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Full text of "First lessons in Chinese"

UC-NRLF 




Giiinr OF 
F. D. Elweil 




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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2007 with funding from ' 
IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/firstlessonsinchOOyaterich 





FIRST 


LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


T 


BY 


0^ 


REV. M. T. YATES, D.D. 


# 




^Jr 

i* 




^ 


SHANGHAI : 
AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS. 

1871. 



pL/m 

19 7/. 




0:9£udi 



c c c e c t 

c . . • • 

1 . » c« • • • 



INTRODXJCTION". 

Those who have attempted to acqiiire a working knowledge of any of the spoken dialects of 
China by picking up isolated words from a vocabulary or dictionary, (like picking pebbles from 
the sea shore), know full well the necessity of a beginner's book ; one that is practical, and yet 
so simple that the learner will be encouraged, by being able to use his acquirements from the 
first lesson. 

The design of the author of this manual is to supply, to some extent, this long-felt want ; 
and he is confident that any one who will take the trouble to master these lessons (the work of 
only a few months), will be in possession of the key to the spoken language, not only of this 
district, but, with a slight change in the sound of some words (which can be easily acquired), 
of other districts also ; for the general structure of the language (barring a few localisms), is the 
same everywhere. 

An attempt has also been made to render the work available to the Chinese who wish to 
learn English. Under each word will be found Chinese characters representing, as nearly as 
practicable, the sound of the English word. Of course, it is far from a perfect representation ; 
but it will be of service to the Chinese who are trying to learn English. They will find the 
meaning of words and sentences by looking to the right on the same line, where the English 
sentence is reiulered into Chinese for the benefit of foreigners. 

The importance of a thorough knowledge of the classifiers cannot be too strongly urged ; 
for it is impossible to speak of any visible object without using one of them, and it is important 
to a clear understamh'ng of the matter under consideration, that the correct classifier be used. 

A careful study of the inflected verbs will save months, if not years, of perplexing uncer- 
tainty ; for the same forms will be found applicable to most other verbs. 

Orthoguai'iiy. — The system of orthography adopted in these lessons is that which seems 
best adapted to meet the wants of a beginner. No combination of English letters has yet 
been de\nsed that will express all the Chinese sounds ; not even when I'ecourse has been had to 
an elaborate system of diacritical marks ; and as these usually confuse and discourage, but 
few are used in this nianual. 

A final, and a in composition, are sounded as a in far ; as, J ma, to buy ; ^ ma , 
to sell ; ^^ miih^ wheat ; and {^ pu'i^g-, a creek. 

A short, as in hit ; as, :^t sdh, to kill ; zzl sdn, three. 

Long a is expressed by the French e, as, ^ le, to come ; j)^ me, coals. 



i\^5e3(>-2i^ 



\ 



E final, and e"^ nasal, long, as : ^ me,x\cQ ; ^ t'e^, heaven. 

final, and 6 in composition, sounded as o in no, as : ^ ifso, tea ; [^^ g|[ md/i-cleu, 
wood. 

sounded as o in German, as in Goethe, as : a little boy, /J> Q s/aw no ; a little 
girl, /J> ^ staw no / a month, ^ nyoh. 

ij and u have sounds which the learnef will get better ffom a teacher than from ex- 
amples in English, as : § sii, a book ; ^ su, a tree ; p^ t/w, rain ; :|^ ^yii.tsz, a chair. 

^w, sounded as in French, in monsieur, as : ^ ^ew, the head ; ^ seu, the hand. 

Au, sounded as in autuinn, as : J7/ tau, a knife or sword ; ^ J^ ^aw-Ze, doctrine. 

A small "" raised above the line indicates a nasal, as : ^ te", heaven ; "U g^ 
8e^-deu, formerly. 

A final h shortens the preceeding vowel, as in the following words : ^ 7nah, wheat, 
the a sounded as a in what. ^ sa7i, to kill, the ci sounded as a in ^a«. ^^ fj^seh-t'eh, 
to lose, the e sounded as e in ;9e^. j^ |gj mih-t'eh, to destroy, the 2 sounded as i in sit. 
^ g^ moh-deu, the o sounded as o in mote. ^ o/f, \^icked, the o sounded as o mj^ot. ^ 
nyoh, month, the 6 sounded as in German, but contracted by the final h. ^ muh, ink, the 
tt sounded as m in shut. A comma ( , ) before the initial letters t and 2h contracts those 
letters into a sound between t and d, and p and b. 

Tone Marks.— -The JQ ^ sang-sung (so-called upper tone), is marked thus ^ at the 
beginning of the word. The =^ ^ chu-simg (departing tone), is marked thus ' at the end 
of the word. The ^ ^ ping-sung (even tone), is mdicated by no mark. The y\ ^ 
seh-sung (entering tone), is indicated by a final h. 



To Abuse ... 

,, Add to ... 
Adjectives, comparison of 
Adverbs 
To Anchor ... 

,, Ascend; to descend ... 

,, Ask ; to enquire; to investigate 

,, Answer ... 

,, Bake ; to roast 

,, Banish ... 

,, Bear or press upon ... 

,, Beckon ... 

,, Become rich 

„Beg ... 

,, Begin ; to commence 

,, Believe ... 

,, Bind with a cord 

,, Betroth ... 

,, Bite ; to bark 

,, Blow 

,, Boil 

,, Boil (as water) 

,, Bolt 

,, Bore 

,, Borrow or lend 

,, Break 

, , Broil ; grill 

,, Brush 

„ Build ... 

, , Build a wall 

,, Burn (as fuel) 

,, Calculate 
,, Call ; to tell 
,, Cancel ; to erase 
, , Care for ; be careful 
,, Carry a load 

,, Carry in the arms (as a child) 
,, Carve ; to cut 
, , Cast down 
,, Cast ; to foimd 
,, Catch ; to seize ; arrest 
„ Change ... 

,, Change a dollar into cash 
,, Choose ; to select 
Classifiers 

To Climb ".] 

,, Come 
,, Command 
,, Comfort ... 
,, Conduct ; to guide ... 
,, Confide to 
,, Confiscate 
,, Confuse 

,, Congeal ; to coagulate 
Conjunctions, tScc. 
To Consider 



INDEX 



tAGE. 
205 

207 

46 to .^2 
56 to 66 
192 
156 

116 to-117 
220 
151 
223 
200 
194 
217 
162 
172 

US to Ut 
162 
211 
163 

163 to 164 
151 
218 
218 
198 
181 
166 
151 
158 

129 to 130 
130 
219 

120 to 123 
208 
197 
219 
213 

171 to 172 
194 
199 
197 
212 

156 to 157 
195 
209 

168 to 169 
6 to 34 
217 

110 to 112 
162 
219 

182 to 183 
207 
223 
224 
212- 

72 to 75 
223 



To Consult ... 

,, Contribute; to tax 

,, Cook ... 

Counting ... 

To Count ... 

„ Crawl ... - 

,, Create a disturbance 
J, Criticise ... 

"'x'-y 

J, Curse 

Cut a mortise 
, , Cut (with scissors.) ... 
,, Cut (with a small knife) 
,, Cut (with sword or laryt hiife) ... 
,, Cut ; to engrave 
, , Decapitate ; to kill ... 
,, Deceive ; to defraud ... 
,, Defeat ; to frustrate ... 

, Deny ; to falsify one's word 

, Degrade ... 

, Deport one's self to; to treat 

,, Deposit with anotlier 

,, Descend ... 

,, Desire ; to expect, to hope 

„Die 

n^'^S - 

,, Divide ; to separate ... 

,, Do ; to make 

, , Draw a carriage 

,, Draw in or up by capstan 

,, Drive ; to urge ; to press 

,, Dwell ... 

„ Dye 

,, Eat ; to drink ; to smoke, &c. 

,, Economize 

,, Encroach upon (as another's land) 

,, Envy ... 

,, Examme ; to scrutmize 

,, Exchange; to barter ... 

, , Fail in business ... .^ 

„ 1^^-11 , - 

, , Fall sick ... 

,, Fall (as the tide) 

,, Fall down (as a house') 

, , Fear ; to dread 

,, Yile (with a Jile) 

Finished ... 

To Flee ; to run away 

,, Float 

„Fly 

, , i ollow ... 

,, P'orbid ; to prohibit ... 

,, Forfeit ... 

,, Forget ... 

,, Forsake ; to desert 

,, Freeze 

,, Gamble ... 



P.VGE. 

223 

181 to 182 

220 

1 to 5 
186 
218 
221 
219 
1^9 
206 
198 
198 
147 
148 
154 
149 
200 
221 
207 
1:19 
222 
184 
202 
203 
196 
160 

;>ii 

101 to 107 

209 

192 

220 

161 

197 ' 

113 to 115 

199 

222 

201 

2J5 

209 

213 

166 to 167 

211 

168 

193 

1 58 

220 

224 

169 

212 

170 

211 

224 

223 

137 to 138 

170 

212 

201 



To Gum (pi-ojit) 


PAGE. 

216 


vi. 
To Pay a balance 


TAGE. 

219 


,, Gather (as /'nitt or Jlowers) 


219 


,, Pay money 


126 to 127 


The Gemler of nouns 


52 


The Personal Pronouns ... 


34 


To give birth to ; to rear 


161 


To Veck, (as a fowl) ... 
,, Persuade 


205 


,, Give ; hand ; to give in marriage .. 


125 to 126 


210 


„Go 


107 to 110 


,, Perspire ... 


189 


,, Graft ; to splice 


204 


,, Pile one on top of another 


208 


,, Grind; to whet 


220 


„ Plane ... 


198 


,, Guard; to be careful 


213 


n Plnnt ... 


160 


,, Guess ... 


215 


n l'l'ij(^.snn instrument with the Jingei 


■s) 216 


,, Hand or deliver in person 


185 


,, Plaster (as a icall) ... 


220 


,, Hang or suspend 


171 


The Plural of nouns 


52 


,, Haul {as on a rope) ... 


rs 


To Point with the hand ... 


222 


,, Have 


100 


, , Pound (in a Mortar) ... 


221 


„ Heal ... 


217 


,, Pour out... 


207 


, , Hide or conceal 


175 


nPray^ ... 


213 


,, Hide or secrete one's self 


223 


Prepositions 


66 to 72 


,, Hoist a sail 


192 


To Present ... ''', 


196 - 


„ Hook 


224 


,, Press down ; to oppress . . 


193 


The Hours, Days of the week, INIonths, »&: 


c. 77 to 82 


n Pi-int ... 


190 


To Hypothecate 


210 


, , Procure what is required 


223 


,, Imitate ; to follow the example, &c. 


211 


,, Prop 


213 


The Indefinite Pronouns . . 


45 to 46 


,, Prove ; to evince 


216 


To Inform 


188 


,, Pry (with a lever) ... 


198 


„ Injure ... 


219 


,, Punish ... 


214 


,, Institute a Suit at Law 


]88 


. , Push ; to shove 


193 


,, Interpret 


214 


,, Put down a sedan 


195 


The Interrogative Pronouns - ... 


37 to 45 


,, Put ; to ijlace 


18' » to 181 


,, Interrogatives 


75 


,, Quarrel ... 


214 


To Invite ... 


204 


,, Read 


185 > 


,, Iron; to burn or scald 


154 


,, Rebel ... 


224 


,, Jump ; to leap 


217 


„ Receive ; to collect 


128 to 129 


,, Kick 


J 90 


,, Receive or accept 


184 


,, Kneel 


'223 


, , Recognize ; to confess 


203 


,, Know 


132 to 134 


,, Keconmiend 


222 


„ Laugh ... _ ... 


190 


,, Reconcile ; pacify 


219 


,, Lead (as an animal) ... 


183 


,, Reduce ; to take from 


214 


,, Lean against 


2«)5 


, R-gret ... 


205 


^, Learn ... .... 


l(.4 to 165 


,, Reject ... 


2i(i 


, , Let go ; to put down ... 


174 to 1.5 


,, Repair ... 


173 


,, Light a tire 


154 


,, Repeat from memory 


205 


,, Liglit a lamp 


1.54 


,, Repent ... 


21;:! 


,, Line ; to score 


1:05 


,, Rely upon 


2.'G 


, , Listen ... 


140 to 141 


,,' Remember 


206 


,, Live 


196 


,, Retain ; to detain 


200 


, , Lock ; a lock 


218 


,, Return what has been borrowed ... 


191 


,, Look ; to see 


135 to 1"7 


,, Ride on horse-back ... 


156 


,, Look for... 


188 to 139 


„ Ring a bell 


207 


,, Lose 


UO 


,, Rise (as tide, ijc) ... 


167 


„ Lose _ ... 


183 to 184 


,, Roll 


218 


., Lose (in trade) 


217 


,, Roll up ... 


188 


,, Lower or take in sail 


192 


,, Rot or decay 


185 


,, Loot 


200 


, . Row a boat 


207 


,, Make ashamed 


J 98 


,, Run 


186 


,, Make a record ; to ascend 


201 


,, Sacrifice to 


224 


,, Make a prostration ... 


224 


,, Save (life or j>ro}>erfi/) 


213 


,, Manage ; to have the management of 


214 


, Siive (time or luhor).. ... ' 


199 


,, Measure .. 


199 


„ Saw ... 


148 


,, Meet ; to come in contact with ... 


184 


,, Scrape ... 


2'.j3 


,, Melt ; to dissolve 


212 


,, Scratch ... 


197 


,, Mix : to get things confused 


LOO 


,, Seal ; to deify ; to exult 


199 


„Nail 


196 


,, Secure ; to become security for ... 


210 


„ Nod 


2n9 


,, Seize 


194 


,, Nurse (the sick) 


218 


„ Sell ... 


123 to 125 


,, Ortend ; to transgress... 


223 


, , Sell on a credit 


206 


,, Open ; to commence ... 


176 


, Send forth ; to is'^ue ... 


220 


,j Pawn 


210 


,, Separate; to make distinct 


2:i 



lo Sew, stitch 
Sift 

Shake ... 
Shave ... 
Shut ; to close 
Sing 
Sink 
Sit 

Sit or stay with for company 
Skin ; peel ; strip 
Slander ... 
Sleep 
Smell 

Soak ; to immerse, to haptize 
Solder ... 

Speak ; to affirm or testify 
Spill 
Spin 

Splash ... 
Split 

Sport ; to frolic ; to trifle 
Spread ... 
Spread ; to propagate 
Spread, daub or smear 
Stab 
Stand 
Steal 
Step upon 
Stick ; to adhere 
Stick (i?? the (jround^ as afog^ 
Stir ; to agitate 
Stop 

Strain ; to filter 
Strike ; to chastise 
String («4- ca.vA) 
Strive 

Stultify ... '."] 

Swear 
Sweep 
Swim 
Take 



PAGE. 




I'AGi:. 


153 


,, Take from 


208 


221 


,, Take hold of 


173 


159 


,, Take up with both hands 


222 


187 


,, Take to pieces, or down 


103 


178 to 180 


, , Take the anchor 


192 


189 


,, Tear 


189 


187 


,, Tempt 


206 


131 


,, Think ; to consider ... 


142 


218 


,, Throw away 


197 


2!5 


,, Tie {as a parcel') ... 


163 


218 


,, Tow or track (as a boat) 


192 


208 


,, Transfer 


209 


211 


,, Translate 


2!4 


216 


,, Turn {as a wheel) ... 


212 


212 


,, Turn over 


215 


118 to 120 


,, Turn round 


214 


189 


,, Twist ; to wring 


193 


187 


,, Twist {uith thejinfjer) 


194 


218 


,, Uncover ; to open 


222 


148 


,, Understand 


134 to 13-3 


216 


,, Vacillate, to disappoint 


222 


188 


, , Varnish or paint 


198 


217. • 


Verbs, and inflection of the verb to eat 


83 to 94 


223 


Verb to be 


95 to 99 


2(.i5 


To Violate a law or regulation 


22 J 


131 to 132 


,, Wait 


195 


188 


, , Water {as a garden) ... 


•221 


193 


,, Wa.ste, to squander ... 


199 


169 


» Wash ... 


151 to 152 


197 


,, "Wear 


189 


209 


,, "Weave ... 


188 


194 


„ Weigh ... 


198 


221 


„ Welcome a visitor ... 


196 


144 to 146 


,, Wet; wet 


204 


218 


„ Win ... 


190 


189 


n Wipe ... 


152 to 153 


222 


,, Worship ... ... ... 


194 


1.S8 


,, Wrangle... 


206 


149 


„ AVrite ... 


150 


189 


,, Yield ; to give place to 


216 


189 










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FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



1. 


One. ] 


• 


-2. 


Two. 


II. 


3. 


Three, 

M 


III. 


4. 
II 


Four. 


IV. 


5. 


Five. 


V. 


6. 


Six. VI. 


7. Seven. 


VII. 


8. Eight. 


VIII 


9. Nine. 

7^0 


IX. 


10. Ten. 


X. 



Dsr xj 3^ E i^ a:x. s . 

ENGLISll. QPINESE.. 

Dye' 





<^ng 

I5h 

ch^h 

pSh 

A 

^kieu 
seh 

+ 



2 FIRST 


LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


11. Eh'ven. XL 


seh vih 


12. Twelve. XII. 


seh nye^ 


13. Thirteen. XIIL 


seh sa'^ 


14. Fourteen. XIV. 


seh sz^ 


15. Fifteen. XY. 


6o.ng 


16. Sixteen. XVI. 


seh 161i 


17. Seventeen. XVII. 


seh ch^ih 


18. Eighteen. XVIII. 

Mr 


seh pah 

+ A 


19. Nineteen. XIX. 


seh *^kieu 


20. Twenty. XX. 




21. Twenty one. XXI. 


nya ^ ih 


22. Twenty two. XXII. 


nya'^ nye^ 


23, Twenty three. XXIII. 


-tf-- 


24. Twenty four. XXIV. 




25. Twenty five. XXV. 


nya^-^ng 


26. Twenty six. XXVI. 


nyS" loh 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



27. Twenty seven. XXVII. nya^^ ch4h 

28. Twenty eight. XXVIII. nya" pah 

29. Twenty nine. XXIX. iiya"^ <kieu 

30. Thirty. XXX. sa" seh 

40. Fortv. XL. pz seh 

50. Fifty. L. <ng-seh 

^^# i + 

60. Sixty. LX. loh-seh 

70. Seventy. LXX. ch'ih-seh 

80. Eighty. LXXX. pah-seh 

^M A + 

90. Ninety. XC. qdeu-seli 

100. One hundred. 0. yih pjth 

^"fMM — ^ 

101. One hundred and one. CI. yih r,^]^ ]i,i2 yjl^ 

102. One hundred and two. GIL yjj^ pj^]-^ jj^j^ ^^^ > 

103. One hundred and three. CIII. yih pjih lino- sa^ 

104. One hundred and four. CIV. yih pjih lino- qz^ 

105. One hundred and five, CV. yih p^h h'no- ^ng 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



106. One hundred and six. CYI. yih ])iili ling loli 

107. One hundred and seven. CVII. yih pah ling cli^ih 

108. One hundred and eight. CVIII. yih pah ling pah 

109. One hundred and nine. CIX. yih pah h'ng ^kieu. 

110. One hundred and ten. CX. yih pah seh 

111. One hundred and eleven. CXI. yih pah seh yih 



m^MMmuiii^^ 






200. Two hundred. CO. 


■pye^ ])*ah 




300. Three liundred. CCU. 






400. Four hundred. CCCO. ' 


sz^ pah 

raw 




600. Five hundred. D. 


^ng pah 

3:W 


• 


600. Six hundred. DO. 


loh pj^h 




700. Seven hundred. DCC. 


cU'ih pah 

-bW 


•- 


800. Eight hundred. DCCC. 


J) ah pah 

AW 


•* 


900. Nine hundred. DCCCC. 


*^kieu ])ah 




1000. One thousand. M. 


yih ch*ie'^ 




1001. One thousand and one. 


yih ch^ie" ling ling ^ 


y'ih, &c. 



1 

FIRST LESSOXS IN CH'NESE. 5 



2000. Two thousand. 


nye^ ch'ie^^ 


5000. Five thousand. 


^ng ch^e"^ 


10,000. Ten thousand. 


yih ma"^ 


20,000. Twenty thousand. 


nye ma"^ 


50,000. Fifty thousand. 

^ ^ E ff^ Hi PI 


'ng ma"' 


100,000. One hundred thousand. 


seh ma'^^ 


500,000. Five hundred thousand. 


*'ng seh ma^^ 

i + H 


900,000. Nine hundred thousand. 


^kieu seh ma"> 

;/L + ^ 


3,000,000, One mil-lion 


yih pah rua^^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



In spoken Chinese, the force of the^ articles <^ a " or " an " and " the " is 
expressed bj the numeral — (?/^V<). All nouns take a word between the article 
and the noun, which may be denominated a classifier ^ as each of these different 
words denotes a class of objects. It is highly desirable that every student of 
the spoken language, should, at the commencement of his studies, become 
thoroughly acquainted with these classifiers, and the class of objects denoted by 
each; for, a correct use of the classifiers, will greatly facilitate communication 
with the Chinese. If a correct classifier be used before a word, it often leads to 
the meaning of that word, even if it be incorrectly pronounced. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that in Chinese, as well as in other languages, there 
are exceptions to all rules. A few nouns take two different classifiers. 

First CLAssmER ^ {huh). 

A man yih kuh nyung 

A woman yih kuh nyii nyung 

An unmarried woman yih kuh siau^ ^tsia 

MM'^ — >^ ^h $1 

A son yih kuh ur-^tsz 

Mm -^%^ 

A daughter yih kuh no^ 

MTin -^El 

A friend yih kuh pang ^yeu 

A mandarin yih kuh kwe ^foo 

A soldieu- yih kuh ping-ting 

A native yih kuh ^pung^-de nyung 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A servant 

A sedan cooly 

The sun 



The moon 
A star 
The body 
A head 
A face 
A heart 
A nose 

:^^± 

A doorway 

A cannon 

A battery 

A bottle 

A hat, cap, or bonnet 

A stove 



yih kuh voong^ oyung 

— >^mA 

yih kuh djau^ pan 
yih kuh nyih-deu 

-4- HIS 

yih kuh nyoh 
yih kuh sing 



}ih kuh sung <^t^e 



t 

a 



yih kuh ^'teu' 
yih kuh me^^ k'oong 
yih kuh sing 
yih kuh pih-deu 
yih kuh raung-^k^eu 
yih kuh p^au^. 



yih kuh p^au^ de 



_>^ 



yih kuh poo-le ping 
yih kuh mau^-^tsz 
yih kuh hoo-loo 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A grate 

A doll car 

A cash 

A loaf 

A cake 

A biscuit 

A buddhist priest 



J^ 



*^^ ^ 



A nnn 

A tauist priest 

:^ l§ # wj '^ a ^ 

A grave mound 

^^^^ 

An egg 

pf Pi ^ ® 

A scholar 
A merchant 
A farmer. 
A carpenter 
A mason 



yih kuh hoo-k^ong^ 
yih kuh yang de" 
yih kuh dong-de^ 
yih kuh main-deu 

— >Mia 

yih kuh ke-ta~' kau 
SI* 



yih kuh t^ah-^ping 

yih kuh ^oo-zong^ 

yih kuh nye-koo 

yih kuh tau^-zz 

yih kuh vung sa-^ 

yih kuh ^ta^ 

yih kuh toh-sti-nyung 

yih kuh sang-e nyung 

yih kuh tsoong-de" oyung 

yih kuh moh-ziang 

yih kuh nye sz-ziang 



^ 



M^icE 



FISRT LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A painter vili kuli ch4h-Z:aug 

M %m --^ mm. 

A tailor yih kuli sc^M'oong 

Mm^ ~^ mm 

A stone mason yih kuh sah-ziang 

A horse boy 3^ih kuli mo-foo 

A table boy yih kuh se-ts^ 



Second Classifier, '^ (tsdh), denotes all animals, fowls, birds, and insects ; also all 
Articles of furnitke having feet or legs, or resting on a base ; also vessels, boats, &g. 

An elephant yih tsali *^siang 

Pf PS M±^ ~ H M 

A camel yih tsah loh-doo 

M ^mM^ - K mm 



A lion 


yih tsah sz-<^tsz 


A tio^er 


yih tsah lau^-Hioo 


A cow 


yih tsah nyeu 


A water buffalo 


yih tsah sz-nyeU 


A deer 

M mi 


yih tsah loh 


A slieep 


yih tsah yang 


A goat 


yih tsah sa^-yano^ 


A hog 


yih tsah tsz-loo 



10 


FIRST LESSONS IN CHIKESE. 


A do^ 

^ mm 


yih tsali keu 


A cat 


yili tsali mau 


A wild cat 


yih tsah ya^-iuaii 


A rat 


yih tsah lau^-*^tsz 


A hare 


yih tsah t^oo^-^^tsz. 


A mule 


yih tsah loo-^tsz 


A donkey 


yih tsah le-^tsz 


A fox 


yih tsah ^oo-1e 


A wolf 


yih tslih za-long 


A squirrel 


yih tsah soon^j-^^tsz 


A wTasel 


vih tsah wong-long 


A fowl 


yih tsah kee 



A pheasant 

A duck 

A goose 

^ %^ 

A turkey • 



jnh tsah ya^-kee 

- K '®ll 

yih tsah ah 

- K ?.! 

yih tsah ng-oa 
yih tsah teu^-kee 

- K nil 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



11 



A bird 

A snipe 

A quail 

A crow 

A magpie 

A hawk 

A minor 

A sparrow 

A swallow 

A pigeon 

A dove 

A crab 

A butterfly 

A bee 

A musquito 

A wasp 



yih tsiili ^tiaii 



-K J 



yih tsak tsoh-kee 
yih tsah ^ '-dsimg 

- K M^l 

yih tsah lau^-au 

- K ^m 

yih tsah au-tsiah 
yih tsah ynng 

-KM 

yih tsah pah-k wvMg 

-K 1^ ^ 

yih ts'ah mo-tsiang 

- K ^i % 

yih tsah ye'^-tsz 

- K ?i^ 

yih tslih keh-tsz 

- Kg|^ 

jih tsah peh-koo 

— M -JSw 

jih tsah ^ha 
yih tsah oo-'dili 

- K mm 

yih tsah m'lh-foong 



yih tsah mnng-tsz 

- K 1^^ 

yih tsah oc-foong 



12 



FIRST LESSONS IX CHINES'^. 



A table 
A cliair 
A stool 



yili tsali te-tsz 

- K m^ 

yih tsUli viP-tsz 

- K m^ 

yili tstili ngeh-tsz 

- K ^^ 



A chest of drawers 


yih tsah tsVu de 


A drawer 


yih tsah ts^eu-t^e 


A trunk or box 


yih tsiih siang-tsz 


A small box 


yih tsah ah-tsz 

- K 11^ 


A bod 


yih t^ah zong 


A coiicli 


yih tsiih me-(b>o-tah 

- K mmm 


A wash liaiid table 

^ mm mm n^m ■ 


yih tsah k^i lue' te-^tsz 

~ H m mmi" 


A dinlnoj table 


yih tsah ch^uli va' te-^tsz 

- K P^ ® m^ 


An office des^k 

mi mmi #&j^ 


yih tsah sia^-zz-;le 


A bucket, tub, or cask 


yih tsah ^Jo:ig 

- H m 


A water kong 


yih tsali sz^-kong 


A slioe of svcee 

^ m m^ mm 


yih tsah nvo ^pau 


A hand 


yili tsah ^seu 





FIKST 


LESSOKS IN 


CHINESE. 


1 
13 


A foot and lower leg 


yik 


tsali kiah. 

K m 




A finger 




yili 


tsali tsih-deu 

K mm 




An ear 




yih 


tsali nye^-^too 




A wash bowl 




yih 


tsah me ^-bung 




A ])late 




yili 


tsali pung-^[sz 




A dish 




yih 


tsah tsiing pnnsj-^tsz 




A saucer 




yili 


tsah tso puncr-*^csz 




A cnp 




yih 


tsah pe-^tsz 




A glass 




yih 


tsah poc-le i)^^isz 





A wine glass 

M mm A-^n 

A cooking stove 

A clock 

A watch 

:^ iiJiJt 

A well 

A basket 

A vessel or boat. 



yih tsah tsieu^ 'pe 
yih tsah tSh-tsau^ 

- K ^ikt 

yih tsah sz^-ming-tsoong 

- K iRl^ 

yih tsiih piaii 
yih tsah *^tsing 

~K # 

vih tsah la^ 

-K ^ 

yih ts'ah ze^ 



14 


FIRST 


LESSONS IN CHINESE. 




A nail 




yih tsah 'ting 

- KT 




An apple 




yih tsiih hwo-ng 




An orange 

mm mmt. 




yih tsah kiuh-^tsz 




A peach 




yih tsah tau-^tsz 




A pear 




yih tslih sang-le 




One (of this class) 




yih tsah 




ThRTD Cr,ARRIFIER, '. 


pPJ C^^'o). DENOl'ES TOOLS, INSTRUMENTS OR AKTICLFS USED IN THE HAKD 






TOOLS, &C., AS : 




A knife or sword 


yih 'po tau 

-«17J 




A fork 




yih 'po ts^o 




A spoon 




yih 'po ts^iu 




A hammer 

^ iimX 




yih 'po long-deii 

~m lies 




A file 




yih 'po ts^oo-taii 




An ax. 




yih 'po foo^-deu 




A saw 

M m 




yih 'po ke-<^tsz 




A chisel 




yih 'po soh-^tsz 




A pair of 

j^ Arfp tHI^ 


scispors 

e W "J 


yih 'po tse^'^-tau 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 15 

A pair of tongs yili 'po hoo-'^tse" 

yih 'po vB-'-tsz 

- m mf- 

yili 'po se^^-^tsz 
yih 'po ^soo 

-mm 

yih 'po ya-dsz 
yih 'po sau^-^tseu 

— tE WW 

yih 'po tso-oo 
yih 'po kV-oo 
An umbrella yiii 'po sa ^ 

Pf PI nmm^u - ffii # 

One (or a handful!) yih 'po 

Fourth Classifier, ^^ (tia ii), denotes objects long and winding or limber, as : 
A river or large stream yih tiau kong 

A river or large stream yih tiau oo 

A creek or canal yih tiau pang 

A ditch yih tiau keu 

^Mm -mm 

A covered sewer yih tiau yung-keu 

^ mi^ ■ - # mm 



A 


chair 


^ 


^H 


A 


fan 


M 


#PI 


A 


lock 


M 


m^ 


A 


key 


^ 


ii 


A 


broom 


^ 


)%M^^ 


A 


tea pot 


M 


M um 


A 


kettle 


-^ 


^Wf^ 



16 



FIRST LESSONS iN CHINESE. 



