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Full text of "First Greek book; on the plan of the First Latin book"

AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




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FIRST GREEK BOOK; 



ON THE PLAN OF THE 



FIRST LATIN BOOK. 



BY THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A 



RECTOR OF LYNDON, 
AND LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



CAREFULLY REVISED AND IMPROVED 

BY REV. J. A. SPENCER, M. A. 

PROFESSOR OF LATIN AND ORIENTAL LANGUAGES 
IN BURLINGTON COLLEGE, N. J. 



NEW-YORK: 
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY. 

PHILADELPHIA : 

GEO. S. APPLETON, 164 CHESNUT-STREET. 

1850. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1850, by 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District, of New-York. 



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AUBURN UNIVKSITY LIBRARIES 
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PREEACE. 



In presenting a new and improved edition of the First 
Greek Book, the American Editor takes great pleasure in 
acknowledging the very gratifying success of the " Arnold 
Series," as issued under his supervision. He has not spared 
labor on his part, nor have the Publishers expense on their's, 
to render the various volumes of the series even still more 
worthy of the confidence and support of the public ; and he 
ventures to express the opinion that the present " First Greek 
Book" will be found to be admirably adapted to the ground- 
ing of the young student in the fundamental principles of 
the noble language of Greece, as well as a very considerable 
improvement on former editions of the same book. 

In this, as in the " First Latin Book," Mr. Arnold has 
prepared with great care, in both Greek and English, such 
Exercises as serve to illustrate those portions of the Gram- 
mar which are needful at the outset. Grammatical apparatus 
is supplied according as it is wanted ; difficulties are eluci- 
dated ; peculiarities of the Greek language are pointed out ; 
differences of idiom between the two languages are specially 
noted ; and, in accordance with the plan pursued by Ollen- 



IV PREFACE. 

dorff in his excellent works on education, frequent repetition 
of principles learned, and of things already acquired, im- 
presses them upon the memory with surprising distinctness 
and force. 

It may not be deemed amiss here to say, that the educa- 
tional works of Mr. Arnold require activity and energy on 
the part of the teacher as well as the scholar. They are not 
meant to supersede the necessity of a competent and faithful 
instructor, who can take occasion to enlarge upon, render 
more full (as boys now and then need), -and impress upon his 
classes, the admirably arranged and clearly and logically 
drawn out course of instruction contained in these volumes. 
On the contrary, the teacher must be active and hard-work- 
ing as well as his boys : if he be so, it is really surprising 
how rapid and yet how solid is their progress ; if he be not, 
this as well as every other good school-book will be of com- 
paratively little service in carrying forward the student to- 
ward the goal of his wishes and his efforts. It ought not to 
be necessary, in these days, to remind any one that there is 
no royal road to learning, and that the best of books and 
best of systems will not make thorough scholars, without 
good teachers, and studious, hard-working pupils. 

The American Editor has endeavored to do all in his 
power to improve the present volume : he has amplified the 
earlier Lessons and Exercises ; added simple and clear expla- 
nations where they seemed to be needed ; inserted " Ques- 



PREFACE. V 

tions," rather as suggestive of what may be, than as express- 
ive of all that should be, asked ; has referred frequently to 
Kuhner's valuable Grammar for fuller elucidation of diffi- 
culties or peculiarities, &c. He hopes, ere long, to be able 
to go still further, and in a " Second Greek Book" to carry 
the pupil through the Verb in /m (which is not fully treated 
of in this volume), the Irregular Verbs, and the principal 
rules of the Syntax. In that event, the apparatus supplied 
would be full and complete in all respects ; and by a faithful 
use of these works, the foundation would be laid, broad and 
deep, of sound classical scholarship in our country. 

J. A. S. 

Burlington College, 
Sept. 20th, 1850. 



CONTENTS. 



LESSON. 
. I. 

n. 
in. 

IV. 

v. 

VI. 

vn. 
vm. 

IX. 
X. 

XI. 

xn. 

xm. 
xrv. 

xv. 

XVI. 
XVII. 

xvirr. 

XIX. 

xx. 

XXI. 

xxn. 
xxni. 

XXIV. 

xxv. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 

PAGE. 

The Alphabet 1 

The Sounds of the Letters .... 2 

The Diphthongs. Breathings .... 4 

Classification of the Consonants .... 7 

Syllables. Quantity 9 

Accents. Enclitics, &c 12 

Parts of Speech. Inflection, &c 16 

The Verb. Present and Future Active . . 19 

The Verb (continued) 22 

The Article 24 

First Declension of Nouns 26 

Contracts. Masculines of the First Declension . 30 

Second Declension of Nouns 34 

Contracts of Second Declension. Imperfect Tense. 

Augment 38 

Adjectives 41 

Adjectives (continued). Future from Verbs in £o>, eo>, 

aco, oo> ........ 44 

First Aorist Active 47 

Attic Second Declension. Present Indicative of Depo- 
nent Verbs 50 

Third Declension of Nouns 53 

Present and Future of Verbs in aw. Present Participle 57 

Third Declension. Adjectives in as, eis . . . 59 

Ilay, anas. Participle of the Aorist ... 61 

Nouns that suffer Syncope ..... 64 

Adjectives of two Terminations. Kepas, &c. . 67 

Substantives in tjs, os. Adjectives in rjs . . . 70 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

LESSON. PAGE. 

xxvi. 'UpaK\rjs, &c 72 

xxvii. Substantives in evs. Participle of the Future . . 74 
xxvm. Substantives in is, i,vs,v. . . . . 77 

XXIX. 'H^o), aldcos 79 

xxx. Imperative. Adjectives in vs . . . 81 

xxxi. Subjunctive of the Present and Aorist Active . . 84 
xxxii. First Future and Aorist of Liquid Verbs. Ov /xtj with 

Future and Subjunctive of the Aorist ... 88 
xxxin. The Tenses. The Subjunctive after tra, ottcos, cos. 

The Present Imperative and the Aorist Subjunctive 92 
xxxrv. Subjunctive and Optative of Present and Aorist . 94 
xxxv. Some of the Passive Tenses. Characteristics of Verbs. 

Augment of Verbs compounded with a Preposition 98 

xxxvi. Middle Voice 103 

xxxvu. *Av with Imperfect and Aorist of the Indicative . 107 

xxxvni. Moods of Present Passive and Middle. First Aor. 

Middle. (On the Optative.) . . . .110 
xxxix. Moods of Aorist Passive and Future Passive. (On the 

Subjunctive and Optative.) . . . .112 

xl. Perfect and Pluperfect Active . . . . 117 
xli. Perfect and Pluperfect Active {continued). Sentences 

introduced by on, cos 121 

xlii. Perfect and Pluperfect Passive . . . .124 
xlii.* Persons and Moods of Perfect Passive . . 128 
XLin. Contracted Verbs in dco. Present and Imperfect Act- 
ive 132 

xliv. Contracted Verbs in eco. Present and Imperfect Act- 
ive 135 

xlv. Contracted Verbs in 6co. Present and Imperfect Act- 
ive. (On the Infinitive of the Aorist.) . . 137 
xl vi. Verbs in dco. Passive and Middle. (Aorist Infinitive.) 140 
XLvn. Verbs in eco. Passive and Middle . . . 142 
XLvm. Verbs in oca. Passive and Middle . . . .144 
xlix. Tempora Secunda. Second Aorist . . . 145 
l. Second Perfect. Futurum Attic um . . .149 
Li. Comparative and Superlative . .. . . 153 

Ln. Verbs in fit. Ti'Sq/zi (Act.) 155 

liii. "Io-ttjixi (Act.) 157 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



LESSON. PAGE. 

liv. At'Sco/xt (Act.). Accus. from Impure Nouns in is . 159 

lv. Verbs in v/k. Aeiiepvpi (Act.). . . . . 161 

lvi. Ttirjixi, Pass, and Mid 163 

Lvn. "IcTT-qjjLi, Pass, and Mid 165 

lviii. Ai'8g>/lu, Pass, and Mid .166 

LIX. AeLKvvfxai ........ 168 

lx. The Verbs itjjii, dpi, and ei)xi . . . .169 



NOTES. 



1. On the Division of Syllables . 

2. Accentuation of Verbs .... 

3. Quantity of a, G. as 

4. Quantity of a in Adjectives and Participles 

5. A short Vowel before a muta cum liquidd 

6. Usual Contractions 

7. Words, Cases, and Moods to be distinguished 

8. Euphonic Rules ..... 

9. Irregular Substantives .... 

10. On the place of av 

11. Crasis 

12. Correlative Adjectives and Adverbs . 

13. Irregular Comparison .... 



173 

ib. 

ib. 
174 

ib. 

ib. 
175 

ib. 
178 
180 

ib. 
181 
182 



PARADIGMS, &c. 



1. The Article 

2. Terminations of the Three Declensions 

3. First Declension .... 

4. Second Declension .... 

5. Adjectives in os 

6. Contraction of the Second Declension 

7. Adjectives in (eos, oos, =) ovs 



185 

ib. 
186 

ib. 

ib. 
187 

ib. 



CONTENTS. 



8. Attic (Second) Declension 

9. Adjective in ecos, <ov (iXecos) . 

10. Third Declension . . . 

11. Evdaificov ...... 

12. Comparative in cov 

13. Me'Xay, 14. XapUts, 15. lias . 

16. Participle of Present Active 

17. Participle of First Aorist Active 

18. IloXvs, Meyas ..... 
19- Tlarrjp, p-rjTTjp, ^vydrrjp, avrjp . 
20. Kepas, Kpeas, 21. TpiTjprjs, Tet^os 

22. Adjective in rjs 

23. n6Xis, 24. Ilrjxys, 25. "Acttv 

26. Adjectives in vs 

27. Bacrikevs, 28. 'l^pvs, 29. Bovs, ypavs 
30. Hoprw, 31.*EyxeXvs, 32. Oty 

33. Participle of First Aorist Passive 

34. Participle of Second Aorist Passive 

35. Participle of Perfect Active 

36. The first four Numerals 

37. Tt'ff ; (interrog.) 38. Tis (indef.) 39. Ovtls, 40 
41. 'Eyco, 42. 2v, 43. "I . . 

44. Reflexive Pronouns (e'pauroO, o-eavrov, &c.) 

45. Reciprocal Pronoun (dXkrjXcov) 

46. Demonstrative Pronouns : "08e, 47. Ovtos, 48 
49. Relative Pronouns : "Os, 50. "Osns 

51. ^AXXoy, inetvos ...... 

52. Too-ovroy, ToioCroy .... 

53. Terminations of the Tenses of a Verb in the 

singular of the Indicative Mood . 

54. Terminations of the Moods and Participles . 

55. Conspectus of the Moods of a Barytone Verb 

56. Terminations of the Active Voice 

57. Terminations of the Passive and Middle Voices 

58. Regular Verb in <o . . . s 
Accentuation of Verbs . . ■ . 

59. Table of Contracted Verbs 

60. Verbs in pt (Ti'S^pt, &c). Active 



Ovdels 



Avtos 



first person 



PAGE. 

187 
188 

ib. 
189 

ib. 

ib. 
190 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
191 

ib. 
192 

ib. 

ib. 
193 

ib. 

ib. 
194 

ib. 

ib. 
195 

ib. 

ib. 
196 

ib. 

ib. 
197 

ib. 
198 
199 
200 
202 
204 
206 
210 
212 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE. 

61. Verbs in fit (Ti'Sty/u, &c). Passive and Middle . 215 

62. Verbs in y.i (Ti'Sty/u, &c). Future, Aorist, Perfect, and 

Pluperfect 217 

63. Verbs with Second Aorist like Verbs in /xt . . .218 

64. Additional Examples . . . . . . 219 

65. Syncopated Perfect (earrjKa) ib. 

66. Other Syncopated Perfects ib. 

67. "Itj/ju, — elixi and dpi, — 4>rj[*i • • • • • .221 

68. Elfil, elfii ......... 222 

69. Qrjfii 224 

70. Olba 225 

71. Kelfim. rjjiai ......... 226 

72. Anomalous Verbs 227 

73. Futura Media of Regular Verbs ib. 

74. Deponents Passive (i. e. that have a Passive Aorist) . 228 

List of Numerals 235 

Differences of Idiom, Grammatical Hints, &c. 

A. Prepositions 237 

B. Miscellaneous 244 

Index. 

I. Greek and English ..... 249 
II. English and Greek 277 



NOTANDA. 

1 . The small numerical references above the line of words refor 
to the Differences of Idiom, &c, at the end of the work (p. 237). 

2. The pupil should be constantly practised in the Paradigms 
given at the end of the work. 

3. He should be required from the beginning (i. e. from the sixth 
Exercise) to accentuate his Greek. The rules for changing the ac- 
cents in the declensions are given after each declension. Those for 
the Verbs will be found at p. 206. 

4. The references to Ktihner are to the " Grammar for High 
Schools and Colleges," translated by Messrs. Edwards and Taylor : 
Andover, 1844. 8vo. 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



LESSON I. 

The Alphabet. 
1. The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four let- 
ters : seven of these are vowels, and seventeen con- 
sonants. 



Forms. 


Roman 
Letters. 


Names. 


Numeral 
Power. 


A 


a 


a (ah; 


Alpha 


"A\cpa 


1 


B 


/3 


b 


Beta 


Bijra 


2' 


r 


1 


g (hard) 


Gamma 


. Tdjjbfjba 


3 


A 


d 


Delta 


Aekra 


4 


E 


6 


e (short) 


Epsllon 


*E \jrj\6v 


5 


Z 


% 


z 


Zeta 


Zrjra 


7 


H 


V 


e (long) 


Eta 


^Hra 


8 


e 


% 


th 


Theta 


Grjra 


9 


i 


i 


i (ee) 


Iota 


'Icora 


10 


K 


fC 


k 


Kappa 


Kdirira 


20 


A 


\ 


1 


Lambda 


Adfi(3Sa 


30 


M 


p 


m 


Mu 


Mv 


40 


N 


V 


n 


Nu 


Nv 


50 




f 


X 


Xi 


m 


60 








6 (short) 


Omlcron 


*0 fU/COOV 


70 


n 


TT 


P 


Pi 


m 


80 


p 


p 


r 


Rho 


<P(0 


100 


2 


<r, 5 


s 


Sigma 


^{yfjba 


200 


T 


T 


t 


Tau 


Tad 


300 


T 


V 


u 


Upsilon 


*T yjrjXov 


400 


$ 


<£ 


ph 


Phi 


m 


500 


X 


X 


ch 


Chi 


XI 


600 


¥ 


/ \jr 


ps 


Psi 


Wl 


700 


n 


CO 


o (long) 


Omega 


^12 jjueya 


800 



2 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [2 10. 

LESSON II. 

The Sounds of the Letters, 

2. The Greek being a dead or unspoken language, 
we cannot determine how the ancients pronounced their 
words ; hence modern nations adopt a system of pro- 
nunciation suited to their own peculiarities. In Eng- 
lish, we usually give the vowels and consonants the 
following sounds : 

3. a* has the sound of a in far, or like a in hat. 

4. e " " e in met. 

5. 7] " " a in the words same, fame, 

&c, as yur]v (mane) ; others 
give it the sound of ee in 
meet. 

i in machine, or like i in bit. 

o in not, dot, &c. 

u in tube, crude, &c. 

o in Aope, note, devote, &c. 

Rem. E-psiZow, TJ-psllon : "VlxSv means simple, that is, unaspirated 
(e or m) : the character H having been also used originally to 
mark the rough breathing (our h) ; and Y to mark another 
breathing, that of the Digamma, or Latin Vau. 

O-mlcron, O-mega : p.iKp6s, ixutpov, little; p.eyas, /xeya, great. 

10. Sigma (a) at the end of a word takes the form 
of Sj as creto-^6?, 7rpos, &c. 

This form is now sometimes used in the middle of compound 
words, when the first word in the compound ends in cr, as irpos- 
<pepa>, for -Trpoo-cpepco. This is contrary to ancient authority. 

* In classifying the vowels, note that two of them are always short ; 
two always long ; and three doubtful, being sometimes long, sometimes 
short : 

short vowels, e, o. 

long " rj, «. 

doubtful " a, i, u. 



6. 


i 


a 


u 


7. 





u 


a 


8. 


V 


a 


u 


9. 


CO 


it 


u 



11 16.] SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS. 3 

11. y before a vowel is sounded like g hard, as yfj 
(ge, like the English gay) ; when before another y and 
also before k, %, f, it is sounded like ng in ring. Thus 
ayyekos must be pronounced ang-gelos (Latin ange- 
lus) ; crvytcoTrr}, sung-kQpe ; ^ Ayyicn]<$, Ang-chlses ; \d- 
pvy^, larungx / &c. 

12. £ has the sound of dz (nearly), as in the Eng- 
lish adze ; as £ea>, dzeo ; fieXl^co, melid-zo. 

13. ^ has the sharp sound of th in thin, thick ; never 
the sound of th in this, as ^eoXoyia, theology. 

14. t always retains its proper sound of t and is 
never pronounced like sh, as in some English words 
[propitiation, condition, &c.) ; thus, Kpurias, Krit-i-as 
(not Krish-i-as) ; air la, ait-i-a ; &c. So, too, o- never 
has the sound of sh, as 'Acrla, As-i-a (not Ash-i-a). 

15. X has the hard, guttural sound, as ch, in chem- 
ist, chaos, loch, &c. 

Exercise 1. 

16. Give the names and somids of the following 
letters : 



a 


^ 


8 


£ 


P 


* 


CO 


£ 


i 





1 


X 


<t> 


^ 


£ 


v 


7T 


K 


y 


0" 


P 


7 


z> 


v 


X 


P 


A 


S 


£ 


*7 


1 


cr 


y 


t 


s 


^ 


€ 


7 


S 


T 


T 


V 


CO 


T 


V 


£ 


V 


V 


<t> 


7T 


X 


P 


V 


1 


V 


P 


y 


* 


3 


V 


X 


3 


o 


3 


A 


H 


A 


z 


P 


¥ 


Q 


A 


i 


B 




A 


$ 


M 


Z 


N 


n 


K 


r 


2 


P 


r 


N 


Y 


X 


P 


A 


A 


Z 


H 


A 


2 


r 


¥ 


2 


M 


E 


r 


A 


T 


T 


H 


fi 


T 


N 


z 


Y 


N 


$ 


n 


X 


P 


Y 


s 


H 


P 


r 


* 


e 


N 


X 


a> 


O 


e 



4 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [17 19. 

17. Write the names of the letters in Greek : also 

write in Greek capitals these words, Xenophon, Pau- 

los, Matthaios. 

18. Questions. — How many letters are there in the Greek alpha- 
bet 1 How many and which are vowels 1 How many and which 
consonants 1 "What do you mean by e-psilon ? u-psilon ? Which is 
short or little o ? Which long or great 6 ? When does y have the 
sound of ng ? Give an example. Do you ever give a or t the sound 
of sh ? Does the same rule apply to the English 1 



LESSON III. 

The Diphthongs. — Breathings. 

19. There are twelve diphthongs in Greek ; six of 
these are termed proper ', six improper diphthongs. 
1) Proper diphthongs are : 

at pronounced like m ai in aisle, e. g. cuf 



av 


a 


ou 


sound, 


vavs 


ei 


tt 


ei 


height, 


Seivos 


€V 


u 


eu 


neuter, 


Zev? 


Oh 


a 


oi 


boil, 


kolvos 


ov 


u 


ou 


youth, 


ovpavos 



Some prefer to sound av as au in laud, and ov as ou in sound. 

2) Improper diphthongs are : 

a pronounced like the simple vowel a. 



V 


u 


" n. 


CO 

t 


a 


" a). 


7)V 


u 


eu in feudal, or like the 
diphthong ev. 


VI 


u 


whee in ivheel. 


(OV 


u 


the diphthong ov* 



* The following examples will show how the Romans sounded 



20 25.] DIPHTHONGS. BREATHINGS. 5 

Rem. a, ri, <p have the second vowel (t) of the diphthong written 
underneath. This is called Iota subscriptum, and is generally 
so written after «, 17, «. But when capital letters are used the 
1 is still written as a letter ; thus AE2IIOTHI = dee-norr), 'Ai'Stjs 
== aSrjs, Tlidr) = yS-f}. Iota is then said to be adscribed. 

20. Every word in Greek that begins with a vowel 
or diphthong, has a mark over this initial vowel or 
diphthong termed a breathing : it is placed over the 
second vowel of a diphthong ; as e^oo, atf, &c. 

21. The rough breathing or aspirate (spiritus as- 
per) is a comma turned the wrong way, and is sounded 
like an h before a vowel ; as, 6, ho ; ol, hoi ; "E/crcop, 
Hector; evptaiao, heurisko. 

22. The smooth breathing (spiritus lenis) is a com- 
ma, and has no effect on the pronunciation; thus, 
avrjp is pronounced aner, opos, oros, &c. 

23. Every word that begins with v has, in Attic 
Greek, the rough breathing, as virep, huper ; vcfrev, 
hup hen (hyphen). 

24. The consonant p has also the rough breathing 
over it, when it stands at the beginning of a word, as 
r Pia, Rhea. 

25. In the middle of a word a single p has no 
breathing over it : of two p% the first has the smooth, 
the second the rough breathing: eppcoao ! (In some 
modern editions the breathings over pp are omitted.) 

these diphthongs, and how they are represented in English : ai is ex- 
pressed by the diphthong «, « by % and e, u by y, oi by ce, ovloju; e. g. 
4>a78pos ; Phasdrus, Mouira, Musa, 

TXavKos, GlauCUS, El\ei&via, Ilithyia, 

( NetXos, Nllus, QpaKes, Thraces, 

( Auk6?oj/, Lyceum, ®py<raa, Thressa, 

Ebpos, Eurus, Tpuya>56s, tragcedus. 

Boturia, Bceotia, 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[26, 27. 



Exercise 2. 
26. Write (with the proper breathings) the follow- 
ing words in Greek characters. 

ID" Note that e, o stand for rj, © : e, 6 for e, o : also that the h 
represents the rough breathing. 



hen 


homoios rhabdos 




rhinos 


arrhabon 


hois 


hon 


hikanoi 




adunatos 


esti 


ego 


hos 


agathos 




houtoi 


echousin 


en 


aneu 


hosper 




hedu 


hSti 


hun 


an 


hegemona 


rheuma 


rhachos 


aner 


anggelos rhipto 




ho 


rhetor 


hagia hoste 


ombros 




tode 


arrhetos 


he 


hon 


hebe 




alopex 


echo 


echo 


autos 


heauton 




ero 


haima 


huios 


; aurion 


angkura 




hen 


hos 


ho 


he to 


to ta 


to 




hoi 


hai ta 


tou 


tes tou 


toin tain 


toin 


ton 




toi 


tei toi * 








tois 


tais tois 


ton 


ten to 




■ 




tous 


tas ta 



27. Read (and write down in English characters) 
the following words : 

ovto$. avTOs. TV?, irore. 7T(07rore. Tvirrev. yr)V. 
e%€L. e'^o). 'Ecttlv. avrov. avTov. ptfi<pa. (3Xe$>a- 
pov. aw/Ad. pipe's. TVirrovai. yiyavres. Sopv. \a[Jb- 
fiaveiv. Nvv. rj/jbepa. vv£. Xcl/jlcov. vecpeXr). eVo?. 
Tap. iviavros. afyovv. (patSpos. 'yjnjcpLcr/jia. /xe^o?. 
Kara. <£tA,o?. oro^o?. Mcov. 6. 'Povs. tovtcov. to- 
govtos. $ev. Ilofoev. iraXaLos. <yepa<;. ovheTTWTrore. 

ET This exercise should be lengthened and varied according to 
circumstances, till the pupil is thoroughly acquainted with the breath- 
ings and their proper places. 



* The iota is here to be subscript, [see 19. 2) Rem.] 



28 30.] CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS. 7 

28, Questions, — How many diphthongs are there in Greek 1 How 
do you distinguish them 1 Name the proper diphthongs, and give 
their pronunciation. Name also the improper diphthongs with their 
sounds. What do you call the little straight mark under a, y, yl 
Why 1 "When is iota written by the side of the preceding letter 1 
What do you call it then 1 Which words in Greek take a breathing ? 
Where is it placed when the word begins with a diphthong 7 What 
is the rough breathing ] What is its equivalent in English 1 What 
effect does the smooth breathing have on the pronunciation 1 What 
do words that begin with v always take 7 When does p have the 
rough breathing 1 When not 1 How is it when two p's come toge- 
ther 1 



LESSON IV. 

Classification of the Consonants, 

29. The consonants are divided into se?ni-vowels 
and mutes. 

1) Semivowels \ lk l uids »> * "> P- 

( sibilant er. 

2) Mntes w, yS, (j> : k, y, % : t, 8, % 

3) Double Letters £ f, i|r. 

30. The mutes are divided, 

a) according to their fundamental sound : 

1) it, (S, 0, P-mutes. 

2) k. 7, %, K-mutes. 

3) r, S, ^, T-mutes. 

b) according to the breathing or aspiration with 

which they are pronounced : 

1) 7r, k, r, smooth. 

2) /3, y, S 5 middle. 

3) <f>, % % aspirate. 

Rem. The P-sounds are termed labials, because the lips (labium, 
lip) are principally concerned in uttering them ; the K-sounds 
are termed palatals or gutturals, because formed by the palate 
or throat (palatum, guttur. palate, throat) ; and the T-sounda 



8 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [31 34. 

are termed Unguals, because formed by the tongue {lingua, 
tongue). 

31. In the following table the mutes correspond^ 
both when taken horizontally r and when taken per- 
pendicularly. 





Smooth. 


Middle. 


Aspirates. 


P-sounds 


. 7T . . 


. |3 . 


. . <f> 


K-sounds 


. K . . 


. y . 


• • X 


T-sounds 


. T . . 


. d . 


. . 3 



32. The three double letters arise from the blending 
of the mute consonants with or : — 
f = §9 (or ah). 

£ i_ any k sound with a ( = k<j, ja, or %<r). 
ijr = any p sound " er ( = ttct, /3o-, or <f>a). 

S3. A pure Greek word can end only in one of the three liquids, 
p, a; p. It will be remembered that ty = ira, /So-, or (pa; and £ = ko> 
•yo-, or ^0-, and so fall under the rule. The two words, ovk, not, and 
in, out of, form only an apparent exception, since they incline so much 
to the following word as to become, as it were, a part of it. (See 54.) 

This law of euphony (says Kuhner, § 25. 5) occasions either the 
omission of all other consonants, or it changes them into one of the 
three liquids just mentioned ; hence, o-ebpa (gen. crap-ar-os) instead of 
grapar, yaXa (gen. ydkaKT-os) instead of ydXatcr, Xea>v (gen. Aeoi/r-os) 
instead of Xeovr, ifioiikevov, instead of i(3ov\evovr ; repas (gen. repar- 
os) instead of repar, icepas (gen. Kepar-o?) instead of Kepar, fte\i (gen. 
p,e\iT-os) instead of peXtr. 

Hence it follows that we find Greek words always ending in a 
vowel or one of the semi-vowels, v, p, <r. 

Exercise 3. 
34. 1) Name and distinguish the vowels, diphthongs, 
semivowels and mutes^ in the Greek words following. 

2) In the case of the mutes distinguish them accord- 
ing to what you have learnt in 30, 31. 

3) Point out the double letters and show how they 
arise. 



35 37.] SYLLABLES. QUANTITY. 9 

1. (j)pev€$ dya^al. 2. evcoSta teal fjuvpov ywjrlv elaiv 
atria ^avdrov. 3. to tjicpos. 4. £0)779 apyf)- &- &> T"§ 
Xdpvaici Aavar}<$ teal Ilepo-ecos. 6. ftovkeva). 7. 6 \6<yo<$ 

TOV dv^rpCOTTOV. 8. 7] <f)\6£. 9. OO? TT0V 0~TO>, KaX TOV 
KOCT/jLOV KLVrjGG). 

Questions. — How many consonants are there 1 How are they 
divided 1 Name the semivowels ; the mutes ; the double letters. 
How are the mutes divided 1 (Ans. In two ways, according to their 
fundamental sound, and according to the aspiration with which they 
are pronounced.) Name them according to the former way ■ accord- 
ing to the latter. Which are the labials 1 Why so called 1 Which 
the palatals or gutturals % Why so called 1 Which the Unguals 1 
Why so called 1 Which are the double consonants 1 What does £ 
arise from 1 What 1 1 What \p 1 What letters do Greek words 
always end in % (Ans. Towels, and the liquids p, p, a-.) What two 
words are exceptions to this rule 1 



LESSON V. 
Syllables. — Quantity. 

35. A vowel, when uttered by itself, or in connec- 
tion with one or more consonants, is termed a syllable ; 

as, r), Bt], 7T0O9, dpyf\, &c. 

36. A word is composed of one or more syllables. 
No syllable or monosyllabic word contains more than 
six or seven consonants ; as, in o-rpdy^. A word of one 
syllable is termed a monosyllable ; of two, a dissyllable ; 
of three, a trisyllable, of more than three, a polysyl- 
lable • as, /xtjv, 7ro/U?, fipayjutov, irpocrhkyopAii. 

37. The last syllable of a word is called the ulti- 
ma ; the one next to the last, the penultima ; the one 
preceding the penult (or the last but two) the ante- 
penultima ; thus in the word Karoirrpov, irrpov is the 
ultima, to the penultima, ica the antepenultima. 

1* 



10 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [38—43. 

38. Division of Syllables.* — The fundamental rule is that syl- 
lables end with a vowel and begin with a consonant. When, there- 
fore, a consonant stands between two vowels, it belongs to the 
following syllable ; as, 7ro-Ta.-p.6s, o-yJAo-pai, %-crxov, e-fika-tya. 

Exception. — A compound word is best divided according to the 
elements of the compound ; as, crvv-eK-(pd>vr}o-is, Trpo-crTa-T-qs, Trpocr- 

ORTEIYfi). 

39. In the case of a consonant doubled (tttt, XX, yy, &c.) a smooth 
and aspirate mute (nfp, kx, r3, s"ee 31) and a liquid before one or more 
consonants (the combination p,v excepted), the first consonant ends a 
syllable, the second begins one ; as, rdr-rcD, av-^pco-nos, Bdn-xos, a\- 
yos, ep-yov, i-p,vos. In all other cases, of course the general rule 
applies ; as tcXe-mr)?, Kd-fyios, &c.f 

40. By quantity is meant the time which is taken 
to utter a syllable. Syllables are either long or short ; 
the long are regarded as having double the time of the 
short. 

41. A syllable is short by nature when it contains 
a short vowel (e, o, a, t, v) followed by a vowel or sim- 
ple consonant ; as. ^vofitcra, 'eTrifeeTO. (See 3, note *.) 

42. A syllable is long by nature when it contains 
either a simple long void el (77, &>, a, x, v), or a diph- 
thong ; as, '7700)9, fcplvaj, yi(pvpa, la^(ypov<;, 7ralBevfj<;. 
Hence those syllables are always long, in which two 
vowels are contracted into one ; as, "cLkwv (from ai/ccov), 
ftorpvs (from ftorpvas). 

43. A syllable with a short vowel becomes long by 
position, (i. e. by the place of the vowel) if two or more 
consonants, or a double consonant (g f, yjr) follow the 

* See Note 1. (The " Notes " are to be found immediately after 
the Lessons and Exercises.) 

f A more important distinction, however, is that which is made 
between the stem-syllables and the syllables of inflection or derivation. 
The stem-syllables express the essential idea of the word, the syllables 
of inflection or derivation, the relations of the idea. Thus, e. g. in 



44, 45.] SYLLABLES. QUANTITY. 11 

short vowel ; as, 'efco-reKkw, rvylravres, KOpa% (fcopaKos) 

rpamtCfi. 

Rem. The position of a mute with a liquid generally leaves a short 
vowel short ; as, &reKuos, &ireir\os, ^aKfx-t], fiorpvs, SiSpax/J-os, ye- 
v*&\ri, &c. Note, however, that in compounds, and when 
middle mutes (j8, y, 5) stand before A, p, v, the general rule 
holds good in respect to the lengthening of a short vowel by 
position ; as, 'efcvefiai, /3f;8Aos, etfoS/xos, TreirXeyfiai. 

\8jT The pupil may omit, for the present, from 40 
to 43 inclusive.] 

Exercise 4. 

44. 1 ) Divide the following Greek words into syl- 
lables (38, 39.) 

2) Name each word according to the number of 
syllables of which it is composed. 

1. 7T7]yrj. 2. iarlv. 3. avafjL<\)L(T(3r)Tr}TOS. 4. Trpdacrco. 
5. %a7r(jxt). 6. e^o). 7. EttIScl/jlvos. 8. 'At^is. 9. avv- 
Tpe^o). 10. t7T7ro?. 11. vav tcpapos. 12. airrai. 13. pLol- 
pa. 14. 7ra\LyfcoTO<i. 15. crvvefi/3aXKcD. 16. irayyjpi<7- 
to$. 17. ira^TLKO^. 18. MeXiaypos. 19. ^apdSpa. 

20. T6KVOV. 21. TTOT/JLOS. 22. /jLapyLTT}?. 23. 07TTO/X<Xt. 

24. awi^G). 25. atf. 26. 7roSo?. 27. 7r/3o?. 28. wa- 

45. Questions. — What is a syllable ? What do you call a word of 
one syllable 1 Of two ? Of 2Ara? ? Of more than three 1 What name 
do you give to the last syllable of a word 1 The last but one 1 The 
last but two 1 What do you call a letter or syllable at the beginning 
of a word ? (Ans. An initial letter or syllable.) What at the end of 
a word ? (Ans. A final letter, &c.) What in the body of a word 1 
(ii?is. A medial letter, &c.) Give the fundamental rule for the divi- 
sion of syllables. How do you divide the words ir6Ta/j.os, ePXatya, 
%(rx ov ' State the exception to the rule. What is the rule in 39 1 

ye-ypa<p-a, the middle syllable is the stem-syllable, the two others 
syllables of inflection ; in -npay-jxa, the first is the stem-syllable, the 
last the syllable of derivation. See Kvihner's Gr. Gram. § 26. 2. 



12 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [46—50. 

How do you divide into syllables 'Lttkos, afivos, 'At&Is, KdS/xos, &\yos 1 
What is the more important distinction quoted from Kiihner in the 
notel 



LESSON VI. 
Accents, Enclitics, fyc. 

46. a) The Greek accents are the acute (') and the 
circumflex ("). 

b) The acute stands on one of the last three syllables. It cannot, 
however, stand on the antepenult (last but two), unless the final is 
short; as ttoitjo-co, e8a>Ke, dpxf), av^pomos. 

c) The circumflex can stand on either of the last two syllables : 
but it stands only over long voivels and diphthongs, and not over the 
penult (last but one), unless the final is short ; as, fjpds, ravra. 

47. In comparison with the sharply accented syllable, the other 
syllables of a word have a depressed tone, which used to be called the 
grave accent, and marked by a stroke drawn to the right : Qe6b(bpbs> 
i. e. Qe68copos. 

48. From the acute and the grave ( /N ) arose the 
circumflex. Thus a from da) &> from 6a) r\ from 
ka ; &c. 

But ad, 6d, (the acute being on the second vowel or diphthong) 
would be contracted into d, a>, with the acute. 

49. When the penult is the tone-syllable,* and has a long vowel 
or diphthong, then, if the final is short, the accent is the circumflex : 
(pevyoo' but cpevye. 

50. When a tone-syllable has also a breathing, the acute and grave 
are placed after the breathing, the circumflex above it. They stand 
over the vowel (jj, a>, o) ; being, however, for convenience, placed a 
little before a capital ( J/ H, r Sl). For a (proper) diphthong their place 
is over the second vowel (Ovre, Ovv, ovre, ovv) : but an improper one, 
even when it is a capital, and, as such, takes its t into the line of the 
letters, is treated as a single vowel: "Aifys = aS^j. (19. Rem.) In 

* i. e. the accented syllable. 



51 54.] ACCENTS, ENCLITICS, ETC. 13 

diaeresis.* the acute accent stands between, and the circumflex above 
the points ; as : dtdios, ickv'iSi. 

51. Words receive ^ie following appellations according to the ac- 
centuation of the final syllables : — 

Oxytones\ acute on the last syllable ; as, Tervcpas, Kanos, 3^. 

Par-oxytones " " last syllable but one ; as, tvtttco, du- 

3p<w7rou. 
Pro-par-oxytones " " last syllable but two; as, civSpanros, 

TVTTTOfieVOS. 

Peri-spomena, circumflex " last syllable ; as, nanas, eA3eii>. 
Pro-peri-spomena " " last syllable but one ; as, irpayp-a, rpi- 

\ov(ra. 

52. 0° A non-oxytone is called a barytone,] because it has, not 
the acute, but the supposed grave accent (47) on its final syllable ; 
as, Xvco, Trpdypa, Trpa.yp.ara. 

53. An oxytone is written as a barytone (i. e. the 

acute of an oxytone is written as the grave) when the 

word is in a sentence, except when it is the last word 

of a sentence, or immediately precedes a stop ; as, el pJr) 

fjbrjTpvir) TrepLfcaXkrj? 'Heplftoia rjv. puevovfjuev avrovs. 6 

(lev Kvpos eirepaae tov 7TOTa/i6v, ol Be 7ro\e/j,ioi, aire^vyov. 

Rem. The accent thus written over oxytones in connected dis- 
course is generally termed the softened acute. 

54. A few small words are without an accent : these 

are called atonies, from a, which means not, and two?, 

' tone ' or '■.accent. 1 

Obs. The atonies (or proclitics) are the following : 6, rj, ol, al : iv, 
€is (es), in (e|) : ws, el : ov (ouk, oux)- 

The word ov == *nat} takes the acute, when it 
stands as the last word of a sentence. 

* When two vowels, which regularly form a diphthong, are to be 
pronounced separately, two points (called puncta diceresis, ' points of 
separation' [Siaipzcns]) are placed over the second vowel (i, v), as : e'i, 
o'C, av. 

t '0|vy, acutus : 7rept<r7rc6/xei'os, circuviflezus : fiapvs, gravis : t6vos, 
accentus. 



14 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [55, 56. 

55. Certain other small words (of one or two sylla- 
bles) are called enclitics. They are so closely joined 
with the preceding word, that their accent is generally 
placed upon it, they themselves being pronounced with- 
out any tone ; as, <£/\o? ns (pronounced as if written 

<f)i\0(TTL<;). 

2e, 'thee? 'you, (sing.), is one of these enclitics. 
Me, ' me,' is another : but the longer form for ' me' (e/xe) is not 
enclitic. 

'Eot-iV, ' is,' is another enclitic* 

56. 1) When an enclitic follows a proparoxytone 
or proper is pomenon (51), the enclitic loses its accent, 
which is written over the last syllable of the preceding 
word. 

Kpinrrova-i ere, they hide you. ij (f>i\ovari jue, they love me. 

2) When an enclitic follows a paroxytone, 

a monosyllable enclitic loses ) ., . 

" . . . \ its accent. 

a dissyllable enclitic retains ) 

Kpimre /xe, hide me. c/u'Xo? iarlu, he is friendly. 

3) When an enclitic follows a perispomenon, it 
loses its accent, whether it is a monosyllable or a dis- 
syllable. 

<pi\e7 /Lie, 7ie loves me. &7r\ovs ecrnv, he is simple. 

4) When an enclitic follows an oxytone, the enclitic 
loses its accent, but the acute of the oxytone is then not 
written as the grave. 

koXos iarriv, he is beautiful. 
%r)p tls, (ris, l a certain' is an enclitic.) 
Rem. As the correct pronunciation of the Greek language is un- 
known (see 2), we are not able to determine the precise use 

* The other enclitics are mostly contained in the following list : 
the pres. indie, of el/j.1 and pn/ii (except e? and (pr/s) ; the personal pro- 
nouns, fiov, fioi, ffov, croi, ov, &c. ; the indef. pron. tIs, rl ; the indef. 
adverbs, irds, *<!), trl\, irov, vore, &c. ; the particles, re, roi, ye, viv, &c. 



57, 58.] ACCENTS, ENCLITICS, ETC. 15 

of the accents : their principal value to us is in their serving 
to distinguish words ; thus j/6/j.os, law ; vo/mSs, pasture-ground. 
fiios, life ; fiiSs, bow. Stj/jlos, people ; 8t)(jl6s, fat. ris, who ? t\s, 
some one. elai, they are; eltri, he goes. froAos, a dome; &o\6s, 
mud. 3)[mos, shoulder ; wfj.6s, cruel ; &c. 

57. Beside the accents, the Greeks have several 
other marks to assist the reader, some of which refer to 
words alone and others to the members of the sentence 
only. These are 

a) The apostrophe, which marks the cutting off 
(elision) of a vowel at the end of a word when the fol- 
lowing word begins with a vowel ; as, air aXkwv for 
airb aWcov, /car e/ie for Kara ifie, acfi eavrov for otto 
eavrov, &c 

The coro?iis, which marks the blending (crasis) of 
two words, one ending the other beginning with a 
vowel, into one word ; as, tovvo/jlcl for to ovofia, raycfed 
for rd aycfed, ravrd for rd avrd, <fcc. 

The diceresis which marks a division between two 
vowels ; as, dccrcrco, oi'?, &c. 

b) The punctuation marks — 

The comma [,] as in English ; rotJro, a. t. X. 

The colon (and semicolon) [•] a point above the line ; fxe • 

The interrogation [;] like the English semicolon ; ris ; 

The period [.] as in English ; irpayp.a. 

Exercise 5. 

58. Name the accents in the following sentences ; 
show whether they are placed according to the rules 
above given ; and point out the enclitics and atonies. 

1. r O Seiko? icrri rrjs iraTp{So<; 7rpoS6rr)?. 2. 'Oprv- 
yes elcriv rjSvcpcovoL teal \xayr\TiKo\ opvfees. 3. ottgos Be 
elBco fjidXcara, oirolo? ris earc rrjv o-yjnv ; 4. 'PaSiov ev- 
pelv diro ye tovtcov. 5. to re rebv TpcToovcov yevo<$. 



16 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [59 62. 

6. aWa BleXi /jlov rrjv K€(j>a\r)v e? Bvo /careveyfccbv. 

7. ray iXecpavri, icrrl Spd/covros oppcoSia. a) Ka/coSal/JLOv 
vie rod KafCoSat/jLovos Ilpidfiov. 8. Tvcfrcbv viro Ztjvo^ 
ifcoXda^r}. 9. 2 ' aphavdiraXos, iv (BacrCkeioLS /carafce- 
/cXeLo-fJiivoSi ovSev aWo ihiooKev rj tjSovtjv. 

59. Are the accents rightly or wrongly placed in 
the examples following? if wrongly, then make the 
correction required. 

1. /3\a7TTet tov e^pov. (46, c; 53.) 2. Trjv tov 
yeoofierpov crocfytav ^av/jua^o/jLev. (46, b.) 3. ?)A,e&<£e? tov 
heaiT0T7]V. 4. eirefae tovs tjevovs. 5. Trelcro/juev cre. 

6. ijfopOS icTTLV. 7. pbTTTeL TOV SlCTKOV. 8. cf)t\el CT6. 
9. KCtXoS icTTLV. 10. fiXaiTTOVGl 0~€. 

IT This exercise may profitably be lengthened according to the 
necessities of the learner, until he is thoroughly acquainted with the 
accents, their right places, the enclitics, &c. 



LESSON VII. 
Parts of speech. Inflection^ fyc. 

60. The parts of speech in Greek are, — the article, 
the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the verb, the ad- 
verb, the preposition and the conjunction. The inter- 
jection is commonly ranked among the adverbs. 

61. The first five of these (viz., article, noun, adjec- 
tive, pronoun, verb) are susceptible of variation or 
modification in order to indicate their different rela- 
tions. This is properly termed inflection. 

62. The inflection of the article, nouns, adjectives 
and pronouns is termed declension; the inflection of 
the verb conjugation. 



63 67. J PARTS OF SPEECH. INFLECTIONS. 17 

63. The other parts of speech (viz., adverbs, pre- 
positions and conjunctions) do not admit of inflection. 

64. The Greek, like our own language, has three 
genders, viz., the masculine, the feminine and the 
neuter ; as, 6 av^rpwrros, the man ; rj ^rvp, the mother; 
to avicov, the Jig* 

Obs. To mark the genders of substantives in Greek, the different 
forms of the article are employed ; as 6 for the masculine, tj for the 
feminine, to for the neuter, &c. (See 89.) 

Some nouns are both masculine and feminine, and are said to be 
of the common gender ; as 6, r\ &e6s, god or goddess ; 6, r\ rp6(pos, nurse ; 
o, T) tw^rpwnzos, human being ; &c. 

65. The Greek has three numbers, the singular, 
the plural, and the dual which denotes two, or a pair. 

66. It has also jive cases, viz., the nominative, the 
genitive, the dative, the accusative and the vocative. 

Obs. 1. There is no ablative, the place of that case being supplied 
mostly by the dative, sometimes by the genitive. 

Obs. 2. The nominative, accusative, and vocative neuter have the 
same form in all numbers, and in the plural they always end in a. 
The nominative, accusative, and vocative dual are alike ; the genitive 
and dative dual are also alike. The nominative and vocative plural 
are always alike. The dative singular always ends in i, but in the 
first two declensions it is subscript [see 19. 2) Eem.] 

67. There are three Declensions in Greek, the First, 
Second, and Third. 

* The gender of nouns is determined partly by their meaning ; the 
following general rules may be noted to advantage : 

1) Names of males, of nations, winds, months, mountains, and most 
rivers, are masculine. 

2) Names of females, of countries, islands, most cities, most treet 
and plants, are feminine. 

3) The names of the letters and. fruits, infinitives, diminutives in -op 
(except the proper names of females, e. g. t\ Ac6vtiov), all indeclinable 
words, and finally every word considered as simply thai word (e. g. 
to /j.7)T7)p, 'the word mother'), are neuter. 



18 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[68. 



General Table of the Declensions. 





i. 


II. III. 


Sing. 

Nom. 
Gen. 


S rjs, as, masc. 
{ t], a, a, fern. 

ov, j]s, or as, 


os, m. etf. 
ov, neul. 

OV, 


' 


' a, 1, v, neut. 
oi, fern, 
v, |, p, <r, ty, of all 

genders. 
os {<os), increases 


Dat. 


v, or a, 


<p, 


in gen. 


Ace. 


rjv, or av, 


OV, 


a, or v, 


Voc. 


r), or a, 


e, ov, neut. 


various ; neut. as 


Plural. 






nom. 


Nom. 


at, 


01, a, neut. 


is, a, neut. 


Gen. 


gov, 1 


(OV, 


gov, 


Dat. 


ais, 


01s, 


0-1 (artv), 


Ace. 


as, 


ovs, a, neut. 


as, a, neut. 


Voc. 


at, 


01, d, neut. 


es, a, neut. 


Dual. 








N. A. V. 


a, 


Q), 


f, 


G. D. 


aiv, 


OIV, 


OIV, 



1 Contracted from dcov, and therefore circumflexed (48). In 
repeating the table, let the pupil say " wv circumflexed." 



68. Questions. — Name the parts of speech in Greek. How many 
and which admit of inflection 1 What do you mean by inflection 1 
What term is applied to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, &c. 1 
What to that of the verb 1 What parts of speech do not admit of 
inflection 1 How many genders are there in Greek 1 How are they 
generally marked 1 What is the common gender 1 How many num- 
bers are there in Greek 1 What does the dual denote 1 How many 
cases 1 Is there any ablative ? Name the cases which are alike. 
Repeat the table of declensions. What are the terminations of the 
nominative of the first declension 1 What of the second ? Of the 
third 1 What of the genitive of the first 1 Of the second 1 Of the 
third 1 (And so on, through all the table.) 



69 73.] THE VERB. 19 

LESSON VIII. 

The Verb. Present and Future Active. 

69. Greek Verbs are of two kinds, those ending in 
w and those in /hi* 

70. There are three Voices, the Active, the Passive 
and the Middle ; as, tvtttw, I strike (act.) ; rvirro/xac, 
I am struck (pass.) ; rvTrro/JLat, I strike myself. 

Rem. For the present we use only verbs in a in the active voice. 

71. The Moods of Greek Verbs are, the Indicative, 
the Imperative, the Subjunctive, the Optative and the 
Infinitive. 

72. The Tenses are, 1) Principal Tenses, the 
Present, the Perfect, the Future; 2) Historical 
Tenses, the Imperfect, the Pluperfect, the Aorist. 

73. The Mutes, as we have seen (30, 31), are divi- 
ded into three sets of three : — 

Smooth. Middle. Aspirate. 

2>-sounds 7r . j3 . <j> 

Ar-sounds k • 7 • % 

^-sounds t B S- 

1) For any p-sound with a (ire, fio; cfxr), you- must 
write yjr. 

2) For any &-sound with a (kct, ya, j(a), you must 
write f. 

3) For any £-sound with a (ra, Scr, ^ra), you must 
write a only : 

That is, the ^-sound is thrown away. 

4) Also for TTT-o- you must write -ty : for /ct-9, f. 

* They are so called from the ending of the first person singular 
of the Present Indie, as ypd<pw, \4ya>, ex a > & c - (verbs in a), and 
Ttd-rj/ui, '1<tt7\ijll, &c. (verbs in (ju). 



20 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[74—79. 



74. Thus : 1) /3\€tt-s becomes /3\e-v|r 

akeMp-s " akec^r 

TI/7TT-S " Tl^|r 

2) 7r\e/c-$ " 7rXef 

3) 7ret^-5 " 7ret? 
<j7reuS-? " airevs 

75. The Infinitive (of the Pres. Act.) ends in eiv ; 
as, \eyetv, ^Xeireiv, <fcc. 

76. The roo£ of the Present (Active) is got, 

a) By throwing away the eiv of the Pres. Infin. ; 
as, rvTTTew, root, twttt. apyzw, root, apx- 

b) By throwing away the w of the first sing, of the 
Present ; as, ap^to, apx- I^XeTrco, /3A,e7r. 

77. The root of the Future is got from the root of 
the Present (or Infinitive) by sigmating it ; that is, by 
adding ? ; thus, (3Xeir, add 9, fi\e7rs= (Ske-^r. 

78. The Greek language (see 65) has a form called 
the Dual, to denote two. The Active Voice has no 
dual form for the^rs^ person. 

79. In the Indicative, both the Present and the 
Future of the Active Voice end in w, and the termina- 
tions of the Persons are : 





1. 


2. 


3. 






EXAMPLE.* 

Present. 




8. 


CO 


eis 


ei 


S. 


TV7TTC0 


TV7TT€tS 


TV7TT€l 










P. 


TV7TTOjXeV 


TVTTTere 


TVTVTOVCTl 


P. 


ofiev 


ere 


oven 


D. 




TV7TT€TOV 

Future. 


TV7TT6TOV 


D. 




erov 


€TOV 


S. 
P. 
D. 


TVljfCO 
TV\j/Ofl€V 


Tvxjseis 
TvyjseTe 
TvyjreTou 


Tv\]/et 

Tvyjfovcri 

rv\jfeTov. 



* See Note 2. 



80—82.] THE VERB. 21 

80. The second person sing, of the Imperative ends 
in e added to the root of the Present (or Infinitive). 
Tpafy-a, I write. Tpcufr-e, write (thou). 

81. Vocabulary 1. 



To write, ypdcp-eiv 

To look, (3\€7T-€IV 

To rub, Tptfi-etv 
To strike, rvirr-eiv 
To anoint, a\ei<fi-eiv 
To weave, nXeic-etv 



To say, to tell, \ey-eiv 
To rule, apx-eiv (governs 

gen.) 
To persuade, nefa-eiv 
To cheat, 






To beguile, 

Exercise 6. 

82. a) Read and translate into English. 

[ You, in what follows, is to be considered sing, unless pi. is 
added.] 

1. Tpdyjrco. 2. Fpadjerov. 3. B\e7ropi,ev. 4. Tpl- 
fiovcn. 5. TptyovaL. 6. Aejere. 7. Aeye. 8. Tvirrei. 
9. "Apfjei. 10. nelaovac. 11. Wevo-et,?. 12. B\efa>. 

13. \4A,ei<£et?. 14. 'AXetyovcn. 15. Aeyecs. 16. Ak- 
yo/i€V, 17. IlefeeTe. 18. JTet^e. 19. Hefeerov. 20. Ae- 
%erov. 21. HXefo). 22. Tpifieui. 23. Tplferov. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1 You* anoint. 2. He anoints. 3. We will anoint. 
4. You (pi.) anoint. 5. You (two) will say. 6. He 
will tell. 7. He will look. 8. You will beat. 9. They 
look. 10. You (pi.) look. 11. You ( pi.) will cheat. 
12. They will persuade. 13. He will persuade. 

14. Persuade. 15. Tell. 16. Look. 17. They (two) 
look. 18. They will rub. 19. You (two) will weave. 
20. You will persuade. 

* As in Latin, the nom. of the personal pronouns is not expressed 
except for the sake of distinction or emphasis. They are to be left 
untranslated here. 



22 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[83—85. 



The pupil ought to write out, plainly and distinctly, his 
translations from Greek into English, and from English into 
Greek. In the latter case, too, he should accentuate the 
Greek words, bringing to bear, as far as he is able, the rules 
for accentuation, 46, &c. 



LESSON IX. 

The Verb, continued. 

83. If a root ends in e, the terminations of the Pre- 
sent (79) will be contracted thus (see 48) : 



s. 


e-co 


e-eis 


e-ei 


G> 


els 


el 


p. 

D. 


e-ofiev 


e-ere 
e-erov 


e-ovcri 

€-€TOV 


ovfiep 


elre 
elrov 


overt 
elrov 



84. When a root ending in e is sigmated (i. e. is 
increased by an added sigma, 77), the e is changed 
into 7]. Thus, 

* ae " ? I becomes \ t^ 

7TOte-? ) ( 7T0L7)-<Z 

Troiico, I make ; iroirjaai, I will make. 
cf)iki(o, I love ; (frtXrfcra), 1 will love. 

85. The pupil will recollect that — 

1) A verb agrees with its nominative case in num- 
ber and person ;* as, 

Kt)oo? rvirrei, Cyrus strikes. 

tol tfaa rpe^ec, The animals run. 

r}/ui€L<i ere (J)l\ov/jl€v, We love you. 

2) A transitive verb is followed by the accusative ; 
as, 

Kvves tovs ijfopovs hatcvovaiv, Dogs bite their 
enemies. 

* But a dual nominative is often joined with a plural verb ; and a 
neuter plural generally takes a singular verb. 



86, 87.] THE VERB. 23 

Avkos a/xvov iSicofcev, A ivolf was 'pursuing a 

lamb. 
Tvvr) tls opvw etye, A woman had a hen. 

86. Vocabulary 2. 

To love, (<fii\e-eiv =) (friXelv To hide, KpinrT-eiv. 
To make, (noLe-eiv =) rroielv 

Nom. I, e'-yco. Thou, av. We, rjixels. You, v/ieiy. 

Ace. Me, ifie or jj,e. Thee, <re. Us, rjfxds. You, vfids. 

Him, avrov. Them, avrovs. 

This (neut. sing.), tovto. These things, ravra. 
Not, ov, (with the imperative, firj.) 

tnr Mev — Se are indeed — but. The fiiv is, however, mostly not 
translated in English. They cannot stand as the first word of 
a sentence or clause. 

Exercise 7. 

87. a) Translate into English. 

1. <&CkovGLV avrov. 2. ^cXrjcrovcrL. 3. <f>i\el. 4. Uol- 
ovai ravra. 5. Uotet?. 6. ITo^cret?. 7. Kpv7rr€L<z. 
8. Kpv-yjro/jLev. 9. 'Eyco* fjuev Kpinrrco ravra, crv he ov 
Kpvirreus. 10. e H/xeh /xev (pcXov/juev avrov, v/iels 8e ov 
(pcXelre. 11. Xv fiev y\revcret<; avrov, iyoo Se ov ^evaoy. 
12. 'Hfias fjuev 7ret<Tet?, avrov 8e ov. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

(Words to which ° are prefixed are not to be translated.) 
1. You love him. 2. I indeed love him, but you 
do not love (°him). 3. You 41 t will love him, but I 
"shall not. 4. They will love them. 5. You love him. 
6. You (pi.) love him. 7. They are doing these 
things. 8. He is doing this. 9. We 4 ' are doing these 

* See note * on p. 21. 

t These numerals refer to the Table of "Difference of Idioms," 
&c. immediately preceding the Indexes. 



24 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[88, 89. 



things, but you (pi.) are not doing °them. 10. I will 
do this. 11. I will do this, but you shall not do °it. 
12. We will hide this. 13. Ye shall weave. 



88. Questions. — What accent has <piAov<TLu1 [48.] What hence 
called 1 [51.] Why is o,vt6v written as an oxytone ? [53.] Why are 
iycb, fxev, crv, Be written thus, and not £yd>, /xev, <tv, Se 1 Why has ov 
no accent in several places, but has the acute in the last sentence 
above 1 [54, Obs.] What case is radral By what rule? [83, 2.] 
What cases are iyk, ab and 7)/j.e?s 1 Give the rule for the agreement 
of a verb with its nominative case. [83, 1.] How is <xvt6v governed 1 
What case is ^uas 1 Why 1 Parse the verb ^evaeLs (thus : \pev<reis is 
the fut. act. 2d pers. sing, from i//eu5o>, root \pevS : the root of the fut. 
is got from the root of the pres. by adding s, which makes tyevds : but 
by 71, 3, for any £-sound with s you must write s only, which makes 
tyevs, root of the fut.) What is the root of ttoicTs 1 [74, 77.] If the 
root^of iroiels is Troie, why do you write noi-fio-eis in the fut. 1 [82.] 
What is the place of [lev and Se in Greek sentences 1 Do you trans- 
late fi4u in the sentences above % In translating the English into 
Greek, do you insert the /j.4v, or not, in 2, 3, 9, 11 1 (Obs. Imitate the 
order of the words in the Greek sentences.) 



LESSON X. 
The Article. 
89. The Article in Greek is prefixed to nouns in 
order to ascertain or define them ; as, 6 tto^ttj?, " the 
poet ;" 7] KopT), " the maiden ;" to jovv, " the knee." 

Rem. The Greeks have no indefinite article, answering to our ( V 
or " an" 

PARADIGM OF THE ARTICLE. 

6, rj, to, "the." 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 




m. f. 


n. 


m. 


f. n. 




m. f. 


n. 


N. 


6 rj 


TO 


ol 


at to. 


N. 


1 > ' 




G. 




^ 




. 


A. 


> TOO TO. 


TCO 


TOV TT)S 


TOV 


TCOV 


TCOV TCOV 


s 




D. 


TOO rfj 


TCO 


Tols 


TOLS Tols 


G. 


I „ . 


^ 


A. 


* 


, 


f , 


D. 


> TOLV Taiv 


TOIV 


TOV TTjV 


TO 


TOVS 


Tas TO. 


s 





90 93.] THE ARTICLE. 25 

90. The pupil will observe that 6, ?;, ol, at are atonic 
(54) ; the genitives and datives perispomena (51) ; and 
the other cases oxytone (51). 

Rem. In the dual the feminine is more commonly t<£, to?v, than 
rd, touv. Ta {as fern, dual) is very uncommon. 

91. The Article is often equivalent to a weakened 
possessive ; and is translated by my, your, his, her? 
their ; as, icuves tovs i-)firpov$ Sd/cvovcriv, iyco Se roi)<? <pl- 
Xovs, iva crdocrcD, " Dogs bite their enemies, but I my 
friends, that I may save them? 

Rem. " The chief employment of the definite article is to distin- 
guish the subject from the predicate ; for, from the nature of 
the case, the subject is considered to be something definite, 
of which something general is predicated or denied." {Don- 
aldson.) 

92. Vocabulary 3. 

Poet, 7TOlT]Tr]S, 6 (aCC. 7TOLTjTT]v). 

Letter, epistle, eVio-roXjy, rj (ace. eniaToXrjv). 
Young man, youth, veavlas, 6 (ace. veaviav). 
Tent, o-Kr]vr), rj (ace. a~Kr)vr)v). 
Sea, %d\ao-(ra, fj (ace. ^aXaacrav). 

Exercise 8. 

93. a) Translate into English. 

1. c O 7T0L7}Tr)<i rr)v eiricrr6Xr)v ypdyjrei. 2. Tov veavlav 
(pi\ov/JL€V. 3. Mr) ypdcfre eTUcrToXrjv. 4. r Hfxels fiev irel- 
ao/xev avrovs, vfiecs Se ov irelaeTe. 5. HoLrjcrere <r/cr)vrjv. 
6. 6 veavlas Xe^et, ravra. 7. Eyco /xev ov (piXeco rr)v 6dX- 
acraav, av Se <J)iXeis. 8. Kpy^tet rr)v enriGToXr)v. 9. A- 
Xel<pofiev tov veavlav. 10. HoLr)rr]s. 11. 'O iroirjrri^. 
12. T/xecs p,e tyuXelre. 13. Tavra avrovs irelaei. 
14. Ae^erov tovto. 15. Xtcr)vr)v irocel. 16. Tlelao/xev 
(re, 17. f O veavlas Xe^ei ttjv eirLaToXrjv. 18. %e fiev 
2 



26 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [94, 95. 

TreicrovGLV* e/ie Be ov. 19. Kvpo? ypafyeiv €7ncrTo\r}V 
(f>tXi]cr€i, 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The young man will persuade the poet. 2. He 

will hide the letter. 3. Do not strike the poet. 4. He 

loves us. 5. They are doing these things. 6. We 

will love them, but you will not love ( ° them). 7. The 

young man weaves. 8. These things beguile the poet. 

9. Do not persuade the youth to love the sea. 10. He 

loves a youth. 11. We will make a tent. 12. The 

poet does not love the sea. 13. Write your letters. 

94. Questions. — "What is the use of the article in Greek 7 Is 
there any thing answering to our indefinite article 1 Which portions 
of the article are atonic ? Which perispome ? Which ozytone ? Which 
are the most usual forms in the dual 1 What is the article often 
equivalent to 1 Give the Greek for "Dogs bite their enemies." In 
the Exercise (sentence 3, Greek), how do you translate iTricrroX-hv, 
without the article 1 4. Account for the acute on avrovs. 10, 11. Point 
out the difference. 12. What is jue 1 13. What rule applies 1 [85,1.] 
14. Parse \Qerov. 16. Account for the two accents on irei <xofX€v. 18. 
What do you call the v in irei<Tov<riv 1 To what words is it added 7 
In sentence 3 (English), do you use fii) or ob % 8. Is the verb singu- 
lar or plural 1 13. How do you translate " your" % 



LESSON XI. 
First Declension of Nouns. 

95. As we have seen above (67), there are in Greek 
three different ways of inflecting substantives, distin- 
guished as the first, second, and third declensions. 

* The third singular and the third plural of verbs in an, e, or t, 
have sometimes an v added, when a word beginning with a vowel fol- 
lows. This v is also added to the dative plur. in an, and to some 
adverbs of place, &c. It is called v I^Xkxxxtikov. But in reality, the 
v which is thus said to be added belonged to the original form of the 
word. 



96, 97.] 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



27 



96. Nouns of the first declension end in a and rj, 
feminine ; a? and t??, masculine. 

TERMINATIONS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 



N. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


«J 


d or 7] 


as 


or t)s 


ai 


d 


G. 


VS 


as rjs 


ov 


ov 


<ov 


tuv 


D. 


V 


a V 


a 


V 


tUS 


aiv 


A. 


av 


dlf T]V 


av 


T)V 


as 


a 


V. 


a 


a t) 


a 


t), a 


at 


a 



Rem. The gen. as and dat. a belong to nouns that end in pa, or in 
a preceded by a vowel (a pure), together with aAaAa, and some 
proper names in a : 'AvSpo/jL&ti., A-qSa, &c. The rest in a take 
vs, 7j. The termination a, gen. tjs, is always short ; a, gen. as, 
is mostly long* 

PARADIGMS OF FEMININE NOUNS. 





Muse. Shadow. Country. 


Honor. 


Justice. 


Sing. N. 


7] Movcra aula (d) X-^P^ 


TlfXT] 


8lKT] 


G. 


ttjs Movo-rjs o~Kias x^P as 


TlflTjS 


dlKTJS 


D. 


rjj Movcry o~Kia X-^P a 


Tip.r) 


dlKT) 


A. 


tt)v Movaav o~Kidv (a) x<bpav 


Tl\XT\V 


biKrjV 


V. 


Movrra o~Kia (a) X-^P^ 


TlflT) 


dlKT) 


Plur. N. 


ai Movaai aiaai x~^P ai 


TLfXaL 


diKai 


G. 


TWV ~MoVoS)V O-KICOV ^COpCO^ 


TlflCOV 


BlKCOV 


D. 


rats Mova-acs aKials x-^P ais 


TlfJiaLS 


ftinais 


A. 


ras Movaras o~Kids (a) x^P as 


Ttfxas 


8Uas 


V. 


Movcrat o~Kiai %copai 


TLfJ-ai 


8Uac 


Dual. N.A.V. 


ra Movcra crKid (a) X^P** 


ri\xa 


dlxa 


G. D. 


raiv Movcraiv o~nia.lv x^ > P alv 


Tifiatv 


biKaiv 



97. On the accentuation.] The accent remains, as long as the 
general rules (46, b, c) will let it, on the same syllable ; with the 
exception of the gen. plural, which in this declension is always peri- 
spomenon. 

1) If the accent is on the last syllable, it remains indeed on that 
syllable, but is changed into the circumflex in the gen. and dat. of all 
numbers. Thus, Tifirj, rifirjs, rifirj, ripcou, Tt/xaTs, nualv. 

2) In the nom. plural, at is considered short with respect to accen- 
tuation : hence if the penult has a diphthong or long towel, an acute 



* See Note 3. 



28 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [98, 99. 

on that syllable is changed into the circumflex. For instance, yvcopn 
has nom. plural yvcopat, x^P^ nas nom - plural x<»>pai. 

3) When the final syllable becomes long, the circumflex cannot 
stand on the penult (46, c) : o-cpaipa cannot have a-cpatpds. Hence 
the accent must be the acute, since that accent can stand on the 
penult, whatever the quantity of the final may be : acpaipa, gen. 
<r(paipas, Movcra, gen. Movcttjs. 

4) If the word be proparoxytone (which it cannot be, unless the 
final a is short), no accent can stand on the antepenult when the final 
becomes long. It is necessary therefore to move the acute one place 
to the right : e^tSi/a, gen. ixibvijs. 

98. The pupil will observe that — 

1) Abstract substantives (e. g. the names of virtues, 
vices, &c.) often take the article, which is not to be 
translated into English. 

2) Proper names often take the article when they 
have been lately mentioned ; or when they are the 
names of well known persons or places. 

EXAMPLES. 

<fci\ov/jL€v Trjv cro(f)Lav, we love ivisdom. 

7] fie^T) fiixpa fjuavla io-rlv, drunkenness is a bj'ief 
madness. 

(SXairrovcri rrjv "Eperpcav, they are injuring Eretria. 

6 XwKparris rjv <f)i\6cro<f)o$, Socrates was a philoso- 
pher. 

Kvpov /jieTaTre/JLTrerat • avafBaivei ovv 6 Kvpos, He 
se?ids for Cyrus ; Cyrus thereupon goes up. 



99. Vocabulary 4. 

Erelria, 'Eperpia, as. 
Philosophy, cpiXocrocpia, as. 
The soul, the mind, tyvxf), rjs. 
Virtue, dperr), r)s. 
Benefit, profit ; a blessing, w(pe- 
Xeia, as- 



Pleasure, r)hovr), rjs. 
Wisdom, trcxpia, as. 
Slavery, bovXeld, as. 
Ignorance (brutish), ap.a%i,a,as. 
Madness, pav'ia, as. 
Calamity, o-vpcpopd, as. 



100.] DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 29 



Loss, injury, penally; a cala- 
mity, £?7/xi'a, as (damnum). 
Hurt, (3\dj3rj, t]s. 
Fate, fxoipa, as. 
Injustice, ddcKta, as. 
Justice (as habit) , biKaiocrvvq,r]s. 



Necessity, compulsion, dvd- 

yicr), ns. 
Damsel, Kopn, ns. 
Force, violence, /3t'a, as. 
Anger, opyrj, rjs. 
Ball, acpaipa, as. 



To hurt, injure, j3Xa7TT-eiu. 
Tojlee or jly from, shun, <pevy- 

€IV. 

To pursue, bivK-tiv. 



To yield, eiK-eiv, (governs the da- 
tive.) 
To throw, p'lttt-civ. 
Is, eVri (io-riv) ; are, eicrt, (eio-ii>.) 



Both — and, Kai — Kai; re Kai (re is enclitic, 55), or re . . . Kai 
(with a word or words between). Te na\ often = 'and' only. 
Himself, eavrov or avrov. Who 1 ris ', 

Towards, irpos (with accusative). 

Obs. 1) abr6v (with smooth breathing) = him. 

avrov (with rough breathing) = himself. 
2) Tis ; ' who ?' retains its acute accent even in a sentence. 

Exercise 9. 

100. a) Translate into English. 

1. Mr) (3\d7TT€ rr)v ^Eperpiav. 2. Ov f^Xeireu 737309 
(f)i\ocro<f>iav. 3. *Apye rrjs tywxfjs. 4. *H apery ov 
j3\e^eu 7T/30? dx^ekeiav. 5. *J?tyw rr)v crcpacpw. 6. 'H 
/jLOipa dpyei /3\d(3r)<^ re Kai dxfieXelas. 7. <&evye rr\v dSo- 
Kiav. 8. Trjv [lev dhaciav (pevye, rrjv he. hiKaiocrvvvv 
hiwKe. 9. El/ce rfj fila. 10. Mr) elfce rats rjhovals. 
11. <Pevye rr)v tow rjhovwv hovXeiav. 12. Tfj fxev aod^la 
€LK€, rfj he rjhovfj //,?) elfce. 13. 'H fiev dperr) crodyla iarlv, 
rj he dhitcia a/jua&ia re Kai fiavia. 14. Tat? crvfiqiopaLS 
etKOjiev. 15. Mr) {3\a7rre rd (or too) Kopd. 16. ( H oV 
Kaiocrvvrj dperr) ecrri. 17. ^WKpdrr)^ avrov (f)i\eT, ep,e 
Be ov. 18. TV? Tr)v crKrjvrjv irouqcrei ; 19. 'Eavrbv Kpv- 
i|ret. 20. ZrjfjLLa eariv. (See 56, 2.) 



30 FIRST GE.EEK BOOK. £101, 102. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. We yield to force and necessity. 2. Pursue 
virtue. 3. You will look to profit. 4. Pursue both 
justice and virtue. 5. We will yield to necessity, but 
not to force. 6. Rule over your {say ' the ') anger. 

7. We will yield to the compulsion of calamities. 

8. Do not yield to the slavery of pleasure. 9. Who 
will hide me? 10. He loves himself. 11. Who is 
looking towards the young man ? 12. They are throw- 
ing the ball. 13. It is a ball. 14. Virtue and justice 
are wisdom. 15. This is a loss to the poet. 

101. Questions. — How many declensions are there in Greek'* 
What are the terminations of the first declension 1 Which are femi- 
nine ? Which masculine ? Which nouns have gen. as, dat. a ? What 
is the quantity of a, gen. tjs ? Of a, gen. as ? Go through with 
Moucra, <TKid, x^P a > *wft 3 8i/c?7. What is the general statement as to 
the accent 1 How is the gen. pi. always accented 1 If a noun is oxy- 
tone in the nom., what is the accent of the gen. and dat. % What is 
the quantity of ai with respect to accentuation % Suppose then the 
penult have a diphthong or long vowel, with an acute on it, what is 
that acute changed into when the termination becomes cu ? Can the 
circumflex stand on the penult when the last syllable becomes long 1 
If the final of a proparoxytone becomes long, what accent do you give 
it 1 Give the rules for the use of the article in 98. In the Exercise 
(sentence 3, Greek) account for the genit. [81, 99.] 7, 8, 9, &c, ac- 
count for the article. [98, 1.] 15. Which is better, rd or t& tcopa? 
[90, Rem.] Sentence 9 (English), what is the Greek for who ? Does 
it retain its accent in a sentence ? 10. Give the Greek for himself. 
13. How do you express " it is " &c. in Greek 1 (By itxrij/ simply.) 



LESSON XII. 

Contracts. Masculines of the First Declension. 

102. Some feminines of the first end in f}, a con- 
tracted from ea, da. They are declined regularly as if 
from 7), a ; but every case is a perisjwmenon. (Xvicea 



103—106.] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



31 



= ) crv/cr}, ctv/c-t}?, avK-fj, <fcc. : {jivaa = ) /u,va, fjuvas, fiva, 

PARADIGMS OF MASCULINE NOUNS. 







Citizen. Perses. 


Youth. 


Fowler. 


Sing 


. N. 


6 TToX'iTrjS Uep(TT]S 


veavtas 


opvL^o^rjpas 




G. 


tov 7roXirov Ilepcrov 


veaviov 


6pvfcc>%r)pa 




D. 


tu 7To\iT7j Hepcrrj 


veavia 


opv&o'Srjpa 




A. 


rov tto\ltt)v Uepcrrjv 


veaviav 


opv&o'Srjpav 




V. 


TToKlTO. IlepaT] 


veavia 


dpvi%o'3r)pa 


Plur 


. N. 


ol iroXiTat 


veav'iai 


opvi^o^TJpai 




G. 


TU3V 7To\lTCOV 


veaviav 


dpvi%o'%T]p£)V 




D. 


Tols TToklTCUS 


veaviais 


opvCSoftripais 




A. 


tovs 7roXt'ras 


veavias 


opv&cftrjpas 




V. 


7roATrai 


veaviai 


opi/iSoSrJpai 


Dual. N. 


A.V. 


too TTokira 


veavia 


dpvi%o'5r}pd 




GA). 


toIv TToKiraiv 


veaviaiv 


dpvi^o^rjpatv 



103. Masculine nouns in tjs have the vocative in 77, except the 
following, which have a : 

1) Those in ttjs. 

2) Those compounded of a substantive and a verb, that simply 
append 77? to the verbal root ; as yewp.erpr)s, geometer ; dpro7rd>Ar;?, 
breadseller, baker. 

3) National names ; as Repays, a Persian, voc. liepcra, — but 
Hepcrrjs, Perses, VOC. Hepcrrj. 

104. The rules of accentuation are the same as for feminines 
(97). — Aeo-7roVrj? irregularly throws back its accent in vocat. (o> Se- 
o-ttoto), and xpr]o-TT)s, usurer, has gen. pi. xprjcrrcov.* 

105. Some nouns in ?}?, contracted from e<x?, are 
declined regularly, but every case is perispomenon. 
(Ep/Aea? = ) 'EpfjLrjs, ov, y, rjv, &c. 

106. Several masculines in as have the Doric gen. in d: viz. ira- 
rpaXoias- a parricide, jxrjrpaXoias, a matricide, dpv&o'Srjpas, a fowler 
or bird-catcher : also several proper names ; as 2vXXas, gen. 2vXXa, 
and contracts in 5$-, Boppas (from Bopeas), gen. Boppa. 

* Three other nouns of the first declcn. are paroxytone in the gen. 
pi. ; as acpvT), anchovy; iTw<ricu, Etesian winds; xAeupqs, wild boar; 
which have gen. pi. ac£tW, irrifftwv, x^-ovvwv. 



32 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[107_11O. 



107. A few proper names have the Ionic genit. in e<a, even in the 
Attic dialect ; as Trjprjs, ed\r)s, Trjpeca, edAeo. (Note the irregular 
accent.) 



108. Vocabulary 5. 

Persian, Tlepcrrfs. 

Perses (proper name), Heparjs. 

Land, earth, yr\. 

Domestic, oIkcttis. 

Baker, dpT07rco\T]s. 

Bookseller, /3i/3Aio7rcoA?7s. 

Geometer, yecoperprjs. 

Master, hecnror-qs (see 104). 

Laborer, cultivator, ipydrrjs. 

Desire, hr&vptla. 

Disciple, pupil, p.a%r)T7]s. 

Citizen, ttoXlttjs. 

Sailor, vavrrjs. 

Minerva, 'AStyra (a = da, 

Athene). 
Mercury , c Eppjjs (Hermes). 
Boreas, the north wind, Boppds 

(106). 
The Gelas, (a river in Sicily,) 

TeXds, d (106). 



Poet, 7TOlT]Tr]S. 

Mina, (a coin,) pa (= pvda), 

Weasel, yakr) (= yaker}). 

Fig-tree, o-vkt} (rj = e'a). 

To chastise, Ko\d£eiv. 

To have, ex ety (takes rough 

breathing in the future.) 
To plant, cpvrevetv. 
To hunt, %r]pev€Lv. 
To admire, %avp,d£eiv. 
One ought ; we ought, %pfj 

( = oportet) 
Hail ! x a W € (imperat. of ^alpco). 
" By" in swearing by a deity, vt) 

(with accus.) 
Not even, ov&e (ne . . . quidem). 

Five, TT€VT€. 

Was, r^v : were 7 rjo-av. 
To speak ill (or evil) of, Kancbs 
Xeyeiv, (with ace. of person.) 



109. The Infinitive Mood with the article answers to 
our participial substantive : to Xiyetv, to say, or (the) 
saying ; tov Xijecv, of saying ; toj Xeyetv, by sayifig, 
or (with governed case interposed) T<p ravra Xeyeiv, by 
saying these things. It maybe governed by pre- 
positions, &.c, just like any other substantive : diro tov 
Xeyeiv Ty tov Xeyetv pco/jijj, &c. 

Exercise 10. 

110. a) Translate into English. 

1. r O Tlepar}^ dpyei * tt}? t€ <yr}<s kol tt}? *&a\do-o-7}s. 
2. OvS 1 ol/ceTas %pr) opyfj KoXd^etv. 3. c O apro7rc6X^? 






111.] SECOND DECLENSION. 33 

irkvre yuvas e^et. 4. r O npo/ATj^evs 1 tcXLirrei *A^r)va$ 

rrjv <ro(piav. 5. S2 Ilepar], fjurj eZ/ce rfj rod apyeuv iirt- 

^v/xLa. 6. $€vy€ : &> Ukpaa. 7. 'O ipydrvs avKas (f>v- 

reuec. 8. 01 Uepaai yrjs ipydrai elalv. 9. Qvpevcrofxev 

ra? yaXa^. 10. Trjv rod yeco/ierpov crofyiav ^av/id^ofjiev. 

11. Nt) rrjv 'i^roy TTQirjcrQ) ravra. 12. Xcupe, <w 8e- 

aTTora. 13. Xcupe koX av, S) /3t/3/Uo7reo\a. 14. To ovo- 

fia z rjv caro rod TeXd. 15. Trjv rod dpvfocfenjpa 11 rk^vTqv 

^avfid^o/juev. 16. OuSe heaTroras yjpr) /ca/eco? Xeyeuv. 

a 81. b Prometheus. (98, 2.1 c t6 o^Ojua, a ?iamc ; a7rd, 

/rom, (with gen.) d 106. 

6) Translate into Greek. 

1. The disciples of the geometer have five minse. 
2. The Persians are masters of the sea. 3. The labor- 
ers are planting a fig-tree. 4. O laborer, plant the fig- 
tree. 5. By Hermes, I will not do this. 6. They yield 
to the desire of having disciples. 7. The geometers 
have pupils. 8. O Geometer, do not yield to the desire 
of talking. 9. Do not speak-evil-of the citizens. 
10. Hail ! O baker. 11. By Athene, I will have the 
sphere. 12. By Hermes, I will plant the fig-trees. 
13. One-ought not to plant even a fig-tree. 

111. Questions. — How are feniin. contracts declined 1 Go through 
with TroXirris, n<Ep<rr)s, veavias, opviSroSrripas. "What is the vocat. of masc. 
nouns in ys % Name the exceptions. What are the rules of accentu- 
ation ] Give the vocat. of Zeairorris and gen. pi. of xp^ttjs. How 
are nouns in t\s declined % ' What peculiarity have several masculines 
in as % What is the genit. of such nouns as Tripes, OaA^s, &c. 1 How 
is the infin. mood with the article used 1 In the Exercise (sentence 
1, Greek), why has Te no accent 1 2. Why is opyrj perispomenon 1 
[97, 1.] 8. "Why is yrjs without the article 1 (Common nouns omit 
the article under certain circumstances, as here, 777 being used of the 
particular country of the Uepffcu.) "Why does e'uriv retain its accent 
after ipydrai 1 [56, 2.] 10. What is the order of the words 1 Is it to 
be imitated 1 13. What is the quantity of the a in &i$\L<mS>Xa 1 Sen- 
2* 



34 



FlPwST GREEK BOOK. 



[112—114. 



tence 1 (English), how do you translate "have 1 ?" Give the rule 
[85, 1]. 2. "What case do you put "masters" in? (The nom. after 
the verb.) 6. What case does daw govern 1 9. What case do you 
put "citizens" in? 



LESSON XIII. 

Second Declension of Noims. 

112. Nouns of this declension end in o? 5 masculine, 

often feminine, and ov neuter. 

Rem. Fern, diminutive proper nouns in ov are an exception, e. g. 
7] YXvKepiov. (See 64, note *.) 

TERMINATIONS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 



N. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


OS 


ov 


01 




a 


CO 


G. 


ov 






(OV 




OIV 


D. 


(O 






OLS 




oiv 


A. 


ov 




ovs 




a 


to 


V. 


os, e 


ov 


01 




a 


(O 



PARADIGMS. 







Word. 


Disease. 


God. 


Fie. 


Sing. 


N. 


6 Xoyos 


tj voaos 


6 Seos 


TO 0~VKOV 




G. 


tov Xoyov 


ttjs vocrov 


tov Seou 


TOV (TVK0V 




D. 


tco Xoyco 


rrj vocrco 


T<o 3eco 


TCO CTVKCO 


i 


A. 


tov Xoyov 


TTjV vocrov 


tov Jieov 


TO (TVKOV 




V. 


Xoye 


voae 


3eos 


ctvkov 


Plus. 


N. 


ol Xoyoi 


ai vucroi 


ol 3eot 


TO. 0~VKa 




G. 


tcov Xoycov 


Twv vocrcov 


tcov %ecov 


TCOV CTVKCOV 




D. 


to i? Xoyois 


rais vocrois 


tols Seen? 


TOLS (TVKOLS 




A. 


tovs Xoyovs 


tcis vocrovs 


tovs Seou? 


TO. (TVKO. 




V. 


Xoyoc 


voo~oi 


. 3eo/ 


o~vkci 


Dual. 


N.A.V. 


tco Xoyco 


ra vocrco 


TCO %€G> 


TOO CTVKCO 




G.D. 


rolv Xoyoiv 


raiv vocrotv 


Tolv ^eolv 


toIv CTVKOIV 



113. The vocative of words in os (as will be observed) sometimes 
ends in os: as co cpCXe and Z> cfiiXos : always d> 3eos-. 

114. On the accentuation.] — The accent remains on the syllable 
which is accented in the nominative, as long as it can : except in the 
/ocative adeXcfie, from ddeXqbos, a brother* The termination oi in the 



115, 116.] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



35 



plural, like ai in the first declension, is considered short with refer- 
ence to accentuation. The change of the accent is like that in the 
first declension (97), except that it is only oxytones (not all words, 
as in the first declension) that become perispomena in the genitive 
plural (larpos ' larpwu). The rest are par oxytones. 



115. Vocabulary 6. 

Lecyihus, a^kDSos, 17 (a fortress 

in Macedonia near Torone). 
A temple, Upov, to, (prop. neut. 

adj. from Up6s, holy.) 
A gift, dcopov, to* 
God, 3eoy, o. 

Word, speech, reason, Xoyos, 6. 
Judge, juror, 8i<ao-TTjs, 6. 
Work, action, epyov, to. 
Man, human being, avSpcoiros, 6. 
Stranger, host, guest, ££vos, 6. 
Physician, larpos, 6. 
Sorrow, Xvtttj, fj. 
Plain, 7re8ioy, to. 
Targeteer, ireXTao-rfjs, 6. 
An enemy, noXepios (prop, adj., 

hostile) ', £)(pp6s, 6. 
Way, road, 686s, fj. 
Army, arparia, fj. 
Running, race-course, 8p6jios, 6. 
To run, 3elv ( == Se'eiv.) Apopco 

Sea/ is stronger ; to run at full 

speed ; to run to the charge (of 

soldiers). 
Quoit, discus, 8'io-k.os, 6. 
Slave, dovXos, 6. 

116. When a substantive with the article has a dependent geni- 
tive, the genitive usually either (1) stands between the article and 
its substantive, or (2) follows the substantive with a second article : 
thus, 

1. fj to>v iraXa ia> v cro$ia. I to r fj s dperfjs KaXXos. 

2. 17 o-oqbia fj TcoV n aXai£>v. I to KaXXos to rfjs dperrjs* 



Drug, poison, <pdppanov, to. 
Tale, legend, nv%os, 6. 
Garland, ore<pavos, 6. 
Stadium, o-rd8iov, ( = 60 6£ 

English feet) pi. oraSto* or 

crraSca. 

Rock, 7T€Tpa, fj. 

Stone, Xtios, 6. 

Silver, apyvpos, 6. 

Gold, xpvo~6s, 6. 

Mere talk, mere stuff, nonsense, 
Xfjpos, 6. - 

Fear, (poftos, 6. 

Horse, iTnros, 6. 

Ass, ovos, 6. 

To care for, <ppovrl£eiv, (governs 
the gen.) 

To lead forward ; to march for- 
ward ; to advance (trans.) npo- 
dyeiv. 

To soiv, cnreipeiv. 

To restrain, Kare^eM/. 

Ten, 8e'/ca. 

As (as it were = ) about, a>y. 

That, on. 



36 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [11^5 H8. 

a) In the first order (J] tS>v irakaiSiv o-o(pia) neither notion has any 
preponderance of emphasis over the other ; the order with the re- 
peated article (r) o-o<pla r) ra>v irahatcov), is- used, when the speaker 
wishes to dwell upon the notions separately. The reason may be, to 
add an ironical or contemptuous meaning to one of them. — /3) The 
following are rarer orders :— 3. C H crocpia rav 7raX<ucov. 4. Hav ira- 
Xaccov 77 aocpia. 

117. Words that modify a substantive are interposed, in Greek, 
oetween it and the article ; or follow it with the article repeated. 
English. Greek. 



1. ol dnb rrjs iroXecos (pvXaK.es. 

2. oi (pvXaKes ol dwo rrjs 7r6Xe(os- 

1. ol roS (BaaiXel aKoXov^Selv iva- 
pa.KeicXrifj.ivoi (pvXaices. 

2. 01 cpvXa<€s ol tgj fiaaiXel a.KO~ 
Xo7j3e7v TrapaKeicXriixevoi,. 

IEF Let the pupil note carefully and imitate the Greek order 
in the Exercises following. 



The guards from the city. 



The guards summoned to at- 
tend the king. 



Exercise 11. 
118. a) Translate into English. 

1. "Ear iv 3 - ev rfj Aw/cifea) 'A^Tjvds lepov. 2. Aw pa 
*&eov$ 7re/^a b . 3. TIelaei to £9 Xoyots row Sifcaards. 
4. Alootce rrjv dperrjv re koX crofyiav. 5. Ol ^eol rwv dv- 
^pcoircov (ppovTL&vcrLv. 6. v Xalpe, &> %eve. 7. Avirn^ 
larpos earuv dv^pooiroLS \oyo<$. 8. Ol e/c rod TreSiov 7re\- 
raaral Spofjuw ^eovcriv, ol Be iroXefjaoi ol eirl rfj 68oj 
(pevyovcn. 9. Upodyei 6 Xeipiaotyos rrjv crrparidv &>? 
Sexa o-raBlov; 77-009 iroXe/jLiovs. 10. El<; Tver pas re /cal 
\foovs 25 firj airelpe. 11. M.rj el/ce ry rod ^pvcrov re icai 
dpyvpov €7ri^v/xla. 12. Aeyo/iev epyow, on Xrjpos 7rpo9 29 
yjpvabv re kcl\ dpyvpov eariv rj dperrj. 13. ItXe^oixev 
TOV9 arefydvovs. 14. Tds eiri^vixias ov \6yq> Kareyei^ 
a\V dvdyKT) koX <f>6/3a>. 15. BXairrei, rbv ejfirpov. 
16. JTke^ovai, rbv orefyavov. 17. c O SovXos rpl/3et, to 



119.] SECOND DECLENSION. 37 

(f)dp/jLClKOV. 18. T6v fJL6V SiCTKOV pty(0, T7]V $6 <J§aZpaV 

ov. 19. AovXos ecrTLV. 20. r O larpos rcov rod ireXra- 

arov Scopcov ov (ppovrt^ec. 

a TJiere is. In this sense ianv (at the head of a sentence) keeps 
its accent. & Neuter plurals usually take a sing. verb. See 85. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The horse is pursuing the ass. 2. Do not yield 
to the enemy. 3. Restrain the desires of the soul by 
reason. 4. The citizens do not care-for the strangers. 

5. We will march- the army -forward about five stadia. 

6. The enemy fly through fear. d 7. Yield not to the 
fear of the enemy. 8. In our words 6 pleasure is mere- 
nonsense to f virtue, but by our actions we declare that 
virtue is mere-nonsense to pleasure. 9. Gifts persuade 
the souls of men. 10. The young-man will anoint 
himself. 11. Who is weaving the garland? 12. It is 
a discus. 13. They will throw the ball, but not the 
discus. 41 14. There are ten men ins the temple of 
Minerva. 15. O Persian, restrain the desire of speak- 
ing evil of man. 

c These hyphens mean that march-forward is translated by one 
word. d Use the dative of the noun. e Dative of the 

noun, as in 12 (Greek) above. f "To" (== compared with). See 

29, " Diff. of Idiom." e h with dat. 



119. Questions. — What are the terminations of the second de- 
clens. % Go through with the table. Decline \6yos, v6<ros, ktjwos, 
^eos ; (tvkov. What is the vocat. of nouns in os ? What the rules with 
respect to accentuation 1 What is the order of the words when a 
noun with the article has a dependent genit. 1 Discriminate the 
meaning, according to the order of the words. What are rarer orders 1 
Where do you place words that modify a substantive 1 Give the Greek 
(both ways) for : ' the guards from the city ;" " the guards summoned to 
attend the king." Can you point out any illustrations in the Greek 
sentences following'? Sentence 14, (English) will the verb in the 
sense of " there are," be accented or not 1 (It retains its accent when 
it stands at the beginning of a sentence.) 



38 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[120—123. 



LESSON XIV. 

Contracts of Second Declension. Imperfect Tense. 

Augment. 

120. Some few nouns in eo?, oos, eov, oov are con- 
tracted throughout. 

PARADIGMS. 



SING. 


Mind. 




Circumnavi 


Ration. 


Bone. 


N. 


6 voos 


vovs 


6 7repi7rXoos 


TrtpiTrkovs 


to ooreov oo-tovv 


G. 


TOV voov 


vov 


tov irepiirXoov 


Trep'nrXov 


tov ooreov octtov 


D. 


rco voco 


VCp 


to3 TrepnrXocp 


nepLTrXco 


rco ocrrea) ocrra> 


A. 


TOV voov 


vovv 


TOV 7T€pl7r\oOV 


Trep'nrXovv 


TO OCTT60V octtovv 


V. 


voe 


vov 


Trepl-rrXoe 


ivep'nrXov 


oo~t£ov 6o~tovv 


PLUR. 












N. 


oi vaoi 


vol 


oi 7repi7r\ooi 


Trep'nrXoi 


to. 6o~Tea ocrra 


G. 


TWV VUCOV 


vav 


tgov Tvepnrkocov 


TTep'iTvX<OV 


TCOV 6o~T€0dV 6o"TC0V 


D. 


Tols voois 


vols 


toIs irepnvXoois 


TreplirXois Tols ocrTeois octtoIs 


A. 


TOVS voovs VOVS 


TOVS 7T€pt7vX6oVS 


7T€pi7rXovs to. do-Tea oaTa 


V. 


VOOL 


vol nepiirXooi 


Trep'nrXoi | ocrrea ocrra 


DUAL 












N.A.V. 


TO) VOCd 


va> 


tg> TTepirikooi 


TrepLirXco 


rco ocrrea) ocrra> 


G. D. 


toIv vooiv 


volv 


toIv Trepnrkooiv 


rrepiirXoiv 


Tolv 00~TeOlV OOTolv 



121. Obs. 1) The dual do is (irregularly) oxytone. Neuters con- 
tract ea into a (not rj) to preserve the distinctive a of a neuter plural. 
The gen. pi. from eov is generally open ; 6<rreav (not o<tt£>v). The 
substantive naveov is accented navovv (though regularly it should he 
Kavovv). 

2) The compounds of vovs, irXovs are paroxytone throughout. 

122. The Imperfect tense is formed from the root of 
the Present by adding ov and prefixing the augment ; 
as, \e<y (root of pres.) Xey-ov (by adding ov), e-\e<y-ov (by 
prefixing the augment) ; tv7tt, tvttt-ov, e-rvirr-ov ; &c. 

123. If the verb begins with a consonant, the aug- 
ment is e prefixed ; this is called the syllabic augment, 
because it forms a syllable. Av-co, Imperf. e-Xv-ov. 
Tvttt-q), Imperf. e-rvirr-ov. 

Rem. The Imperfect, besides its usual meaning, expresses con- 
tinued or repeated actions, taking place in past time ; as, "I was wri- 



124 126,] SECOND DECLENSION. CONTRACTS. 



39 



ting" (at some time past and while something else was goingon) : eV <£ 
av eircufas, iyw eypa<pov, " while you tee re playing, I was writing " 

124. If the verb begins with a vowel, this vowel is 
changed (the changed vowel being called the temporal 
augment) ; 

1) e, a, o, are changed into the corresponding long 

VOWels 7), 7], CO.* 

2) The diphthongs av, at, oi become rjv, y, co ; a, 
becomes rj. 

3) i, v, are lengthened into i, v. 

4) ec, ev, ov, and the long vowels j, v, tj, co, are 
unaugmented ; t P is doubled after the augment ; as, 

PL7TTCO, eppilTTOV. 

125. The terminations of the persons are : 









EXAMPLE. 


>$. ov, 


€9, 


6 


S. e-TVTTT-OV, €-TV7TT~eS, €-TV7TT-€ 


P. ofiev, 


ere, 


ov 


P. i-TV7TT-OjJLeV,i-TV7TT-eT€, %-TVTTT-OV 


D. 


6TOV, 


errjv 


D. €-TVTTT-€TOV, €-TVTTT-6TrjV. 



126. Vocabulary 7. 

Voyage, ttKovs. 

Stream, povs. 

Mind, reason, vovs. 

A passage (across), didrrXovs 

(121, 2.) 
A sailing round, a voyage round, 

7rep'nr\ovs. 
Grandson, vidovs. 
Entrance (into a port),eo"rr\ovs. 
Athens, 'A3t}wu, av. 
Cenceum, Krjvaiov. 
Eub&a, Eu|3ota. 



A Lacedcemonian, AaKe8aip.6vios. 
Tlie Nile, NelXos-, 6. 
Egypt, A'lyvnTos, fj. 
Munychia, Movvvxla (a poet at 

Athens). 
Mob ; crowd, 6'^Xo?, 6. 
Love, dydirn. 
Country, x<apa. 
To reign ; to be king, j3aai\eveiv, 

(takes the gen.) 
To be distant from, anex*™ (with 

gen.) 



* There are eleven verbs which change e into ei instead of -q : as, 
e^co, 6?xo^; eA/cco, eTkKOV ; i&i£co, etffri£ov; eirofxai, e'nr6/j.7]v ; &c. 

t Sometimes, however, eu is augmented into 771;, and et is some- 
times augmented in etKa£o>, Imperf. (sometimes) yna£op. 



40 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [127. 



JEetes, AlfjTrjs. 

The Phasiani, <&a<navoi. 

Sicily, SticeXta. 



To bar (a passage), efMppaTTeiv. 
To colonize, olid£eiv. 
Eight, oktco (indeclin.). 



Exercise 12. 

127. a) Translate into English. 

1. '.E£ 'A^rwvcov /3|Oa^v? a ecTTiv 6 SiaTrkovs Trpbs rb 

Kijvaiov ttjs Evfioias. 2. AItjtov viSovs €J3aaiXeve h tcov 

^aaiavwv. 3. ^luceXias irepiTrXovs icrrlv &>? oktco y/ne- 

payv c . 4. 'H M.ovvvyia ov twv ^A^wvgiv drreyei. 5. ( 

®eo? aycLTTT} early. 6. ( H Aljvtttos Bcopov cart rod 

NelXov. 7. 01 AafcehaipbovioL rjpyov d rod e? Movvv^iav 

eairXov. 8. 01 AatcehaifJiovLoi ev vca evpycrt rovs eV rt]V 

WLovvvyiav eairXov^ ifKppdrretv. 9. 'Eppurre rov 67- 

ctkov. 10. "Errefae tou? %evov<s. 11. "Ervirrere rovs 

ot/cera?. 12. 01 TeXwvol tpKi^ov r^v %copav. 13. "HXei- 

<£e? top Searrorrjv. 14. O TIepcrv'i o^Xov cfuXel, ov/c ey/et, 

8e vovv. 15. Tbv rov pou BidirXovv ol veavlai irroiovv*. 

