lest 

anybody steal it ! 
ma/id bildkko there is no money of mine; I have no money 
ma/id inllak si tdkPi I ha\-e seen no person, nobody 
ma/ld kdnck is tindpay I do not eat any bread 
ma/ld ydina is patafjlm adrvdni he does not bring any iron to-day 
ma/ld intjdnannii is slngsing we did not find any ring 
adma/ld ildgoym is dngsan }-ou will not at all sell many {ma/id: 

emphatic negat.) 
nia/ld innmem is tji^nnm you do not drink any water 
ma/ld maila'sna! there is nothing here to see! (lit.: to be seen) 
ma/fd niainnm isna there is nothing here to drink (lit.: to be drunk) 
ma/ld makdeb isna is fdfav there is nothing here to make (into) spears of 
sfya ya ina/fd isna he is not (not at all) here 

ma/id intcdec is fafdgo is nan fobdngak there is no tobacco in my pipe 
ma/ id {nitd\ engkdkall adivdni! let nobody talk now! 
ma/ld kafdyo ken tjdtdko "'there is no horse for us;" we have no horse; 

no one of us has a horse 
ma/ld lineyddko I wanted nothing; mid siddem you like nothing, you 

are dissatisfied 
adma/ld dlam [dldem] you will get nothing; you will not get anything 


adma/id faydtjaiitja kcu tjakaym tlicv will \vA \rA\ you anythin}:;' 
jua/fd kaiufni! dn not say anything! ("let there not be your saying! ") 
)iio sfiin nan iinu7i"nii ay nuuUi, ma/td kodna if any one is coming late, 

he gels nothing. {hOak: [loy^]) 
ad)iio//d kiijiu there will not he anything lor you; you will not have any- 
thing; ("there will not be your property") 
ma/ id kahisay ken Tdiigay there is no shield for Tongay; Tongay has no 

mid iJiigas^iia there is no sense of his; he has no sense 
11! fd kdnkdiu^iid's dkfdb there is no fruit for him to eat [P. 7] 
takhi mo mid kdnck is akfob nevermind, if I do not eat any fruit! [P. 7] 
ct ma/ id intjdnanmi is futug; kdnfing nan intjdnanmi and we did not 

find any pigs; goats we found [B. 15-] 
;»/(/ nongudngna nan kayvienyH "nothing is its value, your gathered 

wood;" the wood which you gathered is worthless [K. 2] 
/t7V mid siddem dngkdmi mangdyPi because you are dissatisfied, we go to 

get wood [K. 13] 
/;;/(/ nongndngino you are "worthless" [L. 64] [L. 72] 
)ian fatdprcca ma /hi fflig the world, there were no mountains [L.i] ; the 

earth was without mountains 
ma/ld inlldmi is nan andkmo we did not see anything of your daughter, 

we did not see her at all [T. 5] 
si /'(7V Palpaldking ma/fd indldna is kdtj"n Palpalaking indeed did not 

catch any fish [i*. 2] 


323. FakJn [fdk/n ; fdkSn], an idiomatic negative without I'.nglish 
e(|uivalent, is used to indicate that an object or (|ualily is not what one 
savs or asks, but something else; as a man, pointing at a brass chain would 
say: "this is not gold" luninay fakln faltdog; by the use of fakihi he 
implies (hat ihe thing is something else, something diflerent from gold; it 
is brass. 

FakSn is emi)loyed only with nouns, and sometimes with adjectives and 
adverbs, but not with verbs in the "Tndicatixe ;" it takes from the nouns their 
possessive suffi.xes. — 'Phe phrases; not I ])ut..., not you ])Ut..., not he but... 
etc. are expressed by the ])ersonal endings of jakchi: fdkSnak, fakdngka, 
fak^n stya, fakSnta, fakSntdko. fakdngkamf, fdkSngkdyt°(, fdkSnfja. 

Ffl/v'/« is also used as answer "no;" it means: not what you say, but 
something else or different ("you are mistaken"). 


nannay ay dfong fdkSnko koa this house is not mine (my property)— but 

it belongs to an other 
nannav ay tufay fakSna [fakina; fakdna] koa this spear is not his own — 

fakSnak si Fdnged; Oloshan sak/hi I am not Fanged ; I am Oloshan 

faktn fobfafdyi not any women ( but girls., or men... or boys...) 

faktn dsVl, kOsha sa this is not a dog; it is a cat 

fak^nak, tekken ay laldki not I, but another man 

fakinak is itiiiiiy not I am going; (notice the use of the preposition is\ ) 

fakSn sa! this is not correct; it is not this, but — ; "you are mistaken," 

(it is right, it is correct: sfa sa!) 
fakSnak is uangwdiii it was not I who said so, but — ; (notice the use of 

t.y and the Nom. agentis or "Participle!") 
fak/nka is nangdngnen si sa it was not you who made this 
fakSnak is inmdli is nan tamivhi ay inmfty it was not I who came last year 
fakSn fafdyi nan nangdeb si sa not a woman has made this 
fakSnak! no, not I! (as answer upon questions hke: was it you who did it? ) 
fakhikami! not we! also: fakSn tjakamt! 
fakSnmi ndaug not our cattle; it is not our cattle 

fakinko kSa, fakSnnw koa, fakhina kSa, fakSnmi koa... it does not belong 
to me, you, him, us; it is not mine, yours, his, ours... 

nan dfong ay nay fakdna kSa this house is not his. 

nannay fakSnta dnta this is not the father of us (two boys) 

nannay fak^n koan Tdynan this is not Taynan's; does not belong to Tay- 
nan— but to some other boy 

fakhi nan kandni what you say is not correct 

a^dy nget fakhi nan kinzvdnik I was perhaps mistaken in saying so 

fakSnkami Tagdlog; IgolStkami we are not Tagalog; we are Igorot 

aykS tsaktsdki nan sokldngniof—faki'n tsaktsdki is your hat large? — not 

fakSn adzvdni not to-day (but some other day) 

fakSn sa'sh kipaii this is no knife ('sh: prepos. is) 

fakSn sa is tjSnuni this is no water 

fakSnak ken stya I am not he 

fakSnak si Mdtym, si AntSloak I am not Matyu, but I am Antero 

fakSn stya tekken not he but an other 

na! nangkS fakhi tji's fafdyi! well! (surprise!) ; why, this is no woman! 
laldki fji! this is a man 

adfakhika is mangdeh is tdfay not you will make the spear! 

adfakSnak is uiniiy it is not I who will go 

fakSnkami is nangwdni 'sh sa it was not we who said this 


adfakhika 's umdli! it is not you who will come! 

fakanak is mangdc'b is nan afong it is not T who will build the house 

fakSnkami 's namaddy is nan laldki it was not we who killed the man 
(But if the subject is not emphasized: igdmi pinaddy nan laldki) 

aykS fak^n sa? is it not so? is it different? 

fakSnkayiPc'sh umdli it is not you who shall come! [L. 59] 

fakSn sash tsdlddoy tay fanabfandnig these are no logs (whole trunks 
of trees) because they are much too small [L. 53] 

nangkd fakSn tjakdym is inkdeb si fdnga why! it is not you who make 
jars [L. 22] 

kaudn nan anotjtna en "nangkd — mpom ndmo!" isd ed kandn nan yihi/a 
en "fakSn! lipad pay ay naldngohtngo!" said the younger brother: 
"why! this is indeed your leg!" then said the older: "no! it is well 
dried wood!" [K. 8] 

sak/hi ngin ya fakSnak? "I am probably not I?" (Expression of indig- 
nant egoism ; with these words Palpalama refuses to give up a part 
of the fish he had caught; equivalent to: I have to look out for 
myself!). [P. 5] 

fakSnak si mangdyak is nan dnandktja it was (is) not I who called (call) 
their children 

fakSn stya is nangdla is nan btlak it was not he who received the money 

fakSn stya is nantbB is nan kdyo it was not he who had cut the tree 


324. Tsddn [ddan], not yet, not, is employed as negative with verbs 
only. — Tsdan is probably an Ilocano loan-word. Cf. "saan." — Its mean- 
ing is past, whether the verb is in the present or preterite tense; the verbal 
endings are shifted to tsdan which appears then in these forms: 




fsadnak [tsdant 












I. inch 



I. excl. 










(Certain forms of this negative must not be confounded with similar 
forms of fsa, "often, usually." [310] ) 

Tsdan is frequently followed by the emphasizing particle pay : tsdan 
pay, not yet. There is no future form of tsdan, as it points always to the 

("Not yet" with the present is expressed thus: adik fckdslieii na)i 
batd adzvdni I do not (yet) throw the stone now. Or: adfckdshck nan 

hat is dBni I shall soon throw the stone) 
tsddnak pay inniUy I have not yet gone; tsadnka pay innuiy; siya tsdan 

pay inmdy etc. 
tsddnko fckdsluhi nan fdlfeg I did not (yet) throw the spear 
tsadnak mabfalin ay entsiino, tay nan litjengko ya tnsaktt I can not yet 

work, because my finger is hurt 
tsddnkdmt inmdli we did not (yet) come (synon. : igdkami inmdli) 
tsddnko tlaen I did not yet see 

tsddna kdpSn nan kaldsay he did not yet make the shield 
tsddnko kindeb nan ptnang I have not yet made the ax 
inmdli nan alfwidmo ay? — tsdan pay! did your friend come? — not yet! 
noddy nan ifddinof — tsddn! did your brother die? — no! (he did not) 
tsdan nafdkash nan todnan the small jar is not yet broken 

325. The phrases "nor." "nor did I," "nor was I," "nor do (am) I" 
are expressed in Bontoc Igorot thus : 

kag ken sak/Sn dkis lit.: "like unto me also;" (the negative being omit- 
ted) ; or: kag ken sa/ken dkis tgak tlaen nor did I see him (a neg- 
ative with a verb). 

326. Pddd, an emphasizing particle, is used in connection with nega- 
tives : 

igdak pdad litnidyaH I did not at all run away 

adfak pddd maniibla I do never smoke 

Unumag nan tjenBm ya adfni padd nongnongen nan findym the water is 

boiling and you do not at all care for the rice [L. 57] (or: adipadd 

tdddo adim pddd tjipdpen nan koam? how long (will it take until) you 

(not) catch your "pig?" {tdddo, how long time, requires a negative) 



kctjSngka 's adt pdad makdtpap is nan koam then you alone can "abso- 
lutely" not catch yours [L. 6i] 

toy ndB/"n nan tdkB ya adtka pddd nmipatSfo is tji^ni^m because the 
])c'o])le are thirsty and you do not "at all" create any water [L. 72] 

fangofangOnck sifka ya adtka pdad fiundngon I keep trying to awake 
you and you never wake up [S. 11] 


327. Kctjhig, a word with various meanings, used mostly as con- 
junction "then/' "thereupon," and also with the meaning: "it is all; it is 
finished," is mentioned here with the negatives, because ketjeng expresses 
sometimes the negative, exclusive idea: "not any other but you, but I, but 
he etc." or: only you; you exclusively; except you; none except you. 

ketj/ng takes the personal endings to express : none but I ; none but 
you ; none but he etc. Its forms are: Sing.: i. ketjengak; 2. kctjcngka; 
3. kctj^ng {siya); Dual: ketjengta; Plural: I. incl. kctjcngtdko; 
I. excl. kctjengkami; H. ketjSngkdy&i ; HI. kctjengtja. 

The verb governed by ketjeng is connected with it by the preposition 
is; rarely by a\, and is frequently accompanied by a negative particle: 

lUiek amin ay lalaldki, kctjhig si Moleng is ma/id siiia I see all men, 

except Moling, (he) is not present here 
li^ytjennii nan ainfn ay aydyam, ketjeng nan tflin is adfnii leytji'n we like 

all birds, except the "rice-bird" (we do not like) 
amin ay fobfafdyi zvoddtja'sna, ketjeng si Ak/inay is ma/I'd siiia all the 

women are present, except Akunay (is not here) 
ketjSngak is hikaeb si tilfay none but I, I alone make spears, just I make 

ketjeng siya is man/ibla none but he is smoking 
aykS ketjeng na is kdyB? is this all wood? 
ketjeng ay unihmmak is tjSnmn "ended is my drinking water," I do not 

drink any more water 
ketjSngka's adt pdad makdtpap is uan koam none but you cannot catch 

yours, i. e. only you cannot... [L. 61 J 
aykS ketjc^ng na'sh monSky^? have you no more chickens than these; are 

these all your chickens? [L. 43] 



T,28. Bontoc Igorot employs the ligature ay to connect what we call 
"Relative Sentences" with the main sentence or the "antecedent." There 
is no "Relative Pronoun" in Bontoc Igorot, and there are, in fact, no "Rel- 
ative Sentences." The phrase following ay might be considered [for con- 
venience sake and for the easier understanding of many examples given 
here: but not as a translation!] : either in apposition with the antecedent, 
or in connection with its antecedent by a relative and the copula inherent 
to ay : who or which is, was, are, were etc. 

(But it would not facilitate understanding to consider ay a relative, 
that governs "finite verbal forms," as in English!) 

An inverted construction is found occasionally (some examples will 
follow [338] ) : the interchange between the "antecedent" and the predicate 
of the "relative sentence". Thus the sentence: Show us the letter which 
you bring, can be arranged : 

Show us the letter which-is your-bringing-object 

Show us your bringing-object which-is a letter 

(The words connected by hyphens are expressed by one word in Bon- 
toc Igorot.) 

Various cases of equivalents for our relative constructions will now be 

329. Nominative of the Relative. Construction: Antecedent 
— ay — "Participle" (of personal verbs) or Nom. agentis (of possessive 
verbs). The Nom. ag. requires is before its object [250]. 
levtjenmt nan kaldsay ay kdzvis we like the shield which is good, {ay: 

which is) 
nail lahiki ay Igolot ya nan alhvidko the man (who is) an Igorot is my 

kumaldbka 's kcfyo ay ant jo climb upon a tree which is high 
into nan ongSnga ay masiiycp? where is the child that sleeps? (the child 

inilak nan ogsa ay linmdyaio/ T saw the deer which was running 
kSkkek nan lalaldki ay entsfaio (entsfniotja) I know the men who are 



nan tdkw ay itniiiy ad MaWnosli the people who go to Malolos [B. 4] 
into nan lalaldki ay nasifycp hna? where are the men who were sleeping 

nan fobfcillo ay si yun/ak adfadsangena sak/hi the boy, as my older 

brother, will help me {ay: who is my., or: as my..) 
igtOna nan fdka ay fdkSna koa he keeps the cow which is not his own 
nan fafdyi ay unidU tlie woman who comes 
nan oiigdnga ay masf/ycp (_va) adl indka the child that sleeps is not 

kekkck nan laldki ay adumdli 1 know the man who will come 
nan dsB ay kinindan ya kdak the dog that went out is mine 
nan ongonga ay niafda is Hi the Ijoy w'ho is sent to town 
nan ftndyB ay maoto ken tjakami the rice which is cooked by us 
nan laldki ay umdli ya si fkidko the man who comes is my grandfather 
nan fafdyi ay ninafSy is nan wdnis intcdee tsna the woman who wove 

the breech cloth lives here (pers. vb. indfoyak I weave) 
stya nannay nan nionok ay adniapadSy aPidmii this is the chicken which 

will soon l)e killed 
nan laldki ay tuniuktju /sna ya nalpo is nan fflig the man who is sitting 

here came from the mountain 
nannay nan lalaldki ay mannbldtja is dngsan these are the men who 

smoke so much 
nan hflak ay nakdtlo the money which has been divided into three parts 
nan soklong ay ma/isabfnd ya kdak the hat which is suspended is mine 
nan laldki ay mangdeb is nan tdfay the man who makes the spear.. ("the 

man who is the maker of the spear" but not: who makes!) 
nan dpok ay minldgo is nan patatjhn my master who buys the iron (is 

the buyer) 
nan fobfallo ay mangdyak ken sak/Sn the young man who calls me (the 

caller of) 
nan fafdyi ay mdngtek ken Filninak the woman who knows Fumnak 
tjui nan lalaki ay nangydi is nan mdnok yonder is the man who brought 

the chicken (who was the bringcr of the chicken) 
nan laldki ay nangdla 's nan bflak ya mangdk°n the man who took the 

money is a thief 
kSkkek nan fobfallo ay nangdeb is nan fdngkaft I know the boy who 

made the spear 
intd nan fafdyi ay nangivdni si sa? where is the woman who said so? 
ilac'm nan ongSnga ay nangdlab is nan kdyo? do you see the boy who 

climbed the tree? 


nail laldki ay nangitsdotsao is nan kaldsayna ken sak/en intedee id Tnkitkan 
the man who gave me his shield Hves at Tucucan; the man, "the 
giver of his shield to me..." 

330. Genitive OF THE ReIvATivi:. Construction: Antecedent — (7v 
— prefix ;;/;;- to the person or thing owned — is nan — Nomen actionis 
(with possessive endings) 

nin- see [62] ; a literal translation is impossible. 
nannay nan ongonga ay ninsoklong is nan indlan nan niamdgkid this is 
the boy whose hat the girl has taken ("this is the boy who is the hat- 
owner- (the hat) for the girl's taking"). (indla and Genitive Indi- 
cator -n suflixed) 
nan fafdyi ay ninfohanga is nan linagOak the woman whose pipe I have 

bought. ...u nan linagoanyioi have bought 
nan laldki ay uinasdi^(zva is nan inainasdyep the man whose wife is sleep- 
nan laldki ay nindfong is nan napman the man whose house is burnt 
nan fafdyi ay nindnak is nan indka the woman whose child weeps 
nay nan fdlfeg ay napotlong nan paddnengna here is the spear whose 
shaft is broken ; as the spear cannot be an "owner," the construction 
is: the spear which is broken, its shaft. 

331. Dative OF THE Relative. Construction: Antecedent — fl\' — 
Nomen agentis with suffix -an and possessive endings. Translation impos- 
nan laldki ay nangitsaiottsdoana (nangitsaotsdoan) nan ydn/ak is nan 

kipan ya gadsdngycn the man to whom my brother gave the knife 

is wealthy 
nan laldki ay mangitsaotsaodnym is nan kf pan. ..tht man to whom you give.. 

ay niangitsaofsdoani to whom you give (singular) 
nan fafdyi ay mangiyaliani is nan kdym the woman to whom you bring 

the wood {niangiyalfam or: niangiyaiam; inserted /, see [16]) 
nan dndnak ay inaiigitjudnnii is nan fenga the children to whom we show 

the flowers 
nan dsm, ay mangitsaotsd oan nan ongonga is nan htja the dog to which 

the child gives the meat 
nan alhvidtdko ay nangipaoidantdko is nan dgi°(b our friends to whom 

we sent the box 


shoshongettja nan fobfafdyi ay adfiiii mangidj/ian nan abSngoy angry are 

the women to whom \vc do not show the agate 
nan ih/atdko ay nangitsaotsaoantdko is nan mdkan our companions to 
whom we gave the rice 
(probably: "our companions who are our-giving-place for rice") 

(Such comphcatcd constructions as those in [330 and 331] are, of 
course, extremely rare. Simpler hypotactic constructions: the women are 
angry, because we do not show... ; or paratactic constructions: we do not 
show the women the agate; they are angry, are used almost exclusively.) 

332. Accusative of thk Relative. Construction: Antecedent — 
(7V — Xomen actionis with possessive endings. 

nan laldki ay kekkek wodd'sna the man whom I know is here (the man 
who is my-knowing-aim is here) 

aykini infla nan tjOkaM ay mndfon nan fafdyi? did you see the bag which 
the woman has woven? (inafo and ligat. -n, the "genitive indicator") 

nan ongdnga ay inilann the children we saw (the children, our-seeing-aim) 

nan kayB ay sibdenyPt the tree which you cut down (the tree which is 
your-cutting-aim ) 

nan sOklong ay lagoan nan alhvidko the hat which my friend buys (as my 
friend's Imying-object) 

nan bflak ay isnblina the money that he changes 

nan fstja ay iydin nan ongdnga the meat which the boy l)rings (as the boy's 
bringing-object ; iydi and ligat. -n) 

nan kdyiPt ay adtyU sibden et admaengan the tree which you do not cut 
down will grow (ct: idiomatic particle preceding a main sent.) 

nan ndang ay padSyenlja llie carabao which they are killing (as their kill- 

nay nan sulad ay indlaini here is tiie letter we have received 

nan t aid to nan Igdlot ay kindcb Abbot ya kCiwi's the pictures of the Igorot 
which Air. Al)l)ot made are good (which were Mr. Abbot's making- 

nan tlndpay ay kindnmo the bread you ate (as your-eating-object) 

woddy ken stka nan sfdad ay sinidddan nan andtjik you have the letter 
which my brother has written 

intd nan fobdnga 'y linagdak? where is the i)ipe I have bought? 

nan dfong ay llacm ya nan pabafnngan the house you see is the "paba- 


nan dsi^ ay adfyi^ ayakan adi tinulli the do^ which yon do not call does 

not come 
nail fafdyi ay kekkeuyi?( ya entsinw is nan payo the woman whom you 

know is working- in the rice patch 
nan fafdyi inldgona nan singsing ay intjasdna the woman sold the ring 

she had found 
woddy ken sak/hi nan kipan ay inidjilam I have the knife you gave (me). 

333. Rklative REFERRING TO Pi.ACK OR Time. Construction: Ante- 
cedent — (73' — verb with locative suffix -an and possessive endings. 

nan fli ay nlydnakak ya adsdiO(wi the country where I was born is far 
away (I bear: fanakko, Fr. j'enfante; naiydnakak I was born; 
[nlydnakak] ; the locative form used here is contracted from 
niyanak-an-ak, my-being-born-place; my birth-place; our birth 
place: niydnakanini; but: we were born : niyandkkami.) 

nan fli ay indyak ya tsaktsdki to countrv where I went is large 

Observation: The verb dyak, I go, is never used in declarative main 
sentences or in commands ; but only in interrogative and subordinate clauses! 
I go to the country: uniiiyak is tli, but not: dyak is Hi: 

As Nomen actionis: nan dyak, nan dyam etc. "my, your going," we 
find this peculiar "verb" in emphatic declarative sentences, as: ad iLdgod 
nan dyam: to the North (the Lagod-Tribe) be your going! betake your- 
self to the North! 

ipitjuni nan dfong ay intcdCcan AnatPtzvdsal show (me) the house where 
Anauwasal lives; (the house which is Anauwasal's living-place) 

nay nan kdmzvad ay ninfalognitanmi adugka here is the place where we 
fought yesterday {kdpdvad: the place, spot, that was our battlefield) 

tdjnui nan pdyo ay nenfsfnioan nan lalaldki show me the rice patch where 
the men worked 

nay nan tli ay intedeedntja here is the town where they live 

nan dfong ay mamayddsdna is nan mdnno the house in which he pays the 
working-men (fayddsak I pay; Nom. ag. mamdyad; from this 
Nom. ag. the locat. Nom. is made: nan maniayddsak, my paying- 
place; nan mamayddsantako our paying-pl.) 

nan dgiPcb ay niangitafonana is nan singat the box in which she hides the 
earrings (the box which is her-hiding-place for earrings) 

nan dngan ay inasuycpdna the chamber where he sleeps (as his sleeping- 


nannay nan (ifoiig ay uadoydna here is llie house in whicl: he died 
nan dfong ay nadSyan a)ndna the house in which his father died 
nan pdgpag ay manibptantdko is nan kayo the forest where we cut tlie 

trees (sibdek; Nom. ag. manib& ; locat. Nom. manibi^-an) 
nan pdgpag ay mamaddyanyB is nan ogsa the forest in which you kill 

the deer 
nan dfong ay nangttjasantdko is nan bilak the house where we found the 

money [even a form "nangtjasanfdko", without /, exists] 
nan zodnga ay mangdlantja is nan kdtj'^u the river where they are catch- 
ing the fish 
nan wdnga ay inkyatdntja the ri\er where they swin 
nan tli ay nniityan nan lalaldki the town whither tlie men go 
nan Ili ay nangipaoltan Oloshan is nan bildkna the town to whicli Olo- 

shan sent his money 
nan djdlan ay umiiyantdko id FBntok the road on which we go to Bontoc 
nan pdyo ay mangitonttjan {tj: t mouille) nan fobfafdyi is nan pddsog 

the rice field where the women plant the rice 
nan ili ay nalpoantdko ya ad Fmntok the town whence we came is Bontoc 
nan Hi ay ndlpan (for: nalpSan) nan I gdlot the country whence the Igo- 

rot have come 
nan laldki ay nindfong is nan intcdccantdko the man in whose house we 
live (the man who is the owner-of-the house, the house for our living- 
place! ) 

"The place where..." is regularly expressed by one noim: nay nan 
masnyepantdko: here is our sleeping-place, instead of: the place where we 
sleep; nan umilengdntja: their resting-place, or: the place where they rest; 
nan entsunodnyiPC your working-place; nan nentsilnodnyU your former 
working-place; nan nianalibndntja their dancing-place (syncopated from 
nianalifcnantja) ; nan intaktakdnmi our running-place. — Possessive Verbs 
take tlie locative suffix -an only in their form as Nomen Agentis: ftonitko 
1 plant; nan mangitonttjan: the planting-place; faydtjak I pay; nan 
ntainaydfjan the paying-place. — 

Also wilh i^assive forms: 

nan dto «v napadSyan nan dspi the council hcnisc where the d(\g was killed 
nan pd\o ay maitontsan nan pddsog (inaitdntsan, with inserted .s- and elided 

/ for maitonfdan) the field where rice is planted 
nan kdiO{zvad ay naddnan nan s/ngsing the place where the ring was found 

{naddnan for: naitjdnan) 
nay nan nailagSan nan pdkity here is the place where the rice was sold 


Time: na)i dkyu ay inmaltak is nan ili ya t^ngaB the day on which I 
came to town was a holiday {innialiak - inniali + an + ak) 
nan taBivhi ay ninted(feanmi ad Manila the year in which we 
lived at Manila. 

334. Relative referring to Instrument. Construction: Antece- 
dent — ay — verb in its instrumental form [262] as Nom. actionis with pos- 
sessive ending's. 

intd nan tiifay ay inpadSyuio is nan fip/sBlf where is the spear with which 

you hit the enemy? (the spear which was your-hitting-instrument 

nan manttlyo ay itikttkko is nan patatjtm the hammer with which I strike 

the iron (my hitting-tool) 
nan manttlyo ay tsctna ikcfeb is nan tftfay ya nafdkash the hammer with 

which he used to {tsdna: 310] make the spear is broken 
nan zvcfsay ay ipotlongmi is nan kdyB the ax with which we cut ofif the 

nan to'lfeg ay itdngeb nan laldki is nan pdnguan the key with which the 

man closes the door (which is the man's closing-instrument) 
nan fdngkaB ay ipadSyna is nan aydzvan the spear with whicli he kills the 

nan kfpan ay ikSkot [ik^ket] nan fobfafdyi is nan tSki the knife with 

which the women cut the "toki" i. e. "sweet potatoes" 
nan pfnang ay inpotlongko is nan olona the ax with which I chopped off 

his head 
nan manttlyo ay naikdeb nan tiifay the hammer with which the spear 

was made 

335. Relative governed by various Prepositions. The construc- 
tions become evident from these examples : 

nan laldki ay kadilak ay entsiino the man with whom I work; (the man as 
my companion who works: kaddak: my partner, comrade, if there 
are but two persons; otherwise: tb/a, the companion) 

nan dpo ay entstlnoantdko the master for whom we work 

nan dpuy ay naotoan nan htja the fire with which the meat was cooked 
(the fire, the '■passive"-cooking-place of the meat) 

nan pdnguan ay tumaktjikantdko the door at which we stand (our stand- 
ing place) 


nan (ffong ay inintsogok is nan nangtjctsanmi is nan fal/dog the house 

hehiiul which we found the gold 
nan djiia'y kdyH ay tumuktjiianmi is nan cnkakaivdi'ntja the (two) trees 

between which we are sitting (which is our sitting place: their space 

nan dfong ay entsunoantdko is nan sasakdngcna or: ...ay sasakdngcna 

nan entsnnoantako the house before which we work 
nan tpdt ay lalaldki ay th/ak ay entsiino the four men with whom I work 

(who are my comrades) 
na)i lalaldki ay tb/am ay mangdeb is nan dfong the men with whom you 

build the house 
nan alhvidyi^ ay ikapdnyn [ikaebdnyt^] is nan fdlfcg your friend for 

whom you make the spears 
nan fobfdllo ay iydbfam is nan zcdnis the young man for whom you 

weave the breech cloth; {iydbfak: I weave for somebody) 
nan gadsdngycn ay ninlagOanmi is nan pdkiiy the rich man from whom 

we bought the rice (who is our-buying-place for rice) 
nan laldki ay nangdlanyiPt is nan Idinan the man from whom you obtained 

the wild pig 
nan laldki ay tsdytPl mangdlan is nan kdpis the man from whom you 

usually get the cotton 
nan anidina ay mapadSyan nan fdfng the old man by whom the pig is 

killed (who is the "being-killed-place" of the pig). 
Observation. Although such passive constructions in relative clauses 
exist, the active is used almost exclusively: the man who killed the pig. — 

336. Relative referring to Personal Pronouns and to an indef- 

sak/^n nan inmali it is I who came; I (am) the "one-having-comc" 
sika nan nangisdad is nan sdklong it was you who laid do\\n the hat 
siya nan nafdll^d it was he who was bound, (imprisoned) 
fjakain/ nan nidngtck ken tjaltja we are those who know them 
kctjcng ilden san tjattja ay nifdeg kehi sfya.. .then those w-ho were with him 

The indefinite antecedent "that," Fr. cc c|ui. cc que, is 
expressed bv the Xom. actionis preceded by the ;irticle: 
tjcng/nghitja nan kandnmi tlu-y hear (that whicli) what we say; "our 
saying" [B. 58] 


ipatlam nan tntjasam show (me) what you have found, "your finding" 

iildenmi nan kinaSpna we see what he made 

adik ISytjen nan intsaotsdona I do not like what he gave (me) 

adimi mafalin ay kdpen nan kandn nan laldki ay kdpen we cannot make 

what the man tells us to make. 
adfk kekken nan kandna I do not understand what he says ("his saying") 
ifddgmo ken sak/hi nan iyatna tell me what he brings ("his bringing") 
nan leytjSna ya kawts that which he wants is good 
tjSng/ngek dnihi nan kandna I hear all he says ("all his saying") 
ma/td tsna nan leytjem here is nothing you like (but: ma/hi ISytjem 

you like nothing) 
kandm amfn ken sak/hi nan kckkeni tell me all you know 

"T he one w h o," "t hose w h o" is expressed by the "Participle" 
or Nom. agentis with the article: 

intd nan nangisdad is nan kanfydbna? where is the one who laid down his 

nay nan nangitoli is nan btlak here is the one who returned the money 
sitdnd nan nangfla ken tjakaym this is the one who saw you 
shodt nan nangydi is nan kdtjing this is the one who brought the brass 

(the bringer of the brass) 
mldy Sinn ay hha mo ma/td fikdshna, adt makifalSgnid any one who is 

not strong, does not go to battle, with his comrades ; "whosoever, if 

there exists no strength-his, does not...." 
^Idy stniPi ay hha mo adddsa nan bildkna ya gadsdngyen whosoever has 

more money is a "gadsangyen", a wealthy man 
mo stnn nan insaktt adt entsiino everyone who is sick does not work (;uo 

sinB...'\i any one is sick....) 
wo stnu nan nangdla is nan kipdngko isdkongna ken sak/inl he who has 

taken my knife, shall return it to, me! {mo: if; stnu: who, anyone) 

337. If the predicate of the "relative clause" denotes customary, fre- 
quent, continued, simultaneous or repeated action, tsa [310] is placed before 
the verbal form; tja stands often for tsa and is connected, in conversation, 
with ay: dytja. (In this grammar it is however separated.) 

nan manttlyo ay tsdna ikdeb is nan ttifay the hammer with which he used 

to make spears [334-] 
nan manttlyo ay tja ikdeb nan laldki is nan tijfay the hammer with which 

the man usually makes spears 


na\ nan laldki ay tja [tsa\ mingydi is nan tinapay here is the man who 

brings (every day) the bread 
nay nan fobfafdllo ay tjatja [tsdtsa] mangistja is nan fstja here are the 

young men who often eat the meat 
wodd nan naamashdngan ay tsa nianutlid is san tlid nan wdnga there was 

a widower who used to sharpen his ax at the banks of the river 

[L. 83]. Or: who was then sharpening; simuUaneous action. 

338. Interchange of the Nom. aclionis with the Antecedent [328] takes 
place in these examples: 
intd nan nangdlan dmam ay istja? where is the meat which your father 

has brought? (instead of nan istja ay nangalan amam) ; also: into 

nan nangalan amain is nan istja? 
ta inta alden san inflak ay naldngoldngo ay lipdd let us two go to get the 

very dry wood which I have seen [L. 3] 
engkaym'd ildgo nan kina^pym ay fdnga you shall go to sell the jars which 

you have made [L. 24] 
nan tsdk anOban ay Idman ya nan ogsa the wild pigs and deer which I 

used to hunt [M. 8] 
ya nan tsam inpaiydi ay shengedko and the food which you used to send 

(had her bring to me) [M. 12] 
dngsan nan inddna [indldna] ay kdtj"u many, plenty were the fish which 

he caught [P. 2] 
aydka nan indlak ay kdtj'^u great many are the fish which I caught [P. 8] 
unuiytja nan ninldpis ay sindki the brothers who had cleared the ground 

went [R. 8]. 



339. Sentence-Questions, i. e. questions which may be 
answered by "3'es" or "no," have either the form of declarative sentences, 
the question being expressed by the rising intonation ; 

or they begin with the interrogative particle "aykS" (in its various 
forms) followed by the verb whose endings are transferred to akyS. 

The personal verb is in its "Participle" (or "Infinitive") form; the 
possessive verb in the form of the Nomen actionis. — 

Word-Questions are introduced by interrogative pronouns or 
adverbs; such as: sfnti, itgag, had, into, etc. who, what, when, where, etc. 

To these pronouns or adverbs our copula (is, are, was, were etc.) is 
inherent ; they require therefore constructions with nan and Verbal Nouns : 
Nom. actionis, respectively Nom. agentis. We must not construct: who 
comes? what do you think? where does he live? but: who is the "comer?" 
what is your thinking? where is his li\-ing-place? 

340. S e n t e n c e - Q u e s t i o n s. Without interrogative particle, but 
with the intonation rising and reaching its highest tone at the final vowel 
of the sentence: 

adumdltka dkis? will you come again ? 

tinmdli sty a? has he returned? 

kawts nan mdkan? is the rice good? 

kazviska? are you well? 

ahfoldteni sa? do you believe that? 

indnapym nan dndndk? did you seek the children? 

sokWngmo nanndyf is this your hat? 

Frequently the particle oy. with interrogative force, is placed at the end 
of a question, similarly to the repetition of our auxiliary verb : did you find 
the letter, did you? (Or ngin\ see [306]) 

inmUyka ay? did you go, did you? 
masuy^ptja ay? do they sleep? 

This particle ay is employed with all forms of questions treated in the 
following sections, with both sentence-questions and word-questions. 



341. Sentence-Questions are fretjuently introduced by the untranslat- 
able particle aykS [aikS; aykt; ayki; akt] ; aykS consists probably of the 
interrogative ay and an element ko which is found also in other combinations 
treated later. [426; 427] 

AykS merely indicates that the character of the sentence at whose head 
it stands is interrogative. It takes to itself the endings from the following 
verb. (If a negation precedes the verb, aykS takes the ending from the 
negative, so that, in this case, both verb and negative appear without end- 

AykS or aykS appears in these forms, after taking the endings from 
the verb: 

Possessive : 
aykSk; aktk; aykik] 


1. oyke'ak [aykSak; aktak; aykfak] aykdk 

2. aykSka ay kit in 

3. ayk^ aykSna 
D. aykSta ayktta 

I. inch ayketdko ayketdko 

I. excl. aykSkamt ayki mi 

II. ayki^kay^ ayki'yw 

III. aykStja aykStja 

aykSka adunidli dkisf will you come again? 

aykS tinmdli sfya ay? has he returned? Ger. kam er zuriick, ja? 

aykS kawfs nan mdkan ay? is the rice good? 

aykhn ahfoliiten sa? do you believe that? 

ayk/m adf abfolihen sa? do you not believe that? 

aykiyB indnap nan dnanak? did you seek the children? 

ayk^yB adt intjdsan nan dndndk? did you not find the children? 

aykS soklSngmo nannay? is this your hat? 

aykSkdym naniibla? did you smoke? 

ayk^ka iTukdkan? are you a man from Tucucan? are you from Tucucan? 

ayk^kaypi iF^(ntok? are you Bontoc-men? 

aykS nannay ay dfong ya kdam? is this house yours? 

ayk^ ivoday ken stka nan tafdgo ay kSak ay? have you any tobacco for 

mc? ("is there with you tobacco which -will be- my property") 
aykhn k(?kken sfya ay fafdyi ay? do you know her? 
ayk^y^ khitek nan alhvidmi ay? did you know (nn- friends? 
aykih)i infla nan fmsiPcl ay? have vou seen the enemy? 
aykS inkdeb sfya is nan dlang ay? is he building the granary? 
aykSna ffnkash nan fdlfcg ay? did he throw the spear? 


aykSka dfiis uamlbla? have you smoked before? 

aykhn igd inlla sa? did you not see this? 

aykhn igd dfits kimvdni sa ay? had you not said this before? 

aykS natdngfan nan pdnguau? has the door been closed? 

aykStja natckudfan nan pdngnan? have the doors been opened? 

aykS iigton nan laldki nan dsiPt ay? does the man hold the dog? {figto 

and lig-. -n) (is the man's holding-aim the dog?) 
aykS zi'dday [aykfivay] is nan ongonga nan kipdngko ay? has the boy 

my knife? 
aykS inaydkan nan laldki nan andkna? did the man call his child? 
ayk(? ktnan nan asm nan fstja? did tlie dog eat the meat? 
aykS kdpen nan laldki nan tnfay? does the man make the spear? 
aykitja kdpen nan tdfay? do they make the spear? 
ayk^ kdpen nan lalaldki nan til fay? do the men make the spears? 
aykS zvodd'sna'sh'dnia? is the father here? {'sna=tsna; sh'^si, person, art.) 
aykSka fakchi is nangdngnen si sa? was it not you (but an other?) who 

did it? 
aykS s/ka nan naindkash is nan fdnga ay? was it you that broke the pot? 

fak^nakf not I! 
aykS fakSn sa? is it not so? is this not right? 
aykSkayio/ nasdycp? did you sleep? igdkHnil! we did not! 
ayk^ka iinidli aszvdkas? will you come to-morrow? adfak! I shall not! 
ayko nakadfo sfya? has he finished cooking? tsdan. pay! not yet! 
aykSka Insakti? are you sick? ;/o [pronounce like our : naw! ], adf! no! 
aykotdko ngan/ngdni ad ppoifok? are we near Bontoc? ddi, adsdmzvi 

kay man, tsdan! no, quite far away, not yet 
akizvay [for: aykS woday, is there?] inakdnym? have you any rice? (is 

there your rice ?) 
aykS sak/hi? aykS stya? is it I? is it he? 
aykS zuodd'sna? is he here? nia//d! no! nia/fd kay sfna he is indeed 

not here 
aykS andknio sitodl? is this your child? fakSnko dnak! not mine! 
aykSkay&i innidli? did you come? fakSn tjdkdnii ! or: fakSnkaini! not 

we (but others)! 
aykS nadSy nan yiln/am? has your older brother died? tsda)i! or: igd! 

no! (he has not) 
aykSkdym igd nafdleid? have you not been fettered? igdkdmf! no! 
aykStja kdzvfs nanndy ay tfifay? are these spears good? 


342. In interrogative sentences frc<iuently the jiartiele iii^fii, ])erhaps, 
])rohal)ly, is employed, with or without aykS; particularly with the future: 
adumdlika ngin? will you probably come? paddyentja iigiii nan fiitng? 
will they perhaps kill the pig? innidli ngin si fna? did mother perhaps 
come? Ger. ist die Mutter wohl gekommen? Xghi is always postpositive 
and employed only in interrogative sentences. 

343. The affirmative answer "yes" is: Sy! or: tYcn! [tvc'n]. Usually 
the verb of the interrogative sentence is repeated as answer, without and 
sometimes with "ciy!": 

(lyk/in intla sfya? did you see him? {oy!) intlak! yes, I saw (him)! 
a\'ki\ev kfntck sa? did you understand this? {dy) kintc'kmi! yes, we 
(As these examples show, the ol)icct is not repeated in the answer.) 

The adverb of reply: fu'n (i)roI)ably an Ilocano loan-word) is used 
repeatedly by a person listening to another's words, to indicate the listener's 
attention; as Ger. so? ja? ja! etc. 

The negative adverbs of reply have been treated I)efore [319-324]. 
Some have been recapitulated in the examples given above. — 


344. Word-Questions \\\t\\ stun [sfnPf].' who? Sfnu takes the 
personal endings in questions like: who am I? who are you? etc. W'e may 
consider our copula to be inherent to sfnu. If the subject of the question is 
a noun, sfini remains unchanged; the noun follows. 

sfnuak? who am I? sinnka^ who art thou? sfnu sfya.' who is he? 

siniikaml.' who are we? siuf/kayi^// wlio are you? siniitji.'' 

who is that? {tji: there) 
sfnu si Angay? who is Angay? sfnu si Ahakfd.' who is Abakid? 
sfnu nan niamdgkid ay nay? who is this girl? 
sfnu nan niamanid gkid ay nay? who are the girls here? 
sfnu nan dpom? who is your master? 

sfnu nan plcsidc'nfc? who is the village-chief? ( iiresident ) 
sfnu nan dmdyek? who is your father? 

345. .Sfnu, who?, as sul)jcct of a (|uestion, requires p;irticipial con- 
structions. It is followed by the "Particijile" of personal verbs (and of 


passive verbs, as they belong to the category of personal verbs) and by the 
Nonien agentis of possessive verbs. The article precedes always the "Par- 
ticiple" or Nom. agentis. 

s/iiu nan umali isna? who comes there? (who is the one coming) 

stnii nan inniali? who has come? who came? 

stnii nan adnmdU? who will come? sfnu nan ivodd'snaf who is here? 

sinu nan nenfsfhio istjf? who was working yonder? 

Sinn nan /hniiy ad Mantla? who is going to Manila? 

Sinn nan niifiieg ken sika? who comes with you? 

Sinn nan nif/fcg ksn todi? who came with him? 

stnn nan napadSy is nan fmsfflf who has been slain by the enemy? 

Sinn nan niafdliP(d ken tjaitja? who is being bound by them? 

stnn nan tiiunoli? who has returned? 

shut nan }nainasi1\ep is nan dfongf who is sleeping in the h(^use? 

s/nii nan lnnuiyai''(? who is running away? 

sFnn nan inangzafni is iiaiindyF who says so (that)? (who is the sayer 

of that ? ) 
sfnu nan nanguuini is nannciy? who said so? 
Sinn nan man gd nab ken sak/Sn? who seeks me? 
sinu nan inang/ngo \]}iang/ngo\ ; niang/ndy\ is nan aydyanii^ who hears 

the bird? 
sinu nan inaindngon ken todi? who wakes him up? 
stnn nan nangdeh is nan dfong? who made the house? 
stnn nan nidngtek ken todl? who knows him? 
snin nan nangdlad is nan kanipila]n? who has taken (forciblv) your sword 

stnn nan nangdla is nan tolfegko? who has taken my key? 
Sinn nan tsa niangydi is nan tstja? who brings the meat usually? 
stnii nan nan gf la's nan laldkif who has seen the man? 
sfnu nan nangftjan is nan singsingna? who has found his ring? 
sfnu nan nangidjda is nan patafjfin ken sfka? who has given you the iron? 
sfnu nan nangwdni si sa ken fjakdyi°t? who has told you this? 
sfnu nan mangdyak ken sak/e'nf who is calling me? 
sfnu nan nangtbm is nan kdyo? who cut down the tree? 
sfnu nan niangydi is nan sabdtosliko? who is bringing my shoes? 
sfnu nan nangipf/y is nan fddsok is nan dfong? who put my coat into the 

sfnu nan nidmran is na>i nidkan? who eats the rice? 


346. Sfiiu as direct object, whom? stands at the beginning of the ques- 
tion; it is followed by the Xomen actionis with possessive endings if the 
subject is a personal pronoun in English; liie article precedes ihe Xom. 
actionis. If the subject is a noun, the Nomen actionis has no endings; if it 
ends in a vowel, the "Genitive Indicator" or Ligature -;; is suffixed. 

sf)ui >iaii ki^kkcm? whom do you know? 

sinii nan finiikdiPizvain? whom did you call? 

,s-/;/;( nan llaem? whom do you see? (who is the seeing-aim-yours) 

sfnn nan tjctjifng/ngem ay tsa mangayrnveng? whom do you hear singing? 

Sinn nan tSnuneni? whom do you press? 

si tin nan ayakantja? whom do tliev call? 

Sinn )ian ayctkan (or: aydkanfja) nan lalahiki^ whom do the men call? 

sfnn nan leytjeny^? whom do you like? 

Sinn nan ifgton )ian mania gkid? whom does the girl hold? {I'fgton: with 

Gen. Ind. -«) 
sfnu nan adpadSyenym? whom will you kill? 
sfnn )ian intdfona? whom did he hide? 
.s-/;;;( nan inllatdko? whom did we see? 

If "whom" shall be more emphasized, the Nom. agentis wath locative 
suffix -an and possessive endings is employed; such cases seem to be very 
rare, as : 

sfnu nan tnangayakdnymF (usually: sfnu na)i aydkanyn) whom dt^ you 

sfnn nan niamale^dsdnymi' {s inserted) who is it that you bind? 
sfnu nan mangibfoldnylPi/ (usually: ibfffyi^) who is it that you make wet? 

Personal verl)s are not used in this construction; only one (doubtful) 
example has been obtained: sfnn nan ti^nikdldnyioj:.' whom did you stop?; 
also in this case the suffix -an is attached to the verb: tt^inkoyak (intervo- 
calic/inserted). (The possessive verb from the same root is: pa-tkdlck, 
with causative prefix pa [also: patkJlck] ). 

347. Sfnu followed by a noun with prefix nin- [62], forms a phrase 
by which our possessive genitive "whose" is circumscribed: 

sfnu )ian ninafong? who is the house-owner? whose house is it? 
sfnu nan nindsiPc'shtji? whose dog is that? {'slitji = fsfji) 
sf)iu nan ninong(>nga ay nay? whose child is this? 

sfnu )ian nindfong is nan indyani? into whosi' house did you go (have 
you been) ? 


stmi nan ninsoklong is nan inalanym? wliose liat did 3-011 take? (who is 
the hat-owner, for your taking — the hat) 

sfnu nan uinongJnga ay namaddy is nan monokko? whose boy killed 
my chicken? 

sinu nan nindfong ay kdpcn nan laldki? whose house does the man build ? 
(nindfong, or: nan ninkoa nan dfong; ninkoa is said only of mate- 
rial property) 

sfnu nan ninfdlfeg ay kina^pna? whose spear has he made? (The particle 
ay refers in this and similar constructions to the preceding noun 
separated from its prefix tiin — : ninfalfeg ay..., ay refers to falfeg, 
not to ninfalfeg.) 

348. The dative "to whom?" is expressed by sfnu and the Nom. 
agentis with the prefix 2-, the sutlfix -an and with possessive endings [261] ; 
the direct object of the Nomen agentis is governed by the preposition is. 
(The Nomen agentis has no sufiix, if the subject is a noun.) 

sfnu nan nangipatlam is nan segfi? to whom did you show the rain hat? 
sfmi nan mangipalladnyB is nan sillad? to whom do you show the letter? 
sfnu nan nangitsaotsaodntja is nan kaldpit? to whom did they give the 

sfnu nan mangitsaotsdoan nan laldki is nan btlak? to whom does the man 

give the money? (who is the man's giving-place for the money?) 
sfnu nan mangiyalfain is nan kdyo? to whom do you bring the wood? (/ 

sfnu nan nangiyalfant ja sh nan pdkiiy? to whom did they bring the rice? 
sfnu nan adniangifsaofsdoan nan Idldldki is nan dsfn? to whom will the 

men give the salt? 

349. Examples illustrating the constructions of the interrogative pro- 
noun governed by various prepositions (similar to such constructions with 
the relative pronouns) cf. [335] : 

sfnu nan iydbfani is nanzvdnis? for whom do you weave the breech cloth? 
(iydbfak: I weave for someone ) 

sfnu nan ikapdnym is nan kittlaB? for whom are you making the night- 
cap? {ikapdnyfi, or: ikaebdnyw) 

sfnu nan entsf/noaui (plur. nan entsunoanyB)f for whom do you work? 

sfnu nan nang/angnen/dnym si sat for whom did you do it? 


sfnit nan nifucgkdnyi^ is tU? witli wliom did you go to town? (who were 
your companions, those going with, to town) 

Sinn nan kadndna ay nangfstja is nan fstjaf with whom did he eat the 
meat? (who was his companion? said of but two persons; nan 
k'aduak, kaduam, kadiidna; so: katMmi our companion of three per- 
sons; kapdtmi of four persons) 

sfnu nan th/am ay inmali ad/tgka/ with whom did you come yesterday? 
(who was your companion, fb/a. who came yesterday?) 

sfnu nan ib/atdko ay mangdeb is nan katydfong.-' with whom do we build 
the hut ? 

sfnu nan ib/dna ay masdycp.^ witli whom does he sleep? 

sinu nan tb/an nan laldki ay entsdno? with whom does the man work? 

sfnu nan ib/dyB ay mandlan^ wiili whom do you walk? 

sfnu nan minlagSam is nan pdkiiy/ from whom do you buy the rice? 

Sinn nan ninlagOantja is nan dsin? from whom did they buy the salt? 

sinu nan mangaldnym is nan kdtjing? from whom do you get the brass? 

sfnu nan tsdyiPc mangdlaan is nan fdyash? from whom do you usually get 
your sugar cane-brandy? 

sfnu nan napadSyan is nan fdtug? by whom was the pig killed? 

sinu nan nilagoan is nan noaiig? by whom was the bufifalo sold? 

(The active construction is preferable to the passive.) 


350. The rules established for sfnu hold also for ngdg? what? We 
may assume also that our copula is inherent to ngdg. 

Examples of constructions in which ngdg is subject or direct object, or 
where it is governed by our prepositions : 

ngdg sa? what is this? ngdg tji? what is yonder? what is that? (also 

angrily, as: Ger. was soil das heiszen?) 
ngdg nan ngdtjdna? what is his name? 
ngdg nan kofdkko ay insdlad? of what advantage is it for me to write? 

what is the use of my writing? 
ngdg nan nmdli istjf? what conies there? 
ngdg nan inmdli istjf? what came there? 
ngdg nan dmad; nan fnmad? what happens; happened? 
ngdg nan uinad ken sfka? what happens to you? how are you? how do 

you do? 
ngdg nan dmad is nan tjdpdnmo? how is your foot? 


ngag nan tnmad is nan Slom? what "has happened" to your head? what is 

the matter with your head? 
ngdg nan tumayaiPt istjl? what flies tJiere? 
ngdg nan nangdeb is nan domongek? what made the noise? 
ngdgka man ken Bi^gti? what are you to Bugti?, i. e. how are you related 

to him ? 
ngag nan tlaem/ what do you see? 
ngag nan ntmnhnem? what do you think? 
ngdg nan fsublin Antero? what does Antero change? 
ngdg nan fgton nan lalaldki? what do the men hold? 
ngdg nan ibfakdtja dmin? what do all ask? 
ngdg nan Tdjun OlOsJian is nan afongna? what is Oloshan showing in his 

ngdg nan leytjena [leytjSna]? what does he want? 

ngdg nan kdndm si sa? wliat do you say to this? what do you call this? 
ngdg nan lineyddy&i? what did you want? 
ngdg nan dngnen nan fafdyi? what is the woman doing? 
ngdg nan angnena? what is she doing? 

ngdg nan of deny i^ ay lalaldki.' what are you cooking, you men ? 
ngdg nan infdkdm ken todt? what did you ask of him? 
ngdg nan kinzvdnin dmani? what did your father say? 
ngdg nan dfusna infdka? what had he asked? 
ngdg nan ikany&^ what are you doing? 
ngdg nan mangotoanym is nan findy^t? in what do you cook the rice? 

(what is your-cooking-place for the rice?) 
ngdg nan ifakdkmo is nan kdyo? with what do you cut the wood? (what 

is your cutting-tool for the wood?) 
ngdg nan itangibko'd is nan agmb? with what am I to cover the box? 
ngdg nan inkdlim ken siya? of what did you speak to him? (ikdlik: I 

speak of...) 
ngdg nan infdig nan ongonga ken sika? with what did the boy strike you? 
ngdg nan ipdd/ong nan lalaldki is nan gdngsa? with what do the men 

strike the gong? 

Observe the idiom : aykS ngdg fa... "why should I..." (indignantly) 

aykS ngdg fa iimilyak? why should I go? 

aykS ngdg fa ifsaofsdomi nan bilakmi ken siya? why should we give our 

money to him? 
aykS ngdg ta aldeni nan fsa a\ kdtfii? whv should vou get a single fish? 

[P. 3] 


aykS ngag ta aldem nan kOweng nan tjdlid? why sliould you get the "ear" 

of a fish : tjalid ? [ P. 5 ] 
aykS ngag ta ofdtjek sika? why should I untie you? [P. lo] 
aykS ngag ta aldem nan gdngsa? why should you obtain the gong? [P. 12] 
aykS ngag ta lUigoym nan kafdyo? why should you sell the horse? 

Nan = what? is never an element of a sentence; it is an interjection 
expressing curiosity, surprise, indignation; uttered with rising intonation. 

351. Sinu av...and ngag aj... which...?, used attributively with sub- 
stantives, require the same constructions as sfnn and ngag. Sinu 03'. 
used with persons; ngag 03;.. .with animals and things, but also sometimes 
with persons. — Ngag ay. ..has also the meaning: what kind of?.. 

Sinn ay ongonga nan nddSy? which boy has died? 

ngag ay kanfyab nan kdam? which shield is yours? 

sinu ay laldki nan finmdla? which man went out? (or: ngag a\ laldki...) 

sinu ay fafdyi nan nangiydli's nan fushdngan? which woman has brought 

the large jar? (or: ngag ay fafayi...) 
sinu ay ongonga nan ihnuy is isknila? which boy goes to school? 
sinu ay infna nan nangzudni si nannay? which old woman has said this? 
Sinn ay mamdgkid nan ndmdkasli is nan pt gan? which girl has broken 

the pot? 
sinu ay laldki nan aydkanypt? which man do you call? 
ngag ay bdyok nan ishugltmo? which kettle do you put on the fire? 
ngag ay noang nan ildgoym? which Imffalo do you sell? 
ngag ay kdym nan sinibdypi? which tree did you cut down? 
ngag ay ili nan intedSedntja nan IgOlot? in which country do the Igorot 

ngag ay ptnang nan leytjcni? wliich ax do you like? 
ngag ay laldki nan inaydkan Fihnnak? which man did Fumnak call? 
ngag av fobdnga nan ICytjen nan fobfdllo? which pipe does the young man 

ngag ay aydyam nanndyF what kind of a bird is this? 

More frequently the Igorot employ the construction with a "relative 
cause/' instead of the "sinu ay... construction; it is more idiomatic to say: 
who is the man who came? instead of: which man came? 

A few examples will suffice, as these constructions with relative and 
interrogative pronouns have been treated before and illustrated by many 


sfnu nan ongonga ay ihniiy is iskuila? which boy (who is the boy who...) 

goes to school? 
ngag nan tufay ay kinaSpmo? whicli spear did you make? (which is the 

spear that you made?) 
stnu nan fafdyi ay inniali? whicli woman came? (who is the woman who 

ngag nan fanga ay nafclhasJi? which pot is broken? (which is the pot that 

is broken?) 
ngag nan kayang ay piltem? which spear do you choose? (which is the 

spear that you choose?) 
stmi nan alhvidmo ay mangdkiam is nan sdong si asiPi ay? to which of 

your friends do you give (some of) the dogs teeth? 
stnu nan laldki ay entsilnodnym? for which man do you work? 
ngag nan tli ay nalpdnyiot [nalpoanyiPt]? from which town did you start? 

(which was the town as your starting-place?) 


352. ''Why" is expressed by ngagen (probably a compound of ngag 
and the "auxiliary" ek [307]), which takes to itself the endings of the verb 
and appears in these forms : 

Personal: Possessive: 

1. ngagSnak [ngagdnak] ngdgek [^igagek] 

2. ngagSngka \ngagSngka\ ngagSm 

3. ngagen [ngageng; ngagan\ ngdg^na [ngagSna] 
I. incl. ngdgcntdko ngagentdko 

I. excl. ngdgengkdmt ngdgenmi 

n. ngdgengkdym ngdgenym 

111. ngdgSntja ngdgSntja 

The "endings" ck, en, etc., without ngag-, are used sometimes for 
"why;" they are followed in many cases by the emphasizing particle man. 
The particle ay? stands usually at the end of interrogative sentences of this 
ngagengka man madBnidiPeni ay fnmdngon? why do you get up 

("awake") so late? (ngagengka? why, pray? Ger. ja warum 

denn? Fr. pour quoi done?) 
ngdgSni ydi sa'y [sa ay]? why do you bring that? 
ngdgSngkdyt9l man tinmOli ay? why, pray, did you come back? 
ngag man Sntja nengkaU ay? why did they speak? {man separates 



Sntja man adt unuili'sna? why do they not come here? 

ngagSntja man adt entsilno oy' why — say! — do they not work? 

ngag^n aydkan nan lalciki stka ay? why does the man call you? 

ngdgcngkdy&i inmdli'd Samoki ay? why did you come to Samoki ? 

ngaghiym iga insihio nan kdyB'y nay ay? why did you not hurn this wood? 

ngagSntja 'nasikdgong nan lalaldki ay? why do the men strike each other? 
{'nasikOgong: [301]) 

ngdg man im iindngfan nan dgi°(b ay? why did you cover the box? 

ngagSn man inmdli'sna? why has he come here? 

ngdg en mabSy [mabS] nan fddsok ay? why is my coat wet? 

ngdgSna find hash nan dg^pko ay? why did he break my box? 

dn adt ay? why not? {cn\; Sna adt ay? why (does he) not? 

ngdgenym inSto nan mdkan ay? \\h\' did you cook the rice, why? 

ngdgengka man indka ay? wli\- are you crying-? 

ngdgeni paddytni nan dsifli ay? why do you kill the dog? 

ngdg^nfja nap^tan )ian dfong ay? why were the houses burnt? 

ngdghigka ma)i wodd'shna ay? say! why are you here? {'shna: tsna) 

ngdgentdko man madPinidiP(ni ay nnitlcng ay? why, pray, do we rest so 
long ? 

ngagon man pilten nan fobfafdyi nan stlcng ay? why do the women select 
the beads? 

ngdgan alden Isding nan zvdc ay? why does Isding take the rattan? 

ngagSngka fdkdn is nangdeb is nan kolong ay? why did you not make 
the chicken coop? 

figdgin mapaddy nan noang ay? why is the buffalo killed? 

ngdg^ntja madngo nan dmtn ay fobfafdyi ay? why are all women laugh- 

I'nyB man iotSyen stya ay? why do you speak to him? why do you 
address him? 

ngagcngkdym tsa indka ay? why do you keep crying? 

Sn ma/td ay? why is there nothing? 

en ma/td kaldsayna ay? why has he no shield? 

ngdgentdko adt ihniiy ay? why do we not go? 

ngdg^m adt kdndn ay? why do you not tell (it)? 

ngdgengka adt knmdeb is tiifay ay? why do you not make any spears? 

ngdg man ^ngkaym adt maniibla ay? why do you not smoke? 

ngdgSntja adt totdyen sttodi ay? why do they not speak to that one? 

ngdgtm igd ydi nan balddgmo ay? why did you never bring your gun? 

mrd^ man ('m/ka adt entsdno a\? whv are vou not working? 


ngagi'n igd inaydkan nan ongonga sak/c'n ay? why did the boy not call 

ngagfm adt idjn nan afongnw kc^n fond ay? why do you not show him 

your house? 
ngagSn adt iii^ton Td\nan nan dsm a\? why does Taynan not hold the 

ngagSn igd nafdlnd nan niangdk"u ay? why has the thief not been bound? 
im igd paydn na nan sokJngino? w'hv did you not fill there your bowl? 

[R. 24] 
Sngkaym man lumdyaB ay? why do you flee? [B. 50] 


353. Into [cnto\ where, whither and whence, requires the locative 
suffix -an- affixed to the Nomen actionis. It takes endings only if the sub- 
ject of the question is a personal pronoun with the copula, as: where are 
you? (The copula may be thought to be inherent to into; thus we can 
probably more readily understand the various examples: Into = where is, 
are, was, were, etc.) intoak? where am I? intoka? where are you? 
into sfya? where is he? intokanii? where are we? intokdym? where 
are you? intStja? where are they? 

into si Lang/dgan? where is Langagan? into sh'dma? where is father? 
{sW = si\ 

into nan ka&civodna \kaBzvddna\? where is his place? where is he? 

into man dkis nan kipdngko? where is my knife again? (angrily; Ger. 
wo ist denn schon wieder mein Messer?) 

into pay nan alhvidko? where is my friend? {pay: emphasizing particle) 

into nan ihniiydnypi? where do you go? Or: into nan aydny&i? \ayan- 
see: t,^\ 

into nan intedScdntja? where do they remain? (live) 

into nan intediean nan lalaldki? where do the men stay? 

into nan dmilyani? into nan dyani? where do you go? 

into nan nasnycpdnyn? where did you sleep? (where was your sleeping- 

into nan inlipdyan nan dndnak? where do the children play? 

into nan nantjasdnym is nannay ay kty&cd? where did you find this gourd? 

into nan admangandna? where will he eat ? 

intd nan nangipdyam is nan soklongko ay? where did you put my hat? 

into nan nangifafSnan nan nianidgkid is nan kddpas? where did the girl 
hide the blanket ? 


int() nan nangitjdnana si sa? where did he find tliis? 

into nan nangitsaotsdoain is nan hflak kSn todl i' where did you ^^wt him 

the money? 
intS nan namadSyan nan fdlfcg is nan laldki.' where did the spear hit the 

man ? 
intS nan nakogongdnym? where have you heen hurt, struck? 
intd nan nakcdfdnam? where have you been bitten? 
intS pay nan nangipafldny^e is nan s^lad kt^n todi? where did you show 

him the letter? 
intd nan nangzvantan nan lalaldki is nannay.' where did the men say that? 
into nan namadSyantja is nan Idmanf where did they kill the wild pig? 
into nan mangisnbltantja is nan hildktja nan gadsdngycn? where do the 

rich men change their money? 
into nan mangapdna \mangaebdna] is nan dfongna? where does he build 

his house? 
into nan tsdypi mangigtoan is nan dsrn? where do you usually keep the 

into nan nangivanidnypt is nannay ay kali? where did you say tliis word? 
intd nan niangdldnyti is nan aydyamf where do you hear the bird? 
into nan indyan nan dmam? where did your father go? 
intd nan nangika/Bfdnym is nan awdkna? where did you bur}- his body? 
intd nan iptjdsmo natpfdan? where had you been squeezed? 
intd nan mangotdanym is nan fmdym? where do they cook the rice? 
into nan nangdban nan yun/am is nan dlangna? where did your brother 

build his granary? [nangaban; nangapan; nangaepan; nangaeban\ 
intd nan napaddyan nan aydzvan? where has the bufifalo l)een killed? 
intd nan admapadSyan nan dsU? where will the dog be killed? 
intd nan nangaptdny^ ken tjdttja? where did you meet them? 
intd nan kdiPtwad nan nentsunodny^f where is your working place? 

Motion from a place is expressed by the idiomatic verb : nialpo, 
to come from, or : to start at a place ; malpo- takes the personal endings, 
unless the locative suffix -an with the possessive endings are required by 
the construction ; its forms are in the preterite (which is used almost exclu- 
sively and has the same endings as the prsent : malpdak, or the future: 
admalpdak) thus: 

Personal: Possessive attached to suftix -an-: 

1. nalpdak I came from, (I was nalpdak \ndlpak] 

at a place) 

2. nalpdka nalpdam [ndlpain] 

3. nalpd nalpdana [nalpdna] 


D. naJpSta nalpoanta [nalpanta] 

I. incl. nalpotdko nalpoantdko [nalpantciko] 

I. excl. nalpokamt nalpoanm/ [nalpaiuii}'] 

II. nalpokdym nalpoanym {nalpanyiPi\ 

III. nalpOtja nalpoantja \nalpdntja\ 

into nan nalpSam, nan nalpoany^i? where did you come from? where have 
youl^een? "where did you start coming?" where are you from? 
into nan nalpOan nan laldki? whence did the man come? 
into nan nalpoan nan fohfafdllo? whence did the young' men come? 
into nan malpoam? where are you starting from? 
into nan admalpdntja? whence will they start? 

{nalpoak id Fmntok I come, I came from Bontoc.) 


354. Kdd means: when? and: huw much, how many? Temporal 

kad requires the Nomen actionis with the locative (adverhial) suflix -a;; and 

possessive endings. The Nomen actionis is preceded hy the article nan. 

Quantitative kdd is followed by the Nom. actionis with possessive end- 
ings without -an. 
Temporal kdd: 

kad nan inanga)idna? when does he eat? 

kad nan entsunodiia? when does he work? (also: how long does he work?) 

kad nan entsfhioan nan lalaldkif when do the men work? 

kad nan adninalidna.' when will he come? (also: ddkad nan uiual/ana) 

kad nan mn^yantdkoF when shall we go? 

kad nan inmaltdna? when did he come? 

kad nan intcdCcdnyi^c id Manila? when will you stay at Manila? or: how 
long will you stay... ; "how long" is expressed more distinctly by say- 
ing: how many hours, days, months etc.: kad ay fitan nan 
intcddcdny^i? how many months will you stay? cf. [357] 

kad nan nangtlani ken stya? when did you see him? 

kad nan mangotoanyM is nan fitidymF when will von cook the rice? 

kad nan nalpoanypi id Tukitkan? when did you come from Tucucan? 

kad nan nalikodtantja.^ when did they start? 

kad nan nangapdnym is nan dfong? when did you build the house? 

kad nan napadoydna? when was he killed? 

kad nan nangwdnfan nan altwidmo si sa? when did >our friend say that? 

kad nan nangllan nan fafdyi ken slka? when did the woman see you? 

kad nan mafadsdngantdko? when shall we be assisted? 


kiui )iait nafdkaslian nan fdngaF when has the pot been broken? 

kad nan nakcjpan nan sSklong? when has the cap been made? [nak(ieban\ 

kad nan mangilaboantja ay engkali? when will they begin to speak? 

kad na)i tiiininktjuantako fsna? when did we sit here? 

kad nan knmadnain ad Fmntokf when do you leave Bontoc? 

/.'(/(/ nan namakdsJiana is nan fdnga/ when did he break the pot? (I break: 

fakdsJick; Xomen agentis, in present : manulkash, pret. nainti'kash ; 

witli adverbial sutitix -a)i: nanidkashan, and possessive -na, his: 

kad )ian fintnaiigondna.' wlien did he awake? 
kad nan ni'ngkCilid)ia/ when did he speak? 
kad nan funialddntja nan dndnak? when do the children go out? 

355- Quantitative kad : 

kadtdko? kadkdml.' kadkdypi.^ kadtjdf how many are we; you; they? 
kadkdyi^ ay i)i))iiiy.' "how many were you going?" 

kddtjd'y mandgfad Is nan bCitd? how many are they who carry the stone? 
kad nan tjapdu nan kafdyo.' how many feet has a horse? (how many are 

the feet of a horse?) 
kad nan bildkmo? how much is your money? how much money have you? 

(or: kad nan koani ay bflak.' or: kad nan bflak ay wodd ken slka?) 

Kad used with nouns: "how many trees" — is constructed like attribu- 
tive Sinn or ngdg; we may say: how many trees did you cut down kad ay 
kdyo nan sintboyA? or: how many are the trees which you cut down: 
kad )ian kdyo ay siniboyp{? These constructions are found in the following 
examples : 

kad ay lalaldki nan flaem? how many men do you see? 

kad ay bflak )ian ifdyady^i? how much money do you pay? 

kad nan dgsa ay inflaii nan ongonga? how many deer did the boy see? 

kad ay f dan )ian unuiyantdko.' how many moiuhs shall we travel? 

kad nan kafdyo ay niangdyiid is nan kalomdto.' how many horses pulled 

the vehicle? (niangdyitd from kuydtjck: Xom. ag. as "the horses" 

is the subject) 
kad nan lalaldki ay nangydi is nan aivdktja.' how many men have brought 

their bodies? 
kad nan fmslPtl ay napaddy.' how many enemies were killed? 
kad nan cIlo ay napotSanf how many heads were cut off? 
kad nan lalaldki a\ zvudd 'sua.' how manv men are here? 


And in the idioms: kad iiamidy/ how much docs this cost? or: 
kad nan Idgon nan sdklonrr.' wliat is the price of the hat? 

lead nan kdnani is nannay/ liow much do you want ("say") for this? 
kad nan dndndktno.' how many children have you? 

The followini;- sentences iUustratc the difiference between the construc- 
tion of t e m p oral and of q u a n t i t a t i v e kad : 

kad nan adman ga pa nyi"^ is nan tdfay? when will you make the spears? 

kad ay tiifay nan ddkdpilin.' (kad nan t/ifay ay...) how many spears will 
you make? 

kad nan nangilagSan nan fafiiyi is nan slngsing.' when did the woman 
sell the rings? 

kad ay slngsing nan inldgon nan fafdyi.^ {kad nan singsing ay...) how- 
many rings did the woman sell? 

kad nan nangllany^ is nan lalaldki.'' when did vou see the men? 

kad ay lalaldki nan inflayn .' (kad nan lalaldki ay...) how many men did 
you see? 

kad nan maniaddyanyiP( is nan dsm? when will you kill the dog? 

kad ay dsB nan paddycnym? (kad nan dsM ay...) how many dogs do you 

kad nan ininalianypii .^ when did you come? 

kddkaypt ay innidli? how many are you that came? 


356. "How many times" is expressed by kad and tsa [310] preceding 
the frequentative form of the verb with the suffix -an : 

kad nan tsani innialialian hna.' how many times have you come here? 
kad nan tsdyei )nanalifal/bnan {inanalitaUfcnan\? how many times do you 

dance ? 
kad nan tsdna nanwtOan is Olo.^ how many times did he cut ofif heads? 
kad nan tsdni innifiyan ad M^lika? how many times did you go to America? 
kad nan tsdni nangtlaildan ken siya.^ how many times have you seen him? 


Without tsani : kad nan iiang/laflani ken ^/yo/ how many times have 
you seen him? 

Only one example where niang- is prefixed to kad and personal endings 
are suffixed has been obtained: ntangddka ay mangdngnen si sa? how 
many times are you doing that? (and in the preterite: nangdngnen si sa? 
how many times did you do that ?) 



357. Tdddo, often accompanied by a negative, means: "iiow lung will 
it take until....?" or: "when finally..?""; it introduces an impatient question; 
the negative denotes unfulfilled expectation and is to be omitted in transla- 
tion : 
idddo man adftja umalif how long will it take until they come? when will 

they finally come? 
tdddo mail adina kapi'ii nan (ffong/ when will he finally Iniild the house? 
tdddo adtta ihntjan.' when will we two finally arrive? [K. 5] 
tdddo nan mangapdnypc is nan dfong? how long will you still be building 

the house? 
(Without negative and with Article and Nomen actionis with -an) 
tdddo man adina pdad ydi nan fstja.' when, indeed, will he bring the 

meat ''at last?"" "how long does he not bring the meat?" 
tdddo man adf pdad iimdli sttodi f how long will it take until he comes? 
kandna en "tdddo adftja nmdli/" (Lumawig) says: how long will it take 

until they (the dog and the deer) arrive? [L. 8] 
tdddo adim pdad tjipdpcn nan kdani.' how long will it take until you catch 

your (pig) ? [L. 61] 
tdddo nan mangilabjantja/ when will they finally begin? 


3S8- 'ilow?'" in connection with a \crb, as: how do the\- throw the 
spear? is circumscribed by the phrase: what are they doing (verbs: 
dngnck, tkak) to throw the spear? (or: they who throw). 
ngdg nan dngncm ay mangdeb is nan fohdnga/ how do you make the 

pipes? (what arc you doing as maker of ]iipes?) 
ngdg nan angiu^na ay ins/Had.'' how docs he write? [or Xom. ag. : 

minsdiad \ 
ngdg nan inangnc^na ay nandlau.' how did he walk? 

ngdg nan angn^ntja ay minldfa is nan fddso.' how do they wash the coats? 
ngdg nan indngnem a\ nangdcb is nannay/ how did you do this? 
ngdg nan dngnc'ii nan fobfafdyi ay mangOto is nan flndy^? how do the 

women cook the rice? 
ngdg nan angnJiitja ay nidmkasli is nan fdlfcg/ how do they thr(^w the 

ngdg nan dngni'n nan lalaldki ay mamdd/ong is nan gdngsa.' how do the 

men strike the gong? (pad/dngck) 


359. "How?" in connection with an adjective (or adverb) is expressed 
by the derived abstract substantive preceded by kdd? how much? 
had nan kadntjon nan kdyo? how high is tlie tree? ("how much" is the 

height of the tree?) 
kad nan kaadsdyini nan tjeni'^m? how deep is the water? ("how much" is 

the depth of the water?) 
kad nan kaadsaWzvin nan tli? how far is the town? 
kad nan kaasdlk nan kilo? how sliort is the stick? 
kad nan kaascdjfl nan kcfyo/ [kaasdjdn] how thick is the tree? 
kad nan taBivin nan inamdgkid? how old is the girl? (how many arc tlie 

years of the girl? 
kad ay dkyii nan intcdecdnnii 'sna.' how long (how many days) will we 

remain here? 


360. Indirect Questions are introduced by the particle mo. In many 
cases (especially if the question begins with "what") the Nomen actionis is 
used as the direct object of the main verb, as the first example given here 
illustrates. — Mo, meaning "if" and "whether," precedes interrogative pro- 
nouns and adverbs. 

adik k^kkcn mo ngdg nan Icyfj^na I do not know, what he wants 

adfk kekkcn nan IcytjiJna "I do not know his wanting" 
aykfypi kekkcn mo ngdg nan kinwdnin nan laldki.'' do you know what the 

man said? {ayktyB kc^kken nan k'imudnin laldki f) 
kimvdnina mo into nan kaBwddna [kaBwodna] he said where he was 

(where "his place") 
kandnyei mo kad nan altdna tell (me), when he will come 
ihfakdna ken sak/en mo ngag nan zvodd ken sak/Sn he asks me what I 

nalitjongak mo ngag nan kinwdnim addgka I have forgotten what 3'ou 

said yesterday 
kckkck mo ngag. nan niaangSdna I know why he laughs {ngag followed 

by the Nom. act. with the suffix -an expresses cause) 
adfnii kekken mo ngag nan kandntja we do not know what they say 
kandm mo into nan aydnym tell me, where you go 


kaiuiiii »io U))u7lilca tell iiif wlictlier you will come 

kCkkck mo Hgagciii^ka nmdli I understand \vh\- you come 

nan amdma kanclna ken sak/ihi mo kad nan itmiiydnyn the old man tells 

me when you will go 
idjnm mo intS nan nangipdyan nan alhvidko is nan fdkat show (me), 

where my friend has put the nails 
nail fafdyi ibfdkdna ken sak/hi mo kad nan finayddjak the woman asks 

me how much I have paid 
kandnyiv ken amdyHV mo makisdak cd is dfongyn tell (i. e. ask) your 

father if I shall go with you to your house [L. 39] 
ibfakdmi ken tjakdy/4 mo imsthiyei nan aivdkyiPc we ask you if you wash 

your bodies 
fbfdkam ken stya mo intd nan inaydna ask him where he went 
ibfakdija mo ngdg nan inmad they ask what has happened 
axkSm k(^kkcn mo siiiu nan inmdli do yoix know who has come 
ibfakdna mo into nan nalpdanyiPt he asks where you came from (where 

you have been) 
adfk ki^kken nan kandna I do not understand "his saying," what he says 
ifadgmo ken sak/chi nan iydfna tell me what he brings (or: mo ngag nan 

ibfakdmi mo iigdg nan nalpoana id Sagddsa we ask why he came from 

kandm mo ngag nan ibfakdna tell (me) what he asks 
kandm nan tnmat ken sfka tell (us) what has happened to you, what is 

the matter with you 
ifadg\i°t ken tjakamt mo ngag nan angnJnyi^ tell us what you are doing 
ibfakdna mo sindkayiP( he asks who you are; mo intS nan lliyiPC w-here 

you live; mo kad nan adumdlidnyi?( when you will come 
adik kSkken mo intS nan kaftzvddna addgka I do not know where he w^as 

a\kf\'lP( tjSng/ngcn nan kandii nan fafdyi;'' do you hear what the woman 

says ? 
a\k(hn ki^kken nan kdpi'n nan ongonga or: mo ngag nan kdpthi nan 

ongonga/ do you know what the boy makes? 
ta ildcnmi sfka mo kef adf pinpaabSken nan kaiiydn nan Olom! let us sec 

you, if not the cannon cracks your head! [B. 51] 
ibfakam ken tjakamt mo zvoddy k^ytjem tell us if there is anything you 

kandm ken sak/ihi nan kinwdnin Mdtyn! tell me what Matyu said! 

Idiom: tak/ihi mo ttafdkash nan fdnga "I do not care" whether the pot 
is broken 


tak/iii mo adfna iydi nan kayiPt I do not care ("nevermind") if 

he does not bring the wood 
nidi mo tomOli nevermind if he returns 
mldi mo umfiyfja I do not care whether they go. 


361. There is no auxihary verb "to be" in Bontoc Igorot, which would 
correspond to our copula. The various ways of constructing equivalents 
for our use of the copula will be treated in the following sections. 

If "to be" means: to exist, to be present, to be at a place (Fr. il y a; 
Ger. vorhanden sein; sich befinden), it has an equivalent in: ivodd [zvodcfy^ ; 
but zvodd cannot be used in certain cases stated below. 

If "to be" serves as our copula between the subject and predicative ele- 
ments, such as nouns or adjectives, it finds its equivalent in : 

a certain order of words: the predicative element precedes the sub- 
ject without ligature; or 

the personal suffixes attached to words of nearly all categories 
(Igorot grammatical categories are, of course, different from ours) ; or 
the ligature ya, placed between the preceding subject and the sub- 
sequent predicative element. 

fdntg nan ongdnga or: nan ongonga ya fdiif'g the child is small; fdnigak 
I am small. 

362. Wodd or ivoddy, an idiomatic verb, denotes existence, presence 
at a place; as: there is, are, was, were etc.; I am somewhere; I am present. 

btlay nan dtangfja. — nan dtangfja zvodd 'd Papdt/tay; san tdkidtja 
ay zvdka zvodd 'd Papdt/tay a trunk of a tree is their carrying-beam 
(to carry corpses of slain men). Their beam is (still in existence) at 
Papatay; their rope made of a liana (zvdka) is at Papatay. [L. 94] 


woddak [zvodak 







I. incl. 


I. excl. 







Wodd can be used only in afiirmalivc sentences wliicli can Ijc cither 
declarative or interrogative. It can not be used in negative sentences; nor 
as copula between subject and predicative elements; nor in questions, begin- 
ning with into; nor in commands (imperative). 


363. Wodd or zi'dddy takes none but personal endings: 

ivoddyak I am present ; I am at a place. 







zvoddy tja 

Dialectic forms of zvodd are: odda; ndda; zvdda; zvddsa, zvddsatt; 
zvdta; also a sound similar to an English r was pronounced by some Igorot 
between the two vowels. 

In the third person singular (rarely in plural) the ligature ya is often 
placed between the preceding subject and Zi'odd. 

The Future is expressed by zvodd and adverbs or achorbial phrases 
denoting time : aszvdkas, to-morrow, c?'wr/;/. soon etc. cf. [413]. Also the 
form : adzvodd is used sometimes. 

The Preterite is expressed by adverbs or adverbial phrases of time: 
addi^ka, yesterdixy; adsdui^ddum, some time ago etc. Or the Preterite "I 
was" is circumscribed by other verbs, especially nalpd, I have come from, I 
am here from, hence = I was there; I have been there. [353] Or l^y 
inmdliah, I came; ninfcdScak, I stayed, remained, sojourned at a place. 

nan fafdyi ya ndlpo'd Fvintok the woman was in I'ontoc 
nalpOkdmi is nan tlimf we were in our country (town) 
intS nan nalpdam \ndlpa)}i\? where have you been? 
into nan niiifcdccam adui^ka/ where have _\-ou lieen yesterday? 

Wodd is also found in a freciuentative form: zvodzvoddkdinf, we were 
(there) often, many times. This reduplication expresses also sometimes the 
comparative "more," as: 

zvodzvoddy there is more ....than 

adzvodzvoddy there will be more ....than [185]. 


Instead of zvodd the substantive : nan kai9czvddna, the place where he 
is (his place) ; nan kaBzvddko, my place (Ger. mein Aufenthaltsort) is some- 
times used. {KdBzvad or kdmzvod is probably the abstract noun derived 
from root zvod.) 

Wodd and ayki? are sometimes combined into: aykc'zuay/ aykSzvay? 
dkfzvay? is there? is. ...present? 

zvodd, there is, there are, corresponds sometimes to our "some," "sev- 
eral" "any." 

Wodd (in singular!) at the beginning of tales (also with "adsdngadum, 
some time ago") is our: "Once upon a time there was (were) ;" Ger. Es 
was einmal. 

Wodd — zvodd can be translated: some — others; at some times — at 
other times. 

Nay! "here is" (but rarely "zvodd!") ; Fr. voici, accompanies fre- 
quently the gesture of pointing at an object. 

The negative: there is no there does not exist, it is not present, is: 

mdtd; sec [322]. 

zvodd nan kdyi°( there is a tree; uia/l'd kdyp( there is no tree 

zvoddyak is nan dfong 1 am in the house 

siya ya zvoddy isna he is here {zvodd' sna sfya) 

zvoddkdym is nan flinii you arc in our country, town 

nan alhvidko {ya) zvodd is nan dfongna my friend is in his house 

nan fafdyi ya zvodd is Sagddsa the woman is in Sagada 

nan lalaldki zvoddtja id Tnkukan the men are in Tucucan 

zvodd' sna s'fna mother is here {si fna ya zvoddy isna) 

zvoddy nan kdzvis ay idkB ya zvoddy nan ngag av tdkB is nan dmin a\ 

fatdBzva there are good and bad people "in the whole world," 

zvoddy nan findlyen ya zvoddy nan fobfdUo some arc married men, some 

are unmarried young men 
zvoddkduii is nan llid Fi^ntok adugkd we were in the town of Bontoc 

adwoddykaini is nan djdlan we shall be on the road 
adzvoddtja'sna they will be here 

aBdy ngct zvodd is ka/iskueldan he may be at the schoolhouse 
aBdy ngct nintcdie sfya ad Manila he was probably at Manila ("he 

aBdy ngct zvodd'stjf he may be there 
shin nan zvodd' sna? who is here? 
sinu nan zvodd' sh dfong? who is at home? who is in the house? 


into nan kae^v-Hhlna.' where is he? (intd stya.^ ) ; ma /id sl'na s'todf he 

is not here (not: ivodd!) 
Xi'oddak istji adsdngddum I was there some time ago; ma/iddk istjl I 

was not tliere 
adxi'oddkaiiif id Dsagdpan is di^ni we sliall soon be at Dagupan ; 

adma/tdkami we shall not he... 
nan pdkiiy ya wodd is nan dlang the rice is in the granary 
nan fdkat ya zi'oddfja is nan dgWcb the nails are in the box 
into nan indyan\.' where have you been? (where did you go?) 
intS nan kaPiz^'ddmo adiigka? where were you yesterday? zvoddak isna 

I was here 
adik ki'kkcn nan kaiPczvddtja I do not know where they are ("their abode") 
ngag a\ Hi nan nalpSanym? in which town have you been? [nalpdny^] 
nalpo siya 'd Fi4ntok he was at Bontoc 
nalpSak is nan dfongko I was in my house; adidk nalpo 1 was not (did 

not come from it) 
ad/kaini ndlpo is nan pdgpag we were not in the forest 
into nan ndlpam? [nalpoam]; intci nan nalpdnyiPc? [nalpSanytPi] where 

have you been? {nan nalpdak means also: my birth place) 
nan fobfafdyi nalpOtja is nan pdyo the women were in the rice fields 
adnnifiykanii is nan pagpag we shall be ("go") in the forest 
ayki^ka aditindli'sna/ will you be ("come") here? 
Idytjek ay intedee is nan HiyB I like to be ("stay") in your country 
aykfway inflam is nan dsH? have you seen any dog? \aykhi'ay intlam: is, 

or : was there your seeing of a dog] 
avkhuay mamangzvdni en ngtkmddsan andkko is tilin.' would anybody say 

that my child was transformed into a rice bird? ( "is there any say- 
ing, any imagining") [T. 8] 
aykkvay adtk itdnoy../ did I ever refuse anything...? ("was there my not 

granting") [T. 8J 
aykdzvay asdp<zvami'....mtd pay asdHzvak! are you married?....! am certainly 

not ! (it there any wife-yours ? there is no wife-mine, indeed) [ L. 83 ] 
zvodd nan inaindkafV ken s/'ka! somclxidy calls you I (there is one calling 

}-ou ) 
zvodd nan fnsak/t ken sak/ihi something hurts ("sickens") me 
aykJzvay kSkkem ad Fdllig/ do nou know an\l)ofly at Barlig? 
mo zvoddy admangzvdni ken Tdngay if anyone will tell it to Tongay 
mo zvay mangibfdka ken Faldnglong if anybody asks Ealongiong 
aykkvay flam? do you see anyone? 
aykS zvodd ay kinti^kmo.' is there anything that you knew? did you know 



zvodd sh' [si] Moleng! here is Moleng! 

wodd'sh laldki ay inkdi'b is nan clfong there is a man who builds liouses 

{'sh: preposit. is or si) 
xvodd Jiaii kafdyo; inflak (here are some horses; I saw them, or: I saw 

ivodd hag nanndy! there were some (cannon balls) like this! [B 38] 
wodd nan maddy ay inim, ivodd nan lima; wodd nan nabalddkan is nan 

inaddpa.... there were dead (killed) at one time six, at an other 

five; some were shot in their hands.... [B. 2,2] 
zvodd nan djda'y fobfdllo there were two young men [K. i] 
xvodd nan sindkl ay nidnganiHb there were two brothers who went hunt- 
ing [L. i] 
wodd nan sindki ay fafafdyi there were two sisters [L. 26] 
wodd nan sindki ay natdkB ad PSkis there was a brother and his sister 

living on mountain Pokis [L. 4] 
zvodd nan sindki ay infSlB is iflin there were two brothers who watched 

the rice birds [M. i ] 
zvodd nan Otiash id Falldfid there was a sugar cane plantatii^n at Falidfid 

. ^'^- '^ - . - 

zvodd nan tsa'y ongdnga ay fafdyi there was one girl [T. i] 

364. Examples of equivalknts for our copula "to be." 

(Many similar examples have been given in various preceding sections; 
they are recapitulated here and augmented by other examples.) 

P r e d i c a t i \' e S u b s t a n t i \' e s : 

alfwidko si Analftzvdsal Anauwasal is a friend of mine; or: si Ananzvdsal 

ya nan altzvidko 
fmsvclak I am an enemy allzvidak I am a friend sak/thi nan alkvidino 

I am your friend 
si MSlengak I am Moleng si Fdngcdak I am Panged si Anteloak I 

am Antero 
laldklak I am a man iFipnifokak I am from Bontoc iyAdbak I am 

from Alab 
Igdlotak I am an Igorot ayk^ Igdlot sfyaf is he an Igorot ? 
ongSngdak I am a child, I am young amdmadk I am an old man, I am 

fakSnak si OlSshan I am not Oloshan aykSka sli' Mdtyft? are you 



sfiin nan katakpiii toshdf wlio is tliat person (""the personality of this") ? 

sinii nan katcikmntjci tona? who arc tlTCse persons? (ka-taki^t: abstract 
noun: the personality) 

tjattja nan soldadsotdko they are our soldiers 

tjatdko nan fptsfdtja or: fi^(SiPcltja tjdtdko we are their enemies {f^st<Vtja] 

isdcd niadSy si Palpaldking; nan sangadjillna faltda, nan ioktjilana gdngsa, 
nan tdkfdna kdtjing then died Palpalaking; his death-chair was 
(made of) iron posts, his seat were gongs, "his rope was a brass 
chain" i. e. he had a chain instead of a rope. [P. 8] 

ya! patofio/cm man nan tjenum....nio Lumdzvigka! well then! so create 
("make grow") the water, if you are Lumawig! [L. /oj 

Predicative Adjectives (and "Participles"): 

antjOak I am tall nablJyak I am tired (passive of fcle'yck) 

kaivfska you are good kdzvh sfya he is good 

sfa sa! that is right! (all right!") ngaag sa! this is bad! (pron. ngag; 

a drawn) 
nan tjeuBni ya dtong or: dtong nan fjenHin tlie water is warm 
nan fobfdfdyi ya kdwfs or: kaivistja nan fobfafdyi the women are good 
insakh nan laldki paynio ya nablCy the man is sick or tired 
nan asdlPdvdna ya uuntiy his wife has gone, is absent or: innu1\ nan 

nan Idngtay ya nafdkash or: nafdkash nan Idngtay the bridge is broken 
adi kdivis nan mamanidgkid or: nan maniamdgkid ya adltja kdzufs (but 

not: adltja at the beginning of the sentence!) The girls are not 

kawfs naiuidy this is good kazi'fs nantjf/y that is good 
dntjo nan dfongna his house is high dutjo nan kook mine is high or: 

nan kSak ya dntjo 
kawhka'y laldki! be a good man ! 

auitnkami ay IgSlot we are all Igorot akttkami we are few 
Idteng adzvdni! it is cold to-day dtong adllgka {nan tdlon: the weather) 

it was warm yesterday 
tjaktjdkiak mo stka T am taller than you 

1 ' r e d i c a t i v e I ' r o n o u n s : 

Possessive: nan pfnang ya kSak tlie headax is mine; fakihiko 
kda: is not mine 

Personal : moslidya sak/ihi ya s/ka if I were you 
moshdya tjakdmf ya kagkdni/' ken tjakdyt'i if we were you ("like unto 


sak/ihi nan nangzvdni is sa it is T who said so ("it") 
fakdnak ken sfya I am not he 
sinukaym? who are you? 
aykS sak/^n? is it I? 

Numerals : 

djudkaint we are two; tolokaym you are three; liindtja they are five; 
nianifnsaugak I am the first; {mangudjfdjiak I am the last) 
)iiaiigdniinak I am the sixth 

Adverbs (and Prepositional Terms): 

kadkayipi how many are you? isndak I am here isndka you are here^ 
you stay here! istjfiyak I am there, I remain there (usually: 
zvoddak istjl) 

intSkanii? where are we? intd siya? where is he? 

aykSka tiUn? are you a rice bird? Cf. ayk^'ak, adfak, md/idak, igdak, 
fakdnak etc., in the preceding sections! 

