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THE YOUNG AUGUSTUS 



THE 



First Latin BoDk 



BY 

WILLIAM C. COLLAR, A.M. 

HBAD-MASTBR ROXBURY LATIN SCHOOL 

AND 

M. GRANT DANIELL, A.M. 

PRINaPAL CHAUNCY-HALL SCHOOL, BOSTON 



Boston, U.S.A. 

PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY 
1900 



B^(iuuuT.9i9^ ooo ^Z 



Hli : 19^0 



Copyright, 1894, by 
WiLUAM C. Collar and M. Grant Danibll 



ALL RIGHTS RBSBRVBD 




PREFACE. 



This book is not a revision of " The Beginner's Latin 
Book," nor is it intended to supersede that work. It has 
been written for the purpose of offering to schools that 
cannot afford the amount of time and practice required 
to complete " The Beginner's Latin Book," a work not 
less thorough, but easier, and demanding not more than 
two-thirds as much time. The reduction has been made 
almost wholly by shortening the exercises for translation, 
particularly those to be turned into Latin. 

Those who compare the two books will find that the 
inflections of the language are illustrated with as much 
copiousness in this book as in the former. The same is 
true of the comparative completeness with which the 
principles of syntax are treated. In fact a place was 
found for some points of construction that were not 
taken up in the earlier book. 

Except in the few pages of introduction, the colloquia, 
and some minor matters, the contents of the book are 
new, but everywhere increased simplicity and clearness 
have been studied, not novelty. 

Deviations from the method of " The Beginner's Latin 
Book" will be found to be unimportant, except in the 
treatment of the pronouns, the subjunctive, the infinitive, 



iv PREFACE, 

and the participle. Instead of deferring these subjects 
till very late and then dealing with them in mass, they 
have been brought forward much earlier in some of 
their uses, so as to distribute difficulties and make prac- 
tice more gradual, varied, and extended. Reading lessons 
have been introduced early and great pains taken to grade 
them in point of difficulty to the progress of the learner, 
and at the same time to exemplify those forms and 
principles of syntax that have constituted the substance 
of preceding lessons. 

Beyond such changes in order and method, it did not 
seem to us wise to depart from the plan of the earlier 
book. The surprising favor with which that book was 
received at once, on its publication, and its annually 
increasing use, amounting, as the publishers inform us, 
to more than 45,000 copies a year, seemed the strongest 
justification for building on the same plan. 

In preparing the former book we conceived it to be 
of the highest importance, " while following a rigorously 
scientific method in the development of the successive 
subjects, to impart something of attractiveness, interest, 
freshness, and variety to the study of the elements of 
Latin." ^ To engage the interest of the young learner at 
the outset of his study of Latin is to gain for him an 
immense advantage in wrestling with so difficult a lan- 
guage. Though this principle seems to have been pur- 
posely ignored in some first Latin books that have 
appeared since the publication of " The Beginner's Latin 
Book," we are not shaken in our belief that both reason 
and experience will continue to condemn such works as 

1 See "The Beginner's Latin Book," p. vL 



PREFACE, V 

fundamentally and fatally wrong in conception, whatever 
be the care and skill shown in their compilation. To 
acquire Latin is a task calling for patience, industry, 
perseverance, time. But if the beginner, as sometimes 
happens, has the misfortune to spend a good part of a 
year over a wooden book of forms and exercises, then 
to be thrust upon a difficult and uninteresting mili- 
tary history, there is considerable danger that he will 
become impatient, lazy, discouraged, and will abandon 
the study. 

Whatever means were found available in the prepara- 
tion of " The Beginner's Latin Book " for imparting 
" interest and freshness," have been used in this, and in 
particular the principle of continuity in separate exercises 
has been kept in view and applied as far as was found 
practicable. What is meant may be found illustrated in 
such exercises as those numbered 104, 118, 123, 128, 
129, 310, 480. 

It will be seen that this book is designed to be liot 
simply a stile to a particular author, but rather a gate to 
the Latin language. No effort has been made to keep 
the vocabularies down to the point of meagreness and to 
circumscribe them to one set of ideas. It was accord- 
ingly no objection in the opinion of the authors, but 
rather a recommendation, that the selections for reading 
at the end of the book contain a copious and varied 
vocabulary. Yet it appears that the learner, after com- 
pleting the lessons that precede, has already had and 
used more than two-thirds of the words occurring in these 
selections. 

The attention of all who use this book is called to the 
special and general vocabularies at the end. They are 



Vi PREFACE, 

not mere catalogues of words. Great pains have been 
taken to make them thoroughly helpful to the learner. 
Besides references to the text, comparisons are constantly 
made with synonymous words, and the learner is reminded 
of the most interesting kindred words in English. 

We are strongly of the opinion that, after the rudi- 
ments have been learned, it is wise to have some weeks 
or months of reading in easy Latin before Nepos and 
Caesar are taken up. Even in the course of the first few 
months of study it is desirable to give a part of the hour 
of recitation to reading at sight in such a book as " The 
New Gradatim," the teacher leading the way and supply- 
ing the meanings of words. This book may very well be 
followed by i;ome easy Latin Reader, or by " Viri Romae,** 
for which a term or more of the first year should remain 
after completing the lessons. We are confident that 
such a course would so much lessen the difficulty of be- 
ginning Nepos or Caesar, and so much increase the 
pleasure and confidence of the learner, that it would 
soon seem strange that a different practice should ever 
have prevailed. 

The merits of "Viri Romae," as a reading book for 
boys and girls, seem not to be fully appreciated in this 
country. It is not too difficult, it is interesting from be- 
ginning to end, and it presents to the young many noble 
ideals of spirit and conduct. Occasionally a pedant ob- 
jects to the Latinity ; but the Latinity is at least as good 
as that of Nepos, and learned schoolmasters all over 
Europe put it into the hands of their pupils. 

Our thanks are due to Miss Alice M. Wing, of the 
Springfield High School, and to Mr. J. H. Humphries, 
of the Girls' High School, Philadelphia, for suggestions 



PREFACE. vii 

made while the proof-sheets were passing through the 
press. We are under special obligations to Mjr. John L. 
March, of the Harry Hillman Academy, Wilkesbarre, Pa., 
and to Mr. Clarence W. Gleason, of the Roxbury Latin 
School. Both gentlemen made valuable suggestions and 
read the proofs with as much concentrated attention and 
scrupulous care as if the work were their own and its 
accuracy depended upon them individually. 

Wm. C. Collar. 
M. G. Daniell. 
Boston, Sept. 14, 1894. 



CONTENTS. 



Lesson Pagb 

Grammatical Introduction i-6 

I. First Declension : Nominative Singular and 

Plural 7, 8 

II. First Declension : Nominative and Accusative. 

— Subject. — Direct Object 9-1 1 

III FiR^T Declension : Dative. — Indirect Object. — 

Possessive Dative 11-13 

IV. First Declension : Genitive. — Predicate Nom- 
inative X4i 15 

V. Second Declension: Words in -ns and -um. 

Apposition 16-18 

VI. First and Second Declensions: Agreement of 

Adjectives 18-20 

VII. Second Declension : Words in -er 21-23 

VIII. The Verb sum: Present, Imperfect, and Future 
Indicative ; Present Imperative and Infinitive. 

— Agreement of Verbs. Colloquium 23-25 

IX. First Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, and 
Future Indicative ; Present Imperative and In- 
finitive 26, 27 

X. Ablative of Agent. Colloquium 27, 28 

XI. The Verb sum: Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future 
Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive. — Instru- 
mental Ablative . 29-31 

XII. First Conjugation : Perfect, Pluperfect, and 
Future Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive. — 
Ablative of Manner 3^-33 



X CONTENTS, 

Lbsson Pagb 

XIII. Reading Lesson : Thb Romans and the Sabinbs . 33, 34 

XIV. The Demonstratives hie and ille . . . . 35-37 
XV. The Interrogative Pronoun 37-39 

XVI. The Relative Pronoun : Agreement of Relative 40-42 

XVII. The Demonstrative is 42-44 

XVIII. Third Declension : Mute Stems .... 45-47 
XIX. Third Declension : Mute Stems. — Ablative 

of Cause, Colloquium 47-50 

XX. Third Declension : Liquid Stems. — Descrip- 
tive Ablative and Genitive . 5^-53 

XXI. Reading Lesson : Scipio and Hannibal. Collo- 
quium 53-55 

XXII. Third Declension : Stems in i 56-58 

XXIII. Third Declension: Stems in i. — Ablative of 

Time 58-61 

XXIV. Third Declension: Gender. — Anbcdotb. Col- 

loquium 61-63 

XXV. Adjectives of the Third Declension . . 64-66 

XXVI. Ablative of Specification 66, 67 

XXVII. Second Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, and 
Future Indicative ; Present Imperative and 

Infinitive 68, 69 

XXVIII. Reading Lesson: ThbVolscians 70 

XXIX. The Locative Case 7i» 72 

XXX. Second Conjugation : Perfect, Pluperfect, 
and Future Perfect Indicative; Perfect Infini- 
tive 72, 73 

XXXI. Comparison of Adjectives : Declension of 

Comparatives. — Ablative of Comparison . . 74-76 
XXXII. Comparison of Adjectives: Partitive Genitive 77-79 

XXXIII. Comparison OF Adjectives: Ablative of Degree 

of Difference 80-82 

XXXIV. Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. — 

Colloquium 82-85 

XXXV. Third Conjugation: Present, Imperfect, and 
Future Indicative; Present Imperative and 

Infinitive 85-87 

XXXVI. Reading Lesson : Cornbua's j«wbls . . . . 87, 88 



CONTENTS, Xi 

Lbsson Pagb 

XXXVII. Fourth Declension 89, 90 

XXXVIII. Third Conjugation: Perfect, Pluperfect, 
and Future Perfect Indicative; Perfect 
Infinitive. — Ablative 0/ Accompaniment . 91-93 
XXXIX. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns : 

Possessive Adjectives 94-97 

XL. Subjunctive of Purpose with ut and 
nS. — Present and Imperfect Subjunctive 

of sum, am5, and mone5 9^1 99 

XLI. Fifth Declension : Accusative of Extent, 

Colloquium 100-102 

XLII. Third Conjugation, Verbs in -i6 : Tenses 
of the Indicative ; Present Imperative ; 
Present and Perfect Infinitive. — Accusa- 
tive of Place Whither 103-105 

XLIII. Reading Lesson : A Battlb 106, 107 

XLIV. Subjunctive of Result with ut and ut 
n5n. — Present and Imperfect Subjunctive 

of reg5 and capi5 107-109 

XLV. Numerals: Cardinals. Colloquium . . . 110-112 
XLVI. Numerals : Ordinals. — Irregular Adjec- 
tives 113, 114 

XLVII. Complementary Infinitive : Indicative, 

Infinitive, Present and Imperfect Subjunc- 

/ tive of possum. — Predicate Adjective after 

Complementary Infinitive, — Subject of the 

Infinitive 115-1x7 

XLVIII. The Demonstratives iste, idem, ipse . 1 18-120 

XLIX. The Indefinite Pronouns 1 21-123 

L. Reading Lesson : Cicbronis Epistula. — Db 

Vitus Hominum 1 23, 124 

LI. Accusative AND Infinitive: Indirect Dis- 
course, — Future Infinitives. — Tenses of the 

Infinitive 125-128 

LII. Fourth Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, 
and Future Indicative ; Present and Imper- 
fect Subjunctive ; Present Imperative and 
Infinitive 128-130 



xii CONTENTS. 

LnsoN Pagb 

mi. Fourth Conjugation: Perfect, Pluperfect, 
and Future Perfect Indicative; Perfect and 
Future Infinitive. — Suhjunctive after Verbs 

of Fearing 131-133 

LIV. Review of the Four Conjugations . . 134, 135 

LV. Derivation 136-138 

LVI. Present and Perfect Participles . . . 139-141 
LVII. Deponent Verbs : Ablative with Certain 

Deponents. Colloquium 142-145 

LVIII. TkE Irregular Verbs void, ndld, maid: 

Dative with Intransitive Verbs 146-148 

LIX. Reading Lesson: Ars Mbmoriab.~Cbrva bt 

ViTis 149, 150 

LX. CvODrClauses : Pluperfect Subjunctive. — Nasica 

BT Ennius 150-152 

LXI. Ablative Absolute 153-^55 

LXII. Reading Lesson : Galua Pacata . . . . 156, 157 
LXIII. Compounds of sum : Dative with Compounds. 

— Dative of Service. — Db Amicitia . . . . 157-160 
LXIV. The Verb e5 : Expressions of Place. — Abla- 
tive of Separation. Colloquium 1 61-165 

LXV. Sequence of Tenses : Indirect Questions. — 

Perfect Subjunctive 166-169 

LXVI. The Verbs ferS and fi5. Colloquium . . 169-172 
LXVII. The Subjunctive in Relative Clauses. — 

OvOBL Causal and Concessive 172-174 

LXVIII. The Subjunctive in Wishes and Appeals : 

Future Imperative ^ 175-178 

LXIX. Conditional Sentences. — Albxandbr bt par- 

MBNIO 178— 181 

LXX. Reading Lesson : Prosbrpina 182, 183 

LXXI. Periphrastic Conjugations: Future Active 

Participle and Gerundive. — Dative of Agent 184-186 

LXXII. Gerund and Gerundive. — Supine. — Tubicbn 187-190 

Reading Lessons 193-203 

Tables of Declension and Conjugation .... 205-238 
Vocabularies 239-286 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The Young Augustus. Frontispiece. 



PAGE 

Arae 8 

Tuba 13 

Hasta 15 

Carrus 20 

Cymba 25 

Aratrum Antiquum . 34 

Rostra 39 

Eques 44 

SciPio . ) 
Hannibal) 

Gladius 67 

POCULUM 69 

Arcus 73 

Scuta 76 

Navis Pirata .... 79 

Navis Longa .... 88 

Templum 93 



55 



PAGB 

Galeae 97 

PiLA 102 

SiGNA 105 

Denarius 112 

Gaius Julius Caesar . 117 

CoRNUA 130 

MiLITES ROMANI . . . 1 33 

Cicero 141 

Testudo 148 

Calcei 152 

Pharetra cum Sagittis 155 

CURRUS 160 

Vexillum 183 

Calcar 186 

RoMANUS in Toga Prae- 

TEXTA 191 



THE 

FIRST LATIN BOOK. 



GRAMMATICAL INTRODUCTION. . 

This introduction, particularly so much of it as relates to 
pronuncifition, may be most profitably used for reference. Pupils 
catch pronunciation quickly from the lips of the teacher, and, if 
they make mistakes, are interested in being referred to rules. It 
is therefore advised that the teacher begin with the Colloquium^ 
page 5, pronouncing slowly each sentence, the pupils following 
successively, and then together. 



1. Alphabet. — The Latin alphabet has noj or w. 
Otherwise it is the same as the English. 

2. / does service both as a vowel and as a con- 
sonant. Before a vowel in the same syllable it has 
the force of a consonant, and is called i-consonant, 

3. Of the consonants 

The mutes are p, b, t, d, o, k, g, q. 

The liquids are 1, m, n, r. 

The sibilant is •. 

The double consonants are . . x » rx or ^x, z >■ ds. 



2 pronunciation, 

Sounds of the Letters, Roman Method. 

4. Vowels, 

a as the last a in aha\ I as the first a in aha\ 

e as in they, S as in met, 

i as in machine, K as in pin, 

o as in holy* 6 as in wholly, 

u^ like 00 in boot, u like oo in foot 

5. Diphthongs, 

ae like ai in aisle, au like ou in ^»r. 

ei (rare) like ei in ^z^A/. oe like oi in ^(7i7. 

ea (rare) like eu in ^«</. 

6. Consonants, 

Consonants generally have the same sounds as in English. 
But observe the following : — 

o as in come, g as in get, 

i-conaonant like^^ myet, b as in sun, 

t as in time, v like w in wine, 

oh like k in kite, ph like / in far, 

7. Syllables. 

I. A syllable consists of a vowel or diphthong 
with or without one or more consonants. Hence 
a word has as many syllables as it has vowels and 
diphthongs : ae-gri-tfl'-d5, sickness, 

1 In qu^ gUi and sometimes in utterance with the preceding 

sUi before a vowel, u \s 9l semi- letter ; so likewise in coi and 

vowel or consonant, is pro- hoic: quia, qui, who^ an^-gois, 

nounced like w, and joined in snake; con-tuS^-tas, accustomed. 



PRONUNCIATION. 3 

2. When a word is divided into syllables, a single 
consonant is joined with the vowel following: a-mft'- 
bi-lis, amiable, 

3. If there are two. or more consonants between 
two vowels, as many are joined with the following 
vowel as can be pronounced at the beginning of a 
word or syllable : im'-pro-buS| bad; ho'-speS| guest, 

4. But in compound words the division must 
show the component parts : ab'-est (ab| away ; esty 
he is)^ he is away. 

5. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima; 
the one next to the last, the penult; the one before 
the p6nult, the antepenult, 

8. Quantity. 

1. Vowels are long (") or short (^). In this book 
the long vowels are marked, except in some titles ; 
unmarked vowels must be regarded as short. 

2. A vowel is short before a vowel (with few 
exceptions) or A: pW-ma, /^^w; grft'-tit-ac, thanks; 
nl'-hily nothing, 

3. Diphthongs, vowels representing diphthongs, 
and vowels resulting from contraction are long: 
in-cau'-tus» heedless; in-I'-quus (inaequus), unequal; 
c5'-g5 (cSigo), collect, 

4. A syllable is long when it contains a long 
vowel or a diphthong: v5'-c5s, voices; ae'-d€8| temple, 

5. A syllable is long if it has a short vowel fol- 
lowed by two or more consonants (except a mute 



4 PRONUNCIATION, 

followed by / or r), or by ;ir or ^; but the short vowel 
is still pronounced short : sunt, they are; tem'-plunii 
temple; dux, leader, 

9. Accent. 

1. Words of two syllables have the accent on 
the first: tu'-ba, trumpet, 

2. Words of more than two syllables have the 
accent on the penult when the penult is long, 
otherwise on the antepenult: prae-di'-c6, foretell; 
yteLt^-iirc^^ declare ; il-le'-ce-brac, J«^r^J ; pa-tcr'-nus,* 
paternal, 

3. Several words, called enclitics, of which the 
commonest are -ne, the sign of a question, and -que, 
andy are appended to other words, and such words 
are then accented on the syllable preceding the 
-ne or -que : amat'-ne, does he love ? d5na'-que, and 
gifts. 

10. English Method of Pronunciation. — By 
this method the above rules relating to syllables (7) 
and accent (9) are observed, and words are pro- 
tiounced substantially as in English; but final es is 
sounded as in English ease, and the final ds (ace. 
plur.) as in dose, 

^Here, though the vowel of the penult is short, the syllable is 
long by 8, 5. 



PRO NUNC J A TION. 



The following colloquium may be used for practice and 
to illxistrate the preceding statements. See introductory note, 
page I. 

11. Colloquium. 

Augustus. Quid tibiyis? What do you wish {for 

yourself^ ? 

I should like to take a walk 
with you. 

I dorCt want to; I prefer 
to stay at home. 

Why do you prefer (that) ? 

My brother and I had 
rather take a walk at evening 
with our father. 

Why don^t you want to 
roam with me through the 
woods ? 

Because we had rather enjoy 
the pleasantness of evening 
than the heat of the sun. 

But often before now you 
have not wanted to walk with 
me. 

What you say is not true; 
there is no reason why I 
should not want to walk with 
you; but since grandfather's 
garden is quite large, and has 
a pond and a grove, we had 
rather play there. If you 
like, come with us. 



laius. Tecum ambulare 
▼elim. 

A. Ego ndld; domi ma- 
nere maid. 

/. Cur mavis ? 

A. Ego et frater yesperi 
cum patre ambulare malumus. 

/ C&r mScum per sily&s 
▼agar! n5n vultis ? 

A. Quod yesperi amoeni- 
tate f rui malumus quam s5Us 
arddre. 

/ At iam saepe mecum 
ambul&re ndluisti. 

A. Ndn rgcte dicis; 4i5n 
est causa cfir tecum ambul&re 
ndlim; at cum hortus avi satis 
amplus sit et lacum silvam- 
que contineat, ibi malumus 
ludere. Si yis, ndbiscum yeni. 



6 cases and gender. 

12. Cases. 

I . The names of the cases in Latin are : nomina- 
tivey genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative, 
locative. Their characteristics of form, meaning, 
and use are illustrated in the paradigms and exer- 
cises which follow. 

13. Gender. — The gender of Latin nouns is 
determined partly, as in English, by the meaning, 
but much oftener by the termination. 

1. Nouns denoting males, and names of rivers, 
winds, and months, are masculine: eigricoisif farmer ; 
Cicer5| Cicero; PaduSy Po ; aquilOy north wind; 
Iftnu^iuSi January, 

2. Nouns denoting females, and names of coun- 
tries, towns, islands, and trees, 2ire feminine : r€g!nai 
queen; Tulliai Tullia; Africai Africa ; ROma, Rome; 
Siciliay Sicily; ^ixus^ pear-tree. 



It is assumed that the learner knows the names and 
functions of the parts of speech in English, and the meanings 
of the common grammatical terms, such as subject and predi- 
cate^ case, mood, tense, voice, declension, conjugation, etc. So 
much knowledge is absolutely essential for entering upon the 
study of the following lessons. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 7 

LESSON I. 
First Declension. 

The Stem! ends in a. 

Gender. The gender is feminine ; but see 13, i. 

Nominative Singular and Plural. 

14. Models. 
singular. plural. 

minaa, table. mSnaae, tables. 

paella, girl. paellae, girls, 

haata, sfear. haatae, spears. 

a. How does the plural of the Latin noun differ from the 
singular? Form the plural of the adjectives below in the 
same way. 

15. Vocabulary, 

NOUNS. ADJECTIVES. 

oolumba, f. dove. alba, white. 

dea, f . goddess. bona, good, 

filia, f. daughter, lata, wide^ broad. 

haata, f. spear ^ p. 15. longa, long, 

menaa, f. table. parva, small. 

Muaa, f . Muse. toa, your^ yours (247, a). 

paella, f . girl, 

via, f. road^ street, 

verbs. adverbs. 

eat, (A^, she, it) is, ubi, where, 

aont, {they) are, -ne, sign of a question (9, 3). 

^ The stem is the common base to express the relation of the 
to which certain letters are added word to other words. 



8 FIRST DECLENSION. 

lOi Model Sentences, 

1. Colmnba est alba, the dove is white, 

2. Columbae Biint albae, doves are white, 

3. Estne tua filia parva ? is your daughter small? 

4. Ubi sunt longae hastae ? where are the long spears f 

a. Observe that the adjectives in the above sentences agree 
with their nouns in number. 

b. In Latin there is no article : mSnsa may be translated, 
a table^ the table^ or table. 



17. I. Via est longa. 2. Viae sunt longae. 3. Puella 
est parva. 4. Puellae sunt parvae. 5. Hastae sunt 
longae. 6. Mensa est lata. 7. Deae sunt bonae. 8. Musa 
est bona. 9. Ubi est filia bona ? 10. Suntne columbae 
parvae? 11. Estne via lata? 12. Longa via est bona. 
13. Longae viae sunt bonae. 14. Suntne longae viae 
latae ? 

18. I. Where is the little girl? 2. Where are the 
little girls ? 3. Are the girls small ? 4. Are the goddesses 
good ? 5. The broad street is long. 6. The white dove 
is small. 7. The daughters are good. 8. Is the spear a 
good one*? 9. Is the spear long? 10. Are the spears 
long? II. The tables are long and broad. 

1 Omit. 




Arae. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 9 

LESSON II. 
First Declension. — cV'/r/i/fi^i/. 

Nominative and Accusative. 

19. Paradigm, 
singular. plural. 

N. tuba, a trumpet, N. tubae, trumpets, 

G. XxAxL<b, of a trumpet, G. Xx^yaxvan, of trumpets. 

D. tubae, to or for a trumpet, D. tubis, to ox for trumpets, 

Ac. tubam, a trumpet. Ac. tubas, trumpets, 

Ab. tuba, with a trumpet, Ab. tubia, with trumpets, 

a. Terminations, printed in the paradigm in blacker type, 
consist of case endings joined with the final letter of the stem. 
But sometimes the final letter of the stem is lost, and sometimes 
the case ending. 

b. Decline the adjectives below like the nouns. 

20. Vocabulary, 

NOUNS. ADJECTIVES. 

ara, f . altar, grata, pleasing^ acceptable, 

Biinerva,^ f. Minerva, mea, my^ mine, 

pecunia, f. money, pulchra, beautiful, 

poeta, xxupoet (13, i). 

regina, f. queen, 

rosa, f. rose, et, conj. and, 

taba, f. trumpet^ P- i3- qal4 pron. whatt 

VERBS. 

amat, {he^ she^ it) loves. dat, (he^ she, it) gives, 

amant, (they) love. dant, (they) give. 

habet, (he, she, it) has, laudat, (Jie, she, it) praises, 

habent, (they) have, laudant, (they) praise. 

a. How does the plural of the verb forms difEer from the 
singular? 

^ No pluraL 



10 FIRST DECLENSION. 

21. Model Sentences, 

1 . BUnerva aram habet, Minerva has an altar, 

2. Poeta tuam filiam laudat, the poet praises your daughter, 

3. Quid habent Biinerva et Muaae? what have Minerva 
and the Muses f 

4. Pecuniam meam habent, they have my money, 

a. Observe the adjectives tuam and meam. They agree 
with their nouns in case as well as in number. 

b. Observe the order of the words in each Latin sentence, 
and compare it with the order in English. 

c. Observe the cases. To what case in English does the 
accusative in these sentences correspond? 

d. When the subject of the verb is not expressed, the ending 
of the verb shows the person and number of the omitted subject. 

22. Rule. — The subject of a finite^ verb is in the 
nominative. 

23. Rule. — The direct object of a transitive verb 
is in the accusative. 



24. I* Tua pecunia est grata. 2. Quid habent poetae ? 
3. Meae filiae rosas albas dant. 4. Datne dea bona 
pulchram tubam? 5. Puellae pulchrae columbas amant. 
6. Minerva et Musae ilras habent. 7. Poeta amat 
columbam parvam. 8. Hastas longas laudat. 9. Pul- 
chras puellas laudant. 10. Ubi sunt tuae tubae? 

25. I. They praise the broad streets. 2. The beauti- 
ful queen has a beautiful rose. 3. Where is the queen 
and where is the poet ? 4. He gives a spear and a 

^ That is, in any mood except the infinitive. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 11 

trumpet. 5. Your spear is a long one.* 6. They have 
money. 7. What has Minerva ? 8. Minerva has a spear. 
9. Has the goddess a beautiful altar ? 10. Are the tables 
pleasing ? 

26. Colloquium. 

Estne via lata ? Certe (certainly), via est lata et longa. 
Quid habet puella parva ? Puella parva rosam albam habet 
Laudantne bonam reginam ? Reginam laudant et amant. 
Ubi est mea filia parva ? Tua f ilia est in (in) via. 



LESSON III. 

First Deolension. — Continued. 
Dative. 

27. Model Sentences. 

1 . Poeta ree^nae roBam dat, the poet gives a rose to the 
queen; or, the poet gives the queen a rose. 

2. Columba alba est puellae, there is a white dove to the 
girl; that is, the girl has a white dove. 

3. Peounia poetae grata est, money is acceptable to the poet. 

a. Observe in the first sentence that the direct object of dat 
is rosam. What the poet gives is a rose ; the person to whom 
he gives is rgginae, representing tiie indirect object. 

28. Rule. — The indirect object is put in the 

dative. ^ 

b. Observe now the second sentence. The meaning is exactly 

the same as if it were puella habet columbam. The dative thus 

used is called the dative of the possessor , or the possessive 

dative. 

iQmit 



12 FII^ST DECLENSION, 

29. Rule. — The dative is used with est, sunt, 
etc,, forms of the verb sum (516), to denote pos- 
session, the thin£ possessed being the subject. 

r. The third sentence illustrates a use of the dative with 
adjectives. 

30. Vocabulary. 

NOUNS. VERBS. 

agricola, m. farmer. erat, was. 

Brltamiia, f . Britain. erant, were. 

fibula, f. story. narrat, tells. 

Gkdba, m. Galba. narrant, tell. 

luna, f . moon. placet, pleases, ) ^.^^^ ^^^.^^ 



Bilva, f . forest. placent, please, ) 

ADJECTIVES. In. prep, with abl., in, o 

cara, dear. grata est = placet, 

nova, new. gratae sunt = placent. 



Follow the Latin order in the first rendering of Latin sen- 
tences into English. That will aid you in making out the 
meaning ; you can then translate into good English. 

31. I. Agricolae est filia. 2. Agricola filiam habet. 
3. Poeta reginae narrat fabulam. 4. Fabula reginae est 
grata. 5. Fabula reginae placet. 6. Parvae puellae agri- 
cola dat rosam. 7. Tubae parvis puellis placent. 8. In 
Britannia erant longae viae. 9. Galba et poeta in silva 
erant. 10. Luna nova erat agricolae grata. 

32. Note the arrangement of words in the preceding exer- 
cise. 

, a. \n 2l Latin sentence the subject is oftener placed first 
tiian elsewhere, and the verb (except est and sunt) oftener comes 
last than elsewhere. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 13 

b. If the subject seems to be more emphatic than any other 
word, it should be placed first. 

c. Of two words that go together, as an adjective and a 
noun, the more emphatic comes first. The adjective oftener 
precedes. 

//.It follows that there is great freedom in the arrangement 
of words in a Latin sentence ; but the order must have a 
meaning. Do not arrange your words at haphazard. 

33. Examine these three forms of the fifth sentence 
of 31 and the translation : — 

1. Fabnla reginae placet, the story {not the fioem) pleases 
the queen, 

2. Reginae placet fibula, the story pleases the queen {not 
the king), 

3. Placet fibula reginae, the story pleases {not grieves) 
the queen, 

34. I.* Galba has a daughter. 2. The daughter tells 
the poet* a story. 3. On the altar there • was a rose. 
4. The new moon pleases ^ the farmer.* 5. The Muses 
were dear to Minerva. 6. My daughters give the farmer 
some' money. 7. And the farmers give my daughters' 
pretty roses. 8. What has the queen? 9. The altars 
please ^ the goddesses.' 

* Translate in two ways. * Dative. 

3 Not the ace. Look out for ^ Dea and filia have ftbas in 
other examples. the dative and ablative plural : 

* Omit deibas, fiUSbas. 



Tuba. 



14 FIRST DECLENSION. 

LESSON IV. 
First Deolension. — c^y^iff^^. 
Genitive. Predicate Nominative. 

35. Model Sentences. 

1. Vesta erat dea Romae, Vesta was a goddess of Rome, 

2. Victoria est Britanniae regina, Victoria is queen of 
Britain, 

3. Cara deae est Ira Musae, dear to the goddess is the 
Muse's altar, 

4. FQia agrioolae rosam dat poetae, the farmer* s daughter 
gives a rose to the poet, 

a. Point out the genitive in each of the above sentences, 
and tell what word it limits. 

36. Rule. — A noun used to limit or define 
another, and not meaning the same person or 
thing, is put in the genitive. 

b. Examine the first two sentences. Dea denotes the same 
person as Vesta the subject ; regina the same as the subject 
Victdria. Nouns thus used with est and similar verbs are called 
predicate nouns, 

37. Rule. — A predicate noun agrees with the 
subject in case, 

38. Vocabulary, 

Europa, f . Europe, Vesta, f . Vesta (a goddess). 

fera, f. wild beast, Victoria, f. Victoria. 

GkOlia, f. Gaul, 

Graecia, f . Greece, magna, adj. great. 

Helvetia, f . Helvetia, quis, pron. who ? 

insula, f. island, hodie, adv. to-day. 

Italia, f. Italy. ^^^ adv. not, 

Roma, f . Rome, ^idet, verb, sees. 

terra, f. land, country. vident, verb, see. 



FIRST DECLENSION, IS 

39. I. Helvetia erat terra Galliae. 2. Gallia erat 
Europae terra. 3. Italia est Europae magna terra. 

4. Vesta et Minerva deae erant Romae. 5. Nonne^ pul- 
chrae erant Vestae et Minervae arae? 6. Ubi sunt 
hodie Graeciae deae? 7. Graecia erat terra Musarum. 
8. Nonne sunt puellanun rosae magnae? 9. Britannia 
est Europae insula. 10. Quis vias Britanniae non laudat ? 

a. In which sentences does the genitive precede the word 
which it limits ? Account for its position. 

40. I. Italy and Greece are countries of Europe. 
2. The roads of Greece are not .wide and long. 3. Are 
the roads of the island long ? 4. Who sees my daughters ? 

5. The queen sees the farmers* daughters. 6. She gives 
the beautiful girl money. 7. Galba has a trumpet. 8. Who 
sees wild beasts in Italy to-day ? 9. They see the new 
moon. 10. Dear to the poet are the farmer's woods. 

41. Colloquium, 

Estne hodie in Britannia regina ? Certe, Victoria est 
regina in Britannia. 

Filias habetne regina? Filias habet regina. 
Ubi sunt ferae magnae ? Sunt in Africa et in Asia. 
Nonne sunt ferae in Europa ? Non sunt magnae ferae. 
Quid puellis placet ? Rosae albae placent puellis. 

* Nonne expects the answer ^«. 
Hasta. 



16 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



LESSON V. 
Second Deolension. 

The Stem ends in 9. 
Apposition. 

42. Gender. — Nouns of the second declension 
ending in um are neuter ; most others are masculine. 
But see 13, 2. 



3. 


Paradigms, 






HortuB, garden. 




Donum, gift. 




SINGULAR. PLURAL. 




SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


N. 


hortUB horti 


N. 


ddntim dona 


G. 


horti hortorum 


G. 


d5ni dononun 


D. 


horto hortis 


D. 


dono donis 


Ac. 


hortum hortos 


Ac. 


ddnmn dona 


Ab. 


hortS hortiB 


Ab. 


dono donis 



a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us of tiie second 
declension has a special form in i : hortS. The vocative of other 
nouns is the same in form as the nominative. 

b. The vocative is the case of address: Marce, Marcus, 

c. What cases of hortus are alike in the singular ? What 
in the plural ? What case of tiie singular is like a plural case ? 
What cases of the plural have endings like those of tuba (19)? 

44. Paradigm illustrating Apposition, 

N. M arena amicna, Marcus^ a friend, 
G. Marci amlci, of Marcus^ a friend, 
D. Marco amico, to Marcus^ a friend, 
Ac. Marcmn amicnm, Marcus^ a friend, 
Ab. a Marco amico, by Marcus^ a friend, 
V. Marce, amice, Marcus^ (my) friend. 



SECOND DECLENSION, 17 

a. When a descriptive noun is joined to another, meaning 
the same person or thing, as amicus to M&rcusy it is called an 
appositive. 

45. Rule. — An appositive agrees^ in case uMh 
the noun which it liTnits. 

a. Read again, the first two model sentences of Lesson IV. 
You will see that the predicate nominative resembles an 
appositive. Wherein do they di£Eer ? 

46. Vocabulary, 

amicuB, -i, m. friend, donum, -i, n. gift, 

oibuB, -i, m,food, tramento^ -i, n. grain, 
dominuB, -i, m. lord, master, pflum, -i, n,javelin,i^, io2. 

equuB, -i, m. horse, pocnlum, -i, n. cup, p. 69. 

hortuB, -i, m. garden, vinum, -i, n. wine, 

inimicuB, -i, m. enemy. delectat, delights, 

nauta, -ae, m. sailor, delectant, delight. 



47. I. Marcus amicus est dohiini. 2. Marcus, agri- 
colae amicus, erat nauta. 3. Puella poculum, ddnum 
amici, habet. 4. Equi erant Galbae, agricolae. 5. Dd- 
num delectat poetam, reginae amicum. 6. Agricolae 
frumentum equis dant. 7. Cibus equdrum est fru- 
mentum. 8. In poculd est vlnum. 9. Columba grata 
est poetae, Marci amicd. 10. Ubi erant tubae et pila, 
dona amicorum? 11. In Helvetia, Galliae terra, erant 
silvae magnae. 12. Marce, amice, quid est in pdculo 
nautae? 13. Nauta vinum in p5cul5 habet. 

48. I. Where are the farmer's friends to-day? 2. Who 
sees wild beasts in Italy, a country of Europe ? 3. Do 
the javelins and the cups delight the enemies ? 4. They 



18 FIUST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 

tell Marcus, the sailor, a new story. 5. Marcus praises 
the good story. 6. To the maiden, daughter of the 
master, he gives a white rose. 7. The rose was the gift 
of a friend. 8. Friend, the little girl, your daughter, 
is in the garden. 9. Do not^ the maidens love the 
farmer's garden ? 10. The enemies of the farmers are 
in the forests of the island. 



LESSON VI. 

First and Second Declensions. 

Agreement of Adjectives. 

49. Adjectives of the first and second declensions 
have three terminations to mark the different gen- 
ders : bonus, masculine ; bona, feminine ; bonum, 
neuter. The masculine is declined like hortus, the 
feminine like tuba, and the neuter like dOnum. 

a. For the full declension of bonus, see 500. 

50. Model Sentences. 

1. HortoB est magnuB. 5. HaBtam longam habet 

2. Horti Bunt magni 6. HaBtaB longaB habent. 

3. Donum OBt gratum. 7. Agricola OBt bonuB. 

4. Dona Bunt grata. 8. Agrioolae Bunt boni 

a. Adjectives are used in six of the above sentences, as in 
the first lesson, after est and sunt. So used, they are called 
predicate adjectives. Compare predicate nouns (35). 

i See p. 15, note i. 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 19 

51. Paradigm. 

Nauta bonua good sailor. 

N. nauta bonus nautae boiii 

G. nautae boni nautamm bonorum 

D. nautae bono nautis bonis 

Ac. nautam bonum nautas bonos 

Ab. nauta bono naulis bonis 

52. In the first six of the model sentences, an adjective 
qualifying a noun has the same termination as its noun. But 
observe 7 and 8 and the paradigm nauta bonus. 

53. Role. — Adjectives agree uMh their nouns 
in gender, number, and case. 

a. Decline agricola validns, strong farmers grfttus poSta, 
pleasing poet. 

54. Vocabulary. 

carrus, -i, m. wagon, p. 20. clarus, -a, '\un, famous. 

incola, -ae, m. inhabitant, multos, -a, -um, much. 

oppidum, -i, n. town, multi (pi. of multos), -ae, -a, 
remus, -i, m. oar. many. 

servus, -i, m. slave, servant. peritus, -a, -um, skilful. 

ventus, -i, m. wind. validus, -a, -um, strong. 

portat, bears, carries. 
In, prep, with ace, into. portant, bear, carry. 

ADJECTIVES ALREADY USED IN THE FEMININE. 

albus, -a, -um, white. longus, -a, -um, long. 

bonus, -a, -um, good. magnus, -a, -um, large. 

cams, -a, -um, dear. meus, -a, -um, my, mine. 

gratus, -a, -um, pleasing. novus, -a, -um, new. 

litus, -a, -um, wide. parvus, -a, -um, small. 

tuus, -a, -um, thy, thine, your, yours. 



20 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 



55. I. N5nne agricola bonus hortum bonum habet? 
2. Agricolae bono est hortus magnus. 3. Marcus filiae 
dat pocula, pulchra dona. 4. Nautae perito sunt remi 
magni. 5. Carri agricolarum erant validi. 6. Magni 
venti nautis non sunt grati. 7. Poeta clarus Musis placet. 
8. Equi domini frumentum in oppida portant. 9. Multi 
horti in oppido sunt. 10. Multum cibum in oppidum 
portant equi et servi. 

56. I. Galba is a sturdy^ farmer. 2. He has much 
grain, a food pleasant to horses. 3. His^ horses carry 
their* master into town. 4. The inhabitants of the town 
see Galba and the horses. 5. Marcus, where is your 
slave to-day ? 6. He is in the garden. 7. And is telling • 
the little girl* a story. 8. The pleasing tale* delights the 
girl. 9. Where is the garden, Marcus, my* dear friend? 
10. It is in Britain, the land of skilful sailors. 11. Are 
the inhabitants of Britain sailors ? 



* Occasionally words occur in 
the English exercises which are 
purposely not given as definitions 
in the vocabularies, but the pupil 



will generally understand what 
Latin word is meant. 

2 Omit. » Tells. 

^ Not accusative. 




CARRU8. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 21 

LESSON VII. 
Second Declension. — Continued, 

57. Paradigms, 

Puer, boy; Ager, Jieldj Vir, man. 

Sing. Plu, Sing. Plu, Sing. Plu. 

N. puer pueri ager agri vir viri 

G. pueri puerorum agii agromm viri virSrum 

D. puero pueriB agro agris viro viris 

Ac. puenim pueros agnim agroB vinim viros 

Ab. puero puens agro agris viro viris 

a. Observe that the endings of puer and ager are everywhere 
the same. But puer keeps the e of the nominative ; ager drops 
it, except in the nominative. 

58. Most nouns and adjectives in -er of the second 
declension are declined like ager ; that is, they drop 
the e of the nominative. 

59. Nouns in -ius and -ium contract the genitive 
ending ii to i : consilium, gen, cOnsili, advice, plan, 
Filius, son, and proper names in -ius contract -ie in 
the vocative to i : fill, {my) son ; Mercu'ri, Mercury, 
But the place of the accent is not changed. See 495. 

60. Model Sentences, 

1. Puer fiUua est viri, the boy is the man's son. 

2. Vir fiUo dat consiliuin, the man gives his son advice, 

3. Gkdbae, agricolae, aunt agri molti, Galba, the farmer y 
has many ft elds. 

4. I^ eatne poeta Musae carua ? my son, is the poet 
dear to the Musef 



22 SECOND DECLENSION, 

a» The first sentence illustrates the genitive and the predi- 
cate nominative. What does each of the other sentences 
illustrate ? 

61. Vocabulary. 

ager, agri, xa. field. vir, viri, m. man. 

oonsilium, -i, n. advice^ plan. 

Cornelia, -ae, f. Cornelia. aeger, aegra, aegmxn, sick. 

filiuB, -i, m. son. niger, nigra, nigrum, black. 

liber, -br!, m. book. polcher, pulchra, pulchmm, 

liberi,^ -onun (pL), m. children. beautiful^ pretty. 
magister, -tri, m. master. liber, -era, -erum,/r^^. 

puer, -eri, m. boy. miser, -era, -erom, wretched. 

fitoxtos, -i, m. Sextus. nam, conj. for. 

dominoa, master of a household or slaves. 

magister, a superior, director; hence, master of a 
school. 

pueri, general word for children. 
liberi, children of free parents. 



62. I. Libr! pueri sunt in mensa. 2. Consilium 
virorum clarorum erat bonum. 3. Sexti liberi sunt aegri. 
4. Cornelia, poetae filia, libros habet pulchros. 5. Servus 
miser non multum cibum habet. 6. Incolae liberi oppi- 
dum liberum habent. 7. Nigri equi agricolarum in agris 
sunt. 8. Quis habet carros validos et equos nigros? 
9. Nonne ^st aegro nautae cara pecunia? 10. Estne 
Comeliae y|gum parvo* in poculo ? 

1 The plural of the adjective is often the order, where, as 
used as a noun. here, the three ■ are combined. 

* Adjective, preposition, noun. What is the English order? 



THE VERB sum. 23 

63. I. The book is pleasing to the master. 2. The 
poet's books are pleasing to the master's son. 3. The 
poor slave has a long spear. 4. Sextus gives the sick 
boy a beautiful book. 5. The oar and the javelin please 
the skilful man.^ 6. The son of Sextus is dear to Galba, 
the farmer. 7. The black boy is a servant of the free 
man. 8. They praise the farmer's black horse. 9. For 
it carries the sick girl into the town. 10. And many 
inhabitants of the town tell their children^ the story. 



LESSON VIII. 
The Verb sum. 

Agreement op Verbs. 

64. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, and 
the present imperative and infinitive of sum (516). 



65. I. Est, erat, erit. 2. Sunt, erant, erunt. 3. Sumus, 
eramus, erimus. 4. Sum, eram, ero. 5. Es, eras, eris. 
6. Estis, eratis, eritis. 7. Es, este, esse. 

a, \n the preceding lessons verb forms have been used only 
in the third person : est, erat for the singular ; sunt, erant for 
the plural. The forms in the exercise above show that the end- 
ing changes to denote person as well as number. The first and 
second persons as subjects are not commonly expressed. 

Rule. — A finite verb agrees with its siibject in 
number and person. 

^ See 33. > See 56, note 4. 



24 THE VERB SUM. 

66. I. I am, we are. 2. I was, we were. 3. I shall 
be, we shall be. 4. He fe, they are. 5. He was, they 
were. 6. He will be, they will be. 7. You are, you 
were. 8. You will be. 9. Be thou, be you. 10. To be. 

67. Vocabulary, 

aqua, -ae^ f. water. statua, -ae, f. statue, 

aurum, -i, n, gold, 

deuB, -i, m. god (499). aureus, -a, -um, golden. 

MercuriuB, -i, m. Mercury (59). defessus, -a, -um, tired, very 
nuntiuB, -i, m. messenger (59). tired. 

Bcutum, -i, n. shield, p. 76. vocat, calls, summons. 

BomnuB, -i, m. sleep. vocant, call, summon. 

68. I. Amicus Mercu'ri ero. 2. Nam Mercurius 
nuntius erat deorum. 3. Servus est inimicus pulchri 
Mercuri. 4. Tu (thou), O miser serve, es Minervae 
inimicus. 5. Amici Mercuri nunti erimus. 6. Tti (thou), 
O puer, agricolae validi es filius. 7. Pueri boni, este 
hodie amici miseri equi. 8. Somnus puero erit gratus. 
9. Liberi magistri defessi erunt. 10. Minervae in oppidd 
erat ara. 11. Defesso equ5 grata est aqua. 12. Nuntius 
incolas vocat oppidi. 

69. I. Minerva had ^ a golden statue. 2. There^was 
gold on the statue of Minerva. 3. Who has a golden 
shield? 4. Was not* Mercury messenger of the gods? 

5. A girl gives a sick sailor some* wine and water. 

6. The wine she carries in a pretty cup. 7. He praises 
the pretty cup and the wine. 8. The water he does not 
care for. 9. The maiden and the sailor were inhabitants 

^ Use a form of sain. * Ndniid. * Omit 



COLLOQUIUM, 2S 

of Britain. i6. Britain is a large island and has many 
towns and fields. 

70. Colloquium, 

Duo PUERl. 
two 

Ubi est Carolus hodie ? Nonne est in schola ? 

Charles school 

Minime. Est in fiuvio ; nam habet cymbam parvam, 

By no means river boat 

et libenter navigat. 

gladly sails = likes sailing 

Unde Carolo est cymba ? (Where did Charles get a boat ?) 

whence 

Ab avunculo, nam avunculus Carolum amat. 

from uncle 

Quid in c)anba portat Carolus ? 

Nescio ; sine dubi5 cibum et poculum ; nam in 

I don't know without doubt 

anim5 habet . . . 

mind 

Quid in animo habet ? 

Vale, bone amice, eras patebit. 

good-by to-morrow it will be open = the secret will be oat 




CYMBA. 



26 FIRST CONJUGATION. 

LESSON IX. 

First Conjugration.— A-Verbs. 

Am5 (stem ama), love. 

Principal Parts:1 aiii5, Ilove;^ amare, to love; KBaJkii^ I laved ;^ 
amatus, loved, 

71. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, 
and the present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, 
of am5 (511). 

72. I. Amat, amabat, amabit. 2. Amatur, amabatur, 
amabitur. 3. Amant, amabant, amabunt. 4. Amantur, 
amabantur, amabuntur. 5. Amo, amabam, s^nabd. 
6. Amor, amabar, amabor. 7. Amamus, amamur. 
8. Amabamus, amabamur. 9. Amabimus, amabimur. 
10. Ama, amare. 11. Amate, amamini. 12. Amare, 
amar!. 

a. Notice how frequently r and ur mark forms as passive. 

73. Like amd, inflect in the same moods and tenses the 
following : 

delecto delectare delectavi delectatus, delight 

laudo laudare laudavi laudatus, /r^i/V^. 

narro narrare narravi narratus, ielL 

porto portare portavi portatus, carry, 

a. The stem is found by dropping re of the infinitive. 

^The presient indicative, the conjugations are distinguished by 

present infinitive, the perfect in- the vowel before -re in the present 

dicative, and the perfect participle infinitive active. See 337. 
are called, from their impor- ^ Also do love, am loving, 

tance, the principal parts. The • Also have loved. 



FIRST CONJUGATION, 27 

74. I. He praises, he is praised. 2. He was praising, 
he was praised. 3. He will praise, he will be praised. 
4. They are praising, they are praised. 5. They were 
praising, they were praised. 6. They will be praising, 
they will be praised. 7. To praise, to be praised. 
8. Praise (sing.), praise (pL). 9. They do praise, they 
will praise. 



LESSON X. 

Ablative of Agent. 

75. Model Sentences. 

1. Regina agxicolam laudat, the queen praises the farmer, 

2. Agricola a (or ab) regina laudatur, the farmer is praised 
by the queen, 

a. Observe the changes in* turning the active into the passive. 
The object of the active becomes the subject of the passive ; 
the subject (that is, the doer or agent) of the active is expressed 
with the passive by the ablative with a or ab. 

76. Rule. — The agent with a -passive verb is 
expressed hy the ablative with a or ab. 

a, Ab is used before vowels or h, a or ab before consonants. 



77. I. Vir peritum puenim laudat. 2. Puer peritus 
I vir5 laudatur. 3. Galba Marcum amicum amabat. 
4. Marcus a Galba amabatur. 5. Magister fabulam 
claram liberis narrabit. 6. Fabula clara liberis a magistrd 
narrabitur. 7. Miser! servi dominum amabunt. 8. A 
servis miseris amabitur dominus. 9. Equus niger mul- 



28 FIRST CONJUGATION, 

turn frumentum et aquam in oppidum portat. lo. Fru- 
mentum in oppidum ab serv5 nigrd portatur. ii. Nunti 
consilium narrabatur a Galba. 12. Narratne Galba nunti 
cdnsilia ? 

78. I. Sextus loves the boy, his son. 2. The boy. 
is called by Sextus. 3. The statues of the gods were 
praised by the free man. 4. The free man was praising 
the statues of the gods. 5. The tired messenger was 
carrying a golden shield. 6. A golden shield was 
carried by the messenger. 7. We shall tell a story to 
the inhabitants of the island. 8. Shall you carry javelins 
into the forest ? 

79. Colloquium, 

Pater et FIliolus. 
Father and Little Son. 

P, Quae, filiole, hodie in schola tractabantur ? 

what little son were discussed 

F, Tractabantur casus ablativus et verbum amo. 

case word. 

P. Quid significat Anglice verbum amo^ 

means in English 

F. Verbum amo significat love, 
P, De ablativo quoque mihi narra. 

about also me 

F, Regulam de ablativ5 tibi narrabo. 

rule you I will tell 

P, Regulamne tibi dedit magister ? 

did give 

F, Certe, regulam de ablativ5 agmtis. Ante abla- 

certainly of the agent before 

tivum agentis semper praepositio a vel ab ponitur. 

preposition or is placed 

P, Optime, mi puer ; tibi erit rubrum malimi. 

well done my red apple 



THE VERB sunn. 29 

LESSON XI. 

The Verb %\3LJX!L. — Continued, 

The Instrumental Ablative. 

80. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indica- 
tive, and the perfect infinitive of som (516). 



81. I. Fuit, fuerat, fuerit. 2. Fuerunt, fuerant, fuerint. 
3. Fuimus, fueramus, fuerimus. 4. Fuero, fueram, fui. 
5. Fueras, fueris, fuisti. 6. Fuistis, fueritis, fueratis. 
7. Esse, fuisse. 

82. I. He has been, they have been. 2. He had been, 
they had been. 3. He will have been, they will have 
been. 4. To have been, to be. 

83.' Model Smtmces. 

1. Nauta vento et remis portatur, the sailor is borne by 
wind and oars, 

2. Viri tuba vocabantur aurea, the men were summoned 
by a golden trumpel. 

3. Agn ab agricola aratro novo arantur, the fields are 
ploughed by a farmer with his new plough, 

a. Observe that the ablatives vent5, remis, tuba, and aratr5 
answer the questions by what? with what? by means of 
what? The ablative thus used is called the ablative of 
instrument or means, 

84. Rule. — The ablative is used to denote the 
means or instrument of an auction. 



JO THE VERB SUM. 

b* The third sentence illustrates the di£Eerence between the 
ablative of the agent and the ablative of means. How are 
they difiEerently expressed in Latin ? (See 76.) 

85. Vocabulary. 

aratmm, -i, n. plough^ p. 34. Ghraecus, -i, m. a Greek. 
anna, -omm, n. (pi.) arms. Romanus, -i, m. a Roman. 

bellmn, -i. n. war. aagitta, -ae^ f. arrow ^ p. 155. 

£|ladiii8, -i, m. sword, p. &j. templum, -i, n. temple, p. 93. 

appello, appellare, appellavi, appellata8» name, calL 

aro, arare, arav!, aratus, plough. 

logo, fagare, fogavi, fogatus, put to flight, rout. 

omo, omare, omav!, omatua, adorn, deck. 

aupero, superare, superavl, superataa, overcome, outdo. 
. vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratus, wound. 



86. I. Servus fuerat vir liber. 2. Galbae (dative) 
fuerant equi et carri. 3. Nova luna fuit pulchra. 4. In 
insula fuerant multae silvae. 5. Nonne ager aratro a 
viro arabitur ? 6. Inimicus gladid et sagittis vulneratur. 

7. Viri equ6s hastis et sagittis in bello vulnertbant. 

8. Minervae statua aur5 omabatur. 9. Poetae aegro 
somnus erit gratus in hort5. 10. R5mani oppidum 
appellabant Romam.^ 11. A Rdmanis oppidum ap- 
pellabatur Roma." 12. Graeci non amabant Rdmanos. 
13. Roman! a Graecis non amabantur. 14. R5mani Grae- 
cos in bello armis fugabant et superabant. 15. Graeci 
Romanorum armis fugabantur. 

87. I. Where have we been? 2. Marcus, the friend 
of Galba, had been a sailor. 3. Fields are ploughed 

^ Predicate accusative. ^ Predicate nominative. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 31 

by farmers with ploughs and horses. 4. The pretty girl 
decked the cup with roses. 5. Was not the cup decked 
with roses by the pretty girl? 6. Arrows and spears 
are the arms of the slaves. 7. With swords and arrows 
we shall overcome the men. 



LESSON XII. 

First ConjUgration. — Continued. 
Ablative of Manner. 

88. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indica- 
tive, and the perfect infinitive, active and passive, of am5 (511). 

89. The compound forms of the passive are made 
by combining forms of sum with the perfect passive 
participle. The participle (declined like bonus), 
agrees in gender and number with the subject : 
am&ta est, she was loved; amfttum est, it was loved; 
am&tt sunt| they (masc.) were loved. 



90. I. Amavit, amaverat, amaverit. 2. Amatus est, 
amatus erat, amatus erit. 3. Amaverunt, amaverant, 
amaverint. 4. Amavi, amatus sum. 5. Amaveramus, 
amati eramus. 6. Amave'rimus, amati erimus. 7. Ama- 
visse, amatus esse. 

91. I. He has been praised, had been praised, will 
have been praised. 2* They have been praised, had 



32 FIRST CONJUGATION, 

been praised, will have been praised. 3. We (masc.) 
have been praised, had been praised, shall have been 
praised. 4. We (fern.) have been praised, had been, 
praised, shall have been praised. 

92., Model Sentences, 

1. Agricola agmm cum cura arat, the farmer ploughs his 
field with care {carefully). 

2. Agricola agmm magna cmn cura arat, the farmer 
ploughs his field with great care. 

3. Agricola agrmn magna cura arat, the farmer ploughs 
his field with great care. 

a. Observe how manner is expressed in the above Latin 
sentences: (i) cum cura; (2) magna cum cura; (3) magna 
cura. In Latin as in English the manner of an action may be 
expressed by an adverb : fideliter, faithfully. 

93. Rule. — The manner of an action is denoted 
by the ablative, usually with cum; but cum may 
be omitted if an a^ective is used with the 
ablative, 

94. Vocabulary. 

audacia, -ae, f. daring, bold- studinm, -i, n. zeal, eager- 
ness, ness (59). 
cura, -ae, f. care. vicinus, -i, m. neighbor. 
dOigentia, -ae, f. industry. piger, pigra, pigrum, lazy, 
gandixan, 'i,n. joy, gladness (59). cum, prep, with abl, with. 
patientia, -ae, f. patience. sed, conj., but. 

aedifico, aedificare, aedificav!, aedificatus, build. 

agito, agitare, agitavi, agitatus, chase, drive. 

laboro, labSrare, laboravi, laboratus, toil, suffer. 

pognS. pognire, pognavl, pagnatus,yfj^A/. < 



READING LESSON. 33 

95. I. Roman! magna cimi audacia in bello pugnHve- 
runt. 2, Oppida multa in Italia aedificaverunt. 3. Cum 
cura a Romanis aedificata sunt oppida. 4. Curae somnum 
fugaverant. 5. Puer piger equimi pigrum agitavit. 6. Servi 
miser! magna patientia lab5raverant. 7. Mult5 cum stu- 
dio a viris agitatae erant ferae. 8. Vir bonus laborat 
cum diligentia et cura. 9. Magno gaudio novos libros 
hodie vident pueri. 10. Rosis 5mata erat puella. 

96. I. The inhabitants were eagerly^ building a temple. 

2. A temple had been built zealously by the inhabitants. 

3. The boys toiled industriously and patiently. 4. The 
Greeks had fought daringly, but were overwhelmed by 
their neighbors. 5. The sick children were borne care- 
fully into the temple. 6. Joyfully they see the altar of 
the goddess. 7. The altar had been adorned with roses. 
8. On the alfar there was a golden cup, the gift of a sick 
man. 



LESSON XIII. 
97. Beading Lesson. 

The Romans and the Sabines. 

Roma, pulchrum Italiae oppidum, a R5mul5 aedi- 
ficata est^ Incolae Romae igitur * appellati sunt Roman!. 
Valid! viri erant R5mani et patriam maxime amabant. 
Saepe cum Sabin!s, v!c!n!s, pugnabant pr5 patria et 
saepe arm!s in bello superabant. Olim vict5ria diu erat 
dubia. Nam Sabin! anna bona habebant,' et p!l!s long!s 

1 With eagerness. placed after one or more words 

^ Igitor is postpositive^ that is, is in a sentence. * Had. 



34 



READING LESSON, 



magna cum audaci^ pugnaverunt. Sed fugati sunt 3 
R5manis et multi sagittis sunt vulnerati. Cara Romanis 
erat victoria. 



98. I. Tell the story, boys, to the master. 2. The 
boys told the story to the master. 3. Romulus built a 
fine town in Italy. 4. He called the inhabitants Ro- 
mans. 5. The Sabines were neighbors of the Romans. 

6. And they often fought with Romulus and the Romans. 

7. Once they fought a long time with swords and spears. 

8. The victory was doubtful, but the Romans wounded 
and put many to flight. 



99. 



Vocabulary, 



dlS, adv. for a long time, patiia, -ae, f. country. 



long. 
dubius, -a. -um, doubtful, 
igitor, conj. therefore, 
maxime, adv. especially, 
olim, adv. once upon a time, 

once, formerly. 



pro, prep, with abl., in behalf 

of for: 
Romulus, -i, m. Romulus, 
Sabini, -onim, m. the Sabines. 
flaepe, adv. often, 
victoria, -ae, f. victory. 




. Aratrum Antiquum. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus. — Vergil. 



THE DEMONSTRATIVES HIC AND ILLE. 



35 



LESSON XIV. 



The Demonstratives hie and ille. 



100. 



Paradigms. 



hie, this. 



me, that. 









SINGULAR. 


-> 




N. 


hie 


haee 


hoe 


N. iUe 


ilia 


illud 


G. 


huiaB 


huiuB 


huiuB 


G. miuB 


ilHus 


ilHiu 


D. 


huie 


htiie 


huie 


D. llli 


ilH 


ilH 


Ac. 


hone 


hane 


hoe 


Ac. illtiin 


illam 


illud 


Ab. 


hoe 


hie 


hoe 


Ab. iUo 


ilia 


illo 








PLURAL. 







N. hi hae haee 

G. horum hanim horum 

D. his his his 

Ac. hSs has haee 

Ab. his his hia 



N. illi illae ilia 

G. illorum illarum Ulomm 

D. illis illis illis 

Ac. illos illaa ilia 

Ab. HHb illiB illis 



a. See how closely the plural forms correspond to those of 
nouns of the first and second declensions. What resemblances 
do you discover in the singular ? 

b. ffic is applied to what is near th** speaker in place^ time^ 
or thought^ and hence may be called the demonstrative of 
the first person : luc equus, this horse (near me or belonging 
to me). 

c. Ille is applied to what is relatively remote from the speaker 
in piacey time^ or thought^ and hence may be called the 
demonstrative of the third person : ille equus, that horse 
(yonder). 

d. nie, agreeing with a noun and commonly placed after it, 
sometimes means that well-known^ that famous. 



36 THE DEMONSTRATIVES NIC AND ILLE. 

e. Hie and ille are sometimes used without a noun, in con- 
trast : hie, the latter; ille, the former, 

f. The forms of hie and ille sometimiss mean he^ she^ it, 

101. Model Sentences, 

1. Hie puer est laetos, ilia puella est maesta, this boy 
is merry ^ that girl is sad, 

2. DominuB et servtiB sunt amici; ille est albus, hie 
niger, the master and the servant are friends; the former is 
white^ the latter black, 

3. Hoc donum deae est gratom, illud dee, this gift is 
flecking to the goddess^ that one to the god, 

a. From the above remarks and model sentences it is plain 
that hie and ille have two distinct uses: (i) as adjectives 
in agreement with nouns ; (2) alone, as pronouns. They 
are, therefore, sometimes demonstrative adjectives, sometimes 
demonstrative pronouns, 

102. Vocc^ulary, 

Aedui, -onim, m. the Aeduans, laetos, -a, -urn, glad, 

femtoa, -ae, f. woman, maestos, -a. -urn, sad, 

habito, -are, -avi, -atus, in- nunc, adv. now, 

habit, live, pugna, -ae, f. battle, 

Helvetii, -omm, m. (pi.) the -que, conj. and (9, 3). 

Helvetians, turn, adv. then. 



103. I. Aedui et Helvetii in terra Gallia^ olim habi- 
tabant. 2. Illi fuerunt Roman5rum amici, lii inimici. 
3. Ubi sunt nunc illi amici inimicique? 4. Olim magi- 
ster studium diligentiamque illius pueri et huius puellae 
laudavit. 5. Illi igitur hunc gladium, huic illud pocu- 

^ An appositiye. 



THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN, 



37 



lum dat. 6. N5nne dominus huic servo defess5 parvum 
donum dat? nam cum patientia laboravit. 7. Fuitne 
maesta ilia femina? 8. Haec femina laeta, ilia maesta 
fuit. 9. Nautae illam lunam novam magn5 cum gaudio 
vident. 10. Agricola illos agr5s h5c nov5 aratrd arabit. 
II. Et filius illius agficolae equ5s pigros agitabit. 

