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Full text of "The First Hebrew book"

5". 1 3 . 1 



Stom t^e fei6rari^ of 
(pxofcBBox TJ?iffiam ^enrg (Bteen 

f^e £i6irari? of 
(pxincdon ^^eofogtcdf ^eminarg 



THE 



FIRST HEBREW BOOK, 



BY THE REV. 



THOMAS KERCHEYER ARNOLD, M.A. 

LATE RECTOR OF LYNDON, 
AND FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



THIED EDITION, EEYISED. 



Hontroti, 
RIVINGTONS, WATERLOO PLACE, 

HIGH STREET, I TEINITY STREET, 

©rforli. I (TaminiUgJ. 
1866. 



LONDOX ; 
GILBERT AND KIVINGTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. John's sauARE. 



PREFACE 



FIRST EDITION. 



Thk plan of the following Work is the same as that 
which I have pursued in my other " First Books." 
I have principally followed Gesenius; and the later 
chapters of the Work, especially those which treat 
of the ' Irregular ' or ' Weak ' conjugations, are an 
abridged translation of that author's Grammar. 
These portions contain more information than will 
be at first necessary for the pupil ; indeed, it will 
not be absolutely necessary that he should do more 
than commit to memory the ' Short Paradigm ' pre- 
fixed to each chapter, and the accompanying Table 
of ^Normal Forms,'' before he proceeds to translate 
the Exercise, with which the chapter concludes. 
When he meets with any variation from the forms 
he has committed to memory, he must refer to the 
fuller account of the conjugation that follows the 
Paradigm. 

Through a considerable portion of the Work the 



IV PREFACE. 

Hebrew Exercises are printed both in Hebrew and 
English characters ; for I am convinced that the 
difficulty of learning to read with correctness and 
fluency the first oriental language that a person 
attacks, is very far greater than the editors of our 
elementary Hebrew works would appear to suppose. 

Wishing, therefore, to tempt many persons to teach 
themselves the language in which the Scriptures of 
the Old Testament were composed, I have felt it 
necessary to smooth the path to the accomplishment 
of the §rst and most irksome portion of the labour. 

T. K. A. 



LIST OF CONTRACTIONS. 

G. "=■ Gesenius. 
E. = Ewald. 
L. = Lee. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction vii 

CHAP. 

I. Reading and Orthography 2 

§ 1. The Letters il,_ 

2. Division of the Consonants 3 

3. Long Vowels. Quiescent Letters. Syllables . 5 

4. Begadchephath Letters. Dagesh. Short Vowels 8 

5. Sh'va 10 

6*. The Semi-vowels ...... 13 

7. On Syllables 14 

8. On distinguishing Kamets Khatuph from Kamets, 

and Long Khirek from Short Khirek . . 16 

9. Further Remarks on the Vowels. Diphthongs . 17 

10. On Verbal Roots, and on the Derivation of Nouns 20 

11. On the Dei'ivation of Nouns .... 24 

12. The Accents 27 



II. § 1. The definite Article 

2. The Perfect and Imperfect of Kal 



III. § I. Gender of Substantives. Adjectives . 

2. Formation of the Plural .... 

3. Participles of Kal with their feminine and plural 

forms ....... 

4. The Dual Number 

5. The Construct State (Status constructus) 



IV. § 1. Suffixes denoting Possession 

2. Prepositions denoting the Relations of Case 

3. Other prepositional Prefixes. Vav 



33 
34 



38 
41 

46 
48 
50 

53 
60 
65 



V. Modes of expressing the Comparative and Superlative . 67 
A3 



VI CONTEN'TS. 

CHAP. PAGR 

VI. § 1. Numerals. 1. The ten first Cardinal Numbers . 69 
2. The Cardinals continued. Oi'dinals ... 73 

VII. The Pronouns 79 

§ 1. Personal Pronouns il). 

2. Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. De- 

monstrative Pronouns .... .84 

3. Relative Pronoun ...... 88 

VIII. The Regular Verb 92 

§ 1. Derivation of Verbs. The Conjugations . . ib. 

2. On the ground-form (or Conjugation) Kal . 97 

3. Niphal 104 

4. Piel and (its passive) Pual . . . .109 
o. Hiphil and (its passive) Hophal . . .117 
6. Hithpael 124 

IX. Verbs with Gutturals 127 

§ 1. Verbs with Pe guttural ..... ib. 

2. Verbs Ayin Guttural 134 

3. Verbs Lamed Guttural 139 

X. Use of the Accents as Stops 142 

XI. § 1. Verbs Double Ayin 147 

2. Verbs Pe Nun 154 

3. Verbs Pe Aleph. Feeble Vei'bs (Verba quies- 

centia) . . . . . . . .159 

4. Verbs Pe Yod. Fii'St Class, or Verbs originally 

Pe Vav 1G2 

5. Verbs Pe Yod (continued). Second Class, or 

Verbs properly Pe Yod . . . .168 

6. Verbs Ayin Vav . . . . . .171 

7. Verbs Ayin Yod 178 

8. Verbs Lamed Aleph 181 

9. Verbs Lamed He 185 

XII. Suffixes of the Verb 193 

Differences of Idiom, &c 199 

Index I. Hebrew and English 203 

II. English and Hebrew 227 

Appendix A. Table of Declensions .... 1 

„ B. Table of Irregular Nouns ... 8 

„ C. Shorter Paradigms of the Regular Verb 9 

„ D. Genei'al Paradigms of the Regular Verb 10 

„ E. Paradigms of the Ii'regular Verbs . 14 



INTRODUCTION. 

{Abridged from Gesenius.) 



§ 1 . Of the Semitic Languages in general. 

The Hebrew tongue is one member of a large family 
of languages, which was native in Palestine, Phoenicia, 
Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Arabia. This 
family spread itself in early antiquity from Arabia 
over Ethiopia, and by means of Phoenician colonies, 
over many islands and shores of the Mediterranean, 
but especially over the whole Carthaginian coast. 

For want of a name, sanctioned by long usage, 
for the nations and languages united in this family, 
the term SJiemites^ Semitic languages (most of the 
nations using these tongues being descended from 
Shem) is generally received at present. 

The Semitic languages may be divided into three 
principal divisions: a) The Arabic^ to which the 
uEthiopic belongs as a branch of the southern Arabic 
(H'imyaritic). li) The Aramman in the north and 
north-east. It is called Syriac^ as it appears in the 
Christian Aramaean literature, but Chaldee, as it 
exists in the Aramaean writings of Jews. To this 
division belong some later portions of the Old Tes- 
tament, viz., Ezra iv. 8 — vi. 18 and vii. 12 — 26; 
Dan. ii. 4 — vii. 28. To the Chaldee is closely aUied 
the Samarita?i, both exhibiting a frequent admixture 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

of Hebrew forms. The Aramaean of the Natsorceans 
(John''s disciples, Sabii *) is a very degenerate dialect, 
but the vernacular Syriac of the present day is still 
more corrupt, c) The Hebrew^ with which the Ca- 
naanitish and Phoenician (Punic) stands in close con- 
nexion. 

These languages are now either wholly extinct, as 
the Phoenician, or exist only in a degenerate form, 
as the Aramaean among tlie Syrian Christians in 
Mesopotamia and Kurdistan, the iEthiopic in the 
newer Abyssinian dialects (Tigre, Amharic), and also 
the Hebrew among a portion of the Jews (although 
these in their writings especially study the repro- 
duction of the Old Testament language). The Arabic 
is the only one that has not only kept to this day its 
original abode, Arabia Proper, but also spread itself 
on all sides into the districts of other tongues. 

The Semitic family of languages was bordered on 
the east and north by another still more widely ex- 
tended, which spread itself under most diverse forms, 
from India to the west of Europe, and which is 
called the I^ido- Germanic, as embracing the Indian 
(Sanskrit), ancient and modern Persian, Greek, Latin, 
Slavic, and Gothic, together with the other German 
languages. In very early times, the Semitic came into 
contact, in various ways, with the ancient Egyptian, 
from which the Coptic is derived. Both have ac- 
cordingly much in common, but the relation between 
them is not yet accurately defined. The Chinese, the 
Japanese, the Tartar, and other languages have a 
fundamentally different character. 

The grammatical structure of the Semitic languages 
has many peculiarities, which, taken together, con- 
stitute its special character, although many of them 
are found by themselves in other tongues. These 
peculiarities are : a) Among the consonants (which 
always form the body of these languages) are many 

* So called from ^22{ as being ^aTmaTaL 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

gutturals of several grades ; the vowels, having their 
origin in the three primary sounds (a, i, u), subserve 
more subordinate distinctions, b) Most of the ra- 
dical words consist of th^ee consonants, c) The verb 
has only two tenses^ but great regularity and analogy 
prevail in the formation of verbals, d) The noun 
has only tioo genders and a more simple indication of 
case, e) In the pronoun all oblique cases are in- 
dicated by appended forms (svffixa). f) Scarcely 
any compounds appear in verbs or nouns (except 
proper names), g) In the syntax is found a simple 
combination of sentences, without much artificial 
subordination of members. 

As to the words themselves, the Semitic tongues 
vary essentially from the Indo-Germcmic ; yet they 
appear to have more in common here than in the 
grammar. A great number of stems and roots re- 
semble in sound those of the Indo-Germanic class. 
But if we exclude tenns that were obviously horroiced^ 
we shall reduce the actual similaiity, partly to words 
which imitate sounds {pnomato])oetica)^ and partly to 
those in which the same or similar sense follows 
from the nature of the same sound, according to a 
universal law of human speech. Neither of which can 
establish a historical affinity., which cannot be proved 
without agreement also in grammatical structure. 

The Semitic writing had from the beginning this 
striking imperfection, that only the consonants (on 
which the meaning of the word always depends) 
were gken in the line as real letters. Of the vowels 
only the longer ones, and even these not always, 
were represented by certain consonants used as 
vowel-letters. It was not till a later period, that all 
the vowels were indicated by means of small signs 
attached to the letters (points or strokes above and 
below the hne), but which were wholly omitted for 
more practised readers. These languages are written 
always from right to left. The ^thiopic is the only 
exception, but its deviation from the Semitic usage 



X INTRODUCTION. 

was probably introduced by the first missionaries 
who introduced Christianity into that country. How- 
ever dissimilar the Semitic written characters may 
now appear, they have undoubtedly all come, by 
various modifications, from one and the same original 
alphabet (of which the truest copy now extant is the 
Phoenician)^ from which also the ancient Greek, and 
through it all other European, characters were de- 
rived. 

In regard to the relative age of these languages, 
the oldest written works are found in Hebrew ; the 
Aramwan begins about the time of C^rus (in the 
book of Ezra) ; the Arabic not till the earliest cen- 
turies after Christ (Himyaritic inscriptions) ; the 
^thiopic version of the Bible in the fourth century ; 
and the northern Arabic literature since the sixth 
century. But the Arabic was the longest to maintain 
the natural fulness of its form, being preserved quiet 
and undisturbed among the secluded tribes of the 
desert, till the Mahomedan revolutions, when it suf- 
fered considerable decay. 



§ 2. History of the Hebrew as a Living Language. 

This language w^as the mother tongue of the He- 
brew or Israelitish people, during the period of their 
independence. The name, Hebrew language^, does 
not occur in the Old Testament, and appears rather 
to have been the name in use among those who were 
not Israelites. It is called by Isaiah language of 
Canaan (from the country in which it was spoken). 
In 2 Kings xviii. 26 (comp. Is. xxxvi. 11. 13), Neh. 
xiii. 24, and elsewhere, persons are said to speak 
Jinm^ (Judaice), in the Jews'* language, in accordance 

with the later usage which arose after the removal of 

* Jl^"^^P I'lti^/j yXu)<y<Ta tujp 'E(3paiujv, i^gdiaTi. 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

the ten tribes, when the name Jew was extended to 
the whole nation. 

In the writings of the New Testament, the term 
Hebrew (t/B/oaVo-r/, k^paiq SmAfKroc) was also applied 
to what was then the vernacular language of Palestine, 
in distinction from the Greek. 

In the oldest written monuments of this language, 
contained in the Pentateuch, we find it in nearly the 
same form in which it appears down to the Baby- 
lonish exile, and even later; and we have no his- 
torical documents of an earlier date, by which we 
can investigate its origin and formation. 

The remains of this language, which are extant in 
the Old Testament, enable us to distinguish but two 
periods in its history. The first, which may be called 
its golden age^ extends to the close of the Babylonian 
exile, at which epoch the second, or silver age^ com- 
mences. 

Although the different writers and books have 
certainly their peculiarities, yet we discover in them 
no such diversities of style, as will materially aid us 
in tracing the history of the language during this 
period. But the language Qi poetry is every where 
distinguished from prose, not only by a rhythm con- 
sisting in measured parallel members^ but also by 
peculiar words^ forms, and significations of words, 
and constructions in syntax ; although this distinction 
is not so strongly marked as it is, for example, in 
Greek. Of these poetical idioms, however, the greater 
part occur in the kindred languages, especially the 
Aramaean, as the common forms of expression, and 
are, probably, to be historically regarded partly as 
archaisms, which were retained in poetry, and partly 
as enrichments^ which the poets who knew Aramsean 
transferred into the Hebrew. The prophets, more- 
over, in respect to language and rhythm, are to be 
regarded generally as poets, except that in their 
poetical discourses the sentences run on to greater 
length, and . the parallelism is less measured and 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

regular, than in the writings of those who are pro- 
perly styled poets. The writings of the later prophets 
exhibit less and less of this poetic character, until 
their style scarcely differs from prose. 

The second or silver age of the Hebrew language 
and literature, extending from the return of the Jews 
from the exile to the time of the Maccabees, about 
160 years before Christ, is chiefly distinguished by 
an approximation to the Aramaean or Chaldee dialect. 
To the use of this dialect, so nearly related to the 
Hebrew, the Jews easily accustomed themselves while 
in Babylonia ; and after their return it became the 
popular language, exerting a constantly increasing 
influence on tlie ancient Hebrew as the lanmiao^e of 
books, in prose as well as poetry, and at last banish- 
ing it from the mouth of the people. Yet the Hebrew 
continued to be known and written by learned Jews. 

The writings of the Old Testament, which belong 
to this second period, and in all of which this Chaldee 
colouring appears, though in different degrees, are 
the following, viz., 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Ne- 
hemiah, Esther, Haggai *, Zechariah, Malachi, 
Daniel ; of the poetical writings, Ecclesiastes, and 
the later Psalms. These books are also, as literary 
works, decidedly inferior to those of an earlier date ; 
though this period is not wanting in compositions, 
which, in purity of language and poetic merit, 
scarcely yield to the productions of the golden age : 
e. g. several of the later Psalms (cxx. &c., cxxxvii., 
cxxxix.). 

* Geseniiis (who has been sufficiently answered by Hdvernick) 
includes the prophet Jonah. 



FIRST HEBREW 
BOOK. 



Chap. I. Breading and Ortliograpliy , § 1. The Letter. 
1. The Hebrew Alphabet consists of twenty-two 



m. 


Sounded 
as 


Repre- 
sented by 


Hebrew 
name. 


Original signification of 

the names (according 

to Gesenius). 


Nume- 
rical 
value. 


i< 


A'leph 


(mostly 
omitted) 




Ox 


1 


1 


Beth 


b (bh) 


n'^3. 


House 


2 


^ 


Gimel 


g (gl^) 


^^'i 


Camel 


t 


"7 


Daleth 


d (dh) 


^)h 


Door 


4 


n 


He 


h 


^•? 


Window 




1 


Vdv 


V 


IT 


Hook 


( 


t 


Zayin 


Z 


i:i 


Weapon 


i 


n 


Kheth 


kh 


D'n 


Fence 


^ 


ro 


Teth 


t 


n^^ 


Snake 


C 


•> 


Yod 


y 


I'l'^ 


Hand 


U 


D 


Caph 


c (ch) 


^3 


The hand bent 


2( 


^ 


Lamed 


1 


199 


Ox-goad 


S( 





Mem 


m 


°9 


Water 


4( 


: 


Nun 


n 


]i:i 


Fish 


5( 


D 


Samech 


s 


^9? 


Prop 


6( 


^ 


A'ym 


V 


ri^ 


Eye 


7( 


3 


Pe 


P (ph) 


NB 


Mouth 


8( 


i: 


Tsdde' 


ts 


n^- 


Fish-hook 


9( 


P 


Ivoph 


k 


nV 


Back of the head 


10( 


-» 


Resh 


r 


^'1 


Head 


20( 


''1 


Shin "1 
Sin J 






Tooth 


80( 


n 


Tciv 


t (th) 


in 

T 


Cross 


40( 



a) Observe that Shin and Sm are distinguished by the position of 
the distinctive point above them. 

b) To distinguish Samech from Sin, in Roman characters, it will be 
represented by an Italic s amongst Roman letters, and by a Roman s 
amongst Italics : so Teth will be t in Romans, t in Italics. 



§ 2.] Beading and OrtJiography, S 

The Hebrew characters were originally representations of the 2 
objects which their names denote, as set down in the sixth 
column. 

The names and order of the letters should be learnt by heart, 3 
since these must be perfectly known, before a Hebrew Lexicon 
can be used with faciUty. They may be arranged in triplets, 
thus : — 



A'leph 


Beth 


Gi'mel 


i^ 


n 


:i 


Daleth 


He 


Vav 


1 


n 


1 


Za'yin 


Kheth 


Teth 


? 


n 


ro 


Yod 


Caph 


Lamed 


> 


D 


b 


Mem 


N^n 


S'a'mech 


D 


:i 


D 


A'yin 


Pe 


Tsade 


V 


S) 


li^ 


Koph 


Resh 


Shin; Sin 


P 


"1 
Tav 

n 


^ -^ 



Chap. I. § 2. Division of the Consonants. 

1) Gutturals, A'leph, He, Kheth, A'l/in. 4 

i^ n n v 

2) Palatals, Gimel, Yod, Caph, Koph. 

:i ^ D p 

8) Linguals, Daleth, Hith, Tav, 
"7 10 /) 

4) Sibilants, Zayin, ^afmech, Tsade, Shin, Sin. 

T D )i M) )D 

5) Labials, Beth, Vdv, Mem, Pe. 

The liquids may also be considered a separate 5 
class. They are, — 

Lamed, Mem, NUn, Resh. 

a) N is the lightest of the gutturals, a scarcely 6 
B 2 



4 Reading and Ortliography . [ch. i. 

(6) audible breathing from the lungs. (J) ^ is nearly re- 
lated to it, and is " a sound peculiar to the organs 
of the Semitic race'' (G.). It had sometimes a com- 
paratively hard sound, which the Greek interpreters 
expressed by 7 (in Gomorrha^ &c.) : in other words 
it was a gentle breathing, not expressed in other 
languages {El% AmaleJc^). It is now usual to pass 
it over in reading the language, and often in writing 
it in Eoman characters. The Portuguese Jews pro- 
nounce it as gn at the beginning of a syllable, as ng 
at the end of one. 

c) Resh ("1) was pronounced with a hoarse gut- 
tural sound, and partakes of the peculiarities that, 
as we shall see, belong to the gutturals. 
7 The consonants are also divided into, — 
a) Servile letters. 
h) Radical letters. 

Servile letters ..are those which are used in the 
grammatical inflexions^ and in the syllables that mark 
derivative words. Servile letters are, however, some- 
times radical ; though radical ones are never servile. 

The servile letters are contained in the memorial 
words Mosheh^ Eythan^ Vecalebh (Moses, Ethan, and 

Caleb, ::b'y\ in^K nt:^o). 

Exercise 1. 
a) Write down, in English letters, the names of 
the following consonants. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1. 


V 


1 


b 


'V 


n 


^< 


2. 


: 


D 


:i 


^ 


"7 


•> 


3. 


D 


n 


2 


1 


^ 


1 


4. 


V 


D 


:) 


D 


is 


V 


5. 


n 


n 


J 


P 


"7 


b 


6. 


^ 


^^ 


T 


D 


-1 


:i 



* 'HXi, >7^. 'A/mXe'(c, p7D^. Ewald indicates its presence 

by the aspirated breathing { ' ), but says that its sound may be 
best represented by gh : and in his Alphabet he prints GAain. 



§ 3.] Long Vowels. 5 

h) Write down the Hebrew letters corresponding (7) 
to, 

12 3 4 

1. y kh h z 

2. 1 a k V 

3. g n d ts 

4. r c m b 

Chap. I. § 3. Long Vowels. Quiescent Letters. 
Syllables. 

As long as the Hebrew was a spoken language, 8 
no vowels were WTitten, except so far as ") ^ x were 
vowel letters. (See the Introduction.) The vowels, 
as now found in Hebrew Bibles *, are marks placed 
sometimes ahom the consonants, but more commonly 
helow them. In the case oi u (•")) the mark is inserted 
in the middle of one of them ( Vav). 

Hebrew words are written, and must be read, from 9 
right to left ; not, as with us, from left to right. 

Long Voioels.l 1) Long a and e are denoted re- 10 
spectively by the marks t and ••, placed under the 
consonant after which they are to be sounded. 

*? D : b D ^ 

T T T .. M .. 

Id md nd le me ne 

a) Long a is the true guttural a sound, as in father. 

b) Long e is the sound of a mfate, or e in there. 

2) Long i (that is, the English e in me) is a dot 11 
written under the consonant after which it is to be 
sounded, and followed generally by Yod, which is 
then said to be quiescent^ that is, not sounded. 

li mi ni (the i pronounced like e in me), 
* See the Introduction, 



6 Beading and Orthography, [ch. i. 

12 3) Long is a dot usually placed over Vav, which 
is then quiescent (11). 

Sb iD 1^^ 

16 mo n6 

13 4) Long u (like oo in ^oo?) is a c?o^ placed m F«??, 
which is then quiescent. 

^b -ID ^^^ 

lu mu nu 

14 Long i and o are sometimes found without the 
Yod and Vav. They are then said to be written 
defectively. When long o is written defectively, it is 
indicated by a dot placed over the left extremity of 
its consonant (or a little in advance of it to the left) ; 

asj;, \ h, \ i h, V— 1 = 0, ^_ = w*.— A defectively 
written u is identical in form with u (^) i*. See 26. 

15 Every syllable (with the exception of •% u^ = and) 
begins with a consonant ; for the consonant Aleph (an 
unaspirated guttural breathing [6]) was pronounced 
before an initial a, e, ^, o, or m : that is to say, 
every word that, if written in Roman letters, would 
begin with a vowel, begins in Hebrew with the con- 
sonant Aleph; which, however, does not affect the 

16 pronunciation in any way that our organs can make 
perceptible. 

K ^^ ''K ix ^K 

a e i 6 u 

17 The distinctive point of Shin (1, «) may serve also 
for the defectively written o of the preceding conso- 
nant (14) : n^D mo-sheh. 

18 So the distinctive point of Sin is allowed to note a 

* ^ may \)z=.ov, the dot representing a preceding Kholem 
(14,19). , 

rrp {lo-veh). 

2) = vo, \\y (i?a-vow). 

3) = o, "I'l: (nod). 

t \ was probably written, whenever the old language did not 
employ *) to express M. (E.) 



§ 3.] Long Vowels. 7 

defectwely icritten o, to be pronounced after the Sin: (is; 
\^ip so-ne. 

a) We have seen (11 sqq.) that Vav is quiescent ''^ 
after long o and u : and Yod after long i. 
h) Yod ( M is also quiescent after long e (••). 
c) Aleph (^^) is quiescent after any long vowel. 

T ... 

so hi tse hu 

In UTiting Hebrew words in Roman characters, i, 6, u will 
be used for long i, o, u, written fully : i, 6, u for the same 
long vowels written defectively (14) : e will be written for *>— 

(that is, for e followed by >) ; a for ^^- (that is, for a followed 
by ^^). On the defective writing of i, 5, H, see 14. 

The names of the long vowels [see note on 65] are, — 19 
Long a, Ka mets ( t ). Long i, Khi'rek Ct). 

Long e, Tse're ( •• ). Long o, Kho'lem (i). 

Long u, Shii'rek (?)). 

a) Observe that the vowel it stands for, occurs in the first 
syllable of each name. 

b) The quiescent letters (i. e. those letters which are sometimes 
quiescent) are contained in the memorial word Ehevi {'^^^\i^)^ 

a) A simple (or open) syllable ends in a voivel or 20 
quiescent consonant. 

b) A compound (or closed) syllable ends in a con- 
sonant. 



21 



Examples and Beading Lesson. 
Open Monosyllables ?\ 

:: 3 -) 2 i^^ 1 1 1 15. 2 ra. 


ar tsa. 


Closed Monosyllables.'] 


1 eth. 2 shem. 


3 hot. 


]D 6 DV 5 -1^;; 4 


4 Vov. 5 yom. 


6 chen. 


lI^^b 9 yb s yj; 7 


7 i^ets. 8 lun. 


9 lu^. 


n 12 ^b 11 ZO'lD 10 


10 mo^ 11 sol. 


12 tsin. 



* It would be more correct to say, that the vowel-sign (or 
point) indicates that the following Yod or Vav is a vowel-letter, 
not a consonant. 



(21) 



Beading and 


Orthography/. 


[CH. 


Dissyllalles.'] 


m^ 1 


1 sha-nah. 


2 tsa-yon. 


^y.^ 


D^Dj^ 3 


3 ka-mim. 


4 ka-ra. 


mi^ 6 


nn'^ 5 


5 Sa-rah. 


6 yd-nah. 


Dip5 8 

n^n 10 


VJ?? 9 


7 va-ra::?. 
9 me-)?ets. 


8 ma-kom. 
10 ha-yah. 


1^? ^2 


^^ip 11 


11 ko-li. 


12 ma-gen. 



Exercise 2. 

22 a) Write in English characters (with the dissyl- 
lables divided into syllables) — 
i^ 7 ^i"? 6 -lii: 5 •»^ 4 -i!)i{ 3 :i? 2 ;;; 1 
p 14 ^13 ^ 12 ir 11 "^i:! lo d^o 9 l? s 
-)i\:; 20 "^ ^ip 19 j^ is ^yiv 17 {5 16 ^ 15 

^N^ 26 I'lJ^ 25 D'l^ 24 m 23 -|J)5 22 ^21 
DH^ 31 tm 30 ]pn 29" DH 28 "p^^^Nt 27 

Di^i:^ 35" r^yIM r\vv 33 t: 32 

T T T T 

h) Write in Hebrew characters — 
1 ts6. 2 tsi. 3 tsu. 4 tsa. 5 tse. 6 isk. 

7 5a-nah. 8 sar. 9 i^ets. 10 )>a-tsum. 

11 tse-dah. 12 tsa-rah. 13 ra-tsuts. 



Chap. I. § 4. 



Begadchephath Letters. 
Vowels. 



Dagesh. Short 



23 The six mutes, B^fh, Gimel, DaJeth, Caph, Pe, 
Tav were originally pronounced with a hard (or 
slender) sound (as b, g, d, c hard, p, t) ; but they 
had also a tendency to receive a softer and slightly 
aspirated pronunciation (as hh [= v], gh, dh, ch, ph 
[=/], th). To mark the harder pronunciation, a dot, 
called Dagesh, is placed in the letter; as, 3,, ^> 1, 
3, B> D- This mark is usually found in these letters 
at the beginning of words and syllables, when there 
is no vowel immediately preceding. 



§ 4.] Short Voivels. , 9 

The letters which receive this Dagesh are contained in the (23) 
technical memorial word Begadchephath. The aspiration can 
hardly be made perceptil)le hy Enorlish organs in d and g. In 
England, "2. i^h) is usually pronounced v : the Spanish Jews, 
however (and so Ewald and Hurw'itz), pronounce it b. I shall 
print g, d for ;|, 1, except when the Hebrew equivalents of 
Roman letters are to be written by the pupil. 

But when a dot (Dagesh) stands in a consonant 24 
that terminates a syllable, it indicates that the conso- 
nant in which it is placed is to be pronounced double 
(and, if a Begadchejyliatli letter, without aspiration) ; 
as "13"^ dib-her. 

The Dagesh that hardens the pronunciation of an 25 
initial Begadchephath letter (23) is called light Dagesh : 
that which doubles a consonant, hard or strong Dagesh 
(Dagesh lene, Dagesh forte). 

(Short Voicels.) 26 

The short vowels are,-^ 
a - Pathakh. 

e " Segol (but ••• is sometimes an obtuse a sound, as e in 
mere : especially in an accented penult followed by ••• ). 
1 • Khi'rek Parvum. 
o T Ka'mets Khatuph'. 

ii ••. Kibbiits' (but '•. is sometimes a defectively written 
Shurek' [14]). 

It is a great imperfection in the notation of these vowels, 
that the sign for Kamets Khatuph (o) is the same as that for 
Kamets (a). The rules for distinguishing the two cannot be 
given, till the nature of Sh'va has been explained. 

Examples and Reading Lesson, 



a) 11 3 


'?n2 


prri 


1 khiik. 


2 bal. 


3 gabh. 17 


Df^ 6 


1? ^ 


Ul 4 


4 dam. 


5 ben. 


6 eth. 


t^h 9 


Dp^8 


]D7 


7 pgn. 


8 kum. 


9 shuph. 


D** 12 


YD H 


in 10 


10 tiir. 

3 


11 mits. 


12 yam. 



10 


Beading at 


i(^ OrtJiograph 


y. [cH. I. 


(•27) b) r\bh 2 


r^\r\ 1 

V - 


[25). 
1 ha-zeh. 2 me'-lech (= me-lech. 


^ii 4 


^1^ ^ 


3 i^e'-rebh. 


4 ne'-phesh. 


T"l^ 6 


in? 5 


5 ze'-rar. 


6 e'-rets. 


°19 ^ 


ji;;n 7 


7 khay-yath. 


8 #e'-rem. 


^-yi 10 


-i;^j 9 


9 na-rar. 


10 ne'-der. 


c) (Mixed.) 






D'^^^ 3 Y>^ 


2 ^b^* 1 


1 tsa-lal. 2 


tsits. 3 a-sham. 


^ rh2.t 5 


yni^ 4 


4 sha-bhats. 


5 shib-bo-leth. 


1^1^ 7 


'p^^ 6 


6 ka^.^al. 


7 ka^^er. 


W 9 


-n:L7 8 


8 rur. 


9 i^uph. 


inra 11 


^^h^v lo 


10 i>6-la-tho. 


11 cat-to-hu. 


p"in 13 

' -T 


IQ^ 12 


12 yim-mad. 


13 kha-rak. 



Exercise S. 
a) Write in English letters — 
28 riS^ 7 *'|) 6 5^^^ 5 D^ 4 h:i^ D}^ 2 HT 1 

•r^^B 13 b^i 12 n^^ n ^ip lo jij^} 9 ms 
a^j^k 19 Dm 18 \n^i ^^ ^n>^ is ^lay 15 nnr u 

T ' V V • T - T T 

nnB 25 pD 24 ^"n 23 uit\ 22 nra 21 iD^^ 20 

- X - T • T T - 

?)3r 31 D^if^ 30 i^-iis 29 ^p^ 28 n.^jn 27 npD 26 

5) Write in Hebrew letters — 

1 ten 2 pakh 3 pen 4 ben 5 pash 6 par 7 pum 

8 na-ham 9 na-ghakh 10 pe-thi 11 co-pher 

12 na-ghaJ^ 13 «a-phadh 14 i?a-lam 15 sha-kal 

16 tse-bheth 17 gu-lah 18 mats-tsah. 



Chap. I. § 5. SJCvd. 
29 Besides the full vowels (19, 26), the Hebrew has 



§ 5.] Sh\a. 11 

also a series of veiy slight vowel sounds, which may (29) 
be called lialf-mimh. 

The shortest, slightest, and most indistinct of 
these sounds is the simple SJiva (: ), resembling an 
obscure half e (G.). A consonant followed by this 
SK'va is usually not considered to constitute a syl- 
lable *. It will be indicated by C) when the He- 
brew words are written in English characters. 

This SJina is called vocal (or initial) SK'^ca^ to dis- 30 
tinguish it from silent {or final) S/i'va, which marks 
the close of a syllable. It is also called simple SJi'va^ 
to distinguish it from the Khdtephs^ or ^composite 
JS/ivas: See 36. 

a) The place of vocal SJCva is under the initial 3i 
consonant of a syllable. 

h) SKva IS final — 

1) At the end of words, as i^N^, at. 

2) When preceded by a short vowel not having 

Metheg (48), as PDlSl, ar-moV. 

3) When preceded by a long vowel having a prin- 
cipal accent, as nj3'!i^, sh5'bh'-nah. 

(But there are many exceptions to the two last rules.) 

N^'.pD m'mal-le. {^b'^'"i:^\>=)^b^) Vit-f\^. 

rhvihr) ko-riah. i^t'nt ha-rm. 

^bH^'P'^ yik-nu+. bt'i:^^ ha-m'shel§. 

^lOp k'tol. O^D ma-rche[l. 



* Gesenius calls a consonant with Sh'va a half syllable. 

t .For ^7^rT {hal-Vlu). | Here the first is silent Sh'va. 

§ The interrogative H (which has Metheg) forms a syllable of 
itself. 

. II If this word were to be divided thus, mal-che, the caph 
would take the Dagesh. "In these last examples the Sh'va 
sound is especially slight, on account of the extreme shortness of 
the preceding syllable." (G.) 



12 



Reading and Orthography, 



[CH. I. 



32 If a word ends in two consonants, each of them 
takes a silent Sh^a^ as l")Ji, nerd. 

33 A final 1 or D (dageshed) always takes a s^76W^ 

Sh'm, as •Jf-in'^, riK. 
"T : : - 

With these exceptions, Sh''va is not placed under 

the final consonant of a word. 



Examples and Heading Lesson. 



34 



^m 4 

miji; 12 

Dv6'^ 18 
r\2nbt 20 



i^im 1 

•fjip'pn 11 
n-ii^ 13 

)pi^ 15 

nij!? 17 
]'nbt 19 



nSr^ 22 T[»^,:5n 21 



1 v'ho-red. 
3 yim-loch. 
5 bhin-<6-thi. 
7 har-khebh. 
9 yo-l'dah. 



2 yish-po^. 
4 b'dil. 
6 rbha-nah. 
8 hir-khibh. 
10 cas-p'cha. 



11 khel-k'cha. 12 ^ebh-rath. 

13 )^a-bhar-ta. 14 pith-ga-ma. 

15 tsad-d'ko. 16 kin-n'nah. 

17 k'neh. 18 r'cha-sim. 

19 shul-khan. 20 sh'lakh-nah. 

21 tim-shoch. 22 tum-math. 



Exercise 4. 

35 a) Write in English letters and divide into syl- 
lables the following Hebrew words — 

DDp^.p ^'^t^ DDD^D ]?P?^a^ I'P? 

>D^_ ^^j:^ nsip pD^ "^finp •'St'D 
^-1123 'r\t ^:h:2 '^M n:ip ^ni^'^ 

h) Write in Hebrew letters — 

1 mash-mim. 2 m'sham-moth. 3 nei^-dar. 

4 niph-gai>. 5 niph-tal. 6 p'kad-ta. 

7 yu5-sad. 8 kosh^. 9 hich-tabht. 



§6-] 



Semi- vowels. 



13 



Chap. I. § 6. The Semi-vowels. 

A semi-vowel, or composite Sli'va, is formed by pre- 36 
fixing a Sh^va to one of the three short vowels, a, e, 0, 
Hence we get, 

-: Khateph' Pa'thakh. 
••: Khateph' Segol. 
t: Khateph' Ka mets. 
These semi-vowels will be denoted by a, e, 0, above the line 
of letters, when English characters are used. A semi-vowel is 
sometimes called concisely 'a Khateph.' 
"liDH kh^mor (ass). 
IDli 'mor (say). 
''711 kh°li {sickness). 

The composite ShVas stand principally, Khateph 37 

( •••: ) exclusively, under the gutturals. 
Khateph Pathakh stands for a simple vocal Sh'^va 38 
(80), but without any fixed law : especially, 

a) Under a letter doubled by Dagesh (for the 
doubling causes a distincter utterance of the Sh''va. 
See 39,^ (^). 

b) After a long vowel. (G.) 

Khateph Kamets is less exclusively connected with 39 
the gutturals, than the other two semi-vowels. 

a) It stands for simple vocal Sh''va, when the syl- 
lable had an original sound, which is to be partly 
preserved. 

b) It is also used (as is also -:) when a 
Dagesh has fallen away. (Gr.) 



TTPT 10 



Exampjles and Beading Lesson. 

Trw3, 1 
'^"inn 3 

't • -; 



40 



I ba-i^^^a-rah. 2 he-^zin. 
3 kh^-thar. 4 "hah. 

5 "dho-ni-kam. 6 "ho-den-nA, 
7 "hi. 8 "ra-phel. 

9 kh^-lom. 10 kh^zir. 



TjnKii 11 j 11 he-«rich. 12 ha-»ri-chi. 



14 Beading and Orthography, [ch. i. 

Exercise 5. 

41 d) Write in English characters — 

]F\rb 5 rn'i 4 ]!})ih 3 ••n^^^ 2 -i>ar 1 

: T ' T • T -; •• • : ~ : 

lyrb^ 13 ni^':': 12 ni-i^n n ^1::':'^^ 10 
nj; 16 D'^^H"! 15 ^I^J;^^ 14 

h) Write in Hebrew characters — 
1 nid-dah. 2 niz-har. 3 hiz-i?*ku. 4 til-mid. 

5 sir-pad. 6 ar-mon. 7 ta-khMeph. 8 ^sher. 

Chap. I. § 7. On Syllables. 
Furtive Pathakh. Mappik. Makkeph. Me'theg. 

42 The general rule (20) is, that every syllable which 
has a long vowel, is an open syllable ; every one that 
has a short vowel is a closed syllable *. 

Hence a Sh^a is usually 'cocal after a long vowel, 
2iX\di final (i. e. stands as a mere syllable-divider under 
the final consonant of a syllable) after a short vowel. 

43 But a tonic accent enables a short vowel to stand 
in an open syllable ; a long vowel in a closed one. So 
that, when the syllable is the tone-syllable of the word, 
a following BKva may be vocal after a short vowel, 
and final after a long one. 

44 When a final guttural is n, y, or H (with Mappik^ 
46), this guttural has often a Pathakh under it, called 
Furtive Pathakh. because it steals iti, as it were, before 
the consonant it stands under, as H^^D, Md-shi'-akh 
{Messiah), 

45 A furtive Pathakh may also stand under one of the 
gutturals just enumerated, when such guttural is fol- 

* When a vowelless consonant (which, as such, has SK'va) 
closes a syllable, but runs on naturally with the following con- 
sonant, Ewald calls the Sk'va, " Sft'va medium,'" and the (former) 
syllable " a half-closed syllable." Thus, ^"T7% not quite yal-de j 

not ya-Vde ; but, as it were, yaVde. 



§7.] 



Mappik^ MaJiJcejjli^ <tc. 



15 



lowed by a dageshed consonant with SlCva^ as r}V%^B, (45) 
pd-sha-ccj^t. 

Maj)piM is a point placed in the middle of a final H, 46 
when it is not quiescent, (il will be represented by hh.) 

MaJcJcepJh is a hyphen, which unites words so closely, 47 
that a word followed by it loses its accent; words 
united by this mark being considered as one word. 

Tsere and Kholem are often changed by a following MakJceph 
into Segol and Kamets Khatuph respectively : as 

^^"n^^ for ^3 n^^ dis^-^d for D-r^^ bi). 

XV •• T T T T T 

Metlieg (or Bridle) is a small perpendicular line 48 
( I ) to the left of a vowel ; it is used to show that the 
vowel sound is to be extended. Metlieg stands (G.), 

a) Before a vocal SK'va, which, without that mark, would be 
taken iov final Sh'va : as ^'^3^J d-m'ril (not am-ru). 

: |T 

b) Before a Khafeph (36) when immediately preceded by a 

vowel without a following dagesh: as rnPf, ye-kh^reh. 

vv:iv 

c) In polysyllables, one or two syllables before the tone- 
syllable. If the last syllable has the tone, the antepenultima, 
whether long or short, has Metheg. 

In speaking of the antepenultima here, we consider a (simple 
or composite) Sh'va to form a syllable. 



Examples and Reading Lesson. 



n"jDr^2 


uijifb^ 1 


1 c61=a-dam, 2 za-ch'ra. 


1^n•'^" 4 


"nipr 3 


3 zoch-rah. 4 yi-r'u. 


T : '|T 


?ii^7; 5 


5 yi-r'u. 6 ka-«'lah. 


^CH ^ 


°7?T 7 


7 ha-a-dam'. 8 ga-1'thah'. 


njins 10 


^^npn 9 


9 ha-m'khul-lal. 10 ea-h«thah'. 


T -;| T 


"pn^^ii 


11 ya-th'hon. 




^\^y^^y]\2 


12 ha-no-sha-bhoth. 


mDT 14 

T ; IT 


rv^mi 13 


13 sha-m'rah'. 14 za-ch'rah'. 


n:i''D^ 16 

T • • 


r^^]l}^ 15 
: r 


15 yi-sh'nu. 16 I'rai-nahh. 



49 



16 Reading and Orthography. [ch. i. 

Exercise 6. 

50 a) Write in English letters — 

TV IT '"IIT TT TT -"T 

•• ; T I T • T I •• ••• T 1 •• : 

h) Write in Hebrew letters * — 
1 hemmah. 2 ronni. 3 I'minehem". 

4 ha'rakial?. 5 bath=tsiyy6n. 6 v'im=e'n'cha". 

7 thai^^nod". 8 thai^lim. 9 ralsta^vath. 

10 i?*navim. 

Chap. I. § 8. On clistinguishing Kamets Khatuphfrom 
Kamets, and Long Khireh from Short Khirek. 

51 Till the pupil is acquainted with the derivation of 
words, the following rules will assist him in distin- 
guishing Kamets Khatuph from Kamets; both of 
which are indicated by the same mark ( ^ ). 

52 I.) -^ is in a closed (42), unaccented syllable. 
Such syllables are : — 

a) An unaccented syllable in which the t is without Metheg, 
and followed by simple Sh'va. 

b) An unaccented syllable in which the t is followed by a 
letter \nt\\ strong Dagesh. 

An T = may have Metheg with it, if the syllable is the 
second syllable before the tone (i. e. principal accent). See 53. 

c) When Makkeph (47) follows. 

d) When the unaccented closed syllable \^ final. (G.) 

53 II. T is in open syllables. 

a) When followed by Kkateph Kamets. 

h) When followed by Kamets Khatuph. 

c) In the two anomalous words D^li^lp {ko-da-sMm), U^'^'^^ 
(shb-ra-shim). ' "^ 1^ ' "^'■^ 

In these cases ^ is followed by Metheg, since Metheg always 
stands in the second syllable before the tone. (G.) 

* In this Exercise (') marks the place of Metheg; (") the 
tone-syllable ; (=) marks a Makkeph, 



§ 8.] Kamets Khatupli. 17 

In the same way Metlieg is of use in enabling 54 
us to distinj^uish a defectively/ written long Khirek 
from short Khirek : for Khirek is long, when it forms 
either an open syllable (whether accented or not) or 
a closed accented syllable (42). Now a Metheg follow- 
ing Khirek often shows that the syllable is an open 
one, the ShVa that follows it being initial, not final. 

Examples and Beading Lesson. 

jiimnD 1 

tt: t 

•••n 3 HDDH 2 

•• T T : T 

•••"IT T ; T ; 

: T *•• T : T ; 

•UD"! 9 ipip 8 

ninnin n ?td"i^: lo 
^^nu 13 nnn"irT 12 

"t; t t X ; t 

nn 15 rh:sn u 



1 mo-kho-ra-bhoth. 55 

2 khoch-mah. 3 ron-nS. 
4 c'dobh-ram. 5 bot-te-chem. 
6 c'd6r-la-i?o-mer. 7 kobh-ro. 
8 kod-kod. 9 ra-ch'bhii. 

10 ts6r-ce-cha. 11 hor-kho-bhoth. 
12 hor-kha-bhah. 13 ho-kh°-rebh. 
14 hog-lath. 15 ribh. 



Exercise 7. 
a) Write in English letters — 56 

]yr^ 5 D"35 4 t:^ip^ 3 o^ip^ 2 ?j^^p> 1 
DJin^D 8 jninnn^ 7 i^i-rh 6 

T T : T T-;- T :t: 

h) Write in Hebrew letters — 
1 y'komi^am. 2 m'shbr-to. 3 nov. 4 niibh. 

5 i^ozbhech, 6 i^^modcha. 

Chap. I. § 9. Further RemarJcs on the Vowels, (G.) 
Diphthongs. 

The primary vowel sounds are A, I, U. 57 

E is properly the diphthong A I contracted. 
O is properly the diphthong AU contracted. 



18 



Heading and Orthograpliy . 



[CH. I. 



58 A more useful division of the vowels than that 
into long and sliort (or 'perfect and imperfect) vowels, 
is this (G.) : — 

First Class. A sound. 

59 For the A sound the Hebrew has three vowel marks ( •»■ ), 
( " ), ( " ) ; all of which are ^vlitten below the consonant with 
and after which they are to be sounded. 



a) T 
h) - 
c) V 



a 
a 
a or a 



Kamets. 
Pathakh. 
Segol. 



" is here an obtuse e- sound, hke e in the French ?nere ; in 
our there. 

60 Second Class. 1 and E sounds. 

d) ^7 and T t, I Long Khirek. 

e) T * Short Khirek. 

f) >~, ~ e, e Tsere, \vith and without Yod. 

g) • e 1 Segol. Obtuse e. When accented, = e. 



h) ••) 
») ~ 

k) ) and j. 



o, o 
6 



61 Third Class. U and sounds. 
u Shurek. 
u, u Kibhuts. (1) Uy a simple shortening of 

Shurek. (2) u. 

Kholem. 
Khamets Khatupk. 

Also obtuse e ( " ) may be considered to belong to this class, 
as far as it springs from u or o. 

62 ^Vhen vowels are lengthened or shortened (for 
reasons to be explained hereafter), the change is 
usually confined to vowels of the same class. Thus 
a may be shortened into a or a (or e ; that is, obtuse 
Segol) ; e into e or ^ ; o into o or u. 

63 The only diphthongs that occur in Hebrew are, 

ai {>-), oi Oi), ui C-l). 

64 In IV the Yod is usually considered quiescent., so 
that this combination is pronounced dv or dw ; not 
aiv. 



!9.] 


The Vowels, 19 


Examples and 


Reading Lesson. 


-1^6) Dp^2 


T 


a) 1 yad. 2 kam. h) bath. 65 




'v V 


c) 1 me-lech (or mdlech). 


T V : 


TX' 


2 ya-de'-cha. 3 g'le-nah. 


^me) 


°'P1^ ^ 


d) tsaddl-kim. e) im-mo. 


Ut 2 


JIUI/) 


/) 1 beth. 2 shem. 


W'^ 


-ISD 1 9) 


g) 1 se'pher. 2 shen. 


rmh) 


nTn3 

V 


3 kho-zeh. h) muth. 


n'?2i2 


^riD 1 i) 


i) 1 mii-thi. 2 gul-lah. 


j>'n h) ni 2 


bpii) 


j) 1 kol. 2 robh. k) khok*. 


Q^^2 


-™* w) 


Z) 1 eth-. 2 aUem. 


nii2 


njHBiB 


1 Pa -thakh f. 2 Tse'-re. 


D^in4 


PT^3 


3 Khi'-rek. 4 Kho'-lem. 


V^?. ^ 


p-;;)^5 


5 Shu'-rek. 6 Kib'-buts. 




V?P/ 


7 Ka-mets. 


b^:h 9 5)^1 


Dn Y??P 8 


8 Ka-mets Kha -<uph. 9 -Se'-gol. 



* From ^\i^^. 

t The names of the vowels are almost all taken from the 
form and action of the mouth in uttering the sounds. Thus 
njlD signifies opening, ^")^ bursting (of the mouth), pTPT 

gnashing, ub^H fulness, from its full tone, p^W properly av- 

pi(Tfi6g, y?)np closing (of the mouth). This last meaning belongs 

also to Y^p ; and the reason why long a and short o (C]?)JOrT \D\) 

Karaets correptum) have the same sign and name is that the 
Rabbins gave to Kamets the impure sound of o, like the Swedish 
a. Only Segol (^i:iD ["pillD, -E.] cluster of grapes) appears to 

be named after its form. 

The names were, moreover, so formed that the sound of each 
vowel was heard in the first syllable : and in conformity to this, 
some write Sdghol, Komets-chatuph, Kubbuts. (G.) 



20 


Reading and 


Orthography, [ch. i. 


(65) '^^bp ••iii2 


'P^. 1 C 


1 ^do-nai. 


2 goi. 3 ga-lui. 


rby 5 


'l''^^* 


4 e-lav. 


5 a^a-lav. 


nm? 


ikp 6 


6 so-ne(a). 


7 Mo-sheh. 


my^ 9 


-151:^8 


8 sho-mer. 


9 yir-pos. 


P^2 


m'^lD 


1 lo-veh. 


2 :i.^a-von. 


D^p2 


bipiE 


Ikol. 


2 k^m. 


Di^4 


rh'p^ 


3 ko-l6th. 


4kum. 


ii2 


niF 

T 


1 vav. 


2 gev. 


•»ij4 


"»n3 


3 khai. 


4 goi. 






5 d'bha-rhav. 




Exercise 8. 




tj6 a) Write 
lables)— 


in English letters (dividing the syl- 


: iT 


b2, 4 'i^:: 3 >rvb!\ 2 d^3 1 

• • T TV 


JI'ID^QD 10 


b^^D 9 1:^:1"^ 8 

•• T 


Dn 7 ib^* 6 

T 


5 Write in 


Hebrew letters — 




1 Mm. 2 tamim. 3 meakh. 4 ^amok. 5 i^^mukim. 


6 orakh. 


7 cathobh. 


8 t'mim. 


9 rbhabhim. 



Chap. I. § 10. On Verbal Boots and on the Derivation 
of Nouns. 

67 The roots or stem-words of the Hebrew language 
nearly always consist of three consonants^ on which 
the meaning essentially depends. 

68 a) A strong root is one that contains three firm, 
permanent consonants ; a weak root is a root that 
contains at least one weak letter {Aleph^ He, Vav, or 
Yod). 

h) Verbs whose first consonant is Nun, or whose 



§ 10.] Derivation of Nouns. 21 

second and third consonants are the same letter, are (68) 
contracted in some forms by the omission or assimi- 
lation * of one consonant, and are sometimes called 
contracted verbs. But these may, like the former, be 
called tveak roots, since they cannot maintain their 
full form throughout. 

The various modifications of the primary meaning 69 
of a root are expressed by the radical consonants with 
changed voiuels, and sometimes with added conso- 
nants also ; which are sometimes prefixed, sometimes 
post-fixed. 

a) A stem- word may be either a noun or a verb ; 70 
and usually the language exhibits both together (see 
] , «, d in the following examples) : but it is cus- 
tomary and of practical utility for the beginner, to 
consider the third 'person singular of the Perfect in the 
simplest conjugation (called Kal) as the root or stem- 
word, and the other verbal forms, nouns, and particles, 
as derived from it. (G.) 

h) Sometimes no corresponding noun is found in the extant 
language : and sometimes a noun exists without a corresponding 
verb. The spoken language probably had, at least at some 
period, the missing forms, which are often found in the kindred 
dialects (e. g. in Arabic). (G.) 

The verbal root, as just defined, generally has for 71 
its vowels Kamets in the first, and Pathakh in the 
second, syllable. The verb that the old Grammarians 
used as their example of conjugating was 7j^3 (pct^dl) ; 

and hence the frst consonant of a verb was called its 
Pe ; the second its A?/in ; the third its Lamed. 

Verbs whose /r*^^ radical (their Pe^ is Nun, Aleph, 72 
or Yod, have, from the tveakness of those consonants, 
certain peculiarities of conjugation ; as have (for the 
same reason) verbs whose second radical (their Ayin) 
is either Yod or identical with their third radical; 

* A consonant is assimilated to a following one, when the 
same consonant that follows is substituted for the preceding 
one : e. g. when np becomes pp. 



22 



Beading and Ortliograpliy. 



[CH. I. 



(72) and verbs whose third radical (their Lamed) is He 
or Aleph. The presence of any other guttural in the 
root also necessitates some change in several of the 
usual forms. 

73 A verb whose ^r5^ radical \s Nun is called concisely 'a verb 
Pe Nun.-' one whose third radical is Aleph, * a verb Lamed Aleph ;' 
and so on. 

I shall designate (and indicate) those that have 
and have not such peculiarities thus : — 

74 A. ReQular Cor strong) verb (r) 



B. 


{Verbs with gutturals). 
1 Verbs first eruttural 


sually indicat 
thus) 

// 

:3 

vv 

^b 

tf 

^3 
// 

^b 

^3 


ed 


C. 


Verbs second guttural 

Verbs third guttural 

Weak (contracted) Verbs. 

Verbs Pe Nun 






\GThs Double Ayin 




D. 


(Other weak Verbs). 

Verbs Lamed Aleph 






Verbs PeYod 






Verbs Ayin Vav 






Verbs Lamed He 












Yerhs Pe Aleph 





(g') 

(n) 
(d) 

(y) 

(V) 

(h) 
(ai) 



75 



1^3 2 

i^i2 2 



Examples and Reading Lesson. 

i:in 1 A 



"ii:)n 3 



^tTJ a 1 

f)r2] 3 



A 1 bagad, 2 boged, 

he was deceitful. deceitfully. 

3 bagod, 4 be'ged, 

to be deceitful, deceit. 



1 malach, 
he reigned. 

3 yiml5ch, 
he will reign. 



2 molech, 
he that reigns. 



§10.] 


Classes of Verbs. 23 


{a') [Pe Aleph] 


- T 


a^) 1 achal *, to eat. 


ig') [Pe guttural'] 


"T3J<2 

- T 

-T/":d;;b 


2 abhad, 3 asaph, 
to perish. to collect. 
B {g^) i^araad, to stand: to stay. 


{g'^) \_Ayin gutturaT] 


— T 


(g^) shakha^, to kill (animals). 


ig'^) [Lamed guttural' 


~ T 


(g^) shalakh, to send. 


in) [Pe Nun-] ]D^^ 2 

"in:: 4 

-T 

(d) [Double Ayin] 


'^:ii 1 c 

-T 

"n:i3 

— T 

- T 


C (w) 1 nagas, 2 nagash, 

to exact, to approach, 
3 nadar, 4 nahar, 

to vow. to flow, 
(d) sabhabh, to go about. 


{a^) [Lamed AlepJi] 


T T 


D (a^) matsa, to find. 


iy) [Pe Yod] "I'pj^ 2 
C]p^4 


- T 
-T 

yr5 


{y) 1 yashabh, 2 yalad, 

to sit. to beget. 
3 yasad, 4 yasaph, 
to found. to add. 
5 ya:i)ats, to counsel. 


{v) [Ayin Vav] 
(Ji) [Lamed He] 


Dip 

TX 


iv) kum, to rise. 
(Ji) galah, to reveal. 




jE'jr^ri 


nse 9. 



(75) 



a) Write in Hebrew letters, and describe (both in 76 
words and by the proper convejitional letters [74]) 
the following verbal roots — 

tsud, to be hunted J to hunt. zarah, to disperse. 

khalal, to be wounded. hagah, to meditate, 

mtig, to meli. nazal, to flow. 
yakash, to lay snares. 

b) Write in English letters, and describe (both in 



* I shall follow the usual practice of giving the English in- 
finitive as the radical form ; though the pupil must remember 
that the Hebrew word is really the third singular m. of the 
Perfect. 



24 Beading and Orthography. [ch. r. 

{7Q) imrds and by the proper conmntional letters) the 
following verbal roots — 



^D"* to instruct. 

— T 

"1")^^ to curse. 
*-^^V to cover. 
ni? to borrow. 



b2^ to fall J to wither. 

- T 

77J3, to mingle. 

~ T 

^'!)U} to return. 



Chap. T. § 11. On the derivation of Nouns. 

71 Nouns are either prunitive (i, e. themselves roots) 
or derivative. 

Derivative nouns are mostly verbals, that is, de- 
rived from verbs : some, however, are denominatives *, 
that is, derived from another no'iin. 

Many of the old grammarians acknowledged none but verbal 
roots, and considered all nouns as verbals. 

78 a) Of verbal nouns some are strong, being formed 
from strong roots, and retaining all the consonants 
of the root, with (usually) a change of the vowel 
points. 

h) Others are iceal, being formed from weak roots, 
and usually by throwing away one of the radical 
letters. 

c) Both strong and weaJc verbal nouns may be un- 
augmented or augmented. In the unaugmented nouns 
no addition is made to the verbal root. The aug- 
mented nouns are made by the addition of one or more' 
of the servile letters ^ jl i Q ^5 H to a verbal root. 

These serviles being contained in the technical word He-e- 
man-ti, augmented nouns are called Heemantic nouns. Of these 
additional letters, f2 is always at the beginning ; pf generally at 
the end ; *» and } sometimes at the end ; J^ either at the be- 
ginning or end of the word so augmented. 

79 a) A noun augmented at the beginning may be 
denoted by a, at the end by w ; at both by aw. 

* That is, derived de no'nine (from a noun). 



§11-] 



Derivation of Nouns, 



25 



h) A noun derived from a verb Pe Nun^ Pe Yod, &c., (79) 
will be designated by ?^, y, d, -y, «, A, according to 
the letters given in 74, as denoting those conjuga- 
tions or forms. 

c) If a noun is derived from a strong root, or is a 
root itself, or consists only of radical letters, it may 
be designated by r. 

d) I shall include in nouns designated by r feminines in ah, 
derived from verbs Lamed He, though the h is in this case pro- 
perly servile : as 11^^, shanah (a year), from HJ^. 



Examples and Beading LesS' 



T ; • 

T : T 



me'lech (r) 
(a king) 

mishpa? (a) 
{judgement) 

khochmah (w) 
(wisdom) 

deai^ (y) 
(knowledge) 

moshabh (ay) 
(seat) 



|T" 



•• T 

T • 



i^etsah' (wy) 
(counsel) 

torn (d) 
(perfectness). 

magen (ad) 
(a shield). 

zimmah (oid) 
(wickedness) 

t'phillah(awc?) 
(prayer) 



A verbal noun, unaug- 
mented. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the begin- 
ning. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the end. 

A verbal noun, from a 
(tveak) verb Fe Yod. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the begin- 
ning, from a (iceak) 
verb .Pe Yod. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the end, 
from a (weak) verb Pe 

Yod. 

A verbal noun, derived 
from a contracted verb 
double Ayin. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the begin- 
ning, from ViContvacted 
verb double Ayin. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the end, 
from a contracted verb 
double Ayin. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at both begin- 
ning and end, from a 
contracted verb double 
Ayin. 



esson, 

TJ^O malach 80 

~ '^ (to reign) 

ZOS)'^ shapha^ 
~ "^ (to judge) 

□DPT khacham 
~ "^ (to be wise) 

;;-T'» yadai* 
"^ (to know) 

2."^"^ yashabh 
"■^ (^to sit) 



Y^"* yai^ats 
"^ (to counsel) 



WOPi tamam 

"^ (to complete) 

P3 ganan 
"■^ (to cover, pro- 
tect) 

QQt zamara 
"^ .(to devise) 

7 ?iD pillel (to judge) ; 
[in Hiihpael, 
to prayj 



26 



Reading and Orihojia'phy. 



[CH. I. 



(80) "15 ger (v) 

" (stranger) 

Dip^ makom (av) 
■^ (place) 

\)'^b la-ts6n (wv) 
■^ (scorn) 



712^2r} t'bhiinah(awv) 
^ • (understanding) 



]nD mattan (an) 



n73Drnappalaht(awn) 
■^ ^ ~ (a ruin) 



A verbal noun, from a 
(weQk)wev\)Ayin Vav. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the begin- 
ninsr, from a (iveak) 
veib A 1/171 Vav. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at the end, 
from a (iceak) verb 
Ai/in Vav. 

A verbal noun, aug- 
mented at both begin- 
ning and end, from a 
(iceak) verb Ai/in Vav. 

A verbal noun, from a 
(u-eayt) verb La med He. 

A verbal noun, au2;- 
meuted at the begin 
ning,from a {contract 
ed) verb Pe Nun. 

V verbal noun, aug 
men ted both at the be- 
ginning and the end, 
from a (contracted) 
verb Pe Nun. 



{to sojourn) 

Dp kiim 

(to rise) 

Y?)^ luts 

(to scorn) 



]^3. bun 

{to understand) 



n")S parah 

"^^ (to be fruitful) 

]r)2 nathan 
" "^ {to give) 

b^2 naphal 
"■^ (to fall) 



Exercise 10. 

81 a) Write the following words in English letters, 
and describe their derivation according to the Table 
just given — 
^rn street. 

HilbD division (of priests). 

T\ : 
"lipD a well. 

n^pi^ possession (especially 



cattle). 
]n grace, favour. 

T ~; ~ 

* For mantan. 



nm to be broad. 

- T 

^^73 to divide. 

- T 

nip to dig (for water). 
T\2'D to get ; to buy. 

t't 

pn to be gracious (to). 
2rm to love. 



J^tOn to slip, to go astray. 

T T 

t For manpalah. 



§12.] 



The Accents. 



27 



yi companion^ friend, 
1^^ hunter, 

T- 

b2^}2 food. 
TVy\^P\ slumber. 



nj?1 to take delight in, (8l) 

"y]"^ to lie in wait ; to hunt. 
b'2'i^ to eat. 

— T 

Q!)J to slumber. 



h) Write the following words in Hebrew letters, 
and account for them as before — ■ 



shenah, sleep. 

,caph, the hollow of the hand. 

makhsor, want. 

i?ed, a witness. 

torah, instruction. 

mu5ar, admonition, correction. 

kalon, shame, disgrace. 



yashen, to sleep. 
caphaph, to bend. 
khaser, to want, to lack. 
i^udh, to testify. 
yarah, to teach (in Hiphil*). 
yasar, to admonish. 
kalah, to be lightly esteemed 
(in Niphal *). 



Chap. I. § 12. The Accents. 

a) The to7te (or accent) of Hebrew words is on one 82 
of the two last syllables. 

h) As the tone-syllahle is usually the last, it is suf- 
ficient for the pupil to know what classes of words 
have the accent on the ^penult (i. e. the last syllable 
but one). 

c) Words with the accent on the final syllable are called 
Milra (^"I'pD) ; those with the accent on the penult, Milel' 

(The follo\ving list will be useful for reference, though at 83 
present several of the terms will convey no meaning to the 
pupil.) 

The tone-syllable is the 'penult in, — 

a) All dissyllable nouns whose last vowel i8 a Segol or 

Pathakh. 

b) Words whose final consonant has d. furtive Pathakh. 



A conjugation so called. 
c 2 



28 Beading and Orthography/. [ch. i. 

(83) c) Words with the dual ending a-yim (D^— )• 

d) Verbs of the Perfect tense with the personal endings 

ti, ta, nu OJ, r\, Ti)' 

T • 

e) Regular verbs of the Hiphil conjugation; and the con- 

jugations Kaly Niphal, and Hiphil of verbs Ayin Vav 
and Double Ayin. 

f) The demonstrative pronouns el'-leh (these), hem'-mdhy 
hen-ndh. 

y) Verbs that have the Vav conversive of the Perfect. 

h) The accusative suffixes -ah, -hu, -nu, -ni, -kd, never have 
the tone. 

84 Beside the accents that mark the tone-sellable of a 
word, there are others which serve the purpose of 
punctuation^ by indicating that a word is or is not to 
be taken in close connexion with what follows. 

Such accents ■]- are either separative or connective. 
Their names and shapes are J : — 

85 Separative (or Distinctive) Accents 

(Domini). 



Name. Figure. 
I. (Imperatores.) 
1. Silluk S* 

2 Athnakh ^^ 

A 

< 

3 *Merchawith Mahpach 2^21 



Name. Figure. 

II. (Reges.) 

1 tSegolta K 

2 Zakeph Katon J^ 

:i 

3 Zakeph Gadol J^ 

4 Tiphkha 2< 



t These tables and remarks are placed here that the pupil 
who proceeds immediately from this work to any portion of a 
printed Bible may have some notion what is meant by the 
numerous marks with which the text is crowded. In the earher 
part of the present work the tone-syllable, when it is thought ne- 
cessary to mark it, will be indicated by > ; as phi^D (kd-ial'-td). 

T ; - 't 

X Those marked with * are pecuHar to the poetical books. 
Those marked with f are prepositive. 
Those marked with % are 2iostpositive. 



§12.] 

Name. Figure. 

III. (Duces.) 

1 R'bhi'a J^ 

2 tZarka J^ 

3 tPashta j!j 

4 T'bhir ^^ 

5 tY'thibh h} 

6 * Shalshe'leth ^^ 

7 t TiphkM initial i^ 



The Accents. 29 

Name. Figure. (85) 

IV. (Comixes.) 



1 Pazer J^ 

2 KarnaPharah J^ 

3 t Great T'lislm J^ 

4 Geresh ji 

5 Double Geresh J^ 

6 P'sik (between the words) ^^ I 



Connective Accents {8erm). 



Name. Figure. 

1 Munakh ^^ 

.1 

2 Mahpach ^^ 

3 Kadma i<i 

4 Darga J^ 

s 
H 

5 LittleT'lisha K 



Name. Figure. 

6 Mercha ^^ 

7 Double Mercha J^ 

// 

8 Ye'rakh ben-yomo J^ 

V 

9 Tiphkha final J^ 

V 

10 * Mercha with Zarka ... j:^ 

1 1 * Mahpach with Zarka J^i 



a) Silluk occurs only at the end of a verse before ( J ) Soph- 86 
pasuk, which separates verses. Athnakh (= respiration) usually 
stands only in the middle of a verse. 

b) Observe that Pashta (J^) and Kadma (>}) have the same 
form : they are distinguished by their position, for Pashta (as 
a separative accent) always stands on the last syllable, whether 
the tone-syllable is the last or last but one. If the accent is on 

the penult, then two Pashtas occur together, C]D3rT. Kadma 

always stands on the^rs^ consonant of a word. 

c) Y'thibh (J^) and Mahpach (i^) are also distinguished by 

< < 

position only : the former standing always before the first letter 
of the word, the latter under its vowel. 



so Beading and Ortliography . [ch. i. 

(86) d) Segolta (S), Zarka (J^), and the connective Tlisha K'tannah . 
(J^) always stand over the last letter of a word. 

(Bernards on the Accents. G.) 
I. As Signs of the Tone. 

87 Words that are otherwise identical, are often dis 
tinguished by the accent, e. g. ^^1 ba-nu {tliey huilt)^ 
•1i2 hctnu {in us) ; H^p Jcdmd {she stood up). ilDjl^ 
kamd {standing up^ fern.). So in English to contrast'^ 
a contrast: in Greek ^Ifxi., I am ; tljui, I shall go. 