Observe the ironical questions: 

asiin tuud'shf! what? this shall be a dog?! 

tjeniim tdnd'shf! you say that this is water?! ( — far from it, it's mud — ) 

kipdn tona'slif! and that you call a knife?! 

kaniydb tona'slif! that thing you call a shield? 

lafhi tond'sh?! is that indeed midnight? [M. 17] 

(Observe the ligature -;; in this construction, suffixed to substantives 
with final vowel!) 

Our phrase "I was on the point of. . ."' is expressed by the preterite 
and dngkay, or: ydngkay, only, just: 

finmdlaak dngkay, ya ket wodd nan fafdyi I was on the point of going 
out, when the woman came ("and, lo! there was the woman!") 

simhnkebak dngkay is dfong ya kef inpdngakMfan nan dsU 1 was on the 
point of entering the house, when the dog bit me ("and then quickly, 
suddenly: -pang-, the dog bit me"). Also with the present: 
sihnkehak dngkay.... 

finkdshna ydngkay nan sSkod ya ket zvodd nan fatd ay manidok ken sfya 
he was on the point of throwing the spear when there "came flying" 
a stone which hit him; ("and then there was a stone....") ; manidok 
from fdokek I hit with a stone 

The preterite of the copula in sentences such as given above is usually 
indicated by adverbs of time. Sometimes, if a word has been verbalized 


hy tlie personal endings (and by prefixes as stated in [167-177] ), the verbal 
"augment" is employed to express past. 

Certain adverbs of time indicate the future, in sentences in which we use 
tlie future of the copula; and in some cases the prefix ad- is used. (Also 
the prefix, respectively infix -iini- is employed to denote transition from one 
condition into another and to express future, as has been explained in [173. 


The "Infinitive": to be a soldier, to be strong etc. is usually cxjiressed 
bv forms with verl>al prefixes or infi.xes, as these examples show: 

soldddsoak I am a soldier ; le'ytjck ay insoldddso I like to be a soldier 

Jeytjck ay inlgOlot 1 like to be an Igorot 

inouiidnga [enongonga] to be a child 

kihndivh to be good; fnsdktt to be sick; IcyfjJiia ay fuw/kas he likes 

to be, to become strong 
adftja )iiabfdl//! ay kumdzi.'fs they can not be good 


365. "To Become," transition from a state or condition into another, 
is expressed regularly by the prefix or infix -»;;/-. Sometimes the future 
(with prefix ad-, or indicated by an adverb of time) conveys the idea of 
"becoming." [i73f] 

fnmfkasak I am getting strong I become strong 
gumadsdngycn sftodf he becomes rich 
lumdtcng it is turning cold fumultnget it grows dark 
nan ytin/ak ya insoldddso is dlPtni my brother will be (soon) a soldier 
ijumaktjdki nan ongSnga the boy is getting big 

fatS a stone; fumdtoak I am transformed into a stone {buuidtoak\ 
ngdtjan a name ngmndijanak I change my name, i. e. I am trans- 
formed (as a girl becomes a rice bird; a boy changes to a monkey; 
Lumawig's brother-in-law is transformed into a rock, etc. ) 
kdak a monkey; kumdakak 1 become a monkcv 
umdtong non tdlon the weather is turning warm 
punidkai^ak, ngumltitak, kumfladak T am getting white, black, red 
fumdnigak I am getting little preter. finmanigak 
\i}nalfwidak I am becoming a friend 



366. "To Have" is expressed by these constructions : 

Wodd [zvoddy]; our direct object of "have" becomes subject; our sub- 
ject is governed by the preposition is, respectively ken. "I have a house" 
changes, in this construction, to: "there is to me a house." 

Or -.^IVodd [ivoddy\ is followed by the object of our "have," with pos- 
sessive suffixes : ivodd dfongko: there is a house of mine. If a substantive 
is the subject of "have" it is placed at the beginning of the sentence^ as 
nominative pendens, and the phrase with zvodd follows ; the object has the 
sufifixes -na or -tja. Ex. there is a house-mine; the man, there is a house- 
his. Sometimes the verbs : ffgtok I hold, keep ; ifgnak I hold ; aldck 
I take (in the preterite: indlak I took, i. e. I have) ; paddnck I receive 
etc. are substituted for "to have." 

Phrases with it<7'a, denoting property {kdak: my own;), or with sub- 
stantives that have the prefix mifi- or nin- [62] are frequently employed to 
express our "to have." 
Personal pronouns as o u r s u b j e c t of "to have :" 

zvoddy ken sak/^n nan dfong or : zvoddy nan dfongko I have a house 
zvoddv ken sfka nan soklong or : zvoddy nan soklongmo you have a hat 
zvoddy kc^n todl nan dsiP( or : zvoddy nan dseina he has a dog 
zvodd ken tjdltja nan ktpan or: zvodd nan kipdntja they have (the) knives 
zvoddv nan andkko I ha\c a son zvoddy nan andkko ay fafdyi I have a 

zvodd nan andndkna he (or she) has children 
zvoddy nan tolo'y nSangnii we have three carabaos 
zvoddy ken tjdkdym nan kaldsaynii you have our sliields 
adzvoddy nan bildkna he will have money (or: adaldena nan bildkna) 
ISytjek ay kSa nannay ay dfong T should like to have this house 
ISytjck ay minkSa nan kafdyo or: Icytjck ay zvoddy kafdyok I like to 

have a horse 
adika mabfdlhi ay kOa nan kafdyok _\'ou can not have my horse 
ifgtoni [fgtoni] nan falfcgko you have (keep) my spear 
zvoddy ken sak/Sn nannay ay fdlfeg I have this spear 
nannay ay fdlfeg ya kSak (this spear is mine) I have this spear 
sak/in nan ninkOa nannay ay fdlfeg or: sak/Sn nan ninfdlfeg ay nay I 

have this spear (I am the "spear-owner") 


wodd nan falfdgko I have a spear ifgiok nan falfcg I keep the spear 
indlak nan fdlfcg I took the spear (and I have it) 
lUytjcni ay aUicn sa yon want to have this 

uiaadddsa nan kOak nw )ian kdain 1 have more than yon (more my prop- 
erty than yours) 
zvodivoddy nan bildknio )no nati hildkko yon have more money than I 
U^yfjenyiv ay niaadddsa nan kdayl°{ nw nan kodna yon want to have more 

than lie 
-ivodd ken sak/Jn nan soklong adsdngddnm I had a hat (some time ago) 
zvoddy ken tond nan bllak adiddna he had some money day-before-yester- 

ivodd nan fufdyko addgka I Iiad a spear yesterday 
zvodd nan kafdyok ya nan dsi'ik I have a horse and a dog 
K'oddy nan isa ay kafdyona he has one horse 
ipdt nan koak I have four ipdt nan kodtja they have tonr 
adaldcnyPi nan pfnang ya nan kdldsay yon will have (get) the ax and the 

Iinia nan aldck I shall have five; I get five 
inoslidya zcoddy dngsan nan bildkfja if they had nmch money 
nan icoddy ken sfka that which yon have; cf. nan koam [107] 

S n 1) s t a n t i v c as o n r s n 1) j e c t o f ' " to h a v e " ' : 

nan laldki icodd nan lima ay dndndkna the man has five children or: 

}ia)i lalaki Ifuia nan ananakna 
nan laldki ya nan fafdyi zvodd nan andktja ay djda ay lalaldki a man and 

a woman had two sons (observe the negligent nse of ]ilnral forms!) 
nannay ay laldki zvodd nan tufdyna this man has a spear 
nannay ay laldki adzvoddy nan tufdyna this man will have a spear 

zvodd adsdngaduni nan laldki ay zcodd nan djda'y andkna there has been 

a man (or: Once upon a time there was a man) who had two children 
nannay ay fobfdllo indlana nan tinoodko this hoy has (taken) my hat 
nan niaindgkid leytj^na ay alden sa the girl wants to have this 
nan alizvidko ya zvoddy fc'kken ay kdpen {ay kapjna) my friend has other 

things to do 
zvoddy kafdyo si nan laldki the man has a horse (or: lalaki zvodd nan 

zvoddy nan fdkat is nan ongSnga the hoy has a nail 

Negative sentences: 1 ha\-e not: 1 liaveno; 1 li;ive not any: are 
constructed with ina/fd. It is ])referable to nse the jiossessive suffixes with 
the snbstanti\o : 


ma/fd kdyf/k I liave no wood (there is no wood-mine) 
ma/ld biUfktja they have not any money 
ma/ id afdng tod/ he has no house (there is no house of his) 
nail fafciyi ma/ id andkna the woman has no child 

I n t c r r o g- a t i \- e sentences: 

ayki zvoddy aiiiin zvanistdko? has everyone of us his breech-cloth? 

aykS ivoddy nan bildkmo? have you any money? 

aykS ma/id dfongnaf has he not any house? 

aykdna indla nan tjokaBko? has he (did he take) my bag? 

sfnu nan zvodd afongna ken tjakay^f who of you has a house? {ken: of) 

shiu nan nangdla is nan sings fngkof who has (taken) my ring"? 

sfnu nan mangfgto is nan kaydngkof who has (is the keeper) my spear? 

ngdg nan wodd ken sikaf what have you? 

ngdg nan zvoddy ken siya? what has he? 

ngag nan zvodd is nan fafdyi? what has the woman ? 

kad nan anandkypi ? how many children have you? 

kad nan bildkna? how much money has he? {kad nan indlana is bildkna?) 

kad nan adaldem? how much will you have? (take, obtain) 


367. As the Igorot use the finger count, their numeral system is deci- 
mal. If ever a different system has been employed, no trace of it has been 
ascertained from the several groups of Igorot that were consulted. 

The Numerals are used in counting all imaginable objects, such as per- 
sons, animals, things etc. There are no "numeral affixes" (such as: person, 
head, seed, tail, piece, stem, fruit etc.) in Bontoc Igorot. 

The Numerals are adjectives or abstract nouns, as our "unity," "trin- 
ity." The fact that they are frequently preceded by the article nan, and that 
those ending" in a vowel take the "genitive indicator," the ligature -«, seems 
to point to their quality of being nouns. 

Numerals usually precede, rarely follow, the substantive ; they are con- 
nected with it by ay, sometimes by -n. This suffix -n is only used if the 



numerals end in a vowel; but ay is often employed instead of -n. If, how- 
ever, several tens or hvmdreds are counted by units ending in a vowel, -n is 
employed exclusively : limctn pSlo "five tens" or 50; toldn lashSt "three 
hundreds" or 300; thousands prefer oy.' tolo'y Itfo (or: toldn Iff 0). 

Nouns with special plural forms are sometimes found in their singular 
form after numerals. Cf. [49]. 

The Numerals are : 



O r d i n a 1 s, preceded by nan : 

the first mam/nsang [mamtngsang] 

(means also: once) 
the second niamidda [maygadi1a\ 
the tliird mamft'lo \maygat'ld\ 
the fourth mangipdt [migapat] 

isa (as unit of 
measure: sin) 

2 djna [dfhi; djila; dj/kva 

3 tola [told; t'ld; tdtlo] 

4 I pat [Spat] 

5 I fin a [Ihna] the 5 th 

6 ihieni [/niin ; thiiin] the 6th 

7 phd the 7th 

8 uuflo [i^dlo] the 8th 

9 sfani [sfyam] the 9th 

10 pdlo [pd'o; pd.'o;! stands the loth 
for a vocalic /, nearly: /-] 
or: sin po'o: "one 

1 1 sin pdlo ya isa the 1 1 th 

12 sin pdlo ya djfia the 12th 

13 sin pd'o ya told the 13th 

14 sin pd'o ya ?pdt 

15 sin pd'o ya I fin a 
20 djndn pd'o the 20th 
30 toldn pd'o the 30th 
40 ipdt pd'o 

50 Ifindn pd'o 

60 infni pd'o 

70 pftdn pd'o 

80 zvdldn pd'o 

90 sfam ay pd'o 
100 Idslidt [sfn Idslidt; lasdt ; the looth mangapd'o ay pd'o 

200 djndn Idslidt the 200th inaniidjda'y laslidt 

300 toldn Idslidt 
400 ipdt Idslidt 


mangdniin [iiiayganun J 
manga pi td [inaygapitd] 
mangazvdlo [ inaygazvdlo ] 
niangasfam [ maigasfam ] 
mangapd'o [maigapd'o\ 

mangapdo ya fsa 
mangapdo ya djtia 
mangapd'o ya told 

mamidjita'y pd'o (lig. ay!) 
mainit'ld'y pd'o 


500 limdn Idshot Observation: 

900 stamaylashot Ordinals with the prefix mayga 

1000 Itfo [sin Ufo; libo] [mcika] are not used in Bontoc l£?6rot 

2000 djiia ay Ufo [djm'y Itfo] ^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^j^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^j^j^.^ ^^^ 

3000 tolo'y Ufo decade" (as in Tagalog and in Pani- 

4000 ipatayUfo pdnga). 

9000 siam ay Ufa 
1 0000 sin pd'o'y Itfo 

the last uiangPtdjfdjl 

nan tSlo'y lalaUiki three men ; djilan fafdyi or : djiia'y fafdyi two women 
nan IJma'v kafc7\o 5 horses; nan tsa'y laldki one man; nan zvdlo'y 

phosh 8 pesos 
nan mamtnsang ay dkyu the first day; nan maygalfnia'y fiian tlie 5th 

nan tolo'y ay dndndk ay fdntg three little children 
nan ant jo ay kdyB ay ipdt four high trees 

tjakanit ay Ihna we five (men) ; tjaftja'y siam they, nine persons 
nan sinpS'o ken tjakdy^ ten of you; nan tolS is nan mamanidgkid ten 

of the girls 
sin tjipd one "tjipd," i. e. the distance between the tips of the middle 

fingers of the outstretched arms; about five feet 
sitn tsdngan [tjdngan] one span, the distance between the tips of the middle 

finger and that of the thumb, both extended 
sin fengS ay pdkiiy one handful of unthrashed rice 
sin f ting one measure containing 5 handfuls; sin kdtad 25handfuls; sin 

p^tak 50 handfuls; sinfdtck 100 handfuls; sin Spo 1000 handfuls 
sin bdngaM one glass; sin Uhla one "libra" Span, pound 
(Cf. sin- as prefix: sinpdngdfong one family, one household [59, 60]) 
entsunota ay djda we are working, two of us 

entsnnokami ay told we are working, three of us. three men ; we three 
nay nan djiia'y fdnga; payam si tj^ni^ni nan isa ya pdyam nan isa'sli 

findyu! here are two pots; fill the one with water and the other with 

umiiytdko ay told, ay ipdt, paymo ay Itma let us go, 3, 4 or 5 men 
nannay ipdt ay dndndk these 4 children ; nannay Ifma'y fafdyi these 5 

nan falfigmi ay pito our 7 spears; nan anandktja 'y told their 3 children 
am/tn nan djiia'y mdta both eyes; am/fn nan djiia'y siki both legs 

(lit. "all two legs") 
am/tn nan djiia'y If ma both hands (hand: Inna; Ifiiia: five "fingers") 


tjinpdptja nan /uini ay fiitug they caught six pigs [H. i6] 

ya Sna aydkan san tolo'y fobfallo he goes to call three young men | L. 83] 

X u m e r a 1 s take the person a 1 endings in ijhrases like: we arc 
three; you are five etc. 

Cardinals : 

ipdtkamt we arc four; toWtja they are (were) three; aykdkayn lima ay? 
are you live men? 

ncntsftnOkami ay hiim or: infinkani/ ay nrntsdno wc, 6 men. were work- 

niniiyfdko ay tola or: toWkami ay uniiiy we, 3 men. are going 

issan kinmadnanmi ad Manila lirnanpo'Skami when we left Alanila, we 
were fifty 

Ihndkanif ay iFpintok, wahikaml ay iSamOki we were 5 Bontoc-men, 8 

folJka>n/ fsna we are three men here 

kasintdko unifla fa mazvdlo let us see again, that there he 8 (pigs) [H. 16] 

Ordinals with ])ersonal endings: 
manilnsangak ay umdli I come first, I am the first to come 
inainitUitja ay mdmkash is nan falfegtja they were the third (group) 

throwing their spears 
niangBdjfdjikami ay innidli we came last 
nan laldki ay mangJPcdjtdji ay liinndyai^ the man was the last who fled 

368. D i s t r i 1) u t i v e N u m e r a 1 s have the prefix sin- : 
nan sinfsa ay pSsosh one dollar to each 
nan sintsidda two to each 
nan sintdlo [sintdflo] three to each 
nan sinipdt Nun- to each 

itsaotsaotdko nan sintdflo ay pesosh ken tjdftja let us give $3 to each 
(Also without distrihutive form: djdd'y pCsosh nan itsaotsdoko is nan 

fsa'y tdklPl T ga\e $2 to each single man) 
nay nan tolS'y lalaldki; sin fsa ken tjdftja ivodd nan kaldsayna ya nan 

djUa'y fdlfcgna here arc three men, they have each a shield and 

two spears 
amfn ken tjafdko woddy sSklong or: aniintdko ay lalaldki ivoday soklong- 

tdko each of us has a hat 
dktani tjaitja is sinipdt ay fc'ngi? present them each with four handfuls (of 



369. M u 1 1 i p 1 i c a t i V e s . 

is maminsang, is mamidjila, is mamitlo, is mdngipdd once ; twice ; three, 

four times (preterite: is namfnsang, namidjiia etc ) 
inflak sftodt is namfnsang I saw him once 

inayiikanmt nan fafdyi is namft'lo we called the woman three times 
mamit'lo nan kciak, mamtnsang nan kSani I have thrice as much as you 

(thrice my property, once yours) 
(More idiomatically: zvodwodd ken sak/hi mo nan kSaui I have 

more [Redupl. for comparative!] than your property; or: adddsa 

nan kdak mo nan koam) 
The followini^ multiplicative verhs illustrate the formation of derivatives 
similar to our "to double," "to treble:" 

mamidudck (preter. namidudck) I double; mamit'lOck I treble; 
mamipdtek I make it four times as large; mamUinidck etc. 

370. Fractional Numerals. djuzvdna [ tjkvan ] one half ; 

tjhvan si monok half a chicken; tjkvan si fi'ttug half a pig. kat'lo a 

third; kaflon si fiitug a third of a pig; kapdt (ka-ipdf) the fourth 
part; kalmdn (ka-lima) si nOang the fifth part of a buffalo. 

ha'y fiitng isded nan tjizvdna one pig and half (isdcd: and then) 
djiia ay ftitiig isdcd nan tjkvan nan isa'y fiitng two pigs and a half 

These verbs denote ''dividing i n t o 2, 3, 4 etc. parts :" 

kadudck I divide into 2 parts ; kat'lSek into 3; kapdtck into 4; kal'mdck 
into 5; kanunck into 6; kapitOek into 7; kaivdWick into 8; 
kasidmck into 9; kapoock into 10 parts. — I divide into many 
parts: tjatdkck [tsaddkck] is dngsdn or: angsdnck ay manddak 

371. Ordinal Adverbs, lablabdna for the first time 

lablabdna'sli mangangnenak or: dngnck sa is nan lablabdna I do it for the 

first time lablabdna sa! this is for the first time! 
pidudna {bidudna} for the second time pidndna is inangangndndnyB 

you do it for the second time ; or : kapidndck 
pit'lona for the third time pit'lona is umaliana he comes for the third 

time; kumapit'loak I shall do it for the third time 
ikapdtna for the fourth time ikapdtna's niangflak ken sfya I see him 

for the fourth time 


3/2. C o 111 ]) ;i n i n n s li i p . Prefix ka-, with collective force, and 
possessive suffixes combined with numerals [jroduce nouns denotin.^- compan- 

nan kadilak my other comjianion, my ])artncr 
nan kat'ldnii our third companion 

nan kapdtmi, kaUndmi, kaninemnii [kanihnmi] our 4th, 3tli. 61I1 comi)anion 
tuhikaini isna ya nan kapdtmi ya umdli ix diPfni we three are here, and 
our fourth comrade will soon come 

,^73. Miscellaneous n u m e r a 1 Phrases. 

'i'lie number of persons or things forming- a grou]) is expressed by: 

sintjfdua [sintstdua] a pair; sintotlo a group of three; .?;'»- denotes in 

this combination : united. 
finadldna tjaftja ay sintsfdua he sent them out in groups of two; two by 

sinisisatdko we move one behind the other (The reduplication, is isa, 

denotes plurality, several single persons) 
sintsitstdudkami we go in groups of two 
sinfofdt'lofja ay nidifddfad we march three abreast {ifadfddko I arrange 

in a line or column) 
sinipipdfja ay maifddfad they are placed (or: move, walk etc.) four abreast 
sinlilimdkanii we are in several groups, five men in each group 

Similar terms are formed by prefixing ina-. ])reter. na- (])assive ])re- 
fixes, with the force of a "middle" here!) : 

ma/saisdtja they "come" one by one 
naduadudkdnit we came two by two 
admatolotohitja they will come three by three 

T r a 11 s i t i v e v e r b s are derived from these forms: 

sinisdck I "treat" one by one; sinisdc'nyn tjditja ay niauf^Iap you count 

them one by one 
sintsidudck )ian lalaldki ay niangdyak I call the men two by two 

The adverb "first" is r/na: niani:;anfdko'd i1na!, isatdko'd cntsilno 
let us first eat. then work! 
ntangiPini^ndkdini ay mandlffcng we will first dance 


nan dman nan laldki kinmapfdua; kapidua'ena nan tnan nan fafdyi the 
father of the son married for the second time ; he married tlie mother 
of the girl [M. i] 

kapidiidck [kabidudek] I marry for the second time, kapit'lock for the 
third time ; or with person, vbs. : kuinabidudak I am going" to 
marry for the second, kumapit'loak for the third time 

enduaduaek I doubt, is derived from diia, two (as in many other 
languages, cf. dubitare, endoiazo, zweifehi etc.) 

In the game llpay (played with round fruits, which are rolled at others 
placed at some distance on the ground; a children's game) the number of 
points made by a player are indicated : 

naka/lsaak I got one; nakadjiiaak I got two; nakat'lOak ; naka/ipatak ; 
nakalimaak ; nakadniinak I got 3, 4, 5, 6. 

maisdak or isdiigak I am alone; isdngak ay dniiiy I go alone 

nan fafdyi maytsa ay malpo is nan pdgpag the woman comes alone from 
the forest, {inayisdak or: ina/isdak "I am isolated," passive pre- 
fix ma-) 

nan asmtja'y djda the dog of the two (men) 

nan Idgon nan fdfay ya nan tolo'y pSsosh the spear costs three pesos; 
(the price of tlie spear is 3 pesos) 

Examples of the four species : 

nan ipdt ya nan lima: sfam 4 and 5 are 9 

sinpd'o makdan pifo: tola 10 minus 7 are 3 {kadnek I take off, dimin- 
ish) ; or: folo nan makdyad: 3 are left (kaydfjck I leave) 
ipdf ay lima: djudn po'o 4 times 5 are 20 
sfam makdt'lo is nan folo: folo <j divided by 3 are 3 



374. Prepositions are: 

a.) The "true" or "simple" preposition, is = in, at, to, from etc. 
Instead of is the "personal" preposition ken must he used with words that 
take in nominative the personal article, 
and : 

1).) Words with the (|ualilics of nouns or vcrl)al nouns ( Xom. acti- 
onis), often preceded by the preposition is and sometimes by the article 
;/(///. These words form "compound prepositions;" they take the possessive 
suffixes, and, if treated as verbs, the personal respectively the possessive end- 

The examples will show the different meanings of these "compound 

(In English "in, at, from, by" etc. ct)rrespond to the "true" or "simple" 
prepositions mentioned above; while "on account of, at the top of, by means 
of" would be classified here among the "compound prepositions.") 

375. The substantive governed by the "compound prepositions" may 
be thought to be in the genitive (if it be permitted to transfer our concep- 
tion of cases or declension to the Bontoc vernacular, for convenience sake!) ; 
the prepositional noun ("top," "account," means" in the examples given 
below) takes the .suffixed "genitive indicator" or lig;iturc -;;, if it ends in a 

Personal pronouns governed by "com])ound prepositions" are represented 
by the possessive suffixes, as in English ; "on mv account" (on account of 
me), "for their sake" (for the sake of them). Prej^ositional nouns ending 
in -en take the suffixes of ist and 2nd sing, after dropping final n, like the 
verbs of the -en class: i. -ek 2. -em (not "ciilco. cinno") ; it is most likely 
that they are verbal nouns. 

376. There are no com])i)unds of prepositions coml)inetl with words 
of other categories (such as: inv;ide, undergo, perfor.nte, translucent, con- 
tradiction) in Bontoc Igorot. It seems, however, not imiiossiblo that the 


prefix /- placed to names of towns {iSamoki, iF/pmtok, iTukukan) repre- 
sents the preposition is; as also the prefix of the /- verbs, which gives 
directive force to the verb. 

Bontoc Igorot possesses a considerable number of (nnconipounded) 
verbs conveying a prepositional notion, as our transitive verljs (uncom- 
pounded) : climb [upon] ; follow [after] ; enter [into]. If such verbs have 
the possessive endings, i. e. if they are used transitively, they do not require 
any preposition. Nor do the ver]:)al forms explained in [258-264] require 
prepositions to govern the indirect object, place, instrument, cause etc. 
depending upon the "special" verbal form. 

(It has been observed that the Igorot preferred the simple verbs to 
these complicated forms; they say rather: kcipck nan tiifay is nan mantHyo, 
than: ikai^pko nan nianf/lyo is nan tiifay I make the spear with the ham- 

In the following sections the preposition is {ken) will be treated first; 
then "compound prepositions" will be discussed, and finally a list of our 
prepositions with their Igijrot equivalents will be given. 


T,yy. The locative Preposition is appears in these various forms: is\ 
id; as\ ad\ si\'s;'sli;'d. There are no definite rules for the use of these 
forms. The change between i and a seems to be rather dialectic than pho- 
netic (atTected by the first vowel of the following word). Is stands before 
vowels, /(/ (or is) before consonants; '.s" or 'sJi is used after the preceding 
final vowel. Is and its nictathetic form si are always interchanged without 
hesitation; their use depends merely upon euphony. There is no difTerence 
in the signification of the various forms. Ken appears occasionally short- 
ened to ';;, in negligent pronunciation. 

3/8. The basal signification of is conveys a locative notion: rest, 
sojourn at a place; motion toward or to a place; motion from a place. In 
the last case the place is thought as the starting point of the motion. 

All other meanings of is are tropical, derived from its locative signifi- 

The governing verb or the context determine the meaning of is; in 
most cases one of these prepositions can be used in translating an Igorot 
phrase in which is occurs: 


in; iiUri; at; lo; toward; of; from; out of; ainoiiL;-; for; with; upon; 
aj^ainst; I)v; near; concerning; on account of; until; through; about etc. 

An example which illustrates the principal signification of is referring 
to place at, to, or from which..., and in which the verb determines the mean- 
ing of this universal ]M-eposition, is: 

kaydtjcm nan kfpan is na>i katuktjftan leave the knife on the chair! 
ipufnw nan kipan is nan katuktj/ian ])lace the knife upon the chair! 
aUicni nan kfpan is nan katnktjiian take the knife from the chair! 

The pre])osition is governs words of nearly all categories, as: substan- 
ti\es, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, verbals nouns and verbal adjectives etc. 
liut ken must be used instead of is with personal jironouns, proper names of 
persons and terms of kinship rc(|uiring the personal article si in the nomina- 
ti\e. 'J'his article .?/ is dropped after the "personal ])reposition" ken. (In 
this book ken is not viewed as "Dative" of the jjcrsonal article.) 

37<j. Is : r e s I a t ( in. on ) a p 1 a c e . 

nan lalaUiki cntsiinotja is nan pciyo the men work in the rice jiatch 

(or; nan pdyo nan entsiinoan nan lalaldki [2?^y]) 
insc^^na nan kdvo'sh nan inna he ])lanted the tree in the garden 
zvoddykdnii is nan fliini we are in our country (town) 
si Donihigo intedi^c ad Alab Domingo stays at Alab [Alap| 
tunuiktjiikdyB is nan fdnko sit down on the bench 

Names of towns, and some terms such as //f, town, country; dfong,, 
house, home; fobfdy, region \\here one lives, etc. are usually i)receded by 
nan, if the speaker is there; if he is absent from the i)lace which he men- 
tions, nan is omitted : 

nniiiyfdko'd P^fntok! let us go to Dontoc! xvoddkaini's nan Prnitok we 

are in Bontoc 
uniiiyka'sli dfong! go home! go into the house! 
infedc^etako is nan dfong we are in the house 
luoddkanii is ken tja MSleng we are at Moleng's house 
Umiiyak ad ili I go to town; li'oddak is nan Hi I am in the town 
si AnaiPtwdsal intcdt^e id Tnkdkan .\n;uiwasal lives in Tucucan 
intcdeCkami is nan Chicago we slay in Chicago 
is nan fkid at the left side; is nan ikfdko at my left side 
is nan diPcivdn at the right side; is nan aeizvdngko at my right side; 

is nan devzcan nan djdian at the right side of the road 


nan fafd'yi xvodci ai^ay ngct is nan tC'kkcn ay dfong the woman is perhaps 
in the other house 

Observe tlie use of is in the phrases: nan ili'd Ft4nfok\ the town of 
Bontoc; nan ctto'd LaiPtivhigdn, the town section Lauwingan; nan 
kapdyiPian ad KcidsKkg the rice fields at Kadsug; nan filig ad PJkis the 
mountain Pokis; nan fflig ad Kanian Ileng etc. 

naamoamongtsa ad Scrvantcs nan amtn kdkaikdfli in Cervantes all the 

countrymen were assembled [B. 7] 
umiltzvllhvis nan inilsico ken tjakamt id Kandsdn the music band marched 

around with us in (the streets of) Candon [B. 8] 
umtsdngkdnii ad Santo Toiiias we arrived at St. Tomas [B. 49] 
ketjens; kandn uan Ildko ad Fdngal then said the Ilocanos at Fangal 

[B. 50] 
entsa mamalddong ad Ldnan they went to get beans at Lanau [L. 26] 
ct admdg^nia is uan fanfdnig ay dfong and we live in the little hut [AI. 14] 
is dfong nan managnfanu kctjeng inandgni's dfong in the house is your 

dancing i)lace; then she danced in the house [L. 86] 
ika/^(ptja tjdftja ad Fmntok ad Tsfpesh they bury them at Bontoc at 

Tsipesh [L. 94] 
isdadtja nan dlo ay findkatja [findkagfja] is nan kaninltj/ian is nan dto 

they ])ut down the heads they had chopped off at the fire place in the 

"afo" (council-house) [H. 4] 
nay kay leytjem ngin ay matsa is naniiay fakiluUlta? you like perhaps to 

be left alone in this world? [S. 11] 
isded makdyad nan andkna is dfongtja then her daughter was left in their 

house [T. 3] 
san Ilitjd'sh Tjidyd-a their town in the region "Tjdlya", i. e. Bontoc 

[I^ove Song] 
pasJinycpen\l^/'d is nan ifd\k vou ought to make them sleep on the board 


380. /.s- : m o t i o n to a place. 

nniiiytdko is {nan) pdgpag! let us go to the forest! 

innidli siya'd SaniSki he came to Samoki 

umdted ta tinmoltkayiPt is nan flitdko we are glad that you have returned 

into our country [B. 61] 
isdtja'd tonuili is nan CipJtja then they return to their commander [P>. 31] 


kctjeiii^ sindtcna 'sli asaBivana is iiaji kaalSngdu ; kctjing aldena son dsH 

ya ipaySna's katjapana; ketjcng aldna san kaiPiwttan ya ipaySna is 

kaolona then he places his wife {'sh: person, art.) into the coffin; 

then he takes tlie dog and puis it at her feet, tlien he takes the cock 

and i)uts it at her head [L. 81 | 
itdkctja nan sakdlang is nan bosJi'd; ipiiftja nan olo is nan kasakSlang 

tliey tie the receptacle for heads to the ])nle (hoshii); ihev ])Ut the 

liead into the receptacle [H. 4] 
/;;/(/ ihniiy is nan pdyo, fay ImglK^g nohody goes to the fields, hecause it is 

"head-hurying-festival" [H. 10] 
ta'd sunidatja nan fafdyi is nan dto that the women come to the council 

house [H. 18-] 
ta unialfkdyiV is nan lliini ad Kcnsdtjan come ye into our town in the 

region "Kensaljan," i. e. Bontoc [H. 21] 
snbcikak sika is nan sdyag nan dkyu! I blow you (pains!) away into the 

Sun's morning rays [Conjuration of headache] 
indktjadktjang is nan fddang lie jumped from tree to tree [M. 13] 
nnidlika ken sak/Sn! come to me! umfiyka ken sfya' go to him! 

381. Motion to a place, expressed by is. may be the reason for con- 
structing Personal Verbs, Nom. agentis and Phrases in which our objective 
genitive occurs, with is govering the object. 

mdnganak is nan indkan I eat the rice; I eat rice; "I am eating at, from- 

aiming at the rice;" my action passes over to the object through is! 
adtsddlo fnmdngonak, nio fnniangongka ken sak/hi I shall certainly 

awake, if you wake me up fS. 12] 
indka's mating, ina give me some pounded rice, mother! [T. l] 
tSngkdmi niangdym si If pat! let us go to gather dry branches I [K. 2] 
engkdym umdla is fdyash! go and bring rice-whisky [H. 23] 
nan dnian nan laldki mangdnub si ogsa ya nan Idmdn the boy's father 

hunted deer and wild pigs [M. 2] 
i'ngkdlidk is nan kdli'n si I go lot T speak the Igorot-Language (si I. : [76]) 
i^nta'd enldpis is nnidfa fay adftja nnidktan is pfki! let us two clear the 

ground for a garden, because they do not give us any corn! [R. i] 
adfkdyn pitmadSy ken sak/chi! do not kill me! fR. 12] 
sFnii nan nidngfek is nan fafdyi/ wlm knows the woman! 


3SJ. The idea of motion prevails also in the construction of these 
verbs : 

ugnmciisania ay siiidkt is koUiiig we two brothers transform ourselves in- 
to eagles [K. 11 ] 
shumcia sail iigiiuiidfjaii si kolllng is dfongtja the one changed into an 

eagle comes home mU) their house [K. 14] 
san andkna a\ ngimiuifsaii is kciak his son transformed into a monkev 

[M. 18] 
isdna'd itdpck nan fdkkong ya kct nginmdtjan is mdkan then he put the 

spoon into (the boiling water) and it changed to rice [R. 27] 
kasfu sininidkong san nginnuitjan si tllin (the girl) transformed into a 

ricebird came again home [T. 9] 
ngag nan kandni si sa/ what do you call this? (what do you say to this?) 
pascnisnjikck sfka is nan tf/fay 1 remind you of the spear 
inpasliniekna sak/Sn ken tjaftja he reminded me of them 
kdpck nan pdtatjini is ti'/fay I make spear blades of iron (I make the iron 

into spear blades ) 
ma/id makdeb hna is tf/fay there is nothing here to make spears of Cf. [276] 
engkaym'd umdla ay iSaindki is bfdd ta kapSnyiP( is fdnga! go, ye Samo- 

kians, get clay that you make pots of it! [L. 23] 
tsdlVsIieni is dfongino; fsdl^/slick is dfongko go directly into your house; 

I go into mine [R. 20] 
ketjeng tsaBtsdusentja is dfongtja then they go quickly into their houses 
kctjeng tsdf/sennu [tsdi^/slienini] ad Af^'n then we go directlv to Af% 

[B. 56] 

3S3. Is, expressing "motion to a place," or direction, is the preposition 
used for our dative relation ( indirect object) : 

itsaotsdoko nan sdklong is nan fobfdllo I give the hat to the boy 

ipatlam naiinay ken sfya! show this to him! 

idjiwi nan kdniyab is nan laldki show the man the shield 

nan tdkm intSlitja nan bflak is nan alkvidtja the people had returned the 

money to their friends 
idjdaui sa ken sak/^n! give it to me! 

kiinvdnik ken todi I told him; kinivdnik ken dina I told father 
ipai'lana nan kaldsayna ken Mdtym he shows Alatyu his shield 
isdna'd kandn is nan dsP/na \a nan ogsa then he savs to his dog and his 

deer [L. 8] 


isdaiu nan i^uinis, nan k(1tjin^....kcn inclta take the breech cloth, the brass 
chain to our niotlier (of us two) | K. io| 

isdcd kandn Palpaldma ken Palpaldkini^ then said Palpahima to Palpal- 
aking [P. 4] 

nan nafd)ii^dsli ay mdkan ydina is nan laldki; nan kaw/s ay nidkan ySina 
is nan andkna 'y fafdyi the rotten rice she brings to the bov, the 
good to her daughter [M. 3] 

tay nay tjdmi tsmek ay tnangapuy ken ijakCiye^i isna'd U'akdlan because 
we often tliink of sacrificing to you here at W'akalan [ Cere- 

anuingena is san dnakna'y fafdyi she takes it all for her daughter [AI. 2] 

nan tjSnlPdn ya kdzvfs ken sfka water is good for you 

kandna ken anotjina he says to his younger brother [K. 7] 

kandni ken indfa'n 'Uilam nannay ta inandkmo!" tell our mother: 
"Take this that it be your child!" [K. 10] indta'n: 'n ~ en intro- 
duces the discourse 

ifsaofsdoko'n .Infero I give (it) to Antero {'n:ken) 

tjakCiyM ay Igolot inifuegkdy^i'n sak/en you Igorot, accompany me! 
[B.i] ('»; ken) " 

A numltcr of verbs (show, give, ]iromise, l)ring etc.) have an object 
with /,\- or ken besides a "direct object." 

A few of those verlis wliich (litter in construction from our verbs are 
given here: 

ibfdkak ken stka nan kipdnmo T ask you for your knife 

kdnak ken stya nan tindpay T ask him for bread 

nan fafdyi kinivdnijia's nan laldki na)i bflak the woman asked the man 

for money 
kandnlja ken sak/c'n nan indnok lliev ask me \(n' chickens 
faydtjak nan lalaldki is nan fdlfdog I pay the gold to the men; T i);iy the 

men with gold 
finaydtjantja nan lalaldki is nan sinpo'o ay pe'sosli they jiaid ten dollars 

to the men 
dktak nan ongonga is nan nidkan 1 gi\e the child some rice 
akldna sak/ihi is naii tindpay he gives me breatl (Recii)ient in "Accus.," 

thing with is) 

Compare also the constructions with the idiomatic \er])al forms in 
[25(S ff], where the indirect object, place, instrument, time, cause etc. depend 
directly u])on the verb, while the other elements are governed by is. 


384. Is : m o t i o n from a p 1 a c e. Is in constructions with verbs 
which signify "to go away from, come from" denotes the starting ])lace. 
The verb used mostly to express motion from a place is: lualpo, I come 
from, I start coming from. [353] 
)ialpoak id Fmntok I came from Bontoc 
fumdlaak is nan dfongko I go out from my house 
nalpdak is nan lli I came from the town 
nalpOkamt ad Alab we came from Alab (we were in Alab) 
nalpdfja id F dint ok ya inmdyfja id Dak d pan they went from Bontoc to 

indlak nan sdlad ay nalpd'd Tukdkan I received a letter from Tucucan 

(that came from Tucucan) 
nalpdkami's nan fflig we came from the mountain ("S^S ^y '^' "^" 

nalpdn\m? from which town did you come?) 

(into nan nalpdan nan alkvidko? from where is your friend?) 
knmdanak is nan tli . I return from, I leave the town (but: tPtmoliak is 

nan Hi I return to the town) 
kinmdanak id Fdintok I left Bontoc 
nalpdak istjt I came from there 
told'y dlas nan mdlpo'd Fdintok ya dniiiy ad Tukdkan it is three hours' 

walk from Bontoc to Tucucan 
lagdak nan ivdc ken AgpdiPrtvan I buy the rattan from Agpauwan 
alacntdko nan bflak ken Likdldso we get the money from Ricardo 
kddncm sa ken sak/Sn take this away from me 

indldna nan s/ngsing is nan fafdyi he took the ring from the woman 
inpddangko nan sdlad ay nalpd is nan tsaktsdkl ay laldki I received the 

letter from the big man 
nan ongonga Indiana nan ngdtjdna ken ikt'dna the child got its name from 

its grandfather 
iydpok nan dlid ad Fdllig I bring the wax from Barlig 
tsaozvddek nan kdpis is nan laldki I get the cotton from the man 
linagdannii nan patafj/ni is nannay ay laldki we bought the iron from this 

kad nan kaadsdzvin nan ad Fdintok ya ad Manila? "what is the distance 

from B. to M.?" how far is it from B. to M.? 
hsan adttja adsdBzvi is nan dfongtja when they were not far from their 

stmt nan nangydi is nannay ay fddso ay indldna ad Fdintok? who brought 

this coat from Bontoc? (...coat which he took from B.) 
mdbu'd Kdn^u he came from Kan°u (nidbu'd dialect for nialpo ad..) 


malpdak id Sagcidsa ya fniiiiyak id Mdyinid |.l//;//7| 1 y^n from S;i,i;-a(l;i 

to Mayinit 
ildciuni nan dpiiy ay iutat(1yap{ ay iiufpo'sli [inalpo is\ pOshong [pOsong] 

\vc sec the fire (the cxplodiiii;" shells) flying from the sea [D. 23] 
san aiuikiia ay inydpona'd F^ntok her children whom she had brought 

from Bontoc fL. 88] 
uminihiikaini is nan bdugaiPc avc drink from the glass 
mangdngkanii is nan kfyag we eat from a plate 
cngka 'iif^k"ii is ken alitdoin go and get (something) at your uncle's. 

from your uncle's house [R. 23] ; likewise: yHiydnta is ken alitdona 

he often lakes it to his uncle's \is ke}i i)ronounce: fsken] 

T^'f^',. Tn certain phrases we find is used in a p a r t i t i v e sense; 
this use of the preposition may be traced to "separative is," i. e. is with the 

notion f»f "from," "a few taken from a numljcr." 

kiVckek nan linia'sJi nan lalaldki I know i'wa of the men 

kad nan insaklt ken tjaftja how many of them are sick? 

.s-/;/;( nan xvodd falidogna ken tjakdym? who of you has gold? 

nan kdgaivis ay lalaldki is nan ainfii ay IgOlot the best men among all 

djiia nan naddy is nan fobfafdyi two of the wouieii have died 
dji1a nan nabalddkan is nan soldddso si Uilipfno two were shot among 

(of) the Filipino-soldiers [Ij. 28] ; is: among (from the context only) 
li'oddy ken tjaftja si Ahdkfd there is Abakid among them, one of them 
nay nan isa ken tjaftja here is one of them 

3Sf). ' ' 1' a r t i t i V e is'' may l)e found also iu these i)hrases: 

nay si dsfin! here is salt! (the call of the salt \eudors from Mayinit) 

[asSn for dsfn] 
anfnfja! Jiay si fdnga ina! luiiiagokdyn is fd)iga! yc people! here are 

pots! buy pots! (partitive: si faiiga) 
lay nay si fflad ay kinc'pnan ay niinldlaynii ken tjakayi^ because here is 

thick bacon for which we call von (invite you) [II. 21] 
sdna kay si Ifpad ay naldngoldngn! there comes now "some" very dr_\- 

wood! I K. 8] 
aykS sa na is pdiiga.' is this wood? [ K. 9] 
sdna kay si naldngoldngo 'y fandnig a\' pdnga! there come now "some" 

dry small branches! | K. (j\ 


moshdya zvodd dngsan is bildkko if I had much money (iiartit. probably- 
after : zvddd; angsan would require : ay) 

387. Ma/id — is. If md/id is connected with a verb which governs a 
direct object, this object is preceded by is, respectively by ken. If uid/ld is 
connected with a personal verb, the subject of this verb is preceded by is, 
respectively by kcii. (Ma/hi not at all, not any, no; see [322]). 

ma/id kdnck is tindpay I do not eat any bread 

ma/id ydma'sh patatjim he does not bring any iron 

fna/td intjdnanmt is siiigsing we did not find any ring 

aykS mid itlaein is aydyaiii ay? do you not observe any bird? 

ma/ld inflak si tdkL°c I did not see any persons 

ma/ id inflak is dsM or: ma/td dsB is inilak I did not see any dog 

ma/ld innmem is tjeiu^aii you do not drink any water 

mfd inicdCc is tafdgo is iiaii fobdngak there is no more tobacco in my pipe 

(in this example is, with the subject, follows an intransitive verb, a 

personal vb. !) 
si pay Palpaldking ma/td iiiddiia [indldiia] is kdfj'Ut Palpalaking did not 

catch any fish [P. 2] 
mfd kankdnend's akfdb he does not eat any fruit [P. 7] (trochaic verse) 
takSn mo mfd kdnek is dkfob I do not care if I have no fruit to cat [P. 7] 
ma/td intjdnaiimi is fdtng we did not find any pigs [B. 15] 
ma/td inflami is nan andknio we have not seen your daughter [T. 5] 
ma/td finayddjantja ken tjaftja they did not pay them at all 

3SS. /.s% in constructions with the negatives: fakSn and kctjeng 
(probably in a partitive sense), occurs in phrases like these: 

na! nangko fakSn tji's fafdyi! well! why, this is no woman! 

fakSn sa 's kfpan this is no knife 

fak^ii sa is fjalikdnan this is not the fire place (in the house) 

fakSnak is nasiiycp it was not I who slept 

fakSntja is mangivdni it is not they who say... 

fak^nkami is inmiiy is Melika it was not we who went to America 

fakSn sa 'sh tsalddoy this is no tree trunk [L. 54] 

fakSnkayii 'sh nmali do not you come (but others) [L. 59] 

ketjeng sfya is maniibla none but he is smoking 


kctjengak is inkdeb si ti'/fay it is just myself who make spears 

iigdgcii, a\kc1 kctjcnig iia 'sh inoudkyft? wiiy, is that ah you liavc of 

ketjeng pa\ sa 'sh pasiks/kpemni this is all we raise ("we make go into 

the chicken basket") 
aiii/ii a\ fobfafciyi ya tvodatja 'sua, ketjeng si Akfhiay is ma/id sina all 

women are here, "except Akunay is not here" 
Cf. [3271. 

One example with si (i. e. is) after the negative adt was obtained: 
t'adi ald&n si dsi9i nan olo: lest any dogs take the head [II. 6] 

389. Is \\ i t h adverbs (frequently pronounced like a prefix to the 
adverb) is found in these terms: is na, or hna; is sa; istji (for: is tjfiy) 
here, there, yonder, isivakas or aszvdkas: to-morrow; idifgka or adilgka 
yesterday; is kasni zvdkas day after tomorrow (also: kasfn aszvdkas) ; is 
dmni soon; idkdoni or ad kdmni a little while ago; is kasfn again, an 
other time; is ikid, is dmivan at the left, right side; is na)i aeiwdnko 
at my right side; adzvdni (also: idivdni) now; today. 

And, as has been already mentioned, the preposition is forms, governing 
nouns, verbal nouns etc., the "compound prepositions" (as e. g. our preposi- 
tion "on" does in the "compound preposition:" on account of). 


Is (ken) corresponds to our "by" preceding the agent of 
|) a s s i \- e \- e r b s : 
)iaa\'dkanfja nan diianak is nan auidfja (or: ken anidtja) the sons were 

called by their father 
nannax ay dfong ya nakdi'b ken Jdlio this house was built by Julio 
nan lalaldki ya niafaydfjan is nan apoija the men are being paid by their 

nan aydivan ya napadSy ken sak/en the Imffalo was killed by me 
maaydkanak ken stya I am called by him 
nan fafdyi ya nafadsd>iga)i is nan laldki the woman was helped by the 

nan dsH ya na/gto ken fjaftja the dog was kept by them 
nan bflak ya naitdfon is nan tdkm the money was hidden by the persons 
admafadsangdnkaypt ken tjakdnit you will be assisted by us 


391. ''By means o f ' ' or instrumental "with" is expressed by n\ 
miless the instrumental form of the verb is employed. [262; 286] 

kdpck nan tiifay is nan luanfflyo I m.nke the spear with the hammer 

(Or with the instr. verbal form: ikdcbko [ikdepko] nan niaiitllyo is 

nan tiifay) 
paddxck nan dpny is nan tjenuni I extingaiish ("kill") the fire bv water 
fgtok nan patatjini ay nianidtong is nan sfbld hold the hot iron with the 

nan ongdnga pinadSyna nan kdak is nan fCitd the boy killed a monkey 

with a stone 
sfya tiktikdna nan patatjfni is nan niantt'lyo is nan ka/opodpan he strikes 

the iron with the hammer in the forge; (or: inantll\o nan ftiktikna 

is nan patatjfni ) 
nan laldki ya nafdlL^ld is nan kdgod the man was bound with the rope 
nan fdnga ya ndpno is tjennni the i)ot is filled with water 
pdyak nan bdngaB is tjenuni I fill the glass with water 

(Or: tjenuni nan pdyck is nan bdngaB) 
paydnytPi 'd san kdkwan is dngo ta ck taldan fill the pail with camote- 

vines that I go to feed (the l)igs ) [L. 46] 

392. Is before Adjectives denotes the m a n n e r in which an action 
takes place (adverbial is) : 

entsnnOtja is kazi'fs nan fiif/hnshak the smiths are working- well 

stya Sngkdll's kdgazvfs is nan kdlfini he speaks our language well 

ikdna 's kdwfs he acts well, honestly 

kdpem is kazvis do it well! kinaepna is ngag he did it badly 

tjaktjaktjdki 's akit somewhat large 

fanfan/g si ak/t a little small, rather small 

yj^. Is, like our "in," "at" etc. is used with expressions of time: 

is kas/'n tengaB on the next holiday; si zviid in the morning (at dawn) 
is nan Idfl in the evening; is nan mast jlm in the night; is sinakftan 

in a short while, for a short while 
tgak inila si Finnnag is nan sinpolo 'y dkyu I have not seen Fumnag for 

10 days 
is nan niagdkyu inkdna's sidsids/nina from noon till evening 


is nan sin dkyn a whole day 

is nan maygdt'lo {maikdtlo] ay cikyii (n\ the third day 

intedcdkdmi is nan tjaktjciki ay dfong is nan Ifina ay dkyn we remain in 

the large house five days [ I!. g| 
niangdngkaini is nan mastjfm we eat duriiiiL;- tlie ni^iil | !'>. _>_:; | 
kctjcng sumda s'amdna is nan laff ad fobff/y then his father \vent home, 

to his "homestead," during- the night (midnight) 

394. Many other relations, which we express hy various prepositional 
l)hrases, show the most extensive api)lication of the preposition is. They 
cannot he treated here exhaustively; a few examples must suffice: 

infcdec^k hna kc^n todf I remain here with this one 

ivoddka ken sak/ihi you are with me (in my home) [ivoddka 'n sak/hi; 

'n = ken] 
enkasldngek nan kd pi is nan sinilsho I mix cofifee with milk 
nan laldki ya nadSy is nan payigpiig the man died of fever {is nan kiivdtsay 

of poison ; is nan fdkak of a wound, a cut) 
ta liiindlayfdko ivay — lalaki 's zvagsiUayan — fabfayi 's dinfpay-ay.... let us 

call a man of strength — a woman with strong thighs [Wedding 

inafotoydkanii is naJi faldgnid we are speaking ahout tlie liattle (or: 

falognid nan fsdnii niaiotoydan, battle is our topic) 
totSyi^nmi si AnglSy is nan flndylPc we speak to Angloy concerning the rice 
en (for: ngdg en) man kc^kken todt nan ad Manila ay? why does this one 

know "so much ahout" Manila? (the afifairs at Manila) 
niadngo is nan engkalidna lie laughs while s])eaking (during his speaking) 

(or: niadngo ay engkali) 
angndna is nan kinwdnina ken ijakayd he docs according to liis saying, as 

he told you 
engkalikdlf is nan iitdona he talks while dreaming (in his dreaming) 
cngkdU is ngdg ken sak/ihi he speaks insultingly alKuu me: slanders me 
inlagfSak is nan Untdnpdio 'y pesosli is nan fsa 'y fdan I work for $50 per 

inldgok nan tdfay is sdldpi I sold the spear for 50 cents (or : salapi nan 

nangilagOak is nan til fay) 
lagSak nan zviie ken AgpdiPczvan 1 buy the rattan from Agpauwan 
nan ongdnga indlana nan ngdtjdna is nan ik/dna {ken ikidna) the hoy 

got his name from his grandfather 


is nan nalpdsan nan ncngkalfana at the end of his speech, after he had 

mahffkod si lagfoa getting thin, emaciated on account of working for 

wages [Song] 
tax nan kafibfiak ya ifdlPtdtja is nan ad/k kagalfan because my sister, 

thev imprisoned her for my not going (i. e. with them, the Insurrec- 

tos)[B. 3] 

ct akit \dngkay ay enasipadoykdmf ay Igolot is nan niangzvanJan nan 
plcsidente ad MalSnosh and we Igorot ahnost had killed each other 
on account of the talk of the "i)residente" at Malolos [B. 47] 

ngag si alkvid: he is a bad friend (pretending friendship: "as if he were;" 
"essential" is) 

kap^nnii sfya is plcsidente we make him president 

395. Sometimes is introduces a j) u r p o s e c 1 a u s e or a clause con- 
taining an obligation ; or any kind of substantive clause. 

si fna aktdna nan dnak is infhiu^na, is kanhia the mother gives the child to 
drink, to eat 
{aktak governs the "Accusative" of the recipient, but the gift takes 
prepos. is; as: I present him with a knife.) 
faldngka sa is mangipdyam put this anywhere! (faldngka: everywhere; 

this sentence is strictly idiomatic!) 
mandkas si mdngan mo nan fnninum it is better to eat than to drink 
niandkash si intedScak isna it is better for me to remain here 
mandkas si ngmmdtjanta ay sindkf is kolling it is better to transform our- 
selves into eagles [ K. 11] 
wodd is nan nimnhnmo it is as you think; "you ought to know it" 
nan pay inStji 's inasdmivak the younger sister shall be my wife [L. 47] 
sak/hi ya is inumdla 'sli tsalddiiy indeed, I must bring the beams [L. 54] 
sak/^n nan is ikad I am to care for it (to procure it) [L. 58] 
nantjiiy tsaktsdki 's tjipdpem this big one you ought to catch [L. 60] 
adfyiPi ivdntsin nan nalilengdnan ; nan naaktfu is zvantsiny&t do not follow 

the clear water; the muddy you must follow [L. 89] 
ta kikddak is kanentdko let me care for (prepare) our eating [R. 15] 
ta kay sak/<fn ya is nidnpah I indeed am to catch it [L. 61] 
ta nan tdkiPi 's i1mi)inm the people shall drink! 


396. Is. r c p c a ted, r c p 1 a c i 11 .<;■ ay. 1 f is precedes a word that 
would be connected willi a following;- word liy the ligature ay, the Hgature ay 
is changed often into is. (Especiahy if nan does not precede the first!) 

So with hgature av: ildgoy^ angsan ay tilfay you sell many spears; 
but : ma/td ilagoyB is (lugsaii si (is) tilfay you do not at all sell many 

mdnganak is djiia 'sh fdlad I am eating two Ijananas (Or: mdnganak is 

nan djfia ay fdlad ; with nan before the first) 
ta ^ngka nmala 'sh tola 'sh taydan that you go to bring three baskets 

[L. 32] ; iiindlaak is folo 'sh taydan I get three baskets fL. 32-] 
indka is /sa 'sh kdtj"n give me one fisli [P. 3] 


2f^)j. There are in Bontoc Igorot some words — nouns, or adverbs, 
or verbal roots — which are applied to express more definitely certain prepo- 
sitional relations, than the primitive preposition is. As the examples will 
show, the form in which these "prepositional terms" appear is either their 
simple root, or tlie root with personal or possessive endings, sometimes 
appearing to us as "verbs," sometimes as nouns with possessive suffixes. In 
many cases they are governed by is\ sucli comliinations of preposition and 
"prepositional terms" are called "compound prepositions." 

The most important are treated in the following sections, to illustrate 
similar application of similar terms which are given among the Igorot idio- 
matic prepositional expressions compiled in section [408] and in the \'ocab- 

398. Root: sakang, shakang, redupl. .v^.Tc/A'az/.t^, denotes "in front;" 
"before" (locative, not temporal). Sasakang obtains sometimes the verbal 
suffix -en, with which the possessive suffixes are coml)ined: sasakdngck ; 
sasakdngcm; sasakdng^na etc. Preceded by is and tlie article this com- 
])oun(l prejiosition is employed in these phrases: 

is nan sasakdngck l)cfore me 

is nan sashakdngeni before you 

is nan sashakdngena before him, in front of him 


is nan sashakdugenmi in front of us 

is nan sasliakcliigi'ii nan laldki in front of the man 

wodcika is nan sasJiakdngck you are in front of me 

nan ongonga tumiektju is nan sasakangenyB the child sits before you 

nan fafdyi ya tinmdktjik is nan sashakdngen nan mamdgkid the woman 
stood in front of the girl 

ivoddkami is nan sasakdngen nan kdyo we are in front of the tree 

nalpStja is nan sasakdngen nan dfong they came from "before" the house; 
from their place in front of the house 

unulyka is nan sasakdngen nan pabafnngan! go to the front of the coun- 

As p e r s o n a 1 verb: 

sumashdkangak ken sfka I am before you, I stand before you 
sumashakdngka ken sak/en you are in front of me 
siya ya snmashdkang ken todi he is in front of that one 
Also: insdkangak ken sTya I am in front of him 

insdkangta we two are in front of each other: we are opposite, facing each 

As p o s s e s s i V e verb: 

sasakdngek stka I am before you, I face you 

sashakdngem sak/en you are in front of me (or: ivoddka is nan 

sasakdngeinni tjattja we are in front of them 
sinasdkangko sttodi I was in front of him 
sasakdngek sika ay mandlan I walk before you (or: mandlanak is nan 

sakdngem sak/^n! walk before mc! precede me! 

399. Root: sakong, shakung, sasakon, sasakong, denotes "vicinity," 

zvodd stya is nan sakan he is near (or: insakon sfya) 

nan sakSngko my neighbor 

ipuhno nan tjem^m is nan sakSn nan dpuy put the water near the fire 

intedeetdko is nan sakSn na>i zvdnga we stay (live) near the river 

is nan sasakanek ; is nan sasakanem; is nan sasakonena near me; you; him 

malpdkami is nan sasakSnija we come from near them, from their vicinity 


As personal v e r 1) : 

sumashdkonak \sumashdkdngak] T am near 

siimashakSngkdini is nan fflig we are near the mountain (we are "getting 

iiisdkontja nan dna)iak kot indtja tlie children are near their mother 
sinmashdkonak si nan dlaiig 1 was near the granary 

As ]5 o s s e s s i V e v e r h : 

sashakSnek sika I approach you 
sinashdkona sak/hi he ajiproached me 

Observe the combination of "com])onnd pre])ositions": 

sumashdkangak is nan sakSnyB I am near you and in front of you 
suuiashakdngka is nan sakSnko you are near in front of me 
tjaitja suniashdkangija is nan sakSnmi they are near in front of us 
sf\'a suniashdkams is )ian sakontdko he is near before us 

400. Root: fsogok, denotes "the rear," "the place behind." 

woddak is nan fsJgok nan kdyo I am ])ehind the tree 

nan fafdyi tininttktjii is nan fsdgok nan laldki the woman sat behind the 

nan tsogokko {tsogogko] the place behind me 
ivoddk is nan tsogoknw \ am behind you 
zvoddka is nan tsogogko }ou are behind me 
nan dklang wodd 'sh nan tsogogna the coat is behind him 
nan djiia ay lalaldki zvoddtja is nan tsSgok two men are in the rear 
ijakdinl i^'oddkdml is nan tsogSkyiPc we are behind you 
intjdsak nan fdkat is nan tsOgok nan dfong I found the rail behind the 

nan lalaldki entsdnotja is nan tsdgok nan dlang the men are working 

behind the granary 
nnuiykayti is nan tsdgok nan tdkB! go behind the people! 
illak nan f&sl^l is nan tsdgok nan tsaktsdki ay bdto I watch (observe) 

the enemy behind the big rock 
nan sokldngmo ya nifsabfdd is nan tsogdkmo \i»nr hat is hanging ])ehind 

dngka's nan tsdgok! go behind, to llie rear! 


As p e r s o n a 1 verb (only two examples are at hand) : 

intsogSgkayiv ken tjakaml you are behind us 
intsogSgkdtni ken sika we are behind you 

As possessive verb: 

tsogSkek slka ay mandlan I walk behind you 
tsogogkcnypi tjakamf! keep behind us ! be behind us ! 
tsogSkona nan djfian ongdnga he walks behind the two children 

401. Root: fueg, denotes accompaniment; "with," and forms 
usually the verbs : ifuegko I take as my companion; niifilcgak I am 
with^ I accompany (the passive form of ifuegko: ma-ifueg-ak.) Rarely 
used as simple root : nan flic g: the companion: 

tjattja nan fit eg Anfc^ro they are the companions of Antero, with Antero 
ma/id fuegko, isisdngak dngkay nobody is with me, I am quite alone 

As personal verb: 

infiicgak ken tjaltja I am with them 

ninfnegtja ken tjakanii they were with us 

mifilegak ken tjattja I am, go with them 

nifuegtja ken tjakamf they were, went with us 

ISytjek ay niifdeg ken sika I like to be, to go with you 

nan ongonga ya niatfiteg \mifi(eg\ is nan amdna (or: ken amdna) the 

child is taken along by its father 
Sinn nan nifdcg ken todl? who was with him? 
si Anamzvdsal nifiieg is nan I golot ad Chieago Anauwasal went with the 

Igorot to Chicago 
maifiiSgka ken sak/Sn! come with me! go with me! 
mifuegkanu is nan alkvidmi is Hi we go to town with our friends 
nan yiin/ak nifiieg is nan yiin/ak ay fafdyi ay inmiiy is nan pdyo my 

older brother went with my older sister to the rice-field 
sttond ay laldki nan fuegko ay inmfiy ad Manila this man went with me 

to Manila 
inmdli sltodl nifiieg ken sak/hi this one came with me 
stnu nan nifuegkam is lli? with whom did you go to town? [nibfiiSgkam] 
si Antero mifiieg ken Bmgti id Fmntok Antero is going with Bugti to 

Bon toe 
nan alhvid ya nifiieg ken sak/hi my friend went with me 


As possessive verb: 

ifuCgko stka is cifoni^ I lake ycni with iiie to tlie house; you are my com- 

iftu^gmo nan ongonga! take the chikl with you! 

infui^gna nan mauufgkid she took the girl with her 

ifu^gyiPe sak/hi is nan fliyn! lake me with you into your country! 

si (iina ifucgna nan ancikna is pcigpag the father took his boy with him to 
the forest 

si dma infnSgna si tna ay inmfiytja'd Dagilpan Fatlier went witli mother 
to Dagupan; lit. Father took mother with him to Dagupan 

Promiscuous examples : 

(ifusak nifilcg k(^n fona 1 had already gone with this man 

intcdCeak fsna k^n todf I stay here with him (not: mifiicg\ this "verb" 

expresses present, past or future motion, not rest at a place) 
sfnu nan nififeg ken todl? who was with him? who went with him? 
indlak ay nangifiieg I took with me 

ahU'ni nan ongonga ay mangifiicg! take the child with you! 
Icytjck ay mangifilck I like to have with me {is nan ongonga the child) 

Accompaniment expressed l)y the prefix: niaki- see [300] : "1 come 
with a shield, an ax, a spear," see [67] ; and see the following section: Idio- 
matic prepositional expressions. Instrumental "with:" see [391 ] ; cf. [394]. 

The following "compoiuid ]irepositions" occur only in constructions like 
those given below. 

402. Tsdini or tsahnna \tjdim ddiin] "inside, within," always 
with is: 

is tsahnna nan azvdkko within my body 
is tjdim nan Idta within the earth 

woddtja is tsdini nan tjhilPini i1k'\ are within the water, under the water 
(inkydfja is nan katji^nPini they swim on the water, on the surface) 
ngdg nan ivoddy is tsahnna/ what is inside? 

403. .Iinpon, until ( with or witliuul is) : 

cnts/inoak is dnipon as"vdkas 1 work until to-morrow 

intcddcak /sna dmpon is sidsidshnna 1 remain here until eveninj 


(tmpon Idff, dmpon fibikdt, ampon doinfngko, dmpon is kas/n tcmu'/n until 
niidniglit, morning, Sunday, next year 

404. Root : kania, kdBzva, "the space between." 

wodd is nan kakaWenta it is between you and me (two persons) 

is nan kakdmenym between you 

inkdmivak is nan ftlig ya nan wdnga I am between tlic mountain and the 

sak/^n nan kakdiPtzvenym I am between you 
kaiPizvdek: I go through the centre, the middle; kaBwdck nan ili I cross 

the town 

405. Tsdo under, nan kodpna the space beneath 

is nan tsdo nan hato under the stone 

ifgnak nan kispolo is tsdo nan kdyB I hold the match under the wood 

intaktdkkamt is tsdo nan fddang we run under the big tree 

isabfddnio nannay ay litaldto is nan kodpna {is nan kokoafSna] nantjiiy ay 

litaldto! hang this picture beneath that picture! 
patsdock [patsdiPizvck] I place under, put beneath; pafsdi'^wck nan dgPth 

is )ian dtcp T ]nit the box under the roof 

406. Oshon, dson, tp'isi^n ''the top of,'" "the surface of" (only 
found in the status constructus with ligat. -«). 

is nan ^slPtn nan Sloni upon your head, on top of your head 
is nan dslion nan kdyB upon the tree, on the top of the tree 
is nan dson nan tBktjdan upon the chair 
is nan mshon nan Idta upon the ground 

407. Root : Tdngtjii '"the space above.'' 

is tongtjiina nan tjdya above the sky 
totongtjdcn nan Olok above my head 
fekdshem nan fdlfcg is tdngtsu! throw the spear high up! 



408. In the following- sections our prepositions in their various appli- 
cations and their Igorot equivalents are enumerated, frequentlv with refer- 
ence to prececHng i)arts of this Grammar. 

(For the expression of some of our prepositional phrases In- s])ccial ver- 
bal forms of Bontoc Igorot see: [261-264; and 285-290].) 

Above— [43] 

About — Is. matotoydkami is nan falognid or: falognid nan fsdmi 
matotoydan {matototyaan\ we are speaking about the battle [394] 
kckk^ntja nan femad si nan fafdyi they know about the woman; 
("the matter, the happenings to the woman") 

on Account of — [3941 Fre(|uently the conjunction ta\\ ])ecause, is 
employed: adidk inmdli tay faldgnid I did not come on account of 
the fight; tay (mo kS tay) nan bildkna on account of his money 

Across — Cf. Vocabulary sub "across;"' e.\presscd by verl)s, such as: 
kitjdngek nan poshong I cross the sea; kxuntjdngak is nan zvdnga 
I cross a river; patjdngck nan hato is nan zvdnga I throw a stone 
across. ..Verbs: kaiPiivdck I go through the middle; pitsidzcck I 
cross diagonally 

.After — Frequently a plirase like our Nom. ((m- .\ccus.) absolulus. ])ro- 
ceding the main sentence is used, with the passive mafeiasli and 
naf&iash (of: fndshck I finish): naffiasJi nan falognid kctjeng 
suniadkanu, "the fight having been ended, "then" we return home" 
or: after the fight we return home 

maf^ash nan talffcng isatdko't mangdyeng "the dance being fin- 
ished then we sing" or: after the dance we sing 
niaf^iash nan tsijno isdkami't unitlcng ;ifler die work we rest 
naf{4asli nan dni inlislistdko after tlie harvest we ])lay (celebrate 
"lislis," in the Rio Chico) 

Or with "ndngkay" "there being no more, no longer" (a)igkdyck: 
I bring to an end, finish, 1 use up everytliing etc.) 
ndngkay nan falSgnid pumusitdko after tlie war we are getting poor 
Or: iinnalitdko 'sua is nan nabfiP/dshan }ian faldg)tid we came here 
"upon the ending of the war" (is with Nomen actionis) ; after the 
war we came here 


Or by a temporal clause: mo nangdngkdmi issdkaiiii masf/ycp 

when (if) we have eaten, we shall sleep 

Or by verbal forms with prefix naka-: nakakapidak ct ndnganak 

I finished praying, then I ate: after my prayer I ate [299] 

And by phrases with ^tna at first: nangBndna ay iuiiidli nan 

laldki isa't finmdngon nan fafdyi first the man came, then the 

woman awoke; after the man's arrival the woman awoke 

sumkSpka mna isdak sumkep I enter after you; lit. : you enter first, 

then I enter 

binmdnad nan tekkcn ay tdki^t nangi'^niptna mo sak/chi an other 

man went down earlier than I ; i. e. before me, or: I went down after 


ikddmi ay mnilcng is nan nalipdsan nan tsdno it is our custom 

{tkad; Skad) to rest "upon having been finished our work;" after 

our work (Updslick I finish) 

Or by is san (nan) andngosli [andngiPfs] : at the end of... 

is san andngosli nan faldgnid after the battle 

is san andngosli nan tdlo 'y dkyu after three days 

is nan andngiPcsh san ipdt ay dkyu after four days; four days later 

Against — A-, fckdshcnmi nan fdlfcgmi is nan fdtsnl we throw our spears 
against the enemy 

Ago — The expression of time past is followed by ''ay inindy" or "ay 
ndlosJi" {Id/dsJiak: I pass by) : 

Slam ay dkyu ay inmiiy (or: nan iniinly) nine days ago 
tdlon fdan ay ndlosli three months ago 
aydka 'y tamvin ay ndlosh many years ago 

Alongside — is nan flid: on the edge, boundary line, shore etc. 

manalantdko is nan Hid wdnga let us walk alongside the river 

is nan ilid nan kakdymdn on the edge of the grove 

iltdck nan Hi I pass on the boundary line of the country 

ivdntjck [Bantjck] nan wdnga I follow the river, 1 walk alongside 

the river 

kctjeng manadCddngkdmi is nan flid nan kdlsa then we walk along 

the street [B. 48] 

Among— [3S5] 

At — [379] 


Between — [404] ".^^"'S '"-^'^ katSkken nannay ay fobdnga is nan tinak- 
tciklPi a\ fobdnga/ what is the difference between this pipe and the 
pipe ornamented with a liunian lii^ure? 

Before — Locative: |39<'^). Tein])oraL usually circuniscril)C(l l)y a tem- 
poral clause. Expressed by mangBimna '"earlier" mo: than; 
iiiindli nan laldki {ay) mangBnmna mo nan fobfafdllo tlie man 
came before the boys 

Behind — [400 1 

Beneath— I405I 

Concerning" — Is\ sec: "about." 

During — Expressed by issan with Xomen actionis; as: during their fight- 
ing; the contemporaneous action is indicated by ''tsa" [310] 
issan (or: issan) tsdtsa infalognidan ivoddak id F pint ok during 
their battle I was at Bontoc 
issan tjdtja 'ntsfhidaii during their working 

(Constructions with issa)i will he treated in the chaiMer on Con- 

Except — hctjeng. anii'n woddtja isna kctjhig si Finnnak All are here 
except Fumnak. See [3-'7| 

i'">-— fo'V^l f-^^'f. -''^5-1 \:m\ 

potlongeni fa iiikdak nan potlongiia cut off a jiiece for me! ("that 

I have") 

)iay nan bflak ay kOan Be^tgti here is the money for lUigti {ay 

kdan : as the property of) 

ydina nan I'sfja ay kdan nan I gOlot he brings meat for the Tgorot 

nay nan fdlfcg ay kdan nan told 'y hdaldki liere are the spears for 

the three men 

nannay ay fdlfeg f'akJna kda this spear is not for him (not-his 


nan fdlfcg ya kdayi^l the spear is for you ; fakchiyPi kda is not for 


iydik nan patatjhn ay kdan nan laldki I bring the spear for the man 

nay nan bflak ay kdaini here is the money for us 

zvoddy ken sak/Sn ay idjdak ken tjaltja I have something (to give) 

for them 


«flV nan pfnang ay kiiain or: nay nan pinangmo here is an ax for 


aykS nan tolfcgko ay/ is there a key for me? 

nannay kaivls ken siya this is good for him 

kad nan kaiidin Is sa/ how much do you want f(_)r this? 

ibfakak (or: kdnak) ken sika nan kfpan I ask you for the knife 

in I'ront of — [39'^] 

Fnnn— [384-] [353-] 

Notice the verbs: kiiindanak is nan ili 1 return from tlie town; 

but: tlVnuiliak is nan tli {is Ili) I return to the town 

fssan adrtja adsdlPiivi is nan cifongtja when they were not far from 

their home 

aldentdko nan btlak ken Likdldso we receive the money from 


tsa&zvddek nan kdtjing is nan laldki I receive the brass from the 


adadsdnzei nan nalpJantja they come from afar 

From — To: malpSak ad Cliieago ya lanityak ad Fpoitok I go from Chi- 
cago to Bontoc 

ilabotdko ay entsifno is nan sinpo'o ay Slas inkdna's nan magdkyu 
we work from 10 o'clock till noon ("we begin to work...") 
tdlo'v (Has nan nialpo'd Tukilkan ya ihniiy ad Fmntok it is three 
hours (walk) from Tucucan to Bontoc 

nasih'cpak is nan magdkyu inkdna's sidsidshnna I slept from noon 
till evening mdildbo adzvdni from now on; "begun now" 
iFiintokak I am from Bontoc ("a Bontoc man") ; into nan film? 
where are vou f nim ? ( where is your town ) 
inkdnas son ka/ongdngana from his boyhood on, since his boyhood 

In midst — is nan ti'nga ( in the centre ) 

is nan tengan nan katnkfj/lan in the middle (.»f the chair 

is tengdna in its centre; is nan tengan nan ili in the middle of 

the country 

Also with kdnzva [404] "between": is nan kafdvdcntja in their 


is nan kaPdvdna nan pOshong in midst the sea 

Instead — itsaotsdona ken todi fakSn tindpay, bato nan intsaotsdona he 
gives him a stone instead of bread (he gives him no bread; stone is 
his giving) 


iniiufli nail lalaki, fakc^ii fafdyi tlic man came instead of a woman 

In; Inlc— I,:;;.;, fy'^O, 381, 389. 393. J [286. 2S7, 28S]. 
Nearby — [399] Also: ui^aii/Hgdiii ad Fniitok near Bontoc 
Of— [71. 3'"^ I- 3^5- 3941 I41I 
(^11— Lv'>. 3'Av 40''H 
Opposite — |3<)8| 

Qi,l of — See: from. The prepositional notion is inherent to the verb: 
fuuuHaak I go out; fadlek I send out ; kadnck I take out etc. 

At the side — tsdpat, tsfpat 

mandlanak is nan tsapdtmo I walk at your side 

infsitsjpatdko we are (go) side by side 

sak/Sn ivoddak is apfdna 's na I am mi this side 

sfka zvoddka 's apfdna 's sa you are on that side 

is apfdna 'sfjfiy ay fflig, is apfdna 'sna ay fflig on this, that side 

of the mountain 

fssan indfcttja istji is apfd nan pdshong when they met on the other 

side of the sea 

vSince— f3<)3l 

Through — "Through" is expressed by verbs, such as the intransitive //n;;- 
j'/itak, in combination with the locative is: himflitak ay infdktak is 
nan fli I run through the town (or: infdktdkak ay lihnfut is nan 

palfntck nan bafd is nan dlad 1 throw the stone through the fence 
tctchigck I go through the center; sflkck nan pagpag I go through 
the forest 
nan loshfihimi our "getting through." ]ilace of exit 

To— /,s-: I3S0, 381 : 3«j3l 

Toward — I380I Into the vicinity of: |3')<)|- 

umfiykdmf is nan md/yi'ty ad Tukdkan we go in the direction of, 
toward Tucucan 
"The direct way toward" is ex]M-essed by the word: dla. with posses- 
sive suffixes: umdyka ad San Fransisco. kctj^ng dlam ya 'd Chicago you 
go to San iM-ancisco and (from there) you go in straight direction toward 


{dlak ya Idyao: "my straight direction is running: I run forthwith) 

kctjeng dlan san andkna ya kdlab si nan fddang then his son 

climbed directly upon the big trees [M. 12] 

ketj^ng dlami ya nan pagpag then we go directly toward (and into) 

the woods 

kctjeng nan engmi ya 'd Ffdddong then we go directly toward 

Fuladong [B. 54] 
Under — [405] 
Until — [393] [403] Also: inkdna is: inkdna's nan ha 'y tamivin 

till one (i. e. next) year; for one year 

Upon — [406] 

With — [391, 394- 401] T have, carry witli me: [67] Coc'ipcration : 

Idiom: ngdg nan mangipdyam is sa? what are you doing with this? 
for what do you use it? 

ngdg nan indngni'm is nan bildkko? what have you done with my 

money ? 

ngdg nan ifaigmo is nan dsB? with what do you strike the dog? 

[262] (what is your "striking-tool" for the dog) 

The inclusive Dual and Plural forms of verbs are employed often to 
express companionship; e. g. go with me: inniiytdko let us go, you and I, 
you and we. umdyta: let us (two only) go; go with me. 

Instead of "with" the conjunction ya, and, is used most frequently, or 
the "Collective Article" tja, followed by ken [39] : fja dma ken ina 
Father with (and) mother; tja Anamwdsal ken Fihnnak inindUtja 'sua 
Anauwasal came here with Funmak. Or: si Fihnnak ya nikidli ken 

The substantive: ib/d, companion, is found instead of the preposition 
"with" in many phrases, as: stnn nan ib/dm ay inmtly? who was your 
companion in goings i. e. who went with you? (Or: sfnu nan niff/eg ken 
stka? — stnn nan fiiSgmo? — sfnu nan kaddam? [372]) 
stnn nan ib/dm ay nangdeb is nan dfong? with whom did you build the 

nannay nan ib/atdko ay mantbiot is nan kdyo with these men we cut the 

Idioms: nan sindina, nan sinfna: the father with his child, the mother 

with her child. 

sinu nan laldki ay dntjo nan fookna? who is the man with the long 



nan fafdyi ay tjaktjdki nan Sluua the woman with the big head 

nan ongonga ay tjaktjdki nau I'tpOna the hoy with tlie bis;- thit^h 

leytjentdko ay totdycn nan laldid ay ndkdlmi nan fookna we want 

to speak to the man with the curly hair (i. e. to the "Negrito") 

into nan laldki ay antjodntjo nan koiv^ngna? where is tlie man 

with the big- ears 

nan fobfdllo ay abaffkash nan l/nidna tlie yotmg man witli the 

strong arms 

nan fafdyi ay nalhnmo nan kdmisna the woman with the round face 

Ken signifies "with" in this example: sumadkami ken Antero is 
dfongko: we go with Antero into my house 

ma/td inpaskfpna is nifdeg ken sfya lie let nobody enter with him 
mikitedi^ctja ken sak/chi they stay with me, they are with me [300] 

Within — [40-'| 

Without — Expressed by phrases with: ma/td, "there is no--": 

inmdliak ay ma/td soklSngko I came without hat 
inmtiy sfya nia/tdak he went without me 
ma/fd htlak ken sak/hi T am without money 
The constructions of Prepositions governing I n t e r r o g a- 
t i V e s or Relatives have been ex]:)lained in [348-351 ; 331-335]. 


409. Adverbial Expressions coiisist of simj)le adverbs, or of substan- 
tives with prejjositions, of adjectives with prepositions etc. 

Adverbial phrases are sometimes formed by means of auxiliary verbs 
[308-317], or of verbs conveying an adverbial notion I317-I. or of verlis to 
which the adverbial notion is \x\\\tx^\-\\{tl9(m6liak: 1 come back; t»;;u/«a(/aA'.- 
I come down; kmmddnak: I go away etc.). In many instances a prefix 
conveys an adverbial notion [296-303], or reiluiilication is used instead of 
certain adverbs [291-294]. 


The adverbs of ncg-ation have lieen treated as "Negatives" in [319- 
327] ; Numerical adverbs in [369, 371, i7i\- 

410. Some simple adverbs take Aerbal endings as the "auxiliary 
verbs" (which are indeed verbalized "adverbs"). 

Compound adverbs, consisting of the preposition is and sul)stantives, 
apjiear most commonly with the possessive suiifix -na, his, her, its; as: is 
tsciim or: is fsafiiina, inside, or: "in its interior." 

411. There are no forms for adverbs formed of adjectives. The adjec- 
tive with f.? follows the verb; or the adjective (without preposition) pre- 
cedes the Nomen actionis. 

ikcfna is kazvfs he acts well [392] ; or: kaivis nan ikana "good is his act- 
siya engkdli 's kazvis he speaks well ; or: kazvts nan cngkalfana 
stya nengkali's kagaivfs he spoke very well; (jho... better than) 
itsaotsdofja is akit ; or: akit nan itsaotsdotja they give but little 
aktt nan nininlintja they think little 

ngdg nan kapSntja ay sokod they ^\'ork badly making spear shafts 
entsiino st\a is (or: ay) kawts he works well 

kdpcm is kdivis! do it well! kakazviscm ay mangdcb! do it better! 
kap^nypf is kdzvfs! do it well! kakazvis^nym ay niangdeb! do it better! 

Cf . verbs conveying the adverbial notions : with energy, quickly, 
slowly, gladly, etc. in [317]. 


412. The locative particles na, sa, tjiiy [tjSy, tjt] which serve also as 
demonstrative pronouns [99], are adverbs if preceded by is: is na or: hna 
\isnd, sind, 'sna, 'slnia]: here (near the speaker), hither. 

is sa: there (near the person addressed), thither 
istjit [is tjdy, sidi, is tjdy] yonder, thither, at or to the place yonder 
nay here is.,, tj/iy there is 
nalpdak istjt I came from yonder, thence 
sfnu tji? ngdg tji? \\ho. what is that? 

isndka! stay here! [L. 76iT.] ; isndak I am here, I stay here; istjnyak 
I am yonder 


is amin ay fatdlPizva cn-erywhere (lit. in the whole world) 

is kahfatdfatdptzva everywhere; or: is nan Uhvak, kalaa'aldwak is nan 

fatdn^zva everywhere in the world 
faldngka any where you please; nldy intd na "any where here" 
adsaatvt [adsSivi, adsckviyan, adsSzviyen; adadsSzvi] afar; adsai^zi't is 

nan dfong far from the house; adadschvyenak I am far away. — 

nan kaddsozvtna: the distance 
uniadsdzviak I go far away Ger. ich entfcrne mich 
kad nan kaadsozvchi nan ad F^ntok ya ad Manfla.' how far is Bontoc 

from Alanila? 
adsaBzjjt nan tjegangfja they are far apart ("far their interval, space 

adsamzvt nan fjcgangtdko we are far apart 
kinmdan or: kahkafdla he is away^ gone out; from: ktVindajiak I go 

out, away; and fumdlaak I go away 
is fdngfji^, ad fcmgtjB, is tongfjdna upwards, aloft; is tongtjuna above 
nan aydyain tiundyaVH ad tongtsB the bird flies high 
is tjdya, ad tjdya skywards 
is kodpna down, Ijelow 

ngan/ngdni, as sasakSn near (sunidkd)iak I go near) 
is i^nwnidna forward, to the front ; wniiytdko! "let us go" forward! 
is tsdgok back, behind, in the rear; vb. : sakdngck I turn, Person. 

sunidkongak; sakSngck ay tlaen I look back 
sunidkongak ay infdkfak I run back; pasliakdngck I throw back 

Cf. [400] 
is ndjtdji at the rear (the last of a column) 
anil'n together (or: all); madmong: assembled, together; cf. prefix 

)naki' [300] ; and prefix sin- [60] ; niadjidjftdko we are close 

is fkid. is d/"/zvan at the left, at the right side; is ikhiko at my left side; 

is dnzimn nan dfong at the right side of the house 
inlfkid arouncl \I). ; inlfkidak I go around; or: inlfzuisak: Ifzi'is around 
is dsliona "on its surface;" on the outside (of a box etc.); is tjlla out- 
side of a house, "in the yard" 
is tsa/linna inside [istjdim, adsdyiin]; iidldcbak adsdini I dive into the 

water [402] 
is t(?uga, is tcngdna; is kdnzva, is kai^zcdna in midst ; ;'.s- nan kakaeYzi'dcnfja 

in their midst 


is apfdna'sna, is apidna 's sa on this, that side; is nan tsapdtko on my 
side. Cf. dla, in straight direction [318] 

The interrogative adverbs: where? whence? whitiier? cf. [353]. 


413. ]\Iost "Adverbs of Time" are compound phrases: Substantives 
with the ])reposilion is\ otliers are probably adjectives preceded l)y is, or 
adverbs witli ;\y. Several of the "adverbs" and their constructions have 
been treated before, such as: issak [308], afiis and tptjas [309], tsa [310], 
kankanl [2,11], kasin [312], sdmi [313], tjifjffja [^-,14], tjdkasko [315], 

Also reduplication expresses sometimes a temporal relation : fre(|uently, 
repeatedly etc. 

And various temporal adverbs are contained in the prefixes: pin- and 
paiii^- [296] ka- [297], ma- an- [302]. 

adwdni, idzvd>ii now, to-day 

adsdngddnm formerly, some time ago, then 

tsa mamingsan ay... sometimes Ger. oft einmal. tsa: [310] 

tsdak nianilngsan [inainfnsang] ay timdli I come sometimes 

tsakamf niandbla is sinpauilngsan we smoke now and then 

sinadkyu — siiiddkyu one day — the other day 

idkdl?(ni some time ago; idkaiP(kdp{ni a short while ago; adsdngddnm 

a long time ago 
idtaiPewfn a year ago aydka'y taiPlzvin ay innuly great many years ago 
dfus, iptjas [349I "already," "before" 
is kai?{zvdkaBivdkas very often, every day, or : always; ininkdiia: for 

all future 
sissis/ssya always ; sissisfssya av inalki'idta we two will be friends for 

is kataiPlzvftal%ivfn for e\-er, for many }-ears 

is nan sin dkyu all day long; iyakakydko I continue working all day 
is lablabdna [is laplapmia] for the first time 
is mamingsan once [371]; tsa: many times, often : [310] 
Slik u]) to a certain time, after some time; afterwards; see conjunction: 

is d&tni, is atvdBni soon; issak henceforth [308] ; immediately : tjdkasko 

[315]; very soon, in a moment : .virr'na [313] ; very soon : kankani 

[311]; suddenly: ma — an — [302]: quickly, soon : />;';;- [296] 


ami/' kdyd! in a moment ! sdna! yes, sir; immediately! Ger. ja gleich! 

(iiPinin kay si aki't ya! "wait a little! " 
is sinakttan in a very short while; forthwith 
tsdan pay not yet [324] ; tjitjttja yet. still : [314J 
dngkay ya ket.. on the i)oint of: 

finmdlddk dngkay ya kct zvodd nan fafdyi I was on the point of 
going out, when the woman stood there {ya ket: to my surprise) 
i^na, onOiia: vb. }}iangi?nw(}idak first, at first 
inaugantdko 'd ipina, isatako'd entsuno let us first cat^ then work! 
mangudjfdjiak I am the last {ay.... to ...) 
misdngkopak, sumdngkopak I am the next {ay... to...) 
pdad with negative: never [326] 

kasfn again; cf. [312] ; is kashi ya is kas/n again and again, repeatedly 
is kasfn an other time, or: is kashi dkyu on an other (following) day 
nan lablabOna manalifSngkayiPc, isdkayiP( 'd mangdycng, isd cf 

manganandngosh nan patpaddy at first you dance, then you sing, 

"finally comes" the spear throwing [pron. : inang an a no ngosh ; 

see voc. : "end"] 
nia/d^cnidmniak I am late; ina/ai'^nidi^nika ay cntsihw you work late 

"Early" is usually expressed by the time: in the morning, at noon etc., 
also by partial reduplication of the verb. 

inmalitdko is Hi djda 'y fiian ay inmfiy ya adintcdcetdko isnd is djila 'sh 

filan we came to town two months ago and we shall stay two months 

longer [396] 
sanguydn pan! howMjuickly! sanguydn )ian inmalfani! how quickly you 

came ! 
sanguydn pan nan ningyafain si sal how soon you brought it! 
sanguydn pan si naotoan nan kancntdko! how soon, how quickly was our 

food cooked! |Ri6] 
sanguydn pan is mangdepam is nan tilfay! how cjuickly you made the 

spears ! 
adwdni, idwdni to-day (or: now) 

adugka, iditgka yesterday 

adkdstn ilgka, aditdna [adiddna] day before yesterday 
aszvdkas, iswdkas lo-morrow 

kashi aszvdkas, is kas/n zvdkas day after to-morrow 

is kas/n dkyu the following, next day 

is san tj/iy ay dkyu on the same day 

is nan djda, tdlo..ay dkyu in two three.. .days 

is nan zvizv/id very early in the morning 


is nan ivfid 

is nan fibiftbikdt 

is nan ftbikat 

is labldbon si fadlan si cfkyu 

is madk'yu 

is nan magdkyu 

is nan tengan si magdkyu 

is nan nidksip 

is nan misiiyaB 

is nan sidsidstmna 

is nan mastjim 

is nan laff 

is nan tSngan si lafi 

is f aid no 



is nan mastjim si dl°aiin 

asivdkas si mastjini 

idkmfab, idka/ofab, adkakdfab 

asivdkas si ffbikdt, si laff 

nan fibikdf ay nay 

nan ffbikdt ay ndlosli 

nan t^ngaiPt ay ndlosh, ay inmf/y 

nan taf/ivtn ay ndlosh 

nan tatPizvfn ay umdli 

nan fdan, nan domfngko ay ndlosh 

nan fiian, nan domingko ay umdli 

ad tsau tamzvin 

is kasin t^nganv 

is kdsfn dkyu 

asivdkas is nan nisiiyaB 

labOna adzvdni 

early in the morning- 
early in the morning 

early in the morning 

at (the beginning of) sunrise 

early in forenoon (S-ii o'clock) 

at about 11-2 o'clock 

at noon 

in the afternoon (2-4 o'clock) 

late in afternoon (4-6 o'clock 

at the time of sunset (sunset : naldkmi°(d) 

in the night 

in the night (11-2 o'clock) 

at midnight 

at about 2-4 A. M. {cnkokSok nan 
kaBzvttan ya mapat/a: liie cock 
crows and it dawns) 

"it is getting to-morrow," "it is getting 
an other day" 

it is getting midnight 


to-morrow night 

last night (or: nan mastjim ay )idlosh, 
ay innifiy) 

to-morrow morning, night 

this morning (or: is nan ffbikdt) 

\esterday morning 

last holiday 

last year (or: tinmai^zufn; preterite of 
"t-iim-ai°(zvfn ;" or: idtaiP(zvtn) 

next year 

last month, week (Domingo: Sunday) 

next month, week 

year before last 

next holiday ("holiday again") 

on the following day 

to-morrow afternoon 

from to-day on, henceforth ; labOna 
adzvdni is inkaepantdko is tdfay 
ydngkay from now on we make 
only spears ; labdna 'dzvdni mana- 
lantdko from now on let us walk 
Or: )naildbo adzvdni from now on. 


adf kasfn not any more ; adf kasl'n iiisak/t he 

is no longer ill 
dfocifoiig adsaugaditiii "'the house is old;" lit.: it was a house 

long ago, for a long time 
iiiangBniptna mo earlier than.... biiimcfiiad nan t^kken 

ay tdkM nangBnmna mo sak/hi an 

other person came down earlier than I 
adnmdUah is maigadf/a ay cikyu I shall come in two days from now 

("on the second day") 
is niaigdt'lo ay dk\u in three days from now ("on the third 

admamingsanak, admaJigiidjfdjiak ay iimiiy I shall go first, last 
ma^wfid nan tdloii it is getting morning; tdlon: time, weather etc. 