104. I. The Helvetians fought with the Romans. 

2. The former fought for their ^ women and children. 

3. The latter fought often for victory.* 4. But victory 
was not long doubtful in those battles. 5. For the 
Romans overcame the Helvetians. 6. Then were those 
poor women in Helvetia sad. 7. For the men of that 
land had been wounded. 8. The children of those men 



had" 



food. 



105. 



LESSON XV. 

The Interrogative Pronoun. 

Paradigm, 
quia? who? which f what? 



SINGULAR. 

N. quia quae quid 

G. cuius cuius cuius 

D. cui cui cui 

Ac. quern quam quid 

Ab. quo qua quo 

1 Omit. 

2 For victory =vict5riae 



PLURAL. 

qui quae quae 

quorum quarum quorum 

quibus quibus quibus 

quos quas quae 

quibus quibus quibus 

* A form of stun. 

* Say not. 



38 THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

106. Table of Meanings for Reference, 

MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 



N. who ? which ? what ? 

G. of whom ? of which ? of what ? whose ? 

D. to ^r for whom ? to ^r for which ? to ^r lor what ? 

Ac. whom ? which ? what ? 

Ab. by, etc,^ whom ? by, etc,^ which ? by, ^/^r., what ? 

ij. The meanings are not tabulated with reference to gender. 
They should be referred to only when the meaning of a sen- 
tence is not clear after faithful effort The learner should accus- 
tom himself, in making out the meaning of the Latin, to 
pronounce any Latin word, the sense of which is not evident, 
as a part of his English sentence. For example, taking sen- 
tence 14 under 108, if the meaning of cuius is not clear, say, 
''cuius arms has that boy?" Probably this would suggest, 
" whose arms has that boy ? " 

107. Model Sentences, 

1. Quia amat patxiam? Who loves his country? 

2. Quia vir amat patriam? What man loves his 
country f 

3. Quid amat vir ? What does the man love? 

4. Quae dona puellae simt grata ? What gifts are 
pleasing to the girl? 

a. Observe that quia in the first sentence and quid in the 
third are used as interrogative pronouns; that quia in the 
second sentence and quae in the fourth are used as inter" 
rogative adjectives. 



THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 



39 



bn But quod is alwa3rs used in place of quid as an inter- 
rogative adjective^ and often qm in place of quia ; Quod d5num 
puellae est gratum? Qmyir patriam amat? 

c. When forms of the interrogative pronoun are used as 
adjectives, they agree with their nouns like other adjectives. 

108. I. Qui h5c templum aedificaverunt ? 2. Qui 
viri h5c templum aedificaverunt? 3. Quid est in ill5 
templo? 4. Quae femina non amat liberos? 5. Cui 
dat Marcus h5c p5culum ? 6. Quibus viris n5n est cara 
patria? 7. Quos agr5s arat ille agricola? 8. Quem 
laudatis? 9. Quid in pdculo habetservus? 10. Quam 
puellam magister laudat? 11. A qu5 illi agri sunt arati? 
12. Quo aratrd ill5s agros agricola aravit? 13. A qui- 
bus superati sunt Roman! ? 14. Cuius arma puer ille 
habet ? 

109. I. Who ^ was a messenger of the gods ? 2. Whose 
messenger was Mercury? 3. Whose shield has that boy? 
4. To whom does he give this shield? 5. Whom have 
you overcome ? 6. With what arms have you overcome 
that mai>? 7. By what men was this temple built? 
8. By whom was this temple built ? 

1 Ne is not used in a question pronoun or other interrogative 
that begins with an interrogative word. 




Rostra. 



40 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 



LESSON XVI. 
The Relative Pronoun. 



110. 


Par 
qui, whoy 


adigm. 
whichy that. 






SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




N. qui quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


G. cuius cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quanim 


quorum 


D. cui cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ac. quern quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Ab. quo qua 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



111. Table of Meanings for Reference. 

a. The meanings are not tabulated with reference to gender. 

N. who, which, that 

G. of \7hom, of which, \7h0se. 

D. \JQ or far vrhom, to or for \7hich. 

Ac. whom, which, that 

Ab. by, etc., whom, which. 



112. 



Model Sentences. 



1. Puer qui laudatur est laetus, the boy who is praised 
is glad. 

2. Puellae quas laudamus sunt laetae, the girls whom 
we praise are glad. 

3. Libri quos laudamus sunt boni, the books that we 
praise are good. 

4. Consilium quod vir dat laudamus, the advice which 
the man gives we praise. 

a. Observe that the relative has the same gender and nimi- 
ber as its antecedent, and that the case of the relative is 



THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 41 

sometimes the same as that of the antecedent and sometimes 
different. In i, qui is subject of laudatur; in 2 and 3, quas and 
qu5s are objects of laudamus ; in 4, quod is object of dat. 

113. Rule. — A relative agrees with its ante- 
cedent in gender and number, hut its case 
depends on the construction of the clause in 
which it stands. 



114. I. Servus, qui agrum agricolae arat, est defessus. 

2. nil equi, quibus servus hunc agrum arat, sunt nigri. 

3. Dominus, cuius servus in hoc agro laborat, est in ' 
hort5. 4. Pueri, quorum libros magister habet, sunt pigri. 
5. Laudamus ilia d5na quae puer puellae dat. 6. Puer, 
quem laudamus, est laetus. 7. Vir, cui sunt multi remi, est 
nauta. 8. Fabulae quas narravi hos puer 5s delectaverunt. 

115. I. This advice which the man gives is not 
pleasing. 2. Those men, whose town was in Italy, 
were Romans. 3. Those slaves, to whom the master 
gives wine, have worked with diligence. 4. The boy 
by whom the horses were driven is a farmer's son. 
5. The girl who is tired is often sad. 

Review of Interrogative and Relative. 

116. Vocabulary, 

Diiilius, -1, m. Duilius (59). reporto, -are, -avi, -atiu, bring 
forum, -i, n. forum, back, win, gain, 

Poenus, -i, m. a Carthaginian, rostnim, -i, n. beak of a ship, 
praeda, -acf, f. booty, p. 39. 



42 THE DEMONSTRATIVE iS, 

117. I. Quis forum Rdmanum rdstris 5niavit ? 
2. Forum ornavit Duilius ille, qui magnam victoriam 
reportavit. 3. Quam vict5riam reportavit Duilius ? 

4. Poen5s superavit, qu5rum patria in Africa fuit. 

5. Quibus armis piignavit Duilius? 6. Duilius et Ro- 
mani gladiis pilisque pugnaverunt. 7. Quibus^ erat ilia 
praeda, quam victoria reportavit Duilius? 8. Praeda 
erat Rdmanis a quibus est laudatus Duilius. 

118. I. Duilius once gained a great victory. 2. He 
brought back many beaks of ships, with which he 
adorned the forum. 3. Duilius, where did you gain 
that booty ? 4. Tell the story to those boys and these 
girls. 5. "That story," quoth* Duilius, "is a long one. 

6. And I am very tired to-day." 



LESSON XVII. 
The Demonstrative is. 
119. Paradigm, 

is, that^ this; also he^ she, it. 







SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


is 


ea 


id 


eiii 


eae 


ea 


G. 


eiuB 


iioa 


Sioa 


eomm 


eanun 


eomm 


D. 


61 


ei 


ei 


ei8,iiB 


el8,iiB 


ei8,iiB 


Ac. 


earn 


earn 


id 


eo8 


eas 


ea 


Ab. 


eo 


ea 


eo 


ei8,iiB 


eia^iiB 


eis, iiB 



a. Is as a demonstrative adjective is an unemphatic that or 
this. On the one hand it approaches ille, on the other, but 
less nearly, hie. 

1 Dative. ^ Inqoit 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS. 43 

b. The relations of hie, is, and ille will be understood from 
the following illustration : — 



The 
place of 



hie is is is iUe 



the speaker. 

c. As a pronoun is means he^ she^ it. It is frequently used 
as the antecedent of qui, who; is qui, he who; ei qui, they who, 

120. Model Sentences. 

1. Is BervuB cum cora laborat, that slave toils with 
care. 

2. Patientiam eius servi laudamoB, the patience of that 
slave we praise, 

3. Patientia eius laudator, his (of him) patience is 
praised. 

4. Is qui patientiam habet laudator, he who has patience 
is praised. 

a. Observe the translation of eius in 3. So edrum, earom 
must often be translated their. 

121. Vocabulary. 

benignoB, -a, -om, kind. fidon^ -a, -mn, faithful. 

conteiitu% -a, -om, contented. fortiter, adv. bravely. 

da (imperative), give. maloB, -a, -lyn, bad. 

de6it,gave, has given. tezzitua^ -a, -xaai, frightened. 



122. I. E5s vir5s amamus, sed eorum filii sunt mali. 
2. Eae feminae amantur, sed n5n earum filiae. 3. N5n 
bonum fuit consilium e5rum virorum. 4. Is qui est con- 
tentus et benignus amicis^ placet. 5. Eum amici amant 
laudantque. 6. Maxime gratum serv5 fid5 est aurum 
quod ei dedit dominus. 7. Grata equo est aqua quam 

1 Observe the dative. 



44 THE DEMONSTRATIVE /S. 

portat agricola benignus. 8. Ei periti nautae magno 
venta territi sunt. 9. Quibus est ilia praeda quae in 
forum reportatur? 10. Praeda est eis qui in pugnis 
fortiter pugnabant. 

123. T. Where do the sons of that man live? 
2. "They live in a large town," said^ Marcus, "and 
are lazy fellows."^ 3. "They do not please the mas-' 
ter ' ; for books do npt delight them." 4. " Those books 
which a friend has given them* do not afford' them* 
joy." 5. But, good friend, give them good advice. 
6. Then they will toil industriously, and will not be 
sad. 7. Those who labor are often merry. 8. Those 
boys are not lazy fellows ^ ; they are tired. 



1 Inquit. 

2 Omit. Adjectives are often 
used in the plural in Latin, as in 
English, without a noun: boni, 
tAf goody malta, many things. 



• Use magister. 

* See sixth sentence above. 
^ do , , » afford ^= give. 




Eques. 



THIRD DECLENSION^ 



45 



LESSON XVIII. 
Third Declension. 

124. The stem ends in a consonant or in /. 

125. Consonant stems are named, according to 
their final letter, mute stems and liquid stems. 





Mute Stems. 




126. 


Paradigms, 




princepa, m. 


riz, m. 


miles, m. 


caput, n. 


chief. 


king. 


soldier. 


head. 


Stem, princip- 


rig- 


millt- 


capit- 




SINGULAR, 




N. princeps 


rex 


miles 


caput 


G. principis 


regis 


militis 


capitis 


D. principi 


regi 


militi 


capiti 


Ac. pnncipem 


regem 


mllitem 


caput , 


Ab. principe 


rege 

PLURAL. 


milite 


capite 


N. principis 


regis 


militis 


capita 


G. principum 


regiitn 


mllitum 


capitum 


D. princi'pibus 


regibus 


mlli'tibus 


capi'Ubus 


Ac. principis 


regis 


militis ^ 


capita 


• Ab. princi'pibus 


regibus 


mili^tibiis 


capi'tibus 



a. Notice that the last vowel of the stem is sometimes 
changed in forming the nominative. No rule can be given. 

b. The stem can generally be found by dropping the ending 
of the genitive singular, which is alwajrs given. 



46 THIRD DECLENSION. 

c. Notice that, except in neuters, the endings are the same 
in all the paradigms (r5x = rtgs). Neuters have the accusative 
like the nominative. 

d. To decline a noun with a mute stem, add to the stem the 
endings, as in the paradigms given above. 

€. Decline together is princeps, nules fidus, id caput. 

127. Vocabulary, 

caput, capitis, n. head, oppidanuB, -I, m. townsman, 

duz, ducifl, m. leader, general, oppogno, -are, -a^i, -atuSk 
eques, equitis, m. horseman. besiege, attack, 

ezpogno, -are, -£▼!, -atua, pedes, peditis, m.y27{7/-j<7/(///r. 

take by storm, take, cap- princeps, principis, m. chiefs 

ture, leader, 

habuit, had, hcts had, held, rex, regis, m. king, 

kept, tento, -are, -avi, -atos, try, 

miles, mHitis, m. soldier, p. 1 33. attempt, 
Titus, -\ m. Titus, 



128. I. Olim Titus, qui princeps erat peritus, oppi- 
dum opptignabat. 2. Fidos milites, et^ equitSs et 
pedites, habuit. 3. In e5 oppidd fuit Sextus rex cum 
oppidanis, — viris, feminis, liberisque. 4. Diu oppidum, 
in qu5 fuit Sextus, expugnare tentabat ille dux cum 
militibus. 5. Nam in eo fuit magna praeda, et* 
anna et aurum. 6. Pro quibus pugnabant oppidani ? 
7. Fortiter pugnabant illi oppidani pro liberis femi- 
nisque. 8. Caput ducis militum sagitta vulneratum est. 
9. Tum territi erant pedites equitesque. 10. Nunc 
oppidani eos fugant et cum studio agitant. 11. Este 
contenti, oppidani, nam dei^ fuenmt benigni. 

1 Et . . . ^X^^both , . . and. > See 499. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 47 

129. I. There was once a town that* had a great 
amount^ of booty. 2. This bopty* a leader tried to 
gain for his* soldiers. 3. With horsemen and foot- 
soldiers he attacked the town. 4. But he was wounded 
by the king, Sextus. 5. His black horse, which he 
was especially fond* of, was wounded. 6. For a long 
time he kept his sword and fought bravely. 7. But his 
frightened soldiers were put to flight by the townsmen. 







LESSON XIX. 






Th 


ird Declensian. 




Mute Stems. — Continued, 








Ablative of Cause. 




.30. 




Paradigms, 






pes, m. 


lapis, m. 


virtus, f. 




foot 


stone. 


manliness. 


Stem, 


ped- 


lapid- 

SINGULAR. 


virtnt- 


N. 


p€8 


lapis 


virtus 


G. 


pedis 


lapidis 


virtutis 


D. 


pedi 


lapidi 


virtuti 


Ac. 


pedem 


lapidem 


virtu tern 


Ab. 


pede 


lapide 


virtute 


Nominative. 


* Omit here and in the 



^ Express a great amount of ing sentences, 
by one word. * See p. 20, n. i. 

* The object 



48 THIRD DECLENSION, 







PLURAL. 




N. 


pedis 


lapides 


virtutis 


G. 


pednm 


lapidum 


virtu tmn 


D. 


pedibus 


lapi^dibus 


virtu tibus 


Ac. 


pedes 


lapides 


virtu tes 


Ab. 


pedibus 


lapi'dibus 


viFtu tibus 



a. Notice that the final letter of the stem is dropped in 
forming the nominative. 

b. Notice that the endings are the same as those of the 
last preceding paradigms. 

c. Decline together pes malus, ille lapis, haec virtfis. 

131. M§del Sentences, 

1 . Puer patientia laudatur, the boy is praised on account 
of {because of) his patience, 

2. Miles a duce audacia laudabitur, the soldier will be 
praised by the leader for his daring, 

3. Equi frumenti inopia laborant, the horses suffer from 
want of grain, 

4. Pedes longa via est defessus, the foot-soldier is tired 
with the long march, 

a. Observe that patientia, audacia, inopi&» and via denote 
the cause. Notice the various translations of these ablatives : 
on account of because of for, from, with, 

132. Rule. — The ablative is used to express 
cause, 

133. We have now seen that, — 

1. The ablative of agent answers the question by whom f 

2. The ablative of means or instrument answers the ques- 
tion by what? 

3. The ablative of manner answers the question howt 

4. The ablative of cause answers the question why f 



THIRD DECLENSION. 49 



134. Vocabulary, 

adulesceiiB, adulescentis, m. lapis, lapidis, m. stone* 

youth (152, a), pea, pedis, m,foot. 

celeritifl, celeritatis, f. swift- propero, -are, -avi, -atiu^ 

^ ness, speed, hasten, 

conatantia, -ae, i, firmness. servo, -are, -avi, -atii% 

calpo, -are, -avi, -atus save, 

blame, find fault with, viginti (indecl.) twenty, 

fort^Ha, -ae, f. fortune, good virtus, virtutis, f. courage^ 

fuga, -ae, i, flight. {fortune, virtue, bravery, 

inopia, -ae, f . want, lack, vita, -ae, f. life. 



135. I. Illi milites ab hoc principe fuga culpabantur. 
2. Quis eos virtute culpabit? 3. Quos celeritate dux 
laudabat ? 4. Equites laudabat, quorum equi nunc 
frumenti inopii laborant. 5. Pedes horum peditum 
lapidibus vulnerati erant. 6. Magna celeritate in illud 
oppidum properabant amici et inimici. 7. Ei amici 
Marcl bona fortuna sunt content!. 8. Dux c5nstantia 
delectabatur militum qui fortiter pugnaverant. 9. Oppi- 
dan! lapidibus vulnerati sunt. 10. Viginti adulescentes 
vitam principis servaverunt. 11. Oppidum expugnare 
tentabat, sed caput sagitta vulneratum est. 

a. Point out four different uses of the ablative above, and 
tell how you can distinguish them. 

136. I. The king was delighted with the courage of 
those foot-soldiers. 2. But they were tired out with 
the march,^ which had been a long one.^ 3. And had 

1 See p. 20, n. I. 2 Omit. 



50 COLLOQUIUM. 

suffered from lack of food. 4. The feet of the poor 
horses had been wounded by the stones on the road. 

5. Who will bring for them^ some* water and grain? 

6. Bring food, boys, for the men, and water for the 
tired horses. 7. The food and the water were speedily* 
brought by the good boys. 

137. Colloquium, 

FrXter et SorOrcula. 

brother little sister 

F, Fabulam bonam amicus mihi hodie narravit 

to me 

•S. De quo tibi narravit amicus ? 

about to you 

F, De Icaro, Daedali filid, qui in Creta habitabat. 
•S. Mihi quoque de Icaro Latine narra. Fuitne Icarus 

also in Latin 

puer malus ? 

F, Minime malus sed miserrimus. Habebat alas 

by no means most unfortunate wings 

quas cera aptaverat Daedalus ; Icarus evolavit sed cera 

with wax had fitted flew away 

sole liquefacta est. Tum . . . 

by the sun was melted then 

S, Tum . . . quid? 

F, Mihi n5n sunt verba Latina ; itaque haesito. 

words and so I hesitate 

S, Ergo narra Anglice. Nam linguam Anglicam 

well, then language 

intellego. 

I understand. 

F. Minime. Latine tibi narrabo, n5n Anglice. 

^ eis. ' Omit. either of the three wajrs illus- 

^ This may be expressed in trated in 92. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



51 



LESSON XX. 

Third Declension. 

Liquid Stems. 
Descriptive Ablative and Genitive. 



138. 


Paradigms, 




consul, m. 


pater, m. 


▼iotor, m. 


homS, m. 


consuL 


father. 


victor. 


man. 


Stem, oonsol- 


patr- 


victor- 


homin- 




SINGULAR. 




N. cdnsul 


pater 


victor 


homd 


G. cdnsnliB 


patris 


victoria 


hominia 


D. consul! 


patri 


victor! 


homin! 


Ac. cdnsulem 


patrem 


victorem 


hominem 


Ab. cdnsule 


patre 

PLURAL 


victore 


homine 


N. consulas 


patres 


victdraa 


hominSa 


G. c5nsulam 


patnun 


victdrum 


hominum 


D. corisuOlbus 


patribua 


victoribua 


homi'nibua 


Ac. consulSi 


patras 


victoraa 


hominSa 


Ab. c5nsu1iba8 


patribua 


victoribua 


homi^nlbua 


imlnuB, n.^^ 


wound. 


corpua, n. 


body. 


Stem, vnliier- 




corpor- 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. vulnus 


vulnera 


corpus 


corpora 


G. vulneri* 


vulnerum 


corporia 


corpomm 


D. vulneri 


vulne'ribus 


corppr! 


corpo^ribua 


Ac. vulnus 


vulnera < 


corpus 


corpora 


Ab. vulnere 


vulneMbuB 


corpore 


corpo^ribua 


a. Observe that the endings in 


the preceding paradigms arc 


the same as in the 


paradigms of mute stems. 





52 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



139. 



Model Sentences. 



1. Gkdba agrlcola loit magna' 
dDigentia. 

2. Gkdba agrlcola lolt magnae 
dDlgentlaa 

3. Cornelia fnlt parvis pedl- 
bus. 

4. Cornelia lolt parvonun pe- 
dum. 



Galba was a farmer of 
great industry^ 



Cornelia was (a woman} 
with small feet. 



a. Observe that in each sentence the ablative or genitive is 
used wtt/t an adjective for the purpose of description. These 
sentences, then, illustrate the descriptive ablative and the 
descriptive genitive. 

140. Rule. — The ablative or the genitive of a 
noun may be used with an adjective to describe 
a person or thing. 

a. You cannot say in Latin, as we do in English, a man of 
courage, of honor, of property. An adjective or its equivalent 
must be used : a man of great courage, etc. 



141. 



near. 



ad, prep, with ace, 

towards, to. 
annua, -i, TCi,year. 
consul, conaullB, m. consul, 
flumen, flumlnls, n. river, 
Hannibal, -alia, m. Hannibal, 
Hiiipfinla, -ae, f. Spain, 
homo, homlnls, m. man. 



Vocabulary, 

pater, patils, m. father, 
Sciplo, ScIplonlB, m. Scipio. 
septendeclm, seventeen, 
BummuB, v-a, -um, highest^ 

greatest, 
tener, -era, -erum, tender. 
l^cinuB, -i, m. the Ticinus. 
victor, victoria, m. victor. 



homo, man, as distinguished from the lower animals. 
vlr (57), man, as distinguished from woman ; hero. 



READING LESSON. S3 

142. I. Hannibal et Sc!pi5 olim erant clM duces. 

2. lUe erat Poenus, qui diu Romanes superSre tentabat. 

3. Hie erat Romanus, cuius virtus patriam servavit. 

4. Fuerunt summae virtutis. 5. Pueri* annis teneris 
fuerunt in pugnis, hie in Italia, ille in Hispania. 

6. Seipio patfem in pugna ad Ticinum flumen servavit. 

7. Turn fuit adulescens septendeeim annorum. 8. Hanni- 
bal, aduleseens^ n5n viginti annis, oppida in Hispania 
oppQgnavit. 

143. r. The eonsuFs soldiers fought in Italy and 
Africa. 2. The eonsul had a son Seipio of tender years, 
who fought in a battle with the Carthaginians. 3. In 
that battle the soldiers of the Romans were not the 
vietors. 4. They were put to flight by Hannibal's horse- 
men. s« ^^^ ^^y were men of the greatest courage. 



LESSON XXI. 
144. Beading Lesson. 

SciPio AND Hannibal. 

In this lesson and some of the following, less important 
words that need not be committed to memory are given only 
in the general vocabulary. 

Publius Cornelius Scipid Afrieanus Maior,* adulescens 
septendeeim annorum, ad Ticinum flumen vitam patris 
servavit. In pugna Cannensi * fortiter pugnavit. Postea 
Carthaginem Novam, oppidum in Hispania expugnavit. 

'^When boys, « When a youth, « The Elder, * Of Cannae, 



54 COLLOQUIUM. 

Obsidibus Hispanorum benignus erat et eis libertatem 
dedit. Non minus feliciter in Africa bellavit ibique 
Poenos superavit. Ad Zamam Sclpio et Hannibal 
castra habuerunt.^ Clarum est illud colloquium quod 
ante pugnam habuerunt. Poeni a Scipione superati et 
fugati sunt. Scipi5 triumphimi magnificum ex Africa 
reportavit et a populo Africanus e^t appellatus. 

145. I. Who saved his father by his bravery near 
the river Ticinus ? 2. Scipio, who was then a youth of 
seventeen years. 3. Whom did he afterwards defeat.^ 

4. He defeated Hannibal, that famous Carthaginian. 

5. The victory which Scipio won was famous. 6. Famous 
was the triumph that Scipio had.' 7. And the people 
called him Africanus. 

146. Vocabulary, 

caatra, -omin, n. (pi.) camp, libertaa, libertatis, f. liber- 

colloquitim, -i, n. conversa- fy, freedom, 

tioHj colloquy. obses, obsidiB, m. hostage, 

^iciter, adv. luckily, sue- popaluB, -1, va.. people, 

cessfully, 

147. Colloquium, 
Praeceptor et Discipulus. 

P, Quis fuit Hannibal ? Fuit R5manus an Poenus ? 

or 

D, Fuit Poenus et a Scipione victus est. 

F, Ubi fuit Hannibal is patria 1 

D, Carthago, Hannibalis patria, fuit in Africa. 

P, Cur /uilf cur n5n est in Africa? 
why 

1 ffad, 3 Habuit. 



COLLOQUIUM, 



55 



Z>. Quia Carthago iam dudum deleta est. 

because long ago was destroyed. 

F. Quot nomina erant Scipioni ? 

how many names 

D, Tria Scipioni erant nomina : Publius ComSlius 

three 

Scipio. 
F, Recte, mi puer, praen5men Fublius ; Cornelius 

correct first name 

nomen gentile ; Scipio cdgn5men. 

family cognomen 

D. Nonne interdum appellatus est Scipi5 Africdnus ? 

sometime 

F. Certissime. H5c autem nomen dicebant Roman! 
cognomen secundum. ™o«o^' ^ «<* 







^\M% 




Scipio. 



Hannibal. 



56 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



LESSON XXII. 
Third Deolension. — CV7M/iVf«^<^ 





Stems in 


L 




148. 


Paradigms 


. 






hoBtiB, m. 


iinbeB,f. 


mare, n. 


fire. 


enemy. 


cloud. 


sea. 


Stem, ignl- 


hOBti- 

SINGULAR. 


niEbi- ^ 


maii- 


N. ignlB 


hostlB 


nubeB 


mare 


G. ignlB 


hostlB 


nubiB 


maria 


D. igni 


host! 


nubi 


mari 


Ac. ignem 


hostem 


nubem 


mare 


Ab. igni, e 


hoste 

PLURAL. 


nube 


mar! 


N. ignea 


hostOB 


nubeB 


maria 


G. ignimn 


hosUmn 


nubimn 




D. ignibus 


hostibuB 


nubibuB 


maribuB 


Ac. igiiw,-eB 


hostiB, -OB 


nubiB, -eB 


maria 


Ab. ignlbuB 


hostibuB 


nubibuB 


maribuB 


animal, 


n. animal. 


calcar, n. 


spur. 


Stem. 




calcari- 


Sing. 


Plu. 


SlNG. 


Plu. 


N. animal 


animalia 


calcar 


calcaria 


G. animali* 


animalimn 


calcariB 


calcarium 


D. anim^ 


animalibuB 


calcari 


calcaribus 


Ac. animal 


animalia 


calcar 


calcaria 


Ab. anim^ 


animalibuB 


calcari 


calcaribus 



a. Compare the declension endings of hostis and nubes with 
those of mute stems (126, 130, 138). In the singular, except 
in the nominative, which is variable, the endings are the same. 
What are the difEerences in the plural? 



THIRD DECLEN6V0N. 57 

b. Nouns in -Ss (gen. -is) are declined like nQMs. 

c. How does the declension of ignis dl£Eer from that of 
hostis? The most common nouns declined like ignis are 
avis, bird^ civis, citizen, finis, end, 

d. A few nouns in -is have both -im and -em in the accusative 
singular. These will be noted as they occiu*. 

e. As a guide to the learner, all words having i-stems will 
be followed by the stem in the succeeding vocabularies. 

149. Vocabulary, 

animal, -alia, n. (anlmali-), Gi^'iB,m,(Gxd')fCnd,bordcrj 

animal, pi. territories, 

animna, -i, m. mind, souU hoatta, -ia, m. (hoati-), ene- 
calcar, -aria, n. (calcarl-), my, 

spur, p. 1 86. Ignla, -ia, m. QisoHr^yfire, 

civla, -ia, m. and f. (civl-), mare, -ia, n. (marl-), sea, 

citizen. navia, -ia, f. (navl-), [ace. 
concito, -are, -avi, -atua, -em or -im, abl. -i or e], 

rouse up, spur, ship, pp. 79, 88. 

ez (e), prep, with abl., out neco, -are, -avi, -atna, kill, 

of, from, nnbea, -ia, f. (nnbi-), cloud, 
hoatia, general word for enemy; a public enemy. 
inimicna, a private ox personal enemy; opposed to amicus. 



150. I. Gives nubem equitum in fine terrae vident. 
2. Quid habent ei equites in animo.^ 3.^ Quid eis est 
in animo.^ 4. Equos. calcaribus concitant et oppidum 
expugnabunt. 5. In h5c oppido multi erant homines 
qui regem inopia armorum culpabant. 6. Gives maxime 
territi sunt (were terrified^ et ad mare summa cele- 
ritate properaverunt. 7. Multa animalia ab hostibus 

1 What do they intend^ or mean ? 



58 



THIRD DECLENSION, 



lapidibus necllta sunt. 8. Necllt! sunt in fuga viginti 
Gives. 9. li quorum vita servata est nunc vident in 
oppido magnum ignem. 

151. I. A citizen sees a great ship on the sea. 

2. In the ship that he sees there are many enemies. 

3. Their ^ chief is a man of great stature.' 4.* What have 
those soldiers in mind ? 5. They are hastening from the 
ship upon* the land. 6. They have horses and spurs. 

7. They will try to take this town with fire and sword. 

8. Will not the firmness of the citizens save the town ? 



LESSON XXIII. 

Third Declension. 

Stems in i. — Continued, 





Ablative of Time. 




152. 




Paradigms, 






cliensyin. 


urbB.f. 


arx.f. 


noz, f . 




dependent. 


city. 


citadel. 


night. 


Stem. 


cUenti- 


urbi- 

SINGULAR. 


arci- 


nocti- 


N. 


cliens 


urbs 


arx 


nox 


G. 


clientiB 


urbia 


arda 


noctiUi 


D. 


client! 


urbi 


arci 


nocti 


Ac. 


clientem 


urbem 


arcem 


noctem 


Ab. 


cliente 


urbe 


arte 


nocte 


lEdroin. 


^ Use cofpos. 


« See 150, 2 and a 


^Inwidiacc. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 59 



N. 


clientas 


urbes 


arcea 


noctia 


G. 


clienUum 


urbium 


ardum 


nocUum 


D. 


clientibiiB 


urbibua 


ardbua 


nocUbua 


Ac. 


clientia, -ea 


urbis, -ea 


arda, -ea 


noctia, -ea 


Ab. 


clientibiiB 


urbibua 


ardbua 


nocUbua 



a. Most nouns in -ns and -rs are dedined like those above. 
Par§ns, parent^ has the genitive plural parentum. 

b. Besides nox, three common monosyllables in -6 or -x fol- 
lowing a vowely mus (gen. m&ris), mouse^ nix (gen. nivis), snow^ 
and OS (gen. ossis), bone^ have -ium in the genitive plural. 

153. A review of the paradigms of nouns with 
i-stems indicates that to i-stems belong 

1. Nouns in -is and -€s not increasing in the genitive.* 

2. Neuters in -«, -ol, -«r. * j f * 

3. Nouns in -ns. So also those in -rs. 

4. Monosyllables in -6 or -x following a consonant 

a. Decline together nigra nubSs, animal magimm, nrbs pul- 
chra, iUa arx, li5c mare. ^^ 

154. Model Sentences. 

1. Hieme et aeatate hominea laborant, men toil in winter 
and summer, 

2. Prima Ince multoa hoatea vident, at daybreak {first 
light) they see many enemies, 

3. Hia viginti annia aedificatae aunt multae nrbea, within 
these twenty years many cities have been built, 

a. Observe that the ablatives in the above sentences are 
expressions of time. They answer the questions, When? in, 
or within what time t 

* That is, having no more syllables than in the nominative. 



60 THIRD DECLENSION, 

155. Rule. — Time when or within which is 

expressed by the ablative. 

156. Vocabulary, 

aestas, aestatlB, f. summer, noz, noctlB, f . (noctd-), night, 

arx, arciflk f. (arc!-), citadel^ primuB, -a, -xan^Jirst, 

fortress, recreo, -are, -avi, -atii8» re- 
avis, -is, f. (avi-) bird, fresh, 

eheu, interj. alas/ secunduB, -si, -um, second, 

hiems, hiemia, f. winter, tempan^ -oxia, n. time, 

hora, -ae, f. hour, urba, urbiB» f. (urbi-), city, 

luz, luciflk f. light, volo, -are, -av!, -atunu,^^. 

157. I. Hieme ventus mare et nubes agitat. 2. Aestate 
somnus est gratus hominibus defessis. 3. In mari nubem 
avium prima luce vident pueri. 4. Hora secunda vident 
animalia magno corpore. 5. Homines territi equos conci- 
tant calcaribus^ 6. Prima nocte ' aves ex mari in terrain 
volant. 7. C5nsul f ilium virtiite laudavit. 8. In urbe 
est ignis quem hostes vident ex fine terrae. 9. Hostes 
oppugnabunt arcem quam in fine urbis vident. 10. Qu5 
tempore arx oppugnata est.^ 11. Prima hora viginti, 
secunda septendecim homines a victoribus sunt necatL 

158. I. Where had those arms been with which the 
citizens fought ? 2. They had been in the highest 
citadel. 3. Who is that leader whom the citizens see ? 
4. At the second hour of the night there will be a big 
moon. 5. Then by the light of the moon they will 
attack this city boldly.' 6. They mean * to take the city 

1 See p. 96, n. I. " See 3 above. « See 93. * See 150, 3. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 61 

and the citadel. 7. Alas ! will the tender women and 
children be slain by the enemy ? 8. On that night the 
bodies of the weary citizens were not refreshed by sleep. 



LESSON XXIV. 
Third Declension. — c^;^Vii^</. 
159. Gender. 

1. Nouos in -d, -or, -ds, -er, and -es increasing 
in the genitive (commonly -itis, -idis), are masculine. 

2. But nouns in -d5, -g5, together with abstract 
and collective nouns in -15, are feminine. 

3. Nouns in -as, -€s not increasing in the geni- 
tive, -is, -us, -s following a consonant, and -x, are 
feminine. 

4. Nouns in -a, -e, -i, -y, -c, -1, -n, -t, -ar, -ur, -iis, 
are neuter. 

a. The above rules are subordinate to the general rules of 
gender (13). 

b. Distinguish carefully nouns ending in us and i&s. 

c. The rules will assist in remembering the gender of nouns, 
but there are many exceptions which the learner should care- 
fully note as they occur. 



62 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



160. Table for Review of Nouns of Third Declension. 



MASCULINE. 

*duz, ducifl, m. leader, 
equea, -Itis, m. horseman, 
milefl, -itlB, m. soldier, 
pedes, -itlB, V£L, foot-soldier, 
^princepa, -ipis, m. chief 
*rex, rSgia» m. king, 
*lapifl, 4difl, m. stone, 
peB, pedis, m,foot, 
^aduleBcens, -entia, m. (adulS- 

Bcenti-), youth, 
•consul, -ulis, m. consul, 
♦Hannibal, -alls, m. Hannibal 
obses, -idis, m. hostage, 
pater, patrls, m, father, 
Scipio, -onis, m. Scipio, 
victor, -oris, m. victor, 
homo^ -inis, m. man, 
•civis, -is, m. (civi-), citizen, 
*finis, -is, m. (fini-), end, 
*hostis, -is, m. (hosti-), enemy, 
*ignis, -is, m. (igni-),^r/. 
*cliens, -entis, m. (clienti-), 
dependent. 



celerltas, -atis, f. quickness, 
virtus, -atis, f . virtue^ courage. 
aetas, -atis, f . age, 
avis, -is, f. (avi-), bird, 
navis, -is, f. (navl-), ship, 
nobes, -is, f. (niEbi-), cloucL 
aestas, -atis, f . summer, 
arz, arcis, f. (arci-), citadel, 
Inz, Incis, f. light, 
noz, noctis, f. (nocti-), night, 
orbs, orbis, f. (orbi-), city, 
libertas, -atis, f . liberty, 

NEUTER. 

caput, -itis, n. head, 
flumen, -inis, n. river, 
vulnus, -exis, n. wound, 
corims, -oris, n. body, 
animal, -alis, n. (animali-), 

animal, 
caloar, -iris, n. (calcari-), 

spur, 
mare, -is, n. (marl-), sea, 
tempus, -oris, n. time. 



a. Exceptions to the rules of gender (159) are starred. 
See how many of these are covered by the general rules for 
gender (13). 

b. Prove the gender of nouns not starred by applying the 
proper rule to each. 

c. Make a list of all the above nouns having mute stems, 
and another of i-stems. 



ANECDOTE,— COLLOQUIUM. 63 

161. Anecdote. 

Cicero. 

Cicero, vir facetus,^ ioca' amabat. Olim Lentulum 
generum," qui parvae staturae* erat, cum gladio longo 
videt. "Quis," inquit* Cicero, "generum meum ad 
ilium gladium adligavit ? " • 



162. Colloquium. 

FrXter et Sororcula. 

brother little sister. 

S. Narra mihi, frater, de Polyphemo ; quis f uit et ubi 
habitabat? 

F, Polyphemus filius Neptuni fuit et cum fratribus in 
Insula habitabat. 

S, Fuitne arator et agros arabat ? 

ploughman 

F. Minime. Neque fuit arator neque agros arabat 

'D^i«..^Ux.M..« neither nor 

rolypnemus. 

S. Nauta igitur sine dubio fuit, et maria navibus 
navigabat. 

F. Erravisti, mea sor5rcula, Polyphemus fuit pastor et 

J You are mistaken shepherd 

magnas ovium greges habebat. Fuit ingentis corporis 

of sheep flocks huge 

et unum tantum oculum habuit. Ulixes dolosus ei unum 

one only eye Ulysses crafty his one 

oculum stipite perforavit. 

stake bored out 

S. Eheu ! miserrimum Polyphemum ! 

Oh dear 1 poor 

1 Witty, ^ Jokes, » Son-in-law. 

♦ Staturg, « Said. * Tied, 



64 ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSIO//. 



LESSON XXV. 

Adjectives of the Third Deolension. 

163. Paradigms. 

andaz, bold. Stem andaci- 





SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 




M.andF. N. 


M.andF. 


AT. 


N. 


audax audax 


audaces 


audada 


G. 


audads audads 


audadum 


audHdum 


D. 


audaci audaci 


audadbus 


audadbus 


Ac. 


audacem audax 


audacis, -es 


audacia 


Ab. 


audaci, -e audaci, -e 


audadbus 


audadbus 




prudens, prudent. 


Stem prudentd- 




N. 


prudens prudens 


prudentos 


prudentia 


G. 


prudentis prudentiUi 


prudentimn 


prudentium 


D. 


prudent! prudenti 


prudentibus 


prudentibus 


Ac. 


prudentem prudens 


prudentis, -es 


prudentia 


Ab. 


prudend, -e prudenti, -e 


prudentibus 


prudentibus 




brevis, short. 


Stem brevi- 




N. 


brevis breve 


breves 


brevia 


G. 


brevis ^ brevis 


brevium 


brevium 


D. 


brevi brevi 


brevibus 


brevibus 


Ac. 


brevem breve 


brevis, -es 


brevia 


Ab. 


brevi brevi 


brevibus 


brevibus 




acer, keen^ eager^ active. Stem acri 


- 




M. F, N. 


M. F. 


N. 


N. 


acer acris acre 


acres acres 


acria 


G. 


acrls acris acris 


acrium acrium acrium 


D. 


acri acri acri 


acribus acribus acribus 


Ac. 


&crem acrem acre 


acris, -es acris. 


-es acila 


Ab. 


&cri acri acri 


Hcrlbus Slcribns aciibus 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION, 65 

a. Adjectives declined like audaz and pradSns, having one 
form in the nominative singular for all genders, are called 
adjectives of 07te termination; those declined like brevis, 
adjectives of two terminations j those declined like Seer, 
adjectives of three terminations, 

b. Like what noun in the paradigms of i-stems are audftz 
and prudens declined in the masculine and feminine? How 
does the neuter differ in declension from mare ? 

c. Observe that adjectives of two terminations (like brevis), 
and also those of three terminations (like acer), have only -i in 
the ablative singular. 

Note. — Adjectives of one termination have the genitive 
indicated in the vocabularies. The nominatives only of the 
others are given. 

164. Vocabulary. 

a or ab, prep, with zhL^from, by* hivo, -are, iuvi, iutaa, heip^ 

audaz, -acis, bold^ daring, aid. 

brevia, -e, short, brief moz, adv. presently, 

cornea, -itia, m. comrade, occupo, -are, -avi, -atua, 

convoco, -are, -avi, -atus, call seize, take, 

together, summon, paro, -are, -avi, -atua, get 

cur, adv. a/^j/ ready, prepare for, 

frater, fratria, m. brother, prudens, -eaX^A, wise, prudent, 

gravis, -e, heavy, severe, vulnua, -eris, n. wound. 



165. I. Brevi tempore principes audaces populum 
cor^vocabunt. 2. Laudamus prudentem populum qui 
bellum parat. 3. Milites acres castra magna cum cura 
paraverunt. 4. Da, 6 Hannibal, obsidibus libertatem. 
J. Frater ducis gravi vulnere* ad castra portatus est. 

^ Ablative of cause. 



66 ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION. 

6. Nuntius a libero populo celeritate laudltur. 7. Ilia 
castra hostium prima luce occupabimus. 8. Turn civ€s 
virttite iuvabimus. 9. Quis amicos iuvare non tentabit ? 

166. I. The war will be short, for the leader is wise. 
2. He will try to seize the camp of the enemy. 3. Why 
will the camp be seized by the prudent commander ? 

4. He will aid the hostages, who are now in the camp. 

5. His brother will help him in this war. 6. His com- 
rade is now getting ready arms — ^ shields, spears, arrows. 

7. Presently the eager soldiers will be called together. 



LESSON XXVI. 
Ablative of Specification. 

167. Model Smtences. 

1. Romani Gkdlos virtiite snperabant, the Romans sur- 
passed the Gauls in bravery, 

2. Puer comiti diligentia est similiB, the boy is like his 
comrade in industry, 

3. BibuluB nomine tantom consul foit, Bibulus was 
consul only in name, 

a, Virtiite limits super&bant in meaning. In the same way 
diligentia and ndmine limit similis and consul. These ablatives 
answer the question in what respect ? The ablative thus used 
is called the ablative of specification. 

168. Rule. — The ablative is used with verbs, 
adjectives, and nouns, to denote in what respect 
a thing is true. 



ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION, 67 

169. Vocabulary. 

acer, acrla, acre, keen, shrewd, par, parls, equal (to), 

fortda, -e, brave, strong, scientia, -ae, f. knowledge, 

Ingens, -entia, huge, great, skill, 

nomen, -inis, n. name. frimlUB, -e, like, similar, 

numenis, -i, m. number. Often with dative. 

omnis, -e, all, whole, terror, -oris, m. alarm^ terror. 



170. I . Ille pedes comitem celeritate pedum superavit. 

2. Is miles ab hoc oppidano audacia super^tus est. 

3. Consul est regi par belli scientja. 4. Brevi tempore 
in urbe terror fuit ingeps. 5. Nam hostes audaces numerd 
Gives superaverunt. 6. Omnes duces, homines fortes 
prudentesque, multa vulnera habent. 7. Quis igitur eos 
inopia virtutis nunc culp^bit ? 8. Nunc somnus gr^tus 
est ei forti militi, qui animo et corpore est defessus. 
9. Laudate principem acri animo ^ et corpore * valido. 

171. I. Hannibal, leader of the Carthaginians, sur- 
passed the Romans in skill in war.^ 2. He was a 
man of shrewd mind. 3. In courage he was like his 
father. 4. Who was his* equal in daring ? 5. In a short 
time his name was a terror to the enemy on account of 
his many victories. 6. But in good fortune he was not 
equal to Scipio. 7. In what great battle was he defeated 
by that Roman .? 

1 See 140. 2 Genitive « K. 



i^^ 



Gladius. 



68 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

LESSON XXVII. 

Second Conjugation.— E-Verbs. 

Moned (stem inon§), advise. 

Principal Parts: moned, mon§re, monui, monitos. 

172. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, 
and the present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, of 
moned (512). 

a. Compare the forms of moned with those of amO. To 
inflect moned, you have only to remember that the stem vowel 
is e instead of &, 



173. I. Monet, monebat, monebit. 2. Monetur, mone- 
batur, monebitur. 3. Monent, monebant, monebunt. 
4. Monentur, monebiantur, monebuntur. 5. Moneo, 
monebam, monebo. 6. Moneor, monebar, monebor. 
7. Monemus, monemur. 8. Monebamus, monebamur. 

9. Monebimus, monebimur. 10. Mone, monere. 11. Mo- 
nete, monemini. 12. Monere, moneri. 

a. Like moneo inflect in both voices the following : habeS, 
have, holds vide5, seej terreS, frighten; moveo, move. 

174. I. He sees, he is seen. 2. He was seeing, he 
was seen. 3. He will see, he will be seen. 4. They are 
seeing, they are seen. 5. To have, to see, to frighten. 
6. To be had, to be seen, to be frightened. 7. We shall 
see, we shall be seen. 8. You were seeing, you were 
seen. 9. Does he hold ? Is he seen ? Is he frightened ? 

10. See (thou), see (ye). 11. Be thou seen, be ye seen. 



SECOND CONJUGATION, 



69 



175. Vocabulary, 

antiquua, -a, -um, old^ of old, moveo, -ere, movi, motus, 



ancient. [increase, 

augeo, -ere, auzi, auctaa, 
habeo, -ere, -ui, habitus, hold, 

have, keep, 
maneo, -ere, manm, mansus, 

wait, remain, stay. 
mora, -ae, f. delay, 

antiquus, ancient, old, as opposed to modern, new. 
vetuB, old, as opposed to recent, young. 



move. 
quoque, conj. too, also, 
sine, prep, with abl., without. 
terreo, -ere, terrui, terxitua, 

frighten, 
vetua, veteris, old, 
video, -ere, vidi, visas, see. 



176. I. Incolae terrebantur et omnia quae habebant 
ex urbe movebant. 2. Secunda noctis hora ingens ignis 
omnibus a civibus videbatur. 3. Ubi fuit is ignis quern 
Gives videbant? 4. Ignis fuit in ilia arce vetere quam 
homines antiqui aedificaverant. 5. Ignem ventus magnus 
auget ; augetur igitur civium illorum terror. 6. Qui 
aquam portabunt ? 7. Cur manetis } 8. Nonne sunt in 
ilia arce viginti homines ? 9. Sine mora aqua ab oppi- 
danis et servis fidis portabatur. 10. Feliciter brevi 
tempore ii viri fortes in arce servati sunt. 11. Omnes 
Gives gaudent (/rjoice) ct nos (we) quoque gaudemus. 




POCULUM. 



70 READING LESSON, 

LESSON XXVIII. 

177. Beadingr Lesson.^ 

The Volscians. 

Olim Volsci, Romanorum hostes audaces, urbi Romae'-* 
ingentem terrorem praebebant. Terror subitus erat, nam 
hostes prope erant. Turn consul sine mora iuventutem 
armat, complet cibo urbem, omnia * tuta et tranquilla prae- 
bet. Interim hostes aedificia multa in agris delent. Ita 
terrorem augent rusticorum quos cives frustr^ iuvare ten- 
tant. Hostes ridebant et gaudebant, sed rustic! lugebant. 

178. I. Who are causing great terror to this city ? 
2. The enemy are close at hand, consul ; arm the youth 
without delay. 3. The youth were armed speedily by the 
consul. 4. He will fill the city with food, he will render 
all things in the city safe. 5. In the meantime the enemy 
were destroying many buildings in the fields. 6. The 
alarm of the country people is increased. 7. For the 
enemy are increasing in number. 

179. Vocabulary, 

aedificium, -i, n. building, iuventna, -utts, f. youth, 

compleo, -ere, -evi, -etiiB» lugeo, -ere, luxi, , mourn, 

fill^ fill up, cover, praebeo, -ere, -ui, -itus, fur- 

deleo, -ere, -evi, -etas, nish, render, cause. 

destroy, prope, adv. near, 

fruatri, adv. in vain, rideo. -ere, risi, risua, laugh, 

interim, adv. in the mean- ruaticua, -i, m. peasant, 

time, tutua, -a, -um, safe. 

1 See introductory note to 144. ^ Appositive. ' All things. 



THE LOCATIVE CASE. 71 



LESSON XXIX. 
The Locative Case. 

180. Model Sentences, 

1 . Caesar Somae mansit, Caesar remained at Rome. 

2. Athenis erat templum pulchmm, at Athens there was 
a fine temple, 

3. Consul rari habitabat, the consul was living in the 
country, 

a. Names of towns and a few other words have a form 
called the Locative, which expresses the idea of at^ in, on. 

b. The Locative has the following endings : 

SING. PLU. 

First declension -ae -is 

Second declension -i -is 

Third declension "K-^) -ibas 

181. Vocabulary, 

Athena, -ae, f. Athena (a iaceo, -ere, iacoi, , lie. 

goddess). Tralles, -inm, f. (pi.) Tralles. 

AthSnae, -arum, f. (pi.) Zama, -ae, f. Zama. 

Athens. \ 

Capua, -ae, f. Capua. domi, at home (499). 

Carthago, -inis, f. Carthage. humi, on the ground. 

Corinthus, -i, f. Corinth. militiae, in the field {of war). 

Delphi, -orum, m. (pi.) Delphi, ruri, in the country. 



182. I. Corinthi clanim videbamus templum quod 
nunc deletur. 2. Statua Athenae antiquis temporibus 
Athenis videbatur. 3. Ubi nunc est ilia statua quam 
olim vid^bant homines t 4. Roman! Scipionis vict5riis 



72 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

fuenint laeti. 5. Quern clluiim principem necSverunt 
Poeni Carthigini ? 6. Principem R5manum, cui nomen 
fuit Regulus, necaverunt. 7. Meus f rater domi manebat. 
8. Humi diu iacebant milites qui vulnera multa et gravia 
habebant. 9. Romani domi militiaeque clari fuerunt. 
10. Frustra diu Trallibus manebimus. 

183. I. Hannibal kept the horsemen and infantry at 
Capua. 2. The fear of Hannibal kept the citizens in the 
city. 3. Meanwhile peasants furnished grain for the 
horses, food for the men. 4. At Zama in Africa Han- 
nibal was defeated by Scipio. 5. At Delphi there was 
a famous temple. 6. By whom was the temple at Delphi 
built ? 7. Why are you lying on the ground, lazy boys ? 
8. Men, be brave at home and in the field. 



LESSON XXX. 

Second Conjugration. — Continued. 

184. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, future perfect indica- 
tive, and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of moneO (512). 



185. I. Monuit, monuerat, monuerit. 2. Monuerunt, 
monuerant, monuerint. 3. Monui, monitus sum. 4. Mo- 
nuerit, monitus erit. 5. Monueram, monitus eram. 
6. Monuisti, monueras, monueris. 7. Monitus est, 
monita erat, monita erit. 8. Monuisse, monitus esse. 

186. I. Movi, m5veram, moverd. 2. Motus sum, 
motus eram, motus er5. 3. Praebitus est, praebitus erat. 



SECOND CONJUGATION, 73 

praebitus erit. 4. Vidit, viderat, viderit. 5. Visus est, 
visus erat, visus erit. 6. Terruerunt, terruerant, terrue- 
rint. 7. Territi sunt, territi erant, territi erunt. 8. Dele- 
tum est, deletum erat, deletum erit. 

187. I. We had, we had had, we shall have had. 
2. They had, they had had, they will have had. 3. We 
saw, we were seen. 4. We had seen, we had been seen. 
5. We shall have seen, we shall have been seen. 6. He 
filled, he increased. 7. They remained, they mourned. 

188. Vocabulary, 

Caesar, -aria, m. Caesar j^^, 1 1 7. postea, adv. afterwards, 

demigro, -are, -avi, -ataa, poterat, could, was able, 

remove, go away, poterant, could, were able. 

PompeiuB, -ei, m. Pompey, quia, conj. because. 



189. I. Sine scutis mllites pugnare n5n poterant. 

2. Hannibal Capuae sine multo cibo manere non poterat. 

3. Cur Hannibal in Africam demigravit ex Italia .^ 4. Quia 
in Africa erat magnus terror. 5. Caesar qui Romae 
manserat magna cum celeritate ex urbe properavit. 
6. Caesar multum ex Gallia aurum portaverat. 7. Id 
aurum, quod a Caesare portatum erat, in antique templ5 
habitum est. 8. Hoc aurum Caesar ex templ5 postea 
movit. 9. Caesar secundo belli anno Pompeium qui fuit 
inimicus superavit. 




Arcus. 



74 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



LESSON XXXI. 

Comparison of Adjeotives. 

Ablative of Comparison. 

190. In Latin, as in English, there are three 
degrees of comparison, the positive, the compara- 
tive, and the superlative. 



191. 






POSITIVE. 


COMPARATIVE. 


SUPERLATIVS. 


altos (alto-), high 


altior 


nltlmtlmTin 


brevls (brevi-), short 


brevior 




audaz (audaci-), bold 


audacior 


audaciaafniiiB 



a. Observe that the comparative is formed from the stem 
of the positive by dropping the stem vowel, if there is one, 
and adding -ior ; the superlative by adding -issimns. 

miser (misero-), wretched miserior miserximiis 

acer (acri-), keen acxior acerrlmus 

b. Observe that adjectives in -er form the superlative by 
adding -rimus to the positive. The comparative is formed 
as in adjectives in -us. 



192. 



Declension of Comparatives. 
Paradigm, 





singular. 


plural. 




M.andP. N. 


M.andP, 


N. 


N. 


altior altius 


altiores 


altiora 


G. 


altioris altioris 


altioram 


altiomm 


D. 


altiori altiori 


altioribus 


altioribnB 


Ac. 


altiorem altius 


altioris, -is 


altidra 


Ab. 


altiore, -i altidre, -i 


altioribus 


altiaribus 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 75 

a. The comparative of all adjectives except plus, more (207), 
is declined like altior ; the superlative like bonus. 

b. Compare and decline in the comparative, cams, gratus, 
fortis, pr&dSns. 

193. Model Sentences, 

1 . Virtus hominibus carior eat ' 

quam aumm, \ virtue is more precious to 

2. Virtus hominibus carior est men than gold. 
auro, 

3. Via est brevior, the way is rather (or too) short, 

4. Via est brevissima, the way is very short. 

a. Observe that the comparative may be followed, as in the 
first sentence, by quam. If quam is used, the two objects 
compared (virtus and aurum) are in the same case. 

b. But quam may be omitted, as in the second sentence : 
then the comparative is followed by the ablative. The ablative 
can be used only in place of quam and the nominative, or quam 
and the accusative. 

194. Rule. — The comparative is followvcf hy 
the ahlative when quam (than) is omitted. 

c. Observe in 3 and 4 an occasional use of the comparative 
meaning too or rather^ and of the superlative meaning very. 

195. Vocabulary. 

altus, -a, -um, high^ deep. mons, mentis, m. (monti-). 
angustus, -a, -um, narrow. mountain (496). 

imperator, -oris, m. com- nix, nivis, f. (nivi-), snow. 

mandery general. Padus, -i, m. the Po. 

iter, itinerls, n. way^ march^ sapiens, -entis, wise. 

journey (499). utilise -e, useful, 
umbra, -ae^ f. shcuie. 



76 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



196. I. Quis urbem pulchri5rem quam R5mam vidit ? 

2. Quis urbem pulchriorem Roma vidif ? 3. Aestate um- 
bra gratior est quam hieme. 4. Miles gladium longiorem 
habuit. 5. Hoc iter ad castra Caesaris est brevissimum. 

6. Montes altissimi aestate nive sunt albi. 7. Padus 
fuit Italiae flumen pulcherrimum. 8. Quod flumen pul- 
chrius Pado Poeni viderant ? 9. Arma quibus R5mani 
nugnabant gravia erant 10. Helvetii angustos fines 
habuerunt. 11. Quod iter est brevius quam illud? 
12. Quod iter est brevius illo ? 

197. I. What commander have you seen braver 
than Caesar? 2. Did not his name terrify the Gauls? 

3. The bravest men are not always the wisest. 4. Seas 
are deeper than rivers. 5. What is more useful to men 
than money ? 6. My companion was very prudent. 

7. The companion whom we had was very wise. 8. My 
sword is rather long. 




Scuta. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 77 

LESSON XXXII. 

Comparison of Adjectives. — CV7if/r>f«^^ 

Partitive Genitive. 

The following tables are given for reference. 

198. Six adjectives in -lis drop the final vowel of 
the stem and add -limus to form the superlative : 

POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

facilifl, -6, easy, f acilior, -ius f acillimus, -a, -um 

difficilis, -e, hard, difficilior, -ius difficilUmaa, -a, -urn 

similis, -6, like, similior, -ins simillimua, -a, -um 

dissimilis, -e, unlike, dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a. -um 

humilis, -e. low, humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um 

gracilis, -e, slender, gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um 

199. The following also form their superlative 

irregularly. The positives are not used in the 

nominative singular masculine. 

exterus, outward, exterior, outer ^ extrSmus ) outermost^ 

exterior, extimus j last, 

inferus. below, inferior, lower, infimus ) . . 

imus ) 
TpQsi&mn, following, posterior, /ti/^r. postremus). . 

postumus ) 

superuB, above. superior, higher, supremus ) ;& • z y 

summus ) ^ 

200. The following want the positive. They form 

the comparative and superlative from prepositions or 

adverbs. 

[cis, chr^y on this side, "] citerlor, hither, citimus. hithermost, 
[in, intra, /«, within,'\ interior, inner, intimus, inmost, 
[prae, pro, before,"] prior, former, primus, first. 
[prope, near,] propior, nearer, proximus, next. 

[ultra, beyond.] ulitrioi^further, ultinmBt furthest ^ last. 



78 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 

201. Some adjectives are compared, as in English, 
by means of adverbs : 

idoneuB. fit ; magis idoneos. more fit; maxime idoneas. 
most fit 

202. Model Sentences, 

1. Honim Gallorum fortisBimi erant Belgae, of these 
Gauls the bravest were the Belgians, 

2. Multi militum necati sunt, matiy of the soldiers were 
killed, 

3. Plus pecuniae habent quam virtutis, they have more 
(of) money than (of) worth, 

a. Observe that each genitive denotes a whole of which a 
part is taken. This genitive is called the Partitive Genitive, 

203. Rule. — The partitive genitive is used to 
denote the whole of which a part is taken, 

a. Sometimes e (ex) with the ablative is used instead of the 
partitive genitive : multi ex militibus, many of the soldiers, 

204. Vocabulary, 

Brutus, -i, m. Brutus, inferus, -a, -um, below. 

citexlor, -iuB, hither, magnitudo, -inis, f . size, 

collis, -is, m. (colli-), hill, Ocelum, -i, n. Ocelum^ a town, 

consilium, -i, n. wisdom (59). pars, partis, f. (parti-), part^ 
diificilis, -e, difficult, hard, share, 

dissimilis, -e, unlike^ with dat. pensum. -i, n. task, lesson, 

facilis, -e, easy, propior, -ius, nearer, with dat 

Gallus, -i, m. a Gaul. superus, -a, -um, high, 

idSneus, -a, -um, fit, suitable, ulterior, -ius, further. 



205. I. Multum itineris est angustum sed facillimum. 
Homines Africae hominibus* Europae sunt dissi- 

1 Dative. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 



79 



millimi. 3. Pensum quod est facile omnibus placet 
4. Illud oppidum, Ocelum nomine, est citerioris Galliae 
ultimum. 5. Galli quos prima hora vidimus in superiore 
parte collis erant. 6. Sed secunda hora inferiorem partem 
compleverant. 7. Oceli viginti ex cquitibus vulnerati sunt. 
8. Brutus, vir summi consili, ultimus Rdmanorum appella- 
tus est. 9. Prima luce pars hostium in monte videbatur 
a militibus. 10. Urbs Roma mari^ non erat proxima. 
II. Omnium collium quos videmus ille est magnitudine 
castris maxime idoneus. 



206. I. What easier task do you see than this.? 
2. We have seen more difficult things.^ 3. These new 
books are very unlike in size.^ 4. Which* of those 
hills is the nearest? 5. What towns are very near that 
river yonder, the Po? 6. In a very short time the 
bravest of the enemy were frightened. 7. All the 
soldiers that we saw on the next hill were Gauls. 
8. Whose horses are handsomer than Marcus's } 



^ Dative. 

^ Omit and use the neuter 
plural of the adjective. 



8 See 168. 

* Masculine gender. Why ? 




Navi8 Pirata. 



80 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 



LESSON XXXIII. 

Comparison of Adjectives. — Continued. 

Ablative of Degree of Difference. 

207. The following adjectives form the compara- 
tive and superlative irregularly : 



POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE. 


SUPERLATIVE. 


bonus, -a, -um. good, melior, melius 


optimus, -a, -um 


mains, -a, -am, bad, p€ior, peius 


pessimus, -a, -um 


magnus, -a, -um. great, maior, maius 


m^Lximus. -a. -um 


multa..-a.-um.»»«.^) ,5, (208) 
multi, -ae, -a, many, ) 


plurimus. -a. -um 




parvus, -a, -um, small, minor, minus 


minimus, -a, -um 


senez, senis, old, senior ^ 


maximus natu 


iu venis, -e. young, iu nior ^ 


minimus natu 


vetus, veteris. old, vetustior, -ius 


veterrimus, -a. -un 


208. Declension of plfls, more ^^yix. more oxmany. 


SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


M. F. N. M, F. 


N, 


N. plus plures 


plura 


G. pluiis plurium 


plurium 


D. pluribus 


pluribus 


Ac. plus piuris, -es 


plura 


Ab. plure pluribus 


pluribus 



209. Model Sentences, 

1. Caesar sez amiis minor natu erat Pompeio, Caesar 
was six years younger {younger by six years) than Pompey, 

2. Arces decem pedibus sunt altiores quam mums, the 
towers are ten feet higher {higher by ten feet) than the wall, 

^ Instead of senior, m&ior n&tfl and instead of iflnior, mincn: nfttfl ; 
{greater by birth) is often used, but nitfl is sometimes omitted. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 81 

a, #bserve that the ablatives annis and pedibus answer the 
question {by) how much f and denote the Begree of Biffer- 
ENCE between the objects compared. 

210. Rule. — Degree of difference is expressed 
hy the ablative, 

211. Vocabulary. 

CatUina, -ae, m. Catiline, prudentia, -ae^ f. wisdom, 
Cicero, -onis, m. Cicero; p. 1 4 1 . prudence^ foresight, 

interdmn, adv. sometimes, semper, adv. always, 

natu, abl., m. by birth, in age, aenez, aenis, old (499). 

orator, -oris, m. orator, aez (indecl.), six, 

pigritia, -ae, f . laziness, timeo, -ere, timui, , fear, 

Senez, used mostly of persons, and implying respect 
Vetas, much more used as an adjective, and applied to 
persons and things. 



212. I. Pompeius sex annis maior natu erat quam 
Caesar. 2. Nonne orator quoque clarbsimus sex annis 
maior ^ erat Caesare? 3. Quid erat ei nomen? 4. Cicero, 
qui oratorum Romanorum maximus appellatur. 5. Optimi 
oratores interdum sunt pessimi cives. 6. Sed Cicero 
civis optimus erat et acerrimus consul. 7. Sapientissimis 
consiliis Romam servavit, quam Catilina delere tentavit. 
8. Optimos^ amamus, timemus pessimos. 9. Catilina 
ab omnibus bonis civibus timebatur. 10. Multo melius' 
est amari quam timeri, et non difficilius. 