An open sewer or drain 
A 5 bridge 

A road 

A street 

An alley 

[If Klili: 

A rope 

A tape or ribbon 

^ :tt^ mm %±^ 

A strip of matting 

A quilt or blanket 

A mattress 

A slieet 

A carpet 

A pair of pants 

M Afln m^ mun 

A handkerchief 
A towel 
A dragon 



yih tiau yang-keu 

~m mm 

yih tiau djau 

-mm 

yih tiau loo^ 

yih tiau ka 

yih tiau loong^-dong 

~m '^"^ 

yih tiau sung 

— mm 

yih tiau ta^ 

-m^ 

yih tiau sih 

—mi^ 

yih tiau pe^-deu 



yih tiau nyoh-*^tsz 
yih tiau ta'^-^pe 
yih tiau mau-la^ 

-m ^M. 

yih tiau k^oo^-*'tsz 

-m ^^ 

yih tiau k;o ^-deu 

— m^ MM. 

yih tiau seu^-kiung 
yih tiau loong 

-■f^ ft 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



17 



A fish 
K ^# 

A snake 

An eel 

Pf PI ^m 

A bar of iron 

A gold ba» 
One's life 
One (of this class) 



yih tiau ng 

- i^ M 

yih tiau so 
yih tiau me-le 

- ^ fill 

yih tiau t^ih-tiau 

- # ^1^ 

yih tiau kiung-diau 

- # ^ # 

yih tiau sing-ming^ 

- # 'ft.^ 

yih tiau 

- # 



Fifth Classifier, ^^ (^m^^), denotes objects long and usually ctiff, as 



A stick of timber 

A bamboo 

A ratan 

A cane or stick 

A boat's mast 

A straw 

A stem, or stalk (of plants) 

A rope 



yih kung moh-deu 

— ^ % M. 

yih kung mau-tsoh 

~ m Ys M 

yih kung'tung 

— m 

yih kung ^pong 
yih kung siang-^tsz 

- m ti -^ 

yih kung *^ts'au 

— tS ¥ 

yih kung ^kang 

-mm 

yih kung sung 



18 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


A thread 


yih kung se^^ 

-II U 




Sixth Classifier 2J$j ( puny), denotes books, volumes, as : 




A volume, a book 


yih ^p\mg sii 




An account "book 


yih *'pung tsang^-boa 

- ^ m M- 




A small blank book 


yih *^pung boo^-4sz 

~ ^ m "¥■ 




Seventh Classifier, 'nlJ ( hoo), denotes entire works of one or more volumes, 


as: 


A work of one, or more volumes 


yih ^boo su 

-Mm 




Eighth Classifier, )$ {dsu), denotes massive objects, as : 




A mountain 


y-ih dsn' sa" 




A city 


yih dsiP sung 

-mm 




A temple 


vih dsu^ miau^ 

-mm 




A house 


yih dsu^ vong-*^tsz 

- m m ^ 




\ A two story house 


yih dsii^ leu 

-mm 




i A pagoda 


yih dsu' t'Sh 




One (of this class) 

1 m. 


yih dsiP 

— m ■ 




1 Ninth Classifier, /£ {p'ili) denotes whole ph:ces of goods, as : 




! A piece of cloth 


yih p^ih 'poo^ 

— 7E ^ 




A piece of broad cloth 


yih p^ih too-loo-nve 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 19 


A piece of silk 


5'ih p^ih tseu 

~ TEm 


A piece of satin 


yih p'ih do^^-'tsz 


A piece of velvet 


yih p^ih nyoong 

- 7E .^ 


A piece of shirting 

M ^m m^ #T 


yih p^ih yang-^poo^ 


A 2)iece of drilling 


yih p^ih sia-vung *poo^ 

~ 7£ m^ in 


A piece of camlet 


yih p^ih yii^ mau 


A piece of grass cloth 


yih p^ih mo-poo^ 


A piece of white shirting 

M ^\in m^ mm i^r 


vih p^ih piau-piih poo^ 


A piece of long ells 


yih p^ih pih-ke 


Eleventh Classeier, 25 > 


( p'th), DENOTES HORSES, AS : 


A horse 


yih p^ih ^mo 

— E .^ V 



A mule 

TwELVTH Classifies, 
A piece of wood 

M i^tn m^ mw 



yih p^ih loo-^tsz 

— m ¥^ 

[, (kive), DENOTES SLICES OR PORTIONS OF THINGS, AS : 

yih kw^e^ moh-deu 



A slab, a piece of stone yih kw^e^ siih-deii 



A board 

A slice of meat 



yih kw'e^ nyoh 



20 FIRST l.ESSONS IN CHINESE. 

A slice of bread yih kw^e^ mairi-doo 

^ nm^ m^ ^^m - m mm 

A piece of land yih kw^e^ te^-be 

A pane of glass yili kw^e^ poo-le 

^ mm m^ ^mn ~ m m^n 

A dollar yili kw^e^ yang-de'' 

^ ^fe ~ m nm 

A brick yih kw^P loh-tse 

M ^^±m ~ m mm 

A bit of cloth yih kvv^e^ ^poo^ 

^ mu m^ m^n - m ^ 

A bit of silver, &c. yih kw^e^ nyunpj-^^tsz 

^ mm m^ -wmm - % ^f 

Thirteenth Classifier, jjlg (/o/O, denotes paintings, or engravings, &c., as: 
A painting, or engraving yih foh wo^ 

^ m^s nf PI m-mm. - ts « 

A chart, or map yih fob teMe-doo 

Fourteenth, Classifier, ]m {se^ ), denotes broad objects, as ; 



A door 




yih se^^ mung 

-M PI 


A window 




yih se"' ts'ong 


A screen 




yih se^^ ping-foong 


A fixed 


screen 


yih se» ping-mnng 


A sail 




yih se'^^ *-Jioong 



Fifteenth Classifier, ^^ {dzumi), denotes machinery, as : 
A steam engine vih dziing hoo-lmig 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 21 

A mill yili dzung moo^-^tsz 

M ^ro — ^ B ^ 

A loom juli dzung 'poo^-ke 

^ m» ~ n ifj m 

A carriage yih dzung mo-ts^o 

A rail road carriage yih dzung lioo-liing^ *^tsVt.sz 

A flight of stairs, yih dzung ^oo-t^e 
or ladder 

mm mm 

The steps of a door yih dzung tah-boo^ 

An irrigating machine yih dzung sz^-ts^o 

PiPi -%-^mrr mhu - m :^ m 

Sixteenth Classifier, J^ {ting). 

A sedan chair yih ting djau^-<^tsz 

M mmi ^i ^ - il ^ ^ 

-^ ^"^^^ yih ting mau^-*^t?z 

An nmhivlla yih ting Pa^^ 

Ptps mmmwit - ]S # 

SEVENTEEN-ni ClASSIHER, ^ {wc), A TERM OF RESPECT. 

A visitor, a customer yih wP k^iih-nyung 

A teacher yih we^ seen-sang 

A doctor yih we^ long-tsoong 

^ ^77^ - -fe MIS ti^ 

An unmarried woman yih we^ siau^ ^tsia 

pf Pi /EPiaia* #spi - ^ ^j^ m 



22 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A friend yih we' pang-^yeu 

EIGHTEE^'TH CLASSIFIER, J^ {Uctng), DENOTES SHEETS OF PAPER. 

A sheet of paper yih tsiing *^tpz 

M ^m m^ 1^^ -mm 

A news paper yih tsang sing-viing-^ts^z 

A proclamation yih tsang kau-zz^ 

Nineteenth Ci^ssifier, ^ {bcf), denotes firms, shops, &c., 

A firm yih ba^ ^ong • 

A foreign firm yih ba^ yling ^ong 

A shop yih bS,^ te'^^ 

A shop of foreign goods yih ba^ yang-hoo te'^^ 

A pawn broker yih ba^ <^te^'-tong^ 

^ mi mm^m ~^ m -^ 

A teal shop yih ba^ tso-que°^ 

A silk store yih ba^ tsen-do te^^ 

A wine shop yih ba'^ ^tsieu te'^^ 

^ mu mmm - ^ m is 

Twentieth Classifier, ^(] (foo), denotes sets of things, as 

A set of buttons yih foo^-nyeu^-^tsz 

M ^m m^ mm] ~m h'f 

A ])air bracelets yih foo-*-tsoh-cleu 

M nm m'^^nam - mo m m 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



23 



A set of ear rings yih foo^-ch^o 

^ ^m m^ ^^ ^^n - m m 



A pair of spectacles 

A set of domino 



yih foo^ ^nga^-kiuDg~ 
yih foo^ ba 

- m m 



yih foo^ Heu^-^^tsz 



©ft jji 



A set of dice 

A set of chop sticks yih foo^-kw^a^. 

A set of tools, or yih foo' ka-sang 

instruments 

A saddle and bridle yih foo^ mo^-6 

TwENTY-FIRSt CLASSIFIER, ^ (son^), DENOTES PAIRS, AS 



A pair of boots 

M ^'^ m^ nm 

A pair of shoes 

m. sErfff m^ m.n 

A pair of socks 

M Mm m^ ^^n 

A pair of gloves 



yih song shoo 

— # ik 

yih song ^a-^tsz 
yih song mah 



yih song ^seu-t^au^ 

— # ^ ^ 



^ nm m^ m^n 

Twenty-second Classifier, '^ {tsimg\ denotes idols, and a cannon. 



An idol (buddhist's) 

An idol 

An idol (tauist's) 



yih tsung veh 



yih tsung poo-sah 
yih tsung zung-dau^ 



^4 FIRST LESSOKS IN CHINESE. 




A cannon 




yih tsung p'au^ 




Twenty-third Classifier, 


'^ ipau), denotes bales of things. 




A bale of cotton 




yih pail hwo 




A bale of shirting 

M ^m m^ -^T 




yih pail yang 'poo^ 

— ^ # ^ 




A bundle of clothing 




yih pail e zong 




A bale of medicines 




yih pan yah 




A bale of tobacco 




yih pan ye'^ 

- ^ m 




A bale of merchandise 




yih pan hoo^-snh 




A bale of silk 




yih pan sz 




A bale of hemp 




yih pan mo-sz 




Twenty-fourth Classifieb 


.1^ 


(k^oo), denotes trees, plants, &c. 




A tree 




yih k'^oo-su^ 

-mm 




A flowering plant 

^ ^^^ -PI ^^MB 




yih k^oo hwo 




A plant of vegetables 


yih 'koo ts'^ 

-mm 




A plant of wheat 




yih k^oo mah 

~mw 




A plant of rice 




yih k^oo <^tau 

-m^m 




A bunch of grass, &c. 




yih k^oo 4s^au 

-mm 





FISRT LESSONS ]N CHINESK. 


25 


TwENTir-FIFTH ClASSUIER, 


^ {me^ ), denotes flat objects. 




A mirror 


yih me^^ kiung^-*^tsz 




A flag 


yih me^^ ge 




A gong 


yih me"^ kiung-loo 




A drurn 


yih me^^ %oo 

-mm 




Twenty-sixth Classifier, 


i^ ((e\ denotes piles of things. 




A pile of timber 

^ mm m^ Tm% 


yih te moh-deu 




A pile of fuel 


yih t^ za 

-mm 




A pile of coal 

M ^m m^ pTrfij 


yih t^ m^ 




A pile of brick 


yih t^ loh-tse 




A pile of stones 


yih te sah-deii 




A pile of earth 

^ ^m m^ mn 


yih te nye 




A pile of cloth 


yih te poo^ 




A pile of goods 

^ iwm m^ mm 


yih te hoo^-suh 




Twenty-seventh Classifier, 


^1 (Jcid'ungX denotes bundles op things. 


1 


A bundle of ratans 


yih *^kw'ung tung 

-mm 




A bundle of rice straw yih ^w^ing tau^-za 





26 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHIKESE. 



A 


bundle of wood 


^ 


*#r?n m^ iiJ# 


One 


bundle 


m.m%M 




Twenty-eighth Cla 


A 


flute 


M^^M 


A 


flageolet 


M 


^^^mw^ 


A 


gnn 


^ 


mm 


A 


pistol 


K 


mnmm 


A 


pen 


:g 


mi 


A 


pencil 


K 


mi'Wfia 



yih %w^ung za 
yili ^kw^ung 



yik %we'i> tih 

- « ® 

yih ^^kwe'^ siau 

— # M 

yih <^kwe^ niau^-ts^iiing 



yih %we^ seu^-ts^iang 

— # '^ H 

yih *^kwe^ pili 
yih %w^^ k^a^ pih 



yih <^kw^° ts¥ti 
yih %w^^ ts^mg 



A foot rule 

A steel yard 

Twenty-ninth Classifeee, ^ (te), denotes a pair, a brace. &c. 

A pair of fowls yih t^^ ke 

^ gErfn m^ ^mm -mm 

A brace of ducks yih te^ ah 

% ^%Mn m^ #^^ — # li 

A brace of pheasants yih t^^ ya^-ke 

M ^'^'Mn m^ ^miM ~mnm 



A pair of pigeons 
A pair of candles 



yih te^ keh-*^tsz 

-m ^"f- 

hih t^^ lah-tsoh 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



27 



1^ 



A pair of candlesticks yih t^^ lah-de 

A husband and wife yih te^ foo-ch^e 



A book-case 


yih 


1 V f^ '^^h 

^k^eu sfi-dsi\ 


A ward-robe 


yih 


^k^eu e-dsu 


A cup-board 


yih 


%^eu we^^-dsu 

p mm 


A coffin 


yih 


%^eu qu^'^-ze 

P mVi 


A well 


yih 


^k^eu ^tsing 

P'# 


Thirty-first Classifier, >j^ (dong), denotes casks, tubs, and buckets op things, &c. 


A cask of wine 

M ^m% m^ mi 


yih 


^dong ^tsleu 


A cask ' of ale 


yih 


^dong k^ob^-*^tsieu 


A barrel of flour 


yih 


<^dong kw6-me^^ 


A bucket of water 


yih 


^d5ng ^sz 


A keg of powder 

^ mm m^ *a® 


yih 


*^dong hoo^-ylih 

m km 


A cask of butter 


yih 


^dong na^-yeu 


Thirty-second, j0L (ping), 


denotes BOTl'LES, OR VIOLS OF THINGS, AS : 


A bottle of medicine 

M mm m^ -mn^ 


yih 


ping yah 

m m 



28 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



A bottle of wine yih ping *^tsieu 

m mm m^ mu -mm 

A bottle of ale yih ping k'ou^-<^tsieu 

A bottle of vinegnr yih pi no- tsV)o^ 

u mm m^ ^um -mm 

A bottle of oil, &c. yih ping yen 

Munm m^mMifa —mm 

Thirty-third Classifier, 7p§ {siang), denotes boxes of things. 
A box of tea yih sia ng ts6-yih 

A box of sycee yih siiing nyo-^paii 

A box of dollars yih siang yan^2^-rle° 

A box of materials yih siaag luxP-^nh 

A box of toys yih siang pob-s'ang-kwo 

K ^^^ m^ ^^Mn - m ^- « ^ 

Thirty-fourth Classifier,. ^J {foong), denotes letters, and other sealed parcels, as : 
A letter yih foong-sing^ 

M ^*M -mm 

An envelope yih foong sirtg^-foong 

mm Mu^i-M - m mm 

An official document yih foong vimg-'^ii 

muB^-Mifam^miM- m ^s 

Thirty-fifth Crassifier, ^ {pong)^ denotes a guild, a ciJiss. 
The liteiarv cla' a loli-su pong 

The mercharitile class sang-e pong 

The Cnnion ^<:nild qnong^-tong j^Tg 



FIRST l.ESSONS IN CHINESE. 29 



The Ningpo gaiUl nyung-po pong 

^ Wit nmm w m m 

The Nanking guild ne^-kiung pong 

ti mM nmm m M m 

The entire guild or class yih pong nyung 

Thirty-sixth Classiiter, [pj {we% denotes times. 

One time yih w6 

^ m^ - 

Two times Hang w^ 

^ mm m m 

Three times, &c, sa^ we 

^M mm H 

Thirty-seventh Classiher, ^^ ( piau ), denotes jobs, &c. 

A job of work yih p'iau^ sang-weh 

^ m^ m^ ^m-^ ~ m ^ m 

A business transaction yih p^ian^ sang-e^ 

TfflRTY-EiGUTn Classifier, JjE (tsmff), denotes affairs. 

An affair yih tsong pz^-t^e 



This aifair ^te tsong sz-i^e 

mn m-^m mmmm 

That affair e tsong sz^-t^^ 

Two affairs 4iang tsong sz^-t^e 

Thirty-ninth Classifier, ^ {dzung\ denotes a story. 

A three storied house Sa^ dzung leu 

U EM m^-^ n^n H ^ It 

A seven storied pagoda ch^ih dzung t^ah 

M X^ n^M A#^ -^ m ^ 



30 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


- 


Fortieth Classifier, |8< {dsong), denotes things piled one on top of the other. 
A pile of books yili dsong^ su 


A pile of paper 

M mum m^ ^M 


yih dsong^ tsz^-deu 

— m IRIS 




A pile of dollars 


yih dsong^ yang-de'^ 

~ m nm 




A pile of clothes 


yih dsong^ e-zong 




A pile of plates 


yih dsong^ pimg-^tsz, &c., 




Forty-first Classifier, ^f ( koo) 
One share 


, denotes shares in business. 
yih *^koo 




A business of three partners sa^ *^koo vung^-deu 




Forty-second Classifhsr, "^ {ka^ ) 
One room 


denotes rooms, as : 
yih ka^ 




A bed room 

^ ^w mm 


vong-kan, vong-deu 

mm mm 


^ 


A parlor 

M m^ 


k^ah-dong ka^ 


■♦ 


An office 

mi m^n 


sia^-zz ka^ 




Shroff's room 

m^^n mm 


tsang^-vong ka" 

m m m 




Forty-third Classifier, 'pp (je^ ), denotes garments, pieces of baggage or mer- 




chandise ; ai^o an affair, as ; 




A garment 

MMfm 


yih je^^ e-zong 




An affair 

Pf PS %B^ 


yihje^^ sz^-<^t'e 





FIRST LESSONS IN CRfNESE. ol 



This affair te j«' 

That "^ affliir e je^^ sz-t^e 

Two packages *^lia,nor je^^ 

^ A^n± m ff 

Ten packages seh. je^^ 

Thirty pieces ga°-seli je°^ 

Forty-fourth Classifier, y^ (da ), denotes rows of TniNGis. 

A. row of houses yih da^ vong-*^tsz 

A row yih da^ 

A line of troops yih da^ ping 

In a row, or line yih da^ sang 

-Pi M%i% mm mi ~±^ 

A row of trees yih da^ siP 



32 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



In all the foregoing, the numeral ijili has been used in the sense of the definite 
and indefinite articles, to denote singular objects. When it is desirable to 
speak of more than one object of either classifier, any other numeral may 
be substituted for ylli; but the appropriate classifier must, ia all cases, be 
introduced after the numeral, as: 



Three men 

^a Ml 

Ten eggs 
Four fowls 
Twelve swords 
Nine knives 

mm ^M^n 



sa' 



Two 

Six 



roads 

Bit 



sticks 



of wood 



Seven boards 
Three horses 

Eight books 
Seventeen doors 
Four letters 



-^ 



kuh nyung 

A 



seh kuh ta°^ 

+ ^ ® 

sz-tsah ke 

HK IS 

seh-nyi <^po tau 

+ ^ «1 77 

%icu ^po tau 

A«l 77 

liang tiau loo^ 

m m^ 

I5h kung moh-deu 
cli'ih kw^e pa° 

-t mm 

sa^ p^ili ^mo 
pah ^pung su 

A * # 

seh-ch^ih se^^ mung 

+ -b M n 

sz-foong sing^ 

mm in 



Two hundred Jbales of silk nye piih pau sz 
Four hundred chests of tea sz^ pah siang tso-vih 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 33 


Thus the learner should 


apply any, 


or all of the numerals learned in the first 


part of thi 


s manual to any, 


or all of the classifiers, until he is perfectly familiar 


with their use. 






If the object under consi( 
omit the noun and simpl; 
examples. 

Three 


ieration is present, or is perfectly well understood, 
Y use the numeral and classifier. Take the above 


- 




ea^ kuh 


Ten 

m 






seh kuh 


Four 






sz-tsah 


Twelve 






seh-nye 'po 

+ n :fla . 


Nine 

^0 






^kien 'po 


Six 


sticks 




loh kung 


Two 






liang tiau 

m m 


Seven 






ch'ih kw'6 

-t m 


Three 






sa» p'ih 


Eight 






pah ^pung 

A 2|5: 


Seventeen 






seh ch^ih se° 


Four 






sz foong 

mm 



34 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Two hundred bales 
Four hundred chests 



nye pah pau 

sz pah siang, &c. 

w ^ 



I=>EK,SOTsr.AuI-, I^E,03^TOXJ3SrS. 

SINGULAR NUMBER, 



NOMINATIVE CAI^. 



'nsroo 



You 

He, she, it 



E 



m p 



POSSESSIVE CASE. 

Mine ^ngoo kuk 

13l ^ ^ 



OBJECTIVE CASE, 



Yours 



noong^ kuh 



m'^n m 



His, herPy its. e kuh 



Me 
Yon 



'ngoo 



noong^ 



Him, her, it. e 

mm m-mp 



PLUEAL NUMBER. 



NOMINATIVE 


CASE. 


POSSESSIVE CASE. 


OBJECTIVE 


CASE. 


We 


nye^ 

1M 


Ours 


nye^ kuh 


Us 


nve^ 


You 


na^ 

m 


Yours 


na^ kuh 

If ^ 


You 


na^ 

If 


They 


e-la 

pn 


Theirs 


e-hi kuh 


Them 


e-la 

pn 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



35 



COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS, USED IN THE 
NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE CASE$. 

SINGULAE NUMBER. 



NOMINATIVE 


CASE. 


OBJECTIVE CASR. 


I myself 


^11 goo szMva 


Me myself 


*'ngoo gz^-ka 


Yoii yourself 


noong^ sz^-ka 


You yourself 


uoong^ sz^-ka 


He himself 


e szM^a 


He himself 


e sz^-ka 


She herself 


e 6z-*-ka 


She herself 


e sz^-ka 


It self 


e sz^-ka 


It self 


e sz^-ka 



PLURAL NUMBER 



NOMINATIVE CASK. 



OBJECTIVE CASE. 



We ourselves uve-^ ?zMca 

You yourselves na^ sz^-ka 



c-la sz^-ka 



They themselves 

1^ ^^Pf^rfij^«J PUUM 



Ourselves nye^ pz^-ka 

You yourselves na^ szMca 

They themselves e-la sz^-ka 



36 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

EXERCISES IN THE PRONOUNS WITH A VERB AND A NEGATIVE 

It is mine ^ Sz ^Dgoo kiih 

-m -± mm ^i a >^ 

It is not mine 2 veh sz^ ^ngoo kuli 

-m ~± M^ «Pi i^ m^ A^ 

My hat ngoo kuh mau^-^tsz 

mmm a >^ -i-i ^ 

Your house noong kuh vong-^tsz 

It is yours sz noong^ kuh 

-m -± ^^^ mm ^ 

It is not yours veh sz-noong> kuh 

—m -± MB ^^n ^ mm ^ 

Is it, w is it 6z e 3 nye veli-^z e kiih ? 

— ± — fl§; iHua — ± —B mp vM^mp^ 

not his ? 
It is his, or hers sz e kuh 

-u~± m~± K^ m^n mp ^ 

It is not ours veh ^sz nye^ kuh 

~m -± mu m^n ^ mn^^ 

We did not go uye^ veh ^ ch^e kuh 

%^ it# mm M n^ ^ 

Oars have not yet nye^ kuh veh ^ ziing 6 ]^ 

m^m fls^* mm 9\-mu ^ ^ ^ M 

arrived 
Where are voiirs ? na^ kuh leh hi ^a It^ ? 

M^ 03^ ^5!.^ If >h *^ fe nT M 

Ours arj on hoard ship nye^ kuh leli-hi ze'^ long^ 

m^%^ m^ mu ie# ^m%^u m ± 



1 (Sz), the verb to be. 2 (FeA), not, no. 3 Nye, or. 4. Ch^e, to go. 5. Veh-ztmg, not yet. 6. Le 
to come. 



FIRST LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. .37 


They have not cuiue 

^ m^^ mm m^ 


e la veil ie 


They have not vet come 

^ m^^ mm mm mn^ 


e-la veh-zung le 


These are my own 

m±n pgia n^ mB 


*^te kuh sz ngoo'szM^a kuh 


It is not your own 

-m ~± mm ^^mu 


vih sz noong^ szM^a kuh 

^ mm g^>^ 


It is his, or her own sz e sz'-ka kuh 

-m -± »±n m^ m.mu ft i^ i m ^ 


We went ourselves 


nye^ sz^-ka ch^e^ kuh 


You yourself said so 


noong^ szMva ^ wo^ kuh 

m ^ mm ^ 


They came themselves 


c-la szM^a le kuh 


You yourselves gave it me na^ sz^-ka 8 beh ^ngoo 


The learner should not fail to run 


sach of the above examples through all 


the persons of the pronoun, both singular and plural. 


inSTTEROOA-TI^V^E I^IR.OlSrOXJTsrS- 


Who ? sa^ ? Which ? 


a le^? What? sa^? 


'^f* (ll^)? '11 ^'^i© sense of who, is 


applied to persons, and only when we 


enquire after a person or persons whol 


y unknown; and is almost always joined 


to the noun. 




Who? or who is it? 


sa^ nvung ? 


Who said so ? 


sa^ nyung wo^ kuh ? 


7. Wo^ to speak. 


8. Beh, to give. 



38 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Who did it ? 
Who took it ? 
Who brought it ? 
Who has gone ? 

vf m± mi 

Who wants it ? 
Who opened the door ? 
Who shut the door? 
Who came ? 

p^ #^ 

Who has been in ? 
«^ flS± 0L -PI 



sa^ nyung ^ tsoo kuh? 



fit A 


m ^ 


sa^ njnm^ 


' 2 'ta" kuli ? 


lit A 


ta ^ 


sa nyung 

B^A 


ta'^ le kuh ? 


sa nyung 

flt A 


ch^e> kuh ? 


6a nyung 


3 yau^ kuh ? 



sa nyung ^k^^mm^g? 

ntA i^ P^ 

sa nyung ^ qua^ mung ? 

»t A ^ PI 1 

sa nyung le kuh ? 

B^ A ^ 4^ 

sa nyung ^ tsing^ le shih kuh ? 

B# A ^ ^ U: .^ 



W^hich, pf g {a-le^)j is used to designate a certain number of persons or 
things, according to the numeral used before the classifier. 



Which one ? 
Which book ? 
Which road ? 
Which shop ? 
Which two knives ? 



a-le.' vih kuh ? 

nl^M — .^ 

a-le-* yih pung su ? 

pT M — 2|5: # 

a-le^ yih tiau loo^? 

pT M - # ]^ 

a-le' yih ba° te°^ ? 
a-le^ *^liang *^po tau ? 

pt m mmji 



1. Tsoo, to do. 2- ^«w, to ta^e. 3. yau, to want. 4. ^'e, to open. 5. quan^ to slmt. 6. ?si//^, to enter. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 39 



Which three tables ? a-le^ sa^ tsah te-<^tsz ? 

i^.-s flsa m^f^n ht a h k m ^ 

Which vessel ? a-le^ yih tsah ze^ ? 

^.t; #^ffli PT M - K m 

Which steamer ? a-le^ yih tsah hooMiing ze°- 

mt^ «i/s^ pt a - K ;^ ife m 

Which four doors a-le^ sz^ se°^ mung ? 



When the subject of conversation is present, or is well understood, the name 
or noun may be omitted, and simply use the numeral and classifier. Take 
the above examples. 



Which one ? a-le^ yih kuh ? 

^. t; ^ tfi^a— ^ 

Which road ? a-le^ yih tiau ? 

Mt. mtm pt a - # 

Which book ? a-le^ yih <^pung ? 

Which shop ? a-le^ yih ba^ ? 



Which two knives ? a-le^ ^liang po ? 

^>^ ^ ^5:gM^ tfp M ^ ^ 

Which three tables ? a-le^ sa^ tsah ? 

^.t Ea ii#i£^ pt a H K 

Which vessel? a-le^ yih tsah ? 

ut, #^fffj pt a - K 

Which steamer ? a-le^ yih tsah ? 

^>^ ^JS:?- Pl^ a - K 

Which four doors? a-le^ sz^ se° ? 

^>t; n^ *&Piia^ pt a « 



40 



FIRST LESSNOS IN CHINESE. 



The learner should take many similar examples from the different classifiers, 
both with and without the noun, using different numerals. 



Sa (d^), in the sense of what, is used when the name, character, description, 
and wants of persons or things— and the meaning and explanation of things, 
— are enquired after; and usually follows a verb, and commences a sentence 
without a verb, as: 
What name? sa^ ming deu ? 

^ ^ m 

^te kuh 1 kiau^ sa^ ? 
sa? ^ong nyili ? 



What is this called? 

^0. -± mn Jifffj# 

What occupation? 

What trade, or business? sa^ sang-e^ ? 

^u fls:^^# mm m±7bm^^ ^M 

What is the matter, or ' What sa^ zz'-<:t'e ? 
business ? 

What business has he ? e 2 yeu sa zz'-H'e ? 



What do you want? 

^M ^ m^ mm 

What does he want ? 
What are you doing ? 

What color ? 

^m wt 

What kind or form ? 



noong^ yau^ sa^ ? 

ii ® B^ 

6 yau^ sa^ ? 

noong^ la tsoo^ sa^? 

sa^ kuh Dga" siih ? sa' nga" suli ? 

sa^ kuh yang^ sub ? 



1. A7aw, to call. 2. Yew, to have, 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



41 



What price ? 
What o'clock ? 

^M PI M'^% 

What news ? 

What weight ? 



What day ? 
What year ? 
What disease ? 



What did you say? 

mm mm w^ ^ 

What does he say ? 
At what time? 

m^ ^m mpf 



sa^ ka de^ ? sa ong zicg? 
ke^ te^ tsoong ? sa zz-keu ? 

sa^ sing sih ? 

ffS fe ^§i 

sa^ vung^-^liang ? 

sa' nyih-kiah ? 

mu m 

sn? nye^-vung ? 

sa^ kuh ping^ ? sa' ping-t^ong ? 

Bt^ m \i^ mm 

noong' wo' kuh sa' ? 

e woo' sa' ? 

sa' zung kwong ?' 



What is your honorable tsung sing' sa' ? tsung sing ? 

