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Full text of "First lessons in composition : in which the principles of the art are developed in connection with the principles of grammar ; embracing full directions on the subject of punctuation; with copious exercises"

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G R A M M A K ; ! 









Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southera 
District of New- York. 

I" - 


«»12 77 



A COUNTY superintendent of common 5ch/:^ols, speaking of 
the important branch of composition, in a communication hear- 
ing date July 27, 1844, uses the following language: "For a 
long time I have noticed with regret the almost entire neglect 
of the art of original composition in our common schools, and 
the want of a proper text-book upon this essential branch of 
education. Hundreds graduate from our common schools 
with no well-defined ideas of the constructioB of our language." 
The writer might have gone further, and said that multitudes 
graduate, not only from common schools, but from some of 
our best private institutions, utterly destitute of all practical 
acquaintance with the subject ; that to many euch the compo- 
sition of a simple letter is an irksome, to some an almost 
impossible, task. Yet the reflecting mind must admit that it 
is only this practical application of granmiar that renders that 
art useful — ^that parsing is secondary to composing, and the 
analysis of our language almost unimportant when compared 
with its synthesis. 

One great reason of the neglect noticed above, has, no 
doubt, been the want of a suitable text-book on the subject. 
During the years of the author's experience as a teacher, he 
has examined, and practically tested the various works on 


composition with which he has met : the result has been a 
conviction that, while there are several publications well calcu- 
lated to advance pupils at the age of fifteen or sixteen, there 
is not one suited to the comprehension of those between nine 
and twelve; at which time it is his decided opmion this branch 
should be taken up. Heretofore, the teacher has been obliged 
either to make the scholar labor through a work fenthely too 
difficult for him, to give him exercises not founded on any 
regular system, or to abandon the branch altogether — and the 
disadvantages of either of these courses are at once apparent. 

It is this conviction, founded on the experience not only 
of the author, but of many other teachers with whom he has 
consulted, that has led to the production of the work now 
offered to the public. It claims to be a first-book in compo- 
sition, and is intended to initiate the beginner, by easy and 
pleasant steps, into that all-important, but hitherto generally 
neglected, art 

A brief account of the plan and scope of the work may not 
be out of place. It presupposes no knowledge of grammar, 
and is intended to be put into a pupil's hands, as a first-book in 
grammar, at whatever age it is deemed best for him to com- 
mence that study ; say from nme to twelve years, according to 
the degree of intellectual development. In the first fifty pages, 
by means of lessons on the inductive system, and copious 
exercises under each, he is made famihar with the nature and 
use of the different parts of speech, so as to be able to recognize 
them at once, and to supply them when a sentence is rendered 
incomplete by their omission. After this, he is prepared to 
take up a more difficult treatise on grammar; while m this 
work he is led to consider the different kinds of clauses and 


Bentences, and is thus prepared for punctuation, a subject 
not generally treated in elementary books with the consideration 
which its importance demands. The rules for punctuation 
have been condensed, arranged on a new plan, and, it is hoped, 
rendered intelligible to all. Directions on the subject of capi- 
tal letters follow. A few pages are next devoted to rules, 
explanations, and examples, for the purpose of enabling the 
pupil to form and spell correctly such derivative words as 
having, debarring, chatted, and the like, which are not to be 
found in dictionaries, and regarding which the pupU is apt to 
be led astray by the fact that a change is made in the primi- 
tive word before the addition of a suffix. 

This done, the scholar is prepared to express thoughts in 
his own language, and he is now required to write sentences 
of every kind, a word being given to suggest an idea for each • 
he is taught to vary them by means of different arrangement 
and modes of expression ; to analyze compound sentences into 
simple ones, and to combine simple sentences into compound. 
Several lessons are then devoted to the various kinds of style. 
The essential properties, purity, propriety, precision, clearness, 
strength, harmony, and unity are next treated, examples for 
correction being presented under each. The dififerent kinds of 
composition follow, and, proper selections having been first 
given as specimens, the pupil is required to compose succes- 
sively letters, descriptions, narrations, biographical sketches, 
essays, and argumentative discourses. After this, the three 
principal figures receive attention ; and the work closes with a 
list of subjects carefully selected, arranged under their proper 
heads, and in such a way that the increase in difficulty is very 
gradual. The autlior has aimed throughout to awaken thought 


in the pupil, to discipline his mind, and by preoept and practice 
to make him ^/jquainted with the construction of his native 

The distinctive features of the work may be briefly enume- 
rated as follow/1 : the development of the principles of compo- 
sition in connei tion with those of grammar; the easy steps by 
which it proceeds according to the inductive system ; the illus- 
tration of every point with exercises, not taken, as has hitherto 
been the generiJ practice, from the time-honored text-book of 
MuiTay ; the mtithod. of analyzing subjects ; and the frequency 
of reviews. S/?ggestions are scattered through the book, to 
which it may //» well for the teacher to attend. The pupil 
should, in all cisaes, prepare himself to answer the questions in 
each lesson, bef'Vre he proceeds to the exercise. 

With these ^yrief remarks the author commits his work to 
his professional brethren, respectfully asking them to submit 
it to that practic aJ trial, which is, after all, the only true test of 
a school-book's ralae. 

New-Yoek, Jam 1st, 1863. 



I, Letters, Vowels, Consonants, Syllables, 
11. Words.— Parts of Speecli.— Articles, 

III. Nouns, .... 

IV. Pronouns, 
V. Adjectives, 

VI. Verbs, , 
VII. Adverbs, . 
VIII. Exercise on Adverbs 
IX. Conjunctions, 
X. Prepositions, 
XI. Interjections, 
XII. A Review, 

XIII. Miscellaneous Exercise, 

XIV. Miscellaneous Exercise, 
XV. The Subject, 

XVI. Exercise, . . • ' r v 

XVII. The Object.— Transitive and Intransitive V erbs, 
XVIII. Personal, Relative, Interrogative, and Adjective 
Pronouns, . . . • 

XIX. The Relative Pronoun and Relative Clause, 
XX. Participles.— Participial Clauses, 

XXI. A Review, 

XXII. Sentences, Phrases, Clauses, Apposition, 

XXIII. Period, Interrogation Point, Exclamation Point, 

XXIV. Colon and Semicolon, 
XXV. Comma, ..... 

XXVE. Exercise in Punctuation, . 

XXVII. Dash, Parentheses, Brackets, . 

XXVIII. Other Marks used in Writing, . 
XXIX. Exercise in Punctuation, 

XXX. Exercise in Punctuation, . 
XXXI. Rules for the use of Capital Letters, . 
XXXII. A Review, 

XXXIII. A Review, . • , ^ ' . .. " ,,r V 

XXXIV. Primitive, Compound, and Derivative Words.- 

Analysis. — Accent, 
XXXV. Spelling.— Rules, . . • • 

XXXVI. Subject and Predicate, 

XXXVII. Exercise in Sentences, . , • ^. •* • i 

XXXVm. Sentences containing Relative and Participial 


















































Sentences containing Adverbial and Vocative 

Different kinds of Sentences 
Exercise in Sentences, 
Exercise in Sentences, 
Variety of Arrangement, 
Variety of Arrangement, . 
Variety of Expression, 
Variety of Expression, . ^ . ' ,. • [. .%^ 
Synonymes, . . *. . ' ' \ W- 

Exercise in Synonymes, . 

Analysis of Compound Sentences, 
Synthesis of Simple Sentences, 
Clearness, . 
Strength, , 
Strength, . 
Harmony, . 
Unity, . 
A Review, . 
Different kinds of Composition. — Analysis of 

Subjects, . 
Letter- Writing, 
Letter- Writing, 
Exercise in Letter- Writing, 

Exercise in Description, . 
Description of Natural Scenery, 
Exercise in Description of Natural Scenery 
Description of Persons, 
Exercises in Description, . 

Exercise in Historical Narration, 
Exercises in Historical Narration, 
Biographical Sketches, 
Exercise in Biographical Narration, 
Fiction, .... 

Exercise in Essay- writing. 
Argumentative Discourses, 
Figures. — Simile, , 

Exercise in Metaphorical Language 






What is a letter'? 

A letter is a cliaracter used to represent a sound 
of the liuman voice. 

How many letters are there in the English language 'i 


Repeat them. 

A, h, c, d, e, f, g, h, ^, /, h, \ m, n, o, ^, ^, r, s, 

t, u, V, w, X, y, z. 

What are the letters, when taken together in their regular or- 
der, as above, called 1 

The Alphabet. 

How many of these letters can be sounded alone % 


Which are they ? 

J., e, % 0, U. 

What do we call these 1 


What is a Towel 1 

A vowel is a letter that represents a complete 



I'ry to sound h. Can it be sounded alone '?* 

No ; not luiless a vowel is joined to it. 
. What are such letters as cannot be sounded alone, called 1 


What is a consonant % 

A consonant is a letter tliat does not represent a 
complete sound. 

Are there any letters which are sometimes vowels, and at 
other times consonants 1 

Yes ; w and y. 

In the word kindly, how many distinct sounds are there % 

Two ; hind and ly. 

What are these parts forming distinct sounds called "? 


What is a syllable 1 

A syllable is one or more letters combined so as 
to form a distinct sound. 

Divide the word ramrod into syllables. Ram-rod. Divide the 
word minister into syllables, Min-is-ter. Divide the word sister 
into syllables ; Henry; sickness; manful; manfully; elephant; wU- 
derness ; contemplate ; circumstance ; commiserate ; Constantinople. 

You have said that w and y are sometimes vowels, and at 
other times consonants ; when are they consonants 1 

When they begin a syllable. 

When are w and y vowels '? 

"When they do not begin a syllable. 

Is 10 a vowel or a consonant in wine 1 in wife 7 in new 7 in 
westerly 7 in Yorktown7 in bow 7 in world 7 in William 7 in wo- 
ter-woi-k 7 in saw 7 in wave 7 

Is 7/ a vowel or a consonant in youth 7 in Mary 7 in boy 7 in 
yesterday 7 in New- York 7 in yawn 7 in syllable 7 

How many and which of the letters are always vowels 1 

* The teacher will do well to make the pupil thoroughly un- 
derstand the difference between the name of a letter and its 
W'lmd, and to illustrate the point by several examples. 


Five ; a, e, ^, o, u. 

How many and which of the letters are vowels, when they da 
not stand at the commencement of a word or sy/ Jable '? 
Two ; w and y. 

How many and which are always consonants ? 
Mneteen ; h, c, d, / g, h, /, h, I, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, 

V, X, z. 


What do you use when you want to speak your thoughts ? 


What is a word 1 

A word is what is spoken or writt^m as the sign 
of an idea ; as, book 
How are words divided 1 . 

Into different classes, called parts of speech. 

How many parts of speech are there, and what are they called 1 

Nine: viz., Article, Noun, Pronoxin, Adjective, 
Verb, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, and In- 

What is the first part of speech 1 

The Article. 

What is an Article 1 

An Article is a word placed before another word, 
to show whether it is used in a particular, or in a 
general sense. 

How many articles are there 1 
Two ; The, and An or A. 
When we say the man, what do we mean 'i 
Some particular man. 

When we say a man, do we refer to a pariu ular man 'I 
No ; to any man. 


Wliat is the called, and why 7 

The is called the definite article, because it de- 
fines or points out a particular object. 

What is an or a called, and why 1 

An or A is called tlie indefinite article, because 
it does not define or point out any particular object. 

Are A and an the same article 1 

Yes ; tbey are different forms of the same article. 

Where is a used % 

A is used before a word commencing with a conso- 
nant, or a consonant sound ; as, a goat, a hendi^ a unit. 

What vowels, standing at the commencement of a word, have 
a consonant sound '? 

C^long (as in unit\ and eu^ when they stand at 
the commencem-ent of a word, are pronounced as ii 
the consonant y stood before them ; thus, unit^ use^ 
eulogy, Europe. 

Do you use a or an, then, before words commencing with u 
long and eu? 

A ; because such words commence with a conso- 
nant sound ; as, a unit^ a euhgy. 
Where is an used % 

Before words commencing with a vowel, or with 
an h that is not sounded ; as, an enemy, an inhstand, 
an hour, an heir. 

Mention again before what words a is used. 

Before what words is an used % 


The pupil must in no case attempt to write the Exercise un- 
til he is fully prepared to answer the questions that precede it. 

* It is intended that all parts of this work headed Exercise 
sbonld be written at home, and brought to the teacher for cor- 



Insert the definite article before eacli of the fol- 
lowing words : — 


lady, tigers, 




book, cloak. 




pencils, boy. 




thief, girl. 



Insert the indefinite article before each of the 
following nouns, being careful to foUow the direc- 
tions given above for the use of a and an. 























"What is the second part of speech 7 

What is your name 1 What is the name of the state in which 
you live % What word means the same as name % 
What, then, may your name, and that of your state be called 1 

rection. It will be well for him to underline such words as are 
misspelled, or improperly used, and require the pupil to colrect 
them himsel£ 



What is a Noun % 

A Noun is tlie name of any person, place, or 
thing ; as, James, Boston^ bench. 

To show that you understand this, mention three nouns, the 
names of persons ; three, the names of places ; three, the names 
of things. 

How many classes of nouns are there 1 

Two ; Common and Proper. 

What is a common noun 1 

A common noun is a name tliat distinguislies 
one class of tilings from another ; as, ma7i, city, river. 
What is a proper noun '? 

A proper nonn is a name that distinguislies 
one individual of a class from another ; as, Byron, 
Broohlyn, Hudson. 

How do proper nouns always commence % 

With a capital letter. 

Is chair a proper or a common noun 1 lion 7 George ? Alp 7 
Connecticut? factory? Wednesday.? summer? 


Write out a list of the nouns in the following 
sentences, commencing the common nouns with 
small letters, and the proper nouns with capitals. 

1. G-eorge is going to Boston on Monday. 

2. Many towns and villages are situated on the 

3. Victoria is queen of England. 

4. We like the city better than the country. 

5. Grammar is an important study. 

6. Bees make honey, and lay it up in hives. 

Complete the following sentences by inserting 


in place of tlie dash,* a noun, common or proper, 
as tlie sense may require. 

The teacher, in correcting the exercises, will see that the punc- 
tuation of the book is followed. Rules on this subject will be 
furnished hereafter. 

Example. are ripe in summer. 

Ccmipleted. Blackberries are ripe in summer. 

7. is one of the United States of America. 