88 As a rule, the accents accompany the initial conso- 
nant of the tone-syllahle. Some, however, stand only 
on the first letters of a word {prepositive) ; others 
only on the last letters {postpositive). The tone- 
syllable is therefore not discoverable by these. 

IT. As serving the purpose of pmictuation. 

89 Every verse is regarded in the figurative language 
. of the Hebrew grammarians as a realm {ditio), go- 
verned by the great distinctive, or \irtusi\ full stop, at 
the end {imp)erator) . According as the empire (i. e. 
verse) is large or small, varies the number of dotnini 
of different grades, which form the larger and smaller 
divisions. 

90 Connectives {Servi) unite only such words as are 
closely connected in sense, as a noun with an adjec- 
tive, or with another noun in the genitive, &c. But 
two connectives cannot be employed together. If 
several words should be connected, Maliheph is used. 

91 In very short verses few connectives are used ; 
sometimes none : for a small distinctive, in the vici- 
nity of a greater, has a connective power {servit do- 
mino majori). In very long verses, on the contrary, 
connectives are used for the smaller distinctives {fiunt 
legati dominoriim) . 

92 The choice of this or that connective depends on 
very subtle laws of consecution, with which the 



§ 12.] The Accents, 31 

learner need not trouble himself at present. It is (92) 
sufficient for him to know the greater distinctives, 
which answer to our period, colon, and comma ; 
though they often stand where even a half comma 
would scarcely be admissible. They are most im- 
portant in the poetical books for dividing a verse into 
its members. 

Reading Lesson. 

[In the following Reading Lesson " the names of the different 93 
accents contained in it will be found by turning to the Table 
(85), with which the learner will do well to make himself familiar : 
other\vise, he will occasionally confound them with the vowels, 
and, in many instances, be unable to determine whether Sh'va 
begins or ends a syllable, or whether the mark ( ^ ) be Kamets 
or Kamets Khatuph: and for this purpose we shall subjoin a 
passage in which the greater part of them is found." — Lee.'] 

A. 2 Kings i. 6. 



JTT a* T •• : I" 

•• •• V J- •• t'; • 

n3 r^j^ Dmm 



h'^'on 



mn> 



"lOS^ 



p'p \npv ^^tb^^ 3^nr 

T ;• T V -; T • - 

TV • )'••' I 3T 



Vai-yo-m'ru' e-lav, ish i^a-lah' 
lik-ra-the'-nu, vay-yo'-mer e- 
le-nu', I'chu' shu-bhu' gl-ham- 
me'-lech *sher-sha-lakh' Sth- 
chem', v'dib-bar-tem' e-lav, coh' 
a-mar' Y'ho-vah', h**- mib-b'li' 
en-^l6-him' b'is-ra-el' at-tah' 
sho-le'akh lid-rosh' b'bha'-i?al 
z'bhubh' ''Id-he i?ek-r6n'? la- 
chen' hara-mi^-/ah' *sher-i^a- 
li'-tha sham' lo-the-red' mim- 
men-nah ci-moth ta-muth. 



32 



Reading and OrthograpJii/. [ch. i. § 12. 



(93) 



B. 





^^-ln n''"^Kn^ 2 


n^J^ 




J""^ 


t:it 


visci 


» VI TT 


'^tU) 








Dinii 


'^?"'^^ 


W^^ 










• o''?'!? 


^^I'l • 


-)^^^-''^;''l_ "^^^J >n^ 


y\iD''3 


T 


"I 


ni^^n 


rn D^i^^^ 


bi2i\ 



"^^nn V51 



B're-shith' ba-ra ^lo-him' eth 
hash-sha-ma'-yim v'eth La- 
a'-rets : v'ha-a -rets ha'-y'tha" 
tho-hu va-bli6-hu v'kho'-shech 
:?al p'ne' th'hom v'ru'-akh ^15- 
him' m'ra-khe'-pheth i7al-p'ne' 
ham-ma-yim : vay-yo'-mer ^15- 
him y'hi or, va-y'hi-6r': vay- 
yar" *lo-him eth-ha-6r ci-^6bh 
vay-yabh-del ^lo-him ben ha-6r 
ii-bhen ha-kho'-shech. 



Exercise 11. 

94 a) Write in English letters the following extract, 
and mark the tone-syllables — 

c)D^^^ "^^iDSii^D ""S '^vb ''ry\r> urb nin^-DJ^^ Vi3n ]2b 

v:|v • T : • J' A": j* ' v; t : \ : • - ^-t 

h) Write in Hebrew characters the following ex- 
tract — 

V'hannakhash hayah' i?arum mic-col khajryath hassadeh 
'sher i)asah Y'hovah ^I5him : vayyomer el-haishshah aph ci- 
amar ^lohim 15" thochl'u mic-col i^ets haggan? 



CH. 2. 



§!•] 



The Definite Article, 



33 



Chap. II. § 1. The Definite Article. 

The definite article is H ; its vowel is PathaJch 95 
(— , a) ; and the following consonant receives Dagesh. 

But since the gutturals and Resh cannot receive 96 
Dagesh^ a compensation is usually made for its 
omission by lengthening the vowel of the article into 
Kamets (^, a) or Long Segol (" [^'=] ^ or a), 

... fl)Kha, 
n IS used before [ ^^ ^ , , „ „ 

12) Hd, ^d, when not tone-syllables. 

fl) Hd, i^a, when tone-syllables. 
n is used before ■, 2) Any guttural or Resh, except in the cases 
[^ already enumerated. 

Exception'] If, however, the vowel that follows is 97 
not T or t:, words beginning with He or Kheth gene- 
rally take n for their article : that is, make no com- 
pensation for the omitted Dagesh. 



Beading Lesson and Vocabulary. 



1 she'-mesh, 2 abh. 



T 


I^^DIir 1 

¥ V 


U}^^i 4 


DSI 3 


b^ 6 


V V 


• T 




d:^ 10 


byn 9 

T •• 


• T 


"in 11 

T 


yn 14 

T 


p:^i3 


jiDrin 16 

V V 


nin 15 


^^Di") 18 


Dn 17 



(in pause) ^)), ubv 19 



98 



<Ae sun. 
3 em, 

mother. 
5 re'-gel, 

foot. 
7 esh-col. 



father. 
4 ish, 

wa» (vir). 
6 /al, 

8 ba-nim, 



bunch-of -grapes, sons. 
9 he-chal, 10 i>am, 

temple. people. 

11 bar, 12 ha-rim, 

mountain. mountains. 

13 i^a-von, 14 khag, 

guilt. religious feast. 

15 kho-akh, 16 kho-the'-meth, 

thistle. signet. 

17 r^m, 18 rophe", 

height. physician. 

19 i>e'-lem; i^a-lem (in pause), 

lad. 



cS 



34j 



The Perfect and Imperfect of Kal, [ch. 2. 



Exercise 12. 

99 a) Write down the following words, with their 
meaning, in English letters — 

Vd^hh 4 D^jnn 3 ^is^^hJrr 2 ^^n 1 

n^nnn 8 ninri 7 ^nn 6 ^???n 5 

D^pn 11 ^<H)^"l^ 10 onrr 9 



5) Write down in Hebrew letters — 



1 the mother. 
4 the foot. 
7 the guilt. 



2 the father. 
5 the mountain. 
8 the people. 



3 the dew. 

6 the mountains, 

9 the man. 



Chap. II. § 2. The Perfect and Imperfect o/Kal. 

100 To enable the pupil to form complete sentences, 
I shall here give the two principal tenses of the re- 
gular verb in its simplest conjugation ; Kal (active). 

101 The third singular of the Perfect oi Kal is one of 
the simplest forms of the verb, and is usually con- 
sidered its root^ or stem-form,. 



Perfect and Imperfect of the verb 7^p, ka-?al, to kill. 



102 



Perfect {actio perfecta). 



2. 



(Sing.) 

• : |-'t 
masc. i^'^JDp 
fem. 



: : i-'t 
fem. rh\Oi[> 



masc. 



ka-/al'-ti 
ka-/al'-ta "1 
ka-^alt' ( 
^ka./al' 1 
ka-riah' f 



Imperfect {actio infecta). 



(Sing.) I 

bbj^ij^ ek-/6l' 

bbpn j tik-^61' (m.) 

'>b:^pr\ tik-/Ti'(/.) 



bbi)] 
bbj)r\ 



yXk-m' (OT.) 
tik-/6l' (/.) 



§ 2.] The Perfect and Imperfect of Kal. 



2. 



masc 



fern. 



(Plural.) 



ka-fal'-nu 
k'/al-tem' 
k7al-ten' 
ka-flu 



(Plural.) 



(102) 



nik-^ol' 

tik-f m (m.) ^ 
tik-^ol'-nah (/.) 
yik-f lu' (m.) 
ttk-^ol'-nah C/.) 



Observe that in the Perfect the persons are formed 103 
by adding certain suffixes^ or afformatives {t% td, &c.) 
to the third person or root. 

a) These suffixes are fragments of the personal 104 
pronouns ; ^^, td, t^ nu are added without any change 

in the vowels of the root {kdtdl-ti^ -ta, -t, -nu). 

b) Before the suffixes tem\ ten' (both accented), the 
first vowel of the root (Kamets) ii changed into Sh'va 
(Fta^-tem', -ten'). Before dh, u, the second vowel 
(Fathakh) is changed into S/i'va^ the Kamets being- 
retained . 

The Imperfect (or, as many Grammarians call it, 105 
the Future) is formed by prefixing certain fragments 
of the personal pronouns to the radical letters, which 
are then pointed with SJiva, and Kholem^ nearly 
always icritten defectively/ {Jc\dl, ^^i?)- The prefixes 
are for the singular (1) e- \)>f\, (2) f-, (3) y'-, masc. ; 

f-, fem. For the plural, (1) n^-, (2) f-, (3) /-, masc. ; 
f-^ fem. And the second sing, fem., both second per- 
sons plural, and the third plural fem. have also a 
suffix : i (V) for tJwu, fem. ; u (^) for i/e and thei/, 
masc. ; ndh (HJ) for ye and they, fem. For the forms 

that have the suffixes i, u, 7[Dp is shortened into /'Dp- 

The prefixes of the Imperfect (except ^«^) properly io6 

take SK'va ; but as two consonants standing together 
cannot both take vocal Sh''va, the Sh''va of the prefix 
is changed into Khireh. Aleph properly takes Khateph 
Segol (i^) ; this is changed into Segol. 



36 The Perfect and Imperfect of Kal. [ch. 2. 

107 The meaning of the tenses will be explained when we consider 
the verb more regularly. At present the pupil is to observe, that — 

a) The Hebrew Perfect denotes a completed action, and is 
usually translated by our Perfect, or Perfect definite, or Plu- 
perfect : made, did make j have made j had made. 

b) The Imperfect denotes an unfinished action, and is usually 
translated by the Future ; sometimes, especially in general as- 
sertions, by the Present. 

Exercise 18. 

los a) Write down in English letters the two following 
tenses of IpD pakad, to visit (with the English of 

each person). 

Perfect (or Preterite). 



(Sing.) 




^i?7P_? 


I 


mP_? 


thou (m ) 


r\ipB 


thou (f.) 


IpB 


he 


nip? 


she 


(Plural.) 




i:ip_3 


we 


Dn"Tp3 


ye (m.) 


l^^T.? 


ye (f.) 


•iips) 


they 



Imperfect (or Future *). 



(Sing.) 




"TP?^? 


/ 


ip^r) 


thou (m.) 


'IP?^ 


thou (f.) 


"fp?' 


he 


IpSJl 


she 


(Plural.) 




ipH)^ 


we 


•''"fp?^ 


ye (m.) 


njipsB 


ye (f.) 


^"^P?'. 


they (m.) 


njipsip^ 


they (f.) 



b) Write down in Hebrew and English letters the 
Perfect and Imperfect of IQ^ sharaar, to keep ; and 

3J1D cathabh, to write. 

* Gesenius, after the old Grammarians, called it the Future ; 
Dr. Lee calls it the Present ; Ewald and Rodiger, the Imperfect. 



§ 2.] The Perfect and Im'perfect of Kal. 



37 



Vocabulary, 



To be angry t 5]^{p, ka-tsaph'. 

To keep, to guard, to watch, 

"1Q^> sha-mar. 

- T 

To lie down, 2^^> sha-chabh'. 

~ T 

A king, "T[7Q, me'-lech. 

To reign, 'T^D, ma-lach'. 

To cease, to abate, pr\]i}, sha- 

thak'. 
To dwell with, pt^, sha-chan'. 
To mix, to mingle, ^DD» nia- 

5ach'. 
To pour out, to anoint, T[D^» 

na-5ach'. 
To cut off or down, /in3, ca- 

rath'. 
To spread, \i^")3, pa-ras'. 

— T 

To rage (tumultuously), U}y), 

- T 

ra-gash'. 

Pharaoh, nj^")?, Par-l^oh. 

Discretion, counsel (in a bad 
sense, contriuance), JIDTO, 

m'zim-mah (a tod, za-mam, 
to devise). 



Over-thee, ^"hv, )^a-le-cha. 1C9 

' V T 

Strife, contention, ^*|1Q (a v), 
ma-don (dun, to plead). 

Wisdom, T\r22rM.^). khoch- 

T ; T 

mah (kha-cham, to he wise). 
Cunning, prudence, HDIV (w), 

i^or-mah (i^a-ram, to be 
subtle). 

Wine, y^, ya-yin. 

Upon, bv, m. 

Zion, ]V^, Tsiy-yon. 
Twigs, D'^^tbt, zal-zal-lira. 
A fool, bp3, c'sil. 
Folly, Jljp^r^, iv-ve'-leth. 
A covenant, JT»n3» b'rith. 
Why? HD^, lara'-mah? 

T T 

Nations, Gentiles, D^iil» go- 
yim. 



/T*")!! rr)3, he made a covenant, as Tiftvetv opicta {Horn.), 

from the cutting up of the victims offered when a covenant was 
made. 



38 The Perfect and Imperfect of Kal. [ch. 2. § 2. 

Exercise 14. 
110 Translate the following sentences — 

a) HDtp 2 : nS^lB ^1\>\ 1 1 yik-tsoph Par-:?oh. 
r\:i2t 3 :TJ>^i; -ib^r^ ^ m'zim-mah tish-mor i^a-le- 
'"" "^ ' * cha. 3 sha-chabh-ta. 4 yim- 

ITO pJl*^> 5 : ?)Db^> 4 ^,^j^^ 5 yish-tok ma.d6n. 

6 *ni khoch-mah sha-chan-ti 
i)6r-mah. 7 ma-sach-ti. 

8 ma-5'chah ya-ym. 9 lara- 
mah rag'-shu go-yim ? 
10 *ni na-sach-ti mg'-lech 5^al- 
Tsiy-yon. 11 c'sil yiph'ros 
iv-ve'-leth. 12 nich-r5th haz- 
zal-zal-lim. 13 ca-r'thii haz- 
zal-zal-lira. 14 ech-roth b'rith. 
15 tish-mor hab-b'rith. 



'r\22t 

* -1; - T 


HDDn 
T : T 


^^^. ^ 


: ^i^DD^ 7 




■• r^rpv 


J : IT T T 


9 :]\l 


HDD;:: 8 

|r: IT 



: ub\bvr\ did; 12 : rh^)^ 
• u')6^jr\ ^n"|3 13 

ibl^JT) 15 :Jim hlDJ^ 14 



b) \. \ have mixed the wine. 2. We have made the cove- 
nant. 3. Ye (m.) have anointed the king. 4. I shall rage. 
5. We raged. 6. We shall rage. 7. Why do ye (/.) rage? 
8. I shall keep the covenant. 



Chap. III. § ]. Gender of Substantives. Adjectives. 

1 1 1 The Hebrew, like all other Semitic languages, has 
only two genders, the mascidine and the feminine. 

112 The masculine has no peculiar termination. The 
feminine terminations are — 

a) H- (the most common). 

T 

b) ri_ (unaccented) ; after a guttural r)-- 



CH. 3. § i.J Gender of Substantives. Adjectives. S9 
(Rarer forms ; for reference.) 

c) n--, r\\ r\\ 113 

d) r\- often in proper names of the Phoenicians and 

adjoining tribes. 

e) r\— (almost exclusively poetical), 

T 

f) ^^_ (Aramaean for H- : chiefly in later writers). 

T T 

g) 11- (weakened from Pf— ) : — very rare. 
h) H-* (unaccented). 
i) njl- (in poetry). 

T T 

The names of countries and towns are also usually 1 1 4 
feminine, and the names of those members that are 
in pairs (as the hands^ eyes^ ears., &c»). 

Proper names are not distinguished by any peculiar 115 
endings to mark the sex. Some feminines are formed 
from the corresponding masculines by appending a 
feminine termination ; but in the case of animals^ the 
two sexes often have a peculiar name (as hull., coio in 
Enghsh) ; and many names of animals denote both 
sexes, as 70-3 camel, &c. Even some names of ani- 

mals with feminine terminations denote the male as 
well as the female : e. g. HJ')^ (yonah), dove. 

The adjective, when used attributively, follows its 116 
substantive. If the substantive has the article, so 
has the attributive adjective. An adjective without 
the article following a substantive with one, is the 
predicate, the copula {is, was, &c.) being omitted. 
So in Greek — 

t) yvvrf ri KaXr/, the beautiful woman. II7 

r) yvvfj KaXt], the woman is beautiful. 

Feminine nouns, both such substantives as have lis 
corresponding feminine forms, and adjectives, are 
usually formed by adding H-, sometimes D---, to 
the masculine. 

a) Masculines in H- form their feminine by chang- ug 

ing rf- into H-. nyh, Jiyi (ro-^eh, ro-i^ah). 



40 Gender of Substantives. Adjectives, [ch. 3. 

(119) h) Those that end in Kheth or Ayin take the fern, 
in D-L (instead of Jn_l). 

120 The changes made in the vocalisation by appending 
the terminations cannot be explained at present: 
only observe — 

1) a in iht penult is changed into SU'va when n_ is added : 
"^il-l, n^'TD (gad61, g'dolah). 

2) The fern, from a noun with the vowels e'-e, takes a-a, 
^'^rj, n3^D (me'-lech, mal-cah) : the reason is, that the 
original form of (e. g.) b*dp was 7^p (with Pathakh). 

Vocahdary. 



21 King, 'TT7D> me'-lech. 

Small, pp, ka-ian'. nilZDp, 

k'<an-nah (/.). 
To rule, bt'O, ma-shal. 

— T 

> 

A youth, lad, ■)^J, na -i^ar. 
Good, 3irD, ^obh. 
Father, 2^^, abh. 

T 

Man, ^U^i^y ish. 
Brother, TM^, akh. 
Strong, "li^il, gib-bor. 
Sharp, in, khad. r\^r\> 

khad-dah (/.). 
Diligent, y!)"))! *> kha-ruts. 

r\':^T\'n, kh^ru-tsah (/.). 

T "J 

Sincere, honest, UD 0^)i tarn. 

T 

A (.bright) spot on the skin, 
T)lh3,, ba-he'-reth. 



White, ]2b, la-ban. 1122b, 

I'ba-nahVo. 
Boy, nb\ ye'-led; 
Girl, ^'^^^ yal-dah (ya-lad, 

to beget). 
Red, DHi^, nii^, a-dom. 

T T 

Horse, O^D, sus; 
Mare, HD^D* su-sah. 

T 

|']''3li^> sac-cin. 

^^""^'Inbhvirgia.), ma- 

I '^che''-leth. 
To cut, "ITil, ga-zar. 

-T 

To grow, 7"T^, ga-dal. 

— T 

Scholar, TobDia), tal-mid. 

nT'd?D, tal-mi-dah (/). 
To slaughter, tOHIi^j sha-kha^. 



* Properly sharpened, fr. yin. 



§ 2.] Formation of the Plural, 

(Eng.) The boy is good. 

^"^°'^l(2) The hoy good. 
He Kin, hu'. 
She K>n. hi". 



41 



122 



Ejuercise 15. 

Kin a^n 3 " " : aiD* K-in 
nui) Kin n^n 4 tpr 

T T ''"T 

mnnn 6 : on t^^Kn 5 

... v - - T • T 

' T 't V V T T ; 

nT,::':'r)i2 :''?i:ir^*n:iDp 

T • : - - : • T - • ; 



iD^n 



n^inn 



tont^^n* nin /i'pdkid 13 



1 hay-ye'-led hii" ka-?an. 

2 han-na -)^ar hu" <6bh. 

3 ha-abh hu" za-ken. 4 ha-akh 
hu" gib-bor. 5 ha-ish tarn. 

6 hab-ba-he'-reth I'ba-nah. 

7 ye'-led ka-fan. 8 hay-ye'-led 
hak-ka-^an. 9 hay-ye'-led 
ka-^an. 10 sac-cin khad 
yig-z5r. 1 1 yal-dah kVan-nah 
tig-dal. 12 tal-mi-dah kh*ru- 
tsah tn-mad. 13 ma-^che'-leth 
khad-dah tish-kha^. 



123 



6) 1. The little girl \vill mix wine. 2. The red mne. 3. The 
wine is red. 4. The knife is sharp. 5. They grew. 6. Ye 
{pi.) will grow. 7. The diligent scholar. 8. The scholar is 
diligent. 



Chap. III. § 2. Formation of the Plural. 

A. Masculine nouns form their plural by adding D^- 124 
{im!) to the singular •\-. 
a) Nouns in n- {eh) throw away this termination 
before the U\ is appended. 

* The Imperfect of an intransitive verb has usually Pathakh 
for its second vowel, instead of Kholem, in its dissyllabic forms. 

f The plural termination is sometimes written defectively, as 
in Gen. i. 21 : DT-DD (tan-ni-nim). 



42 Formation of the Plural. [ch. 3. 

125 B. Feminine nouns form their plural by adding li) 
{6th) to the singular. 
a) If the singular ends in ath^ eth^ ah (Jl-, 

D-, H-), these terminations are changed into 

Ii\ {6th). 
h) If the singular ends in ith (i^V)^ ^^^ plural 

ends in iy-yoth {rs^"^-). 
c) If the singular ends in uth (J11), the plural 

ends in uy-yoih {T\\^-^, 



Plural. 

shsAm. 

mish-nim 

b'e-roth 
t'hil-loth 

ig-g'roth 

iab-ba-i?6th 

i;^ibh-riy-y6th 

mal-chuy- 
yoth 

127 The addition of the plural terminations causes cer- 
tain changes of such vowels as are mutable ; of which 
the following principal changes will be sufficient for 
the pupil at present. 

a) a or e of the jyenult (whether long or short [t, -, 
••, or v]) is usually changed into simple Sh''va, 
or, after a guttural, into KliaJeph Pathakh (-:), 
when the word becomes a trisyllable. 

This arises from the transfer of the accent to the final 
syllable, which causes the antepenult to be pronounced 
short. 







Examples. 


26 Singular. 


Plural. 


Meaning, j 


Singular. 


A. D^D 


a^p^D 


horse 


sns 


a) r\Wr2 


mtr^ 


double, 
second 


mish-neh 


B. -^^$2 


nn^n 


well 


b'er 


> 




hymn 
(of praise) 


t'hillah 


m^'ik 


lin^ik 


letter 


ig-ge'-reth 


jiyi^ 


n'i;;nD 


ring 


^ab-ba-rath 


nn:?y 


ji^nny 


Hebrewess 


i)ibh-rith 


note 


niote 


kingdom 


mal-chuth 

i 



§2.] Formation of the Plural. 43 

b) a or e (- or •.) in the final syllable of a word is (i27) 
changed into d (▼). 

XT ,1, IN V rkatal, k'talim. 

Hence (by a, h) we have \^^.,^.l^ ^,^-^^^^^ 

(Nouns of these forms are of very frequent occurrence. 
Observe that their plurals are alike.) 

c) So nouns ending in V? fi'oni verbs Lamed He^ 

change Khirek into Kamets^ andjend in d-yim 
{'pt% p'td-yim). 

d) Feminines with 6 sAor^ (•••) in the penult, change 
it into d (t) in the plural. 

(In other respects the feminine undergoes little change 
in the formation of the plural, because the necessary vowel 
changes have already been made on appending the femi- 
nine termination.) 

e) Nouns in d'-veth^ a-yitli (ri')-, Jl]*-), contract 

these syllables into (Dl, D''-) oM, e^A, before 

appending the plural termination im. 

f) Nouns defective from verbs with double Ayin^ 
dagesh the final consonant before im is added, 
and shorten the preceding vowel ; changing a, 
^, into a, ^, u respectively. 

g) Vowels that have their homogeneous vowel-letter 
quiescent, are amongst those that are immutable, and 
therefore remain in the plural : e. g. a, e, t, o, u 



Singular. 


Plural. 






b^v 


^'Y^^. 


^^ 


1 



Examples. 

Masculine. 

Meaning. 

word 

wise 

neighbour 

sluggard 

a cluster of 
grapes 



Singular. 

da-bhar 
kha-cham 
sha-chen 

i^a-tsel 
i?e-nabh 



Plural. 

d'bha-rim 
kh*cha-mim 
sh'che-nim 

i?*tse-lim 
i^'na-bhim 



128 



44 

(128) Singular. 

pot (ad) 

]VX (d) 
TJLTCd) 
Hi) (h) 

n:^6 



't t : 



Formation of the Plural. 
Singular, 
me'-lech 



njl'-i>ar 
ba-yith 

za'-yith 
ma-16n 
ma-gen 

shen 

g'di 

mish-neh 



ts'da-khah 

shiph-khah 

i^e-tsah 
i^-'-^a -rah ' 
c'tho'-neth 

sh'e-rith~| 
she-rith J 



Plural. 


Meaning. 




king 


Dn:^: 


lad 


• T 


house 


D^Jin 


olive 


-u'ybn 


inn 


D^^JD** 


shield 


D^^'^ 


tooth 


mv 


goat 


U^'IJS 


a kid 


U'im 


double, 
second 





Feminine. 


^\^p'V4 


justice 1 


iy\n^t 


handmaid 


liy^V 


counsel 


jinrpy 


crown 




coat 


jiinNii^' 


remnant 



fcH. 3. 
Plural, 
m'la-chim 

n'i^a-rim 
ba-tim 

ze-thim 
m'16-nim 

ma-gin- 

nim** 

>liin-na'-yim 

i.'^iz-zira 

g'da-yim 

mish-nim 



ts'da-koth 

{riyldeous acts) 

sh'pha-khoth 

}?e-ts6th 

i^"-^a-r6th 

cut-to-noth 

sh'e-riy-yoth 



129 a) Some masculine substantives have a plural of 
the feminine form, in 6th ; and (^), mce versa, some 
feminines a plural of the masculine form, in im. In 
both cases, however, the gender of the singular is 
usually retained in the plural. Such, for instance, are — 



* ]T}, lun, to lodge. 
X ]^^, sha-nan, to sharpen, 
II Y^^, ya-})ats, to counsel. 
** Obs. a in antepenult. 



t ]22i> ga-nan, to cover. 
II IJ^^j sha-ar, to remain. 



Formation of the Plural. 45 

a-bhoth 130 
she-moth 
ko-loth 
mil-lim 
yo-nim 

Some nouns have both a masculine and feminine 131 
termination in tlie pkiral, as — 

DV I Wr\V> ^\^^\V 11 time ll reth I i>it-tim, i^it-toth. 



§2.1 


Forn 


a) 2^ 


nin^^ 


b) rhu 


lybSp 


ruv 


D^:v 



father 


abh 


name 


shem 


voice 


k61 


word 


mil-lah 


dove 


yo-nah 



Tn adjectives and participles the plural endings im and 6th are 132 
confined to the masculine and feminine genders respectively. 
D"«2itD <6-bhim (boni), good (masc.) : JllIlitD ^6-bh6th (bonee), 

good (fern.). 

So in substantives from the same stem, when the terminations 133 
denote the different sexes : D''J3, ba-nim, sons : ri^^3. ba-noth, 
daughters. ' "^ '*" 

Exercise 16. 

Write down in Hebrew and English letters, the 
plural (with and without the definite article) of the 
following nouns — 



A way, ^T7 de'-rech. 

A child, ^^\ ye'-led. 

A lie, 3G ca-zabh. 

A vile person, 721^ na-bhal. 

A vineyard, D")3 ce'-rem. 

Apart, pbn khe'-lek. 

A proverb, ^1l)!2 ma-shal. 

A cluster 1 3^^ Ve-nahh. 

of grapes, / "^ " 

A hypocrite, P|^n kha-neph. 

Strong \ "1DI£/ she-char. 

drink, J "^ " 



A fool, bV3 c'-sil. 134 

A tongue, fi'^b la-shon. 

A garment, Jl/DIi^ sim-lah. 

T ; • 
> 

A lamb, '^^3 ce'-bhes. 

People, \ Q^ (d) :i;am. 
nation, J 

A thresh-'\ 
old step I p^p (d) .aph. 
before a [ '- ^ ^ 
door, J 

A bear, 2^ (d) dobh. 

A nest, ^ p(d) ken. 
a cell, J "•• 



46 Participles of Kal. [^'H. 3. 

Chap. III. § 3. Participles of Kal with their femi- 
nine and plural forms. 

135 The verb in Kal has two participles : one active, in 
b-e ; another passive, in a-u\ as Jcd-tel, Jcd-tiil. 

136 Their forms for gender and number are (to take 
the participles of kd-tal as examples) — 

Active. 
Sing. ^tOp rhhb {or rhv^D) ko-;el ko-^e'-leth 

.. I „ .1 T ; ' 

Plur. uhdp lybv^p ko-^'lim k6-n6th 

Passive. 
Sing. ^ItOp ^h^'^) ka-/ul k'iu-lah 

Plur. D'^'pViDp Jl'i':'lDp k'^u-lim k'^u-loth 

137 The participle is often used as a predicate to ex- 
press (usually) the Present tense. 

138 A participle, alone or with the definite article^ is 
equivalent to Jte who — with the verb (like 6 /3ouXo- 
juevog = he trho ivishes, in Greek) ; but it may denote 
ani/ tense: (7DJ no-phel = he that falls, or he that 

has fallen, or he that will fall), though it has most 
frequently the meaning of the Present. 

Vocabulary. 



139 Counsel, HDID (« w), m'zim- 

T • ; 

mah. 
Herd, oxen, ")p3, ba-kar. 

'tt 

River, "IH^. na-har. 

T X 

To rule, yx}D, ma-shal. 

- T 

Wives, WU}!1> nashim (/. with 
m. term.). 



To judye, tDB*i^> sha-pha^ 
A judge, tD3W, sho-phe^. 
Light, luminary, "lii^Q, ma-6r, 

T 

pl PTW^D, m'6-ioth. 
To surround, 21I1D (d), sa- 

bhabh. 
Garden, ]?! (d), gan. 

7'Z^iD or ^li^^, mo-shel, ruling; ruler. 



8 3.J 



Participles of KaL 



47 



Exercise 16* 

"pi^^rr 4 : ^b^n nij'^Dn 3 
. . _ . _ ^ — 

T T - 't T - 

Dn'?^ 13 :pn nnbn 

•T : T - .. - 

u^y-^v 15 :nD> D'^nn 
D^i^j 16 xT\u\ anrr 



1 ham-me-lech yim-loch. 140 

2 ham-m'la-chim. 3 ham- 
mal-cah thim-loch. 4 ham- 
mo-shel yim-shol. 5 ham-mo- 
she'-leth tim-shol. 6 ham- 
mo-sli'lim yim-sh'lu. 7 hash- 
sho-phVim yish-ph'rii. 8 hal- 
la-bhi" yi^-roph. 9 ham-ma-6r' 
hag-ga-dol'. 10 ham-m'o-roth' 
hag-g'do-lim. 1 1 hara-ma-6r' 
ka-^on'. 12 han-na-har' ha5- 
so-bhebh hag-gan'. 13 y'la- 
dim k'^an-nim yig-d'lu. 
14 tal-mi-dim kh^-ru-tsim yil- 
m'du. 15 sac-ci-nim khad- 
dim yig-z'ru. 16 na-shim 
tam-moth. 



a) Write down the plural of — 



141 



npH ba-kar, herd ] oxen. 

'r T 

"in^ na-har, river ; pi. both 
"^ "^ im and 6th. 



t^pl^ she'-kel, shekel. 
P gan(d), a garden. 



h) Translate into Hebrew (using both Hebrew and 
English letters) — 

1. The sharp knives will cut. 2. The gardens are small. 
3. The smaU gardens. 4. The shields are large. 5. The knife 
is sharp. 6. The knives are sharp. 7. The rulers. 

c) Write down the Perfect, Imperfect, and the two 
participles \w\i\\fem. s. sm^ plur. m. and/, of shathal, 
to plant. 

1^" The th (Pi) mil become t {p]) when a consonant imme- 142 
diately precedes it. 

d) I. The great rivers, 2. The rivers aragreat ("ones). 3. The 
clusters are small. 4. The great cluster. 5. The dogs. 6. The 



48 Tlie Dual Numher. [ch. 3. 

(142) little lambs. 7. Gardens. 8. The gardens are large. 9- The 
rivers which surround the gardens. 



Chap. III. § 4. The Dual Number. 

143 The Dual number of siihstantives (to which that 
number is confined) denotes tivo of the things in 
question. It is formed from the singular by adding 
ayim ; but the final H of a feminine noun is changed 
into D before the termination is added. The n of 
the termination D- remains. 

144 The Dual number is nearly confined to natural or 
artificial objects that exist in pairs; or either are, or 
are conceived to be, double : e. g. the two %s, hands, 
ears, eyes of the human body; a pair of scales, shoes, 
&c. ; (the space of ) two years {= biennium). It is 
also found in the numerals 2, 12, 200, &c. 

145 Substantives in -1 (i. e. segolate substantives) noio 

and then take the same vowels in the root as the 
plural does ; that is, SKva and Kamets (--), but 

usually contract the two syllables with Segol into 
one with PathaJch. 



Sing. 


Dual. 


Sing. 


T 


• ~ T 


yad 


Di'^ 


d;qv 


yom 


nfv 


u\r\fD 


sa-phah 


n/m 


u^rsvJu} 


n'kho'- 
sheth 


m. 




1 ke'-ren 


V V 


re'-gel 


'"^vi 


^tz\ 


Aa-i*al 



Vocabulary. 
Dual. 

ya-da-yim 
yo-ma'-yim 



s'pha-tha-yim 
n'khiishta-yim 

kar-na-yim"! 
k'ra-na'-yim r 

J 
rag-la-yim 

na-i^4a'-yim 



Meaning. 

hand; two hands. 

day J two succes- 
sive days 
(= biduum). 

lip J two lips. 

fetter J two fetters. 



horn J two horns, 
foot J two feet, 
shoe; pair of shoes. 



§4.] 



^t^ 


*- • T 


6-zen 


v'^^ 


D^^mb 


mo-zen 


'vv 


^'TH 


m-fm 


vk 


Q!?1? 


be'-rech 


w 


D;3Nt 


aph 


"pi? 


♦ - T 


rael-kakh 



The Dual Number. 

oz-na'-yim(83,c)') 
moz-na'-yim J 
i^e-na'-yim 

bir-ca-yim 

ap-pa'-yim 

mel-ka-kha-yim 

sha-ma-yim 



49 

(the two) ears. (l46) 
pair of scales, 
eye; (the two) eyes. 

knee; (two) knees, 
nose; nostrils, 
tongs; snuffers, 
heavens. 



Weak, nSJ") (fr. HS)")) ra-pheh. 

V T T T 

Straight, '^t'l (fr. ')]l}\ to be 

T T - T 

straight), ya-shar. 
Pan; spoon, ?)3/. (d), caph. 
Evil; bad, ^"1, with distinctive 

accent V") (/. Hi?!), rair, 

T T T 

ra-i?ah. 

Exercise 1 7 

«) by)r; 2 : nsn th 1 

D^ii^^ns :ni"i^^ D;^3")n7 

• T T • - •• T 

D^pjDan 12 tni'piii 

D'npbt^n 13 :7innip^ 



Breeches, D^DJDD («), mich- 147 

• -T ; • 

na5-a'yim. 
Black, "irri^j sha-khor. 



To be in pain, 2i^3, ca-ebh. 

Pained; in pain, 3?^i3. c6-ebh 
(partcp. Kal). 



I hayyad raphah. 2 hare'- 148 
gel y'sharah. 3 hashshen 
coe'bheth. 4 haccaph k'^an- 
nah. 5 haaph g'dolah. 

6 hayyadayim raphoth. 

7 haraglayim y'sharoth. 

8 hashshinnayim c6*bh6th. 

9 haccappayiru k'/annoth. 

10 hai^enayim rai^oth. 

II haappayim g'doloth. 
12 hammichnasayim sh'kho- 
roth. 13 haramelkakhayim 
g'doloth. 14 hashshama'yim 



m*app rim. 

b) 1. The knees. 2. The evil eyes. 3. The evil eye. 4. The 
eyes are evil. 5. Black breeches. 6. Weak hands. 

* For P]5^^ fr. P)]i^. t From np^> to take hold of . 



50 The Construct State. [ch. 3. 



Chap. III. § 5. The Construct State (Status 
constructus). 

149 When one substantive modifies another without 
being in apposition to it, it is placed in the relation 
of a genitive case. In Hebrew, the genitive case of a 
substantive is like the nominative, but the substantive 
it modifies (the governing substantive, as we should 
call it in most other languages) undergoes some 
change of its mutable vowels. 

150 1^° The governing substantive is said to be in 
construction, or in the construct state. 

151 The general rules for the change of vocalization 
produced by the construct state are these : — 

A. In the singular. 

152 cl) Kamets {a) in the penultima is changed into 

Sh''va ; in the ultima, mostly into PathaJch. 
h) Tsere (e) in the penultima is mostly changed into 
Sh''va when the ultima has Kamets (a). In the 
ultima it is generally changed into PathaJch, but 
usually retained after -, and in monosyllables. 

c) The feminine termination H- {ah) is changed 
into D- {ath) : the other feminine terminations 
J1-, /T'-j -^^ ^^ (^^^5 ^^^5 ^*^^5 ^l^) ^r® immutable. 

B. In the plural and dual. 

d) D"*-, D)- (^w^, ayim) are changed into ^- {e). 

153 There is often a further vowel-change in the con- 
struct state of the plural, and a contraction of a 
semi-syllable (with SK'va) with the following syllable. 

154 Two very common forms of verbal derivatives re- 
quire particular attention: those in (da-bhar), 

and (segolates) in ^ ^ (me'-lech). Their changes are 

given in the following Table : — 



§5.] 



The Construct State. 



51 



Singular. 


Absolute. 


Construct. 


^yi 


^yi 


dabhar 


d'bhar 


V V 


*n 


me'lech 


me'lech 



Plural. 



(154) 



Absolute. 

d'bharim 

■ "•■ : 

m'lachim 



Construct. 
dibhre 
malche 



Dissyllable feminines in H- which have a mutable 155 
Kamets or Tsere in the penult, change that vowel into 
Sh'va by the general rule (153), and take the termi- 
nation dth (i1-). In trisyllables of this kind with 
initial SJiva, there is a contraction of I. a into one 
syllable in * ; as ts'dd-Jcah^ construct tsid-Mth : pi. 
ts'dd-koth^ construct tsid-Jcoth *. 

The complement •\' of an adjective or participle also 156 
causes the governing adjective or participle to assume 
the construct state. Thus, in such combinations as 
would express in Hebrew, ' the pure in heart,'' ' void 
of understanding,'' ^fearing the Lord."* 



T 

Tyy\r\ to-rah 

T 

"IH'I dabhar 

T T 

^^"1 de'rech 
i;? i*ed (v) 



r ; - 



musar hascel 

torath Y'ho- 
vah 

dibhre kh*- 
chamim 

palge mayim 
de'rechj 



darche 
>*ed ^meth 



ma- 
veth 



ike instruction of 157 
wisdom. 

the law of Je- 
hovah. 



words 
men. 



of wise 

brooks of waters. 

{the)way\^j. 
ways [ death, 
awitness of truth. 



* Compare this with TriTrrw, yiyvofxai, which arise from ttc- 
irt-TO), ye-yi-ponat. 

t i. e. a substantive that is connected with it objectively, to 
complete its notion. 

X W^D only in plural from obsol. >Q. In constr. \^. 

d2 



62 

(157) rly\i^ ivve'leth 
]^^ i^ashan. 



The Construct State. 



D^b^ps rim 



ivve'leth c'si- 
lim 

}^^shan haylr 



:i>''dath tsaddi- 
= i! kirn 



[CH. 3. 
the folly of fools. 

the smoke of the 
city. 

the congregation 
of the just. 



A dependent genitive may have another genitive dependent 
upon it, as niH*' Jin2l p"^^^, (Ton b'rith Y'hovah), the ark 
of the covenant of the Lord. 

As a general rule the article does not stand before 
a substantive that has a dependent genitive, since 
that genitive sufficiently defines the word. 



159 Eden, ]ny, i^e'den. 

Flute, organ, 2^^^^, i^ugabh. 
Jubal, by\\ Yubhal. 

T 

Wilderness, "131D («)» mid- 

bar. 
Judah, T]'l^n\ Y'hudah. 
Hair, -)yt^, se^^ar. 

T •• 

Esau, V^y, i-^esav. 

Palace, temple, ^DTT* hechal. 

Sanctuary, ]l}'nT)D («)? mik- 

dash. 
Brother, nN» akh. 

T 

Sic^e, ^"1>, yarech (Ut. thigh). 
Altar, nZTD (a), mizbeakh. 
Shoulder, P|/13 (constr. C] jl3), 
catheph. 



Vocabulary. 

Blessing, nD"13. (w)j b'rachah. 
T T : 

^ dish, mj/p O*^), k'Parah. 
Silver, C^D3. ce'^eph. 
Caw, n*)j^D* (awv), m'i^arah. 
Machpelah, PibB3i2, Mach- 

pelah. 
Corpse, rh22\ (w), n'bhelah. 
Fear, n"li^D C« w), m'gorah. 

T 

Wicked, ^]D^, rasha!!^. 

T T 

Jeremiah, ^H'^t^l'^, Yirm'yahii. 
Old, ]pl zaken. 1 

The elders, D'^^pT, z'kenim. f 



City, 1>t;, ^Ir. 

House, JT*^, bayith {cstr. JV^i)' 

Court, lijn, khatser. 



• IVD 



t ':'n:, nabhal, to fall off. 



§ 5.] The Construct State. 

Exercise 18. 



53 



j-)3-i':a 12 iDl^? JiODrr'n 
— . . -J- -f _ . ^ 

••^.TQT m^ 17 :D7^ 
np^b'i9 ' •ny''"]L!^'is 

. -r .... t'* • - 



I n'har ^eden. 2 d*bhar 160 

Y'hovah. 3 mu5ar Y'hovah. 
4 i^iigabli Yubhal. 5 mid- 
bar Y'hiidah. 6 I'bhabh ish. 
7 s'i^ar i^esav. 8 hechal 

hammtkdash. 9 esheth 

heakh. 10 ye'rech hammiz- 
beakh. 11 khochmath adaro. 
12 bircath Y'hovah. 13 ka- 
i^^rath ce'seph. 14 m'i?arath 
hammachpelah. 15 nibhlath 
ish. 16 tsidkath adam. 

17 dibhre Yirm'yahu. 

18 nah^re i^e'den. 19 mu- 
sare hgabhoth. 20 zikne hai^ir. 

21 sh'chene habbayifch *. 

22 khHsere hammikdash. 

23 birce haish. 



b) 1. Rivers. 2, Rivers of the earth. 3. Words. 4, The 
words of the king. 5. The law of Jehovah. 6. The knees of 
a man. 7. The ^es of Esau. 

Chap. J V. § 1 . Suffixes denoting Possession. 

The Hebrew language possesses a very peculiar i6i 
way of (bnoting the possessive pronoun, which is 
this : — 

a) Slort suffixes (which are abridged forms of the 
persortil pronouns) are attached to nouns in their 
consfitict state, with which they cohere so firmly, that 
the loun with its suffix forms a single word. 

& From the frequent occurrence of these forms, and the 
chinges of vocahzation which they sometimes occasion, they 
rray be considered as belonging to the declension of Hebrew 



* a for a, from the effect (to be explained hereafter) of pause. 



54 Suffixes denoting Possession. [ch. 4. 

162 The possessive suffixes in their most usual form 
are: — 

I. For Singular Nouns. 



m. f. 
My *»_ 


m. /. 

i 


Gur ^J 




Thy T[_ ry_ 


-cha ech 


Your DD ]D 

V 


chem chen 


His-her i ,1- 

T 


6 ahh 


(Their D- ]- 


am an 


11. For Plural Nouns. 


My >_ 


ai 


Our ?i:ii_ 


e-nu 


Thy T|^_ rj>_ 


e-cha ayich 


Fowr DD^- ]y- 


e-chem e-chen 


His-her V- H^- 

T T V 


av e-ha 


... .. 1 .,• .. 


e-hem e-hen 



163 The suffixes are divided iato grave (or accented) 
suffixes {chem\ chen\ Jiem\ ]ie%') ; and light (or un- 
accented) suffixes. 



Masculine Nowa. 

Singular. 

D'lD *U5, a horse. 

^"OMD svi-sii my horse. 

TTDJjD 5u-s'cha, thy horse. 

";yD^D su-sech, 

thy (f.) horse. 

'iD'ID su-s6, his horse. 

HD^D su-sahh, her horse. 

T 
> 

^^DID su-se'-nu, our horse. 

D3D1D su-5'chem', 
" : ' your horse. 

]3pJ)D su-v9'chen, 
• • your (f.) horse. 

0D1D su-5am, 
■^ f Aeir Aorse. 

]D^D su-san, 
"^ f/ieir (f.) /torse. 



Feminine Noun, 
Singular. 
PfDID 5u-sah, a mare. 
''J1D1D su-sa-thi, 7»2/ mare. 

^nV^D st-sa'-th'cha, 
• '^ % /ware. 

■^filDID su-sa-thech, 

/A«/ if,) mare. 

i/lDID 5u-sa-tvA, Ais wiare. 

T \ 

njlD^D su-5a-thH;ih, 
"^ "^ Aer waA 

^J/IDID su-sa-the' 

" ^ our mare. 

DZD-DD^D su.-5ath-chem*5 
• • ~ your mare. 

]DJ1D1D su-sath-chen' 
" • ~ your (f.) mare. 

DJIDID su-sa-tham, 
"^ "^ Meir mare. 

"{JID^D su-sa-than, 
■^ "^ their (t.) mare. 



§>•] 



Suffixes denoting Possession, 



55 



Plural. 
D^D^D su-5im, horses. 
"^O^D sxi-sai, my horses. 

•^"•D^D sCi-se-cha, 

thy horses. 
> 

'^>0^V su-5a'-yTch, 

thy (f.) horses. 

VD^D s^-sav, his horses. 

T 
> 

n^D^D 5u-se-ha, 
■^ " her horses. 

^TV^D su-se-nu, 

our horses. 

DD^D^D su-se-chem', 
" " your horses. 

]D^D^D su-5e-chen', 
" " your (f.) horses. 

DH'^DID su-se-hem', 
" " their horses. 

]n^D^D su-se-hen', 
" " their (f.) horses. 



Plural. 

JliD^D su-s6th, mares. 

TliD^D «u-56-tliai, 
my mares. 

^^jniD^D su-s6-the-cha, 
thy mares. 

^''Jl^D'lD su-s6-tha'-yich, 
thy (f.) mares. 

VJliD^D su-56-tliav, 
^ ^Z5 mares. 

n^jTliD^D 5u-56-the-ha, 
"^ " Aer mares. 

•li^DiD^D su-s6-the -nu, 
owr mares. 

uyivv^D su-56-tiie-chem', 

" " your mares. 

]y^y)D^D su-so-the-chen, 
" " your (f.) mares. 

DH^jniDID sii-so-the-liein', 
" '* their mares. 

^HTliD^D su-so-the-hen', 
• " their (f.) mares. 



165 



The changes in the form of the plural suffixes arise from the I66 
blending of >_ (e), the termination of the construct state, with 

the proper suffixes. 

a) Nouns in eh (11-) throw away eh, and for 6, 167 
his, have e-hu OH-) ; as jTa-le-hu, his lea/(^r\b^). 

h) Nouns in i with Yod quiescent (V), from verbs 
in ah (Lamed He), sound the Yod before a suffix 
with initial vowel : as ^")D, p'ri, fruit ; iHS), 
pir-yo, his fruit. 

c) The plural termination 6th (lis) takes ^ (y after 
it to support its suffixes. 



56 Suffixes denoting Possession. [ch. 4. 

{Additional BemarJcs on the Suffixes [G.] *). 
168 I. pers. anu- (!)3_) is sometimes found (for e-nu) in pause. 

II. pers. -chah is found, rarely, and chiefly with short words, 
for 'cAaCHD- for '•?:_). 

{fern, sing.) dch sometimes, but only in pause, for ech 
(^_forr^_). 

e-cheh for ech (Nah. 2, 14), (Hp- for "TJ-). 

e-cM is found now and then, but only in later writers 
(e. g. Ps. cxxxvdi. 6), (O— for ^_). 

m. jjers. 1) sm^'. m. Ao (sometimes), e-M (rarely), for o 
(h, -in- for i). 

2) /em. siw^f. H- for n_ (sometimes) : i. e. A loses its 

T T 

guttural pronunciation 1. 

3) plur. ahdm X for dm (QH for Q_). 

- 1- T 

a'-/no, only in poetry, for am § (ID— for D_). 

T T 

■^em.) ^ken but rarely, with a consonant preceding, 
and the t«ne (e. g. Gen. xxi. 28, Vbhad-d'heu 

p-^n^). 

I" :- : 

a'-Vnah antique (nJiT— ) for an. 
T : i- 

d^-h^ndh, t-ndh, both a few times for an dl^rT— , HJ--). 

* These are only placed here for future reference. 
t In later writers even written J^_. 
X In pause cul-ld'-ham (DH^S \ 2 Sam. xxiii. 6. 
§ Occasionally in very small words (as prepositions) for o 
(his) : e. g. ^d^ for i^. 



§!•] 



Suffixes denotiTig Possession. 



57 



T 

T T 

T 

nhv (f.) 

TT 



[ 



Examples. 

■ "Ifyi da-m'cha, thy (m.) blood. 

''lil'l d'bha-ri, my word. 

''Hi d'bha-rai, wir^ wore?*. 

)b)^W shu-ra-16, Aw/oa;. 

•jy^p; z'ke-nech, thy (f.) oZc? maw. 

?T^^p t z'ke-nl-cha, f % (m.) o?<? men. 

•IJ^Jp T z'ke-ne-nft, OMr old men. 

mS)D «Tph-rahh, Aer book. 

T ; • 

DJniQ mo-th'chem', your (m.) rfea^A. 

D^il g'mal-lam, their camel. 

T — ; 

''/li'p^D s'gul-lo-thai, my treasures. 
\: 

DDH^J na-i^^re-chem', your (m.) youths. 

^2^0 sal-le-nti, our basket. 

•IT^D *al-le-nft, our baskets, 

"^rh^ cal-la-thi, my bride. 

Tjnl^'^ sh'no-thav, his years. 

T : 

IDTliDli^ sh'md-the-chen', your (f.) name*. 

]n^nilijl to-ro-the-hen', their (f.) Zaw*. 



169 



The vowel changes, produced by the alteration of 170 
accent which the appended suffix occasions, will be 
fully given in the Paradigms of the declensions : we 
will at present only consider two important classes : 

a) dissyllables mth a1 Cl21i da-bhar. 

b) dissyllables with e f j '^b'D, me'-lechipenacute). 

(It will be sufficient to give one example of a grave and one 17 1 
of a light suffix.) 

D 3 



(in) 



58 


Suffixes denoting 


Possession. 


[CH. 4 




Absolute. 


Construct. 


Light suffix. 


Grave suffix. 


a) Sing. 


T T 


137 




°?"??^ 


Plur. 




nni 




Q?'?.^"! 


b) Sing. 


'v V 


'ik 


'ii^ 


2??^^ 


Plur. 




'?^P 


~ T I 


V " : - 


a) Sing. 
Plur. 


da'bhar 
d'bharim 


d'bhar 
dibhre 


d^bhari 
d'bharai 


d'bharchem' 
dibhrechem'' 


b) Sing. 
Plur. 


me'lech* 
m'lachim 


me'lech 
malche 


malchi 
m'lachai 


malc'chem' 
malcechem' 



Vocabulary. 



> 
172 Way, IJI'7, de'rech. 

Pleasantness, D^^j noi^am. 

Thou, T^P^\^, attah. 

T — 

Glory, "1133, cabhod. 

Bac^, 3^ (i^), gabh (- Lat. 

gibbus /'). 

Palace, T , 

^ , ^ 73>rr, h^chal. 

Temple,] t •• 

JBi?ery man, "] ]^'^iii, ish (lit, 

jBac^ (owe), J man). 

^ sacA:, /^^J^D^^5 amta'khath. 

Commandment, HTiD (a), mits- 

vah. 

Statute, r\\^Tl, khiikkah. 

Law, r\'T)D («)> torah. 

T 

Upon, bv> ^aL 



To keep, 11^^, shamar. 
A rite, "IQt^Q (a), mishmar. 
To open, TIDB, pathakh. 
To plough, t^")rT, kharash. 

~ T 

Mountain, "^n, har. 

T 

Silver, ~j > 

Tongue, ]Wb, lashon. 
Dog, 3^3, ce'lebh. 
W^ei^A^ ^p::fD (a), mishkal. 
Son^r, "T'^j shir. 

To put on (a </res5) or be clothed 
with, '(l^^b, labhash {fut. 

— T 

yilbash). 
Priest, ]rt3> cohen. 
Testimony, n"TJ?> i^edah. 



* ITie e' (4") to be pronounced with the obtuse a sound of ^ 
in mhre, or e in there. 



§!•] 



Suffixes denoting Possession. 



5& 



Exercise 19. 



- •• ; - T V T : 

: nu3 mh^ nriNt 3 

T ; 






-^^22 ^lt2W 9 



1 darco shamarti. 2 d'racheha 173 
darche-noi?Sm. 3 attah Y'ho- 
vah c'bhodi. 4 hechal kod- 
sh'cha. 5 path'khu ish 

amtakhto. 6 yishmor mish- 
marti, mitsvothai, khukkothai, 
v'thdrothai. 7 )>al-gabbi kha- 
r'shu khor'shim. 8 c6h*necha 
yilb'shu tse'dek. 9 yishm'ru 
bhanecha bh'rithi. 10 gam- 
b'nehem yishm'ru i^edothi. 



b) 1. Write down in Roman characters, and give 
the English of^ — 
n'211 15 nST^ 14 DO"!"^ 13 '•3-1'^ 12 DS")"! 11 

2. Translate into Hebrew — 

1. The mountain of his hohness. 2. Thy (m.) ways have 
we kept. 3. We mil keep the ways of Jehovah. 4. Our 
sacks. 5. Your (jn.) money. 6. Its (m.) weight. 7. Our 
money. 8. The tongue of thy dogs. 9. Your (m.) songs. 

My silver. Dogs. The king's Proverbs. 
His silver. dogs. 

Their silver. My dog. 

Your (m.) silver. My dogs. 

Thy (/.) silver. ITieir dogs. 

Their (m.) silver. Your (/.) dogs. 

Our silver. His dog. 
Her dogs. 



The pro- 
verbs of Solomon f. 
Her proverb. 
His proverb. 
My proverb. 
My proverbs. 
Their proverbs. 
Your (/.) proverbs. 



* ^"lin, kho-resh (partcp. act. of kha-rash=), one who 
ploughs^ aplougher. 

t r\d)t. 



60 Relations of Case. [cii. 4. 

Chap. IV. § 2. Prejjositions denoting the Belations 
of Case. 

174 Dative] 

a) The relation of the doJive case is expressed by 
the preposition 7 prefixed to a noun, and co- 
hering with it. 

b) Sometimes the preposition bi}, el (of which 7 
is an abbreviation), is used: D"l^l^i"7^i (el- 
Abhram). 

175 Accusative] The accusative is either — 

a) like the nominative, and therefore to be known 
(as in English) only by the structure of the 
sentence ; 

h) denoted by (D^ or T)^) eth or eth- (with 

MaJckeph) : before suffixes also i^^^^, 6th. 

These prepositions are not used before the ace, unless 
the noun is defined either (1) by the article, (2) or by- 
being in construct state, or (3) by a suffix, or (4) from 
being a proper name. 

c) The ace. of the place towards which motion is 
directed, has often its orioinal termination H- 

(which sometimes denotes the place where). 
The preposition b is also sometimes prefixed 
to it. 

d) The accusative alone sometimes denotes in 
Hebrew both the place whither^ and the place 



e) The person to whom motion is directed has 
usually the preposition bt^ (el) prefixed, as the 
place whither sometimes has. 

f) Both the time when and the time how long are 
also denoted by the accusative ; which also 
denotes relations of sj^ace {how wide, how deep, 
&c.) and other adverbial relations : e. g. such 



§ 2.] Belations of Case. 61 

as are expressed in English by as to ; in respect (175) 
of; according to ; in. 

(See remarks on the use of 3 in the next §.) ^ 

Ablative Relation] 176 

a) The aUative relation is generally denoted by ]!?> 
from [o/= some of; ex], which, however, is 
usually abridged, either into D with a compen- 
sating Dagesh in the initial consonant of the 
word ; or, if this is incapable of receiving Da- 
gesh (i. e. is a guttural or Resli)^ into D, me. 
But D may stand before PT : as Dlllp (Gen. xiv. 23). 
h) The ]D is seldom written at length as a separate word, 
except before the article. 

c) The relations denoted by m, at^ with, are also 
expressed by the prepositional prefix 21. 

Expression of genitive relations h2/ ^] The relations 177 

of belonging to or being possessed iy, proceeding from, 
and the like, are sometimes expressed by the pre- 
positional prefix (of the dative) 7. This occurs par- 
ticularly 

1) after an indefinite governing noun, when its indefiniteness 
is to be marked ; 

2) after a noun in the construct state which has already one 
dependent genitive ; 

3) when the governing noun has an adjective with it ; 

4) after specifications of number. 

The b denoting possession is also sometimes pre- 178 

ceded by the relative pronoun '^'p^,^ which. Thus: 

n^2l^^ llDii IJ^iin, hatstson *sher Fabhiah [grex qui patri 

ejus: sc. eraf], (lit. the Jlock which [wasj to her father =) her 
father's flock. 

With respect to the pointing of h\ l\ ^ 

a) Their regular Sh'va is changed into Khirelc, when 179 

the initial consonant of the vowel to which they 

are prefixed has Sh^a. 



62 Belations of Case. [ch. 4. 

(179) h) Before an initial vowel with a Khatepli., they 
take the vowel with which the Khateph is com- 
pounded. 

c) Before monosyllables or penacute^ dissyllables 
they (as Vav also does) often take Kamets. 

d) Before the article^ they usually displace it, and 
take its pointing. 

e) Before DN'l^K they take Tsere (the ^^ becoming 

quiescent) ; and before ^'l^^ Pathakh j because the Jews 

T ; 

did not pronounce this sacred name, but that of "'^IK 

instead ; to indicate which they gave to its prefixes the 
Pathakh which the prefix of Adonai would have. 

180 Rule c does not always hold good. These prefixes take 
Kamets (1) before infinitives of the above-mentioned form (except 
before the genitive); (2) before many pronominal forms, and 
(3) when the word is so closely connected with what precedes, 
as to be disconnected from what follows. 



181 



T V T 

TT T 
'•' T •• 

nb'upb 
"Di''rT 



Examples. 

rda-vTd, to David. 

eth ha-a-rets, the earth. 

ethsha-ra-ki'-ai), the expanse. 

ne-tse" has-sa-deh, let us go out into the 
field. 

beth a-bhi-cha, in the home of thy father. 

ba-bhe'-lah, to Babylon (some-1 

times : in Babylon). [^ n localis 

ha-ha-rah, to the mountain. i (local He). 

be-thah yo-seph, into Joseph's house 
(where obs. that it follows a noun in 
Stat, constr.). 

li-sh'o'-lah, to Sheol. 

hay-yom, (the =) this day : to-day. 

)^e'-rebh, at evening. 



i. e, those that are Milel ; i. e. have the accent on the penult. 



§2.] 

tOBi:^D3 

T ; • ~ 



Relations of Case. 63 

she-sheth ya-num, (during) six days. (l8l) 

hac-cis-se", in respect of the throne. 

peh e-khad, with one mouth. 

min ha-a-rets, /rom the earth. 

mits-ts'bha, out of the host. 

me-kha-zak, /rom the powerful. 

ben I'yi-shai, a son of Jesse's. 

khel-kath has-sa-deh I'bho-i^az, a portion 
of the field of Boaz. 

ben e-khad la-^khime'-lech, one of the 
sons of Ahimelech. 

ba-kh*mish-shah la-kho-desh, on the fifth 

of the month. 
bam-mish-pa^ in the judgement (=b'ham- 

mish-paO- 
lam-me'-lech, to the king. 
la-a-rets, to the earth. 
ba-a-rets, in the earth. 



To create, ^^")B, bara *. 

T T 

Heavens, D^Q^j shamayimf 

• - T 

To love, 2'ni^> ahabh. 



Dainty ] D^DJ?IDD («), ma^ 

'^^«^*' I rammim, a, (ta 
Dainties,] )^am, to taste.) 

Stone, ]nN^, e^hen. 



Vocahidaiy. 

Master,'] 

Lord, |m«(-),ad6nt. 

To collect, gather, DJ3> canas. 
Camd, bD^i, {but pi. W^DSi), 

T T ' ~ '. 

gamal. 
No, V^J> en. 

Men ipl.l U'^p^Vi, 'nashim. 
There, WtDj sham. 



Place, D^pQ {ay), makom. 



182 



Grave, ")3p5 ke'bher. 



* Verbs that end in a (S) take t for their second vowel 
t A noun of the dual form : no singular in use. 
X Dun, to govern : others say, aden, a base. 



64 



Relations of Case. 



[CH. 4. 



(182) Simple, >pQ, pethi, j9?. U^^PQ 

• V • T : 

or D^N/IBj p'thayim or 

p'tha-im. 
Garland,'] 
Cro.n, /n:i>.llvy5h. 

Grace y j 

Head, *^J^n, rosh. 
Mother, □^}, em. 
Eternity, ^S'^, i^olam*. 

T 

Isaac. Esau. 



Mercy, ^DHj khe'^ed. 

Part, piece, 1T3, ge'zer (ga- 

zar, fo cmO. 
To CM<, to divide, 1T3, gazar. 

-T 

rSea, Q^ yam. 

■x Rec? Sea, 5^')D~D\ yam-suph : 
I = sea of weed. 
Inheritance, nbn2> na'kh^ah" 
(nakhal, to acquire, c^c). 

Rebecca. Jacob. 



npn,! 



^?V.l 



Exercise 20. 



•• T T ' '.'I 

X : X ' T : • T •• 



1 ^lohim bara eth hash- 
shamayim (p). 2 Yitskhak 
ahabh eth i^esav. 3 Ribhkah 
nath'nah eth-hamma^i^am- 
mim. 4 Yai^^kobh lakakh 
meabhne hammakom. 
5 ^lii^e'zer lakakh migg'malle 
"donav. 6 en ish mean'she 
habbayith sham. 7 cones 

^bhanim I'kibhro. 8 nathan 
liphthaim i?ormah. 9 torath 
imm'eha Ih^ath khen I'ro- 
shecha(j9). 10 hodu lay'hovah. 



* L'i?6-lam =: in ssecula saeculorum (for ever). 

t 'lohim takes a singular verb. 

X For D''Dic^r7> from its being in pause (i. e. at the close of 

the sentence), the effects of which will be explained in the 
chapter on the regular verb. It will be indicated by ip), 
§ Give ye chanks (an Imperative). 



§2.] Relations of Case. ^5 






ci-/6bh, ci Ti^olam khasdo. (l83) 
11 hodii I'gozer yamsuph 
ligzarim. 12 nathan artsam 
l'nacli*lah. 



h) 1. ITie heavens of Jehovah. 2. From the heavens of Je- 
hovah. 3. For thy (m.) dog. 4. For thy dogs. 5. I loved 
Rebecca. 6. From the place. 7. For the place. 8. For the 
camels. 9. Stones. 10. The stones. 11. He took stones of 
the field. 12. He took stones of thy field. 13. He took of the 
stones of my field. 



Chap. I Y. §3. Other Prepositional Prefixes. Vav, 

1. C (3) is a prepositional prefix meaning like^ as, i84 
according to -f. 

(The rules for its pointing are the same as for 2, ^, 179.) 

V (1) is and; its usual pointing is JSh^va. 185 

But v' (a) becomes u (^) before labials (Beth^ Pe, 186 
Vav, Mem) and words whose initial consonant 
has Sh''va. 

h) Before monosyllables, penacutes, EloTiim, and 
Y^hovah, -y"* follows the same rule as V, V (7, 21), 
179. • • 

When two events are connected, the second, which 187 
denotes the further continuation and progress of the 
events narrated, is usually expressed by the Imperfect 
with Va'o, then called Yav consecutive. This Imperfect 
will be construed by the English Perfect, when the 
preceding Perfect is so construed. 

(See more under the account of the Tenses.) 

Sometimes, when there is a connexion with an 188 
earlier event, the narrative, or a section of it, begins 
with an Imperfect with Vav consecutive : this is very 

* Supply the copula. ' it is.* f From p. 



66 Otlier Prepositional Prefixes. Vav. [ch. 4. 

(l88) commonly the case with %711' "va-y'hi (kuI lyivero), 
and it was (so) ; and it came to pass. 

189 Vav consecutive takes Pathakli with strong Dagesh 
in the next consonant. Before ^^ (which is incapable 
of receiving the Dagesh) Ka^mets is used. 

190 A Perfect that follows an Imperfect (in the sense 
of a Future) is also changed by a Vav prefixed into the 
meaning of a Future., and must be construed by that 
tense in English. This Vav conversive is pointed like 
the simple copulative Vav. (See 185, 186.) 

Vocabulary. 



Under- 
garment, 

Garment, 



191 Brother, fli^j akh (irreg. with 

T 

suffixes ''^^<). 

• T 

Choice things,'] J^^Tl^D, mig- 
Valuables, J danoth*. 
Wife, n^K, ishshah int^, 
esheth, constr.). 

D^D'^y cutto'neth 

(absoL). 
n^hS, c'tho'neth 

(nearly always con- 
- struct). 

Gleaning, \^pb, le'ke^ 

Distressed,~] 

Needy. P^^''""'- 

Stranger, 1^ (v), ger D^^)- 

To give, ]Jnj, nathan. 

To hide, ]DD> ^aman. 

To rise up, rh)^, i?alah \. 

T T 

To make, H'tV}^, i^asah f. 



Dainty meat, D''/2J^IDDj ma^- 

i^amraim. 
Also, Q]), gam. 