^m -± i^ja [Hjpipa^^ # J* nt M n 

name ? 



sa' yo koo ? 



What is the cause ? 
What is the meaning ? 



sa' ka sell ? sa' e-sz ? 



What is the use of it? sa' yoong-deu ? 

^m-'±nm^nm^-mii^ mm 

What place ? 



sa' 00 dong ? sa^ tsiing hau ? 



42 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



What number? 



sa^ soo-mab ? 



Sa (B^) is also used in the sense of any, and no, or none, as : 



Did you say any thing ? 



noong^ wo^ sa^ va ?- 



I did not say any thino;, <^Dgoo veh wo^ sa^. 

Does he wish to say any thing ? e yau^ wo^ sa^ va ? 

He does not wish to say e veh yau^ wo^ sa. 
any thing.. 

MB ^ 

Have you any thing to say ? noong"* ^yeu sa^ woMeu va ? 

mm^ m^ m^ w ^Mi^- ^ n^ m ii ^ 

I have nothing to say, *^ngoo mg-sa^ wo^-deu. 
Have you any pros- ^yeu sa^ mong deu va ? 

flf j^^ PS¥ m^ m^^n m^ mm ^^ 

pect ? 



I have 

pect, no. 



no 



pros- 



m<]c sa^'monf?^ deu. 



■smn mn^ m m 



Have you any shirtings? ^yeu sa^ yang-poo^ va ? 

yeu kuh. 



I have. 

I have none. 

nms^ mm 



mg meh. 



.^- 



FISRT LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



43 



Have you any money ? 
Have you any em- 

mm^ pf¥ m^ mi 

ploy men t ? 



noong^ ^yeu sa^ nyuiag-^tsz va ? 
noong^ ^yeu sa^ tsoo^-va ? 



I have no business, mg sa^ tsoo^. 

nothing. 

Has any one been here ? *^yeu sa^ nyung le va ? 



No. 



mg sa^ nyung. 

mm K 



Have you any plan ? ^eu sa^ f ah-tsuh va ? 

Is there any answer? ^yeu sa^ we sing^ va ? 

-±^ ^% m^ mi^ ^n mum ^ 



mg sa^ w^ sing^. 

m.mmm 

*^yeu sa^ pih yang^ va ? 



There is no answer. 
Have you any other 

mm^ n^ m^ mm. 

kind? 

miM 

I have no other kind. mg sa^ pih yancr^. 

I have nothing more mg sa^ pih yang^ wo^-deu. 

to say. 

^^ 

Have you any thing to ^yeu sa^ ch^uh va ? 

mm^ m^m^n^ ^ d^ tr^ ^ 

eat or drink ? 



44 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I have nothinf^ to eat. mg sa^ ch'uh. 

^^ mm^ mj^r ^ mm pi nt pg 



This. 



This 
That 
This 



te kuh. 



man. 

mm 

woman, 
chair. 



that. 



That table. 

This road. 

That house. 

This room. 

That door. 
These two doors. 

Those three windows. 
These four swords. 

Those ten boxes. 

Those ten boxes of 



e-kuh, as : 
*-te-kuk nyung. 

n^ A 

e kuh nyiP nyung. 

¥^± A 

te po jii^-^tsz. 
e tsah te-<^tsz. 
te tiau loo^. 
e-dsu^ vong-*^fcsz. 



in) 



e se 



mung. 



^te-kuh liang se^^ mung. 

M II PI 



^ 



e-kuh sa° se" ts^ong. 
<^te-kuh sz^ ^po tan. 

0^ ra ffi 7; 

e-kuh seh ts'ah siting-^tsz. 



^ ^ 



tea. e-kuk seh siiing tso-yih. 



FIRST 


r LESSONS IN CHINESE. 45 


Apply the above, and similar 
numerals : also the following e2 


examples, to all the classifiers, with different 
.amples, in which the noun may be omitted, as 


in page 33. 






This one. 




<^te-kuk. 


These two. 




^fce-knk ^liang tsah. 


That one. 




e se^\ 

p m 


Those three. 




e-kuk sa^ *^pung. 


These five. 




*^te-kuh ng kung. 


Those ten. 

mm MB 




e-kuh seh ^po. 


These two pairs. 




^te-kuh ^liang song. 


Those seven sets. 

mm ^^ M\: 




e-kuh ch^ih foo^. 


This boat, compared with that, is fast. 


^te tsah z4P-, ^pe-tsz^ e 

K m }^\izp 


tsah, 

K 


kwV. 


The study of the demonstrative pi 
classifiers, with different numerals, wi 

IlSriDEFIISriTI 


onouns, in connection with the different 
11 be a very profitable exercise. 


3 i^i^onsroxjzsrs. 


All, 

IHIrfn' 




^loong-tsoong. (applied to persons) ta^-ke\ 

Jill ±m 


Many, much. 




too-^hau. 


Few, 




^sau. 


Each one, every one. 




(applied to persons) ta^-too. 



46 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Wlioevtr. ^a^ J^i veil lung^ sa^ nynng. 

What so ever, no matter what, veh-lung^ sa^, swo pe^^ sa^ veh tyii sa. 

Which ever. swo pe'\ 

^m Mm MM 

Others. pih-kut.'N 

Other men. pih nyung. 

Other kind. pih yiing. 

Other forms, or styles. pih-kuh yang^-suh, pih yang\ 

WiM :^mn m^ nm^n m "^ # ^ m # 

Other places. pih-ts^ii^ pih tsang-hau. 



The adjective jff (hau) good, well, has a very wide application in Chinese. 
Indeed, every thing that is good, well, suitable, correct, charitable, palatable, 
ready &c, and in fact, every thing that suits the taste, or is agreeable to the 
mind, may be said to be Jf hau. 

The converse of nearly all the above, may be expressed with equal latitude 
not by bad, but by not good &c ^ f^ veh hau. 

Adjectives may be compared in Chinese. 

The superlative may be expressed in different words ; but this is regular, as: 



Good. %au. 



Bad. ch^eu, 



Better. ^hau te". | Worse. ch^eu-te^. 

Best. ^ting 4iau. 



Worst. ^ting ch^eu. 



FIRST l.ESSONS IN CHINESE. 



47 



Cold. 
Colder. 
Coldest. 
Hot. 



Hotter. 

mm 

Hottest. 
White. 

mm 

Whiter. 

mm 

Whitest. 

Rmnm 

Black. 

Blacker, 



Blackest. 
Green. 
Grreener. 
Greenest. 



*^lang. 
flang-te". 
^ting ^liing. 
nyih. 



nyili-te'^. 

m m 

^t.ing nj'ih. 

m m 

pah. 

S 

plih-te^ 
*^ting plili. 

m e 

huh. 



huh-te". 

m m 

^ting huh. 
]5h. 



loh - te^ 
^tino; l5h. 



Red. 
Redder. 
Reddest. 
Blue. 



Bluer, 

Bluest. 

Yellow. 

Yellower. 

Yellowest. 



Short. 
Shorter. 
Shortest. 
Long. 



ong. 



Longer. 



Longest. 



'6ng-te^ 



M U 



la" - te». 

M m 

^ting la\ 



wang-te°, 

n m 

^to-te". 

mm 

^ting 15, 

tsang. 

tsang-te". 

M m 

ting tsang. 

m m 



48 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



High. 

Higher. 

Highest. 

Low. 



Lower. 
Lowest. 

Broad. 

Broader. 

Broadest. 

Narrow, 
Narrower. 

mmm 

Narrowest. 

Deep, 

mm 

Deeper. 

Deepest. 

Shallow. 



kau. 
kau-te". 

M m 

^t'mg kau. 

te. 
% 
te - te°. 

% m 

^ting te. 
kw^eli. 



kw^eh-te^. 

m m 

^tins:"! kw^eh. 



W 



'ah. 



ah te". 

mm 

^ting 'ah, 

m m 

SUDg. 



sung-te^. 



*^Ling snng, 
II ^^ 
<^ch^e^ 



Shallower. 
Shallowest. 
Square. 
Bound. 
Old. 
Older. 
Oldest. 
Young. 
Younger. 
Youngest. 
Fast. 
Faster. 
Fastest, 
Slow. 
Slower. 
Slowest. 



fch'e"-te". 

m m 

*^ling ch^e^. 

m m 

f ong. 

:^ 

.yo- 

m 

«lau. 

^^lau-ie'^. 
^ting ^lau. 
eu-sang. 

#^ 

eu^ sang-te^. 

^^m 

^ting eu sang^ 
kw^a^, 

'^ 

kw V - te^. 

^ m 

^ting kw^a\ 

If 

raa^'-te". 






Tl 1:^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



49 



Handsome. 
Handsomer. 



chHi\ 



Handsomest. 

Ugly. 

Uglier.- 

Ugliest. 
Early. 



Earlier. 



Earliest. 



Al. 



K»J 



Late. 
Later 



Latest. 
Heavy. 



Heavier. 
Heaviest. 



cli^u>-te^ 

m m 

^ting chHi. 

m ® 

p^o^-te^ 

'\^ M 

^ting p^o^. 
^tsau. 
"^tsau-te*. 

¥ m 

• ^ting ^tsau. 

m ^ 



m m 
II m 

^tsoono[. 



^tsoong-te". 



^ting *^tsooDg. 



Light. 
Lighter. 

Lightest. 
Sharp. 






ch^ung. 

m 



ch'ang-te^. 



Hing ch'ung, 

Tl 



m 



kwV. 



Sharper. 



Sharpest. 
Dull. 

ma 

Duller. 
_DulIest. 

Large. 
Larger. 
Largest. 

Small. ^sia 

Smaller. 
Smallest. 

n^MMnB Ti 4 



kwV-te". 

'^ m 

^ting kwV. 
tung\ 
tung^.te^ 
^ting tung^. 

II M 

too'. 

:^ 

tooMe". 



H\ng too^. 



^siau-te^. 



ch- 



ting '■siau. 



50 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Sweet. 

Sweeter. 

Sweetest. 
Bitter. 
More bitter. 

Most bitter. 
Thick. 

Thicker. 
Thickest. 

Thin. 

Mi 

Thinner. 
Thinnest. 

MiMnm 

Slippery. 
More slippery. 
Most slippery. 



te". 

m 

te^-te". 

mm 

Hinp: te^ 

nm 

qv'oo. 

<k'oo-te°. 

^ f !^ 

^ting ^k^oo. 

^'eu. 



<^'eu-te^ 



<^ting *^'eu. 

poh. 
% 

p6h-te^. 

n m 

*^ting poh. 

m n 

wah. 

m 

wah-te°. 



tino; wah. 



"^ tB 



Hard. 

Harder. 

Hardest. 

Soft. 
Softer. 
Softest. 

Smooth. 

nmM± 

Smoother. 
Smoothest. 
Rough. 
Rougher. 
Roughest. 
Gentle. 

mm 

More gentle. 
Most gentle. 



ngang^. 
ngang^-te". 

*-ting ngag^. 
'nyo. 

<^nY0-te^ 
^ting *-nyo. 
quong. 
quong-te^. 

3fe m 

^ting quong. 

mau, 

mau-tb^. 
^ ^!^ 

^ting man. 



^ze^-te^. 



Tl 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



51 



Wicked. 



Wickeder, 



Wickedest. 
Clear. 



Clearer. 
Clearest. 
Muddy. 



Muddier. 
Muddiest. 

Tine. 



False. 
Cheap. 



Cheaper. 



Cheapest. 
Dear. 



oh. 

oh-te". 
^tins^ oh. 
eliding, 
chi'ng-te^. • 

m m 

^ting eliding. 

II m 

wung. 



wung-te^. 

m m 

^ting wung. 

II m 

tsuno^. 



djang. 
djang-te°. 
•^ting djang. 






Dearer. 
Dearest. 

Level. 

Light. 

Lighter. 

Lightest. 

Dark. 
^^ 

Darker. 

^M 

Darkest. 
Rich. 

Richer. 
Richest. 
Poor. 
Poorer. 



tYU^-te^ 



^ting tyii^. 



^ 



Poorest. 



m'^Mnu 



liang^. 



liang^-te'*, 

^ m 

^fcing liang^. 
'ting 6"^ 

,ll Bt 

se^ ^tsu. 
Hing se^ tsu. 

djODg. 



djong-te^ 

m m 

<^ting djong. 

Mm 



52 


FIRST LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. 




Wet. 


sah. 

m 


Dry. 


k^YO. 


Wetter. 


sali-te^. 

m m 


Drier. 


kwo-te". 


Wettest. 


^tmg sail. 


Driest. 


*^ting kwo. 



OF TiiE c3-Eisrr>Ei^ OF nsroxjnsrs. 

I can trace but two genders in Chinese. When applied to Mankind, the 
masculine is indicated by ^ ne and feminine by ^ nii, as : 

A man. n^ nyung. 

M Wl ^ A 

A woman. niP nynng. 

A male child. ne no. 

B mm fkMMm . ^ m 

A female child. nii no. 

^ 3¥mm m^mm ^ m 

A male servant, ne siang pong. 

K mm ^mim ^m % 

A female servant. nii siiing pong. 

When applied to animals, the male is indicated by yoong ||| and the female 
by ^f ts^z, as ; 



A 


horse. 


A 


mare, 

mm 


A 


male cow. 

mm 'WM. 



yoong ^mo. 


tsz 


^mo. 


m 


jik^ 


yoong nyeu, 

in 4^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



53 



A female cow. 
A cock. 

^ ^^ 

A hen. 

A male dog. 

A female clog. 

Male and female. 



l^sz nyeu. 

ill 4^ 

yoong ke. 
ts^z ke. 



yooiig ^keii. 
ts^z %eu. 

itti m 

ts^z yoong. 



The only way of formingthe plural of nouns in Chinese, is either by prefixing 
a numeral indicating the number referred to, or by leaving off the numeral 
and classifier ; in which latter case, the term is generic, as : 



Mankind. 

spi mtm 

Cows, 

Fowls. 

Birds. 

Houses. 

Windows. 



nyung. 

A 

nyeu, 

4- 

ke. 



^tiau. 



vonff-tsz. 



^ 



ts^ong. 



Forks. 



Books. 

Horses. 

Dogs- 

Greese. 

Fish. 



ts'o. 



SLI, 



^mo. 

*^keu. 

ngoo. 



ng. 



54 


FIRST 


LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. 




Doors, 


mimg. 




Spoons, 


ts^iii. 


Knives. ;, 


tan, 

7J 




Trees. 





Or by prefixing a numeral, as : 



Seven men. 

^^ mi 

A hundred horses. 
About ten men. 



Tliirty or 



forty 



bales. 



About a hundred. 



About a thousand. 
About ten thousand. 

m^B u mm - 

A half dozen. 
A dozen. 

:^ MMl 

A dozen and a half, 

M MMl PtPIflS :g m^ 

All men, or, men in 

&m mi tHi^ *pi -PI 

general. 



chMli kuh nyung. 

■^ ^ A 

yih pah tsah ^mo. 

- W K .^ 

sell si\ kuh nyung. 

+ it ^ A 

sa^ sz sell pau. 

~m + ^ 

pall ^po, 
ch^e" ^po. 



mau^ ^po. 



loh kuh ; loh tsah ; loh ^po, &c. 



-^^ 






:fB 



sell nye^ kuh ; seh nye^ tsah ; 

+ :n >^ + n K 

seh nye^ ^po, &c, 

+ ^ ffil 

seh pah kuh; sell i)ah tsiih, &c. 

+ A ^ + A K. 



nyung uyung ; tli ke. 

A A A« 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



55 



Less than one hundred. 

n mi ^ ^MM 



More than that, 

li^ mm mm 



veh 


laiP yi 


h ])iih. 


^ 


m - 


- W 


veh 


me^ yih 


pah. 


^ 


M — 


W 


veil 


q)a. 




^ 


n 





This term (veh ba) is used in reply, where the person spoken to is conscious that 
the amount, or number given, or communicated by the person speaking, is short 
of what it ought to be, as : 



More than a hundred men. 

§m PiPI M "f ^M Ml 



veh ba^ yih pah nyung. 



^ 



SB . 

n6 — ' 



W A 



There are more than fifty dollars, veil ba^ no^-seh yano-_de° 



Less than that. 

^n PiPS mm 



veil siau. 



This term may be taken as the reverse of veJi ha, or the reverse of more than 
necessary, or, enough. 

It is not necessary for 

—m -i^I ^B ^:kn^M ^W v.h sia,i seh-k.S'. 
so much as that. 

i> Mt; ^m mm 

Less than a hundred dollars. 

^n PiPi^ t^:^ ixun 

Ten catties are more than are 
necessary. 

More than a hundred. 

ft^ PiPi :h "f ^m 

More than a thousand soldiers. 

E5i PiPi M mm 'i!>mmm± 



M m 



veh siau yih pah yang de". 

^ m - w nm 



veh siau seh kiung: &c. 



^ m -Y m 



yih piili too. 

- W ^ 

yih chV^ too ping ting. 



56 FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


More thau five hundred cliests. 


ng ]iah too seUng. 


More than thirty rooms. 


sll^ sell too ka^. 


Near, (restricted to numbers) 


mau, as: 


Near a hundred- 


mau yih piih. 

^ - W 


Near fifty men. 


mau ^ng-seh nyung. 


Near three lee. 


mau sa^ le loo^, &c. 


One or more. 

m m'^ m 

• 


kwo *^po. 


A man or two. 


kwo po nyung. 

^m A 


A dollar or two. 


kwo po yiing de". 


OF -A.r)-VEBS, 


How ? 


na^ nung ? na hang^ nung ? as : 

015 m M f H^ 


How do you know ? 


noong^ na^ nung shau^-tuh ? 

m m m m # 


How did you know ? 

5^^ ii:# li¥ m 


noong^ na^ nung shiiu^-tuh kuh ? 


How did you do it ? 

5^^ ii:# m¥ ^ -m 


na^ nung tsooMvuh ? 



FIRST LESSONS IX CHINESE. 57 



Now. How? ua^ meh na^-nun^? 



ii\i^. I^O^AL* 



M M m 



How now ? v^^^dze^ na^-nung ? 

^^ ti M^ mm. 

How shall we manange it ? na^-nung tsoo^ den ? 

5^^ f^rfij i^m muMt. -f^ M m m m 

How can it be arranged ? na^-nung tsoo^ f ah ? 

«^¥ ^PI -flS: ^ ^lE^PI-fe^ iP Hi ft ^ 

How did be tnanage to 

5^^ ii:# fKJist ^PS^t ^ 

get in ? 

^^ -PI 

Why? 
^^ 

Why dont you come ? 

^:^ liflS: m^ %m 

Why did yoil do it? 

^M mm m^ ^ -m 

Why dont you pay it ? 

^^ mm m^ m ~b 

Why do you do so ? w6 sa^ lau tsoo^ seb-ke^ ? 

Why is it ? we^ sa^ lau ? , 

^^ —n ~m ^m ^ ^ 

When ^ ke-zz ? as : 



e na hang^-nang 

PM ^ m 

kuh? 


tsing^ le 

m ^ 


we sa^ ? we sa^ 


lau? 


we sa^ veh le? 




we sa^ lau tsoo-* 


kuh ? 


we sa^ veh foo^ ? 

^ D^ ^ # 





When will j^ou come ? %e-zz^ le ? 

mpi T^-ro pf ^ 5£Pf ^B# ?15 

When will you do it ? <^ke-zz^ tsoo^ ? 



58 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



When did you go ? 



mu mwm^ 



When did you do it ? 

mu mw M^ m ~u 

How long since you came? 

^^ m mat wp- -^m 

When is it due? 

mm ~n ~b m^p- 



Now it is too late. 

mm-m~n ^ m^ 

Just now, a little 

while ago. 

Quickly. 



Go quickly. 
Come quickly. 



Do it quickly. 



Be in a hurry. 



qccS-zz' ch'e' knh ? 
^ke-zz^ tsoo^ kuh ? 
le tsz^ *^ke-zz^ tseli ? 
%e-zz^ je ? ^ke-zz^ tau^ je ? 



Now. 

mm 


ye^ dze^. as : 


I want it now. 

^M uM ~m mm 


ye^ dze^ yau\ 


I dont want it now. 

nM mu wm ~m mm 


ye" dz(5' veh yau'. 



ye° dez^ 1^ veh je^. 



k'a" k'a", veh too 'ke-zz'. 



kw*a^-te°, au-saw', as : 

^ m Mm 

kw'a'-te» ch'e\ 

^ m ^ 

kw^a^-te^ le. 

kw^a^-te'^ tsoo^; tsoo^ le kw^a^ 

te^. 
BiJ: 

au-sau^, au-sau^ te^, kw^a^-te^. 

mm Bmm 'W^m 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



59 



Only. 
Only these two kinds. 

mm± nn ^ mat 

Only small ones. 

Thus, so, &C. 

Not so. 

mm -y,- 



*^])ih koo ; tsuh-tuh, as ; 
tsuh-tiih ^te kuli ^liang yang^. 
pih koo-^siau kuh. 

^ M /J^ >^ 

seh-kP; seh-ke^ ^iwng, as ; 

mm nm m 

veil ^sz seh-ke^ niing. 



I want it so. 

nM urn -m i!> 

It is so. 
Very. 

#^- 

Very good. 
Very fast. 

Very high. 
Very large. 

Very happy. 

Immediately. 



yau^ seh-ke^ kuh. 
*^sz seh-ke^ kuh. 



ma'\ as ; 



ma" ^hau, 
mil ^ kw*a\ 

m ^ 

ma" kau. 
i rPl 

ma" too^. 

m ± 

ma" k'a^-weh. 

m ^ Wi 

sieu^, as ; 



Come immediately ; I 

Avill come immediately. ^ :^ 



60 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Do it immediately. sieu^ tsoo^. 

I returned it immediater 

I started immediately. sieiP dong-snng. 

But. ta'^^ zz, toh^-zz, se-r. 

The man is honest, but he nyung sz^ lau-zeh, ta°^-zz 

is good for nothing. mg-sa^ yo^^ng^ ^^^^- 

~m uw urn fm Pint M m 

But he cannot speak ^a^^ zz he veil w(^^ wo^ ta^-.yung 

English. wo^. 

Verily, truly, indeed. 

Moreover. 

Not only. 

mm mu± 

He not only smokes opium. 

m^mumm±n!^-^nmmf ^ ^ #, p?„^ 

he moreover gambles. r-ch^a too^ dong-de , 

m^ i^'^i^ mmmm \jn m. m mm 

a le^ ? sa^ oo-dong ? a-le^ 

m^ a Dt ^ ^ Pi^a 

Where » doug ? a-le^ kwY''? sa' su ? 

Mli M pTS M Bt JTr 

a-le^ deu ? sa^ tsang hau ? &c. 



sedi-z(^\ 




r-ch'ia r-cli^e^, 




vehrda^^. as; 
1? ^ 




e veh da"^ 


ch^ih ye^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 61 

Where are you going? fi-le^ cli^e ? tau a-le^ eh^e ? 

Where did you find it ? sa^ oo dong sing-dsah kuh ? 

m^ mw ^"^ miw -m mp m mm^ 

Where is it to be had ? a-le^ dong veu tuh ^ma ? 

M)«--^-^^ i=btt# n-pSM '^ n n 

Where have you been ? noog la a-le ? 

Here t?z de^, te-kw^e.^ 

I am here. It is 

here. J^g. jH^t||l 

Men of this place. tsz-de^ nyung. 

*Pi m^ ^n m^n mk a 

Bring it here. ta° tau^ tsz-de^ le. 

It is not used here. tsz-de^ veh ang. 

There is a brisk 

|§^ — WJ M #^ — «)^ ^^'^■'^''' sang-e> nati> mang. 

fade here. tYM ^M ^ M 

We dont want it here. tsz-de^ veil yau\ 

^5!< mu uM -M m^% "i^cM ^ m 

Tbere. e-deu, e-kw'e,^ as ; 

*s^ pm pm 

How is it there ? e-deu na^ nung ? 

5A.^ -H] -fls: 4^^ ^H ^15 ii 

Is trade good there ? e-deu sang-e^ *^hau va ? 



62 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I>nt it down there. fong^ la e-kw'u^. 

Slowly, ma"^; ma^^ te" ; ma^ ma^ nung. 

nm± \^ m§k m \% n^ 

Not so fast ; go slowly. ma^^ te^. 

mB$A^nmn nm± it m 

Walk slowly. nia'^^ ma° ts? <^tseu. 

m^ nm± ti m z ^ 

Go up slowly. nia"^ ma^ nnng song' ch'e, 

w Mm mmi. It 11 Hi ± * 

Distinctly, eliding <^song, as ; 

Speak more distinctly. wo^ le ch'ing-^^song te» 

ni^t^m^ mnr^± m^ m m m 

I do not see it distinctly. ^ngoo k'o^^le veh ch'ing-^^song. 



n^coo t'inor^ ]^ veh ch^ino:-^sonfy. 



I do not hear 

It distinctly. fg M ^ Z^ MM 

Besides. tse wP ; ling nga^,as ; 

Have 3^on anj besides these ? tse we^ wa" ^yeu va^ ? 

There were five hundred ^jeu ^ng-plih kuh ping ; tse-we^ 

\t% ^% ^^ -^M^m % 3:w >^ :^ ^^F 

soldiers, besides burden bearers. wa^^ <^yeu t^iau te^ sa^ kuh. 

wx^i^^n ymM i^^ mm. m ^n n m m ^ 

Inasmuch, seeing, still. sang^-cli'ia. 

How much more ? oo-hwong^, as ; 

^^ mz sia M ^% 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



63 



If 3^e then, being evil, know na^ yeu tsiio kuh, sang cli'ia 

how to ffive ffood ffifts unto , -,^1111 -. ^ ^ -, 
*^.-rt.-^. — T-.j^-wt— .rrT>^ shau-'-tiih beh hau^ meh-zz^ la 

^¥^^^^#^*^m^ j^ ,^ ^. ^ ^^^ 

your children, how much B^ W il5 JCT ^^ W 

M^ -trfiiflSriapI ^^ PSt; '-'^''' oo-hwong> na^ t'e- ya 
more shall your Father which ^ "T* ff^ ^ 1115 5c ^ 

Si.^ '^fffl M^ *^# M^ tau veh <^k'ung beh hau^ meh-zz> 
is in heaven give good things jt^^ ^ ^ m. ^Ut. Mn 1^ 

~n -PI m^ ^^ ^#^^ ^^f ^ M i9F # » 

to them that ask him ? ^"^ '^J'^" ^ kuh va ? 

^ #Pf M^ mn-% ntm u^p ^ ^ 



Still. more. Much more. 

nmmB^ M^ mt> b^ 

Much worse. 

Much longer. 

Still dearer. 

Still better. 

nmm z^'^ 

Then, now. 

mi m 



Now it 



is 



well. 



kung^-ka ; 

MM 


yuh-ka, as ; 

MM 


kung-ka 


veh *^hau. 


kung^-ka 

MM 


tsang. 


kung^-ka 

MM 


tyiP 


kung^-ka 


^hau. 


Da" meh, 

m M 


as. 


na°-meh 

m M 


*^hau tseh. 



Tsoo^ %au-tsz <^te-kuh, na^ 



When you shall have finished 

^Pi m^ \^m m^ mi~Wim n mz n^ 

this, then do something else. meh tsoo^ pih-kuh 

Now he is happy. ' na^-meh k'a^ weh-ts<5h. 



m 



64 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Yesterday. 



so-nvilij as | 



He went awav yesterday. 



e s6-nvili cli^e^ kiitl. 



She come to day. 



e kiung-tsau le kuh» 

^ 4 ^ ^ >^ 



The more you do, the more you 
will be able to do. 



vuh-zz^ tsoo^, yuh-zz^ we 

Mm m mm t 

tsoo^. 



For the time bein^^. 



ch'ia tung. 



Too, OVER (denoting excessa.) t'uh. 



Too large. 
Too small. 
Too good. 



Too bad or in- 
different. 



2fm^ -PI 



Too cold. 

^ mmmw 

Too hot. 
Too white. 

^ ME 



t'uh doo'. 
full "^siau. 
t'uh fhau. 



t'uh ch^eu. 



t'uh ^lans. 



^ 



5^ 



t*uh nyih. 
t'uh pah. 



Too black, 



^ 



^ 



Too yellow. 



Too blue. 



^ 



Too green. 

mi 



^ 



Too red. 



Too long. 



Too short. 
Too liigh. 



^^ 



t'uh huh. 

t'uh wong. 

t'uh la^, 

t'uh loh, 

t'uh 'ong. 

t'uh dsang, 

t'uh <^do. 

t^ih kau. 
^ 1^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



65 



Too low. 



Too broad. 



Too narrow. 



tn^m 



Too deep. 



Too shallow.- 



t^i^ 



Too fast. 

mi 



^ 



Too slow, 



nu 



Too early. 



^ 



Too late. 



^ 



Too heavy. 

Too light. 

Too sweet. 

Too bitter. 

Too thick. 



^ 



:5£ 



Too thin. 



t'lih te* 



t'lih kw'eh. 



:^IHIIf ]fi£ 



t'lih 'ah. 
t^ih sung. 

1^ '^ 



t'lih k\v'a^ 



'1^ 



t'lih nm'^\ 

^ tf 

full ^tsau. 
t'uh aii\ 

1^ m 

full ^dsoong. 
full cli'ung. 

i^ IS 

t'uh te". 

^ m 

t'uh flc'oo. 
t'uh ""en. 
full poh. 



Too hard, 
stilf. 



soft, 



Too 



limber. 

mmx* 

Too smooth. 

0- 



^0 A 



Too rough. 
Too many. 



^^ 



Too few. 
Too fierce. 
Too wicked. 

Too stupid. 



Too 



clever. 



Too salt. 
Too old. 



^ PIffii# 



Too young. 



^ 



full DgUng^. 



full ^nyo. 

full quong. 
full mail, 
f uh 'too. 
full *^sau. 



^ 



full shooug, 
f uh 'oh. 






full pung^. 
f uh ts'oong- 



fuh a^ 
fuh qau. 

i^ :^ 

nye'^ ke 

^ IE 

fuh ch^ung. 



66 



FIKST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Too cheap. 

^ mm 



Too dear. 
Too -wet. 



full cljang. 
fall tvu\ 
full Sllll. 



Too dr 



full kwo. 



ili^ i^ 



Afterwards. 
Until. 

Perhaps. 



I fear. 
Daily. 



eu^ ^seu. 

ffiJitE # t 

tsuli tau\ 

It m 

oh-tse. 

^# 

^k'oong-p'u^. 
nyih-too. 

^ 



Openl}^, 

franklv, &( 

Securely. 



tsuh-loh. 

It m 



C,.r 



wung-tong\ 



About. 