Ohserve these verbs, formed by prefixing ma)ig- or ma- to the redupli- 
cated substantive signifying time: 

}iiamibifibikdlak I come, go, work etc. in the morning; mamibifibikatak 

ay umdli I come in the morning, early 
masijinimasfj/mak I come in night, during the night ; iiastjimiiastimdkam/ 

a\< nenfsfhto we were working during the night 
magainagdkyuak "I do.... at noon" — magamagdkyiiak ay tKVmSli I 

return at noon 
malafflafiak I come at "midnight;" cngka man malaftlaff ay? why do 

you come so late at night? [M. i6] 

The interrogative adverb: when? how long? see [354. 356, 357]. Con- 
sult the Vocabulary s. v. "Seasons" and "Moon." — 


414. Verbal prefi.xes express fre(|uently adverl)ial notions for which 
we employ adverbs, as: pin-, "quickly" [296]; ka- "completely" and ka- 
"under pretense" [297] ; naka- "completely" [299] ; inasi "mutually" 
[301]. Cf. the "auxiliaries:" tsa, "customarily, usually" [310]; kankanf 
"almost" [311] ; sumydak ydngkay etc. "only" [316] ; the substantives dla 
and fkad "straight direction" and "custom" [318] ; and the verbs enum- 
erated in [317I 

kdg; kddg as, like, likewise, thus. Cf. [143] 
kadgna likewise, like it; ("its likeness") 
kag Igo'lot like an Igorol 
kadgna nan dkyu like the sun. 


adfka kdg fafifyi ay iiidica do n^l cry like a woninn ! ("he not like a 

woman wh(_) cries" ) 
dngiiem side'! do it like this! 

dngnc'm is kag nanndy! do it Hke this! adi kag nainidy! not like this! 
kdag nan kOam nan kOak yonr possession is like mine; yours is just as 

mucli as mine: you ha\-e as much as I 
kddgna nan kan^na is nan kdnck he eats as much as T 

kdg is sometimes equivalent to "it seems to he": kdg gnlilya sa this 
seems to he steel: this is like steel 

nannay ya nanfjdy kddgna lliis and that are alike: this is like that 

akft ydngkay ct kadgna il is similar (lit. "hut little, then it were alike") 

nannay <iy kipan kddg nan Idgon nan fdnga this knife costs as much as 

the ])ot ( "this knife, e(|ual the price of the pot") 
kddgna nan angnJna ay inkdi'b si sa he did it in the same fashion 
kdg ken sak/c'n siya he is like myself; kdg ken sak/Jn sfya ay flacn he 

looks like me; kdg fond tlius, like that 
nan kdyPi ya kag nannay nan kaantjOna the tree was as hi.nh as that 
kdg sina like here, like this 

nan kddgko like myself (meinesgdeichen) ; nan kddgko ay tdkl"t a per- 
son like me 
nan kddgnio like you; kdgak ken fodl \ am like him 

kdg with verbal endings (personal, respectively possessive) and a fol- 
lowing "infinitive" means "almost," "f came near:" 

kdgak niaddkang I almost fell kdgkanif infdkfak we almost ran 

kagnit sagfdfen nan fdfo we almost carried the stone 

kdgino kaldfcn nan kdxn \-ou almost climhed the tree 

kagkdypi nasf/yep ymi almost slept ; kdgyP^ infla sak/en }0U almost 

saw me 
kdgak tinniOli 1 almost returned 
kashdn like, similar: hildki kaslion If/on a man like a lion (loan word: 

lean. I lion) 
kasd)igka kdak you look like a m(.)nkey 

kashSn niadSb nan fjdya as if the sky would break down [P). 38] 
tsatsdina very, in a high degree ; too much ; tsatsdina ay Idteng very 

cold, too cold; fsafsdnia ay angangdidd too bad 
is kdzvfs well; is kagdzvfs better; tsddlos exceedingly; (Hoc?) with 

suffixes: tsddlosak nmSgiad I fear exceedingly, beyond measure; 

tsddlosvn dnn'iicn sa vou do this exceedinglv well 


mandkas bcllcr (loaned i)r()I)cil)ly I'roiii Ilocano) 

iiiaiuikas is }ndngan ino nan riiniiiiini it is hcUcr lu cat than to drink 

mandkas nan mdngan is nan mdkan it is better to eat rice 

inandkash si (or: nan) tiinriyka it is l)etter that you go 

mandkas nan intcddc is nan F/4ntok it is better to stay at I^ontoc 

mandkas amfn nan mandlan it is better that all walk 

mandkasJi si totBmgdyka [or: kagaivts nan toti^ingSyka] it is better that 

you kcc]) quiet 
)nandkasli si inpdtpadSy mo nan inkdeb si sl'ngsing it is better to throw 

( s])car> ) tlian to make ring's 
mandkas si nglPondtsanta is killing it is belter we two change ourselves 

into eagles [K. 1 1 | 
is ngdg ill, badly; Idflzi'a it is wrong, bad. ini])roper: IdlPtica nan 

masu\epantja it is improper, bad that they sleep 
Ide^ii'-.i; adtkayB engkdl/ 'sna! it is wrong; do not speak here! 
oUJliiy it is very bad, "a crime"' 
ngct, ngin [306, 342] perhaps 
tit/hva certainly, truly, surely, reall\ 
is adl kdkick secretly (lit. "for not au)- knowledge") 
/,s- nan ahabdway "in the light," i. e. oi)enly 
unidtct la it is well that... "we are glad that...;" uindtct ta innidUka 

"we are glad that you have come!" ("we thank you for coming") 
;;;() than { with comparisons) 
pdsig throughout of one substance ; pdsig bdngalPt sa this is all glass 

pdsig papSl all paper 
pdsig mSnok nan istja the meat is all chicken (not mixed with other meat) 
pdsig fall'dog it is all gold, purely gold, unmixed gold 
i^ldy [c77(/_v| "it matters not," ''nevermind," "whatever you please" "1 do 

not care" 
tildy kokStjck nan l/mak.' iie\ermin<l, il" I cut my hand! 
dldy umfiyka I do not cire it xou go, it is of no conse(|uence... 
aykd mldy i'ntsnnotdko.' do you (we) not care if we work? is it of no 

importance that we work? does it not matter? 
t^/ldy! v>hen receiving a gift, means: "this was not expected, you need not 

to rew.'ird me" 
iPfldy sfnu: any one you please; i4liiy ngdg: whatever; t^ldy intd: 

\vhere\'er xou like. aii\- ])l;ice whatsoever 
evldy intd nan tinmnktjndna: wherever he sat down; tYldy fntS nan 

te^molidntja: wherever they return 
fak/dn "it matters not;" tak/thi mo innidlika "I do not care if you have 

sfa correct, right: s/a sa this is correct, "all right" 


sia ma ngiu [man ngin] this might he all right, hut... [L. 12] 
sidmdddjfsa [sfa ma adjl' sa] this is the right one! siamaadj/sa nan fcilfcg! 

this is the right kind of a spear! 
aykS sia tji/ is that right? 
Icasfsya [kas/sia].' this looks well! 
kasfsia nan cngkalidnym your language is quite good, "all right" ( L. 20] 

kdnS is a loan-word, used in several Philippine Languages to desig- 
nate a statement as that of an other; hence kdnci is frequently interpolated 
in indirect discourse, like our "he said, she said, they said," or: "it was 
said." It is used in the same sense in Bontoc Igorot. 

The interrogative adverhs: how? win? see i352. 35K, 35<)|. 


415. The Adjectives denoting quantity. Indefinite Pronouns, certain 
classes of Numerals [136-136; 369, 371, 373-] are also used as adverhs, as 
the first of these examples show : 

dngsan much; entsiinotja is dngsan they work much ; angsdnck: see 
aydka very much, great many [370] 

ak/f little; nasnyeptdko is akft we slept little 
mdl/an copiotis, in great mass; indl/an seems not to be used attrilni- 

tively : 
mdl/an nan ildgok ay fdnga I sell great many pots 
mdl/an nan kdtpn plenty are the fish 

mdl/an nan fjjtjon in great mass (come) the grassho])pers, locusts 
tsatsdma 'y kazu/s very, too good (or : kdgazvfs) ; but d)igsan and aydka 

can not be applied adverbially with adjectives. — fsafsamdkami ay 

fandn/g we are too small 
adddsa more; %vodd kcji sak/c^'ii adddsa 'y pdkiiv mo nan kclam 1 have 

more rice than you 
mo kckkentdko is adadddsa, nmiiyongtdko if we know more, we get worse; 

the more we know, the worse we become 
mo entstmdkayu is amamdmid, tsakaym mablSy is amamdniid the more 

you work, the more tired you get 
adfk iSytjen ay kashi mdngan I do not like to eat more (lit. "again") 
adddsa nan kOak mo nan kSam I have more than you 
adddsa nan kanhia mo nan kdnck he eats more than T 
indka 's adddsa! give (me) more! 

is akft little, a little; nimntmtja is aklt they think little 
indka 's akft ydngkay! give (me) but a little! 


aldt nail sak/tko I ani a lilllc sick 

ak/t nan Idtc'iii:; il is a link' cold 

snmedka is sinakflan! wail a little! 

akakit nan Idteng adwanl mo adilgka it is less cold to-day than yesterday 

nan t/lfay akakif nan palttna mo nan pfnaug the spear is less sharp than 

the ax (the s])ear, less its sharpness...) 
Isatsdma ay ak/f nan rnfsf/noam \-oii are \y()rkin<jf too little 

kdlang (a loan word) too little; '"there are missini;-...'" A' f;/fl»_i; denotes 
that a ])erson selling;- ^'oods or offering- his service is not contented with the 
anionnt offered hv the pnrchaser or employer, or, if a snni is jiaid, tliat it is 
not snfficient : 

kdlang sin pesosli ! it lacks one peso; it is one peso too little! 

kas/Ji. a^'ain, means also: one more, some more: 
incilca kas/n ! Lj'ive (me) one (some) more! i;'i\-e me an other! 
dngkay, ydngkay only; sak/^'n ydngkay only I; djfhj ycingkay hnl 

two, only two 
tsCim (higkay mangniang7van/aii! \-(»u are speaking- in fnn only! von are 

only talking! 
{Ci. suniydak ydngkay, (ipidak or: dbildak ydngkay \n [31'')]: I do only 

one thing; so, in s<>ng-dialect, "pitkain" (Only this form, 2nd ]ierson 

sing", was given): ( iamhic \-erse ) 

piikdin ay hiyakydking you do nothing ])ut loiter 
si /nam nan inamdding your mother gathers the wood [H. 11] 
ddldna "it suffices;"' add, add/! enough! (Interjection); ad/ l^mdndx 

it is not sufficient 
ddldna nan katsaktsdkna its size is suflicient. it is large enough 
ddldna nan kddntjotdko we are tall enough 
ivodd nan ddldna ken sak/cni I have enough 

ddldna nan kindngko I ha\e eaten sufficiently ("my eating suffices") 
ddldna nan bildkna he has enough mone\- (his money suffices) 
adl iPei]idndy nan bildkmo you have not enough money 
add sa! this is enough ! 
aP/dy ngct {ngin) ahout, perhaps; nan ivodd ken sak/Jii al^dy ngef tdlo 

'y pesosh I have ahout three pesos 
amdy ngct djda ay fdan ahout two months 
aVidy ngct is tSlo 'y dlas in ahout three hours. C'f. [306; 342] 

The inlerrogatix'e ad\erhs: how uuich? how manv? see [335 1; how 
uian\- liuies? | ^^6 I 



416. Bontoc Igorot Language makes most extensive use of a number 
of particles which, together with impressive intonation of sentences, color 
either an entire sentence or certain parts of a sentence. The application of 
lliesc particles is highly idiomatic; no more definite rules can be established 
than in other languages that possess such particles. 

INIost of them are postpositive, if they refer to a single word; usually 
thev are enclitic and have sometimes an influence upon the accent of the pre- 
ceding word ; this accent is inclined to move toward the final .syllable. 

The various meanings of these particles can best be seen from examples. 

417. y\dn, sometimes ;/;((/;, is an intensive ])arliclc : it is emploved par- 
ticularlv in commands and questions. 

buniancidka )iiaii! come down, then! descends done! so steige doch herab! 

[M. 14] 
sacika 'd mail! go home now! | M. i [ | 

cugkdypt mail liniitlyal^t ay.' \\h\-, pray, do you flee? [B. 50] 
into mail Id nan nangahina 'sli istja'f where should he get meat ? {la: 

ironical, incredulous,) [R. 25] and again : 
intS man la nan nangdlan dmam is nan istjaf where would your father 

get meat, pray? [R. 26] 
info man la mangdlanyPi 'sli iji? where did you get (so many l)cans) 

that? [L. 33 1 
into man la nan iinuflam si fdiiom/' where will you take your wedding- 
feast? [L. 50] 
tj/1\' man si fobdll°(an ay aldena nan sinhii there indeed is a handsome 

\-oung man who takes the pods [L. 33 | 
tsumndta man cd! so let us then get married! [L. 52; cf. 49] 
into man la nan kdBiuad? where, pray, should the place be? 
engka man! go! go! alikdyB man! come on, forward! (battle cry) 
iigdg engka man innily? why is it that you go? 
ngag cngkdyi4 man tinmdli ay? why did you return, indeed? 
ngdg man cngtja engkdll ay? \\h\ do thev speak? 
ngdg cngka man madi°(nidioini ay fumdngon? why do you get up so late, 

pray ? 


c^iigka man adi cntsinw.' \\\\\ do you not work? 

ngCii!; man sa? what is tliat? (surprise; indignation) 

tin man uacliPtnidiPtni tji nasiiycp ay? wliy. prav, did lie sleep so late? 

(/;';'.■ instead of sfya) 
(')ia man kdpen nan clfong is fanlg ay.' why does he make the house so 

cntciko man manciyiPt! let us go then to get wood! 

intd man si McityB ay? where is Matyu, say? Wo ist demi eigentlich M. ? 
kddnkay^t man! get away! "jiackt euch!" 
kadkdypi man? how many are you indeed? 
tit/hva man, ya inmiiy! it is certainly true, he is gone! 
adi man katsdkub surely it does not suffice [L. 28] 
umiiykdmi 'd man we ought really to go [B. 48] 
aydka man tji! that (singing) lasts certainly too long! [H. 15] 
kSak man. fakdnmo kSa! it is mine, not vours! 

Also a form mdna occurs, which is probahly a contraction of nia)i and 
the locative participle ;;(/. here : 

tjakdml mdnd ay mamaldtong we who are gathering beans [L. 28] 
aykSka cntsdno ay? enfsfhioak mdnd! are you working? certainly. I do 


418. Kay or Pay (the latter is said to be the Ilocano form) is used 
for emphasis; it usually follows the word upon which special stress shall be 
laid. Sometimes kay or pay is placed between the article and the noun, or 
between the preposition and the noun. It may also take the future prefi.x 
ad- from the verb, but it does not take any verbal endings. 

nay kay Uytjem ngin ay ma/tsa at this spot you like perchance to be left 

alone [S. i t | 
nay pay najto nan ib/dna there indeed was cooked the other (pig) [L. 66] 
nan pay fobolan nan kanyOn the projectiles of the guns [B. 53] 
ya nan pay fobcllan nan bdldng \ \\. ^^] and the bullets of liie rifles 
nan pay inStji the y o u n g e r brother 
sdna kay nan tjeniPtm! here comes the water! [L. 42] 
sdna kav si Ifpad av naldns^oldngo here! here comes perfectly dry wood 

adpaywdnin now indeed {ad ivdni with pay inserted) [L. 80] 
intS pay? intd kay? |R. _'4| where, |)ray? wo denn? wohin denn ? 


intii kay si Brngti' where, pray, is Bugti? 

si pa\ Filkan nan nindnak ken tjakdmf Fukan, slie has born us [L. 92] 

si pay Pa! paid king ma/ id inddna is kdifn Palpalaking did not catch any 

fish [P. 3] {inaana, for: inalana, from aldck) 
alPinf kdyd! very soon! yes, soon! 
kctj^ng ngdg pay? what tlien? (impatient question of a person Hstening 

to a narration, to urge on the speaker) 
fildv pay mo gadsdngyen, stya tsatsdma na/tniBd however ricli he may 

be (though he lie rich), he is very stingy 
into pay dkis nan manttlyo? wliere is the hammer, say ! "wo ist denn 

wieder der Hammer?" 
kdd pay nan lalaldki? how many are the men? 
kdnim pay nan tindpay/ do \ou really eat the bread? 
kinnidan pay he has gone, indeed 
ma/td pay sina! he is surely not here any more! 
tjakay^i pay ay iKdn°H you, people of Kan°u [L. 92] 

pdsig pay nafdngosh nan sluvigc'dko my food is all rotten (pdsig: thor- 
oughly) [AT. 9] 
ketjeng ka\ mastjfni dkis and then it turns again night [H. 10] 
ketjSng naOto pay and then it was cooked fH. 18; cf. L. 66] 
Upad pay ay naldngoldngo dry wood! [K. g. ] 
aykSak pay shnmda' shall 1 reallv go home? [K. 11 | 
adtm pay patdnen nan pdslick, fay ndyak sfna! do not drive in the wedge, 

because I am here! fL. 84] 
mid pay asdlPra'ak \ am surely not married [L- 85] 
ddpay dkisli [ak/s] madSy nan iniignan nan dsu 'y tjtiy (the hre) which 

the dog brings there will surely also be extinguished ("die") [L. 10] 
ddpay umdliak T shall certainlv come 
toy ddpay angkdyem nan findyi?( liecause you will surely eat up all the 

pounded rice [T. 2] 

At the end of a sentence pax and ka\ appear often as paya and kaya: 

ketjSng niaBzviid paya then morning came 

flaem kayd! come and see! "sieh doch cinmal!"" "just look at this!" 

alikayt^ kayd (like one word: alikavSkayd!) .' come! "kommt doch 

einmal, rasch! " 
ketjeng sumdohtja pdyd then they arri\e (at home) ; "dann kamcn sie 

also heim" 
iydim kayd! so bring it! "so bringe es doch!" 


It is uncertain whether the final a is a paragoi^ic vowel, or whether 
f^ay has hecn combined with a particle ya I423] which appears unconibined 
with f^uY in these sentences: 

ifsaotscfoiiio kay ken sfya ya! so give it to him! 

alPcnfn kav si aklt ya! "soon, in a short while!" "in a moment!;" "wail a 
Preceded by (7, the particle pay ex]M-esses reproach, as in this question: 

iipa\ adfm kunvdui is nan takB? and why, sir, did you not tell the men? 

|1',. 4^.1 

4i(;. Mam paw or main pay man. which is a combination of the i)ar- 
ticles man and pay. expresses a strong assertion: 

axkS umcili.' nay iimtfli nufm pay man! is he coming? there he comes, 

surcl}' ! 
sfa niain pay! certainly! it is correct, without an_\- doubt! it is evident! 
pindvannii. fay tjfiy mam pay si lalaki ay fnmcitjani:, ken tjakamf we have 

filled (our bean-baskets), because, lo! there was a man who heli)ed 

us [L. 37] 

4_'0. Ann/O denotes certainty in these examples: 

ann/O ya nmcili adivcini he will certainly come to-day 

ann/i'i Iinm(iyai''^tja they have undoubtedly run away 

ann/(> nmf/ytja they will surely go; I am sure that they will go 

ninfc'iti^an nan sikcia — cntdko 'd man nitsda — ann/o patsdng na sluia the 

>un has reached the middle; let us go to eat dinner; surely it is time 

l"or it I Industrial v^^ong I 

421, Adji, usually in combination: man ddji or: nia ddji expresses 
sometimes a reqtiest ; in statements ddji has atfirmative force: indeed; cer- 

i'ligkalfkayiPi man ddji! speak, pray ! 

dlika mail ddji come, ])lease! 

ikayPi man ddji! come then! (why do you not come; come now!) 

into ma ddji nan indyam.^ where did \-on go, say? 

c'ntsundka man ddji! so work then! 


Emphatic: kddtja man ddji? how man}^ are there indeed? 
sia ma adjt sa! tliis is the right thing, to be sure! [L. 55] 
nail ma ddji tsam inpaydi ay shengSdko 'd ya nafdngosh that food which 

you used to send me was rotten [M. 7] 
sdata 'd ma ddji ay sindma! so let us go together^ father and son ! [M. 1 1 ] 
ya, intS ma ddji nan findy^t? well, where then is the pounded rice? [L. 57] 
nong/nSngem ma ddji nan idnotdko! you arrange our wedding feast, 

please! [L. 58] 

422. Kan or pan (pan is the Ilocano form) expresses astonishment, 

sinu kan sa? who, pray, is tliat? Ger. "ja, wer ist denn das?" 

With verbal endings: sfnu kantja sa? who are these? 

sanguydn pan si na/otodn nan kanentdko! how quickly our food has been 

cooked [R. 16] 
sanguydn pan is ndngtjasam is nan tdlfeg how quickly you found the key 
sanguydn kan nan ningyaiam Iiow quickly you brought it! 
ngag kan aykS kctjern; na 'sli monokym? why, are these all your chickens? 


ngag kan aykSka umooslitsong? sav, whv do you watch me from above? 

[L. 29] 
intS pan, nangkS mamdtpah ya adfka pdad makdtpab; where then? it is 

easy to catch, and you can never (not at all) catch it? [L. 62] 

The phrase: kaiidy /^an. sometimes with endings, expresses disgust 
and surprise: 

kandy pan! amfuydka 'sli si nafikodka! why, is that so! this is the reason 

why you are so lean! [Al. 10] 
kandyka pan si fafdyi! how miserable you are, woman! [AT. 17] 
kandyka pan si alkvid! what a bad friend you are ! 
kandyk'ayt^ kan is fnmabfaWgnid! what poor fighters you are! 
kanaftja pan! how bad they are! 
kandtkami pan! how wretched we are! 

423. Ya, introducing a question, expresses surprise or indignation; it 
designates also a cause as self-evident (not to be confounded with the cop- 
ula ya, or with ya : and) : 


ya ngag tond? wliat is thrxt? Ger. ja was ist denn das? 

ya infc) pay si Akfinay/ wliy, where is Akunay? Ger. ja, wo ist denn die 

ay^ked ya! goon! go ahead! Ger. also vorwarts! continue then ! 

ya ngag nan himad is nan tjapdnmo? well, what has happened to your foot ? 
wliat is the matter with your foot? 

aykS sikdya [sfka — ya\? "how about you?" 

iuU man katsdkub toy stka 'y yfin/a ya Sngka infanirhnish it is not enough 
(in your bean-basket), because you, the older sister, always go bath- 
ing (instead of working) Ger. weil du ja imnier... [L. 28] 

ya kad nan fiitugyTPt 'siiaF why, how many pigs have you here? [L. 45] 

424. Ydka expresses "then at least;" the speaker can not obtain what 
lie wishes and asks for something inferior instead: 

ydka indka ma ddji is nan mdkan! well then (..if you do not give me any 

meat...), so give me at least some rice (instead) ! 
alikd'sna! — adfak. — ydka intcddcka istjt! come here! — 1 shall not! — 

well then, stay there! Ger. nun, so bleibe dort! 
itsaotsdomo nan tufay ay nay! adf; ifgtok sa. ydka man nan ktpan ddji! 

give me this spear! No; I keep it. \\'cll, so give me at least the 

\dka vdim nan kSzi'fns; nan kdtj'''u so give me at least the ear of a fish! 

ydka ydim man nan kckvcng nan fjalfd! so give me at least the ear of a 

small fish! [P. 5] 
ydka ydim man nan apdngoy si dkkamd! so give me at least the leg of a 

crab. Ger. so gib mir doch wenigstens eine Krebsscheere! [P. 6] 
ydka ydim iiuui nan /sa 'y falfda! so give me at least one iron post! [P. 14] 

425. Mo, an affirmative particle: "oeriainly," is also used for emphasis; 
it must be distinguished from mo: if, and from mo, than. 

umdlikd'sna mo you certainly come here 

kdak sa mo [kdak sdmo] this is certainly mine! kdatn sdmo this is 

yours, surely 
intd pay sak/Sn mo? where am 1 ( in a picture of a group of Igorot) ? 
fefl si Fdngcd ndmo! this is Panged, indeed! this is Panged, 1 am sure! 
ndang ndmo! this is indeed a buffalo! 


dgsa sJidnio! that is a deer, to be sure 

In combination with ya [423] : ydmmo aUJem nan tJlo 'y taydan! 
certainly get the three baskets [L. 34]! 

nangko iPtpoiii ndmo! why, this is your leg! [K. 8] 
nangko Itmam ndmo! why, these are your arms! [K. 9] 
soklSngino ndmo {na mo) this is surely your hat 

Observ'e the phrase: mo ko man fay... "no wonder; because...," cer- 
tainly because. — 

mo ko man tay finl^yko l7na, fssam tjipdpen no wonder; because I have 

tired it first, you will catch (the pig) [L. 63] 
mo ko man tay inmipa/lsig ken sak/Sn why, certainly; because he made 

me angry [L. 79] 

426. Ko expresses surprise; thus it is used in sudden recognition, intro- 
ducing a phrase : 

ko si Angay )idm6! why, this is certainly Angav! 
ko sika sa! why, this is you! 

ko tjakaym man na! why, this is indeed you (here) ! 
ko fjaftja sa ay^ why, is it they? Ger. die sind es also! 

427. Nangko, a ])article with verbal endings, introduces sentences to 
express surprise and sometimes reproach in an exclamation or cjuestion; its 
forms are; nanzkSak: nan^kSka; nan^-kS; nan^kotdko; namrkSkamf: 
nangkdkay^i ; etc. — nangkSk; ndngkom; nangkSna etc. 

Nangko is often followed by: bod [pod, h^d\. 

ndngkom \ndngkem\ alden nan kdyo! so it is you who take the wood! 

nangkSak zvodd'sna! why, here I am! Ger. also da ware ich ! 

nangkS wodd 'sna! so he is here! (or; zvodd'snd ya!) 

nangkS pod si MdtyiO( sa? ah, is that so, is this Matyu? 

nangkom bod inda {indla\ nan soklSngko! so it was you who took my hat! 

nangkSna bod infla nan fafdyi! so it was he who saw the woman ! 

nangkSka pod masuyep? so vou are sleeping? 

dd! ngag nan &cpdn todi nangko {mankdy\ tsaktsakgSa! see! what big 

legs he has ! 
ndngko pod ol/Sley nan ikdk/an nan kashn in/nfna how wretched is your 

stepmother's acting! [M. 10] 


nangkotdko oSshden nan shcngSdtja 's amhi nan andkta why, have we not 

procured food for all our children? [M. 17] 
nangkSka mangtsu is fafdyi! wiiy. you are a miserable woman! [M. 17] 
ndngkdy nan pdtlong tji? how did it break off here (a spear-blade) ? 
nangko ma/td makdkan! why, there is nothing to eat ("eatable") 
ndngko bot tsdtona nan mangangkayangkay is nan SnasJiko! well! here 

are those who always eat vip my sugar-cane! [S. 3J [of. 3. 4: bud 

without nangko] 
ndngkom kandn en "nio innalitdku is nan Hi.... why, you say: "when we 

come to the town... (reproacliing their leader) | ?>. 16] 
nangko — pispisitash dngkay! why, only twenty cents! [P.. 20] 
nangko bod, falSgnid nan inydyak tona! why, this man called us out for 

battle! (surprise and indignation of the Igorot called by the leader 

of the insurgents "to a dance") [B. 26] 
ndngko tSkkcn ay taltfeng! why, this is a different dance! [B. 26] 
ndngko ma/td madSy ken tjatdko ay IgSlot; nangko ketjSng nan insuUktosh 

is dngsan nan niaddy and see! none of us Igorot had fallen; only 

of the insurrectos many had fallen [B. 42] 
ndngko sftonH nan onoSnoy why, this one is a lucky fellow! [R. 29] 
nangko akiaklt! why, it is very little! 
ndngko nifd nong/ndngna nan kaydenyiPi! why, your "getting wood'' is 

worthless! [K. 2] 
nangko mandkas si ngBmdtsanta ay sindki is kSlling it is surely better if 

we two brothers change ourselves into eagles [ K. 11] 
nangkSka tsatsdina iPcmipadshc ay ken sak/^n! why, you make me 

ashamed [L. 71 ] 
ndngkom inldtak sail kasliudmo ay? why have you pushed your brother- 
in-law into the rock? [L. 79] 
nangkSkayiPi tjmmdngao is fadlen is apdy/ why did you tarry bringing 

fire? IE. S| 

428. La, often combined with man [see examples in 417], serves to 
color a sentence, particularly a question, with some irony, incredulity: 

intd man lanannangSlam si sa? where did you hear that? Ger. wo willst 

du das gehort haben ? 
kad man la nan wodd ken sfya? how much docs he claim to have? 


4_'(;. 01)serve the use of la in the scornful phrase: 

fscJka la 'sh sa.' what can you do, — nonsense! 

tsdka la 'sh sa, into nan nuuHam si fdnoinf (you want to marry?!) — non- 
sense! where will you get your wedding feast? [L. 49] 

ngag tji? nniondngka ken sak/chi? tsdkdlasd! what is that? you want 
to fi"ht with me? nonsense! 

430. Ell \'n], after verbs of saying, introduces liolh direct and indi- 
rect discourse; it can never he omitted: 

kctjcng kasin kandn nan Lumdivig en "indka'sli tsha 's taydan! then 

Lumawig said again: "give me one basket!" [L. 31] 
isdcd kandn indtja en "nan'^ko infd... then says their mother: "why... 

kcfjc'n<:; kdnanmi en "Ininavdi^kanii!" then we say: "we run away!" 

^[B. 21] 
nan laldki kinzvdnina 'n "ad/k leytjcn sa" the man said: 'T do not want 

isdna'd kimvdni'n... then he said... 
kandna ay mangwdni en "sadka'd man!" he said: "go home!" ("he said 


The particles a\\ paad, have been treated in preceding sections [340; 
326] ; ay emphasizes a question^ pdad a negation. 

The particle et, forming the conjunctive of verbs: see [188, 191, 242]. 
( Some words enumerated among "Ad\-erbs" may also be classified among 
the "Particles.") 



431. Conjunctions in Bontoc Igorot Language are either "true" con- 
iunctions (as: ya, ta, mo, tay etc.) or adverl)ial conjunctions, which are 
really adverbs and are treated in this cha])tcr only because they may be 
considered Conjunctions in that they indicate the logical connection between 
sentences (as: dkis, kctjeng, ct etc.). Sometimes prepositional phrases, i. e. 
the preposition is governing verl)al nouns, are employed instead of conjunc- 

Certain conjunctions take the endings from the verl). 

After most conjunctions the "inverted order" is observed, i. e. the con- 
junction is followed by the verb, the verb by its subject, object, adverbial 
adjuncts etc. 

The cor)rdinate conjunctions are almost exclusively used in common 
conversation. Also in narrative, parataxis is jireferred to hypotaxis. 


432. CopuivATivH: ya, and, connects single words with each other, 
and sentences. 

nan dpiiy ya nan tjeni'^m fire and water; sak/Sn ya stka I and you 

si dma ya si tna father and mother 

nan kafiitufdtug ya kadsliiidshn the pigs and dogs 

si OlSshan ya si Lang/dgan Oloshan and Langagan (or: tja OlOshan ken 

kctjeng nmdli dkis nan sinknmpdnya ya mabalddkan kef dkis nan ha ay 

soldddso thereupon comes again the comj^any and then again one 

soldier is shot [B. 29] 
shod! ay laldki ya sttodi ay fafdyi he and she 

For the construction: tja Agpdmzvan ken TSngay A. and T. ; tja 
dma ken tna father and mother; see "Collective Article" [39]. Cf. sindnia 
the father and his child [60]. For: siintadkdnii ken .liitcro I and Antero 
go home: [408 "with"] 

(Copulative conjunction ya must be distinguished from the copula ya 
("is, are, was, were") and from the particle ya [423]) 


The negative copulative is seen in these examples [325] : 
Icag ken sak/t^n dkis fgak flaeii nor did I see it 

Or even with omission of the negative: adtak fhiinniin is tjeiuiui; kag 
ken siya dkis I do not drink any water ; nor does he. 

Neither — nor is also expressed by adi — payiiio. 

Polysyndetic construction is frequently employed in enumeration ; also 
isdcd: "and then" is often found as connective in a series, (/.y^fcrf desig- 
nates usually temporal succession: "one after an other.") 

isdcd fciddjin nan yun/dna nan ivdnisna isded nan dikdmna ya nan 
sangkitdna ya nan sokldngna ya nan fohangdna ya nan kdfjingna 
ya nan tjokdf/na then his older l)rother took off his breech-cloth, 
then his shell and his belt and his hat and his pipe and his brass- 
chain and his bag- [K. 6] 

iignani nan fjokdi^ko ya nan wdiusko, nan katjfngko, nan sokldngko ya 
nan fobdngak hold (keep) my bag, breech-cloth, chain, hat and pipe 
[K. 6] 

kctjeng inpafdlan nan dtot nan gdngsa ya nan ttjusJi, isded nan toonan, 
isdcd nan fd/kong then the rat brought out the gong and the spoon, 
then the jar, then the pestle [R. 18] 

aydka nan indlak ay kdtj°H, nan tjalid, na)i akkanid, isded nan Iflcng I 
have caught plenty of fish: k., fj., crabs and '^lilcng." [P. 7] 

433. Adversative: siddnay but. The conjunction "but" is in most 
cases omitted, asyndetic antithesis producing a stronger, more impressive 
contrast than any conjunction. Also ya, and, is sometimes used instead of 
the more forceful siddnay; or the phrase nay mod ddji introduces adversa- 
tive clauses. — 

innuiy si Moleng, innidli si Oloslian Moleng has gone, but Oloshan has 

zvodd nan tdfayuii, pindiignii ya nan kaldsayini; ma/td hdldngmi we had 

spears, axes and shields, but no guns [B. 25] 
ipaiPlitnio ken sak/in nan istja; fakSn find pay! send me some meat, but 

no bread ! 
kctjeng dfiis naoto nan iiidkan, siddnay ma /id istja then the rice had been 

cooked, but no meat [P>. 11] 
iigtok nan dsn isna, siddnay addkis fiiindla I keep the dog here, but it 

will again run out 
leytjenmi ay mamihla, siddnay nifd [nia/fd] apf/y we want to smoke, but 

there is no light 


adf iiiotjan adzvdni, siddnay adinotjan aszvdkas it does not rain to-day. 

1)Ul it will rain to-morrow 
inCindpko nan kfpan, siddnay igdak nakddash I searched for the knife, 

but I could not find it 
sak/i'n ongSngdak, siddnay s/ka aniam/dka I am young, but you are old 
adfna vdi nan fstja. siddnay nan ntdkan yafna [iyafna] he does not bring 

an\- meat, but he brings rice 

Kctjeng "tliat is all," "except," "thereuiwn;" see [326. 2,2J. 388. 408 
etc.] serves as adversative conjunction: 

ildck ain/n ay fohfafdyi, ketjeng si Akiinay is ma/ id tsna I see all women, 
but Akunay is not present 

434. DisjuxcTivK: paynid, or: 

laldki paymd fafdyi a man or a woman 

si Angay paynio si Isding .\ngay or Isding 

sfka paymd sty a you or he 

indka 's kfpan paymd fakSn nan pfnang hand (me) a knife or, if there is 

none, an ax ! 
adiimdlidk aszvdkas paymd is kas/n zvdkas I shall come to-morrow or day 

after to-morrow 

435. "Adverbial" Conjunctions are: 

dkis [dkis] also, too. {dkis means also "again") 
sak/Sn dkis I also; nan fafdyi dkis the woman too 
kdg ken sak/chi dkis I also (lit. "like me. too") 

436. Kctjeng, introducing a sentence, serves as temporal conjunction : 
thereupon, then. [In negligent pronunciation usually: k'tjeng; or scarcely 
audibly: 'tjeng; also "kitjdng" occurs.] — As the original meaning of 
kctjeng seems to refer to something accomplished, "that is all,'' "it is ended," 
it may be nearly equivalent to the Latin connective phrase "quo facto," 
while "therefore" would be a free translation. In narrative the Igorot will 
never get tired beginning each new sentence with this ketjeng. 

The common construction after Z^r/yV;/;"' is the order : verb — subject. 


nail lahiki inmdli 's dfoiigna, ketjeng alden (nan) asd'/^zvand ay fafdyi nan 
soklongna; or: ketjeng si (nan) asdi'nvana aldena nan soklongna 
the man comes home; then his wife takes his hat... (the second 
order is employed rarely after ketjeng) 

ketjeng tja >nadngsaii nan tdki^, ketjeng tjaftja nan nmili is nan fatdiTcva 
then the people became a great many, thereupon they l^ecame the 
inhabitants of the earth (world). [L. 15] 

Ketjeng followed by the ligature ay: ketje'ng ay isdtja'd in f flak 
thereupon they feasted [L. 66] (Ketjeng ay means also sometimes: there- 

ketjeng ay umtntunak is nan tjenuin thereupon I drink the water 
ketjeng ay fnmdngon thereupon (or: "then finally") he awoke [P. 12] 

437. Et, cd, 7, '(/ is an enclitic conjunction: "then," "then without 
delay," "immediately then;" it signifies that the succession of deeds or events 
takes place rapidly, immediately, invariably, regularly. Thus it is used also 
often at the beginning of the apodosis of conditional clauses, if the ])rota- 
sis precedes. (It must be distinguished from the particle ed or ct which 
forms the "conjunctive mood" of verbs! ). — It is used as conjunction alone 
and also in combination with other conjunctions, as always with the fol- 

438. Isded, thereupon, then, then immediately. This "compound" is 
considered one word, the first element of which, isa, takes the endings from 
the verb. If the verbal ending attached to isa has a final vowel, e is elided: 
'd. [For isded or fsa'd the forms: 'sad, 'shded, 'shad, due to negligent 
pronunciation, are used frequently.] 

Isdtd is probably a combination of the preposition is and the locative 
adverb sa, as "upon there" or "thereupon," followed by ed = "then." The 
forms of this conjunction are: 

Possessive : 









Personal : 






isded [isd'd 



I. incl. 


I. excl. 







The Constructions arc: 

a) with personal verlxs; in llie 3. person sins^-. or phn-. The sul)- 
ject is : 

i) a substantive: isdcd iniuili iiaii lahTki then tlic man comes 

iscftja'd imulli nan lalahiki then the men come 

2) a proper name: isdcd niiul'li si lufngcd then h'anged comes 

3) personal pronoun, 3r(l person: isacd iimdli siya then he comes 

isdtja'd nmdli (fjaitja) then they come 
The sul)ject is a pronoun of ist or 2nd pers. : 

isdkamt'd inudli then we come 
isakaym'd iiindli then you come 
isdkcd Hindu then I come 

b) with possessive verbs; in the 3rd person singular or plural. 
The subject is: 

i) a substantive isdcd kandn nan laldki then the man says (not: 
isdtja'd kandn nan lalaldki then the men say (also: 
isdcd; but the plural ending" sufiixed to isa- is used 
regularly with plural nouns) 

2) a proper name isdcd kandn Fdngcd then Fanged says 

3) a pers. pronoun isdna'd kandn then he says 

isdtja'd kandn then they say 

If a substantive as subject shall be emphasized, isdna'd respectively 
isdtja'd is used, but the substantive is preceded by the ligature ay: 

isdna'd kandn ay alkvidko then he says, my friend 
isdtja'd kandn ay alkvidko then they say, my friends. 

If the subject is a jjronoun of the 1st or Jnd i)erson: 

isdnicd kandn then you say 

isatdko'd kandn then we say 

isdyn'd kandn then you say 

isdnii'd kandn ay Igdlot then we Igorot say 

(The reasons for these various constructions have been explained in 
preceding chapters; as [200, 201, 208, 209] etc.) 

nniiiytdko isatdko'd masdycp we go and then we sleep 

nan laldki inindli isdcd nentsdno isdcd nasuycp the man came, then he 

worked, then he slept 
innidy s/'ya, isdna'd f/nkasJi nan fCitd he went, then he hurled the stone 


nintdktdkak isdkid [for: isdkcd] tjinpap nan aspi I ran, then I caught 

the dog 
ininfiyka ya isdnicd india nan kipdngko you went and then you took niv 

isd'd kiincdnin dina then Father said (dina is without article, as the 

article in the Nomin. would be: si; notice the ligat. -;/ suffixed to 

kinzvdni: "the speaking of Father") 
nan lahlabSna nianaUfcngkdyioi, isdkaym'd inangdycng, isdcd mangananon- 

gosli nan patpadSy at first you dance, then you sing and finally 

conies spearthrowing. 
isdfja'd diniiy nan soldddson si Mclikdno ad Tdfeng then the American 

soldiers march to Tulubin [B. 64] 
isdfja'd nianiognak ay sindki; isdfja'd inianfjan is nan kakdyMan; isded 

kandn nan inSfji'n.... then the two brothers went to work, then they 

arrived in the forest, then the younger said [K. 2] 

isdfja'd en poshngcn ad Mabddbodobud then they went to inundate (the 

land) at ]\Iabudbod(')bud [L. 2] 
isdfja'd inafdfcng anifn nan inasdfcivan ya isdfja'd en mint jf pap is nan 

fdfug {en: [307]) then all are drunk, all married men, and then 

they go to catch pigs [H. 15] 
isdfja'd falofjen nan fdfng, isdfja'd sagfdfen... then they bind the pig, 

tlien they carry it (on their shoulders) [L. 17] 
isdkanii'd on nulngan then we go to eat {on: [307]). 

If several verbs follow this conjunction, it takes the endings from the 
nearest verb only: 

isdfja'd inanqdxdvcns; va kaiidnfsa av niangzvd)ii then thev sing and say 

[H. Q] ' ' ^ ' 
isdfja'd inunidia \a kapJnfja... then thev get (clay) and make (pots) 

[L. 23] 
islidna'd sibden nan pdnga ya kandna'n... then he cuts the branches and 

says... [K. 7 J 

439- Kcfjeng and isded combined occur in these examples : 
ketjeng isded kandn san fafdvi.. thereupon "then" the woman savs.. 

kefjeng isdfja'd insdngfu thereupon they performed the "sangfu" cere- 
mony [L. 67] 

ketjeng isdna'd paffifdien san asin ad LakdngaB thereupon Lumawig 
created the salt at Lakangau [L. iS] 


440. Ket, yd kef, "and then" is used similarly to isded, as these exam- 
ples illustrate. Sometimes kct serves as the simple connective without par- 
ticular temporal notion. 

ninsakit ya kct iiadSy he was sick and died 

kinmdan si tna yd ket tinmoli the mother had j^one away and returned 

ya kct fdfity ay tsaktsago'ag ya ket nan fdi ay oko ay tsakfsdki and then 

the boar (is) big and the sow (is) l^g | I.. 46J 
kctjciig dlik \a kct inmdnak and "some time ])asscd" as she ])orc children 

[L. 88"] 
})io DiadSyak kct mo iinuiykdyi^ /laeii nan nalf^dak [ndlpak] when I die, 

then if you go to see my birth-place [L. 89] 
kctji'iii; xa kct inangdngo san inOtji thereupon the voungcr sister laughs 
^[L. 30] 

Kct is ])rol)ably identical in many cases with tlic following jjarlicle: 

441. Ki)- or koy- with the endings taken from the following verb, and 
with subsecjuent ct or cd (like isdkcd). This "verbal conjunction" means 
also "and then;" it seems to be used particularly to introduce a sudden event 
or an unexpected event, a miracle, surprise etc. Its forms are: 

I 'ers( )nal : ! N issessi\'e : 

1. koydkcd kSkcd [k dyked, kflkct] 

2. kSyka'd kSincd 

3. kd'd [kc'd, kct-] kSna'd 

I). kSta'd [kSyta'd] kSta'd [kdyta'd] 

I. inch kotdko'd kotdko'd [koytdko'd] 

1. excl. koykdin/'d kSymi'd 

II. koykdy^'d kdyyB'd 

HI. kdytjad kSytja'd 

koydkcd iimdli; inindli then I come; came kSked kdpi'n; kindcb then I 

make ; made 
kSked kindcb nan tufdyna and then he made his spear 
koydkcd [also; kSket, irreg. ] inmdli is dfongna and then I came into his 

ketjeng unttjan nan /sa'y [dan k(\ytsa'd inpapa)igdli nan soldddson si 

Melikano and then one month passed, and at once there came the 

American soldiers \V,. 62! 


kcfjciig migmikdna nan hnpasli ; koytja'd mangmangalak ya kakaBzvftan 

tlien he (Lumawig) fed the httle chicken; then, hehokl! tliey grew 

suddenly to hens and cocks [L. 44] 
kctjciig talf/anna son anidinok ya kdytsa'd dkis mashangoycn ay iiasfkcn 

nan ffitiig and lie fed the h'ttle pigs and then forthwith also they 

grew rapidly, the pigs [L. 46] 
(ki-i tjakaypt ska! why. yon are there! [L. 6] Cf. [426] ) 
isdcd ihntjan ya kandna'n "kii fjdkaydi ska ay!?" tlien he arrived and 

said: "then yott are these women!?"" (surprised) [L. 27] (without 

isdna'd ikisua nan itsush is nan fdnga ya ko'd [kct] fsfja; isdnad dkis 

ikfsna nan fdk/kong is nan isa 'y fdnga ya kS'd [kct] nidkan and 

then (the rat) stirred with the spoon in the pot and behold! there 

was meat ; then it stirred with the pestle in the other pot and there 

was rice! [R. 21, cf. 28, zy, 30] 
ko'd nay adzvdni ya nia/ld! (\<>u had promised us food:) and now there 

is not a thing! | I'. i()| 

[A ('i- is nndoulitedly the same particle as in [426] and probably also 
found in the interrogative: oyko, and in the particle iiangko, expressing sur- 

442. The equi\-alent for our inferential "therefore, for this reason, on 
that account" is connnonly .s-/vrt followed by the Xom. actionis with sutifix 
-an ; this suffix, which has usually locative force, is decidedly causal in this 
construction; sTya, or sfya tsi [tji] means: this or that. The construction is 
illustrated l:)v examples: 

stya tji nan nnialTantja this is "their coming-reason;"" therefore they come 

siyddsi [for: sfya tji] nan adfk fhniiyan therefore I do not go 

insakff nan Utjengko; sidnan [stya nan] adlk cntsf/uoau I have a sore 

linger ; therefore I do not work 
insdkitak; sfya nan unifnumak is nan tjenionn I am sick; for this reason I 

am drinking water 
sfyadsi nan inakdlantja therefore they weep (from: indkaak, wxih inserted /) 
sfya tji nan igdna nangasdio(ivdn therefore he did not marry 
ant jdka; sfya nan niangaMittsani is nan kdyB you are tall, therefore you 

can reach the wood (beam under a roof) 
nahlCyak; sfyadsi nan adfk' kunideban is nan fdlfcg I am tired, for this 

reason I do not make anv spears 


siadsi nan intafdnantja is nan p(ii:;fag therefore they Iiide in the forest 

This construction is also used for our result clauses, as: it is so heavy 
ihal...: the Ig'orot would say: it is very heavy; therefore... 

nan fcito \fCitd\ ya tsatsdnia ay adadsanict ; siyd nan adik inakasagfdtan 

the stone is very heavy; therefore 1 can not carry it; or: is so heavy 

that I can not carry it (or: T cannot carry the stone, because — tay 

[451 ] — it is heavy) 
nan kafdyo ya tsatsama ay ahaffkasli ; sid'jian niangny/'ttjdna is nan kalonuito 

the horse is so slroni^- that it ]>nlls the wagon [siclnan ior : si\a nan..\ 
nan djdlan ya tsatsdnia 'y adadsdiPiz^'ian; s/a nan niablcvam the way is so 

far (long), that you are tired 
;/(/;/ tjihmm ya tsatsdnia 'y Idtcng; sidnan adik nin/san the water is so 

cold, that I do not bathe 
)ian dsii tsatsdnia nan taktdkna; siya nan adik inakaapaxdi^wan the dog 

runs so quickh-, that 1 can not follow it (Lit.: the dog; its running 

too fast; this niy-not following-reason 1 

A rather doubtful phrase : "auifnydkasli" followed by /.v may be used, 
if surprise shall lie expressed; as in: 

anifnydkash si naftkodka! ah ! therefore you are so lean ! | M. loj 
auifnydkasli is nia/fdka 'sua! this was the reason that you were not here! 
anifnydkash si nafdlud sfya! therefore he is bound, imprisoned! 
anifnydkash si nia/fd is nan dfongna! oh! that is the reason that he is 
not at home! 

{.Inifnydkash can never be used with i st jierson. as: "that is the rea- 
son that L" but onl_\- with Jud ;md _:;r(l person: ibis is the reason that you. 
he etc.) 

Sfadsi and is: sfadsi's cnta inndla is af/ii'ldla therefore let us two go 
to get our burden (wood) f K. 4] 

Also kctjc'ng ay is used to exjjress "therefore." [436] 

suiiORDix.vTi'; c'ox.irxcTioxs 

443. W h e n . "When" is exj)ressed bv the ci>nditional conjunction : 
nio, ("if") or by /.s\s-(T;/. Mo re(|uircs the fmite \-erl) ; mo nuist be used if 
the verb is in the future tense; and it may be used if the verb is in the pres- 
ent; issan is found with the present and especially with the preterite. 


Fssaii consists of the preposition u and the article , van [32] ;. to;/ precedes 
tlie Xonien actionis of the verh. The Igorot does, for instance, not con- 
struct : when slie came, \vc saw her. Init : at her coniing, we saw her. 
1110 odfak entsiino, inlfpayak when (if) T do not work, I play 
mo iniiiiiKiiitako is nan kdpi, adifdko haptUi nan tf/fay when (if) we drink 

coffee, we do not make any spear 
issan iinnal/dna, amtn ay tdklPt nangdntja when he came, all people were 

issan inalfan nan dnia. nan dnanak ya kinnidantja aniin when the father 

came, the children liad all gone away 
issan nintcddcak ad Manila, ivodd nan djiia ay dsnk when I lived at 

Manila, I had two dogs 
issan )iinfnkdiO(ii'an nan laldki, nan ongonga (ya) iiiindli or: ino infiikaPi 

nan laldki, nan.... when the man called, the boy came 
issan nan/ngSlak is nan okdknd, nadngoak when I heard the story, I 

issan nanaPizi'ddak is nan sfilad. findsak when I had received the letter, I 

read it (vb. : tsalTcvddck) 
issan innialiantdko 'd Chicago, kinaeptdko nan dfongtdko when (after) 

we had come to Chicago, we made our houses (lit. "upon our com- 
ing" )_ 
issan innialiam addgka, ya nind/djan when you came yesterday, it was 

issan inavantdko is nan pSsJwng, ninkiyatdko is nan katjihiPim when we 

were (lit.: had gone) at the lake, \\e swam (in the water) 
issan kininadnannii ad Manila, linianpo'dkami when we left Manila, we 

were fifty persons 
issan indfcdtja istji is apid nan pSshong, ninlalcyddtja when they met 

across the sea, they rejoiced 
issan kapf/sik; kaongongaak; kaanidniaak; ninsdkitak ; kagadsangyengko; 

kafikdshko: when I was poor ; little ; old ; sick ; rich ; strong (healthy) 
issan ninaliwidsdnfa when we two were friends {s inserted). 

444. While, "\\niile" is expressed by issan, when; freriuently the 
\-erb or vcrl)s are redu])licated to indicate that one action continues simul- 
taneously with the other. This contemporaneous action is also designated 
hv the auxiliary ^s"(7 : 

issan nianiasnycpdntja, entsundkann while they (continue to) sleep, we 
work ( "during their sleeping") 


L^san kcMwad nan alfwidko id Tnkiikan: while my friend was in Tucucan 
is tsdk enfsfhioan during- my working-, while I am at work 
is tsdtsa 'iitsiinoaji while tliey are working- 

(The article sail is sometimes omitted before tsa.) 

fssan iinifnitiiiani is nan tjcniPini, Isaak iiiaii/lbla while }-ou drink water, I 

fssan engkalfani {eni^l.:altanypi) nianiasttycp siya ay fafdyi while you talk, 

she is sleeping 
issan tscitja mangayan while they are eating (better: is nan, because san 

indicates past action) 
fssan c'ngkaliantdko, tsdna kiniften nan dklaJig while we are speaking, 

she is sewing the coat 
fssan nangildantja ken todf: while (when) they saw him 
/,s\s-fl;; inlagdantja is nan sfngsing nan fobfafdyi, inangayi'ngkainf while 

the women sell rings, we are singing (without redupl.) 
fssan sinnnikcpdntja while they came in (when they came in ) 
fssan kapi^nyH nan dfong, nniilengkanif while you are building the house, 

we rest 
fssan tsdtja 'nfalognfdan. ivoddak id Fdnitok while they were lighting, I 

was at P)ontoc 
fssan kdi'Vzcad Fdngcd is nan dfong ya fssan tsdna inangfldn ken Mdtyi^ 

while F'anged was in the house and while he saw Matyu 
is nan tsdk inangdnan while I am eating 
;.v san tsdna nangdngan while he was eating 
fssan fjdfja nengkalfan while they were still speaking 

B y C i r c u m 1 o c u t i o n : 

iufdsaak, tsdka dkis insfdad I read: "meanwhile" you write: I read while 

you write 
masuycpak, tsdka dkis c'litsdno 1 sleef) while you work 

1 * a r t i c i p i a 1 C o n s t r u c t i o n : 

nan laldki inandlan ay nnvigaydwcng or : nan laldki niangaydwcng ay tsa 

inandlan the man walks while singing 
niadngo is nan engkalidna he laughs while speaking ("in his speaking") 

or: inadngo ay engkalf 
cngkalf is nan iitdlPina he speaks while dreaming 
na\i kfllang inindli ay indka the little bov came crving, or: cried wliile 

naii laldki iiinncng ay inan/ihla ihe man rests while he smokes 


445. A f t e r . Temporal clauses with "after" are frequently intro- 
duced bv fssaii, when [443] ; ih.e sul)se(|uent main sentence begins some- 
times with ketjciig (or: isdcd), whereby it is expressed that the action of 
the main sentence is not simultaneous with that of the subordinate clause, 
but follows it. (Xotice the present, instead of the preterite, in the main 
sentence !) 

hsaii kiiizcdiiiiio iia. kcfjc'iii:^ ifukcWnvdna after he had said this, he shouted 
/,s\s-rt;; tjcugiigciiia iia, kctjc'iig ibfakdiia after he had heard this, he asked 
/ssan naddyaii nan lahiki. kctjeug inka/ftptja after the man had died, they 

buried him 
issan tiiiiiU'^ktjuciiia after he had sat down 
\)io iuangnLhiyi°( aiiifn nan nakziufni ken fjakdypi:, kcfjeng foniolfkaypi'd 

after you have executed all orders ("have done all told you"), you 

ought to return 
fssan inihientja nan ininad, kctjeng liniiulyai'^^fja after they had seen what 

had happened ("the haiipening" ), they fled 
fssan inmalfan nan dpo, isdcd onOtjen nan laldki stya after the master had 

come, the man followed him 
Issan nanngSlan nan dniani si sa after your father had heard this 
/ssan adsdngadnin ay finindla nan lalaldki, kctjeng iniskepna si J1IU0 is 

dfong after the men had gone out, he led Julio into the house 
I'ssan nan/ngSlan nan laldki si sa, kctjeng itdfona nan pindngna after 

the man had heard this, he hid his battle ax. (nan/ngSlan: Nom. 

act. from the Nom. agentis [257]. Thus in the following example:) 
fssan nangflana ken fjaftja, ti^nnoli nan fafdyi after seeing them the 

woman returned 
fssan sinnnikilpana is nan dfong, aldena nan sdklong nan anOtjik after he 

had entered the house, he took the hat of my younger brother 
fssan napaddyana inkd/ftptja nan azvdkna after he had been killed, they 

buried his body. 

"After" circumscribed by: fioidshek, I finish, accomplish: 

finf/ash nan fobfafdyi ay luvigdfiiy is nan wdnis, kctjeng fsiniinfdtja nan 
jddsdna after the women had woven the breech-cloth, they mended 

his coat (lit.: the women having finished weaving thereupon they 


iiafdash ay nakainisdngka, ipufnio nan zvanfsino! after you have washed 
yourself, put on vour "wanis!" [naka- 299] 

Or by the auxiliary dfiis: dfus naddy nan auidnia, isdtja'd inkd/up 
sTya after the man had died, they buried him 


Or by the preposition is: inmdliak fsna is nan nahfp'Ufsan nan 

kakdntja I came here, after tlicy had eaten 
is nan finmangdnantja after they had awakened 

Or by the prefix naka- [299] : nakakdnan nan lalaldki. kctjehig 

inmdyfja'sh kapaym, or: isdtja'd innidy 'sli kapdypf after the men 

liad eaten, they went into tlie rice-fields 
isdtja'd nakdkan, isdtja'd niadniong nan manidgkid then they had eaten, 

then the girls assembled [H. 21] or: after they had eaten, the girls... 
intsfinid is baydkna; isdcd nakatsimtdan is baydkua: isdna'd itsdotsao nan 

baxdkna she sewed his \vings; then she liad finished sewing, then 

she gave... [S. 6] 
ketjeng inangdntja; kctjeng )iakakandnija, isdtja'd kandn ay sindki then 

they dined; then they had dined, then said ihe brothers.. [R. i6f.] 

Or: after they had dined... 
ketjeng nakatsnbldantja; kctjeng kandn nan dtot... then they finished 

smoking, then the r;it said... Or: after they had smoked.. [R. 17] 
isdtja'd insdngfit; isdtja'd nakasangfdzvan ya fokndkena; isded nakafok- 

ndkan ya isdcd kandn san si Lunidzvig then they sacrificed: then 

they had sacrificed, and he went up, then he had gone up and Luma- 

wigsaid.... [L. 67] Cf. [L. So] 
kctjeng mangdntja ya nakakdntja, ketjC'ng inasisfantja then they eat, then 

they finished eating, then they separated [II. 19) Or: after eating 

they separated Cf. [H. 22) 
(The construction: the Present followed by the same verb with naka- 
is found fre(|uenllv in narrative.) 

Our clauses with "after" arc also circumscribed by //;/a [^'Y/za] first: 
mdnganak ^ina, isdakcd entsdno T eat first, then 1 work: after I have eaten 
I shall work 
mangantdko\l dna, isatdko'd entsdno after eating let us work ("let us first 

eat, then work") 

446. Before. "Before" is circumscribed by dma. followed by a 
sentence introduced by isdcd: 

umiskann dina isdkami'd tinndktjii we wash ourselves belore we sit down 
(lit.: we wash first, then we sit down) 

Or, dnia being omitted: admakitotSyak ken siya. issa nnidy {/ssa: 
au.xiliary of iutiu-e tense 1 30S | ) T shall s])eak with him, before he goes 
aw^ay; "I shall speak with him; he will go away." 
intlatni nan lalaldki, issdtja madSy we saw the men l)elore lliey dietl 


nmhkami, issdkami mdngan we wash ourselves before we eat 
insnhidka ken sak/hi, issdka umdli write to me, before you come 

447. Until. "Until" is expressed by dlik or inkdna's; both require 
a construction with Nom. actionis. Sometimes Slik is followed by ya, and; 
it seems that in this case dlik means: "some time passed" and... 

7fl. "in order that." often precedes dlik, if the action governed by dlik 
is expected or intended. 

intcdCctdko fsna dlik niabft^dslian nan ta^ivin we remain here until the 

year is ended 
opoopak uannay, fa dlik fnniifjdngan nan dpny I work the bellows until 

the fire burns 
ninfcdc^cak isfjt Slik inaltan nan alhvidko I stayed there, until my friend 

fgnain naniiay ay fdfay dlik alfak hold this spear until I come 
ignak dlik alfani ya aldeiii 1 hold it, until you come and take it 
c'litsfhioak dlik inasuycpain 1 work until you sleep 

adinalhvidta inkdna is adfta niaddyan we two shall be friends until we die 
(Observe the negative: adfta; "as long as we do not die") 

kctjeng dlik ya dkis tomOli si dnia then "some time passed" and the father 
returns also 

kctjeng dlik ya kct innidnak then "some time passed" and she bore chil- 
dren [L. 88] 

kctjeng dlik ya kasin dkis nnidnak san naaniasdngan then "some time 
passed" and the widower again became father [L. 88] 

intedSeak I'sna inkdna's nnialfani 1 stay here until you come 

entsnnSkanii inkdna is umalfan nan laldki we work until the man comes 
(or : ta Slik) 

nan niamanidgkid masnyeptja inkdna is entsiinjantja the girls sleep, until 
they work 

intcdegkayii 'sua inkdna's sunikcpdnyn is nan fdwi remain here, until you 
go into the "councilhouse" 

adadiak uindy inkdna's kandin I shall not go, until you say (so) 

si°(s&(metka'sna\ adtonidliak wait here! I shall return, (asyndetic constr.) 

(In song dialect kikad is used like dlik: ta ktkad na'sh mapde^ ay let 
it continue until morning [H. 13]; ktkad allan alfwid until the friend 


448. ''As often a s^ whenever:" ketjeng nan lalaki tscina 
tsaowaden nan slicngc^dna, tsdna ikd/np then, as often as the boy received 
food, he buried it in the ground [M. 4]. (Repeated action expressed by 
isa; [310]). 

449. "As long as" is expressed by issan. while, followed by /,vo 
[444]; also by inkdna is with a negative: inkana is adlta niadSyan as 
as we two do not die; as long as we live. 

450. "As soon as:" jno or fssan; the verb of the main sentence 
takes the prefix pin- {pang-) : cf. [296] : 

ino inflak nan laldki, pinpaddyko as soon as T saw the man, T killed him 

{ immediately) 
mo tjipdpcntdko nan aydyani, pinpadoytdko as soon as we catch the birds, 

we kill them 
nio inadto nan istja, pinisfjatdko as soon as the meat is cooked, let us eat 
issan inaliana nan laldki, nan aydwan tsdkasna ay hinidyao as soon as the 

man came, the buffalo ran away [tjakas-: 315] 
fssan fdngfain nan pdngnan, tjdkasna 'y (nnWdingct nan dngan as soon 

as you close the door, the sleeping chamber becomes dark 

4^1. r> e c a u s e : ia\\ is a "true" conjunction; the verb of a causal 
clause introduced by tay is in the "Indicative." The particles mo, ko, pre- 
ceding tax, emphasize the causal clause: because indeed, certainly because. 

igdak inmdli, tay ninsdkitak I did not come, because I was sick 

adfk mahfCxlin ay aldi'n nan kdyi^, tay na/ifdkat I can not take the wood 

])ecausc it is nailed on 
kaslin kaiidn. tay ad/k ktntck nan kandm tell it again, because I did not 

understand what you said ("your saying") 
ifgtomf nanndy, tay k^yfjc'nnii we keep this, because we like it 
aditdko entsf/no, tay intcngaiPctdko adu'dni we do not work, because we 

have a holiday to-da}' 
ad/ inmdli s/ya. tay antjodntjo nan nasiiyc'pana he did not come, because 

he slept so long 
ta mangantdko'd ay tdkt"(, tay na^zvae^twadtdko we i)eople ought to eat. 

because we are hungry [R. 30J 



452. Mo, if. and moslufya, suppose that, introduce conditional clauses; 
moslufva introduces hypothetical or "contrary-to-fact" conditions. Ef intro- 
duces frequently the apodosis, if the protasis precedes; it means "then;" Ger. 
"so." [437]- 

mo itjdsak nan ktpan, ct adlgtok if I tind the knife, 1 shall keep it 
mo adfka\f( enfsfnio is kaivfs. ct adaldcnyiPi nan siki nan filtiig ya nan asit 

if \()U do not work well, you will get food for pigs and dogs 
ino fntjasain nan tjokdmho, ydini ken sak/Sn! if you find ("have found") 

my bag, give it to me ! 
mosluiya aydyaniak. ct adtunidyaiO(ak if I were a bird, I should fly 
mo niabfdlinak ay fnnidla, ct adfumdldak if I can go out, I shall go out 
niosJidya ivoddy ken sak/en bflak, ct lagSak nan dfong if I had any 

money, I should buy the house 
adumdliak, mo mabfal/n ay nnidliak T shall come, if it is i)Ossiblc that I 

dngsan nan inldgok. mo dngsan nan UnagSak I should have sold much, if 

I had bought much 
ngag nan dngnein, moslidya gadsangyengka.^ what would you do, if you 

were rich? 
mo mndlika, ct limiiyak if you come, I go 

mo tva\ nan mangivdni si sa if anybody says so (zvay = tvoday) 
moslidya nmdlika, ct umiiyak suppose that you would come, I should go 
mo s/nn nan nangdla is nan kipdngko, isdkongna ken sak/chi if any one 

has taken my knife, he shall give it back to me 
moshdya kdyWt nannay! assume that this were wood! 
moslidya kOak nannay, ct kazvts if this were mine (if I had this ), it would 

be well 
moslidya nan laldki ya inOtot. ct inloklok is nan Idta suppose the man 

were a rat. then he would crawl into the ground 
moslidya gumadsdngycnak, ct lumagSak is ipdt ay kafdyo if I should get 

very rich, I should buv four horses 
moslidya ildck nan feisBl, ct padSyck if I should see the enemy, I should 

'kill him 
ino kdpck nan shigsing, ildgok is nan Melikdno if I make the rings, I sell 

I hem to the Americans 
moshdway [for: moslidya zvoddy] bildkko, et liunagdak is dfong if I had 

any money, I should buy a house 
moslidya Idtcng, et mangizv/sak if it were cold. I should wrap myself in a 



nio kc^kkck sttodt, ct makitotSyak ken sfya if T knew this man, I sliould 

converse with him 
nioslulva nan ongdni^a ya kolling, ct niakatnnuiyaft if the l)oy were an 

eagle, lie could lly 
nwshciva nan lahlki ya Ifion, ct kanfna nan tcikt^ if the man were a lion, 

he would eat men 
nioshdxa woddy djl/a 'sh nodngko, ct itsaotsdoko nan fsa ken s/ka if I 

had two bufTaloes, I should give you one 
nioshdva adiak insdktt adzvdni, ct entsilnoak if I were not sick to-day, I 

should work 
nioshdva inandpmo nan fdlfcg, ct fntjasani if you had sought the key, you 

would have found it 
ngdg nan dngncn nan fobfafdllo, nioshdya zvoday balddgfja.^ what would 

the voung men do, if they had gttns? 
nioshdva kintcVcko ay woddka 'snd, ct innidliak if 1 had known that you 

were here, 1 should have come 
inoshdva woddy dfongko, ct mashdycf'ak is so if I had a house, I should 

sleep in it 
nioshdya andntjo sitodK ct inafdlina ay isabfdt nan fdtsona if he were 

taller, he could suspend his coat 
nio kckkcntdko is adadddsa, iiiniiyougtdko if we know more, we become 

worse (the more we know, the worse we become) 
nioslidya indlani nan kizvdtscy, ct naddyka if you had taken the poison. 

yoti would have died 
nioshdya sak/cn sika if I were you [mo sak/Sn ya stka] 
nioshdya ijdkdmf ya kdgkamt ken tjdkaym if we were like vou 
nioshdya zvodatdko id Fmniok adzvdni, ct anient dko nan pdkiiy: isatdko'd 

umfleng if we were now in I'ontoc. we would reap the rice, then 

we would rest 
nioshdya zvodatdko adsdngddum ad Manila, ct ihientdko nan fah)gnid if 

we had been at Manila, we should have seen the battle 
moshdya iinidlitja 'sna nan Mclikdno, ct pinfdkash nan kdnyon nan 

dfongyB if the Americans would come here, the cannon would 

quickly dash to jmcccs your houses | V>. 53 | 

453- Concessive clauses are introduced by t'ddy pay mo, 
although : 

mVdy pay mo gadsdngyen, sfya fsatsdnia ay nafniud although he is a rich 
man, he is very stingy 


IP/lay pay mo si'ya ya auuima, ents/hw ay kazvts although he is old, he 
works well 

454. ''Just as i f ' ' is expressed by kaslwii: 
kinigsdnfja nan kdnyon; ketjeng kaslwn niad/Sb nan tjaya they fired the 
guns; then it was just as if the sky would fall [B. 38] 

4^;:^. Final clauses. 7^a, that, expresses purpose; the verb is in 
the "Indicative." Lest: ia ad/ [t'adf]. 
kdnak sa fa kekkenyioe I tell this that you know it 
tdngfak nan fdnga fa nan hfja ya nniadtong I cover the pot that the meat 

stays warm 
pdycm nan akldngino fa nnidfongka put on your coat that you be warm 
nan laldki idjdana nan pafdfjhn fa kdpeni si ff/fay the man gives you the 

iron that >-ou make s])ears of it 
fnfak nan pdngnan fa adi fiiindla nan dsi°t I close the door lest the dog- 
run out 
nnidfcf fa inydini nan hilak it is well that you brought the money 
nan laldki ifsaofsdona nan s/llad ken s/ka fa fasdeni the man gives you 

the letter that you read it 
kandnmi ken fjaffja fa nindlifja we tell them to come; we order them to 

dlika fa niangd)igka! come and eat! 
inntdiiak fsna fa ifpaflain nan dfongmo I have come here that you show 

( me ) your house 
inllkiishka fa ilaein! turn around that you see! 
kdnani fa knnidan! tell him to go away! 

kdnani fa sagfdfena nan dgivb! tell him, he shall carry the box! 
uiniiydnfa'd fa ildenfa nan niangipafOfu is nan dmaenfa 'y nay let us go 

to see him who makes our garden "grow with weeds" [R. 9] 
laldyani si asdiPnvaui fa unidli'sna fa niikiili is nan tlinii call your wife 

that she shall come here and that she live here in our land [H. 8] 
ck nnidyak is fanfandzvi ta ifuegna sika id fobffiy I go to call the hawk 

that it takes you home [K. 12] 
dlika' d fa niniiuhnka! come and drink! [L. 75 1 
ibfakak ken sika fa adfin kandn is nan fdki'^ I tell it to you that you do 

not tell it to the people 
itafonmo nan bildkino fa ma/ id niangdk"u! hide your money lest anybody 

steal it! 


va aykS k^ 

ttmdtci fa 

it wen that ( "are -. _ ^ 

■ ior: ay flcc 
id that I see ; _ 
' itdko "we axe ^liu u 

II »»JLi V-— » C 

la is U5«d s."^^fIe" rrative. and particularly with the crh-jr- 

tative I1S7 

ta Anuyak: . _^ ; zo go! may I go! 

fa aid^vSi nan l^inJagygi.... ta amitytJto ad Maldnosh^ ta ^ngkdyBi 

r take yicor axes. let tis go to Maioios. g ' r [B. ij 

-.■Jktan is smlm then sri'"^ ^^^ isnin a ' •- I- 31] 

. .' let OS first gov 

.Jaia ad fobfSy! 1^: __ :_-•- i.^^rher. let ui ,._ ._::■.;! 

" ' : ta iflak tjJkay^.' ' r ,. "' : '-: " T'rkis: let 
^: ct. B. 51] 

rt the msorrectos nw get a^vav . 

fa tiPi'ff •: - 

ta umuytdk: 
fa intj-SavJ:^. :- 
[M- 14I 
vJ<5%"l» nan Jfu- 

456- Result Clauses with "that" see [44-^1- -^1? 

oxistru:cti«;''a is used, i - -■- --: 

fsatsdma ay !dfeng • : it is very c 

ing here : it is i--_ __-_ :^i^: v/e ireeze here 


-. Clauses :.:' 
ins:"' :5 rr 430I which .: 

rr "rct discourse. Examples of indirect discour; 


:cn tiat. 

out en!) 

jj M. 


nan fafdyi kinzvdnhia ken sak/Sn en kindeb nan asaiPcivana nan dfoug tlie 

woman tnkl nie that her husband had l)uiU the house 
si OlOshan kaiidna'n umdli 's sinakitan Oloslian says that lie will conic 

kandna en nintcdcjcka 'd Fi^nitok he says you were at Bontoc 
nan alhvidko kimvdnina'n nan andkna ya insdklf my friend told me that 

his child was ill 
nan i'sa'y ongonga ay laldki kinivdnina ken anidna en nan ynn/dna va 

tinnuiyaPt ad tjdya the one son told his father that his older brother 

had flown to the sky 
nan nafda kandna en aniln nan ipdkaP/ k^ytjcnfja ay infalognit the mes- 

seng'cr says that all the i)e(i])le wish to fight 
si Bmgti kinii'dnlna en linnufgo is /sa 'y ndajig lUigti saitl that he had 

bought one buffalo 
kandna ken todl en si ynn/dna ya -iCodd'sna he tells him that his older 

brother is here 
nan fafdyi kini^^'dnina is nan tdkPi en naddy nan andkna the woman told 

the people that her child had died 
ct kandni en adl fninttjang nan kaymennii then you say that our wood 

does not ])urn [ K. 13 I 

With the \erl) "to write" (which is, however, used most sparingly, for 
evident reasons ) : 

si Likdldso ninsiildd nan tdlon ya kdzv/s Ricardo wrote that the weather 

was fine 
,s"/ Julio niusdlad ay dngsan nan lalaldki ay iniiili'yad ay umdli is afuU^mi 

Julio wrote that there were many men who would like to come soon 
insnlddtja en tsa 'y laldki ya napaddy they wrote that one man was killed 

43S. h'.xamples of O b j e c t C 1 a u s e s depending ui)()n various other 
\-erl)S : 

iydyak sfka ay uini'iy 1 allow that vou go 

( Idium: it is not allowed to smoke in this house: adffja niandbla is 
nan dfoug ay nay; or: lal°tii.'a! adikdyd niandbla! it is wrong (bad) ! do 
not smoke ! ) 

insosojigetak ( inlilfketak) fay adflja untdli I am angry that (^because) 

they (lit not come 
ahfoldtek nan laldki adumdli I l)elie\e iliat the man will come 
Ciykc'iu abfoldtcn ay umdli s'todi .' do \dvi l>clie\e that he comes? 


abfoliifek ay tinmOli sty a I believe that he has returned 

Also the particle ann/o expresses certainty, "I believe:" anii/o ya 
utncili adii'diii he will certainly come to-day; I liclieve that he will come. 
eiidjiiadjuack is nan altdna I doubt that he will come 
endjiiadjilaek is nan ttPtmolfan nan fafdyi I doubt that the woman will 

come back 
unwgiddak is nan altdna 1 fear that he will come 
mnogiddak tay naaWnidBnika ay uiiul'li I fear that you come too late 

(fay: because; or: is nan naai^aiidnniani ay unuili) 
nan o)igonga umSgiad fay kSdfan nan dsiPc stya the boy fears lest the dog- 
bite him; or: iimSgiad is nan mangedfdnan nan dsB ken stya 
nan fobfafdyi itinogiddfja fay adumdlifja nan f^/sBl ya adpi°/autja nan 

anitn ay Hi the women fear that the enemy will come and l)urn the 

whole town 
tpaio/ak nan altdna I forbid him to come ( 1 forl)id his coming) ; T prevent 

him from coming; or: adlk li^ytjen stya 'y iiindli I do not want 

him to come 
tjeng/ngek fjdttja ay inangdycng I hear them singing 
fjtnngdmi ay nan yfin/am ya linmdgo is nan noang we have heard that 

your brother has bought the buffalo 
fjeng/ngck nan fafdyi ay infiikaH \ hear that the woman shouts 
aykani fjcng/ngen sak/^n ay engkdli ay? do you hear me speak? 
fjihig/ngck fay iiundlifja nan iiiainaindgkid 1 hear that the girls have 

(Tav, "because," is said to be used sometimes after verbs of hearing, 
saying, knowing; but en and ay seem to be preferable.) 
adngct mndli si tna is dmni "I hope" that the mother will soon come 

(Idiom: adngcf, probably) 
sak/chi kiVckek ay itafdfonuio nan dsnk tsna 1 know that you are hiding 

my dog here 
st\a kekkc^na ay nan siilad ya ndlpo ad F//ntok he knows thai a letter has 

come from Bontoc 
stka kckkeni ay faWgnid nan kiniivhiifja ken stka you know that they 

meant battle, when they told you flV 46] 
kdndni nan fafdyi fa ydina nan kdyB tell the woman that she shall bring 

the wood 
kandna nan ongSnga fa labfdana nan dklang he tells the child to wash the 

kandk ken stya fa mndli I tell him to come, I ortler him... (with dative 



kaiidin fa ki^tiiidan tell him to q-o away 

kandiii fa sagfdfena nan kdyP( order (him) to carry the wood [455] 

dfusJina kinz^'dni ken sak/Jn en itsaofsdoiia nan kaldsay ya nan pinang; 

adzedni ina/fcl he had promised me to give (me) a shield and an 

ax^ "and now there is nothin"-," i. e. but he did not keep his promise 
nan fafdyi kandna en iydina nan fjdkaP/ the woman promises to bring the 

kandnmi ken tjdkaym en {atjdnganuii we promise you to help you 
sesenmekko ay nan dniak ya inni/ly ad Manila issan kaongongdk I remem- 
ber (think) that ni}- father went to Manila when I was child (during 

mv childhood ) 
scsernkck ay pinaddytja dngsan ay tdkP/ is naJi flinii I remember that they 

killed man}' men in our town 
avkJni sesc'iiiken nan kandni ayF do you remember your i)romise ? 
ildcnmi fjaftja ay /nkyaf is nan tjc'ne'nn we see that they are swimming in 

the water 
inflatia nan lalaldki ay enfalognid they saw that the men were fighting 
inilan nan fafdyi ay inpufmo nan faltdog is nan dngan the woman saw 

that you put the gold in the sleeping-chamber 
lldek nan laldki ay nnidli I see that the man is coming 
in/lanii fjaftja ay nis/pfjag we sa\v them fall 
inflafja nan ongdnga ay nitSkang they saw that the child fell 
ketjeng ildenini nan dpny ay intafdyaB ay nialpo'sli pSshong then we see 

the fire (exploding shells) fly from the sea [B. 23] 
isdpafak fay iit/kva I swear that it is true {isdpafak: Ilocano) 
nan ninininiko kcnvfs Jiaii laldki "as to my thinking" the man is good; I 

think that the man is good 
fian ninin/niko kazvistja ay fnfuinsha 1 think that they are good smiths 
nan niinnimfdko adi fif/iwa nan kandnfja we think that they do not tell 

the truth 
nan niinn/jnfja fjaftja adf insakff thev think that they are not ill 
nimnfinek ay adunidli sfya I think that he will come 
Icyfjek sfka ay fiinif/kfjn 1 wish that you sit down 
adik leyfjen sfya ay unifleng 1 do not wish him to rest 
l€ytjcnmf nan lalaldki ay kapchifja nan fdfay {ay inkdeh si fdfay) we wish 

that the men make spears 
leyfjenfdko anifn nan lalaldki ay komdan (or: fa konidanfja) we want all 

men to go away 
ICytjek nan fafdyi ay niangOto is nan fsfja (or: fa ofohia nan fsfja) I 

want the woman to cook the meat 
ICytjck ay niakifofdya ken sfka I like to speak to you 


adfk ICytjen s/ka 'y fimiiy I do imt want \ou to q-(i away 

iiitS }iaii li^yfjc'iii ay iniiiivcfiinii.' wlu-rc do \(ai want ns to j^o? ( "dur i;"oing'- 

place" ) 
ICvtjcufja nan oiuikua ay /hiiiiy is nan (ffoiii^; they wish that lier cliild goes 

into the- h(inse 
leytjenmi tjakay^ ay uuulli (or: ta uiiial/kdy/4) wc wish tliat you come 
ngdg nan Icytjihiyu ay dngnek? wliat do you want nic to do? 

459. As has ])cen stated in I414I, the word kand, "it was said," "he 
said" etc. is often inserted in indirect or (hrect discourse to designate a 
quotation. Following the explanation of the construction in indirect dis- 
course in [428] a few examples shall he given to illustrate the use of kand: 
"kazv/s!" kand "well!" was said; kdyi^^ )ianiiay, kand this is wood, was 
said (ier. das soil llolz sein. 

nadnn'uWini issay^t paddy nan ffhug. kand he saitl you will kill the pig- 
very late. Cf. [308] 

ininf/yka vfl isdincd indla nan kipihiko. kand it was said you had come 
and taken my knife. 

axki'ka juanofufay ay, kand do you come with a spear, was asked 

(The i)lural : kandtsa is douhtful. as in: ('ntsiindkayt'\. kandtsa you 
work, they said.) 
isdnad kand kandn en.... then he is said to have spoken... [ L. 20 | 

460. Equivalents for our Dependent infinitive. Our 
Infinitive as subject or object is expressed in IJontoc ig6rt)t in various ways, 
such as: the Norn, actionis with the article: the "Infinitive" connected by 
(7V, sometimes by is. etc. [41 ] 

The "Infinitive" of Possessive \'erbs connected by (?\' with \"erbs or 
Adjectives is interchangeable with the form of the Xomen agentis. Thus 
the usual construction: Idytjck ay kdkkcn sltodi, I wish to know this man. 
may be changed to: Idytjck ay nuingtck ken todt, 1 wish to he a "knower" 
of this man; mafalln ay palltji'n nan kfj^an. it is jjossible to sharpen the 
knife, or: mafdlfn ay nianuilid is nan kipan. it is possible to be a sliari)er 
of the knife. 

1 )e])endent upon N' o u n s : 
ikadnii ax uinflcng is nialpdsan nan nidtno [inadno] it is our custom to 
rest after working 


ikddtja ay uwngan is dsB it is their custom to eat dogs [318] 

ugdg kotSkko 'y cntsfnw mo ma/id Uigfo? what advantage is there for 

me to work, if there is no i)ay? 
ngdg kofdkiiio ay uiangdeb is nan dfong mo mapmaii.^ wliat is tlie use 

(for vou ) of Iniilding a house, if it is burned down? 
mfd iiongiijngmo ay maiigdfo is nan /stja you are of no use, worthless, in 

cix iking meat 

Dependent upon V e r h a 1 X o u n s : 

cf fsafs(inia nan Icyddko ay mangfla ken sfya I sliould lie very glad to see 
him: "mv wishing" would l)e... 
(nan niinn/jnko: "as to mv iudging," "in mv consideration"; see 

Dependent upon Adjectives. (Sometimes the Passive is used 
instead of the Active) : 

ngdg nan kd-a'fs ay kandn.' which is correct to say? 

woddy tckkcn ay kdpthi I haw other things to do 

mahnaldnoy ay alden nan bflak it is easv to get the money 

kazufs a\' tlaen good to see: beautiful (or passive: a\ mafia) 

maldnoy ay madngnen it is easv to do (to be done) 

sfka[^ ay mdtno it is diflicult to work (to be worked) 

kagauus nan umiiyantdko mo nan intcdceaiitdko 'sua it is better that we 

go than remain here (ma)idkasli : see [395]) 

kazvfs nan mafadsdiigan sfya it is right to hel]) him (passive) 
adl mafdlin ay umfleng it is impossible to rest 
inngo/ngdyusak is nan ma/fd alfwidko it is sad f(ir me (T am sorry) to 

have no friend 
kaka/igc'd nan maisakontdko is nan aydwan it is dangerous for us to go 

near a buffalo 
nanndy ya kazcfs ay (or: is) kdnc'n this is good to eat 
nan lahlki ya infiffkas ay entsdno the man is strong so as to work 

(abaffkas, strong, does not govern any inlin. ) 

Dependent upon V e r h s : 

.Authoritative and causative verbs ("1 make him come, order him to 
come") with the jirefix f^a- see [295] 

Verbs with adverbial notion, governing other verbs, see [317] ; ngdg 
nan dngem ay ngdg nan ikam ay.... see [388 "How"] 

See also Final Clauses: [455-] and the .Auxiliaries: [307 ff. ] 


umdliak' ay flai'n s/ka T come to see you 

iiiDuili ay naiigiyifi is nan pdhity lie came In Wwv^ tlie rice 

ihniiyak ay entsifno I go to work 

mamognagak [mamoknakak] ay entsfhio 1 go to the field, forest, river 

etc. to work 
ihni'iyak ildc'n tjdltja ay manalfjeng I go to see tliem dance (without ay!) 
ihniiyak tjeng/ngen nan tdkiPc ay inangaydzveng T go to hear the people 

umiiykCuni flacii nan lalaldki ay c'nfalogiiit we go to see the men fight 
imiiiykanii ay unidla is kafdfufdtug we go to get pigs [B. 12] 
Sntja kuydtjen ay mandgni they go to pull her out to dance [ L. 8/] 
ipengko ay mangivdni I tr_\- to say 
adltja kckkcn a\ inan<^i!ds;o thev do not understand to sell (selling); 

[1^- IS] 
kctjeng ilodlod nan ongonga ay niangzvdni then the hoy must tell (R. 25) 
isdcd s/hnkc'p son Lnmdzvig ya pandBsliana sail tjcnnni ay inang/bfakd 

then Lumawig enters and directly asks for water 1 1,. 41 j 
kciyfsa'd dkis masangiiyen ay nasfkc'n nan fdfng and hehold! the pigs 

"hasten" to grow [L. 46] 

461. Participles are connected with suhstantives or pronouns etc. 

hy ay : 

nan fafdyi ay mangayuzvcng the singing woman, the woman who sings 

nan laldki av innidli the man having come 

nan ongonga ay adtonuili the child being about to return 

nan laldki ay inangzcdni si sa the man saving this 

nan fafdyi ay niiidCyad is nan andkna the woman loving her child 

nan fdnga ay nafdkash the liroken pot 

The participle ])resent of the passive expresses not only a passive action 
in i)rogress, but il may also convey the notion of an action to be performed, 
like a gerundive or partic. necessitatis: nan dfong ay niaildgo [nilldgo] 
the house that nmst be sold, that is for sale. It expresses also, as the con- 
text will show, the possibility of ])erfonning the action on an object, as: 
mdkan, eatable; niasdgfad. able to be carried, portable; nui/ninii. drink;ible. 

See [115, ii()] : tlie attributive participle: and "while'": [444] : inindli 
ay nangdngo he came laughing. 



462. Interjections are numerous in Bontoc Igorot; many consist, as 
in other languages, of inarticulate sounds; others are identical with some 
of the particles enumerated in [416-430], as for instance kd\ [426]. 

Several "interjections" seem to be shortened forms of verbs, as: akcJyB 
man! or fkayjn man! come all! "let us attack them!," a battle cry, prob- 
ably for: alikdym man! indka's... give! tlaem! lookout! (ildek, I see). 

The Igorot call somebody sometimes by: andka! anokdyB! anokdna! 
he, you there! or: anin! anfntja! hear ye! ye people! halloh ! [144] 

Thev attract someone's attention by: ddl°l! ddiPi! or: ddo! ddn! ddu! 
and they express their own attention to some speaker's words by: Ben! 
zven! and their approval by the affirmative: Sy! yes!; but their disapproval 
by no! (pron. with an obscured a, as English: naw ! ) 

An interrogative interjection what? is: ndn? naan? 

Joyful surprise: wl!nl!hivi! or: ko! [426] 

Surprise: ndPt!ndB! As: ndn ! naB! nan dpny si anfto! see! see! 
the "anito-fire"! (i. e. the burning of a house without evident cause, hence 
the work of an "anito" or ghost.) 

The call: fuldlaB! urges warriors to attack. (Also: umiiyfdk j! and: 
cnfdko! let us advance!) 

At an attack the enemy is provoked Ijy: "fetctctefcfctc !" repeated 

Urging calls are: dyed! dyed nidii! ayekcd ya! go ahead! goon! 
get ready! d\cd! cntsnnoka! go i>n, work! 

Sadness, rarelv bodilv pain, is expressed by: andiia! andna! anger 
by: ngdkan! 

Regret: dy'^u pax na! how sad! "wieschade! dy"n pay na! naplski 
nan dklang! how l)ad! the coat is torn! wie schade, dass der Rock zer- 
rissen ist! 

All right: slyasa! kazvfs sa! dla! 

You poor fellow! kasisikdngka! (you are to be pitied!) 

Most frecjuently we hear the interjection a! colored by an interroga- 
tive, affirmative, reproachful etc. tone. 



lUlKAl, .\l'l'l'.I.I..\l'l\i:S. PROPER XAMKS. C.ICOC.RA PI I ICAI, .\"A.MI",S. 

The UTin: lioiitoc I^^urot is in the \crnacul;ir : luiit I gOlot ay iF^intok 
or: nan iUnnlok ay h^cilot. Variants: I i:^dlot — I i^Olod — Iktilot — Ikolod_ 

(TIic sul)stantivc: ippikaPi {if^ikal?(\ docs not signify tlic Ig(')rot. l)Ut 
means "nation" or "tribe" and "people." It is not any national appellative, 
but is used of the neighboring tril)es as well as of the Igorot themselves.) 

Other terms are : naniLdi^od: the people living in llie Xorth: nan 
i-lplax: the pcdple ]i\-ing south of the llontoc area. 

nan Mclikcino the American ; nan Kasfflya [Kasfilya)io] the Spaniard 

(or any white man) ; nan riliptnos theTagdla; nan kOlPtd the 

Negrito of the Philippine Islands (lit.: the men with kinky hair). 

Tjfno {Tsfno\: or: Sdnglay: Chinaman. 

Pr()i)er Names are changed lor various reasons and at different periods 

of life; as for instance AnaBzi.'dsal, the "presidente" of Tucucan. was called 

formerly: Lnnififyo. then TjagJai:;. and may assume the name A'/Vc/o;/^'' in 

time to come. 

Thus the names enumerated here ( whose meanings could not be ascer- 
tained) are such as scMue Igorot from Pontoc and other towns in the vicinity 
bore about 1906. As an individual i)ronounced his own name diflerently at 
diiYerent occasions, and as his comrades varied it frequently, several forms 
of the same name are given here in several instances. The names of 
women are marked: w. 

Ana^zvdsal [.Inoicdsal : . Inancfsal] Pihnnag 

Molcng AnglOy 

Donihigko [Do>nfngo] '^^S^^y 

AntSro [.-iHYt'Vo; his Igorot name : Mdyo [Fal^ngno] 


Bioigtt [pp/gti; Bdgtl] l^gai?(g 

Ll'pUp ''Pilar GSdya" (assumed name) w. 

.■Itrdiaiot Siiyo w. 

Mdna Lra'dnan w. 