Bread, UTw, le'khem. 
Slothful, sluggard,'} ^ijy, i?a- 
Lazy, J tsel. 

The moon, niN yareakh. 
Star, 2Di3 {^), cochabh. 

T 

Thick cloud, 2}^ (v), i^abh. 
Palm (of the hand), S)3 Q)), 
caph. 

Dish, 1 , 

„ , } nn? >i, tsaUakhath. 

Bowl, J 

To write, '] 

rr r :iri3, cathabh. 

10 engrave, \ - t 

Unleavened bread (or cake), 
n-^D, matstsah. 

To kill, ''^r^p, karal. 

- 't 

Skin, -)iy, i^or. 



* Plural of mig-da-nah, not in use. 

t Verbs ending in h have Kamets for Pathakh in 3rd sing, 
perf. 



§ 3.] Other Prepositional Prefixes. Vav. 



67 



Exercise 21 . 

T • T : ' - T V ■•• • V ; 

: • : T T : t t 

T •• T ' - T V V - 

: • - T • T 



h) Translate — 



1 ^lire'zer nathan I'akhiah 192 
ul'immahh migdanoth. 

2 Y'hovah i^asah I'adam 
ul'ishto cothnoth r6r. 3 hal- 
le'ke^ lei^ani v'lagger. 
4 Ribhkah nath'nah eth-ham- 
ma^i^ammim v'gam eth-hal- 
le'khem. 5 <aman i?atsel 
yado batstsallakhath. 
6 Y'hovah ^^asah eth-hay- 
yareakh v'chochabhim. 7 hm- 
neh-i?abh k'/annah c'chaph- 
ish i^olah miyyam. 8 vay- 
yichtSbh Mosheh eth col- 
dibhre Y'hovah. 9 iish'mar- 
tem eth-hammats6th. 



1. Like a dog. 2. And I killed [after a Perfect]. 3. And I 
will kill [after an Imper/ecf J. 4. Isaac and Eliezer. 5. David 
and Solomon. 6. Like the mountain of my holiness. 7. Like 
a thick cloud. 8. And the thick cloud. 9. And they shall 
keep my statutes [after an Imperfect ^ Future']. 



Chap. V. Modes of expressing the Comparative and 

Superlative. 

The comparative is expressed by prefixing the 193 
particle ]D {min)^ or D {ini) with following Dagesh 

(Q before gutturals), to the object or objects with 



* Active partcp. of Kal from n^P : it has this form 
the construct state. "^ "^ 

t Suppose a Perfect to have preceded. 

X Suppose an Imperfect (= Future) or Imperative to have pre 
ceded. 



in 



68 The Comparatice and Superlatwe. [ch. 

(193) which the thing in question is compared. The ad- 
jective remains in the positive : 
0Vn"73D nbil. ga-bh5-ahh mic-col=ha-i^am, taller than any 

T T T • - T 

of the people. 

1 94 This ]0 (= ex) denotes distinction or removal from (or se- 
lection out of) the mass of objects with which the comparison is 
made. — Compare the Latin ablative with the comparative, and 
the adjectives ex-imius, e-gregius ; also Homer's Ik ttuvtiov fxd- 
XiGTa. (G.) 

195 The superlative is usually denoted by the definite 
article with the positive^ which thus marks out the 
object in question as pre-eminently the possessor of 
the quality. The objects follow with ]D {12, Q) or 2,- 

196 The superlative of eminence (i. e. answering to our 
very with the positive)^ TKD (m'od). It is sometimes 

denoted by a repetition of the positive : ' Good^ good 
it is,"" &c. ; ' very good it is,^ &c. 

197 A sort of superlative is sometimes formed by the construct 
state of the positive before a plural genitive : 

D^I^lp U}lp> ko-desh k°da-shim {the holy of holy things), the 

holiest of all. 

198 A comparison of equality is made by 3 (or Z). 3) = 
as, like. 

199 If the 3 is expressed before each member of the comparison, 

it indicates a reciprocal similarity : just as in English, " like 
master like man " = the man is like the master, and the master 
like the man. 

Vocabulary. 



200 Sweet, pijlD» mathok. 
Precious, ^p^, yakar. 
Profit, HNU/l {a<^)> t'bhuah. 
Excellent, in3J» nibhkhar 

T ; ♦ 

{jpartcp. Niphal of bha- 
khar). 

Floor, threshing-floor, ]li), 
goren. 



Honey, ]^21, d'bhash. 
Pearls, D''J"'J3> p'ninim (al. 

red-corals, E. B. rubies). 
Gold, yna kharuts. 
Pure gold, ^3, paz. 
Chamber, room, 1iir\> khe'der. 
Little, young, T'^ii, tsai^ir. 



5.] 



The Comparatiw and Superlative. 



69 



Handsome, fair y beautiful, HE)''* 

V T 

yapheh. 
Always, I'^DD, tamid (lit. 

* T 

perpetuity). 
Dry, ti^^\ yabesh. 

•• T 

Potsherd, '^"IH, khe'res. 



Moon, mn^, I'bhanah (lit. (200) 
the white one, f. of 1^7, 

'tt 

white). 
Sun, r^t^n, khammah. 

T ~ 

Pure, -|:i (/. n"in), bar. 

~ T T 

Life, Q^Tf, khayyim {pi). 



Exercise 22. 



a) Trp^\ 2 : ^y^r2 pij^Q i 
• T : T • ' T •• • : - 

Dvrr 8 : trnns t:*n^ 7 

T T V V - •• T 

:D"'^nD ^ihu nli'n 



1 mathok midd'bhasli. 2 y'ka- 201 
rah khoclamah mipp'ninim. 
3 tbhh. piryi mekhari'its umip- 
paz, Ath'bhuathi micce'^eph 
nibhkhar. 4 15 ^obh anochi 
me^bhothai. 5 anochi hats- 
tsal^ir b'bheth abhi. 6 cith- 
bhuath goren. 7 yabhesh 

cakhe'res. 8 hai>am caccohen. 
9 cai^am caccohen. 10 ya- 
phah chall'bhanah barah ca- 
khammah. 1 1 /obh kha^d'cha 
mekhayyim. 



h) 1. Wisdom is very good. 2. Wisdom is better than silver. 
i3. My rooms are better than yours. 4. Your room is very good. 

Chap. VI. § 1. Numerals. 1. The ten first Cardinal 

Numbers. 

1. The Cardinal Numbers from 2 to 10 are sub- 202 
stantives with an abstract meaning (like triads decad^ 
TTcvrac) ; but they are also used adverlially . Only 
"inNJ one (ekhad), fern. TTft^, (akhath), is construed 
as an adjective. The other numbers have each a 
masculine and a feminine form, which are identical 
in point of meaning^ but distinguished in use by the 



70 



Numerals. 



[CH. 6. 

(202) arbitrary custom of employing i\\Q feminine form with 
masculines^ and the onasculine with feminines. 

It is only in the dual form for two^ U]yi) (sh'na'-yim), 



203 



fern. U]r\^ (sh'ta'-yim), that the gender of the nu- 
meral agrees with that of the object numbered. 
204 The numerals from 1 to 10 : — 



1 K 



2 n 



10 



n 



8 n 



9 to 



Masculine 

(which after 2 are fem. mfori)i). 


Femi 


NINE. 


Absol 


Constr. 


Absol 


Constr. 


inhj 


inNJ 


-^J? 


TT})^ 


e-khid 


a-khad 


e-khath 


a-khath 




'^^ 




' ^^P 


sh'na'-yim 


sh'ne 
or 


sh'ta-yim 


sh'ta 
or 




. sh'nera 




. sh'tem 


ntbt 


rwbt 


tbt 


'&)^ 


sh'lo-shah 


sh'lo'-sheth 


sha-losh 


sh'losh 


•^^?1^ 


r\v:rr^ 


^^1^ 


i^nnst 


ar-ba-iah 


ar-ba-i^ath 


ar-bai^ 


^r-bki; 


r^'mn 


^'^?n 


^DH 


^9Q 


kh'^mish-shah 


kh^me'-slieth 


kha-mesh 


kh^mesh 


n^vj 


^t^ 


m 


ttl 


shish-shah 


she'-sheth 


shesh 


shesh 


r^v-it 


r\v2.v 


^nf^ 


i?ni^ 


shibh-Jl^ah 


shTbh-i^ath 


she'bhai> 


sh'bha^ 


r[pt 


niM^p 


npt 


r\pt 


sh'monah 


sh'mo-nath 


sh'moneh 


sh'mo-neh 


r\vvr\ 


nvpi^ 


vtr\ 


VtF}. 


tish-i^ah 


tish-hth 


te'-shai? 


t'shai? 


r^-v^v 


-Hl^y 


'^W 


n?^^ 


i^^'sa-rah 


i?*se'-reth 


i^e'-ser 


)?es-reh 



§ 1.] Numerals. 71 

The other Semitic languages exhibit the same peculiarity in 205 
respect to the genders. The explanation of this is, that these 
numerals, being originally abstract substantives (like decas, trias), 
had both the masculine and feminine form. The feminine, as 
being the favorite form for abstract notions, was the principal 
form, and as such was connected with words of the masculine 
gender; so that the other form, without the feminine ending, 
was used with words of the feminine gender. Usage made this 
a settled law in all the Semitic languages, the exceptions to it 
being very rare. (G.) 

(Syntactical Bemarh [Gr.].) 
a) The numerals from 2 to 10 stand either 206 

1) in the construct state before the substantive 
(so that the object numbered is in the ge- 
nitive), D''D^ ^P^P^ tJ^^ee days^ prop, triad 
of days; or 

2) in the absolute state before it (the thing num- 
bered being then considered as in the accu- 
sative or in apposition), U^'12, nii^"?'^, three 
sons; or ^ ^ ' 

3) in the absolute state after it, as in apposition 
with the object numbered (a usage of the 
later books, where the adverbs also are so 
constructed), '^\b'^ "Hi^J, three daughters. 

1 Chron. xxv. 5 *. 

The numerals from 2 to 10 are joined, with very 207 
few exceptions, with the plural. 

rl) sh'losheth banim. 
Three sons ) 2) sh'loshah banim. 

[_3) banim sh'loshah (late and rare). 
\Mien a numeral is used absolutely (i. e. without a sub- 208 
stantive), the masculine is regularly used (i. e. the, feminine form 
for the numerals after two. 202). 

* In like manner the constructions T^yj) HKOj Gen. xvii. 

T T T •• 

17, and nj'^i; /IXQ, xxv. 7, 17, a hundred years, are equally 



72 



Numerals. 
Vocahulary. 



[CH. 6. 



209 Son, \2, {pi. U^y^., constr. 
^J2), ben (banim, b'ne, 
irreg.). 
Daughter, 71^ {pi JliiH, 

- T 

constr. r\')^2)> bath (banoth, 
b'noth, irreg.). 
Branch, y\V, sarig (sarag; 

• T 

in Pual to he interwoven). 
A day, QV, yora {pi. yamim). 
IjO ! 'n^'n, hinneh. 



Stalk, r\^r), kaneh. 

v't 

Perchance, haply, "^^IhJ, ulai. 

Battle, war, UUVh'O (« w), 
milkhamah (lakham, to con- 



Leah, nj^A Leah. 

Week, )J^2t, shabhua^ {pi. 

Bullock, 13, par {pi. parim). 



Exercise 23. 



210 a) r\v2t ti^ *n^i'l J 
ntbp D'pwn niijbt 2 

II ^'iv ' ^'^^^ ' ^if3")^^ 5 

T • -; - •• T T ; • 

ns^ m^^ D^n nr^'-^ 6 

T •• t; T • T T • 

-ibon nir^^ n;;ni:r 7 



1 vayyiwal'du * 16 f shibhi^ah 
bhanim v'shalosh banoth. 

2 sh'ldsheth hassarigim sh'lo- 
sheth yamim hem ^. 3 hinneh 
shebai^ slnbb°lim i?6l6th : 
b'kaneh ekhad. 4 ulai yim- 
mats'un § sham i^^arah. 

5 arbai)ah m'lachim i?asu || 
milkhamah eth hakh^mishshah. 

6 shishshah banim yal'dah 
Leah. 7 shibi^ah shabhui^oth 
tispor. 8 sh'monah pharim 
hikribhu. 9 "nochi ^obh lach 
mei^^sarah banim. 



b) 1. The three baskets are^ three days. 2. Four kmgs. 
3. Three men. 4. Two sons. 5. Five men went. 6. Eight stalks. 



* ' And there were born.' 
§ ' There shall be found.' 
H * They offered.' 



■ To him.' t ' Came up.' 

■ Made with (eth).' 



§2.] 



Cardinal Numhers. 



73 



Chap. VI. § 2. The Cardinals continued. Ordinals. 

To expi-ess the numbers from ]1 to 19, the units 211 
stand, without the copulative conjunction, before ten 
(in the form ^V}) masc.^ TX^VVfem.). In such as are 

masculine in form (and therefore used vi\th.fem. nouns) 
the units stand, at least from 13 upwards, in the 
construct state, which here indicates merely a close 
connexion between the notions, not the relation of 
the genitive. These numerals have no construct 
state, and are always used adverhially. 



212 







Masc. 


Fem. 


11 


S> 


T T ~ ~ 


rrjm rr\\^ 


12 


n^ 


-^^^V D^r^ 


rrfiv D^'r}^ 


13 


:i^ 


T T T • 


xrvf^V ^^p 


14 


i> 


Tz'V n^^HNt 


tiijpy y^.'ik 


15 


irot 


T T T • -• 


n"ii^3; tm 


16 


V 


T T T • 


n-i^vv "i^^ 


17 


r^ 


T T T ; • 


n")pvV2p 


18 


XV 


^W rvpt 


^IPV ^P^V 


19* 
20 




nW ny^i^h 


" : V - : 

. . . nn^v 



The tens from 30 to 90 are expressed by the plural 213 
forms of the corresponding units (so that the plural 
denotes tenfold the singular) ; except that twenty is 
expressed by U^'y^V, plur. of ^'^V, ten. 

^° They are of the common gender, and have no 214 
construct state. 



* Unusual forms are ")t^^ il^On, ^ifeew. Judges viii. 10; 

T T %•••"; 

"lli'^ Djbli^j eighteen. Judges xx. 25. Here the masculine too 

T T - : 
has the units in the construct state. 

t Used because TV begins the sacred name. 



74 Cardinal Numbers. [ch. 6. 

215 When units and tens are written together, the 
earher writers commonly place the units first (e. g. 
two and tioenty, as in Arabic); but in the later 
writers the order is almost invariably reversed {ticenty 
and tioo, as in Syriac). The conjunction is alway? 
used. 

{^Common gender.) 

216 Twenty, D"")"^]^* :i?es-rim. 

Thirty, whbt> sh'lo-shim. 

Forty, WV2r))^, ar-ba-i^im. 

Fifiy> □'•l^QH, kh-^mish-shim. 

Sixty, D''k^'Ii^j shish-shira. 

Seventy, WV^t, shibh-i^im. 

Eighty, D''^b^> sh'm5-mm. 

Ninety, W^y^DPi, tish-^^im. 
I' : ■ 

The remaining numerals are : — 

217-4 hundred, nj^/2, me-ah. 

constr. Di^D, m'ath. 

r : 
Two hundred, U^JlisD (for D'*n^^D)> ma-tha'-yim. 

•r , T TT : 

A thousand, P)T?J^, e'-leph. 

Two thousand, D^D /^^> al-pa-yim. 

Ten thousand, n22"1. P^ur. Jl'lQ^"), r'bha-bhah; Plur. ri- 
bh^-bhoth. 
Ni:i"! or 12"), Phir. JliXil") or jnin"), rib- 
bo ; Plur. rib-bo-oth or rib-both. 
a) Examples of the other hundreds'] 

ns -.nii^D :;3ni^ an) 400 :J1^^<D ^bp iw soo 
:nii^D m nn) 6oo -n^m tm (pn) 500 
:'D 7]pp (ATI) 800 :'D rn^ (t:^Jl) 700 

•.'D vpr^ (prih) 900 



§ 2.] Ordinal Numbers. 75 

h) Examples of the other thousands] (218) 

: D^H)':'^^ rviht d) sooo •• u'^b^ nv-nt^ (l) 4000, and 

so on. : Jnin") ^r\t, or D^O^'^I' ^^ ^.^. Q^W 20,000 
: ^;^ rtm W 600,000, and so on. ' ' 



2. Ordinal Numhers. 

a) The ordinals after the ^ first'' (which is derived 219 
from "^1X1 [rosh], head) are formed from the cor- 
responding cardinals by appending ''-, and also 

usually inserting another *♦- in the preceding syl- 
lable. 

li) The feminines have the termination JV- {ith)^ 
less commonly XV {y-yali) ; and also denote such a 
fart {or fraction) : but besides these there are other 
forms to denote fractional parts, such as ^OT (kh5- 

mesh), and n^t^\pn, the fifth part; JTlh and V^"] 
■ (robhaj; and re'bhay), and Jiyil'l, the fourth part. 

•220 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 


The 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Sincf. 


Plur. 


Isfc 


r\^i^')^ 


n'^Wi^-) 


r\:Wi^'i 


ni^'^K"! 


2nd 


7^ 


W^^yp 


^ mp 


nS^2p 


3rd 


^p>bp 


D'pbp 


i n'p'bp 




4th 


T^l 


D^ni 


rryuS 




5th 


''VVU 




D'^p'm 




6th 


'^^'^ 




D'pp 




7th 


'V^p 




ny'^p 




8th 


'^TDp 




m'Dp 




9th 


ypn 




D'v^pn 




10th 


''yw 




r)n>"w 





The rest of the Ordinal Numbers are made by the terms ap- 221 

E 2 



76 Ordinal Numbers. . [ch. 6. 

(221) propriated to the Cardinal ones: as, TYSVyi TSH^T} ilJIi^n, 
the eleventh year ; so, DV ")*OT TW^.'^' ^^^ seventeenth day. 

T T T ; • 

{Syntactical Remarks [G.],) 

222 «) In the cardinal numbers, the tens (from 20 to 

90), when they precede the substantive, are 
regularly joined with the singular (in the ac- 
cusative), and when i\\Qy follow it, in apposition, 
with the plural. The hrst is the more frequent 
construction. 

The plural may be used in the first case, but the sin- 
gular never occurs in the second. 

The numerals from 11 to 19 are joined to the singular 

form (in the accusative) only with certain substantives, 

of which the numbers are very frequently stated, as day, 

year, man, &c. (comp. our ' six pair of stockings,' 'four 

head of oxen ;') e.g. DV "^VV ni?B"lh^5 ^m^. fourteen 
T T T T : - 

day, Ex. xii. 6. With this exception, they are joined to 

the plural ; and in the later books then stand after the 

substantive. 

h) Numerals made up of tens and units (Hke 21, 
62) take the object numbered either 1) after 
them in the singular (in the accusative), or before 
them in the j^lural^ as in the later books (Dan. 
ix. 26) ; or 2) the object is repeated, with the 
small numbers in the plural, with the larger in 
the singular (Gen. xii. 4 ; xxiii. 1). 

c) Beyond 10 the ordinals have no pecuhar forms, 
but are expressed by those of the cardinals, 
which then stand either before the object num- 
bered, or after it as genitive. In the latter 
case, the word HJ^ is sometimes repeated. In 

numbering days of the month and years, the 
forms of the cardinals are used, even for the 
numbers from 1 to 10. 

223 Rem. 1) The numerals take the article when they stand with- 
out a substantive, and refer to subjects mentioned before, as 
D^JOT, the two, Eccles iv. 9- 12. 



§ 2.] Ordinal Numbers. 77 

2) Some substantives denoting weights, measures, or space of (223) 
time, are regularly omitted after numerals ; e. g. shekels, ephahs, 
loaves. Thus an Hebrew spoke of 'a thousand of silver, 'six 

of barley,' 'ten of bread.' 'A hundred (&c.) cubits' is often ex- 
pressed thus : ' a hundred by the cubit ' CH^i^^ PTJ^D). 

T — T T •• 

3) Numbers are expressed distributively (nearly as in English) 
by the repetition of the cardinals, but without 1. Two two = 

two and two {W'lt W^D)- Once is inj^ D^D/ pa^am ekhad 

(Ht. a step) ; twice, D'^D^B ; three times, D^D^D li^i^Ii^. Also 

by the feminine forms of the cardinals, JIJIJ^ (akhath) once; 

DTl^, twice: '^'^h'^, thrice (poetical). The ordinals are em- 

ployed in the same v/ay. 



Vocabulary. 



Evening, ^ip, i?e'rebh. 
Morning, Ip^, bok6r. 
Sabbath, n'2.'t, shabbath. 

T - 

Euphrates, /1"13, p'rath. 

T ; 

Wives, D''^J, nashim (with 

• T 

masc. termination : irr. pi. 
of TOJ^). 

X 

Cubit, HDi^. ammah. 

T - 

Length, ^ij^, orech. 



Ark, r\2r\y tebhah. 

T •• 

Breadth, ^TT), rokhabh. 
Height, VMySp (w), komah. 
Flood, ^^2.12 (a y), mabbul 

(yabhal, to flow*). 
Month, tip, khodesh (kha- 

dash, to make new). 
To become dry ; to be dried up, 

1i}2^, yabheshf. 

•• T 

Waters, Q^Q, mayim (irr.)- 



224 



* So Gesenius. Others derive it from nabhel, to drop off (of 
leaves, &c.) ; and make its primary meaning, delapsus pluvice. 
Simonis. 

t Intransitive verbs often take (••) for (-) in ult. of 3rd sing, 
perfect. In the other persons they are conjugated regularly. 



78 



Ordinal Numbers. 
Exercise 24. 



225 a)irV^ DV" 


''^It DV 


^t'ht uv 


7^aS Dv 


''p'^r\ Dv 


>mT} DV 






T T T T - ' V V ; 

"^C^Il? ^ • '^i^l'7 ''?^^"??'!? 
np^ 8 : /ins i^-in ^y^ann 

'-T t: • • :|T 

Di^ D^t^: ^riii^ "^ip"? 'i'? 

T ; - V - T • 

HDSt n'li^o ^^ti^ 10 : D^n 

T - • • -: T " - 

D^r^ D^Jt:r 11 ' ^nndp 

.- . .- . T T ' 

Dv"D^y:l"l^* n''n 'p^zdh 12 

• T : - TT - ~ 

... - V - ' V T T 



1 vay'hi- 
i?e'rebh, 
vay'hi- 
bho'ker 



[CH. 6. § 2. 

yom ekhad 
yom sheni 
yom sh'lishi 
yom r'bhii?! 
yom kh^mishi 

yom hash- 
shish-shi. 
2 yom hashsh'bhii^i shabbath 
layhovah ^lohecha. 3 han- 
nahar hayah I'arbai'ah rashim. 

4 shem haekhad Pishon. 

5 shem-hannahar hashsheni 
Gikhon. 6 shem-hannahar 
hashsh'lishi Khidde'kel. 

7 hannahar har'bhii''i hu* 
P'rath. 8 lakakh 16 Le'mech 
sh'ti nashim, shem haakhath 
Padah v'shem hashshenith 
Tsillah. 9 vayyoled Noakh 
sh'loshah bhanim. 10 sh'losh 
meoth ammah orech hatte- 
bhah, kh^mishshim ammah 
rokhbahh, ush'loshim ammah 
komathahh. 1 1 sh'nayim 

sh'nayim bau el-Noakh el- 
hattebhah. 12 hammabbul 
hayah arbai^im yom yal-ha- 
ai-ets. 13 bakhodesh hash- 
sheni b'shibi^ah v'^-'esrim yom 
lakh5desh yabh'shah haarets. 



' V T T T ; I T 

* And evening was and morning was = and the evening and 
morning were (E. T.). Cf. 188. '' hayah (=«;««) followed 
by h {to) ■=. became. Here : ' was divided into.' '^ ' And Noah 

begat.' ^ went. * e\ = to ; into. 



CH. 7. § 1.] The Pronouns. 79 

b) 1. And the evening and the morning were the seventh (225) 
day. 2. Three and twenty sons. 3. Forty-two years. 4. One 
hundred and three days. 5. Sixteen sons. 6. One thousand 
two hundred and eight years. 



Chap. VIL The Pronouns. § 1. Personal Pronouns. 



1 1 



*ni 



T 

a-no-chi 

2 Thou{m.) TM^tk 

T ~ 

at-tah 

3 Thou (f.) 



4 He 



5 She 



'at 
hu'^ 

hi^ 
^J-l^^ o-thi 



11 Me 

12 Thee (m.) ?[n^^ o-th'cha 

13 Thee (f.) Tjhj^ o-thach 

14 Him ^J-|^^ o-tho 

15 Her Hili*^ o-thahh 



Nominative. 

6 ^e 

7 ro%(m.) 

8 FoM(f.) 

9 TAey (m.) 
10 They (f.) 

Accusative. 
16 Us 



226 



*nakh-nu, nakh-nu 

at-tem 
at-ten 

an, HDn 

hem, hem'-mah 

]n, n-irr 

hen, hen'-nah 



227 



l^ni^ 6-tha'-nu 

T 

17 You (m.) DDriN^ eth-chem 

18 You (f.) ]i)iiSl eth-chfen 

19 Them (m.) ohi^ o-tham 

T 

20 Them (f.) ]nj< o4han 



Other relations expressed by prepositions and pro- 228 
nominal affixes : — 

(To, towards) 



To 


b 


'b^ (^'?^^) ^i-c^i^) 


21 Me 


' ^b li 


•^bVi e-lai 


22 Thee (m.) 


-^b I'cha 


TJ'i'^J^ e-ll-cha 



80 

(228) (To) 

23 Theeiyt) "rjb 

24 Him "h 

25 Her rh 

T 

26 t7« -1^9 

27 FoM (m.) U2b 

28 FoM(f.) ]D^ 

29 Them (m.) DhS 

V T 

30 Them it.) mb 

From ]^ 

31 Me s^DL: 

32 Thee(m.) T[p!^ 

33 T/iee (f.) "JJ^D 

34 Him 



27^^ Fronoiins. 

lach 

16 

lahh 

la-nu 

la-chem 

la-chen 

la-hem 

la-hen 



mim-men -ni 
mim-m'cha 
mim-mech 
mim-men'-nu 



35 Her 

36 Us 

37 You(m.) 

38 You (f.) 



rT!IDD mim-men'-nah 






mim-men'-nu 

mic-cem 

mic-cen 



39 Them (m.) DHQ me-hem 

40 7%em (f.) ]nD me-hen 

With J-)^^ eth 

51 Me •»i^^$ it-ti 

52 7%ee (ra.) Tj;njs} it-t'cha 

53 T^ee (f.) r^p^^ it-tach 

54 Hi?n SDi^ it-to 

55 Her ^/^^^ it-tahh 



In 

41 
42 
43 
44 



[CH. 7 
(To, towards) 
V.^^ e-la-yich 

vbi} 
^Tbi} 
^^'^^ 

in 



e-lav 
e-le-ah 

e-le-nu 

4e-chem 

4e-chen 

*le-hem 

"le-hen 

bi 

b'cha 
bach 
b6 



45 n^l bahh 



46 
47 
48 

49 
50 






ba-nu 

ba-chem 

ba-chen 



□3, rbam, 

Dn^ I ba-hem 

V T >- 

f P^ rba-hen, 

I liii [ba-hen 



With 

56 Us ^^pii^ it-ta-nti 

T • 

57 You (m.) DDnX it-t'chem 

58 FoM (f.) ]3r\i^ it-t'chen 

59 Them (m.) Di^^< it-tam 

60 TAew (f.) ]Dii it-tan 



The Pronouns. 
As 



81 



§1.] 
As 

3 (ID? * : here 'IQ = H^, 

'what,' used as a rel. con- 
junction : ' that,' ' quod.' E.) 

61 / ^:b3 ca-mo-ni 

62 Thou(rn.) TJ^^^ ca-mo-cha 

63 Thouil) Tji^D ca-moch 

64 He ?)nb3 ca-mo-hu 

65 She nbS ca-mo'-ah 

T ^ T 

66 We ^y]r23 ca-mo -nu 

T 

Examples of Prepositions loith a plural (construct) 

form before Suffi " 



(228) 



67 Youirn.) DD3 ca-chem 

V T 

68 You{i.) p3 ca-chen 

V T 

69 They{m.) DilS ca-hem 

70 Theyit) ]n3 ca-hen 



after (lit. the 
hinder parts). 

under: instead of 
(lit. the wider 
parts). 

r? 

betivee7i{\it.loca\, 
interval). 



(usque ad) as far 
a.« (h). 

before sutBxes.) 
^^ 



(joZ?/r. only with 
plur. suffix). 

%^ 

' V T 
T T 



a-kh^rai, after me. 229 

a-kh^-re-cha, after thee (m.)- 
a-kh^re-chem, fl/Ver you (m.). 

takh-te-hem, «wc?cr /Aew. 

takh-tai. 

be-m, between me. 

be-ne-chem, between you (m.). 

i?a-dai, (wj?) to me. 
i>a-dav, {up) to him. 
J>a-de-chera, {up) to you (m.). 
i^a-lai, upon me. 
J?a-le-cha, upon thee (m.). 
i?a-lav, upon him. 
i?Me-hem, upon them (m.). 



* iD3 is always used before the lighter, not before the 

Wearier, 'suffixes. Some of the poets use it with b, 2 also, but 

only before monosyllabic (rarely dissyllabic) prepositions. (E.) 
t But this (observes Ewald) is from a root Lamed He, and 
E 3 



82 



The Pronouns. 



[CH. 7. 



230 



RemarJcs {for future reference). 
The forms in parenthesis are rare ; those with j^ poetical. 



1 m 

2 Thou, m.] 
4, 5, He, She] 



6 Wei 

8 FoM, f.] 

22 To thee, m.] 

28 To i/OM, f.] 

29 To them, m.] 
31 From me'] 



In pause, "^^i^- 

Also (;n^^). In pause, ^^l^i• 

T - T T 

a) The ^} was perhaps heard at the end as 
a sort of ha/f-vowel (G.)- b) In the Pen- 
tateuch i^^r\ stands also for she : it is 
then usually pointed like K^H (i- e. 

^■^n) ; but this is merely an ortho- 
graphical anomaly. 

T 

(^i^^^) in four passages). i]r}i^, once). 
(IDa in pause, ^7- 

ip) m (/) ''JO- 



231 The prepositions and other very short attrited particles take 
the longest possible pronunciation before suffixes. Thus (1) 
they constantly take the foretone a : (2) prefer the longer for- 
mations ; e. g. urh (not Q^), &c., though QH is found, but 

V T T T 

often Dn^l- (3) They take a instead of e as union-vowel of the 

V T 

suffix : so much so that this a expels even the e of the suffix of 
■ 'ind fern. sing. "TJ21, &c. (4) So also ^3 {every, all) has as- 
sumed some pronominal peculiarities from its quasi-pronominal 

notion : Jlj'p^, cullanu, we all; Tf'^D or Tt'?3, cullech or cullach, 

•t •, 

thou entirely (E.). 

232 Sometimes two prepositions precede the same suffix : as 
VJnnnDj mittakhtav {from-beneath-him =) from his place ; 

nJli'Pj I'neg'di (ad-coram-me, to before me =■) over-against me, 
so has the termihation *•_ (e) from its origin. So '^i^ and 

by. 

* With collectives it is used apparently only. 



§ 1.] The Pronouns. 83 

in my presence, 8fc. ; T^J, in the presence ofj '♦^i^^l (in-adhuc- (232) 
me =) while I am still alive, while I have my being. 

Vocabulary. 



Mouth, HD, peh (irre^. See 

list). 
Destruction, r\rSn't2 («)> 

m'khittah. 
Also, Qil, gam. 
Calamity, T''^, ed. 
To laugh, 'D'ni''D, sakhak. 
To toil, ^Q^, raraal. 
To build, nJH. banah. 

T T 

In vain, '^^'^, shav. 

; T 

To perish, "T3^^, abhad. 

To recompense, to reward, 70^1, 

~ T 

gamSl. 
To say, "lD?^j amar. 

- T 

To pour out, T[3^, shaphach. 
Counsel, T\1V (j ^)' i^etsah 
(yp^, to counsel). 

Exercise 25. 



Sound wisdom, Tl^U)^r\ (awy), 233 

T • 

tushiyyah (ilti^'^j to subsist, 

T T 

to be firm). 
Understanding, n^^3, (w), bi- 

T • 

nah. 
Strength, n^lllil (^), g'bhti- 

rah. 
Morsel, rSB iP), path. 
T>ry, 2"in, kharebh. 
Quiet (subst.), Hvti^j shalvah. 
Sacrifice, victim, HDT, ze'- 

bhakh (dec. 6). 
Strife, contention, ^''l, ribh. 
Blood, 2^, dam. 

T 

Memorial, "^^T or IDJ, ze-cher 

or ze'cher. 
//, Di^; not, ^i'? (imi -16). 



' T • - V T 



1 pi ch'sil m'khittah 16. 234 

2 gam-"ni b'ed'chem eskhak 
(/?). 3 hu" yoshebh labhe^akh 
ittakh. 4 ira-Y'hovah 15- 
yibhneh bayith, shav" i^am'lu 



* In pause for '?[^^^^. 

t Partcp. Act. of Kal, n^i^l (verbs in ,1 take ••• for ••), /?*. 
Wy\2., with suffix VJi2- 



84 The Pronouns. 

: q;d3 D97 op'^ 9 : ^b:; 



[CH. 7 

bonav bo. 5 ashrecha v'^obh 
lach. 6 abhad zichram hem- 
mah. 7 yibh^'khu bh'cha 
yod'i^e sh'me'cha. 8 Y'hovah 
gamal i^alai. 9 shaph'chu da- 
mam cammayim. 10 Smart' 
layhovah ^donai attah. 1 1 li- 
i?etsah v'thushi}yah, ^ni bhi- 
nah, li g'bhurah. 12 tobh. 
path kh^rebhah v'shalvah-bah 
mibbayith male^ zibhkhe-ribh. 



b) 1. Thou (m.) shalt hide my commandments with thee. 
2. I wisdom have dwelt (°with) prudence. 3. My mouth is 
destruction to me. 4. Prudence dwells with them. 



Chap. VII. § 2. Demonstrative and Interrogative 
Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. 



235 





Sing. Pltj 


R. 




Sing. 


Plur. 


rm 
This |j^ 


HT, IT 1 , , 


Cm. zeh, zu 
|/. zoh, z6 


1 el-leh, ( 


rm 


\bn, HT-TT 




rm. hal-laz, hal-lazeh 


That |f_ 


T - VT - 




(/. ha-le-zu 




The r 


i^inn Dnn 




Cm. ha-hu'' 


ha-hem 


same] f. 


^V^ IQ'7 




|/. ha-hi" 


ha-hen 




Sing. 


Plur. 






m. 


f. 








With na 


nto 


rhi}^ 






As n}3 


n^^t^ 


^^^^^ 






To HT^ 

VT 


jnx6 








From n-TD 


J1J4-T/' 


3 


n^K;:: 





* * Those who know.' Partcp. Act. of Kal, J?T"' {to know), in 
Stat, constr. "^ 



§ 2.] Tlie Pronouns. 85 

The demonstrative zeh, HT (also ^t, it), is also (es- 236 
pecially in poetry) used, like our that^ for the relative 
pronoun : ' the place that (HT, zeh) you intend for me.*' 

Thus : ' the city that you live in ' might be translated 
literally in Hebrew, except that instead of in we must 
use in Hebrew in-it (cf. 246). E. g. Ps. civ. 8, to 
the place UTt> PHD"^ HT which thou hast destined for 

them. It is even employed (like "sher) to give a re- 
lative sense to another word. (For an instance, see the 
last Example in the Exercise on the Relative, p. 92.) 

nt is used adverbially, «) for there, nt Il'in, see there/ and 237 
then merely as an intensive particle, especially in questions, as 
nt T^a?, ^1iy then? (prop, why there?), h) in reference to 

T T 

time^ for now, as D''DJ73 HT. now (already) twice. 

The interrogative pronoun is mi (^Q), loho ? for 238 
persons; mcth., mah- (HD, "HD), ichatf for things. 
Rin '♦(p signifies who is he ? i^^H ''Q who is she f But 
K^n nip [what he)^ ^'^7rTV2 {what she)., signify ichat is 
IT ? In the same way, HjK ^D, icho are these {per- 
sons) ? but ^5^J HD what are these {things) ? 

The interrogative ^D may be used in reference to 239 
a plural, also in reference to thi'rigs ; but only when 
the notion of persons is implied, e. g. D^p "'Jp, mi 
Sh'chem ? who are the Shechemites f ^p may also stand 
in the genitive, as ^D ill, whose daughter^ and mi 
and mah., without interrogation, for ' any!' For HD 
in this sense we have also the specific term HQINQ 
(from XV2i^ HQ, quiUquid). G. 

HD is also used in the sense of how, as an exclamatory par- 240 

T 

tide. 

The pronoun of the third person ^^T^ (K^H, H^Il, 241 
they., ^rt, r\-ir\^ is^ ea^ id ; ii, eoe., ea) may also be joined 



86 



The Pronouns. 



[CH. 7. 



(24 1) to substantives, and then takes the article, if the 
substantive has it: ikT^T} ^^KH, is mr ; K^nn DV2, 

eo die (G.). 

242 The article is sometimes omitted, from the natural definiteness 
of Nirt; especially when the noun is only defined by a suffix 

When employed in this way, ^^IH is to be distinguished 
from the demonstrative ilT ; for HI (= ovrog, hie), this, points 

to an object present or near, but ^^in (= avroc, is) indicates 
(like the article) an object already ?nentioned or known [the 
former answering to this, and the latter nearly to thatl. G. 



Vocabulary. 
[For the Declensions J when referred to, cf. App. I,] 



243 To be clean, ini5. ^aher. 

•• T 

To collect, 5]C)^, asaph. 
To bind, Hlii, tsarar. 

-T 

Sin, Di^^n, kha«ath (J^rDH, 

X - T T 

to stumble ; to sin). 
Wailing, "»i^}, 6i. 
Poverty, misery, "'')3^^> "bhoi 

(aV. dp.). 
Strife, contention, U^TID^ 

midyanim (deck 2 : a, ]T1). 
Complaining, murmuring, n^i^> 

siakh. 
A wound, y^^ or yiJB, patsai^ 

— T ~ V 

or petsaP (decl. 6). 
Without cause, U^U, khin- 

T • 

nam. 



Wind, n^l, ruakh. 

F«s^5, D''^3rT (dual of ]SrT, 

inus.)j khophnayim (decl. 
8, c). 

Garment, nbt2t^> simlah (w, 

Pdm. 12, 6). 

Measure, r]1!2, middah (decl. 

T • 

8, a); TTQ, to measure. 

~ T 

Work, n't^PO (a), ma)^''seh 
(decl. 9, a); ni^i», i'asah, 

T T 

to make. 
To dream, U/H, khalam. 

- T 

A dream, UwH, kh46m. 

Mountain, "1,1 (d), har. 

End, limit, yp (d), kets (decl. 
s,b). 



§2.] 



The Pronouns. 



87 



Exercise 26 

a) ''rr\r\^ * IDS'''"'? 1 
^d"? ^^^^ ^ob 2 : ''rl^^^^^9 

nn"5]ph} ^Q 3 -ni^T^^ 

'Dt-nD-) 'loi^-no nb'^ra 
_ . _ ^ . . _ 

T - 'V V 



: ~ r : -r - T 

6) 1. AMio will bind the winds ? 2. How great is thy glory, 
Jehovah ! 3. I have dwelt on the mount of holiness. 4. What 



1 mi-yomar, /aharti mekha/- 244 
/athi ? 2 I'mi 6i ? I'mi "bhui : 
I'mi midyanim? I'mi-siakh? 
I'mi ph'tsai?im khmnam ? I'mi 
khachliluth i^enayira ? lam'a- 
kh^rim i^al-hayyain (p.). 
3 mi asaph-ruakh b'khoph- 
nav ? mi tsarar-mayim bassim- 
lah ? mah-sh'mo ? umah- 
shem-b'no ? 4 mah hakh^lom 
hazzeh ''sher (which) khalamta? 
5 mi-elleh ? 6 mi-zeh me'lech 
haccabhod ? 7 Y'hovah "^do- 
nenu, mah-addir shimcha 
b'chol-haarets ! 8 Y'hovah mi- 
yishchon b'har kodshecha ? 
holech tamim. 9 Y'hovah 
mi-chamocha ? mah-yakar 
khasd'cha ^I5him ? 10 hodi- 
i^eni Y'hovah kitstsi umiddath 
yamai mah-hi". 11 mathai 
yamuth v'abhad sh'mo ? 
1 2 mah-gad'lu mai^^secha 
Y'hovah ! 



* * Will say.' 

t Eng. Trans, 'redness;' 'dimness' (G.) ; 'fierceness' (L.). 
i (To those tarrying =) to those who tarry (or linger). 
§ Is-become-glorious ; is glorious: from 'Xl^, to become 
glorious. Perf. of Hiph. 

11 Make-me-know ; cause-me-to-know. 



88 The Retaiive Pronoun, [ch. 7. 

(244) is your (m. pi.) name? 5. This river. 6. Those rivers. 7. This 
boy. 8. This girl. 9. Whose daughter is this girl? 



Chap. VII. § 3. Relative Pronoun. 

245 The relative pronoun is ■^li^^^ ^sher (Ww, ivMch) 
indeclinable ; for which the prefix p (less com- 
monly '^) with following Dagesh is also used (but 
cliiefly in rabbinical Hebrew). 

246 Cases of the Relative] The indeclinable relative 
pronoun ")ti^^^ virtually/ assumes different cases by 

taking after it the cases of the personal pronouns — 

m. f. m. /. 

Norn. ")t:^^^ ")t^^^ »sher "sher 

Gen. (noun with 
pron. suffix) 'yp'^ (as masc.) 

Daf. Sb IVii^ Pib "^Ii^^^_ ^sher 16 "sher 

■•* "• "^ " "• lahh [to whom) 

Ace. iDJ^ "ll^^i^ nni^ 'yti^^ ^sher otho, ^sher 

" • "^ " "' othahh (whom) 

247 Just so in the plural: DH? 1^J<^, ^sher-lahem, 

J. .. T V -J ' 

to whom, &c. One or two words are generally inter- 
posed. 

Thus : iDJ^j immo, his mother. 

iDJ^ 1^i<» ^sher immo = whose mother (1. e. who 

his mother). 

248 Just so the relative "sher converts demonstrative 
adverbs of place, time, &c. (= here, there, then, &c.) 
into the corresponding relative adverbs : as 



Q'^^ sham, 
^ there. 


T 


— ")t^J^ ^sher sham, 

" "• where. 


> 
HDIi^ sham'mah, 
" ^ thither. 


T T 


— "It'i^ "^sher sham'mah, 

" "• whither. 


U1Ij*D mish-sham, 
thence. 


T • 


— n^J^ "sher mish-sham, 

* "• whence. 



§ 3.] The Belatim Pronoun. 89 

In this way a relative force may be given to the 249 
obHque cases of the first and second persons : as, 
thou^ Jacobs whom I have chosen^ ^^Jpnnil "l^J^, ^sher 
b'kharticha, i. e. whom I-have-chosen-^/ke (suffix of 
2nd person added to the verb). 

The ace. -z^/wm may be expressed by•"^Ii^^^ i^sher) 250 
alone ; as in Exod. ii. 2. 

The antecedent personal or demonstrative pronoun 251 
is often omitted before ""sher ; and nearly always 
when a prepositional prefix stands before it. The 
preposition is then to be construed with the implied 
pronoun, the expressed relative taking the case re- 
quired by the construction of its own clause. Just 
so in English, from what, of what, &c. : e. g. thou 
shall drink from what (I^J^^, me^sher) the young men 

will draw (Ruth ii. 9). 

Sometimes such a general notion as time ox place 1^1 
must be supplied : as, ^'^^^^, harsher (^7^ the place 
where =), where ; 1^>^5, me^sher (from the time 
when =),from when. 

As in English, the relative is sometimes omitted, 253 
the relation being implied by the position of the 
relative clause, which stands as a sort of apposition 
to the word it is to modify. This happens (especially 
in poetry) — 

a) When the relative would be in the nom. or ace. 254 
(without SL prep.^). Thus, 'he has fallen into 
the pit he made,'' would be expressed exactly as 
in Enghsh. Of. Ps. viii. 2. 

* In a relative clause servdng as a further description of a 
substantive, the relative may be omitted when a pronoun is ex- 
pressed, if it be a closely subordinated idea : e. g. the way they 

should walk in, HI ^^1^ "?I")'^n, Exod. xviii. 20. 



90 



The Relative Pronoun. 



[CH. 7. 



(254) 5) So especially in general specifications of time: 
at the time the offering hegan^ HJiyn bnT} Jnj;3. 

c) When the antecedent personal or demonstrative 
pronoun is also omitted : * Sheol shall carry away 
^hiion (those who) sin? The omitted antecedent 

may also be a general notion of 'place or time., 
so that a clause stands apparently mider the 
government of a preposition. Thus, whereas 
in English we can say, ' to where I have prepared 
for him^ in Hebrew we may go further, and 
say, ' to I have prepared for him^ t> ^'liJOn'7Nt 
(el-h^chinothi 16). 

255 When the implied pronoun would, if expressed, be 
in the genitive, the preceding noun takes the stat. 
constr. Thus, ' hy the hand of him thou ivilt send^ 
riypPi T2l, b'yad {stat. constr.) tishlakh. 

256 Such relative clauses as more specifically describe a 
substantive, may also be added to a preceding spe- 
cification by the copulative conjunction: the orphan 
{'b "Ijy ^i^^), vlo j;ozer 16 (and there is no helper to 
him =), and one who has no helper. 



Vocabulary. 



257 To forsake, 2tJ?, i^azabh. 

— T 

Way, n")i<, orakh, pi. ^ra- 

khoth, constr. T^^^\'^i^> or- 
khoth. '• ■" 

Uprightness, 1^>, yosher (ya- 

shar, to be straight). 

Perverse, ^pp, i^ikkesh (i?a- 

kash, to convict of perverse- 
ness) . 

A.nt, rht2Z (w)» n'malah. 

T T ; 

Leader, prince, ]>i;p, katsin. 



Magistrate, ItOi^, sho/er 

(partcp. act. of Kal, from 
[sha^ar] to write). 

Ruler, 7;irO, moshel (partcp. 
act. of Kal, mashal, to rule). 
Also, even, □?), gam. 
Welfare,~\ 
Peace, JDi^!?. ^ta6m. 

Against, 73^, i^al. 
Heel, 3p_y, :Dakebh. 



§3.] 



The Relative Pronoun. 



91 



Holy, ^DSlp, kadosh. 
Excellent, -iHNt, addir. 
Desire, ySirTj khephets. 
Blood, D^, dam, for adam 

T 

(ish-damim, man of blood = 
bloody man, blood-thirsty 
man). 

Inm,ost part, or recess, "IpIlD 
(a), mgkhkar (["IpH], to ex- 
plore). 

Wealth, treasure, Jni3^in(« w), 

T 

toi^aphoth. 

Wicked device ; wickedness, 
n?3T> zimmah (deck 10). 



Joseph, 5)p'l\ Yo^eph (lit. ad- (257) 

ding). 
To sell, ■^^D, machar. 

- T 

Egypt, D'^IJiD, Mitsra'yim. 

rmB, padah. 
To redeem. J^^^^^^^.^_ 

(1) Enemy, ^ 

(2) Adversity,p'^' *®^- 

To obtain, acquire, tl^O, kanah. 

t't 

His right hand, ^^^Q^ y'mino, 
for ^y^ty T*, yad y'mino, 
hand of his right side (^"'D*, 
the right). 



^ot, yi^, en, is the construct state of '|'»J^, ayin (nothingness, 
nought), used adverbially. With ^ governing personal pronoun, 
it signifies, I (you, Sfc.) have not a — (have no — ). 



a) It'' Jiinnj^ DUri^rr i 

• 't t ' •• 



Exercise 27. 

1 hai^oz'bhim orkhoth yosher, 258 
*sher orkhothehem' i^ikk*shim. 

2 lech el-n'malah i^atsel, ^sher 
en-lahh katsin sho/er iimo- 
shel. 3 gam-ish sh*16mi "sher- 
ba/akhti bho ochel lakhmi hig- 



* Go (thou). 

t ''D^bt't'^i^, ish-sh'lomi, * man-of -my -peace,' i. e. * my 
friend' (who, whenever he came, inquired after my health, &c.). 

X lit. eating = who ate. Partcp. act. of Kal, from b^iit to 
eat. 



92 The Bdati 

(258) '.ypv 'hv *'?"''7?!7 

' V T T V -; • : • 

DrPT3* T^J^' U'^-l '^t}^ 5 

. '):^D^ nrop-HT "in s -. n:^ 

• : T ; ' T ••• - T 

^TO i^ry\ m'n^ 'piiii ':'>^ 9 
"i3 r^::)'!:^ nr iTr^r\ 



ve Pronoun. [ch. 7. § 3. 
dil i^alai i^akebh. 4 likdoshim, 
"^Aer-baarets hlmradh, v'addire 
col-khephtsi-bham. 5 anshe 
damim^ ^sher bidehem' zim- 
mah. 6 "ni Yoseph ^khichem 
"^^er-m'chartem' otM Mits- 
ra'y'mah. 7 lo-zach'ru eth- 
yado, yom "sher padam minni- 
tsar. 8 har zeh-kan'thah 
y'mino. 9 el gadol Y'h5vah 
ume'lech gadol i?al-c6l-^l5him 
"sher b'yado mekhk're arets, 
v'th6))*ph6th harim 16 ; *sher- 
16 hayyam. 10 gaalta har- 
TsTyy6n zeh shacanta bho. 



b) 1. (He) whose son said. 2. The man whose bread I have 
eaten. 3. The men whose bread I have eaten. 4. Men who 
have no ruler. 5. The man who trusted me. 6. The men who 
trusted them. 7. Thy covenant which I observed. 



Chap. VIII. The Regular Verb. 
§ 1 . Derivation of Verbs. The Conjugations. 

259 Verbs, like nouns, may be divided, in respect to 
their origin, into three classes. 

260 a) Primitives. 

b) Verbal derivatives^ derived from other verbs. 

* Has lifted up. Perf. of the form called Hipliil. 

t As for the saints. The prefix ^ with pi. of t^ilp (kadosh), 
holy. Decl. 3. • 

I lit. Egypt-wards = into Egypt. The final H- = wards, to- 
wards, into, of motion to, or into. "^ 

§ He-redeemed-them. Suffix of 3rd pi. masc. 



CH. s. § 1.] The Regular Verl. 93 

c) Denominatives^ or those derived {de nomine) (260) 
from a noim : which appear to be of later origin 
than the two preceding classes (G.). 

The noun, from which a denominative verb comes, 261 
is generally a derivative : e. g. ]l7, labhan, to he 
white^ hence n^5: ^ I'bhenah, a brick (from its colour), 
and hence aorain, p7, to make hrich ; from r\^1, 
dagah, to increase greatly^ y^^ dag, a fish ; and hence 
again, Til, dug, to fish (Gr.). 

A peculiar kind of denominatives, of rather late 262 
formation, are derived from augmented nouns, so that 
one of their radical letters was in the noun a servile : 

e. g. niJ, nuakh, to rest, to set oneself down ; hence, 

~ > 

the noun, JIHJ, na'khath, a setting down ; and hence 

again, ilH^, nakhath, to descend (Gr.). 

Conjugations or Species of the Hebrew Verb.] The 263 
orio'inal sio;nification of the root receives various mo- 
difications of meaning, according to a regular analogy, 
by a specific change of form : e. g. ID 7, to learn ; 

"7D7, to cause to learn, to teach ; 33'^, to lie ; 2'^3pp, 

to cause to lie, to lay. 

In other languages such words are regarded as new derivath'e 264 
verbs : e. g. to fall, to fell j jacere, to throw j jacere, to lie j 
yivoiua, to be born ; yevvcao, to beget, to bear. But in Hebrew, 
where these formations are beyond comparison more regular 
than in any other language, they have been called conjugations* 
and parts of the same verb. 

The changes consist partly in varying the vowels 265 
of the root, or doubling one or more of its letters 
(■b£3p, '^^p ; b^ip, "P^ip ; ^Ippp, ^^^^p ; ki^^el, kMal ; 
ko^el, ko^al ; kidal, k'^al^al ; comp. to lie, to lay ; to 
fall, to fell) ; partly in prefixing formative letters or 

* Hebr. D''J''J3> buildings, more correctly species, modijica- 

• t; • 

tions of the ground-form. 



94 The Regular Verb. [ch. 8. 

(265) syllables ('^ZOp^, ^''tDpil^ nik^'al, hik^il ; comp. s/»ert^, 
bespeak ; county to recount ; hid, forbid) ; sometimes 
in a change of each kind, as /^J^iin, hithkai^^el. 
266 The conjugations that are in common use are — 



Kal or light, because not burdened 
with any accessory meaning-, or 
with any formative addition or 
doubled letter. 

'Niplial, properly reflexive, mostly 
passive: n prefixed with i, and 
Sh^va under the first radical. (The 
full prefix, as we shall see, is hin.) 

Piel, mostly intensive; to act with 

diligence, earnestness, or frequency . 

Second radical doubled by dagesh : 

vowels, I, e. 
Pual, passive of Piel. Second radical 

doubled by dagesh : vowels ii, a. 

Hiphil, mostly causative : h prefixed 
with i (with a in other forms), 
and i (with Yod) for the second 
vowel. 



7tDp (3rd sing, masc 
"^ of perfect), ka- 
^al, to kill. 

^^pjj nik/al, he was 
killed. 



bBp, ki«el, he killed 
rtiany ; he maS' 
sacred. 

7^p, ku//al, he was 
■•• killed violently, 
S>-c. 

b^'lDp'il, hikdl, he caused 
' '• ' to kill. 



yLDpn, hok/al. 
bWJnn, hithka«el. 



Hophal, passive of Hiphil. 

Hithpael, an intensive reflexive; the 
syllable hith prefixed, and (like 
Piel, from which it is formed) a 
strong dagesh in the second radical. 

267 The names of the Conjugations are tlie actual 

tenses of the old Paradigm bv'i^, pa^^al, bV'E^y, bvB, &c. 

The selection of this verb was unfortunate, because 
from having for its second radical a guttural which 
is incapable of receiving dagesh, the name is not an 
exact type of the usual formation of the tense fgr 
strong verbs. Kdtal is now generally used for the 
Paradigm, and has the advantage of clear distinct 
sound, but the disadvantage of stating forms tiiat 
have no existence ; for none of the forms but Kal 
occur in Hebrew, and even that is rare, and confined 
to the poetical books. 



§ 1.] Conjugations. 95 

As compared with Kal (= light), Piel, Pual, and 268 
Hitlipael are called heavy conjugations, having their 
middle radical loaded with dagesh. 

The persons of the derived conjugations are formed, 269 
as in the perfect of Kal, by appending to the tense- 
root (3rd sing, masc.) the suffixes ti ; td, t ; ah ; \ nu ; 
teni\ ten ; u. 

Since the terminations that begin with a vowel 270 
{ah, u) are added to the root in the same way, one of 
them may serve as an example for the other ; and so, 
for the same reason, one of the persons with a ter- 
mination beginning with a consonant, may serve for 
the rest * ; only the pupil must remember that, since 
tern, ten are accented on the penult, a Kamets in the 
first syllable of the root will be changed into Sh''va 
or, (if the initial consonant is a guttural,) into a 
Khate2:>h. 



Thus : 



271 





Perfect. (Tense-root.) 




Niphal 


1 sing. 

'Ph^p^ 
mkklti" 


3 m. 

mktil 


3/. 

niki'lih 


Piel 


kmiiti 


kittel 


kitt'kh 


Pual 


'^rh^p 

kuttalti 


kuttal 


kii/fikh 


HipMl 


^r^^^pn 


^"'^PJ? 


T . 1. . 




hik/alti 


hik/'il 


hik/iikh 


Hophal 


hoktm 


hok/al 


nbiDpn 

hSki'lah 


Hithpael 


''ph^pm 

hithka/Zalti 


hithkittel 


nb'^pnn 

T : '- : • 
hithka/i'lah 


* These mode 
with an asterisk 


I (or normal) fori 


lis are marked 


in the Paradig 



96 



The Regular Verh. 



[CH. 8. 



272 Observe that in Pill, the characteristic e is dropt in the other 
persons; in Hiphil, the z is retained in the 3rd fem. hikiildh 
(and therefore in 3rd plur. Jiikiilu). The pupil will find no 
difficulty in filling up the other persons (nik/alti, nik^alta, 
mk^alt, mk/al, nik^'lah, ] mk^alnu, nik Saltern, mkialten, nikf lu). 

Vocahidary. 



17^ Word, IDi^, omer (decl. 6, 6). 
To divide into Jive, t^^Hj 

khimmesh (khamash,^ye). 
Plenty, ^2"^, sabha^. 

T T 

Year, HJl^, shanah {pi. sha- 

T T 

nim and shanoth). 
To let go, ^'c, ^^2*^, shama^*. 
To learn, "ID 7. lamad f. 

- T 

To break ; to break in pieces ; 
to afflict, "inti^, shabhar. 

Affliction, sorrow, l^,!^* she'- 

bher. 



Hail, "TIB J barad. 

T T 

Rock, ^bp, «e'la^ (decl. 6, b). 
Tree, yy/x^ets (decl. 7, a). 
To flow, "ItOD, ma^art. 

~ T 

To visit, "Tp3, pakad §. 

To destroy, ["FDIi'], [shamad], 

used in Hiphil. 
A city, -Tiy, :;ir. 
To steal, ^^2), ganabh. 

— T 

To bless, "^JIB. barach \\. 
To walk, TjS"!, halach^. 



Exercise 28. 



274 a) : TJ^3 n^J^B J^*"]!)^; 1 
- V T ; - T : ; • 



1 nilcadta b'imre phicha. 

2 nilc'dah raglam. 3 ze'rai^ 
tsaddikim nimla^ 4 limmadti 
ethchem torah. 5 khimmesh 
eth-e'rets Mitsra'yim** b'she'- 
bhai) sh'ne hassabhai^. 



* In Niphal, to be thrown down. 
t In Piel, to teach. 

I In Hiphil, to cause to flow; to rain (trans.). 

§ In Hiphil, to cause to visit j to order to inspect : hence to 
lace a person over ; to make him a manager, &c. 

II In Hithpael, to bless oneself; think oneself happy, &c. 

i\ In Hithpael, to walk ; to go about (also of a course of life). 
** Egypt. 



T : • : • T 

• nni^ iy bv ''ii^T^pn 12 



iTa^. 97 

6 nishm'/ii bhide-se'lai) (274) 

shophVehem. 7 eth-col-Pets 
hassadeh shibber habbarad. 

8 nishb'rA col-m'ah*bhayicb *. 

9 i^al-she'bher bath-i^amini 
hoshbarti. 10 i^^masa 
[Amasa] lo-nishmar f ba- 
khe'rebh "sher b'yad-Yoabh. 
11 lo him^ir Y'hovah ^lohim 
i-^al-haarets (p.). 12 himiarti 
ral i^ir akhath. 13 hishmid 
eth-hakhori X mipp'ne-hem. 
14 Po/iphar hiphkid 5th6 
b'bhetho. 15 Noakh hats- 
tsaddik hithhallech eth-ha- 
'^Idhim. 



b) 1. Thou art taken, O Babel! 2. I am broken-hearte'd. 
3. I was stolen from the land of the Hebrews. 4. They 
divided- the land -into-five. 5. The kings have placed- him -over 
the land. 6. The righteous (pi.) walked with God. 7- He 
blessed-himself in his heart. 8. You (pi. m.) have placed- us 
-over your house. 

Chap. VIII. § 2. On the ground-form (or Conju- 
gation) Kal (G.). 

The forms of the Hebrew verb are the Perfect (1) ; 275 
the Infinitive (2) ; the Imperative (3) ; the Imperfect 
[often called the Fut^ire'] (4) ; the Participle (5). 

If the forms are taken in this order, and the Conjugations in 276 
the usual order Kal (I), Niphal (2), PiU (3), Pual (4), Hiphil (5), 
Hophal (6), Hithpael (7), the combination of two numerals will 

<j* Thy lovers. A Participle Piel, QHi^p (decl. 7, b), with 
pronominal suffix. ** ~ • 

t Niphal of IQIi; i= (pvXdTTioBai), to be on one's guard 
against. ~ ^ 

: The Horims. 



98 



The Regular Verb. 



[CH. 8. 



(276) supply a ready means of shortly denoting the mood or tense and 
conjugation of any form. Thus 2, 5 (= second form of i\ie ffth 
conjugation), i. e. the Infinitive of Hiphilj 3, 2 {= third form 
of the second conjugation), i. e. Imperative of Niphal. 



The Short Paradigm of Kal. 



277 



I Per/. 
ka^al 



2 r>ifi?i. 

constr. 
k'/ol 



4 Imperf. 
yik/61 



5 Partcp. 
act. 



kotel 



6 Past 
partcp. 

ka<ul 



3 Iinperat. 
1 Kal ka^al k'/ol k'/6l 

27S Ferfect. — {a) The third singular of this tense is 
considered, as we have seen, the ground-form or root. 
Besides the usual roots with vowels a — «, we also 
find the vowels a — e, d—o, usually confined to in- 
transitive verbs denoting states and qualities. 

h) Verbs whose vowels are a — a, a — e, a — 0, are called respect- 
ively, Verbs Middle A, Verbs Middle E, and Verbs Middle 0. 

279 Verbs Middle E are conjugated exactly like Verbs 
Middle ^, except in the ord sing, of the Perfect. 
Thus from cdhhed we shall have cdbhadti.^ cdbhadtd^ 
cdbhddt^ cabbed, cdbliddh^ &c. 

280 The exceptions to this rule are (1) Verbs Lamed Aleph, and 
(2) the remaining persons of the regular verb when they are in 
pause [see 282]. Thus, 3rd sing. npHI becomes Hp^ll in 
pause. '^- -^ 

281 In Verbs Middle the Kholem is retained in 
inflexion, where it has the tone; and changed into 
Kamets Khatuph, when the tone is thrown forwards. 

.282 On '-Pause'' and its effe€ts^'\ — The tone-syllable of 
the last word of a sentence, or principal member of a 
sentence, is said to be in pause. This syllable is 
marked with one of tlie great distinctive accents (es- 
pecially AthnaJch [a] and Sllluk [i]), as Yl^'7' ^^^lJ* 

,?S3 a) AVhen the syllable in pause has a short vowel, it becomes 
long; as ^'^7), b*€i\); D\':D, D'D ; Ph'Cir), Tito; 

-'t at't •- -AT t:-'t t;it't 

This rule respects principally Pathakh and Segol. Segol 

* The pupil need not study these rules, till he is referred to 
them. 



§ 2.] Kal. 99 

is, however, strong- enough to be retained in pause, when (283) 

the syllable closes with Dagesh forte, as 1^7tOp''- 

{Pathakh is sometimes adopted in place of Segol, and 
even of Tsere.) 

b) When a final tone-syllable begins with two consonants (as 

H/IDp). the vocal Sk'va under the first gives place to a 

T : IT 
full vowel ; a more fitting position is thus secured for the 
tone, which is moved from the last syllable to the new 
penultima: e.g. nblD\), r^b\Dp ; TM^bD, Hi^br^; ^bi:^p\ 
^/bp''- The vowel selected is always that which had been 

dropt from the same syllable, in consequence of the 
lengthening of the word. Vocal Sh'va in pause becomes 
Segol, and a Khateph gives place to the analogous long 

vowel, as >:)^^, ^jh}; ^^H, ••':'rT. 

• ~; 'AT • t; 'A 

c) This tendency to place the tone on the penultima in pause 
shows itself moreover in several words which then regu- 
larly retract the tone, as OJhJ, ''D^i^ ; r\r\ii, HDi^ ; 

T '.NT T - TAT 

nny, TM^V> ^^^ ^^ ^°"^^ other single cases. 



The forms that end in U, td, nu^ are penacute 284 
(Milel) ; the others are oxytone (Milra). (a) By 
pause (as just described) the accent is, in several 
persons, shifted back, and the original vowel of the 
second syllable restored, {h) Vav conversive of the 
Perfect moves the accent forward one syllable. 

Infinitwe or second ground-form of each Conju- 285 
gatioii] — {a) The shorter infinitive, or infinitive con- 
struct ( /bp, kVol) is the more usual ; and is the form 

that is necessarily used with prefixed j^repositions. 

h) The longer infinitive {infinitive absolute) is used, 
when tlie action of the verb is stated independently 
by itself; it is of common occurrence in a frequent 
Hebrew idiom, by which it is either — 

1) placed before a finite verb, to denote intensity 
(or strong asseveration) ; 

2) placed after a finite verb, to denote continuity 
(a lasting action). 

F 2 



100 The Regular Verb. [ch. s. 

286 Thus i^Sppp ^^?^ nichsoph nichsaphta (thou ear- 
nestly/ longedst) ; tD'DIf^ tdB^^^1_, vayyishpo^ shapho^, 
he will he play ilia the judge. 

287 A sort of gerund is formed by the infinitive con- 
struct with 7 : e.g. /bp? for killing [interficiendo^ ad 
interficiendiun]. It may be followed by a substantive 
(wdiich, strictly speaking, stands in the genitive re- 
lation to the gerundial infinitive). 

288 The 7 is here so closely connected, that it constitutes part of 
the grammatical form ^JOp^j lik-^ol ; zB'lh, lin-pol (with 
dagesh lene) : just as the preformatives of the Imperfect (e. g. in 
yik-fol). But 3, (irt), Q {from), are not supposed to be so 

closely connected ; hence a begadcephath letter (as 2nd radical) 
would not take dagesh lene : 73iB> bi-n'phol (not bin-pol). 

289 Imperative] — (a) The chief form of the Imperative 
bbp ("^^f?) is the same that lies also at the basis of 
the Imperfect, and which, when viewed as an In- 
finitive, is likewise allied to the noun. It expresses 
only the second person, but has inflexions for the 
Feminine and the Plural. It has no form for the 
third person, and even the second must be expressed 
by the Imperfect, when a negative precedes, as 
bhpPi 7Nt, do not kill; lit. thou shalt not kill [7ie oc- 

cidas] (not bh\> b'^). 

h) The proper passive conjugations have no Im- 
perative, but the reflexive Niphal and Hithpael have. 