8. In summer, the are unable to endure the 

heat of the , and retire into the . 

9. The elephant is one of the largest of ; he has 

a rough of a dark ; his are small, but 

bright and penetrating ; he moves his like a fan, 

to drive away flies from his . With his trunk he 

raises food to his , and draws to quench his 

. When he is tamed he obeys his , and i^his 

■ will kneel to receive a . Elephants are said 

to live more than a hundred . 



When I say, ^^ John learns his lesson" what does the word his 
stand for 1 


How would the sentence read, if we should use John^s instead 
of his 7 

John learns JohrUs lesson. 

* Note. A dash is a short horizontal line (- 


What part of speecli is John's; SLud why '? 

A noun ; because it is tlie name of a person. 

What is a word that stands instead of a noun, called 1 

A Pronoun. 

What is a Pronoun 1 

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. 

Why is a pronoun used instead of a noun 'i 

Because it would not sound well to liave the 
noun repeated too often. 

Give an example. 

John respects John^s father^ JohrHs mother^ and 
JolirHs teacher. 

How does this sentence read, when the pronoun is used in- 
stead of John's 7 

What are some of the principal pronouns % 

Ij my J mine^ me^ we, our, ours^ ics, thou, thy, thine, 
theej you^ your^ yours^ he^ his, him^ she, her^ hers^ it, 
its,.Jheyj their, theirs, them, who, which, that. 

Mention the pronouns in the following sentences, and as you 
name each, tell the noun for which it stands. 

1. James, who had studied hard, recited his lesson well. 

2. Mary is a good girl, for she obeys her parents. 

3. Be virtuous, and you will obtain your reward. 

4. James and Greorge have performed the task which 
I gave them. 

What is a noun 1 

What is a pronoun 1 

Mention again some of the pronouns that are most in use. 


Where a dash occurs, insert the proper pronoun. 

Example. This apple is mine, but will give it 

to . 


Completed. This apple is mine, but /will give it to 

I. William asked father to take into the 


^ 2. I love friends. 

3. Julia has gone to — dinner. 

4. Where is hat ? I hung on the nail. 

5. Parents love children, and take care of . 

6. John, where are going ? 

7. We gave the poor woman a penny, and she put 
into bag. 

8. Here is a bird's nest I found in the woods. 

is made of straw and moss, the old birds find 

in the fields. 

9. Jane and brother have gone to cousin's. 

10. I will give you a handsome prize, if are a 

diligent boy and attend to duties. 

I I. The man is honest will be respected by all 


12. Washington, in youth, and throughout 

whole life, adhered strictly to the truth, and thus set an 
example which ought to follow. 

13. If we think we never do wrong, deceive our- 
selves, for almost every moment are guilty of sin. 

14. We ought to remember the favors which are con- 
ferred on by friends. 

15. Nature is before us, and invites to contem- 
plate the greatness and goodness of Creator. * 

16. Miss Pardee, in book of Travels, gives 

many interesting particulars respecting the Turks, their 

habits, religion, and government. says 

that one of the most attractive features in character 

is the respect — — they entertain for thej-ged. 




What is the fourth part of speech called 1 • 

The Adjective. 

In the sentence, " Be a good hoy^'' which word is a noun % 
Why is it a noun '? 

Which word describes boy^ or tells what kind of a boy is 
meant 1 


What is good called % 

An Adjective. 

What is an Adjective 1 

An Adjective is a word used to describe or limit 
a noun or pronoun ; as, « had man, an active child^ 
John is obedient ; in tliese sentences, had^ active^ and 
obedient are adjectives. 

What do adjectives sometimes express besides quality % 
Number ; as, three men, the fourth row ; three and 
fourth are adjectives. 

What are adjectives that express number, called 1 

Numeral Adjectives. 

Mention three adjectives. Mention three numeral adjectives. 


Complete the following sentences by inserting 
an adjective in place of each dash. No adjective 
must be repeated ; find a new one in each case. 

Example, A cow. With an adjective inserted, 

a fat cow ; or, a lean cow ; or, a small cow ; or, a white 

1 . It is a day ; the weather is . 

VERBS. 19 

2. Columbus was the man that crossed the 


3. The whale is a animal ; with his tail he often 

upsets boats, and destroys men. 

4. In a garden we see many flowers ; the ■ 

rose, the violet, and the lily. 

5. We live in a — r- house, which has stories. 

6. I saw a company of soldiers, well armed with 


7. He has walked a distance, and is . 

8. Be to your teachers, and to your pa- 

9. He that is and when he is young, will 

be when he is old. 

1 0. William has a dog, a kitten, and a 


11. I found some apples, and pears, in the 


12. In the West Indies they have very weather 

and storms. The climate is considered for 

sick persons. 


What is the fifth part of speech called 1 ■* 

The Yerb. 

In the sentence, "Jane eats cake," which word tells us what 
Jane does 1 


In the sentence, " Mary sleeps;^ which word teUs us the state 
Mary is in 1 



What do we call eats and sleeps 7 


What is a Verb 7 

A Yerb is a word tliat expresses action, or a state 
of being. 

In the sentence, " John is good^'' what part of speech is John^ 
and why % what is ^5, and why '? what is good^ and why '? 

Mention in order the verbs in the following sentences. 

Oxen are large and strong animals ; they submit to 
the yoke, plough the fields, and draw heavy carts. The 
farmer fattens them, and kills them for food, and takes 
them to market. 


Wliere a dash occurs, insert a verb tliat will 
complete tlie sense. 

Example. The oak a firm root, and the 

winter storm. 

Com2')leted. The oak has a firm root, and resists the 
winter storm. 

1. The horse a noble and useful animal. He can 

— , or , and at the same time a man on his 

back, or a wagon behind him. 

2. Wandering Arabs in the desert. They . 

themselves near the springs, and travellers when 

they stop to water. 

3. A farmer a snake, almost frozen to death, 

under a hedge ; moved with compassion, he ■ it up, 

> it to his house, and it near the fire. No 

sooner did the heat to revive it, than the snake 

- — ^ upon his wife. one of his children, and ■ 


the whole family into terror and confusion. '' Ungrate- 
ful wretch !" the farmer ; " I find it useless 

to favors on the undeserving." With these words 

ho a hatchet, and the snake into pieces. 

4. In autumn, the farmer his harvest, and • 

it away in barns. The leaves from the trees, and 

the wind through the branches. 

5. Whatever you to do, it quickly ; never 

till to-morrow what to-day. 

6. Let us early, to see the sun . 

7. Cows milk, which into butter and cheese. 

8. He to the concert, to Jenny Lind sing. 


What is the sixth part of speech called 1 

The Adverb. 

What is the meaning of the word Adverb ? 

Joined to a verb. 

Why are adverbs joined to verbs 1 

To modify them. 

In the sentence, " George struggled hard" what word tells 
how he struggled 1 

Then hard is joined to, or modifies, what word 1 
The verb struggled. 
What part of speech, then, is hard ? 

An adverb. 

Are adverbs ever joined to any other words besides verbs 1 

Yes; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and 
other adverbs. 

In the sentence, -'George struggled very hard," what word 
tells how hard George struggled 1 



Then very is joined to hard ; what part of speech is hard 1 

An adverb. 

Then since very is joined to the adverb hard, what part ol 
speech is it % 

An adverb. 

In the sentence, " John is very obedierd^^ to what word is vcr% 
joined % 

To the adjective obedient. 

What part of speech is it, then \ 

An adverb. 

What is an adverb % 

An Adverb is a word used to modify verbs, 
adjectives, and other adverbs. 

Select the adverbs in the following sentences, and tell what 
words they modify, 

1. John walks gracefully. 

2. He studies very hard, and stands well in his class. 

3. I like him very much. 

Mention aome of the principal classes of adverbs. 

1. Adverbs of manner, which end for the most part 
in ly ; as, swiftly, boldly, quickly, slowly, handsomely, &c. 

2. Adverbs of time ; as, now, then, yesterday, to-day, 
to-morrow, immediately, often, always, never, ever, again, 
soon, seldom, hitherto, &c. 

3. Adverbs of place ; as, here, there, hither, thither, 
whither, hence, thence, where, and its compounds 
nowhere, elsewhere, everywhere, &c. 

4. Adverbs of quantity; as, much, little, enough, &c. 

5. Adverbs of degree ; as, very, almost, nearly, &c. 
What other words express manner, and are therefore liable 

to be confounded with adverbs of manner '? 


What is the difference between them % 

An adjective is used to describe a noun; an 


adverb, to describe or modify a verb, an adjective, 
or another adverb. 

How can you tell tliem apart 1 

When a word expressing manner is joined to a 
noun or pronoun, it is an adjective; when it is 
joined to a verb, adjective, or adverb, it is an adverb. 


Make a list, in order, of the adjectives that occur 
in the following sentences. Make a separate hst of 
the adverbs, in order. 

1. I will assist you most cheerfully, if you will be 
careful and attentive. 

2. Those who are virtuous may not always be happy 
here, but they will certainly receive their reward hereafter. 

3. Large armies generally march slowly. 

4. He who forms conclusions too quickly, often forms 
them incorrectly. « 

5. If you are attentive, you will learn grammar very 

6. I have heard better singing to-day than I ever 
heard before. 

7. He who tries hard, seldom fails to succeed. 

8. Quicksilver is a very valuable metal ; it has hither- 
to been imported chiefly from Spain, Germany, and Peru. 

9. The Portuguese were once the most enterprising 
navigators of Europe ; they founded colonies in many 
parts of the world, before totally unknown. 

10. The Bedouin Arabs are, for the most part, small, 
meagre, and tawny. 

11. The early hours of sleep are the most sweet and 




What is an adverb '?* 
What are the principal classes of adverbs 1 
Mention three adverbs of manner ; three of time ; three of 
place ; three of quantity ; three of degree. 

What is the difference between an adjective and an adverb 1 

Where a dasli occurs, insert an adyerb that will 
complete the sense. 

Example. I walked . 

Completed. I walked briskly. 

1. Mary sings , and dances . 

2. The house is tall, and is built. 

3. We are going to the grave. 

4. I saw him ; he was running down 


5. Listen , and you will be able to un- 
derstand the subject. 

6. Caesar started in pursuit; he overtook 

the enemy, led on the attack in person, and gained 

a complete victory. 

7. Time past returns ; improve the moments, 

therefore, as as you can. 

8. The horse trotted . John ate , 

9. The lion roars . The kitten plays . 

* Note to the pupil. When a question is repeated, and you have 
forgotten the answer, look back and find it, in order that you may 
give it in the precise words of the book. 


10. The rain began to fall , and they wero 


11. The poor dog was hurt. 

12. This room will hold twenty persons very . 

13. He gave the poor woman his purse. 

14. When are you going ? . (Insert an adverb as 

an answer.) 

15. Do you see him? Yes; he is 



What is the seventh part of speech called 1 

The Conjunction. 

W;hen I say, " Mary learns her lessoris," what is the expression 
called ? 

A sentence. 

What is a sentence 1 * 

Such an assemblage of words as makes complete 


Would " Mary to the fair," he a sentence 7 

No ; because it would not make complete sense. 

Make a complete sentence of it. 
" Mary has gone to the fair.'' 

In the sentence, " James got up early, andicent to market," how 
many parts are there, and wliat are they 1 

Two ; " James got up early'' is one, " went to mar- 
het " is the other. 

What are such parts of a sentence called 1 


What word comiects the twooJauses in the above sentence 1 




What does the word conjunction mean 1 

A connecting together. 

What, then, may and, and al such words as connect clauses, 
be called 1 


Do conjunctions ever connect any thing else besides clauses 1 

Yes ; conjunctions connect words also. 

Give me a sentence in which there is a conjunction connect- 
ing words. 

'•^ Mary turned and wept;" here the conjunction 
and connects the verbs turned and wept. 

Give me another, 

" George and Henry have gone to Boston f^ here 
the conjunction and connects the nouns George and 

Now tell me, what is a conjunction 1 

A Conjunction is a word used to connect othe^' 
words and clauses. 

Mention some of the principal conjunctions. 

And, because, if, that, or, nor, either, neither, 
but, lest, notwithstanding, therefore, though, unless, 
than, as. 

What is a sentence 1 

What is a clause 1 

What is a conjunction 1 


Where a dash occurs, insert a conjunction that 
will complete the sense. 

Example. He went to the ball, lie was ordered 

to remain. 

Completed. He went to the ball, although he was 
ordered to remain. 


1. Either you must go, I. John Mary 

are here. 

2. Neither the wagon. the carriage has arrived. 

3. We will not go a fishing, it rains. 

4. Hannibal took an oath he would conquer the 


5. He did not get a premium, he did not de- 
serve it. 

6. Mary has excellent parents, she is a bad girl. 

7. Do not buy the book you can get it for a 


8. I like to see a hard shower, I never walk out 

in one. 

9. My father mother are going to Boston to- 
morrow it be clear. 

10. Let those who stand, beware they fall. 

1 1. The happy often forget others are miserable. 

12. General Taylor defeated the Mexicans, his 

army was much smaller theirs. 

13. None will deny the hawk flies more swiftly 

the pigeon. 

14. you do your duty you will not be blamed. 

15. I saw my cousin I was turning the corner. 


What is the eighth part of speech called 1 

The Prepositio:^-. 

In the sentence, " William walked to Albany,^' what word 
shows the relation between William's walking and Albany ? 




How is this word to placed 1 
Before the noun Albany. 

What does the word preposition mean % 

A 2)lacing before. 

What then may we call to, and all similar words 1 


What is a Preposition '? 

A Preposition is a word placed before a nonn or 
pronoun, to show tlie relation between it, and some 
other word or words in the sentence. 

Mention the principal prepositions* 



















instead of 


according to 














out of, 











Wherever a dash occurs, insert a preposition that 
will complete the sense. 

Example. Nothing can be accomphshed an effort. 

Comjpleted. Nothing can be accomplished ivithcmt an 

1. In Greenland, the people live wretched huta 

* The pupil had better commit this list to memory. 


2. A steamboat runs Providence Now- 


3. the summer, the cattle love to lie shadj 


4. The camel has a hump his back. 

^- patience and perseverance jou may attain the 

highest station society. 

6. He gave the book me, and I placed it 

the table. 

7. You must do sums the rule. 

8. It is dark sunset. 

9. She lives Piermont, twenty-five miles — 

New- York. 