1 See p. 80, note i. • Neuter, because the infini- 

« The best (men). See p. 44, tive is regarded as a neuter 
note 2. noufi. 



82 FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS, 

213. I. A man with a large head^ is not always 
superior in wisdom. 2. It is much easier to love 
friends than enemies. 3. What is worse than laziness ? 
4. Very many of the soldiers had more courage* than 
prudence.^ 5. The oldest wines are not always the 
best. 6. My brother, who is older than Sextus, is a 
head* taller than Marcus. 7. Was not Caesar a better 
general than Pompey ? 8. Caesar had a great many* 
friends. 



LESSON XXXIV. 



Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. 
Formation. 
214. Models, 



ADJECTIVE. 


STEM. 


ADVERB. 


gratus, agreeable. 


grato- 


grate, agreeably. 


miser, wretched. 


misero- 


misere, wretchedly. 


pulcher, beautiful. 


pulchro- 


pulchre, beautifully 



a. Observe that adverbs from adjectives with o-stems are 
formed by changing the to e. 

fortis, brave, forti- fortiter, bravely, 

acer, eager, acri- acriter, eagerly, 

prudens, wise, prudenti- prudenter, wisely, 

b. Observe that adverbs are formed from adjectives with 
i-stems by adding ter to the stem. 

c. Observe that stems in -nti- drop ti before ter. 

1 See 140. « See 193, a, • Express a great many by 

3 See 202, 3. « See 209. one word. 



FORMA TION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS, 83 



ADJECTIVE. ADVERB. 

multuB, much, multum, much, 

facillB, easy. facile, easily. 

impunis, unpunished. impune, with safety. 

d. The accusative singular neuter of the adjective is some- 
times used as an adverb. 

citus, quick. cito, quickly. 

subitus, sudden. subito, suddenly. 

primus, first. primo, at first. 

e. The ablative singular neuter of the adjective is sometimes 
used as an adverb. 





Comparison. 




15. 


Models. 




POSITIVB. 


COMPARATIVE. 


SUPERLATIVE. 


grate, agreeably. 


graduB 


gratissime 


misere, wretchedly. 


miserlus 


miserrime 


acriter, eagerly. 


acriuB 


acerrime 


felidter, luckily. 


fellduB 


felicissime 


bene,* well. 


melius 


optime 


male, badly, ill. 


peius 


pessime 


multum, much. 


plus 


plurimum 




magis 


maxime 



a. Observe that the comparative of the adverb is the same 
as the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the 
adjective ; and that the superlative is formed from the superla- 
tive of the adjective by changing, as in the positive, the final 
of the stem to e. 

b. If the adjective is irregular in comparison, the adverb is 
also irregular. 

c. Form adverbs from the following adjectives and compare 
them : brevis (brevi-), shorty Kbcr (Ubcro-), free, aeger (aegr<v-)y 
weak^ similis (simili-), like. 

1 Fonned irregularly from bonos. 



84 FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 

216. Vocabulary, 

acriter, adv. eagerly^ fiercely, diutiufl, adv., comp. of diu, 
amplioB, adv. more^ longer, [superl., diutissime], longer, 

care, adv. dearly, facile, adv. easily, 

copia, -ae, i. plenty, abundance, fideliter, adv. faithfully. 
debeo, -ere, debui, debitus, ibi, adv. there, in thclt place. 

owe; ought, must, lex, legia, f. law, [(152, a). 

diligenter, adv. diligently, parens, -entis, m. and f . parent 

pareo, -ere, panii, , (w. dat) obey, 

Bubito, adv. suddenly. 



217. I. Milites Romani virtute Gallos facile supe- 
rabant. 2. Longis hastis multo fortius pugnabant. 

3. Amplius sex horis fortissime pugnaverunt. 4. Consul 
R5mae diutius manebat quam Capuae. 5. Caesar castra 
movit et subito oppidum oppugnavit. 6. Hieme montes 
altissimi copia nivis complentur. 7. Turn miseri rustici 
in aedificiis, animalia in agris vivunt {live^, 8. Pueri ^ 
parentes carissime amare debent. ^ 9. Parentes pueris 
cdnsilium optimum dant. 10. Pr5 eis diligentissime labo- 
rant. 1 1. Pueri, parentibus ^ parete, quibus omnia debetis. 
12. Legibus^ patriae fidelissime parere debemus. 

218. I . The Gauls were more easily frightened than 
the Romans. 2. Did not Caesar stay a very long time 
in Gaul ? 3. There he fought battles most successfully. 

4. Suddenly he moved his camp into lower Italy. 5. The 
elders ' who were in the city remained, and luckily were 
saved. 6. That boy laughs much ; he is merry. 7. Laugh- 
ing* is much better than mourning.* 8. Children some- 
times do not obey their parents faithfully. 

1 Children, » Older (men). * To laugh, 

3 Notice the dative with pJLre5. * To mourn, Cf. 212, 10. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 85 

219. Colloquium, 

Pater et Filiolus. 
P. ^uid, mi filiole, in schola hodie discebas ? 

little son learn 

F, •iscebam, mi pater, pensum de adverbiis longissi- 
mum. 

P, 0ui parti orationis est adverbium simillimum ? 

speech 

F, Simillimum, ut opinor, est adverbium adiectivo. 

as I think 

P. Recte, puer ; sed illud mihi explica, si poteris : Si, ut 

explain if you can as 

dicis, adverbium adiectivo est simile, unde nomen traxit ? 

say whence has derived 

F, Fortasse propter h5c, quia saepissime verbis 

perhaps on account of very often verbs 

adiungitur. 

it is joined 

P, Optime, filiole ; en tibi assem ! 

behold for you penny 



LESSON XXXV. 

Third Conjugration. — E-Verbs. 

Regdy (stem rege) rule. 

Principal Parts : regS, regere, read, rectos. 

220. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, 
and the present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, 
of regd (513). 

a. Compare the forms of reg5 with those of amo and moned. 
See wherein they are alike, and wherein they difiEer. 



221. I. Regit, regebat, reget. 2. Regitur, regebatur, 
regetur. 3. Regimt, regebant, regent. 4. Reguntur, 



86 THIRD CONJUGATION, 

regebantur, regentur. 5. Regis, regebas, reges. 6. Rege- 
ris, regebaris, regeris. 7. Regimus, regimur. 8. Rege- 
bamus, regebamur. 9. Regemus, regemur. 10. Regere, 
regl. II. Regite, regimini. 12. Rege, regere. 

a. Like regd inflect in both voices the same tenses of ducd, 
lead^ mitt5, sendy and scribd, write, 

222. I. He leads, he is led. 2. He was leading, he 
was led. 3. He will lead, he will be led. 4. They lead, 
they are led. 5. To lead, to send, to write. 6. To be 
led, to be sent, to be written. 7. We shall send, we 
shall be sent. 8. You were leading, you were led. 

9. Does he lead ? Is he sent ? Does he write ? 

10. Write, lead,^ send. 11. Be thou led, be ye led. 
12. I lead, I am led. 

223. Vocabulary, 

defendo, -ere, defend!, de- Labienus, -i, m. Labienus, 

fensua, defend^ protect. legio, -onia» f. legion, 

duco, -ere, dGzi, ductus, mitto, -ere, mis^ nuasas, send, 

lead, conduct. scribo, -ere, acripsi, acriptas, 

dum, conj. while, as long as. write, write out, 

epistula, -ae, f. letter, si, conj. if, whether, 

gero, -ere, gessi, gestus, bear, uxor, -oris, f . wife, 

carry on, wage (war), vlnco, -ere, vici. victas, con- 

luv«»nis, -e, young (207). quer, defeat. 



224. I . Def endite, O cives, banc pulcherrimam urbem. 
2. Diligentissime earn defendere debetis. 3. Si acriter 
pugnabitis, uxores liberosque defendetis. 4. Si Caesar 
est in urbe, facillime defendetur. 5. Is semper hostis 

1 The present imperative second singular is due for dfice. 



READING LESSON, 87 

vincit. 6. Caesar sex legiones in ulteriorem Galliam 
mittit. 7. Bellum cum Gallis ibi gerebatur. 8. Eae 
legiones quas Caesar mittit a Labieno ducuntur. 9. Ea 
aestat6, dum Caesar bellum gerit^ in ulteriore Gallia, 
Ponipeius Romae fuit. 10. Fuitne Pompeius imperator 
melior quam Caesar? 

225. I . The town will be defended by the most skillful 
generals. 2. At this time many lands are ruled by kings. 

3. Boys and girls, write letters to all your* friends. 

4. You ought to write them with great care. 5. Who 
of our generals will lead the legions into battle } 6. If 
Caesar leads * them, they will fight with the greatest 
courage. 7. Send all the elders into the citadel. 8. The 
younger men, whose valor is great, will defend the city. 



LESSON XXXVI. 
226. Beading Lesson. 

Cornelia's Jewels. 

Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus erant filii Cor- 
neiiae, Scipionis African! filiae. li pueri bonis artibus 
floruerunt. A matre educati sunt et ab* ea serm5nis 
elegantiam discebant. Cornelia erat mulier sapientissima. 
Cum Campana matrona ornamenta sua * pretiosissima ei * 
ostendebat, Cornelia duos ^ filios vocavit. " Haec," inquit, 
" sunt mea ornamenta.^* 

^ Was carrying on ; the pres- ^ Omit. * Her (own). 

ent indicative with dum is often * Shall lead. ® Feminine, 

used of a past act. ^ From, ^ Two, 



88 



READING LESSON, 



22n. I. Cornelia had two sons. 2. The elder ^was 
called Tiberius,* the younger Caius.' 3. They were boys 
of very good qualities.' 4. For their mother faithfully 
educated them. 5. Elegance of speech is a great orna- 
ment to boys. 6. If boys are well trained, they learn to 
obey their elders.* 7. Ladies always like* to display 
jewels, if they have them. 8. What precious jewels did 
Cornelia display ? 



228. 



Vocabulary. 



ars, artia, f. (arti-) art, skill; 

in plu., qualities, 
cum, conj. when, while, 

diaco, -ere, didici, » learn, 

educo, -are, -ayi, -atua, train, 

educate, 
floreo, -ore, flonu, .flour- 
ish, be conspicuous, be dis- 
tinguished, 
libenter, adv. gladly. 

1 See 37. 

3 Note that the Latm Gftios 
is Caius in English. 
• See 140. 



mater, -trla, f . mother, 
matrona, -ae, f . matron, lady. 
mulier, mulieris, f. woman, 
omamentum, -i, n. ornament^ 

jewel, 
OBtendo, -ere, oatendi, oa- 

tentaa, show, display, 
prettSsoB, -a, -um, precious, 
aermo, -onia, m. speech, con- 
versation, 

* Their elders = older (men) ; 
dative. 

* Like to display = gladly 
display. 




Navis Lonqa. 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 



LESSON XXXVII. 
Fourth Declension. 

The Stem ends in u. 

229. Gender. — Nouns of the fourth declension 
in -us are masculine, those in -fi are neuter, except 
so far as 13, 2 is applicable. 

a, Domas, house^ idus, the Ides^ manos, hand^ and a few 
others, are feminine. 

230. Paradigms, 

gradua, m. step. oomu, n. horn. 





Stem, 


, gradu- 


Stem, 


, coma- 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. 


gradoB 


gradoB 


coma 


comua 


G. 


gradoB 


g^adunin 


cornfEB 


comaam 


D. 


gradui, -a 


gradibuB 


coma 


comiboB 


Ac. 


g^adum 


gradoB 


coma 


comoa 


Ab. 


gradu 


gradibuB 


coma 


comiboB 



231. Artns, joints portus, harbor^ and a few other nouns, 
together with dissyllables in -cus, have the dative and ablative 
plural in -abas : portabas, arcabas, with bows, 

232. Domas, house^ has also forms of the second declen- 
sion. See 499. Domi is used only as a locative. 

233. Decline together m&gnos ezercitos, large army; 
mea manos, my hand; longom como, long horn. 



90 FOURTH DECLENSION, 

1234. Vocabulary. 

comu, -us, n. horn; wing (of manua, -us, f. hand; band, 

an army) ; p. 130. force, 

dezter, -era, -erum (oftener peditatos, -as, m. infantry, 

-tra, -tnun), right, portua, -ua, m. harbor, 

domuB, -i, f . house, home (499). prope, prep, with ace, near, 

elephantuB, -i, m. elephant, ainiater, -tra, •tnun, left, 

equitatua, •ua, m. cavalry, teneo. -ere, tenui, tentuak 
ezercitua, -ua, m. army. hold, keep. 



235. I. Mea^ manu has epistulas maxima cum cura 
scribam. 2. Multi Roman5rum artem belli pueri didi- 
cerunt. 3. Corinthi erant duo* portus. 4. In quibus 
portubus erant plurimae naves. 5. Dextrum exercitus 
cornu fortissime pugnavit. 6. Caesar exercitum in proxi- 
mum oppidum ducit. 7. Subito peditatus hostium in* 
eius legiones mittitur. 8. Exercitus Gallorum equitatu 
florebant. 9. Bellum ab eis equitatu* peditatuque gere- 
batur. 10. Scipionis equitatus territus est elephantis 
Hannibalis. 

236. I. The general with all the cavalry held the 
right wing of the army. 2. At home and in the field 
we ought to learn prudence. 3. Many animals fight 
with their* horns. 4. Bands of the enemy were seen 
near the house of Marcus. 5. And in the further part 
of the harbor they saw a rather ® large ship. 6. Marcus 
holds his* sword in his right hand. 7. And with it' he 
will defend his wife and children. 8. In his left hand 
he carries a shield. 

1 My own. * Against. * Omit. ^ gee 194, c. 

a T\oo. * See 84. "^ And with it ^ with which. 



THIRD CONJUGATION, 91 

LESSON XXXVIII. 

Third Conjugation. — c<7;///««/^. 
Ablative of Accompaniment. 

237. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect 
indicative, and the perfect infinitive, active and passive, of 
regS (513). 

a. Compare these forms with the same tenses of am5 and 
moneo. 

238. I. Rexit, rexerat, rexerit. 2. Rectus est, rectus 
erat, rectus erit. 3. Rexerunt, rexerant, rexerint. 4. Rexi, 
recta sum. 5. Rexistis, rectae estis. 6. Rexerimus, 
rectae erimus. 7. Reximus, recti sumus. 8. Rexisse, 
rectus esse. 9. Rexi, rexeram, rexero. 10. Rectus 
sum, rectus eram, rectus ero. 

239. I. He has led, he has been led. 2. He had 
led, he had been led. 3. You will have led, you will 
have been led. 4. They have sent, they have been 
sent. 5. He led, he was led. 6. We had sent, we 
had been sent. 7. You wrote, you led, you sent. 
8. To have led, to have sent. 9. To have been led, 
to have been sent. 

240. Model Sentences, 

1 . Caesar Labienum in Galliam cum ezercitu misit, Caesar 
sent Labienus into Gaul with an army, 

2. Domi cum liberis manaimus, we stayed at home with 
our children. 



92 THIRD CONJUGATIOir. 

241. Rule. — Accompaniment is expressed Try 
the aMative with cum. 

a. If the ablative is modified by an adjective, cum is some- 
times omitted : magnS ezercitu, with a large army. See 
ablative of manner (92, 93). 

242. Vocabulary, 

caedes, -is, f. (caedi-), s laugh- locus, -i, m. (pi. loci and 

ter^ carnage, loca) place^ position, 

discedo, -ere, -cessi, -cesaus, pono, -ere, poBui, poaitaa, 

depart^ withdraw. place, put; pitch (camp), 

inter, prep. w. ace, between, puto, -are, -avi, -atus, think, 

among, amid. reckon, believe. 

lego, -ere, legi, lectus, read, Rhenus, -i, m. the Rhine, 
senatuB, -as, m. senate. 

trans, prep. w. ace, across, the other side of, beyond. 



243. I. Epistulas legi quas scripsisti. 2. Oppidum 
positum est^ inter fiumen Rhenum et montem. 3. Con- 
sul urbem Romam defendit. 4. Unus * ducum magnum 
exercitum in Galliam duxerat. 5. Scipio in Hispaniam 
cum sex legionibus missus erat. 6. Bellum in Italia ab 
Hannibale gestum est. 7. Saepissime exercitus Romanos 
vicit Hannibal. 8. Dux castra prope portum posuit. 
9. Hostes pila e loco superiore miserunt. 10. Dum 
haec in dextro cornu geruntur,* sinistrum* fugatum 
est. II. Quo* plures erant hostes, eo* maior caedes 
fuit. 12. Virtutem militi putamus optimum esse oma-. 
mentum. 

^ positum est = is situated, ^ Supply comfi. 

* One. « Qu5 . . . e6, by which ...by 

8 See p. 87, n. i. that = the . , , the. See 210. 



THIRD .CONJUGATION. 



93 



244. I. Caesar wrote many letters to^ the senate. 

2. And these ^ letters were read by the chief of the senate 

3. Labienus hastened with all the infantry towards the 
river. 4. He pitched hfs camp on the other side of the 
river. 5. Large bands of the enemy were seen in many 
places. 6. They had withdrawn from ' the place in which 
the camp had been pitched. 7. At daybreak several* 
soldiers departed from the camp. 8. If the army is 
destroyed,* the citizens will mourn. 

1 ad. ^ And these = which,' «cx. ^aliquot. * Future. 




Templum. 



94 PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

LESSON XXXIX. 

Personal and Reflexive Pronouns. 

Personal Pronouns. 

245. Paradigms, 

First Person. 

Ego,/. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. ego, /. nos, we, 

G. mei, of me, noBtrum, or nostri, of us, 

D. mihi, (mi), to or for me, nobis, to ox for us, 

Ac. me, me. nos, us. 

Ab. (a) me, by me, (a) nobis, by us. 

Second Person. 
Tu, thou. 
N. tu, thou {you), vo^ youy ye, 

G. tui, of thee {you). vestrum, or vestri, of you, 

D. tibi, to or for thee {you), vobis, to or for you. 
Ac. te, thee {you). vos, you. 

Ab. (a) te, by thee {you). (a) vobis, by you. 

Third Person (Reflexive). 

Sui, of himself etc. 

N. 

G. sui, of himself herself sui, of themselves. 

itself 
D. sibi, to or for himself etc. sibi, to or for themselves, 
Ac. se (sese), himself etc. se (sese), themselves. 
Ab. (a) se (sese), by him- (a) se (sese), by themselves. 

self etc. 
a. The personal pronoun of the third person, when not 
reflexive, is supplied by the demonstrative is, ea, id, and some- 
times by hie and ille. See 100,/, and 119, c. 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, 95 

246. Model Sentences, 

1. Ego Btim tristis, tu es laetas, I am sad, you are glad. 

2. Omnes homines se (or sese) amant, all men love them- 
selves, 

3. Quia vestrmn se non amat ? who of you does not love 
himself f 

4. FDius mecnm domi Romae manet, my son stays at 
home with me at Rome, 

a. Observe in i that the subjects ego and ta are expressed. 
In general, nominatives of personal pronouns are not expressed ; 
when they are used, it is for emphasis or contrast 

b. The reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of the clause 
in which it stands, as in 2. 

c. The personal pronouns of the first and second persons 
are often used with reflexive sense : tu te amas^ thou lovest 
thyself; omnes n58 amamus, we all love ourselves. 

d. The forms nostrum and vestriim are chiefly used in the 
partitive sense. See 202. 

e. The pi^eposition cum with the ablative of personal pro- 
nouns is appended to them : mScam, with me; tecum, with 
thee, etc. So also with relatives and ihterrogatives : quibus- 
com, with whom. 

Possessive Adjectives. 

247. The possessive adjectives are formed from the stems 
of personal pronouns. They are sometimes used as pronouns. 

mens, -a, -tun, my, mine (voc. auoa, -a, -um (reflexive), his, 

sing, masc, mi). her, hers, its, their, theirs. 

tnua, -a, -um, thy, thine; your, neater, -txa, -tnun, our, ours, 

yours, veater, -tra, -Xxxxm, your, yours. 

a. When your, yours refers to one person, use tuus ; when 
to more than one, use yeater. 



96 PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

248. Model Smtences, 

1. Ego qui haec acribo sum tuns amicna, / who tvrite 

this am your friend, 

2. Tu qui haec Bcribis ob meuB amioua, you who ivrite 
this are my friend, 

a. Observe that the relative does not change to conform to 
the person of the antecedent, and that the verb of the relative 
clause is in the same person as the antecedent 

' 3. Hie OBt eiuB liber, this is his book, 

4. Librum Buum amico dat, he gives his (own) book to a 
friend. 

b. Notice the difference between eius, his^ and sumn, his^ 
the latter referring back to the subject (reflexive like sS). In 
Exercise 129 "his" occurs in 2, 5, 6, and 7. If translated 
into Latin, in which two would it be expressed by €ius, and in 
which by suus ? 

249. Vocabulary, 

bene, adv. well, m laua, laudis, f . praise^ glory, 

conservo, -are, -avi, -atus, tristia, -e, sady gloomy, 

preserve^ save, valeo, -ere, -ui, -IturuB,^ be 
culpa, -ae, f. blame ^ fault, strongs be in good health. 



250. I. Ego vos video, vos me videtis. 2. Putatisne 
me tristem esse^? 3. Ego non sum tristis, sed vos 
mihi tristissimae esse videmini.* 4. Ego et tu* Come- 
liae ornamenta nostra ostendemus. 5. Illane nobis 

1 In the principal parts of ^ Me to be sad =^ that I am sad. 

verbs invariably intransitive, the * The passive of video often 

future active participle is given means seem. 

instead of the perfect passive. * Ego et td =^y<m and L 



PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS, 



97 



ostendet 5rnamenta sua?/ 6. Si tu et f rater tuus vale- 
tis, bene est. 7. Estne Marcus maior natu fratre su5 ? 
8. Nos qui te laudamus ill5s culpamus. 9. Tibi laus, 
illis erit culpa. 10. Cdnservate vos,* uxores, liberos, 
fortunasque vestras. 11. Caesar omnes equites secum 
habuit. 12. Libri qu5s nos legimus sunt optimi. 

251. I. If your father is in good health, it is well. 
2. You and I^ are in good health. 3. I have put my 
fortunes into your hands. 4. Preserve them diligently 
for me and my children. 5. You who find fault with 
us praise them. 6.* My life is dear to me, yours to 
you. 7. While you were laughing, we were mourning. 
8. Cornelia saw her jewels, but praised her own. 9. What 
helmets {galeae) are handsomer than the Romans' ? 

1 See 246, c, • In this order : to me my 

* K<w# and /= we^ hence the lifet to you yours is dear Cf . 

verb is first person plural. Cf. 250, 9. 

250, 4. 




Galeae. 



98 SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE WITH UT AND KE. 

LESSON XL. 
Subjunctive of Purpose with ut and ne. 

252. Learn the present and imperfect subjunctive of sum 
(516)\ and of the active and passive of am5 (511) and moned (512). 

a. In the same way inflect the present and imperfect sub- 
junctive of culpd, blame, iuv5, help, moved, move, deled, destroy^ 
and iubedy bid, order, 

253. Model Sentences, 

1. Se armant at pugnent, they arm themselves that they 
may fight, in order that they may fight, in order to fight, to 
fight, for the purpose of fighting. 

2. Se armabant ut pugnarent, they armed themselves that 
they might fight, to fight, etc. 

3. Cives pugnant ne oppidum deleatur, the citizens fight 
that the town may not be destroyed^ lest the town be destroyed. 

4. Servi laborabant ne culparentur, the slaves were toil- 
ing, lest they should be blamed, so that they might not be 
blamed. 

a. Observe that the subordinate clauses express ^^ purpose 
or motive of the subjects of the principal clauses, ut introducing 
a positive and ne a negative purpose. 

b. Observe that the verbs in the purpose clauses are in the 
subjunctive, and that the tense depends upon the tense of 
the principal clause, the present (pugnent, deleatur) following 
the present (also the future), and the imperfect (pugnarent, 
culparentur) following a past tense. 

c. Notice the various ways of translating ut. 

d* Purpose clauses are often called yf«tf/ clauses, 

254. Rule. — The subjunctive is used with ut 
and ne to express purpose. 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE WITH UT AND Mt 99 

a. The infinitive is not to be used in Latin, as it is in 
English, to express purpose, but the Latin purpose clause may 
often be translated by the English infinitive. 



255. I. £um misit ut, — 

oppugnaret, deleret, occuparet, teneret, conservaret. 

2. Nos mittit ut, — 

pugnemus, deleamus, necemus, terreamus, culpemus. 

3. Mittuntur ut, — 

oppugnent,.deleant, occupent, teneant, obsides sint. 

4. Missi sunt ne oppidum, — 

oppugnaretur, deleretur, occuparetur, teneretur. 

5. Te mittam ut, — 

omes, praebeas, aedifices, moneas, rideas, laudes. 

6. Vos moneo ut, — 

ametis, moveatis, laudetis, placeatis, fortes sitis. 

7. Eum monuit ne, — 

ornaret, moveret, culparet, piger esset. 

8. Monetur ne, — 

superetur, moveatur, occupetur, teneatur, sit piger. 

256. I. I was sent, — 

to besiege, to destroy, to seize, to hold, to overcome. 

2. They will send him, — 

to fight, to destroy, to kill, to frighten, to furnish. 

3. You were sent for the purpose of, — 

toiling, pleasing, ploughing, furnishing, filling. 

4. They were sent that the city might not be, — 

besieged, destroyed, seized, held, taken by storm. 

5. He advises us, — 

to love, to move, to praise, to laugh, to be prudent. 

6. We advised him not to be, — 

surpassed, moved, seized, frightened, a soldier. 



100 FIFTH DECLENSION. 

LESSON XLI. 

Fifth Declension. 

The Stem ends in e. 

Accusative of Extent. 

257. Gender. — Nouns of the fifth declension 
are feminine, except di€s, day^ which is commonly 
masculine in the singular, and always in the plural. 



258. 


Paradigms, 






dies, day. 






res, thing. 




Stem, die- 






re- 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


N.V. dies 


dies 




res 


res 


G. diei 


dierum 




rei 


renmi 


D. diei 


diebuB 




rei 


rebus 


Ac. diem 


dies 




rem 


res 


Ab. die 


diebuB 




re 


rebus 



a. Only dies and res are complete in the plural. A few 
other nouns have nominative and accusative plural. 

259. Model Smtences, 

1. Deoem amios Troia oppugnabatur, Troy was besieged 
for ten years, 

2. Arz alta est centum pedes, the citadel is a hundred 
feet high, 

a^ The accusative ann5s denotes duration or extent of time^ 
pedes, extent of space. The accusative, then, is used to answer 
the question how long? ox how far f (mtime or space)^ and 
may be called the Accusative of Extent, 




FIFTH DECLENSION, 101 

260. Rule. — Extent of time or space is ex- 
pressed by the accusative. 

261. Vocabulary, 

aciSa, -^ f. line of battle, mille paasaum, a thousand 

circum, prep. w. ace, around, (of) paces, mile, 

do, prep. w. dhL^fronty about^ ne, conj. lest, that not, 

concerning, passus, -us, m. pace, step, 

die8» -ei m. day. pli&iitiea, -m, f . plain. 

instruo^ -ere, -staruxi, -stru- posteraa, -a, -van, following, 

etas, draw up, form, ar- next, coming after, 

range, instruct, relinquo, -ere, reliqiii, relic- 
iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussus, bid, tas, leave, abandon, 

order, command, re8» rei, f. thing, circumstance, 
mille (indecl. in sing.); plu. affair, 

milia, miUnm, thousand, at, conj. that, in order that. 



262. I. Caesar castra in magna planitie posuit. 
2. Haec planities erat duo ^ milia passuum lata. 3. Ibi 
aciem instruxit. 4. Sex h5ras equitatus peditatusque 
in acie manserunt. 5. Sed hostes nocte discesserant. 
6. Postero die discessit Caesar ex illo loco. 7. Labie- 
num cum parva manu reliquit ut castra servaret. 
8. Multos dies exercitus sine frumento erat. 9. Et 
res erant in angust5.^ 10. Labienus igitur nuntium de 
hac re ad Caesarem misit. 

263. I. The enemy's cavalry saw a broad plain near 
the hill. 2. What did they see in this plain? 3. They 
saw the line of battle of the Romans. 4. And they were 
greatly alarmed at this circumstance. 5. But on the 
next day the plain was abandoned. 6. The Romans had 

1 Tufo. ^ Adjective used as noun ; a strait. 



102 COLLOQUIUM. 

withdrawn from the plain in order to save a town which 
was near by.* 7. Around the town was a wall twenty feet 
high. 8. For many hours the enemy assaulted this ¥rall. 

264. Colloquium. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus. 

« 

P. Omnium declinationum quae est difficillima ? 

which 

D. Tertia mihi videtur difficillima. 
F. Quare ita censes ? 

why think 

D, Varietatis causa terminationum in n5minativ5 singu- 

variety on account 

lari. Genus quoque est mihi molestissimum, praesertim 

gender troublesome especially 

nominum in is desinentium. 

nouns ending 

P. Tenesne memoria quae n5mina pluralem genetivum 

in ium habeant ? 

D, Primum ndmina in is et es desinentia, si in gene- 
first 

tivo singular! non crescunt ; ut hostis et nubes, 

increase as 

Deinde monosyllaba in s vel x desinentia, si ante s et 

then 

X Stat c5nsonans ; ut urbs et arx, 

stands consonant 

Tum nomina in ns et rs desinentia ; ut dims et cohors, 
Denique neutra in <?, al, ar desinentia ; ut mare^ animal^ 
calcar. °*"'*" 

1 See 179. 



PiLA. 



THIRD CONJUGATION, 103 

LESSON XLIL 

Third Conjugation. — Verbs in -15. 

Accusative of Place Whither. 

Capi5, (stem cape), take. 

Principal Parts : capi5, capere, c§pi, captos. 

265. Verbs in -i5 of the third conjugation vary in 
inflection in certain tenses from the model verb regO. 

a. Learn all the tenses of the indicative, the present imper- 
ative, and the present and perfect infinitive, active and passive, 

of capi5 (514). 

b. Compare the present, imperfect, and future indicative of 
capid with the same tenses of regS, and note the differences. 



266. I. Capit, capiebat, capiat. 2. Capiunt, capie- 
bant, capient. 3. Capior, capiebar, capiar. 4. Capimus, 
capimur. 5. Capis, caperis. 6, Capiebatis, capiebamini. 
7. Cepi, captus sum. 8. Cape, capere. 9. Ceperamus, 
captae eramus. 10. Caperis, ceperis. 

a. In like manner practice upon facid, make, and iacid, 
throw, 

267. I. He was making, he was throwing. 2. It was 
made, it was thrown. 3. They make, they were making, 
they will make. 4. I take, I am taken. 5. We took, we 
were taken. 6. Take (thou), make,^ throw. 7. They 
will be taken, they will be thrown. 8. I shall take, I 
shall be taken. 9. To take, to be taken. 10. He makes, 
he takes, he throws. 

1 Pac for face. Cf. p. 86, n. i. 



ICH THIRD CONJUGATION. 

268. Model Sentences. 

1. Caesar ad nrbem properavit, Caesar hastened to th^ 
city, 

2. Caesar Romam properavit, Caesar hastened to Rome, 

3. Ezercltuxn in-Graeciam misit, he sent an army into 
Greece, 

4. Ezercitum Athenas misit, he sent an army to Athens, 

a. Observe in i and 3 that the place whither is expressed 
by the accusative with a preposition, while in 2 and 4 there is 
no preposition. 

269. Rule. — Jfames of towns used to express 
place whither are put in the accusative without 
a preposition. 

a. The accusatives of domus, home^ and r&s, country ^ are 
used like names of towns. 

270. Vocabulary. 

Hereafter derivations will be indicated in the vocabularies. 
English derivatives will be indicated in M/s ifpe. See 342. 

capio, -ere, cepi, captus, take, legatus, -i, m. ambassador, 

capture. lieutenants deputy. 

cupio, -ere, cupivi, cupitus, nemo,-ini(dat.),m.[ne-homo] 

desire, wish. (no gen. or abl.) no one, 

decern (indecl.), ten, pax, pacis, f. peace. 

facio, -ere, feci, factus, do, proelium, -i n. battle, 

make, re-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus 

fugio, -ere, fugi, , Jlee, [capio], take back, receive, 

run away, recover. 

itaque, conj. and so, therefore, se (me, te, etc.) recipere, 
iacio, -ere, ieci, iactus, throw, withdraw, retreat, betake 

hurl. one^s self. 



THIRD CONJUGATION, 



105 



271. I. A Gallis R5mam missi sunt legati. 2. Legati 
quos Galli miserant a senatu in templd recepti sunt. 
3. Pacem cum Romanis facere cupiebant, qui eos proelio 
vicerant. 4. Captives quoque, quos R5mani ceperant, 
recipere cupiverunt. 5. Decern dies R5mae manebant. 
6. Sed Romani cum eis pacem n5n fecerunt. 7. Nam 
e5s et omnia bona ^ delere cupiverunt. 8. Itaque legati 
in Galliam, 5uam patriam, se receperunt. 9. Quibuscum 
bellum gesserunt Galli ? Cum Romanis. 

272. I. I wish to hurl a javelin. 2. That is easy ; 
take the javelin in' your right hand. 3. Yours* is too* 
long ; take mine, which is a foot shorter. 4. Why are 
you running away ? 5. Because the thing is too difficult 
for me. 6. Shall you flee home ? 7. I shall betake 
myself to yonder* forest, where nobody will see me. 
8. Shall you leave me without a comrade ? 9. The fault 
is yours ; you have been laughing. • 



^ Goods t possessions ; adjective 
as noun. * Jnto, 

^ Agrees with pilum under- 
stood. 



« See 194, c. '^ See 100, c. 
• Have been laughing = have 
laughed. 




SiGNA. 



106 READING LESSON. 

LESSON XLIII. 

273. Beading Lesson. 

A Battle. 

Eo dig Caesar ex castris exercitum edtixit, et iter ad 
flumen fecit. Quae res tamen hostibus nota est, quorum 
peditatus a nostris* in summo* colle videbatur. Turn 
Caesar in dextro et sinistra cornu equites conlocavit ut 
peditatum iuvarent, et militum suorum animds ad pugnam 
ita incitavit : " Milites, omnis rei publicae spes in nostra 
virtute posita est. Audaces fortuna iuvat ; fortibus erit 
victoria." Illi acriter in nostram aciem impetum fece- 
runt, sed neque e5rum pila neque magni clamores nos- 
tr5s^ terruerunt. Brevi tempore ex* omnibus partibus 
hostis vicerunt, qui trans flumen fugerunt. Dux e5rum 
captus * et Romam missus est. 

274. I. On the next day bands of horsemen were 
seen near the hill. 2. Our line of battle was drawn up 
by Caesar. 3. Meanwhile their * leader had aroused 
their minds so that they might not fear the attack of 
the Romans. 4. " Soldiers," said he, " you see those 
Romans yonder on the plain. 5. They are brave men, 
but are not we much braver ? 6. You will fight for 
your country, which they are trying to destroy ; for your 
children, whom they wish to capture. 7. Make your 
attack upon their left wing ; put that to flight, and victory 
will be yours.® 8. Then depart to your' homes,'' where 
you shall receive the rewards of victory." 

^ Our {meny * Est is often omitted with compound tenses. 

* Tki t^ &f. * ESrum or suus ? 

* /*f. ^ To you, 7 See 269, a. 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT. 107 

275 Vocabulary, 

clamor, -ori% m. shouty cry, ne-que, conj. neither, neque 

con-loc5 (col-) -are, -avl, . . . neque, neither . . . nor, 

-atuB, placcy station, nosco, -ere, novi, notus, learn^ 

e-duco, -ere, -duzi, -ductus, find out, Perf . know. 

lead outy lead forth, praemlum, -i, n. reward. 

Impetus, -us, m. attack^ as- pubUcus, -a, -um, public. 

sault, res pubUca, rei pubUcae, f. 

indto, -are, -av^ -atus, arouse^ republic, commonwealth, 

excite, incite, spas, spei, f. hope. 

Ita, adv. sOy thus, tamen, adv. neverthelessy yet. 



LESSON XLIV. 
Subjunctive of Result with ut and ut ndn. 

276. Learn the present and imperfect subjunctive, active 
and passive, of reg5 (513) and capid (514). 

277. Model Sentences. 

1. Hostes ita terrentur ut fuglant, the enemy are so fright- 
ened that they flee, 

2. Hostes ita terrebantur ut fugerent, the enemy were so 
frightened that they fled, 

3. Is miles tam fortls erat ut a duce laudaretur, that 
soldier was so brave that he was praised by the general. 

4. Is puer tam malus est ut a maglstro non laudetur, 
that boy is so bad that he is not praised by the teacher, 

a. Observe that the dependent clauses express a result y and 
that a negative result is introduced by ut n6n. Compare these 
model sentences with those illustrating purpose (253), and 

. observe that a negative purpose is introduced by nS. 

b. Result clauses with the perfect subjunctive do not require 
special illustration. 



108 SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT. 

278. Rule. — The subjunctive is used with ut 
and ut non to express result. 

279. I. Accidit ut, — 

ostendam, ducatur, capias, capiatur, cupiantur. 

2. Accidit ut, — 

cupiamus, capiantur, ducatis, mittantur, faciam. 

3. Accidit (perf.) ut non, — 

vinceremus, mitteretis, defenderet, pdnerentur. 

4. Accidit (perf.) ut non, — 

faceretis, fugeretis, mitteretur, vincerentur. 

280. I. It happens that, — 

I take, I lead, he sends, he departs, they display. 

2. It happens that, — 

we learn, we are led, you are conquered, you 
throw. 

3. It happened that, — 

they did not defend, they did not receive, they were 
not led out. 

281. Vocabulary, 

ac-cido, -ere, -cidi, , [ad, fluctus, -ub, m. wave, 

ca.diO'], fall upon; happen. paucus, -a, -um (generally 
aut, conj. or; aut . . . aut, plu.),yj?«/, little, 

either , , , or, regno, -are, -avi, -atus, rule, 
co-gnoBCO, -ere, -gnovi, -gni- reign. 

toB [com, (g)noBCo], learn, salus, -utis, f. safety. 

understand. Perf. know, spatium, -i, n. space, room. 

copiae, -arum (pi. of copia, tam, adv. so, so much, 

216), f. troops, forces, tantus, -a, -mn, so great, 
^ligens, -entia, industrious, such. 

diligent, vlx, adv. with difficulty, 
eo, adv. thither, to that place. hardly. 



o ^ 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT, 109 

In the following sentences both purpose and result clauses 
are found. 

282. I. Is miles tarn fidus erat ut Romam I su5 duce 
mitteretur. 2. £0 missus est ut epistulas ad c5nsulem 
portaret. 3. Quis nostrum est tam sapiens ut omnia 
cognoscat? 4. Pueri, este tam diligentes ut plurima 
discatis. 5. Recipite vos^ ad silvas ne ab hostibus 
capiamini. 6. N5s ^ recepimus tantS celeritate * ut nemo 
caperetur. 7. In silvis tam diu manebamus ut hostes 
impetum in n5s non facerent. 8. Hostes tam defessi 
erant ut multds dies aciem non instruerent. 9. Nostri • 
in proximum collem se receperunt ne Galli s^uperi5rem 
locum occuparent. 10. Ita acriter pugnatum est* ut 
pauci aut nostr5rum aut illorum relinquerentur. 1 1 . Ro- 
mulus ita a popul5 amatus est ut multos ann5s regnaret. 

283. I. The waves were of so great size * that in a 
short time the ships were filled with water. 2. So 
fierce • was the enemies' attack that our men put all hope 
of safety in flight. 3. The soldiers are neither so terri- 
fied as to flee, nor so eager as to make an attack. 
4. Labienus, lead out the troops from the camp in order 
to draw up the line of battle. 5. So great were the 
forces of the enemy that Labienus departed from that 
place. 6. We all desire peace in order that we may 
educate our children. 7. Between the mountain and the 
river the space is so narrow that the army makes its way 
with difficulty. 8. That horse is so spirited that he is 
not easily led. 

1 Accusative. * // was fought ^ they f oughts 

* 93. or the battle tuas fought. 

» Cf. 273, note i. » 140. ' « leer. 



no 



NUMERALS. 



LESSON XLV. 
Numerals. 
284. Learn the cardinals (505) : 



N. unus 
G. uniuB 
D. uni 
Ac. unum 
Ab. uno 



FEM. 

una 

uniuB 

uni 

WTiann 

una 



NEUT. 

unum 
uniuB 
uni 

wniim 

uno 



M. AND P. NEUT. 

tres tria 

trium trium 

taibuB taibuB 

tres tria 

tribus tribuB 



MASC. 

N. duo 
G. duorum 
D. duobuB 
Ac. duoB, duo 
Ab. duobuB 



FEM. 

duae 

duarum 

duabuB 

duaa 

duabuB 



NEUT. 

duo 

duorum 

duobuB 

duo 

duobuB 



SING. 

mille 
mille 
mille 
mille 
mille 



PLU. 
miUnyrn 

milibuB 

mHia 

milibuB 



k 



a. In what respects does the declension of unus vary from 
that of bonus ? Compare the declension of hie and ille (100). 
Observe that tres is declined like the plural of brevis, 163. 

b. The cardinal numerals from quattuor to centum inclusive 
are indeclinable : quattuor homineSf /our meny quattuor homi- 
num, of four men. 

c. The hundreds, not including centum, are declined like the 
plural of bonus. 

d. Mille in the singular is an indeclinable adjective ; in the 
plural it is a neuter noun, and is followed by the partitive 
genitive : mille homines, a thousand men; tria milia homi- 
num, three thousand men. 

i. In Tigiiiti unus, viginti duo, centum unus, and similar 
cases, the declinable numeral is still inflected, as when stand- 
ing alone : centum tria proelia, one hundred and three battles. 



> 



NUMERALS. Ill 

285. I. tJnus collis, unius horae, uni legioni. 2. Duo 
impetas, cum duabus manibus. 3. TriljUs portubus, 
tria nomina, a tribus rusticis. 4. Quattuor impetus, 
cum quattuor manibus. 5. Decem vulnera, sexaginta 
dies. 6. Viginti mulieres, cum una et viginti mulie- 
ribus. 7. Duodetriginta gradus, duae et viginti domus. 
8. Centum anni, ducentae matres. 

286. I. In one plain, in two battles. 2. For seven 
lieutenants, with eighteen legions. 3. Forty-one things, 
fifty-three birds. 4. Of seventy-five steps, with a hun- 
dred and one steps. 5. With a thousand paces, with 
eight thousand paces. 

287. I. Una avis ver {spring) n5n facit. 2. Romulus, 
primus Romanorum rex, triginta septem annos regnSvit. 
3. Flumen centum pedes latum, viginti duos pedes altum 
fuit. 4. Caesar quinquaginta sex annds vixit (lived), 
5. Trium fratrum Marcus natu maximus est. 6. M5ns 
decem milia pedum altus fuit. 7. Filius mens duobus 
annis est minor natu quam tua filia. 8. Tu me misisti 
ut eius nomen cognoscerem. 9. Eorum quinque milia 
fugerunt ne caperentur. 

288. I. Alexander the Great reigned only' thirteen 
years. 2.* Cicero lived to be sixty-three years old. 
3. There were ten thousand soldiers* in the plain on 
that day. 4. We had been in the city nine hours. 
5. We send him to do your task. 6. Flee, boys, so as 
not to be taken I 

1 Omit. « Express as In 287, 4. "See 284, d. 



112 



COLLOQUIUM, 



289. Colloquium, 

Frater kt Sororcula. 
F, Age, sor5rcula mea, si tibi placet, ambulabimus. 

come walk 

S, Quo est tibi in animd, care frater, ambulare ? 

whither 

Nonne in agr5s ? 

F, Ita est, in agr5s et in umbra silvarum. 

=ye8 

S, Libenter tecum ambulo, tamen — 

but 

F, Quid ? cur tantum dubitas, si, ut dicis, . mecum 
ambulas libenter? ^^^^^^''^ " y^""^ 

S, N5li me ridere, mi frater. Metu5 angues. 

don't laugh at fear snakes 

Frigidus, O puerly fugite hinc^ latet anguis in herba^ 

cold hence lurks snake grass 

ut cantat Vergilius. 

sings 

F, N6li metuere, mea sor5rcula. Veni ; repperi ubi 
fraga matura sint. "°'°'^ i have found 

itmwbcnries ripe are 

S. O quam suave ! In me non iam est mora. 

how delightful no longer 

F. Domi manere est admodum molestum. 

downright stupid 

5. Ista sunt, neque mihi iam est in animo. 

those things are = yes indeed. 

F, Ecce, fraga 1 iam corbulas complebimus. N5nne 

lo = here are now baskets 

est suavissimum ? 

joUy 





Denarius. 



NUMERALS. 



113 



LESSON XL VI. 

Nu m e r al s. — c<wfA>f«<f</. 

Irregular Adjectives. 

290. Learn the first twenty-one ordinals, and read the rest. 
The ordinals are declined like bonus. (500.) 



291. The following adjectives have the ending 
-ius in the genitive singular of all genders, and -1 in 
the dative ; the plural is regular : — 



alius, alia, aliud, another, 
alter, altera, altemm, the 

other (of two). 
neater, neutra, neutnim, nei- 
ther (of two). [no. 
nnUuB, -a, -tun, no one, none, 
solus, -a, -um, alone, sole. 



totus, -a, -um, whole, all. 
Sllus, -a, -um, any. 
unus, -a, -um, one, alone. 
uter, utra, utrum, which (of 

two)t 
uterque, utraque, utrumque^ 

each (of two), both. 



292. 



Paradigm. 



MASC. 


FBM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FBM. 


NBl/T. 


N. alius 


alia 


aliud 


totus 


tota 


totum 


G. aHus 


alius 


aHus 


totius 


totius 


totius 


D. alii 


alii 


alii 


toti. 


toti 


toti 


Ac. alium 


nH^m 


aUud 


tStum 


totam 


totum 


Ab. alio 


alia 


alio 


toto 


tsti 


tots 


a. alias . . 


. alius, 


one . . 


. another. 






alii . . 


. alii, some . . 


. others. 






aUos . . 


. aUnd, 


one one 


thing, another another. 


alter . . 


. alter, 


the one 


. . . th€ athir, 





-\"^- ^--o 



114 NUMERALS. 

293. Vocabulary. 

ante Christiim natom, before nobilia, -e [nosco], of high 

the birth of Christ = B.C. birth, nobie. 

dico, -ere, dizi, dlctus, say. orbis, -is, m. (orbi-), circle: 
do, dare, dedi, datus, give, orbis terrirum, the world. 

familia, -ae, f. household, sempitenius, -a, -um [aem- 

ingenium, -i, n. genius. po>^]) eiferlasting. 

VergiliUB, -i, m. VwgiL 
voluptas, -atia, f. \yKii^'\, pleasure. 



294. I. Roma duos homines summi ingeni, alteram 
imperat5rem, alterum poetam, habuit. 2. Alterius fami* 
lia nobilis, alterius rustica^ fuit. 3, NuUi imperatori, 
null! poetae, maior laus est data quam illis. 4. Caesar 
victor fuit tdtius Galliae. 5. Vergilius toti orbi terrarum 
voluptatem dedit. 6. Utri fuit melior fortuna? 7. Natus 
est^ Caesar centesimd anno ante Christum natum. 
8. Natus est Vergilius anno septuagesimo ante Christum 
natum. 9. Neutrius fuit vita longissima, sed utriusque 
erit laus sempiterna. 10. De illis hominibus alius aliud 
dicet, nos utrumque laudamus. 

295. I. On the second day the camp was moved. 
2. By the bravery of the tenth legion alone the whole 
army was saved. 3. We shall remain three days at Rome, 
the sixth, seventh, and eighth. 4. But on the ninth 
day we shall hasten without any delay to the mountains. 
5. The king had ruled so well that the whole people loved 
him. 6. Vergil was thirty years younger* than Caesar. 
7. To neither was granted a very long life. 8. Some will 
give greater praise to the one, others to the other. 

'^ Of the country. * HAtat eat » was horn. * See p. 80, note i* 



INFINITIVE AS IN ENGLISH, 115 

. LESSON XL VII. 
The Infinitive used ajs in English. 

296. Learn the indicative, the infinitive, the present and 
imperfect subjunctive of possum (517), and review the infin- 
itives present and perfect of sum and the model verbs. 

a. Possum is compounded of polls, able^ and sum. To 
inflect possum, prefix the syllable pot to the forms of sum, 
changing t to s before s, and dropping the f of foi, fneram, etc. 

297. Model Sentences. 

1. Errare est humanum, to err is human, 

2. Potui videre, / could (was able to) see, 

3. TTrbs capta OBse dicitur, the city is said to have been 
taken, 

4. Pnella esse bona cupiebat, the girl wished to be good, 

5. Nott OBse bonoB cupiunt, they desire us to be good, 

a. Observe that in each sentence the infinitive is used pre- 
cisely as in English. These uses, as presenting no difficulty 
of syntax, have been illustrated in exercises of preceding 
lessons without comment Cf. i with 212, 10. 

b. The infinitive used as in 2 and 4, to complete the mean- 
ing of the main verb, is called the complementary infinitive, 

c» Note that the predicate adjective bona (also the par- 
ticiple capta) agrees with, the subject of the main verb. 

298. Rule. — A predicate adjective after a com- 
plementary infinitive agrees with the siibject of 
the main verb, 

d. In 5, n58 is called the subject of the infinitive esse. Note 
that here the adjective after the infinitive agrees with the 
subject of the infinitive. 



116 INFINITIVE AS IN ENGLISH. 

299. Rule. — The subject of the infinitive is in 
the accusative, 

300. I. Dux equitatum terrere et fugare potest. 
2. Castra moveri et poni potuerunt.^ 3. Puer discere 
potuisse dicitur. 4. Discedere, fugere potuimus. . 5. Illae 
matres amari et iuvari debent. 6. Amatae esse dicuntur. 
7. Properabo ut te iuvare possim. 8. lUe* properavit 
ut nos iuvare posset. 9. Cur non properavimus ut eos 
recipere possemus? 10. Te fortem benign umque esse 
cupiebant. 11. Iter breve fuisse dicitur. 12. Milites 
vulnerati esse dicuntur. 

301. I. You can carry and throw a spear. 2, They 
can read and write. 3. Who was not able to think and 
learn ? 4. They will be able to take the town. 5. You 
bid me to be adorned and to delight. 6. They are said 
to have been terrified and routed. 7. He was said to 
have been brave and to have conquered. 8. They were 
thought to have labored and received a reward. 9. The 
army was thought to be getting defeated.' 10. He bade 
you be diligent. 

302. I. Videri * est non semper esse. 2. Vergilius et 
Caesar maxim! ingeni ' fuisse putantur ; uter maior fuisse 
dicitur? 3. Quis nostrum rem publicam c5nservari non 
cupit? 4. Is qui rem publicam c5nservare tentabit et 
vitam pr5 ea dabit, laudem recipiet sempitemam. 
5. Quis mains virtutis praemium recipere aut cupere 

^ As the subject castra is plu- * Present passive infinitive. 

ral, the verb must be plural. ^ See ^age 96, note 3. 

s See 245, a. • See 140. 



INFINITIVE AS IN ENGLISH, 



117 



potest? 6. Pr5 patria, pro salute publica vitam dare 
debemus. 7. Nemo totius exercitus tam fortis fuit ut 
hostium impetum non timeret. 8. Alter h5c pensum, 
alter illud facere poterat ; sed neuter utrumque pensum ^ 
facere poterat. 9. Exercitus hostium inopia^ aquae 
magis* laboravisse nostrd exercitQ dicebatur. 10. Qui 
parens liberos suos esse bonos non cupit? 

^ Utramque pinsam = both tasks, > See 132. ' More, 




Gaius Julius Caesar. 



118 THE DEMONSTRATIVES ISTE, IDEM, IPSE. 

LESSON XL VIII. 
The Demonstratives iste, idem, ipse. 
303. Paradigms, 

i«te, that^ that of yours. 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




N. iftte 


ista 


istad 


iftU 


istae 


ista 


G. UtiuB 


isUuB 


istius 


istorum 


istSmm 


istonun 


D. isU 


iftti 


iftti 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ac.istum 


istam 


istad 


istOB 


istas 


ista 


AB.isto 


iftta 


isto 


istis 


istis 


istis 






idem, same. 






N. idem 


e'adem 


idem 


eidem 
iidem 


eaedem 


e'adem 


G. eiuB'demeiuBdemeiuBdemeonm'de] 


nearundez 


aeSnmde 


D. eidem 


eidem 


eidem 


eis'dem 
iis'dem 


eisdem 
iisdem 


eisdem 
iisdem 



Ac. eun'dem eandem idem eos'dem easdem e'adem 

A -^ -^ • -^ (eis^'dem eisdem eisdem 

AB.eodem eadem*eodem { 

(iis'dem iisdem iisdem 

ipse, self {himself etc.). 

N. ipse ipsa ipsmn ipsi ipsae ipsa 

G. ipsius ipsius ipsios ipsormn ipsarmn ipsormn 

D. ipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis ipsis 

Ac.lpsmn ipsam ipsmn ipsos ipsis ipsa 

AB.ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ipsis ipsis 

a, late is declined like ille (100). 

d, idem is declined like is (119), with m changed to n before 
the suffix dem. 

c. Wherein does the declension of ipse vary from that of 
bonus? 

d. Decline together istnd caput, idem dies, ipsa res. 



THE DEMONSTRATIVES iSTE, iOEM, iP8£. 119 

304. Mode/ Sentences. 

1. iBtam epiatulam Vt^ I read that letter of yours, 

2. Eodem die ad te epistulam misi, on the same day I 
sent a letter to you, 

3. Imperator ipse exeroitam duadt, the general himself 
led the army, 

4. Ipse exeroitam dSoAA^ you led the army yourself , 

e, Istd and idem are used as demonstrative adjectives and 
demonstrative pronouns. Cf. 101, a, 

f, late is used of that which has some relation to the person 
addressed, and hence is called the demonstrative of the second 
person : iste equus, or iste tnos equiis, that horse of yours, 
Cf. 100, b and c, Iste also sometimes denotes contempt Idem 
is used just as ^ same " is in English. 

g, Ipse, self the emphatic appositive pronoun, is used to 
emphasize a noun or pronoun (expressed or understood) with 
which it agrees as an adjective^ It must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from se, self which is reflexive, not emphatic : 

hom5 sS culpSvit niminm, the man blamed himself too much; 
hom5 fr&trem, tnm sS ipsum calp&yit, the man blamed his 
brother^ then himself, 

305. Vocabulary. 

arcaa» -us, m. bow; p. 73. imperium, -!, n. power^ rule; 
Asia, -ae, f. hBia, empire, 

barbams, -i, m. a barbarian, perlculum, -1, n. danger^ peril, 

Dareos, -i, m. Darius, prae-dico. -are, -avi, -atas, 
dimico, -are, -avi, -atas, con- proclaim, boast, 

tend, fight, pro-cedo, -ere, -cessi, ^go 

divitiae, -iram, f. (pi.) riches, forward, advance, proceed, 

heri ^y. yesterday, Socrates, -ii^ m. Socrates. 

voltas, -OS, m. countenance. 



120 THE DEMONSTRATIVES ISTE, IDEM, IPSE. 

306. I. De istis rebus ad te scribere mox potero. 

2. Nemo qui de se ipso praedicat esse sapiens dicitur. 

3. Ipsi^ vestri amici vos culpaverunt. 4. Ista vestra 
pensa mihi sunt gratissima. 5. Uterque vestrum est 
idem qui* semper fuit. 6. Nomen ipsius* poetae, 
cuius libros nunc legimus, est clarissimum. 7. Milites 
totius exercitijs ab uno imperatore ducti sunt ut hostis 
vincere posset. 8. Socrates ille* et in periculo ipso 
et in salute eundem vultum semper habuisse dicitur. 
9. Semper erat eodem vultu. 10. Hodie eadem facis 
quae heri. 

307. Alexander addresses his Soldiers. 

I. There will soon be a battle. 2. You yourselves 
have long desired to see this day. 3. Now you will 
be able to vanquish those' barbarians, who fight with 
bows and arrows. 4. They are the same soldiers whom 
you have often defeated. 5. They are led by king 
Darius himself, whose ancestors* made war on^ your 
country. 6. This day you will fight for * the rule of all 
Asia. 7. Victory will be yours,^ if you have^^ the same 
brave spirit, the same daring, that" you have always 
had. 8. The riches of the king himself, that barbarian, 
and of all his cities will be yours. Forward ! ' 

1 Even. * The iste of contempt. 

' idem . . . qui, same . , , as. ^ MftidrSs. ^ To you. 

« Very. 7 in ^th ace. 1° Shall have. 

« 100, d. 8 Use d«. u Qoam. 



THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS, 



121 



LESSON XLIX. 
The Indefinite Pronouns. 



30 


B. 


Paradigms, 






aliquis, 


some, any (^person or thing). 






SINGULAR. 




N. 


aliqnis 


aliqua 


aliquid, aliquod 


G. 


aUculuB 


alicuioB 


alicuioB 


D. 


alicui 


aUcui 


aUcui 


Ac. 


aliquem 


aliquam 


aliquid, aliquod 


Ab. 


aliquo 


aUqua 

PLURAL. 


aUquo 


N. 


aUqui 


aliquae 


aliqua 


G. 


aliquorum 


aliquSruin 


aliquorum 


D. 


ali^quibuB 


aliquibus 


aliquibus' 


Ac. 


aUquoB 


aliquas 


aliqua 


Ab. 


ali'quibuB 


aliquibus 


aliquibus 



a. How do the feminine nominative singular and the neuter 
nominative plural of aliquis and quia differ ? 

quidam, a, a certain (^person, thing). 



N. quidam 
G. cuius'dam 
D. cuidam 
Ac. quondam 
Ab. quodam 

N. quidam 
G. quonm^dam 
D. quibus'dam 
Ac. quosdam 
Ab. quibus'dam 



SINGULAR. 

quaedam 

cuiusdam 

cuidam 

quandam 

quadam 

* PLURAL. 

quaedam 

quarundam 

quibusdam 

quasdam 

quibusdam 



quiddam, quoddam 

cuiusdam 

cuidam 

quiddam, quoddam 

quodam 

quaedam 

quonmdam 

quibusdam 

quaedam 

quibusdam 



1^2 



THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS, 



b. Other important indefinites declined like qmdAm are the 
following : — 

Masc. Pern, Neut, 

f quisquam qnidquam (no pi.) any one (at all), 

\ quilibet quaelibet qnidlibet, qnodlibet) , ., . 

\ . . '^ \any one (you please), 

(Quivis quaevis qmdvis, quodvis ) 

quisque quaeque qnidque, quodque each^ every, 

c. In the neuter of the indefinites quid-forms are used as 
nouns, quod-forms as adjectives. 



309. Vocabulary. 

Aegyptufl, -i. f. Egypt (13, 2). 

certuB, -a, -um, certain, trust- 
worthy, 

figura, -aej f. shape, form, 

fons, fontis, m. fountain, 
source, ' 

in-cognituB, -a, -um, unknown, 



iBthmuB, -1, m. isthmus, 
NiluB, -i, m. the Nile, 
nuper, adv. [novus], recently, 
Bcriptor, -oris, m. itJriter. 
apecto, -are, -avi, -atoa, look at 
tantum, adv. [tantas], only, 
veruB, -a, -um, true. 



De Africa. 



310. 

I. Scriptor quidam vetus scripsit, "Africa insulae 
est similis." 2. Cuivis, qui Africae figuram spectabit, 
h5c esse verum videbitur, nam isthmus angustissimus 
est inter Asiam et Africam. 3. Ab aliis scrip toribus 
veteribus Aegyptus pars Asiae esse habetur.^ 4. Anti- 
quis temporibus maxima illius terrae pars incognita erat, 
sed non hodiS. " Semper aliquid novi ^ ex Africa." 
5, Turn de Nlli fontibus nemo quidquam certi cognoverat ; 
nunc eidem fontes cuilibet noti sunt ; nam a quibusdam 
viris audacibus reperti* sunt. 6. Nuper quoddam flumen 



1 Is €&nstdmd. 



s See 203. 



' Have been discovered. 



READING LESSON. 123 

Africae maximum cognitum* est. 7. Quis vestrtim n5- 
men huius fluminis dare potest ? — Quis n5mina virorum 
illorum qui de eo repperSrunt ? * 

311. I. There were two consuls each year in the 
Roman state. 2. That boy has something in his left 
hand. 3. I learned something new* yesterday. What 
new thing ? 4. Certain soldiers of the five hundred tried 
to flee, so as not to be taken. 5. We do not fear any one 
at all of those chiefs. 6. A part of each summer we 
remain in the country. 



LESSON L, 
312. Reading Lesson. 

[See introductory note to Lesson XXL] 

CiCERONIS EPISTULA AD TeRENTIAM UxOREM. 

Ante Christum natum XLVI. 

*Si vales, bene est; ego valeo. N5s neque de Caesaris 
adventu neque de epistulis, quas Philotimus habere dici- 
tur, quidquam certi' hab^mus. Si quid* erit certi, 
f aciam ^ te statim certidrem.^ Fac ' ut valetudinem tuam 
cures. Vale.* 

^ Has become known. * See 203. 

' Have found out, *- See 203. • Regularly used in the sense 

^ The Romans often began of aliqoid after si, ne, nisi, num. 

their letters with the abbrevi- "^ Make more certain =^ inform, 

ations of these five words : ^ Be sure (p. 103, note i). 

S. V. B. E. E. V. » Good-bye, 



124 READING LESSON, 

313. I^E Vitus Hominum. 

luppiter ^ n5bis duas peras imposuit : alteram, quae 
nostris vitiis * completa est, post tergum nobis dedit * ; 
alteram, in qua aliorum vitia continentur, ante pectus 
nostrum suspendit. Quare non videmus ea vitia quae ipsi 
peccamus. Sed si alii peccant, statim e5s vituperamus. 

314. A Father to his Daughters. 

If you are in good health, it is well. I am in good 
health. Neither in your* letters, nor in the fetters of 
your mother, has there been anything new at all about 
the wound which your poor brother is said to have 
received. If anything new happens,* be sure • to inform 
me without any ^ delay. Meanwhile, be sure also to look 
out for your health. Good-bye.* 

315. Vocabulary, 

ad-ventu8, -us, m. [adveni5], pera, -ae, f. bag^ wallet. 

comings arrival. qua-re, conj. wherefore. 

con-tineo, -ire, -tinui, -tentud statim, adv. immediately. 

[teneo} contain, hold. sus-pendo, -ere, -di, -sua 
euro, -are, -avi, -atos, care [sub], hang up^ hang. 

fory take care. tergum, -i, n. back. 

im-pono, -ere, -posui, -itus valetudo, -inis [valeo], f. 

[in], put ox place upon. state of healthy health. 

pecco, -are, -avi, -atos, sin^ vitium, -i, n. fault, vice. 

commit (a fault). vitapero, -are, -avi, -atos, 
pectuB, -oris, n. breast. blame, censure, 

1 See 499. « Shall have happened. 

* Ablative with complSta. * Not singular. 

* Dedit ^imposoit. "^ UUus is the adjective for 
^ 247, a, any after a negative, sine, etc. 



ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 125 

LESSON LI. 

Accusative and Infinitive. 
Indirect Discourse. 

316. Learn the future infinitives of sum and the model 
verbs. 

317. Model Sentences, 

DIRECT STATEMENT. INDIRECT STATEMENT. 

1. Tu Bcribis, you are DicimuB te scribere, we 
writing, say that you are writing. 

2. Epistula Bcripta est, a Putamus epistulam scrip- 
letter has been written. tani esse, we think that a 

letter has been written. 

3. Tu scribes, you will Cognovimus te scriptunim 
write. esse, we know you will write. 

a. A comparison of each sentence of the first column 
with the corresponding sentence of the second column will 
show what is meant by " Direct Statement " and " Indirect 
Statement." 

b. Compare now each Latin sentence of the second column 
with the translation. Observe that after the leading verb in 
the Latin, the accusative and infinitive are employed, and that 
the accusative is translated by the nominative, and the infinitive 
by the indicative. Observe also that there is nothing in the 
Latin corresponding to that, which commonly introduces the 
Indirect Statement in English. 

318. Rule. — Indirect statements follow verbs 
and other expressions of saying, thinking, Jcnow- 
ing, and perceiving, and are expressed by the 
infinitive with subject-accusative. 



126 



ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 



319. 



Tenses of the Infinitive, 

PRESENT. 



diciti 

dicet > te scribere, 

diadtj 



dicifj 

dicet > epistulam scribl, 

dixit J 



dioitl 
dicet > 
diadtj 



tS Boriptunim esse, 



diciti 
dicet I 
dixit J 



epistalam scriptum 
iri,i 



fhe says that you are writing, 
he will say that you are writing, 
he said that you were writing, 
he says that the letter is being 

written, 
he will say that the letter is 
\ being written. 
I he said that the letter was being 
L written. 

TURE. 

' he says that you will write, 
he will say that you will write, 
^ he said that you would write, 
he says that the letter will be 

written, 
he will say that the letter will 
be written. 
^ he said that the letter would be 
T written. 



dicit^ 

dicet i- te BcripalMe, 

dixit! 



dicit 
dicet 
dixit 



he says that you wrote {have 

written), 
he will say that you wrote 

(have written), 
he said that you wrote (had 

written). 
' he says that the letter was (has 

been) written, 
he will say that the letter was 

(has been) written, 
he said that the letter was (had 

been) written, 
^ More commonly fore at epistula scxIUltar, etc. 



epistalam scriptam 



ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE, 111 

a. The present infinitive represents an action as going on 
at the time denoted by the leading verb. The future infinitive 
represents an action 2isyet to take place after the time denoted 
by the leading verb. The perfect infinitive represents an action 
as coffipieted at the time denoted by the leading verb. 

320. Rule. — The tenses of the infinitive denote 
present, future, or past time, relaUvely to the 
time of the leading verb. 

321. Vocabulary. 

ad-sum, adesse, adfoi, adfa- pello, -efe, pepoli, pulsui, 

turuB, be present, be here, drive away, rout, defeat, 

Alexander, -dri, m. Alexander, aementis, -is, f . (sementi-). 
arbor, -oris, f. tree. (ace. -im or -em), sowing, 

canto, -are, -avi, -atus, sing, solvo, -ere, solvi, solutos, 
frigus, -oris, n. cold, loose, break, 

iam, adv. already, now, at spero, -are, -avi, -atus [spes], 

last, non iam, no longer, hope, 

in-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus tego, -ere, tezi, tectus, cover. 

[capio], begin. v|r, veris, n. spring. 



322. I . Ver adest ; vera ^ hiems pellitur at frigus 
solvitur. 2. Videmus ver adesse et vera hiemam palli 
at frigus solvi. 3. Tarra n5n iam nive tecta* ast. 4. Vi- 
demus tarram non iam niva tectam essa. 5. Multaa aves 
in arboribus cantant at aliaa mox cantabunt. 6. N5vi- 
mus multas aves in arboribus cantara, alias mox canta- 
turas assa. 7. Agricolaa arara at semantam facara 
inceperunt. 8. Videmus agricolas arara at semantam 
facara incepissa. 9. Agricola sperat divitias sibi futuras 
esse, et n5s aadem nobis ipsis speramus. 10. Este 
benigni, omnes dai, agricolis validis, ut content! sint. 

^ See 84. ' The participle as an adjective, hence is covered. 



128 FOURTH CONJUGATION, 

323. I. The sources of the Nile were unknown in 
ancient times. 2. It was thought by a certain ancient 
writer that the sources of the Nile were unknown. 
3. The brave Greeks will defeat the barbarians, the 
army of Darius himself. 4. Alexander said that the 
Greeks would defeat Darius himself. 5. We think 
that to no general has greater praise been given than 
to Alexander. 6. Was not Alexander born ^ three hundred 
and fifty-six years before the birth of Christ } 



LESSON LII. 

Fourth Conjugation. — I-Verbs. 

Audi5 (stem audi-), hear. 

Principal Parts: andid, audire, andiyi, auditns. 

324. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, 
the present and imperfect subjunctive, and the present imper- 
ative and infinitive, active and passive, of andid (515). 

a. Compare the forms of audid with those of reg5 and capi5. 



325. I. Audio, audiebam, audiam. 2. Audit, audie- 
bat, audiet. 3. Auditur, audiebatur, audietur. 4. Audiar, 
audiaris. 5. Audi, audire. 6. Audimur, audiebamur, 
audiemur. 7. Audire, audiri. 8. Auditis, audiebatis, 
audietis. 9. Audiunt, audiuntur. 10. Ut audiant, ut 
audire nt. 11. Ne audiat, ne audiret. 12. Audita, 
audimini. 

a. Like audi6, inflect the same tenses of mani5, fortify^ 
p&niO, punish^ and yenid, come, 

1 ntas Mt 



FOURTH CONJUGATION, 129 

326. I. He hears, he is heard. 2. He was hearing, 
he was heard. 3. He will fortify, it will be fortified. 
4. They fortify, it is fortified. 5. They were fortify- 
ing, they will be fortified. 6. To fortify, to come, to 
punish. 7. To be fortified, to be punished. 8. Come, 
fortify, punish. 9. We fortify, we come, we punish. 
10. You come, you punish, you are punished. 11. That 
I may come, that you may fortify, that he may be pun- 
ished. 12. That he might not be punished, that you 
might not come. 

327. Vocabulary. 

aer, aeria» m. (ace. aera), ah. munio, -ire, -ivi, AtoA, fortify, 

aperio, -ire, apenii, apertui, porta, -ae, f . gate, 

open, punio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, punish, 

oantus, -U8, m. song, singing, re-perio, -ire, repperi, reper- 

custodio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, XxiBtfind, discover, 

guard, protect, defend, sentio, -ire, sensi, seiuniB, 

floa» floria, m. flower. feel, perceive, know (by the 

grameo, -IdIb, n. grc^s, senses), 

ISnia, j^ mild, gentle, venio, -ire, veni, ventua, come, 
vestio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, clothe. 



328. I. Sermonem sapientiimi audire amamus. 
2. Audimus Hannibalem ann5 ducentesimo secundd 
ante Christum natum victum esse. 3. Legatus se montem 
unum totum diem tenuisse dixit. 4. Quaque hieme qui- 
dam amicus ad me venit et duos aut tres dies manet. 

5. Ver terram aperit vestitque gramine fl5ribusque. 

6. Tum quoque * sentimus aera esse leni5rem. 7. Mox 

^ Observe the difference between qnoqne, also, and qnSqne, ablative 
of qolsqae, each. 



130 FOURTH CONJUGATION, 

aves domds veteres reperient, et elUiim canttis in arbori- 
bus audientur. 8. Vere cantum audimus eanun avium 
quae hieme audirl non possunt. 9. Hieme tantum est 
frigus ut cibus ab eis non reperiri possit 10. Audimus 
duas legiones in Galliam missum iri. 

329. I. I am saying the very^ same things that you 
heard from your friend. 2. Did you not say that you 
had begun sowing ? 3. On account of the cold I could 
not begin. 4. By night a messenger comes to Caesar. 
5. He says that a town friendly^ to the Romans is 
guarded by day and night. 6. "The enemy," says he, 
"strong in number* of men, is near at hand. 7. The 
townsmen are fortifying and guarding the town. 8. If 
you come,* they will open their gates to you. 9. They 
hope you will come soon with a large force. 10. The 
danger will be greater if there is any * delay." 

^ See 306, note 3. > See 168. 

2 Amicus as an adjective. * Shall come, * Ullus. 




CORNUA. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 131 



LESSON Lin. 

Fourth Conjugation. — c<y;f/^>f»/</. 
Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. 

330. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect 
indicative, and the perfect and future infinitive, active ana 
passive, of audi5 (515). 

a. Observe that the endings -i, -isti, -it, etc., are the same in 
all 'the conjugations. 



331. I. Audivit, audiverat, audiverit. 2. Auditus est, 
auditus erat, auditus erit. 3. Audiverunt, audiverant, 
audiverint. 4. Audivisti, audita es. 5. Audistis,^ audi- 
tae estis. 6. Auditum est, auditum erat, auditum erit. 
7. Audivimus, auditi sumus. 8. Audivisse, auditus esse. 
9. Audii,* audieram, audiero. 10. Auditus sum, audi- 
tus eram, auditus er5. 11. Auditurus esse. 

332. I. He has punished, he has been punished. 
2. He had fortified, it had been fortified. 3. You have 
come, you had come, you will have come. 4. They have 
fortified, they have punished, they have come. 5. We 
fortified, we punished, we came. 6. To have fortified, to 
have punished, to have come. 7. To have been fortified, 
to have been punished. 8. To be about to open, to 
be about to find. 9. To be about to be fortified, to be 
about to be punished. 

1 For audiviatis. See 337, b, > For audlTl. 



132 FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



333. Model Sentences. 

1. TimeS at veniat; ) I fear that he is not comings or 

2. TImeo nS nSn veniat, ) wiii not come, 

3. Time5 nS veniat, I fear that he is comings or will come. 

a. Observe that verbs of fearing are followed by ut and ne 
with the subjunctive, and that then at and oe seem to exchange 
meanings : at = that not; vk = that. 

b. Observe that in place of ut, n8 n5n may be used with the 
same meaning, as in 2. 

c. Notice that the present subjunctive may be translated as 
a future. 

334. Vocabulary. 

circum-veDio, -ire, -veni, nibil, indecl., n. nothing, 

-ventoe, surround. ecio, scire, Bciv^ scituflfe 

folium, -i, n. leaf. know^ know how. 

fortitudo, -inis, f. [fortis], en- boI, boUs, m. (no gen. plu.), 
durance^ fortitude. sun. 

moleBtoe, -a, -um, trouble- turpiB, -e, base, disgraceful, 

some, tiresome. vox, vociB, f. voice, word. 



335. I. Timemus ut bonum consilium capias. 2. Time- 
mus ne malum consilium capias. 3. Timebat ut valerem ; 
tiroebat ne aegeressem. 4. Alius alium in pugna iuva- 
bat neque timebant ne ab hostibus circumvenirentur. 
5. Legati timuerunt ne frumentum toti exercitui praeberi 
non posset. 6. Audivimus castra ab imperat5re munita 
esse. 7. Si frigus hiemis solvi incipiet, et si terra se 
aperiet,^ agricolae sementem facient. 8. Scimus aestatem 

^ 6S apeziet =b opens, i.e. softens. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 133 

arbores folils vestituram (esse).* 9. Scimus quoque aera* 
vere ' lenidrem futurum.* 10. Speramus avis mox adfutu- 
ras et in arboribus cantaturas. 11. Timemus ne noster 
sermo de vere, avibus, gramine, floribus sit molestissimus, 
sed quid aliud f acere possumus ? 

336. I. We know that the Romans were trained in 
the arts by the Greeks. 2. Flowers are opened by the 
light of the sun. 3. The lieutenant with a small band 
guarded the citadel for two days. 4. To know nothing 
is exceedingly* disgraceful. 5. To know many things 
is very useful. 6. We fear that the camp will not be 
fortified. 7. Did you not hear the voice of your father.? 
8. Those words of yours I have heard. 9. The boy 
feared that his brother would be punished on account 
of his laziness. 

1 In the compound forms of the * See 327. 

infinitive esse is often omitted. * See 155. ^ See 194, r. 





MILITE8 ROMANI. 



134 HEVIEIV OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

LESSON LIV. 
Review of the Four Conjufirations. 

337. The conjugations are distmguished by the 
vowel before the ending -re of the present mfinitive 
active. Thus : 

I. amare, characteristic vowel a. 

II. monSre, *^ ** 5. 

III. regere, " " a 

IV. audire, i* ii i 

a. Note that verbs in -i6 of the third conjugation have some 
forms like the fourth. Which are they? 

b. In the perfect and cognate tenses, v between two vowels 
is often lost, *vhen contraction may take place : laudasse for 
laud&yisse, audistis for audivistis, audieram for audiyeram. 



338. I. Amamus, monemus, regimus, audimus. 2. Lau- 
dant, delent, regunt, capiunt, veniunt. 3. Superabam, 
terrebam, ponebam, capiebam, audiebam. j 4. Portavisti, 
habuisti, posuisti, fugisti, munisti. 5. Paraverunt, tenue- 
runt, defenderunt, cupierunt, punierunt. ' 6. Amabit, 
monebit, mittet, iaciet, veniet. 7. Fugatur, terretur, 
p5nitur, capitur, vestitur. 8. Servaberis, teneberis, duce- 
ris, iacieris, vestieris. 9. Laudari, praeberi, dici, iaci, 
vestiri. i o. Educata est, monita est, educta est, capta est, 
punita est. 11. Portaveratis, riseratis, rexeratis, ceperatis, 
audiveratis. 12. Amasse, amarit, nosse, audisti. 

339. I. Thou lovest, thou advisest, thou rulest, thou 
takest, thou hearest. 2. I shall praise, I shall remain, 
I shall defend, I shall take, I shall fortify. 3. Fight, 



REVIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 135 

destroy, defend, throw, guard. 4. To have fought, to 
have destroyed, to have defended, to have thrown, to 
have guarded. 5. We are praised, we are moved, we 
are conquered, we are thrown, we are guarded. 6. It 
has oeen carried, he has been frightened, she has been 
led, it has been thrown, he has been heard. 7. He will 
be saved, he will be held, he will be sent, he will be 
captured, he will be clothed. 

In the following exercises find sentences illustrating the various uses of 
the subjunctive and infinitive thus far given : 

340. I. Veni ut manerem. 2. Tam tristes sumus 
ut ridere non possimus. 3. Veniebas ne lugeremus. 
4. Dixerunt Marcum esse sapientem. 5. Dux timuit ut 
milites venirent. 6. Milites timent ne hostes veniant. 
7. Vos non timetis ne amici non veniant. 8. Venient 
ut maneant. 9. Dicitur^ risisse. 10. Dicitur* eum 
risisse. 11. Cornelia filios suos educavit ut florerent. 
12. Consul Catilinam, patriae hostem, monuit ne in urbe 
maneret. 13. Agricola ver mox adfuturum sperat, ut 
sementem faciat. 

341. I. You have come to stay. 2. He says that you 
will stay. 3. The boy is so lazy that he cannot learn. 
4. The master fears that he will not^ learn. 5. He stays 
at home that he may not learn. 6. The senate sent a 
messenger to the army to carry letters to the consul. 
7. Cicero said that there was nothing certain about the 
letters. 8. Why did not Jupiter put the wallet that con- 
tains our own faults before our breasts, so that we might 
see them ? 

^ Here fidtar is personal; he ^ Here dldtm is impersonal ; 

is said, it is said (thai). 



136 DERIVATION. 

LESSON LV. 

Derivation. 

342. To aid in acquiring a Latin vocabulary, a close obser- 
vation of related words is very important Beginning with 
270, the vocabularies have been prepared with a view to help 
the learner in this direction. The parts of compound words 
are separated by hyphens (re-cipl6 [capid]). Related words 
that have been previously used are put in brackets (ndbilis 
[ndscd]). These are not to be considered necessarily as the 
primitives or originals of the words against which they stand, but 
as connected with them in formation from a common root or 
stem, English derivatives are indicated by different type. In 
the general vocabulary further attention is given to this subject. 



The following groups of words, selected mainly from previous 
vocabularies, should be carefully studied : 

343. Models. 

1. arma, arms. armo, arm. 

2. floB, flower. floreo, bloom. 

3. cura, care. euro, care for. 

a. Give the verbs with their meanings that correspond to 
the following nouns : d5nam, gift^ culpa, blame^ bellnin, war^ 
ixLgKy flight, Ums^ praise. 

b. Give the nouns with their meanings that correspond to 
the following verbs : liber5, set free, "^^^^^ fight, sperd, hopet 
Xxtif^^ frighten, vulnerS, wound. 

344. Models. 

1. audaz, bold. audacia, boldness. 

2. diligena, diligent. diligentia, diligence. 

3. BxaloxiA, friendly. eoanxilMiaL, friendship. 



DERIVATION. 137 

a. Give the abstract nouns with their meanings that corre- 
spond to the following : prndSns, /rtM^ii /y piger, lazy; sciens 
(P. of 8ci5), knowing; victor, victor. 

345. Models. 

1. ixnesAs^ young. inventus, j/<7jyM. 

2. uAiffiXA, great. jrAiffA\xidLOt greatness. 

3. liber, /r^^. libertas,/>Y^^x^. 

a. Give the abstract nouns corresponding to vir, man^ 
f ortiSy brave, 

b. Form a noun like mlgnit&dd, meaning widths from l&tus, 
wide; another from altos, high^ and define it. 

c. Form a noun like libSrtis, meaning citizenships from 
dvis, citizen. 

346. Jf^/3^/r. 

1. axo^ plough, \. axatrpxn, plough, n. 

2. omo, adorn. omamentum, adornment 

3. rodo, gnaw. rostrum, beah. 

a. What is the force of the endings -tram and -mentnm respec- 
tively in the above words ? Give the meaning of monnmentum 
ftom monad, remind. 

347. Models. 

1. scribo, write. scriptor, writer. 

2. vinco (vie-), conquer. victor, conqueror. 

3. impero, command. imperator, commander. 

a. Give the meaning of dator from dd, give; of doctor from 
doce5, teach. 

348. Models. 

1. Africa, Africa. Afrlcanus, of Africa, African. 

2. Roma, Rome. Romanus, of Rome, Roman. 

3. aunun, gold. aureus, of gold, golden. 

4. fado, do. iBX^UhnQhat may be done), easy. 



138 DERIVATION, 

a. Observe that the ending -Anns denotes of or belonging 
to, -ens, made of, and that -ilia denotes capability. Give the 
meaning of oppidanos, adj., from oppidmn, town; of nSbilia, 
from n0ic5, know. Form an adjective meaning wooden from 
Ugniuny wood, 

349. Models. 

1. "P^Om^ foot-soldier, peditatus, body of foot- 

soldiers, infantry, 

2. eques, horseman, eqtiititas, body of horsemeny 

cavalry, 

a. What is the meaning of comit&tna from comes, comrade f 
Compare senex with senitus, and explain the meaning of the 
latter. 

350. Note the force of the prefixes in the following : 

ad-ventofl (ad-venio, come S-duco, lead out, 

to), approach, ex-p5no, put or set out, 

ad-Bum, be near. expose. 

drcom-duco, lead around, , r* ^ ^ . 

im-pono [In], put upon, 
circum-venio, come around, l j ^ ^ 

impose. 

surround, . ^ . » /^ . a ^ 

in-struo, butld tn, inatruct. 

com-move5, mo¥e completely, 

disturb, alarm. pro-cSdo, go before, go for- 

com-pl60, fill completely, fill ^^^^^ advance, proceed. 

^f' pro-p5no, put before, pro- 

con-tineo [com, teneo], hold .^^^ 

together, contain. 

dif-flcill■(fordl8-iaciliB,^z/^zr/ re-oipio, tahe bach, receive. 

from easy), difKcult. re-duco, lead back, 

dia-cedo, go apart, depart. re-porto, carry back. 

Note. — Continue in all succeeding vocabularies the study 
of derivation in this way. 



PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLE, 139 

LESSON LVI. 
Present ajid Perfect Participle. 

351. Learn the present and perfect participles of the 
model verbs. 

a. Observe that there is no present passive or perfect 
active participle. 

352. Participles are declined like adjectives, and; 
like them, agree with nouns or pronouns in gender, 
number, and case. The present participle is declined 
like prtid6ns (163) with ablative singular ending in -e, 
unless used adjectively ; the perfect participle like 
bonus. 

353. Model Sentences. 

fcadit. he falls \ r i.*- 
I. FortiBBime dimicanB'< cadet, he will fall \ ^ j 

[cecidit, he fell J ^''^'^^ y- 
^. Te in urbe manentem vidi, / saw you while you were 
staying {you staying) in the city. 

3. Urbs din oppugnata non capta est, the city^ though 
long besieged {having been besieged)^ was not taken, 

4. Caesar ea re commotafl in Qalliam properavit, because 
Caesar was moved (having been moved) by this circumstance^ 
he hastened into Gaul, 

5. Dux victofl se recipiet, if the general is defeated {the 
general defeated)^ he will retreat, 

6. Dona missa recepit, he received the gifts which had 
been sent (the gifts sent), 

7. Caesar principem captnm Romam misit. Caesar took 
a chieftain and sent him (sent a taken chieftain) to Rome'. 

8. Gallia est divisa, Gaul is divided. 



140 PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLE, 

a. Observe that the present participle represents an action 
^ going on at the time denoted by the main verb, as in i 
and 2. 

b. The perfect participle represents an action as completed 
at the time denoted by the main verb, as in 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

c. Observe that what the Latin expresses by a participle is 
often best expressed in English (i) by a clause beginning with 
while, though, because, if, etc.; (2) by a relative clause ; (3) by 
a verb coordinate with one following. 

d. Observe that a perfect participle used with sum may lose 
its idea of time and become virtually an adjective, as in 8. 

354. Vocabulary. 

com-moveo, -ere, -movi, -mo- libero, -are, -avi, -atos [liber], 

tuB, mo¥e, rouse, disturb, set free, liberate. 

contra, prep. w. ace, against, medicus, -i, m. physician, 

FabrlciuB, -i, m. Fabriciue. Pyrrhus, -i, m. P/rrhuf. 

graviter [gravis], ad v.A^^zz///K, re-dGco, -ere, -duzi, ductas, 

severely, lead back, 

hletoria, -ae, f. history, venenum, -i, u, poison, 

inter-ficio, -ere, -Sci, -fectoa, vicinus, -a, -am, neighboring, 

[facio], kill, vincio, -ire, vinxi, vinctae, 

ira, -ae, f. anger, bind. 



355. I. Fabricius consul f actus contra Pyrrhum, re- 
gem quendam, missus est. 2. Accidit ut consul ipse et 
Pyrrhus castra vicina haberent. 3. Fabricius timens ne 
rex impetum faceret castra munivit. 4. De ^ nocte medi- 
cus Pjnrhi ad Fabricium venit. 5. "Ego," in quit, "si 
mihi praemium dederis, dominum meum veneno interfi- 
ciam.'* 6. "Tu, pessime,*" inquit Fabricius, "ad tuum 
dominum statim vinctus mitteris." 7. Tum medicum 

1 In. « Miscreant, See 207. 



PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLE. 141 

vinctum ad Pyrrhum regem reduci iussit. 8. Sed Pyrrhus 
ira commotus ^ medicum non interfecit. 9. Nonne eum 
graviter punivit ? 10. Historia non narrat medicum a 
Pyrrho punitum esse. 

356. I. The Gauls will attack the Romans while 
they are fortifying their camp. 2} They led their 
forces out of the camp and drew them up. 3. In the 
plain many animals were found which had been killed. 
4. Though moved by anger, we shall not fight. 5. Fabric- 
ius heard the physician, but ordered him to be bound. 
6. If the physician is set free,' he will be glad. 7. The 
physician was very glad, ^because he wa^ set free. 

1 See 353, 3. 2 See 353, 7. » See 353, 5. 




Cicero. 



142 DEPONENT VERBS. 

LESSON LVn. 

Deponent Verbs. 

The Ablative with certain Deponents. 

357. Review the passive voice of the moods and tenses 
already studied of the model verbs. 

358. Deponent verbs are passive in form, but 
active in meaning. There are deponents of each 
of the regular conjugations, distinguished, like verbs 
in the active voice, by the present infinitive. The 
endings of the infinitive are as follows : 

First conjugation . . -ari Third conjugation . . -i 
Second conjugation . -iri Fourth conjugation . -iii 

a. For the method of giving the principal parts of deponent 
verbs, see the next vocabulary. 

359. Deponents are conjugated like the passive 
of other verbs, with two exceptions : (i) they sub- 
stitute the future infinitive active for the passive, 
— miraturus esse in place of mirfttum iri ; (2) they 
have the participles of both voices : 

mirana, admiring. miratus, having admired, 

miraturuB, about to admire, mlrandus, to be admired, 

a. It has been said (351, a) that there is no perfect active 
participle in Latin; but the perfect participle of deponent 
verbs is usually active in meaning. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 143 



360. Model Sentences. 

1 . Utor mea pecunia, / use pty own money, 

2. Catilina nostra patientia abutitur, Catiline abuses our 
patience. 

3. Duz profectus cum equitatu urbe potitus est, the 
commander^ having set out with cavalry^ got possession of 
the city. 

4. Luce soils Irulmur, we enjoy the light of the sun. 

a. A peculiarity of Latin syntax is illustrated in the above 
sentences. Certain verbs, which, from their meanings we 
should expect to be transitive, govern the ablative. 

361. Rule. — tJtor, fruor, fUngror, potior, vescor, 

and their compounds, govern the ablative. 

362. Vocabulary. 

ab-utor, -uti, -usus sum, sequor, sequi, secutus sum, 

abuse. follow. 

iruor, frui, fructus sum, utor, uti, usus sum, use, 

enjoy. employ. 

fungor, fungi, functus sum, semi-deponents. 

perform. audeo, -ere, ausus sum, dare. 

miror, -ari, -atus sum, admire, fido, -ere, fisus sum [fidus], 

wonder, wonder at. trust. 

potior, -iri, -itus sum, get gaudeo, '-ere, gavisus sum, 

possession of get, gain. rejoice, be glad. 

pro-ficiscor, -1, -fectus sum, soleo, -ere, solitus sum, be 

set out, march, go. wont, be accustomed. 

a. The last four verbs are called semi-deponents, because 
they have only passive forms (with active meanings) in the 
peiiect, pluperfect, and future perfect 



144 DEPONENT VERBS, 

363. I. Abasus est tu2 patientia. 2. Medicus ven€- 
no n5n tisus est. 3. Castris hostium potiti sumus. 
4. Quis sole et Sere non fruitur? 5. Tuam vocem 
sequemur. 6. Profectus est in Italiam. 7. Ausus est 
in Italiam proficisci. 

364. I. The children wonder at the flowers. 2. They 
were wont to perform tasks. 3. We all rejoiced in that 
victory.^ 4. Having been set free, he rejoiced. 5. They 
have dared nothing. 6. The general trusted in the valor 
of his soldiers. 

365. I. Quivis* sermone sapientium fruitur. 2. Frui- 
mur luce quae a Deo nobis datur. 3. Pueri, bene.et 
fideliter functi estis vestro penso. 4. Nostri secuti hostis 
interfecerunt magnum numerum. 5. Aliquis ausus est 
meis libris uti. 6. Tibi fisus tuum consilium secutus sum. 
7. Imperator vict5ria militum gavisus est. 8. Milites 
itinera tribus diebus longi5ra facer e soliti sunt. 9. Time- 
bam ne puer istis libris non cum cura uteretur. 10. Le- 
ni5re aere frui soliti eramus. 11. Putavimus hostis 
nostris castris potiturds esse. 

366. I. The soldiers dared to follow, trusting in their 
leader. 2. We see that you have followed bad advice, 
and that you will be punished.* 3. Our men will get 
possession of the mountain and the plain. 4. In the 
camp were found three hundred hostages, whom the 
victors set free. 5. The Romans wondered at the great 
stature* of the Germans. 6. The army set out* for* the 
territories of the Belgae, and made a march of ten days. 

1 See 132. * Siu of body, 

2 See 308, b, * Express by a participle. 
< Pfinitam ixi. « Use in. 



COLLOQUIUM, 145 



367. Colloquium, 

Pater et Filiolus. 
P, Ades, mi filiole, et mihi ostende libellum istum. 

little book 

F, Eccum, care pater, si libellum Latinum videre 

^,,^:^ here it is 

cupis. 

P, Quod pensum tibi hodie imperavit praeceptor ? 

impose teacher 

F, Pensum de verbis dep5nentibus quae ad coniuga- 
tiones omnis pertinent. *^^p*^°^°' 

belong 

P, Quam ob rem sic appellantur ista verba ? 

wherefore so 

F, Quia f5rmam activam et significationem passivam 

form meaning 

plerumque deposuerunt. Sic n5s praeceptor docuit. 

generally lay aside has taught 

P, Quod autem pensum in crastinum diem imperavit 

praeceptor? ^"' ^^^ to-morrow has imposed 

F. Ad haec addidit praeceptor alia multa. At tu, mi 

has added but 

pater, Latinae linguae iam puer studebas ? 

already 

P, Certe, filiole, idque vehementer. 

right hard 

F. Num ego, si diligenter studuer5, eniditus ut tu 

* ^ p learn learned as 

P, Vix tarn eruditus. At iam tibi eundum est 

dormitum. "^^'^ must be going 

to bed 



146 IRREGULAR VERBS. 



LESSON LVIII. 
Irregrular Verbs volo, nolo, maid. 

Dative with Intransitive Verbs. 



Principal 
Parts : 



'vol6, yelle, YOlui, be willing, wish, will, 
ndlO, ll511e, ndlui [ll€, void], be unwilling, will not. 
mI15, millle, malui [magis, yo15], be more willing, 
prefer, would (should) rather. 



368. Learn the conjugation of yo15, ii015, maid, omitting 
the perfect subjunctive (519). 



369. I. Vult venire; dicit se velle venire. 2. Ndlunt 
sequi ; dixerunt se nolle sequi. 3. Vis discere ; sclmus 
te velle discere. 4. Voluimus scire. 5. Noluisti audire. 
6. Accidit ut vellet cust5dire. 7. Dicitur^ h5c donum 
maluisse. 8. Putantur voluisse. 9. Volens aut nolens 
illud pensum faciet. 10. Mavult reduci. 11. Non vultis 
instrui. 12. Noli* terreri. 13. Nolite* circumveniri. 

370. I. Do not {sing.) fear. 2. Do not (//.) wonder. 
3. Do not punish. 4. You wish to be guarded. 5. You 
(sing,) are unwilling to be guarded. 6. He prefers to be 
set free. 7. He is unwilling to be bound. 8. It happens 
that he is unwilling to come. 9. We want to enjoy the 
light. 10. We prefer to perform the task. 

^ Heis said, * Do not. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 147 

371. Model Sentences. 

1 . late liber mlhi placet mazlme, that book of yours 
pleases me very much. 

2. Aliqui Buis amicis nocent, some people injure their 
own friends. 

3. Legibus parere debSmus, we ought to obey the laws. 

4. Fratri persoadet ut hoc fociat, he persuades his 
brother to do this. 

a. Observe that the verbs placed, iioce5, pare5, and persua- 
des are intransitive and govern the dative, while the English 
equivalents are transitive. The same is true of a number of 
other Latin verbs. 

372. Rule. — Most verbs meaning to favor, 
please, believe, trust, help, and their opposites, 
also to persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, 
pardon, and spare, and the like, govern the 
dative. 

373. Vocabulary. 

credo, -ere, credldi, credltus, placeo, -ere, placui, placitus, 

believe. be pleasing to, please. 
faveo, -ere, favi fouturus, 

favor. cor-rigo, -ere, -rezi, -rectus 
noceo, -ere, nocui, nociturus, [com, rego], correct. 

do harm to, injure. pro-gredlor, -gredi, -gressus 
parco, -ere, peperci, parsus. Bum [gradior],^^/<?ra;£jr//, 

spare. advance, progress. 

per-Buadeo, -ere, -bi, -BuasuB, provincia, -ae, f. province. 

persuade. quod, conj. because. 



374. I. Cur mihi persuadere vultis ut in hortum 
veniam? 2. Te in hortum venire volumus ut fontes 



148 IRREGULAR VERBS, 

arbor€sque videos. 3. Puer usus magistri libris ninil 
discebat. 4. Sua^ cuique placent. 5. Isti fabulae cre- 
dere n5n possum. 6. Aliorum vitia vituperare malumus 
quam nostra corrigere. 7. Milites urbe potiti neque 
mulieribus neque liberis pepercerunt. 8. Noli amicdrum 
patientia abutl. 9. Et sibi et rei pQblicae nocebit, si 
longius^ progredietur. 10. Milites gavisi sunt quod urbe 
cum omni praeda potiti erant. 

375. I. The whole province favored Pompey alone.' 

2. We cannot follow the enemy without great peril. 

3. That night was without a moon, so that we could not 
see. 4. Why are you unwilling to perform your tasks ? 

5. Why do you wish to injure me, your best friend? 

6. The boy, though often warned, was not wont to cor- 
rect his faults. 7. We wish to go forward to the end 
of the journey. 8. Any one you please would rather be 
loved than feared. 

1 His own (thingsy « See 194, c, « See 291. 






Testudo. 



READING LESSON, 149 

LESSON LIX. 

376. Beading Lesson. 

Ars Memoriae. 
Themistocles fuit vir ingeni magni. Olim eruditus 
homo ad eum venit artemque memoriae eum docere 
voluit. "Haec,^ inquit, "ars facere potest ut omnia ^ 
memorial teneas/ Themistocles autem, "Magis," in- 
quit, "mihi tu placebis, si me oblivisci multa^ docueris." 

377. Cerva et Vitis. 

Olim cerva, quae celerrime fugiebat ut venatdrum e 
manibus se eriperet, sub vitem se condidit. Interea 
venatdres sequentes, longius progrediuntur. Cerva 
autem non iam timens venatores incipiebat folia vitis 
carpere. Folia agitantur, quod vident venatores et sta- 
tim reveniunt. Mox sentiunt ibi bestiam aliquam sub 
foliis latere et sagittis cervam vulnerant. Brevi tempore 
misera bestia vulneribus* moritur, sed moriens dicit, 
"lustas do poenas, nam huic viti, quae me tegebat, 
nocere non debui.^ 

378. I. Once upon a time a deer, fleeing swiftly, 
escaped from the hunters. 2. Hiding under a vine, 
she nibbled the leaves. 3. But the hunters, who had 
gone on too far, soon came back. 4. They saw the 
leaves shake,' and thought something was hiding there. 

5. With their arrows they wounded the poor creature. 

6. " My punishment is just," says she, while dying, " for 
by nibbling I hurt the vine which protected ' me." 

1 With ars. * fought not to have injured, 

^ How are omnia and malta ^ Passive infinitive, 

used? * See 84. * See 132. ^ Express by participle of tegS. 



150 CUm-CLAUSES. 

379. Vocabulary. 

autem. conj. (never the first iustus, -a, -waitjust. 

word), du/y however. lateo, -ore, latai > lurk, 

bestia, -ae, f. beast, creature, lie hid. 

carpo, -ere, -si, -tus, plucky morior, mori, mortaua sam, 

nibble. die. 

celexiter, adv. swiftly. obliviscor, -i, oblitos Bum. 

cerva, ae, f. deer, hind. forget. 

doceo, -ere, -ui, -tus, teach. re-venio, -ire, -veni, , 

do (dare, etc.) poenaa, suffer come back, return. 

punishment. aub, prep, with ace. and abl., 

e-xipio. -ere, eripui, Sreptos up to, under, 

[rapio], seize, snatch; ae venator, -oria, m. hunter. 

eripere, escape. vitis, -is, f. (viti-), vine. 



LESSON LX. 
Clauses introduced by cum, when. 

380. Learn the pluperfect subjunctive of sum, and of the 
model verbs in the active and passive. 

381. Model Sentences, 

1. Cum Caesar in Qalllam venit, Aedui Romanis amici 
erant, when Caesar came into Gaul, the Aeduans were 
friendly to the Romans. 

2. Id noa faciemus, cum tu domum veneris, we shall do 
this when you come {shall have come) home. 

3. Cum frumenti copia in agria asset, exercitus pro- 
fectus est, when there was an abundance of grain in the 
fields, the army set out. 

4. Du2, cum castra munita assent, ad hostis propera* 
vit, when the camp had been fortified, the commander 
hastened against the enemy. 



CUM-CLAUSES, 151 

a. Observe the mood and tenses iij i and 2, in the cum- 
clause ; then the same in 3 and 4. 

382. Rule. — In a cnm^clause expressing time, 
the verb is commonly in the subjunctive if the 
tense is the im^perfect or pluperfect; otherwise, in 
the indicative. 

383. Vocabulary. 

ab-eo. -ire, -li -ituviB, go from, im-padens, -entis [in, no^y pu- 

go away, go off(520y dens, modest'], bold, brazen, 

ali-quando. adv. [alius], at impudent 

some time, once. [maid, iussu, m. (only abl), by order, 

ancilla, -ae, f. maid-servant, munus, -erls, n. duty, office. 

captivuB, -i, m. captive. post, prep, with ace, after, be- 

ex-clamo. -are, -avi, -atus, hind; as adv., afterwards, 

cry out, exclaim. quaero, -ere, quaesivi, quae- 

hic, adv. here, hereupon. situs, ask for, inquire. 
re-spondeo, -ere. -di, -sponaus, answer, reply, respond. 

384. 1. Cum iussi essent dicere, unus incepit. 2. Mi- 
lites, cum oppidum ceperunt, omnis incolas interfecerunt. 
3. Milites, cum oppidum cepissent, omnis incolas interfe- 
cerunt. 4. Cum ei fabulam narrarem, subito ridebat. 
5. Imperator nuntio duce^ usus exercitum per silvas 
duxit. 6. Captivus, cum iussu imperatoris nomen quae- 
reretur, nihil respondit. 7. Victori nomen captivi quae- 
renti, nihil est responsum. 

385. Nasica et Ennius. 

Nasica aliquando ad poetam^ Ennium venit et eum 
quaesivit. Ei ' quaerenti ancilla respondit Ennium domi 
non esse. Nasica sensit illam * domini iussu h5c dixisse 

1 As guide. ' To him, i.e., Nasica. 

* That is, to the house of the poet. « That she. See 245, a. 



152 



CUm-CLAUSES. 



et Ennium domi esse. Faucis post di€bus, cum ad Nasi- 
cam venisset Ennius et eum quaereret, exclamat Nasica 
se domi non esse. Turn Ennius, "Quid? ego non 
cognoscd," inquit, " vocem tuam ? " Hie Nasica : '* Homo 
es impudens. Ego, cum te quaer«rem, ancillae * tuae 
dicenti te domi non esse credidi; tu mihi ipsi non 
credis ? " 

386. I. When Nasica came to Ennius, the latter * did 
not wish to see him. 2. Therefore, Ennius wished the 
maid to say that he was not at home, when Nasica should 
ask® for him.* 3. He did not fear that Nasica would not 
believe the maid. 4. Did the maid perform her duty in * 
obeying her master.? 5. When Nasica had asked for 
his friend, the poet, he went away.* 6. He went away 
wondering. 



1 Depends on crSdidi (372), 
and has dicenti in agreement 
with it 

2 See 100. e. 



* Plup. subjunctive. 

* Se, not eum. * Omit 
« abiit. 




Calcei. 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



153 



LESSON LXI. 



Ablative Absolute. 



387. 

I. Vento fa- 
vente, navia in por- 
tum venit, 



2. Conaul, pace 
facta, Romam ve- 
nit, 



3. TS dnce hoa- 
tia vincemu8» 



4. Auguatua, 
Cicerone conanle, 
natoa eat, 



Model Sentences, 

' the wind favor ingy 
when the wind favored^ 
^with a favoring wind^ 

' peace having been made, 
when (or after) peace 

had been made, 
because peace had been 

made, 
shaving made peace, 

you {being) leader, 
since you are our leader, 
if you are our leader, 
under your leadership, 
. with you for a leader, 

Cicero {being) consul, 
when C, was consul, 
in the consulship of C, 



the ship came 
into port. 



the consul came 
to Rome. 



we shall defeat 
the enemy. 



Augustus was 
born. 



a. Observe that in i and 2 a noun and a participle are put 
in the ablative to express the time, cause, or some other cir- 
cumstance of the action of the main verb. In 3 and 4 the 
participle is wanting, as the verb sum has no present participle. 
In 3 a noim and a pronoun are used ; in 4, two nouns. An 
adjective and a noun may be used in the same way. 

b. Observe that the noun or pronoun in the ablative is never 
the same as the subject or object of the main verb. The words 
in the ablative are cut off grammatically from the rest of the sen- 
tence, hence this ablative b called the Ablative Absolute. 



154 ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

388. Rule. — The dbloMve absolute is used to 
express the Ume, cause, condition, or some other 
circumstance of the action of the main verb, 

c. Observe the various renderings of the ablative absolute. 
The literal translation is given first in each case, but this ought 
seldom or never to be done in rendering Latin into Eng^lish, 
except to show that the construction is understood. 

d. In the second sentence notice the difference between the 
Latin and English idioms. We may say, the consul^ hat/ing 
made peace^ came to Rome; but the Latin has no perfect 
participle corresponding to having made^ therefore, the perfect 
passive participle must be used in the ablative with pace. The 
same idea might be .expressed by a clause with cum. 

e. From the nature of deponent verbs (passive form with 
active meaning), it will be seen that the English perfect active 
participle {having made^ etc.) can be directly expressed in Latin, 
only when there is a deponent verb of the right meaning : Caesar 
having set out, Caesar profectns. 

389. Vocabulary, 

a-gnoeco,-ere, -gnovi, -gnituB ex-specto, -are, -avi, -atus, 

[ad], recognize. await, wait for, expect. 

ante, prep. w. ace, before. Gtormanus, -i, m. a German, 

Cato, -5ni8, m. Cato. gloria, -ae, f. glory, fame, 

co-hortor, -ari, -atos sum renown. 

[com], exhort, urge, en- Marius, -i, m. Marius. 

courage. oc-cido, -ere, -cidi, -oisos 

conficio, -ere, -^i, -fee- [ob, caedo, cuf^ slay, kill. 

tos [facio], cu:compiish, signum, -i, n. sign, signal^ 

finish. standard. 



390. I. Hannibal, montibus superatis,* in Italiam ve- 
nit 2. Hannibal, viso fratris occisi capita, "Agndsco," 
* Having passed over. 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE, 



155 



inquit, "fortunam Carthaginis." 3. Equites, equis incita- 
tis, impetum fecerunt. 4. Caesar milites paucis vocibus 
cohortatus, signum proeli dedit. 5. Labienus, monte 
occupato, nostros exspectabat. 6. Labienus, cum montem 
occupavisset, nostros exspectabat. -7. Catone mortuo, 
nulla iam ^ fuit res publica. 8. H5c oppidum, paucis 
defendentibus,^ Caesar expugnare non potuit. 9. Belgae 
magna in bello gloria * potiti putabant se feliciter dimica- 
tur5s. 10. C5nsiliis eorum cognitis Caesar castra mdvit, 
et magnd * itinere facto e5s f ugavit. 



391. I. We shall be victors under the leadership of 
Caesar. 2. Caesar was wont to encourage his men 
before a battle in a few words. 3. After hostages had 
been given, peace was made with the Gauls. 4. Since 
the war was finished, Caesar returned into Hither Gaul. 
5. In the consulship of Marius the Germans were 
defeated in a great battle. 6. When Marius * had been 
made consul, he defeated the Germans in a great battle. 
7. The brave soldier, having performed* his duty, did 
not fear blame. 



^ Nulla iam = no longer any. 
2 Translate though, etc. 
• See 361. * Forced, 



* Latin order : Marius, when 
he, etc. 

^ Why not in the ablative ? 




Pharetra cum Saqittis. 



156 READING LESSON. 

LESSON LXn. 

392. Beading Lesson. 

Gallia Pacata. 

Omni Gallic paclta, tanta h&ius belli ftma ad barbaros 
perlata est ut ab German is, qui trans Rh^num incolebant, 
mitterentur l§gati ad Caesarem, qui se obsides daturds 
pollicebantur, nam timebant ne Caesar suam terram 
vastaret. Qu5s legStds Caesar, quod * in Italiairi prope- 
rabat, inita proxima aestate * ad se reverti iussit. Ipse, 
legionibus in hiberna ductis, in Italiam profectus est. 
His rebus gestis ex litteris* Caesaris supplicatid dies 
quindecim d§creta est, quod^ ante id tempus accidit 
nulli. 

393. I. So great was Caesar's last victory that after 
the battle had been fought ' all the Gauls gave hostages. 

2. After Further Gaul was subdued, Caesar set out for 
Hither Gaul, and the army returned to winter quarters. 

3. When summer had begim,' the deputies returned to 
Caesar. 4. "Have you," said he, "done those things 
which I ordered?'* 5. They replied that they had 
obeyed all his orders. 6. So great was the joy at Rome 
on account of Caesar's victories that a thanksgiving was 
decreed. 

1 Not the relative. * On account of the despatches, 

* The next summer having * The relative is neuter, be- 

begun =at the beginning of the cause it refers to a clause. 

next summer; marks the time ' Use a form of facid. 

of reverti. ^ Express in two ways. 



COMPOUNDS OF SUM. 157 

394. Vocahulary. 

de-cemo, -ere, -crevi, -cretus, ob, prep. w. ace, on account of, 

decide^ determine^ decree, paco, -are, -avi, -atus [pax], 

hibema, -orum, n. (pi.) make gutei, subdue, 

[hiems], winter quarters per-fero, -ferre, -tali, -latiifli 

(castra understood). spread abroad (521). 

imperatmn, -i, n. [impero, polliceor. -er% -itus sum, 

command"], order, com- promise, 

mand, re-vertor, -i, reverti, reversns 

in-colo, -ere, -oolui, (deponent in pres., impf . and 

[incola], dwell; inhabit, fut), turn back^ return, 

in-eo, -ire, -ii, -ituB, go in, supplicatio, -odIb, f. thanks- 
begin (520). giving. 



LESSON LXin. 

Compounds of Sum. 

Dative with Compounds. — Dative of Service. 

395. Possum has been already treated in Lesson 
XLVII. The other compounds of sum are inflected 
like sum, except pr5sum. Prdsum is compounded 
of prOd (old form of pr5,yi?r) and sum. The d of 
pr5d is retained before e. See 517, 5ia 

396. Model Sentences, 

1. Ipse duz suis militibus aderat, the general himself 
helped his soldiers, 

2. Quia eqiiitatui praefuit ? who was in command of the 
cavalry f 

3. Caesar decimae legionis pedltes equis imposait, Caesar 
mounted the foot-soldiers of the tenth legion on horses. 



158 COMPOUNDS OF 8UK. 

a. Observe in the model sentences illustrations of a ccnn- 
men use of the dative. Many verbs compounded with certain 
prepositions are intransitive in Latin, and govern the dative. 
The corresponding English verbs are often transitive. 

397. Rule. — Many verbs compounded with ad, 
ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, and, 
super, govern the dative, 

a. All the compounds of sum, except absmn and posram, 
govern the dative. 

b. The dative governed by these verbs does not depend 
upon the preposition in the compound, but is the indirect 
object of the compound verb. 

39a Model Sentences. 

1. MDites ibi erant praeaidio, the soldiers were there as 
a defence {for a defence). 

2. Cui bono est? whose advantage is itf (Jo whom is it 
for an advantage f), 

3. Hunc librum magister mihi praemio dedit, this book 
the master gave me as a reward {for a reward), 

a. Observe that the datives praesidi5, bon5 (used as a 
noun), and praemiO indicate the end or purpose^ that for 
which something serves. Hence this dative is called the 
Dative of Service. 

399. Rule. — The dative is used with sum and 
a few other verbs to show that for which a thing 
serves. 

a. This dative may be accompanied by another dative, as 
in 2 (cui), and 3 (mihi), of the person or thing affected, the 
ordinary indirect object (28). 



COMPOUNDS OF SUM. 



159 



400. 



Vocabulary. 



-Atheniengifs -ia^ m. (AthS- 

nienai-) [Athenae], an 

Athenian. 
aiudllum, -i, n. [augeo], heip^ 

aids plu. auxiliaries, 
in-ieio, -ferre, -tuli, inlatos 

(ill-), bri^g upon, causes 



bellnm ihferre, make war 
upon, with dat (521). 

mos, -oris, m. custom, manner, 

per, prep. w. ace, through. 

praeaidium, -i, n. protection, 
defence, 

Bchola, -ae, f . Bchool. 



COMPOUNDS OF 8Um. 



ab-Bum, -esse, afoi, afutunis, 

be away, be absent with a 

or ab and abl. 
de-sum, esse, -fui, -futurus, 

be from, be wanting, lack, 

fail, 
in-Bum, -esse, -fui, , be in, 

be among, 
inter-Bum, -esse, -fui, -futurus, 

be among, be present. 



ob-sum, -esse, -fui, , be 

against, injure, hinder, 

prae-sum, -esse, -fui, ^ be 

before, be at the head of, 
command, 

pro-sum, piodesse, -fui. -fu- 
turus, be for, be useful to, 
benefit, 

super-sum, -esse, -fai, , be 

over, be left over, survive. 



401. I. Pater timet ne quid* mali filio accidat. 
2. Barbari populo Romano bellum inferebant 3. N5n 
scholae^ sed vitae discimus. 4. Iste liber, quem tu 
mihi proficiscent! dedisti, per totum iter fuit mihi vo- 
Inptati. 5. Quis praefuit equitatui quem Aedui Caesari 
auxilio miserant } 6. Labienus, hoc loco occupato, 
magnum hostibus terrorem intulit. 7. Pauci Graecorum 
Atheniensibus magno in pericul5 venerunt auxilio. 

402. Dk Amicitia. 

In vera amicitia mignum inest praesidium. Amicus 
verus adest amico neque deerit in periculo. Amic5 pro- 

^ See 312, note 6. ^ For school. 



160 COMPOUNDS OF SUM. 

desse dulce est, amico deesse turpe. Amicus fidus non 
aberit ab amico in mal& f5rttin&. Mdr€s mali amicitiae 
obsunt Inter homines maids vera amicitia non interest 
Cicerd consul, cum rei publicae praeesset, amicis multum 
prdfuit. Multae epistulae Cicerdnis et eius amic5rum 
supersunt. Prodeste amicis. Amicis este in pericido 
praesidio. 

403. I. In Hannibal there was great foresight and 
bravery. 2. He was long absent from his own country, 
making war upon the Romans. 3. He commanded 
armies in Spain and Italy. 4. He was present at many 
battles, and was a terror^ to the Romans. 5. He bene- 
fited his country in many ways.* 6. But his enemies in 
his own land injured him. 7. Scipio defeated him in 
battle in Africa. 8. He survived this battle many years. 
9.* His name will never lack renown. 

1 For a terror, * Turn the sentence round ; 

■ Things, See 168. renown will never be wanting. 




CURRUS. 



THE IRREGULAR VERB EO. 161 



LESSON LXIV. 

The Irregular Verb eo, go. 

Principal Parts : e5, ire, ivi (ii), iturus. 

Expressions of Place. — Ablative of Separation. 

404. Learn the conjugation of e6, except the perfect sub- 
junctive, the gerund, and supine. (520.) 

a. The root is i ; observe where it is changed to e in the 
present indicative and subjunctive, and in the present participle. 

405. The following prepositions, which take the 
ablative, have been used in preceding exercises : 

a (ab), away, from; by. e (ex), out of, from. 

cum, with. pro, before, for. 

6m, from, concerning. sine, without, 

a. These are the common prepositions that take the abla- 
tive. Most other prepositions take the accusative ; but in and 
sub are sometimes followed by the ablative, sometimes by the 
accusative. 

b. In after verbs expressing motion has the meanings into, 
to, towards, for, against, and takes the accusative. 

c. In after verbs expressing rest has the meanings, in, on, 
at, and takes the ablative. 

d. Sub, under, up to, after verbs expressing motion, takes 
the accusative ; after verbs expressing rest, takes the ablative. 



162 THE IKREGULAH VEHM £6. 



406. Models. 



'ilni 



oppido, in the town, 
Italia, in Italy. 



ad flmnen, to the river. 
in urbem, into the town, 
in italiam, to or into 
Italy. 



AtheniB, at or in Athens. 
Arpini, at or in Arpinum. 
Cartbagini. at or in Carthage. 
Romae, at or in Rome. 



Athenas, to Athens. 
RSmam, to Rome. 



feac ^tgnA, from the fields. '\KX\ATaA, from Athens. 
\ex Italia, /r^/if Italy, j Boma, from Rome. 

a. All the above ways of expressing place have been illus- 
trated in preceding lessons, and are familiar to the learner, 
except the last (Athenis, Rdma). Observe that in the first 
column a preposition is used in every expression of place, 
while in the second column (names of towns only) no prepo- 
sition is used. 

d. Again, observe in the first column how (i) place where 
is expressed, (2) place whither^ (3) place whence, and com- 
pare, group by group, with the second column. 

407. Rule ior names of towns: 

1. Place where is expressed hy the locative. 

2. Flax^e whither is expressed hy the a/^cusatlve 

without a preposition. 

3. Place whence is expressed by the ablative 

without a preposition. 

a. Domus, home, and rfis, the country, have the construction 
of names of towns. So also names of small islands. 



THE IRREGULAR VERB EO. 



163 



408. 

domi, at home, 
domum, (Jo) home, 
AowJQ^from home, 

409. 



Paradigm, 

rari, in the country, 
ruB, to^ into the country, 
rare, from the country. 



Vocabulary, 

'Alpea, -imn, f. (Alpi-), the 
Alps, 

arceo, -ere, -cui, , keep off, 

avarua, -a, -um, greedy^ rapa- 
cious, avaricious, 

careo, -ere, -ui, -itoruB, lack, 
be in want of, 

de-fensor, -oris, m. defender, 

ex-eo, -ire, -ii, -itua, go out, 

in-eo, -ire, -ii, -itua, go in, 
enter on. 



-iB» m. (menai-). 



mensis, 
month, 

naacor, -i, nataa sum, be born, 

red-eo, -ire, -ii, -itua [re-], go 
back, return, 

regnmn, -i, n. kingdom, throne. 

apolio, -are, -avi, -atua, de- 
prive, rob, despoil. 

trana-eo, -ire, -ii, -itua, go 
over, cross, 

vacuua, -a, -um, destitute of 



410. I. Voluerunt ire Corinthum. 2. Nolunt exire 
Athenis. 3. Mavult redire Carthaginem. 4. In urbem 
ibunt. 5. Eunt Corintho. 6. It ex urbe. 7. lerunt do- 
mum. 8. Dixerunt se domum iturds. 9. Redeunt rus. 

10. Dicit me rus iturum. 11. Timet ut eant domum. 

411. I. We shall go to Rome. 2. They will return 
from Gaul. §. He crossed. 4. He says he crossed. 
5. They enter. 6. He entered. 7. We are unwilling 
to enter. 8. Don*t return to the city. 9. Remain at 
Carthage. 10. You were returning from the country. 

11. They fear that he will return to the country. 



^•^^fer#i 



16f THE IRREGULAR VERB £0. 

412. Model Sentences. 

1. Hoc mS libera pvAovXS^free me from this danger, 

2. Hio homo olbo caret, this man is in want of food, 

3. Gtormani RSmanSa a finibus suis aroebant, the Ger- 
mans kept the Romans off from their lands, 

a. Observe the use of the ablative to denote that from 
which there is freedom, removal, or separation, or that which 
is lacking. The ablative so used answers the question from, 
what ? of what f and is called the Ablative of Separa- 
tion. The ablative of place whence, with or without a 
preposition, is an ablative of separation. 

413. Rule. — Words signifying privation, rc- 
movalf or separation are followed by the dblative, 
with or without a preposition. 



414. I. Legati Roma missi Carthaginem ierunt. 
2. Hunc ille deus a suis aris arcebit. 3. Cum Milti- 
ades insulam quandam non posset expugnare, rediit 
Athenas. 4. Alexander, patre mortuo, regnum iniit. 

5. Ista cura liberatus gaudebo omnibus cum civibus. 

6. Alpes ante Hannibalem cum exercitu transiit nem5. 

7. Urbs defensoribus vacua fuit. 8. Avari milites aras 
spoliaverunt donis. 9. Helvetii e suis finibus exire 
voluerunt. 10. Duobus itineribus domo exire poterant. 

415. I. We removed from the city into the country. 
2. When we had remained two months in the country we 
returned home. 3. The goddess will keep the Romans 
from her temple. 4. My boy, that horse lacks grain 
and water. 5. Cicero was born at Arpinum, in Italy. 



COLLOQUIUM, 165 

6. From Arpinum he removed to Rome, in which city 
he was educated. 7. Caesar says that he will go with 
the tenth legion alone. 8. My friend lacked money. 

416. Colloquium. 

TiTYRUS ET MeLIBOEUS. 

T, Aliquis ianuam pulsat. I, puer, aperl ianuam. 

door knock 

\Meliboeus tristl vultu pdssibus tar d is introit,'] 

steps slow enter 

Salve, amice, diu me non adisti. Cur iste tuus vultus 

how do you do have visited 

tristis ? 

M, Eheu ! mi Tityre, abeo e mea patria. 

go away - 

T, Cur abis ? Quo abibis ? Noli relinquere haec arva 
dulcia. ^^^^ 

pleasant. 

M, Quid tibi vis ? Me5s agros militibus impiis donavit 

what would you have me do wicked has given 

Octavianus. Magna pars gregum interiit. Ipse perii. 

flocks have perished. am undone 

7! Minime, amice ; adi ad Octavianum ; ille est benig- 
nus, neque vult te perire. Tu agros recipies. 

to be ruined 

M. Parvae spes mihi sunt redeundi ; tamen ibo, ut tu 

of returning 

mones ; Octaviano ad pedes me proiciam. 

will throw 

7! Et redibis in agros tuos ; redibit pax aurea. Vale, 
mi Meliboee, es bono animd. 

be of good courage 

. Af; Et tu vale, bone Tityre. 



166 SEQUENCE OF TENSES, ^ QUESTIONS. 

LESSON LXV. 
Sequenoe of Tenses. — Indirect Questions. 

417. Learn the perfect subjunctive of the model and 
irregular verbs, except ferd and fi5. 

418. Model Sentences. 

1 . Audio ubi ait — ubi laexit, / hear where he is — where 
he has been, or was, 

2. Audiam ubi ait — ubi faexit, / shall hear where he is 

— where he has been, or was, 

3. Audivero ubi sit — ubi fuerit, / shall have heard where 
he is — where he has been, or was, 

4. Audiebam ubi esset — ubi fuisset, / was hearing where 
he was — where he had been, 

5. Audivi ubi esset — ubi fuisset, I heard where he ivas 

— where he had been, 

6. Audiveram ubi esset — ubi fuisset, / had heard where 
he was — where he had been, 

a. The tenses of the indicative mood are grouped in two 
classes, (i) Those of the first group above, the present, future, 
and future perfect, are called primary tenses, (2) Those of 
the second group, the imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect, are 
called secondary tenses. Observe now the tenses of the sub- 
junctive: in the first group the present and perfect; in the 
second group the imperfect and pluperfect. 

419. Rnle. — J. primary tense in the main 
clause is followed hy the present or perfect 
subjunctive in the dependent clause, and a 
secondary tense by the imperfect or pluperfect 
subjunctive. 



SEQUENCE OF TENSES. — QUESTIONS. 167 

a. The principle of the sequence of tenses has been already 
partially illustrated in preceding lessons. 

420. Mod^l Sentences, 

DIRECT QUESTIONS. INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 

1. QuiB ea? who are you f Scio quia sis, I know who 

you are, 

2. XTbi eramus ? where Sciebam ubi essemui, / 

were we ? knew where we were, 

3. Cur profectoa est? QuaeBienint cur prof ectoa 
why did he set out f esset, they asked why he had 

set out, 

4. Quern vidisti ? whom Scio quern videris, / know 
have you seen f whom you have seen, 

a. Compare each of the sentences in the left-hand column 
with the corresponding one on the right. Observe that each 
dependent clause in the right-hand column begins with an in- 
terrogative word, and contains the substance of a question, 
though not a question in form. Such dependent clauses are 
called Indirect Questions. Observe the mood and how it 
is translated. 

421. Rule. — The verb of an indirect question 
is in the subjunctive, 

a. The commonest interrogative words introducing indirect 
questions are quia, whof cm, whyf num, whether? ubi, 
where? qu5, whither f unde, whence? quot, how many? 

b, Num in a direct question expects the answer no^ as ndnne 
expects the answer yes. It must commonly be left untrans- 
lated : num manibus ambulas ? do you walk on your hands ? 
ox^you don't walk on your hands ^ do you? In an indirect 
question nam means whether^ without definite expectation. 



168 SEQUENCE OF TENSES, -^ QUESTIONS. 

422. Vocabulary. 

oaohimiS, -ire, , , inter-rog5i -are, -ivi, -atu^ 

laugh out loud, asky inquire^ question. 

dolor, -5ri% m. pain^ S^^^f' nmn, adv., whether, 421, h. 

Inieri, -orum, m. (pi. of in- quot, indecL how many f 

feme), inhabitants of the etoltuek -a, -^fam, foolish. 

lower world, tot, indecl. so many. 
onde, adv. whence y where from. 

interrogo, ask a question, inquire, and nearly limited to that 
sense ; followed by the accusative of the person. 

quaero, ask a question, ask for; also, seek to gain, seek to 
know, search into; followed by the ablative of the person 
with a (ab), de, e (ez). 



423. I. Unde veniebant tot milites? 2. Amicus a 
me quaesivit unde venirent tot milites. 3. Ille puer 
parent ibus non voluptati,^ sad semper erit dolori. 4. Die 
mihi num Alexander a proeliis semper abierit victor. 
5. Flumen ab urbe abest octo milia passuum. 6. Quot 
civitates sunt in armis? 7. Caesar quaesivit quot civi- 
tates essent in armis. 8. Magister interrogavit quis 
esset inferorum deus. 9. Hie * quidam puer stultissimus 
eachinnabat. 10. Labienus milites cohortatus progressus 
est ut videret quo in loco barbari flumen transirent. 
II. Equitatus Caesari auxilio missus, bell5 confeeto, 
domum revertit. 12. Num templa spoliasse profuit 
principibus avaris qui exercitui praefuerunt.? 

424. I. Tell me what you have in your right hand. 
2. Nasica asked a man whether he had been accustomed 
to walk on his hands. 3. Do you know why he thus 
questioned him ? 4. Because his hands were like hora. 

1 See 399. 2 Hereupon. 



IRREGULAR VERBS FERO AND FIO. 169 

5. We Iqiow why he is laughing aloud, why he has 
been wanting. 6. Do you not wonder why we have been 
praised? 7. They wondered whether he had been 
admonished. 8. Caesar asks the captives how many 
of the enemy there are. 



LESSON LXVI. 
The Irregular Verbs fero €Uid fio. 

PRINCIPAL Parts: j !ff ^.^'''% !f ' Iktus, bear, carry, endure. 
|^n5| fien, lactus sum, be made, become. 