16. 'O rov larpov SovXos Scopa i<J>iXei. 17. 'O Sifcacrrrjs 

rov rov rreXracrrov (pofiov Karelyev f . 18. 'U a/jLcfeia rj 

rwv av^pa)7T(DV g Acyvirrov ef3Xa7rrev h . 19. Ol Hkpaai 

rrj<; ^LfceXlas drreyovai. 20. ~"E{3Xe7rov 7rpbs rrjv ^dXacr- 

aav. 

a Short (masc. adj.) b See Kiihner, 275. 1. c The genit. is 
used of the time within which any thing happens or has not happened. 
iC. 274, 3, h. d See 124, 1) : from apx^v. e Impf. from ifotelv. 
{ From Ka.T<=xew- For augment, see 124, 1) note.* It is taken hetween 
the preposition and the verb. s See 115, a. i» On the added y, 
see 98, note.* 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. We are barring the entrance into the Munychia. 
2. He was telling the legend. 3. We shall be masters 
of the entrance. 4. You (pi.) were masters of the 
entrances into the Munychia. 5. Ye will hurl the 



128, 129.] ADJECTIVES. 41 

quoits. 6. The two-young-men were hurling quoits. 
7. You (pi.) were looking towards profit. 8. We will 
not yield to the desire of looking after (777)6?) profit. 
9. You (jjI.) were reigning over the Persians. 10. You 
(pl.) were colonizing the country of the Geloni. 11. I 
was admiring the temple of Minerva. 12. The gods 
of the Egyptians rule over the country. 13. By 
Hermes, I will chastise the Phasiani. 14. They re- 
strained the desire of speaking ill of (the city of) 
Athens. 15. O stranger, the slave had ten minee. 
16. The domestic was caring-for the horses and the 
asses of his master. 17. O brother, march- the army 
-forward about eight stadia. 18. The young-men were 
hunting weasels. 19. The targeteers were running (at 
full speed) towards the plain. 20. The physician's 
grandson loves gold and silver. 21. Do not yield to 
the desire for gold. 22. There is in Sicily a temple of 
Mercury. 



LESSON XV. 

Adjectives. 

128. Adjectives are words which describe a property 
supposed to belong already to the object spoken of (as, 
" a red rose "), or distinctly assert such property to be- 
long to the object (as, " the rose is red "). 

129. Adjectives agree with substantives in gender, 
number, and case : they are declined like substantives 
and are of three declensions. 

1) 'The first comprises adjectives of three termina- 
tions. 

Rem. Most of the adjectives belong to this class. 



42 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[130, 131. 



2) The second^ those of ttco terminations. 

3) The third, those of one termination. 

130. Adjectiy.es of three terminations in o?, 77, ov, 
and 0?, a, cw are declined in the masc. and wew£. like 
nouns of the second declension, and in the femin. like 
a noun of 'the first declension. Other adjectives of three 
terminations are declined like nouns of the third de- 
clension.* 

PARADIGMS. 



dycttos, t), ov, "good." 


a^ios, a, ov, "worthy.'''' 


Sing. 


N. 


dya%-6s -rj -ov 


N. ci^l-os -a -ov 




G. 


dyaS-ov -rjs -ov 


G. d^i-ov -as -ov 




D. 


dya%-a> -fj -co 


D. d^i-co -a -co 




A. 


dya%-6v -riv -ov 


A. ci^i-ov -av -ov 




V. 


» a, ' ' ' 

ayott-e -r\ -ov 


V. a£i-e -a -ov 


Plur. 


N. 


dya3-oi -ai -a 


N. a^i-oi -at -a 




G. 


dya3-coz/ -&V -cov 


G. d^i-cov -cov -cov 




D. 


ayaS-otS' -ais -ols 


D. d^i-ois 'ais -ois 




A. 


dya?i-ovs -as -a 


A. d^i-ovs -as -a 




V. 


ayaJS-oi -at -a 


V. a^i-oi -ai -a 


Dual. 


N. A.V. 


dya3-co -d -a) 


N. A. V. d£i-&> -a -co 




G.D. 


dya3-oTv -cuv -olv 


G. D. d£[-oiv -aiv -oiv 



131. Obs. 1.) Adjectives in os have feminine a if the os follows a 
vowel or p : if not, the feminine is 77 : e. g. 

Wios, tStct, Xdiov. 877A.0S, S^A7j, StjAoj/. 

tepos, fepa, feptif. (Tocp6s, crocp-r), cro<p6v. 

a&p6os, a&p6a, a&p6ov. Ka\6s, KaK-fj, Ka\6v. 

2) But 00s, when not preceded hy p, forms the femin. in 77, e. g. 

07800s, 078077, oyZoov. cWAo'oS; cWAo'tj, airhoov. 



* Table of the different terminations of Adjectives of three endings. 
1. i 05 77 ov } cVyo^-o's 77 dV 
{ os a ovS exS"P"t»s a tw 


2. 


as 


aiva av 


fi4\-as 


aivu av 


3. 


ets 


ecrcra ev 


Xapi-eis 


ecrcra ev 


4. 


77 V 


eiva ev 


T€p-7)V 


eiva ev 


5. 


us 


e?a v 


y\vK-i/s 


e?a v 


6. 


ct>v 


over a 6v 


kK-&V 


over a 6v 



132, 133.] THE ADJECTIVE. 43 



132. Vocabulary 8. 

Base, disgraceful, alcrxpos. 
Wise, clever, a-ocpos. 
Friendly, dear, <f>L\os. 
Empty, Kevos. 
S/rong, Ivxvpos. 
Long, [jLaKpos. 
Bad, kqkos. 



Beautiful, naXos. 
Worthy, a^ios. 
Good, aycfoos. 
Sacred, lepos. 
Plain, evident, drjXos. 
Human, avSpcomvos. 
Divine, SeToy. 



Exercise 13. 

133. a) Translate into English. 

1. e HSovr) Kanrj ovk €<JTi fiaKpd. 2. 01 TToXlrai r)crav 
ao(f)ol, KaX KcCkr) rrv r) yuypa. 3. Kaka* Scopa rrjs cro(f}ias. 
4. r H tov ttoltjtov tov dya^ov crocpla irelaei tov d^cov 
yecof^irpyV' 5. c O \6yos icrrlp ala-yjpo^. 6. "Ecttl lepbv b 
KcCkbv iv ^A^rjvat^. 7. Mr) Sicotce rd alcryjpd c . 8. Too 
veavla erpifiirvv to (papfiaKOv. 9. JUpofjurjOevs ovk rrv 
(filXos rot? ^-eot?. 10. *H dyairr) tov Qeov Tretaec dv- 
*&pd>7rov<s. 11. Xaipe, w Siajrora, fir) eltce rf} rod dpyeiv 
fcevr) iTTL^fV/ila. 12. Arfkbv iartv on 6 Xoyos la^vpo^ 
re KaX fxaKpos. 13. ^Ia / )(ypbv d 6*)(Xo<; early, ovk e-%ei Se 
vovv. 14. TV? tw Kopa e (SXdtyeL ; 15. Al KaXal Kopai 
rbv cro<fcbv larpbv Trelaovcn. 16. 'O ark<pavo^ 6 tov ttoltj- 
tov eaTiv [epos. 17. Ta> { Tavra Xeyeiv, etyevhov avTov. 
18. e H ao(f)ia eaTiv KaXr) koX ^srela. 

a The copula itrrl is often omitted. b a temple. c base (things). 
d nom. sing. neut. (after the verb). e See 90, Rem. f See 66, Obs. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Look, O Persian, towards the beautiful sea. 
2. Empty wisdom will persuade the citizens. 3. The 
poet was admiring the two-wise-geometers. 4. O 
young man, do not yield to base pleasures. 5. Who 
will hide base (things) ? 6. Sicily is beautiful and dear 



44 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [134 136. 

to its citizens*. 7. The two young men were telling 
the legend. 8. Bad men admire bad (things). They 
do not love good (things). 9. The clever geometer 
will anoint himself. 10. They were weaving garlands 
in the garden of the good laborer. 11. We ought to 
admire the strong mind of iEetes's grandson. 12. Who 
is colonizing the country of the Geloni? 13. The 
Lacedaemonians were looking towards profit by barring 
the entrance into the Munychias. 14. The way is long 
and not good. 15. The long legend of the poet is 
empty and mere nonsense. 16. The good (man) is 
dear to God. 



LESSON X VI 



Adjectives (continued). Future from verbs in fw, ea>, 

aco, oco. 

134. In the case of adjectives in eo?, ea, eov, and oo<$, 
or], oov, contraction takes place, which in some instan- 
ces deviates from the general rules (see Note 6), the 
distinctive terminations (as a in the neut. plur., as in 
the accus., and acs in the dat. plur.) being always left 
unchanged in contraction. From xpvaeos the con- 
tracted forms are (irregularly) perispomena ; except 
(probably) do of the dual (as in oardo). 

135. If another vowel or p precedes eos, the feminine is con- 
tracted, not into rj, but into a ; e. g. 

(ephos ==) ipeovs, epea, ipeovv, woollen, 
(dpyvpeos =) dpyvpovs, dpyvpd, dpyvpovv, silver. 

136. Such compound adjectives in (oos) ovs as are formed from 
contracted substantives of the second declension (vovs, tt\ovs), are 
accented throughout on the penult [evvovs, evvov, &c. ; nom. pi. m. 
cvvoi] undergo no contraction in the three similar cases of the neut. 



137—139.] 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



45 



plur. ; e. g. avoa (from civovs), I'nrXoa (from anXovs, not seaworthy) ; 
but dnXa., from djrXovs (simplex). 



PARADIGMS. 



Xpvo-e-os, XP V(T ^'° 


, xpvcre-ov, 'golden. 


dnXu-os.d 


7rXo-T).dTrX 


j-ov, simple 


SING. 

N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


M. F. N. 

Xpvcre-os xP V0 ~*~ a XP v0 ~ e ~ 0V 
contracted into 

Xpvaovs XP V<T *J XP V(ro ^ v 
Xpvaov XP 1 " 7 ! 5 XP V(T °v 
Xpvcra XP vcr U XP V(T< ? 
Xpvcrovv xP vcr *i v XP V(T0 ^ V 


M. 
drrXo-os 

dnXovs 
dnXov 

dirXovv 


F. N. 
dirXo-r] dnXo-ov 
contracted into 

dnXrj aTrXovv 
dirXrjs drrXov 
dnXfj a7rAc3 
aTrXrjv dnXovv 


FLUR. 

N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 


Xpvcrol 
Xpvo~a>v 
XpvcroZs 
Xpvaovs 


Xpvo~ai xptxra 
XpvcrcQV XP V0 ~& V 
Xpv(rois xP V0 ~°^ s 
Xpvcrds xP v0 ~ci 


aTrXot 
an A oo v 
diikols 
dirXovs 


a7rXal 
d7rXa>v 
d7rXais 
dnXas 


drrXd 
dnXcov 
dirXols 
dnXd 


DUAL 

N. A. V. 
G.D. 


XpvcrS) 
Xpvcroiv 


Xpvwa xP vcr ^ 
Xpvaalv xP V0 ~°w 


dirXa, 
dnXoTv 


d7rXa 
aTrXaiv 


d7rXS) 
dirXolv 



137. From verbs whose root ends in f. the sigmated 
root is generally formed by changing £ into 9 : as ^av- 

Rem. From verbs in a£&>, 1(00, the futures aarco, ktoj have the penult 

short. 

138. For verbs whose roots end in e, a, o, these 
vowels are lengthened into 77, rj, co, before ? is added 
(84). A root ending in a doubtful vowel usually has it 
long in the fut. : \v-co, Xv-aco. 

Simple Root. Sigmated Root. Present. Future. 

(fxXtfcrco 
Tifirjcrco 
o^ypojcrco. 



<pi\e- 


(f)i\7j-cr 


(friXeco 


TLfJLCL- 


TLjubrj-a- 


Ti/xaco 


oxvpo- 


o^ypco-cr 


°X v P 0(O 



139. Vocabulary 9. 

Simple, dnXoos, dnXovs. 

Double, dnrXoos, -ovs. 

Golden ; of gold, xpvo~eos, -ovs. 



Brazen, (of) brass or bronze, 

XoXkcos, -ovs. 
(Of) iron, o-idrjpeos, -ovs. 



46 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[140 



(Of) silver, dpyvpeos, -ou?. 
Bowl ; (shallow) cup, <piakr) (= 

patera). 
Cup, goblet, KinreWov. 
Barbarian, fidpfiapos ( a term 

used of all who were not 

Greeks). 
Door, %vpa. 
Truth, aX^Seia. 
Gate, 7rvXv. 
Bolt, bar, Kkel^pov. 
Ring, 8aKTv\ios, 6. 
Hoof, 07rXj7 

Prick, goad, nevrpov. 



Death, ^dvaros, 6. 

House ; small house, oiKihiov. 

Hollow, koTKos, t], ov. 

Senseless, avoos, avovs. 

Well disposed (towards) ; well 

affected .(towards), evvoos, eu- 

vovs. 
Ill disposed, ill affected, dvavoos, 

bvavovs- 
To honor, rip-dtiv (== Tip-av). 
To love, (pikUiv (= (fiikelv). 
To make-fast, dxvpoeiv (= dxv- 

povv). 
To kick (at), XaKri£eii>. 



Exercise 14. 

140. a) Translate into English. 

1. ^Aifkovs Icttiv 6 tt)? ciXrf&eias Xoyos. 2. To tcvireX- 

Xov ecTTLV dpyvpovv. 3. ( ^rdvaros XeyeTat* ^aX/coO? 

V7rvos. 4. <±>iaka<i e^ei %pvaa§ re kcl\ dpyvpds. 5. Ovk 

i'jfirpovs tov? OecraaXovs Sidyfcofiev dX?C evvovs. 6. Tot? 

[lev evvois tcov fiapfidpcov Svcrvovs r][id^ ttolovglv, tois Se 

iroXe/jLLOis OLKpeXlfAOVs. 7. r O veavias e^avpua^ev Zttttov 

^clXkovv kolXov koi yjpvcrovv SaicrvXiov. 8. To.? irvXas 

cnSrjpots fcXefapot,*; 6)(ypcoaofiev. 9. 01 iwirot Xa/cTt^ovcriv 

aXXtfXovs b criSTjpais ojrXals. 10. Tois ^A^TjvaLoLS ovre 

alatvpoi io~fjL6v d ovre Svcrvot. 11. c O SovXos iXd/CTi^e 

7rpo? rd Kevrpa. 12. Tr/v rod /3l/3\lo7tcdXov ^vpav Xclkti- 

ao/iev. 13. AvttXovv ean to oiklSlov. 14. "Avod eart e 

ra iraiSia. 15. Tijirjaofjuev tovs SacacrTds. 16. ^lXtjctq) 

to irauSlov. 17. c O SovXo? Tplfiet to <j)dp[ia/cov. 18. r H 

A'lyvTTTOS IcTTi (plXr) tols fiapftdpois. 19. AnrXa dycfed 

€(ttlv * tcl fiev dv^p(*)7riva, to, Se ^ela. 

a is called. b one another, each other. c the Athenians. 

d we are (first pi. pres. of eivai). e see 85, 1, note. 



141, 142.] FIRST AORIST ACTIVE. 47 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The bowl is silver. 2. The cup is of gold, but 
the bowl not. 3. He has both gold and silver cups. 

4. You shall make-fast the gate with an iron bar. 

5. The horse will kick the ass. 6. We are ill-affected 
towards* 1 the Persians, but well-affected towards the 
Athenians. 7. They are not ill-affected either to the 
Athenians or the Lacedaemonians {Say : i neither to 
the Athenians nor to the Lacedaemonians are they ill- 
affected '). 8. You will honor neither geometrician nor 
the judge. 9. O young man, admire the simple words 
of truth and justice. 10. By Minerva, I will march the 
army forward ten stadia. 11. There are eight golden 
goblets in the Nile. 12. The house of the poet has 
five doors. 13. O man, it is hards for thee h to kick 
against j the pricks. 

f say, to (dat.) s <TK\.-f)pov. h voi, dat. of pron. <tv. \ irpSs. 



LESSON XVII. 
First Aorist Active. 
141. The first Aorist of the Active is formed by 
adding d to the sigmated root * (or root of future), and 
prefixing the augment (123, 124) : 



Root. 


Sigmated Root. 




Aorist. 


piTTT- 

/3\e7T- 
Xey- 
7rei3- 
dp X - 


pif- 
l3Xe\(r- 
Xe£- 
7T€icr- (for 


7rei3?) 


ep-pi\j/-a 
€-j3Xe\f/-a 
e-Xe£-a 

rjptj-a 



142. The Aorist expresses actions, independently, 

* i. e. root with s added. See 77. 



48 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[143—145. 



as completed in past time ; as. " the Greeks conquered 

(ivi/crjaav) the Persians." 

Rem. Thus the aorist is used of actions conceived as single and 
definite (often momentary) actions, without any reference to 
their duration,. The aorist is a narrative, the imperf. a de- 
scriptive tense. 

143. TERMINATIONS. 



s. 


a 


as 


€ 


p. 


apev 


are 


av 


D. 




arov 


arrjv 



144. The accent is as far back as possible. It will, 
therefore be on the antepenult of hyper dissyllables : ex- 
cept in drrjv. 



145. Vocabulary 10. 

Orestes, 'Opecrrns. 

Friendly; (as subst. a friend?) 

cpiXos. 
Marrow, pveXos, 6. 
(Some, evioc, eviai, %via (pi.)- 
A natural philosopher, cpvcriKos, 

6 (physic us). 
War, noXepos, 6. 
Enemies, the enemy, noXepLoi 

(hostes). 
Resident-alien, resident-foreigner, 

fieroiKos, 6. 

At all (after a negative), oXcos (omnino). 

Not only . . . but also, ov pbvov . . . dXXa nai (non solum . . . sed 
etiam). 

The one . ..the other, 6 pkv ... 6 8e. 

These . . . those } t , , . , 

, 7 > ol uev . . . oi oe. 

Some . . . others $ r 

The article 6 is here a pronoun, as it originally was in all cases. 

Auros- (ipse) : the oblique cases usually answer to his, him, their, 

them: avrov = ejus : iavrov (sui =) situs ipsius, or suus. 

* Hence the crypt of a church. 



General, crrpaTnyos, 6. 

Soldier, or par tarns. 

Animal, £a>ov, to. 

Head, K€(pa\rj. 

Tongue, yXao-aa. 

Queen, /3acriXtcro-a. 

To pay attention to ; to attend to, 

tov vovv irpoakytw (with dat.) 

= animum applicare. 
To steal, KXenr-eiv. 
To whet, to sharpen, ^rjy-eiv. 
To hide, upvTTT-eiv.* 



146.] FIRST AORIST ACTIVE. 49 

Exercise 15. 

146. a) Translate into English. 

1. Aeyere Trpo? clvtov tl (=whut) iv vco e^ere, chs tyi- 
\ov re real evvovv. 2. Ta tov ^Opearov octcl ifc Teyeas 
€K\e^€, 3. Ttov QcrTwv ra fi€i> e^ec fiveXov, Ta he ov/c 
€%€L' evia he £&>a a ovhe eyew oA«&)? puveXov iv toI<$. oo-tois 
Xeyovcriv ol (pvcrLKOi. 4. ( crTpaTTjybs ov fiovov Tot? 
TroXepLiocs tov vovv irpoae^ec, dXXa teal rofc iavrov crrpa- 
TLCiiTats. 5. C H opyrj e^rj^e ra? yjrv%&<;. 6. 'O Ueparj^ 

€Kpvty-6 T7]V TOV ap%€UJ 67TL^V fl'lCLV '. 7. Ol CTTpaTTjyol TCLS 
TCOV (TTpCLTlOOTtoV I^Tf^a,? 6t? 7ToXe/XOV €^7)^aV. 8. 'HXet- 

^jraTe rrjv T/79 /3ao~iXLcro-7}S fcecpaXrfv. 9. Ol Tleptrai e/epv- 
^rav ret ypvera KVireXXa ev rco tov Xecpio-ocpov fcrjirco. 
10. Ol ayefool to tcaXbv (pvXovcru 1 . 11. f O apTOTrtoXrjs 
6 o~o<pb<; irevTe 'ukttovs eyeu 

a Ace, c. Infitu is used nearly as in Latin : though Kiyeiv is usually 
followed by on (that). 

Questions. — 1. "Why has re no accent? 2. Why is e/cAe^e propa- 
roxytone ? 3. "Why is the accent on the final of (pva-iKoi not written as 
the grave accent 1 7. Why is o-r par lust a>v perispomenon 1 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. You were throwing the quoit. 2. They threw 
the balls. 3. Anger sharpened his tongue. 4. This 
will sharpen the young-man's anger. 5. I injured Ere- 
tria, but I did not injure the country of the Geloni. 

6. The just judge did not look to 29 his own advantage. 

7. You said by your deeds, that justice °is idle-talk 
to 29 profit ; but with your tongues you did not say this. 

8. They injured not only the resident-foreigners, but 
also the citizens. 9. You persuaded not only the 
resident-foreigners, but also the judges. 10. The two- 
maidens admired the silver goblets in the poet's little- 

3 



50 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[147, 148. 



house. 11. Some (men) love good (things), others base 
(things). 12. Who planted the fig-trees in the baker's 
garden 1 13. We ought not to admire the citizen's bad 
desire of ruling. 14. O Persian, it is a base thing to 
strike a maiden. 



endings coq 



LESSON XVIII. 

Attic Second Declension. 
147. Several substantives have the 
(masc. and fern.) and av (neut.) instead of o? and oz>, 
and retain the a> through all the cases instead of the re- 
gular vowels and diphthongs (112), subscribing i where 
the regular form has a or oi. 

PARADIGMS. 





People. 


Rope. 


Dining-Room. 


Sing. N. 


6 Xe-Ss 


77 Kak-eos 


To avcoye-cov 


G. 
D. 


tov ke-a> 
too Ae-<a 


rrjs Ka\-a> 
Trj Kak-a 


tov avcoye-co 
TO) dvdvye-o) 


A. 


tov Xe-aiV 


TTjV ncik-cov 


to avcoye-cov 


V. 


Xe-cos 


Kcik-cos 


avoye-aiv 


Plur. N. 


E \ ' 
Ol A6-C0 


al k6X-co 


tcl dvaye-co 


G. 


twv Xe-coi> 


Toav Kak-oav 


tcov avcoye-cov 


D. 


tols \e-a>s 


TOLLS KtlX-COS 


tols avcaye-as 


A. 


tovs ke-ws 


TCLS KaX-cos 


to. aucoye-co 


V. 


Xe-co 


/caX-co 


avcoye-co 


Dual. N.A.V. 


raj Xe-co 


TO. KaX-co 


to) dvaiye-ti) 


G. D. 


tolv ke-cpv 


TOLV Kcik-CpV 


tolv avcoye-cov 



148. Some adjectives follow this declension, having 
to? masc. and fern., cov neut. Such are LXecos, propi- 
tious, e/j/TfkecdSj full) &>c. 

Obs. — Some of these substantives drop v in the ace. So the regu- 
lar ace. of ecus (^), dawn, is ecu. Aay&s {hare) has more frequently w 
than wv; so v A&a>s, Ke'cos K«s, Tews; the adjective ayhpeos has uv or co 
in ace. masc. and fern. 



150, 151.] 



ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION. 



51 



149. Accentuation. — Proparoxytones in ea>s, ea>v retain the ac- 
cent upon the antepenultimate through all the cases of all the num- 
bers ; the two syllables eas, ecop, &c, being reckoned as one. 

Oxytones in cos remain such, even in the genitive singular, as 
Xeea (against 97, 1). 



150. Vocabulary 11. 

Halo,"AXcos, rj. 

Temple, pens, 6. 

Peacock, raws, 6. 

Hare, Xaycos, 6. 

Minos, Mivcos, 6. 

Androgens, 'AvSpoyecoy, 6. 

Dawn, ecos, fj. 

Propitious, iXecoy. 

Full, e/i.7rXecoy. 

Undying, (prop, not subject to 

old age,) dyrjpcos. 
Circle, kvkXos, 6. 
Sun, ijXios, 6. 
Moon, orekrjvrj. 

Heavenly body ; star, aarpop, to. 
Praise, erracpos, 6. 
Juno, "Hpa. 
Delphi, Ae\<po'i, wv (pi.). 

Egg, WOP, TO. 

JEtolia, AiTcoXla. 
Roman, 'Pco/xaloy. 
Trojan, Tpa'inos. 
Palladium, LTaXXaSioi/, to. 
Quirinus, Kvplvos. 
Son, vlos, 6. 
Eagle, deros, 6. 

151. U 3 Deponent* verbs.] 
Deponents, a passive form (with 



Sepulchre, tomb, Tacpos, 6. 

Vine, ap.7reXos, ff. 

Tree, devdpov, to. 

Whole, oXos, rj, ov. 

Often, noWaKis. 

Bright, Xap-npos, d, ov. 

A little, okiyop. 

Of every kind, 7raPToba7ros, r\, op- 

To come in being, to become, 

yiyp-eo-^ai (fieri) 
To appear, to be seen, (paip-ea^at. 
To set out, 7ropeu-eo-3at (profi- 

cisci.) 
To plot against, lie in wait for, 

ip€dpev-€LP (insidiari). 
To receive, Xap.[Bdp-eiv. 
To build (a house), olKodop.e-eip 

( = -cut). 
To lay (of eggs), tlkt-clp (pa- 

rere) . 
To disembark, dirofiaip-eiv. 
To rob, o-vkd-eip (=-ap). 
To nourish, feed (of birds), to 

keep, Tpe<p-€ip. 
To come, tJk-civ. 

Some verbs have, like the Latin 
some exceptions, to be afterwards 



* In Greek grammar such verbs are said to belong to the Middle 
Voice. The explanation of this term will be given afterwards. (See 
269, &c. infra.) 



52 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [152. 

explained) but active meaning. The Present Infinitive ends in co-Sai. 
The terminations of the Present Indicative are, 



Sing. ojiai 77 (or ec) crai 

Plur. 6fJLe%a ecrSe ovrai 

Dual. d/xeSoi/ ecrSoi> €&%ov 



Exercise 16. 

152. a) Translate into English. 

1. Trjs a\(o (fralverai iroXXaicis kvkXos o\o?, teal yiyve- 

rcu* 7T€pl rfXuov zeal crekrjvrjv. teal ire pi to, \a/X7rpa tcov 

acrrpcov h . 2. 'AyafitfSr)*; ical Tpocfxiovcos tov vecov tov ev 

Ae\(f)ols (p/coSo/jLTjcrav. 3. Tlktovcfi ol raa> a>a /cared. 

4. "A pa rfj ew Tropeverai e? ttjv Alrcoklav. 5. Ol 'A^tj- 

valou irpo ttjs e&> oXiyov dirofiaivovai. 6. Ol Pcojaaloc 

to Tpco'iKbv TlaXkdhiov Kara c yijs etepv^rav inro d tcG vew 

tov Kvpivov. 7. Tovs TOiv ^ecov vecos ecrvhrqerev. 8. ' Av- 

Spoyecos rjv 6 tov Mlvoj vios. 9. Ol deTol tov? Xaycos 

eveSpevovaiv. 10. Ol ^eol toIs dya^ols X\e(p elenv. 

11. Ol ^d/jUOL ttj r/ Hpa fcaXovs Taw? Tpefyovaiv. 12. ^Hv e 

ev KiXifda irehiov fca\6v, eirippvTOV 1 teal SevSpcov iravTo- 

8a7rwv e/jbifkecov ical dpnrekoyv. 13. Ovtol s tov dyr)pwv 

eiraivov \afjif3dvovcn, teal Tafyov eiriGr\\ibTaTov h . 14. 'A- 

yrjpa) evfckeiav KaToCKeiirovcnv. 15. El? Trjv eiriovaav 

eo) 1 r)£€L o ileparj^. 

a Fit = is formed, or forms itself. *> The partitive genitive : ' the 
bright ones of the stars' = the bright stars. c Kara, down from, down 
into (= in) with gen. It governs the accusative also. d xmh (with 
dat.) under. It governs the gen. and accus. also. e There was. 

f Well-xoatered. & These (persons). ^ Most famous. i By the 

following morning. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. They will have the deathless life in heaven 35 . 
2. From the desire of the deathless life he cultivates 



153 156.1 THIRD DECLENSION. 53 

both virtue and justice. 3. They set-out before the 
dawn. 4. The boy keeps hares and peacocks. 5. The 
barbarians will pillage the temple of Minerva. 6. The 
eagle is lying-in-wait-for the hare. 7. We have the 
god in Delphi propitious (°to us). 8. We pursue the 
undying honors. 9. The gods are propitious. 10. Not 
only the senseless but also the clever admire the base 
speech of the Persian. 11. By Minerva, I will plant 
fig-trees in my garden. 12. We were writing letters to 
iEetes. 13. He said that the barbarians were coloni- 
zing Egypt. 14. The physician's horses and asses are 
not far distant from the stream. 15. Hail, O Egypt, 
(thou) gift of the Nile. 16. We ought to make fast the 
gates and doors, for (yap) the citizens do not love the 
stranger. 17. O bookseller, you are becoming not only 
wise but worthy of praise. 



LESSON XIX. 

Third Declension of Nouns. 

153. Nouns of this declension end in a, i, v, neuter ; 
w, feminine ; and v, f, p, a, -v^, of all genders ; that is, 
either masculine, feminine, or neuter. 

154. The oblique cases of nouns of this declension 
are longer by one syllable than the nominative, as ^ijp, 
'Swpos, ^rjplj (fee. : and the genitive singular always ends 
in o?. 

155. As in the Latin third declension, the nom. of 
this declension seldom contains the unaltered root ; it 
may generally be got from the gen. by throwing off o?. 

156. By the laws of euphony, the ^-sounds (t, 8, S-) 
and v are thrown away before au in the dative plural j 



54 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[157—159. 



ovrcn, evrcri, avrcri, vvtctl, become overt, eicn, acre, vert. 
The P- and K- sounds with 5 become ty, f, respec- 
tively : 

For example : XeovTo-i becomes Xeovo-i (dat. pi. of Xeoov, lion) ; 
Xetcji^evTo-i becomes Xexp'Selo'i (dat. pi. of 1 aor. pass. part, of \ei7rw) ; 
ylyavTcri becomes yiyacn (dat. pi. of ylyas, giant) ; ^evyvvvrcri be- 
comes gevyvv<ri (dat. pi. of part. £evyvvs). Root XaiXarr with s 
becomes XaiXa^r ; Apafi with s becomes *Apa\jf ; KarrjXKp with s 
becomes Kor^An//-; KopaK with s becomes Kopag ; Xapvyy with s 
becomes Xdpvyg, &c. 

157. Terminations of the Third Declension. 



N. 
G. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


\ various, (a, 1, v : 
) (o : v, £, p, (7, ^) 
OS (&>?), 


es, a, neut. 

G>V, 


OLV, 


1>. 


1, 


aiv or at, 


OLV, 


A. 


a or v, 


as, a, neut. 


c, 


V. 


various, (neut. as nom.) 


es, a, neut. 


e, 



158. Paradigms. 





Raven. 


Child. 


Mouth. 


Vein. 


Sing. N. 


6 n6pa£* 


0, 17 urdis 


to o~rop.a 1 


< (pXeyjs 


G. 


KopaK-os 


7rai$-6s 


o-Top,a.T-os 


(pXef3-6s 


D. 


Kopa.K-1 


Traib-i 


crrop.aT-1 


(fiXeP-i 


A. 


Kopa<-a 


iralb-a 


CTT0p,a 


(f>Xe0-a 


V. 


Kopa£ 


TTCLl 


crropa 


CpXeyp- 


Plur. N. 


Kopa<-€s 


7Tald-es 


crro/xar-a 


(pXefi-es 


G. 


KopaK-av 


7raid-(ov 


aropar-ayv 


cpXe(S-5)V 


D. 


Kopa^t (v) 


7raio-i(v) 


trrojLiatrt (y) 


(pXe\JAL (y) 


A. 


Kopan-as 


rrald-as 


orrop-aT-a 


CpXefi-as 


V. 


KopaK-es 


7ra18-€s 


aropar-a 


(pXej3-es 
(pXej3-e 


Dual.N.A.V. 


KopaK-e 


7raib-€ 


aropar-e 


G.D. 


KopaK-oiv 


iraib-oiv 


0-rop.ar-oiv 


(fiXefi-oiv 


* R 


oots : /copaK, 


watS, cTTo/xaT, 


<f>\ej8. Cf. 156. 





159. Accentuatio?i in Third Declension. 

a) The tone syllable remains unchanged, as long as the general 
rules allow it to be so ; as : to trpdypn, an action, 7rpa.yp.aT0s (but 
7rpayp,a.Toov) ; 6 f] ^eXlScoz/, a swallow, ^eXi§oi/o?. (The occasional 
exceptions will be given as they occur.) 



160—162.] 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



55 



b) Monosyllables are accented on the last syllable in the genitive 
and dative of all. numbers ; and the long syllables cov and oiv are then 
circumflexed ; as : 6 S^p, a ivild animal, ^vp-os, Zvp-i, Zrjp-oiv, Styp- 
eSv. Sijpcri (y) '. but ^rjpa, %rjpes, &C 

Exceptions, dddcov, dpcocov, naldcov, Setoz/, ) So in G. D. dual (jral- 
(pcpdcov, (pcbroav, a>Tcov, Tpaxov.* > 8oiv, &C.) 

160. In addition to these may be mentioned the adjective was, all, 
every, G. 7ravr6s, D. navTi, but 7rdvTcov, iracn (v) ; 6 IIai>, G. ILavos, 
but rots Hacrt (v). 

161. YOCABULARY 12. 

Paid-laborer, 'Srjs, 3^r-off, 6. 

OM ma7i, y4pcov, yepovr-os, 6. 

Boy, nais, iraid-6s, 6. 

A written character; pi. (= lit- 
eral) a letter ; an epistle, ypdp- 
fia, ypap.pa.T-os, to. 

Elephant, Ike(bas, e\e<pavT-os, 6. 

Honey, pe'Ai, pe\iT-os, to. 

Talon; claw, ovvg, ovvx-os, 6. 

Fox, d\a)7rrj^, d\d>7re<-os, fj. 

Chest; coffiii^ \dpva£, \dpvaK-os. rj- 

Trunk (of an elephant), pvurfp, 

pVKTr/p-OS, 6. 

Hand, x €L P-^ X et P"^) V* 
Neck, ai>xr]v. av%ev-os, 6. 
Statue, dvdpids, dvhpidvr-os, 6. 
Fire, rrvp, 7rvp-6s, to. 



Hireling, mercenary, pioSooTos, 6. 
Beginning; commencing point, 

"PXV- 

Fodder, xopros, 6. 

Kile, IktIvos, 6. 

Bull, Tavpos, 6. 

Wagon, apaga. 

Twice, fit's-. 

More powerful, KpelrTav. 

Of cypress, KVTrapio-o-lvos, v, op. 

Willing (masc. adj., to be ren- 
dered willingly), e/ccoi/, eKovr-os. 

An insect, tvTopov, to. 

I perform a service; minister , 
V7rrjpeTe(0 (with dat.). 

To send, irepir-ew. 

To dip, (3d7TT-€lV. 



Exercise 17. 
162. a) Translate into English. 
1. C H tcapSla early apyj) ro)v <$>ke(3(ov. 2. 01 uta- 

^COTOL KaX ^T)T€$ TTCMJIV V7T7)p€TOV(n,V. 3. Tcp VO> SI? TTCuSeS 

ol yipovTes yiyvovrai*. 4. 'O : ' AXiciftiahws Trepbirec ypapu- 

* From r) Sas. a torch ; 6 5/^s. a slave ; 6 r) -nous, a child ; r) Sws, a 
jackal; t) (peps (G. <£&>5oY), a blister caused by burning ; rb tpws (G. 
(pu)T6s). light ; rb ovs (G. ut6s), the ear ; 6 r) Tpus, a Trojan. 

t This word has x*p- for root in x*p-oiv, and x e />-<"- 



56 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

fxara e? rrjv ^cl/jlov. 5. Tov rod i\ecf)avTO<; yoprov et? 
fieXi e^a^rav. 6. Tov ko pa/cos Kpeirrcov b icrrlv 6 Iktivos 

TOLS OVV^t c . 7. AvKOS OVCp KOL TCLVpto KOL d\(07Te/CL 7TO\£- 

/uo? d . 8. Aapvaicas tcvirapiacrLvas ayovcnv afui^at. 
9. Tols eXetyacnv 6 fiv/CTijp dvTL c ^eupwv • twv 8 ivro/xcov 
ivioi? dvrl aro/xaTOS rj <y\a>TTa. 10. c O irals puoucpov 
eyei tov av^eva de . 11. Avev rrvpos ov% ocov r eo~Tiv 
dvSptdvra yjpvcrovv f ipydaaa^fac s . 12. Tot? yepovcriv 

ifCOPTeS 6LK0/X6V. 

a become. b comparatives govern the g"<jw> which, of course, is tc* 
be rendered by than, c See 66, Obs. 1, a Supply «r«rt. e avri, 
prep, with gen. = instead of; hence as good, dvcu avr\ xtip&v (to be for 
hands = ) ' to serve for hands.' t xpwovs. s Inf. aor. to work ; 
to make. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. You (pi.) did not honor even the old-men. 
2. Yield to old men s7 , but not to boys 37 . 3. The boys 
wondered-at the elephant's trunk. 4. Elephants 3T 
have long trunks. 5. The boy wonders-at both the 
eagle's talons and the lion's mane, and especially 11 
the elephant's trunk. 6. Camels 37 have long necks. 
7. The Persians threw the quoit. 8. They were in- 
juring the good resident-foreigners by their speeches*. 
9. Who will say that k one ought not to minister to old 
men? 10. Boys love honey. 11. By Hermes, Andro- 
gens, the son of Minos, is willingly an enemy to me. 
12. Restrain, O general, the desires of (your) soldiers 
by reason. 13. Not only the son of the baker but 
Orestes also was looking towards the sea. 14. By Mi- 
nerva, O boy, the paid-laborers and the hirelings do 
not perform-service-for the old man. 

i» ical . . . 8e, with a word between. » Use the dat. See also 91. 
k '6tl. See 146 a) note a. 



163—168.] 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



57 



LESSON XX. 

Present and Future of Verbs in dco. Present Par- 
ticiple. 
163. The Infinitive Present Active of verbs in dco 
is contracted thus : d-eiv = dv. The terminations of 

c 

the Present Indicative are : 



d-co d-eis d-ei 


<a as 


a 


a-op.ev a-ere a-ovo~i 


cop-eu are 


(OCTL 


a-erov a-erov 


arov 


arov 


(Observe the t subscript where the uncontracted form 


has ei. 



164. In the sigmated root, the a is mostly changed 
into 7j. Hence Fut. not riyuda-co, but rt/ji^a-co. Aor. 
iTL/J,r)(ra. 

165. The Present Participle of the Act. Voice ends 
in m. cov, f. ovcra, n. ov. The masc. and neut. have 
Gen. ovt-os, and are declined regularly after the third. 
The Fern, is declined regularly after the first. 

166. Thus, from tvttt-co the root of Present Partici- 
ple is tvtttovt- for masc. and neut. : the nominatives 
being masc. tvtttcov (compare \ecov, \eovr-os), and neut. 

TV7TTOV. 

167. £d= With the article the participle is usually 
translated by a relative clause with he, they, &c. 'O 
nrpdrrcov = he who does ; rod irpdrTOVTOs, of him who 
does, &c. — 'O ravra irpdrrcov = he who does this. 01 
ravra irpdrrovres = those who do these things. 

168. Vocabulary 13. 



To leap-down, Kara-Trqhqv ( = 

-deiv). 
To end, to die, reXevrau ( = 

-detv). 
To honor, ripav ( = -deiv). 
Phalanx, <pd\ay£, (pdkayy-os, fj. 

3* 



To praise, iiraiveiv ( = -eeiv). 
To be separated by an interval, 

to be distant (from), St^-etv. 
To sing the Pecan (the Greek war 

song), 7raiavi£-eiv. 
When, fjviica. 



58 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[169. 



To cast into (literally), ip,[Sd\\- 
€iv ; to charge, epfidWeiv els 
( = ip.j3dXkeiv to o-rpdrevfjia 
eis . . . to cast his men into = 
to charge.) 

To offer, make an offer of, vtvo- 
<fiepeiv. 

To belong to, to be the due of, 
7rpoo~r)K-eiv. 

Goat, ai£, aly-6s, 17. 

Coin, money, v6picrp,a, vop.'10-p.a.T- 

0S, TO. 

Greek, "~E\\r)v, r 'EWr)v-os, 6. 



Chariot, appa, appar-os, to. 

Not yet, not still, no longer, now- 

not, OVKCTl. 

Ether, afarjp, al%ep-os, 6. 

Herald, Kr)pv£ (or Krjpv^), KtjpvK- 
os, 6. 

A truce, (prop, libations), a peace 
(because ratified with libations, 
cnrevdeiv), cnvovbal, pi. 

Attempt, imxeipypa, i-rt^etpri- 

P.GLT-OS, TO. 

'Stroke, irk-nyr}. 

Wound, Tpavp,a, TpavpaT-os, to. 



Other, aXXos, r], ov. 

Exercise 18. 

169. a) Translate into English. 

1. To vo/jLLcr/jLa rb rwv Uepawv 6 crrpaTTjyb? ety'iXei. 
2. r H hiKaLocrvvn aperr) Icftiv. 3. ( Kvpos KaraTrrjha 
aTrb rod ap/xaro^. 4. Ov/ceri rpia* rj rerrapa^ aTaSia 
hiiyovaiv rco cpdXayye air aXXr)X(ov, rjvifca iraiaviCpvcriv 
ol "EXXwves. 5. 'O arpar^yb^ eh ttjv rcov Alyvirrlwv 
cf)dXayya e/mfiaXXei,. 6. Tbv ovpavbv ol iroLWTal afoepa 
ovo\xaCpvaiv. 7. 0.1 ^Apyelov e-rrefi^jrav Svo Kiqpvicas b vtto- 
<f)epovras cnrovhas. 8. Alya? alycov dp-)(ovra^ c ov ttolov- 
fiev. 9. Toh rrjs y/79 ap^pvat rrjv irpoarjicovcrav rtfirjv 
a7ro$l8o{iev d . 10. 'O rod yeco/juerpov Xoyos ovtco reXevra. 
a Paradigms 86. t> Observe that the dual is not necessarily used 
when two are meant. For Svo see Paradigm 36. c rulers : properly 
participle, ruling. <J we give or pay. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The Persians leap-down from their chariots. 
2. You (pi.) honor those who rule the land. 3. We 
honor him who rules the land with the honor that 
belongs to him. 4. We praise and honor him who 
rules well and justly. 5. The attempts of the Scy- 
thians will end in 19 this. 6. One ought to yield to 



170, 171.] 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



59 



those who rule. 7. He calls the attendant who is 
pounding e the poison. 8. The assistants honor him. 

e Use pres. partic. of rpifl-eiv. 



LESSON XXI. 

Third Declension. Adjectives in a?, et?. 

170. PARADIGMS. 



SING. 


Xenophon. 


Lion. 


Bait. 


Nectar. 


N. 


6 SevocpSv 


6 Xecov 


to 8eXeap 


to veKTap 


G. 


!£evo(pa)VT-o? 


XeovT-os 


deXeaT-os 


V6KTClp-OS 


D, 


A€VO(fi£vT-l 


Xeovr-i 


deXeaT-i 


VbKTO.p-1 


A. 


2Zevo(p(DVT-a 


XeovT-a. 


deXeap 


veKTap 


V. 


A€VO(f)a)V 


Xeov 


8eXeap 


veKTap 


PLTJR. 










N. 


£evo(pd)VT-e$ 


XeovT-es 


deXear-a 


veKTap-a 


G. 


Eevocp&VT-oov 


Xeovr-cov 


deXedr-cov 


veKTap-cov 


D. 


Eevo(pG>-o~i 


Xeov-o~t 


deXea-o~i 


veKTap-ai 


A. 


£evo(pa)VT-a? 


XeovT-as 


deXeaT-a 


ve KTap-a 


V. 


2£evo(pa>vT-es 


XeovT-es 


deXear-a 


veKTap-a 


DUAL 










N.A.V. 


EeVOCJ)G3VT-6 


Xeovr-e 


SeAear-e 


veKrap-e 


G. D. 


Eevo(fia)irr-oiv 


XeOVT-OLV 


deXear-oLV 


veKTap-oiv 



171. PARADIGMS. 



fxe 


\as, peXaiva, peXav, black. 


Xap'teis, ^aptV(rcra, ^apiev, lovely. 




SINGULAR. 




SINGULAR. 


N. 


peXas peXaiva peXav 


Xapiet.s 


Xapieo~o~a x a P iev 


G. 


peXavos peXaivrjs peXavos 


XaptevTOS 


Xapi*o~o~r]s x a P l€VTOS 


D. 


peXavi peXaivr] fieXavi 


Xapievn 


Xapieo-o-T] x a P l€VTL 


A. 


p,eXava p.eXaivav peXav 


Xapievra 


Xapieo~o~av x a P i€V 


V. 


peXas peXaiva peXav 


XapLev 


Xapieao-a x a P iev 




PLURAL. 




PLURAL. 


N. 


peXaves peXaivai peXava 


%apievTes 


Xapieo-aai x a P L€UTa 


G. 


peXdvcov peXaivcav peXdvcov 


XapievTcov 


Xapiecro-cov x a P UVT(£>v 


D. 


peXao~i peXalvais peXao~i 


XapleaC 


Xap<-eo~o~ais x a P L€0 ~ L 


A. 


p.eXavas peXaivas peXava 


XapievTas 


Xapieo-aas x a P L€l>Ta 


V. 


peXaves peXaivat. peXava 


XapievTes 


Xapieo-crai x a P L<EVTa 




DUAL. 




DUAL. 


N.A.V 


. peXave peXaiva peXave 


Xapievre 


Xapieo-cra x a P l€VT€ 


G.D. 


p.eXdvoiv peXaivaiv peXdvotv 


Xapievroiv 


Xapieo-Q-aiv x a P LeVTOlv 



60 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[172, 173. 



172. Vocabulary 14. 

Bad, wicked, kuk-os, r\, dv. 
Demagogue, b-q pay coy 6s, 6 (di)- 

fxos, people, ay-co, lead). 
People, dij/jLos, 6. 
Flatterer, koX<x£, koKclk-os, 6. 
Orator, prjTcop, prjTop-os, 6. 
Nightingale, drjbcov, dt]d6v-os : fj. 
Swallow, xeXldcov, ^eXtSoj'-os, fj. 
Day, rjpepa. 

Night, vv^, wKT-6s,rj (nox). 
Vulture, yi-^r, yvir-ds, 6. 

CuCkoO, KOKKvt;, KOKKvy-OS, 6. 

Color, -^pcopa, xpcopar-os, to. 

Foot, 7TOVS, 7ToS-d?,* 6. 

Rock, Trirpa. 

Difference, (of colors.) a shade, 

8ia(popd. 
Poor man, jrtvrjs, irivnT-os, 6. 



Continuously, without ceasing, 

(Tvvexcos (trvv & e%co). 
Even (opposed to odd), of an 

even number, apnos, a, op 

(par). 
The aspalathus, (a prickly shrub,) 

dcnrd\a'Sos, 6. 
White, \evn6s, rj, dv. 
Black, fxe\as, fieXaira, peXav. 

(to p,e\av, black; to Xevady, 

while ; used as substant.) 
Opposite, contrary (to), evavrios, 

a, ov. 
To sing, ad-eiv (= deideiv). 
To change, peTafidW-eiv. 
To hatch (its) young, to breed, 

to build its nest, veoTTev-eiv. 



Exercise 19. 
173. a) Translate into English. 

1. 01 /cafcoi, tt]V rjhovrjV w? hekeap e^oz>re?, ^rrjpevov- 
cnv rjfitov 3 - t<x? ^ir^a?. 2. f O h^/xaywyos Ictti tov Srjfiov 
tc6Xa%. 3. Tovs aoipovs re teal aya&ovs prjTopas eiraiv- 
ov/jL€V koX TLfiw/xev. 4. *H drjScbv aSet /J,ev (Twe^S)^ rjfxe- 
pas koX vvKras heKarrevre'^ fiera Se ravra oiBec fiiv, avv- 
evw? o° ov/cert. 5. MeTafidXXet, /cal c 6 kokkv% to 'xpoifjia. 

6. 01 TrevTjTes woWd/cis rot? irevwcrL v7rwp6Tovcriv. 

7. Udvra rd %&a dprlovs eyovai tovs 7r6S<x? 36 . 8. c O 
ao-irakcfaos fiiXaivav e%et rrjv pl^av 36 . 9. To pieXav 
ypay/xd ear i' icaX tov fieXavos 7roXXal d 8i,a<fiopaL. 10. O 
ryvty veoTreveL iirl Trerpais d7rpoa/3aroi,^. e 11. Mv dvoa 
Xeje, w 'Eevocpwv. 12. 77? Xefet tov Tlepavv KpinrTecv 

* Grimm's law shows this to be the same word as the Gothic fot, 
English foot; ir or p being changed into the cognate/; S (d) into t. 



174 — 178.] aorist participle. 61 

ttjv tov ap-^etv iiriSnjfJLiav ; 13. f O ravra irpamwv e<x- 
rlv afyos rod hraivov. 

a {of us =) our. * fifteen (indeclinable). Ace. denotes duration 
of time. c also (i. e. as well as some other birds). d many, fern, 

pi. from ito\vs : supply tbe verb etaiv {there are). e inaccessible (adj. 
of two terminations). 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Vultures 3r lay two eggs 39 . 2. One (fila) swal- 
low does not make a spring. 3. We admire the swal- 
low's young-ones. 4. We call demagogues flatterers 
of the people. 5. Virtue renders life happy. 6. White 
(° is) opposite to black. 7. I will tell you f the wholes 
truth. 8. He rules-over all sensual pleasures' 1 . 
9. The gods rule-over all things ! . 

f ipu> vjftv. s Put the proper case of irus before tbe article, 

h Say: ! all the pleasures about the body' (ttcktcli at irepl rb <ru>/j.a T}hovai). 
Verbs of ruling, &c. take genit. * all things are Trdvra. 



LESSON XXII. 
Ua?, airas. Aorist Pai^ticiple. 

174. Ua? = quisque, unusquisque (every). 

175. 17a9 o — ; 6 7ra? = totus (the ivhole : 6 was 
adds emphasis to the whole as opposed to its constituent 
j) arts). 

176. ndvres • 7ravT€<; ol — • = onmes (the latter 
especially when there is reference). 

177. 01 7rdvT€<; = (1) omnes simul {all together, 
altogether) ; (2) in universum (in all). 

178. Hacra 7t6\ls, every city: rracra rj noXis, rj ttoKls iracra, the 
whole city (also fj irao-a noXis, the whole city together) : navra ayaSa • 
iravra to. ayaSa (the article is usually expressed, when a definite 



62 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[179—182. 



class of things is meant) ; Tracrai at KaKaX rrpd^eis • ra iravra pepr}, 
all the parts (together) • rois nacrtv opyi^erai • to. tt olvt a e'iKocn 
(in universum viginti), twenty in all. 

179. ''Arras = every (in the Sing.), is without the article ; but in 
the sense of the whole, anas (= apa nas) and o-vpnas or gvprras ( = 
all together), universus, are naturally more frequently without the 
article than 775? is in the sense of whole. Sometimes, too, crvp,7ravT€s 
= in all is without the article [£vp7ravTes iirraKoo-ioi oTrXlrat, Th.]. 

180. PARADIGM. 



rrds, nacra, nav, every, all. 


SING. 


PLUR. 




DUAL. 


m. f. n. 


m. f. n. 


m. 


f. n. 


N. ttcls iracra ivav 


rravres irao~ai rravra 


rravre 


rraaa rravre 


G. rravros TrdarjS Travros 


Travrcov Traacov iravraiv 


rravroiv rracraiv rravroiv 


D. Travrl Trdtrr) TvavTi 


iracn(i>)7rdcrais -ndcriiy) 


rravroiv rrdo-aiv rravroiv 


A. TTavra isauav irav 


rravras nacras navra 


rravre 


rraaa rravre 


V. ttcls Traaa irav 


7rdvT€s Trdaai rravra 


rravre 


rraaa Travre 



181. The participle of the Aorist Active appends a? 
to the sigmated root (Aw-a?, Tv-ty-as). 

N. as, dcra, av 

G. avTO$, days, avros, &c. 

(See Paradigm 17.) It is Englished by having — ed. 
But for verbs signifying emotions or states of mind, it 
is often Englished by pres. participle, the emotion hav- 
ing been felt and continuing to be felt : e. g. iruTTevaas 
{= confisus), trusting, relying on. 

182. Vocabulary 15. 



Zeal, earnestness, eagerness, 
onrovftfj. 

Life, /3t'o?, 6. 

Leader, rjyepav, fjyepov-os, 6, f). 

Temperance, sobriety of mind, 
(raxppoa-vvrj. 

Absence of government, anar- 
chy, licentiousness, dvapxia. 

To grow old, yrjpda-K-eiv. 



Laiolessness, dvopla. 

River, rrorapos, ov, 6. 

Innocence, a/3Aa/3eta. 

Danger, kivSvvos, 6. 

Low estate, rarreivorvs, rarreivo- 

rr/T-os, fj. 
Extreme, earyfja.Tos, n, ov. 
Obscurity, ddogia. 
To trust, rrio-rev-eiv (dat.). 



183.] 



AORIST PARTICIPLE. 



63 



Hoplite (heavy -armed soldier), 

67r\lTT)S, 6. 

To be the slave of, to serve, Sou- 

Xev-eiv (dat.). 
To complete, StareXeTi/ (= eeu>). 
To bid, order, tell (to do any 

thing), neXev-eiv. 



To do, Trpdrr-eLV (fut. 7rpa£-a>), 
to commit a murder, irpdmiv 
(povov. 

I am come, tjk<o (= veni). 

To dissolve, to dismiss (an as- 
sembly), break (a treaty, &c), 
repeal (a law), Xv-eiv. 



Exercise 20. 

183. a) Translate into English. 

1, ^TrovSr) iraaa ear at (= erit) Sid iravrbs rod fiiov. 

2. "HStarov 3 - irdvTOiv earlv aXuVw? ScareXelv rbv {3iov 

diravra. 3. Ael (3\,eireiv irpbs rrjv t?)? avpmdar\^ r)ye/u,- 

bva dperr)<; aaxppoavvrjv. 4. 'Ev irdar) dvapyia teal dvo- 

fiLa ScareXel rbv (Siov. 5. Udvra av^panrov ^prj <fiev- 

yeiv rb a<fc68pa (ptXelv avrov. 6. r O NeiXos yXv/cvraro<; b 

eari irdvrcov rcov Trora/ncov. 7. 'Haav ol rrdvres errraico- 

crioi birXlrai. 8. r O XwKpdrr}^ marevaa^ rfj avrov 

d/3Xa/3eLa i/avSvvevae rbv eayarov KivSvvov d . 9. Avo 

arpartcorai, rd ala^pd irpd^avres, (fievyovcnv. 10. "Hkco 

Sevpo avv rot? iroXirau^ rols dya^ol?. 11. Tov$ vo/aovs 

tol>5 e? rb irapbv* /3Xa7rrovra<i tyza? eXvaare. 12. Ko- 

Xaao[xev rovs rr)v elpr]vr]v Xvaavras. 13. Udv ^6iov 

dvaytcalov f dpriovs eyeiv rovs rrohas. 

a most pleasant ; superl. of tjSvs. *> sweetest ; superl. of yAvicvs- 
c (of himself ==) his. d KivZweveiv k'ivSvvov = to incur (risk, expose 

oneself to) a danger, K. 278, 2. e for the present ; at the present. 

f Supply itrri. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The man is growing-old in extreme [say 'all') 
obscurity and low-estate. 2. Every man ought to fly - 
from being - the - slave - of anger. 3. Through the 
whole of life we ought to pursue virtue. 4. We are- 
pursuing virtue with all eagerness. 5. From 18 being- 



64 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[184. 



the-slave of sensual [173, b, note h,] pleasures he will 
be a slave for his whole life. 6. The wagons °were 
in all seven-hundred. 7. We are angry with those 
who are breaking the peace. 8. We are enraged 
against e those who have broken the truce. 9. The 
geometer places himself before h all the Greeks. 

s To be enraged against — , iv bpyy %x* iv ( a cc. of person), 
h To place oneself before, irpoTaa-ffeiv avrbv irp6 (with gen.). 



LESSON XXIII. 

Nouns that suffer Syncope* 
184. To this class belong the following substantives 
in rip\ irarijp, father, fjLrjTTjp, mother, ^v<y drv p, daugh- 
ter, r) yaanip, the belly, An^rjTvp, Ceres, and dvrjp, 
?nan • which have this peculiarity, that they omit e in 
the gen. and dat. sing, and dat. plural. They have 
voc. ep (dv?]p, 7raTT}p throwing back the accent), and in- 
sert d (cum acuto) before <tl in dat. plur. 'Avrfp, a man 
(root dvep), drops the e in all its cases except the voc. 
sing., but inserts a 8 to soften the pronunciation. 

PARADIGMS. 







Mother. 


Man. 


Father. 


Sing. 


N. 


v pfrnp 


6 avrjp 


6 Trarrjp 




G. 


/JLTJTpOS 


dv-8-pos 


7rarpos 




D. 


flTjTpi 


dv-d-pi 


irarpi 




A. 


prjrepa 


av-d-pa 


Trarepa 




V. 


fiTjrep 


avep 


7raTep 


Plur. 


N. 


prjrepes 


av-d-pes 


7raTepes 




G. 


fjajTepcov 


dv-8-pcov 


7rarepcov 




D. 


p,T}rpa(ri 


dv-8-pdcri 


TraTpaai 




A. 


p,rjrepas 


av-8-pas 


Trarepas 




V. 


prjrepes 


av-d-pes 


ward pes i 


Dual. 


N. A. V. 


prjrepe 


av-8-pe 


7rarepe 




G. D. J 


prjrepoiv 


dv-8-poiv 


rraripoiv j 



* Syncope = the taking away of one or more letters from the body 
of a word. Cf. Paradigm 19. 



185—189.] 



SYNCOPATED NOUNS. 



65 



185. Words of this class have several peculiarities of accent. 
(1) The dat. pi. and the forms that retain the e, are always paroxy- 
tone : (2) the forms that reject the e have all the accent on the last 
syllable, with (3) the exception of voc. sing, in which the tone-sylla- 
ble is thrown as far back as possible. (Anp-rirnp (see 186) is an 
exception to these rules.) 

186. e O da-Trjp, epos, a star, has its dative plural do-Tpdo-i, but is 
not syncopated in any other case. Anprjrrjp (Demeter or Ceres) has 
a varying accentuation, viz. ArjprjTpos, Arjpnrpt, Voc. Arjprjrep, 
but Ace. ArjprjTepa. 

187. Obs. For ' many great mert the Greeks usually said. ' many and 
great men:' and so in similar combinations of two adjectives. 



188. Vocabulary 16. 

Bad, tvnrthless, <pav\os, n, ov. 

Happiness, evhaipovia. 

Most disgraceful, basest, aiax 1 ' 

0~TOS, ff, OV. 

Worthy, a^ios, a, ov (with gen.). 
Liberty, ekev^epla. 
Insolent, vfipioriKos, r\, ov. 
(Small) tunic, yirt&viov, to. 
Three, rpels, neat, rpia (Pdm. 

36). 
Nurse, rpocpos, fj. 
(Native) country, irarpis, irarpid- 

os,fj. 
Slaughter, cpovos, 6. 
Dice, KTVTTOS, 6. 



Arms, oiika, rd (arma). 
Absolute prince, tyrant, rvpav- 

VOS; 6. 

To measure, perpeiv ( = -eeiv). 

To love, crrepy-etv. 

To exclude, to keep away from, 
e'ipy-eiv. 

To desire, irriZvfietv ( = -eeiv) 
with gen. 

To follow, attend (of a conse- 
quence), en-eo-Sai, with dat. 

To kill, to put to death, diro-Kreiv- 
eiv. 

To drag away from, drroo-irav 
( = -deiv). 



Exercise 21. 

189. a) Translate into English. 

1. 01 (pavXoi rfj yaarpl fierpovcrc kcu Tot? ala^LaTOL^ 
Trjv evSai/xovlav. 2. "AvSpes eloiv aycfeol fcal a^toi t?}? 
iXev^eptas. 3. f O ^eo?, tovs tov Tra-rpos vfipLarrucovs icaX fir) 
ao(pov<i \6yovs a/covcov, v'frrjXocppcov* re earac (= erit) /cat 
(pikoTijAos* avr]p. 4. ""Kariv vlov ye 43 i) ^vyarpos 6 Trarnp 



66 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

irarrjp. 5. Tals Ke/3rjTO$ ^vyarpdo-i yuT&via Saxrco c ( = 

dabo) rpla. 6. Elai /not, rpels ^vydrepes. 7. Trjv yr\v 

dvSpcov p,7)Tepa re /cal rpocj^bv ovo/Jbd^o/nev. 8. 01 dycfeol 

cocnrep virep 17 fjivrpos virep tt)9 irarpiho^ Kivhvvevovaiv. 

9. Tf) ArjfjLrjTpi irdXKol teal /caXol vea> rjaav. 10. V2 (f)i\rf 

^svyarep, arepye rrjv /jL7)Tepa. d 11. *i2 avSpes rf E\\7]ves, 

vo/xl^co crotyovs re KaX d^iovs tt}? evSaijuLovtas vfjbd^ etvai. 

12. Oi [3dp(3apoL rd alcr^pd (piXovcnv. 13. Tov a7rov8rj 

^w/epdrovs d%ia dnravros rod erraivov. 14. 9 /2 Ilepcra, 

Tt? ravra Xe^ev 'Bevo^covrc ; 15. 'Ev ra> tov dya^fov 

kyjttw early ol/ciSiov. 

a high minded. b (fond of honor = ) ambitious. c / w ill give. 
* See 91. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Fathers 37 keep-away their sons from bad men. 
2. There °was much 6 slaughter of men, and (Be) much 
din of arms. 3. The enemy's camp "was unoccupied 
{say : ? void of men '). 4. Man differs from the other 
animals in desiring honor. 5. Love (pi.) your father 
and your mother. 6. Be- not -the-slave-of the belly. 
7. Great honor attends good men 37 . 8. Cyrus puts-to- 
death his mother's father. 9. Tyrants 3r drag children 
from ° their fathers and mothers. 10. The man will 
spend his life in great glory. 11. The men are per- 
forming many great 52 °actions. 12. The many f 
will measure happiness by gain. 13. Bad (men) love 
anarchy and lawlessness. 14. Who will say that great 
honor does not attend good men ? 15. There is a tem- 
ple of Ceres in Cilicia. 16. Many great men love not 
only the Greeks but also the Persians. 

e TT0\VS. f 01 TToAXoi. 



190, 191.] ADJECTIVES OF TWO ENDINGS. 



67 



LESSON XXIV. 

Adjectives of two terminations* Kipas, &c. 
190. Adjectives of two terminations have only one 
form for the masculine and feminine, as o, r) ev&ogos, 
to evho^ov. They are declined like nouns of the third 
declension (except o?, o?, ov, which is like the second 
declension). 



191. PARADIGMS. 




craCprjs, caches, clear. 


evdaifioov, evbaip.ov, happy. 


SING. 
m. f. n. 

N. cracfifjs cra(pes 
p ^ aacpe-os 
" ( aacpovs 
-p. S aa(pe-'i 

' ( cra0ei 

. S o-acbe-a i , , 
A. < Z- > (Tames 
( a-a(pT} S . 

V. cra(pes a~a(pes 


SING. 
m. f. 

N. evbaijAozv 
G. evbaifxov-os 

D. evdaLfxov-L 

A. evdaifjiov-a 
V. evdai/iov 


n. 

evdaifiov 

evdatfiov 
evdaifxov 


PLUR. 
m S <ra(p€-es S cracbe-a 

' ( aacpe'is ( cra(prj 
p S aacpe-cov 

( cra(pa>v 
D. o-a(beo-i(y) 
» S (Ta(pe-as \ aa(pe-a 

' ) cracbels } ua(pr) 

Y S cratpe-es S (Ta(pe-a 

' ( cra^els ( o-acpr/ 


PLUR. 
N. evdai/xoves 

G. ev8ai[x6va>v 
D. ev8alpo<Ti(v) 
A. evdal/j-ovos 

V. evSalpoves 


evbalfjiova 

evbaifxova 
evdaipova 


DUAL. 

n.a.v. \ (Ta f: € 

( aa<pi] 
p -pv S aracpe-oiv 
( o~a<poiv 


DUAL. 
N. A. V. evdal/xove 

G. D. evdatfjiovoLV 



abl 


e of Adjectives 


of Two 


Endings. 




m. f. 


n. 


m. f. 


n. 


1. 


OS 


OP 


k6<t/j.los 


kSct/jliov 


2. 


<w 


ov 


■neiroov 


7T67TOI' 


3. 


7)S 


es 


a\T)frr}s 


aX-qbes (the most usual form) 


4. 


7]J/ 


eu 


&p(T7]U 


#po-ej/ (the only adj. of this form) 


5. 


(S 


i 


ffipis 


tSpi 



68 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[192—194. 



192. The nominative plural of repas usually drops 
the t, and is contracted into repa, G. Tepwv. To yepas, 
reward, to <yr)pa$, old age, to tcpias, flesh, and to /cepas, 
horn, omit the t in all the numbers, and suffer con- 
traction in the genitive and dative singular, and 
throughout the dual and plural (except the dative 
plural) : in fcepas, however, the regular forms with the 
t are found as well as the contracted. 

193. PARADIGMS. 



to Kepas, the horn. 


ro Kpeas, the flesh. 




SINGULAR. 




SINGULAR. 




N. 


Kepas 




Kpeas 






G. 


Kepar-os Kepa-os 


Kepcos 


Kpear-os 


Kpea-os 


Kpecos 


D. 


Kepar-i Kepa-e 


Kepa 


Kpear-i 


Kpea-i 


Kpea 


A. 


Kepas 




Kpeas 






V. 


Kepas 




Kpeas 








PLURAL. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


Kepar-a Kepa-a 


Kepa 


Kpear-a 


Kpea-a 


Kpea 


G. 


Kepar-cov Kepa-cov 


Kepcov 


Kpear-cov 


Kpea-oov 


Kpecov 


D. 


Kepa-cn{y) 




Kpeacri(v) 






A. 


Kepar-a Kepa-a 


Kepa 


Kpear-a 


Kpea-a 


Kpea 


V. 


Kepar-a Kepa-a 


Kepa 


Kpear-a 


Kpea-a 


Kpea 




DUAL. 






DUAL. 




N.A.V 


Kepar-e Kepa-e 


Kepa 


Kpear-e 


Kpea-e 


Kpea 


G. D. 


Kepar-oiv Kepd-otv 


Kepcov 


Kpear-oxv 


Kpea-oiv 


Kpecov 



194. Vocabulary 17. 

Horn, wing of an army, Kepas, 

Kepar-os, ro. 
Honorary privilege, yepas, ye- 

par-os, to. 
Old age, yrjpas, yrjpar-os, to. 
Prodigy, portentous-monster, rk- 

pas, repar-os, to. 
Alone, only, [jlovos. n, ov. 
Stag, e\a<pos, 6. 
The bonassus, wild ox, (36vao~- 

cros, 6. 
Again, irakiv. 



On both sides, eKarepcoftev. 
Horse = cavalry, "lttitos, 77. 
(Of) twenty thousand, dicrpvpios, 

a, ov. 
Already, fj8r]. 
Fruit, Kapiros, 6. 
Child, tIkvov, to. 
Monument, pvqpelov, to. 
Weakness, do-^eveia, rj. 
Best, apiaros, rj, ov. 
At once, apa. 
Most, rrXelcrTos, r\, ov. 



195.] 



ADJECTIVES. 



69 



Solid, crrepeos, a, 6v. 
Throughout, 8l6\ov. 
To put to flight, to rout, rpeir- 

To cast away, to shed (horns), 

a7ro(3aX\-€ii'. 
To bear, (pep-eiv. 



To put. forth (some natural pro- 
duct, as horns, leaves, &c), 
cpv-eiv. 

To butt, KVp'lTT-eiV. 

Much divided, branching, iroXv- 
cr^iS^s, es (7ro\vs, o^t^co). 



Exercise 22. 
195. a) Translate into English. 

1. T<io dpLcrrepco Kepdri rpeirovrai rovs TroXefilov^. 

2. A7ro/3dWec tcl tckpara \xovo^ 6 e\a</)0? tear eVo? I5 , iea\ 

TraXiv (pvet. 3. \E7ri /cepw? 25 e/caTepafeev 77 tTTTTG?, Sccr- 

fivpca ovcra 3 -. 4. KvptTTOvenv a\\rj\ov<; criSvpois /cepa- 

criv. 5. O dvrjp iv 7rv\ac<; rjhw yrfpeos iarcv. 6. Ovre 

yr) Kap7rov<$ (f>epei, ovre /ArjTepes re/cva tlktovctlv, dWd 

repara. 7. 01 virep tt)$ iraTpiho^ 17 #a\eo? reXevrrjaav- 

Te? b rdcfxov re /ecu tSiv aWcov fjuvvfieioov fieyiara eyovai 

yepa. 

tt "Civ, ovffa, ov, pres. part, of elfii, I am. & T€\evT7i<rapres, first aor. 
part, of TeA.6i/Taw. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. °It is necessary to yield to the weakness of old- 
age. 2. The geometer died of 22 old-age, not [say : 
1 but not ') of disease. 3. This (tovto ye) is the best 
remedy for 17 old-age. 4. The bonassus has at once 
both a mane and two horns 39 . 5. With °our right 
wing we are conquering the enemy's hoplites. 
6. Most horns [say : l the most of horns ') are hollow, 
and those (ret, Be) of stags alone are solid throughout 
and branching 11 . 7. The citizens have honors and 
panegyrics from one another, and honorary-privileges. 

a iroXvcrx^rj ( = TroXvcrx^ea). 



70 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[196—199. 



LESSON XXV. 
196. Substantives in ?/-?, o?. — Adjectives in 779. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. 77s : os, (neut.) 


N. ees, eis : ea, 77, (neut.) 


G. eos, ovs 
D. etj ei 

^l a s ' V \ os,(neut.) 


G. ea>j/, aw 

D. eo-i(i/) 

A. eas, eis : ea, 77, (neut.) 

V. ee?, eis : ea, 77, {neut.) 


DUAL. 


N. A. V. ee, 77. 


G. D. eoiZA otv. 



197. a) In Attic prose the open form occurs only in dual ee 
from adjectives in -qs, and gen. pi. ea>v from os. 

b) Tpirjpqs (properly an adj.), with the adj. avrapnqs, and com- 
pound adjectives in 77377? (from 7730?) remain paroxytone in gen. 
pi. It is not certain whether we should write rpirjpes, rpiqpoiv ; 
or Tpiqpes, rpirjpolv. K. adopts the former ; see Ms Gramm. 59. 

(Learn Paradigm 21.) 

198. £3= Observe that most adjectives in ?/-? are 
oxytone ; avrdp/cr}^ evrf&rjs, avvrfirqs, 7fKrjprj<=;, are excep- 
tions. 



199. Vocabulary 18. 

One who pursues gain by base 
means, alo-xpoKepdqs, es. 

Gain, KepSos, Kep8e-os, Kep- 
bovs, TO. 

Reproach, oveibos (-eos, ovs), to. 

Character, disposition, r}%os (-eos, 
ovs), to (mores). 

Simple, evrfirjs, es (ev and 7730s). 

Disobedient, a.Trei%r)s, es. 

Obedient, evTret^qs, es. 

Summer, 3epos (-eos, ovs), to. 

Year, ctos (-eos, ovs), to. 

Multitude, 7rX^3os (-eos, ovs); 
hence = democratical consti- 
tution. 



Mountain, opos (-eos, ovs), to. 

Wall, Telxos (-eos, ovs), to. 

Kind, yevos (-eos, ovs), to. 

False, y\revbrjs, es. 

True, aXrj'i-qs, es. 

Dicer, KvfievTqs, ov, 6. 

Footpad, (prop, a jilcher of 

clothes^) XamodvTqs, ov, 6. 
Robber, Xtjo-ttjs, ov, 6. 
Gentleness, npaorns, irpaoTnT- 

OS, TJ. 

Tameness, ripepoTtjs, rjpepornT' 

OS, TJ. 

Want of intelligence, stupidity, 
avoia, as. fj. 



200.] 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES IN Tfi. 



71 



Courage, dvhp'ia, as, f] (dvrjp) . 
Coicardice, SetXia, as, rj (SetXds). 
Sheep, TrpoftaTov, ov, to. 
Unintelligent, stupid, dvonros, ov 

(d and voeco, vovs). ' 
Trireme, rpirjpns (-eos,ovs), 17. 
Useless, axpncrros, ov. 
I suppose, (opinor,) S^ttov. 
Army, arrpaTevpa, o-TparevpaT- 

OS, TO. 

Chase, hunting-expedition, 3?jpa, 

as, 77. 
Winter, xeipav, ^ei/x.aji'-os, 6. 
Alike, opoicos. 
To endure, v7ropev-€iv. 
To differ, dia(pep-eiv. 



To plot against, emlBovkev-eiv 

(with dat.). 
To value before or above, to 

prefer, irporipdv (= -dew) with 

ace. and gen. 
To shoic sobriety or sense of 

mind, aco(ppov-elv ( == -Uiv). 
Less, iXdrrcov. 
Lilile, piKpos, d, ov : pacpa, (by) 

a little (with comparative). 
Safety, crcorrjpia, as, rj. 
Poetical, 7tolvtik6s, t], ov. 
Of earth ; hence, of brick, yrfi- 

vos, ov. 
More than, rather than, pdXkov rj. 



Exertise 23. 

200. a) Translate into English. 

1. 'O Kvf3evT7]<; real S\co7ro8vT7}<; Kal 6 Xycrrns alo-^po- 
Kephels elcri, 2. 01 tcvfievral fcepSovs evetca 6v6L$r f viro- 
fMevovcTL. 3. Ta ifSrr) toiv ^cocov Sca<pepeL (85, 1) Kara re 
heikiav Kal Trpaorvra teal avhpiav fcal r}pL€p6T7]Ta /cal 
vovv re koi avoiav. 4. To twv Trpoftaruiv ?}^09 evrf^ses /cal 
avor\TOV*-. 5. 'Evrav&a *A\KLf3iahr}S rj/cev i/c rwv KXa- 
tppievwv crvv irivre rpaqpecn. 6. ' ' A^p-qarov Stjttov /cal 
ol/ceTWS fcal crTpdrev/xa aTrefees. 7. Qrjpav 7roiovvrai h 
o/jloloo^ ^epovs c Kal ^eifiwvo^. 8. O racos anrd^ rod 

€TOVS d TLKT€l fJLOVOV TLKT€L $€ GOO, ScoSetCa Tj fJLLKpCf) iXoLT- 

ro) e . 9. ( JTepcrr]^ €7rt/3ov\evei tw irkrjfoei rS v/jierepa). 
10. ^axppovovcn rrjV o-corvptav rod KepSovs TrpoTL[xiovTes 
(= TrpoTifiaovres). 11. '0 (36vao~cro<; jiyverai ev rfj 
TTanovla, iv tco opei toj JVLeaaairlw. 12. Kara rov 
TroirjTifcbv \6yov, ^oXkcl Kal aiSvpd Bel elvau ra reiyr) 
fxaXKov r) yij'iva. 



72 . FIRST GREEK BOOK. [201, 202. 

a Supply the copula early. b ttoiovvtcu (== iroii-ovrai) frqpav 

(lit. faciunt sibi venationem), go out a hunting ; hunt. c K. 273. 

4. b. d the partitive genitive stands with adverbs of time and 
place : e. g. thrice a day, rph rr\s yfiepas, e For i\dTToi>a, cf. Para- 
digm 12 ((xeifav). 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. There are two kinds of lions. 2. He conceals 
the truth by a false tale. 3. Do not trust ( pi.) to walls 
and gates. 4. You (pi.) trusted to the bravery of the 
citizens, and not {say : ' but not ') to walls and gates. 

5. The general of the Persians has well-disciplined 
soldiers 36 . 6. O boys, you are pursuing false pleas- 
ures, and not true ones. 7. The wicked forthemost 
part f delight in 19 false pleasures, but good men 
{say : ' the good of men ') in true ones. 

f ra VFoAAa. 



LESSON XXVI. 

Hpa/c\,rjs, &c. 

201. When a vowel stands before the terminations 
779, e?, and o?, the Attics contract ea of the ace. sing, 
and neut. plur., not into tj : but a ; e. g. «Xeo? {glory), 
plur. /c\iea — Kkea. 

202. Proper names in kK&tj^ contr. /cXfjs, undergo 
(in Attic Greek) a double contraction in the dative 
sing. ; e. g. e-e'i (== e-ei) = el. 



N. ('HpaKKerjs) 'Hpa.K\r)s 

G. ('HpaKXeeo?) 'Hpa/cXeov^ 

D. ( c Hpa/cXe'et c Hpa/cXe'et) 'HpaKkel 

A. (Hpaickeea) 'Hpa/cXea [sometimes 'HpaKXij *] 

V. ('Hpa/<Xee?) 'Hpa/cXcis ("HpaKXe?, in exclamations.) 



* PZa£. P/^d. 89. 



203, 204.] 



WORDS IN qg. 



n 



203. Vocabulary 19. 

Sophocles, 2oqbo>c\r]s (see note 5). 

Ameinodes, 'ApeivoKkrjs. 

Eucles, EvkAt]?. 

Euthycles, Ev%vk\t}s. 

Unwritten, clypdcpos, ov. 

Written, yeypappevos, n, ov. 

The Antigone (a play of Sopho- 
cles), rj "Kvriyovr). 

Law, vofxos, ov, 6. 

Accurate, d<p(j3r]s, es. 

Full, 7rki']prjs, es. 

Fair, reasonable, emeiKrjs, es. 

Expensive, costly, TrokvreXrjs, es. 

Human, natural to man, hence 
(of sins) venial, dv^pamivos 
T), ov. 

A sin, a fault, dp.dpTnp.a, dfiaprt]- 
fj.ar-os, to. 

Procession, 7rop,7rr], rj. 

Sacrifice, Sucri'a, rj. 

Strong, Icrxvpos, a, ov. 

Fifth, 7re[ji7rros, n, ov. 

Straight, right, dp%6s, jJ, ov 
(rectus). 

Rem. By 201, Syi&t (from 67:77s, 
vyirj is also found in Plato. 



It befits, is becoming, 7rpeV«, 

(decet.) with daL 
To think, otWSa*. 
Not to transgress, (lit. to remain 

within,) to observe (a law), 

ififiev-eiv (with dat). 
ft is fitting or expedient, orvp.(pe- 

pei (= expedit), to avpcpepov, 

( = id quod expedit, or utile 

est), the expedient. 
To pardon, o-vyy ly viao-K-eiv (with 

dat.). 
To accept, a7roSe^-eo-3at. 
To court, to consult a thing, 

e. g. expediency, "SepaTrev-eiv. 
To give in evidence, bear wit- 
ness, pLaprvp-elv ( = -eeiv). 
Test, proof, mode of examination, 

(of a witness, e. g. by torture,) 

eXeyxos, ov, 6. 
Judge, KpcTrjs, ov, 6. 
Healthy, sound, vyirjs, es. 
{There) were, rjo-av, imp. 3d. pi. 

from elfii. 

vyie-os) is contracted into vyia, but 



Exercise 24. 

204. a) Translate into English. 

1. Tavra ov/c otovraL 53 GefUGTOfcket irpkireiv. 2. Ol 
fjblv aypadjoi, vo/jlol ovheirore fjb€Ta/3dWovcriv, ol Se ye- 
ypa/jL/xevoL TroWdfcis, cacnrep eiprprai* ev rfj rod Xotyo- 
/cXeovs 'Avnyovj]. 3. To Slfcatov* icmv aA/^e? tl c /cat, 
crvfMCpepov. 4. BeXrlovos av8pb$ d rb Tot? dypd(j)OL$ vo/jloi<? 
rj Tot? yey p a jAfxevois epLfiivetv. 5. To tols dv^ypcoTTLVOL^ 
a/jLapTi}/jLacri crvyyuyvcocnceLv eVtet/ee? 6 . 6. Ol ^eoi ov/c 



74 FIRST GREEK BOOK. ", [205. 

cuTToheyovTai tos irokvTekel^ Trofiirds re teal ^rvala<;. 
7. ^Hcrav KM/iat 7roXkal ifkrjpei^ ttoWcov ayd^rwv iv tw 
ireSico rco Trapa rbv Tiyprjra irora/jubv. 8. 01 Xvpaicov- 
ctlol GTpaTrjryovs e^ovaiv 'HpafckeiSrjv tcai Ev/cXea kcli 
TeWlav. 9. ^rpaTTjybs rjv Kopiv^fiwv aevoKkeLhrjS 6 
Eifevfckeovs, irefJUTTTos auro? 42 . 10. Takrf&h* (=rb 
akrf&h) layypbv icrrc. 11. 01 iroXKo\ rod 6p^ov b ov/c 
aXrf&els KpLTal ovres, f to av^kpov fidWov ^repairevou- 
aiv. 12. 'HyodfJLCLLZ nravTaTrdai <ye 43 aXrf&ri elvai kcli 
vyia (or vyirj) koX tticttov top av^pwirov. 

a < has been said: b 'justice, right: See K. 244, 8. c ' some- 

thing: d the gen. with i<rri is construed as in Lat. : it is the part, 

duty, &c. of; it is characteristic of, &c. e supply earl. f ovres 

(et#i). * == riyeo/jLcu, I think. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1, We praise those who speak the truth (say : 
'the true "things'). 2. You (pi.) all gave false 
witness (say;- ' gave4n-evidence the false "things'). 

3. We will give-in-evidence what is true, not 46 what 
is false (say: 'the true "things;' 'the false "things'). 

4. You see the faithlessness of Tissaphernes. 5. Their 
general is Dercyllidas, the (son) of E tides, with two 
others 42 . 6. Who avoids such (say : 'so') accurate 
methods-of-examination ? 7. I will give these things 
to Ameinocles the Samian. 



LESSON XXVII. 

Substantives in ew?. (Paradigm 27.) 
205. The termination evs (oxytone) takes w in the 
genitive sing, j and in the dat. sing, and nom. and ace, 



206—210.] 



nouns in evg. 



75 



plur. admits of regular contraction. The voc. is ev 
(perispomenon) ; dat. pi. 6vcn{y). (Observe the accent.) 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


N. evs 
G. ecos 

D. el 

A. ed 
V. ed 


els 
ecov 

evcri(v) 
eas (els) 
els 


N. ) 
A. } ee 

v. ) 

G. \ , 
D. 1 eolv 



206. Besides els the old Attic dialect possesses a collateral form 
in tjs (contracted from the Epic rjes) for the nom. and voc. plur. ; 
e. g. HXaraLTJs for UXaraiels. 

207. Most substantives which have a vowel before the termina- 
tion evs, contract ecos into cos, ea into a, eas (seldom) into as ; e. g. 
~Ev(3oevs (an inhabitant of Eubcea), gen. Evfiocos, ace. Et»/3oa, ace. 
plur. Ev/3oay. So sometimes G. plur. ; e. g. 'EperpLcbv, Acopicov. 

208. Future Participle.] The Jut. participle is formed by adding 
cov to root of Future, fikairrco, fut. fika-fyco, participle (3\d\jfcov (-ovaa, 
-ov). It is declined like a participle of the Present (Pdm. 16). 

209. The future participle is often used to denote a 
purpose. 

(Eng.) I am come to do this. 

(Greek) I am come about-to-do this (tJkco it oltj a- cov ravra) 
(Eng.) I sent a man to do this. 

(Greek) I sent (a man) about to do this (eWe/Ai/m iro irj crovra 
ravra [or, rbv ttoit] crovra]). 

210. Vocabulary 20. 



Interpreter, epprjvevs, 6. 

King, fiacrikevs, 6. 

Painter, ypacpevs, 6. 

Priest, iepevs, 6. 

Horseman, Irnrevs, 6. 

Scribe, ypapparevs, 6. 

Parent, yovevs, 6. 

Abundant, acfi^ovos, ov, (d, not, 
<p%6vos, envy, there being so 
much that none need envy 
another.) 



The Pirctus (port of Athens), 

Tleipaievs, 6. 
Mart, custom-house (at Athens), 

ep-iropiov, ov, ro. 
Superintendent, inspector, eVt- 

p.e\-qrr]s, ov, 6 (emp.. ep-TToplov 

= custom-house officer). 
Foot soldier, ire£6s, ov, 6 (pedes). 
Higher up, more inland, beyond, 

avco (adv. with gen.). 
To dig: down, KaracrKairr-eiv. 



76 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[211. 



Twenty thousand, $107x173101, 

at, a. 
Together with (dat.), apa; afxa 

T7) fjpepq, at day-break. 
To sacrifice, %v-eiv. 
An offering, a sacrifice, 3{5/xa, 

Sv/xar-oy, to. 
To put into the hands, to hand 

over, iyxeipig-€iv. 
Priestess, Upeia, f). 
Holy, oaios, a, ov. 



To disobey, a7ret9-eiV ( = -eeiv), 
with dat. 

To make a likeness of, to copy, 
to draw, a7reiKa£-eii>. 

To imitate, tuiie-eo-Sat (lu/ieT- 
o"3ai). 

Serious or earnest in character, 
good, worthy, o-7rov8a7os, a, ov. 

I am come, fjicco ( = veni, ad- 
sum). 

To go away, a7rep^-eo-3ai. 



Exercise 25. 

211. a) Translate into English. 

1. aevocfrcov SceXiyero avrols 3 - 6Y eppbvvew; irepl 
enrovhoiv. 2. Ovk gcttl j^prjpLara r}~fiiv h j tols Be iroXe/juioLS 
adfoova irapa /3ao-i\ecos. 3. Aapufiavei to apyvpiov o 
ypafi/jLarevs 6 rod epuroplov €7rLfie\r)Tcov Eifeu8wp<o<z. 

4. ( 'A/ia rfj rj/juepa opwfiev hrnreas ttoWoik;, Tre^oiv? $ av<o 
r<Jov liTTrecdv a>9 Stcr/jLvpLOVs. 5. f/ H/cco ^rvacov. 6. Gvcrov- 
T69 40 Tot? le pedal re teal iepeiaus eyyeipiCp/xev ra ^v/xara. 

7. Ovy OCTLOV TOVTO J6 4S TO TOt? yOVeVGLV Cnrefoelv. 

8. Ala^pov toiv? /lev y panels anrenccL^eiv ra /ca\a t6)V 

^ojojv, roiv? Se 7r<xiSa? fir) fitpbelcr^ai rov? GTrovBaiovs tu>v 

yoviojv. 9. Hep/iropbev KaTaaKOL^rovra^ to tei^Y). 

a ' conversed with them.'' b like est (sunt) mihi =5= f 1 have' 

in Latin. 

b) Tra?islate into Greek. 

1. It is c the mark of a bad boy to disobey his 
parents. 2. The painter will draw the insects. 3. O 
dear boy, you ought to imitate your parents. 4. The 
clerks receive money from 18 the Lacedaemonians. 

5. We are come to sacrifice 50 to Athene (= Minerva). 

6. The Persian, having handed-over his offering to the 



212, 213.] 



words in ig, i, vg, v. 



77 



priest, is-going-away. 7. Many of the cavalry fly. 
8. Many of the men from the Piraeus are digging-down 
the wall. 9. Those from the city are coming to aid 50 
those in the Piraeus. 10. We admire not only the city 
but also the Piraeus. 



LESSON XXVIII. 

Words in t?, l, v?, v. 
212. A considerable number of words with the ter- 
minations ty, i, vs, v, retain their proper vowel only in 
the ace. and voc. sing., substituting e for it in all the 
other cases. Words in is and u? take co in the genitive 
(i. e. m for o?), which, however, in reference to the 
accent, is considered as short, like co in the gen. plur. 
of these words. The neuters in i and v form their 
genitive in the usual manner. 



Sing-. 


N. 


is 


vs 


V 




G. 


ecos 


ecos 


€05 




D. 


ei 


64 


ei 




A. 


IV 


vv 






V. 


t 


V 




Plur. 


N. V. 


€IS 


eis 


V 




G. 


CCOV 


ecov 


ecov 




D. 


eO~l(v) 


ecri(v) 


eo-t(v) 




A. 


eis 


€LS 




Dual. 


N. A. V. 


ee 


€€ 


ee 




G. D. 


koiv 


koiv 


koiv 



213. Vocabulary 21. 

Intelligence, o-vvecris, 17. 
Intellectual act, intellect, voncris, r). 
Elbow, fore-arm, irrjx vs i ° 
Prophet, ixdvTis, 6. 
Insolence, vfipis, rj ; vfipecos vo- 



Arliculalion of a joint, joint, $1- 

dp^cocris, rj. 
Hatchet, axe, Trekeuvs, 6. 

[xos == ike law of assault. 
Power, dvvapis, 17. 



78 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[214. 



Gift, present, 86o-is, fj. 

Nature, qbvais, r). 

Seeing (the sense of sight), 

sight, o\jfi.s, r). 
Smelling (the sense of) smelh 

6a<pprjcris, fj. 
(The sense of) hearing, clkot], fj. 
Limb, pekos, fieXe-os (-ouy), to. 
Between, [xera^v (adv. with gen.). 
Wrist, KapTTos, ov, 6. 
Elbow, dyK&v, dyK.a>v-os, 6. 
Hunting-knife, cutlass, p.d%aipa, 

as,r). 
Sword, £i<pos, gl<pe-os (-ovs), to. 
Axe, d£lvr), tjs, f). 
House, oIkici, as, r). 
Saw, Tpi<ov, Tpiov-os, 6. 



Low-bred, ignoble, dyevvfjs, es. 

Tail, olipd, as, rj. 

Breadth, irkaTos, TrXdre-os {-ovs), 

TO. 

Unbearable, dcpopijTos, ov. (Com- 

parat. dcpoprjTOTepos.) 
Prisoner of war, al^pdXooTos, ov 

(alxprj, cuspis, aklo-Ktiv, ca- 

pere). 

To CUt off, aTTOKOTTT-eiV. 

To surpass or be superior, virep- 

e^-etv, (with gen.). 
To contemplate, behold, Secop-eTw 

(-eeiv). 
To read, dvayiyvd>o~K-eiv. 
Low, base, TaneLvos, r), ov. 



Exercise 26. 

214. a) Translate into English. 

1. 'O av^pwiros avvecrei re inrepkyei tojv aXXcov ^ojcdv 
koi St/cnv /calico its vo [jui^ei**. 2. IloWa ttoW&kls 
vofjaeu aXX ov/c i6 o/i/ubacnv ^recopovpuev. 3. Uryyv^ ica- 
"KeiTai a Kau to <TVfi7rav /^eA,o?, ocrov b eVrl fjuera^v t?)? tc 
JcaTa Kapirov /cal t?}? /car' ayrcwva Siap^ pco- 
<r €&)?*. 4. TloWas fiev piaya'ipas eyovcri, woXkaL Be 
fjicjyr], 7roWovs Se 7reXe/cei? /cal a%iva<$. 5. Avicovpyos 
i/ce\ev€ d ra<$ olicias iroielv airo 7re\e/ce<y? Ka\ Trpiovos 
puovov. 6. $evye e/cyovov vfBpecos aSuclav. 7. Tot? ao<fx)L<i 
cocnrep piavreai 7riarevo/iiv tlctl 51 . 8. 01 KoXaices <j>vaiv 
ayevvrj fcal raTreivrjv e^ovacv. 9. 01 e/cel e /cal 6-^rei 4S 
Kai afcofj Kau ocrtyprjcreL /cal iracn Tot? tolovtols f iroXv rwv 
iifedSe 2 Scacfrepovcnv. 10. 'Ev rfj %vpca ra 7rp6/3ara 
t«? ovpas 36 e%€(< to 7rA,aTO? 7rr}%eco$ 45 . 11. 01 etc 
rod aareos (pevyovcrt. 



215.] 



NOUNS IN to AND cog. 



79 



a ' is called' ( = Ka\4-erai). b c 6<tov {= quantum) ' as much {of it 
as'). c r) Kara Kapirlv diapSpaais {the articulation at the wrist =) 

' the wrist joint : so 7} kclt' ay kuvu SidpSrpwcris. <* sc. the Lacedcemo- 

nians. e K. 2-44. 10. f tolovtqs = Mis : understand ' things.' 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The man takes-his-estimate of s Alexander, not 
from 18 Alexander's °own nature, but from his own 
cowardice. 2. Nothing is more unbearable than inso- 
lence. 3. Read me h the law of assault. 4. The 
power of the city is (K. 241. 2) great || * 5. By his 
power of speaking he conquered his opponents. 6. We 
will aid the god with foot, hand, voice, and all our 
power °of every kind 47 . 7. Themistocles courted 
him with a present of money. 8. The soldiers cut-off 
(pres.) the necks of their prisoners-of-war with an axe. 
9. The walls of the city are beautiful ||. 10. Insolence, 
and pleasure, and all "manner of senselessness, rules- 
over those (° who dwell) in cities |j. 

s ^ewp-etj/ ( = e'etj/). i. e. to contemplate him. Alexander, i kh.Qa.v- 
Spos. h /tot, enclit. 



LESSON XXIX. 
rjycOj aoocos. 
215. The terminations of nouns in co and a>? are as 
follows : 



N. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


CO COS 


01, &c. as 2d 


co, &e. as 


G. 


{60s), ovs 


Declension. 


2d Declension. 


D. 


{61), 01 






A. 


{6a), co 






V. 


01 







Obs. Note the peculiar vocat. oi. 



* This mark ]| means that this notion is to stand first in the sen- 
tence. 



80 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[216,217. 



216. Vocabulary 22. 

Shame, reverence, alda>s, rj- 
Persuasion, obedience, Tm^co, r). 
Goddess, Sea, as, rj. 
Shamelessness, dvaideta, rj. 
The inspector of boys (at Sparta), 

Traidovojxos, 6. 
A taxiarch (the commander of a 

rants' or division), ra^iapxos, 6. 
Device, contrivance, inivoLa, as, rj. 
Endurance, patience, Kaprepla, r). 
Toil, labor, novos, ov, 6. 
Lover, ipaa-rrjs, ov, 6. 



Opinio?!, glory, bo£a, ris, rj. 

Maker, author, hence (impro- 
prie) of a thing, the instru- 
ment, dnpiovpyos, ov, 6. 

Oratory, pnropiKr], r), (jixyn, art, 
understood,) prop. fern. adj. 
oratorical. 

To receive, \ap.[3dv-etv. 

To take one's work easily, to be 
lazy or idle, padtovpy-elv ( == 
-eeuv). 

To supply, to bestow, irape^eo-Sat. 



Exercise 27. 

217. a) Translate into English. 

1. Ol AaKe&cLLjjLovLoi ^reav ov rrjv ' Avalheiav aXXa Tip 

AlSco vojjbi^ovcri. 2. c O tcoka% iroXKa ^prjpbara irapa 18 

^A/jbeLvoicXkovs 3 - irefeol \ajbi/3dv€i. 3. 'Ev Aa/ceSalptovL 6 

iraiSovofio^ rovs 7ral8a<? rov$ pahiovpyovvras (= pahuovp- 

ye-ovra<z) lo-'xypcas KoXd^eu, ware 7roXXr]v fiev alhoy> ttoXXtjv 

Se 7T€c$&> i/cei av/jbirapelvai. h 4. 'O Kvpos tov ptev rat;t- 

ap'xpv Twv hrlvoiav, rwv Be arrpaTiwroiV rr\v ireL^rco iirai- 

vel. 5. Ovtcos %pri ical to Xolttov avhpas aycfeovs elvai, 

yiyvcoo-fcovras, ore ra? jieydXas d ijSovas /cal ra ayd&a to, 

fieydXa rj 7re^&) kcu t) Kaprepla real ol iv ra> Kaipoj irbvob 

tcai Kivhvvoi irapkyovTai. 6. Tifirj^ epaaral elcrtv piera, 

aco(^poavvri<; re koX alSovs koX akTf&tvrjs So^vs. 7. Tiyvoo- 

ctko) on Trefaovs Srj/juovpyos eanv r} prjTopifct]. 

a ^AjjLeipoKXTJs, 207. k = simul adesse, to be present there at the 

same time : gSo-te, so that, with infln. (to be rendered by a finite verb). 
c = in posterum; for the future, henceforth: koX, also ; i. e. as you have 
hitherto been. <* /niyas. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Deem that Persuasion, not Force 46 , is a goddess. 
2. Hermes (= Mercury) conducts to 29 mankind Rever- 



218—220.] 



IMPERATIVE. 



81 



ence and Justice. 3. The bad call shame silliness. 
4. Tellias, the son of Eucles, called reverence and 
shame a divine fear. 5. We ought to surpass others 
in "justice and reverence. 6. Bad masters teach the 
young not by e persuasion, but by violence. 7. Nearly f 
all will yield to persuasion, but very few to force. 
e vtt6 with gen. f <tx^6u t*. 



LESSON XXX. 
Imperative. Adjectives in v?. 
218. The terminations of the Imperative are 





PRESENT. 




AORIST. 


S. e 


€TCO 


S. ov 


arco 


P. ere 


ircoa-av, or (more 


P. are 


aTGxrav 




commonly) ovtcov. 




or avTcov. 


D. erov 


eruiv 


D. arov 


araiv 



219. EXAMPLES. 



PRESENT. 


AORIST. 


S. XC-e Au-era) 


S. Xvcr-ov Xva-dTco 


P. Xv-ere Xv-eraxrav 


P. Xva-are Xvcr-drcoaav 


or Xv-ovtcov. 


or Xvcr-dvroov. 