Agpda^wan [Ai^^pduan: .Igpdwan] Ohislian [Oldsan] 

Pdnakan w. Tjunifgyai [Tsmmigyai] 

Gawd id w. F/fja [Fffsa; Bfda; Bihia] 




Gitdno \v. 

Pakiki [Bahfki] 


KOay w. 

Tjdpas [Ddpas: Ddhas] 

An gay w. 

Tdiigay [Dotigay; or: "Ellis"] 


Isding [Tdkay] w. 

Dizvdken [ Tkvdkcn ] 



Sal nek w. 













Angiyab w. 

Ahfdnay w. 


OtjaiPi w. [Odsaio/] 





Kmmdycn w. 

Ydd/tjaiot w. 




Kddd/d \v. 




Kodsoo; \Godsoo; Godjoo; Kodoo] 

Bmmegda [BRuiegtsa] 



Akdiiay w. 

lydpeng [Ydpcng] w. 

"Paoltna" w. 

Foteng [Botcng] 

PaktdaPi [Bakitau] 


Ddgomay \v. 

Ongfus \v. 


O tot an 




A bdkan 



N gdlngal 


FdngkaiP( [Bd)igkaiot] 


Ma/dd \v. 

Ldngsa \v. 




Lengzvay w. 


LtgaiPt w. 


Wad/tg w. 



Fdngka w. 

Malay w. 




Tsa/Skas Egwdsheii 

Sdyaii Miiting 

Sakydfen Tsui/lag 

Some of the following Names of Towns in the Bontoc area dififer more 
or less from their official names; the official names, as written by the Span- 
iards and retained by the Americans, are therefore included in ( ) ; vari- 
ants in Igorot language are added in [ J. 

Feint ok (Bontoc) 


Tiikiikdn [ Toh'Jkaii ] 

Kin/dang (Gcnang) 

MaUg/kong {Malik on g ) 

Md/inid [Mlnid] (Mayinit) 

Fhcaug (Balizvang) 


Sdgddsa [Sakddsa] (Sagada) 

Fuldkan {Bnlagan) 

A mkfleng {A nkiling) 

Td/kong (Takoug) 

Tsdlikdn {Dclikan) 

Kdn^'ii [Kdnye^/] 

Fdy/yB (Ainbcnvan) 

Sakdshdkan [Sakasdkan ] 

Sadsdiiga [Sadduga] 


Figikdn (Bikigaii) 

Fdtfut [Ihtfbut] {Putput) 

Fdsam, (Bdsao) 

Dsdm°i (Danao) 


Aniddtsai^ [.liiitcdaf/] (Aiifcdao) 

Fdim (Balili) 

Alab [Alap] 

Bidlfsan [FidcUsdn] 

Akdzvd (Agazva) 

Tiifcng {Tnlnhin) 

Fdl/lig {Barlig) 


(The names given above contain the most important towns; but they 
are In- no means thought to form a complete list. The pronunciation is 
that of the Bontoc people, not of the inhabitants of the several towns!) 

The geographical districts of Bontoc are, from South to North: 
.j^ci,, — Mdg/'^u—Dsdi^/dv — Uiiifeg. In these districts the various "dto," 
precincts, are settled, small clans whose confederation forms the town of 
Bontoc. They are situated in the districts as follows: 

In Mdg/'>ii: In Dsdt?i/"y: In U)nfcg: 

Ftlig LaiPtzvlngdn LSngfuy 

Mdgoti Pdd/pddsSg Poktsdn 

Tjdkong Slpdat Lnzvdkdn 

Sigftjan I 'ngkdu 

Shongdzi'dn TjSko 

Other localities in Bontoc are: Tjakdldit, Ldkkong, Scikok; the Bon- 
toc region is called TjiHya [see: "Industrial Song"] or Kensdtjdn [H. 21]. 

In Af^'ii: 





As the examples and Texts, from which the "First Grammar of the 
Bontoc Igorot Language" was constructed, were obtained from the spoken 
language of the Igorot, whom the Author visited daily during their stay in 
Chicago, in the summer and fall of 1906 and in the summer of 1907, thus 
also this vocabulary was collected from the first to the last word from the 
lips of these intelligent, responsive and humorous people. 

But the collection of words given in the following pages had to be 
greatly reduced, inasmuch as a considerable number of words, obtained 
from a man more conversant with Ilocano than with the pure Bontoc dialect, 
had been rejected as loan words by native Bontocmen. This task of select- 
ing the pure Bontoc words was by no means easy; but it is believed, 
after several careful revisions of the vocabulary, that the foreign element has 
been weeded out, or has been marked as such, when it appeared that a 
word had been adopted from the Ilocanos, a more world-wise and less fero- 
cious people, endowed with a strong commercial spirit, who have invaded 
many a town in Luzon. More pliable and easily approachable to mission- 
aries, many of them have become more or less Christian ; their language, dif- 
ferent from the Bontoc Igorot, is to a large extent mingled with loan words 
and with expressions which a higher culture requires. As many of them 
have acquired some knowledge of Spanish, they were employed in certain 
ofificial positions (even in towns situated beyond the boundaries of their own 
province) and as interpreters; sometimes they also served as translators of 
ecclesiastical literature etc. 

Thus their language has been influenced by a culture foreign to them, 
in word and spirit, and there is some immediate danger that also the vernac- 
ulars of the tribes visited by them be infected by foreign elements. For, 
according to experience and to the words of the learned R. H. Codrington, 
D.D., ["The Melanesian Languages," p. 100] : "Missionary translations, 
sermons, and speaking are the ruin of native languages." . . . 

Comparative Philologists who are prevented from making their studies 
with the Igorot of different regions, or with representatives from various 


towns, cannot be warned enough against using Vocabularies collected by 
unphilological and incompetent compilers, whatever their titles or official 
positions may be. This warning is not at all unnecessary, as the past has 

Only words considered common to Bontoc Igorot and to Ilocano have 
been placed into the Vocabulary ; if the Author has not succeeded completely 
in banishing Ilocano, he asks the spirit of the Bontoc Language for forgive- 
ness, likewise if he has omitted one or the other pure Igorot word that 
seemed suspicious to him. 

Of great value, in collecting the Vocabulary, was the fact that the 
natives had brought with them a considerable amount of weapons, household 
utensils, building materials, tools ; that they were busied with building their 
forges, houses, a model of a rice terrace with irrigation channels, with 
weaving, cooking, spear-throwing, battling, forging spearblades, making 
pottery and brass-pipes, pleating hats, dancing, singing, performing sacri- 
fices and ceremonies, nursing several babies, and other occupations not enu- 
merated here. 

Of equal value were the objects in the ethnographical collection of the 
"Field Museum," brought thither from the Bontoc Area by Mr. S. C. Simms 
and placed on exhibition ; at several visits with a group of Igorot this excel- 
lent collection, a lasting monument to the ability and energy of Mr. Simms, 
furnished a mass of information, of course not only the names of the exhibited 
objects, but also many verbs in connection with their use, and ample mate- 
rial for conversation. 

A most welcome aid were also the splendid illustrations in the VIII. Vol. 
of the "Publicationen aus dem Kgl. Ethnographischen Museum zu Dresden," 
edited by Dr. A. B. Meyer and A. Schddcnberg, i. Nord Luzon (Dresden 
1890, Stengel u. Markert), their "Album von Philippinen-Typen (1891)" 
and Meyer's "Album von Philippinen-Typen (1885) ;" and when, during the 
second visit of the Igorot, a copy of Dr. Jenks' book had arrived, the many 
illustrations, which increase essentially the value of this pleasant publication 
of the Philippine Government, were eloquently explained to the Author by 
the Igorot. It was indeed surprising to notice how quickly and unfailingly 
the intelligent people comprehended the scenery, the persons and their occu- 
pations, the implements represented on these photographs. 


As it appeared convenient, the Author has referred several times in his 
Vocabulary to illustrations in the works just mentioned. Meyer und Schad- 
enberg's "Nord Luzon" is quoted: M. vSch. ; while J. stands for Dr. Jenks' 
"The Bontoc Igorot." 

Although this Vocabulary has been elicited throughout from the living 
language, it can not claim to be the first, but only to be the first of its kind. 
A list of "Bontoc" words — fortunately a very small list — is printed by 
Fred H. Sawyer in his "The Inhabitants of the Philippines; London, Samp- 
son Low, Marston and Co. 1900." p. 263 to 267. The scanty material must 
have been collected in other regions, but not in the Bontoc Area, (e. g. ax: 
ligua; headman's hat: facoco; sashes: bariquc or canes; nose-flutes: cong- 
gala etc.) Sawyer's list is harmlessly incorrect. 

H. Schadenberg, who has collected excellent ethnological material on his 
journeys through the various tribes of North Luzon for the "Zeitschrift fiir 
Ethnologic," has published there in 18S9, Vol. 21, p. 682 to 700, extensive 
vocabularies in five parallel columns : German, Bontoc, Banaue, Lepanto and 
Ilocano. While Schadenberg's reports on the life, manners and customs of 
the Igorot contain indubitably many a correct statement, the column of his 
"Bontoc" words is teeming with blunt errors. In scarcely seven words out 
of a hundred in his "Bontoc- Vocabulary" the Bontoc origin can be recog- 
nized. It is deplorable that the otherwise keen observer has lost himself in 
a province closed to him by seven seals, that of linguistic, and that now and 
then his more than incorrect statements have really been taken serious. It 
seems almost necessary to show the negative value of the eighteen columns, 
gathered by Schadenberg in Bontoc, by some samples taken at random from 
his list: 

kindle fire fofugam work limma 

bite conitel blue cagtinaltal 

brother ptadco he itschi 

honest oaday nan tschapfschnnuen window selsliag 

stranger incamanlomol-lo-lol-lol for dusdus 

go meyac business ngagna inalim sina 

taste ayaca nan layadko believe isaquescimo 

large damag good cag gosit 

call oandal wood caco 


you two dacayosa in atschi 

always entctcdcama fly oasoas ayan 

low piDuanattaco proceed aycm nasasaga ngcm 

what ya I can )iics))ics 

life miniimac nothing // ansa 

ax pmangas take jamsina 

voice omeyac slave( !) ipatokmo 

no tiabaquen tooth cebay 

understand naagmo fine cabanuan 

stay behind matayuan casiid si sian shoot arrows pcganam nan polfecmo 

tattoo licayam as inan alasiig body avai 

clean quegna asam animal inkikioi 

pull saouamo assembly ijap 

And thus this real treasure of misinformation goes on, as if there existed 
no avenging anito in the world ! 

Of infinitely greater value is the collection of about seven hundred 
nouns, twelve adjectives and four adverbs published by Dr. Jcnks in his "Bon- 
toc Igorot;" less reliable are the verbs, almost twenty in number, given there 
in their basal form. This has been ascertained by a comparison with the same 
words in my vocabulary when the latter was revised in 1907 with the Igo- 
rot's assistance. Discrepancies occurred, of course, frequently, not only in 
orthography but also in form and sometimes in signification; but they 
were not of so serious a character as to detract much from the reliability of 
Dr. Jenks' collection made in the town of Bontoc. Dr. Jenks was quite for- 
tunate not to incorporate any Ilocano words into a Bontoc \^ocabulary. 
Although evidently not a linguist at all, he knew to draw his concrete nouns 
from clear sources ; whenever he could point at an object and when his ques- 
tion was understood, he obtained the correct term and wrote it down as con- 
scientiously as he could, during a stay of five months in the Bontoc Region, 
unless his vocabulary was presented to him in Bontoc. 

During the summer of 1907 I learned in the "Igorot \'illage" at Chicago, 
froin a missionary, Father Walter C. Clapp, (who had been about four years 
with the Bontoc people and had there several converts with him so that he 
had acquired several phrases of various idioms) that he in collaboration with 
some Igorot and Ilocano and several American ladies teaching school in 


Bontoc had begun to compile a Vocabulary, which was continued during 
his absence from the Islands by others. This Vocablary, Igorot-Eng- 
lish and English-Igorot, is expected to be of some importance, especially 
as one of the collaborators, a Chaplain of the Army, is said to have made 
similar studies formerly among some Indians and possesses some knowledge 
of their grammar. — And knowledge of the structure of a language is indis- 
pensable for collecting the material for a Vocabulary that shall be of scien- 
tific value. 

Is it necessary to warn against using my Vocabulary any one who 
would, without having studied and practiced the Grammar, attempt to 
derive any benefit from the Vocabulary ? Intentionally I have omitted collo- 
quial phrases almost completely; in an idiom so totally dififerent from our 
own (and in its structure also so much more complicated than Malay) it 
would scarcely satisfy a parrot to know a few phrases; and so the trades- 
man, the engineer, the teacher, the missionary, the official will not and shall 
not be satisfied with my Vocabulary, unless he has previously compre- 
hended and learned at least the verbal forms and the most necessary rules 
of the construction of declarative and interrogative sentences. 

In the Vocabulary many words have been repeated in brackets in 
slightly changed form; the Igorot's inconstancy in pronunciation necessi- 
tated these additions of variants. 

Verbs are given first in the Present Active in their most common 
form (not special form); the other "principal parts" follow: Preterite — 
Passive Participle in Present — Nomen agentis. Personal Verbs are found 
in Present and Preterite only. The Infinitive of Possessive Verbs is only 
needed with t- Verbs whose roots end in a ; the Infinitive of all other Verbs 
the student must be able to form. Reciprocal Verbs are usually recorded in 
their theoretical Singular form. 

Whenever one or more "Principal Parts" of a Verb, or either the Pos- 
sessive form or the Personal form of the same Root is not given, it has been 
omitted only on account of deficient information; this omission shall not 
express that the Verb in question lacks other forms. The student of the 
Bontoc Grammar can easily construct and supply the missing forms. The 
Author thinks he could do the same; but he does not intend to depart from 
his principle: to write down only what he has heard and as he has heard it. 


If a Verb is followed by a synonymous translation in parenthesis, its 
parts are given with that synonym; e. g. "leytjek I want (love)" means: 
find the Preterite — Passive Participle — Nomen agentis under : "love." 

Numbers in brackets refer to sections of the Grammar. 

The Author requests and will receive most gratefully for investiga- 
tion and selection any addition or correction sent to him by those who 
know and also by those who believe to know. Ample space has been pro- 
vided for additions or corrections in the Vocabulary; this vacant space 
shall convince the student that the Author is far from considering his Vo- 
cabulary to be "exhaustive." 


a, an (Indefinite Article). See: [31] 

abandon kaydtjck (leave) ; paisdek — inpaisak — via/ipafsa — 

mangipdisa I leave alone {pa + isa: one) ; 
ukdyek — inukdyko — nia/iikay — mangtikay 


mafaUn [inabfalfii] ; mafdlinak [mabfdlinak] — nafdlinak 
(Personal endings doubtful!); mafallngko — nafaUngko 
[317] I am able; Cf. [298] 

about alPcdy nget; about ten men: ai^dy nget sinpd'o'y lalaldki; 

a&cdy nget stya: probably he. 

above is tongtjB [tongtsi!^]; totongtj^en; high above, in the 

sky: ad tjdya {as tjdya; is tjdya] 

absent See: ma/fd "not existing" [322]; kabkafdla: just gone 

out (from: fumdlaak) ; maldsinak I am absent (from 
battle etc. Song Dialect) 

abvindant angdngsan; aydka; tsatsdma [135] 

accept ftaniiiko \itandiko\ — intanutko — ma/itdniti — mangitdnui: 

I agree, accept, nod assent; tsaowddek — tsinaBwddko — 
tnatsdmwad — mandmwad: I accept an object ofifered, 


accompany mifuegak — nifilegak; infieegak ay ihniiy: I go with [401] ; 
kadtidk — kinadiidk I go as companion. Cf. [372]; 
mikidliak [makaliak] I go with 

accomplish amkoek — indmkok — madmko — mangdmko. 

fmdshek — finmdsJiko — mafmash — manmash. 
lipdshek — linipdshko — maUpash — minlfpash (Hoc. ?) 

account, on tay; mo ko tay (because) 

ache sakft; sak/t nan oh lieadache; inpSteg nan foh/d the 

tooth aches 

acquainted mdngtek: knowing, from kekkek; sinn nan mdngtek ken 

siya? who is acquainted with him? 


is aptd; is apfd nan poshong across the sea ; is aptdna 
istjt across yonder 

across, I go kitjdngek; knmtjdngak (cross) 
act fkak; dngnek (do) 

Adam's apple alokSok 

add tabtdbiak — tinabtdbiak 'T give more" itdbik: I add, I 

go on, continue 

address totSyek (speak to) 

admonish pdtak—pindtak—mapdtan. Pers. : hipatak — n/npatak 1 

warn, I reprimand. tokOnek (advise) 

adopt a child andkck — inandkko — madnak — mangdnak. 
(But: mdnganak, I eat) 



advance mnityak (go) 

advantage kdtok. ngdg nan kotok tosha? of what advantage is this? 

what does this mean? for what is this good? what is the 
reason of it? ngag kotSkko? what will it benefit me? 
ngag kotokko ay entsUno ay? why should I work? mid 
kofdkko it is of no use for me; it is in vain. 



advise tokonck — tinokongko — matokBn — mandkiPm warn, teach. 

Pers. : intoktOkBnak — nintoktokmnak 


pangoyiishek -inpangoyf/shko — mapangoyusJi- 

afflicted, I am in/ngongSyusak — nin/ngongoynsak 

induiBdak — nindniPniak I appear afflicted, gloomy, 
suviasdn s'aak — sininasdii ^aak 


is dpiiv; mapio'tan, from ppiak: I burn down, destroy by 
fire; niafltjang: blazing 

afraid ogiad [egiad, tgiad\; I am afraid: umogiddak (fear) 

after nafif/ash (from: fmdshek, I finish) ; [408]. Or: is nan 

nalpdsan: upon, after accomplishing (from: lipdshek) ; 
is san anongi'^sh: at the end of; cf. Fr. "au bout d' una 
heure." Conjunction: [445] 

afternoon early afternoon : is nan magdkyu; from about 2-4 o'clock : 

is nan mdksip; from about 4-6 o'clock: is nan misilyam; 
at the time of sunset: is nan sidsidsimna 

afterwards ketjeng, thereupon. [436] ; is san andngmsh ndntona: 

"at the end of this" — 


again kasht; dkis [akts] [312] (dkis = also) 

against is, ken 

agate abSngo [apongdy] used for necklaces 

age taHzvtna; kataiPnvfna. See: year 

ago ay inmiiy, ay ndlosh [ay ndlaosh], from laSshak I pass by; 

tSlo 'y dkyii ay inmliy three days ago; idkaBkaiPini a 
little while ago; idkdMni some time ago; adsdiigadum 
some months ago ; idtaBivhi or: ha 'y ta&ciufn ay ndlosh 
one year ago; aydka'y tamwhi ay inmfly many years ago 


aid, I 


itanutko (accept) 

pdkyam (oral agreement, not a written contract; Hoc.) 

fadjdngak (help) 

siiysiiy (breath, blowing etc.) 

kddgna [kdgna] 

atatdkm [adaddkm]; matatdkiPiak I am alive. (tdkgi: 
living being, person) 

dmi'n; amfn a\ tdkiPt all people ; this is all: kctjhigtji. 

all (pure) pdsig: pdsig faltdog all gold, pure gold, without admixture 

allow iy^ya k (let) 



almost kdnkani [311]; akh ydngkay et naydgyagak 

fallen {akft yangkay et: "but little, then") 

I had almost 


I sang; I am alone : isdngak; durative : isisdngak — 
inisisdngak: I remain alone. I alone (only I) : sak/Sn 
dngkay; I am alone, I am separated from, (in Plur. : we 
are together and separated from others) : viakekctjhigak — 
nakeketj^ngak; ma/isdak [mayisdak], see "abandon". 
I leave alone: ukdyek — inukdyko — ma/iikay — mangiikay. 
isdngak ay entsuno: I am working alone 


dfus, tptjas [309] 


dkis [akfs\ (postpositive) ; sak/Sn dkis I also, kag ken 
sak/en dkis I also ("like myself, also") 


j^iiiy [453] 

altitude kaantjdna "its altitude," nan kaantjon nan kdyo the 

height of the tree {kaantjd was always given in the con- 
struct state) 

always sissishsya; kaUwakaBzvdkas (everyday) ; katamwitaMwin 

(every year) ; is kataWwttaUwtn: forever 


Melikdno, Melikdnos, [Melikdnosh] 


is, ken; 

ya; et: and then 

anglehook fhigwid; line of the angle: Idfid; worm: ktllang. 

fengwtdak, Person. mamSngwitak I angle 



angry slwshdnget [sosSnget]; stnmcf}tget: having become angry ; 

inshoshSngetak: I am angry; sJiBmSngetak — sinmSngetak 
I am getting angry; inasisosongettdko we are angry at 
each other ; pashongtek I make angry — inpashongStko — 
maipashSngct — mangipashSnget ; pa/istkek I make angry, 
provoke; Person.: lunipatsikak, — inmipaisikak 

"anito-post" bdshd [pose] ; (a wooden post with a head carved on its top 
and placed in the yard of the councilhouse of each "ato") 

ankle kingktngi; joint : unget 

annoy (by talk) nmipadyoak — inmipadyoak; anmkek (trouble) 

another tSkkcn; another or "one more": dkis; nan tb/a the 

other, the companion 

answer, the sitmfad 

answer, I sibfdtek — sinfddko — mdsfad — mdiifad. Pers. : smnfddak 

— sinumfadak {sibfdtek stka: I answer you; Pers. in 

ant kiiyim or kusim, large red ant; fiavis, small dark brown; 

aldlasdng, large, red; k^ngan, biting ant 

anus koldngad [goldngad]; paiia/fyan (for: pang + ta/i + an) 

any [128, 129, 131, 133-] 

anybody mldy stnti 

anything tkl'dy ngag \mlSngag\ 

anywhere ml'dy mo intS; any place whatsoever : ^Idy I'ntona 




we are apart : makdketjSngkdmi. See : alone 

ape kda^ 

apiece is nan ha ("for one") 

approach sumdkonak — sinmdkonak \snmdgdnak] 

umaldliak I come nearer 


ttamiiko (accept) 


tli; fabfUy {fobfiiy]: homestead, place near home, near 
the town 


fumdngdnak — finmdngonak I arise from sleep. 
tMnidkijikak — timndktjtkak I stand up. itaktjtgko I rise 


lima (i. e. hand) ; upper arm tdklay; upper arm near the 
elbow pongo. See: measure 

armlet pangdnah; abkil for men: boar tusks with cock feathers; 

fdkua: red rattan with pigs teeth 

armpit yekyek 

around inltkid. I go around: lizvtshek (go), inliliwisak. I go 

around the tree : umiiyak inltkid is nan kdyo placed all 
around, made, put, tied around: malhvish; around me: 
is nan Itwisko 

arrival pddsong: a person's arrival at a place, town, on his jour- 

ney; a halting place (not the end of the journey) ; "etape." 

arrive thndjanak [itmtsdnak] — iniimdjanak 

sumdobak — sinmdobak I arrive at home 




odd \wdd, udd\ 


as = when: mo, hsan [443] ; as - like: kdg.; as = because: 


as if kdshSn [454] 

ascend digttjek — dinigttko — nadtgid — mantgid [manfged] ; 

digit jek nan ftlig I ascend the mountain 
manfgedak — nantgedak; ynanfgedak is nan ftlig I ascend 
the mountain 

ashamed, I am nmdsiak — inmdsiak. I make ashamed: dshck — indshko 
"mndsika man ay engkdlt is kdg tona! be ashamed to talk 
like that!" — "ma/td dshim [dshem; dshom] you are not 

ashes tjdpS 

ashore is nan tlid nan zvdnga (at the bank of the river) ; 

tjumdkaak — tjinmdkaak [tjiimdkalak]; umilidak — 
inmtlidak I go ashore; alazvdshek — inalawdshko — 
maaldwash — maugaldwash I pull ashore; patsakdlek — 
inpatsdkak — ma/ipatsdka — mangipatsdka I put on the 
shore (after pulling ashore) ; [patjakdlek] [Ci. 240] 


ibfakak — tnfakak — ma/tbfaka — maugibfaka (Construc- 
tion : person with is or ken; thing in "Accusative.") — 
tbfakak ken siya mo intS nan flina I ask him where his 
home is. — tbfakak ken stka nan kipdnmo I ask you for 
your knife. — Frequent. : ibfakdfakak I ask many ques- 
tions, or: I ask eagerly, I ask many persons, I ask around; 
Infinitive: tbfaka. See Grammar [228]. 
Person. : umibfakdak — inmibfakdak ; kotsdi^zvek 
[ ketjdMwck] — kinotsdiPcko — mangotsalX [ mdngtsaifi ] — 
mdktsa&c I ask for; Person.: ktuntjdi9cwak or: 
inkotsdiPcak; inkotsdl^ak ken stka is tindpay I ask you for 




bread; kumtjdi<'civak kSn todt is Idgfo I ask him for 


Or: kdnak, I say; kdnak ken sika nan hilak I ask you 

for money 

kinzvdnitja ken sak/hi nan mSnok they asked me for 


assemble amongek — indmongko — niadmong — mangdinong I call 

madmongtdko — nadmongtdko we assemble, come together 


ttanuiko (accept) 


fadjdngak (help) 


is; ken; is ken AnaBwdsal: at Anauwasal's house 


dto = a section of a town, a "precinct." See: "council 
house;" the people of one ato: pangdto; the whole ato: 

attack falogntdek — finalognl'dko — mafalognid — mamalSgnid. 

Person.: infalognidak — ninfalognidak: I battle, fight 


alitdei ay fafdyi father's sister; yUn/an tna mother's 
older sister; anStjin ina mother's younger sister ; indek 
my father's brother's wife; (as transitive verb indek means: 
1 have as my aunt ; indent you have as your aunt, or 
foster mother etc.) 


See: "season." 

avenge faltshak [falFsak]; falisantdko nan awaktdko! let us take 

revenge for our slain ("bodies") ! 




fumchigonak (arise) ; fumafdngonak: I am, keep awake; 

to arouse from sleep: fangOnck — finanSngko — mafdngon — 


inliblibak: I keep awake, I watcli during the night 


adadsdmwi [adsaMwi; adsowt] far away; adadsdmwiak 
I am far away; kiimdanak — kinmdanak I go away. I go 
away, i. e. out of my house : fumdlaak — finmdlaak 


sinakitan; is akft 


pinang; Tucucan: A-^f'/na!? = l)attle-ax (Hoc: Uwa, 

alhva; an ax with very long "beak:" inotOkan ay pfnang) 

pindngash ax blade; Stok the pointed fore end of the 

blade, "beak." 

pam/it the (rear) thorn; tdpek (i. e. "mouth") edge 

pdlek \hdlek\ ax handle 

kalSlot the iron cap on the handle near the blade 

tSngfa [dSngha], or si gndlan the iron cap on the other 

end of the handle 

kasil; kindsil; sinduekan rings of bejuco serving as caps 

pfnang si iLdkod the battle ax of tribes in the North; 

nan pdlik ay nasosOan {sOso: "breast"); or: lindkod ay 

nasosdan the handle with a "nose" 

ax and adze wdsay (a working tool with changeable blade); 
blade ; pakdtja handle 




baby atinfuyang (very young) ; ktllang boy ; ngdan girl ; 

ongdnga child 

back of the body: it jig, [dtsog]. tjalig backbone 

back is tsogok [tsogog]: to the rear [401 ; 412] 

kiunSgedak — kinmSgedak I go back (of fear) 
tMmoliak I come back (come) 
pashakongek I throw back (throw) 
sumdkongak ay intdktak I run back 
pataoltek ay fadlen I send back (send) 
insdkongak I look back, turn around 

bacon ftlad 

bad dngdlud, angdngdUld (bad, but improvable; ugly) 

ngdg [iigmg] thoroughly bad; physically and morally 

bad; Tucucan: Idweng 

ngi^mddgak: I become bad 

ololdy very bad, very wicked. Idmzva bad, improper, 

indecent, wrong {ddkes, Hoc. is used also] 

niaiigfsB bad, malicious, dirty (particularly of a woman) 

bag of cloth: tjSkam; of deerskin: kdtat; of a bladder: 

fftjong; f it jong si fritug, or: sd gab. in the bag: is nan 

bald natoltolan nan Slo, nan fook; pdklang (Hoc.) 




mindkan a ball of thread, string etc. 

bamboo kawdyyan [kawdyan]; tindnong, used for tubes ; dnis, 

for baskets; ffka, folo, [friln^] used for the spearblades 
of "fdngkaM" ; mdyign&c, bamboo as "hard as iron." 
See: tube 


fdlad; small green: sdking; large, yellow : mindyeng 

bank of river tlid; nan ilid nan zvdnga; pdna: seashore 


sdlawid; a spear with many barbs: sinalaivitan 

sipsip; inner bark: kSblid [kShnid] 

in/ngdngoak — nin/ngSngoak ; in/ngSngo nan dsU the 
dog barks 



barter sokddck — sinokddko — niasokad — nianOkad. Person. : 

sttmSkadak — smmokadak . idjtiak is nan sOkad: I give in 
exchange. See: change. 

fshugddko — inshugddko — nia/ishiigad — niangishUgad. 
[ismkdtko; isokdtko] 

basket akalPcivtn small basket, of graceful form, broad round rim, 

the other part conical with four "ribs." — Also: woman's 
small basket carried on the back. 

aktd medium size, Hat, no rim in front, for gathering 

atSfang woman's basket, for vegetables 
fdkkeng si kdtfit small fish basket M. Sch. IX, 1 1 
faWko basket for camote 
falSang bottleshaped basket M. Sch. IX, 9 
falolang large receptacle for skulls 


basket fdngam man's basket, to be carried on the back, like a 

knapsack, with shoulder straps; the cover, tdngeb, is made 
of rattan leaves: tSfon si wile M. Sch. XHI, 7 and 8 
fanh basket for salt 

fiki si mSnok- chicken basket (for ceremonies) 
gOliPig high basket (about 6 inches) M. Sch. IX, 10 
iwas si tjStjon bottle-shaped basket for grasshoppers 
kahlpit man's dinner basket, consisting of several parti- 
tions, with a string for carrying it on the shoulder 
kdtteng fish basket 

kimdta large transportation baskets at either end of a long 
pole, pdtang, to be balanced on a shoulder 
klMg round fiat basket, diam. about 8 inches, serving as 

kSllBg large receptacle for rice, made of bamboo M. Sch. 
XHI, 4 

kolong chicken coop J. LXXVHI 
kotsSkod earth basket 
kdyLO(k basket, used in fishing 

Idgshan large flat basket, no rim in front; used for dngo. 
boiled camote leaves. (Similar to the akid.) [The largest 
basket in J. XCIV; the smaller within the lagshan is the 
akid; on top of these two is the faloko; then there are sev- 
eral kiMg and the high, bottle-shaped behind the dinner- 
plates is the hSlMg, for fmdym, pounded rice. — ] 
Ima a large low basket, for women, to be carried on the 

Okad a fish basket 

sakdlong funnel-shaped basket, the temporary receptacle 
for the heads brought home from a successful expedition 
M. Sch. XVI, 13 

sdngi man's basket, similar to the fangam, but without 
cover M. Sch. XIII, 5 

shSlong basket suspended beneath the roof, for knife and 
spoons; basket in the fdwi (see: buildings), containing 
skulls: sholongan 
takStsog [takotjag] dirt scoop 

taydan woman's large transportation basket, carried on 
the head and usually placed into the l^m. The large basket : 
tSpil dinner basket 


basket toktSpil children's food basket 

tiifong receptacle for thrashed rice 




ihnisak; See: wash 


faWgnid (battle with modern arms: kiifad) 

battle cry en/ngd/oak I shout a battle cry, challenge 

be, to 



apdng; of black seed: gmsam; of gray seed: atldkily ; 
red stone: apongo, or: sfleng; large white agate: fSkash 
of brown berries : paltdbed 




vertical: iSkod; horizontal: fatdnglay; inclined: tdklod; 
a beam to carry a burden: dtang; I carry: iatdngko; 
fatdlXwil: beam at the end of which I carry.... See: pole, 
post, basket kimdta 


faldtong [balddong]; ttab black and gray beans; kdlab 
small green beans ; 

odkek — inodgko — wai^'a^. Person. : inOakak I gather beans 
mamaldtong — namaldtong I go to get beans 


See: birth; carry 


sdpki near the ears; stlbok at the chin ; sfmsim any 
hair in the face, whiskers etc. 




kogSngek (strike) ; faySkek (whip) ; patSyek (kill) 
pat/Sngek (strike) I beat the gong, the "gdngsa." See: 
strike; knock; rap 

beautiful kawts ay tlaen "good to see ;" shaymkck — shinayt^fgko — 

mashdymg — nianaymg: I shape beautifully (pots, spears, 


tay; mo ko man tay: certainly because; because indeed 

beckon kawdtsak — kinawdtsak I make a sign to come near, I call 

by signs 


katen (Igorot?). sleeping board in the "dngan," the 
sleeping chamber : ilek; ifoyk a mat 



yeikan; bumblebee : f&cUngfin 

beef fdka (i. e. cow) tstja 'y nSang (meat of the buffalo) 

beetle dfib; fokfoktdd; kimktmi cockroach 

before sasdkang [Z9^; dfus, tptjas [2,og; A'^-Z'^ '\'^^'\ 

mangmnmia mo...: "earlier than" before the house: is 

tjtla ("in the court") 

day before yesterday kasht adfcgka, or : is kashi itgka 

beggar inltmosh; inlimSshak I go begging 

begin ildbok — inldbok — maildbo [mfldbo] — mangildbo. 

he begins to speak : ildbona 'y engkalt 



beginning, the lablabSna; (the first); is nan lablabona: beforehand; 
ka/ilabSan the beginning 

behind tsSgok [tsSgog]; is tsOgok [400; 412]; I go behind, 

follow: umdnodak; tsogokek: I have behind; I put behind; 
(hence : I am in front;) tsogokek stka: you are behind me; 
Sngka is tsogSgko! go behind me! 

believe abfoliitek — inabfSlutko — maabfSlnd — mangabfdlud. Per- 

son. : iimabfSlndak. 

bellow (of the carabao, water-bufifalo) in/ngdck nan nSang, the 

b. bellows 

bellows opOop; I work with the bellows: opoopak. feathers at 

the piston: tsmdtsiPid; tubes leading to the fire: tOfong 
[tdbong^; the blast, air : silysny or: tjak/m (wind) 
Cf. Ling Roth, Natives of Sarawak etc. H, 236 f . ; Jcnks, 
B. I. 126 f . ; Meyer u. Schadenberg, Album v. Phil.-Typen 
(1891) Taf. 30; Leo Frobenius, Geograph. Kulturkunde, 
IV. Teil (1904) p. 200, Asien Taf. IV. 

belly fdto [bodo] 

belong [107] kda: property. kdan todt: it belongs to that one 

...ya my property, belongs to me. 

below is kodpna 

bench fdngko (Sp. banco) ; tuktjilan: sitting place 

bend digkdck — dinlgkok — niad/gko — mantgko. [tikdck, digiiek] 

bent: nadfgdigkd; lidddck — linidddko — malfdod — 
minlfdod I bend and hurt thereby (a finger etc.) 
tjapdshak — tjinapdshak — matjapdshan — mandposh I bend 
by laying a heavy mass upon ; mabfdkog nan awdkna: 
his body is bent. 



pikodck — pinikddko — mapikod — mamikod I bend to a loop 

beneath i^ kodpna; is kokodfona (beneath it) ; is nan tsdo; is nan 

tsdo nan tnktjilan: beneath the chair, seat. [405] 

berry pokong; ptned 

beside is nan tsdpat; at my side: is nan tsapdtko [tjapdtko] 

best kdgawfs; kdgawts mo amfn: better than all 

betray Sngakak (lie) 

better kdgazvfs mo.... better than; makdan: better in health 

(from kadnek I take away, e. g. sickness). 
mandkas it is better [414] (probably Ilocano? vb. akdshck, 
to improve, heal). 

mandkas is iimaliantdko it is better that we go 
kumazvis nan sakftko: I am getting better (my sickness 
gets better) ; or: makdanak, see: take away, heal 

between kdmwa [404] 

beverages tdpuy: rice wine; /<f3'a.!.7^ [foa^'i; Ilocano, not Igorot], alco- 

holic beverage made of sugar cane; fermented by means 
of tiibfig. sdfeng: a fermented drink made of meat, veg- 
etables, grasshoppers, bones etc. 


tjaktjdki; very big: ijaktjagda {tjaktjagSag; tjaktjagora; 
r is a rough sound between r and 1] — patjaktjakelek: I 
make big, enlarge. 


fdlStjek — finalStko — mafdlBd — mamalmd. fdlmd: string, 


m,amdlmdak I am bound, a prisoner, fettered. See: tie. 


bird aydyam; young bird: gSyad ay aydyam; dnak si aydyam 

bird's nest 

dkam; dfong si aydyam ("house") 


pafaldek — inpafdlak — maipafala — maiigipafdla I give birth 
or: t/andkko — inandkko — ma/idiiak [mfanak, mayidnak] 
Person.: umdnakak. insdtjaak. "birthday:" dkyu ay 
finmalddiia. — See: born 

bit, a 

aklt (a little) 


kt'dfak [ ktdfak ] — kinMfak — mak^dfan — mdngdeh Person. 
inkddebak; kunidcbak. kagdek (chew); I bite off: 
angmtek — inangmtko — mangdngUd — madngt9td 



ngfttd [ngitit, inngftit]; ingitafdo very black; kumdebak 
is inngltit I make black, paint black; or: pangitttek — 
ill pail git/tko — iiia/ipangftit — mangipangttit 

blacksmith fiifuinslia 



of spear: tiifay {til fay, as part for the whole: the spear) ; 
blade of ax: pindngash; blade of adze: sdka; of knife: 

blanket hvis; pitay; pttay ay pinakpdkan: a "pftay" of best material 

and make; M. Sch. VHI, 4, 5, 6.; pftay ay bdkhi si 
faldtong: made of "fiber of bean stalks" 
kddpas: a girl's blanket 

favdong dark blue blanket with white stripes; 
a stripe : fdlid 



blanket fantjdla: white blanket with blue stripes, also: fantjdla 

ay dindpi [find pi], if the stripes are broad. M. Sch. VH, 5 
if an si ongonga a blanket for wrapping and carrying a 


djnmdlaak; fiimdla nan djdla: the blood flows out 


nakfniid, from : kimftek nan mdtak, I close my eyes 
one-eyed nabfshek; fiUtsing; hvildok 
blind with open eyelids fdlag; nakfillao 
{nabl°(ldingan: with white pupil, albino) 






djdla [ddla, tsdla] ; djumadjaldak — djinniadjdldak I am 


padjaldek — inpadjdlak — mipadjdla — mangipadjdla I make 


blossom f^>ig<^ 

blow, I subSkak [shnbSkak] — sinnbSkak — niasubokan — manf/bok 

[maniibog] ; pashnbokck: I cause to blow, i. e. I call the 
conjurer, the "insdbok," to blow away sickness and pains; 
engka pashiibok! go and call the conjurer! 
Person. : insdbokak — ninsUbokak 
fitjokek — finitjSgko — niafftjog — mamttjog: I blow, inflate 


asiil (Sp. azur); tlna, tinina (Sp. Hoc); usually: ngftif, 
i. e. black 


na/Sped; op^tjek [obSytjek, obfdek, opStjek] — inop^fko — 
maSped — mangOped I make blunt, dull 




fiia {bma\; Idman: wild boar 




fdngka (Sp., Hoc.) (unknown to most Igorot) ; hab^l, 
steamboat (Sp. vapor) lakid "a Span, bamboo canoe;"' raft 


inogonan; (podonaii in Lepanto) 

boU, I 

(hvak (liv'ing or dead; men or animals) 

inltek — ininitko — ma/inid — mangtnid; (boil water) ; 
ahfuyiiek boil down sugar, salt; palndkek [palodkek] — 
inpaludgko — malilag — mangipalilag. Person. : inluluag 
it is boiling, bubbling; lumiiag it begins to boil 
Person.: Inmdkak — linumdkak. lininnag nan tji^mon: the 
water boiled 

tsa [fyo] lummag: it is boiling, continues to boil. 
See : cook 

boil, a fptyily (furuncle etc.); a scar from a boil: ndyainan 

bold mdlengag; I am brave, bold : maUngagak 

bone tivnga [tonga; 'ii:\\nok\: tongal and: tongar]; higid 

Bontoc F^ntok \FSntok\; iF^entok an inhabitant of Bontoc; 

iF^ntokak I am from Bontoc ; iF^ntok ay I gSlot a 
Bontoc Igorot. Bontoc region: Tjfdyd, or: Kcnsdtjan. 
(in Songs.) 


naftkod (lean, thin, skinny) 

If bio (Sp. libro; 




amas (part, dividing line, frontier) ; t'lid 

bore through lushkcmwck — linushkdmko — nalihhkatk — minlihhkaiPC. 
telkck — tinlSkko — ndtlek — mdnlek pierce the ear lobe 

bom finmdla ("come out" from fumdlaak) ; ma/idnak 


I am born as... mahfSluak; mabfShiak is kdag I am born 
as a monkey, I became by birth a monkey; I make by birth, 
I create as: f^l°fkuek — finWcPiiko — nafml'^u [mahfdln] 
maidnakak — naidnakak (ad Fetntok) I am born (at 

nan ongonga ya finmdla adffgka: the child was born yes- 

borrow tegk°ihvck — tink°uko — mdtk'^u (to borrow any object) 

iupakai^zvdtak is nan btlak I borrow money (kaiPcwdtek) 


sdso [shosho] 

both amtn nan djua: ("all two") ; amtn nan djua'y rndtam both 

of your eyes 


bdngam ("glass") ; fottlya (Sp.) 

bottom of a koldngad [goldngad] 
pot, jar 

bough pdnga small bough, twig: ptngi 

boundary dmas (border, part) 

bow bandolay (Hoc.) : bow and arrows (scorned and never 

used by genuine Igorot) 


bow down inltpedak — ninltpedak 

bowels fmang 

bowl sdkong (used also as cover for jars) ; tjuyo: wooden bowl. 

See : pot, dish, jar etc. 

box dgi9(b \dkop, aknb], also "trunk" little box, to keep 

utensils: tiwktmkno 

box, 1 kogSngek (strike) 

boy ongonga 'y laldki ("male child") ; baby: klllang; older 

than about twelve years: fobfallo. Plural: ongdnga; 

bracelet sSngab; see "armlet" 

braid apitjck — inapitko — inddpit — mangdpit. Person. : nmdpitak 

brain mtek [iitek] 

branch pdiiga; dry branch : If pat 

brass kdtjing (also: brass chain) 

brave mdlengag; abafnnget 

bread tindpay [dindpay; a loan word, as the Igorot do not make 

any bread; Malay: tindpay: kneaded] 

break pftnck — pinthigko — mdpten — mdmiten [mdmtcn ] 

fakdshek — finakdshko [finSkdshko ] — mafdkash — 
mamdkash I break and destroy (by violence) 



break Person.: fumdkashak; infdkashak. But: fckashck I 


potldngek — pinotlongko — mapotlong — mamdtlong I break 
off; potldngek nan potlongna: I break off a piece here 
kihongek — kinibdngko — makibong — mangibong break to 
pieces ; or : pitapitdngek 

pa/abokck — inpa/abSgko break completely, smash to pieces 
ma/ikabkab: the last pieces broken off one after the other, 
in small sections, as e. g. a stick is gradually shortened 
pekpSgkek — pinekpegko — mapekpeg. — mamSkpcg I break 
an arm; leg; also a stick etc. — napekpeg nan Itmak: my 
arm is broken. 
sokpStek: I break a string. 

breakfast mdngan {maiig and root : kan) 

breast soso [shdsho] (of man and woman) 





ngays; ngasa 

laldyak nan tjakfm: I draw in the air; inngdsaak I breathe; 
insiydkak I breathe heavily with a whistling sound ; 
I pant, breathe after carrying a burden: inisitysuyak 

breechcloth wdnis, for men ; fdla and zvdkis, for women. Different 
kinds: sdbut, or: tindngag: yellowish, made of tree fiber, 
(sdbiit [sdfut] means also a large bag of rice) tindngag, 
made in Tucucan and Biduakan 
winangtsan [winanisan]: red and blue (black) 
finalongfdngan: very fine and elaborated, "all string" 
tjina/dkan: with red ends, tassels 
tjindngta: white, for men 
lindnlan: for men, similar to tjindngta 
fd/a: for men, all blue 
pindshlan: blue with small stripes 
fdla: a little apron, also worn by men 


bride umdfong ay fafdyi; bridegroom : umdfong ay laldki 




fiigddo (Hoc.) 

s/li; sumili nan dkyu: the sun is shining bright; [somfli]; 
pasiltek I cause to shine; I reflect light from polished metal 
infitfitjang nan dpuy: the fire burns with a bright flame; 
or: kBmdlang 


iydik \ydik\ — inydik — ma/iydi [maydi, niaydli] — 

mangiydi [matigydi, mangydli, mingydi]. Frequentat. 

ydiydik. Person.: inydiak [inydiiak] ; iwiydiak [mnydliak]. 

umydiak means often: I go and bring 

Causat. paydik, I order to bring, I send to somebody. 

iydpok — inydpok — maiydpo — niangiydpo [mingiydpo ] I 

bring from; iydpok ad Fmntok: I bring from Bontoc 

isdak — insdak — ma/isda — mangisda I bring, carry home 

pasikpck — inpaskSpko — ma/ipdskcp — mangipdskep: 

I bring into the house, (a pot, box etc.) Also: I order to enter 

itSlik I bring back (return) 




fjashvek; tjaevzv/sek. See: roast 

broken- mafdkash, figurat. from fakdshek I break, destroy 




tabtahdkam (in rainy season) ; bed of a brook: kinndjpean; 
several tributaries to the river Rio Chico, which are passing 
through Bontoc are called: kfnnaiPf 

sis/t; use a broom : sis/tak, Person.: insfs/iak 



broth litang 

brother The same terms, only distinguished by adding: ay laldki, 

or : ay fafdyi, serve for both brother and sister : 
had [etad]: brother, sister, is the general term for younger 
as well as older brother or sister. 

yiln/a: the older brother or sister; plural sometimes: 
yunihia; the oldest brother or sister was called in "old lan- 
guage:" pangOlo "headbrother." 

andtji [iiidfji] : the younger brother or sister ; plural 
sometimes : ananotji. 

(the second brother: sitmnid ay laldki; the third: 
kaBivdan ay laldki: "there is no term for the fourth etc. 

brothers and sisters, "Geschwister :" dki: usually: sindki, 
two brothers or sisters; sindg/f, more than two brothers 
or sisters. 

the brother is to his sister : "kalalakidna;" she calls him: 
"kalalakiak," my brother. 

to a brother his sister is "kafabfdyfdiia;" he calls her: 
kafibffak, my sister, when speaking of her to others. Or: 
ftddko ay fafdyi, yfhi/ak ay fafdyi, anStjik [iiidtjik] ay 

pangdlok av fafdyi: my oldest sister (if she is the oldest 
child) ; sinakikami: we are brothers and sisters, we are 
children of the same parents. 

brother-in-law kdssud ay laldki: sister-in-law: kdssud ay fafdyi. The 
wife's (or husband's) sister's husband : abftlad ay laldki. 
The relationship of brothers (or of sisters-) -in-law to each 
other : sintngct. 



brown kdg ttlin, "like a ricebird ;" darkbrown : ngitit "black ;" 

redbrown: inktlad, "red;" light brown: faktngi "yellow." 

bubbles, it infohfobS {nan tj^nmm, nan tb/ib: the water, the spring, 

well). See: boil 



buck of deer : ()gsa 'y laldki 

bud fmd 

buffalo Bubalus buffelus L. (Report of the Phil. Comm. IV, p. 

I3f.) "water-buffalo;" (J. p. lO/f.) tame buffalo: n^ang 

wild: aydzvan [dya%van\ 

cow: kamfdkyan; bull: tot/ 6; calf: i n an ak ay aydzvan, 
ay m^ang. See: wedding 

bug dfib, fokfoktSd, kttcb 

build kdpek (make) 

buildings: dfong, house; fd/oy [fd/bil] large house; katydfong 

small house, hut; houses of an "dto:" fdzvi: councilhouse 
of the "ato," place where the men assemble in the evening 
to discuss affairs and where the old men and single boys 
sleep; see: "councilhouse;" the stone wall around the 
court: tjdpay; the flat stones on top of this wall: tdngf^ii; 
abafmngan, [pabafmigan]: house like the "fdzvi," but 
with a larger court in front, where ceremonies are frequently 
performed, with slaughtering of pigs, dogs, chickens. Also 
dormitory for old and unmarried young men and boys. 
Slog: dormitory for the girls of an ''ato." [SliXg] 
dllang: granary 

bull tot/d 

bullet fSbala 

bunch one handful of rice ears: sinf^nge [2,6j] 

bundle fugshong ; fugsli dugck — fin ugsfi Sngko — mabfdgshong — 

mamugshong I pack into a bundle, bundle, i. e. one load: 




aiPiivfd : see: "bundle." 


pafitjdngck — inpafttjangko — ma/ipafttjang — 
iiiangipafftjang I cause to burn, kindle. Person. : 
f limit jdngak — fimnitjdngak to burn (intransitive) 
infitfitjdngak to burn brightly, to be ablaze 
isluinok [isilnok] — inshi/nok — ma/isluino — mangishiino I 
put into the fire ; I burn wood etc. Synonym : igtongok 
na)i kdyo (wood) 

pmak [pdak, piiak] — pinmak — mapman — [map/ian, 
mapdan] — mdfnPc I burn down, destroy by fire (houses, 
granaries etc.) napiptan nan dfong: the house is afire 
tddngak — tinSdngak — matSdngan: I burn my hand, fin- 
ger etc. 

Also: nadtongan nan Ifmak, my hand is burned (atoiig: 
warm) ; atdngak I burn 

kifck (kSfek) — kinfak — makfa — mangffa: I burn pots; 
Person. : inkdfaak is fdnga 

bum, a malafSbtjong 

bury Ika/io{pko — inka/i4pko — ma/ikd/Ptp — i>iangikd/s^p 

[ika/iipko]; I hide in the ground, I dig a hole; 
fekdfek: I bury (at midnight) an enemy's head. 


I am busy: nay si tsak tsiinoen ("here is to work for me"). 
See "work." 


siddnay [sfadnay] [433] ; ya (and) 

butterfly ftnoldfolo; a small b. : akdkob 


mpo [dpo, lipo] 


flidi, fatSnis (Sp. Hoc.) 


buy lagdak — linagOak — malagSan — minJdgo. [Pret. : nilagOak, 

by metathesis.] Person.: lumagoak — linmagOak. place 
for buying: kaldgoan. 

by governing the agent of passive verbs: is, ken [390]. by 

and bv : is aBdBni. 

cage kdlong: chicken-basket. 

calf hidnak ay aychvan (or: si for ay); calf of the leg: 


call, I aycikak — Inaydkak — maayakan — mangdyak [ mangdyag]. 

Person.: iimdyakak — inmdyakak: I call to come, 
call; name: kdnak (say), ngag nan kandni si sa? what 
do you call this? 

fdkaBzvak — findkaBwak — mafukdnzvan — mam dkaB i call 
loud, shout to one; Person.: infdkaBzvak — ninfdkaBwak. 
laldyak — linaldyak — malaldyan — minldlay to call to come, 
to call near; Person.: lumdldyak — linmaldyak. 
yishtjdek — yinhhtjak — mayishtja to call animals. 
The call: ytshtja! 

"camote" (sweet potato) ^^j'/e/. Varieties: /■;7()7v'/o, brown, "the best;" 

aknfdngfang, brown, inferior; shSshog, light brown; 
patdki, white, "better than slidsliog;" linjko, brown; Idkniug, 
brown; khveng; tangtdnglag; camote-settings: finalfling: 
leaves : dngo (boiled as food for pigs) ; camote-stick : sdzcan 
(implement for digging up) ; fadngan: camote patch. 


can, I 

mabfdlinak — nabfdlinak ; mahfalhigko [iiiafdliiiak: 317] 
See [298] 


dlak: dug out for irrigation of fields. See: irrigation, 
troueh, water, a trench : taldkan 


see : buffalo 


ikad; I take care, I care for: fkadak, ikddka etc. 

ikddkdyB! care, or: help yourselves! adfak ikad ken stka: 

I do not care for you. sak/in nan ikad: I shall care for 

it, do it, arrange it. Also: ktkad; kfkadak is kanentdko: 

I shall care for, prepare our dinner, fkadak [kikadak] ay 

niangdla: I take care to take: I help myself to it. 

i^ldy! I do not care! i^ldy iimdyka! I do not care if 

you go! Or: L4ldy mo mnnyka. tak/Sn mo ma /hi kdnck! 

I do not care if I have nothing to eat! 

I care for: fnongnongko. mid nongnongmo 

for nothing, you are negligent, worthless. 

I take good care (of children), provide with food: 

o/Sshdck or: nongnongek — ninongnongko 

I take care of the sick : tokongak — tinokdngak — 

niatokongan — mandkong (nurse) 

you care 

carpenter shumashdfad (skilled in house building); see: plane 

carriage kalimdto \kalomdto\ (Sp. carromato) 

carrier kangkadsdl [kalikadsdl] (Sp. cargador) 


sagfdfek — sinagfdtko — masdgfat — niandgfat [niandgfad]: 

a burden on the shoulder 

agtSek — indgtok — ma/dgto — mangdgto: on the head (as 

women do) 

kamzvflik — kinamzvilik — makai^wili — mangamivtli I carry 

the double basket "^jw^Vo." Also: ikdi^zvilik 

ibfatamzvtlko — infataMzvilko — maibfatdmzvil I carry on a 


carry beam on the shoulder, {fatdmzvil: the beam, pole, at the 

ends of which the burden is fastened.) 

iatdngko: I carry on a beam, a burden being suspended at 
the middle of the beam 

sakliiyek — sinakliiyko — masdkluy — manakliiy I carry a 
child on my arm 

abfSik — inabfSik — maahfSi [dbfaek — inafak — mad fa — 
mangdfa] I carry a child on my back, in the wrap ifdn 
isdak carry home (bring home) ; or : isklpko 
labdinek I carry with both arms (a box, table etc. before 
my body) 

alebfdek I carry under the arm 

isdugik {is nan itj/'gko) I carry on my back in a basket 
tapaydck I carry in my hand 
pastkpek 1 carry into... (bring into) 
ifdlak I carry out ; Infinit. : ifdla 
igadngko I carry away to an other place 
ofSck I carry to an other place in several trips 
Tddugko I carry away from a place inddngko — ma/fdan 
ita/olik I carry to the rear, carry back [itSlik] 
See also: "to take, to bring" 

cast away bvastdko, [duwasidko\ (throw) 


fitlfak — finitltak — mafitlian — mamttli 


/^(7,f/m (loanword) ; wildcat: fnyam; stldy {coonl) 


tjipdpck — tjinpdpko — mdtpab [ mddpap ] — mdnpab. Per- 
son, tjdmpdpak; aldck: I (take) catch, get fish; or: 
katj°iiivek. See : angle, net, trap, fish etc. 
adikoek — inadtkok — maadfko — mangadfko I catch in run- 
ning, pursuing; or: apaydtPcwek (pursue) 
kSn/nek — ktnnak — ndkna I catch in a trap or net ; ndkna: 
the prey. (aldcm sak/^n! catch me ! sikfam sak/Jn! 
catch my leg! in games) 

caterpillar kStjing; atdtjix 




turn gay ak (stop) 

celebrate intSngaBak — niiifengai^iak. tumcngaMtdko aswdkas! we 

keep holiday to-morrow ! (thus announce the boys, calling 
from ato to ato, a holiday proclaimed by some sacred men.) 
See : feast 

ceremonies mdngmang (sacrifice a chicken; prayer etc.) ; Verb: 


mangdpny ceremony with fire in the field (or house) 
sdngJB (sacrificing a pig) Verb : insangfmkaini, we 

manaBwisak or: tsaMwtsak I perform a less important 
ceremony or sacrifice. See: roast. 

iuanttdak I perform a ceremony for the soul of the deceased, 
the anlto 

dtong burial ceremony; 

pdt/tay: performed in the sacred grove papat/tay by 
the priests pumapdt/tay; Verb : mamdt/tayak 
(And great many other ceremonies connected with agricul- 
ture, wedding, burial, sickness, headhunting, wind and 
weather etc.) 

certain tit/iwa true; a certain : nan tsa ay.. 

there is one 

or: "Modd nan... 


kaydkay ; brass chain kaydkay ay kdtjing; katdna (Sp. 


Igorot: tiiktjuan, katjiktjimn {a seat) \ Alab: sakilban; 
Hoc. paldngka; fdngko 

chair for a sangdtjil (The body, tied upon the sangdtjil, is kept before 

corpse the house several days, until it is buried) 


dngan, see : house 



change sokddak — sinokddak — viasohddan — manOkad: I change 

anything, money, name, clotli, work, etc. 
Person.: insOkadak [sdndak; sokdndak]. See: barter 
tsiihlik — tnsiiblik — ma/tsubli — rnangisubli, I change money; 
Person. : insiibliak — ninsiibliak. The passive or middle : 
ma/is ffbliak [misfibliak] means also: I change my place, 
my order with an other person; I come in turn; I take his 

ngmndtjanak [ngorndtsanak] — nginmdtjdnak 1 change 
my name (ngdtjan), I transform myself (in fables, tales 
etc.), I become. 
ndtken (from teken, other, different) changed. 

charcoal v/ling 

charm aiiidya (a piece of bamboo, 3 inches long, in which an herb 

or other charm is kept; it "wins love, keeps off mad dogs, 
prevents defeat"); sdknib a similar charm, wards off 
evil spirits {"anito"), misfortune, sickness. Sdknib: 
resembles a piece of coal; "the people in the North make it; 
it must not be opened." Especially strong as sdknib is a 
"Thunder's tooth: fobd nan kit jo. Considered most preci- 
ous and bought at a high price." 

chase off pakadnek; ibi/ibSyko (drive) ; pashakSngek I chase back 

cheap akit nan Idgona (little its price) ; nalagd (Hoc.) 

cheat lokdck [logdek] — linokok — malSko — minloko; Ilocano; 

Igorot use besides this loanword: engdkak, to lie. 


tdniong; near the temples : tping. 

tdkeb (breast). See box. trunk. 

tamtkek — tinamigko [ tinamftko ] — matdmid. 
kagdck — kindgak — makdga — mangdga. 



chicken niSnok [nionog, mdnok] ; young chicken : tmpash {tnipas\ 

ijtsak; wild chicken : sdfag kolong: chicken coop. 


of a town, appointed by the Spaniards : plesidSnte; not 
"chief," but a rich man of great influence: gadsdngyen 
\katjdngyen\, "^primus inter pares." iiangdto: a man of 
high rank (Hoc.) 


ongoiiga, Plur. : oiigdnga [or: ongdnga] ; 

dnak, P\ur.: dndnak: son or daughter 

ongongaak: I am young. 

ongdnga 'y laUtki, — '_v fafdyi: a boy, a girl ; 

dnak ay laldki, — ay fafdyi: a son, a daughter. 

the only child of a family: fiiktong [Or: nan tsang, the 

only]. See: baby, boy, girl, youth. 

sinpdngaiiak: all the children of a family. 

umdnakak — inindnakak: I have, I had children. 







pdnga; (jawbone, used often as handle for the gong) 

Tjfiio [Tstiio] : Sdnglay. 


tdlog; to use a chisel: taldkek — tinaldgko — matdlog- 
mandlog (Hoc. ?) 

choke sektek — sinkhko — mdsket — mdnket. See: strangle, suf- 


choose piliek — pintlik — mapfli — mamtli 

chop off fakdkek, Person, mamdkaak ; potldngak See: cut 




simfdn (loanword) 


piiuiltjis ( from Hoc. paltjlsck, I roll) ; afdtio (Sp. 

circular nalimliiiw. I make round: fowdek — finOwak — mafOa- 


circumcise sigydtak — sinigydtak — masigydtan — mantgyat 


ili; nan ili'd Funtok the town of Bontoc 

btda: {pftck: mud) 

apapSkaioi {pOkaB: white); I clean: papokdlPczvek; 
1 am clean: pmmdkaBwak ; Inlatek — linulutko — malfHud 
— minlulud: I clean a water channel, pipe, clean, clear 
water: iialilcngan. clean, washed: namts {ivom tmsek: 


kaldfck — kinaldbko — makdlah — mangdlab. Person. : 
kumdlabak — kinmdlabak. climb a mountain ; see : 
"ascend." (I start to climb a mountain in order to work: 
fokndkek — finokndgko. 
Person, mamdgiiakak \mamdknakak.\ See: go out.) 


intdynnak ; insdbfiidak: I am hanging and hold fast to a 

clock lilMsh (Sp. rcloj;); olas: "hours" (Sp.) 

close, I /nfak — inlnfak — mal'ufan — manginfan. 

tdngfak — tindngfak — matdngfan. 
ttangSbko — tntang^bko — nia/itdngeb — mangitdngeb 
kimttek — kinimitko — makhnit I close (my eyes) {nakfmit: 



close, I blind) kiniitek nan nidtak: I close my eyes 

amdmck — inamoomko — madmom I close my mouth : 
amdmeh nan topSkko 

close together madjidjitdko: we are close together, we stand in one group 


lifoo; kaUfdlifdo: a mass of clouds. (G. Gewolk) 


Idlo, a stick 


kalifon (Sp. carbon) charcoal: mling 


nan flid nan posh on g {pdshong: sea) 


dklang: Idmma woman's coat; a man's: fddo [fddso, 
bddo] (Hoc.) mamddsoak: I put on a coat (Or: I put on: 
ipuiko; I take off: kdanek) 



cocoanut tnyug [niyog;\ cocoanut-oil : Idna (Hoc.;) 

milk of c. : tjenuni si inyug 


kdpi; kdpiak: I drink coffee 


aldngan (probably: "shady place," from a/on^) 

cohabit iydfek — inydtko. Person. : inydtak. 


lateng. mashkdHivak [mashkdmak] I am cold, freeze 
inlakitiveng it is very cold 
lumdteng — linmdteng it turns cold 
palakitwengek — inpalakitwSngko I make cold 


cold, a dSykak in the throat; m^jV/^ in the nose; mamotigak: I 

have a cold. 



collect (taxes) obSfek — inobSbko — madbob — mangdbob. 

saliibek I collect provisions measured by the "salub" (Hoc.) 
alubofek; Person.: inpasdlubak; inpaSbobak: I order to 
collect. See : assemble. 


tnanak ay kafdyo 


si^kud [sokod: shi'/knd: Hoc: sakdysay]: sokdtjck 
sinokotko — masSkod — manOkod: I comb. 

comb of cock faldngafhig 




nmdliak — iinndliak. Frequentat. : unullidliak. 

makalJak I come with others. 

paaliek [palfck] — inpdlik — inipdli 1 cause to come. 

come!: dllka! alikayi<f/ ! [dyka! aykayi"/ !] [Or: ikd kayd! 

'ka kayd!] 

tomdliak [ttPcmdliak] — tiiunOliak I come back 

pumdnadak [bi^mdnadak] — pinmduadak I come down; 

indsigak — ninosigak I come down 

fumdlaak — finmdlaak [fviiiiddk] I come out: 

lumushf lidak : come out of a hole, a narrow pass, a forest... 

sumdaak — sinmdaak I come home (to the house). 

ilmdjanak [ihntsanak] — iniimdjdnak I come, arrive. 

sumkepak — sinfimkepak I come in; paskSpek: 1 order 

tn come in; kaldliak I came just now [297] 

lumdsmak — linmdsinak I come over, across 

malpSak 1 come from; [mapi^ak, mabiiak: for malpSanyt^ 

the forms: malpdnyfi, mabdnym etc. are found] nalpOak: 

[353] [3S4]. Or: umdliak ay ndlpo is... [ay ndlpo'sh...] 



come iiiakia'liak; iiiangifuegak: I come with (ken), stnu nan 

nangifricg ken sikaf who came with you? See: to go, to 
approach etc. 

command fillnek. (Alabdial. ; Ilocano?) ; filtnck ta.... I order that.... 

See: order. 

commander dpo (loan-word), master, lord, leader, employer etc.; 
mamilin (Nom. agentis of Ilocano filinek I order). 

community sinpangfli the united town, land. 

companion tb/d {jb/a means also : an other piece of the same kind : 

as, )ian lb/an nan kaldsay: an other shield of the same 
kind, shape etc.) 

nan mangifueg: the one accompanying, nan mangifdeg 
ken sak/in he who walks with me, my companion ; 
nan kadjuwdna [372] 

nan kaddak my companion (of two persons;) 
nan kat'ldini our companion (of three persons;) see [372.] 

compassion sfgang [sSgang] See: I pity 

comprehend kekkck (know) 

conceal Itafongko (hide) 

concerning is, ken 

cone fmltfmg cone of pine 

confide abfoldtek (believe) 

conquer dmisak (nan fmstpcl) — indniisak — maaniisan — mangdmis 

{)ian f&isi9il: the enemy) 
afdkek — inafdgko — mad fag — mangdfag 



conquer ibaboltotko — [ ipapdltotko ] — in babSltotko — maibabSltod: 

kill by shooting (from : bdldug, pdltok, pdldog, a gun) 


nfmnimck (think) 

continue kdsin with endings [312;] kasingka ay entsdno! con- 

tinue to work! see: /^a [310] ; continuation expressed by 
reduplication [290-294.] ; continually, all day long: 
iyagakyuko ; iyagakyiiko ay entsuno I work continually, 
all day long; iyagakydna ay in^fjan it is raining contin- 
ually, all day long 

contract bdsis, contratta (Sp., Hoc.) kunidibak is bdsis: I make a 

contract. — See : agreement 

converse with makitotoyak [mikitotoyak] — nakitotoyak. (with: is, ken) 


otSek — indtok — madto — mangSto. 
Person. : iimdtoak — inmdfoak; indfoak — nindtoak. 
luyldyck — linuyldyko — maldylny — niinldyliiy: I cook too 
much, too long 


akft ay Idteng ("a little cold") 

cool, I 

palakitwSngek (cold); padengninck {nan tjdnum: the water) 


mdl/an; mdl/an nan kdtfit copious, plenty are the fish 


kdnfang \kdmbang] 


ptki (maize) 




corpiilent a I aid mesh 


kad nan Idgona? how much does it cost? (how much is its 

price?; Id go, price) 

nan Idgona ya Itma'y pesosJi it costs 5 pesos 

kad sa? "how much is this?" 


kdpis [kdpis] 


inokokak — niiiokokak 

covincilhouse fdzvi. Also sleeping house for unmarried and old men and 
for young boys. Similarly constructed is the "pabafeaigan" 
[abafongan,] which has however in front a spacious, long 
court, called: tjila (its stone wall: tjdpay), while the court 
of the fdivi is semi-circular and small. 

At the fdzvi the men of an dto, town-section, assemble in 
the evening to discuss matters of interest to their dto; these 
two public structures form the "dto," a name given first to 
the public property of a town section, and transferred from 
the buildings to the whole town section and its inhabitants, 
as the Igorot assured. — Strangers go first to the "dto" and 
send from there for the man they want to deal with. Most 
sacrifices are performed in the court of the pabafmngan, a 
few also in the court of the fdivi. At the dto there are: 
dfong the house, with a fireplace: anitjRan; 
tjfla the court, 

tdngf°u or: tjdpay flat stones on top of the enclosing wall, 
on which the men sit 

bdshd [bdsJic] a post with a roughly carved head; "antto- 

kaninitjtian a fireplace in the court 
falolang a basket with human skulls, trophies of feuds 

count, I idpek [iydpek] — inidpko — may ah {ma/ tab, mtyap]- 

mangiap. Person. : inydpak 


counting stick kfdah; kiddfak — kiniddfak I cut notches into a counting 
stick; the notches denote days of work etc. 

country Hi; fellow countryman : sinpangfli 

courageous mdlengag 


tjila; is tjila outside of the house 

cousin kdymng {kdymng is also the familiar address of intimate 

male friends of ecjual age) 

cover tdiigeb; lig/m: cover of a basket (or a winnowing tray); 

totjong: woman's head cover 

cover, I fiifak; tdngfak; itangSbko (close.) 

kafdnak: I cover with earth, sand etc. 

ink(ili°ibak I cover the e3-es with my iiand, so as not to see 

cow fdka ( Sp. vaca ) ; of the buitalo : kamfdkyan 

coward ogiddan [iigiddau, cgiddan]; ogiaddngka! you are a 

coward ! 


dkkamd; claw of a crab: apdngoy; crabs in the irri- 
gated rice field : s/higau 

crawfish pashdyan 

crawl liimnekak — limlmnekak: inlokdlokak — ninlokSlokak I 

crawl into a hole; engkotsongak [ingkdfjoiigak] — 


nal°ul°H [nalyiilyii] 

THE languagp: of the bontoc igorot 


create pafofmck — inpatSfi^k — maipatdftPf — }nangipat6fP( : I make 

grow; I create salt, trees, water... 


kfuuaiot : tabtabdkai^ (brook) 

crocodile fndya {biiciya] (loanword) 

crooked nadigdigkd; digkoek: I bend 

cross water kitjdngek — kintjdngko — makftjang — mangitjang 
Person. : kumtjdngak — kinumtjdngak 

crow kdyang 

crow, to ingkokSokak [eiigkokdokak] — niiigkokSokak 

nengkokdok nan kaRwItan the cock crowed 


tSkti'kck (forge; hammer) 


fdkaBwak {caW) ; Person.: infi/kai^ivak 

indkaak — nindkaak I cry, weep 

en/ngdoak : inkolfduak I cry to the enemy, challenge 

cultivate inldpisak — niidd pisak : I clear the ground for a field, I 

weed ; I dig : inkdykayak 

cup smkong [sdgong] 

cure, to bSksak (bSkesh: medicine); akdshak (Hoc.) See: blow 

curly kSlod: nakdlod: a Negrito 

custom fkad {ikad\: sfya nan ^kddmi this is our custom 


cut, a fdkag. a wound 

cut, I fakdkek — finakdgko — mafdkag — mamdkag I cut off a part 

of the body (head etc.) mamdkaak I go headhunting 
pmtdak [put dak; poddak] — piniPitdak — mapBtdan — 
mami^ito I cut off a part of the body 
sibdck — sintbok — mastbiPt — mantbB I cut down (a tree, 
wood) Person, instboak 

tibldek — tintblak — mattbla — nianfbla I cut down (a tree) 
kokStjek [kekStjek] — kinokStko [kincketko] — makdkdd 
[niakiked\ I cut (wood, meat, camote, my finger etc.) 
mdkodak 1 cut myself by accident 

llikidak — linllkidak — maluktdau — iiiljil/?kid I cut up the 

Idngshek — linangeshko — maldngcsli — miuldngcsli I cut 
big logs across in the middle 
longshdtak — linongshdtak — maloiigsJidfan Synonym for 

potldngek — pinotldngko — mapdfloug — rnamdtlong I cut 
out a piece from the middle, I cut across 
potion gak — pinotldngak — mapotldngan — mauwtlongan I 
cut off a piece at an end; (Nom. ag. form uncertain) 
nkddjak [mkdtsak] — imikddjak — nta/itkddja)i — mangiikad 
I cut off an animal's neck 

lafdkek — linafdgko — maldfag — minldfag I cut up the 
body, or a limb; cut into larger sections; carve. 
takfbek — tinakibko — matdkib — mandkib I cut to small 
pieces; Person.: tuindkibak — tinuidkibak 
scngpddck — sinengpddko — inasc^'jigpad — manengpad I cut 
off weed, high grass; I cut down, fell a tree 
kSltak — kinSltak — makSlton — mdnglot I cut the hair {nan 
pindngek — pinindngko — maphiaiig 1 cut with the ax 

wasdyek — inwinasdyko (!) — niawdsay I cut with the 
working ax wdsay 
kipdnek — kinipdngko I cut with the knife ktpan 



daily kadkccikyn; kamivakaiPnvdkas 

dam lingcd (in the river) 

dam off saepck [sadpck; sadbck; sa/fpek] — sinafbko — masaib 

[niasiidb] — mandib; Person.: insdibak — ninsdibak: I 
dam off a part of a pond or river, to catch fish, to irrigate 

dance talffcng men's dance (to the sounds of gongs; one man 

behind the other, in a circle, whose center is at the dancers' 
left side) 

Verb: intalffcugak ; or : manalifengak 
tjdlam man's dance, performed by a single (rarely two) 
dancer who executes, with ax, spear and shield, pantomimic 
gestures suggestive of attacking and beheading an enemy ; 
thus he moves about the dancers of the falffeng. 
Verb: manolaiPiak' [maniilaoak] : the solodancer: nan 

tddjek man's dance upon one spot, to the slow spondaic 
sounds of the gongs; a solemn religious dance. 
Verb: tiianddjekak 

sdgni women's dance, performed with outstretched arms; 
the women are marking time by stepping" upon one spot, 
holding tobacco leaves in their hands. 
Verb : mand gniak 

mangdngsaak I beat the "gangsa" (gong) to the dance 
nan uiamanpdngo the dance-leader, whose various steps 
and motions the others imitate while following him 
tatalibnan the place where the dance is executed 






aha\xiltngei : angdngctdtPt. it grows dark: fmniilhtget . 
dngeb dark caused l)y clouds. See : black. 


fakdshek (I dash to pieces; break) See: throw- 

daughter dnak ay fafdyi (child) 

daughter-in- indpo ay fafdyi 


wfid : si wlid \is zvfid] at dawn ; mazvfid it dawns 


dk\u [dchit: rarely; ch like the German guttural spirantj 

adzvdiii, idiudni to-day ; id kaivaksdna on the same day 

is kdsfn zvdkas, kashi aswdkas day after to-morrow 

id kashi ugka, adidiina day before yesterday 

is nan sin dkyii a whole day, all day long 

kadkedkyu; kamwakamzvdkas every day 

iakakyiiku [iyakakyilko] — fniakaky/lko; I continue all day 


mapatd, mazvfid it is getting day 

niae'/zudkas [niazvdkas] an other day is breaking 

is kdsfn dkyu on the next day, or : an other day 

tengaicc a day of rest, a holiday 

See: [413] 


nadSy [nadiiy] ; mapadSy killed; maniaddy dyinj 
igdy kadSy not yet dead, not quite dead 


tiizvc'ng: inatmzveng deafened 

aydka nan Idgona; tsatsdma nan Idgona "its price is very 
much, very high;" malSyad beloved; leyddko my dear. 




idoy [itoy, ^doy; Sddy] : kadSyan: time, place of death 

death-chair sangddjil. See: chair. 



otang; I am indebted, I owe: zuoddy nan ofaiigko (Hoc.) 

Sngakak (he) ; lokdek (cheat) 









kdnak (say) 

na/ikaldyan with ornaments, figures carved or burned 

into wood 

ikdlayak I carve, scratch, burn, cut into wood [likdyak] 



ipapdltotko; dniisak ; (I conquer) ; dfdkek I win a battle, 
a contest 

tjifjingddck ; patjingiidek (make dirty) 

Lumdivig [or: Kanifdnyen, also Fdni] 

tjumongaMak — tjinmdngamak 

adik I do not ; I refuse to do 

ki9cmdanak (go away) ; kaydtjek (abandon) 

angangock — inangdngok — maangdngo — mangangdngo 


descend punufnadak [biundnadak]; inSsigak (go down) 

desire^ I iSytjck (like) 

destroy lufiikek — linufitgho — mahifug — minliifug (destroy people, 

animals, by water, fire, battles, earthquake) ; fakdshek 
(break) ; — pmak (burn) ; pakaBzvdshek — inpakaBwdshko 
mapakdBzvash I destroy, spoil (a knife, watch, hat etc.) 


olmd {is nan fibikdt, in the morning) 

die, I 


ogydk ; vb. : indgyokak 

iniddyak [indddyak\: I am on the point of death, I die; 
mamaddyak: I am dying; mapaddy: killed; madSyak 
[maddyak] — nadSyak: I am dead 

difference katSkken; ngdg nan katSkken nanndy is nantjfiy? what 

is the difference between this and that? 

different t^kkcn (other) 

difficult stkap; naltkad (Hoc.) sfkap nan kasiduSna [kasuludna] 

it is difficult to learn it 


kd/ripak [ka/ofak] — kina/^ipak — maka/i^tpan [makaofan] 
"dig a hole" {tka/^pko: I inter, bury the dead) 
kaykdyek — kinaykdyko — makdykay; or : abkdek — indbkak 
I dig in the field with the implement, a stick : kdykay 
fekwdlek — finekzvdlko — mafSki^al T turn the soil of a field 


kadnck (take off) 




dongcg; domongcg: it makes a din, noise 
I make noise: dmnongekak 


laiicrauak. See: eat 


dip into water itapekko — intapSkko — maitdpek — mangifapck 

dipper k'a/od 

direction md/yoy. ''into nan md/y'oy ad Tiikfikan? where is the 

way to Tucucan?" (Root i'ly, or by: to go; prefix ma-: 
passable; gangbar) 

dla: the direct way [318] ; nan engko my going, my 

directly Verb: tsaotsdoshck I go, do directly, pandi'^ishak [317] 

dirt tjingud: pftck (mud) 

dirty matjingud, matjitjtngud; patjingiidck I make dirty; 

dirty, slovenly, wicked, vulgar: kakatsn 

disease saktt ; ndym nan dzvak ; I am diseased by the influence of 

an evil spirit : naymak. insdkitak I am ill 

dish kfptg [kfag] of wickerwork; tj^tyft a wooden dish ; 

bangdnan a wooden dish : M. Sch. XIV, 4, 5. 

dislike, scorn ongosak — inongosak — maongosan 

distance kaadsalPCwtna {kaadsowina\ = its distance; a short dis- 

tance: kokkokSdna; the distance, space between, interval : 
nan tjegang 




adsanwf [adsozi'f] 

distribute kvaldsko — inzvaldsko — maizcdlas — maiigizucllas: I distri- 

bute men to different places 

igaktjSngko — inigaktjhigko — maigdktjeng I hand around 
Also : I pay out wages to a group of men 
izvadzvddko — inizvadzvddko — ma/izvddzvad — inangizvddwad 
I distribute meat, his portion to each 


inltdebak adsdyim I dive "inside" the water; lumnekak 

divide tjatdkck — fjiuafdgko — matjdtak — mandtak 

kadjudek: kaf'ldek; kapdtck: kalimdek [kalmdck] [370] 
I divide into 2, 3, 4, 5 parts 

tjatdkck is dngsan, or: angsdnck ay maiidtak [manddak] 
I divide into many parts, or: aiiidsck — inamdsko — 
niadmas — man^dmas 

divorced kaftjang: initjdngkamt we are divorced 

dizzy alizvi^ngck — inalizv^ngko — luaalfzveiig I make dizzy 

maalfzvengak — iiaalhvcngak I am dizzy 


ikak — infkak — mafkan — mangtkau. Durative and Fre- 
quent. : ikakak (I act, behave) 

dngnck — indngnck (Infinitive : indngnen) — ))iadngnen — 
mangdngnen. niakadngiienak I can do 
ngdg nan tkanyHk? what arc you doing? "what is the 
matter with you?" 

ngag nan uniad ken sfka.' how do you do? ("what hap- 
pens to you?") 

nan ikdkan the acting; the action; the behaviour; 
ngag nan fkdnyi^ ay inlfpayf or: ngdg nan angnJnyfi ay 
inlipay/ how do you play ? [358] 

dodge ikisymko — inikisymko — viaikhyKKg — mangik/syifig : I 

dodge spears, stones etc. 






dsi°( \dshB; dsn\; young dog: dken: male, female dog : 
dsi"/ ay laldki, ay fafdyi. 

iiiikiddsnak [iiiakiadsitak] I eat dog (in company with 
others) [300] 

padsdngan si dsii a sticlv to lead a dog M. Sch. XIV, 7. 
nafangktlan dog collar. — Names for dogs : Pdkam, a dog 
with white hair; Ldfaiig, with a white mark around the 
body between fore- and hindlegs; Ttlin, "ricebird" {"tay 
ink f lad nan tsBdtsi4dna kag tilin: because its fur is red- 
brown like the ricebird"). 

pdngiian {pdngmzvan, bangoan\; is kapdngPtan at the 
door ; {padstpad: stalks placed before the door as sign 
"entrance forbidden ;" ipadsegko — inpadsegko — maipddseg 
— mangipddseg: I set up warning sticks) 

for young men, boys, old men: pabafdcngan [abafi^higan\. 
See : council-house, for girls : Slog. 

double, I niamidudck 

doubt, I endjuadjdack — nendjiiadjdack [169] (Hoc.) 

down is kodpna. See : go, fall^ descend etc. 

draw kuydtjck (pull) ; draw away by force : ogpdtek (pull) 

dream ittao; iitdozvck [iifdmek] — in'itdBko I dream of ; 

Person. : inttaUzvak. 

dread ninogiddak is... (fear) 

dress, I ipufko (put on) ; undress : kadnek (take ofif) ; fadsoak nan 

azvdkko I put on my coat; or: mamddsoak; inzvdnisak: 
I tie around the breechcloth ; mangfzuisak I put around 
my blanket etc. See: blanket; breechcloth; coat; girdle; 
hat; jacket; skirt. 


drill holes litshkdiPdvck (pierce) 


inuvick — inliuhnko — matnnm — iiiang/ninii. 

Person, umfnumak — inminumak 

drink empty: angkdyck; a babe drinks, nurses: insOso 

nan ougoiiga 


inded/ded nan tjeimm the water drips; inisi/tsig it is 


pakadnck — inpakadngko — maipakdan — mangipakdan I 

drive away 

pashakdngck — inpashdkongko — uiaipashdkong — 

iiiangipaslidkoiig I drive back, or: ipalaydi^ko I put to 


pangBsJumwek I drive down stream (on the banks) 

panlSnck [panlongek] I drive up stream (on the banks) 

tokdkek I drive back 

ibibdyko — inbibdyko — maib/boy I drive, chase animals 

isatjStko — insatje'fko — maisdtjcd I drive (game) into a 

narrow place without egress : ka/isdtan 

pangudjidjiek I drive to the rear, back 

drop, I yakydkck — inyakydgko — maydgyag — mangydgyag 

dktsdkek — in'dktsdgko — madktsag {nia/ektsak\ 

drown anStjck — inandtko — madnod [ madn ud ] — mangdnod 

[mangdnud]; niadnodak [madinidak] I am drowned 

drug bSkcsli [pjgis; bSgos: pSkcsli etc.] 

drunk mafSteng; infotcngak I am drunk: foti^ngck: T intoxi- 

cate, make drunk 

drunkard umitnum is fdyash a drinker of ''fdyasli" 

(See "beverages") 




see : eonsr 

dry maldngo, naldngo; dry^ withered naiiufkau: 

dry wood : If pad, hading 

dry, I langOek — lindngok — maldngo; maldngoak I am dry, lean, 

feeble; iiiamdkanak I am dry (after rain, bathing etc.) 

dumb ngdngak ; mangdngdkak I am dumb 

dust tjdpmg 

dwell intedeeak — nintedeeak; I dwell alone niddgcnak 

dwelling See ; building ; council house ; house ; dormitory 

dye kumdibak is inngitit "I make black;" kuuidibak is 

impokaiO( 'T make white" etc. 

pangitttek I dye black (dark) tindek I dye blue 
pakilddek I dye red 



washtjin; amtn (all) [139] 

washtjin sin tsa; or: sintsatsang each single 




ear of rice siiilfn; or: pod of beans, peas, an ear of grain etc. 


is aiPtdBni (soon) ; I come early: umaldliak is fibiffbikat 
(early in the morning) ; earlier than.... mangi^nmta 
[)uaiigondna] mo See: morning 

earring .T/w^af (collective term) ; pinangpdnga: of gold; kidney 

shaped: s/ngsing. tbit, long, see M. Sch. pag. 14, fig. 4. 
slit in the lobe: telek; enlarged by an earplug: sfiep 






fdlaan si dkyU (sunrise). People living east from the 
Bontoc region: iKakaydn ("Cagayan") 


mabnaldnoy: or: mdktek. easy to do, lit.: known, 
passive of kSkkek 


kdnek — kindngko — mdkan — mdngan. (to eat rice, vege- 
tables, fish.) 

Person, mdnganak — ndnganak and : k/hnanak^ 

Frequent, vianganmdnganak : 
mdkikanak [mfkikdnak] I eat with others 
Person, indfongak; inOfongak ken stka I eat with you. I 
share your meal 

tnanctsdak [manotjdak.]: eat at noon ; lunch: tJtja. 
angkdyek [angkdyek] — inangkdyko — madngkay 
[mdngkay] I eat all up; ndngkay: "nothing is left." 
fstjak -intstjak — mafstja — niangfstja. [226-228] I eat meat 
fnshiikek — finshugko — mdbshug I eat my fill 
udbshngak: I am well satisfied eating; I have enough 
mikiadsuak eat dog (in company) (or: tstjak nan dsw) 
ikatdkok — inkatdkok — maikatdko — mangikafdko 1 eat. 
live on 




infilagtdko: we are eating at a feast, a wedding, funeral etc. 
sliubsliubak I eat secretly and greedily ; angofak I eat 


of an ax, knife: topek ( ''mouth" ^ 
(banks of river) 

edsre, border : Hid 




1 make an effort : yadngekek — inyadngckek — mayadngekdy 


Mog ytiog] 

wdlo; eighth: mangawdlo [maygazvdlo;] 18: sin pd'o 
yawdlo; the i8th: mangapo'o ya zvdlo; 80: zvaWn 
po'o; the 80th : iiiaiiiitwdlo'y pao 



eleven sinpolo \a fsa; the nth: mangapS'o ya fsa 

emerge tjumdkaak — tjimndkaak 

empty eaten up, used up: ndngkay (angkdyek) [nadngkay]; I 

empty: atonek (remove); kadnek amfii nan intcdSe is 
nan fdnga I take out all that is contained in the jar, I 
empty the jar; not quite empty: igay kdpno not full. 

embrace kdmwek — kind&iwek — makdmwo [makdmwdy ] 

[makd^iviiy} — niangdBwoy 


pointed end: Sdso; blunt end: ngamngdmna (-)ia: its 
end); end at the lower part: nan kodpna; end of a story, 
of a ceremony, of an action, of an event: anSngosh; is nan 


end anongosh, followed by genitive of noun or Nomen actionis, 

is used as prepositional idiom, like "after," temporal. 
Idiom: "here is the end; that is all :" ketjc^ng tji. 

end, I 

amkoek; fmdshek; lipdshek. (accomplish). 

enemy fmsBl [ftJsul; foshol; fmshiPil; hihol; bdshol] — final / of 

fmsBl is a slight bilateral lingual stop ; possessives are sui- 
fixed to /2«.jz*; fmsuk; fmsUrn. infeesMlak I am hostile; 
fiimdsBlak I am becoming an enemy. 

enough adn; add sa! this is enough! "stop!" "this will do;" 

aaldna, Bmdnliy it is enough; adldna nan katsaktsdkna: 
he is tall enough ("his size suffices"); it is not enough, 
something is lacking: kolang, or; ad/ Bind nay; 
kfnntjeng: there is enough for all. 


pagadsdngyenck — inpagadsangyengko. 


stkpek — sinkSpko — mdskep — mdnkep; sikpck nan dfong I 
enter the house 

Person.: sihnkepak — sinumkepak ; or: inpangas/k^pak. 
paskSpek — inpaskipko I make enter, lead into (the house) 
pasisikpek nan nidnok: I make enter frequently chicken 
into the coop: I hatch, raise chicken; pasisikpek nan 
fiitug I raise pigs (I cause them to go into the pigpen). 


the enemy into an ambush : ibangbdngok. (I mislead) 


nan amtn ay.... 

entrails fmang \fOang\. 

equal /l'ac?o-«a (its equal); kddgna mo... equal to... : nannay ya 

nantjiii kddgna: this and that are equal, inin/sii of equal 
length, size. 



kdag nan koani nan kOak: you have equally much, just as 

much, as I. 

make equal: isitek — infsiik — mafsu. 

escape himdyamak — linmdyaPiak; palaydmzvck : I let escape, let 

go out of a cage, stable 

evaporated mdsfjok; ndstjok nan tjSnmm: the water has evaporated 

evening inisuya&( {late aiternoon) [nisdyaB]; sidsidsfmna at sun- 

set; till evening: inkdna's sidsidsfmna; this evening: 
mastjtm si dmiin. {mastjhn: early part of night) 

ever (for ever) kamzvdkaUwdkas 

every zvashtjin, amtn; [53; 139]; everybody: amin ay tdkB; 

everything (all utensils, cloth etc. in a house) anifn ay 
kdngnmn; everything: t^tldy ngag [Blengdg] or: nan 
amin; everywhere: ptldy into; or: kabfatdfatd&cwa, or : 
is amin ay fafdi'^iwa "in the whole world." 

evil ^igddg; Idmzva: evil, wrong, forbidden. 

except ketjeug [327:408]; ketjcng — adt dngkay; mo adi dngkay 

exchange sSkad (sliilgad) : idjdak is nan sokad nan tdfay: I give 

in exchange for the spear. See : barter, change 



fiikamzvak (call) ; yadngekek ay Sngkali (effort) 
tde [td/i]; place: kataifatyan; Verb: fnmdiyak 

expect sddek Person. sosSmedak [shoshdmedak; sliBshiSimedak] 

(wait) ; ilildck I keep looking out for (see) 




pakadnek (drive away) 

expensive diigsan nan Idgona, tsatsdina nan Idgona: 

much is its price" 

"much; too 

explain ikzvdnik — inikzvdnik — ma/ikwdni ("to tell about") 

See : show : itjiik 

extinguish padSyek (kill) nan dpny I kill the fire 


niatd \mdta\ his eye: matdna; sore eyes : kamdta, 
cross-eyed: naltid; I am cross-eyed : nafdlyak nan matak; 
short-siehted : makmlab 

eyebrow kttjoy 

eyelid tangtdngeb si nidta; the white of the eye; dki [dkd]. 