10. A large rock hangs the path. 

11. The sailor likes to get port. 

12. Always keep virtue and duty your eyes. 

13. I live my father. 

14. A farmer was bitten a snake, while he was 

standing the weeds. 

15. The ferry-boat will take us the river. 


What is the ninth and last part of speech 1 

The Interjection. 

In the sentence, ^' Alas! I am un(fom!" what word is thrown 
in to express the sorrow of the speaker 'I 


What does the word interjection mean 'I 
A throioing in. 


What, then, may alas ! and similar words be called 1 

What is an Interjection 1 

An Interjection is a word nsed to express some 
sudden feeling of the speaker. 

What are the principal feelings which are expressed by 
interjections 1 

Sorrow, triumph, disgust, wonder; there are 
also interjections of calling, of attention, of salu- 
ting, of taking leave. 

Mention the principal interjections of sorrow. 

Oh! ah! alas! alack! 

Mention those expressing triumph. 

Hurrah! huzza! bravo! aha! 

Mention those expressing disgust. 

Fy! fadge! pshaw! tush! away! begone I 

Mention those expressing wonder. 

Indeed ! strange ! what ! 

Mention those of calling. 

Hallo! ho! 

Mention those of attention. 

Behold! lo! hark! listen! see! hush! hist! 

Mention those of saluting. 

O! (0 is always used with a pronoun, or the 
name of an object addressed ; as, thou I James!) 
welcome! hail! 

Mention those of taking leave. 

Adieu! farewell! good b'yel 
What mark is that ( ! ) which you see placed after each of 
the above interjections 1 

An Exclamation Point. 

When you write an interjection, what must you place after it 1 

An exclamation point. 


In the exercise that follows, how will you know which of tha 
above interjections to insert in place of the dash 1 

I will read the whole sentence, and put in an 
interjection that is appropriate ; thus, if the sen- 
tence express sorrow^ I will insert an interjection 
of sorrow; if wonder^ I will insert*one of wonder^ kc. 

Where a dash occurs, insert a suitable interjec- 

ExAiviPLE. ! the victory is ours ! 

Completed. Hurrah I the victory is ours ! 
-1. ! I am surprised at this. 

2. My house is on fire ; ! I am undone. 

3. ! what strange figure is this that is ap- 
proaching ? 

4. ! my friend ; I am glad to see you. 

5. ! the cannon are booming : the battle has 


6. ! dishonest wretch : I despise thee ! 

7. 1 our friend has conquered. 

8. ! stranger ; will you tell a traveller where he is? 

9. ! no one can tell how much the poor suffer. 

10. ! is it thus you behave? 

I I 1 hope you may have a pleasant journey. ' 

12 ! what noise was that? 

13. ! poor fellow ! I am sorry for him. 

14. ! John, where are you going ? 

15. Who is that? ! he is descending the hill. 

16. ! is it really so ! impossible ! 

17. ! thou blessed sun, that spreadest gladness 

over the earth. 

S. ! I am at the head of my class. 




[The pupil has answered all the questions given below, as 
they occurred in the'i^ffeceding lessons ; but as he may have for- 
gotten some of them, he must look back for the answers, and 
learn them carefully.] 

What is a letter t 

What is a rowel l Name the vowels. 

Y/hat is a consonant '? Name the consonants. 

What two letters are sometimes vowels, and at other timea 
consonants 1 

When are they vowels, and when consonants 1 

What is a syllable 1 

What is a word 1 

How many parts of speech are there 7 Mention them. 

What is an article 1 Mention the articles. 

What is a noun '? Give an example. 

How many kinds of nouns are there 1 What is a proper noun 1 
What is a common noun 1 

What is a pronoun 1 Mention some of the principal pronouns. 

What is an adjective 1 Give an example. 

What is a verb 1 Give an example. 

What is an adverb 1 Give an example. Mention the diflferent 
kinds of adverbs, and give an example of each. 

What is the difference between adjectives and adverbs 1 

What is a sentence 1 

What are distinct members or parts of sentences called 1 

What is a conj mction 1 Mention some of the principal con^ 

What is a preposition 1 Mention some of the principal pre- 

What is an interjection 1 What are the principal classes of 
interjections 1 Mention one of each class. 


Miscellaneous Exercise. 

In this lesson and the next, the pupil, wherever a dash occurs, 
must insert whatever part of speech is required to complete the 
sense. Follow the spelling and punctuation of the book. 


Martins a kind of swallows. They feed — 

flies, , and other insects, and skim swiftly through 

air, in pursuit of their prey. In the morning 

are up by day-break, and twitter about your window, 
while are asleep bed. They are harm- 
less, and, as people do not molest them, they build 

their in towns villages. They are small birds, 

but a great deal. I will a couple of stories, 

illustrating their sagacity. 

A pair of martins, who their nest in porch, 

had some young ones ; and happened that one of 

them, in to climb the side, fell out, and strik- 
ing the stones, was killed. The old , 

seeing this accident, went and strong pieces of 

straw, and fastened them mud all around the , 

in order to keep the from meeting a similar . 

Here is another about them. While a maitin 

was absent from his nest, one day, a cock-sparrow 

took possession it ; when the owner and 

to enter, he put out bill, and commenced 

pecking at him. The martin, not pleased with this 

invasion of his , flew away, and a number of 

his companions. They all came s;he nest, with bits 

of clay in their , with which plastered up the 

to the nest ; so the sparrow, unable to 

food and air, died. 

■ 2* 



The Duke and the Gtalley-Slaves. 

The King of Spain once gave to Duke of 

Ossuna to release such of the galley-slaves as might 

think proper. The Duke, as he among the slaves 

who were at the oars, asked them in su<ecession of 

what crime they had g^il^J- They all protested 

innocence, and him that they had "been unjustly 

. One attributed his condemnation to the 

of an enemy, another to the of his judge. At last, 

however, he one who admitted that, to save his 

from starving, he had robbed a man of , on 

highway. The Duke, he heard this, gave 

him a stroke the back his hand, and said, 

" G-et you gone, you rogue, from the of honest men." 

So who confessed fault was released, while the 

, for their want of , were compelled to at 

their labors. 

Thus we see we are not likely to lose any thing 

by a admission of faults. 


The Subject. 

When I say, " C-arles walks,^^ who is it that I speak about "? 

In the sentence, " The oak has been cut down^^ what is it thai 
I speak about 1 


The oak 

What do we call Charles, nak. an 1 all words respecting which 
tn action or state is affirmed 1 


What is the subject of a. verb 1 

The subject of a verb is that respecting which 
the action expressed by the verb is affirmed. 

How may you always find the subject of a verb 1 
Put the word who or what before the verb, and 
the answer to the question will be the subject. 

Give me an example. In the sentence, ^^Jokn went lo market,''^ 
what is the subject 1 

Put loho before the verb, and the answer to the 
question will be the subject; thus, "TF/zo went to 
market?" Answer, Jchn. John^ therefore, is the 

In the sentence, ^'Virtue is a saurce of happiness," find the 
subject in the same manner as above. 

Put ivhat before the verb ; " What is a source of 
happiness?" Answer, Virtue. FiVi^we is the subject. 

In the same manner select the subjects in the following sen- 
tences : 

Bees make honey. Yirginia is a large state. 

Quarrels are unpleasant, Charles was late at school. 

The flute makes fine music. We are tired of walking. 

The machine was invented in England. You are wrong. 

Gratitude is a noble feeling. Science enlarges the mind. 

They are very sick. We were disappointed. 

In the last two sentences, what are the subjects 1 

They and tve. 

Wh&t part of speech are they and we 7 


May pronouns, then, be subjects of a verb 1 

They may. 


In the sentence, " To steal is base'' find the subject as above. 

Put lohat before tiie verb; " What is base?'* 
Answer, to steal. To steal is tlie subject. 

What part of speech is steal ? 

A verb, because it expresses action. 

When a verb has to before it, we say that it is in the infinitive 
viood ; may a verb in the infinitive mood, then, be the subject ol 
another verb 7 

It may. 

What mood is a verb in, when it has to before it 1 

A verb is in the infinitive mood when it has to 
before it. 

How may we know when a verb is in the infinitive mood "? 

By seeing whether it has to before it. 

Is to flay in the infinitive mood 1 to jump 7 to walk 7 Mention 
six more verbs in the infinitive mood. 

May a verb in the infinitive mood be the subject of another 
verb 7 

It may. 

Give me several examples, and mention the subject. 

To lie is dishonorable : here, to lie is the subject. 
To travel is pleasant: to travel is the subject. 

Make three short sentences of your own, like the above, in 
which a verb in the infinitive mood will be the subject of another 
verb, and mention the subject in each sentence. 

In the sentence, " Wliether we shall go to Boston is uncertain," 
find the subject in the manner described above. 

Put ivhat before the verb : " What is uncertain?" 
Answer, whether we shall go to Boston. These wor(?s, 
therefore, ivhether we shall go to Boston^ are the sub- 

These words form part of a sentence ; may, then, part of a 
Bentence be the subject of a verb 7 
It may. 
Find, as above, the subjects in the following sentences. 

THE SUB^ECl*. 87 

1. To fall from the top of a cliurch-steeple, is certain 

2. For a weak nation to provoke a strong one, is bad 

3. That even the best men commit sin, is proved by 
daily experience. 

Now, let us see, what have we found that a verb may have 
for its subject 7 

A verb may have for its subject, 

I. A noun ; as, John ivalks ; 
II. A pronoun ; as, they are gone ; 
III. A verb in the infinitive mood; as, to dig is 
hard worlc. 

lY. Part of a sentence ; as, doing one's duty se- 
cures happiness. 
Select the subject in each of the sentences just given as examples. 


Select and write out the subject in each of the 
following sentences ; if you are in any doubt, put 
who or ivhat before the verb, as directed above. 

Example. Working in quicksilver mines is very in 
jurious to the health. 

Subject. Working in quicksilver mines. 

1. We should improve our time. 

2. Digging potatoes is hard work. 

3. To reveal a friend's secrets is dishonorable. 

4. Cicero was a celebrated orator. 

5. Wealth does not always procure esteem. 

6. Temperance and exercise preserve health. 

7. Time and tide wait for no man. 

8. For an ignorant person lo profess to teach phi 
losophy, only exposes him to ridicule. 


9. Whether it will rain is uncertain. 

10. John and I will start in the morning. 

11. Where are the women going? 

12 To be wise in his own eyes, is the mark of a fool. 



Where a dash occurs, insert a subject; either a 
noun, a pronoun, a verb in the infinitive mood, or 
part of a sentence, as may be required to complete 
the sense. 

Example. and lead to wealth. 

Completed. Industry and frugality lead to wealth. 

1. and gnaw holes in the floor. 

2. , , and , are used for drawing loads, 

3. * is dishonorable. 

4. — — am going to school. 

5. is a useful study. 

6. Has the arrived ? 

7. attends carefully to his lessons. 

8. Have written your exercise % 

9. and are made from milk. 

10. * is a proof of dishonesty. 

1 1. * is the practice of a bad boy. 

12. * is unpleasant work. 

13. * is the business of the baker. 

14. marched by with a fine band of music. 

* Here tlie pupil must insert a verb in the infinitive mode 
or part of a sentence. 




In the sentence, " Charles killed a flij,''^ what word expresses 
the object that receives the action expressed by the verb 1 
Tlie word^^. 
What do we c&Wfi.y, in this sentence 1 

Fly is the object of tlie verb hilled. 

In the sentence, " Children love milky^ what is the object of 
the verb love 7 


What is the object of a verb ? 

The object of a verb is that which receives the 
action expressed by the verb. 

What is the object in each of the following sentences % 

Bees make honey. Birds build nests. 

Mary kindled the fire. I have broken my knife. 

My mother loves me. John's father scolded him. 

In the last two sentences what are the objects 1 

Me and Mm. 

What part of sp?ech are me and him 7 


May a pronoun, then, be the object of a verb '\ 

It may. 

In the sentence, ^^ John sleeps,^^ is there any object 1 

There is not. 

Does the verb sleep admit an object after it 1 

It does not. 

Into how many classes, then, may verbs be divided 1 

Into tvv^o classes ; 

I. Transitive verbs, or verbs that express an 
act that may be done to an object. 


II. Intransitive verbs, or verbs tiiat do nol 
express an act tliat may be done to an object. 

Are verbs that express simply a state of being, transitive or 
intransitive 1 

Yerbs that express a state of being are intransi- 


Because tbey do not express any action at aU. 

Is strike transitive or intransitive, and why 1 

Strike is a transitive verb, because it admits an 
object after it. Thus we may say, "I strike a 
man ;" in tbis sentence, man would be tbe object, 
and hence we find that strike is transitive. 

Is live a transitive or intransitive verb 1 

Live is an intransitive verb, because it expresses 
simply a state of being, and does not admit an ob- 
ject after it. 

Is sleep transitive or intransitive % jump 7 hurt 7 eat 7 dream 7 
love7 see 7 be 7 walk 7 run 7 

May any other part of speech besides a verb, have an object 1 

Yes ; a preposition may have an object. 

In the sentence, " John is lying on the grass" what is the ob- 
ject of the preposition on7 


Make three short sentences similar to the one last given, in 
which tliere will be a preposition and its object. 

How may you always find the object of a verb, or preposition 1 

By putting icJiat or ivhom after it ; the answer to 
the question will be the object. 

Give me an example. Tell me the object of the verb and 
preposition in this sentence, " The butcher killed a pig with a 

. Put tvJiat after the verb — '' The butcher killed 
wlxatT^ Answer, a pig ; pig is the object of th^ 


verb hilled. Put what after the preposition — " With 
ivhatV Answer, o. hnife ; knife \s \hQ oh^QoX of. i\iQ 
preposition luith, 


Complete the following sentences by inserting 
an object, where a dash occurs ; either a noun or 
pronoun, as the sense may require. 

1. In Egypt the Nile overflows the , and renders 

the fertile. 

2. Boys can buy with their money. 

3. I have found in the street a and a — — . 

4. A man by honesty and . will alwa^-s gain the 

— of his companions. 

5. Henry's father bought him a for a Christ- 
mas . 

6. When danger is nigh, a hen gathers her under 

her . 

7. The fisherman is preparing to go to in a . 

8. In building houses, they use , , and . 

9. The mice have gnawed in this old . 

10. The American Indians are very skilful with the 

bow and arrow ; they can hit a very small at a 

great . With these weapons they often kill , 

, and other wild . * 

11. With your spare purchase books; read , 

profit by , and take good care of . 