D. Xv~€TOV \v-€T(tiV 


D. Xvct-cltov Xva-dr(ov 



220. a) The Imperative of the Present is used, as 
in other languages, in requests, commands, exhorta- 
tions, permissions, and the like. 

It is used in general precepts, and when the action commanded or 
advised, against which ice are learned, &c. is either considered as 
continuing (lasting, that is, for some lime) or being repeated from time 
to time. 

b) The Imperative of the Aorist is used when the 

action commanded, advised, permitted, &c. is considered 

as a single, definite action (not as being continued for 

any length of time, or being repeated). Thus iravaov 

4* 



82 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[221—224. 



rbv \6yov, end your speech (by a single effect of the 
will, &c.). 

221. This distinction is often but small : and it disappears when 
the verb has only one of the forms in use. — The Aorist Imperative 
may be used of an action that really has (and must have) duration, 
but then it does not indicate this : it speaks of it simply as one, defi- 
nite action. 

222. The negative with an Imperative is firj, but the Aorist Impe- 
rative is hardly ever used with /ir) (the Aorist Subjunctive being 
used, as we shall see) instead of it. 

223. Adjectives in vs are contracted in the dat. sing, and the 
nom. accus. and vocat. plural.* 

224. PARADIGMS. 





yXvicvs, 


yXvKeta, yXvKv, 


sweet. 






SINGULAR. 






m. 


f. 


n. 


N. 


yXvKvs 


yXvKela 


yXvKv 


G. 


yXvKe-os 


yXvKeias 


yXvKe-os 


D. 


$ yXvK'-'i ) 
I yXvKel ) 


yXvKeia 


> yXvKe-'i I 


A. 


yXvKvv 


yXvK.e7av 


yXvKv 


V. 


yXvKv 


yXvKeia 


yXvKv 






PLURAL. 






m. 


f. 


n. 


N. 


5 yXvKe-es } 
{ yXvKels y 


yXvKelat 


yXvKea 


G. 


yXvKecav 


yXvKcicov 


yXvK€03V 


D. 


yXvxe(ri(v) 


yXvKeicus 


yXvKeo-i 


A. 


S yXvKeas { 
( yXvKets \ 


yXvueias 


yXvKea 


V. 


S yXvue-es ) 
( yXvKels S 


yXvKelat 


yXvKea 






DUAL. 






m. 


f. 


n. 


N.A.V. yXvKee 


yXvKeia 


yXvicee 


G. D. yXvKeoiv 


yXvKelaiu 


yXvKeoiv 



Nor yXvK-ie, nor y\vK-4a, 
Nor yAvK-eow contract you may: 
So y\vK-4os and yXvK-iwv 
Contraction ever let alone. 



225, 226.] 



ADJECTIVES IN VQ. 



83 



225. Vocabulary 23. 

Siceet, pleasurable, f]8vs. 

Quick (also mentally), 6£vs. 

Sloio, ftpaSvs. 

Short, small, j3paxvs. 

Appetite, ope£u, ea>s, rj. 

Ready-witted, clever, shrewd, ay^t- 
vovs (see 136). 

Having a good memory, of a re- 
tentive memory, pvfjpcov, pvqp- 
ovos (see 191). 

Prone (to) 6£vppoiros, ov (from 
6£vs and peneiv). 

.Fbrc^ of gain, (fiikoKepftrjs, es. 

Part, popiop, ov, to. 

Again, ndXiv. 

Confession, SpoXoyia, as, rj. 

Confidently, boldly, Zappcbv, (par- 
tic, of Sapped : lit. " feeling 
confidence.") 

Sycophant, informer, ouKocpavrvs, 
ov, 6. 



Otherwise, a\X&)?. 

To commit injustice, dbine'iv (= 
-eeiv.) 

To deliberate, to decide, fiovheveiv. 

To hear, to listen to, clkov-sw (with 
gen.) 

To abide by, eppev-eiv (with dat.) 

To wail, pev-eiv. 

To make to cease, put a stop to, 
7rav-eiv : iramiv riva Tijs dpxrjs, 
to stop a man from his govern- 
ment or magistracy = to de- 
prive him of his magistracy. 

To define, 6pi£-eiv. (Hence the 
horizon = the boundary-line of 
earth and sky.) 

To test, prove, boKipd£-€iv. 

To examine, it-erd^-eiv. 

Participation, noivcovia, as, n. 

To snatch at, to seize, apitd£-eiv 
(rapere). 



Exercise 28. 

226. a) Translate into English. 

1. C H eirC^svjxla rov iJSeo? earlv 6pe%L<$. 2. 01 ofet? 
teal ayyivoi real pivrjfJLOves ft>9 ra iroWa icai irpos t<z? 
opyas b^vppoirol elcriv. 3. 01 (j)i\oKepSet<; eve/ca /cepSovs 
/Spa^eo? a8i/cov<ri. 4. 'Ev ftpayel fioplqj ypiepas irepl 

7T0W(x)V (TCOpLCLTCDV KoX %p7] pLCLTWV KOI TTOkeOJV /Cat 86^? 

/3ov\€vo/jL6V. 5. 11/30? tou? 'A^ijvalovs irepnreTe Trepi* 
UoTL&aias. 6. A eye rov vo/jlov (JEsch.). 7. "On 
aXrf^rj \eyco, b aKOvaare to)V '^rr)<pccr/jbdTcov (jEsch.). 
8. Aeye $rj iraXvv o (= quod) Avpoo-^evvs Kara At^o- 
a&evovs eypa-^re' Trpocre^ere, w avhpes. 9. Mr) \eye- 
rco to ovopia aXXa to it pay pa. 10. Trjv payjnv fioc, e(jyrj 



84 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [227. 

6 Kvpos,\ef;ov efcdcrrcDV, r/Tt? earriS 11. B orj^rjcrari 

l±Ol, KOI fJLY] SiSaCTKeTe TOVS <TVKO(f)dvTa$ jJbel^OV VfJbWV 

avrcbv hvv acr^ai. d 12. Oappwv i/jifievero) ry 6fio\o- 

ryla. 13. "EfjLfjLeVOVTCOV* TOt9 op/cots. 

a ' on the subject of:' lit. about. t> a sentence with £ that' (8ti) 

often depends on a suppressed notion ; such, as, to see, to convince your- 
selves, &c. c the Aorist implies one definite statement. Ae£ov /xoi 
rt\v p-o.%- eKUCTGov tJtis icrri = tjtls icrrlv 7] fidxv eKaaroov. The ace. is 
here placed as the object of Ae|oj/, instead of as the subject (nom. case) 
to iffri. ¥jtis is fern, of Hcris (qucs, qualis), what, of what kind. 
d /j.e?£ov Svvafffrcu ( = plus posse or valere), to have more power, to be 
stronger. e see 218. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Stay, and do not do otherwise. 2. Of boys, some 
are quick, and others slow. 3. Hear, O Athenians, the 
decrees against iEschines. 4. Remove him from 1S his 
command. 5. Define for me (/W, enclit.) up to f how 
many years we ought to consider men young. 
6. Prove your friends by their participating °with 
you in danger. 7. Bring them hither^, and ex- 
amine what h they say. 8. Do not snatch-at the hon- 
ors of the state. 

f ^XPh c - § en - (jyuot = ir&(foi, -cu, -a, -kv). Define single definite 
act. s to bring . . . hither, devpo irapayeiv. Say : ' bringing 

them hither . . . examine.'' h Tt = quid (it retains the acute). 



LESSON XXXI. 
Subjunctive of the Present and Aorist Active. 
227. The Subjunctive, like the Principal Tenses 
(242), has third dual ov ; third plural ai. 

It has the long e and o sounds (97, co) where the In- 
dicative has the short ones (e, 0). 



228—231.] subjunctive. 85 

Terminations of the Subjunctive. 



s. 


CO 


779 27 (= ri-i^ri-i) 


p. 


cofJLev 


7)T6 CO (TO 


D. 




7)T0V 7JT0V. 

EXAMPLES. 
(Subjunctive Present.) 


S. 


TVTTT-03 


TV7TT-TJS TV7TT-T] 


P. 


TVTTT-a>IJ.eV 


TVTTT-TjTe TVTTT-eOCTl 


D. 




TVTTT-rjTOV TV7TT-TJTOV 


S. 
P. 
D. 




(Subjunctive Aorist.) 

Tvyjf-rjs Tv\jf-T] 
Tv\js-r]Te Tv\jr-<ocri 

TV^T-rjTOV TV^-T)TOV. 



228. The Subjunctive of the Aorist does not (like 
the Indicative) denote past time, but a single, definite 
action considered as standing alone : whereas the Sub- 
junctive of the Present denotes a continued or repeated * 
action. 

229. Thus with 07r&>?, Xva = ut (' in order that '), 
the Present Subjunctive is used of general purposes, 
and the like, and wherever duration is to be pointed 
out. — It must, however, be remembered, that the Aorist 
tSubj. may be used of an action that really does and 
must continue for a considerable time ; but then the 
tense does not imply this, but considers it as one action, 
complete in itself. 

230. On the other hand, the Present Subj. cannot 
be used of a single, definite action, performed once. 

231. But with those particles of time that are com- 
pounded with av (e. g. otov, quum, quoties, eireihav, 
postquam) the JSubj. Aor. = the Latin futurum ex- 
actum. 

* By a repeated action is meant an action spoken of indefinitely ; 
such an action, whenever it takes place; siich a state, whenever it 
exists. 



86 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[232, 233. 



232. Examples (for imitation). 

a. Temporal Particles. 

orav 7rotTJs = quum (quolies) facias, when (whenever) you 
do (of a habit, general truth, &c). 

orav 7roir)o-r]s, quum (quolies) feceris, when you shall have 
done ; when you have done. Often == when you do (from 
the difference of our English idiom). 

e7rei8au iroirjo-ys = postquam feceris. 

b. Final Particles. 

iva (o7T(os) iroiTJs,ut facias; that you may do (habitually). 
iva (o7rcos) Tvoirjo-Qs, ut facias, that you may do (once). 

c. Conditional Particle. 

iav TToifjs, si facias; si quando facias. 

idv 7roir}o-7]s, sifeceris ; si quando facias (semel). 

d. O* All these particles take p.i], not ov, for not; finbeis, not 

ovbeis, for nobody. 



233. Vocabulary 24. 

In the way of, einrobav, (adv. 

with dat.) 
Any wild animal that is hunted, 

3?7pioi>, ov, to : to. SnpLa = 

game. 
Young animal, o-Kvpvos, ov, 6 : 

ot o-Kvfxvoi, the young (ones). 
Dog, kvg>v, kvv-os, 6 et fj. 
Female, %rj\vs, eia, v. 
Young bird, veorriov, ov, to. 
Viviparous, (wotokos, ov. (fww, 

vivus ; tck, root of tiktziv, pa- 

rere.) 
Four-footed, TeTpdnovs, tct pa- 
trow, (gen. TeTpairohos, &c.) 
Herb, grass, iroa, as, rj. 
At any other lime, aXkoTe. 
Wax, Knpos, oil, 6. 



Pitch, ir'iTTa (Attic for 7riVo-a). 

Oil, eXaiov, ov, to. 

Healthy, vyieivos, n, ov. 

Water, vdcop, v8aT-os, to. 

Without pleasure, dnftoos. 

To hinder, Ka>\v-€iv (fut. vera)). 

To counsel, advise, crvpfiuvXev- 
eiv, (with dat.) 

To make plain, to show, 8rj\6-eiv. 

Right time, naipos, ov, 6. Op- 
portunely, at the right lime, els 
Kciipov. 

To bind, to tie up, de-eiv. 

To cease, leave off, rrav-eo-^ai (= to 
stop oneself). 

To sing, q-deiv (= deideiv). 

To sit (of a bird), iirad^-eiv. 

To dream, ivvTrvid£-eiv. 



234.] 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



87 



To be suffering, to be ill, napv-eiv 

(laborare). 
To eat, eVSi-eii/. 
To be in fain, akyeiv (= eeu>). 

LeSS, TfTTOV. 

To be strong, to^u-eii/. 
Fit, Uavos, r], 6v (idoneus). 



To collect (in a heap), a%polg-eip. 

Dung, manure, Koirpos, ov, 6. 
To dine, denrvelv (== eeiv). 
To drink, ttlv-€lv. 
Being present, iraptov (== prae- 
sens, part. pres. of napelvai). 



Exercise 29. 
(Learn Paradigms 29, 32 : /3o{/?, oh.) 

234. a) Translate into English. 

1. Aeo/jbev* tov Kvva, 07r&>? /at] dpiraQn tovs rcov^fypl- 

cov crtcvfjivovs. 2. 'H *&7]\eLa drjScov iraveraL aSovcra, h 

orav eirwaty) Kal ra veoma fyy. 3. 'EvvTrvid^eLV <f)ai- 

vovrau ov /iovov av^tpwiroi, aXkd Kal Xttttoi Kal kvves fcal 

/Soe? • en Be irpofiara koX aiye? Kal irav to twv ^ojotokcov 

Kal rerpairoBajv yevo<;. 4. 01 Xvkol 7roa? aXXore fiev ovk 

eo-^LOVGLV, orav Be Ka/jLvcoai. c 5. 01 /36e? rods 7r6Sa? 

rjrrov dXyovabv, A lav rt? ra Kepdma d\ei(prj Kypoj t) irLTrr) 

tj eKalw. 6. 'TyceivorepaL ote? twv alywv ■ Icr^vovat Be 

liaXKov at alyes rwv otcov. 7. Tov9 \vkovs <paalv, orav 

TretvctHTLV, 6 io-^letv Tivd yrjv. 8. EnreiBdv diravra clkov- 

crrjTe, KpivareJ 9. Aifeh o~oi o-vfi/SovXevo-o/xev, idv fir/ 

KcoXvcrr) \xe to yijpas. 10. Eh Kaipov i^Keis, oVw? t?}? 

o7/c?7? aKOvays 7rapcov rrjs d/xcpl rod irarpo^. 11. Floir)- 

o~(o ravra, Iva BrjXojcro) roi><; ifjaroBwv ovras rfj rcov 

'EWrjvcov evBatfiovia. 

a In the Present Indie, dissyllables in ea> do not contract eo/j-ey and 
4ovffi. b Travo/xou ttoiwu ri = I leave off doing any thing. But in 

English doing is participial subst. in ace. ; in the Greek it is a present 
participle agreeing with subj. l I doing it' (=who am doing it) 
leave-off. c Supply ' then they do,' or prefix 'only' to 8tcw, xchen. 

a dXyziv rovs ttoScis, to feel pain as to their feet = feel pain in their 
feet. e = irtLvd-wcri. from Treivdeiv, esurire. f zKplva, Aor. of 

Kpivw, to judge. Imperat. Kpi'vov, dru, &c. 



88 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [235. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Speak, that I may hear [single action). 2. I 
say this, that you may remove {one definite act) Tel- 
lias from his command. 3. We say this, that nobody 
may trust those who have done such things. 4. When 
(= after) you have made him fit to govern, let him 
govern. 5. A good husbandman is careful s to col- 
lect (say : 'provides how [o7ra>?] he may collect,' 
i. e. habitually) his manure. 6. When you have col- 
lected the manure, you shall dine. 7. Do not think 
that they drink without-pleasure, when (= ivhenever, 
if at any time) they drink water. 8. It is a custom 
with the Persians (dat.) to kiss relations, when' 
°that is (ye) they see h them after a long time. 3 

S iirifieXelrcu ( = eVi^cAe-erai). h The subj. of opda is (irre- 

gularly) 18w, -ys, -p, &C. 



LESSON XXXII. 

First Future and Aorist of Liquid Verbs* 

235. Short root.] Many verbs are strengthened 
forms of simpler roots. — To obtain the short from the 
strengthened root, we must retrace the step or steps by 
which the strengthening was effected : 

1) By changing the radical vowel or diphthong into 
the short vowel from which it arose. 

at becomes a. 

ei before a mute must be changed into i. 

6i before a liquid must be changed into e. 

ov becomes o. 

7} (when it has arisen from a) becomes a. 

* i. e. verbs whose root ends in a liquid. 



6, 237. j 


FIRST FUTURE. LIQUID 
EXAMPLES. 


VERBS. 




(paiv 

O.K0V 


cpav \e17r XlTT 
aKO \t]?S Xa3 


T€LV 

(p?Seip 


rev 

$Sep 



89 



2) By rejecting the latter of two consonants : re/iv, 

T€fJU. 

a) Since ttt = any P-sound + r, the short root may 
end in tt, ft, or (/>. 

b) From £ (= ah) the former is ejected : <f)pa%, (frpaS. 

c) But a strengthened root in £ has sometimes arisen 

from a short root ending in y : ol/llco%, ol/xcoy. 

d) 2a, tt, are mostly strengthened roots from short 
roots that end in a K-sound (k, y, or y) : but 
sometimes from roots that end in a T -sound : 

irpaaa, irpay. (f>pcaa, (ppc/c. TrrvarcTj irrv^. 

ipeaa, iper. tcopvaa, Kopv^r. 

236. In the Active Voice, liquid verbs have only 
what is called the Second Future. It is formed by 
adding e3 to the short root. 

237. The Aorist Act. of liquid verbs is without a : 
it lengthens the vowel of the Future ; and for that pur- 
pose changes 

e into eo ) airepw, eairupa 
a into 7] ) (f)uva), e<§>r)va? 



PRESENT. 


FUTURE. 


AORIST. 


o-(pdAX-co, to trip up 
(paiv-a>, to show 


o-<fia\-5> 
(pdv-w 


e-cr(p7]\-a 
e-(f)T]v-a 


p.ev-co, to remain 


p,€V-CD 


e-peiv-a 


(nreipto, sow 
ti'XA-g), to pluck 
dpvv-a>, to defend 


erne p-a> 

rl\-S> 

dpvv-S) 


€-(TTT€Lp-a 

e-rik-a 
fjp.vv-a. 



* But the following take Aor. 1. in ava: — 

a) All in patvea. laivw (except Terpaivoo-, p-ialvcS). 

#) laxvaiva}, Kepdaiva), KoiXaivw, XevKaiva). opyaivw, Treiraivw. 

c) (Ttifxaivw, <ra(vv, have --qua or -ava.. Ka&aipw has -Tjpa. or -apa. 



90 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[238—240. 



The terminations of the Future of liquid verbs are £>, els, el | 
ovfi€V, eire, overt (v) \ €~ltov, elrov. 

238. Tl iroi(a = What am I to do ? what shall I 
do ? (called the ' deliberative subjunctive.') 

239. Ov fiYj with Fut. and Aor. Subj.] 

a) Ov [XT] rypa^rei? ; (cum interrogatione), Will you 
not not-write ? = l don't write :' ' dortt write, I tell you.' 

•b) Thus ov jiff), used interrogatively with the Sec- 
ond Person of the Future, is virtually a strong 'prohi- 
bition : but without interrogation it is (with any Per- 
son of the Future or (more commonly) the Subjunctive 
of the Aorist) a strong denial : 

ov firj ypdtyco (fut), -et?, -ei, &c. ) I (you, he) will 

ov pr) jpd^o) (aor. subj.), -#?, -n, &c. ) not write. 

c) The last idiom is explained by an ellipse of Seo? earl (melus 
est) or beivdv icrn (verendum est). So that ov /xrj ypd^reis, or ypd- 
yjsys = oi (deos e or rl) fxrj ypd\^€is or ypdyj/rjs, [there is no fear lest] 
you should write = you will certainly not write. 

d) Sometimes instead of the simple ov p,f), there is a compound 
of one or both (e. g. ovtoi, ovdeis, ovnore • p,rj$els, prjirore). Render 
as if it were ov p.r), adding the additional force of the compound. 



240. Vocabulary 25. 

To sow, enreip-ew. 

To wait, and (like manere) to 
wait for (a person, ace.) p.ev-eiv. 

To distribute, allot, vefi-etp. 

To gain, Kepbaiv-eiv. 

To reap fa harvest), gather fruit, 
&c. 3ept£-eii>. 

To fear, del8-eiv. 

To insult, vf3pl(-ecv. 

To scoff, jeer at, aicdnrT-eiv. 

To talk nonsense, Xrjpelv (= eeiv.) 

Laid waste, (of cities, &c.) ru- 
ined, dvaaraTos, ov. 



To disagree (lit. to sound differ- 
ently), to dissent, to make a 
different statement, dtacpcopdv 

(= €€LV.) 

What kind of, irolos, irola, irolov 
(qualis). Holds ns has nearly 
the same force, but adds a no- 
tion of indefinite magnitude to 
it. 

Assuredly not, ovtoi (non sane). 

Who in the world ? tis nore ; 
(= quis quidem.) 

More, 7r\elcov, (compar. adj.) 



241.] FIRST FUTURE. LIQUID VERBS. 91 

Exercise 30. 

(Learn rfc, rU, Paradigms 37, 38.) 

241. a) Translate into English. 

1. Tavra irotoiv, ov fir] Seicr?7? tou? tto\€/jlIov<;. 2. Ov- 
roi cr ' Ayaioiv fjbrj rt? vftpicry. 3. Ov firj aKOi-^reus ; 4. 

Ov /Lit) \7)pi](7€lS ', 5. Ov fJLY) 0~€ KpitycD* TaVTa. 6. Toil? 

7rovr)pov<; ov /JLYjiroTe fieXriovs Troirjaere. 7. Aeica erv 
fi€LvavT€<; Ayaloi ttjv Tpoiav avdcrrarov eifoirjo-av. 8. 
Mevov/xev avTov?. 9. Tfj 6/uo\oyia ir6repov d i/A/xevov/Aev 
rj Sca(f)covrjcrofiev ; 10. Uolov rtva eXiri^eLS Kapizov oiv b 
eaTreupas ^eptaecv ; 11. "AWcov o-T7€ipavT(£>v zeal (f>VTev- 
aavTQiv, tov Kapirov vfiels i^epicrare. 12. "*Ap ov% c oi 
^eol iroWols aya^ots Svo-Tv^la^ re /cal (Biov /cafcbv evet- 
fiav ; 13. Tl 7roLcofiev ; 14, HoTepov A Kephavovauv ol 
fca/col roiavra TroLrjo-avres, rj ov ; 15. 01 <$>LkoK6phe2<$ 
iirfev/jLovcrLv apyeiv, Xva ifkelw e KepSatvcoac. 

a K. 280. 4. b Gen. pi. of 5s, qui (Pdm. 49) : Kapvov . . . u>v 

= napirbv . . . tovtoov, a ; the relative being put in the case of the 
antecedent tovtuv ( = eorum) by attraction. c o\p ov or ap ou%. 

d Trorepou — 4j. e for irXdova, neut. plur. (more things = ) more. 

Pdm. 12. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. What am I to do ? 2. They will not remove 
him from his command. 3. Did they remove him from 
his magistracy, or not ? 4. Who in-the- world will re- 
move them from their command ? 5. He will not reap 
the fruit of what f he sowed. 6. Who in-the- world will 
sow on 25 rocks and stones ? 7. Will you sow on 25 the 
water? [°No.]s 8. What am I to say ? 9. Will you 
abide-by your oaths, or not ? h 

f 3>v by attraction for a. 910. s Spa ^17. h -iroTepov . . . if. 



92 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [242 244. 

LESSON XXXIII. 

The Tenses. 

242. The Tenses are divided into principal and 
historical tenses. 

Principal Tenses. Historical Tenses. 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

PERFECT. PLUPERFECT. 

FUTURE. AORIST. 

243. After Xva, oVo)?, &>? (=ut), l that J '-in order 
that,' the Subjunctive answers to the Latin Present 
Subjunctive* and follows the principal tenses. (See 
229.) 

Mr) Kkeirr-e, do not steal (forbids stealing gene- 
rally). 

Mr) /cXe-v/r-779 tovto, do not steal this (forbids stealing 
in a particular instance). 

244. As a general rule, in prohibitions with fir], the 
Imperative of the Present is used, or the Subjunctive 
of the Aorist. The Present Imperative is used in ge- 
neral precepts, and whenever the action forbidden is 
considered as continuing or being repeated. — The Sub- 
junctive of the Aorist (whether with /mr}, or after ha, 
&c.) does not denote past time (like the Indicative of 
the Aorist), but a single definite action ; an action done 
once, without any reference to d,uration or repetition^ 
Cf. 229. 

* The present subjunctive denotes continuance or repetition. 

t Such an action (as has been observed in 229) may have duration 
(even necessarily}, but then the Aorist Subj. considers it as one action, 
without any reference to this (necessary) duration. 



245, 246.] 



THE TENSES. 



93 



245. Vocabulary 26. 

To reproach, 6vet.bi£-eiv. 
Calamity, misfortune, avp.cpopd, 

as, J7. 
To blot out, expunge, i£a\el(f)-eiv. 

To CUt Off, iKKOTTT-eiV. 

A vexatious information, ctvko- 

(pavria, as, f). 
Nourishment, food, rpocpr), rjs, 17 

(rpe<p-eiv, nutrire). 
Juice, -Hypos, ov, 6 (x"°> fundo). 
Experience, ip.7reipia, as, fj. 
Strength, la^vs, Icrxv-os, fj. 
To be strong, to avail, laxv-ecv 

(valere). 
To diversify, to relieve, to deco- 



Wall of a house, rei^o?, ov, 6 (= 

paries). 
I am here, Tvapeiyu. 
Spirit, evyjsvxia, as, r\. 
Being lifted up (= with pride. 

with exultation), eiraipouevos, 

n, ov (participle). 
Capable of being taught, that can 

be taught, didanros, r\, ov : also 

OS, ov. 
To grudge, to envy, qbftoveiv (= 

-eeiv). 
Unseen, invisible, doparos, ov. 
The future, what is to be, to aeX- 

Xov (== quod futurum est). 



rate, 7roiKiW-eiv. 

(Engj To reproach a man with any thing. 
(Greek.) To reproach any thing to a man, (oVei5i'£ew> re tivl : 
cf. exprobrare alicui paupertatem, &c.) 

Exercise 31. 

246. a) Translate into English. 

1. MrjSevl crvfidjopav dvetSio-rjs • tcoivr) yap rj Tvyr\, 

koX to /xeWov abpaiov. 2. EtjaXetyo/iev rbv vb/xov, Xva 

ras crv/cocfiavTias iKtcb-^rcofiev. 3. 'H pLekirra ^prjraL 3 - 

rpo<pfj ovSefbla aX)C rj h rfj ykuKvv i^ovcry yypubv. 4. Mr) 

7roi7Jo-ws tovto. 5. Tbv hrjfiov pJr) airo\vo~r)Te. 6. *Avev 

eir^v^las ovSe/ila ri^vn 7rpb<; rovs KLvhvvovs wrvyei. 7. 

Mr) TOi? i£ Evfioias koX ^ivapTt]^ Xfoocs tovs Tofyovs 

TroitcCKke. 8. r Otcv \eyrjs liraipbiievo^ ) 6tl c Xttitov koXov 

e^oo, ?W^ 0< ? el. 9. El e^eus d r\pZv eTrtSel^at e co? hthatcrbv 

eartv rj aperi], fjur) Q^ovrjaws aXXa e7rlSeL^ov. e 

a == xpa-6Tai, from xpv^ai ( = xpa-ecrd-ai), uti, which contracts ae 
into 7j instead of a. It governs the dat. : xp?<»^« rpocpfj (literally) 
(cibo uti = ) to take (any) food. b a\\' % {literally ' but than') 



94 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[247, 248. 



= nisi or prater after ovdeh iiWos, or ouSels only. G on (that) 

precedes the quoted words of another person, and is then not to be 
translated. d have = have it in your poiver ; can. e iiriSei^ov is 
Imper. Aorist (2nd person), and iiriSeQai, Infin. Aorist of iTrideinvvvcu, 

to show ; to prove. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Do not wonder-at the strength of the giant. 2. 
Do not reproach the just man with the misfortunes 
• sent from the gods. 3. Do not admire external f 
goods. 4. The soldier's spirit will avail against 4 dan- 
gers. 5. The arts of the general availed nothing against 
the spirit and experience of the enemy. 6. I am here 
to remove {say : 'that I may remove') them from 
their command. 

f 6 (r), t6) e|o> = external. e|o>, adv. without ; outwardly. 



LESSON XXXIV. 

Optative of Present and Aorist. 

247. In these tenses, the Optative (like the other 
moods) drops the augment of the Indicative. 





Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Infin. 


Present 


co fls r\ 
cop-ev r]T€ coai 

TJTOV T]TOV 


oipt OlS 
oipev OlT€ 

OITOV 


01 

oiev 

OLTT]V 


etv 


Aorist 


(as Present) 


at pi (its 
acpev aire 
airov 


ai 
aiev 

aiTTTjV 


ai* 



248. Besides the Aorist Optative in ai/jLi, another is 
in use (called the JEolic Aorist) in eia. In the second 
and third sing, and third plur. this is far more com- 
mon than the other form. — eta?, ete. — plur. eiav. 

* With accent on penult. 



249—251.] 



OPTATIVE. 



95 



249. EXAMPLES. 



PRESENT. 


AORIST. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Xv-co 


Xv-Olfll 


Au-(7"a> Xv- 


era 1 pi 


Xv-T)S 


Xl)-OLS 


Xv-crrjS Xv 


■crais (Xv-creias) 


Xv-fl 


Xl>-01 


Xv-crn Xv 


crai (Xv-creie [v] ) 


Xv-copev 


Xv-oipev 


Xv-acopeu Xv 


craipev 


Xv-T)T€ 


Xv-oire 


Xv-crrjre Xv 


■craire 


\v-CO<Tl(v) 


Xv-oiev 


Xv-aaxn^v) Xv 


craieu (Xv-creiav) 


\v-T)TOV 


Xv-OITOV 


Xv-(7T)T0V Xv 


■craiTov 


Xv-TJTOV 


Xv-olrrjV 


Xv-arjTOV Xv 


■craiTTjv 


Sub 


unctive. Optative. 


So, 


PRESENT. 




TVTTT-a), 


gs, 77, &C. 


TV7TT-OlfXL, 


OlS, 01, &C. 


Xey-co, 


rjs, n, &C. 


Xiy-oipi, 


01s, 01, &c. 


Treti-co, 


7]S, V, &c 


rrtfe-oipi, 


OLS, Ol, &C. 


%avpd£-co, vs, v, &c. 


'Savpd^-oipi, 


OlS, Ol, &c. 




AORIST. 




Tvyjs-o), 


T)S, ?7, &C. 


TU\j/-aifJL(,, 


ais, at, Sic. 


Xe£-co, 


TjS, J}, &C. 


Xe^-aipi, 


ais, at, &c. 


rreicr-co, 


1/ff, 77, &c. 


rrelcr-aipi, 


ais, at, &C. 


'Savptio-- 


CO, TJS, 77, &C. 


%avpacr-aipi 


ais, at, &C. 


ripr)cr-co 


) 0Ss 2j> & c - 


nprjcr-aipi, 


ais, at, &C. 


(Opt. 


Aor. also Tvip-eia, as &C. Ae'|- 


eia. as, &C.) 



250. a) In the Optative (as in the Subjunctive, 
244), the Present refers to a continued or repeat- 
ed action ; the Aorist to a single, definite one. 

6) The Optative (like the Latin Imperfect 
Subjunctive) follows iW, oVta?, &>? (=ut) when 
• they depend on an historical tense (242). 

c) £Cp "Im, 07tg>?, co? are followed by yL/,97 (not 
0v)j fi7)$efc (not ovSels), &c. 



251. Vocabulary 27. 

Talked about every-where, nepifio- 
titos 1 , oi> : ffepifiorirov eivai, to 
be the common talk. 

Quietness, rest, fja-vxia, as, 17 : 
rjcrvxlav ayc-iv, to keep quiet. 



Recompense, punishment, npcopla, 

as, 77. 
Act of impiety, an impiety, acre' 

firjpa, do-e(3r] par-os, to. 
Manifest, evident, drjXos, 77, ov. 



96 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[252, 253. 



Place, tottos, ov, 6. 

Destitute of, epr)p,os, rj, ov (with 

gen.) : it may be translated 

' without? 
Possessing a right, Kvpios, a, ov : 

Kvpios elfxi rroielv ti, I have the 

right to do any thing. 
Windy, full of ivind, {mrjvefxios, 

ov : vTrrjvifiiov a>6v, a wind-egg, 

which produces no chicken. 
Yesterday, %pes (adv. eras). 
Lycurgus, Avicovpyos, ov, 6. 
To bid, tell, order, neXev-eiv. 
To remain (in a country, &c), 

Karafxev-eiv. 
Hither, here (= hither), devpo. 



To perceive, to discover, Karavoelv 

(= -««»)• 
To be -present, rrapelvat. (Imperf. 

naprjv, rjs, rj, rjp.ev, r)re, rjaav, 

rjrov, rjrrjv. Partic. Trapcov, ov- 

cra, ov. Gen. irapovros, &c). 
To call, Ka\e?v ( = -eeiv) : fut. 

and aor. with e, not rj : aaXe- 

a-a> ', inaXecra. 
Dinner, delnvov, ov, to : KaXetv 

«ft beiirvov, to invite to dinner. 
To hope, i\7ri£-€iv. 
To commit a fault, sin, ap.aprdv- 

€LV. 

To seek, to look for, ^qrelv (== 
-eeiv). 



252. PARADIGMS. 



p 

Indicative. 
S. elfil el eo~Ti(y) 
P. ecrfiev ecrre elo~i(y) 

D. ecrrov earov 


resent. — Et/u, Ian 
Subjunctive. 
w rjs r/ 
a>p,ev r)re a>ari(y) 

rjrov rjrov 


I. 

Optative. 

11 V V 

eirjv eirjs eirj 
e'irjp.ev e'lrjre e'irjcrav 
and elev 
etrjTOV elrjrrjv 


Im] 

Sing. 
rjv f]o-%a rjv 


PERFECT. — -'Hi/, Iwt 
Plur. 
rjp.ev rjre i)o~av 
or rjo-re 


IS. 

Dual. 

rjcrrov rjarrjv 
or rjrov or rjrrjv 



Exercise 32. • 

(Learn Paradigms 41, 42, 43, 45.) 

253. a) Translate into English. 

1. 'Eyco rore, Xva /mr) nTepij36r]TOS eirjv, y]o~v^iav rjyov. 
2. 'H ^v^rj r)<yeZraL TLjxoapiav ol (— sibi) rfeew toiv acre- 
^ruiaTwv. 3. Mivcov 6 &eTTa\bs &}\o? icrrtv 43 cV^u- 
/xcov*- apj^etv, 07r&)? 7r\eico h Xafiftdvy. 4. Mivcov 6 
@eTTa\bs &)\o? rjv inTt^vficov Tifiaa^ai," Xva ifkeico icep- 



OPTATIVE. 97 

o a iv 01. 5. Zeiferjs Treparei tov eavTov epfxrjvea 7rpo? 
HevofywvTa, /ceXevcov avrov KaTapuelvaL a Trap eavTw %iAi- 
ov? ottXltcls e%ovTa. ia 6. 01 ftepStKes ou/c ev tw avrco 

TLKTOVCTL fCCLL eTTCod^OVCTL, LVa fJUT) Tt? KaraVOl)arj TOV T07T0V. 

7. Avfcovpyo?, oVco? fir) 6p7][xoL 7T0T6 e ol iralSe^ elev ap- 
yovTOs, inroLrjcre tov del nrapovTa tcov 7To\Ttcov { 
fcvptov eivaL KoXd^eiv, el tl s ajxapTavocev. 8. 9 /2 ' ApiGTO- 
hr\jxe, teal %^e? i£r)Tovv k ere, ha KaXecraipbi hevp eiri 
helirvov. 9. "Airep (Pdm. 49) avTol cr^a? avTov? ov/c 
eireicrav, v/mi? eknrl^ovcn irelaetv {Jut. iiifin.). 10. Hapr\- 
crav Kau ol prjTopes Xva tov Btj/aov tols o~o$>o2<$ Xoyots irel- 
creiav. 

a = iiri&v/Ae-oov, pres. particip. (nom. m.) b Note 7. c = ri/j.d- 
eaSai, to be honoured. d to remain (Aor. Infin.) : trapd (by) here 

= with. e ttot4 (ever), indefinite, is enclitic, eprjfxos, gen. f rbv 

ruv ttoXituv ael irapoura = ilium ex civibus, qui quovis tempore prccsens 
esset. In this way ad (semper) = at any given time. Hence 6 del -wa- 
pwv twv ttoXItwv = any citizen who happened to be present at the time, 
e N"eut. of tIs- ap.apravziv tl = to commit any fault. •» "= e^re-of. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. They expunged the law, that they might cut-off 
the vexatious-informations. 2. The .young-man is ad- 
miring his (own) horse. 3. The boy evidently ad- 
mires 48 the Hoplite. 4. The orators had evidently 
not persuaded even themselves. 5. The orator was- 
there, that* he might persuade the people of the Athe- 
nians. 6. The generals were-there, that they might 
sharpen the passions of the people. 7. The peacocks 
lay wind-eggs. 8. Who saw the men from the Piraeus ? 
9. Most men {say : 'the most of men') love honors 
and honorary-privileges. 



98 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [254 257. 

LESSON XXXV. 

Some of the Passive Tenses. 

254. Passive. 

Present. Imperfect. Future. Aorist. 

OflCLL 6/jL7]V ^rjGOjJLCLl ^7]V 

255. The Imperfect and Aorist take the augment ; 
the terminations beginning with S- will affect the final 
consonant of a mute root, because £C^= when two mutes 
come together, they must be of the same order of breath- 
ing (i. e. both smooth mutes, both middle, or both aspi- 
rate). Hence to retain the S-, we must change the 
final consonant of the root (called the characteristic) 
into the corresponding aspirate. Thus 

any jo-sound with ^ = (ffo, 
any &-sound with S- = -jfir. 

256. Hence, (a) rpL^-^a-ofiat — TpL(p^7]crop,aL : 7rep,7r-^rj(rop,ai = 
7ren<p%T](TOfjLai. — ^AXeKp-^rjaojiaL requires no change. 

b) nXe/c-S^cro/iCH = 7rXe^-Sj;cro/Aat : cp\ey-^rj(TOfiai == (pXex-^fjo-o- 
fxai. — Bpex-%W H- aL requires no change. 

c) A Z-sound before 3 is changed into s. Hence ^euS-S^o-o/iat 
= ■yj/eva-^rjaofMat : 7rei'3-'%r](Top.ai, 7reicr-3?jo"o/iat. 

257. a) Verbs whose root ends in ttt, kt, f era; tt, 
are lengthened forms from simpler roots. The final 
consonant of that simpler root is called the true cha- 
racteristic. 

b) The true characteristic of verbs in ttt is a jo-sound 
(tt, j3, or 0). 

c) The true characteristic of verbs in kt is a &-sound 
(k, y, or x). 

d) The true characteristic of verbs in £ is usually 8 
(a f-sound) : but sometimes a &-sound (235. 2. c). 

e) The true characteristic of verbs in era, tt, is usu* 



258—262.] 



PASSIVE TENSES. 



ally a &-sound : but sometimes a ^-sound (235. 2. d). — 
Hence 

258. a) "Verbs in irr follow the ^-sounds, and have 
fat. and aor. (j>-^7)aouai, cj>-^7]v. 

b) Verbs in kt, and usually those in aa, tt, follow 
the ^-sounds, and have ^-^rjcro/iai, x-^V v - 

c) Verbs in £ usually follow the ^-sounds, and have 
cr-^Tjcrouac, (t-^tjv. 

d) Verbs in aw, eco, oca, lengthen the characteristic 
vowel, as in the Future Active, by (usually) changing 
a, e, o, into rj, rj, co, respectively. 

259. EXAMPLES. 



Present. 
C Tpi(3-opai 

p-SOUnds < TT€pTT-Opai 
f TVTTT-Opai 

C nXex-opai 
fc-SOUnds < Xey-opai 

v o.pX'°l xal 

bounds it^H"? 
( 7ret3-o/Liat 

£. 'Savpa^-opai £ 

racrcr-opai 

Tarr-opai 



Imperfect. Future. Aorist. 

i-rpifi-op-qv Tpifp-^rjcropai e-Tp'Kp-^rjV 

i-Trep.TT-6p.riv Trep(p-'%r](rop.ai e-rre p(p-%T)v 

i-TVTTT-oprjV TVCpSrjaropaL t-rvcp-'SrjV. 

i-rrXeK-oprjv irXex-'Zrjcropa.t i-TrXe)(-?5T]v 

i-Xey-oprjv Ae^-S^o-o/zat e-Xe^-3ip 

rjpX-6pr]v dpx-%r)cropai -qp-^-^-qv. 

£-y\revb-6priv ■yj/eva-'SriaropaL i-y^eiKT-'Hrjv 

e-7T€l'3-6p.T]V TT€l(T-'%r](TOpai €-TTeiCT-'3T]V. 

%avpa£-6pr]v %avpaa-%r](ropaL €-%avpd<T-%r]v. 



e-raaa-opr] 
i-raTT-oprj 



260. Pure Verbs: 



(piXe-co 


(piXovpai * 


£-(piXovp7]v 


CpLXt]-%f](ropai 


e-fpiXrj-'^Tjv 


Tipa-co 


Tipcopaif 


e-TLpwprjv 


Tip-q-'Srjcropa.i 


e-Tipt]-%T]V 


8gvX6-co 


SovXovpaL \ 


i-dovXovprjv 


dovXoy-^rjaopai 


£-8ovXa>-?iT]v 


Xvco 


Xv-op.ai 


e-Xv-oprjv 


Xv-^rjcopai 


e-Xv-^T]v. 



261. Note. The verbs whose characteristic is a liquid, have 
more peculiarities, and will be treated of separately. 

262. Terminations : ojmai, both in Present and Fut., 
as in Pres. of deponent verbs (rj, erai, &c). Cf. 151. 

* = <pi\e-oiAcu, £-<piAG-6pr]V. f = Ti/xd-ofj.ai, e-Tj^ua-^uTjv. 

X = 8ovA6-o/j.ou, i-5ov\o-6fj.7]u. 



100 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [263 266. 



lMPERF. ofirjv, ov, ero 

AOR. J)V, T]S, T) 



o/xe^a, ecrSe, ovto 
r][j.€v, r]T€, -qcrav 



6/ie?iov, eo-^iov, €ar%r)V 
tjtov, r\rr\v 



263. Note. The other persons of the contracted forms (ov^tjv, 
<bfj.r)v) will not be used at present. 

264. The terminations of the participles are : 
Pres. Fut. Aor. 

6/jl6Vo$ ^Tjao/jLevos S-et? (cum acuto) 
(^?-)o-yL66i/o?, -/xevrj, -fievov, regular 

-£efc -^elaa, -<$&, G. -^ivTos, &c. (Pdm. 34.) 

265. On the augment of verbs compounded with a 
preposition. 

a) The general rule is, that the augment follows 
the preposition. 

b) The final vowel of the prepositions that end in 
a vowel, is elided, except in nrepi and irpo. Upo-e is 
often changed by what is called crasis [Note 11] into 
irpov (the breathing being marked over the v) : anro- 
/3dWco, air-e-(Ba~XXov : but irepi-jBaXXco, irepi-e-^aXKov, 
7rpo-/3aW-co, irpo-e-jSaXkov = irpov-jBaXXov. 

c) The prepositions iv, avv, have often undergone 
a change by being assimilated to the initial consonant 
of the verb according to the following laws : 

v before a p-sound, or yjs, becomes p. 
v before a fc-sound, or £, becomes y. 
v before a liquid becomes that liquid. 

266. When ev, avv, have been thus assimilated, 
thev will resume their natural form before e. 





(by assimilation) 


(Imperf.) 


eV-/3aXXa> 


= ifjL-fidWco 


iv-e-(3aWov 


(rvv-[3aX\(t) 


= cn;/i.-/3aXXo<> 


<rvv-e-(3a\\ov 


eV-KXet'co 


= ey-Kkelco 


iv-€-ickeiov 


ev-x e & 


= ey-^eco 


€V-e--^eov 


ev-fxevoi 


= efx-fievoj 


ev-€-f±€vov 


eV-Xenrco 


= e'X-XeiVa) 


ev-e-Xenrov. 



267, 268.] 



PASSIVE TENSES. 



101 



d) 'Ek will become ef before a vowel : i/c-{3dXk-(o, 
i^-e-fiaXkov. 



267. Vocabulary 28. 

To educate, naibev-eiv. 

Mars' 's hill, the hill of the Areopa- 
gus, "Apeios TTayos ("Apeios = 
Martius). 

Kindly, evp,eva>s. 

To receive, v7ro8ex-eo-%ai. 

To worst, naKi£-€iv. 

The Mede (== Xerxes), 6 MrjBos. 

Retreat, dvaxooprjcris, ecos, 17. 

Circuit (of walls, &c), Trepifto- 
Xos, ov, 6. 

Every-ivhere, on all sides, iravrcf- 

xv ( or xn)- 

To carry farther out, to extend, 
i^dy-eiv. 

To send down (to a country near- 
er the coast), K.aTa7rep.7r-eiv. 

Satrap, aarpdivqs, ov, 6. 

To torture, put to the rack, ftaaa- 
vi£-eiv : (ftdcravos, touch-stone, 
test ; torture.) 

Marriage, ydpos, ov, 6. 



To keep silence, hold one's tongue, 

o-ia>7rqv (== deiv). 
To dissolve, to destroy (i. e. a form 

of government), KaraKv-eiv. 
Democracy, S^po/cpcma, a?, 77. 
Oligarchy, okiyapx^a., as, rj. 
To slay, to murder, cpovev-eiv. 
Tyrant, rvpavvos, ov, 6. (In the 

Greek sense, one who ruled 

by his own will, not by law ; 

usually after having obtained 

absolute power in a state that 

ought to be free.) 
Teacher, 8iSdo-Ka\os, ov, 6. 
To be tempest-tossed, to be tossed 

by a storm, ^etpa^-eo-Sat. 
To put in at, land at* irpoa-p,io~y- 

au (with dat.). 
Tarentum, Tdpas, -avros, 6. 
More quickly, more easily, 3arroi>. 
To acquit, a7roXv-eiv. 



Exercise 33. 

268. a) Translate into English. 

1. c O Kvpos eVa-iScu^ ev tols Uepawv vofiois. 2. 
^Airo rod ^TKictctov* \iyerai 6 Bo peas rrjv 'Qpeferviav 
apircuuai ■ b Xiyerau av tcai 6 \6yos, <w? e£ 'Apelov irdyov 
rjpTrda^T]. 3. KaKia^evTas v/xas ovSels evpbevws v7ro8e- 
^erac. 4. Mera ttjv tov Mr/Boo dva^copTjcnv fxei^cov 6 
7rep//3oX,o? iravra^fj ifjrfjfor} c tt)? tcov ' A^frjvacojv 7roA,e&)?. 
5. Kvpos fcaT-e-TrefMffew virb tov Trarpbs craTpdirrj^ Avhuas 
re ical <&pvyia<$ teal KaTTTraBo/CLas. 6. **Ap ovk ifiacravL- 



102 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

o^Tjaav ol SovXol ; 7. Trjv iv ^Eperpla oXvyapylav rrjv 
rwv lirirkwv A cay 6 pas $r) 4 3 KareXvaev dhucrf&eis irepl <yd- 
/jiov. 8. e O KpiTrjs vftpia'&els virb tovtou ov cnco7ra. 9. 
e O "Efcrcop virb rod '' ' A^CXXectiS i<poveifer). 10. 'Too aSe\- 
(po) V7rb rod avrov SiSaafcaXov iTraihev^rJTrjV. 11. Uo\- 

Xal 87]/JLOKpCLTLCU V1TO TCdV TVpaVVWV KaT€\v^7]CraV. 12. 

Wevcr^cro/jLaL twv eXfrrihoiv. 13. 'O Tvkiinros ^ei/Jba- 
cfeeis e'9 rd fiaXiGTa^ rco Tdpavri irpoafJbla'yeL. 14. 
El vvv\ o~ov e dfcovaas i\^relv { TreMT&tfcro/jLcu, ttoXv ^clttov 
vir avrov Kal irdXiv iX^relv TreiG^nqaoiiai. 15. Ol rov 
j3i/3\L07r(o\ov SovXol i/3aaavl^ovTO. 

a The Ilissus, a river in Attica. For the fable of Boreas and Ori- 
thyia, see Keightley's Mythol. t» = to have carried off. c fiei- 

£W effofrTj, 1^- was carried out larger*, i. e. was carried further out, and 
so became larger. Hence fxeifav is a proleptic (= anticipative) predi- 
cate ; as in fj. eya s Tjv^ri&y) (' he was increased great' =) he grew great. 
d The adv. [xaXiara (== maxime) is here used adverbially with the 
article and prep. Translate, ' with extreme violence,' 1 ' most violently. ,' 
c <rov, gen. after aitoveiv = to listen to (an adviser). f i\&eiv, to go. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. O slaves, you will be examined-by-torture. 2. 
His slaves having been examined-by-torture, he will be 
acquitted. 3. You were both taught by the same mas- 
ter. 4. You will all be insulted by these persons. 5. 
I will not be persuaded to do this/ 6. The Mede was 
disappointed of his expectation. 7. Gylippus, being 
seized by the wind, is carried-out to sea. 8. The gar- 
lands shall be woven. 9. The slaves of Xenophon 
were insulting the wise geometer. 10. We were all 
taught wisdom by the same teacher. 



269—272.] MIDDLE VOICE. 103 

LESSON XXXVI. 

Middle Voice. 

269. Besides the Active and Passive Voices, the 
Greek language has a Middle Voice, which denotes an 
action (1) done by the agent to himself ; or (more com- 
monly) one which (2) he does for his own benefit ; or 
(3) gets done for his own benefit. 

The relation, however, to oneself is often much more distant and 
obscure. 

Middle verbs may be considered Deponents, when their middle 
force is so slight, that they appear to have the simple meaning of 
active verbs. 

Obs. The Middle Voice does not belong to all the verbs that are 
capable of receiving the meanings just mentioned. — The pupil must 
never assume its existence without authority. 

270. p^ It is only for the Futures and Aorists 
that the Middle Voice has forms of its own. For the 
Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect, it does 
not differ inform from the Passive. 

271. Such Middle Verbs as may be considered De- 
ponents, are divided into 

1. Deponents Middle = those with Future and 

Aorist of the middle form. 

2. Deponents Passive = those whose Aorist is of 

the passive form ; their Future is mostly of 
the middle form. 

272. The terminations of the Future and Aor. Mid- 
die are (for all but liquid verbs : see 274) : 



FUT. AOR. 

Indie. o-ofiai crdfxnv 

Infin. o-ea^ai cravat. 

Particip. o-6[xevos crdfj-evos 



104 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[273—276. 



273. These terminations are appended like aca, aa, 
in the Active (141) ; the Aor. taking the augment (123, 
124) in the Indicative, but not in the Moods and Parti- 
ciple. 



dXelcpopai 
dovXo-ofxai 
Xovo/xai 



^.€Ta-7T€ixylro[JLai 

8e£opai 

aXeiip-ofiai 

tovXaHTOfxat 

XovtTOjjLai 



fi€T-e-77€fx^rdjxrfV 

e-de^d/xrjv 

rjkei^rdprjv 

i-8ov\a)crdfji7)V 

i-Xovcrd/JLTp' 



Both for Act. and Mid. a after any of the letters in pet (i. .e. p, e, 
or t) is lengthened into d (not rj) ; but xpdofxat, xPW°H- a ^ * s an ex " 
ception. 'A/cpodopai makes d/cpodcropat. 

274. Verbs whose roots end in a liquid, have for 
the terminations of the Fut. and Aor. Mid. ov/xac and 
d/jLTjv, the radical vowel being shortened in the Future 
and lengthened in the Aorist, as in the Active Yoice 
(237). 

275. The terminations of the Put. Indie, (except 
for liquid verbs) are the same as those of the Present 
Indie. (151). 



Imperf. 


6\xr)V 


ov 


€TO 




o/j.e'Za 


ecrZe 


OVTO 




6/j.e^ov 


€<T%OV 


e<r%rjv 


Aor. 


(a-)diJ.T]V 


(o-)co 


((r)aro 




((r)dix€%a. 


(a-)cicr3e 


(a)avTo 




(ar^dp&ov 


(<r)acr3oi> 


(er)d<r3?7i> 



276. The Fut. of the liquid verbs is : 



ovfxai 
ov/JL&a 

OVfA&OV 



y or ei 



eirat 
ovvrai 



277.] 



MIDDLE VOICE. 



105 



277. Vocabulary 29. 
(Learn eXvopnv. Xvo-opat. 

Provide myself with, 7rapao-Kevd£- 
ofiai (7rapao-K.eva£-a>, to prepare, 
provide). 

Enslave to myself, subjugate, 8ov- 
Xovpai (= dovX6-op.ai.) : 8ovX<o 
Tiva ra /3ao"iXet. 

To wage war (from one's own 
resources, &c), ivoXepov 7tol- 
elcrSai : noXepov Troielv = to 
cause a war. 

7roteto-3ai, 1) sibi facere ; 2) sibi 
faciendum curare ; 3) putare, 
credere ; e. g. in beivbv notel- 
trSat, to think it a terrible thing. 

To make it for oneself (i. e. in 
one's judgment) of less value 
than= to think any thing of less 
importance than, ire pi eXdrro- 
vos 7roieT(rSat ti. 

(I give myself to taste =) I taste 
(of), gen. yevop.ai. Teveiv = 
to give another to taste. 

I wash (myself), Xov-op,ac. 

To anoint myself, a\ei'<£-eo-3ai. 

To brighten, to polish, Xaprrpiv- 
eiv '. Xa.p7rpvv-eo~%ai, to polish 
(any thing of one's own). 

To cease, leave off, irav-eo-^ai 
(nav-co, stop another, make to 
cease). 

To begin (to do any thing, i. e. 
by applying my own strength, 
&C.). apx-eo~'Sai. 

I advise a person, avpftovXevco 
tlv'l : I consult with him, avp.- 
fiovXevopai tivi. 

5* 



eXvadpnv. Paradigm 58.) 

(Give counsel to myself =) de- 
termine, resolve, fiovXev-opai. 

(I make trial of myself =) try, 
endeavor, 7reLpd-op.ai. 

I hide, conceal myself, aTTOKpvTTT- 
opat ( ipavrov, Plat. ) : also, 
(nearly as in the Act.) to hide, 
conceal. 

To go through, relate, hinye-opai. 

To revenge myself on, to punish, 
Tipcope-opai. 

To serve in the field, to serve, to 
march, o-rparev-opai. 

To strike, nal-eiv : Mid. if to strike 
part of oneself 

Thigh, pnpos, ov, 6. 

Shield, darris, do-rrid-os, 17. 

Companion, eraipos, ov, 6. 

To transgress, Trapaftaiv-eiv. 

Jail, lo-riov, ov, to. 

Rudder, nnddXiov, ov, to. 

Pilot, KvfiepvrjTns, ov, 6. 

To ward off, dpvv-eiv : Mid. to 
ward off from one's self ; also 
to revenge oneself upon any bo- 
dy (ace. of person : on account 
of or for any thing, inep twos). 

To enjoin, to command, ivreXX- 
eo-%ai. 

To rush, oppav (= -dew.) 

(To show forth from oneself = ) 
to declare, d7ro(paiv-eo-%ai. 

I prepare, KaTao-Kevd£-a> : I pre- 
pare for myself = / build, I 
equip (vessels), Karao7ceva£- 
opai. 



106 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [278. 

0^" (1) A middle verb may take a reflexive pronoun, ifiavrw, 
-6v, kavT$, -6u, &c. (2) The Active may be used with the reflexive 
pron. : a<pa.TT€iv kavTov. 

Exercise 34. 

278. a) Translate into English. 

1. TeXa/jLcbv 6 Alaicov fie^ 'HpatcXeovs eVl Aaofie- 
hovra earparevaaro. 2. 'OXiyov* irpb tcov Mr)6iKcbv h 
koX rod A ape tov ^ravdrov, o? fiera Ka/jL{3vo~7)V Uepaoiv 
efiaaiXevcrev, ol irepl rrjv ^L/ceXlav Tvpavvoi Tpirjpecs 
/caTeafcevdcravTO. 3. UpoiTov hinyrjcraa^ai /3ovXojjuaL to 
irpa^evra rfj rekevraia rj/jtepa. c 4. Ovk iyu) <xe 
dnroKTevoi, dXX 6 Tifs 7roXeeo? vofios, bv crv irapafiauvcov 
irepl e\aTTOVOS tcov rjSovcov eTroirjaco. 5. OvSev dirofcpv- 
■^rdfievos airavra SiTjyrjcrofjLaL v/mv rd ireirpayixeva. 6. 
Ueipd<rop,ai /-te^-' vpiwv 6 - tov dvSpa TLficoptfcracfeaL. 7. 
Havre? iXovcravro. 8. Els (BaXavelov tjkg) Xovcro/xevos. 50 
9. Tavr dfcovcras 6 Kvpos eizaiaaTO tov fiwpov. 10. c O 
Kvpos Tcacrav rrjv ^Aaiav KaT-e-cjTperAfaro. 11. 'Ay is 
ovk etc Trapepyov 6 tov iroXe/jiov eiroirjcraTO. 12. Oi <TTpa- 
TioiTai eXafxirpovovTO ra? acr7Tt6\x?. 13. Ev tw e^co f 
Spofio) rjkeifyovTO eTalpoi Te Ttves avTOv zeal avTos. 14. 

01 TToXlTai TOU? 7T0\e/lL0VS VTTep 7ToXXcOV dSlKW^dTCOV 

dfivvovvTai. 15. r O cTTpaTrjybs toZs aTpaTicoTais eveTei- 

\aTO €7Tt TOV? TToXe/JbLOVS OpfJUTjCraL. 16. O KpiTTjS TT]V 

yvdo/juwv aTretyrjvaTO. 

a a little. b ra JYbjSt/ca (the Median affairs =) the Persian 

invasion. c Dat. of time : iv is expressed when there is no adjec- 

tive or other attributive. d with you = with your assistance. 

e 4k irapepyov iroie?o$at, to make it a bye-business ; to treat it as a thing 
of little (or secondary) importance. * 6 e|aj (= exterior), the outer. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The enemy will march against our city. 2. We 
will deliberate about the safety of the citizens. 3. The 



279, 280.] INDICATIVE. MIDDLE. 107 

Greeks marched against the Persians. 4. All men 
wish to taste of honor. 5> The pilot provided himself 
with sails and rudders for his ships othat were good 
for nothing. 6. His companions having anointed-them- 
selves are coming hither. 7. The Mede will not en- 
slave Europe. 8. After he had washed, 58 the children 
were brought 11 to 29 him. 9. We will declare our 
opinions. 10. We revenged ourselves on the Lacedee- 
monians for their invasion of Attica. 

s ship, vavs: see Irregular Substantives, Note 9. h (pepeiv 

(ferre), to bring (= carry), has irreg. aor. pass, rjvex^nv. See List 
VII., Pdm. 74. 



LESSON XXXVII. 

"Av with Imperfect and Aorist of the Indicative. 

279. The particle av has a conditional force (= si 
forte). With the Imperfect Indicative this particle is 

usually translated by ' would ;' the Aorist Indie. 

by ' would have .' 

280. But sometimes the Imperfect with av is trans- 
lated by ' would have .' This is when continu- 
ance or repeated occurrence at a past time is to be inti- 
mated. 

e-W-ov av, solverem {I would loosert). 
e-Xvcr-a av, solvissem {I would have looseneot). 

1. el ifceXeves, iirolovv av (si juberes, facerem), if 
you ordered me, I would do it. 

2. el eicekevcTas, eiroincra av (si jussisses, fecissem), 
if you had ordered me, I would have done it, 



108 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[281,282. 



3. el fir) eickXevcras, ovk av eiroincra (nisi jussisses 7 

non fecissem), if you had not ordered me, I~ivould not 

have done it. 

Obs. (a) that the Aor. with e! is rendered by the English Pluper- 
fect : (b) that ' not ' with el is p.i\. 
On the place of av, see Note 10. 

281. Vocabulary 30. 

To care for, K^S-eo-Sai. 

To be on one's guard, cpvkaTT- 

eo-Sai (cavere) : 7rotelv n, lam 

on my guard against doing any 

thing ; 1 am careful not to do 

it. 
To deprive (ace. of person, gen. 

of thing) , enrocrTep-eLv (== -eeiv) . 
To hinder, Kco\v-etv. 
Consideration, reputation, digni- 
ty, dtjicopa, -aros, to. 
To differ, diacpep-etv : hence (to be 

distinguished favor ably/rom =) 

to excel, to surpass (gen. of per- 
son, ace. of thing, or ev nvt). 
Dreadful, terrible, detvos, r), 6v. 
To value, Tip.dcr'Sai (== -aecrScu) : 

eTip.rjcrap.nv av npo ttoWcov XPV" 

p,aT<ov, answers to our ' I would 

have given a great deaV (lit. 

4 would have valued beyond 

much money'). 
So large, Trp\iKovTos (tantus), 

Pdm. 52. 



To be able, hvvao-'Sai (irreg. inf.) 
= posse, with adjectives of 
quantity (like multum, plus, 
minus, tantum valere, &c), 

■ = ' to have much (more, so 
much) power.' 

Sophist, aocpto-Trjs, ov, 6. 

To conquer * Kpar-elv (= -eeiv), 
with gen. 

To ivall in, to wall round, Texl£- 

eo-Sat : epvp-a (lit. to wall 

round a stronghold =),to con- 
struct a fortified camp. 

Brazier, coppersmith, ^aX/corv- 
ttos, ov, 6. 

Worker in iron, blacksmith, o-idn- 
pevs, ecos, 6. 

Worker in leather, shoemaker, 
saddler, anevrevs, ecos, 6. 

To work, perform, epyd£-ecr%ai 
(= operari) : it changes e into 
ei in the augmented tenses. 

Workshop, epyacrTrjpiov, ov, to. 

Carpenter, tcktcov, -ovos, 6. 



Exercise 35. 
282. a) Translate into English. 

17715/ * r* ■% ' / £ J <\ \ * tf »» 

. hi i ti epiov eKTjbov, ovoevos av ovtcqs pu airoare- 

pelv icfivXarrov, co? a^tco/^aro? /cal rifir)?. 2. El pur) 

vfiels ifecokvere, iiropevopLe^ra av iirl fiaackia. 3. El 



INDICATIVE. MIDDLE. 109 

to eyew outgo?, cocnrep to \ap,$dveiv, rjSv r)v, ttoXv av 
Bci(j>€pov evhaifiovia ol irkovaiOL tcov Trevrfrcov. 4. 'O 
*&dvaro<; ovSev heuvov, eirei* /cat Xay/cpdrei av icpalvero. 
5. Eyco irpb ttoXKwv av ^prj/xdrcov iTLfj,7]<rd/jL7]v ttjXl- 
kovtov Bvvao^ao rt)v (£>i\ocro(f)iav, baov ol cro^iaral Xeyov- 
<tlv. 6. El fir] fid^y i/cpdrwcrav, to epvpba tw arparoTreSa) 
ovk av iTei^io-avTO. 7. Ol 'XclXkotvitol /cal ol retcro- 
ve<; Kai ol cnSypels /cal o-Kvrels Kal <y panels irdvre^ 7ro\e- 
fiifca bir\a fcarecnceva^ov coare rrjv itoXlv 6vtco$ r)>yrjo-(o 
av 7ro\e/bLov ipyacrTrjpiov elvai. 8. Ol iralhes nrpbs (pCko- 
o-ocfylav apLCTTa h eiratheifencrav. 9. Kovvos 6 Mr)Tpo/3£ov 
i/jiov icdtciov h eiraiZeifer). 10. KXeocfravTO? TroWa teal 
^avfiaard elpyd^ero, a 6 iraTrjp avrbv e7rat8€vo-aro. c 

a iirei, since; a conditional clause is implied: since ifit were 
so; or, ' since otherwise;' 'else.' b Neuter adj. fyio-Tos, best: 

Katciccy, worse. Neuter Adjectives are often used adverbially : the plu- 
ral of the superlative is the more common ; the singular of the compa- 
rative. c The Middle Yoice sometimes means to get a thing 
done (269, 3). Hence irai'SevecrSrai = to have a person taught (erudien- 
dum curare). The Aor. has here the force of Pluperf. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. In this way (ovrm) you would have been 
well trained to virtue. 2. Let them rejoice ° in being 
trained to virtue. 3. Let no one suppose you to say, 
that we ought to look to advantage, and not to what 
is just. d 4. If we had not been excellently trained- 
up to virtue, we should not ever have conquered our 
desires. 5. If these things were true, I should not 
hinder you. 

d rb SiKaiov. 



110 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[283—287. 



LESSON XXXVIII. 

283. Moods of Present Pass, and Mid, First Aorist 

Middle. 



Indicative. 


Imper. 


Subjunc. 


Optative. 


Infi 


litive. 


Participle. 


Pres. Xv-o/xac 
Aor. e-Xvcr-d[j.r]v 


Xv-ov 
Xvar-ai 


Xv-coy-ai 
Xvcr-copaL 


Xv-Ol[JLT]V 

Xvo~-a[fj.r]v 


Xv-€o-%ai 
Xva-acr'SaL 


Xv-ofxevos 

Xv<T-d[X€UOS 


PRESENT. 




Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


S. Xv-ofxai 

Xv-7] 


Xv-ov 


Xu-coju.ai 

Xv-T] 


Xv-mfiijv 

Xv-OLO 


Xv-erai 


Xv-eoSa) 


Xv-rjrai 


Xv-OLTO 


P. Xv-6/jLe%a 
Xv-ecr'Se 


Xv-ecr^Se 


Xv-dyfxe'Sa 
Xv-rja^ie 


Xv-oifxe'Sa 
Xv-oicr^e 


Xv-ovrai 


Xv-eo~%a>o~av 
or Xv-ea%a>v 


Xv-a>vrai 


Xll'OLVTO 


D. Xv-6fxe%ov 
Xv-eoSov 


Xv-€(r?Sov 


Xv-aifxe^iov 

Xv-T]0~%OV 


Xv-oi/j.e'Sov 
Xv-oio-?Sov 


Xv-ecr'Sov 


Xv-ea^cov 


Xv-rjo~'3ov 


Xv-oicr^rju 



284. (First) Aorist Middle (in liquid verbs without 9). 



Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


S. e-Xv-crdfj,T]v 




Xv-awfiai, 


Xv-0-aL/j.rjv 


e-Xv-o-co 


Xv-crai 


Xv-crr] 


Xv-o~aio 


e-Xv-aaTO 


Xu-crao-3a) 


Xv-o~rjTai 


Xv-craiTO 


P. e-Xf-craju.e3a 




Xu-o-co^eSa 


Xv-o-a.LfjLf'Sa 


i-Xv-aacr'Se 


Xu-crao-Se 


Xv-o~r}o~%e 


Xu-cratcrSe 


i-Xv-cravTO 


Xv-o-do~%a>cra.v 
or Xv-o-do~%oov 


Xv-CFOiVTCLl 


Xv-aaivTO 


D. e-Xv-o-d/xe'Sov 




Xv-o~d>fxe?Sov 


Xv-crai[xe?iov 


i-Xv-cra.o-'Sov 


Xv-o-ao-%ov 


Xv-o~rjo~'i5ou 


Xv-craio-'Sov 


i-Xv-ado-^rjv 


Xv-adcr^cov 


Xv-o-rjir'Sov 


Xv-craicr?ST)v 



285. §^° BovXo/xai (velle) and oXop.ai (putare) take ei (not 77) in the 
second singular of the Present Indicative. 

286. The Optative, in principal sentences, stands 
in wishes (whence the name Optative) : Xv-ol/jll, may 
I loosen (habitually) : \va--aiyui, may I loosen (once). 

287. With efae (=utinam) the Optative refers to 



288, 289.] 



FIRST AORIST MIDDLE. 



Ill 



the present or future, the Aorist Indicative to the past, 
which, being past, .is unalterable. 

efae \v-oiev, \v<r-aiev (utinam solverent), would that 

they would loosen, 
efee ekvaav (utinam solvissent), would that they 

had loosened. 



288. Vocabulary 31. 

To be benefited, to derive advan- 
tage, ax^eXeicrSai (= e-ecr3ai). 

A fed animal, fiucrKvpa, -aros, to. 
Plur. cattle (as fed for the 
butcher). 

To make rich, nXovTi^-eiv : pass. 
to grow rich or be enriched. 

Ungrateful, dxapiaros, ov. 

Elder (= senior), an aged per- 
son, TTp€<jf5vT€pOS, OV, 6. (A 

compar. adj.) 
Brother, ddeXqbos, ov, 6. 
To receive, a7ro8e^;-e(r3ai. 
Flute, aiXos, ov, 6. 
If (with subj.), idv (= el civ). 
Native, national, iy^wpios, ov. 



To ivork, epya£-eo-3ai. 

To go, epx-ecr%ai. 

Quiet, rjcrv^os, ov. 

To be concealed from, escape the 

notice of, Xav3ai/-e«/ (latere), 

with ace. 
To rail at, Xoibopeio-^ai. ( = 

e-e<x3ai) 3 with dat. 
Middle, in the middle, [xecros, n, ov 

(medius). 
To be poor, Trev-eo-%ai. 
To do, fare, irpdrr-eiv (with adv.) : 

ev 77 paTTeiv, to fare well, to be 

prosperous. 
To delight, rj$-ecr%ai (delectare). 
To think, oi'-ecrSat. 



Exercise 36. 

289. a) Translate into English. 

1. 'HSea^co biro Xoycov (hobeXovpLevos 6 yeo?. 2. Mr]. 
Set? olea^co fie Xiyeiv, a>? eari hucaioavvr) StSa/crov. 3. 
El airb {3ocrrcr)/jLdTG)v oteu Selv TrXovri^ea^ai, tcov ^octktj- 
/jlcltcdv eTTL/juekov. 4. Aeuvov to£? irpea-fivrepois Xoihopi]- 
aaa^ai. 5. f O fiacnXevs ivifCTjae tovs TeXoovovs auTO? 
eV auTou? arparevadfjievo^. 6. Tevvatw; /xa'yco/ie^a irepl 
tt}<? ircLTpihos. 7. 'Avay/calov ecu tov vlbv Trefaea^at, toj 
irarpi. 8. UoXXoX aya&ol irkvovrai. 9. N6p,OL<; Tot? 



112 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [290. 

iyXcopLOis eirea^aaL tcakov iartv. 10. Mr) airoBiyvv twv 
<f>i\(ov tov? 7rpo? ra cfxxvXd aou %apL%ofiivov<i. 11. "Eica- 
ctto? rjavyos fiea-rjv rr)v 686v ip^ea^o). 12. Ol iroXircu 
rols v6/ulols Trefeia^cov. 13. Toy aSeXcfxo pot eirea^ov. 
14. El fiovXet /caXw? irpdrreiv, ipyd^ov. 15. 'Eav 
fiovXr) kclXws nrpdrreiv, ipyd^ov. 16. WevSo/xevo? ovSeU 
Xav^dvet ttoXvv yjpbvov. 17. 01 AaKehaifiovLoi per av- 
\oiv iarpaTeuovTO. 18. Et^re irdvres dvev bpyr)<$ [Bovkev- 
oivto. 19. Avo KdKxo Xttttod eh rr)v itoXlv r}\avvicr$r)v. 
20. 'Edv Trivy, bXlyoL (f)i\oi. 21. E'fae rrjv yvcofjurjv teal 
av diro^>r]vaio. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. If (iav) the soldiers fight courageously, they will 
be admired. 2. Sons should obey their fathers. 3. Let 
not an ungrateful man be deemed a friend. 4. Would 
that you would go -on -the -expedition yourself! 5. 
Would that the king had himself marched against the 
Geloni ! 6. Let us obey {say : 'follow') the laws of 
the state. 7. Let nobody rail-at an aged °man. 8. 
Let nobody rail-at this old man. 



LESSON XXXIX. 

Moods of Aorist Passive, and Fut. Pass. 

290. Indie. Imp. JSubj. Opt. Inf. Particip. 
rjv if&t, a> elrrv r\vai eb$ 



291—294.] 



AOR. PASS. FUT. PASS. 



113 



291. EXAMPLES. 





Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 






FUTURE. 






Xv-S^cro/zai 


(none.) 


(none.) 


Xf-3^(TOi/i^J/ 






FIRST AOR. 




s. 


i-Xv-^r/v 




Xu-3ai 


Xv-'Seirjv 




i-Xv-%7)s 
e-Xv-%7) 


Xv-^rjri 
Xv-%r]TCO 


XvSrjs 
Xu-3 t 7 


Xv-%eir)s 
XvSeir) 


p. 


i-Xv-^v^ev 

i-Xv-%r)T€ 

e-Xv-%r)(ra.v 


Xu-Sr/re 
Xu-3?/rcoo"az> 
or -SeVroov 


Xv-^couev 

XvSiJTe 

Xv-%cbcn(v) 


Xv-%eir)iAev, -'Sel/Jiev 
Xv-%eir)T€, -Setre 
Xv-%eir)crav, -Selej/ 


D. 


i-Xv-^-qrov 
e-Xv-^irjTrjv 


Xv-'Ztjtov 

Xv-%T]T(OV 


Xv-^r/rov 
Xv-^tjtov 


XvSeirjrop, -3eiroi> 
Xv-^eir/Triv, SeirrjV 



292. Avoi/u av, solvam. XvaaifiL av, solvam, solve- 
rim : both in English, I would, should, or (sometimes) 
may, might , loosen. This Optative with av is often 
used (as credam, crediderim, &c. in Latin) to give a 
courteous tone of doubt and diffidence to an opinion 
positively entertained. It -is often translated by the 
future : Xvotfii civ, I will loosen. 

293. The Present Optative with av denotes a continued or re- 
peated action ; the Aorist Optative a single, definite one, considered 
by itself, and without any intimation of its duration. 

294. In dependent sentences, the Present and Fu- 
ture are regularly followed by the Subjunctive ; the 
Historical tenses usually by the Optative (but with 
many exceptions). Mav^dvo/iev (/jLa^Tjcro/jLe^a) iva (&>?, 
07rt»?) 7rai$evcD/jL€^a (TracSev^cofjiev), discimus {discemus) 
ut erudiamur [eruditi simus) ; e^av^fdvoixev (Aor. i/id- 
^rouev*) iva («?, ottcw?) Traihevo'tfjLe^a [Traihev^eirnjuev), 
discebamus (didicimus), ut erudiremur [eruditi esse- 
mus). Just so : idv [orav) fiav^rdvrjre, iratSevecr^e (jrat- 

* eixc&ov is what is called a Second Aorist from fxav^dvu (List IV. 
Pdm. 74) : its fut. is of Mid. form, fw^^a-ofxai. 



114 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [295 298. 

Sev&tfcrecr&e), si (quum) discatis (discitis), erudimini 
(erudiemini) ; but el (ore) yuav^dvoiev, hraihevovTo, si 
(quum) discerent (discebant), erudiebantur. 

295. The Subjunctive and Optative of the Aorist, 
when connected with particles of time and condition, 
and with the relative used indefinitely or hypothetically 
(when, that is, who = ivhoever, whosoever, or if any 
one), answer to the Latin futurum exactum : eav, orav, 
05 av fia&y, elaerai, si, quum, qui (= quicunque) didi- 
cerit, intelliget ; elizev on, el, ore, o? fidfooi, eiricTTiqa-erai 
(or eirLCTT-qa-oLTo), dixit, si, quum, qui (= quicunque) 
didicisset, intellecturum esse. 

296. The pupil should observe that, in the exam- 
ples just given (which are intended for his imitation), 
the relative 6V, and the adverbs of time (ore) and condi- 
tion {el), take av when they are connected with the 
Subjunctive ; and that the el and ore are combined 
with this av, and thus assume the forms idv, orav. So 
errel, eVetCTJ (quum, postquam), coalesce with av into 
the forms eirdv or eiriqv, and eireuhdv. The av does not 
coalesce with oirov, where ; biroi, whither, &c. 

297. The force added by av to relative pronouns 
and particles (see Note 10), is that of the Latin -cunque, 
the English -ever, -soever. Thus birov av arpaTOTrehev- 
(ovTai (= ivhere they encamped, if haply they did en- 
camp = ) wherever they encamped. — With the Optative 
without av they have this force in such sentences as 
those in 295. 



298. Vocabulary 32. 

To throw around themselves, to 
surround themselves with, irtpi- 
/3aA\-ieo-3at. To entrench them- 
selves, 7re/3tj8aXXeo-3at rdfppov. 



To encamp, oTparo7re§eu-eo-3ai. 
Trench, rdcppos, ov, r). 
Multitude of hands or of ivork- 
men, 7roAu;(etpi'a, as, r\. 



299.] 



AOR. PASS. FUT. PASS. 



115 



Easily, eimerus. 

Naturally, reasonably, dicoToas. 

Cowardly, deikos, rj, 6v. 

Absurdity, dXoyia, as, r\. 

I asked, rjpoprjv. See epop-ai, List I. 

Exemption (from taxes, &c), 

dreXeia, as, rj. 
To compel, dvayKa^-eiv. 
Quiet, fjo-vxla, as, fj. To keep 

quiet, fjavxiav e^eiv. 
To converse, diaXey-eo-^ai (with 

dat.). 
Younger, veaarepos, a, ov. 
I sail, take a voyage, 7rXe-ca (Aor. 

e-7rXev-o~a) . 
A seed (of a pomegranate, &c), 



KOKKOS, OV, O. 



Pomegranate, poid, as, fj. 

To open, dvoiy-eiv. 

I said, eiTrov (-es, -e). 

To judge, pronounce a judicial 
sentence, npiv-eiv. 

To be icorsted, rj-n-do-^ai (= d- 
ea?5ai). 

To leave, Xtm-civ. 

Supreme, valid, Kvpios, a, ov. 

To hold an (dp^rj) office or ma- 
gistracy, apx-eiv. 

Wealth, ttKovtos, ov, 6. 

Receptacle, grave, 377/07, ns, rj. 

To move, to disturb, Kiv-fiv (= 
-eeiv) . 

Insatiably desirous (not to be fill- 
ed), a-nhqa-Tos, ov (with gen.). 



Exercise 37. 



Obs. In Example 4, ravSf\ ov&, are for ravra, ovre. The short 
final vowel -being elided by apostrophe, the smooth mute (t) is changed 
into the aspirate (3-), because the next word begins with an aspirated 
vowel. 

299. a) Translate into English. 

1. 01 /3dp/3apoi, OTTov av arparoTreSevcovraL, rdcppov 
irepi^aXkovrai evirerws Sea rrjv TroXv^etplav. 2. Ov/c av 
elfcorcos $ecXb<; vo/xl^olto 6 tolovtos ; 3. IloXXf] civ dXo- 
<yla eln, el (fiofioiTO'* tov ^dvarov 6 tolovtos. 4. Tav& 
a>9 ov irapd tov vopiov ecrrlv, ovr av 'AvSporlcov eyot b 
Xeyeiv, ov& v[ieZ<$ ireia^relvTe. 5. 'Hheojs av eycoye 
epoifJLf]v 5i AeTTTLVfjv, t/s avrf) r) dreXetd ecTTtv. 6. 'E- 
ctkottovv [= e-CTKOTre-ov] tIv av Tpoirov 19 f)av^lav eyeiv 
'A^fjvoScopos dvayKaa^relr]. 7. 01 av^rpcoTrou tovtols ]id- 
Xuara e^eXovau Trefoecr&aL, oi><; av c fjyoovTai, fieXrl- 
cttou? elvat. 8. El vecorepos r)v, ovk av eTnaroX-qv eirepb- 
ttov, dXX avrbs av coo irXevcra^ d evraifea hueXe^wv. 9. 



116 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

AapeZos potdv [ie<yaX7]v dvoi^as, 6 7rv^ojxevov i tlvos tL av 

€%€LV j3oi)XoLTO TOCTOVTOV, OCTOV €<TtI TWV KOKKCOV TO irXrf- 

^09, eurre • Zwirvpovs • rjv he s dvr)p aycfabs /cat ^)t\o? 6 

Za)7rvpos. 10. Kdv /3acrL\ev<; ti Trpoard^rj icplvai twv 

fJLT] Sifcatcov, ov Kpbvovjxev. 

a = (pofiz-oiTo. b e%eu/ sometimes = to have in one's power, 

to be able. c We should render tovtols . . . ovs Uv . . . by ' those 

ichom ;' but the meaning is, those, whoever they may be, whom : in 
Latin, parere Us, qiws putent (not quos putant). d ir\4-eiv 

(iiavigare) makes Aor. eirAev&a. e having opened . . . tfi>oi£a, Aor. 

of avoiyw (in the more classic Greek Aor. av4tp%u). f irv^ofievos, 

having asked. 'Ettv&6ij.t)v is a Second Aorist from irvv^dvofiai. List IV. 
= In Latin, erat autem Zopijrus, &c. we should use : now (Zopyrus 
was . . .).' — See SeiXos. tolovtos, Pdm. 52. Give Fut. and Aor. {Act.) 
of vo/j.i(u, and go through them. 

h) Translate into Greek. 

1. We will do this, that all the citizens may obey 
the laws. 2. We did this, that all the citizens might 
obey the laws. 3. If the Greeks are worsted 
(p)* none will be left (Opt. with av). 4. If you punish 
those who commit-injustice (p), your laws will 
be good and supreme. 5. If you do not punish the 
boy, he will be wicked. 6. How would the soldiers 
march ? 7. It is necessary, wherever °men hold-office 
from • their wealth, that this should be an oligarchy. 

8. If you were not a bad man, and insatiably-desirous 
of wealth, you would not disturb the graves of the dead. 

9. He h said that the barbarians, wherever they en- 
camped, easily entrenched their camp by reason 
of {hid, c. ace.) their multitude-of-hands. 10. Would 
you wish to injure rather than to be injured ? 

h See Example 1 in a ; but make the change as in 295 : entrenched 
may be either Present Optat. or Present Indicative. 

* (p) means that the preceding clause is to be translated by a par- 
ticiple. 



300 305.] PERFECT ACTIVE. 117 

LESSON XL. 
Perfect Active. 

300. Reduplication.] The Perfect takes a redupli- 
cation, when the verb can receive one. 

301. The reduplication is a syllable prefixed, made 
up of the initial consona?it of the verb and e {tvit, re- 
tv7t). But if the verb begins with an aspirate mute, 
the smooth mute of the same organ is used for the redu- 
plication : (pevy, ire^evy. 

302. The Perfect does not take the reduplication, 
but the simple augment instead of it, when the verb 
begins with p ; with a double consonant (32) ; with 
two consonants not being a mute and liquid ; or with 
yv, y\, /3\. 

■v^aXX-, i-\j/a\X-. yva>-, i-yvco-. \ivr]\x.-^ e-\ivr\\i.-. 

a) Of those in /3X, /3Xa7rrco, /SXao-^/ieco, and sometimes /3Xao-Ta- 

va>, take the reduplication. 

b) Those beginning with y\ now and then take the reduplica- 

tion. yXv(pco, yeyXvfjLfxai. — eyXu/x/xai is more classical. 

303. When the Perfect does not take a reduplica- 
tion, it takes an augment : tyre-co, i-tyTW-fca. 

fi^* The reduplication or augment of the Perfect remains through 
the moods and in the participle. 

304. When the Perfect takes a reduplication, the 
Pluperfect prefixes the augment to it. But when the 
Perfect takes an augment, the Pluperfect makes no 
further change : 

Te-TV(f>a, €-T€TV(f)€lV. 

i-^r]Tr]Ka, i-^rr/Keiv. 

305. Verbs that begin with p, double p after the 
augment ; and the Perfect and Pluperfect take the syl- 



118 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[306—308. 



labic augment (123), not the reduplication : pairrco, 
eppacpa, eppacpetv. 

306. The termination of the Perfect Active is kcl or 
a ; that of the Pluperfect k€lv or elv : the rough breath- 
ing over the a and et being used to indicate, that the 
final consonant of the root is to be changed into its 
aspirate* if it is a smooth or middle mute. 

307. I. Mute Verbs :]t 





Term. 


Pres. Perf. Pluperf. 


a) P-roots + those in ttt 


d 


TVTTT-CO T6-TV(f)-a £-T€-TV(j)-eiV 


b) K-roots + those in kt 


a 


7rXeK-G) 7re-7r\ex' a ^-Tre-7rXex~ eLV 


c) T-roots (z-mute thrown 






away) 


KCL 


7ret3-a> 7re-7ret-Ka i-7re-Trei-Keiv 


d) £-roots: mostly as c, 258 


KCL \ 


KOfXl^-CO Ke-KOfML-Ka i-Ke-KOfXl-KSlV 


e) era-- (tt-) roots : mostly 






as b, 258 


n 


Tacrcr-a> re-rax-a e-re-ra^-ett' 



308. II. Liq,uid Verbs : characteristic X, pu, v, p ; 
or XX.] Termination tea, the vowel of the root being 
shortened as in Future. (Hence (paw-, fyav-.) But 

a) Monosyllable roots with e or ei change their 

vowel-sound into a. 

b) Roots in v change v into <y before /ca. 

* By ' its aspirate ' is meant the aspirate of the same organ. See 
30, 31. 

•f Roots are called pure or impure, according as they end in a vowel 
or in a consonant. — Impure roots are divided into mute or liquid roots, 
according as the characteristic (that is, the last letter of the root) is a 
mute or a liquid. 

Mute roots are divided into roots ending in a P-sound ; roots ending 
in a K-sound ; roots ending in a T-sound (30) ; which may he called, 
for the sake of shortness, P-roots. K-roots, T-roots. 

X The £-roots that are softened from an original K-root (see 257), 
form their Perfect like the K-roots. — Of these however (which are 
principally verhs expressing some sound), the Perf Act. is hardly ever 
found. 

§ The era- (tt-) roots that are strengthened from an original T- 
root (257), form their Perfect like the T-roots. 



309—311.] 



PERFECT ACTIVE. 



119 



c) But some in v throw away the v : especially, 
/cpivco (judge), kXivq) (bend), relv-a) (stretch), 
reject the v (the vowel being shortened, and, in 
the case of relv-co, changed into a by rule a).* 



Pres. 


Fut. 


Perf. 




Pluperf. 


oreXX-o) 


crreX-<£ 


e-crraX-Ka 




i-(TTd\-K€CV 


(palv-ca 
fipadvv-co 


<pdv-a> 
(5pabvv-a> 


ire-cpay-Ka (rare) 
/3e-/3pa§u-Ka 


i-Tre-(pdy-K€iv 
e-fie-fipadv-Keiv 


Kpiv-a> 
kXiv-c* 


Kpiv-a> 
n\iv-a> 


Ke-Kpc-Ka 
Ke-KXi-Kaj 




€-K€-Kpi-K€lV 

e-Ke-icki-Keiv 


reiv-co 


T€V-a> 


Te-Ta-Ka 




e-re-ra-Keiv 



(With the exceptions of K€K.piKa, rentca, rerafca, the Perfect Active 

from verbs in va> is hardly found in good Attic writers. Kr.) 

MeVco, vep-co, form their Perfects as if from peveoo, vepea : /xe/ze- 
vrjica, veveprjKa. 

309. III. Pure Verbs : termination tea with vowel 
(if short) lengthened. 



Pres. 


Fut. 


Perf. 


Pluperf. 


TLpa-co 
(piXe-a) 
8ov\6-co 


Tipr)(r-(0 
(pikr)(T-(i> 
SovXco-cro) 


re-riprj-Ka 

7T€-(pi\r)-Ka 

§€-8ov\u>-K.a 


e-re-riprj-Keiv 

i-7re-(pikr]-Keiv 

i-8e-8ov\(0-K€iv 


8aKpv-<o 


daKpv-crco 


de-ddicpv-Ka 


€-d€-8aKpV-K€LV 



310. Terminations of the Perf. and Pluperf. Indie. 



Perf. a, as, € 
Pluperf. eiv, eis, ei 



311. Moods. 



dfiev, are, acrt(i>) 
eifxev, eire, ecrav (less commonly 
clctclv) . 



Indie. 
\e\vfc-a 



Tmper. Subj. 
e (o 



Opt. 

OL/ll 



Infin. 
kvai 



arov. citov 
eirov, eirrjv 

Partcp. 

CO? 



e, erco, &C. 
co, ys, y, &c. 

Ol/JLl, Oi?, 01, &C. 

wy, via, 6? 

OTOS, v/a?, OT09 



(paroxytone) (oxytone) 
as in Present. 

See Paradigm 35, b. 



{3o ttXvvod, ktg'lvw. 



f In Polybius, &c. 



120 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[312, 313. 



312. Vocabulary 33. 

Belonging to women, yvvaiKeios, 

a, ov. 
To go into, put on, ivbu-eiv. 
To pursue, eVtSiooK-eH/. 
To go under, to set (of the sun, 

&c), Karabv-eiv. 
To loosen, destroy, KaraXv-eiv. 
To be about or going to do any 

thing, fieW-civ : to p.eXXov, the 

future. 
To prophesy, Trpocpr/Tev-eiv. 
To bring forth, cpv-eiv : 7T€(pvKa 

= natur& comparatus sum. 
Concord, unity, 6p.6voia, as, f). 
Attire, dress, cttoXt], rjs, f). 
To govern (a state), noXiTev-eiv. 



Word, €7tos, ovs, to : pi. epic po- 
etry. 

To be in earnest, cnrovba^-ew : 
perf. €o-7rov8aKa == I am in 
earnest, as a fixed, permanent 
state ; I am eager or in a hur- 
ry. 

Tragedy, rpayabla, as, fj. 

Making, composition, irolncns, 
ecos, fj. 

To pollute, fiialv-eLV. 

To deny, apvelo-^ai (= -eeo-Sat), 
Dep. pass. (i. e. with aor. of 
pass, form in %r)v). 

To practise, to premeditate (a 
speech), peXeTau (= -deiv). 



Exercise 38. 

313. a) Translate into English. 

1. OliroXifjiiOL kfcarbv irokiTa<; ire^ovevKacriv. 2. $6- 
p€fcv$r)<; eXeye, fiyhevl ^ew re^vfcevai. 3. Neos 7rec\)VK(b<$ 
ttoXXcl %pr](rTa pudv^ave. 4. 'O pdvri? ra fieWovra fca- 
Aro? ireirpo^rjrevicev. 5. Ta re/cva ev TreTraiSev/cas. 6. 
MrjSeta ra re/cva irefyovevicvia eyaipev. 7. 01 Aatcehai- 
fjLOVLOi ILXaraids fcareXeXv/cecrav. 8. 'XaphavajraXos aro- 
Xrjv yvvcu/ceiav iveSeSv/cet,. 9. "Ore rjXios KaT€$e8v/cei, 01 
TroXejJLLoi eirXriala^ov. 10. Ilecpv/cacnv airavres real IS la 
real Srjfiocria dfxaprdveiv. 11. ^ Avev opuovoias ovk av ev 
7ro~kLT€v^eir) 770X1$. 12. \E7rl puev eirwv 7roiricr€L e 'Opwpov 
eyoaye paXiara re^avpaKa, eiri he rpaywhla ^o(j)OKXea. 

13. Tbv craxfrpova fiiov rod aKoXdarov rjhlco KeKptKapuev. 

14. 'Eycb rbv Xbyov pbepieXerrjKevai (prj[xl ical ovk av dpvy- 

^eiwv. 

Ques. "What is the English of -rroLricrcu/jU av % Decline ewos, ttoItjo-ls. 
Give the Tenses of &avp.d(a, fxeXeraw. * 



314 317.] PERF, AND PLTJPERF. ACTIVE. 121 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Have we not judged the temperate ° to be happier 
than the intemperate ? 2. I have often wondered-at 
the geometer's wisdom, 3. I have sent you the notes 1 
*that I have by {irapa) me. 4. This °man has 
polluted the temple of Hermes (= Mercury). 5. The 
sycophant has not kept his oaths. 6. If we had done 
this, Philip would not have been behaving insolently 
° for so long a time (ace). 

a vTr6(j.VT}/J.a, t6. 



LESSON XLI. 

Perfect and Pluperfect Active, continued. Sentences 
introduced by on, a>?. 

314. K\e7TTco, TrefjLTrw, Tpeirco [steal, send, turn), take 
o in the penult of Perfect and Pluperf. Act. So Xiyco 
(gather*) in its compounds, with irregular augment el. 

Hence Ke/cAcx^a, 7re7rop(pa, rerpocpa, £vv-€ t'Xo^a, e^-eiXo^a. 

315. The Perfect Participle with w, dr]v [Subj. and 
Opt. respectively, of el/jul, sum) is often used as the 
Subjunctive and Optative of the Perfect and Pluper- 
fect. They denote a still continuing" state more 
strongly than the regular forms. 

316. The Perfect Participle is also used with iao^- 
fiat (ero) to form a Future Perfect ; TreiroL^KOis eao/iai, 
fecero. 

317. Liquid verbs whose characteristic is p, and a 
few whose characteristic is v or X, undergo metathesis 
(that is, a transposition of letters) before the tea, /cecv, 
are added ; the short vowel of the root is then length- 

6 



122 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[318—320. 



ened as for pure verbs. — Several such verbs must be 
considered irregular, because either the Present has 
been irregularly strengthened, or they form their Future 
or Aorist irregularly. Such verbs are : 



Present in use. 
Kd[xv-(o (laboro) 
T€fiv-a> (cut) 
%vr](TK-(o (die) 
fiaXk-co (cast) 
KaXt-co (call) 



Short Root. 
Kajjc.- 
re/i.- 
%av- 
/3uX- 
na\- 



By metathesis, 

K[xa- 
Tfie- 
Sra- 
(3Aa- 
k\cl- 



Perfect. 

K€-Kfirj-Ka 
re-Tfirj-Ka 

fie-fSkrj-KO. 
Ke-KXrj-Ka 

; its Future is 



TiyvGHTKco forms its Fut. and Perf. as if from yvo- 
of Middle form. Ttyvd>cnc-<o, yvaxTo/xae, 'iyv&na. 

318. The Optative of the Aorist has the meaning 
of a prceteritum in dependent sentences introduced by 
oti> &>9 ('that'), and in dependent interrogative sen- 
tences^ e. g. those with el (if=) ' whether.' 

319. In these sentences the Indicative is used after 
a principal tense. After an historical tense this Indi- 
cative becomes regularly the Optative ; but very fre- 
quently this change does not take place, the Indicative 
being retained after a past tense just as after a present 
one.* 

320. The Future of the Optative is strictly confined 
to the office of taking the place of the Future of the 
Indicative in oblique narration (that is, when a per- 
son's sentiments, words, &c. are related by another 
using a past tense). Hence it may be used in the sen- 
tences we are now speaking of, when they are depend- 
ent on a verbum declarandi in a past tense. 

He said that he would 
come, 

6L7T6V ( OTl Tj^OL 

or ekef-ev S ore f)%€L. 



fie says that he will 
come, 
Xeyec ore rjgei 



* The Present tense is usually retained where we should rather 



To consider, o-Konela-^ai (= -ee- 

o-Sai). 
Madness, Xvcra-a, vs, rj (rabies). 
To fall upon, Ip-n'mr-eiv, with 

dot. : per/. 7T€7TT(OKa (as if from 

7rro-a)), verb, irreg. List VII. 
Violence, impetuosity, acpodporrjs, 

tjtos, fj. 
Hope, expectation, iXnis, LSos, fj. 



321 323.] PERF. AND PLUPERF. ACTIVE. 123 

321. B~r From many verbs, and especially from many mute 
verbs of the P- and K- sounds, which have a monosyllabic root, no 
Perfect and Pluperfect Active can be produced. (Kr.) 

322. Vocabulary 34. 

To steal, kK€ttt-€iv. 
To throw away, a-noftaKK-siv. 
To call, Kakfiv (= -eeiv). 
Intemperate, a<paTr]s, es (with 

gen.). 
Wailing, crying, ickavpa, -aros, 

to. KXavpa ylyveral rwi = 

he, any body, will cry, or have 

reason to cry. 

(For the Opt. of elpi see Pdm. 68.) 

Exercise 39. 

323. a) Translate into English. 

1. M(x)V OV K€K\0(f)aS T7]V VLK7JV / 2. ElwEV OTV OL 

arpaTiwraL a7ro/3e/3/V?7/coTe9 elev ra oirXa. 3. OvSe tov? 
Tralhas opyfj %pr) /coXd^eiv rov? tov tt}? aXco7re/co? ctkv/jlvov 
/ce/cXocfiOTas. 4. Taarpo^ dfcparr} KeicXrjicapLev tov dvSpa 
Sid ttjv crcpoSporvra rwv ire pi iScoSrjv iTTL^svpuSiv fcal iro- 
criv. 5. ' Orav ol hecnrorai eairov^aKwcn, KXavptara Tot? 
SovXols ryiyveraL. 6. El, pa^v/iovvTcov rj/xcov, 6 ftacrtXevs 
a>5 del tl ptei^ov rcov virapyovrodv Bel irpdrreiv iyvcofccos 
earac, crKoirela\e et? tl ttot iXiris ravra reXevTrjaaL. 
7. "ESeccrav ol KepacrovvTioc per] Xvcrcra Tt? wenrep kvo~\v 
rjpilv ipL7r€7TTOJK0L. 8. Tfj varepala 3 - rj/cev ayyeXo? Xeycov, 
a>? 6 Trarrjp re^vvrcev. 9. Aeyei (prces. histor.) on irivre 
rjptepcov dtJ€L (or d%ob) clvtovs b^rev o-^rovrau rrpv ^dXarrav. 
10. 'HpopLTjv avrovs el fieXXovcrLV (or puiXXoLev) rovs ttoI- 
8a? KoXdaab. . 

a The next day ; ri/xepa understood. 

expect it to be changed into the Imperfect : jip6/j.yv rives elviv, more 
frequently than rives rfcrav, rogabam quinam essent. 