290 The inflexion is exactly similar to that of the Im- 
perfect. 

291 Imperfect^ — The final o (Kholem) Is only to7ie-long 
(as in the Inf. and Imp.). Hence, a) it is very sel- 
dom written fully, h) Before Makkeph it becomes 
Kamets-Khatuph. c) Before the aflbrmatives "»- and 

•1 it becomes vocal Sh'va. d) In a very few passages 
it is changed into I before these aflbrmatives, but 



§ 2.] Kal. 101 

only when it stands close before the pause: e. g. (291) 
^tOBt^^, yishpu^, they will judge. 

a) Intransitive verbs (middle E and 0) take a (Pathakh) in 292 
the Imperfect, as 7I2I, to be great, Imperf. 7"^J'» ; "jJOp, to 

be small, Imperf. ]tDp*- 

b) Sometimes both foi>ms exist together ; the Imperf. with 
is then transitive, and thalF with a intransitive ; but now 
and then both occur without any difference of meaning. 
In the irregular verbs, the feeble c {Tsere) is also found 
in the final syllable, as ]J^"' for '[rsy^. These three forms 

of the Imperfect are called Imperfect 0, Imperfect A, Im- 
perfect E *. 

c) In the Pentateuch ] {no) occurs in place of HJ, especially 

T T 

after Vav conversive. 

d) For !J (m) the fuller ending p {un) is not uncommon 

(mostly with an obvious stress on the word at the end of a 

period), the vowel of the second syllable being retained, as 

i^Ti|■^^ yirga zun, they tremble f. 
' AT :• 

In like manner ^^ZOp-H has a longer form wdth final "J : 293 

In pause [282], the vowel of the second syllable, if it had be- 294 
come Sh'va, is restored, and takes the tone, as '''^bpn, -l^bp"*- 

* For the 3rd plur. fem. r^^bbpp) is substituted in three 
instances, to distinguish it from the 2nd pers , the form 
nj'ptSp^ (etymologically more correct), as in Chaldee and 
Arabic; and in several instances il^^'lb^H seems to have been 
used improperly for the 3rd pers. singular. 

t This original ending ]!1 is common in Aramaean and Arabic. 
Of the Imperfect with ^, i^'V^-1'', Jer. x. 5, is the only example. 

X This is also common in Aram, and Arabic (probably in 
imitation of the plural ending p. G.). 



102 The Regular Verh. [ch. 8. 

[Learn the Paradigm of Kal, in the Regular Verb, Appendix D.] 

Vocabulary. 



295 To seeky to require, VJ'y^* da- 
rash. 
To be great, 712), gadal. 

~T 

To anoint, ^Di> nasach. » 

To write, 2J13» cathabh. 

— 1 

To take hold of 2 take, seize, 
handle, ii^E)n» taphas. 

~ T 

To rage {tumultuously), lif^l, 

ragash. 
Tojiee, n")!, barakh. 

- T 

To observe, "1^^, natsar. 

~ T 

To wink {maliciously or craft' 

ily)i ^'^'p' karats. 
To devise {evil), ]i}'yn-> kharash 

~ T 

{to plough; tofahricate, S)'C.). 
To forsake, 21 J/, i^azabh. 

- T 

To go on, 1]l}i^, ashar. 

To slay (especially animals), 
r\21D, ^abhakh. 

To mix, to mingle, "^JDuDj ma- 

*ach. 
To arrange, to prepare, TJ137, 

i?arach. 
To inhabit, ]Dli^, shachan. 
Very, I'^D, m'od (lit. 

strength). 
An accusation, PT^Di^ (<^)> si/- 

nah (saian, to oppose). 
Baal, ^):i3., b'a'ral. 



A prophet, ^'^'2.1> nabhi" (decl. 

3, a), [nabha% to announce']. 

Holy, "?'Dn, khasid (decl. 3, a). 

• T 

A commandment, m^D C«)» 
T : • 

mitsvah (tsavah, to set up). 
A covenant, IV^Ily b'rith. 
Between, ]>3,, ben. 
Seed, ^IT, ze'ra]^ (zaraP, to 

scatter, to sow). 
Time, season, D]^, l^eth (c. decl. 

S, b; contr. for /T7J7, from 

HT^, to goby). 
A victim, n^'iD> ^e'bhakh (see 

to slay, above). 
WhenF IJID, mathai. 

- T 

How long? ^HCTIV^ ^ad- 

mathai. 
Harp, lyre, li^S, cinnor. 
Numerous, I^S, cabhed. 
To be able, 70\ yacol {verb 

T 

middle 0). 
A prison, DniDH n^2, beth 

hasurim (lit. house of the 
bound J contr. from J1^3 

_. f 

"TIDi^, ^ prisoner J partcp 

T 

of IDi^f asar, to bind). 

— T 

To go forth, S^*>, yatsa. 



§2.] 



Kal 



103 



Exercise 29. 



T T •• : • T : r T T 

: '^bt] VTpn Tf-]!-) 8 

vyv3, YIP P.^ ^'^ '^^-^^ 

nnn^ 15 :ny2 Tf-iia 
5iji * 'nr'' HDDD nnab 

'- T •• T : T T : • 

D^J^-) 16 : n^nbp ilDnjL^ 

*n;n i^^n "i^^v is =1:^17^^ 

^DV"riJ< ^bpb b'y \p 19 
r)'2^ 20 ■ : n-in laBrr 



1 darashti eth-Y'hovah. 296 

2 gadalta m'od. 3 va^ni 
nasachti malci i^al-Tsiyyon. 

4 cath'bhu si^nah i?al-yo- 
sh'bhe Y'h^dah. 5 tiphsti eth- 
n'bhie haBBai?al. 6 lammah 
ragh'shu goyim ? 7 Hagar 
bar'khah mipp'ne Sarah. 

8 v'de'rech kh^*idav yishmor. 

9 m'zimmah tishmor i^alecha. 

1 n'tsor, b'ni, mitsvath abhi- 
cha. 11 z5*th b'rithi "sher 
tishm'ru beni ubhenechem' 
ubhen zar'i^^cha akh^recha. 

1 2 i>ad-mathai l^atsel tishcabh'? 

13 adam B'liyya)?al ish a'ven, 
korets b'i^enav, khoresh ra)) 
b'chol-i^eth. 14 i^izbhA 
ph'thaim v'ishru bh'de'rech 
bhinah. 15 ^abh'khah ^ibh- 
khahh, mas'chah yenahh, aph 
l^ar'chah' shulkhanahh. 

Id r'shai?im 16* yishc'nu 
a'rets (p). \7 v'ach eth- 
dimchem' I'naplishothechem' 
edrdsh. 1 8 Yubhal hu* hayah * 
"bhi col-tophes cinnor 
v'i^ugabh, 1 9 mi yachol lishpo^ 
eth-i?amm'cha haccabhed 
hazzeh ? 20 mibbeth hasurim 
yatsa iimloch. 



104 The Regular Verb, [ch. s. 

(296) 5) Translate into Hebrew — 

1. I ^\'ill seek Jehovah. 2. My children, seek ye the Jehovah. 
3. Why did he fly from the face of Abraham? 4. I will keep 
this thy covenant. 5. They will write an accusation. 6. How 
long shall we dwell in the land ? 7. Thou shalt keep my 
covenant. 8. We will keep their covenants. 

9) Write down the Perfect, Imperative, and Imperfect of 
shdmar through all its persons. 

10) Write down the Infinitive {ahsol. and constr.) of ddrash. 

11) Write down both Participles oindtsar. 

Chap. VIII. § .3. Niphal 

297 The full characteristic of this conjugation is the 
preformative syllable kin (^il). It appears only in 

the Inf, constr. /^pH (by assimilation from ^Lpplin). 
With the Inf. are connected, in form, the Imper. 
^tDpn and the Imperf, 'pZDp^ contracted from '?IOp^^ 

In the Perf, the (less essential) h has been suffered 
to fall away, and only n remains as the characteristic, 
hence ^^p^ (nik^al). The Participle is distinguished 
from the Perfect only by the long (t), as /2Dp^, fern. 
n^IOp^ or rhh'\yi. The inflexion of Niphal is per- 
fectly analogous to that of Kal. [See Paradigm D in 
Appendix.] 

298 Hence the characteristics of Niphal are (1) for the Perf. and 
Partcp. the Nun prefixed; for the Imper., Inf., and Imperf. 
Dagesh in the first radical. 

299 The same marks are found in the irregular verbs, except that 
where the fijst radical is a guttural, Dagesh forte is necessarily 
omitted, and compensation made for it by lengthening the pre- 
ceding vowel. 

300 Significations of Niphal.'] Niphal resembles the 
Greek middle voice, and hence, 

301 a) It is primarily reflexive of Kal ; often in verbs 

which express ^a^'d-zoTi ov feeling. 

b) It frequently expresses reciprocal action — 

1) primarily, when the action is done to one another (to 
each other), or by one with another ; 



§ 3.] Niplial 105 

2) secondarily, when tioo or more are concerned in the (301 ) 
same action in opposition to each other (B. a, 6). 

c) It also, like Hithpael and the Greek Middle, 
denotes an action done to or for oneself. 

d) It is often also passive of Kal, but also of Piel 
and Hiphil, when Kal is intransitive or not in 
use ; and in this ease its meaning may again 
coincide with Kal ((1711, Kal and Niphal, to he 

sick), and even take an accusative. 

Examples of denominatives are : ]2^7j, cordatum, fieri, from 302 

'y^^ heart ; IDTiH, to he horn a male, from l^t, a male. 

The older Hebrew Grammarians consider Niphal as the proper 303 
Passive of Kal. This is decidedly incorrect ; for Niphal has 
not the characteristics of the other passives. According to the 
usage of the language, the passive signification is certainly the 
predominant one; but it was first derived from the reflexive. 
The prefixed hin has (like the hith of Hithpael) the force of a 
reflexive pronoun. 

The Inf, absol. VjDpJ (nik/ol) connects itself, in form, with 304 

the' Perfect, to which it bears the same relation as 7iI5p to 

^tOp- The T in the final syllable (which is essentially hng) is 

only found in the Inf. of Piel and Pual. 

a) In pause [282], Pathakh often takes the place of Tsere in 305 
the final syllable. 

h) In the 2nd and 3rd plur. fern, the form with Pathakh is 
more common than that given in the Paradigm : e. g. 
ni")D-Tr\ (tizzacharnah), they shall he remembered, Isa. 

Ixv.'l7. 

c) When the Imperf., or the Inf., or the Imper. is imme- 
diately followed by a monosyllable, the tone is mostly 
drawn back upon the penult, and consequently the final 
syllable, losing the tone, takes Se^oZ instead of Tsere : e. g. 

n^l 7li^3^ (yiccashel bahh), he stumbled at it. 

T V T • 

c?) In a few words, this form with the retracted tone is the 
only one in use. 

e) A frequent form of the 1st Pers. is 7^p^^ (ikka/el). 

f3 



] 06 The Regular Verb. [ch. 8. 

The Short Paradigm of Kal and Niphal. 



306 



1 Kal 

2 Niphal 



1 Per/. 

ka/al 
nik^al 



2 Infin. 
constr. 

kVol 
hikka^el 



3 Imperat. 

k7ol 
hikkafel 



4 Imperf. 

yik^ol 
yikkaiel 



5 Partcp. 
act. 

kofel 

nik^al 



QPast 
partcp. 

ka<M 



Examples of Verbs in Niphal. 



307 Kal. 

shamar, to keep. 

«athar, to hide. 
shapha^, to judge. 

lakham, to devour; 
to consume. 

[bahal, to tremble']. 

[thai^abh]. 

[malaf, to besmooth; 

hence to slip 

away']. 
[chalam, to wound, 

pierce]. 

[shai^an]. 
[tsamad, to bind]. 
[radam *, to snore]. 



Niphal. 

HDli^]]) to keep oneself := (I) abstain 

nishmar 



from; (2) take heed, beware 

[cf. (pvXd(j(Tsadai]. 



nishpa^ 



(1-nD^) to hide oneself J to lie hid; to be 

.", I ' hidden. 
nistar 

(IDD^^D) to contend (in a suit); to liti- 
gate (recipr.) : i. e. to place 
oneself with another at the bar 
of a court (E.). 

(DH/J) (to consume one another =) 

nilkhVm -fi^^^ [m«X*^0«O. 

(Sl2J) to tremble; to be terrified; to 

•C^.\.l^ fl^^*' to make (eager, trem- 

nibhhal -j^ii^g) ^^^^^ j-^^^g^^ L,-|^ 

^I^JIJ to be abominable. 
nithrabh 

u?!22 to deliver oneself; to escape ; to 

. ~ ,• ' be delivered. 
nimlat 

D/DH to be insulted; to be shamed; 

. S',z ' to be ashamed \_al.cfxvvt(j9ai]. 

"|J7ti*J to rest oneself; to lean upon ; 

. ~ J' to confide in. 

mshi^an "^ 

"TDjiJ to bind oneself (to) ; to be at- 

.^ ~ L*i tached or adhere to. 
mtsmad 

U112 to sleep heavily ; to fall down 

. ZJ' astounded. 
nirdam 



* An onomaioepic word. Cf. dap-Odvio, dor-mio (G.). 



§3.] 

[shakaph, prob. to 
lay over J to cover. ^ 



[caraar, to warm]. 



Niphal 107 

^pli^J (to lay oneself over [e. g. a win- (30/) 

. , ri. ', dow-sill] for the purpose of 

nishkaph ^Q^ytiw^ out=) to look out; 

to behold; to hang over (of a 

mountain); BX\6.^g;.toimpend. 

i^lll (a^) to show oneself a prophet ; to 
nibba" P^'P^'^y- 
'^^21 to be warmed; fig. to burn, to 

. ~ 'J yearn. 
nicmar ^ 

Vocabulary. 



[The forms in crotchets 
To destroy, [IDli^]* shamad 

— T 

(in Niphal). 
To cut off, [Tn:i], garaz. 

-T 

To cast out or up, ]l)1^, ga- 

-T 

rash (Niph., to be cast or 
tossed up ; to be agitated, 
troubled). 

To separate, 113, parad. 

To break, ^2^, shabhar. 

— T 

To bury, l^p, kabhar. 

To hold, hold up; to acquire, 
IDJIj tamach. 

To take; to catch, 137} la- 

chad*. 
To gather; to collect, f3p» 

kabhats. 
To stumble, 7^2), cashal. 
To burn, P)1';i/, saraph. 
To be pure, [Jl'p2], nakah 

'tt 

(Niph., to be unpunished). 



do not occur in Kal.] 

Before, in the sight of, l^J, 308 

ne'ged. From before, I^^D- 
Therefore, ]3~^^, i?al-cen. 

Suddenly, j;jlD. pe'thai^. 
Remedy, 1 i^BID («, a^), 

Deliverance, [ "^^fP^! ^^^P^^' 
J to heal). 

Grey-hair ; old age, Hll^ii^ i^)> 
sebhah (sibh, to be grey- 
headed). 

Cord, b2h, khe'bhel ([kha- 

bhal], to bind). 
A treacherous person ,'^y\2^ bo- 

ged (partcp. Kal of [bagad] 

to cover). 

Garment, 1^2 (decl. 6, a), 

be'ged. 
Harvest, 1'^^p, katsir (decl. 

3, a) ; katsar, to reap. 



* Also ' to take by lot ' [Xayxavw ?] 



108 The Regular Verb. 

(SOS) Frowardness,^n^*\tini^, ta- 

Deceit, h^phuchah 

(only in plur.), 
J haphach. 

Wickedness, 111(1, havvah. 

Righteous, pHSi, tsaddik. 

To write J to number, IHID* 



[CH. 8. 

Multitude, 31 (d), robh (ra- 
bhab, to become numerous). 



Famine, ^yi, raPabh (rai?ebh, 

T T 

to be hungry). 

The bowels, DHI. rekhem, 
(fig. compassion) WUrr\) 
saphar. ~ "^ | rakhamira (decl. 6,/). 

Exercise SO. 
309 a) : ^'^TV T^^D ^nT"1J3 1 1 nigrazti minne'ged l^enecha. 

2 v'har'shal'im cayjam nig- 
rash. 3 })al-cen pe'thai^ 

yishshabher', v'en marpe". 

4 tikkabher b'sebhah iobhah. 

5 b'khable kha/^atho yitta- 
mech. 6 nishm'dah miBBin- 
yamin ishshah. 7 b'de'rech 
khochmah 15 thiccashel. 

8 b'gadav 15 thissaraphnah. 

9 mei^olam nmachti *. 10 nir- 
dam bakkatsir ben mebhish f. 
1 ] I'shon tahpuchoth ticcareth. 
12 b'havvath b5g'dim yilla- 
chedu (/)). 13 yad I'yad X 
lo-yinnakeh rai>, v'zera)> tsad- 
dikim nimla^ {p). 14 garii- 
damo hinneh nidrash {p). 
15 lo-thiccareth haerets bara- 
i^abh. 16 niclim'ru rakh^mav 
el-akhiv. 17 hikkabh'tsu b'ne 
Yai^^kobh. 18 beth r'shai>im 
yishshamed. 



t: • JT- • T :|t: 


r^?^ ^y^\ VP}h 


]2'bv 3 


7]yy3. inpn 4* 


= ^?1^ 


^!^)^'m ^^pan^ 5 


^nn^tD 


]-j;:ip nib'^J 6 


• ^'pJ?; 


vb r\r^'2n tjii2 ' 


^ : ^^'^^ 


^"7 viin 8 ■ * ■ 


:'?i^3ri 


: ^jiDDJ bV^^yD 9 : 


n:)9itl^ri 

T ; |~ T • 


: -^'^a? ]3 i^i:[!)n 


Dli: 10 


nisn n^DDHji 


X\tb 11 



■rr;h\ Dnjii nin^ 12 
:l;i nj^^V-x^ " T^ "t; 13 

:n;;"i3'nNM jii^ji 

: rnNi'yi:^ ''^'^?n7- vi-pp/is 

•.np:i;^_ >32 i:iaij3n 17 

:i::i^> D^j;-^") !nu is 

•• T • • T : 

* For ninsacti. 



t * TAaf maketh ashamed,' 
Hand in hand' = * thotigh hand be joined in hand.' 



§ 4.] Piel and Pual. 109 

h) 1. His brother was taken-captive. 2. Thy seed shall not (309) 
be numbered (for*) multitude. 3. The treacherous man shall 
be taken in his wickedness. 4. The wicked {pi-) shall not be 
unpunished. 5. And they separated (themselves) from each 
other. 6. My clothes are burned. 7. And I shall be destroyed, 
I and my house. 8. The kings have been anointed. 9. Our 
queen will be anointed. 10. His garment is burnt. 11. He 
will be buried. 12, The land shall be utterly destroyed. 
13. Gather {pL) all Israel: and they were gathered. 14. (In 
the-being-gathered-together of the nations =) In the nations 
being gathered together and the kingdoms. 15. Those who-are- 
gathered {pi. partcp.) to thee. 

16. Write down the short Paradigm of ^lyi) in Niphal. 

17. Write the Hebrew of— 

1) To be buried. 2) Ye {fern.) shall be buried. 3) Being 
buried {fem. sing., fern. plur.). 

Chap. VIII. § 4. Piel and (its passive) Pual. 

!^° The characteristic of this conjugation is the 3io 
doubling of the middle radical. 

In Piel, the Iniperf. ("^^p^ y'ka^/el) and the 31 1 
Partcp. (/^I2P, m'ka^/el), whose preformatives take 
SK'va, are formed, according to the general analogy, 
from the Inf. and Imperat. ^^\l. The Passive (Pual) 

has more obscure vowels, and its Infinitive is of the 
same form with the Srd sing, of the Perfect. In other 
respects the Active and Passive follow the same 
analogy. In the Perfect of Piel, Pathahh takes the 
place of Tsere in the first and second persons, which, 
properly, have for their basis the form 7^p. See 
(and learn) the full conjugation of Piel in Para- 
digm D. 

The D, which in this and the succeeding conjugations is the 312 

characf eristic of the Partcp., may be derived from TJ, wfw ? in 
the sense of some one. 

The characteristic Dagesh in the middle radical is omitted 313 
only in the followdng cases — 

a) W^hen this letter is a guttural. 

* D- How pointed before Resh ^ 



] 10 The Regular Verb, [ch. 8. 

(3 J 3) h) Sometimes, though rarely, when it has Sh^va; the omission 
is then sometimes indicated by a Khateph under the letter 
that ought to be dageshed. 
f^ In the Imperf. and Partcp. the Sh'va under the pre- 
formatives may always serve as a mark of these conjugations. 

Significations 0/ PieL] 

314 a) It denotes intensity and repetitions^ and that 

the action is performed upon many. This sig- 
nification of Piei is found with various shades 
of difference. With the eager pursuit of an 
object is connected the influencing and urging 
others to perform it. Hence, 

b) It has a causative signification (Hke Hiphil), 
and may be resolved by to make^ cause^ or let ; 
to declare (a person to be what the root denotes) ; 
to regard him as — , to help. 

c) Denominatives are frequently found in this con- 
jugation, which in general mean to make a thing 
(what the noun expresses), or to be in any way 
occupied with it. — What kind of reference the 
verb then denotes, depends on the kind of ope- 
ration of which the noun is susceptible : in the 
case of several possible operations, custom arbi- 
trarily affixes the verb to one of them ; and often 
restricts the use of it, in this sense, to particular 
objects (e. g. to 2i field in the case of to stone). 

d) They sometimes express the taking aioay or in- 
juring the thing or part, of which the noun is the 
name. [Compare our, to brain a man ; to bone 
a herring ; to stone raisins ; to dust a room, &c.] 

e) So also in some verbs, whose origin cannot be 
traced to a noun. 

315 a) When Vi'el approaches the causative force of Hiphil, it 

primarily expresses this notion with the accessory one of 
care and great activity, 
b) Sometimes, however, it is used together with Hiphil, 
without any great difference of force, especially to express 
transitively what Kal expresses intransitively (E.). 

* So intensive and iterative nouns are also formed by doubling 
the middle stem-letter. 



§*•] 



Piel and Pual. 



Ill 



The Short Paradigms of Kal, Niphal, and Piel. 





IPerf. 


2Tnf.cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


5 PaHcp. 


1 Kal 


ka^al 


k'^51 


k761 


yik^ol 


ko^el 


2 Niphal 


nik/al 


hikka/el 


hikka^el 


yikka/el 


nikfal 


3 Piel 


ki«el 


ka/^el 


ka«el 


y'ka«el 


m'ka«el 



^Past 316 
paricp. of 
Kal. 

ka/iil 



Normal Forms. 

Per/. kittel, kitt'lah, kiWal'ta. 

Imperat. kattel, ka^fli, ka/^el'nah. 

Imperf. y'ka/fel, t'ka«'li, t'ka^el'nah. 



Examples. 



Kal. 



«) bi^U}, shaal 


to ask 


to beg. 


pn:», tsakhak 


to laugh 


(to laugh repeatedly), to 
sport, to jest. 


")3p, kabhar 


to bury 


to bury (many persons). 


njlB, pathakh 


to open 


to loose. 


"IH)D. «aphar 


to number 


to relate j to tell. 


6) -fD^, lamad 

— T 


to learn 


to (cause to learn =) teach 


c) n^rij khayah 


to live 


to make alive. 



Piel. 



317 



318 



{Piel) 
pl"^, tsiddek, to declare innocent (314, b). 

17^, yilled, to assist in child-bearing. 

pp, kinnen, to make a nest (]p, ken, nest). 
"IDj;, i^ipper, to throw dust ()>aphar, dust). 

d) li^^Ii^, sheresh, to root out [the form will be explained 

hereafter], 

22], zinnebh (to injure the tail =) to rout the rear- 
guard of an army. 

e) 7pD, *ikkel, (I) to stone, (2) to remove stones from 

afield. 



1 1 2 The Begular Verb, [ch. 8. 

319 Pual is the Passive of Piel : e. g. 12^5, to steal; 
Piel, to steal ; Pual, to be stolen. 

320 In Piel the proper and literal signification of a word is often 
retained, when Kal has adopted a figurative one, the former 
being the stronger and more prominent idea : e. g. ^^^"1 in 

Piel to stitch up, in Kal to heal ; i^'^^, Piel to cut, to hew out, 

Kal to form, to make; Tw^, Piel to uncover, Kal to reveal. 

T T 

321 Piel is also found intransitively, but only in poetry, as an 
intensive form, as JHr^Pf. frangi ; T^^\'Dy to be open. 

322 The Perfect of Piel has frequently Pathakh in the final syl- 
lable instead of Tsere : e. g. "T3^^, to destroy j '^2Lt)> to break 

in pieces. This occurs especially before Makkeph, and in the 
middle of a period, when other words immediately follow ; but 
at the end of a period Tsere is the more common vowel. Some 
verbs have Segol, as "l^l"^* to speak ; ")B3> to atone ; D^3> to 
wash. 

323 a) The Imperf., Infin., and Imperat., when followed by Mak- 

keph, generally take Segol in the final syllable *. 

b) With Vav conv. we have also 7L2p>$") for 7t2pJ^V Instead 
of nj7JDpJl are found such forms as n^7!^pjn. 

324 c) The Infin. absol. has the marked form ^J£)p (as "^DN casti- 

gando) ; and in Pual, ^h^- But more frequently the form 
^JiSp is used. 

325 In Pual, instead of Kibbufs, is found less frequently Khamets- 
Khatuph t (e. g. Ult^^, dyed red). 

T T ; 

326 The Partcp. Pual sometimes occurs without the prefix Q; it 
is then distinguished (like the Partcp. Niphal) only by the 
Kamets in the final syllable (e. g. Hp'^j taken). 

* In the 1st pers. sing. Imperf., besides 7^ph^, there occur 
also (very seldom) the forms Hlth^, "^^'D^^• 

vtv; •• t •• 

t It is merely an orthographic variation, when Shurek takes 
the place of Kibbuts, as '^bv^ 



§4] 



Piel and Pual. 



113 



Vocabulary. 



To seek J to try to get, ti^p^, 
bikkesh, Piel {Kal not used). 

To restore, repay, recompense, 
Ubtl}* D ■?^, shillam, shillem 

(Piel)', [(shalam), to be at 
peace, &c.]. 

To seek early, in^, shakhar 

— T 

(denom. from shakhar, the 
dawn). 

To overthrow J to pervert, f|7D, 

salaph, in Piel. 

To separate, IID, parad. 

Niphal, to separate oneself j 
to be separated. 

To He, ^T3, cazabh (both in 

- T 

Kal and Piel). 

Knowledge, J^V^* dai^ath (pro- 
perly an inf.). 

A scorner j a scoffer, ^P, lets, 

partcp. of Y^7 (v), to scoff, 
mock. 

Sevenfold, U'^DV^'ll), shibh- 

i'^atha'yim (prop, a Dual). 

Thus, p, cen. 

Life, D^Tr, khayyim. 



Evil, ;;-), rai? ; and HI?"), ra- 327 
i>ah,/em. (as abstract). 

Favour, piil(hw), ratson. 

Wickedness, nyt£^1 (w), rish- 
i>ah (rashai>, to be wicked). 

Not (to be), "|^^^ * {constr. '{>^^), 
ay in (constr. en). 

Folly, J^'p^^^, ivve'leth. 

Mischief, ^Q^, ramal. 

T T 

Lip, nS'ti/, saphah. Dual 

T T 

D^nS^, s'phathayim. 

A witness, "7j;, i^ed (strictly a 
partcp. from 1")^) : decl. 1 . 

Truth, faithfulness, ]M2i^, 

emun (decl. 3, g) ; ish ^mu- 
nim (a man of faithfulness =■) 
a faithful (or true) man. 

To wash [D23]. cabha^, in 

— T 

Piel and Pual. 
To be or become clean, "IHD* 

• T 

/aher. 



* This particle (properly a substantive, denoting nothingness, 
nought) always comprehends the substantive verb [to be). 



114 



The Regular Verb. 



[CH. 8. 



Exercise 31 (Piel). 



32£ a) :*ny'^^aih^ "^^i'Pf! ^ 

n^-j ^^;y2^ u^'rh t^^t^, 

V - : I . • - V ; T T 

'"^i?.^! '"',^^?P/' ^ : (323,0) niD 

:'i:^"iij n^n'iD"^ 13 

T ; •• • T 

'my\ St 2b y\2. 023 15 



1 ha-m'lammed adam dai^ath 
(/>). 2 bikkesh lets khochmah, 
vaayin {p). 3 y'shalleni shibh- 
I'^athayim {p). 4 cen-ts'dakah 
rkhayyirn um'raddeph rai^ah 
I'raotho. 5 shokher ^obh 

y'bhakkesh ra-ts6n. 6 rishi^ah 
t'salleph kha/*/ath. 7 kha//aim 
t'raddeph rai^ah, v'eth-tsaddi- 
kim y'shallem-/6bh. 8 I'tha*- 
vah ^^ y'bhakkesh niphrad. 
9 ivve'leth adam t'^alleph 
darco. 10 )?amal siphtehem 
t'dabber'nah. 11 hbb'cha 

y'dabber tahpuchoth. 12 i'>ed 
^munim 15" y'chazzebh. 

13 damo, hinneh, nidrash(j9). 

14 en m'kabber lahemmah. 

15 cibbes bayyayin I'bhusho 
ubh'dam-i^^nabhim suthoh. 

16 v'chibbastem bigdechem 
bayyom hashsh'bhii^i ufhar- 
tem. 



b) 1. Theu* clothes shall be washed on? the third day. 
2. Foolishness perverteth our ways. 3. We will seek ^'' wisdom 
and knowledge. 4. Wisdom will not pervert the ways of men. 
5. I have washed my clothes. 6. We will wash om' clothes. 
7. She has washed her clothes, and is clean. 8. We have washed 
om' clothes, and are clean. 9. Having washed his clothes. 
10. They were sought-for. 

* Kamets in pause. 

t ' One who is separated,' or ' ivho separates himself (from man- 
kind m general).' This is the subject or nominative case. 



§*■] 



Piel and PuaL 



115 



The Short Paradigms of Kal, Niphal, Piel, and Pual. 





\Perf. 


2 Inf. est): 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


bPartcp. 


iKal 


ka^al 


k'tdl 


k76l 


yik/ol 


ko^el 


2 mphal 


nik^al 


hikkafel 


hikka/el 


yikka/el 


nik^al 


3 Piel 


ki«el 


ka«el 


ka^^el 


y'ka^/el 


m'kaWel 


4. Pual 


ku«al 


kiit'al 


(none) 


y'ku^^al 


m'kiiWal 



QPast 329 
paHcp. 
of Kal. 

ka^ul 



Vocabulary. 



Soul, person, ti^S)3. ne'phesh 

(decl. 6, 8 ; naphash, to 
respire). 

Bounty, gift, nD13,, b'rachah 

T T ; 

{ng'phesh-b'rachah, person 
of bounty = a bountiful per- 
son) ; barach, to bless. 

Lo ! ]n, hen. 

Understanding, p'^'^ or 73\^, 

se'chel or se'chel (decl. 6, 
a 2) ; sachal, to act wisely. 

According to, ^37, 1'phi (7 and 
''^ the stat. constr. of the 
irregular peh, r\B» « mouth). 

To praise, bbn, hillel (Pie/ of 
[halal] to be bright, clear). 

Hope, Pibr\M^ia<^), tokhe'- 
leth fyn\ in Piel, to hope). 



To draw, '7\1£}r2, mashach (Piel, 330 

to protract). 
Disease, T^bllD, makh^leh ; 

nbnDicij, raakh^ah {nbn, 

T -:- T T 

to be worn; to be sick). 

Rebuke, JlPTDiD («wy), tocha- 

khath ; yachakh, to prove, 
to rebuke. 

To hide [IJIV], «athar (Pual, 
to be hidden, to be secret). 

To cover, forgive, expiate, 
133> caphar. 

- T 

Bone, D^^y, i'e'tsera (in pause, 

i^atsem). 
Report, r\V^:2]i:}{(o),sh'mui)a.hi 

shamai>, to hear. 
Love, n2r\i^, ah^bhah ((!>). 
Dust, ")3J7, i^aphar. 



Some segolate nouns with vowels e-e are not dechned 33 1 
like melech (malchi, &c.), but like sepher (decl. 6, b), siphri, &c. 
Se'chel (or sechel) takes sichli. 



116 



The Regular Verb. 



[CH. 8. 



Exercise 32 (Pual). 



332 a) : (p) ^r\ nD"iB"t:^3: i 

't s : X t: v,-.- 

: (/)) Jibti-^ Y"^^^ P'"^^ P 2 

I T \, : ' V T T ' • - ' " 

T \ : - - T 

: p^ 133^ J-l^^^^ Tpra 8 
n:^?);^^ I'o : nii^ "I'll:' 9 

tt; tt;- - '\ tt 

T X '- \ : 1 : • 

:DH3 T^in 13 :-|SV3 



1 ne'phesh-b'rachah th'dush- 
shan(/?). 2 hen tsaddik baarets 
y'shuUam (/?). 3 Fphi sichlo 
y'hullal-tsh. 4 ne'phesh kha- 
rutsim t'dushshan (p). 5 to- 
khe'leth m'mushshachah ma- 
kh4ah lebh. 6 shomer Monav 
y'chiib'bad (p). 7 iobhah to- 
chakhath m'gullah meah^bhah 
m'suttareth (/?). 8 b'khe'sed 
ye^meth y'chiippar i'^avon. 
9 shiiddad sadeh. 10 sh'mu- 
i'ah iobhah t'dashshen- 
I'a tsem {p). 1 1 sharamah 

kubbar Abhraham v' Sarah 
ishto. 12 v'shuppach damam 
cei>aphar. 13 habbe'ged 

cubbas. 



b) 1. Our fields are wasted. 2. This (is) the place where '^ I 
shall be buried. 3. The righteous (pi.) are recompensed in the 
earth. 4. Those who observ^e {partcp.) their masters are ho- 
noured. 5. The iniquity of my people shall not be purged. 
6. The river in which ^^ the clothes are washed. 7. Lo ! the fields 
of the city are wasted. 8. Are thy {masc.) iniquities purged ? 
9. Shall not your {fern, pi.) clothes be washed ? 10. Mercy, by 
which iniquity shall be purged. 11. Mercy and truth, by which 
iniquity is purged. 12. Thy mercy, by which my iniquities are 
purged. 



* M'gullah is fern, partcp. Pual from galah, a verb Lamed 
He. In this sentence /obhah is the predicate, the copula (=is) 
being omitted. 



§5.] HipMl and Hophal. 117 

Chap. VIII. § 5. II'ipUl and (its passive) Hophal. 

a) The characteristic of Hiphil is a prefixed ha or 333 
A^, and ''- inserted after the second radical. 

b) From the Infin. T^pH are formed the Imperf. 
and the Partcp. ^^ipp^ '?^Pi?!?, for b^^\>r}\ 

c) In Hophal (as in Pual), the Infin. is of the 
same form with the 3rd pers. sing, of the Per- 
fect ; and in its other forms follows the general 
analogy. 

In the 1st and 2nd pers. Perf. the *♦- falls away, 334 

and PathaJch takes its place. See the Paradigm, Ap- 
pendix D. 

The Yod (which is not found in the Aramaean or Arabic) 335 
does not appear to be an essential characteristic of the form, but 
it has arisen out of a shorter vowel. 

The marks of this conjugation are, therefore, in the Perf., 336 
Imperat., and Infin., the prefix H; in the Imperf. and Partcp., 
the vowel under the preformatives, which in Hiphil is Pathakh, 
in Hophal, Kibbuts or Kamets-kkatuph. 

Meanmgs of HipMlP\ 

a) It is properly causative of Kal (and in this sense 337 
is more frequently employed tlian Piel). 

h) When Kal is transitive, Hiphil takes two accu- 
satives. 

c) Frequently Piel and Hiphil are both in use in 
the same signification (as "T^^^, abhad, to perish ; 

Piel and Hiphil, to destroy) ; but generally only 
one of them is found, or' they have some dif- 
ference of meaning : thus 133, cabhed, to he 

in Piel, to honour; in Hiphil, to maize 



d) Intransitive verbs merely become transitive : 
e. g. HDJ, to how (intrans.) ; Hiphil, to how 

(trans.). 



118 The Regular Verb. [ch. s. 

338 The causative and transitive Hiphil is employed in Hebrew 
for the expression of notions which other languages express by- 
intransitive verbs. Thus, any change in a man's habit of body 
was conceived in Hebrew as the result of personal agency, 
and represented as produced by the individual himself: e. g. 
Vyi)) Hiphil, to become fat {iproperly to produce fat) ; D]n and 

yi!3J^> Hiphil, to become strong (properly to develop strength) -, 

tjtO^, Hiphil, to become feeble. The same analogy applies 

to "lli^^j Hiphil, to become rich (properly to make, to acquire, 

riches) ; also especially to words which express the taking of a 
new colour, as ]^^7rT» to become white, &c. Moreover, states 

or conditions become, in the Hebrew mode of conception, acts : 
e g. ^''inn, not, to be silent, but properly to keep silence 

{silentium facere, Plin.) ; ^''il")Jl, to lead a quiet life. In such 

cases there is often an ellipsis, as ^"^lOTI, to deal well ; jnTTt^rTj 

to do wickedly, properly to make good or bad (sc. 12) "T^. VD"T^» 

which are also often expressed). 

339 a) These remarks apply also to Denominatives, i. e. the verb 

often expresses the notion of producing or putting forth 
what the original noun denotes, e. g. H/'^lii^n, to vut forth 

roots J ]>1pn, to put forth horns. 

b) Hiphil also expresses the actual use of a member, as ]''TJ<}rT» 

to listen (properly to make ears) ; y^V77^, to chatter, to 

slander (after the same analogy, properly to make tongue, to 
use the tongue freely). 

340 The signification of Hophal., as of Niphal, may 
sometimes coincide with that of Kal : e. g. *? j\ potuit, 
Imperf. Hophal, putens fiet^ i. e. poterit. 

341 It is only the Perfect of Hiphil that always retains the ^_ of 

the final syllable (in 3rd pers. sing, and plur.) ; on the contrary, 
the Infin,, Imper., and Imperf. frequently take Tsere instead of 
it (in Chaldee the usual form), although usage generally makes 
a distinction between forms with i and e. Tsere is in this case 
only tone-long, and hence in the lengthening of the forms it 
becomes vocal Sli'va, and, with gutturals, is changed into 
Pathakh, 



§5.] 



Hiphil and Hophal. 



119 



The Infin. alisol. has sometimes Tsere, without Yod, as 342 

The Imperat. but seldom takes the form "^^JOprT; instead of it 343 
are employed the shortened and the lengthened forms /ZOpH 
and ilTJDpn- The first takes Segol before MaJckeph f. 

In the Perf. are sometimes found the forms ^^DyDHj we have 344 
reproached, and '*Pl/'^}^^^, I have soiled (with J^ as in Aramaean). 

In the Imperf. and Partcp. the characteristic PT regularly 345 
gives place to the preformatives, as yt:3p\ ^^tOp^D. but not to 
prepositions in the Infin., 7*[0pn A because their connexion 

with the ground-form is less intimate than that of the pre- 
formatives. To botli rules there are some few exceptions. 

^^ The tone, in Hiphil, does not fall on the afformatives 346 
•1, H-* and ''_. They take it, however, in the Perf. when Vav 

T 

conversive is prefixed. 

In the Passive {Hophal) Perf., Imperf., and Partcp. u (\) is 34/ 
found in the first syllable as well as o ( ^ ), 7L0pn, but not so 

often in the regular verb : e. g. ^Bli^H +• 

- ; \ 

The Infin. absol. is distinguished by ( ••} in the final syllable. 348 
Of the Infin. constr., as given in the Paradigm, there happens 
to be no example in the regular verb. 

The Short Paradigms of Kal, Niphal, Piel, Pual, 
Hiphil, and Hophal. 

Q Past 
partcp. 
of Kal. 

ka^ul 349 





\Perf. 


•2Inf.cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


5 Partcp. 


\Kal 


ka^al 


kVol 


k'/5l 


yik/ol 


ko^el 


2 Niphal 


nik/al 


hikka^el 


hikka/el 


yikka^el 


nik/al 


3 Piel 


ki«el 


ka^/el 


kaf/el 


y'ka/^el 


m'ka^el 


4 Pual 


ku/^al 


ku/^al 


(none) 


y'ku//al 


m'kii^^al 


5 Hiphil 


hik/il 


hak/il 


hak/el 


yakm 


mak^il 


6 Hophal 


hokial 


hokfal 


(none) 


yok^al 


mok^al 



* Unfrequent exceptions, in which the form with Tsere stands 
for the Infin. constr., ai^e found in Deut. xxvi, 12; xxxii. 8. 
t The form of the Partcp. with (••) in the Sing, is doubtful 

(Isa. liii. 3). 
// 
X Verbs ^S have ii constantly, as I^PT- 



120 



The Regular Verb. 



[cH. 8. 



Vocabulary. 



350 To be holy, ti^lp, kadash. 

To bend forward, P]p*^i^, sha- 

kaph (in Hiph. to look). 
To act prudently, 7l^V, sachal 

- T 

(in Hiph. to be ivise, partcp. 
wise). 

To hide; to treasure up, 1^^J, 

tsaphan. 

To hearken unto, ^WD, (in 

- 't 

Hiph. with ]T^^, ozen, ear = 

to prick up the ear to j to 
incline the ear to =. attend to). 

To hunger, ^J?"!. rai^ebh (in 

Hiph. to cause to hunger; 
to starve). 

To device, '2.Vr\, khashabh. 

— T 

Heaven, D^Q^> shamayim 

• - T 

{constr. ^i2p)- 
Doing j deed (of man, in a bad 

sense), nb^bv^^)' i^'lilah 

(i^alal). 
Now, JIDV* i^attah. " 

T — 

Profane, 5] jn? khaneph (usually 

translated hypocrite). 
Rest, r)2t, shabhath (Hiph. 

~ T 

cause to cease). 



Corn (separated from the husk), 
"13, (d), bar (barar, to sepa- 
rate). 

Root, ]^')Ti), shoresh (pi. 
D''Ii^")Ii^. shorasliim, with 

• TIT 

Khamets Khatuph instead of 
Khateph Kamets). 

From above, b^l^D, mimma- 
i^al. 

From below, rinr\t2, mitta- 
khath. 

To shame J to hurt, D73, ca- 

- T 

lam (in Piel). 
A lamb, ^2,3. ce'bhes. 
JVise J intelligent, ]'>2'!2, me- 

bliin. 

A prodigal, 77iT> zolel (partcp 

Kal). 
Lot, b^'^ii, goral. 

T 

Powefnl, DlliV. i^atsiim. 

T 

To eat, bDi^, achal. 

— T 

Flesh, '^M, sh'er (decl. 1, a). 
To strip (off) ; to fiay, tOt^S. 
pasha^ 



§-] 



Hi'pliil and Huphal. 



121 



Exercise 83 

a) ^y^:^nr} ^r?nm i 
^TOH 11 osi"^ ni^n^ 

ins "T^Ot^i^T 13 : DH^Jsp 

* : j"inrio vjr'nt^') ^y;^p 
tJiiii'n D^3ii:;2 DV>nP ^^ 

T : • - •• : : IT 

"i^ij 17 : ^lo^i^prr Dn^r? 
* :Vn^^ D^'PD^ U'bb'i 



(Hiphil). 

1 hishkhithu hithri'bhA i^^li- 351 
lah. 2 Y'hovah rnishsha- 

mayim hishkiph i^al-b'ne- 
adam, lir^oth h^yesh mascil 
doresh eth-^lohim. 3 b'ni ira 
mitsvothai titspon ittach, 
I'hakshibh lakhochmah 6z- 
necha. 4 i^attah bhanim 

hakshibhii I'lmre phi. 5 16 
yarj^ibh Y'hovah ne'phesh 
tsaddik. 6 b'pheh khaneph 
yashkhith re^ehu. 7 b'rachah 
I'rosh mashbir bar, 8 ^obh 
yankhil b'ne-bhanim. 
9 r'tson-melech I'i^e'bhed 
mascil. 10 lebh adam 

y'khashshebh darco. 11 hin- 
khil 6tham eth-haarets. 

12 anochi hishmadti eth- 
ha^mori mipp'nehem. 

13 vaashmid piryo mimmai?al 
v'shorashav mittakhath. 

14 v'hacc'sabhim hiphrid Ya- 
iJ'kobh. 15 midyanim yash- 
bith haggoral (p) ; ubhen 
i^Hs^imim yaphrid. 16 ach'ld 
sh'er i^ammi v'i^oram mei^^le- 
hem hiphshifft, 17 notser 
torah ben mebhin v'roi^eh 
zol'lim yachlim abhiv. 



* * 0?ie who feeds,' partcp. Kal. 



122 The Regular Verb. [ch. 8. 

(25l) b) I. He destroyed the Midianites from before us. 2. He 
will utterly destroy the Amorites. 3. I have separated the 
dogs. 4. They will flay his skin from off him. 5. The 
judges cause- contention -to-cease. 6. We will separate the 
righteous. 7. Wisdom separates her children. 

8. Write down the short Paradigms of "Trj^ in Niphal and 
HiphiL , ■ ; 

9. Write down the short Paradigm of C)7D in Piel. 



Vocabulary, 



352 To cast C^jb^), T^^pH, hish- 
lich. 
To invade, lay waste, '^Ip, 
shadad. 

To trouble (water by trampling 

in it), ii^DI, raphas. 

- T 

To be corrupt [i^nti^], sha- 

khath (in Hiph. and Hoph. 
to be corrupted). 

To stand, ID^, i>amad (in 

- T 

Hiph. to make to stand j 
Hoph. to be set or placed: 
al. to be held up). 

To mourn, 72^^» abhal. 

— T 

Grave, '^'l\>i ke'bher (decl. 
6, a; but, with suffixes, 
kibhr-i, &c.). 

Branch, IjJJ, netser. 

Gift : a bloodless sacrifice j a 

meat-offering, linjD (w), 

T : • 
minkhah (manakh, inus. to 
give). 



A drink-offering, ^p3j ne'^ech 
(decl. 6, as khe'ber); [na^ach, 
to pour out\. 
•> 

Rain, 'O'tl^, ge'shem (decl. 6, 

as ke'bher). 
Corn, ]3"n, dagan (decl. 4, a) ; 

T T 

[dagah, to increase']. 
A fountain, ]''J?Q, mail^yan. 
Chariot, n^^ll^, mereabhah 

T T : V 

(from rachabh, to ride on a 

horse, dfc, or in a carriage). 

Anger, CjJ^, aph (for eneph 

from anaph, to breathe : lite- 
rally, nose) : decl. 8. 
To become dry ; to be dried up, 
]^2^, yabhesh. 

Strength, Plbj coakh (decl. 1). 

To cleave, pQ*^, dabhak 

(partcp. Hophal, made to 
cleave, to adhere). 

The jaws, D'*n^p7D, malko- 

kha'yim (dual). 

Ploughmen, D^"l3h?, iccarim. 



§5.] 



IlipMl and Hophal. 



123 



Exercise 34 (Hophal) 

• : - ; T ' V T 

'::'•• t:-:t t-- 



PD2r\ 3 



2pn: "11^:33 



T : •• • ' V V T T : • 

- \ • T T-: T ; |T 

jin^D 'y\\)iy\ 'm-^;: vvn 6 

T T •• ; • T ' • - 

T t; T T T 'v ••■ ~ 

t2' 9 :^DJ^ wa t:h)^ 

' V T T V V T T 

; T • ■ t-:t 



1 :i;alecha hoshlachtt. 353 

2 v'attah hoslilachta mikkibh- 
r'cha c'netser nithi^abh*. 

3 hochrath minkhah vane'sech 
inibbeth Y'hovah. 4 abh'lah 
"damah ci shuddad dagan. 

5 homlach i^al-malchuth. 

6 mai^yan nirpas * iimakor 
moshkhath, tsaddik f maf X 
liphne rashai?. 7 hamme'lech 
hayah moj^^mad bammerca- 
bhah. 8 yihyu § muchshalim 
Fphanecha b'i^eth app'cha. 

9 yabhesh cakhe'res cokhi, 
ul'shoni mudbak malkokhai- 

10 v'hochl'mu iccarim ci 15- 
hayah ge'shem baarets {p), 

11 ha^nashim ^obhim lanu 
m'od v'lo hochlamnu. 



b) 1. Upon thee were we cast. 2. He will be cast out of his 
grave. 3. The wicked shall be cast out of their graves. 4. The 
meat-offerings and the drink-offerings shall be cut-off. 5. The 
corn shall be wasted. 6. Were they not cast out from their 
graves like abominable branches ? 7. They will be made kings 
over those kingdoms. 

8 Write down the short Paradigm of ^^7'^ in Hiphil and 
Hophal. 

* 5, 2 [= fifth form of 2nd conj. : i. e. partcp. of Niphal]. 

t Supply * so is ' before tsaddik. 

I iOlD partcp. Kal from l^']!2, to shake, to totter, to slip, 8fc. 

T 

{. * Let them be.' 

g2 



124 The Regular Verb. [ch. 8. 

(353) 9. Write down— 

a) Who is buried S^-, 

h) The graves in which they are buried. 

c) The graves of the Gentiles. 

c?) He destroyed the cities of the Gentiles. 

Chap. VIIL § 6. Hithpael. 

354 This conjugation prefixes to the Piel form ka^^el 
(btSp) the syllable hith^^ which, like hin in Niphal, 
has undoubtedly the force of a reflexive pronoun, 
perhaps of the same origin as the particle rsik^ self. 

355 The Jl of the prefixed syllable r\T} suffers the fol- 
lowing changes : 

a) When the first radical is a sibilant (D, ^, l^), 
it changes places with il, as (from shdmar) 
IDrit^n, to take heed, for I^^^JIH, ^^^P^, to be 
burdened, for b'^LOrST}. 

b) With it, moreover, the transposed D is changed 
into the more nearly related tO, as p*7^iti7, to 

justify oneself, for pl^/in. 

c) Before the t-sounds (1, 10, D), it is assimilated, 
e. g. ^5"^'?' ^^ co7werse ; I'niBT}, to cleanse one- 
self; D^iDH, to conduct oneself uprightly/. 

Sometimes assimilation takes place before J and 3 ; 
once before "1. 

356 The meanings of Hithpael. '] 

a) Most frequently it is reflexive, but chiefly of 
Piel, as ^"^P-HrT' ^^ sanctify oneself; Dj5^iirT, to 
avenge oneself; ");ti^/in, to gird oneself 

b) Then it means, to make oneself what is ex- 
pressed by the first conjugation : hence, to 

• Chald. rl^^, Syr. Di^, 



§6.] Hithpael 125 

conduct {show, imagine) oneself as such, to affect (356) 
to be such; properly to make oneself m and so, 
to act so and so : e. g. '?"i|^0'7> ^'^ ^^^^ oneself 
great, to act proudly ; DSnO*?' ^^ ^^^^ oneself 
cunning, crafty. 

c) Its signification sometimes coincides with that 
of Kal, and both forms are in use with the 
same meaning : e. g. dblial (Kal), to mourn, is 
found only in poetry. Hithahhel (Hithpael), in 
the same sense, is more common in prose, and 
even takes an accusative. 

d) It expresses reciprocal action (like Niphal), as 
n2^"17in, to look upon one another, 

e) More frequently it expresses what a man does 
indirectly to or for himself (comp. Niph.). It 
has then an active signification, and governs an 
accusative : e. g. lOL^'SJlH, exuit sibi (vestem) ; 
nJ[n3Jin, solvit sihi (vincula). So, without the 
accusative, '^^,^^^i to walk about for oneself 
(ambulare). 

f) It is but seldom that it is passive : e. g. 1|5S0n, 
to be numbered, mustered, 

(^ The Perfect, as in Piel, has frequently Pathakh in the 357 
final syllable, as pinJin, to be strengthened. Final Pathakh 
occurs also in the Infin., Imperf., and Imperat. i'\i)'lpnil, 
sanctify thyself). In pause these forms take Kamets, as 



The Begular Verb. 



[CH. 8, 



358 



126 

The Short Paradigms of the Regular Verb in all its 

FORMS. 



iKal 

2 Niphal 

3 Piel 

4 Pual 

5 Hiphil 

6 Hophal 

7 Hith- 
pael 

(The participles of verbs Lamed He end in -eh.) 

Vocabulary. 













6 Past 


1 Per/: 


2 Inf. cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


5 Partcp. 


parfrp 

of Red. 


ka^al 


ka/ol 


k'/ol 


yik^ol 


ko^el 


k&m 


nik^al 


hikka/el 


hikka/el 


yikka/el 


nik^al 




ki«el 


kattel 


ka</el 


y'ka/^el 


ka^/el 




ku//al 


ku^/al 


(none) 


y'ku//al 


m'ku^/al 




hik/il 


hak/il 


hak^el 


yak/il 


mak^il 




hokial 


hok/al 


(none) 


yok^al 


mok^al 




hith- 
i ka^el 


hith- 
ka^/el 


hith- 
kai/el 


yith- 
ka/^el 


mith- 
ka^el 





359 To press; to be urgent with, 
2rn, rahabh. 

To despise [ilbp], kalah. 
To be weighty j to be honoured, 
123, cabhad (in Hithp. to 

— T 

show oneself honoured j to 
boast oneself). 

To lack, "Ipllj khasar. 

To relax, 1131. raphah {to 

T T 

hang down the hands, ^-c. 
Hithp. to relax oneself; to 
be slothful). 

Service; work, HDi^bD, m'la- 

chah (laach). 
To be known or recognised, 

"iB^nrr, hithnaccer (nacar, 

inus. is to be strange: the 
notion of contemplating, re- 
cognizing, &c. comes from 



that of looking at anything 
as strange). 

To place [32i^]. yatsabh (in 

Hithp. to stand firm or up- 
right). 

Companion, friend, yi, reai^. 

Servant, slave, 12^, ye'bhed 

(i'abhadi to work). 
Possessor, lord, by 3,^ bai-^al *. 
Work, bbyD> martial (only in 

pi.) a, from 77^. 

~ T 

Pure, TJT or TJT» zach or zach. 
Mean, TTIi^H, khashuch {pi. 

D^^ti^H); khashach, to be 

dark. 
Garment, b''V12, m'i'il (maPal). 



* Before an adjective or participle denoting quality, ba'^^al 
denotes the possessor of the quality ; so that it may be translated 
by ' one who is.' See Example 3. 



§6.] 



Hithpael. 



127 



Exercise 35 

a) : -^f^^n an")i Dsniin i 

: n^n^j^ 'p^^nV Kin hn^ 

: i'^i^D -)if^; Di^iT ^rwi^ 
b\^\ fiiVn'-iQj^^^nari 5 

T • T T ~ : • T 

yrjy^bi yrjv^ Do^p 



(Hithpael). 
1 hithrappe* u'r'habh rei?e- 360 
cha. 2 ^obh nikleh v'i^e'bhed 
16, mimmithcabbed vakh^^ar- 
lakhem. 3 gam mithrappeh 
bhimlachto akh hu" l'bhai?al 
mashkhith*. 4 gam b'mai^''- 
lalav yithnaccer-nai^ar, im- 
zach, v'im yashar poi^*16. 

5 ral^, ra)^ y5mar hakkoneh 
v'ozel 16 az yithhallal {p). 

6 khazitha ish mahir bim- 
lacht6 liphne-m'lachim yith- 
y atstsabh(p), bal-yithyatstsebh 
liphne kh^shuccim. 7 camma- 
yim nishpachti v'hithpar'du 
col-i?atsm6thai. 8 vayyith- 
pashshe^ Y'h6nathan eth- 
hamm'i^il ''sher i?alav. 



b) 1. Has he not boasted ? 2. Did not the king strip himself 
of the robe that was upon him ? 3. The kings will strip them- 
selves of the robes that are upon them. 4. Strip thyself of thy 
garments. 5. Their bones separated themselves (= were out 
of joint). 6. Do not boast. 7. He who is diligent in his work 
is better th>n he who boasts. 8. The kings will boast. 9. Those 
who stand before a king will boast. 10. To boast-myself {inf. 
constr. with 7). 



Chap. IX. Verbs with Gutturals. 

§ 1 . Verls with Pe guttural. 

The gutturals usually take a Khateph {^Q) instead 361 
of simple Sh''va ; a peculiarity which causes several 



5,3. 



128 Verbs with Gutturals. [ch. 9. 

(361) changes in those forms of the verb in which one of 
the radical letters would regularly take S/i'va. 

362 For verbs with a guttural for their Pe (or Jirst 
radical), the following are the principal changes : 

a) Where the first radical of the regular verb 
would take a Sh'va (without any preformative), 
a Khate^jh is substituted; usually (-:) Khateph 
Pathakh. Thus in the perfect of Kal the 2nd 
persons plural become (]^") DJn7?i^- 

h) In the forms that take a preformative, the first 
radical of the regular verb takes dlent SJiva, 
and closes the syllable. In a verb Pe guttural 
the preformative usually retains the same vowel 
that the preformative of the regular verb has, 
and places the Khateph of the same sound under 
the first radical. Thus for p"* we should have 

c) Since, however, i and u have no Khateph of 
their own sound, the Khateph of the same class 
(60, 61) is used : i. e. the Khateph of the 
6-sound (Khateph Segol) for i; that of the 
o-sound {Khateph Kamets) for : and the vowel 
of the preformative is changed into the short 
vowel from tohich the Khateph is derived. (See 
Paradigm E.) Hence the changes will be (if 
we take H for the first radical and H for the 
preformative of the verb Pe guttural) : 

363 







Regular Verb. 








hak- 


hik- 


hok- huk- pn 
Verb Pe guttural. 


[?n 


Pp 


pn 


ha-kh* 


he-kh« 


ho-kho ho-kh° nr\ 


nn 


nn 


nrr 



364 Sometimes, however, the first radical (especially 
if n) retains the silent Sh'^va ; but then the pre- 
formative takes the same short vowel that it would 
have taken if the first radical had taken its Khateph : 



§ 1.] Pe Guttural 129 

e. g'. "tDH-f? (takhmod, not tikhmod), ti^lH^. (yekh- (364) 
bash). Niph. "^IDH^ (nelipach), to change oneself; 
Hiph. Tpnn (hekhsir), to cause to fail. 

The pupil should observe that the characteristic wi-, hi- of 365 
Niphal and Hiphil passes, respectively, into ne, he in verbs Pe 
Guttural. 

When an accented afformative («, dA, u) is added 366 
to forms like "TD^2i '^^)!}.-> the last vowel becomes 
moveable SK'va, and the Khateph of the guttural is 
changed into its homogeneous short vowel : "TQJ^ j 
^^^V\ (ya;^*mdu) ; so H^ty^, ne^^ezbah, she is for- 
saken. 

There is, however, also a harder form that changes 367 
the Khateph into 8h\a : e. g. ^'^TV, ^\)^JV ; but also 
(very rare) ^'p'^jyi- 

Of the Infinitive, Imperative, and Imperfect of Ni- 368 
phal, where the first radical would regularly be 
doubled {hikVatel, ?/ikkdtel), this doubling is omitted, 
but compensation made for it by using Tsere for the 
vowel of the preformative "TDy^ (yej;amed). 

a) In the Imperative the vowel of the guttural is often changed 369 
into Segol. 

b) The Imperfect A begins regularly with the vowels e— (vTv), 
or (with the hard combination) e (•"?). In verbs Im- 
perfect the pointing e— (vf^) is rare. 

c) In Hiphil and Hophal, Vav conversive of the Perfect, by 
throwing forward the tone, causes a change of accent, and 
then e— (ttt) is changed into a_^ (^r=). 

Thus mDrn becomes r^lQym (he:i?«raadta, v'hai^^- 
T :-•••:,•.• T :--:r: 

madta). 

d) In the Perfect of Hiphil e— is sometimes changed into 
e—, and in Perfect of Hophal o— into 6— {vr^- into =7^:, 
and 777 into =f-) ; the short vowel, supported by Metheg, 
being extended into the long vowel of the same class. 

g3 



ISO 



Verbs with Gutturals. 



[CH. 9. 



Table of the tense-roots and normal forms of li^V, to 
stand. 



Kal. 

370 Ferf. 3 s. i^amad 
i^am'dah 
I'^^raadtem' 



Niphal. 



Hiphil. 



Hophal. 

nei>«mad (^TF) hei?^mid (Tjp;.) h6i?°mad 
nei^emdah hej^^midah hoi^omdah 
ner^madti he:i?^madti hoi^^madti 



Inf. cstr. i^'mod 
ahsol. i?am6d 



hei^amed 



hai^^mid 
hai?'*med 



h6i?°mad 



Imperat. i?*mod 
rimdi 



hePamed 
hei^arn'di 



ha"*med 
ha'*midi 



(wanting) 



kh^zak 
khizki 



Imp/. A) yai^^mod yei^amed 

tai^^mod teVamed 

tai^amdi (2/.) te^^amdi 
ei?«mod (1) ei^amed (1) 
tai^^modnah tai^^mednah 
(or) 
B) yakhmod 

takhmodi {in pause) 

yekh^zak 

tekh'^zak 

tekhezki 

ekh'^zak 

tekh^zaknah 



yai?*mid 

tajl^'^mid 

tai^^midi 

ar-'mid 

tai^^mednah 



y6i/*°mad 

t6i>°mad 

toi'^omdi 

oi^°mad 

to:;°madnah 



Ptcp. act. i^omed 
pass, i^amud 



nei^^mad mal^^mid moi>°mad 



Verbs Fe Guttural (not including those with Pe 
Aleph). 

"ill To walk Tjbn halach [ To kill, to slay :i")n harag 

To cast out or ?)"T(1 hadaph 
away ~ "^ 



To overthrow, "T^Sil haphach 

ruin ~ "^ 

To break down, DIH hara* 

destroy ~ "^ 



To be dry, to ^IH kharabh 
be dried up, to "^ 
be desolate 

To devise 2^)11 khashabh 

- T 

To desire, to IDH khamad 
covet ' "^ 



§'•] 

To train up 

To cease, to 
forbear 

To pass by * 

To pity, to 
spare 

To draw out 

To be strong, 
violent 

To gird 

To be dark 

To want 

To be ashamed 

To search 



Verbs loith 
'T\'yn khanach j 
^"TH khadal 

- T 

C]7>n khalaph 
bun khamal 

~ T 

Y'pn khalats f 
'p'\n khazak 

");)n khagar 
'?[ii^n khashach 
"IDH khaser 
[")3n] khaphar 
[npnjkhakar 



Gutturals. 

To bind up 

To search out, 
explore 

To stand- 
To dispose, to 
set in order 



ISl 

ti*3n khabhash (37 i) 

~ T 

^*S)n khaphas 

- T 

ir)^ i'amad 

- T 

•Ijnjr rarach 



To be deep [pQ;?] :i^amak 



To pass (a 
river, &c.) 

To help 

To surround X 

To shut 

To leave 



- T 

["):i;/]i^atsar 

— T 

1X^ razabh 



Jealousy ilNJp 

T :'• 

Heat, rage n^DIl 

Man (vir) ")23 

Vengeance OpJ 

'tt 

Desire TV\7\ 

Trouble, distress il"!^ 
Enemy y^i^ 

A charge Pr}ht'0 

Maid-servant HDh^ 

T T 

Ox "lii:; 

To vow "112 

Gain, profit ^^3, 

As, according as, ■^^^^^ 



kinah (deck 12, b) ; kinne" (Piel), to be 
jealous. 

khemah (deck 11), for y'khemah (w), 
fr. yakham. 

ge'bher (also husband, warrior) -, gabhar, 
to be strong. 

nakam (decl. 4, a) ; nakam, to avenge. 
havvah (havah, to breathe ; to be). 
tsarah (dw); tsarar, to tie up. 
oyebh (properly [5, 1 ] fr. ayabh, to hate'^ 

mishme'reth (a) ; shamar, to keep. 

amah (irr.). 

shor {pi. sh'varim), deck 1. 

nadar. 

be'tsai^ (batsa)^, to break ; to gain). 

(= lit. as what, secundum id quod^. 



* Piel = to change, as a garment ; Hiph. to change. 
t Niph. to be delivered. % Piel, to crown. 



132 


Verhs with Gutturals. 


(371) River, the Nile 


lik] y'or. 


By 


b:iii etsel. 


Young cow 


n"IS parah. 


City 


-l>y rir {pi Dn^;, i^arfm). 


End, limit 


n^;j:5 katseh. 


Boundary 


b^2Jl g'bhM (gabal, fo bound) 



[CH. 9. 



Exercise 36. 
[Sentences with t prefixed are not complete sentences.] 



372 G) ikb') "inrnrjn ^^^^p i 

: VAT --: T :'• 

ikb 2 : Dp:^ DVB '^ion^ 
: ybni nn^Q p'j4 3 

')3,i nm3 *^':d? ^^ri|^ 

.s" T : • •• : : • : - t • 



1 kinah kh^math-gabher (p), 
v'lo yakhmol b'yom nakara. 

2 15 yari'ibh Y'hovah ne'phesh 
tsaddik ; v'havvath r'shai?im 
yeh'doph. 3 tsaddik mits- 
tsarah nekh^lats (p). 4 vay- 
yomer Shaiil b'ruchim attem 
laY'hovah ci kh^maltem i?alai. 
5 |lah*dopheth-col-oy'bhecha 
mippanecha ca^sher dibber 
Y'hovah. 6 lo-i^^zabhtem 
eth-^khechem zeh yamim 
rabbim )^ad hayyom hazzeh; 
ush'martem eth-mishme'reth 
mitsvath Y'hovah ^I5hechera. 
7 15 yuchal f hannai^ar lai?''- 
zobh eth-abhiv. 8 v'shachanti 
b'thoch b'ne Yisrael ; v'lo 
ei^^zobh 6th-i^ammi Yisrael. 



* Other reading : DOTHH- 

t From yachal, to be able (5, 4). 



§1.] 

ibrrji'j^^ 12 :nm dh^ 
ijiQNi i'^ny'i ?yj;"}/ jnt^ii 

ni:^ ^Tfrrri 3 14 -od-}-! 

ZOB^in"* TDVn d7tM'3, 

T T ; • v: V •- T 

^i^^^iDT D'^JObn] D^i'pn-iD 
v:^tr±> bi^'^'v^b J^u^;^ 

^:3D-^3 *?:; n^n'^pini 17 

T V •• - . . _ I v.,TT 

:Dnj.'b x^^^ ^^'^'^ P^^'^^ 

•|t: • ' V V : T T|T ' —:i\"- 

jiiipn b'^i^ X mibvr^T is 
-m] 19 ' :")i4^n 'ni'^ b^ 



Pe Guttural. 



183 



9 nahar yekh rabh v'yabhesh. (372) 

10 vihoshuai^ hekh*rim eth 
col-yosh'bhe lia^^ai, 11 hakh»- 
rem takh^riin otham 16- 
thichroth lahgm b'rith. 12 16- 
thakhmod esheth rei?e'cha 
v'i'^abhdo va^raatho v'shdro 
vakh^moro v'ch6l *sher I're- 
i^e'cha. 13 kh^noch lannai^ar 
i^al-pi darco. 14 ci thekhdal 
lind6r l6-yih'yeh bh'cha khei^. 
15 v'gam birAshalaim hei?^- 
mid Y'hoshaphai min-hal'- 
viyyim v'hacc6h*nim umerash^ 
haabhoth I'Yisrael I'mishpai 
Y'h6vah v'laribh. 16 mah- 
betsai^ ci nah"r6g eth-akhinu ? 