12. My brother loves me, and I love 

13. After we die, the grave will contain ; but 

our friends will remember , and shed on ac- 
count of our departure. 

14. Birds gather for their young, and teach — — . 

how to fiy. 


15. The milk of the cov/ furnishes us and 

16. In church we see many , but should listen to 

the . 



What is a pronoun 1 (See Lesson IV,, if you forget.) 
How many different classes of pronouns are there, and what 
are their names '? 

There are four classes of pronouns — Personal, 
Relative, Interrogative, and Adjective. 

In the sentence, '■' I am tired," for what does the pronoun 1 
stand % 

For the name of tlie person speaking. 

What kind of a pronoun is /? 

A personal pronoun. 

What is a personal pronoun 1 

A personal pronoun is a word, wMcli, being used 
in a sentence without the noun for which it stands, 
merely represents it, without introducing any addi- 
tional idea respecting it. 

Mention the personal pronouns. 

The personal pronouns are as follows: I^ my^ 
mine, me, we.' our ^ ours, us^ thou^ ihy^ thine^ thee, you^ 
your, yours^ he, his, him^ she^ her^ hers, it, its, they, 
their^ theirs^ them. 

In the sentence, " The Romans, who were victorious, lost only 

* Note. No allusion is made in this lesson to the Reflexive 
Pronouns, myself, thyself, &c., the Compound Relative what, or 
the Indefinite Relatives, whoever, lohichever, &c., because a 
knowledge of them does not seem to be essential to the subject, 
and because the author feared that a consideration of these sub- 
divisions might embarrass the pupil. 


fifty ftien^'' to what word does the pronoun v^ho relate ; or, in 
other words, who are said to have been victorious "? 


Then, since the pronoun who relates to JRomans, what kind of 
a pronoun shall we call it 1 - ^ 

A relative pronoun. 

What is a relative pronoun 1 

A relative pronoun is a word that relates to a 
noun or pronoun before it. 

What is this noun or pronoun going before, to which the rela- 
tive relates, called 1 

The antecedent. 

In the sentence, " The boy vjho is idle wUl be wihappy,^^ what 
is the relative, and what its antecedent 1 

Who is the relative, and hoi/ is its antecedent. 

Mention the relative pronouns. 

The relative pronouns are ivhoj ivhose, mhom, 
whichj that. 

Is who always a relative pronoun 1 

'No ; sometimes it does not relate to an antece- 
dent, but is used to ask a question^ as, " ¥/'ho is 
there r 

What kind of a pronoun, is it then called 1 

An interrogative pronoun. 

What is an interrogative pronoun 1 

An interrogative pronoun is one that is used to 
ask a question. 

Mention the interrogative pronouns. 

The interrogative pronouns are who, whose. 

whom, which, and luhaf. 

What mark always follows a sentence that contains an inter- 
rogative pronoun 

The Interrogation Point ( ? ), which ought to be 
placed after every question. 


How, then, can you tell when who is a relative pronoun, and 
when an interrogative 1 

By looking at tlie end of the sentence ; if the 
interrogation point is there, it is for the most part 
an interrogative pronoun ; if not, it is a relative. 

What are adjective pronouns 1 

Adjective Pronouns are words that are some- 
times used instead of nonns, but are more fre- 
quently followed by their nouns, which they limit. 
or qualify, after the manner of adjectives. 

Give me one or two sentences containing "adjective pronouns. 

''Hand me that book." "I have some apples." 
" Have you any paper?" That, some, and any are 
adjective pronouns. 

Mention some of the principal adjective pronouns. 

IMs, that, these, those, some, no, none, any, all, each, 
every, either, neither. * 

How can you tell adjective pronouns 1 

By their being followed by a noun ; as, these 
pens, some money, each breath, either side. 


Make lists of the personal, relative, interroga- 
tive, and adjective pronouns, in order, as they 
occur in the following sentences. The pupil will 
do well to make his lists according to the following 

Example. Jane, I told you to hand nie that "book 
which is lying on the table, but you have not done it, 
What is the reason ? 

Lists. Personal. Relative. Interrogative. Adjective 

I, you, me, ) Which. What. That, 

you, it, ^ 


1. You say, that* I am charged with a great crime. 
Who are my accusers ? Let them stand forth, that I 
may see the authors of this base slander. 

2. If every man would do his duty, none would have 
any cause for complaint. 

3. Can we stand patiently by, and see our property torn 
from us ? No ; each generous emotion of our Hearts for- 
bids it. Let this tyrant tremble, and all his satellites 
beware ! 

4. The men whom I saw had each a musket. 

5. "Wherever she went, every one seemed disposed to 
do her honor. 

6. Look on this picture and on that. 


What is a Relative Pronoun 1 

A Eelative Pronoun is one tliat relates to a noun 
or pronoun going before, called the antecedent. 

What is the antecedent 1 

The antecedent is a noun or pronoun before the 
relative to which it relates. 

* Note. The word that is sometimes a conjunction, sometimes a 
relative, and at other times an adjective pronoun ; the pupil must 
decide which it is by the relation that it bears to ether words in 
the sentence. In this sentence, that is not a relative, for it does 
not relate to any antecedent; it is not an adjectiA^e pronoun, for 
it is not joined to, or used for, any noun; but it is a conjunction, 
for it connects clauses. 


In the sentence, " He that does right will be rewarded" -what 
is the relative and what the antecedent 1 

That is the relative, and he is tlie antecedent. 

What service does the relative perform in a sentence '? 

The relative is used to introduce a clause for the 
purpose of limiting, explaining, or adding some- 
thing farther to what is being said. 

What is a clause thus introduced by a relative, called % 

A Eelative Clause. 

What is the relative clause in the sentence, " He that does 
right, will be rewarded ?" 

That does right is the relative clause, because it 
is introduced by the relative that. 

Select the relative, the antecedent, and the relative clause, in 
the following sentences. 

1. The -friends that we gain in childhood, often forget 
us in old age. 

2. The wind, which had been shifting all day from 
point to point, now began to blow steadily from the south. 

3. Those who are the most industrious are the most 

4. James, whose work was the best, received the pre- 

5. I have seen the man that lives in the cave. 


The sentences given in this exercise contain a 
relative and its antecedent; the pupil must com- 
plete them by inserting the relative clause, v^here 
the dash occurs. Before attempting to insert the 
clause, read the whole sentence, and then think 
of something that will be appropriate. 

Example. The study that is History. 


Completed. The study that Hike best is History. 

Or, The study that I dislike most is History. 

Or, The study that I find most difficult 13 History. 
Each sentence may be completed in a variety of ways. 

1. I have broken my watch, which . 

2. The tree that , was blown down last night. 

3 My father, who , has got well. 

4. Those who will be happy in this world, and 

Btill happier in the next 

5. Horses are very useful to those who . 

6. In every school there are boys who . 

7. Thomas found the knife which . 

8. There is a boy whose . 

9. Mary is the most diligent girl that 

10. The good boy will apply himself vigorously to the 
lessons which . 

11. The carriage which has been mended. 

12. Columbus was the first man that — -^. 

f* 13. The butterflies which , will all perish in 


14. The dog that has run away. 



In the sentence, '^ I saw John feeding Ms chickens," what word 
implies action, and at the same time qualifies John? 


Which part of speech implies action, and which qualifies 
nouns 1 

The verb implies action, and tlie adjective quali- 
fies nouns. 


The vjoxdi feeding, then, partakes of the nature of what two 
parts of speech '? 

The verb and tlie adjective. 

What name is given to feeding, and similar words'? 


What is a participle 1 

A participle is a word tliat describes a noun or 
pronoun, by assigning to it a certain action or state. 

Does the participle form a distinct part of speech 1 

No ; participles are now classed as parts of verbs. 

How many participles has every transitive verb 1 


Mention the five participles of the verb love . 
Loving^ lovedj having hved, being loved, Imving 
been loved. 

How many participles has every intransitive verb 1 


Mention the two participles of the intransitive verb walk. 
Walking f having walked. 

Give me two or three sentences containing participles, and 
hfiQci the participle in each. 

James, while loalking by the shore, saw a 
Urge bass attacked by a shark. 

Having been deceived once, I never trusted him 

He died, loved and respected by all that knew him. 

In the last sentence, what clause is introduced by the parti- 
ciples, loved and respected ? 

" Loved and respected hy all that knew himJ^ 

What is a clause introduced by, or containing, a participle, 
called 1 

A Participial Clause. 

Select the participial clause in each of the three sentences 
given above. 

exercise on participles. 49 



Complete tlie following sentences by inserting a 
participle in place of the dasli. 

Example. The day fair, we started on our 


Completed. The day being fair, we started on our 

1. Moses, his lessons, recited them well. 

2. We saw a boy in the river. 

3. Dinner , the party sat down. 

4. The carriage having been broken, Robert has taken 
it to the blacksmith's, to get it . 

5. My dog sick, I could not go a hunting. 

6. I have just seen a man killed by from the top 

of a house. 

7. My friend, while out on horseback, was thrown 

and seriously injured. 

8. I saw the American flag from the City Hall. 

9. You may often see bad boys in the street. 

10. Our house , we are about to move into it. 

1 1. The merchant spends his time in and — 


12. Gas is useful for streets and houses. 

13. Oxen are used for wagons, 

14. Ships, while on the ocean, often encounter 

violent storms. 

15. The weather is cold, and we must have a fire . 

16. From this eminence my eyes upon the vast 

plain that lay before me, I saw a herd of buffaloes 

amid the long prairie-grass, and a group of wild 

horses away in the far distance. 

, 1 7. He was a bad man, and died, and by 

all that knew &im. 




[For the answers to the following questions, see Lessons XV., 
XYU., XVin., XIX., and XX.] 

What is the subject of a verb? 

How may yon find the subject of a verb 1 

What may a verb have for its subject ? 

What is the object of a verb 1 

What are transitive verbs 1 What are intransitive verbs 1 m. 

What other part of speech, besides transitive verbs, may have 
an object 1 

How may you find the object of a verb or preposition 1 

What is a pronoun 1 

Name the four classes of pronouns. 

What is a personal pronoun 1 Mention the personal pronouns. 

What is a relative pronoun 1 Mention the relative pronouns. 

What is an interrogative pronoun "? Mention the interroga- 
tive pronouns. ^ 

What is an adjective pronoun 1 Mention some of the principal 
adjective pronouns. 

What is a relative clause 1 

What is the antecedent of a relative pronoun 1 

What is a participle 1 

How many participles has a transitive verb 1 an intransitive 
verb 1 

Mention the participles of the verb ask. Mention those of the 
verb dream. 

What is a participial clause 1 


Where the dash occurs, put in one or more words, 
as may be required to complete the sense. 

The Tame Bear. 
Hans Christian Andersen, the German writer, tells 
us the following -^^- story of a tame bear, which broke 


loose while .'tlie man exhibiting him was din- 
ner. He made his way to public house, , and 

went straight. where there were three children, the 

eldest whom was no more than six or eight 

old. '• The door sprang open, and in walked . The 

children were much frightened , and crept cor- 
ners. The bear followed , and rubbed them with 

nose, but he did not . When the children 

, they thought it was a big dog, and they patted, 

5 and . The eldest boy now his drum, 

and began to loud noise. No sooner did the bear 

, than he raised himself on and began to dance. 

This was charming. 

The boys had been playing at soldiers before , 

and now each his gun and . They gave the 

bear a gun, too, and he like a regular militia-man. 

Then they marched ; what a fine comrade ! 

Presently, however, the door again. It was the 

children's mother. You should have seen her ; her face 

was white as , and she trembled with fear when she 

. Then the Smallest ran up to her, and 

shouted, ' Mamma, mamma, we have had such , play- 
ing soldier !' " 


What is a sentence 1 

A sentence is sncli an assemblage of words as 
makes complete sense. 

How many kinds of sentences are there, and what are they 1 


Four kinds; declarative, imperative, interroga- 
tive, and exclamatorj. 

What is a declarative sentence 1 

A declarative sentence is one in wHcli some- 
thing is declared ; as, ''It rains." 

What is an imperative sentence 1 

An imperative sentence is one in which permis- 
sion is given, or a command, an exhortation, or an 
entreaty littered ; as, "Let it rain." 

What is an interrogative sentence % 

An interrogative sentence is one in which a 
question is asked ; as, " Does it rain ?" 

What is an exclamatory sentence 1 

An exclamatory sentence is one that contains an 
exclamation ; as, " How it rains !" 

Make two declarative sentences ; two imperative ; two in- 
terrogative ; two exclamatory. 

What is a phrase 1* 

A phrase is a combination of words which sepa- 
rately have no connection, either in construction or 
sense, with other words in the sentence, but which, 
when taken together, convey a single idea, and may 
be construed as a single word. Thus; ."James, in 
short, has become a hermit," — ^in this sentence, in 
short is a phrase. 

What is a clause 1 

A clause is a combination of words which sepa- 
rately may or may not be connected in construction 

* Note to the teacher. — It seems impossible to define the terms 
phrase and clause without employing a great many words. The 
teacher must exercise his discretion as to whether these defini- 
tions shall be committed to memory, or not. The pupil must, 
however, understand them perfectly, so as to be able to select 
phrases and clauses as they occur in sentences. 


with other words in the sentence : if so connected, 
thej assert some additional circumstance respecting 
the leading proposition; as, "James, wlio had been 
on the watch^ espied a sail :" if not so connected, 
they assert an entirely independent proposition; 
as, Stephen sailed for Florida, but he ivas lorecJced 
on the voyage. In these sentences the words in 
italics are clauses. 

What is a relative clause 1 

A clause containing a relative pronoun; as, 
"James, for whom I felt so much anxiety ^ has arrived." 

What is a participial clause 1 

A clause containing a participle ; as, " The rest 
of the company having arrived, we went to dinner." 

What is an adverbial clause 1 

A clause that performs the office of an adverb, 
and generally expresses time, place, or manner ; as, 
"^ thousand years hence, all these things will have 
passed away." 

What is a vocative clause 1 

A clause containing the name of an object ad- 
dressed, with its adjuncts ; as, " My dear friend, I 
hope to meet you soon." 

When is one noun said to be in apposition with another 1 
When it refers to the same object, and is in the 
same construction ; as, " Paul, the Apostle" — Apos- 
tle is in apposition with Paul. 