About seventy 
bales. 

Secretly. 

Gently, 

with care. 



m m 



as 



yah j/<\^ ch'ih 

^^ M -b 

seh pau. 
&>> e"> le. 

B& at ?M 

ch'ung ch'ung, 

M m 



m 



OF DPREI^OSITIOlSrS. 



Above. 

Below. 

Under. beneath. 

Inside. 

Outside. 



song^ deu. 



f. /.-^ 



au^ te ; au^ te deu. 

T m y m m 

te^-%u. 
le^-shling. 
nga^-deu. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



67 



After, 

Behind. 

Before. 

From. 

To (to arrive at). 

When did you arrive ? 

How many lee from Shanghai 

to Peking ? 

On. 
On the table. 

On the chair. 

mumm 

On the floor. 
On the carpet. 

mm ti t^:?:^ 

On the ground. 

mm n mmmw 

On the street. 

mm m n^'^^m 



^eu. 



'eu^ te, 'eu^-te-deu, 'eu^ deu 
^^^ nfja* -^^ r5=^ T??: ^<^. Trz: 



se", se^-deu. 

*^tang, as ; tang tsz-de tau e-deu. 

tr mmmti m 



tau^. 






m 






<ke-zz' 


tau' 


> ? 


aHf 


m 




<^tang' 


son^ 


r^-qie tau^ 


*r 


± 


mm 


poh — k 


iUDg, 


%e le loo^ ? 


:((i 


M 


m ^m 



long f {much iised) as; 

± 

te-^tsz long\ 

1^^ ± 

li^-^tsz long^. 

Wf ± 

te long^; te^-koh long^. 

«i ± m m ± 

mau-ta^ long^. 



te loT]g\ 



^ ± 

ka long^. 



68 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



On the wa}^, or road. 
On the person. 
On board ship. 

iHiiii iE^# mm 

On the foot, or leg. 
On the hand. 
On the wall, 

Mi ^ ^m% 

On the box or trunk. 

[HIS. ^ f|>M) ^^^^ 

On the bed. 

On the window. 

On the door. 

On the head. 

On the roof. 
On a plate. 

On shore. 

On the water. 



loo long^. 

^ ± 



sung 


long^ 

Jt 


z4» 1 


ong'. 


m 


± 


hi ah 


long'. 


m 


± 


*^seu 


long^ 
— L» 


siling 


lopg^ 

± 


siang 


^-tsz long^. 

^ ± 


zong 


long^ 


^ 


± 


ts'on 


g' '\'e\\ Jong? 
P ± 


mung long\ 


n 


± 


ten 


long^. 


IS 


± 


5h 


long\ 

± 


pun 


g-<^tsz long^ 


^ 


^ ± 


'6^ 


Iong\ 


^ 


± 


<sz 


long\ 



* ± 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 69 


In. 

-P5 


le (much used) as; 


In Heaven . 

-PI m -X 


t'e'^ long\ 


In the box. 


siilng-^tsz le. 


In the drawer. 


ts'eii-t'e le. 


In the house. 


vong-tsz^ le. 


In the parlor. 

-i# titi 


k'ah-we ka^ <^le; k'ah dong ka^ le. 


In the dming room. 


cli'uli-va" ka" le; ta-tse' ka'' le. 


In the chamber. 


vong ka^ le; vong-deu le;vong le. 


In the store room. 


hoo'-zuh ka" le. 



In the study. 

In the dressing room. 

In the bath room. 

In the office. 

In the compradore's room. 

In the stable. 



su-vong le. 
k'a-me" ka^ le. 

nmnn 

sing^-yoh ka^ le. 

^ m nm 

sia-zz ka^ le. 
tsang^-vong le. 
mo^-bang le. 

,11 mm 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Ill the field, tie^qe. 

In the shop. tie^ *^le. 



In the hong. 'ong ^e. 



>t^ z:ii 



In the water. .sz^ ^e. 

In the Winter, 'tono- ^e 

la the Summer. au^ ^e. 

In the Spring. ts'ung ^e, ts'unglong\ 

1-31 ^^^Ei m n m ± 



n the Autumn. ts'ieu ^e. 

In the day. nyih ^e. 

In the night. ya ^le. 

In the church. ^e-pa^-dong le- 

In the school room. 'oh-dong ^le. 

In the heart. sing ^e 

In the ground. te^-he le 

In the grave. vung-sa^ le. 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


71 


la the well. 


tsing^ ^le. 




In hell. 


te^-nyoh *^le. 

mm m 




In the go-down. 


tsa">-vong qe. 




In the canal. 


pang ^le. 




In the river. 


'00 <:ie. 

mm 




In the city. 


sung ^le, 

m m 




In the temple. 


miau^ <^le. 

JH m 




In the shii)'s hold. 


ts'ong^ ^le. 

m m 




In the eye. 


nga^^ tsing *-le. 

m m m 




In this month. 


He kuh nyoh *^le. 




In the ear. 


nj^e^ ^too le. 

^ ^m 




In a bottle. 


ping 'le. 




In the cask. 


'tong <^le. 




In the mouth. 


tsz' He. 




In this. 


■^te-kuh fie. 





72 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



In that. e-kuh Me. 

In the wilderness. liwong-va^ He. 

In the light. liiing^-kwong Me ; liang^ Me. 

In the dark. e°' dong 'le; e°^ Me. 

-5: ^ ;^|E:^ Btr ti n Bt ii 

Within these two or three daj^s. *^te kuli liang^ sa^ nyih Me. 

In trouble. k'oo'-fnau "^le; ts<S na"' He. 

-i js^iHi^ro =g= ti ?i ^ it a 

In prosperity. shung-fali Me. 

~^mn.mntmm. m ^ m 

In what? sa^ le ? 



OOlSTtTTJlSrCTIOXsrS. 

Thekefore. soo^-e; keli-hiu, as ; 

m^M^ ^;f j^ If ^ 

I had business, therefore did Migoo ^yen tsz^ sz^-^t'e, 

not come. soo^-e veh le. 

mm -^m , m\^ ^ ^ 

He is not honest, therefore e veh lau seh, keh-lau 

I do not want him. Migoo veh yai;^. 



FIRST ].ESSONS IN CHINESE. 73 

AlSO) Still, Yet. %-zz, wa^, as; 

Also the same. *^a-zz sell ke^. 

Also a merchant. ^a-zz sang-e iiyan<>-. 

This also is a good one. <^^e kuh ^a- zz <^haii kuh. 

mn m^'i!> -n ^^m ^ ^ pt ^g ^ i- 

I also want to purchase* ^ngoo ^a yan^ <^raa. 

I also want to go. ^ngoo *^a yaiP ch'e\ 

n mm '&m.u ^m 1^ pt ^ * 

Do you still, or yet Want more ? wa'^ jrw^ va ? 

0'm^m^mm^w,mumm'^ ^ 51 ^ 

Though, Although, ITot withstanding. swd-zz^; swo ze^. 

^vn mm^ummi^-nnn^ mm mm 

Although he is oldj he e swo— zz^ *^Iau, wan 

mm^m^m^ -n mmwm^ ^ mm ^ m 

is still able to work. tsoo^-tuh dong sang weh. 

~n n^m ^mm ^ m wn m ^ 1^ 

Because, For, jung we^; weMsz; ^k^. 

Why did you run away ? we sa^ lau tau tseu ? 

Because I was afraid. y^^"g we^ ^ngoo p'o^-kuh. 

mmnnMmn^m^Mw m % ^ ^^ 

For this is the law and the ke, lih-fah lau se^-tsz sz 
prophets, (Matt. 7. 12.) seh ke\ 



74 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



It is because matters are 

—B — ^ WM^ W^^ M% ^•^' tsz Beh-k^' 'ngoo veh 

thus, I do, or did not wish % :t WM. ^ ^ 
M^ ^M ^ Mas fS"# P">^ lah-k^. 

to have anything to do with it. ffi JS ^ 



If, except, unless. 

That, so that. 

mm '};> mu 

Then, well then. 

When you shall have finished 

this, then do that. 



sah-sz; sah-ze^. 



na'^-meh, keh-raeh. 

Tsoo ^hau tsz ^te^ kuh, na" meh 
tsoo^ e-knli. 

sah-sz^ e veh ^k'nng tsau^ ^ngoo, 



If he will not do as I 

propose, then wiiat will 

M^U^n *&S MB Wl—M keh-mehe/k'Mgtsoosa^? 

he do ? 

Lest. 
Take an 



umbrella, 



lest 



m^ 



i^m^Mm^^HU^nm 



you get wet. 
Neither, nor. 



Neither this nor that. 



iS 



H) m^^ 



III case, if, should. 

—% Mn ~^ Mf 



^## td^ 



sang-tsz, as; 

ta"^ yih *^ting sa^^, ^sang-tsz^ 

m~m # -t ^ 

ling sail. 

^ m 

^a veh. 

te kuh veh zz, e kiih a veh zz. 

t'ong^ sz, t'ong^ z^^. 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 75 


Either, or. 


oh-zz^, as; 


^m m^^ 


^;i 




oh-zz^ kiung tsau, 5h-zz^ ming 


Either to-day or to-morrow. 


^^^ w^'^m HJ? 


^m^^m^^^m 


tsau. 


And. 


t7* 

lau. 


Pf PI# 


^ 


The morning and evening. 


tsau^-zung lau ya^-kw'a. 


^ %^f^^i Pf s# ^^i&^s. 


^- ^ ^^'^ 


Books, &c. 


sii lau^ sa. 


b^is}ms.^}!>m^ 


m^m i 


I3SrTEE,ROO-A.TI-\rES- 


Va — have you found it ? 


sing dsah va ? 


^ m^ w^ :^um ~m 


m ^^ 


Meh — is used as an interrogative when you 


L have reason to expect or. hope for 


^ an affirmative answer, as ; 




Is breakfast ready ? 


va" hau meh ? 


-± r-ffnM^^n m^^ 


mnm 


Sa — as an interrogative, is sometimes found at the close, and sometimes at the 


Ifg commencement of a sentence, as ; 




What do you want ? 


noong^yau sa ? 


mu m ffii^ um 


ii ^m 


What price ? 


sa ka de"? 


mm m.'i^^n 


mmm, 


A-le — is also an interrogative. 




noong tau a-le ch*e ? noong-tau 


Where are you going ? 


ii ©jui^a* m m 


1^^ ^rfn M¥ ffl0 


a-le ? a-le ch'e ? 




pTM ptM # 


Nye — is also used as an interrogative. 




pjs 




Is it or is it not ? 


8Z nye veh sz ? 


~±~um%~±~mmu 


m^Ji^^ 


Is it good or not ? 


hau nye veh-hau ? 


-± ~m mm m% mm 


n m^mm 



76 FIRST LESSONS 


JN CHINESE. 


^^EIQHCTS^ <^,0. 


A pic III. 


yih ta'*^; yih p*ah kiung. 


A catty. 


yih kiung; seh-loh-liang. 


An ounce. 


yih *^liang. 
— ^ 


An ounce of silver. 


yih liang nynng-^tsz. 


1-lOtli of a liang. 


yih ze^ 


l-lOth of a ze". 


yih fung. 

- » 


ll-lOth of a fuug. 


yih le, 

-s 


- lOth of a le. 


yih an. 


Tls. 12.33 


8eh nye^ liang sa^ z^.* sa^ fung 


Tls. 10.42. 5.3 


seh ^liang sz^ ze^^ nye^ fung 
^ng^ le sa'^ au. 


One dollar. 


yih yo, yih kw'P yang de^. 


A half dollar. 


yih kuh te k'e; pe^ kw'P. 


A quarter of a dollar. 


yih kuh sz^ k'e. 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 77 


Ten cents. 




yih koh. 

- # 


One cent. 




yih fung, yih fung yang de^. 

- ^ - ^ n m 


An inch. 

Pfi —it; 




yih ts^ung^. 

- ^ 


1 — tenth of an 


inch. 


yih fung. 

- ^ 


A foot — (ten inches.) (Ch 


inese foot-) 


yih ts'ab. 


Ten feet. 




yih *^dsang. 

- 5t 


Ten feet sqnare. 




yih fong. 


A mow. 




yih ^rag. 


A foot square. 




yih ts'ah tse" fong. 




An hour. 




yih *^l'ie° tsoong, 

'-mm 


Half an hour. 

fli* mm n^ 




loe»^ ^t'ie^ tsoong. 

^ #^ M 


Quarter of an hour. 




yih k'uh. 

- M 


A minute. 




yih fang. 


A day. 




yih nyih. 

- 



78 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Sunclav. 
Monday. 
Tuesday. 
Wednesday. 



le-pa^, le-pa^ nvih, 

mn mn 

le-pa^ yih. 

mn ~ 

le-pa^ nye\ 

le-pa^ sa". 



Thursday. 


le-pa^ sz^. 


Friday. 


le-pa^ *^ng. 


Saturday. 


le-pa^ 15h. 


A week. 


yih kuh *^]e-pa^, yih ^le-pa^ 

— 4^ /If ^ — ;li ^ 


To day. 


kiung-tsau. 

4 15 


To-morrow. 


ming-tsau, 

w m 


Yesterday. 


so-nyih. 

\$ 


Day before yesterday 


koo^-nyih-tsz. 

M ^ 


Day after to-morrow. 


^eu-nyih. 

#0 


Two days. 


liang nyih. 

m 


Every day. 


nyih nyih, nyih too. 

0^ 



/ 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 79 


Day. 




nyih. 




Night. 




va\ 


In the day time. 

-^ ^ ^ mm 




nyih-le. 

M 


In the night. 




ya^-le. 


In the morning. 




tsau^-zung-deu. 

^ mm 


In the evening. (twilight). 


wong hwung deu. 

n ^ m 


In the forenoon. 




song^ lie^ nyih ; ^song tseu. 

± ^ ± « 


In the afternoon. 




*^au tseu^; au^ pe^ nyih ; ^au 

T « T^ T 

tseu^ dong. 

ft W} 


At noon. 

^m Mm. 




nvih tsoong ; nyih-deu tsuh. 

B ^ sR It 


About midnight. 




pe^^ ya *^po. 


First half of the 


night. 


song^ pe^ ya^. 


The Litter half of the 

^ m'^ m^ m^ # 


night. 


au^ pe^ ya\ 

T ^ ^ 


Just before daylight. 


t'"e^ liang kw'a\ 

^ ^ 'It?; 


Month, or moon. 

fn^x mm 




nyoh. 



80 


FFRRT 


LESSONS 


IX 


CHINESE. 


A month. 








yili huh iivoh. 

- ^ M 


A full month. 

M insffij ?^-X 






. 


me" nvoh. 


This month. 








^te kuh nvoh. 

>h ^ 


Last month. 








se" nyoh. 

la n 


Intercalary month. 








nyung nyoh. 

m n 


Next month. 








•"au nyoh. 


First of the 


month. 






nyoh deu ; ts'oo-deu. 

H M m M 


On or about 
ot the month. 


the . first 


nvoh deu long^. 


The end or last of 
month, 

P1^ 


the 


nyoh *^te. 



The middle of the month. nyoh pe"^. 

Half a month. pe^^-kuli nyoh. 

Monthly, every month. nyoh nyoh ; nych-too. 

First day of the month, ts*oo yih. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



81 



Second day of the month. 

Third day of the month. 

Fourth day of the month. 

Fifth day of the month. 

Sixth day of the month. 

Seventh day of the month. 
Eighth day of the month- 

Ninth day of the month. 

Tenth day of the month. 
Eleventh day of the months 
The twentieth. 

Twenty first. 
Year. 



One year. 



Half a year. 



ts'oo nye-*. 

ts'oo sa". 
%/ = 

ts'oo sz^. 

%j m 

ts'oo ^l)g, 
ts'oo loh. 
ts'oo ch'ih. 

^^ -fc 

ts'oo pab. 

^Ti A 

ts'oo "^kieu, 
ts'oo zeh. 

m -h 

seh yih. 

+ - 

nye^-seh. 

::! + 

nya^^-ih. 

-tt - 

nye". 
yih nye^ 
pe"^ nye^. 



82 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



This year. 



Last 



year, 



Next year. 

m^nm mm 

The whole year 

'liner 1^^ m0 

Every year. 



kiung nve^. 

djeu^ nye°. 

k'e nye^ ; le nve'^. 

nye° dsang ; me'^ nye" 

^ n # ^ 

nye'' too ; nye** nye°. 



First half of the year. 

The last* half of the 

'It mnm m^ m^ m 

year. 



The new year. 

m n mm 

The close of the year. 

'It mm^ m^ m mm 

The beginning of the year. 

'It &^m, m^ m mm 

All the time^ from year to 

m^mmm^rnhmmm^ 

year. 



About a year. 

^UB B mm 

After the new year. 

^i**ffi'it M mm 



sono 

± 


'^ p<5» nye". 


'au pe" nye'^. 


sing nye°. 

if ^ 


';?" 


ya\ 


nye^ 


deu long> 

m u 


jih 


nye° tau^ den 


nye" 


^po. 


koo^ 


nye^ 


^ 


^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 83 



OF "V^EIiBS- 

I am not aware that any attempt has ever been made to conjugate and in- 
flect the verb, in Chinese, through all. its numbers, persons, moods, and tenses, 
as it is done in English. As the attempt cannot fail to be of great benefit to the 
student of the spoken language, I shall, at the risk of exciting a smile, try to 
throw some light upon this unexplored field. 

Any one, familiarly acquainted with any of the spoken dialects, may, by 
close observation, detect, in the Chinese stereotyped manner of conveying 
their ideas, certain forms of expression which change the sense of the verb, witj^ 
every variation of form ; somewhat analagous to what we find in English, in 
the Indicativ^e mood, Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future tenses 
also the Imperative mood and participle. The same forms may also be traced 
through all the tenses of the Subjunctive mood. Having tested this peculiarity, 
in more than three hundred verbs, and finding that the moods and tenses are ex- 
pressed in uniform manner, why may we not take this peculiarity of manner as a 
rule, and inflect a verb through all its moods and tenses ; and thus establish a 
rule for all other verbs, that will be of infinite value to the student of the spo- 
ken language ? 

OBSEi^"v^-A.Tionsrs oisr the is/tooids. 



The five moods, Indicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive 
may be distinctly traced in the Shanghai dialect. The Indicative mood, present 
tense, is only distinguished from the Imperative and Infinitive moods, by the 
personal pronoun, expressed or understood. 

The Potential mood prefixes to the verb such other auxiliary verbs as express 
possibility, liberty, power, will, and obligation, as; 

You can go, noong^ k'o^-e ch'e^. 

They can come in. e-la k'o^-e tsing^ ]6. 

^M mi m^ -m p^ n^ m ^ 

He would not come, e veh-%'ang 1^. 

m Bm MB Mf #f ^ # ^ 



84 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINES,!^. 

He can {has the physical 2^0 wer to) do it. e iiung^ tn'oo-*. 
He can {has the ahility to) do it. e we tsoo^. 

mmi ^~u Pt n 

Tlie}^ ought to sell. e^la yung-k^ ma^. 

He must come. e tsoong yau^ le. 

m^mnumn^ p m m m 

The Subjunctive mood, which represents an action under a condition, supposi- 
tion, &c. is preceded by a conjunction expressed or understood ; or takes a suf 
■^x with the force of a conjunction, as ; 

If you do not assist, siib-sz^ noong^ veh siang- 

we cannot do it. j.oiig, nye' Yeh nuiig' kuh tsoo-" 

If you do not find him, sah-sz^ noong^ sing e veh 

-^m^mMmmmmmf ^m .m mp ^ 

come back immediately. dsab, sieu^ tse^ le. 

:^Pf A^ —vty^MMU± M ^ ^ ^ 

If it is finished, brinp; eab-sz' %au la' tseh, ta" 

-^ -u -± mm^WiB m%m ^m. n ^ m % 

it. le. 



Five tenses may be traced in the Shanghai dialect : the Present, Imperfect, 
Terfect, Pluperfect, and the Future. 

The PRESENT TENSE has two distinct forms. 

mi • 1 T ^ngoo ch*ah. 

The simple, as ; I eat. -<k ^j^ 

rn, . T ,' ^ngoo leh-le ch'uh. 

The progressive, as ; 1 am eating. ^ j^ ^ ^fy 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


85 


The IMPERFECT TENSE has three distinct forms ; 




The simple, as ; 




1 ate. . ^Dgoo ch'iih'kuh. 

^ f»^ > 




The progressive form, as ; 





I was eating. ^ngooleh-la ch'uh. 

And the emphatic form, as ; 

I did eat. ^ngoo sz ch'uh kah. 



The PERFECT TENSE, as ; 



^ngoo ch'uh -tseh, or ngoo ch'uh 
I have eaten. ^ Pg ^ ^ P^ 

la tseh, or ngoo ch'uh koo^ 

um m ^ m. 

tseh. 

m 

The PLUPERFECT TENSE, as ; 

<^ngoo e-kiung ch'uh tseh, or, 
I had eaten. ^^ M Pt ^ 



The FUTURE TENSE, as; 



*^ngoo e-kiuug ch'uh la tseh or, 

^a m P2fe # 

^ngoo e-kiuDg ch'uh koo tse. 

^ a m pt Mm^ 



I will or shall eat. *'ngoo yau ^ch'uh. 

n ^ vt 

The Imperative Mood. 
Eat. ch'uh, ch'uh long. 

flg pg m 

Each tense of the verb has two numbers, the Singular and Plural, and each 
number has three persons, as in English ; but the form of the verb of each per- 
son, both Singular and Plural, is the same, as ; 



86 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



SINGULAR. 



TLURAL. 



1. I eat. 

2. You eat. 



^ngoo cli'iih. 
noong^ cli'nh. 



3. He, she or it, eats. e cli'Lih. 



1. We eat. 

m mu 

2. You eat. 

3. They eat. 



nye^ ch'uh. 

is f»g 

na^ cli'uh. 

m P^ 

e-la cli'uh. 



The verb may be conjugated in Chinese, as ; present eat, (l^ Ch'uh, imperfect ate, [1^ >^ 
Ch'uh kub, perfect participle, having eaten, P^ -J- Ch'uh tsz ; and inflected as follows ; 



Indicative Mood; 
•f^ B^ PRESENT Tense, Simple Form. 



Singular. 



^ Plural. 



1. I eat. 

2. You eat. 



*^ngoo ch'uh. I 1. We eat. 

m p£ m ^m 



nooDff^ ch'uh. 



m^ mm m \ft 

3. He, she or it, eats. e ch'uh. 

m^mmit p [ft 



2. You eat. 

3. They eat. 

m mm 



nye^ ch'uh. 

iM P^ 

na^ ch'uh. 

m pt 

e-la ch'uh, 



JS B^ ^ Present Tense, Progressive Form. 



^^ Singular. 

1. I am eating, ^ngoo leh-le ch'uh. 

nMmfmm nrnvt. 

2. You are eating, noong^ leh-le ch'uh. 

m^umr m fim p^ 

3. He, she or it,is eating, e leh-le ch'uh. 

M^m~±mrpmm\tt 



■^ Plural. 

1. We are eating, nye^ leh-le^ ch'uh. 

m n mr m ^m P2 

2. You are eating, na^ Ich-le^ ch'uh. 

m^ u mr m ^m Pg 

3. They are eating, e-la leh-le^ ch'uh. 

m nmr ifim*&mpt 





FIRST 


LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 87 




^ ^ Imperfect Tense, Simple Form. 




m 


Singular. 




1. I 


ate. 




^ngoo ch'uh kuh. 

*^ P2 ^ 


2. You 


ate. 

mm 




^noong ^ch'uh kuh. 


3. He, 


or she ate. 

m MB 




e ch'ah kuh. 


1. We 

J3E 


M 

ate. 


Plural. 


nye^ cli'iih kuh. 

\t ^ A^ 


2. You ate. 




na^ ch'uh kuh. 


3. They 


ate. 

MB 




e-la ch'uh kuh. 




'^:^tT I^IPERFECT 


Tense, Progressive Form. 




^ 


Singular. 




1. I was eating. 




^ngoo leh-la^ ch'ah. 

a «fcte p^ 


2. You were eating. 




noong^ leh-la^ ch'uh. 


3. He, 


or she was eating. 


e leh-la^ ch'uh. 

^MM P^ 




M 


Plural. 




1. We 
BE 


■were eating. 




nye^ leh-la^ ch'uh. 

1)5 *ito pg 


2. You 


were eating. 




na^ leh-la^ ch'uh. 

# «fcte P2 


3. They 


were eating. 

1^^ \>xy 




e-la leh-la^ ch'ah. 

i» *fcfe Pg 



88 FIRST LESSONS IN 


Chinese. 1 


-^^^S Imperfect 


Tense, Emphatic Form. 




m 


SiNGULAI 


I. 


1 I did eat. 

m^ mw Bu 






ngoo^ sz^ ch'ah kuh. 


2. You did eat. 

m^ mw j^fls: 






noong^ sz^ ch'ah kuh. 


3. He, or she did eat. 




e sz^ ch'ah kuh. 

^ m vt ^ 




M 


Plural. 




1. We did eat. 






nye^ sz^ ch*uh kuh. 

m m ^ ^ 


2. You did eat. 

m^ m# m^ 






na? SY? ch'uh kuh* 

m m v^ ^ 


3. They did eat. 






e-la sz^ ch'ah kuh. 


^ 


Perfect Tense'. 




m 


Singular. 




1. I have eaten. 






ngoo^ ch'uh tseh. 

n vt m 


2. You have eaten. 






noong^ cVuh tseh. 

m pg % 


3, He, or she has 


eaten. 


e ch'uh tseh. 




^ 


Plural. 




1. We have eaten. 






nye^ ch'ah tseh. 

4lg p£ # 


2. You have eaten. 






na^ ch'uh tseh. 

m ^ ^ 


3. They have eaten. 






e-la ch'uh tseh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 89 

La tseh and koo-tseJi, are frequently heard in the perfect tense, as ^ngoo 
01,' ah la tseh, or ^ngoo ch''uh koo-tseh, the la and koo, are not necessary to 

the sense. 

'^/Jfl Pluperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. I • had eaten, ^ ^ngoo e-ldung ch'iih tseh. 

n^m^ mmi ^ a if ng m 

2. You had eaten, noong^ e-kiung ch'uh tseh 

m^ mw ^^m m b m vtm 

3. He, or she had eaten. e e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 

^ Plural. 
1 We had eaten. nye^ e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 

2. You had eaten. na^ e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 

3. They had eaten. e-la e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 

* fls#0^pi ^m Qj^ pg m 

La tseh, and koo-tseh, are frequently found in the pluperfect, as ; 
^ngoo e-kiung ch'uh la tseh, or ^ngoo-e-kiung ch'uh koo-tseh. 

^ JR Future Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. I will or shall eat. *^ngoo yau^ ch'uh. 

nu m^ m^^^^mm m ^ \^ 

2. You will or shall eat. noong^ yau^ ch'uh, 

ffi^ SE^IHl^ t&j^ ^^ ii ^ P^ 

3. He will or shall eat. e yau^ ch'uh. 

m-<^ SEB m'^ ^"^ i>xm ^ w \fZ 



90 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



^ Plural. 

1. We will or shall eat. nye^ yau^ ch'uli. 

J§E JSEja Mj^ f^li j^flS: # ^ vt 

2. You will or shall eat Da^ yau^ ch'uh. 

3. They will or shall eat. e-la yau^ ch'uh, 

'm JiEB m^ ^^ mm pm m vt 



The learner should bear in mind that yau has several meanings, as ; yaUj to 
want ; yau, will or shall; yau, must ; and yau, ought. 

Pif Potential Mood. 
i§^ 0^ Present Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. I may or can eat. ^ngoo k'o^-e ch*uh. 

n^m m^mim^u a ^r^ p^ 

2. You may or can eat. noong^ k'o-e cli'uh. 

3. He may or can eat. e k'o-^-e ch'uh. 

m-^ m m% mi jass: ^ pTja t^ 



^^ Plural. 



1. We may or can eat. Dye^ k'o'^-e ch'uh. 

m m m% mi mm m mix ng 

2. Tou may or can eat. 'na> k'o'-o ch'uh. 

3. They may or can eat. e-la kV-e ch'uh. 

m m m^ mm mm pm ^m pg 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 91 | 


Subjunctive 


Mood. 




§^ Hi^ Present Tense, Simple Form. | 




m 


Singular. | 


1. 


If I eat. 

-^ nM ^m 




siih-pz^ ^ngoo ch'uh. 
7^ ffe P2 


2. 


If you eat. 

-^ M^ Bm 




sah-sz^ Doong^ ch'uh. 


3. 


If he or she eat. 

-^ yftiJc naE ^ 1^^ 




siih-sz^ e ch'uh. 




^ 


Plural. 




1. 


If we eat. 

-^ m mm 




sah-sz^ Dye^ ch'uh. 


2. 


If you eat. 

-^ M^ mm 




sah-sz^ na^ ch'uh. 

^^ If Pg 


3. 


If tht-7 eat. 

-5^ *a 0^ 




sah-sz^ e-la ch'uh. 




iS B^ M Present Tense, Emphatic Form. 




m 


Singular. 




]. 


If I do eat. 




sah-sz' "'ngoo "^sz ch'uh. 
*fS ^ :^ P£ 


2, 


Ir you do eat. 




siih-sz^ noong^ <^sz ch'uh. 


3. 


If he do eat. 




sah-sz^ e ^sz ch'uh. 




M 


Plural. 




1. 


If we do eat. 




sali-pz' nye' <sz ch'nh. 

^"B m m P2 


2. 


If you do eat. 




siih-pz^ Da^ <^sz ch'uh. 

^mm m pg 



3. If they do eat, sati-sz^ e ha ^sz ch'uh. 

~^ ^ m mm ^mi^nm vz 



92 


5 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 




E&H^tr Present tense 


, Progressive Form. 




m 


Singular. 




1. 


If I am eating. 




sah-sz^ *^ngoo leh-le^ ch'uh. 


2, 


If you are eating. 

-^ i^ ^jS iiXr 




sah-sz^ noong^ leh-le^ ch'uh. 

^H ii :te M pg 


3. 


If he is eating. 




sah-sz^ e leh-le^ ch'uh. 




M 


Plural. 




1. 


If we are eating. 




sah-sz^ nye^ leh-le^ ch'uh. 

^@ ijg *fc a Pg 


2. 


If you are eating. 

-^ ^¥ n^ i>xr 




sah-sz^ na^ leh-le^ ch'uh. 

im.m^m. P2 


3. 


If tliey are eating. 




sah-sz^ e-la leh-le^ ch'uh. 

^n pn *fca pg 




^/^ Imperfect Tense, Simple Form. 




m 


Singular. 




1. 


If I ate. 