17 v'harai^abh hayah i^al col- 
p'ne haarets ; vayyiphtakh 
Yoseph eth-col-*sher ba- 
hem vayyishb6r I'Mitsrayim 
vayyekh^zak harai^abh b'erets 
Mitsrayim (p). 

18 vattai^''mod'nah etsel hap- 
paroth i?al s'phath hay6r. 

19 v'eth-hai^am hei?«bhir othd 
lei^aj-im miktseh g'bhul- 
Mitsrayim v'i>ad-katsehu. 



6) 1. He will not have compassion upon me. 2. This city 
shall be desolate without an inhabitant. 3. Thou shalt not 
covet thy neighbour's house. 4. He will not desert his people. 

* ' There shall not be.' 

t * Every thing in which there was corn.' 

X The nom. is a /em. noun pi. {the cows). 



134 Verbs with Gutturals. [ch. 9. 

(372) 5. The queen will not desert her people. 6. They deserted their 
people. 7. Ye (/.) deserted. 8. We have not deserted our 
God. 9. I have not deserted this city. 10. The deserted 
ones (m.). 11. Ye {m.) shall not covet your neighbours' vine- 
yards. 12. By coveting. 13. From deserting. 14. Being 
coveted (/.). 15- I will not desert this city. 16. Will ye (/.) 
desert these great cities ? 17. A man shall leave his father and 
mother. 



Chap. IX. § 2. Verbs Ayin Guttural (/). 

373 1. a) The middle radical, being a Guttural, of 
course, takes a Khateph where in the regular verb it 
has Sliva. This is almost always =f, except after 0, 
when it is naturally tt. 

b) This rule holds good also of those persons of the Im- 
perative of Kal, where the second radical of the regular 
verb has Sh'va. The guttural then takes — , and the 
preceding vowel conforms to it ; that is, is '- . 
Regular. Ayin Guttural. 

kinu o^^p) s^^-An (n^;p) 

374 2. The Imperfect Middle A prevails throughout ; the 
Imperative also has a : but the Lifin. constr. retains 
the (the retention of which in Imperf. and Imperat. 
is a rare exception). ' 

375 3. In the heavy (or dageshed) conjugations (P^#/, 
Pual, Hithpael) the general ride for compensation 
would require a lengthening of the vowel, to com- 
pensate for the Dagesh, which the guttural shoidd 
have, if it could. 

But— 

376 a) After -:-, the characteristic Dagesh is usually un- 

compensated in the case of H, H, and ^, and 
sometimes in that of K. The Dagesh thus 
omitted is said to be implied or implicit {Dagesh 
implicitum). 

b) After — , the Dagesh is always merely implied. 

c) After -^, we find both (I) Dagesh implied, and 



§2.] 



A9/in Guttural. 



135 



(2) a compensation of the Dagesh by a lengthen- (376) 
ing of the vowel in _=_. 



d) Middle ") always requires the compensation : i. e. 
a lengthened vowel. 





Per/. 


Inf, cstr. 


Lnperat. 


Imperf. 


iKal 


sfaakha^ 


sh'kho^ 


sh'khot 


yishkhat 


2 Niph. 

3 Piel 


nishkha/ 
berech 


hishsha- 

khe^ 
bdrech 


hishsha- 

khet 
bdrech 


yishsha- 

khe^ 
y'bhdrech 


4 PwaZ. 


bdrach 


bordch 


(none) 


y'bhorach 


5 Hithp. 


hithbd- 
rech 


(asperf.) 


(asperf.) 


yithbdrech 



Partcp. 
shokhe? 
nishkha/ 

m'bhdrech 
m'bhordch 
mithbdrech 



377 



Past Partcp. of Kal, shakhu^ 



'S^ But besides Perf. Piel berech, such forms occur as ziX^dm, 378 
berach, clkhesh. 





(Normal Forms.) 






Kal. 


Niphal. 


Perf. 


shakh^/ah 


nishkh^/ah 


Imperat. 


sh'kha^, shakh»/i 


hishshakhe/, hishshakh^^i 


Imperf. 


yishkhat tishkh»/i 


yishshakhe^, tishshakh'/i 




Piel. 


Pual. 


Perf 


berech (berach), ber'cah 

ziyam, zii>*mah 

cikhesh, cikh«shah J 


borach {reg.) 
zui^am, zui^^mah 


Imperat. 


barech, bar'chi 1 
z'i^om, zal^^mi J 


(none) 


Imperf. 


y'bharech {reg.) 


y'bhorach {reg.) 




y'za^em, t'za)?*mi, t 


'zai^amnah 


y'zui^am, fzui^^mi 



379 



(In the other conjugations, the only change to be remembered 380 
is the regular one of using a Khateph, when the middle radical 
would regularly have Sh'va.) 



136 



Verbs with Gutturals. 



[CH. 9. 



Vocabulary. 



381 To hunger, ly"), ral^ebh. 
To mock, :i)jh, ld^3Lg. 
To slide, 1J;Q, mai^ad. 

- T 

To slay, IDIl^, shakha^ 

— T 

To loathe, bVii' ga^al. 

— T 

To work, 7^3) pai^al. 
To taste, UV^, ^a^am. 
To oppress, "^nb, lakhats. 
fpnilij tsakhak. 



To laugh 
To cry, 



Ipn'^, sakhak*. 
rpPT, zai?ak. 

To choose, 1)121) bakhar. 
To traffic, "iriDj «akhar. 

— T 

To iwaa? hot, "l^H, ba)?ar. 

- T 

To be shaken, t£});'), rai^ash. 
To be large, QIllj rakhabh f. 

— T 

To dash, ynO, makhats. 



To minister (as a priest), 
[]n3], inPiel,]n3,cihen:. 

To 6e clean, intO, ^aher §. 

To rebuke, 1^3, gai^ar. 

Virgin, nblJlZ, b'thulah. 
T : 

Daughter, JIB. bath. 
To form, l^^, yatsar. 

Leviathan, ]^)'^^b, livyathan. 
' tt:* 

A ship, r\^2i^, "niyyah (decl. 

10). 
-4 5^^, TJ?^, tsai^ad (decl. 

6,d). 
Ancle, bb'^pt karsol. 

Ancles (dual), D'^^DIp, kar- 

sulla'yim. 
Head-dress, turban, "1J^9, p'er 

(decl. 1, a), but pi. constr. 
pa^'re. 
Bridegroom, TJin, khathan 

' T T 

(decl. 4, c). 



* In Piel, to play, to sport. 

t In Hiphil, hirkhib, to enlarge. 

X Also = to make splendid j al. la adjust, 

§ In Piel = to cleanse, to purify. 



§ 2.J 



Ayin Guttural. 



137 



fl) 



Exercise 37. 

"^^^1 Vai^"^J^ *)5Dn 1 1 vayy'^apper el-abhiv v'el- 382 



' VV T - : • - T : ATT 

T T I - ■ . - • - : • 

V ' T r : • T I • T ; 

I ' V i- : T : -T 
- T : A" •• V T • 

nil; ^l^^ ih^J? DD^y^ 
. , _ ,, ..,_ 

. . T T - V •• : 

|T ; AT : - : • ; 

: nnnp" n'lb •'3 noyD s 



ekhav vayyigi)ar-b6 ^^ abhiv 
vayyomer 16, mah hakh*16m 
hazzeh "sher khalamta {jp) ? 

2 vattiri?abh col-S'rets Mita- 
rayim vayyitsi^ak hai^am el- 
Pari^oh lalla'khem (^). 

3 v'attah Y'hovah tiskhak 
lamo; tili^ag rch61-g6yim. 

4 sham 2 livyathan zeh^^ 
yatsarta I'sakhek-bo*. 

5 cen-ish rimmah eth-rei?ehii 
v'amar h"16 m'sakhek ani? 

6 b'khar-lanii *nashim. 

7 v'im rai> b'i^enechem la- 
i^^'bhod eth-Y'hovah bak^'ru 
lachem hayyom eth-mi tha- 
);»bhodun, im eth-^lohim 
*sher-i?abh'du "bhothechem 
"sher b'i^e'bher hannahar, v'im 
eth-®lobe ha^mori \t}ie Amo- 
rites] *sher attem yosh'bhim 
b'artsam j v'anochi ubhethi 
iia:i^»bh6d eth-Y'hovah. 

8 ^ai^^mah ci ^obh *akhrahh. 

9 hay'thahf ca*niyy6th sokher. 

10 tarkhibh tsaJ^^di thakhtai 



* Or prj'iVb, Tsere being changed into Segol on account of 

Makkeph : '')^, in it, i. e. in the sea. 
t She waSy 3rd sing, form of hayah. 



138 Verbs with 

(382)-:j^j 11 :''^p"]p. n^^D 
rn;i^ I^^^") ynp; ^V^i^, 

•• - : • AT" ' :'t 

, '. ~ , ' |TT-;i- 

]r}3 T^^K Nin 13 :to;: 

'••-: 'tt|v i-t : 



Gutturals. [ch. 9. 

y'lo"^ ma^^du kar^ullai. 1 1 ach 
^lohim yimkhats rosh oy'bliav 
kodk5d sel^ar mithhallech 
ba^shamav. 12 timkhats 

ragl'cha b'dam I'shon c'la- 
bhe'cha meoy'bhim minnehu*. 
13 hu" "sher cihen babbayith 
"sher-banah f Sh'iomoh 
biy'rushalem. 14 cekhathan 
y'cahen p'er. 15 v'zeh hadda- 
bar "sher tai)"seh X lahem 
I'kaddesh otham I'chahen li. 



Parse the following forms, and explain their for- 
mation. 

b) 1. He will be hungry. 2. The virgin, the daughter of 
Zion, mocks at thee (m.). 3. Playing {partcp.f. sing.). 4. I 
will choose their ways. 5. Thou (m.) art cleansed. 6. Thou 
hast cleansed. 7- I will waste. 8. We tasted of the honey. 
9. They tasted. 10. Ye (/.) tasted. 11. Who has tasted? 
12. To taste. 13. Being tasted (m.). 14. The honey that I 
tasted. 15. To choose the ways of death. 16. We shall be 
hungry. 17. We were hungry. 18. Ye (m.) were hungry. 
19- Who is hungry? 20. Who has mocked the daughter of 
Jerusalem ? 21. Rebuke ^^ the lad. 



* Fr'>'n it = some of it : I'shon is nom., and the verb ' shall 
got' is to be supplied (Hetigstenberg). 

t Built. X Thou shall do. 



§ 3.] Lamed Guttural. 139 

Chap. IX. § 3. Verls Lamed Guttural. 
In these verbs either 

a) the final syllable keeps its regular vowel, with 383 
furtive PathaJch under the guttural : 

b) or the final syllable exchanges its regular vowel 
for Pathakh. 

a) e, 0, u (the strong immutable vowels are always 
retained). 

h) is retained in the Infin. constr. 

(being merely lengthened by the tone) is 
changed into a in the Imperat. and Imperf. of 

c) \. e (when it is the regular vowel of the last 
syllable) is sometimes retained^ sometimes 
changed into PathaJch. 

2. Usage, however, makes a distinction in these 
forms : thus 

In the Partcp. Kal and Piel vht, vbtD is 
the exclusive form, and the full PathaJch first 
appears in the constr. state nVli^, Hj'^p. 

In the Imperf. and Infin. Niph.^ and in the 
Perf Infin. and Imperf Piel, the form with a 
is employed at the beginning and in the middle 
of a period ; that with ^^^, at the end, and in 
Pause : e. sr. l^lil^, it is diminished, and P")il^ ; 

Vi^y, he cleaves, and Vp2); y2d'-> l^ swallow. 
It may further be observed that the Infin. ahsol. 
retains Tsere, the Infin. constr. does not. 

The guttural here has simple Sh^a, whenever the 384 
third radical regularly takes it (because being Sh^va 
quiescent it can remain under a guttural) : e. g. 
rsrh"^. But in the second fern. sing, of the Perf. a 
helping -PathaJch takes its place : e. g. iy^H/^. 



140 



Verbs with Gutturals, 



[CH. 9. 



385 [A compound Sh'va (or, Khateph) occurs in (1) a few examples 
ofplur. 1 of Perf. when the tone is thrown forward; (2) before 
the suffixes chd, chhn, chen.'\ 





1 Per/. 


2 Tnf. cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


5 Partcp. 


386 1 Kal 


shalakh 


sh'l5akh 


sh'lakh 


yishlakh 


sh5leakh 


2 Niphal 


nishlakh 


hishsha- 
lakh 


hishsha- 
lakh 


yishsha- 
lakh 


nishlakh 


3 Piel 


shiUakh 


shaUakL 


shallakh 


y'shallakh 


m'shalleakh 


4Pual 


shullakh 


shiiUakh 


(none) 


y'shullakh 


m'shiiUakh 


5 HiphU 


hishliakh 


hashliakh 


hashlakh 


yashliakh 


mashliakh 


6 Hoph. 


hoshlakh 


hoshlakh 


(none) 


yoshlakh 


moshlakh 


7 Hithp. 


hishtal- 
lakh 


hishtal- 
iakh 


hishtal- 
lakh 


yishtal- 
lakh 


mishtal- 
leakh 



Partcp. Pass, of Kal, shaluakh. Injin. ahsol. {Kal), shaloakh; 
(Mj9A.), nishloakh; (PteZ), shalleakh; (Hi/?Ai7), hashleakh. 
Kal Perf. shalakh, shalakhat (2/.) ; and so in the other con- 
jugations, -akhat /or -akht. 
Imperat. sh'lakh, shilkhi, &c. 

Imperf. nishlakh, tishlakh'nah ; and so in the other con- 
jugations, -akhnah. 
HipMl Imperf. yashliakh, tashlikhi, tashlakh'nah. 



Vocabulary. 



387 To forget, HD'il}, shachakh. 

- T 

To hear, J?D^. shamai?. 

To forgive ; to pardon, TwDy 

salakh (with 7). 
To be satisfied, "ifyV, sabhsU^*. 
To swear, 'iJ^,^, shabhaJl^ f 

- T 

(prop, by seven victims). 
To sacrifice, nnt. zabhakh. 



To expire, '^^^, gavai?. 

— T 

To devour, y^^, balai>. 

— T 

To sow, plant seed, yit, zaraj^. 
To slay, nitO, Zabhakh. 
To bud, niSj parakh. 

- T 

To rend, ^"Ip, kara]). 
To opeiii n/lB. pathakh. 



* In Hiphil, to make satisfied; to satisfy. 
t In Niphal, to bind myself by oath ; to swear, promise with 
an oath. 



§3.] 



Good (or ill) deed; benefit 
b^D:i, g'muKdecl. 1). 



Iniquity, p")^ or pj^, ^avon or 

l^avon. 
Diseases, U^l^^bjlD, takhluim 

(khalah, to be sick). 
Eaffle, 1]^2> ne'sher (decl. 

6, a), pi. c. nishre. 
Youth, U'^')^V2, n'i^urim. 
f^pli}* shakaph*. 
\p22, nabha^ 
Groaning, ilp2i^i *nakah 

(constr. enkath). 
Prisoner, "I'^Di^* a^ir (asar, to 

• T 

hi//d). 



Lamed Guttural. 141 

Thin, pi, dak (/. n)5"n, dak- (387) 

kah). 
Full, \!h^, male-, /. HX^^ 

(male", ^o be full). 
Rank, luxuriant, i^'^'^2, bari' 

(;>^./. ™nil); bara, ;)o- 

^ars q/" com, U^^^]^, shib- 
bolim. 



To /ooA:, 



Vine, ]S^, ge'phen. 
Vine-shoots, UT^^* sarigim. 

• T 

f*«^> "li^> bor (bur, to cleave), 
pi. boroth. 

Height, U^1'D, marom. 



1. The word HJ? is twice construed * mouth' in the English 388 

Bible. Gesenius construes it 'age;' the Septuagint, '(thy) 
desire ' {sinOvfiiav). 

2- njllD-n* t'muthah {death, from maveth), only in ben 
t'muthah, a child of death = one who is condemned to die. 

Exercise 38. 



a) inSn^'ntk ''t^^ 0")2 1 

T : V • : - • : I T 

T : T • : ; • ~ ; 



1 bar'chi naphshi eth-Y'hovah, 389 
v'al-tishc'khi col-g'm^lav : 
has5oleakh I'ehol-i^^vonechi ; 
harophe' f rchol-takh*lua- 
y'chi : haramasbiai^ ba^^obh 
i^edyech ; tithkhaddesh can- 
ne'sher n'i^uray'chi. 2 ci- 
hishkiph mimm'rOm kodsho 



* In Hiphil. 

t Who heakthy rophe% partcp. Kal act. of rapha. 



142 



Use of the Accents as Stops. [ch. io. 



(389) u^m^^ r^^TV i^^ip onDD 

♦ - T • T : :'t : • 

^}3. r\p\f) TDNt Jl|^;l^^ 
?^>ni u^'^'D r\tht ]3:im 5 

. . . . I ^ ^ . V V - 

. T T - ~ ~ : 

ITT- V -':•- 



Y'hovah ; mishsharna'yim 
el-e'rets hibbit ; lishmoai^ en- 
kath asir, I'phatteakh b'ne 
th'muthah. 3 vattibhlai^'nah 
hashshibb°lim haddakkoth 
eth shebhai? hashshibb°lim 
habb'rioth v'hamm'leoth. ' 

4 ^'bhoakh te'bhakh. 

5 ubhagge'phen sh'loshah sa- 
rigim v'hi" ch'phora'khath. 

6 vayyashabh R'ubhen el- 
habbor v'hinneh en-Yo^eph 
babbor ; vayyikrai^ eth- 
b'gadav. 



h) 1. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel. 
2. The land which Elohim swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to 
Jacob. 3, And Jacob expired. 4. He will offer-sacrifices. 
5. I have planted the house of Israel. 6. Every herb seeding 
seed. 7. Ye shall sow the land. 8. Ye shall not sow the land. 
9. Seed is sown. 10. The seed sown. 11. I have sown my 
seeds. 12. To sow seeds. 13. Thou wilt sow thy land. 
14. The opened door. 15. I will open the door. 16. Opened 
{fem. sing.). 



Chap. X. Use of the Accents as Stops *. 

(Before the pupil proceeds to the Weak Verbs, he may pay 
some further attention to the accents, which will henceforth be 
added. For their names and forms, see 85.) 

390 111 the Hebrew Bible the verses are usually divided 
into two major divisions. The end of the whole 
verse is marked by Silluk with two dots ( J ) called 
Soph Pasuk. The middle of the verse, or, as it is 
properly, the end of the first major division, is 
marked by Atlinakh or Merka Mahpachatum. 



* From Dr. M'Caul's Primer. 



CH. 10.] Use of the Accents as Stops. 143 

Genesis i. 1. 

DTt^J^ i^"12 Jl^Ii^i^"l3. b'reshitV bara' ^lohtm 391 

A- v: JTT «.• •• ; in the beginning created God 

: Y"1^n JISI D''QIi*n D^ ^'-^ hash-sbama'yim v'eth haa'rets 
' viTT /••: -v-T - >•• the heavens and the earth 

Psalm ii. 1. 

D**'*^ ^W^l r\t^b lam'mah rag'shu' goyim'? 
A* -A. J :|T TTv wherefore rage peoples 

■ -n'Jl^n"' n^aSiSS urummim yeh'gu-rik? 
K .; "^.iv "^ . vr' and nations imagine vanity 

Psalm iv. 5. 

;tv;|v -i: : • bc troubled and not sm 

DDI23!i^D~'7y DDH^'^Q ^IDi^ iTXiYh bhilbhabhchem ral-mishcab 

'••:-:'• - •••:-:• ; • speak in your heart upon your bed 

. -rSn ^^^'^"^ chem v'dommu. selah. 
• ' ^4r.- : and be still. Selah. 

Proverbs x. 1. 

Hfib^L} ^^'^Q mishle Sh'lomoh 

) : " : • the proverbs of Solomon 

^^~p]^'^> DDn ]2 ^^^ khacham y'sammakh abh 

AT — : T TV. J" a son wise rejoiceth a father 

r\2^r\ "7^03 ]y) ^then c'.il tugath 

- . . ■ .. anfl a gon looiish the heavmess 

: 'IQJ^ immo 

1 • of his mother 

The lesser subdivisions are marked by the dis- 392 
tinctive accents of less power, as in Gen. i. 1. In 
the beginning^ God created. After the word heginning 
there is a pause. This pause is expressed by a 
Tiphkha. This system of interpunction is, however, 
much more accurate than ours : for it not only de- 
notes a pause, but shows whether the word is con- 
nected with, or separated from, the following word in 
the construction. Thus JT'^i^h^nil is separated from 

the following word ^^"13, whereas this word K")2 has 
a conjunctive accent, because the verb is naturally 
connected with its nominative DTl/i^. This latter 
word D^'i^^^ has again a distinctive, which separates 
it from the following word. It might appear that a 



144 TJse of the Accents as Stops. [ch. lo. 

(392) pause after the word God is misplaced ; but it is 
the strictly logical division of the sentence. 1. The 
fact of creation. 2. The things created. It also lays 
the emphasis upon God as the Creator. In the he- 
ginning^ created God the heavens^ and the earth. 

In the second example, the verb and nominative 
DpJ) ^^y^ are connected in the same way by a con- 
junctive accent. But in the second member, the 
similar connexion between the verb and accusative 
is noted by a line between the words, which is called 
Makkeph. In this case the first word •'liirT.''. has no 
accent. The small perpendicular line to the left of 
the Segol is called Metheg (48), and shows that \ is 

a separate syllable. 

393 In placing the accents, the first step is to place 
the Silluk at the end of the verse or sentence, just 
as in English the full stop is the most important. 
The next, is to place the Athnakh, and then the 
various minor distinctives. The whole verse is looked 
upon as a territory under the dominion of Silluk, 
though his immediate domination extends only to 
Athnakh. The dominion of Athnakh extends to the 
beginning of the verse. The nearer any minor dis- 
tinctive is to Silluk or Athnakh, so much the less is 
its distinctive power. The accents are not selected 
arbitrarily, but have a regular order of consecution. 
Silluk has next to it Tifhhha^ then ZaJceph. 
Athnakh takes next to it TiphJcha, then T'^hhir^ then 
Zakeph^ then Segolta. Segolta takes Zarka Khhia. 
Zakeph takes Pashta, IVhhia^ &c. 

394 The Conjunctires or Servants are also subject to rule, ac- 
cording to which they have their peculiar masters — 

Athnakh SiUuk 

Segolta Tiphkha 

Munakh serves ) Zakeph katon Mercha serves J Pashta 
R'bhia Zarka 

Zarka 



T'bhir 
Darga serves T'bhir. Kadma serves Geresh. 



^"1^^ /I'lJ^D'Tn "1H)D se'pher hazzichronoth' dibhre' 

■•" : ' :•" '■^" book of the records the words of 



CH. 10.] Use of the Accents as Stops. 145 

Esther vi. 1 — 4. 

ni^ nili U^r\r\ ph'^b3, J^ l Ballayiat habii» nad'dah sh'nath (391^ 
J- : '■T :|T - t;j-- In the night the same fled the sleep 

T\^ i^'^hpib l^ik-') Tf'PQrT hammelech vayyo'mer Thabhi'" eth- 

' T ; V - v/,-.- of the king and he said to bring the 

se'pher hazzichronoth' dibhre' 
book of the records the words oi 

^^3 / D''J*?1pJ ^^n"") D"'D^n hayyamim' vayjahyu' nikraim' liphne' 

' " • * V T ;• i :i-~ ' '' " days and they were read before 

"^Ii;^^2^/^D i^ii^P -1^^^ ^ 2 hamme'lgch. vayyimmatse' cathubh' 
" "• ^ j"T-- viv- the king, and it was found written 

NJj1)!21"^^^ OlIQ l^iin asherhiggid' Mord'chai i>al-Bigtha'na 

T-i-: • - - : : >■ • • that had told of 

r • ^ 

"Tl^tan ^DHD ''2'!) ti^'^0*) vathe'resh sh'ne sa'rise' hamme'lech 

V V - J" -IT •• : V V T and two chamberlains of the king 

•Ili^pB "I'M ^DH noi^D mishshom're' ' hassaph' asher 

: • <:•-: .s- - V : • of the keepers of the threshold who 

"^7^2 1^ rh'2}b bikshu lishloakh yad bammeagch 

• *■■•■ '^ j, ~ ■* • ' sought to send a hand on the king 

'^bl^n "IDN'^I : t^i"nI:;^^^ :i 3 akhashver6sh. vayyomer hammelech 

V V - V J- 1": : Ahasuerus. and said the king 

n^n^T "1p^ n\i^l^2°nO mah-nar«sah y'kar ugdulah 

•)T : 'st: t-:i- - what hath been done honour and dignity 

^")Qi»^''1 nrb)^ OTID^ TMord'chai yal-zeh, vayyom'ru 

: - A V - v.- : : T : to Mordecai for this and they said 

Tji"1Ii^D '^['PDn ''"^yj na'^are' hammelech m'shar'thav 

T : JT : 'v V - <"-:i- the young men of the king his servants 

: n^*! iDV il'l^l^J'J^^ lo-naVsah' rimm6 dabhar'. 

iT T • ;t-:|- not have been done with him a thing. 

"Ijin^ ^D '^T'^DH "ir^j4''T 1 4 vayyomer hamme'lech mi bhekhatser 
A"r|v J.- v\.v- V ,- and he said the king who in the court 

"JT'^l 1'2'nb 1^3, pm v'Haman ba • lakh«tsar 

<;— :r T JT T : and Haman was come to the court 

i?3J^^ niiiiTrn l]bt^r\ beth-hammelech hakhitsonah lemor 

/ " T A- - ':••.•- ofthe house of the king the outer to say 

^D"7"lD*ni^ n^brh ^bilh lammgagch nthloth gth-Mord'chai 

~ : : T V : • •.• v - to the king to hang iSIordecai 

O^ V^tl'lt'i^ XV^'bV ral-harets ashgr-hechin 

}' " " -; V" T - upon the tree which he had prepared 

16. 

for him. 

Note 1. V. 2, over the Vav in I^^■^^::?^^^ there is an asterisk. 395 
If the reader looks to the foot of the page (in a Hebrew Bible) 



146 Use of the Accents as Stops. [ch. lo. 

(395) he will find the Hebrew letters ;:;"1 i^^'}, which signifies that in 
another copy the last syllable of Ahasuerus is written without a 
Vav. i^^^2 ^^^ the initials of K-"nnj^ ^^^DJ3> another copy. 

T tt; t t ; t 

Note 2. In verses 3 and 4, the ^ /DH has in appearance two 

accents, but in reality only one. Pashta being postpositive, 
must be placed over the last letter. But as not the last syl- 
lable, but the penultimate has the accent, it is repeated in order 
to show the tone-syllable. 

Note 3. In verse 3, the word ^°)QK-1, and in verse 4, the 
word nili^JTrn has two different accents. In such cases, the 
last of the two shows the tone-syllable. The other is only 
Euphonic. 

Note 4. In syllables like riTI) in verse 1, the accent is 
placed as if Sh'va formed a syllable. This is also the case with 
the compound Sh'vas. 

Ruth iii. 5. 

"I^i^ bb n'hi^ If^ikPi') vattomer eleah col agher- 
V -: ^ TAV" V V- and she said to her all that 

iv v:iv V- •• >• : I Thou "Wilt say tome I -will do 

396 After the fifth word in this example, there are two points 
without consonants mth a circle over them. By looking to the 
foot of the page, you find the consonants belonging to them 
'hi^> which, with the points written in the text, make "'7^^, 

e-lai, to me. This is said to be k'ri (read), though not c'thibh 
(written). The transcriber had omitted the three consonants; 
and though the Jewish tradition was, that they ought to be a 
part of the text, they did not dare to put them in, but noted 
them at the foot of the page. This example shows what is 
meant by the words k'ri and c'thibh ; c'thibh is ivritten, and 
applies to the word as it stands in the text ; k'ri signifies read, 
and refers to the reading at the foot of the page, which the 
Jews prefer. Verse 12, there is an example of a word written, 
but not read. 

D^J ^3 U}f2)ii ^3 TM^V) ^''rattah ci omnam ci 

y T ; T J- T - : and now that it is true that 

''Dil^< bi^il g^^^, '^""^'^^ 

•AT V a redeemer am 1 



CH. 11. § 1.] Verbs Double Ay in. 147 

Here the fifth word Utk has no vowel. The masoretic note 397 
at the foot of the page is >'^p ^^^^ 2^/13, c'thibh v'lo k'ri, 
written, but not read. Here the two letters were put in, and 
though the Jews consider them as no part of the text, they 
suffer them to remain. These two examples serve to show the 
scrupulosity with which the Jews copied their manuscripts. 
The word ^J^j) also has a reference to the foot of the page, 

which tells us, that in other copies the Gimel has not got a 
Dagesh. 



Chap. XL § 1. Verbs Double Ay in {VV). 

Example y^D, sabhabh, to go about. Paradigm : Appendix E 
pp. 17, 18. 



Short Paradigms. 



iKal 

2 'Niph. 

3 Poel* 
4Poal 

5 Hiph. 

6 Hoph. 



I Per/. 
sabh 
nasabh 
sobhebh 
sobhabh 
hesebh 
hu^abh 



^Inf.cstr. 

5obh 

his^abh 

«6bhebh 

^obhabh 

ha^ebh 

hu5abh 



'dimperat. 
5obh 
hi55abh 
sobhebh 

(none) 
hasebh 

(none) 



4 Imperf. 
yasobh (yi^sobh) 
yis^abh 
y'sobhebh 
y'sobhabh 
ya^ebh (yas^ebh) 
yu5abh (yii^sabh) 



5 Partcp. 
sobhebh 398 
nasabh 
m'sobhebh 
m'sobhabh 
me«ebh 
musabh 



Past Partcp. of Kal, sabhubh. 
Normal Forms. — (No irregularity in the other conjugations.) 



399 



1 Kal 



2 Niphil 



\Perf. 
sabh 
5ab*bah 
sabbo'tha 
nasabh 
nasab'bah 
n'sabbotha 



3 Imperat. 
sohh. 
sbVhi 
5ubbenah 
his5abh 
hissabbi 
hissabbenah 



4 Imperf. 



yasobh 

tasob'bi 

t'siibbenah 

yissabh 

tissabbi 

tissabbenah 



yissobh 
ti55'bhi 
tissobh'nah 



* This conjugation and its Passive are called here Poel, Poal, 
instead of Piel, Pual, because they have the vowels 6—e, 6 — a, 
instead of i — e, u — a. 

h2 



(399) 



148 


Verbs Double Ayin. 


[cH. 11. 




\Perf. 
he^ebh 


3 Imperat. 
hasebh 


4 Imperf. 


3 HipMl ■ 


yasebh 


yassebh 


he^eb'bah 


ha*eb'bi 


tasebbi 




h-^^ibbotha 


h'^sibbenah 


t'sibbenah 




6Hoph. 1 


husabh 




yusabh 


yussabh 


hu^ab'bah 


(none) 


tusab'bi 




husabbotha 




tusabbenah 




Imperf. witl 


1 Vav conversii 


;e {Kal) vayyasobh ; {Hiph. 


) vayyasebh. 



40D 



a) The principal irregularity of these verbs is this, 

that before an afformatwe the two identical 

letters of the root are pronounced as one, doubled 

by sU'ong Dagesh^ and that, even when a full 

vowel would regularly stand between them : 

•130 for ^23D. 
: IT 

h) When there is no afformatwe^ the final conso- 
nant is thrown away : I'D (since 2p is im- 
possible). 

c) Those forms are not contracted, which contain 
unchangeable vowels, or a Dagesh forte ; as, 

auD, nniD. aao. 



401 The stem, which is thus rendered monosyllabic, 
takes, throughout, the vowel which the full form 
would have in its second syllable ; as, indeed, even 
in the regular verb, it is this vowel that characterizes 
the form : e. g. ID for 32p ; Infin. 2D for 320 ; 
HipJi. 3p!l for y^Dn (comp. note on 5). 

402 When the afformative begins vdth a consonant 
(3, n), a vowel is inserted before it, in order to render 
audible the Dagesh of the final radical. This vowel 
in the Perf. is i, in the Imperat. and Imperf. ^- : e. g. 

riip, Imperf. nr|pj^ (sabbo'tha, t'subb^nah). 

403 The preformatives of Imperf Kal^ Perf NipJial, 



§ 1.] Verbs Double Ay in. 149 

and of HipMl and Hophal^ which, in consequence of (403) 
the contraction, stand in a simple syllable pDP in- 
stead of UhlD^), take, instead of the short vowel of 
the regular form, the corresponding long one. Hence, 
Imperf. ^D^ for 23p^ = HilD^^ ; Imperf. Middle A, 
-ip> for T]D^; Hiph' 2^ for n^DH, Infin. nDH for 
n^pn ; Hoph, npin for 33pn. This long vowel (ex- 
cept 1 in Hophal) is changeable i*. 

There is still another mode of constructing these forms (the 404 
common one in Chaldee), which consists in a sharp pronunciation 
of the first sjdlable and a consequent doubling of the first radical 
by Dagesh : e. g. Imperf. Kal QD"' for QilD"** Imperf. Hiph. QJ^> 

for Uf2JT, Hoph. Jn3> for J^DD"^- These forms do not usually 

take Dagesh in the final letter on receiving an accession, as 
TJp>, they bow themselves (from lip), as if the doubling of the 

first letter were a sufficient compensation. They therefore omit 
also the vowels *) and "♦_ : e. g. HJ^l^^n (from bb'J,). The 

T ; ~ • - T 

Paradigm exhibits this form by the side of the other in Imperf, 
KaL 

a) The tone has this peculiarity, that it is not 405 
thrown forward upon the formative syllables 
beginning with a vowel (ah, u, z), but remains 

before them on the stem-syllable, as ^2p. 

b) Before the other afformatives, it rests upon the 

t Many of these contractions are founded on more ancient 
forms than those of the regular verb. Thus 2lb^ stands for 

T 

^iD\ with a under the preformative, as in the regular Arabic 
form (Hebrew 7bp''. from bhp*^ ; the a appears also in verbs Pe 
guttural, especially in verbs Pe Aleph and Ay in Vav). Hiph. 
2lDn for 22Dn has in the contracted stem-syllable the shorter 

and more original e (like the Aram. /tOpi^, see Ges.) ; Perf. 
Niph. 202 for 22.D2 ; Imperf. Niph. 2B'' for UnD"* *• comp. 
bW- See Ges. 



150 Verbs Double Ayin. [ch. ii. 

(405) inserted syllables 6 and C-) e (except in the 

case of D/n, IIH, which always take the tone) ; 
and in consequence of this the vowels of the 
word are shortened, as -I^DD, n^"'3Dj^ ; nZDil. 

but iy\3Dn. 

T • -; 

406 Instead of Piel, Pual, Hitlipael^ and in the same 
signification, is found, in numerous verbs of this kind, 
the unfrequent conjugation called (from its vowels 
6 — e) Poel^ with its Passive and Eeflexive : e. g. yJ^V' 
to treat one ill^ Pass. ^"T^V, Reflex. bbxjr)T} (from 
^^V) : in some is found the rare conjugation (so called 
from its form and vowels) Pilpel, as /p^X to roll; 
bpb^m, to roll oneself (from b^^) ; Pass, ^^^^t^, to be 
caressed (from VV'^)- They are inflected regularly 
like Piel. 

Additional Remarks (for reference). 

407 «) On Kal.'] Some further peculiarities are : 

1) Perfect mth Kholem. 

2) Injin., Imperat., and Imperf. with Pathakh. 

^^ The Kholem of the Infin , Itnperat., and Imperf., being a 
changeable vowel, is written defectively (with a few ex- 
ceptions principally in the later ^vTiters), and shortened 
into Kamets Khateph or Kihbuts, whenever it loses the tone ; 
as Infin. ""^I, to rejoice (Job), ^vith suffix ipR^,, when he 

founded: Imperat. ^}^n, pity me; Imperf. with Vav con- 

> • •• T 

vers. ^ID^I. with suffix Q"T!i/S he lays them waste. 
T T- " T : 

b) Niphal.'] Besides the most usual form with Pathakh in 
the second syllable, as given in the Paradigm, there is 
another with Tsere, and a third with Kholem (analogous 
to b]^p, J^1\ 7b'')» extending through the whole con- 
jugation : (1) e. g. Perf. 7pJ (also 7p^), it is a light 

thing : Infin. D^DIl, to melt; Partcp. "COl, '<-"s/ed away. 
... .. T 

(2) ^7^^, they are rolled together; Infin. absol. P^IH, be 



§ 1.] Verbs Double Ay in. lol 

plundered; Imperat. -IDhn, ia^e yourselves up; Imperf. (407) 

c) HipMl and Hophal.'] (1) Instead of T'stre the final syllable 
has sometimes Pathakh, especially with gutturals, as "IQIl ; 

Injin, "inn, to cleanse ; (2) but also without a guttural, as 

plil ; Plur. I^Dil ; Partcp. b'^i^, shadowing. 

The Imperfect with retracted tone takes the form ?rD% 

/ie protects ; ^X''), and he rolled. 

It may be remarked in general, that verbs Double Ayin are 408 
very nearly related to verbs Ayin Vav, as appears even from the 
similarity in their conjugations, which are parallel throughout. 

In form the verb yj7 is generally shorter than the other (comp. 
3D'' and D1p\ iDil and Q^pn). In some cases they have 

precisely the same form as in the Imperf. convers. of Kal and 
Hiphil, in Hophal, and in the unfrequent conjugations. On 
account of this relation, they have sometimes borrowed forms 
from each other : e. g. p")^ for ]1\ he rejoices. 

Along with the contracted forms there are found, especially 409 
in certain conjugations and tenses, others which are wholly 

regular : e. g. Perf Kal tTH, to plunder, Plur. .1^2, ^3TT21 (also 
^JVT3,) ; Infin. 2,2p and 2D ; Imperf ]jn'', he is gracious, 
elsewhere ]nv Hiph. ]'^2'^r\, Imperf ]''jS\ he will rejoice 
(which is never contracted) ; Partcp. U'^DIL^!^, astonished. Some- 
times the fuU form appears to be emphatic. 

Although the aJBPormatives here do not attract the tone, yet it 410 
is thrown on them when suffixes are appended, as ^3.0, ''JIIiD* 
Before Dagesh, Kholem in the Imperf. becomes Kibbuts, less 

frequently Kamets-Khatuph ; Tsere in Hiph. becomes Khirik 

> •> 

(after the analogy of n^^lDn, Jl^HDH) ; the preformatives 

then, in place of the full vowel, take Sh'va.- e. g. ^J21D^ 



152 



Verbs Double Ayin, 



[CH. 1 



Vocabulary. 



411 To curse, Tlhi, arar. 



To take prey ; to spoil, plunder, 
U3,, bazaz. 

To roll, bb:!^, galal*. 

-T 

To cover, protect, p2!» ganan. 
To be weak, ^bl, dalal. 

— T 

To he silent, □D"7. damam. 

— T 

To be clean, ?[3tj zachach. 
To be wounded, f 77n, khalal. 
To be hot, UO'n, khamam. 
To be gracious, ]jrT, khanan. 
To be broken, JlJin, khathath. 

~ T 

To beat (down) ; crush ; to 
rout, Jnjn3, cathath. 

To be completed or ended; to 
cease, D^JH, tamam X- 

To lick, lap, ppb, lakak. 

To measure, TTD, madad. 

- T 

Tomeltj to faint, OD'O, masas §. 

- T 

To be in bitterness, Tl^, marar. 
To feel, lV^f2, mashash. 

- T 

To flee, 11J, nadad. 

-T 

To turn oneself; to go round; 
to surround, ^^iD? sabhabh. 



To cover, conceal; to protect, 
^DD> sachach. 

To cast up a mound, a way, 

bbv, *alal. 

— T 

To tie up ; to bind, 11^, tsarar. 

— T 

To be light ; to be lessened or 
abated, b/p, kalal. 

-'t 

To shout (for joy), ]21, ranan. 
To err, :i:\'^, shagag. 

— T 

To carry off; to spoil, 77li^, 

- T 

shalal. 

To be desolate ; to desolate, 
Di^'i}, shamam. 



Desolation, ^in, khorebh. 
For ever, H^Ja lane'tsakh 

- VT 

(netsakh, a suhst. = strength, 
perpetuity). 

To destroy, ]L^r\2i nathash. 

~ T 

A door, rh'li de'leth. 
Hinge, 1'';^, tsir. 

r n^^p, mi^/ah(an)||. 



Bed, < 



[22it!2, mishcabh (a). 



* Also ^^^, not used in Kal : in Poel, to affect painfully, 
with b- 

t In Hiph. to begin. Probably the first meaning is to open. 
+ In Hiph. to complete; to finish. 

§ Regular in many forms : as are nddad and several others. 
II Naf ah, to stretch out ; shachabh, to lie down. 



§ 1.] Verbs Double Ayin. 153 



Supplication, ]^'y^^\, takh^nun 

(pi. im or 6th) ; khanan, to 
he gracious. 

To pierce, "Ip"^, dakar. 

Only (son), "TTIS yakhid. 



To mourn, "TS)D, aaphad. -j (41 1 ) 
Mourning, "TSDDj misped (a). | 
First-horn, 'y)21, b'chor (ba- 

char, ^0 he early). 
A dog, "^b^, ce'lebh. 



]yO (for r\y^J2, intent, purpose), occurs only with b {]V^b, 
for the sake of) ; with suffixes, '^2ypb,for my sake, &c* 

Exercise 39. 

a) D"iDT -rn^^ j-n^n: Dni?i to:i9 n)hin ^i^n i *2^i^n 1 412 

JT ; • \.-T T : A-T ^'t; -^.t tt; )~ •• |t 

'X-)i^n bvr2 D^DH ^bp 5 :^D^^ ^':';? S:::i3 >^3: 

V|TT ^- •• .V-- ';- I . J..-; ..x:v. i- ;- 

:V")j*:i i22i fnvnb bhn j^irr liz-iDrjii^ ib' t^iDi 9 

••iTT V. • ill ; A : • V J-T V, : 

= ^3;; in ]Vf::h^ >ii:;Db n^k'^n -|>i;^"t'^* >jii-:ii 10 

' T T J- V • T ; - U';|T V -; ' : • 

T |T - ': |T V •)■ T : - 

* Tliis difficult verse is best explained thus: (1) the nomi- 
native, 'the enemy' (which some consider the vocative), must be 
considered as a nominativus pendens, just stating-, v/ho are the 
subject of the discourse. The enemy = as to the enemy, &o. 
(2) In ndthashtd the Psalmist is addressing Jehovah. (3) hem- 
mah (they), which is construed in our version with them, must 
be considered nom. to dhh'dil understood. 

t Infin. constr. of hay ah, to be, with 7 prefixed. 

h3 



154 Verhs Pe Nun. [cir. ii. 

(412) b) 1. The enemy {pi.) plundered the city. 2. The city will 
be plundered. 3. The great cities were plundered. *3. Thou 
shalt not plunder this city. 4'. Those who are shearing his 
flock. 5. I am very weak, 6. My eyes are weak. 7. We are 
very weak, 8. Our brethren have made-faint our hearts. 
9. They flee (regular) from me. 10. Does not the door turn 
upon its hinge ? 



Chap. XI. § 2. Verhs Pe Mm. 

413 The principal anomaly of this class of verbs is that 
the Nun, when it would close a syllable, is assimi- 
lated to the following consonant. Sometimes also an 
initial Nun is dropt. 

414 I. The assimilation of Nun takes place (a) in the 

Imperfect of Kal. The second vowel is most 
commonly 0, sometimes a : e occurs only in 
yitten (= yinten), from nathan, to give ; (b) in 
the Perfect of Niphal ; {c) throughout HipMl 
and Hophal (which has always Kibbuts). 

II. a) The Imperat. and Infin. constr. often drop the 
Nun (by aphceresis)^ as gash /or n'gash, ^il for 

h) The Infin. then, however, usually appends the 
feminine ending eth (the accent being on the 

penult.) ; after a guttural, ath: as n'^*| (ge'sheth), 

jnjjj'l (gaVath), from nagay, to touch. 

c) The Imperative has usually a, but sometimes e 
(as in ten, gice., from nathan). It frequently 
takes the lengthened form with appended h : 
t'nah, give up {^^f\). 

415 The characteristic of these verbs, in all the forms which have 
a preformative, is Dagesh following the preformative in the 
second radical; but, as we shall see, some forms of verbs Pe 
Yod, and even of verbs double Ayin, resemble them in this. 

416 The Nun is nearly alioays retained in the forms 
enumerated in I., II., lohen the second radical is a 



§2.] 



Verbs Pe Nun. 



155 



guttural (as yinkhal, he will possess). In other cases (41 6) 
the retention of it is comparatively rare, never oc- 
curring in Niphal, and very seldom in HipMl and 
Hophal. 

Similar anomalies are in part exhibited by np^4i7 

(lakakh), to take ; Lamed being assimilated or dropt 
like the Nun. 

Imperf. yikkakh. Imperat. kakh (seldom I'kakli). Infi7i. 
constr. kakhath. Hoph. Imperf. yukkakh. — Niphal, however, 
is always nilkakh. 

Nathan (]riJ), to give, is peculiar in assimilating 418 

the Jinal as well as the initial Nun. Thus, nathatti, 
teth, for nathanti, te'neth {Infin. constr.). — On the 
Imperf. see above, I. 

Example ^♦;i^, nagash, to approach : see 'Appendix E, p. 20. 

- T 

Short Paradigms. 
[The regular forms are in italics ] 





Per/. 


Inf. constr. 


Imperat. 


Imperf. 


1 Kal 


nagash 


ge'sheth 


gash 


yiggash 


2 Niphal 


niggash 


hinnagesh 


hinnagesh 


yinndgesh 


3 Hiphil 


higgish 


haggish 


haggesh 


yaggish 


4 Hophal 


huggash 


huggash 


(none) 


yuggash 



Parfcp. 
nogdsh 
niggash 
maggish 



419 



Past partcp. of Kal, ndgush. 

Infin. ahsol. 1) nagosh, 2) hinnagosh, 3) haggesh. 

Imperat. (Kal) gash g'shi gashnah 

(Niph.) hinnagesh hinnag'shi hinnagesh'nah 
(Hiph.) haggesh haggishi haggesh'nah 

The other tenses are conjugated regularly. See Paradigm in 
Appendix E. 

On the Jussive and Cohortative forms of Verbs. 

Jussive.'] The jussive is a form of the Imperfect, 420 
which occurs only in the second and third persons. 
In verbs Lamed He this form is called the apocopated 
Imperfect., because the shortening consists in the 



156 



Verbs Pe Nun. 



[CH. 11. 



(420) cutting off (apocope) of the final He ; from these the 
name is extended to all verbs. The jussive is often 
not distinguished orthographically from the indi- 
cative ; cohere it is^ it will be pointed out. The Im- 
perative is also apocopated. 

421 Cohortative.] The first person of the Imperfect and 
the persons of the Imperative sometimes take a para- 
gogiG He (ah) ; this syllable has the tone wherever the 
afformatives u^ i would have it, and therefore shorten 
the final vowel of the root, just as those terminations 
do : hence for eshmor we have eshm'rah (n")Dl^J«^)- 

As ah appended to an ace. denotes direction., so here 
it denotes a direction., tendency^ or effort of the will. 



Vocabulary. 



422 To guard, watch, preserve, 

n\JJ, natsar. 

~ T 

To deliver, ^^JjJ, natsal*. 

~ T 

To come near, to approach, 

li^Jll nagash. 

-T 

To bite, "TJti^J, nashach. 

To tellf [1:11 nagad = ^o6e 

-T 

clear f ] . 
To look, t031 nabha^:. 
To touch, yjlj, nagaJL> (constr. 

-T 

with 3, &c.). 
To forsake, ]1}12^, nagash 

— T 

To give, ]r)2, nathan. 
To fade, ^21 nabhal. 

- T 

To kiss, p]l}2> nashak. 



To overtake \_^lDi]» nasag (in 

Hiph.). 
To take, Tlpby lakakh. 
To overthrow, P)7D, salaph (in 

Piel). 
To fear, S]1tOj Paraph. 
A lion, n^^ and ^"'"l^^, "ri and 

aryeh. 
To crush, pID, parak. 
A serpent, 1^n2> nakhash 

T T 

(decl. 4). 

Extremity ; heel, ^pV. i^akebh 

(decl. 5, c : but taking 
Khirik under the first rad. 
in constr. pi. instead of Pa- 
thakh). 



* In Hiphil : in Kal, to strip off j then, to deliver. 
t In Hiphil = to make clear (higgid). 
X In Hiphil : once in Piel. 



§2.] VerhsPeNun. 157 



Those two=ihem both, Qn*']!!^', 

sh'nehem (numeral in constr. 
state with suffix, 204;. 

Right hand, yty, yamin (decl. 

3, a). 

Left hand, bi^D'V, s'mol. 



To tremble, 1^^, ral>ad. (422) 

To smoke, ]]^]7, i^ashan. 
Season, r\^, ^eth (rit-to, &c.). 
Leaf, rib^l i)aleh (decl. 9). 

V T 

To divide j to sing hymns, "1QT» 
zamar. " ^ 



Exercise 40. 

a) ' jii^ian ^I^DD nirti^iT TfT^-nr) y^r\ nr)i)i 1 423 
r&^ 3 : >:^Q i-'^is^i pSp ^t^^ ^^Ji^^ ^l^n? '^ 

•|T- -)■: VT •• ;; -;- ^," J" - W-; • t 

ro''D ^bi4?3i^2 ^Ii^:Q"D^^^ bu')'::'' biiwD h'D'2. ons)?^ 
^;ni:r4S'^3 4 rsi^n'^b n^b 6 -.i Asj ^n'^i ^^<-li:;> 

v' : : • > T :j- • i t t^ it- v- — a" t : • 

TJD vi^ ni:^;;Di : ^^<"lin^ onsDb D\bti^n 7 : j^^n 

jT I' -; • - T ;• - A • i" T -V : - - 'l"T|T 

§ ^'•njarr 10 -. nsn'^-'^hj nn^jBT nn:n v^i^ ^ro^nn 9 

• T^ 'a-; • IT •.;!•.•: a- t 1 v *.-• aT : • - ' v t tv 

• :v J- : |T T ; • T ; • : A : - j.-- • 



* SAa// 6e. t 228, p. 80. I m'sapper, 5, 3. 

§ A partcp. descriptive of Jehovah, 



158 Verbs Pe Nun. [ch. u. 

(423) Hji^iD ■^:^^^ HDixn"]^ tm^^ "inj^ is •. ^n>-^4'? 

a T ; |r J V -; T T-;|T ' • tat j t I • 

VT" V ;- '|VT- ' V T i •• : V -';)-T T • 

:mn^-^K -"in'pin dd/ij^ niin^^'^NT is :n'?D 

6) 1. Look the way of the sea; and he looked. 2. The kings 
were smitten before the children of Israel. 3. They will trample 
om- honour in the dust. 4. Deliver thy people. 5. Tell me all 
that thou hast heard. 6. Their leaves shall not fade. 7. Ye 
shall not forsake your people. 8. T have given this garden to 
my brother. 9. Who told thee that thou (°wast) naked ? 
10. His leaf shall not fall 

Write down the Hebrew of the following forms § : 
Sing I Plur. 



1. I will take. 

2. /Thou shalt kiss thy mother. 

IThou (/.) shalt a[)proach. 
3, f He will take. 

I She vnW give. 



1. We will kiss. 

2. fYe will take. 

I Ye (/.) will pm-sue. 

3. /They will trample. 
I They (/.) will take. 



(Imperative.) 
Sing. Plur. 

Take thou. Draw near. 

Draw near (/.) Take (/.). 



* 



With paragogic He. f In the Bible, C^'ll* 

I my strength ! Another reading is ):!uzz6. 
§ The pronouns are to represent the masculine when /is not 
added. 



§3.] 



Veris Pe Aleph. 



159 



Chap. XL § 3. Verls Pe AlepJi. Feeble Verbs 

{Verba quiescent ia). 

Example. 73 J^, achal, to eat: see i^ppendix E, p. 21. 

~ T 

Short Paradigms. 





i Perf. 


IJnf.cstr. 


dimperat. 


\Imperf. 


iKal 


achal 


«ch6l 


^chol 


yochel 


2 mph. 


ne^chal 


heachel 


heachel 


yeachel 


3 Hiph. 


he'chil 


ha^'chil 


ha^chel 


ya^chil 


4 Hoph. 


ho^chal 


ho°chal 


(none) 


yo°chal 



5 PaHcp. 

ochel 

ne^chal 



424 



(as verbs Pe 



ma^chil ^ guttural) 
m6°chalJ 
Past Partcp. of Kal, achul. 

Injin. absol. 1) achol; 2) Niph. heachol. 

Imperf. Kal, with Vav conversive, vayyo'chal : vayyo'mer. 

In some verbs and forms ^? quiesces. The verbs 425 
in which this regularly occurs are : 



bji^i achal, to eat. 

~ T 

^Q^^., amar, to say. 

- T 

'73^^) abhad, to perish. 



nS)i^5 apKah, to bake. 

T T 

^^^?> abhah, to be willing. 



In the Imperf. Kal of these verbs (of which the 426 
two last are also Lamed He), and usually in THJ^, 

akhaz, to hold, the i<^ quiesces, with a transposition of 
the vowels. Hence, 

nrpS'' (yomer) for "ibs;. = "ibSJ^V the form it would 

regularly take as a 'cerb first guttural. 

(We shall see that, as verbs Lamed He, cibliah, 427 
dphdh have for their Imperfects yobheh, yopheh.) 

With co7ijunctive accents in the middle of a clause, 428 
and with Vav conmrsive (which draws back the tone- 
syllable), Tsere is usually shortened into PatJiakh. 
This change, however, in the case of Vav conversive^ 
is only found in dcJial ; dmar taking the still greater 
shortening into Segol : vayyoraer, vattomer. 

(Of course, in pause the Tsere is retained.) 



160 Verhs Pe AlepL [ch. u. 

429 Only a few cases occur in which ^5 quiesces, ac- 
cording to the general rule, in — , — , or — . It 
always qiciesces in Tsere in the common form lemor 
("lbi»^Jp), in saijing ; very seldom in Imi^erf. Kal. 

430 In the first person singular of the Imperfect the 
quiescent ^^ is also rejected^ to avoid the concurrence 
of two Alephs. This occurs frequently/ in the other 
forms also. 

431 Other verbs beginning with Aleph are conjugated 
like verbs Pe guttural (Paradigm E) ; and, except in 
Kal^ even the verbs above given very seldom quiesce. 

In Piel^ 'i^ sometimes falls away by contraction. 

Yocahulary. 



432 To kiss, p'^^, nashak in both 

Kal and Piel). 

To burn, -);?3, ba^ar. 

To prove, ]n3,> bakhan. 

To draw-near, 2ip, karabh, 

with i^al, upon = for the pur- 
pose of falliny upon ; of at- 
tacking. 

To divide, pbn, khalak. 
A little, *t£)yD or l^y:^, m'Mt 
or m'i?a? (from ^^>D. to be 

- T 

small, or few). 
Expectation, rhn)D, tokhe'- 

leth (awy); yakhal, to wait, 
expect. 

Joy, nnDti^j simkhah (sa- 
makh, to shine bright). 



Hope, expectation, npn. tik- 

vah (kavah, to wait for, 
hope in). 

For ever, 11)^27, lanetsakh 
(netsakh = truth, perpetuity). 

A fig-tree, T^lll^rS, t'enah. 

Form, IJ^/n, toar (taar, to be 
drawn, marked). 

Countenance, HS^")^ {a), ma- 
rch (deck 9, «) ; vaah, to see. 

Except, Di*5""'3> ci-im {ni-si, 
properly quod si). 

An evil-doer, J?ir:D, merai? 

{partcp. Hiph. of rai^a)?, to 

be evil). 
A wolf, 2^1 z'ebh. 
Booty, IjJ, i'ad. 
Prey, ^bt, shalal. 



* ^V^^ — as a little (a little) soon. 



§ 3.] Verhs Pe Aleph 161 

Exercise 41. 

a) : into D^ri^"i '?T")"n DV'^^^i Tf-ii mn^ ';;iv-''3 1 433 
^s^^ joa;D3 ")j;a''"'3 *'^"i7 natoi p)J^^•'*•|^ "i2°^pii^:i 2 

A- J-:- -»-:• r '••••.• : : '— .•:|v'v - • :- 

jTipm nnDi:? u^mi r\brr\r\ 3 on foin^'^n nt^^ii 
nii:)^ vm tt'^^ 12^4^ DUT3"-ia? 4 : mto D^ii^i 
: "Miy v:l■i^^ "idi^t nnD '?^^^'• r\yi^r\ -i^:i 5 : -121^ 

ns^i -ito ns)^ t)Di^ '^'^ b2)i^ K^rrni^^j^ D^^^-D^^ 

j-T t'T : '.' v":i" • ••: "^ < : • r- :- 

"ipiin sinra^ n^<T i^D^jn § •. ?)^H):n ^bt3 nt-in ^b u"'j^i 
npn inj* D3D Jinb'^ 9 ••'pbi:^ p^n^ niy^i iv b^i^^ 

'j— : TV av . : . ITT •;••-; VvVT : A- - J 

D2r\Vi r)J2^n uynyi -linn^i np^JrT Dr\i^) nyni^'nii 

DT 'i v;vT |v- K-.-ir ;- j- • : 

-yn' ntbt mto 

i-T :■ } : VT : • 

i&) 1. The ways of the scorners shall perish. 2. And Jehovah 
said to the woman, Hast thou not eaten of the tree ? And the 
woman said. The serpent deceived-me^, and I did eat. 3'. Thy- 
way perished. 4. Then shalt thou say unto Joab, The sword 



* The way = a* to your way. 

t Trusting. Partcp. act. Kal in stat. constr. from a verb 
Lamed He : nDPT. 

T T 

X Itto m'umah, lit. with-him any-thing = any thing that was 
with him. 

§ Supply bikrobh again : kdrabh is construed with Z' (= to). 
II An oath, life of Pharaoh ^ by the life of Pharaoh. 
IT ••:^"'ti^n (from M2' HipL J^>OT). 



162 Verbs Pe Yod. [ch. ii. 

(433) devoureth one as well as another*. 5. I will say, Thou " art 
my servant, whom I have chosen. 6. The woman ate the bread 
which (" belonged) to me. 7. I will go up f, and destroy the 
people. 8. He said to his daughters. Eat flesh. 9. All fat of 
ox, or of sheep, or of goat shall ye not eat. 



Chap. XI. § 4. Verbs Pe Yod (^3). First Class, 

or Verbs originally 13. 
E. g. Il'^\ yashabh, to dwell. Paradigm : see Appendix E, p. 22. 

— T 

Short Paradigms. 

5 Partcp. 
yoshebh 



434 1 Kal 

2 Niph. 

5 Uiph. 

6 Hoph. 



\Perf. 


2 Inf. cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Lnperf. 


yashabh 


she'bheth 


[shebh 


fyeshebh 






[y'rash 


l^yirash 


noshabh 


hiv^'^ashebh 


hivvashebh 


yivvashebh 


hoshibh 


hoshibh 


h6shebh 


yoshibh 


hushabh 


hushabh 


(none) 


yushabh 



no'shabh 
moshibh 
mushabh 



6 Past Partcp. of Kal, yashubh. 

Fut. Apoc. (Jussive), yoshebh. 

Fut. Vav convers. (Kal), vayye'shebh. 

r ^ hi f^^^' yashobh. 

mjin. absol. 1^^^^ hoshibh or hoshebh. 

Normal Forms. 
Kal Imp. shebh, sh'bhi, shebh'nah ; or, y'rash, yirshi, y'rash'nah. 
iPerf. hoshibh hoshi'bhah hoshabh'ta 
HipMl I Imperat. hoshebh hosbi'bhi hoshebh'nah 
\jmperf. toshibh toshi'bhi toshebh'nah 

435 Verbs Pe Yod are divided into two, or even three, 
classes: (1) those verbs which have properly a Vav I 

* Say : ' as this so that.' nTDI liTD ; the 3 taking Kamets 
as coming immediately before a tone-syllable. 

1 nb:;^, imperf of rhv c^)- " 

V -; - T T 

+ In Arabic they are written with *). 



§ 4.] Verbs Pe Yod. 163 

for their first radical ; (2) those which are properly (435) 
Pe Yod; (3) a few of these verbs Pe Fbt^? form, in 
some respects, a third class inflected like verbs Pe 

Nun. 

Yatsar (1!:*^) occurs in both classes : (1) ")iJ^ (for ")^1), to he 436 

- T — T 

in a strait : (2) 1^>, to form. 



{Pe Yod = Pe Vav.) 

Kal.] A) Infai. constr., Imperat., Imperf. — About 437 
half of these verbs have the feeblest forms : (1) she'- 
bheth, (2) shehh, (3) yeshehh. 

1) Imperf. In yeshehJi {2,"^^) the second e is only- 
lengthened by the tone, and may be shortened 
to Segol and vocal SK'va ; the e in the first 
syllable is somewhat firmer, and in a degree 
still embodies the first radical ^ that has fallen 
away. 

2) Imperat. I"^ is from 2^], by omission of the 
feeble \ 

3) Infin. r\2,V is shortened in the same way, and 
takes the fern, ending ri^, which again gives 
to the form more length and body. 

B) The other half of these verbs are inflected with 438 
stronger forms, having the Imperf. Middle A, and 
retaining the Yod at the beginning ; but in the Imperf. 
only as quiescent, or as resolved into the vowel i. 

Imperat. li^T and Infin. lb] retain the *> as a conso- 
nant, but in Imperf. ^1^^ it is a quiescent. 

That the latter mode of inflexion belongs to verbs actually 439 
// 

^3 is shown, partly by the numerous verbs which take these 
forms in Kal, and at the same time have ") in Niphal, Hiphil, 
and Hophal, partly by the analogy of the Arabic. 

Even in the same verb are found both forms, one with, the 
other without Yod. 



164 Verh Pe Yod, [ch. li. 

440 a) The original Vav always appears in Niplial^ 

HipMl, and Hophal. It quiesces in the Perf. 
and Partcp. of Niphal^ and throughout Hiphil, 
in Kholem ; throuo;hout Hophal in Shurek : as 

nti^i: (for n^y), n^^f^in (for n^ti^in), nii^^n (for 

^) In the Infill.^ Imperat.^ and Imperf. Niplial^ 1 
remains as a consonant, and the inflexion is 
regular. 

c) It also retains its power as a consonant in the 
Eithpael of some verbs : e. g. y'iT^iin from ^"l^- 

441 The other forms, with few exceptions, are regular. 

442 In those forms in which Yod does not appear, these verbs 
may be distinguished, in the Imperf. of Kal by the Tsere under 
the preformatives, in Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal, by the Vav 

(1. ^, J)) before the second radical. Forms Uke 2!^, -H^^' they 

have in common with verbs Pe Nun. Hophal has the same 
form as in verbs Double Ayin and Ayin Vav. 

443 a) The Infin. of Kal without the radical Yod, has very seldom 

the mascuhne form like yi, to know, or the feminine 

ending ,1- like Hit', to bear, 
b) With a guttural the latter takes the form * D^ instead 
of n^ : e. g. p[^1, to know. Examples of the regular 
full form occur with suffixes, HD^. ilD''- This full form 
seldom takes the feminine ending, as Jl73^, to be able. 

444 The Imperat. Kal often has the lengthening H-, as nil^j «^^ -* 
nil, descend. From QH^j ^o 5'iue'> the lengthened Imperat. is 

> > > 

n2rTj/ew. '•^n, />?Mr. 13n, with accented Kamets, owing to the 

T T • T T 

influence of the guttural. 

445 a) The Imperf. of the form 3l^^ takes Pathakh in its final 

syllable, when it has a guttui-al, as yi"', also Tl/1. 

* /TT^, in 1 Sam. iv. 19j is contracted to Pi/. 



§ 4.] Verbs Pe Yod. 165 

b) When the tone is drawn back on the penultima, the final (445) 
syllable takes Segol ; namely, before a word of one syllable, 

> > ■> 

and after Vav conversive : e. g. ^^"3^"'' "7"!'^'), ^^"1, but 

in Pause, 2^ and 1")-V 

c) The form t^")^'', when lengthened, may also lose its radical > 

(as ^3^^, 1J7J^). Yet the cases are rare and doubtful where 

this occurs after other preformatives than *». 

In some stems the feebleness aifects also the Per/. Kal, so far 
that the a under the second radical becomes e or i in such forms 
as have no full vowel under the first radical, as Il^^l^, D-HIi^n^* 

-^^rrh^ from t'w "h''- "" "* '** • '• 

a) As an exception the Imperf. Niph. sometimes retains Yod : 
e. g. 7n'''^1> and he waited. 

b) The first Pers. sing, has always the form 3ti^^^^, not 

" T V 

In Piel the radical Yod sometimes falls away after "J pre- 446 

formative, which takes its punctuation : e. g. ^nii/Z'^l for 

•in^H'''*"), and he dried it up. 

Imperf. Hiphil, like Imperf. Kal, takes Segal when the tone is 447 
drawn back. 

The verb TJ^n, to go, is connected with verbs Pe Yod of the 448 
fii'st class, for it forms (as if from 1]7>) Imperf. T^"^ with Vav, 
T|T1, in pause "^JTI* Infin. constr. r)D7, Imperat. ^7, lengthened 
Hy?, and also ?T7, and so Hiphil, Ty^ifT- Rarely (and almost 
exclusively in the later books and in poetry) we find also the regular 
inflexions fi'om 7T7n, as Imperf. 'T)r\'^, Infin. "TT^n* lmperat.pl. 
0SI; on the contrary, Perf. Kal is always TJ^n, Partcp. "TjSH 
Infin. absol. "TJ^'^n ; Piel "^^H ; Hithpael Ty'^Hjin ; so that a ^ 
no where distinctly appears as first radical *. 

* An obsolete stem, "TyT, may however be assumed, although 
in a word so much used as ^f^T}, the feeble letter n may itself 
be treated like % and so the inflexion resemble Pe Yod. Comp. 



166 



Vefhs Pe Yod. 



[CH. 11. 



Vocabulary. 



449 To know, ^1>, yadai>. 

To hear ; to beget, tV? yalad. 

— T 

To add, t^D**? ya^aph. 

To come down, descend, "T"^^, 

-T 

yarad. 
To profit, '?i?\ yai^al. 
To dwell, ^ti^\ yashabh. 
To save, ^]t}'', yashai?. 

— T 

To set up, erect, establish, 
[ll^^]> natsabh, in Hiph. 