See; close, open 

face kdniis; dngash [dngash] 

face, I sasakdngek: I stand in front of 

fair kawh ( good ) 

fall misfptjagak I fall in walking, I stumble and fall 

misdkaMak I fall from a tree, a roof, a ladder, the top 




maJktsagak [me^ktsagak]; indktsagak I fall from a tree, 

roof etc. (persons only) ! dktsdkek I make fall 

viaydgyagak [ma/idgiagak\ I fall from top; 

iiufdobak I fall, of things; tumble in. (the sky, a stone, a 

house etc ) 

madBgdngak [matokdngak] I fall over; stand and fall; 

(persons, being feeble) ; tokdngck I cause to fall 

iiiadiikddukdngak [madngadugdngak] I almost fall 

uiadnkddak I stand and fall over: a tree, a chair; (things) 

iiitdytov nail tjeiW/m: water falls over rocks. See: drop 


adi tit/fwa (not true) ; unreliable ; fickle 

family sinpdngdnak parents and children [59; 60] 

sinpdngdpo parents and grandparents, ancestors 
sinpdngafong the family in one house ; 
sinpdngdfong ay Igolot an Igorot family 


ydbyab; I fan : iydbyabak 


adsaazvt, adadsdMwi [adadsowi]; 

a very distant place : adadsowtan 

umadsaBwiak I go far; umadadsdBzviak I go farther; 

paadsaPnvfck I send far away; maadsdBxviak: I am far 


expressed by y^fl;»/('(r/^, I hasten, k'anidek ay umdli I come 
fast [317] 

faster: kakamuek ay... I hasten more to.... [pin-: 296.] 
Person. : inkdmuak, inkakdmuak 


isadngko (fix) See tie, nail, bind 


thick, corpulent: alaldmesh; Inmdmisak I am getting fat 

fat meat Idneb: bacon: ftlad 


father dma; old man : amdma; plural: amdm/ma; amdmaak 

I am old; father and child: sindnta; I am father of many 
children: makdnakak; imidnakak I am the father of a 
child; amdek: I have as stepfather, guardian 

father-in-law kadiikdngan ay laldki 




umogiddak {iwiugiyddak; wnegiddak] — inmogiddak. Or: 

indgiddak — ninogiddak. 

maangogiddak [iiidandgiddak] I am suddenly frightened 


tjihnno; I make a feast: ttnok; 
I celebrate a feast : tjummiak 

feather kdtRd [gdtod], tailfeather; tsodtsod \tsmdtsiPtd], feathers 

(or fur of animals) 

paydk [paySk] wingfeathers; kdtod si kaiPdvttan cock's 

feeble nasdkyu; lupiiyan; niasasdkyuak I walk with feeble steps, 



pasosOek — inpasosok — niaipasoso I nurse a child 

pakdnek I cause to eat 

pangdnek — pinangdngko — mapdngan — mamdngau I feed 

an animal; (also: I entertain a guest ; have at dinner) 

taliiak — tinahiak — mataliian — mandlit I feed a child or 

animal; Pers. mandluak 

mikmtkak — yninikmlkak — iiiamlkiiifkait I feed chickens 

tsukdnak — tsinukdiiak — niatsukdnan I feed anil raise pigs 


by touching : apondshck — inapondshko — maapiinash- 



fell a tree: sibSek; tibhfek (cut down), Person.: manihlaak. 

female fafdyi [fci/i] 

fence dlad; anffad; anifatek — inanifdtko — maanffad — 

manganifad I fence in; inanffatak: I make a fence 

fertile manukas (from fikas, strength, fruit etc.) 

mamikasak; or: mdmkasak: I produce fruit 
nahkdsan: produced; ripe 

fertilize li^iiiengak — linBmengak — malBmt^ngan — minlmmeng 

fever impSos nan dwak: the body is feverish ; 

I have fever : impSosak nan dwdkko 


akit ; too few: tsatsdma ay aktt; akftkamt: we are but 
few; nan tapin: a part, some, a few 


rice patch : pdyo [pdy/yo'\; collective: kapdy/yoan, rice 

fields (a small rice field, made by children : papdyo) 

pdyo ay kdmtjan rice field to be irrigated by rain (i4tjan), 

or by carrying water to it 
fmag a sloping rice field, garden 
patsmkan seedbed [pad/tjdkan] 
lima: garden 

tdlon: fields in the vicinity of a town and belonging to its 
inhabitants ; (also : weather) 


niangaU'ma [niaygalima] : one-fifth: kdlma; 
kalnidn si fdfuk: one-fifth part of a pig 

fifty Iimdn pd'o; the 50th; mangalinia 'y po'o 

fight, I infalognfdak — ninfalognidak ; makifalogntdak: I fight in 

company with others (in plural only). 
onongek — inonongko — maonong — mangOnong; 



fight, I Person. : inonSngak — ninonongak I fight with the fist, 

box; also: mikionongak (in dual and plural only); (I strike: 
kogongek); makifogfogtotdko: we (boys) fight a sham 
battle at the river between Sanioki and Bontoc. See : battle ; 
war; strike^ box. 


kalilkad (Hoc); I file: kalukdtjek — kinalukdtko — 
makaliikad — mangahikad 


punek [pun/nek] — pfnok \pfn/nok] — uufpiio [indpim] — 

mdmno [mdinnB, mdmnu} 

pdyak: I put into 

snddak — sinnadak — masiiddan : I fill a pipe ; I fill a pot with 

water: tjenumak — tjinenumak — matjinuman — manhinm 

filthy matjitjfngud: kakafsu 

finally man gananon gosh: it ends with, it comes last ; 

man gananon gosh nan fahignid at last comes the fight 


ftjdsak — intjdsak — maiijdsan [maddsan] — tnangltjas 
[mdngtjas]: or : ftjdnak — hitjanak — niaitjdnan — inangftjan 
makdtjasak [makddasak] I can find 


kdzvis ay ilacn (good to see) 

finger Iftjcng [lldcng]; thumb: pangaindina; index: mi'snM 

is nan pangamdma; middle finger: kaMzvdan {kdMzva: 
middle, between) ; ring finger: mesnSd is nan kaftuuian: 
little finger: ikigking. See: measure 

fingernail kdko (also: toenail): I scralcli with the nail : kokOak — 

kinokOak — makokSan 


amkdek; fiPcdshek; lipdshek (accomplish) : angkdyek I 
finish eating, taking etc. ; I use up 




dpuy [api1y]. apiiyak — inapftyak — maapilyan — mangapny: 

I make fire; I build a fire: idnStko — iuidnJtko — matdned 

[mtdncd] : or: tjtntak — tjiiuiitak — iiiatjintan. 

Person. : iiitshiedak. 

idnStko nan dpuy I build a fire; tjintak nan tjalfkan is 

dpuy 'T provide the fireplace with fire." 

nan dpuy kaiu'na nan kayfl fire destroys ("eats") the wood, 

or: nan dpuy pivana nan kdyev (burns) 

dpuy si anlto: a mysterious fire, without evident cause, 

destroying houses, ascribed to an evil "anlto," ghost. 

ishngitko — inshugitko — maislidgit I put (a vessel) on fire 

to cook; ishiinok I feed a fire, put wood into it ; paddyck 

nan dpuy I extinguish; pafitjdngck: I cause to burn, 

make burn; shubOkak I blow air into fire. 

fire, I 

kigsdnck — kinigsdngko — maki'gsan (Hoc.?) I fire a gun 

firemachine kolfli (a piece of bamboo is sawed across with an other) 

ipaltlngko nan dpuy I strike fire with steel : pdlting, and 
with flint: tjiiniSkan. bag for steel and flint : panialthigan 
(pang + palting + an) 

dinck: cotton in a firemachine (also name for the entire 
implement), which is ignited by pushing a piston into a 
cylinder; see: M. Sch. XVH, 18, 19. 

fireplace anifjf/an (place for "warming"); ka/apiiyan ; tjalikdnan 

hearth in a house 

firewood kdyp^: fjdpong: l/hing: twigs, kindling wood; lipad, 

bdding dry wood; inishdno [nia/ishdno] '■l)urnable." 


niainfnsang [niamfngsan] ; at first; dna [dna; onSna; 
Bn&ina\ imamfngsanak, mangi^npaiaak, or mamangpdngoak 
ay ihnily: I go first ; mangi?(nnndka ay sihnkep: go in first ; 
at first: is lablabOna [laplapdna] : this is for the first 
time: lablabona sa. lablabdna angkay is inangflak: I see 
it for the first time. 
I do directly, as the first thing: pandp/shak ay.... 


fish fkan ("al)out \2 inches long, flat, scaly^ very broad") 

tjcilid ("about 3-4 feet long-") eel 
iFk'iig ("about 6-10 in. long") 
kdtpii ("very small, like a linger") [kdtj^l^ ; kdtjyt'^] 

fish, I iiiaiigi7tj'>iiak — nangdtfHak. ek nmdla 's kdtj"u I go to 

get kdij^u 

jiiaineiigividak — iiamCng^vidak 1 fish witli a hook (hook: 

mangdyukak [mangdyngak] I fish with a basket-net 

manftjioikak I fish with a net "sitjBg" 
manaldkongak I drive fish into a trap of baskets 
mangdsaak I catch fish in a trap 

fist I make a fist: kiuikniick im>i Ifiiiak — kiiiiinkimko 

fitting of wearing apparel: kasfsia (this is fitting, all right); 

ill fitting: adt mibkct nan sSklong ken sika: the hat does 
not fit you 

five lima (hand : five fingers) 

fix tsadngko — insaongko — nia/isdong — niangisdong 

itakSdko. See: tie, fasten. 

flag handSla (Sp. bandera) 

flame fitjang 

flash tangkSwak — tinangkSwak — nat an gk divan (of fire; gun- 

shots; it means also: I conduct with a light: tangkSzvak 
stka; Person.: tumangkSzvak \fumangk°nwak\ 

flat flat ground, level : tjadd; natjaptjdpig 

tjapikck — tjinaptgko — niatjdpig — iiiandpig I make flat 














pii/iig (fiber, hemp?); with rough leaves: cipasli 




fly, I 

InuidvaBak — linmdyai''iak 

ffkash, [ffka.^ 

('ngkciftjoiak — neugkaltjcnak (shake suddenly; quiver) 

tjiiiiuikan. See: fire machine 

iiitcibtd'fugak — niiifabfdfugak 

favi'kck [fayfkck] (whip) 

covered with stones: tjcipay (court) (also the stone wall 
in fl^o-court) 

altna (Sp, harina) 

f/iiiiiyak (go), luatsadyoonak ; fi'/ycug nan wanga: the 
river flows slowly; html fas, or: indyas nan tjeuBni: the 
water flows over, is spilled, flow out: fumdlaak. See: go 



tiiindyaoak — tinmdyaoak [tiiindyai9<ak]; intatdyai'Vak: I 
fly to and fro, flit about 

lumdyukak — linmdyiikak: I fly down [lunidyokak] ; 
pataydBivck I make fly 


foam dsab: inSsah: it foams 

fcxider sfki: food lor birds: tjoo 

fog aliugdsym, mist, steam ; lifoo (cloud) 

fold toplek — iiiidpik — mat dpi — manSpi 

folk tdkio/ 

follow ondtjck — indnotko — ina/dnod — niaiigdiiod : 

Person.: iViiidiiodak [omd)iodak] — iinudnodok I walk 

behind. Frequent, and Durative: nmondnddak 1 keep 

walking behind 

apaydmek (pursue) ; adikdck (pursue) 

iguak — iniguak — maigiian {nan djdlan) I follow (a path; 

a direction) 

food mdkan "eatible." meal, dinner, supper, rice or vegetables; 

istja meat 

shenget [si^nged] food for people working in the field 
nan kdnen [kdnin\ the ''eating/' food; nan kdnck. )ian 

kdnem etc. See : eat 
tsdl^m green, unripe rice boiled with sugar: food for little 

boys taken to the field 
sibfdn any food eaten with rice: meat placed on the rice; 

also : khan, or : tjTpan 
lansdn rations for soldiers (Sp. racion) 
kinigkoy: camote and rice kinltkit (in Tucucan-dialect) 
pindlat (Tucucan) : locusts and rice 
ittag preserved meat, bacon 

bddang meat boiled in rice, or boiled meat i)Ut into boiled 

'The fare of the Igorot, arranged as to their taste, is 
said to be : 

brown, small grasshoppers : tjdtjon ; or large green 
locusts : abagkii ay tjdtjon 
deer : dgsa 




wild hog: Idnian 

wild chicken : safag 

domestic chicken : nionok 

eel : tjdlid 

coon (?) or wild cat (?): stldi [silei\ 

buffalo: in4aiig 

pork : ffitug 

small fish; kdtfii; or "flat" fish : ikau 

crabs: dkkmnd [dg/kauid\ 

boiled rice: iiidkaii, with all viands, instead of bread 

dog: dsu, (is a ceremonial dish, for men and boys only!) 


iia/oiigong (childish); naU'dl'-'n; vddkoldkoak : I act fool- 


fjapdii [dabdii], of men and animals; of animals and 
birds: koiiiot (claw) 

for [261 ; 383; 285; 394; 408;] is; ken; Conjunction: toy 

forbid fpaiotwak — inpaBxvak [inipai°(ivak\ — nia/pdiVzvaji 

[)nlpdi'>ni'an] — maugtpai''( See: deny; door; 
Constr. tpa&ti<.'ak nan umuydnyu: I forbid your going, 
that you go; Ide'/iva: forbidden, wrong 


kftoiig; See : hair 

iiiadkyit; niagdkyii (about 1 1-2 o'clock) [413] 

of animals: pangolo [pangdlo] 

praeputium : goyip si oti; 

[draw back the praeputium Instek — lindsik — malilsi] 


pdgpdg: public forest; papat/tay sacred grove 
I go to the forest in order to work: mmnognakak 
[mamognagak\. See: wood 



for ever is katamzvftaiPtzvin 

forge dpodpaii ("place for bellows") ; 

forge, I pad/dak (haninier) ; ffslick — fintshko — I forge axes, 


tSktekck [ tektdkek ] —tincktSgko—matSktck—maiu^ktck: I 
forge, hammer (with many light strokes: tc'k — tck — tck...), 
I crush with a hammer or stone. 

Person. : fihnshaak I am working at a forge; I am a smith 
opodpek ; cnopdopak I forge 

forget Utjdngak — linitjdngak — malitjongan — minlftjong. 

Person. : malitjdngak — nalitjdiigak. 
(The Passive: )iialifjdiigduok I am forgotten) 

fork tt^fck: a stick used as fork; tt'bkck—tinfdgko — mdtfek — 

uuhifck ; Person.: t/hiifckak: I pierce with a fork 

formerly adsaugddiini 

forty ipdtpd'o; the 40th : mangipat ay pd'o 

forward is pangpaiigp/iia ; is I'^niPnuhia ; }naiiiangpdngoak I go for- 

ward from the rear, I advance to the front. 
Interjection "forward!": fuldlal?/! Or: 
iDiulyldko a))i/ii! (let us all go, advance!) 

four tpci't \dpcit]: the 4th: mangipat [iiugapdt] 

fowl aydyani (hird). )iidnok (chicken); scl'fag (wild chicken) 

fragrant inschigo/u 

freeze mashkdi^ak — iiashkde^ak. sJickdftak [sckdaak] — 

sinekdlPcak — masJikdnan 1 make freeze, expose to cold 


fresh dlalangtd (fresh meat, green grass, fruit etc.) ; 

iiilclcngan: place for clear, fresh water. 

friend alhvid: gdytni (Hoc?) kagdyim: befriended woman 

makialhvidak I am together with friends 

frighten paogiddck — inpaogiddko — maipaSgid d — inaiigipadgidd , 

also: ds'dsiddek 

frog big: ngdkngdkan ; small: fdkfak 

from [353; 384:408] 

front pangpangona: the first, battle line, sdkang: See [398] 

iiiaiiiaiigpdngook: I advance from the rear to the front. 

fruit ftkash {flkas'\: fikas nan fdlad fruit of the bananatree; 

ftkas: fruit, flesh, muscle, strength etc. 
mamkdsan: time, season of fruit. 

fry sisikck — sinislgko — niastsig — niantsig. 

full ndpno (fill); ndpno nan Ifniain: your arm is beaten "blue" 

(filled with blood) ; not quite full: igay kdpno. 

fun angdngo; ababfdng. inababfdngak I have fun, I play, 



gain aldek (take); iiis/lfiak (Iproiil: Hoc.) 

gall dgko 

gamble (Verbs and vice introduced t)y Ilocano): infchigkingak 

(play at bank?) ; padfck nan sfping: I "spin" coins, 
"head or eagle." gambling: fdngking 

games I/pay: a round fruit (orange?) is rolled from a distance at 

others set up; Verb: inllpayak. 

fogfogto: a shambattle, with rocks as missiles; \'erb: 
iiifogfdgloak : abdbabyaP( "run and catch," tag. (Hoc?) 
kagkagtSn kicking-game 

garden vegetable garden near the house: fadngan; on the side of 

a hill: lima [iPima]; fmag: a patch on a mountainside, 
planted with rice etc. 

gather o;/;^'«^e^ (assemble) Person.: iiiadiiiongfdko. we gather, 

come together. See: collect. 

fjakdpck — tjinakdpko — inafjdkoh — niandkoh: 1 pick up, 

get aldck (take) ; tsaiPdvddck (receive) ; paddnck (receive) ; 

itmdldak [iDiidadk; itnidak] — inindldak I go and get: 
Freq. : umdldldak. 

intSk°uak I get, borrow something; ck inti'k'^u I go to get 
fiimdngdnak I get up (aw^ake) ; 
ihndjdnak I get to a place (arrive) 
kumfgcdak I get out of the way (of approaching danger) 


get mamdkdak — namdkaak I get heads 

I get wood {kdym): maugdyiPtak; beans (faldtoiig): 
mamaldtongak; camotes (toki) : mandkiak; pots 
(fdnga): mamdngaak; water in a pot: isaktjdan): 
manaktjiiak etc. 

ghost anfto 

girdle sangktfan; man's brass chain: sangktian ay kdtjing 

sangkftan ay kdkot man's girdle made of rattan 
ikit man's or woman's girdle: strings of rattan; M. Sch. 
IX, 14-17; X, I, 2. 

agdshan [akosan] woman's girdle with big shells J. CXL. 
See: "breechcloth." 

girl mamdgkid, Plur. mamamdgkid (from her 6th or 7th 

year to marriage); girl, as baby; ngddn; daughter: 
dnak ay fafdyi 

give itsaotsdoko — iiitsaotsdoko — maitsdotsao — mangifsdofsao. 

ifsaozvddko- — infsaozvddko — maitsdowad — mangitsdozvad. 

I hand 

id] dak — indjdak — ma/ id j da [)iifdjda] — niaugidjda. 

Infin. idjda. 
itolik — intdlik — maitSli [mttoli] — mangitdli: I give back, 

isakdngko — insakongko — uiaisdkong — mangisdkong: I 
give back, 

dktak — indktak — madktan — mangdktan; 
Person. : nmdktdnak I give a part of what I have, a piece 
of my meat, some of my wood etc. 
Construction : dktak sika is nan istjak I give you some of 

my meat ; but : 
itsaotsdoko ken stka nan istja I give you all the meat. 
indka! [cnndka!\ indkayiPi! (isolated imperatives) give! ; 

the object is preceded by si or is: iudka's nan fenga! 

give me the flower ! 
isikdngko; [isogdngko] — insikdngko — maisfkang — 
tnangistkang: I give as a present, alms. See: pity. 


glad inlalSyadak [inlahfyadak] — nitilaleyadak: I am glad. 

Idiom: sak/Sn imiatet ta innuHika! 'T am glad that you 

have come!" 

ilayddko: I am glad, happy on account of... 

is kalaldyad: gladly 

paleydtjek [palayatjek] — inpalcydtko — ma/ipaleyad — 

mangipalcfyad: I make glad, I delight someone 


bdiigaB (bottle or glass) 

glide down inadloldshak — ninadloldshak (as e. g. a stone glides down 

a mountain side). 

glitters, it inldnglang — ninhinglang 

glow kumdlangak — kinmdlangak (as red-hot iron) 

glue ntkid (made of pitch) 

glutton okldngdn 

gnaw, I ugotngdtak — nginotngStak — uiangotngOtan; 

Person. : ngumotiigOtak 


ihnuyak {ihndyak; umiiyak; limiyak] — inmi'iyak 
iiiandldnak — naldnanak (inang- and: djdlan, way, path, 
road): I go, walk; I go: ek, as auxiliary [307] 
As Nomen actionis (with suffixes) is used: nan dyak ''my 
going," dyam, aydna, aydnta, ayantdko, ayaniii/, aydnyiPt, 
aydntja; Preterite: indyak, indyaiii... into nan dyam? 
where do you go? 

go after iPimSnodak [omdnodak] — inmSnodak I walk behind (fol- 

low: onStjck). See: pursue. 



go across kumtjdngak — kinumtjdngak (cross) "water only." Posses.: 

taktdkek or kitjdngek I cross, ford. 

go against tokdkek — tinokdgko — matokag — mandkag (in a hostile 


go alongside ilidek — infUdko — maflid — mangflid; Person. : umtlidak: 
I go along the boundaries, the edge, a dividing line 
ivdntjek — zvinanStko — mawdned — mangwdned: I go along 
the banks of a river ; I follow the course of a river 

go apart fntjegangtdko, intjegdngkdmi, etc. (dual and plural only) : 

we go to different directions ; we separate ; we take leave 
from each other 

Synonym : uiasisidngkdmi — nasisidngkdnii: we part, sep- 
arate and we go into our houses 

go around lidshck — liniilshko [linizvishko] — malfnish [malfwish ; 

nialm'is] — minlfzvish: Person. : inlilhvisak — ninlilizvisak 
Synonym: likitjck — linikftko — mallkid. Person.: inllkldak 

go ashore umflidak — inmflidak I land; 

tjumdkaak — tjinmdkaak I emerge from diving 

go away 

kumddnak \komdanak\ — kinmddnak 

go away, far umadsdBzviak [umadsdzviak\\ I keep going far, I go 
farther: nmadadsdiffizviak 

go away, not inddanak — nddanak ; madmddanak I go a little farther 

go back tPimoliak — tinnioliak [touiSliak\ (return); 

siimdkongak — sinmdkongak to the rear; 
kumdgcdak [kfanigcdak] — kinmdgedak I go back, and: 
I go to the side, out of one's way, I let one pass. 



go between kaMzvdek — kindmwak — makdl<Vzva; also: I go through the 

go directly intsatsdeizvisak — nintsatsdiP<zvisak: T go in straight direc- 

tion to my aim 

go down bumdnadak [pumdnadak\ — binmdnadak. hhnnekak — 

linihnnckak I go down into a hole, underground ; to set (sun) 
inSsigak — nindsigak; nmisnddak — inmisnddak (from a 
mountain) ; kiiiiizvdbak — kfnnmzvObak'; 
maldkmndak — nalokmudak 

go first mamangpdngoak — namangpdngoak : 

mangBnmndak — uangMiwaidak 

go forth lasfak — Huasfak — malasian — minldsi: I pass a crowd to 

go to the front; Person.: Inmdsiak — linmdsiak; 
lumdsi: it stands out, projects 

go home siimddak — simiiddak; I make go home : pasadek 

\ pasddlck ] — iitpasdak — maipasda — )no)igipasda 

go into stkpek — sink^pko — mdskc'p — mankcp (enter) ; 

Person. : sitmkebak — sinihnkebak ; 
iupangasikehak — ninpangasfkebak ; 
paskepck I make enter, I take into, bring into 
insfnoiak — ninsfnotak I go into a box, a vessel, a basket 

go near sumdkouak [sumdgdnak] — siiniidkoiiak ; 

maisdkonak — naisdkonak. situiakongka! come to me! 

go in a single ma/if adfddkdmi we go one behind the other 

go on itdpik — initapik — maitapi I go on, proceed 

itdpik ay entsdno I go on working 


go out fuindlaak — finmdlaak ; (just gone out, absent, not at home : 

kahkafdla; also : new born) 
pabfaldek I tell to go out, cause to go out, expel 
mamoknagak [mamognagakl — namoknagak I go out to 
work in the forest or field; 
fumoknagak — finmdknagak I start to go out to work; 

ifokndgko nan ongonga I go to work in the field and 

take a child with nie 

go quickly inpangi'iyak [iupangailak ; iiipangSyak] ; or: kanwiek ay 

ihn u V 

go up inanigckad — nanfgedak; digit jck: I ascend (a mountain) 

})ianldngak — nanldiigak I go up stream 
sumdkyadak — siinndkyddak I go up, step up, get up a 
ladder, a wagon 
hundmagak — liniiuuhnagak I go up a hill 

go through tcfeiigck through the center, kaiPiivdek through the 

middle (equally distant from two parallel boundary lines). 
In mfiitak — lin iimfiitak ; liniu^/sh fi'/tak — I'm in iisli fi4 tak ; 
pitsiSwck {pifsidpcivck] I go through on a diagonal 

go with infi'icgak—ninfiicgak; ntifdcgak — nifi'tcgak ; niakdliak — 

nakdliak I come or go with 

go astray inasdngnfak — nasdngufak; I lose the way 

See also the Prepositions used in phrases such as: 
sakdngek a\ inandlan: I go before, precede; 
tsozdsck ay mandlan: I go behind etc. 

go on! ayeed man! go and get ready! engka! engkdyio/! go on! 

Interjection: dla! goon! 
go on telling your story: ketjeng pay! 


goat kffjiiii^; kdnfing (loan-words) 

God Lnmdwig 

goiter ffkek: fintokel 

gold falfdog [ball tog; ball t ok] 

gdngsa (collective name) ; very large: koongan; 

large: makdngcsh; small: kdlosh [kalos]. 

handle: pangigndan; (man's jaw, serving as handle: 

pdngan si tdkm ) ; 

stick for striking the gong: pdtong; I strike : patSngek 

— pinatongko — mapdtong. Or: mangdngsaak (also: I 

dance to the sounds of the gong) 

good kdzvh; very good: kdgazvts; katvfsek I make good; 

kakaw/sck I improve; kujiiazvfsak I am getting good, 
I am improving; pakawj'sck I do good, benefit. 

gourd fdlax: ktPdi serving as water vessel; iStjin: for pre- 

served salted meat; tdgking: for water 

grain tta: of rice, brown, unshelled 

granary dlang 

grand, great fsakfsagda ; fjaktjakgdag : tjaktjakgdra. See: big. 

grandchildren siiipdiigdndk; sinpdngapS: grandparents and grandchil 

grandfather fkid [fkit] ay laldki; apd [df'o]: the lord, denoting also 
the second, third etc. older generation; collectively: grand- 
parents, great grandparents, ancestors (loanword) 


grandmother tkid \fkit\ ay fafdyi 
grapes dy/ib 

grasp ipdkodko (hold fast) ; temmck (press) 

grass U'fkaui: dkkam; higli grass: fnlolong; sdkddi (Hoc.) 

See : straw. 

grasshopper and locust: tjotjon, brown, small, ahagkd ay tjStjon, 
green, large gr., pasingdyan, "^beautiful, of medium size, 
yellow, with marks on various parts of the body" 
(7;zo;;, young grasshopper; other kinds: angasdo; tStok; 
isdik : Iddivid : pakiid; pasfcng. See: basket. 

grassland, bdiitsag [pdntjag], (Hoc?) uncultivated soil 


grave kaka/pipan [kakacipan; kakadfaii] l)urial-place 

gravel Idkan 

grease Idiiib; inldnibak I grease myself 

green kdgfdkyu [kdg fdkyu: like moss on stones in the river] 

greet paddiick: I receive as a guest, welcome a visitor (receive), 

groin Itpyak ; (the inner side of the thigh) 

ground liita, earth; the whole ground: fakihdiita; I put into the 

ground: ilutdgko. is nan msJion nan If/ta: on the ground; 
is tjdiin nan Ulta: in the ground. 




papcit/tay; kakdyiPtdn 

I make grow: s/kiick — sinelcSiigko — mastken — mantken 
(men, animals, plants). Or: engdnek — iiiengdngko — 
maSngaii. Or: patofock — inpatofok — maipatSfo. 
Person.: inpatSfoak — ninpatofoak. Or: palenglengek — 
itipalcnglengko — ina/ipalengleiig. 
I grow: ma/enganak — na/Snganak [m(?nganak] 
tsak maSngan I am growing; nengan: grown, tall, adult; 
tiimOfoak [tMmOfoak: funmfoak] — tinmdfoak. 
{tOfo: leaf): only said of plants : sprouting. 
I become tall : tjnmaktjdkiak. we are growing in num- 
ber: umangsd)igkdint {aiigsan: much). See: stretch. 

grumble inagkotjSddak — niiiagkotjSodak. 

an angry grumbling: ag/kotjScd 

guide, I mifncgak (I go with); tbangbdngok [ipangpdiigok] 

pa/apaydBck, I cause to follow. 


bdJdiig [pdlditg, pdltok, bdldok etc.] 

(a cannon : kauyciii (Sp.) ; bullet: fdbola) 

gunpowder Ic'iiga (Hoc.) 

gush forth iufiiffnfok nan tjcnum the water gushes forth 





tjnhiln (ice); Verb: maniildlii it hails 


fook, on the head; fook is nan fdyong, or: kSlcd [kSled], 
the short cut hair over the forehead; fook is nan tenged 
the long hair, usually tucked under the headgear; 
toktoko hair on top of the head ; simsim hair in the face; 
klliui hair on the body ; tsodtsod [tjttdtjud] hair (and 
short feathers) of animals (birds). See: tail, beard 


djinvdna [djiidna, dymvana, fjkvan]; 

Half a pig: djfhvdn [tjiwan] si ft'dug; one and a half 
pig: tsa'y filtug isaed nan djuzvana [tjizvana: its half ] ; 
two and a half: dji1a 'y fiitug isdcd nan tjkvan nan tsa'y 
fdtug. See : split 

halt, I 

tnmgoyka! tiungaykdym! add! stop, it is enough ! 

isfdko (stop); Person.: tnnigayak — finunigSyak. 


tipay [dibay] nan fdtug 

hammer pad/o (heavy stonehammer); tSktek [tiktik] smaller 

hammer of iron ; maltflyo (Sp. martillo) 

hammer, I pad /dak; tektckek [tektokek] — tincktekko — matSktek — 

nianSktek (forge), also: I wound, crush by throwing 


hand lima (also: arm); ctdpa: palm; tdlad: the line in the 

hand dividing off the thumb 

hand around, I iivaldsko; igaktjengko; ftjaiPeivdtko (distribute) 

handful, rice as measure: One handful of unthrashcd rice: sin fengS 
ay pdkily 

Five handfuls : sin ttiiig 
Twentyfive handfuls: sin pfiak; sin kftlad 
One hundred handfuls: sin fitch 
One thousand handfuls : sin mpo 


pangigndnan (of a shield, jar, gong) ; See: ax 

handle, I kiivi'/ck (mo\e) 

hang isabfittko — insabfdtko — ma/isdbfud — niangisdbfud. I hang 

on a peg; I hang into smoke : siVkdsJwkak. 

happens, it fnndd [i^nnat] — inniad. ngdg nan innad ken sfka? what 

happens to you? "how are you?" >fgag nan inmad istjf? 
what happened there? "what is the matter?" ngdg nan 
hiniad is nan tjapdnmo? what is the matter with your foot? 
nan i^niad; nan I'nmdd: the happening, the accident, occur- 
rence, matter. 

happy I am happy: inlalJyadak (glad); causative: palcydtjek 

[palayddck] I make happy; ileyddko: I am happy on 
account of.... 


inkdtso; akakitjoy [akakStjo, akakStsi]; pakbtjolck I 
make hard 

harvest ^'»i, fHC?»i (reaping) ; harvest season : danfan; first har- 

vest season: Idtab; main harvest: tjOok 



harvest, I auick — indnik — inadiii — majigclni I pluck off, reap rice: 

pa lay 
mandkiak, I harvest, get "tSki,'" camote or sweet potatoes 
niamaldtongak or: inoagak {iuSakak'] I reap beans. 

hasten kamt/ck [kaiinoick} — kindmnk [kin(1mok\ — inakdinu 

[iiiakd>m^t] — niangdinPt. kdkaini4ek: I hasten more 
Person.: inkdmBak; iiikakdiiw^ak: I keep hastening; I 
hasten more 
katnmck ay mandlan I walk fast, quickly; kakamp/ck ay 

iiiandlaii I walk faster, more quickly. 
mas}iangi4ycnak — nasliaiigi4yciiak I do very quickly and 
zealously; I do suddenly. 


sokloug: collective name for the small caps made of rattan 
and worn on the back of the head, to contain the long hair 
and various utensils^ as pipes, money etc. ; fastened by a 
string: sdliiy or: sdiiliiy. 

sdklong si fohfdllo: unmarried man's and boy's hat; dec- 
orated with fandiiga, red rattan ; f adonis, a brass button 
on top; kdtod, feathers; sfkap, a little white shell on each 
side; sdoiig si dsU, long dog's teeth. 

finjod: married man's hat; little decorated, with a brass 
ring on each side: letck. The kind of basket work is : fiiidli. 
kt(tla& : a sleeping hat for men and women, fitting the head 
closely, with a round hole on top ; worn during the night ; 
without decoration and string. 
segfi: a large flat rainproof hat for men 
tdgny [tugzviiy]: woman's rain protector, a long oval 
basket, covering the head and back. 

I put on my hat: manokldngak ; I put something (pipe 
etc.) into my hat: sokldngak — sinoklongak — inasoklditgan. 
sonihlSlo (Sp. sombrero) : our strawhat or hat 
tStjong: a head-cloth, worn by women 
See : head band. 


sosdngtck — sinosongetko — niasosdnget — manosongct (I am 
angry at) 







lafcian [labfdan\: faiifaiuhvi (size and color of a crow) 

li'tkam ay naldngo; dkkam ay nahfiis^o (dry grass) 

sfya, sfya ay laldki: sftodl, sttond [81-84] t'li-"! one, that 


dlo; tenged back of tlie head ; toktokS [tuktukd] top 
of liead 

headache indd/od nan dlo the head aches ("throbs"') ; insak/f nan 

dlo: "the head is sick;" pOteg si dlo: headaclie. 

headax See: ax 

headband apongot [abongod], wound around the head hke a turban, 

the top being not covered 
inapdngotak I wear a headband 

headgear See: hat, beads, cover 

headhvinter inaindka (Verb: mamdkaak — nanidkaak: I go head- 
liunting; cf. fakdkck, I cut off; or: pntdak [poddak] 
nan dlo). See: ax 

paldyHk ceremony after successful headhunting 
mamaltikay [mangaliikay] ceremonial songs after head- 

sitsdkak — sinitsdkak — masitsdkan I consecrate the gained 
head by a ceremony (prayers and sacrificing a pig) 
mangatdlingak I wash the gained head in the river 
ensdbiXak I address the head and pray over it 



headhunter l/iglug [h^tgl^eg]: holiday of burying the head 
fekdfek — finkahko — mdbkab: I bury a head 
sakdlong the basket into which the head is placed for a 
short while after returning from fight (Suspended on the 

falSlang head-basket, into which the head that had been 
buried is placed; it is kept in the dto (fcfzvi) 


akdshak [akdsak] — inakdsliak — iiiaakdshaii. (Hoc. ?) 

See : blow ; stroke 
iiakdaji: healed, relieved {kadiiek: I relieve, take away 

healthy abaftkas (strong, muscular) ; 

kdzvis nan divak (in good condition as to the body) 


fj^''>S/'igL'f^' [tjcng/nck; tjdng/ngek; tjengck; deiigck, 
ddngck] — tjfn/ngck — ntdfngo [madngSy] — mdn/ngo 
{man/ngdy\. I hear; I listen; I hear of 
tjctjcng/ngck I keep listening 

heart pdso 

hearth tjallkan; place for the hearth in a house: tjalikdnan 

heat pd/atongck—inpadtongko — nia/ipadtong [jnadtong] 

Person. : wndfongak I am getting warm, heated 
pakaldngck — inpakdlangko — ma/ipakdiang: to heat iron 
(red hot). See: fire, cook, boil 

heavy adadsdniet [adadsdniid] 

heel pagpagdda [pagpagddsa] 

height ka/antjS{na: its height ; nan kadntjon nan kdyB the 

height of the tree 


heighten pa /an tjoek — in pa /an fjok — maipadn tjo 

help fadjdngak [fadsangak; baddngak] — finadjdngak — 

mafadjdngan — mamddjang. 

tkadak ay mdngan: I help myself at meals, {tkadak: I 
care); ikddkaym ya tsakaym iimda! help yourselves! 
See: umdiaak, I take 

hen mangdlak; hen and chicklets : kamdnok 

her [Possessive: loi ff. ; Pers. pron. : (Si ff.] 

herd sinpangdpd ay noang or: sinpanuhvck ay ndang a herd 

of buffaloes 

here hna {isnd; 'snd; sfna; 'slind] 

here is, Fr. voici : nay. 

hers nan kodna: [107-110] 

herself siya tsddlo {ay fafdyi) [113] 

hide, I Itafongko — tntafongko — nia/itdfon — inangifdfon (hide 

completely) Person, infdfonak. 

isanJbko — insanibko — nifsdnib — niangisdnib: 1 await (the 
enemy) in ambush. 

insdnibak — ninsdnibak I hide myself, seek shelter behind 
a tree, in a l)ush (kneeling) ; 

hide kdtjil skin, leather. 

high dntjo; intens. : andntjo:antjodntjo; antjoak I am tall; 

pa/ant jdck I make tall, long-; teiinoni^tjnak I go higli up. 
Cf. [407]. 



tjecntog: tigitjan [digit jmi] See: mountain. 


[81 ff.] siya; sitddL 

hindmost udjldji (rear quarter of animal) ; inangiidjfdjiak I am 

tlie hindmost, the last 


kitang loin, waist ; tipay [dibay] rear of hip; 
kingkingi hip bone 


[loi f¥. ; 107 ff.] 


inzvkvisak (whistle, of bullets) 


kogongck (strike); padSyek (kill); inpadpadoyak: 

I strike, hit repeatedly; I try to hit a target with spears; I 

throw spears 

faytkck (whip); falfekck (spear); fitfdyek (spear); 

shupdkck — sJiinupdgko — uiasluipak — manfipak: I hit with 

a spear 

fa/Skek — fina/ogko — mafdog — iiiaiiidog I hit with a stone 


idnengko — iiiidnengko — iiiatdncng I hit the target, the 

mark; {igsdptko: I miss) 


see: here 

hoarse, I am makdlckak — nakdlckak 


ff/tug; young pig: amok [amiotk]; wild hog: Idman, 


boar: fda [bda] ; fdfiiy; sow: Oko; fdi ay oko [L. 46] ; 

castrated hog: nafitlian. 


hold itgnak \ignak\ — intgnak — ma/fgnan — mangfgnan: I take 

hold of, take someone by the hand, hold fast 
iigtok [tgtok] — infgiok — ma/lgto — mangtgto: I hold, to 

ipdkotko — inpdkotko — ma/ipdkot — jiiangipakot: I hold 
tight, press 

Sltek and oSltck — inlotko — manlut — manglot; or: temmck 
I hold fast (press) ; kdmzvck: I hold in my arms (embrace) 
padsdngek — inpadsdngko — mapddsang: I hold, prevent 
from falling; I hold by the arm, by the hand (walking hand 
in hand) 

patongtsSck [patougtj^ick] — inpatdngtso — uiapafdngtso I 
hold up my arm, foot, hand 


ka/dfan [kadcban, ka/dpati] ; keti"fab: a hole dug in the 
ground; Vb. : kd/dfak : kd/dpak 

lekaiot, ti^gam, IdshkaiPt: a hole in wood, iron; I make a 
hole: I ushkdBzvek (pierce) ; hole in the earlobe: t^lek 
nalckaiVlckdBan : perforated, with many holes 

holiday tJngaL°c: I celebrate a holiday: intdngaffeak. 

have a holidav: tiiiiiais^aBtdko. 

we shall 

home dfong (house) ; Hi (town, country) ; fobfdy (homestead, 

vicinity of the house or town) 
dmityak is dfongko, is tlik, ad fobfdy I go home 
sumddak — simiiddak I go home 
sumdobak — sinnidobak I arrive at home 
makisddak — nakisddak I go home in company with others, to 
my, your home: ken sak/hi; ken stka. (chez moi, toi) 


tfdnmm si ydkan 


dlgd ; anglehook ; fc^ngzvid 


hope shoshSmcdak: sihnedak ; sddek (wait) 




kafdyo (Sp. : caballo) ; a toy horse: kahkafdyo 

horseback inkafdyo/ak — ninkafdyo/ak I am on h. 


mamdfong getting hot; see: heat; warm, indtong it is 
hot (weather) ; inkakdlang red hot ; impOos hot (of fever) 


dlas (Sp. horas) 

house dfoiig; large house: fddy: hut: katydfo>ig; toy 

house : abdfong 

The principal parts of the Bontoc Igorot's house are enum- 
erated here ; see also : door ; beam ; roof ; court ; etc. — 
(The house is built most primitively upon the uncovered 
ground, but not raised on posts. It consists of a rectan- 
gular space (about 12x15 feet), is fenced in on three sides 
by boards, and in the rear by a stonewall. This enclosure 
is about three feet high ; it is under a high roof covered 
with straw; the roof extends down to about three feet from 
the ground. The rear of this space is taken by a chamber, 
not higher than three feet, without windows or airholes, 
except a narrow door. By wooden partitions the space is 
divided into small sections.) See: J. XXXIV, XXXVI, 
XXXVIII, LXXIII. M. Sch. XI, 2, (Sabdngau) 
dlad: wooden enclosure; 
hflud: stone wall in the rear; 
sddjoy: front enclosure (with door : pdngnan) ; 
tOkod: four posts, supporting the roof: dtep; 
fdgso: rafters; 

dapdn: section at the front enclosure; there is the mor- 
tar : lush on [ liison ] ; 

tjalikdnan: section for the fireplace, '"'kitchen;" 
tjdkso [fjokslio]: wooden platform, raised about i foot 


house above the ground, forming a spacious bench or shelf; 

dngan: sleeping chanil)er, covered with boards: dnglib; 
kobkob: partitions on both ends of tlic "aiigan," for uten- 
sils, ornaments, valuables; 
flck: inclined bare boards, serving as "beds ;" ffoyk 

[dfok]: mat; 
fdlig: fcloy a second "story" (5 x 6 feet) raised about 7 

feet from the ground in the centre of the ist Hoor; 
aiTcvfdjaii: place beneath the roof outside of the house, 

where burdens are laid down {dpcivid: burden) ; 
Iff dig: small shelves, inside beneath the roof; 
fadngan: yard in which a house stands. 



hundred sin lasliof [lasdf; kasliot; gasud] ; theiooth: luangapS'o 

ay po'o 


maBwat; inokanz: moBiv'dtak: I am hungrv. 


anpibck — iiuhiBbko — niadiWd' — inaiigduBb. 

Person. : uiangdnBbak. 

mangdsmak — nangdsmak: I hunt, chase with dogs (dsi») 


fckdshck (throw); {a/dki.'k: I hurl a stone (hit) 

hurry kaiiu'/ck (hasten); inashaiigfiycnak — nashangpn'ciiak I 

do in great haste, suddenlv. 
Person. ; iitkakdiiw'niL — niiikakdiiiBak I am in a hurrv 


kogongck (strike) ; digdikck — dinigdtgko — uadfgdig: I 
hurt by dropping a stone (on my foot etc.) 
lidOdek 1 hurt by bending (finger, foot etc.) 
pa/ayfick \pa/ayfnvck\ — inpa/ayfiko — ma/ipadyu — 
mangipadyu: I hurt one's feelings; T insult 
inpSteg {inpStcg]: it hurts 


husband asdi9civa ay laldki [asdzva; asdoa] 


katyi'tfoug; abdfong. 

sak/hi \sah/6n\ 


fjiildlit (known only as hailstones) 


sangdan; snmdngaak, int jon gt jon gaPtzvak I am idle, lazy; 
inxakiyaklu^ak I walk around idle 


mo; mosJidya [uiosdya]; [452; 454; 460] 

Igdlot [Ikdlot]: iFemtok ay Igolot: Bontoc Igorot ; [61 
kalin si I irolot: Isforot Lanouas:e 


insaklt (sick) ; "gog; angaiigaldd (with prepos. is, 

image litaldto [taldto\ (Sp. retrato) ; HnaktdkB an image, 

drawn or carved, usually of a man (fdkPt) ; a wooden 
carved figure or statue representing a man: AI. Sch. L 
But also: tinaktdkM ay fan fas: a lizard carved on the sur- 
face of a shield. 

imitate igtek (no preterite!) ; fgtek nan kalfiia I imitate his way 

of speaking 



immediately [296; 313; 315] ai?/ai?(nf kayd; sinakitan. 

improper hiivwa: Ur'i'^zva ay indka: it is improper to weep, it is 

wrong:, bad, unfit, foi"l)i(lden 

in, into 

i-'^; Ui] [2>77 ff-] 

in number: ma/atigsdngkami we increase in number, 


tsdoiiiak — tsindomak — Diatsdoiiiaii — uiandom: I make 

larger (in number) 

matsakomdn gkdmi we produce many children, populate a 

land, (also of animals that have many young). Sec: grow; 

high ; big; stretch. 


mCind [417] ; ddji. 

inform isiids/ldko — insudsudko — niaisudsud. Person. : iusudsudak 

I bring tidings, I bring an order, a challenge; 

inhabitants sinpangtli: of one town or country ; iSamoki, iTiikilkan, 

iAlah [iAab]: inhabitant of Samoki, Tucucan, Alab [61] 



aldck (take); tal^iv/tjck (Hoc.) 

iiltngan (lodging house for strangers) (Hoc?) 


tbfdkak (ask) 


inside isfsa/)ii{iia; [istjdiiii; isddi}n: adsdyim: in towns south 

of Bontoc: isldi)ii, with the interchange of L. D, R. in 
various dialects] 



instruct iokonck (advise). See: teach. 

insult pa/ayi4ck [pa/ayLOtivck\ (hurt); cngkdliak is ngag is... 

(kcii...) "I speak bad (words) to one;" pasongetck: I 
cause anger ; ipddngck — inpcidngck — ma/ipddngd 
[)>ia/ipddngdy] — mangipddngo: I insult with words. 

intelligent kazvfs nan mtek, "good as to the brain;" kdwis nan dlo, 

''good as to the head;" inydmis nan o'lo {inydmis: soft) 


ICytjck (like): I want; or: ck, fck: I go to... [307] 

interpreter intilipiti [intcU^plhi] (Sp. interprete) 

intestine feiang 

intoxicated niafcitcng [luobddcng] 

inundate poshdngck is tjeiiuin (with water), [poslnigck] — pinoshdngko 

— nidpslioug. {pSsJiong: big water, lake, ocean.) See: irri- 

iron patatjim; best kind, steel: gmU'lyd. {Ci. tBniafjfm: "it 

is sharp, it cuts") 

irrigate tjeiiuniak \ddnouiak\ — tjint^niiniak — niatjaiuinan — 

manenuni: I water the ricefields. See: canal. 

siya, sa, na, ndntond, ndntodl [81-84] 


kiUid: it itches: inkdtov. 


[101-104; 107-109] 


jacket for women: dklaiig (Igovot) ; Ictm/ma (a short "bolero" 

of white material, with blue and red border stripes, used 
also to clothe the dead) (Hoc.) 

jail fahfalmtjan. See: bind, fetter. 

jar f^^"g(J (collective name, a pot) ; 

fusluiiigan: very large jar, for dry rice, i. e. for pdkiiy. 
fiiyofay: "bottleshaped, large, of hard clay" 
tmmnan [tn/iinan]; or: kdmcng: about 6 inches high; 
glazed; for the alcoholic beverage fdyash (Hoc: bdsi); 
the parts of this jug are: ngangdbna, its top; dwak, the 
body; koldngad, the foot; stluna, a bejuco string 
around the neck (top) of this jug, with a loop for carrying. 
The tmmnan is made in these qualities: (beginning with 
the best): i) tB^niaji ay padengdeng: 2) t. ay gdwdk°u; 
3) t. ay kindman; 4) t. ay libltfan; 5) /. ay fSksid. 
taking: small vessel, made of "squash" (a gourd). 
See: pot. 

jaw pdnga 

Jevi^'s harp abdfyii 

joint unget (in the body and in stalks) 

joke, jest angdngo; abdbfang; lUtzvid. 

joy kalaleyad \kalaldyad\ 


joyful inlal^yadak I am joyful. 

jump aktjdngek — inaktjdiigko — madktjang — rnangdktjang I 

cross by jumping 
Person. (Frequent, and Durative) : inaktjdaktjdngak — 
ninaktjaaktjdngak I jump across, (from tree to tree, 

across a brook), I keep jumping etc. 
inldptokak — ninldptokak I jump on level ground; 
bumdldiP/kak — hinmdldP(kak: I jump (like a grasshopper, 

a flea) (shoot?) 
tnmd/odak — tiumd/odak, or: intd/odak — nintd/odak: I 

jump up. See: leap 


just as if 

tjeuMm; juice of rice: If da; of sugar cane: dsed; 
thick juice^ like rosin : nikid (pitch) 

kazv/s (good, right) 

kashSn [454] 



Ifgtok [igiok] (hold) I keep safe; ikdkok: I keep, pre- 
serve; Person, umikdkoak 




tta (of rice) 

pdyok [hdyog] 



sikicUak [sikiydfjak ] — sinikicftak — masikidtan {siki: leg) 
tjaytjdyak — tjinayfjdyak — mafjayijayan 
kattnak — kinatfnak — makattnati — viangcitiu. (step upon) 
Person, inkatinak — ninkatinak. 

kidney fddin {bddin\ 

kill paddy ck [padSyek ; baddy ck; pafdyek] — pinadSyko — 

mapaddy — mamadSy. Person. : pumaddyak \pumaddyak ; 

bumaddyak; pumatdyak] — pinmadSyak. (The form used 

mostly in Bontoc has d and oy). It signifies also: to 

hit, to extinguish, to slaughter animals. 

ukddjak: I kill an animal by cutting its neck; synonym.: 

kadukdtjek — kinadukddko — makadiikad. ipaddyko: I use 

for killing, I kill with.... 

kind to.. kdzvis is.... {ken....) 

kind what kind of.... n^ag ay.... [149] 

kindle fire api/yak. See: fire 


dli (loan-word; Malay: hari; Woe. dri) 


koiigkougo; kougkSngo ay pangOlo: — ay udjidji knee of 

the frontleg; — of the hindleg. sokyp/p knccpan. 
kdyat: part of the leg back of the knee 

knife kipan 

knife: "bolo" kainpila: Parts: pdlek: handle; tdpck, edge; tjdlik, 
back; ddso, point; saiigkffaii. belt on which the /,?fl;n/'/7fl 
hangs; this belt is ornamented with white pieces of a shell 
i. e. koldngad si dpud. The knife is kept upon a half sheath 
made of wood; this sheath: fd/l. {I'd/i, here "vagina," is 
also a bag for the gong : fd/i si gdiigsa ; and cl". fdi ay dko. 



knife: "bolo" a. sow, fai reduplicated is fafdi, fafayi: woman). M. Sch. 
XVI, I, 9. The kampfla is of various size; the largest 
serves as hatchet or as weapon. 

knock against kogdkek I knock upon, rap at a door. 

itognogko — intognogko — maitOgnog — )nangitognog 

knot, tie a salibodck — sinalibodko — inasalibod. salfbod: a knot (at 

the end of a thread) (Hoc. ?) 

knot in wood bfngi; bfngin si kdyB 

know kek/kck [kekkck for: kcfkck: the first k guttural!] — 

kintekko — mdktck [mdktcg] — rndngtck [mdngtcg]; I 
know, I understand, I am acquainted with one, I compre- 
hend. The verb: dmmok, iiidinmok: I know, is not Bontoc- 
Igorot, but strictly Ilocano. 

knowledge acquaintance: kaktSk 





ladder teytcy [tiiytay] 

ladle fdn''&i, h\g, flat, like a shovel; fan°iiek nan mcikan: I take 

the boiled rice from the kettle and distribute it; 
Person. : infdn°nak. 

kdotjek — kina/otko — makd/od, I ladle out with the kd&cd, 
a large dipper, klivd, a ladle made of a gourd. 

itjush [ifsiisli; it jus] a small ladle, a spoon. See: spoon. 

lake pSshong {ay fdnig): a (small) sea; or: tdblak, a pond 

lame kil/od; viaptlay; I am lame: iiipilayak [i})iptlayak\ 

land tli; public land: pdgpag; fobfily: the home land 

m7o//, collective : kataldnan ; the cultivated land, the liclds 
near a town. Ger. Gefilde, Geliinde. 

landslide kftjay 

langxiage kdl/; nan kdlfn si IgOlot: the Igorot Language 

lard, fat Idnib 

large tsaktsdki [tjakfjdki; tjaktjdkd]; very large: t[aktjagda 

[tjaktjagdag; tjaktjagdra; see: big] 

last mangudjtdji the last in a line; anSngosh tlie last or end 

of a story, of events, of actions, niangudjidjiak I am the 
last, man gananSn gosh it takes place as the last event; 


last "finally;" man gananSn gosh nan patpatoy: at last spears 

are thrown 
last month: nan fuan ay ndlosh, nan fttan ay inniily. 

late lufpnii [nadmni]; ma/chotnidmniak I am late; 

ma/dl^inidpciiiak ay diniiy: I am going late. 
is nan anongBsli nan ipdt ay dkyu: four days later. 

laugh nwdngoak — nadngoak ; otySgak ; angangoek: I laugh at 

one, I deride; kakadngo ridiculous 

lay down fsdddko — insaddko — ma/isdad [ma/isdd] — mangisdad 

pdyck (put); ipuiko (put). 

lay eggs maiigc^tlog: (the hen) lays eggs. 

lazy sangdan; sumdngdak: I am getting lazy, weary 

lead ipangpdngok (guide) ; mifucgak (go with) ; 

iskSpko — iniskdpko — nia/iskc'p: I lead into a house; 
ikadngko — inikadngko — )nikdan I lead away. 

leaf t(7fo; mostly in the stat. constr. : tofon; tofon si litkam: a 

grass leaf 

leak intOtjoak — nintdtjoak; pokdtak I stop a leak, with a 

stopper : sfkvat 

lean fikodck — finikodko — niaffkod: I make lean, wear out by 

work; niaffkod: lean, emaciated ; ffkas: lean meat, 

lean, I insdtjagak — ninsdtjagak 

leap aktjdngck (jump across); inaktjdngak ; intatd/odak (or: 

inbalbdldokak) I leap while advancing against an enemy, 
1 leap in a battle to dodge the spears thrown. 


learn sulHck — similiik — masffhi — mamHu. Person.: insftluak 

and sumiiluak. (loan-word) 

least akakft vw amhi ("less than all") 

leather kStjil (skin) 

leave ka\(1tjck — kinaydtko — niakdyad — niangdyad I leave 

behind, leave a remainder, abandon 
pa/isaek — inpafsak — iiia/ipalsa ; 
ukdyek — inukdyko — iiia/dkay — mangRkay I leave alone 

(means also: to let alone^ to let go) 

leave kumdanak (go away) 

masisidngkainl ; intjegdngkdmi we lake leave, we part, we 

go to different directions. 
pasisidnek : I cause to part, separate 

left side 



fkid; to the left : is tkMjfn; at my left: is nan ikfdko 

in/nfkid \infkid\ 

s/ki; calf of the leg: f ft kin; upper leg: i?<po [dpo] 
(thigh); part l)etween knee and ankle: kdlo, baldlPcash; 
bones of the leg: tSngan si mpo; leg at the back of the 

knee : kSyat. 
siklak I seize by the leg; leg of chicken: p^tyong; 
foreleg: pangSlo; hindleg: udjfdji 

itsaozvdtko — infsaozvdtko — maitsdowat — mangifsdozvat; 
pakaHzvdtck — inpakanzudtko, — maipakdl9(ivat — 
mangipakciBzvat I cause, tell to lend 


ka/antjSna: its length 



lengthen paantjSek (heighten). See: increase. 

less akakli (tlian: mo); lessen: kadnck (takeaway) 

lest ta adt 

let let us (hortatory) : ta; e. g. let us rest: ta umilcngtdko! 

(or, with Conjunct. Part, ct [i8(S]: iiiiiilciigtd'ko't we 
ought to rest) 

iyilyak [yiiyak ] — iniyityak — niaiyffya [ m iyi'/ya ] — 
]tiangiyi1ya: I allow. (Infinit. iyf/ya) iikdyck: I let alone 


sdlad (loan-word) 

fjdda [tsdda. tjdta]. I level : fjatdck; libit fan: a level 
trail on the side of a mountain 


lid, cover 


lie down 



djildjilak — djinildjtlak — inadjildjflan. See : tongue. 

sdkoiig: cover of a pot; a small pot placed upon the open- 
ing of an other pot. 

inSngakak — niiuhigakak. Sngakak: I belie^ deceive. 
Sngak: a lie, a ruse, a trick; engdkan a liar 

intjaSlagak —iiintjacilagak; I lie down on my b;ick: 
intjlpakak — nintjlpakak. Also: masilyepak (sleep); 
iimilengak (rest); inpflingak I lie on my side; 
inldgfBbak: I lie on my face 

lengag (soul) 

egzvdtck^negzvdtko — maegwat — mangegzvat: I lift a bur- 
den, weight 
siiwdtek — sinuwdtko — iiiasfhuat — uianuwat: I lift a burden 
isibl(^yko — insibleyko — iiiais/bley: I lift with one hand (an 
animal by the hindleg). I lift from the ground 


lift sdofek — sinaSbko — masdob — inandob: I lift on my shoulder 

lekudfck — linekzvdbko — malekwab — minlekzvab I lift a 

cover^ lid 
patongtsmck: I lift, liold lii,L,''h up (arm, hand, foot) 

light dpuy \(ipny\ (fire); sili nan dkyu: sunlight 

light ababdivoy [ababdzvay] light, (of the sun); 

bumdway (punidzvay) it turns light 

light, I pafifjdngck I cause to burn brightly 

todngak — tinodngak — matodngan I light my pipe 

apdyak: I make fire. 

iap/iyak: I put light, fire to. See: fire. 

tangkdivak [tangk''ihvak] (Hash): I conduct with light 

light enydpei"/ (not heavy) 

lightning ydpyap; it is lightning: inydpyap; lightning strikes: 

k^onan — kinnian ncni kltjo: "thunder" strikes {ki4uianak: 

Person, from root: kan "eat"). 
kolyt^pycp: lightning without thunder. 

like, I ISytjck \ld\tjck\ — lincyddko — inalc'yad — niinU^yad: I like, 

wish, want, intend, love, desire etc. li'ytjck ay nidngan 
I like to eat. See; prefer. 

Person.: inlalC\adak, I am glad, cheerful, joyous. 
siddck Mike, love; mid {nia/td) siddck 'T am dissatisfied." 
Icyddko: m}- liking, my i)leasure, my love, my wish, need. 

like kddg [kdg}. Usually with possess, sufifix ; kadgna. 

kdg toshd, like this; kdg sidS [sidf]: like this, thus; 
kdg ken stya, like him, her, it; or: kdg ki^n todf. kddgak I 
am like; kddgko, like myself; kddgko ay tlaen: looking 
like myself, resembling me. kdgka kdak: you arc like a 
monkey, tkam kdg sid^!: do (it) like this! 
kasli/Sn, like, resembling; kashdnak, I am like, resemble 




kash/dn madSh nan tjdya, just as if the sky would fall 
siya dkis: likewise; or: kag ndntona dkis (like that also) 

limb, branch pdnga 

limp inpilayak — ninpilayak (I am lame); inpipflayak. 

line . flid, boundary line; dmas, dividing line, a part ; 

ifadfddko — infadfddko — niaifddfad — mangifddfad I 
arrange in a straight line 

lip sofil [sdbll] 

liquid tjinuidnnui: nalunak (molten metal) 

listen tjctjeng/ngck (hear) 






fdnig (baufg) (small) 

(in quantity) akft; very little: dkakft; too little: 
tsatsdma'y akit; too little (i. e. lacking): kolang; one 

peso too little: kolang sin phosh. 
little by little : sinakiakit; a little : is aktt. 

to be alive: matdknak — natdkBak; or: matatdkBak 
{tdkB: a man, a living being, a person) and: katdkBak. 
intedecak — nintcdi^cak I stay, remain, dwell, sojourn; 
makifliak [mikitliak] I live among a tribe in its country 
(///') or: nmtliak — imniliak, I live in a town, country, I 
settle at a place 

dddy [dtdy; ddiiy] 

fan fas 



load, cargo d^wid (as much as a man can carry) ; aUwfdtjan: the 

place under the roof outside of the house, where the load, 
burden may be laid down; umdiPczvidak : I am carrying a 


at a door fiiti (Hoc.) (The Igorot need no locks; see: door) 

lock, I futiak; [fitdfak]; ifihiik (Hoc); or: tctngfak is nan 

tolfcg: I "close" with a key. 


and grasshopper ; see : grasshopper. 



lonesome isdngak [osdngak] I am lonesome, alone ; or: 

makdyadak, I am left alone, from kaydtjek (leave), or: 
mdisdak, from isdck (I leave alone) ; {ha: one) 
inakdyadkd 'sua: you are left here! ("good bye") 


dntjo. "adf kasln iJisakft: he is no longer ill." 


ildck (see); iilak (watch, observe), look out! llaem! 
Plur. Hdenym! Person.: nmildak — inmildak [nnifldk] I 

look out for, I try to find, to catch etc. ; 
ilildek I spy, look out for, wait for 
oshtjdngak — inoshtjongak — ))iaosJitjSngan I look down, 

observe from a high place; intdngadak I look up 
insdkongak — ninsdkongak I look back, I turn around 
kddgak ken todt I look like him (like) ; 
kddgna ay Uaen looking like ; resembling 
fkadak I look for, care, provide (care). See: seek. 

lookingglass //?/>« (Hoc.) ; sdlming {l\oc.) 




adbfan, {iuafavak, I am weaving). The utensils are 
(M. Sch. XV) : 

Fig. above Fig. below 

tsokoban, leather belt, going around — a 

the weaver's back 

ibfdan a b ; g 

sig/wdii, shuttle c c 

faUka d d 

lilt dan g e 

lidkingan or : lahdfnan e f 

fdlfcg ("spear") — h 

tofong f — 

sagivttjan h — 

lolo ("stick") b? 


jiiaslwkto (as a spearblade from its shaft, an ax from its 

inkiskisdng: wide (of garments etc.), not tight 
ipogdnak — inipogdnak — maipogdnan: I let loose, set free 
(e. g. an animal that was caught). Person. : umipogdnanak. 
fadfdtjck ; obfdtjck: I let loose (untie) 

lose, I tjdngaiTi.vck — tjinongdiPtko^inatjdngaL'^e — manougaB ; 

lost: natjongaB ; uiasdngutak is nan pdgpag: I am lost 
in the forest. 


yddngckck ay c'ngkd!/ I make efforts to speak, I speak 

loud ; 
yadngckek ay mamdkaB I call loud {fiikaBzvak, I call) 

[317] (effort) 


koto; kOnicng; nit: Hit; small louse : kfinay; I catch 
lice: ikotdak nan cilo (the head) — ingkotOak — niaikotdan 
— nians'ikdto. 


leytjck; "sweetheart:" kagdyiin, or: salizva [salyihva]. 
in Song-Dialect, my beloved : nan Icyddko. 



low, humble a.ui/l: ("sliorl") 

low, not loud yadlunfko ay (hii^kali I speak low. 
intihtifiak, I wjiisper. [317] 
yaahinfko ay mancilan I walk noiselessly, I sneak. 


ouo/oiioy: )iak(/sat (Hoc.) 

lull to sleep ikoykoyko — inkoykSyko — maikoykoy — mangikSykoy. 


tetja \tdtsa]; tctctjan place or time for lunch 




macerate infdyi°(sJiak (clay for pottery, poundinfj it with a pestle : 


mad, I am inlil/kcfak — niidilfkctak 

maiden mamdgkid ; plur. mamanidgkid 

maize, corn piki\biki]; mamfkiak, I g^athcr maize; ngSlad corncob 

make kdpck — kiiiac'pko — makdi'b [ iiiakdih ] — maiigdcp 

[mangdib] I make, build, manufacture. 
Person.: kuiiidibak [kitmdc'bak] — kinmdibak 1 am going 
to make 




iiikdibak [i}ikdebak\ — ninkdibak I am at work, making. 
fkdhak — ingkabak I make for somebody; e. g. ikabak nan 

laldki is nan fdlfeg: I make a spear for the man [261] 
ikaSpko I make with a tool ; e. g. ikaSpko nan kfpan is nan 

kaldsay: I make the shield with the knife [262] 
dfong nan niangaebdnnii [inaugapdnuii] is nan soklong: 
we make the hat in the house [263] See: do, accomplish. 

maker kiiniakdib [kuinakdcp]; kuinakdib si fdnga a maker of 

pots, potter 
kuniakdeb is astn a saltmaker. 



laldki: Plural: Idldldki; person: tdki°t ; image of a man, 
toy, statue etc. : tinaktdkPc. man of prominence, wealth : 
gadsdngyi'n [kafjdngyen] ; man of high rank : nangdto 

ikad \(?kad; ekad] (but: fkad: care); nan fkadnii: our 
manner, custom, usage, fashion, law. 

Immeng ; tdkki; iMmengak — lini°nnengak — malHmengan — 
minlMmen? I fertilize Person.: inlMmenpak 

many dngsaji; too many: tsatsdnia 'y dngsan; 

great many: angdngsan; or: aydka. kad? how many? 
uniangsdngkdnii: we are becoming many, multiply ; 
aydka nan nidngtck ken stya: many know him. 

mark mdton (a sign on a tree, house, the road etc. ; target) 

mark, I niatSnak — minatSnak — maniatSnan. 

likdyak — linikdyak — malikdyan — niinlfkay I mark by cut- 
ting, scratching, carving, writing 



mark, I Synonym: kaldyak — kinaldyak — iiiakahryaii — iiiangdlay. 

(I mark, decorate, "write") 

marriage inpdkd; kahdfong (keeping house) ("Trial-marriages" do 

not exist !) 

married man: findlyen; I am married: findlyciiak; married 

woman: asdi^dva ay fafdyi. unmarried man : fobfdl/!o; 
unmarried woman: manidgkid (girl and spinster). 
See: husband; wife. 

marriage- p6kd; iiipokikik [inpL'keak\. 

ceremony ceremony. See : wedding. 

J perform the marriage 


asaefivdck ; Person. : inasdp(waak — uinaxdlPdvaak I am 

marrying, celebrating my marriage 
ninasd&cwdak I am going to marry, shall soon marry. 
iiiiidfongak I am going to marry, to establish my own 

household; Construct: iiiiidfoiigak kcii Tdkay, lam 

going to marry Tiikay. 
paafongck — inpaafongko — maipadfong — maiigipadfong I 

give in marriage, I make marry 
iafongko — iniafdngko — maid f on g — iiiaiigidfoiig: I marry. 
kabidjudek; kabit'lSek 1 marry for the second, the third 

time Person. : kumabidjiidak ; kuinabit'lOak. 

master dpo (Hoc); mdsilo; mistolo (Sp. maestro) ; also: school- 

master, teacher. 


khincd : dfoyk ; kdmin ( I loc.) 


kispSlo; ikisptUok I light a match (Sp. fosforo) 

matter Idioms: ngdg nan limad? ngdg nan fnuiad? what hap- 

pens, happened? "what is the matter?" Or: ngag nan 
indngnen nan ongSnga? what did the child do? "what is 



matter the matter with the child?" mliiy! it does not matter! 

nevermind! Synonym: tak/en. 

ngdg nan Inmad is nan matam? what happened to your 
eye? "what is the matter with your eye?" 


sak/hi \sak/an\: Dative: ken sah/hi. 

meagre, lean nafikod; fikas lean meat, muscle. 
meal nidns:an. See: eat, dinner, lunch. 

measure, I tjipctck: with outstretched arms; 

sin tjtpd: one ''tjipd," 5-6 feet 

tjangdnek: from point of thumb to that of the middle- 
finger ; one span : sin fjdiigan 

tepngek — tinpengko — nidtpcng — indnpcng : I measure with 
a stick, a strinsf etc. See: handful. 


fsfja [istjd]: any meat; htdg: only pork and beef ; 

kdlne (Sp. carne) 

a piece, share of meat: zvddzvad ; 

roasted meat : tsindiPcwis 

I give a share of meat : izvadwddko 

a piece of meat on boiled rice: bddaiig. See: food, bacon, 

lean, fat. 

istjd 'y dsB; istjd 'y fiitug; istjd ay ni4ang meat of dog; 

pork; beef (i. e. buffalo) 


bakes [pSkis; bagosJi etc.] ; dkas (Hoc.) See: cure. 


dptck — inafctko — mad fed — mangdfed. 

Person. : umdfetak — imndfetak 

ek dpten: I go to meet; umdptadak : I come to meet 

uindliak ay nnidfcd ken... I come to meet. 

meeting place indptan (also: place where two rivers meet: indptan si 



melody dyitg (a standard melody, as sung in one town, for a cer- 

tain song) 


patjfmunak — inpatjeiiumak — inaipatjc^'iiuinan I melt metal, 

"make liquid." 

maliinakak — nalunakak melt, become liquid. 

aniiek — iiuiiiuk — iiiadini — mangdmt: I dissolve salt, sugar. 


tagobak — tinagobak — )iiatagobaii: I mend by placing a 
piece upon a hole ; See : sew. 

menstruation fdla; Verb: viamdldak — iia}ndldak 


inildgo. See: sell. 

message siidsiid. 

messenger fda. 

midday tengan si dkyu; magdkyu; 

middle tenga; in its middle: is tengdna; is nan kaiPtivd}ia. 

{tSnga: the point in liie center ; kdBzva: the space between ; 
the place around the center). 

is nan kaBivdentja into their midst, in the middle of a 

enkakaBzvdck I place into the middle (Transit., l)ut pre- 
fix in-) ; inkakaMwdak I am in the middle 

midnight tengan si laff 

milk sineisho [sindsho; sinOso\ 

mill for sugarcane: falhvis [falhi'isli] : iiifalfzi'isak 1 work 

the sugar mill; tsdwiiyh: the long beam of llie mill 




pitingan (black) ; ddyba; pined (white) ; sdfHg. 


iihniiiiit; iiiiniuliick: I think. 

mine my own : nan kSak [107-110] 

mirror li1pa ("face," Hoc. ) ; sdlniing (Hoc.) 

mistaken I am mistaken: fakSn nan kdnak; you are mistaken: 

fakSn nan kdnam (not my, not your saying [323]); 
faki'n nan kinzvdiiik: I was mistaken. 
fakS)i sa! fakdn fjiiyf this is a mistake 
adf uiiiiiy nan kaiidnt: "your saying does not go." 

mix kasldngak; c>igkasldngck ; or: ikasldngko — inkasldngko — 

maikdslang. cf. [169]. 

molar tooth 



pip/ck — pin/pik — niapipi — nianifpi: I sliape pottery by 
beating witli tlie pfpi 


sitjing; mole on the skin, like a lentil: fotig. 

moment, a sinakffaii: ap{ai'>cnf kaya! "wait a moment !" 

sdna! "yes, in a moment." (as answer upon an order: 
Ger. "ja, gleich !") 

money bflak [pflak]. Loanwords: sfping: one centavo; 

sikd pad or sets: 10 cents; pisitash [pesetas]: 20 cents; 
finiin: 25 cents; said pi: 50 cents; pi'so [peshosh]. 


kdag [kdak] 




fuan [b/hn] 

full moon: fitfitdkena; (See: open the eye) 

new moon: Ihneng; maadmas: dark, the moon being not 


waxing : 

1. quarter: fikasdna nan fiian 

2. (luartcrs: }}idnaBa, malokumd iiaii fiian 

3. quarters : kdpnodna nan fi'tan 


3. quarters: niatolpdkdna [inatolplkana] 
2. quarters: kisnlfikdiia 
I. qviarter: kafanigdna 

more adddsa [adadda]: kastn (again); 

tabtdbiak I give still more (I add); See: increase. 
wodwodd: there is more; kekkentdko is adadddsa: we 
know more. 

morning ivthi (daybreak) ; fibikdt ; niaiviid it is getting morning 

nannay ay fibikdt: this morning 
aszudkas si fibfkdt: to-morrow morning 
nan fibikdt ay ndlosh: yesterday morning [413] 
ma/dkyu: "about 8 o'clock A. M." 
mamtbiflbikdtak : I come early in tlie morning 

morrow, to- aszvdkas [iswdkas; aszvdkasli; 'sinvdkasli] ; 

niazvdkas [niai^wdkash]: "it is getting to-morrow." "the 
following day;" e. g. kefjc^ng maiPtzvdkas ya umdjdngkdmt 
's nan Hi... "then it turns to-morrow (the day breaks), 
and we arrive in the town;" on the next day wc arrived in 
the town. 

mortar liison [liisong] (for pounding rice) ; long mortar, like a 

trousrh : Ifbkan. 





fdkyu (on stones in the river) ; kag fdkyu: like moss, i. 
e. o-recn. 


adddsa mo amin; anzdiiirsan mo amfn: more than all. 

mother ina; grandmother: I'kid ay fafdyi; mother and child: 

sintna: old woman : inina. 

mother-in-law kadnkdngau ay fafdyi 


a horse: inkafdyoak — ninkafdyoak 

mountain f^dg; mountain range: kaffligaii ; kafiUffUgan; 

sinpamlligan: a section of a mountain: togtogdna (its 
top), summit of a mountain: mountain side: digit jan 

mouse tjotjS [t sot so] 



kizviick — kinhvuk — maktwu — mangfwu: I move, touch, 
handle: also: khvek — kintwak — makfzva — manghva. 
atdiiek: I remove; Person.: inkhvuak — ninkhvnak: I 
move myself, my hand, body, etc. 

kumigodak [knyndgcdak] I move out of the way, make 
room for one (being afraid of danger) 

much dngsan; angdngsan; tsatsdma 'y dngsaii: too much ; 

aydka: very much ; mdl/an: plenty, much (not attribu- 
tively) ; kddgna uio... even as much, just as much as... 
kddf how much? [14S]. adadsiian [adadji4ivaii]: a large 
quantity; much. 





muddy, kifp/ck — kiiiffi^k — inahffpt — manr^ffuv. (I make water 

I make muddy) 

mumble iiiagkSfjddak — ninagkStjodak 

murderer inpddoy; inpddoyak: I murder 

muscle ft has [fikash]. See: fruit. 

must, I ilotldtko — iiilotldfko. (douhtful ; means also: I desire very 

much). Or: ipflitko (also doubtful: Ilocano: pilttek, I 
compel). Use the Passive of the Authoritative Verbal 
Form: maipa-. Cf. [187; 188] 

mute, I am iitaiigcftigakak — naiigdngakak 


[101-106; 107-111 ] 


nail fdkat 

nail, I ifCikddko — infakddko — maifdkad — mangifdkad (ogpdfek 

nan fdkat I pull the nail out) 

nail kSko (on hand or foot): kokdak: I scratch with my nails 

naked naldfosh; lafdshak: 1 undress; (Hoc?) 

ninfilad: having undressed, from injfladak 

name ngdtjan [ngddan]; ngdyak [ngdyag] 



name, I ngdtjdnak — nginatjdnak — iiiangatjdnau. 

nakzvdni: called, named. See: say, kdnak. 


okdkPtd [ogdkl°/d] 

narrate ogok&ttjck — iiiogdknfko — maogOke'cd — mangogciki°(d. 

Person. : inogdki''idak — ninogOki°(dak. 
nindkiPcd: the narrator of tales 

narrow fanfanfg (very small) 


ipiikdpt [ipdkaPt ; ifdkao]: folk; sinpdngili: the inhabi- 
tants of one town, district 


bd/sig [pdisig'\ (also the protruding corner of anything 

near sakSii, sasakSn; asasakSn [asIidsIiakSn] ; iiisakSn sfya: it 

is near; ngan/ngani ad Fmitok near Bontoc, almost in 
Bontoc. [399] 

kokkakedna the place near by; a little distance off. 
See: approach; come; almost. 

neck fdkang; back of the neck : tdngcd 

necklace apdngo (of beails) ; fiiydya ay saoiig si fdfiig: necklace 

made of large pig teeth; fdngkiiy: of metal. 
fangkllak — finangktlak — viafangktlan I put on a necklace ; 
nafangkflan: provided with a necklace. 

need, I iSyt j ek {Wk^) ; See: seek: andpek. 

needle tjakdyBin [kafjdyiPnn] (Hoc?) 

neglect tjiiiiidngal''mk — tjinmdngamak. Cf. forget ; rotten. 


Negrito kSln'ni [nakJlud] (i. e. curly-haired) 

neighbor sakSn; kasakSiiak I am a ncighl:)or ; nan sakSngko my 


neither — nor adt — payrnd 


akcim; dfong si aydyam (house of l)irds) 


sit jug; I catch fish : sitjukck; kdyi^g fish-basket, used 
as net; mangdyi°tkak I use the AvJy^^; J. XLIX 

igd [321] ; {igd: an emphatic negative corresponds often 
to "never," "never before/' "not yet.") 

never mind! ic'dai! [dldy\ 

new kakakdc'b: newly made, from kdpck ; kabkafdla: new- 

born, k'alkaldka a new, recently made ol^ject (Hoc. : lakck, 
or lagek: I make) ; kaaldla newly obtained. Cf. [297] 

newspaper hil\etl ko {\o:\n\\ord)\ siHad (any written or i)rintcd paper, 

letter, document etc.) 


misSngkob; misongkobak I am the next ; 

sumdngkobak I am going to be the next 

stka nan sumdngkob: you are the next. 

on the next day: is kastn dkyn; is san nai^wakdsana, 

next holiday: nan fsang ay tSngaPC, or: is kdshi tdngaiPl, 

the next time : is kdsfn. 


mastjhn: late evening; lafl: about midnight ; taldno: 
about 2-4 o'clock A. M. 

last night : idkiifab; to-night: )nasfj'hn si d/Vnin; 
sinlaftan: one night, the other night. 




to-morrow night: asivdkas si mastjfm; 

inalaff: it is getting midnight. 

mastjiinastjftnak; uialafllafiak: I come late in night. 

nightmare l/iiiaiu 

siam; tlie ninth : mangasiani, or: mdygasfam ; 19: sin 
po'oyasfam: the 19th: iiiaiigapd'o ya sfaiii. [367] 


si'amaypS'o: the 90th : mangasfain ay pS'o 



adi; igd; ma /id [nud\; fakJii [319-324] 

no, not any [322:323] 

nobody ma /hi idiwi [131 

ever; none at ah. 

ma/fd ciiiiy sfniW: nobody whoso- 

nod, I 

inydngedak — iiinydiigedak. (I nod assent) 


dMinongcg {tl°(mSngck\: it makes noise. I make a great 
noise: dongekck — dinoiigckko [diuong^gko]. 
Person.: dnmdiigckak. madongckak: lam annoyed by 
noise. I make a shght noise: engkaiotokodak — - 
neiigkalokddokak. Ical/kong: a noise; cngkalfkong it 
makes some noise. 

t^iigan si dkyit; tengan si inagdkyit. See: middle 
nintenga nan dkyti: it is noon. 
magamagdkyuak I come at noon 

payino (= or) 




Idgod; apfd Idgod. nan iLdgod: the people living north 
of Bontoc. 

fleng; I blow my nose: insdngetak. 




adt; igd; ma/td; fakSn; tsdan : [319-327] 

no more adi kashi, not any longer 

nothing ma/ Id [322] 

not yet tsdan pay [tjdan pay]; igd (igdy) and partic. passive with 

prefix ka- instead of the prefix )na: igd kakdcb: not yet 


adivdni : idu'dni; just now: sdno [313] 

nurse, I tokdngak {nan Insdktt: the sick) — tinokdngak — matokongan 

— mandkong. I nurse a baby : pasoscick — inpasdsok — 
niaipasOso — niangipasjso. 




obey, I periphrastic: dngnck amtn nan kdnan nan ctpok: I do all 

that my master says, orders; or: abfoliitek: I believe, I 
heed (an order). 


iildck — iniilak — maiila — mangiila 

obtain a/c?V/c (take) ; paddnck (receive); tsamivddck 

See: sret, receive. 


itsaotsdoko (give) 




[290 ff. ; 310] dngsan ay dkyu (= many days) 

Idna: oil of cocoanut (Hoc.) 

naengan: grown, adult ; 

maeiigengan mo...; ncngnSnga>i mo...: older than... 

amdnia, old man; intna, old woman; Plural: am/dmma; 

indnna. tsatsdma'y amdma: very old, too old. 
amdmaak I am old; iiniamdnidak I am growing old; 
naldkayak, I am very old. (Hoc?) 

sin pd'o nan taiPcwinko I am ten years old (ten are my 
years), kad nan tamzvtna? how old is he, she? (The 

Igorot do however not care to count their age by years.) 
yiin/a: the older brother or sister 

natsdkma: worn out, old; said of things: old hat, coat 
etc.; natsdnod [natjmwd]: old, (rotten) 



ftju: omen-bird ("all red; black under the neck") 
mangdyBak — nangdymak: I go to the woods \kdyiPcan\ 
to consult the omen-bird. 

ttjaBak — inftjaBak: I succeed hunting (catching) in accord- 
ance with an omen. 

Idfiiy: omen; minldfiiyak I consult, try to obtain an 
omen in the forest, at a fdzvii; J. CXXVH. 

is, si [^77 ff.] 


isa; one, single: hang [dsaiig]; isdngak: I am alone; 
sintsaisang one by one; is f sang: only one, single 
sin: one, with measures: sin tjipd: one tjipd; see: meas- 
ure; sin fenge: one handful (of rice); sin pBsosh: one 

ff/yasli (Hoc); bdzvang: garlic. 


dngkay; ydngkay: apfd ydngkay. Postpositive; c. g. 

sak/^n ydngkay, only I ; fsa ydngkay only one. 

I do nothing but... or: I only...: pitkak — pinitkak ay...., or: 

dbi'idak ydngkay ay... {abtidko ydngkay); [dpidak; 

dbidak]. See [316]. 

sumydak ydngkay — sinumydak ydngkay: I do only.... 

open, I tegkudfak [fckkudfak] — tinegkudfak — matcgkudfan — 


lekudfck — linckzvdbko — nialckn'ab — niinU^kzvab I open, 

ludtak: Alab dialect. 

fitfltck — finitfftko — inafflfit — mamftfit: I open, unfold 
anything rolled uj). 

tsiddck — tsiniddko — inatsfad {nan mdtak): I open my eye 
fitdkck — finitdgko — mafttag (nan mdtak): I open my eye 
wide, I stare. 

takdngck — tinakdngko — matdkang {nan topi^kko): I open 
my mouth 


opinion nfmnim; nimntinko my opinion; nan niiiinnnko "as to 

my opinion." 

opposite is nan tjtmang; I am opposite : insdkangak; see: side 


pay mo 


hibfaii [li'ifan; l/'iban\; tahongaPC a kind of grapefruit 


order, I kdnak (say) ; otjdkck — inotjdgko — ma/dfjok. I bring an 

order, I tell. 

poldngck — pinoldngko — luapdlong — inaiiidloiig: I com- 
mand, filfnck: I command (Hoc.) 




tck/ken (different); tck/ken ay tdkB an other man 
tckkenak ay tdk&i : I am another person, mdtkcn: altered, 
changed (to another) 

th/a: an other (of the same kind), a companion; ]ian 
ih/dna ay kaldsay: the other shield (of the same kind), 
an other, one more: dkis. nan tapln: the other group 
of... (in opposition to a group mentioned; or as: Fr. '"nous 
autres Parisiens") 


kmndanak I go out, away; [376] 
fumdlaak I come out ; infdlaak 
pakadnck I drive out (expel) 
ogpdtck I pull out 
ogfdsliek I tear out 
tivastdko I pour, throw out 
fadlek I send out (a messenger) 

I am outside 



kadnck I take out 

ilaein! look out! 

uialpdak I COOK' out of, from [384] 

outrage, crime kakalsu: kakatsu iiaiuuiy: tliis is outrageous, criminal, 
wicked. oUllliy: very bad. 

outside is tjlla (not in the house, "^in the yard"); is Hid out of 


infcilaak I am outside; fuincHaak I go, come outside; 
faldek I take outside. 

outside, the angdnd (as eggshell, wrap, outside of a box, pot etc.) its 
outside; is dngdna: on the, to the other side 

over is tongtju [407] 

overthrow itokdngko — initokdngko — maitSkang — niangitdkang. 

owe, I woddy otdngko; you owe: zvoddy otdngmo; woddy nan 

otdngna ay fnim ay pesosh ken sak/cht he owes me six 
pesos, (ifang: debt. (Hoc?) 


kSop: kodkan 

own, I inkdak — ninkdak. [62] 

ininkda ; ninkda 


pack fugsliongek — fimigsliongko — mafilgshong — iiiaiiiugsJwiig 

I pack in a bundle. See: wrap, tie 

pad kfkan (a ring of grass placed on the head when carrying a 


pail kdkuan 

pain bedeg \pdddg\; inpedcg [inpotdg] it causes pain, it hurts. 

pair sintsfdua 

palm of hand tdlad (particularly a line in the palm ; see ; hand) ; ad pa. 

pant, I iiisfiikak [iiisfyukak] — ninstukak ; inisftysiiyak. 

paper siilad {le-iiar); papcl (Sp.) 

pardon pakaLVzvd)iek. 

parents pangdfong; tja fna ken diiia [39] ; si tna ya si d))ia 

part dinas; part, share in work (allotment) : ton go; 

portion: tjnva; nan tapln: a part, some, several. 

part, we See : leave 


pass, I la/Sshak — UnacisJiak — naladshan — minldosh. 

Person. : luiiiaoshak — liiimadshak. 
intedgeak nan isa 'y dkyu ad Manila: I pass a day at M. 

past ndlosli [ndlaosh] : naft4asli. past years: na)i taiPczvhi ay 

ndlosli {ay iinni'ty) 

paste ipakpdgko — inpakpdgko — maipdkpag — )nangipdkpag. 

pastvire bdntsag [p'^'ntjag] (grassland, uncultivated ground) 

path djdlan. See : street. 

pay, I faydfjak [bayddak] — finaydtjak — inafaydfjan — iiianufyad 

Constr. faydtjak nan Idldldki is nan btlak: I pay money 

to the men. 
lag f dak — linagfdak — malagfdan — minldgjo I i)ay wages; 
Person.: inlagfoag — ninlagfOak. {silddak: I pay many 
workmen; Hoc.) See: reward. 

peace pifjJn [pcfjc'n]; iiipitjhikdini we have peace, live in peace 

(Hoc?) ; kapentdko nan petjchi we are making peace; 
makibfaydl^ak I make peace with. Person. : hifdyai^ak. 
Possess. : faydmek — finaydi'^ko — mafdyaB — mamdyaiPc: I 
appease, reconcile. 

peel ogh (peel of oranges, bananas, cornhusk etc.) 

peel, I kildyak — kinflayak — makildyan — mangtlay (peel camote 

etc.) Person.: inkflayak — ninktlayak; oglsak I peel 
the skin of fruit (oranges etc.) 

peep through inkikfnga^ak — ni>ikiktngaiPiak 

penis dti; glans penis: kl'lli; praeputium: gdyiip. 







ipio'/kaB [ipukdm; ipokai"/; ifi'fkao]; (as nation, tribe) 
fcfkB (persons; men) ; katdkBtcikH: a crowd. 

InslikdiTcVck — luuishkaBko — malihhkaB — minlihhkam 
(pierce); IckaBak: I make holes; ualckalckdBan: with 
many holes ; 
telkck: I pierce the earlobe (with the "fcHck," awl) (Ijore) 

ngcf; II gin (in questions only) [306]. With Future Pre- 
fix: ddiigct: ddiigiii (in questions only) ; [Alab: iinHaug] 

iiialdfiikak — iialdfiikak. See: destroy. 

i yd yak [yd yak] (let) 

tdkB [fdku]; 
that one." 

''nan kaidkon toslid: the personality of 

perspire iiial/ngctak — iial/iigcfak ; perspiration: liiigcf. 

pestle dl/o[dll/o]; small pestle, rice masher : fdgkoiig [fdkong] 

photograph Utaldto ( Sp. rctrato) 

physician incdstgo {^■p.); conjuror of sickness : insdhok; See: blow 

pick up pitjfdck—pinitjtdko — mapftjid — iiiamftjid (pick up an object 

from the ground) 
fBldshck — fijiBldshko — niaf/zlasli — maind/lash I pick, 
gather fruit 

picture Utaldto [t aid to] (Sp. retrato). See: image. 

piece dmas (part) ; bhki: a piece broken off; aklt ay... (a 

little) ; zvddzvad: a piece, share of meat. 



potion i^na: a piece cut or broken off ("from it"); 
tolpfkak I break off a piece. See : break 




hishkdnzvck (perforate); pierce the earlol:)e: ft^lkck (bore) 

fi'/iiig; diuBg: young pig. See: hog, ceremonies. 

kafuti'tkan ; pigstay: kongoan 

kolnpdti; pasdka (loanwords) 

oldtan (headrest); pn>igan {Woe.) 

kadsdyuiii [kadsdymm; kadsayhn; tsakdy^nn] (Hoc.) 


kit in i^ck — kiiiit/ii <:ko — mak/tin "■ — man </itin o-. 


kdyB {kd'^m\; fdtang: pinctrce; sdciig pitch pine; 
fl°cltfug pine cone. 


fobdnga. of clay: fobdnga ay bfda {ay pffck) 

M. Sch. p. 22 and tab. XVHI. " J. C\'-CX. 

tinaktdkM ay fobdnga: brass pipe with tlic image of a sit- 
ting man on the bowl 

finambdyong, or: pinopdyong, or: pindyoig: brasspipe, 
with smooth bowl 

songxdpan: pipestem ; sSklid si fobdnga: pipe cleaner 

agdkay: chain of the pipe cleaner. 

sBddak: 1 lill a jiipe; tddngak: 1 light a pipe 

tsnbldck; inanubldak: I smoke 




See: jar; pot. 


pitfall for wild hogs: /V7// ("very large"); iliib. 

pitted face (from smallpox) kahlka 

pity, I sigchigak [sikdngak ; sogdiigak] — sinigdngak — 

inasigdngan — maul gang. Person. : insisigdngak — 
ninsisigdngak. isigdngko — inisigdiigko — iiiaisfgajig — 
maugisfgaiig; kasisigdiigka! you poor, pitiable man! 

place kdiTivad; Place is expressed regularly by suffix -an: 

taktdki°/an: place where people live; inalpiPcan: place 
from which one comes etc.; kakdcpan: place for making 
something; iiitcdecaii: place where an object is kept. 
I place : see : put. 

plain, level fjddd 

plait kinds of plaiting: (made of rattan): fitidkzva; kiiidsil; 

kiiifsid ; fiiidkiio; tiuokldlo. 

plane i. e. I make smooth a board with an adze: shdfddak 

[sabddak] — sinafddak — iiiashafddan — ma 11 d fad. 
shiimaslidfad: "carpenter;" fsiishtsfishck I make smooth, 
rub smooth, (smooth). 

plank Idshab [h^ishab] 

plant fslick [fssck] = seed; ngdg ay ishck nanndy? what kind 

of a plant is this? 

plant, I itonltko — iiifoiu'tko — maifjiiid — mangitonid (rice: pat jog). 