-^ n^ ^B 




sah-sz^ ^ngoo ch'uh kuh. 


2. 


If you ate. 

-^ ffi¥ ^^ 




?Sh-sz^ noong^ ch'uh kuh. 


3. 


If he ate. 

-^ >;$i?< ^fl§: 




sah-sz e ch'uh kuh. 

MmP Pg ^ 




^ 


Plural. 




1. 


If we ate. 

-^ BE MU 




sah-sz^ nye^ ch'uh kuh. 

Mm m \ft ^ 


2. 


If you ate. 

-p^ ffl¥ ^38: 




sah-sz^ na^ ch'uh kuh. 

Mm ^-^ pg ^ 


3. 


If they ate. 




sah-sz^ e-la ch'uh kuh, 

MmPU Pg ^ 







FIRST ].ESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


93 


^ ^ S Tmperfect Tense, Emphatic Form. 








^ 


Singular. 






1. 


If I did 

-^ m^ mw 


eat. 




sah-sz^ ^ngoo ^sz ch'uh 

^m ^ m vz 


kuh. 


2. 


If you did 

-^ m^ iS:# 


eat. 




sah-sz^ noong^ *^sz ch'uh kuh. 

^^m m m v^ ^ 


3. 


If he did 

-^ '^3!c ji:# 


eat. 


Plural. 


sah-sz^ e ^sz ch'uh 

Mm ^ m m 


kuh. 


1. 


If we did 


eat. 




8ah-sz nye^ ^sz ch'iih 

Mm m m v^ 


kuh. 


2. 


If you did 

-5^ M¥ m# 


eat. 

mm 




£*ah-sz' na^ ^sz ch'ah kuh. 

Mm m m v^ >^ 


3. 


If they did 


eat. 




siih-sz^ e-la ^sz ch'uh 


kuh. 




>f\ ^ ^ Imperfect Tense, Progressive Form. 








^ 


Singular. 






1. 


If I- were 

-^ ^^ Jiia 


eating. 

mr 




sah-sz^ ^Dgoo leh-la^ 

Mm m ^U 


ch'uh. 

P2 


2. 


If you were 

-^ m^ %% 


eating. 




sah-sz^ noong^ leh-la^ 

Mm m ^U 


ch'uh. 

P2 


3. 


If he were 


eating. 




sah-sz^ e leh-la^ 

Mm P i^U 


ch'uh. 

P2 






M 


Plural. 


' 




1. 


If we were 

-* SE ^52. 


eating. 

mr 




sah-sz^ nye^ leh-la^ 


ch'uh. 


2. 


If you were 

-^ W¥ ^^ 


eating, 

mr 




sah-sz^ na^ leh-la^ 

Mm m nML 


ch'uh. 


3. 


If they were 


eating. 

, mr 




sah-sz^ e-la leh-la^ 

^® PU i^M 


ch'uh. 



( 

9^ 


[ FIRST LESSONS 11^ 


r CHINESE 


. 




^ PERFECT TENSI 


:. 








^S^ Singular. 








1 


If I have eaten. 


Sah-sz^ 


*^ngoo ch'uh 


tseh . 


2. 


If you have eaten. 

-^ ffi¥ mm mmi 


sah-sz^ 


noong' cli'iili 


tseh. 

m 


3. 


If he has eaten. 

^ Plural. 


siih-sz^ 

Mm 


e ch'uh 


tseh. 

m 


1. 


If we have eaten. 


sah-sz^ 

MM 


nye^ ch'uh 


tseh. 

m 


2 


If you have eaten. 


slih-sz^ 

MW. 


na^ ch'uh 

m pg 


tseh. 

m 


3 


If they have eaten. 


sah-sz^ 

Mm 


e-la ch'uh 

PU i€ 


tseh . 

m 




^ J^ PLUrERFECT TeNSE. 






• 


^j^ Singular. 
If I had eaten. 

-^ ^^ ai# «#PS 


sUh-sz^ ^ngoo e-kiung di'iih tseh. 


2, 


If you had eaten. 

-^ M^ mw iiXmi 


sah-sz^ noong^ e-kiung ch' liI 

Mm m ^m \ft 


I tseh. 


3. 


If he had eaten. 

-^ y$^ «# ^mi 


sjlh-sz^ e e-kiung ch'uh 


tseh, 

m 




^ Plural 








1. 


If we had eaten. 


sah-sz^ nye^ e-kiung ch'uh 

Mmm Q^ P2 


tseh. 


2. 


If' you had eaten. 


sah S7? na^ e-kiung ch'uh 


tseh. 

m 


3. 


If they had eaten. 


sah sz^ e-la e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 95 



The Verb TO BE. 

This verb is irregular, and, in this dialect, restricted to heing in, or a^ a 
place. Sz, _a^ is generally considered to be the verb to he^hxxt I can get nothing 
outofs2, JS- but 2/65, or an affirmation. The idea of the verb to he is expressed, 
in this dialect, by ^^ leh-le, if the person or thing is present ; and by >i<i 
leh-la, if it exists elsewhere, or if reference is had to something in the past, as; 

^ Indicative Mood. 

i^ B^ Pkesent Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. I am here. ^ngoo leh-le. 

^M un m% ^ ^m 

2. You are here, noong^ leh-le. 

M^ m% m% ii %a 

3. He she or it is here. e leh-le. 

m^m'^m m^ p urn ^ 

Jfi Plural. 

1. We are here. nye^ leh-le. 

2. You are here. ^im leh-le. 

m^ m^ m^ m nm 

3. They are here. e-la leh-le. 

>)^ ^ Imperfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. I was there. ngoo^ leh-la^ kuh, 

n^ m.± ;l^ ^ ^^ ^ 

2. You were there. ^noong leh-la^ kuh. 

3. He, she or it was there. e leh-la^ kuh. 

M^m m.± ilia ^ s^u ^ 



96 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



^ Plural. 
1» We were there. nve^ leh-la^ kuh. 

2. You were there. . na^ leh-la^kuh. 

wp- m'^ K;^ m^±u ^ 

3. They were there. e-la leh-la^ kuh 



^ The Perfect Tense is not expressed by i^^ leh-la, but, by JlJ Tau, as ; 
I have been here, or *^ngoo tau shih tseh, or 

n^ m^ mi m% m% ^ %\\ Wi m m% 

there. ^iigoo tau koo shih tseh. 

)i% n m M. Wi ^ 



^ Singular. 

1. I have been here, or there. ^ngoo tau koo shih tseh. 

n^m^ mi m% m% >iiia m ^y ® ^ # 

2. You have been here, or there. noong^ tau koo shih tseh. 

m^ m^mim%n% Hs% m m 'm Wi m 

3. He, or she has been here, or there, e-la tau koo shih tseh. 



M Pi- 



URAL. 



1. We have been here, or there, nye^ tau koo shih tseh. 

m m^ mi m'^m^ji^ m m^ m m 

2. You have been here, or there, na^ tau koo shih tseh. 

m^ m^ mi m^m^fi^ m m m wi ^ ^ 

3. They have been here, or there, e-la tau koo shih tseh. 

« m^ mim'^m^ji^ pm m m '^ m 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 97 


■^ ]j^ Pluperfect Tense. 




^ Singular. 




1. I had been 


here, or there. 

m^ m^ )i^ 


^ngoo e-kiung tau koo shih tseh. 


2. \ou had been 


lere, or there. 


noong^ e-kiung tau koo shih tseh . 


3. He, or she had been here, or there, e e-kiung tail koo shih tseh. 




^ Plural. 




1. We had been here, or there. 


nye^ e-kiung tau koo shih tseh. 


2. You had beefi here, or there. 


i\3? e-kiung tau koo shih tseh. 


3. They had been 

m. mm mi 


here, or there. 

m^ m^ )i^ 


e4a" e-kiung tau koo shih tseh. 




'IJ^ Subjunctive Mood. 


J^H$ Present Tense. 


1. If I am 


^ Singular. 

here. 


sah-sz^ ^ngoo leh-le. 


2. If j-oii are 

-^ m¥ ^^ 


here. 


sah-sz^ noong^ leh-le. 


3. If he or she 


is here. 

^ Plural. 


sllh-sz^ e leh-le. 


1. If we are 


here. 


sah-sz^ nye^ leh-le. 

Mm m i±m 


2. If you are 

-^ m^ n% 


here. 


sah-sz^ na^ leh-le. 

Mm m i±m 


3. If they are 


here. 


sah-sz^ e-la leh-le. 

Mm pm mm 



98 FIKST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

-7 '^ Imperfect Tense. 

^ Singular. 

1. If I were there. sah-sz^ ^ngoo leb-la. 

2. If you were there. sRh-sz^ noong^ ]eh-la. 

-* m^ m'^ fi% ^^ m ^^u 

3. If he, she, or it were there. siih-sz^ e leh-la. 

^^ Plural. 

1. If we were there. sah-sz^ nye^ leh-la. 

2. If yon were there. sah-sz^ na^ leh-la. 

3. If they were there. slih-sz^ e-la leh-la. 

* ^ Perfect Tense. 
^ Singular. 

1. If I have been here or sah-sz^ ^iigoo tau koo shih 

there. tseh. 

2. If yon have been here or sah-sz^ noong^ tan koo shih 

-^ m^ m^ mi %% m% Mm m m m. w: 

there. tseh. 

3. If he, she, or it has been sah-sz^ e-taii koo shih 

~^m^ m m±mi Mm pm m ^ 

here or there. tseh. 

m^ m^ ji% m 

^ Plural. 

1. If we have been here or there, sah-sz^ nye^ tau koo shih tseh. 

~^ IE m^ mi m% m% mi Mm iis ^u m ^ m 

2. If you have been here or there, sah-sz^ na^ tan koo shih tseh. 

~^m^m^mimmi'^}i% Mm m m m i: ^ 

3. If thev have been here or tliere. sah-sz^ e-la tan koo shih tseh. 

-=kmm^mim%m%ns^ Mmpmm m w^m 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 99 

^^fjW Pluperfect Tense. 

^ SiNGULAK. 

1 If I had been here or sah-sz^ ^ngoo e-kiimg tan 

there. koo shih tseh. 

2. If you had been here or sah-sz^ ^noong e-kiung tau koo 

there. shih tseh. 



lA" 



3. If he, she, or it had s*ah-sz^ e e-kiung tau koo shih 

been here or there. tseh. 

^ Plural. • 

slih-sz^ nye^ e-kiung tau koo 

1. If we had been here or there. ^ fg 4lg g^M ^|j ^;a 

2. If you had been hero sah-sz^ na^ e-kiung tau 
or there. koo shih tseh. 

3. If they had been here sah-sz^ e-la e-kiung tau 

-^ a fli# mi ^^ ^fi^#Qii m 

or there. koo shih tseh. 

Is he there? leh-la^ va ? 

He is there. leh-la^ kuh; e leh-la^ kuh. 

Where is he or it? e leh-la^ <^a le^ ? leh-la^ ^a le^ ? 



100 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



He is in the office. 

mti-m-m ^ m^n 

If he is there tell him 

to come here. 

To Have. 

Have 3^011 it, or any ? 

mm m^ ~m m^ ^^ 

I have it. 

nu mm -m 

I have some. 



have it not. 



I have none. 

im. mm mu 

Have you any on board 

mm m^ ^^ mm m^w 

ship? 



]eh-la^ *^sia-sz^ ka" le^. 

^UM^ mm 

sah-sz^ leh-la^, kaii^ e le. 



^yeu. 




noong^ ^yeu va^ ? 




^ngoo ^yeu le^; <^ngoo 

^ w a ^ 


*^yeu la^ 


*^ngoo *^yeu kuh. 




^ngoo veh *-yeu. 

^ ^ ^ 




^ngoo mg-meh, 

1^ Bl * 


- 



se* loDg^ ^yeu va^? 

^ ± ^ ^ 



No. 

m 

Have they any ? 

mm ^ ^;^ 

Neither have they 

%^% mm ^ 

Who has any ? 
No one has any. 

m m m± ^i 



any. 



mg-meh; veh. 
e-la ^yeu va^ ? 

e-la ya mg-meh. 

PU-& Pi * 

sa^ nyung ^yeu kuh? 

t'oh veh ^yeu ; mg sa^ nyimg. 

5S ^ W Hi B^ A 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



102 



How long have you had it ? noong^ ^veii-tsz <^ke-zz^ tseh ? 

mm m mm m^ if# ~u m %z m^^ m 

I have had it over a year. ^ngoo^yeu-tsz^ yih nye^ 'too. 



To Do. 

To work . 

Can you do it? 



I can do it. 



tsoo^. 



tsoo^ sang-weh; tsoo^ koong-foo, 

^ ^ m W r. ^ 

noong^ we^ tsoo^ va^? 
tsoo^ tuh-Ie va ? 

m #*^ 

^ngoo we^ tsoo^. 

^ ^ m 

^ugoQ tsoo^ tuh-le kuh. 



I cannot do it. 



Who can 

p^ mi 



do it? 



Then is a Canton 
who can do it. 

pf MPS ^ -fl§: 



man 



^ngoo tsoo^ veh le. 

^ m m ^ 

^Dgoo veh we^ tsoo^. 

n ^ ^ m 

sa^ Djung we tsoo^? 

m A# ft 

^yeu yih kuh quong-tong 

"^ ~, ^ m M 

nyung we^ tsoo^. 

A # ft 



There call 
do it. 



him to come and 

WW ^'^Pf 1^P£# kau^ 6 le tsoo> meh tseh. 



^ p-^m * # 



Just now he is not 

able to 



work. 



ye^ dse^ e tsoo^ veh-dong. 



'i02 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Tell him to come and kau^ e le^ tsoo^ tsoo^ 

try it. k'o\ 

Who did it? sa^ nynngtsoo^ kiih? 

^ wm -u Bt A # >i^ 

I did it. <^iigoo tsoo^ kuh. 

^Mmm-B ^ m A^ 

He did it. e tsoo^ kuh. 

m^ m^ -u p m ^ 

When can you do it? <^ke-zz^ 4iau tsoo^? 

ms. mi m^^ -m m^^ n m 

I can do it immediately. sieu^ ^hau tsoo^. 

^tungh'angnyih; kahliaognyih; 

I cannot wait. ^ngoo ^tung veh tiih. 

im. mimm mm ^ m ^ n 

Are you at work on it ? leh-la^ tsoo^ meli ? 

=^5£m¥ mmm^-^ mu-m ^^ w m 

When will you have it done ? *^ke-zz^ tsoo^ %au ? 

MPi mm m^ mm -B mi ^s^ i^ n 

Within three days. sa° nyih le^ 

J5^-pi Em :t^ -urn 

Is it finished .? tsoo^ ^hau meh ? *^hau meh ? 

-iR] -fl§: ^f;5*^^# fi: :{tf * itf * 

It is finished. tsoo^ ^hau la-* tseh ; ^hau la^ tseh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 103 

veli-zung; veh zung le-*; veh-zniig 
Not yet. ^ ^ ^-^ S ^ 'i' 

Ifc will be done soon, ''hau kw'a tseh. 

-E^ffij ife mi MU n >^ ^ 

Not for sometime yet. meMe^ ; me^ sz^ me^ la le^. 

nm mm^^ mmm -m * m ^iv st * & m 



Do ifc quickly. 




kw'a-te^ tsoo\ 

-yt m ^ 


Will he do it? 




k'ung tsoo^-va? 


He will not do 


it. 


e veh k'ung tsoo^ 


Has he done it? 

mmm^mi -u 




tsoo^ meh ? 


He has done it. 

•m^mm mi-m 


^ 


teoo^ la tseh^. 


Why do you not do 


it? 


w^-sa^ veh tsoo^ ? 


Because it cannot be done. 

'M^^± -B mmmu ^ wm 


veh Hiau tsoo^ lau. 

^ m m m 


It can be done. 

~mmm ^ mi 




*'hau tsoo^ kuh. 

^ ft >^ 



I _^ will try_^ it. Cjjgoo tsoo^ cli'e le k'cP. 

^* :^r?n ^Hk — flS: ^ ft fe ^ # 

If you do not do it well tsoo^ le veh hau meh ; 

you will work for nothing. ])iih tsoo^ kiili. 



104 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Of course. sz-ze^. 

I will pay voii when siing-weh tsoo^ *^hau-tsz^ laii, 

the work is finished. iaP- dong-de°. 

m m^^-m ^(3*>mj:# m mm 

What can you do? noong^ we tsoo^ sa^ ? 

mm mu m^ m m ^m ^ 

I can do any thinir. yang suh we^ tsoo\ 

Have vou ever done it before ? tsoo^ koo shih va^ ? 

I have done it before. ^ngoo tsoo^ koo shih tsel). 

^M mm mi -m &m^ a m '^ m ^ 

When will you begin? ke-zz^ tsoo^ ch*e ? 

mi ^ffij m^"- it mi mmm m 

When did you begin? nooDg ke-zz^ tsoo^ ch^e kuh ? 

mm mw m^ y\imi it m^mm "^ 

How long since you commenced ? tsoo^-tife^ ke-zz^ tseh ? 

mm m mz m^ mmMMm m "zmm m 



n mz ^B^^ 



I have been at it a long 

1^^M% Ml^kB —B^^ '"Soo W-tsz> ta-zz' tseli, 
time. 

mi 

When will you finish? ke-zz^ tsoo^ we° pih ? IvL 

mi ^ffij m^ #^^pf ms^m^ m ' ■ 

I dont ^vant to do it. <^ngoo veh-yau^tsoo\ 

You ought to do it. noong^ yung-ke tsoo\ 

m-'p- iHiiis: ^m. ~u m m m m 

You ought not to do it. noong^ veh yung-ke tsoo^ 

m^ munm ^m-B m ^ mm w 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



105 



Dont do it. 

mm m-m 



veh yau tsoo^. 



I am determined not to do it. ^ngoo ting^ que veil tsoo^. 



Not allowable. 

It is allowable. 



tsoo^ veb-tuh kiih. 
isoo^ tub kuh. 

fc # >^ 



Not difficult to do ; easy to be 

done ^- ft m MW 



Difficult to do. 

Spoiled. (in making.) 



na" tsoo^ kub. 

m m ^ 

tsoo^ wa^-tseb. 



Do it well. It is well done. tsoo^ le ban kub, 



It is badly done. 

~m~m^w± mi 


tsoo^ le veb-bau. 


To trade or do business. 


tsoo^ sang^-e. 


A mercbant. 


tsoo^ sang^-e nyung ; 

ft ^M A 

sang^-e nyung. 


To write a composition. 


tsoo^ vung-tsang. 

m ^ M 


To become a man. 


tsoo^ nyung. 

m A 


To economize. 


tsoo^ nyung-ka. 

m K m 



106 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 

Cant afford to tlo it. tsoo^ veh-cli'e. 

mum n^^w ^^-m m ^m 

He can afford it. e tsoo^ tnli-ch'e kuk. 

m-^ mi ^m%-M ^w life ^ 

To use violence. ma'^ tsoo^; ngnDgtsoo^;hah tsoo\ 

^ m^n wmjMi'^ mw w m m m 

Bont be violent. veil yau^ nia'^ tsoo.^ 

mm & %Mmmim m mm m 

The manner of doing (things.) tsoo^-deu ; tsoo^-fah. 

ti mm m^ ^-s "T^ m is # ^ 

How can, or shall it he done? na uiing tsooVleu? 

mmmim%mm-m^ mi m m mm 

He has injured his o\mi 

cause. PB MW &M 

To defeat ; to frustrate. tsoo^ t'eh. 

^ *&#E ^M^j^^mn^^m ft m 

I could not accomnlish it. tsoo^ veh-zung-koong, 

nmiWMmmmmM±n~m m m jfi ^ 

To act for another. 

^ %^mwm%Miwm 

A substitute. 

M -^mnmm^m 

How much can you 

m¥ ^n mi n^ 

do in a day? 

^~U M ^ 

It cannot be (lone yih nyili tsoo' veb-je'; 

-mmiMm& mi - ^^^,3^ ^ 

in a day. yih nyih tsoo-* veh hau. &c. 

-PS ^ IS - B m ^ M 



<^le tsoo\ 






^le tsoo^ 


kuh. 




yih Dvih 

- H 

<^ke-hau ? 


tsoo^ 

fi: 


tiih 

n 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


107 


He is not inclined 

m^ -± mm -u^miw 

to do it. 

^m ~m 

To make clothes. 

^ mm ^mn 


e veil kau-shiing^ tsoo\ 
tsoo^ e-zong. 





A 



tailor. 



To 

am 



Go, 



i^Mmm 



going. 



Has he gone? 

mm mti mi 

He has gone. 

m^ mm mi 

He has not 

m^ mm mm \ 

Did he go ? 
He went. 



yet 



gone. 

mi 



What has become of it or 

mm mm i^tmf m^ ~m Mia 

nim ? 

mm 

Where has he gone? 

m^ mm m mi 

Have you been ? 

m^ m^ mi 

I have been. 

i^Mm^ mi 



tsoo^ e-zong kuh; se"-voong. 

m ^m >h mm 

ch'e'. 

*^ngoo ch'e^ tseh. 

ch'e^ meh? 

ch'e^ tseh. 

e veh zung ch*e\ 

P ^ ^ ^ 

ch*e^ kuh. 



<^a-le^ ch'e^ tseh ? 

taip fa-le' ch'e^ ? "^a-le' cli'e' tseh ? 
ch e^ koo-meh ? 

* MM 

ch'e^ koh- tseh . 



108 


FIRST 


LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. 


Have you ever 

m^ m^ Mm 


been ? 

mi 




ch'e^ koo-shih-meh ? 


I have been 

n^m^ mi 


once. 




ch'e^ koo-shih yih we. 

* mm - la 


How long have they 

mm m m^ ^ 


been gone ? 

mi mu 


ch'e>-tsz> 'ke-zz' tseh ? 



They have been gone but 

^ m^ mi mi^m 

a short time. 

M m%u tasf 

They went long ago. 



You can g^. 

m mi w 



ch'eMuh-veh too shih ; 
k'a^ k'a^ ch'e\ 

ch'eMsz^ tsiing ^yo tseh. 



Go quickly. 



Go together. 

To go, or pass bv ; to 

^^ m^ A^ m^ ^ 

pass over; to pass away. 

AH PI* ^ An ^n 

Will you go ? or are you 

i^m m^ w m^ ^^ ^^ 

going ? 
I will go; I am going. 



nooug^ k'o^-e 
ch'e^ meh-tseh. 


chV; 
* 


kw'a^-te° ch'e^ : 

^ m ir 

cli'e>. 

* 


yau^ kw'a^-te* 


yih-dau ch*c^. 




koo^ ch'e^. 





chV va? chV meh? 

* ^ * * 



cli'e^ kuh. 



FIRST ]>ESSONS IN CHINESE. 109 

What are you going for ? cli*e^ tsoo^ sa^ ? 

mi^ n w¥ n-u mm ^ m ^ ' 

Gro and see. ch'e» k'6'. 



m * 



I am going, or will go now. j^^ dse? sieu^ yau^ cli^e^. 

nmm^^-mm^MmM m m ^ m m ^ 

Depart ; be off. ch'e^ ba. 

nmm & m^ ^ m 

Take it away. nau ch'e^ ; ta° ch'e^. 

mm -m Mi^ $ * ta * 

Take it with you. ta^ ch'e^. 



Is it safe or allowable %au ch'e^ va? ch'e^-tuh 

-m-mM^m^^mi^^m ^ * ^ * # 

to go ? va? 

It is not safe or veh-^hau chV; ch*e^ veh- 

~m -m mm M^m'^ ^ n ■*• * ^ 

allowable to go. tub. 

To be on good terms ; to 

^ ^ mu ^# mm ^ ii ^i-^'- 

correspond in business. ^ -^g* 

#^^^ ^PI# - Pi «i|^ ft ^ 

Not intimate; not on 

Mm-ummu mmmu vehi^chv. 

speaking terms. ^ ^H ^ 

n>jL^^m mm 

To eradicate. ch'e^ t*eh. 

I will not or do not go. *^ngoo veh ch*e^. 



110 FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 




Go in. 

^ -PI- 




tsing^ ch*e\ 

m # 




Not inclined to 

MM -PI^MPI# ^ 


go. 


veh-kau-shung^ ch'e^. 




! go along, 

PI W ^115 




ch'e^; ch'e* meh tseh. 

* * * # 




To Come. 
^ ^Pf 




le. 




Come in. 

^Pf -m. 




tsing^ 1^. 

m ^ 




He came in. 

'M^ Mf -£ 




e tsingMe kuh. 




They have come in. 

^ m^ mn^ -s. 




e-la tsing^ le tseh. 




You had come in. 

m^ fli# mf -PI ■ 


. 


na^ e-kiung tsing^ le t 


seh. 


Has lie come ? 

mm mti m^ 


i 


le meh ? 




He has come. 

m-a mm %m 




le tseh. 




He has not come. 

m^mm mm m^ 




6 veil le. 




He has not yet 

m^ mm mm mm 


come. 


e veh zung le. 




He will come. 

m^ nm m^ 




le kuh; e yau^ le 1 


aih. 


They will come in. 

^ :^rfrj M$ -m. 




e-la yau^ tsing^ U 

PUW m ^ 


kuh. 


Let him, or them 

^m iiPf m^ ^m 


come in. 


nvang e tsing^ le. 

m p m ^ 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. HI 



Tell him to come here. kaii^ e le ; ha^ e le. 

He will not come. e veh-k'ang le. 

Come quickly. kw'a^-te^ le : sieu^ le. 

He will come soon. le kw'a^ tseh ; e sieu^ le. 

mti %M %n Mfs. ^ ^ m ^m^^ 

1 cannot come. ^ngoo veh nung-kuh le. 

Come to-morrow. ming-tsau le. 

I have been here three times, ^ugoo le koo^ shih sa° t'ong^. 

You can come ; come a-head. le meh tseh. 

s¥ mi -^n m% wmm ^ * ^ 

To be on friendly terms ; 

Hereafter. tsiiing le. 

From ^ of old. P^ng^ le ; shatig^ le, 

^%mim^tmw i^ ^ ^ ^ 

When will you come ? <^ke-zz^ le ? 

Mpf %m m^ Mf mm ^^ 

When did vou come.? <ke-zz^ le kuli? 

mm mm m^ m% m^ "^ ^ 

How joDg since you came? W-tsz' 'ke-zz' tseh? 



112 



FinST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Bring it here. 

Bring it with you. 

m^±s. -m MB m^ 

Come over. 

Where is it from ? Where 

are you from ? 

A new comer. 

Originally. 

Are they coming? 

They are coming. 



ta»le. 
^^ 

koo' \i. 

^a-le le^? sa^-swo le? 



sing 1^ kub» 
nyo le ; pung le, 
leh-Ia' W va? 

\s? le tseh. 



Not time to accomplish an 

object within a . given 

period. 

Instigator. 

From whence does 

^^MRPf Mi^ mm 

it emanate ? 



1^ veh je^. 



le deu nyung. 

3!|5 IS A 



sa^ 1^-veng? sa^ 1^ deu? 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHIN'KSE. 



113 



To Eat ; To Drink ; To Smoke ; To Take Medicine, cli'uli. 



To eat a meal. 
To ' drink ten. 

To drink wine. 

To smoke. 

To take medicine. 



Have von dined? 
Not vet. 

mm mm 



I am eating. 

I was dininof. 



m±is.mi 



I have dined. 

n^mm mm 

I had dined. 

UM fl»# mm 

I dont want to ^at. 

^M mum mm ?^ ^m 



ch'uh va°\ 

pg m 

ch'uh dso. 
ch'uh ^tsieu. 

P2 « 

ch'uh ye". 

P2 ^ 

ch'uh yjih. 

P2 m 

\uJ^^ ch'uh meh? 

P2 * 

veh zung; veh znng le; veh znng 

^ ^ ^ -^ a ^^ 

ch'uh le. 

''ngoo leh-le^ ch'uh. 

*^ngoo leh la^ ch'uh va"^. 

^ *^te Pg IS 

^ngoo ch'uh tseh. 

« ng # 

^ngoo e-kiung ch'uh tseh. 
^ngoo veh yau^ ch'uh. 

^ ^ 'S pg 



114 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

I am not able to eat; liavo 

^ ^ mnm M^M ^ i>xj^ mm ^'''"'^ -'' !?]!• 

no ap])etite. f?^ ^ j^ 

I can eat. <ugoo cli'dli Inli lob. 

I cannot afford to eat 

it- m ^ ^ ^ 

He cnn afford to eat it- e" cb'ub tub ^cb'e. 

I cnnuot eat it: do not 

n^ m^ nm \>m> ~m ^ mm 

fancy it ; (\o not kiioAV bow cb*nb vrb-lc. 
to go about eating it. 

Dinner time. cb'tib va^^ ^dong. 

wB:m ^Pf ^ m m 

Before dinner. Ta'^^ ze'^. 

^w>^ mum w. ir 

After dinner. va"^ ^en. 

^Bi^*^ mum . is # 

Food. cb'iih djoh ; ch'ub deu. 

^# ^ M ^ m 

To finisb eating. cb'uli ding; cb'ub ^ban. 

^^f^># J^T P2 ^ pg m 

Have you finisbed eating? cb*ub ^bau meb? 

He bas eaten it up. cb'ub t'eb tseb. 

m-^ mm ^^ ~m Mm v^ u ^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 115 



To get the worst of a 

bargain ; to be clieated. Pg ^ 

To retain unlawfully ; to 

appro[)riate to ones 

own use, that which VZk >l2i 

|HI!1I m^m MB Bit 

belongs to another. 



T() suffer punishment; to get 

the worst ol an aliair. 

^m^mBm^mm.nm^ 



f€ =^ 



"h- 



If we make a living hj ^ffZ^ 

— ^ BE ^% M JJ:#5E pas oh'uh pih-nyung ^we^ p(^-> 

serving anothe*-, we shoiihl ffg ^|j ^ -j gyjj ^ - 

^Iti ¥,|5E#5S BE -#:# y^^i pih-nyung <^sz-hw^^\ 

obey his orders. ^ SlJ A -t® Hft 

If the rations are not 

eqiuil, the operatives will <^'' "" ''"'i veil clie" yon siang 

i^mm ^mi^\i3iMm^^m ^ffij f^ :^ ^, r^ ^ « 

not put forth equal ''"'S veh ze-siDg. 

etfo rt. 

To get drunk. ch*uh tswo\ 

To eat enough ; io eat to fullnes. ch'uh ^pau. 
Not enough to satisfy 

mmnim^^m^m'i^M ch'«h vei,-v„. 

ai.petite. pfy An H 



116 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To be injured bv eating. ch'iih song ; ch'iih wa^. 