-T 

Treasure, 1^1^^, otsar (pi. 

T 

To conceal, HDB. ca^ah. 

T T 

To withhold, '^]^r], khasach. 



Want, poverty, "^iDHQ, makh- 
sor. 

Only, TJ^^, ach. 

Proud, n^^^, geeh [pi. D^«3). 

Widow, T^ych'^, almanah. 

Instruction, r\\>^, le'kakh 

(prop, taking speech ; lakakh, 

to take). 

Adversity, miJ> tsarah (w), 

decl. 10; tsarar, to bind. 
Corner, (123, pinnah (dw), 

T • 

decl. 10. 

Roof, :3, gag (decl. 8, a). 

Fellowship, "IQiIj khe'bher. 

Generation, age. 111 or 11, 
dor or dor (decl. 1). 



Exercise 42. 

[Note. — The student must not suppose that every sentence 
will necessarily contain an example of the conjugation (or form) 
that is the "subject of the exercise.] 

450 :tJin?<3 'PB*' DOii *mv^'\ V^v D^D.n "rjbin i 
: mD*: >^*n nrr\'J\ vt'^ J^n^:^^^ •^b^J;i''"^^S 2 



also the feeble Pe Aleph : e. g. '«^TJ1 from 'p;^^, and O/i^ from 

.... — T • c •• 

•?Tbn, Im;)er/. fiz;?Az7, n"7UK from 13^^, and HD^bi^ from 

'- T T • - T T • 

* Nei?*^kash (5, 2), from i?akash, to walk perversely, SfC, to 
be perverse : usually construed, wlio is perverse in his ways : al. 
(taking the dual strictly) he who walks unsteadily in two ways. 

t In one (of them) : i. e. of the two ways. 



§ 4.] Verbs Pe Yod. 167 

: HDr y^v ^'bv ^b^ T^rri k\i n"in> Ji3-):i 3 (450) 
n-T3^ :^^ 5 -.on;; ]i^p r^V2^ iDi?3 piv d^^z '?i^^ 4 

^n^D b^:^^' DDH n^ 7 : n^^^hi b-inn ni^^i nin> 

A' J- : - T TV ^ •• |TT : - J : •— : at : 

i-r; -A"T J" "v T : •-!•.• 'a- tt; -; 

T — ■ : ~ : A" — : j* t • -;— v jt j** 

I'rnDS rmh ci'^Din^' ^':'D"'Q''"^:r d'^:::'' n •'^rhT\r\ 

) : T ; 'a- 'v j.- •• : - jT 'i-T • : 

6) l. A fire is kindled in {2.) my anger, and shall burn unto 

hell. 2. God caused the sea to go down, and the dry land ap- 
peared §. 3. Cursed (°be) the day on (3,) which 1 was born. 

4. My days have declined || as a shadow, and as grass am I 
dried up. 5. Abraham was eighty-six years old IT when Hagar 
bare Ishmael to him. 6. He says to the temple, Thou shalt be 
founded. 7. The Lord fainteth not, neither is weary. 8. The 
youths shall faint, and be weary. 

9. Write down the short Paradigms of yalad, to bear (in- 
cluding Piel, and Pual). 

* D''jnD. hrawlings, from ]i1 : sing. piQ, a woman of 
brawling s = a brawling woman. 

t 'A house of fellowship' = a house in common. 

X Imperat. with n paragogic. 

§ Hi^'^nr Imperf Niph. of ni^i. 

V T •• ; T T 

II t:)tO^, Partcp. Pass, of na^ah. 

T 

^ Say : ' at (3.) the bearing {Infn, constr.) of Hagar :* the 
two words to be joined by Makkeph. 



168 



Verbs Pe Yod. 



[CH. 11. 





I Per/. 


2 Tnf. csir. 


3 Impend. 


4 TmjMrf. 


451 1 Kal 


ya<abh 


ftbhh 


y'/abh 


yifabh 


5 HipJi. 


hefibh 


heiMi 


he/ebh 


ye/ibh 



Chap. XL § 5. Feeble Verbs Pe Yod (continued). 

A. Second Class, or Verbs properli/ Pe Yod. 

See QtO*** ya/abh, to be good. Paradigm : Appendix E, p. 23. 

— T 

Paradigms of Verbs properly Pe Yod. 

5 Partcp. 
yo^ebh 
me/ibh 
Past Partcp. of Kal, ya^ubh. 

452 The most essential points of difference between 
verbs properly Pe Yod and verbs properly Pe Vav 
are the following : 

453 Kal.] In the Imperf., Imperat., and Infn. the 
radical ^ is retained {Infin. 313^), being in the Imperf. 
Middle A quiescent as * : e. g. yiiahJi (2tP^^), the 
PathaJch of which becomes Segol, when the tone moves 
back, as Vp^p, and he aiuoJce. 

454 HipMl.'] Here the ^ is retained, forming with 
Tsere a diphthongal e, ^"'^N'l (for 3"'^\"1), Imperf. 
^''EO''^ ; seldom with the diphthong ai, «y, as in ^"l^^^j 
the?/ maJce straight. 

455 Of the Imperf. Hiph. there is an anomalous form with pre- 
formatives put before the 3rd pers. 7>7>, as 7''T\ he wails; 

b^h'^i^, I wail J ^b'h'^I^y 2/e wail; once even in Imperf. Kal, 

^/T'"', from ^T*. So Q^lD^'' » this anomaly is explained by sup- 
posing, that the "^ of the simple form was superficially taken to 
belong to the stem. 

B. Third Class, or Contracted Verbs Pe Yod. 

456 a) The Yod of these verbs does not quiesce in 

long ^ or e, but is assimilated like 7i. Some 
verbs are exclusively of this class. 



§ 5.] Verbs Pe Yod. 169 

h) Others have two forms ; in one the Yod is as- (456) 
similated, in the other it quiesces, as pLi\ to 

pour, Imperf. pT and p'^^^ ; ")^*"', to form, Imperf. 
I^^^l and ")k,^ ; "1!^^, to be straight, Imperf. ");if^; 
and y^\ 

Verbs of this class (which seldom occur) are inflected like 457 
verbs Pe Nun, for which they may easily be mistaken by the 
learner. When, therefore, a form has not a root Pe Nun in the 
Lexicon, he should look for one of this class. 



Vocabulary/, 

To be good, 2^\ ya/abh *. 

- T 

To awake, Vp^ yakats. 
To suck, py^, yanak f. 



To howl, ^^\ yalal. 458 

To sleep, ];i^^, yashan. 



a) Verbs exclusively of the contracted form : 

To spread beneath, ^2{>, yatsai? (Hiph. hits-tsia^ ; Hoph. hiits- 

tsai>). 
To burn up, r\'^>, yatsath {Imperf. yitstsath j Hiph. hits- 

-^ tsith). 

b) Verbs with two forms : 

To pour, piJ>, yatsak {Imperf. yitstsok ; and with 

"^ Vav conv. vayye'fcsek). 

To form, '^'^'>, ydtsar {Imperf. vayyi'tser [c. Vav conv.'] 

""*" and yitstsor). 

To be straight, ")^\ yashar {Imperf. yishar and yishshar). 



To bubble out, ^H nabhai? |. 

— T 

Joyful, HD'^, sameakh (from 

~ •• T 

samakh, to shine bright ; be 
glad). 

A cure, nilil, gehah. 



Abided, K3J, nache" {fern. 

Hoofed, DHBD. maph. 15. 
Horned, ]1pD, makrin §. 



* In Hiph. to seem good; to please; also, to make good; do good. 

t In Hiph. to give suck; stickle. 

t In Hiph. trans, to pour forth. 

§ Prop. Hiph. partcp. for makrin ; keren, a horn. 



170 VerhPeYod. [ch. n. 

Cruel, 1TDi>^, achzar. 



(458) Sea-monster, ]'^r\, tannin {pi. 
only). 
The breast, '^t, shad. 

A whelp, ")!lil, gur (decl. 1). 



Ostrich, r\2^\ ya:i^*nah. 

T-;- 

To plant, ^tOJ, na^a:i>. 



^^ Since these verbs differ from the usual mode of in- 
flection only in the Imperfect Kal and in Hiphil, these parts 
only are given in the examples. 



Exercise 43. 

459 a) '^h^u *rB^ d'^vd ^31 nv^ 2't:^'^r\ d'ddu ]Wb 1 

v|v - )•- • • : r -AT J- •• • T-:v ' J : 

mn^^ niD^jiT 4 : •)n3:r;'?3 ^rrni rrris 'ryn "u^n 

T ; - ; J- - - 'av •• I I V'" - : JT ' • - 

A •:-: w :- - i: t- -j.- ••< tt- 'j-: 

J-; •- >"j • AT : • J -: 'v,. i-j-: i :- "v-•- 

: Di^H mm rt;?i3 vp'"''' ^^ -^^^^ 

b) 1. We will sleep and dream in the night. 2. Inf the 
morning shalt thou awake and tell thy dream. 3. Sarah gave 
suck to children which she bare unto Abraham. 4. It will be 
good for us that God will come down to the earth |. 5. If ye 
forsake the Lord, and serve a strange god §, he will consume || 

* 3, 4, n. t a- 

X To the earth, nUilJ^ '• respecting the H-, see 1/5, c. 

T :iT T 

§ A strange god, ")DJ \'T 7^^, « god of the stranger. 
II He will consume, H^DV 



§5.] 



Verhs Ayin Vav, 



171 



you according as * he hath done you good. 6. The men f shaU (459) 
Jament and all the inhabitants : of the land shall howl. 
7. Aoah will awake from wine, and know what§ Ham has 
done 8 The potter || formeth the vessel. 9. My people shaU 
be taken IF, and their rulers ** shaU howl. 10. I will howl for 
Moab, and I ^vnll cry out for all Moab : joy and gladness is 
withdrawn from the land of Moab. 1 1 . Ye will not form man 
out of the earth as the Lord hath done this ff. 



Chap. XL § 6. Feehle Verhs Ayin Vav, 
E. g. U)\>, kiam, to rise up. Paradigm : see Appendix E, p. 24. 



Short Paradigms. 



1 Kal 

2 Niphal 

3 Pilel 

4 Pulal 

5 Hip III I 

6 Hophal 



IPerf. 


2 Inf. csfr. 


dlmperat. 


4 Imperf. 


kam 


kum 


kum 


yakum 


nakom 


hikkom 


hikkom 


yikkom 


komem 


komem 


komem 


y'komem 


komam 


komam 


(none) 


y'komam 


hekim 


hakim 


hakem 


yakim 


hukam 


hukam 


(none) 


yukam 



5 Partcp. 

kam 

nakom 

m'komem 

m'komam 

mekim 

mtikam 



Past Partcp. of Kal, kum. 



Imperf. Apoc. (Kal) yakom ; (Hiph.) yakem. 

Imperf c. Vav conv. (Kal) vayyaTcom; Hiph. vayya'kem. 

In/in. absol. (Kal) kom ; (Hiph.) hakem or hakem. In Ninh 
as Infin. constr, ^ 



460 



* According as, -}^^^ n^T^^, after that which. 
t DlhJ, used collectively for the plural. 
I Partcp. Kal of 2t}\ to dwell, inhabit. 
§ "^"f^^'-HNt. II Partcp. Kal of -)^\ f Pual. 

** Partcp. Kal of ^]^r2, to rule. ft As-this, T^^^^. 

' " I 2 



Verbs Ay in Vav, 


[c„. 


Normal Forms. 




kam 


kamah 


kam'ta 


kum 


kumi 


kom'nah 


yakum 


takii'mi 


t'kumenah 


nakom 


nako'mah 


n'kumo'tha 


hikkom 


hikko'mi 




yikhom 


tikko'mi 


tikkom'nah 


hekim 


hekimah 


h'^kimo'tha 


hakem 


haki'mi 




yakim 


taki'mi 


takem'nah 


hukam 


huk'mah 


hukam'tah 



172 



461 fPerf. 

1 Kal < Imperat. ku 

\lmperf. 
fPerf. 

2 Niph. < Imperat. 

{Imperf. 
'TPerf. 

3 W,pih. < Imperat. 

\lmperf. 

4 Hoph. Ferf. 

462 In these verbs the Vav ahvays gives up its con- 
sojiantal 2^oiver, and is absorbed by the principal 
vowel of the form, even when it would, if regularly 
formed, stand between two full vowels. Thus, in Kal 
Past Partcp. {Jcdvum = ) hum ; Infin. absol. (Jcdvoni = ) 
Jcom. Hence the root always appears as a mono- 
syllable. 

463 The principal vowel of the form is the second vowel. 
This second vowel receives, by its union with Vav^ 
greater extension and firmness than it naturally pos- 
sesses. Thus, in Infin. and Imper. TzTom becomes 
hm (Dp) ; Perf. kdvdm becomes Jcdm (the Vav dis- 
appearing). This firmer vowel cannot be ejected ; it 
may, however, be sJiortened: as Jcdni from Jcdmtah. 
The Imperf. HipMl yakim {from yakvim) is shortened 
in the Jussive to kem. 

a) The verb in trans, middle E takes in Perf. Kal the form of 
jnO (from /Tl*2), he is dead. 

h) The verb middle takes the form of -)ij^ (from -^^^<), 
luxit ; t^niil (from \L*)3.), he was ashamed. 

T 

464 The preformatives in the Imperf. Kal, Perf. Niph., 
and throughout Hlph. and Hoph., which before the 
monosyllabic stem form a simple syllable, take, in- 
stead of the short vowel of the regular form, tlie 



§ 6.] Verbs Ayin Vav. 173 

corresponding long one (59 — 61) ; e. g. yakum for (464) 
yaJcom ; JieMm for Jiikvim ; huJcam for hukvam. 

This vowel is changeable, and becomes Sh^va when the tone 465 
is thrown forward * : e. g. with the full plural form (with n 

epenthetic) of the Imperf. \^r\^tTi they will die. 

The u in Hophal is the only exception. But this conjugation 466 
is formed (in appearance) by transposing the letters of the 
original stem. Thus hUkvam becomes by transposition huvJcam, 
hence hukam. 

a) Some of the forms in these verbs arise from primitive 467 
forms which afterwards became obsolete in the regular 
verb : e. g. Imperf. Kal, yakum for yakdm ; Partcp. kdm 
for kdvdm (aft. an original form kdtdl). 
h) Those which conform to the regular Hebrew verb are, in 
general, the least common : as yebhosh (aft. the regular 
Imperf. yibvosh). 
c) The in Niphal comes from va (= na) : ndkom from 
ndkvam ; Imperf. yikkom from yikkdvam. 

In the Perf. Nipli. and Hipli. the harshness of pro- 468 
nunciation in such forms as ndkomtd^ hekamtd., is 
avoided by the insertion of 6 before the afformatives 
of the first and second person. For the same pur- 
pose (y ^ is inserted in the Imperf. Kal before the 

termination ndh. These inserted syllables take the 
tone and shorten the preceding vowels, as ndkom^ 
li'kumo'thd ; hekim., Ifkimotlidli ; also h^kemS'thd^ 
fkumendh. 

(Yet in some cases the harder forms, without the inserted 
syllable, are also in use.) 

The tone, as in verbs Double Ayin^ is not thrown 469 
forward upon the afformatives aA, i^, % except with 

the full plural form (with epenthetic n^ ^'IQIpV In 

those persons which take afformatives without epen- 
thesis (see 477), the accentuation is regular, as 

PiO'\> ; so in Hophal., i^rpj^^n. For the tone on i and 
''- see 46cS. 

* Hence before Suff. !)i)J^"'Q^ he will kill him. 



174 Verhs A7/m Vav. [ch. ii. 

470 The conjugations Piel, Pual, and Hitlipael^ are 
very seldom found in verbs properly Ayin Vav. The 
only instance in which the Vav remains as consonant 
is W, to surround^ the Piel of "T^P (but see 476). In 

some others "• has taken the place of 1, as in D^ip 
from Dp, 3^ from 3in ; forms which belong to the 
later Hebrew*. On the contrary, the iinfrequent 
conjugation Plleh with its Passive and Keflexive 
{kiilel or kiilal ; Pass. Jcailal, Reflex. hitJikatUl), is 
the common form employed in the sio-nification of 
Piel^ and as a substitute for it : e. g. D^p, to raise 
up, from D'lp ; D^^"1, to elevate, Pass. UTy\1, from UT) ; 
"T^'li^Jin, to rouse oneself, from 11^. Less frequent is 
the conjugation Pilpel : e. g. ^jp/p, to sustain, to 
nourish, from 7l3. 

471 Of these unusual conjugations the Paradigm exhibits only 
Pilel and Pulal, from which the reflexive (Hithpael) is readily 
formed. 

Remarks. 

4-2 I. Kal.'] Of verbs middle E and 0, which in the regular verb 
also have their Per/, and Partcp. the same f, the following are 
examples : 1 ) muth {to die) ; Per/, meth {for maveth), me'thah, 
mat'ti, math'nu; Partcp. meth. 2) bush {to blush); Per/, bosh 
{for bavosh), bo'shah, bosh'ti, bSsh'nu; Partcp. {pi.) boshim. 

4.73 a) In the Infin. and Imperat. of some verbs, T ahvays quiesces 
m Kholem (as hji^, 2110, I'lhJ). 
h) In most verbs, however, it quiesces only in Sluirek j but 
even in these the Infin. absol. has T in the final syllable 
(after the form ^itDp)> as IDp"* Dp, surgendo surgent. 

c) Those verbs which have T in the Infin. retain it in the 
Imperf. as J<i3*- 

d) In one verb alone the preform atives of the Imperf. have 
Tsere, viz. t'')^, Imperf. ]i)''\2^^ (for t^2]). 

* Having been borrowed from the Aramaean. 

t Of the Perf. and Partcp. the usual form Qp is very seldom 

written with J^ (after the Arab, mode) : e. g. U^D. 



§ 6.] Verbs Ayin Vav. 175 

In the Imperat. with afPormatives 0D1p> ^D^p) the tone is on 474 

the penultima, with a few exceptions. The lengthened form 
[with ,1-] has, on the contrary, the tone usually on the last 

syllable (HDIp, Hinii^)* with a few exceptions where the word 

is Milel. 

a) The shortened Imperf. as Jussive has the form Qp> (very 475 
seldom QiDN DD")- 

' T '\T 

b) So in poetic language as Indicativey as QIN DID, he, it, 
shall be high. "^ "^ 

c) After Vav conversive, and before words of one syllable, the 
tone is also drawn back upon the penultima, and the last 

syllable takes Kamets-Khatuph, as Up^\ '^^ Dp"*- 

•tt- 't 'tt 

d) In Fause, however, the tone remains on the last syllable, 

as Tibn. 

e) With a guttural or Resh, the final syllable may take 
Pathakh: e. g. ID ''I. «wc? he turned aside (from "I^D)- 

- T- 

The full plural ending un (]')) has the tone (cf. 472 of this §). 

II. Niphal.'] Anomalous forms are : Per/. UDT^h^, ye have 476 
been scattered; Infin. constr. ^T^H- ' * 

III. Hiphil.'] Examples of Per/, without the epenthetic T : 477 
np^Il> ihou liftesi; n/^DIl, thou killest ; and even QPI^lDn 
(Num. xvii. 6, &c.). 

In the Imperat. the shortened and lengthened forms Dpil, 478 
nD\")rTj both occur. 

T '• T 

a) The shortened Imperf. has the form Qp>, as "ID**"), that he 479 
may take away. "^ "'^^^ 

b) After Vav conversive the tone is drawn back upon the pen- 
ultima, as D"!'"); YS'I, and he scattered. 

c) The final syllable, when it has a guttural or Resh, takes 
Pathakh, as in Kal : e. g. ID'^1, and he removed. 



176 Verbs Ay in Vav. [ch. li. 



(Additional Remarks.) 

450 IV. On account of the intimate relation between verbs Ayin 
Vav and verbs Double Ayin, it is necessary, in analyzing forms, 
to note particularly the points in which these classes differ. 
Several forms are exactly the same in both : e. g. Imperf. Kal 

with Vav conversivej Pilel of T^ and Po'e'l of ^p. Hence it is, 
that they often borrow forms from one another, as in Kal, 13, 

he despised {Per/, of t12. as if from ]]2) ; HID) he besmeared 

(for ntD). 

T 

tf 

451 In common with verbs ^^, those of this class have in Niphal 
and Hiphil the Chaldee and Rabbinic punctuation, which sub- 
stitutes for the long vowel under the preformatives, a short one 
followed by Dagesh forte. This form and the common one are 
often both in use : e. g. /T'DHj io incite, Imperf. /T'D'' (also 

JWil, /T'D'') ; ^r\^\ o-t^d he shows the way (also '^TV) ; some- 

times with a different meaning, as n^jn, to cause to rest, to give 

i. > - . .. 

rest, n*^^n, Imperf. n''^^» to set down, to lay down; yj>, to 

spend the night, to abide; y^'^, l^J^, to be headstrong, rebellious. 
Other examples : 'Kiph. t'lDJ (from 7^Q, not 7!^^)j to be cir- 
cumcised; with a guttural, "l^^J; Hiph. ^^-tPT, to despise, ?)t'»^''*. 

452 Verbs whose middle stem-letter is Vav moveable (i. e. sounded 

as a consonant) are, in respect to this letter, perfectly regular -. 

e. g. lirTj to be white, Imperf. T\TV» V^^> to expire, Imperf. 
-T -••:•.• -T // 

V^y* j particularly all verbs that are also H?* as TV\)i ; Piah 
_ . . ^ TP 

nn> to command ; pTIpj to wait, &c. 



* Here belong some forms of verbs Pe guttural with Dagesh 
forte implicitum, which have generally been derived from a false 
root, or been uncritically altered : viz. ti^Hi^l for li^nn*), and 

she hastens (from ^.')n) ; tO^""), IDPPT (from \y\y, O^J^, to rush 

upon. G.). 



§6.] 



Verbs Ayin Vav. 



177 



Vocabulary. 



To be ashamed, Z^)2, bush *. 

To despise, \^^, buz. 

To understand, V\^, bun (also 
bint). 

To arise, Dip? kum. 

To fix, establish, p3, cun. 

To scorn, make a mock of, Y^7, 
luts. 

To get, obtain, p?)3, puk, in 
Hiph. 

To place j to set on, QV^, sum. 

To return, intr., 2W, shubh %. 

Wall, fence, n"nil, g'derah (w) ; 

gadar, to fence §. 

To break down, Y"1D, parats. 



Fortress, 1^QJ3 (a), mibhtsar 483 
T : • 
(batsar, to cut off). 

Understanding, H^l^-H (« <^)> 
T : 

t'bhunah (bhun or bhin, to 

discern). 

To found, "7D''> yasad. 

~ T 

Rottenness, ^p1, rakabh. 

'T T 

Snare, U}p)!2, mokesh (ya- 

kash, to set a snare). 
Guilt, W'lJi^, asham. 

T T 

Deceit, HDID. mirmah (ra- 

mah, to cast). 
Therefore, p~7^, i^al-cen. 
Congregation, n"T^. i^edah 

T •• 

(i^adah, he appointed). 



Exercise 44. 

a) n^r\^ 2 : HDHD V')22r2 DD^D vmnrbj r^iiiis 1 484 
D'i^n^ i:''nn 3 •. minnn wbi) pi3 vnj^ id'' r\r22n:i 

J- T : a- T It : • •" T ';•• ' vat -jt t : t ;v 

nh'D m-) p^S)'' 2iD 4 la'? i^un d^^^ddi n:2')V 

AT ;i" ' TV. ' J' T 1" I' T • • : AT : T 

V ; : - Av : JT T ' J • I - r : ~ j • : *•• : 

2p-i:)i n':';;:! niv^v b'n nm e : iDiD^''?:a D^'^i 

\tt : at; - vj-.-; '-\, v J" I * ~ . • - 



T t:». jt 



* In Hiph. to make ashamed. 

t Same in Hiph., but also to make to understand; to teach. 

X In Hiph. to return, restore ; in Piel, to lead back, restore. 

§ In pi. gidroth or g'deroth. 

11 He who fears (partcp.). 



178 Verbs A^ in Vav. [ch.ii. 

(484) >tr)br2 "i^b"? Dm "lip;:: ddh miri s : d^i:;'' ^^^^ 
: nn-iQ Q^b^D3 nb^^^'l i3-)^ rnn Dn:i? jiddh 9 •• rri^ 

|T : • a" • : vv- • : a : ~ r t tv j- : t v|t 

) ;*T- I T -i't; V" AT T ' J ■ T • -.^v. 

iiS ""^ D'^rn^ ^i^^^ Q^':'^^^^ Dn^iD^i d^::i^ dh^t na"? 
:TrihOTD i:)i)''i -^'t^vr^ n^n^-bii bl 12 :Dn:^^'? 

' iv ; ; - •;' Av-;|- ar : V a 'l^: ' : 

n^-|ij^b in'mm n^n jii?3 ^^9^f n^ii^i;^ y\t '^r2m_ 13 
onnj^ i^^m bn'i^n Hjid tod':^ ni"^*) ^i^i:^i^ 

iT-:i- / : V \. T ->v - ^- ^tt: 'av : • 

<• ; r - 'v V - v; j^v :v ; j ': vv ; • :■).■: 

:^^i^n-^i^ ^2r^ -iD^pi ^np nyni^ 

I' T V i \ : a't v.- • -; 

6) 1. I will restore this silver. 2. We will place thy strong- 
holds for destruction. 3. Who founded the earth ? who esta- 
blished the heavens ? 4. Shall men be established by wickedness ? 
5. They will assuredly return. 6. Return, my son : return, my 
daughter. 7- Do not set on bread for my brethren by them- 
selves. 8. Restore the money that-was-returned in your sacks. 
9. Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. 10. And 
God shall be with you, and bring you back {Hiph.) to the land 
of your fathers. 



Chap. XL § 7. Verbs Ay in Yod. 

E. g. ]''j1> io discern. Paradigm : see Appendix E, p. 25. 

Short Paradigms. 



485 



1 Kal 

2 Niphal 



IPerf. 


2 Inf. cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Iniperf. 


fban 


bin 


bin 


yabhin 


(bin 








nabhon 


hibbon 


hibbon 


yibbon 



5 Partcp. 
ban 

nabhon 



Past Partcp. of Kal, bun. 



§ 7.] Verhs Ayin Yod. 179 

Imperf. apoc. yabhen ; Imperf. c. Vav conv, vayyabhen. (485) 

Injin. absol. Kal, bon ; 'Niph. hibbon. 

ISormal Forms. 
CPerf. ban banah banta 486 

Kal I Imperai. bin bi'ni 

[^Imperf. yabhin tabhi'ni t'bhinenah. 

a) These verbs have the same structure as verbs 487 
A^in Vav, and their '^ is treated in the same 
manner as the ") of that class : e. g. Per/. Kal 
sliath (for shavath), he has set; InJin. shith ; 
Infin. ahsoL shoth {for shayoth) ; Imperat. 
shith ; Imperf yashith ; Jussive, yasheth, with 
Vav conv. vayya'sheth. 

h) But the Perf Kal has, in several verbs, still a 

second set of forms, which resemble a HipMl 

> 
with the characteristic H elided : e. g. ^/}iJ3''iL 

(similar to ''j'i'O'Dn) ; also J^23, riill"'"), thou con- 
also D21. 



c) Often also complete HipMl forms occur : e. g. 
Perf V27\. Uiy\T2'n', Infin. lUH (also T?) ; 
Imperat. \'2'n (also y^3.) ; Partcp. ]''29 (also ]Zt) ; 
so hkewise'anD (also 2")); D^TO (also D'^) ; 
Y^iJO, glittering ; also in Perf yiJ. 

d) Moreover, as Passive we find a few times Hoph. 
Imperf "lti?V, from "l^tf/, to sing; JI^V, from 

IVVJ, to set. 

These HipMl forms may easily be traced to verbs y^, and 488 
possibly, in part, belong to that class. The same may be said 
of Niphal, y)22 ; P^lel, ]y\2 ; and Hithpael, ]y)3.r\H (as if from 
P3,). These verbs are in every respect closely related to verbs 

^p. Hence it is that we find several verbs used promiscuously, 
ir ff . , J 

as y^ and '•p, and with the same meaning in both forms, as y^ 



180 Verbs Ayin Yod. [ch.ii. 

(488) {denom. from ^^b), to spend the night : Infin. also^V; U^'V, to 

place; Infin. also U)V '> Imperf. U'^'t}''', once U'^'V' In other 

• T T 

verbs one of the two is the predominant form, as Til. to exult 
\T\^ only once, Prov. xxiii. 24). But few are exclusively ''J^, as 

^n, to contend; Jl^I^, to set ; 'l^'^'lV, to rejoice. 

(f 

489 The old Grammarians referred all these forms to verbs y^, 

which it may, indeed, in some cases be right to do. 

// 
4 90 The Pdm. App. E, p. 25, is placed by that of verbs y^, to 
exhibit the parallelism of the two classes. The omitted con- 
jugations have the same form as in Pdm. App. E, p. 24. 

491 The Imperf. apoc. is ]y^; with retracted tone it takes the 
form S? 2^"- So with Vav convers. Di^"*). «»c? he placed; 

i VT VT- 

'Q.^\ and he perceived. 

V T- 

492 As Partcp. act. Kal we find once p, spending the night 
(Neh. xiii. 21); Part. pass. Q^ti^ or U)V, according to a various 
reading (2 Sam. xiii. 32). 

493 Verbs ^'^ scarcely ever suffer their ^^ to quiesce, and hence 
are irregular only as verbs with Ayin guttural. Yet in the Perf. 
of the very common verb 7^1^, to ask, the feebleness of the ^^ 

reduces the a under it to (-), and in a closed syllable to (-) 
and (_), when the syllable is toneless, and no full vowel pre- 
cedes the i^ (just as in some verbs ''3) ; so with suff. "^'?^^'iil^, 
')n''J^'?^^':;, ^2^^i^t, 2 pi UPhi^t ; also in Hlph. ( I Sam. i. 28). 



Vocabulary (exclusively ^J?). 

Of this kind are : 
494 7b understand, "j''^. 
To exult, b>^ 
To pass the night, y^. 
To contend, plead, QH. 



To smell, T}'^'^ *. 

To put, set, place, Q^'^i^. 

To set, put, r?^- 



Only used in HipMl. 



Sr-] 



Verbs Ayin Yod. 



181 



Exercise 45. 

lTT-:i- -'t- ^t;it at;- ' "'j — ' J- T T T : - 

^ . _ J" - J T T^. J" |T • JT T J' T - 

-:,- St t - 

b) 1 . Plead with * your mother, plead : for she (is) not my 
wife, nor (am) I her husband. 2. Joseph washed his face and 
went out t and said. Set on bread. 3. I will make % your cities 
a wilderness, and bring your sanctuaries to desolation, and will 
not smell § your sweet odours Ij. 

Chap. XL § 8. Verhs Lamed AlepJi. 
E. g. SiJDj to find. Paradigm : see Appendix E, p. 26. 

T T 

Short Paradigms. 

5 Partcp. 

motse" 496 

nimtsa 

m'matstse" 

m'mutstsa 

mamtsi" 

mumtsa 

mith- 
matse* 

Past Partcp. of Kal, matsu". 

Jussive {Hiph.) yamtse"; Imperf. c. suff. ^Piel) y'matstsenl, 
{Hiph.) yamtsieni. 





1 Perf. 


2 Inf. cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Imperf. 


I Kal 


matsa 


m'tso 


m'tsa 


yimtsa 


2 Niph. 


nimtsa 


himmatse" 


himmatse" 


yimmatse" 


3 Pi'el 


mitstse" 


matstse" 


matstse" 


y'matstse" 


4Pual 


miitstsa 


miitstsa 


(none) 


y*mutstsa 


5 Hiph. 


himtsi" 


hamtsi" 


hamtse" 


y'amtsi" 


6 Hoph. 


humtsa 


humtsa 


(none) 


yumtsa 


7 Hithp. 


hith- 
matse" 


hith- 
matse" 


hith- 

matse" 


yith- 
matse 



I To be rendered by ]r\^. 

II i. e., the odour, your pleasant. 



t i^ji^l. and went out. 
§ Hiphil. 



182 Yerls Lamed Aleph. [ch. u. 

Normal Forms. 
fPerf. matsa ma'tseali matsathi 

\Imperat. m'tsa m'tse'^nah * 

CPerf. nimts^ nimtse'"thah 

^ \Imperat. himmatse himmatse'''nah 

(The conjugation in the other forms is analogous to these.) 

tr 

498 The K is here, as in verbs N3, treated partly as a 
soft guttural consonant {scarcely audible at the end of 
a word), partly as a quite inaudible (quiescent) letter. 

499 In the forms that end with the third radical, the 
final syllable has the same vowel as the regular verb 

(e. g. Kifb, mj:^, i^^l'O, VC'^t^T}) ; but Pathakh before 

N is lengthened into Kamets., viz. in the P^//., Imperf., 
hnperat. Kal^ in the Perf. Nip)1ial, Pual^ and Ilophal. 
The (t) however is mutable^ hence in the plural, ^i^^^p]- 

500 The Imperf. and Imperat. Kal have A after the analogy of 
verbs Lamed guttural. 

501 Also before afformatives beginning with a conso- 

sonant (Jl, J) i>i is not heard {quiesces in the Per/. Kal., 

■> 
in Kamets, ni>^jk!D ; in the Per/, of all the other con- 

jugations, in 'Tsere., Tyt^lZ} ; in the Imperat. and 

Imperf. of all the conjugations, in Segol^ HJKjiip, 

^:^^^D^^ t). 

T V ; • 

502 The use of Tsere and Segol in these forms arose, doubtless, 

from the great resemblance between verbs ^7 and Tw (com p. 
next section), and an approximation of the former to the latter. 

503 Before afformatives beginning with a vowel, K is a 
consonant, and the form reo-ular, as -IJ^iJD. 

1 O ' -IT 



* a in Italics is quiescent. 

t Before the suffixes chd, chem, chen, the }^ retains its 
character as a guttural, and takes (-;). 



§8.] 



Verbs Lamed Aleph. 



183 



Remarks. 
Verbs middle E, like i^bi2 (male), to befidl, retain Tsere in 504 
the other persons of the Ferf., as *r)X7D- Instead of nj^^i!3 

•• T T : |T 

is sometimes found the (Aramaean) form Jli^"lp for JlJ^"1p. 

t't - :'iT 

she names. 

The Partcp.fem. is commonly, by contraction, JHJ^iJb, seld. 505 
n^?2ib, and defectively written JliJV (from X!ii^). 

.. ; " TT 

The i^ sometimes falls away, as in ^r))iD, ''Jl'?D. Niph. 5C6 

• T T • •• T 

DJni^ZOl ye are defiled: Hiph. ^lOnil. 



Vocahulary . 



To cull, ^ip, kara. 

-t't 

To hate, ^^■^, sane". 

To be full, U7i^, male" 

To drink (to excess), i^2V, 

T T 

6-aba. 
Fear, Hi^l'*, yirah ; constr. 

J^^l! (w) ; yare", to fear. 
A path, nn^jni n'thibhah 

(nathabh). 



Treasure-house, l^ij^, otsar 507 
{pi. -6th). 

To violate, injure, D^Drf, kha- 
ma*. ~ "^ 

Rag, i?"lp, ke'rai? (kara:.% to 

tear). 

Therefore, ]3"7V» i^al-cen. 

To defile, J^^tO, ^ame'. 

To assemble (in troops), J<?^iJ, 
tsaba. "^ ^ 

To 5m, J^tOrr, kha/a. 



Exercise 46. 

ITT ji T : ;- :•: -at :jt j- — v 

at'; • ;t ; T I -; • |t t ; • -" ~ : t : • t - 

''7^^ ^>^pi ^^"ipj*^ u'^t't^ uybt^ 4 :n':'ip ]i^n ntom 



ni3^n:i -jih:i Tj'pnK npi^ ^-^^^:a 5 



ITT J " ; 



184 Verbs Lamed A lepJi. [ c h . 1 1 . 

(508) ^s^jb 6 : KtebJ Dn^ri"):.*j^i ^^ uni^ b^nTh ■• db^d 

• : <. 1"--: ->••• •• I ; 1 : A" >--: I v ; - : i^ : • 

-^3 it^sj vdn ^i^Lom :nin^D ]iii ps^i wn i^^jrj 
•••^^ht r''"''^^:ib2 ^1^^-'?^^* 7 :jt)d -un^ ''^^J■;t^Q 

\," : I : 'AT •• ; I ; ;• : - vit -;jt -: - : 

:nr2^2 t':ibD D'yip^ t')v V'ph ^^nb'O oo^ "Tti:^^ 

• |"T 'VJV -V T • :AT 'J .. 'j T ^.. _ 

'aV :' t j " V : •!. ' ■••t-;|-; • <;t • v; 

■ i)}''.D bnt^ nns 

I" V ; -v.- 

b) 1. I have hated knowledge^. 2. Who hates knowledge? 
3. Thou shalt not hate thy brother. 4. The sacks are tilled 
with silver. 5. Thieves, being found, shall return seven-fold. 
6. Understanding cries-aloud, and Wisdom gives-forth her 
voice. 7. To them will we cry. 8. Shall I not cry-aloud, and 
give forth my voice ? 9. Who will fill my treasuries ? 10. They 
who find me will find life. 11. They shall assuredly find life. 
12. Thou shalt not hate those- who-hate thee. 



* Be not thou (ne sis) : from hayah. 

t ' Those who squander their own body,' i. e. voluptuous 
profligates (Gesenius, Maurer). Others (as Rosenmiiller) trans- 
late it in the same sense as the English Bible : riotous eaters of 

sh. 

X (Of) every kind (Maurer). 

§ Have come ; K^il, to come. 

II (Of the women) assembling. 

•11 ID^D ^Di^:!-!) (Prov. v. 12). 



§9.] 



Verbs Lamed He. 



185 



Chap. XI. § 9. Verbs Lamed He. 

E. g. n^ilj galah, to reveal. Paradigm : see Appendix E, 
pp.28, 29. 

Short Paradigms. 

5 Partcp. 

goleh 509 

niglSh 

m'gallgh 

m'gulleh 

magleh 

mogleh 

mith- 
gallgh 

Past Partcp. ofKal, galui. 

Injin. absol. (Kal) galoh ; (Niph.) nigloh ; (Piel) galleh ; 
(Ptfo/) gulloh ; (,Hiph.) hagleh; (HopA.) hogleh ; {Hithp.) Inth- 
galleh. 

Imperf. apoc. (Kal) yigel ; (Niph ) yiggal ; (Piel) y'gal ; 
iHiph.)je'ge\; {Hithp.) jithgal. 





I Per/. 


2Inf.cstr. 


3 Imperat. 


4 Lnpeif. 


I Kal 


galah 


g'loth 


g'leh 


yigleh 


2 Niph. 


niglah 


higgaloth 


higgaleh 


yiggaleh 


3 Piel 


gillah 


galloth 


gaHeh 


y'galleh 


4Pual 


gullah 


giilloth 


(none) 


y'gtiUeh 


5 Hiph. 


higlah 


hagloth 


hagleh 


yagleh 


6 Hoph. 


hoglah 


hogloth 


(none) 


yogleh 


7 Hithp. 


hith- 
gaUah 


hith- 
galloth 


hith- 
gaUeh 


yith- 
galleh 



Normal Forms. 
CPerf. galah gal'thah 

Kal < Imperat. g'leh g'li 
l^Imperf. yigleh tigli 



galu 



510 



galithi 

g'lenah 

tiglenah 

// 
These verbs, like verbs Fe Tod CD), embrace two 51 1 

classes, originally distinct, viz. v and r? ; but in 
Hebrew the original '' and 1 have passed over into a 
feeble H, in all the forms which end with the third 

radical. All, however, except a few forms, are 

//, 
originally v ; so that the two classes are less promi- 

nently distinguished than verbs 13 and ^3. 

Wholly different are those verbs whose third radical is a 512 



186 Verbs Lamed He. [ch.ii. 

(512) consonantal H (with Mappik: e. g. r]2,^), which are inflected 
throughout hke verbs Lamed guttural*. 

513 The grammatical structure of these verbs (see 
Pdm. App. E, p. 28) is as follows : 

For the forms that end with the third radical, 
All the Perfects end in ah. 
All the Imperfects and Participles Active^ in eh. 
All Imperatives^ in eh. 

The Infin. absoL (except in Hiph. and Hoph.), 
in oh. 

514 At the end of the Partcp. Pass, of Kal the original 
^ appears, ''•V'^i), galui, as also in some derivatives. 

515 The Infn. constr. has always the feminine form in 
n : hence in Kal^ Jlvi), g'loth ; in Piel, ili'?^, gal- 
loth, &c. 

516 Before the afformatives beginning with a conso- 
nant (D, J), the original ^ remains, but not as a 
consonant : it would properly form with the a the 
diphthong ai ; but this diphthong in the Perf is first 
contracted into e C-.), and then further attenuated 
into «, but in the Imperf and Imperat. it is changed 
into the obtuse ^__ {&), Thus in Perf. Piel, from 

r\'b^ (after r\b^'\>) we get first rf^h ^"^^ ^^^n, by 
attenuating the e into «, Jl^i) ; in the Imperf. Piel^ 
r\T^^^r\. In the Passives the e is always retained ; 

in the Actives of the derived conjugations, and in the 
Reflexives^ both e and l are used alike (see 527, 531) ; 
on the contrary, in Kal (the most common species) 
we find only i. Accordingly we have in the 

Perfect Kal ^, as Pib^ ; 

* It is certain, however, that some verbs Tw oriainated in 
verbs with final Hj this letter having lost its original strong and 
guttural sound, and become softened to o. feeble H' 



§ 9.] Verbs Lamed He. 1 87 

Perfects of the other active conjugations (in- (516) 

eluding the reflexive Hithp.) e and i promis- 

>. >, 

cuously, as n^"^^ and r?^^ ; 

Perfects of the Passives only ^, as Jl v5 ; 
Imperfects and Imperatives always ^__ (e), as 

T V : T ■♦• : • 

Before the afformatives beginning with a vowel 517 
{u^ ^, aA), the Yod with the foregoing vowel usually 
falls away [^b^ = V^^, &c.] ; but it is retained in 

ancient full forms, particularly in pause., as V/T (see 
524, 530). Before suffixes also it falls away, as ^/^l 
(see 539). 

The Yod disappears also in 3 Perf sing, fem.^ 518 
where TS— is appended as feminine ending, as Tv>l- 
But this ancient form is become rare (see 520), and, 
as if this mark of the gender were not sufficiently 
distinct, a second feminine ending n_ is appended 

so as to form HJl/^. So in all conjugations : e. g. 
Biph. Jl7jrT, common form HDz-DrT, in pause H/l/'^rT. 

The formation of the shortened Imperf.^ which 519 
occurs in this class of verbs in all the conjugations, 
is strongly marked, consisting in the casting away 
{apocope) of the »!_, by which still other changes 

are occasioned in the form (see 522, 526, 528, 533). 
The shortened Imperative is also formed by apocope 
of the il_- (see 529, 534). 

Remarks. 

1. Kal.'\ For the 3rd Perf. fern, the older and simpler form 520 
jn'^il, from /T't'ilj is almost entirely banished from common use. 

But with suffixes it is always used, see 539- 

a) The Infin. absol. has also the form ij^"l, videndo. 521 



188 Verhs Lamed He. [ch.ii. 

(521) h) As the Infin. constr. occurs also, though seldom, TW^, 
ni^n, as well as the feminine form nii^'H, to see. 

522 |^= The a]30cope of the Imperf. occasions in Kal the fol- 
lowing changes : 

a) The first stem-letter most commonly receives the helping- 
vowel Segol, or, when the middle radical is a guttural, 

Pathakh: e. g. '?:i> for ^:i''; ]2^\ and he built; ^p\ .et 

him look, for ^^l)^. 

b) The Khirik of the preformative is also sometimes lengthened 
into Tsere (because it is now in an open syllable), as ^1"^, 
let him see (fr. JIJ^"))- 

T T • 

c) The helping-vowel is sometimes omitted: e. g. ^li^^T, 
Pit^X ^y\ The verb ^^^") has the two forms" i>^"1> 
and J^T'I, the latter with Pathakh on account of the Resh. 

d) Examples of verbs which are Pe guttural as well as Lamed 
He : )l^^^\ and he made, from HW J ]V'^'^^ ^"'^ ^^ answered, 
from n^V. Sometimes the punctuation of the first syl- 
lable is not affected by the guttural, as in 1T]^^, ]n^'), ^11^ 
(with Dagesh lene in second radical), let him rejoice. 

e) The verbs n**!!, to be, and IITT, to lice, which would 

T T TT 

properly form in the Imperf. apoc. >n% Tl^, change these 
forms to T!^, ^n"* (y'hi, y'khi), because the Yod prefers a 
vowel before it in which it may quiesce, 

523 The full forms without the apocope of H sometimes occur 

even after Vav conv., especially in the 1st person and in the 
later books : e. g. nj^n^l, and I saw, twenty times, but not in 

the Pentateuch, rH^y^lj orac? he made, four times. 

524 The original > is sometimes retained before the aflPormatives 
beginning with a vowel (cf. 522, above), especially in and before 
the Pause, and before the full plural ending (un) V]_, or where 
for any reason an emphasis rests upon the word. Per/. VDHj 

> ATT 

they took refuge j Imperat. -VJ/Brj ask ye j Imperf. ]V3.1'^* they 
increase, more frequently like ]Y'J^Ii^\ th^y drink (cf. 530). 



§ 9.] Verbs Lamed He. 189 

The Partcp. act. has also a fern, of the form H^B^^, spying ; 525 

T • 

nniS, fruitful; in the P:ur. hke T^Vj^i^^. The Partcp. pass. 
is sometimes without ^ as ^'^^ for ''V^^, wiac?e, -iBiJ. 

T T T 

It is but very seldom that the second syllable is defectively 
written. 

II. Niphal.'] The apocope of the Imperf occasions here no 526 
further changes (^2)"' from r\by) ; yet in one verb 3) guttural 

T • V T • 

we find a form with ( ) shortened to (__), viz. PT^'' (for 

nD)). Similar in Piel, iyp\ (from ri'^^P^'^' ^^^ in Hithpael, 

V^sin (from 7i:;'inr\) 

III. PitZ, PmgZ, and Hithpael.] In the Per/. Piel, the second 527 
syllable has Khirik instead of the diphthongal e in the greater 
number of examples, which is therefore adopted in the Paradigm. 
Before suffixes Khirik is always employed, except in Pual, which 
always has Tsere (^-^). 

The Imperf. loses, after the apocope, the strong Dagesh of 528 
the second radical ; hence Piel, l^**! ; Hithpael, ^il/T'V Less 

frequently is the Pathakh then lengthened into Kamets, as IJl"'!, 

•|^!^rl; (cf. 526). " •" 

In Piel and Hithpael are found also apocopated forms of the 529 
Imperat., as 02 for HD^j prove ! 7Tinn, feign thyself sick. 

Examples of Yod retained in cases where more commonly it 530 
is omitted : Imperf ''^VD'T/Hj will ye liken me j ^Q^DD''* they 
cover them. ' ' ' ' 

IV. Hiphil and Hophal.'] In the Perf. Hiph. the forms 531 

il^7^n and JT*7^n are about equally common ; before suffixes 

the latter is used, as somewhat the shorter. In Hophal 
always ' . 

a) The Tsere of the Infin. absol. Hiph. is the regular vowel 532 
(as in 7tOpn) ; to this the Infn. absol. Hoph. conforms, as 

in n'^^n'. 

b) The verb r\2D, to be much, has three forms of the Infin. : 

n^lTl, much (used adverbially) ; n3,")rT, used when the 
... — ^ . — 

Infin. is pleonastic ; JliB")rTj the Infin. constr. 



190 Verbs Lamed Be, [ch.ii. 

533 The Imperf. apoc. has either the form ITS^, ;n3\ ptiT^I, or 
(with a helping-vowel) 7,V> foi' which, however, is invariably- 
substituted the form ^y^, as ^J^l, 13""). Examples with gut- 
turals : 7^1, 7J7J^1, &c., which can be distinguished from the 
Imperf. Kal only by the signification. 

534 The Imperat. apoc. has invariably the helping-vowel Segol or 

Pathakh, as niH for 2"}n, n^"}:! ; 5]nn for tpr\, HDirr ; 
'pjrn for rhvT^- 

535 The .Imperf. with Foe? retained occurs only in ]V^ri> from 

n:)v 

TT 

(Additional Remarks.) 

536 V, In the Aramaean, where, as before remarked, the verbs 
ft, ff. 

J^7 and Tw flo^v into one another, both classes terminate, in 
the Imperf. and Partcp. of all the conjugations, without dis- 
tinction, in ^5-j^ or >-jj. As imitations of this mode of forma- 
tion we are to regard those forms of the hifn., Imperat., and 
Imperf. in T]-^, more seldom J^— - and '^-^^ which are found in 

Hebrew also, especially in the later writers and the poets. 
Infin. HTT, to be; T\^y, opprimendo j rTlSiT- Imperat. K")rT, 

be thou. Imperf r\';r\prb^', i^^Ps b^, follow not j n^^vrcbi^, 

do not *. 

537 The Yod is found even at the end of the word (which is also 
a Syriasm) in 'hv]?}, ''^Tm, and hence in the Plur. VDIDH. 

538 In three verbs is found the unfrequent conjugation Pilel, or 
its reflexive, where the third radical, which the conjugation 
requires to be doubled, appears under the form HI ; viz. niKJ> 

contracted ^^^^J. io be beautiful, from HK^; D'^irTiDQ, the 

archers: but especially UT^'^^y to bow, Pilel TYSHVy hence the 

* The Jussive signification in these examples is the reason 
that they have Tsere like the Imperat. But this will not apply 
to all other cases ; and, besides, the reading in many instances 
is doubtful between (-^) and (-^). See Gen. xxvi. 29. Lev. 

xviii. 7, Jos. vii. 9; ix. 24. Dan. i. 13. Ez. v. 12. 



§ 9.] Verbs Lamed He. 191 

reflexive ninj^ti^Hi io how oneself, to prostrate oneself, 2 pers. (538) 

rv- and ri'-, 'imperf r\T\r\]i:\ opoc. ^nnt^x for T]r\'p^j\_ 

(analogous with ^,1"' for Tl^)- 

Before suffixes the H final, with the preceding vowel, falls 539 

away, as "^^ W, he answered me, ?Tjy, UIV '•> I^P^ff. ?TJ^% 
•T-: ':iT TT ': ~ 

•liljy^ ; Hiph. ^7yrT« Very seldom *♦_ takes the place of the 
final H- or n-» as in ^D''DD^ he will cover them ; '*2"'I)n> smite 
me. The 3 Perf. fern, always takes before suff. the older form 
Fw^ (see 518), yet with a short a, as in the regular verb : e. g. 

X T 

^r\i3 for Mirbli-y in pause >:^nVV' 



Vocabulary. 



To trust (in), (3) HDn, kha- 

5ah (b'). 
To build, n^Z, banah. 

T T 

To stretch out, HtOJ. na^ah. 

T T 

To multiply, n2")> rabhah. 

T T 

To/eec?, n^^l, raJl^ah. 

T T 

To babble, HlDII, ba^ah (comp. 

T T 

(SuTToXoyHv and blaterare). 
To befall, r\2i^ (in Pual) anah. 

T » 



To see, ^^^"^, raah. 540 

T T 

Piercings, JlinplD, mad- 

k'roth (dakar). 
Swore?, 2"in, khe'rebh. 
The world, 72.r), tebhel, j9oe/ic 

(= r) oiKov^ivri, yabhal). 
Embryo J unformed substance, 

D7il, golem (galam, glome- 

ravit). 



Exercise 47. 

• i-T ~r:~ -iv-:!- " ~: v: a- i ;"t: • : 

jii:i::^ ?f^' -iB^Dvi n^D^ ?)an> ^^-''S 3 -. n>t:^pQ r^^^ ••t 
n^iDn:! d-'p^iki d^2"i -i;;-)^ pn^i ^nm 4 : d'^'^h 

J'T-: \, : VAT j': ;- ; ••• v j" jt 



192 Verbs Lamed He. [ch. u, § 9. 

(541) :^-| r)i^^}2 U'V^I^ ]1^~^3 p'l^b n^ii'^ikb 6 :KDnD 
IT : JT • T : 'vat t ' J'-- jv •.. : 1 i" ; - 

•iKi [''Dbii 10 :d':)::^it ni^in n^inr) |V^i'n^^ ^Ji^ina 

|VT JT V V. ; AT\ i T ;"T' vT ••. :: • -; ' V •• 

:s*D3 X\y r\pTA2 "3 r^^n n"w DoSp rapiri n 



6) 1. What God shall command, that thou shalt do. 2. As 
they have done, so do ye. 3. The waters increased greatly 
over the earth, and all the hills were covered which were under 
heaven. 4. Cow and bear shall feed together; lion and ox 
shall lie down together. 5. Great are the things which my eyes 
have seen. 6. Ye shall not build houses. 7. Did not my father 
build this house ? 8. Did I not build the house ? 9. In the 
building-of the city. 

542 Write down the forms : 



I was. 


I mil be. 


Be thou 


To be. 


Thou wast. 


Thou (m.) wilt be. 


Be thou (/.). 


In-being. 


Thou (/.) wast. 


Thou (/.) v/ilt be. 


Be you. 




He will be. 


He will be. 


Be you (/.) 




She was. 


She will be. 







* Most recent interpreters translate the latter clause thus : 
the days [sc. of my life] all of them were predetermined, and 
(rrwhen) not one of them [yet was]. So Maurer, De IVette, 
Hengstenberg. Ciillam refers, by anticipation, to * days.^ 



CH. 12.] 



Suffixes of the Verb. 



193 



Chap. XII. Suffixes of the Verb. 

The suffixes appended to the verb express the ac- 543 
cusative of the personal pronoun. They are : 



Person. 
1 me (c.) 



Singular. 

Forms proper for 
the Perfect Tense. 



'2 thee (m.) ?y, in pause ^ or TT_ 



.2 thee (f.) 
3 him 

3 Aer 






i 



T T T 

Plural. 

1 us{c.) !):_!):_ 

|T 

2 yoM (m.) Q3 

2 yoM (f.) ]3_ 

3 them (m.) Q Q , poeticb ')t2~ 

IT - |T 

3 ^Aem (f.) ]_ 7 



Forms proper for 544 
^Ae Imperfect. 

^._ or nj- 

I" 

T |V 



D_ U—>Poetice *)0_ 



Affixes of the Imperfect^ when preceded by an 
Epenthetic Nun, 



Singular. 

1 me (c.) 

2 thee (m.) 

3 him 
3 her nj 



•r -iv •:!- 

t' |V T|V ':|V 

••):_ for -in:- 



545 



194 



Suffixes of the Verb. 



[CH. 12. 



546 



547 



Perfect with Suffixes. 
As a general rule, 

a) the forms that end in a consonant^ take the suf- 
fixes that begin with a vowel (called a wwel-of 
union) ; 

h) the forms that end in a voicel^ take the suffixes 
that begin with a consonant. 

c) The vowel-of-union for the Perfect is a (or a) 

'^l " " r^'^P^'-^f] e {or e). 

e) „ „ Imperative j ^ 

Whatever changes the afformatives undergo, are 
made for the purpose of suiting them to receive the 
pronominal suffixes. 

takes for 



a) The 3rd sing. fern. 

b) 2nd sing. fern. 
2nd plur. masc. 



ath or ath 
ti 
tu 



ah 

t 

iem' 



548 Here observe, (1) the 2nd sing. fern, (which is derived from 
an old form dtti) becomes identical in form with the 1st pers. 
sing., and is only to be distinguished from it by the context ; 
(2) of the 2nd plur. fern, no instance is found with suffixes. 

549 [The 3rd sing. fern, of the Perfect (1) draws the tone to itself, 
except with chem, chen, and then takes the forms that make a 
syllable without a union-vowel; (2) mth the other suffixes, it 
takes a union- vowel, but draws back the tone to the penult, so 
that they appear with shortened vowels.] 



View of the Suffixes to the Verb (E.). 
I. To THE Perfect. 







transit. Kal 


3 f. sing. 


50 Verb : 




3J1D he has written 


n3ri3 


Suff. : sing. 3 m. 






; 1 - T ; 






or 


or 




him 


i^ra 1 


^r)2r\3 


— f. 


her 


1^ t: 


nD2]13 
T |- T : 



CH. 12.] 


Suffixes of fJte Verb. 


2 m. 
— f . 


thee 
thee 




1. 


me 


T^^^ 


pi. 3 m. 


them 


nbni) 


— f . 


them 


15^3^ 


2 m. 


you 


2^303 


— f . 


you 


]|?io? 


1. 


us 





e from intrans. Kal in the same way. 
Din™, 2)TJ3nj^, 3)DDn™; 

e from the other forms, as Piel ; 

1) i3P3, 2, 3) ^:ir\2, pi:i. 

1 • • ' ' '! ' I . — •• 



195 

^mris (550) 

So "" 



Suff. 



: sing.l 
3 m. / 



— f . 
2 m 

— f . 
1. 



him 
her 
thee 
thee 
me 



2 m. smg-. 
or 

(none) 
(none) 



• r : - ; 
pi. 3 m. them Dn3n3 

— f. ?Am Vnilil^ 

2 m. i/OM (none) 



f. 



you 



(none) 



2 f . & 1 sing. 

r : - : 
or 



Just so the suff. to the Persons 
of all Verbal-stems : 

&c. 



3 pi. 



(none) 



In the same way 
1st and 2nd 
pers. plur. 



k2 



196 



'xes of the Verb. 



[CH. 12. 



II. To THE Imperfect. 



551 



transit. Kal, 3 sing. m. 



Verb : 

Suff. ; sing.l 
3 m. j 



— f . 



2 m. 

— f . 
I. 

pi. 3 m. 

— f . 
2 m. 

— f . 
1. 



2r\y 

tinr)y 
:^2r)y 

-^^hy 
' ». • • • . 

'22P\y 

D2P\y 

uny 

D22Piy 3 

mny 



3 pi. m. 

^2r\y 
^r\^2r\y 1 1 



ninriD'* 









Kal Imperat. sg. m. 

IV :t ,vt ; 

T IV : T 



n:;Dt 



'22r\3 
D2r)2 

]2r)2 



'2V^t 
UyDp 



^22r)2 ^2Vf2^ 
I" : T |"T : 

The sufl&xes to the other verbal 

pers. in the same way. 



a in the last syllable, }riT- 1- ^n:in;j'»; 2. "^f^H^V 

3. DD;inr, yM]: 2. '^vjyp]; 3. DD^,^*i*>-' 

in the last syllable, 21^2] '• i-VniriD^ ; '2.T[iriD> 



* So also to all persons ending in the 3rd radical: ni^Dr), 

2r\2^, 2r\2y 

t So also to ?);^riDD 2 plur. m. and 3 a. 2 plur. f., and to 
'2F\2r\ 2 sing. f. 

■'■ To the f. sing, and to the plur, like to the Imperf. 



CH. 12.] Suffixesof the Verb. 197 

^nro^; 3. DDnro> rhp/. 2. '^rht\; 3.(551) 

W2'rhjD'^-—i or w in the last syllable, 2^ri3\ Hiph. : 

^'\r\yr}yj 2. y[2>roi; 3, DDn'^rai' Withgutt. 



Exercise 48. 

«) :^a?::;3 nna tdhh nH3 ^-^ons D^"t^^^ '•J^n 1 552 

|TT : J" : ' v-:|- ,i '...•.•: - : j. v; -j-t 

^l^^3"''jD 3 : •'jnn^ ^{iN^nqT >:i^_D >:p:23 nhnrr 2 

/iDj^"]^ ^ = ''^^ '':iJii:Dn^ ^^ID^rn^' '^rbb'sn rii^:i-'}n 5 
"j^^^m 7 : •'^rniJi n^Drr Djipn^' jiin'^n riirsn 

^^^^o^D "^t^^d -ij-^dh 9 : ivyi rti^^^v nii'^i^ nn^'z^i 

AT T -; I ■• ' :t\ j.. j - T I • • > T -; t ; •• t at : • : 

nn*) D^rt':'^i ^}'i^";3 linio 2^ 10 : nn;p 'riyir^pi 

' : :'t - ;: 'a-'t : • •!" • : t - i- :'• ; )"- ' t 

r\2n:i mii ^vt'' t^'v -h nn'-t^n 12 :'>^;3d npr^-^K 
T^?^ D^^^^5m ^^:)-)"i D^pti^s 7ni±>^. 13 :''jDDDn 

• ;v •• • T - ; ' Av T : J- : 1 JT : — ; . |.. . . . 

>"- : A*T I : >•• v: • v; • t • •<•• • - l r 

4TT V*: VAT ••-;:- '•.,;•.• : 'I'.-'r:- • ; 

msQ ]in:iT inn n^t^r^ JiiDsnri ^^j< le :n-)"i2:)> 

r : - T : • : ' AT a — : ••.:-! r t|v ; - ; 

"k"? ^"113 ii^'^im in;r-i nj^s)^ ddh I:^^^* 17 : c)^'?^^ 

viv : • I : A" •• jv - : T TV a* ' i - 

— I ... ._ _ •• 1 •• -V- ..• • JT '• ■ 



198 Suffixes of the Verh. [ch. 12. 

: 'i^v^b ivtrs ''^'ib^ D^oDH nn"! ;i?!::i:^^ ^Jr^^ ron 20 

i"T : - T : - ; • 'av; • : j" : : • i* • tv i- 
TIT '- - ' r : - I 'a-.-: • T -V j:i • 

•?[;;nin^' 24 : /ii^n iii:jyb:a u\tbt ^"7 ^r^anD ^^^ll 23 
•• TnVirry jiaji Dn^j^ 2:^trh nD^* n;:D^^ iDi:^p 



5) Translate into Hebrew- 



Thou hast put him (1, 1, v). 

Thou (/.) hast deceived me. 

She instructed him. 

She inchned (1, 5, n, h) him. 

Thou hast despised me. 

Thou (/.) hast given him. 

They have forsaken me. 

I have cursed her. 

Give him. 

Take him. 

He will pursue him. 

They shall find her. 

They shall call-upon me. 

To despise them. 



When he fled (Say : in his- 

flying). 
When thou buildest (Say : in 

thy building). 
When he prepared (Say: in 

his preparing). 
To deceive me. 
When he was cu'cumcised 

(Say : in his being circum.' 

cised). 
They that do (p.) this. 
His slain. 
They that call-upon him. 



DIFFERENCES OF IDIOM, &c. 



(Literally, in Hebrew) 

1 . a) This boy. The boy the this. \ ^ 
b) The good boy. The boy the good./ '^• 

2. a) The boy is small. The boy'^e small. \ i ig 

The boys are small. The boys they small./ 

In other instances also the copula {'is,' 'are') is omitted. 
There the sun = there is the sun. 

3. a) He that falls. | All these English forms may be 

He that has fallen. , translated by one participle, 

He that will fall. J nophel, 138. 

b) He who teaches. The teaching [person] ; as 6 

h^daKiov in Greek. 

c) The partcp. is often used as a predicate * to denote 
(usually) the Present Tense. 

4. a) Sweeter than honey. Sweet above {from, in com- 

parison of [= prse]) honey 
(P). 

b) The tallest of the people. The-tall ["one] from the people 

{]t2, t2, D; sometimes 2), 

196. 

c) Very good. tohh m'od (Tto 2i[D). 

5. Dative Relations.] Usually 7, sometimes 7X, prefixed 

to, and cohering with, the noun. 



* Usually the^re^en^ tense of a verb. Jehovah (°is) knowing 
= Jehovah knows. 



200 Differences of Idiom^ S^c. 

6. Ace. usually pit^ or "JIJ^, 175 a. 
The Ace. may denote — 

u) The place to which, ace. 
without preposition ; some- 
times 7X prefixed. 

b) The place at which may be 
in ace. without a prepo- 
sition, 175, c. 

c) The person to whom motion 
is directed, is usually ex- 
pressed by 7J^ prefixed, 
175, e. 

7. (Ace. continued). The Ace. may also denote — 

o) The time ivhen. ■ 

b) The time hoiv long. 

c) Relations oi space (fiow wide, 
deep, &c.). 

d) The relations denoted in 
English by as to, in respect 
of, according to ; in. 

8. Ablative Relations.] 

«) ]D> f^om (176); also = some of. 
b) Often ^ = in, at, with. 

9. Genitive Relations.] 

a) Usually expressed by placing the preceding (i. e. the 
governing) noun in the construct state. 

b) Sometimes by 7, cf. 177. 

c) Gen. of possession : 

Her father's flock. The flock which to-her-father 

[i.e. was or is']. {* To' to 
be expressed by 7), 178, 

10. Numerals.] 
Seve^i sons, cf. 207. 

11. Relative.] 

a) Whose. Who — to him 1 ^ p. 

Who— to her J ''^'^• 

b) AU that I have. All which to me. 

[^" HTj like our ' that,' is sometimes used as a relative. 

12. Where. Which— there. 1 
Whence. Which — thence. ) 



Differences of Idiom, S^c. 201 

13. a) From when, from where, as in Eng^lish. 

b) He has fallen into the pit he made (= which he made) : as 

in English. 

c) At the time he did it : as in English. 

14. The orphan and one who The orphan and there is no 

has no helper. helper to him, 256. 

15. ]^J<^ (257, end) =, virtually, the copula (in any tense) with a 

negative. 
Joseph was not in the pit. en-Y6seph babbdr. 

16. t^i =, virtually, the copula, in any tense. 
It is in my power. yesh-Ve\ yadi. 

17. Many verbs are in Hebrew followed by an accusative, where 

we must use a preposition. 

18. Many verbs are in Hebrew followed (always or sometimes) by 

a preposition, where we should use the ace. only in Enghsh. 
To seek wisdom. bikkesh I' . . . [as we may say 

' to seek after ' a thing]. 
To rebuke a man. gai^ar 6' . . . [to find fault with 

a man]. 

19. The infin. absolute is used — 

1) as an intensive, 

lliou shalt surely die. To die thou shalt die. 

2) Sometimes after a finite verb it carries on the discourse 

just as if it were a verb of the same tense. 
Thou shalt weep and Thou shalt weep and to-mourn. 
mourn. 

20i. Meanings of the Perfect : 

The Perfect denotes, A (used absolutely) 

a) Past time, (1) as perfect, (2) as 
pluperfect. 

6) The pre.sent, (1) as a condition or 
attribute already long continued 
and still existing (just like odi, 
novi, memini, in Lat.) : e. g. yadai?ti, 
I know : saneti, 1 hate. (2) A per- 
manent or habitual action : Happy 
the man who walks, &c, (halach). 

c) The future, in protestations and as- 
surances ; the event being contem- 
plated as done (e. g. I give thee the 
field, &c.). 