Person.: intOnidak. insdmaak: I transplant. 
itanhnko — intantinko — maifdiiim — mangitdnim (I plant 
sweet potatoes, camote : tSki, or seedling of camote : dngo) 
isegko — insegko — niafseg — mangiscg I sow seed. 
Person. : infsesrkak. 




kiog [ A'/rt or; A' /vo_g], made of braided bamboo; see: dish. 

inlfpayak: inlilkvidak. Sec games and [66] ; 
iufutfiUkCivil: we play with a toy pig- (of clay). 
insakalak: I play cards; inabahfdngak: I make fun, play. 

please palcydtjck ("I cause to like"). ipSngko ay palcydtjen 

tjakayti: I try to please you; Icytjek sa: I like this; this 
pleases me. {pangaasim ta iydlim nan apdy: please, bring 
the fire. Or: sumigdngka! please! See: pity.) 

plenty angdngsan; indl/aii [415]; indl/an nan tjStjon: the 

locusts are plenty, copious. {inal/an used predicatively 

pluck isiidtsddak I pluck feathers, hair. 

pluck off aiifek, I reap rice (harvest); kafiitck T pluck, tear out root 

and all (weed). 

pocket, bag tjSkan [fsio/gao]: f dish a [fdlsa] (Sp. bolsa) pocket in 
trousers, purse. 



siiildi [siiildzvi]: one pod; folo'yldi: three pods. 

odso: pointed end of any imj-jlcment, knife, ax, spear etc. 
or of a tree, pole, stick. Sharj) point of an axblade also: 

point, I idjiik {idsok\ (show) ; i'djiim nan ongSnga! point al the 


poison khvdtay \kyBzvdtay ; khvdtsay] ]ioison as drug or of ven- 

omous snakes 

poison, I kkvdtayak [kyincdtscyak] — kinizi'dtayak — jjiakizcafdyan — 




/o^(7>/7C'// (for carrying). See: post. 

pakol\aio(ydBivck — inpakolyaptydiotko — niapakolyiii''fyai<'(. 
it is polished, it shines : cnko!ydi°(yaB. 
pasilfek — inpasflik [pinasflik!] — luaipasfli I make light 
reflect from a polished surface, ax, mirror etc. 




pi'/si; [pusi] ; piisiak: I am poor; piiiiidsiak: I become 
poor; papiisfck: I make poor. 


isfjd ay fdfiig: itag. See: hog, pig, meat, bacon, fat. 

bdsliii: post with a head carved of wood, erected in the 
"dto," an "anito-post," at which the basket "sakolong" with 
a head gained in a feud is suspended during a ceremony. 
tdkod (vertical) ; fafdnglad (horizontal) ; tdklod (inclined) 
posts of a house. See : beam, pole. 


fdnga. iiiaiiidiigaak I go to get pots. See: jar. 
sakfjdan: large clay pot, for water; manaktjdak I carry 

a sakfjdan; 'T get water." 
bd\<ok [pdyok] very large pot or kettle, for lioiling rice. 
dingah: a pitcher with a handle. 
dgan a small clay pot (about four inches high) 
sagdban: the rim; dzvak: the "belly;" koldiigad: the 

bottom; pangigndnan: the handle. 

potatoes pafdfas (Sp.) 

potter fiuiiafdiiga; kumakdeb [kuiiiakdib] si fdnga (maker of pots) 

pound ///'/a (Sp. libra) ; one pound : sin llbla. 



pound, I fayiich — findyuk — mafcfyu — inamdyu: I pound rice, pdkily, 

io mSting, ricemeal. Person.: iiifdyuak — ninfaynak. 
(pestle: dll/o) 

inpdgpagak: I pound rice at a ceremony, at a wedding. 
totdek: I pound bark of trees to gain fiber. 
infaydshak is nan bfda: I pound the clay to prepare it for 

making pottery. J. LXXXIX, a. 
See: beat, strike, hammer. 


atOnck (remove) : I pour from one pot into another. 
hvastdko [onzvasidko]: I ])our away (throw away), as use- 
less. See : put. 

pray, I kapidck — kindpiak — niakapla — iiiangdpia: kapidck si 

Luindivig: I pray to Lumawig. 
mangapidak — nangapidak I ]M-ay, say prayers. 
Or : inkapidak — ninkapidak. 

prayer kdpia 

prefer IcylCytjck (like l^etter) : IcylPytjck nanndy mo nantjiiy: I 

prefer this to that. Or; U^ytjck tsafsdiiia nanndy ino 

pregnant malfdon 

prepare fkadak: I care; see: care. 

imangnidngko — ininangindngko — maimdngmang — 
niangimdngmang I prepare a sacrifice 
isasakdnak — insasakdnak — niaisasakdna — niangisasakdna 
T pre])are, get ready. 

present, I am zvoddak; zvoddyak. [362] 

present, gift slkang; isigdngko: I present somebody with... (1 grant, 
1 please, I oblige; I pity) (probably Ilocano). See: pity. 



president "mayor," headman in a town: plcsidente; ficidjl'^l; 

I make president: fodosak is ficidjecl; used in Plural 
only : fodosanmi — finodosanmi — mahfodOsan. 
(Ilocano?) fiddjiPd: from Sp. gobernador. [gofenadjol] 


ipttck — inipitko — inafpid — mangipid I squeeze the body. 
tc'iiunck — tiiiiiiegko — mat mo [mdtindy\ — mdnmo 
\mdiimdy\ I press in the closed hand. 
itagmitko — iutag)iiitko — maitdginid — vianitdgmid: I press 
down, stuff ; sidsftjck — sinidsitko — masfdsit — manidsit: 
I pack together, press together, press into a mass. 

prevent ipai^rd'ak (forbid) 

price /cfo-o (from the purchaser's view), pdtek (price made by 

the seller). kdd nan Idgona? what is its price? how 
much does it cost? na)i Idgoii nan pafafjhn: the price of 
the iron. 

priest pumapdt/tay. (Sp. padre = pdtje). 

prisoner nafdlnd (from: falStjck, I bind, fetter, take prisoner). 

.See: jail. 

privy kafafayfan ; ka/hfoan. 

probably (7/;;//(/ [420] ; a^^'/^/y [415-] ; aivdy si yfni/a)n: probably 

your brother; ngcf; ngin: [306; 342]; mdlaitg (A\:ih 
dialect etc.) 

prohibit ipafiivak (forbid); adfck I deny; maldsinak I am pro- 

hibited, prevented, kept away. 


kdnak (say) 

kda [107 


prostitute pSta (Hoc). (Introduced by the Spanish soldiery.) 

protect fkad, care ; ikadak ken siya, I protect (care for) him ; 

isdlakak; tokongak; See: nurse, help. 


pupil (eye) 
purchase, I 



ikadak; nongnongck (care) 

kuyiitjek — kinuyfttko — inakfiyitd — mangilyud. I draw 
(horses : a wagon) ; 

pabfaldek: I cause to go out, I pull out (one from a house) 
ogpdtek — inogpdtko — maogpad — iiiaiigogpad: I pull off, 

oktSek — inSktok — maSkto — mangokto: I pull off. 
kafStck — kinafotko — makdfod I pull out hair (beard) 
Sec : pluck. 

inleklSkzi'ap nan iPtdd: the vein throbs. 

fayt'kck [fayfkck] (whip) 

kalinniatdku [kaliinniafdku] 

lag Jak (buy); the purchase: lagldgo 

apaydiPick [apaydmwck] — inapaydiPtko — niaapdyai?i — 
mangapdyaB (follow) 

adikOck — inadikok — niaadiko [maadigko\: I pursue the 
enemy. See : drive ; follow. 


itolildko — intoludko — maitdlud — mangitSlud 
idugiishko [itsokdshko ] — indugihhko — maid li gush 
itognSgko — intogndgko — maitSgnog I push against, cause 

to bump against 
ilutdgko — inhitdgko — mailittag I push into the mud 




ipufko — inpuiko — mat put — mangfpiii 

isaddko: I put down (lay); atonek: I put elsewhere (remove) 

patjdmck [patsa/Ock]: I put under, beneath; 

ishugetko: I put on (into) fire; isOnok: I put fuel into fire; 

sinjtek — sininotko — rnasinod: I put inside (a box, a vessel 

etc.); pangxidjidjtek I put behind; ckdngck I put apart, 

separate; pdyek; tpayck — piudyak — mapdyan: (or use 

forms of ipiiiko): I put, pour into. 

put on: see: dress, coat, hat, girdle, sheets blanket: ipufko. 

Or form verbs : i + name of garment + possess, endings 

quarrel, I iiiasisffadak — niuasisffadak (from sibfdtck, answer; "to 

answer much to one another'') 
ondngck — inonongko — vidonong — )iiaiig(i)Wiig: I annoy, 

scold, cause trouble 
indnongak — ninonongak: I cause trouble by quarreling 

quickly [296; 302; 311; 315]; iiiashaitgi^yciiak: I do quickly, 

busily, suddenly [L. 46] 
kaiiuick ay ihui'iy: I go quickly: [317]. Or: iukdinuak 
ay....: more quickly: iiikakdiniiak. 


koncg [ktncg\: kumikdnegak — kinmikdncgak: I keep 
quiet; pakdncgek: I make quiet, I order to keep quiet 
ikokonegko — inkokonegko — maikokSneg I keep silent 

about; "ich verschweige;" 
koncg! silence! keep quiet! 


engk'ditjcnak — nengkditjcnak I flinch; throb; '"zucken" 



rain litjaii [otjau: udaii] ; the rain is over: }}ia/ik"ii nan dtjan 

rains, it iiintjaii [iiio'tjaii] — iiiin^ttjan: adin/djaii: it will rain; 

(also: ya uw/tjan, Preter. ya ninntjan) See: stop. 
iiitsiklsh: it rains very hard; it rains in torrents. 

rainbow fmngcikan; (Alab : bulalcikati). 

rainhat man's: segfi. See 77""'^i,''y«V with his rainhat: J. LXXX. 

rainprotector woman's: tOgi'iy [togzi)i] 

rainy season kasi[^ [kisip] 

raise cgzvdfck (hit) : takdngck; raise, lift a lishtrap : fcngdek. 

patongijfU'k: I raise high x\\). 
tsuktsiikdnak: I raise animals, especially pigs. See: feed 

rap kogkokck — kinogkogko — niakdgkok — niangogkok: I rap, 

knock upon. 

rat otot; (hut: otdt: breaking wind) 

rattan w/ic: fandnga (red); gSnig (ycWow) : (calamus; rotanj 

Sp. bcjuco) 



inhitkitPi c^alc — niiikitkl'tft s:ok 

raw meat: igd kaoto: "not cooked;'' tsdan nadto: "not 
yet cooked" 


kaPfzvftjck — kinaftivltko — makdmxvid — Jiiangdio/zvid: I can 
reach (by stretching) 

laydl^tzvck — linaydftko — vialdyan: I reach a place by run- 
ning. Person.: luindyai'^ak — UiimdyaPtak: I tlee, run 
away. See: arrive. 

liiu^fck — liniiii^hko — inalincb — uiinlfncb I reach (said of 
water, rising and reaching places) 
Person. : lunifiicbak — liiunfiicbak 


fasdck — findsak — inafdsa — iiiaiudsa. Person. : infdsdak 
[infdsCik ] ( l(ianword ) 

ready ;/(7c//;;/v'o (accomplish : amkOck): iiafetash (finish: feidslick). 

aySed man! get ready! [ayed!\ 
imangiiidiigko: isasakdiiak I make ready (prepare); 
kikddak: I make ready (a meal, work etc.) 


iit/kva (true) 


anick; see: harvest ; beans ; rice; pick. 

iidjfdji; paiigudjidji'ck I drive to the rear; 
inangududjfdjiak I go to the rear, back. 

lengag: sound reason, good sense; life; soul. 
See : advantage. 

receive aldck (take); tsaBzvddck — tsinaPizvddko — matsdmwad- 




receive paddnek [patjdngek ] — inpddangko — uiaipddang — 

mangipddang: I receive as my guest; also: I receive a 
letter, a present etc., I take by the hand 

recognize kekkck (know) ; Tucucan : kotokck 

red inkilad; I dye red: pakilddck — inpakilddko — mapaktlad.; 

kuiiidlaiig getting red hot. 

reed tdnnb (any hollow stalks) 

refuse adfck (deny) 

rejoice inlalCyadak (glad) 

relate ogokinijck ; Person. : inogSkudak — nuiogdkudak 

relatives /)a;jo-<7/on^ (in the same house) ; sinpdngdpo of the same 


release ipogdnak — inpogdiiak — iiiaipogdnaii (let loose an animal 


rely abfolfitck (l)elievc) 

remain iiifcdc'cak — n in tcdc'cok [ in tiitfioak ] 

siiinidak: I am left, I remain ])chin(l and wait 

remember scsemkck — scsinmekko — mdsnick — iiidiuiiek. 

Person. : inseshnckak — ninses^mckak 

imdtonak — inmdtonak — viaimatonan — mangimdton: I 
remember by a mark, I recognize by a sign. See: mark. 

remedy bSkcs (medicine); dkash (Hoc.) 

remind pascs^mkck — inpaslund'kko — mapdshmck [maipdshmck]. 

Constr. : is governs the object called to mind. 




makiJxad: what is left. See: leave. 

atcinek — vidtongko — uiaclton — juangdton: put to an other 

kddnck (takeaway); 
kalkdlek — kinalkdlko — inakdlkal I remove objects, so as 

to find beneath them the thing- which I seek. 


kasfk kapSn I make again [312] ; kaiv/sck (I make good). 
ikate^iigko: I repair, put together the pieces. See: mend 

repeat kas/k kdiian I say again [312] 

kasfiiak: I do again 

Or: kdnak dkfs, 


kasJionak ; kaagak (like) 


innilengak — inmilengak. paileiigck — inpailengko — 
iiiaipa/lciig — maugipaflcng: I make rest, I order to rest. 
siuiuisdkftbak — sinmasdki°lbak: I sit down to rest. 

return tn nicHiak — tin in SUak. 

sumdkongak — sinmdkongak: I go back. 

pasadlck — inpasdak — maipasda — iiiaiigipasda: I order to 

return home 

Construct.: tfnnOliak is nan ili: I return into the town ; 

but: knindonak is nan tli: I return from the town. 

See : go ; go home 

return itdlik — intdlik — inaitOli — inangitdli: I give back, return 

isdkongko — insdkongko — inaisdkong: I give back. 

revenge falfsak. See : avenge. 

reward, I tangfjdnak — tinangfjdnak — niatangtjdnan — nianangtjan 

reward tdngtjan [tdngtsan] wages, pay. 





rice pdlay: unthrashccl rice; ears and stalks (which is also the 

'"currency" in trade among the Igorot ; see: '"handful."') 
pdkily: rice thrashed; ltd: a kernel, grain of rice 
fmdym [findyB]: shelled or pounded grains; 
tdib, or: kiki: shells of the grain ; dpek chaff 
mdting: pounded rice; ricemeal 
nidkan: ''eatible" (Root: haii), boiled rice; 
intlis: roasted rice. 

patjpik: seedlings young shoot [patsog] 
tjakdiiii: ricestalk; Idi; sinldi ear, head; 
fdok ("hair") beard fookan: l)cardcd rice 
Varieties: tsaydkit [tjaydkit]; kumfki; tfpa: kdsaiig; 

tiipeng; piiydpuy. 
See: field; harvest; granary; plant: irrigate; food; pound; 

"rice-bird" tilin. (kdlib: an implement like a broom, used to strike 

and catch the ////»). See: scarecrow- 


gadsdiigycii [kafjd}igyeii]; ingadsdiigyciiak: I am rich; 
giimadsdn gyenak : 1 am getting rich; 
pagodsdiigyciick: I make rich. 


i)ikafdyoak — iiiiikafdyoak. kafdyo (Sp.): horse; 

iiisd kayak — ninsdkayak (Hoc.) I ride horseback, or in a 

vehicle, I drive. 


kaddngo. oi'yogak I ridicule. 

right, correct sfa; sfa sa! kazvh sa! (good); statji! sf a man pay! this 
is right, correct; "all right !" (Or: tit/ki'a sa: this is true) 
aykS sia sa ay? is this right? am I right? 
sia ma adji sa! [pronounce: sfainaddj/sa!] this is the 
right thing, the right kind; "this is all right" (pointing to 
an object that a person handed to an other). 

right side 

diTcvau [doaii; dzi'an] to the right: is ai'^/:ca)i/n 



righteous, uinufiDiiau; iiiiiufiuiion ay laldki: a righteous, upright, 

honest honest man 

rim (of pots) sag/'iban 


singsing; (earring and fingerring; a loanword) 

ualdiu; lufoiii ; unripe: igay kcfoiii; inaouick: I cause 
to ripen, make ripe. 


finndlaak — finmcilaak (come out); fnmdla nan akyu the 

sun is rising. faldan si dkyii: sunrise. 
patongtjdck I cause to rise, I lift high up 

zvdnga [uduga, mdiiga]; "meeting" of two rivers: 
iudptan si tjenpnn ; riverdam : llngcd [lenged\; ripples 
in a river: /'aZ/z/'o (quick ilowing water); filycng: part 
of a river flowing slowl}-; pSslwng: a stagnant part; 
(see; sea); clear river: naltlcngdnan (see: fish; Itlcng). 
muddy river: nakffu. small river, tributary, brook: 


djdlan. Government road: AvZ/.Ta (Sp. calza). 
into nan md/yoi ad F/nitok-^ where is the road ("direc- 
tion") to Bontoc? 

dla: the direct, straight road; dlak, my road, dlak ya ad 
Sainoki: "I go directly to Samoki." 


dashi'ck [ das fuck ] — dindsink [ dindsiBk ] — niaddsiB. 
sangdkck — sinandgko — inasdngak — mandngak I roast, 
dry, pop; tsaBzvfshck — fsinaBivlshko — niafsdBzcisIi I roast 
meat on the spit ; roasted meat: tsindBzvis. 
{tsaoivisJiak : I perform a ceremony, at which meat is 
roasted), kafdck: I roast within the fire. 


ogpdtck (pull away) ; Tucucan: koldtjck: I take away 
by violence. 


rock hdto \fdto; batd; fatd]; rock in a mountain side, tsfpasJi, 

rocky place : kOtong. 


al flick — inalingko — iiiacfliii — uiaugdlin: I roll horizontally, 

on the level ground (a stone, a log, a ball etc.) 

kocishck — kinoSsJiko — ynakSosh: I roll down, on an inclined 

plane from a hill. Intransitive: iiiakoosliak — nakooshak: 

'T fell and rolled down." 

tjapikek — tjinapfgko — inatjcipik — iiiaiuipig: I roll out, flat. 

lonlduck — liuoiildiigko — inaldnlou — niinldnlon I roll up 

(tobacco leaves, blankets, paper) 


dtcp; tabfSngan: top of the roof, ridge. 

angllh: "roof"' or cover of the sleeping-chamber angan; 

see: house. 
aiPizvfdtjan: place beneath tlie overhanging part of the 
roof, outside the house. 

See: house; diigan: sleeping-chamber, kivdlto; (Sp. cuarto, 

a room in our houses). '"Room" or loft on posts ("second 

story") in a house of the Igorot : fdUg; isfdy [is fddy] 

room or place for something, space where a thing is kept: 

indSyan [iiitedeeaii, place for staying] : 

ma/id indSyan nan dgub: there is no room for the trunk, 







kdgod; I tie with a ro])c: kagddck — kinagddko — 
makdgod — nnuigdgod. Sec: vine (used instead of ropes), 





matsOnodak ; I let rot : tsonddek — tsinonddko — niofsdiiod 


iiafd'ngosli ay mtikan: rotten, spoiled food or rice. 

rough nakakdlad (rough surface) {nakak/dlad\; insdped: unpol- 


round, I make Ihnmdck — linimmok — iiial/uiino. circular: malfsliskcng; 
spherical, round: nal/nuito: nalhuinl/iiiiiio; 
fozvdck — finOzvak — inafciwa — mamOiva: I make a round 
stick, spearshaft etc. 

rouse fangSiick {\\^\^q): pakddnck: I rouse and drive out (drive) 

pasJioiigtck: I rouse to anger (angry) 


kibkifak — kinlbkifak — iiiakfbk/fan — luanglbkib. 

ikdtjak (Hoc.) 

ikibkibko: I rub with an other thing 

ildtjck — iiiiludko — iiiafhid (nan azvdkko) : I rub my body, 

arm etc. 

apdshck — indpasliko — madpasli: 1 rub iron: I rub wood; 

with a rough leaf, called dpasli 

rule, I indpoak — iiindpoak: I am "dpo," master, lord, employer, 



//fid: koldugad or: fitldngag, thigh, pode.x. 
{koldiigad: also the bottom of a pot, jar etc.) 


faktdkck — tiiiakfdgko — mdfdktag — )iiaiidkfag: I cross, 

pass running; takfdkck nan ztufnga: I run through the 


intdktakak [infdgtagak] — ninfd kfakak: I run. 

IinndyaP/ak — linnidyae/ak: I run away, flee; 

palayd&/ck: I let run away, out; 

intdgtakak is tjtla: I run out (to the court, out of the house) 

ttP/nidliak ay intdgtak: I run back (I return running) 

Inmtfas: it runs over (water etc.) 




himfiftak ay intagtak: I run throug-h (I pass through run- 
udikSck : apaydi^ck (pursue); umapdyaBak: I run after one 




naiad i an 

sacrifice, I inmdngniangak ; iiiangdpuyak : iusdngji^ak ; in the sacred 

grove: luamdt/tayak. See: ceremonies. 


in/ngongdynsak [in / n goii gdyushak] — iiiii/iigongdyiisak: 1 

am sad 

paugovdsck [pcmgoydshck]: I make sad (atilict) 

sad: in/ngdyush ; nafdkasli: heartbroken 

sumasdiigak — sinntasdngak; Causat. : pasasdiigck: I make 

sad, afflict 

insisigdngak — ninsisigdiigak: T am sad, sympathize, pity 

inadmndak — ninddumdak: 1 am sad, gloomy. 

saddle montf/la (Sp.) 

sale, for maildgo [mild go] 

saliva tdbfa 

salt dsfn; sfmut ('"old word;" in Lias); saltcake (for trade, 

made in Mainil): nih'ksa : saltbasket: fan/tan 
saltmaker : mnadsfn [iimddssln] 



salt, I 

iashiko; dsinak. Person : iiuishiak — nindsfnak 

same, the 

na)i kadgiia (like); siya tsddlo: the very same thing. 


p'tfitd [dbiid] 

satiated ndbshug. I satiate: fnshiikck — finshilgko — mdbshiig, 

rnigsdiiak: I have eaten my fill. 

tobdkck — finobdgko — matdbog — niandbog: I spare, econo- 
mize. Or: iigtok: I keep. 

lakdtji (Hoc.) ; 

saw, I 

lakatjfck — linakdtjik — malakdtji — minlakdtji (Hoc. ) 


kdnak — kinzvdnik — inakzvdiii [luakudni] — mangwdni 
[mangudni] : I say, tell, name, order, demand, ask for, 
promise, beg etc. 

kdnd {kandtja, pliir.) "it is said;" "people say;" "there is 
a saying." (a loanword, found in several dialects) 

scale of fish sf[>sip {h^.v'k) 

I cause a scar: kipldkak — kinipldkak — makipldkan — 
maiigfplag: a scar : kiplak. 
a scar from a boil : ndydman 

scare, I paogiddck — iiipaogiddko — mapaSgiad [maipaSgiad] — 

jiiattgipaSgiad : I cause to fear. 

pataydl'izvck — inpataydiPtko — uiaipatdyaB: I scare birds, 
"make fly;" pakadiiek: drive away; tjokdngek: I scare 
birds by drumming on a piece of bamboo: tjdkaiig, the 
sticks being moved bv the current of the river. 



scarecrow kilaM, made of rattan, resembling a bird witli outspread 

wings, suspended on the rod : pcitjck. 

faked: a bambootul)e, struck now and then by wood moved 
by the river; tsokang: a scarecrow, sticks beating bam- 
boo, moved by tlie river. 


iskiii'la (Sp. escuela) ; sclioolhouse: kaeskiuidan 


kdndib (Hoc.) 


iyangydngak ; inpaydn gyan gak . 

scrape ka/cisak — kina/dsak — maka/dsan: I scrape smooth 

kokdshck — kinokdshko — makOkosli: I scrape ott 
kitkftjak: I scrape oft the skin of potatoes etc. 

scratch kokdak — kinokdak — makokdan — mangoko: I scratch with 

the nails 

kabfdtak — kiuabfdtak — makahfdtaii — i)iaiigdbfnd: I 
scratch (said of a dog or cat etc.) 

telck; (Hoc: koldkol) 


pdshong [pdsong] : pdshong means also a part of the river 
without current, a stagnant part. 
tdyak; katdyak: sea; (Loanword) 

search andpck — inandpko — iiiadiiap [mad nab] — iiiaiigdnap 


seasons inndnna: begins middle of February; "is nan inndnna 

mafmashtja ay insdma:" in the "innanna" they linish work- 
ing in the held, i. e. digging, irrigating, planting, weeding, 
clearing the ground; time of rest. 

insdniaak I work in the tick!, transplanting; 



seasons Idtab: begins in the first days of May; "is nan latab 

Uahdtja ay inani:" in the Icitab they begin reaping rice 
tsiiok: begins about June ist; "is nan tsSok kiniW{wan si 
dni:" in the tsSok (is) the middle of harvesting. \tjdok\ 
lipash: begins about July ist; "is nan lipash mdngkay 
nan dni:" in the lipash "tliere is no more" harvesting. 
falfling: begins middle of July; "is nan faliling, payuw 
tal fling, itanfmtsa nan dngoy:" in the falfling or falfling 
they set the camote-vines in the ground. 
sdkaninid: begins about September 4th. ; "is nan sdkainnid 
sakaninidtja 'sli nan pdy/yd:" in the sdkamnid they "clear 
and weed" the ricefields (and turn the soil). 
patsdk [padji4k]: begins middle of November; "is nan 
patsdk patsdktja, ya tmmofo nan patsok. ipSn nan fafafdyi 
nan patsdk is nan saninuf. kaykdyenfja nan Idta is nan 
kdykay.:" in the patsok they "plant seedlings" and the 
seedlings grow. The women put {ipSn, for: ipnfn; with 
genitive -») the seedling into the cleared and weeded soil. 
They turn the soil with the pole called "kaykay." 
The periods from inndnna to falfling have the collective 
name tjakon ; the periods from falfling to inndnna are the 
season kasfp [kisfp]. 

seat tuktjdan 

second maniiclf/a [inainiddjda] : inaygacida. nu'sncd (Hoc.) 

secretly "is adf kdkfck:" "for no knowledge,"' lest anyone know; 

isliddko: I conceal, keep secret. 

section dmas. 

section "ato" section of a town, a "ward:" dto; originally the name of 
the group of "public buildings:" fdwi and pabafdtngan, 
but extended later to signify the section of the town. 
See: Appendix to the Grammar: names of the ato in Bon- 
toe. See : buildings. 

pangdto: the people belonging to the same ato; 
sinpdngatd: all men of an ato taken as a whole. 



iUIek — in flak — mafia — mangfla. 

iildck [}flak\: I observe, look carefully, spy, watch. 

uuiilaak — inmllaak: I look out for; I see to find. See: peep 


fshek [fssck]; seed of orange, lemon : fiia. red seed, used 
as ornament: fatdka: white seed: atldkiiy; semen 
virile: kisid: seedbeds: kapatsmgan 


padji°ik [patsok, patjnk\. Sec: transplant ; seasons 

aldck (take); ogpdtck (pull out); koldtjek (Tucucan) 
1 take forcil)ly; ipdkotko (hold fast) 


pilfck (choose) 


tsddlo [113]; used most frequently as intensive: "the 
very." sak/in tsddlo: myself 


ildgok — inldgok — maildgo — man gild go. 
Person.: umilaQ-dak : inilairdak 


fpanftko [ ipaoivltko ] — in pan it ko — inaipaiPdd — 
mangtpai''{id: 1 send an object, a thinj;". 
fddlck — fiiidak [fiiidlak] — mafda [inafdla] — viamda 
\mamdla\: I send a person, servant, messenger etc. 

also: I keep as servant. 
pabfaldck: I cause to go out. send out. 
paltek — inpdlik — maipdli — mangipdU: 1 send back, order 

to return. 
pataoltck ay [ddlen: 1 send back; paiydik: I send out to 

take food, cloth to somebody ('T make bring") 
pasadlek: I send home; see: return. 

It^ngag: good judgment, reason, mfd leiigdg»w: you are 
unreasonable, you have no sense. 


separate ckdngck — mckdngho—maSkang—mangekang 

servant fda; I serve: fddak; I keep as servant : fadlck (Set: 



lihunckak — liii/hnnckak; liiiuiiiiick nan ci'kyii: the sun was 


patLOtktjiick — inpatio{ktjnk — maipat&ktju — mangipati''tktju: 

I set down; I order to sit down (persons only!) 

fsaddko — insaddko — maisdad — mangisdad: I set down a 

thing", a burden, a vessel etc. 

set up todfjek — tinoddko — niafood — iiianood: T erect, place verti- 

cally, ."^ee : stand 


innfliak — innifliok: I settle, live at a place. 

makifliak — iiakifliak: I settle, live with others, in company, 

among' a tribe 


p/fd; the 7th : uiangaplto : niaygapito. 

seventy pitdnpd'o: the 70th : mangapitd 'y pd'o 

several [i37] li-'oddy ay: there are (several) who... 

akft ay., "a few." uakaf/s oy...: several, nan tdpfn nan 
tdkM: several people, some people, kekkek nan tdpl'n ay 
iFipnitok: I know several persons at Rontoc ("Bontocmen"), 
a part of the Bontocmen. 

sew tshnfdck — tsininiitko — mats i mid — manfmid. 

Person.: intsfmidak. patsimltko: I order to sew 

shade inapdpahigan: a shady place, inpdingak — ninpdingak: I 

am in the shade; ''inpdfngka fay dtong nan dk\n: go 
into the shade, because the sun is hot" 





ikkvamSgko [ikizviPU'gko ] — inkhval'Vdgko [ inkkvt^^gko ] — 
maikfwam [maikhvlPc}: I sliake (a Ijox, a bottle etc.) 

See : kiwilek, I move. 
tatdkek — tinatdgko — tiiatdtag — viandtag: I .shake inten- 

kitjiick — kiiiffjitk — luakitju — maugfiju: i shake by touch- 
ing, as a balancing stick, I shake someone by seizing his 
inwiigxvitgak: I shake my head. 

shallow addb"u; addh°n nan tjenmm: the water is shallow; 

kc'tjdngaii a shallow place in a river, passable on foot 

shame dshe [dso] ; kdddse! it is a shame! (expression of pity 

and anger) 
dshem: "shame on you!" 
padshek: I expose, put to shame: Ferson. : iiiiiipodsiak: I 

put to shame 

shape, I shayfikek — shiuayugko — mashdyug — maiidyiig: I shape, 

form pots. 


ijfi^'a: one-half as a share; dmas: part; tSngo: share 
in work to be done, task; zvddzvad: a share, portion of 
meat; ikaktjchigko: I give a sliare, a part. See: give. 

sharp iiapdlfdpal/d. atdtdtjim. //"/^/d/y/;;/.- it is sharp (ol blades) 

sharpen palftjck — pinalltka — mapdlid — uuundUd. (a knife, ax) 

sangydak — siitaiigydak — masangydaii — iiiaiidngyit: I 
sharpen to a point. 


sdpsap: I cut off chips: sdpsapak. 



sfya 'y fafdyi; si'todi ay fafdyi 

sheath fd/i si kauipila (of the kampi'la, i. e. a bolo, used as weapon 

and hatchet ; see: knife) 


tjokso [tjdksho]: large platform extending from front of 

a house to the "diigaii" (sleeping-box), on one side of the 


lifeng: small shelves under the roof. 

shell, I fpagpdgko — inpagpdgko — maipdpag — mangipdgpag: I 

shell rice, beans etc. by pounding, threshing; 
Person.: inpdgpagak ; see: "pound," as ceremony. 


dtkam, dikdngan: a large flat shell, mother of pearl, worn 

sometimes by men on their breechcloth as an ornament. 

koti: a small spiral shell, found near the river ; 

(ikid: sopsop: shell of snail. 

koldngad si Spud: the ''hindpart" of certain shells with 

which the string holding the knife "ka>iipfla" is decorated. 

shelter liang: a big projecting stone in the wall of a sementera, 

protecting against rain; abdfoiig: a hut in the rice-field. 

shield kaiifyab: kaldsay. (kaldsag is Hoc.) M. Sch. \', 10, 11, 

12. "j. XCVI, XC\ H. 

Parts: sak/ngaPn the three protruding ends on the upper 

longdlong si kaiifyab: the center, navel of the shield 
fakdloiig or : Idpad si kaniyab: the rattan ties across the 
shield, giving the shield more endurance 
sakcngyad: the semicircular cut at the lower end, fitting a 
man's neck; thus he is pressed to the ground while being 

tongdlon: the hole for the hand, which holds the shield by 
the pangigiidiian: the handle. See: ward ofif. 


shine inldnglangak. — ninldnglangak : sumtliak [so)i\fliak\ — 

siniiifliak. siimili nan dkyu: the sun is shining; or: 
mangdkyu. pasiltek: I make shine, reflect light in a mirror. 
engkolydiPcyaiPc: it is shining (pohshed metal etc.) 

ship babnl [bdbc>ll; pabi^ll] (S]). vapor, steamer) 

shirt fddso [fddo, fdtjo, bddo] (coat); A'a;»u//a (S]). camiseta) 

shoes kokod: sabdtosh [saj^dtosh] (Sp. zapatos). inkokodak: I 

put on shoes; inkokdkodak: I wear shoes. 

shoot baldiPtkak [paltSkak ; balddgak] — biiialdmkak — niabaldi^kan 

— mamdldiPig. Person.: mamdldukak — naindldukak: I 
shoot with a gun, rifle. (Hoc?) 

bandoldyak : I shoot with bow and arrow. (Not practiced 
by the Igorot, who despise the use of bow and arrow.) 

shore Hid; nan tlid nan pSshong: seashore, ftjakak — inftjakak 

— maftjaka — niangttjaka: I bring to the shore. 
alawdshek: 1 pull to the shore, I rescue. 
umtlidak: I go to the shore, banks 
tjumdkaak I come to the shore, out of the water. 

short asdik: very short, shorter : asasdfk; too short : tsatsdma 

'y asdfk; I am short: dsdikak: I am getting short: 
umdsdikak; 1 make short: paasdfkck. a short while: 

shoulder pdko [bdke]. sagfdtck: 1 carry on my slioulder. (carry) 

shoulderblade k a n g k dn gsa 

shout fiikamzvak (call); yadngckck ay fukdeYzcan or: a_v 

niantdkai»: 1 shout, call loud 

ni/ngdn^zcak — nen/ngdi<Vzvak: I shout to the enemy while 
attacking him, I challenge. 




fdjuk — intdjuk — matdju — mangidju; ipfdjiik [ipftsok]- 
inpfdjuk — tn/ptdjii — rnangipfdju. See: advise^ teach. 
ipaflak — inpaflak — maipaila — iiiaiigipaila. "I cause to see: 
inpaflaak I show myseh'. 


intslkish: it showers. See: rain. 


tdla; alfaui: "a bird coming from the north, "Loko," 
into Igorotland; after some time it becomes tala, and 
chases away the ricebirds, tiliii." 

shroud loshddsan: man's burial shroud; the same, but with red 

and yellow threads: intmis. For women: kdin, and 
Idmma, a short jacket. 


tdngfak: tnfak; itangt^bko (close); khnitck (close the 
eyes) ; amOmck (close the mouth) 


fnsaklt. insdkitak — ninsdkifak: I am sick; insdkit: hurt, 

aching, wounded; 

insdkit Jian tjapdngko: my foot is hurt, wounded, aches. 

sickness sdkit : ndy/ii; pSdeg (pain); iyiizvck \dydwck\: I cause 

sickness (said of the ghost of a deceased, of an antto caus- 
ing sickness) 


ap/diia 'sua: this side ; aptdna's sa: that side, the other side; 
is nan tjapdtko: at my side, digit jan: mountain side 
itsig{na), fdtd{na): (its) outside, of a pot, jar, box. 
(foto: belly) is dngana: at, to the other side. 
intsitsipatdko: we are sitting side by side 

akdag: akddkek: I use a sieve, I sift. 

silent, I am kuminckak {knni6negak\ — kinminekak. kumikinekak: I 

keep silent, continue to be silent. ktneg [koncg] silent. 



silent, I am ikfiu^gko: T keep as a secret; Intens. and Durative: 

iklkiiu'gko [ikokoiu'gko]. kiii^gkal keep silent! "kagawfs 
nan totoiiigHy nan topi^knic!" you had l)eUer kccj) (luiel. 
("stop" your mouth). Or: patkiViin nan kal/in! slop your 


b/lak \pFlak 


inangayc'ngak: I sing ciycng, a man's war song. 
inangayfkvengak: I sing ayfki'cng, a man's and woman's 

industrial song. 
mamaliikayak: I sing faliikay, a song after a head has 

been brought to the ^7o (see: councilbouse). 

Also: niangaliikayak. 
mangidgak [mangydgak]: I sing without words, hum. 
drone, sing syllables without meaning ( ?). 

singe lak/inak — Unaki'uiak — -malakiiiian: 1 singe ])ristlcs, feathers 

single hang. iscfngak: I am alone, lonesome. niakdyadak: 1 

am left alone. See [368], Distributives. 


palningck — inpalnl'ngko — niapdlning: 1 cause to sink (in 

himnengak — linuiniu'iigak: 1 sink (in water), I drown. 

(men, animals) ; 
maliclugak — nahHugak, or: nialfnchak: I sink (of men, 

animals, things) 
jiiaihifak — nailfttak: 1 sink (in nmd) 


yfhi/a 'y fajciyi: elder sister: andtji \in(itji]ay fafdyi: 
younger sister ; sinag// ay fafclyi: sisters. See: brother. 
dki: sister (ami brother), kafabfayfana: the sister (as 
called by her brother) 

sister-in-law kiissud ay fafdyi. The wife of my wife's (rcsp. Iiusband's) 
brother: abfflad ay fafdyi. 



fioinikfjuak — tiniinikfjuak: I sit down on a chair, bench etc. 

tumuktiiktjaak: I am seated; 

bBiiuidongak — binmddongak: I sit, cower in Igurot fashion. 

(Also said of birds) 
paUotktji'ick: I make sit down, cause, order to sit, I set. 


inim [chiem: eiiini]; tlie 6th: inangdnim; maygdnim. 
One sixtli of a pig: kdiiim si fiititg 


inim [eniui] po'o. the 60th: iiiaygditiiii po'o. 

kaantjdna: its height; katsaktsakSiia: its "bigness; 
kaascl/k)ia: its shortness; kafanigna: its smahness. 


kobkob: of man, pig, dog, chicken. 

kdtjil: of bufifalo, cow, deer ; leather. See: snake. 

skinny naf/'kod: lean, emaciated 

sldrt kddpas: woman's cotton skirt, white and blue. Blanket: 

ptta\; made of bdk°u si faldtoiig: fiber of beanstalks. 
Irifid: a short skirt (Ififid: thread, twine) 

sktill indkiiig. tdiigaii si olo: "bones of the head." 

sky tjdya; is tjdya: skywards, high up, aloft, on high. 

slap, I fainbdkck — fiiiauibdgko — matdmbag: I strike with the flat 


slaughter padoyck (kill) ; ukddjak \nkdtsak\ : I cut an animal's neck, 

throat; {lafdkck: I cut an animal's body, cut up) 

slander, I engkdliak is iigag 


slay pad d yek (k'xW) ; with a spear: falfekek; fakakek: I cut 

oiT the neck with the ax, plnang (Tucucan : kciman). See: 
kill, strike, cut. 


masiiyepak [mashiiyipak] — nasiiycpak. 
pasuyepek: I make sleep, order to sleep. 
tkoykdyko: I lull, rock a child to sleep. 

sleeping angan; kasiiycpan: sleeping place; ilek: sleeping-board. 

chamber See: dormitory. 

sleepy uiciutiiflak {iuiti9(mdak : miti^mdyak] — ni'tumtlak: I am 

{naf/igfiig nan tjapdngko: my foot has fallen asleep) 

slice, a 

potlSng}ia; ivddivad: a slice of meat, a portion 

slippery intjdngoy {smooih.)\ I make slippery, smooth : patjangSlek 

— inpatjdngck — maipatjdngdy — inangipatjdngdy. 


digttjan (hillside) 

alundyck : alaliindyck — inalalnndyko: I make slowly, do 
slowly [317] ; 

alundyck ay diiiiiy: I go slowly; alaliiudyiin ay tlngkalif! 
speak more slowly! See: river. 


fdntg; very small, smaller: lanfan/g [fanifa>i/g]; too 
small: tsatsdiiia ay fantg: Plural(?): fandnig and 

smallpox ( i"( li on g {Woe.) \ pitted face: k aid ka {Wo^:.) 

smart kdwts nan mick (good as to the hrain) ; 

kawfs nan Slo (head) 



smash fakdshek — finakdshko — mafdkasli — manidkasli: I throw 

hard, dash, {fakdshek: I break, ruin) 
lupdpck — linupdgko — malupag — miiildpag: I liammer, 
strike to pieces 

smell, I songsongck — sinongsongko — mason gsong — manongsong. 

smell, a sSngsong. dki^ch: stench; indkiP(b: it stinks. See: 


smile, I inangdngoak. indngoak is aktt: I laugh a httle. 


smith fufihnsha; fitfumshdak: I am a smith. 

smithy opoopan; kaopocfpan. See: bellows ; forge. 

smoke asIiSk [asiwk]: sokdshokak [sukdshokak]: I hang (meat) 

in the smoke. 

smoke, I fjiibldck [tsubldck] — tjiiiublak — niatjilbla — iiiaiu/bla. 

Person.: manubldak — nannbldak [uianublak] 
suslibak: I draw in the smoke while smoking. 

smooth infjdngo [intjdngdy]; I make smooth: pafjangdlck — 

inpatjdngdk — maipafjdngo (y) ; 
fsush ts/hh ek — tsimish tst/shko — m atsihh tstish : 
apdshek — inapdshko — madpash — mangdpash: I make 
smooth : wood, by rubbing with dpash, the rough leaves of a 
shrub; tjmvinek, idjifdjek: I make smooth a pot (as pot- 
ter) ; I polish the pot, make it perfectly smooth. 

snail tdyai^f : sSngan; ffnga: list jig: kttan; shell of a snail: 

sopsop, Skid. 

snake mwiig; skin: kobkob; the old skin: IdkshPni; poison 

tooth: sdong; poison: kizvdtay [kizvdtsay] 



siay: for wild chicken; s/sirn, l/ngcn: for birds; fdivang, 
kokdlons[: for wild cats. 

snatch aldck (take) ; ogpdtck (take) 

sneeze, I inakisfak — iiinakisjak; a sneeze; aklsi. 

snow tjnldtu (hailstones; "ice," ''snow," unknown to the Igorot) 

SO .y/c/c^' (thus) ; kandipdn? "is that so? is that the reason?" 

soak opelck — lucipck [inSpok] — mangiip'oy — inaOpoy. 

soap safdn (Sp. jabon) 

socks mcdiash (Sp.) 

soft hiydmls: I make soft : paydiiiisck. 

mafontsan: soft ground, prepared for planting. 
inaldyluy [nialSyloy] : soft meat, boiled too long. 

soil, I tjitjingiuick — tjinitjingddko — Diatjitj/iigiid: 1 make dirty. 

Or ; patjingiidek. 

soil, earth Idia. nuuidy ground ; pftck; stone ground: kotong. 

sojourn kdiVwad : nan ka&tzvddko: the place where I am, was, 


soldier soldddo [soldddso] (Sp.) 

sole of foot tjapdn \dapdu] (Xo lerm for "sole," but "foot") 

some See; several, some — some; nan tapena — nan tapchia. 




[128; i29ff. 137]. 
[pron. : ul&ngag]. 
I do sometimes.... 
smoke sometimes. 

something whatsoever: i^lai ngdg; 
sometimes: tsilk mamingsan ay.... 

tsdkami manf/bla is siiiacikyu: we 

ifiiak, plur. dnandk. dnak ay lahiki. See: child. The 
firstborn : pangOlo. The second born : kai°(zvdan ay laldki. 
The third: mSsned is nan kaBivdan. The fourth : mhned 
is nan niaygdt'lo (next to the third), "sonny!:" inidldgna! 


indpo ay laldki 


atdpdvi: boys' song in the forest, mountain, "to which the 
girls listen;" a kind of a love-song. Other songs see: sing, 

dmni [doui]; ai'kdi''(ni; aBni kaya! soon ! in a moment ! 
sdnakay! very soon, just now! sinakttan: very soon, in 
a short while, issak: [308]. how soon? tdddo? [357]. 
is d&cni: after a while. 



infi'tynn; inshdhok \_insiibok]: conjurer of sickness (blow) 

dnwni : inddniBdak: I am gloomv, afflicted 

sorry, I am insisigdiigak (I pity) 

niinfafdzi'iak: I repent (Alab-dialect) 


lengag: reason, sense. 

giinidngesak ; gnnidngsaak: sound like a gong. 




south dplay; apfd a play; 

id play [iydplay; iydpay]: people living south and southwest 

sow dko. fd/i ay ciko: mother sow- 

sow, I 

isegko. See: plant 


fatdpfiva (world); kdiPnvad (place of sojourn, where some- 
one is, lives); tjegang (space between; interval) 


tjdngan [fsdngan\: distance l)etween tips of outstretched 
thunil) and middlefinger 

tjipd: distance between tips of middlefingers of out- 
stretched arms and hands. 

spark hang si apdy 

speak cngkdUak — nengkdliak. cngkdliak is Igdlot: I speak 

Igorot Language. 

fkdlik — tnkalik — maikdli: I speak of.. I treat as topic 
makitotdyak — uakitotdyak: I speak with others; I con- 
verse, talk, {fotjyck: I address, speak to) 
(nan aydyani t^ngkal/: a bird chirps^ sings) 
pakallck: I order to speak, make one speak. 


tnfay: collective name, and: spearbladc. 

Parts: salawtd: barb 

ddso: point, thorn (inserted into the shaft) : otcng. 

sdkod: shaft, made of kashdtan, a kind of wood, (also the 

entire spear) 
shSshok [sdsi'>(g]: the lower end of the shaft, with an iron 

kinaloldtan: equipi)ed witli an iron ferrule al the end. 
kaldlot: iron ring, to fix ihc thorn of the spearbladc in the 



spear kincisil: bejuco (rattan) plaited around the upper end, to 

hold the thorn, (kinasil means a peculiar kind of plaiting; 
see: plait.) 

Varieties: Collective names : ti'tfay : sohod. 
fcilfcg: short blade, two barbs, thorn with four faces. 

M. Sch. HI. II, 12. J. Plate C. and CXXVI. 
piniUpo: like falfcg, but with round thorn. 
fdngkaM: no barbs; the blade of iron or hard bamboo. 

M. Sch. IV, 6, 7. J. CI. [hut: fdngai'^c: headbasket] 
kdyang: of elegant shape; long blade, two gracefully 

curved barbs; M. Sch. Ill, 6, 7, 8, 9. J. CI. 
siiiaknvidan; sindkad; fiiialdiitaii: spears with many barbs. 

M. Sch. HI, I, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
si pale: [slifpak]: one long, one short barb; or one set 

higher, one lower. 

spear, I falfekck — finalfegko—mafdlfcg — mamdlfcg: I hit with a 

spear, tiifdyck — tinufdyko — matdfay — inandfay: I hit 
with a spear, throw a spear, inpadpaddyak: I keep throw- 
ing spears, I try to hit a mark, practice spearthrowing. 
ifalfegko; it&ifdyko: I use a spear. 

speech kali (words, language) 

spider kdiTcva; fakfdkcd: spider web. 

spike slidka: pointed sticks stuck into the ground, hidden under 

grass and directed against an approaching enemy. 

spilled nia/izvdsid. See: throw away. Inmffas: it runs over 

spine kdiingdngct {ka: collect, diigct: joints); marrow: otck. 

spirit See : ghost : anito, the surviving soul of the dead, kind or 

malicious, protecting or destroying, influencing the living, 
invoked, propitiated by sacrifices and prayers. 


spirit inanttoak — ninanftoak: I perform a ceremony for the soul, 

llie anfto. An evil anfto: fittdtao. The anito of a warrior 
fallen in battle and beheaded: pinteng. See: sense, soul. 
Ihnmn: a spirit, in human form, disturbing sleepers, like 
"nightmare" or "Alb" ("Alpdriicken")- 


iiiiiidfaak — tinmdfaak. Or : inlilbfaak — niutr/hfaak. 

splendor, light sfli; nan siliii nan cikyu: the splendor of the sun. 

split, I pitdngek — pinitdngk'o — mapftang — nianiffang: I split 

(with an ax) in two; also: tipdngek. 
pitapitdngck: I split intf) many pieces. 
tcindkck — tinnidgko — uidt)nag — nufninag: I split with an 

ax or knife 
pdshkck — pinashegko — niapdshck — niaindslick: I split by 

wedges driven into the stem of a tree. 
patdnck: I drive wedges deep into the wood that is to be 



pakaowdslick — inpakaoiiuishko — mapakdoivash : I spoil^ 

ruin, break, make useless. 
nafdngosli: spoiled food; uafdngosli nan ludkan: the 

rice is spoiled. See: rot, smash, break. 

spoon tdkong (large) ; ftsnsli \ftjus] small, eating spoon, with 

figures carved on the handle: tinaktdkB ay ftjusJi. 
See: ladle. 


asdptwa. The husband c;dls his wife, and the wife her 
husband: asdBwak [asdzcak : asdoak], "my spouse." 

spread, I ilsahldgko — infsabldgko — inaitsdblag — )na)igitsdblak: I 

spread out cloth, wool, plants to dry etc. 
ma/iiyadak 1 am "stretched," I grow abundantly, spread 
out by growing. 


spring, I aktjdngek: I cross by springing; Person.: inaktjdngak 


spring, well ib/ib; infohfobo nan ib/ih: the spring bubbles; 
iidulnag: it boils, it is a hot spring. 

sprinkle iwakizvdgko — inn'akizvdgko — mhvdkkvag — mangkvdkhvag 

sprout forth lumoshkOdak—UnmoshkOdak: break through the ground. 
See: grow 
timiofoak: sprout, grow leaflets. 

spur of cock pakingi 

squat buindtoiigak (sit) 

squeeze, I ip/tck; temiiick; ifaginftko (press), ipdkodko: I hold tight 


yogydgak — yinogyogak — mayogydgan — mangyogyog. 
fadydgak — fiuadydgak — inafadydgaii — inamddyog: I kill 
bv stabbing 


fastcin (Sp. baston) walking stick; Idlo: stick; sokod: 
shaft of spear, used as staff. 


tCytcy [iSytoy] See: ladder. 

stallion kafdyo ay laldki 

stammer uiatdliak — natjliak. matoli nan kdltna: "his speech stam- 


stamp, tsaytsdyak — fsinayfsdyak — matsayfsdyan. kat/nak. 

with foot See : step. 




tnmdkfjikak [domdkdif^ak] — fiuindkfjikak: I stand up. 
tutnatdktjikak: I am standing; intaktdktjikak: I keep 

natandktjikak: I stand up suddenly [302] 
itaktjfgko — intaktjigko — maitdktjig; I stand up, set up an 

object. See: beam; set up 
pataktjfkck: I cause to stand, I order to stand up. 
manaingkdmi: we stand in one line; stand ready for a 

dance, song. 
malikodtak — nalikodtak: I stand up to go, I rise and start. 
Diatotdodak — natotoodak: I am standintr strai""lit. 


fi^kfffi; tdlaP( ; fatakdkan (large star) ; 

stare, I 

fitdkek nan indtak: I open my eyes wide (open) 


ildbok (begin) 

nialikoddak — nalikoadak: I start to go, to march ; I set out. 

maindgnagak [ina)ndknakak\: I start to go to work, I 

start for work in the field, forest (at a distance) 
fogndkek — finogndgko — mafSgnag — mamSgnak: I start 

someone to go to work. 
ifogndgko — infogndgko — maifdgnag — )iiangifdgiiag: I 

start for work and take with me (a companion, child) 

starve mwdtek — inmvdtko — maMzvdt — uiangi^zcdf: I starve 

someone, give nothing to eat. 
uaBwdfok: I am hungry; cnokdngak: I am starving. 


iiitcdc^eak (remain) ; niakdyadak: I am left behind, alone, 

I stay 
intedetcdScak: T stay a long while. 
makitliak: I stay in a town among a tribe. [300] 
patcd^ck: I make stay, I order to stay 


ak'''nxvck [ ak°iiek ] — inak^dko — madk"u — ma)igdk"ii. Per- 
son. : uiangdk°nak — nandk°uak. {mangdchuak: r/; gut- 
tural as in Ger. nach.] 




aliiigdsyPc fog, mist. 
gulilya [golilya]; pdslip (Hoc.) 



step, I kattnak [katSnak; gadSnak] — kinaflnak — viakatliian: I 

tread upon 
Person.: iiikatinak — ninkdtinak; a step: ydkang. 

stepfather nan kasik iiufiiia, nan kasim iiuliiia, nan kasfna indma: 

my, vour, his stepfather; nan kdsik intna: my step- 
mother, nan kashi in/na tlie stepmother, auidck, indck: 
I have as stepfather, stepmother (or as a guardian) 

sternum paldgpag: lower end of sternum : losldsid 

stick, I ipdtoyko — inpdtoyko — uiaipdfoy — mangipdtoy: I stick into, 

put into 


iSlo; See: staff, spike, kdykay: stick for turning the 
soil. sihi.'an: for digging out sweet potatoes, fdig: whip, 
or stick used for striking, fefck: pointed stick used as 
fork in cooking. See: door, gong, pole 


tjitjitja (yet) [314]; fsdan pay: not yet. See: silent, 


singtck — siningc'fko—niasfngct: sting, of an insect. 
Person. : sunifns:cfak — sininfns:cfak. 


kolldan; kip/dan; na/iiinid. 

indki^^h: nindkBb 





ikfsnak — inktsnak — maiktsna — uiangikfsna: I stir with a 

spoon. See : move 

kifiick: I stir up water, make it muddy. 

f^tang; sickness of stomach : fasliag; I have eaten my 
fill and sutfer: iiuhiisitak 



bato; [ba'to; fato; accent usually on the ultima]. 
palftjan [half dan] or: asaaii: whetstone. 

Isidko — insfdko — maisid — iiiangisid. Or : 

patkilck — inpdtkdk — maipdtkd [ maipdtkoy ] ,• 

Person.: tumgdyak [tomgSak; tomkdak] — tiininigSyak: I 

stop, cease from ; I stop on my way ; 

tK^mgoyak ay tmmaktjik: I remain standing, halt. 

tumgdyka! stop! (Or: adii sa! stop! this is enough!) 

plPtkdtak: I stop a leak, with a stopper: sdzvat 

ikiwck: I stop rain (said of Lumawig only!) 

nan Luiiidwig ikhv(?na nan i^itjan: God stops the rain. 

nafkyu: stopped, i. e. : the rain has ceased: ndfkyu nan 

^(tjan. \na/tk°ii\ 

niaisaldak — naisaldak: I stop floating, swimming. 

storm tjdkim (wind) ; liinlini (strong storm) 

story, tale dke^d: ogdkBd. [okokiP(d\. ogokeitjek — inogok&dko — 

maogSkPed — ijiangogdki^d: I relate a story 
Person. : inogdki'^dak — ninogOklPtdak. nan ni)wgOklP<d 
\ni}idki''ni]: the narrator. 

stout alaldi}icsli (corpulent) 

straight i)ililfdcg; intcfi^nga: straight through the centre. 

tcichigck: I pass straight through the centre. See: directly 

straighten, I cnlitkck — nenUtkck — indltck — incnU'tkcn (and: ilftkck): 
I make straight. 

uydtjek — inuyddko — niadyad {)na/dyad\ I straighten, 
erect, unroll, set aright, make i)rosperous, stretch out (my 
bent leg). 



straight- intsaL°itsd&zvish ; intsaBtsdiorcvish nan kalin nan iFiPintok: 

forward the Bontocmen's speech is straightforward (honest, rough, 
inipohte, imperative, unflattering, manly). It is also called : 
inliltdck, i. e. straight to the point, 
straightway, immediately: sinakftan 

stranger infdad: niangfU: "one who sojourns in a town." 


apcngck — indpcngko — iiiadpcng — inangdpciig. See : choke. 


ki'/liin [ki'Mhin\; tihid: rice straw. 


zvdnga; small stream: tabtabdkam ; klnnaP{. See: river. 


djdlan; kdlsa ("highway;" Sp. calza) 

strength ft'kas; kadso. 

stretch, I uydtjck (straighten) ; I stretch out my arm, hand etc.; 

ilitkck (straighten) ; maiiyadak: I grow straight, I grow 
abundantlv. i)ii1\adak: I lie outstretched. 

strike, I kogongck — kinogongko — makcigong — niangdgong: I strike 

with the fist; box; hit with the arm. 
kogkokck: I strike upon, rap. 

pad /Oak — pinad/Oak — mapad/Sau — tnanufd/o: I strike 
with a club, hammer, stick, ax. faytkck: I whip, punish. 
yadngckck ay fayikcn: I strike with force, I whip violently. 
tokldngak — tinokldngak — niatokldngan — uiandklang: I 

strike the head or parts of it; I box the ears. 
kfnan nan kftjo: thunder ("lightning") struck; (kdiiek: 

I eat, devour). Or: kintdab nan kftjo. 
tainpdkck — tinanipdgko — matdmpag — mandnipag: I hit, 

strike with my flat hand. 
pat/ongek — pinat/ongko — niapdt/ong — nianidt/ong: I 

strike the gong with the pat/ong, "drumstick." 

OF T'^ 



strike, I sipdkek — sinpdgko — indshpag: I strike off (as bullets 

strike off branches from trees). 
faySkek [fatkek] nan nwnok: I strike a chicken, kill by 

striking (whip). 
tSktekek: I strike, liannncr the iron; I crush by striking; 

See : forge. 
lupdkck: I strike, hammer into small pieces (a stone etc.) 
ipalttngko: I strike fire, sparks from flint. See: firemachine. 
itognogko: I strike against (knock) ; 

Intrans. : ma/itognogak. 


liifid; Infltjck: I make a string; fdlBd: strong string, 

stroke okokdyck — inokokdyko — niaok(>kay — ina)igokokay (pass 

with the hand over fur, over a sick limb etc.) 

strong fikas; abaflkas; (healthy, muscular), niafiffkas stronger; 

fnmtkasak: I am getting strong, I recover. 
kumSdsdak: I gain strength, grow strong. 
alalded: strong (of a thing) as w'ood, rope. 
infifikas ay enfsfhio: strong for working. 

stump of tree tongcd 

vidstjok nan tjenum: the waters subside (after the great 
ilood); they evaporate. 


kdg toiid (like this); kag nanndy. tsafsdnia nan anguhitja 
kdg nanndy: they do too many such things. 

suffices, it aaldna, Freiev. indaldna. Or: mmdndi, Vr^itr.: inmdndi. 

kihntjeng: there is sufficient (for all present). See: enough. 

suffocate madpcngak. See: strangle. 

sugar fndi: Igor.; tlnfa; [dinba] [loanword; Hoc. : asOkal]; 



sugarcane dnash ; dsed: juice of sugarcane. 

sugarpress falkvis [falfwisli]. See: mill. 

summit tokfokon nan ftlig: the top of the mountain [togtogo] 

sun dkyu [acliit; ch guttural] ; uiangakyn: the sun is shining. 

nangdkxii: the sun was shining-; or: sumfli nan dkyu. 
niinkdniva nan dkyu: the sun "is in the middle;" it is noon. 
niaakvdan: a sunny place. 

Sunday Domingo [Djonilngko]: IcngaPi: the Igorot holiday, pro- 

claimed by men performing priestly functions, about three 
times in a month. 

sunrise faldan si dkyu: labldbon si faldan si dkyu: beginning of 

sunrise, nan dkyu funidla, finnidla: the sun is rising, 
has risen, {mangdkyu: the sun is shining, it is getting day) 

sunset sinfatdngan ; nalokniud. lihnnek nan dkyu: the sun is set- 

ting; linihnnck nan dkyu: the sun has set ; 
lihnnckan si dkyu: place (or time) of sunset; west. 

supper indngan (meal, eating). 

support fadjdngak (help) 

suppose that nwslidya [J^S-]', 1 suppose: ninininiko. 

sure tit/hva. 

svirface cishon [ipisfni]: top of. is nan msJn°tn nan Ifita: on the 

ground; but: is nan katjcnuni: on the surface of the water. 

surprise, I pangogL'dck — inpangogt^dko — mapangSged. 

mapangSgcdak [niapangt^gcdak]: I am surprised. [296] 



surround likftjck — linikftko — maltkid — mini f kid: I put around (I 

put a fence around a liouse; I surround a town with war- 
riors etc.) ; Person.: inllkidak — ninltkidak: I go around ; 
malilhvisan: surroundings, the place around 
likdfek — linikdbko — maltkob — niinlfkob: I surround, shut 
in, press. 

swallow, I ogmOiiek — iiiogmdiigko — iiiadgiiwn — mangSgmon. 

swear an oath isapataak — insapatdak — ma/isapata — mangisapata 

(Igorot and Hoc.) ; isapataak fay tif/hva: I take an oath 
that it is true, (tay: because) 



sweat, I nialfngetak — nalin'^ciak. tsCik maU'ugct: I am sweating 


sweep, I pokpdkak (wipe); sis/fak — sinis/fak — iiiasis/faii: I sweep 

with a broom. Person. : iiisis/fak. 



sweet See: "camote." 



kuiiufyoiig: it swells; kiiniufyoiig: it has, is swollen. 
kinmdyong nan Ifmak: my arm is swollen. 
niafdtP(tak: I am swollen (in all limbs). 

inkydtak — ninkydtak. inkydtak is nan tjdnmn: I swim 
''in the water." pakydtck: I order to, make swim. 
inkydtak ay llmiiy is... I swim to... (a place) 
(infahtdfiigak: I tloat) 

fdtiig. See: hog, pig. 




t'^ush [ipus\: I pay (short tail; also: tassel or fringe); 
kdtp/d tailfeather 


alcick — incilak — madia — -iiiaiigdla: I take, get, obtain, 
receive, take a thing with me, seize, grasp, catch (tish) etc. 
Person.; nuidlaak [uuiddak] — iumdlaak: I am going to 

take, accept tsainvddek (accept) 

take away kadnck — kinadngko — inakdaii — niaiigdan. 

atOiick ; kalkdlck, (remove) 

fdiishck — finaiii'sliko — inabfdnc'sli — niaiiidiu'sli: I take 
from one what he brings to me ; take, accept from the hand, 
okddck — inokddko — maokad — viangclkad: I take as booty, 
by force, I plunder 

itsdkak — ijitsdkak — )iiaifsdka: I take away and into the 
"ato" (Song dialect) 

iddiigko; igadiigko (carry): I take to a place; I lead off 
yo/Syko \ydyko; yd/dko\ — inyoSyko [inySyko; inyd/dko\ 
— ina/ySy — tiiaiigySy: I take to an other place 
Person. : iii\d\'ak — ninyd\ak 

take back 

isdkoiigko; itolik (return) 

takedown from under the roof, from a tree, a peg: pabanddjck — 

inpabanddko — niapabdnad — mangipahdnad ; tbandtko , 
(Cf. pumdnddak I come down.) 

take by force ogpdtck; koldtjck (pull, rob) ; okddck (take as booty) 


take home isdak (hv'mg home) ; Person. : umisdak 

take into pasl'kpck (carry into); iskc'pko (; 

idcingko: I take, carry to a place; 

takeoff hat, brecchcloth, coat : kddnck (takeaway) 

fihidjck (untie) ; lafOsJiak: I undress 

take out of a box, vessel : paf alack — inpofcilak—mapafdla 

[mapafda] — inangipafdla. (Cf. fuiiidlaak, I go out) 
ifdlaak: I take out for somebody 

take a road fgiiak (follow) : iguak nan djdlan. 

take together ainongek (assemble) 

take up cgzvdtck, suivdtck, isihlcyko, sa/ofck, Ickudfck: (lift) 

pitjfdck (pick up from the ground) 

take with I take as companion or I conduct : ifncgko — infuegko — 

maifiieg [mifueg] — mangifiicg; or: aldck ay mangifdeg; 

(I take money with me: aldck nan bildkko) 
iskepko: take with me into the house. 

itakSngko: I take with me an object: ifakenfdko nan 
kalasaytdko: we take our shields with us. 

tale dkad, ogoki^d [okoki^td] 

talk engkalikdliak — ncngkalikdliak. makitotdyak [ niikitotSyak ] 

— nakitotSyak: I converse with others. (in Dual and 
Plural only) 

matotdtyak — natotcUyak: 1 tell a long story; talk long. 
''ma/id dngsan is kaUkall:" without nnich talking! (do 

not talk so much!) 
"ngdg nan totJyenymF:" "what are you talking about?" 




ant jo; andntjo; dntjodntjo. too tall: tsatsdma'ydntjo. 
had nan kaantjOna? how tall is it? (how much is its height?) 
masfkcnak—nasfkciiak: I am tall, I am grown. See: grow. 


a/ind; tame, domesticated buffalo: mo'iang; 

I tame: paanuick — inpadinok — inaipddnio — inangipadnw. 


See : gong. 

taste, I taint dm ok — tinanitduiak — iiiatanifdniaji—inandnttom. 

ipengico ay mdiigan: I try by taste. 
tdmtam: the taste, kd^ tdmtam si asin: it tastes like salt 

tattoo, I fdtkak — findtkak — niafdtkan — uiamdtck; 

tjakldkak — tjinakldkak — iiiatjakldkan — niandklag I tattoo 
the breast. 


fdtck [fdtcg] collect, name; tjdklag: tattoo on breast. 




filys (Hoc.) 

taxcollector ifiiysan [ifiizv/san] 


itja [/tsa] (loanword) 


tokdnck (advise), snli/ak [snli'twak; suliiok] — sinuldak- 
inasnldan — manfdu. 

teacher iiidstio [iiiastdio; iiiistolo] (Sp. maestro) 

tear, a 

lda;dka; I weep: indkaak. 



tear, I pikishck — piuikfsliho — mapfkish — mamfkish. 

biskfck \pisklck\ — biii/sk'ik — mabfski — mamfski; 

biskibiskick I tear into small pieces. 
sogbOdck — sinogbodko — masdgbod — mamSgbod: I tear off 

a string 
pinkddngko (from: kadnck, I take off: I tear off quickly 

("phikadngko nan kozvchigiiwr (menacing:) "I tear off 

your ears!") 


obafdngck — inabdfangko — maabdfang — mangabdfang. 
otydga.k — inotydgak — maotyogan — mangofyog: I ridicule, 


kdiiak (say) ; ifadgko — infadgko — maifdag — mangifdag 
ibfafadgko: I tell it to many, to all, I announce 
(fotoyck: I tell (address) ; makitotOyak: I converse) 
inogokpniak — niiiogokmdak: I tell a story, relate a tale. 
itjiikek [otjokck] — intjdkck — muff jug \iiiaftjiik] : I tell, 

give an order, command, instruct. 
(Also: Ibfakak, I ask, is used for: I tell) 

temper, I idnipko — inidnipko — maidnib — iiiaugfdiiib: 1 temper iron. 

tempest liudun (storm), intsikfsh (rain, showers), ijuldlu (hail), 

kit jo (thunder), ydpyap (lightning) etc. 

temples fpi^^g 

ten polo (/ like 1 in: roll) [pd'o], sinpd'o; 

(he loth: maugapd'o, iiidygapo'o 

thank, I 

lagldgoiig; scrotum: /////,• fitliak: I castrate. 

expressed sometimes hy: "iimdtct," "it is well, I am glad," 
a term of joyous approval, iiiiidtct fa iydiiii nannd\ ken 



thank, I sak/ihi: it is well, I am glad that you give this to me. 

umcitct fa iiundlika: it is a cause of joy that you have 
come. Often kdzvis! good, well! is used to express thanks. 


sa, nantjiii, nan todt, [92-99]; in order that : ta [455 
456; 457] 


nan;san. si (Personal article) ; ^/a (Collective article) 



their, theirs [ 1 01 - 1 1 1 ] 


tjditja [tsattsa] 

then, et; 't; ya ket; isdcd; ketjeng: [436-442] 



is sa [si sa] ; istji [fstji; Isdi; sfdi], is tjf/y, isfjiiy, [istjdy 
there is: tjiiy. tj'ly nan fdnga: there is the pot. 
there exists, is, was, are, were: luodd; zvoday [362 ff.] 
also reduplicated with comparative or intensive meaning 
ivodzvodd there is more... ; there is not: ma/id. 

therefore stadsi nan... or: sfya tji nan... and Nom. actionis with suffix 

-ati and possessive endings. [442] {sfa nan; atnfiiydkash 
si...; ketjeng ay) 


See: this 

they tjditja [tsaitsa; dafda] 

thick dsdscdjfl [asascdjSl] (/as in: roll) 


thicket fuli'dong; kafululSngan. (dense wood) 


ak°i^wan; mangdk°u. 


npo [lipo]; tipay [dfpay, dthay]: 
thigh near scrotum: Ifpyak 


avaydbid; thin, emaciated: naffkod; inydhit it is thin 




kdng)iPin [kdngnitn] i. e. household-utensils, dishes, tools, 


nimnimck — ninijnnimko — ina)if)iinii!i — miniihinii)}!. 

Frequ. and intens. : nfmninhnniDick. 

"ma/fd ni))ininuno: you do not think at all; you have no 


"zvodd is iiaii niuiii/tiiko: you can imagine it; I need not 

tell you." See: thought. 

Sometimes kanak, I say, means: I think (like our: I should 


ismekko — inismekko — ma/ismck — mangismck: I always 

think of, I always remember. (Cf. scsemkek, I remember). 

"I think" expressing uncertainty is rendered idiomatically 

by 11 get, and ngin [306; 342] and aiPcdy 11 get: perhaps. 


mamh'lo: maygdtlo [maygat'lo]: one third: kdt'lS; 
kat'lSn si fufnk: a third of a pig. 


Ol^Oll \"lt°u\ 


naW'u"u [nao/ddou] T am thirsty: naiP(/''dak 

tolSn pd'o the 30th : inamit'lS'y pS'o 


this, these nanndy; na [92-99] ; sftona; nan fond 


sifft [sibff]; sifft si lubfan: thorn of orangetree; 
tliornbush : sibstfit 


See: that 



thought nimnini: idea, intention, plan etc. 

"nan nimnlniko: according to my judgment, as I believe; 
nan nininfinko kazv/s sfya: in my judgment he is good." 




l/fo; sin Iffo; [lfbo\ 

fayi'ick (pound) 

li'ifid [li'/bed] (of fiber ; beanstalks) ; inliifidak: I twist, 
make threat (roll fiber on the knee: J. LXXXHI.) 


tolo [told; t'lo; tdtlo] 

thrive ma/ftyadak — na/tryadak (grow straight; see: straighten, 


throat alSgoog 

throb inlcklekuab nan Bad: the vein is throbbing. 

Or: inyilpyup 

through Innifiitak {go, pass through); liisJikaiPcivck (pierce, bore, 

stab through) 

legdmzuak — linegdmzvak — malegdmzvan: I bore holes 
throusrh wood. 


throw fckdshck — finkdshko — iiuibkash — tiuhukasJi: I smite, dash 

to pieces. 

throw across paktjdngck — itipaktjdngko — maipdktjang — iiiaiigipdktjang 

throw away iivastdko [amzvastdko : iyiiasfdko] — iinvas/dko — )iiai':(.'dsid 

— ]jiaiii:izi'dsid 

throw back pasltakongck — i)ipasIidkoitgko — iiiaipaslidko)ii 

throw beyond pafasdngck — inpafdsangko — maipafdsaug — mangipafdsang 
(over a hedge, a fence) 

throw down tbahak — inhahak — jiiaibdban — mangibdban (make fall) 
See: drop. 
isiptjdgko — insiptjdgko — niaisfptjag — Diaiigis/pfjag. 
tokdtjck — fiiwkddko — inatSkad — niauDkad ( overturn ) 

throw over ibkdsli ko — inibkdsh ko — mafbkash — mangl'bkasli ( make 
tumble over) ; tokdngck, or idugdngko [itokdngko]: I 
throw over, upset. 

throw palfiitck — inpalfdtko — Diaipdlfnd — niangipdlfud. 


throw sp)ears {alfckck; ttifdyck; kaydiigck; faiigkdifkwck. See: spear. 

inpadpadSyak — iiinpadpadSyak: I practice throwing spears 

throw stones faSkck — fiiiadgko — inafdog — iiiamdog 
thumb pajigaiiuhiia 


thunder J<:ifjd; kJlib [kdlib]. See: strike. 

thunders, it cngkdlih [cngkilih] — nengkdlib 

thus kdg tond (like this) ; kag nannay; sidS; "dngncvi sidJ! 

ikam sidS! do it thus!" 

thy, thine [loi-iii] 

tickle fjakdyck — tjiiiakdyko — inatjdkay — mandkay 

tie falpcfjck — finalpidko — mafdlnd — uiaiiidlnd: I tie, fetter, 


tie with ropes kagodak — kinagSdak — uiakagOdan — hiangdgod 

tie together separate strings: toopck — tinoopko — matSop — manOop; or: 
tdktjck — tiiiakt^fko — luatdkct — iiiandkcf 
fStkck — fintegko — mdptck — iiidinfek 

tie fast (bundles) : ifaketko — intaketko — inaifdkrd — niangitdked; 

together (also: I tie an animal to a pole). 

tight sum led 

t ill inkdna is... dlik [447] 

time is expressed by the words: day, month, year etc. (Some- 

times by: fdlon, the region near a town, or ''weather") 
malafi nan tdlon: "the time became night." 
kdmzvad, place, is also used for extent of time, space, 
the next time: is kdsin; is kdsin dkyn: next day, an other 




ma /id kaiPtmatdna ken sak/in: I have no time. 
})ia/id kaevmatdna is umiiyantdko: we have no time to go. 
(kaiXmatdna: occasion, chance), at the same time : inktsan. 
times: see "MuUiplicatives" [369] 

tin can lata (Sp.) Preserves in tin cans. 

tire, I fcleyck — finlCyko — mablcy — uidmlcy: I make tired. 

Person, fumlt'yak — fiiiuinlCyak: I am getting tired. 

tired ndblcy. nablCyak: I am tired. 

to is, si, id, ad, as, ken [71-75 ; 377-395] ; inkdiia, Slik: to [447] 

tobacco tafdgo 

to-day adzi'dni; idwdni; is nan dkyu ay nay (on tliis day) 

toe pangamdma is nan fjapdn (thunih on the foot): big toe; 

the otlier toes have the same names as tlie fingers, with 
added: is nan tjapdn (or: si tjapdn). 

Collect, name: kOnWet. f diving: the deformity of the big 
toe being separated from the others, turning inside. 

together madmong: ainfn (all); niaamongkayi?t! come together ! 

(assemble). See [300] 
infuSgta (Dual), infuegtdko (I'lnr.): let us go together ! 


tsilno: work 

toil, I inlagfdak — ninlagfdak: I work for wages. 

tomatoes kdniddis (loanword) 

to-morrow aszvdkas; iszvdkas. See : day. 



tongs sfbid [sc^bid]: sibfdck — sinibfdko — inasfbid: I hold, take 

iron with the tongs, pinchers. 

tongue djfla [dfla] : ipadjflak: I cause to hck, i. e. I feed a child. 

to-night i^' iiiasfjfin si dnnin; is nanndy ay mastjlm. 


tsatsdiiia; fsafsdjiia 'y fdnfg: too small; tsafsdina ay 
dngsan: too nnich ; tsatsdina ay akit: too little, not enough, 
[too little money, not enough pay: kSlang! (loanword)] 
tsafsdinaak: I "am too much/' i. e. : I am too severe, too 
exacting, too violent, "tsatsdinaka ken fjdkaiiif: you are 
too harsh with us; you treat us too severely." 
tsatsdinaka ay fanfg: you are too small. 


fdbd [fob/d]: the tooth aches: inpldck [inpSdcg] nan 
fobd. molar: ivSivb. tusk, long tooth: sdong; small 
tooth (dog, boar etc.): tangOfn. 


dslwn [dtsP/n]; on its top: is cishona. 

tafdngan [tabfongan]: top of house, of roof; 

togtogo: top of head. 

togtdgon [toktSkon] si fflig: top of mountain; 

tdngf°u: top of a low stonewall; see: councilhouse. 

fdneng: top of a wall forming a terrace of ricefields 



sil/lu, made of sdeng, pinewood, used instead of candles. 

touch, I apondshck — inapondshko — niaapSnash — mangaponash: I 

touch, feel, wipe; fgnak (hold); kiwdck (move). 
linefek — liniiu^bko — inalfncb: water touches, reaches. 
Person.: luuiiiicbak — linmfncbak; nan tjenuin luinfncb ken 
sfva: the water touches him. 

toward is, si, ad. id, as, ken [3/7-395] 


is nan nid/\d\': in the 




///," sinpangili: tlic whole town. kailiaii: a man of the 
same town as an otlier. 


djdlan (way); footprint: tjapcin (is iiait l/?ta, is luui 
pitck: on tlie ground, in the nnid). 

trade, I isJmkcidko (Iiarter) ; sokd dak {c\\:ingc)\ 

Person. : suinokadak — sinniokadak. 


djdlan (way) 


railroad train: tflin (from Sp. tren : [80] ;) 

tramway fdldiifia; taldbia (Sp. tranvia) 

transform ngl°/mdtjanak — nginiiidtjanak (I transform myself, as in 

fables, tales) 

translate kdnak is Igolot, is Mclikano: I say in Igorot, English. 

transplant insduiaak — niiisdmaak 

trap obSfiiy: fish trap; okat: large fish trap, funnelshaped; 

dteb: rat trap; sftjok: kind of a basket, net; 
kdyiXg: a basket for catching fish {mangOyukak) 

See: snare; pitfall. 
pa/dtjck: I set a trap. 

fcngdek — finengak — mafSnga: I raise a trap. 
kennck — khmak — ndkna: I catch in a trap. 

travel maudlanak — naiidlanak {djdlan, way); inliklfkcdak ; 

iitlilhvisak: I travel, walk around 

tread upon kaffnak (step); inkatfnak is nan pftck ay ndpshong: I 

knead the watered soil by treading, stamping. 


treat well doshdek (care): I provide with food etc. 

treat ill innilaldyoshak: I neglect ; aiwikck: I annoy, trouble; 

tsafsiiinaak: I treat beyond measure. See: too. 


kdyi<^^ (pine tree) ; fddaug: tall pine tree; tjdpong; 
tsaUido\: trunk of a tree; tongcd: treestump; 
papdt/tay: a group of trees, a sacred grove [papat/tdyan] ; 
pdgpag: forest; btlay: stems of trees, on which Luma- 
wig's slain sons were carried to Bontoc for burial ; the btlay, 
planted in the sacred papdt/tay ad SSkok, have grown to 
laree and fine trees. 

tremble intaySiitcnak — nintayentcnak: I shiver; 

durative: intatayentcnak. a shiver: icvvVzuZ/o-. 


ipi^kao [ipukdi^t ; ipokao: ifukao 




oiWHon^. I am troubled: iiioiioiioiiirak — niiioiioiwii^ak. 

trouble, I onongck — inonougko — iiia^iioiig — iiiaiigdiwiig : 

Person. : nmcinongak ; 
ani^kck — induBkak — madnPika. (Hoc. ?) 

trough used in irrigation: taldkan (supported by the beams: 

tdklod); Itbkan: a trough or long mortar for pounding 

trousers pantalon (Sp.); mamantdlonak: I put on trousers; 

inpantdlonak: I wear trousers. 




iit/kva [tet/dio/a]; titit/kva 

trust, I 
try, I 

dgmb (wooden box) 

abfoll'itck (believe) 


ipcngko — inipengko (iupchigko) — matpcng — mangfpcng. 
patsdsliek — pinatsdshko — mapdfsasli (Hoc.) 
tebkek — tinfSgko — mdtfck — jiuinfck: I try potatoes etc. 
while boilingr, with a stick. 


fdasli (for liquor): see: beverages, fdyash ; J. CXIV. 
short tube for meat : lotjiii; long tube: tdfuiig 

turn, I likilsJick — liiiikdshko — jiialfkiish — iiiiiilfkusli: I turn an 

object around a vertical axis. 

inltkushak — ninllknshak : I turn myself around (to the 
right, left or half a turn, while standing) ; I turn my head 
or back to someone; I look away. 

siinfek — siminik — masfini — iminfhii: I turn an object 
around, upside down ; iiiasfhii: upside down. 
falinck — finalingko — iiiafdliii — inoiiidliii: I turn over (as 
the pages of books) Person. : iiifdUiiak: I turn to the 
other side, while resting on the ground, I roll from the right 
to the left side of my body. 

inlikdctak — ninlikuctak ; inpalikdctak: I make a turn in 
walking, change my direction, go to the left or right. 
sumdkongak: I turn completely, I come back on my path. 
kBliwhck: I turn a wheel, a top etc. 



sdong; sdong si fittitg: tusk of boar; sdong si dsiPt: 
canine tooth of dog. 


twelve sill polo [pd'o]ya dji1a; the 12th: mangapo'o ya djiia; or: 

maygapd'o ya dji1a. 

twenty djiidnpS'o; the 20th : uiainidji/ay po'o 


imnidjiia; viaygadji'/a. 


pingi; liiting (fir twigs for kindling fire) 




dji'/a { di'/a : djihva ] 


udder sSso; soson si faka: udder of a cow. 

ugly angdngalf/d {ay flaen): bad (to see) 

ulcers langingi 

umbrella totsong; pdyong (Hoc.) 

uncle alitdo ay laldki: father's brother, yiin/antna; or: 

andtjin ina: mother's brother (older than she; younger 
than she) 

uncover Ickwdfek (lift) 



is tsdo \tsdn] [4051408] 

understand ki'kkck (know) 

undress hadnck (takeaway: hat, breechcloth etc.) 

lafdshak: undress (a child); rnldfoshak; infiladak 
[infSladak]: I undress myself 


prefix -?//;- [60]; avihi [all]; madmong (assembled) 

unmarried man: fobfdllo; woman: mamdgkid (girl) 


iga kd/om "not ripened" 

untie, I fadfdtjck — finadfdtko — mafddfad — nianiddfad 

fildtjck — fin'ddtko — mafilad — mauillad ( the breechcloth, 


ohfdfjck — inobfdtko — maobfad — mangSbfad. 

Person.: luiiobfdtak 


iiikdiia is... Slik..; until morning: is ikddiia's f/bikat 
[403, 447] ; kfka'd aliaiia: until he comes. 


is tSngtji<^{. ad tjdya [409; 410; 412] 


is, si, id, ad, as; is nan ip'islP(n [Sshon] [406; 408] 

upwards is tSngtji^ : ad tjdya [409; 410; 412] 

urge iPdldtiak; ilntlddko: I beseech, rcciuest. 

xirinate umisfdak — inmisjOak. urinal: ka/isfOan, 

Possess.: isfSak: I urinate upon. 




isfo [fsiho] 


tjdita (dual, inclus.) ; tjdtdko (plur. inclus.); tjdkami 
(plur. exclus.) [39 b; 81-84] 


I use as a tool, instrument: Special Verbal Forms: [258- 
260: 262; 286] [391] 

itnok [tdnok] — initnok — maftno — iiiangffiio: I use as 
working tool (from: tsuiiSck, I work) ; "only said of hard 
tools, metal instruments." I use material: ipayak (I put 
somewhere) : ngdg nan mangfpayam is nan kayo? for 
what do you use the wood ? 

ngdg nan inanglpayani si sa? for what do you use this? 
angkdyck: I use all up (eat all up). 

I use to: fkddko (custom); ikddko ay niandlan: I use 
to walk; or: xinitngsaak — inniingsaak. 
mntngsaak ay manf/bla: I use to smoke. 
ngdg nan kotok toshd? "what is this good for?" of what 
use is it? what does this mean? 

ngdg nan kotokmo ay mangdcb is nan dfong? what is the 
use that you build a house? 

nia/ld nongnongnw! you are of no use, worthless! 
{nongndngck: I care for) 


oklonp. See: glutton. 




ma/ld kotokna nan entsihioai 
working;" you work in vain 

'llierc is no use of your 



value, price patch; hi go 

odd [wad, tidd] 



venom kkvatay [kyinva'tay; kizvdtsay] 

vertebrae ihigct si ft jig [idsig] 


tsatsdma. Expressed usually by Reduplication: [122-126] 

vessel See : jar, pot, glass, cup, bottle, gourd, tube, bowl, basket. 

village fli 

vine dngo: leaves and shoots of sweet potato (camote); 

udka [ivdka]: a liane, a vine "as strong as a rope." 






ma/l'la; indistinctly visible, dim : maadmas. 


ek i'laen: Igoto^ee; ildek (see). 

kdli: of man, of bird; in/ngdck: of buffalo; ngSngo: 
of dog; ing/ngdo: of cat; inliklik: of horse; enkoa: 
of crow. 




tili; wddwad (flesh); sipid, Idwid: clitoris. 



kuvitjdngak: I cross a river; I wade through the water. 


Idgfo; fdiigtsaii [tdngfjaii] 

wagon kaloiiidfo [kaliiiidfo] (Sp. carromata, a cab used in Manila) 

wail, howl iiiandkoak — niiiandkoak. 




waistcoat sail go (Sp. Hoc); (fA'/an^. See: coat. 

sddck — siiiSdko — mdsed — iiidned: I wait for, await, expect. 
sasddck — sisinddko: I wait anxiously, a long time. 
Person.: sfhuidak — siniimidak ; susiimidak ; [slioslwmcdak] 
insdedak: I wait; ilildck: I wait, keep watch. 


wake fangOnek (awake) ; fnmdngonak — fiiwidngonak: I wake 

up, rise, get up. fiimafdngonak: I keep awake. 
inUblibak — ninllblibak: I keep awake, watch through the 


/hniiyak (go); ))iaiuilanak — naiuHanak: I walk on tlie road; 
illdek: I walk at tlie horderhne, frontier ; Pers. : umtlidak 
nmSnodak: I walk behind; durative: umonOnodak 
tetengck: I walk through the center (of a town, region) 
iimilhvilhvisak — inmfliwilhvisak: I walk "everywhere" 

around ; also : inlilhvtsak — ninliliwhak. 
ilhuisJiek — Unkvfshko — malhvisJi — uiinlhvish: transit. : I 
walk through, I pass a town, region; and: I surround, 

madtiiaddnak — nadmaddnak: I take a short walk, walk a 
little. See: go. 


blind: stone wall at the rear of a house. 
(dlad: the wooden enclosure of a house and its partitions, 
a fence; its front enclosure: sSdjoy.) 
tjdpay: stone wall around the fdzvi or pabafipingan 
(also the court is called sometimes tjdpay). The top of this 
wall: fd)!gf°u. See: councilhouse. 

toping: wall of a rice-terrace; its cope: fdncug; its 
inner side: tsalfslitjish. A niche in this wall with a large 
stone as roof, where boys guarding the fields may find shel- 
ter : llans:. 


viand latiak: See: walk, go. 


l(^ytjck (like) 

faWgnit ll'aldknid] : iianidka: headhunting. 
makifalogtiidak: I go to war with my comrades. 
See: song (warsong). 

ward ofT palakdickvck — iupaldkdiSko — mapalakdiS: I ward oft (a 

spear or stone thrown at me) with the shield. 



dtong. indtongak: I am warm; umdfongak: I am get- 
ting warm; anitjdck [inifji^ek] — iiiaiufjok — maanttjo: I 
warm, make warm ; nmaatongak: I remain warm; 
paatSngck : I make warm, I heat; 

inanitjSak [iiiifjdak] : I warm myself at the iiiitjnan, fire- 

fuiuahfalognid [69] 




hnsck [inishck] — inmfsko — nufiiiis — mangfinis: I wash 

face, hands; Person.: ihnisak — fiiuiisak: I wash myself, 

bathe, (without "dzvak," body) 

fuliiak — finuldak — mafuli/an — uiamf/hi: I wash my hands 

{nan Ifniak) ; 

udshak [zi'dsliak] — inudshak — ma/udslian: I wash (parts 

of my body, wood, stone, dishes) 

likltkak — liniklikak — maliklikan: I wash my head (»a;! dlok) 

tsd/dpak — tsind/dpak — matsd/dpan: I wash my eye {nan 


saksdkak — sinaksdkak — masaksdkan: I wash the privy 

parts {wadzvddko) 

lahfdak — linabfdak — nialabfdan: I wash cloth, a coat, 

shirt etc. 



watch clock lilPtsli (Sp. reloj) 

watch, guard infalii; indknal (a guard in the rice plantation) 

watch, I Possess. : foldek; akndlak. 

Person. : infSlnak — ninfSluak. inakndlak — niiiakndlak. 
fofokdngok — tinotokdngak — niafofokdiigan — nianofdkong: 
I watch ("a head, lest any dog get it") 
inodslitjongak — ninodshtjongak: I watch looking down 


watch from above; (or: umoOshtjonp^ak.) 

iilcick: I watch, see close. 

idilmko — indilmko — iiiafdiiiii — niaiii^fdiini: I watch, 
observe (tlie eneni}') 
inUblibak: I keej) awake watching during night 


tjcmiin [tjdnmm; ddnnm: d('iwiii] : kaljeiii^nii: a body of 
water, river, pond; Gewasser. tjenumak: I water (irri- 
gate); manaktjiiak: I get water. See: pot. 

inatoytdyok : tjipasJi (the rock over wliicli, or out of which 
water flows) 

kabd]igap( si fjeiiuni; current, rii)ples in a river: pali'fpo 

al/d: Ic'iiisasli: I)lack wax 


djdlaii: kdlsa (highway, made by the government); 

dla: direction, as : "dlak ya Alab: my direct way is to Alab." 

is nan kadjdlan: on the way (while walking) 

into nan ntd/yoy id Fp/ntok? where is the way to Bontoc? 

iscldtko: I o])struct the wav; insjlatak: I stand in the wav. 

tjal'ta (we two; you and I); tjatdko (we, inclus.); 
ijdkdml (we, exclus.) [81-84] 


htpi'/xan: nasdkyu: a small and weak man: 

iiadsd]i>^ycn [katjdngyen]. • .^ee : rich. 

weather Idzcag; tdle^n: the fields surrounding a town ; 

tdll^/n: is used in some idioms for "weather" or "time' 

afSik [afdyck; abSik; dbfok] — inafdik — maafdi — manga f Si. 
Person.: indfoyak — nindfdyak. See: loom. 



wedding tsihnno: wedding feast; finnlfas: rich man's wedding 


kdkaug: connected with the wedding-ceremony; the head 
of a Iniffalo^ kept several weeks in the house under the roof, 
is put outside together with tlie heads of other recently 
killed buffaloes. 

tsiDiiiiJak: I celebrate wedding, make a feast; 
sdiigfu: ceremony on the second day (eating a pig). 
fiislulg: rest day after wedding. 

wedge f^dslick. pdsJikck: I split by a wedge (split) 

weed lalcidkiii; Itikam (grass) ; 

salcdijimaak — siiiakduimaak — iiiasakaiiujufaii ; hika)iiak: I 


iiitjcilosak — iiiiifjdlosak: I weed the wall of a rice terrace; 

tbahak: I weed, clear the ground from trees, hedges; I 

throw over after cutting into it. 

kafOtck — kinafotko — niakdfot — }nangdfot : I tear out, pluck 

out grass, herbs. 


doinliigko (Sp. Domingo, Sunday) 


indkaak — iiiiidkaak. 


libldck (Sp. libra) 


spring; ih/ih: small well ; fddfiid. 


is kcnvfs [41 1 ] 


ld)iiiickan si dkyii: "sunset." 

wet, I ibfoik [fbfok] — fiifok — i}idbd [mdboy; iiidfliy]. See: water; 




ndhoy; I am wet : nahayak [nafSyak\. 