124 FIRST GPwEEK BOOK. [324 326. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Has he not invited you to dinner ? 2. Are you 
not angry with those who have stolen the game ? 3. 
He said that the king had cut off the prisoner's head. 
4. He said that Aristodemus was dead. 5. He told me 
that the soldier had thrown away his arms. 



LESSON XLII. 

Perfect Passive. 

324. There is only one and the same /brm for the 
Perfect Passive and the Perfect Middle : their redu- 
plication and augment follow the same rules as the 
Perf. Active (301, sqq.). 

325. (The pupil must by no means suppose that a 
Perfect in /iac is both Passive and Middle. It is only 
some verbs that are used in a Middle sense.) 

326. The terminations of the Perf. and Pluperf. of 
the Passive and Middle are respectively fiai, /llvv : but 
the initial p, causes certain euphonic changes of the 
characteristics, according to the following laws : 

a) Any ^-sound (or ttt) with /* = /*/* ) ^-TP#-/«K 

( = ri-TpLfi-/jLa(, 

7\A7 j/ N .,i { 7re-7r\6K-uat, 

b) Any &-sound (or kt) with u = yu < , 

1 J v J t~ ii~ i = Tre-Tr\ey-nai 

c) Any £-sound with pb = ap ] , 

( = Tre-iretcr-fjiat, 

d) (1) The £ roots usually follow the ^-sounds, and 
take a/iai, aprjv ; but (2) the few whose roots originally 
ended in a Ar-sound take jpai, y/xrjv. 

e) The era- (tt-) roots usually follow the ^-sounds, 
and take ypai, jprjv ; but the few whose roots origi- 
nally ended in a £-sound take <jpai, aprjv. 



327, 328.] 



PERFECT PASSIVE. 



125 



f) The liquid roots require no change except in 
those in vo). Of these (1) verbs in aivco, vvw, generally 
reject the v, and make compensation for its loss by ? : 
but (2) a few assimilate the v to the /a (that is, take /z/z. 
for v/ju), (3) a very few reject the v, and make compen- 
sation for it by lengthening- the vowel of the penult : 
(4) KpivcD, fcklva), TelvQ), reject the v (as in Per/. Act., 
308, c : the last with the same change of ec into a) ; 
and retain the short vowel of the Future. 

327. Pure verbs usually lengthen a short or doubt- 
ful vowel. 





Present. . 


Perfect. 


Pluperfect. 


a) 
b) 
c) 


TpZ/3-O) 

de^-opai 


Te-Tpip.-p.ai 

o~e-8ey-pai 

e-yfsevcr-pai 


i-Te-Tpip-pnv (rub) 
e-de-dey-prjv (receive) 
i-yjrevcr-prjv (deceive) 




7rei3-a) 


7re-Treur-p.ai 


i-7re-Trei(T-pr]v (persuade) 


*>{£ 


3au/xa^-a) 


TeSavpaa-pai 


e-Te-%avpd(T-pr}v (wonder-at) 


(TTqpi^-Oi 


e-aTT)piy-pai 


€-(TT7]pty-pr]u 


e) 1. 


piaiv-co 


pe-piaa-pat 


i-pe-pia.a--p.rjv (pollute) 


2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 


aur)(vv-a> 
f Kpiv-a> 

X TCLV-00 

crreXX-a) 


T](TKVp-pai 

Te-Tpdxy-pai * 
Ke-Kpi-pai 
Te-Ta-pai 
e-araX-pai 


r)a m Kvp.-pr]v (shame ; -op.ai, am 
i-Te-rpaxy-prjv [ashamed) 
i-K€-Kpi-prjv\ (judge) 
i-Tt-rd-p-qv (stretch) 
i-crrdX-pqu (send) 


J) 


7TOl€-0) 


7T€-7rOlT]-pai 


i-7re-7roir]-prjv (make) 




Tipa-co 


T€-Tipr)-p.ai 


€-Te-Tipr}-prjV 



(Observe that ai of Per/. Pass, is considered short in accentuation.) 

328. The terminations are : 



Perfect. 
fiat, GCLl, 
fxe^ta, cr^re, 
fMe^ov, a^ov, 

Xe-Xv-pai 
Xe-Xv-aai 
Xe-Xv-Tai 

iXe-Xv-prju 
eXe-Xu-trco 
eXe-Xv-TO 


rat, 

vrai, 

a^fov. 


Pluperfect. 
fJL7]V, (TO, TO, 
[A€§a, CT§€, VTO, 

fjie^rov, o*$rov, a^rjv. 


Xe-Xv-pe'Sa Xe-Xv-peSov 
Xe'-Xv-o-3e Xe-Xu-trSov 
Xe-Xv-vrai Xe-Xv-a%ov 

iXe-Xv-p&a iXe-Xv-p&ov 
eXe-Xv-oSe eXe-Xv-o-fiov 
eXe-Xv-vro eXe-Xv-oSrjv 



* Also Te-Tpd-xva-pai. 



f So kXlvu. 



126 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[329—331. 



The terminations that begin with p, will of course all cause the 
same euphonic changes : Te-TVfj.-fj.ai, Te-rvp-p&a, &c. ; but those 
that begin with a, r, will cause other changes (which will be given 
in the next Lesson). The pupil can, at present, only be expected to 
form all the persons of pure verbs and of some liquid verbs. 

329. The participle is -/zeyo? (paroxytone), -pievr), 
-fjuivov. 

330. Tpiir-co {turn), <TTpe$-w (twist), change e of the 
root into a in the Perf. and Pluperf. Passive (rerpafifjicu, 
eo-Tpa/Afiai). Tpty-oj, to bring up (nutrio), also under- 
goes this change : its root is ^peob : the S- is changed 
into t, to avoid the proximity of the two aspirates (S- 
and 6) : but when the j> disappears, the ^ returns : 
hence Perfect Pass. Te-^papL-jiai. 



331. Vocabulary 35. 

Lawgiver, vopo^iT-qs, ov, 6. (vo- 

[xos, T&evai, ponere). 
To adorn, to arrange or order, 

aocrpelv (= -eeiv). 
Perfectly, TravreXcos. 
Thing learnt, lesson (learnt), pd- 

%rjp.a, aTos, to. (pa%-, short 

root of pdv%aveiv.) 
To pollute, piaiv-eiv. 

TO jUggle, yOT)T€V-€lV. 

To pay court to, ^epairev-eiv. 

To set free, aTraXkaTT-eiv. Pass, 
or Mid. to be released from or 
to set oneself free from = to 
remove or depart from (with 
gen.). 

Unclean, impure, dtd'SapTos, ov. 

Brutish, %r}pta>8r]s, es- 

I sit still, KaSripai (sedeo), a perf. 
form. Pdm. 71. 



Irrational, senseless, aXoyos, ov. 

Music, povaiKr] (rexyri, art, un- 
derstood). 

Gymnastics, yvpvao~TiKr] (j^vr], 
understood). 

To be divided into factions, to be 
distracted by factions, o~Tacrid£- 
eiv. 

To disturb, Tapdo-cr-eiv, or rapd- 
TT-eiv. Pass, to be in a state 
of disorder or anarchy. 

House, family, oltda, as, rj. 

Of or belonging to a rvpavvos ', 
royal ; of their tyrant, Tvpawi- 
kos, rj, ov. 

Panthea, TJavSeia, as, rj. 

To order, arrange, appoint, Taaa- 
etv or TaTT-€iv (fut. -£g>). 

To move, iclvelv (= -eeiv). 



332,] PERFECT PASSIVE. 127 

Exercise 40. 
332. a) Translate into English. 

1. H 7TO\£? V7TO TOV VO/JLcfoeTOV €V T€ KCLl TTOVTekoi^ 

fC€Kocr/XT)rai. 2. Avdyter] 3 - to fjud^rj^a ev avrfj rfj ^jrv^y 

Xa/36vra b dirtevai r) j3e/3\afipievov rj ux^eX/qfjuevov. 3. 

Tcbv irovvpwv {jLe/juacr/jLevr} r) ^rv)(r) recti atecfeapros tov o~co- 

fAaros diraWdrrerai, are ^epairevovaa d tovto real yeyon- 

Tevjxevri vtt avrov vir6 re twv eirfovpLLUiv teal f)$ovcov. 4. 

JJepl rd teetepv/xfieva twv Trpay/xdrcov dvdy/erj 3 - ttoWovs 

<p6(3ovs ylyvea^ai. 5. *H Udv^eta vayy irdvv teal ira- 

<jwv efyaivero Siacpepovcra e twv ciWwv Kaiirep f K.a*hr}\Jbkvt) 

tce/caXv/jL/jiivv re fcal etV 25 yrjv 6pwaa. e 6. *H ov teaXws 

irpoaerarTOv ol eirl tovtols l7 TeTay/xevot, vojaol, irapayye- 

Wovt€$ tw irarpl rS aw ae ev /jLovcntefj teai yv/LLvacrTLtcr} 

TracSevecv ; 7. <frL\L7riro5 06ttoXols aracnd^ovo-L teal 

Terapayixevocs eVt 4 rrjv Tvpavviterjv olteiav efiorf&r)o~ev. 8. 

HoXkr) 7rov h teatela TroXiTela? ovtws ala^pais m? yvval- 

teas elvai Te^pafi/ieva^. 9. 'O dtepdrr)^ to awjj,a rfj ^y- 

pcwSec teal d\6yw rjSovy eiriTpe^ra^ evraxfca TerpafA/xevos * 

"C/](jei. 

a sc. eo-Tt. h having received : ace. partcp. from Xafiwu, 

KajJL&avziv, List IV. c to go away (air-ei/xi : ano, elfu, ibo, Pdm. 

68). Supply as ace. to the Infln. ' a^manJ d are bepairevovaa 

= quippc qiuz col-at. e Sicup. governs gen. f Kaiirep = 

quamvis with, participles : very seldom with finite verbs. s = 

Spd-ovaa. h ttov (enclit.) = opinor. i lit. : ' will live 

turned (here =) hither' i. e. will live with reference to this. 

Qtjes. "What is the difference between avrbs 6 fiaaiXevs and 5 avrbs 
fiacriXevs : $. Why is iroXX-f] printed with the acute ? 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. We have the times of our life appointed by the 
gods. 2. Thus the whole would be both a well-ordered 
aud well-appointed thing. 3. These things have not 



128 FIE.ST GREEK BOOK. [333 336, 

yet been moved. 4. The damsel has her face covered. 

5. The city had been adorned with very excellent laws. 

6. The souls of the wicked have been juggled by sen- 
sual pleasures. 7. Alas ! I have been deceived of my 
hopes. 8. Some go-away injured, and others even 
benefited. 



LESSON XLII.* 
Persons and Moods of Perfect Passive. 

333. The same changes that take place before fiai, 
will of course take place before pi&ov t fie^a : 

re-TV fA-fiai, {3€-/3pey-fjLaL, 7ri-7ret(T-/xai, 
re-TV/jLfie^a, fte-fipiy/jLe^a, ire-iretafjie^a. 

334. From the terminations beginning with a*&, the 
a is thrown away, when the root ends in a consonant. 
Hence the p and k mutes, being conformed to ^, will 
be the aspirates : 

Te-Tpi(f)-^ov, X£-\e^W, fie-fipe'x^ov, &c. 
for re-rpL^-a^oy, Xe-Xey-a'Sov, fte-ppe^-a^ov, &c. 
A f-mute will become a, or, which is the same thing, 
the £-mute is thrown away before a^ov {jre-Trei-a^ov 
for Tre-Trefa-a^ov). 

335. The changes for v before p have been already 
given. The v can be retained before both cr, t, and Sr. 
Hence 7T6(pav-aaL, Trefyav-rai, ire-cpav-^ov, &c. 

336. By applying, in this way, the rules for the 
euphonic changes [Note 8], we shall find that, when 
the root ends in a mute or v, these letters assume the 
following forms when combined with the initial conso- 
nant of the termination. 



337—340.] 



PERFECT PASSIVE. 



129 



p-sounds. 


^-sounds. 


^-sounds. 


v. 


S. flfl, yjs, TTT, 

P. pp, 03, — 
D. fifi, 03, 03. 


7H; £> <T, 

y/*> x 3 ' x s - 


ap., ar, o~t, 
(TfX, (r3, — 
(TfJL, Q-3, <r3. 


ti/x or (r/i, j/tr, vr, 
/x/x or oyz, i/3, — 
fi/x o?' o-/x, i>3, »>3. 



Of course the 2nd pers. singular (being a o- termination) will have 
the same consonant as the Fut. ; the 2nd and 3rd dual, and 2nd plur. 
(3 terminations) the same as the Aor. 1. Pass. 

337. The termination of the third person plural, vrai, cannot be 
attached to mute roots. A circumlocution is used instead of it : the 
Perfect Participle with el<ri(v), are. So the Perf. Partcp. with rj<rav 
for third plural of the Pluperfect. 



338. 
XeiVco, leave. /3pe^co, wet 
\e\eipp.ai (Befipeypai 



SINGULAR. 

■^■evdio, cheat, aipeo, lift up. <pa[v<o, show. 

eS/z-eucrpcu qpp.a.1 

i'yp-eva-ai rjpuaL 

'fyeva-rai rjprai 
PLURAL. 

?7ppe3a 

|p3e 
) npp-tvoi ) 
) elaiu ) 

DUAL. 

e\|/-ewpe3oz/ ffpp.e'Sov 
e^eucrSov rjp^ov 

eyp-eva^ov f/p'Sov 

So Pluperfect : eXeXeippqi', iXeXeiyjso, eXeXei7rro, &C. 

339. Moods. 



Xe'Xei^ai 
XeXet7rrai 



XeXetppe3a 
Xe'Xft03e 
XeXeippei/ot 
elaiv 



/3e/3pe£ai 
/3e/3peKrai 

(3e(Bpeype?5a 

(Befipeypevoi 
elaiv 



e'^euoyxeSa 
e\//-et/cr3e 
iyj/evcrpevoi 
elcriv 



XeXetppeSoj/ fieftpeyp.e'Sov 
XeXei03oi» fie/3pex%ov 
Xe'Xei03ov fieftpcxpov 



7re'0a<xpai 
TTe(pav(Tai 
Trecpavrai 

7re0dcrpe3a 
7re'0az/3e 
7re0a(rpeVoi 
eia-iv 

7rf0doyxe3oz/ 

7re'0ai>3oi> 

7re<pai>%ov 



Indie. Imper. 



fiat 



cro 



Subj. 

partcp. 

with w 



Opt. 
partcp. 
with et?7z> 



i?i/m. Partcp. 



340. In the Imperative, Infinitive, and Participle, the forms are 
produced, as in the Indicative, by the ejection or change of conso- 

* There occur, however, a few Subjunctives and Optatives of the 
Perf. Pass, from verbs whose characteristic is adapted for receiving 
the termination of the Subjunctive, and the t of the Optative. It is 
only, however, from tcrdopai, pipvj]<TKw, and naXiw, that such forms are 
at all common. 



130 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[341, 342. 



nants. The Participles (as p, terminations) follow the Indie. : rerpi/i- 
y,ai,TeTptp.-pevos,TeTay-pai,TeTay-pevos. They are Paroxytone (341). 

Imperative. — Singular. 



7r67ratSeu(ro 


TeTpi\jfO 


rera£o 


7T€7rei(ro 


fjyyekcro 


7reTrai§ev<r%(t> 


rerpicp^co 


rcra^Sa) 


7re7T6i(r3a) 


^yyeXSa) 


&c. 


&LC. 


&c. 


&c. 


&-C. 



Infinitive. 

7r67raiSeC(r3at | rerpi'cpSai | rera^Sat | 7re7reTcr3at I qyye'XSat 

| TT€<pav%ai. 
Participle. 

•KGTraibevpevos \ rerpippevos \ reraypevos | Trsireiapevos I rjyyeXpevos 

i necpacrpevos. 

341. The Infin. and Participle of the Perf. Pass, 
have the accent on the penult. Hence the Participle is 
paroxytone ; the Infin. properispomenon, if the penult 
is a diphthong or tag* vowel (the at being considered 
short in accentuation); if not, paroxytone: ireirau- 
Sevcr&ai, jeyevrjer^at. rerixp^at, rjfyavicr^aL. — t6tv/jl- 

/JL6VOS. 

342. Vocabulary 36. 

Trace, lx vos ^ e0J > T °- To track, 

l^yev-eiv. 
To leave, Kara\ei7r-eiv. 
CEnoe. Olvor], rjs, fj. 
Borders, peSdpta, to. (prop. neut. 

adj.). 
To surround with a wall, to for- 

tify> T€i X i£-eiu. 
Neck, throat, rpd^Xos, ov, 6. 
Temple (of the head), icporacpos, 

ov, 6. 
To stretch tight, Harare iv-eiv. 

Pass, to be stretched; hence, 

of veins, to be swelled. 
Passionate, dvcropyrjTos, ov. 
Olive, olive-complexioned, peki- 

xKa>pos, ov. 



To dry up, a.irotyvx~ €LV ' Part. 

of perf. pass. a.Trey\rvypevos = 

cold (indifferent). 
To snow, vicp-eiv. 
To cause to disappear, a(pavi£-eiv. 

— ttjv yr]v=to cover the earth. 
Embassy, 7rpeo-/3eia, as, rj. 
I fear, SeSot«a=vereor (Perf. of 

Sei'Sco, with meaning of Pres.). 
Forgetfulness, \ipr), ns, 77. 
To cause in , to cause, ip.- 

iroulv (ace. of nearer, dat. of 

remoter object). 
Pledges, security, mo-rd, rd, 

(' faithful things.') irio-Ta Zecov 

7nneto-3at tivi = to swear to any 

one by the gods) . 



343.] 



PERFECT PASSIVE. 



131 



To shut,* Kkel-eiv. 

A summ.it, a castle, a<pa, as, rj. 

Freedom, self-government, avro- 

vofxia, as, rj. 
To implant, efxfivTev-eiv. 
To build, found, I8pv-eiv. 



To shut, lock-up, KaraKkei-eiv. 
To be said, Xey-eo-3at (dici). 
A robber, Xtjo-ttjs, oi>, 6. 
A treaty, o-vv^tjkt], tjs, rj. 
Cube, — die, kv@os, ov, o. 



Exercise 41. 

343. a) Translate into English. 

1. *%v ravra irdirra e%ei,<>, a ol aWoi ov/c e^ovGL* 
TreTraiBevcTaL yap i/cavcos. 2. "Etc teal vvv 3 - Xyvos tyjs 
rod OqaecDS irpaorvros ev rois if^eaiv 'A^rjvalwv tcara- 
Xekenrrau 3. OIvotj ovaa ev fie^o plots rrjs 'Attl/ctjs teal 
BoicoTias ererei^KiTO. 4. TeTpuirrai to (jidpfxaKov. 5, 
Oh b tcl irepl top Tpojyjqkov /cat rovs fcpordcpovs at 
<p\e{3es KaTarera/xevai elcri, BvcropyTjrot. 6. 01 /xeXt- 
^Xcopoo dire^rvy/jLevoL elcrlv. 7. lyyevopuev rovs Xaycos, 
OTav vi<fir) 6 ^reo? c &are ycpavLo-^ao rrjv yrjv. 8. To %/jo- 
vov yey evr)a%OA /xera rr)v 7rpea/3elav iro\vv, d SeSoi/ca [jlyj 
nva Xr'^Tjv v/jLlv ipbTreiroiy^Ky. 9. Tleiravao.* 10. M6- 
vov av rjfuv iriGTCi ^rea)V ireiroir^cro^ 11. At irvkai 

EKEKkeiVTO KCU Eirl TGOV TEtyOiV Olfko, E(f)aiVETO. 

a Even now ; eve.n at the present day (lit. still even now). b gm_ 

bus. to irepl Tbv rpo.%. = in the parts about the neck ; a local accusative. 
c lit. when the god snows = when it snotvs, since the Greeks re- 
ferred atmospheric phenomena to Zeus, as the god of the air. Sxrre = 
so that, c. infin. d rb xp- yeyevfjcdrai iro\vv (= tlie circumstance 

that the time has become long =) the circumstance that much time has 
elapsed : this clause is the subject of the verb ifxire-KoiriKri. On SeSoLKa 
pfi — — cf. K. 318. 8. e Here the Imperative of the Perfect 

commands the immediate performance of the things commanded. 

\^~ Eemember that in ' the house is built' {domus cedifcata est), 
' is built ' is the Perfect ; so whenever ' am ' with the past participle 
denotes & permanent state as the result of a past action. 



* Perf. Pass. /ceKAeitr/icu and /ceKAet/xat. 



132 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [344, 345. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The earth is covered. 2. A cloud veiled and 
hid (say : having veiled' hid) the sun. 3. The soldiers 
have been slaughtered. 4. Two brothers have been 
educated by the same master. 5. The monarchy has 
been destroyed by the people. 6, Many temples have 
been built for the gods by the Athenians. 7. Let the 
door be shut "immediately. 8. Before action deli- 
berate well. 9. ° There is implanted in all men II a 
desire of self-government. 10. Let the prisoners-of- 
war be slain. 11. The enemy are said to be shut-up 
in 19 the castle. 12. The °two sons of Zenophon 7 
Gryllus and Diodorus, had been educated in Sparta. 
13. Let the die be cast. 

f irpo-Ka\vTTT-eij/. 



LESSON XLIII. 

Contracted Verbs in dco. Pres. and Imp erf. Act. 
(Learn rt/iaco, Pdm. 59.) 

344. Contract Pure verbs are such as have for 
their characteristic a, e, or o, which are contracted with 
the following vowel or diphthong. Contraction takes 
place only in the Present and Imperfect of both Voices, 
because it is only in these two tenses that the charac- 
teristic vowel is followed by another vowel. 

345. The contractions for verbs in dco are these : 

i being subscript 
a before an e-sound becomes a J if the e-sound 
a before an o-sound becomes co is et, y ; or the 

o-sound, oi. 



346—349.] 



CONTRACTED VERBS. 



133 



Thus, ae = a 
arj = a 
aet = a 



ay 



a 



ao = (o 

CIO) — (O 

aoi == ft) 
aov = co. 



346. Ae and aei are contracted into 77 and y (instead 
of into a and a), from (%deiv) ^fjv, to live ; {nreivdeiv) 
Treivjjv, to be hungry ; (Sitydeiv) Sc-yjrfjv, to be thirsty; 
(XpaecrSm) xprja^cu, to use. These are also the regu- 
lar contractions from kvclco, scrape ; a/idco, smear ; 
ifrdo), rub. 

347. Contracted Verbs have very frequently (in- 
stead of ol/jli, 01$, &c.) the Optative 

olrjv, oirjs, olrj I olrjfjiev, olqre, olrjcrav oirjrov, oir)Tr)V 

I olfxev, oire, olev. or oltov, olrrjv 

For verbs in aco, the a-01 = w : so that the form 
becomes wtjv, c^?, cov, &c. 

348. The Present Optative in oirjv (for e-ol^qv, o-oirjv), 
and (0T\v (for a-olrjv), is the prevailing form in the Sin- 
gular, at least for the first (and second) Persons : in 
the Plural it is rare ; un^aav is nowhere found, oirjaav 
hardly ever. (Kriiger.) 

349. Vocabulary 37. 

To love ; also, to be contented, 
ayarrqv (=dciv), with ace. or 
dat. 

Immortal, aUdvaros, ou. 

Miserably, unfortunately, aSXi'coy. 

To deceive, It-airaxqv (= dsiv). 

To love, epqv (with gen.). 

Age ; especially youth or man- 
hood, rfkinia, as, fj. 

Boldly, SappaXeooy. 

Appearance, outward figure, Idea, 
as, f)- 



To sound, <p3eyy-eo-3ai. 
To conquer, vinqv (—deiv). 
To pily, oXo(pupeo-3ai (with ace). 
To see, opqv (see List VII). 
Point, height, full power, vigor ; 

dKflT], TJS, T). 

To lighten, do-rpaTTT-ecv. 

To thunder, fipovrqv (=detp). 

To do, act, dpqv. 

To rush, 6pp.av. 

Before, wplv (with infin. K. 337). 

How ? 7r5>s ; 



134 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [350. 



To stir up together, throw into 

confusion, avyicvKav. 
Fighting with, fellow-combatant, 

ally, cry/Ajua^os, ov. 



To end, die, reXevrav (=de«/). 
Dare, venture, ToXfj.au. 
To be silent, criamqv. 



Exercise 42. 

350. a) Translate into English. 

1. UoXXcucls yvay/xrjv e^airaTwaiv ISicu. 2. Mr/ ere 
VLKaTO) fcepSos. 3. UoXXd/ci? viko, ical Kaicbs avSpa dya~ 
*&6v. 4. 01 dya^fol ipcocrt tg)v kclXwv* 5. IIoXXol 3 - 
av^pcdirob iv rfj t?}? r)XL/cla<; a/cfir} reXevTweuv. 6. *H 
cncoTra, r) Xiye dfjLelvova. h 7. ^Avdyia] iarl irdvras 
av^rpcoTTOvs reXevrav. 8. Novs bpa Kai vovs dfcoveu 
9. GappaXecos, w GrpaTtdnai, op/imfjiev eVl tov$ 7roXe- 
(jllovs. 10. Uplv /JLev Tretvfjv, iroXXol ia^iovat, rrplv he 

hityfjV, TTLVOVCTiV. 11. OlJK eCTTL TOLS j^] SpCOCTl, CTUjji/jia^O^ 

tv^t], 12. UepL/cXrjs rjcrTpainev, ifipovra, avveicvfca rrjv 
c EXXdh)a. 13. E'l^e iravres rovs yoveas dyaTr&ev. 
14. Ec^re 7]ya7nqaaiJLev rols irapovcrw. 15. iTco? av 
ToXfMprjv rbv (piXov fiXdnneiv ; 16. To jjuev crwijLa 7roX- 
\dfas koX ireivfj ical hc^ry • r) 8e "^v^rj 7rw? av r) hf^rcpr} r) 
ireivwr] ; 17. ^*u%^ cfedvaros ical ayrjpm %fj hiaTravTos 
(sc. %povov). 18. KpetTTOV h rb fir) ^fjv iartv, rj %f)v 
tt^/Ua)?. 19. 'OXocfjvpo/bLe&a rbv iv rfj tt)<$ rfXctcias d/cpuf} 
reXevTcovra. 20. r 'Orav 6 avXbs (f&iyyrjraL, iravrdiracn, 

(TlCOTTcbfjLeV. 

a ttoAu?. b Note 13. 

Ques. — 7. Why does the enclitic iari retain its accent here 1 10. 
Give the tenses of wiveiv, List VII. 11. Account for the accent of etrn. 
18. Is ov or /j.7] the usual word for ' not ' with an Infin. % 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Time conquers and changes all things. 2. An- 
ger compels many men to do evil. 3. Do not keep- 
silence, if you see any persons ill-affected towards the 



351—353.] 



CONTRACTED VERBS. 



135 



government. 4. Neither hear nor see what you ought 
not. 5. We honor those who brave-dangers for their 
country. 6. I trusted : I was utterly-deceived. 7. 
You (pi.) were deceiving the stranger. 9. Deceive no 
body. 



LESSON XLIV. 
Contracted Verbs in ea>. Present and Imperf. Act. 
351. Ee becomes ec. 
eo becomes ov. 

e is thrown away before long vowels and diph- 
thongs. 



Thus, erj = 7] 
ey = r) 
eu> = a 



eei = ei 
eoL = ob 
eov = ov 



352. Before the Opt. in oirjv (347), the e will dis- 
appear throughout ; iroi-e-oir\v — Trot-oirjv. 

353. Vocabulary 38. 



To be dispirited, despair, d3u- 

pelu. 
To neglect, dfiekeiv (with gen.). 
To flow away, unoppelv. 
To practise, da<eiv. 
To want, hfiv (=eW, gen.) ; 8«, 

there is need, it is necessary, 

one must (with ace. and infin.). 
To be unfortunate, bvarvx^v. 
To sell, TTcSktiv. 
To be fortunate, happy, evrv- 

X €lu. 
To approve, praise, imaiveip. 
To will, be willing, SeXeiv, eSe- 

Xeiv (velle). 



Request, prayer, et^, 77s-, fj. 

To take trouble, to work, Trovetv 
(laborare) . 

To expect, presume, npoadoKav. 

To accomplish, reXeii/. 

Bundle or mats of reeds, rushes, 
&C. piyjr, pnr-os, fj. 

To do in common with any one, 
help, assist, avWap-fidv-eiv 
(with dat.). 

To work with any one, help, as- 
sist, (jvp.Trove'i.v (with dat.). 

To think, be sensible, (ppouelv. 

To confess, to profess, 6/xoXoyeiv. 

To be a retail trader, KaTrrjkcvzLv. 



136 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [354. 



Even if, even though, kclv (=kcu 

eav). 
To be high-minded, proud, /xe'ya 



(ppovew. 
To demand (money, &c.) irpaxT- 
ecrSai. 



Exercise 43. 

354. a) Translate into English. 

1. Ti/jLcofiev rovs dycfeovs, Xva dfia tu> tc/jlolv dcrKW- 
fxev. 2. c O 7retcr^et? rj/Awv ra> Xoyop evrv^el re Kai et9 
yjpovov diravra evrv^ol. 3. 'Avrjp Trovypbs Svcrrv^el, kclv 
evrv^fj. 4. Xiyav /xaXXov, rj XaXelv irpeTrei. 5. r/ rt, 3 - 

aV 7TOLrJT6, VO/jLL%€T€ 6paV ^r€OV. 6. <££\,0? (f)tX(p (TVfJLTTO- 

vcov avTOj irovel. 7. 01 av^fpcoTTOi ^vtjtoI p,rj (f>povovvTcov 
[Note 7] inrep ^reovs. 8. 'O fMaXtcrra zvTvywv /at) /ieya 
(ppoveiTco. 9. OvSeTTor a^vfjuelv rbv mx/coo? irpdrTOvra 1 * 
Sel, ra /SeXrlcQ [Note 13] Se irpoahoKav del. 10. Toj iro- 
vovvtl ^eo? <rvWa/jL/3dvei. 11. AbKatoavvvv daKeZre Kai 
epyq) Kai Xoycp. 12. Airb tt}? Niaropos yXcorrr}^, wairep 
fjbikb, 6 Xoyos direppei. 13. Hlojfcparris rod aco/jLaros ovk 
rjfjikXei, row? Se dfieXovvra^ ovk eTrrjvei. 14. El^e, <w ^e- 
09, T€\olr)<? fioc rr)v ev-)(fjv. 15. E'foe evTV^olre, w (plXot. 
16. Oeov ^eXovros, kclv eirl ptirbs nrXeoi<;. 17. Ovk cfav- 
/jlov/jL€v rbZs nrapovGL nrpdyfjuaaiv. 18. <frvaei virdpyei 
Tot? e&eXovai TroveZv Kai Kivhvveveiv ra roiv djJueXovvTwv. 
19. "Eariv ol c dfjueXovvres rcov otKeicov roiv dXXoTplwv 
€7rifx,eXovvTat. 20. Tr\v htKaioavvvv Kai rrjv aXXrjv dpe- 
rrjv dcTKelre. 21. Td avrd Ittolovv^ ore favyovres £8v- 
(TTvypvv avroL. 

a Neut. of forts (Pdm. 50) : printed '6 ti or #,ti, to distinguish it 
from on, that. b nanus -npaTreiv = to be doing ill ; to be unfor- 

tunate. 6 avros (give the English of it). c K. 331. Rem. 4. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Are we not with-reason most angry with 32 those 
who are most able d (/?) not to act-unjustly. e 2. In 19 



355 358.] CONTRACTED VEHES. 137 

such things they are poor, but you are rich. 3. Those 
who bring (p) to you kings' garments, or wrought 
copper or gold, sell them more artfully than those 
who profess (p) to be-retail-traders. 4. I would not 
praise such persons. 5. Did you not sell {imperf) 
vegetables ? 6. Reason is the remedy for the soul 
when it is sick (p). 7. We think that °the man 
who is fortunate (p) is also wise. 8. Honor your 
parents, love your friends, obey rulers. 

<* Swdfievos. e /to? is more usual than ov with the infin. 



LESSON XLV. 

Contracted Verbs in oco. Present and Imperf. Act. 

355. Oe, oo, oov, become ov. 
or], oco, become co. 

on (subscript), oet, ooi, become oi (but oei = ov 
in Infin.). 

356. Oo and oe are contracted into co (instead of 
into ov), and on into co (instead of into ol), in ptyoco, pt- 
ryco, to freeze, Inf. piycov and pijovv, Part. Gen. puycovros 
and pvyovvTOS, Subj. ptjco, Opt. piycprjv, &c. 

357. On the Imperfect and the Aorist of the Indie] 
The Imperfect Indicative answers, not only to our 
Imperf. (with was — ), but also to our (and the Lat.) 
Perfect. It then denotes a continued or repeated 
action ; the Aorist, a single, definite one, stated with- 
out any intimation of its lasting. — It may necessarily 
have a duration even of indefinite length, but the tense 
does not intimate it. 

358. Infin. of the Aorist.] The Infinitive of the 
A.orist is usually not a prceteritum, except after verba 



138 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[359, 360. 



declarandi et putandi, and in the construction of ace. 

c. Irifin. with the article : with these exceptions it is 

usually construed by the English Present, but denotes 

single, definite actions : the Iiifin. of the Present being 

used of continued or repeated ones. 

= dicor (credor) 

fecisse. 

t, ,, /«/ n „ { == volo (possum) 

BovkofJbai iovva/jLai) iroiiqcraL < w ' 

t facer e. 
b) To ere iroir\aai tovto, tene hoc fecisse ! 



a) Aejo/iai (vdfjLiyofiai) iroirjaat, 



359. Vocabulary 39. 



To darken, destroy, weaken, blunt, 

dpavpoiiv (=oeii/). 
Carelessness, a/xe'Xeta, as, r). 
To live in, reside in, e[xj3iovv 

(=ckxv). 
To trick, entrap, 8oXovv (==q€iv)'. 
To enslave, subjugate, $ov\oi>v 

(=6*iv). 
To set free, ikev^epovv (=oe«/). 
(To raise up again — ) to amend, 

to correct, iivavop^ovv (=deti>). 
To think right or fair, to claim, 

to expect, dtjiovv (=o€lv). 
To make equal, i^icrovv (=de«/). 
To emulate, frykovv (=6eiv). 
To seek, strive, ^qreiv (==eeiv). 
Life, far), r)s, r). 
Divine, godlike, 'Stlos, a, ov. 
Hunger, XtpMs, ov, 6. 

Exercise 44 



Pit, opvyfxa, aros, to (opvTreiv, 

fodere). 
Thing woven= snare, n-Xey/xa, 

aros, to. 
Communion, intercourse, Koivay 

via, as, r). Seta Koiva>vLa= 

communion with the Deity. 
Desire, striving, ope£i.s, ecos, r). 
Intimate, oiKelos, a, ov ', also, oy, 

ov. 
To make straight, erect, op'Sovv 

(=6eiv). 
Neither — nor, ovre — ot/re. 
To make equal, avve^op-oiovv 

(=6etv). 
Violent, o-<fio$pos, a, ov. 
To make blind, TvefAovv (==6eiv). 
With difficulty, xaXe7roos. 



360. a) Translate into English. 

1. AoKovcriv 5? ayplovs TrXiy fiacre real 6pvyfjLao~i. 
2. Aeyerai ovro<; 6 fiacriXevs rrjv Aljvtttov eXev^e- 
pcoerac. 3. Kai ere ^ovXoLjxrjv > av airo<^r)vaa^aL ttjv 



CONTRACTED VERBS. 139 

yvcofirjv. 4. 01 Aa/ceSaL/jLovLOL rjXev^epovv tov$ "EWtj- 
va<$. 5. \E7rel 7] aakiruj^ iip^riy^aro teal eiraidvb- 
"C,ov ol e 'EX\,7]V6$, ivraifea ov/ceTL iBe^avTO ol TToXepaoi 
aXX? ecpevyov. 6. A I cpiXlai ra e'^77 tyjTOVcri avve^o[xoiovv. 
7. XaXeirws av rals roiv aya^cov dperaZs i^uroirj^ tovs 
iiraivovs. 8. Zrfkov, cl) iraZ, tou? icr^Xovs teal acoeppovas 
avSpas. 9. 'H Tvyr] ttoWov? tcatctos irpcurTOvra^ bp^soZ. 

10. IVkrf^OS KCLKOiV T7]V dv^rpCOTTLVTJV %(07)V dpiavpoZ. 11. Al 

irepl ri acpoSpal opened TvcpXovcnv et'9 ra dWa rrjv ■tyv- 
X'] 1 '- 12. Trjv aperrjv teal rrjv ao<p[av ^7]\cofiev. 13. Xpvcros 
ecrTLV 6 SovXcov ^V7]tcov <ppeva<$. 14. Ol irokefiiOL to arpd- 
Tevfia rjfjicov i86\ovv. 15. Ol veavlai rrjv aocplav QrfXoZev. 
16. Ol TroXifJiioi iifK/qcria^ov, Xva tou? aljQLaXdaTovs i\ev- 

^f€pOL€V. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Strangers were not allowed to live-in Sparta. 
2. The Ephori are empowered to punish whomsoever 
they please (297). 3. The Ephori were empowered to 
punish whomsoever they pleased. 4. Idleness destroys 
the excellence of natural-disposition, but instruction 
corrects its badness. 5. Emulate the good man and 
the sober-minded °one. 6. Do not tell a even b to your 
most intimate ° friend what you wish to be concealed. 

7. It is right to give {Trape^eiv) to others whatever {say : 
as many things as 56 ) you expect to receive from them. 

8. What is sudden and unexpected {say : the sudden 
and unexpected) enslaves the spirit. 

a 5-nXovv = ostendere. b K. 318. 6. c Aaj8e?i>, Inf. 

Aor. 2. from Xa^avu. See Irr. Verbs, List IV. 



140 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[361, 362. 



LESSON XLVI. 
Verbs in aw. Pass, and Mid. Aorist Infin. 
361. Vocabulary 40. 



To accuse of, charge with, alria- 
trSat (=aeo-3cu) ; riva ti (as 
here) is rare, except in case 
of neut. pron. Also with 6Vt 
= lo blame — because. 

Introduction, commencement, io-r}- 
yrjcns, ecos, f). 

At once, fjdrj. 

Better, \<pa>p (=Xcoicou). Note 
13. 

To proclaim, unpvTT-eiv. 

To hear, listen to, aKpodoSai 
(=de<r3ai,) with gen. 

To devise, contrive, prjxavao-%ai 
(=aeo-3ai). 

Not befitting, disgraceful, dei- 
kt)s, es. 



One running through the whole 
day, a courier, rjpepobpopos, 
ov, 6 (rjpipa, dpapelv, to run). 

To endeavor, to try, 7reipacr3ai 
(=ae(r3ai). 

Tlie buying of a horse, 'nnrooveia, 
ay, fj (imros, coveioSai, to buy). 

To be raised-in-price (of corn), 
to be rising, eViTi/xaaSai. 

To give over, X^y-ai/ (used with 
the participle). 

To acquire, Kraa-^ai (=aeo-3at). 
Perf. KenTTjpai (I have ac- 
quired^) I possess. 

Sandal, shoe, vnodnpa, aroy, to. 

To use, employ, xprjo-%ai (—deo-- 
3cu). 



362. For the meaning of the Aor. Infin. cf. 358 : and for that of 
the Aor. Opt. and the construction of clauses introduced by ort, cos, 
cf. 318, 319. 



1. He says, that he has 
done it, 
\eyei, otl eTroirjcre (or 
<f)7]al TTOirjcrat) 



He said, that he had 

done it, 
elirev ) otl Troirjcreiev 
(eke^ev) > otl eiroirjaev. 
€(f)r] TTOLTjaaL. 

n { (BovkeTaL ic\e-tyaL (ti) = vnlt furari (aliquid). 

I (f)r]o-l K\ey\rai{rL) = dicit se (aliquid) furatum 

esse. 

3. ^avfjuaaTov to ireLa^srjval TLvas, co? — , it is 

strange that some persons should have been persuaded 

that — , &c. 



363.] VERBS IN aco. 141 

An infinitive or participle dependent on a prateritum, is consi- 
dered as a praeteritum. 

Exercise 45. 
363. a) Translate into English. 
1. 01 AafceSai/jLovioi tjtlwvto clvtovs Tr\v re iarjyrjcriv 
rod iravTos, /cal ecfracrav 3 - avTovs 77877 aScfcelv, otl ov 8e- 

%OVTai, h TCL$ 'A^!T}VaL(0V CT7r0vSds. 2. X<tiKpOLT7]<i UKOU- 

cra? rjTLCLTO avTov, otl ov tovto irpwrov rjpayra,' Trorepov 

Xqjov eirj avTco iropeveo^au rj fjueveuv. 3. 'Eirel ravra 

ifcrjpvyfirr], eyvwcrav A 01 cnpcuTL&iTai otl /cevbs 6 (j)6/3o<; 

6t7]. e 4. Kvpos fieTairefji'^diievo^ tou? aTparrjyov^ tcov 

'EXXrjvoov, eXeyev otl t) bhbs ecroiTO 7rpo? fiacnXea 

[xeyavels BafivXwva. 5. ( 0/jLolco<; dputyolv aKpoacracfeai 

Set. 6. "EXeyev otl ofiolcos d/Jbtyolv aKpodaaa^at Seoc 

(or SeT). 7. Evvovs* Xoyos XvTrrjv iarat. 8. UepLKXr)^ 

inrb twv ' A^fr]vaia)v rjyairaTO teal Ithxclto. 9. Oi 77/xepo- 

Spo/xoL ov/c i^pcovTO vTroSij/iacrLV iv Tals bhols. 10. Ovk 

aet/ce?, edv tls vtt e-fopwv k^airaraTaL [Note 7]. 11. Eire 

V7rb fyiXwv e^e\et9 dyairaa^iaL, tow? <f)lXov$ evepyeTeL ■ 

€LT€ V7r6 tlvo? 7r6Xea>$ e7r^f/xet9 TLfida^aL, tt)v ttoXlv 

a>(f)eXeL' €LT6 V7rb tt}? 'EXXdSos irdaj]^ d^iols iir dpeTrj 

^av/jbd^eo-^raL, ttjv 'EXXdSa irebpw ev iroLelv. 

a Pdm. 69. b or 8ex 0ll/TO - c or epur^aiete. Ob- 

serve the Imperf. a Pdm. 63. e or <=cm', or (less 

commonly) fy. f ewovs (explain its accent). 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Those who confer-benefits (p) never cease 
tobe loved {say : continue s being loved). 2. We do 
not obtain our friends by being treated 11 well, but by 
treating ■ ° them well. 3. We will first write how k 
a man may be least deceived in buying-a-horse. 4. We 
see the corn raised-in-price in the Piraeus. 5. (Why 



142 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[364 



have not you declared ==) declare at once your 
opinion about what is now asked (p). 6. They 
will not give-over devising and preparing all ° manner 
of contrivances, until' you are willingly deceived. 
7. You the injured II "party do not at all accuse 
him, but are blaming some of yourselves. 8. These 
persons are devising and preparing the death of their 
neighbors (say : death to their neighbors). 

s diareXuv. k Say suffering (iraaxovTts), i. e. being the 

recipients. i ev Spav, c. ace. t as Uv (= quomodo 

si ita forte sit, c. subj.). ' ecus Uv (c. subj.). 



LESSON XLVII. 
Verbs in em. Pass, and Mid. 



364. Vocabulary 41. 

To be ashamed before any one. 
reverence, esteem, aldeloSai 
(=eW3a6), with ace. 

To distrust, amo-reiv (=eeii>), 
with dat. aTrtoreto-Slai, to be dis- 
believed. 

To icant, delcrSai (with gen.). 

The year, eros, eos, to. 

Strong, powerful, lo~x.vpos, a, ov. 

To break into (lit. to dig through), 

$lOpi)TT-€lV. 

To despise, Karacppovelv (with 
gen.). Kara(pf)ovelcr%ai, to be 
despised. 

Talkative, XaXos, ov. 

To hale, plo-eiv (==eeip). 



To move, Kiveiv. Mid. to move 
oneself, to move (intrans.). 

To hum, fiopfielv (=eeiv). 

As, in order that, ottcos (subj. after 
a principal tense ; opt. after a 
historical tense ; after verbs of 
care, endeavor, &c, indie, fut. 

Near, ttXtjctios, a, ov. Ol irki]- 
criov (adv.), those near, our fel- 
low-men. 

To besiege, 7ro\iopice'iv. 

Having undivided wings, 6X6- 
TTTepos,ot>'. to. 6\6ttt. = insects 
whose wings are undivided. 

To frighten, cpoftelv (=eeiv). 
Mid. to be frightened, to fear. 



365.] VERBS in «&>. 143 

Exercise 46. 

365. a) Translate into English. 

1. r ' Ore ttXovctlos rjv y icfrojSovfiTjv fxr) rk fiov ttjV ol/clav 
Ziopv^as ica\ ra yjpr)y.cwa Xdj3oi real avrov ri fie kclkov 
ipydaaiTO. 2. Oh al'cr^crt? virdpyei, ko\ to Xvirelcr^rai 
Kol yalpeiv. 3. Ilavrl ra> Trecpv/cori Ktvelcr^rac pJr\ Svva- 
/nevcp S' del teal avveyjhs; tavela^ai, /xe^ 77801^9 dvayfcaiov 
elvai real oxpeXifiov rr\v dvdiravcriv. 4. Bo/ji(3ovvTa (pai- 
verai rd oXbirrepa, orav KivijTai. 5. AlSov tou? ^eou?. 
6. Tbv dya^bv avhpa ttolov eralpov. 7. QiXovvres (j)i- 
Xovvrac, fXicrovvTes /AicrovvTai. 8. Tbv la^ypbv Set irpdov 
elvai, 67rws ol irXr\<jiov alhwvrca, /jlclXXov, rj <fro(3a)VTaL. 
9. AlSela&ai, 8el (biXovs. 10. 'AincrTovvraL oi XdXoi, 
kclv dXrf^revuxrLV. 11. 01 Tlepaav virb roiv 'EXXyjvcov 

efJLLGOVVTO KCU, KaT6(f)pOVOVVTO. 12. 'O fjL7)(>eV dScfc&v 

ovSevbs Setrai vo/xov. 

b) Translate into' Greek. 

1. Do not only praise the good, but also imitate 
them. 2. In Thymbrium there was a fountain called 
that a of Midas. 3. Cyrus did not suffer b the evil- 
doers and unjust to laugh-at °him, but punished 
them (= used to punish : imperf.) all most-unsparingly. 
4. That which is held-in-estimation at any time c is 
practised. 5. Some "persons move whilst they 
are asleep (p), and do many waking °actions. 
6. We who were then delighted (p) are now 
grieved. 7. Troy was besieged ten years (ace.) by the 
Greeks. 8. The citizens feared lest the city should be 
besieged. 9. Let nobody fear death. 

a Say : ' the.' & iav = id-eiu, sinere, takes for its augment 

i after the e : imperf. eW, &c. c ad (= semper). 



144 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [366, 367. 

LESSON XLVIII. 

Contracted Verbs in oca. Pass, and Mid. 
366. Vocabulary 42. 



Strength, oXktj, r/s, rj- 

To make frond, yavpovv (=o«i/). 

Mid. to be proud of, exult in 

(ace. or with eVt and dat.). 
To oppose, resist, thwart, ivav- 

nova^ai (with dat.). 
To obscure utterly, to blot out, 

annihilate, e£apavpovv. 
Custom, manner, character, ^Soy, 

eos (ous) TO. 



To part, divide, p,epi£-eiv. 
Flesh, crdp£, crapKos, fj. 
Haughty, proud, vrrep^avos, ov. 
To bring low, to humble, Tcnrei- 

vovv. 
To worst, subdue, subjugate, ^«- 

povcr'Sai. 
To convert- into blood, egaifia- 

TOVV. 

To punish, fypiovv. 



Exercise 47. 

367. a) Translate into English. 

1. Ovk ava/jLevo/iev ecos av rj r^fjuerepa %d>pa icaicw- 
rau 2. AovXovfie^ra rfj crapicl zeal tols ird^ecnv. 3. 
'Ttto t?}? avdy/crjs Trdvra SovXovrat ra^v. 4. H (fytXta 
et? 7roXXov<? \iepiCppbkvr\ ijja/JLavpovrai. 5. Tovs <f)iXov<; 
iXev^repcofiev, tov$ $e i^povs ^etpcofxe^a. 6. Mr) yavpov 
crodpia, fxrjr dX/cf}, fxrjre irXovrw. 7 . To rf&os fxakicrTa €K 
twv epycov SrjXovrai. 8. 'O V7r€pr)<pavo<; TaTreivolro. 
9. Ov KaXov earl, eirl rfj crotyiq yavpova^ai. 10. Oi 
toZ? dya^ols ivavTiov/xevoL afyoi elen tfa/Mova^ai. 11. Ol 
arpcLTiuiTai vtto tcov fiapftdpeov iSoXovvro. 12. Havre? 
KaKol tyijjLiolvro. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The Greeks are enslaving themselves. 1 2. How 
would a man be less punished by the state, or how 
would °he be more honored than if he were to obey 
(et with Opt. Pres.) the laws? 3. This °man is doing 
what he pleases, and enslaving the cities of the Greeks. 



368 — 371.] second AoiasT 145 

4. The secreted-essence b of the food is changed (p) 
and converted-into-blood. 5. Alas I we are enslaving 
ourselves, 6. They said. c that the citizens had en- 
slaved themselves. 

a Oneself, themselves. As ipse in Latin is often prefixed to sibi, se, 
SO avros, in Greek, to kavr-cp. -6v, -ovs : airr-a, -6v, -ovs. h ava-: 

frvfitacriS; t). properly, a vapor rising, an exh-alation : probably considered 
here as a subtle essence extracted from the solid food. c i\4yov. 

Aeyu takes mostly on : cprj/j-i mostly ace. c. infin. 



LESSON XLIX. 
Tempora Secunda. Second Aorist. 

368. The Second Aorist is an Aovist formed from 
the short root (235) by augmenting it, and adding the 
following terminations : 

Act. Mid. Pass. 

OV 6/JL7]V 7]V . . 

(ov, ofxjjv being conjugated like the Imperfects with those terminations ; 
t)v like the First Aor. Pass.). 

369. Comparatively few, and those mostly primitive (many of 
them irregular) verbs, form the Second Aorist. It is not formed from 
any with the derivative endings aa>, eco, 6a>, eva>, alvco, vv<o, a£a> : 
hardly from verbs whose true characteristic is a t-sound; nor when 
such an Aorist would be identical in form with the Imperfect 
(whether distinguished from it by quantity or not). Thus not 
eypacpov ; but the pass, iypdcprjv is formed. 

370. Very few verbs have both a First Aorist (as we must hence- 
forth call it) and a Second Aorist in the Active and Middle. The 
co-existence of the two forms is less uncommon in the Passive. 
TpeVco is the only verb that has all the possible Aorists. 

371. Besides the changes given (in 235) as the 
necessary steps for obtaining the short root (77 and ai 
into a ; ei, J into I : ev into v ), the e of monosyllable 



146 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[372, 373. 



roots is always changed into a for liquid verbs, and 
sometimes for mute verbs. 



EXAMPLES. 





ACT. 


MID. 


PASS. 


fiaXXa (cast) 


€J3aXov 


ifiaXoprjV 




rpeirco (turn) 




eTpaTTOjJLTjV 


€Tpcmr)V 


cpevyco (fly) 


ecpvyov 






rpiftco (rub) 






irpifinv 


KXeVra) (steal) 






eKXannv 


repvco (cut) 


€T€jAOV * 






Xaipco (rejoice) 






e X apr)V 


TrXeKco (weave) 






eVXaK^v 


XetVa) (leave) 


eXtTTOV 


[iXnro/Anv] 


[eXimp] 



372. The following are very common Second Aor- 
ists from irregular verbs. 



EXAMPLES. 





ACT. 


MID. 


Xap^dvco (X?;/3-) 


eXafiov 


eXaj36pnv 


(capio) 






Xav^sdvco (X^3-) 


eXa%ov 


iXcffiopwv 


(lateo) 






p.av'Sdvco (prfi-) 


epcffiov 




(disco) 






Tvyxavw, (chance; hit) 


€TV)(OV 




Trvv'SavopLcu (rrev^-) 




iirv'Sop.nv 


(inquire* learn by inquiry) 






daKvoo (bite) 


ebaKOV 




napvo) (laboro) 


enapov 





Kav^dvco ttoloiv tl = I do it unconsciously (to myself) or ivithout 
being observed (by others). 

373. Some Second Aorists have not the short pe- 
nult. Two such, of very frequent use, are rp&ov, veni, 
and evpov, invent (see epyoficu, List VII : evpLcr/co), List 
Y). ElXov (ike, &c.) is Aor. 2. from obsolete root i\-, 
used to supply the wanting tense of alpico (List VII). 
d/iaprdvco, rj/jbapTOv (List III). 

* Observe the e : it has %rajxov once in Thuc. ; the only instance 
in Attic prose before Aristot. (Kr.) 



374—378.] 



SECOND AORIST. 



147 



374. (CT Tpo|mo-3cu = infugam convertere (e. g. hostes) : rpa- 
7reo-3at = se convertere (to turn oneself; to go). 

375. The Moods of Aor. 2. for the Active and Mid. 
have the same terminations as the Present Act. and 
Mid. ; those for Aor. 2. Pass, the same as for Aor. 1. 
Pass. 

But 

a) Infin. Aor. 2. Act. is perispomenon : eiv. 

b) Partcp. Aor. 2. Act. is oxytone : a>v, ovo-a, 6v (ovtos, &c). 

c) Imperat. Aor. 2. Mitf 7 . is perispomenon : ov. 

d) Infin. Aor. 2. iWid is paroxytone : eo-Sat. 

376. Remember that when you find a participle in a>v, 6v, oxytone 
(or in ovtos, ovti, ovra, &c. paroxytone), you may conclude it is the 
participle of a Second Aor. 

377. The Subj., Infin., and Partcp. of Aor. 2. Pass. 
are (as in Aor. 1. Pass.) c3 [perispomenon), r\vai (pro- 
perispomenon), et? (cum acuto). 

ekaftov Xa/3e* Xa/3a> \d(3oipi XajSelv Xa/3coz> 

i\a(36pr]V Xa/3o0 Xdfioopai \a(3oipnv Xa/3ecr3ai \aj36pevos 

eypa(pr]v ypdcprjTi ypa<pa> ypacpeinv ypacprjvai ypa(pels. 



378. Vocabulary 43. 

To aim at, crro^a^-eo-Sat (with 
g-ere.). 

To chance, to hit (gen.) rvyxdv- 
eiv : hence, to obtain, attain to. 
Tvyxdvo) ttoicov ri = I happen 
or chance to be doing it : often 
but little stronger than I am 
doing it, especially rvyxdva 

y 
(OV. 

To miss (a mark, gen.), to err, 
sin, apaprdv-eiv '. aor. 2. rjpap- 

TOV. 



To light upon, meet (with), iv- 

rvyxdv-eiv (with dat.). 
Defiled, impure, vile (of persons), 

piapos, d, 6v. 
To make drunk, Karap.e^ijo-ic-eiv. 

Fut. Karape^va-co. 
To lake up, dvaipeiv (aor. 2. avel- 

\ov, List VII). 
To grow weary, aTroKapv-eiv (aor. 

2. dirtKapov) : aor. (in moods) 

to be wearied, tired, &c. (used 

with partic). 



* eiVe, evpe, e\de, and in Attic Aa/3e, i5e. are oxytone : but in their 
compound forms the accent is thrown back : e£eA&e • airohafie. 



148 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [379. 



To fling into, epfiaW-etv. 
By night, vixrcop (noctu). 
To cut the throat (of any body), 

a.TTOO-(j)dTT-€lV. 



Book, (3if3\iov, ov, to. 

A windfall, lucky discovery, ep- 

fxaiov, ov, to (supposed to be 

sent by Hermes). 



dpaprdvco, dpaprrjcropai, &C Aor. 2. fjpaprov, List III. 

Exercise 48. 

379. a) Translate into English. 

1. Nvv Br) a/jueivov av /uLcl^ols b apTi r/pcoTcov. 
2. "Orav ottXols Bey* 7rpbs oirXa %prjcfeac, hiafyepei 
irdfJuroXv 6 pba^rcbv tov fir) fAa^ovTOS. 3. ''AXXov gto- 
yafcppievos erv^e tovtov. 4. 'HcrloSos 6 ttolwtt] 1 ? Xe- 
yerai virb r&v TavTy h arro^avelv. 5. Tcov dTro^a- 
vovtcov tcl hard dveXovres itjefiaXov. 6. Ilo^ev 

TOVTO TO epfJLCLLOV 6 V p€T7]V ', 7. *Z\) \XOi, Oi ^6V€, fATjSa/jLOJS 

arc o ad puns %apL%6pievo<;. c 8. Tavra dtcovoov o~(f)6$pa 
eyapr\v. 9. ( jjuapos ovros Karafjue^vcra^ tov %evov, 
e/jb/3aXa>v et? dfxa^av, vvfcrwp e^ayayd)v d a7recr(f)a^€, 
KObi Tavra d^ifcqaas eXa^rev eavTov a^rXtcoTaTo^ yevopue- 
vo<$. 10. ^^ehov tl [xoi wpa r parreo-^ai 77-/309 to Xov- 
Tpov. 11. Ti$ yap av iroTe p^Tcop ive^v/Jbrf&r) rj vojao- 
^6tt;? i^Xmaev dfiapTrjcrecr&aL Tuva tcov itoXltwv Toaav- 
Tr\v dfjuapTLav ; e 12. ^12 Ev/cX€l8w, el /Jecpa/clop tlvl 
eyery^e? d^loj Xoyov, ?)8ioos av ttv^ol/awv. 13. Hal, 
Xaf3e to (3i(3Xtov teal XeyeJ 14. Ov/c e^a) ottol Tpanrw- 
/jLai. s 

a Set, oportet : Sllbj. Ser), Seoi, Selu, Seoul Fut. 8e7}<rei — Se^ffoi. 
b ol ravrr} = the men here % the people of this neighborhood. c How 

are p.4\ and its compounds used in prohibitions 1 (K. 318. 3.) a-Kena- 
pov ttolwv ti = I am wearied (or tired) of doing it. (K. 310. 4.) 
d A Second Aorist Participle (with what is called the Attic reduplica- 
tion) from i^-dyco. Aor. 2. e£-r]yayov. e apapT&veiv apapTiav 
(to sin a sin =) to commit a sin, K. 278. f Observe A.a/3e, 
single completed action (Aor.) ; Keye, continued one (Pres.). 
s = non habeo quo me vertam. 



380—382.] second perfect. 149 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The ambassadors of the Thebans did not receive 
these things. 2. The money slipt-away without 
his knowing it. h 3. It is a very great thing, to at- 
tain-to preservation. 4. If you (pi.) had done this, not 
one of you all would have attained-to safety. 1 5. Let 
him pay what he has stolen (p) twice over. k 6. Did 
you not fling the corpse into a cart? 7. This °at least 
is not an easy thing, to hit that mark. 8. The boy, 
like some mad dog, bit his companions. 9. Whence 
did you learn so accurately what was done (p) by 
them ? 10. I should like to learn Geometry. 11. He 
is said to have missed the mark. 

h Any thing slips away from any body without his knowing it. Xau- 
Sdvei riva tl Siappvev {neut. partcp.), from Aor. 2. Si-eppinjv (from dia- 
ppelu). Pdm. 63. i K. 260. 2. k To pay any thing 

twice over, or restore it twofold, itcripeiv ti SnrXacnov. 



LESSON L. 

Second Perfect. 

380. The Seco?id Perfect and Pluperfect are 
formed from the short root ; their terminations are a, 
eiv (the change for the other persons, and the rules for 
augment and reduplication, being the same as for the 
First Perf. and Pluperf.). — vre-fyevy-a (fevya)). 

381. These tenses change the short a, e, i of the 
root into rj, o, oc respectively : ^raXX-co (^a\-), T&r/Xa : 
(jxxlvco ((f>av-), iri(f)7]va : (ffeetp-co (cff^ep-), ecffoopa, : Xeurr-co 
(A.67T-), XeXoiira. 

382. For roots which have ei in the Present, liquid 
roots have o in Perf. 2 (because their short root has e) ; 



150 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [383 386. 

mute-roots ol (because their short root has i) : aj^elpco, 
KTelvco, ecp^opa, e/crova ; XeLTrco, 7reL§co, \e\oiira, ire- 

7T0L^ia. 

383. Long a remains unchanged in irkirpaya {irpda- 
crco) and /ce/cpaya {fcpdfa). 

384. The partiality of the Perf. 2. for the o-sounds 
is shown in the irregular Perfects olha (novi), i" know 
(Pdm. 70) ; eot/ca, I resemble, or am like (eticco) ; eppco- 
ya, I am torn (prjypvjM, List IX) ; elco^a (solitus sum), 
/ am accustomed or wont (eS-a)). 

385. From verbs that have a causative meaning 
(i. e. that signify to cause to do any thing), the Perf. 
2. has usually the immediative meaning (i. e. the 
meaning of being caused to do), which is an intransi- 
tive meaning : hence many of them have the meaning 
of a neu) Present (e. g. those in the last rule) with an 
{immediative) intransitive meaning. Thus Tr^yvvjii, 
I fix (i. e. cause a thing to remain unmoved) : nrkirnya, 
I am fixed (i. e. am caused to remain unmoved). — It is 
in this way that some Second Perfects appear to be- 
long to the Middle Yoice, since the {causative) Perf. 
Act. is not in use, but the Middle (in an immediate 
sense) is : thus yiyvo\xai = no ; Perf. 2. ykyova (== ] 
have been caused to exist), / do exist, I am (also as 
Perf. to el[xi: tca/cd ykyove, /cal eari, /cal ecrTai) : pbaivo- 
fiai, I am becoming mad; ixeijunva (I have been rendered 
mad =) I am mad (the verb fialvco, insanum facio, be- 
ing obsolete). 

386. Futumun Atticum.] When aco is preceded 
by a short vowel, the or of Fut. Act. and Mid. is some- 
times left out in the Attic dialect,^ and the two vowels 
contracted, so that the terminations become w, ov/nac : 
reXico, Attic Future reXco ; Mid. rekov/jLac. 



387, 388.] 



SECOND PERFECT. 



151 



From verbs in e'o, dfa (Fut. ecro, aV&>) this Fut. occurs often 
(not always) only in KaXeco, reXe'co, /3t/3a£co. In Mid. p.axovpai (from 
/xa^o/Liat). 'EXg>, as, a (== eXdVa), from iXavvco) is also the usual 
form : and o-kcSco, ay, a, &c. (== o-Kefiacra), from <7K.e8dvuvp,i, List X), 
probably the only Attic form. 

387. When the short vowel is i, the two vowels 
are not capable of contraction ; but the co is circumflexed, 
and conjugated as if & contraction had taken place. 
Thus (vofALcra)), vo/uco, et?, (fee. 



\ d ' 



ovpev, elre, ovo~t(y). 
apev, are, <&o~i(y). 



eirov, eirov 



reXecrco — TeXeo, reXe??, 

vopicrco — vopico, vopizis, 

/3t/3ao"o) — /3i/3ai, /3i/3a?, /3i/3a | copev, are, cocri(vJ. | aroi/, aroi> 

So in the Af/c?. Kop,l£<o, Kop,lo~opai, Alt. Fut. Kopiovpiai, ei, 
errat, &C. 

This form of the Fut. never occurs in the Opta- 
tive : e. g. rekw, reXecv, reXwv : but Opt. rekeaoi/jbi (K.). 



388. Vocabulary 44. 

To speak with frankness, 7rapprj- 
aid£-eo~'3ai. Kakcos irapp. to 
speak with an honorable frank- 
ness. 

To spoil, to corrupt, to destroy, 
diafp^eip-eiv. 

To contend for a prize, dya>vi£- 
e<r%ai. 

To burn (up), naTa(p\ey-eiv. 

To trade for profit, to make mo- 
ney by trade, xp^ar/^-eo-Sat. 

(To write upon=) to inscribe, 
to entitle, €7nypd(p-€ii/. 

To throw beyond = to exceed, 
surpass, virtpfidW-ecr'Sai. 



Renown, reputation, eu/cXeta, as, 17. 
Pugilist, boxer, ttvktt]s, ov, 6. 
To knock to pieces, to batter, a-vy- 

KOTTT-CIV. 

To awaken, i. e. cause to wake, 
eyeip-eiv : eyprjyopa = I am 
awake (an irreg. Perf. 2). 

To quit, to desert, diro\e'nr-eiv. 

To leave behind, KaTaXei-rr-e'iv. 

Suggestion, vtto^kt), rjs, f]. 

To break, ciyvvpi (List IX). 

To break (of bones, &c), Kardy- 

WUL. 

Wrist, Kap7r6s, ov, 6. 



152 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [3.89. 

Exercise 49. 

389. a) Translate into English. 

1. KaXco? eirapprjcridcraTO 6 %6\cov 7rpo? Kpoccrov 
vtt ei/ru^/a? Stecf&opoTa, to re\o<; opav Kekevcov. 2. 
'O-vrjrcop (3l(3Xlov i'giBcDfcev 3 - €7nypa<p6fi6vov • c St %prj[xa- 
TieLTai 6 ao^to^.^ 3. Oc irvfCTai tcl (bra crujKe/co/xfieva 
eVvuv Kai iajoTa. h 4. ^Apiarorekrf^ rrjv ekiriha iyprjyo- 
poTos elirev evvirviov. 5. AlScos /cal JVe/xecrc? Toy av^rpco- 
iTivov /3lov aTroXeXoLiracrLV. 6. Be^eo cnyav rcpeuTTOV* 
r) Keicpayevai. 7. No/jllov/j,€v o/aoicos dcre(3elv tovs re to, 
^revor) XeyovTas irepl twv ^eoiv ical tov$ Tricrrevovra^ ■ av- 
tols. 8. TdiV 7roi7]TOJV Tcves inrcferj/ca? ft>9 XPV Kv v VH^ V 
KaTcCkekoliracnv. 9. AkyeTai TreiropLfyevai Kpolcrov eh 
AafceSalfAova irepl GvpuyLayLas* 10. Mr) vo/Ai^ere tQ> <£>£- 
XiTnrw tcl irpdyfiara irerrrfyevab cfedvara. 11. ^,coKpd- 
t?;?, GTpe-tyavTos 'AvTur^evovs to hieppcoyb^ 6 - tov 
Tpl/3covo$ eh Tov/jL(f)ave^, e *Opco crov, e(f)7j, ot,a tov Tpl- 
ficovos tt)v fcevoSo^lav. 

a Aor. 1. of iK-diSw/jLi, to put forth ; to publish. b Perf. 2. of 

&yw/xL, List IX. c Note 13. d Si-eppuya. Perf. 2. of 

Siap-p-^yvvfj-i. to dieppcoyos = £Ae torn part. priyvvjAi. List IX. 
e — ets to ifupavis (lit. to £Ae visible =) so as to let it be seen. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. It is a benefit from the gods, that some alli- 
ance has appeared for us. || 2. They say f that 
the general himself fled. 3. They said f that the gene- 
ral himself had fled. 4. The boxer has his wrist 
broken. 5. Is the boy asleep or awake? 6. You are 
more like °a man asleep than °one awake. 7. You 
will not rightly deem that your "prosperous affairs 
are fixed for you immutably {say : '°as immortal'). 

f Use xiyoi (<ws or on). 



390 392.] COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE. 



153 



LESSON LI. 
Comparative and Superlative. 

390. The comparative and superlative (1) from o? 
are orepos, otcitos, or, if the preceding syllable is short, 
dorepos, wTaro? [but here a muta cum liquida is consi- 
dered to lengthen the syllable : acpoSpos, adjoSporepos, 
a^>ohp6raro^\. — (2) from 779, earepos, eararo^ [cra0|?79> 
catyearepos, &-C.] — (3) from vs, vrepos, vtcltos [jXvk-vs, 
ryXv/c-vrepos, &c. — (4) from cov, ov-earepos, ov-ecrraTO^ 
{evhaipiwv, Gen. evSaipLOv-os, evhaipb-ov-eaTepos, &c). 

391. A few in t;?, po?, have (oov, lgtos. The twy has 
neut. lov (G. *Wo9, &c:), and the 1 is long in Attic Greek. 
— The only regular adjectives that take this form in 
Attic prose are rjSvs, ra^v^, ala^po^, iffipo? (those in 
po? lose the p, ala^lcov, &c). 

For Tayjuwv, Tayj,ov, the Attics said ^dacrcov, ^aaaov, 
later ^rdrrajv, ^arrov. 

(Eng.) Too wise to be deceived. 

{Greek.) Wiser than so-as (rj coare) to be deceived. 

392. Vocabulary 45. 



Spiritless, faint-hearted, a%vpos, 

ov. 
Soft, paXa<6s, f), ov. 
Mischievous, icaicovpyos, ov. 
Impetuous, Trponer^s, es {Tvpoirer-, 

short root of ir'ntTo) = 7ri7reV-a), 

cado) . 
Thoughtful, (ppovTurTiKos, rj, ov. 
Spirited, courageous, %vpu>dr]s, es. 
Savage, aypios, a, ov. 
Plotting, treacherous, inifiovkos, 

ov. 
Compassionate, eXerjpcov, -ovos. 
Tearful, dpl8a<pvs, v. 



Envious, <p%ovep6s, d, ov. 
Dissatisfied- repining, pepyjripoi- 

pos, ov. 
Bitter, mKpos, a, 6v. 
Abusive, cpiXoXoidopos, ov. 
Disposed to strike, quarrelsome, 

likrjKTLKOS, 7), ov. 

Desponding, bvo~e\ms, i<W. 
Shameless, dvaidrjs, es. 
Easily deceived, evaTvdrqTos, ov. 
Having a retentive memory, pvrj- 

poviKos, 77, ov. 
Sleepless, aypvirvos, ov. 
Timid, oKvrjpos, d, ov. 



154 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [393. 



Immovable, not easily moved, 

didvrjTos, ov. 
Ready or able to help, ^otj^tjtikos, 

7], OV. 

Bear, aparos, ov, rj. 



Panther, iraphakis, ecos, fj. 
Male, apprjv, cippev. 
Female, %r)\vs, eta, v. 
Desponding, down-hearted, bxxr- 
'Svp.os, ov. 



Exercise 50. 

393. a) Translate into English. 

1. ^A^vfjuorepa ra ^rjXea iravra tojv dppevcov irXrjv 

aprcTov Kal irapBaXews ' tovtoov Be r} ^rjXeta BoKel elvai 

dvSpeiOTepa • ev Be rot? aXXots yevecri to, ^rfXea fiaXa/cco- 

repa real Ka/covpyorepa teal tjttov airXa real TrpoirereaTepa 

Kal irepl tt]V ro)v re/evcov Tpocfirjv cppovTtcrTCKcoTepa, to, 

S' appeva ravavTia'* ^rv/jLcoSearepa <yap Kal aypicorepa 

zeal aTrXovcrrepa Kal tjttov b eiriftovXa. 2. Tvvt) dvSpbs 

iXerjfxoveo-Tepov Kal dpiBaKpv puaXXov, erri Be (f&ovepcoTe- 

pov T€ Kal pbejJb-^riixoipoTepov Kal (fuXoXoiBopov /jLoX- 

Xov Kav irXrjKTLKOJTepov, eri Be Kal Bva^svpiov puaXXov 

to ^rjXv tov appevos Kal BvaeXirt Kal dvaiBeaTepov Kal 

tyevBeaTepov ' evairaTi^TOTepov Be Kal /jLvv/AOVLKCDTepov 

€tc Be dypvirvoTepov Kal oKvr/poTepov Kal b'Xcos clkivwto- 

Tepov to ^rjXv tov appevos, Kal Tpo<fii]<z eXaTTovos b Igtlv • 

Borf^rjTLKOJTepov Be wairep eXi'^fr/, Kal dvBpeuoTepov to 

cippev tov ^rfXeos eaTiv (A?Hstot.). 3. f O [SaSsvTaTos 

virvos r/Stcrro? ecTTtv. 4. OvBev ^clttov £gti Trjs 77/??/?. 

a = ra ivavria, sc. iari, are the opposite °ofall this, 
b Note 13. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Nothing is more bitter than compulsion. 2. 
He asked if the son were braver than his father. 3. 
Is the son wiser than his father? — [No. K. 344. 5.] 
4. The man is more shameless than brave. 5. This 
woman is very envious and dissatisfied. 6. I hate 
abusive ° persons. 7. The soldier is too brave to 



394, 395.] 



VERBS IN fit. 



155 



fear death. 8. The man has a most immovable na- 
ture. 9. Friendship is the most delightful of all 
things. 10. Nothing is more disgraceful than to have 
one thing in one's mind and to utter another. 

c Say : other things — but others ; $A\a fihv — &\\a 5e. 



LESSON LII. 
Verbs in fu. Tfoq/jLt. 
394. Vocabulary 46. 



/ place, I appoint, I hold or set 
down (as) ; / make, render ; 
1 enact, appoint, &c. (laws), 

I put up, offer, dvartinpi. 

I dispose (a person), Scart'S^/Mt. 

1 put in, instil, eVri'Sty/u. 

I put down, I lay (down) upon, 

KaTartirffxi. 
I change, alter, juerariSfTj/u. 
I put or set round, Trepirfa-qfu. 
I add, 7rpocrri3?7/n. 
1 put before, lay out (for view), 

set out for display, irporfa-qixi. 
Citadel, dfcpoTToXis, ecos, 17. 
Lioness, Xeaiva, rjs, r). 



Another's, of others, aXXorptos, a, 
ov (alienus). 

Heavy, troublesome, dpyaktos, 
ea, eov. 

One who rules, ruler, Archon 
(at Athens), apxav, ovtos, (pro- 
perly, partcp. of apxzw). 

Head-band, diadem, did8r]p,a, a- 

TOS, TO. 

Sweat, toil, idp&s, aros, 6. 

Thyrsus (i. e. the staff of the 
Bacchantes, wound round with 
ivy and vine leaves), %vp<ros, 
ov, 6. 

Ivy, Kicra-os or kittos, ov, 6. 



Exercise 51. 

[ The Act. Voice of rhnp-i is to be learnt by heart.] 
395. a) Translate into English. 
1. ToSe ^avfjud^co el* iv aperr}? teal aortas TtS^? 
fiipet, h rrjv aSiKiav. 2. r O ttXovtos 7roW,d/as /xera- 

TL^7](rL TOV TCOV dv^pOiTTCOV TpOTTOV. 3. FLoWa/ClS 01 

av^fpcoiroL Tot? ISlocs /ea/cot? aXKoTpca Trpocrrfaeacnv. 4. 



156 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

Els to fiekTiov rfar€L to fiiWov. 5. Avt'ijovos Aiovvgov 
7rdvTa c - ifja/JbeuTo, koX klttov /lev irepur^els ttj /cecfrakf) 
avTL hiahrjfJiaTOS MafceSovtKOV, ^vpcrov Be clvtI aicr)TTTpov 
cf)€pa>v. 6. 01 crocfyLcrTal ttjv dp6Tr)v 7rpo6Ti^recrav. 7. 

'EvTL&W/jLeV TOt? V60LS TT}S CTO(f)LaS epCOTO,, 8. 'I! TV%7) 

irdvTa av fieTaTL^elrj. 9. Ou paStov ttjv (pvcnv fieTaTt- 
^evai. 10. ! ' A^rjvaloi yakicr\v iroLrjo-dfievoL \kaivav iv 
ttvXclls ttjs a/cpoTroXecos dve^recrav. 11. ( Paov [Note 13 J 
e£ dya&ov ^elvau /ca/cov, i) ifc kclkqv d<ycfesov. 12. To 
kclkov ovSels yj>r]0'Tov av ^relr]. 13. MeTa&eTe tcis Slcl- 
tyopas. 14. c O 7r6Xe/ios irdvTa fjueTaTe^reifcev. 15. II po 
t^? dpeTrjs ^reol iSpwTa, e^rrjfcav. 16. 01 iraXatol tols 
aTrd^ravovo-iv 6{3o\bv et? to crTO/xa tcaTe^rjfeav. 17. ''Ottos? 
av tovs aXXovs 7rpo<; aavTov Starry?, ovtoj koX av irpb? 
i/celvovs e£et?. d 

a &avfA&(c>) el — = 7 am surprised that — : literally, I am surprised 

if you do it ; courteously implying a doubt whether you really do it. 

t> TifreVai rt iv /j.4p€L twos = to set it down in the class or sphere 

of = to reckon or look upon it as — . c in all things or respects 

(neut. adj. used adverbially). d See ex<» in Index. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Zeus [Jupiter) places all things as e he chooses. 
2. Rulers who attempt (p) to enact laws, enact some 
°laws properly, and some few f not properly. 3. Let 
us set-down geometry as a study for the young. 4. 
I admire Lycurgus, him who enacted (p) their laws 
for the Lacedaemonians, and think him wise in an ex- 
treme degree.^ 5. You propose an embarrassing 11 
choice. 6. Shall we not place sweetmeats before the 
boys ? 7. Who would not place meat and bread, not 
sweetmeats, before one who is excessively hungry (p)? 
8. Do you wish me to set-down « that you are afraid ? 

e far) (ubi quo), where ; how. f robs Se rivas — . S eh 

rh eVxctTa = to the last (degree). h faopos (a, non. -jrSpos, trans- 



396, 397.] verbs in pi. 157 

itus), prop, from which there is no outlet, no means of extricating oneself, 
6, 7]. i fiov\ei <re $« (deliberative subj. [238J after /3ouAet, 2nd 

sing. 285) ; = visne ? 



LESSON LIII. 
Verbs in /m. "Io-ttj/m. 

396. On the meaning of the verb lorrjfii, the fol- 
lowing things are to be noted : the Pres., Impf., Fnt. 
and first Aor. Act. have a transitive meaning, to place ; 
but the second Aor., Perf. and Pluperf. Act. (with the 
Fnt. ecrr^co, later -ofxat) have a reflexive or intransitive 
meaning, to place oneself = to stand : earrjv, I stood, 
e<JT7]fca, I have placed myself = I stand, sto, ecrrrj/cmv 
(or eiGTrjiceiv), stabam, e<xr?/f co, stabo (adjecrTrj^ay, / shall 
withdraio). The Fut. Mid. arijo-o/iaL — / will stand ; 
or I will place for myself (i. e. corresponds both to 
earrjv and ecrrrjcra). 

The forms earrjKa, (ierrtficeLv) eicrryj/ceiv, ecnrjv, are 
used for the corresponding forms of the Pass, or Mid. ; 
but the Aor. Pass. eard^7]v is in general use, often bor- 
dering on the meaning of ecrrrjv : ecrrajxat, ecrrdfjuqv are 
very seldom found ; the Aor. 2. io-rdfirjv never. — Whe- 
ther eaTrjcrav belongs to ecrrrjcra or ecrrrjv can only be 
known from the context. (Kr.) 

397. Vocabulary 47. 



I place, 1 raise, tonj/U. 

I set, raise up, dviamjfu. Mid. 

raise myself up, stand up. 
I put away, turn aside from, 

cause to revolt, dcpia-Trj/jit : Aor. 

2. fell away : Mid. I go, stand 

apart. 



1 place apart, separate, Su'crn^t. 

i" put. into, ivitmjfii : perf. i" am 
present. 

I lay down, establish, Kcfttorijfii : 
Karao-TTJvai = to be reduced to, 
to be placed in : /caSeor^KeVat 
= to be established, to be. 



158 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[393. 



I place beside, Trap'io-Trjp.i. 

Cretan, KprjriKos, r\, 6v. 

To draw away, anoa-irqv (= a- 

eiv). 
To turn away, to alienate, dir- 

OCrTp€(f)-€lV. 

Dry, thirsty, avos, v, ov. 
Sacrifice, Svcria, as, fj. 



Marsh, pond, lake, \lp.vrj, tjs, fj. 

Where, Tvrj. 

Constitution, 7roAir^'a, as, fj. 

Difficulty, perplexity, embarrass- 
ment, airopia, as, rj. 

Multitude of friends, noXvcpiXia, 
as, rj. 

That, cos. 



Exercise 52. 
[Go through the Act. Voice of iot?7jiu.] 
398. a) Translate into English. 

1. ^A^avfjiovvTes avSpes ovttco rpoiratov e<TT7)<rav. 2. 
Ka^ricTTTjKe tl e^o? SUacov iraaiv dv^poiiroLS^ twv avTcov 
aSiKTj/jidTcov a jxakiara opji^ea^au b tols [loXiara Svva- 
(JbevoLs /jlt] aSifcelv. 3. Tr)v K.p7)TUcr)v irokneiav XeyeTaL 
irpcoTOS; KCLTacrTrjcraL c Mlvoos. 4. 'H iroXvtyikia Sllctttj- 
<ti /cat airocnra zeal aTroa-rpicpec. 5. El' tls ^valav 
7rpocr(f)epcov evvovv voal^ec tov ^rebv Ka^Lardvat, (frpivas 
tcovtyas e^et. 6. ^vXuttov, fir) to /cipftos ae tt)<; Slkcllo- 
crvvws d^LO-rfj. 7. Mr) dcpLarr) tovs veovs tt}? eVl Tr)v 
dp€T7)v Shod. 8. c O TdvTdXos iv rf) \l/jLVtj avos eiaTrj/cet. 
9. To [jukv tov ^povov d <y€<yovos, to he eVecrTW? 6 Igti, to 
Se fxeWov. 10. 01 Koplv^fLOL 7roWovs avfifxa^ov^ dirk- 
aTTjcrav a7rb twv A^nqvalcov. 11. 01 Nd^coo dirb twv 
A^rjvalcov direaT7]<jav. 12. HapdaTcL tol<; aTvykcriv. 
13. Ilr) (TTOi ; { ttt) /3co ; 14. 0.1 'A^rjvaloi toIs Na^lots 
d-iroQ-Tacriv dir avTcov iirohsfj/qcrav. 

a for the same faults. b K. 284. 3. 6. " What 

force has the Aor. Infin. after a verbum dicendi ? d to jxev . . . 

to Se, one part . . . another, &c. e iueo-rcis = prcesens, Perf. 

partcp. syncopated, Pdm. 63. yeyov6s (= quod fuit, praeteritum), 
Perf. partcp. neut. from yeyova, Perf. of yiyvo/uu. f The delibe- 

rative subjunctive, 238. /3<2 is subj. of fiaivw, Pdni. 66. 






399.] IMPURE NOUNS. 159 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The bad reduce you to a total-wants of friends. 
2. Lycurgus established the °national truces °as a 
common benefit. 3. Lycurgus did not attempt to 
establish his laws before he had made the most 
powerful °men in the state h » to be of-one-mind. 4. 
After this man Alcamenes received the supreme 
power,' after whom Alcander, a moderate man, was 
at the head of affairs. k 5. The cities place the 
images of their benefactors in the temples. 6. Make i 
your own temperance an example to others. 7. 
Change what is not rightly established." 1 8. 
Conon raised the walls of Athens {say : of the Athe- 
nians). 

s £pr)/j.ia. h Say : the most powerful of those in the state, 

i tk irpajixara, affairs = the management of (state) affairs. 
k To be at the head of affairs, irpoa-rrjuai. 1 KaSicrrrifii. 

m Say : the things not rightly established ; and use perf. partcp. of 
the syncopated form from Kadio-Tri/xi, Pdrn. 65. 



LESSON LIY. 

AlBcdjju. Act. Ace. from impure Nouns in t?. 

399. Ace. of Third Decl. in v.] This Ace. belongs 
to the terminations t?, i>?, au?, ou?. We have seen that 
jnire nouns (i. e. those with a vowel before the termina- 
tion of the cases) all take this Ace. — For impure nouns 
(those whose root ends in a consonant) the following 
rule generally holds good for Attic prose. 

a) Ace. is never v if the final syllable of the (im- 
pure) root is accented : atrrrfc, aom'S-o?, shield ; 
ace. dairlSa. 



160 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [400, 401. 

b) Acc. is never v for a monosyllable root : irov^. 
7roS-6?, foot ; acc. iroha. 

c) If a hyper monosyllable impure root is not ac- 
cented on the final syllable, the acc. is usually v. — 
This applies principally to epis, epi8-os, strife ; acc. 
epiv : %apL<;, ydpiT-o<$, gratia ; acc. x^P LV ( DU ^ -X^p^ra 
= one of the Graces). 



400. Vocabulary 48. 

I give, grant, dldcofu. 

I give back, repay, dirobldoop-i : 

Mid. i" sell. 
I give any one a share of any 

thing, jLteraS/Scojiii tlv'l tivos. 
I betray, Trpodidco/ju (prodo). 
Salt, SXs, akos, 6. (Note 9.) 
Firm., sure, lasting, e/xnedos, ov. 
I forget, iTuXav'Sdvop.ai. 



Immediately, efavs. 

Happy, blessed, p,d<ap, apos. 

Thoroughly bad, 7rdy<aKos, ov. 

Again, on the contrary, iraXiv. 

I am in want, xpflC 03 (with gen.). 

To fatten, maiv-civ. 

Favor, grace, x^P ls ? x < *P LT ~ 0S > V- 
Xap LV aTTobibovai (= gratiam 
reddere), to make a return. 



Exercise 53. 
[Go through the Act. Voice q/"Si'Sca/it.] 
401. a) Translate into English. 

1. Utalvei fjuakicna to Trpofiarov to ttotov Blo koX 
tov ^epovs ScBoacTLV aXa? a 8id 7 irevTe rj/xepow. 2. 
Tvvaacl apyeiv ov SlScoctlv r\ c^vcris. 3. Xdpcv \a/3u>v h 
fjbifxvrjcro, real Sou? e7rtXd)5rov. 4. Aaficov clttoSos, koX 
\7]-yjrr] d TraXiv. 5. '/2 fid/capes ^reol, 86t€ jjloi o\/3ov KOtX 
bo^av d<ycfor)v eyetv. 6. r O ttXovtos, ov av Sojcti ^eol, 
e/iiredo^ ecrTLV. i . Ay epvens oeoco/ce, TavT e^eu /nova o 
av^p(07Tos. S. T I2v e aoi ^eo? eScotce, tovtcov yjpij'Cpvcri 
SlSov. 9. ©eos pboi holrj 0/Xof? itlo-tovs. 10. Tol<$ ttXov- 
ctlols Trpeirei^ tois tttco^ol^ Sovvac. 11. Ol crTpaTLOJTat, 
Tr/v nroXiv Tot? irriXepbLOLS rrpovhl^oaav. 12. f O dya&bs 
yalpec tols irevncri ^prj/jidTcov jxeTaSiSovs. 13. A el tovs 
dya&ovs avSpas yevvalcos (pepetv, o tl av 6 ^-eo? SlSoj. 



402.] VERBS IN V[U. 161 

14. "O? av fieXkr) tijv irarplha irpohthovai, fxeylcrr^s 

tyifiias a&os eanv. 15. 01 ^eol uol ami tccuccbv aycfea 

StSolev. 16. $A.o? <j>L\ov ov TTpoSayaec. 17. Ev Tra^aov- 

T€? h vif ifiov tolclvt7]v %apiv a7re8ocrav. 

a Note 9. b Aor. 2. partcp. fr. Ka/x^dvo}, List IV. 

c fiefivrifiai (I have recollected =) I remember. d Aor. 2. Imper. 

fr. em-Xowfrdv-oiiai, List IV. e Attraction. ' rrp&feiv, c. 

dat. s Note 13. »> Aor. 2. partcp. fr. ttoo-xw, List VII. 

6) Translate into Greek. 

1. The gods give all things. 2. Give immediately 
to a poor man. 3. Endeavor (pi.) to give each man 1 
his due k accurately. 4. He repaid the money. 5. If 
you give him money, he will make you also wise. 
6. If any one were to give • him money, he would make 
him also wise. 7. If you had given him money, he 
would have made you also wise. 8. The earth, giving 
us food, is seen to be a kind of mother. 9. Give me 
my shield. 10. Give (.pi.) me an example of this kind 
°of thing. 11. The gods have given (Aor.) this °as 
a privilege™ to ° but a few that are easily-counted. n 

i eh eicao-Tos, lit. ' each one man.' k rb irpoa-r\Kov (partcp. of 

Trpoar]Keiv, to come to him =) to belong to bim. ' K. 260. 2. 

m Use ovtos, without prefixing- the article to yepas. 
n evap&iJ.riTois 877 tktiv (prj adds emphasis to the superlative). 



LESSON LV. 
Verbs in v/jll. AeiKvufju. 

402. Vocabulary 49. 



J sllOlV, beLKVVfJLL. 

I show, represent, explain, declare 
any one as any thing ; hence, 
I appoint, anode iKWfxi (with 



two accus.) : Mid. show of my- 
self, express, declare, display, 
render. 
Not to be seen, ctiearos, ov. 



162 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[403. 



Justly, fairly, BiKatas. 
Inconsiderately, unadvisedly, €l<r). 
To remain with, abide by, ippev- 

eiv (with dat.). 
Within, euros (with gen.) . 
To cause to swear, administer an 

oath to, etjopKovv (=detv). 
Forsworn, perjured, false, iirlop- 

KOS, OV. 

I swear by, iirofiwfii (with ace). 
Moderate, fierpios, a, ov. (Attic, 

-OS, -ov.) 
Never, \xt\ttotz. 
An imitator, ficprjrrjs, ov, 6. 



I swear, opvvpi. 

An oath, opuos, ov, 6. 

In every way, throughout, wholly, 

7TO.VTC0S. 

To order, rrapayyeW-eiv. 
Modelling (art), sculpture, irka- 

o-tikt] (re-^y-q, underst.). 
I strengthen, pa>vvvp.i. 
Rarely, seldom, o-7ravlcos. 
A decree, a resolution, yjrrjCpto'p.a, 

aros, to. 
I lie (jaceo), i" am enacted (of 

laws), Kdp,ai. 



Exercise 54. 

[ Go through the Act. Voice of Seinvvp.!..] 

403. a) Translate into English. 

1. Nouos Srj Kela^rco SifcacrTrjv b\Juvvvai hucaCfZ.iv fu,e\- 

\ovra. 2. "Opicov <$>evye, tcav hiKaico^ byuvvr)^. 3. Mr} tl 

^eou9 iiTLopKOV 67r6fivv. 4. e O oivos /xeT/3t09 \r/<fi&el<i 

poivvvaiv. 5. 01 BiSdcrKaXoL rou? /^a^rjra^ [Ai/jiVTa? kav- 

rwv aTToheucvvaaiv. 6. Uv^rayopas nrapr^yyeCke rots 

[.tav^dvovai, cnravioDS fiev ofjuvvvai, ^pnaapbevov^ 8e tol? 

op/coos 7rdvTco$ ijxfi€V€LV. 7. *H ifKaaTLKr] he'ucvvai to, 

elSr/ rwv ^ewv, rcov dv^fpoairoav, teal ivlore teal tcov ^rr/pcov. 

8. 'AvSpbs vovv olvos eSeL^ev.* 9. <I>pv<y€<; opKOLS ov %/?w- 

vrat ovr 6/jbvvvres, ovr aXkov? e^optcovvres. 10. '0\i- 

<yoi<; Sglkvv tcl eVro9 <$>pevaiv. 11. 01 /cpiTal tcl ifrr/cfrL- 

cr/jLUTa direheLKwaav. 12. MryiroTe el/crj bpbVvoiTe. 13. 'O 

ftacrLkevs top avTov vlbv crTpaTwybv dirohehei^ev. 

a The Aor. is often used in making general assertions founded on 
experience. We should use the Present. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. If you fear (pi.) the gods, you will not ever 
swear a false oath. 2. He is said to have sworn a 



404.J 



PASS. AND MID. 



163 



false oath. 3. We are swearing false oaths. 4. Let 
us endeavor both to investigate and to prove why in 
the world b such persons are unfortunate. 5. They 
appointed Alcibiades general, with four others. 
6. Even though c you should not swear, all will trust 
you. 7. Such a man will swear false oaths. 8. My 
(say : the) tongue hath sworn, but my mind °is un- 
sworn. 

b ti 7roTe (= quid tandem). c khv = «ai idu (c. subj.). 



LESSON LVI. 
Tfoy/M. Pass, and Mid. 



404. Vocabulary 50. 

I put away, arroTi^pi : Mid. lay 
aside, take off (from myself). 

J put in order, manage ; with 
an adv. put into a disposition, 
Sian'37;/xt. Pass, to be affected 
by. KaKcos (d3Xt'<ay, &c), to be 
miserably indisposed, distress- 
ed, &c. 

I add, put upon, eVtrt'S^/At. Mid- 
put on (oneself) ; with dat., 
attack, set upon. 

I lay down, narar^ rjpi. Mid. lay 
down for oneself, to deposit 
(money in any body's hands), 
to lay by or up. 

I place by or near, TrapaTtirjpi ; 
to irapaT&ep.eva (ea quae ap- 



ponuntur), the dishes placed on 
the table. 

Celtiberian, KeXri^p, -rjpos, 6. 

Self-control, continence, iyKpar- 
eia, as, Tj. 

Travelling-money, provisions (for 
the way), icpodiov, ov, to (vi- 
aticum). 

Foundation, ?iep.e\tov, ov, to. 

Helmet, Kpdvos, eos, to. 

Cretan, Kprjs, KprjTos. 

Crest, Xocpos, ov, 6. 

To legislate, to make laivs, vop.o- 
Seretv. 

Purple, (poivLKeos, ea, eov (con- 
tract, ovs, rj, ovv). 



164 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [405. 

Exercise 55. 

[Go through Pass, and Mid. of Tt'377/it.] 

405. a) Translate into English. 

1. IIpo(T?]K€iv eycoye vo/jll^oj, orav puev vo/io^rerayfiev, 
tov& rjfJLas GKOTrelv, oVcD? /ca\w<; eyovTas /cal <rvp,(j)epo- 
vra<? vojjlovs rf) iroXeu ^ycro/ne^a, e7reiBdv Be vopLcfeeTijaw- 
puev, Tot? vofjuoLS rols Ketfievoa Trefoecr^ai. 2. 01 Kpfjres 
dpyovTai tgov TrapaTL^e/xevcov airb tow ^evcov /jierd Be 
tol>? %evovs tw apyovTi BcBoacn reaaapa^ puoipas. 3. 01 
KeXrlfajpes irepl ra? /cecf)a\d<; /cpdvij %a\fca irepiTi^evTai 
cjyoLVLfCols rjcr/CTi/LLeva 3 - Xocpov?. 4. OvBeva ^rjcravpbv irai- 
at Kara^frjar] a/xeivoj b aibovs. 5. 1 1? a^ e/ccoz^ cfuXov 
a<fipova ^oito ; 6. 'Bevo(f)OJvrL ^vovtl rjtce Tt? e'/c Mavri- 
veia$ dyye\o<; Xeycov, top vlbv avrov rbv TpvXXov re^vd- 
vai • c /cd/celvo<$ diri^eTo /xev rbv crrecpavov, BcereXei, Be 
^rvojv ■ eirel Be 6 ayyeXos irpoae^rj/ce /cal e/celvo, otl vl/cojv d 
ri^vrj/ce, irdXiv 6 'Bevod^ojv e7re&eT0 rbv arecpavov. 7. *AX- 
Ki^udBrj^ efyvyev eh ^TrdpTrjv /cal tovs Aa/ceBaifioviovs 
irapoo^vvev eTrfaecfeai rols 'A^rjvaLois. 8. 01 iroXlrau 
(pofiovvTai, purj ol iroXepbLoi rfj irbXet eTTLTL^oivrai. 

a a<TKtii> (= e-etv), to work curiously; adorn ; ornament. b Note 

13. c Pdm. 65. d vikS.v = victor sum. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The citizens attack the enemy. 2. They had 
feared that the enemy would attack the city. 3. The 
boys put-on their garlands. 4. Do you wish that I 
should set-upon ° the man ? 5. They are afraid that 
the Lacedaemonians will attack them if they divide 
their forces/ 6. We call the sign of a sound that 
is affixed" °to it its name. 7. Place very great gates 
to your ears. 8. Then at once {rore yBy) we will at- 
tack the enemy. 9. The judge was reduced to a sad 



406, 407.] 



PASS. AND MID. VOICES. 



165 



condition 11 by the disease. 10. They had been 
grievously indisposed both in body and soul. 

e K. 259. 1. f To divide their forces, yiyvecrSai 5lxa- 

& To be affixed to — , eirir^brivai.. h To be reduced to a sad con- 

dition, aSAia>TaT<z Siare^rjuai. 



LESSON LVII. 
r 'I(TT7}/M, &c. Passive and Mid. Voices. 
406. Vocabulary 51. 



I know, I understand, iiriaTOfiai 

(with pass. aor.). 
I put together, avvlamjiii : Mid. 

assemble, unite, bring together. 

To keep awake, to spend a sleep- 
less night, to forego sleep, dy- 
pvTTveiv (=eeiv). 

Worth mentioning, noticeable, 
memorable, d^iokoyos, ov. 

Second, Sevrepos, a, ov. 

To be able, can, 8vva.fx.ai (with 
pass, aor.) ; with noWd, oi8ev, 



&c. = I have power (like mul- 

tum, nihil, &c, valere). 
Foolish, pcopos, d, 6v t 6 /jicopos, 

the fool. 
Drunkenness, p.e%r), vs, rj- 
Belonging to ships, nautical, 

vavTLKOs, r], 6v : vavTLKrj 8vva- 

fits, naval power. 
The rule of a few, oligarchy, oXt- 

yapxia, as, rj. 
First, 7rp5>Tos, n, ov. 
To fill, likrjpovv (= oeiv). 