^^ -s.^wmM mr vt m ^ m 

To be imprisoned. ch'uh qiie° sz. 



» « ^ » » 



To Ask ; To Inquire ; To Investigate ; To Get 
Information by Asking. mnng^. 

I asked. ^ngoo miing^ kub. 

I have asked. ^ngoo mnng-* la tseb. 

nM mm mn%M m m i& m 



I bad asked. ^nf^oo ejkiimg miKig^ koo^ tseb. 

^K mm mn^m ■ ?£ E.m m m m 

J will ask. *^ngoo yau^ mung^. 

Ask bira. mung^ e. 

Inquire tbe way. mung^ loo^. 

I ' beg to ask, or inquire. ^cli'ing murig^ 

^M ^m ^ %n%m$i - ^^% si m 

Inquire of others. mung^ pib-njung^. 

~^^%m^^m%n m m a 

Did vou ask ? nuing^ va ? 

1 did not ask. *^ngoo veh mung^. 

^^ it# MU ^%n% ^i ^ P"i 



FIRST LESSONS IX CHINESE. 



117 



Why did vou not inquire? we sa^ veh inun^^ ? 



Go and inquire, or ask. 

Make definite inquiries. 

Unable to get in- 

formation bv inquiries. 

To jiidge, to try a person, 



cli'e mung^. 



mung^ cli'ing-^'song. 



mung^ veh ts'eh. 



^ \i\ 



or 



case. 



Have you ever inquired? 

aSf^ S^ ®? -S3^J^# 

I have inquired. 

I will make inquiries 

about it. 

M^U~M 

I have inquired eveiy 

wdiere. 

It is not necessary 

to inquire. 



mung^ shih va ? 

^ngoo raung^ koo shih tseb. 



^ngoo yau^ mung^ mung^ k'o^ 



wj m] 



koh-tsii^ mung^ tau ka tseh. 

^ m m m m^ 



Yell yau^ mung tub ; 

^ ^ m n 

veh pih mung^ tub. 

^ # 5.1 ff 



118 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To Speak ; To Say ; To Utter in Words ; As a 

^ «Bb^ ^ u ^ ^'^ -i v^^^^ m± M 

Command, or Promise ; To Affirm ; To Testify ; To 

Tell, or Inform. wo^. 

said so. *^ngoo wo^ knh. 

M ^# i> m m ^ 

have spoken. ^ngoo wo^ la tseh. 

had spoken. 'ngoo e-kiung wo' hi tsi'h. 

will or shall tell. "^ngoo yau' wo' kuli. 

^K ^ffi iHi^a i^ffli it^a m mm ^ 

did say so. ^ngoo szwo^kidi. 

did not say so. *^ngoo sz veh wo^ kuli. 

Dont say anv thing about it. veh yau^ woMv'e le .. 

I will not speak of it. ^ngoo veh wo\ 

Who said so ? sa' nyung wo' kuli ? 

^ MWi> • i D^ A IS 4- 

You said so. nooog' wo' kuh. 

m^ urn £> m m "t 

What did or do you say? noong^ wo^ sa^ ? 

^mmwm^ m m^^ ^ m mm 

I did not sav any thing. ^ngoo veh wo^ sa\ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



119 



You told me so. 

Wlien did I tell you? 



noong^ \(i '^ngoo wo^ kiili. 



>) 



Able to spenk. (as a language 

Unable to speak. 

I cannot speak Chinese, 

You can spenk it. 

You must speak the truth. 



A 



*'ngoo ^ke-zz^ 1e ^noong wo^ ? 

^ mB^m mm 

we wo^: wo^ tub le. 
veh \vP vvo^; wo^ veh le. 
tsoong kwoh wo^, <^ngoo wo^ veh le* 

^ m m ^ m^M 

iioong^ wo^ tuh le kuh. 

m mn^^ 

vau^ wo^ lau->eh wo^; wo^ tsun 

mm^nm mm 

wo-^. 



Dont use violent 

mm m^± ^mmin^m 

language, 
Dont be so noisy. 

A sentence ; a word. 

What are you talking about? 

To speak evil. 

Dont slander people. 

There was not time to spe.ik. 

^^ M±Mmmm ^nan 



veh yau^ avo^ nia^ wo^. 

^ mm mm 

veh yau^ nau^ le ^se. 
yih tyii^ seh-wo^. 

— ^ um 

^noong hi wo^ sa^ ? 
wo^ cli'eu wo^. 

mur> m 

veh yau^ wo^ ^liau pih nynng 

^m m mm a 

le veil je^ wo^. 

"^^nm 



120 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Flattering words. 



vam 



Words spoken in 

Laughable words; words to 

ail] use children. 

Idle words. 

Cannot reconcile them. 



k'ah wo^; k'iih ch'e wo^-deu, 

^ m ^ mum 

pa-wo^ t^eh. 



siau W0-*. 



a^ wo\ 



wo^ veh-'^le. 

IS ^J JM 



to 



It is not necessary 

-U ~± nm 7^m:k^ ~^^± ^ "t ^^ ^li' 'f^ ; y^^' t"^!;^- 

s.y any thing. ^ ^ It It ^ >li^ SS # 



Boastful words. 



False or imaginary 

words. 



too wo^. 



mong wo\ 



To Buy. 

^ mm 

I bought it. 

^:^ mM -E 

I did buy it. 

I am buying now. 

^^ Pf Pf #m-Pi mm 



ma. 



^ngoo ^makuh; ^ngoo *^ma la^ kuh, 

ffe ^ 4- ^^ S fe t 

^nfifoo sz^ ^ma kuh. 



^ 



>h 



^ngoo ye ^ dse^ leh-le^ ^ma. 



t'IRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 121 

I was buying. ^ngoo leli-la^ ^raa. 

^^ Wim± m^-m . i^ nun 

1 liave bought. ^Dgoo *^ma la^ tseh. 

nM mm mm m num 

I had bought, *^ngoo e-kiung ^ma la^ tseh. 

I want to purchase. *^ngoo yau^ ^ma. 

nM urn ^ ^-t::^^ m W M 

How much do you want? noong^ yau^ *^ma ^ke-%au ? 

^^ mt. ^ m^ mm m w n mm 

I do not wish to purchase. *^ngoo veh-yau^ ^ma. 

nM ^ mm Wi-wi ^ m-^:Mn ^ ^m n 

Do Tou wish to purchase? noong^yau^ ^ma va? yau^ ^ma va? 

Buy it. <^ma meh-tseh. 

^^ ~m M M m 

It can be bought. %au ^ma kuh. 

-mus. ^ mm m n ^ 

No where to be had. mg *^ma tsip ; *^ma veh dsah. 

^ K^ m & mw a^ ^ j^ ^ ^ # 

It is to be had. yeu^ ^ma tsu. 

-m-±^&m^ m n m 

It cannot be bought at 

—mWL^mm & um ^m '^^ ^^^^ <dong. 
Mm m^^n 

It can be bought at that 

-EMi^ mm^mmm ^n^a tuh-^dong. 



122 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Go and buy. 



pts.# #a 






To make a few purchases. ^ma te° sa ; ^ma meh-zz. 

a le^ deu *^ma dsah kuh? 



Where did vou buy it? 

m.% m.^ n^ mU -^ 

Have you bouc^ht? 
I have bought. 



*^ma la^ meh ? 
*^ma la^ tseh. 



I have not yet bonght. *^ngoo veh-zung ^ma. 

i^M mm MBS: ^^ nu m ^ ^ n 



At what price did you 

buy? 



noong^ ^nia le sa^ ka de° ? 
ke de^ <^ma kuh? 



Bought at a " moderate price. *^ma le djang. 



Paid a high pi-ice._ 



^ma le ^tvii. 



Cannot afford to buv. ^ma veh-*^ch'e. 



Can afford it. 



*^ma tuh ^ch'e. 

n mm 



• Did uot succeed in buying. ^ma veh zung-koong. 
I want to buy more. 



Is it to be had? 



^ngoo wa^ yau^ ^ma 

^ m '^ n 

*yeu tuh ^ma va^ ? 

^ # » ^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 123 



Ifc is to be had. ^jeu tuh ^ma kuh; *^yeu kuh. 

Why dont you purchase ? w^ sa^ veh ^ma ? 

^M MB m^ m-t^n %^^ n 

He dont know how to buy. e *^ina veh Id, 

Not necessary to buy. veh pih ^ma. 

Invoice; price. ^ma ka. 

How much have you bought ? ^ma tsz ^ke-*^hau ? 

0^^ mt. mm m^ mm nzmn 

I have not bought much. <^ma tuh veh too. 

mm mm wm mm Mt, nn ^0- 

Try to purchase. ^ma ma k*o. 



To _Sell. ma^ ; ma^ t'eh. 

^ n^ * M ^ 



I sold it. 



^Dgoo ma^ t'eh kuh. 



n^i>ffii!>^~m n M m ^f- 

I have sold it. <^ngoo ma^ t'eh tseh. 

mu mm 'i>wm -m ^ mm m 

I had sold if. ^ngoo e-kiungma^ t'eh tseh. 

Will you sell it? 

'^ffn M^ :g;fm ~M ma> va ? yau ma^ va ? 

Is it for sale ? ^ ^ ® W -5 



124 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I will sell it. 

It is fur sale. 

I will dispose of it. 

nM nm mn bhi m^ ~m 

I cannot sell it. 

Have you sold it? 



ma^ kuh. 



^ngoo yaa^ ma^ t'eh e. 
^ngoo ma^ veh t'eh. 
md? t'eh meh ? 



To whom did you sell^ 

^ i^Pf m.w m^ ^ffii 

I have sold all. 

i^Mmm '&wi mm 

To sell • at auction. 



mo? la sa^ J^yung ka ? 
mo? we^ tseh. 

* ^ # 

p'ah ma^. 



It was sold at auction p'ah ma^ t'eh 



I cannot sell at that 

^M M^IS: grfij 1!|)1§; ^^ 

price. 



mo? veh ^dong. 



I __^ -will not gell (at that price.) veh ma'. 

^M ^m MM W(n ^ H 



Selling price. 



ma 



^ ka^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



125 



To Give ; To Transmit by Hand ; To Yield to 

THE Power of ; To Give in Marriage. beh. 

Give, or hand it to me. beh ^ngoo ; beh la^ ^ngoo. 

M% m% ii3t# -m^^ m a m ^^ 

I shall not give, or hand 

^^ l^ffn »RE ^^ Kia ti5# !^°° ^?Jj ^^l?- 



He '" is not willing to give. 



e veil ^k^inof beh. 



-ifc. 



ff ^ -g 



I gt'i'Ve, or handed it 

im. im m'^ iiis# -^ 

to him. % 



^ngoo bell e kuh ; ^ngoo 

n m ^ A' n 

beh la-* e. 



Who gave it to you? 



I have given it. 

^M m^ n-oc -u 

I have given it away. 

^^ aif# ^^ -fls M% 



sa^ nyung beh noong ? 

lit A ^ fg 

*^ngoo beh la^ tseh. 
^ngoo beh t'eh tseh. 

m. m u m 



Give me notice, or 



beh sinor ^nofoo. 



a 



I endured a beating from 

him, 

Dont allow him to have it. 

mm "fiitfi)^ ^Bf ^ mm ~u 

Dont give it to him. 

mu m% -u ^ wim 



^ngoo beh e ^tang. 



veh yau^ beh e. 



^ 



^ P 



126 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

I have already given it to *^iJgoo e-kiung beh la^ 

him; I had given it to him. tseh. 

Grive him something to eat. beh te^ sa^ hx^ e ch'uh. 

When will you give it to me? noong^ %e-zz^ beh ^ngoo ? 

I will hand it to you 

to morrow. W ilJ ^ M 



To Pay Money. foo\ 



I ' paid it. ^ngoo foo^ kuh. 

mu m^ -m • ^ # >h 

I have paid it. ^ngoo foo^ la^ tseh. 

^^ asff mii^ ~m ^ ft n.^ 

I have already paid it ; 

I had paid it. ffe a II # fe # 

^K m^ ^# i^)}§: 

Pay it foo^ meh tseh. 

15 — k # *. # 

To pay out. foo^ ts'eh ; foo^ ts'eh cli'e^ 

VkX^ mm # oj # tn * 

To pay in. foo^ tsing 1^ ; foo^ au le\ 

Not able to pay. foo^ veh ts'eh. 

wm%^m^ '4, ft ^ bi 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 127 

Able to pay. foo^ tnh ts'eh. 

^^M ^ n fin m 

Has he paid it ? foo^ la meh ? 

m± mti im-B # «fc * 

He has not yet paid. e veh zung foo^. 

m^m± nm mm n i^^ -^ # 

When Tvill you pay me ? *^ke zz^ foo^ la ''ngoo ? 

When did you pay ? <^ke zz^ foo^ kuh ? 

MS mw m^ ^ iiB## ^ 

Tell him to pay. kau e foo^ au ch'e\ 

^m mm ^ m n##T * 

Ask him to pay. kau e foo^ au 1^. 

How much money is to kiung tsau yau^ foo^ ts'eh 

^^ mz mm ~± ^ ^ m m i^ \i\ 

be paid out to day? cli'e^ %e hau^ nyung tsz ? 

To whom did you pay it ? noong foo^ la^ sa^ nyung ? 

51 m^ m^ m'^m ~m m # fe nt a 

I have paid it out. ^ngoo foo^ I'eh tseh. 

nM mm mw-mmm ^ i^ m m 

Unable to pay now. ye" dse^ foo^ veh ts'eh. 

To pay in fall. foo^ ch'ing. 



128 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To Receive ; To Collect. sen. 

To collect accounts. seu tsang. 
To receive ])ayment for 

a lease. ^ ^ 

To receive house rent. seu vong-tsoo ; seu vong de°. 

To receive payment in 

kind. i\X M M 

I have received payment 

— ^ fSifij 

Did you receive ' it ? seu dsah va' ? 

M#M^^lsi®ja^-fl§: H^ * « 

I did not receive it. ^ngoo seu veh ds'ah. 

I did receive it. *^ngoo seu dsah kuh. 

n^ M# %]ixm]<x^ -B m ^ M ^ 

I did not receive 

^M WlW MB %\<m\>X^ 'ngoo «eu veh dsah sa'. 

anything. ^ il^ ^ ^ D^ 

A receipt. seu p'ian. 

To finish or complete a 

work. ll^ i^ 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



129 



A receipt in full. 



sen ch'jng p'iau^. 

^ m m 



To suffer im prison men <■. seu ka^. 



To entertain one in 

distress. 



seu lien. 

1^ I? 



To clean np, to arrange 

thirds. i|^ ^ i6F 

SI 



sen qn;lh. 



To make a clean sweep 

of thiu'i;s. 

tHJ^ PTPI 



To draw tight. (as a cord) sen kiiiiig. 



Draw it ticrlif. 



seu le kiung. 

i\X M m 



'saw. 



To Build. 
To build a house. 
To build a bridge 
To build a boat, or vessel. 
To cast a gun. 



m: 

^saw vong-*'tsz. 
^saw yih tiau dyau. 



saw ze^. 



*^8awp'au^: tsu p'au^ 



130 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To erect a battery. 

To take census. 

To start a rumor. 

Have you completed your 
house ? 

It is finished. 

-m-± n^iit^^w 

To build a city wall. 



^saw p'au^ (le. 

'iS ^ fi 

*^saw ts'ah ^tpz. 

^ ff ^ 

*^saw yau-ye^. 



vong-tsz <^sa\v ^hau meh ? 

^ ^ it ^ * 



*^saw Hiau tseh. 

m. n m 



^saw zung-deu. 

^ ftE IS 



To Build 



WALL. 



ch'e^ sianof. 



To build a single brick 

partition. ^ ,^ 



To pave a road. 



Please be seated. 



Sit down ; be 





ch'e'ka\ 


To Sit. 


*^soo. 




ch'ing^ ^zoo 

m * 


ted. 


^800 zoo. 

4fe ^ 





FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 131 


Sit a while. 






*'soo yih shih. 


I dont wisli 


to sit. 




veh yau^ soo. 

^ ^ * 


I have no 


time to 


sit. 


*^ngoo mg koong <^foo ^soo. 

ffe HM ;5(f ^ * 


Not room to 

nm ^Mm ^ 

be seated. 


sit, or 


soo^ veh loh. 


Sit still. 






^soo la^. 


Sit on it. 

^m ^m -m 






soo la long. 

^ fe ± 


Room to sit, or be 


seated. <^soo tub loh. 


Cushion for a 


seat. 

■ mm 




soo^ nyoh. 


To sit on a seat of 
judgment. 




soo^-dong. 


A throne. 

M M3mu 






^soo w^. 




To Stand. 


lib. 
If. 


Stand; stand still; 
or was standing. 


is, 


lib la\ 



132 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Stand up ; stand it 

oil end. AL ^ ^ 

Cannot stand ; unable 

to stand. AL^ m 

Cannot stand as^ainst 

umm ^tMi# Mm^^ 

such odJs ; cannot bear bh v4i dsu^. 

such k)sses. 

Can stand &c. lib tub tsu\ 

Stand to one side. lib la^ pie^-deu. 



To' Know. sbau^-tuh. 

m m mn 



sbau^-tub va? 
Do you know? ^ ^^ Jg^ 

^ 1^^ J^gP shauUuh veil sbau^-tub? 

m n^u % 

Do not know. vhIi sbau^-tuli. 

^ mmm ^ m n 

I know. *"ngoo shau^-tub, 

n^m ^ m # 

I knew it. ^ii2[00 sbau^-tiili kub. 

^^ ^^ -^ ^ m n ^ 



nnsT i.ESSONs in chinesi^. 



133 



I have known it. 

mm mm ms. ~m 

I had known it. 

nM mw mm. -m 



^Dgoo shau^-tuh la tseh. 
^ngoo e-kiiingshau^-tnh la tseh. 



How lonfT have yon known it? iioong sliau^-tuh-tsz^ke-zz^ tseh? 

M^p- MIS mm ^^ mm -u m nnzm^m 

I have known it a long time. ^ngooshau^-tuh tsz-tsangyotseh. 

mM mm mm ~B M Mi5i:^p# ^ mn zMmm 

I have known it but a ^ngoo shau^-tuh veh too ^ke-zz^; 

nM mm mm ~m ^jeu m ^ mn ^^mm 

short time. k'a^ shaii-tuh. 



I have alwavs known it. 

nu mm mt^n ±mm -m 

I know a little about it. 

nM mu±nffn^nm- 

I know all about it. 

^M m mm mnu -u 



nm. 



know nothina: about it, 



ipT ^UB -B 



He knows. 

m^ m± 



Now I know. 

nm im. m 



*-ngoo yih shang^ shaii^-tuh kuh. 

« - isj n n ^ 

shau^-tuh te^; ^yeu te^shau^ tub. 
*^ngoo toll shaiP-tiih. 

^ m m n 

*^ngoo yih-nga^ veh shau^-tuh. 

n ~m ^ m n 

e shaip-tnb la tseh. 

^ mn u m 

^ngoo shau-tuh le tseh. 



How did you find it noong^ ''nang shau^-tuh ? 

out ? 

nmm 



Why do I not know ? 

^^ ^ n^ mm m 



noong^ na^ nung siiau^-tiih ? 

m m m m n 

^yeu sa^ veh shan^-tuh ? w^e sa-* 

% Bt ^ ^ # ^ Bt 

veh shau-'-tuh? 

^ m n 



134 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



You onglit to know 

iw^ mm ^ m 



What do you know? 

^m M^'p- m 

Difficult to know. 

Easy enough to find out. 

^f^ i>xm^ ^ K-iE mu 

Verv well ; all rio^ht, 

#ji: fS-ffif m^ la^E 

You dont know. 



I knew he would come 

n^ m'P: m-^ m^ mf 

to grief. 

He has not yet ' known 

m-^m± nm mu mm. 

anything ahout it. 

^mr umm -m 



noong^ yung-ke shau^-tuh. 

m mmmn 

noong^ ke-yung shau'-tuh, 

m m m mu 

noong^shau^-tuh kuh sa^ ? 
Ya^ na^ shau^-tuh. 

mmm n 

yoong-e shau^-tuh. 

m M m n 

shau^-tuh tseh. 

m n ^ 

noong^ veil shau^-tuh, 

m ^ m n 

^ngoo shau^-tuh e yau^ 

a m n 1^ '^ 

pang^-dsah va^ na^. 

m M m m 

e veh-zung shau^-tuh. 



To Understand ; To Comprehend. ^tong. 



Do you understand ? 



*^tong va^ ? 

11 ^ 



or 



I understand, 

comprehend. 



^tongkuh; ^ngoo <^tong kuh; 

ji A- n fi -i^ 

*^tong kuh tseh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 135 



I do not nnderstand. veh tong ; ^niroo veh to"g. 

1 am unable to 

iinderstantl. ^ '|'j| ^ ^ 

It is 

. ^ -^ ^iong veil le kuh. 

incomprehensible. fg ^ ^ '^ 

1 do not vet nnderstand. *^ngoo veh-znng *^tong. 

n^mnmmm )Es.mmm^w ^ ^ ^ m 

I dont comprehend 

^^l(^i^Pf^^:35cWS:# yih nga» veh <long. 

anything about it. — . ^^ ^ >f J 

Now I understand. ^tong le tseh. 

mm ^M J^^mnm^w li a# 

Can you comprehend it? ^tong tub ts'eh va? 

I cannot understand 

I^M ^^MM J^mMnU^i^ 'ngoo ^tong veh ts'eh. 



It. 



^ m ^ ^ 



To Look; To See. k'o'. 
I saw. • ^ngoo k'5^ ke"^ kuh. 

■^M m ^ m n. ^ 

I have seen. ^ngoo k*o^ ke° tseh, 



136 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I had seen. 

Look. 

1 did not see. 

^^it# MM m 

Who saw it ? 

pf m —M 

Have yoa seen it ? 

have you ever seen it ? 

mm m^ Mm fois ~m 

I have seen it ; 

n^mm mm. -m 

J have seen it before. 



^ngoo e-kinng k'o^ kc^ tseh. 

^ Bm m ^ ^ 



k'o^ k'o^ k'o\ 



^ngoo veh k'o^ ke**. 
sa^ nyung k'6^ ke" ? 



k'6' ke" shih va' ? 



^ngoo k'o^ ke'^ shih kiih. 



aiJ: ^ 



I have not vet ' seen it. 

nm mm mu mm mm ~m 

I do not see it. 

I cannot see it. 

n^mmmm m -B 



^ngoo veh-znng k'o^ ke°^ shih. 

^ ^ ^ m ^i m. 

^ngoo veh k'6^ k( **. 
^ngoo k'o^ veh ke^. 



can or do see it. 



Look at me ; do as I do. 
1 dont wish to see it. 

Dont look at it. 

MB i<^ -fil^-E 



*^ngoo k'o^ tub ke°. 

k'o^ ^ngoo> 

%goo veh yaiP k'o\ 

^ ^ ^» 

veh yau^ k'o^. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



137 



Dis{i<TOP<al)lo to be- 

hold. 



To look down upon. 



% ^ ^ 



Not in accordance with 

one's fancy. ^ ^ Pp 

To iospect ; to examine. k'6^ k'6. 



To attend theaters. 



k'o^ she\ 



Protty ; handsome ; fine &g. ^hau k'6\ 

Not ])r(^ttv ; hands.'ine, or fine &c. veh ^hau k*o\ 



How do von regard it? 

I do not see distinctly. 

I can see distinctly. 



noong^ kV ch'e le na^ nung? 
^ngoo k'o' veh ch'ing ^song. 

^ m ^ m n 

*^rgoo k'o^ tuh ch'ing ^song. 

n r - 






To Forget. 

Did you forget ? or 

have you loigotten ? 



mong^ ke. 



mong^ ke va^ ? 

^ IB ^ 



138 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I have not forgotten. 

Do not forget. 



I will not, or did 

not forget. 



I foro^ot it. 

A forgetful fellow, 

Bv no means forget. 



Remenober. 



Do yon remember ? 



^ngoo veil niong-^ j^e. 

^ ^ '^^ M 



veil yau^ mong^ ke* 



^ ^ ;S IE 



veil mong^ ke kuh. 

^ :S sE ^ 



^ngoo mong^ ke tseh; 

1^ M m m 

mong^ ke t'eh tseh. 

:S IE ^ ^ 

mong^ ke doo^. 
mong^ ke veh tub. 

:S: IE ^ # 

kyoh kyoli veh vaiP mong^ ke 

^ ^ ^ W M a 

ke^ ; ke^ tuh. 
mE wE ^^ 

ke^ tuh va^ ? 

iE#^ 



To Look For. 



To find. 



Look for it. 

Go look for it. 



sing. 




sing dsah. 




m M 




1 ^ 
sing k^o^ 


sing 


^ ^ 
^ ^ 




ch'e^ sing. 





* n- 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINrSE. 139 

Have you looked for it? sing shih meh? 

I have looked for it. sing koo^ shili kiih. 

Have you found it ? sing dsiih meh ? 

mmm'p-^mm.w-m m m m 

Did you find it? sing dsah va^ ? 

I have found it. sing dsah tseh. 

^M mm -)j^m -m m m m 

I found it. sing dsah kuh. 

nm^s-n^-m m m ^ 

I cannot, or could 

not find it. ^ "Z^ 7m 

I did not find it. sing veh dsah kuh. 

You must find it. tsoong yau^ sing dsah kuh. 

I have not yet found if. veh zung sing dsah. 

n^mmnmmm:^m.!i^~m ^ ^ m m 

Look everv "where. koh-tsu^ sing. 

i^% mi% mi ^M. m 

I have looked every where koh tsu^ sing tau^-ka, 

nMmm f^'^mm.m^-M'^ ^ ^ n mm 

and cannot find it. sing veh dsah. 

If you do not find it, sing veh d^ilh meh, 

-^ m^m mm rs. -m m ^ m,m 

you must: pay for it. vau^ noong pe kuh. 

m^ mnm ij ^m^ji ~m w m m ^ 



140 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

I have looked every where 

WiM BS^ -^^U fi4^j^— Mia «i°S 1« sing cl,'e> sing veh dsSh 
and cannot tintl it. ^ 5|5 ^ -^ ^ :^ ^ 



To Listen; To Hear. t*ing. 

I hear. *'ngoo t'ing ke"^. 

I heard. ^ngoo t'ing ke^^ kuh. 



He did not hear. e veh t'ing ke^^; e vth t'ing tiil 

m^ mw MB m^^ p^m^p^mn 

Listen; give attention. t'ing la. 

Do you hear distinctly or n^ ong^ t'ing tuh ts'eh va ^ 

nnderstandingly ? i ^ i-* i-i 

I _^ ^^^^ (nnderstandingly). <ngoo I'ing tuh ts'eh. 

Listen to me. t'ing <^ngoo. 

T-'isten. • t'ing t'ing k'o^; t'ing la^ k'o. 

To eaves drop. t'ing pih kiah. ■ 

^\ix^m%mm m m. m 

To listen to a discourse. t'ing su. 

^%±^m.^Mm.^'^^n mm 

To listen to singinp^, t'ing ts'ong^. 



FIRST LE3S0XS IN CHINESE. 



141 



Fleasani-. to listen to. 

N 't ])leasant to liear. 

MB mm^lU^B ^ n^% 

Dont listen. 

I Dont wnnt to hear. 

It shonld not be heard. 

I will follow your 

advice. 

I have never lieard it. 

I have heard it before. 



liaii^ t'ing. 

n m 

veil hnn^ t'Ing. 

^ n m 

veil 3^au^ t'ing. 
^ngoo veh yau^ t^ing. 

^ ^ ^ m 

t'ing veil tub kuh. 



^\^goo t'ing noong^ ; 



^ 



^ngoo t'lDg noon<j;^ kuh fung^foo. 

a m P< A- ^ ^^ 

Sgoo veh zuiig t'ing ke^^ shib 
*^n<roo I'Inir koo^ shib. 



I bave not vet heard of ^ngoo veh zung t'ing ke^^ 

^^ mm MU %u m.%w m^ik ^ ^ m n. 

It. shil). 

~B 

I have heard it 

reported. 



^ngoo t'ing vung. 

^ M ^ 



Dont listen to rumors. 

I cant brook that. 



veil yau^ t'ing yau ye^. 
^ngoo t'jng veh ising^ 

Ik m ^j m 



I do not hear distinctlv. *'ngoo t'ing veh cb'in^'- ^^-ono". 



142 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



I can bear very 

dislinctlv. 



^iigoo t'ing tub ma^ cb'ing 



:^T^ 



.11. 



siaiiir. 



' To Think; to Consider; to Reflect 
Tbink about it; tbink awbile. 

"T:^ MUM ~U ^1% M^Mm 

(Janiiot call to mind. 

Can call to mind. 
Consider tbe matter. 



Tbiuk of me; remember me. 
Did not tbink of. 

m^ nm pt^ ihi^^ 

To tbink to no purpose. 

To Consider fiillv; to tbink of 
every ])oint. 

Could not tbink of every 

mn^ nm pm ihi^ m^^~ 

point, 
I tbink; in ciy opinion. 

I^M n % -i %% PI:^i¥PI 

Wbat do you tbink of it? 



siang siang k'o. 

« ffi » 

siang veil ts*eb. 

m. ^ ^ 

siang tuh ts'eb; siang dsali. 

# # ffi li * 

siiing cb'e le k'6^. 
siang dsiib ^ug*^o. 

i® * ffe 

veil ^siiinor dsab: ^^siariir veh ds'ah. 



pab ^riiling t'eb. 

u m. m 



m. ^ 



C.mX. 



m. m^ 



Cci--.,- 



siang veil tau-ka. 



^ngoo '■siang. 



noong-* '-silino^ na-'-nung 



) Cci'rtnnr fia-^-nung ? 

le na^-nung ? 



) u 



FIRST LESSONS IX CHINESE. 



143 



To think of; to meditate upon. *^siiing nya^\ 



mn^m^^^mmmmjEnm. m ^. 



To have designs upon. 



*^siang deu. 

M m 



No designs, or expectations. mg-^-siang deu. 



To Believe. sing^; siang-sing\ 

^ &m.^ m « it 



I do not , believe it. 

Do you believe it ? 
I believe it. 



*^ngoo veil siang-sing^. 
*^nooDg siang-sing^ va^ ? 
^•figoo siang-sing^ kuh. 

^ M \t ^ 



have 



confidence 



I^J^ BSf# NjE47— #3Lli:t; 'ngoo siang-sing^ e. 

I have no confidence 

I^M Bfi?^ "^5 RS:^— #ili:b '"goo veh siang-sing> e. 

i" I'lm. n^ ^ m im i^ 

It is difficult to believe. va^ na^ siang-sing\ 

It is impossible not to 

~B~±~mMm-^tfnMU ^ veil tuhveh siSng sing'. 