425. Learn the conjugation of ferO and fiO| omitting the 
gerund and supine (521, 520). 

a. Observe in the compounds of fer5, as they occur, the 
change that many prepositions undergo: ab 4- fer5 becomes 
auferO; ex 4- fer5, becomes effer5, etc. 

b, FiO is the passive of faci5. The i is long, except in fit, 
and when followed by er. 

426. Vocabulary, 

ab-duco, -ere, -duxi, -dactua, con-f ero, -ferre. •tali, conlatas 

lead off, abduct (coll-), [com] Mng together, 

ad-iero (aff-), -ferre, attoli collect. 

(adt), adlatus (all-), bear ef-fero, -ferre, eztuli, elatus 

to, bring. [®^]' ^^^^ ^^A carry forth. 

apud, prep. w. ace, with, feroz, -^k^a, fierce, savage, 

among. labor, -oris, m. labor, toil. 

au-fero, -ferre, abstoli, abla- muto, -are, -avi, -atua, change. 

tus [ab(8)], bear off, carry" patienter, adv. patiently, 

away. Pluto, -onis, m. Pluto, god of 

caBua, -U8, m. [cad5], a fall- the lower world, 

ing, chance, misfortune, Proserpina, -ae, f. Proserpine, 

loss, daughter of Ceres. 



17b IRREGULAR VERBS FiHQ AND rlO. 

427. I. Fert, ferunt. 2. Fit, fiunt 3. Ferre, fieri. 
4. Auferet, auferetur. 5. Contulerant, conlati erant 
6. Abstuli, abstulerunt. 7. Fimus, fiet. 8. Tulisse, 
factus esse. 9. Efferunt, elati sunt. 10. Dicunt se 
auxilium adlaturos esse. 11. Hae puellae fiunt dili- 
gentiores illis pueris. 12. Eis labor fiet voluptati. 

428. I. They become consuls. 2. They are bearing^ 
arms. 3. He will carry away money. 4. He says he 
has carried away money. 5. We have brought together 
corn. 6. Bring shields for defense. 7. Take care* to 
become good. 8. He took care to become good. 

429. I. Ferte patienter labores. 2. Ferte patienter 
quae mutari non possunt. 3. Nolite cupere id quod fieri 
non potest. 4. Nemo nascitur sapiens, nemo casu fit 
bonus. 5. Cum imperator auxilium militibus defessis 
attulit, omnes gavisi sunt. 6. Auxilio ab imperatore 
militibus defessis adlato, omnes gaudebant 7. Frii- 
mento in unum locum conlato usus est Caesar. 8. Apud 
veteres Romanes ex agricolis fiebant c5nsules. 9. " Be- 
nignum regem," inquit deus, "non tulistis, nunc ferocem 
ferte." 10. Interrogavit quot ex civibus facti essent milites 
et num multi proelio interessent et superessent. 

430. I. We shall learn to bear our good fortune 
well. 2. They bore with patience that which they could 
not change. 3. The inhabitants carried their all* with 
them out of the town. 4. The soldiers carried away all 
the booty from the captured town. 5. Who will' cross 
yonder river with me ? 6. He asks who will cross yonder 

1 Pac ut. See 312, note 8. 2 Omnia sua. ? Is willing. 



COLLOQUIUM. 171 

river with him ? 7. Tell me why Pluto led off Proserpine. 
8. He led her off that she might become his wife. 9. I 
know not where * so many birds come from.^ 10. Keep 
them off from my vines, so that they may not do harm. 

431. Colloquium, 

Socrates et Rhadamanthus. 
R, Tu, nisi fallor, es Socrates, ille Atheniensis. 

unless I am mistaken 

S, Recte dicis. Ego sum S5crates, filius, ut ferunt, 
Sophronisci. ** "^ 

R, Cur dicis ut ferunt 1 Nonne re vera es filius illius ? 

_ in truth 

S, Ipse quidem nescid, O Rhadamanthe, cuius sim 

filius indeed not know am 

R, Num me ludis, Socrates? Caveto. Nonne te 

mock beware 

sapientem dixit oraculum ? 

oracle 

S, Ita est ; sed qua re non intellego, nisi quia me ipse 

yes understand 

inscium perspicio. 

ignorant see plainly 

R, Quo modo aetatem degisti ? 

how pass 

S. Magna ex parte loquebar maximeque d6 virtfite 

for the most part I used to talk especially 

quaerebam. 

inquired. 

R, Mihi de virtute explicato, Socrates; per brfeve 
tempus tibi aures praebebo. 

S, Eheu! Rhadamanthe, istius re! sum inscius, nam 

alas 

mihi explicare poterat nemo. 

was able no one 

1 Where . . ,from == imda. 



172 SUBJUNCTIVE IN RELATIVE CLAUSES. 

J^, Minime sapiens, Socrates, ta mihi videris. At 

quid hoc loc5 tibi est in anim5 facere? ***" *^ 

5. Ante omnia, si videbitur, cum Homerd velim et 

seem good 1 should like 

Ulixe et aliis clarissimis Graeciae principibus loqui. 

to talk. 

-^. Apage igitur ad istas manes. 

be off . then shades 



LESSON LXVII. 
The Subjunctive in Relative Clausee. 

Cum Causal and Concessive. 

432. Model Sentences. 

1. Galli legatos miaenint qui paoem peterent, the Gauls 
sent deputies to sue for (who should sue for) peace, 

2. Quia eat tarn ineptua qui hoc credat 'h- who is so silly 
as to believe {who believes) this f 

3. Nihil eat quod te delectare poaait, there is nothing 
that can delight you. 

4. 6 quanta via veritatia, quae ae defendat ! O how great 
the power of truth since it {which) defends itself! 

a. Observe in i and 2 that the relative clause has precisely 
the same meaning as if ut were used in place of qui. In i the 
clause is one oi purpose^ in 2, of result, 

b. Observe in 3 that the relative clause characterizes the 
antecedent. In such cases the antecedent is usually indefinite 
or general, 

c. Observe in 4 that the relative clause denotes cause or 
reason^ quae being equivalent to cum ea. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN RELATIVE CLAUSES, 173 

433. Rule. — The siubjunctive is used in relative 
elaijuses of purpose, result, characteristic, and 
cause. 

434. Model Sentences, 

1. Cum amioi adsint, gaudemus, since our friends are 
here, we rejoice, 

2. Cum fortdter pugnarent, tamen non vicerunt, though 
they fought bravely, still they did not conquer, 

a. Notice these two uses of cum. In i it denotes cause or 
reason (as, since), in 2, concession (though, although), 

435. Rule. — The suljunctive is used with cum 
causal or concessive. 

436. Vocabulary, 

ao-cuso, -are, -avi, -atus [ad, i-gnoro, -are, -avi -atua [in, 

cauaa], blame, accuse, not (g)no(sco)], know not, 

ad-eo, adv. to that degree, be ignorant, 

so. mora, mortia, f. (morti-) 

arduus, -a, -um, steep j' diffi- [morior], death, 

cult, arduous. per-mitto, -ere, -mud, -miasua, 

con-sequor, -i, -secutus sum, allow, permit, 

follow up, gain, reach, peto, -ere, -ivi (-ii), -itus, seek, 

cum, conj. when, whiles as, ash, sue for, 

since y though, although, re-cuso, -are, -avi, -atus 

currus, -us, m. chariot, wagon, [causa], decline, refuse, 

ez-cuso, -are, -avi, -atus sus-tineo, -ere, -ui, -tentus 

[causa], excuse, [sub, teneo], hold up, sus- 

gusto, -Sre, -avi, -atus, taste, tain, withstand. 

veho, -ere, vexi, vectus, carry, draw. Pass, ride. 



437. I. Marcus erat prudens, qui vinum non gustaret. 
2. Cum igndrem quis sit ille homo, ei non permittam ut 



174 SUBJUNCTIVE IN RELATIVE CLAUSES, 

mecum in eodem curru vehltur. 3. Magister puerum 
graviter accQsavit qui penso n5n fungeretur. 4. Quae 
cum ita sint,^ supplicatio decernetur. 5. Neque repertus 
est quisquam edrum qui' mori pro principe recusaret. 
6. Non is ^ sum qui' mortis periculo terrear. 7. Caesar, 
acie instructa, equitatum misit qui hostium iropetum sus- 
tineret. 8. Nihil est nobis ade5 arduum quod n5n vir- 
tute consequi possimus. 9. Cum ea ita sint, tamen* 
vobiscum pacem faciam. 10. Legati ad Caesarem vene- 
runt qui se de superioris temporis* consilio* excusarent. 
II. Ennius erat impudens qui se non esse domi diceret. 

Several of the following sentences may be translated in two 
ways. 

438. I. No one is so wise that he knows all things. 
2. Who can be found who does not enjoy the light of the 
sun } 3. Since I cannot persuade you ' to go,® I will go 
myself. 4. The soldier was .^vehemently accused because 
he would not fight. 5. A thanksgiving was decreed for 
Caesar because he had waged war successfully in Gaul. 
6. Althpugh this is so, still we do not fear that you will 
taste the wine. 7. You are not the person* to abuse the 
patience of your friends. 8. There were some^^ who 
thought that Caesar was in Italy. 

* Quae cum ita sint, since this * On a former occasion, 

(these things) is so. • Conduct. 

2 The antecedent implies some ^ See 372. 

word like suchy such as to. ^ Ut with subjunctive^ 

« The person. » Cf. 437, 6. 

^ Tamen indicates the mean- ^° Omit, 
ing of com. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN WISHES AND APPEALS, 175 



LESSON LXVni. 

The Subjunctive in Wishes cmd Appeals. 

439. Learn the future imperative of the model and irregular 
verbs. 



440. 



I. (Utiziaiii-) pater mox 
adait, 



2. ntinam pater nunc 
adeaset, 



3. ntinam 
adfuiBset, 



Model Sentences, 
Wishes. 

'may father be here (come) 

soon! 
I hope father may be here 

(come) soon! 
oh^ that father may be here 

(come) soon ! 

'would that father were here 

now ! 
I wish father were here now ! 
oh, that father were here now ! 

would that father had been 

here yesterday ! 
I wish father hail been here 

yesterday ! 
ohy that father had been here 

yesterday ! 



pater heri 



441. Rule. — Wishes are expressed by the sub- 
junetive with or luithout utinain, oh that! 

a, Utinam is often omitted with the present, rarely with 
other tenses. The negative in wishes is nS, not nOn. 

b. Observe the tenses in the model sentences. In which 
one does the tense indicate that the with may be realized? 



176 SUBJUNCTIVE IN WISHES AND APPEALS. 

442. Rule. — 1. Wishes referring to the fu4i4ire, 
immediate or more remote, are expressed by the 
present sut(junctive. 

2. Wishes referring to the present are expressed 
by the im/perfect subjunctive. 

3. Wishes referring to the past are expressed 
by the pluperfect sufy'unctive. 

c. The subjunctive in wishes is called the Optative Sub- 
junctive, from opt5, wish, 

443. In appeals and commands both imperative 
and subjunctive forms are used, as illustrated in the 
following paradigm : 

444. Appeals and Commands. 

Paradigm, 

POSITIVE. NBGATIVB. 

moneam, let me advise. ne moneam, let me not advise, 

mono, 

moneas, J 



i, 1 , . noli monere, \ , ^ j - 
_ > advise, . >do not advise, 

as, J ne monuexia, J 

>>,^,. ,. - ^ {l^t him not^ or 

[ let him advise^ or ne moneat» , , „ 

/ ;j^j.z.//.^-..-.. «= ...-! he shall not. 



ne moneat» 
monuerit, j he shall advise, ne monuerit, 



advise, 

let us not ad- 



moneamuB, let us advise, ne moneamua, 

L vise, 

monete, advise, nolite monere, do not advise, 

{ let them advise, - ^ { let them not, 

moneant, , , /. i^e moneant, , , /, 

, .\ or they shall - _, ^ 1 ox they shall 

monuerint, , . -^ ne monuexint, | -^, . 

L advise, t ^^A advise, 

a. In the subjunctive of appeals and commands two points 
should be noticed: (i) the negative is nS, as in ¥rishes; 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN WISHES AND APPEALS, 177 

(2) the perfect subjunctive does not di£Eer in meaning from 
the present. 

b. The common form of negative appeal or command in the 
second person is noli (n51ite) with the infinitive. 

445. Vocabulary, 

ambulo, -are, -avi, -atii8» ^^i/>&, prae-claniB, -a, -mn, very 

take a walk, splendid^ glorious, 

beatuB, -a, -urn, happy, sic, adv. so^ thus, 

colo, -ere, colm, cultii8» care sto, stare, steti, statii8» stand, 

for^ tilly cultivates honor, sub-eo, -ire, -ii, -ituB,^.^? under y 

in-columia, -e, unharmed^ go up to, 

safe, tango, -ere, tetigi, tactii8» 

numquam, adv. never, touch, 

per-fmor, -i, -fructus som, testudo, -inia, f . covering to 

enjoy fully y enjoy, protect besiegers ^ teatudo. 
tranqullluB, -a, -mn, guiet^ peaceful, tranquil. 



446. I. Valeant, valeant cives mei ; sint incolumes, 
sint beat! ! 2. Stet haec urbs praeclara, mihique patria 
carissima ! 3. Tranquilla re publica mei cives perfruantur ! 

4. Utinam Romani virorum fortium copiam haberent ! 

5. Reperti sunt duo equites Romani qui te, Catilina, 
ista cura liberarent. 6. Utinam Catilina omnis secum 
suos ex urbe eduxisset ! 7. Milites, testudine facta, urbis 
murum subierunt. 8. Colit5te parentes, legibus paretdte, 
amatdte amic5s. 9. Ne miles mortis periculum timeat. 
10. Casus tristis Proserpinae erat magno dolori matri, 
quae hoc dixit: " Eheu, miserrima Proserpina, utinam 
numquam e domo exiisses ! lam per sex mensis cuius- 
que anni non eris apud me. Sic luppiter decrevit. Tum 
redeas e regno tristi quo te Pluto ferox rex ille abstulit." 



178 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

447. I. Let us send a messenger to Caesar to warn 
him not to set out. 2. Touch not wine ; let us not touch 
wine ; they shall not touch wine. 3. Let us go forth out 
of the city and carry our all * with us. 4. The boy wrote 
often to his father what he had done. 5. Would that my 
brother were living, and that he were at the head of the 
army ! 6. Oh, take a walk with me in the fields to-day ! 
7. Would that I had taken a walk witli you in the fields 
yesterday 1 



LESSON LXIX. 
Ck>nditionaI Sentences. 

448. Sentences consisting of two clauses — a con- 
dition introduced by si, if, or nisi, if not, unless^ and 
a conclusion — are called Conditional Sentences. 

449. Model Sentences, 

I. Present and Past Time. 
A. Nothing Implied. 

1. 81 hoc facit, bene est, if he is doing this, it is well, 

2. Si hoc faciebat, bene erat, if he was doing this, it was 
well, 

3. 81 hoc fecit, bene fait, if he did this, it was well, 

a. By "nothing implied" is meant that there is nothing in 
the form of the condition to indicate whether what is supposed 
is true or not 

1 See 430, note 2. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 179 

450. Role. — Conditional sentences referring to 
present or past time and implying nothing as to 
fact have the indicative in both cUnoses. 

B. Contrary Implied. 

4. 81 hoc faceret, bene eaeet, if he were doing thisy it 
would be well, 

5. Si hoc ieciaaet, bene folBflet, if he had done this^ it 
would have been well 

b. In the first sentence the time denoted is the present. 
Evidently the time would be the same, if niuic, now^ were 
inserted. 

c. By "contrary implied" is meant that the form of the 
condition indicates that what is supposed is not true. 

451. Role. — Conditional sentences referring to 
present or past tim^e and contrary to fact have 
the sulffunctive in both clauses, the imperfect 
referring to present time, the pluperfect to past 
time. 

II. Future Time. 

C. More Vivid (Probable). 

1. Si hoc faciet, bene erit, if he does {= shall do) this^ it 
will be well, 

2. Si hoc leceiit, bene erit, if he does (^ shall have done) 
thiSi it will be well, 

D. Less Vivid (Possible). 

3. Si hoc fadat, bene ait, if he should do this, it would 
be well, 

a. Observe that in i and 2 the future and the future perfect 
are translated by the present The form of 2, that is, the 



180 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 



future perfect, may be used when the supposed future act must 
be finished before the conclusion can follow : si yicerit, yictoriae 
corOnam recipiet, if he conquers {shall have conquered)^ ke 
will receive the crown of victory. Note the form of transla- 
tion of the less vivid condition. 



452. Rule. — Conditional sentences referring to 
future time, if more vivid, take the future or 
future perfect indicative; if less vivid, take the 
present subjunctive in both clauses. 



453. 



Vocabulary. 



ac-dpio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptos 
[ad, capio], receive^ accept 

calceoB, -i, m. shoe (p, 1 52). 

CinciiinataBy -L m. Cincinnatus. 

claasla, -la, f. (claaai'),^eet. 

creo, -are, -avi, -atus, choose^ 
appoint^ create. 

dictator, -oris, m. [dicto, 
dico], dictator. 

dia-pertio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itus 
[partio, divide"], divide^ 
share. \again. 

itemm, adv. a second titne^ 

Milo, -onia, m. Mih. 



mirabilla, -e [miror], wonder- 
ful, strange. 
ni-ai, conj. if not, unless. 
pro-pono, -ere, -posui, -potd- 

tU8» put forward, propose, 

offer, proclaim. 
propoaitum, -i, n. [proponS], 

proposal, offer. 
talentum, -i, n. talent, a sum 

of money ($1132). 
tolero, -are, -avi, -atua, bear, 

endure, tolerate. 
veatimentom, -i, n. [veatio], 

clothing; vesture. 



454. I. Dux iubet, miles paret ; si non paret, poenam 
dat. 2. Si saluti patriae profueris, tibi ipsi proderis. 

3. Utinam f rater meus viveret et classi iterum praeesset !• 

4. Cum eo die Milo in senatu fuisset, domum venit, ves- 
timenta et calceos mutavit 5. Non profectus essem, nisi 
Caesar iussisset. 6. A Romanis, si urbs magno in peri- 



"\ 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES, 181 

culo erat, dictatores creabantur. 7. Cincinnatus ab aratrd 
vocatus est qui esset dictator. 8. Cum hostis fugavisset 
Romamque periculo liberasset,^ domum revertit. 

455. Alexander et Parmenio. 

Dareus, Persarum rex, decern milia talentorum Alex- 
andre dare voluit, si Asiam secum dispertire volebat. 
Alexander autem ei respondit, " Nisi orbis terrarum duos 
soles tolerare potest, duos reges Asia non tolerSbit." 
Parmenio, qui unus ex amicis Alexandri erat, Darei 
proposito audita, "Ego," inquit, "si Alexander essem, 
h5c prdpositum acciperem." Cui Alexander : " Et ego, 
si Parmenid essem, acciperem." 

456. I. If Alexander should conquer Asia, would it 
endure two kings ? 2. If he conquers Asia, will it endure 
two kings ? 3. If the world does not endure * two suns, 
neither doth Asia endure two kings. 4. It is said that 
Darius wanted to share Asia with Alexander. 5. "If," 
said the former* to the latter, "you are willing to share 
Asia with me, I will give you ten thousand talents." 
6. "By no means,"* replied Alexander; "if you had 
offered me * twenty thousand talents, I would not have 
accepted." 7. If the story is true, is it not passing 
strange •? 8. Would Asia have long endured two masters, 
if the offer of Darius had been accepted ? 

1 See 337, b, » See 100, e, « Not accusative. 

3 See 449. « MinimS. « M&zim6 mii&bilis. 



182 READING LESSON. 

LESSON LXX. 
Heading Lesson. 

Proserpina. 

^Proserpin gathering flowers^ 
Herself a fairer flower ^ by gloomy Dis 
Was gather*dt which cost Ceres all that pain 
To seek her through the world.** 

457. Proserpina, Cereris filia, aliquando in Sicilia 
ad urbem Hennam in agris flores carpebat, serta necte- 
bat ludebatque cum comitibus, Subito terra concussa 
Plut5, inferorum deus, cuius currum equi atri vehebant 
e terra emersit. Deus Proserpinam abduxit, ut uxor 
sua et inferdrum regina esset ; clamorem puellae com- 
pressit. Mater cum ignoraret, ubi filia esset, totum 
orbem terrarum frustra peragravit. 

458. Tandem Ceres a Sole, qui omnia c5nspicit, audi- 
vit quis filiam abduxisset. Itaque statim iter ad lovem 
flexit et precibus animo eius persuasit, ut filia a Plutone 
remitteretur. Proserpinae permissum est, ut per partem 
anni apud matrem, per partem alteram apud inferos esset. 

459. I. Who of you can tell by whom Proserpine 
was carried off ? 2. She was carried away by Pluto, god 
of the Infernals. 3. The god bore her off, as she was 
plucking flowers in the plain of Henna. 4. Her mother 
did not know whither her daughter had gone. 5. So she 
wandered through the whole world to find her. 6. When 
she had heard that her daughter was queen of the 
Infernals, she turned her course at once to Jupiter. 



READING LESSON, 



183 



7. He would have permitted her to return, if she had not 
tasted food. 8. Poor Proserpine, remain forever among 
the Infemals 1 



460. 



Vocabulary, 



ater, -tra, -tniin, black, 
atqne [ad, in addition], and 

alsOj and, 
com-piimo, -ere, -presu, -prea- 

SOS [premo], press together j 

cheeky suppress, 
con-cutio, -ere, -casu, -cussas 

[com, quatio], shake vio- 
lently, 
con-spicio, -ere, -spezi, -spec- 

tus [com, specio, look], look 

at attentively s observe, see, 

behold, 
e-mergo, -ere, -u, -sob, arise, 

come forth J emerge. 
flecto, -ere, flexi, fleziiB, bend, 

turn. 



licet, -ere^ Ucuit or lidtmn 

est, impers., it is permitted, 

(one) may, 
ludo, -ere, Ion, VSmUtpiay, 
necto, -ere, neanu and nezi, 

nexoSk bind, weave, 
per-agro, -are, -avi, -atus 

[ager], wander through, 

pass over, 
[prex], precis, f . (used mostly 

in plu.), prayer, entreaty, 
re-mitto, -ere, -miai, -miaaua, 

send back, 
serta, -ormn, n. [aero, plait], 
garlands, wreaths of flowers, 
tandem, adv. [tam], (Just so 
far), at length, finally. 




Vexillum. 



184 PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 

LESSON LXXI. 
Periphrastic Gonjuffations. 

Dative of Agent. 

461. Learn the future active participle and the gerundive 
of the model and irregular verbs. 

462. The First or Active Periphrastic Conjugation 
is formed by combining the future active participle 
with the verb sum : 

Ind. Pres. AmaturuB amn, / am about to {going to^ intend- 
ing to) love. 

Ind. Imp. Amaturas eram, / was about to (going to, intend- 
ing to), love, 

463. Model Sentences, 

1. Qnisquam dnbitat quid virtute perfectums ait, does 
any one doubt what he will accomplish by his valor f 

2. Sciebam quid facturus esses, / knew what you were 
going to do. 

a. From the above sentences it appears that the first peri- 
phrastic conjugation supplies a future for the subjunctive. 

464. The Second or Passive Periphrastic Conju- 
gation is formed by combining the gerundive (future 
passive participle) with the verb sum : 

Ind, Prhls, Amandus sum, I am to be {ought to be, deserve , 
t& be, muit be) loved. 

Ikd. Imp. Amandus eram, / was to be {deserved to be, 
ought to have been) loved. 



PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 185 

465. Model Sentences, 

1. Delenda est Carthago, Carthage must be destroyed. 

2. Caesan omnia erant agenda, everything had to be done 
by Caesar. 

3. Mihi Bcribendum est, / must write {the duty of writing 
is to mey. 

4. Omnibus moriendum est, all must die {the necessity of 
dying is to all). 

a. Observe that in the second periphrastic conjugation 
necessity^ duty, or obligation is implied in the gerundive. 

b. Notice the impersonal use of the verbs in 3 and 4. By 
impersonal is meant having no personal subject. 

c. Observe in 2, 3, and 4 that the person (Caesari, mibi, 
omnibus) is expressed by the dative. This dative is called the 
Dative of Agent. 

466. Rule. — The gerundive ivith sum takes the 
dative denoting the person who ha^ a thing to do. 

467. Vocabulary. 

ago, -ere, egi, actus^ drive, moenia, -ium, n. pi. [muniS], 
leads do, act. walls {of a city). 

censeo, -ere, -ui, -sua, think, opus, -eris, n. work, labor, 

be of the opinion. pertinacia, -ae, {.perseverance, 

de-sisto, -ere, -stit^ -stitus obstinacy, pertinacity. 

{stand ojf), cease, desist. re-voco, -are, -avi, -atus» call 

ieun-iam, adv. already. back, recall; revoke. 

veadllum, -i, n. signalflag, p. 183. 



468. I. Dux castra mottirus est. 2. Scribenda est 
mihi epistula. 3. Scribenda erat tibi epistula. 4. Cum 
Scipio, graviter vulneratus, in hostium manus iamiam 



186 PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS, 

venturus * esset, filius eum periculd libera vit. 5. Mag- 
nam in spem veniebat fore* ut pertinacia desisteret hostis. 
6. Hoc censeo et Carthaginem esse delendam. 7. Ita 
ndbis vivendum est ut ad mortem parati simus. 8. Caesari 
omnia Qno tempore erant agenda : vexillum proponen- 
dum,' signum tubadandum,' ab opere revocandi * milites, 
acies instruenda,' milites cohortandi.* 

469. I. Do you know what he is going to do ? 2. We 
ought to cultivate virtue. 3. Since you are intending to 
go away, we must follow you. 4. If we wish to conquer, 
we must undergo all dangers patiently. 5. Let us form a 
testudo and go up to the walls of the city. 6. If Pros- 
erpine had not been carried off, her mother would not 
have wandered over all the earth. 7. Oh that Proserpine 
had not been carried off by Pluto to be his wife ! 8. Oh 
that Jupiter had not permitted his brother to come out 
of the earth ! 

1 lamiam ventfiras, just about to come, 

9 For fatfinsm esse \ that it would be^ Le., result* 

• Supply ^rat. 

^ Supply erant. 





Calcar. 



GERUND AND GERUNDIVE,— SUPINE, 187 

LESSON LXXII. 
Gerund a,nd Gerundive. — Supine. 

470. Learn the gerunds and supines of the model and 
irregular verbs. 

471. The gerund is a verbal noun corresponding 
to the English verbal noun in -ing. It is declined 
like the singular of ddnum, the nominative and the 
accusative without a preposition being supplied by 
the infinitive. 

472. Model Sentences, 

1. N. Videre eat credere, seeing is believing, 

2. G. Caesar hortandi finem facit, Caesar makes an end 
of .exhorting, 

3. D. Aqua utiliB est bibendo, water is useful for 
drinking, 

' EGc I0C11B ad pugnandum idoneus est, this place 

is suitable for fighting, 
Dicunt videre esse credere, they say that seeing 
is believing, 

5. Ab. Mens discendo alitor, the mind is strengthened by 
learning, 

473. The use of the gerundive as a passive 
participle with sum has been illustrated in the 
preceding lesson. But it may also be used as a 
verbal adjective. 



4. Ac. 



188 GERUND AND GERUNDIVE,-^ SUPINE. 

474. Model Sentences, 

1. G. Consilia inemit-j ^, . ,_ ^ \they are form- 

Lnrbis delendae,J 

ing plans for {of) destroying the city {of the city to be 
destroyed), 

2. D. Operam dat agris colendia, he devotes himself to 
tilling the fields {to the fields to be tilled), 

3. Ac. Venenint ad pacem petendam, they came to seek 
peace {for peace to be sought), 

4. Ab. OccnpatuB sum in litteris scribendia, / am en- 
gaged in writing letters {in letters to be written), 

a. Notice that in the first sentence the gerund dSlendi limits 
cdnsilia in accordance with 36; but as a verbal noun it governs 
the same case that any other form of the verb deled would 
take, namely the accusative. What case would iitendi, from 
iitor, govern? What parendi, from pared? 

b. Study the equivalent construction urbis delendae. Here 
urbis depends on cdnsilia and the gerundive, like any other 
adjective, agrees with its noun. 

c. Notice that the accusative of the gerund or gerundive 
with ad denotes a purpose. This construction is much used. 
In what other ways may a purpose be expressed? 

475. Model Sentences, 

1. Legati Romam veniunt pacem petitum. ambassadors 
come to Rome to sue for peace, 

2. Id peitacile est factu, that is very easy to do^ or to be 
done, 

a. Observe in the first example that the supine petitum has 
the same meaning as ut petant, qui petant, or ad petendam; 
that is, it expresses purpose. This use is common after verbs 
of motion. 



GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, — SUPINE. 189 

476. Rule. — The supine in um is used after 
verbs of motion to express purpose. 

b. In the second example the supine in ii answers the 
question in what respect f Perfacile factu, easy in respect to 
the doing. This use is common after adjectives. 

c. The supine in u is really an ablative of specification. 
See 168. 

477. Vocabulary, 

at, conj. but. male [mains], adv. badly^ ill, 

causa, -ae, f. cause, reason; male-iicns, -i, m. [facio], evil- 

M.j/or the sake (following doer. 

a genitive). praeter, prep. w. ace, besides. 

con-venio, -ire, -veni, -ventus propter, prep. w. ace, on ac- 

[com], come together, as- count of, 

semble. [even. solum, adv. [solus], only, 

etiam, conj. [et, lam], also, sumo, -ere, -psi, -ptus, take. 

im-peritus, -a, -um [in], un- telum, -i, n. weapon, 

skilled; w. gen. tubicen, -inls, m. [tuba, cano, 
in-ermis, -e [anna], unarmed. sing"], trumpeter. 



478. I. Multi convenerunt studio^ videndae novae 
urbis. 2. Legates ad Caesarem pacis petendae causa* 
Galli mittunt. 3. Galli ad Caesarem venerunt pacem 
petitum. 4. Si legati veniant qui pacem petant, Caesar 
patienter eos audiat. 5. Inter* pugnandum triginta 
naves captae sunt. 6. Quod optimum est factu faciam. 
7. Cincinnatus, qui esset* vir belli* peritissimus, dictator 
de exercitu liberando creatus est. 8. Tubicen, cum 
ipse non pugnaret, tamen alios ad pOgnam incitabat. 

1 See 132. « During. 

2 Notice this way of express- * See 433. 
ing purpose. * In war. 



190 GERUND AND GERUNDIVE. — SUPINJE. 

9. Hostes puUlverunt tubicinem, qui alios ad pQgnam 
incitaret,^ puniendum esse. 10. Utinam tubicen ne 
captus esset ! 

47§. Tubicen. 

Tubicen ab hostibus captus est. "Cur m€," inquit, 
"interficitis? nam inermis sum, neque quidquam habed 
praeter hanc tubam." At hostes, " Propter hoc ipsum," 
inquiunt, " te interficiemus quod, ipse pugnandi imj>eritus,* 
alios ad pugnam incitare soles." Non solum malefici 
sunt puniendi, sed etiam ei qui alios ad male faciendum 
incitent. 

489. I. The trumpeter asked the enemy's com- 
mander why he was going to put him to death. 2. " Dur- 
ing the fight,"' said he, "I did not use any* weapon. 

3. I could not have* killed any one* with this trumpet 

4. Do not put me to death. 5. I am not the man^ who 
deserves to be punished. 6. If I had been fighting, I 
would not say a word." ® 7. But the general said, " That 
trumpet of yours is a weapon which incites • the soldiers 
to fight. You must die." 8. Then the trumpeter, about to 
die,^*^ said, " O that I had not incited others to evil doing." 

1 See 433. • A form of qoisqaam. 

2 Though unskilled. ^ Cf. 437, 6. 

» Cf. 478, 5. 8 fVould say nothing. 

* See p. 124, note 7. • Subjunctive of characteristic (433). 

* Could not have = was not able to. ^^ moiitoros. 



^•^^^•i 




RoMANus IN Toga Praetexta. 



BEADING LESSONS. 



Fables. 

481. MULIER ET QALLINA. 

Mulier quaedam habebat gallinam, quae ei^ cottidiS 
ovum pariebat aureum. Hinc suspicari coepit illam* 
auri massam intus celare, et gallinam occidit. Sed nihil 
in ea repperit, nisi quod ^ in aliis gallinis reperiri solet. 
Itaque dum mai5ribus divitiis inhiat,* etiam min5res* 
perdidit. 

• 

482. VULPES ET UVA. 

Vulpes uvam in vite conspicata^ ad illam subsiluit 
omnium virium suarum contenti5ne, si^ eam forte at- 
tingere posset. Tandem defatigata inani lab5re disce- 
dens, " At nunc etiam," inquit, " acerbae * sunt, nee eas 
in via repertas * tollerem." 

481. 1 For her. * See page 87, note I. 

^ niam == illam gallinam, and ^ Supply the Latin noun in 

is subject accusative of cSlftre. the proper form. 

^ Quod = id quod. 

482. 1 Perfect participle agree- • The plural, as if flvae had 
mg with YulpSs. Translate by the been used. 

present participle. * E&s repert&8, them found=i 

* To see if, if I had found them. See 353, c. 



194 READING LESSONS, 



483. RusTicus ET Canis Fidelis. 

ROsticus in agrds exiit ad opus suum. Plliolumy qui 
in cunis iac^bat, rellquit cani ^ fideli atque valido custo- 
diendum. Adrepsit anguis imm^nis, qui puerulum ex> 
stincturus erat. Sed custos fidelis corripit eum dentibus 
5 acutis, et, dum eum necare studet,* cunas simul evertit 
super exstinctum anguem. Paulo post ex arv5 rediit 
agricola ; cum cunas eversas cruentumque canis rictum 
videret, ira accenditur.* Temere igitur custodem filioli 
interfecit ligone, quem manibus tenebat. Sed ubi ciinas 
10 restituit,* super anguem occisum* repperit puerum vivum 
et incolumem. Paenitentia f acinoris • sera ' f uit. 

484. PUER Mendax. 

Puer in prat5 oves pascebat,^ atque per iocum clami- 

tabat, ut sibi auxilium ferretur, quasi lupus gregem esset 

adortus. Agricolae undique succurrebant, neque * lupum 

inveniebant. Ita ter quaterque se eltisos • a puero vide- 

5 runt. Deinde* cum ipse* lupus aggrederetur, et puer 

483. * Dative of agent, 466. qaam, meaning when^ the perfect 
Translate Uft for his . . . dog to indicative is commonly used, but 
guard. What literally ? it is best rendered by the plu- 

2 See page 87, note i. perfect. 

« Present for perfect, called « See 353, c (2). 

historical present, * For the deed. Why not 

* Translate as if it were resti- dative ? 36. 
toerat ; after abi, ot, and post- ^ Too late, 

484. 1 The imperfect denoting * See page 133, note i. 
customary action; render, s#j^<//9 ^ Pronounced de-inMe. 
tend. * Really. 

s But ...not. 



READING LESSONS. 195 

re vera* impl5raret auxilium, nemo gregi' subvenit, et 
oves lupi praeda® sunt factae. Mendaci homini n5n 
credimus, etiam cum vera® dicit. 

485. Senex et Mors. 

Senex quidam ligna in silva ceciderat, et, fasce in 
umeros sublato,* domum redire coepit. Cum fatigatus 
asset* et onere et itinere, deposuit ligna, et, senectutis* 
et inopiae • miserias secum reputans, clara voce invocavit 
mortem, ut se omnibus mails* liberaret. Mox adest* 
mors et interrogat quid vellet. Tum senex perterritus : 
" Pro ! hunc lignorum fascem quaeso umeris • meis 
imponas." ' 

486. VuLPEs ET Leo. 

Vulpes numquam le5nem viderat. Cum huic^ forte 
occurrisset, ita exterrita est, ut paene moreretur* formi- 
dine. Eundem conspicata est iterum. Tum extimuit 
ilia quidem, sed nequaquam ut antea. Cum tertio ' leoni 
obviam facta esset, adeo non perterrita fuit,* ut auderet * 
accedere propius et conloqui cum eo. 

« R5 vSiftssi/f earnest. * Predicate nominative. 

' Why dative ? See 397. » True (things) = the truth. 

485. ^ From toU5. ^ See 483, note 3. 

< See 382. « Umeris . . . imponis; cf. 

' Notice the order ; the geni- ndbis . . . imposuit in 313. 
tives coming first are made ^ Quaeso , . . imponfts = qaae- 

emphatic. ^ See 413. sd at impdnis. 

486. 1 For the dative see * The third time. 

397. * Ade5 . , . fuit, to such a 

' Is this a subjunctive of pur- degree was not frightened =iwas 
pose or of result ? so far from being frightened. 



196 READING LESSONS. 

Stories from Roman History. 

487. HORATIl ET CURIATII. 

Tull5 Hostllio regnante bellum inter Albinos et 
Roman5s exortum est.^ Ducibus Hostilio et Fufetio 
placuit, pauc5rum certamine fata' utriusque populi de- 
cern!. Erant apud Rom^nos trigemini fratres Horatii, 

S tres apud Albanos COriatii. Cum eis agunt reges, ut pro 
sua quisque * patria dimicent ferro. Foedus ictum est ea 
lage, ut, unde victoria,* ibi imperium esset. 

Icto foedere trigemin! arma capiunt, et in medium 
inter duas acies prdcedunt. C5nsederant utrimque duo 

10 exercitus. Datur signum, mfestisque armis temi iuvenes, 
magndrum exercituum animos gerentes,' concurrunt. Ut • 
primd concursu increpuere' arma, micantesque fulsere' 
gladil, horror ingens spectantes perstringit. Consertis 
deinde manibus, statim duo R5manl alius super alium^ 

15 exspirantes ceciderunt;* tres Albani vulnerati." Ad 
casum Romandrum conclamavit gaudi5 exercitus Al- 
banus. Romanos iam spes t5ta deser^bat. Unum 

487. 1 Ezortam e8t=iiic§pit. * Ut followed by the indicatiYe 

^ Subject-accusative of d§- means when or as, 

cerni ; that the destinies . . . should ^ Notice the form of the per- 

be decided, feet. 

' Notice the order, saft quia- They first hurled their spears, 

que, which is constant in these which rang against the shields ; 

words. then they drew their swords and 

^ Unde victoria . . . esset, on rushed into close combat 

whichever side the victory should ^ See 292, a. Alter soper 

be^ there should be the power, alterum would be better. Why ? 

^ GerentSs = babentSs ; but * From cad5. 

gdientis is a nobler ejcpression. ^0 Supply sunt. 



READING LESSONS, 197 

Horatium tres Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is in- 
teger" fuit, sed quia tribus impar erat, ut distraheret 
hostes, f ugam capessivit, singulos " per intervalla secu- 20 
tur5s esse ratus." lam aliquantum spati" ex e5 loco, 
ubi pugnatum est," aufugerat, cum respiciens videt unum . 
e Curiatiis haud procul ab sese abesse. In eum magnd 
impetu redit, et dum Albanus exercitus inclamat Curia- 
tiis, ut opem ferant fratri, iam Horatius eum occiderat. 25 
Alterum^** deinde, priusquam tertius posset c5nsequi, 
interfecit. 

Iam singuli supererant, ^ed nee spe nee viribus pares. 
Alter erat intactus ferrd et geminata victdria ferox;^' 
alter fessum" vulnere, fessum cursu trahebat corpus. 30 
Nee illud proelium fuit. Romanus exsultans male sus- 
tinentem" arma Curiatium c5nficit, iacentem*^ spoliat. 
R5mani ovantes ac grStulantes Horatium accipiunt et 
domum deducunt. 

488. CiNCINNATUS. 458 B.C. 

T. Quinctius Cincinnatus omnium c5nsensu dictator^ 
est dictus. I lie, spes unica imperi Rdmani, trans Tiberim 

11 Integer = incolamis. " See page 109, note 4. 

^2 Subject-accusative of secfi- ^* The second. ^^ Emboldened. 

tnios esse ; thinking that they ^^ Agrees with corpus. 

would follow one by one. ^* Take the words in thb 

" Ratas ^ put&ns. Perfect order : Cfiriatium male sasti- 

participles must sometimes be nentem anna conficit. On sus- 

rendered as if they were pres- tinentem see 353, c (2). 

ent participles. *> Supply et to precede, and 

" See 203. render, as he lay dead. 

488. ^ A magistrate appointed vested with supreme power. On 
m times of extraordinary danger this occasion the Aequi, enemies 
to bold office six months, and in- of the Romans, had surrounded 



198 READING LESSONS. 

tunc quattuor iugerQm * col^bat agnim. Ad quern missi 
leg§ti nddum* eum arantem offenderunt. Salute^ data 

5 redditlque Quinctius togam* propere e tugurio prdferre 
uz5rem Raciliam iussit, ut sen§tQs mandata togatus 
audiret. 

Postquam, absterso pulvere 5c sudore, toga indutus* 
processit^ Quinctius, dictatdrem eum leg^ti gratulantes 

10 consalutant ; quantus terror in exercitu sit,' expdnunt. 
Quinctius igitur R5mam venit et antecedentibus lictori- 
bus domum deductus est. Postero die ab urbe profectus, 
exercitQ Romano liberato, vict^s hostis sub iugum* misit. 
Urbem triumphans ingressus est. Ducti ante cumim 

15 hostium duces, militaria signa^^ praelata; secutus est 
exercitus praed5 onustus; epulae instructae sunt ante 
omnium domos. Quinctius sexto decimo die dictatura, 
quam in" sex mensis acceperat, se abdicavit et ad 
boves^* rediit triumphalis agricola. 

489. Gaius Duilius. 260 b.c. 

C. Duilius Poenos navali proelid primus * devicit. Qui 
cum ^ videret naves Romanas a Punicis velocitate superari, 

the whole Roman army com- ^ See 483, note 4. 

manded by the consul. ^ Qaantos ... sit, an indirect 

^ Contracted genitive plural, question depending on expdnunt. 
depending on agrom. ^ A yoke of spears formed by 

• That is, without his toga. two upright spears with another 
See illustration, page 34. laid upon them transversely. 

^ Salfite datft redditftqae, Sending under the yoke was 

freely rendered, after exchanging symbolical of defeat and humil- 

greetings. What literally ? iation. 

^ See illustration, page 191. '^ See illustrations, page 105. 

• Indfitos = vestitus. " For, ^ From bos. 

489. 1 Was the first to, * Qni cam, when he. 



READING LESSONS, 199 

manus ferrets, quas corv5s vocavere,* machinam ad 
comprehendendas hostium navis tenendasque utilem 
excogitavit. Ea machina Romanis magno usui fuit ; nam 5 
iniectis illis corvis hostilem navem apprehendebant,* 
deinde superiecto ponte in earn insiliebant et gladio 
velut in pugna terrestri dimicabant ; unde R5manis, qui 
r5bore praestabant, facilis vict5ria fuit. Inter pugnan- 
dum triginta hostium naves captae sunt, mersae tredecim. lo 
Duilius victor Romam reversus, primus * navalem tri- - 
umphum egit. Nulla victdria Rdmanis gratior fuit, quod 
invicti terra iam etiam mari plurimum possent." Itaque 
Duilio concessum est,' ut per omnem vitam praelucente 
funali et praecinente tibicine a cena rediret. 15 

490. Marcus Porcius Cato, Puer. 85 b.c. 

M. Porcius Cat5 iam puer ^ invictum animi rdbur osten- 
dit. Cum * in dom5 Drusi avuncilli sui educaretur, Latini 
de civitate impetranda ' R5mam venerunt. Popedius, La- 
tin5rum princeps, qui Drusi hospes erat, Catonem puerum 
rogavit, ut Latinos apud avunculum adiuvaret. Cato 5 
vultu c5nstanti negavit * id se facturum. Iterum deinde 
ac saepius* interpellatus in proposito perstitit. Tunp 

' Note this form of the per- * See note i. 

feet and compare increpaSre, 487. • They could very much = 

* Iniectis . . . apprebendebant. could accomplish a great deal. 
By throwing these grappling- "^ See p. 109, note 4. Dutlius 
hooks upon a hjostile ship they was allowed. 

would catch hold of it. 

490. 1 Already a boy =^ even in * Denied himself to be going to 

boyhood. 2 while, do it= refused to do it. 

• Respecting citiunship to be ^ Again and again, 
obtained =s to obtain citizenship. 



200 READING LESSONS. 

Pop^dius puerum in excelsam* aedium partem levatum 
tenuit,^ et se^ abiectOnim inde min^tus est, nisi precibus 
10 obtemper^ret ; neque hoc metu ' a sententia eum potuit 
dUnovSre. Tunc Pop^dius excl^m^se fertur: "Gratu- 
lemur nobis, Latin!, hunc esse tarn parvum ; si enim 
senator esset,^^ n€ sper^re quidem ius civitatis liceret." ^ 

491. Gaius Marius. 88 B.C. 

Marius^ hostis persequentis fugiens aliquamdiu in 
palude delituit. Sed paul5 post repertus extractusque, 
ut erat ^ nud5 corpore caenoque oblitus, iniect5 in collum 
loro Minturnas raptus* et in custodiam cdniectus est. 
5 Missus est ad eum occidendum servus publicus, natione * 
Cimber, quem Marius vultus auctoritate deterruit. Cum 
enim hominem ad se stricto gladio venientem vidisset, 
" Tune,* homo," inquit, " C. Marium audebis occidere 1 " 
Quo audito attonitus ille ac tremens abiecto ferrd fugit, 

^ Ezcelsam = altam. tfUnm. He threatened himself to 

^ Puerum . . . lev&tum tennit, be going to throw him (eum) 

held the raised up boy =^ raised down from there =^ he threatened 

up and held the boy. See to throw him down from there. 

353, c (3). • By this fear means by fear 

8 The subject-accusative of of this. 
abiect^irum (esse). Eum, re- ^^ What time is denoted, and 

f erring to puerum, must be sup- what b implied ? See 451. 
plied as the object of abiec- 

491. 1 Marius had been driven ' The following et shows that 

from Rome by hb powerful est must be supplied, 
rival, Sulla, and was fleeing for * See 168. 

life. * The -ne is the interrogative 

^Just as he was. particle. 



READING LESSONS, 201 

Maxium* se n5n posse occidere clamitans. Marius de- lo 
inde ab iis, qui prius eum occidere voluerant, e carcere 
emissus est. 

492. Gaius Iulius Caesar. 44 b.c. 

Atque cum Caesar ed die in senatum v€nisset, adsiden- 
tem^ coniurati specie offici circumsteterunt ilicoque unus, 
quasi aliquid rpgaturus, propius accessit, renuentique* 
ab • utroque umero togam apprehendit. Deinde claman- 
* tem,* " Ista * quidem vis est," Casca, iinus e coniuratis, 5 
adversum vulnerat paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae 
braccliium adreptum* graphic traiecit conatusque pro- 
silire alio vulnere tardatus est. Cum Marcum Brutum, 
quem fili loco habebat, in se inruentem vidisset, dixisse 
fertur : " Tu quoque, mi fili ! " Dein ut ' animadvertit, 10 
undique se® strictis pugionibus peti, ® toga caput ob- 
volvit' et ita tribus et viginti pUgis confossus est. 

^Maxiam . • . clftmitftns. rittm. Mariam is put first for em- 
Translate in tills order : clftmi- phasis. The most emphatic word 
tins 85 non posse ocddere Ka- in a sentence b put first. See 33. 

492. ^ That is, eum (C) adsiden- ^ Agrees with Caesaiem under- 

tern, following circamstetSnmt stood, object of yolnerat 

'Renaenti=recflsanti. Sup- * TTiis (that you are doing), 

ply H. One, to him (viz, Caesar) See 304,/ 
refusing, seizes the toga =on * See 353, c (3). 

Caesar's refusal, one seizes his ' See 487, note 6. 

toga, 8 Himself to be attiuked^^that 

• l^otfrom here, but on. he was being attacked, 

• " . . . then burst his mighty heart ; 
And, in his mantle mufiling up his face, 
Even at the base of Pompey's statua, 
Wliich all the while ran blood, great Caesar feU.** 



202 READING LESSONS. 



493. Cabsar Octavianus Augustus. 63 b.c. to 14 a.d. 

Forma ^ f uit Augustus eximiH et per omnes aetatis gra- 

dus venustissim^ Erat tamen omnis lenocini neglegens 

et in capite comendo * tarn incuriosus, ut eo ipso teinpK>re» 

quo' illud tons5ribus committeret, aut l^eret aliquid aut 

5 etiam scriberet. 

Faucis annis antequam morer€tur, gravissimam in Ger- 
mlni^ * accepit cladem, tribus legionibus cum duce Varo 
legatisque et auxiliis omnibus caesis. H^c nuntiata ex- 
cubias per urbem ' indlxit^ n€ quis tumultus exsisteret, et 

10 magnos ludos lovi optimd maximo vovit, si res publica 
in meliorem statum vertisset. Adeo denique c5nstema- 
tum* ferunt/ ut, per continuos mensis barba capilloque 
submisso, caput interdum foribus inlideret, v5ciferans, 
"Quinctili Vare, legiones redde I" diemque cladis quo- 

15 tannis maestum habuerit ac lugubrem. 

Tandem adflicta valetudine in Campaniam concessit, 
ubi, remisso ad otium animo, nullo hilaritatis genere 
abstinuit. Supremo vitae die petito speculd capillum 
sibi comi iussit et amicos circumstantes percontatus, 

20 ecquid * eis videretur mimum vitae commode transegisse, 

493. ^ What other case might ^ Urbs often used alone of 

have been used ? See 140. Rome, 

2 For the construction com- • The Latin fully expressed 

pare 474, 4. would be, eum cdnstem&tom 

' Supply tempore and translate esse, accusative with infinitive 

whgn, depending on fenmt 

^ Marks the place of cl&dem. ^ Ferunt = dicant Cf. ferttir 

Augustus was not himself in = dicitor, 492, line 10. 

Germany. 8 Whether he had played the 

comedy of life fairly well. 



READING LESSONS. 



203 



adiecit solitam clausulam,* "Edite strepitum v5sque 
omnes cum gaudio applaudite." Obiit Nolae sextum 
et septuagesimum annum agens. 

• In the Roman theatres it dose of a comedy, to invite the 
was usual for an actor, at the applause of the audience. 




TABLES 



DECLENSIO]^" AND CONJUGATION. 



NOUNS. 



494. 



First Declension. ~A-Stems. 



r^. tuba, a trumpet, 

G. tubae, of a trumpet 

D. tubae, to ox for a trumpet 

Ac. tubam, a trumpet, 

Ab. tuba, with a trumpet. 



tubae, trumpets 
tubarmn, of trumpets, 
tubia, to ox for trumpets, 
tubas, trumpets, 
tubia, with trumpets. 



495. Second Declension. — O-Stems. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. hortos 


horti 


donom 


d5na 


G. horti 


hortorum 


d5ni 


donomm 


D. horto 


hortis 


dono 


ddnis 


Ac. hortam 


hortos 


donom 


d5na 


Ab. horto 


hortis 


dono 


donis 



a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second 
declension has a special form in -e: horte. 



206 



NOUNS, 



SING. PLU. SING. PI.U. 

ager agri vir viri 

G. pueri pueromm agri agromm viri virorum 

D. puerS pueris agro agris .viro viria 

agmm agros vimm viros 

agro agris viro viris 



SING. PLU. 

N. puer pueri 



Ac. puemm pueros 
Ab. puero pueris 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. flliUB 


filii 


cdnsilimn 


consilia 


G. fili,-ii 


filionim 


c5nsili, -ii 


cdnsiliomm 


D. filio 


niiis 


cdnsilio 


cdnsiliiB 


Ac. filimn 


nuos 


cdnsilimn 


cdnsilia 


Ab. filio 


niiis 


cdnsilio 


c5nsiliiB 



a. The vocative singular of filias is fill. 



496. 



Third Declension. 
Mute Stems. 



N. princeps 

G. principis 

D. principi 

Ac. principem 

Ab. principe 



rex 

regis 

regi 

regem 

rege 



miles 

militis 

militi 

militem 

milite 



caput 

capitis 

capiti 

caput 

capite 



N. principes 

G. principum 

D. princi'plbus 

Ac. principes 

Ab. princi'pibns 



reges 

regtim 

regibus 

regis 

rSgibos 



milites 

militom 

mili'tibas 

mHites 

mili^tibas 



capita 

capitam 

capi^tibus 

capita 

capi^tibos 







NOUNS. 




207 






SINGULAR. 






N. 


p€B 


lapis 




virtus 


G. 


pedis 


lapidls 




virtutis 


D. 


pedi 


lapidi 




virtuti 


Ac. 


pedem 


lapidem 




virtutem 


Ab. 


pede 


lapide 

PLURAL. 




virtute 


N. 


pedes 


lapides 




virtutis 


G. 


pedum 


lapidum 




virtutum 


D. 


pedibus 


lapi^dibus 




virtutibus 


Ac. 


pedes 


lapides 




virtutes 


Ab. 


pedibus 


lapi'dibus 




virtiitibus 






Liquid Stems. 








SINGULAR. 






N. 


consul 


pater 


victor 


homo 


G. 


consulis 


patris 


•victorls 


hominis 


D. 


consul! 


patri 


Victor! 


homini 


Ac. 


cdnsulem 


patrem 


victorem 


I hominem 


Ab. 


cdnsule 


patre 

PLURAL. 


vlctore 


homine 


N. 


cdnsules 


patres 


vlctores 


homines 


G. 


consulum 


patrum 


vlctarum hominum 


D. 


consulibus 


patribus 


victdribus homi'nlbus 


Ac. 


consules 


patres 


victores 


homines 


Ab. 


consu^bus 


patribus 


victoribus homi'nlbus 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR 


PLURAL. ^ 


N. 


vulnus 


vulnera 


corpus 


corpora 


G. 


vulnerls 


vulnerum 


corporis 


corporum , '^ 


D. 


vulneri 


vulne'rlbus 


corpori 


corpo'ribus ^ 


Ac. 


vulnus 


vulnera 


corpus 


corpora ^ 


Ab. 


vulnere 


vulne^ribns 


corpore 


corpo''ribas ^ 



206 



NOUNS. 



N. Ignis 
G. Ignis 
D. Tgni 
Ac. Ignem 
Ab. igni -a 

N. ignSs 
G. ignimn 
D. igniboB 
Ac. Ignis, -Ss 
Ab. ignibos 



Stems in L 

SINGULAR. 

hostis nubSs 

hostis nubis 

host! nubi 

hostem nubem 

hosts nubs 



PLURAL. 

hostSs 
hosUmn 
hostibos 
hostis, -Ss 
hostibos 



nubes 
nubimn 
nubibus 
nubis, -es 
nubibus 



mare 

marie 

mari 

mare 

mari 

maris 

maribns 

maris 

maribns 



SINGULAR. 

N. animal 
G. animalis 
D. animal! 
Ac. animal 
Ab. animal! 



PLURAL. 

anim^lia 

animalimn 

animalibus 

animSiis 

animalibus 



SINGULAR. 

calcar 

calcaris 

calclui 

calcar 

calcari 



PLURAL. 

calcaria 

calcarimn 

calcaribos 

calcaria 

calcaribns 



N. cliens 
G. clientis 
D. client! 
Ac. clientem 
Ab. clients 

N. clientes 
G. clientimn 
D. clientibus 
Ac. dientls, -es 
Ab. clientibus 



SINGULAR. 

urbs arx 

urbis arcis 

urbi arc! 

urbem ' arcem 

urbe area 



PLURAL. 

urbes 
urbium 
nrbibus 
urbis, -es 
urbibus 



arces 
arcium 
arcibus 
arcis, -ei 
arcibus 



nox 

noctis 

nocti 

noctem 

nocts 

noctis 
noctimn 
noctibuB 
noctis, -is 
noctibos 



NOUNS. 



209 



497. 



Fourth Declension.— U-Stems. 





SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. 


graduB 


gradus 


cornu 


comua 


G. 


graduB 


graduum 


cornoB 


comuum 


D. 


gradui, -u 


gradibuB 


comu, 


comibus 


Ac. 


gradum 


gradus 


cornu 


comua 


Ab. 


gradu 


gradibus 


cornu 


comlbuB 



498. 



Fifth Declension. — E-Stems. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N. dies 


dies 


res 


res 


G. diei 


dierum 


rei 


rerum 


D. diei 


diebus 


rei 


rebus 


Ac. diem 


dies 


rem 


res 


Ab. die 


diebus 


re 


rebus 



499. Special Paradigrms. 

SINGULAR. 

N. deus domus senex 

G. dei domus, -i (loc.) senis 

D. deo domui, -5 

Ac. deum domum 

Ab. deo domo, -u 



PLURAL. 

N. dei, di^ di domus 

G. deorum, deum domuum, -orum 
D. deis, diisi dis domibus 
Ac. deos domos, -us 

Ab. deis, diis, dis domibus 



seni 


vii 


senem 


vim 


sene 


vi 


senes 


vires 


senum 


virlum 


senibus 


viribus 


senes 


vires 


senibus 


viribus 



^ The genitive and dative singular are rare. 



210 



ADJECTIVES, 







SINGULAR. 




N. 


iter 


luppiter 


bos 


nix 


G. 


itinerls 


lovis 


bovis 


nivia 


D. 


itinen 


lovi 


bovi 


nivi 


Ac. 


iter 


lovem 


bovem 


nivem 


Ab. 


itinera 


love 


bova 


nive 






PLURAL. 




N. 


itinera 




boves 


nives 


G. 


itinemm 




bovnm, boom 


nivinni 


D. 


itinerlboB 




boboB, buboB 


nivibtiB 


Ac. 


itinera 




boves 


nives 


Ab. 


itinerlbus 




bobuB, buboB 


nivibos 



ADJECTIVES. 



500. 



First and Second Declensions. 





SINGULAR. 




Masculine, 


Feminine, 


Neuter. 


N. bonus 


bona 


bonum 


G. boni 


bonae 


boni 


D. bono 


bonae 


bono 


Ac. bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


Ab. bono 


bona 

PLURAL. 


bono 


N. boni 


bonae 


bona 


G. bonomm 


bonamm 


bonorum 


D. bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ac. bonSs 


bonis 


bona 


Ab. bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



ADJECTIVES, 



211 



Masculine. 

N. liber 

G. llberi 

D. libero 

Ac. llberum 

Ab. libero 

N. llberi 

G. liberonim 

D. liberis 

Ac. liberos 

Ab. liberis 

N. aeger 

G. aegri 

D. aegro 

Ac. aegrum 

Ab. aegro 



SINGULAR. 

Feminine. 

libera 

liberae 

llberae 

Hberam 

libera 

PLURAL. 

llberae 

liberamm 

liberie 

liberas 

liberie 

SINGULAR. 

aegra 

aegrae 

aegrae 

aegram 

aegra 



Neuter. 
llberum 
llberi 
libero 
llberum 
libero 

libera 

liberorum 

liberie 

libera 

liberie 



aegrum 

aegri 

aegro 

aegrum 

aegro 



N. aegri 
G. aegrorum 
D. aegrie 
Ac. aegroB 
Ab. aegrie 

501. 



aegrae 

aegrarum 

aegrie 

aegrae 

aegrie 

Third Declension. 



SINGULAR. 

M.andP. N. 

N. audax audax 

G. audade audacie 

D. audaci audaci 

Ac. audacem audax 

Ab. audaci, -a audaci, -e 



M. and P. 

audacee 
audacium 
audacibue 
audacie, -es 
audacibue 



aegra 

aegrorum 

aegrie 

aegra 

aegrie 



N. 
audacia 
audacium 
audacibue 
audacia 
audacibue 



212 



ADJECTIVES. 





8ING 


»UUUL 


PLURAI. 




M.andP, 


N. 


M,aHdP. 


I/. 


N. 


prudens 


pradgns 


prudentes 


prudentia 


G. 


prudentiB 


prudentis 


prudentiiim 


prudentiimi 


D. 


prudenti 


prudenti 


prudentibos 


prudentibns 


Ac. 


prudentem 


prudens 


prudentia, -es 


prudentia 


Ab. 


prudend, -a 


prudenti, -e 


prudentibiM 


prudentibiis 


N. 


brevis 


breve 


breves 


brevia 


G. 


brevis 


brevli 


brevimn 


brevimn 


D. 


brevi 


brevi 


brevibus 


breviboa 


Ac. 


brevem 


breve 


brevis,^ 


brevia 


Ab. 


brevi 


brevi 


brevibus 


brevibus 



Masc, Pern, Neut, 

N. acer acds acre 

G. acris acris acris 

D. acri §cri acri 

Ac. acrem acrem acre 

Ab. acri ^cri acri 



Masc. Fern. Neui. 

acres slcres acria 

acriom icrium acrhun 

acribus acribos acribos 

acris, -es acris, -es acria 

acribos acribos acribos 



502. 



Irregular Adjectives. 



SINGULAR. 



Masc. Fern. Neui. 

N. alios alia aliod 

G. alios alios alios 

D. alii alii alii 

Ac. aliom aliam aliod 

Ab. alio alia alio 



PLURAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

alii aliae alia 

aliorom aliamm aliomm 

aliis aliis aliis 

alios alias alia 

aliis aliis alj fg 







ADJECTIVES. 




21 




Masc, 


Pent. Neut. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. 


unu8 


una anum 


tdtUB 


tota 


t5tum 


G. 


unius 


unius unluB 


tdduB 


t5duB 


toduB 


D. 


uni 


uni unl 


tod 


tod 


tod 


Ac. 


unum 


unazn unum 


tatum 


tdtam 


tatum 


Ab. 


uno 


una uno 


toto 


tota 


toto 




Masc. 


Fern, 


Neut. 


Af.andP. 


Neut. 


N. 


duo 


duae 


duo 


troB 


trla 


G. 


duorum duamm 


duorum 




trium 


D. 


duobuB 


duabuB 


duobuB 


tribuB 


trlbuB 


Ac. 


duoB, duo duas 


duo 


trSB 


trla 


Ab. 


duoboB 


duabUB 


duobuB 


trlbuB 


trlbuB 



503. 



Declension of Comparatives. 



M. and F. 
altior 
altiorlB 
altiari 
Ac. aldarem 
Ab. altiare, -i 



N. 
G. 
D. 



N. 
aldus 
altiarlB 
altiori 
altius 
altiore, -i 



M. and F. 
altioroB 
aldorum 
aldaribuB 
altiariB, -Sb 
altioribuB 



N. 
altiara 
aldarum 
altiaribuB 
altiara 
altioribuB 



N. 

G. 

D. 

Ac. 

Ab. 



pluB 

pluriB 



plus 
plure 



plures 
plurium 
plurlbus 
pluriSp -ei 
plurlbus 



plura 

plurium 

plurlbus 

plura 

pluribus 



214 



ADJECTIVES. 



504. 



Irregular Comparison. 



POSITIVE. 

facilia, -e, easy. 
difficilifl, -e, hard. 
similia, -e, like. 
dissimilia, -e, unlike. 
humilia, -e, low. 



COMPARATIVB. 

facilior, -las 
difficillor, -ins 
simillor, -ins 
dissimiUor, -las 
humillor, -las 



SUPERLATITB. 

faciUlmos, -a, -mn 
diflScilllmns^ -a, -am 
similllmaSi -a« -mn 
dissimilllma% -a, 
humilUmoSk -a, -mn 



gracilis, -e, slender. gracillor, -las graciUlmas* -a, -mn 



exteros, outward. 
inf erosi below, 
posterns* following. 
superos, above. 



exterior, outer^ 

exterior. 
Inferior, lower. 

posterior, later. 

superior, higher. 



extr&nus 1 outermost, 

extimus / last. 

infimas I , 

>• lowest. 
Unas J 

postamoB J 
supwmu.-!^ 
summas j 



[cis, citra, on this side."] citerior, hither, citimos, hithermost. 
[in, intra, /«, within^ interior, inner. intimos, inmost. 
[prae, pro, before.'\ ^lioit former. i^riroxmtfrst. 
[prope, near."] propior, nearer, proximos, next. 