Exercise 56. 

[Go through Pass, and Mid. of tarn pi.] 

407. a) Translate into English. 

1. Ai iv AaKeSai/iovc yvvaL/ces* Tpedjovcrc ra re/cva 
ware jjuvheTrore Tfkrjpovv, Xva i^l^covrat hvvaa^ai Trecvfjv.^ 
2. Ol Aa/ceSat/xovtoL e^itpvcn Tot*? iraZhas Kkeirreiv kcli 
rbv dXovra" KoXd^oucn TrXwyals, Xv iic tovtov izovelv koX 
dypvirvelv hvvaivrai iv tols TroXepLOLS. 3. O ttXovtos 
TroWd hvvarai. 4. Tfe dv fjboipbs Svvatro iv oiv(p cnw- 
rrav ; 5. ^Avrjp oY/owo? icrriv, octtls dSi/celv Svvd/xevo? 



166 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [408. 

fir) (BovXerat. 6. tlpdrre firjSev &>v fir) eirta-Taaai. 

7. "ApLGTOV i(TTL TTCLVT i7TL(TTa(T§aC KaXd. 8. Z(t)pt€V b 

ov% &)? e§i\o/jL6v, akX go? Svvd/Ac&a. 9. II pb /n&rrjs 
dviaraao. 10. Ti crvpxpepei, ivioi? irXovrelv, orav /^r] 
eTriarcovTat tcG ttXovtw ^prjcr^ac ; b 11. KaTaXv^ivros 
rod HekoirovvrjcnaKov iroke/Jbov, oXiyap^lav ev reus irXei- 
arcus iroXeav KcfeicrravTO. 12. 01 iroXifUoi ov/c diroaTif]- 
aovrai, irplv av e\axn A rrjv ttoXlv 

a See 346. b How is ireivda contracted 1 how (da 1 how 

Xpd-ea&cu 1 346. c aAovs, -6vtos, Aor. 2. partcp. from a\i- 

(TKeoftai. Pdm. 64. d alpea, List VII. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Men have much power through wealth. 2. Rise- 
up (pi.) before intoxication. 3. The enemy were not 
able to take the city. 4. Of what use is it to you to 
be rich, if you do not know-how to employ riches ? 
5. Did the good men understand this virtue ? 6. About 
such "matters you know better than they. 7. Who 
could better know-how to count ? 8. Thus you also 
would understand music. e 9. No man is able to know 
all things. 10. I should not be able to contradict you. 
11. I shall not be able to learn such "subjects. 

e iiricrTacr&ai irepl fiovffucrjs. 



LESSON LVIII. 

AISco/jll. Pass, and Mid. 
408. Vocabulary 52. 

i" give at the same time, avveki- 

dibcofxi: Mid. I give myself up 

with others to a thing. 
Exchange, recompense, return, 

dfioifir), rjs, rj. 



An army, arparo^ ov, 6. 
Option, choice, cupeais, ea>s, rj. 
Gladly, readily, aapevos, n, ov 
(libens = libenter). 



409.] PASS. AND MID. 167 

Exercise 57. 

[Go through Pass, and Mid. of fit'Sco/ii.] 
409. a) Translate into English. 
1. Ta> ev iroiovvTL ttoXXclkls Kafcr) aTrohihorai dpLOL^r). 

2. Harpihes •woXKclkl^ hid tcepSos irpovho^^aav. 3. UoX- 
Xd Scopa SeSorat to2<$ dv^pu)irot^ irapa twv ^recov. 4. 12$ 
fieya to /JLL/cpov eanv ev fcacpoj Sofcev. 5. r Ore elXe rrjv 
@7]{3aicQV iroXiv 'AXe^avSpos, airehoro tov<z eXev^epovs 
irdvTas. 6. 'O/Weo? alayjpov, aKovaavra yjpr)<ji\xov Xo- 
<yov /jltj /jiav^dv€LV, /cal SiSo/xevov ti dycfaov irapa tojv 
(plXcov fjurj Xa/Jb/3dveLV. 7. 01 iroXlrau cf)o/3ovvTaL, i&n r) 
ttoXls irpoSiSoorat. 8. M7]7rore vtto roov (ptXcov irpohi- 
Solo. 9. 'O arparbs vir avrov rod GTpanrr)yov irpovhi- 
Soro. 10. 'AttoSov to fcvireXXov. 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. I gladly receive the things given ° me by (irapd, 
K. 297) my friends. 2. The property was restored. 

3. They sold eight-hundred of the Corcyreans, who 
were slaves. 4. Pay was given to the others according 
to this same proportion. 5. They learnt a °that the 
island ° was given to the Corinthians. 6. If a choice 
were given, which of these °two things would you 
choose ? b 7. They think that if peace is offered 
(p), the Athenians will receive ° it gladly. 

a alo&dvoficu, List III ; with partcp. K. 310. 4. b Use Aor. 

Mid. of alpew, List VII. 



168 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[410, 411. 



LESS.ON LIX. 
AeiKvvybai. 
410. Vocabulary 53. 



/ show, ivbeiKvvfxi : Mid. I shoio 
any thing of myself . 

I shoio braggingly, make a boast- 
ful display of iiribeiKwp.i : 
Mid. i" show any thing of my- 
self boastfully, show off. 

Truly, in reality, dkn'Scos. 

I put on, dress in, dp(pi.evi>vpu. 

I ruin, aTToXXv/jLi : Mid. I am 
ruined or lost, I perish. 

I mix, KepavvvjAi. 

I quench, extinguish, o-fievvvfu. 



Freedom in speaking, frankness, 

Trapprja-'ia, as, rj- 
I ruin at the same time, crvvaTToK- 

Xvp.i : Mid. I go to ruin at the 

same time, I am ruined with 

(some one else). 
Dress, ioSrjs, ioSiJT-os, 17. 
Garment, lp.driov, ov, to. 
To dwell, oIk€iv (=t'eij>). oljcelv 

cnropdbnv (to live dispersed- 

ly=), to live some here and 

some there. 



Exercise 58. 
411. a) Translate into English. 

1. 01 tolovtol ap€T?]V civtI ifiaTioov afK^tecrovTaL. 2. 
To airaXkarTea^fai t/}? ovalas apa 3 - ovk aTroXXva^tab 
KaXels ; 3. Ovtcds r) ^v^r) av jljvobTO re ica\ airoXXv- 
olto. 4. 01 av^pwiroi, oIkovvtgs airopdhvv, airociXXvvTO 
virb tcjv ^Tjplcov, 8ia to iravrayr) aa^revecrrepoL avro3v 
elvac. 5. 'AvSpbs Sucalov /cap7rb<; ovk airoXkurai. 6. 
Ac yvvalices yalpovcnv^ afi^bevvvpievab KaXas eq^rJT&S' 
7. 01 aX^w? ao(f)Oi ov crirevhovabv eTrtheUvvcr^ai tt)V 
avTOJV <ro<filav. 8. O olvos, iav vSarc KepavvvrjTab, to 
aojfjia pojvvvcrLV. 9. 'H opyr] ev^u? afievvvobTO. 10. 
'Ael ev tw (3i(p aperrjv /cal o~co(j)poavvr}v evheiicvvao. 11. 
01 Hepaai 7ro\vTek,eZs o~To\a$ a\JL$ikvvvvTO. 12. O prj- 
Tcop ttjv yvoo/jLrjv /jL6Ta irapprjaias aireSel^aTO. 13. A\ki- 
/3ta&7? virb tgov ' A^nrjvaiwv aTpaTrjyb^ aTreSel'jfow. 

a K. 344. 5. 



412.] 



verbs in eca. 



169 



b) Translate into Greek. 

1. The soul never perishes. 2. He was in fear b 
about himself, and his children and his wife, lest they 
should be destroyed by their slaves. 3. The tale was 
lost. 4. The woman puts-on a certain expensive attire. 
5. The sophist is displaying his wisdom to his admi- 
rers. 6. You have now beheld this man showing-off. 

b ip (p6&<p yevecr&ai. See ytyvojiat, in Index. 



LESSON LX. 

The Verbs irjfu, elfil, and elfit. 



412. Vocabulary 54. 

I am away, absent, aireipt. Pres. 

usually = I will go away. 
I go away, antifu. 
I satisfy myself, dp<eouai (with 

dat.) . 
I let go, give up, neglect, dcpirjpi. 
That which is owed, duty, deov 

(Set), to. 
Namely, S^Sev (scilicet). 
I go or come into, e'io-eipi. 
To drive into the net or snare, ep.- 

I let or send out, iginpi : of riv- 
ers, tgtevai = to discharge it- 
self. 

I send up to, icpirjpi : Mid. (with 
gen.), I send myself or thoughts 
after any thing == J desire. 



Afterwards, then, eireira. 

I let down, lay down, Ka%ir)p.i. 

Goat, KCLTTpOS, ov, 6. 

Strong, Kaprepos, a, ov. 

Cry, Kpavyrj, rjs, ff. 

Stone, Xt'3o?, ov, 6. 

I let go, 1 give up, fie^irjfu. 

To remain, pev-eiv. 

To prepare, 7rapao~K€vd£-eLV : Mid. 

prepare oneself 
I let pass, loose, TTapinpi. 
Oftener, nXeovaKis. 
I go to, approach, irpoo~€ip,i. 
Mouth, crrd/xa, aros, t6. 
To help, Tipcopelv : Mid. revenge 

oneself on (with ace). 
Evident, known, (pavepos, a, ov. 
Snow, x l <° Vi > x LO " vos > V' 



170 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [413. 

Exercise 59. 
413. a) Translate into English. 

1. ^dfjiov to pbev e% dp^rjs a epr)[ir\v ovcrav XeyeTab 
KaTeyeiv ifkrf^os ^wpicov pueycCXiqv (fxovyv d(pievTcov. 2. 
01 dya^rol ov Sid tov vttvov /-teSmcrt tcl Seovra irpaTTeiv. 
3. 'Acfiels rd cfravepd firj Sicofce rd d<fiavrj. 4. IIoXXol 
dv^pcoTTOL icj)L€VTac ttXovtov. 5. 'HpaKXrjs tov Epv\id- 
v^rcov Kairpov Sico^as fjuerd Kpavyrjs els %iova ttoXXtjv 
irapeifxevov eve/3 po^icrev. 6. 'O NelXos e^iycriv els t?jv 
^fdXarrav errTa aTO/Jiacriv. 7. "Arra b eireiT ecrrac, 
ravra ^reois /JieXei. 8. El ^tvtjtos el, fieXTiaTe c ^vnrd 
Kal (frpovet. 9. Mefj.V7]cro d veos wv, a>s yepwv eery irore. 
10. AiKaios Xcr^s , iva /cal SiKalcov tv^tjs^ 11. Bias 
Trapovays^ ovSev Icvyyei vofios. 12. Evoai/jiaiv elr\v /cai 
^eois <f)iXos. 13. 'AXe^avSpos elirev * f el firj 'AXe^av- 
Spos yv, Aioyev^s dv rjv. 14. Aydira tois irapovcri, 
rebv drrovrcov ovk i^ie/xevos. 15. Kal veoTrjs /cal yrjpas 
dficfxo fca\d ecrrov. 16. 01 dv^rpcorroi evhaifxovelv Svva- 
vrai, Kav irevyTes wcriv. 17. ^AXrf^seid aoi irapearai. 
18. "Ico/xev, & (f)iXoi. 19. &evye Si^ocrraaias Kal epiv, 
TroXe/iou irpoaiovTOS- 20. ^Eirel rj MavSdvr] irapeaKev- 
ci^eTO go? diriovcra nrdXiv irpos tov dvhpa, 6 ' AaTvdyys 
eXeye Trpbs tov Kvpov • '/2 Trai, i)v fjuevys Trap ejxoi, 
Trp&Tov fiev, OTav fiovXy elaievai go? e/ie, eVt crol ecrTai,s 
Kal ydpiv aoi fiaXXov e^co, 6Vgo dv TrXeovaKis etalys go? 
ejJbk. 21. "EireiTa he ittttois tois ep,ols XPtf a Vi Ka ^ OTav 
dirlrjS-j €%g>V direi ovs dv avTos e&eXys 'ittitovs. 

a rb e£ apxys = originally. t> Pclm. 50. c Note 

13. d Me/j.u7jixai (= memini), / remember. e List IV. 

Gen. K. 273. 3. b. t List VII. s ehai eVi rm, to be in 

any body'' 's power ; to depend on him. 



PASS. AND MID. 171 

b) Translate into Greek. 

1. Men utter indeed the same voice, but not the same 
language. 2. We ought to be satisfied with w h a t we 
have {say: with present "things). 3. Not every- 
one who wishes Qo) will enter into this abode. 4. The 
chorus of the Muses will most probably come-in first. 
5. We went in to 29 Socrates. 6. It would not become 
me to come before 10 you, framing studied speeches. 11 
7. There are two forms of government, 8. O Greeks, 
ye are always children. 9. You and I {say : I and 
you) are not poets. 10. Do not be harsh towards 30 
us. 11. Know well, 1 that this will be so {say : will 
have ° itself so). 12. They were not one "person, 
but two. 13. Such a person would not be able to em- 
ploy his wealth. 14. Come now,* read 1 me the 
decree. 15. Let us go back-again to the beginning. 
16. It is right {Bel) that this man, looking at 7 one 
"object, should ever shoot all his arrows at 7 it. 

fa To frame studied speeches, irXdrreiu \6yovs. i Pdm. 70, 

Note 7. k Br) : for come use imper. of elfxi. i Imper. 

Aor. of ava-yiyvctxTK-a. See iyvwv in Pdm. 63. 



NOTES. 



On the Division of Syllables. 

1. Beside what is stated in 38, 39, it may be remarked that when 
two or three consonants come together, they are usually considered 
to belong to the following syllable, if they are so easily pronounce- 
able that they can begin a word (e. g. a-p.vos, d-Kp.T}, Se-cr/xdy, e-arpo- 
cpa). 

Sometimes a mute before p. or v is connected with the following 
syllable, even though no word begins with that combination, pro- 
vided any word begins with another mute of the same organ and 
fj, or v. 

Thus cpd-TVT] (no word begins with tv, but some do with 3v). 

So bn-ypos, dd-<pvis, because words begin with up,, ttv. 

Three consonants are connected with the following syllable when 
the first fair and the second fair can each begin a word (e-o-3Xoy, 
i-X^pds ; since words begin with ^3, 3p.) (So a-o-Sfia : since words 
begin with rp., though not with 3/z.) Kr. 

According to these rules, cpaidpos is divided into the syllables 
<pai-Spos, not <pai$-pos. yjrf](picrp.a into \j/-f](f)i-crpLa. 

2. Lesson 3.] — The accent of a verb is, as a general rule, as far 
back (i. e. as near the root) as possible. Hence (a) in verbs when 
a long termination is exchanged for a short one, an acute on the pen- 
ult is thrown to the antepenult (if the verb is hyperdissyllable) : 

TV7TT(0, TVTTT€Te. 

b) If the penult, being the tone- syllable, has a long vowel or diph- 
thong, and the verb is dissyllable, the acute will pass into circumflex 
when the final becomes short : (pevyco, (pevye (but KeAevo), KeXeue)- 

[For the general rules for the accentuation of verbs, see Pdms. 
56, 57.] 

3. Lesson 11, (95).] — a, G. as, is always long from an oxytone 
or paroxytone (if a hyperdissyllable^ 

But a, G. as, is short in 

1) Polysyllable feminine names or appellatives : ^akTpia, 'Epe- 
rpca. 



174 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[4—6. 



2) -pa is short if the penult has v or any diphthong but av ' 

-yzfpvpa, polpa, also in Tdvaypa (by 1). 

3) In polysyllables in eia, oia, it is short, except in (a) abstract 

substantives from verbs in eico, and (/3) dissyllables in eia. 
avoia, akrj'Seia (from adj. akrj'Sfjs), cocpeXeta (from cocpe- 

XeiV) : but SovXeia (from dovXeveiv). 
/3ao-i'Xeta = queen (from fiacriXevs). 
(3acriXeid = reign (from ftacriXeveiv, to reign). 

4. From Adjectives in oy, the a is long in Nom. Sing. So 
7rXea, fern, of 7rXecos. From Adjectives and Participles in as, vs, ets, 
ovs, cos, cpv, it is short. Hence the former are paroxytone : the latter 
proparoxytone or properispomenon. 

N. B. Ace. and Voc. singular follow the Nom. 

5. A mula cum KquidA does not lengthen a short vowel [i. e. 
does not make a syllable long by position], unless it be a middle 
mute (/3. y, 8) before X, p, v. 

Hence areKVos, aireTrXos, ^aKpj], fiorpvs ' but (HifiXos, evodpos, 
ireirXeypai. 

6. Usual Contractions. 





A 


E H 


<2 


I Y 


A 


aa = a. 






ae = a: aet = a 


ao =oj: aot=o) 


at=at : ai=a 




aai = a 






arj = a '. ay = a 


aov=co: aco=co 


dv=av: dv=dv 


E 


ea =r)) 


Sis. 


a 


e€~=€i,r)'. eei=et 


eo=ov, eoi=ot 


e'i = €1 




eat = 7], 


ei 




ee? = eiy, 77s 


eov = ov 






eas == 


eis 




f7 7 = 7 ?i ^77 = ?7 


eco=co : eco=cp 


ev = ev 





oa = co, 
oat = at 


sis. 


a 


oe = ov 
oet = ov, oi 

Of] = CO, T) 
07] = CM, 01 


00 = ov 
oot = 01 
oou= ov 

O0)=£0: OCp=Cp 


oi' === ot 


H 


770:1 = jy 






rj€ = 77 
?;et = » 




til = V 

7]V = 7]V 


a 


coa = a) 




COO = CO 


co'i = Q) 


I 


ias = 2? 


te? = I? 




C( = 1 


Y 


vay^ vV 


vey = vs 







From this table it appears generally, 



7,8.] 



NOTES. 



175 



a) That in the collision of A and E sounds, the vowel which pre- 
cedes the other, remains predominant in the contracted syllable, 
although its shape may be modified : Xciirecu, Xewrg or XetVet : rip.de, 
rifxa : Trokeas, woXecs : except in ea, which, in the first two declen- 
sions, is contracted into a : ocrrea, Sard : fioppeas, (3oppds. 

b) That, where an O sound appears, it maintains itself, in con- 
traction, against all A and E sounds, voe, vov : oareov, octtovv: fioas, 
(Bovs ' rt/xaotjLu, Tip.cpp.i : (piXeovcrt, (pikovcri '. except that, in adjec- 
tives, or] becomes -q : drrkor], cnrXTJ, and oa sometimes a : dnXoa, 
dnXd : also dirkoat, dnXal ( Thiersch.') 



7. There are some words, cases, and moods that must be care* 
fully distinguished, because they look like what they are not. The 
following are a few instances of the kind that occur in these lessons. 

a) -ovs, as nom. or ace. pi. of a comparative in a>v, e. g. peifyvs 

= p.ei£-ovGs, p.€i£-ovas- 
-co, ace. sing, or nom. pi. of ditto. 

b) opTcov, 3rd plur. of Imperative Present, which looks like gen. 

plur. of Pres. Partcp. Act. 
(hvtwv = aovrcov, 3rd pi. Imper. Present from verb in da> (also 

gen. pi. of Pres. partcp. Act). 
ovvToiv = e-ovT&v, 3rd pi. Imperat. Pres. from verb in eat 

(also gen. pi. of Pres. partcp. Act.). 

c) drai, 3rd sing, of the Pres. Indie, or Subj. (Pass, or Mid.) 

from dm. 

d) "Icr^i (from olSa) ' know,'' and io-3t, ' &e.' 



Euphonic Rules. 

8. When two consonants come together in the formation of 
words, the former is often changed for the sake of easier pronun- 
ciation. 

The principal changes of this kind are the following :* 

* These changes may be exhibited in the following table, which 
is arranged as the multiplication table often is : 



Any j?-soiind with 

Any A:-sound with 
Any £-sound with 

1 This combination does not occur. 



T 


5 


d 


* 


H- 


7TT 


& 


<p& 


4> 


p.fj. 


KT 


78 


X& 


1 


y/t 


<TT 


1 


ff» 


c 


(TfJL 



176 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[8. 



Any ^-sound with t becomes ttt. 
Any p-sound with 8 becomes /35. 
Any jo-sound with 3 becomes (£3. 
Any p-sound with s becomes \^. 
Any p-sound with p, becomes p,p.. 

Any /c-sound with r becomes kt. 
Any /c-sound with S becomes yd. 
Any /c-sound with 3 becomes ^3. 
Any A>sound with s becomes £. 
Any /c-sound with p. becomes yp,. 

Any /-sound with r becomes <rr. 

Any /-sound with 8 (this combination does not occur). 

Any /-sound with 3 becomes o-3. 

Any /-sound with o- becomes cr (i. e. the /-sound is thrown 

away). 
Any /-sound with p, becomes oy*. 

O* This table shows r (1) that a p or A>sound before a /-sound 
must be of the same order of breathing as the /-sound :* (2) that a 
/-sound before s is thrown away. 

Obs. 'Ek. ' out of,' in compound words retains its k : thus, eV- 
didcofxi, eK-3ea), not ey-dldcopa, &C. 

(Examples.) 



T€Tpt(3Tai 


== 


rirpiTTTai. 


Xe'Xeyrat 


= 


XeXeKrai. 


ecrrpcKprai 


= 


ecrTpcnrrai. 


(Se(3pe)(Tai 


= 


j3e(Bp€KTai. 


pdnbos 


= 


pa(38os. 


OK$OOS 


= 


bydoos. 


eTTiypdcpdrjv 


= 


€7nypafi8i}V. 


TrXendijv 


= 


Trkeyhrjv. 


eTV7r'5l]V 


= 


eTv(p?Sr]v. 


eVXe K%r]V 


= 


enXexprjv. 


Tpi/33 1] <rop,ai 


= 


rpicp'Sfjcrop.a.i. 


XeyS/jcro/xat 


= 


\e)(%r]crofxcu* 


errefo'Srjv 


= 


eVct'crST/i/. 


dvvTO~a> 


= 


dvv<ra> 


rjpeld'SrjV 


= 


■qpeia^v. 


epei'Sa"cB 


= 


£peio-a>. 


XeiTTcrci) 


= 


Xeiyj/a). 


7rei3o"Q) 


= 


7retVco. 


Tpi(3<ra> 


= 


Tpi^roo. 


TeTV7TfJLai 


= 


Tervp.p,ai. 


ypdcpcTG)' 


= 


ypd\f/co. 


TeTpifip.ai 


= 


Terpip,p,ai. 


7rkeKcra) 


— 


7rXe£a>. 


yeypacfipciL 


= 


yeypapp.at. 



* That is, the first becomes a smooth mute, if the second is a smooth 
mute ; a middle or aspirate, respectively, if the second is a middle o? 
aspirate. 



8.] 



NOTES. 



177 



Xeytro) 
Ppe X (ra> 



= Xe£a>. 
= /3pe£co. 



TriiikeKpat 
fieppexpat 



= 7re7rXeypat. 
= /3e/3peypat. 



N before a P-sound (or •*//-) becomes p. 
N before a K-sound (or £) becomes y. 
N before a T-sound remains unaltered. 
N before a liquid is changed into that liquid. 

N is usually* dropt before £, before o- in inflexion,! an ^ m those 
compound words in which another consonant follows <r. 

(Examples.) 

ev-ireipia. == ipireipia. crvv-£eG) = o~vy£ea). 

€V-(3aXk<o = ep.j3a.Wa>. (rvv-Xoylfa =■ (rvXXoyi£a). 

€v-(ppcov = epcppav. crvv-perpia = (rvppeTpia. 

ev-yjsvxos = ep^^X 05 * o~vv-^vyia = crv£vyia. 

a~uv-KaXeoi = (rvyKaXea>. haipov-cri = daipocn. 

o-vv-yiyvaxTKoa = crvyyiyvaxTKco. <Tvv-<TTr]p.a = crvcrrnpa. 
avv-xpovos = arvyxpovos. 

But ". crvvTelvco, avvbeco, o-w3eco. 

Exceptions. The enclitics ; as : ovirep, rovye. 
iv before p ; as : ivplnroi. 

When a T-sound and v together are ejected before <r, the remain- 
ing vowel, if short, is changed into a diphthong (e into ei, and o into 
ou) ; if doubtful, it is lengthened. The long vowels (77, co) are left 
unchanged. Thus : 



ri'(p3e(i»r)crt becomes rtxpSeTo-i. 
o-7re(z>8)cra> becomes cr7rei<ra). 
Xeo(i>r)o-i becomes Xeovcri. 
tvttto (it) crt becomes tvtttovq-i. 



Tvyj/a{vr)(n becomes Tvyjsacri. 
ytya(vr)crt becomes ytydcrt. 
8eiKi>v(i/r)cri becomes deinvvcrt. 
TVTTTO)(vT)cri becomes TVTTTOXTL. 



When the same aspirate would regularly be doubled, the former 
is changed into the kindred smooth: as 2a7r<pa> (not 2a<p(pa>). Bok^os 
(not BaxX 0? )- 'A 7 " 2 '? ( not 'A33tV).| 

* Exceptions. 'Ev, as ; ivo-rreipw, iv£evyvvpi : iraMv, as ; ira\iv<TKios : 
some forms of inflexion and derivation in aai and <m, as ; ir4<pavcrai, fr. 
<f>atVw : and some few substantives in u>s and ws. The v in o-uj/ be- 
comes <t in composition before <r followed by a vowel ; as : aw<r«£w, 
instead of crvvcrw(w. 

f That is, in the declensions and conjugations. 

I Even the middle mutes (0, y, S) are very seldom doubled, with 

8* 



178 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [9. 

Of two aspirates in two consecutive syllables, the former is often 
changed into its kindred smooth. 

This rule applies principally to roots beginning with 3 and end- 
ing with some other aspirate. The initial aspirate reappears, when, 
in the formation of cases or tenses, the final aspirate is changed. 

Thus the roots Specp, Spt^, become rpecp, rpix '• but when the (p, 
for instance, is changed into yjr or p., the reason for getting rid of 3 
no longer remains, and 3 will reappear : 3pe^, %pep,. So rpix-os, 
Tpix-h hut 3pi'£, %pi.£iv. 

In the Imperative of the 1st Aor. Pass, the last aspirate is 
changed in the 2nd pers. sing. : e. g. ypdcprjTi (not ypdcprfii) : Kpvcp- 
Styrt (not Kpv(p'3r]%i). 

Irregular Substantives. 

9. EF R. means root (from which the word is declined regu- 
larly). 

drjBwv, (tj), nightingale. G. drjftovs (for dndovos). V. dr)8oi. 
SXs, a\6s (6), salt. PI. usually ol a\es, <ov, &c. 
akcos (ji), threshing-floor: mostly after Attic 2nd Decl. (with ace. 

aka>) ; akcovos, &c. later. 
avag, avaKT-os, king. V. ava (but only when a god is invoked). 
'AnoWtov, covos, Apollo. Ace. 'AttoXXgo. V. "AnoXKov. 
"Aprjs (Mars). G. "Apecos : in the poets (for the sake of the metre), 

"Apeos, "Apei, "Apt] and *Ap-qv. V. "Apes. 
do-Trjp, star. Dat. pi. aorpd&ij but not syncopated in other cases. 
yd\a (to), milk. R. yd\a<T. (Dat. pi. yaXa^i, Plat.) 
yek-cos, cotos, &c. (6), laughter. Ace. yeXcora, and, in poets and 

Lucian, yeXcov. 
yovv (to), knee. R. yovax. 
yvvf], woman, wife. R. yvvaiic.* V. yvvai. 
bevbpov, tree. Regular : but in D. pi. (usually) 8ev8peo-i(p). 
86pv (to), spear. R. dopar. Thuc. has old D. dopi. 
eyx^Xus (6), eel. G. -vos, &c. ; but in dual and pi. like tttjxvs. 

the exception of 77 (of which the first 7 = ng). Of the smooth mutes, 
7r and k are but seldom doubled ('(ttttos, Xo-kkos) : t freqiiently ; as are 
also <x and the liquids. • 

* With accent on the ult. of G. and D. yvvaittos, yvyami, yvvaiKwv, 
yvvai^i, yvvaiKolv (JSsch. Chozph. 302), &c., but yvvaiKa, yvvcuKes. &C 



9. J NOTES. 179 

eiVcoi/, ovos (fj), image. G. cIkovs. Acc. eli«a (mostly Ion. and 

poet.). Acc. pi. (Ikovs (Observe the accent). 
Zeis, Jupiter. Ai-6s, Au, Ala. V. Zev. [Zrjvos, ZtjvL, Zijva, poet.]. 
rjp-a>s, <oos, hero. Acc. rjpa>a, and also rjpa>. In poets t<» fjpco, and 

ol, tovs rjpas (the last also Luc). 
Qakfjs, Thales. GdXeco, QaKrj, QaXrjv. In later writers also Qakov, 

and QaXrjTos, -ti, &c. 
3/»| (77), /mir. G. rpix-os, & c « D. pi. 3pt|/(i»). [R. SptxO 
/caps (to), ^carf. G. Kparos - . D. /coari and <dpa. A. to napa*, and 

(Trag.) rbv and to Kpara. Acc. pi. toi*? uparas (Eur.). 
KXety (17), fee?/. KXetSo's, AcXetSt, /cXeTSa and wore commonly /cXtly. 

Plur. /cXeiSes. Acc. /cXeij, later Kkeldas. [Eur. xXfida, -das from 

old Att. kX^s-.] 
kvkecov (6), mess; porridge. Acc. KVKeco,for Kvnecova. 
kvcov, dog. R. KUJ/. V. KUOIA 
Xaa?, Xa? (6), stone. Xdos (in Soph. Xdou), Xaii, Xdav and Xai> (Xaa, 

Callim.). PL Xaey, Xda>i>, Xdecrcriz/ and Xdeaiv. 
\i7rd, prob. acc. from obsol. r6 \l7ra ; found with dXei<pe«>, as acc. 

cognatce significations. 
p.dprvs, xvitness. pAprvp-os, 1. Acc. a and (Zess commonly) pdprvv. 

D. pi. /ndpr{;o-i(i>). [Mdprup nom. iEol. and late.] 
vavs (77), ship. The Attic forms are : vews, vrji, vavv | (fee ?), veoiv | 

vrjes, vecov, vava'i, vavs. [G. irqos, &c. Att. poets and later prose.] 
OISlttovs, CEdipus. OlSiTrodos and OtStVou. D. OtStVoSt. Acc. 

OiSiVroSa and OI&ittovv. V. Oldi7rov. 
opvis (6, 17), 07>d", opvVSos, &c. Acc. opv'&a, less commonly 6pj/ti>. 

PI. reg. also (more poetical) opvets, dpvecov. D. opvio-i(v), only Acc. 

opveas, or opvls. [On the quantity of the 1 see Liddell and Scott.] 
ovs (to), ear. R. &>r. [G. plur. ootcov.] 

Hvv£ (rj), the Pnyx. G. Hvkv-6s, &C. w&A transposition of the con- 
sonants. 
Uoo-eibav, Neptune. Acc. noo-eiSai. V. ILoaeibov. 
a-Kcop (to), filth. R. ovcar. Hence G. o-Kardy, &C 
vdcop (to), water. R. vSar. 

X^i-p (f)), hand. x eL P° s > & c< but G. and D. Dual, x^polv, Dat. PI. x e P°"'- 
^eXlScoi/ (17), swallow. ^eXtSdvoy, but D. xeXtSoI. 
vids, son. G. tjiov, reg., out also the following cases from vlevst 

vUos, vlet. Du. vUe, vUoiv. PI. vteTy, vlecov, vUcri(v), vteis. 

Thucydides, Plato, and the orators prefer these forms. 



180 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [10, 11. 

* - 

On the place of av. 

10. As av represents the predicate as conditional, it ought properly 
to be joined with the predicate, e. g. \eyoip,L av, eXeyov av ; yet it 
commonly follows that member of a sentence which is to be made 
emphatic, e. g. nal ova o'Ui ao'x r ]\ i - ov av <pavelcr?}ai to tov laxpd- 
rovs npay/xa. Hence it is regularly joined to such words as modify 
the whole meaning of the sentence, viz. to negative verbs and inter- 
TOgatives : ovk av, oiff civ, ovttot av, ov§£ttot av, &C. — ris av, tl av, 
tl S' av, tl drjr av, ttcos av, tto>s yap av, ap av, &C. ; — also to adverbs 
of place, time, manner, and other adverbs, which in various ways 
modify the expression contained in the predicate and define it more 
exactly : ivrav^a av, tot av, cIkotcos av, 'lctcos av, Tax ®- v i A i "^ l O" r ' "^ 
f)Kio-T civ, pa8l(os av, rjdtcos av, &C ; to et, eVeiSi], ore, cmore, os with Subj. 
(hence edv [fjv, av,] iireibdv, otov, oirorav — 6s av=quicunque ; si quis). 

Or cms* 

1 1 . Both Crasis and Elision are marked, as the soft breathing is, 
by a comma over the syllable. 

When two words, one of which ends and the other begins with 
a vowel, come together, it often happens that these vowels are 
changed into one long vowel-sound. This union is called Crcksis, 
and the sign of it CorOnis. The Coronis is placed above the vowel- 
sound formed by Crasis ; and when this is a diphthong, above the 
second vowel ; but it is omitted Avhen the word begins with the 
vowel-sound formed by Crasis ; as : to ovop.a = rovvop.a, to eVos = 
Tov7ros, to. aya%a "=■ TayaSa, 6 olvos — cavos. 

When the combination formed by crasis is a dissyllable or tro- 
chaic word (""), some grammarians still retain the accent of the se- 
cond word ; others change the acute into the circumflex. Thus, 
when the second word is paroxytone, some write tovitos, TaXka, 
Tapya (for to tiros, to. aWa, to. epya) ' others, tovttos, TaXXa, Tapya. 
The change into the circumflex is founded on the authority of the 
best MSS. It is, however, against the principle, that in contractions 
the circumflex arises only when the first of the contracted syllables 
has the acute, the second the grave. 

If of the two vowel-sounds that are blended into one sound by 
Cr&sis, the latter is a diphthong that contains i, the i is written under 

* Kpaais means a mixing or blending. Kopowis, any thing curved ; 
hence, a little curved mark with the pen. 



12.] 



NOTES. 



181 



(t subscript) : it is not underwritten, when only the former is such 
a diphthong. Thus : kcu eZra—Kara ; but nal e7reira = /caVetra. 

Elision* consists in simply throwing away a short vowel at the 
end of a word before another beginning with a vowel. The sign of 
this is called Apostrophe ;* e. g. dnb o'Lkov == dn o'Uov. 

If the elision causes a smooth mute to precede an aspirate, the 
smooth mute must be changed into the aspirate. Thus, not air ov, 
but dc/)' ov ; not dvr hv, but di/3' hv. — So in Crasis ; a smooth mute 
before an aspirated vowel is changed into the aspirate mute of the 
same organ : to. erepa = Zarepa. 

Correlative Adjectives and Adverbs. 
12. Correlative words are those which express a mutual relation 
{correlation) to each other, and represent this relation by a corre- 
sponding form. 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 



Interrogative. 


Indefinite. 


Demonstrative. 

toctos, -7/,f -ov. 
so great, so 
much, tantus 

TO<xdj6Vroo"7ySe. 
rocrovde 


Relat. and De- 
pend. Interrog. 


7r6cros, -rj, -ov ; 
how great ? 
how much ? 
quantus ? 


ttoo-6s, -T), -ov, 
of some size 
or number, 
aliquantus 


oo-os, -rj, -ov, and 

OTTOaOS, -T], -ov,\ 

quantus 






TOCTOVTOS, -aVTTj. 

-ovTo(y) 




7toTo?, -a, -ov ; 
of what kind? 
qualis ? 


TTOLOS, -d, -6v, 
of some kind 


Tolas, -a, -ov,f 
of such a kind, 
talis 

rotdo"Se, Toidde, 
rotoVSe 

TOLOIITOS, -aVTTj, 
-OVTo(v) 


olos, -a, -ov, and 
ottoIos, -a>, -ov, 
qualis 


7TT]\[KOS,-rj,OV; 

how great ? 
how old ? 


wanting 


twXikos, -ov, so 
great, so old 

TTjXiKosbe, -rjde, 
-6v8e 

ttjXlkovtos, -av- 
Trj, -ovto(v) 


tjXikos, -rj, -ov, 

and 
orrnXiKos, -r], -ov, 

how great, how 

old 



* Elisio (Lat.), a squeezing out. 'Airoo-Tpotyr) means a turning away. 

■f Except in the combinations toTos kou (7)) toios • t6<tos koI t6<tos • 
Sea; — tSctw (= quo — eo, rare), and e« t6<tov, these forms were super- 
seded by the compound forms : TotosSe, &c. 

% The forms beginning with cW- are regularly the dependent inter- 
rogatives. 



182 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[13. 



(b) Adverbial Correlatives. 



Interrogative. 


Indefinite. 


Demon- 
strative. 


Relative. 


Dependent 
Interrog. 


ttov ; where ? 


ttov, some- 


wanting [eV 


ov, where, 


ottov, where, 


ubi? 


where, ali- 
cubi 


de, here : ocei, 
there] 


ubi 


ubi 


7r6%ev ; whence? 


7ro3eV,/rom 


wanting \iv- 


(few, whence, 


oTrdSei/, 


unde ? 


someplace, 


3eVSe, evrev- 


unde 


whence, un- 




alicunde 


Sev, hence : i- 
Kel^ev, thence] 




de 


7roi; whither? 


ttol, to some 


wanting [e- 


oi, whither, 


oirot, whi- 


quo ? 


place, ali- 
quo 


nelcre, thither: 
sts. ivrav'Sa, 
eVSaSe == 
hither] 


quo 


ther, quo 


7Tore ; when ? 


noTe, some- 


TOTe,lhen,tum 


ore, when, 


6iroT€,rohen, 


quando ? 


time, ali- 
quando 




quum 


quando 


7TT)VLica ; quo 


wanting 


rrjvi- ^J hoc 


fjviica, when, 


OTT-qviKa, 


temporispun- 




Ka8e 1 ipso 


quo ipso 


when, quo 


cto ? quota 




ttjvl- j tem- 


tempore 


ipso tem- 


hora ? 




Kavra) pore 




pore 


ira>s ; how? 


ncos, some 
how 


ovtco(s), a>8e, 
so 


ws, hoio 


ottcos, how 


tttj ; whither ? 


tvt], to some 


777 §e ) hither 


fj, where, 


onr], where, 


[also where ?] 


place, some 


TavTw ) or here 


whither 


whither. 


how ? 


how 









Irregular Comparison. 

13. These comparatives and superlatives really belong to some 
obsolete positive, but are conveniently arranged under some extant 
positive with which they agree in meaning. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

( apetvcov, neut. apeivov ( apicrros. 
| fteXricop | (3€\tio~tos. 

1. ayaSoy, good -l KpelcrtTcov, Att. Kpeir- \ KpartcrTos. 

tcov* ^ 

XcpCOV (for XcOlCOv) [^XcOtTTOS. 

C KOKICOV 5 KO.KHTTOS. 

2. KaKos, bad < x €L P <£ > v ( x €l P ia " ros ' 

( fjcro-cov, Att. tJttcov* (inferior). 



* The forms in -crawv occur in the earlier Attic writers. 



13.] 



NOTES. 



183 



icakos, beautiful koWlgov 

rx / • r 7 S aXyeivorepos 

akyeivos, painful ) >\ ' 



jxaKpos, long 
fiiicpos, small 



7. oklyos, little 

8. peyas.. grea^ 

9. 7roXvs, v^Wc/l 

10. paStoy, easy 

1 1 . 7reiT<ov. ripe 

12. 7rlcov, fat 



■p-ciKporepos 

p.lKpOT€pOS 

fieiant 

eXdacrofiv, Att. eXarrcov* 

p.ei£ci>v 

Trke'iwv or rrXeaov 

pqa>v 

neTraiTepos 

morepos 



KaXXlCTTOS' 

aXyeivoraTos- 
aXyurros. 

p-aKpoToros and pTJKl- 
p.iKpoTaros- [oros. 

e\a)(t(TTOS. 

dXiyicrros. 

p.iyi(TTOs. 

7r\el<rTos. 

pao-ros. 

ireiTa itcitos. 

TTioraros. 



* The form in -<t<twv occurs in the earlier Attic writers. 



PARADIGMS. 



0° For the convenience of the pupil and for easy reference, the 
various Paradigms given at intervals (as well as the others required 
for use) are here collected together. 

1. The Article. 





Singular. 






Plural. 








Dual. 






m. f. 


n. 




m. f. 


n. 






m. f. 


n. 


N. 


o ^ ^ 


TO 


N. 


e e 

01 ai 


TO. 


N. 


A. 


to> \ra\ 


T(H 


G. 


TOV TTjS 


TOV 


G. 


TCOV TCOV 


TCOV 


G. 


D. 


rolv [rail'] 


Tolv 


D. 


TCO TJj 


TCO 


D. 


toIs Tais 


Tols 










A. 


TOV TT)V 


TO 


A. 


TOVS TO.S 


TO. 











a) In the dual the feminine is more commonly rco, toIv, than to, 
tolv. Td (as fern, dual) is very uncommon. 

2. Terminations, of the Three Declensions. 

I. II. III. 



Sing. 
Nom. 

Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 
Voc. 

Plur. 
N. V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 

Dual. 
N.A.V. 
G. D. 




rjs or as 




7] or a 

t)v or av 

r\ or a 



m.f. 

os, neut. ov 



ov 

CO 

ov, 



neut. ov 
neut. ov 



av (circumfiexed) 

ais 

as 

a 
aiv 



oi, neut. a 
cov 

OlS 

ovs, neut. a 

CO 
01V 



various 



os (cos) 

i 

a or v \ 



neut. as 
nom. 

neut. a 



as, 

cov 

o~lv or CTl 

as, neut. a 

€ 
01V 



In the second declension, and in masculine nouns of thej^rs^, the 
original termination of the gen. sing, was o (the final letter of the 
roots being a, o, respectively) ; a-o and o-o being contracted into ov. 
The termination of the dative singular is i in all the declensions, but 
in the first two it is subscript. 

In the formation of the dative plural the T-sounds and v are 
rejected : and 

avrcTi evrcri ovrcri vvtcti 

become acn fieri overt vert. 



186 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[3, 4, 5. 



Sing. Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Voc. • 
Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. , 
Ace. 
Voc. 
N.A.V 



Plur. 



Dual 



G. D. 



victory. 

VIKT] 
VlKTjS 
v'lKT] 
VLKT]V 
vIkT] u 

vIkcii 

VCKCOV 
VLKCLltS 

ViKas 

vlica 
vlnatv 



3. First Declension 

Muse. 
Movcra 
Movarjs 
M overt] 
Movcrav 
Movcra 
Movcrai 
Movcrcov 
~M.ovo-a.Ls 
Movcras 
Movcrai 
Movcra. 
Movaaiv 



attempt. 

jrelpa 

rrelpas 

7T€ipa 

netpav 

nelpa 

jreipai 

7re ipeov 

nelpais 

nelpas 

irelpai 

nelpa. 

irelpaiv 

4. Second Declension 
island 



citizen, young man. 
ttoXItijs (z) veavlas 

ttoXItov veavlov 

irokiTrj veavl a 

noXlrvv veavl&v 

7roArra veavla 

iroXirai veavlai 

ttoXitcov veavicov 

noXlrais veavlais 

iroXlras veavias 

TToklrai veavlai 

ttoXItS, veavla 

noXlraiv veavlaiv 



word. isiand. way. 

Sing. N. Xoyos vrjaos 6t)6s 

G. Adyou vfjerov 6b)ov 

D. Xoyco vr)crco 6§c3 

A. Xoyov vrjerov 686v 

V. c Xoye vrjere 68e 

Plur. N. Adyoi vrjcroi odol 

"G. Xoycov vfjo-cov „ 68a>v 

D. Xoyois vrjcrois odols 

A. Xoyovs vfjeruvs 6t)ovs 

V. XoyoL vrjaoL odol 

Dual. N.A.V. Xoyco vrjera) 68a> 

G. D. Xoyotv vtjo-olv , 68o1v 

The Vocative of words in psr sometimes ends in os ; as 
arid Z> (plXos ', always a» 3edy. ■ 

5. (Adjectives in o?.) 



garment. 

Ip-CLTIOV 

Ip-arlov 

Iparlco 

l/idriov 

Ipariov 

ip.a.Tia 

Iparlcov 

lp,arlois 

Ipdria 

Ipdria. 

ip-arlao 

Ip-aTiotv 

a> (plXe 



Sing. „ 
TJora.- "y 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. . 
Voc. . . 

Plur. 
Nom. V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 

Dual. 
N. A. V. 
G. D. 



m. 
aya%6s 
.^.ya^pv 
dya3(5 
dya'Sov 
dya%e 



(good.) 

/•, 

dya'ir) 

dya'Srjs 
dya%fj 
dya%r]v 
dya?Sr] 



n. 
aya%6v 
dyaSot) 
dya3a> 
dyaSoV 
dyatSov 



dyaSot aya%al dyaSd 

dyaScov dyaScov dyaScoj' 

dya'Sols dyaSals dya^ols 

ayaSovs dya^ds dyaSa 

dya3a> aya%d * dyaSa) 

dyaSolv ayafSalv dya'Solv 



(hateful, hostile.) 



m. 

ex^pos 
ex'Spov 

f 'x 3 pf 

ex^pdv 
e X ^pe 



/• 
ex^pd 

ex^pds 
e^3p? 
e'x^pdv 
e X ^pd 



n. 
ex^pov 
ex^pov 

<[x 3 pf 

ex^pdv 
ex^pov 



ex^pol ix^pal e'x^pa 

ix'Sp&v ex'SptoV ex^pa>v 

ex^pols ex^pals e^Spoiff 

ex^povs ex^pds ex^pd. 

e^Spca f'x^P" tX^P® 

ex^polv ix^pcuv ex^poiv 



6, 7, 8.] 



PARADIGMS. 



187 



S. N. 




7rXoOS 


= 77X009 


G. 






nXov 


D. 






7rXo) 


A. 






ttXovv 


V. 






7r\0V 


P.N. 






nkol 


G. 






Trkcov 


D. 






likens 


A. 






irkovs 


V. 






77X01 


D.N. 


A. 


V. 


7rX&> 


G. 


D. 




77X011/ 



6. Contraction of the Second Declension. 

00 (ft) (c) k 

voyage. voyage round. bone. 

7rXooy = 77X009 ireprnkoos = 7repi7rkovs oareov = octtovv. 

7repinAov OCTTOV 

Trepiirkcp oVr/u 

Trepiirkovv octtovv 

Trepnrkov . doroOv 

7rept7rXot oora 

7re pLnkcoP ■**' octtcov 

nepnrkois- 6o~to7s 

irepnrkovs ocrrd 

7rep'nrkoi Sard 

Trepiirkco ocrrcb 

Trepnrkoiv OCTTOIV 

7. Adjectives in (eo9, 00? =) ou?. 
(«) , ,. ' f ', (&) 

o S (xpv&e-os xP V(T *~ a XP^ <T€ ' ov ^ ^ a.7r\6-os 077X0-77 anko-ov 

I xP V(ro ^ s XP vcr V XP V(T0 ^ V I dnkovs 077X77 dirkovv 

Xpvcrox) xP vcr V s XP v<T °v a7rkov 077X779 a7rkov 

Xpvaco xP V(T fi XP ucr< ? ' dnkco dwkr} aTrka 

Xpv(rovv xP va V v XP V(ro ^ v dnkovv a7rkrjv d-rrkovv 

P. xP vcro ^ XP V(ra ^ xpwd ottXoi drrkal dwkd 

Xpvacov (m.f. n.) dn-kcov (m. f. n.) 

Xpva-ols xP V(Ta ^ s XP V(T0 ''' 5 aTrkols aTrkals a7rXois 

Xpvaovs xP v<T ^s XP V<T ^ L drrkovs "077X09 077X0 

D. xP V(r< x> xpucra XP V<T ^ 077X0) a77Xa 077X0) 

Xpvcroiv xP v<jaLV XP V(T01V cbrAofW dnkaiv dnkolv 

(The fem. e'a = a, when a vowel or p precedes : (dpyvpeos =.) 
dpyvpovs, dpyvpd, dpyvpovv.) 





8. Attic 


[Second) Declension. 




Lesson 18.] 
Sing. N. 


(a) 
people. 
6 kecos 




(ft) 
rope. 

r\ Kakcas 


(c)" ■ 
dining-roont; 
to dvcoyecov 


G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 


keco 
keep 
kecov 
Xeoby 




KakcO 

Kakco 

Kakcov 

Kakcos 


dvcoyeco 
dvcoyeco 
dvcoyecov 
dvcoyecov 


PI. N. 
G. 
D. 


keep 
kecou 
keeps . 




Kakco 

Kakcov 

kakcos 


dvcoyeco 

dvcoyecov 

dveoyeeps 


A. 


kecos 




Kakcos 


dvcoyeco 


V. 

Dual. N. A. V. 
G. D. 


keep 
keco 

kecov 

■ 




Kakco 
Kakco 
KaXcov 


dvcoyeco 
dvcoyeco 
dvcoyecov 



188 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[9, 10. 



9. Adjective in eto? {m-f.), ecov (n.). 



Sing. 

m. f. n. 

N. tXecos tXecov 

G. tXeco iXeco 

D. tXeco IXeop 

A. IXeav iXeeov 

V. iXecos iXecou 

Dual. N. A. V. iXeca 



Plur. 

TXeCO 

iXecov 
IXecos 
TXeoos 
iXeco 

G. D. TXeeov 



10. Third Declension. 
Sing 



N. 
G. 
D. 



6 (raven) 
Kopa£ 
KopaKos 
Kopani 
A. KopaKa 
V. Kopa£ 
Plur. 

N. KopaK.es 
G. KopaKcav 
D. /cdpa£i(» a 
A. KopaKas 
V. KopctKes 
Dual. 
N. A. V. KopaKe 

G. D. KOpaKOLV 

a = /cJpa/c-crt(j/) 



Roots, KopaK, 7rai8, 3co, wpayp-ar, %r)p, 
aicov, daip.ov, Xeovr, yiyavr 
6, 77 (child) 6 (jackal) to (thing) 



ivais 

Traihos 

TraihL 

nalba 

Tval 

nalbes 
iraibop 

iraio-L(v) b 

Traibas 

Tralbes 

Tratbe 
Traiboiv 



%a>s 

Scods 

Scot 

Sa>a 

Scos 

Saies 

3coooi> 

3cocrt(i>) 

Scoas 

Scoes 

Scoe 
Scootv 



b ss TraiS-criu. 



irpaypa 

rrpdyparos 

Trpdypari 

Trpayjxa 

rrpayp-a 

Tvpa.yp.aTa 

TTpayp.a.T(av 

7rpdypaai(v) c 

7rpa.yp.aTa 

7rpa.yp.aTa 

rrpdypaTe 
TTpayp-droiv. 

irpayp.aT-ffiv. 



Sing. 6 (animal) 6 (age) 6, f), (divinity) 6 (lion) 



Plur. 



N. 3jyp 
G. %T]p6s 
D. %r]pl 
A. 3?)pa 
V. ^p 



ai(ov 

alcovos 

alcovi 

alcova 

alcov 



8aipa>u 

baip,ovos 

ha'ip.ovi 

ba'ip.ova 

daip.ov 



N. %rjpes 

G. Srjpcov 

D. %TjporL(v) 

A. %r)pas 

V. %rjp€S 

Dual. 

N. A.\ 7 . Sijpe 

G. D. Sf/poli/ 

<* = aiwj'-a'i(j'). 
* = yiyavT-ffi(v). 



alcoves 8aip,oves 
aloovcov baip,6va>v 
alwo-i(v) A 8aip.oai(vy 
alcovas daip-ovas 
8alp.oves 



Xecov 

Xeovros 

XeovTi 

Xeovra 

Xeov 

Xeovres 
XeovTiov 



6 (giant) 

yiyds 

yiyavTOS 

yiyavTt 

yiyavra 

ylyav 

yiyavres 
yiydvTCOV 



aicoves 



aicove 
aloovoiv 



Xeovo-L(v) { yiydo-i.(v)Z 
XeovTas yiyavTas 
XeovTes yiyavTes 



balp-ove 
baip-ovoiv 



XeovTe 
XeovToiv 



e = §aip.ov-ffi(v). 



yiyavre 
yiyavroiv 

f = KeovT-<xi(v). 



11—15.] 



PARADIGMS. 



189 



11. 

(Root evftatpov.) 

m. f. n. 

N. evdaipcov evdaipov 

G. evdaipovos 

D. evhaipovi 

A. evdaipova evbcupov 

V. evdaipov 



Comparative in eov. 
12. 



Singular. 

m. f. 



pelgovos 
peigovi 
peigova or peigco 
pelgov 



n. 
peigov 



pelgov 



Plural. 



N.V. evdaipoves evbaipova 

G. evbaipovoav 

D. ev$aipoo~i(v) 

A, evftaipovas evdaipova 



5 pe'igoves 
( peigovs 



pe'igovas 
peigovs 



Dual. 



N.A.V. 
G.D. 



evhaipove 
evdaipovoiv 



13. 

(Root peXav.) Singular. 

N. peXds peXaiva peXav 
G. peXavos peXaivqs peXavos 
D. peXavi piXaiyrj peXavi 
A. peXava peXaivav peXav 
V. peXas peXatva peXav 



Xapieis 

Xapievros 

Xapievri 

Xaplevra 

Xapiev 



pelgova 
peigco 
peigovcov 
peigoo~i(v) 

S pelgova 
( peigco 

pelgove 
peigovoiv 

14. 

(Root xapievr.) 
Xapi€(T(ra xaplev 
Xopi€crar]s xapUvros 
Xapiecrar) x a P L(VTl 
Xapieao-av x a P Lev 
Xapiecrcra x a P Lev 



Plural. 



N.V. peXaves peXaivai peXava 
G. peXdvcov peXaivoov peXdvcov 
D. peXacrt(v) peXaivais peXacri(v) 
A. peXavas peXalvas peXava 



Xapievres x a P i€<ro ~ aL X a P L€VTa 
Xaptevrcov x a P ieo ~°~< ov X a P L * VT00V 
Xapl-ecn(v)*xapie(Tcra.is x a pi*<r<-(v) 
Xapievras ^aptecrcra? ^api'evra 



Dual. 



N.A.V.pe'Xai/e peXaiva peXave 
G.D. peXdvoiv peXaivaiv peXdvoiv 



Xapievre x a P Le<T0 ~ a X a P l€VT€ 
Xapuvroiv x a P l * ~ ~ aiv X a P L * VTOlv 







15. 








Singular. (Root 


Travr.) 


Plural. 




N.V. 


irds Trdcra irav 




irdvres 


7rd(rai 


Trdvra 


G. 


navros 7rd(TT]s jravros 




Trdvrcov 


Traacov 


Trdvrcov 


D. 


iravTi 7rdcrrj ttclvti 




7rdcrc(p) 


Trdcrcus 


7rd(ri(v) 


A. 


Trdvra . iracrav txov 




Trdvras 


irdcras 


Trdvra 




Dual. N.A.V. jrdvre 




irdcra 


iravre 






G.D. TrdvTotv 




ndrraiv 


irdvTOiv 





* Obs. dat. xapiecri, not x a p'^icri. 



190 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[16—19. 



Sing. N.V. 

d! 

A. 

Plural. N.V. 
G. 



Dual. 



Sing. 



16. Participle of Pres. 

XeiTTCOV 
XelTTOVTOS 

Xelttovti 

XeiTTOVTO. 

XetTrovres 

XeiTTOVTCOV 

Xe'nrovcri(v) 
Xei7rovTas 

Xei7TOVT€ 

Xenroproiv 



D. 
A. 

N.A.V. 
G.D. 



N.V. 
G. 
D. 
A. 

Plural. N.V. 
G. 



1 7. Participle of Aor. 

Xeiyjfcis 
Xei-yj/avros 
XeiyjfavTi 
Xeiy\ravra 



Xefyaures 
X€L\j/-dvTa)v 
D. XeL^ta.(n{v) 

A. XetyavTas 

Dual. N.A.V. Xen/mz/re 

G.D. Xet^ravToiv 

18. (a) Sing. 

7ToXXt] TToXv 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 

N. 
G. 



ttoXv s 

TToXXoV 

ttoXXco 

TToXvV 
TToXv 



TToXXoV 

rroXXa 

TToXv 
TToXv 



TToXXol 

noXXcov 



rroXXd 

TToXXciiV 



etc 
19. 



Sing. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 
Plural. N. 
G. 



Dual. 



D. 

A. 

V. 

N.A.V. 

G.D. 



TroXXrjs 

TToXXfj 
TToXXljU 
TroXXr] 
Plural. 
TroXXai 

TTClXXoOV 

regular. 

(a) 

father. 

Trarrip 

7rarp6s 

Trarpi 

Trarepa 

Trdrep 

rrarepes 

narepcov 

Trarpdcri (y) 

Trarepas 

Trarepes 

rrarepe 

Trarepoiv 



Act. (Root Xei/rrovT.) 

Xei7rov(ra Xclttov 

Xeiirovcrrjs Xeiirovros 

Xenrovcr]] Xcittovti 

Xciirovcrav XgIttov 

Xeirrovcrai Xeiwovra 

Xenrovcrcov Xenrovrwv 

Xenrovcrais Xei7rovo-i(v) 

Xenrovcras XeiTrovra 

Xenrovcra XeinovTe 

Xei7rovcra.iv Xenrovrotv 



1. Act. (Root Xec^ravr.) 



Xei^rdcra 

Xei\jfdcrr)s 

XeL-^rdcrrj 

Xetyacrav 

Xetyacrai 

Xei^acrcov 

Xei\J/do~cus 

Xei\}sdcra.s 

Xet\jsdcra. 

XeL\j/-dcraiv 



Xe7.\jfdv 

XeiyjfavTos 

Xeiyj/^avTi 

Xelyjsav 

XztyavTa 

XeiyjsdvToov 

Xei\lfdcri(v) 

XelxjravTa 

Xetyavre 

Xei\jfdvTOLP 



p.eyas 

peydXov 

p,eydXa> 

p-eyav 

p,eya 

p.eydXot 
p-eydXcov 



(b) 
mother. 
[xrjrrip t 

prjrpos 
prjTpi 
prjrepa 
rfrep 
prjrepes 
prjTepcov 
p.r)Tpdo-i(y) 
p.T]Tepas 
prjrepes 
p,r}T€pe 
p,t]Tepoiv 



(&) Sing 
peydXr] 
peydXrjs 
peydXrj 
[xeydXrju 
p.eydXr) 
Plural. 
peydXai, 
pceydXcov 

etc 

(c) 
daughter. 
^vydrrjp 
'Svyarpos 
JSvyarpl 
'ZSvyarepa 
Svyarep 
Svyarepes 
Svyarepoov 
^vyarpdcrL^v) 
"Svyarepas 
%vya.Tepes 
Suyarepe 
Svyarepoiv 



p,eya 

peydXov 

peydXco 

peya 

p.kya 



regular. 
(d) 



peydXa 
p-eydXcov 



man. 

dvrjp 

dv-8-pos 

dv-h-pl 

av-8-pa 

avep 

av-8-pes 

dv-b-pcov 

dv-b-pdo~i(v) 

av-b-pas 

av-8-pes 

av-8-pe 

dv-b-poiv 



20—22.] 



PARADIGMS. 



191 



20. 

Sing. N. to Kepas 

G. Kepdr-os, Kepcos 

D. Kepar-L, Kepa 

A. Kepas 

Plural. N. Klpar-a, Kepa. 

G. Kepdr-cov, Kepoov 

D. Kepa-ai(v) 

A. KepciT-a, <epa 

N.A.V. Kepar-e, Kepa (?) 
G.D. Kepar-OLV, Kepcov (?) 



Dual. 



trireme. 



21. 

Singular. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 

N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 

N.A.V. 
G.D. 



Sing:. 



(rpiripeos) 
{rpiijpea) 



(rpirjpees) 
(rpLrjpeociv) 

(rpiTjpeas) 
(rpirjpees) 

(rpirjpee) 
(rpirjpeoLv) 



TpLrjprjs 

rpifjpovs 

Tpirjpet 

Tpirjpr] 

Tpirjpes 



(rft'^eo?) 
(reixe'i) 



to Kpeas 
Kpeas 
Kpea 
Kpeas 
Kpea 
Kpecou 
Kpea-o~i(y) 
Kpea. 
Kpea. 
Kpe&v 



wall. 

TO Te7)(OS 

reixpvs 

Telnet 
Tel^os 
Tet^os 



Plural. 



TpL-qpeis 

Tpi7]pO>V 

Tpir]pecn(v) 

Tpirjpeis 

rpirjpeis 



(relxea) 

(ret'xea) 
(rei'xea) 
Dual. 
Tpt^pr) (reix € f) 

Tptrjpoiv (reixeoiv) 

22. Adjective in 779. 
m.f. 



Tew 

Teix&v 

Te'ixeo~i(v) 

Tei X r) 

Teixn 

T€L X r}^ 
Teixpiv 



o~a(f)r)S 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 
Plural. N. 
G. 
D. 

A. (cra(pe-as) o-a(pels 
V. (o-ac^e-es) aacpels 
N.A.V. o-acpe-e. 

G.D. o~a(pe-oiv 



(ara(f)e-a) aacprj 
o~a(pes 
(cra(pe-es) cra(pe7s 



(o~a(j)e-os) aacpovs 
(o~a<fie-i) o~a(pel 



n. 
o~a(f)es 



(o-a(pe-cov) cra^cov 

aa(f)ecrt(i>) 



craves 
o~a(pes 
(cra(pe-a) cracprj 



Dual. 



cra<f)T) 
aacpolv 



(o~a(pe-a.) o~a(prj 
(o~a<pe-a) cra(prj 



\£T Compound paroxytones in 77? remain paroxy tones in the con- 
tracted Gen. pi. ; as : a-vvrj^cov, avTapKcou (fr. o-vvrpns, avTapKrjs). 



192 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[23—29. 



23. 


24. 


25. 


Sing. Plur. Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. Plur. 


city, town. fore-arm ; cubit. 


city. 


N. noXis (r)) TtoXeis 


Trr)xvs (0) 


7TTJX €lS 


ao~rv (to) aarq 


G. 7T0k€(i)S TToXeObV 


7TT]X€(OS 


7rr)x €cov 


a.O~T60S aO~T€COV 


D. 7roXet TToXeaiiv) 


TTTj^ei 


Trr)x ecri (y) 


ao~Tei ao~Teo~i(y) 


A. ttoXov wokeis 


TTT]X VV 


7rr)xeis 


acrrv acrrr] 


V. 7r6Xl rroXeis 


TT^XV 


7TT]X €lS 


acrrv ao~rq 


Dual. N.A.V. 7rdXee (770X77) 


{ Dual of 7tt]x vs an d 


G.D. TToXeOLV 




I aa-Tv not found. 



26. 
(Adjectives in vs are contracted in some forms.) 
Singular. Plural. 

m. /. n. m. f. n. 

N. yXvKvs yXvKela yXvKv yXvKels yXvKelai yXvKea 

G. yXvKeos ykvKeias yXvKeos yXvKeoav yXvKeicov yXvKecou 
D. yXvKel yXvKei'a yXvKel yXvKecri(y) yXvKeiais yXvKecn(v) 
A. yXvKvv yXvKelav yXvKv yXvKeis yXvueias yXvKea 

V. yXvKv yXvKem yXvKv yXvKels yXvKelai yXvuea 

Dual. N.A.V. yXvK.ee yXvKeia yXvitee 

G. yXvKeoiv yXvKeleiv yXvKeoiv 











27. 








Singular. 




Plural, 
a king. 


Dual. 


N. 


6 ftacriXevs 


N. 


fiao-iXels (old Att. (3ao~iXrjs) 


N.A.V. /Sao-tXee 


G. 


fiacriXeoos 


G. 


(3acriXea>v 




G.D. /3ao"tXeoi7> 


D. 


/3ao~iXeI 


D. 


(BacriXevcri^v') 






A. 


/3ao~iXed 


A. 


fiacriXeas ((BacnXels) 






V. 


(SacrtXev 


V. 


fiacnXels 












28. 






Singular. 




Plural. 


Dual. 




N. lx%vs 




N. Ix^ves 


n.a.$ [ ^ ] 




G. Ix^vos 




G. Ix^vcov 




D. Ix%vl 




D. Ix^vaiv 


G.D. i^SiJoiv 




A. Ix^vv 




A. Ix^vs 






V. Ijjpv 




V. i^Sues 
29. 


■ 




Singula 


r. 




Plural. 


N. 


ftovs y/ 


lavs 




/3oes [/^ovy 


I ypaes [ypaus] 


G. 


(Boos y/ 


laos 




/3og>i> 


ypawv 


D. 


fiot y/ 


iat 




(Bovcriv 


ypavo~Lv 


A. 


ftovv y\ 


oavv 




[fioas] j3ovs 


\ypaas] ypavs 


V. 


[j3ov] y, 


lav 




(36es \_@ovs 


ypa.es [ypa^sj 




] 


3ua 


1. I 


tf.A.V. jSo'e. G 


r.D. /So 


oii>. 



30—34.] 



PARADIGMS. 



193 









30. 


31. 


32, 


Sing. 


N. 


6, fj nopris, calf. 


if ey^eXuf, eel. 


6, 17 otr, sheep. 




G. 




TTOpTL-OS 


ey%eXv-os 


olos 




D. 




7r6pri-t, Troprv 


ey%eXv-'i 


oil 




A. 




nopriv 


ey^eXvv 


■>/-• 

OLV 




V. 




JTOpTl 


ey^eXv 


ols 


Plur. 


N. 




nopri-es, noprls 


iyXeXets 


oies 




G. 




TTOpTL-OiV 


iyXeXe-a>v 


olatv 




D. 




Tr6pTL-(n(y) 


eyxeke-aifv) 


olo~i(v) 




A. 




tropn-as, Troprls 


iy%eXeis 


oias, rarer ols 




V. 




7TOpTl-eS, TTOpTlS 


ey^eXeis 


ohs 


Dual.N.A.V. 


TTOpTL-C 


eyx^Xe-e 


oie 




G.D. 


7TOpTl-OLV 


ey%eXe-oiv 


ololv 


Xenophon 


uses the Ionic forms of ols, viz. 


St.. 31.. V* J/.. 

oiv, oies, olcou, oias 


and ois.- 


-K. 










33 


. Participle of Aor. 1. 


Pass. (Root XeLcffeevr.) 








m. 


f; 


n. 


Sing. 




N. 


\*i<p%€is (oxytone) 


i XeMpSelo-a 


Xeicp'Sev 






G. 


Xei(jfe3eVros 


XeicpSeiarjs 


XeufiSevTos 






D. 


XeiCpSevTi 


XeiCp^cLarrj 


Xeicfi'SevTC 






A. 


Xei03eVra 


XeKp^elaav 


Xet(jf>3ei> 






V. 


Xeufi'Seis 


XeKp%elo~a 


Xet03ei> 


Plur. 




N. 


Xeicfi'Sevres 


Xet^)3eto"at 


Xetqb'Sevrd 






G. 


XetCp'SevraiV 


Xet03ft(rdjy 


Xeicp^Sevrcov 






D. 


\euh5Seifri(v) 


Xeicp'Seiaais 


XeKpSeio-i^v) 






A. 


Xeicfi'Sevras 


XeiCpSeiaas 


Xeicp^evra 






V. 


\ei(fi'%evT€s 


Xet^)3eto"ai 


Xeifp^evra 


Dual.N 


XeKp^evre 


Xei03eiVd 


Xet<p?ievre 






G.D. 


XeKp^evroLV 


Xei03etVatv 


Xeup^evroiv 




34. Participle of Aor. 


2. Act. (Root \ltt6vt.) 








m. 


%: 


n. 


Sing. 




N. 


Xnroav (oxytone) 


Xnrovcra 


XlTCOV 






G. 


Xnrovros 


XnrovcrrjS 


Xnrovros 






D. 


Xnrovri 


Xittovoji 


Xlttovti 






A. 


XlTTOVTCl 


Xnrovo~av 


XlTTOV 






V. 


Xnrdiv 


Xnrovo~a 


Xurov 


Plur. 




N. 


Xl7rOVT€S 


Xnrovcrai, 


Xnrovra 






G. 


Xnrovrcov 


XnrovoSiv 


Xnrovrcov 






D. 


Xnrovcn(v) 


Xnrovaats 


Xnrovo-t(v) 






A. 


XnrSvras 


XlTTOVCT^S 


Xnrovra 






V. 


Xnrovres 


Xnrovcrai 


Xnrovra 


Dual 


. N.A.V. 


Xnrovre 


XnrovcrO, 


Xnrovre 






g.d: 


XlTTOVTOLV 

9 


Xnrovo-aiv 


Xnrovroiv 



194 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[35—40.. 



35. Participle of Perf. Act. (Root 



Sing. N. V. 

* G. 

D. 

A. 

Plural. N. V. 
G. 
D. 
A. 

Dual.N.AV. 
G.D. 



XeXvKcas 
XeXvKoros 
XeXincoTL 
XeXvuora 

\e\vKOT€S 

XcXvkotcov 
XeXvKO(ri(v) 
XeXvKores 
XeXvKore 

XeXvKOTOLV 



XeXvKvla. 
XeXvKvlas 
XeXvKvla 
XfXvicvlau 

XeXvKvlai 

XeXvKviau 

XeXvKvtais 

XeXvKvias 

XeXvKvla 

XeXvKviaip 



XeXvKor.) 

XeXvKos 
XeXv kotos 

XeXvKOTL 

XeXvKos 

XeXvKora 

XeXvKOTow 

XeXvKOcri(i/) 

XeXvKora 

XeXvKore 

XeXvicoroiv 



36. Declension of the first four numerals. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



1 els, fiia, ev 
1 evos, fxias, evos 
1 ivi, /JLiq, evi 
1 eva, fxiav, ev 



N. 2 8io 

G. 2 dvolv (very seld. dve2v) 
D. 2 dvolv (un-Att. bvcri) 
A. 2 dvo 



3 rpels, rpia 
3 rpiutv 
3 Tpicri(v) 

3 rpels, rpia 

4 T€o~o~ap€s, a 
4 Teo~o~dpa>v 
4 Teo-crapcn(v) 



Tecrcrapes or rer- 
Tapes. — Avo may 
also be used as in- 
declinable for any 
)■ case.— 8vco is found 
(when the verse re- 
quires it) in non- 
Attic poets 



4 reo-aapas, a J Pindar]. 
37. Tis ; (interrog.) 38. T\s (indef.). 



[not 



m.f. 



n. 



m. f. 



n. 



N. 


TLS 


TL 


TLS 


TL 


G. 


TIVOS 


TIVOS 


TLVOS 


TLVOS 


D. 


TLVL 


TLVL 


TLVL 


TLVL 


A. 


Tiva 


TL 


Tiva 


TL 


N. 


Tives 


TLVa 


TLves 


Tivci 


G. 


TLVCOV 


TLV03V 


TLVCOV 


TLVO>V 


D. 


tlo-i(v) 


tlo~l(v) 


tlo-'l(v) 


tlctl(v) 


A. 


Tivas 


Tiva 


TLVCLS 


TLVa 


N. A. 


Tive 




TLve 




G.D. 


TLVOLV 




TLVolv 





Sing. 



Plur. 



Dual. 



In sing. G. tov, and D. ra are also found ; enclitic when for 
tivos. For neut. pi. Tivd (not for Tiva), ana (not enclit.) is also 
found in Attic. 

39. 40. 

Singular. 

ovSeis ov8ep.[a. ovbev, no ont 

ovhevos ov8ep,ids ovdevos 

ovdevi ovdepiq. ovdevi 

ovdevq ovdepLiav ovbev 



N. 


OVTLS 


G. 


OVTLVOS 


D. 


OVTLVL 


A. 


OVTLVa 



41 — 45] 



PARADIGMS. 



195 



Plural. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



N. 



ovrives 

OVTLVCOV 

OVTUTt 

OVTLVaS 



Dual. 



Though otdeis, firjBeis = not even one, 
yet (like our ' none 1 ) they are some- 
times found in the pi., principally 
in nom. and ace. (less commonly 
gen. and dat.) masc. old-eves (-evoov, 
-eaiv), -evas. 

Just so firjbels, [XT]8efiLa, jxrjbep. 



G.N. OVTIVOIV 

"A/jLcfxo (both) is declined like a dual : N. A. V. a/KJxo, G. & D. aufyoiv. 



Sing. 



Plural. 



Dual. 



41. 

eya> 
ijjiov, jiov 

CflOL, jXOL 

e/ie, fj.e 

TJUCOP 

D. r)uXv 
A. r\\xds 
N. A. [pom], voo 

G. D. [j'Wtl'], VCOV 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 

N. 
G. 



42. 

(TV 

(TOV 
0~Ol 

ere 

v/xels 

vficov 

v\iiv 

ifxas 

[cr(£<ai], <r(f)a> 
\jr($)(inv\, acjioov 

44. 

The reflexive pronouns are : m. ifiavrov, f. i/jLavrrjs, of myself; 
m. creavTov (or aavrov), f. o-eavrrjs (or (ravrt/s), of thyself; m. n. 
iavrov (or avroO), f. eavr^s (or avrrjs), of himself, herself, itself. 
The compound forms, fj^els (v/^eTy) avrol, are used for pi. of ijxav- 
tov, aeavrov. 



43. 

01 

creels [neut. cr(£ea] 

(repebv 

o~<fiicn(v) 

o-(f)as [neut. o~(f)ea] 
[(r^)coe] 
[o-<£ghV] 



creator- (crati7--)oi) -to 

creaur^o-caiT-)^? -77 

v^ets avrol ificov avrcov &c. 
ifiels avrai v/xcov avrcov &C. 
(or) aur-oi) -c5 -oi>, n. -6 
(or) avr-rjs -fj -tjv 
o7s -ovs, n. a (or) avr-cov -ols -ovs, n. a 
(or) avr-cov -als -as 



-ov 

-T)V 



n. 



S. m. ifAavT-ov -a> -oz/ 

f. ifACiVT-r]S -fj -7)V 

P. m. Tjfxels avrol rjucov avrcov 
f. fjfiels avrai r)}x6ov avrcov 
S. m. n. iavr-ov -co -6v, 
f. iavr-rjs -fj -tjv 
P. m. n. eavr-cov 

f. eavr-Sov -cus -as 
For 2?Z. the compound forms are often used (with more emphasis). 

P. m. o~(pcov avrcov, crcfilaiv avrols, o~<fids avrovs 
f. crepcov avrcov, cr(filo~iv airals, o~(pds avrds 

45. 
The reciprocal pronoun expresses that each object does the action 
to the other or others. 

Plural. G. aXkrjkcov, of each other Dual. a\\r)\oiv aiv ow 

D. dWrjXois ais 01s 
A. dXkrfKovs as a dXkr)\co a <o. 



196 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[46—51. 



Demonstrative (or Pointing-out) Pronouns. 



this. 



46. 



these. 



Sing. N. 


oSe 


fjbe 


robe 


Plur. N. 


o'ibe 


atSe 


Tabe 


G. 


Tovbe 


Ttjsbe 


Toiibe 


G. 


Tcovbe 


Tcovbe 


Tcovbe 


D. 


Tcobe 


Tjjbe 


rco fie 


D. 


Tolsbe 


Taisbe 


Tolsbe 


A. 


rovbe 


Tnvbe 


robe 


A. 


Tovsbe 


rdsbe 


Tabe 






Dual. N. A. TciSe 


Tabe 


Tcbbe 




= 








G. D. roivbe 


Taivbe 


rolvbe 












47. 






48. 














ipse (in the oblique cases, 








this. 






ejus, 


ei, eum, 


&a). 


Sing. 




N. 


OVTOS 


aVTTf] 


TOVTO 


avTos 


aVTT) 


avro 






G. 


TOVTOV 


Tavrrjs 


TOVTOV 


avTOv 


aVTTJS 


avTov 






D. 


TOVTCO 


TailTTJ 


TOVTOp 


avTco 


aVTTj 


avTco 






A. 


TOVTOV 


Tai'TTjv 


TOVTO 


avTov 


aVTTjV 


avro 


Plur. 




N. 


OVTOl 


avrai 


TO.VTO. 


aVTOL 


avTai 


avTa. 






G. 


TOVTCOV 


TOVTCOV 


TOVTCOV 


avTcov 


avTcov 


ai/Tcov 






D. 


TOVTOLS 


Tavrais 


TOVTOLS 


avTols 


avTais 


avTols 






A. 


TOVTOVS 


TCLVTCLS 


TCLVTa 


avTovs 


avTcis 


avTa. 


Dual. 


N 


A. 


T0VT<O 


TCLVTO. 


TOVTCO 


avTco 


avTa. 


avTa> 




G. 


D. 


TOVTOLV 


TavTaiv 


TOVTOLV 


clvtoIv 


aVTCLLV 


avTolv. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



Singular. 



49. 

Relative Pronouns. 
Plural. 



Dual. 



os- (qui) r] 

OX) T]S 

CO 7) 

ov r)v 

Often with -rrep added : ocrirep, fjirep, onep, &c. 

50. 






OL 


ai 


a 


(O 


a 


CO 
















ov 


(OV 


(OV 


(OV 


OLV 


aiv 


OLV 
















CO 


OLS 


ais 


OLS 


OLV 


aiv 


OLV 


et 


<•/ 


er 


tl 




n 


n 


o 


ovs 


as 


a 


(O 


a 


CO. 



Sing. 



Plural. 



N. ostls, whomever) 
G. ovtlvos or OTOV 
D. cpTLvi or OTCO 

A. OVTLVa 
N. o1tLV€S 

G. (ovTiviov (more rarely otcov) 

D. oIstlo-l(v) (more rarely otois) 

A. ovsTLvas 

Dual. N. A. coTive, axive G. D. oIvtlvolv, olvtlvolv 

51. 
(alius) aXkos a\\r) aXko ) quite regular except 
(ille) eicelvos eKcivrj eicelvo \ neut. o. 



TjTLS 


o tl [or O, Tl] 


TjSTLVOS 


(as masc.) 


TfTLVL 

rjvTLva 


(as masc.) 
o tl [or O, Tl] 


OLTLVeS 


aTiva or a.TTa 


alsTicri(y) 


oisTio-i(v) 


asTLvas 


ariva or otto. 



52, 53.] 



PARADIGMS. 



197 



52. 

TocrovTos (quantus). tolovtos (talis). 

Sing. Plur. 

N. toctovtos TocravTi] toctovto(v) toctovtoi Tocravrai Tocravra 
G. roa-ovTov Toa-avrrjs toctovtov 

D. TOCTOVTCp TO&aVTT) Toabvrco 
A. TOCTOVTOV TOCTCIVTVV too-qvto(v) 



TOCTOVTCOV TOCTOVTCOV TOCTOVTCOV 

toctoutois Toaai/Tais toctovtois 
ToaovTovs TocravTas Tocravra 



Dual. 



Tocravra 
Toaavraiv 



TOCTOVTOi 
TOCTOVTOIV 



N.A. TOCTOVTOi 
G.D. TOCTOVTOIV 

SO TOLOVTOS, TOICIVTT], TOlOVTo(y), 

TT]\lKOVTOS, TTjXlKaVTT), TTjXlKOVTO^v). 

53. 

Terminations of tJw Tenses of a Verb in tlie first person sin- 
gular of the Indicative Mood. ' 
The names of the principal tenses are in capital letters. 
Active. Middle. Passive. 



with the strength- 
ened root (if the 
verb has one). 

root usually 
changed, by laws 
of euphony when 
termination is ap- 
pended. 

(with redupl. root). 

'from short root : 
the vowel-sound 
being lengthened 
in Perf. 2 and 
Plup.. except in 
the case of o. 



Present, 
Imperfect, 


- ' 


on 
ov 


Ofiai 

6/JLTjV 


Perfect, 
Pluperfect, 
Future 1. 




Ka or d* 
new or eiv 
crco 


fiat 

W 
crojxai ^TjcrofiaL 


Aor. 1 . < for liquid 
( verbs. 


o-a 


crdfATjv i 

>%r)v 

afJLT)V I ' 


Future. 3. 




(none) 


(none) cropai f 




Tempora Secunda. 


Future 2.J 
Aorist 2. 
Perfect 2. 




St 

ov 
a 


ovfiai Tjcro/JLac 

6\IT]V TjV 

(none) (none) 


Pluperfect 2. 




eiv 


(none) (none) 



* a, eiv belong to Mute Verbs whose characteristic is a P or a K 
sound. The rough breathing means that the characteristic (i. e. the 
final consonant of thelroot) is aspirated when the termination is ap- 
pended. 

t The Third Future is supplied in the Active Voice by eao/j.ai (J 
shall be) with the Perfect Participle^ as ren^cbs eaofiai. 

£ The so-called 2nd Future is the regular Future of liquid verbs. 



198 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[54. 



54. Terminations of the Moods and Participles. 

0° The Greek language has five Moods : one Objective Mood ; 
the Indicative; and four Subjective Moods: (1) the Imperative; (2) 
the Subjunctive ; (3) the Optative ;' (4) the Infinitive ; (Kr.) 

The Subjective Moods and the Participles are formed only from 
the Principal Tenses and the Aorists (not from the Imperfect and 
Pluperfect) : the Futures have no Imperative or Subjunctive. 

Terminations of the Subjective Moods and of the Participles for 
the Active — 



Imper. 


Subj. 


Opt. 


Injin. 


Part. Inf. Ptcp. 


€ 

But Aor. 1. has 

ov 
Fut. 2. 


CO 

to 


oi.pi 

aiaL 
olpi 


ecu 

at 
eiv 


S in Aor. 2. eiv, tov ) 

WW < • tj n t , > 

I in Perf. evai, tos $ 

as 
Sat 



Terminations of the Suljeclive Moods and of the Participles for 
Passive and Middle — 



Imper. 



ov 
But Aor. 1. Mid. 

ai 
Aor. 1. 2. Pass. 

Perf. Pass. 

0~0 

Fut. 2. Mid. 



Subj. Opt. 



topai 
copcu 



OlfJLWV 

aiprjv 
eirjv 

Ol[XT]V 



Injin. 



ao-'Sai 

rjvai 

o~?Sai 
ela^ai 



Part. 



opevos (Inf. of Aor. 2. Mid. 
[ca^ai) . 
dpepos 

els [j?3t becomes nri in 
[Aor. 1]. 
pevos 
ovpeuos 



The Subj. and Optat. of the Perf. Pass, are for the most part 
supplied by its participle with 3>, einv (the Subj. and Opt., respect- 
ively, of elvai, to be). 



55.] 



PARADIGMS. 



199 



-a 

S3 



Ph 



-3 
I- 



•s <3 
-£•-£- £• b 

I- t- "CJ W 



3. • Mr ' <u 

sr sr jr- J T»" 

-e--e- bfeh 

3 - i 3 U/ 

t- t- h t- l- 



°» 5? •« C« 

? » e» p 



pq > 

P3 5 

P3 '& 

> I 



O 
H 

P3 



a 

S3 



o 



o 



j/2 &D 

2 -5 3 a 



H « 



b 
-p 



3 
t- 

b 

t- 



-e- 



-£--£- £• b 



-e- 



v 5 * O 

->--£-£ b 



3 


3 




-e- 


b 


3 


^3 


^3 


■£- 


iu 


(u 


v 3 


h 


l- 


b- 



E- 
.3- 

o 
b 



tu S 3 3 3 «j 
I- t- t- t- t- t- 






~o & =4. J*. 

b ,.ET S a o 
R- w b ~5~-4- 

m in c~ «, =T 

-e--e- is fe g 

2 3 3 p <u 

I- t- t- t- fc- 



d « b S 

AO ST (-> it 

°J u *u ST 

->-->- h b 



a a s a 
sr- sr-^3- a. 

->"£- £• b 

3 p ?» 3 



<3 

ST 1 


<3 


Q 

g 


e 

a. 

3 




■e- 


b 




■» 




3 


p 




^s 




t- 


K 




t- 



3 h 

|° 

I- * 



[v. 'r. 

O £ 

O 3 

Ph ^ 

o 2 

■ o 

to c- 



M h 



.t- 



-> 



* « 'a ^ «< (-3 



3 
b 



fc* 



B h ^.-^- S b 

t- w ^" p C 3 

t- ">u t- *vu "C *W 



3 



t. 


— 






s> 


ST 


1 ST 

■e- 


b 






v ^ 


^s 




^s 


1 i- 


t- 




t- 



cs 

Csa-fu."^- 5 - 3- 

fc b ? gfi>^ b^ 



„ c- =*- S. 
^- P C P 






*, c a) -r: o -n s o 3 o 

P-ii±;PhP-PhPhPh"<Ph"< 



CT 



(2h »S PL, a, fe < Ph <J Ph 



rH • CM 






i 91 t M 

a o s o 

Ph<Ph«j 



200 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[56. 



56. Terminations {combined with the 



TENSES. 




MOODS. 


Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Present and Fu- 
ture (the Future 
without Imperal. 
and Subj.). 


S. 
P. 
D. 


OfJ.€V 


eis 
ere 

erov 


et 

ovo~i(v) 
erov 


e e'roo 
ere erooaav 
or ovroiv* 
erov ercov 
[Sing. 2. orig. e-3&] 


Future 2. 


S. 
P. 
D. 


a 

ov\iev 


els 

eire 

elrov 


el 

ovo-i(y) 

elrov 


None. 


Imperfect and Aor- 
ist 2. 


S. 
P. 
D. 


ov 
ofj-ev 


es 

ere 

erov 


e 

ov 

errjv 


Aorist 2 


Perfect 1 and 2. 


S. 
P. 
D. 


a 
a/xev 


as 

are 

arov 


e 

do~i 

arov 


Like 


Aorist 1. 

[Obs. Aor. Imper. 

OV.~\ 


S. 
P. 
D. 


a 
a/xev 


as 

are 

arov 


e 

av 
arnv 


ov area 
are drcoo-av 
or dvrcov* 
arov dratv 


Pluperfect 1 and 2. 


S. 
P. 
D. 


eiv§ 
eipev 


eis ei 
etre eio~av 
mostly ecrav 
eiTov eirr/v 





Remarks. — The Principal Tenses and Subj. have 3 dual in ov, 
3 plur. in en. — The Historical Tenses and the Optat. have 3 dual in r\v\ 
3 plur. in v. 



* The dissijllabic termination of the Imperat. 3 plur. is the more 
common in Attic Greek, though the longer form is not uncommon. 
Care must he taken not to mistake it for the gen. plur. of a participle. 

\ Together with this ending, another is in use (called the JEolic 
Aor.) in eia. It is rare in the first person : hut in the second and third 
sing, and third plur. it is far more common than the other form, — 
eias, ete. — plur. etcw. 

§ The old Attic has also an ending, tj, tjs, which is contracted from 
the Ionic form ea, eas. Thus ifiefiovXevnr} for ifiefiovAevKeiv. 



56.] 



PARADIGMS. 



201 



Mood- Vowels) of tJie Active Voice. 



MOODS. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Infinitive. 


Participle. 


(0 J]S J) 

(OfJ.€V TjT€ <oo~i 
TJTOV TJTOV 

[r/in sing, sub- 
script.] 


OLf.lt OLS OL 
OLfieV OLT€ OL€V 
OLTOV OLTTjV 


€LV 


av ovcra ov 
ovros ovcrrjs ovtos 


None. 


oTjutf ois ol 
oijxev oIt€ o'iev 

olTOV OLTTjV 


eiv 


5)V ovaa ovv 

OVVTOS OVO~T)S OVVTOS 


like 


Present. 


Aor. 2. 
eiv 


Aorist 2. 
cov ovo-a ov 
ovtos ovcrrjs ovros 


the 


Present. 


evai 


as via 6s 

OTOS VLCLS OTOS 


Like the Pre- 
sent. 


at/ui+ ais at 
ai/iev aire aiev 

OLTOV CLLTTjV 


at 


as do-a av 
avros doTjs avros 








- 



For Accentuation, see pp. 206-208. 



t Together with this ending the Optative of the Fut. 2. has also 
the termination 01171' (e. g. (pavoivv), which is a common Optative end- 
ing of contracted verbs. The Futurum Atticum has usually this Opta- 
tive ;* which is also occasionally found in the Perf. Optat. (especially 
that of Perf. 2 ; Treiroi&olrjv, eKTrecfrtvyo'njv, Trpoe\T)\v&oiriv) ; and in 
(rxoiyv, Aor. 2. Opt. from e%w. — 

olrjv, otrjs, on?, — otr)/j.eVi olr)Te, oi^ffav, — otrjTov, olt]tt}V, 
or oijxev, oire, o'iev, oltov, oittji'. 



1 The Opt. of iiriTeXSi (for instance), Fut. Att. for hrireXeffa, is ei- 
ther eiriTeKolrjv or eiriTeAeffoi/Jii 1 never iiriTeXoi/xL. 

9* 



202 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[57. 



57. Terminations [combined with the Mood- 











MOODS 




TENSES. 












Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Present and 


S. 


ofiai 


v 00* 


erat 


ov* eo-Sco 


Future. 


P. 


d/ieSaf 


eo-3e 


ovrai 


ecrSe €o~%(oo~av 




D. 


d/ie3ovf 


€0~%ov 


€0~?SOV 


or ear?! cov J 
(Future, none.) 


Perfect. 


S. 


fiat 


crat 


rat 


cro o"3a) 




P. 


/j.€?5a 


o-3e 


VTCLl] 


<r3e oScoo-av 




D. 


fxe%ov 


oSov 


oSov 


or o-Scoi/ 
crSov crScou 


Pluperfect. 


S. 


firjv 


(TO 


TO 






P. 


[xeSa 


o-%e 


VTo\ 






D. 


jLieSoi/ 


oSov 


cr^7]v 




Imperfect and 


S. 


6\xj)v 


ov* 


ero 




Aor. 2. Mid. 


P. 


o/JL&a 


eo^e 


OVTO 


Aor. 2. 




D. 


Ofl&OV 


€0~'%OV 


eo~'3r)V 




Aor. 1. Mid. 


S. 


dfxrjv 


G>* 


aro 


ai da"3a) 




P. 


a/xe'Sa 


acrSe 


avro 


acrSe doScoo-av 


[Obs. Imper. at.] 


D. 


d/xeSoi' 


acr3oi> 


doSrjv 


or do"3coi' 
acrSov do-Scoi' 


Fut. 2. Mid. 


S. 


ov/xai 


li («) 


etrai 






P. 


ovfj.e%a 


etcrSe 


ovvrai 


None. 




D. 


OVfJL&OV 


eTcrSoi' 


eicrSoi' 




Pass. Aorists. 


S. 


T)V 


77? 


V 


rj^Si (Aor. 1. 177-1) tjxco 


[conjugated with- 


P. 


T][X€V 


rjre 


rjcrav 


777-? rjTcoo~av 


out mood-vowels.] 


D. 




rjTou 


■qrrjv 


rjTOV r\T(£>v 



Remarks. — The Principal Tenses and Subj. have 3 dual in ov, 
3 plur. in rai ; the Historical Tenses and Optat. have 3 dual in 771/, 
3 plur. in to. The dual -/jl&ov is very rare : the 1st pi. -jue&a being 
used instead of it. — rj&i (Aor. Imper.) becomes 777-t when the 77 is pre- 
ceded by an aspirated mute (hence always in Aor. 1) : rvcpfrqTi. 

* The second persons from fiat, /jltjv, are properly <rai, ao. But 

when these were appended to the root by a connecting vowel, the a- 

was thrown away ; and ecrai, for instance, contracted into 77, Attice ei, 

which is the only termination for /3ovA.et, 6\pei, olei (you choose, will see, 

think). [Kuhner says, that ei is the regular form in Aristophanes, but 

is avoided by the Tragic writers ; that it is used by Thucyd. and 

Xen. ; but that Plato and the Orators use both forms.] — So ov is for 

€Co> ; u (Aor. 1. Mid.) for cktco ; 77 in Subj. for -rjcrou ; 010 in Optat. for 
oiao. 



57.] PARADIGMS. 

Vowels) of the Passive and Middle Voice. 



203 



MOODS. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Infin. 


Participle. 


<ofxat 77* rjrat 
oyifSa rjcr^e covrai 
a>/i.e3oi> TjcrSov ncr^ov 

(Future, none.) 


0'lfJ.TJV oto* OLTO 

oifx&a 060"3e oivto 
oip.e'iiov oio~%ov oicr^rjv 


ea'ia.L 


6[A€V0S T] ov 






crSat 


p.evos p.evr] p.kvov 










as 


Present. 


Aor.2. 
eo"Sai 


As Present. 


Like Present. 


alfXTjv aio euro 
at'/xe3a a«r3e aivro 
aip.e'Sov aicr^ov aio~%r}v 


acr^ai 


dp.evos 77 ov 


None. 


ol/xtjv olo olro 
otfieSa oi<r3e oivto 
oifi&ov ola^ov ola^rjv 


etcrSat 


OVjJL€VOS Tj ov 


a> rjs fj 
a>p.ev rjre axri 

fjTOV TjTOV 


eirjv eirjs eirj 
ei7y/xei/ eirjre eirjo~av 
or eiev\\ 

€IT)T0V eiTjTrjv 


rjvai 


eis eicra ev 
ivros eio-qs evros 



For Accentuation, see pp. 206-208. 



f The 1 dual and plural had each an extended form, [xecr&ov, /necrda : 
they are used even by Attic poets. 

X The shortened form of the 3 pi. Imperative is very common : the 
Epic poets use no other form. It is identical with 3rd dual. 

<\ The terminations vrai, vro, are unmanageable, except from pure 
roots. The Ionic forms in arai, aro (before which the p and Jc sounds 
are aspirated), are also found in the older and middle Attic writers : 
KiXetcparaL, rerdxaTai, icp^dparai. K<=x<>>pi8aTcu [xt»pt(fl>]. A periphrasis 
with partcp. (XeAe^jueW e'uri) is generally used. 

|| etej/ is more common than el-ncrav. Similar forms for the 1st and 
2nd persons (el/xev, eiYe) are found in the Attic dialect, principally in 
the poets, but also in prose. 



204 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[58. 





58. Regular Verb in co. 








THE ACTIVE. 






Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


Imperative. 


Pres 


. S. Xv-<o 


Xf-OJ 


Xv-OlfMt 






Xv-eis 


Xv-T]S 


Xvots 


Xv-e 




Xv-ei, 


Xv-TJ 


Xl)-Ol 


Xv-ero) 




P. Xv-OfJL€V 


Xv-(Ojj.ev 


Xv-oifiev 






Xv-ere . 


Xv-T]T€ 


Xv-01T€ 


Xv-ere 




\v-ov(ri(v) 


Xv-co(tl(v) 


Xv-oieu 


Xv-ercocrap 
or Xv-ovtcov 




D. Xv-€TOV 


XV'TjTOV 


XV'OITOV 


Xv-erov 




Xv-€TOV 


Xll-T]TOV 


Xv-oIttjv 


Xv-ercov 




Imperf. S. e-Xu-i 


ov P. e-X 


v-o/xev D. 






e-Xu-< 


■s e-X 


u-ere 


i-Xv-erov 




e-Xv-< 


•(v) e-X 


v-ov. 


e-Xv-errjv 




Indicative. 


Subjunctive. Optative. 


Imperative. 










(very rare.)* 


Perf 


, S. Xe-Xv-Ka 


Xe-Xv-KO) 


Xe-Xv-Kot/xt 


(Xe-Xv-fce) 




Xe-Xu-Kay 


like the 


like the 


like the 




Xe-Xt>-Ke(V) 


Present. 


Present. 


Present. 




P. Xe-Xv-Kafiev 










Xe-Xv-Kare 










Xe-Xu-Kacu(p) 








D. Xe-Xv-KaTov 










Xe-Xv-KCLTOV 








Plupf. S. eXe-Xv-Keiv 


P. eXe-Xv- 


Ketfxev D. 






eXe-Xv-Keis 


e'Xe-Xu- 


Keire 


t'Xe-Xv-Keiro* 




iXe-Xv-Kei 


(e'Xe-Xu- 
eAe-Xv- 


Keurav) 
•Keaav 


(Xe-Xv-Keirrjy 




Indicative. 


Subjunctive. Optative. 


Imperative 


Fiit. 


Xvcra) 


none Xt> 


•(tolui 


none 




like the Present. 


like the Present. 




Aor. 


S. e-Xv-aa 


Xv-(T(0 Xv- 


-craau 






e-Xv-o~ds 


like the Xv-crais, -o~eias 


Xv-0~OP 




e-Xv-o~e(v) 


Present. Xif 


■crai, -o~eie(y) 


Xv-crdra) 




P. e'-Xi'-cra/zev 


Xv 


■o~aip.ev 






i-Xv-aare 


Xv- 


-cratre 


Xv-aare 




e-Xv-aav 


Xv-cauv, -aeiav 


Xv-crdraxrav 








or Xv-aavrcou 




D. i-Xv-aarov 


Xv-aairov 


Xv-crarov 




€-Xv-o-drr]V 


Xv 


•<raiTT]v 


Xv-o~dfa>p 



Infln. Pr. Xveiv ; Fut. Xvcreii> ', Aor. Xvercu ; Perf. XeXvKevai. 
Partcp. Pr. Xveop, Xvovcra, Xvov ; Fut. Xvarcap, Xvcrovcra, Xvaov ; 
Aor. Xvcrds, Xvcrdcra, Xvcrai/ ; Perf. XcXvkoos, via, 6s, 

G. kotos, Kvias, KOTOS. 

* From a few words whose Perf. has a present meaning ; e. g, 
KeX^ 6T6 (■*&•)• — The usual form is Imper. of eifii with perf. partcp. 