K O 



202 Differences of Idiom, <^c. 

B (used relatively) 

d) = imperfect subj. (e. g. we should 
have been or should be [essemiis'\ as 
Sodom). 

e) =pluperf. subj. (e. g. if he had not 
left, &c.). 

/) =zfuturum exactum, just as with us 
'when he has washed away j' for 
'when he shall have washed away.' 

C (with Vav conv.) 

g) z=z future (aft. future, i. e. imperf.). 

K) =Lpres. subj. (aft. imperf. in this 
sense), lest he should put forth his 
hand, and take, &c. 

i) =imperat. (aft. imperf.). 

k) = for past or present time, as pre- 
ceding perf. or imperf. requires. 

21. Meanings of the Imperfect : 
The Imperfect denotes, A (used absolutely) 

a) The future. 

b) The present (especially oi permanent 
states and general truths). 

B (used relatively) 

c) as subjunct. after particles meaning 
that, that not, lest. 

d) as optative. 

e) as imperative, the place of which it 
always supplies in prohibitions. 

/) as potential : = may, might ; can, 
could. 

g) after az, then ; te'rera, not yet ; 
b'te'rem, before. 

h) it may denote customary and con- 
tinued action, and (like Lat. and 
French imperf.) of extended repre- 
sentation. 

i) it sometimes denotes single actions, 
done and past, where the perfect 
might be expected. This applies to 
poetry ; the use resembles that of 
our present tense as employed in 
lively descriptions. 



HEBREW AND ENGLISH 
INDEX. 



^hi irreg. father. [App. B.] 
"TZ1^} fo stray, wander, be lost. — 

- T 

to perish {) and |p of the per- 
son). Piel, to cause to stray, to 
disperse. — to cause to perish, to 
destroy. 
n^J^ to be willing, inclined, de- 

T T 

sirous (followed by infin. with 

or without "?). 
''i3^^ poverty, misery. 
^2,t^ to mourn {)^ over). Hiph. to 

cause to mourn. Hithp. = Kal. 
]2i^ c. (mostly f.), a stone. 
Dl'^^, Qilt^ adj. pi. D^rsiw (8, c) 

T T " '■■'' 

red. 
fni^ (3, a) master, lord. PI. ^>^^^ 

lords ; ynstn ':i« lord of the land. 
TJi^ Niph. to become glorious. 

- T 

n^'^N adj. (l,b) great, mighty. — 

noble, excellent. 
JT]-7Nt f. with suff. imi« (13, a) 

cloak, mantle. 
2r\ii to love. Piel, partcp., a lover. 



n^TMi f. infin. of the verb ms^ : 

e. g. nin; D\p-nN ninsi'p to love 

the name of the Lord. — subst. 

love, beloved. — adv. delightfully. 

"l^J^ (1, a) straitness, calamity, 

destruction. 
r\Mk Root not used. Arab. *" 

T T 

howl. 

'^Si^ wailing, interj. wo .' alas ! ho. 
(of threatening). 

/''^^i (l> a) a fool =. a wicked per- 
son. 

j^^W f. sing. (13, a) folly; 
sin, from obsol. b-^a- 

y\^ (6, h) nothingness, falsehood, 

vanity. — wickedness, iniquity. — 
adversity, calamity. 
^Tiii (2, b) pi. nmiN, treasure. 

Jli^ irreg. brother. [App. B.] 

T 

int^ to stay, tarry. 

~ T 

inti prep, behind, after (with 

suff. nntjj, npnnx. &c ), prep, of 
place, after, behind. — of time, 
after, after that. 
1 hi^ (3, a) the hinder part j as 

adv. backwards. 



204 Hebrew and English Index. 

2^^^ to hate, to he an enemy ; ' jyo^ f- (for r\im) with sufP. inpM 



partcp. ri« as subst. (7, b) ad- 
versary, enemy ; f. nri^<. 

n'b^i^ strength. 

]"'^J (5, i) nothingness.— d^s an adv. 

710^ including the idea of the 
subst. verb to be (cf. t') ; ir\^ j't^ 
there is no man, "inis i\::« there 
tvas none interpreting. If a per- 
sonal pronoun is the subject of 



firmness, stability .—faithfulnesSy 
fidelity. — truth, as opposed to 
falsehood. 
^'^i^ imperf. -in«% -io«'"i to say, 

— T 

declare, mostly followed by the 
words spoken, constr. with ^n, ) 
before the person to or of whom 
any thing is said ; rarely with 
an ace. 
^;^J^ (6, b) word, discourse. 

the proposition, the particle j j-^p^j-^j^^ f^ (13, a) a sack or bag. 

takes the verbal sufl&xes, ^3r« I "~tV~i j. j,a i. -. 

T / J. 77 «/ A« I n3^^ Kal not used (Arab, to meet; 

I am, or was not, shall not be, ' ';l*^ '^ 



Tjr^j!, i2yt«>, n2r«, &c. When fol- 
lowed by the dative, ") yii there 
is not to me, i. e. / have not, 
□nb ]'« they have not. 
t^i:^^ (1, a) man, Lat. vir.-hus- '' =1^^ ^^ breathe through the nose 



to be in good time). Piel, to 
cause to come, or happen. Pual, 
to befall. 
n'2^ f. (10) a ship. 



band. — man, opp. God, animals 



rt ; to be angry (with a). 



{homo). Before other nouns ' p^^ to groan. Niph. to moan, 
denotes the qualities of men ; "/^^^^^^ 

nm -^^'x a faithful man.-any ^ f.' constr. np:« « groaning, 

one, each. 



?|^^J^ intimate friend J leader. 
D'^i^ f- (13, b) woman; female. 

—wife. 
^J^ ow/y, — 07ily, buf.^ust now. — 

surely, certainly. 
^2i^ to eat. 

■TJD'7^^ f. (11» b) a wirfouj. 
T T : — 

0^ f. (8, b) mother. 

HBi^ (f- 10) the fore-arm, cubitus, 

T — 

prop. ?//e mother of the arm. — a 
cubit ; n^sta !?3"i!>> four by the cu- 
bit, i. e. fom* cubits. 
r\12t^ f- irreg. a maid-servant. 

UPP. B.] 



lamentation. 
\^iJi^ (see ^"i;?) man. — the common 

people. PI. D'vp^i;*, constr. •'^7><, 
with sufP. 'ttJD.S!, men ; commonly 
used for c^i^x the plural of \d'M. 

^l^^i f' h-r. pi. D'92 woman, fe- 
male. — wife. [App. B.] 

C^DJ^ to collect, I0 gather. 

IDJ^ to bind. — to put in bonds; 

— T 

partcp. irst prisoner. 
TD?^ (3, a) captive, prisoner 

C]j^ (for r|:s! = r:«) with suff. 'E« 
(8, d) nose. — anger. Dual o'S^, 
the nostrils. — meton. face, cotm- 
tenance. 



Hebrew and E% 

n3i^ to hake. 

T T 

mj^ to go, to be on the way. 
^']^^ c. (6, c) pi. ninn« cnstr. and 

with suff. nim.N! ^vay, road, path. 

— manner, mode. 
^"^^^ (6, c) length, of time and 

space. 
yiN^ f. rarely m. (6, a) with the 

art. y-\sin> e«r^A, Zaw«(. 



Index. 



205 



T)^} ^0 cwrse, execrate. Piel, fo 

Dti^hJ ^0 6e or become guilty, to 

transgress. Hiph. to bring the 
consequences of sin upon any 
one. 
D^^^ (4, c) guilt. 

T T 

'\tli^ to go straight on. 

~ T 

^11)^ happiness, blessedness ; only 

in pi. cnstr. in the character of 
an interj. -ij^j^rr nu:{«? the hap- 
piness of the man ! = blessed is 
the man. With sujff. T|n-iJ« happy 
art thou ! v^t'^, inTiJw for ?pn\ijw, 



&c. 



n. 



"1^33 with suff. >ij2 (6, a), but in 
pause -ua a cwering. — cloak, 
garment. 

bn2 Niph. to be troubled^ terri- 
fied. Piel, to terrify, confound. 
— to cause to hurry. Hiph. i. q. 
Piel, 

/TinB f • a shining, whitish scurf, 

sinking in the skin and having 
white hair. 



1^121 to enter, come or go in (with 

2, \vi, ), also ace). 
tT3, to despise, contemn. 
tifi3 to be ashamed. 
UH to take as a prey, to spoil, 

plunder. 
]n3. to try, prove, test. 
in 2 to prove.— to choose (with 

ace. 2, I?). 
(IlO^ to babble; part, rtm an idle 

talker. 
npB prop, to cling to, to rely 

upon, trust, confide in (^ii, Vr). 
r\lD3. trust, confidence, security. 
r^' pB to distinguish, discern. — 

to understand. 
]^3, (6, h) interval.— prep, between. 

yi, yy\—yi, y2b—yi between— 
and; sometimes also whither — 
or. 

y3, prep. prop, cnstr. of |>a (6, h). 

r\T2, f- (10) understanding, dis- 
cernment. 

"liD2 (1> a) the first-born. 

73, adv. not. — nothing. 

^72 It-ant ; only as adv. not, with- 
out. 

]3. a son. See irr. nouns, App. B. 

nJ3 to build. 

7^2 lord, possessor, owner. — hus- 
band. 

1^3 to consume, burn up. — in- 
trans. to bum. 

y)i3. to break.— to plunder. 



206 

^~;t I plunder, unjust gain. — gain, 
r^2J profit. 

1p3, (^) a) coll. oxen, herd. 

IpZl pl- nnp^i ^^^ daivn, morning. 

]Dp3, Piel, ^0 seek; with ace, /o 

seeA; after, with ■?; nin*-n« tr'^ra 
to seek the Lord. 
"13, corn (separated from the 

T 

chaff) ; nil to separate. 
J^"13, to create, form, make. 

T T 

13, with suff. na « son. 

(113 to flee; absol. or with S "j^ 

{whither), -p, nh^n, '2sp (/rom 
whom), ">nn« (o/ter whom). 

jn"*13 f. sing. (l,a) a covenant. 

'!J13 to bend the knee, to kneel. 

Niph. to be blessed. Piel, to 
praise, bless God. Hithp. to be 
blessed (a in, through). 

^13 f- (6, a), dual D^aia. knee. 

nD")3 once nain f. (Hj c) a 6/e55- 

ing. 

13 (ma f-) chosen, beloved. — pure, 



clear ; also pure morally. 
J1V3, (13, c) terrour, confusion 



Hebrew and English Index. 

7^32) bound, limit, border. — ter- 
ritory. 
1311 to be or become strong. 

~ T 

inn (6j a) maw = vir. — husband. 

— warrior. 
"Ii2i), "12^ (I, b) adj. s/row^r. 
nn3:i f- (lO) strength. 
:/(S,'a) roo/. 
nn (6, i) a Hrf. 
7l]l /o 6e or become great, to grow. 

— to be great, exalted. 
IIJ to wall, fence up. 

-T 

rrnil f- heaUng, cure. 

^ii) goi, « {Gentile) nation; the Gen- 
tiles. 

Ijl (1, a) sojourner, stranger, fo- 
reigner. 

I^i) (1, a) fl wAe/p. 

b^^^ (2, b) pl. 6th, lot. 

T 

tTil ^0 sAear, to cut off. 

1121 to cut off or down. — to cut in 

-T 

two parts, divide. 
IT!) (6, a) piece, part. 

77^1 to roll. — to roll, rush in (^y 

~ T 

upon). Hiph. Van to roll away. 



mostly followed by pdnim (of 
face). 



"PJ^!! to redeem, ransom, recover. 
33 (8, d) pl. u'li, ni, a back. 
'733 ^0 bound, limit. 



□!l conj. a/50; c2 — C3 both — and; 
|- 

t^'n 03 N'n she also herself. — yea, 
truly ; >3-oa although. — yet, 
nevertheless. 

7Qi) to retribute, to recompense, 

— T 

good or evil, with ace, Sr? 'i- — 
to ripen, to become ripe. — to 



Hebrew and English Index, 



bt2^ c. (8), pi. D>^oa, camel 

b^t2i\ (1, a) recompense. — good 
deed, benefit. 

TwMZ^ f. (10) retribution, recom- 
pense ; benefit. 

^!lil to steal. 

32^3 (I, b) a thief. 

pil prop, to cover ; hence to pro- 
tect. 

]ii (8, d) garden. 

"l^'il to rebuke, with a- 

~ r 

nil Niph. #0 6e cut off. 

-T 

D")j), D")^ (6, a), bone. 

]2}1^ to cast out or up. Niph. 

-T 

to be cast out. — to be agitated, 
tossed. 

Dl£^il Hiph. to cause to rain. 

— T 

DV^ (6, a), pi. c. ■•o'ca. rain, heavy 
shower. 



T)21 to cleave, adhere. Pual, to 

cleave together. Hiph. to make 
adhere. Hoph. partcp. pnp (is) 
cleaving. 
"121 to speak j to range in order. 

- T 

Piel, to speak. Pual, to be 
spoken. Niph. to speak together. 
Hiph. to subdue. Hithp. to speak 
with. 

121 (4, a) word, speech, command. 

T T 

— affair. 
]l}21 (6,b) honey. 



207 

meton. 



pi (4, a) corn, grain 
bread. 

:)]n wax. 

1^1, 11 (I5 a) revolution. — age, 

generation, 
rhi f- a door. 

T?1 to hang down. — to be weak. 
7l adj. low, weak, poor. 
D1 (for cm) 2, a. blood. — blood- 

shed, blood-guiltiness J in pi. 

COT T3?j 'Oj'x bloody man, city. 
i2f21 to be silent. 
D^l f. (13, a) knowledge, 
pi, f. npi adj. small, thin. 
npl ^0 thrust through, to pierce. 

'-T 

TJ"T1 ^0 tread (on), with the ace. ; 

with "j^ : metaph. to tread down 
enemies. 
T|"T7 c. (6, a), suff. ^p-ii (Dual, 

^"T^ to seek, to inquire (especially 

— T 

o/an oracle, the Lord). — to ask 
for, require : q^ ^i^ to require 
the blood (of any one). 
I'tDl to grow fat. Piel, to make 

fat. — to anoint. — to regard as 
fat (an offering = accept it}. 
Pual, to be made fat, be abun- 
dantly satisfied. 

n. 

S]in to push, cast away. 

TV\r\ f. (10) desire, hst.— wicked- 



208 



Hebrew and English Index, 



XVr\ to he, to exist, -^rv imperf. Kal 

T T ' ' 

3 pers. m. s. (he, it) shall be : 
with Vav convers. (he, it) was. 
Often = Kal lyevero, and it was 
so (that, &c.). 

byn (2, h) a large splendid build- 
ing, a palace. — the temple. 

'rr'^n to go, walk. Hithp. "nVnrin 
to go, walk about. 

S'^n to shine. Piel (to make to 

~ T 

shine =) to praise, and intrans. 

to boast. Hithp. to be praised. 

— to boast oneself. 
]n, "in behold J lo !— whether (in 

indirect questions).—?/. 
T\^r\, T^^'n behold ! lo I with sufiP. 

V3ri, "iix), '2:n. 
"^Dn (1 pers. ^irrri^i!) to turn, turn 

over. — to overthrow, ruin. 
^pn to go around, to surround. 

Hiph. of r]r3. 
in pi. nnn (8) mountain. 
jnn to kill, slay. 

- T 

Din (related to Ip-rjiiOQ) to break, 

pull down, destroy (both in Kal 
and Piel). 



V 

JHi^T pron. demon, f. sing., see m. 
nt f. n«i, rarely ni, pron. demon. 

this. After the subst. it usually 
has the article; when put be- 
fore it without an article, it is 
usually the predicate, -ii^n r\) 
this Us) the thing j nj— ht this — 
that, the one— the other : Vx m 



rn one to the other. With em- 
phasis, this same, very. 

TJDT to be clean. 

T[T (n2] f.) adj. clean, pure. 

n2Dt to remember, recollect, call to 
mind. 

IDT, IDT (S> c), memory. — me- 
morial. 

77T prop. = 7:11 to pour out, whence 

partcp. ^^y\ squanderer, prodigal. 
nDT f- (10) device. — wickedness. 

T • 

IDT ^0 CM^. Piel (prop, to divide ; 

— T 

hence) to sing hymns, praises, 
with b or ace. of the person ; 
2 of the instrument. 
pT (5, a) adj. old; □^;pt elders. 

ynt ^0 spread, to scatter. — to sow; 

~T 

s-xi ^-\\ yielding seed. — to plant. 
yiT (6, a) seed. — prop, and fig. 

= issue, progeny. 



n. 

7lin to twist, to bind. 

^3n (6) cord, rope. 

b2.T\ to act corruptly. Niph. to 

- T 

be destroyed, to perish. 
Un to bind about, to gird. 

- T 

in adj. (f. rnrO sharp, 
bin (pl. iVin) to cease. 
inn (6) cnstr. iin, mth suff. 

iiin, ph c. mrr, chamber. 
Vin Piel, to make new, to renew ; 

Hithp. to be renewed. 



Hebrew and English Index. 

^"in (6, c) new moon.— month. 
Sin> ^TT to twist; to dance. 

Hiph. to shake. 
HD'in f. (10) a wall, 
yn (6, h), pi. c^Vn strength.— 

wealth. — virtue. 
i^tOn ^0 mm. — to stumble, fall. 

T T 

— to miss, opp. to j<:j?3 /o ^«c?. 

— ?o sin (2, ^, "jy).—^© forfeit, 

with ace. 
NZOn with sufiF. Sa-zri, pi. c. 'st'^n 

failure, sin. 
N^n (1. b) sinner. 

T - 

DJ^iZOn f. cnstr. nsm sin.— sin- 

T — 

offering. 
D>;n pl. life- 
DDH <o 6e or become wise. 
DDn (4, c) TO5n f. (11, c), pl. 

T T TT-: 

D^rpDn, adj. wise. 

r\i2^ri f. cnstr. nasrr, wisdom. 
T : T ~ '■ "^ 

n^n to be weak. — to be sick. 

T T 

yyn to be wounded. Piel, to 

~ T 

wound. — to profane. Hiph. "jj-rrr 

<o /oose. — /o profane. — begin. — 

begin to be. Hoph. to be begun. 

□711 io be fat, stout, strong. — to 

— T 

dream. 
Ubu pl. ni, a dream. 
C|Sn to pass by, to transgress. 

Piel, to change (as a garment). 
Hiph. to change, 
vhn to draw out. Niph. to be 

delivered. Piel, to draw out. — 
to deliver. — to strip, spoil. 



209 

rh'n to divide. 

pbn (6) part, portion, lot of land. 

□n (8, a) adj. warm, hot. 

IDH to desire, to covet. 

HOT f. (11, b) for rrorr (err) 

warmth, rage: cnstr. kh*math. 
7^12^] f. (10) heat, glow. — the sun. 
/Qrr to pity (hv). — to spare (with 

J). 
DDn to be warm. 
]n (8, b) grace, favour. — grace, 

elegance, leauty. 
"TJjn to instruct, to train up. — to 

consecrate (a house, temple, &c.). 
D^n gratis, freely, for nothing. — 

T • 

in vain. — for nothing, unde- 
servedly. 

pn to be gracious, merciful, com- 
passionate. Niph. to be pitiable. 
Piel, to make gracious. Hoph. 
to be favoured. Hithp. to im- 
plore favour, mercy. 

5]jrT to be or become profaned, 

polluted, or defiled. — to be pro- 
fane, ungodly. 

5)^n (5, c) profane, ungodly. 

"TDPT Kal not used ; in the deri- 

- T 

vatives it denotes kindness and 
benignity. 

IDn with suJBF. »T;:n (6, a) kind- 



ness, mercy. 
T'DH (3, a) kind, benevolent, gra- 

• T 

cious, merciful. — pious, holy. 



2 1 Hebrew and English Index. 

ilDn to fiee for shelter ; hence, /o | ii?"in (6, a) (pi. c. 'tonn), sherd. 



trust in {■£). 
non to want, lack, he without. 
ion adj. wanting. ib'-iDn lacking 

understanding, — subst. want, 
lack. 
D''^3n dual (8, c) the hollow hands, 

— ; T 

the fists. 
Y|in (6), with suff. ^^jcrij delight, 

pleasure. 
1911 ^0 6^MS^, 6e ashamed, con- 

founded. Hiph. to put to shame. 
— intrans. to be ashamed. 
ii^Sn to search out, explore, in- 

" T 

vestigate. 
Ii^3n Kal not used. Pual, to be 

- T 

set free, be freed. 
"i:»n c. (5, c), pi. □' , rh, en- 

•• T 

closure, court. — village. 
"l^^kH grass. 

• T 

r^r^n (lO) statute. 
'^DTl to search. 

'-T 

yin, 3in ^o 6e dry. — to be de- 

- T •• T 

snlate, waste. 
3nn adj. f. rM-p dry. — desolate. 

2"in f. (6, a) sword. 

^nn desolation. 

Q"in Hiph. cnnn ^o rfeyo^e ?o 

- T • •■■: v 

destruction. — to devote to God, 
to consecrate. 
y!)in (3, a) ditch, trench. — what 

is decided, decision, judgment. — 
gold. 
ynn (l, b) diUgent. Prof. Lee, 

sharpened, instructed, prudent. 



potsherd. 
ti^nn to plough, till. — to engrave. 

— to form, fabricate. — Metaph. 
to devise, machinate evil. 
i^t^n to think, purpose, intend 

(usually in a bad sense, to in- 
vent, devise). Niph. to be com- 
puted, reckoned, counted. Piel, 
to compute, reckon. — to think, 
purpose; to devise. Hithp. to 
reckon oneself. 

T['tt^n to hold back. — to withhold. 

TJIi^n to be or become obscure, 
dark. 

"Tj'^il adj., pi. D-Sttjn, obscure, 
mean. 

]jnn (4, c) bridegroom, —son-in- 

T T 

law. 
DSITI to be broken. — to be dis- 

" T 

mayed, confounded. 



10. 



n21^ to slaughter, especially ani- 
mals, but also men ; to slay. 
n2tp (6, a), with suff. nmip, 

slaughter. — animals slaughtered, 

meat. 
lilcO to be or become clean. 
^DIO to hide, conceal, especially in 

the earth. — to hide, reserve. 
D^^lO to taste. — met. to perceive, 

~ T 

discriminate. 
5]1J0 to tear in pieces, to rend. 



Hebrew and English Index. 



211 



"lj^% "liS^ (1, a) river, the Nile; 

pi. anj^> streams. 
^3.^ to be or become dry, to dry 

" T 

up. Hiph. to dry up. 
t:;nM5,a),adj. r^^yi. {10), dry. 
'V c. (2, a) hand. With prepo- 

T 

sitions ; Ti with, by ; T3 accord- 
ing to the means of: tq from, 
out of; T2, T h^, T^, T bv, T at, 
on, by the side of: t by, 'T "j^ 
Mwrfer the care or guidance of 
any one. 

j^"!"* inf. c. TOij ^0 A;noM\ — &e ac- 

-T " " 

quainted with. Hiph. to make 
known, show, inform, teach. 

>n^ see rrn. 

UV with suff. '•Qi> (I, a), pi. o'P', 

a day. 
mV f. (10), pi. D'pv, f^oye. 
Tn^ (3, a), nTn> f. (10), onZy, 

only begotten. — solitary one: 
only one (in> to be [as] one). 

70"* Kal not used, to wait. — to 

~ T 

cause to wait, hope. Hiph. to 
wait. 

^ZO** (only in the imperf. ip'>) to 
be good, well: p to be better, 
Hiph. n>:p>n to make good, to do 
well. 

]i> wine. 

b^"^ f. nb3>, 1 pers. »nbb^ to be able. 
"T^> to bear, bring forth. — to be- 
get. — Pual, to be born. Hiph. 



to cause to bring forth. — to be- 
get. Hoph. to be born. 
7^ (6, a) lad, youth, child. 

nib^ f. (12, a) a girl. 
□'' a sea. 

n'D\ ^g\ ''m see Dv. 

rD'' (3, a) the right : i:>)o> t the 

hand of his right side, i. e. his 

right hand: also -p omitted, the 

right hand (f.). 
p^*i to suck. Hiph. ^^z;*r} to give 

suck, to suckle. 
TD^ to found. 

~ T 

P]D^ to add. — to add to do, to do 
again (c. inf. with or without "•?). 

nS)'' (9, b), HD' f. (1 1, a), adj./air, 
beautiful. — ^ooc?, excellent. 

tg^ "tg^ (6, k) beauty. 
. . . f. 

i^^** imperat. «:?, inf. c. pN^ (2, d), 

T T 

to go out, go forth. 
22i> Kal not used = i^: to set, 

put, place. Hithp. ns^nn to set 

or place oneself, "jy, >2sb ; ^o 

5^ara(i, /o stand before, 
nii^ to form. 

— T 

5)p^ see pji^n. 

Yp> to awake. 

"ip^ (4, a), mp> f. (11, c), adj. 

'tt '^ ■" 

precious, 
^^")> to fear, to be afraid (■? to fear, 

"T 

be anxious for). Niph. j^-iij fo 
be feared. 
Ji^")> (5, a) constr. «t; hxt t. 



212 Hebrew and English Index, 



(11, c) constr. my, fearing, re- 
verencing. 
T'T' to go or come down, descend 

Hiph. Tiin fo cause to go down: 
to send, bring, carry down. 
m^ (5, a) the moon. 

- "T 

li^")^ to take, seize upon. Niph. to 

become poor. 
3^'' inf. c. raT> imperat. i^, ni-iv 

to sit, sit down. — to dwell, dweU 
in, inhabit. Partcp. niin' «"'*- 
habitant. 
T\]JJ> Root not used, to subsist, to 

T T 

befirm. 
^^> to deliver, save. 

~ T 

Tii^^ to be straight, even, right. — 

— T 

Piel, to make straight. — to direct. 
— to esteem right, approve. 

nii^'' (4), HTO^ f. adj. straight. 

T T ^^ ' 

n^^ (7, c) uprightness, rectitude; 
^1r^Ip more than is right. 

3b}3 ^0 be pained, be in pain. 

''"l^^^ said to be a partcp. of Kal, 

from -|Ti3 formed in the Chaldee 
manner (as cp? partcp. c^p) =z 
piercing, digging through (sc. 
they are). Another reading is 
^iS3 (3 pi. perf. Kal). 

nDi3 (2, b), forn3n2, */ffr. 

"TI13, 123 to be heavy.— to be 

— T •• T 

weighty, honoured, respected, 
mighty. Nii)h. to be {become, 
show oneself )honoured,renowned. 



Pilel, »:i3 to 



Piel, fo honour. — to make ob- 
durate, to harden. Hiph. to make 
heavy, grievous. — to honour, make 
honourable. Hithp. to show one- 
self honourable, boast oneself. 

123 (5, a & b) adj. heavy. — nu- 
merous. 
"TiDD (3, a) honour, glory. 
D23 to wash; only partcp. cnis 

washer, fuller. Piel, to wash 
(clothes) ; metaph. to cleanse. 
Pual, to be washed. 

■^3 (6, a) lamb. 

]rT3 Kal not used. Piel, ^ro to 

prepare, adjust, adorn. — to mi- 
nister, act, or officiate as a priest. 

^nb (7, b), pi. c>:rt3, priest. 
]^3 Kal not used, 
set up, establish. 
3TD to lie, speak falsehood. Piel, 

to lie, deceive. Hiph. io convict 
of falsehood. Niph. fo 6e proved 
false. 
UTS (4, a) lie, falsehood. 

T T 

ni3, nb (1, a) strength. 

"3 ^/ia^; for, because; but. — c« '3 

that if, that since, for if, but if; 
unless, except, if not ; but; yet, 
nevertheless; that. 
ZlJpD (6, a), pi. c. ^nj3, dog. 

773 to complete. 

— T 

2^3 Hiph. c'brr, c>^3n, to put to 

shame, make ashamed. — to in- 
jure, hurt. Niph. to be put to 
shame; ol&o to feel ashamed 
]3 ^^]' upright ; adv. rightly, also 
thus. 



Hebrew and English Index. 



213 



D33 to collect, gather. 

~ T 

"li-13 (1, b), pi. D'^, ni, ^«rP or 

lyre. 
nD3 i^ cover, conceal. 
^03 (1, a) fool. 
^D3 (6, a) with sufP. >Bp3, sifeer. 
Dy3 (6, d), with suff. inr?, iDV3, 

vexation. — anger. 
P)3 f. (8, d) <Ae hollow, palm of 

the hand, hand; dual d^e3, P^. 
niE3. — pan, spoon, dish; hollow. 
— handle of a bolt. 
"^33 to cover, overlay. — to cover 

over, to forgive, pardon. — to ex- 
piate. — to appease. 

/T}3 perf. 1 & 2 pers. >n-Q^ rnp, 

to cut, cut off, cut down. Niph. 
to be cut off or down. — to be di- 
vided. — to be destroyed. 

21D^ (6, a) lamb. 

7^3 to totter, stagger, stumble. 

~ T 

Niph. to stumble. Piel, to cause 
to fall. Hiph. to cause to totter, 
to make feeble. — to cause to 
stumble and fall. Hoph. to be 
made to stumble. 

Iin3 io write, engrave. 

— T 

r\;^'n^, n:r\^ (13, c), pi. ni^ro, 

an under garment, shirt. 
5)jn3 f. (5, b), pi. niDna, constr. 

niDH^j si^. vDTis, shoulder. 
DD^ lo beat. — to beat, break in 

— T 

pieces. — to beat down, rout. 



b. 



an'p, zb (4, d & 8, b), pi. Dm7, 

niaiS the heart. 
■725? separately, alone; ^ii^^ Sj-ji^, 

'v[f), &c. /, thou, he alone. — by 

myself, by thyself, ^c. 
Vyy (4, a) adj. white. 

't t 

n]37 f- tlie moon. 

ti^27 to put on a garment, to be 

- T 

clothed. 
I^^2'?j Ii^27 outer garment, cloak, 
7Vt) f. garland, crown. 
on? ^0 ea^, consume. 

— X 

on? c. (6, a), with suff. 'pnS/ooo?, 

»iea^. — bread. 
137 ^0 /aA;e, catch. — to take, 

~ T 

choose, by lot. Niph. to be 
taken, caught. Hithp. to take 
or catch hold on each other, to 
hang together. 

1u7 to learn. Piel, to accustom, 

~ T 

to teach. Pual, to be accustomed, 
trained, taught. 
nu7 why ? adv. interr., from the 

T T 

perf. ) and nn or no q. v. 
y^b to mock, deride, scorn. Niph. 

to stammer. Hiph. to mock, 
deride. 

^37 according to. "> with stat. 

cnstr. pi of peh, mouth (irreg.). 
np7 to take.— to take away. 
r\[h (6), with suff. in;:'?, taking 

speech. — instruction. 



214 

l^pp a gleaning, 
pp'^ to lick, lap. 

]Wb c. (3, a) tongue J nis^snn ) 
perverse, deceitful tongue. 

ID. 
I'i^D Cl>a) strength; generally as 

an adv. greatly, very. 
nij^D (6, a) pi. nnj^n, ninV^n %^^' 

T 

luminary. 
Jl^DhJrj f. pi. nibara « knife, both 

for eating and slaughtering. 
b^^D inundation, deluge. 
]'^2'0 Hiph. partcp. from p to 

understand. 
")"i2D (2, b), pi. m and 6th, for- 

tijication, stronghold ; batsar, to 
cut. 
niii:!Q f. pi. (of n:i:n) choice, 

T ; • tt: • 

precious things. 
n-li:iD(10)/ear. 

T 

■)n"T(2 (2, b) a /ar^re j^Zaiw. — a 

desert. — speech. 
"IID ^o extend. — to measure. — to 

— T 

apportion. 
rrniD f- (lO) extension. — measure. 

tO^iQ ^0 totter, shake ; of the foot, 
slip, slide. Niph. to be moved, 
shaken. Hiph. to cause to fall 
or come down. 

"ID^iD (2, b) chastisement, cor- 

T 

rection. — admonition, warning. 
— instruction. 



Hebrew and English Tndex. 



^py^ (7, b), pi. c>r» ni, snare : 

yakash (a y), to lay snares. 
JIIQ to die. 
/T)D (6, g) rfea^^. 

••• T 

nDTi:^ (awd) f. (10) counsel.^ 

wicked counsel. — prudence, dis- 
cretion. 
nbnD (9> a) sickness, disease. 

r\bn!2 f. (of the preceding) id. 
"liDfTD (1» b) waw^, poverty 
npriD (2, b) inmost part. 
r]p<nD f. (10) destruction, ruin, 

— terrour, fear. 
niD^ f. (10) coMC^, &ed. 
DJ/lOD only pi. Dwpp, nrarpp, 

dainty meat, 
1\^*2 Hiph. T'^pr^n ^o roin, catf^e 

or give rain; ^ upon. Niph. to 

be rained upon. 
D^0 pl. (from obsol. 'd), cnstr. >q^ 

and reduplicated iip>n, waters, 

water. 
DJDD (2, b) only in pl. or dual, 

T ; • 

breeches, trowsers, or drawers, 
for the priests. 
1:3:0 to sell. 

- T 

J^b'D io be full, filled. 

^^':'p (1, sl) fulness. 

Hh^b^p f. (10) fulness, plenty. 

HDxSp f. (11, c), cnstr. nDsSo, 

service, work, 
yh^ (^j a) lodging-place, an inn. 

r\:2nbD and ji^ont'/^ f. (ii, a & 



Hebrew and English Index. 



13, a) a war . 

to consume. 



from [lakham] 

JOT'Q to let escape or slip, to de- 
liver. Hiph. to deliver, to hrhig 
forth. Niph. to be delivered; to 
deliver oneself y escape. Hithp. 
to escape. 

^pO to reign, to be king; ^^, ^ 
over. 

'^bi2 (6j a) king. 

n^^D f. (12, a) queen. 

JlO^ip f. (l,b), pi. nvp^n, king- 
dom. — royalty, royal dignity. 

D^nip^Q the jaws. 

np^^D, n^br^ (2, b), only Dual 

c;np/ tongs. — snuffers. 
njD Root not used ; Arab, to give. 
nmp f. (12, b) gift.-tribute.— 

an offering to God; especially a 
bloodless offering. 

]^, as a prefix >n with dag. forte, 

sometimes also without it, when 
the next letter has Sh'va, es- 
pecially when the letter is Yod, 
which then becomes quiescent, 
poet. •'30, \20> of (a part taken 
from or out of a. whole).— from. 

TJD,t2 to mix, mingle. 

DUD to flow, melt; to faint. Hiph. 

to cause to faint, make faint- 
hearted. 

tOPD to be or become little. 

IDVD, LD^p, pi. D"^5?p (8), small- 

ness; hence, a little, few. — 
TD^pa lit. as a little; nearly, al- 
most; shortly, soon. 



215 

T^,p (1, a) long and full upper 
garment, robe, mantle. 

D^'V^ (dual) bowels. 

yV^ a fountain. 

7^D to act perversely, treacherous- 
ly J n of the thing or person. 

]^D (for rt:;^p) purpose, only in 
^rpS with sufp. >5^n^, ?J:5^Q',, prep. 
because of, for the sake of. — 
conj. in order that. 

ni^/^ f. (10) cave, cavern. 

n'^VD (9, a) work (of an artificer). 

— labour. — deed. — work (the 
fruit of one's labour). 

^^i^^^ tofnd. 

T T 

nVi?D f. (10) a co7nmandment . 
il-;iD f. (10) unleavened bread. 
□n^iD Egypt. 
^IpD (2, b) any thing sacred. — 

holy place, sanctuary. 
DipD c. (3, a), pi. nioipa, place.— 

habitation, home. — town. 
1^pf2 (3, a) spring, fountain. 
r\2J)i2 (9, B,) purchase.— possession, 

wealth (in cattle). 
^^jJ")lp (9, a) a seeing. — sight.— 

appearance, countenance. 
nn^liD f. (11, a) chariot, war- 

T T ; v 

chariot. 
HDIO f. (10) deceit, fraud. 
V'y^ (each •• impure) a friend, a 

companion. 
i^D")^ remedy, deliverance. 



Hebrew and English Index. 



216 

I^VD (8, a) hill, rock, strong 

T ; * 

place — refuge. 
T[li;0 to draw. — to draw out, pro- 
long. Niph. to be protracted, 
delayed. Pual, protracted, de- 
ferred. 
,r\''r\VD (Ij t) destruction^ ruin. 

— snare, trap. 
y^'^'O o. lying down, couch. 
^li^b to rule, have dominion ('j^^ 

over). 
IQ^i^Q (2, b) a watching, guard- 

T ; • 

ing. — a watch. — observance, rite. 
pr\iyi)D f. (^^>a) a watching.— 

place of watching, post, station. 
— a keeping. — observance or per- 
formance. — a charge. 
^liTQ to touch, feel. Piel, to 

grope. Hiph. to grope. 
>r\72 adv. when ? Tjo), 'no nr how 

~ T 

long ? 
pSjyQ (pl. D'pfi?' ^' ^V!P^) adj. 
^weet : neut. sweet, sweetness; 
pleasantness. 



J. 

J^>23 (3, a) prophet. 

• T 

t02^ Hiph. o'sn ^0 look.— to be- 



hold. 

b2^ (f. nbn^) 



j . foolish. — wicked, 



impious, ungodly. 
rh22 f- (1 1» c) corpse, carcase. 



122 Kal not used; Arab, to be clear 

-T 

a?tc? manifest. Hiph. n^an ^« t?^'- 

ckre. tell Hoph. njn (o *« I -,i,"jjrf: Me ™7 
shown, told. t t : 



"t;!^ with sufP. na: 6(?/bre, in <Ae 

presence or si^A^ o/". 
^JJ inf. c. po, nW5 ^o touch (with 

?' '''«' '■'?)• 
"nj f. #o/ee. 

TTJ to vow. 

"inj to flow. — to shine, be bright. 

ir\2 (4, a) stream. — river. 

T T 

nj /o depart, flee. 

r\i2^2 f- slumber. 

^nj /o obtain, acquire a possession, 

— T 

?o possess. — fo obtain by in- 
heritance, to inherit. — to divide 
for a possession, to apportion. 
Hiph. ^■'ri:Tf to cause to possess, 
give as a possession. — to cause 
to inherit. 
T^br\:i f. (12, d) the act of taking 

possession. — inheritance. 
Tl)n2 serpent. 

T T 

niD!) to stretch out, extend. 

T T 

^1^2 to plant. 

— T 

■)tO^ to watch, guard. 

— T 

^tOJ to leave, forsake. 

~ T 

")3^ Piel, -122, to estrange, alienate. 

~T 

— to seem strange ; to gaze at, 
admire; to mistake; to reject. 
Hiph. Tsrr to gaze at, regard, 
have respect to. — to be concerned, 
care for any one. — to recognise; 
to acknoivledge ; to be acquainted 
with. — to know, discriminate. 
Niph. -122 to feign oneself a 
stranger. — to be recognised, 
known. Hithp. to feign, dis- 
semble. — to be recognised, known. 



Hebrew and English Index, 



217 



'Ol^l (in pause, narnaA'). Niph, of 

masas, q. v. 
HDJ to pluck, tear away. 

~ T 

T[DJ to pour, pour out (a libation). 
— to anoint a king. 

"^PJ. T[D3 (6, b) libation, drink- 
offering . 

1V^ (6j d) a male infant. — boy, 

lad. — a youth. — servant. 
D'^myj pi- (of -\iy: 1, a) childhood. 

— youth. 
/3J to fall; ^z fallen, lying, 

- T 

Ii^B3 io respire, take breath. 

~ T 

VB1 c. (6, a) breath. — meton. any- 
thing that breathes, an animal. 
— person. — soul, as the principle 
of life. 

n^^J, nii|) (6, e) truth, upright-. 

ness, faithfulness. — permanency j 
nv? 1?, n?3), and n'J3 adv. /or 
ewer. 
y^2 Piel, ^23 ^0 5^ri/? off, take 

- T 

away. — to deliver. Hiph. ''j^^ri 
to take away. — to deliver (>p 
Tn, F]2?p). 
lii^ ^0 watch, preserve. — to keep, 

~ T 

observe (a law, mercy, &;c.). 
"liij shoot, branch. 

r\p2 to be pure, innocent. Niph. 
np: to be pure, innocent, blame- 
less. — to be clear, free from 
pmiishment. 

□PJ to avenge. 

'-T 

DpJ (4* a) vengeance. 

'tt 

]5"1^ a chatterer. 



^'^2 Hiph. a'\%-rT ^o reoc^. — i!o over- 

take. 
"^iD^ to bite. 
pl^} intrans. to be arranged. — to 

' - T 

kiss (with b of the person), 
Piel, to kiss. Hiph. to join, 
touch. "'• 

"1^^^ (6, a), pi. c. -lyiiz, an eagle. 

'n2''r)2 f. (10) o trodden way, beaten 
path.— path, by-way. 

^112 to tear, pluck up. — to tear 
down, destroy. 



i^2.D to drink to excess; partcp. 
pass. aXLD 



t<ib a drunkard 
drunken. 



2,2D to go over, go round. — to 

— T 

surround, encompass. 
nnD to go, travel about; n« to 

— T 

go round, traverse a country for 
the sake of traffic. 

IHD (with sufp. nnnp) profit, gain. 

'^2D, ^D^ to cover; intrans. to 

cover, conceal oneself. Hiph. 
ircT} to cover, protect, 
rhv to forgive, pardon, with =? of 

— T 

the person. Niph. to be for- 
given. 
^^D to raise a heap or mound; 

to cast up, prepare a way. 
ybv (6), with suff. 'V)o, a rock. 
V^O Piel, to subvert, overthrow^ 

"T3D to mourn. 



218 Hebrew and English Index. 

"ISP to icrite; only in partcp. 

~ T 

"IP a uriter, scribe. — to iiumber, 
count. Piel, to number, count. 
— to recount, relate, tell. — to 
speak, talk. Pual, to be related, 
told. 
ir\D io ^ii<^e> conceal oneself. 

- T 

Nipli. to be hid, lie hidden. Piel, 
to hide, conceal. Pual, to be 
hid, secret. 



li^ CI, a), pi. c^ir, nil?, darhiess. 

T 

chiefly of clouds.— thick cloud. 
12V ^0 u'ork, labour; to till, ad- 

- T 

tivate ; to dress. — to serve, icork 
for another. 
12V C^» ^) ^ servant, slave. 

12V ^^ P°^^ °^^'*- 

•^3^ a region or country near a 

river or sea. — a side, -arn from 
the other side; iiri on the other 
side. 
IV (1»^) " ivit7iess, partcp. of -nr- 

TMV to go or pass by. 

T T 

HV (.11^^) assembly, congrega- 

tion. — a private party, a gang, 
faction. — family, household. — 
sicarm of bees. 

2^V Hiph. to cover with darkness. 

22^V' 2^V' ^^V {orice with sufP. 

T T •.. T \ 

"•02?) a musical instrument, a 

flute or organ . 
I'^y, iy adv. again. — again and 

again. — besides. — yet, still. 
r\^V' *\^V (3, a), pi. D';;?, ni:i5^, 

T T 

iniquity, sin. 



t^^V to cover with the wings; to 

cover tcith darkness. 
I^V 0>a) pi. niiir, skin (of man 

or beast). 
'V CS> d), TO f. (10), adj. strong. 

U?, Ti^ (S, c) strength, might, 

power. 
2'^V to leave, forsake, desert. 

II^V f. help. 

t; V 

ll^V ^^ surround. Piel, T^? to 

- T 

crown. 
r\1'{2V f- crown, diadem. 

T T -; 

y^V (6, h), dual DW, eye. 

")>^ f. a city. 

^V (prop- constr. of ht 2, a) pi. c. 

'% with suff. ')?, ry)v, vtt. Sec. 
prep, upon, on, ovt^r, above, 
against. — of the objects, means, 
instruments by which any thing 
is effected ; by. — of norm, rule, 
standard and cause, -^ \-i-;i-i bs? 
after the manner of Melchi- 
zedek; nDp? in this manner; 
rpo-by ivherefore ? — at, by, necer ; 
with. — with idea of motion, to 
the question whither? upon, 
down upon, to, towards. — fre- 
quently i. q. V><, ) marking the 
dative, to, for. — conj. though, 
although. — with other particles. 
— Vr3 according to. 
rhv to go or come tip, to ascend. 

T T 

— to arise of the dawn. — to 
spring or grow up. 
nbV (9, b), a leaf. 

•■• T 

•'b'y see '■??. 

ilb^bV f- '^ork, deed, doing, action 
T • -; 

(of 7nan, in a bad sense). 



Hebrew and English Index. 



21.9 



77y Kal not used ; i. q. b^s to roll; 

hence to repeat an action, to do 
hahitualhj or effectually. — with 
^, to affect painfully . 
D)/. D^ c. (8, a or d), pi. cd?' cvppr;- 

people, nation; most frequently 
of Israel opp. c^i3 gentiles. 
ID^ to stand. 

?72^ to toil, labour, tracail. 

7DV labour, toil. — travail. — sor- 

T T 

row. — fruit of labour. — mischief, 
iniquity, sin. 
pQj; to be deep, unsearchable. 

22V (J- q- -J?) PJ^OP' name. 
22V (^' ^J) cluster of grapes. 

T •• 

"'J); (8, f.) ; n>:j7 f. adj. afflicted, 

distressed, poor, needy. 
"13^ (4, c), pi. c. Trrev, dust, dry 

T T 

earth. 
YJ; (7, a), with suflP. ^^v, pi. c-2?, 

c. '25, iree. 
3Ii^ ?o travail, suffer pain. 

~ T 

3I4T' 3^y (^» b) labour, travail. 



— pam. 
n^iy f- (11, b), for rmV", counsel, 

advice. 
n^'^V ^^J- (3» ^) strong, mighty. — 

numerous. 
7^^ adj. sluggard. 

Dii^ f. (6, a), pi. nio2^, bone. — 
body. 

2\>y (5» c), pi. capj?, cnstr. 'ip?, 

li^py ^0 convict of perverseness. 



t^pX^ adj. {7, h) perverse, false. 
2"iy (Arab. ^0 6e 6/ttcAj ^0 become 

~ T 

c/arAr or rfiwAr. 
3ip c. (6, a) evening. 

UTYV ^^^j- (3, a) crafty, cunning. 

T 

— prudent. 
1J"iy ^0 arrange ; /o prepare (a 

table); /o arroy (a battle). — io 
place together, to compare. 
"OnV to be cunning, subtle. 

— T 

nD"iy f. craftiness, cunning. 
r\VV to work. — to make. 

T T 

]ti^P ^o smoke. 

- T 

PiV c* (S> b)^ contracted from nTr, 
^ime, season. 



nwj 



adv. noi/;. 



3. 



")i^D (Ij a)^ but pi. c. ni^E, orna- 
mental head-dress, turban. 
niB to redeem, ransom. 

r T 

p!)B /o wore ^0 anc? fro. Hiph. 
fo more; causat. to give out ; to 
get, obtain; to further. 

ni^D f. wine-press. 

T 

TD a-dj. purified, pure, an epithet 

T 

of gold ; then for refined, pure 
gold. 
")TD to disperse. Piel, to disperse, 

scatter. 
nS (for rws, irreg.) mouth; rm-bti he 

mouth to mouth. — aperture. — 
edge. — part, portion, —word; 
L 2 



220 

■p3 according to the word of, in 
proportion, according to j "v^ii ""tf 
according as, even as (and "iir^< 
omitted), so as, so that ; 'pb in 
proportion, according to; ^b b^ 
according to the word or com- 
mand j also according to. 
:hB (6, a), pi. c. ':% brook. 



Si ream. 
]B prop, a turning to, a regarding ; 

hence -]B as. conj. lest, for fear 

that, lest haply. 
(133 f. (iO) corner. 
U^2^2B pl- pearls; others, red 

corals. 
J?iJ3, pause !??E, with suff. -y^^?, a 

wound. 
"Tp3 to visit. — to examine. Niph, 

to be missed. — to be visited, 
punished. Piel, to muster. Pual, 
to be mustered, numbered. Hiph. 
to set over, appoint. Hoph. to 
be set over, have the oversight of. 

DHIpB pi. (of -npE, 1, b) com- 
mands, precepts. 

13 a young bull, bullock. 

niD f. for rnE (10) young cow, 

heifer. 
"713 to separate. Niph. to be se- 

— T 

parated; also to separate oneself 
(p, bp2 from any one). Piel, 
to go aside. Pual, partcp. se- 
imrafed Hiph. to separate. — 
to scatter, disperse. Hithp. to 
separate oneself, to be sundered. 
*12 (6, i), with suff. 3 pers. pi. 

C\y)'2, fruit, produce ; ns ^"S fruit- 
tree. 



Hebrew and English Index, 

D13 to give, distribute. Hiph. to 

cleave, divide the hoof. 
nJ71D Pharaoh {king), the title of 

all monarchs of Egypt down to 
the Persian invasion. 
yiB to break, tear down, demolish, 

p1H3 to break, crush. 

^1D i. q. D"]s io break bread, with 



) to give or distribute (it) to. — 
to spread: e. g. a garment; to 
spread abroad (metaph.). 
10^3 to strip or put off a garment. 

— T 

Piel, to strip, pillage, plunder. 
Hiph. to strip a person. — to 
strip off a. gEirment. Hithp. to 
strip oneself. 
nn^D f. with suff. ^r\tB, pi. 

D^rnpe, flax. 
■•/IB (6, i), pi. D:nE, simplicity, 

folly. — simple, inexperienced, ig- 
norant. 
rrjlD to spread out, &c. In Piel, 

T T 

to deceive, seduce (= ^-arrtw). 
nn3 to open. 

- T 

yjn2 suddenness; i-ns adv. sud- 
denly. 
J13 f. (8, e) piece, crumb, morsel. 



p1^ to be equitable. 

p'••:T^J adj. (l,b)yMS^ — righteous. 

\)11 (6, a), with suff. 'j^t?, and 

njriii (11, c) justice, equity. — 
righteousness. 
]V^ Zion (hw). 



Hebrew and English Index, 
")>^ (1, a) hinge. 
rSTOI f. dish, bowl. 
ID'i C6, a), with suff. -"jd?, wool. 
tPiJ (6, d) a stepping, going. — 

step, pace. 
y2i2 to hide. — to lay, treasure up. 

nS^i only imperf. -ie^; to turn. 
")iSIiJ (pl- D'"!B2) bird ; especially a 



sparrow. 
"niJ to tie or bind up. — to shut up. 

— T 

"Ijsf (8) adj. strait, narrow. — subst. 

adversary, enemy; distress, ad- 
versity. 
n*liJ f- (10), for rrr^i, female ad- 

T T 

versary, a rival. — distress, ad- 
versity. 



yUp to collect, gather. 

12p to bury. So also in Piel. 

"12p (6, a), with suff. nnp, though 

in pause in;?, pl. onip, nV, se- 
pulchre. 
li^lp ^0 separate, consecrate. — to 

be sacred. Piel, to consecrate, 
hallow. 
]i)*np adj. (3, a) holy. — set apart, 

sacred, holy ; of men, saints. 
'^1\> (6, c) holiness. — holy place. 
mp to wait for, hope in. 
^ip (1, a), pl. ni, voice. 
QJ^P (once perf. ua-p^) to rise. 
HDip f. (10) height. 



221 

"l*tp #0 c?j^ a well. 

IZDp (8, a) little, small (prop, and 

fig.)' — young, younger, 
rnp Kal not used. Niph. to be 

made light of, to be despised; 

partcp. despised, memi. Hiph. 

to make light of, to despise. 
]T?P (3, a) shame, contempt. 
77p to be light. — to be lessened, 

— 't 

abated. 
^J•3p Piel, to be jealous. Hiph. to 

provoke to jealousy. 
Di^^p f. (12, b) jealousy. — envy. 

r]2p to form, create, — to get, ob- 
tain. — to buy. — to possess. 

"n^p (9, b), pl. D'^p, ni2p, reed, 

•:'t '' ■^ 

cane. — sweet cane. — stalk (of 
wheat), 

niyp f. « dish, charger. 

YP^ (8, b) end, limit (of space, 

time, condition, or circum- 
stances). 

rTjfp (9, b) end, limit. 

v't 

r\''^p f. (11, a) end, extremity. 
T^ip (3, a) a judge. — leader, chief. 

— prince. 
C|2p to be angry, wroth (w, 7« of 

the person). Hiph. to provoke 
to anger. Hithp. to become 
angry. 
n^p to cut down, reap. 

-'t 

'V'^p (3, a) fruits cut down, har- 
vest J hence time of harvest. 
^^P to cry, call out. 

t't 

2,1p to draw or come near. 



222 

n")p ice. 

^b'^, dual c'^y., ankles. 

^"ip to fear. 

yip to close, press together (the 

lips or eyes), to icink, &c., de- 
noting fraud, cunning. 
2lDp to attend [lit. to sharpeii. G.]. 

Hiph. (with ps ear), to prick up 
the ear to, to attend to, hearken. 



"). 



HMI to see. 

T T 

l^i^l head. — head, chief, leader; 

chief of a family . 
nyi to be or become many, to 

T T 

multiply. 

^:n f. (6, a), with suff. "by-], foot j 



du. D^hi the two feet. — pi. a^bjn 
(steps) times. 
]i}yi to rage, make a noise. 



Hebrew and English Index. 

Unn (6, c) width, breadth. 
Um f. (6, d) the womb. ^ the 

bowels; love; compassion. 
^^"1 (1, a) contention, strife, 

quarrel. 
2,31 to ride either on an animal 

- T 

or in a chariot ; partcp. ipn 
a rider. 
ni21 to cast, throw. Piel, rroi. to 

T T 

deceive (prop, to make fall). 
0^1 to tread. — to trample under 

foot. 
pi to shout. 

y") (pi. D^i), adj. (rtin f. 10) evil, 

bad, worthless. — evil, wicked. — 
rV ^1 of an evil eye, i. e. en- 
vious, malignant. 
yi (rarely ri-i) badness. 

2^1 (1, a), for nr"), acquaintance, 
companion, friend. — one beloved, 



UH Niph. nro to lie in a deep 

sleep. — to sink down stupified. 
?|"T1 to follow after. — to pursue, 

persecute. — to put to flight. 
2r\1 to act insolently. — to urge, 

press upon; to be urgent (with). 
n^l c. (l,a), pi. nimi, ninn, air, 

breeze. — breath ; metaph. vanity, 
folly. — spirit, soul. — mind, spi- 
rit, disposition. — wind. 
UM to be high. 

^m to be or become wide, large. 

— T 

Hiph. rrnn to make wide, en- 
large. 



lover. — neighbour, fellow. 
"2^1 to be hungry. — to suffer from 
famine. Hiph. to cause to 



2^1 (4, a) hunger.— famine. 

T T 

"13^1 to tremble, quake. Hiph. to 

— T 

tremble. 
nyi to feed. 

T X 

nj?1 evil (prop. fern, adj.) from rn. 

T T 

n3") to hang down the hands. — 

T T 

to decline. — to sink down. — to 
relax, abate, to desist. Hithp. 
to relax oneself, be slothful. 
DH)"1> Ii^3*l to tread, trample upon. 



Hebrew and English Index. 



99S 



especially of water, to trouble it. 
Niph. partcp. irsn: troubled, 
made turbid by trampling. Hithp. 
DE"inri to humble, submit oneself. 
T\2r\ to delight, take pleasure in. 

T T 

]iik") (3, a) delight, satisfaction, 

acceptance. — object of delight, 
acceptance. — will, pleasure. — 
good-will, favour, grace. 
^P^ (4, a) rottenness. 

'tt 

y^l to be wicked. Hiph. ^'©in 

- T 

to declare guilty, to condemn. — to 

cause mischief. — to act wickedly. 

^li^n (4, a), ns:^-? f. adj., wicked, 

ungodly. 

^•^"1 (6, a), with suff. iJ^ttJ-i, wicked- 
ness. 

n^Ii^l f. (constr. TOtpn, no pi.) 

wickedness, ungodliness. 

'W. ^. 
IN^^ (1, a) flesh. 
V^IV a week. 
n};^2p oath. 
y^'^ to be or become satisfied, 

- T 

filled (jQ, !i of the thing). Hiph. 
to satisfy Qp, a of the thing, ) 
of the person). 
^2"li? abundance, plenty. 

T T 

V'y^ (cnstr. "sy^g, f. n^i\p) seven. 

Dual, D.'nri^p sevenfold. 
y^"^ to swear (oaths were usuaUy 

confirmed by seven victims). 
Niph. rnt': to swear, with n by, 
bio. ' 



"121^ to break, break in pieces. — 

to buy or sell corn. Hiph. to 
cause to break through. — to sell 
(corn). Hoph. to be broken, 
afflicted, distressed. 
121^ more commonly ia'>D (6, b), 

in pause ii^, from ii^'', a break- 
ing ; sorrow, vexation, calamity. 
— destruction. — grain, corn. 
r\2^ to rest from labour. Niph. 

— T 

to cease, have an end. Hiph. to 
make or let rest from labour. — 
to make to cease. 
j13t^ c. (constr. m^, with suff. 

Snytp; pi. ri^mt"), day of rest, 

sabbath. 
2^]^ to err. 
"^'2} (dual D^'Ti), constr. "•■ra) the 

breast. 
"TTIi; to treat with violence, to op- 

press. — to attack, invade. — to 
plunder. — to {lay) waste, destroy 
(e. g. a land). Niph. to be laid 
waste. Piel, to spoil, waste, 
ruin. Pual, pass. Hoph. to be 
spoiled, laid waste, wasted. 
nii^ (9, b) plain.— field. 

V T 

^']]l) evil, wickedness. — evil, ca- 

• T 

lamity. — worthlessness, vanity. 

2W to turn, return. — to turn away 
from. — to cause to return, bring 
back. — to restore.— Hiph.to cause 
to return, to bring back. — to turn 
away (anger). — to return, give ' 
back, restore. Hoph. to be 
brought, led, given back, returned. 

n*)^ (I, a), D'mi, an ox. — herd of 
oxen. 

lOn^ to slaughter, kill (animals). 



224 



Hebrew and English Index. 



r)riV to laugh, abs.— "?« to smile 

upon. — h'S, ) to lauyh at. Piel, 
to rejoice. — to sport, play. 
inii^ to he black. — (denom. from 

— T 

"snxp q. V.) prop, to do early ; 
hence to seek early, diligently. 
Piel, to seek early, also diligently. 

"in^ (3, a), mhtj f. (10) adj. black. 

T 

"MIV (6, d) the dusk of the morn- 
ing ; hence dawn, morning. 
nnV Niph. to be marred or spoiled 

- T 

by rotting. — to be corrupted 
(morally) . — to be laid waste. 
Piel, nn^^ to destroy. — to cor- 
rupt, pervert. Hoph. to be cor- 
rupted, spoiled. 

"IZOii^ officer, overseer or magistrate. 

^.'''ID to be grey-headed. 

n2^''i^ f- (10) gr^y ^««'"- 

n^t/ (1» a) speech, discourse. — 

complaint. 
2Dli} to lie down; especially to 

- T 

lie down to sleep or to rest one- 
self. 
riDlir to forget. 

- T 

y2)D a knife. Etym. doubtful. 
bjV to act wisely, prudently. 

- T 

Piel, to act wisely. Hiph. to 
look at. — to be or become in- 
telligent, wise, or prudent; to 
act wisely, prudently ; and to 
make prudent, to teach. 

bjV, b2^ (in pause bDir) regard, 

estimation. — intelligence, under- 
standing, 
^y^ to lie down, to rest. — to rest. 



abide. — to dwell. — to dwell (in), 
to inhabit, 

]yD (5, a) f. nmS pi. ni:?^', in- 
habitant. — neighbour. 
r\b\U, 'btl) to be quiet. 

T T •• T 

m':'^ f. (cnstr. nibir, no pi. abs.) 

t; — 

quiet, prosperity. — carelessness, 
negligence of God. 
rhll) to send. In Piel, to send 

forth = to excite (it). 
]'nbt£} ("2, b), pi. ni:n^S a table. 

Tf'p^ Hiph. Tj'Vi'n to throw, cast 

(bii into, 2, "?i> upon, ]0 from; 
v\nii behind him, i. e. to despise). 
77^ to plunder, spoil. 

— T 

b?\l} ('t, a) spoil, plunder, booty. 

T T 

Q7^ to be entire, i, e. sound, safe. 

— to be at peace. Piel, n^p, c)xd 
to preserve, keep uninjured. — to 
complete. — to restore. — to repay. 
— to requite, recompense. 
Di/ti^ (3, a) health, welfare, pros- 

T 

perity, peace. 
Ub there. 

T 

D'*i^ O, a), pi. niTD'Qj, a name. 

1'i2V Hiph. to destroy. — to de- 
stroy (persons, nations). Niph. 
pass, of Hiph. 

'^}2V only pi. D'DTT (cnstr. "'pir, with 

suff. Tj'oir) heaven, the heavens. 
TVyV to shine cheerfully. — to be 

- T 

glad. 
HD'^^D (5, a), nnoip f. Sid]., joyful. 

- .. T ■^ • 

r\nr2i^ (12, b) joy, rejoicing.— 

T ; • 

mirth. 



Hehreio and English Index, 225 

Ji3Dt£^ to ^et 90, remit (a debt). — ]i3''3ii^ « serpent, adder. 

^3Ii^ to pour out. — to shed. Niph. 

to be poured out. Pual, to be 
shed. Hithp. '^Br\tr\ to be poured 
out. 
5^3ti^ to creep. 

bpli) to weigh. 

'-r 

bp^ (6, a), pi. c. ".'Jijtj, a shekel. 

^p\£} Niph. (prop, to bend for- 
ward in order to see). — to look 
out. Hiph. to look. 

"Ipti^"! (6, a) lie, falsehood. 



to throw down. Niph. to be 
thrown down. 
W^DID heaven (cnstr. 'otj, pi. m.). 

• - T 

nb^lD f. (12, b) a garment, a 

T ; • 

mantle. 

nyiQ^, 7iyr2t f. (lO) news, ti- 

r : T \ : 

dings. — information, report. 
^Dlt) to hear. — to listen (with ace. 

- T 

bii, b, 1 to any one). — to hearken, 
obey. Piel, to cause to hear, to 
summon. Hiph. to cause to hear 
or be heard. 
IDfl) to keep, watch, guard. — to 



1p^2} [shakar, to lie. 
preserve, protect (with ace. 3, JIHli^ (I, b), only pi. branches of 



*?«, h^ of the object, with y^from 
or against). — to keep. — to keep, 
observe (ace. bi^, by). 
Ili) c. (8,b) a tooth (prop, and fig.). 

— ivory. 
i^^''X} to hate. 

•• T 

njti^ f. (11, a), pi. DW, ni3\r), a 

T T • T T 

year. 
]2U} to sharpen, e. g. a sword; 

partep. ]')W sharp. 
1^'lL^ (4, b) a hair j collect, hair. 

T •• 

(13'^ f. (11, a), dual DTCin, pi. c. 

nincto, lip. — speech, words. — 
language. — brim of a vessel. — 
shore of the sea ; bank of a river. 
n3^ Kal not used ; to pour out. 

— T 

nn3ti^ f. (12, b) female servant, 

T ; • 

handmaid; hat. famula. 
I03ti^ to judge, administer justice. 

~ T 

— to condemn, punish. — "WCd a 
judge, ruler. 



a vine. 
^"VD to burn, consume. 

Uf^Vi) (6, c), pi. D't-vv, root. 

/D"^ to plant. 

pjl''^ to be still, to rest, to abate, 

' - T 

of waves, of strife. 



r\M^n f. (10), desire, will. 

T-; — 

likll (6, f.) form. 

nZD f- (10) a chest.— ark (of 

Noah, built in the form of a 
chest). — the ark in which Moses 
was exposed. 
n^^^^J^ f' (10) <^ coming in, being 

stored up. — income,prqfit.— pro- 
duce, fruit ; trop. result. 
r]y\2,D f- (10) understanding, pru- 

T ; 

dence. 



L 3 



226 Hebrew and English Index. 

r^yST\rS only in pi. perversity, t^'^h'nrS only pi. D\^ibnn diseases. 



frowardness. 
rhnSrs f. (is, a), with suff. 

\-p'?rrin, expectation, hope. 
PiH'TPi f- (13>a), but pi. ninain 

proof, rebuke. 
'n'2,V^'r\ f- (ll>b) abomination. — 

T •• 

abominable act. 
rti^V^P^ f- pi- (from nsyin 11, a) 

T 

svAftness. — wealth, treasure. — 
brightness, splendour. 

m'lj^ f- (10), instruction, direc- 
tion, precept. — law. — manner. 
n*'ii^^n f- help, deliverance. — pur- 

T • 

pose, enterprise. — counsel, wis- 
dom. 

Dnr\ f. (c. suff. 'mn, ^'rinn, rnnn, 

n'nnn, irnnri, crrnnn) prop. wAa^ 
is below. — adv. below, beneath. — 
prep, under. — instead of. — in 
return for. — on account of. — be- 
cause that, because. 



, ]^2nr} (1, b) pi. D>— , ni, suppli- 
cation. 

T'D/D scholar. 

'^OH to take hold of. — to hold. 
\ Dl^Jn to be completed, ended. — to 

— T 

cease. 
U^t2r\ (3, a) perfect. — whole. — 

upright, sincere. 
Urs f- ^^ (10) adj. whole, per- 

T 

feet, sincere, honest. — subst. in- 
tegrity. 

]r) or ]ri only pi. D^2n, ]^|n huge 

serpents, sea monster; others, 
jackals. 

^yin Piel l^n to abhor. — to render 

- T 

abominable. Niph. to be ab- 
horred, detested; to be abomi- 
nable. 

mpjl f. (10) expectation, hope. 



ENGLISH AND HEBREW 
INDEX. 



A. 

Abominable, 2^/1]) (partcp. 

Niph.). 
Accusation, fl^tOi^^ 

L ^ • ' 

-^tt, 73 (prop- a subst., 8, d, 
usually followed by Makkeph). 
Anger, C^j^. 

Anoint, TJD^ (propr. to pour out). 
Ark, pij^, T)2r\' 

T T " 

Assuredly (the Hebrew idiom is 
by the repetition of the \tvh in 
inf. absol.). 



Basket, 7D. 

Be, been, n\"l. See 522, e. 

Bear {= give birth to), IT. 

- T 

Bear, 3^, ^Sl- 

Before, DID (before, of time) 

^^H)^ (before the face). 
Best. See Good. 
Better. See Good, and 193 sqq. 



Black, -mty 'int. 

T T 

Bless, ^"^3,. To bless oneself 

(Hithp.). 
Blood, Q1. 

T 

Born. See to bea.r. 
Boy, 1^, -)j;^ 

Branch, 'y:^'^. 

Bread, UVh- 

Breadth, 2n'"l. 

Brethren, WW^- 

Bring, J^l^ (to come ; Hiph. 
cause to come). ^Iti^ (Hiph. 
to bring again, back, return, 
restore). 