[ultra, beyond."] ulterioTt further, ultimum, furthest. 



bonus, -a, -am, good, mellor, mellas 
mains, -a, -am, bad. pelor, pelus 
magnas,-a,-am,^^<2/. malor, malus 
multuB -a, -am, much. ^ 
multi, -ae, -a, many. J 
parvus, -a, am, small, minor, minus 
senex, senis, old. senior 

iuvenls, -e, young. iunlor 
vetus, veterls, old. vetustlor, -lus 



-, plus 



optimas» -a, -am 
pessimas» -a, -am 
maximas» -a, -am 

pliirlinus, -a, -am 

minimus, -a, -urn 
maxlmus natu 
minimus n^tii 
veterrlmus, -a, -um 



NUMERALS. 



215 



505. 



Nximereds. 



Cardinals. 

1. unus, -a, -um 

2. duo, duae, duo 

3. tres, tria 

4. quattuor 

5. quinque 

6. sex 

7. septem 

8. octo 

9. novem 

10. decern 

11. undecim 

1 2. duodecim 

13. tredecim 

14. quattuordecim 

15. qmndecim 

16. sedecim, or sexdecim 

17. septendecim 

18. duodevigintl 

19. undevlginti 

20. viginti 
fviginti unus, or 
Lunus et vTgintT 
fviginti duo, or 
Lduo et viginti 

28. duodetriginta 

29. undetiiginta 

30. triginta 

40. quadraginta 

50. quinquaginta 

60. sexaginta 

70. septuagintH 



Ordinals. 

primus, -a, -um 

secundus {or alter) 

tertius 

quartus 

quintus 

sextus 

Septimus 

octavus 

nonus 

decimus 

undecimus 

duodecimus 

tertius decimus 

quartus decimus 

quintus decimus 

sextus decimus 

Septimus decimus 

duodevicesimus 

undevicesimus 

vicesimus 

fvicesimus primus, or 
\unus et vicesimus 
fvicesimus secundus, or 
Lalter et vicesimus 

duodetricesimus 

undetricesimus 

tricesimus 

quadragesimus 

quinquagesimus 

sexagesimus 

septuagesimus 



216 PRONOUNS. 


Cardinat.s. 


Ordinals. 


.80. octoginta 
90. ndniginta 
100. centum 


octogesimus 
nonagesimus 
centesimus 


'centum unus, or 

lOI.-s 

Lcentum et unus 
200. ducenti, -ae, -a 


fcentesimus primus, or 
Lcentesimus et primus 
ducentesimus 


300. trecenti 

400. quadringenti 

500. quingenti 

j6oo. sescentf, or sexcenti 


trecentesimus 
quadringentesimus 
quingentesimus 
sescentesimus 


700. septingentT 
800. octingenti 
900. nongenti 
1,000. mflle 
2,000. duo milia 
100,000. centum mOia 


septingentesimus 

octingentesimus 

nongentesimus 

millesimus 

bis millesimus 

centies millesimus 



PRONOUNS. 



506. 



Personal. 



PLU. 



PLU. 



SING. 



PLU. 



N. ego nos tu vos 

G. mei nostrum, -tri toi vestrtim, -tri soi soi 

D. mlhl nobis tibivobis sibi sibi 

Ac. me nos te vos se^ sese^ sS, 

Ab. me nobis te vobis se^ sese^ se, 



PRONOUNS. 217 



507. Demonstrative. 





SINGULAR. 


] 


PLURAL. 




N. hie 


haec hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


G. huius 


huiuB huiuB 


homm 


hamm 


hoxxuii 


D. huic 


huic huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ac. hunc 


hanc hoc 


hos 


has 


haec 


AB.hoo 


hao hoc 


his 


his 


his 



N. me 


ma 


mud 


mi 


mae 


ma 


G. miu8 


miu8 


miuB 


morum 


illarum 


morum 


D. mi 


mi 


mi 


mis 


mis 


mis 


Ac. mum 


mam 


mud 


mos 


mas 


ma 


AB.mo 


ma 


mo 


mis 


mis 


mis 



N. is 


ea 


id 


ei,ii 


eae 


ea 


G. eius 


eluB 


eius 


eorum 


eaium 


e5rum 


D. ei 


ei 


ei 


eis^iis 


eis, iis 


eis^iis 


Ac.eum 


eam 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Ab.^ 


^ 


eo 


eis, iis 


eis^iis 


eis^iis 



N. iste 


ista 


istud 


isti 


istae 


ista 


G. istius 


istius 


istius 


istorum 


istarum 


istorum 


D. Isti 


isti 


isti 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ac. istxun 


istam 


istud 


istos 


istas 


ista 


AB.isto 


ista 


isto 


istis 


istis 


istis 



218 



FRONOUNS. 



8INGUUUL 

N. Idem e^adem idem 



eaedem e^adem 



feidem 
\ildem 

G. eius'dem eiaadem eia&dfim eonm'dffln einmdem eontndem 

t^dem eifldem eudem 
i'd«iii iisdem iiadezn 
Ac. eui'^dem eandem idem eos^dem eiadem e'adein 

f eisdein eifldem eiadexn 
lifldem 



D. eidem eidem eidsm 



reiBd 
liis'd 



Ab. eodem eadem eodem^ 



N. ipse ipsa ipsom ipd ipsae Ipaa 

G. ipidus ipsius ipsiue ipsomm ipfllnim ipfiomm 

D. ipsi ipid ipiu ipaia ipsia ipaia 

Ac. ipflmn ipeam ipsom ipaoB ipaaB ipsa 

Ab. ipso ipsa ipso Ipolfl IpaiB ipsU 



508. 



Relative. 



SINGULAR. 

N. qui quae quod 

G. cuius cuius cuius 

D. cui oni oui 

Ac. quern quam quad 

Ab. quo qua quo 



PLURAI- 



qui quae quae 

quonim quarum quomm 

quibuB quibua qoibus 

qnos quis qtiae 

qoibufl quibuB quibua 



509. 



Interrogative, 



N. quis quae quid 

G. cuius cuius cuius 

D. cui cui cui 

Ac. quern quam quid 

Ab. quo qua qxio 



qui quae quae 

quorum quirmn quonuD 

qulbna quibus quibui 

quos quia quae 

qulbUB qulbod qulbcs 



i 



PRONOUNS. 



219 



510. 

N. aUquis 
G. aUculus 
D. alicui 
Ac. aliquem 
Ab. aliquo 



Indefinite. 

SINGULAR. 

aliqua 

alicuiuB 

alicui 

aliquam 

aliqua 



aliquid, aliquod 

aliouius 

alicui 

aliquid, aliquod 

aliquo 



N. aliqui 
Gv aliquorum 
D. ali^quibus 
Ac. aliquos 
Ab. aliquibuB 



aliquae 

aliquarum 

aliquibus 

aliquas 

aliquibuB 



aliqua 

aliquorum 

aliquibuB 

aliqua' 

aliquibus 



N. quidam 
G. cuius^dam 
D. cuidam 
Ac. quendam 
Ab. quodam 



SINGULAR. 

quaedam 

cuiuadam 

cuidam 

quandam 

quadam 



quiddam, quoddam 

cuiuadam 

cuidam 

quiddam, quoddam 

quodam 



N.. quidam 
G. quorun^dam 
D. quibus^dam 
Ac. quosdam 
Ab. quibusdam 



quaedam 

quarundam 

quibusdam 

quaadam 

quibuadam 



quaedam 

quorundam 

quibuadam 

quaedam 

quibuadam 



220 



REGULAR VERBS. 



REGULAR VERBS. 

511. First Conjucration. — A-Verbs. 
ain5, icve. 
Principal Parts: amd, amire, amlTi, amltiis. 

Indicative. 

ACTIVE VOICE. passive VOICE, 

PRESENT. 

/ lave, am loving, do love, etc. / am loved, etc. 

r 

im5 kmamoB amor amamiir 

amis amatis amarl% or -re amamlni 

amat amant amatur amantnr 

IMPERPBCT. 

/ loved, was loving, did love, etc. / was loved, etc. 
amabam amabamas amabar amabimur 

amabas amabatis amabaila, or -re amabamini 

amabat amabant amabatur an>abantar 



/ shall love, etc. 
amabo amabimas 

amabis amabiUs 
amabit amabunt 



PUTURB. 

/ shall be loved, etc. 
amabor amabimur 

amaberls, or -re amablmlm 
amabitur amabimtiir 



PBRPBCT. 

/ have loved, I loved, etc. / have been {was) loved, etc 
amavi amavimua fsum 

am^viflti amavistifl amatas'j es amati* 
amivit am^venmt, ^r -re [est 



font 



REGULAR VERBS, 



221 



PLUPERFECT. 

/ had loved, etc. / had been laved, etc. 

amaveram amaveramuB feram feramuB 

amaveraa amaveratis amatus-j eras amati-j eratia 
amaverat amaverant lerat [erant 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

/ shall have loved, etc. / shall have been loved, etc. 



amavero amaverimuB 
amaveris amaveritia 
amaverit amaverint 



fero 
oris 
erit 



amati 



erimuB 

eiitiB 

erunt 







Subjunctive. 






PRESENT. 


amem 


amimuB 


amer amemur 


amia 


amitis 


amirifl, or -re amemini 


amet 


ament 


ametar amentar 



IMPERFECT. 

amarem amaremua amarer amaremur 

amares amaretia amareri8,^r-reamareinim 

amaret amarent amaretur amarentiir 



amaverim amaverimus 
amaveris amaveritia 
amaverit amaverint 



amaviaaem amavisaemua 
amavisaea amavisaetia 
amaviaaet amaviasent 



PERFECT. 










'f&XSik 




'ainiua 


amatua^ 


ua 


amad^ 


utia 




.Bit 




aint 


LUPERFECT. 


'eaaem 




'eaaemuB 


amatoa- 


easea 


amati -< 


eaaetia 




eaaet 




eaaent 



222 



REGULAR VERBS, 



anm, love thou. 
amate, love ye, 

amato, thou shall love. 
amato, he shall love, 
amatote, you shall love, 
amantS, they shall love. 



IMPERATIVK. 
PRESENT. 

amare, be thou loved, 
amamlnT, be ye loved, 

FUTURB. 

amator, thou shall be loved, 
amator, he shall be loved. 



amantor, they shall be loved. 



Infinitive. 

PRESk amare, to love, amari, to be loved, 

Perf. amaviBBO, to have loved, amatus ease, to have been loved 

FuT. amatnms esae, to be amatnm iri, to be about to be 

about to love, loved. 



Participles. 

Pres. amana, -antta, loving, Pres. :- 

FuT. amaturua, -a, -mn, about Ger.^ amandaa^ -a, -um, to be 
to love, loved 

Perf. Perf. amatiifl» -a, tun, loved, 

having been loved. 



Gerund. 



N. 

G. amandi, of loving, 
D. 2ja.axk66t for loving, 
Ac. amandmn, loving, 
Ab. amando, by loving. 



Supine. 



Ac. amatum, to love, 

Ab. amatu, to love, to be loved. 



1 Gerundive, sometimes less correctly called future passive 
participle. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



223 



512. Second Conjugration. — £- Verbs, 
monedy advise. 
Principal Pajits : monedy monere, monm, monitos. 

Indicative. 

PASSIVE. 

PRESENT. 

/ am advised, etc. 
moneor monemur 

monerlfl, or -re monemini 
monetur monentiir 



ACTIVE. 

I advise, etc. 
moneo monemus 
mones monetis 
monet monent 



IMPERFECT. 

/ was advising, etc. / was advised, etc. 

monebam monebamus monebar 'monebamur 

■ monebaa monebatis monebarlB, or -re monebamini 

monebat monebant monebatur monebantur 



I shall advise, etc. 
monebo monebimus 
monebis monebitis 
monebit monebnnt 



FUTURE. 

/ shall be advised, etc. 
monebor monebimur 

moneberifl, or-xe monebimini 
monebitur monebnntar 



PERFECT. 

/ have advised, I advised, etc. I have been (was) advised, etc. 
monui monuimus fsam fsamuB 

monuiati monuiatiB monitUB-j ea monid-j eatia 

monuit monuerunt, ^r-re [eat [aant 





PLUPERFECT. 




I had advised, etc. 


/ had been advised, etc. 


monueram monueramua 


eram 


examua 


monueraa monueratia 


monitua* eraa moniti' 


eratia 


monuerat monuerant 


.erat 


erant 



224 



REGULAR VERBS. 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

/ shall have advised^ etc. / shall have been odvisetL, etc 
monuero monuerimus fero fezimns 



motnueris 
monuerit 



monueritis 
monuerint 



monitaB-l erla 
[ertt 



moiiiti'{ eritis 



moneam 

moneaa 

moneat 

monerem 

monerea 

moneret 

monuerim 

monueris 

monuerit 

monuiaaem 

monuiaaea 

monuiaaet 



Subjunctive. 

PRESENT. 

moneamua monear moneamur 

moneatia monearia,<7r-re moneamim 

moneant - moneator moneantor 

IMPERFECT. 

moneremua monerer monerimm- 
moneretia monereria,^r-re moneremini 

monerent moneretur monerentnr 




PERFECT. 

monuerimua 

monueritia 

monuerint 

PLUPERFECT. 

monuiaaSmua I 

monuiaaetia monitua \ 
monuiaaent | 



lid -I Bit 



faimiia 
Bitia 
aint 



eaaet 



moniti-< eaaetia 
I eaaent 



Imperative. 



monS, advise ih&u, 
monete, advise ye. 



monere, be thou advised. 
monemini, be ye advised. 



mongtot thou shall advise. 
monetp, he shall advise. 
monitote, y&u shall advise. 
moceato, they shall advise. 



monetor, thou shall be adv^d. 
monetor, he shall be advised. 



monentor, they shall be adv*d. 



REGULAR VERBS, 



225 



Infinitive. 

Pres. monere, to advise, moneri, to be advised, 

Perf. monuisae, to have ad- 
vised, 

FuT. monituniB esae, to be 
about to advise. 



monituB eaae, to have been " 

advised, 
monitnm iri, to be about to be 

advised. 



Participles. 

Pres. monen%-eiitl%^j</2/m^^. Pres. 

FuT. monitums, -a, -mn, Ger. monendoB^ -a, -mn, to 

about to advise, 
Perf. 



be advised, 
Perf. xci.ovX\xiAt'9it\xm,advised^ 
having been advised. 



Gerund. 

N. 

G. monendi, of advising, 
D. monendo,ybr advising, 
PlZ, monendum, advising, 
Ab. monendo, by advising. 



Supine. 



Ac. monitum, to advise, 
Ab. monito, to advise^ to be 
advised. 



513. Third Conjugation.— E- Verbs. 
reg5, rule. 
Principal Parts : reg5, regere, rSxi, rSctns. 
Indicative. 





ACTIVE. 


PASSIVE. 

PRESENT. 




I rule, etc. 


/ am ruled^ etc. 


rego 


regimuB 


regor regtmnr 


regis 


regitis 


regeriflf or -re regimini 


iTgit 


regunt 


r^^itnr r^^untnr 



226 REGULAR VERBS. 

IMPBRFBCT. 

/ was rulingy etc. / was ruled, etc 

regibam regebimus r^;ibar regebamur 

regibas regibitis regibaili» ^tt -re regebSmJiii 

regibat regSbant regebatur regSbantor 

FUTURE. 

/ shall rule, etc. / shall be ruled, etc. 

regam regSmus regar regSmur 

regea regitis regeri^ £?r -re regemini 

reget regent regetur regentur 

PERFECT. 

/ have ruled, etc. / have been ruled, etd. 

rexi reximuB rsom rBuxnns 

rexiati rexiatia rectua-j ea recti -J eatis 

rexit rexenint, {?r -re [eat [aunt 

PLUPERFECT. 

/ had ruled, etc. / had been ruled, etc. 

rexeram rexeramua feram reramni 

rexeraa rexeratia rectaa^j eriUi recti -< eratia 

rexerat rexerant [erat [erant 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

/ shall have ruled, etc. / shall have been ruled, etc. 

rejcerS rexerimua fero ferimna 

rexeria rexerltia rectua-j eria recti -i erltia 

r€xerit rexerlnt [erit [enmt 

Subjunctive. 

PRESENT. 

regam reg^na regar regamur 

regaa regatia regaxla» <;r -re regandni 

r^;at regant regatar 




REGULAR VERBS. 221 

IMPERFECT. 

regerem regerSmus regerer regerimur 

regerea regeretis regereiiB» ^r -re regeremini 

regeret . regerent regoritar regerentar 

PERFECT. 

r€xerim rexerimns ( aim 

rexeris rexerltis r€ctaB-< mm 

rexerlt rexexlnt [sit 

PLUPERFECT. 

r€xl88em rSxlMSmiiB reBsem resaSmus 

rexiBses rSxiaaetis rSctUB*! esaea recti -j eaaetia 

rSxiaoet rexiaaent [eaaet [eaaent 

Imperative. 

PRESENT. 

rege, rule thou. regere, be thou ruled, 

regite, rule ye, regimini, be ye ruled, 

FUTURE. 

regito. thou shall rule, regitor, thou shall be ruled, 

reglto, he shall rule, regitor, he shall be ruled, 

regltote, ye shall rule. 

regunto, they shall rule, reguntor, they shall be ruled. 

Infinitive. 
Pres. regere, to rule, regi to be ruled, 

Perf. rexiaae, to have ruled, rectua eaae, to have been ruled, 
FuT. rSctoma eaae, to be rectum ir^ to be about to be 
about to rule, ruled. 

Participles. 

Pres. regena, -entla, ruling, Pres. 

FuT. rect8nia» -a, -mn, about Ger. regendaa» -a, -mn, to be 
to ,rule, ruled, 

Perf. Perf. rectua, -a, -mn, ruled^ 

having been ruled. 



REGULAR VERBS, 



Gerund. 



N. 

G. regendi, of ruling. 
D . regendo, for ruling, 
Ac. regendmn, ruling, 
Ab. regendo, by ruling. 



SUPINK. 



Ac. rectum, to rule, 

Ab. recto, to ruU, to be ruled, 



514. Third Conjugation. — Verbs in -io. 
capidy take. 
Principal Parts : capid, capere, cSpi, captos. 
Indicative Mood. 

ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

PRESENT. 



I take, etc. 
capio capimuB 

capis capitis 

capit capinnt 

/ was taking, etc. 
capiebam capiebamuB 
capiebaa capiebatia 
capiebat capiebant 



I am taken, 
capior capimur 

caperis, ^r-re eapiipim 

capitur capiontor 



IMPERFECT. 



/ was taken, etc. 
capiebar capiebamnr 

capiebarla, or -re capiebamini 
capiebatur capiebantor 



/ shall take, etc. 
capiam capiemns 

capies capietis 

capiet capient 

cepi c^piita, cepit; etc. 



/ shall be taken, etc. 
capiar capiemtir 

capieria, or -re capfemini 
capietur capientor 

PERFECT. 

captos som, es, est, etc. 



pluperfect. 
ceperam, ceperaa, ceperat, etc. captos eram, eras, erat, etc. 

future perfect. 
c^pero. cspeilBk ccpentt etc. captos ero, erls, exit, etc. 



REGULAR VERBS. 229 

Subjunctive. 

PRESENT. 

capiam, capias, capiat, etc. capiar, -iaxis, or -re, -iatar, etc. 

IMPERFECT. 

caperem, caperes, caperet, etc. caperer, -ereria, or -re, -eretur 

PERFECT. 

ceperim, cepexls, ceperit, etc. captua sim, eob. sit, etc. 

PLUPERFECT. 

cepiBBeni,cepi88e8,cepi88et,etc. captos esaem, esses, esset, etc. 

Imperative. 

Pres. cape, take thou, ' capere, be thou taken, 

capite, take ye. capimini, be ye taken. 

FuT. capito, thou shalt take^ capitor, thou shalt be taken, 

etc. etc. 

Infinitive. 

Pres. capere, to take. capi, to be taken. 

Perf. cepisse, to have taken, captos esse, to have been taken. 

FuT. captoms esse, to be captum iri, to be about to be 

about to take. taken. 

Participles. 

Pres. capiSas^ -ientis, taking. Pres. 

FuT. captiims, about to take. Ger. capienduB» to be taken. 
Perf. VB.KF.Q2i^taB, having been taken. 

Gerund. Supine. 

G. capiendi, oftakingy Ac. captum, to take. 

etc. <^B. capto, to take, to be taken. 



250 



REGULAR VERBS. 



515. Fourth Conjugration.— I-Verbs. 

audiSy hear. 

Principal Parts : aadi5, audire, audivi, anditna. 

Indicative. 

PASSIVE. 

PRESENT. 

/ am heard^ etc. 
audior audimnr 

audirla, or -re audimlni 
auditor audiuntiir 



ACTIVE. 

I hear ^ etc. 
audio audimuB 

audia auditis 

audit audhint 



/ was hearings etc. 
audiebam audiebamna 
audiebaa audiebatis 
audiebat audiebant 



IMPERFECT. 

/ was heard, etc. 
audiebar audiebamnr 

audiebaiia, or -re audiSbamini 
audiebatur audiSbantor 



I shall hear, etc. 
audiam audiSmiu 
audlea audiitlB 

audiet audient 



FUTURB. 

/ shall be heard, etc. 
audiar audiSmur 

audiezla, or -re audiimini 
audiStor audientor 



PERFECT. 

/ have been heard, etc. 




T have heard^ etc. 
audivi audivimuB r sum 

audlviati audlvifltia auditaa-l ea audit! -{ eatia 

afUfdivit audi vinmt* <v-re L eat 



faom r 

ea audit! -I 

eat [ 



REGULAR VERBS. 



231 



I hadheard^ etc. 

audiveram audiveramus 
audiveras audiveratis 
audlverat audtverant 



PLUPBRFSCT. 

/ had been heard^ etc 



[ Oram 



auditUB^ 



Lerat 



audit! • 



eramns 

eratis 

erant 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

/ shall have heard^ etc. / shall have been heard, etc. 
audivero audiverlmus fero ferlmus 



audiverla 
audivexit 



audiverltis 
audiverint 



auditUB-i oris 
[erlt 



audit! •< erltis 
I enmt 



audiam audiamus 
audias audiatis 
audiat audiant 



Subjunctive. 

PRESENT. 

audiar audiamur 

audiari8»^?r-re audiamini 
audiator audiantor 



audirem audiremuB 
audiria audiretis 
audiret audirent 



IMPERFECT. 



audirer audlrSmur 

audirexls, or -re audiremini 
audiretur audlrentor 



audiverlm audiverlmus 
audiveris audiverltis 
audiverlt audiverint 



audivlssem audivlssemus 
audivlsaes audivissetls 
audivlsset audivlssent 





aim 




Bimus 


auditus sis 


audit!' 


sitis 


.Bit 




Bint 


PERFECT. 


'essem 




essemus 


auditus- 


esses 


audit!- 


essetis 




.esset 




^essent 



232 



REGULAR VERBS. 



audi, hear thou. 
audite, hear ye. 



audits, thou shalt hear, 
audito, he shall hear. 
auditote, ye shall hear. 
audiunto, they shall hear. 



Imperative. 

PRESENT. 

audire, be thou heard. 
audimim, be ye heard. 

FUTURE. 

auditor, thou shalt be heard. 
auditor, he shall be heard. 



audinntor, they shall be heard. 



Infinitive. 

Pres. audire, to hear. audiri, to be heard. 

Perf. audivisse, to have heard, audltus esse, to have been heard. 

FuT. audi tarns esae, to be audi torn iri, to be about 4a be 

about to hear. heard. 



Participles. 



Pres. audiena, -entts, hearing. 
FuT . audi turns, -a, -mn, about 

to hear, 
Perf. 



Pres. 

Ger. audiendos, -a, -tun, to 

be heard. 
Perf. audltus, -a, -mn, heard, 

having been heard. 



N. 

G. 

D. 

Ac. 

Ab. 



Gerund. 



audiendi, of hearing. 
audiend5,/27r hearing. 
audiendum, hearing. 
audiendo, by hearing. 



Supine. 



Ac. auditum, to hear. 
Ab. audita, to hear^ 
heard. 



to be 



IRREGULAR VERBS, 



233 



IRRBGULAR VERBS. 
516. Sum (STEMS esy fn), be. 

Principal Parts : sum, esse, foi, fntfirns. 

Indicative. 



Singular, 
sum, / am, 
es, thou art, 
est, he (she, it) is, 

eram, / was. 
eras, thou wast, 
erat, he was, 

ero, / shall be, 
eriS) thou wilt be, 
erit, he will be. 



PRESENT. 



Plural, 



siimaB» we are. 
estifl^ you are. 
sunt, they are, 

IMPERFECT. 

eramua, we were, 
eratifl, you were, 
erant, they were, 

FUTURE. 

erimua, we shall be, 
eritlB, you will be, 
erant, they will be. 



PERFECT. 

fm, / have been, was. fuimaB» we have been, were. 

f uisti, thou hast been, wast. f uistlB, you have been, were, 
f uit, he has been, was, ( f uerant, or 

L f uere, thjy have been, were. 



fueram, / had been. 
fueras, thou hadst been, 
fuerat, he had been. 



PLUPERFECT. 

f ueramaB» we had been, 
f ueratifl, you had been. 
f uerant, they had been. 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

fuero, / shall have been. fuerlmua, we shall have been, 

fuerls, thou wilt have been. fuerltlB, you will have been, 
fuerit, he will have been, fuerint, they will have been. 



234 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Singular, 


PRESENT. 

Plural, 


Subjunctive. 

Singular, 

esaem 


IMPERFECT. 

PluraL 
esaimiis 


sis 


dtis 


esaSs 


esMtis 


sit 


sint 


esaet 


esaent 


fuetlm 


PERFECT. 

fuerimns 


fidMCun 


PLUPERFECT. 

fuiflsSmus 


fueiis 


fudrltis 


fldflMS 


fuifllMtiB 


fuexlt 


fuexlnt 


fuiflset 
Imperative. 


fuiMont 


Singular, 
es, be thou. 


PRESENT. 

este, be ye. 


Plural, 


esto, thou shall be, 
esto, he shall be. 


FUTURE. 

estote, ye shall be, 
santo, they shall be. 




Infinitive. 




Participle. 



Pres. esse, to be, 
Perf. fuisse, to have been, 
FuT. futuniB esse, to 
about to be. 



be futanis» -a, -mn, about to be. 



517. possum, posse, potui, 

Indicative, 
Singular. Plural, 

Pres. possum possumus 

potes potestis 

potest possunt 

Imp. poteram poterSmus 

FuT. potero poterimus 

Perf. potm potuimus 

Plup. potueram potueramus 

F. P. potuero potuerimus 



, be able, can. 

Subjunctive. 
Singular, PlUral. 

possim possimua 

posMS possitis 

possit possint 

possem possemuB 

potuerlm potuerimus 
potuissem potmssSmus 



Pres. 



Infinitive. 

Perf. potnisse 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



235 



518. proamn, prodeaae, profni, profatonia, benefit 
Indicative. Subjunctive. 



Singular. 


Plural, 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Pres. proaum 


prSamniia 


proaim 


proaimua 


prodea 


prodeatia 


proaia 


proaitia 


prodeat 


proannt 


prosit 


prSaint 


IMP. prSderam 


prSderamua 


prodeaaem 


prodeaaemua 


FuT. prodero 


proderimua 






Perf. prSfoi 


prSfolmna 


profQerim 


profuorlmua 


Plup. prSfaeram 


profaeramua 


profoiaaem 


prSfalaaemna 


F. P. profaerS 


profaerimua 







Imperative. 
Pres. prodea, prodeate Fut. prodeato, prodeatSte 

Infinitive. 

Pres. prodeaae Perf. profuiaBe 

Fut. profatama eaae 

Participle. 
Fut. profatonia, -a, -um 



519. volo, velle, volui, , be willing, will, wish. 


nolo, nolle, nolui, , be unwilling, will not. 


malo, malle, malui, , be more 


' willing, prefer. 




Indicative, 




Pres. volo 


nolo 


mal5 


via 


non via 


mavia 


vult 


non volt 


mavalt 


volnmna 


nolamua 


ftl^llltW^fl 


vultia 


non voltia 


mavoltia 


volant 


nolant 


malant 


Imp. volebam 


nolebam 




Fut. volam, volea, etc. 


nolam, nolea, etc. 




Perf. volai 


nolai 


malai 


Plup. volaeram 


nolaeram 


maloeram 


F. p. volaero 


nolaerS 


m&iaero 



236 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 





SUBJUNCTIVK. 


• 


PRES.veUm 


nolim 


malim 


veils 


nolle 


iw51i« 


veUt 


nSUt 


miUt 


velimiis 


nolimiie 




velitis 


nolitie 


maHtis 


velint 


nolint 


malint 


Imp. veUem 


nollem 


mSllem 


Perf. voluerim 


noluerim 


malaerim 


Plup. volnisf em 


noluieeem 

Imperative. 


iiiiiliiisiifliii 


Pres. 


noli 
nolite 






Fttt 


nolito, etc. 
Infinitive. 








Pres. velle 


nolle 


mSlle 


Perf. voluisse 


nolnlsae 

Participle. 


maluisse 


Pres. volens 


nolens 





520. eo, ire, ivi (ii), itoms, go, 

fio, fieri, factus sum (supplies passive to fado, make\ 
be made, become. 

Indicative. 



Pres. 


eo 




imns 




fio 




fimus 




is 




itds 




fis 




fitis 




it 




eunt 


Indicative. 


fit 




fiunt 


Imp. 




ibam 






fiebam 






FUT. 




ibo 






fiam 






Perf. 




ii 






factus 


sum 




Plup. 




ieram 






factus 


eram 




F. P. 




iero 






factus 


eio 





IRREGULAR VERBS. 



237 



Pres. 


earn 


OUJBJUm 


^ 1 1 V It. 


fiam 


Imper. 


irem 






fierem 


Perf. 


ierim 






factUB aim 


Plup. 


iissem 






factuB essem 






Imperative. 




Pres. i 




ite 


fi 


fite 


FuT. its 




itote 








ito 
Pres. 




eunto 

iNFINr 






ire 


nvE. 


fieri 


Perf. 


iisse 






factuB esse 


FUT. 


ituriM 


esse 










Participles. 




Pres. 


lens, Gen. euntda 


Pres. 




FUT. 


itnniB, 


-a, -iim 


Ger. 


faciendas 


Perf. 

Gerun] 

N 






Perf. 


factoB 


D. 


Supine. 






G. eundi 
D. eondo 
Ac. eundu 


















m 


Ac. itum 






Ab. eondo 


\ 


Ab. its 







521. fero, ferre, tuli, latus : bear, carry, endure. 
Indicative. 







ACTIVE. 




passive. 


Pres. 


fero 


ferimuB 


feror 


ferimur 




fen 


fertis 


ferris, or -re ferimini 




fert 


ferunt 


fertur feruntor 


Imp. 




ferebam 




ferebar 


Put. 




feram 




ferar 


Perf. 




tuH 




latoB sum 


Plup. 




tuleram 




latoB eram 


F. P. 




tnlero 




latoBeio 



238 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 







Subjunctive. 




Pres. 


fOFBHI 




ferar 


Imp. 


ferrem 




ferror 


Perf. 


tolerim 




latoB 


Plup. 


taliflMm 




latoB 



Imperative. 

ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

Pres. fer ferte [ierre] ferimlni 



FuT. ferto 
ferto 



fertote 
femiito 



fertor 
fertor 



fenmtor 



Pres. 
Perf. 

FUT. 



Infinitive. 



ferre 

tulisse 

latoruB 



ferri 
latoB i 
latum iri 



Participles. 

Pres. ferens Pres. 

Fut. laturuB Ger. ferendas 

Perf. Perf. latoB 



Gerund. 



N. 



Supine. 



G. 


ferendi 
forcndo 






Ac. 


ferendum 


Ac. 


latum 


Ab. 


ferendo 


Ab. 


lata 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 



N. B. — These rules are here numbered consecutively for the convenience of teachers 
and pupils. The number following a rule is its section number. ' 



1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nomi- 
native. 22. 

2. A finite verb agrees ivith its subject in num- 
ber and person. 65. 

3. A predicate noun agrees with the subject in 
case. 37. 

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun 
which it limits. 45. 

5. A noun used to limit or define another, and 
not meaning the same person or thing, is put in 
the genitive. 86. 

6. The partitive genitive is used to denote the 
whole of which a part is tahen. 203. 

7. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, 
nufnber, and case. 53. 

8. A predicate adjective after a complementary 
infinitive agrees with the subject of the main 
verb. 298. 

9. The indirect object is put in the dative. 28. 



2M> RULES OF SYNTAX. 

10. The dative is used with est, sontt etc., 
forms of the verb siun (516), to denote possession, 
the thing possessed being the subject, 29. 

11. Most verbs meaning to favor, please, be- 
lieve, trust, help, and their opposites, also to per- 
suade, command, obey, serve, resist, pardon, and 
spare, and the like, govern the doMve, S72. 

12. Many verbs compounded vMh ad, ante, 
con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, and super, 

govern the dative, 397. 

13. The dative is used ivith sum and a few 
other verbs to show that for which a thing 
serves. 399. 

14. The gerundive ujith sum takes the dative 
denoting the person who has a thing to do, 466. 

15. The direct object of a transitive verb is in 
the accusative. 23. 

16. J{ames of towns used to express place 
whither are put in the a^ccusative ivithout a 
preposition. 269. 

17. Extent of time or space is expressed by the 
a^ccusative. 260. 

18. The agent with a passive verb is expressed 
by the ablative viith a or ab. 76. 

19. The ahlative is used to denote the m^eans 
or instrument of an action. 84. 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 241 

20. The manner of an action is denoted by the 
ablative, usually with cum; but cum may be 
omitted if an ac^'ective is used udth the ablor 
tive. 93. 

21. ITie ablative is used to express cause. 132. 

22. The ablative or the genitive of a noun 
may be used with an adjective to describe a per- 
son or thing, 140. 

23. Time when or within which is expressed 
by the ablative. 155. 

24. The oMaMve is used with verbs, a^ectives, 
and nouns, to denote in what respect a thing is 
true. 168. 

25. The comparative is followed by the abla- 
tive when quam (than) is omitted. 194. 

26. Degree of difference is expressed by the 
ablative. 210. 

27. Accompaniment is expressed by the abla- 
tive with cum. 241. 

28. Utor, fruor, fungror, potior, vescor, and 

their compounds, govern the ablative. 361. 

29. The ablative absolute is used to express 
the time, cause, condition, or some other circum- 
stance of the action of the main verb. 388. 

30. Words signifying privation, removah or 
separation are followed by the ablative, with or 
without a preposition, 413. 



242 RULES OF SYNTAX. 

31. Names of Towns: (i) Plcuce where is ejc- 
pressed by the locative. 407. See 180. 

(2) Place whither is expressed by the acei^sa^ 
tive without a preposition. 407. See 269. 

(3) Fla,ce whence is expressed by the ahlcbtive 
without a preposition. 407. 

32. A relative agrees with its antecedent trv 
gender and nurriber, but its case depends on the 
construction of the clause in which it stands. 113. 

33. The subjunctive is used with ut and nS to 
express purpose. 254. 

34. The subjunctive is used with ut and ut 
non to express result. 278. 

35. In a cnm-^lause expressing time, the verb 
is commonly in the subjunctive if the tense is the 
imperfect or pluperfect; otherwise, in the indicor- 
tive. 382. 

36. The verb of an indirect question is in the 
subjunctive. 421. 

37. The subjunctive is used in relative clauses 
of purpose, result, characteristic, and cause. 433. 

38. The subjunctive is used with cum causal 
or concessive. 435. 

39. Wishes are expressed by the sul^'unctive 
with or without utinam, (oh that!) 441. 

40. Wishes referring to the future, immediate 
or more remote, are expressed by the present sub- 
junctive. 442. 

41. Wishes referring to the present are ex- 
pressed by the imperfect sul^junctive. 442. 



RULES OF SYNTAX. 243 

42. Wishes referring to the past are expressed 
by the pluperfect subJuTietive. 442. 

43. Conditional sentences referring to present 
or past time and implying nothing as to fact 
have the indicative in both clauses. 450. 

44. Conditional sentences referring to present 
or past time and contrary to fact have the sub- 
junctive in both clauses, the imperfect referring 
to present time, the pluperfect to past time. 451. 

45. Conditional sentences referring to future 
time, if more vivid, take the future or future 
perfect indicoHve; if less vivid, take the present 
subjunctive in both clauses. 452. 

46. A primary tense in the main clause is 
followed by the present or perfect subjunctive in 
the dependent clause, and a secondary tense by 
the imperfect or pluperfect suljunctive. 419. 

47. The tenses of the infinitive denote present, 
future, or past time, relatively to the tim^e of the 
leading verb. 320. 

48. The subject of the infinitive is in the 
accusative. 299. 

49. Indirect statem^ents follow verbs and other 
expressions of saying, thinking, knowing, and 
perceiving, and are expressed by th^ infinitive 
with subject-accusative. 318. 

50. T?ie supine in um is used after verbs of 
motion to express purpose. 476. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



TAis Vocabulary includes all the words of the Reading Lessons, 



In this vocabulary wotds inclosed in brackets are, in most cases, those which are 
given in Latin lexicons and special vocabulacies as the primitives of those against 
which they are set. But, except in compounds, and words obviously formed 
directly from others, it would be more correct to regard the bracketed words as 
connected with the others in formation from a common root or stem. It is on 
this ground that such instances will be found as cura referred to Cfild, and Cfil5 
to cura. Neither is, strictly speaking, derived from the other, but both are 
formed from the stem cdra. 

Words printed in Qothic Italic tjrpe are at once derivatives and definitions. 
Many other more or less remotely derived words, not definitions, are added in 

SMALL CAPITALS. 

It will be seen that comparisons of words in reference to meaning are much 
more frequent than is usual in special vocabularies. This has been done from the 
conviction that the pupils should make such comparisons frequently from the outset. 



a or ab, prep. w. abl.,/r<?»f, by, 
ab-dic5y -are, avi, -atus, reject; 

with se, resign^ abdicate, 
ab-duc5, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead 

awayt take off; abduct. 
ab-e5, -ire, -ii, -iturus, go from, go 

off, go away. (520.) 
ab-ici5, -ere, -ieci, iectus [iacio], 

throw off, throw down. 
abs-terged, -ere, -tersi, -tersus, 

Tvipe off. 
abs-tined, -ere, -ui, -tentus 

[teneo], keep back; refrain 

from, abstain. 



ab-sum, -esse, aful, afutiirus, be 
away, be absent, be distant; 

' with & or ab and abl. (516.) 

ab-utor, -i, -iisus sum, misuse; 
abuse ; with abl. (361.) 

ac, conj., see atque. 

ac-ced5| -ere, -cessi, -cessurus 
[ad], go or come near, ap- 
proach, 

ac-cend5, -ere, -di, -sus, kindle, 
inflame. 

ac-cidO| -ere, -cidi, [ad,cado], 

fall upon, fall out, happen. 
Accident. 



«o-cipi5 



246 



AO-cipiO, -ere, -c€pl, -ceptus [ad, 

capid], (taketd)^ receive^ acC9pt 
ac-cu85, -ire, -ftvi, -fit us [ad, cau- 
sa], accuse. 
&cer, &cris, 2cre, adj. sAar^, keen ; 

(tcHve, eager. (163.) ACRID, 
acerbas, -a, -um [icer], bitter, 

sour. 
ACiSs, -€I, f. [acer], edge; line of 

battle. 
ftcriter, adv. [acer], sharply, 

eagerly. 
ACfitns, -a, -um^acud, sharpen^ 

sharp. 
ad| prep. w. ace, to, towards, near. 
ad-ed, adv. to this ; so, so very, 

Cf. ita, sic, and tam. 
ad-ed, -ire, -il,-itus,^(p A?, approach, 

visit. (520.) 
Ad-fer5 (aff-), -ferre, attuli (adt), 

adlatus (all-), bear to, bring. 

(521.) 
Ad-flig5 (aff-), -ere, -flixf, flictus, 

dash at ; weaken, aWlct, 
ad-ici5, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [iacio], 

throw to ; add to. 
ad-iuy5, -are, -iuvi, -iutus, aid, 

help. 
ad-lig5 (all-), -are, -avi, atus, 

bind, tie. 
ad-Orior, -iri, -ortus sum (rise up 

against), attack. 
Ad-rep5 (arr-), -ere, -si, , 

creep towards, steal up. 
ad-ripi5 (arr-), -ere, -ul, -reptus 

[rapio], seize, snatch. 

Ad-8id5| -ere, -edi, , sit down. 

Ad-sum, -esse, -fui (aff-), -futunis, 

be present, be here; w. dat. 

(516.) 
adulescens, -ends, m. and f. 



[adolesc5, ^r<w], youth, young 
person. Adolescence. Cf. 
iuvenis. 

adyentos, -us, m. [advenio, ap- 
proach], approach, arrival. 
Advent. 

Adversiis, -a, -um [p. of ad- 
verts], turned towards, opposite, 
in front. 

Aedificinm, -!, n. [aedificd], build- 
ing. Edifice. 

aedific5, -are, -avf, -atus [aedes, 
house, facia], build. Edify. 

aedis (es-), -is, f. building; plur. 
house, 

Aedui, -drum, m. the Meduatis, a 
Gallic tribe. 

aeger, aegra, aegmm, adj. skh, 
weak, feeble, (500.) 

Acgyptus, -I, f. £gypt. 

aer, ieris, m. (ace. aera), atr. 

aestaSy -atis, f. summer, 

aetas, -atis, f. life, age, 

Africa, -ae, f. Mfrica, 

Africanus, -I, m. [Africa], Mfn- 
canus, surname of Scipio. 

agcr, agri, va. field, territory. (57.) 

ag-gredior (adg-), -T, -gressus sum 
[ad, gradior, 5tep'\, approach, 
attack. 

agitd, -are, -avi, -atus [frequenta- 
tive of ago], shake, disturb, 
chase ^ drive. AGITATE. 

agn58c5, -ere, -gnovi, -gnitus [ad, 
{^iib^zh^know'\, recognize. Cf. 
cognoscd. 

ago, -ere, egi, actus, drive, lead; 
act, dc : celebrate ; pass (life). 

agricola, -ae, m. [ager, colo], 
farmer. 

Albanus, -a, -um, adj. A/ban; as 



albus 



247 



axz 



noun, inhabitant of Alba, a 

town in Latium. 
albus, -a, -urn, adj. white* 
Alexander, -dri, m. Alexander, 

king of Afacedon, 
aliqiiam-diu, ^Av.for a time, 
ali-quanddy adv. [alius], at some 

time ; formerly, once, Cf . olim. 
ali-quantum, -i, n. [alius], some, 

a considerable amount, 
aliquis, -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. 

pron. some one, some, any, 

(308.) 
alius, -a, -ud, adj. another, other; 

alius . . . alius, one , , , another, 

(292.) 
al5, -ere, -ui, -tus, or -itus, nourish, 

strengthen, 
Alpes, -ium, f. the Alps, 
alter, -era, -erum, adj. the other 

(of two); alter . . . alter, the one, 

. , .the other, (291, 292, a.) 
altitudQ, -inis, f. [altus], height, 
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, deep, 
ambuld, -are, -avT, -atus, walk, 

take a walk. v 

amicitia, -ae, f. [amicus], ^V^^- 

ship, 
amicus, -a, -um, adj. [amo] .friend- 
ly; novLTkf friend, 
amd, -are, -avi, -atus, love, like, be 

fond of, (511.) 
amplius, adv. comp. more, longer. 
ancilla, -ae,f. maid-servant, maid. 
anguis, -is. m. serpent, snake, 
angustus, -a, -um, adj. narrow, 
anim-advertd, -ere, -ti, -sus [ani- 
mus], turn the mind to, notice, 
animal, -alis, n. [anima, breath], 

Irving beings animal, (i 48.) 
animus, -i, m. mind, soul, spirit. 



annus, -1, m.year. Annual. 
ante, prep. w. ace, before, 
ante&, adv. [ante], before, 
ante-cedd, -ere, -cessi, , go 

before, 
ante-quam, adv. sooner than, be- 
fore, 
antiquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante], 

old, ancient. Antiquity. Cf. 

vetus. (175, 207.) 
aperid, -ire, -ui, -tus, open, 
ap-pell5, -are, -avi, -atus [ad], 

address, ccUl, name. Appeal. 
ap-plaud5, -ere, -si, -sus [ad], 

applaud, 
ap-prehend5, -ere, -dl, -sus [ad], 

seize, take hold of 
apud, prep. w. ace, with, by, near, 

among. 
aqua, -ae, f. water. Aquatic. 
ara, -ae, f. altar. Page 8. 
arStrum, -i, n. [aro], plough. 

Page 34. 
arbor, -oris, f. tree. 

arced, ere, -ui, , keep off, 

arcus, -us, m. bow. (231.) Arc. 

Page 73. 
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep; diffi- 
cult, arduous. 
arma, -orum, n. [anno], arms, 

weapons, 
armd, -are, ^vi, atus [arma], 

arm, equip. 
ar5, -are, -avi, -atus, plough, 
Arpinum, -i, n. Arpinum, a town 

in Italy. 
ars, artis, f. art, skill; plur. 

qualities, 
aryum, -i, n. [ar5], ploughed 

land, field, 
axx^^xas,t[axc^o\, citadel, (152.) 



I 



AsU 



248 



caed5 



AaU, -ae, f. Asia, 

at, conj. hut. Cf. sed and autem. 

iter, -tra, -trum, adj. biack. Cf. 
niger. 

Athina, -ae, f. Athena, a goddess. 

Athinae, -arum, f. Athens. 

AtliSnifiiiais, -is, m. [Athenae], 
an Athenian. 

at-que (before vowels and con- 
sonants, ac before consonants 
only) [ad], and alsoy and espe- 
cially^ and. Cf. et and -que. 

at-ting5, -ere, -tigi, tactus [ad, 
tango], touchy reach. 

at-tonitu8, -a, -urn [ad], thunder- 
struck^ astounded^ awe-struck. 

auctOhtas, -atis, f. authority, 
dignity. 

audacia, -ae, f. [audax], daring, 
boldness. 

audaz, -ads, adj. [auded], daring, 
bold. (163.) Audacious. 

aaded, -ere, ausus sum [audax], 
dare, be bold. (363, a.) 

audid, -ire, -ivl (-ii), -itus, hear, 
listen. (515.) Audience. 

au-ferQ, auferre, abstulT, ablatus 
[ab(s)], bear off, carry away. 
(510.) Ablative. 

au-fugi5, -ere, fugl, [ab], 

run away, escape. 

auge5, -ere, auxi, auctus [auxili- 
um], increase, enlarge. 

Augustus, -I, m. Augustus, title 
of Caesar Octavianus as emperor. 

aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum], of 
gold, golden. 

auris, -is, f. ear. 

aurum, T, n. gold. 

aut, conj. or ; aut . . . aut, either 
. . .or* 



autem, conj. (never the first 
word), but, however, ntoreaver. 

auxilium, -i, n. [aage5], helpy aid, 
support; p\\xx, auxiliaries, 

avarus, -a, -nm, adj. greedy, rapa- 
cious. Avaricious. 

avis, -is, f. bird. (148, r.) 

ayunculus, -1, m. [dimin. of 
avus, grandfather^, {maternal) 
uncle. 

barba, -ae, f. beard. 
barbarus, -1, m. barbarian. 
beatus, -a, -um, adj. happy. 
bell5, -are, -avi, -atus [bellum], 

war, carry on zoar. Cf . helium 

gero. 
bellum, -I, n. [bello], war. 
bene, adv. [bonus], well. (215.) 
benignus, -a, -um, adj. [bene, 

genus] (of good birth), kind, 

good. Benignant. 
bestia, -ae, f. beast. 

bibd, -ere, bibi, , drink. 

bonus, -a, -um, 2A\.good. (207, 

500.) 
bds, bovis, m. and f. ox, cow. 

(499) 
bracchium, -T, n. arm. 
brevis, -e, adj. short, brief. 
Britannia, -ae, f. Britain. 

Brutus, -T, m. Brutus, a M^man 
iurfiamc. 

C., abbreviation for Gaiux. 

cachiono, -artf, ^ , — ^, iaugk 

aloud, Cf, rideo. 
' cad^, -ere, ceddi, caaiirus,y2i//* 
caedes, -b, f, " '^ngA* 

tcr. tarn 
CaedOj-ere 



1 



caenum 



249 



circniDrstS 



caenum, -I, n. dirt, filth, mire, 
Caesar (C. I.)* -ans> m- Ca'ius 

Julius Caesar, a famous Roman. 
calcar, -aris, n. [calx, heel\, spur, 

(148.) Page 186. 
calceus, -I, m. shoe. Page 1 52. 
Campania, -ae, f. Campania, a 

district of Italy. 
Campanus, -a, -um, adj. Campa- 
ri i an. 
canis, -is, m. and f. dog. 
Cannensis, -e, adj. [Cannae], of 

Cannae. 
cantd, -are, -avi, -atus [cantus], 

sing. Chant. 
cantos, -us, m. [canto], singing, 

song. Chant. 
capessd, -ere, -ivl (-il), -Ituras 

[capio], take eagerly; resort 

to. 
capillus, -1, m. [caput], hair (of 

the head). 
capio, -ere, cepi, captus, take, 

seize, capture. 
captivus, -i, m. [capio], captive, 

prisoner. 
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a city in 

Italy. 
caput, -itis, n. head. (126.) 

Capital. 
career, -eris, m^ prison. 
care, adv. [c^xvis], dearly. 
cared, -ere, -ui, -itiirus, be in want 

of lack, want ; with abl. 
carpo, -ere, -si, -tus, pluck, nibble. 
carrus, -1, m. wagon, cart, car. 
Carthag5, -inis, f. Carthage,' a 

town in Africa. 
Carthag5 Nova, a town in Spain. 
Cftrus, -a, -um, adj. dear, precious. 
Casca, -ae, m. Casca, 



castra, -orum, n. camp, 

casus, -us, m. [cado], a falling', 

chance ; misfortune, loss. 
Catilina, -ae, m. Catiline, a 

famous Roman conspirator. 
CatO, -onis, m. Cato, a celebrated 

Roman censor. 
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason; 

causa (after a genitive), for 

the sake. 
celeritas, -atis, f. [celer, swift^ 

swiftness, speed. 
celeriter, adv. [celer], swiftly. 
c€16, -are, -avi, -atus, conceal. 
cena, -ae, f. dinner. 
censed, -ere, -ui, -us, reckon ; think, 

deem, be of opinion. Cf. putd. 

Censure. 
centesimus, -a, -um, num. adj. 

[centum], hundredth. 
centum, num. adj., indecl. hun- 
dred. Cent. 
Ceres, -eris, f. Ceres, goddess of 

agriculture. Cereal. 
certamen, -inis, n. [certo], strife, 

contest. 
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, deter- 

mined, certain, sure ; certiorem 

facio, make (one) more certain, 

inform. 
cerva, -ae, f. deer, hind. 
Chrlstus, -1, m. Christ. 
cibus, -1, m.food. 
CicerQ, -onis, m. Cicero, a famous 

Roman orator. 
Cimber, -bri, m. Cimbrian, 
Cincinnatus, -1, m. Cincinnatus, 

a famous Roman. 
circum, prep. w. ace, around. 
circum-stO, -are, -steti, , 

stand around, surround. 



circom-yenid 



250 



o5ii-fer5 



drcnm-yenio, -ire, -veni, -ventus, 
surround; c/rcumifent 

citerior, 4us, adj. (no positive), 
hither, (200.) 

(jyis, -is, m. and f. citizen, (148, c.) 

dvitas, -atis, f. [civis], (body 
of citizens), state; citizenship. 
City. 

dades, -is, f. disaster, overthrow, 
defeat, 

damitO, -are, -avi, -atus [fre- 
quentative of damd], cry out, 
call out. 

damdy -are, -avi, -atus, cry, shout, 

damor, -oris, m. [damo, shout], 
shout, cry. Clamor. 

danis, -a, -um, adj. c/ear, loud; 
renowned, famous, 

dassis, -is, i. fleet. 

clausula, -ae, f. [daudo, close], 
closB, conclusion, 

diens, -entis, m. client (i 52.) 

coepi, -isse, coeptus (defective; 
tenses from present stem want- 
ing), began, 

c5-gnQsc5, -ere, -gnovi, -gnitns 
[co(m), gnosco], learn, recog- 
nize, know, understand. Cf. 
agnosc5. 

co-hortor, -ari, -atus sum [co(m), 
intensive], exhort, urge, en- 
courage. 

COllis, -is, m. hill, Cf. mons. 

colloquium, -1, n. [colloquor, con- 
verse], conversatioft, colloquy, 

COUum, -T, n. neck. 

C0I6, -ere, colui, cultus, care for, 
cultivate, till; honor. Cf. in- 
cola, agricola. 

columba, -ae, f . dove. 

com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), primi- 



tive form of cum, a prefix de- 
noting completeness or union ; 
sometimes intensive. 

comes, -itis, m. and f. [com, eo], 
comrade, companion, 

comitatns, -iis, m. [comes], com- 
pany, 

com-mitt5, -ere, -misi, -missus, in- 
trust, commit, 

commode, adv. properly, suitably, 

com-moveo, -ere, -movi, -mdtus 
(put in violent motion), shake, 
disturb, agitate, move. Com- 
motion. 

o5m5, -ere, -psi, -ptus, comb, 
dress. 

C0m-ple5, -ere, -plevi, -pletus,^/ 
out, fill up, caver. 

com-prehendd, -ere, -dl, -sus, seize, 
catch, grasp; comprehend, 

C0m-prim5, -ere, -pressi, -pressus 
[premo], press together; check, 
suppress, 

C0n-ced5, -ere, -cessi, -cessus 
[com], grant, allow, concede ; 
depart, withdraw, 

COn-cito, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 
rouse up, spur on. Cf. indtd. 

C0n-clam5, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 
cry out together, shout, 

con-curro, -ere, -cuni (-cucurri), 
-cursus [com], run together, 
rush together, 

concursus, -us, m. [concurrd], 
assault. 

con-cuti5, -ere, -cussT, -cussus 
[com, quatio, shake], shake vio- 
lently, 

con-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus [com], 
conceal, hide, 

cQn-fer5, -ferre, contull, conlatos 



c5ii-fici5 



251 



corvus 



(coU-), [com], bring together^ 
collect. Confer. 
con-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [com, 
facio], make^ accomplish^ carry 
outy finish ; weaken, wear out. 
c5n-fodid, -ere, -fodi, -fossus 

[com], stab, pierce, 
con-iciOy -ere, -iecl, iectus [com, 
iacio], throw together ; throw , 
put, 
coniurati, -orum, m. [coniuro, 

conspire"], conspirators. 
con-loco (coll-), -are, -avi, -atus 

[covd], place, station. 
con-loquor (coll-), -i, -locutus sum 
[com], speak together, converse. 
cSnor, -an, -atus sum, endeavor, 

attempt, try. 
con-saluto, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 

salute cordially, greet. 
cSnsensus, -us, m. [con-sentio], 
agreement, unanimity, consent. 
cSn-sequor, -I, -cutus sum [com], 

follow close upon ; follow. 
con-serd, -ere, -ui, -sertus [com], 
join ; with manum, fight hand 
to hand. 
con-servo, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 

preserve, save. 
con-siddy -ere, -sedi, -sessus[com], 

sit down. 
consUium, -i, n.[consul5, consult], 
advice, counsel, prudence, wis- 
dom ; plan, design. 
c5n-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus 
[com, specie, look], look at 
attentively ; observe, see, behold. 
c5n-spicory -ari, -atus sum [con- 

Spido]^ get sight of, d'^scry. 
totans^ -antis, adj. [p. of coll- 
ie sfa^idfirm ] , firm ^ steady. 



c5iistaiitia,-ae,f. [constans],^rm- 

ness; constancy. 
con-sterno, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 

confound, terrify. 
c5nsul, -ulis, m.[consulo, consult], 

consul. (138.) 
contentidy -5nis, f. [contendo, 

strain], struggle, exertion. 
contentus, -a, -um, adj. [p. of 

contineo], contented ; w. abl. 
con-tineo, -ere, -ul, -tentus [com, 

teneo], hold together, hold, 

contain. 
continuus, -a, -um, adj. [con- 
tineo], continuous, successive. 
contra, prep. w. ace, against. 

Contrary. 
con-yeni5, -ire, -veni, -ventus 

[com], come together, assemble ; 

convene. 
con-voco, -are, -avi, -atus [com], 

call together, summon, convoke. 
COpia, -ae, f. [com, ops], abun- 
dance, wealth; plur. troops, 

forces. Copious. 
Corinthus, -i, f. Corinth. (13, 2.) 
Cornelia, -ae, f. Cornelia, mother 

of the Gracchi. 
Cornelius, -T, m. Cornelius, a 

Roman family name. 
comu, -us, n. horn. (230.) Page 

130. 
corpus, -oris, n. body. (138.) 

Corpse. 
corrigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectus [com, 

rego], make straight, reform, 

correct. 
cor-ripio, -ere, -ui, -reptus [com, 

rapio], seize f take h&ld of 
COrroSj 'I, m. raven ; grappling' 

hook. 



oottidiS 



252 



dS-ei8t5 



COttidi§ (cot-), adv. [quot, dies], 

daily, 
credo, -ere, -didi, -ditus, trust, 

believe ; w. dat. Credit. 
creQ, -are, -avi, -atus, make^ cre- 
ate ; choose, elect. 
cruentus, -a, -um, adj. [cruor, 

blood'\y bloody. 
culpa, -ae, f. [culpo], blame y fault. 

Culpable. Cf. vitium. 
culpo, -are, -avi, -atus [culpa], 

blame, find fault with. 
cum, conj. when; as, since; 

though, although. (382, 435.) 
cum, prep. w. abl., with. 
cunae, -arum, f. plur. cradle. 
CUpio, -ere, -ivi, itus, desire, be 

eager for. Cf. volo. 
cur, adv. [qua, re], why, wherefore. 
cura, -ae, f. [euro], care, anxiety. 
Curiatius, -i, m. Curiaiius, one of 

the Curiatii. 
euro, -are, -avi, -atus [cura], care 

for, take care. 
currus, -us, m. [curro, r««], 

chariot, car. 
cursus, -us, m.' [curro], running. 
custodia, -ae, f, [custos], guard; 

custody, prison. 
custodio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -Itus 

[custos, guard], guard, protect, 

defend. 
custos, -odis, m. andf. [cust5di5], 

guardian, keeper. 
cymba, -ae, f. boat. Page 25. 

Dareus, -1, m. Darius, king of 
Persia. 

dator, -oris, m, [do], giver. 

de, prep. w. 2h\.,from, about, con- 
cerning, of(oi time), in, during. 



dea, -ae, f. [deus], goddess. (Page 

13, note 5.) 
debe5, -ere, -ui, -itus, owe, ought. 

Debit, Debt. 
decem, num. adj., indecl. ten. 
de-cemo, -ere, -crevi, -cretus (sepct- 

rate from), decide, settle, deter- 

mine; decree. 
decimus, -a, -um, num. adj. tent^, 
de-duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead 

down, lead off, escort. 
de-fatlgo, -are, -avi, -atus, tire out, 

exhaust. 
de-fendo, -ere, -di, -sus [defen- 
sor], {strike off from), defend, 

protect. 
defensor, -oris, m. [defendo], 

defender, protector. 
de-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, 

weary, very tired. 
de-inde (from thence), then, after- 
wards. 
delecto, -are, -avi, -atus, delight. 
dele5, -ere, -evi, -etus, destroy. 

Delete. 
de-litesc6,-ere, -litui, [lateo], 

hide away, lie hid. 
Delphi, -orum, m. Delphi, a town 

in Greece. 
de-migr5, -are, -avi, -atus, migrate 

from ; remove, go away. 
denarius, -i, m. denarius, a coin, 
denique, adv. at last, finally. 
dens, dentis, m. tooth. 
de-p6no, -ere, -posui, -positus, 

put down. 
de-sero, -ere, -ui, -tus, abandon, 

desert. 
de-sisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitus (stand 

off or apart), leave off, cease ; 

desist. 



dS-smn 



253 



dux 



de-sum, -esse, -fui, , be fronts 

be wanting^ lack ; w. dat. (516.) 

de-terreo, -ere, -ui, -itus, frighten 
offi deter. 

deus, -i, m. god, (499.) 

de-vinco, -ere, -vici, -victus, over- 
comey subdue. 

dexter, -era, -erum (oftener -tra- 
-trum), adj. right (hand). 

dico, -ere, dixi, dictus, say^ tell, 
speak; appoint, 

dictator, -oris, m. [dicto, dico], 
chief magistrate , dictator. 

dictatura, -ae, f. [dictator], dicta- 
torship. 

dies, -ei, m. and f. day. (258.) 

dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis, facilis, 
apart from easy], hard, difficult. 
(198.) 

ffligens, -entis, adj. diligent, 
careful, industrious. 

dlligenter, adv. [diligens], dili- 
gently, industriously. 

dnigentia, -ae, £. [diligens], dili- 
gence, carefulness, industry. 

dimicO, -are, -avi, -lX\xs,Jight, con- 
tend. Cf. piigno. 

di-moye5, -ere, -movi, -motus, 
move asunder ; separate, drive 
away. 

dis-, di- (a prefix denoting separa- 
tion), asunder, apart, in differ- 
ent directions. Cf. dimoveo, 
disced©, dispertio, dissimilis. 

dis-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessus, de- 
part, withdraw, go off. 

disc5, -ere, didicT, , learn. 

dis-pertiS, -Ire, -ivi (-ii), -itns [par- 
tio, divide]^ distribute, divide. 

dis-similis, -e, adj. {apart from 
like), unlike^ dissimilar. ( 1 98.) 



dis-trah5, -ere, -5x1, -actus, pull 
apart; perplex, distract. 

diu, zAv.for a longtime, long. 

diiitius (comp. of diu), longer. 

divitiae, -arum, f. [dives, rich], 
riches, wealth. 

do, dare, dedi, datus, give ; put ; 
do poenas, suffer punishment. 

doceo, -ere, -ui, -tus, teach, show. 

doctor, -oris, m. [doceo], teacher. 

doloi, -oris, m. pain, grief. Dol- 
orous. 

dominus, -i, m. lord, master. (61 .) 
Dominate. 

domus, -lis, f. house, home ; domi, 
at home. (407, a, 499.) Do- 
mestic. 

d5num, -i, n. [do],gtff, present. 
Donate. 

Drusus, -i, m. Drusus, a Roman. 

dubitS, -are, -avi, -atus [dubius], 
hesitate, doubt. 

dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo], doubt- 
ful. Dubious. 

ducentesimus, -a, -um, num. adj. 
[ducenti], two hundredth. 

ducenti, -ae, -a, num. adj. [duo, 
centum], two hundred. 

duco, -ere, duxi, ductus [dux], 
lead. 