May more than one of the clauses enumerated above, occur in 
the same sentence "? 
They may. 
Does every sentence contain one of these clauses T 

~ No ; there are some simple sentences that do not 


contain any of these clauses; as, ''I love my 

Oral Exercise. 

Tell to what class each of the following senten 
ces belongs. When a clause occurs, tell what kind 
of a clause it is. 

1. Oil ! for a lodge in gome vast wilderness I 

2. There are men in the world, who are dead to evsiry 
generous impulse. 

3. Have you heard the news that has just been re- 
ceived by the steamer ? 

4. Rising from his seat, the monarch gazed around ; 
and, darting a look of scorn on his humbled courtiers, 
bade them leave his presence till they should become 
honest men. 

5. My son, do you indulge in anger? 

6. Romeo, Romeo ! wherefore art thou Romeo ? 

7. Who ever hears of fat men heading a riot, or herd- 
ing together in turbulent mobs ? 

8. It is chiefly through books that we enjoy inter- 
course with superior minds. 

9. The ship being now under sail, the shore began to 
recede rapidly from our sight. 

1 0. Lord Hastings, who had borne himself most bravely 
throughout the whole battle, escaped with a slight wound. 

11. James, whom I sent to the river an hour ago, has 
not yet returned. 

12. What' an accident ! Did you ever witness a scene 
like this? 

13. Where Freedom rears her banner, a new empire 
has arisen. 





What is Punctuation 1 

PunctTiation is the art of dividing written lan- 
guage by points, in order that the meaning may be 
readily understood. 

What are the characters used in Punctuation 1 
Period, • Semicolon, ^ 

Interrogation, * Comma, , 

Exclamation, I Dash, — 

Colon, : Parentheses, ( ) 

Brackets, [ ] 

Learn these characters perfectly, so that you can make them 
on the black-board. Turn to the oral exercise at the end of the 
last lesson, and mention the names of the points as they occur. 

Where should the period be used 1 

A period should be placed after every declara- 
tive and imperative sentence; as, ^^ The child w 
asleep^ The period is also used to denote an ab- 
breviation ; thus, when we write Dr for Doctor^ or 
Geo for George, we must use a period — Dr., Geo. , 

Where should the interrogation point be used 1 

An interrogation point should be placed after 
every interrogative sentence; as, '''Have you been 
to Ohior 


Where should the exclamation point be used 1 

An exclamation point should be placed after 
every exclamatory sentence, and after every inter- 
jection except ; as, " Alas / woe is me /" 


Write the following sentences, and insert periods, 
interrogation points, and exclamation points, in 
their proper places. 

Example. Alas true friendship has departed from 

Punctuated. Alas ! true friendship has departed from 

1. Hark the bee winds her small but mellow horn 

2. What art thou doing Is revenge so sweet 

3. Ha at the gates what grisly forms appear 

4. Farewell ye gilded follies welcome ye silent groves 

5. What would I have you do 111 tell you, kinsman 
learn to be wise. 

6. Canst thou not sing Send forth a hymn of praise 

7. No more I'll hear no more Begone 

8. How dead the vegetable kingdom lies 

9. The village dogs bark at the early pilgrim 

10. Can you recall timef that is gone Why then do 
you not improve the passing moments 

11. A brave man knows no fear 

12. Both stars and sun will fade away but can the 
soul of man die 

13. Oh horrible thought Ah woe is me. 

14. Dr Johnson was a learned man 

15. New Holland contains many dngular species of 




Make a colon on the black-board. 
Where should the colon be placed 1 

The colon should be placed between clauses that 
have very little connection ; and after the words, 
thuSj following^ or as follows^ when reference is made 
by them to something coming after ; as, " The Squire 
next ascended the piatform, and spoke as follows : 
' Gentlemen and ladies,' " &c. 

Make a semicolon on the black-board. 
For what is the semicolon used 1 

The semicolon is used to separate long clauses, 
and such as are not very closely connected ; as, " I 
perceive the difference ; it is very obvious." 

Special Kules. 

Hule I. When several long clauses follow 
each other, all having common dependence on 
some other clause, they are separated by semico- 
lons ; as, ''I love to wander through the fields ; to 
see the vegetable world spring into life ; to gaze 
upon the beauties which Grod has so lavishly dif- 
fused ; and through the creature to commune with 
the Creator." 

Huh 11, When examples are introduced by 
the word as, a semicolon is placed before as ; for 
an example, see the preceding rule. 

Write the following sentences, and insert periods, 


interrogation points, exclamation points, colons, 
and semicolons, where they are required. 

Example. He has arrived, he sounds his bugle at 
the gates . Shall we admit him. 

J?unctuated. He has arrived ; he sounds his bugle 
at the gates. Shall we admit him ? 

1. The warrior spoke as follows," man heavy with 
wine why dost thou thus keep prattling " 

2. Do not insult a poor man his misery entitles him 
to pity 

3. Some books are to be read others are to be studied 
while many may be entirely neglected with positive ad- 
vantage * *" 

4. His last words were as follows ' " Farewell, may 
Heaven prosper thee in thy perilous enterprise*" 

5. If the sacred writers will take up their abode under 
my roof if Milton will cross my threshold, to sing to me 
of Paradise if Shakspeare will open to me the fields of 
imagination I shall not pine for want of company 

6. Beauty is an all-pervading presence It unfolds 
in the flowers of spring it waves in the branches of the 
trees it haunts the depths of the earth and sea 

7. Glentle reader, have you ever sailed on the spark- 
ling waters of the Mississippi 



Make a comma on the black-board. 
For what is the comma used 1 

The comma is used to separate short clauses, or 
such as are closely connected, but, in consequence 

COMMA. 59 

of the construction or arrangement, must be sepa 
rated by some point. 

Special Rules. What is the rule for placing the comma be- 
fore and after clauses and phrases 1 

Rule I. When a clause or phrase is introduced 
into a sentence without a conjunction, particularly 
if an inversion occurs, so that it does not occupy its 
natural position, a comma should be placed before 
and after it ; or, if such clause stands at the com- 
mencement of a sentence, a comma should be placed 
after it. 

The principal clauses and phrases that fall under this 
rule are as follows : 

I. A relative clause ; as, " Ellen, who was up early, 
finished her lessons." But if the relative clause restricts 
the antecedent, or the connection between the two is very 
close, there is no comma before the relative ; as, " Those 
who are good, are happy." 

II. A participial clause when it does not qualify the 
object of a verb ; as, " The Captain, seeing his danger, 
avoided it." 

III. An adverbial clause ; as, " By the time we 
reached shelter, we were completely wet." 

IV. A vocative clause; as, " Here I am, my beloved son." 
Y. The phrases, in shorty in truth^ on the contrary^ 

&c. ; also, the words, besides^ moreover^ namely^ nay^ 
•firstly^ secondly^ &c. The conjunctions also and however^ 
which should not commence a sentence, have a comma 
before and after them ; as, " Your cousin, in short, has 
become a lovely woman." " James, however, is here." 
What is the rule that relates to the subject of a verb % 

Ruh IL "When the subject of a verb consists of 


a number of words, a comma should be placed aftei 
it; as, ''Close and undivided attention to any ob- 
ject, insures success." 

What is the rule that relates to the omission of words 1 
Bitle III. When, to avoid repetition, a verb, or a 
conjunction that connects words of the same part 
of speech, is omitted^ a comma should be put in its 
place to denote the omission; as, "Conversation 
makes a ready man ; writing, an exact man." In 
the last clause the verb makes is omitted, and a 
comma is put in its place. " Solomon was a wise, 
prudent, and powerful monarch." The conjunc- 
tion and is omitted between wise 2in.di prudent^ and 
a comma is put in its place. 

What is the rule that relates to certain conjunctions 1 

Rule IV. A comma should be placed before and^ 
or J if, hutj and tJiatj when they connect short clauses ; 
and before andj or^ and nor, when they connect the 
last two of a series of words that are of the same 
part of speech ; as, " You must come with me, or 
I will go with you." " Neither Ellen, Sarah, nor 
Jane was there." 

What is the rule that relates to nouns in apposition 1 
Rule V. "When a clause of more than two words 
occurs, containing a noun in apposition with some 
preceding noun, a comma should be placed before 
and after the clause; as, "Columbus, the discoverer 
of America, was born in Genoa." 

What is the rule that relates to words used in pairs 1 

Ruk VI. Words used in pairs take a comma after 
each pair ; as, " Poverty and distress, desolation 
and ruin, are the consequences of civil war." 

COMMA. 61 


Copy tlie following sentences, and insert commas 
kn tlie proper places. The rule under which the 
examples are given, will direct you ; refer to it, if 
you do not remember it. 

Examples under 'Rule I. The Romans who conquer- 
ed the world could not conquer themselves. Those who 
fled were killed. Philip whose wife you have seen has 
gone to Albany. We saw a man walking on the rails. 
A man while imprudently walking on the rails was run 
over by the cars. Where we stood we could not hear a word. 
Wait a moment my friend. Vice is alluring, and has 
many votaries ; virtue on the contrary has but few. 

Under Rule II. That this man has basely deceived 
those who have trusted him cannot be doubted. A long 
life of good works and sincere repentance can hardly 
atone for such misdeeds. The author of these profound 
and learned philosophical essays was a poor blacksmith. 

Under Rule III Diligence is the mother of success; 
laziness of failure. The wife was a tall lean cadaverous 
personage ; the husband was a fine good-looking sturdy 
fellow. Men women and children stare cry out and run. 

Under Rule IV. No one will respect you if you are 
dishonest. Stephen saw his cousin coming and ran to 
meet her. My horse is not handsome but he trots well- 
He will be here on Wednesday Thursday or Friday. 
Be virtuous that you may be esteemed by your compa- 

Under Rule V. Bunyan the author of '• The Pilgrim's 
Progress" was a tinker. Paul the Apostle of the Gen- 
tiles wroto many epistles. I have been in Ireland ill 


fated country. Cicero the orator is one of the most 
distinguished of the ancient Romans. 

Under Rule VI. Industry and virtue idleness and 
vice go hand in hand. Summer and winter seed-time 
and harvest are the gifts of an all- wise Providence. 
Painting and sculpture poetry and music will always 
have enthusiastic admirers. 


CcPY the following extract, inserting the punc- 
tuation points that have been described. 

The Swan. 

Swans in a wild state are found in the eastern part 
of Europe but they are most abundant in Siberia and 
the countries that surround the Caspian Sea Under 
ordinary circumstances . they are perfectly harmless but 
when driven to act on the defensive have proved them- 
selves formidable enemies. They have great strength in 
their wings an old swan using these as his weapons has been 
known to break a man's leg with a single stroke When 
their young are in danger they do not hesitate to engage 
with large animals and not unfrequently come off victo- 
rious from the struggle A female swan was once seen 
to attack and drown a fox which was swimming towards 
her nest for the purpose of feeding upon her young 

When sailing on the water which is its favorite ele- 
ment the swan is a beautiful bird and its motions are 
graceful T^hen seen on land however it presents a very 
different appearance its gait being awkward and all its 
movements exceedingly clumsy 

It has been said by some authors that the swan which 


during its life never sings a note sends forth when it is 
dying a most beautiful strain This is no doubt a mere 
fable at all events we have not sufficient evidence to 
establish it as a fact 

Swans were formerly held in such esteem in England 
that by an act of Edward IV no one but the king's son 
was permitted to keep a swan unless he had an income 
of five marks a year By a subsequent act those who 
took their eggs were punished by imprisonment for a 
year and a day and fined according to the king's plea- 
sure At the present day swans are little valued for the 
delicacy of their flesh though many are still preserved 
for their beauty 



Make a dash. 

For what is the dash used 1 

The dash is used, 

I. To denote that a sentence is unfinished ; as, 
" I cannot believe that he ." 

II. To denote a sudden transition either in the 
form of a sentence, or in the sentiment expressed ; 
as, "It was a sight — ^that child in the agony of 
death — that would have moved a heart of stone." 

" He had no malice in his mind — 
No rufSes on his shirt." 
Make parentheses. Make brackets. 
For what are parentheses and brackets used 1 

Parentheses and brackets are used to inclose 
words and clauses, that are not connected in con- 


struction with, otlier words in the sentence, but are 
suggested by them, or explanatory of their mean- 
ing; as, 
" Know, then, this truth, (enough for man to know,) 

Virtue alone is happiness below." 
" The wisest men, (and it may be said the best too,) 
are not exempt from sin." 

Are parentheses and brackets much used by authors at the 
present day ? 

No ; commas are generally used instead of them. 

. Exercise. 
Copy and punctuate the following sentences. 


1. A crimson handkerchief adorned his head 
His face was cheerful and his nose was red 

2. Some and they were not a few knelt down 

3. His eyes how they twinkled his dimples how merry 

4. They poisoned my very soul hot burning poisons 

5. Away ungrateful wretch A father's curse rest 
Alas what am I doing I cannot curse my son 

6. The friend of our infancy has she gone forever 

7. Thou merry laughing sprite 
"With spirits feather light 

Untouched by sorrow and unsoiled by sin 
Good Heavens the child is swallowing a pin 

Thou imp of mirth and joy 
In love's dear chain so strong and bright a link 
Thou idol of thy parents drat the boy 

There goes my ink 



8. Let us then for we cannot flee without disgrace 
boldly meet the foe. 

9. Mr. Morton every old citizen knows him well died 
last week of apoplexy. 



Are any other marks used in writing besides those which 
have been described 1 
> Yes; 

Apostrophe, ' Hyphen, ■ 

Quotation Marks, " ?' Caret, a 

Make an apostrophe. For what is the apostrophe used 1 
The apostrophe is used, 

I. To denote the omission of one or more letters ; 
as, tho' for though ; ^neath for heneath. 

II. When 5 is placed after a noun, making it denote 
possession, an apostrophe is inserted before the s ; 
as, Johnus hook. But when the noun ends in 5, and 
signifies more than one, an apostrophe alone placed 
after it makes it denote possession ; as, " The ladies' 

Make quotation marks. For what are quotation marks used 1 
Quotation marks are used to inclose a passage 

quoted firom an author or speaker, in his own 

words; as, 

" To err is human ; to forgive, divine." 
Are single quotation marks (' ') ever used ? 

yes ; single quotation marks are used to inclose 


quotations that occur within quotations, or that 
are slightly altered from the words of the author 
or speaker ; as, " The Scripture saith, ' "Watch and 
pray.' " 

Make a hyphen. For what is the hyphen used 1 

The hyphen is used, 

I. To connect two simple words that unite to form 
^ compound word ; as, "A spirit-moving strain," 

II. At the end of a line, when there is not room 
for the whole of a word, the hyphen is placed after 
one of its syllables, to show that the remainder 
may be found at the beginning of the next 
line ;* as, " He strove man- 
fully." ^ 

Make a caret. For what is the caret used 1 
When some word that has been omitted is inter- 
lined, the caret is used to show where it should be 


introduced ; as, " Study this carefully." ^ 



Copy and punctuate the following sentences : 

Apostrophe. 1 11 neer forget your kindness. They sat 
neath a spreading willow. Tho Milton was blind yet 
was his mind well stored with knowledge. Hark tis the 
signal gun. Where is my fathers hat ? Zenos school 
was one of the most celebrated in Greece. Romes great- 

* "When the pupil, in writing, cannot get the whole of a woi'd 
in the line, and has to carry part of it to the next, he must be 
careful to divide it according to its syllables, and place the hy- 
phen after a complete syllable. 


ness has passed away I saw the citys gates. I saw the 
cities gates. Where is Janes fan ? 