58.] 



PARADIGMS. 



205 



Pres. 



Indicative. 

S. \v-o[xai 
Xv 7], -ei 
Xv-erai 

P. Xu-o/Ae3a 
Xi'-eo-3e 

Xv-OVTQl 



THE PASSIVE. 

Subjunctive. Optative. 
Xv-co/iai 



Xv-j] 

Xv-rjrai 

Xv-a)/i.e3a 

\v-rjcr?S6 

Xv-covrai 



D. [Xu-o/zeSoi'] 
Xv-ecr3oi> 
Xv-ecrSoy 

Singular. 

i-\v-6fXT)V 

e-Xv-ov 
e-Xu-ero 

Xe'-Xv-^ai 
Xe-Xu-trai 
Xe-Xv-rai 

Xe-Xu-co 
Xe-Xv-o-3co 



[Xu-a)/ze3oi>] 
Xi'-^o-Soi/ 
Xv-7/cr3oi> 



Xv-o'ifxnv 
Xv-oio 

Xv-OLTO 

Xv-OL/i&a 

Xv-Ol<T%€ 
Xv-OIPTO 

[Xv-oip&ov] 
Xi'-o«r3oi/ 

Xv-OL(T^T]V 



Imperative. 

Xv-ov 
Xu-eVSco 

Xt'-fcr3e 
Xu-eVScooray 
or Xv-ear%a>v 



Imperfect. 



Perf. Indie. 



Perf. Imper. 



Pluperfect. 



eXe-Xu -firtv 

iXe-Xv-ao 

iXe-Xv-ro 



Plural. 
i-Xv-ofxe^a 
e-Xi'z-ecrSe 

i-Xll-OVTO 

Xe-Xv-/ze3a 

Xe-Xu-o-Se 

Xe-Xv-irat 

Xe-Xu-(r3e 
Xe-Xv-a^axrav 
or Xe-Xi'-crScoi' 

e'Xe-Xu-/ie3a 

eXe-Xv-o"3e 

iXe-Xv-vro 



Xv-€cr3ov 
Xu-ecr3cai/ 

Dual. 
[e-Xv-o/Li€3oi/] 
e-Xv-eo~?Sov 

i-Xv-€(T^l]V 

[Xe-Xv-fxe^ov] 
Xe-XvoSov 
Xe-Xv-a'iSov 

Xe-Xv-o-2Soi> 
Xe-Xu-o-%a>v 

[eXe-Xv-/ie3oi>] 
e'Xe-Xu-crSov 
eXe-Xv-crSi/i' 



[On the Subj. and Opt. of the Perfect, see Pdm. 55.] 



Subjunctive. Optative. 
none Xv-'Sno'OLfinv 



Imperative. 
none 



Indicative. 
Fut. Xv-^rjcronai 
First Aor. 

S. €-Xv-%7]V 
€-Xl)-^T)S 

e-Xi'-3?7 

P. ir\v-%T]fl€V 

e-Xv-S^re 

D. €-Xv-%T]TOV 

e-Xv-%r)TT)v 
Fut. 3. 

Xe-Xv-croficu 
Infinitive. Pres. XiWSai ; Perf. XeXvcr'Sai ; Aor. Xu3?)i/ch ; Future, 

Xu3jj(T6o-3at ; Future 3. XeXi3creo-3at. 
Participle. Pres. Xud/Aevoy, w, ov ; Perf. XtXvfxhos, n, ov ; Aor. 
XuSei's, elcra, ev, G. evros, eians, evros ', Fut. Xti37;(rd/xfz/o$', 
17, ov ; Fut. 3. XeXverd/x«/os, n, ov. 



Xu-3<a 


XvSeirjv 






Xv-S^s 


XvSelrjs 




Xv-^nn 


Xv-3 ( 7 


Xu-3et7; 




Xv-%r)T<o 


Xu-3o>jLiei/ 


Xv'^eiijfiev, 


-^elfxev 




Xf-Sfyre 


Xv-%€ir)T€, - 


Scire 


Xv-Srjre 


Xu-3a»o"t(i') 


Xv-^elncav 


-Seiei/ 


XvSriTcocrav 


Xu-S^roi/ 


XvSeirjrov, 


-Selroi/ 


[Xv-SeiTCBV ?] 


Xt/-3?)toi/ 


Xv-%etr)rr)V, 


-%etTT)V 


Xi^-S^toi/ 

Xu-37yTG)I' 


none 


Xe-Xv-croi'ui 


IV 


none 



206 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[58. 



Indicative. 
Fut. Xv-o-opai 
First Aor. 
S. i-\v-crafxnv 

i-Xv-craro 



P. 



e-Xu-crd/xe3a 

£-\v-<raa?Se 

e-Xv-oravro 



THE MIDDLE. 

Subjunctive. Optative. Imperative. 

none Xv-a-oljinv none 

Xvcrcopai Xv-aaifxnv 

Xvctj] Xu-craio Xv-o-ai 

Xv-(rr]Tat, Xv-aaiTO Xv-crda^co 

Xf-o"cbju.e3a Xu-(ra//Lte3a 

Xv-a-rjo-^e Xv-aata^e 

Xv-awvTaL Xv-craLvro 



D. [e-Xv-crdjiie2!oi> 
e-Xv-craa^ou 
e-Xu-(racr3^i/ 



Xu-o-arrSe 
Xv-ada'Scoo-av 
or Xv-o"dcr3a>i' 
Xt>-cra>ju.e3oi> Xu-crat'jU,e3oj/] 
Xv-(rr)cr?Sov Xv-a-atcr'Sov Xv-crao~%ov 
Xv-o~r]o~%ov Xv-(rai(T^r]v Xv-crda'Sayv 

Infinitive. Future, Xvcrea^at Aor. Xvo-acrSai 

Participle. Future, Xvaofxeuos, n, ov. Aor. Xucrd/xei>oy, 77, oi>. 

Verbal Adjective, Xv-t6s, rj, 6v' Xv-reos, a, ov. 

Tempora Secunda. 
(qbevyco, flee ; /3dXXo), throw ; kotttco, hew.) 



Perf. 2. 

Aor. 2. Act. Ind. 

Subj. 

Optat. 

Aor. 2. Mid. Ind. 



7re(j)evya, &c. 

efBaXov 

/SdXo) 

(BdXoipu 

€J3aX6ixrjV 



Plupf. 

Imper. 

Infin. 

Part. 

Imper. 



Subj. 

Optat. 

Aor. 2. Pass. Ind. 

Fut. 2. Pass. Ind. 



ftdXcofiai 
(SaXoijAnv 
eKonnv 
K07rr}(rojxai 



Infin 
Part. 
Imperf, 



eTrefpevyeiv, &C 
/3dXe 
/3aXeiJ/ 

jSaXcoz/, oucra, oi» 
jSaXoi) 
/SaXeVSa) 
/3dXecr3oi> 
/3aXecr3coi' 
/SdXeaSe 
/3aXecrSa)(raz/ 
or /3aXecrS3coi/ 
/3aXe(r3at 

^aXdjuei'oy 

K07n;3i, KOTrrjTO)) &c. 



A. Accentuation of the active voice. 

O 3 With respect to accentuation, the terminations at, oi are 
considered long in the Optative. With this exception, the termina- 
tion ai is considered short in verbs, as at, ot are, as the termination 
of substantives. 



5&. J PARADIGMS. 207 

d) The general rule is, that the accent is as far from the end of 
the word at. possible. 

b) But /rc/m. Aor. 1. Act. is always accented on the penult. 

[Infin. KwXvcrai, <puXa£at.] 

c) Infin- of Aor. 2. Act. is perispomenon ; its Partcp. oxytone. 

[/JaXeTi/, ^aXcoi/.] 

d) The l?7/zn. of Per/". Act. is paroxytone, Partcp. oxytone. 

[rervcpevai, ren/cpco?.] 

e) The Imperatives etVe, eupe, <fX3e, and (in Attic) Xa/3e, t'Se, are 

oxytone. — But in their compound forms, the accent is 
thrown back. [e£eX3e, a7rdXa/3e.] 
/) In the Indicative of an augmented tense, the accent is never 
moved nearer to the beginning than the augment: 

eixov, irpocreix ov ' ^X ov i vapecrxov. Iktcu, dcplKTat. 

— But Xei7r6, KciraXeLTre in the Imperative. So also if the 
augment is rejected by poetic license : encpevyov for e|e- 
(pevyov. 

g) The accent helps us to distinguish the three following forms, 
which but for that are identical. 

Aor. 1. Act. Aor. 1. Mid. 



Infill. Zrd sing. Opt. 2nd sing. Imperative. 

cpvXd^ai (pv\d£cu (pvka^ai 

7roirj(rai Troir](rai Trotncrai 

In dissyllable verbs these forms are not distinguished' by the ac- 
cent, unless the penult of Aor. 1. Act. is long by nature : e. g. Xvaai 
(Inf. Aor. 1. Act. ; Imper. of Aor. 1. Mid.) : Xucrat (3 s. Opt. Aor. 1. 
Act.) : but rpeaai, Xegai, in all the forms. 

h) Participles have in all their forms the same tone-syllable as 
the nom. masc, unless the general rules make a change 
necessary. 

<pv\a.TT(ov (pvXaTTOvcra (pvkarTov 

T€TV(fiG>S T€TV(pv1d T€TV(f)6s 

fia\a>j> (3a\ov(ra f3a\6v 

7rai8eva)V ira&euovcra iraibevov 



208 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [58. 

B. Accentuation of the passive and middle voice. 
Accent as far from the end of the word as possible. 
a) But Infin. of Aor. 2. Mid. is paroxytone. [o-tyijSaXeo-Sat.] 
h) Infin. and Partcp. of Perf. Pass, have accent on penult. 
[7re7rai§e{5cr3ai ' \e\var%ai. — 7r€7rai8evfxivos-^ 

c) Infinitives in vat have always accent on penult [XuSqz/cu]. 

Cf. A. d. 

d) The Participles of Pass. Aorists are oxylone. [Xv3e/y.] 

e) The Subj. of the Pass. Aorists (Jo being contracted from ۩) 

is perispomenon through the sing., and properispomenon in 
dual and plur. 

/) In Imper. of Aor. 2. Mid. ov is perispomenon (Xa/3ov). The 
other persons conform to the general rule. 

g) For the participles see A, h. 

XvZets XvSacra \v%ev { Dat. pi. m. and n. 

\v%6Vtos Xv3etVj;s XvSevros ( elai (not etri). 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[59, 



59. TABLE OF 

(active.) 



A) Pres. 


TljJL- 


<pi\- 


X pvcr- 




S. 


dco, 


-St, 


60), 


St, 


6co, 


-St, 






acts, 


-qs, 


eets, 


-€LS, 


0€LS, 


-ois, 






aei, 


-a, 


€€l, 


-ei, 


oei, 


-01, 


Indie. 


P. 


ao/xev, 
acre, 


-cofxev, 
-are, 


eofxev, 
eere, 


-ov/iev, 
-elre, 


oofjiev, 

0€T6, 


-OVfX€V, 

-ovre, 




D. 


aovcri, 
derov, 


-eocri, 
-drov, 


eovcri, 
eerov, 


-overt, 
-elrov, 


oovai, 

OeTQV, 


-overt, 

-OVTOV, 






aerov, 


-arov. 


eerov, 


-eirov. 


oerov, 


-OVTOV. 




S. 


ae, 


-a, 


™, 


-ei, 


oe, 


-OV, 






aerco, 


-arco, 


eerco, 


-etra), 


OETOt, 


-OVTOi, 


Imp. 


P. 


aere, 


-are, 


eere, 


-€IT€, 


0€T€, 


-ovre, 




aercocrav, -araxrav, 


eercocrav, -eircoo-av, 


O€T(d0~ClV, 


-ovratcrav, 




u. 


aerov, 


-arov, 


eerov, 


-eirov, 


oerov, 


-OVTOV, 






aeruiv, 


-ara>v. 


eercov, 


-eiratv. 


oeratv, 


-OVTQiV. 




s. 


dot, 


-St, 


eat, 


-at, 


003, 


-&, 






arjs, 


-as, 


€ n*> 


-I)S> 


orjs, 


-OIS, 


Subj. 


p. 


datfiev, 

dl]T€, 


-co/xev, 
-are, 


eatfiev, 

€7}T€, 


1h 

-atfxev, 

-r)re, 


or], 
ocoixev, 

OT]T€, 


-01, 

-aifxev, 
-core, 




D. 


aaxri, 
drjrov, 


-oocri, 
-drov, 


eatcri, 
erjrov, 


-com, 
-rjrov, 


O0)0~l, 

orjrov, 


-coat, 
-arov, 






arjrov, 


-arov. 


er\rov, 


-rjrov. 


orrrov, 


-COTOV. 




s. 


aotjUt, 


-Cp/JLL, 


eot/xi, 


-o7ixi, 


OOlfXl, 


-olfxt, 






aois, 


-cos, 


eois, 


-ois, 


oois, 


-ols, 


Opt. 


p. 


aoi, 
doifxev, 

doLT€, 


-at, 

-cZ/J-ev, 

-cote, 


eoi, 

eoifiev, 

eoire, 


-OL, 

-oifxev, 
-olre, 


OOL, 

ooifxev, 

OOLT€, 


-OL, 

-ol^iev, 
-olre, 




D. 


aoiev, 

doiTOV, 


-atev, 

-COTOV, 


€OL€V, 
eOLTOV, 


-oiev, 
-olrov, 


ooiev, 

OOITOV, 


-oiev, 

-olrov, 






dOLTTjV, 


-CpTTJV. 


eOLTTjV, 


-OlTTjV. 


OOLTTJV, 


-OlTTjV. 


Infinitive. 


dew, 


-qv[orav~\. 


€€IV, 


-eiv. 


oeiv, 


-ovv. 




M. 


d<ov, 


-S>v, 


ea>v, 


-S>v, 


ocov, 


-atv, 


Prtcp. 


F. 


aovcra, 


-axra, 


eovcra, 


-ovcra, 


oovcra, 


-ovcra.) 




N. 


aov, 


-atv. 


€OV, 


-ovv. 


oov, 


-ovv. 



59.] 



PARADIGMS. 



211 



CONTRACTED VERBS. 

(passive.) 



A) Pres 


Tl/X- 


<pi\- 


Xpvcx- 




S. 


dofiai, 


-cofxai, 


eofxai, 


-OVfJLdl, 


do/xai, 


-ovfxai, 






a V> 


f> 


W> 


■y > 


°I]i 


-01, 






aerai, 


-arai, 


eerat, 


-eirai, 


oercu, 


-ovrat, 


Indie. 


P. 


adjxe?Sa, 
decree, 


-cofxe^a, 
-acr3e, 


ed/u.e3a, 
e'ecrSe, 


-ov/Lte3a, 
-etcrSe, 


oo/jL&a, 
decree, 


-ovjx&a, 
-oucrSe, 




D. 


aovrai, 


•covrai, 


eovrai, 


-ovvrai, 


oovrai, 


-ovvrai, 




ad/xe3oj/, 


-COfX€%OV, 


ed/ne3oi>j 


-OVfJ.&OV, 


oofxeZov, 


-ovllcZov, 






deoSov, 


-acrSoi>, 


eeo-3oz/, 


-€icr3oi/, 


dc-oSoV, 


-ovcr^ov, 






aecrSoi', 


-do~%ov. 


eecr3oi>, 


-eicr3oz/. 


decr3oi>, 


-oucr3oi>. 




S. 


dov, 


-a), 


eou, 


-ou, 


dou, 


-ov, 






aeVSco, 


-dcrSco, 


eeVSa), 


-etirSco, 


oeVScB, 


-oucrSco, 


Imp. 


P. 


decree, 


-atrSe, 


eecrSe, 


-eicrSe, 


decr3e, 


-oucrSe. 




aeVSoocrav 


, -dcrSaxrav, 


eea-^cocrav, -eicrS coo-ay. 


oeVScocrai 


', -oucrScoa"az/, 




D. 


decr3ov, 


-da^ou, 


eeo"Soi>, 


-eicrSoi', 


dea'Sov, 


-oucrSoz/, 






aecr'Scov, 


-dcrSa>i>. 


eeVScoi/, 


-eicjScoi>. 


oecrScoi/, 


-OfcrScov. 




S. 


dcofxac, 


-cofxat., 


ecofiai, 


-cbfiai, 


dcojLtat, 


-co/xai, 






a n-> 


"9 j 


e ?j> 


111 


°?7> 


-01, 




P. 


arjrai, 


-arat, 


erjTciL, 


-rjrai, 


07]TO.l, 


-corai, 


Subj. 


aa)/xe3a, 


-co^teSa, 


ea)/i.e3a, 


-co/xe^a, 


ocofxe^a, 


-coLie'Sa, 




dr)o-%e, 


-acrSe, 


e^aSe. 


-rja'Se, 


drjcr'Se, 


-cocrSe, 






acovrai, 


-corral, 


ecoirat, 


-covrat, 


ocovrai, 


-covrai., 




D. 


aco/xe'Sov, 


■cofxe^ov, 


eco/ieSoz/, 


-cofxe^ov, 


oco/*e3ov, 


-C0fl€%OV, 






ar/crSoi/, 


-d(T%OV, 


erjo-^jov, 


-rjoSov, 


d^crSov, 


S>oftop 3 






dr)<T%ov, 


-acrSoi/. 


e^crSov, 


-rjoSov. 


0770-Soz/, 


-coa^ov. 




S. 


aOL/J.T]V, 


-cojxrjv, 


eolfxrjv, 


-oifxrjv, 


ool/xrjv, 


-OlfXT)V, 






aoto, 


-coo, 


eoio, 


-oio, 


0010, 


-oio. 






aOLTO. 


•CpTO, 


eoiro, 


-OITO, 


OOLTO, 


-euro, 


Opt. 


P. 


aoi/j.e%a, 


-cpfj.e'Sa, 


eo//^e3a, 


-oiLieSa, 


ooiLie^a, 


-oifxeSa, 




aoto"3e 5 


-coerce, 


eotuSe, 


-oicrSSe, 


ooicrlSe, 


-otcrSe, 






aoivro, 


-COVTO, 


€OllTO, 


-OlITO, 


OOIVTO, 


-oIvto, 




D. 


aoijxe'Sov, 


-cjfteSoz/, 


eoi'/Me3oz>, 


-ot'/ieSov, 


ooifie'Sov. 


-oi/xe'Sov, 






doLa^ov, 


-wcrSoi/, 


eOiCTijOl', 


-oicrSoi/, 


OOKT^OV, 


-olcr^ov, 






aoia^rjv, 


-a>cr%r)v. 


eola?ir}v, 


-oia^r/v. 


ooio-%r)v, 


-oio~?!r)v. 


Infinitive. 


decrial, 


-da^m. 


eWSai, 


-et«r3at. 


decrial, 


-oCcrSat. 


Prtcp. 


M. 

F. 

N. 


ad/xevos, 


-co/zei/oy, 


eofxevos, 


-ou/iefoy, 


odfxevos, 


-ovfxevos, 


aofxew), 


-COLieVT), 


eofxein], 


-ovfieirrj, 


oojxevrf, 


-ov/xevr], 




aofxevov, 


-cofievov. 


eofxevov, 


-ov/xevov. 


oo/xevov, 


-ovfxevov. 



212 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[59, 60. 



(Imperfect Active.) 



B) Impf. 


erifi- 


6<j)L\- 


e'xpvo- 




S. 


aov, 


-(jOV, 


eov, 


-ovv, 


oov, 


-ovv, 






aes, 


-as, 


ees, 


-eis, 


oes, 


-ovs, 


Indie. 


P. 


ae, 

dofiev, 

dere, 


-a, 

-a>l±ev, 

-are, 


> 6 ' 

eofiev, 

eere, 


-ovfxev, 
-elre, 


oe, 

oo/iev, 

oere, 


-ov, 

-ovfiev, 

-ovre, 




D. 


aov, 
derov, 


-0)1/, 

-drov, 


eov, 
eerov, 


-ovv, 
-elrov, 


oov, 
derov, 


-ovv, 
-ovrov, 






aerrjv, 


-aTT]V. 


eerrjv, 


-eirrjv. 


oerrjv, 


-ovrqv. 



60. 

Verbs in fit. 

rfcy/xi, place ; iot^/ji, make to stand ; dibco/xi, give ; 8eiKvv{ju, shoio. 

(Formed from simpler roots, 3e, ara, So, deiK.) 

MOODS OF THE ACTIVE VOICE. 



Indie. 


Imperat. 


Sulrj. 


Opt. 


Infin. 


Part. 


Pres. 


T&rjfii 


(rfoeri) rtiei 


n3a> (jjs, j}) 


r&elrjv 


rdevai 


ri^ els 






io~ri)\x.i 


(icrraSt) to-rrj 


Icrrco, (rjs,rj) 


larairjv 


icrravai 


icras 






o\'5o)/mi 


(Si'SoSi) bi8ov 


SiScb (as, coj 


biboirjv 


Sidovai 


8i8ovs 






he'iKvv\xi 


(deiKvv%i) deinvv 






deiKVvvai 


8(ikvvs 








Aor 


2. 


e^-qv 


3ey 


%n (3?}7J) 


Seirjv 


Selvat 


Set's 






ecrrr]v 


o-rrfii 


arS) (jjs, fj) 


o-rai-qv 


arrival 


aras 






edcov 


86s 


8a> (&3y. <o) 


dolrjv 


doivai 


8ovs 






TENSES OF THE ACTIVE VOICE. 








Indicative. 


* 






Present. 






S. 


T&rjm lO-TQfU 5lSo)/Xl 


deiKvvpi 






t/Sjjs tcrrrjs didcos 


SeiKvvs 






ri%T)o-i(v) lo-rr]o-i(y) bib<x>o-i(y) 


8eiKvuo~t(v) 




P. 


rtiefiev 'icrriyiev didofxev 


deiKvvfiev 






rtiere to-rare didore 


deiKVvre 






Ti%£ao-i(v) 1crrdo-i(v) SiSddo-/. (v) 


8eiK.vvacn(y) 




D 


rtierov to-rdrov biborov 


deiKvvrov 






rfaero 


v Lcrrarov 


didoro 


V 


deLKvvro 


V 



59, 60.] 



PARADIGMS. 



213 



(Imperfect Passive.) 



B) 


Impf. 


eri/x- 


e'0iX- 


expva- 






S. 


ad/x 77 j/, 


-a>fi7]u, 


€OfJLT] V, 


-ovfxrjv, 


OOfXTJV, -OV/XTJV, 








aou, 


-co, 


eov, 


-ov, 


OOV, -OV, 








aero, 


-U.TO, 


eero, 


-etro, 


0€TO, -OVTO, 






P. 


adufSa, 


-COfl&Cl, 


ed/xe3a 


, -ou^ieSa. 


oofj.e'Sa., -ovfieSa, 


Indie. 




deo-3e, 


-ao~3e, 


eW3e, 


-ettrSe, 


oWSe, -ot)o"3e, 








doz/ro, 


-covto, 


eovro, 


•OVVTO, 


OOVTO, -OVVTO, 






D. 


adue3oi>, 


-d>ue3ov. 


fdueSov, -ofueSoi'. 


od/xe3oi', -ovfie'Sop, 








dfcrSov, 


-ao"3oi/, 


eeo-3o» 


, -eio"3oi>, 


decrSov, -oCa-Soi/, 








aecr'iiTjv, 


-dcrSTjv. 


eea-^r/v, -eia^rjv. 


oetrS?;!', -ovctZtjv. 






Imperfect [Cf. 


p. 218. e]. 




S. 


eriZrjV 


KTTTjV 


[e'SioW]* 


ibtinvvv 




(irfarjs) 


tcrTrjs 


[e8i'5o)ff] 


. iSeiKVVS 




(irfeTJ) 


"l(TTrj 


[eoVSeo] 


edeinvv 


P. 


eYi'3euez> 


IcrTafJLev 


edidofiev 


ibelKvvfxev 




eri'Sere 


icrrare 


edtdore 


edeiKvvre 




irfaeaav 


Icrracrav 


ididocrav 


edeiKVvaav 


D. 


ert'Serov 


lararov 


ididorou 


efteiKVVTOV 




eTl%6TT)V 


IdTaTqv 


ididavjv 


ibeiKvvrqv 






2nd Aorist. 




S. 


E*V] 


%(TTT]V 


[eScav] 


(none) 




[&bis] 


earrjs 


[edcos] 






[&>,] 


€(TTT) 


[ffttf] 




P. 


eSe/xei/ 


eo-rqpev 


eSpfiev 






e&ere 


<E(TTT]T€ 


eSore 






e^eaav 


earncrav 


e'doaav 




D. 


e3eroi> 


eorrjTOV 


edorop 






tetrqv 


€OTT]TT}V 


tboTnv 








Subjunctive. 








Present. 




S. 


Ti3a> 


CCJTCO 


8i&\» 


from beiKuvco 




T&jjs 


larfjs 


didcos 






T&fj 


Ictttj 


di8co 




P. 


T&cofiev 


laTafiev 


didco/iev 






T&T)T€ 


la-Trjre 


bidcore 






Ti3axn(i>) 


i(TTcoai(v) 


8i8cocn(v) 


\ 


D. 


Ti37?roz/ 


itrrrjTov 


8i8cotov 






TiSTJTOI' 


l(TTrjTOV 


8i8iotov 





* The forms in use are : iSlSow, iSldovs, idldov, p. 218, e. ibldws 
only Xen. An. 5, 8, 4. (as Od. t. 367.) 



214 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[60. 



2nd Aorist. 
S. 3<5 otco SoS 

S^ff OTJJS $<ps 

The Terminations as in the Present. 



(none) 



S. 



D. 



S. 





Optative. 




Present. 


T&eirjV 


icrrai'j/v 


bi§oiT]v from BeiKVixo 


Ti%eir)S 


terrains 


St So eg ff 


riSei'?/ 


tcrratT/ 


St So t?; 


T&elrjfxev 


i la-Tairj/xeu 


5 StSot'77/iev 


Ti'S^fj.ev 


1 i(TTaifi€V 


rtSet^re 


i LcrraLrjTe 


5 didoirjTe 
( StSotre 


ri^eire 


' toratre 


(ti3«j/otb0 


> (l(TTair](rav) 


S (didolrjcrav) 
I StSoTej/ 


TtSetcp 


1 to"ratei> 


rtSet'^roi/ 


i l<TTair]Tov 


\ SiSotr/TOJ/ 

( StSotroz' 


nSeiroi' 


LUTCUTOV 


TL^€LT]TT]U [ 


) l(jrair\Tr]V 


S 8ldoirjTT}V 

( didoiTTjv 


rCSeiT-qv i 


i(TTa'iTrjv 




2nd Aorist. 



Terminations as in the Present. 



(none) 







Imperative. 








Present 






s. 


[rtSeri] 


[toraSt] 


[S/SoSi] 


[§eiKi>t?3t] 




TtSet 


tcrrr; 


St'Sou 


Set'/cvv 




rtSero) 


to-rara) 


diboTco 


SetKWTO) 


P. 


rtSere 


tcrare 


St'Sore 


SeiKvvre 




[Tt3era)0~ai>] 


[torarcocrai/] 


[didoTuxrav] 


\_8eiKvvTcocrav] 




rdkvrwv 


io"Taw"fi>i» 


di86vrc0V 


deiicvvvT&v 


D. 


rtieTov 


tcrraroi/ 


8i8otov 


be'iKvvTov 




rtSercoi/ 


lararoiv 


8i86tcov 


deiKVUTCOP 






2nd Aorist. 




S. 


Se's* 


OT^Stf 


dos* 


(none) 




Sera) 


OT7/TO) 


Sdrco 






Terminations 


as in the Present. 





* The compounds throw the accent hack on the preceding sylla- 
ble : irepi&es, airoSos, airofiore. 

*j" In the compounds crra : irapaffra, aivocrra. 



61.] 




PARADIGMS. 




s 




Infinitive. 




Present. 


rfievai iuTavat 8i86vai (deinvvvai) 




2nd Aorist. 


Setwu <jTr\va\. dovvai (none) 




Participle. 




Present. 


Masc. rtSei's 


terras oioovs oeiKvvs 


G. -evros 


-dvTOS -OVTOS -vvros 


Fem. rtSeicra 


larrdn-a dtdovcra beiKvvcra 


Neut. TtSei/ 


i(TTav didop deiicvvv 




2nd Aorist. 


Set's, Seicra, 3t'i>, crrds, 


rrracra, a-rav, fiovs, Soucra, dov, (no 




61. 


PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 


Moods of the Passive and Middle. 


Pres. Indie. Imper. 


(Sw6/. O/tf. Infin. Part. 


Tt'3-f/xat 


ecro (ov) 


a>fxai 


eifinv 


ecrSat 


epevos 


ta-T-dfiai 


ao~o (co) 


a>fj.ai 


alpnv 


acrSat 


dpevos 


Si'S-o/nat 


ocro (ov) 


a>jxat 


oiprjv 


ocrJSai 


6/JL6VOS 


deiKP-vfiai 


ycro 






va%at 








l/u-c/'Oy 



215 



Aor. 2. 

[ icrrdpnv 
not found] 
iitrdprp) 
flew 
ibop.rjv 



Imper. 
(3eVo) 3ov 



(7TTatro) 7TTOJ 

(Socro) Sou 



Subj. 
Saj/xat 



TTTCOpai 

Sco/iai 



Opt. 

%eip.r)V 



Tsraip-nv 

doi/JLTjV 



Infin. 
3ecr3ai 



7rracr3ai 
§oo"3at 



Part. 
%ep,evos 



7TTafJ.€VOS 

dop.evos 



TENSES OF THE PASSIVE AND MEDDLE. 

Indicative. 



Present. 



Sing. 



Plur. 



Dual. 



Ti3e/xai 
rtieo-ai 

rtierai 
Tt3e/xe3a 
r/3eo-3e 
TtSevrat 
[rt3e/ze2oi>] 
Ti3ecr3oj> 



tarapai 
taraa-ai 

[tora] 
to-rarai 
tcrra/xe3a 
tcrracrSe 
tcrrai/Tat 

[icrra/ze3oi>] 
toracrSoz/ 
caraa'SSov 



didop-ai 
Si'Socrat 

St'SoTai 
SiSdjLieSa 
Si§oo~3e 
Si'Soirai 

Si'SocrSoi' 
St'Soo-Sof 



SeLKVvpLai 
deiKvva-ai 

deiKvvrai 
8eiKvvp.€?Sa 

beiKWVTai 
[deiKvvp.e'Sov] 
beiKvvcr'Sov 

8eiKVV<T%OV 



216 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[61. 



Imperfect. 

Sing. eT&efirjV la-rafj.T]v eSiSo/i^i/ ibeiKvvurjv 

eW^ecro Icttckto i8L8oo~o ideinwcro 

' [eri'Sor] [io-to)] [eSt'Sov] 

eri'Sero icrraro £8i8oto idelnvvro 

Plur. eriSe'/xeSa tora/zeSa e8i86fi€^a e'Sei/cvu/ie3a 

eVt'SetrSe iVrao-Se edi'6W3e idetKVVo%e 

irfaevTO laravro i8i8ovTO edeiKVvvro 

Dual. [eYi3fiif3oi>] [tcrra/xeSoi/] [e&Sd/zeSoi/] [eSetiew/ficSw] 

ert'Seo-Soi/ torao-Sov e8i8ocr?Sov ideiKvvcr'Sov 

iT&eaftqv urraa%r]V e8i86(r%r)v i8eiKvvo-%r)v 

* 2nd Aorist Middle. 
Sing. iZefirjv [i(rrdfir]u] edofJLTjV (none) 

eSou [eoroj] efiov 

eSero [Sorraro] efioro 

Terminations the same as those of the Imperfect. 

Subjunctive. [Cf. p. 218, c] 

Present. 

8i8a>fiai from 8ei<vva> 

8i8co 

StSairat 

StSoo/zeSa 

8i8avr at 



Sing. 
Plur. 
Dual. 

Sing. 

Sing. 
Plur'. 
Dual. 



Ti3 t 7 
TiS^rat 
Tt3a>/ze3a 
Ti3^o-3e 
ri^Syvrcu 
[ri3a)/i.e3oi/] 



early 
UrrifFctt 

iarj)«r3e 

IcTTCaVTai 

[iorco/ieSov] [8i8a)/ze3oi>] 
(arr^trSoy 8i8c5o-2Soi> 

2nd Aorist Middle.* 
Seo/zai [orcSfiat] Sco/ztu (none) 

Sfl [ori)] $9 

Terminations the same as those of the Present. 

Optative. 
Present. 

Sidoiprjv from beinvvo) 

818610 

8l8oIto 



T&eifiiyp 

riSetro 
rt3ei/ze3a 
Tt3eIo-3e 
tCScivto 
[rtSei'/tteSoz/] 
Ti3ei(r3oi> 
riSet 0-377 v 



lO-Taifxrjv 
lataio 

ioTOlTO 

tcrratfieSa 

toratz/ro 
[lo-Talfxe'Sov] 
larTaia^ov 
lo~raio~%r)v 



SiSoi/zeSa 
SiSonxSe 
8i8o7vto 
[8i8oifie?Sov\ 

SiSot'crSrii/ 



* 
back 



Here too the accentuation of the compounds is often thrown 
: eirti^wAtat (or iiri&Zfiai)' irp6cr^r]Tai. 



62.] 



PARADIGMS. 



217 



2nd Aorist Middle. 
Sing. Selfiijp [oTcufirfr] Solfiyp (none) 

Terminations the same as those of the Present, 





Imperative. 






Present. 




Sing. ri'3eo-o 


taracro 8l8o<to 


8eLKvv(ro 


[r&ov] 


(j.ut<o) [St'Sou] 




rtSeVSo) 


icrrdo-'Sa) StSocrSo) 


deiKvixr^ay 


Plur. ri'SecrSe 


ta-raa^e St'SocrSe 


beiKwa'Se 


T&ecr'%a><Ta.v Icrrdcr'^coijav didoa^aicrav 


deiKvvcr^axrau 


or rtSeo-Stov 


ioracrScoi/ StSotrSajj/ 


detKvva'SQiV 


Dual. Ti3eo-3ov 


ioTao"3oi/ bldocr'Sov 


SeiKvva'Sov 


ri^ea^ajp 


Icttckt'S&v SiSoVScoy 
2nd Aorist Middle. 


beiK.vva'S&v 


Sing. Soi) * 


[oTao-o, o"rco] SoO* 


(none) 


SeVSca 


[crrafrSco] doo-Soa 




Terminations the same as in the Present. 




Infinitive. 






Present. 




n'SecrScH 


icrraa^ai bihocr'Sai 
2nd Aorist Middle. 


deiKvvcr'Sai 


SecrSat 


[<rrao-3ai] SdcrSai 
Participle. 
Present. 


(none) 


TtSe/ifj/os 


tcrra/xepoy 8i86pevos 
2nd Aorist Middle. 


BeiKvvp.evos 


Se/ievos- 


[crrd/zej/os'] 86p.evos 
62. 


(none) 


The remaining tenses are formed from the 


original roots 



of 

Sidcopu, betKvvp.1, (orig. roots, 3e, <rra, So, 8eiK), they 



rfarjpt, HTTnpi, 

are these : 

Future. 
Act. 2s 770-0) (TTrjo-co Saxro) 

Mid. %r]crop.ai crTt]<Top.ai baxropai 

Pass. Te%r)(rop.ai (TTa%r](rop.ai SoSi^o-o/zat 

Aorist. 
Act. eSriKa eorrjca edcoxa. 

Mid. [eS^/cd/x^i/] ecrr^crd^i/ [e'ScoitdjUi/i'] 

Pass. tT&rjv ecTTa.'Srjv i86?3r]V 



Set£<u 

8ei£op.ai 

8eixpf)(rop.ai, 

eSti^a 
ibei^aprjv 



* In the compounds the accent is thrown back : but not that of 
the 2nd sing., unless the prep, is a dissyllable : awSfrov, irpocr^ou : air6- 
&ecr&e, Trp6<T&e(r&e. 

10 



218 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[63. 







Perfect. 




Act. 
Pass. 


TeSetKa 
Tc3et/iai 


ea-rrjKa bebooaa 
(eo"ra/iat) bebopai 


bebecypai 


Act. 


ereSeiKeiv 


Pluperfect. 
elcrrrjKeLV ibebaweiv 


ibebelxew 


Pass. 


irefieiprjv 


iarrjKeiv 
(eord/iTji/) ibeboprjv 


ibebeiyprjv 



On the syncopated forms of the Perf. eo-rn<a, see Pdm. 65. For 
tjy-fu, see Pdm. 67. 

a) A fut. £<TTr)$-a> (stabo) was formed fr. Perf. — eo-Trjgofiai later. 
— The Aorists eSrjKa, ebcona are used only in the sing. Indie. ; the 
forms of the 2nd Aor. in dual and pi. ; in the other moods ; and in 
the participle. 'E^Kaprju, iboiKdpnv are un-Attic. 

b) The peculiarity of na, as termination of Aor. 1, belongs to 
e%r)Ka, ebaxa, tjko. (Irjpi). 

c) The Opt. and Subj. of the Pres. Pass, from rfarjpi, biba>p.i, 
and trjiu, are usually conjugated as if from rt'^co, bibco, tea, the accent 
being thrown back : thus rtScoyxai, bibcopai, &c. ; T&oifitjp, biboiprjv 
(biboio, bibotro, &c). So in Aor. 2. Mid. a7rd3co^at, d7rdSon-o, &c 

d) This analogy, as far as regards the accent, is followed by 

bvvapai (am able), and im<jTap.ai (know how). 

Thus : e7r/o"rco/tat -17 -j^rai bvvaiptjv -aio -airo 

(But lo~T<Z>fiai -77 -rjrai) lo~Talp.r]V -aio -airo 

So also ovalfirjv ovaio ovairo. 

e) In the Imperf. Active the singular of rfcript and 07/^1 is often, 
that of bibopi regularly, formed as if from nSeco, StSdco : iri'Sovv is 
not found ; but erteeis, irfeei, are far commoner than hfa-qs, ertSq : 
ib'ibow, ibibovs, ibibov. In Attic poetry the forms of the Present 
TiSeis, riSeT, and (from 07/11) teis-, tel are also found. 

63. "Ferfo wzY/z. 2?z<^ Awist like Verbs in jjh. 
2nd Aorist. 



aTrobibpdo~Ka>, 


peco, 


yiyvwcTKCQ, 


cbvco, 


I run away. 


IJlow. 


I know. I put forth naturally 








(Aor. 2. intrans.). 


Indicative. 








S. dnebp&v 


ippv-qv 


eyvcov 


€(pVV 


direbpas 


eppvrjs 


eyvoas 


e'epvs 


dnebpa 


eppvr) 


eyvco 


e(pv 


P. dwebpapev 


eppvrjpev 


eyvcopev 


i'cpvpev 


an eb pare 


eppvrjre 


eyvare 


€(f)VT€ 


direbptLo-av 


eppvrja-av 


eyvcoaau 


e<pvo-av 


D. dnebp^Tov 


eppvrjrov 


eyucorov 


ecpvrov 


anebpaTwv 


eppvfjTtjv 


iyvcorqv 


efpvTrjP 



64.] 



PARADIGMS. 



219 



Subjunctive. 

S. dnobpco 
dnobpas 
dirobpa 

P. dlTohpCOpLGV 

dirohpare 
dTrobpa>cn(y) 

D. CLTTohpCLTOV 
CLTTobpCLTOV 

Optative. 

S. aTroBpairjv 

d7ro8paiT)s 

aTTobpair) 

&C. 

Imperative. 

S. drrohpa^i 

d7ro8pa.Ta) 

&c. 

Infinitive. 

drrobpavai 

Participle. 

diroSpas 
~ r j, 
acra, av 



2nd Aorist. 



pvco 
pvjjs 

n 

pvSp.€V 

pvrJTe 

pv<3<Ti(y) 

pvrjTov 

pVTJTOV 

pveirjv 
pveirjs 
pvetr) 
&c. 

pvrfil 

pvr)T<ti 

&C. 

pvrjvai 

pveis, elaa, ev 



yvco 

yvcos 

yvco 

yvcop.ep 

yvcore 

yvcocri(v) 

yvcorop 

yvcorop 

yvolrjv 
yvolrjs 
yvoir) 
&C. 

yvco%i 
yvoaroi 
&C. 

yvcovai 

yvovs, 
yvovcra,ypop 



(pvco (prob. v) 

(pVTfS 

(pvrj 
<pvcop.ep 
(pvrjre 
(pvcocri 

CpVTJTOV 
<f)VT]TOP 

(fivoipu or (pvrjp 
(pvois or (pvrjs 
(pvoi or (pvrj 
&C. 

(0v3i) 

((pVTCo) 
SlC. 

(pvpai 

(pvs, (pvcra, (fivp 



64. The following are additional examples of this formation : — 



aki(TKop.ai 

(am taken) 
fiaivco, go 
(Btoco, live 

7T€Topai,Jly 
o-KeXXeo, dry 

bvco 

(p^dva> 
(come before, 
anticipate) 



Aor. 2. 
taken) 
ffkcov, (was 
eaXcoi/ (Att.) 
'firjv (went) 
ifiicov (lived) 

€7TT7]v(Jlew)f 

'icTKkrjv (wi- 
thered) 
edvv (went 
into) 
(p%nv 



Imp. 



Subj. 
akco (cos, co) 



fitfin /3&^ ($s, ») 

(BlCO (COS, S) 



§{53i 



(tttco ?) 



dvco (rjs, rj) 
03c5 (fjs, fj) 



Opt. 

aXolrjv 

fiairjv 
fiicorjv 

17TaiT]V 

[dvrjv 

Horn.] 

(ptainv 



Infin. 



Partic 



dXcovai akovs [a ex- 
cept in Ind.] 

firjvai fids 

fiicovai ftiovs 

(oiicra, ovv) 
irrds 



TTTTjVai 

o-Kkrjvai 

bvvai 

<p%rjvai 



bvs (vera) 
(fids 



* $vt)v for fyvi-qv. Hippocrates has Aor. 2. £<pvr}v (<pvrivai, &c), like 
ifyvriv. This is the usual form in later writers ; and the Subj. <pvw 
(Plat.) must be referred to this, not to %<pw. (Buttmann.) 

f Late : iirr6p.r\v the usual form. 



220 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[65, 66. 





65. Syncopated Perfect. 






^Sing. 


Plural. 




Dual. 


Indicative 


ecrTTjKa 


earafxev 




— 




eaTTjKas 


earare 




€(TTa.TOV 




e<TT7]Ke(y) 


€<tto.<ti(v) 




ecrrarov 


Subjunctive 


i(TTCO 




Optative 


k<TTalr\v, i(TTair)s, &C. 




Imperative 


ecrraSt, iqrara, &C. 




Infinitive 


eardvat 




Participle 


eorwy, Sera, a>s or op, Gen. £<tt<otos, axrrjs, S>tos. 




Pluperfect. 






Sing. 


Plural. 


Dual. 


iarrjKeiv or elcrTrjueiv 


ea-rafiev 


— 


€(TTr)K€tS Or €L(TTr)KeiS 


ecrrare 


ecTTarov 


icrTrjKei or el(TTr)K€i 


ecrracrav 


ecrraTTju 



a) These syncopated forms are only found in the Dual and 

Plural. The regular forms of ecrrrjKa are sometimes met 
with, though the shorter forms are the commoner in the 
best authors, especially for the Plural. — iarrjKevai rare in 
Attic (Kr.). 

b) In the Pluperf. of icrrrjixi, eo-racrav is the form of this kind 

that principally occurs. 

c) The Participle arises by contraction from aas. The a> (as 

arising from ao) is retained through the oblique cases : 
but the neuter ia-ros has better authority than ecrrcos. 

66. (Other Syncopated Perfects.) 

fiet'So) (Horn.), fear, Se'Sia (rare in Sing.) PI. dedlfiev, deSlre, bebtacriv. 
Part, debiois. Imperf. Se&Si. Subj. Sedlco. Opt. 
SeSieirjv. Impf. SeSieW. Pluperf. 3rd Plur. 
idebicrav or edeSt'ecraj/. 

%vr)(TK(0, die Te%vr]Ka (-as, -e), Te^va/xcv, reSvare, re^uaai. 

Imperat. re'SraSi. Opt. r&valr)v. Inf. reSz/a- 

vai. Part. Te%vea>s (-eaxra, -ecoy). 

The Perfects r&vqKa and dedia are the only Perfects besides 

eo-TrjKa whose syncopated forms are in common use in prose, the 

Partcp. fiefias (from fialvoo) forming a partial exception. Of re3- 

vnna, it is only the Infin. and Partcp. that are common in Attic 

prose : the Participle is reSvecoy, with the (Ionic) intercalation of e. 



67.] 



PARADIGMS. 



221 



AeSia occurs throughout : the longer form, dedoiica, occurs only in 
the Indicat. of Perf. and Pluperf. (where it is commoner in the Sin- 
gular than the abridged forms), in the Infin. in the Dramatic writers, 
and in the Participle. 

67. r 'Ir}fu, — elfMi and el/u, — <§>t)\iL 

It is very important that the pupil should acquire a thorough 
familiarity with the forms of tnfit, et/xi and ef/n, which, from the re- 
semblance of some to others, are often hard to distinguish : indeed 
some forms (especially in the compounds) are identical, and can only 
be distinguished by the sense, "Irjpi occurs principally in its com- 
pounds, a<f)lr][ii, fxeSiriiu, &c. The t is usually long in Attic Greek 
[as short, it occurs principally in the participle]. 







(XtJfU. 


Root, e.) 












Active. 








Ind. 


Imper. 


Subj 


Opt. 


Inf. 


Partcp. 


Pres. 


tnfii 


lei 

terci), &C. 


ico 


leirjv 


Uvai 


Uls, teicra, lev 


Impf. 


0]V 












Perf. 


€LKa 












Plup. 


eluew 












Aor. 1. 


fjKa 












Aor. 2. 


\v\ \ 


ey, era), 
&C. 


at 


€?T)V 


eivcu 


els, elaa, ev 


PI. < 


el/xev 

etre 

dcrav 












Fut, 


rjcrco 


















Passive. 






Pres. 


"efxai (as TtSe/xai). 


[On 


Subj. and 


Opt. see 


p. 218, c] 


Impf. 


Ufxrjv 












Perf. 


elfMaL 


eicro 






etcrScu 


elfievos 


Plup. 


eifxnv 












Aor. 


efo-qv 


eS^n 


e3w 


iSelvv 


iZrjvai 


i3eis 


Fut. 1. 


e^T](ro[xai 










Fut. 3. 


(none) 


















Middle. 






Aor. 1. 


(rjKafirjv) 










Aor. 2. 


elfirjv 


ov 


wfxat 


elfjujv 


e<T%ai 


e/xevos 



Fut. rja-ofjLai 

Verbal Adjective, £tos, ereos. 

As a general rule, tvfju is conjugated like rfanfju. 



222 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [68. 

a) The 3rd Plur. of the Present Indie. Act. is la<ri(v) only, for 

Ua<n(y). 

b) The Imperf. 'Inv is doubtful in the singular : tow, Uis, tei are 

undoubted, and it seems that tciv also was used as 1st sing.* 

c) From atyi-qiii the Imperf. appears with a double augment : 

T)(f>Ui ' 7)(f)Lecrav. But d<pi€i, and especially d<pieo-av, have 
more and better authority. 

d) The Aor. 1 . tjkci, which is not found except in the Indicative, 

was in general use in the singular. In the plural it is 
rarely used by any Attic writers. Of fju the singular of 
the Indicative is no where found. 

e) What is here said of qua, r\v, applies also to edcoKa, eS^Ka : 

ebatv, eSrjv. In Aor. 1 . Mid. fjKaixrjv is sometimes, but e'Scu- 
Kdfirjv, eZrjicdnrjv, never found in Attic writers. 

/) The Dual and Plur. of 2nd Aor. Act. ; the Indie, of Aor. 2. 
Mid. and Aw. 1 . Pass, are found in the common language 
(also in Herodotus) ; but always with the augment. Hence 
d(f)ioLT€, d(f)ioi€U, ep.ev, ere, eo~av, €%t)V, efirjv, never occur. 

g) Whether el/xev, elre, etfirjv are Indie, or Opt. can only be de- 
termined by the context. 

h) In the compounds of tijfiL the accent of the Imperative es is 
thrown back : a(f>es. But ov retains it, even in compounds, 
in this form, not in the others : npoov ', but 7rpdecr2te. 

i) Of forms conjugated like barytone verbs (besides the Subj. 
and Opt. of Pres. Pass, and Aor. 2. Mid. ; cf. p. 218, c), 
d<f)loiT€, dcploiev, are found as Pres. Opt. ; and tea is some- 
times accented as a barytone Subj. (for la>). 

68. (El fit, elfu.) 

£F Elfil (am) has root es ' ef/n (ibo) root I. 
(1) et/xi, I am; elfxi, I shall go (Pres. mostly with Fut. meaning). 

Imperat. Subj. Opt. Infin. Partcp. 

■mi j S etA"? itrSt, (ecrrco, &c.) a> e'mv eivai a>v (am) 

Moods < 4 ~ "a, >" x „ \ * « » ' » -» /^„\ 

( etjtu, t3t, (trco, &C.) iffi> 101/LU tevai icoi* (g^V 

* This and the following remarks are from Kriiger. 



68.] 



PARADIGMS. 



223 



Indicative. 
Present. 


Subj. of to be. 


Subj. of to go. 


S. et/it, / am 


ei/ju, I iv ill go 


S. d) 


lea 


el 


el 


77* 


'irjs 


eari(v) 


el(ri(v) 


S 1 

n 


IP 


P. ia-fiev 


ifiev 


P. a»/iev 


'Ico/xev 


€CTT€ 


ire 


7)re 


'irjTe 


€icrt(v) 


iWt(j/) 


<WCTi(l/) 


icoo~i(v) 


D. icTTOV 


\tov 


D. TJTOV 


[177x01/ ?] 


£(ttov 


"ltov 


TjTOV 


[177x01/ ?] 


Imp. S. to3t 


i3t (^pos^St : 


Opt. S. eirjv 


iot/it or loirjv 




seld. Trpojei) 


e'lrjs 


Iocs 


eorco 


ITG) (TTpOSlTOi) 


€LT] 


tot 


P. core 


'ire 


P. eirjjxev. eifiev 


\oi\LZV 


eo-rcocrav 


'iTaxrav or 


e'irjre [etre] 


'Loire 


and ecrrcov 


tdVrooj/ Citcov 


e'lrjo-av. eiev 


toiev 


(0VTQ)V 


JEsch. E. 32.) 


D. [eti/roPj eiYoz;] 


[i'otroz/ ?] 


Plat.) 


LTOU 


elrjTTjv, e'lrrjv 


\j.OLTr]V ?] 


D. €<TTOV 


trcov 






eorcov 




Inf. eu/at 


levai 






Part, cdz>, ovcra. op 


la>v, lovcra, lov 






G. ovtos, ovo~rjs 


lovros, lovcrrjs 



S. ^i>, I was 

rjo-'ia 

t)v (from ^e-i>) 
P. rj/xev 

rjre (r/are) 

D. rjCTTOV [rjTOv] 

r)'o~Tr)V [777-771/] 



Imperfect. 

fjeiv ; old Attic, ya, I went, 
fjeis, USU. rjeioSa 

fj€L 

rjeifxev, US. 77/iei/ 

J](IT€ JJT€ 

fje&av 

fjeiTov, — 777-01/ 

TjeiTrjV, IJTrjV 

Fut. eaojiai, I shall be, earj or eaet, eo-rai (for the poet, eaerat), 
&C. Opt. eo-oifjLrjv. Inf. eVecrSai. Parte, eao/xevos. 

The Middle form (i'e/zat, i'eaat or 177, i'erat, &c, Imp. 1W0, Inf. 
tea-Sat, Partcp. Ujievos, Impf. Upr/v, tWo, &c), signifying to 
hasten, ought probably to be written with the rough breathing 
(a supposition which is mostly confirmed by the manuscripts), 
and referred to irjfxi. Verbal adj. tro's- is found in compounds : 
tre'oy is more common than Irr/Teos (Kr.). 

a) Elfil, to be (with the exception of et), is enclitic in Pres. Indie. 
[See Rules for Enclitics], In compounds, the accent is on 



224 FIRST GREEK BOOK. [69. 

the preposition, if the general rules of accentuation will allow 
it to be so far back, e. g. rrdpeipL, Trdpec, Trdpeart., &c, Imp. 
7rapio-3i ; but 7raprjv on account of the augment ; irapea-rae. 
(= 7rap€(T€Tai) ; rrap-elvai from the general rule for infini- 
tives in vat ; subj. napco, -f^s, fj, &c, on account of the con- 
traction ; and Opt. Tra.peip.ev, &c. = wapeiijpev, &c. The 
accentuation of the Partcp. in the compounds should be par- 
ticularly noted ; e. g. wapoop, Gen. napovTos, so also Trapiatv^ 
Gen. napiovTos. 
1) With reference to accentuation, the compounds of elpi, ibo, 
follow the same rules as those of el pi, sum (Gottling says, 
Inf. 'ievat) ', hence several forms of these two verbs are the 
same in compounds, e. g. 7rdpeipi, irdpei and ndpeio-i, (third 
sing, of elpt, and 3rd plur. of elfjti). 

c) Etei/, esto, be it so, good, 3rd plur. Opt. (=eujo-az/). — The first 

person Impf. is often 7 in Attic poets, sometimes in Plato ; 
fjp.nv (which occurs in no other person) is very rare in Attic 
Greek. (Xen.) The un-Attic form of the second person 
Impf. r}s is found frequently in the later writers, and now 
and then in lyric passages of the Attic poets. The dual 
forms with a (rja-rov, ffo-rrpr) are preferred ; but in the 2nd 
pi., rjre seems to have been exclusively in use (Kr.). ^Eotoop 
is less common than earaxrav. 

d) From elfti, the third pers. sing. Impf. fjctv instead of yet is 

found in the Attic poets only before vowels, Tvpoo-jietv. [Be- 
fore a consonant, PI. Crit. 114.] 

e) The Pres. of elp.i, to go, has, in Attic prose, almost always a 

Future meaning, 'levai and Idov occur both as Present and 
as Future. So also the Optative. (Kr.) 

69. $yfjt<l, to say. [ov (prjju = nego ; say . . » not\. 

(Moods : Cprjpl, (pd%t or (pa%i, <pa>, (pairjv, (pdvat, (pas.) 
Present. Singular. Plural. Dual. 

(prjpi cpap,ev 

(pys ((f)r)s ?) i^are <parov 

cf)r]a-i(v) (f)ao-i(v) (parov 

Imperfect. e<pnv ecpapev 

(%<prjs) ecprjcr'Sa tcpare ecparov 

e(prj e(pacrav ecpdrrjv 

Fut. (prja-co. Aor. e(prjo-a. Verbal Adjective, (paras, (pareas. 



70.] PARADIGMS. 225 

a) The second sing, (fays is quite anomalous both in accent and 

in the t subscript. (Gottling and Kriiger print (ptjs.) The 
compounds retain, in this form, the accent on the ultima, 
e. g. avrMpr/s, but avp.(pr)fj.t., av/xcfia^i, &C. 

b) This verb has two significations, (a) to say in general, (b) to 

affirm, to assert, &c. (aio). The Fut. <f)r)o-u>, however, has 
only the last signification. — <£<£, cpairjv often and <f)dvac usu- 
ally relate to the past. The Participle (pas does not belong 
to Attic prose. 

c) With (prifxi the verb rj p. I , inquam, may be compared. The 

Imperfect r\v, rj is used in the phrases rjv 6' ey&>, said I, 
?j S' os, said he (inserted parenthetically), in relating a con- 
versation. 

The pres. (fopl (with the exception of (pys) is enclitic. [See 
Rules for Enclitics.] 

70. OlSa. 

Oi8a (novi) is properly a Perf. 2. from root el8- [vid-ere] ; but it 
passes over to the forms of a verb in pi : having second sing. -Sa (as 
e'07/cr3a, ^cr3a have from (prjpi, dpi). 

Moods : 

oida | !'o"3t (ioto)) | el8a> \ eldetrjv | eldevai | eiSco?, via, 6s» 

Present. 

Sing. ofSa Plur. to-pev Dual. 

otVSa tore \o~tov 

oide(v) uraari(v) 'Io~tov 

Imperfect. 

Sing. gfSew, Att. pi/ PI. ^8et/*€* Dual. 

ffbeicr'Sa, ) » .. S ji&jafta ydeire ndeirov 

fjdeis, S ' t V^*l s 

fjdet, Att. jjdeiv, rjdr) f)8eo~av \_f]8eio~av] fldeirqv 

Fut. etcrojxai. Verbal Adjective, lariop. 

a) Though the sing, forms fjdr], &c. are usually called Attic, 

the forms fjdeiv, &c. occur even in the best Attic writers. — 
In the Dual and Plur. of Imperf., jjo-r^v, fja-pev, -re, -crav, 
are also found in the poets. 

b) Fut. eto-ofiat, and the Subj. [Opt.] and Injin. of the Present 

have also the meaning of to understand. 
10* 



226 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[71. 



71. Kel/jLcu (jaceo), rj/xcu (sedeo). 

KeT/xat, according to Kriiger, is from Keiofiai = /ceo/xat : according 
to Buttmann, a Perfect for ne/cei/iai. 

a) The Infin. is accented like a Perf. Infin., and retains this 

accent in compounds : KeicrSai, KaraKela^ai. 

b) But KaraKetjuai, KaraKua-ai throw back the accent. 

T Hjuai (in Attic prose Kc&rjfiai is the usual form) is in form a 
Passive Perfect. 



Imperfect. 
i<e'nir]v 

€K€l(TO 

exeiTO 

eiceiarSe 
eKeivro 
[eKei'jue3oi>] 
eKeio-3oz> 

Partcp. Kelpevos. 





Present. 




Ind. 


Subj. 


Opt. 


Ket/zat 


[iceco/idi] 


[neolfirjv] 


Keio-ai 


Wd\ 


[k€OIo] 


Kelrai 


Kerjrai 


Keoiro 


Keifi&a 






KeTcrSe 






Ktivrai 


Kecovrai 


KeOlVTO 


[K€LfA€%Ov] 






K.eicr'Sov 






Kelcr%ov 







Infin. xeia-Sat. 



Imper. nelcro, /ceio-So), &c 
Fut. nelo-ofiai. No Aorist. 

a) Present, ^/xat, rjaai, Tja-Tai, &c. 3 plur. tjvtm. 

Imper. rjcro, rja^ia), &C. Infin. rja^ai. Partcp. rjfxevos. 

Imperf. rj/jCnv, rjcro, tj<tto, &c. 3 plur. tjvto. 
&) Present, Ka?Sr]fxai, Kcfarjcrai, ncfenrai, &C. 

Subj. nctiGOfxai. 3. KcttrjTai.. Plur. 1. Kci3d)jue2Sa. 3. ko% 



Opt. Ka%oiiJ.T)v [kc&tJiatjv ?] 3. KaSotro [fcaS^ro?]. 

Imper. KaST/o-o [koSou]. Inf. KaS^crSat. Partcp. K.a%r)fxevos. 

Imperf. iKa^finv (na'Sfjfirjv.) 3. eVaSTyro, KaS^aro (/caS^ro). 

3 plur. eKc&rjVTO, KcRrjvro. 
The Imperf. of Kc&niiai often prefixes the Syll. Augment to the 
preposition (but not in the Tragic poets) in iKa^fxr^v. but also 
Kcttriao, Kefir)™ are found (more commonly KaSrjarTo, KaZrjvTo) where 
the Augment is compensated for by the accentuation. So also *a3- 
r}o-?ie, whereas Kc&T/o-Se is the Present. In the Subj. Ka^a/xai is more 
regular than Ka%a>nai : so also Kcftoiro, Opt., for which, perhaps, 
Ka^rj^nv, KaZrJTo (but only in these forms) were used (Kr.). 



72, 73.] 



PARADIGMS. 



227 



72. Anomalous Verbs. 
It is an anomaly of meaning when the Future Middle (in form) 
has a Passive sense. 

future middle with passwe sense. 
d8iKrj(TO[xai, shall be injured 



a£ofiai, shall be led 
^peyjrojjiai, shall be nourished 

(also Mid.). 
olKrjo-ofjLai, shall be inhabited 
Tifirjcrofxai, shall be honoured 
{jip.ioio-op.ai, shall be punished " 
crrepTjcropai, shall be deprived 
(fiofifjo-ouai, shall be feared 
GKpeXrjo-ofiai, shall be benefited J 



In these the Pass, meaning is pretty 
steady. 



In these, usage fluctuates between 
these forms and those in -Zrjo-ouai ; 
those in -^rjo-ouai denoting rather 
a continued action. (Herm.) 

So, apgouai (shall be ruled, and [Mid.] shall begin), e'lpgopai 
(shall be restrained), ^Xd^ropai (shall be hurt), Tapd£opai (shall be 
disturbed), rptyopai (shall be rubbed), (pvXd^opat (shall be guarded), 
are all found in good Attic writers. 

73. Futura Media of regular verbs, which in classical writers 
are the quite or nearly exclusive forms. 



aKovcropbCLi (-ova), shall hear. 
dXaXd^opai (-d£co), shall shout. 
aTravrrjo-opai (-da>), shall meet. 
d7rokavo-op.ai (-avco), shall derive 

(from any thing). 
(3a8iovpai (-l£co), shall walk, 
fiorjcropai (-dco), shall shout. 
ye\do~opai (-dco), shall laugh. 
KcoKvaopai (-voo), shall wail. 
olp.oo£opcu (-co£co), shall wail, la- 



6\o\v^op.ai (-v£eo), shall cry aloud 

(to the gods). 
7TT]8rjo-opaL (-da>), shall leap, 
aiyrjcropai (-dco), shall be silent. 
aicoTTTjo-opai (-da>), shall hold my 

tongue, 
cnrovbdo-opai (-d£a>), shall make 

haste, be busy, 
crvpi^opai (-i£co), shall pipe. 
rcoJido'op.ai (-d£a>), shall jeer. 



ment. 

Futura Media of regular verbs whose Future Active is a less 
common form : 



acropai, aaroo (-800), will sing, 
apivdaopai, -do~co (-d£oo), shall 

snatch. 
ftXtylropai, -tyco (-ttco), shall look, 
yvpaaopai, -acrco (a[cnc]co), shall 

grow old. 
dicogopat, £g> (-kg)), shall pursue. 
eyKcopidaopai, -acrco (-d£co), shall 

panegyrize. 
e7raiv€cropai, -ecrco (-coo), shall 

praise. 



(-eco), shall 



shall 



emopurjcropju, -t/ctco 

forswear myself. 
%avp.do~op.ai, -do~a> (-d£oo), 

wonder. 

K\e\j/ouai, -yjr(o (-7Ttco), shall steal, 
pocprjaopai, -rjaco (-eco), shall sup 

up. 
crKobyjfopai, --v^co (-7ttg>), shall mock. 
X(opr)0~op.ai, -rjoreo (-eco), shall re~ 

tire. 



228. 



FIRST GREEK BOOK, 



[74. 



Qr)pa<rop,aL and %rjpevo-op,ai, will chase, and KoXd<rop.ai, will chas- 
tise, do not belong here ; for the Middle Form of other tenses is 
found as Active (implying that the action is done for the agenCs own 
satisfaction), and the Futures in -aco are also in use. So tyr](rop.ai 
(Plat.) = mihi coquam. The Regular Fut. is iyjrrja-co. 

74. Deponents Passive (i. e. that have a Passive Aorist.) 



7]bvvr)%T]v or ihvvrp-qv ', idvvda^rjv, 

was able (bvvapai). 
rjpdcr'Srjv, loved (epapiai). 
37^3 e'er S^y, was vexed at (ax'Sop.ai). 
ifiovkrfi-qv, rjfiovXrj'Snv, wished ; 

chose (fiovkopjxi). 
ehtTfi-qv, begged (beopai). 
fja%T]v, was delighted ; was pleased 

(rjdop,ai). 
(j)f}'Sr}v, thought (pcoftai). 
caeffirjv* reverenced (arefiopai). 
icpavrda^v, likened myself (<pav- 

rd£op.ai). 
SteXe^S^i/, conversed with (diaXe- 



(-eop-ai). 



iTrepiK^rjv, cared for (-[ejo/xat). 
ive'Svp.Tprjv, considered^ 
7rpo€^vp,r]^T]v, ivas eager 
€vevoj]^rjv, considered, 

intended 
bi€voipr]v, thought over; 

intended 
aTrevo^rjv, was beside 

myself; was desperate - 
r)vavria>'%T)v, opposed (-oop,ai). 
€v\afir)%r]v, shunned scrupulously 

(-eop,ai). 
i(f)L\oTip,r)'Sr}v, was ambitious (-eo- 

p.ai). 



yofxai). 

I. Verbs in a>, with collateral forms in eeo or eop.ai. 
Present. 

aXe|co, ward off 

Middle 
ft6crKC0,feed 
(e)3e\a», will 
eppoo, take oneself off 
evdeo, sleep 
e^a), boil 

Passive 

Middle 
fjLekei, euro, est 
piXXco, am going 
p,eva>, remain 
vep,oo, distribute 

Passive 
o£o), smell of 
o(peiX<a, owe (ought) 
TV7rTa>, beat 

Passive 
Xaipa>, rejoice 

ax^opai, am vexed (at) 

* Plat. Pkasdr. 254. 



Future. 


Perfect. 


Aorist. 


[aXe^crco] 
d\e£rjaop.ai 




[rjXega] 
rjk€^dp.r}V 


(Ij^eXrjcrco 


TySeX^Ka 


rfiekno-a 


epprj(ra> fjpprjKa 
evdrjerai (none) 
e^o-u (Pdm. 73) ? 

rjyJAnpai 
i\j/rj(ropxii 
p,e\r]o-ei p.ep.eXr)K€V 

pLfXXrjCTCd ? 


rjppr]aa 
(none) 
rj\f/T]cra 

fj'yffTjo'dp.nv 

ip.eKrjcrev 

epeXXvaa 


p,evS) 


p,ep.€VT}Ka 


ep,€iva 


vep.Q) 

o^rjerco 
6<pei\r]0-(>> 


vevep-rjua 
vevep-r/vai 
[oSooSa] 
(o(p€i\r}Ka 


€V€ipa 
iveprftnv 
(o^qa-a 
a>(p€iXr)o~ci 


TVTTTrjO~a) 


? 


(ervTvov) 


TVWTrjO'op.ai 


Tervpp,ai 


irxmnv 


Xaip-qvei) KexdprjKa 

(rjfiai) 
dx^€cr(^r]cr)opai 1 


exdprjV 

r)x^°'^ r l v 



74.] 



PARADIGMS. 



229 



Present. 

fiovXop.ai, will; choose 
\epopai\, ask 
pLd^opai, fight 
p.eXopai, care for 
oi'ojuai, think 
o'ixojxai, am gone 



Future. 

(3ovXr)o~op,ai 

eprjcropai 

pa^oi'/idi 

peXrjaop.ai. 

olrjcrofiai. 

olxq cropai 



Perfect. 

fie (3ov\tj pat 
(none) 

p.e fJidxV { JLal - 
p.epeXrjpai 

(none) 
[a X r}H-ai] 



Aorist. 

£3ov\t)'St]u 

VP°M V t 

e'p.ax^o-dpr]V 

epeXrj^rjv 

(none) 



II. Verbs in eco, with a collateral form in a>. 



Present. 



Future. 



Perfect. 



Aorist. 

eyrj pa 

eyrjp.dp.rjv 

edo^a 

eppi\j/-a 

epptytyrjv 

e co era 

ecoa^rjv 

ia>o~dfJt.r]V 

HI. Verbs in av-co, av-opai ; i. e. whose roots are formed by av 
appended to the simpler root. (With some in va>, iva, avvco, 
aivo p.ai, veop.ai.) 

Future. 



y ape co, marry 




yapco 


yeyaprjKa 


Middle 




yapovpai 


yeya.prjp.aL 


SoKeco, seem 




do£a> 


beboypai 


pt7TTeC0, piVrcD, 


throw 


pfya) 


e'ppKpa 


Passive 






eppip-pai 


wSe'co, thrust 




cocrco (oo^rjerco) 


(eco<a) 


Passive 




aa^rjaop-aL 


eoocrp.ai 


Middle 




cbaopai 





Present. 
ap-aprdvu), miss ; sin dp-aprrjaop-ai 

Passive 
av£(dv)a>, increase av^rjo-oo 

Passive. av£r)(%f))o-op.ai 

fiXao-rdvco, bud fiXaaTrjcroo 

bapJsdvco, sleep dap^rja-opai (?) 

oXta'Savco, slip 6Xier%7]o~a> (?) 

alcr%dvopai, perceive aler%r)o-opai 

dnex^duopai, becomehat- d-jex^rjerop-ai. 
tivco, pay \ed rlaco 

Passive 

Middle 
<p3az/a), come before 
8d<vco, bite 

Passive 
Kap.vco, become weary 
repvoo. cut 



Perfect. Aorist. 



fjpaprrj<a 
fjpdpTTjpai 
rjvtjrjKa 
wv^rjpai 



vp-aprov 
dpaprr]?iTJvai 
Tjv^rjcra 
i]v£r)%r)v 



(l3)efi\do-rr]Ka efiXacrTOV 



Passive 
ftalvco, go 
eXavvco, drive 

Passive 

Middle 
oacppaivopai, smell 
iK.peop.ai, come 



Cp^rjo-opai 

drj^opai 

dr]x%r]o-op,ai 

Kap-ovpax 

repco 

Terprjcropai 

(3r) cropai 

eXco 



6cr(ppr]o-op.ai 
lijop.at 



8e8dp%r]Ka 
(d)Xt'cr37y/ca) 
fjcr'^rjpai 
aTTr)x%rjpai 
reriKa 
rerio-p-ai 

e(p^a<a 
1 

dedrjypai 

KeKpr/Ka 

rerprjKa 

TerprjpaL 

(3e$rjKa 

eXwXaKa 

eXrjXdpaL 

[eocrCpprjpai] 
iyp.ai 



ztJap'Sov 

coXia^ov 

rja'iop.rjv 

anrjx^dpijv 

ertcra, rlcrat 

erio-^rjv 

eTio-dprjv 

eCp'Zacra, e(p- 

ebaKov \%r]v 

eS+ix^v 

eitapov 

erepov 

erp,r^r]V 

eprju 

rf\do~a 

rp\dl$r)V 

rjXaadprjV 

a>o~(pp6p.r)V 

'iKoprjU 



230 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[74. 



IV. Verbs in dvco, dvopai, whose short root was strengthened by v, 
before av was appended : XrfS-, Xa3- ; Xav%-, Xai/3-ai/-a>. 



Present. 


Future. 


Perfect. 


Aorist. 


XavSavco, am hid 


Xrjcroa 


Xe'X^Sa 


eXaSoi/ 


Middle 


\r}(ro/j.ai 


XeXr)crp,ai, 


iXa%6fxr]v 


p.av'Sdvco, learn 


ficftrjcrofJiai 


lxep.d^r]Ka 


ep,a%ov 


Xafiftdvco, take 


Xr]\j/ofxai 


e'tXrjCpa 


TXafiov 


Passive 


X^fpSi^o-opai 


ej.A77p.pa1 


eXrjCp^-qv 


Middle 






eXafS6p.rjV 


%iyydvco, touch 


3i£opat (-co ?) 


? 


e?Siyov 


\ayxdvoi, receive by lot 


Xj^opai 


e'lX-q^a 


'£Xa)(ov 


Passive 




eiAriypai 


ikTIXty 9 


rvyxdvio, hit a mark 


rev^ofxai 


reTV)(rjKa 


€TV)(OV 


nvv^dvoixai, inquire 


7T€V(TOfACU 


TT€TTVCrp.ai, 


eirv^dfxrjv 


V. Verbs in 


(tkco appended to the simpler 


root. 


Present. 


Future. 


Perfect. 


Aorist. 


yt]pd(<rK)(x>, grow old 


yrjpa crofxai (o"<u) 


yeyfjpciKa 


eyfjpacra 


77/3a(cr/c)a), pubescere 


fjfifjcrco 


fjfirjKa 


rjftrjcra 


dpeaKco, please 


dpeaco 


(dprjpeKa) 


rjpzcra. 


evpiaKco, find 


evprjcrco 


eVpTjKCL 


evpov 


Passive 


evpe^rjaofxai 


evprjp,ai 


evp&rjv 


dvakicTKco, spend 


dvaXcocrco 


dvdXcoKa 


avdXaxra 






avrjXcoKa 


dvrjXcoara 


Passive 


dvakaftricrop.a.i 


dvdXcop.ai 


dvaXdftrjV 






dvrjX(op,ai 


dvrjXco'Srjv 


d^\'i(TK(x), miscarry 


(ap/3XaNr<o) 


rjp.fiXcoK.a 


fj[A(SXa>cra 


%vt]<tk(o, die 


Sfavoupat 


rtxlvqua 


e%avov • 


ikdo-KOfxai, propitiate 


IXdaofiai 




iXa.crdp.Tjv 


Passive 




(lAao-pai) 


IXdcrSrjv 


aXio-Kojuai, am taken 


d\cQ(TOfJLai 


edXcona 


idXcov 






fjXcoKa 


fjXcov 



VI. Verbs in o-kco appended to a simpler root reduplicated : 
/3po)-, /3i/3po)crK-. 
Future. Perfect. 



Present. 

/3t/3pd)crKa), eat 

Passive 
yiyvaxTKco, know 

Passive 
TiTpcoo-Kco, wound 

Passive 



[/3po>cropai] 
(j3pco%r}crop,ai) 
y vd> crop,ai 
yvcocr'Hrjcrop.ai 
rpcocro) 
rpcoSijcropai 
HifjLvqcrKco, put in mind p,vr)cra> 

Passive Q=remember) pi^o-S^o-opai 

fJ.€flPT](TO[Xai 



/3e/3paiKa 
/3e/3pa}pai 
eyvcoKa 
eyvoocrp.ai 
1 

T€rpcop.ai 

fJ.€pLW)fiai 



Aorist. 

[efipcocra] 
£(3pco%r}V 
eyvcov 
iyvcbo-%T)V 
erpcocra 
irpco'SrjV 
€fj.vrjcra 
ep.j/r)cr%r)V 



74.] 



PARADIGMS. 



231 



Present. 

Bibpda-Kco, run away 
7ri7rpdcncG>j buy 



Passive 



Future. 
dpacrofxai 

7reirpd<TOjAai 



Perfect. 

dedpdica 
TreTtpaKa 
7T€7rpa.p.ai 



Aorist. 
edpdv 

C7rpa%r)v 



VII. Verbs that supply their tenses from other roots. 



Present. Borrowed Root. Future. Perfect. 



alpeco, take, iX- 



uttclv, say, 
Passive 



ep- 



epxopat, go, eXevS- 
eVSt'co, eat, i8-, (pay- 
Passive 
ex<o, have, a-*, er^e 
Passive 
Middle 
Spaco, see, 07r-, 18-, 
Passive 
Middle 
irdo~x<»>- suffer, 7TT/3-, 7rei£S' 
7riva>, drink, ne-, tto- 
Passive 

7T^7TTCO,fall, 7T6T-, 7T€TO- 

rpf'^o), run, 8pap.- 

Passive 
(pepco, bear, even-, ol- 

Passive 

Middle 



aiprja-Qi 

alpe%r]<rop.a.i 

ipu> 

prj^rjcropai 

elpT]o-op.ai 

iXevo-op.ai 

e'Sopat 



Ijpvua 
r\pr)pai 
e'lprjua 
€Lprjp.ai 

eX^XuSa 
£8r)8oKa 
i8r)8eo~p.ai 

e£co, (T^crco eaxnica 
[pat caxnpai 

e^opat, <Tx*) (ro ~ 

ecopdVca 



o\j/op.ai 
6<p%fj<rop.ai 

7re t'o-opai 

7rt'opat 

7ro%r)(rop.ai 

7T€crovpaL 

8pap.ovp.ai 



$ ivex^rjcopai 
£ otcrS^aopat 
ouropat 



Aorist. 
eTkov 

€L7TOV, (-a) 

ippifiSnv 

T)X%OV 

e(payov 

[io-x&rjv] 
ecrxdprjv 
el8ov 



€C0pap.ai,u>pp.cu a>(p?ir]v 
el86p.r]v 



7re7rov3a 

7767760 Ka 

77eVopai 

77e77TG)Ka 

8e8pdp.r]Ka 
deSpap^aSat 
ivr)voxa 
ivrjveypai 



eVaSoj/ 

ewiov 

eno'SiTjv 

€1T€0~OV 

e8pap.ov 

rjveyKov 
rjvex^nv 

T)veyKap,T)V 



VIII. Verbs in pi whose original root ends in a (like tcrr?7pi). 



Present. 

Kt'xPW 1 (1)' ^ e/u ^ 

Mid. borrow 
ovivnpi (2), benefit 
6vlvap.ai, Mid. £o 
fferire advantage. 



Pass. 
ivip.Tr\r)pi (3), fill 

Mid. C 



Pass. 



7Tip- 

nXdpai 



Future. 

XPlo-co 
XpT)o~op.ai 
ovrja-Qi 
6vr)o-op.ai 



n\f]O-<0 



Tfkr]0''%T]0-0- 

p.ai 



Perfect. 
Kexpnua 



Aorist. 

hpw a 



*€XPV°~ a H- T J v 
(ovqaa 

{ov^prjv, 
(■qcro, &C.) 
wvdp-qv, 
later 
a>vrj'3r]v 
TreTrXrjKa enXvaa 

eTrXrja-dprjv 
eTrXrjprjv 
(poet.) 
nenXrio-- eVXqaSTp/ 
pat 



Root. 
X pa~ 



7rXa- 

(ttX?73- 
for 
other 
tenses) 



232 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[74. 



Perf. 


Aorist. 


Root. 


7reirpr)Ka 


eirprjcra 


irpa- 

(irprjZ- 


ireirp-qa-- 


eirpijcr'Srjv 


for 


p.at 




other 
tenses) 


rerXr/Ka 


€T\T]V 


rXa- 



Present. Future. 

irip.irpr)p.i (4), burn 7rpr)cra> 
Mid. $ tti>- 

Pass. £ irpap,ai C irpr/o-'Srjcro- 
< p.ai 
( irerrprjo-opai 
[rXr)p.i] (5) endure TXr)crop.ai 

On (prjfjLi, see Pdm. 69. 

Other forms : 

(1) Inf. Kixpdvai. * exprjo~dp.r]v = ' J borrowed? un-Attic. 

(2) Inf. Pr. owwii/ai. — Aor. Imper. ovtjcto. Opt. 6va.Lp.riv. Part. 
ovr)p.evos (Horn.) [The rest supplied by co<£eXeij>.] 

(3) The p. in the reduplication of this and the following verb is 
usually omitted in composition, when a p. precedes the reduplication ; 
e. g. ep.iriirXap.ai, but eveirip.irXdp.nv. 

Inf. Pr. iripurXdvai. Impf. eirip.irXnv. Inf. Pr. Mid. irip.irXao-'Sai. 
Impf. eirip.irXdp.rjv. 

(4) Exactly like irip.irXnp.1. Xen. has irip-irpdco. 

(5) erXnv, rXqSi, tXco, rXairjv, rXrjvai, rXds. The word is rare in 
Attic prose. 

(Deponents.) 



Present. 


Future. Perf. 


Aorist. 


ayap.ai, wonder 
bvvap.ai (1), can 


dydarop.ai (Ep.). 

dvvf]o-op,ai Bebvvrjp.ai 


rjyda-%r)v 
r)yao-dp.rjV (Ep. 
once Dem.). 
( i$vvf]?5r]v 

< r)8vvr)%r)V 
( edvvdo-^rjv (Ion. 
and Xen.). 


eiri<TTap.at. (2),* 
understand 


eirio'Tncrop.at, 


r)iTL(TTr)%r]V 


epapai, love 


epaa-^r\a-op.ai 


tjpdo-^rjv 



(ipdoj is the prose form). 
Kpep.ap.ai (see icpep.dvvvp,i, Table X). 

Other forms : 

(1) Moods of Pres. bvv-acro, -copiai, -aip.nv, -acr'Sai, -dp,evos. [dui/- 
apiai, accentu retracto.] Imperf. ihvvdp.nv or r)dvvdp.nv. 



* Properly to stand upon (i. e. as having mastered it). 



74] 



PARADIGMS. 



233 



(2) Moods of Pres. eirierr-ta (less commonly -aao), 'cop.ai, -aipr)v t 
-ao-3at, -dp.evos. Impf. rjinaTdprjv, 2 sing. r)7ri(TTa> (less commonly 
-aao). CT en-ioTo/MU, accenlu relracto. 

To these must be added : 

(1) xpiy, oporlet, exPV v > or XP^j oportebat, xpw e h oportebit (R. xp a_ 

or xpe-)- 

Imper. Subj. Opt. lnfin. Partcp. 

Xpfj (none) XPV XP €LT 1 XPl vat T0 XP € '* >V 

(2) a7r6xpr), sufficit, Inf. aTroxpfl v [ or "XP^]' Part- aTroxp&v. Im- 

perf. a7T€XpT}, Fut. cnro^^o-ei, Aor. a.7r€XPV a ' e ( v )' ^t also 
takes some personal forms (as from a7roxpaa)), diroxpcoo-iv, 
a.TTOxpT}o-ovo-i(y) . In Mid. d7roxp^cr3at (= to Tiaue enough) 
is conjugated like xpa°p- a i- 

(3) e7rpiap.Tjv, to buy (used by the Attics as Aorist to d>veop.ai). 

Imper. Subj. Opt. Infin. Partcp. 

*Trpidp.r\v Trpioa 7rpicop.at 7rpiaip.r)V 7rpiacr?5ai npidp-evos 

IX. Verbs in wfii appended to an impure original root. 
Present. Future. Perfect. Aorist. 



ayvvp.i, break 


a£<a 


edya 


eaga 


Passive 




\eayp.ai\ 


(iayrjv) 


detKWfii, show (Pdm. 


60) 






£evywp.i, bind 


&v£a> 


1 


egeyga 


Passive 




e£evyp.ai 


ilvyrjv (i^vx^rjv) 


Middle 


£ev£opat 




Zpv£dp.r]v 


p.lyvvp.1,, mix 


fXL^CO 


ip.ip.Lxa) 


epu£a 


Passive 


p.iX'Srjo-op.a.i 


i ptpi.yp.ai 


epix^rjv, epiyrju 


o'lywpi, o'lyw, open 


o't^co 


ea>X a 


ea>£a, oi£ai 


Passive (= am o 


pen) 


ea>yp.ai 


eax^rjv, olx%rjvai 


6p.6pywpc, wash off 




1 


eofiopga 


Passive 




9 


oyp.6px^rjV 


Middle 


6p.dp£opai 




a>pop£dpr]U 


TTriyvvpi, fix, fasten 




7re7rr)ya (*284) 


€7rv£a 


prjyuvpi, tear 


pjjgto 


eppcoya (*283) 


egfyia 


Passive 


payf)o~opai 




ippdyrju 


Middle 






ippjfidfajp 


op.vvp.i, swear 


dp.ovp.ai 


6p.d>p.o<a 


copoo-a 






o/xco/zocrSai 


dp.o(o-)?irjvat 


oXXvpi. destroy 


oXco 


oXcoAexa 


coXeaa 


Middle 


oXovpai 


oAooXa (perii) 


<bX6p.r)i> 



234 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



[74. 



X. Verbs in vvvpi appended to a pure original root. 



Present. 


Future. 


Perfect. 


Aorist. 


dp.cpt.evvv pi, put on (clothes) dpcpico 


(none) 


rjpcpiecra 


Middle 


apcpiecrop.ai 


Tjp(pie(rp.ai 




Kopeuuv/xi, satisfy 


(fcopeVo)) 


[KeKopwKa] 


eKopecra 


Passive 




KeKopeap-ai 


iKopea%7]V 


crfievwpi, extinguish 


0"j3e(TQ) 




eafieo-a 


Passive 


a^ea^rjcropa 


i eo-[3ecrpai 


€0~(3e(T%1]V 


Intransitive 


a^rjcropai 


ecr/3^fca 


eafirjv 


aropevvvpi, strew, spread 


CTTOpCO 


(none) 


eoropecra 


(Comp. o-Tpa>vvvp.i) 




icrropecrpai 


[6<TTop€o-%r)v] 


Kepdvvvpi, mix 


Kepdcrco (?) 


KeK.pa.Ka (?) 


eKepdaa 


Passive 




^ Kenpdpai 
I KCKepacrpai 


S €Kpa%T]V 

( eK€pdo-%r)V 






Middle 






enepacrdprjv 


upepdwvpi, hang (trans.) 


Kpep,oo 


? 


iicpepdo-a 


Passive 




(ncicpe papai) 


iKpep.dcr'Snv 


Kpep.ap.ai, hang (intrans.) 


Kpep,7]crop,ai 






irerawvpi, spread out ; 


\ 7reracr<B, 
( Alt. 7reTaJ 


[n€7reTaKa] 


eTzeracra 


extend 






Passive 




TteitTapai 


€TT€Taa-'^nv 


(TKthdwvpi, scatter 


(TKedS) 




eV/ceSacra 


Passive 




i&Kedaarpai 


ia-Kzbda-^rjv 


£a>vwpi, gird 


£d>(ra> 


[e£coKa] 


e£<oora 


Passive 




e^cocr/xai 




Middle 






efaadp-nv 


pd>vvvpi, strengthen 


pcbcrci) 


? 




Passive 


peoa'Srjo'op.ai 


epp(op,ai 


ippoaar^nv 


cTTpdowvpi, strew 


(TTpa>cra) 




eorpcocra 


Passive 




eoTptofJuu 


eaTpa^Srjv 


Middle 






to'Tpwo'dp.nv 


Xpa>vwp,i, color 




? 


eXP cocra 


Passive 




Kexpo>crp.aL 


iXpoxT^nv 



LIST OF NUMERALS. 





CARDINALS. 




ORDINALS. 


1 a 


els, fiid, €V 


1 


6 7TpC0TOS, T), OV 


2 p 


8vo 


2 


bevrepos, a, ov 


3y 


rpels, rpia 


3 


rpiros, rj. ov 


4 b' 


recrcrapes, reo~o~apa 


4 


rerapros, rj, ov 


5 € 


7T€VT€ 


5 


7T€p7TTOS, &C. 


6 s~' 


H t 


6 


euros 


u; 


€7TTa, 


7 


eftbopos 


8 Tj 


OKTU) 


8 


oyboos 


9 3' 


evvea 


9 


e'varos (evvaros) 


10 i 


deica 


10 


bemros 


11 to' 


evdena 


11 


evbeKaros 


12 ^ 


SooSe/ca 


12 


bcobeKaros 


13 ty 


rpio~KaibeKa 


13 


rpio-KaideKaros 


14 id' 


reo~o~apaKaibeKa 


14 


reo~o~apa.Ka.i8eKa.ros 


15 te 


irevreKaibeKa 


15 


-revreKaiheKaros 


16 ir 


eKKa&eKa 


16 


eKKatbeKaros 


17 tC' 


eirraKaibeKa 


17 


eirraKaibeKaros 


18 of 


OKTCdKaidena. 


18 


OKTooKaideKaros 


19 t3' 


evveaKaibeKa 


19 


evveaKaibeKaros 


20 k 


e'lKOO~t(v) 


20 


elKoo~ros 


21 *a 


eiKqaiv els, ftta, ev 


21 


eiKoarbs ~rpcoros 


22 k/? 


e'lKocri bvo 


22 


elKocrros bevrepos 


23 <y 


e'lKocri rpels, rpia 


23 


elKoo~ros rpiros 


24 kS' 


e'lKocri reo~o~apes, pa 


24 


elKoo~ros rerapros 


25 K€ 


e'iKoo~i irevre 


25 


eiKoo~ros 7rep,7rros 


26 xr' 


eucotriv e£ 


26 


eiKoo~ros eKros 


27 «f 


e'iKocriv etxra 


27 


eiKoo~ros eftbop,os 


28 KT)' 


e'lKOCTLV OKTCO 


28 


eiKoaros byboos 


29 k3' 


euuwiv evvea 


29 


elKoo~ros evvaros 


30 X' 


TpiCLKOVTa* 


30 


rpiaKoo~ros 




* O^p* TpianovTci • 


reccapaKovra. 



236 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 







CARDINALS. 




ORDINALS. 


31 Xa 


TpiaKovra els 


31 


rpiaitoo-Tos irpwros 


32 


m 


rpicLKovra dvo 


32 


TpiaKoaTos devrepos 


to 




to 


to 


to 


39 X3' 


rpiaKOVTa ivuea 


39 


TpianocTTos evparos 


40 


i 
p 


Tecro-apaKOVTa 


40 


Tea-a-apaKOCTOs 


50 


V 


irevTrjKOVTa 


50 


TVeVT-qKOCTTOS 


60 


r 


ei-fjKOVTCL 


60 


i£r)Ko<TTos 


70 


6 


ij3dojj.r]KOVTa 


70 


efidoprjKOCTTOS 


80 


7T 


oyborjKOVTa 


80 


oyborjKoo-ros 


90 


G 


evevrjKovra 


90 


iv€VT]KO<TTOS 


100 


p 


imrov 


100 


eKaroaros 


200 


or 


didKoaioi, at, a 


200 


biaKocnoa-Tos 


300 


i 

T 


rpiaKocrioi 


300 


TpiaKOCTiOCTTOS 


400 


V 


rerpaKocnoi [reacrep 


.] 400 


TeacrapaKoa-iocrTos 


500 


V 


TrevTaKoaioi 


500 


TrevTCLKocriocTTos 


600 


i 

X 


e^aKocriot 


600 


e^a/cocriocrrdy 


700 


t 


ilTTaKOCTLOL 


700 


iTTTaKOO-LOCTTOS 


800 


G) 


oKTaKoaioi 


800 


OKTaKCHTlOCTTOS 


900 


3 


ivaKocrtoi (eVz/a/c.) 


900 


evaKocTLocTTos (ivvanocr.) 


1000 


P- 


%[\ioi, at, a 


1000 


^iXioards 


2000 


P 


fito^i'Xiot 


2000 


Stcr^iXiocrrds 


3000 


,y 


rptcr^t'Xioi 


3000 


rpio-xiXiocrTos 


4000 


P 


rerpafacr^iXioi 


4000 


TerpaKi^iKioaros 


5000 


,* 


7rei/raK6(r^tXtot 


5000 


7rfvra/ct(T^iXiocrrds 


6000 


,r 


e£a/acrxi'Xiot 


6000 


e£aici(r)(i\io(TT6s 


7000 


£ 


67rraKicr^tXioi 


7000 


eTrraKtcr^tXiooTds 


8000 


n 


ofcraKKr^/Xtot 


8000 


o/cra/cicr^tXtocrrdff 


9000 


P 


eVaKtcr^t'Xiot 


9000 


eVaKio-^tXtoords (ivvaKKr- 


10,000 


/ 


pvptoL 


10,000 


pvpiocrTos [^tXtoords) 


20,000 


t K 


8i(rp,vpioL 


20,000 


dicrpvpioo-ros 


to 




to 


to 


to 


100,000 


<r 


8eKa.Kicru,vpioi 


100,000 


deKaKicruvpiocrTos 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, GRAMMATICAL 
HINTS, &C. 



A. PREPOSITIONS. 

1. About. 

To be employed about any thing. 
About = nearly (of numerical 

approximation), dp.<pl or nepl 

with ace. ; cos (conjunct). 
About (of approximate time). 
About noon. 



ap.(pl rt e%eiv or HWM « 
arpaTicoTas e7rep.\j/av dp.(p\ tovs 
diaKoo-iovs, or as dianoalovs. 



7T€pi p-ear/v rrjv r)p.epav. 
dp.(pl p.eo~ov fjpepas. 



2. Above (vrrlp). 

(1) Above = more than, wep, c. ace. ; irkiov rj. 



Above 100. 



Men who are above 50 years old. 



Trkelovs [= 7r\eloves] or TrXeloa 

(neut.) tcov eKarov. 
avbpes liKelov tl n TrevTr\KOvra err/ 

yeyovores citto yeveds. 
6 Kopat; virep to. biaicoaria err) £fj. 



The raven lives above 200 years 

(2) Above = beyond (of degree). See Beyond. 

3. After. 

To see any body after a long 
time. 

4. Against. 
To avail against any thing. 
To assist any body against any 

body. 

5. Amidst, Amongst. 
Amongst the enemy. 
To be (have fallen) amongst rob- 
bers. 

Amongst men. iv dv^pcoirois. 



Ibeiv Tiva dta xpovov. 



icrxveiv tt pos re. 
/3o7/3etj/ tivi en I Tiva. 



ev p.eo~ois rols Tro\ep.loLS. 
ev \rjo-Tais eivai. 



238 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



6. Around, Round, nepi — dp.cpl (= on both sides). 



To sit round any thing. 

To throw a cloak round one. 



7repi/3aAAecr3ai or a/iTT€^e(73at 

ip-driov. 
(kukXo)) irepuevai ttjv 7rokiv. 



Sta 7revTe qpepcov. 

els iv fiXeneiv. 

7rpos ri dcpuvai ra fiekr]. 



pos, els (ace). — 



To go round the city. 

7. At. 
A£ intervals of five days (= eve- 
ry five days). 

To look at one object. 
To discharge arrows, &c. at an 
object. * 

8. Before. e| ivavrlas (gen.). — iv (dat.).- 
«rt (gen.). — 7rpds (gen.). 

(1) Locally, irpo (gen.). — ep.Trpo&%ev or iiriTrpoa^ev (gen.). — 
ivoarnov (= in the presence of a person). — ivavriov (= in the pre- 
sence of). — irpo ttjs 7ro\e<os (%vpas, &c). — eprrpoa^eu ttjs %vpas 
(irpbs ttj 'Svpq = close to it). 

To stand before any body. o~Tr)vai, ep.irpocr'Siv twos ' irpo- 

o~Tr)vai tivos, o~Tr)vai ivamov 
twos, 7rp6s TIVOS. 
i£ ivavrias tov KaroTrrpov o~Trj- 

vai. 
\iyeiv iv rcS Br)p.a> (npos or eis 
tov drjpov). 



To stand before a glass. 
To speak before the people. 



ivavriov ttoWcqv pxtprvpcov. 
els vp.as elo~ievai. 



= In the presence of.] 
Before many witnesses. 
To come before you (with refer 

ence to an assembled body 

amongst whom a person 

comes). 
(2) Temporally, irpo (gen.). — izporepov (gen.). 



Before the war. 

A year before the taking of 

Before sunrise. 



(7rp\v with Infin.) 
Before day-break. 



7rp6 roiibe tov 7ro\ep,ov. 
ivLavTGi nporepov ttjs dAoxrecB?. 
7rpo (or irpoTepov) rjkiov dviovros 
or avio-xovTos. 

7rp\v fjpepav yiyvea%ai. 



(If ' before ' introduces a sentence.) 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, &C 239 

9. Behind. oVto-Sei/, gen. (only of place). — Karomv, gen. (of 
place or time). — p-erd, ace. — eV/, dat. place or time. — vtto (dat.) and 
avri (only of place). 

To stand behind a tree. dvr\ bevbpov, or vtto bevbpa eo-rn- 

Kevai (the former = facing it ; 
the latter under it for protec- 
tion). 

To be behind any thing. omaZev yiyveaftat twos. 

To place oneself behind any efnrpoo-%ev rroirio-'Sal ri (i. e. 
thing. to cause it to be before one). 

10. Below, vtto, gen. and dat. — Kara, gen. (so that the object 
envelopes or covers us). See Under. 

To be below any body. fj-rrco (ace. m.) rival twos. 

To think any thing below (be- dirat-iovv ri. 

neath) one. 

This thing is below them. dvd£iov airav tovt eort. 

11. Beneath. See Below, Under. 

12. Beside, napd (dat. of person; ace. of thing). 

To shoot beside the mark. Trapap-aprdveiv tov o-kottov. 

13. Between. /iera|i; (gen.), iv pla-a (gen.), iv (dat.). 

C cos iv T]piv elprjcr?3ai. 
Between ourselves. < u>s rrpbs ak (if one person only is 

\ addressed). 

14. Beyond, napd, virep (both ace), pri^ov fj. 
Above (beyond) my power. irapa. (virep) hvvap.iv. 

That is above the power of man. to epyov io-rl p.d.£ov rj nar av- 

%p<o7rov ( = the Lat. major 
quam pro ). 

15. By (of agent) : = beside, vid. npos, dat. = close by. rfj 
7roXei, &c. 

Day by day (daily) ; year by year ko3' tjpepav : tear eros. 

(every year), yearly. 

To judge a person by any thing. perpetv (metiri) nva ex nvos. 

To stand by any body. 7rapao-Trjval nva. 



240 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



(By = NEAR, vid.) 
To implore any body by the gods. npos tcov "Seav. 
By the father's side. irpbs irarpos. 

16. Down, Kara, gen. = down into ; under. 

In compos. Kara. To fall down, KaramirTeiv. To run down, 
KaTarpextw, KaraSieiv. 



Down (the) hill. 

17. For. 
To fight, brave dangers, &c./or 

any thing. 
A remedy for any thing. 



Kara (or kutco) tov opovs. 

jua^ecrSai (KivSvveveiv, &c.) virep 
tivos (= on behalf of). 