Duilius (C), -i, m. Caius Duilius, 
a Roman general. 

dulcis, -e, adj. sweet, pleasant. 
Dulcet. 

dum, conj. while, as long as; 
until. 

duo, duae, duo, num. adj. two. 
(284.) 

duo-de-triginta, num. adj., in- 
decl. twenty-eight. 

dux, ducis, m. and f. [diico], 



254 



ez-8tingii5 



leader^ general, 
imperikor. 



Duke. Cf. 



€y see ex. 

ecquid, interrog. adv. whether 

,,,atalL 
WI6, -ere, -didi, -ditu8,/«/y5>rM, 

raise^ utter, 
MncO, -are, -Hvi, -atus, bring u/, 

train, educate, 
(-dficO, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead 

out, lead forth J bring away, 
ef-fer5, -ferre, extuli, elatus [ex], 

bear cut, carry forth. (52 1 .) 
ego, pers. pron. /. (245.) 
Shea, interj. alas ! 
Qegaiitia, -ae, f. elegance. 
elephantns, -1, m. elephant, 
€-lad5y -ere, -si, -sus, deceive, mock. 
€-merg5y -ere, -si, -sus, arise, come 

forth; emerge, 
€-initt5, -ere, -misl, missus, send 

forth, let loose, 
enim, conj. (never the first word), 

for. 
£imiii8, -i, m. Enniue, father of 

Roman poetry. 
ed, adv. [is], to that place, thither, 

there. 
ed, ire, ivi (ii), iturus, go, (520.) 
epistola, -ae, f. letter, epistle. 
epulae, -arum, f. plur. feast, ban- 
quet. 
eques, -itis,m. [equus], horseman, 

knight. Page 44. 
equitatus, -us, m. [eques], (body 

ofequites), cavalry. 
equus, -i, m. horse. 
8-ripi5, -ere, -ui, -reptus [rapid], 

snatch out, seize; se eripere, 

escape. 



draditns, -a, -urn, adj. [p. of em- 

dio, train"], educated, learned. 
et, conj. and ; et . . . et» both . . . 

and, Cf. atque, ac, and -que. 
etiam, adv. and conj. [et, iam, 

and now], also, even. 
Snrdpa, -ae, f. Europe, 
€-Teit&, -ere, -ti, -sus, overturn, 

destroy, 
ez or S, prep. w. abl., out of, 

from. 
ezcelsos, -a, -um, adj. elevated, 

lofty, high, 
ez-cUmO, -are, -avi, -atus, cry out, 

exclaim. Cf. damito. 
ez-€5git5, -are, -avi, -atus, think 

out, devise, contrive. 
excnbiae, -arum, f. plur. itfcUch, 

watchmen, 
ex-cusd, -are, 4Lvi, -atus [causa], 

excuse, 
ex-e5, -ire, -ii, -itus, go out, come 

out, ($20.) Exit. 
exercitns, -iis, m. [exerceo, train], 

(the thing trained), army, 
eximios, -a, -um, adj. excellent, 

remarkable. 
ex-orior, -iri, -ortus sum, arise, 

begin. 
ex-pdii5, -ere, -posui, -positus, set 

forth, explain, relate. 
ex-pugii5, -are, -avi, -atus, take 

by storm, take, capture, Cf. 

oppugn5. 
ex-sistS, -ere, -stiti, -; , come 

forth ; arise ; be, exist, 
ex-8pect5, -are, -avi, -atus, aTtfoit, 

wait for, expect. 
ex-8pir5, -are, -avi, -atus, breathe 

out, expire, die, 
ex-^ingu5, -ere, -nxl, -nctns 



ao-clpiO 



246 



Albinut 



ac-cipi5, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [ad, 

capid], {take to), receive^ accept 
ac-cus5, -Sre, -slvl, -St us [ad, cau- 
sa], accuse. 
icer, acris, acre, adj. sAar^t keen ; 

active, eager. (163.) ACRID, 
acerbns, -a, -um [Seer], biuer^ 

sour. 
aciSs, -el, f. [icer], edge; line of 

battle. 
icriter, adv. [acer], sharply^ 

eagerly. 
acfitoSy -a, -urn ^acu5, sAarpen]^ 

sharp. 
ad, prep. w. ace, to, towards, near. 
ad-ed, adv. to this; so, so very, 

Cf. ita, sic, and tarn. 
ad-«5, -Ire, -il, '\i\is,goto, approach, 

visit. (520.) 
ad-ferd (aff-), -ferre, attull (adt), 

adlatus (all-), bear to, bring. 

(521) 

ad-flig5 (aff-), -ere, -fllxl, flictus, 

dash at ; weaken, afflict, 
ad-ici5, ere, -iecl, -iectus [iacio], 

throw to ; add to. 
ad-iuvd, -are, -iuvl, -iutus, aid, 

help. 
ad-lig5 (all-), -are, -avi, atus, 

bind, tie. 
ad-orior, -Irl, -ortus sum (rise up 

against), attack. 
ad-repd (arr-), -ere, -si, , 

creep towards, steal up. 
ad-ripi5 (arr-), -ere, -ul, -reptus 

[rapio], seize, snatch. 

ad-8id5, -ere, -edi, , sit down. 

ad-sum, -esse, -ful (aff-), -futunis, 

be present, be here; w. dat. 

(516.) 
adulescens, -ends, m. and f. 



[adolescS, grow"], youths young 
person. Adolescence. Cf. 
iuvenis. 

adventns, -us, m. [advenio, ap- 
proach], approach, arrival. 
Advent. 

adversus, -a, -um [p. of ad- 
verts], turned towards, opposite, 
in front. 

aedificiom, -I, n. [aedificd], build- 
ing. £difice. 

aedificd, -are, -avI, -atus [aedes, 
house, facia], build. Edify. 

aedis (es-), -is, f. building; plur. 
house, 

Aedui, -orum, m. the Meduana, a 
Gallic tribe, 

aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. shk^ 
weak, feeble. ($00.) 

Aegyptus, -i, f . Egypt. 

aer, aeris, m. (ace. aera), air, 

aest&8, -atis, f. summer, 

aetas, -atis, f. life, age. 

Africa, -ae, f. Africa, 

Africanus, -I, m. [Africa], Afri- 
canue, surname of Scipio. 

ager, agri, m. field, territory. (57.) 

ag-gredior (adg-), -I, -gressus sum 
[ad, gradior) step^, approach, 
attack. 

agit5, -are, -avi, -atus [frequenta- 
tive of ago], shake, disturb, 
chase, drive. AGITATE. 

agndscd, -ere, -gnovi, -gnitus [ad, 
(g)nosco, know^, recognize. Cf. 
cognosco. 

agd, -ere, egl, actus, drive, lead; 
act, dc ; celebrate ; pass (life). 

agricola, -ae, m. [ager, colo], 
farmer. 

Albanus, -a, -um, adj. Afban; as 



albns 



247 



arz 



noun, inhabitant of Alba^ a 
town in Latium. 
albuSy -a, -urn, adj. white, 
Alexander, -dri, m. Alexander, 

king of Macedon, 
aliquam-diUy 2jdiy,for a time. 

ali-quand5, adv. [alius], at some 
time ; formerly t once, Cf. 5lim. 

ali-qnantum, -i, n. [alius], some, 
a considerable amount. 

aliquiSy -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. 
pron. some one, some, any. 
(308.) 

alios, -a, -ud, adj. another, other; 
alius . . . alius, one . . . another. 
(292.) 

al5, -ere, -ui, -tus, or -itus, nourish, 
strengthen. 

Alpes, -ium, f. the Alps. 

alter, -era, -erum, adj. the other 
(of two) ; alter . . . alter, the one, 
. . . the other. (291, 292, a.) 

altitudd, -inis, f. [altus], height. 

alius, -a, -um, adj. high, deep. 

ambul5, -are, -avl, -atus, walk, 
take a walk. ^ 

amicitia, -ae, f. [zxd1c\x&\, friend- 
ship. 

amicus, -a, -um, adj . [am5] , friend- 
ly ; noun, friend. 

am5, -are, -avi, -atus, love, like, be 
fond of. (511.) 

amplins, adv. comp. more, longer. 

ancllla, -ae, f . maid-servant, maid. 

anguis, -is, m. serpent, snake, 

angustus, -a, -um, adj. narrow. 

anim-adyert5, -ere, -tl, -sus [ani- 
mus], turn the mind to, notice, 

animal, -alls, n. [anima, breath']^ 
living beings animal, (i 48.) 

animus, -I, m. mind, soul, spirit. 



annns, -i, m.year. Annual. 
ante, prep. w. ace, before. 
antea, adv. [ante], before. 
ante-ced5, -ere, -cessi, , go 

before. 
ante-quam, adv. sooner than, be- 
fore. 
antiqnns, -a, -um, adj. [ante], 

old, ancient. Antiquity. Gf. 

vetus. (175, 207.) 
aperi5, -Ire, -uI, -tus, open. 
ap-pell5, -are, -avi, -atus [ad], 

address, call, name. Appeal. 
ap-plaud5, -ere, -si, -sus [ad], 

applaud. 
ap-prehend5, -ere,' -d!, -sus [ad], 

seize, take hold of. 
apud, prep. w. ace, with, by, near, 

among. 
aqua, -ae, f. water. Aquatic. 
ara, -ae, f. altar. Page 8. 
aratmm, -1, n. [aro], plough. 

Page 34. 
arbor, -oris, f . tree. 

arced, ere, -ui, ^ keep off. 

arcus, -Ss, m. bow, (231.) Arc. 

Page 73. 
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep ; diffi- 
culty arduous. 
arma, -orum, n. [arm5], arms, 

weapons. 
arm5, -are, -avi, atus [arma], 

arm, equip. 
aro, -are, -avi, -atus, plough. 
Arpinum, -1, n. Arpinum, a town 

in Italy. 
ars, artis, f. art, skill; plur. 

qualities. 
aiYum, -i, n. [aro], ploughed 

land, field. 
arz, arcis,f.[arce5],dift2d5f/. (152.) 



habits 



257 



im-peritns 



habits, -are, -avi, -atus [frequenta- 
tive of habeo], inhabit ; dwells 
live, 

Hannibaly -alls, m. Hannibal, a 
famous Carthaginian general* 
Page 55. 

hasta, -ae, f. spear. Page 15. 

haud, adv. not, Cf . n5n. 

Helvetia, -ae, f. Helvetia. 

HelvStii, -orum, m. the Helve- 
tians. 

Henna, -ae, f. Henna, a city of 
Sicily, 

heri, 2A^, yesterday, 

hiberna, -orum, n. [hiems], win- 
ter-quarters (sc. castra). Hi- 
bernate. 

hie, haec, hoc, demon, pron. this^ 
this of mine ; as pers. pron. 
he^ she, it, (100.) 

hie, adv. here, hereupon, 

hienis (hiemps), hiemis, f. winter; 
storm, 

hilaritas, -atis, f. cheerfulness, 
hilarity. 

hine, adv. [hic], hence. 

Hispania, -ae, f . Spain. 

Hispanus, -i, m. a Spaniard. 

historia, -ae, f . history. 

ho-die, adv. [hoc, die], to-day, 

hom5, -inis, m. and f. {human 
being), man, (141.) 

h5ra, -ae, f. hour. 

Horatius, -1, m. Horatius, one 
of the Horatii, 

horror, -oris, m. trembling; dread, 
horror. 

hortus, -T, m. garden. (43.) 

hospes, -itis, m. and f. guest- 
friend. 

hostHis, -e, adj. [hostis], hostile. 



hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, (148, 

149.) Hostile. 
humi (loc. of hvLxaus, ground), on 

the ground. 

iace5, -e^e, -ui, [iacio], {pe 

thrown), lie. 
iacio, -ere, iecT, iactus [iaceo], 

throw, cast, hurl, 
iam, adv. already, now, at last; 

non iam, no longer. Cf. nunc, 
iamiam, adv. already ; iamiam 

Venturas, y«j/ about to come, 
ibi, adv. [is], in that place^ 

there, 
[ic6], -ere, ici, ictus, strike; 

foedus ICO, make a league, 
idem, eadem, idem, demon, pron. 

[is], same. (303.) 
idoneus, -a, -um, adj.^/, suitable, 
igitur, conj. (seldom the first 

word), therefore, then. Cf. 

itaque. 
ignis, -is, m./r^. (148.) Ignite. 
ignor5, -are, -avT, -atus [ignaras, 

ignorantj, not know, be igno- 
rant of. Cf. nescio. Ignore. 
ilicd, adv. [in, loco], on the spot, 

immediately. 
ille, -a, -ud, demon, pron. that 

(yonder); as pers. pron. he, 

she, it. (100.) 
immanis, -e, adj. huge, immense. 
im-par, -paris, adj. [in], unequal ; 

not a match for, 
imperator,-6ris, m. \\m^ero\, com- 
mander, general. Emperor. 
imperatum, -i, n. [impero], order , 

command, 
im-peritus, -a, -um, adj. [in], 

unskilletL 



imperium 



258 



inqnit 



imperium, -I, n. [impero], com- 
mandy ruU^ povotr. Empire. 

imperd, -are, -avi, -atus [imperi- 
um], order^ command ; w. dat. 
Imperative. 

impetrd, -are, -avl, -atus,^tf/«,/r^ 
cure^ obtain, 

impetus, -us, m. [impet5, rush 
upon\yattacky assault. IMPETU- 
OUS. 

im-pl5r5, -are, -avi, -atus [in], 
cry out iOy beseech ^ implore. 

im-pdn5y -ere, -posui, -positus, 
[in], put or place upon ; mount; 
w. dat. Impose. 

im-pudens, -entis, adj. [in, not; 
pudens, modest"], shameless , 
impudent, bold, brazen. 

in, prep. w. ace., into, to, against^ 
for ; w. abl., in, on. 

in-, prefix, in composition with 
nouns, adjectives, and parti- 
ciples, often having negative 
sense. Cf. Eng. un-, in-, not, 

inanis, -e, adj. empty, useless. 

in-cipi5, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus 
[capio], {take in hand), begin. 
Incipient. 

incitS, -are, -avi, -atus, arouse, 
excite, incite. 

in-clam5, -are, -avi, -atus, cry out; 
appeal to. 

in-cognitus, -a,-um,adj. unknown. 

incola, -ae, m. and f. [incolo], 
inhabitant. 

in-cold, -ere, -ui, [incola], 

dwell in, inhabit ; live, dwell. 
Cf. habit5 and vivo. 

incolumis, -e, adj . unharmed, safe. 

in-crepo, -are, -uI, -itus, sound, 
resound, clash* 



in-curi5su8, -a, -um, adj. careless, 

negligent. 
inde, adv. [is], thence. 
in-dic5, -ere, -dm, -dictas, pro- 
claim, appoint. 
indutus, -a, -um [p. of induo], 

clothed, clad. 
in-ed, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itus, go in, 

enter ; begin. (520.) 
in-eptus, -a, -um, adj. [aptus,^], 

awkward, silly. 
in-ermis, -e, adj . [anna] , unarmed. 
inferi, -orum, m. [inferus], inhab- 
itants of the lower world ; M^ 

Iiifernals. 
inferior, -ius, adj. lower, (199.) 
in-ferd, inferre, intull, inlatus 

(ill-), {bear in or against), cause; 

bellum inferre, make war upon ; 

w. dat. (521.) 
inferus, -a, -um , adj . below. ( 1 99.) 
infestus, -a, -um, adj. unsafe; 

hostile. 
infra, prep, with ace, below, 
ingenium, -1, n. genius. 
ingens, -entis, adj. huge, great. 
in-gredior, -1, gressos sum 

[gradior], step in, enter. 
in-hid, -are, -avi, -atus, gape at, 

long for. 
in-icid, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [iacio], 

threw upon, cast upon. 
in-imlcus, -i, m. enemy [amicus]. 

(149.) Inimical. 
in-lido (ill-), -ere, -si, -sus, dash 

against, crush. 
inopia, -ae, f. [inopg, without re- 
sources'], want, poverty, lack. 
inquit (placed after one or more 

quoted words), said he, says 

he. 



Iii-ni5 



259 



LabiSnus 



in-ruS (irr-), -^re, -ul, , rush 

upon, make an attack, 

in-silio, -Ire, -ui, [salio], Uap 

upon. 

in-^tnio, -ere, -struxi, -structus, 
build in^ form ; instruct, train ; 
prepare, proinde. 

insula, -ae, f. island. Peninsula. 

in-sum, -esse, -fui, , be in, be 

among; w. dat. and w. in and 
abl. (516.) 

in-tactus, -a, -um, adj. untouched, 
uninjured. 

integer, -gra, -gram, adj. un- 
touched, uninjured; fresh. 

inter, prep. w. ace, between, 
among, amid. 

inter-diim, adv. sometimes. 

inter-ea, adv. meanwhile. 

inter-ficid, -ere, -fea, -fectus [fa- 
cio], kill, put to death, Cf. 
neco and occido. 

interim, adv. in the meantime^ 
meanwhile. 

inter-pelld, -are, -avi, -atus, en- 
treat, importune. 

inter-rogo, -are, -avi, -atus, ask, 
inquire, question. (422.) IN- 
TERROGATION. 

inter-8um, -esse, -f ui, -futurus, be 
among, be present at; w. dat. 
(516.) Cf. adsum. 

inter-vallum, -I, n. interval, dis- 
tance; per intervalla, at in- 
tervals, 

intus, adv. [in], within, inside. 

in-yenio, -Ire, -veni, -ventus, come 
upon, find, discover. Cf . reperio. 

in-yicem, adv. in turn, mutually, 

in-yictus, -a, -um, adj. [vinco], 
unconquered, invincible. 



in-YOCd, -are, -avi, -atus, call, 
iocus, -i, m. (plur. ioci and ioca), 

joke, jest; per iocum, in jest, 

for a joke. 
ipse, -a, -um, demon, adj. and 

pron. self, very, (303.) 
ira, -ae, f. anger, wrath, ire. 
is, ea, id, demon, pron. that ; as 

pers. pron. he, she, it. (i 19.) 
iste, -a, -ud, demon, pron. that {of 

yours). (303.) 
istlimus, -1, m. iathr, ^t 
ita, adv. so, thus, C/ idf > ^.'c, 

tarn. 
Italia, -ae, f. Italy. 
ita-qne, conj. and so, therejvi- 

Cf. igitur. 
iter, itineris, n. \^o\,way,journey, 

march, (499.) Itinerant. 
iterum, adv. a second time, agcun^ 

Iteration. 
iubed, -ere, iussi, iussus, bid, 

order, command. Cf. impero. 
iugerum, -I, n. (gen. plur. iuger- 

um), acre, juger. 
iugulum, -1, n. throat, neck. . 
iugum, -1, n.yoke, 
luppiter, lovis, m. Jupiter, the su- 
preme deity of the Romans.(/\f)().) 
ius, iuris, n. right, justice. 
iussu, m. only abl. [iubeo], ^^^7«- 

mand, by order. 
iustus, -a, -um, adj. just 
iuvenis, -e, adj. young. Cf. 

adulescens. (207.) Juvenile. 
iuventus, -utis, f. [iuvenis], body 

of youth, youth. 
invo, -are, iuvi, iutus, help, aid, 

Labienns, -1, m. Labienus, a Iteu' 
tenant in Caesar^ s army. 



labor 



M> 



macb 



labor, -aris, m. [labSrO], labof, 

toil. Cf . opus. 
Ubdrdy -ire, -avi, -atns [labor], 

work^toil; suffer. ELABORATE, 
laetns, -a, -um, ^Ayglad^ merry. 
lapis, -idis, m. stone, (130.) 

Lapidary* 
lated, -ere, -uT, , lurk, lie hid. 

Latent. 
Latini, -onim, m. [Latium], the 

Latins, 
Utitudd, -inis, f. [Utns], toidth. 

Latitude. 
Utu8, -a, -urn, adj. broad, wide. 
landd, -ire, -avi, -atus [laus], 

praise, laud, 
laus, laadis, f. [Iaud5], praise, 

glory, fame, 
ISgatus, -I, m. [lego, depute"], am- 
bassador, deputy, lieutenant. 

Legate. 
legiS, -onis, f. [lego], {a gather- 

'»i)» iBgion. 
Ieg5, -ere, legi, lectus, gather ; 

select; read. 
l§liis, -e, adj. soft, smooth, gentle, 

mild. Lenient. 
ISndcininm, -I, n. allurement, 

charm, personal adornment. 
Lentulus, -T, m. Lentulua, 
led, -onis, m. lion. 
Iev5, -are, -avi, -atus [levis], lift 

up, raise. 
lex, legis, f. law. Legal. 
libenter, adv. [libet, it pleases"], 

willingly y gladly. 
liber, -bri, m. book. 
libi&r, -era, -erum, 2Ldi].free, Lib- 
eral. (500.) 
liberi, -orum, m. [liber], children. 

(61.) 



HbefO, -are, ^vl, -atus [liber], sei 
free, free, liberate ; w. abL of 
separation. 

libertis, -atis, f. [liber],/r^<f^<»*t, 
libert/. 

licet, -ere, Ucuit or licitum est, 
impers. it is permitted, (one) 
may, 

lictor, -oris, m. lietor, ceremonial 
attendant of a high officer, 

ligneos, -a, -um, adj. [lignum], 
wooden, 

Hgnum, -i, n. wood ; plur. sticks, 

ligd, -onis, m. mattock, hoe, 

littera, -ae, f. letter (of the cUphor 
bet); plur. letter, epistle; de- 
spatches. 

locus, -i, m. (plur. loc! and loca), 
place, position. Local. 

long§, adv. [longus], yar,^r^. 

longus, -a, -um. adj. long. Lon- 
gitude. 

15rum, -1, n. thong, strap, 

lud5, -ere, lusi, lusus pudus], 
play. Interlude. 

ludus, -i, m. \\xiAo\ game, play. 

Iuge5, -ere, luxi, luctus, mourn, 
lament, 

liigubris, -e, adj. [lugeo], </<7/^/, 
mournful. 

luna,-ae, f. [lux], moon. Lunatic 

lupus, -1, m. wolf 

lux, luds, f. [Iuce5, shine], light. 

M., abbreviation for Mdrcus, a 

Roman first name. 
mlchina, -ae, f. machine, engine, 

device. 
maestus, -a, -um, adj. sad. % 
magis, adv. [mag(nus)], more, 

(215.) 



magister 



261 



mirabilis 



magister, -trl, m. [mag(niis)], 

master, teacher, (6i.) 
magnificus, -a, -um, adj. [magnus, 

facia], splendid^ magnificent 
magnituddy -inis, f . [magnus], 

greatness^ size^ magnitude. 
magnuSy -a, -um, adj. greats large. 

(207.) 
maior, -ius, adj. greater ^ larger, 

(207.) Major. 
male, adv. [malus], kadly^ ill. 

(2I5-) 
maleficuSy -1, m. [male, facia], 

evil-doer, 
maid, malle, malm, [magis, 

vola], be more willing^ prefer, 

would rather. (519.) 
malum, -1, n. [malus], bad things 

evil. 
maltts, -a, -um, adj. bad, evil. 

(207.) 
mandatttm, -1, n. [manda], order, 

command. 
mailed, -ere, mans!, mansus, stay, 

remain, wait. Permanent. 
manus, -us, f . hand ; force, band. 

(229, a.) Manual. 
Miircus, -i, m. Marcus, a Roman 

first name. 
mare, -is, n. j^a. (148.) Marine. 
Marina (€.)> -7» m. Cains Marius, 

a famous Roman general. 
massa, -ae, f. mass, lump. 
mater, -tris, f. mother. Mater- 
nal. 
matrdna, -ae, f. [mater], matron, 

wife, lady. 
maxime, adv. [maximus], most, 

especially, greatly. (215.) 
mazimtts, -a, -um, adj. greatest. 

(207.) 



medicos, -i, m. [medeor, eure\ 
physician. Medicine. 

medius, -a, -um, adj. in the 
middle, middle. 

melior, -ius, better. (207.) Amel- 
iorate. 

memoria, -ae, f. memory. 

mendax, -acis, adj. [mentior, /i^], 
lying, deceitful. 

mensa, -ae, f . table. 

mSnsis, -is, m. month. 

Mercurius, -i, m. Mercury, mes- 
senger of the gods. (59.) 

mergo, -ere, -si, -sus, sink. 

metus, -us, m.fear, dread. 

meus, -a, -um, poss. adj. and 
pron. my, mine. (247.) 

micd, -are,-ui, , quiver ; flash, 

gleam. 

miles, -itis, m. soldier. Mili- 
tary. Page 133. 

militaris, -e, adj. [miles], military. 

militiae (loc. of militia), in ser- 
vice, in the field. 

mille, num. adj., indecl. in sing. ; 
in plur., milia, -ium, thousand. 
(284, d.) 

Mil5, -anis, m. Milo, a famous 
Roman. 

Miltiades, -is, m. Miltiades, a 
Greek general. 

mimus, -1, m. mimic ; farce. 

Minerva, -ae, f. Minerva, goddess 
of wisdom. 

minor, -arf, -atus sum, threaten. 

minor, -us, adj. smaller. (207.) 

Mintnmae, -arum, f. plur. Min- 
turnae, a town in Campania. 

mirabilis, -e, adj. [miror], to be 
wondered at; wonderful, ex- 
traordinary. Admirable. 



miror 



262 



nuns 



miror, -arl, -atus sum, wonder^ 

'vonder aty admire. 
miser, -era, -crum, adj. wretched^ 

unhappy, miserable, 
miseria, -ae, f. [miser], wretched- 

nessj misery. 
mitt5, -ere, misi, missus, send. 

Mission. 
moenia, -ium, n. [munio], walls 

(of a city). 
molestus, -a, -um, adj. [moles, 

pile"], troublesome, tiresome. 

Molest. 
mone5, -ere, -ui, -itus, remind, 

advise, warn. (512.) Monitor. 
iii5iis, montis, m. mountain, hill. 

Cf. collis. 
monumentam, -1, n. [moneo], 

monument. (346, a,) 
mora, -ae, f. delay. 
morior, -i, mortuus sum (fut. 

part, moriturus), [mors], die. 
mors, mortis, f. (morior), death. 

Mortal. 
m5s, moris, m. manner, habit, 

custom. Moral. 
moved, -ere, movi, motus, move. 
moz, adv. soon, presently. 
mulier, -eris, f. woman. Cf. 

femina. 
moltus, -a, -um, adj. much, many. 

(207.) 
munid, -Ire, -ivi, -itus [moenia], 

fortify, defend. 
mfinus, -eris, n. duty, office. 
mums, -i, m. wall. 
Musa, -ae, f. Muse. 
mutd, -are, -avi, -atus, change, 

alter. Mutation. 



., cony for. 



]l2rr5, -are, -avi, -atus, tell, relate, 

narrate. 
nascor, -i, natus sum, be born. 
Nasica, -ae, m. Masica, surname 

of one of the Scipios. 
natid, -onis, f. [nascor], race^ 

nation. 
natQ (abl. of natus), [nascor], 

by birth, in age, 
nanta, -ae, m. [for navita ; navis]. 

sailor. . 
navalis, •«, adj. [navis], naval. 
navis, -is, f. x>if>. (149.) Naval. 

Pages 79, 88. 
ne, conj. that not, that; lest ; w. 

hortatory subjunctive, not. 
-ne, interrog. adv. enclitic. (9, 3.) 

Cf. n5nne and num. 
need, -are, -avi, -atus, kill, slay. 

Cf . interficio and occido. 
necto, -ere, nexui, nexus, bind, 

weave. Connect. 
neg-leg6, -ere, -lexi, -lectus [nee]. 

disregard, neglect. 
neg5, -are, -avi, -atus, sc^ not; 

deny, refuse. 
nem5, -ini (dat.), m. and f. [ne, 

hom5], (no gen. or abl.), no 

one, nobody. 
ne-qn&qtiam, adv. by no means, 

not at all. 
ne^ue or nee, conj . and not, nor ; 

neque . . . neque, neither . 

nor. 
neuter, -tra, -trum, adj. neither 

(of two). (291.) Neutral. 
niger, -gra, -grum, adj. black. Cf. 

ater. Negro. 
nihil, n., indecl. nothing. Nihil- 
ist. 
Nilus, -i, m. the Nile, 



ni-si 



263 



of-fendS 



ni-si, conj. ifnot^ unless^ except, 
nix, nivis, f. snow, (499.) 
n5bilis, •«, adj. [nosco], well- 
known^ of high birth; noble. 
nocedy -ere, -ui, -iturus, do harm 
to, hurty injure ; w. dat. Nox- 
ious. Cf. obsum. 
N51a, -ae, f. Nola, a town in 
Campania. 

n515, nolle, nolui, [ne, void], 

be unwilling, will not, not wish. 

(519) 

nSmen, -inis, n. [n5sc5], (that by 
which a thing is known), name. 
Nominal. 

non, adv. [ne, unum], not. 

n5n-ne, interrog. adv. expecting 
an affirmative answer, not. Cf. 
>ne and num. 

ndsco, -ere, novi, notus, learn, 
know. P. ndtus, -a, -um, as 
adj. known. 

noster, -tra, -trum, poss. adj. and 
pron. our, ours. Nostri, our 
men. 

noYUSy -a, -um, adj. new. Nov- 
elty. 

nox, noctis, f . «/^A/. (152.) Noc- 
turnal. 

nubes, -is, f. cloud. (148.) 

nMus, -a, -um, adj. unclothed^ 
stripped; nude. 

nuUus, -a, -um, adj. [ne, iillus], 
no, none, no one. (291.) Nul- 
lity. 

nam, interrog. adv. expecting a 
negative answer, whether. Cf . 
nonne and -ne. 

numerus, •!, m. number. 

niunquam, adv. [ne, umquam], 
never. 



nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam. 
nunti5, -are, -avi, -atus [nOntius], 

report^ announce. 
nuntios, -1, m. [niintid], bearer 

of news, messenger. 
nuper, adv. [for no viper; nevus], 

recently, lately. 

0, inter j. O, Oh! 

ob, prep. w. ace, on account of. 

Ob-ed, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itus, go to 

meet ; perish, die. (520.) 
0b-lin5, -ere, -levi, -litus, daub, 

smear, defile. 
obliviscor, -1, oblitus sum, forget. 

Oblivious. 
Obses, -idis, m. and f . [ob, sede5, 

sit], (one who sits or remains 

as a pledge), hostage. 
ob-sum, -esse, -fui, , be 

against, be opposed to ; injure ; 

w. dat. (516.) Cf. noceo. 
Ob-temperO, -are, -avi, -atus, 

comply with, yield to ; w. dat, 
obviam, adv. in the way ; ob- 

viam fio, meet ; w. dat. 
Ob-volv6, -ere, -i, -volutus, wrap 

around, cover up. 
OC-cido, -ere, -cidi, -cisus [ob, 

caed5, cut], cut down, kill. 

Cf. neco and interficia 
OCCnpd, -are, -avi, -atus [ob, capio], 

take possession of seize ; occupy. 

Cf. potior, 
oc-curro, -ere, -cuni, -cursus [ob], 

run to meet; meet, fall in 

with. 
Ocelum, -i, n. Ocelum, a town in 

Hither Gaul. 
of-fend5, -ere, -di, -sus [ob], 

strike against; come upon, find. 



offlcinm 



264 



pancns 



OfBlcittm, -I, n. [opus, facio], ser- 
vice^ kindness. 
Glim, adv. [oUe, old fonn of ille], 

{fit that time) ; formerly, once ; 

once upon a time. Cf . aliq u an do. 
omiiis, -e, adj. whole, all, every. 

Cf. totus. 
onus, -eris, n. load, burden. 
onustus, -a, -urn, adj. [onus], 

laden, loaded. 
opera, -ae, £. [opus], labor, care ; 

operam do, try. Cf . labor, 
oppidanus, -i, m. [oppidum], 

townsman^ 
Oppidum, -1, n. town. 
op-pugnd, -are, -avi, -atus [ob], 

attack, assault, besiege, Cf. ex- 

pugno. 
[ops], opis, f. aid, help, 
Optimus, -a, -um, adj. best. (207.) 

Optimist. 
Opus, -ens, n. work, labor. Cf. 

labor. 
5rator, -oris, m. [oro, speaks 

orator. 
orbis, -is, m. circle, orb ; orbis 

terrarum, earth, world, 
drnamentum, -T, n. [5mo], (that 

which adorns),ornament, jewel, 
drn5, -are, -avi, -atus, adorn, 

ornament, deck. 
os-tendo, -ere, -di, -tus [ob(s)], 

stretch out ; show, display. 
Otium, -1, n. leisure, idleness. 
ovis, -is, f. sheep. 
Ov6, -are, , , exult; 

triumph. 
dvum, -i, n. egg. 

pac5, -are, -avT, -atus [pax], make 
quiet, subdue. Cf. vinco. 



Pados, -I, m. the Po, a river of 

Italy. 
paene, adv. nearly, almost 
paenitentia, -ae, f. repentance^ 

penitence. 
paliis, -udis, f. swamp, marsh, 
par, paris, adj. equal. 
parcO, -ere, peperci (parsi), par- 

sus, spare; w. dat. 
parens, -entis, m. and f . parent. 

(152, «.) 
pared, -ere, -ui, , (comeforth^ 

appear), be obedient to, obey; 

w. dat. 
parid, -ere, peperi, partus, bring 

forth, bear ; lay, 
ParmeniS, -dnis, m. Parmenio, 

one of Alexander'' s generals, 
paro, -are, -avi, -atus, get ready, 

prepare for. 
pars, partis, f. part, share. 

Partial. 
parvus, -a, -um, adj. small, little. 

(207.) 
pasco, -ere, pavi, pastus, feed, 

tend; pasture. 
passus, -us, m. [pateo], (a stretch- 
ing out of the feet in walk- 
ing), step, pace; millepassuum, 

mile. 
pater, -tris, m. father. (138.) 

Paternal. 
patienter, adv. [patiens,/a/r>«/], 

patiently, with patience. 
patientia, -ae, f. [patior, bear], 

patience. 
patria, -ae, f. [patrius, sc. terra ; 

psLter], fatherland, native land, 

country. Patriotism. 
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally 

plur.),yjrw, little. PAUCITY. 



paiil5 



265 



poena 



paulO, adv. [paulus], iy a kittle, 

little. 
paulum, adv. [paulus], a littlty 

somewhat. 
pftx, pads, f. (no gen. plur.), 

peace. Pacify. 
peccOy -are, -avi, -atus, make a 

mistake^ commit (afault)^ sin. 
pectus, -oris, n. breast. 
pecunia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle']^ 

money. Pecuniary. 
pedes, -itis, m. [^^sIj foot-soldier, 
peditatus, -us, m. [pedes], in- 
fantry. 
peior, -ius, adj. worse. (207.) 
pell5, -ere, pepuli, pulsus, drive 

away; repel. 
pensum, -1, n. [pendo, weigh"], 

(what is weighed out, e.g. 7000I, 

as a task for spinning), task ; 

lesson, exercise. 
per, prep. w. ace, through, by, by 

means of, on account of. 
pera, -ae, f. bag, wallet 
per-agrS, -are, -avi, -atus [ager], 

wander through,, pass over, 

traverse. 
per-contor, -ari, -atus sum, ask, 

inquire. 
per-d5, -ere, -didi, -ditus, lose. 
per-fero, -ferre, -tulT, -latus, spread 

abroad. (521.) 
per-fici5, -ere, -feci, -fectus [facio], 

accomplish ; perfect. 
per-fruor, -i, -fructus sum, enjoy 

thoroughly, enjoy ; w. abl. 
periculum, -1, n. trial, attempt; 

risk, danger, peril. 
peritus, -a, -um, adj. [p. of perior, 

try"], (having tried), skilful. 
per-mitto, -ere, -misi, -missus, 



allow, grant, suffer, permit; 
w. dat. 

Persae, -arum, m. the Persians. 

per-sequor, -i, -secutus sum, fol- 
low up, pursue. 

per-std, -stare, -stitl, staturus, 
standfast, persist. 

per-string6,-ere, -strinxi, -strictus, 
bind closely; affect deeply, thrill. 

per-suadeo, -ere, -suasi, -suasus, 
persuade ; w. dat. 

per-terre6, -ere, , -itus, thor- 
oughly frighten. 

pertinacia, -ae, f. perseverance; 
obstinacy, pertinacity. 

pes, pedis, m.yZ?^?/. (130.) Pedal. 

pessimus, -a, -um, adj. worst. 
(207.) Pessimist. 

peto, -ere, -ivi (-ii), -Itus, seek, 
demand, beg; attack. Peti- 
tion. Cf. rogo. 

pharetra, -ae, f . quiver. 

Philotimus, -1, m. Philotimus. 

piger, -gra, -grum, adj. slow, lazy. 

pigritia, -ae, f. [piger], laziness, 
sloth. 

pilum, -i, n. javelin. Page 102. 

placed, -ere, -ui, -itus, please ; 
w. dat. 

plaga, -ae, f. stroke, blow, thrust. 

planities, -ei, f. [planus, even, 
level], {ft flatness), level ground, 
plain. 

plurimus, -a, -um, adj. most, very 
many. (207.) 

plus, pluris, adj. more. (208.) 

Pluto, -onis, m. Pluto, god of the 
lower world. 

pdculum, -1, n .cup, bowl. Page 69. 

poena, -ae, f. [punio], quit-money ; 
fine, punishment. Penal. 



266 



Poenus, -I, m. a Carthaginian. 

po€U, -ae, m. poet. 

polliceor, -^rf, -itus sum, promisg. 

PompSinSy -ei, m. Pompey, a 
famous Roman general, 

p0n5y -ere, posui, positos, put^ 
place ^ set^ pitch (camp). Posi- 
tion. 

pOnSy pdntis, m. bridge. 

PopedinSy -I, m. Fopediu: 

populiu, -r» m. people. 

Porcins, -I, m. Forciue, family 
name of Cato. 

porta, -ae, f . gate^ door. Portai« 

port5, -are, -avi, -atus, carry^ 
bring, Cf. fero and veho. 

portos, -us, m. harbor^ port. 

(231.) 

possum, posse, potnT, [potis, 

ab/Ct sum], be ab/e, can; pluri- 
mum posse, be very powerful^ 
have most influence. (296, 

S«7-) 

post, prep. w. ace, after^ behind; 
as adv., afterwards. 

post-ea, adv. afterwards. 

[posterns], -a, -um, adj. [post], 
following^ next. (199.) 

post-quam, conj. after. 

potior, -in, -itus sum [potis, able\ 
become master of get^ get posses- 
sion of; w. gen. or abl. 

praebed, -ere, -ui, -itus [prae, 
habeo], hold for th^ offer y fur- 
nish ; causCy render. 

prae-cino, -ere, -cinui, 

[cano, sing\y play before. 

prae-clarus, -a, -um, adj. very 
splendid^ glorious. 

praeda, -ae, f. booty ^ spoil, prey. 
Predatory. 



prae-dic5, -are, -avi, -itus [prae, 
died, -ire, make knawn\ pro- 
claim, boast. 

prAe-iei5, -ferre, -tuB, -latos, 
carry before. (521.) 

prae-lficed, -ere, -xi, , skdne 

before, light the way before. 

praeminm, •!, n. reTvard, prise. 
Premium. 

praesidimn, -1, n. [prae, sedeo, 
sit before], defense, help, pro- 
tection. 

prae-flt5, -stare, -stitf, -stitos, 
stand out, surpass, be superior to. 

prae-snm, -esse, -fui, , be be- 
fore, be at the head of, com- 
mand ; w; dat. (516.) 

praeter, prep. w. ace, beyond, be- 
sides, except. 

praeteztos, -a, -am, adj. [p. of 
praetexd, fringe], bordered; 
toga praetexta, toga with pur- 
ple border, worn by the higher 
magistrates and by free-bom 
children. Page 191. 

pr&tnm, -1, n* meadow. 

pretidsns, -a, -um, adj. [pretium, 
price], precious. 

[prex, precis], f. (used mostly in 
plur.), prayer, entreaty. 

primus, -a, -um, adj. first, fore- 
most. (200.) Prime. 

princeps, -dpis, m. [primus, 
capio], {faking the first place), 
chief, leader. (126.) Prince. 

prius, adv. [prior], before, sooner, 
pretnously. 

prius-quam, conj. sooner than, 
before. 

pr6, prep. w. abl., before, in behalf 
of for ; considering. 



pro 



267 



qnantus 



pr5, interj. O! 

prd-ced5, -ere, -cessi, ^ go for- 

wardi advance^ proceed. Cf. 

progredior. 
procul, adv./j5r, afar off. 
pro^ium, -i, n. battle^ combat. Cf. 

pugna. 
prd-ferd, -f erre, -tuli, -latus, bring 

forth. (521.) 
proficiscor, -1, -fectus sum, setout^ 

march, go. Cf. exeo. 
pro-gredior, -i, -gressus sum 

[gradior, stepl, go Jorward, 

advance^ progress. Cf. pr5- 

cedo. 
prope, prep. w. ace, fiear, near to ; 

adv. close at hand, nearly. 
propere, adv. hastily, quickly. 
properdy -are, -avi, -atus, hasten. 
propior, -ius, adj. [prope], nearer. 

(200.) 
propiuSy adv. [prope], nearer. 
prd-ponOy -ere, -posui, -positus, 

put before, set forth ; make 

known, declare. Propose. 
prdpositum, -i, n. [pr6p6n6],/«r- 

pose, design, resolution. Prop- 
osition. 
propter, prep. w. ace, on account 

of 
Proserpina^ -ae, f. Proserpine, 

daughter of Ceres. 
prd-silid, -Ire, -ni, [salio], 

leap forward. 
prd-sum, prodesse, profui, , 

be before, be useful to, benefit ; 

w. dat. (518.) 
prSvincia, -ae, f. province. 
prozimaSy -a, -nm, adj. nearest, 

next. (200.) Proximity. 
prudensy -entis, adj. [for pro vi- 



deos], wise, sagacious, knowing, 
prudent (163.) 

prndentla, -ae, f. [prudens],/?r^- 
sightf sagacity, wisdom, prU' 
dence. 

pablicos, -a, -um, adj. [populus], 
(pertaining to the people), pub' 
lie. 

Publius, -i, m. Publius, a Roman 
first name. 

puella, -ae, f. [dimin. of puer], 
girl, maiden. 

puer, -eri, m. boy, child. (57, 61.) 
Puerile. 

puerulus, -i, m. [dimin. of puer]. 
Utile boy. 

pugio, -onis, m. short dagger. 

pugna, -ae, f. [pugno], battle, con- 
test. Cf. proelium. Pugna- 
cious. ^ 

pugno, -are, -avi, -atus [pugna], 
fight. Cf. dimico. 

pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beau- 
tiful, fair, pretty. 

pulvis, -eris, m. dust. 

Punicus, -a, -um, adj. Cartha- 
ginian. 

piinio, -ire, Ivi, -Itus [poena], 
punish. 

puto, -are, -avi, -atus, think, be- 
lieve, reckon. Cf. reor. 

Pyrrhus, -i, m. Pyrrhus, king of 
Epirus. 

quaer5, -ere, quaes! vi, quaesTtus, 
seek, ask, inquire. (422.) 

quaeso (-ere), (used only in ind. 
pres. 1st sing, and plur.), 
[quaero], beg, pray. 

quam, adv. than. 

quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam]. 



qni-ri 



268 



rMDittO 



haw greats how much ; as grecU 

as^ as much as. 
qni-rS, adv. {on account of which 

f^fffg)* whtrefore* 
qna-siy adv. as if. 
quater, num. adv. [qaattaor], 

four times. 
qnattnor, num. adj., indecl./2wr. 
-que, conj., enclitic, and. Cf. et, 

atque, and ac 
qui, quae, quod, rel. and adj. pron. 

whoy which, what, that (i lO.) 
qaia, conj. because. Cf. quod. 
quidam, quaedam, quod- or quid* 

dam, indef. pron. certain, a 

certain one, a. (308.) 
qaidem, adv. (never the first 

word), indeed, certainly, in 

truth; ne . . . quidem, not 

. . . even. 
qailibety quaelibet, quod- or quid- 

libet, indef. pron. any one (you 

please). (308, b.) 
Quinctilius, •!, m. Quinctiftus, 

family name of Varus. 
Quinctius, -1, m. Quinctius, family 

name of Cincinnatus. 
quindecim, num. adj., indecl. 

fifteen. 
qmnqu&ginta, num. adj., indecl. 

[quinque],y5^. 
qninqae, num. adj., indecl. ^z//. 
quis or qui, quae, quid or quod, 

interrog. pron. and adj. who f 

which? what? (105.) 
qnisquam, quidquam (no fem. or 

plur.), indef. pron. any, any 

one (at all). (308, b) 
qnisque, quaeque, quid- or quod- 

que, indef. pron. each one, each, 

every. (308, b.) 



qni-Tis, qoaevfs, quod- or quldvii, 
indef. pron. any om (yon 
please). (308,^.) 

qil5y adv. [qui], whither^ -wh^re. 

qaod, conj. because. Cf. quia. 

quoqae, conj. (after an emphatic 
word), also, too. 

qiiot, interrog. and rel. adj., in- 
decl. how many ? eu many as. 

qil0t-All]li8,ad V. every year, yearly. 

Racilia, -ae, f . Racilia. 

rapid, -ere, -ui, -tus, seize and 
carry off; snatch, drag-. 

re-cipi5,-€re,-cepi,-ceptus [capio], 
tahe bach, receive, recover. S€ 
recipere, withdraw, retrecU, be- 
take on^s self 

r*-cre9y -Sre, -avi, -atus [creo, 
make^ refresh, recreate. 

re-CU86, -are, -avT, -atus [causa], 
decline, refuse. 

red-d5, -ere, -did!, -ditus [re],^nv 
back, return. 

red-edy -ire, -ii, -itus [re(d)], go 
bcuk, return. (520.) 

re-dQc5, -ere, -dtix!, -ductus, lead 
back, bring back. Reduce. 

regina, -ae, f. [rego], (the ruling 
one), queen. 

rSgn5, -are, -avi, -atus [regnum, 
rex], be king; rule, reign. 

regnum, -i, n. [regno, rex], king- 
dom, throne. 

reg5, -ere, rexi, rectus [rex], rule. 
Regent. 

re-linqu5, -ere, -liquT, -lictus, leave 
behind, leave, abandon. Re- 
linquish. 

re-mitt5, -ere, -misl, -missus, send 
back, give up. Remit. 



rSmns 



269 



senitor 



rSmus, -I, m. oar* 
re-nud, -ere, -ui, , nod back- 
ward ; denyy refuse, 
reor, reri, ratus sum, reckon^ 

think, Cf. puto. 
re-perio, -ire, repperi, repertus 

Imparls, procure\findy discover ^ 

ascertain. 
re-portO, -are, -avi, -atus, bring 

backy Tvin, gain. Cf. refero. 

Report. 
re-pntOy -are, -avI, -atus (count 

over)t reckon^ think over. 
res, rei, f. things events circum- 

stance^ affair (258); res publica, 

republic, state^ commonwealth. 
re-spiciOy -ere, -spexi, -spectus 

[specie], look back. 
re-sponde5y -ere, -di, -sp5nsus 

(promise in return) ^ answer ^ 

reply f respond. 
re-stituo, -ere, -ui, -utus [statuo, 

place"] f replacCy restore. 
re-veni6, -ire, -veni, , come 

backf return. 
re-vertor, -i, -i, -sus (deponent in 

pres., imp., and fut.), turn back^ 

return. Revert. 
re-voc6, -are, -avi, -atus, call back^ 

recall ; revoke. 
rex, regis, m. [rego], (ruler), 

king. (126.) Regal. 
Rhenus, -i, m. the Rhine. 
rictus, -lis, m. [ringor, open the 

mouth'lyjaws wide open, jaws. 
rided, -ere, risi, risus, laugh. Cf. 

cachinno. Deride. 
r5bur, -oris, n. oak; strength. 
rogS, -are, -avi, -atus, ask, ques- 
tion. 
Rdnia, -ae, f. Rome. 



Rdm&nns, -i, m. [R5ma], a Ro» 

man. 
RSmulns, -i, m. Romulus, first 

king of Rome, 
rosa, -ae, f. rose. 
rdstrum, -i, n. [rodo, gnaw], 

beak of a vessel. Rostrum. 

Page 39. 
ruri (loc. of riis), in the country, 
riis, runs, n. the country. (269, a.) 
riisticus, -i, m. [rus], countryman, 

peasant. Rustic. 

Sabini, -orum, m. the Sabines. 
saepe, adv. often, frequently. 
sagitta, -ae, f. arrow. 
saliis, -litis, f. safety, welfare. 

Salutary. 
sapiens, -entis, adj. [sapi5, be 

wise], wise, sensible. 
schola, -ae, f. school. 
scientia, -ae, f. [scio], knowledge, 

skill. 
sci6, -ire, scivi, scitus, know, know 

how. Science. 
Scipid, -onis, m. Scipio, a famous 

Roman general. Page 55. 
scribo, -ere, scripsi, scriptus, 

write. Scripture. 
scriptor, -oris, m. [scribo], writer, 

author. 
sciitum, -i, n. shield. Page 76. 
secundus, -a, -um, adj. [sequor], 

following, next ; second. 
sed, conj. but. Cf. autem. 
sementis, -is, f . a sowing. 
semper, adv. always ^ ever. 
sempitemus, -a, -um, adj. [sem- 
per], everlasting, 
senator, -oris, m. [senex], sena* 

tor. 



•enitiis 



270 



tUtim 



senitns, -fts, m. [senex], council 
of elders ^ senate, 

senecttts, -utis, f. [senex], old 
age. 

seneZy senis, adj. old ; noun, old 
man. (211,499.) Senile. 

sententia, -ae, f . \^txi\xo\yOpinion ; 
purpose. 

sentid, -Ire, sens!, sensus, y>^/, 
know (by the senses) ^ see, per- 
ceive. 

septem, num. adj., indecL seven. 

septen-decim, num. adj., indecl. 
[decern], seventeen. 

septuagesimus, -a,-um, num. adj. 
[septuaginta], seventieth. 

sequor, -T, secutus sum, follow. 

sermS, -onis, m. speech, conversa- 
tion. Sermon. 

ser6, -ere, sevi, satus, sow. 

serta, -orum, n. [sero, plait"], gar- 
lands, wreaths of flowers. 

serus, -a, -um, adj. late. 

serv5, -are, -avi, -atus, save, keep, 
preserwe. 

servnSy -I, m. [servio], slave, ser- 
¥ant, 

sez, nam. adj., indecl. six. 

sezaginta, num. adj., indecl. 
[sex], sixty. 

seztus, -a, -um, num. adj. [sex], 
sixth. 

SeztuSy -"i, m. Sextus, a Roman 
first name. 

SI, conj. //, whether. 

SIC, adv. so, thus. Cf. ade5, ita, 
and tarn. 

Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily, 

signum, -1, n. mark, sign, signal. 
Page 105. 

silya, -ae, f . wood, forest. S ilvan. 



similis, -e, adj. [simul], IzJt^, r& 
sembling, similar. (19S.) 

simul, adv. [similis], at the sawu 
time. 

sine, prep. w. abl., without. 

singuli, -ae, -a, adj. onecU a time, 
one on each side, single, sepa- 
rate. 

sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left 
(hand). Sinister. 

SOcrates, -is, m. Socrates, a fa- 
mous Creek philosopher, 

s51, solis, m. (no gen. plur.), sun. 
Solar. 

S51, Solis, m. the Sun-god, 

soled, -ere, solitus sum, be accus- 
tomed, be wont, (362, a.) 

solitus, -a, -um, adj. [soleo], 
usual, customary, 

s51um, adv. [solus], alone, only. 

solus, -a, -um, adj. alone, single; 
sole. (291.) 

solvd, -ere, solvi, solutus, loose, 
loosen ; break. Solve. 

somnus, -i, m. sleep. 

Sparg5, -ere, -si, -sus, strew, scat- 
ter. Sparse. 

spatium, -I, n. room, space. 

species (-ei), f. s^ht, appearance, 
pretense. 

spectd, -are, -avi, -atus [specio, 
looli\, look at, behold, wiiniss. 
Spectacle. 

speculum, -i, n. looking-glass, 
mirror. 

sper5, -are, -avi, -atus [spes], A<^/, 
hope for. 

spes, spei, f. [spero], htpe, 

spolio, -are, -aio, -atus, rob, plun- 
der, spoil, despoil. 

statim, adv. [sto], (standing 



statua 



271 



tangS 



there\ on the spoty immediately ^ 

at once. 
statua, -ae, f. [statuo, set\ (the 

thing set up), statue, 
statura, -ae, f. [st5], stature. 
status, -us, m. [st5], station, 

position, condition. 
sto, stare, steti, status, stand. 
strepitus, -us, m. din, applause. 
strings, -ere, strinxl, strictus, 

draw tight; draw. 
stude5, -ere, -ui, [studium], 

be eager, strive earnestly, study. 
studium, -i, n. [studeo], zeal, 

eagerness ; study. 
stultus, -a, -um, 2A\. foolish. 
sub, prep. w. ace. and abl., under, 

up to. 
subeo, -Ire, -ii, -itus, go under or 

,up to, enter ; undergo. (520.) 
subito, adv. [subitus], suddenly, 

unexpectedly. 
subitus, -a, -um*, adj. [subeo], 

sudden. 
sub-mitt5, -ere, -misT, -missus, let 

down; let grow. 
sub-silio, -ire, -ui, [salio, 

leap'],Jump up. 
sub-venio, -Ire, -venT, -ventus 

(come to one's relief), help, aid, 

assist. 
suc-Kiurro, -ere, -curri, -cursus 

[sub], (run up to), help, aid, 

succor. 
sudor, -5ris, m. sweat. 
sui, reflex, pron. of himself (her- 
self itself, themselves). (245.) 
sum, esse, fui, futurus, de^ exist. 

(516.) 

sommus, -a, -um, adj. highest, 
greatest. (199.) CONSUMMATE. 



8um5, -ere, sumpsi, sumptus, take, 

take up ; assume. 
super, prep. w. ace. and abl., 

over, above, upon. 
super-iacid, -ere, -ieci, -iectus 

[iacio], throw over, cast upon, 
superior, -ius, adj. higher, su- 
perior. (199.) 
supero, -are, -avi, -atus [super], 

pass over; surpass, outdo, 

overcome, conquer. 
super-sum, -esse, -fuT, , be 

over, be leftover ; survive. (516.) 
superus, -a, -um, adj. [super], 

above. (199.) 
supplicatid, -onis, f. [supplies, 

kneel down'], supplication ; 

tha nksgiviiig. 
supremus, -a, -um, adj. last. (199.) 
sus-pendd, -ere, -di, -pensus [sub, 

pendo, hang], hang up, hang, 

suspend. 
su-spicor, -ari, -atus sum [su- 

spicio, look askance at], suspect, 

mistrust. 
sus-tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentus [sub, 

teneo], hold up, bear, endure ; 

sustain. 
suus, -a,-um, poss. adj. and pron. 

reflex, [sui], his, her, hers, its, 

theirs, their. (247.) 

T., abbreviation of Titus. 
talentum, -1, n. talent, a sum of 

money ($1132). [ita, and sic. 
tam, adv. so, so much. Cf adeo, 
tamen, adv. yet, but, nevertheless. 
tandem, adv. [tam], (just so far), 

at length, finally. 
tang5, -ere, tetigi, tactus, touch. 

Tangent. 



tantum 



272 



tie-dedm 



tantuniy adv. [tantas]» only. 

tantus, -a, -urn, adj. so greats such. 

tard5, -are, -avi, -atus, delay^ 
hinder. 

tegS, -ere, texi, tectus, cover. 

telum, -I, n. weapon. 

temere, adv. rashly^ inconsider- 
ately. 

templmn, -r, n. temple. Page 93. 

tempuSy -oris, n. time. Temporal. 

tened, -ere, -ui, tentus, hold^ keep, 
have. 

tener, -era, -erum, adj. soft, deli- 
cate^ tender. 

tentd, -are, -avi, -atus, try, at- 
tempt. 

ter, num. adv. [tres], three times, 
thrice. 

Terentia, -ae, f. Terentia, Cicero's 
wife. 

tergum, -I, n. back. 

terni, -ae, -a, distrib. num. adj. 
[tres], three each^ three on 
each side, three. 

terra, -ae, f. earth, land. Ter- 
race. 

terre5, -ere, -ui, -itus [terror], 
frighten^ alarm, terrify. 

terrestris, -€, adj. [terra], of the 
land, land'. Terrestrial. 

territus, -a, -um, adj. [p. of 
terreo] , frightened. 

terror, -oris, m. [terreo], terror, 
alarm. 

tertius, -a, -um, num. adj. [tres], 
third. 

testudd, -inis, f. [testa, shell'\, tor- 
toise ; shed or covering to protect 
besiegers, testudo. Page 148. 

Themistocles, -is, m. Themisto- 
dee, a famous Athenian. 



Tiberis, -is, m. (ace. in -im), the 

Tiber, 
Tiberius, -I, m. Tiberius, a Roman 

first name. 
tibicen, -inis, m. [tibia,/i>^, cano, 

sing], piper. 
Ticinus, -I, m. the Ticinus, a river 

of Italy. 
timed, -ere, -ui, , fear, be 

afraid of. Timid. 
Titus, -i, m. Titue, a Roman first 

name. 
toga, -ae, f. toga. Page 191. 
togatus, -a, -um,adj. [toga],r/a</ 

in the toga. 
tolero, -are, -avi, -atus, bear, en- 
dure. Tolerate. 
tolld, -ere, sustuH, sublatus, raise^ 

pick up. 
tSnsor, -oris, m. [tondeo, shear'], 

barber. 
tot, adj., indecl. so many. Cf. 

quot. 
tdtus, -a, -um, adj. whole, all, 

entire. (291.) TOTAL. 
trali5, -ere, traxi, tractus, draw, 

drag. 
tra-icid, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [trans, 

iacio], throw across, pierce. 
Tralles, -ium, f. Trallee, a town 

in Asia. 
tranquillus, -a, -um, adj. calm, 

tranquil. 
trans, prep. w. ace, across, beyond, 

over, the other side of. 
trans-e5, -Tre, -ii, -itus, go over, 

cross. (520.) Transient. 
trans-igS, -ere, -cgi, -actus [ago], 

drive through ; finish, transact, 
tre-decim, num. adj. [tres, de- 
cern], thirteen. 



trem5 



273 



V&nis 



tremSy -ere, -ui, '■ , sAa^e^ 

tremble, 

tres, tria, num. adj. three, (284.) 

trigemini, -oram, m. triplets, 

tnginta, num. adj., indecl. [tres], 
thirty, 

tristis, -e, adj. sad^ gloomy, 

triumph&lis, -e, adj. [triumphus], 
iriumphal, having enjoyed a 
triumph, 

triumphdy -are, -avi, -atus, [tri- 
umphus], celebrate a triumph. 

triumphus, -i, m. [triumpho], 
triumph. 

trucidd, -are, -avi, -atus, kill, 

tu, pers. pron. thouy you. (245.) 

tuba, -ae, f. trumpet. (19.) Page 13. 

tubicen, -inis, m. [tuba, cano, 
sing'], trumpeter. • 

tugurium, -1, n. hut, cottage, 

Tullus Hostnius, -1, m. Tullus 
Hostilius, third king of Rome. 

turn, adv. at that time, then. 

tumultus, -us, m. uproar, con- 
fusion, tumult. 

tunc, adv. [turn], at that time, then. 

turpis, -e, adj. ugly, foul; base, 
disgraceful, shameful. 

tutus, -a, -um, adj. safe. 

tuus, -a, -um, poss. adj. and pron. 
thy, thine ; your, yours (of only 
one person). (247.) 

ubi, adv. where, when. 

ullus, -a, -um, adj. [for unulus, 

dimin. of unus], any, any one. 

(291.) 
ulterior, -ius, adj. (no positive), 

further. (200.) 
filtimus, -a, -um, adj. furthest, 

last, (200.) Ultimate. 



umbra, -ae, f. shade. Umbrella. 

umerus, -1, m. shoulder, 

unde, adv. whence, 

uudique, 2A^,from all parts, on 
all sides, everywhere, 

unicus, -a, -um, adj. [unus], only, 

unus, -a, -um, num. adj. one ; 
cUone, (284.) 

urbs, -is, f. city, (152.) Sub- 
urbs. 

usus, -us, m. wse, benefit, 

ut or uti, adv. and conj. how, as, 
when; that, in order that, so 
that, 

uter, -tra, -trum, interrog. pron. 
which {of two)} (291.) 

uterque, utraque, utrumque, in- 
def. pron. ecuh (of two), both, 
(291.) 

utilis, -e, adj. [utor], useful, ad- 
vantageous. Utility. 

uti-nam, adv. would that I Othatt 
I wish that, 

utor, -1, usus sum, use, employ ; 
w. abl. (361.) 

utrimque, adv. on both sides, 

uva, -ae, f. grape, bunch of 
grapes. 

uxor, -oris, f . wife. 

vacuus, -a, -um, adj. empty, 
vacant, destitute. 

yale5, -ere, -ui, -iturus, be strong, 
be in good health ; vale, fhre- 
well, good-bye. 

yaletudo, -inis, f. [valeo], state of 
health, health. 

yalidus, -a, -um, adj. [valeo], 
strong, stout, sturdy. Valid. 

Varus, -1, m. Vwus, one of Au- 
gustuses generals. 



▼Ut6 



274 



▼ove5 



▼ftttS, 'Ire, -Svl, -itos [vbtus, 
waste, desolate], lay waste, 
ravage. 

▼eh5y -ere, vexl, vcctus, carry, 
draw, convey ; pass. ride. Ve- 
hicle. 

▼eldcitas, -atis, f. [velox], swift- 
ness, ve/oc/ty. 

vel-ut, Sidy, just as, 

Y^nator, -oris, m. [venor, Aunt], 
hunter. 

venenum, -i, n. poison. Venom. 

venid, -ire, venl, ventus» come. 

ventus, -i, m. wind. 

▼enostoSy -a, -um, adj. charming, 
beautiful, graceful. 

ver, veris, n. spring. Vernal. 

verbum, -I, n. word. Verb. 

Vergilius, -I, m. ¥ergil, a famous 
Roman poet. 

veriUlSy -atis, f. [verus], truth, 
verity. 

verts, -ere, -tl, -sus, turn, change. 

verus, -a, -um, adj. true, real. 

Vesta, -ae, f . Vesta, a goddess. 

vester, -tra, -trum, poss. adj. and 
pron. your, yours (of more 
than one person). (247.) 

▼estimentam, -i, n. [vestio], 
clothing. 

yestid, -Ire, -ivl, -itus [vestis, gar- 
ment], clothe. 

vetus, -eris, adj. old. (175, 207, 
211.) Veteran. 

yezillum, -I, n. signal-flag. 

via, -ae, f . way, road, street. 

vicinus, -a, -um, adj. [vicus, 
village], near, neighboring ; as 
a noun, neighbor. Vicinity. 

victor, -oris, m. [vi(n)c6], con- 
queror, victor. (138.) 



Vict5m, -ae, f. Victoria. 

victdria, -ae, f. [victor], victory. 

vid66, -ere, vidi, vfsus, see, per- 
ceive ; pass, be seen, s££m. 
Vision. 

viginti, num. adj., indecl. twenty. 

vinci5, -ire, vinxi, vinctos, bind. 

vincd, -ere, vici, victus, conquer, 
defeat. 

vinum, -i, n. wine. 

vir, viri, m. man^ hero. (57, 141.) 

virtus, -litis, f. [vir], manliness^ 
courage, bravery ; virtue. 

vis, vis, f. (gen. and dat. rare), 
strength, power, (499*) 

vita, -ae, f. [vivo], life; vitam 
ago, pass life. Vital. 

vitis, -is, f. vine. 