Quotation marks. Pope says The proper study of 
mankind is man. When Socrates was asked what man 
approached the nearest to perfect happiness he answered 
That man who has the fewest wants. The philosopher 
hath truly said Anxiety is the poison of human life. 
The quality of mercy says Shakspeare is not strained. 
How much truth there is in Franklin's maxim One to- 
day is worth two to-morrows. 

HypJien. Away thou earth polluting miscreant ! He 
is a mischief maker. The laborer enjoys his well earned 
feast. The air is full of snow flakes. Where is your 
eye glass ? Near the shore was a grove of spice wood. 
The river glides on in its serpent like course. 

Caret. [In ea^h of the folloiving sentences^ 07ie or more. 
words are omitted. Introduce tJie omitted word or ivords 

%. i^ 

^y m^an^s of a caret; as, Dark the path.) 


Labor gives a relish pleasure. Hope, the balm life, 
Rothes under every misfortune. Charity is one of the 
- of virtues. Always show to the aged. Honor your fa- 
ther mother. Do not your time. 



Copy and punctuate tlie following extracts : 
1. Phocion. Phocion one of the most illustrious of 
the ancient Greeks was condemned to death by his un- 


grateful countrymen When about to drink tlie fatal 
hemlock he was asked if he had any thing to ^ay to hia 
son Bring him before me cried he My dear son said 
this magnanimous patriot I entreat you to serve your 
country as faithfully as I have done and to forget that she 
rewarded my services with an unjust death 

2. The -Sybarites. We have heard many stories of 
lazy people but what Athenseus tells us of the Sybarites 
a nation of antiquity exceeds them all. They would not 
allow any mechanical trade to be carried on in "their 
city because the noise was unpleasant and disturbed their 
slumbers for the same reason to keep a rooster was a 
grave offence punishable by law. A Sybarite on one 
occasion it is said wandering out into the country saw 
some men digging whereupon the sight gave him a vio- 
lent strain in the back while a friend to whom he de- 
scribed what he had seen caught a severe pain in the 
side. One of them having visited Lacedagmon was i: 
troduced to the public table where the principal dii 
was black broth. Ah cried he no longer do I wonder at 
the bravery of the Spartans for rather would I die than 
live on such wretched diet. 

3. The Foe-m of the Earth. Heraclitus supposed 
that the earth had the form of a canoe Aristotle that it 
was shaped like a timbrel while Anaximander proved to 
his own satisfaction that it was a vast cylinder It was 
reserved for a later age to discover its real shape 





Copy and punctuate tlie following extract. 

The Leprosy in Africa. Leprosy that awful dis- 
ease which covers the body with scales still exists in 
Africa Whether it is the same leprosy as that mention- 
ed in the Bible is not known but it is regarded as per- 
fectly incurable and so infectious that no one dares to 
come near the leper In the south of Africa there is a 
large lazar house for the victims of this terrible malady 
It consists of an immense space inclosed by a very high 
wall and containing fields which the lepers cultivate 
There is only one entrance and it is strictly guarded 
When any one is found with the marks of leprosy upon 
him he is brought to this gate and enters never to re- 
turn Within this abode of misery there are multitudes 
m lepers in all stages of the disease Dr Helbeck a 
missionary of the Church of England from the top of a 
neighboring hill saw them at work He noticed two par- 
ticularly sowing peas in the field The one had no 
hands ^the other no feet those members having been 
wasted away by the disease The one who wanted the 
hands was carrying the other who wanted the feet on his 
back and he again bore in his hands the bag of seed and 
dropped a pea every now and then whicb the other press- 
ed into the ground with his foot and so they managed 
the work of one man between the two 

Sucli is the prison house of disease Ah how little 
do we realize the misery that is in the world How un- 
thankful are we for the blessings which God bestows 
apon us while he denies them to others 



What usage formerly prevailed with regard to capital letters 1 

To begin every noun, both in writing and print- 
ing, with, a capital. This is still the practice in the 
Grerman language. 

What are the rules that are to guide us at the present day 1 

Begin with a caipital letter : 

1. The first word of every sentence. 

2. All proper nouns, and titles of office or honor; 
as, Rome^ Spam^ President Fillmore^ General Wash- 
ington^ Henry Street. 

3. Adjectives formed from proper nouns; as, 
Boman^ Spanish. 

4. Common nouns when spoken to, or spoken of, 
as persons ; as, " Come^ gentle SpringJ'' ^ 

5. The first word of every line of poetry. 

6. The appellations of the Deity, and personal 
pronouns standing for His name ; as, " God is the 
Lord ; He ruleth in His might.'''' 

7. The first word of a quotation that forms a 
complete sentence by itself, and is not introduced 
by that^ or other words which would connect it in 
construction with what precedes; as, '•'• Remember 
the old maxim: ' Honesty is the hest policy: " 

8. Every important word in the titles of books, 
or headings of chapters ; as, Lookers Essay- on the 
Human Understanding.^'' 

9. Words that are the leading subjects of dis- 


10. The pronoun Tj and the interjection 0, must 
be "written in capitals. 

Copy the following sentences, applying the rules 
given ahove, and observing that where there is no 
rule for using a capital you must substitute a small 

1 . Tinder Rule I. know Thyself, honesty .s the best 
policy, follow virtue. It Rains, envy is a DisLonor- 
able emotion, avoid the appearance of evil, improve 
every Moment. 

2. Tinder Rules II. and III Alexander the great 
overran syria, persia, lydia, and hyrcania, pushing his 
Conquests as far as the river indus. napoleon kept all 
euTope at bay, until the Fatal Field of Waterloo consigned 
him to St. helena. President adams received the con- 
gratulations of the french and Spanish ministers. 

3. Tinder Rule IV. Hail, winter, seated on thine 
icy Throne ! Fierce war has sounded his trumpet. And 
Called the peasant from the field, bland Goddess peace 
now smiles upon the plain, 'here I and sorrow sit. Grim 
darkness furls his leaden Shroud. . 

4. Tinder Rules V. and VI 

in every leaf that trembles to the breeze, 
• i hear the Yoice of god among the trees. 
Trust in the lord ; hath he Spoken, and shall he not do it? 
these, as they change, almighty father, these 
are but the varied god. 

5. Tinder Rule VII. This was our saviour's command : 
''watch and pray." Yirgil says, "labor conquers all 
things." " merry christmas," cried the delighted vil- 


6. TJnderRule VIII. milton's " paradise lost" brought 
him in only five Pounds. Have you read dickens' Ac- 
count of his visit to america, which he entitles " american 
notes for general circulation ?" I have read with delight 
hervey's "meditations among the tombs." 

7. Under Rule X. i love thee not as once i loved, o 
false friend, o cruel traitor. Heaven ! i am undone ! 
wretched youth ! i thought i hated thee ; but thy mis- 
fortune hath turned My Hate To Pity. 



What is a sentence 1 How many kinds of sentenees are there 7 
What is a declarative sentence 1 an imperative sentence 1 an in- 
terrogative sentence '? an exclamatory sentence 1 

What is a phrase '? What is a clause 7 What is a relative 
clause 1 a participial clause 1 an adverbial clause 1 a vocative 
clause 7 

When is one noun said to be in apposition with another 1 

What is punctuation 1 Name the characters used in punctua- 
tion. Where is the period placed 7 What is the period also 
used to denote 1 Where is the interrogation point used 1 the ex- 
clamation point '? Where should the colon be placed 1 What is 
the semicolon used to separate 1 Repeat the rule for the use of 
the semicolon between dependent clauses ; the rule that relates 
to examples. 

For what is the comma used 1 What is the rule that relates 
to the use of the comma in the case of clauses and phrases 1 
What are the four principal clauses that fall under this rule 1 
Mention some of the phrases that fall under it. What is the rule 
that relates to the subject of a verb 7 to the omission of words 1 
to certain conjunctions 1 to nouns in apposition 1 to words used 
In pairs 7 

miscellaneous exekcise. 7s 


Copy tlie following extracts, inserting as may be 
required, capital letters, punctuation-point?, and the 
other marks used in writiQg, described in Lesson 


1. The Bushman and the missionary, the bushmen 
are a very degraded and ignorant race who Uto in south- 
ern africa not far from the cape of good hope A mis- 
sionary "who for some time had been laboring to intro- 
duce Christianity among them took occasion one day to 
speak of the great objects of creation and the duties of 
man. at last he asked, what is the chief end of man 
The bushmen were silent for several moments apparently 
reflecting what answer they should give to this difficult 
question At length one of them who seemed inspired 
by a sudden idea replied, to steal oxen. 

2. The bravery of Iloratius codes, when porecnna 
king of the etrurians was endeavoring to reestablish tar- 
quinius superbus on the throne he attacked rome and 
had the good fortune to take the janiculum at the first 
assault At this crisis, horatius codes a common sentinel 
but a man of the greatest courage posted himself at the 
extremity of the Sublician bridge and alone withstood 
the whole force of the enemy till the bridge was broken 
down behind him. he then threw himself into the tiber 
and swam over to his friends unhurt by either Lis fall or 
the darts of the enemy 

3. by wisdom tutored poetry exalts 

her voice to ages and informs the page 
with music image sentiment and thought 




For what is the dash used 1 For what are parentheses and 
brackets used 1 For what is the apostrophe used "i quotation 
marks 1 the hyphen 1 the caret 1 

Repeat the ten rules for the use of capital letters. 


Copy the following extracts, inserting, as may 
be required, capitals, punctuation-points, and tlie 
other marks used in writing. 

Liars, aristides among the athenians and epami- 
nondas among the thebans are said to have been such 
lovers of truth that they never told a lie even in joke, 
atticus likewise with whom cicero was very intimate nei- 
ther told a lie himself nor could bear it in others, i hate 
that man achilles used to say as much as i do the gates 
of pluto who says one thing and thinks another. Aris- 
totle bears his testimony as follows liars are not believed 
even when they speak the truth. Sincerity is one of the 
most important virtues that man can possess. 

2. The Affectionate Dolphin, during the reign of 
the emperor augustus a dolphin formed an attachment to 
the son of a poor man who used to feed him with bits of 
bread, every day the dolphin when called by the boy 
swam to the surface of the water and after having re- 
ceived his usual meal carried the boy on his back from 
baige to a school in puteoli and brought him back in the 
same manner. The ])oy after a time died and the dol- 
phin coming to the usual place and missing his kind 
master is said also to have died of grief. 



What is a word 1 

A word is wliat is written or spoken as tlie sign 
of an idea. 

Into liow many classes may we divide words, when considered 
with regard to their origin 1 

Into three classes; primitive, componnd, and 

What is a primitive word 1 

A primitive word is one that is not formed jfrom 
any simpler word ; as, watch, man. 

What is a compound word 1 

A compound word is one that is formed by 
■uniting two or more primitives ; as, watchman. 

What is a derivative word 1 

A deriYative word is one that is formed from 
one primitive ; as, luatches, manly. 

How are derivatives formed from primitives '? 

By the addition of one or more syllables ; which, 
if placed before the primitiYe, are called prefixes ; 
if after it, suf&xes. Thus ; act is a primitiYe ; trans- 
act i?> 2^ derivative, formed by the addition of the 
prefix trans ; acted is a derivative, formed by the 
addition of the suf&x ed. 

What is meant by analyzing a word 1 

Separating it into parts. 

Analyze the word walJdng. 

Walking is a derivative, formed from the primi' 
tive, 2valkj and the sufl&x, ing. 


Analyze the word man-hater. 

Man-hater is a compound word, formed from the 
two primitives, man^ and hater. 

Analyze blindly, review, glass-house, moreover^ bird-cage, rep-ess. 

What mark is generally used to connect the primitives that 
unite to form a compoiind word 1 

The hyphen. 

What is meant by Accent 1 

By Accent is meant stress of the voice : thus, in 
colder^ the first syllable, cold^ receives the stress of 
the voice, and therefore we say that the accent is 
on cold. 

On how many syllables in a word may accent be laid '? 

In short words, on one syllable only ; as, raven, 
be^m, deny: in long words, on two, and even three 
syllables; as, a^icwZture, ConstantinoiplG, Incompre- 
hensibilitj. In the examples just given, the accent- 
ed syllables are printed in italics. 

In scholar, what syllable is accented 1 in dethrone 7 in misery 7 
in civilize 7 in inhabitant 7 in philosophy 7 


Primitive words. Kight, day, school, book, store, 
fruit, fire, man, boat, sun, flower, garden, ice, glass, 
green, house. 

.. Form and write out ten compound words, by uniting 
two of the above primitives. You are^ot at liberty to 
unite any two, but only such as form a compound word 
that makes good sense, or that you may have seen or 
heard used. Thus, nigh/rhook wouid no^ di. , out mgnr, 
school would oonvcT a detiiiite idea, and would be proper. 

•> Eonii aiid write out ten derivative words from the 


primitives given above, by adding to them tbe suffix, 5, 
ly^ or ing ; as, nights, daily ^ schooling. 

3. Write out six words accented on tbe first syllable ; 
as, writing^ sunny. 

4. Write out six words accented on tbe second syllable ; 
as, affirm.^ destroy. 

5. Write out six words accented on tbe tbird syllable ; 
as, devotion.^ Alabama. 



What is speUing ? 