To believe in idols. 



sing^ veh. 

# 



144 FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


To believe in Jesus. 


sing^ ya-soo ; siang-siiig^ va soo. 


To worship, or believe 
in no God. 


pah veh siang-sing^, pUh veh sing^» 


Faith; trust. 


sing^ t\)h. 

i$ * 


Dont believe it. 


veh yau^ siiing-sino^. 

^ m M in 


It wont do to take his 
word. 


veh *^hau siang-sing^ e. 

^ M m in P 


To delight in. 


siang-sing^. 

« in 


He delights in wine. 


e siang-sing^ Isieu. 

pm in m 


To Strike ; To Chastise ; To Fight. ^(ang. 


He struck me. 


6 ^tang ^ngoo. 


They are fighting. 


leh-la^ siang-'^tiing. 


Able to whip. 


^tang tub koo^. 


Not able to whip. 


^tang veh koo^. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 145 



To fight a battle. ^tiing tsang\ 

To deliver a general 

cliarge. JS^ ^ 

To gain a victory. <^tang viing^ ; <^tang sung^ tsUng^ 

^ n^^f^-^^± tr 'm ir m- -^ 

'tangs^; "^tang ba' ; 

To lose ^ battle. tT M ^ Ht 

^ M± J^ ^Ero ^tangba^-tsang. 

*r n^ i5t 

To fihoot game, lang> ^tian. 

To shoot large game. tang> lib. 

^ #^ :fet mm tr m 

To hit. tang' dsah. 

To miss. tang^ veh dsah. 

^ M^ fr ^ M ^ 



To wound, tang^ song. 

To ring, or strike a tang^ tsoong. 

large bell. 

u^^ mm 

To thrash wheat. tiing^ mah. 

To thrash rice. tang' <tau. 

^B^^M^f^mn tr m 

To drive piles. tang' tsong. 



146 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To make inquiries. ^tang i'ing^, tang^ ts'ib. 

:m-s.m^±± tr m fr m 

To make a bamboo fence. tang^ po. 

To build a cookincr ran^^e. *^tang tsau^ deu. 

To make any instrument 

of metal. ^ 

pa* mm 

To make a sword, or knife. *^tang tau. 

To draw a plan. tang kau^-^tsz. 
To prosecute at law. tang^ que^-sz. 

To speak in mandarin. tang qut^ wo\ 

To slap one in the face. tang^ nye-^kwoug. 

^nmmm~m.n^^n tr ^ ^ 

To dress extraordinari- 

iv. tr w 

Foolish and impudent talking, lang^-bang. 

To strike fire. tang^ ^hoo. 

To kill. tiing^ Bah. 

To injuro bv striking. 'tang wa'; tang' song. 

m ~^m #^ mmnMtm tr m fr u 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 117 

To Rap ; To Knock. k'au. 



Rap the door. k'au mung. 

'mm m ^^ m f% 

To drive a nail. k^au ting. 

To break in pieces. k*au s^b^. 

To beat flat. k'au <^pe". 

^ &u^mm n. m 

Knock it off. k'au t'eh. 

m^ -^ w^ m u 

To pound. k'au. 



To Cut {as ivith a small knife), quoh. 

^ MM m 

To inflict a wound 

by cutting. ||,] |k 

Cut it open. , quoh k'^ ; quoh k'^ 16. 

Cut it in two. quoh *'do. 

nu ~u -i ^ fij ill 

Cut it off. qnoht'eh. 



148 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To Cut (as ivWi siuordj heavy knife^ or ax). tsa^ 

To wound with^ a sword or 

^ ^i# ^M M iJ-^la^ tHJla tBa» song, 

ax. g|| ^ 



Cut it in two. tsa'* Mo. 

:^flS:-^-3L ^ mm 

Cut it off. tsa" t'eh. 



To Split. p'ih. 

Split it open. p'ih k'^ W ; p'ih k'^. 

Cannot sj^lit if. • p'ih veh k'^. 

To split wood. p'ihza. 

To split off. p'ih t'eh. 





To 


Saw. 


Saw it off. 






Saw it in 


two. 





sih. 



sih t'eh. 



sih Mo. 



FIRST l.ESSONS IN CHINESE. 



149 



Saw it open. 

Too hard to be sawn. 



sill k'e le. 
sill veil loll. 



To Sweep. 



Sweep the floor. 
Sweep it up. 
Sweep clean. 



^sau. 



*^sau-de^ ; *^sau sau de^. 

mm mmm 

saiP t'eh. 

mm 

sau^ quih-lih; sau^ kwo-zing^, 
^i -m ^M ^1 ^h ^f^ 



To Kill ; To Decapitate; To 
To execute a man. 

To butcher a beef. 



To kill 



fowl. 



To butcher a sheep. 
A slaughter house. 
To wage war. 



Butcher. sah, 

mm m 

sah nyung ; sah deu. 

m A mm 

sah nveu. 

m ¥ 

sah ke. 

mm 

6ah yang. 

m ¥ 

sah nyeu dsang. 

m ^ m 

siang sah. 

M m 



150 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To gain a victory. sah yimg. 

To lose a battle. s^h ba'. 



• * tm I • 



To WRITE. <^sia; <^sia sz\ 

Write a letter. <^8ia vih foong sing^ ; <^sia sinc^. 



Have you written a letter ? sing^ ^sia meh ? 

m^m^^~^s.MWJ^ ^ M ^ 

I have written. eing^ ^sia la^ tseh. 

nmm^-^m. . ^ m urn 

To make a record (in an account book). *^sia tsang ; ^song tsancy\ 

^mmM'^M.M^ Mm ± m" 

Can you write? sz^ we^ ^sia va ? 

I cannot write. sia^ veil le. 

He can write. e ^'P ^sia; e ^sia tuh le. 

m^ m.s, ^m-MB ^# i ^ ^ #5R 

Write it distinctly. bz sia^ 1^ ch'ing-^'song. 

"^MMB ~B mnrM± ^n^m n 

Badly written. ez sia^ tuh veh ^hau. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 151 



To Boil. sali. 

IT'O 
Boil a few eggs. -«ah* <^li;lng kuh ta"\ 

^-r?n M #®^ ^f^l^ iti ^ >h S 

I dont want tliem too hard. veh vau^ tub ngang\ 



To Grill; To Broil. shon. 

Grilled fowl. slion ke. 

m^-^w ^mm m m 

Broiled stake. shon nyeu nyoli. 

Proil it rare. yau shon le sang. 

Broil it well done. yau shon M soh. 



To Bake; To Roast; To Warm One's self. hoong. 



To Wash. sing^ 



Wash your hands. sing^ *^6eu. 

To wash one's feet. sing^ kiah. 



1 52 * FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To bathe. sing^ yoh. 

^ ism ■ ^ m 

To wash clothes. sing^ e-zoDg. 

Wash clean. sing^ kwo zinir^ 



T^K^ mBM 



tfr 



Cannot wash it out. sing^ veh t'eh. 



To WIPE. k'a. 

Wipe or wash the face. k'a me^^. 

Wipe it off. k'a t'eh. 

Wipe it. _- k'a k'a. 

Wipe clean. k'a kwo zinff\ 

n-MB m&s. m nm 

Wipe the table. k'a t^-*^tsz. 

Knives forks &c, 

wipe clean. 7/ X ^ H^ IS ^ # 

Plates cups &c, wipe pung ^tsz pe-<^tsz lau sa k'a 

clean. kwo-zing. 

Cannot wipe it off. k'a veh t'eh; k'a veh loh. 



FIRST LFR^ONS IN CHINFSE 



153 



Wi])e it 

MMM -) 



a cam. 



tse' k'a. 



Wipe 



it 



till it is clean. k'a tsuh tau^ kwo ziing*. 



Have vou 

mm m^ 



I have 

nM mm 

You have 

m^mm 

T want 

cleaner. 



wiped it ? 

MMB -m 

wiped it. 



k'a shih meh ? 

k'a la^ tseh; k'a shih kuh. 



not wiped it clean, k'a tuh veh kwo zing^ 



vou to wipe it. 



I wan t 

every 



you to wipe 

dav. 



yau^ noong^ nyih too k'a k'a. 



To Sew ; To Stitch. 

^ m ^ nm-t 






Take a stitch. 



ling yih tsung ; ling^h'ang tsung. 

a - # m m ^ 



To make clothes. 



ling e zong. 



154 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Iron ; To Burn, or Scald. t'ong^ 



To Cut, or Engrave. k'uh. 



To cut characters. 


k'uh IT?. 

m ^ 


To engrave. 


k'uh hwo. 

m ^ 


To stereotype. 


k'uh pa^^ ^tsz. 

m m "¥■ 


To cut a stamp. 


k'uh yung^ <^tsz 



To Light a Fire. sang ''boo. 
You have lio^hted il; badly. noong^ sang le veh *^hau, 

Light it again. ts^^ sang. 



To Light a Lamp, or Candle. te"' hoo ; te"' tnng. 

It will not L'ght. » te"^ veh *^zong. 

~m ^'^ mm nMm m ^ ±- 



To Take. ta°. 

^ mm m 



Take it ; take it away. Ha^ ch*e^ 

mm ~m mm~m ^n ta * 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 155 

Bring it here ; 

bring to me. TO ^ 

Unable to ttake or 

J^^M^M^ M^ Pa^ 'ta''veh<d6ng;fta»vehtch'e. 

nTZ..^^ '*«. ta ^ 1/ ta ^ fe 

Who took it? sa>-nyung <^ta" ? 

(^ ^^ -^ ot A ta 

He took it. e •^ta" kub. 

u^ ^% -% # ta >h 

Did any one see him take it? ^yeii sa^ nyung k'o ke°-*e^ta^ va^? 

1 saw him, with mv owq ^ngoo ch'ing ^^n^a'^, 

^^ '1% mm ^-flS: »^ MaL a , „^ ^ }\ , 

eyes, take it away. k'o ke°^ e Ha^ chV. 

fe^±i>fp^ ~% M-k *^^ta* 

Where are you going with that? ^tekuhnoong^ ^ta^taiP^a-le^ ch'e? 

Take it out. la^ ts'eh ch*e\ 

Take it inside. ta° tau^ le^ shang ch'e\ 

Take it and throw it away, ta^ ch*e^ wliah t*eh. 

mn^-Mn^mmmi-mM% ta* a as: 

I did not take it. ^ngoo veh ta° kuh. 

Take it above stairs. Ha^ tau^ leu long^ ch'e\ 

mni~uMm^%m^%± mm t« ± * 

Take it ou board ship. la^ tau^ ze» lono^ cli'e.^ 

mm -M iHiat ^%m wm ta m m £^ 



156 F1R:^T LESSONS IX 


CHINESE. 


To Ascend ; To Descend ; 


To Get up. loh. 

^ mm Mm m 


Get up. 

mm j^m 


loh ch'e> 14. 

Sf ^ ^ 


Come up. 

^Pf MM 


]oh zong^ le. 


Go up; mount; ascend. 


loh zong"* ch'e^. 


Come down; descend. 


loh au^ le. 


Go down. 


loh au ch'e^. 


Cannot go up, or mount. 


l5h veh 'zong. 


Cannot get up (for want of strength' 

u^MM mm Mm 


). loh veh ^ch'e. 


Able to get up.* 

mmm ^ mm Mm 


loh tuh <^ch*e. 

m # ^ 


To Ride on Horse 


Back. je <^mo. 


' To Catch ; To Seize : To 


Arrest. tsoh. 


Catch him. 


tsoh e. 


Catch thief. 


tsoh zuh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. ] 57 



To arrest a man. tsoh iijiiug. 

Unable to find, catch, 

or arrest. *E ^ # 

Able to catch &c. tsoh tub dsah. 

^^52. ^ ^z m^&m%m i^ n m 

To arrest gamblers. 

Not sufficient force or, 

skill to catch, or 

arrest, 

I have caught him. 

To make a dam. 

^ mm M tMPf 

To make a grave mound. 

To reap wheat. 

To cut rice. 

To cut grass. 



tsoh 


<^too. 


tsoh veh dsii^. 

U ^ ^ 


tsoh dsah tseh. 

^ ^ # 


tsoh 


po^. 


tsoh 


vung sa°. 


tsoh 


mah. 


tsoh 


<^tau. 

m 


tsoh ^ts'au. 



158 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To Brush. seh. 

To brush shoes. geh ha-<^tsz. 

m #!&;£# m± m m ^ 

To brush clothes, seh e-zong 

^ #5a;E^ ^m± m ^ m 



To Fear ; Dread. p'o^ 

Do you fear? pV va ? 

I do fear. Cngoo p'o' kuh. 

nu^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

What 4o you fear? p'o^ sa^? 

I do not fear. ^ngoo veh p'o^. 

nM^ MB w^' ^ ^ ^ 

Dont fear. veh yau' n'o>. 

mm ^^ ^ M^ 

There is nothing to fear. mo- sa^ p'o^. 

^la -± nm ^ w^ wimm 

I am apprehensive he 

:^ro MB Mf 

I fear you will lose 

^-R ?^I2. M^ ^ffij Mdt <k'ooDg p'o' yau' seh 'jjung. 

I fear it will not succeed, ^k'oong p'o^ veh zung-koong. 

nM n% -M %M mm ^s# if; '^^wl ^ 



FIRST LESIONS IN CHINESE. 159 



To fear dfeatli. p'o^ ^se. 



To Provide. yii-be^. 



Make good preparation. yii-be^ haii. 

Have you got everything 

m^ m^ ^m mi^'^^n^ >«-«' ha« meu ? 



I have everything ready, yii-be-^ haii la tseh. 

He has not provided 

^ thing. — # ^ -i* St 

4R PTi 



To Shake. <^dong. 



Do'nt shake. veh yau^ ^dong. 

mu mm ^w m 

Do'nt touch it ; do'nt have veh yau^ ^dong ; 

mu .^t> -m^'-'Mu mm ^ m m 

anythin^j to do with the matter, dong veh tiih kuh. 

It is loose, or unstable. yau ^d5ngtseh ; *^dong lau^dong. 

Stead V, immovable. *^dong a veh ^dong. 

To start ; to eml)ark. dong^ sung. 



160 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To cnminence work. 



in 



It does not move 

~u m± nm m^ ~jl 

the least. 



To Dig. 

^ mm 

To dig lip loosely. 
To dig up a garden. 
Too hard to dig. 



Dig 



Dig 



it deep. 

it deeper. * 



dong -etm^. ji£yti^ 

m ^ 

yih nga'^ veil *^d6ng. 

- m ^ m 



p\mg\ 



pnng^ soong. 



pung^ yo-de\ 

^ 111 ^ 

pnng"* veil loh. 

^ ^ ^ 

pung^ le s^g. 

m ^ m 

pnng^ le s^g te' 



To Plant. 
To cultivate a farm. 

To cultivate a garden. 

What are you planting? 

I am planting vegetables. 

To plant flowers. 



tsoong^. 
tsoong^ te^. 
tsoong^ yo-de\ 
noong^ la tsoong sa ? 

m ^ mm 

tsoong^ tse\ 



tsoong^ liwo-*^tsau. 



Fir.ST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



161 



rinnt them well. 
Plant them deep. 



tsoong^ 16 4iau. 
tsooDg^ 16 sung. 



To sow, or do tliat from which 

one may ex[)ect evil fnut. ^g Im yk ^ 

Have you finished planting? tsoong^ we^ meh? 



I have finished. 



tsoong^ w6^ tseh. 
^J^ *±^ rfaJ. 



To Dwell. 

Where do 5^011 live? 

M^ ^ w¥ ±m 

I live in tlie city 



d8u\ 

noong^ dsu^ la 'a le^ ? 

*^ngoo dsu^ la snng ^le. 



I live out side of the city. *^Mgoo dsu^ la sung nga-deu. 

Cannot dwell in so small 

11^ place. W ^ m 



To Give Birth to; To Rear. 



yang. 



162 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 


To Beg. 




To beg for food. 

^ mm ^m% ^w 


^L'au va \ 


To dun. 


^t'au tsang^. 


To dun for a debt of long 
standing. 


*^t'au tsa^. 


To get married. 


*^L^iu nyang-*'tsz. 

m m. ^ 


To beg for something in 
addition. to what is due. 


t'au^ nyau. 

m ^ 


To annoy by entreaty. 


^tau ye"^. 

m m 


To Command. 


fung ^foo. 


Who gave the order? 


sa^ nyung fung *^foo ? 

m A ^ ^ 


To Bind with a Oord. ^pong. 


Tie him to a tree. 

m^ mm m m ^^^ 


<^pong la sii^ long. 

m urn ± 



FIRST LESSONS IN < 


CHINESE. 




163 


To tie a niMii hands and feet. %w'ung ^pong. 






To Tie {as a small percel). 


tsah. 


Tie it well. 


tsah Hiau. 






To Bite ; to Bakk. 


^ngau. 






Will that dog bite? 


^te tsah ^keu yau^ ^ngau kub 


va? 


He will bite. 


yau^ ^ngau kub. 

W f^ ^ 


■ 




He will not bite. 


veh *^nfau; veh ^ngau 

^ f^ ^ v^ 


kuh 




Did you hear the dog bark 
last night ? 


so ya deu ^keu *^ngau 
va? 


t'ing 


ke"' 


To Blow. 


ts*z. 

1^ 






Blow it out ; (as a light) 


t'sz ^yiing. 






Cannot blow it out. 


ts'z veh ^yung. 






To blow into a blaze. 


ts*z yong^. 







164 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Cannot blow into a blaze. ts'z veh yong^. 

Can be blown into a 

blaze. PX ^f BE 
^^± 

Blow it off. ts'z t'eh. 

Cannot blow it off. ts'z veh tVh. 

Usinm mmi -mm^ pk i^ m 

The wind blew :l. off. foong ts'z t'eh knh, 

^ i^^m.W ^m -U m^ M. ^ )^ A- 

To blow a trumpet. ts'z tsan-kyon. 

^ #:^Pi ^ E^a/EPfif^fls: pk m m 

To play the clarion. ts'z la-pa. 

^BM^m^'^-m^ pk m^\ 



To play the flute. 


ts'z 


tih. 


Cannot play. 


ts'z 

pk 


veh le. 


Try it. 


fs'z 


ts'z k'o\ 


To Learn. 


'oh. 




To learn business. 


'oh 


sang e^. 


To learn to write. 


'oh 


^sia zz^. 
1 ^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESK. 165 

To learn tlie Shanghai dialect. 'oh song^-*^he wo^. 

To learn mandarin. 'oh que°-wo\ 

To learn the classic stvle, 'oh vnng-^le. 

Difficult to learn. na° 'oh kuh. 

No inclination to learn. mg sing siiing^ ^oh. 

Just commenced to learn. k'a° 'oh. 

Been learning a long lime, 'oh ts'z tsang-^^yo tseb. 

To succeed in learning. *oh zung koong. 

^ ^a# -i f)ia5Ett*ȣ m fti ^ 

Did not, or will not succeed 

in learning. '^ ^ )vC ^ 

A school room. 'oh-dong. 

A ])upil. 'oh-sUng-<^tsz. 

K J:W^iti^r?n (^ ^ ^ 

Cannot learn 'oh A^eh le. 

Can learn. 'oh tuh le. 

ii^i fiia^ ^ # * 

Confucian temple. 'oh-koong. 



166 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



The teacher of graduates. V)h laiP-sz. 

To aspire to a liiojli degree 'oh *^haii. 

ot virtue; to reform. 

To learn bad habits. 'oh ^liaii. 



To Break (as a pice of timber' or cord), ^to. 

It is broken (in two). ^to tseh. 

To break with the hands Cas a stick), wa^ <^do. 

It cannot be bipken. wa^ veh ^do. 



To Fall. 4h. 

He had a fall. e \\\i tsz^ jih kau. 



He or it fell down. 



wi an^ 1^. 

It fell down of itself. BZ-ka "bih au^ le. 

Be careful or von will fall. dong-siug vau^ tih kuh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHTNFSE. 167 

The price has fallen. ka^-de^ dili tseh. 

How much has it fallen ? dih-tsz <ke Imu' ? 

5^iHi M^ fli± -E ^M^ j^^^^ 

The price will fall. ka'-de" yan^ diVi kuli. 

Let it fall. nyUng e dih nieh tseh. 

It is not likely to fall veh ke'^ tuh dih 

very mnoh. ss? ke hau. 

He fell in the river or 

canal. ^ fiiL ?Rj t<l 

Wounded by a fall. dih song ; dih ^liaiu 

i^^^mwm^^m% ^ % ^ m 



To BiSE. {as tide &c.) ^tsang. 

The price will rise. ka^-de^ yau^ *^tsang. 

The price has risen. ka^-de^ ^tsang tseh. 

^m^^n m± ^^-m mm m^ 

The rising tide. tsUng^ ^gz; tsang^ dsan. 

sz tsang' tseh ; 
The flood tide has made. i^ 'M ^ 

ti ^fl#^#Si± MW tsautsang' tseh; tsau Id tseh 

m m m m^m 



168 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

tsau tsiing^ ting tseli ; 
The tide ceases to rise. J^ y2| ^ ^ 

tsau tsang meli ; 
Has the flood tide made ? {^ '/Jl ^ 

i?B ?N 3^ ];^^ im 3? 

The flood tide has not yet tsau veli ziing tsang ; 

ti ^WiW ^# Bi± iJRBS: ^^ J^ ^ -i- m 

made tsau veh ziiiit^ le. 

M# S^ ^ -i" ?J5 



To Fall (as the tide), loh. 

The falling or ebb tide. loh dsau; loh ''sz. 

The tide is falling. " tsau loh tseh, 

tsau loll ding tseh ; 
The tide ceases to fall. 'M ^ '^ ^ 

ti^# ®^±^^[HIffi7 tsau loh koo' tseh. 



MM m 



To Choose; To Select. MjS" ; kaP' 'se". 

Select good ones. *'ka^ hau kiih. 

mm^w^wi^± m M ^ 

Select cheap ones. *^ka° djting kuh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINKSE. 169 

Select the most available, <^ka^ pe°^ nye kuh. 

Choose for your self. t'ing^ ^k^\ 

Pick out. kS^ts'ehl^. 

Cannot make a selection. ka°^ veh ts'eh. 

msMB urn ^ m^^s. ^ ^ til 

To ])ick tea. ka" tso-yih. 

That wliich is left after <ka» dsangMa kuh ; 

mu mt. ~± ^^B m^'^ w mu^^ 

making a selection. <^ka° di^ingMa kuh. 



To Stick, or Adhere. teh ; teh dsii^; teh lau. 

Will not stick, or 

m-M mm n ^m m^ It "^ ^^' It ^t '^' 

adhere. i'A^ V^ PA ^ ^ 



To Throw {as a stone), teh. 



To Flee ; To Run away. tau-^tseu. 

He has escaped. tau-^tseu Iseh. 



170 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

He will run away. e yau^ tau-^tseu. 

Where has he escaped to ? tau-<^tseu tau 'a-le ^ch'e ? 

He cannot escape. tau-*^tseu veh t'eh. 

m^M.^Mm^nm^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



To Fly. fee. 

It has flown, fee tseh ; fee tsz ch*e tseh. 

It will fly. yau^ fee kuh. 

It cannot fly. e veh we^ fee; fee veli *^dong. 

To fly up. , fee zong ch'e\ 

To fly about. fee U fee ch'e\ 

The feathered tribe. fee-djung. 

Birds and animals. fee-djimg ^tseu-seu\ 



To FoBSAKEj To Desert; To Depakt From, &c. le-k'^. 
^ . forsook me. e le-k'e-tsz 'ngoo. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 171 

Do'nt forsake me. veh yau^ le-k'e <^Dgoo. 

From the time he left 

home till now. Sfl ^ ;S M T^i ©J II 

nerpf mm mm 

He has forsaken me. e le-k'e-tsz ^ngoo tseh. 



To Hang ; To Suspend, kwo^. 

Hang it up. kwo-Ia; kwo^ Vhe le. 

It is hanging up. kwo^ ^ch'e la^ 

-^ -± tii-s JE^ # fe fe 

Nowhere to hang it. mg kwoMsii. 

#K5!. ^ its -flS: Pi # M. 

To make a display of 

lanterns ; to illuminate. ^p jl^ 



To Carry a Load {as one man ivith a load suspended on 
the tiuo ends of a stick), t'iau. 



To Carry a Load {as a load suspended hetioen two men^ on 
a bamboo), kong. 



172 FIRST LESSONS IN CHIN'ESB. 



One man cannot cany so heavy 

a load; it will rt-qiure — ^ ^p \ Vt ^ M 

^ ffi)Pl# — flS::^ffff 5iL3?<3|E^ y"i'' 'jr°s ^,,1,. 

two men. ^ ^ 'j^ 



To Carry a Load on The Back. -p^^ 



To (/ARRY A Load on The Shoulder. je^. 



To Carry a Load in one Hand {as a bucket), ling. 



Take it with You. ta^ cli'e. 

Bring it with you. ta^ le. 



To Begin; To Commence ; The Commencement. 

ch'e^ deu ; k'e dsaiig ; ^ch'e. 

M m ^ ^ M 

When will you commence? M^e-zz^ k'e dsjing ? 

Mi :^fffj m^ NPf *i3^ a ^ ii *M 

When will you commence flee zzMsoo' ^cU'e !> 

ms.%ifn m^m Pf *i^ i JJ r ij • 

(as an engagement) 2 y^"^ vi^ ^t- 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



173 



When shall it commence 
(as interest or reni)? 






When did you begin (as an engagement)? ^ke-zz^ tsoo^ *^ch'e knh ? 



To Repair. 
Take it and mend it. 

Repairs. 
To reform. 



sieu; sen- 


tsoh. 


ta° cli'c' seu-tsoh. 


sieu-^le. 

mm 




sieu sang; 


sieu sing 

ft 'C^ 



To Take Hold. 
Take liold of it. 

Hold fust. 

Take it in your hand. 

Cannot hold it. 

To' have charge of an affair, 
or a work ; to exercise 

authority; also the handle 

mm~m m m-d^^ u pj^i# m 

ol anything. 



nyah. 

m. 

nyah ]&?. 

nyah dsii^; nyah Hiau. 

m ^ m M 

nyah la^ seu^ He. 
nyah veh dsii\ 

m ^ ^ 



nyah seu^. 



174 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

No means of taking bold 

of it. Hit ^ ^ 

To crush in the hand. nvah se\ 



To Let Go; To Put Down; To Discharge a Gun; 
To Liberate. long*. 

Let go. fong^ ^seii. 



Put it down. ffing' an le; fong' la. 

Let him go. fong^ e ch'e. 

To set at liberty. fong^ t'eh. 

Put it on the table. foug^ la te-tsz long. 

To place money at in- 

terest. JiC Ifl 



To sell on a credit. fong tsiing'. 

We do not sell on a nye^ veh fong^ tsan; 

credit. 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 175 


To dismiss a school. 


fong-* 'oil. 

He m 


To corarait an incen- 
diary. 


fong^ ^hoo. 

n 'X 


To discharge a cannon. 


fong p'au^. 


To fire crackers. 


fong^ })'au-dsang^. 

tk ^ i^ 


To bleed. 


fong^ sh5h 

Ik k. 


To Af a kite. 


fong^ yan-^tsz. 


Quiet your mind; have no 

apprehension. 


fong^-sing. 

ik '^ 


I cannot siip])ress my 
anxiety. 


^ngoo veh nnng kuh fong^-sing. 

^ ^ m ^ ik '^' 


Put it in the drawer. 


fong^ la ts'eu t'e He. 


Put them down in one place. 

#^ nn ^s. -3t m.m^^ 


fong^ la yih kwM^. 


He has been set at liberty. fong^ t'eh tseh. 


To Hide; To Conceal. 


k'ong'; k'oiig' 'loong. 


Hide it. 


ko'ng-* 4oong. 



176 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



It 



IS 



concealed. 



No ])]ace to conceal it. 

Ifc cannot be concealed. 



k'ong^ *^loong la\ 

I^ lite 

mg k'ong^ tsCi. 

Pi @^ 

k'ong^ veh ^loong. 



Concealed on his person. k»ong^ la sung-pe^ 



Du'nt conceal it. 

mm i^isrflj ~B 



veil yaiP k'ong^-^oong. 

^ '^ m m. 



Where have yon concealed it? k'ongMa 'a-le^ ? 

M^ mm m^ i^xffiffi7# -m m te pt m 

I _^ ^^^^'^ ^^^ concealed it. ^iigoo veh k'ono^ ^^loong. 

^:^mi^Mmn3s.mmw~B ^ ^ m M 



To Open; To Commence. 
Open the door. 
Cannot open it. 

M.s.nm mz-m. —m 

Cannot be opened. 
It can be opened. 

~mu^&mr^s.w 

I can open it. 

n^ Mi Pi^i -m 

To open a box. 



k'e. 



k'e mung. 

m fn 

k'i veh M. 
veh hau^ k'^. 
hau> k'^ kuh. 

^■ngoo k'^ tub 1^. 
k*e siang-Hsz 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 177 



0|)en the wav. k'e loo\ 



Not enough to meet ex- 

mm \>xhM^^^m Mn "!!:^€^t'T- 

To take anchor and set sail. k'e z^^. 

^mmns.m^ns.w:kmMm m m 

To commence speakino;; to 

Open the month. pg fj 

To enlighten. k'e dau\ 

To open a firm. k'e 'ong. 

I To open a sho]>. k'e te°\ 

I ^ pi^thl ^ spie^ mis 

Not yet opened. veh-zung k'e. 

nm MU Pi^i# ^ -©• ^ 

It is open. k'^la'tseh. 

-m — ± PI^3l ^ te # 

i To commence business. k'^ ^zz; k'e tsang. 

^ ^Pf ^i^ »l)±7^± 1^ rfr 11 5i 

To open a canal, &c. k'e 'oo. 

To bloom. k'e hwo. 

^ ^mm ^^ 

To scatter; to separate. sa'^ k'e. 



178 FIRST LESSONS 1^ CHINESE. 

To fire a cannon. k'e p'<iu\ 

Do' nt make it public. veh yaiP wo^ k'e, 

mu w^ -M m^iL^ ^ ^m^ 

To commence speaking. k'e %ong. 



To StiuT; To Close. kwS'. 

Shut the door, or gate. l<wa» muiig. 

Shut it well. k\va°niaii. 

jSlE -flS: :^ffij m M 

Shut the window. kwu^ ts'oiig. 

Shut np. k\va° 'lootig; l<\\a meh. 

jfiLis^Eia - m m m i^ 

It is shut; I have kwa'* la^ tseh; kwa^ tseh. 

-m-±M.u numm m urn m ^ 

shut it. 