^itinm, -i, n. [vitis], {a moral 
twist), fault, blemish, vice. Cf. 
culpa. 

vitaperO, -are, -avi, , blame, 

censure. Cf. culpo. Vitu- 
peration. 

vivo, -ere, viid, , live. Cf. 

habitd and incolo. Vivid. 

vivus, -a, -um, adj. [vivo], alive, 
living. 

vix, adv. hardly, with difficulty. 

voci-feror, -ari, -atus sum [vox, 
fero], cry out, exclaim; vocif- 
erate. 

voc5, -are, avi, -atus [vox], call 

void, velle, volui, , wish, be 

willing, desire, intend. (519.) 

V0I6, -are, -avi, -aturus,^. 

Volsci, -orum, the Ifo/scians. 

VOluptas, -atis, f. [volo], pleasure, 
enjoyment. 

voveo, -ere, vovi, votus, vow, 
promise solemnly. 



▼5z 275 Zama 

▼5x, vocis, f. [voco], ¥oice, vulpes, -is, i.fox. 

word. YUltuSy -us, m. countenance, looks, 

▼nlnero, -are, -avi, -atus [vulnus], features, 
wound^ kurtt injure. Vulner- 
able. Zama, -ae, f. Zama, a town in 

vulnus, -eris, n. [vulnero], wound. Africa* 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



For the principal parts of verbs and other details not given here, reference may 
be made to the Latin-English vocabulary or to the special vocabularies, 



a, art., commonly not translated ; 

quidam, quaedam, quoddam 

(quiddam) (308). 
abandon, relinquo, 3. 
able (be), possum (296, «, 517). 
about, de, w, abl. 
absent (be), absum (516). 
abundance, c5pia, -ae,/ 
abuse, abiitor, 3, w. abl. 
accept, accipio, 3. 
account of (on), abl, of cause. 
accuse, accus5, i. 
accustomed (be), soleo, 2 (362). 
address, contidnor, i. 
admonish, mone5, 2 (512). 
adorn, 5mo, i. 
advice, consilium, -I, n. 
advise, moneo, 2 (512). 
Africa, Africa, -ae,/. 
Africanus, Africanus, -1, m. 
after, post, w. ace; cum, w. 'subj.; 

sometimes implied in participle, 
afterwards, postea, deinde. 
aid, iuvo, i. 

alarm, n. terror, -oris, m, 
alarm, v, terreo, 2. 



alas 1 eheu 1 

Alexander, Alexander, -dri, m. 
all, omnis, -e ; totus, -a, -um (292). 
alone, solus, -a, -um; iinus, -a, 

-um (291). 
also, quoque. 
altar, ara, -ae,/ 
although, cum. 
always, semper. 
ambassador, legatus, -T, tn. 
ancient, antlquus, -a, -um ; vetus. 

-eris (175, 207). 
and, et ; atque, or ac ; -que. 
anger, Ira, -ae,/ 
animal, animal, -alls, n. (148). 
another, alius, -a, -ud (292). 
any, uUus, -a, -um (291); aliquis, 

-qua, -quid, or -quod (308); 

quisquam, , quidquam 

(308, b)\ quivis (308,*). 
arm, armo, i. 
arms, anna, -orum, n. 
army, exercitus, -ds, m. 
around, circum, w. ace. 
arouse, incit5, i. 
Arpinum, Arpinimi, -i, n* 



arrow 



278 



captiTe 



arrow, sagitta, -ae,/ 

art, ars, artis,/ 

as, ut. 

as to, ut. 

Asia, Asia, -ae,/. 

ask, interrogo, i ; (for), quaero, 3. 

assault, n. impetus, -us, m. 

assault, V. oppugno, i. 

at, in, w, ace. or abl ; in combina- 
tion w. verbs {ponder aty etc.), 
see the verbs; w. names of 
towns y locative case (180). 

at once, statim. 

attack, n. impetus, -us, m. 

attack, V. oppugno, \. 

away (go), abeo (327); disced5, 3. 

away from, a or ab, w. abL; e or 
ex, w. abl. 

back (bring or carry), refero 

(521); reports, i. 
bad, malus, -a, -um (207). 
band, man us, -us,yi 
barbarian, barbarus, -i, w. 
battle, pugna, -ae, f, ; proelium, 

-i, «. 
be, sum (516). 

beak (of a ship), rostrum, -!, ;/. 
bear, fero (521) ; porto, i; tolero, 

i; (off), abduco, 3; aufero (521). 
beautiful, pulcher, -chra, -chrum. 
because, quod; quia, 
become, fio (520). 
before, ante, w. aee, 
begin, incipio, 3; ineo (521). 
Belgae, Belgae, -arum, m. 
believe, credo, 3, w. dat. 
benefit, prosum (51 S), w. dat. 
besiege, obsideo, 2; oppugno, i. 
best, optimus, -a, -um (207). 
better, melior, -us (207). 



between, inter, w, ace, 

bid, iubeo, 2. 

big, magnus, -a, -um. 

bind, vinci5, 4. 

bird, avis, -is,/. (148, e). 

black, niger, -gra, -grum. 

blame, culpa, -ae,/. 

boat, cymba, -ae,/ 

body, corpus, -oris, n. 

boldly, cum audacia. 

book, liber, -bri, m, 

booty, praeda, -ae,/ 

bom (be), nascor, 3. 

both (eaeh of two), uterque, utra- 
que, utrumque (200); both.. . . 
and, et . . . et. 

bow, arcus, -us, m. (231). 

boy, puer, -eri, m. 

brave, f9rtis, -e. 

bravely, fortiter; cum virtute. 

bravery, fortitude, -hu^,f.; virtiis, 
-utis,/ 

bring, porto, i; fero (521); to- 
gether), confers ; (up), educo, 
I ; (back), reports, i. 

Britain, Britannia, -ae,/ 

broad, latus, -a, -um. 

brother, f rater, -tris, m. 

build, aedificS, i. 

building, aedificium, -1, n. 

but, at ; autem ; sed. 

by, a, ab, w. abl. ; denoting means 
or instrument, abt. alone ; some- 
times implied in participle. 

Caesar, Caesar, -aris, m. 
call, appellS, i; voco, i; (to- 
gether), convocS, I. 
camp, castra, -orum, n. 
can, possum (296, a, 517). 
captive, captivus, -i, m. 



captnre 



279 



diligent 



capture, capio, 3. 

Capua, Capua, -ae,/ 

care, cura, -ae,/ 

carefully, cum cura. 

carry, ports, i; fero (521); (away, 

off), aufero, abduco; (back), 

refero; carry on war, beUum 

gero. 
Carthaginian, Poenus, -1, m. 
cause, praebe5, 2. 
cavalry, equitatus, -us, m. 
certain, (a), quidam, quaedam, 

quoddam (quiddam) (308); 

(^=sure)t certus, -a, -um. 
change, muto, i, 
chief, princeps, -cipis, m, 
children, pueri, -orum, m,; libe- 

ri, -orum, m. (61). 
Christ, Christus, -1, m. 
Cicero, Cicero, -onis, m, 
circumstance, res, rei,/ (258). 
citadel, arx, arcis,/. 
citizen, clvis, -is, m. and/ 
city, urbs, -is,/ 
close at hand, prope. 
clothe, vestio, 4. 
cold, frigus, -oris, n. 
come, venia, 4; (back), revenio, 

4; (out),emerg6,3; (together), 

convenio, 4. 
command, imper5, i, w. dat; iu- 

beo, 2, w. ace; praesum (516), 

w. dat. 
commander, imperator, -oris, m.\ 

dux, ducis, m. 2Sid.f. 
comi>anion, comes, -itis, m. and/ 
comrade, comes, -itis, m. and/ 
conquer, supero, i ; vinco, 3. 
consul, consul, -ulis, m. 
com, frumentum, -1, n, 
Cornelia, Cornelia, -ae,/ 



correct, corrigo, 3. 

country (fatherland), patria, -ae. 

/; terra, -ae,/; (not city), rus, 

ruris, n. 
country people, rustic!, -drum, m. 
courage, virtus, -utis,/ 
course, iter, itineris, n. (499). 
creature, bestia, -ae,/ 
cross, transeo (520). 
cultivate, colo, 3. 
cup, poculum, -i, n. 

danger, periculum, -1, n, 
dare, audeo, 2 (362). 
daring, audacia, -ae, / 
daringly, cum audacia. 
Darius, Dareus, -1, m. 
daughter, filia, -ae, / (p. 13, 

n.5). 
day, dies, -ei, m, and / (258). 
daybreak (at), prima luce, 
dear, carus, -a, -um. 
deck, omo, i. 
decree, decemo, 3. 
deep, altus, -a, -um. 
deer, cerva, -ae,/ 
defeat^ vinco, 3 ; supero, i. 
defend, defends, 3. 
delay, mora, -ae, / 
delight, delecto, i. 
Delphi, Delphi, -orum, w. 
depart, disced©, 3 ; exeo (520). 
deputy, legatus, -i, m, 
desire, vols (5i9)f cupio, 3. 
despatch, litterae, -arum,/ 
destroy, deleo, 2. 
die, morior, 3. 
difficult, difficilis, -e (198). 
difficulty (with), vix. 
diligence, diligentia, -ae, / 
diligent, diligens, -entis. 



diligenUy 



280 



fOfBL 



diligently, dlligenter; com dlU- 

gentift. 
disgracefnli turpis, -e. 
do, fads, 3 ; ago, 3. 
doabtfnl, dubius, -a, -uiq. 
dore, columba, -ae, / 
draw ap, !nstru5, 3. 
driye, ag6, 3 ; agito, i. 
Duilins, Dullius, -i, m. 
during, (=> amid) inter, 
dnty, miinus, -eiis, n. 

each (one), quisque, quaeque, 
quidque (quodque) (308, b) ; (of 
two), uterque, utraque, utnim- 
que (291). 

eager, acer, acris, acre. 

eagerly, cum studio. 

eagerness, studium, -i, n. 

earth, terra, -ae, f, 

easily, facile. 

easy, fadlis, -e (198). 

educate, educo, i. 

eighth, octavus, -a, -um. 

elder, senior, -ius (207). 

encourage, cohortor, i. 

end, finis, -is, m. (148, c). 

endure, toler5, i. 

enemy, hostis, -is, m. and // 
inimicus, -I, m, (149). 

enjoy, fruor, 3, w. abL 

Bnnius, Ennius, -1, m. 

enter, ineo (520). 

equal, par, pans. 

escape, se eripere. 

especially, maximg. 

Europe, Europa, -ae,/ 

even, etiam j ipse (304, g). 

Fabricius, Fabricius, -i, m. 
fact, res, rei,/. (258). 



fair, pulcher, -chra, -chnun. 

faithfuUy, fideUter. 

famous, clams, -a, -um. 

far, longe. 

fanner, agricola, -ae, m. 

father, pater, -tris, m, 

fault, vitium, -i, n,; culpa, -ae, 
f. ; find fault with^ vitupero, i ; 
culpo, I. 

favor, faveo, 2, w, dat. 

fear, n. terror, -oris, m, 

fear, v, timed, 2. 

few, paucT, -ae, -a. 

field, agcr, agri, m.; in th€ field, 
mHitiae (loc^, 

fight, pugno, I ; dimico, i. 

fill up, compleo, 2. 

find, reperio, 4. 

fine, pulcher, -chra, -chrum. 

finish, confici5, 3. 

fire. Ignis, -b, m, 

firmness, constahtia, -ae,/ 

first, primus, -a, -um. 

five hundred, qulngenti, -ae, -a. 

fiee, f ugio, 3. 

flight, fuga, -ae,/ 

fiower, flos, fl5ris, tn, 

follow, sequor, 3. 

fond of (be), amo, i. 

food, cibus, -1, m, 

foot, pes, pedis, m. 

foot-soldier, pedes, -itis, m. 

for, conj. nam. 

for, sign of dative ; prep.^ de, pro, 
w. abl.; of time, space, pur- 
pose, in, w. ace, 

force, man us, -us,/ 

forces, copiae, -arum,/ 

foresight, prudentia, -ae,/ 

forever, semper. 

form, fado, 3. 



fonner 



281 



high 



fonner (the), ille (loo, e), 

fortify, munio, 4. 

fortune, fortuna, -ae,/ 

forum, forum, -1, n. 

forward (go), procedo, 3; pro- 

gredior, 3. 
free, liber, -era, -erum. 
friend^ amicus, -1, tn. 
friendly, amicus, -a, -um. 
frighten, terreo, 2. 
frightened, territus, -a, -um. 
from, de, w. abl, ; away from^ a 

or ab, w. abl, ; out of^ e or ex, 

w. abl. 
furnish, praebeo, 2. 
further, ulterior, -ius (200). 

gain, reporto, i. 

Galba, Galba, -ae, m. 

garden, hortus, -1, m, 

gate, porta, -ae, / 

Gaul, Gallia, -ae, / 

Gaul (a), Gallus, -1, m, 

general, dux, ducis, m. and /.; 

imperator, -oris, m. 
Germans, German!, -orum, tn. 
get (possession of), potior, 4, w. 

abl.; (ready), paro, i. 
gift, donum, -1, n. 
girl, puella, -ae, / 
give, do, I. 
glad, laetus, -a, -um. 
go, eo (520) ; (forth, out), exeo ; 

(off, away), abeo ; discedo, 3 ; 

(on, forward), progredior, 3; 

(up to), subeo. 
god, deus, -I, tn. (499)- 
goddess, dea, -ae, /. (p. 13, n. 5). 
gold, aurum, -1, n. 
golden, aureus, -a, -um. 
good, bonus, -a, -um (500). 



good-bye, vale, valete. 
grain, friimentum, -1,* n, 
grant, do, i. 
great, magnus, -a, -um (207) j 

ingens, -entis. 
greatest, summus, -a, -um (199). 
greatly, maxime. 
Greece, Graecia, -ae, f. 
Greek (a), Graecus, -1, m. 
ground (on the), hum! (loc), 
guard, custadio, 4. 

hand, manus, -us, / 
handsome, pulcher, -chra,-chrum. 
Hannibal, Hannibal, -alis, m, 
happen, accid5, 3. 
harbor, portus, -us (231). 
harm (do), noceo, 2; obsum (395); 

w. dat. 
hasten, proper5, i. 
have, habeo, 2. 

he, is (119) ; h!c (100); ille (100). 
head, caput, -itis, n. (126) ; be at 

the head ofy praesum (516). 
health, valetudo, -inis, /. 
health (be in good), valeo^ 2. 
hear, audio, 4 (515). 
heavy, gravis, -e. 
helmet, galea, -ae, / 
help^ iuvo, I. 
Helvetia, Helvetia, -ae, /. 
Helvetians (the), Helvetii, -orum, 

tn. 
Henna, Henna, -ae, / 
her, eius (119); illius (100); re- 

flexive^ suus, -a, -um (248, b). 
hero, vir, viif, m. (141). 
hesitate, dubito, i. 
hide, late5, 2. 
high, altus, -a, -um ; superus, -a, 

-um (199). 



hifhMt 



282 



]0t 



highest, sommiis, -a, -am (199). 

hill, coUis, -is, m, 

himself, see self. 

his, eius (119) ; illius (100) ; rt- 

JUxive^ suus, -a, -um (248, b), 
history, historia, -ae, /. 
hither, citerior, -ius (200). 
hold, habeo, 2.; tened, 2; con- 

tine5, 2. 
home, domus, -us, / (499) ; at 

home, domi. 
hope, n. spes, -el, /. 
hope, V. sper5, i. 
horn, comu, -us, n. (230). 
horse, equus, -I, m. 
horseman, horse-soldier, eques, 

-itb, m. 
hostage, obses, -idis, tn. 2x16./. 
hour, hora, -ae, /. 
house, domus, -us, /. (499). 
hundred, centum. 
hunter, venator, -oris, m. 
hurt, noce5, 2, w. dat. 

I, ego (245). 

if, si; ifnot^ nisi. 

ill, adv. male (215). 

in, in, w. abl. 

incite, incito, i. 

increase, augeo, 2. 

industriously, cum diligentia. 

industry, diligentia, -ae,/ 

infantry, pedites, -um, m. ; pedi- 

tatus, -us, m. 
Infernals (the), inferi, -orum, m. 
inform, certiorem facio. 
inhabitant, incola, -ae, m. and/ 
injure, noceo, 2; obsum (516); 

w. dat. 
into, in, w. ace. 
island, insula, -ae,/ 



it, is, ea, id (119); hic, ille (100) 
Italy, Italia, -ae,/ 
itself, see self. 

javelin, pilum, -i, n. 
jewel, dmamentum, -i, n. 
joy, gaudium, -i, n. 
joyfully, cum gaudio. 
Jupiter, luppiter, lovis, m. (499) 
just, iustus, -a, -um. 

keep, habed, 2 ; teneo, 2. 

keep off, arced, 2. 

kill, neco, i ; interficio, 3- 

king, rex, regis, m. 

know, scio, 4 ; (not), nesdo, 4. 

known, notus, -a, -um. 

Labienus, Labienus, -1, m. 

labor, n. labor, -oris, m. 

labor, V. laboro, i. 

lack, desum (516); careo, 2. 

land, terra, -ae,/ 

large, magnus, -a, -um (207). 

last, supremus, -a, -um (199) r 

ultimus, -a, -um (209). 
latter (the), hie, haec, hoc (100,^). 
laugh, rideo, 2 ; (aloud), cachin- 

no, I. 
laziness, pigritia, -ae,/ 
lazy, piger, -gra, -grum. 
lead, duco, 3; (out, forth, off), 

ediico, 3. 
leader, dux, ducis, m. and /; 

princeps, -ipis, m. 
leaf, folium, -i, n. 
learn, disco, 3. 

left (hand), sinister, -tra, -trum. 
legate, legatus, -i, m. 
legion, legio, -onis,/ 
let, sign o/suly\ or imperative. 



letter 



283 



nor 



letter, epistula, -ae, f, ; litterae, 

-arum,y! 
lie (= recline) ^ iaceo, 2, 
lieutenant, legatus, -i, vi. 
life, vita, -ae,/ 
light, adj. levis, -e. 
light, n. lux, lucis,y. 
like, similis, -e (19S.) 
line of battle, acies, -ei, / 
little, parvus, -a, -um. " 
live, VIVO, 3; habits, i. 
lon^y longus, -a, -um ; for a long, 

limey longy diu. 
look (at), specto, i ; (out for), 

euro, I. 
love, amo, i (511). 
lower, Inferior, -ius (199). 
luckily, feliciter. 

maiden, maid, puella,-ae,/. (ser- 
vant), ancilla, -ae,/. 

make, faci5, 3. 

man, vir, viri, m. (57); homo, 
-inis, m. (141). 

many, multi, -ae, -a. 

march, via, -ae, /; iter, itine- 
ris, n. (499). 

Marcus, Marcus, -1, tn. 

Marius, Marius, -1, tn. 

master, dominus, -1, m.; magis- 
ter, -tri, tn. (61). 

mean, habeo in anim5. 

means {by means of)^ use abl. 

meantime (in the), interim. 

meanwhile, interim. 

Mercury, Mercurius, -T, m. 

merry, laetus, -a, -um. 

messenger, nuntius, -I, vi. 

mind, animus, -1, m. 

mine, meus, -a, -um (247). 

Minervai Minerva, -ae,/ 



money, pecunia, -ae,/ 

month, mensis, -is, m, 

moon, luna, -ae,/ 

more, plus (208) ; magis. 

most, plurimus, -a, -um (207). 

mother, mater, -tris,/ 

mountain, mons, montis, m. 

mourn, lugeo, 2. 

move, moveo, 2. 

much, multus, -a, -um (207). 

multitude, multitudd, -inis,/ 

Muse, Musa, -ae,/ 

must, expressed by gerundive. 

my, meus, -a, -um (247). 

name, n5men, -inis, n, 

narrow, angustus, -a, -um. 

Nasica, Nasica, -ae, m. 

near, ad, w. ace; prope, w. ace, 

near by, at hand, prope. 

nearer, propior, -ius (200). 

neighbor, vicinus, -I, m, 

neither, neque. 

neither (of two), neuter, -tra, 
-trum (291). 

never, numquam. 

nevertheless, tamen. 

new, novus, -a, -um. 

next, posterus, -a, -um; postre- 
mus, -a, -um (199). 

nibble, carpo, 3. » 

night, nox, noctis,/ 

Nile (the), Nflus, -i, tn. 

nine, novem. 

ninth, ndnus, -a, -um. ^ 

no, null us, -a, -um (291). 

nobody, no one, nemo, -inis, tn. 
and/; llial no one (tug. pur- 
pose) ^ ne quis. 

no longer, iam, w. neg. 

nor, neque. 



not 



2d4 



pnniali 



not, ndn; ne. 
nothing, nihil, ituUcl, 
now, nunc ; iam. 
number, numerus, -i, m» 

oar, rem us, -i, m. 

obey, pareo, 2, w. dat. 

of, sign of genitive; dc, w, abl.; 

out ofyt or cx.^ w. abl. 
offer, n. pr5positum, -T, n. 
offer, V. prdp5no, 3. 
often, saepe. 
Oh! O. 
old, antiquus, -a, -urn ; vetus, -eris 

(175, 206, 211); (man), senex, 

senis (499). 
on, in, w. abl. ; (oftime)^ abl. 
once (upon a time), 51im. 
one, unus, -a, -um (284) ; one . . . 

another , alius . . . alius ; the one 

. . . the other ^ alter . . . alter, 
only, tan turn. 
oped, aperi5, 4. 
order, impero, i, w. dat.; iubeo, 

2, w. ace. ; in order to, ut, w. 

sub/. 
other, alius, -a, -ud (292); some 

. . . others, alii . . . alii; {of 

two), alter, -era, -erum. 
ought, debeo, 2 ; gerundive. 
our, noster, -tra, -trum. 
ourselves, see self. [the verbs. 
out, in combination w. verbs, see 
out of, e or ex, w. abl. 
overcome, vinco, 3; super5, i. 
overwhelm, supers, i. 
own (his, her, their), suus, -a, 

-um; (my), mens, -a, -um; (our), 

noster, -tra, -trum; (your), 

vester, -tra, -trum ; (thy), tuus, 

-a, -um (247). 



parent, parens, -entis, m. and/ 
Pann^nio, Parmenid, -5nis, nt, 
part, pars, partis,/, 
patience, patientia, -ae,/ [entia. 
patiently, patienter; cum pati- 
peace, pax, pacis,/ 
peasant, nisticus, -1, m. 
people, populus, -!, m. 
perform, f ungor, 3, w. abl. 
peril, periculum, -i, n. 
permit, permittS, 3, w. dat. 
•persuade, persuadeo, 2, vj. dat. 
physician, medicus, -1, m. 
pitch (camp), pono, 3. 
place, locus, •!, m. (242); in 

that place, ibi. 
plain, planities, -ei,/. 
pleasant, gratus, -a, -um. 
please, place5, 2, w. dat. 
pleasing, gratus, -a, -um. 
plough, n. aratrum, -i, n. 
plough, V. aro, i. 
pluck, carpo, 3. 
Pluto, Pluto, -onis, m. 
Po (the), Padus, -i, m. 
poet, poeta, -ae, m. 
Pompey, Pompeius, Pompei, m. 
poor, miser, -era, -erum. 
praise, n. laus, laudis,/ 
praise, v. laudo, i. 
prefer, malo (519). 
present (be), adsum (516), w. dat. 
presently, mox. 
preserve, conservo, i. 
pretty, pulcher, -chra, -chrum. 
Proserpine, Proserpina, -ae,/ 
protect, tego, 3. 
province, provincia, -ae,/ 
prudence, prudentia, -ae,/ 
prudent, prudens, -entis. 
punish, puni5, 4. 



punishment 



285 



sleep 



punishment, poena, -ae,/ 
purpose {for the purpose of), ut 

or qui, w. sub;, ; ad, w. gerund 

or gerundive ; causa, w. gerund 

or gerundive ; supine. 
put, pono, 3; (to death), inter- 

ficio, 3 J (to flight), fugo, I. 

queen, regina, -ae,/. 
question, interrogo, i. 

rather, comp. degree ; wish rather y 

malo (519). 
read, lego, 3. 
receive, recipio, 3; accipio, 3; 

excipio, 3. 
refresh, recreo, i. 
reign, regno, i. 
rejoice, gaudeo, 2. 
remain, maneo, 2. 
remove (= emigrate)^ dejnigr5, i. 
render, praebe5, 2. 
renown, f ama, -ae,/.; gloria, -ae,/. 
reply, respondeo, 2. 
return, redeo (520); revertor, 3. 
reward, praemium, -1, n. 
riches, divitiae, -arum,/ 
right (hand), dexter, --tra, -trum. 
river, flumen, -inis, «. 
road, via, -ae,/ 
Roman, Rom anus, -a, -um. 
Rome, Roma, -ae,/ 
Romulus, Romulus, -T, tn, 
rose, rosa, -ae,/ 
rout, fugo, I. 
rule, n, imperium, -1, n. 
rule, V, rego, 3 (513); regno, i. 

Sabines, Sablnl, -orum, m, 

sad, tristis, -e ; maestus, -a, -um. 

safe, tutus, -a, -um. 



safety, salus, -utis,/ 

sailor, nauta, -ae, m, 

sake {for the sake), causa, w. gen 

same, idem, eadem, idem (303). 

save, servo, i; conserve, i. 

say, dico, 3^; inquit. 

Scipio, Scipio, -onis, m. 

sea, mare, -is, n. 

second, secundus, -a, -um. 

see, video, 2. 

seem, videor, 2. 

seize, occupo, i. 

self, ipse, -a, -um (303); sul (245). 

senate, senatus, -us, m. 

send, mitto, 3. 

servant, servus, -i, tn. 

set (out), proficTscor, 3; (free), 

libero, I. 
seventeen, septendecim. 
seventh, septimus, -a, -um. 
Seztus, Sextus, -1, tn. 
shake, agito, i. 
share, dispertid, 4. 
she, ea ( 1 1 9, ^) ; haec, ilia (100,/). 
shield, scutum, -1, n. 
ship, navis, -is,/ (149)- 
short, brevis, -e. 
shrewd, acer, -cris, -ere. 
sick, aeger, -gra, -grum. 
side (on the other side of), trans, 

w. ace. 
since, cum, w. subj. ; sometimes 

implied in participle, 
sixth, sextus, -a, -um. 
sixty, sexaginta. 
size, magnitudo, -inis,/ 
skill, scientia, -ae,/ 
skillful, skilled, perftus, -a, -um. 
slave, servus, -1, tn. 
slay, neco, i; interficio, 3. 
sleep, somnus, -i, m. 



286 



their 



•nuUy parvus, -a, -urn. 

80, ita; Um; (sreat). tantus, -a, 
•um; (that), ut; (at not to), at 
non ; ne. 

soldier, miles, -itis, m. 

some (one), aliquis, -qua, -quid, 
-quod(3oS); quidam, quaedam, 
quod- or quiddam; somg . . . 
others^ alii. . .alii; {of two par- 
ties)^ alteri. . . alter! ; often not 
expressed. 

something, aliquid. 

sometimes, interdum. 

son, filius, -i, m. (495). 

soon, mox. 

source, fons, fontis, i». 

sowing, semen tis, -is, /I 

space, spatium, -i, n. 

Spain, Hispania, -ae,/ 

spear, hasta, -ae,/. 

speedily, cum celeritate, celeriter. 

spirit, animus, -i, m. 

spirited, acer, -cris, -ere. 

•pur, calcar, -aris, n. 

state, civitas, -atis,/.; res publica, 
rei publicae, /. 

statue, statua, -ae, / 

stature, statura, -ae, /; magni- 
tudo corporis. 

stay, maneo, 2. 

stone, lapis, -idis, tn, 

story, fabula, -ae,/ 

still, adv. tamen. 

strange, mlrabilis, -e. 

street, via, -ae,/. 

strong, validus, -a, -um ; fortis, -e. 

sturdy, validus, -a, -um. 

subdue, pacd, i. 

successfully, optime; feliciter. 

suddenly, subito. 

•ufEer, tolera, i ; Iab5r5, i. 



summer, aestas, -itis,/C 
tun, sol, solis, tn. 
superior, superior, -ius (199). 
sure (be), fac, fadte, to. at. 
surpass, superd, i. 
survive, supersum (516). 
swiftly, celeriter. 
sword, gladius, -1, m. 

table, mensa, -ae,/. 

take, capio, 3; occup5, i; sim^ 
3; (by storm), expugno, i. 

talent, talentum, -i, n. 

tale, fabula, -ae,/ 

tall, altus, -a, -um. 

task, pensum, -1, n. 

taste, gusto, i. 

tell, narro, i ; dlco, 3. 

temple, templum,-!, n, 

ten, decem. 

tender, tener, -era, -crum. 

tenth, decimus, -a, -um. 

terrify, terreo, 2. 

territories, fines, -ium, m, 

terror, terror, -oris, tn. 

testudo, testiido, -inis,/ 

than, quam; abl. (194). 

thanksgiving, supplicatid, -onis,/ 

that, conj. (in purpose or result 
clauses), ut; (after verbs of 
fearing), ne ; (not), ne ; ut non ; 
(after verbs of fearing), ut ; (after 
verbs of saying and the like), 
not translated. 

that, demon, pron., is, ea, id (i 19); 
ille, -a, -ud (100); iste, -a, -ud 
(303); rel. pron., qui, quae, 
quod (no). [ea, id (119). 

the, commonly not expressed ; is, 

their, gen. plur. of is; reflexive, 
suus, -a, -um (247). 



themselTes 



287 



ware 



tliemselYes, see self. 

then, turn. 

there, ibi; as an expletive, not 

translated, 
therefore, igitur. 
thing, res, rei, /.; sometimes 

omitted, 
think, puto, i. 
thirteen, tredecim. 
thirty, triginta. 

this, is, ea, id (119); hie, haec, 
h5c (100). 

though, cum, w. subj.; sometimes 
implied in participle. 

thousand, mille (284, d), 

three, tres, tria (284). 

three hundred, trecenti, -ae, -a. 

through, per, w. ace. 

throw, iacio, 3. 

thus, ita. 

Ticinus (the), Ticlnus, -i, m. 

time, tempus, -oris, //. 

tired, tired out, defessus, -a, -um. 

to, sign of dative ; ad, in, w. ace; 
(expressing purpose), ut, w. 
sub;'. ; ad, w. gerund or gerun- 
dive; causa, w. gerund or 
gerundive; supine. 

to-day, hodie. 

together with, cum, w. abl. 

toil, laboro, i. 

touch, tango, 3. 

towards, ad, in, w. ace. 

town, oppidum, -i, n. 

townsman, oppidanus, 1, m. 

train, educ5, i. 

triumph, triumphus, •!, m. 

troops, copiae, -arum,/ 

true, verus, -a, -um. 

trumpet, tuba, -ae,/. 

tmnipeter, tubicen, -inis, m* 



trust, fido, 3 (363). 

try, tento, i. 

turn, fleets, 3. 

twenty, vigind. 

two, duo, -ae, -o; (Whidi of), 
uter, -tra, -trumj (each of), 
uterque, utraque, utrumque. 

under, sub, w. ace. and abl. 
undergo, subeo (520). 
unknown, incognitus, -a, -um. 
unlike, dissimilis, -e (198). 
unwilling (be), nolo (519). 
up, in combination w. verbs, see 

the verbs. 
upon, in, w. ace. or abl. 
use, utor, 3 ; w. abl. 
useful, utilis, -e. 

yalor, virtus, -utis,/ 

vanquish, vinco, 3. 

vehemently, graviter. 

Vergil, Vergilius, -i, m. 

very, superl. degree ; ipse, -a, -um. 

victor, victor, -oris, m. 

victory, victoria, -ae,/. 

vine, vltis, -is,/ 

virtue^ virtus, -utis,/ 

voice, vox, vocis,/ 

wage (war), gero, 3. 

walk (= 'take a walk), ambulo, i. 

wall, murus, -I, m.; moenia, 

-ium, n. 
wander through, peragr5, i. 
want (= wish), vols (519); (= 

lack), careo, 2, w. abl. ; desum. 
war, bellum, -I, n. 
warn, mone5, 2. 
water, aqua, -ae,/ 
wave, fluctus, -iis, m. 



way 



288 



zealooaly 



way, via, -ae, /.; iter, itineris, n. 

weapon, tclum, -!, n. 

weary, defessus, -a, -urn. 

well, bene (215). 

what, inUrrog.^ quis, quae, quid 

(quod) (105). 
when, cum, ubl 
whence, unde. 
where, ubl 
whether, num. 
which, qui, quae, quod (no); (of 

tw0)t uter, utra, utrum (291). 
while, dum; sometimes implied 

in participle, 
white, albus, -a, -um. 
whither, quo. 
who, rel.f qui, quae (no); in- 

terrog.y quis, quae (105). 
whole, totus, -a, -um (291). 
why, cur. 

wide, latus, -a, -um. 
wife, uxor, -oris,/, 
wild beast, fera, -ae,/ 
willing (be), vol5 (519). 
win, reports, i. 
wine, vinum, -I, n. 
wing (of an army), comu, -us, n. 
winter-quarters, hibema, -orum, n. 
wisdom, prudentia, -ae,/. 
wise, sapiens, -entis; prudens 

-en'tis. 
wish, V0I6 (519); (not) nolo 

(519). 



with, cum, ter. abl,; sometimes 

abl. alone, 
withdraw, discedo, 3. 
without, sine, w. abl, [-eris,/. 
woman, femina, -ae,/; mulier, 
wonder, wonder at, miror, i. 
wont (be), soleo, 2 (362). 
woods, silva, -ae,/ 
word, verbum, -I, n. ; vox, vods,/ 
work, laboro, i. 
world, orbis terrarum. 
worse, peior, -ius (207). 
would that, utinam. 
wound, n, vulnus, -eris, n. 
wound, V, vulnerd, i. 
write, scrlbo, 3. 
writer, scriptor, -oris, «. 

year, annus, -1, m, 

yesterday, heri. 

yonder (that), iUe, -a, -ud (100, c), 

you, sing, tu ; plur. vos (245). 

young, iuvenis, -e (207). 

young man, youth, adulescens, 

-entis, m, ; iuvenis, -is, m. 
your, sing, tuus, -a, -um ; plur. 

vester, -tra, -trum (247). 
yourselves, see self. 
youth (body of), inventus, -Stis,/ 

Zama, Zama, -ae,/ 
zeal, studium, -T, n. 
zealously, cum studio. 



INDEX. 



a declension of nouns, 14-19. 

Z verbs, 71-74, 88-91. 

Z and ab with ablative of agent, 75, 76. 

•bUtlre case. la. 

absolute, 387, 388. 

of accompaniment, 241. 

of agent, 76, 133, /. 

of cause, 132, 133, 4, 

of degree of difference, 209, 0, a 10. 

of description, 139, 0, 140. 

of manner, 93, 133, 3. 

of means or instnmient, 84, 133, 2, 

of separation, 412, 413. 

of specification, 167, a, 16S. 

of time, 154, «, 155. 

with prepositions, 405. 

with utor./ruor, etc., 360, 361. 
ablatire of adjectives of third declen- 
sion, 163, c. 

singular of adjectives used as adverbs, 
214, e. 
ibuB in dative and ablative of first de- 
clension, p. 13, n. 5. 
accent, 9. 

in contracted genitive of nouns in 
li«, 59. 
acenBatlre case, 12. 

of extent, 259, <x, 260. 

like nom. in neuter nouns, 126, c. 

object of transitive verbs, 23. 

of place whither, 269. 

singular of adjectives as adverb, 
214, d. 



subject of the infinitive, 299. 

in indirect discourse, 317-320. 
ieer, decl., 163, 501 ; comparison, 191. 
a^eetlTeg of first and second decl. 49. 

of third declension, 163. 

irregular (gen. in lus), 291, 292. 

comparison, 190-194, 198-201, 207, 
208; meaning of comparative and 
superlative, 194, c. 

declension of comparatives, 192. 

irregular comparison, 198-200, 504. 

comparison by adverbs, aoi. 

positive wanting, 200, 504. 

interrogative adjectives, 107. 

possessives, 247. 

predicate, 50, a. 

with complementary infinitive, 298. 

in the plural without a noun, p. 44,n. 3. 

with nouns : agreement, 53 ; order, 
32, Cy p^. 22, n. 2. 

with ablative of accompaniment, 241,0. 

of description, 139, a, 140. 

of manner, 93. 

with dative, 27, c. 
adverbs, formation, 214. 

comparison, 215. 

in place of positives of adjectives, 
200, 504. 
ae^r, declension, 500. 
agent, answers the question by whom f 
133, /. 

expressed by ablative with a or 0^,76. 

with the gerundive, 465, c, 466. 
ager, declension, 57, 495. 
agreement of adjectives, 53. « 



appotiUTes 



290 



oonBOiuuit 



appotltiYet, 4$. 

predicate nouns, 37. 

relative pronouns, 113. 
•IMimliy declension, 308, 510. 
allaty declension, 293, 50a. 
tllat • • . alias (alii • • • alii), mean- 
ing, 292, a. 
alphabet, 1. 

alter • • . alter, meaning, 29s, a, 
altior, declension, 192, 503. 
altaty comparison, 191. 
aaio, conjugation, 511. 
aainal* declension, 148, 496. 
aateeedent of relative pronouns, 248. 

<^ clause of characteristic, 432, h. 
aatepenalt, 7, j ; when accented, 9, a. 
appeaU, 443, 444. 
appotlUoBy 44, 45. 
arraageiiieat of words in Latin sen- 

tence, 32. 
article, none in Latin, 16, b. 
an, declension, 152, 496. 
aadix, declension, 163, 501 ; compari- 
son, 191. 
aadio, conjugation, 515. 
aTis, declined like tgniSf 148, c. 



bonl, as noun, p. 44, n. 2. 

bonas, declension, 500; comparison, 
207. 

bos, declension, 499. 

breris, declension, 163, 501 ; compari- 
son, 191. 



calear, declension, 148, 496. 
eapio, conjugation, 514. 
eapnt, declension, 126, 496. 
cardinals, table of, 505. 
indeclinable from quattuor to ceniumt 

case of relative pronouns, 113. 

eases, names, 12 [see under nominative, 

genitive, etc.]. 
eaasal clauses, with cwm, 434, 435; 

relative, 432, 433- 



eaase^ expressed bjr the abladre, zjs, 

3?8. 
eharaderistle ablative [see ablative of 
description], 140. 
relative clauses, 432, 433. 
charaeteristle rowels of the four con- 
jugations, 337. 
cItIs, declined like i^^nis, 148, c. 
elaases, final, 253, d, 
of purpose, 254. 
relative (of purpose, characteristic, 

etc.), 43a, 433- 
with cum^ wken^ 381, 382. 
cUSas, declension, 152, 496. 
eolloqaia: for practice on pronuncia- 
tion, etc., II, 26, 41. 
Duopueri^ 70. 

Frittr et Sor9rcidat 137, 162, 289. 
Pater tt Filiolus^ 79* 219, 367. 
Praeceptor et DisciptdtUt 147, 264. 
Sdcraiis et RkadamaMthus, 431. 
TUyrm et Meliboeus^ 416. 
coauaaads, 443, 444. 
COBiparatlTe, declined, 192 ; plus, de- 
clined, 208. 
followed by the ablative, 194. 
meaning too^ 194, c. 
comparisoa of adjectives, 190-194, 198- 
201, 207, 208. 
irregular, 198-201, 207. 
by adverbs, 201. 
six adjectives in /<>, 198. 
irregular superlatives, 199. 
positive wanting, 200. 
of adverbs, 215. 
ablative of, 194. 
componad tenses often omit^i/, p. 106, 

n.4. 
eoaditional seateaces, 448. 
present and past time with nothing . 

implied, 449, 450. 
contrary to fact, 450, B, 451. 
future time, 451 , C, D, 452. 
coaJngatloB. See verbs, 
consilinm, genitive in f, 59; declen- 
sion, 495. 
coBSonaat 1, a. 



stems 



291 



conditions 



stems, how named, 135. 
ponsonmatiy 7, a, 3. 

how pronounced, 6. 
eonmily declension, 138, 496. 
eontrmetloii in perfect and cognate 
tenses when v is lost, 337, b. 

in genitive of nouns in mm and cwf, 

59- 

vowel resulting from contraction, 8, 3. 
Gomn, declension, 330, 497. 
corpus, declension, 138, 496. 
cnm, with abl. of accompanimei^t, 341. 

with ablative of manner, 93. 

joined to ablative of personal pro- 
nouns, 246, e, 

in clauses of time, 381, 383. 

causal and concessive, 432-435. 



dative ease, 13. 

of agent, 465, c, 466. 

with adjectives, 37, 3. 

Dirith compound verbs, 397. 

with compounds of sum, 397, a. 

double dative, 399, a, 

of indirect object, aS. 

of possession, 39. 

of service, 398, 399. 

with intransitive verbs, 373. 
dea, dat. and abl. plural of, p. 13, n. 5. 
declension. See nouns and adjectives. 

of adjectives of first and second de- 
clensions, 49-52. 

of third declension adjectives, 163. 

of comparatives, 193. 
degree of dilTereiiee expressed by the 

ablative, 209, 0, 210. 
demonitratiTe adjs. and pronouns, loz, 
a. See hlc, Uiem, me, i^se^ is, isU. 
deriratiom, 343-350. 
descriptive abl. and gen., 139, a, 140. 
deus, declension, 499. 
dies, declension, 258, 498 ; gender, 357. 
diphthongs, how pronounced, 5 ; are 

long, 8, 3. 
direct Btatememti, 317. 
do«i as locative, 333. 



domnm, used of place whither, 369, a. 
doBMt, declension, 499 ; gender, 329, 9. 

construction of, 407, a, 408. 
doanm, declension, 43, 495. 
die for duce, p. 86, n. 
dnm with present ind., p. 87, n. i. 
duo, declension, 384, 50s. 



5 verbs, 173-174, 184-187. 

ego, declension, 345, 506. 
precedes pronouns of the second per- 
son, p. 96, n. 4. 

Siai compared with suus, 348, b. 

enclitics, 9, 3. 

Eaglish Method of pronunciation, 10. 

eo, conjugation, 404, 520. 

est often omitted, p. 106, n. 4. 

extent of time or space, how expressed, 
359, a, 260. 



fkbles : Mulitr et Gdttina, 481. 

Puer MendOx, 484. 

RusticMs et Canis FidHis, 483. 

Senex et Mors, 485. 

Vulpis et Led, 486. 

Vnlpis et Uva, 483. 
fae lor /ace, p. 103, n. 
fearing, verbs of, 333. 
feminine gender, rule, 13, 2, 
fero, conjugation, 425, 521. 
filia, dedension of, p. 13, n. 5. 
fllins, vocative, 59, 495, a. 

declension, 495. 
final clauses, 253, d. 
finis, declined like ignis, 148, c, 
finite verb, p. 10, n. 
ffo, conjugation, 425, 52a 
formatiom of words, 342-350. 
fraor, followed by the ablative, 361. 
ftingor, followed by the ablative, 361. 
ftitiire active participle in intransitive 
verbs, p. 96, n. i. 

conditions (more and less vivid), 451. 
45»- 



I^ondof 



292 



feainry rules, 13. 

of fint declension, p. 7. 

of second declension, 4a. 

<^ third declension, 159. 

of fotirth declension, tag. 

of fifth declension, 357. 
^BitlTe CAie, xa. 

descriptive, 139, a, 140. 

partitive, 303. 

with nouns, 36. 
gemnd is a verbal noun, 471. 

nominative supplied by the inf., 471. 

««c. 472, 474- 
^rnndlTe implies necessity, duty, or 
obligation, 465, a. 
takes the dative of agent, 465* ^1 466. 
used as a verbal adjective, 473, 474. 
used with o^to express purpose, 474 c. 
used with sum to form the Second 
Periphrastic Conjugation, 464. 
gradni) declension, 330, 497. 

H 

hie, declension, 100, 507. 
Jiow related to is and iUe, 119, i. 

as a personal pronoun, 245, a. 
lioniOy declension, 138, 496. 

distinguished from v«r, 141. 
hortas, declension, 43, 495, 
liostis, declension, 148, 496. 

distinguished from inimlcust 149. 

I 

I with force of a consonant before a 

vowel, 2. 
idem, declension, 303, 507 ; use, 304, «,/. 
igitur, postpositive, p. 33, n. 2. 
ignis, declension, 148, 496. 
file, declension, 100, 507. 

common uses, 100, c-/. 

as personal pronoun, 245, a. 
imperatiTe in commands, 443, 444. 
Impersonal nse of verbs, 465, b, 
in with accusative and ablative, 405, ^, c. 
indefinite anteeedent of relative 

clauses of characteristic, 432, b. 
indirect diicoorse, 317-320. 



model sentences, 317, 3x9. 

rule, 318. 
Udireet oljeet, case of, aS. 
Indirect qneetloni, 420, 421. 
InllnltiTe, complementary, 397, 6. 

in indirect discourse, 317, 318. 

tenses in indirect discourse, 319, 320. 

used as in English, 397. 

not used to express purpose, 254, «• 

regarded as a neuter noun, p. 81, n. 3. 

takes a subject accusative, 299. 

in c<Mnpound forms esse is olfcen 
omitted, p. 133, n. i. 
Inimlcni, distinguished from kostis, 149- 
InftmmentAl ablative, 84. 

amswers the question by wkt^f 133, 2. 
Interrogative adjectives, 107, a, 3, c. 

pronouns, 105-107 ; declined, 105, 509. 

table of meanings, 106. 

review sentences, 117, 1x8. 

words introducing indirect ques t i on s, 

42X,«, ^. 

Interrogo, compared with quaeiniy 422. 
Intransitive verbs followed by dative, 

37s. 
io, verbs in i? of the third conjugatioa, 

365-267. 
Ipse, declension, 303, 507. 
used for emphasis, 304, g, 
distinguished from «?, 304, g. 
irregniar adjectives (genitive in ws\ 
291, 292, 502. 
comparison: of adjectives, 198-aoo, 

207, 504 ; of adverbs, 215, ^. 
verbs: ed, 404, 520; fer9 and/*?, 
425, 520, 521 ; possum and prosuMt 
395. 5x8 ; 'o<^t '«^» mild, 368-370, 
519- 
Is, declension, 119, 507. 
common uses, x2o. 
used as a personal pronoun, 245, a. 
relation to hie and t£Sr, xx9, b. 
iste, declension, 303, 507 ; uses of, 304, 

^/. 
iter, declension, 499. 
Inppiter, declension, 499. 
InTcnis, comparison, 307. 



Upis 



293 



participles 



laplty declension, 130, 496. 
ltber» declension, 500. 
liqalds, 3. 
liquid gtemg, 125, 138. 

declension, 138, 496. 
loeatiTe ease, 12. 

endings, 180, b. 

in what words used, 180, a. 



mSQ, conjugation, 368-370,519. 
malag, comparison, 207. 
mignas, comparison, 207. 
Manlier^ how expressed, 92, a, 93. 
ablative of, answers the question hew f 

133, J. 
manaty gender, 229, a. 
mare, declension, 148, 496. 
maiealiiie, rule of gender, 13, /. 
means, denoted by the ablative, 84. 
ablative of, answers the question iy 

what t 83, «, 133, 2. 
Merenriag, has a vocative in i, 59. 
mHeSy declension, 126, 496. 
mlUe, declension, 284. 
miser, comparison, 191. 
moneo, conjugation, 512. 
mnlta, used as a noun, p. 44, n. a. 
mnltos, comparison, 207. 
mute, 3. 

followed by a liquid, 8, 5. 
mate stems, 125 ; declension, 126, 130^ 

b5 = thai {lest), 333, a. 
as negative of wishes and appeals, 
4411 tf ; 444. «• 
-Be, enclitic, 9, 3. 

when not used, p. 39, n. 
nS n5m used instead of «^, 333, b. 
Beater. See nouns. 
■iz, declension, 499. 
BoeeO, intrans., and governs dat., 371. 
B0I8, conjugation, 368-370, 519. 
» the imperatives ndti and ndllte in neg- 
ative appeals or commands, 444, b. 



momlBatlye ease, 12. 

subject of a finite verb, 22. 

in the third declension has a different 
vowel from the stem, 126, a. 

drops the final letter of the stem before 
*, 130, a. 

of pronouns expressed only for em- 
phasis or contrast, 246, a. 

predicate nominative, 37. 
■5nne expects the answer yes, p. 15, n. 
n5s declension, 245, 506. 
nostrum is chiefly partitive, 246, d. 
nouBS, neuters have accusative like 
nominative, 126, c. 

order of noun and adjective, 32, c, p. 

^ 22, n. 2. 

predicate nouns, 36, 37. 

rules of gender, 13. 
BOX, declension, 152, 496. 
nubes, declension, 148, 496. 
Bum in questions, 421, ^. 
Bumerals, 284, 290; given in 505. 



O-stems (second declension), 42, 43, 

57-59. 
object of a transitive verb, 23. 

indirect object, 28. 
optative subjunctive, 442. c. 
order of woiyis in Latin, 32, 33. 
ordiuais, 505 ; declined like bonus, 290. 



paroBS, genitive plural of, 152, a. 
pared intransitive, 371, a. 
participles, agreement, 89, 352. 
declension, 352. 
equivalents in English, 353, c. 
force of, 353, a, b. 

future used with sum to form the peri- 
phrastic conjugations, 461, 464. 
have no present passive or perfect 

active, 351. 
in deponent verbs, 359. 
perfect of in deponent verbs, 359, a. 
sometimes rendered as a present, p- 
197, n. 13. 



partidplM 



294 



qv6 



parttdplety with t»tm, 353, d. 

uses in general, 353. 
partitlre genidye, 203. 
parmiy how compved, 207. 
pftMlTe, compound forms, 89. 

the agent expressed by the abktiYe 
with J or iU, 76. 
pater, declension, 138, 496. 
peBBlt, 7, J ; when accented, 9, a. 
perfect tense: loss of 9 in, when contrac- 
tion may take place, 337, i. 

subjunctive in appeals and commands 
See 9^MOpartici^s. 
periphraatie conjugations, 462-466. 
person of relative pronouns, 348. 
personal pronouns. See prououm. 
pertnadeO) intransitive, 371, a, 
pes, declension, 130, 496. 
place, where, whence, 406^ 407. 

whither, 369, 406, 407. 
placed, intransitive, 371, «. 
pliTs, declension, 208, 503. 
portas, irregular dative and ablative 

plural, 231. 
possesslre adjectives, 247. 

dative, 29. 
posBSM, how compounded, 396, a. 

conjugation, 517. 
postposltlre words, p. 33, n. s. 
potior governs the ablative, 361. 
predicate nouns (nominative), 36, 37. 
prefixes, their force, 350. 
prepositiOBS which govern the ablar 
tive, 405. 

used as the positive of adjs., 200^ 

504. 

present participle declined, 353. 

primary tenses, 418, a. 

prlnceps, declension, 136, 496. 

principal parts of verbs, p. 36, n. 

pronoans, demonstrative : kic and t2Sr, 
100, loi, declension, 100, 507 ; u, 
119; uses, 119, 0, b, <r, i3o; relation 
to hie and ilUt 119, b; uU, idetHf 
ipse, 303, 507 ; tises, 304. 
indefinite, oliquiszxiAquidam, declen- 
sion, 308, 510; quisquam, qutlibet^ 



f$a&is, qtrnqm, how declined, 308. 
b\ gmd^oaoM used aa nouns, 308, c. 

interrogative, 105-107 ; declension, 
105, 509; review sentences , ii6-iz|. 

personal, declension, S45, 506 ; nomi- 
native expressed <mly for rmphasis 
or cootiast,346, a ; use, 345* «> 246^ 
348. 

possessive, ^itt poutuioe mdjtcHoet. 

reflexive, 345, 346, ^, c. 

relative, 110-113; agreement, 1x3; 
declension, no, 508 ; table <^ mean- 
ings, in; review sentences, 1x6- 
X18. 
prannnclatloa, Roman method,vowels. 
4,5* 6. 

Knglish method, la 
praper names in im cootiact d to ^ S9- 
protnM, conjugation, 518. 
f mdf nt, declension, 163, 501. 
paer, declension, 57, 495. 
parpofe, ox fimU clauses, 353, d. 

expressed by the subjunctive with ttf 
and M?, 254. 

accusative of the gerund or gemndive 
with «</, 474, c. 

dative of service, 398, a. 

relative clauses, 432, 433. 

supine in »m, 475, 476. 

not expressed by the infinitive, 254, «. 



Onaero compared with inUrrogd^ 422. 

qnani with a comparative, 194. 

-qae, enclitic, 9, 3. 

qnestions ^direct), 430, 431. 

qnid equivalent to aliquid after xi, «?, 

ffm, num, p. 123, n. 6. 
qnTdani, declension, 308, 510. 
qnis, declension, 105, 509. 
qalsqaam, declined like qiOdamt 308* h. 
qnlllbet, declined like qiOdamt 308, h. 
qnlsqne, declined like quidam, 308, b. 
qnlTls, declined like quidam, 308, i. 
neuter forms in quid' are used as « 

nouns, 308, c. 



quod 



295 



subjunctiye 



q»6 • • • effy tAe . . . M^, p. 92, n. 5. 
qaod used for guid as an interrogative 

adjective, 107, 6. 
qaoqae and qiioqiie» p. 139, n. 



reading ezereitet : A Uxandtr et Pat' 
menio, 455. 

Dl Amtcitid^ ^a%. 

Nasica et EnnmSt 385. 

TuSicen, 479. 
reading lessons : A Battle ^ 273. 

Are Memoriae, 376. 

Cerva et Vitis, 377. 

Cicerdnis Efistula ad Terentiam 
Ux9rem, 31a. 

Cornelians Jewels, 226. 

Di Vitits Homiimm, 313. 

Gallia POcOta, 392. 

Prdserpina, 4S7» 4S8- 

Scipio and Hannibal, i\i. 

The Remans and the Sabines, 97. 

The Volsciafts, 177. 
reflexive pronouns, 245, 246, b ; oi the 

first and second persons, 246, c. 
refOy conjugation, 513. 
relative pronouns, 110-113; agreement, 
113; declension, no, 508. 

clauses of result, purpose, etc., 432, 
433- 
resy declension, 258, 498. 
result expressed by the subjunctive 

with ut or ut non, 278. 
rex, declension, 126, 496. 
Roman history : stories o/Casar Octd- 
vidnus Augustus, 493. 

CincinnOtus, 488. 

Gains Duilius, 489. 

Gaius Julius Casar, 492. 

Gaius Marius, 491. 

HorSitt et Curidtii, 487. 

Marcus Porcius Cats, Puer, 490. 
Boman method of pronouncing Latin, 

4,5,6. 
rily the accusative of, 269, a. 

like names of towns, 407, a, 408. 



■Sy distinguished from i/se, 304, ^. 

secondary tenses, 418, a. 

teml-deponent verbs, 362, a, 

tenex, comparison, 207. 

separation, how expressed, 412, 413. 

■eqnenee of tenses, 418, 419. 

ierrlee (dative of), 398, 399. 

ilbllant, 3. 

apace (extent of), 259, a, 260. 

ipeciflcatlon, ablative of, 168. 
answers the question, in what re- 
spect f 167, a. 

ttem of a word, defined, p. 7, n. 
of nouns of the Jirst declension, p. 7. 
of nouns of the second declension, p. 

16. 
of nouns of the third declension, 124 ; 
how found, 126, b\ the last vowel 
changed to form the nominative, 
126, 0; the last letter dropped to 
form the nominative, 130, a\ mute, 
125; declension, 126, 130, 496; 
liquid, 125; declension, 138, 496; 
^-stems, 148, 152, 153; declension, 
148, 152, 496; list of (-stems, 153. 
of nouns of the fourth declension, p. 

89. 
of nouns of the Jifth declension, p. 

100. 
of verbs, 73, a. 
of i^t first and second conjugations, 

172, a. 
anb with accusative and ablative, 405, d. 
subject of a finite verb, 22. 
of an infinitive, 298, c, 299. 
agreement, 65. 
not expressed, 21, ^. 
position in a sentence, 32, a, b. 
aubjunctlve of purpose, 253, 254. 
result, 277-280. 
in relative clauses of cause, purpose, 

result, and characteristic, 432, 433. 
after verbs of fearing, 333. 
in less vivid future conditions, 451, J, 

45a. 



sabjnnctiye 



296 



Tester 



rabJnnetiTe, in wishes and appeals, 
440-444. 
with cum causal and concessive, 434, 

435 ; temporal, 381, 382. 
present tense translated as future, 
333, c. 
sal) declension, 245, 506. 
. distinguished from tPu^ 304, ^. 
sum, conjugation, 516. 
compounds, inflected, 395 ; govern the 
dative (except absum and posmm)^ 

397, «• 
snnSy how formed and declined, 247. 

compared with eiusy 248, b. 
snpine in urn, 475, 476. 

in «, 476, 3, c. 
sjllables, number of, 7, /. 

division of, 7, 2, 3. 

in cpmpound words, 7, 4. 

how named, 7, j. 

T 

temporal elanses introduced by cum^ 

381, 382. 
tenses of infinitive in indirect discourse, 
319,320. 
primary and secondary, 418, a. 
sequence of, 419. 
terminations, 19, a. 
time, how expressed, 154, 155 ; extent, 

259, a, 260. 
toif ns, rules for names of, 407. 

place whither, 269. 
totus, declension, 292, 502. 
tres, declension, 284, 502. 
tu, as reflexive, 246, c. 
tuba, declension, 19, 494. 
tuns, how formed and declined, 247. 
compared with vester^ 247, a. 



n as a semi-vowel, p. 2, n. 

nltima, 7, j. 

ullus, rendered any after a negative, 

sine, etc., p. 124, n. 7. 
unns, declension, 284, 502. 
urbs, declension, 152, 496. 



at of purpose (negative m?), 254. 

translated in various ways, 253. 

of result (negative ut ndn), 277, 278. 

translated that not with verbs of fear- 
ing, 333, tf . 

translated when or as, when followed 
by the indicative, p. 196, n. 6. 
ntinam in subjunc. of appeal, 440, 441. 

omitted with the present, 441, a. 
ntor governs the ablative, 361. 



T, often lost between vowels in the 

perfect and cognate tenses, 337, b. 
TOrbs: agreement, 65; in relative 

clauses, 248, a. 
case of subject, 22 ; of object, 23. 
personal endings show the person and 

number of the omitted subject, 21. </. 
invariably intransitive give the future 

active participle in the principal 

parts, instead of the perfect passive, 

p. 96, n. I. 
transitive in English are often intran- 
.sitive and govern the dative in 

Latin, 371, 37a. 
of jftrst conjugation, 71-74, 88-91 ; 

conjugation, 511. 
of second conjugation^ 172-174, 184- 

187; conjugation, 512. 
of third conjugation, 220-222, 237- 

239 ; conjugation, 513; in id, 265-267 ? 

conjugation, 514. 
oi fourth conjugation, 324-326, 330- 

332 ; conjugation, 515. 
how conjugations are distinguished, 

p. 26, n. I. 
review of four conjugations, 337-341. 
deponents: form, meaning, and charac- 
teristics, 358 ; how conjugated, 359. 
periphrastic conjugations, 462-466. 
irregular verbs : see under eo, fid, 

ferd, etc. 
special constructions : see under steb^ 

junctive, infinitive, participle. 
Tester, how formed and declined, 247. 
compared with tuUs, 247, a. 



yestmni 297 wishes 

▼eitrnm, usually partitive, 246, d. ToeatiTe emse, 13 ; use, 43, b, 

▼etnSy comparison, 207. of proper names in -n», 59. 

compared with senex^ 211. of ttf-nouns of the second declension, 

▼letor, declension, 138, 496. 43, a, 495, a, 
Tideo in the passive often rendered TolSy 368-370 ; conjugation, 519. 

seem^ p. 96, n. 2. vOf) declension, 245, 506. 

Tir, declension, 57, 495. Towelfy quantity : short, 8, 2 ; long, 8, 3. 

distinguished from homdy 141. TnlnnSy declension, 138, 496. 
▼Irtus, declension, 130, 496. 

Tli, declension, 499. ^ 

Toeabnlai-fes : Latin- English, p. 251. wliitliery place, how expressed, 269. 

English-Latin, p. 275. wisheiy 44o-44a i negative, 441, a. 



ALLEN AND GREENOUGH'S 

SHORTER LATIN GRAMMAR 

FOR SCHOOLS AMD ACADEMIES. 

Condensed and Bevised by Prof esBor JAKES B. QBEENOUQH, 
ABsisted by ALBEBT A. HOWABD. 



12mo. Oloth. 371 pages. For introdnotloni 95 oentit 



Space does not allow here a full description of this book, 
but attention is called to the following points : 

First. Allen and Greenoiij^h's Shorter Latin Grammar does not 
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and a full one, to cover both preparatory and college Latin courses in ? 
space sufficient for only the former. 

Second. The reduction of size is secured not by retaining arbi- 
trarily what one or two scholars deem essential, but by ascertaining 
minutely what points are involved in the study of preparatory Latin. 
It must be admitted that any one who attacks the problem in this way 
will find that a great deal more information is required for thorough 
reading of the preparatory texts than any a priori maker of a short 
Latin grammar would suppose. 

Third. It has been found entirely feasible to follow the section 
numbering of the large Allen and Greenough Grammar, so that the 
full and the short grammars can be used in the same classes and the 
same set of references apply. If a class includes boys who are going 
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full grammar aind the latter the short one. 

Fourth. The Latin grammar that shall be thoroughly satisfac- 
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every sort, must be a growth, and it is believed that the experience of 
making a full and complete grammar and of watching the use of it 
in schools for years, is almost a prerequisite to the preparation of a 
thoroughly satisfactory small one. 



GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

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ALLEN AND 
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FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 

Founded <m comparative grammar. Revised and Enlarged hj 

JAMES B. GREENOUGH, 

Assisted by 

GEORGE L. KITTREDGE, 

Professors in Harvard University, 



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This is offered as a thoroughly satisfactory manual for preparatory 
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First. This has always been regard/Kl as the truest and soundest of 
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is its fundamental excellence. The grammar explains the language 
instead of trying to make the language bear out the grammar. 

Second. The present edition is as strong in class-room availability 
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Third. Even in all the little points, the closest care was taken in the 
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Fourttl. In a word, the consensus of competent opinion seems to 
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Tracy Peck, Professor of Latin in 
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Second Year Latin Book 

Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Vocabalary, by 
JAMES B. GREENOUGH, B. L. D'OOGE, 

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University t Normal College, Ypsilanti, 

AND 

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x2mo. Half morocco. 685 pages. Fully illustrated. Price, $1.25. 



This book is intended to follow any iirst Latin book. It embraces 
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be found for young students than the unvaried reading of the first four 
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Part II. provides a selected course of reading from Caesar rather than 
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parts are lacking in interest. By making selections from the seven 
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Special attention is called to the Notes. They are very copious and in 
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A considerable number of oral exercises for turning English into 
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The vocabulary, like all the vocabularies in the Allen and Greenough 
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The leading colleges and universities have given assurance that the 
book will be readily accepted as the full equivalent of the first four 
books of Caesar's Gallic War. 



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