"5*^^ [147; 350 f • '. 35^]' '^s interjection: ndn^ '"wliat 
did you say?" or as inter j. of surprise: ngcig kdii. 

whatsoever loildi ngdg [iik'iigdg] 

wheel kangkdngo (Hoc.) 


kdd? [354]; when, conjunction: [443:444:445] 

whence, intS [cntd]: [353]. 


whereabouts kdp{ivad (place; also period, space). 

whet palttjck {balidek\ (sharpen) 


whetstone palitjan [halfdcui] : asdaii [a'saii] 

which? sfjiit ay., ngdg.. [149]: Relat. pronoun [328-338] 


conjunction: [444]; a little while: sin akitan. 

whip fd/ig 

whip, I fayi'kek [faytkck] — findiko — iiiafdig — maiudig: whip a 

horse, punish a man by whipping. Person. : fumdigak. 



whirl inlilkvin nau tjenPdn: water whirls. 

whisky "ftfyash" (an alcoholic beverage made of sugarcane) 

whisper intibtffiak — nintibttfiak 

whistle lusfukak [instynkak ; insfyokak] — iiiiisfiikak: I pant, I 

breathe whistling, after hard work. 

white iinpdkaioi. I dye white: papokdl°(ivck — inpapokdp/ko — 

maipapcikaP/, or : kunidibak is iuipokaiPt. 
ptfan: white hair. 

who, whom? sinu? [146:344-350]. As Relative Pronouns: [328-338] 

whose? [347] 

whosoever p/lai sfiiii 



amin; aniln nau isa'y mdnok: the whole chicken: is nan 
sin (ikytt: the whole day: nan amfn ay fli: the whole 


[352]. why not? en adt ay? 

iigag. mang/su. Uh°iiva: a wicked action (not person), 
"it is bad, wrong, forbidden."' 


andpr<.i'a: anandeiwa (wide shoes, trousers) ; I make 
wide: ananaP/zvdck. 

widow ilikas [il/kasli] 

widower dinasdng [dniashdng] ; nadinasdngan. 


wife asdiP(zi.'a ay fafayi 

wild dtab (of animals) 

wild buffalo dydwaii \c1yawan] 

"wild cat" iiiyao 

wild chicken sdfoi^: wild (and domesticated) cock: hai^dvitan 

wild hog Id man : fd II go 

will, I leytjck {\\kQ)\ ek,ick: I go to... [307] ; Av.s-at [30S] 

win, I afdkck — inafdgko — mad fag: I win in games; 

I lose : mddfakak. 

wind tjak/m: storm: l/mlim: whirlwind, typhoon : alipdspos, 


wind, I ilitlitko: I wind around, a thread around the finger etc. 

window fcntdna (Sp. : vcntana); tdiva (Hoc.) 

wine "tdpuy:" rice-wine. 

wing pdyak [bdyog] 

wink iiikimkfmak 

winnow, I tdp/ak — tiiidp/ak — matdp/au. 



winnowing I f g/i"^ : [S:\moki: ll/kd] 


wipe off popcikak—pinopSkak — mapopSkan (a table, floor, bench) 

apondshck — inapondshko — maaponash — inangaponash: I 
wipe my face, my hand, body, I touch. 

wire fdlio/d [fdlod]. fdlod ay patatjhn; ay kdtjiiig: an iron; 

brass wire 
fah4fjck: I bind, tie, fetter, imprison. 

wish, I 


iiuiiiiiiuifniaii (itiimi/nick: I think); "thoughtful;" 

h^ytjck (like), my wish : nan Ifyljck. a wish : kaWyad 

mijiicgak: I am, go with... ifucgko: I take with me. 
[300; 391; 401]; 

iiia//d [408] ; 
without hat" 

''inuidli ay tna/ld sokldngna: he has come 

woman fafdyi; Plural: fdfdfdyi: old woman : infna; 

Plur. : inin/na. See: girl. 
mikifafdyiak: I visit the girls' dormitory, the Olog 

womb fd/i [fdo; fddy] si ongdnga 

wonder, I niadodSgc'dak — iiadoddgcdak ; matdaak — natdaak. 

wood kdyB (generic and specific : pinewood); 

)nangdyl°iak: I get wood, and: I go into the woods to con- 
sult the omen-bird. 

ijd pong (spec); o/fl/c7'.s'/' (spec); baldyiii ay fjdpong: wood 
for handles, spears etc. 

kayOek [kayipick; kaydck] — kindyok — inakdyo — niangdyo: I 
get wood 



If pat: dry wood, fire wood. p^gfcJ,^. kahayRan: grove, 

forest. See : grove. 

maislipow: fire wood. 

iiiiiilfpatak: I get dry wood, break it off from a tree 

mama dill gak: I gather dry wood from the ground. 

bddinir: any drv firewood. 


tsudtsiid [tschlfsod]: short hair, fur of sh.eep, Ijuffalo, dog 
and short feathers of fowl. 

word kdl/ (speecli, language) 

work fsftiio [fjfhio] 

work, I tsnnOck [tsnnnck ; tjunoch ; tsihick; ts/hi/iick] — fs/ii/nok — 

mat 110 — man/ no. 

Person. : entsl'inoak [intjfhwak] — iic'iitsfhioak 
"ma/fd c'ntsilno is nan katalonan! no work in the fields! 
(on holiday)" 

Causat. : pafndck — inpdtnok — maipcitno — mangipdino: I 
order to work. 

inlagfdak — ninlagfciak: I work for wages. 
mamdgnakak: I go out to work. {fSgnak: work day) 
insdmaak — ninsdmaak: I work in the field: weeding, dig- 
ging, clearing the ground, preparing it for planting, espec- 
ially transplanting. 

workman tsuiiwitsrhio 

world fatdi'^zca: nan Idtvag. 

kfllang (also; little boy, baby); /77.'/.s-.- vermin, maggot. 

amdmed: umamdmedak: I am getting worse. 


fdkag (caused by cutting, hitting, striking) 



wound, I See: cut; hit; stab; strike; throw etc. Cf. [68] 

wrap, I kvfsak — iiiizvfsak — niahvfsan — iiiaiigfzvis: I wrap into a 

blanket: hvis [nvisJi] 

mangkvlsak — naughvisak: I wrap myself (in a blanket) 
komJnak — kinomonak — uiakoiiidnan—viaiigomon: I wrap 
into linen, paper, a mat etc. 
I unwrap: kaanck nan fwis, nan koniSna. 

wrapper koniSna: wrapper of cloth, paper, linen. 

wrestle intjfpabak — nintjipabak: Person, of tjipdpck: I catch. 

wring, I sidsidak — sinidsfdak — masidsfdan — nianldsid: I wring wet 



pangatsingan [pangafjt'ngan 


kaUiyak (mark by scratching, branding, cutting, carving). 
sulci dak — siniiUidak — masuUidan — inani"/lad. (Hoc. etc.) 
Person. : inkcHayak — nlnkdlayak. inst/ladak — ninsiiladak. 
pasuhidck — inpasnlddko — niaipasfdad: I make write, I 
order to write. 

wrong ^ig^^g (bad); hiiPtzva (morally bad, forbidden, wrong, inde- 

cent) ; olcildv (very bad; wicked; still worse than hlPciva) ; 
Tucucan : lihveng. 
this is wrong, not correct: faken sa! \Z-2>\- 





tj I'! a (court): fadngan: yard around a house ; 
aPdvftjau: place outside the house but under its overhang- 
ing roof. (See: l)ur(len) 





in//'iahak — nin/i'/abak 

taiVwfii [fazi'fn : taofii]; last year: iiaii tai^zc/n ay iiuiuly, 

oy luilosh: ifiDnaiXii'hi; idtamivhi. 

next year: nan taBzvfn ay unuHi; is kas/n tai'>iz^.'!n. 

yell, I cn/ngdoak — ncn/ngdoak: I yell before battle, shout to the 

enemy, challenge them; or: cngkolfiliiak. 
en/ngaozvf/ak: I shout, yell while returning from success- 
ful headhunting. 

yellow fak/'ngi (i)robably the yellow blossom of a plant called 



Sy! zcrn! [i'^n^n] (zi.'c'n: expresses the listener's attention; 
he utters it now and then while an t)lher speaks to him). 

yesterday adiigka [iddgka]; day before yesterday ; kasfn addgka, 

is kastn itgka; adidiina [aditdna]. 


tjitjitja: [314]; 
Cf. tsCi [310]. 

not yet: tsdaii [324]: tsdan pay. 



yonder isfji [isfjf'/y, istj/n, sidf] : anoka! you yonder! aufn! you 

yonder! [144]. 



s/ka (s'mgu\.)\ fjakaypt [dakayd] (i)lural) 

young man : fobjdllo: young woman, girl: uiamagkid; 

fobaU'tan: handsome young man. 

anOtji [iiWfji]: younger brother or sister. 

ongdngaak: I am young. 

inanak: young of animals (or: fumdlo ay...). 

young dog: okeii; young chicken : fiiipas [/nipasli]; young 

bird: (fnak si ayifyam, or: gdyad ay ayayaiii. dmRg: 

young pig. fiuiuHo ay kosha: young cat. inanak ay 

niPtang: young buffalo. l}idnak ay kafdyo, fumdlo ay 

kafdyo: young horse, inleiiglcng: young, fresh plant. 

your, yours [loi-iii]. 

youth kd/ougdiiga: childhood, inkdiia 's son kd/ongdiiga: from 

childhood on. is nan kd/ongdnga: in childhood. 




The following Texts — the only P5ontoc Ig-(3rot Texts in existence — 
have been dictated to the Author, during the summer of 1907, by Matyu 
from Bontoc, Fanged from Samoki (Bontoc's sister-town) and Falonglong 
("Antero") from Bontoc, assisted occasionally by Kalangad, Tjumigyay, 
Oloshan, Kodsoo, Angay and others. 



The one who possessed the most comprehensive knowledge of folk-lore 
was Matyu, a true Bontocman of high intelligence, great modesty, happy 
humor and good will. Most stories and songs were obtained from him, 
the indefatigable narrator. Had time allowed it, he would have added 
many another story to the present Texts. 


Matvu had left in I'ontnc a family of whom he often thought with 
longing, h^ate did not ])erniit him to see his wife and sons and home as^ain. 
Sad tidings came the other dav, that Aiatyu had died at Detroit, in Mich- 
igan, on Septemher third, in i<)o8. 

And as no stone bearing his name marks the ])lace where his soul left 
the body, this book shall preserve his likeness and his name. 

Mis is the merit to have been the first to hand over to memory, in his 
own idiom, the legends of his tribe contained in this book. It will never 
be forgotten with what piel\- he recited the tales of the world's creation 
and of the deeds of God, known to the liontoc Igorot as Ltimawig. On the 
day before the Tgorot's deparliu-e we sat together till late in the night in 
his hut around the lire, while a thunderstorm raged and torrents of rain 
rushed down, reminding him of his far home; there and then it was that 
he recited, as his last farewell, the Work-Song. 

llis stories and songs may thus be taken by his widow and sons as 
Matyu's last greeting. 

And if some one should read to them the tales recorded here as they 
came from Matyu's lips, then may their remembrance of their kind and wise 
father become strong and not too bitter! 

Xor shall 1 ever forget you. m\- good friend and patient teacher, 

\\ hen consigning the Texts to writing, the .Author observed his prin- 
ciple of t.aking down ])recisely what he heard .and as he heard it: he has not 
corrected a single sound or word or ])iu\-ise, e\cn when he met immistakablv 
with irregularities: however, this occurred r.arely. The flow of narration 
was not interrupted by (|uestions or interference when a i^assage seemed ob- 
sciu'e, exce])t by the occasional re(|ue^t of rejK'ating a ]ihrase or of speaking 
more slowly. 

The orthography ol the Texts diflers in m;in\- passages consider;ibl\- 
from that in the Grammar and Vocabulary; the orthography sometimes 
varies e\en in the same sentence, exactly as the spoken language varied. 
The interlinear version, some notes and his knowledge gained from the pre- 


ceding Grammar and Vocabulary will enable the Student to reduce unusual 
variants to the standard forms. 

Thankworthy assistance in the translation of the Texts was rendered 
by Falonglong- ; also to others the Author is indebted for the explanation of 
certain difficult passages. 

The Texts are divided into small sections, in order to make it possible 
to locate quotations in the Grammar ; also in the explanatory notes reference 
is made to these sections. In the tran-lation the aoristic or historical Pres- 
ent which ])revails throughout the Texts has fre(|uentlv been changed into 
our Preterite. Possessive \'erbs and those Personal Verbs which govern 
an object have l)een rendered into their equivalents, our finite transitive 

About the importance of genuine Texts R. H. Codrington, D. D., 
writes in his "The Melanesians, Studies in Anthropology and Folk-Lore, 
Oxford, 1891," p. 356: The value of truly native stories is beyond all ques- 
tion; they exhibit native life in the ])articular details which come in the 
course of a narrative; they are full of the conceptions which the native peo- 
ple entertain about the world around them, thev show the native mind active 
in fancy and imagination and they form a rich store of subjects for compar- 
ison with the folk tales of other parts of the world. 

The Contents of this Part HI are: 

1. Lumawig 7. Kolling 

2. Headhunters' Return 8. The Monkey 

3. The Battle of Calodcan 9. Palpalama and Palpalaking 

4. The Rat and the Brothers 10. Varia 

5. The Stars 11. Songs. 

6. Tilin 


Wodd nan sindki ay ludnganiib ay dnak si Liuiidzvig. nan fatdiPnva ^-^ 

There two who hunted, sons of I^umawig. the world 


ma/ld filig; fsddd nan fatdpdva, ef mo mangdmibtsa, ya ma/ld ka = 

there are moun- flat the world so when they hunt, there is no catch- 

no tains; 

uddtan nan Idinan ya nan dgsa. 

ing-place of the wild pigs and the deer. 

isdc'd kandn nan yt'in/a en 

then says the older brother 

"poshngchita'd nan fatdPdva, fa inakdlnd nan flUg." isdtja'd 

let us inundate the world that become rough the moun- Then they 

("arise") tains. 

cn pdshngen ad MalWtdhoddbP/d. kctjeng ndpshong nan fatdfiiva. 

go to inundate at Mabudbodobud. Then was watered the world. 









cn "enta'd nianah/kong." 

let us two go to put a trap. 

isdtja'd ^ 

Then they 

en isaliikong nan sdngi ad MabPtdboddbftd. isdtja'd fcngden nan 

go to use as trap the head-basket at Mabudbodobud. Then they raise the 

sdngi ya dngsan nan ndkna ay Idnian ya nan dgsa ya nan tdkPt. 

basket and much is the booty: wild pigs and deer and people. 

kcfje'ng naliifng ani/n 

then had perished all 

nan tdki'^. wodd nan sindki a\' natdkn 

the people. There are a lirother who alive 

and sister were 


^^•^ ad PSkis. - ketjSng inSstjong si Lumdzvig ya ostjSngana'd Pokis ya 

at Pokis. Then looks down L,uma\vig and he looks down to Pokis and 

ketjSng is igd kalfneb; et sfya nan nataktfian nan sindki. 

it is the only not reached (by water); then it (is) the abode of the brother 

(place) and sister. 

^ - isded lumdynk si Lumdzvig ya kandna en "kef tjakayO sha!" isded 

Then descends Ivumawig and says Oh, you are this! Then 

kandn san laldki en "tsdkdmi na ya nay naslikde^kaiuf!" 

says the man we are here and here we freeze. 

7 - isded fadlen Lumdzvig nan dsiina ad Kalai^zvftan ya nan Sgsa. 

Then sends out Lumawig his dog to Kalauwitan and the deer. 

isded hikyat nan ogsa ya nan dsu ay ihniiy ad KalaWwttan 

Then swims the deer and the dog, going to Kalauwitan 

ya umdatsa is nan dpuy. isded isigtsdn nan Lumdzvig tjattja. 

and they get the fire. Then awaits Lumawig them. 

•'' - kandna en "fdddo adttja nmdli!." isded um/iy si Lumdzi'ig id 

He says how long they do not come! Then goes Lumawig to 

KalaiPizvitan. isdnad kandn is nan dsuna ya nan Sgsha en 

Kalauwitan. Then he says to his dog and the deer 

"nangkSkayii tje^mdngam is fddlcn is aptly." isdnad kandn en 

why! you delay the sending for fire. Then he says 

"dyed! yoSy/ym nan dpuy ad PSkis; fa ftlak tjakdyiV." 

get ready! bring the fire to Pokis; lei me watcli you! 

9 - ketjihig umtiytja 'sh san kaMzvdna nan pSshong ya maddy san dpuy 

Then they go into the middle of the flood and dead is the fire 


ay indatja ad KalaiHivftan. - isdna'd kanan en "nangkakCiyil ^■'^^ 

which they had at Kalauwitan. Then he says why! \ou 


tjiPimSngam si fddlen. kasfnyiid ySi; ta iildk od tjakdyii!" kctjing 

delay the Again you bring; let me you! Then 

sending. must watch 

iildena ya noddy sun kOan nan Sgsa. isded kandn Lumdzvig en 

he and was that of the deer. Then says Ivumawig 

observes extinguished 

"ddpay dkish madSy nan inifgnan nan dsu 'y tjili." 

it will surely also be extinguished the holding of the dog yonder 

isded fnkyaf nan Lumdzvig, ihntsan ya pinfdnishna nan dpiiy ay 

Then swims Lumawig, he arrives and takes quickly the fire that 

infgnan san dsuna. isdna'd fd/dn ad Pdkis. isdna'd idnet nan dpuy 

had his dog. Then he takes(it)to Pokis. Then he builds a fire 


ya initj&ena nan sindki. - ketjeng mdstjok nan tjenum. isded 

and warms the brother and Then evaporates the water Then 


kandn Lumdzvig en "tjdkayu ay sindki inasdaivdkdyi^c!" isded 

says Lumawig you, brother and marry! Then 


kdnan nan fafdyi en ''sia ma ngi'n; siddnay ndngkS kakdfsu, tay 

says the woman: this may perhaps but, why! abominable be- 

be right (it is ) , cause 

sinakfkam/." kctjing si Lumdzvig inasamzvSna tjdltja. kct maltdon 

we are brother Then Lumawig united (married) them. Lo! pregnant (is) 

and sister 

nan fafdyi. ketjeng makdnaktja. - isded potlSngen Lumdzvig nan 

the woman. Then they had many Then cut off Lumawig 


dngsan ay tdnnb. isdna'd kandn is nan idnmb, is nan djihva 'n 

much reed. Then he says to the reed, to two 'of them) 



L.13 "i'ngkalfkdyifd ay dj/hva ay tdnf(b," ya nengkdUtja 's kdlfn si 

you must speak, you two reeds. and they spoke the dialect of 

14 iKindang. - inpakaUena tjditja ay djda is kalin si imMalfgkSng. 

Kinaangmen. He bids to speak them two (other), the dialect of Maligkong-men 

sail dji'ta pakaliena tjditja is kalin si iSadsdiiga. isdna'd tsa 

two (other) he bids to them the <lialect of Sadanga-men. Then he con- 

speak tinues 

inasdBiv&n tjditja. San djua ay iniMaligkong nakdnaktja 'd 

marrying them. The two Maligkong-people had offspring at 


Maligkong; sa)i djda ay iKindang nakdnaktja ad Kindang. 

Maligkong; the two Kinaang-people had offspring at Kinaang. 

1^ - kctjiUig tja madiigsan nan tdkl'^i. kctjcng tjditja luni nniili is nan 

Then thev niuUipIving the people. Then they are inhabitants of the 


1^ fatdi^rwa. - kctjc'ng pakaliena san dj/la ay tdnl'ib dkis is kdlin si 

earth then he bids to speak two reeds again the 

(other) dialect 

iMinid. kctjcng niakdnaktja. kctjcng tjaitja nan innlli is nan 

of the then they had offspring. Then they are inhabitants 


fatdi^icatja. isdcd zvodd nan iniFizcang, iniTukdkan, 

of their region. Moreover there are the Haliwang-nien, the Tucucan-nien, 

1^ iniKdn°i1, iniTdfeng, iniFdlig. - ketjc^ng mawaldsan nan 

the Kauou-men, Tulubin-men, Barlig-men. Then is distrib\ited the 

fatdiPnva is nan tdki"/. kctji^ng tsdma'y dngsan nan tdkfk. 

world to the people. Then very many the people. 

1*^ - ketjc^ng isdna'd pateiftien san ashi ad Lakdngao. isdna'd kandn en 

Then, then he makes grow the salt at Lakangao. Then he says 



"inafuyitkayiTdr ya nacito sail asin. isdna'd kandn en ^is 

you must boil down (salt) ; and boiled was the salt. Then he sa.\s 

inilagdkayi^'dr ya adftja kckkcn ay mangildgo is san asin, tay 

vou must sell (it) and not they know (how) to sell the salt, because 

intsatsdnizvisJi nan kalitdko. - isdna'd atonen ad Mtnid ct tumofo ^^ 

straightforward our speech. Then he removes (it) to Mayinit, then grows 

nan dsin. isdna'd kandn en "inilagokdyifd!" - isdna'd kandn en 

(there) salt. Then he says you must sell (it) then he says 

"ndiigko, kasfsni nan engkalidnyii : ct isud cd nan fokfsiin nan dshi 

why! nice and (is) your speecli so here be the seat o£ the salt, 

ay nav. tjdkdyd nan minkoa is nan dsfn, tay naundytja 'y iFe/ntok 

here. You (are) the owners of the salt, b cause (of) these, the Bontocmen, 

ya intsatsdiPiwish nan kdlltja. lagldgo ngef nan koan tjdtund." 

is harsh their speech. Purchase may be the property of these. 

ketji^ng isdna'd kandn dkis on "engkdyiVd nmdla, ay iFdtnfok, 21 

Then, then he says again you must go to get, Bontocmen, 

is hfda, ta kapc'nyu is fdnga." kctjcng kapt'ntsa ya adf mashdyug. 

clay that you make pots. Then they make, but not wellshaped. 

- isdna'd kandn en ''ndngko, fakhi tjdkdyd is inkdib si fdnga. lagldgo 22 

Then he savs whv? not you (are fit making pots. Purchase 


nget nan kodyu, tay adfyii kekken nan tsak ibfakdfakd ken 

maybe your because you not know my often telling (it) to 

property, (mind) 

tjdkdyfi" - isdna'd atonen ad Sanuiki nan fdnga. isd)ia'd kandn 23 

you. Then he removes to Samoki the pottery. Then he says 


h.2i (,,1 "^ngkayiVd mndla, ay iSamOki, is bfda, fa kapSnyil is fdnga. 

you must go to get, Samokimen, clay that you make pots. 

iscitja'd en umdla ya kaphitja ya inashdyug nan fdnga. 

then they to get (it) and make and wellshaped (are) the pots. 

2-* - isdtja'd kindi'b, ya kandn san Lumdzvig en "^ngkdyiTd ildgo nan 

Then they had made and says Lumawig you must go to sell 

25 kinaepyu ay fdnga." entsa pay ildgo ya mdl/aii. - isdna'd kandn 

your which pots. They go, indeed, to sell, and great many. Then he says 

making, are 

is nan iSamSki 'n "tjdkdyit 'sli minkOa is nan fdnga'" isdna'd kandn 

to the Samokimen vou (are fit owners of the pottery. Then he says 


en "tjdkdyfi ay iPpintok! nan Idgon nan kodyii, tay )iatsai^zi'/sli nan 

you Bontocmen: purchase your because straight- 

property forward (is) 

kalf\ii." kctjeng tji's okSkud. si Mdlkod nan ninokokiid. 

vour speech. Ended here the tale. Malkod (is) the narrator. 

(this is all) 

26 IVodd san sindki ay fdfdfdyi 'y entsa inanialddong ad Ldnao; ya 

There are two sisters who went gathering beans at Lanao and 

27 zvodd sir Lumdzvig ay indslitjong ad Patongdlu. - isdna'd, kanO, 

there is Lumawig who looks down at I'atongalu. Then he, it is said, 

kandn en "tSk od ilaen tsdttsa." isded umtsan ya kandna 'n 

says let me go to see them. Then he arrives and says 

28 "k'6 tsakdyc^ slia ay?." "tsdkdmt man na ay marnalddong ya nay adf 

why! you (are) that? It is we indeed gathering beans and here not 

katsdktkh nan falatSngenmi." - "adf man katsdkiPib fay sfka 'y ytin/d 

is sufTicient our getting beans not suflicicnt because you older sister 

(picking) (picking) 


ya Sngka mnmmish." - isdcd kandn sail yihi/a ay mangdngo on L.29 

go always bathing. Then says the older laughing 

"ngag kail aykSka tmiooshtjong? "isdcd kandn Lunuhvig on "indka'd 

why do you look down? then sa\s Luniawig hand (me) 


si hliang is sinh'd is nan faldtong!" - kctjcng dktan son inOtji; 

a single pod of the beans. Then gives one the younger 


ketjSng ipdgpag san Lumdzvig san sinhH ay faldtong is nan taydan. 

then shells Lumawig the pod of beans into the basket. 

ketjSng ya nidpno. kctjcng ydket inangdngo san inStji. - kctjeng 3i 

Then fit) is full. Then indeed laughs the younger Then 


kastn kandn nan Lumdzvig en "indka 'sli tsha 's taydan; ta issdka'd 

again says Lumawig hand(iie) the other basket; you will 

kastn itmdktan is sinlfn." kctjcng ipagpdgna is nan katayydan ya 

again give (me) apod Then he shells (it) into the basket and 

mdpno dkis. isdtja'd entotoya san sindki ya kandntja en "ndngko 

it is full also. Then they converse, the two and they say why! 

nay ninkdpno nan djihva 'y taydan." - ketjSng kandn nan Lumdwig ^2 

here -were filled the two baskets. Then says Ivumawig 

en "snmddka 'y indtji ta Sngka unidla 'sli told 'sli taydan." kctjcng 

go home you younger that you go to get three baskets. Then 

sumda san indtji ay umda 's taydan. kctjdng kandn san indtji ken 

goes home the younger to get baskets. Then says the younger to 

sister sister 

indna 'n "unidlaak is t'ld 'sli taydan." - isdcd kandn indna 'n "intd ^^ 

lier I shall get three baskets. Then says her where 

tnnther mother 


^-'■^^ mail la mangaldnyu 'sh tji? ndngko akiakft san fahlfong." ishded 

then do you get that? why! very few (are there) beans. Then 

kandn sail iiiStji en "tjSi man si fobdlnan ay aldena nan sinlili, 

says the younger There is indeed a young man who takes the pods 

^^ ipagpdgna is nan taydan ya inkakdpno.'" - isded kandn indna en "aykS 

he shells (them) in the basket and it was filled. Then says her is 


laMzvdtji? ydm/mo aldeni nan tolS'y faydan!" isd'd kandn amdna 'n 

this wrong? well then, take the three baskets Then says her father 

35 "sfnii nan kataki^ni tosliaF" - kctjSng fd/dn nan UnStji san tolS'y 

who (is) the person there Then carries the younger the three 


taydan. ketjeng alden dkis nan Lumdzvig nan tolS'y liU ya tsdna 

baskets. Then takes again L,umawig three pods and he 

pinigdktjcng av niangipdgpag is san told 'y taydan. kctjtfng 

distributes shelling ( them ) into the three baskets. Then 



ninkapnStja dkis - isdcd kandn nan Lumdwig is nan sindki en 

they (are) filled also Then says Lumawig to the sisters 

"isdayu'd nan djdiva 'y taydan ay nay." ketjeng isdan nan sindki 

take home the two baskets here. Then t.ike home the sisters 

3" san djihva'x taydan - isded kandn tja amdtsa ken indtsa en "aykSyii 

the two baskets. Then say they their father and motlu-r, did you 

pindyan aml'n.'" kandiitja en "pindyainii/ toy tjf/i main pay si laldki 

fill all tluv sa\- we filled (them) there verilv a man 


ay fumdtjang ken tjdkdmi ay sindki ay iiuiak." - isded kandn nan 

who helped us sisters to get Then says 



amdtja en "ay! cngkayiTd ta aldenyit nan ih/dua, ta issdkayii'd ^-^^ 

their father ah! you shouhl go that you get the other, that you will 


sumda ay told." kctjeng lonf/yfja ya mafuhzvdgtja ay sumda. 

come (all) three. Then they go and walk together going 

home home. 

kctjeng suindobtja paya. isdad san laldki nan aK^zvidna ad Ip/tppit. 

Then they arrive, sureh'. He puts the man his burtlen at Ipippit. 


- isdcd kandn nan Lnnidzvig en "engkdyu'd ta kandnyu ken amdyn, ^^ 

Then says Ivumawig you should go that you ask your 


mo makisdadk et is dfongyn." isdtja'd ibfaka is nan ken anuftsa en 

if I ought to go into your house. Then they ask their 

along father 

"aykS makisda 't nan fohfdllo 'y tjiii?" - isdcd kandn amdtja '^^ 

shall come the joung man yonder Then says their father 

with us 

en "ya aykS ngdg ta ad! makisda?" isdcd siinidkong sa)i indtji 

"why should not come with you?" Then returns the younger 

he ' sister 

ya Sna aydkan san laldki ya enfdegtsa ya suind/ubtsa is 

and goes to call the man and they go together and arrive at 

dfongtsa. isdcd ti^nu4ktst'^t san fohfdllo ya enisdysuy is 

their house. Then sits down the young man and breathes under 

(cools himself) 

nan aBn'fdsan. - isd'd kandn nan dman na)itddttja 'y sindki en •*! 

the roof (outside). Then says the father of those sisters 

"sumk^pka!" isded sihnkep san Lunidzvig ya pandL°{sh(jna san tjennm 

come in! Then enters Lumawig and "directly" water 

ay mangihfdkd. kctjeng kandn amdtsa en "sdna kay nan tjenntn!" 

he asks for. Then savs their father here is the water. 


L-42 - hhd'd umda san Lumdzvig is nan tj^niim ya sonsSngena ya kandna 

Then gets Lumawig the water and smells and says 

'n "mo uiakiiliah tsna, ed kiuiittsiak ya makdnakak." 

if I dwell with \ou here then I shall become and father of many 

strong children. 

'*3 - ketjSng niaekivfid payd. patckxvdbna san kSlong. ketjSng 

Then it is morning. — he bids to open the chickencoop. Then 

fumdlatja pay nan monok ya san /nipas ya kandna ' n "ngdgkan, aykS 

come out indeed the chicken and the chicklets an<l he says why, are 

kctj^ng na 'sh monokyii?" isdcd kandn san anidtsa en ''kctjcng pay 

all of your chickens? Then says their father it's all. indeed. 

'♦'* sa 'sh pasiks/kpc'iinii." -isdcd kandn nan Lumdzvig en "inydikd\i?d si 

this of "our raising Then .says Luniawig you shall bring 

(in coops)" 

moting ay. ta miknilkak tsaitja." kefjc'ng mikmikdna nan impash; 

rice-meal that I feed tlu-m then he feeds the young 

'*^ koytsa'd mangniaiigdlak ya kakdnu'ltan. - isdna'd dkis kandn 

lol they grow to be hens quickly and cocks Then he again says 

cn "ya kad nan futugyu 'slina/" isdcd kandn san amdtsa en "ya 

and how \ our piv;s here Then says their father well, 

kctjcng pay nan fsang ay kandnak ay Oko is tsdmi tsnktsukdnan." 

all is indeed the single (with yount;) sow for our raising, 

(having just born ) 

'^6 - isd'd kandn san Lumdzvig cn "paydnyu'd san kdkzvan is dngo. 

Then .says L,umawig you shall fdl Ih;! pail with sweet- 


fa ck taldan." kefji^ng taluana san amSmok ya kSitsa'd dkis 

that I go to feed. Then he feeils the young pigs and lo! they also 


mashangmyen ay nasikcu nan fiitug yakci fdfiiy ay fsaktsagoag '^"^^ 

hasten to grow the pi.L;s and boar, so as to be big 

yakcf nan fdi ay o'ko ya fsakfsdki. - iscicd kandn san anidtsa en '^'' 

and the mother-sow is lartje. Then says their fatlier 

"yal ttniafongkayu man cd is nan yi'tn/d." isdcd kandn san Lnnidwig 

well! yo-a should marry the older sister Then says Luniawig 

en "nan pay indtji 's inasdeTcvak." - isded kandn anidtsa en "nangko '^'^ 

the younger is to my wife. Then says their father why? 

kawis mo asaPdvdim nan yun/a; tay nangko kazvfs nan maikdbkab 

it is good if you marry the older because wh_\' good it is to "take off first" 

is nan yi'tn/a." isded kandn san Lumdwig on "nan indtji 's inasd^zuak. 

the older. Then savs Lumawig the younger is to my wife; 


ket ketjeng!" - isded kandn san Lnmd-K'ig en "tsuninotdko man ed." -^^ 

and that's all! Then says Ivumawig we should 

have a feast 

isded kandn san kashddna en "tsdkald'sh sa! into nan unidlam si 

Then says his his "you?! - nonsense!" where doyou get 


idnom? ndngko pdkii cd ma/td; nmang cd ma/(d; fdtug ed 

your why? rice there none; beef there none; pork 

wedding- wouhl be would be 


ma/td; monok ed ma/ld." - ya ishded kandn Lnnidivig en ^° 

there chicken there none. ami then says Lumawi,g 

■would be would lie 


"adikadak si idnotdko." isdcd kandn san kasliddna en "into man 

I shall provide for our wedding- Then says his where pray 

feast brother-in-law 

la nan iimdlaain si tdnoni? mid ashidsliini ay mangwdni en 

will >ou get your not are you ashamed to say 



^■^1 'tsnmnotdko?'" - ishdcd kandn Lumdzvig ken kashihiua en "ndngko 

let us have a Then says )Uuma\vig to his why 

weddiiiK- feast brothcr-iii-law 

//;/(/ nongnSngmo, fay tsatsdnia nan umipadslam ken sak/hil" 

nothing you are worth because very much you make ashamed me 

isdna'd kandn ken asdBzvdna en ''ihita'd ad Ldnao tay sfa ay 

Then he says to his wife let us two go to Lanao because right 

(it is) 

^^ uniafonganta; - tay tsatsdnia 'y nniipadshi sli' kas/hi ken sak/hi." 

(forjour weddingplace for very nmch makes ashamed tlie brother- me. 


ketj(?ng innuiytsa 'd Ldnao ya isdtja'd entotOya ay sinashdftzva; 

then they went to Lanao and then they speak as husband and 


kandn nan Lnnidwig en "tjuninSta man ed!" ketjcng tjuninStsa. 

says Lumawig we two ought then they have a 

to have a feast wedding-feast 

^•5 - isded fibikdt ; isded en nii)ipadla is tsdlddoy, isded dniiiy 

Then (it is) morning; then he goes .'iend out for trunks of trees. Then go 

)ian tdkB ay iinidla is tsdlddoy ya fanahfdnanfg nan indatsa 

the people to get trunks of but very small (are) thev 

trees; brought 

^'^ ay tsalddoy. - isded kandn sau Lnnidwig en "fdkSn sa 'sh tsdlddoy, 

tree-trunks. Then says Lumawig not right these trunks 

tay fanahfdnanfg; ta kay sak/Sn ya is en nnidla 'sh tsdlddoy.' 

because very small "let me goto get" tree-trunks. 

55 isded unifiy ad Kddkad son Lumdwig. - silmc'na nan tsaktsdko ay 

Then be goes to Kadkad, Lumawig. he cuts down large 

fddang ay djiiiva. intedie 'd Kddkad ya fekashfna nan fdtang ad 

pine trees two he stays at Kadkad and hurls the trees to 


Ldnao. isdna'd kandn is nan tdkiPin "si'a ma adji sa nan tsalddoy ^"^^ 

Lanao. Then he says to the people the right indeed, these, the trunks 


ay nay kay! engkdyii umdla ya fanabfdnanig" - isdna'd kandn en ^^ 

here for- \ou went to get those verj- small ones. then he sa3-s 


"ikaibyifd sa nan tsalddoy; ta cngkdyu'd umdla 'sJi bdyog." isdtjad 

use these tree-trunks; go _ve to get kettles Then they 

( make ready ) 

inydi nan sinpo'o 'y bdyog. ya ketjing isugttja ya tjanunidntja 

brought ten kettles, and then they put on and filled with water 


nan bdyog. - isdcd kandn nan kashddna 'n "ya! info ma ddji ^^ 

the kettles. then savs his brother-in-law well! where, indeed, 


nan fmdyBf ndngko Itnumag nan tjcnnm ya adimpdad nongnongen 

the rice? wh\', there boils the water and you not at all care for 

nan findyB!" kctjeng kandn san Liiindzvig en "sak/hi nan mangikad 

the rice then says Ijumawig I (am) the one caring 

av umdla 's findyi"/." isdna'd fsa italonton san /sa 'y kolug ay 

to get rice Then he "often" the one basket 

ffndyB is san lima ay bdyog. - kctjeng ya ninkdpno san Ifnia ay 

with rice to live kettles. Then they are full, the five 

bdyog. ~ isdcd kandn nan kasddna en "ya, nongndngini ma ddji nan ^^ 

kettles. Then says his well! you proride indeed 


idnotdko." isdcd kandn san Lunuhvig en "sak/chi man is ikad." 

our Then says Ivuniawig I (am to) care 

wedding -feast. 

isdna'd xlshfjden ya uiangonSna'd san ogsa. - isdna'd kandn en ■^^ 

Then he calls; and first come smie deer Then he says 



^'■^^ "fakdnkayu 'sh iimdli fay finnUas iia." isded kasht enytshtja ya 

not you (ought) to come; because a pig this Then again he calls and 


^*^' iimdli nan fiitng. - isdna'd kandn is nan tdktli en "zvdshtjin tjumpap 

come pigs. Then he says to the people each of you catch 

si kodna!" isdna'd kandn is saii kasddna en "nantJTii tsaktsdki 's 

his own! Then he says to his that big one shall 

brother-in-law be 

tjipdpem!" tj/npab nan tdki^ nan kodtja ya igd makdfpap san 

your catching. Had caught the people theirs, but not could catch 

kasiidna. inbUnbSyna ad Pabdlid ; isdna'd dkis panlongen ad Kdfsuk. 

his lie chased (it) to Pabalid; then he again drove back to Katsuk. 


isded ya nalingllnget. isded angangOcn san kdsddna "v Lumdzvig. 

then he is sweating much. Then laughs (at him) his Lumawig. 


- kandn nan Lumdzvig en "taddo adfm pdad tjipdpcn nan koam? 

says Lumawiy how long do \ ou at all catch yours? 


ndngko nakatpdbati nan tdkW ya kctjeiigka's ad/ pdad inakdtpap is nan 

whv! could catch the people, and alone yi>n not at all can catch 

koam; ndngkom dnipon ijipafnosli ! ta kay sak/cht ya is vuinpap!" 

vours why, until it gets thin! "let me be (he) who shall 

(you chase) catch" 

62 - isded tjipdpcn san l.nmdivig ya pi]isikydna nan ndjfdji ya 

Then catches Lunuiwig and (juickly grasps the and 

pinisiblCvna. Isdna'd kandn en "into pan: ndngko mamdtpap ya 

lifts it up quicklN . Then he says where pray; why, it's to and 

(is it) catch, 

adfka pdad makdtpap; ndngko, nakatpdban nan tdkiP( ya ad/in pdad 

vou not at all can catch why, they could catch, the people, and vou at all 

do not 


tjipdpen nan koam." - isdcd kandn nan kasf/dna 'n "mo ko man fay ^'-^^ 

catch _\ours Then says his Of course because 


finU^yko i4na, issam fjipapen." islufed kandn nan Lnnuhvig en "nay; 

I tired (it) first, then you catch. Then says Luinawig liere it is, 


sagfdtim!" kctjeng sagfdten san kasudna ya impolfgzved ya kasin 

carry (it)! Then carries (on his his and it struK,gles and again 

shoulder) brother-in-law 

lumdvao. - kctjeng kandn Lnmdzvig ken kasddna 'n ''ndngko, mfd ^'^ 

it runs off Then says Luinawig to his why! nothing 


nongnongnw! tj/'/l kasfm ed tjipdpen!" isdna'd tjipdpen ya 

vou care! there again vou shall catch it! Then he catches and 

pangushaio'nvdna dkis. kctjeng kas/na dkis panlongen. -- isdcd kandn ^^ 

"drives it down again Then he again drives up stream Then says 

stream" 'on bank) 

san kashddna ay Lnmdzvig en "into man, mo tnakatpdpka?" 

his Luniawig where then, if you can catch it? 

brother-in-law, (is it) 

naUngilinget san kashddna. isdcd kashi dmiiy san kasluidna 'y 

much perspires his Then again goes his 

Ijrother-in-law. brother-in-law, 

Lumdzi'ig ya pinsikydna. isdna'd kandn en "aldem cd na, ta 

Lumawig, and grasps a leg. Then lie says you ought it that 

to take 

yo/Sita, fay fjdi ndkship nan tdlon." - isdfja'd id/dn ya kandn san ^^ 

we two be- there afternoon the "time." Then they carry it to and says 
carry it cause the place 

Lumdzi'ig cn "Hay pay na/dto nan ib/dna." kcfjC'ng pay infilagtja. 

IjUmawig here indeeil are its Then they feast, 

cookeil "companions." 

(the other pigsl 

kctjeng zvashfjfna yS/dy is ahdfongna nan zvadzvddna. - isdtsa'd ^'^ 

Then each one takes to his hut his meat (portion ) Then they 


i^-^' kastn madmong is saii tjiufhuno ay mdngan. kctjeng isdtja'd 

again assemble at the feast to eat. Then then they 

insdngfu. isdtja'd inangaydyeng nan at\idm/ma. isdtja'd 

sacrifice. Tlien sing tlu- olil men. Then they 

nakasangfi'tan \a fokndkana. isded nakafokndkan ya isded 

fiiiislied sacrificing and he starts ("for Then he had .started and then 

work," to a hill) 
( Ljumawig ) 

kandn san si Lumdzvig is san pangdtdna 'n "niangayutdko'd!" 

says Ivumawig to his ato-coniradcs let ns go (consult) 

to the forest (the omen) 

- isdtja'd mangdyu ya kayitwentsa nan Ildkod. isdtja'd 

Then the\- go to the forest and consult ' 'concerning the Northern Then they 

tribes. ' ' 

Vrt iiiaiigdyii ya igd kakdib nan itj/itja. isdtja'd 

"wait for omen" and not "perfected" their auspices. then they 



tmmdli, ta\ ngaag nan itjiitja. - isdc'd kandn nan kasiaina en 

return because evil their auspices. Then says his 


"nniipatdfoka 's tjeniim, tay tsatsdina nan dkyu ya ndiPt / du ain/n nan 

make grow (create) water be- too much the sun and thirst\- all the 


tdki^i!" kctjeng kandn Lumdzvig en "ndngko, nan tjcmtm nan 

people Then savs L,umawig whv water 

(is it that) 

fhfakdbfdkavd ay?" ketjeng kandna 'n "fa uniiiytdko ^na 'stjf! 

vou ask so nuu-h for' Then he says let us go first there 

7" fsscik nnupatSfo 'sli tjchunn." - ketjchig inadniaddntja. ya kas/n kandn 

I shall creati- water Then the\ a liUle and again s;iys 

san kasliddna 'n "\a: patoftPicni man nan Iji'num, ya ngag man, mo 

liis well create water what indeed, if 

brother-in-law "^ 't. 


Lumdivigka?" - ketjeng kandn nan si Lumdzvig en "nangkSka ^-71 

you are Lumawig? Then ,sa\ s Luiiiawig why do }'ou 

Mtnipddshi ay ken sak/hif" ketjeng inongaongdtsa ay shikashud. 

make ashamed me Then quarrelled they the 

(publicly ) brothers-in-law. 

ketjSng unuiytja 'd tdngtsB. - isded kandn dkis nan kdsildna 'n ''2 

Then they go upwards. Then sajs again his 

brother, in-law 

"ndngko, mtd nongnSngmo, toy ndm/8fi nan tdku ya adika pdad 

why; nothing you care because thirst}- the people and you not at all 


umipatSfo is tjeniim ay." - isded kandn san Liimdtvig en ^^ 

create water Then saj's Ivumawig 

"intmktsiPddko ay tdkw, fa nniHengtdko!" isdnad tufdyen nan 

let us sit down, people, that we rest Then he struck with the 

his spear 

tstpash ya infutfiltok nan fjninni. isdna'd kandn is nan tdkn 

rock and out springs the water Then he says to the people 

'n "ikdyu'd fa umindmkaya!" lunidsi san kdsitdna ay thninuin; 

you shall that you drink! steps forth the brother-in-law to drink 


- isded kandn san Lnmdzvig on "adifka ihnhiuni ; fa issdta ^"^ 

Then savs Lumawig do not drink that we shall 

(let us) 

mangiUKdBdjFdji ay ihninum: fa nan fdki'V. 's ihninuni." ketjeng 

be the last to drink let the people drink. Then 

nafmash nan tdki'V ay imninum. isded /hnhuun san Lumdzvig. 

had ended the people drinking. Then drinks Lumawig. 

isdna'd kandn is nan kasddna on "dlikad. fa nniininnka!" - isded ''^ 

Then he says to his come that you drink Then 



L-76 umtnum nan kasiidna ya tsdkashna ay mangitsOkosh is nan 

drinks liis and "he forthwith" is pushing (him ) into the 

^^ katsipash. - kctj^ng fumdla nan tjSnum is nan fulangdgna. 

rock. Then comes out the water from his "body." 

^8 - kctjhig kandn Lumdwig on "isndka! tay inmipadyoka ken sak/Sn." 

Then says Ivumawig liere \ou stay be- you annoyed me 

^^ isdtja'd engddnen tjiH "ad Isik." - ketj^ng sitmdafja san tdk&c. 

Then they name yonder "ad Isik." Then go home the people 


ketjSng kandn san kafabfayfand 'n "ndngkom inliitak san kashildmo 

Then says his sister why, you pushed your 

into rock brother-in-law 

ay?" kctj^ng kandn san Lumdzvig on "mo ko man fay inmipa/fsik 

Then says Lumawig surely, verily be- he angered 


^^ ken sak/hi." - kctjeng inananttotja. ketjSng insangfdtja. 

me Then they "performed Then they sacrificed 

anito-rites' ' 

ketjc^iig nakasangfuantja. 

Then they finished sacrificing 

81 - isdtja'd intotoya ay sinasdiPCzva; kandna 'n "inkdibak ed si aldngan." 

Then they talked as husband and he says I shall make a coffin 


kctjeng sinotena sli' asdiPcwdna is nan kadlongan. kctjeng aldena san 

Then he puts his wife into the coffin. Then he takes a 

dsu ya ipiiydna 's katjapdna Fdkan; Udkan nan ngddjan nan asdnkzvan 

dog and places (it) to the foot of Fukan; Fukan: the name of the wife 

Lumdwig. ketjt^ng aldna san kai^ivftan ya ipiiydna is kdcilon Filkan; 

of Lumawig Then betakes acock and places (it) at (the) head of Fukan. 



tay leytjen Lnmdzvig ay f/miiy ad tjdya. malfdon pay si asdmvana. ^'-^^ 

be- wants Lumavvig to go to the sky. pregnant his wife 

- isdna'd anotjen sail aldngan. isd'd kandn Lnmdzvig en "mo ^^ 

Then he puts into the coffin Then says Luinanng if 


mitdknog nan sikiatseniin, en/ngongo nan dsu; mo mitSknog is 

strikes the footend shall bark the dog; if it strikes with 

kaolodna, inkokSokka 'y kanivftan! adtka pay ma/isdlald mo! 

headend crow you, you cock! do not stop indeed! 

ka/isdldam ad Tengldyan." ketjeng naisdla ad Tengldyan. 

your final is at Tinglayan. Then it stopped at Tinglaj-an. 


- zvodd ct sail iiaainashdngan ay tsa niaindlid is san /lid nan zvdnga. ^^ 

There is then a widower who was sharpening at the bank of the river. 

(his ax) 

ketjhig alaiPtzvdshen san am/dina nan kaaWngan. ketjeng alinSna. 

Then fishes out the old man the coffin Then he (tries) 

to roll it, 

adi ed makddUn. isded siimda ya Sna aydkan san told 'y fobfdllo. 

not can he roll (it) then he goes and goes to call three young men 



isdtja'd alinhi ya patsakdlentja. - ketjeng pashkona ya ketjeng 

Then they roll (it) and put it ashore. Then he drives a and then 


engkdli si Fiikan ya kandna '11 "adhn pay patdiien nan pdsliek, tay 

speaks Fukan and sa>s do not drive deep the wedge because 

ndyak sina!" ketjeng infiiegtsa ay sumda ad fobffiy. ketjeng 

this I am here Then they together go home to the town. Then 

tsamtsdiocshentja is dfongtja. - ketjeng isded kandn san fafdyi en ^^ 

they directh- go to their house. Then, then says the woman 


L-85 ''ayki way asamwam?" isdcd kaiufii sa)i iiaamasdngan en "mtd pay 

is there a wife of yours? Tlien says the widower There 

asdiPcivak; naamasdngdiiak pay." kctjSng inasdiPdvatja. 

wife of mine; I am a widower, indeed. Then thej' married. 

kctjeng marndkatja san pangdlon san asdiPiivdua. kctjeng kandn 

Then go headhunting the ato-coniradesof her husband. Then says 

san dsdi?(zi'dna 'n '7a nay adika fiundla ay inandgni; is dfong nan 

her husband liere do not go out to dance in the house 


inanagniain.'' kctjeng niaiidgni 's dfong ya. kctjc^ng }natfking nan 

vour dancingplace. Then slie dances at home, indeed. Then inclines the 

*>' li'ita. - kctjeng uindv sa)i niainaindgkid ya enisa kttyiPdjcn ay 

ground Then go the .tfirls and start to pull (her) out to 

mandgni. kandntsa on ^'ifdldni nan sagn/ni." kctjeng adt. 

dance They say takeout your dance. Then "she 

( outside ) refuses. ' ' 

kctjeng kp{\i''ikiP(ypitjentja. ifdldna nan sagnfna. kctjc'ng mat f king 

Then they pull by force (her) she takes out her dance. Then inclines 

nan fatdmzva. - kctjeng Slik ya kct innidnak. kctji'ng 

the world. Then "time passed then she bore .sons. Then 


naengantja nan dnandkna ay inyapona 'd fptntok. kctjeng Slik 

had grown her sous whom she had from Bontcc. Then... from 

brought this 

time on 

\a kds/n dkis lundnak san naamasdngan. kcfji'ng kandn san 

again also begets children the widower. Then sa_\s 

indtsa on "nio Jiiadoyak kct ino nindykdyu ilden nan ndlpak, 

their mother when I die, lluii when nou go to see my 



cf ad/'yit wcfiifsin nan nalilengdnan; nan nakffii is wanfs^nyu!" ^-^^ 

you not to follow the clear water the dirty water must you follow 


kctjeng nakifii nan mdbm 'd Kcln'^u; nalilengdnan nan indlm 'd 

Then was dirty the (water) Kanou; clear that coming 

coming from from 

Fmntok.-ketjeng san nakikifn nan wantj^ntja. kctjeng paddnentsa '^^ 

Bontoc. Then the dirty water "is their Then they receive 

following." them 

ad Kdn"u. kandntja 'n ''simlkdyu?" - aditja sihnfad; ya padSyenfsa ^^ 

at Kanou. They say who are you? They not answer; and they kill 

(the Kanou-nien) 

tjdftja. kctjeng nadSytja. klf>(mdn san iKdn"n. - kctjeng ildentja'd ^- 

them then thej- are dead. they go the Kanou-men. Then they see 

(the sons) away, 

ya kasltja finmdngon. kctjeng kasitja padSyen tjdftja. kctjeng 

and they again had resurrected. Then they again slay them Then 

onpaxangydngtja ay inangwdni en ''si pay Fdkan nan nindnak ken 

thev reprove (them) saying indeed, Fukan ( is she who has 

born ) 

tjdkdmt." isdtja'd kandn on "tsdkdyft pay, ay iKdn^'n. ct adfkdyd 

us Then they say you, Kanou- you shall 

people, not 

matsakpi man, tay pinmaddykdyd ken tsdkdinf." - isdcd mdptad ^-^ 

become because you have slain us Then come to meet 


nan iF^ntok ya entsa dlaen tjaftja; ct iyatdngtja nan bilay ; 

the Bontocmen and go to take them then they use as the "bilay"- 

carrying poles trees; 

htlay nan dtangtja. - yS/oitja tsaftja ad Fi4ntok. kctjeng '^^ 

b. trees their "litter." they take them to Bontoc. Then 

ika/dptja tjaitja ad Fmntok ad Tsfpcsh. nan dtangtja 

they bury them at Bontoc at Tsipesh. their poles 


^■"^^ wodd 'd Papdt/tay; san tdkitja ay wdka wodd 'd Papdt/tay. 

are at Papat-tay; their ropes, made of are at Fapat-tay. 

(still) lianes, 

Ketjeng pay tjiii. si MdtyB nan ninSkmd. 

"This is all." Matyu was the narrator. 


The meaning of Lumdivig is n(3t known; proljably (?) from Idwag: 
world ("Weltwalter") ; with pre-infix nm? (um occurs in several proper 
names). Articles used with Lumdzvig: nan, san and person, art. si (si is 
dropped in Genitive). Tlie various articles show that Lumawig is both, an 
apiiellative and a proper name. (No root "lazuig" could be ascertained.) 

1. anak si L. "Lumawigsons" [76]. kaisddtan: "a place from which 
game can not escape; the foot of a rocky mountain ; vb. isadje^tko: I "corner." 

2. viakSlud: rough, "kinky, like negrito hair," uneven, undulating, 

3. en isaliikong: [317] ; Mabmdbodjbmd: "near Bontoc, north." 
salukSngek: I put a "saliikong" into the river at the end of a dam. 
ndkna: kennck, I catch. 

4. f^lig ad Pokis: mountain north of Bontoc. 

5. indstjong: Person, vb., ostjjitgdna: Possess, vb. 
ketjeng is iga... : synon. "nannay ha'y filig si iga kalincb." 

6. "kctjdkdyjslta.'" (as one word) 

7. Kala&izvttan: mountain cast of Bontoc. 

12. siamangen (as one word), uttered liesitatingly, witli disaiiproval. 
maltdon: not by her brother-husband, but through Lumawig's intlucnce 
(as all Igorot asserted). 


13. tdimb: a shrub, or: rush; "wood with pith," reed. 

In addition to these men, the offspring of the two survivors of the 
Great Flood, Lumawig deemed it necessary to create men from reed, because 
"arf/ iimdnlii nan tdktt is nan fatdmzva: there were not enough people in 
the world." 

14. isdna'd tsa... [310]. 

15. tjattja nan itin/li: "they are the inhabitants of.." 

16. iniFhvang: in-: preter. augment: they have settled and are now 

18. Lahdngao: near Bontoc. nan kalitdko: our speech, i. e. of us 

ig. Mayinit, which produces salt from hot springs; |. 145. See Voc. : 

20. lagldgo nget...: they must, I presume, purchase all they need, as 
they do not manufacture and are rather warriors and tillers of the soil than 
eloquent and suave tradesmen. 

23. Samoki : renowned for its pottery. J. 117. 

25. si Mdlkod...: a standard closing formula. Here ended the 
Igorot's first narration of Lumawig. (Malkod: an imaginary [ ?] nar- 
rator, to whom most tales are ascribed.) "If this formula is omitted, the 
narrator is haunted by heavy dreams." Matyu recited this and the follow- 
ing parts of the Lumawig-Myth. 

27. tekod: tck cd [307; 242] ; od = cd. 

33. into man la: surprise, incredulity, akidklt: "we have but little 
beans in our garden." 

38. Ip/fppit: at the town limit of Bontoc. 

39. is nan ken...: pleonast. use of art. [2>7]. (Sometimes: at the 
house of N. N.) 


40. aykS ngag ta...: "what is the reason that lie sliould...'' riiisuxsuv: 
get air, "because it is very hot." 

41. pandmshak: I do as the first thing; I do directly. kandn 
amdtsa: dropped si: tlie speaking of their father; also: kandn nan amdtsa. 

42. knmftsiak, synon. : fmnikasak: "I get strong, healthy; I feel well." 

43. pasikstkpck: I make frequently go into, i. e. I put (chickens) 
every evening into the coop: I raise, keep, ngdgen; or ngag kan, express- 
ing surprise, sometimes indignation or anger. 

45. is tsdmi.. for our "regular" feeding. [310] 

48. maikdbkab: "I break off at the end, the first piece of a stick, 
then the next." kctketjSng: "and it is ended; no more talk." 

53. tsalddoy: two whole trunks of big trees, laid parallel upon the 
ground, to support vessels hanging above fire. 

54. ta kav sak/hi...: "let it be T who must get." ya: emphatic. 

55. siamaadjtsa {on^ word); synon. : .y/a .?a.' this is right ! The dis- 
tance between Kadkad and Lanao is "several miles." 

59. finnllas: wedding of poor people, with some pork; but ts/hnno: 
wedding of the rich, prominent, '' gadsdngycn," with meat of neliang (buf- 
falo), many pigs etc. 

60. Pabdlid: "two miles from Bontoc." panldngck: I drive back 
"on the riverbank:" "is nan kawdnga;" at other places: pashakdngek. 
Kdtsuk: "very near Lanao." 

62. pinsikydiia [bonsikidna]: pin- [296]; siki: leg. mamdtpap: 
"catchable," synon.: maldnoy is nidtpap: easy to be caught, (to catch) 

63. mo: certainly! k("> man: "a wonder indeed!" tay: because. 

64. mid nongnongmo [nondngmo]: "you are of no use, worthless, 
good for nothing." 


65. teflon: weatlier, time of the day, the fields of a community (gar- 
dens, ricefields etc.) 

66. ih/dna: the i)ig's companions, the other pigs. 

67. iiisaiigfiikami: "we have a Httle ceremony, at diiterent occasions; 
also on the day after the wedding. A pig is killed at the ''sajigfu," a 
chicken at the "inaugiiiaiig." fokjulkek: I start to work, take friends from 
the house to go to the mountains, forest, fields, "far from town." 

mangciyuak {kdy^: wood).' 'T begin a ceremony in the ato (my town 
section) by going to the woods, where I observe the tokens, particularly the 
bird 'ffjti' (all red, with a black mark under the neck) ; I observe its flight 
and count its call." 

68. kayfiwcntsa mm lUikod {iLi1god\: they consult whether thev 
shall go to fight with the tribes living north of the Bontoc area, iga 
kakdib (from kdpck, I make, accomplish) : not made, not done, turned out 
not well. 

69. issak [308]. 
74. issdta [308]. 

76. tsdkashna [315]. 

81. aldiia san kaPcwiian: tor aldena. ad tjdya: to "Heaven." 

82. iiia/fsaldak: I cease from floating in a river at a shallow place, 
or held up by rocks etc. ka/isaldaiii ad T.: "your stopping place shall 
be at T." 

83. iiiaiudlid: sharpening his ax or knife on a stone, ala&dvdshek 
is nan katjcUunn: I fish out from the water; aliiiSiia: Pres. conatus. 
al/iick: I roll "like a log;" patsakdlck: I put on the land from water. 

86. inamdkatja: hunting heads; "they had hunted and taken home 
the heads; they performed the headhunters' rites." niattking nan liita: 
"the ground sank to that side, where Fukan leaned (jver while dancing and 
holding leaves of tobacco in her hands." 


89. nan ndlpak {ior: nalpoak): "my birthplace/' lit. my-coming--from- 
place. kcfjeng naktfii nan iiulbi'V 'd PiPintok: "the river coming from 
{niabei = malpo) Bontoc (wiiicli is usiuilly muddy) happened at tliat time to 
be clearer than the Kanc'm stream, that had been made muddy by a rain- 
storm. Thus Lumawig's sons went astray. 

00. paddncntsa: subject: the people of Kanou. 

91. The resurrection takes place vvliile tlie Kan(")upeoi)le had turned; 
ildentja: "the people looked back." 

92. pinmadSykdy^t: preter. of the Person. VI). pii)nado\ak. 

93. dtang: a long pole to which the body of a man slain in battle 
(resting on his shield) is tied to be carried home. J. CXXX\'. 

btlay: species? "The bilay planted in the grove 'patpat/tay ad Sokok' 
near Bontoc have now grown to big trees." 


"^- Siimdatsa naii niaiudka. tsdtsa mamaldkay ya fsdtsa niangdyciig 

Home conn- tlu- lifuclliu liters. They siiiniiii; ami they singing "ayeiig" 

keep "falukay," keep 

ya tsdfja cndprcvii. 

and they shouting 

keep exuUingly. 


Faliikay: siii/ika 'sli ay iiasf'/ysii\f [siiiuka 's!i av itashSdjiiy] ^■ 

\vhoare\ou that were absent (away from 

fighting; "pre- 
vented i. e. hiding 

zvansdnyii 'sh kamitydkoy! 

give him a old and worn! 


Fahikay: siniika 'sJi ay naldsinf 

who are you who were absent 

minsimsimfidka 's!i dsiii ! 

you shall "salt-eat" salt 

adzvdm imnndjdiitja id fofi'/y: isdadfja nan dlo ay findkatja; ■♦ 

now they have arrived at home they put down the head which they had cut off, 

isdadfja is nan kantnitji/an is nan dto. isdtja'd aldcn nan 

they put (it) at the fireplace in the ato Then they take the 

down (councilhouse). 

fiitnk ya shifsdkantja ; ya indnganfja nan anidm/nni, kctjeng 

pigs and kill (them ) and feast the old men then 

inkdibtja is sakdlang; ct itdkctja nan sakdlang is nan bdshd. 

they make a headbasket then they tie the basket to the pole in 

ipuitja nan dlo is nan kasakdlang. - ketjdng >nadmong nan ^ 

they put the head into the basket Then assemble the 

fobfdllo. isdtja'd nianalifcng. isdcd kandn nan fobfafdyi av indnna 

young men. then they dance Then say the women, the old, 

en "pabanddjenyn nan dlo. ta isdadyu is nan fatal/bnan 

take down the head that you lay (it) at the dance-place 


ta enkakai^iwdentdko ya ta siksikidtjan nan fobfafdyi ay mandgni." 

that we place it in the center and that they kick ( it ) , the women, who dance 


H.6 i,'cfjeu<^ mastjhn; ya alaentsa nan olo: smkas&kantja is nan dsiPtk 

Tlien il is iiiglit ami they take tin- head; they smoke ( it ) in the smoke 

is nan ato. isdcd lotok/kdngan nan fobfallo ya nan tb/an nan 

ill the ulo. Then keep watcli the young men ami the otlier 

^ inasdiPtivan fadt alden si asm nan dlo. - ketjeng fibikdt; isdtja'd 

married men lest take dogs the head. Then morning then they 

aldcn ya pdycntja 'sli nan sdngi. isdija'd y<i/i ad H'dnga. 

take (iti and put it into the basket. Then they take (it) to the river 

isdtja'd niangatdling is nan /lid nan wdnga. isdtja'd dinisit nan 

then they cleanse (it) on the liaiikoftlu- river. Then tlu-\ wash the 

while praying themselves, 

fohfdUo; isdtja'd udshan nan dlo. kctjCng f>atsakdlentja \a 

young iiRii; tlu-ii tht-y wash llie head Then they put it on tlie and 

♦ river-bank 

8 inudshantja ay kagdii'ls nan dlo. - isdcd cnsdbm nan aindina \a 

they have washed well the head. Then .says prayers an old man and 

kandna 'n "laldyani si asdl^ivaui, ta mikiili is nan Hind.'' siinidatja 

he says call your wife that slie lives in our town. They go 

with us 

9 is nan fobfdy ct inangiagtja. aldntja nan fdtug: paddxcntja 

to the town then they sing. They take a pig kill (it ) 


isdtja'd laktman; isdtja'd otdcn: 'sdtja'd mangdydyeng ya kandntsa 

then they singe (it), then they cook (it) then they sing and s<iy 

'v mangzvdni on "andpi'nadndkdni ta zvdsJitjin umfla is itsdmivisluia. 

speaking "it is time right now" that everyone looks for his roast meat 

1" kctji^iig kay mastjhn dkis. isdtja'd ikd/tvp nan Olo. 

Then it is night again. Then they bury the head 


isdtjad infifkam nan fobfdllo "tumengaotdko! tumengaotdko!" "-^^ 

Then they cry, the young men, we'll have a holiilay! we'll have a holiday! 

ketjeng fibikdt, ya infiikam nan amdm/ma "intengaotdko!" ya mid 

Then it is and cry the old men we have a holiday and nobody 


umiiy is nan pdyyo, tay IpiglBg. ketjeng intengao 

goes to the fields, because it is ' 'head- Then keeps 

burying-day." holiday 

nan umiili; ma/id fumdknak. isdtja'd mamalilkay nan fobfdllo 

the whole town; nobody goes out to work. Then they "sing a falukay" the young 


ya nan mamdgkid. kandn nan manidgkid: 

and the girls. Say the girls: 

FaUikay: pitkdm ay inyakydking 

}^ou spend loitering 

si tnam nan mamdding. 

(while) your mother is gathering the dry wood 

kandn dkis nan fobfdllo: 

Say in turn the young men 

Faliikay: mauidgkidka 'sli bind kid 

a girl you are — ? — 

pitkdm ay inyakydking 

you spend loitering 

all time 

mmdni ay tsatsakkiskis 

your garden is sloping 

tinmofan nan ladlddkin. 

the growing place of weed. 


"•'-^ - kandn dkis nan mama gkid : 

Say again the girls 

Faliikay: payentdko 'sh shosJidshlay 

let us "put down" reply 

ta kika'd na 'sh mapdmay 

until here is morning. 

ta issak en liondgo 

I will go to buy 

tabfdgo 'y FinalSk nay, 

tobacco, of Finalok 

ta itsakam is tjdpay. 

that you take (it) to the court of 
the ato. 

1"* - kandn dkis nan fobfdllo: 

Say again the young men; 

Falfikay: mamdgkidka 'sit bindkid 

a girl you are — ? — 

kamdngakdng ya kcHan 

greedy of meat; 

adim aktan si tnam 

you do not give any to your mother 

idkSgmo ya shushiibam. 

you turn your and feast secretly, 

1^ ketjhig inakitotdyatja nan amdm/ma: "aydka man tji! 

Then converse (and say ) the old men very long ( lasts ) this! 


palayokentdko'd!" isdtja'd mafOtcng amtn nan inasaBwan yaisdtja'd ^-^^ 

let us end it. Then they get all the married men and then they 


en mintjfpap is nan fiitug. - tjinpdptja nan fnini. kandn dkis nan 1^ 

go catching pigs. They caught six say again 

td/p&n nan inasdnivan en ''adina ddlan is sibfantdko. kasintdko 

several of the marrried men it does not suffice for our meal. let us again 

nmfla, - kandntja nan djila 'y laldki ~ '7a mazvdlo." 

look for, say two men let there eight 

be ( pigs ) 

isdtja'd falotjen nan fi'ttug; isdtja'd sagfdten ya ySitja 's nan 

Then they bind the pigs then they carry and take into the 


kadfodfong ya laktmantja 's nan dpuy. isdtja'd kas/')i yoitja 's nan 

houses. and they singe in the fire. Then they again take to the 

tiieni them 

dto. kokStjc'ntja ya otoentja. - kctjeng nadto pay. isded 1^ 

ato. Thev cut and cook them. Then (is) cooked. Then 

kandn nan amdni/nia 'n "engkdyfi'd amongen nan fobfafdyi ta 'd 

savs the ol<l men you shall go to assemble the women that 

simidatja nan fafdyi is nan dto. - kctjeng mdngantja ya nakakdntja; 

they enter the women, into the ato. Then they eat and finish eating 

ketjeng masisiangtja; kctjeng washtjhi imndngmang is nan 

tjieji they go single Then everyone sacrifices (chicken) in 
( to their homes ) . 

afobongtja. kctjeng ifdlatja nan fdnga ya isugidtja is nan 

"his" house Then thev take out the pots and put on fire at the 

( them ) 

pdngUan. isdtja'd alden nan monok ya faytkentja. 

door. Then they take a chicken and beat it 



H-20 kctjeng nadSy nan monok. -[kondntja en "iiay pay tdklay si 

then is dead the chicken. They say this the arm 


fobfdllo na; ct kiimidshi nan fohfdllo. manangflkami is kSdsd." 

of the may grow the \oung man! we pray for strength, 

youns man strong 

2' - isdtja'd makdkan; isdtja'd madmmong nan mamdgkid ya nan 

Then thev en<i eating Then they assemble. the girls and the 

fobfdllo is nan dto. isdtja'd kandn en "niannaingtdko 'd!" 

young men at the ato. Then they say: let us stand in (two 

opposite) lines! " 

isded kandn nan fobfdllo 'n "engkayei nnida is toonan fa 

Then says a young man go ye to liring a jar that 

22 cn gkaPi-Lvdenl dko is nan tatalibnan. - isded kandn nan mamdgkid: 

we place it in the at the dancingplace. Then say the girls 
center of 

Tsdeng: initsdi'^anidko si FinmSsliao ay gadsdngyen ad Udllig; 

-?- "we have cauglit hunting I'intnoshao, the rich man at Harlig; 

\a aydkain nan pangdfongnw! ta unial/kdyi"/ is nan ilimi ad 

and call you, your family come ye into our town, to 


Kensdtjan; tay nay si filad ay kinepnan ay minldlaymi ken tjakdyit. 

Kcn.satjan; be- here bacon, thick, to we invite you 

cause is which 

ya inmdlitja tit/hva is nan flinii, ya ikokStsam si Fdnged 

and they came really into our town and you cut, Fanged, 

tjdltja is nan istjdtja ta maiigdntja. ya nakakdntja. 

for them their meat that they eat and they finish 


23 - isdtja'd kandn en "(htgkdyd iimdla is fdyasti. ta painuminnmtdko ya 

Tlien they say go ye to get lirandy that we make them and 


mafdtcngtja. isdcd kandn nan mamdgkid en "pashuyep&nyu'd is nan ^-^ 

they get drunk. Then say the girls put (them) to sleep on the 

ifSik ay i/natjdshan is pfngsan!" 

mat which has been spread long time ago. 
(sleeping- for them 

Si Mdtyu nan nangzvdni ya si FaWnglong ya si Fdnged. 

Matyu is the narrator and Falonglong and Fanged. 


The ceremonies after successful warfare are called mamaldkay. from : 
faUtkay, a ceremonial song, a responsive song, or niangalilkay, from: 

1. tsdtsa and tsdtja [310]. mangdyeng: warsong. 

2. nasdysiiv: noncombattant : "on the other side of the river, pre- 
tending to be ignorant of warfare;" absconding; absent. Or: nasliSy 
tjAy: absent yonder. ivdnis: breechcloth, presented to warriors; 
wdnisak: I give, clothe with a wanis. 

The Metre is iambic, with strong ictus, the natural accent being disre- 
garded: ' -' I " ' I ' ■* i " I " 'I ' "' I " ' I '• siniika 'sli ay nasliodjiiy 
- wansanyu 'sli kamiiyokdy. 

3. naldssinak: I am away; e.g.: naldssinak is tekken ay fit: I am 
absent in an other town or country; I am prevented (from coming or par- 
ticipating), minsimsimndak : I am a salteater, I eat only salt, but no meat, 
with my rice; "I do not deserve any meat, as a coward {ogiddan)." sfmtit; 
see Voc. salt. 

4. dto: councilhouse, see Voc. sitsdkak [shifjdkak]: only cere- 
monial killing, sakdlong: a funnel-shaped temporary headbasket. 

bdslui: see Voc. post. (Observe the singular forms: fobfdllo, 
mamdgkid, fafdyi used often here for plural!) 


6. ;/(;;/ ib/aii nan... and the "other," i. c. and besides the married men. 

7. sangi: see Voc. baskets. mangatSlingak: I wash the head while 
praying, invoking the soul of the slain, uasliak: unceremonial cleaning, 
washing, bathing. 

8. The old man addresses the head: "call your wife:" that we kill 
her also! inangfagak: I hum. drone songs without words. 

9. anapenadnOkani : probably aiuTpeiia 'd: "he shall search" [kani, 
cf. 311 ] ; but any attemi)t of eliciting the meaning of this phrase was unsuc- 
cessful; "it means: now is the right time, just now." ifsd&zvish: roast 
chicken, dog, pork. 

10. They bury the head in the dto. tuniengaotdko (tSngao) : we shall 
(um) celebrate a holiday, but: intengaofdko: we are celebrating. 

11. iimitli: the whole town celebrates this day: the other ceremonies 
were performed only by that ato ("ward") to which the victor belongs. 

Those who are defeated in the "carmen amoebaeum/' the mauialilkay, 
must work for the other party, get wood etc. If the girls win but fail to 
get tlieir prize, they take the boys' Iiats, pipes etc. Girls who have lost give 
bags, breechcloth etc., otherwise the boys will tear down the Slog (girl's 

pitkak: I waste my time; or: I do nothing, but.... pitkdna ay mdngan: 
he spends all his time eating, nianidding: I gather bdding, dry wood; fire- 

12. bindkid: this was asserted to have no meaning. Probably: 
maiden? tinnidfan, ior : timnofdan. 

13. "Let us not cease from answering their cliallenging songs 
(slioshdshlay: "contest of words"); let us reply until the sun rises." 
tssak: [308]. Finalok: "a place where good tobacco is sold; North of 

14. sibfan, kc'tan, tjl'pan: meat eaten to the rice occasionally. 
dktak: 1 give some of my own; constr. : person in cas. rectus, thing 

given with prepos. is. 


15. ayiika.... "This singing" lasts too long." Old men are the 
umpires of the teasing contest, palayokcntdko: celebrate the last day of 
the festival; perform the final rites; finish. 

16. An episode from a headhunters' festival; in the following descrip- 
tion recollections of real events and explanation of customs are intermingled. 

17. sagfdtck: I lift (and carry) upon my shoulder, kactfodfong: 
Collective form. 

18. Women enter the ato only if permitted to do so. 

19. nakakdntja: here without suftix -an, see: R. 16, R. 17 and [299]. 
masisiaiigtdko: we part and go, each by himself, to our homes, afobongtja 
(only here!) plural form. faySkek [fafkck]: I whip, beat to death with 
many blows, "which makes the chicken more palatable.'' 

20. "Feasting to the hero's health ;" tdklay [tdkay\: the strong arm 
that killed the enemy and chopped off the head; represented by a part of 
the chicken, iiianangflkami: we pray for and hope, expect. 

21. mannaingtdko'd: we stand in two lines, one formed by the men, 
facing the other, that of the women, in order to sing. 

22. The "fsdcng" consists of several verses; the melody of the greater 
part of each verse is chanted monotonously, but passes over into a phrase 
of astonishing musical beauty and pathos. 

Fiiiiinisliao of Barlig: evidently a reminiscence of an old feud with 
Barlig. The "anito" of slain FiiuiiSsliao is invoked; more victims are 
wanted. In the following the narrator has confoimded facts and phantasy. 

23. if oik: the bare board in the Tgorot's sleeping chamber (or: mat), 
by euphcmy (tragic irony) ; in reality the board on which the dead body is 
tied to be carried home. iiiafjdslian: "made wide" for you. fyingsaii: 
"long time ago." (only here!) 



^^^ Iiisiil/ktosh si Don Btlong uiiurli 'd rpintok ya eng(?ngak ad F^ntok; 

The insiirrecto Don Bilont,' comes to Boiitoc and tells lies at Bontoc. 

kandiia ay mangzvdni en "tjakayu ay Igdlot mifncgkayi? 'n sak/hi; 

he says speaking \()u Ii^orot, i^o with me 

ta aldenyu nan pindngyn, nan kaniyabyu, nan tiifayyu ya nan kdngsa, 

take ve \our your shields, \ our spears and the gongs 


ta umilytdko ad Maldnosh, ta engkdyd manalifcng et addngsan nan 

let us go to Malolos, go ye to dance then much (will be) 

2 sfpingyu." - ketjeng tjcngnen nan tdkm. nan fofafdllo ya liimdyaStttja 

your money. Then hear the people the young men run 

ct uinf/ytja id pdgpag, tay am/tn ay fofdllo ya i'ndjiia nan 

and go to the forest because all young men are unsteady 

( as to ) 

nimnfmtja. kandntja 'y mangzvdni cii "atvdy ngct ^ngak sa." 

their thoughts They say speaking perhaps a lie this! 

^ sak/hi, (si Fdnged ay iSamdki) adfk ICytjen ay fnni'ty, tay nan 

I Fanged from Sanioki, do not like to go because 


kafibffak ya ifdludtja is nan adik kagalian. kctjeng makali'ak, '^■^ 

my sister they imprison fur my not "coming along" Tlien I go with them 

tay ibfdhidtja 'sli kafibfiak. - kctjeng uiniiy nan tdkiPi ; ifdcg Ngdzvid ^ 

be- they bind my sister. Then go the men; takes Ngawid 

cause with him 

nan idkm: ct stya nan dpon nan Igolot. kctjeng inalikoddkanif 

the men; then he is the chieftain of the Igorot. Then we start 

et umalikami 'd Fdngnen ya kctjeng xnndlatja dkis is nan 

and come to Fangnin an<l then they take also some 

iFdngnen. (Fdngnen id sakSii ad Fmntok.) kctjeng aldennil nan 

men of Fangnin (is) near Bontoc. Then we take 


isa 'y fdtug ct padSyennii is istjan nan tdkM ay /hnily ad MalJnosh. 

one pig and kill it for fooil of the men who go to Malolos. 

kctjeng inalikoddkanif is nan f/bikat ct unial/kdnii ad Gdy/ang. 

Then we start in the morning and come t<-> Gayang, 

kctjeng nisasakdna nan kdnenini ct binadSytsa nan mo/ang ay istjdnii. 

Then had been our fooil and they had killeil a liuffalo as our meat, 


kctjeng inangdngkdnii is nan inagdclni ct unialFkdnii 'd Serwanth. 

Then we eat at noon and we come to Cervantes. 

- kctjeng tomoktjok'ami ct inotokdnii is kdnenmi. limdkdiui ay iFmtok, ^ 

Then we sit down and cook our meal we are five Boutocmen, 

zvahikanif av iSamoki; isdcd nan iMainit, iTukdkan, iniMallg/kong, 

eight men from then those from Tucucan, Malikong, 

Samoki; Mayinit. 

iKindang, iSakddsa, iTitfpan, iTiifeng, iKdn°u, lAgkdoa. ain/n ay 

Genugan, Sagada, Titipan, Tulubin, Kanou, Agawa. all the 


^■^ kaflifli inmdyfja ad Malonosh. ketjSng nakakdngkami 'd Scrzvant^s 

townsmen had gone to Malolos. Thtn we had eaten at Cervantes 

^ ya nmaltkavii ad Ankakf. - nisasakcina amtn nan kdnenmi. piuadSytja 

and we come to Ankaki. prepared was all our food. they had killed 

nan fdka ay istjdmi. naamoamongtsa ad Scrwantes nan anifn ay 

a cow for our meat. Assembled were at Cervantes all 

^ kdkaikat'H. - ketjeng mawiid ya malikoddkami ya nmaUkami 'd 

townsmen. Then it is morning and we start and come to 

Konseptsymi. ketjeng malikoddkami 'd Konscptsymt et umaltkami 'd 

Concepciou. Then we start from Concepcion and come to 

Kdndson ya nmafSdtsa nan milsiko ken tjdkamf. ketjeng umaltkami 

Candon and ( there) meets the music band us. Then we come 

*d Kdndson ya nmtlhvilhvis nan mdsiko ken tjdkamf id Kdndson. 

to Candon and marches around the band with us at Candon. 

^ ketjeng intedee'kami is nan tjaktjdkii ay dfong is nan lima 'y dkyu, ya 

Then we stay in a large house five days and 

isfjaistjdnii nan lima 'v fi'ttug, tay sinmongetkami ay IkOlot. 

we cat five, because we were angry. we Igorot, 

ketjeng tsdmi padSyen nan fiitug si iKdndson. ketji^ng malikoddkami 

Then we kill the pigs of Candon-people. Then we start 

^'^' et umaltkami 'd Tdktitjing. ketjeng tsdmi sikpen nan dfong si 

and come . to Takutjing. Then wc enter the houses 

iTaklltjing et tsdmi pindla nan fddsotja; iimogiddtja nan iTakiltjing. 

of Takutjing- and take their coats; afraid are the Tak. -people 

people (quickly, 



{djuivdnkd}]}! lasut ya liman pSo ay Ik6lot.)-kctjcng malikoddkami is ^-^^ 

we are two hundred and fifty Igorot, Then we start 

nan zvfizviid et ummykami ad Namagpdkan. ketjeng dfus naoto nan 

ver\' early and go to Naniagpakan. Then had been the 


mdkan. siddnay ma/id istja. kctjcng uinuykavii ct okddenmi nan 

rice, but no meat. Then we go and take (by force) 

isd ay kafdyo ct ydiini 's Utbfomni. ketjeng kokStjennii ct otoenmi 

one horse and briu.i; it to our quarter. Then we cut it and cook 

nan kafdyo. ketjeng igdnii tstja, tay kdg fikas si tdkm nan 

the hor^e. Then we do not eat, because like fiesli of men is the 

ilan nan istjan si kafdyo. - ketjeng malikoddkami et unu'iykami ^- 

sight of the meat of horse. Then we .start and go 

ad Faknotan. iimtsdnkami id mastjfui. ma/I'd nindto is kdnenmi. 

to Faknotan we arrive in nigiit none had cookeil our food. 

isded atnhikdmi ay Ikdlot ya unuiykami ay nmdla is nan kafiitufiitng 

Then we all, we Igorot. .go to take some pigs 

ya kadshndshu. ketjeng oto/ otoenmi ct mangdnkami is nan mastjhn. 

and dogs. Then we keep cooking and we eat during the night. 

ketjeng umdli nan soldddso ay insidfktosh ya inkotsdotja is ^^ 

Then come the soldiers, who insurrectos, and ask for 

kan^ntja et tsdtja umaldli is tsogSkmi et tsdtja kankdnan en 

food then thex- keep coming to our rear and they keep sa_\ing 

"indkdyi?( 'sh kdnenmi." ketjeng tsdnii itsdotsao nan kobkoh si fdtug 

give (us) our food. Then we often give (them) the skins of pigs 


^'•^"^ ya nan akh ay mdkan. - ketjcng malikoddkami ct umiiykami is 

and a little rice. Then we start then we ^o to 

nan ha 'y tli; adtk kSkkvn nan Jii^dtsan nan ili ay iniimtsdnanmi 

a certain town I do not know the name of the town where we arrived, 


kctjeng dfus naoto nan mdkan ya /stja ay n^ang. ketjeng 

Then had been cooked rice and meat of buffalo. Then 

1^ masnyepkami; malikoddkami as nan w/id. - umal/kaiui 'd Santo Tonias. 

we sleep we start in the inornini;. we come to Santo Tonias. 

kctjhig ma/id naoto is kdnenini. kctjeng c')igkd)ni 'ndnap is fiitug 

Then (is) not cookeil our food. Then we go to seek pigs 

ya is kdnfitig: et ma/fd intjdnanini is fdtiig, kdnfing nan intjdnannii. 

and goats then not any we find pi,gs; goats (is) our finding. 

1^ kctjihig ydifja nan findyPe. - kctjthig kdnannii is nan dponii 'n 

Then they bring rice. Then we .say to our master. 

"ndngkom kandn en "mo umalitdko is )ian lU, ct misaslisakdna 

why! you say if we come into llie town, then would be read}- 

1' nan IdnsBn nan taki'V' ; kot nay adzvdni ya ma/ id!'' - ketjcng 

the food of the men; and here now there is Then 


sibfdten Don Bilong nan kaltmi ya kandna 'n ''ikddkdyii ya 

answers Don Bilong our words and he .s.iys care for and 

^^ tsdkdyu tjihnpap is fdtng ya's nan findyp<." kctjSng iktkiddek 

vou keep catching pigs and rice! Then I frighten 


nan sinpdngdfong ay Filipino. ketjhig kandntja en ''adfka 

a family of Filipinos. Then thev say do not 


pumadSy ken tjdkdmi: fa umotdkami is kdnim. kefjeiig madto nan ^-^^ 

kill us let us cook \our meal. Then is cooked the 

mcikan ya nan dgkdmd. ketjeng ildhok ay mdngan ya ketjSng 

rice and crabs. Then I begin eating and then 

uiudli nan kadnak. ketjeng inofdngkami, tay nai'^ivamivdtkami. 

comes my companion. Then we eat together, as we are very hungry. 

ketjeng malikoddkami et unuiykami ad Dsakilpan. tjakfjdki ay fli. 1^ 

Then we start then we go to Dagupan. (it is a) large town 

ya ketjeng nmilalayoshtja ken tjdkdmi. ibfakdmi nan kdnenmi, ya akit 

and then they "do not us we ask for our food and little 

provide for" 

nan itsaotsdotsa. ketjeng tsdtja 'd kdnan en " mnalikdnii ad MaWnosh." 

is their gi\-ing. Then they keep saying we shall come to Malolos. 

- ketjeng umtjdngkdnii ad MaWnosii is nan sidsidj/nina. ketjing -^ 

Then we arrive at Malolos in the evening. Then 

igdktjeng Agindldo nan pispisftash. - ketjeng kdnannii en "nangkSl ^^ 

distributes Aguiualdo the "3U cents." Then we say why! 

pispisitash dngkay? nan kdnenmi adi &(mdndi!" ketjeng kdnanmi 

one peseta only our food does not suffice then we say 

en "luniaydokdini!" ketjeng kdnantsa 'n "baldi<ikanmi tjdkdytf!" 

we shall run away Then they say we shoot you 

- ketjeng malikSad nan tilin. ketjeng ntndykami et balokdnkami -- 

Then starts the train Then we go and ride 


is nan ttlin. - ketjeng umalfkdnii 'd Kald/okan. pdgpag ydngkay. -^ 

in the train. Then we come to Caloocan forestland only. 


B.23 tnangdngkami is nan masfjtm; et adt inmdnai nan kdnenmi. 

we eat in the night then not sufficed our food. 

tsdkami mangmdngan ay tdktPt, kctjSng ildenmi nan apiiy ay intatdyao 

(while) we are eating, we men then we see the fire flying 

24 ay nidpo 'sli pdshong. Tnmdnk°u nan apdy ken tjakamf. - ketj^ng 

that comes from sea. Dazzles the fire us. Then 

taldnd ay labldbon si kokdok si mSnok. ketjeng kandn Gdlasli ay 

it is time of beginning of crowing of cocks. Then says Golash, 

intelepletfmi en ''entdko inltkid ad Fdugcd tsdgok nan Manfla." 

our interpreter let us go around to Kanged behind Manila. 

ketjeng malikoddkami ay fhniiy ad Fdnged ya dngsan nan soldddso. 

Then we start to go to Fauged and many (arel the soldiers. 

25 - ketjeng maddngkami id Fdnged. — kdg tona nan kaadsa&ewfna 

Then we go "a little" to Fanged. like this was the distance, 

is nantji'/i. naman gpan gdkami : zvodd nan ti'ifaymi, pindngmi, 

as far yonder. we had gone to the front; we had spears, battleaxes, 

26 ya nan kdldsaymi : ma/id bdldi'^gmi. -kctjihig mahaldtikan nan ha 'y 

and shields no rifles. Then was shot one 

(with us), 

soldddso is nan finifftli: pinalddikan nan Mclikdno. ketjc^ng 

soldier in the scrotum had shot (him) the .\mericaus. Then 

inaiigangdkami; kandnjiii en ''luhigko biid faldgnit nan iiixdvak tona; 

we fret we say why! a battle the calling of that 

(is' (man) 

27 ndngko tc^kken ay falffeng sa!." - ketjthig kandnmi on "aykotdko kasf'n 

why! a dilTereiit dance is this. Then we s.iy ":u\.' we some- 



inSgiadgiad ya kasin tsdan?" - ketjeng itdolin sail sinkumpdnya ^-^^ 

afraid and again not Then transports the companj' 

(afraid)?" back 

nan nahaldp(kaii ay fs sa. yditja 'sli katflin. ketjeng umdykami 

the men shot who (were) They take to the train. Then we go 

there. (them) 

is katiUnsfla. ketjeng insdnib nan soldddso; yaket dngsan nan 

to railroad. Then liide the soldiers, and many (are) the 

the (embankment?) themselves 

fobola ay nindli ay mdlpo 's kapSshong ay palti'n nan soldddson si 

projec- coming from the sea which send the soldiers, 


Mclikdno. djiia nan nahaldmkan is nan soldddson si Filipino. 

Americans. Two were shot of the soldiers, Filipinos. 