, Spelling is tlie art of expressing words by their 
proper letters. 

Are words spelled as we would expect to find them, from their 
pronnnciation % 

Sometimes they are, but not always. 

What is the best method of becoming a good speller 1 

A person may become a good speller, 

I. By carefally observing tbe words with which 
he meetS; while reading. 

n. When he is writiQg, by looking out in a dic- 
tionary, all the words respecting which he 
has any doubt. 

Does the dictionary contain every word that you nr.ay have 
occasion to use % 

Not every word; there are some derivatives 
which it does not contain. 

How. then, are you to know how to spell these derivatives 1 

There are certain rules which direct us as to theii 


What is the need of these rules 1 If we can spell the primi- 
tive and the prefix or suflSx, may we not simply join them to- 
gether and speU the derivative 1 

In some cases we may ; but, often, a change is 
made in a primitive before a suffix is added. Thus 
in forming having from have, the e of the primitive 
have is rejected, before the suffix ing is added. The 
rules cover such cases as this. 

When no rule applies, how do you form a derivative 1 

Kegularlj ; that is, without making any change 
before adding the prefix or suffix. 
How many important rules are there % 


When is a letter said to "be final ? 

When it is the last letter in a word ; thus, m 
have there is an e final. 

Mention four words that have final vowels ; four that have 
final consonants. 

Repeat the rule that relates to final e. 

Rule I. The final e of a primitive word is re- 
jected before a suffix beginning with a vuw^el ; as, 
hate^ hating — ^the final e of hate is rejected before the 
suffix mgj which begins with a vowel. 

Form and spell the derivatives that are obtained by adding 
the suffix ing to the primitives, rave, shave, hope, smoke. 

Repeat the rule that relates to the final consonant of a mono- 

Buh II. The final consonant of a monosyllable, 
if preceded by a single vowel, is doubled before a 
suffix beginning with a vowel ; as, hat, hatter. In 
this example, the final t of the monosyllable hat is 
preceded by a single vowel, a, and is doubled be- 
fore the suffix: er. 


Form and spell the derivatives that are obtained by adding 
the suffix er to the primitives, chat, hot, spin, win. 

Repeat the rule that relates to the final consonant of any word 
accented on the last syllable. 

Hule III. The final consonant of any word ac- 
cented on the last syllable, if preceded by a single 
vowel, is doubled before a suffix beginning with a 
vowel ; as, debar ^ debarring. Debar is accented on 
the last syllable ; the final consonant, r, is preceded 
by a single vowel, and is doubled before the suffix 

Form and spell the derivatives that are obtained by adding 
the suffix ed to the primitives, abhor, rebut, remit, permit. 

Repeat the rule that relates to y final. 

Ruh IV. The final yof sl primitive word, when 
preceded by a consonant, is changed into z, before 
a suffix which does not commence with i; as, glori/j 
glorious. The final y of glory is preceded by the 
consonant r, and is changed into i before the suffix 
ousj which does not commence with i. When the 
suffix commences with ^, the final y remains un- 
changed; as, glory, glorying. 

When y final is preceded by a vowel, is it changed into i upon 
the addition of a suffix 1 

No ; it remains unchanged ; as, joyj joy oils ; jplay^ 


Under Rule I. Write out the derivatives that are 
obtained by adding the suffix ing to the following words • 
rule, trace, strike, bite, invite, plunge, censure, tolerate, 
unite, blame, rebuke, allure. 

Under Rule 11. Write out the derivatives that are 


obtained by adding tbe suffix ed to the following words - 
pin, shimj plot, plan, spot, tan, dip, fit, sin, thin, hop, jar. 

Under Rule HI. Write out the derivatives that are 
obtained by adding the suffix ing to the following 
words : begin, unpin, abet, debar, occur, admit, confer, 
recur, compel, unfit, dispel, deter. . 

Under Rule IV. Write out the derivatives that are 
obtained by adding the suffix ed to the following words : 
cry, try, fry, deny, multiply, terrify, dry, busy, copy, 
defy, empty, remedy. 

Miscellaneous Exercise. Write out the derivatives 
that are obtained by adding the suffix ing to the follow- 
ing words : brave, destroy,* play, charge, judge, employ, 
annoy, stay, permit, unbar, refer, number,! profit, alter, 
propel, flatter, mar, stir, transmit, drive, justify,^ decry, 



You have now learned how to punctuate, and 
wlien it is proper to use capital letters ; you have 
also had rules for the formation of such derivatives 
as are not in the dictionary. You are, therefore, 
prepared to make sentences of your own. 

* Observe that here a vowel comes before y final ; other words 
like this will be given. 

t Observe that this word is acccuted on ihc first syllable; the 
final consonant, therefore, is not doubled. Other words like this 
will be given. 

X Remember that the final y remains unchanged befbrc a suffix 
commencing with i. 


What is a sentence 1 

A sentence is such, an assemblage of words as 
makes complete sense. 

Of how many parts does every sentence consist "? 

Of two parts, subject and predicate. 

What is the subject of a sentence 1 

The subject of a sentence is that respecting which 
something is afS.rmed. 

What is the predicate 1 

The predicate is fliat which is affirmed respecting 
the subject. 

Select the subject and predicate in the sentence , " Inter.iper^ 
ance leads to destruction." 

Intemperance is the subject, because something 
is affirmed respecting it ; leads to destruction is the 
predicate, because it affirms something about the 
subject, intertnperance. 

What part of speech affirms 1 

A verb. 

What must there be, then, in every sentence % 

A verb. 

Before beginning to write sentences of your own, it will be 
well for you to learn the following directions, which, if carefully 
attended to, will be found of great service. 

I, Be sure to use punctuation-points and capitals, according 
to the rules which have been given. 

n. Take care that every word is spelled correctly ; use your 
dictionary whenever you are in doubt, and apply the four rules 
that relate to the formation of derivative words. 

III. If you date your composition, put a comma after the 
name of the place, a comma after the day of the month, and a 
period after the year ; thus, New-York, November 1, 1850. 

ly . Never write in a hurry, or carelessly ; but do your best 
to make each composition better than the preceding one, 

v. After you have written your composition, look over it with 



care, in order to correct whatever errors you may have commit- 
ted, in punctuation, in spelling, or in style. 


Write sentences containing tlie following words. 
Wlien you can, introduce two or more of the w ords 
into tlie same sentence. 

Example. Write sentences containing the words, 
day, hour, moment, friendship, neglect. 

Sentences. Each day, each hour, each morner^it, should 
be diligently improYcd. 

Cultivate the friendship of the good. 

Neglect not your studies. 










































terribi \ 





Write sentences containing the following com- 
binations of words. 


-^ Example. Write sentences containing the words, se- 
vere affliction, walking alone. 

Sentences. The loss of his fortune was a severe afflic 

While walking alone in the woods, I met a panther. 

Hard study. A strong dislike. No confidence cau 
be placed. Where the house now stands. On the ocean. 
A dangerous undertaking. Ignorance and vice. I 
would rather. Those who do their duty. Begging in 
the street. G-eography furnishes us. Astronomy teaches 
us. Birds' nests. A storm at sea. To preserve our 
health. It is hard work. The life of the merchant. 
Fought bravely. Produces happiness. A large clock. 
The tops of high mountains, A band of robbers. If it 
rain. When my father returns. Are very useful. We 
seldom see. Always show respect. Large farms pro- 
<? 4ce. Exercises in composition. Very important. 



What is a relative clause \ 
What is a participial clause/? 

Who, which, and that, are relative pronouns ; what is to be ob- 
served in using them 1 

Who is used, wlien the antecedent is the name 
of a person ; which, when it is the name of an infe- 
rior animal, or an object without life ; that is used 
indiscriminately in either case ; thus, the hoy who 


studies ; the house which stands ; tlie man that is 
virtuous ; the dog that barks. 

What is the rule for using commas in the case of relative and 
participial clauses '? (See Rule I., page 59.) 


"Write sentences containing the following relative 
and participial clauses. 

Example. Who made "many scientific discoveries. 
In examining witnesses. 

Sentences. Sir Isaac Newton, who made many sci- 
entific discoveries, was buried in "Westminster Abbey. 

Much time was spent in examining loitfiesses. 

Relative Clauses. Those* who are virtuous. The 
man who attends diligently to business. Which I found 
in the street. Whom I esteem very highly. That 
barks at the slightest noise. Which was wrecked at sea. 
Whose father I much respected. Who recites his les- 
sons well. All that I have. Whose character is excel- 
lent. The person who reads good books. The city in 
which we live. The country in which we live. Who 
defeated the enemy. Which was given me by a friend. 

Participial Clauses. The weather being pleasant. 
The rain having ceased. The river having overflowed 
its banks. The boat having started. The enemy having 
fled. My brother having returned. The carriage hav- 
ing been broken. While walking by the river. While 
travelling through Ohio. Run over by a stage. Hun- 
dreds of men lying on the battle field. Playing and 
shouting in the street. Overcome by fatigue. Accom- 

* The pupil will observe that in this case, and some others, the 
antecedent is given. 


panied by a friend. In studying mathematics. By at« 
tending to your studies. By reading good books. In 
doing good. In buying and selling goods. Having 
arrived at Boston. 




What is an adverbial clause 1 Give an example. 
What is a vocative clause 1 Give an example. 
What is the rule for using commas in the case of adverbial 
and vocative clauses 1 (See Rule I., page 59.) 


Write sentences containing the following adver- 
bial and vocative clauses. 

Example. Before I arrived. Gentlemen and ladies. 

Sentences. The vessel had started before I arrived. 
Gentlemen and ladies.^ I ask your attention to a very 
important subject. 

Adverbial Clauses. A hundred years hence. Where 
we live. In a very improper manner. With great un- 
willingness. Before the vessel arrived in port. When 
the election was held. In the school which I attend. 
Before Columbus discovered America. When we finish 
our lessons. When the lecturer commenced. When the 
"boat lands. During the summer months. After winter 
has set in. With great care. After the storm occurred. 
When a man has a bad character. In a book which I 
have read. Where the river rises. In a disagreeable 


manner. Without any delay. Immediately after the 
battle. When a country has a tyrannical government. 

Vocative Clauses. My friend. My dear Sir. You 
disagreeable fellow. My dear Mary. 



How many kinds of sentences are there 1 (See page 52.) 

What are they 1 

What is a declarative sentence 1 an imperative sentence "? an 
interrogative sentence 1 an exclamatory sentence 7 

May a declarative sentence be turned into an imperative, an 
interrogative, or an exclamatory sentence 1 

It may. 

Give me an example. 

It snows, is a declarative sentence ; let it snow, is 
imperative ; does it snow ? is interrogative ; and, how 
it snows ! is exclamatory. 

What word is generally used to introduce an imperative sen- 
tence 1: 

Let. Thus ; '' Let there be silence ;" " Let us go." 

What words are used to introduce an interrogative sentence 1 

The interrogative prononns, and the words, is, 

was, does, did, has, will. Thus ; ^'' Is mj son here ?" 

" Does he study his lessons ?" " Will you be there?" 

What words are used to introduce exclamatory sentences 1 

How and what. Thus; '-^ How disagreeable he 
is !" " What a disagreeable man he is !" 

Convert the following declarative into the cor- 
responding interrogative and exclamatory sentences. 


Example. Milton was a great poet. 
Interrogative. Was Milton a great poet ? 
Eccclamatory. What a great poet Milton was ! 

1. Sir Isaac Newton was a great philosopher. 

2. Benjamin Franklin wrote many excellent maxims. 

3. A good boy will study hard to learn his lesson. 

4. Pope has left us many admirable lines. 

5. America has attained a desirable rank among the 
nations of the world. 

6. Julia entered the parlor gracefully. 

7. Philadelphia is a large city. 

8. Gratitude is a noble emotion. 

Convert the following ckdarative into the corre- 
sponding interrogative and imperative sentences : 
Example. Stephen prepares his lesson well. 
Interrogative. Does Stephen prdj)are his lesson well ? 
Imperative. Let Stephen prepare his lesson well. 

9. The army marches. 

10. The dog barks. 

1 1. The cannon roar in honor of victory. 

12. The books are ready. 

13. His good fortune makes him happy. 

14. They did their duty. 

15. Bees gather honey from flowers. 



Write six declarative, six imperative, six inter- 
rogative, and six exclamatory sentences, each of 



which shall contain one of the following words in 

Example. Words — happy, speak, come, loss. 

Sentences. Declarative — The good are happy 

Imperative — Let no one speak. 

Interrogative — Has my brother come ? 

Eooclamatory — What a loss I 


























(For the answers to tnese questions, see the first eleven 

What is an article "X a noun "? a pronoun 1 an adjective *? a verb 1 
an adverb 1 a coDJunction 1 a. preposition 1 an interjection 1 

What word prefixed to a verb shows that it is in the infinitive 

To. Thus, to eat, to Jce&p, to save, are in the infini- 
tive mood. 


1. Write five sentences containing a subject, a transi- 
tive verb, and an object ; as, " The bee makes hmeyP 

2. Write five sentences containing an adjective, a 
noun, a transitive verb, and an object; as, " The provi- 
dent ant lays up her store.''^ 


3. Write five sentences containing a subject, a transi- 
tive verb, an object, and an adverb ; as, " Louise studied 
her grammar faithfully. ''"' 

4. Write five sentences containing a verb in the infin- 
itive mood ; as, " I tried to learn nay lesson." 

5. Write five sentences in which the subject will con- 
tain two nouns connected by the conjunction and ; as, 
" The lion and the tiger are the fiercest of animals." 


How may we obtain variety in a succession of sentences 1 

Bj employing a different arrangement of the 
words or clauses, or a different construction. 

When the variety consists in the arrangement, what is it 
called 1 

Variety of Arrangement. 

When the variety consists in a difference of construction, what 
is it caUed 1 

Yariety of Expression. 


Arrange the words in the following sentences 
differently, but in such a way that the meaning 
may remain the same. 

Example. The night was dark. 

Paris is the capital of France. 
Transposed Dark was the night. 

The capital of France is Paris, 


1. Furious was the storm. 

•2. Mournfully the wind waved among the branches. 