Broken-hearted, to be. Niph. of 
"12^ (with or without iS). 

- T 

Brother, Hi^- 

T 

Burn, ^iDi "Tp"' (to burn slowly, 
steadily). 

Bury, nnp. 

But, -"S, Tfst. 



228 



English and Hehreio Index. 



Camel, S^^ (pl- =:'^??)- 

T T 

Child, lb]. 

Children, D'^H, D^^^ 

Choose, nn|"nn^."' 

Cities, Dnp. 

• T 

C/ean, to be or become, "IHlD- 
r/ean, adj. "liHD- 

T 

Clothes, "T^^. 

T 

Collect, y2p 
Come (down), ll"*. 

-T 

Command, miJ (Piei of rn^, obsol.). 

T • 

Commandment, JTlliD- 
Compassion, have, bOH w}^)- 
Covenant, /T^IB- 
Cover, nD3- 

T T 

Core^, IDn. 

- T 

Com?, n")D; liti^ oa?. 

T T 

Create, K"IB. 

TT 

Crown, "1J13 ; "IT (an ornamental 

border round the top of the 
altar). 

Cry out, to, p^r (with )). 

Cry out or aloud, to, h^lp (to 

t't 

call). 
Curse, 1")Jv}. 



Cursed (partcp ) 1^")J>}. 

Cut, rn^. 

D. 

Daughter, Jl^l- 

Day, DV. Days, D^D^ 

• T 

Dea^A, JlID (6, e). 

V T 

Deliver, 7iJ^ (Hiph. to cause to 

-T 

deliver). 
Desert, to, :^]y. 
Desolate, to make, 3■^^ (to 

~ T 

destroy). 
Destroy, "TD'Z^ (utterly) ; 12^^ (in 

- T — r 

Hiph. = to cause-to-perish). 
Destruction, T}p\TV2- 
Devour, 7^^<. 

~ T 

Diligent, "ITTD- 

Do, riW' 

T T' 

Do good, to, UtO^' 

Dog, 2)2. 

Door, Jl{pr|. 

Dream (verb and subst.), D/rT- 

~ T 

Dry (land), ntl1\ 

XT- 

Dry (dry-up), Ii^n\ 

— T 

Dust, "IH)^. 

T X 

Dwell, 2,'0'^ (to sit, dwell, abide) ; 

— X 

]Dl^ (to rest in, inhabit, dwell 
with). 



English and Hehreio Index 



229 



E. 

Each other (often translated by 
' a man his fellow,' ' a man his 
brother,' &c. From each other : 
' a man from his brother,' &c.) 

vn^ bv'o t'if. 

Earth, yij^. 
Eat, bDi^.' 
Enemy, 2^'M^- 

Evil, j;% no^n. 

Eye, ]>j;. 
Eyes, U^y^- 

F. 

Face, D''^3 (pL). With ^ in the 

• T 

cnst. form, •<;^), before (implying 
rest) ; also 'oso, before, from be- 
fore (implying removal). 
Faint, s^*'y (faint, tired). 

•• T 

Faint, to be, C]^^ (to be fatigued, 

tired). 
Faint, to make-, 0Dt2, in Hiph. 

— Vy^ (^0 *i^6» weary). 
Fall, ^33 ; ^2^ (to wither, decay). 
Fat, 2bn. 

Father (irreg.) ^J^. 

Feed, nVl. 

Field, nii- 

Fig, n^Kn- 

Fill, N^D Piel of malr. 

Find, i^':^0- 

T T 

Fire, ]£}i^. 
Flay, tO'^3. 



Flee, ni2, 112. 
Flesh, -yi^^- 

T T 

Flock, ]^^^k^ 

Flood, b^2D- 

Fly from, to, n")3; 11^ (=flee). 

Fool, b:iD, bv£b22.^ 

T T • ; T T 

For, O. 
Form, to, -|^\ 

Found, to, TD*' ; p3 (to make 
firm, fix : e. g. the earth). 

G. 

Garden, p. 

Gardens, U'^2^- 

Garment, nbpp, 12^- 

Gather, "pp ; D23 (to gather 

into a house, or place of se- 
curity). 

Girl, nib''. 
T : - 

Girls, Pi^lbl 

Give, ]J1J- ' 

Give -forth, to, ^JIJ (e. g. the 

voice). 

Gladness, b''2' 

Glory, 1U3. 

Go, Tf^n, ^i^3. 
Goa<, ry. 

God, D'-rtt'l^; ^^5. 
Gooc?, 2i[0- 
Grape, 22^. 

T T 

Gra^s, i^jDl; T2in (dry grass). 



250 
Grave, "13p. 
Great, b)l^, bl^- 
Great, to be, "^"TD. 
Grow, ^lil. 



H. 

Hand, T- 

T 

Hand, right, 'j"«p\ 
Hand, left, bi^DV- 
Hands, DHV 
Hate, mil;. 
Head, ]£)U')- 
Hear, ];r2^. 

~ T 

Heart, ^'7. 

Heavens (singular not used), 

HeightJ rir^^p- 

Hell, b^i^p. 

Herb, 2%; i^^'^^ (a green, 

tender grass). 
Hide, to, ]E)i:. 
Holiness, tV'ip (6, m). 
Honour, 1123- 
Honour, to, 122- 

- T 

Honey, t£;ZLl (6, r). 
House, /T»3. '' 

How, ^>^, nip. 

Houj long, >jni2 "TJ7. 

• — T — 

Howl, b^pn ^^S^). 

Hypocrite, *]211- 



English and Hebrew Index. 



I. 



In, prep. 2, prefixed. Sts 7 : e. g. 
to trample in (= to) the dust. 

Increase, r\3,1- 

T X 

Inhabitant, 2t^'* (yashabh, 5, 1). 
Iniquity, ]')ii, ])y. 

Joy, nnm, ]^w. 

K. 

Keep, IDlir. 

Kill, bw ; I^nt/:; (to slay as a 

- 't - t 

sacrifice) ; nUtO (to slaughter). 

- T 

Kindle, flip (to kindle itself = 

to be kindled). 
King, ^7Q- To be made a king, 

Hoph. of "^br^- 

Kings, DO^Q- 

Kingdom, n:ibr:^r:} 

X T ; - 

Kingdoms, r)')DbDD- 

Kiss, p]i}y 

Knee, IJ")^. 

Knees, Q^nil- 

Knife, ribD^:^ ; ]''2i^ (a knife). 

Know, yi\ 

Knowledge, r\};i. 



L. 



Lament, 13D. 



^Land, Y")^^. 
Large, b)l^, ^15. 

T T 

Law, ni'ri- 

Learn, "TD A 

- T 

Leave, to, 21TV- 

~ T 

Length, rj-)j^. 

TT 

^iA, D^^n, pi. (the life, applied 
to God and man only.) 

Like, 3 (as prefix : before mono- 
syllables and barytones often 3. 
See rule). 

Lion, n''')i^. 

Little, ]:op. 

Lo, ]n. " 

Look, to, r\'ik1; i02J (Hiph. to 

T T - T 

look into, investigate). 

Lord, m*^^ 

T ; 

Lord, my, ^^'^^ (pi. my Lord, 
applied to God); '^^'l'^ (sing. 
ray lord, applied to man). 

Lords, LS^'pt^' 

Love, to, 2^^^. 

~ T 

M. 

Man, Q-T,^, t'\^, tm^ 

Master, ]^-T^^. 

Men, Q^^OhJ (the men of a family). 

Mercy, "IDn. 

Mix, TJDD. 



English and Hebrew Index, 281 

MocA:, y?)':? ; :^yh (to deride). 
Money, C^D3. 
Mother, 0^^. 
Mount, Mountain, "lil. 

T 

Mouth, nS, cnstr. ^9 (irreg.). 
Multitude, ^1 (= number, nu- 



merousness). 

N. 

JVame, Qti^ (pi. niottj). 
Neighbour, ^^n; D^^^T 
IVe5#, ]p ; pi. kinnim, cells. 
mght, rh'b -, any (evening) 
No, ikb ; VK, cf. 257, end. 
No man, ^''^} ^if. 
Number, to, 130. 

~ T 

o. 

Oath, '^2.'^. To take an oath of 

a person, say : ' to cause-to- 
swear (Hiph. of fiiu) any one.' 
Observe, "l^D'vi^. 

Offer, anp. ' 

Offer-sacrifice, to, n3T- 

Old, pt (of a man). To be so 

many years old, say : ' was a son 
of so many years.' 

Open, to, nriD. 
Or, ^^^. 

Overthrow, to, I'Oi'^ (to destroy). 

- T 

OiT, liliT; ")D3 (horned, tame 

'tt 

cattle). 



232 



English and Hehreio Index. 



P. 



Part, pin. 
People, UV- 
Perish, 1^^^. 
Pervert, to, Pj^D- 

'- T 

Place, DipD. 

' T 

Place \_a mari] over, to, Hiph. of 

TpD-— nw. 

'-T 

Plant, to, ^tOJ- 
Plunder, to, ^Itl, TTl- 

~ T ~ T 

Prisoner, ■^^D^^ 
Proverb, b"^:^. 

T T 

Prudence, TV21V- 

f '. ■•■ 
Purge, ")H)3 (cover, expiate). 



Queen, ,13^0. 



Q. 



R. 



Rain, T'^pn. 
Recompense, to, D7^. 

T 

Require, ^1"^. 

- T 

Restore, y\''^. 
Righteous, D^liJ- 
Righteous man, p''^iJ- 

TT > 

Room (m chamber), mil- 
Ruler, ^'(^^^ (partcp. from 
shal). 



S. 
Sack, Jinj^pSt. 
Sa?/, "1^^^, "131. 
Scorn, yi7. 
Scorner, y^. 
Sea, D'- 

T 

See, ?o, nN"1. 

T T 

Seed, J,nT. ' 

Seec?, ifo bear J to seed seed, J^"IT 

Seek (for), f)!- 

- T 

Separate, ^HD- 
Serpent. 11)712 • 
Servant, 133;. 

- T 

Shadow, 7^. 
Sharp, in ; f. n-^ri. 

Shield, ]2D; D"*^^^, s^ieWs. 

Silver, ^p3- 

SA;m, "liy. 

SmiYe, ,13 rr (Hiph. of rrD>). 

Son, ]3 (iireg.) ; 13 (poetically). 

Song, It^ir. 

Sow;, io, ^1T. 

Stalk, np^. " 

S^anrf, I*:;;. 

~ T 

Statute, pirr. 

Statutes, Q''p"n. 
S/ea/, 3::i. 



English and Hebrew Index. 



283 



Stone, ]nSt. 

Stones, D'J3^<. 

Strip, lO'^^D- Tb striip oneself, 

~ T 

Hithp. 
Strong drink, l^t^f. 

T " 

Strong-hold, "JiJnD. 
Sword, ^nn- 

T. 

Take, Wpb; 1lh (to conquer, 

take by force). 
Take an oath. See Oath. 
Take captive, to, JlUli^- 
Tell, T:):, -)^:^^, W2r\ (Piel of 

-T - T 

dabhar). 
Temple, b2'^r\. 
Thick cloud, 3J?. 

T 

7%icA: clouds, Q^^^. 

T — 

Threshold, Vp. 
Together, in\ 

Town, -)"»y. 

Trample, DQ"1- 

Treacherous, 1^3.. 

Treasure, ]lDrDD, n-J:ia IDH. 

Treasure-house, ^;ii^}. 

Tree, yj^. 

TrM5#, to, ni02; 1D^< (Hiph.) to 

- T '- T 

cause to believe, put faith in. 
Truth, r)r2i^' 



Verity, J-)^^. 

Very, lij^b'." 

Vessel, >^3. 

Vessels, Uw^ ; cnstr. "b^ (irreg.). 

Vineyard, 013- 

Virgin, rb^n^.- 

Voice, 7ip. 

U. 

Understanding, nJ^3F\. 

Unpunished, '»p^. 

Unpunished, to be, ^T)2 (in Niph.). 

•tt 

Utterly. SeeToDESTROY(utterly). 

W. 

Walk, r^bn. 

Wash, to, D213» (Piel) to wash 

thoroughly. 

Waste, to, 2")I1, "TIJ^. 

Way, TJ-J-^. 

Weak, to be, ^bl 

Weary, ^:)\ 

Weary, to be, 5]j;'», 

Weigh, b\m. 

Weight, bDtD- 
T : • 

Who, ^t2. 

Why, nr^b- 

Wicked, Vt£;*) (a wicked man). 

T T 

Wickedness, n^?^"), V'^'l> W» 

r : • - V ' V T 



234 



Winds, j-)nn. 

Wine, ]>i. 

Wisdom, r]!:^2n- 

Withdraw, P|Di^ (to bring home, 

collect). To be withdrawn, taken 
away (Niph.). 
Woman, HWi^- 



English and Hebrew Index, 

Word, '^21' 



Write, 3J-|3. 



Y. 



Year, H^l^, D''Q\ 

T X • T 

Years, W^}^- 



PROPER NAMES. 
Abram, D"12J^ (the exalted father). Jeremiah, ^n^D")'' (exalted of God). 
Abraham, D^T"12^^ (the father of Jerusalem, D^^Ii^lT'. 

Jew, n^inv 

Joab, n^<i"' (God the father). 

X 

Joseph, P]D'|'» (increasing). 



X X : - 

a great multitude). 
Adam, DTJ^ (earthy). 

T X 

Amorite, ''"ib?^- 



Babel, ^21' 
Babylon, ^H^. 

V X 

David, yn. 

' T 

Eliezer, 1^);>bii. 
Esau, V'lDyi' 

Hagar, I^H. 

Halleluiah, n'''"lbSl (praise ye 

X ; — 

the Lord). 
Ham, QH (hot). 

X 

Hebrewess, r\^12V- 
■•■■;■ 

Hebrews, DH^y. 

Jacob, Hp^** (a detainer). 
Jehovah, nin^. 



Isaac, pn^^. 
Ishmael, '?^J^Q^^ 
/sraeZ, '?K"li:;>. * 

T 

Judah, n"mT'. 

Midian, pfQ. 

iWoaS, ni^iQ (of the Father). 

T 

Noah, nij (a comforter). 
RebeJcah, r\\)2')- 

Solomon, PtD^It/. 



APPENDIX. 



A. Table of Declensions. 

Gesenius (who is followed by Hurwitz, Stuart, &c.) divides 
the Hebrew Nouns into 13 Declensions, or rather arranges 
them under 13 Paradigms, which we here add for reference, 
though it will not be necessary to enumerate all the variations 
and exceptions in so elementary a work as the present. 

Observe — 

a) That all feminines .without a distinctive feminine ending 
are inflected like the masculine Paradigms, except that 

they generally take their pi. in 6th (/li); inn. sword, pi. 

JlVlirr, constr. /limn (khe'rebh, kh^rabhoth, khar'- 

bhoth). With the suffixes the stronger abbreviation then 
remains : see the Feminine Paradigms. 

b) Grave suffixes are those which have always a strong accent 
or tone. Such are most suffixes of 2nd and 3rd pers. 
plural, whether joined to the singular, as Q3, p, QH, ]n, 

but not D_, ')Q1, or to the plural, as DD>_, ]3_, DH''-, 

T T V •• ' T •• V " 

^rT'-j but not iD^_. The other suffixes are called light. 

c) In the plural the light suffixes attach themselves, without 
exception, to the status ahsolutus: the heavy or grave suf- 
fixes, to the status constructus. 

Arrangement of the Declensions.'] 1. Monosyllabic and dis- 
syllabic with immutable vowels. 2. Monosyllabic with mutable 
(t); and dissyllabic with, a similar vowel for ultimate, and im- 
mutable vowel for penultimate. 3. Mutable (t) or (..) for penul- 
timate: immutable vowel in ultimate. 4. Dissyllabic with (tt) 
or (t " ) • 5. Dissyllabic with mutable (- ) for ultimate : mutable (t ) 
for penultimate. 6. Segolates or dissyllabic nouns, with accent 
on penultimate. They are derived from an original monosyllabic 
form with Pathakh. 7. All with mutable (••) for ultimate: and 
immutable vowel for penultimate. Also some monosyllabic nouns 
from n /. 8. All that double their final consonant by dagesh 
when augmented. 9. H- final. 10. n_ final preceded by an 

T 

immutable vowel. 11. H— final preceded by mutable (t) or («). 
12. Feminine nouns chiefly derived from the segolate forms 7^3, 
7^Sj /^D- 13. Segolate nouns formed by the addition of the 
feminine ending jn_l. — To the examples in the Paradigms add : 
misge'reth {enclosure), igge'reth (letter), masco'retb (wages). 











jy^e Declensions 




Absol. 


Constr. 


Light suff. 


Heavy suffix. 


I. {horse) S. 


D^D 


V)V 


>p^D 


DDD^D 


P. 


D^P^D 


>p^D 


^piD 


Qyb^D 


II. {eternity) S. 


D^ip 


D^^:; 


^Db>i:i^ 


DDD^'iy 


P. 


* T 


^D^i;^ 


^Q^i:ir 


DD^?i)^i:; 


III. {overseer) S. 


1^[:b 


Tp3 


'I'P? 


°?1'P? 


P. 


D'l'i?? 


TP? 


'TP? 


D3n;p3 




a. 
{word) S. 


"in-^ 


"^?T 


'"1?"^ 


°91^1 


IV.< 


P. 
b. 


Dnn-7 

•T ; 


'l^i? 


~ T J 






{wise) S. 


DDH 


°?l! 


■??Q 


°???n 




P. 


. T ~ J 


'??n 


- T -; 


°???d 




a. 
{old man) S. 


w.l 


w. 


'm 


°??p-l 




P. 
b. 


D^jpr 


'M 


'M 


D?3)?I 


''i 


{shoulder) S. 


'^O? 


'^O? 








P. 


Jiis)ri3 


ji'iBrii) 








c. 

{court) S. 


"'f?? 


">^'Q 


'"i^n 


°?1?Q 




P. 

[ 


Dni-rr 


^?.?Q 


n^ri 


V ... - 




' a. 

{king) S. 


# 


*? 


't>^ 


• Q??^^ 




P. 

h 




'?^'? 


- T ; 


°??^^ 


VI. 


{hook) S. 


... •• 




n3p 


2?1?? 




P 


Dnsp 


npp 


'T)?? 


°?"i?p 




{sanctuary)^. 


^IP 


^IP 


^^IP. 


DDIi^l,"5 




P. 


• t't: 


•'^ij^ 


- t't: 


DD''li^i|^ 



of Nouns. 



Absol. 


Constr. 


Light suff. 


Heavy suffix. 


Dual absol. 


Meaning. 


sus 


sus 


s^si 


5ii5'chem' 


d;dv 


{two 


susitn 


suse 


susai 


s^^echem' 


yomayim 


days) 


yolam 


:i?61am 


:i?6Iami 


i^olamchem' 


U'h^^D 


{pair of 


i^olamim 


i^ol'me 


i^olamai 


:i?61'mechem' 


melki- 
kha'yim 


tongs) 


pakid 


p'kid 


p'kidi 


p'kid'chem' 


D^yat^ 


{tioo 


p'kiditn 


p'kide 


p'kidai 


p'kidechem' 


sh'bhu- 
i?a'yim 


weeks) 


dabhar 


d'bhar 


d'bhari 


d'bharchem' 


' °!lj? 


{wings) 


d'bharim 


dibhre 


d'bharai 


dibhrechem' 


c'na- * 
pha'yim 




khacham 


khacham 


kh^chami 


kh»chamchem' 


^D^^^n 


{hips) 


kh^chamim 


khachme 


kh^chamai 


khachmechem' 


kh*- ' 
latsa'yim 




zaken 


z'kan 


z'keni 


z'kanchem' 


Q.'^"]) 


{thighs) 


z'kenim 


zikne 


z'keiiai 


ziknechem' 


y're- 
cha vim 




catheph 


cetheph 










c'thepoth 


cithphoth 










khatser 


kh'^tsar 


khnseri 


kh*tsarchem' 






kh*tserim 


khnsre 


kh*tserai 


khnsrechem' 






me'lech 


me'lech 


malci 


malc'chem 


'2'?;^^ 


{feet) 


m'lachim 


malche 


m'lachai 


maicechem' 


rag'l 
la'yira 




sepher 


sepher 


5Tphri 


siphr*chem' 


o;^?? 


{double) 


s'pharira 


siphre 


5'pharai 


^iphrechem' 


ciph- 
la'yim 




kodesh 


kodesh 


kodshi 


kodsh'chem' 


'ui^m 


{loins) 


k°dashim 


kodshe 


k°dashai 


kodshechem' 


motli- 
na'yim 




Dual Constr. 
3 


1 >P53 (cat)pl 


le;. 2 ,^ppj (h 


Mltse). 3 i;;-i(rSg 


le). ^^ir^K, 


(mbthng). 



The Declensions 





r a. 

(a youth) S. 


Absol. 


Constr, 


Li^f^^ 5w^. 


Heavy suffix. 




> 


'^Vl 


'■?^;a 


^^'^VA 




p. 




n^j 


n;^: 


DDn^^ 




e. 

{perpetuity)^. 


"^'? 


n^'j 


''n^o 


°?r!^p 




P. 


• T ; 


•'n:.': 


'C^^'^ 


°?Q^'^ 




f. {work) S. 


bvB 


S 


""^^H 


°?^^?. 


VI. ( 


P. 

g. {death) S. 




.._.,-r 

DID 


~ T J 


V ••t:it 




P. 


D^ri^o 


"•jTiiQ 


••jniQ 






h. (o/ice) S. 


-n:! 


nn 


''Jin 


D3in\r 




P. 


U'm 


'07. 


^jyi 


•• •• 




i. {fruit) S. 


ns 


n3 


••ns 


V • • V 




{gazelle) S. 


^2k 










P. 












'a. {enemy) S. 


^'.^ 


^.')^ 


''?!'^ 


0??'^ 




P. 


D-as^ 


'?i^ 


'^!^* 




VII., 


b. (wame) S. 


nt 


D'^ 


'^'^ 


^^^P 




P. 


nSDt 


niDi^ 


'^jy\Dp 


... .. ^ 




-a. ^sea) S. 


D> 


0! 


'?! 


D2/32 




P. 


D'^_ 


'?' 


'PI 




VIII., 


b. (mother) S. 


DK 


DNI 


'^^ 


V • • 


P. 


Jii^^N^ 


n^Dj^ 


''ni?3>i 


DD^ni^K 




c. {statute) S. 


pii 


■p? 


M'H 


°?i?n 




P. 


D^pn 


^i?.n 


^^n 


°?'i?.'7 


IX. 


(seer) S. 


nrri 


niii 


nri 


2?in 




P. 


D-'irr 


nn 


1 ^n 





of Nouns. 



Absol. 


Constr. 


Light svff 


Heavy suffix. 


\Dual absol 


Meaning. 


na')?ar 
n'i^arim 


na^ar 
na^^re 


na^'^ri 
n'i^arai 


naParchem' 
na Techern' 


na- 
r^ayim 


{pair of 
sandals) 


ne'tsakh 


netsakh 


nitskhi 


nitskh"chem' 






n'tsakhim 


nitskhe 


n'tsakhai 


nitskhechem' 






p5':?al 


poi^al 


poi^^ii 


poi^oPchem' 






p'i?alim 


porna 


p':i^alai 


poi^-'lgchem' 






maveth 


moth 


mqthi 


moth'chem' 






mothim 


mothe 


mothai 


mothechem' 






za'yith 


zeth 


zethi 


zeth'chem' 


'Q^T 


(eyes) 


zethim 


z^the 


zethai 


zethechem' 


)?enayim 




p'ri 


p'ri 


piryi 


pery'chem' 


nfrjb 


(cheeks) 


ts'bi 








I'kiTa- 




ts'bhayim 








ya'yim 




oyebh 
oy'bhim 


oyebh 
oy'bha 


oy'bhi 
oy'bhai 


oyibhchem' 
oy'bhichem' 


mo- 


{pair of 
scales) 


shera 


shem 


sh'mi 


shimchem' 


z'nayim 




shemoth 


sh'moth 


sh'mothai 


sh'mothechem' 






yam 


yam 


yam mi 


yamm'chem' 


'c:ltiJ 


{nostrils) 


yaramim 


yamme 


yammai 


yammech^m' 


appayira 




em 


em 


immi 


imm'chem' 


'°!W 


{teeth) 


immoth 


imm6th 


immothai 


immothechem' 


shin- 




khok 


khok- 


khiikki 


khokk'chem' 


nayim 




khukkim 


khukke 


khiikkai 


khukkechem' 






khozeh 


khozeh 


khozi 


khoz'chem' 






khozim 


khoze 


kh5zai 

i 


khozechem' 

1 






Dual Con. 1 1^^ 
5 


{uSJ^^le). 2 


^l>^{tme). 3 


\;|^D (moz'ng). •* >| 


3«(Sppe). 6 


il'0 (shinng). 



X. {mare) S, 

P. 

r 

a. 

(year) S. 



Absol. 






Constr. 



Light 
suffix. 



I 

XL/ (5^eep) s.i n:i:^ 
p. I ni:::^ 

c. 



Xli. 



XIII. 



{righteous- S. 
P. 

' ^• 

(queen) S. 

P. 
b. 

(reproach) S. 
P. 
c. 

(waste) S. 
P. 

a. 

(sprout) S. 
P. 
b. 

(s^mW) S. 

P. 



T t; 






- I 



nBnrr 



n:p 
r)):p 

; T 



'>r\yp 
'^n)lp 

^-^yp 
'ii'op 



Feminine 

Heavy 
suffix. 



D3jnp?)D 



I 



'•Oi?^' 



mp:v I ^rnp^v 






••• : \ 






Nouns. 



AbsoJ. 


Constr. 


Light 
suffix. 


Heavy 
suffix. 


Dual ahsol. 


Meaning. 


susah 


susatb 


susathi 


5usatb- 






stisoth 


susoth. 


susotbai 


chem' 
t 






sbanab 
shanim 


sb'natb 
sb'D6tb 


sb'natbi 
sh'notbai 


sb'natb- 

chera' 

t 


• - T : 

s'pha- 
tba'yim 


(lips) 


shenab 
sbenotb 


sb'natb 
sb'noth 


sb'natbi 
sh'notbai 


sb'nath- 

chem' 

t 


• — T ; 

p'a- 
thayim 


(corners) 


ts'dakab 
ts'dak6tb 


tsidkath 
tsidkotb 


tsidkatbi 
tsidkothai 


tsidkath- 

chem' 

t 






malcab 
m'lach6tb 


malcatb 
malchotb 


malcatbi 
malcbotbai 


malcatb- 

chem' 

t 


yarca- 
tba'yim 


(sides) 


kherpab 
kh»raph6th 


kherpath 
kher'photh 


kherpathi 

kher'pho- 
thai 


kherpath- 

chem' 

t 


rikma- 
thayim 


(double 
embroi- 
dery) 


khorbab 
kb«»rabh6tb 


khorbatb 
kbor'bbotb 


khorbathi 

kbor'bho- 
thai 


khorbath- 
chem' 

t 






y6ne'ketb 
yon'kotb 


yone'keth 
yon'kotb 


yonakti 
yon'kothai 


yonakt'- 
cbem' 

t 


m'tsil- 
tayim 


(cymbal) 


gulgo'leth 
gulg'lotb 


gulgoleth 
gulg'lotb 


gulgolti 
gulg'lothai 


giilgSIf- ; 

chem' 
t 


- : \ : 

n'kliush- 
tayim 


(double 
fetter) 



Dual Constr. > ^ncip (siplithe). ' ■•-i^S (pa»tnS). 



^nST (ySrc'the). 



+ The distinction between light and heavy suffixes ceases in the plural of feminine nouns. 
7 M 



B. Table op Irregttlar Nouns. 



Meaning. 


1 Irreg, Noun. 


Constr. 


Plur. 


Constr. j 
Plural, j 


With 

suffixes. 


Father 


2i^ 

T 


abh 


abh, *bhi 


abhoth 


1 


abhi, abhiv, 
"bhichem. 
&c. 


Brother j 


T 


akh 


»khi 


akhim 




akhai, »khi- 
chem, &c. 


Sister 


rnm 


akhoth 




"khayoth 


akhyoth 


akhyothai. 


Man 1 




ish 
^nosh 




ishim 
^nashim 


anshe 


ishi, &c. 


Woman 


T • 


ishshah 


esheth 


nashim 


n'she 


ishti, &c. 


Maid 


T T 


amah 




''mahoth 


amhdth 




House 


m 


bayith 


beth 


batim 




batechem, 
&c. 


Son 


1? 


ben 


ben- 


banim 


b'ng 


b'ni, bin- 
chem. 


Daughter 


nn 


bath 




banoth 


b'noth 


batti, &c. 


Day 


D1> 


yom 




yamim 


y'm^ 




Vessel 


')? 


c'li 




celim 




ceh'i, ce- 
ly'cha. 


Ldon 


^1^ 


aj-i 




•rayim 






Kid 


nil 


g'di 




g'dayim 






City 


-17 


i)ir 




Xfa.nm 






Water 


Q>p 


mayim 




mayim 


mg 




Mouth 


n3 


peh 


pi 






pi (mycv), 
picha, piv, 
&c. 


Head 


t:^^^■^ 


roash 




raashim 







i 


* 

a 


'3 


* 


















to 




























1 


.*n. 


To; 




* 


.'iS 






* 


^ 






* 

J3- 


^ 


fH* 


^3* 


io 




/Hi 


Jcd 






f~^' 


'j^ 






& 


.)ci 


c2 


*r^ 


^ 




9- 


~^ 






a* 


s 






r- 








j^ 


s 






-F" 






a: 




























J-^ 


■g 


uri 






























* 


.13 


* . 1^ 




.7^ 


m. 


* 


^ 


L' 


•3 


* 


' 3C3 


CIU 


.9 


.? 


S:-^ 


9= 




9' 


53 


a 




a 


-ii 


^ 


S 


j% 


>^ 




j^ 


V^ 


j-^ 


J^ 


>^ 


j^ 


'9 


a: 


^ 


T|5 


























'^ 


H 




























<1 


* 






« 








* 








* 


Tti 


OJ 


i^ 


'lO 


R^ 


loJ 






m 


T3 






n- 


•^ 


H 


.a 




9: 


to 
•♦o 






ri: 


'5 






1 


.5rf 




j^ 


^ 


^'1 


J-^ 


^a 
^ 






^= 






J3j 


. 
























j-^ 


J3 


CO 




























^-^ 




























•^ 




























s 


* 




fei 


* ■ 




* 




* 




* 




* 


13 


o. 


m 


•To 


nl 


Toj 


n."-. 


Hi 


^ 


ITi-S^ 


n- 


.9 




9: 


■** 


9' 


:;2 


ri: 


'M 


J^ 




q 

t; 


.i^ 




j-^ 


^ 


3:3 


J^ 




J^ 


53 


^ 


)«3 


ai 


^ 


1— 1 
























~r^ 


— 


<N 




























g 
» 


* L. 




* 


* 




« 




* 




» 




♦ 


123 


/Hi- 


X3 


^'1 


nj 


^ 


i^'kS 


n- 


<;3 


rzh jS 


n 






^' 


i^ 

^ 


a: 


^ 




S 

M 


a. 




s-^ 




a: 


1 


























J^ 


3 


■^ 






























3 




t 






1 








1 




.1 






pH 




(N 


fO 




>* 




la 




to* 




tc 





M 2 









D. 


General Paradigms 




(The forms with asterisks 


1/ 


1 PEnrrCT KAL(l). 


NIPHAL(2). 


PIEL (3). 


PUAL (4). 


1. JrERFECT. — — 

Sing. 1 c. ""Phi^p^ 


'"^I^'^PP 


'>rb'^p 


'^^21)5 




2 fm. 


phhp* 

T ; - 't 


Pi^i^pr 

T : - ':• 


nbhp; 


rbibp^ 




■^r'^R. 


jj^^;pp: 


^'P^P 


r^S^lj* 




3 cm. 


'^•^p; 


* ^^Pf 


bv^p; 


'^* 




^^f?: 


n^pp:* 


rhw* 


n^^p* 




Plur. 1 c. 


^:'p^p 


•i^^bpi 


^^^IP 


•i:^i|p^ 




2 rm. 
I/- 


Dr.S^p* 


D^^;pp: 


DJa^^p 


Dr)S^"^' 




l^^^i? 


]Ji'^;pp? 


1^^'^P 


l^'?^!? 




3 c. 


^^rop 


•"^^^p^ 


•■iS^P 


•'^^P 




2. Inf. {constr.) 


'ptop* 


'pDijn* 


^??&* 


'^^IJ* 




Inf. {absol.) 


^iiDp^* 


(^^i??) "pbi^n* 


bbp: 


^bjj; 




3. Imp. Sin^'. m. 


^bp* yL?f?n* 


b^>* 






/. 


••^Dp* ''bi^P^* 


'1W 






P/Mr. m. 


^bipp \ ^b6fn 


^%p_ 


(none) 




/. 


mVrop* 


t: "'t' 


r^fmp* 




''"' 


4.IMPERF. (FUT.) 

SifiQ. 1 c. 


bbpi^ 


'^^P.^ 


^^i^^ 




2 Cm. 


bbpr\ 


y^p^iH 


tepr^' 


^i^j^iji 




■Y^i^^* 


')^^p^i^* 


'hmr\* 


••^ipj^'jV 




3 rm. 


^Pi* 


^w* 


^?pr 


"^'^'i^:* 




{/• 


bbpn 


bigpn 


b^pn* 


'p^pri 




Plur. I c. 


bbp: 


bi!^p2 


^?P^ 


^•^p,^ 




2 J m. 


^bi^ppi 


^b:^p^r\ 


^y^ppn 


■)b^)F\ 




1/ 


n:bipr\ 




T\^bi::ipp\ 




»rwi. 


^"^^pi^l 




'i^^P! 






I/- 


n^b'iDpn* 


nmpn* 


TO^^'pn* 


mTtop;^* 




5.PTCP.flC/.'?Z0p* 


6.;).'?^10|J* 


biDpr 


^L3pD* 


^?iir 



10 



of the Regular Verb. 

serve as models for the rest.) 



1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 


KAL (1). 


NIPHAL(2). 


PIEL (3). 


PUAL (4). 


ka^al'ti 


nik/al'ti 


ki^M'ti 


kuttmi 


2 Cm. 


ka^'ta 


nik/al'ta 


kif^al'ta 


kii^al'ta 


{/• 


ka^alt 


nik^alt 


ki«alt 


kuttalt 


Sfm. 


ka/al 


nikial 


ki«el 


kiittal 


{/• 


kai'lah 


nikflah 


ki^flah 


ku«'lah 


Plur. 1 c. 


ka^al'nli 


nik/al'nA 


kiWal'nu 


ku«al'nu 


2 Cm. 


k7altem' 


nik^altem' 


ki«altem' 


ku«altem' 


V- 


kValten' 


nikialten' 


ki«alten' 


ku^alten' 


3 c. 


kBLt'lu 


nikflu 


ki«'lu 


kvLtflu 


2. Inf. (constr.) 
Inf. iabsol) 


k'/61 
ka^ol 


hikka^el 
fhikka^oll 
Inik^ol / 


ka«el 
ka^^ol 


ku«al 
ku«61 


3. Imp. (Sin^. m. 


k'tol 


hikkafel 


ka«el 


. 


PZwr. m. 


kirn 
kiM 


hikka/'li 
hikkaflA 


ka/^'li 
ka«'lii 


(none) 


/. 


k'^ol'nah 


hikka^el'nah 


ka«el'nah 




4. Impeuf. (Fut.) 
Sing. 1 c. 
2 Cm. 

V' 


ek^ol 


ekka^el 


»ka«el 


•ku«al 


tik^ol 


tikka^el 


t'ka^el 


t'ku«al 


tikfli 


tikka^'li 


t'ka«'li 


t'kii«'li 


3(m. 


yik^ol 
tikfol 


yikka^el 
tikka^el 


y'ka«el 
fka«el 


y'ku^al 
t'ku«al 


Plur. 1 c. 


nik^ol 


nikka^el 


n'ka«el 


n'kiiWal 


2 (m. 


tiki'lu 


tikkaf'lA 


t'ka^^au 


t'ku^'lu 


if. 


tik/ol'nah 


tikkaifel'nah 


t'ka«el'nah 


t'kuf/al'nah 


SCm. 

if- 


yiknu 
tik^ol'nah 


yikkaflu 
tikkaiernah 


fkm'lu 
VksLtteYnah 


y'ku«'lu 
t'kii^al'nah 


5.P.p.aP. {; 


t. kdtel\ 
ss. kamij 


nik^al 


m'kattel 


m'kiiWal 



11 



General Paradigms 





HIPHIL (5). iHOPHAL (6). 


HITHPAEL (7). 


Sing. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

V- 

3 rm. 

(/• 

Plur. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

V- 

3 c. 


^jj^^^pn 
n^Dpn* 

■"p^^tppn* 
n^^^pn* 

^2bhpii 
^b^ippn 


^ph^pr\ 

ijiV^pn 

"^'^p!7* 
n^zppn* 

^^b^pri 

DJ^^^pn 

]p}b:gp>i 

^i^tpprr 


r^i^pm 

' %Pf)T 
nbi^pnn* 

T : '- : • 

^:hhpnr] 

Dphi^pnn 

]Db'^pnn 
1 ... . _ 1 _ . . 


2. Inf, (fionstr.) 
Inf. {absol.) 


^>^pn* 
b^tgpn* 


b^pn* 


b:$pm* 


3. Imp. 5i»^. m. 
/. 
Plur. m. 


'b'hpn* 
^b'hpn 


(none) 


bBpm* 
n^b>^prin* 


4. Imperf.(Fut.) 
Sing. 1 c. 

2rm. 

V- 

3rm. 

V- 

P/ur. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

if. 

3 rm. 

V- 


b^i^pPi 
'b'l^pPi* 

^'*^P-n 

>pp2 

rf^bhpr} 
'■^^^J^P^ 


'i'^P^* 
^^Pr 

^^'PJ 

•I^Lppn 

^^Ipp> 
m^^p-n* 


b:^p_nn 
'b'd^pnn* 

%PJ?T 
bBpr)'F\ 

y^ph^ 
^b^pn'n 

n^b*^pr\r\ 

^bBpji]* 
n^b^pnk 


5. Partcp. 
12 


b'i!?pg* 


T ': T 


b^pno* 



of the Regular Verb, 



1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 


HIPHIL (5). 


ETOPHAL (6). 


HITHPAEL (7). 


hik^al'ti 


hokmi'ti 


hithka^mi'ti 


2 Cm. 


hikfal'ta 


hok^al'ta 


hithka«al'ta 


[f- 


hik^alt 


hok^alt 


hithka^alt 


ZCm. 


hik^ii 


hok^al 


hithka«el 


[f- 


hik^i'lah 


hokrlah 


hithka^'lah 


Plur. 1 c. 


hik/al'n^ 


hoktal'nii 


hithka^al'nu 


2 Cm. 


hik^altem' 


hok/altem' 


hithka/ialtem' 


if. 


hik/alten' 


hok^alten' 


hithka«alten' 


3 c. 


hikii-m 


hoki'lu 


hithka«'lu 


2. Inf. (jconstr.) 


hak^il 


hok/al 


hithka«el 


Inf. {absol.) 


hak^el 


hok^el 




3. Imp. Sin^. w. 


hakfel 




hithka«el 


/. 


hakrf'li 


(none) 


hithka^i'li 


PZwr. »i. 


hakfi'l^ 




hithka«'lu 


/. 


hak^el'nah 




hithka^^el'nah 


4. Imperf. (Fut.) 
;Si«5'. 1 c. 

2 cm. 

V- 


akiil 
takfil 


okml 
toktal 


ethka^el 
tithka«el 


tak^i'li 


tokfli 


tithka«'li 


ZCm. 


yak^il 


yokfal 


yithka^el 


takfil 


toktal 


tithka^/el 


Pfor. 1 c. 


nak^il 


nok^al 


nithka^el 


2rw. 


tak^i'lu 


tok^lu 


tithka^flu 


V. 


takiel'nah 


tok^al'nah 


tithka^el'nah 


3rm. 


yakrt'lu 


yokriu 


yithka/riii 


tak^el'nah 


tok/al'nah 


tithka^ernah 


6. Partcp. 


mak/il 


mokial 


mithka^el 


13 









Verb with First Guttural (g^). 



E. Verbal 



1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 
• :-v:|v 


HOPHAL. 


^jj^7Dir 


>mp;?:3.. 


> 


2rm. 


pnw 


^.n% 


pnr2vn 

T : - v:iv 


rsiDyn 


(/• 


mi2v 


;nioi^^ 




r\iD:;p 


3fm. 


ipor 


"^^P..* 


••••:iv 


'"^m* 


if. 

Plur. 1 c. 


T : |T 


■ ~ •. • 1 V 


: - -•:iv 


T : t:|t 

' - T*|T 


2 fm. 


Dm^^* 


DJ^Trjv: 


V :-v;|v 


amayn 


V- 


l-^l?^.* 


^^"3'^^i^. 


V :- .-iiv 


i^ioy.vl 


3 c. 




: v|v 


np^/n 


"?^i3 


2. Inf. (constr.) 


T'Qpn* 


■'^y^I 


Inf. iflbsol.) 


lioy 


liD^rj* 


n^oo^n* 




3. Imp, -Siw^. m. 


iba?; 


i^vrj* 


"f9»7-* 






nay 


•: IT" 




(none) 


/. 


n:7b^* 


m75j;n 


n:"i9^n 




4.Imperf. (Fut.) 
5iwa. 1 c. 

2rm. 










U 


^^ir^VD' 




n^Qi^ri 


HP^^* 


Z cm. 

if. 




.. T .. 




- t:it 


Plur. 1 c. 


"f'^i^p. 


1DV2 


I^J^DI^J 


lo:?:) 


2 cm. 


: ~ I" 


: IT" 


•n\'3i;n 


: t:it 


\f 


^^l^^f!) 


T ; •* T " 


n^iSyr) 


T :-t:it 


ZCm. 

if 








J t:it 
T :-t:it 


Partcp. act. "7pJ7 
14 


pass. l)r2V, 


'^W i 


i-'QyjD* 


T r:iT 



Paradigms, 


Verb with Second 


Guttural 


[^^ 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


• ; - T 


'"Jniphp? 


••riD^n 


^PiD12 


''i^Dnnnn 


rs'mt 


p.mt2 


nDnn 


riD^ii 


n:)^3nn 

T • — T • • 


rs^nt 


r\iDnt2 


J^D13 


r\j-i3 


n:D"i::inn 


~ T 


mp^ 


v.r 


TJ13* 


•?I-}Brin* 


T -; |T 


Hton^:* 




T ; 




^r^ht 


^2^r\t: 


•I^D^B 


•i:)Dni 


•1:13^3;^ 


up^i^^nt 


Dni:)nt2 


DDDin 


Dr^D-i2 


Dj^Dnznn 


]r\mf 


]r}ignp2 


inpnn 


1^13 


' V ; - r : • 


—.IT 


" T • 


^^1? 


iDna 


•iDnnrin 


^nti 


^1?* 


rjna* 


■^1?^^?* 


\^Tit 


if^'.np: 


Tjn^* 






mp* 


" T • 


iir 




■^l^-O'?* 




• -: iT« 


• :iT 


(none) 


0"i3nn 






•ID-Ill 






T : - : 


T : - T • 


rT:)Dn2 

T ; -T 




niiDiiJin 


^DP^ 


•• T V 


^1?^ 


^1^^ 


' "T : V 


mpr\ 


•• T • 


Tjiajp 


•^innri 


"^l^O-O 


r^n^n* 


•'lon'^^n* 


"•D-inn 


onhn 


'2i2nr\ 


loni^f 


iDn;*^;?'» 


"^i?r 


"^1^1* 


^l^^'T 


corr^i^ 


cDnii/n 


-rjian 


■^12^) 


^1!}^^ 


mp2 


•• T • 


"l?ii 


T[n3;i 


11.^^^ 


^mpr) 


-; |T • 




^D"}2J1 


:iT . • 


T : - : • 


T : - T • 


mDn:2n 




T ; - T : • 


^^D.P!' 


~; It* 


5)Dn3> 


iDiii) 






T : - T • 


r\iy-\2r\ 


mpnan 


T : -T ; • 


m^jj. tDin^ 




^1??* 


"^1^?* 


•^n^rip* 



15 



M 8 



Verb with Third ( 


jUTTURAL {^^. 


Verbal 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


1. Perfect. 

Sing. 1 c. 


^r\r6t 


^pr6v^ 


^priTp 


2 1 w. 


rrBti 


r\r6m 




V. 


rsr6t* 


r\r6tT 


nriit* 


3fm. 

If- 


'rht 


n'^t^ 


rht* 


rrbt 

T : IT 


rrht^ 


r^nbt 


Plur. 1 c. 


Mr6t 


^t6^^ 


^TiW 


2 fm. 


ur\rht 


upd7'm 


Dr^n^i:; 


V- 


]r\rbt 


]r}Tf2t^ 


]r}nbt 


3 c. 


: |T 


Tht^ 


Tht 


2. Inf. {constr.) 


fbt* 


rb'^n* 


rht* 


Inf. {absol.) 


rrht* 

— T 


ubtr 


rht* 


3. Imp. Siw^r. m. 


rht* 


rb^Bn* 


rht* 


/. 


^rht 


^rb'i'Ts 


'^rht 


PZwr. m. 


^rht 


: |T • 


^rht 


/• 




T ; - T • 


n^rbt 


4.Imperf. (Fut.) 


rhti^ 


rbm 


rhti^ 


Smg. 1 c. 
2 ( w. 


rhhr\ 


riy^r\ 


nbtn 


V- 


^rhtr\ 


^nb^^rs 


^nbtr\ 


3 rm. 
Plur. 1 c. 


rfjt'* 


rbw* 


ribt'* 


rhv'r} 


rlim 


rhtn 
nbt2 


2 cm. 


Thtp\ 


: |T • 


^nbtp\ 


L/. 


r^T^tD* 


r^T6tr\ 


n:n^tp 


3.m. 

J 


TDt\ 


^rb-L'^ 


^ribpi 


I/. 


T : - : • 


r^yrb^Ps* 


mn^V-T** 


Pabtcp. act. Twt. 
16 


1* pass, rrht* 


T : • 


rhtD* 



Paradigms, 


Verb with 


Third Guttural {g^). 


PUAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


^rrbtf 


'^r\r6vr\ 


' : ~ ; T 


^rT\%tT} 


r\Hi>t 


r\r6m 




rsT^n^n 


r\riit* 


prti^T}* 


rr6^T^* 


rsHimifT^* 


rht 


'rvb^r\* 


' rbtr\ 


' ^^^^^* 


r^rbt 


r\n''^tin 


T : : T 


nn^jH^n 


^Ti^t 


^T6tir\ 


^yr^tu 


j):)mr\t?;n 


urrht 


urrhtr\ 


uprhtr^ 


nr}rhmri 


]i^rtm 


\iyrbtir} 


]rrb^T} 


]r}r\'^r}tn 


: \ 


^rv^tn 


ThtT\ 


m'^i^tn 


rht 


rxhtn' 


rbtT] 


n^ntn* 




rhm* 








rht7\* 




nbDvn* 


' 


^TV^tr\ 




'rbPipn 


(none) 


^rv^tr^ 


(none) 


^rhr\pr} 








T : - - : • 


rht)^ 


rvbt^ 


rht)^ 


ri^nti^ 


- \ -: 

rhtrs 


n'''7tr\ 


rhtr\ 


P^mr} 


>rbtr\ 


^w^trs 


'irhtr\ 


^rhr\tr\ 


rhti'' 


wbt'* 


rhtf^ 


r]br\^'* 


ri^'^'r\ 


T^'btB 


rhtrs 


vhDtD 


wm 


u'ht^ 


r6t^ 


nbm: 


Tbtrs 


^n"'bVn 


rbtrs 


^rhr}tr} 


r^T(itr\ 


n^nbi^n 


7\iT6tn 


n:r]^mp\ 


^rht"^ 


^n^^^^ 




^nbnt] 


T : - \ ; 


r^T^trs* 


r^^T^ti^ 




rhtD 

T\ : 


r\'hti2* 




rhntD* 



17 



Verb Double Ayin, ^^ (d). 



Verbal 



1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 

2 cm. 

V- 

3 Cm. 

V. 

Plur. 1 c. 

2 Cm, 

If- 

3 c. 



2. Inf. (constr.) 
Inf. {absol.) 



KAL. 



riiip* 
Ji'ijap 
ap* 

T - 

^:^ip 

DJliBp 



2D' 
2UD 



NIPHAL. 



'-n^3p^ 

jRiipj* 
/i^ipi 

T — T 

^^'lip: 
Djniap: 
I'O'i^ipJ 



2DT}* 



3. Imp. Sin^r. m. 

/. 

P/wr. m. 

/. 



4.Imperf. (Fut.) 
Sing. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

I/. 

3 rm. 

Flur. I c. 

2 cm. 

1/ 

J 



3 m. 

J 



"2D* 
^2D 

T V V. 



T 

abrJ 
no:) 

X 

^2Dn 



nj^2DJi 

T V \ : 



nb;* 
nbj 



Partcp. act. yy^D 
18 



pass. y\2D 



3pn* 
"2pn* 
^2pii 



2p^i^ 

^3pn* 
np>* 

2Dn 
np: 

?)3pjjl 

T V ~ • 

^i2p^ 



nor 



Paradigms 



Verb Double Ayin, ^^ (d). 



HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


POEL. 


POAL. 


^jiiiprr 


^r)i2p-in 


••j^naio 


^JJ122iD 


ni2Dn* 


n^zDin* 


r^nniD 


r)22i0 


n^2.Dr^ 


Jiinp^n 


j^nniD 


r)22i0 


npn* 


apin* 


3210* 


22i0* 


T •• •• 


napin* 


nnnio 

T * 


n22io 

T ; 


•iii3Dn 


^:iip^n 


•ijnnio 


•1^2210 


Dni:aDn 


DDiiDin 


or^nnio 


Dr)22i0 


]riinpn 


ininp^n 


ir^nnio 


]r)22io 


^npn 


inp^n 


•U3i0 


mio 


arn* 










np^n* 


2110 


22i0 


3Dn* 

•• T 




22^)0 




• •• T 


(none) 


U2i0 
^22i0 


(none) 


T V • -; 




m22io 

T ; ** 




nD^^ 


3p^^ 


22io^^ 


22iDJ< 


•• T 


np-in 


2210^71 


2niojji 


>2Dri* 


^2Dir^" 


U2iori 


''22i0j^ 


aD^*(nD>) 


no^^* CID^) 


2210^ 


22iD> 


2Dri 


^DMT) 


22i0j"n 


22':0ri 


3D^ 

•• T 


2m 


22i0: 


22io: 


•• T 


^ii^r\ 


•122iOn 


U2iojy^ 


TV- : 


T V - 


n:)22ioi^ 

T ; •• : 


n:i22ior^ 


•13D> 


•13DV 


-•)22i0^ 


•122^,0^ 


TV' ; 


nT3Dir^* 

TV- 


n^22ioj[n 


nn2iDr^ 


19 


no-ID* 

T 


22i0p 


22iOD 





Verb Pe Nun, ]S) (n). 


Verbal 


1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 




'^'^1? 


••il^i^ln 




2 Cm. 

3 fm. 

V- 

Plur. 1 c. 


-T 

(regular) 


T ; ■ 


T • • 


r\pin 
'fen* 


2 Cm. 




Dr\t:i^ 


unmn 




\f- 




]r}pn 


]r}p^Pi 


]r}p^n 


3 c. 




^m^ 


r:)^^n 


wan 

: \ 


2. Inf. (constr.) 


Jlt^^* 


t:i:in 


t'i\r\* 


mr\* 


Inf. (absol.) 


T 


T • 


tj^n* 




3. Imp. Sm^f. m. 


li)^* 


••T • 


t^iin* 




PZwr. m. 






'^p'^h 
win 


(none) 


. /. 


T ; - 


T : "T • 


T ; •• - 




4.IMPERF. (FUT.) 

Sing. 1 c. 

2 Cm. 










If. 


^t^D 




win 


W-\Pi 


3 rm. 


m^* 


^^:)^^ 


t'^^* 




Plur. I c. 




(regular) 




VHP) 


2 cm. 


rmn 




W'^r\ 


W:^D 


If. 


T : - • 




T : •• - 




3 : m. 


Wl^'' 




wh 


W^' 


!/• 


T : - • 


T • 


nwian 

T ; •• ~ 


T : - \ 


Partcp. act. t:?pj 


pass. ^•i:iJ 


t'P* 



20 



Paradigms. 



Verb Pe Aleph, J^3 (a^). 



KAL. 



NIPHAL. 



HIPHIL. 



HOPHAL. 



b2\^ b2Viy boj^n* ^dkh* 

Like the Verb Pe Guttural, in Paradigm, p. 14. 



T 


X •• 


^'?^'7 


-x:iT 


'?::^^* 


.. T •• 






''^Di^ 








^^?^^ 


ETC. 


ETC. 


(none) 


^t^^^. 








b2\^* 








b2^r\ 








'h^Vir) 








byikr\ 
b-2^^ 


b3i^'* 

.. T .. 

ETC. 


b'Di^'* 

ETC. 


bjii"* 

-t:it 

ETC. 


















act. b'2\^ pass. b^::i^ 

" T 

21 


bDi^a 

Tv;|v 




bDi^D 

TT:ir 



ir IT 

Verb Pe Yod, "»3, orig. 1H) (y). 



Verbal 



1. Perfect. 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


Sing. 1 c. 
2rm. 

1/ 

3 rm. 

1/. 

PZwr. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

V- 

3 c. 


(regular) 


''r\2p')2 
k2p^2 

T : 

^:2p): 
ni^2p)^ 
]r)2p): 


2. Inf. (constr.) 
Inf. {absol.) 


r]2h*, lb' 

: 

T 


•• T • 


3. Imp. Sm^r. m. 

/• 
P/wr. m. 


2t* 
T : •• 




: IT* 


4. Imperf.(Fut.) 
Sing. 1 c. 

2 I'm. 

If. 

3 cm. 

V- 

Plur. 1 c. 

2 rm. 

t/. 

3 rm. 

If- 


2p2 

upr\ 
'^'upl 


tyr\ 
>pyn 

T : - • 


2pliii* 
2tm 

•• T • 

'2p\n 
ii;V 

2pXl 

: IT* 


Partcp. act. 2p^ 
22 


pass. 2?)t>'' 

T 




T 



Paradigms. 


1 


Verb properly 


Pe Yod, >E) (y). 


HIPHIL. 


HOP HAL. 


KAL. 


HIPHIL. 


^r\2tSr\ 


'^n^.hr} 




^iini^-'n 


r\2tr} 


nyii^'n 




r\ys^'r\ 


rsztST} 


jn3i:^-in 




r^nto^n 


2>tiSn* 


y^^T^* 


- T 


i^p>n* 






(regular) 


T • •• 


nr\2mr\ 


ursy^f^'n 




ur\yyr^ 


]p}2tsr^ 


]r}2t^n 




]ri3^^n 


^ytSr\ 


^yiim 




^y\^'^r^ 


2^^in* 


y^T[* 


nb^ 


yvy^r^* 


2't'\r\, rni^'in* 




T 


2]yr}* 


2tT\* 




y^\ 


^F^}* 




(none) 




^yiyr\ 
^y\y7\ 


T ; •• 




T : ~ : 


T\^2im 


ytS)^ 


y:)^^ 


nio^K 


n^to^j^ 


yt'si^ 


yp^rs 


2D^J^ 


y^iyrs 


^yh\r\ 


'y:)^r\ 


UZO^D 


>yiyr\ 


ypy^* 


2^-V* 


nro^^* 


2'«Z5>>* 


y^Sn 


y:j^r\ 


nro^n 


y\^'r\ 


y^^'\:i 


ytj^^ 


nto^:i 


y^'^^ 


^2>^iri 


^ypM^ 


^nro**;^ 


1 "^y^'rs 


ma-I^lr) 


ma^-ii^ 


r}^2br\ 


njato^n 


^ym 


^yti^'^ 


^nro^'' 


JIQ-.^-.^ 


T . .. 


T : - 


T ; - • 


I ^^7^'^!} 


yt\i2* 


ymi2* 


k aL?'"* i?. n-iro; 


1 2'ID^Q 


23 









Verb Ayin Vav, i^ (v). 


FerZ^a^ 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


1. Perfect. 










Sing. 1 c. 


'^PP. 


••jii^Dip;) 


''JiiD^'prT 


••i^ipp^n 


2jm. 


^?P.* 


iiiDipr 


JiiD^pn* 


T : '- 


[f- 


r^bp 


jiiDipi 


nip^^pn 


mp^n 


3 Cm. 


Dp; 


Dipy 


D^pn* 


Dpin* 


if. 


HDp* 

T 't 


HQipy 


ni^-'pn* 


HQpin 


Plur. 1 c. 


^:ipp 


i:ii:Dip^ 


i:iiD^prT 


i:)Qp_in 


2 cm. 


nnpp 


DJIIDIpJ 


DJiiD-'pn 


D^Dpin 


V- 


1J??P. 


]rnoip;) 


iniD^pri 


]riQp_in 


3 c. 


iDp^ 

Dip* 


iDip: 

' T 


iD^pn 


iDpin 


2. Inf. (constr.) 


Dipn* 


D^pn* 


Dpjin* 


Inf. (absol.) 


Dip* 


Dipn* 


Dpn, D^pn* 




3. Imp. Sin^, w. 


Dip* 


Dipn* 


Dpn* 




/. 


>Q1p* 


\pipn* 

> 


••D^pn* 

> 


(none) 


Plur. m. 


•IDip 


iDiprr 


iD^prt 




/. 


n^Qp* 

DIpN^ 


•^3'?'P'7 


™opn 




4. Imperf. (FUT.) 
Sing. 1 c. 


DipK 


D'P^ 


Dpj).^ 


2 rm. 

if. 




DIpJJI 


Dpr\ 

'• T 


Dpin 


3 rm. 


Dip- 


Dip;* 


ov:' 


Dp_1- 


l-^- 


Dipri 


u'pr\ 


D'pn 


Dp_ir) 


PZur. 1 c. 


Dip^ 


Dip:] 
> • 


D'P^, 


Dp_1J 


2 rm. 

I/.- 


^r2^pr) 


!)^ipj^ 


i.:d>pj^ 


IDpiri 


3 rm. 


IQIp^ 


i;::ip; 


^^:p: 


IDpV 


l-^- 


nj-'Dipji* 


mppj^) 


™p.^?* 


n::Dp^;n 


Partcp. ac^. Dp* 


pass. Dip* 


Dipy 


D>P5* 


DP^ID* 


24 











Paradigms. 




Verb 


Ayin Yod, 


'V (v). 


PILEL. 


PULAL. 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


"•rippip 


'•OP^P 


"•rij^ ^jiiju 


^0''^^:i;i 


JRQQip 

mrjip 

* D^'lp* 


rippip 
mpip 
* bpip 








HQQip 


™?P 


XT 


T • 


T X 


Ji^ppip 

Dii^QDip 

\P\i2nSp 


Dj;npQip 
Ij-^ppip 


' V : - 






^iDpip 


^iispip 




^JU 


•ijia: 


DDip 


DDip 


a* 




Dpip 




, r?* 


pan 




(none) 


'^'? 
^:i^i 


as apn 


n:ppip 








Dpipi^ 


DDipN 

DDipji 






DDipin 

Dgip: 
iQDipri 


Dpip^ 
Dpipji 

DpipV 
^Qpiph 




as QTj5> 


njpDipji 




nyraji 




njppipjyi 


njpp^pi^ 

DDpp 






DDIpp 


ac^]2l* , 


oas5. "JJl^* i 


5i^.^ 



25 



Verb Lamed Aleph, i^b (a^)- Verbal 



1. Perfect. 
Sing. 1 c. 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 




'J?^^^^ 


'^nmn 


2 i'm. 
3jm. 


> 

T T T 

T T 


mbT 

T ; • 




If. 


r :,T 


T ; ; • 




Plur. 1 c. 


^:3K^D 


•^:^^^*?::: 


^:imi2 


2 Cm. 


DDN^iiD 


:inmi2^ 


QJIK^-D 


V- 


]i1K^P 


iriK^'pj 


^jni^;ip 


3 c. 




^^?9? 


^v^4r2 


2. Inf. {constr.) 


«kp 


•• T • 


^^^ 


Inf. {dbsol.) 


T 


mr2} 


m^ 


3. Imp. Siw_^. m. 




•• T • 


Kifp 


/. 


"^m^* 




'^4^ 


Pkr. m. 


^mu 


: IT • 


^m-q 


/• 


T V ; 


T V T • 


T V - 


4.Imperf. (Fut.) 
/Siwf/. 1 c. 

2 rwi. 








V. 


'^Vfr^'op) 


"K^^Dn 


''^^^^Qin 


3 1 m. 




*• T • 


^?P' 


1/ 


vk^r\ 


^^::Dr^ 


j^^JD/n 


P/wr. I c. 


KiJQ: 


i^iJD: 


r^2jQ:i 


2 rm. 


^^^^*pi^ 


• JT • 


^Kijpr) 


1/ 




T V T • 


T V - ; 


3 rm. 


Ih^^.^D'' 


^k:^d^ 


•INiiO^ 


V- 


T V ; • 


T V X • 


T V - ; 


Partcp. act. Kli 


Q ij«5*. Ri:iD 


^^^rJJ 


^^^•072 


26 









Paradigms. 


Verb Lamed 


Aleph, k'? (a^). 




PUAL. 


HIPHTL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 




^J1^^^Q^T 


• •• ; \ 


^rii<,^pjnrT 












i^'^^^DH 




i^2f2r\n 




T • : • 


T : : \ 

•• • •. 




nr\mr2 


DnhJ:i^;:2n 


DriKXQn 


DJi?^iiQnn 


iriK^D 


]rl^^^p^ 


]jnj^^;pn 


iriRi^ipjirr 


: \ 


•ij^'^^prT 


: : \ 


•iKijprin 


T \ 


^^^:iQ^ 


i^-^f^nn 




K^fDH 








K^^prr 




i^'4J2m 




^K^i^^DH 




•"KiiQjin 


(none) 


•IK^i^DH 


(none) 


JiN^Drirr 




T V ; - 








K^^iDN 


KHiDJ* 


^li^DD^ 




X^^^ip 


•^ : \ 


^^^-0-^ 


'^'4^^ 


''>^''^'Qri 


^^^^?-!^ 


'mr^nn 




^'??' 




^SPO? 


i^'Af2P\ 


N^liJ^n 


Ki:o;n 


i^^Qnn 


mr22 

T •• • 


J^^^iD: 


k:^q: 


K^Qn: 


: \ : 


^K^l^Qi? 




^K2ioriJj) 




T V : - 




T V - : • 


^l^^ID'^ 


^^'W- 


^m^' 


^Ki:DJi> 






T V : \ 


T V - : • 


T\ : 

27 


J^^^QQ 


.^^^O'P 





Verb Lamei 


D He, n'? (h). 


Verbal 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


Sing. 1 c. 


• • T 


'ol^-?^ 


w^ii 


2 cm. 

if- 


ivbr 

T • T 




JT'?-!* 

T • • 

r\'<b3 


3 Cm. 
if- 


r^br 

TT 

T : IT 


T ; • 

nn^:iy 


nb3' 

T • 

nnb^* 


Plur. 1 c. 


^ybi 


•iT^:!: 


U'^-i 


2 rm. 


on-'^j 


Dn^'?:!:) 


or\''l>3 


V- 


1J^'>^ 


1^\^^? 


tJT'^il 


3 c. 


T 


•i^^: 


1^^ 


2. Inf. (constr.) 


D'hs' 


Jii^^n* 


nfe» 


Inf. (absol.) 


T 


rt^'^: 


rt^l 


3. Imp. 5iw^. m. 


n'pii* 


r^b:\^* 


n^3» 


/. 


.^br 


^b^n* 


•^r 


Plur, m. 


1^3 


^b^n 


1^1 


/ 




mbm* 

T V T • 


T V - 


4.Imperf. (Fut.) 
Sing. 1 c. 
2 nn. 


nb:\n 


nbui^ 

V T V 

nb^iD 


iib:\i^ 


V- 


'b::in* 


'^b-\r)* 


>^jn* 


3 rm. 


nb':in 


nbT* 




Phr. 1 c. 


n^:j 


rib^2 


n^^:: 


2 rm. 
1/ 


nTb:\r) 


^b'ir) 

T • 


nTb:in 


3 cm. 

if. 


T V : • 


T • 

riTb^n* 

T V T • 


TV-: 


Partcp. act. ^b'^l 

28 


T 


V ; • 


V - : 



Paradigms. 


Verb Lamed He, H? 0^)- 




PUAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


• •• •. 


'''0'!?^^^ 


'/v'^^rr 


^Jt.^|jnr7 


ihr 


jT^:in* 


jT^:in* 


JT-Jiinn* 


rsbi 


r)'b:in 


ji^'pjn 


Pi'^bunn 


rh'r 


n^:in* 


n':':in* 


r^b^n^* 


T ' •• 


■•■::• 


T : : T 


T : - • • 


^T'Ji 


^Tb:in 


ij'^^:in 


•i^'^-'iinrT 


QJT^i 


DJT'^-in 


Dn^^:)n 


DJT'^iinn 


i^T„^i 


]n-^b:in 


]n^^:irT 


]r)'b^nn 




^b'^n 


: T 


^b^m 


^\^br 


Jii^:in* 


r)i^:n* 


n^b^nn* 




n^:n 




rib^m* 




nb:in* 




nb^jin* 




••^^n* 




^^iiJin 


(none) 


•i^^n 


(none) 


^b^m 




T ■•■ J - 




mb^nn* 

TV-; • 


n'pji"^ 


^^:l^^ 


n':':ij^ 


n^iiJij^ 


rhin 


*• n^:i/n 


n^^^iPi 


n^iij-iri 


•^biiD* 


•"^^r^* 


^^:n* 


•'^•irin* 


nby* 


n"?:!^* 


n':':^* 


n^iji^* 


nb':\r) 


nbiin 


n'piijn 


n-jiinh 


n*?::) 


nb^j 


n^^: 


nb^n^ 




^V:h 


• T 


^b'^rir) 


nyb2r\ 


nrb':i;^ 


nr'?jn 


mb^jiF) 




6t 


•i^r 


^b^r\i 




T V : - 


T V ; T 


mbunr)* 

TV-; • 


nby2* 

29 


n^;i^* 


V : T 


nb^m* 



LONDOK : 

aiLBEET AST) EIYIKGTON, PBINTEHS, 

ST. JOHN'S SQUAEK. 



PJ4566 .A75 1866 
The first Hebrew book. 

Princeton Theological Semma'y-Speer Library 



1 1012 00076 4664