A remedy of am/ thing (objective, 
gen.). 

vo/iot eVi tovtois TeTayp.evoi. 



Xapfidveiv n nap a tivos. 
p-erpetv (= metiri) rira e/c tivos. 



Laws drawn up /or this purpose 
(= to secure these objects.) 

18. From. 
To receive any thing from any 

body. 
To take an estimate of a person 

from any thing. 
From (denoting a cause). Thus; From thinking so and so, ra 
vopi£eiv. 

(1) dat. 

(2) hid with ace. 

(3) e< with gen. 

To remove any body from a ma- 
gistracy. 

19. In. 
To exceed (surpass, excel) any 

body in any thing. 



traveiv Tiva ttjs apx^js. 



To delight in any thing. 

To end in any thing. 

I am poor, rich in any thing. 

To inquire, &c. in what way any 

thing may be done. 
To be shut up in a place. 



hiacpepeiv (= to differ, to be dis- 
tinguished), tivos tivi (dat. of 
thing in which one excels — ). 

fjheo-'Sai tivi. 

TeXevrav e'is ti. 

evherjs elp'i (ir\ovTa>) tivos. 

Trvv'Sdvea'Sai Tiva rpbirov — . 

To be shut up into (els, ace.) a 
place. 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, fcC. 



241 



20. Into, els (ace.)- 

With verbs of motion, iv with the dat. is found instead of els with 
the Ace. ; " but only with the Perf. and Pluperf. in Attic writers. 
The iv denotes the point to which the motion is directed as reached : 
ol iv to) 'Hpaico KarairecpevyoTes [but is to 'Up. Karecpvyov]. It is 
only with r&evcu and the like, that iv occurs (though also els) with 
all the forms, to denote rest as a result of the motion." Kr. 'Ej/ 
^epert Xafielv. 

21. Near, iyyvs (gen.), irk-qo-lov (gen.). 

To be near any body. iyyvs or irkrjaiov etval twos. 

To put any thing near any body. Tikqa-iov iroielv tL tivos. 

22. Of. 

To die of disease. vocrco reXevrqv. 

23. Off. 
I am off. 



To be three stadia off. 
To take one's clothes off. 

To take any body's clothes off. 

24. Out (of). i< (gen.). 

Dal. — also = cause, motive. 
vtto (gen.)- — 5ia 5 ace. 

Out of kindness. 

25. On, Upon. 

To spend money upon any body. 
To sow upon stones. 



On the wing (of an army). 
To look on the ground. 
All depends on you. 

26. Over, virep (gen.). 
11 



oixppai. 

rpels arablovs arreyeiv (e. g. rrjs 

noXecos). 
airohvecr'Sai (e. g. shoes). — eK§u- 

eo-3at (a garment from which 

one has to come out), 
iicbveiv TLva tl. 



i< (less commonly dno) c. gen. — 
evvolq. — vrr evvoias. 

XprjuaTa dvaXlcTKeiv e'ls Tiva. 

e I s Xtiovs o-rreipeiv (a proverb ; 
sowing usually consisting of 
putting seed into the earth). 

eVi <epa>s. 

els yrjv opqv. 

iv o~o\ ttclv to itpdyp.a. 



242 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



27. Through. 

(1) Of direction from one extremity through to the other. Bid 
with gen. 

To wound any body through his Bid tov %capa.Kos TiTpaxrKeiv nvd. 

breastplate. 
To flow through the country. pelv Bid ttjs yrjs. 

(2) Of extension over all parts of a surface : Bid (gen.), dvd 
(ace). . 

Through the whole country. dva irao-av rr\v x<*>P av - 

(3) Occasion, Cause, &c. See Out of. 
(In composition, did.) 

28. Till, Until, /ue^pi, gen. 

Till sunset. ^XP l V^ ov $vcrp.a>v (or Bvvovtos). 

Till death. ^XP l ^avdrov. 

Till morning. els ttju eco. 

As a temporal conjunction with a sentence : em, ears, pe'xp* 
(ov), — Txplv (prius). 



29. To, Unto. 

To conduct to — mankind. 
Any thing is good for nothing to 

(= compared with) another. 
To look to any thing (i. e. to 

consider it, make it an object). 
To be brought to any body. 
To come or go back again to the 

beginning. 
To go in to any body. 

30. Towards. 

To be harsh towards any body. 

31. Under. 

vtto (c. acc), to denote motion 
towards an object that is above 
us. — vtto (dat), of rest be- 
neath (vtto iparico exeiv ti). 



ayeiv (riva) els dv?ipd>7rovs. 
Trpos with acc. 

fSkeireiv Trpos ti. 

evex'Srjvai napd riva. 

avails em rrjv dpx^]V Uvai TrdXiv. 

elcrievai Trapd riva. 



Xakeirov eival nvi. 



vtto BevBpov KaracrTrjvai. 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, &C. 



243 



Kara (c. gen.), if we sink into it. 



Kara yrjs Karabvvai. 
/caraSuetrSai Kara tov vdaros. 



Under = in less than, euros (within : c. gen.). 
Under twenty years. 
Under fifty years old. 



Under = in subjection to. 
Under these circumstances. 



To be under arms. 

32. With. 

To build houses with the saw. 
To be angry with any body. 



evros eu<.oo~i ercov. 

dvfjp OV7TG0 TTevTrjKovra ern yeyo- 

va>s dirb yeveds. 
dvrjp e\ao-o~6v tl 77 irevr^Kovra err] 

yey ovas (= somewhat under). 
eivai vtto tivl or eVi run. 
a>6° ixovrav tcov npaypdrcov. — 

ovToos e^ovrcov. — ore raOS' ov- 

T(OS tX €t ' eli TOVTCOV TOLOVTOiV 

ovrcop. 
ev ott\ols eivai. 



OlKldS 7TOLetV CLTTO TTpiQVOS- 

opyl^ecr^al tivl (ev opyrj e^eiv or 
7roteicr3ai nva). 



33. Within.] evros, Gen. (of time. See Under). 

34. Without.] dvev (Gen.), ^copi's (Gen.). e|a> (Gen.). 

Without transgressing the laws, 

Without friends. 

Without any right. 

Without any body's knowledge. 



crvv tois vopois. 

(piXatv eprjpos. 

irapa iravra to. Sinaia. 

Kpv<pa or \d%pa tlvos. dyvoovv- 

tos rivos, or by circumlocution 

with Xav'Sdveiv rivd. 



Often by a negative with particip. ; or by a negative compound. 
Without laughing. ov (or fxrj) yeXdaas : dyeXaort. 



244 FIRST GREEK BOOK. 

B. MISCELLANEOUS. 

35. Words that modify a substantive (i. e. attributive notions) are 
usually inserted between the article and its substantive, or after 
the substantive, the article being repeated. 

a) Thus : the men in the town, would be, in Greek, c the in 
the town men,'' or ' the men the in the town.'' 

b) In this way the Greeks often use long attributive notions 
where we should use a relative clause : e. g. 

Eng. Those who are in the enjoyment of all earthly bless- 
ings, &c. 

Greek. The in the e-njoyment of all earthly bless- 
ings (persons). 

c) The substantive is here usually omitted, when it is men, 
things, &c. ; so that the article often stands alone, in con- 
nection with a substantive governed by a preposition, &c. : 
e. g. ol iv Trj yrj (the in the land =) the inhabitants of the 
country, ol eVi ra rei^ei, the men on the wall. 

Hence in translating, when an article is followed by some 
word or words with which it does not agree, read on till 
you find a substantive with ivhich the article can agree, con- 
necting the intermediate notions, attributively or otherwise, 
with this substantive. If there is no substantive of the kind, 
understand men or things, &c. 

36. The girl has beautiful hair. The girl has the hair beautiful. 

37. The article is used when a substantive denotes a class. Thus 
horses, poets, &c. (when a truth is asserted of the class ; of any 
horse, &c), are ol Ittttol, ol noinral. 

38. It is not possible to — oi>x olov re (sc. eo-riv), with infin. 
I am not able to — ovx olos re (sc. elfil), with infin. 

(plos is 'such'). Hence ovk 
elfu oios rroielv ti = I am not 
such a one (as) to do it. The 
re = que is a remains of the 
old mode of affixing re as a 
connecting particle to rela- 
tives, &c. 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, &C. 245 

39. The dual is not alioays used for two ; but very often bio with 
plural. 

40. a) c O TToicbv = he who does. 

c O 7roiT](Tas = he who has done, &c. 

b) The participle may, of course, be resolved, as in Latin, (1) by 
a relative clause (with who, which, that) ; or (2) by an ad- 
verbial one, whether conditional (if), adversative (though), 
temporal (when, after, &c.) : — and often (3) by the partici- 
pial substantive with in, by, &c. [\r)'i£6pevoi £coo~iv, they live 
by plundering ; raptu vivunt] , and (4) by a finite verb con- 
nected with the principal verb by and, &c. [' having fallen 
sick, he died' = ' he fell sick, and died']. 

c) Hence conversely, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, the par- 
ticipial substantive (with in, by, &c), a verb preceding ano- 
ther verb, and connected with it by and, may often be trans- 
lated by a participle. 

41. a) When two opposed notions are connected by an unemphatic 

but (8e')> the first usually takes pev. Hence prefix piv to the 
first of such opposed notions, although the English has no 
indeed. 
V) Also place the opposed notions at the head of their clauses. 
For instance : arrange ' I like honey, but not wine,' thus : 
' Honey indeed I like, but wine not ' [in Greek it must be : 
wine but (olvov Se), because be follows its word]. 

42. With three others. Himself the fourth, rerapros av- 

TOS. 

43. This' (with emphasis). tovto ye (ye enclit.). This ye em- 

phasizes the preceding word : 
it may sometimes be rendered 
at least, quite, &c. 
Diagoras. Aiayopas ye or drj. 

44. Seous Tjyela-^ai or uopl(eiv = deos esse credere, to believe in the 

existence of the gods. 
tovs Seous rjyelo-^ai or vopl^eiv, credere deos esse, quos esse 

credi solet. 
8Ur)u vopi(etv = to observe or practise justice ; to acknowledge 

there is such a thing. 



246 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



45. (To have) any thing a foot 
long (broad, deep) ; or, of a 
foot in length (breadth, depth). 

46. With A not B. 

47. A, B, C, D, and E. 



48. a) He evidently desires. 



b) It is just (fair, &c.) that 
he should bear the blame 
of this. 



49. To come with twenty hop- 
lites. 

To walk with a stick. 

50. I am come to do it. 

I send a man to do it. 

51. A sort of prophets. 

52. Many great men. 

53. I say that it is not — . 
I think it does not — . 
I pretend it is not — . 

54. I should like to (behold). 

55. I naturally desire. 

It is my nature to desire. 
I desire by reason of a natu- 
ral inclination. 



( To have any) thing (the) length, 
breadth, depth of a foot. 

'With A but not (aXV ov) B' 
(but often neat ov or ov only). 

(1) A, and B, and C, and D, 
and E. 

(2) both (ko.l) A, and B, and C, 
and D, and E. 

(3) A, B, C, D. 

That is, in Greek the ' and' is 
not placed only between the 
two last terms of a series. 

a) He is evident desiring, &c. 
(SfjXdy ecrriv eViSu/icov). — So 
(pavepos iariv. 

b) He is just (fair, &c.) to bear 
the blame of this, diKaios 
io~ri tovtov ttjv clIticiv (pepeiv. 
So a£;i6s io-Tiv (e. g. tov yej€- 
vrjpivov aTTokaixrai tl dyafSov). 

To come having (ex<ov) twenty 

hoplites. 
To walk bearing (cpepoov) a stick. 

I am come about to do it (ttoitj- 

o~cov). 
I send [tov] iroirjo-ovTa. 

p6.VT€LS TLves. 

Many and great men. 

ov (prjpi — elvai. 

ovk otopai — eipai. 

ov rrpoo-TTOiovpai — eivai. 

rjbecos av ?i€acra.lpr)v. 

necpvKa e7ri3u/u.eti> = (ita naturd 

comparatus sum, ut — concu- 

piscam). 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, &C. 247 

56. Who, whom, what are often indefinite : = any person who, 
ivhom ; any thing that. They are then to be translated by 6s av 
with Subj. after Pres. or Fut. ; by 6s with Optative after the 
historical tenses (cf. 295). 

So, whatever = 6 av, a av, o<ra av with Subj. after a principal 
tense ; o, a, oaa with Opt. after an historical tense. 

57. The Aorist is often translated into English by the Perfect. Es- 
pecially, 

a) The Aor. Infin. after verba putandi et declarandi has the 
force of a praeteritum ; and is often translated by the Perfect : 

, , „ (he says that he did it. 

■ ' I he says that he has done it. 

b) In the statement of general truths founded on frequent expe- 
rience (especially with fjdr]), the Aor. is often translated by 
the Perfect. 

Men have often been compelled. ijh-q noXkol rjvayKacr'STjcrav 

58. The Aorist has often the force of the Pluperfect. 

a) The Aor. is regularly used (the Pluperf. comparatively sel- 
dom) after eVet, eVeiS^, &c. 

b) The Aor. Infin. is used after an historical tense of a verbwm 
declarandi et putandi : 

„ (he said that he did it. 

^ ' ' f he said that he had done it. 

59. Too wise to — . o-ocfycorepos r/ coo-re c. infin. (In 

Latin, sapientior quam ut — ). 



INDEX I. 

GKEEK AND ENGLISH. 



JJ The Roman numerals refer to the Lists of Irregular Verbs, 
pp. 228-234. — Adjectives in 05 that are followed by 2, are of 
two terminations ; i. e. the form in os is also used for the femi- 
nine. 

dya>yifj.os (ayeiv), that may be 
conveyed or imported amongst : 
— hence current (of foreign 
money). 
aydov, dycov-os, 6, contest. 
abeiv (deideiv), to sing. 
) d8e\cpr], 77, sister. 
( dde\(p6s, 6, brother. 
r dbiMuv (= e-eip), to commit 
injustice ; to do wrong. — c. 
ace. to wrong (d, not. 8 Inn, 
justice). 
dbiKTjfjia, to, wrong, unjust act. 
dStKi'a, f), injustice. 
aminos 2, unjust. 
C dbvvarelv (=e-eiv), to be un- 

< able. 
( ddvvaros 2, impossible. 

del., always. 

deiKrjs, -es, unseemly, disgrace- 
ful. 

deros, 6, eagle. 

dnbcov, drjdov-os, rj, nightingale. 

d^dvaros 2, immortal (d. Zdvaros, 
death). 

C 'ASt/j/S, Athene (Minerva). 

< 'AS/pat, -wv, at, Athens. 
( 'AS^raio?, Athenian. 
S a%\ios, miserable. 
I dZXieos, miserably. 

dsXoi/, to, prize. 

d3u/xelz/ (=e-6ti/), to be dispirited 

(d, not. ^v/jlos, spirit). 
AtaKo's, 6, iEacus. 



'A/3Ad/3eia (d. /3Aa/3, short root of 

(Skd-TTTeiv. to hurt), innocence. 
5 dya^di/ (neut. adj.), advantage. 
( dya%6s. good, brave. 
ayav (nimis), too much ; too. 
dyairdv (= d-eiv), to love ; (with 

dat. or ace.) to be contented 

(or satisfied) with. 
ayyekos, 6, messenger. 
' aye (Imperat. of ayeiv ==) , age, 
come now. 

ayeiv, to lead, carry. ayeiv 
rj(Tvx<-av, to keep quiet. 
dyevvfjs, -es (d. yev, root of verbs 

relating to production, origin, 

&c), ignoble, low-bred. 
ayrjpeos, -Q>v (d. yrjpas, old age), 

not growing old ; immortal, 

imperishable. 
dyKoiv, -a>vos, 6, (bend of the) 

elbow. 
ayvvpi, I break (pf. eaya). IX. 
dyopd, rj, market-place (dyeipeiv, 

to assemble). 
aypa(pos (d. ypdcpeiv, to write), 

unwritten, 
dypdf; 6, a field. 
dypvirvelv (= e-etf), to keep 

awake, to forego sleep (d. v- 

nvos, sleep). 
dyx<-vovs 2, shrewd, clever, quick- 
witted (ayxh near, vovs, mind). 

11* 



250 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



S Alyvirrios, Egyptian. 

( Alyvirros, f], Egypt. 

C aidelo-Sai (= e-e<r3ai,) to reve- 

< rence. 

( alduis, fj, shame, reverence. 
Alr)Tt]$, iEetes (king of Colchis). 
al%r]p, -epos, 6, ether, pure air. 
aipa, alpar-os, to, blood. 
cil£, aly-6s, 6, rj, goat. 
aipeiv (= e-eiv), to take. vn. 
aipeiv, to raise. 
( alo-'%dveo~'3ai, ala^rjaopai, &C, 

to perceive, in. 
j aiar^tjo-is, ea>s, r), sensation, per- 
^ ception. 

aLcr^LCTTos, superl. of alcrxpds. 

alaxpoKepdrjs, pursuing gain by 
base means (alaxpos, base. 
K€p8os, gain). 

alo-xpos, disgraceful, base. 
^ alaxpcos , disgracefully. 
alaxyveiv, to shame. Mid. al- 

o-xvveo-^ai, to be ashamed. 
alrelv (= e-eiv), (rivd ri), to 

ask. 
aiTiaa^ai (=a-ecr3at,), to accuse, 

charge, blame, &c. ; rivd n 

(rare), on — . 
alxpaXcoros, ov, prisoner of war. 
al\jsa, quickly. 
aKaSapros, uncleansed, impure 

(d. Ka^aipeiv, purificare) . 
a.Kpr), point, co rjXiKias, the full 

vigor (or flower) of one's age. 
ciKor), hearing (duoveiv). 
aKoXaaros, intemperate ; prop. 

unchastised, unchastened (d. 

non. Ko\d£eiv, castigare). 
duoveiv, to hear, to listen to ; 

Fut. aKovcropai ', Pass, with o~. 
clkovo-ios, involuntary. 
a<pa, f], summit. 

aKpaTTjs, -es, intemperate, immo- 
derate (a. updros, strength). 
di<pl(3r)s, -es, accurate. 
C aKpodo-'Sai (= d-ecrSai), to hear, 

< listen to. 

£ aKpoaTTjs, -ov, 6, auditor. 



S a/cpd-7roXiy, -ecus, f], citadel, 
f aKpos, highest. 
aKcov, -ovcra, -ov, unwilling. 
C dXyelv (= e-eiv), to feel pain. 
< dXyeivos, painful. 
' aXyos, -ovs, to, pain. 
dXei(peiv, to anoint, rub. 
dXenrpvcov, -ovos, 6, a cock. 
'AXe^ai'Spoy, 6, Alexander. 
(dXrj^eLa, rj, truth. 
J dXrj'Seveiv, to speak the truth. 
I dXr]%r)s, -es, true. 
l^aX^Scos, truly. 
ciXts, enough. 

dXtorKfcrSat, to be taken, v. 
oXkt), tj, strength. 
'AXiafiLddrjs, -ov, 6, Alcibiades. 
dXXd, but. 
r dXXr)Xa>v, of one another. 
aXXo?sev, from another place. 
ciXXos, -rj, -o, another, alius. 
{ dXXorpios (= alienus), others', 
another's. 
aXXcos, otherwise. aXXcos re 
teal, especially. 
( dXoyia, unreasonableness, ab- 
surdity (d. non. Xoyos, ratio). 
<{ aXoyos (a. Xoyos, ratio), irra- 
tional, senseless (2 termina- 
tions). 
aXs, aX6s, salt ; pi. ciXes. Note 9. 
a-Xv7ra>s, without grief or sor- 
row. 
dXcoTTT]^, dXameK-os, rj, fox. 
ciXcos, j], halo. 

aXcocr-Ls, -ecos, rj (&Xo-, simpler 
root of dXio-K-opai), taking, 
capture. 
apa (simul), at the same time : 
also used as a prep, with dat., 
together with : ap.a rfj eco (at 
the same time with the dawn 
=) at day-break ; ap,a tco o~L- 

TCO aKp.d£ovTi, &C. 

dpa^ia, fj (d, non. /xa3, short 
root of pav^dveiv, discere), ig- 
norance. 

apa£a, fj, wagon. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



251 



r a/iapTaveLv (l) errare, to miss 
(with gen.) ; (2) peccare, to 
sin, commit a fault, err. 
dp.dpTtjpa, dpapTTjp,aTOS, to, er- 
ror, fault. 
{dpapTia, fj, offence. 
dpavpovv (= d-eti/), to darken. 
dpeivcov, better (ap.eivov as adv.). 
i dpeXeia, fj, carelessness. 

< dp.e\el.v (= e-eiv), to neglect 
( (gen. — d. fieXei, curcc est). 

dp.oLJ3r], exchange, return (ajiei- 
/SetrSot). 

apneXos, fj, vine. 

dp.vv€iv, to ward off; Mf<7. to 
ward off from myself; also, to 
revenge myself on any body 
(ace.) ; for any thing, imep to- 
cos. 

dpcpt-evvvp.i, I put on ; T clothe, x. 

cipcpco, both. 

fiv, with Subj., = edi/, if. This 
av, which has d, and can stand 
as the first word of a clause, 
must not be confounded with 
av with d, the modal particle, 
explained in 279. 

dva-yiyvwarKeiv, to read. VT. 

C duay<d(eiv, to compel. 

< dvayKoios, necessary. 
f dvdyKr), necessity. 

dvaideia, fj, shamelessness. 

dv-dXicrK€Lv, to spend, v. 

dva-p,ev€iv, to wait. 

dud-Travais, -ecos, rj, rest (ava- 
7raue(rSai). 

dv-aipelv (= e-eiv), to take up, 
take away, destroy (aor. dv- 
fikov). vn. 

dvapxia (d. dpxfj), anarchy, licen- 
tiousness, ungoverned licence. 

avdardTos 2, ruined, laid waste 
(of cities and countries) : dv- 
da-Tarov noielv, to destroy ut- 
terly, to lay waste (properly, 
to make the inhabitants rise up 
and quit. — dvd, up. ora-, sim- 
pler root of ictttjiju). 



dva-rfar]fii, dva-T&£vai, to put up, 

offer. 
dvaxu>pT](TLs, retreat (dvd. %(&- 

pelv, cedere). 
C dvdpeia, dvbpia, fj, bravery. 

< dvdpelos, brave (dvfjp, man). 
I dv8peicos, adv., bravely. 

dvdpias, -dvros, 6, image or sta- 
tue (of a man. — dvfjp, dv$p-6s). 
'Avdpoyews, -a>, 6, Androgeus. 
civepos, 6, wind. 
avev (gen.), without. 
dvfjp, dv8p-6s, 6, a man. Pdm. 19. 
av%os, to, a flower. 

dv'Spainvos, human ; to which 
humanity is subject : hence 
(of faults) venial. 
d'i/3 pcoiros , 6, man. 
dv-io~Trjp.i, -lardvai, to set up. 
( dvorjTos, unintelligent, silly (d, 
J not. voelv, to understand). 
I avoia, fj, want of sense, stupid- 
{. ity, folly. 

dv-oiyvvvat, dv-oiyeiv, to open. IX. 
C dvop,ia (d. vop.os, law), lawless- 

< ness. 

( avopos 2, lawless. 

civovs (= avoos), -ow, senseless, 
imprudent (d. vovs, mind). 

dvri-Xeyeiv, to contradict. 

ava>, above, more inland, beyond 
(gen.). 

dvdoyeoov, to, upper floor, dining- 
room (avco, above, yfj, earth). 
" d£i6-\oyos, worth mentioning. 
d^ios, worthy (gen.). 
d^Loiiv (= 6-eiv), to think wor- 

< thy, claim, expect. 
d^icopa, d^iapar-os, to, consi- 
deration, reputation, dignity, 
rank (agios). 

doibfj, song (deldeiv). 
drr-dyeiv, to lead away. 
dwaidevTos 2, uneducated (d. 7rat- 

8ev€iv, to educate. 7raid, root 

of ttols, boy). 
drr-a\\dTT€iv, to set free from ; 

Mid. to depart from. 



252 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



goto!, once. 

arras, all, whole, altogether. 
C drreftetv (e-eii>) , to disobey (dat.) . 
< d7re&r]s, disobedient (a. 7rei- 
( 3ety, to obey). 
a7r-€LKd£eiv, to copy. 
air-etpu, Inf. a7r-elrai, to be absent. 
air-eipi, Inf. dir-uvai, to go away 

(Pres. with meaning of Fut). 
aireipos 2 (gen.), unacquainted 

with, inexperienced (d. rrelpa, 

attempt). 
a.7r-epx€o-%ai, to go away. VII. 
r an-exeM, to keep off; to be 
distant from. vii. 

d7r-e^eo-Sat (gen.), to abstain 

from. vn. 
' dmcTTelu (= e-ew), to disbe- 
lieve, distrust. 

amaTos 2, unfaithful, faithless. 
— suspected (by) (d. 7ricrro?, 
faithful). 
arrkoos, -ovs, simple. 
dno-jHaiveiv, to disembark ; to go 

away. in. 
aTrofiaXkeiv, to cast away ; to 

shed (horns). 
air o- {Skin eiv, to look upon. 
aTro-deiKvvpi, aTro-bekKVvvai, to 

show ; to appoint. 
aTTo-dexea-^ai, to receive, accept. 
an o-8 id co pi, dno-bihovai, to give 

back, to give, allot. 
diroftav-. See aTTO^ivrja-K-eLV. 
diro-'Svrjo-Keiv (-^avovpai, -T&vrjKa, 

-&avov), to die. v. 
dno-Kapveiv, Fut. -Kapovp.ai, -Ke- 

K/xrjKa, -eKafxov (c. partcp.), to 

grow weary. In Aor., to be 

wearied. 317. 
aTTOKOTrreiv, to cut off. 
aTTO-Kpiveo-'Sai, to answer. 
diro-Kpv-TTTeiv, to conceal. 
a7ro-KT€iv€Lv, to kill (KTeiVO). f. KT€- 

va>. pf. eKTova : later enraKa). 
airo-Xeirreiv, to leave, to quit. 
dir-oWvpi, a7r-o\\vvai, to ruin, to 

destroy, ix. 



J A7rdXXcov, -covos, 6, Apollo. 
dno-Xvetv, to dissolve ; to acquit. 
' drropelv (— e-eiv), to be in 
want. 

anopos 2, difficult (d, not. tto- 
pos, passage through). 

dnoppelv (= e-eiv), to flow 
from. 

aTropporj, a flowing off, an efflu- 
ence or emanation. 
aTTo-a-TTav (== d-eii>) , to draw away. 
aTro-o-Tepelv (= e-eiv), to deprive 

of. 
d-rro-o-Tpecpeiv, to turn away. 
aTro-o-tpaTTeiv, to cut (a man's) 

throat ; to slay. 
diro-Tti-qpi, OTTO-riSei/ai, to put 

away ; Mid. take off; lay 

aside. 
dwo-cpalvetv, to show ; to make ; 

to appoint : Mid. declare. 
diro-tyvxeiv, to dry up. 
dwpoo-fiaTos 2, inaccessible (d. 

npos, to. j3a-, simpler root of 

fiaiveiv, to go). 
an-reo-Sat, to touch (gen.). 
apa ; (interrogative.) 
cipa, igilur, therefore. 
dpyaXeos, troublesome. 
r dpyvpeos, (made) of silver ; 
silver (adj.). 

dpyvpiov, to, silver money; mo- 

■ ney. 

apyvpos, 6, silver. 
"Apeios ndyos, Mars' hill (the 

hill on which the court of the 

Areopagus sat) ; the hill of the 

Areopagus. 
dperr}, fj, virtue. 
dpi%p.6s, 6, number. 
cipiaros, best. 
cipKTos, 6, r), a bear. 
appa, appar-os, to, chariot. 
dpvelo-%ai (= e-ecr3cu,) Dep. Pass., 

to deny. 
apirdgetv, to seize, plunder, carry 

off. 
app-qv, -ev, male. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



253 



aprl, just now. 

apnos, -a, -ov, even (opp. odd) ; 
of an even number. 
f dpTowooXr]?, breadseller, baker 
(cipros, bread, loaf. iraikelv, 
1 to sell). 
l^apros, 6, bread. 
cipxeiv (gen.), to rule over, to 

be master of ; to begin. 
ap^€cr3at (gen.), to begin. 
apXHi 9? beginning, commence- 
ment ; commencing-point. 
' daefieLa, fj, impiety. 
ao-e/3eii> (=e-eti/), to be guilty 
<{ of impiety (o-e/3eii/, venerari). 
do-efirjpa, to, an impiety, or 

impious act. 
r do-%eveia., rj, weakness. 
do-'Sevfiv (== e-eiv), to be weak, 

to be ill. 
aa'SevTjs, -es, weak (d. a^evos, 
strength). 
ao-Keiv (== e-etv), to practise. 
dcnraXcfios, 6, the aspalathus (a 

prickly shrub). 
dcnris, dcrnid-os, rj, shield. 
S darpaTvr]. rj, lightning. 
( do-rpdnTeiv, to lighten. 
ao-rpov (astrum), star. 
ao~Tv, to, city. 
d-avveTos 2, stupid. 
do-(pa\r)s, -es, firm (d. acbdX- 

Xecr3at, to stumble). 
dre'Xaa (dreX^y), exemption (from 
public burdens : immunitas, — 
d. Tikeiv, to pay). 
C arip-d^Lv, to despise (d. Tiprj, 
< honor). 
( dripia, 17, dishonor. 
'Attlkt), rj, Attica. 
r drv^elv (= e-eiv), to be un- 
successful or unfortunate 
(d. tv^, short root of rvyxd- 
v€iv, to hit [a mark, &c.J, to 
obtain, tiixv, fortune). 
drv-)(j}pcL, to, misfortune. 
drvxrjs, -es, unfortunate, 
^drv^/a, fj, misfortune. 



^ av, again ; on the other hand. 

( av%Ls, again. 

av\6s, 6, flute. 

avos, dry. 

avTos, -rj, -o, self : but avTov, -g>, 
-6v, ejus, ei, eum. — So in pi. 

av)(r)v, ai)(ev-os, o, neck. 

dcp-aipelo-^at (= e-eo"3ai) Tivd ti, 
to deprive of, take away. Cf. 
alpeiv in VII. 

*d<fiavr)s, -e«r, unseen, unknown, 
(d. cpav, short root of cpaiveiv, 
to show). 
d<pav[(eiv, to cause to disap- 
pear. 00 T771/ yrju, to cover it. 

affiouos (d. (p%6vos, envy), abun- 
dant (there being so much, that 
none need envy another). 

dqb-ivp-t, d<p-i£vai, to let go. 

dcp-LKi/elo-^aL (= e-fO"3at)> to 
come. III. 

d(p-io~Trjpi, dqb-io-Tavat, to put a- 
way, to turn aside from. — Aor. 
2, aTToo-Tr}vai (dejicere) , to revolt 
from, desert from. — Aor. 1 , d7ro- 
o-Trjo-ai = to make to revolt. 

a-<ppa>v, foolish. 

dxdpio-Tos 2, ungrateful (d. ^d- 
pis, gratia) . 

a^Seo-Sai, to be indignant. 

'A^iAAe^?, -e'cos, 6, Achilles. 

axpno~TOs 2, useless (d. ^pd-ecr3ai 
= XPW^ ai )- 



B. 



^ BdSoy, -ov?, ro, depth. 

) /3a3vs, -eia, -u, deep. 
(BaLveiv, to go. HI. 
fiaXavelov, bath, public bath (t. e. 

bathing-room). 
(BdWeiv, to throw. 317. 371. 
(BdnT-etv, to dip. 
/3dp/3apo?. barbarian. 

f /3acr CkevtLV, to be a king, to 

J reign. 

I fiacrikevs, -ecos, 6, king. 

^/3ao-i'Xto-o-d, »/, queen. 



254 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



fiefiaios 3 and 2, firm. 
5 fieXrio-Tos, best. 
} fieXricov, ov, better. 
/3ta, 77, violence. 
( /3ij8Atoi>, rd, book. 
< j3i/3Aio-7ra)Xr;y, bookseller (7Tco 
( Xely, to sell). 
I /3/os, 6, life. 
1 filoTos, livelihood. 
I ficovv (= d-ftv), to live. 
C (SXafiepos, injurious. 
1 |8Xa/3i/, J?, injury. 
f (3\dnT€ii>, to injure, to hurt. 
QXeneiv, to look at. 
i fiofaeia, f], help. 
} fiorfielv (= e-eiiOj to help (dat). 
f (3orj%r)TLK.6s, ready or able to help. 
Qopfielv (= €-6ii/), to hum, buzz. 
Bop/Say, -a, 6, Boreas, the north 
wind. 

r (B6(TK€iv, to feed. 
fioo-Knpa, to (f36crK.eiv), fed or 
fattened beast : pZ. cattle (as 
fed for the butcher). 
> j3ovXeo-%ai, to wish. 
fiovXeveiv, to deliberate, ad- 
vise ; Mid- to advise oneself. 
fiovkr), fj, advice, council, se- 
nate. 

fiovs, 6, r), ox. Pdm. 29. 
fipa&vs, -eta, -v, slow. 
fipovrqv (= d-eiv), to thunder. 
fipoTos, mortal. 
ficopos, 6, altar. 



r. 



rdXa, rd, milk. Note 9. 
yaXrj, weasel. 

S •yaju.eli' (= e-ew), to marry. 
^ ydpos, 6, marriage, 
•ydp, for (stands after the first 

word of the sentence). 
yao-rrjp, t), belly. 183. Pdm. 19. 
yavpovv (=d-eiv), to make proud ; 
Mid. exult in, be proud of. 



ye (quidem, certe), at least. — Of- 
ten only adds emphasis to the 
word it follows. 
yeypap-pevos, written (perf. part, 
of ypdcpeiv). 

S yeXav (== d-eiv), to laugh. 

\ yeXcos, -cotos, d, laughter. 

(yevvdios, of noble birth. 

J yevvaicos, with spirit, bravely, 

| nobly ; with fortitude. 

l^yevos, yevovs, to, kind, race. 

( yepas- to, honorary privilege, 

< reward. 

' yepcov, -ovtos, 6, old man. 
yeveiv, to cause to taste ; Mid. 
to taste (gen.). 

CyecopeTprjs, -ov, 6, geometer 
I (yrj, earth. p,eTpelv, to mea- 
\ sure). 
yrj, r], the earth. 
^yrfivos, of earth, of brick. 
C yfjpas; to, old age. 192. 

< yqpdcrKeiv, yqpav (= d-eiv), 
( to grow old. 

■ytyi/eo-Sai* (fieri), to become, to 

be formed. 
yiyvcao-Keiv, to know. VI. 
yXvKvs, -ela, -v, sweet. 
yXcoTTa, r), tongue. 
yvd>pt], rj, opinion, mind. 
S yorjs, tjtos, juggler. 
} yorjTev-eiv, to juggle. 
yovevs, 6, parent (yev, root of verbs 
denoting 'procreation, origin). 
' ypdp.pa (for ypd(p-pa), to, let- 
ter ; pi. (liter <b), a letter. 
ypappaTevs, ecos, 6, scribe. 
ypdcpeiv, to write, to draw up 

(a law). 
^ypcxpevs, ecos, 6, painter. 
TpvXXos, 6, Gryllus. 
( yvp,vd£eiv, to exercise (yvp.vos, 
| naked). 

^ yvp-vao-TiKT] (fern. adj. : under- 
| stand Tex v V> ars ): gymnas- 
ia tics. 



yiyvop.ai, yevi]<ropai 



iyeyiirquai 1 , 
\ yeyova ) ' 



eyev6pr\v. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



255 



yvvaiKelos, belonging to women. 
yvvr), r), woman. R. yvvaiK-. 
Note 9. 



A. 



deity, 



Aaipcov, 8aipov-os, 6, 
divinity. 

8a.KV€iv, to bite. in. 

^ daKpveiv, to weep, 
f dditpvov, to, a tear. 

8clktv\ios, 6, ring. 

8e (anient), but (stands after the 
first word of the sentence). 

Set (oportet), it is necessary. 

8el8eiv, to fear [Perf. 8e8oi<a and 
8e8ia ; Aor. eSeio-a] . 

^ SetXt'a, cowardice, timidity. 

) deiXos, timid, cowardly. 

fie^j/ (== e-eiv), to want ; to need : 
to bind. Aeo); / bind (not Seo, 
J tvant) mostly contracts eo 
and eco into ou. a>. 

C 8eiv6s (8el8-eip, to fear), fear- 

< ful, terrible, dreadful. 

( Setts', terribly. 

SacrSai (= e-ecrSat), to want, 
need (gen.). 

8e<a, ten. 

8e\eap, 8e\eaT-os, to, bait. 

AeXcpoi, Delphi. 

bevdpou, to, tree. Note 9. 

8*oi>, to (id quod oportet, sc. fa- 
cere), duly. 

oeo-rroTTjs, -ov, 6, master. 

8evpo. hither. 

de^eo-Sat, Dep. Mid., to receive ; 
also, of receiving. 

8r), with an imperative, empha- 
sizes it, = pray, I beg. It 
also occurs with numerals, 
pronouns, adverbs, &c. 7roXAol 
or), vvv 8r), &c. 

brfiev, namely, scilicet. 
r dr)Xos, evident. 8r)\6s elpi ttoicqv 
ti,I manifestly do something. 
brjkovv (= 6-€iv), to make evi- 
dent. 



' 8r)paya>y6s (8r)pos, people. a- 

yeti/, to lead), demagogue. 
drjpoKpaTia, r), democracy (8r)- 
pos- uparelv, to be strong ; 
to rule). 
< dijpos, 6, people, democratical 
constitution. 
Arjfio-a^evrjSi -ovs, 6, Demo- 
sthenes. 
8r]poo-ia, in one's public cha- 
racter or life. 
orjpiovpyos, 6. See Vocab. 22. 
br)TTov (opinor), I imagine, I sup- 
pose. 
brjra, certainly. 

bi-ayeiv, to carry through ; live. 
dtddrjpa, to, diadem (did. 8elv, 

to tie). 
Sia-Ae'-y-eo-Scu, to converse (dat.). 
8ia-\veLv, to dissolve. 
8ia-peveiv, to remain. 
bta-vepew, to distribute. 
diairkovs, 6, a passage (across) 

(8 id. likeiv, navigare). 
8ia-7rpdrTeiu, to effect. 
8i-dphpa>a*s, -eoos. r), articulation 

(of a joint. — ap^pov, joint). 
8ia-o-7reip€iv, to scatter. 
8ia-T€\elv (= €-€iv), to complete, 

to continue. 
8ia-Ti%r)pi, 8ia-Ti?Sevai, to put in 
order, to dispose (a person). 
r 8ta (fiepeip, to differ (from any 
thing or person, tivos) ; hence 
to excel, to surpass (gen.) vii. 
8ia-cpopd, r), difference (of co- 
lors, shade) : also, difference 
= dispute, &c. 
8ia-cp^elpeiv, to corrupt, to destroy. 
8ia<pa>vtTiv (= e-eiv), to sound 
apart ; hence, to dissent from, 
disagree (8id. qbcovr), voice). 
r 8i8a<Tos (8i8do~Keiv), capable 
of being taught, that can be 
taught. 
8i8do-Ka\os, 6, teacher, 
8i8do-<€iv, to teach. 
8i8pdo-K€iv, to run away. vi. 



256 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



bidoofxi, StSdrai, to give. 
StT/yelcrSai (e-eo-3ai), to go through 

relate, narrate (did, through. 

^yeurSat, to lead). 
§L-i(TTT)fxi, 8t-Lo-Tdvai, to separate. 

dtKatos, just. 

diKaiocrvvr), fj, justice. 

dutaioos, justly. 

8iica<TTr]s, -ov, 6, judge, juror. 
^dUr], t), justice, a cause or trial. 
Aioyevrjs, -ovs, 6, Diogenes. 
Aiovvcros, 6, Bacchus. 
8i-opvTT€iv (lit. to dig through =) 

to break into (a house). 
8nrX6os, -ovs, double ; double- 
minded. 
8is, bis, twice. 
blo-Kos, m. quoit, discus. 
8io--pvpioi, twenty thousand. 
8lxa (gen.), apart from. 
8 t \jsrj v (= d-eiv), to be thirsty, to 

thirst. 346. 
8icoK€iv, to pursue. 
C doKelv ( =e-eiv), to seem, think. 

< 5o/ceT, (1) videtur ; (2) placet, 
( visum est. 

8oKipd£eiv, to test, to prove. 
do\ovv (= 6-€iv), to deceive, en- 
trap (86Xos, trick, deceit). 
86ga, opinion, credit, honor, glory. 
r dov\eveiv, to be the slave of, 
be willing. 

< 8oi>Xos. 6, slave. 
8ovXoiv (= 6-etv), to enslave ; 

Mid. to subject to myself. 
8pav (= d-eiv), to do, act. 
8p6pos, 6, running, race-course. 
8p6pco 3elz/ (of a charge of in- 
fantry =) to charge at double 
quick time ; to rush to the 
charge (3eTi/ = currere). 
"8vvapis, rj, power. 
8vvao-^at(8vvapai), posse. noXv, 
Toaovrop, &C. 8vvaa^ai (= 
^ multum, tantum,&c. posse), 
to have much (so much, &c.) 
power. 
^8vvaros, possible, powerful. 



Svo-voos, -ovs, ill-disposed (to any 
body) ; disaffected (to — , or ' 
towards — ). (8vs, ill. vovs, 
mind) . 
bvo-opyrjTos, passionate (8vs, ill. 
opyf], anger). 
(dvarvx^v (= l-eiv), to be un- 
fortunate (8vs, ill. rvx> short 
■{ root of rvxelv, to hit [a 
! mark] ) . 

^ 8vo~Tvxla, misfortune. 
8a>pov, to, gift. 



E. 

''EdyoT-, see ayvvu.1. 
lav (with Subj.), if. 
lav (= d-eiv), to permit. 
sap, eapos, to, spring. 
^ lyyv'Sev, from near, near. 
\ lyyvs, near. 
lyeipeiv, to awaken. 
eyickrifia, to, charge, accusation 

(ly-KaXe7v). 

lyKpaTeia, self-control. 

lyKparrjs, -Is, continent (lv, in. 
KpaTos, strength. KpaTelv, to 
be strong.) 
lyprjyopa, I am awake. Cf. 388. 
lyX^tpl^eiv (lv. X 6l P' nan ^), to 

put into the hands ; (ri tivi) 

to hand over. 
eyXeXvs, -vos, f], eel. 
lyxoopcos, national, native (iv. 

xdipa, country). 
lyco, I. Pdm. 41. 
eSekeiv, to wish, be willing. 
l^ifciv, to accustom. 
e3i>oy, -ovs, to, nation. 
eSoy, -off, to, custom. 
el, if; (in a question), whether. 
€i8os, e't8ovs, to, form. 
ei'Se (with Opt.), O that. 
elKa^eiv, to liken. 
e'Ueiv, to yield. 
elur], rashly, inconsiderately. 
eluoTcos, adv., naturally. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



257 



€ikg>v, eluov-os, r), slatue. 

elXov. SSee alpelv (==e-eiv). vn. 

elfii, eivai, to be. 

eifu, Uucu, to go. Pres. = I will go. 

e'ipyeLv (gen.), to shut out. 

eto-/3aXXetv, (1) to throw into; (2) 

intrans. to fall into. 317. 371. 
€ icr-etfu. elcr-ievcu, to go into. 
etra, then, and then. — next. 
etre — etre, sive — sive, whether — 

or. 
etafta, I am accustomed. — e'3t- 
e<d? (gen.), far. [&<■»- *384. 

eKacTTos, -rj. -ov, each. 
eKarepooSev, on both sides. 
cn-fiakKciv, to throw out. See 

(3dXXeiv. 
eK-didoopi, -SiSorat, to put forth, 

to publish (a book). 
eKelvos, -rj, -o, that, he. 
eKKXr/o-ia, tj. assembly (i<. KaXelv, 

to call : root *Xa, kXtj). 
i<-K07TT€iv, to cut out ; cut off. 
€K-7T€fi7r€LP, to send out. 
€kt6s, without (gen.). 
"EKrcop, -opos, 6, Hector. 
ckcov, -ovcra, -6v, willing. 
eXaiov, oil. 
eXdrruiv, less, fewer. 
iXavveiv, to drive, in. 
eXacpoy, r), s'ag. 
eXd^icrros, least, shortest. 
iXey^eiu, to examine, correct. 

eXevZepla, tj. freedom, liberty. 

iXevrSepos, free. 

iXev^epovv (= 6-eiv), to make 
free, liberate. 
iXecpas, 6, elephant. 
e'XSeiv (^XSov, Aor. of ep)(Ofiai). 

vn. 
iXKveiv and eXxeiv, to draw [Fat. 

eX£a) ; Aor. eiX/a/o"a, Inf. £Xkv- 

(rat ; Aor. Pass. €IXkv<t%t]v ; 

Perf. Mid. or Pass. eiXKuoyzcu] . 
"EXXd?, -6.80s, r), Hellas. 

^EXXrjv, -rjvos, 6, a Greek. 

'EXXrjcr-irovTos, 6, the Helles- 
pont. 



S eXniCeiv, to hope, expect. 

( eXnis. -L8os, r), hope. 

ep.-(3dXXeLv. to throw or fling in ; 
(2) (intrans.), to fall in or 
upon = to charge. 317.371. 

ep-fiiovv (6-eiv), to live in or at. 

ipfipoxifa, to catch in a noose. 

ep-peveiv (lit. to remain in) ; to 
abide by (treaties) ; to observe, 
or not to transgress (laws). 

epuredos, firm, lasting, secure (eV, 
in. iredov, solid ground). 

ep-nXecos, n. cov, full (gen.). 

epnodoov (ev, in. 7rovs, 7ro86$, 
foot), adv. in the way of (dat.). 
co elvai nvi, to be in the way of 
(or a hindrance to) any thing. 

Ip-TToieiv, to cause, oo ri tipi, to 
cause any thing to any body, 
or in any body. 

ipiropiov, the mart ; (at Athens) 
the custom-house (ev, in. n-dpos, 
passage. — ejiiropas, merchant). 

ip-cppdrreiv, to block up, to bar 

5 ep-cpveiv, to implant, [(a port). 

I ep-cpvreveiv, to implant. 

C ivavrios, opposite. 

< ivavTiovoSat, (= d-e(r3at), to 
( oppose, Dep. Pass. 

evdeia, r), want («/. Seco, I need). 
ev-deiKwpi, iv-btLKVvvai, to show. 
iv-dveiv, to put on. 
ev-edpeveiv, to lie in wait for, plot; 

against (ace. — h. edpa, seat). 
eW*:a, (propter) for the sake of; 

on account of (gen.). 
C eV3a, there. 

< eVsdSf, hither. 
( eV3ei>, whence. 

ep'Svpelcr'Sai (= e-eo-3at), Dep. 
Pass., to consider, think (ev. 
Supdy, mind). 
euiavTos, 6, year. 
S evLoi, some. 
} iviore, sometimes. 
ev-iaTrjpi, iv-io~Ta.vai, to put into. 
5 ewaros, ninth. 
( iwea, nine. 



258 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



ivrav^a, here, hither (also, in eum 

locum). 
iv-riXktiv, -ecrSai, to commission, 

command, enjoin. 
iv-rtir]fxi,ev-Ti'%evai,tO put in,instil. 
evropov, insect (iv, in. rep,, root 

Of T€flV€lV, tO CUt). 

euros, within (gen.). 

iv-TvyxavtLv, to fall in with (dat.) ; 
to meet. iv. 

C ivv7rvid£-eiv (eV. vttvos), to 

< dream. 

' ivvTTVLov, to, dream. 

i^-dyetv, to carry further out, ex- 
tend. 

itj-aXelfaip, to wipe off, expunge. 

e^-apavpovv (= 6-eiv), to ob- 
scure utterly. 

i^-airarav (=■ d-eiv), to deceive 
utterly (completely). 

e^-elvai, licere, e£-eo~Ti, licet, it is 
lawful, in one's power, one may. 

e^-eifju, e^-ievat, to go out. 

e£-elirov (Aor.), ig-enrelv, to utter. 

ig-erdgeiv, to examine. 

e£rjs, in order. 

e^-Lo-ovv (= 6-etv), to make equal 
(ta-ost equal). 

eoiKa, I am like. 384. 

ifT-dyeLv, to bring on. 
\ iTT-aivfiv (= e-eiv), to praise. 
( eir-atvos, 6, praise. 

'ETra/iii/covSaf ,-ov, 6, Epaminondas. 

eirdv (eTTTjv), = eVei av, C subj., 
when, after. 

iirel, when, since, after : == else, 
otherwise. 

€7rei8dp (— eVetSj) av), C subj., 
when, after. 

(TT€i8rj, since, because, when. 

eneiv, to be busily engaged in ; 
in prose only in comp. (jrepu- 
ireiv, huTTtiv, &c.) ; Aor. Act. 
eo-rrov not used in Att. prose] ; 
Mid. ewofiai, to follow [Impf. 
e'nToprjv ; Fut. tyofxai ; Aor. 
iaTroprjv, i<pecnr6p.r]v ; Inf. cnre- 
<r3ai ; Imp. cnrov, iirLirirov\. 



erreira, then. 

iTT-epxeo-'Sai, to come to. VII. 

iivi-fio-q'Seiv (= e-eiv), to come to 
the assistance of (dat.). 

im-Qovkeveiv, to plot against ; 
have a design against (dat). 

em-ypdcpeiv, to inscribe. 

em-deiKvvpi, im-deiKvvvai, to show 
boastfully; show off for display. 

eVt-Sico/cetv. to pursue. 

i7ri-€iKrjs, -es, fair, equitable, rea- 
sonable. 

C eVtSu/zeli/ (= i-eiv), to desire 

< (iiri. 'Svpos, mind). 
£ eVt3u)Uia, fi, desire. 

iiTLXav^dveo-^ai, to forget. IV. 
f £7ripe\€La. rj, care (eVt. [xeXei, 
curai est). 
eVi/xeXfcrSai, -etcrSat, to care 

for (gen.). 
iTTipikrjTrjs, superintendent, in- 
spector : ol TOV ipWOpLOV €7TL- 

p.€\r}Tai, the custom-house 
officers. 
iirivoia, f). device (eVt. vovs). 
C imopKeiv (= e-eiv), to swear 

< falsely («rt. opwjs, oath). 
( eTrlopKos, 6, perjured. 

€7n-7TL7rTeiv, to fall upon. vii. 

eTr'ippvTos 2, flowing in or to ; 
well watered. 

iiTL-o-qpos, distinguished, famous. 

eTn-o-Konelv (= e-eti>), to look 
upon. 
" iir-ioTa&Scu, to know how; to 

understand. 
eTTLo-Trjpr], fj, knowledge. 
eiTLcrTr]pa>v 2 (gen.), acquainted 
with. 

€7rio-To\f], rj, epistle (eVi. ore\- 
Xetu, to send). 

eVi-rarreii/, to entrust to. 

eVt-reXeTi/ (= e-eiv), to accom- 
plish. 

€TTL-TL^T]pL, e7TL-Tl%6VCU, tO put 

upon. 
eVi-rpeVeti/, (1) to entrust to ; 
(2) to permit, to give up to. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



259 



( einxei-peiv (= e-eiv), c. dat., to 
put the hand to something 
(en'i. x €L Pi nan d)- 
eTnxeipr]p.a (eVi^e <-pr]p.aT-os), to, 
attempt. 
erropai. Comp. ewco. 
eTT-ojxwfxi, to swear by. ix. 
ewos.-ovs; to, word : pi. epic poetry. 
eiraa^etv (eVi, on. cooV, egg), to 

sit ; to be sitting. 
epdv (= a-eiv), to love. 

{epya£eo-%at, to work, perform. 
ipyao-TTjpiov, to, workshop. 
ipyaTTjs, laborer, cultivator. 
epyov, to, work, action. 

ipeidetv, to prop ; to lean against. 

epecrSai. I. 

\ epi(etv. to contend with. 

) epis, -idos, rj, contention. 

epp.aiov, a windfall, a godsend : 
a lucky discovery (supposed 
to be sent by Hermes). 

C £pp.r]vcvs, interpreter. 

< 'Y,pp.f)s, -ov, 6, Hermes, Mer- 

' cury. 

£ppcop.evos, strong. 

epvp.a, -aros, to, defence. 

ep^ecrSai, to go, come. vn. 

epcos, -GiTos, 6, love. 

epcoTav (= d-eiv), to ask. 

£o-Tjyr]cris, r), introduction (es. 
r)y eurSfcu, to lead). 

eVs^s, -tjtos, fj, dress. 

ea^ieiv, to eat. 

eVsAo's, noble, good. 

eo~7rkovs ( = eanXoos), 6, the en- 
trance to a harbor (is. irktiv, 
navigare). 

core, until. 

eo~xaTos, last, extreme. 

€Tepos, the other ; alter. 

ere, besides, moreover, still. 

eVoy, -ovs, to, year. 

ev, well, ev npaTTeiv, to be doing 
well ; to be prosperous, ev 
iroielv, to confer benefits on 
(benefacere, prodesse). 

Evfioia, tj, Euboea. 



I ei-yevr)s. of high birth. 

' evdaip-ovelv (= e-eiv), to be for- 
tunate (ev. daip-oov, deity). 
evdaip-ovla, r), happiness. 
{ ev8aip.ovL(eiv, to account happy. 
evdai/iovGos, fortunately. 
ev8a[p,oov, -ovos, fortunate, 
happy. 

eidoKip-tlv (= e-eiv), to be cele- 
brated, honored, popular (ev. 
8ok-, root of donelv, videri). 
r evepyeo-ia, r), beneficence. 
evepyerelv (= e-eiv),to benefit, 
confer benefits on (ev. epyov, 
work). 
evr)%r]s, simple, foolish (ev, well. 

rj^os, character). 
eu%vs, adv., immediately. 
ev<\eia, rj. fame, good report. 
ev-Xafielcr'Sai (= e-ecr3ai), Dep. 
Pass., to be cautious, to be- 
ware of; — to reverence (ev, 
well. Xa/3, short root of Xap- 
fidveiv, to take). 
evp-evas, in a friendly way ; kindly. 
evvoos, eiivovs 2, well-disposed ; 
kind ; kindly-disposed (to a 
person), (ev, well. vovs). 
evneTcos, adv., easily (ev, well. 

7T6T-, rOOt Of TTlTTTeiV = 7TI- 

ireT-eiv, to fall). 
EvpiTridrjs, -ovs, 6, Euripides. 
evpio-K€Lv, to find. v. 
evpvs, -eta, -v, broad. 
C eicrefieiv (= e-eiv), to reve- 
^ rence (ev. o-efieiv, venerari). 
' eto-ej3r)s, -es, pious, 
f evTv^elv (= e-eiv), to be for- 
tunate or prosperous. 
{ evrvxhs, -es, fortunate (ev, well. 

tvxt], fortune). 
[ evTvxia, rj, good fortune. 
5 evx-eo-?Sai, to pray. 
( evxq, r), prayer, request. 
ev\jsvxLa, spirit, courage (ev, well. 

y\rvxh-> spirit. 
e<pdSioi/, to, travelUng money. 
(eni, for. 686s, road). 



260 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



ex^iv, to have ; c. inf., to be able. 
exa> has root fy- 5 the rough 
breathing is changed into the 
smooth, whilst the x remains ; 
but returns, when it disappears : 
hence fat. e£-co (with aspirate). 
ovtccs e^etv (= it a se habere), 
to be so affected or disposed ; 

ev or KaXats %X €LV ( = Dene se 
habere), to be well ; to be well 
off: for any thing, tivos. vn. 

ex^pos, hostile : used substantive- 
ly, = an enemy. 

eats', as long as ; until. 

ems, -co, r), dawn, morning. 



Zrjv (= d-eiv), to live. 346. 
£r)\ovv (= 6-eiv), to emulate ; 
to pursue emulously (£77X0?, 
emulation). 
C (rjfila, fj (damnum), hurt, loss, 
< injury, calamity. 
( (rjyuovv (= 6-et,v), to punish. 
tjjrelv (= e-etv), to seek. 

£a>ov, to, animal. 

£cl>ot6kos, viviparous (ren, tok, 

short roots of t'iktciv, to give 

birth to), 
^cods, alive. 



H. 



T H (in questions), cf. K. 344. 5. 
fj, or, than ; fj — fj, aut — aut. 
rjl3r], fj, youth. 

C riyelo-'Sai (== e-etrSSat), to lead, 
< to think. 
f fjyefjLcov, ovos, 6, r\, leader. 

{fjhea&ai, to rejoice. 
rjdecos, adv. pleasantly, gladly. 
f)8ovr], f], pleasure. 
tj8vs, -ela, -v, sweet, pleasant. 
fjdrj, already, at once ; before now. 
rj'ios, -ovs, to, habit, character, 
disposition. 



fjKio-Ta, least of all. 
77/ca), I am come ; rj^at, will come. 
rjX&iorrjs, (-ttjtos), f], silhness. 
5 rjXiKia, rj, age. 
{ rjXiKos, as great as. 
rjXios, 6, sun. 
f][xepa, f), day. 

r]/jL€po8p6jji,os, 6, courier (bpafi, 
root used to supply the tens- 
^ es of Tpex a>, curro). 
rj/jLeporns, fjpepoTrjTos, 77,tameness. 
fjv, C. subj., if. (= idv.) 
rjvLKa, when. 
r/ Hpa, fj, Hera or Juno. 
'HpaK.\ris,-eovs,6, Hercules (201). 
r)pa>s, -coos, 6, hero. 
rjo-^at, to sit. Pdm. 71. 
rjao-ov (later Att. t/ttov), less. 
[rjo-vxd^eiv, to be quiet, still. 
f]o-vxia, quietness, &c. rjo-vx'-o.v 
t'xeiv or ciyecv, to remain qui- 
et, to keep quiet. 
^fjo-vxos 2, quiet. 
Crjrra, j\, defeat. 

J rjTTdo-^ai (= a.-eo-'Sai), to be 
defeated ; to be inferior to 
I (gen.). 

e. 

QaXaaaa, %akaTTa, f), sea. 
SdXAeti/, to bloom. 
^dvaros, 6, death. 
^dirTeiv, to bury. 
(ZappaXecos, adv., boldly. 
^appfiv (= e-eiv), to be of good 
courage ; 3. tlvl, to have 
confidence in ; 3. Tiva, not 
to be afraid of a person ; 3. 
ti, to endure (not to fear) 
something. 
^ %appovvT<os, confidently. 
Hclttov, more quickly (neut. of 

compar. adj.). 391. 
%avpd((Lv, to wonder, wonder at, 
admire, be surprised at. 3. 
Tivd or ti = to admire : twos, 
to be surprised or wonder at 
(mostly with blame). 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



261 



Sea, Tj, goddess. 

3eao-3at (= a-eo"3at) 5 Dep. Mid., 

to behold. 
3eu> (= e-etv), to run. 
S Selov, to, deity. 
( 3eToy, godlike, divine. 
SeXyetz/, to charm, soothe. 
SepeAtov, to, foundation (3e, short 

root of rfarjixi) . 
Qe/jLio-TOKXrjS; -eovs, 6, Themisto- 

cies (201)' 
Geoy. 6, God. 
C ^epanela, r), care. 

< Sepairevetv, to honor, pay court 
( to. 

S Zepifriv, to reap. 
I 3<fpos, -ovs, to, summer. 
Qeao-aXos, Tbessalian. 
Qijftai, al, Thebes. 
3?7y-eii/, to whet, to sharpen. 
%r)\vs, -eia, -v. female. 

%T)p, -6s, 6, wild beast. 

3?7pa, chase, hunting, ^rjpav 
TToiela^aL, to hunt. 

%r)p€veiv, to hunt. 

"Zrjpinv, (any) wild beast : also, 
to. Zrjpia = game, any beast 
that is hunted. 

^r)pLco8r]s (%Tjpiov. eidos), brut- 
ish. 
%r)s, "ijrjT-os, 6, paid laborer. 
^rjaavpos, 6, treasure. 
Qijn-evs, -e<as, 6, Theseus. 
%vt]t6s, mortal (%ua, root of 3i/^- 

o~K.eiv). 
3p/£, Tpixos, f], hair. 
^vydrrjp, -Tpos, fj, daughter. 183. 
( %veiv, to sacrifice. 

< 3u/xa (%vpaT-os), to, sacrifice, 
f offering. 

3uuc5f. 6, mind. 
3upa, ^, door. 
Sypo-os, 6, a thyrsus. 
Sw/a, r), sacrifice (pi/etv). 



I. 



C 'lao-Scu (= a-ecr3ai), Dep. Mid., 

< to heal, cure. 

( laTpos, 6, physician. 
Idea, tj, appearance. 

Sidia, privately ; in one's private 
character or life. 
1810s, one's own. 
ibpveiv, to build. 
lb p<as, -o>tos, 6, sweat. 
flepeia, r), priestess. 
J iepevs, -ecos, 6, priest. 
] Upov, to, victim, temple. 
yiepos, sacred to (gen.). 
trjp.L, Uvat, to send forth ; to e'mit ; 

to utter. Pdm. 67. 
S Ikovos, sufficient, able. 
£ iKavas, sufficiently, adequately. 
C Ik€ttjs, -ov, 6, suppliant. 

< iKvelcrSat ( = e'-ecr3ai). See 
(_ dcpiKvela'Sai. 

Iktivos, 6, kite. 

iXecos, -oov, merciful, propitious. 

lfxa.Ti.ov, to, garment ; especially 

the outer garment, pallium. 
tva, (1) where ; (2) in order that ; 

that. 
C imrevs, -ecos, 6, horseman, horse- 

< soldier. 

(_ iTnros, 6, horse ; r), cavalry. 
'icros, equal. 

io-Tr]pi. io-ravai, to place. For the 
meaning cf. 396. 

JlaxveLv, to be strong, to avail. 
Icrxvpjs, strong, 
to-^upajy, severely. 
t^Sus, -vos, 6, fish. 
'ix v °s, -ovs, to, track, trace. 

K. 

Ka^aipeiv, to purify. 
Ka3-€^eo-3at, to sit down. Fut. 

Ka'Zedovpai. 
Ka%-ev8eiv, to sleep. 
KaS-770-Sat, to sit down. Pdm. 71. 



262 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



<^ 



Ka^-la-Trjjii, -la-rdvai, to establish 
Kai, and, even : kcli — icai, both— 

and (et — et). 
Kaivosi new. 
Kaipos, the right time, season : 

els Kaipov, at the right time ; 

opportunely. 
' KaKta, 77, vice, flaw. 

KdKi^eiv. to worst (nemos, bad). 

kclklov, worse (as adv.) : neut. 
adj. from Katdav, comp. of 

KdKOS. 

kcikos, bad, wicked, cowardly. 
KaKorrjs, rj, wickedness. 
KaKovpyziv (= e-eiv), ace, to do 
evil to ; to harm ; to ravage. 
KaKovpyos, 6, evil-doer. 
kclkovv (= 6-eiv), to treat ill, 
hurt ; to injure or ravage (a 
country). 
^Ka.Ka>s, adv., badly, ill. 
Kdkelv (= €-€iv), to call, name. 
KdXklas, -ov, 6, Callias. 
r ndWos, -ovs, to, beauty. 
KaXoKayaSi'a, rj, rectitude, hono- 
rableness (naXondydSos = 
KdXbs Kdl dydSos). 
KaXoy,beautiful, honorable, good. 
KdXcbs, adv., well, honorably. 
KdXv7rT-€iv, to cover, hide, &c. 
K(ipr]\os, 6, fj, camel. 
ndpveiv (= laborare), to toil ; to 

be suffering or ill. in. 
Kciv, even if = na\ idv. 
Kdpd'ia, rj, heart. 
Kaprros, 6, fruit ; wrist. 
Kdprd, very. 

Kdprepid, 77, endurance ; patience. 
Kapxrj8a>i>, -ovos, 17, Carthage. 
KdTd-yekqv ( = d-eiv), to laugh at 

(gen.)! 
KdTd-bveiv, to go down. 
KdTd-KkdUiv, to bewail. 
Kdra-Kkeieiv, to shut. 
KaTd-KpvTtT€iv, to hide. 
KdTd-Xe'nreiv, to leave behind. 
KdTd-\veiv, to loosen, dissolve, de- 
stroy. 



KdTa-p.e%vo-K-eiv, to make drunk 

Fut. -pe^vo-co. 
KdTd-peveLv, to remain behind (in 

a country). 
KdTa-voeiv (= e-eiv), to perceive, 

to discover. 
KdTd-7rr]dqv ( = d-eiv), to leap 

down. 
KdTd-irXrjTTeiv, to astonish. 
KdTd-o-KdTTTeLv, to dig down. 
K.dTd-crK€vd£eiv, to prepare. 
KdTd-o-rpecp-eo-'Sdi, to overthrow 

(for oneself) ; to subdue, to 

conquer. 
KdTd'Teiveiv, to stretch tight. 
KdTd-riJirjp.1, -riSeVai, to lay down. 
KdTd-cpXeyeiv, to burn up. 
Kara-Cppovelv (=e-eti>), to despise 

(gen.). 
Kdrd-cpvyr}, r], refuge. 
Kdr-ex^v, to restrain. 
( KdTrjyopelv (= e-eiv), to ac- 

i cuse. 

< Karrjyopos, 6, accuser (Kara. 

dyopd, assembly, market- 
[_ place). 
KdT(o, below. 

Kelp-dL, KeTo-Sai, to lie down ; (of 
a law) KeTaSat = to be enacted. 
Pdm. 71. 
KeXevciv, to order, bid. 

K€vobo£id, vain-glory ; vanity 
(news, empty. 86gd, opinion, 
glory). 
Ktvos, empty, groundless, vain. 
Kevrpov, to, prick, sting. 
K€pdvvvp.i, nepdvvvvai, to mix. 
Kepds, to, horn. Pdm. 20. 

Kepddiveiv, to gain ; [Perf. ne- 

KepSaKa.] 
Kepdos, -ovs, to, gain. 
K€<paXrj, fj, head. 
Kf]8ea%di, to care for (gen.). 
ktjttos, 6, garden. 
Krjpos, 6, wax. 
C K-fjpv^, -vkos, 6, herald. 

< KrjpuTTeiv, to proclaim (by a 
( herald). 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



263 



C Kivdvveveiv, to be in clanger ; to 

< incur or brave danger. 
£ KLvbvvos, 6, danger. 

KLO-aOS, KITTOS, 6, 1VJ. 

KXaleiv, to weep. 

i kXcUiv, to shut (Perf. nass. Ke- 

< KXeiap-ai and K€KXeip.ai). 
f xXeTSspoz/, bolt, bar. 

KkeTTTCLV, tO Steal (Flit. K\e\j/CO 

and KXe\}sop.ai ; Ke'/cXocpa. Aor. 
2. Pass. iicXdTnjv). 
ttX'iveiv, to bend. 
/corXo?. hollow, 
f/coti'ds', common : rd koivov, 
commonwealth. 



parti- 



KOLvozvia, fj, communion 

^ cipation (twos), 
kokkos, ov (granum),the seed (of 

a pomegranate, &c). 
kokkv£, KOKKvy-os, 6, cuckoo. 
Ko\d(eiv, to chastise, punish. 

S KoXaicevetv, w. ace, to flatter. 

( Ko\a£, k6\(ik-o$, 6, flatterer. 
koXttos', 6, bosom. 
Koplgeiv, to bring. 
Koirreiv, to cut. 

icopag. Kopaa-os, 6, crow or raven, 
/cop??, damsel. 
KopiVSior, 6, Corinthian. 
Koirfieiv (= e-eiv), to adorn, to 
order or arrange (harmonious- 

Kov(pos, light. 

Kpd£ea/, to cry out [Fut. Ke/cpa- 

£bpcu]. KeKpaya. 
Kpavos. -ovs, to. helmet. 
( Kparelv (= e-eiv),gen., to have 

i power over ; to prevail, con- 
quer. 
Kpdros, -ovs, to, strength. 
Kpeas, to, flesh. 
Kpeio-o-G>v or (later) kp^Ittcov, more 

powerful, better. Note 13. 
$ Kplveiv, to judge. 
( KpiTTjs, -ov, 6, judge. 
KpoTcro?, 6, Crcesus. 
Kporacpos, 6, temple. 
Kpv7TTeiv, to conceal, hide. 



AcracrSat (= d-ea^ai), to acquire; 
KeKTi]p.aL = possideo. 

KTeiveiv, to kill ; usually d-rro- 
KTelvew. 

KTeis, KTevos, 6, comb. 

KTrjp.a, -cltos, to (KracrSai), pos- 
session. 

ktI&lv, to found. 
S Kvfievrj)s, -ov, dicer, gambler. 
I kv(3os, 6, a die, cube. 

kvkKos, circle. 

KVTTtKkov, to, goblet. 

Kvpievew, to be master of (gen.). 

Kuplvos, Q,uirinus. 

Kvpios, having authority. Kvpios 
eZpt iroielv rt, I have a right to 
do it. 

nvpLTTeiv, to butt. 

Kvpos, 6, Cyrus. 

kvcov, kvvos, 6, fj, dog. Note 9. 

KcoXveiv, to hinder. 

Kaxpos, dumb. 

A. 

Aa-ycoy, -co, 6, hare. 
AaKedaip.6vios, 6, Lacedaemonian. 
\a<Ti^iv (fut. io-co), to kick (at). 
S XaXeZi> (=z e-eiv), to talk. 
^ AdAo? 2, talkative. 
Xapfidveiv, to take, receive, iv. 
r \ap.Trp6s, brilliant, bright. 
\ap.TTpvveiv, to brighten ; Mid., 
to brighten (something of my 
own). 
\av^dv€Lv, to be concealed from. 

IV. 

Xdpva^, \dpvaK-os, f), chest, coffin. 

Xeaiva, fj, lioness. 

Xeyeiv, (1) to say, tell, — call. (2) 
to collect. — Aor. Pass. iXex^rjv 
and iXeyrjv : also to read (what 
is written) out to another. 

Xetpcoi/, \eip.u>v-os, 6, meadow. 

Xelweiv, to leave ; leave behind 
[Aor. eXnrov : Perf. Xe'Xoi7ra] . 

Xeeov, XeovT-os, 6, lion. 

Xecor, 6, people. All. decl. 



264 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



\r]%r], obliviousness, forgetfulness. 
(Xrjpeiv (= e-eiv), to talk non- 

: sense. 

\ Xijpos, (mere) talk, (mere) non- 
sense ; after which irpos = 
[ to, i. e. in comparison of. 

\y(rTr)s, -ov, 6, robber. 

Xlav, very. 

Xfios, 6, stone. 

Xl/jLTjv, f), marsh, lake. 

\2fx6s, 6, hunger. 

Xoyos, 6, word, speech, reason. 

Xoidopeiv (= e-etj/), to scold, rail 
at (Mid. c. dat.). 

\otp.6s, 6, plague, pestilence. 

Xoittos (Xei-rr-eiv), remaining. 

Xov-€iv, to wash ; Mid., to wash 
(myself or some one belonging 
to me). 

XovTpov, bath. 

Xocpos, 6, crest. 

Xvypos, sad. 

\veiv, to loose, dissolve ; repeal 
(a law) ; break (a truce) ; dis- 
miss (an assembly). 

Xvkos, 6, wolf. 

AvKovpyos-, 6, Lycurgus. 

Xu/iaiWo-Sat (ace), to abuse, mal- 
treat. 
S Xvirdv ( = e-eiv), to distress. 

\ \v7rr), r), sorrow, grief. 

XvcriTeXelv ( — e-eiv), dat., to be 
useful to (Xveiv, to solve, re- 
Xos, end, object). 

XooiroftvT-qs, ov, cutpurse, footpad 
(properly a filcher of clothes. 
Xq>7tos, or -rj, robe, mantle, dv- 
eiv, to get into). 

Xcooo v, better. Note 13. 



M. 



r Md%r)iJ.a, to, thing learnt, lesson 
(p,a%-, short root of pav%dv- 
■{ civ, discere). 
j p.a%r)Tr)s, ov, 6, a disciple, pu- 

uanap, -apos, happy. 



'MaKeSWa, r), Macedonia. 
MaKeboviKos, Macedonian. 
MaKeScov, -ovos, 6, a Macedo- 
nian. 
p,anp6s, long. 
p,aXa<6s, soft. 

S p-dXia-Ta, most, especially. 
I p.dXXov, more, rather (jpotius). 
p.av^dveiv, to learn, iv. 
p,avia, f), madness. 
p.dvTLs, -ecos, 6, prophet. 

Sp-aprvpew (== e-ew), p.aprvpe- 
o-Sat, to bear testimony. 
p-dprvs, -rvpos, 6, witness. 
' p.dxaipa, hunting-knife ; cut- 
lass (short sword). 
ju.a^eo-3ai, to fight. Fut. p.a- 
Xovp-ai (== p.a^io'op.ai). Aor. 
ip.axeo~dp.rjv. Perf. p,ep,d)(r}- 
p.ai. 
p-dxt)i rj, battle. 
( p.eyas, -dXr), -a, great. 

J p.eye%os, -ovs, to, greatness ; 

magnitude. 
^ p.eyio~TOs, sup. of p,eyas, great. 
p.e%rj, r), drunkenness. 
p.e'b-iijp.L, p.&-ievai, to let go. 
p.&v€iv, to be drunk. 
p.ei£oov, comp. of p,eyas, great. 

Note 13. 
p-eipaKiov, to, boy, lad (of about 

fourteen). 
p.eXas, -aiva, -av, black. 
p,eXei, it concerns ; curce est (dat. 

of pers., gen. of thing). 
5 p:eXi, -ltos, to, honey. 
) p.eXiTTa, r), a bee. 
p.eXXew, to be about (or, be going) 

to. 
fieXos, -ovs, to, limb ; song. 
Hep.<fieo-%a.i, c. ace. to blame ; c. 

dat. to reproach. 
p.kv — 8e (indeed), — but. 
p.ev€ii>, to remain ; c. ace. to a- 

wait ; wait for. 
C p,epi(eiv, to divide. 
< p-epijiva, r), care. 
^ p.epos, -ovs, to, part. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



265 



{ peo-rjpfipla, jj, mid-day (peaos, 

< middle, rjpepa. day). 
( peaos, middle. 

pearos, full (gen.). 
) nera-fidWeiv, to change. 
^ pera-fioXr), 77, change. 
lxera-8ida>p.L, -didovai, to give a 

share of (gen.). 
(xeragv, between (gen.). 
^xera-7re/z7reo-Sat. to send for. 
peTa-rtirjpi, -riSeVai, to change ; 

transpose. 
fier-ex€Lv, to share in, take part 

in (gen.). 
fjLeroLKos, 6, resident-foreigner. 
i perpelv (= e-etj>), to measure. 

< /jL€Tpicos, adv., moderately. 
I p.erpov, to, measure. 

p-exp 1 ) until ; as prep, up to. 

pi), not. On /m?7. p,r} ov, after ex- 
pressions of fear, cf. K. 318. 7. 

p.r]$a.p.ov, nowhere ; p.. elvai, to be 
of no value. 

prjSapcos (nequaquam), by no 
means. 

Mr)8eia, fj, Medea. 

pLT)8eis, -epla, -ev, no (one), no- 
body. 

fj.7)8e7roT€, never. 

P-tjv, -vos, 6, mouth. 

(ignore, never. 

p.rjTTco, not yet. 

ftnpds, thigh. 

prjTe — p-rjre, neither — nor. 

p,t]TT]p, -rpos, 17, mother. 183. 
£ prjxavaa'Sa.i (= d-eo-%ai), Dep. 

< Mid., to contrive, devise. 
{ fnjYOvfj, contrivance. 

C pialvtLv, to pollute. 

< pldpos, unclean, impure, abo- 
( minable (of persons). 

p.LKp6s, small ; piKpS (by) a little : 
p,iKpov, within a little \ almost, 
C pipeioSai (= e-ea'Sai), to imi- 
1 tate. 

^ p.ip.T]Trjs, ov, 6, imitator. 
Mivcos, -<*>, 6, Minos. 
pio-elv ( = e-eiv), to hate. 

12 



C juto-Sos-, 6, reward ; pay. 

< pia^wros (mercenarius), hire- 
( ling ; a mercenary. 

pva. as, i), mina. 
( p.vr)p.elou, monument. 

< pvqpoov. -ovos, of retentive me- 
£ mory. 

p-olpa, r). fate ; share. 
pokis, with difficulty. 

( p.ovapxia, r), monarchy (povos, 

J only. apx*]> government). 

] povov, only. 

[pouos, alone. 
p-opiov, part, portion. 

^ MoCo-a, J7, a Muse. 

( p.ovo-LKTj, r), music (sc. Texvt])- 
pveXos, 6, marrow. 
pv^os, 6, tale, legend. 
p.vKTijp, p.vKTr]p-os, 6, nostril, trunk 

(of elephant), 
p-vpios, innumerable. 
pcopos, foolish, a fool. 



N. 



"'Savpa^ia, rj, sea-fight (pax*], 

battle). 
vavs, rj, ship. 
vavrrjs, ov, sailor. 
vavriKos, nautical : vavrucov, a 
fleet ; a navy. 
veavias, -ov, 6, a youth. 
'vepeiv, to divide, distribute, or 
allot [Fut. vepco and vepr)- 
crco : Aor. eveipa : Pert, veve- 
■l prjKa : Aor. Pass, iveprj^rjv 
and -e%rjv]. 
vepeats, eeos, r), just - resent- 
ment ; hence, avenging-fate. 
r veos, young. 
veoTT€veiv (or veoaaeveiv), to 
hatch its young ; to breed. 
(We may translate it to build 
its nest, since we should ra- 
ther refer to that preparatory 
act.) 
veoTTiov, young bird (pi. young 
ones) . 



266 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



vea>s, -a>, 6, temple. 
vf), yes, by — (in swearing). 
vrjaos. f). island. 
S vimv (=== 6,-eiv), to conquer. 
| VLK-fj, rj, victory. 
vlcpei, it snows. 

vorjcris, -€o>s, rj, intellectual fa- 
culty, intellect (voelv, to per- 
ceive). 
S vopt£eiv, to think. 
) voptcrpa, to, coin, money. 
' vop-o^erelv (= e-etv), to legis- 
late ; to make laws. 
vofxo^irrjs, ov, 6, lawgiver (vo- 
fxos, law. 3e-, original root 
of TiSeuai, ponere). 
vofjios. 6, law. 
j/ooy == j/oCs, 6, reason ; intelli- 
gence ; mind : iv vco i'xeiv (in 
animo habere), to purpose, in- 
tend. 
S voo-fiv (= e-eiv), to be sick. 
( voaros. r), disease. 
vvktcop (adv.), by night. 
vvv, vw'i, now. 
vv£, vvkt-os, r), night. 



Eevos, 6, stranger, guest, host. 
Sevocpcou, -covtos, 6, Xenophon. 
£i(j)os, -ovs, to, sword. 



O. 



*0/3oAoy, ov, 6, an obolus (a small 

coin). 
6'Se, fjde, Tode, this. 
686s, rj. way, road. 
68ovs, 6d6vT-os, 6, tooth. 
odvpeoftai, to mourn. 
o3ei/, whence, 
of, whither. 
olda (= novi), I know. Pdm. 

70. 
olWSai, to think. 



' oIkHv (= e-eiu), to dwell. 
oIksIos, belonging to ; own ; in- 
timate. 
olKetrjs; -ov, 6, domestic ; serv- 
ant. 
o'lktjo-is, -ecos, r), dwelling. 
<| oIkicl, r), house ; family. 
oiKibtov, small house, house. 
olni£eiv, to colonize. 
olKodofxelv (= i-eiv), to build 
( a house ) . ( bep,eiv, to 
build). 
{olkos, 6, house. 
olnTeipetv, w. ace, to pity. 
olfjcai, I think. It is used instead 
of the longer form o'iopai : prin- 
cipally when inserted parenthe- 
tically ; = opinor, credo. See 

olvos, 6, wine. 
6'is, 6'ios, 6, r), sheep. 
ot^etrSat, to depart : oi'^o/iai = 
. abii. 

SoXiyapxta, oligarchy (dpxr), go- 
vernment). 
oXiyos, little, okiyoi, few. 
oXXvpi, oXXvuai, to destroy, ix. 
6Xos, whole, complete, perfect. 
oXocpvpeoSai, to pity. 
oXcov (omnino), at all ; altogether 

— in general. 
"Opijpos, 6, Homer. 
C optXelv (== e-eiv), c. dat., to 

< associate with. 

( opiXia, rj, intercourse with. 
opvveiv, to swear. See opup, 

IX. 

opoLcos, in like manner. 
r 6poXoyeli> (= e-eiv), to agree 
with, admit (6p6s [poet.], 

< same. Xeyeiv. Xoyos). 
opoXoyla, confession, conces- 
sion. 

opovoia (6p6s. vovs), concord, u- 

nity. 
C oveLb'i^eiv, Fut. -era, to reproach 

< (»ri rtz/t). 

f opetdog, -ovs, to, reproach. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



267 



OfTyrcop, Onetor, prop. name. 
ovivrjfj.1, dvivdvai, to benefit. 
S ovofxa. -ciTos, to, name, 
f ovopdfciv, to name. 
ovos, 6, rj, ass. 
ovtcos, really (out-, root of a>v, 

being). 
ovv £, owk-os, 6, claw, talon. 

6£vppo7ros (6£vs. piiruv, ver- 
ger e), quick. 

o£vs, -eia, -v, sharp, sour ; quick, 
hasty. 
o7tt], whither, where. 
O7rtcrco, back. 
677X77, hoof. 
C oTrkiTTis, -ov, 6, heavy-armed 

< soldier, hoplite. 
' ottKov, to, weapon. 

ottoi, whither. 

ottoIos, qualis, of what sort. 
r ottoo-ovovv, how great soever, 
how long soever. [Since it 
means of what magnitude 
soever, it may sometimes 
mean however short.] 
fc Siroo-os, quantus, as great as. 
ottotclv, c. subj., when. 
d7rdre, when, since. 
ottov, where. 
ottcos, how, that. 
6pav (== d-eLv), to see, look. 
C dpyi), rj, anger. 

< dpyifco-Zai, Dep. Pass., to be 
( angry (dat.). 

ope^Ls, -ecas-, 77, a longing after ; a 
yearning for (opeyeo-Sai, to seek 
for ; to desire). 

'OpeVrjiy, ov, 6, Orestes. 

C opSo's-, straight, right. 

< 6p%ovv ( == 6-eiv), to make 
( straight. 

6pl£eiv, to fix, limit, define. 

opuos, 6, oath. 

6p\iav (= d-eiv), to rush. 

C 6pvi%o-%r)pas, -a, 6, bird-catcher 

< (^rjpdv, to chase). 

f opvis, -£3oy, 6, 77, bird. 
6'pos, -ony, to, mountain. 



opvy-pa, to, pit (fovea). 
6pvTT€iv, to dig [Fut. dpv£<o : 
Perf. opapvxa (with Att. re- 
dupl.) : Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
opcopuypcu]. 

ocnos, holy. 

do-os, as great as, as much as ; 
after demonstratives, as. 

60-Teov, -ovv, to, bone. [who. 

octtis, tJtls, 6 ti, or o,tl, whoever, 

ocr(pprjo-Ls,-ecos, 77, (sense of) smell 
(ocrcppe, shorter root of dacppai- 
veoSai, to smell). 

otclv, c. subj., when (= ore av). 

ore, when. 

otl, that, because. 

ov, not. 

ot3, where. 

ovdaprj, nowhere. 

o7j6V, not even (ne — quidem). 

ovdels, -efMia, -ev, no (one). 

ovdeTroTe, never. 

ovk, not. 

ovksti, no longer. 

ovv, therefore, then. 

ovttot€, ovbtTTOTe, never. 

ovncci, never yet. 

ovpd, 77, tail. 

ovpavos, heaven. 

ovs, cords, to, ear. 

ovcria, possession (over-, root of 
fern, participle of dvai). 

ovt€ — ovt6, neither — nor. 

ovtco(s'), thus, so. 

ov%, not. 

ofaiXeiv, to owe. 

ocfi'jakp.os, 6, eye. 

6(fi\i.o-Kdveiv, to owe. oCpXio-Kaveiv 
p.(opiav = to incur the imputa- 
tion of folly. 6(p\r]o~a). aXpXrjua. 
— a>(pXov. 

oxXos, 6, a crowd, mob ; the com- 
mon people (plebs). 

oxvpovv (= 6-eiv), to make-fast, 
bar, &c. 

d^e, late. 

oyjsis, -ecos, r), (power of) sight, 
visage. 



268 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



n. 



HdyKanos, thoroughly bad (nds- 

KaKOg) . 

irdyos, 6, hill. 

S 7raidv, -dvos, 6, war-song. 
I 7raiavl£-eiv, to sing the Paean. 
' natdeveiv, to educate, train, in- 
struct (iraid, root of irals, 
boy). 

■{ 7rai8[ov, to, little child. 
irai8oi>6p,os, ov, 6, the inspector 
of the boys (a magistrate at 
Sparta. — vopos, law). 
ixaieiv, to strike. 
^ Txai^eiv, to play. 
( ttois, -86s, 6, fj, child, boy. 
'irakai, formerly, long ago. ot 

irdXai, the ancients. 
naXaios, ancient, ol it., the 
men of old. 
irdXiv, again. 
HaXkddiov, Palladium. 
irdpn-oXv, very much indeed (7ras-. 

ttoXvs). 
7ravTdTTao-i(v), wholly, quite. 
7ravTci)(ov. iravTaxrj, every where, 

in all respects. 
7ravTeXcbs, perfectly (irds, omnis. 

rekqs, finis). 
TvavTobcmos, of every kind. 
ndvrcos, wholly. 
ndw, altogether, quite, very. 
7rapa-f3aiveiv, to transgress. 
Trap-ayyeXXeiv, to order. 
Trap-aivelv (= e-eiv), dal., to ad- 
vise, to exhort. 
irapa-KaXe'iv (= e-eiv), to call to ; 

to exhort. 
irapd-vopos 2, contrary to law. 
TTapa-TrXrjaios, like. 
irapa-aicevd^eiv, to prepare ; Mid. 
provide any thing (for my- 
self). 
7rapa-Tfer)fjLi, -rCHevat, to place be- 
side, provide ; to place on the 
table (apponere). 



TrdpSaXis, -ecos, f], pard, panther. 
7rdp-eipi, Inf. Trap-elvai, to be pre- 
sent : 7rdpeo-Ti(v), it is lawful ; 
in one's power. 
irdp-eipi, Inf. irap-ievai, to go by, 

near. 
irap-ep-^eo-'Hat, to go by. VII. 
trap-e^iv, to offer, grant. 
Trap-i-qpi, -ikvai, to let pass, ne- 
glect. 
7rap-i(TTr)p.i, -icrrdvai, to place be- 
side. 
irap-o^vveiv, to encourage, incite 
(6£vs, acer). 

irapprjcria., f), frankness ; bold- 
ness of speech (irapd. pe, 
root of the obsol. present pea, 
dico ; whence e'1-pn-K.a. pv- 
Sets, &c). 
7rappr)o-id£-ea'3ai, to use frank- 
ness or boldness of speech. 
irap&v = praesens. Partcp. of 

Trapelvai. 
irds, Tcdo-a, ndv, in sing. (1) with- 
out article : every ; all manner 
of: hence sometimes all imagi- 
nable ; extreme. (2) with arti- 
cle : 7rds 6 — = the whole : 
sometimes 6 irds — . In plur. 
rvdvres (of) — , all. ot TrdvTes, 
in all. 
•ndvxziv, to suffer, vn. 
C TTarrjp, -rpos, 6, father. 183. 
< narpls, -idos, f), (native) coun- 
( , try. 

iraveiv, to - cause to cease, stop, 
put an end to ; Mid. to cease 
[Aor. Pass. eTravrr^v ; Perf. 
Mid. or Pass. 1re7ra.vp.ai, to 
cease ; Third Fut. ireTravo-opai, 
will cease]. 
irediov, to, a plain. 
Trego's- (pedes), foot-soldier. 
( TTefeeiv, to persuade ; iretiopai, 
; I am persuaded, I obey (dat.) 
■{ [Aor. e7reLo-%r)v, I obeyed]. 
I 77-ei3o>, -ovs, f], persuasiveness, 
^ persuasion, obedience. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



269 



ireivfjv (= d-eiv), to hunger, be 
hungry. On the contraction 
into rj. cf. 346. 
neipdcr'Sai (= d-eaZai), Dep. Pass, 
to try, endeavor. 

neXeKvs, -ea>s, 6, hatchet, axe, bat- 
tle-axe. 
'UeXoTTowrja-iaKos, Peloponne- 

sian. 
IleXoTrovvqo-os, fj, Peloponne- 
sus. 

7reAracrr7j?, 6, targeteer. 

7T6/i7reti/, to send. 

5 neuea'Scu, to be poor. 

} 7T€vrjs, -rjTos, 6. j]. poor. 

irev'Seiv (== e-eiv), to grieve. 

nevla. fj, poverty. 

7reVre (indecl.), five. 

irephi£, 7rep8'tK-os, 6, rj, partridge. 

nepi-^aXXeiv, to throw round. 
Mid. to throw round oneself; 
to surround oneself with ; <r> rd- 
cppov, to entrench themselves 
(or their position). 

TrepifiorjTos (jrepi, about. /3oai/, 
clamare), talked-about : tn et- 
vcu, to be the common talk. 

7r€pij3oXos, 6, circuit (of walls, 
&c). (Trepi, round. fidXXa>, 
throw) . 

HepiKXrjs, -eovs, 6, Pericles. 

ircpi-opqv (= d-eiv), to overlook, 
permit, allow. 

Trep'tTrXoos, -ovs, 6, voyage round 
(jrepi. nXe^v, to sail). 

Tvepippelv (= e-eiv), to flow round 
(peiv, to flow). 

7repi-rt'37;fi£, -T&tvai, to put or set 
round. 

7repiTTos, beyond the usual num- 
ber, more than sufficient. 

rrerpa, 77, rock. 

71-77 ; where ? whither ? 

7TT]yvvp.i, to fix, make firm (jreTTrj- 
ya, I am fixed). 

Trr)x vs i " ea)S "5 °> elbow, fore-arm, 
cubit. 



KLalveiv, to fatten. 
TTiveiu, to drink, vn. 

TTlTTpdaKeiV, to Sell. 

7rL7TT€iv, to fall. vn. 

TTicrcrd, Att. niTTa, pitch. 

S iruTTeveiv, to trust, believe. 

) 7710-7-0'?, trustworthy, faithful. 

TrXda-aeiv, to form. 

nXarata, 77, Plataea : better IlXa- 
raial, Plataeae. 

7rXciros', -ovs, to, breadth. 

nXey-pa, to, thing woven : hence 
snare, gin (7rXe/<-eii>). 

7rXeTv (= e-eiv), to sail. 7rXe7jcro- 
pai. nenXevKa. — eVXei/o-a. 

S TrXelaros, most. ? Notel3< 

^ TTAetcoj/, more. $ 

nXeKeiv. to knit, weave. 
( 7rX€oveKTi]s, -ov, avaricious (7rXe- 
I ov, neut., more, exetv, to 

"j have). 

[ irXeovef;ia, rj. avarice. 

TrXeuo-as 1 , partcp. Aor. 1. from 
TvXelv. 

77X77777. 77, a blow, stroke, wound. 

7rX^3o?, -ovs, to, multitude, con- 
stitution (in a democracy). 

77X771/ (gen.), except. 

C 7rXripT)s, -es, full, satisfied with 

< (gem). 

t irXrjpovv (= 6-eiv), to fill. 

7rXr]o-id^€Lv, to approach, draw 
near. 

TrXj]TT€Lv, to strike ; [Pf. iri- 
irXrjya, I have struck ; Aor. 
Pass. inXriyrju : but in compo- 
sition iTvXayt]v, e. g. i^eirXd- 

7W-] 

nXoos = 7rXovs, 6, voyage (TrXelu, 
to sail). 

( 77Xo7JOrtO?, rich. 



< 7rXovTi£eiv, to enrich. 
f 77Xo0ro?, 6, riches. 
771/eTy (== 4-€iv), to breathe, blow. 

TTvtvcropai, &c. like 7rXeii»i 
770a, herbage, grass. 
7rd3ev ; whence ? 



270 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



'iroielv (= e-eiv), to make, do, 
render : ev Troitiv riva, to 
confer a benefit on any bo- 

7roieto"3ai n irep\ ikarrovos rj, 
to think any thing of less 
importance than : 7rep\ ttoX- 
Xou 7roieTo-3ai, to attach great 
importance to, &c. See Vo- 
cab. 29. 
Tvol-qixa, to (= thing made), po- 
em. 
7tolt]o-is, -ecos, (rj), the making 
or composition. See erros 
(iroiziv) . 
^7roir]Tr]s, -ov, 6, poet. 
C TroiKiXkeiv, to variegate, deco- 
< rate. 

( noiKiXos, variegated. 
TrotfjLTjv, -evos, 6, shepherd. 
7rolos ; of what kind ? 
r 7ro\e/LieIz/ (= e-eii>), to carry on 

(wage) war (dat.). 
woXepiKos, warlike. 
TroXe/xios, hostile ; as subst., an 

enemy. 
woXepos, 6, war. 
TroXiopKelv (= 4-eiv), to be- 
siege. 
ttoXis, -ea>s, rj, city. 
7ro\iT€ia,fj, constitution ; a com- 
<! monwealth. 
7ro\iT€veiv, to govern the state ; 
Mid., to live as a citizen, to 
govern the state. 
TroXirqs, -ov, 6, citizen. 
7roXkaKts, often. 
r 7ro\vs, much ; noXXoi, many. 
7roXvo-x^r)s, -es, much divided, 

branching. 
7roXvreXj7?, -es, costly (reXos, 

end, price). 
7roXi;0iXia, r), multitude of 

friends ((piXos, friend). 
7roXf^;eip/a, rj, multitude of 
hands, of workmen (xe/p. 
hand). 
TTOjmr) (jriimeiv), procession. 



C TTOveiv (= e-€Lv), to toil. 

< 7rovrjp6s, wicked. 
f ttovos, 6, toil. 

7ropeu-eo-3at, to set out (prqficis- 
ci) ; to march (of an army). 

no(rei§a>i>, -covos, 6, Poseidon, 
Neptune. 

ttoo-ls, -€cos, r), drinking (770, root 
used to supply the tenses of 
fflveiv) . 

iroo-os ; how great ? 

norapos, 6, river. 

7rore, at any time, ever : in ques- 
tions (= tandem), in the world ; 
ever. 

Trorepos, which of two. 

noTov, to, drink (iro, root used to 
supply the tenses of iriveiv). 

7TOVS, TTohoS, 6, foot. 

C npaypa, -aTos, to, an action, 

< affair (npaTTetv, to/do). 
f Trpa^LS, -tecs, r), an action. 
C npaos, mild. 

< TrpaoTrjs (jrpaoTrjT-os), mildness: 
£ gentleness. 

TrpaTTeiv, to do, perform : ev Trpar- 

Teiv, to be doing well. (npaTTe- 

<r3ai, to exact [money, &c, with 

two accusatives]). 
irpeirei, it is becoming (dat.). 7rpe- 

neiv, to be becoming (decere). 
' Tvptafieia, rj, embassy. 

Kpto-fitis, ol, ambassadors. 

7rpeo-(3evTr)s, -ov, 6, ambassa- 
■\ dor. 

npeafivs, -eta, -v, old. 

wpeo-fivTepos, elder, aged per- 
son. 

TrpiaaJSai, to buy. 
irplv, before ; c. indie, or inf. : 

Trp\v av, c. subj. 
npicov, npiov-os, 6, saw (V). 
7Tpo-dyeiv, to move (or march) 

forward ; to advance. 
npofiaTov, to, sheep (irpo, forward. 

/3a, short root of /3aiW«/, to go ; 

from the animal's going stead- 
ily forward to graze). 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



271 



Trpo-8i'§co/u, -8i86vai, to betray. 
7rpo-8oTT]s, -ov. 6, betrayer. 
rrpo-dnov (Aor.), 1 said before, 

ordered, proclaimed, vn. 
7r/jo-epxeo-3ai, to go before, vn. 
r npo^vpia, r), willingness, eager- 
ness. 
TTpo'Uvjj.os 2, willing (pvpos, 

mind, animus). 
7rpo%vfLoos, adv., willingly. 
npovoia, ?;, foresight (?rpd. vovs. 

mind J. 
7rpoo--/3XeV€ti/, to look at. 
TTpocr-boKav (— d-€iv), to expect. 
7rp6(r-eip.i, Inf. Trpo(r-elvai, to be 

present. Pdm. 68. 
npoa-etpt, Inf. irpoo--ikvai, to go 

to. Pdm. 68. 
npoor-epXecr'Sai. to come to. VII. 
7rpoa-e^tv top vovv (animum ap- 
flicare ad — ), to pay attention 
to ; attend to. 
7Tpoo-y']Kcov, belonging to ; becom- 
ing (irpos, to. fjneiv, to have 
come; . 
rrpo'o-Sey, before (gen.). 
7T p o a pio-yt iv, to put in at, land at. 
7rpoa-ra.TT-€iv (Flit. -£»), to com- 
mand, enjoin. 
7rpo(r-T&r)pi. -T&evat, to add. 
ffpo-Tfarjpt.. -Ttetvai, to put before, 

set our for show or sale. 
TrpocpTjreveiv, to prophesy (7rpo, 
forth, before. (p?7, root of <pi]pi). 
7rpa>ros, first. 
tttol>x6s, very poor. 
ttvkttjs, ov, 6, boxer, pugilist (ttv^, 

with the fist). 
ttvXtj. f), gate. 