Shut him out. kwa'^ ts'eh e. 

Shut him in. kwa^ meh e. 

To shut up shop. kwa^ te"\ 

That shop is closed. *'te ba'^ te^^ kwa^ t'eh tseh. 

This door will not shut. te se^^ mung kwa^ veh ^zong. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



179 



A custom lioiise. 

The custom house in yiing 
kiung piing. 

A custom pass, or barrier. 

Customs; duties. 

To evade the duties; to 

smuggle. 

To concerFi one. 

It concerns you. 

It concerns me. 

Does not concern. 

m±Mmns.^s. 



It does not concern me 

To be in great straits, 

or j)eril. 

Grive att(ntion to, for me; 
also notifv. 



kwa 



sing kwa° 

m m 



kwa" %^eu. 
k\va° S}0\ 

m m 

fee kwa"; t'eu syo\ 

m m mm 

kwa^ dsah. 



kwa" dsah noong^. 
kwa" dsah ^ngoo. 



veh kwa". 
^ijgoo veh kwa"; veh kwa" Dgoo^ ; 

m ^ m inm n 

veh kwa" ^ngoo sa zz\ 

^ m ^ D^* 

sing ming^ kiau kwa". 

'te ^ ^ ^ 



kwa" ts'ih, 



m m 



180 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



Send me a message; let me kwa^ tsaiP ^iigoi); kwa^ ts'ih 

know. 



The god of war. 



MigoO. 






kwS" 


-te>; kwa'^ 




-va 

m 



To Put; To Place. 



i)a. 



Place it securely. 

Place it level. 

Place even and in order. 

Cannot place it level. 



Put 



above. 



pa^ ^han. 

]ia^ ping. 
#^ 

pa^ d6-tsung\ 

mi^ IE 

pa^ veil ping, 
^pa la^ song^-deu. 



Pat it below. 



Put 



t on the table. 



^"^ -«S; Mi ti »#ifiJ 



Put it inside. 

Put it outside. 



Put it in the chest. 



*'})a la^ 'au-te, 

^pa la^ te-*^tsz long\ 
^pa la^ le-'-shang. 
*'pa la^ nga^-deu. 
*^pa la^ siang-*'tsz le. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 181 



To decorate; the decora- 

tions of a room. ff| ^x 

A ferry boat. pa^-doo ze^. 

To sef, or lay tlie table. <^pa t^-^tsz. 



To Contribute; To Tax; Also, a Tax. kio. 

House tax. vong-kio. 
Taxes. ki6-le. 

Impost tax. le-kio. 

Quarterly tax. sz-ke*^ kio. 

Monthly tax. nyoh-kio. 



To Borrow, or to Lend. tsia^ 

To borrow money. tsia^ nyung-^tsz. 

Lend it to me. tsia^ la ngoo. 

^a# ~M^M -if *fe II 

Cannot borrow. tsia^ veh-^dong. 



182 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

I will not lend. veh tsia^. 

It is borrowed. tsia^ la kiih. 

It is loaned out. tsia^ ts'eh cli'e^ la. 

Sublet. <^tse^ tsia\ 

Can you borrow it? <^hau tsia^ va ? 

Do' nt borrow, veh ^vau tsia^. 

mmumi ^ fe ^ 



To Conduct; To Guide. <^Hnoj. 

Bring him in. ling^ tsing-li^. 

Conduct him out. ling^ tsVh-ch'e^. 

TJie leader, the head man. ling-deu nyung. 



The blind lead the blind. hah-^tsz <^ling liah-<^tsz. 

^ mm.^w mm % ^^^m m ^ m. m^f 

A pilot. ling^ ^kong kuh. 

A pilot boat. ling^-^kong-z^°. 

M /\%m G^ m tL m 

To nurse; to take charge of ling^ siau-no, 

^ m%n ^ nm. m^t^ m^ m 4^ m 

a child. 



FIEST lESSOKS ]N CHINESE. 



183 



A collar. 

To conduct oufc of the way 



vih tiau ^ling. 
ling^ tb*o. 



To Lead (^as an animal). 
To lead a horse. ^' 

Lead him in. 

M# mm ~s. 

Lead him out, 

M# ^Pf IHj^ 

To lead by the hand (as a child). 



ch'e^. 



ch'e^ ^mo. 
ch'e^ tsing^ le. 

^ a ^ 

ch'e^ ts'eh ch'e\ 

^ ai * 

ch'e'^ ^seu. 



To Lose. 

1 have lost it, 

jjow much did you lose? 

^^ Mt mw M^ 1®± 



seh-t'eh; loh-t*eh, 



seh-t'eh tseh; loh-t'eh tseh, 
seh-t'eh *^kr-haiP ? 

^B m it 



He has lost all his pung^-de" yih zh° seh-t'eli tseh . 

capital. 



I have lost heavily. 



Reh-t'eh-tsz too-Hiau. 



184 FIRST LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. 




He cant afford to lose. 


e seh veil ''cli'e. 




To Meet; To Come in Contact 
With; To hit. 


P pang-di^ah; pang^- 

m m M,m 


deu. 


Did you meet him? 

mw m'p- ^m ms. 




pang-dsah va ? 

m M ^ 




Did not meet, or see, 

mw MB ^m Kia m 




I)ang^ veh-dsah. 




I saw him. 

nM 'm mm 




pang-dsah kuh. 

m M 4- 




To butt (as a sheep or goat). 




pang\ 

m 




To Receive, or accept That Which is 
Conferred, or Imposed. 

mu^^^wm^-mG^±m 


^seu. 


To receive presents. 




*'seu le^-veh. 




To receive an honor. 




*^seu ^song-sz^. 

^ n m 




To suffer. 




^sen *^k'oo; <^seu Da°\ 




To be imposed upon. 




seu^ wong. 





FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 185 


To be put to the blnsli. 




seu^ mg-ch'ii^ 


To decline (a favor). 


• 


veh *^seu. 


To Hand; To Deliver 


IN 


Person. \seu\ 


Hand it to me. 




\seu^ la ^ngoo. 

' ^ tea 


Cannot reach. 




tseu^ veh dsiih- 

n ^ M 


Hand it to him. 




tseu* la e. 


I delivered it to him. 

mu ^^n-w -M ^ mm 




^ngoo tseu^ la e. 


To Read, 




t5h; toh sii; k*o^ su. 


He cannot read. 




toll veh le. 


A scholar; a literary 


man. 


toh-su nyung. 


To Rot. 




la°>. 

m 


It is unsound. 




la^^ tseh. 



186 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

It is not rotten. veh la'*^. 

-m -± mu %M^^ ^ m 

Mud. la'-'-nyp. 

mm mu 

Muddy under foot. te loiig> lii'"; IS"' 1^ <se. 



To Walk. ^tseu; pan^. 

Come here. tseiP le; ])aiP le. 

Walk faster. tseiP le Inv'a^-te'^; kw V-te'^ ^tseu. 

Unable to walk. tseiP veil ^dong; pan^ veh ^dong. 

;si^#fBj^rgiHi^ ^ ^ Wi n ^ m 

^ngoo ^tseii kuh; ^ngoo paiP le 

L- rS«. ■ ' a * 4^ n n^ 



To Run. pan. 

To run a horse-race. p'au ^mo. 



To Count. *^soo. 

Count and see how many or much, ^soo ^soo k'o. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINES!=:. 187 

Unable to c*)Uijt. sou^ veil ts'eh. 

I have already counted. ^soo koo shih tseh. 



To Deposit With Another. ke\ 

De])osit with me. ke^ la *'ngoo. 

wuiu-m rs-^ m mum 

To send a letter or message. ke sing^. 



To Shave. t*e^' 

^ mi^ m 

To shave the beard. t'e^ soo. 

^ m^^ ^ #^# m m 

To shave the head. t'e'^ <^teu 



To Sink (m water). tsiing. 

It will sink. yau^ tsiing^ kiih ; yau^ tsung au 

~u%m m.m. ^ u >^ ^ UT^ 

*^ch'e kiih. 
To drown. tsung' sah. 



To Spin. fong^ so, 



188 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Weave. tsuh poo^. 



To Spread Out ; Spread it Out. t'a^ k^e le. 



To Steal. t'en ; t'eu meh-zz^. 

Secretly. t'eu be" 'tsz. 



To Roll Up. ky5^-^loong. 

^ mm }^Wi m m 



To Inform Against. song^-foli. 



To Institute a Suit at Law. kau-z no-^. 



To Inform. kau-soo'; kwa»-tsau'. 

^~s.^mmf ^ Wf m m 



To Swear. vixh-tseu^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 189 

To Perspire. tsVh o\ 



To Strive. yoong^ lih; yoong^ sing; p*ing ming\ 



To Spill. 1ang'-fa». 

51 ^'M^m tT m 



To Swim. yen ^sz; loong^ sz. 

^m~m m :^ W yi^ 



To Sing. ts'ong\ 

^ til' m 



•0- 



To Cry. k'oh. 

J)(/nt cry. ' veh yau^ k'5h. 

W)B -^^m ^ W ^ 

Unable^ to cry. k'oh veh ts'eh. 



To Tear. <ts'a.se. 



To Wear, To Put on {as clothes), tsah. 

To put on clothes. • tsah e-zong. 



190 



FIRST LESSONS 1>T CH1NE3E. 



foil e-zong. 



To nil dress. 



To wear a hat, cap or bonnefc. ta^ man-*^tsz. 



To take ofF the hat. 

^m^m^n mm 



tsii mau-^tsz. 

m m "f- 



To Laugh. 
Laughable. 

To excite laughter. 

To ridicule. 



siau-'. 



%au siau. 
^sa siau. 



^laiig siau^. 



To Win (in a race or game). 



To Lose. 



su. 



To Kick. 
He will kick. 

m^ mn ^m 



t'ih. 

ysiu? t'ih kuh, 



To Print. 

A stamp or chop. 



yiing'. 

yung'; yung^-^tsz. 



^n 



fn -^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. ]91 

To stamp. Hnng yung\ 

^ nmmm tr m 

Stereotype pltates, or 

blocks. pP ^ 



To print books. yimg'* su. 

To leak. yung^; leu- 

^ Mm m m 



To Return Wbat Has Been Borrowed, ^va" 

^ li^j^s. ^m m± &m. u^mw m 

Return it to me. "wa" la^ *^jigoo: wa^ *^i 

PI 



iigoo; wa^ *-Dgoo, 

^:^^^s.-m^< m m n ^ m ^ 



Return it to liim. wa° la^ e. 

^^^m.-W: ^ m-s. m U P 

To return in full. wa"^ ch'ing ^song. 

I have returned it. wa^ la^ tseh; wa^ tseh, 

nM mm ^■^^m.w -u m u m m m 

Not vet returned. veh-zung wa^ 

mmmm'^^^s.w ^ ^ m 

To avenge one'self. wa'^ pau^; pau^ wa". 

^ M<^s.t^ ^m:km^ m m n m 

To make good a loss,, or 






or 



Not able to return, 



192 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Hoist a Sail. 
To hoist a fla_o^. 



ts'a 'poong. 
ts'a je. 

If m 



To Lower, or Take in a Sail. loh '])oong. 

^ i^m m^^ mm -m.^ mm n- m 



To Anchor. 



p'au-man. 

+44. /C>4t 



To Take the Anchor. 

^ mm m m^^ 

To pull out, or up. 

^ =^i?n mm m^ m^ 

To pay back by install- 

^ m nm ^ m~s.n 

ments. 



})ah-mau. 
pah; pah-t'eh. 



pah-Wa"^. 

n m 



To Draw in, or up by a Capstan. 



pe". 



To Tow, or Track (as a boat). be ch'e°. 

^ mm Mii m%mm i^ m 



To pull in two. 



U fdo. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 193 



To pull down. be t'a^ 



To Fall Down (as a house do). t'a^ 

That house will fall. He dsu^ vong-^tsz jau^ t'a^ 



To Haul, (as on a rope), t'oo. 



»)<n 



To Pusn; or Shove. ts a 

^ ^i# iHiia #5»c ii 

Push him out. ts'a° ts'eh cli'e\ 

M^^ mm pass mm* 



To Step Upon. tah. 



To Twist or Wring. lih. 



To Press Down by a Weight; To Crush; To 
Uppres:s. k'ah. 



194 



FIUST LEPSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Squeeze. kah. 



^nn^± 



?1 



To Beckon. tsaiu 



To Seize. la. 



To Twist with the Fingers. nye^ 



To Carry in the Arms (as a child), *^pau, 



To Bow Down to ; To Worship. r)a^ 



pa^ 



To worship idols. 'pa^ veh; pa^ ziing-^^dau. 



To Take to Pieces, or Down. ts'ah 

Take it down, or to pieces. ts'ah t'eh. 



To Stop. ting; ting \a?. 



FIEST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 195 

To Wait. ^tung. 

Wait. *^tung la. 

Wait a while. *^tung yih shih; ^tung yili ^tung. 

i^mM^mM ^ — I5C ^ — ^ 

Tell Ijim to wait. kau^ e ^tung yih ^tung. 

I have DO time to wait. nag koong-foo *^tung. 

m^mmm mm ^i^m m.:r.^^- 

It will not do to wait. ^tung veh tub. 

Wait and see. ^tung ^tung k'o 

How long have you waited ? <^tung-t8z> ^ke-zz^ tseh ? 

I have waited a long time. <^tung-tsz^ tsang-yo tseh. 



To Put Down a Sedan, wa^^-ping. 



To Change. w^^^; also *^tiau. 

I want you to change vour ^ngoo yau^ noong^ we°^ yang- 

^HE 5E^ i¥ ^ ^i-g ^la ^ ^ ii M # 

manner. suh. 



196 


FIRST 


LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 






To Nail. 




ting\ 






To Live. 




weh. 




Living. 






weh la\ 




Lively. 






weli-^dong. 

f^ if 






To Die. 




^se. 





He, or it is dead. 

ma m^ -m ~± m.w 

All men must die. 



*^se tseh; *^se t'eh tseh. 
nyuDg nyung tsoong yaii^ se. 

A A ^ mM 



To Present (as a present). 

To conduct, or accompany 

one a short distance. 



soong^. 



soong^. 



To Go OUT AND Welcome Anyone. nyung-tsih. 



F1R!^T LESSON^ I?T CHINESE. 


197 


To Stick {in the ground or elseivhere). ts'ab. 




To Dye. 




To Cast Down. 


kwa°' 'au 1(5. 






To Throw Away. 


hwSh-t'eh. 




To meet, to have an interview 






To hold a meeting. 






Did you meet him. 

mm m^ m^ mn 


wP-dsah Ta ? 
# * ^ 




I did not ; No. 

mm mm nm m 


wP veh-dsiih. 




To Call; To Tell. 


kiaw^; kau. 

B4 b4 




Call him. 


kiaw^ e. 

14 ¥ 




Tell him to come. 


kau e le, 

(4 i^^fJ 




To Scratch. 


tsau. 



198 FIRST LESSONS 


IN CHINESE. 


To Cut with Scissors. 


^tse". 


To Pry (ivitJi a lever). 


cli*au. 


To Plane. 


pau^. 


To Bore. 



To Cut a Mortise. 
To Make Ashamed. 


tsyo. 

m 

soh. 
t'a"-ts'oong\ 


To Varnish ; To Paint, 




To Weigh, 

^ 


ts'ung. 



FIRST LESSONS IN ( 


[CHINESE. 


199 


To Measure. 

... n 


Liang. 




To Save ; To Economise. 


^sang. 




To save time, or labor. 

^ urn mf m^ %% 


sang^ koong-foo. 




To Waste; to Use Extravagantly. 


song. 


To waste time, or labor. 


song koong-foo. 

^ X ^ 




To use money extrava- 
gautly. 


song dong-de". 






To Seal; To Deify; To Exalt to a High Station. 


foong. 


Seal it up. 

iSirffi — E ;Ev0 


foong meb. 




To seal up a house. 


foong mung. 




• 

To Cut; To Carve. 


cli'ih. 





200 * FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 




Cut a slice of meat. 




ch'ih yih kwM^ nuoh. 


Cut a slice of bread. 


m 


cli'ih yih kw'e* 

^ ~ m 


me°-deu. 

mm 


Cut it open. 




ch'ih k'e le. 

fi mm 




To Bear Upon. 




ch'ung^. 




Bear upon it. 




ch'ung^ long. 

m ± 




Press it firmly. 




ch'ung-dsu. 

m ^ 





-u 

To Loot. * loo; loo 

^ M^ . WW 

.n . . . . 


meh-zz^. 


To Mix; To Get Things Confused. 




To take bv force. *^ch'iang ; 

. n 


ch'iang^ meh-zz^ 



To Deceive; To Defraud. p'e'^^ ^kwa; ^kwa p'e^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 201 



A Dkckiver. kwa^-*^tsz. 



To Gamble. <^too ; too^ dong-de'^. 



To Envy. t'e^^; ^^too-je. 

Envious. *^too-je ^smg. 



To Ascend; To Make a Record. ^soug. 

^ ijsr^*i# ^MmM 3iMm^w ± 

Make a record. ^song tsiing^. 

Mm^^^M^w ± m 

To ascend a mountain. song^ sa'^. 

To go up to the capital. song^ poh-kiung. 

^^MM^^^'M^^m ± :it M 

To go to heaven. song^ t'e°. 

To land goods. song^ hoo^-suh. 

^ Mi# fcB ± :t ^ 

To oil houses or any wood. song^ yeu. 

The place of honor. song^ spu. 



202 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To put a signature to anv 

instrument of writing. _£, :^ g^ 



To be deceived, or im])Osed 

upon. 



*^song tong\ 

± ^ 



To Descend. 'au. 

To descend a mountain. VuP sa'^. 

Come down. 'au^ le. 

To go into the country. 'au^ shang. 

To 'embark. 'au^ ze\ 

To ship goods. 'au^ hoo-suh. 

Below. 'au^ te deu. 
Underneath. 
Under the table. 





ie? 'au. 




te <^te 'au. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 203 

To Desire ; To Expect ; To Hope. moi]g\ 

^ m^m ^ mnr^m ^ mm m 

No hope. mg mong^-deu. 



i ^ 



He has hope. e yeu"* mong-deu, 

'm^m±mm pm m m 



To Tempt. *-yung ; ^yung-yeu. 



To Scrape. kwah. 

Scrape it off. kwah t'eh. 



To Recognize; To Confess. nyung^ 

Do you know me ? nyung^-tuh <^ngoo va ? 

mm M # a « 



cloNit know you. ^ngoo veh nyung^-tuh. 

mm m m^ m ^ m n 

Does he confess it ? nyung^ va ? 

m± m^ ms.%n -m m ^ 

He won't confess it. e veh *^k'ung nyung^. 



204 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Graft; To Splice. tsih. 



To Tie. voh. 

Tie it fast. voh Ian. 



To Wet ; Wet. sabi 

^ mm mm 



i^. 



To Invite. <^ch^in£r 



^ -m.i^^m m 



to* 



Invite hiin in. ^ch'ing e tsing' ]e. 

-m.^^mmm~^ m p m ^ 

To invite giiesls. ^^cli'iDg k'iilu 

^-^i'i^mimmn m ^ 

Please be seated. ^cli'ing zoo. 

I beg to inquire. <^cli'ing mnng\ 

I solicit your insfriic- 

nM v>±'^m m^i -s.n m^ !?!>'i«g ^■ 

tions. |§ ^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN 


CHINESE. 


20.5 


To Regret; Uecre 


TFUL. 

sob. 

m 


iia^ we zing. 


To Peck (^as dfoxvT), 




To Lean Against. 

n 





To Repeat from Memory. be^^. 

To rei)eat books. be°^ s^. 



To Line; or Score. wab, 



To Stab. ts'oli. 



^m^m 



>*-/ 



To Quarrel. siang-mo^ 



To Abuse. 



206 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Curse, tseu\ 



To Wrangle. <^tse° 



To Remember. ke^. 

Memory. ke^-sing. 

^,^^— IE >»!> 

Bad memory. ke^-sing veh ^hai], 

^# *a5E- IE 'H^ ^ n 

Remember. ke^-la; ke^-tuh. 

%-iiMmX> lEte IE # 



To Retain; To Detain. lieu. 

I will retain one hunlred. ^ngoo lieu yih pah. 

Could not detain; or retain. lieu veh dsu^ 



To Sell on a Credit, so. 



To Rfly Upon. . k'au^ ; k'au>-t*oh. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 207 


To Confide to. 


foil. 


You cnn trust him. 


c'o^-e k'au^-t'oh. 


It will not do 1o trust 
him. 

mm 


t'oh veh tuli. 


He ' is reliable. 


foil tub kuh. 


Put not your trust in 

QE MM k^ u'^Mnm -3L 

nmn. 


t'oh veh tub nyung. 

*^# A 




To Deny; To Falsify 


One's Word. la\ 


To Ring a Bell. 


yau ling. 




To Row; To Shake. 

^ j^Pi ^ mm 


yau; yau-ze'\ 




To Pour out. 


<^tau t'eb. 


Q 

To Add to. 


ka; ka te'^; t'e°; t'e^ te". 

MMmn mm 



208 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Pile one on top of Another. teli; t(li long\ 

^ H'&ffii ^ Hi mm m^ ms^mm # # ± 

To i)ile up. tell cli'e^ le. 



To Take from. nau t*eb. 

^ mm m^fim ^ m 

To take back. nau tse"^ le. 

M mm w,m mm^ 



To Calculate. s\v6\ 

Calculate and see how much, swo^ swo k*o. 

I cannot calculate. swo^ veh le. 



An abacus. 




To Sleep. 


kw'ung\ 

m 


Go to sleep; go lie down. 


ch'e^ kw'ang^. 

* m 


He is asleep. 


kw'uDg^ *^ch'e la^. 

m *fe 


Unable to sleep. 


kw'ung^ veh ^ch'e. 

m ^ * 


To sleep soundly. 


*^liau kw'nng^. 

M m 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 209 

To sleep l;ite. kw'iuig^ a^ tsau. 

^nmn^m m mm 

He has gone to sleep. kw'ung^ cli'e tseh. 



To Nod ; To be Drowsy. k*eh-ts'oong^. 



To Exchange; To Barter. avg^^; ^tiau. 

i% m m 



^Mn^'^m.t.^ ^* 



To Stir; To Agitate. <^t8?au. 



^ ^'^ ^ mik^m 



To Draw a Carriage. t'oo mo^-ts'o. 



To Change a Dollar into Cash. te^ dong-de°. 



To Transfer. wall. 

Transfer it to my name. wah la^ ^ngoo ming^-'an. 



210 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Pawn. 






To Hypothecate. 

To whom is it liypothecat- 

ed? 



It is hj^pothecated to me. 



all ; all fell 



ah la^ sa^ i^Ji^^ig ? 

mn^ A 



ah la^ ^iigoo. 



To Secure. 
A secnritv. 

Will yon secure ? 



pan. 
pau'-nvung. 

U A 



noong^ ^k'ling ^pau va ? 
I am willing to become seciiri- 

I^M PiPf ^— # lil &Mi m-E '■^g°° 1^'".:!S' 'P^' '^'J''' 

I will not secure. 

nu "^m nm ^^^^ 



n 



jfe. 



^ >h 



^jDgoo veh *^pau. 

n ^ U 



To Persuade. 



cTi'6' 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



211 



To Fall Sick. 



To Betroth. 



To Smell. 



To Follow. 



Follow Me. 



To Imitate; To go towards. 



Imitate the sample. 



Follow 



my example. 



saiig-piDg^. 



p'a^-cli'ing. 






m 



y 



f{^ 



r 



ft. 



To Divide; To Separate. fimo^-k'e. 



kung. 



i^ 



kiing ^ngoo. 

1^ ^ 



tsau^ 
tsaii yan(][^. 

W % 

tsau ^ngoo. 



212 riR=T LE'^SONS IN CHINESE. 

To Solder. 'o\ 



To Cast; To Found. kiau; tsu\ 

To cast a cannon. tsu p'aii\ 



To Melt ; To Dissolve. Tang. 



—0- 



To Freeze. ping-kan. 



To ('ONGEAL ; To Coagulate. kill ; kih-*^loong. 






To TnRN (as a tvheel). 'tse». 



To Float. H'ung. 



FIRST LESIONS IN CHlKESi:. 213 



To Fail in Business. ^tau, 



^ mm%w^ 



To Prop. ts'ang. 



To Save. kieu\ 



Save me. kieu^ kieu^ ngoo. 

mi^ t^ # ^ 



To Pray. djeu; ^fcau-kau\ 

^'^la^ * !S ^ 



To Kepent. hwP-<^ke. 



To Regret. au-laip. 



To Guard; To be Watchful. pongM)e\ 



To Care for; Be Careful. tong-sing; siau^-sing. 



214 rm^T lessons in Chinese. 

To Quarrel, (as husband and wife). taii-jliV^. 



To Punish. vah; pa"'. 



To Reduce; To Take From. n^. +. 

^ '^^m^n ^ mm ^^mn ^ li 

I will cut your wages. ^ngoo yau^ ngali noong^ 

nM nm :^m ^% %n^± ^ m ^ ^ 

koong-de^. 

X m 



To Translate. fa'^; faM^uh. 



To Enterpret. fa^ wo^; tse^ wo\ 

^ ~^^^^^%w^ mm mn 



To Manage; To Have The Management, kiung-^seu. 



To Turn Bound. sib tse"' le. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 215 



To Turn Over. fa° tse^-^ le. i- ^ J 



To CoNSiTLT. song-Hang; tsnng-tsab, 

^Ns^ffnE m "^ m m 



To Run {as tenter'), lieu. 

^ ^jEi is^± mm. m 



To Skin; To Peel; To Strip. poh. 



To Feel; To Touch. m5h. 



To Guess. ts'e; ts'o. 

^im mm 



Guess. 





ts'e 

m 


ts'e k'6'. 


To Examine ; To Scrutinize. 




tso. 

it 


Examine. 




tso tso k'o^. 

^ ^ ^ 



216 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Unable to find out bv tso veh t^,'ub. 

examination. 



To Prove ; To Evince. le^; te-tsung^. 

^m^M%^^n~3L'^ m mm 



To Play (as an instrument with the fingers), ta^. 



To Reject. t'e^; t'e>-t'eh. 



To Sport; To Frolic; To Trifle. 
peh-siiing^; looug^ p»h-siang. 

# ffl I? ^ « 



To Yield; To Give Place. nyiing^ 



To Soak; To Immerse; To Baptize. tsing\ 



To Gain {profit). To Make Money. ^tPa^ 



FIRST l.ESSONS IN CHlNESi:. 217 



Profit. tsa"-deu. 



To Lose, &c. seh; seh-t'eh; seh-pung. 



To Become Ricet. fah-ds^.' 



To Hbai,. e; kW; k'6> hau. 



To Spread; To Propagate, (as c^iscase or re^or^), f ah; f ah-k'e. 



To Jump; To Leap. t*iau^ 



To Climb. 



po. 



^ ^MP» le 



To Crawl. 'pa^. 



218 


FIRST LESSONS 


IN 


CHINESE. 




To Splash. 

To Boil (as wate^-}. 




sa^^; sa^> ch'e 1^; sa^^ k'^. 






^kwung, 

m 




To Nurse (the sicJc). 


-0— 


soo-tsang\ 



To Sit or Stay with for Company. 'p^. 

^ "^m iHiB n^ ^-^ ^tmja #^ft -© 



To Slander. 



wo-^liau, 

mm 



To Lock; A Lock. 



^soo. 



To Bolt; A Bolt or Bar. 



sail. 



To Roll. 



^kwung. 



To String (as cash). 



ts'^». 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 219 



To Comfort. o-*^we. 



To Injure. 'h^^. 



To Degrade. kah; kah-t'eh. 



To Burn {asftiel). sau. 



To Gather {as fruit orfloivers), ^t,s*t\ 



To Cancel ; To Erase. cli*o-t'eh. 



To Reconcile; To Pacify. 'oo; cli'oVoo. 







To Pay a Balance. 


^tscau; *'tsau wa^ 


To Criticise. 


p'e-'ping. 



220 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

To Answer. we-deii. 



0- 



To Cook. sau v5°^; saii. 

^ @^ m m m 



To Send Forth; To Issue. ts*eh. 
To issue a proGlamation, ts'eh kau-zz\ 



To Violate (a Begulation, or law), *^va°; va^ f ah, 



To drive; To Urge; To Press. ^^k^vo. 



To Grind; To Whet. moo. 



To Plastrr (as a ivall), fnng ; fnng pih. 



To File. ts'oo^ 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 221 



To Found {in a mortar'). 



To Sift. sz. 



To Strain; To Filter. lib. 



To Water (a garden), kiau. 



To Separate; To Make Distinct. *^le; ^le ch'ing-^song. 



To Create a Disturbance. tsoh-*'fa° 



To Defeat; To Frustrate. tsoo; tsoo-<^tong. 



To Separate; To Divide. fung-k'e; fung-pih. 



222 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 

Recommend {for a position). tse°^. 



To Encroach upon {another^s land), tse^^. 



To Take up with Both Hands. d5h. 

^ m-m urn mm mn ms.m « 



To Uncover; To Open. shih; shih-k'e. 



To Point with the Hand. <^te°; tsz-<^te^ 



To Stultify. tung-taii. 



To Vacillate; To Disappoint. tah-djau. 



To Deport OxMe's Self to ; To Treat. te. 

I treated liim kindly. ngoo te e ma° liaii. 



FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE, 


223 


To Offend ; To Transgress. 



To Hide or Secrete One's self. 


tuh-dsiio. 
j^ie^Moong. 

^ It 

if 

; seh-kwe, 

A W 


To Consult. 


song-liang. 

^ ft 


To Consider. 


tang-swo^. 


To Spread, Daub, or Smear. l*ah. 


To Procure what 


IS Kequired. 


To Kneel. 




To Banish. 


ts'oong-kioa. 


To Forfeit. 


seh-t'eh. 


To Confiscate. 


ts'ooDg-koong 
3^ ^ 



224 FIRST LESSONS IN CHINESE. 



To Rebel- uyuh. 



To Forbid; To Prohibit. veh-sM. 



To Make a Prostration (as before an idol), keh-deu, 



To Add to. 
Add a little. 


— 


ka. 

M 

ka te^ 


To Hook. 

^ mn.% . 


ken. 


To Confuse. 


me-ah. 


^ pJA^ ^3: 


To Deceive. 




loong-zuDg. 


To Sacrifice to. 
Finished. 




tse\ 
-tseh. 



14 DAY USE 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 

LOAN DEPT. 

This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 



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General Library 

University of California 

Berkeley 



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U. C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES 

liiiiiin 


CD57^3flED^ 







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY 



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