- ketjeng miidli dkis nan sinkumpdnya ya mahaldiikan dkis nan fsa'y ^9 

Then comes again one company and is shot again one 

soldddso. tjdkdmi niiika/dpkdmi is nan li'/ta. tjdkami ay IgSlot, 

soldier we had dug into the ground, we Igorot, 

ta itdfonini nan dzvakini, tay ma/td bdldWgmi; ketjeng dngkay nan 

that we hide our bodies, be- no guns-ours "except only" 

(ourselves) cause 

sOkodnii ya nan pindngini. - ketjeng unidli dkis nan sinkumpdnya is ^^ 

our spears and battleaxes. Then comes again one company at 

nan magdchn ya mabaldiikan dkis nan tSlo ay soldddson si Filiphto. 

noon and are shot again three soldiers, Filipinos. 

ketjeng kiimdantsa nan sinkumpdnya ya mtsnbli dkis nan dj/fwan 

Then retreats the one company and ' 'exchanged' ' again two 

kumpdnya. - ketjeng aldentsa nan fayonitdtja: ka/ufanfja nan Iffta; ^i 

companies. Then they take their bayonets they dig up the ground 


^■^^ ikd/P(ptja amtn nan foboldtja. isdtja'd tonioli is nan apStja; 

they bury all their cartridges Then they return to their 

(bullets) commander 

^'^ kandntja en "ndngkay nan foboldmi!" - ketjeng iimdli nan djuan 

they say: used up our bullets. Then come two 

(no more- ) 

kumpdnya. wodd nan maddy ay tnim, wodd nan lima; wodd nan 

companies. there are dead six, there are five some are 

nabaldtikan is nan inaddpa; ivodd nan ha ay kdlud ay nabaldmkan is 

shot into the hand there is one "negrilo" shot into 

nan kitSngna. kctjc'ng knnidan nan sinkumpdnya ya ni/suhli nan tolo 

his forehead. Then retreats the one company and "exchanged" three 

-" a\ kumpdnya. - dngsan nan noddy ken tjdttja. dngsan nan tjdla is 

companies. many (are) the dead among them mucli (is) the blood upon 

nan liJta. ketjeng kiimdan nan tSlo 'y kumpdnya. igddntsa nan 

the ground. Then retreat the three companies. They remove the 

dngsan ay naddy; yoftja 's katilin. ketjeng misubU dkis nan djfia 'y 

many dead they carry to the train. Then "exchanged" again two 


34 kumpdnya. ketjt^ng mabalde/kan nan ipdt ay soldddso. - kasttja dkis 

companies Then are shot four soldiers. they again 

tomoli san djfcwan kumpdnya. kctjSng misllyao nan dkyu ya ketji^ng 

return the two companies. Then turns dark the day and then 

35 kfgsanfntja nan kdnyon; kfgsdntn nan soldddson si Melik'dno. -- ketji'ng 

they fire the cannon; fire (them) the soldiers, .\mericans. Then 

inwtzvis nan fdbolan si kdnyon et tsdna ponsfpak nan pdgpag. kctji^ng 

whistles the shell of cannon then often it hits the forest. Then 


umdgiad nan Ikiilof, ct fsdkashtja ay lumdya^t. ~ ketjeng "^-^^ 

get afrai<I the Igorot and imiuediatelv run away. Then 


lumaycfmkdmi cf niualfkanii is katfUn. - dngsan nan nadSy ay tdki'i ■'" 

we run away and come to the train man}- are the dead men 

is nan kafflin ay tsa inydi nan soldddso. nabaldmkan nan ha ay 

in the train whom kept carrying the soldiers. was shot one 

(station?) man 

iAmtaddPt ; ma /id nabaldtpikan is nan iFmntok - intcdeSkami is ^^ 

from Amtadao nobody was shot of the Bontocmen. we remain at 

kaf/lin: tsdtja kef ydi nan naday ay nabaldiikan. kinigsdntja nan 

the train they then bring the dead who had been shot they iire the 


kdnyon; ketjeng kashon mad/Sb nan tjdya. kdg nanndy - - - nan 

guns, then as if tumbled the sky. like this (were): — the 

(it was) down 

fobdian nan kdnyon; wodd nan kdg nanndy 

shells of the cannon some like this: — 

ketjeng tjuindka nan soldddson si Melikdno is nan kaldta ; ketjeng ^^ 

Then landed the soldiers, Americans, on the land then 

lunidya&i anifn nan 'siliktosli; nnu'iytja 'sJi nan katilin. Tsdkanil 

flee all the insurrectos they go to the train. We keep 

lumdyan ya ildennii nan fobdian si kdnyon ay patatsdkena nan Idta. 

running and we see the shell of cannon that throws up the earth, 


- ivodd nan fobdian si kdnyon ay pinaddna aniln nan sinknnipdnya av '^^ 

some shells of cannon kill a whole crowd that 

nianidb/on. tsatsdnia nan madSy is nan 'siliktosli. adadddsa nan 

stood close many the dead among the insurrectos; more the 



'^ ''1 maddy mo is nan falSgnit si Ikdlot is nan tlin nan Ikolof. ketjSng 

dead than in the fights of Igorot in the countrj-of the Igorot. Then 

himaydukami ct luni'/ykami 'd Malonosh; ketjeng kandn GOlash ay 

we flee and go to Malolos then says Golash, our 

inlclipUtimi en "iDnitykanii ad Manila ta cngkdnii 'nkciib is tilinstla." 

interpreter let us go to Manila, let us go to make "railroad" 

( moat? ) 

■*- ketjeng ad/ nan tcfkn. - kcfjchig kancin Golash en ")uingko ma/ld 

Then "refuse" the men. Then savs Golash whvl nobodv 

maddy ken tjatdko ay Igdlof ; ndngkd ketjc'ng nan insul/kfosh is dngsati 

is dead among us Igorot; why! only the insurrectos many 

nan maddy." ketjc'ng tomdlitja si Sdyan ay iSamdki ya isded si MSding 

Ure) dead. then they return: Sayan from and further Moding 

the Samoki, 

ay iFmntok isded si I'dfte/klng ay iFiPtnlok ad Manila, ketjc'ng 

from Bontoc, then Patte , king from Bontoc, to Manila. Then 

■♦•^ unii'iytja is nan kalilin ya aptcntja nan fohdlan si kdn\dn. - ketjeng 

they go to the train and encounter the shells of cannon. Then 

mimidneng is nan kakamzvdentja. ketjeng kasitja snmdkong ad 

they hit into their midst. Then they again go back to 

Malonosh et umtsdntja ken tjakami. ketjeng kandntsa ken tjakanii 'n 

Malolos then they arrive with us. Then they say to us 


"inmdli nan Melikdno ad Kald/Skan et findkashtja nan kadfodfong; 

they came, the Americans, to Caloocin and destroyed the buildings 

■" pi)iiPiantsa amin nan sin f dan ya )iafdkash atnin a\ kainpdna." ketjc'ng 

they burned all the churches and broken are all churchbells. Then 


ihfakdmi is nan plcsidentc ad Malduosh ; lean (hi mi en "'umi'iykavif 'd ad ^^'^'^ 

we ask the "presidente" at Malolos; we say we ought to go to 

F^nifokr kctjeng maioeiviikas ya kasinii i'bfaka ya adina. kancina 'n '^^ 

Bontoc then it is to-morrow and again we ask and he He sa_vs 


"lufngkd nia/hl noddy ken ijakay/'l. ya kaiut'nyit en iinu1ykdy/Tr' 

whv! none is deail of \ou and you sav you will go? 

ketjeng kandnini ken Kdsnii ay ifdintok en "'tjdkami ed — kanc/ui — en 

Then we say to Kosnii from Bontoc we should — tell (him)! - go 

tallfeng, nan kimvdniiu : ketjeng ilodlodnn ay tdkpt ay iitniiy." 

to dance; so you had said; then we must, we men, go; 

(as to your saying) 

- ketjeng indnong tja M dkieisli ay iPmntok ken A'gdzvid ay iSainOki. '^^ 

Then quarrelled they, Makwish from Bontoc and Ngawid from Samoki. 

kandn Mdkzvisli av iFdnitok ken Xgdzvid en ''s/k/d kekkein ay faldgnit 

savs Makwish froni Bontoc to Ngawid you know that "Ijattle" 

nail kimvdnitja ken s/k/d. a pay adlm kinzvdni is nan tdkiwf slk/d 

was their to \ou why did you tell (so) to the men? You 

saying not 

ma/id nimnhnnw! inoslidya sak/en si ndngtek ay faldgnit nan 

have no reason! suppose I had known that "battle" 

kandntja, et kdnak ondna is nan tdkm mo leytjentja ay nidkifaldgnit." 

was their I would first to the men if they wished to go to war. 

saving, have told 

- et ak/t xdngkav ay enasipadSykanii ay I gdlot is nan mangivdnian 

then little only (failed), that we would have killed we Igorot for the saying of 

each other 

nan plesiddnte ad Maldnosh en mabaldukdnkami a>nfn ay Ikdlot. 

the presidente at Malolos that we would be shot, all Igorot. 


H.47 j;ctje)ig viaiVzvdkasli ya ilodlod Kdsnii ay iFmntok mangthfaka. 

Thenlitisi to-morrow, ami must Kosmi of Rontoc ask. 

^^ ketjeng kaudna en "ttnuiykcnnf '</ man!" ketjhig adfjia. ketjSng 

Then he says let us go then! then he does not Then 


ImnaydL^tkami ay Igdlot; kctjSng rnanaddldnkam! is nan Hid nan kdlsa. 

we run off we Igorot then we walk on the siileofthe street. 

'*^ - ketjihig nnitjdngkami ad Santo Tomas; ketjeng tjangkdsnii ay 

Then we arrive at Santo Tomas then we immediately 

sdinke/^ is nan pdgpag. ketjchig lusJifddmi ya ad h'aldoang. kefjc^ng 

enter the forest. Then our coming out is at Falaomg. Then 

inandpkdmi is kdnonni tay naL°nvaBwddkdmt . ketjSng Inmagokami 

we seek our food because we are verv huntjrv; then we Imv 

is nan kankdnen; nan kankdnen nan inkatdki'Vmi. {nakdih nan 

food (cakes) "cakes" we lived on. made are the 

^" kankanln is findyiPt ya nan dfn/fa.) ~ ketjeng umalikami ad Fdngal. 

"cakes" from rice and sugar. Then we come to l"angal. 

ketjSng kandn nan IlJko ad Fdngal en "engkayu man InmdyarPt ay? 

Then says an llocano at Tangal why do you run away? 

^^ dgiaddngkayB ay IgolotT' - ketjihig kandnmi ay nidnfat en "c^ngka 

are you cowards, you as Igorot? Then we say answering j ou go, 

tnan, ta ildcnmi sik/d, mo kef adt pinpaaboken nan kdnyon nan Slam.'' 

let's see you if then not quickly smash the cannon your head. 

5- - ketjhig mnaltkdmi 'd lakiitjing. kandntsa dkis en "I'ngkdyn man 

Then we come to Takutjing. They say why do you 


liimdyat'^ ayf" kefjcng kandnfsa en "ngdg nan angHlntja 'sh sa?" ^■^- 

run away? Then they say what did the}- do there 

ketjeng ifadgmi ken fjdftja en "nan pay fobolan nan kdnyon ya ^-^ 

Then we tell them the shells of the cannon are 

tsaktsagoag." ketjeng kandnmi en "inoshdya umdlitja 'sua nan 

very big. Then we say suppose they would here the 

Mclikdno, ct pinfdkash nan kdnyon nan dfongyu." - ketjeng dlaini ■'''* 

Americans, then would quickly the cannon your houses. Then our 

ruin direction 

ya nan pdgpag, et loshfudmi ya ad Serwantes. ketjeng ndnengmi va 

is the forest then our coming is at Cervantes. Then our going is 

out (aim) 

ad FfdadSng. ketjeng dlanmi nan mSnok ya kanzvitan. ~ ketjeng ^^ 

to Fuladong. Then we take chickens and cocks. Then 

umalikami ad Alab. ketjeng dlanmi nan tsaktsdki av fdtug, 

we come to Alab. Then we take a big pig 

padSyenmi ya istjdnii. finayddsannii is li'nia 'y pesosh is nan 

we kill and eat it. we had paid five pesos to the 

ninfi'ttug. ketjeng inpasaliibkami is nan iAlab is mdkan. isdtja'd 

pig-owner. Then we told to collect, to the .\labmen, rice. Then thev 

mandlnbnb. igdnii fayddsan nan mdkan; nan ipip/kaf^ ad Alab 

collected. we did not pay the rice the people at .\lab 

itsaotsdotja dngkay ken tjdkanu. - ketjeng nialikoddkanii a\ nmdli 56 

gave it "gratis." to us. Then we start to come 

ad Fmntok. ketjeng tsdoshenmi ad Af°n ay ilin nan Iloko ad 

to Eontoc. Then we go directly to Afou, the of Ilocanos at 



■5' Fdittok. ndkship nan inumtsdnanmi ad Fmitok. - ketjdng kandn nan 

Boiitoc. in the after- our arrival time at Bontoc. Then say the 

noon (was) 

tdkev ay iFmntok ya iSamSki, kandntja en "umdted ta inmalfkayn; 

people of Bontoc and Samoki, they sa}' "we are that you came 


aykSkayu natdki'V amin?" kandn nan tdk&c en "ngdg nan inangninyii 

are you alive all sa)- the people how did yon manage 

^''^ ay inuuiy?" - indmodmongmi aiiiln nan tdki''(. tjdngnentja nan 

to go (there) we had assembled all the people they listen 

kandnmi. ketjhig kdnanmi ken ijditja en "tsatsdma nan fobdlan nan 

to our speaking Then we say to them too many the shells of the 


McUkdno, tsatsdma ay tsaksagciak nan kdnyon." kctjSng kandntja 

Americans; too enormous the cannon. Then thev sav 

:n "ya nan pay fobdlan nan bdldlPtg."' kandnmi en "tsatsdmdd ay 

and the bullets of the rifles we say fearful, 

^^ kdg i"'(tjan nan fobdlan si bdldlPcg.'' - ketjc'iig kandntja 'n "aykStja ad/ 

like rain the bullets of rifles. Then tliey say do they not 


nmdli 'sna?" kctjdng sibfdtenmi ya kandnmi en "adumdlitja 'sua fay 

come here Then we answer and say they will come here as 

6" pddsongtja ad Maldnosh. - ketjdng kast'tja kandn en "kad nan 

they stop at Malolos. Then they again say when 
(at the limit) 

alidntja?" kctjdng adfmi tbfaka, tay kandnmi en "ta adt kiPimdan 

will they come Then we do not tell because we say let not escape 

f'' nan 'Itktosh." - ketjhig ay sumdakami is Hi. kefjc'ng kandn nan 

the insurrectos Then we enter town. Then say 


pangdfongnii en "umdtcd ta tiniiiolfkdyu is nan ilitdko." ^-^^ 

our relatives "we are glad" that you returned to our town. 

- ketjeng ihiitsan lum fsa ay fiian: kdytsa'd iiipapangdli nan ^^ 

Then "passed" one month then they come suddenly the 

soldddson si iMclikdno. kctjthig initnitsdnfsa is nan zvihviid. 

soldiers, Americans. Then they arrived early in the 


ketjeng isdad nan Mclikdno nan d}igsan ay kafdyotja ad Kanidnuang. 

Then "put the .\mericans many their horses at Kanianuang. 


ketjeng fumdlatja and'n nan ipMntok ct paiigdnentja nan kafdyotja. 

Then go out all Bontoc- and feed their horses. 


- adikmen nan soldddson si Mclikdno nan 'l/ktosh; indatja nan ha ^^ 

(Then) the soldiers, .Xmericans, the insurrectos. They one 

pursue capture 

ay ten^ntc ya nan tdlo 'y soldddso, isdcd nan ha ay nabaldmkan. 

lieutenant and three soldiers, then one who was shot. 

amin a\ tekken ay soldddson si Filipino ct linmdyai^tja is nan ftlig. 

all other soldiers. Filipinos, then had lied to the mountains. 

et layde^zventja ad Tdfcng. - kctji^ng ibfdkan nan iFi4nfok ya ^"^ 

then they reached Tulubin. Then tell the Bontocmen and 


nan iSanwki nan djdlan is nan soldddson si Mclikdno ad Tiifeng. 

the Sainokimen the trail to the soldiers, Americans, to Tulubin. 

mnuytja ad Fdy/yu ct aldeiifja nan asdiltivan Agindldo ya nan 

they go to Fayu and capture the wife of .Aguinaldo and 

andtjina \< fafdyi. - ha 'y soldddson si Filipino binalddtkan nan ^^ 

his younger sister. one soldier, Filipino, they shot, the 


B.65 Melikdno; nan soldddson si Melikchw pinotmant ja nan dlon nan 

Americans; the soldiers, Americans, cut off the head of the 

'liktosh: inkd/uptja is nan liita is Kdmpo Santo, ay kaka/eifan. 

insurrecto; they buried him in the ground at Campo Santo, the burial place. 


ketjeiig isdkongtja nan asdi9(zvan Gindldo ad pptntok ya nan 

Then they conducted tlie wife of Aguinaldo to Bontoc and 

anotjlna '\< fafdyi, isded nan isa 'y Melikdno ay findlBd Gindldo. 

m had fettere 

Fdn p-crf. 

his younger sister then also one American whom had fettered Aguinaldo. 



The "Battle of Caloocan," described by the combatant (if passive 
resistance and wise withdrawal of primitively armed forces who had to be 
mere spectators justify the word "combatant") Fanged from Samoki, Bon- 
toc's sister-town, was fought early in February, 1899. (Names of persons 
and of towns are given in Fanged's pronunciation.) 

I. '» sak/Jn: ken sak/chi. — kdngsa: gdiigsa. — Maldlos in lUilacan. — 
sfbing [sfpiiig]: copper coin; 80 s/ping are considered equivalent to i peso 
(50 cents American). 

5. magdchu; ch : guttural; interchanged here with />'_Y. 

10. tsdnii: "we "often," repeatedly, as many houses were i)luiidered. 

II. kdg...iian /Ian: "it looked like..." /Uvi for: Ilacn. 

14. as nan zviid: is nan zvfid. 

15. fi)idylPc: shelled and ]>ounded rice, uncooked, nidkau: cooked rice, 
"eatable." [461 J 


16. koy nay adivcfui: cf. the Greek "eita indignantis." 

17. ikadak: I care, provide; I help myself, ikadam ay mdngan: help 
yourself to eat ! 

18. ikikiddck: ogogiddck. piiiiiadSyak: personal vb. dgkdmd: see 
Voc. food. 

19. "we shall come to Alalolos," where we shall find plenty provisions. 

21. Or: mabaldBkdnkanii: we will be shot. 

22. balokdnkami: Ilocano verb : ride on horseback; 
tilin: Span, tren; [18]. 

25. kdg toiid: Fanged showed the distance to be about 200 paces. 

26. finifftU: [68]. iidiigko bod: [427]. 

27. kas^n — yakastn: Explan. "we can not help it if we are afraid;" 
or: "why shall we, being no cowards at other times, become cowards now.'" 

28. katilinsila:? "place where soldiers hide, kneeling down and shoot- 
ing." Probably a railroad embankment. soldddson si Filipino: a "com- 
pound noun:" Filipino-soldiers; so: soldddson si Mclikdno: American- 
soldiers, but not : soldiers of the Americans. [76]. 

30. fsublik: I exdiange; passive maisubliak: I am exchanged, or, as 
middle: I change myself with another; I take the place of an other; I 
replace in turn. (Said also of the movement of the stars). 

31. fayoiiifdtsa: Sp. bayoneta. ka/dfaiitja: make holes in the 
ground; ikdiipfja: they bury in these holes, foboldtsa: their Imllets; or: 
cartridges with bullets. 

Zi- 34- djfta 'y, or djiia ay, or dj/hvan: two. tsakdsliko [315]. 

38. kdg nanndy: Fanged illustrating this passage showed his leg at 
the ankle; then his fists held together. 


40. pinadSna: pinadSyna. 

41. and in otlier passages: IkOlot ior I gOlot. 

41. Golasli. a half-breed, Igorot and Tagalog; lives in Bontoc as tailor, 
"saltol.'' adi: not. 

42. ketj^ng nan: ''exclusively." 

45. en: to go [307]. 

46. tja ken....: [39]. a pay: Igurot and Ilocano particles. 

48. uin/lykanii'd: words of Kosmi after an other refusal of the 
"presidente,"" i. e. the "mayor" of Malolos. is nan /lid nan kalsa: may also 
mean : along the road. 

50. engkayu: ngagSngkdyuF why? [352] 

5T. pinpaabokck: I i)reak all to pieces, smash completely. (Pref. 
pin-, "quickly;" or: kin-) [296]. 

52. ngdg nan angnintja: lit. what do they do there? '"how did you 
fare there?" 

54. ncincngnii: our going-aim ; (probably: )ian cn-ini). dlami: our 
direction, direct way [318], but cllanmi: our taking, "wc take," for: ahicnmi. 

55. pa.':(ilubak: I order to collect (provisions etc.) from house to house, 
with the Ilocano rice-measure: sahib. 

56. Af^u, a district of llontoc where mostly intruders, Ilocanos, have 
settled, ndkship nan.... Time emphasized by Nom. actionis with suffix -an. 
Cf. [263; 264]. 

37. iinuited: adverb, idiom: it is well, pleasant; "we are glad;" also: 
"I thank you:" sak/hi iintctted ta.... (that...) 
ngi'ig nan indngncnyu... [358] 

58. tj^ngnentja for: tjc^ng/ngc'iitja. 


60. ibfakak: i) I ask, inquire; 2) I ask for; 3) I answer if asked, 
answer a question, I tell. Infinitive; ihfaka; ibfakan, hi 62, see: [229]. 

61. kefjeiig ay., finally., then at last.... (Sometimes; therefore). 

62. isaddko: I put down, unsaddle, stahle. 

63. indatja for; iiuflafja. laydeTcVcntja, transitive: "reach liy run- 
ning." Person. ; hiiiidyaiPtak. 

64. The guides were; Kauufdoii of Bontoc and Fttcng of Samoki. 


Wodd nan sindki. dntsa 'nkStsam is ptki ya ad/ dktan ^■'^ 

There are two brothers. They go begging for corn and not give any 

nan tdkB tjaitja. isdtja'd intotdya ay sindki ya kandntsa ay 

the people them. Then they converse the brothers and say 

mangwdni en "Snfa 'd cnldpis is ipcmdta, tay adttja umdktan is piki. 

saying let us to "make" a garden- as thej- not give corn, 

two go our, 

- isdtja'd cn minldpis ay sindki. ketj^ng nmfiytja'd, laplsantja 

Then they go to weed, the brothers. Then they go, they weed 

nan dmas nan sinpanu'likan. isdtja'd sumda, tay mastjlm. 

a part of a mountain-section. Then they go home, as it is night. 


R-' - ma&tzvdkas akfs ya kastntja umtiy ay sinaki. yytjentja 

it became again and they again go, the brothers. They want 

ay ananaiPnvden nan liinafja. sin^ngpadscngpddtja nan tjdpong ya 

to make wider their garden. They cut down the "wood" and 

'' nan iSlo, ani/ii nan fuldlong ya nan fdtang. - ketjeng nastjhn 

the sticks, all the "high grass" and the "high trees." Then it was night 

dkis ya sunidatsa ay sindki akfs. ketjeng mai^zvdkas akis nan tdlon 

again and the}' go home, the again. Then "next day ' was the time 

brothers, again (region) 

■'' ya kasttja dkis umfiy nan sindki. - umiiytja 'd ya ildntja nan 

an<l they again go the brothers. They go and see 

^ Lonndfja ya finmofo nan fuliilong ya nan zvdka. - ketjeng kasttja 

their and had grown the grass and the vines. Then the^- again 


lapisan dkis ct I'hdbdbdbdtja nan fulfdong. kctjSng nastjhn ya 

weed again and mow down the grass. Then it was night and 

snmdatja ay sindki. - ketjeng w/si'ibli nan O/tot ya 

thev go home, the brothers. Then "exchanged" the rat and 

(came in its turn) 

kankandna en "kibkibdong nialmakvddka ay tjapong! 

says grow again, you wood! 

kibkib/biid mdlmalwddka ay si fid!" 

grow again, ye thorns! 

*^ - ketjeng tYiamwdkash nan fafdipfiva, ya nnidyfja son ninldpis ay 

Then became to-morrow the world, and they go. tlie "having 


9 sindki, ya ildntja 'd ya tinmSfo akh nan fuliilong. - isded kandn 

brothers, and they see and grown had again the grass. Then say 


nan siiuiki en ''unitiyanfa 'd ta iUienta nan inangipatofiW is nan ^-^ 

the brothers let's two go that we two see the "maker-grow" of 

mtndenta '\ nay!" - kctjeng iiiastjfni ya padcinentja sail d/tot ^" 

our garden here Then it is night and th-y perceive the rat 

va inkibkibdong. tjetjthig/ngen nan inofji nan d/tot ay inkibkibdong. 

and it said: "kib, kib" Hears the younger the rat that said: "kib, kib" 


- isdcd pintjipap nan indtji ya kandna is nan ynn/dna ';/ ''ydim, ^ 

Then catches quickly the younger and says to his older bring 


ydiin nan pfnang, ta pinpadSyta na! sftond nan finihnlcy ken 

bring the ax that we kill quickly this! this is the "one having 


tjatta ay sindki." - ketjeng kanan san 6/tot en ''adikayW pnmaday i- 

us brothers. Then says the rat do ye not kill 

ken sak/ehi; fa umiiytdko is dfongko!" isded hindyai^ ya pindnot 

me let us go into my house then it runs and quickly 

runs after 

dkis nan indtji. - ketjeng kandna dkis en '"adtkdyiPt! ad/kdyi^t ^-^ 

also the younger Then it says again do not! do not 


puniadSy, ta iiniiivtdko is dfongko!" ad/odgnan nan indtji. 

kill let us go into my house holds fast the younger 



- isdcd kandn nan d/tot en ''iimipogandngkdyd, ta umiiytdko is 

Then says the rat set me free let us go into 

dfongko!" ketjeng inmntsdntsa is dfongna. 

my house. Then they arrived in its house. 

- isdna'd kandn en "enkol/tbkdyd ay sindki. fa kikddak is i' 

then says (the rat) cover your eyes, ye brothers, that I prepare 


'^•'-"^ kanentdkol" isdtja'd enkdliib ay sindki. ketj^ng ikisuan nan d/tot 

our food Then they cover their the Then stirs the rat 

eyes, brothers. 

1^ nan fdgkong: ya mdkan. ikisiidna nan itjusJi: ya istjd. ketjSng 

the pestle: and rice it stirs the spoon: and (it turns Then 

(it becomes); to) meat. 

inkikingao nan indtji; oSlten nan ydn/a )ian Ihndna. isdcd kandn nan 

peeps through the younger; holds tight the older his hand. Then says the 

( his fingers ) 

d/tot cn "dlikayd 'd ta mangantdko, lay nay nadto nan kauenfdko.' 

rat come let us eat, because here is cooked our food. 

kctjeng kandn san ydn/a on "sangiiydn pan si na/otdan nan 

Then .says the older "How quickly the being 

1" kanrntdko!" ketjeng mangdntja. kctjt^ng nakakandntja isdtja'd 

our food Then they eat Then tliey finished eating. Then they 

kandn ay sindki oi "iiuviubldta 'd ay sindki!" kctjeng nakatsubldantja. 

say the let us two smoke, us brothers. Then they finished smoking, 


kctjeng kandn nan d/tot cn "dlikdyd 'd s/na!" isdtja 'd dniiiy ay sindki. 

Then says the rul come here then the> i^o the 


^^ - ketjeng inpafdlan nan d/tot nan gdngsa ya nan ftjusli. isdcd nan 

Then took out tlie rcil a gong and a spoun. then a 

iomnan ay padengdoig, isdcd nan fdg/kong. isded kandn nan ytin/a 'n 

jar then a pestle. then says the older 

^^ "cnkinasldngenta! ngag nan kotdk tosha?" - kctjSng kandn nan indtji 

let us exchange what is the use of this then says the younger 

cn "kdak man nanndy ay ttjnsh ya nan fdg/kong." isdcd inkdan nan 

mine inileed this spoon and the pestle. then is the of the 

are property 


yun/a nan gdngsa ya nan tomnan ay padengdcng. isdtja'd ibfatciBivil ^^^ 

older the gong and the jar. Then they carry on a 

brother pole, 

a\ sindki nan gdngsa ya nan toptnan ay padengdcng. isded sfya nan 

the the gong ami the jar then it is the 


inkdan nan yfin/a. - isdcd kandn nan ti/tot en "engkdyii W.'" isdtja'd -^' 

property the older Then sa\ s the rat You ought Tlien they 

of ' to go 

siimda is nan flitja nan sindki. kctjchig intotoydtja ay sindki. isdcd 

go to their the brothers. Then they converse, the Then 

town, brothers. 

kandn nan yiln/a 'n "tsdpishim is dfongmo; tsdmshck is dfnngko.'' 

says the older go directly to your house, I go directly to my house. 

isded kandn san inOtji is nan asdzmna en "isugSdnio 'd nan fdnga!" -' 

Then sa\ s the younger to his wife put on fire the i)ots 

ketjeng linnmak nan tjenum. isdnad ikisua nan ifjusli is nan fdnga 

Then boils the water. Then he stirs the spoon in one pot 

ya kef fstja. isdnad dkis ikfsua nan fdg/kong is nan ha 'y fdnga ya 

and see! it's Then he again stirs the pe.stle in the other pot and 


ket mdkan. - kdnan nan asdivana en "ndngklT, fstja nan 22 

seel it's rice. Savs his wife whyl meat (isl the 

nginmadsdnan nan itjush!" isdtja'd mdngan. - isded fddlcn nan 23 

changing of the spoon Then they eat. Then sends out the 

yfin/a nan andkna: cngka intek'^n is ken alitd/oni!" ketjSng 

Qjfjer his son go to borrow at your uncle's. Then 


limiiy ya tsa kokitjen alitd/ona nan Jstjd. isded tomOli san ongonga 

he goes and he was cutting his uncle the meat. Then returns the boy 


^•2-* - ketjeng kandn amdna 'n "into kay; ngagiiu igd paydn )ian 

Then says his father where (was it); why ihd you not fill 

sokSngmn?" isded kandn nan ongSnga en "indidihnko ya tsa 

your bowl 'I'lu-n sa_\s the boy I was watching anil he 

kokitjen alitd/ok nan isfjd. ketjSng kwndanak, toy nmdshiak.' 

just was my uncle, the meat. Then I go away because I am bashful. 

2-'' ~ isded kandn anidna en "intS man la nan nangaldna 'sh tstjaf 

Then says hi.s father where then, pra>-, (lid he get meat 

ketjdng iWdlod nan ongonga ay mangzvdni en "istjd! tif/iwa ay istjd 

Then must the buy sav meat! real meat 


26 nan tsdtja sibfdn." - ketjeng istjaistjdtja nan sfbfdntja. ibfdlafdlaen 

their eating Then they eat their meat. Often takes out 

( usual ) (to rice; 

nan dnak nan inotji nan istjd: ydiySfna is ken alitd/ona ya 

the .son of the younger .some meat; he carries it to his uncle's and 

kandn alitd/ona en ''into man la nan na)igdlan dniani is nan fstja?" 

says his uncle uliere there, pray, ilid get your the meat? 


"^ "tsa otden dmak nan fstja." - isdtja'd niaiidl'izvish. 

often cooks my father meat. Tlieti they performed a ceremonj- 

(roasted tiieat). 

isdtja'd limi'ty nan pangdtona; nia/amdngtsa is nan dfong nan inOtji. 

Then Ihev go the ato-companions. they assemble in the house of the younger. 

isdna'd isiigcd nan fdnga. isdna'd tjdni'inian nan fd)iga. isded 

Then he puts on fire the pot tlien he fills with water the pot. Then 

nilnmak nan tjcnum. isdna'd itdpck nan fdg/kong ya kot nginnuUjan 

was boiling the water then he stirs the pestle and lo! it changed 



is mdkan. - isdna'd isugod nan isa ay fdnga. isdna'd tjendman. ^-^^ 

into rice. then he puts on fire another pot. then he puts water in. 

isded llniimak nan fdnga. isdna'd itdpek nan itjiish; kot istjd. 

Then boils the pot. Then he dips the spoon, then lo! it is 




ketjeng iilan nan tdkm ya kandntja en "nangkd! sttoiia nan 

Then observe the people and say why! this man 

onodnoy, tay itapekna nan ftjnsh ya ket tstja, - itapekna nan 

is lucky because he dips the spoon and it is meat he stirs the 

fdg/kong ya kef mdkan." isdtja'd mdngan ya kandntja en 

pestle and it is "rice." Then the)- eat and they say 

"kdkdtjcnyu 'd nan istja, ta mangantdko'd ay tdkw, tay 

)-on ought to cut the meat that we eat, we people, because 

na^aMivadtdko." - isded mangaydyeng san laldki ya kankandna en: ^^ 

we are ver}- hungry. Then sings the man and says 

asdzvak si Kctydk°u 

my wife, Ketyak3-u 

infaktdktsik na'y niinfdn°u. 

stands there, distributing with 

the rice-shovel. 

KetjSng tji. Si Mdlkod nan ninokSki'^d. Matym ya Antero. 

This is all. "Malkod" is the narrator. Matyu and Antero. 



1. i'tki: maize, ciddl^isak: I clear the ground^ cut grass and shrubs 
away. iiiangi^>iuiak: I am making a "garden." 

2. sinpanitlikan: one section of the entire mountain range. {fHig: a 

3. siangpadck [scngpddck] : I cut down a tree, "by chopping the 
stem obHquely/' tjapoiig: a tree (but not pine) ; "it makes nmch smoke." 
lolo: stick, shrub, fataiig: "high and big tree, pine." 

5. wdka [udka]: a strong vine, "Hke a rope," a liane. 

6. fbabak: I throw over; cut down and throw over. 

7. inhubli: see B. 30. The metre is trochaic, with strong ictus. 

10. paddnck: I perceive; and: 1 receive; I receive hospitably; 
obtain; h. 1. = tjoig/iigi^ufja, they hear. 

12. pumaddy: L. 92. B. 18. oiuifjck: I run after one to catcli him; 
pill-: quickly [296]. 

13. Sd/aagnan: Frequent, of /|^»a^. (Intensivum: fiitgnak). 

15. i'nkdlnbak: I cover my eyes, hold my hands before my eyes. 
kfkadak, sec Voc. "care." The spoon and pestle changed to food, or 

ratiier: meat and rice dropped from them into the pot. pestle: a small 

16. inkiktngaoak: I peep through my fingers, held before my eyes. 
sangiiydn pan: how quickly ! minsangiiyaiiak: I hasten, I do something 
busily; synon. : kamdek, I hasten, "sangiiydn pan is mangdi'bani is nan 
fdfay!" "how (piickly you arc making tiic sjiear!" 

17. dlikay/i'd: accent! sina = isna. 


18. pa{b)faldek: I make go out, I take out of a box, a cover. 

ay padeiigdeng: see Voc. ''jars, kinds of." 

The rat divides: gong and spoon — jar and pestle; this seems to the 
older brother too partial, the .spoon being much more valuable than the 
pestle. He intends to give the spoon to the younger for the pestle ; but he 
is persuaded by his shrewd brother (who had observed the rat's tricks) to 
take the jar instead. It seems that the younger hides carefully his magic 
gifts, while the older carries his presents openly on a ''fatdi°(zvil,'" a pole 
balanced on the shoulder. 

kotok: advantage; meaning; use. 

22. kdnan: accent! 

23. is ken: = into the home of... tsa kok^tjen: and just then contin- 
ued to cut, was cutting. [310, tsa]. 

24. into hay: lov intS pay. 

25. into man Id: [428]. nan naugaldna [nangaldana]: his getting- 
place, his taking, nan tsdtja slbfan: their "usual," ''frequent/' "customary"' 
meat eaten with rice. Voc. food. 

27. mandp/isak [maudozvisliak]: I perform a lesser ceremony; 
tsaMzvtshck: I broil meat, nilniiiak: linnmak in 28. 

28. ^/a»«;»aH, and later : tjcnmman. 

31. "She stands there to take out rice from the pot and to distribute it 
to the guests, using a shovel, a flat spoon." 



''•I IV odd nan unash id Falhifid. ihniiy san niiikja ay mangila. tsa cd 

There is sugar-cane at Falidfid. goes the owner Id inspect. often then 

madngkay nan onasli. isdna'd kandn en "ta od akndlak na nan tsa 

is eaten up the cane. Then he says let me watch here the 

2 mangdngkay is nan onashko ay nay." - isdcd nialdfi ya ak)idlana; 

eater up of my here. Then il was and he watches, 

sugar-cane night 

ma/td intjasdna. kashi maMwdkash : isdcd kashi malafi ya itjandna 

nothing h;- found again to-morrow; tlieii again night and he finds 

(it is) (it is) 

3 tsddio san man gdngkaydngkay is san dnashna. - ketjeng kandna en 

reall} tlie eaters of his sugar-cane. Then lie says 

"nangko hot tsdtond nan man gdngkaydngkay is nan onashko!" 

why! these are the eaters of my sugarcane! 

ketjeng adikoena tjaitja. isdna'd ipdkot nan hang ay tnkfffi. 

then he pursues them. then he catches a single star. 

■* - isdna'd kandn en ''inndkdyu 'sh dpny is sa, ta ilantdko tja na. 

Then he says bring light here that we see them 


tay tjdtona bot nan niangdngkayangkay is nan dnashko." - isdna'd ^■■' 

be- these (are) the eaters of my sugar-cane. Then he 

kandn en "padSyentdko ed na!" - isdna'd kandn en "adikdyu 

says we ought to kill this Then she says do ye not 

(the Star) 

pwnaddy!" isdfja'd ninfdeg is san ninkOa is nan linash. et umiiytja 

kill (nie) then they went with the owner of the sugar-cane; then they go 

'^ dfongna. isdna'd asaWivden nan ninkoa is nan dnash. isdtja'd 

to his house. Then marries (her) the owner of the sugar-cane. Then they 

makdnaktja 'sli Uindtja. - ketjeng en nangdyu si asdmzvana ya ^ 

have children, five. Then had to get wood her husband and 


intsimitstniid nan tnkfffi is baydkna. kaiotzvaka^wdkash intstmid is 

she sews, the star, her wings every daj- she sews 

baydkna. isded nakatsiniidan is baydkna. isded nialaff nan tdlon. 

her wings. Then she finished sewing her wings then is night the time. 

- isdna'd ifsdotsao nan bdyak is nan dnak ay yi'in/a; et pataydmw^na 

Then she gives the wings to the son, the oldest; then she makes him flj- 


ad tjdya. isded kandn san inofji ken amdna 'n "fjt'ry pay tinuidyaB 

to the Then says the youngest to his father yonder has flown 


nan yfhi/anii." - kashi dkis nialaff nan tdlon. masdyesdycp ^ 

our oldest Again becomes the time. Fast asleep is 

brother. night 

dkis si asdiPiisjana. ketjeng aldena dkis nan fsa ay andkna \a 

again her husband. Then she takes again one her son and 

pataydiPiwena: pataydmzven pay san fafdyi. -- ketjthig mamvdkas \a '^ 

makes him fly, makes him fly, she the woman. Then (it becomes) and 



■'^•9 insiidsud son inStji ken amdna ya kandtia en "tjd\ pay dkis 

informs the younger his father and says yonder again 

1'^ inpatdyam tna kamzvadnmi!" - isdcd kandii amdtja en "issdka 

made fly mother our middle brother. Then says their father vou will 

fumdngon ken sak/Sn, mo aldena nan tsa dkis ay kamzvdan\n; at 

awake me if she takes the one also who is "mi<lille then 

(now) brother" 

1^ fumangdngka ken sak/ln." - ketj^ng kandn nan inStji en "ddm! 

awake me! Then says the younger well! 

fangofangonek sika ya adJka pddd fumdngon. nay kay lc\tjem ngin 

I try to awake you but you do at all wake up here, indeed, you want perhaps 


'- ay mafsa is nannay fakfluliita?" - isdcd kandn nan amdna en 

to be aloue on this earth Then says his father 

"adtsddlo fnmdngonak, mo fumangdngka ken sak/thi!" ketjSng 

I (certainly) shall wake up if you awake me Then 

malaff dkis ya pataydpdvena nan /sang ay ongdnga; ya adhnakatd\alP(. 

it is again and she makes flj- the one chiUl but not he can lly. 


^^ - isded kandii san indtja en ''ketji'ng makdyadkayd 'd siiia av told. 

Then says their Then you are left here three 


Ijakdyu ay sindk/f ay nay, toy adlkayn makatdyan, et adtsakdyu 

you brothers here, as you not can fly then you will 


03' sinak//, el ad/ikapdnfja fjdkayd is bdld/Akyu cf adtsakdyu 

brothers, then they'll make for you guns then vou will be 

nan ifuwfsan nan idkPt. ketjcUig i}imdyai'^{ nan indtja ad tjd\a. 

tax-collectors of incn. Then flics their to the, sky. 


ketjeng tjaitja nan nginmddjan is Ildko; kctjeng tjattja nan ^•^'^ 

Then they were changed to Ilocanos, then they were the 

ifuwtsantja nan tdkiA. 

tax-collectors of the people. 

ketjeng pay tji 's okokmd. Si "Mdlkod" nan ninokmd. Mdtyi 

Finished here the tale. "Malkod" was the narrator. 


1. angkdyek: I use up all, I eat all. ta od: od for: cd. akndlak: I 
watch day and night, itjasdna = itjandna, he finds. 

2. tsddlo: himself, means also: certainly; really; finally. Cf. 12. 
(strongly affirmative.) 

3. tsdfoiia: tjdtona, these, (plur. of ^/^o»a. ) 

6. uiangdyitak [mangdymak]: I get wood in the forest; also: I go 
to the woods to get auspices, to hear the omen-bird. 

8. ntasdycsdycp: intensive and durative. 

9. \'f/n/a: the oldest ; indtji: the youngest ; ka&ezvdan: those between. 
See \'oc. brother. 

11. fangofangSnck: conative and durative: I keep trying to awake 
you; adtka pdad: you never., you not at all.. nay kay: kay, for pay, 
emphasizes nay. 

12. /!(»/c/»^o;/o/v' here in two meanings: i) intransitive; 2) transi- 
tive (but as a personal verb). 

13. kaxdfjck: I abandon, leave. makdyadak: I am abandoned, I 


remain alone, adtjakdyu ay siiiak//: you sliall remain brothers and shall 
not I)ecome stars (or: adtsakdyu, from tsa: ''you will continue"). 

ad-i-kaeb-an-tsa: they, the people, will make for you [261]. 

ifinvisan, or: ifubowfsan, irom: fffys.iiixes. (Ilocano) 


T.i IVodci nan tsa 'y ongonga 'y fafdyi. mo infdyu si indna, kandna 'n 

There is a certain girl when pounded her she says 

(rice) mother, 

"indka ^s nuifiiig, ina! fa kdnck." kctj(?ng aktdna is mating san 

give (me) ricemeal mother that I eat. Then she gives ricemeal 

2 andkna. - kctjeng kasfna kandn en "indka dkis is mSting, tay 

to her Then she again says give again ricemeal for 


inangkdyko." kctj(hig kandn nan itidna en "lufngko: mid nongndngmo, 

I ate up all. Then says her why! nothing your "value" 

tay adpay angkdyim nan f/Jidyt^." isded indka nan ongSnga. ishdcd 

as you will eat up tlie rice. Then cries the child. Then 

kandn indna en "aykSka tUin ta niangdngka 'sli mStingf" 'sded 

says her mother are you a that you eat ricemeal Then 



nakabfayilan si iudna. - isdcd alden indna nan saktji'tan ya en ^'-^ 

had finished her mother. Then takes her mother the waterjar and ijoes 


niandktjfr ishdcd inakdyad nan aiufkna is dfongtja. isded en 

to get water. Then is left her daughter in their house. Then has 

nandktjn si indna. - isdcd alden nan ongonga nan taydan ya ins/not '^ 

to get water her mother. Then takes the cliild the basket and goes 

is nan kataydan. isdnad alden nan lig/d ya itangebna is nan 

into the basket. Then she takes the cover and puts it on upon the 

( winnowing-tra3- ) 

kataydan. ketjeng dmtsan si indna ya pasikpSna na)i saktjdan. 

basket. Then arrives her mother and carries in the water jar. 


ketjeng isdadna nan saktj/ian, andpena nan andkna. ketjeng 

Then she sets down the jar she seeks her daughter. Then 

ibfakdbfakdna is nan tdklV,; ya kandntsa 'n "'nia/id inilanii is nan 

she asks ever^Tvhere the people and they say nothing did we see of 

andknio." - isdcd kasfn s/hnk'ep is dfongtja. ketjeng tjcng/ngSna ^ 

your daughter. Then again she enters their house. Then slie hears 

nan engkdlotJkod is nan kataydan. isdnad Ickudfen nan lig/o ya 

the noise in the tjaskct. Then she takes off the cover and 

ketjeng kasintja ki-king-king. - kandntja en "king - king - issam ^ 

then they again chirped. I'lie}- saj- - - j-ou will 

tnanak nan niotfng!^' ketjeng ilden indna nan taydan ya nakdyad 

have as the riccmeal! Then sees her mother the basket and left were 


nan tdiigan nan andkna. - ketjeng indka sli' indna ya kandna en ^ 

the bones of her daughter. Then cries her mother and .says 


''"•^ "a\ka ivay mamani:^zvd)ii en ngUkmddsau san aiuikko is tilin? aykS 

would say that changed was my into a did 

anyone daughter ricebird? 

zvay adik itdnoy; mo nan mOting ay kanakandna, et tsak idjiiadjila." 

ever I not grant when rice (was) her asking then I gave (her) 

(her wish) always 

9 - isdfja'd inmdngmang tja indna. isded snmdkong san nginmddsan 

Then the\ sacrificed, "her Then returns the one changed 


si ttlin. ketjSng kasitja kikfngking: kandntsa ay inktngking en: 

into ricebirds. Then again they chirped they say, chirping 

"k}ng - king - manakmo nan inoting!" 

have as your child the pounded ricel 

Kctjeng tji is okokl<^d. Si Mdlkod nan ninokokmd. 

Knded here the tale. "Malkod" is the "narrator. 

Falonglong {Antcro). 


1. nan ha 'y: a certain (not: a girl). findyPC liulled rice, which i.s 
pounded to mdting, rice-meal. 

2. mid nongnSngnw: "you are good for nothing" ("Taugenichts; 
vautrien"); adpay: ad taken from the verb angkdyim. nakabfaydan: 

3. uiandkiji"(: with the water-jar; mang Vsaktjdan. nandktjlPc: 
preterite, en nandktjm, pronounced: innandktjev : the verb rn: goes, must 
not be mistaken for the Augment in such combinations ! 

4. dintsan: she arrived at home, '"she returns." 

4. pasikpSna for: pa/sikpinia. lit.: she causes to enter; she carries 
into the house. 


5. Reduplication: slie asks eagerly and fre(|uently, "everywhere," 
many persons; she keeps asking. 

6. kasfntja: they again; the child is transformed into several birds! 

7. fssaiii, which takes here the possessive ending from i)ianak{mo), as 
auxil. of future. See [308]. 

'Tf you like better to keep your rice, than your child, you shall have the 
rice as your child henceforth." (This phrase occurs frequently after meta- 
morphoses: K. 10, M. 6, 12.) 

8. aykSzvay or : aykSway; zvay, syncop. form of zvoday. "is there 
any one saying that" Or: 'Svho would say that.... who would believe 
that.... would any one imagine that...." itanoy: agree, grant a wish, "say 
yes!" vio kanakandiia: whenever ; as many times as: Redupl. tsak: oiitn, 
"each time/' I used to... 

f). fja: collective article [30 ff. ] they, whom her mother represents; 
the family, mdngmaug: ceremony, invocation and sacrificing of a chicken. 
The metre is trochaic; the natural accent yields to the rhythmical ictus! 
Kctjeng fji: as synon. was given: iiafi4ash, from fmdsJiek, I finish, end. 


Wodd nan djuzva 'y fobfdUo, nan fsa 'y yun/a ya nan anOtji. ^^ 

There are two boys the one the older and the younger. 

entja nangdym ay sindki. isdtja'd isda nan kinayStja. 

they go to get wood, the brothers. Then they take home their "wood 



'•^•1 isded isnnon indtja ya adf fumitjang. isded kandn indtja en 

Then put into their hut not it burns. Then says their 

fire mother, mother 

2 "ngmg nan kinaySyn!" ~ nan ytin/a kandna en "tengkain^ mangdyiPt 

bad (is) your "wood the older says let us go to get wood, 


si Itpat!" isdtjad lunfiy ct isdddtja nan kinayOtja ya adi fumttjang. 

dry • Then they go then they take their "wooil but not it burns, 

branches home gotten" 

isded kandn indtja en "iiangkd; mfd nongnSng nan nanga\ptanyu 

Then says their why! nothing the value of your wood- 

mother gathering 

3 /fl_V adl fumitjang: nan ydngkay dsliokna nan dngsan." - isded 

because it does burn only its smoke (is) very much. Then 


payyiien nan yi'in/a nan kal/n indtja. isdna'd kandn is nan 

hurts the older the word of their Then he sajs to 


anStjlna 'n "enta mamdlid is nan kanidnta ta rnta aldcn san 

his younger let us two to sharpen our axes that we two to get 

brother go go 

inflak ay naldngoldngo ay Ifpat, ct adfsddlo fnniitjang." 

which I saw ver}' dry wood and this surely will burn. 

■* - isdtjad nianidknak ay sindki. isdtja'd inihntjan is nan kakdyi?tan. 

Then they go out to work the Then they arrived at the woodland, 


isded kandn nan anStji en "mangayOta 'd Jtsna!" isded kandn 

Then says the younger let us two get wood here Then sa\s 

nan ynn/dna 'n "cnta 'sli nan tjt'ii 'y kdiXwad nan dntjodntjo ay 

his older brother let us go to yonder place of the very high 

5 fddang. sta tji 's Snta umdla is ae^zvfdta." - isded kandn nan 

trees. right there we must go to get our load. Then says the 


indtji en "taddd adfta mntjan, mo intd nan kaiidm en nmdlanta ^-^ 

younger how long, we not arrive, where you say (is) our "getting" 


is aMw/dta." iscicd kaiidn nan yitn/a en "enta 'sJi nan kdkkdkSdnd!" 

for our load. Then sa3S the older let us go to the nearer place 

(a shorter distance). 

isdtja'd unitjan is nan kdmtvad nan dntjodntjo ay fddang. 

Then they arrive at the place of the very high • trees. 

isded fdlddjin nan yftn/d)ia nan ivdnisna, isded nan dikdmna ^ 

Then unties the older his breechcloth, then his shell 

ya nan sangkitdna ya nan sokldngna \a nan fohangdna va nan 

and his girdle and his hat and his pipe and 

kdtjingna ya nan tjokdiPcna. isdna'd kandn is nan andtjina en 

his brass-chain and his pouch. Then he says to his younger 


"lignani nan tjokdio/ko, naji zvanhko, nan katjlngko, nan soklSngko, 

hold my pouch, uiy lireechcloth, my chain, my hat. 

nan dikdmko ya nan fobdngak." isded kmndlab nan yihi/a ad tongtjM. 

my shell and my pipe. Then climbs the older high up. 

'shdnad sibden nan pdnga ya kandna 'n "ngdk! ngdk!" ya isdna'd '' 

Then he cuts off a branch and savs - - and then he 

kandn ken anotjina en "sdnd kay!" isded paddnen nan andtjtna 'sli 

says to his younger "right Then receives his younger 

brother now!" (catches) brother 

kodpna. -isded kandn nan anciijina en ''jidngko; i^pom nd mo!" 'sded 

below. Then says the younger why! your leg this, truly! Then 


kandn nan yi'tn/a en "fakon! If pat pay ay naldngoldngo!" kas/'na 

says the older "not so!;" wood, indeed, very dry again he 



^■^ kandn en "ngdk! ngak! sdna kay si It pat ay naldngoldngo!" - 

he says - - "right wood very dry (I throw down) 

"ndngko; kaduan nan ^pom iid mo!" ''fakSn! kaddan nan 

why! the other your lejj (is) this "not so!" another 

pdnga sha 'y naldngldngo!" - "oliT isdcd kandn nan inotji, 

branch, tliis, very dry. oh, then says the younger, 

"ayk/ siya na 'sli pdnga ^ ndngko; i"}poni tja nd mo!" 

is this here (to be) a branch? why! your legs, these verily! 

''ngdk! ngdk! sdna kay: si naldngoldngo 'y fdndiilg ay pdnga!" 

"right very dry small twigs 

'sdcd kandn nan inStji en "ndngko; liinam nd mo!" ''fakan!" isdcd 

Then says the younger why! your arm this veril\! no; then 

^■^ kandn nan yi'in/a; "pdnga sha 'y )iingkaldngo!" - islided inkutkok 

says the older twigs these, very dry Then shneke<i 

nan \uin/a: kaiidna 'y inknikok en "kiiki'iiko! knkHtko!'' isdna'd 

the older lie says, shrieking _ _ _ _ _ _ Then he 

kandn is nan indtjfna en "isdam nan zvdnis, Jian kdtjing, nan s()klong, 

says to his younger take lumie the breech- the brass-chain, the hat, 

brother cloth, 

nan sangkttan ya nan fobdngak ken indta; kandni ken indta 'n "dlacm 

tlie belt and my pipe to our tell to our take 

mother mother 

1' nanndy ta inandkmo!" 'shded indka nan anOtjhta; kandna en 

these that they be your Then cries the \-ounger he says 


"aykdak pay shiimda? ya ngdg kotSkko ay makdyad ken indta? 

shall I reallv go home and what "is my use" being left alone with our 



ndngko; inandkas si ngPtmatsanta'd ay siiiaki is killing.'' ^.12 

wh)-, it is better we transform ourselves we brothers into serpent-eagles (?). 

- is(/cd kandn nan yi'in/a en "ck unidyak is fanfandetzvi, ta ifuegna 

Then says the oMer I go to call a hawk that he takes 


sfka id fobfiiy." isdcd sit in da nan anotji ya kandna ken indtja 

you home Then goes home the younger and he says to their mother 

cn '"dlaein nanndy wdnis ya soklong ya sangkitan ya nan fobdngan ^^ 

take this breech- ami hat and girdle and the pipe of 


yiin/ak, ta inandkmo, tay tsatsdniaka ken tjakanii ay sindki; 

my older that you have (them) as too-severe-you-are to us lirothers. 

brother as your son, 

tay intd siddcin. ^ngkanii niangdyo et kandin en "adf fiiniftjang 

for nothing you like. we go to get wood, then 3'ou say it does not burn 

nan kayda'iimi:' ~ isd\i indka nan si indtja; kandna 'y mangzvdiii cn ^'^ 

our wood. Then cries their she says saying 


"ngag kotok toslia!" isded kandn nan inOtji cn ''sta slia nan 

"bad use (thing) this" Then says the younger right this (is) 

kindnapmo: aykSka kasin indka ya kasin tsdaii is toinolian ydii/ak 

"your desert" do you again weep and again not for the return of my 


istjiF nginmdtjan is kdlling!" - kctjeng inniangnidngtja. i' 

yonder he is transformed to an eagle. Then they sacrifice a chicken. 

isdcd shnmda san nginmdtjan si kdlling is dfongtja. isded hnmdtong 

Then comes home the "transformed into an eagle" to their house. Then he sits 

is nan tabfdngan nan dfongtja. isdfja'd indngan ya itsaotsdotja 

upon the top of their house Then they eat and they give (him) 


'^■'•'' nan wadwddna ya adina tsaotvdden ; apfd ydngkay cnkokiifkok is 

his meat (share) and he does take; he only shrieks on 


1^ tafongan nan dfongtja. - isded indka si indtja; kandna ay uiangzvdui 

top of their house. Then weeps their she says speaking 


cn ''banddka ta mangantdko!" isdcd ad/; isded tjdkasna ay 

come down that we eat Then he does then lie ininiediatly 

tiimdyaB ya enkiiikok. 

flies off and shrieks. 

Ketjeng tji is okdkivd. Si "Malkod" nan iiiuokokpid. MdiyB 

Knded here the tale. "Malkod" has told it. 


1. fobfdllo: sing, for plur., as often! andtji, or: inStji. 
kinayOtja: kdyTPt, wood, with preterite infix: their wood which they had 


isiinon: Noni. actionis: ?.?///;o and "genitive-indicator'" -n. 
ngdag: ad, drawn and spoken with disgust! 

2. Ifpad [I/pat]: dry hranclies on trees, {bdding: dry wood fallen 
from trees.) nan kaymcnyu or: kaihvinyu. 

3. paxyilcn or: pa/ayiicn; pa/ayiick: I hurt, insult by words. 
/e«'?;iaH, Tucucan word for : pinang, an ax. adtsddlo: "this very wood," or: 
"surely;" tsddlo means: self, the same, the very same. Cf. S. 2 and 12. 

4. andtji was constantly interchanged with i)uitji. 
sia tji 's, or styadsis: therefore. 

5. taddo.... how long will it take to get there.... [357] 
umdlanta: our getting-place, of us two: um-ala-an-ta. 


6. dlkam: a large. Hat, irridescent shell worn as ornament on the 
"zvanis," i. e. breech-cloth. 

7. sibden: i. e. he cut or broke off his limbs, imitating the sound of 
cracking wood, "sdna kdy!" calling one's attention to an object thrown to 
him: look out, it comes now! [313]. 

8. lid mo: pron. : lufino: mo: affirmative particle, emphasizing na: 
here; so: samo. fakdii! no! not any limb but... [323]. kadfia [kadzva]: 
second companion. 

9. fandnig: the only plural form of an adjective obtained. 

10. ta iiiancikjuo: Cf. T. 7 and Note. 

13. tsatsdmaak: lit. I am too much; too exacting. ))ia//d siadek: I 
like nothing, I am discontented with everything. 

14. nail kindnapmo: "your seeking," what you sought, brought about; 
i. e. it is your fault; you deserve it. andpck: I seek, search. 

kasiii.... kasin... the one time you cry, the other time "not any more;'' 
"you cannot help crying now;" idiomat. cf. B.27. 

16. tjdkasna [315]. 

Si Malkod: the narrator must be named; if he is unknown, "Alalkod" 
must be named as the imaginary inventor of the tale; for: "mo nan 
ninokdkBd si Malkod, cf adim HtdBzven: if "Malkod" is the narrator, you 
do not dream (of the story). [In Otto Scheerer's "The Nabaloi Dialect" 
(Idiom of the Ibaloi in Benguet), Ethnol. Survey Publications, Vol. II, 
Part 2, Manila, 1905, p. 167, the word malkiit is said to mean: the spec- 
ters of dead people.] 



^^■^ Wodd nan sinaki ay infciln is ttlin; nan laldki 

Tliere are a brother an<l a sister who watch ricebirds, the boy 

infSlu is lima, nan fafdyi infdln is kapdyoan. nan dman nan 

gtaards a garden, the girl guards a ricefield. the father of the 

laldki kinmabidna; kabidiidhia nan tnan nan fafdyi. 

boy had married a second time; he married the mother of the girl. 

2 - fnaMzvdkas ya i/iphwcd indtsa nan shcngedtsa. nan dman 

It was to-morrow and carried out their mother their meal. The father 

nan laldki mangdntPcb si dgsa ya nan Idman. nan bddang nan 

of the boy hunts deer and wild pigs. The meat of the 

yun/a is nan shengc^dna ay Idman ya amdng^na is san andkna 

older (boy) in his meal, which is pork. is "her gathering" for her 

^ 'y fafdyi. mdkan ydngkay nan yofna is nan laldki. - k'as/n 

daughter. Rice only (is) her bringin,g to the boy. Again 

dkis maMwdkas; isded i/dnMd indtsa nan shciigddtsa ay si}idki. 

it is to-morrow then carries out their mother their meal, of the 



nail iiafiiJigosli ay makaii yonia is nan laldki ya nan kazvis ay ludkan '^^■'^ 

the rotten rice she to the boy and the good rice 


is nan andkna > fafayi. - kctjcng nan laldki ay dnak nan kinabidudna '^ 

to her daughter. Then the boy, as son of the man with second 


tsdiia tsaotvdden nan shcngedna, tsana ikd/np; shdinya yangkay 

as often receives his meal, so often buries it; only (it is) 

as he he 

nan dnak nan fafdyi ay tsdnia 'y niaiiganidnga)i. 

the daughter of the woman who much eats. 

- uiafikod san laldki, tay nafdngosh nan tsa yaoy nan kasfna ^ 

emaciated the bov, because rotten is "the usual bringing" of his 

inntna. isded kandn anidna en "fck cd flac'n nan inidldgna!" 

stepmother. Then says his father I must to see "sonny" 


ketjeng ihni'iy si anidna; unifiy ct ya ibfakdn san laldki ken 

Then goes his father, he goes then, and tells the bov to 

anidna nan sliengedna ay nafdngosh. - ketjeng kandna en "fssam ^ 

his father of his meal that is rotten. Then (the boy) says you will 

indnak nan tsani inpaydi ay shengedko." ketjeng kandn amdna en 

have your sending which my meal Then says his father 

"ngdg nan fnniad is nan sliengednwf" - ketjeng kandn nan andkna ^ 

what happened to your meal Then says his son 

en "nan nidadjf tsani inpaydi ken inak ay shengedko'd va 

forsooth, vou often made bring mv mother, that inv meal was 

(should be) 

nafdngosh." - ketj(fng kandn amdna en "ya nan pay tsak inpaydi 

rotten. Then savs his father well, that I used to send 


^i-^ ay shcng(fdmo'd mcikan ef mahddabaddngan is nan tsak aimbau ay 

as your meal, rice and meat added to it from (that) I often hunted 

(sliould be) 

9 Idman ya nan dgsa." - ketjSng kandn son andkna 'n "pdsig pay 

wild pig and deer. Then sajs liis son thoroughly 

^" nafdngosli nan slicngedko ay tsam paydi." - kctjihig kandn amdna 

rotten was my meal which you often have sent. Then says his lather 

'n ^'kandipan! ainfuydkasli si naflkodka! ndngku pot oldldy nan 

"Why! is that so?" therefore you are thin why! evil (is) the 

11 ikdkan nan kas/in iiin/na!" - isded kandn nan amdna en "sddta 'd 

acting of your step-mother. Then .says his father let us two 

/(/ fobfiix!" kctjc^ng adf; kandna ay mangzi'dni en "sddka 'd 

home Then (the son) does not he says, speaking you may go 

(consent) home, 

man." kctjchig kandn aindna 'n "sddta'd maadjf ay sindma." 

indeed. Then says his father let us go home, forsooth, as father and 

1- - kctjeng dlaii san andkna ya kumdlab is nan fadang. ketjifng 

Then "the direct of his son is climbing on high trees. Then 


intkak; kandna ay ontkak: "hag! hiigT "fssam indnak nan 

he screams, he says screaming - you will have as child the 

dnak nan kinabfduam ya nan tsam in paydi ay slicngt^iko 'y 

child of your second wife and your usual sending, my meal that 

13 nafdngosli." - kctjihig indka si amdna ya ketj(?ng dnoondtjina san 

was rotten. Then weeps his father and then he follows 

1-1 andkna. indktsadktsang is nan fddang. - ketjdng tsd kandn nan 

his son he jumps "always" on the trees. Then keeps saying 


amdna ';/ "biunanddka man, fa intotoydta, ta sumdata ad fobfdy cf ^^-^"^ 

his father come down let us two talk, let us two return home then 

admadgSiita is nan fdnfantg ay dfong." - adt san andkna; kandna ^^ 

we two shalllive in a little house. (he does) his son he says 

alone not, 

ay mangwdni en "engka 'd, dina, fay sak/Sn ngBmddsanak is 

speaking you should go! father, because I am transformed into 

kd/ak." kcfjeng snnida s' amdna is nan laft ad fobfdy. 

a monkey. Then returns his father in the nitjht home. 

- ketjeng kdnan asdBzvdna 'n "engka man malafHaf^ ay?" ^^ 

Then says his wife " why do you, pray, come in the night 

- ketjeng kandn san asdmva ay laldki en ''laffn fond 'sli! kanaikapdn ^^ 

Then savs the husband night this "miserable" you 

(you say?) 

si fafdvi! nangkSka mangfsu is fafdyi. nangkofdko dSshdcn 

woman why! you are a wicked woman. wdiylwedo provide enough 

nan shcngedfja 's amtn nan andkta!" - kcfjdng fsdna pintjayfjdyan 1*^ 

meal for all our cliildren Then he many kicks 


san asdl'Vivdna ay fafdyi. kcfjeng inltsangfsa. san andkna ay 

his wife. Then they are divorced. His son who 

nginniddsan is kd/ak cf tnia anidngen nan kd/ak ay 

was transformed into a monkey then goes to assemble the monkeys. 

angdngsan is nan dnndtja. 

great many into their garden. 

Ketjeng fji 's okoki^ni. Si Malkod nan nindkixd. 

This is all of the tale. "Malkod" is the narrator. 

MdtyW ya FalSnglong. 



1. iiifSlii or: infSyhi. 

2. "sh(fngcd," carried to the field in tlie basket "tcipil,'' consists of rice 
with "bddang," a piece of meat placed on tlie rice, himan and dgsa 
[ogsha]: see Voc. food. 

amongena: lit. "she assembles," i. e. she takes all the meat out of her 
stepson's share, "she i)icks it all together out," for her own child. 

3. ay siiidki: in apposition with -fja. their, namely of the... 
The boy has no meat at all and gets besides only rotten rice. 

4. sihnya [sJiumya ydngkay]: Ex. sumydka ydngkay ay inanabla: 
you alone are smoking; sumydka ydngkay ay kdwh nan kJain: you alone 
take the good things for yourself, suniydtja ydngkay ay inkdeb is fdnga: 
only they are making pottery, tsdma: much (unreduplicated only here). 

5. fbfakak: I ask, and: I answer a question, I tell. (Person, in cas. 

6. Formula: fssam inanak.... see: T.7;; infra. 12. ydik: I 
bring; pa/ydik: authoritatively: I order to bring, I send out. ngdg nan 
tnmad? "what is the matter with.." from ihnad, it happens. 

8. mabddabaddngan: "richly" provided with meat; much meat placed 
on rice. 

9. pdsig: pure, without any admixture ; pdsig faltdog: it is all gold, 
pure gold. 

10. kandipan: an exclamation of angry surprise when discovering the 
cause of some evil. See 17, where kanai has a personal suffix. 

amfiiydkash.. is: for this reason ; therefore, aiiifiiydkasli is ma/hika 
'sna: "for this reason you were not here!" (used mostly in exclamations). 
olSldy: still stronger than ngaag, bad, mean. 

11. sddta'd: hortatory mood, with infix -urn- omitted; dual. 
md ddji: "done," "gehen wir also;" sindma: [60]. 


12. dla: the direct way; the immediately following action [318]. 
"hag!'' interjection of the monkey language, issam... see Note to 6. 

13. inaktsadktsang: he jumped from tree to tree; frequent, form. 

14. tsa kalian: he says often, several times^ keeps saying, {tsa, not 
tsdiia, because the "subject" follows the verb.) 

mddgcnak: I live without wife, in celebacy. 

16. kdnan: accent ! but in 17: kanan. malafilaflak: [413]. 

17. lafintondsJi: this (you call) night? tjcmhntondsJi-^ this you 
claim to be water? asihitondsh? you call this a dog? (ironically) 

o/Sshdck: I keep well, give enough and never miss to give; I provide 
with plenty; I treat well, care for. 

kanatkapdn: "how miserable, wicked you are!" Ex. : kanaft japan: how 
bad they are! kanaikaynpan: how bad you are! [ka}iafkd\'u pan^. 

18. pintjaytjdyan, or: bdntjaytjdyan: "kick quickly." d)ia: from 
ek, I go; Sna or: 5na. 


PI Tja Palpaldma ken Palpaldking thitja iiisdib. si Palpaldma 

(They,) Palpalama and Palpalaking go to dam off a river. Palpalama 

saSpina nan palupo. si Palpaldking kandna ken Palpaldma en 

dams off the fast running water. Palpalaking says to Palpalama 


PI "sadpenta sa ay djiia!" isded kandn PalpaUinia en "saopck na ay 

let us two that "togetlier" Then says Palpalama I dam off this 

dam off 

hang." isded kandn Palpaldking en "fek saSpen )ian poshong." 

alone. Then says Palpalaking let me dam off the stagnant 

go to water. 

2 - isded sindib Palpalama nan paldpo. dngsan nan inddna ay kdffu. 

Then dams off Palpalama the current. many he catches small fish. 

3 si pay Palpaldking ma/ id inddna is kdtp'n. - isded kandn Palpaldking 

Palpalaking nothing catches, fish. Then says Palpalaking 

cn "indka 's ifsa 'sli kdtfu!" isded kandn Palpaldma en "ngdg 

give (me) one fish Then says Palpalama what is 

kotdkko ay mangitsdotsao ken sika? aykS ngdg fa aldem nan tsa ay 

my to give (one) to you why ought you to one 

"advantage" n^^ 

4 kdtj°u?" - isded kandn Palpaldking ken Palpaldma en "ydka; 

fish Then says Palpalaking to Palpalama well then; 

ydim nan kOiveng nan katpo mo!" isded kandn Palpaldma en 

give (me) the ear of a fish Then says Palpalama 

5 "iigag kotdkko fa aldem nan kdiveng nan kdfj"u?" - isded kandn 

what is that you get the ear of a fish Then says 

Palpaldking en "ydka; ydim man nan kdweng nan tjaUd." isd'd 

Palpalaking well then; so give (mej the ear ofa"ljaIid," Then 

(of a fish: ) 

kandn Palpaldma 'n "aykS ngdg fa aldem nan kdweng nan tjdl'id? 

says Palpalama why ought you to get the ear of a tjalid 

6 sak/chi ngin ya fakc'nakf" - "ydka: ydim man nan apdngoy si 

I (am) perhaps "not myself?" well then; give (me) the leg 


dgkamd!" isdcd kandn Palpaldma en "aykS ngag fa aldem nan ^-^ 

of a crab Then says Palpalama why ought you to get the 

apdngoy si dgkamd?" - isdcd itmiiy si Palpaldking is nan atdto. ^ 

leg of a crab Then goes Palpalaking to the ato-resting-place. 

isdna'd iliit'ii )ian akfoh; isdna'd hdnen nan akfob. isdna'd kandn en 

Then he sees a fruit then he eats the fruit. Then he savs 

'fSb! - fob! - mid kankanend 's akfob!" isdcd kandn Palpaldma 

fob! fob! nothing he eats (of) fruit! Then says Palpalama 

en "tak/^n mo mid kdnek is akfob; aydka nan indlak ay kdtj°ii, 

nevermind, if nothing I eat (of) fruit Plenty I have caught fish, 

nan tjaltd, nan dgkamd isdcd nan lik'ng." - isdtja'd stunda id fobfdy. 

"tjalid" crab then also "lileng." Then they go home. 

isded madSy si Palpaldking; nan sangadji'lna falida; nan 

Then dies Palpalaking his death-chair (is of) iron rods 

t&cktjildna gdngsa; nan takidna kdtjing. - isded kandn nan ^ 

his seat (were) gongs; his rope: brass chains. Then say the 

tdkB is nan inina en "susnmcdka 'sna, ta engkami uuida is kai°izvitan 

people to the old woman wait here let us go to get a cock 

is otSngna ad Kalai^zvftan." isdtja'd k&(mdan. - isdcd kandn 1° 

for death-ceremony at Kalaowitan. Than they went awa\-. Then says 

nan nadd\ is san int'na en "ofdtjim sak//n!" isded kandn nan 

the dead man to the woman untie me Then says the 

infna en "a\kS ngag ta ofdtjck sfka?" isdna'd kandn en "ofdtjim 

woman whv should I untie you Then he says untie 


P-^° sak/Sn pay; mo adfka umSbfat ken sak/hx, pinpadmak stka!' 

me if you do not untie me, I quickly strike you 

11 - isdna'd ofatsen san noddy, isded InmdyaiPc son intna. isded itmtsan 

Then she unties the dead. Then runs away the woman. Then arrive 

nan ipmkdB ay en inmdla is kaMivttan is nan otSngna ad 

the people who went getting a cock for his death-ceremony at 

12 KalaBivitan. isdtja'd tjipdpen san nadSy. - isdtja'd kandn en 

Kalaowitan. Then they catch the dead. Then they say 

"tjcrkdna! tolnokantdko 'd nan kozvengna, nio ad/ engkd/itjen." 

- - - - let us drive a wedge his ear if he does flinch, 

into not 

ketjihig tolndkantja nan kozvengna ya k'd/itjcn ay engkd/itjen. 

Then they "pierced" his ear and he flinched "very much." 

1^ KctjSng fu)ndngo}i. - isded kandn Palpald)na en "ydini naji ha 'y 

Then he revives. Then says Palpalatna give (me) one 

gdngsa!" isded kandn Palpaldking en "aykS ngdg ta aldeni nan 

gangsa (gong) Then says Palpalaking why ought you to get 

1-^ gdngsa:'' san kinafj''i<inio 'd igdaka iiundktan ken sak/hi.'' - "ydka; 

a gong your "fishing" you did not share with me well then 

ydiin man nan fsa 'y faltda!" ''no! aykS ngdg ta aldemf - 

so .give me one iron rod no! why ought you to get it? 

san koweng si tjall'd et ad/m itsdotsao ken sak/hi ya." 

the ear of "tjalid" you would not give to me 

Ketjihtg tji is okdklP(d. Si Malkod nan ninokdklPtd. 

Ended here the tale. Malkod is the narrator. 

MdtytX and FalJnglong. 



1. tja [^s-a], coll. art. [39]. sadpck [salpek]. Person, vb. insdibak: I 
dam off a part of a river to catch fish. palupS: the waves, rippling, caused 
by a stony bed, the current. pOshong: a stagnant part of a river (and: the 

2. indaua for: indldna. dngsaii... lit.: much was his catching, 
namely kdtfn. 

3. is hash: [396]. aykS ngdg ta.... Idiom: what is it that., "why 
should I, you, he etc.?" ngdg kotdkko: of what advantage, use, is it for 

5. kdtpu, tjalld. lllcng: see Voc. fish. 

sak/^n ngin fakSnakf "I have to look out for myself; why should not 
I myself come first?" "am I perhaps not I?" 

7. atdto: flat stones, as resting place for people coming to an ato. 
akfob? fob: a sound imitating swallowing. The metre of this verse 

is trochaic, iak/hi: "I do not care; it matters not; synonym.: mldi. 

8. saiigddjil: J. XLL Somkad's death-chair. 

9. inina: an old woman guarding the dead. 

11. tjipdpen: the dead is supposed to have regained life and to have 
run away. 

12. "tjcrkSua!" an exclamation, "not in Igorot language," as was 
claimed. tolnOkak: I drive a wedge, a pointed piece of wood, a spike into 
the ear of a person to convince myself of his death, kdltjen ay.. [293]. 

13. kiitatj°i?a)io: kdtj°u, fish, with preterite infix -in-. "Your former 
catching fish." 

14. 110! pron. as Engl: naw. kdweng: "ears" i. e. gills. 



v.i ]\/[q infalogn/dtja, c'u/ngcmtja nan tcika ya nan fiisRl. nan 

When they go to battle, shout thf men ami the enemies. Tlie 

lalaldki fakdkentja nan li'/ta, {ya infiikaiPftja) fa innalian 

men stril:e (with t)attle-axes) the ground and call that shall come on 

nan fip'tsnl. nan fafafdyi uniogiddtja is nan alfan nan fi<is?il ya 

the enemy the women are afraid of the coming of the enemies and 

is nan manno/zvdntsa is nan ili. siddsi nan intafOnantja is nan 

of their burning the town. Therefore their hiding in the 

pdgpag; ifuegtja nan dnandktja. nan lalaldki fukdntwantja ay 

woods the\- take (along) their children. tlie men exclaim 

mangzvdni en "fkayu man! mfd UimaydiPi! fuldlaii! sindka'sh a\ 

saying come on, then! nobody shall flee! forward! who are vou. 

nmSgiad? - mangosimadoytdko! adikSentdko tja uaf 

coward? let us all die together! let us pursue these here 

intafd/ofja ya fckdshentja nan fdlfeg is nan fiaisi^l. 

they spring and throw the spears at the enemies. 


Notes: ta umalian: a Nomen actionis? that "it is coming-time" or: 
"coming-place?" fakcikentja: they hit the earth and stroke it with the 
blades of their axes, tlieir blades being held flat on the ground: the warriors 
pretend to sharpen them. mamiO(zv(i)itsa: Xomen agentis of pptak, I burn, 
destroy by fire. 

fuldlan! battle cry of attack; "hurrah!" mangosimaddytako: "let us 
all kill each other [112]." adikSck: pursue, or: catch running after. 
intatd/oak: I leap continually^ on the same spot, a little forward or to the 
sides to dodge spears, stones, and to keep my body ever ready for attack 
and defense. 

— Mo inod/dd uaii dlom, ct engka pashubok nan azvdkmo ^'■- 

If aches vour head, then go to have "blown" vour body, 
( throbs ) 

ta\ insaktt. umdU nan insdbok ya suhOkana nan Olom, ct inakdan 

as it is ill. conies the "conjurer" and blows at your head then removed is 

nan inod/Sd is nan dlom. nan insdbok kandna 'y niangwdni en 

the aching in your heail. The "conjurer" says saying 

"sfnu nan luingyit ken slkd.'" [paymd: si U'dnnak nan ndngyu 

who is the one making ill you or Wannak has made ill 

ken sikd. - paymd: si Kidkitjiiy nan ndngyu ken sikdl] dnni 'd 

you or Kikitjiiy has maile ill you soon 

makdan. - "subdkak s/ka is nan snyag nan dkyiil" diPtni 'd makdan. 

itisremoved. I blow you into the rays ofthe Sun! soon then itisremoved 

(i.e. healed.) 

Notes : The "healing blower," the conjuror, removes an evil spirit that 
has caused illness, an "anfto," as those of "Wdnnak" and Kidkffjdy." I 
cause sickness: by/ydzvek, or: iydivek: with the Nom. agentis: nidngyu 
[mdng'^ii; mdngoyii]. Observe: sikd and s/ka. sdtyag and s/lyag: the 
"morning-rays." sika: I blow you, anfto, into... 



Nan Ittnam limily is nan mdstjfm. nan lf)nam ya tsaktsaki 

The "night-mare" goes in the night. The "limam" is a big 

ay tdkm. ilekzvdhko 

person. I "try to" move 

ya adiak niakailc'kzvab. antto tji. 

and I not can move an anito (is) that. 

Notes : Ilmam, a ghost in human form, sitting on the sleeper, night- 
mare, ilckivdpko: I move, try to breathe; ilcklckwdbna nan P(dd: the 
pulse beats; antto: soul of dead; ghost. 

4 — Aydwan ad Okfki! stwiakSngkayu tsddlo fsna, fay nay tsdmi 

Wild buffalo at Ukiki, come together hither, as here we often 

hmek av mdngdpily ken tjdkayil, fsna 'd Wakdlan; tay dyam 

think of making sacrifice to you here at Wakalan; because at wedding 

si dnandk nan tjdmi 

of children we always 

mangisdngan ken tjdkayu, et 

take one of \ ou then 

madsa/oindngkayil ddjf! 

multiply, surely! 

Notes: "Labad-Ceremony:" Upon the rock: fdto ad Wakdlan, "(av 
distant from Bontoc," the rich men (gadsdngyen) perform a fire-sacrifice 
{nidngdpii\) and call their choicest game to come "to this very (tsddlo) 
spot from their home at Okfki." isniekko: I remember, "do never neglect, 
always think of. ." 

— Nan ongSnga adfna istjd nan addy si mdnok, tay mo istjdna 

The young people do not eat the liver of chicken, because if one eats 

nan adSy si mdnok, mo intdktak, et insakft nan adSyna ya 

the liver of chicken, when he runs then sick his own liver and 


iimdgiad. nan angkay amdm/ma ya nan indn/na nan manghtja ^'-^ 

he is cowardly. Only old men and old women are the eaters 

is nan dddy si monok, tay Id&czva is nan ongonga. 

of the liver of chicken, because it is wrong for the young. 

Notes: adSy and dddy [ddily]: liver; it is forbidden also to eat the 
heart of chicken, old men : married men who are not affected by the spell. 

— Mo iitdiPdyn nan dsu ay tsa umdn/onod ken s/ka, tit/hva ^ 

If }-ou dream of a dog always following 3-ou, it is a true sign 

ay adiimandkka. 

that vou will have children. 

Infagfagtdtja nan dndnak si iFmntok ya nan dnanak si ^ 

They have sham-battles, the boys of Bontoc and the boys of 


iSanioki is nan lishlisli. aldentja nan fatS ya fakdshentja. wodd 

Samoki during the "lishlish." They take rocks and throw them. Some 


nan matokldngan is nan olo paymo is nan dzvak. 

are hit on the heads or on the bodies. 

Notes: dndnak si.. "Bontocboys" [76]. lishlish: festival after the 
rice-harvest, fatd ^.nd: fdto, bdto: stone, tokldngak: I hit the head; by 
zeugma, here also with : dzvak, the body. 

- DatPi! sika tumgSyka! leytjek ay makitotdya ken sfka! ad/k 

He! you stop! I want to speak to you I do not 

kSkken nan djdlan; masdngutak is nan pdgpag. iprtjiim nan 

know the trail I have lost my way in the forest. show the 


uia/\Si ad Fiinfok [^ayiiio mifuSgka ken sak/ihi! had nan umtsdnanmi 

direction to Bonloc or accompany ine when shall we arrive 

istjt? intS nan mabfaltn ay itnuflaak is kdnak? 

there where is it possible that I ,tret something to eat? 

\no iimdlika ad Fi^tntok, et uuuiykaini auil'n ay itmdfcd ken s/ka is 

if vou come to Bontoc, we go all to meet you 

nan sakSn nan zvctnga. 

near bv tlie river. 

aykf -cvav tdkB 'sna? into pay si dniam adzvdni? awdy nget 

Is anybody here? where }Our father now? probably 

(at home) (is) 

wodd's dfong. ki'Undanak aszvdkas; adadfk ilacn sika asivdkas. 

he is in the house. I shall leave to-morrow. I shall not see you to-morrow. 

adfka cngkdkali is ip/l'di ngdg si sa ken fodf. sfnit nan >iangziuini si 

do not tell anything of this to him (her), who said 

sa/ nan niinn/niko ai'^dy nget sfya 'y fafdyi. 

so? as to my thinking perhaps she. 

h^\tjcnnii nan flhni ya padSyenmi nan fe'ishnUul! 

■we love our country and we kill our enemy! 



The following" Songs have been collected with extreme difficulty. 
Many words and phrases of these belong to a "Song-Dialect;" their exact 
meaning could sometimes not be ascertained and frequently ditterent Igorot 
differed greatly as to their meaning; and yet this "Song-Dialect," with its 
"words of the old folks," must be of greatest interest to Ethnologists and 
Philologists ! The following Songs have been revised carefully. When 
they are sung, it requires much practice to recognize the single words in 
their often repeated, disconnected single syllables, or in their connection 
with syllables of subsequent words, or separation by meaningless sounds 
and words. The structure of the verses is strictly rhythmical ; the ictus 
falls usually on the 2, 4, 6 syllable, sometimes on the i , 3, 5 ; so we may call 
the metre either iambic or trochaic. Rhymes occur usually at the ends of 
two consecutive verses; most lines end in -a, attached to the last word, even 
if it ends in a. In reciting (not singing or chanting) the natural accent of 
words is completely superseded by the rhythmical ictus. 


(Sung when working" in the rice-fields) 

Tjiiw^ -a: Nint^ngan nan sikd -a 

He has reached the the Sun, 


entdko 'd manitsd -a 

let us go to eat 

ann/o patsSngna slid -a. 

certainly this is "stopping time" for it. 

Tjishd -a: ta fayfayhi takm -a 

let dig the people 

lufd 'y ninakishfd -a 

the ground, "hard and tough:" 

pahfayfay Kastild -a 

he makes (us) the Spaniard, 

Kastila 'd Mcinild -a 

the Spaniard at Manila 

kasi tay pilangkd -a 

it is pitiable to be scorched 

( dried ) , 

mabfikod si lagfo -a 

to be lean by working 
for wages 

mo kSna }nisd -a 

if (Lumawig) had made equal 


nan tonod nan lolo -a 

the shafts of the working- 

(fa wdshtjin minlagfd -a 

that everyone could earn 

nan sonog s] 'ngongd -a) 

the food for his children 

ta zvaslifjiii ti^Diikktjioi -a 

that everj'one might sit down 


'jT san ]Utja 'sli T July a -a 

in their town at Tjulya 


tay s}gang pay sina -a 

as it is pitiable, indeed, here 

ay ini)itjuatjiid -a 

to travel seeking work 

fatdjPdva 'y anamzvd -a 

(through) the world, wide; 

suynya ken sSl°iizvd -a 

it is lucky (?) for my beloved 

ay ^nlngitdtmktjm -a 

(that she) sits idle with others 

's san ilitja 'sli Tjttlyd -a 

in their town in Tjulya 

nay pay sigang sina -a 

here, indeed, it's pitiable, here 


nabdnga 'sh ongongd -a 

to have become a child 

kas) fay longyaiyd -a 

it is pitiable because 

longydiya 'y takuaiPcd -a 


kano ay sumatigd -a 

it is said that (we are) lazy, 

sumdng ay mintsiinet -a 

(too) lazy to earn by work 

tctsaii si oiigangd -a 

the afternoon-meal for children, 

Notes : tjuwd -a and tjishd -a: words preceding the songs, like invi- 
tations to join a singer, intengan: to be in the middle (teiiga) ; "it is 
noon." sika: Sun, song-dialect, manitsdak: I eat, lunch. 

mo kSna: i. e. Lumdzvig, the God of the Igorot; mo kona was asserted 
most emphatically to be understood to refer to divinity. If He had made 
equal the working-poles, i. e. the "kaykay," the primitive agricultural imple- 
ment of the Igorot; the pole is said metaphorically of mankind; "if all men 
had been created equal." 

The lines in () are a variante. Tjulya: the region of Bontoc. 

mintjuatjua: "wander about to seek work." sumya: "it is lucky" ( ?) ; 
but cf . : M.4 and Notes: snmydak yangkay. "\ only: probably: she, my 
sweetheart only sits idle, does nothing but sit idle, ntiiigitofevktji^a: pre- 
fix mingi-; see [300; iiiihi-]. nabonga 'sh: "to be born as a human being" 
("ein Menschenkind") ; after this verse the (doubtful) line was inserted : 
nabfSlyn si ongd -a: "to be carried as a baby." longyaiyaa: a word (or 
phrase) said to be "without meaning." 



Tsadldnka shashangd -a, 

You are ver\' wearv 

shuy ngln shaiigan sikd -a? 

for whom are you lon,i;ing, you? 

si ngct ck shl"uwa -a, 

for (perhaps) my beloved, 

si sul°uwa 'sh Tjiilya -a. 

beloved in Tjulya 

(i. e. Bontoc) 

shuy ngayag pan tosh sa -a? 

whose name is that 

si Pali wash Tjulya -a! 

Pali, who is in Tjulya 

siya nan niusliangan. s'lka 

she is the longing- you 

engka ay ck fs"uiva -a 

go! my mind 

ta ciigka 'nkakaiPtwd -a 

go thou to the midst 

(of the maidens in the olog) 

ibkanfja 'y dhiabla -a 

of their resting-place the sleeping-board, 

tay dlkoshko zvadsd -a 

for a sad desire I have, 


ay natatakTPc 'sliiia -a 

(I) living here, 

's sail fataBzi'a 'sli Tjiilya -a. 

for the region at Tjulva. 

Notes: fsadlonka: "you are very" {tsddlo: intensive and elative). 
shashangda: weary, lazy, love-sick, longing; cf. smndngaak: I am lazy. 
sliuy: song-dialect for simi. ek.f "Pali:" suggested by FalSnglong. 

"The beloved lies down on a sleeping-board in the Slog, the girl's dor- 
mitory; there go to find her, my heart, in midst the other girls!" 

natataklPl 'sliiia: "I must live far away, while she is in an "Slog" at 

fatdBzva: world, or : region, country. 


While performing the ceremony of pounding rice {inpdgpag) at a 
wedding, men and women sing alternately : 

The women : ta lumalaytako zvay - - Sc — — Se 

let us go to call some 

lalakVs wagstllaydn oe de 

man of strength 

tci way mangikat^cwili - - de de 

that some- carry 


pakuytja 'sh tongtsikn Hi -de de 

their rice from above the town 


The men : ta lumalaytako way Oc Oe 

let us go to call some 

fab fay] 's dinipayay oc dc 

woman with strong thigh 

to, way mangakayukyii oc^ jc 

that some- shall weed 


payyotja 'sh foitgtsiooi Hi - oc — — oe 

their above the town 


Notes: The metre is trochaic. Labor and rh_vthm coincide also in 
this song with its interesting melody, called ifyug. The men sing their part 
in a standard melody, then the women in a different melody. The same 
syllables are often repeated, the words torn into syllables; these are sharply 
scanned and so connected with the syllables of subsequent words that the 
words become almost indistinguishable. Each line stops sharply, with a 
strong accent on the last syllable; the pauses are strictly observed by all 
singers, who stop and rebegin without fail, unisono. 

zvagsillayaii: song-dialect. ikai'-Y-wflik: I carry a double-basket, a 
"kimdta." is tongtsiPtn: the town is in the valley, most rice-patches are on 
the mountain sides above the town. 

tfpay: thigh ; upper leg. kayukyuek: I weed a field, tear out the grass. 
Their rice, their rice-fields: i. e. those of the young couple. 




The numbers denote sections, unless preceded by p. (page). Ex. means ; 

7. Melikano, for McHcano 
10. k Slosh, for kcilosn 
18. Likaldso, for Licaldso 
32. dsm, for dsioc 
43. copula, for coupla 
56. saktjman, for saktiian 
67. minsusnlad, for minsusitlad 
67. }iiintotoIfcg, for mintololfcg 
71, II. appellative, for appelative 
73. put ( before "here the article" 
84. a. persons addressed 
89. place colon after ''"before" 
139. last Ex. kdngnmn means: 

thing in the house, house- 
hold utensil 
151. anab "seek," anapek "\ seek" 

(not: find) 
180. ninsdkitak, for nhisdkitak 

192. I must speak, add: I desire 

greatly to speak 

193. min- seems to be Lepanto-Di- 


197. S. i: nmaltak, S. 2: wnalfam 
add S. I negative: ad^k 
lunalfan [320] 

199. Ex. 5. Or with possess. V'b. : 
sisldck si Agp. 

2T,i. tsubldek or: tjubldck; ts, as t 
mouille, counts for one con- 

257. -an can be added to /- Verbs 

without prefixing }uang- 

258. last line: three, for four 
262. Ex. 4. better : otSenyW nan 

findy&( is nan apuy 



262. Ex. 14. place is before iiau 

279. Ex. 4. let nan precede 

283. Before "In tliis" put ) 
289. p. 103. Place emphas., add; 

Or: nan mamadSyanmi 
292. the last verb: engkdliak, for 


296. prefix in. for in 

297. p. 114. Pretended action: The 

root is geminated; the gem- 
ination is sometimes incom- 
plete, as the final consonant 
is omitted in the gemination 

299. Observe inconsistent forms in 

H.21 ; H.22; H.19 

300. I go with others: the forms in 

[ ] must be placed after 

301. In this Construction in- is the 

Prefix for Pers. \'erbs; also 
mang- may be prefixed to 

307. p. 122, Ex. 7. the two broth- 
ers, for brother 

310. p. 124, Ex. 3. from Itelow: 
niangcfk'Ui, thief 

317. p. 136. T continue, add : See 

321. Ex. II. the meat was not cut 

331. The Nom. Agentis with pref. 
i-. cf. [348] 

336. p. 157, Ex. 6. belongs to [360] 

338. First Ex. into naji nangdldn; 

nangdlan is contracted from 

nangala and a>i 
353- I'. 171, Ex. 1 1. nangtjasdnyH, 

for nantj.. 
353. p. 172, line 7 from below: 

360. p. 178, Ex. 10. Put ? after 

the sentence 
]). 181, line II. Read: Es war einmal, 

for was- 
p. 182, Ex. 8, from below: Read is, 

for it 
p. 184, Ex. 2. Separate: katdki^n 

p. 190, the 9th, loth. uiayga-, for 

367. last Ex. put who between man 

and was 
391. Ex. 3. Put I before hold 
p. 22^. Ex. 4. sunrise: faldan 
p. 230. In the Ex. 2 to 8, that were 

obtained and verified in this 

form, the Xom. actionis 

(with suffix -an) [194 fif.] 

seems logically preferable, 

as used in Ex. 9 
p. 2^T,. Ex. 2. from below: cntja, for 

p. 252, Ex. 6. mangdnan, for 

441). insert long between as — as 
p. 263, ICx. (). scscnnu^kko: I rc- 

menibcred ( th(iught).