7j-wSayeo-2ac, to ask, to inquire. 
Aor., to learn by inquiry ; to be 
informed ; to have heard, or to 
hear. iv. 
7rCp, nvpos, to, fire. 
7tco (enclitic), yet. 
TrcoXety (= e-eiv), to sell. 
7ro)7rore, ever. 
na>s ; how ? 



r 'Padios, easy. 
agStoupyetV (== e-ewr) [to take 
it easily, padios, easy. %p- 
yov, work], to be idle ; to 
{ shirk work. 
pqdlcos, adv., easily. 
paSvpelv (= e-eii>), to be indo- 
lent, apathetic, lazy (pqcov, 
[_ more easy. %vp.6s, mind). 
pelv (:= e-eiv), to flow. 
pfjywfii, -vvvai, to tear, break, ix. 
prjTcop, -opos, 6, orator (peo, obsol. 

in Pres.). 
pt'^a (no2 plt a )? 7? ro °t- 
pinTeiv, to throw. 
pn/r, pesos', bundle of reeds, rush- 
es, &c. 
poia, fj, pomegranate, 
(pjo? =) pois, 6, stream (pet j/, to 

flow). 
c Pcopa7osj Roman. 
pcovwpi, pcDwvvax, to strengthen. 



2. 



5 2dX7rcy£, -lyyos, 17, trumpet. 

( o-akTri^iv, to blow a trumpet. 
2apios. 6, Saurian. 
Hapbavcnrakos. 6, Sardanapalus. 
"2dpdeis, -ea>v, al, Sardis. 
o~dp£. o~apK-6s. r], flesh. 

^ aacprjs, -es, clear. 

) aacpais, clearly. 

af&vwfu, afiewvuai, to quench, x. 

o-e/3€o-3a6, to honor. 

aiKrjvq-, rj, the moon. 

S o-rjpalvetv, to give a sign. 

f arjpelov, to, sign. 

t crvyav (= d-eii/), to be silent. 

< Fut. aiyr]cropai. 

( <rtyj7, 17, silence. 
' o-ihrjpzos, -ovs, of iron, iron 
' J (adj.) ; iron-hearted. 

o-idrjpevs, 6, smith, blacksmith. 
o-idrjpos, 6, iron. 



272 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



(tltos, o, corn. 

arioairav (== a-civ), to be silent, to 
hold one's tongue. Fut. o-to- 
nrjoopai. 

anedavvvfiL, oKebavvvvai, to scat- 
ter, x. 

(TKTjvrj, ft, tent. 

(TKr/TTTpov, to, sceptre. 

(TKXrjpos, dry. 

(jKoneiv, -eurSat, to behold, consi- 
der. 

o-k.vjj.vos, 6, young animal, cub, 
whelp, oi o~K.vp.voi., the young 
(ones). 

&KG>TrTeiv, to scoff, jeer (rivd or 
els. npos riva). 

C o-o(pia, -f}, wisdom. 

< crocpiarris, -ov, 6, sophist. 

( o~o<p6s, wise. 

~2ocpo'<Xrjs, -eovs, 6, Sophocles. 

S 2Trdp7r), fj, Sparta. 

( ^TraprLaTTjs, -ov, 6, Spartan. 

crneipeiv, to sow [Pf. earropa: 
Aor. Pass. eVn-ap^y]. 

o-Trevdetv, to hasten ; to exert one- 
self. 

o-Trovdai (prop, libations, o-iriv- 
beiv), a truce, a treaty. 

o-TTopabrjv (cnreipa>p), dispersedly ; 
in a scattered way, not in col- 
lected masses. 
[ anovdd^eiv, to hasten, to be 
! zealous, in a hurry. 
airovdaios, earnest, serious : in 

-{ character = sterling, good. 
aTTovdatcos, adv., zealously. 
cnrovdr), j}, zeal, earnestness 
(crirevo'eLv, to exert oneself). 

arddiov, to (pi. also oi craSioi), 
stadium. 
f crTao-id£eiv, to revolt, to be divi- 
ded by factions, at variance, 
j o-Tao-Ls, -ecos, fj, faction (ores, 
(_ root of "io-Tr}p,i). 

o-TeXkeiv, to send. 

o-Tepyeiv, with ace, to love ; with 
dat. (and also ace), to be con- 
tented with. 



crTepelv (= e-eiv) Thvd twos, to 
deprive one of something (in 
Pass, also c. ace. %ei). 
o-repeos, solid. 

crre'pforSai, to be without (twos). 
arecpavos, 6, crown, garland. 
&to\t), fj, robe, dress (aTeWeiv, 

to equip). 
o-Topa, -aTos, to, mouth. 
{Tro^a^o-Sou (gen.), to aim at. 
r oTpaTeveiv, to serve ; to bear 
arms ; to make an expedi- 
tion. 
o~TpaTeveo-%ai, to serve, to march 

(of soldiers). 
o-Tpa.Tevp.a, -cltos, to, army. 
o-TpaTTjyos, 6, a general (ayeiv) . 
o-TpaTia, fj, army. 
o-TpciTtcoTws, -ov, 6, soldier. 
o-TpaT07T€o'eveo-'3at1 to encamp, 
j o-TpaT07redov, to, encampment, 

encamped army. 
[o~TpaTos, 6, army. 
o-Tpe(p€w, to turn, twist [Aor. 

Pass. io-Tpd<pT]v, iaTpeffinv]. 

o-vy-yiyv<jL>o~neiv (vi),to think with, 

agree with ; o\ ipavTa, to be 

conscious ; cr. tivI, to pardon. 

avy-KOTTTeiv, to knock to pieces, 

batter. 
avy-KVKav (= d-stv), to confound. 
o-vKrj, fj, fig-tree. 
ovKo^dvTTjs, ov, propr. common 
or vexatious informer. Syco- 
phant ; but not in our sense 
(said to be from crvKov,fig. 
cpalveiv, to denounce, to in- 
form against : = one who 
accused a man of exporting 
figs against the Attic law). 
crvKotpivrria, sycophancy, vexa- 
tious information (see o-vko- 

(paVTTjs). 

o-v\qv (= d-eiv) Tivd ti, to rob, 
pillage, rob one of something. 

a-v\-\ap.fidveiv, to take with, seize : 
— to help. iv. 

o-v\-\eyeu>, to collect. 



GREEK AND ENGLISH INDEX. 



273 



'crv/i-/3ouXev-6cr3at tlvl (Mid.), 

to consult with him. 
o-vfi-j3ov\eveiv, to advise (dat.). 
^avpfSovXos, 6, adviser. 
C (rv/jL/jLaxia, r), alliance, aid. 
< avjj.fxa.xos, 6, ally (avv, with. 
(_ H-o-x^t battle). 
o-vfjL-7Tas, all together, whole. 
cvp-ixovfiv (= e-eiv), to work 
with. 

r avp-cpepei, it is expedient, to 
avLKpepov = the expedient. 
o-vfi-cptpeiv (lit. to bring with ; 
•{ hence, to contribute =) to 
be profitable, useful, or expe- 
dient (c. dat.). 
o~vLi(popd, r), an event, calamity. 
avv-eipi, Int. trvv-elvai, to be with. 

Pdm. 68. 
avv-eiLLi, Inf. o-vp-ievai, to come or 

assemble with. Pdm. 68. 
o~vv-€£-op.oiovv (= 6-eiv), to make 
equal or like (6/xoIos, like). 
' o-vvecris, -ccos, r), understanding, 
intelligence (o-vv, with, toge- 
ther, e, short root of Uvai, to 
send, to put. avvuvai [to put 
together =] to understand). 
crweTos, sensible. 
aw€x<os (avv. e^co), continually. 
o~vv%r]Kr), r), treaty (avv. TtlSevai, 

Aor. e-%T]K-a, to place). 
avv-larnpi, -tardvai, to put toge- 
ther. 
avv-oioa, avv-eidevai, to know 
with ; a. ip-avrm, to be con- 
scious. Pdm. 70. 
~2vpos, 6, a Syrian. 
avs, avos, 6, r), boar, sow. 
o~<palpa, rj, ball. 
S o-<jj68pa, very, excessively. 
) acpo8pos, violent. 
erxeSoi> to, almost. 
o~a>£eiv, to save [Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. 0-eo-coo-Lia.L : Aor. Pass. 

ScoKparr/s", -ous, 6, Socrates. 
o-(OTt]pia, rj, safety, preservation. 

12* 



r aaxfipovelv (= e-eiv), to be of 
sound mind. 

crcocppoavur], r), modesty ; tem- 
perance ; sobriety of mind ; 
self-restraint. 

adxfipw, wise, temperate, /u.17 
aaxppoov, intemperate (au>s, 
safe. (ppr]v, mind). 



T. 



TaXavroi/, ro, talent (a weight). 
TaXas., -aiva, -av, wretched. 
Ta^lapxos, 6, a Taxiarch. 

SraTTeivos, low, base. 
raneiuovv (= 6-eiv), to bring 
low, to humble. 
Tdpas, -avros, 6, Tarentum. 
rapdrreLv, to throw into confu- 
sion. 
rdaaeiv or to.tt€lv, to arrange, 

appoint ; to order. 
ravpos, 6, bull. 
Tavrrj (dat. fern, of oi/roy, used 

adverbially), here. 
rcicpos, burial ; tomb. 
Ta(ppos, r), trench. 
(ra-xa, quickly, probably, per- 
il haps. 

I rax^cos, quickly. 
{.raxv, quickly, at once. 
tcicds, rad), 6, peacock, 
re — Kal, both — and. 
reiveLu, to stretch [Pf. TtTana]. 
C Teixifciv (ret^os, wall), to sur- 
< round with a wall, to fortify. 
( relxos, -ovs, to, wall. 
tzkvov, to, child, young one (re/«, 
root of TiKreiv [Aor. e-reK-ov], 
far ere). 

'reXelz/ (= e-etv), to accomplish. 
TeXevraios, last. 
TeXevrav (= d-€tv), to end, to 

die. 
TeXevTr), r), end, death. 
reXos, -ovs, to, end. 
repas, -aros, to, wonder, porten- 
tous monster. 



274 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



repirecv, to delight. 

Terpcnrovs, n. -now, gen. -rrodos, 

four-footed (reo-o-apes. rerrapfi, 

four, novs, foot). 

r *X vl )-> 9> art ; 

TrjXepaxos, 6, Telemachus. 
"■tjXlkovtos, so large. 
Viyprjs, Tiyp-qr-os, 6, the Tigris. 
rfarjpi, T&eyat, to place : vopovs 
3eti/ai (of the legislator), 3e- 
o-3at (of the people : seld. of 
the legislator), to enact, pass, 
make laws, 
./fcretz/, to beget, bear [Fut. re£o- 
pai: A or. ereKov : Perf. reVoKa] . 
(ripav (= d-eiv), to honor. 
TipaoSai ( = Ttyia-eo-3ai) 7rpo 
7roAXa)i' xpTjpdraiv, lit. to value 
above much money ; to give a 
great deal (if a thing were so). 
^ripfj, fj, honor. 

fripoopelv (== i-€Lv), to help. 
rt/ioopelcrSai ( == e-ecr3at), to 
punish, revenge oneself on. 
l^Tipcopia, tj, punishment. 
riveiv, to expiate, pay. 
TLTpwcrKeiv, to wound. VI. 
S to'l, assuredly, indeed. 
I to'lvvv, hence, therefore. 
toIos, of such a nature. 
toiovtos, such. 
rolxos, 6 (— paries), wall of a 

house (or room, or court). 
rokpqv (= d-eiv), to dare. 
Tonos, 6, place. 
toctovtos, so great. 
Tore, then. 
S rpdyos, 6, goat. 
^ Tpay-aydia, rj, tragedy. 
rpavpa, Tpavpar-os, to, wound. 
Tpdxqkos, 6, neck, throat. 
Tpeneiv, to turn ; Mid., to turn 
myself; (2) for myself, i. e. to 
put to flight [Aor. eTpeyjsa : 
Mid. -dprjv : Pass, irpecp^v : 
erpcnrov, -oprjv, erpd7rr]v : Perf. 
Act. T€Tpocpa : Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. Terpapp,ai]. 



rpe(p€iv, to nourish [Fut. Spe^o) : 
Aor. eStpeyfra : Perf. rerpocpa \ 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. T&pappai : 
Aor. Pass. eTpacprjv (seldom 
irpefp^rjv)^. 
rplfieiv, to rub, pound. 
Tpl(3a>v, -covos, 6, a worn cloak. 

Tpirjprjs, -rjpovs, rj, trireme. 

rpoTTuiov, to, trophy. 

Tpoiros, 6, way, manner, character. 

C Tpocprj, nourishment, food (rpe- 

< (peiv). 

' rpo(p6s, tj, nurse. 

rpvycov, Tpvy6v-os, the turtle-dove. 

Tpco'iKos, Trojan. 

Tvyydv-eiv (rev^opai. t€tvxt)kci. 
ctvxov), to hiy(a mark), obtain, 
attain to ; to chance c. partcp. 
stvxov rrapdov = I chanced to 
be present : but often not to be 
translated Tvyxdvco av (I chance 
to be), having little more force 
than lam. 

Tvpj3os, 6, tomb. 

TVTTTtiv, to strike. 

Tvpawos, 6, tyrant, despot. 

C TvcpXovv (= 6-eiv), to make 

< blind, to blind. 
( Tv(p\6s, blind. 

tvxtj, r), fortune. 



"Y/3pt£eii>, to be haughty towards 
one, to maltreat, insult, els 
TLva, Trpos Tiva : also Tivd n. 
vfipis, -coos, r), insolence, as- 
sault, vfipzojs vopos = the 
law of assaults. 
vdcop, to, G. vdaTos, water. 
vei, it rains. 
S vldovs, grandson. 
} vlos, 6, son. 
V7r-dpxetv, to be at hand, to be ; 

to belong to. 
virep-fidWeiv, to throw beyond, 

exceed. 
imep-rjcpavos 2, haughty. 



GREEK A.\D ENGLISH INDEX. 



275 



V7T€p-opav (= d-tiv), to look over, 
to despise. 

VTTrjVipiOS- VTTTjVepiOV <MOI/, a 

wind-egg (yno = sub. avcpos. 
wind). 

vrnipeTtlv (= e-etf), to aid, serve 
(dat.). 

vTTLO")(v^l(T^ai (= e-ea%ai), to pro- 
mise. vTToo")(f]croiia.i. virecrxi' 
p.ai. — Aor. im€(rx6ft,r)v. 

vttvos. 6. sleep. 

v7ro-8ex-e(r%at, to receive. 

vn6-8rjpa, -aros, to, sandal, shoe 
- (8elv, to bind). 

viro-pevsiv, to await, endure 
(ace.).' 

vno-cpepeiv, to endure, vn. 

8s, vos (6, 77), sus : go aypws, wild 
boar. 

vcrrepaios, following. 

v\ln]X6-(f)poop, high-minded. 



<£. 

Qdyeiv, see ixr^Uiv. 
' (palveiv, to show. 

cpaiveo-^ai (apparere), to be 
seen ; to be (c. partcp.) ; to 
appear. 

(pavepos, evident. 
<pdpp.aK.ov, ro, drug, poison, reme- 

dy. 
<pav\os, bad, evil, worthless. 
tpeldeo-^ai, Dep. Mid., to spare 

(gen.). 
cpepetv. to bear. vn. 
&epeKv8r]s, -ovs, 6, Pherecydes. 
cpevyeiv, to flee ; also = to be an 

exile. 
<pr)pL, (pdvai, to say. Pdm. 69. 
ffieyy-ecrSai, to sound. 
ipZeipeiv, to destroy. 
C qbftoveiv ( = e-etv), to envy 
I (dat.). 
£ <p%6i>os, 6, envy. 
<pid\t], shallow cup ; bowl (= 

patera). 



r (piXelv (= €-eiv), to love. 
epikia, r), friendship. 
(pi\o-Kep8rjs, -es, fond of gain, 
(plXos (adj.), friendly, dear. 
cpiXos, 6, friend. 
(fiiXo-o-ocpelv (= e-eiv), to phi- 
losophize. 
(pi\o-o-o<pia, r), philosophy. 
(piXo-rlpos ((plXos. Tipr],) am- 
bitious. 
</>A<n|/-, (fiXefios, 17, vein. 
C (poveveiv, to murder, slay. 

< cpavevs, -ecos, 6, murderer. 
( (pouos, 6, murder. 

<fipd(eiv, to say, tell. 
C (pofSelv (= e-eiv). to frighten; 
-? Mid. to fear. 
( <p6(3os, 6, fear. 
<ppi]v, (ppevos, Tj (0peVes), 

mind. 
(ppovelv (z= e-€tv), to think ; to 
be sensible, prudent, wise. 
^ (fipovTigeiv, to care for (gen.). 
( (ppovTis, -t'Soy, r), concern. 
(pvtiv. to bring forth, put forth. 
'(pvXaKr), rj, guard, watch. 
(pvXaTT€iv, to guard ; Mid. c. 
ace, to guard against some- 
thing, cyo ivoifiv ti, to anx- 
iously avoid doing it. 
C (pvaiKos (physicus), a natural 

< philosopher. 

f epvens, -ecos, r), nature. 
(pvTtvsiv, to plant. 
(pcovr), r), voice. 



X. 

S Xaipe, hail, 
f xaipeiv, to rejoice. 
S ^aXe7rdf, troublesome. 
^ XaX€7rcos, adv., with difficulty. 
^aXli/ds, 6, bridle. 
'xaAKeo?; -oGp, brazen. 
XaX<6s- 6, brass. 
XoXko-tCttos, brazier, copper- 
smith QrimTeiv, to beat). 



276 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



'xapieis, graceful. 
XapievTcos, gracefully. 
XapifraZai, to gratify (dat.). 
^a/jty, -Iros, t), favor. X®-P iV 
dnodidovai, graliam reddere ; 
to repay or return a favor. 
^X"*P IV £X €LV ' gratiam habere. 
Xeipav, -covos, 6, winter ; stormy 

weather. 
Xelv (= e-eiv), to pour. 

Xet/>' X €l P° s ' h (A- Pi- X e P (Tl )-> nan d. 

X^ipova^at (= 6-ecr%ai), to sub- 
due. 

X^t8d>v, -6vos, t), swallow. 

X^^s, yesterday. 

^3o)p, x% ov 6s, t), the earth. 

^t'Xtot, a thousand. 

^to)i/, x L ovos, f], snow. 

Xo^os, 6, anger. 

Xopros, 6, fodder. , 

XPW^ai (= d-ecr3ai), to use. 

Xpr), ofortet ; one (we) ought to ; 
it is necessary. 

XPv( €lv i to be in want (gen.). 

Xpripa, xpv^ aTOS ^ T( ^ a thing, pro- 
perty. PL money. 

XprjparL^-ea^Jai, to enrich oneself 
by trade ; to trade for profit 
(Xprjpara). 

Xpovos, 6, time. 

C Xpvcros, 6, gold. 

< xpucreos 1 (ovs), -ed (rj), -eov 

( (ovv), golden, of gold. 

Xpoopa, xp<°P aTOS i T ^5 color (of 
the skin), plumage, &c. 



Xvpos, juice, taste [x*w (= «" 

eiv)]. 
X&pa, V> country, region. 
X&p'i-s (gen.), separately, apart 

from, without. 



tytyeiv, to blame. 
'\lrevdeiv, to deceive ; Mid. -e~ 
o-3at, to be disappointed of it. 
■^•evdrjs, -es, false. 
^■Vj^tucrr^f^rou, 6, liar. 
■^srjCptcrpa, -aros, to, decree. 
tyvxq-, h-> tne sou ^ 5 the mfod* 



n. 



'i2i/e?o-3at (= e-ea^ai), to buy. 
a>oi> (cofov = ovum), egg. 
as, as, when, how, because : a>s 
Tcixio-ra, as soon as possible ; 
with indefinite numbers = 
about ; — as final particle = 
that ; in order that. 
&pa (liora), time. 
oio-Trcp, as, just as. 
coo-re, so that. 
( axpeXeia. tj, advantage, profit, 

benefit. 
\ cocpeXelv (= e-eiv), to benefit 

(ace). 
^axfieXtpas 2, useful. 



INDEX II. 
ENGLISH AND GREEK. 



A. 

Abide by, 7rapapeueiv, ip,peveiv 

(dat.). 
able, to be. hivacr'Sai (dvvafuu) : 

olos re elfxi '. e;£a>. 
abode, o'iktjctis, ecos, j^. 
about, rrepi, dpqbl. 
absence of government, anarchy, 

dvap^ia, r). 
absent, drrcov, partcp. of drrelvai. 
abundant, acp^ovos, ov. 
abusive, (pi\o\oi8opos. 
accept, aTToSe^ecrSat. 
accompany, eVecrSat (dat). 
accomplish, et-epyd&a'ZaL : reXelv 

(= e-eiv). 
according- to, in accordance with, 

Kara. (ace), 
account of, on, Std (ace), eVera 

(gen.), 
account, on this, did. tovto. 
accurate, d.icplfir)s, -es. 
accuse (of), Karrjyopelu (= €-eiv) 

(gen. of charge). 
accustom, e'3i'£eu>. 
Achilles, 'A^iXXeuj, -ecos, 6. 
acquainted with, to be, olda, el8i- 

vai. Pdm. 70. eV/o-racrScu. 
acquit, dnokveiv. 
Acropolis, 'AKpowoXts, -ecos, r). 
act, an, irpd^is, -ecos, r). rrpdypa, 

to : = work, epyov, to. 
action, see Act. 

act-unjustly, dhucelv (= e-eiv). 
accuse (any body), eyxaXelv tivi : 

aiTidcr'Za.i (= d-eaSat), = to 

lay the blame on, c. ace. 



adhere to (a confession, &c), ep.~ 
peveiv (dat.). 

admire, %avpd(ew. 

admirer, eTvaivi-rns, ov (= lauda- 
tor : irraivelv). 

adorn, Kocrpelv (= e-eiv). 

advantage, cocpeXeia. r). 

advantage, an, dyaZov, to. 

advantageous, xprjo-ipos 2 or 3, 
co(pe\ip.os 2. 

advise, ftovXeveiv : o~vp8ovXeveiv 

TLVl. 

iEschines, AtV^/tT/s, -ov, 6. 

^Etolia, AircoXia, r). 

affair, rrpdypa, to. 

affirm, (prjpi, (pdvai. Pdm. 69. 

afford, irap-e^eiv, rrap-e^ea^ai. VII. 

afraid, to be, cpoSela^ai (= e-e- 
(rSai) . 

after, perd (ace). 

again, av%is, ird\iv. 

age, fjXiKia, r). 

age, old, yr/pas, -cos, to. 

aged person, rrpecrSvTepos (= se- 
nior) . 

agreeable. r)bvs, -em, v. 

aid, Borj^elv (= e-eiv), dat., vm]- 
perelv (dat.). 

alas ! o'ip.01, <pe{). 

Alcibiades, 'AXKiBiddrjs, -ov, 6. 

alike, 6p.oicos. 

all, Ttds, arras . 

alliance, cwppa^ia, r). 

allot, vepeiv. 

allow, eav (= d-etv). I am al- 
lowed to do any thing, e^ecrri 
(= licet) p.oL noielv tl. I was 
allowed to — , i£r)v /not — . 

allowable, to be, e^ecm (dat.), 



278 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



almost, crx^ov (ri). 

alone, povos '. adv. pdvov. 

already, rjdrj. 

also, Kal. 

altar, {3a>p6s, o. 

although, Kav or kol idv (subj.). 

always, det. 

am (to be), eivac (efyu), virdpxeiVj 

€)(€cv (with adcerbs). 
ambassador, 7rpeo-/3evTf]s, -ov, 6. 
ambassadors, wpeo-jSeis, ol. 
amid, Iv (dat.). 
among, iv, irapd. 
ancient, irakatos. 
and, Kal. re (enclit.). 
Androgeus, 'Avdp6yeu>s , 6. 
anger, 6py fj, fj. 
angry, to be, opyifco-'Sai, or ^aXe- 

naiveiv (c. dat.), 0/ opy/7 f^ 61 " 

or TroieloSai (aec). a^3eo-3at 

(dat.). 
animal, £S>ov, to. 
announce, dyyeXXeiv. 
anoint, dXelcpeiv, -^pUiv. 
another, aXXos. 
any one, t\s (enclit.). 
any thing, ft (enclit.). 
any where, wov (enclit.) : in a 

sentence with a negative, ov- 

dapov. 
appear, cpalveoSai,. 
appetite, Spelts, -eas, fj. 
appoint, rdo-o--etv : fut. £a) = 

determine, &c. ; diTo-belKvvpi, 

dnodetKvvvac •= declare a man, 

e. g. general, &c. 
archer, to£6ttjs, -ov, 6. 
argument, Xoyos, 6. 
Aristodemus, 'Apto-Todijpos. 
Aristotle, 'Apio-roreXrjs, -ovs, 6. 
arms (weapons), oirXa, rd. 
army, arparid, fj. arparos, 6. 
arrow (missile), fieXos, to. 
art, T^xv-q, fj. 

artfully, more, TexviKa>T€pov. 
Artemis, "Aprepis, -tSo?, fj. 
articulation of a joint, StapSoxus , fj. 

aS, COS, &0~1T€p. 



as long as, eoos. 

as much, roaovros. 

as soon as, w? rci^tcrra. 

as well — as, Kal — Kal. % 

ashamed to be, aldelo-^ai (= €-e- 
aSai), atcr^wecrScu. 

Asia, 'Aorta, fj. 

ask, ipoorqv (= d-eiv), [a ques- 
tion, epeoSai], alteiv (= e-eiv), 
ask-for. I asked, fjpoprjv. 

asleep, to be, Ka^evdetv. 

ass, ovos. 

assault, vBpLs, -ccos (prop, inso- 
lence). * 

assert, cpnpl, cpdvai. Pdm. 69. 

assist, Trapaa-rfjvai (dat.). 

assistant, imrjptTTjs, ov (= minis- 
ter). 

Assyrian, 'Ao~o~vpios, 6. 

Athene (= Minerva), y A^rjvd, 17. 

Athenian, , A%Tjvai,os, 6. 

Athens, 'A3f}mi, at. 

attack, to, e7rm'3eo-3ai (dat.). 

attain- to, rvx^lv (gen.), 2nd Aor. 
of rvyxdveiv. 

attempt, to, 7reipScr3ai ( z=z d- 
ecrSai) : e7rt^eipety ( = e-eiv), 
to take in hand (dat. em. 

attend (= follow upon), err-eo-^ai 
(dat.). 

attend to, (ppovrl^eiv, rbv vovv 
Trpocre^eti/. 

attendant, inrnper-ns, ov (= minis- 
ter). 

attention. To pay go to, rbv vovv 
7rpoarex eiv (animum applicare), 
■ dat. of thing. 

Attica, 'AttIkt}, fj. 

attire, aroXfj. 

avail, Icrxveiv. 

avoid, (pevyeiv. 

awake, to be, eyprjyopevai, Perf. 
2. of iyelpeiv. 

awaken, eyelpeiv. dvlarnpi, -to-rd- 
vai. 

away, to lead, drrdyeiv. 

axe, neXeKvs, -ecos, 6. 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



279 



B. 

Back, o7ri(ra>. 

bad, mikos, rrovrjpos. (pavXos. 

bad, the (abstract), kcikov. to. 

badness, cpavXoTrjs, -ottjtos, r). 

ball, o-(pcupa. r). 

bar, v., efiippdrreiP, -|a>. 

bar, s., AcXetSpoi/. 

barbarian, a, (3dp(3apos, 6. 

base, Tcnreivos. r), ov. 

battle, /J-cix 7 !- 1 7- 

be, to, eivai (ei/zi)- 

be seen, cpaiv-eo-'Sa.i. 

be with, o-vveivai (aiivei/xt), dat. 

bear (carry), (pepeiv. vn. To 

bear false witness, paprvpeiv 

to. yjsevbr) (= testify the things 

that are false), 
beast (wild), Zrjpiov, to. 
beautiful, koXos. 
beautiful, the, koXov, to. 
beautifully, KaXcos. 
because, otl. 
because of, did (ace), 
become, yiyveo-%a.i (yevrjo-opLai. ye- 

yevqpat and yeyova. — iyevoprjv) . 
becomes, it, Trpoo-^Ket, Trpenet. 
becoming, 7rpoo-r)Ka>v. 
becoming, it is, npocrrjKei. 
before, npo (gen.), 
begin, ap^eo-Sair 
beginning, apxq, r). 
beguile, -ty-evbeiv. 
behalf of, in, vrrep (gen.), 
behave insolently, vfipi(-eiv. 
behold, 3eao"3at (=: d-eo-%ai). 
believe = trust, 7ret'3ea-3ai : = 

think, tjyelo-'Sai ( = e-eo-Sat)? 

vop-L^etv. 
believed, to be, 7rt(rreueo-3ai. 
belly, yao~Tr)p, yaarpos, r). 
beloved, to be, see To love, 
benefactor, evepyeTrjs, -ov, 6. 
benefit, to, axpeXetV (ace), 
benefit, evepyeTrjpa, to. evepyearla, 

i). To confer a — , evepyerelv 

(= e-eiv), acc. 



besides, en. 

besiege, noXiopKelv (= e-eiv). 

best, apio~Tos. 

betray, npodidovai (7rpo8i'§oo/zi). 

better. See dya%6s in Note 9. — 

Adv. fieXTiov. 
between, p.€Ta{-v (gen.), 
beware of, (pvXuT7-eo-3cu (ace) : 

fuXa/3eicr3at (= e'-ecr3at) ti. 
beyond, prep., vrrep. 
bid, KeXevav (c. acc. and inf.). 
bind, belv (= e-eiv). 
bird, opvis, -t3o?, 6, t). 
bite, daKveiv (List m.). 
bitter, rnKpos. 

black, pe\as '. as subst., to pteXav. 
blame, to, atrtacrSat (= a-ecr3cu, 

acc). 
blessing, a, dya%6v, to. 
blood, alp.a, to. 
blow, irXrjyr], r). 
Bceotia, Boiwria, r). 
boldly, %appa>v. See Vocab. 23. 
bonassus, $6vao~o~os. 
bookseller, /it/3Xto7rcoX^?. 
born, to be, fyvvai (necpvKa = I 

am by nature, fee). 
both, nprpco. 

both — and, feat — nal, re — kcli. 
bow, to£ov, to. 
bowl, (ptdXrj. 
boy, 7rat?, 6. iraih'iov, to. 
branching (of horns), ttoXvo-x^s. 
brass, ^aX/cd?, 6. 
brass (as adj.) : brazen, ^aXfceoy, 

-ovs. 
brave, dvdpelos, yevvalos- 
brave-dangers, tavdvveveiu. 
bravely, dvdpeicos, yevvaiws. 
bravery, dvSpia, f). dperrj, r). 
bread, apTos, 6. 
breadth, nXdros, to. 
break (a peace, fee), Xvew : (a 

limb), Kardyvvpi, -ayvvvai. List 

IX. 

brighten, Xap.Trpvveiv. 
brilliant, Xap-npos. 
bring, ayeiv. 



280 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



bring up (= educate), iraibeveiv. 

brother, ddeXcpos, 6. 

build, idpvetv, KTi^eiv, olKobop-elv. 

bull, ravpos, 6. . 

burn, Kaieiv {/cavVco, &c). Att. 

Impf. enaov. Aor. eicr/a. 
burn down, KaraKaUiv (see the 

preceding word), 
bury, 3a7rreiv. 

business, epyov, to. 7rpdyp,a, to. 
but, 8e, dXXd. 
but also, dXXa /cat. 

blltt, tO, KVp'lTT€LV. 

buying a horse, Imrooveia, rj. 

by, V7rd, tvapd. Trpos (gen.) : in 

swearing, vr) (= yes, by), (ov) 

fid (= no, by), ace. 

C. 

Call, to, KaXetv (= e-eiv), dnayo- 
pevetu, Xeyeiv. = name, dvopd- 
{etv. 

camel, Kap.rfXos, 6, r). 

camp, o-TpaTOTredov. 

can (be able), SwacrSat. 

care, to, care for, take care for, 
eVi/AeXecrSai, (ppoPTL^eiv (gen.). 

carry, cpepeuv. vn. 

carry on war, 7roXe^eu> (= e-eiv), 
dat. 

carry out (to sea), dnocpepeiv (is 
to neXayos) : [to be carried out 
to sea, cf. Sea], On (pepeiv, 
see List vn. 

cart, ap.a£;a. 

Carthage, Kapxrjboov, -ovos, r). 

cast, to, pinTeiv. 

cast away, dwofidXXeiv. 

oastle, aKpa, r). 

catch, %-qpeveiv, dypeveiv. 

cavalry, ol limels (pi. of tV7ret;s) 
= equiles. IWoy, r) (collec- 
tively). 

cease, 7roruecr3ai, SiaXewmz'. See 
Vocab. 23. 

censure any thing, fj.efKpea'Hai tl. 

Ceres, Ar/p,r]Trip, fj. 



chance, Ti>xrj, r). 

change, p-era-o-TpeCpeiv (= turn 

backwards) : pLCTa-ftdXXeiv. 
character, fj%os, -ovs, to. 
charge, ipftdXXew ds (lit. to cast 

into), 
chariot, dp pa, to. 
chastise, KoXd£-eiv (Fut. -aop.ai 

or -<xo>). 
cheat, ■^•euSeiv. 
chest, Xdpva^, -aKOs, rj. 
child, Trals, 6. r). tzkpov, to. 
choice, alpeais, -ecos. r). 
choose, atpeio-Sat (= e-ea-3ou) : 

= will, jSovXeuecrSai, i%zXeiv. 
chorus, x^pos, 6. 
circle, kvkXos- 6. 
citizen, noXlTijs, 6- 
city, ttoXis- rj. do-TV, to. 
cleave, to, €'x€o~%ai (gen.), 
clerk, ypapp-aTevs, -eois, 6. 
clever, dyxlvovs. See 136. 
cleverness, aocpia. 
cloud, vecpeXrj. 
collect (in a heap), dSpoi&iv (e. g. 

manure), 
colonize, oIkl^clv. 
color, xpa>pa, -aros, to. 
combat, p.dxq, r). 
come, ep^eo-Sat. vii. I am come, 

= am present, tJkoo. 
command (military), crTpaTrjyla. 
command, to, iceXeveiv, imTdTTeiv, 

irpoo-TaTTeLv : ( of generals), 

TvapayyeXXziv. 
commander, aTpaTr/yos. 
commend, Z-Kaiveiv (= e-eii/). 
commit injustice, ddiicdv (= e- 

eiv). 
common, kolvos. 
companion, iroupos, 6. 
compel, dvayicd£eiv. 
complete, diaTeXelv. 
compulsion, avdyiaj, r). 
conceal, dnoKpvTrTeiv, KaTaupv- 

TTTeiv, KevSeiv, KaXinrTeiv. 
concerns, it, p.£Xei (c. dat. pers., 

gen. rei : sts nom. rei). 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



281 



condemn, Kptveiv : go to death, 

^avdrov. 
Conduct, ayeiv. 
confer benefits, eu iroifiv (= e-etv) 

tlvu, evfpyerelv (= e-etv) riva. 
confession, opoAoyiot, fj. 
conquer, vutdv (= d-eLv), uparelv 

(= e-eiu), gen. 
consider, o-KOTreiv (= e'-eti>), (= 

reckon), vopi^eiv. 
consult with, o-up/3o*Aevecr2cu rtz/t. 
consume, dvakio-Kiziv. v. 
contemplate, Secopeiv (= e-etz/), 

CTKonelv (= e-etv). 
contest, pax 7 }' V- 
continually, o-we^coy. 
continue, StareXeiv (== e-eti/), Sta- 

yetz/. 
contradict, dvrtXe'yetv (riv'i). 
converse with, StaXeyecrSai nvt. 
convert - into - blood, i^-atp-aTovv 

(= d-etv). 
copper, ^oAko?, 6. 
copy, dTretKa^etf. 
Corcyraeans, Kepuvpaloi. 
corpse, ve<p6s, 6. 
correct, eTravop'i>ovv (= d-eti>),lit. 

to make straight again. 
count, dpfiijieiv (= e-etv). 
country, x^P a ^ 7*7- 9 • one ' s coun- 
try, Trarpis, -i8os, fj- 
courage, dperf), fj. dvdpla, fj. 3u- 

pds, 6. 
courageously, dvSpeioos- 
court, 'Stpaireveiv (= pay court 

to), ace. 
cover, KakvTTT€Lv : (of snow, &.C.), 

dipapigeiv (i. e. cause to disap- 
pear), 
cow, fiovs, fj- 
cowardice, dvavhpla, fj. 
credit to, 7re('3eo-3ai (dat.). 
Cretan, Kpfjs, -tjtos. 
Crete, KprjTtj- fj- 
crown, a, o-Teqbavos, 6. 
cuckoo, k.6kkv£, -vyos, 6. 
cultivate (= practise a habit), 

dcrnelv (= e-etv) [exerceo]. 



cup, KvTve'KXov, to. 

custom. e'Sos : it is an established 

CUStOm, VOpOS i(TTL. 

cutlass, pa^cupa, fj. 

CUt-off, d7TOIi6lTT-eiV : €K-k6tTT€LV 

(= cut-out, e. g. a vice, bad 
custom, &c). 
Cyrus, Kvpos, 6. 



D. 



Danger, Kivdvvos, 6 : to incur — , 

KLvbvveveiv. 
dare, Tokpdv (= d-etf). 
Darius, Aapeto?, 6. 
daughter, "Svydrwp, Svyarpos, fj. 
dawn, eWs, fj (ace. eat). 

da y 5 W*P a - V- 

daybreak, at, d'pa ew, dpa fjpepq. 

dead, the, 01 vexpoi : to be dead, 

T&vrjK-tvaL. 
dear, (ptkos. 
death, 'rsdva.Tos, 6. 
deathless, dyfjpas. 
deceive, \jsev8-eiv, i£ja7raT<xv (= 

d-eiv). 
declare, oTrocpaiWo-Ssat (e. g. one's 

opinion, yvatp-nv). 
decree, a, ^cpio-pa, to. 
deed, epyov, to. 
deem, vopi&iv : to be deemed 

worthy, d^toOfrSat (= o-eoSai). 
deep, jScfivff. 
defend, (puXdrretv. 
deline, 6pt'£eii> (opos, boundary, 

limit) ; hence the horizon == 

boundary line of earth and air. 
deliberate, /3oi>XeiW3at : «? with 

another, o-up/3ouXeueo-3at (dat.). 
delight in, xcu'petv (dat.), fj8eo-%ai, 

rep7reo"3at. dydXXecrSai. 
delightful, fjdvs (sweet), 
deliverance (= safety), o-coTnpia, 

h- 

Delphi, AeX(pot, -5>v. 
demagogue, drjpayoayos, -ov. 
demand, to, (= ask), ahelv (= 
e-etv) . 



282 



FIRST GR.EEK BOOK. 



Demeter (Ceres), Ar)p,r)Tr)p, -rpos, 

V- 
Demosthenes, A^poo-^evrjs, -ovs, 6. 
deny, apvela^ai (:= €-eo~?iai). 
depart', dinevai (aireipu), aTvaKkar- 

recrSni, drrepxeoSai. VII. 
deplore, k\cii€lv, KXavaopat. Pf. 

Pass. KenXavpai '. seld. -afiai. 
deprive, crTepeiv (= e-eiv), d(pai- 

peto-Scu (= e-ecrSat). 
deserve, a£iov elvat. 
deserving, ci^ios- 
desire, a, ini^vpla, rj. 
desire, to, ini^vp.e'lv (= e-eiv), 

gen. 
desirous, to be (= wish), e'3e'Xeii>. 
despise, KaTcKppovelv (= i-eiv), 

gen. 
destitute, iprjp.os, -rj, -ov. 
destroy, (p'Selpeiv, dia.Cp'Seipeiv, Ka- 

raXveiv, diroWvvai. IX. 
destroy (a form of government), 

\v-eiv (= dissohere). 
determined, it is, doicel (c. dat. 

pers.). 
device, iirlvoia, fj. 
devise, /i^aracrSai (= a-eo"3ai) 

= machinari. 
die, s., kv(3os, 6. 
die, to, %vr](rK6iv, drro?ivrjo-K.etv, v. 

rekevrav (d-eiv). 
differ (from), diacpepew (gen.), 
dijr down, KaTacrKaTrreiv. 
diligently, o"7rovdaia)s. 
din, ktvttos, 6. 
dine, denrvetv (= e-eiv). 
dinner, delnvov, to (= ccena). 
Diodorus, Aiodcopos, 6. 
Diogenes, Aioyevqs, -ovs, 6. 
dip, (3diTT-eLv. 
disaffected, 8vavoos, -ovs. 
disagree, diacpoovtlv. 
disappear, d<pavi£€o~%ai, c. Aor. 

Pass, 
disappoint, yjsevdeiv (rim tlvos). 

To be disappointed of — , \jsev- 

5eo-3at (c. gen.), 
disciple, ixcftrjTijs, -ov. 



discreet, cpp6vcp,os. 

discus, SiVko?, 6. 

disease, voo-os, fj. 

disembark, aTro-fiaiveiv. in. 

disgraceful, alaxpos. 

disgracefully, alaxpoos. 

disobey, direL^elv (= e-eiv), dat. 

dispirited, to be, dSupeii> (= e-eiv). 

display (= show off), iinbeiKvv- 
cr'Sai. 

disposed, kindly, evvovs 2. 

dissatisfied, pep.^ip,oLpos. 

dissolve, \veiv. 

distinguish oneself ; be distin- 
guished for, diacptpetv. 

disturb, idveiv (= e-etz/), movere. 
rapdrreiv, avyKeiv {= e-etv). 

divine, Selo?. 

do, Trpdrreiv, rroieiv (= e-eiv), 
dpqv (= d-eiv). 

do good to, ev noieiv {■=■ i-eiv), 
acc. ; evepyerelv ( = e-eiv), 
acc. 

dog, KV&V, KVVOS, 6, f]. 
door, %i>pa, rj. 

draw, dneiKageiv (= take a like- 
ness of), 
drain away, dnoaTrdv. 
draw up (of an army) , Tarretv. 
dream, ivvnvid£a.v. 
drink, to, irivtiv. vn. 
drug, cpdpp.u.Kov, to. 
dwell, oIksIv (= e-eiv). 



E. 



Each other, dWrfkcav, -ols, -ovs. 
eagerness, anovdr] (o-rrevdeiv). 
eagle, dtTos, 6. 
ear, ovs, wros- to. Note 9. 
earnest, awovdalos, a, ov. 
earth, the, y?j, tj-. 
easily, pqdioos. 
eat, €o~%leiv. vn. 
educate, Tratbeveiv. 
educated, 7r€7rai8evp,evos. 
education, Traifteia, f). 
egg, a>6v {caf-ov = ovum). 



ENGLISH AND GE.EEK INDEX. 



283 



Egypt, A\y V7TT0S- Tj- 

Egyptian, AlyimTios, 6. 
Either — or, fj — fj. 
elbow, dy<u>v. 6. 
elephant, eXeCpas, -avTos, 6. 
employ, xPW^ at (= a-eo-Sat), 

dat. 
empowered, I am, avpcos elpi (iroi- 

elv ti). 
emulate, fyXovv (= 6-clv). 
emulation, £ijXos. 
enact laws, rtSeWt (Aor. Selrai) 

VOpOVS. 

encampment, crrparoTredov, to. 

end, reXos, -ovs, to. 

endeavor, to, 7retpao-3at (= a- 

eo-Sat), Dep. Pass. 
endure, vrroptveiv. 
enemy, noXepios, 6 (hostis). i%- 

%pos, 6. 
enjoin upon, eWXXeii/. 
enslave, dovXovv (= 6-eiv), kclto.- 

bovXovv (= 6-elv). Mid. l for 

oneself or to oneself. ' 
enter, elo-uvai (elpi, ibo). 
entrance (of a port), eiWXovs or 

ecrnXovs-, 6. 
entreat, lueTeveiv. 
entrust to, emrpiireiPi 
envious, (p^ovepos. 
envy, (p%6vos. 6- 

envy, to, (p^oveiv (== e-eiv), dat. 
Eretria, 'Ep<=Vpia, fj. 
err, apapTaveiv. III. 
especially, pdXio-Ta. 
esteem = value much, notelcr'Sai 
» (= e-tcrSai) 7rept 7roXXov '. = 

consider, think, vopl(eiv. 
ether, al%r]p, afaepos, 6. 
Eucles, EvkXtjs (-ovs). 
Europe, TLvpomr), rj. 
even, of an even number, aprios, 

d, ov. 
even, after or before not, olde (= 

ne — quidem), the not to be 

untranslated, 
even if, even though (km edv t=) 

kolv (subj.). 



ever (= always), del : not ever, 

OVTTOT€, p,r)7TOT€, 01" OV 7TOT€, 

pfj — noTe (ttot€, enclit.). 
every, nds : = quisque, enao-Tos. 
every thing, ndv. 
every where, iravTaxov. 
evident, hrjXos. 
evidently. To be translated by 

drjXos e'errt (rjv, &C.) with 

partcp. He evidently loves — , 

8r/X6s ecrTL (piXoov . . . 
evil, kcikos. To speak evil of, 

nanus Xe'yetv (ace. personce). 
evil, an, kclkov. to. Kania, rj. 
evil-doer, KaKovpyos, 6. 
examine, e^era^eiz/. 
examine-by-torture, ftao-avl£eiv. 
example (= instance), 7rapddei- 

ypa, to. 
excellence, aperf, 77 (virtus). 
excellent, dya%6s, koXXlo-tos. 
excellently, apto-Ta (neut. adj. 

used adverbially), 
exclude, e'ipyeiv. 
exercise, to, do-Kelv (■= e-eiv) : = 

make trial of, Treipda^ai (= d- 

ecrSat). 
expect (= hope), iX^'i^av : = 

claim, dgiovv (= 6-eiv) : = 

look for, vTT07TTev€Lv, irpoadoKqv 

(■= d-eiv). 
expedition, to make an, aTparev- 

€LV. 

expensive, noXvTeXrjs. 

experience, ep-rreipia. rj. 

expunge, to, egaXeicpeiv (blot-out). 

extend, etjdytiv. 

external, 6 (7, to) e£a> (adv.). 

extreme, eo-xaTos, rj, ov. 

eye, 6(p^aXp6s, 6. oppa, to. 

F. 

Face, Tvpbcramov. 
fair (= beautiful), kclXos. 
faithful, ttlgtos. 
faithlessness, dmo-rio.. 
false, y\rzvbr]s. 



284 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



falsely, to swear, ciHopiceiv (= e- 

€IV). 

fate, jnoTpa, r). 

father, Trarrjp, 7rarp6s, 6. 

fear, cpofios, 6. 

fear, to, <po/3eio-3ai (== e-eaSat)- 

SeSotKeVat (SeSoi/ca) or SeSierai. 

Pdm. 66. 
fearful, Seii/os : to be — , <po/3eT- 

o-3ai (= €-ecr3ai). 
feel pain, dXyetz>. 
female, S^Xu?, -eia, v. 
few, dXi'yoi, -at, -a. 
fight, to, /xa^ecrSai. I. 
fig-tree, o-vkj), r). 
find, evpicTKeiv. v. 
fine (= beautiful), koXo?. 
fire, 7ri)p, wvpos, to. 
first, TvpcaTos : adv. rrpnrov. irpS)- 

ra, to. 
fit, iKavoy. 
fix (= to make firm), Trrjyvvvai 

(List ix). 
flatter, KoXciKevew (ace.). * 
flatterer, *dXa£, koXcLkos, 6. 
flee, (psvyeiv. 

flee away from, dirocpevyeiv (ace), 
fling, pi7TTeiu. cc into, ifi-fiaXkeiv. 
flute, adXd?. 
fly (= flee), (pevyeiv. 
fodder, xoproy, d. 
follow, eVeo-Sat (dat.). 
fond of gain, <pi\oKep8r)s, es. 
food, rpocprj, fj. 

foot, 7roCf (or better 7rous0 , 7ro86s, 6. 
foot-soldier, 7re£dy, 6. 
force, military, bvvafxis, -ecus, r). 
force (violence), /3/a, 17. 
foreign, aXkorpios. 
form (= species), eldos, to. 
fortune, T\>xn, r). 
fortune, good, edri^ia, r). 
fortunate, evdaifioov, -ovos- cvtv- 



fortunate, to be, evrvx^v (= k 
eiv), evdcuixove'LV (= e-eiv). 

found, to, KTi^eiv. Ibpveiv. 

foundation, 3e/xsXioi>, to. 

fountain, nrjyrj. rj. Kpr)vrj, r). 

fox, akcoTTt]^. -CKOS, Tj. 

free, eXedSepos. 

free,to,Xdeiv,eXeu3epow(=d-e«'). 

freedom, eXev^epia, 17. 

friend, cplXos. 6. 

friendship, cptXia, r). 

from, a7rd, e'/c, irapa (gen.). 

fruit, Kapnos. 6. 

full, p.eo-Tos, 7r\r)prjs, -es (gen.), 
ep.7rXecos'. 

future, rd fieWov. 



G. 



Gain, nepdos, -ovs, to. axpeXeia. 

gain, to, Kepdaiveiv. 

game, rd ^rjpia (= small wild 

animals), 
garden, ktjttos, 6. 
garland, crrecpavos. 6. 
garment, co~%r]s, ea^rJT-os, rj. 
gate, TTvkrj, r). 
Geloni (the), TeXcovol. 
general, a, o-Tparrjyos, 6. 
geometer, yecopeTprfs, ou, 6. 
geometry, yeo>perpta. 
giant, yiyas, yiyavT-os. 
gift, hSypov., to : = act of giving, 

860-is, ecos, r). 
give, bihovai (Si'Scopt). 
give back, a.Troftib'ova.i. 
give one a share of any thing, 

/LieraSiSdi/at ( peraS/Scopi ) xivi 

tivos. 
give over, \r)yeiv (c. partic). 
gladly, cio-fxeuos (adj.). 
glory, do£a, r). 
go, ep)(op.a.i* j3a'iveiv (ill.), iropev- 

ecrSai. 



» 



* elpj ( — / will go) is more common than the fut. of epxo/j.ai ; the 
moods of el/jLi, than the moods of the pres. of epxoficu ; and imperf. 
yew than ypx&p-w- — BcuVw is used of going on foot {gradior). 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



285 



.yg oal, ai£, aiy-ds, 77. 

go away, dnuvai (nVetftt)- arrep- 
^ecr3ai (vil.), dnaWdTTea^aL 
(== get off", come off). 

go- on -an - expedition, o-Tparev- 

goblet, KU7reXXoi/, to. 

God, a god, Sco's, 6. 

goddess, Sea. 77. 

gold, ^pvcros. 6. xpvaiov, to. 

golden, gold (as adj.), ^pvcreo?, 
-ovs- 

good, dynSd?, ecrSXds', KaXdy : 01 
dyaSoi. the good : to dya%6v, 
the good (abstract) : = a good 
thing, dyaSdi/. Very good, 
' aptaTOs- j3e\Tio~TOS, KpaTiaros 

(Note 13). 

good for nothing, ovdevos a£ios. 

good will, evvoia, 77. 
• govern, Kpareiv (= i-etv), gen. ; 

ap^eiv (gen.). 

government, rroXiTela, 77. 

governor, apx^v, ap^ovr-os (pro- 
perly a partcp. ruling). 

gracious, iXeooy. 

grant, to, StSdvat (Si'Sco/xi). 

grass, 7rda, 77. 

gratitude, x°P t? ' -ltos, 77. 

grave, 377*77 {tl^jjixl}. 

great, peya?. Very c», peytcrros'. 

Grecian. 'EXX^vt/oiy 

Greece, 'EXXu?, 'EXXaSor, 77. 

Greek, a. ^'EWrjv, "EXXt?^?, 6. 

grief. Xjj7tt7; 17. 

grieve. ~kvnela^ai (== e-ea^ai). 

grow old, to. yTjpdcrKeiv. 

Gryllus, rpuXXoy. 

guard, to, (pyXdrreiv, diaCpvXaT- 
reii/. 

guard : to be on one's guard 
against, (puXdrreo-Scu (ace). 

Gylippus, Tv\i7r7ros. 



H. 



Halo, aXcoy. 77- 

hand, x*' l P-> X €t P os i 9 (^- P^- X f P°"'> 
hand-over, iy^eipi^eiv (tl tivi). 
happiness, eiiddifiol/La, 77. 

happy, evdaifxoov. 

hard (difficult), ^aXe7rds. 

hardship, irovos, 6. 

hare, Xaycos, -co, 6. 

harsh, ^aXe7rd?. 

hatch (its) young ; breed, veorTtv- 

€lv (wh. see), 
hate, to, p.io-fiv (= e-e«>). 
have, ^X 6 "'- VII. 
head, necpakr]. 77. 
heal, lacr'Sai (= d-ecrSat). 
health} 7 , vyirjs., -es. 
hear, d/corjeii/. 
heaven, oipavos, 6. 
Hellas, c EXXds, -SSo?, 77. 
Hellenes, "EXXipes, ot. 
Hera (Juno), "Hpa, 77. 
herald. Krjpv^, -vkos. 6. 
Hercules, 'HpciKXrjs, -eovs, 6. 
Hermes (Mercury), 'Ep^s, -ov, 6. 

hide, KpV7TT6LV. dlTOKpVTTTeiV. 

highly, to esteem more, 7repl p-el- 
£ovos 7rotetcr3at (=■ e-ecrSat) . To 
reverence or prize highly, 77-ept 
noXKov 7rotet(r3at (= e-ecr3ai). 

hinder, KcoXveiv. 

him, avTov. 

hireling, ptcrScordf, 6. 

his,* avTov (ejus). 

his own,* eaurou or avrov (ipsius, 
suits). 

hit, Tvyxdvetv (Aor. Ti^e/V), gen. 

hither, Seipo. 

hold-in-estimation, rtpai> (a-eiv). 

hold-office, cipxeiv. 

hollow, koIXos. 

holy, [epos, oo~ios- 

home, olkos, 6. 



* His father (ace). Thv iraTepa ovtov or avTov Thv iraTepa. His own 
father, Thv kavTov iraTepa or Thv nroLTzpa Thv kavTov. 



286 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



honey, p,eki, -itos, to. 

honorary-privilege, yepas, to. 

honor, Ttpr)^ r). 

honor, to. Tipav (= d-eiv). 

hoof, 07rX?7, r). 

hope, eXwis, eXmd-os, rj. 

hope, to, ekTri^ew. 

hoplite, 67tXJttjs. 

horn, ice pas, to. 

horse, tWor, 6 : == cavalry, Iitttos, rj. 

horseman, Imreus, 6. 

host, £evos, 6. 

hostile, iroXepios, e^ppos. 

house, olkos- 6. oLKia, rj. Small 
house, oiKt'Sioj>. 

how ? 7ra>s ; (in an indirect ques- 
tion), ottcos (or nccs) ; how 
much, oaos. 

human, av'Spamivos. 

hunger, \1p6s, 6. 

hungry, to be, ireivfjv (= d-eiv). 

hunt, to, Srjpeveiv. 

hurl, p'lTTTZlV. 

hurtful, j3Xaj3epos. 
husbandman, yecopyos (yr). e-pyov, 
work). 



I, iyco. Pdm. 41. 

idleness, pcpvpla, r) (= sluggish 

indifference, laziness), 
idle-talk, \r)pos, 6. 
if, el. — edv, rjv, civ (subj.). 
ignoble, dyevvr)s, -es. 
ignorant, dpa%r)s, -es. 
ill, to be, voaelv (= e-eiv), acrSe- 

ve7.v (= e-eiv). 
ill-affected, dvavovs (o-os). 
illness, vocros, r). 
imitate, pipe7o-%ai (= e-ecr3at). 
immediately, ev%vs, 7rapaxpr]pa. 
immoveable, dKivrjTos. 
implant, ep<pvTeveiv. 
impossible, ddvvaTos 2. 
in, iv. 
in order to, by Fut. Partcp., or a 

final conjunction, as tva, cos. 



in the way of, ipnohaw (dat.). . 
indeed, pep: indeed — but, pev — be. 
indisposed, to be, ko.kcos SuiTe^r)- 

VCU, &C. 

injure, (SXawTeiv (ace), dSt/cetv 

(=: e-eiv), acc. 
injurious, [j\aj3ep6s. 

injury PMPm V- €v^ a ' 1- 
innocence, dJ3\d(3eia. 
insatiably-desirous, anXrjcTTos (lit. 

not to be filled), c. gen. 
insect, evTopov. 
insolence, v(3ptsj -ecos, r). 
insolently, see To behave, 
inspector of boys (at Sparta), 7rai- 

dovopos, 6. 
instil, eVrtSeVai (evTL^rjpi). 
instruct, 7raideveiv, diddo-iceiv. 
instruction, 7rai§eta, r). StSa^. 
insult, vfip'i(eiv (yfipis). 
intellect, v6rjo-is, r). 
intelligence, avveais, -ecos, r). 
intemperate, dKpdrr)s, aKoXacrTos. 
intend to, pteWeiv : also by Fut. 

Partcp. 
interest (= gain to oneself) cocpi- 

Xeia. 
interpreter, epprjvevs, 6. 
intimate (of friends), olicelos. 
into, els- 

intoxication, p&rj, r). 
invasion of a country, eafioXr) (els 

yr)v Tivd). 
investigate, £rjTelv (= e-eiv), quce- 

rere. 
invite, KaXelv (= e-eiv), vocare 

(followed by eir'i c. acc). 
iron (of), aiBijpeos, -ovs. 



Judge, a, KptTrjs, -o(5, 6. biKao-Trjs, 

-ov, 6. 
judge, to, Kplveiv. 
juggle, to, yor)Tev-eiv (y6rjs,jug- 

juice, xvpos, 6. 
Juno, c Hpa, r). 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



287 



Jupiter, Zeds. Note 9. 

jUSt. SlKCLLOS- 

justice, dinaiocrvvrj, fj (as habit). 
8lkt), t) : court of — , diKao-rrj- 
pwv. TO. 

justly, SiKaicos. 



Keep, e^eiv (VII.) : TpeCpeiv (nu- 
trire, of keeping animals). 

keep an oath, ep.peveiv tw op<co. 

keep silence, KaTaciomqu (= d- 
eiv) . 

kick, XaKTl^LV. 

kill. dnoKreiveiv : = murder, (po- 
veveiv. 

kind, s., yevos, to. 

kind of — , t\s (enclit.),in agree- 
ment. A kind of disease, vo- 
cros tis, &c. This kind of — . 
6 tolovtos — . This kind of 

thing, TO TOIOVTOV. 

krndly-dispo?ed, evvovs, -ovv. 
kindness, evepyeala, fj : == favor, 

-)(dpLS- -LTOS, lj. 

king, ftamXevs, -ems, 6. 

kite, IktIuos, 6. 

know, yiyvooo-Kziv (vi.), eVicTTa- 

o~%ai, eldevai (oida). 
know how, eTrio-raa^ai. 
known, to make, drjXovv (= 6- 

eiv). 



Labor, ttovos, 6. 

labor, to (== work), ipyd^eaZai. : 

With toil, TTOVeiV (= €-€Lv). 

laborer, ipyaTrjs, -ov. (Paid) la- 
borer, %f)S, %r]T-OS, 6. 

Lacedaemonian, AaKedaipovios, 6. 

land (opp. sea), y?j. 

land (region), y?j (fj),x^po, £. 

language, SidXeicTos, fj.- 

law, vop.os, 6 : by law, Kara, vopov. 

lawgiver, vopo^iTtjs, -ov, 6. 

lay eggs, to, ad riier-eiv. 



laziness, pcftvpia, fj. To be lazy, 

pabiovpyetv. 
lead, to, ciyeiv. 
lead away, dirdyew. 
leader. fjyepccv. Tjyefxoi'os. 
leap-down. KaTairTjbdv (= d-eiv). 
learn, pav^dveiv. iv. 
least, tJklo~tci. 
leave, Aewrew 
leave behind, KciTaXeiTreiv. 
leave off, 7raveo-%ai. 
legend, p.v%os, 6. 
leisure, to be at, to have, a^aXd- 

£eiv. 
less (adv.), tjttov. 
lest, after a word denoting fear, 

prj : = that not, by Iva (oVcoy, 

or cos) pfj. 
let (permit), idv (= d-eiv). 
letters, ypdppaTa. Ta. 
liar, \jsevo-Trjs- -ov, 6. 
liberty, eXev^epia, fj. 
lie, a, ^evdos. 

lie in wait for, iyedpeveiv (ace). 
life, (Bios, 6. £cofj. fj. 
like, op.oios, i~o~os, wapaTrXTjaios. 
like, I am, eouca (perf.), with dat. 
like. I should like to — , fjdecos 

av, with Optative (= I would 

with-pleasure do it), 
limb, p,eXos, to. 
lion, Xecov, Xeovr-os, 6. 
little, oXiyos ' adv. piKpov : less, 

p.zlov. 
live, (Siovv (= 6-etv), £fiv (= d- 

€iv). 

live-in, to, ip(3iovv (== 6-eiv). 

long, panpos : = much, noXvs. 

look (at), (SXeTTZiv, TrpoaftXeTreiv. 

lose, to, a7roXXvvaL {dnoXXvpL). IX. 

love, epcos. -cotos, 6. 

love, to. (piXeli; (= e-eiv), dyarrqv 
( = d-etv ), o~Tepyeiv : = ar- 
dently, epaz> (= d-eti/). 

lover, ipao~TT)s, -ov. 6. 

low-estate, TanetvoTrjs., TaTreivoTtjT' 
os, fj. 

Lycurgus, AvKovpyos, 6. 



28.8 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



M. 



Mad, to be, paiveo-^ai. Like a 
dog, Xvttqv (=: a-eiv). 

magistracy, dpxr). 

maiden, icopr), r). 

maintain (affirm), (pdvai, (print. 
Pdm. 69. 

make, iroieiv (= e-eiv) : make one 
something, aTro§eiK.vvvai (= ap- 
point) : place, rtSeVat. 

make-fast, oxvpovv (= 6-eiv). 

make an expedition, o-Tpareveiv. 

make use of, xpw^ai (= d-eo-3at) 

TiVl. 

man, au^pcoiros, 6. dvrjp, dvdpos, 6. 

mane, x aLT1 l' 

manifest, qbavepos, drjXos. 

mankind, dv^panroi (ot). 

manure (dung), Korrpos, 6. 

many, 7roXXot, -ai. -d. 

march, to, against (eVt), arparev- 
ecrSat, 7rope7jecr3ai. 

mark, o~kotvos. 

marrow, p.veX6s, 6. 

marry, yape'iv (= e-eiv). 

mart, ipnopiov, to. 

master, deo-TroTrjs, -ov, 6 : = teach- 
er, StSdovcaXos - . 

master of, to be, apx^iv (gen.). 

measure, perpelv (= e-eiv). 

meat (i. e. fiesh-meat), pi. of <pe- 
as, to. 

meet, to, diravTav (= d-eiv) : = 
fall in with. tvTvyxdveiv (dat). 

merciful, t'Xecos. 

mere-nonsense, Xrjpos, 6 (= idle- 
talk). 

messenger, ayyeXos, 6, r). 

Midas, MtSris, gen. ov. 

middle, middle of, p.e<ros. 

mina, pvd, r). 

mind, vovs, 6. (ppijv, -evos. 

Minerva, 'A^rjvd. 

Minos, Mivcos (Gen. Mivcoos and 
MiVoo), 6. 

misfortune, a, avpcpopd. r). 



mode of examination (i. e. by tor- 
ture, &C.), eXeyxos, 6. 
monarchy, povapxt-a (p.6vos, only. 

dpxt), government), 
money, xP r )l xaTa i T " # T0 dpyvpiov. 

vopiapa, -cltos, to. 
month, pr\v, fxrjvos, 6. 
monument, pvrjp.elov, to. 
moon, o-e\r)vr), r). 
morals, 77377, rd. 
more, TrXelov, 7rXeov, flus ; p.dX- 

Xov, magis (comp. much). 
mortal, S^ros 1 . 
most, nXelo-Tos. 
most [of all] (especially), p.dXi- 

crTa. 
mother, p^Trjp, prjTp-os, r). 
motion, to be in, /ai>eio-Sat (= e- 

eo-Sai) w. Pass. Aor. 
move, ktveiv (= e-eiv). 
moved, to be, KtyetcrSai (= e- 

eoSai). 
much, iroXvs. 

multitude of hands, 7roXu^eipia. 
Munychia, Movvvxia. 
music, povaiKr], r). 
must, one, Set, xPV (pporlef). 

N. 

Name, ovopa, to. 

native land or country, iraTpls, 

-180s, 37. 
natural disposition, cpvo-is, eoos, r). 
natural philosopher, cpvo-Kos, 6. 
nature, (pvo~is, ecos, t). 
nearly, o-x^86v ti. 
necessary, dvayKalos. 
necessary, to be, bei, xpr) (w. ace. 

and inf.). 
necessity, dvdyKrj, r). 
neck, aix^jv, -evos, 6. deprj, r). 
need, to, dela^ai (== e'-ecr3at), 

gen. ; xpK €I - v (g en -) ; 
neglect, to, dpeXelv {= e-eiv), gen. 
neighbor, 6 -rreXas (= the near 

person. neXas. adv.). 
Neptune, Tloo-eidcov, -covos, 6. 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX 



289 



never, ouTTore, ouSeVore. pi]7TOT€. 
fiT]8eTTore (mostly of fid.) — ov- 
dena)iTOTe. prj8e7rconoT€ (only of 
past). 

nevertheless, opcos. 

night, vv£, vvKTos. r). 

nightingale, drj8oov, -6vos, r). 

Nile, NeTXos - , 6. 

no, no one, none, otdels, p.r)8els : 
by no means, ov8apcos, fJKLo-Ta : 
no longer, ovk£ti (prjKeTi). 

nobly, yevvaicos. 

nobody, ov8els, pr)8eis. 

north-wind, ftoppds, -a, 6. 

not, ov (ovk, ovx) '• with the Imp., 
p.r) : not only, ov povov : not 
the less, ohhkv tjttov : not even, 
ov8e (prj8e). 

not one, oi8e[s. 

not yet. never yet, ovir<o, ov8e7rco- 

7rore. 
nothing, oi8ev (pT)8ev). 
nourish, rpecpeiv. 
now, vvv. 
nurse, rpocpos, r). 



O. 



O that, efee w. opt. 

oath, opKos, 6. 

obedient, eime&ris, KarrjKoos 2, 

(gen.), 
obey, 7rei'3ecr3ai (dat.), vrraKoveiv, 

7rei3apxeii> (= e-eiv), dat. 
obliged, to be (necessary), Set w. 

ace. and inf., dvayicaios elpi. 
obscurity, d8o£la. 
observe (a law), see Vocab. 19. 
obtain, KTaoSai (= a-eo-Sai), Xa/z- 

(3dveiv(l\ r .),Tvyxdveiv(l\ T .),gen. 
GEnoe, Olvorj, r). 
offer fas a gift to a divinity), dva- 

TtSeWt : (= propose to give), 

pres. and imperf. of 8L8a>pi. 
offering, 30/za, to. 
office (in the state), dpxh, r). 
often, noXkaKis. 
oil, tkaiov, to. 



old, never growing, ayrjpas. 

old age, yrjpas. to. 

old man, ytpoov. yepovT-os. 

oligarchy, oKiyapxia, r). 

once, ana% : at once (== at the 

same time), dpa. 
one, els. pia, ev. 
one another (of), dXkr)\a>v. 
only, p.6vov '. (adj.) p.6vos. 
opinion, an, yvcoarj, r). 
opponents, ol ivavriot. 
opposite, evavrlos. 
orator, prjTcop, prjTop-os, 6. 
oratory, p-qTopittr), 77. See Vocab. 

22. 
Orestes, 'Opeo-T-qs, ov, 6. 
other, the (= alter), erepos : = 

alius, aWos. 
otherwise, ciXXcos. 
ought, Sel. xp*l (oportet), 7rpoo~r]K€i 

= decel. 

P. 

Pain, fiXyos, -ovs, to : = grief, 

\vTxrj, rj : severe en, 68vvrj, 17. 
painter, ypafpevs, -ecos, 6. 
Palladium. IlaXXd8iov, to. 
panegyric, enaivos, ov. 6 (praise), 
pardon, to, o-vyyiyvccaKi.lv (dat.). 

VI. 

parent, yovevs, -e'eos, 6. 

part, a, p.epos, -ovs-, to : take part 
in, jaere^etV (gen.). 

participation, participating, kolvco- 
vla. 

passion, nd'Sos. to : = angry pas- 
sions, dpyai (pi.) : = evil de- 
sire, eViSv/iia, fj. 

path, 686s, r). 

patience, Kaprepia, 77. 

pay, pio~%6s, 6. 

pay attention (to), tou vovv npoo-- 
eX €LV ( = animum applicare) ; 
or Trpocrexeiv only, top vovv be- 
ing understood. 

peace. elpr)vr]. 

peacock, raws', -a>, 6. 



13 



290 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



Peloponnesus, TLehoTrovvqcros, rj. 

people, 8rjfxos, 6. 

perceive, KaTavoelv. 

perform, TrpaTTtiv, ipydc^ea^ai. 

perhaps, 4'o-co?. 

Pericles, YlepiKXr/s, -eovs. 

peril, KLvbvvos- 

perish, d7r6h\vcr'%ai. d7r6\a>\a = 
peril. 

permit, idv (= d-etv) : it is per- 
mitted, e£ctm. 

Persian, Uepcrrjs, -ov, 6. 

persuade, rrefaeiv (ace). 

persuasion, 7rei3co, -ovs, rj. 

phalanx, CpdXayg, -yyos, rj. 

Philip, $iXi7T7ros-, 6. 

philosopher, cpiXocrocpos, 6. 

philosophy, cpi\ocrocp[a, rj. 

Phoenicians, <boiviKes, ol. 

physician, larpos, 6. 

piety, evaefiela, rj. 

pillage, crvXav (= d-eiv). 

pious, evae(3f]s, -es. 

Pirasus, Heipaievs, -ecos, cos. 

pitch, 7Ttrra, f]. 

place, T07ros, 6. 

place, to, riSerai (T&rjpi). go be- 
fore, 7rpoTi?Sevai. 

plant, to, epcpvreveiv. 

Plataea, Hkdraia, f) : or pi. nXa- 
Taiai. 

Plato, HXc'itcov, -covos, 6. 

pleasant, rjbvs, -ela, -v. 

pleasantly, rjdecos. 

please, dpeo-neiv (dat.) : = choose, 
(3ov\eo~'%a.i. 

pleasure, -f]8ovr), fj. 

plot against, evebpeveiv (insidiari, 
ace). 

poet, 7TOlT]TrjS, -ov, 6. 

poetry, epic, noiijcris encov, ra tin). 

poison, (pdppaKov (drug). 

pollute, piaiveiv. 

poor, irevqs, -ijtos. evberjs, tttcoxos. 

poor, to be, ireve&Sku. 

poorly (badly), kclkgos. 

portentous monster, repas, -aros, 

TO. 



Poseidon (Neptune), Hotreibcov, 

-COVOS, 6. 

possess, e\eiv ( VIL ) Also P eT *f- 

K€KTT)pai (= I have acquired). 
possession, KTrjpa, to. 
possible, dvvaTos. 
pound, Tpifieiv (rub), 
power, bdvapis : to be in the — 

of, yiyvea'Sai eVt tivl. 
power, it is in one's (possible), 

e£ecm. 
power, to have much, TroXkd bvva- 

o-3ai (cf. m u It um voter e or posse) . 
practise, to, peXerav (= d-eiv), 

dorKeiv (■= e-etv). 
praise, enaivos, 6. 
praise, to, eizaivelv (= e-eiv). 
pray, evxeo-'Sai : = entreat, iKe- 

T€V€LV, 

prayer, eb-^j}, fj- 

prefer, alpei&Stu (= e-ecrSut)- VII. 

prepare, TrapacrKevd^-eiv. 

prepare oneself, napaaKevdc^ea^ai : 
for something, ets tl. 

present, irapcov. 

present, Boats, -ecos (— act of giv- 
ing). 

present, to be, Trapelvai (jrdpeLLii). 
Pdm. 68. 

preservation, o-coT-qpla. 

priest, lepevs, -ecos, 6. 

priestess, iepela, fj. 

prisoner (of war), alxpdXcoros, f). 

privilege, yepas, to. 

profess, e7rayyeAAecr3ai. 6po\o- 
yelv (= e-eiv, to allow). 

profit, coCpeXeia. 

profit, to, cocfieXelv (= e-etv), ace. 

prone (to), o^vppouos, -ov. 

properly, 6p%cbs {rede). 

property, xPVf JLaTa > T d. 

prophet, p.dvTLs, 6. 

propitious, tkecos. 

proportion, Xoyos, 6. 

propose, irpoT&evai (TrpoTL^rjpi). 

prosperity, evTvx't-a, rj. 

prosperous, to be, svTvx/iv, ev 
irpaTTtiv. 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



291 



prove, anode iKvvvai (a7roSeiKi/ujLu). 

prove (= test), BoKifiafciv. 

provided that, el, edv. 

prudence, o-odtppocrvvrj, 17. 

prudent, cppovipos. 

public, 8r)fi6aios : in a public ca- 
pacity, 8r]fMoo~iq. 

punish, K.oXd£eiv, Tip.copelo-'Sa.i (= 
e-eo-Sai) (= revenge oneself or 
requite), ace. : diroTiveo-'Sai : to 
punish (by a fine), (jifuovv (== 
6-eiv). 

punishment, npcopia, 77 : . (as a 
firre), fyida, 17- 

pupil, pa^TjTTjS, -ov, 6. 

pursue, 8i.eoK.eLv. 

pursuing gain by base means, al- 

<rxpoKep8r)S, -es- 
put into the hands, iyxeipi^eiv. 
put on, dp,qbievvvvai {dp,cpLevvv[xc). 

X. 
put to death, dnoKTelveiv. 
put to flight, TpeVeo-Sat. 

Q. 

Q,ueen, fiao-ikicrcra, fj. 

quick, d^vs (== sharp in intellect). 

quietness, fjo-vxia, fj. 

Quirinus, Kvplvos. 

quoit, 8io~kos, 6. 

R. 

Race, yevos, -ovs. to : human — , 

dv^poJ7rojv yevos. 
rail-at, Xoidopeia'Scu (= e-ecr2Jai), 

dat. 
raised-in-price, to be, eVirt/xaCT-Scu 

(= d-ecr3ai). 
rather, pdXXov. 
raven, <6pa^, -d<os, 6. 
read, dvayiyvoiCTKeiv. VI. 
ready, to be (willing), e'SeXeii/. 
readiness, Trpd^vpia, J7. 
reality, in, oXtj^cos. 
reap, %epl£eiv. 
reason, Xoyos, 6 : with — , diKalcos. 



reasonable, e7rteiK.r)s, -es. 

receive, Xap.(Bdveiv (ni.), De'xeo-'Sai. 

reed, a, pn|/-, 6. 

reign over, (3ao~iXeveiv (gen.). 

rejoice, x ai P* lv (dat.), fjdeo-%ai 
(dat.). 

relate, Si^yeio-Sctt. 

relation, crvyyevrjs, -es (avv, with. 
yevos, race, family) ; prop, an 
adj. 

rely upon (trust), mo-Teveiv. 

remain, p,eveiv, biapeveiv. 

remedy, (pdppaKov. 

remember, p.ep.vrjcr'Sai (perf. fie- 
p.vT]p.ac), gen. 

remove any body (from a com- 
mand, magistracy, &c), naveiv 
rivet (o~TpaTTjyias, dpx^js, &c). 

render (= make), noielv. 

repay, aTrodidovai. (dTrodldoopu). 

repent, p.eTap.eXea'Scu : or impers. 
fierap-eXei tivi rivos. 

report, a, Xoyos, 6. 

reproach, 6veibi£eiv (oveiftos), ace. 
r e i ; dat. per s once (cf. expro- 
brare alicui ignaviam). 

request, to, ahelv (= e-eiv), 8el- 
crSat (= e-etrSai). 

requite a favor, a7ro8i86vai x<*pW' 

resident-foreigner, [xeroiKos, 6. 

resolve, yLyvd>aKeiv( VI.), doKel tivi. 

respect, al8a>s : with — to, nepi. 

rest, the, aXXos '. = reliquus, Xoc- 

TYOS- 

restore, dnobibovcu (d7ro8i8cop,i). 

retail-trader, to be, KairrjXeveiv. 

retentive memory, of a, p,vr}p.oov t 
-ovos. 

retreat, dvaxooprjcis, rj. 

return, dvaxcopelv (= e-eiv). 

revenge oneself on or upon, Tipa- 
peloSai (= e-ecrSat), ace, dpv- 
vea^ai (riva imep tivos). 

reverence, aldas, -ovs, tj. 

revile, Xoidopelv (= e-eiv), ace. 

revolt, to cause to, dqbio-Tavai ( Aor. 
inf. dTroo~Trjo-ai). Mid., to re- 
volt. So Aor. 2. act. di:eo-Tr]v. 



292 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



reward, d%Xov, to. 

rich, 7rXov<nos : be or become 

rich, ttXovt^lv (:= e-eiv). 
riches, ttXovtos. 
right (jnsf), dUaios. 
rightly, up^eos. 
rise up, dvlaTaa-^at. 
river, Trordp-os, 6. 
road, 686s, rj. 
rob, apTrdgetv : = deprive of, a- 

(paipelcr^ai (= e-ecr3ai) rtm ti : 

avXqv {=. d-eiv). 
robber, Xjjo-ttjs, -ov, 6. 
rock, nerpa, rj. 
root, pi£a, rj. 
Roman, 'Pco/xaios. 
rose, p68ov, to. 
royal, fiao-iXeios. 
rub, Tpifieiv. 
rudder, TrrjddXtov. 
ruin, to, d7roXXvvai. IX. 
ruined, ai/do-Taro?, -oz>. 
rule, rule over, to, ap^eiv (gen.), 

fiao-iXeveiv (gen.), 
ruler, cipx^v, -ovtos, 6. 
run, Tpexeiv (vu.) : run to, 7rpoo~- 

Tpexetv. 
run ? away, airohibpao-Ktiv (ace). 

VI. 
rush, to, 6pp.dv (==. d-eiv). 



s. 



Sacrifice, Svcria, fj. Sfv/m, to. 

sacrifice, to, %veiv. 

sadness, Xinrr], rj. 

safe, do~<pdXr)s, -es. 

safely, dcr(paXa>s. 

safety, crcoTrjpia, rj. 

sail, nXelv (= e-eiv). — 7rXevo"o/Ltat. 

TTeTrktvKa. Aor. enXeva-a. 
sail, Icttiov. 

sail away, a7ro7rXea' (= e-eiv). 
sake of, for the, eveica, 7repi (gen.), 
same, the, 6 cord?. 
Samian, 2dp.ios, 6. 
satisfied, to be, dyenrdv (= d-eiv) 

[lit. to love] with ace. or dat. 



saw, a, Tpicov, o. 

say, Xeyeiv, (pdvai (Pdm. 69), el- 

irelv (= e-eiv). VII. 
sceptre, o-KrJTTTpov, to. 

SCOff at, O-KOOTTTeiV. 

scribe, ypap-fxarevs, 6. 

Scythian, 'EkvZtjs. 

sea, 3dAacro-a, %dXa.TTa, rj : by sea, 

kcito. 'SaXa.TTav : to be carried 

out to sea, aTrocpepea^at is to 

TreXayos (-ovs)- 
season, naipos, 6. See Vocab. 24. 
secretly, K.pv<pa. 
secure, do-cpakfjSi -es : firm, /3e- 

fiaios- 
securely, dacpaXcos. 
see, 6pdv (= d-fif). vu. 
seek, seek for, (rjTelv (= e-eiv). 
seem, doKelv (= e-eiv), (paiveoSat. 
seize, dpnd^-eip. 
self, avTos- 
self-government, avTovop,la (av- 

tos, ipse. v6p.os, lex). 
sell, TTcoXeTv (= e-ew), a7ro8i8o- 

cr'Sai.. 
send, 7r€p.7Teiv, aTroorTeXXeiv. 
send back, d7T07rep.7reiv. 
senselessness, avoia. 
sensible, aweros. 
sensual pleasures, at Trep\ to o~cop.a 

rjdovai. 
separate, to, 8uo-Tavat (SuVr^/u). 
sepulchre, Tacpos, 6. 
serve (= be a slave), dovXevew. 
set-down, rtSeW (= hold it to 

be), 
set off (on a journey), set out, 

TTopevea'Sa.i. 
set upon (place), eViTiSei/ai : = 

attack, eVirt'Seo-Sai. 
shame, al8a>s, -ovs, rj. 
shameful, aiV^pds. 
shameless, dvaidrjs. 
sharpen, %-fjy-eiv. 
sheep, 7rp6fiaTov, to. 
shepherd, 7roip,rjv, 7r.01p.evos, 6. 
shield, dcnris, aamdos, fj. 
ship, vavs, vea>s, rj. 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



293 



shoot, dxfiievai, dcplrjpi (= let fly). 

Pdm. 67. 
short, (Bpaxvs, -ela, v. 
show, to, beiKvvvai (8eiKwp.i), br)- 

Xoeiv. 
show-off", iirifteiKvvvat. 
shut, KXeteiv (perf. pass, -07*0:4 or 

-fiat) : co in or up, KaraKkeUiv. 
Sicily, "2i<eXia, 77. 
sick, do-Sei^y, -es. 
sick, to be, vocrelv ( = e-eiv), d- 

oSevelv (= e-eiv). 
sight, ox/ny, 7;. 

sign, (TTjfJ.e'tOV, TO. 

silliness, rjXi^iorrjs (-777-0?). 

silver, dpyvpos, 6. 

silver (adj.), dpyvpeos, -ovs. 

sin, dpdpTTjpa, -aros, to. 

sin, to, dp.aprdveiv. in. 

since (because), ore, eVet. 

sing, to, abeiv. 

sister, ddeX(pr), 77. 

sit, to (of a bird), e-rradgeiv. 

slaughter, (povev-eiv. 

slaughter, (povos. 

slave, dovXos, 6. oIkctt)? (= famu- 
lus) : to be the slave of, dov- 
Xeveiv (c. dat). 

slavery, BovXeia, 77. 

slay, (poveveiv. 

sleep, v7rvos, 6. 

sleep, to, evdeiv, KaSevSeii/. 

slow, (3pa86s (also of intellect). 

small, p-LKpos, dXiyos- 

smelling, oacppr^crts, 77. 

snatch at, dpnd^-eiv. 

snow, ^tooj/, %i6vos, 77. 

so, ovtcos : =3 this, toOto. 

so great, too-ovtos- 

so long (adj.), too-oijtos'. 

so that, coo-Te. 

sober-minded, craxppcoz/, -ovos. 

sobriety of mind, a-axppoo'vvr). 

Socrates, 2a>KpdTT)s, -ovs, 6. 

soldier, a, o-TpaTicorvs, -ov, 6. 

solid, arepeos- 

some, evioi (often indef.), rives. 

some — others, ol p.ev . . . ol de. 



son, vios, 6. 

soon, Ta^a. 

Sophocles, "EocpoicXris, -eovs, 6. 

soul, yjrvxrj; V- 

sound, cpcovf] (vox). 

SOW, tO, 0-7T€lp€ll>. 

spare, to, <peib s eo-%ai (gen.). 

Sparta, TZffdpTr), 77. 

Spartan, a, "STrapriaTns, -ov, 6. 

speak, Xeyeiv. 

speak ill of — , ko.k5>s Xeyeiv (c. 

ace. personce). 
spear, dopv, to. Note 9. 
spend (one's life), bidyeiv (rbv 

$Lov). 
sphere, o-<pcupa. 
spirit, vovs, vov, 6. 
spirit (= courage), high-minded- 

ness, courage, ev\jfv%ia (eu> 

i\fv)(7])- (fipovrjpa, to. 
spring, eap, eap-os, to. 
stadium, o-Tadiov, to. 
stag, eXdcpos, 6, 77. 
star, aarpov, to. 
state, a, ttuXis, -ecos, 77. 
statue, dvbpids, -dvros, 6. 
stay, peveiv. 
steal, KXewreiv : steal away, dpird- 

£eiv. 
still (yet), en. 
stillness, 770-u^ia, 77. 
stir (move), to, Ktvelv (= e-eiv). 
stone, Xt'Sos, 6. 
straight, 6p%6s, 77, 6v. 
stranger, gevos, 6. 
strength, lo~xvs, -vos, 77. 
strike, TxnxTeiv : naieiv. 
strive (= endeavor), ■neipdcr'Scn, 

(=z d-ecr^ai). 
strong, Icrxvpos. 
study, a, pdHr/pa, to. 
subjugate, xetpovo-3a4 ( = °~ € ~ 

0"3ai), dovXoiv (= 6-eiv). 
such, ToioiiTos or 6 toiovtos, the 

article when the particular class 

or kind is to be made promi- 
nent, 
such as, olos* 



294 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



sudden, alqbvibios. 

suffering, to be, icdpveiv. 

sufficient, licavos. 

sufficiently, Ikovcos. 

summer, %epos, -ovs, to. 

sun, fjXios, 6. 

superintendent, impeX-qTrjs, 6. 

supply, bestow, 7rape^eo-3at. 

suppose, r/yeia-Sat (= e-ecrSai), 
vopL&iv. 

supreme (of laws), Kvpios. 

surpass, vucdv (= d-eiv), Tivd, 
biaqbepeiv (gen.) == to be dis- 
tinguished from him. 

swallow, ^eXiScoz;, -ovos, 77. 

swear, opvvvat (opvvpi). IX. 

sweat, Ibpcos, -cotos, 6. 

sweet, tjSvs. 

sweetmeats, rpa.yrjp.aTa. 

swift, raxvs. 

sword, £lcpos, to. 

sycophant, avKocpdvTrjs, -ov. 

Syracuse, 2vpdicovo~ai, al. 

T. 

Tail, ovpd, 77. 

take = capture, alpelv (==. e-eiv). 

List vii. 
take care, eVi/ie'Xeo-Sai (gen.), 
take hold of, aTrrea^ai (gen.). 
take place (be done), ylyveo-%ai. 
taken, to be, aXicrKea^ai. VII. 
tale, Xoyos, ov. pv%os, 6. 
talk, to, XaXelv (= e-eiv). 
talked-about, Trepifio-qros, ov. 
talk nonsense, Xrjpelv. 
talon, ow£, -vxos, 6. 
taste, to, yevecr^ai (c. gen.), 
teach, bibdo~Keiv Tivd ti. iraibeveiv 

(= educate), 
eacher, bibdo-KaXos. 
tear, a, baKpvov, to. 
tell, Xeyetv, cfipd£eiv. 
temperate, eyxpaTr)s, -es. 
tempest -tossed, to be, ^ei/ia^e- 

&%ai. 
temple, vea>s, -ea>, 6. 



tell, Xeyeiv. 

terrible, beivos. 

Thales, QaXrjs, 6 (G. QdXeat, D. -77, 

A. tjv) : Thales and his school, 

01 dp(p\ QaXrjv. 
than, fj : Gen. after a compara- 
tive, 
that, in order, tva, cos, onus. 
Theban, Qr]/3cuos, 6. 
Thebes, Qr)l3ai, al. 
them, avrovs. 
Themistocles, Qepto-TOKXrjs, -eovs, 

6. 
themselves. See Pdm. 45. 
then, roVe. 
there, e*e«. I was there, irapr)v 

(== I was present), 
therefore, ovv. 

Thermopylae, QepporrvXai, al. 
Thessalian, QerraXos, 6. 
thief. kX€7ttt]s, -ov, 6. 
thigh, prjpos, 6. 
thing, npaypa, to. 
think, rjyelcr'Sac (= e-ecr3ai), vop,i- 

£eiv, o'i€o~%ai. 
thirst, bi^ros, -ovs, to. 
thirst, to, or be thirsty, bi^rfjv (= 

d-eiv). 
this, ovtos. See Pdm. 47. 
this (emphatic, the accent being 

used to mark the emphasis), 

ovtos ye (tovto ye, &C.). 
thou, o-v. Pdm. 42. 
though, kclv (= kcu edv). 
through, bid. 
throughout, adv., bioXov. 
throw, piiTTeiv. 

throw away, to, diro-fiaXX-eiv. 
thus, ouru) (y) . 

time, xpoVo?, 6 : right — , Kaip6s,6. 
Tissaphernes, Tio-cra(pepvrjs, -ovs, 

6. 
together with, dpa (w. dat.). 
toil, to, ndpveiv. 
tongue, yXcocraa (yXcoTTa), jJ. 
tooth, obovs, -ovtos, 6. 
torture, @acravi£eiv. 
touch, to, aiTTeo-Jiai (gen.). 



ENGLISH AND GREEK INDEX. 



295 



town, noXis, -€cos, fj. 

train, to, Tvatheveiv : (to — any 

thing, npos rt). 
travel, to, 7ropevecr'Scu. 
travelling-money, icpodiov, to. 
treason, irpoboo-ia, fj. 
treaty, crvv'SfjKT), fj. mrovbai, at. 
tree, bevdpov. to. 
trial : to make — of, 7retpao-3at 

(== d-€cr?Sai), gen. 
Trojan, Tpco'iKos. 
trophy, TpoTraiov, to. 
trouble, novos, 6. 
truce, o"Trovdai (pi.), -&p (lit. liba- 
tions) . 
true, d\Tj?sf]s, -«•• 
truly (really), dXr]%a>s. 
trunk (of an elephant), p.vKTrjp, 

-fjpos, 6. 
trust, to, 7m'3ecr3ai, TnaTevzw 

(dat). 
truth, a\f]%€ia, fj. 
truth, to speak the, Xeyeiv TdXrj^rj 

(= to. dXrj'Sfj). 
tunic (a small), %iTd>viov, to. 
turn, to, o-Tpe(peLv (trans.) ; = 

devote oneself to, rpeVeo-Sai. 
twice, 8ls. 
tyrant, rvpavvos. See Vocab. 28. 



U. 



Ulysses, 'Obvcrcre us, -ecos, 6. 

unbearable, dcpoprjTos. 

tinder, vno. 

understand, en-torac-Sat, elbevai 

(oida). 
Understanding, vovs, 6. (pphes, ai. 
undertaking, epyov, to. 
undying, dyfjpas. 
unexpected, aTvpoo-boKrjTos [ d. 

TTpoahoKav (= d-eiv)]. 
unfortunate, to be, dvo-rvxe lv (= 

e-eiv). Kazoos irpaTTeiv (= to be 

doing ill). 
ungrateful, dxdpio-ros 2. 
unjust, SStKos 2. 
unseen, ddpdroy, ov. ■ 



unsparingly, dcpeid&s : most go, 

a^ftSeVrara. 
unsworn, dvwpoTos, 6, fj. 
unwritten, aypaqbos, ov. 
up, dvd : lay up, KaronSe'i/at. 
us, fipds. 

use, to, xpdcr?Sai (= a-eo-3at). 
use, to be of, avpcfiepeiv (dat.). 
useful, xpf)o-ip.os 2, cocpeXip-os 2. 
useful, to be, coqbeXelv (= e-eiv). 
utter, to, Xeyeiv : (= emit as a 

sound), dcptevai (d<pir]pi). Pdm. 

67. 
utterly-deceive, i^airaTav (= d- 

eiv). 



Variegate, iroudWeiv. 

vegetables, Xd^ava. rd. 

vevy, Xiav, a<p68pa, ndvv : also by 
the Sup. of the adjective. 

vexatious - information, o-vnocpav- 
Tia, v. 

victory, vlktj, fj. 

vine, apneXos, fj. 

violence, (3ia, fj. 

violently, a(podpa, Xiav. 

virtue, dperfj. fj. 

viviparous, ^wotokos. See Vo- 
cab. 24. 

voice, <poyvf]. 

void, eprjpos (gen.). 

vulture, yvyjs, yvn-os, 6. 

W. 

Wagon, dpa£a. 

wait, fiiveiv. 

waking (of a waking person, &c), 

iyprjyopLKOS. 
wall, Tet^Oi' (-ovs). 
want, to, delv (= e-eiv). 
war, noXepos, 6. 
war, to carry on, iroXep.eiv (= e- 

eiv). 
ward off, djivvew. See Vocab. 

29. 



296 



FIRST GREEK BOOK. 



warrior, a-TpariaiTrjs, -ov, o. 

war-song, iraidv, Tratdv-os, 6. 

wash, Xoveiv. 

water, vdoop, vbaros, to. Note 9. 

wax, nrjfjos, 6. 

way (road, journey), 686s, r) : (= 
manner), rpoiros, 6. 

we, r)peis. 

weak, dcr^evrjs, -es. 

weakness, do-^eveia, r). 

wealth, 7t\ovtos, 6. xprjpaTa, Tc *' 

weary, to be, tcdfxveiv. 

weave (a garland), nXeic-eiv. 

weep, to, Kkaieiv. 

well, KaXcos, ev : do well to, ev 
7roielv (= e-eiv), evepyerelv 
(= e-eiv), acc. : to be well, ev 
e'xew : to be doing well, ev 

7TpdTT€LV. 

well - appointed, KeKoo~p.rjp.evos 
(partcp. perf. pass, from koct- 
p.e1v [= e-eiv], to adorn, ar- 
range beautifully). 

well-disciplined, evirei^s (= obe- 
dient). 

well-disposed, evvoos, -ovs. 

well-ordered, rerayfxevos ( perf. 
pass, partcp. from Tdo~creiv). 

what ? tis ; tl ; 

what kind of, ttoIos. See Vocab. 
25. 

whatever, Saris, oa-rep. 

when, ore, eirei. 

whence, e£ ov. 

whenever, orav (subj.). 

where, ov, oirov : where ? irr) ; 

wherever, oirov av (subj.). — ov, 
oirov (w. opt.). 

whet, %r)y-eiv. 

whether, iroTepov. 

which ? (of two), -rorepos. 

white, XevKos : as subst., to Xev- 

KOV. 

whither ? irr) ; 

who, which, os : interrog. t'ls ; 

whoever, oo~tis, oo-irep. 

whole, iras, arras, o~vp.iras, oXos. 

wicked, Kanos, irovr/pos. 



wife, yvvr), yvvaiK-os, r). 
wild beast, Zrjpiov, to. 
willing, e<a>v, -ovcra, -ov. 
willing, to be, j3ovXeo-%ai, e'SeXeii/. 
willingly, r)8e<os. Most — , eKoav, 

see Willing, 
wind, avep.os, 6. 
wine, olvos, 6. 

Wing, TTTepOV, TO. TTTepV^, -yOS 

wing (of an army), Kepas, to. 

winter, xeip,a>v. 

wisdom, o-o(pla. 

wise, crocpos : to be — , <fipt 

(= e-eiv), prudenlem esse. 
wish, to, /3ouXecr3at, eZeXeiv. 
with, o~vv (dat.), perd (gen.), 
within, euros (gen.), 
without, civev (gen.), 
woman, yvvrj, ywaiK-6s, r). 
woman, old, ypavs, ypdos, rj. 
wonder, to, to wonder at, %avp,d- 

£eiv. 
wonderful, ^avp-aaros. 
wont, to be, e%i£eiv. 
word, Xoyos, 6. 
work, epyov, to. 
write, ypdcpeiv. 
worst, to, f]TTdo~%ai (= d-eo-'Sai), 

KaKL&lV. 

would that — , et3e. 
wound, rpavp.a, -aros, to. 
wrist, Kaprros, 6. 
wrong, to do, d8iKelv (= e-eiv). 
wrought, elpyacrp.evos ( epyd£e- 
a%ai. 

X. 

Xenophon, Eevo(pa>v, -quvtos, 6. 
Xerxes, Eepgrjs, -ov, 6. 

Y. 

Year, eros, -ovs, to. eviavros, 6. 
yesterday, x^^s. 
yet, en, iron. 
yield, e'Ueiv. 
you, vp.ds. 



ENGLISH AXD GREEK IXDEX. 



297 



young, veos. 

young animal, o-kv/xvos, 6. 
young bird, veorros (Attice for 
veoaaos). 



young man, veavXas, -ov. 
yourself, avros, in nom. ; creav 

tov (o-avTov) in oblique cases. 

PI. yourselves, v^iels airoi. 



THE END. 



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From Professor Packard, of Bowdoin College. 

" I have recommended your edition to our Freshman Class. I have no doubt that your labors 
will give a n aw impulse to the study of this charming classic. 

From Professor Anderson, of Waterville College. 

" A careful examination of several portions of your work has convinced me that, for the use 
of students it is altogether superior to any edition of Livy with which I am acquainted. Among 
its excellences you will permit me to name, the close attention given to particles — to the sub- 
junctive mood — the constant references to the grammars — the discrimination of words nearly 
synonymous, and the care in giving the localities mentioned in the text. The book will be nere- 
after used in our college." 

From Professor Johnson, of New - York University. 

" I can at present only say that your edition pleases mc much. I shall give it to one of my 
classes next week. I am prepared to find it just what was wanted." 



NEARLY READY. 

WORKS OF HORACE. 

WITH ENGLISH NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY. 

BY J. L. LINCOLN, 

Professor of Latin in Brown University. 

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

One volume, 12mo. 

The text of this edition will be chiefly that of Orelli ; and the No'es, besides embodying what- 
ever is valuable in the most recent and approved German editions of Horace, will contain the 
results of the Editor's studies and experience as a College Professor, which he has been gather- 
ing and maturing for several years with a view to pub'ication. It will be the aim of both the 
Publishers and the Editor to make this edition in all respects suitable to the wants of American 
sg£i@o!s md colleges. 



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