3. The longest river in Europe is the Yolga. 

4. Than virtue nothing is lovelier. 

5. Here lies the lamented "Warren. 

6. Grrammar teaches us to speak correctly, and to 
write accurately. 

7. Of ancient traders, the first and most expert were 
the Phoenicians. 

8. Formerly, it required a week for a person to go 
from New- York to Albany. 

9. From Corsica the Carthaginians obtained honey 
and raisins. 

10. At last summer has set in. 

11. Suddenly a shout arose. 

12. We cannot prize a good character too highly. 

13. Perhaps you left it at home. 

14. The sheriff seized his prisoner roughly. 

15. Do you not know me, Mary ? 

16. How careful ought we to be to avoid vice! 

17. Let me go, I beseech you. 

18. G-enerally, the North American Indians are dressed 
in buffalo-skins. 

19. There hangs the picture of my father. 

20. Here stands your servant. 



Aeeange the clauses in the follovp'ing sentences 
differently, but in such a way that the meaning 


may remain tlie same. The pupil must remember 
to make such changes in the punctuation as may- 
be required by the transposition. 

Example. Well pleased witli my visit, I returned home. 
Transposed. I returned home, well pleased with my 

1. Never put ofif till to-morrow what you can do 

2. Sir Isaac Newton, one of the greatest mathema- 
ticians the world has ever produced, was born in Wools- 
thorpe, England, on Christmas day, a. d. 1642. 

3. Cassar, after having reached the pinnacle of human 
greatness, perished by assassination. 

4. My good friend, where are you going ? 

5. Washington is buried at Mount Vernon, on the 
banks of the Potomac River. 

6. During the night, the enemy moved their camp. 

7. She sunk down in the road, exhausted by fatigue. 

8. Cannon were first used about 500 years ago, at 
the battle of Cressy. 

9. By the code of Lycurgus, all the Spartans were 
compelled to eat at a common table. 

10. In every part of Europe, we find the French lan- 
guage spoken. 

11. While the clouds thus hid the moon from view, I 
heard a loud groan. 

12. Improve every moment while you are in school. 

13. We must strive hard, if we wish to excel. 

14. If Columbus had been less persevering, the West- 
ern Continent might not yet have been discovered. 

15. By the enterprising merchants of Venice, the first 
bank was established. 


16. Although surrounded by comforts and luxuries, we 
may be unhappy. 

17. Yasco de Gama, a Portuguese navigator, in 1497, 
discovered the passage to India around the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

18. The Saxons reduced the greater part of Britain 
under their sway, 

19. Herod was carried to his sepulchre on a bier of 

20. With a single stroke of his paw, a lion can break 
the back of a horse. 



There are a number of ways of altering the construction of a 
sentence, so as to insure variety of expression. To what sen- 
tences does the first of these apply 1 

The first method that we shall consider, applies 
to seutences that contain a subject, a transitive verb, 
and an object ; *' as, Cassar conquered Pompey." 

How may the construction be altered, without changing the 
meaning 1 

By making the object the subject, altering the 
form of the verb, and introducing the subject after 
the preposition by. The sentence given above, 
altered thus, would read, " Pompey was conquered 
by Caesar." 


Alter the following sentences in the manner de- 


scribed above, being careful to have tbem retain 
tbe same meaning. 

Example. Vi||iue alone produces happiness. 
All who know you will admire and respect you. 
Altered. Happiness is produced by virtue alone. 
You will be admired and respected by all who know 

1. The ancient Egyptians embalmed the bodies of the 

2. Sir Isaac Newton discovered the attraction of 

3. A courtier of Charles VI. of France invented cards, 
to amuse the king during his hours of melancholy. 

4. Integrity secures the esteem of the world. 

5. If the British had subdued our forefathers, we 
would now be under the dominion of a king. 

6. Astronomers calculate eclipses with wonderful pre- 

7. Grovernment honored this able statesman with a 
pension for life. 

8. The Chinese may have used gunpowder ages ago. 

9. An agent will furnish visitors with mape of the 

10. The cackling of a flock of geese prevented Brennus 
from taking the citadel of Rome. 

11. "What great effects may trifling causes produce ! 

12. An irresistible charge on the part of Murat's gal- 
lant cavalry, decided the victory. 

13. Two ruffians have attacked and killed an unarmed 

14. A strict governmeKi; will eniorce the laws. 

\?> Mersennus says that a little child, with a n^chine 


composed of a hundred double pulleys, miglit move tha 
earth itself. 

16. Whatever man has done, man may again do^ 

17. Perseverance will overcome eve?y obstacle. 

18. The greatest minds have admired Milton's " Para- 
dise Lost." ^ 

19. During the tenth and eleventh centuries, the 
monarchs of Europe persecuted the Jews with unrelent- 
ing cruelty. 

20. The bayonet is so called from the inhabitants of 
Bayonne, who invented it. 



Is there any other method of obtaining variety of expression 
besides the one described in the last lesson 1 

There is. 

To what sentences does it apply 1 

To sentences in wHcli tliere are two or more 
verbS; or two or more clauses, connected by the 
conjunction and; as, "Charles took me aside, and 
tbus addressed me." 

How may the construction of such sentences be altered ? 

By changing one of the verbs (usually the first) 
into a participle, and leaving out the conjunction 
and; as, " Charles, having taken me aside, thus ad- 
dressed me." 


Alter the following sentences in the manner de- 


scribed above ; the verb that is to be changed to 
a participle, is printed in italics. 

Example. The wind was fair, and we started on our 

The enemy landed, and made instant preparation for 
a march to the capital. 

Altered. The wind hei7ig fair, we started on our voyage. 

The enemy, having landed, made instant preparation 
for a march to the capital. 

1. The door was opened, and a terrible spectacle pre- 
sented itself to my eyes. 

2. Columbus tvas convinced that the world was round, 
and resolved to test his theory by experiment. 

3. The battle tvas finished, and the enemy fell back 
to the river. 

4. Hendrik Hudson ascended the river which now 
bears his name, and founded the city of Albany. 

5. The soil of England is cultivated with great care, 
and the harvests are usually abundant. 

6. Youth is the season of improvement ; do not lose 
one of its precious moments. 

7. The trumpet sounded, and the combatants charged. 

8. My horse threw me and ran away, and I was obliged 
to pursue the rest of my journey on foot, 

9. The Romans had conquered all their enemies, and 
were, at the time of- our Saviour's appearance, masters of 
the world. 

10. The door of the cage was left open, and my favorite 
bird escaped. * 

11. Hyenas are qHqw. driven i<d extremity by hunger, 
and enter church-yards, and dig up the bodies of the dead, 
and feed upon them. 


12. His faithful page saw the deadly shaft, and rushed 
before his master, and received it in his own body. 

13. Man rebelled against his Maker, and sin at once 
entered the world. 

14. Napoleon ivas safely disposed of in St. Helena, and 
ended, on that little island, his tumultuous life. 

15. Mungo Park was filled with the spirit of discovery, 
and, at the risk of his life, penetrated the inhospitable 
regions of Africa. 

16. The Liardy adventurers threw themselves on the 
ground, and gave thanks to God for the successful issue 
of their enterprise. 



When is one word said to be the synonyme of another '\ 
A word is said to be the synonyme of another 
word, when it means nearly the same thing. 

Give an example. 

Enough and sufficient are synonymes, because 
they mean nearly the same thing. 

Do synonymes convey precisely the same idea 1 

Not often ; but they mean nearly the same 

If you wish to find the synonyme of a word, what book will 

assist you 1 

The dictionary. 

May a word' have more than one synonyme 1 

Yes ^ some words have a number of synonymes ; 
thus, reflect^ reckon^ deem^ suppose^ ponder ^ consider^ 
conclude^ jv^lqe^ are all synonymes of the word thinh 



Do you mean that, wherever think is used, either of these 
words may be substituted for it without altering the meaning % 

Ko ; but sometimes they miglit be substituted for 
it, without any change in the meaning. 


Write out the synonymes of the following words ; 
the more you can find, the better your exercise 
will be. When you are in any dLffi.culty, have re- 
course to your dictionary. 

Model. Changeable. Intend. 

Synonymes. Variable, fickle, inconstant. Design, 
purpose, mean. 





































Write out and punctuate the following sen- 
tences, substituting for each word in italics, its 
synonyme, so that the meaning of the sentence will 
not be altered. 

Model. I am monarch of all I survey. 

1 am lord of all I behold. 
1. In Egypt the Nile annually overflows the country 
and thereby renders it fertilf 


2. In many of the West India islands tlie eoMh is sa 
•productive and requires so little cultivation that plants. 
may be said to grow spontaneously 

3. It is reported of the Emperor Titus that when any 
one spoke ill of him he was wont to say that if the state- 
ments were false they would not injure him and that ii 
they were true he had more reason to be angry with 
himself than with the narrator 

4. King James of England on one occasion went out 
of his way to hear a noted preacher The clergyman see- 
ing the king enter departed from the train of his discourse 
and forcibly portrayed the sin of profane swearing for 
which James was notorious When he had coitcluded the 
monarch thanked him for his sermon but asked what con- 
nection there was between swearing and his text The 
minister immediately answered Since your majesty 
deigned to come out of your way to meet me I could 
hardly do less than go out of my way to meet you 

5. The enemies' horsemen were coming up at a rapid 
pace and I was obliged to abandon my comrade to his 

6. Indolence is the cause of many evils 

7. Wealth is desired by all but it is accompanied by 
many troubles 

8. Augurelli z. celebrated Italian gave much of his at- 
tention to alchemy He was convinced that any metal 
could be converted into gold only one thing botlierred him 
and that was to find out the way Having composed a 
book on this subject he dedicated it to Pope Leo X. a7v 
ticipating a rich present in return He was quite sur- 
prised shortly afterwards to receive from his Holiness a 
purse and a letter informing him that as he could make 
gold he needed only a purse to put it in 




What is circumlocution 1 

Circimilocution is tlie use of two or more words 
tc express the meaning of one ; tlms, for mankind 
we may say the race of men, the human race. 


Express tlie following single words, and such 
words in the sentences as are in italics, by a circum- 

Model. A sailor. 

The moon is shining. 

By circumlocutio?i. One who' spends his life upon the 

The moon is shedding her light around. 

1. Death. Heaven. Astronomy. A king. Youth. 
Benevolence. A city. Agriculture. The sun. A 
guardian. G-eography. Women. Dishonesty. Indus- 
try. Autumn. Children. Night. A pronoun. ^ 

2. My brother is dead. 

3. The poor are often happier than the rich. 

4. Beware of avarice. 

5. Virtue is a source of happiness. 

6. The sky is cloudy. 

7. Suicide is a great crime. 

8. The sea is rough. 

9. He is insensible. 

10 Your cousin was working. 



What is a simple sentence 1 

A simple sentence is one tTiat contains but one 
subject, and one predicate ; as, " Friendship adds to 
our joys.'' 

"What is a compound sentence 1 

A compound sentence is one that is composed ot 
two or more simple sentences ; as, ^'Friendship adds 
to our joys^ and diminishes our sorrows." 

What is meant by analyzing compound sentences 1 

Separating tbem into tbe simple sentences of 
wbicb thej are composed. 

Analyze the compound sentence given above. 

Friendship adds to our joys. Friendship dimin- 
ishes our sorrows. 

What word was used in the compound sentence to connect the 
two simple sentences 7 

Tbe conjunction and. 

Is any other part of speech, besides the conjunction, used for 
this purpose 1 

• Yes; tbe relative pronoun is often used; as, 
'''•Modesty^ which is one of the most attractive virtues ^ is 
a great preservative against vice J ^ 

Analyze the compound sentence just given. 

Modesty is one of the most attractive virtues. Modesty 
is a great preservative against vice. 

In analyzing a compound sentence, what must we dol 

We must remove the connecting word, if there 
be any, and repeat, in each simple sentence, such 
words as may be necessary to complete the sense. 



Analyze the following compound sentences. 

Example. Mahomet, the founder of the Mahometan 
religion, did not hesitate to work with his own hands ; 
he kindled his own fire, swept his room, made his bed, 
milked his ewes and camels, mended his stockings, and 
scoured his sword. 

Simple Sentences. Mahomet was the founder of the 
Mahometan religion. 

Mahomet did not hesitate to work with his own hands. 

Mahomet kindled his own fire. 

Mahomet swept his room. 

Mahomet made his bed. 

Mahomet milked his ewes and camels. 

Mahomet mended his stockings. 

Mahomet scoured his sword. 

1. Aristarchus of Samos, who was a little wiser than 
his cotemporaries, was the first to assert that the earth 

2. Whereupon he was accused, before the court of 
Areopagus, of violating morality, and introducing inno- 
vations in religion. 

3. Aristotle, one of the most sensible of the ancient 
philosophers, thought that the earth was shaped like a 

4. Without books, justice is dormant, philosophy lame, 
letters dumb, and all things are involved in darkness. 

5. -^sop and Terence, those admirable writers, were 

6. The sun shines by day, and the moon by night. 

7. Modern times, with all their boasted progress, have 


never produced as strong a man as Samson, as meek a 
man as Moses, cr as wise a man as Solomon. 

8. A simpleton fancied, in a dream, that lie had trod* 
den on a nail, and, on waking,- bound up his foot. 

9. Another simpleton, learning the cause, said : '^ I do 
not pity you, for why do you sleep without sandals ?" 

10. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, overran Italy, entered 
Rome, and seized upon the public treasury. 


What is the opposite of analysis 1 


What is meant by the synthesis of simple sentences 1 

The 11111011 of two or more simple sentences in 
such a way as to form one compound sentence. 

In such a union, what changes are necessary 1 

The words that are repeated in the simple sen- 
tences must be omitted, and the proper connective, 
(a conjunction or a relative pronoun,) inserted. 


Unite the simple sentences given in each para- 
graph below, into one compound sentence. 

Example. The White Sea is so called on account of 
its color. The White Sea is constantly frozen over. 
The White Sea is covered with snow. 

Compound Sentence. The White Sea is so called on 
account of its color, as it is constantly frozen over, and 
covered with snow. 


1. I love to contemplate the wonders of the earth. 
I love to reflect on the glory of the Creator. 

2. Beware of avarice. Avarice is incompatible with 
reason. Avarice has ruined the souls of myriads. 

3. Let your pleasure be moderate. Let your pleasure 
be seasonable. Let your pleasure be innocent. Let 
your pleasure be becoming. 

4. Without modesty beauty is ungraceful. Without 
modesty learning is unattractive. Without modesty 
wit is disgusting. 

5. Wealth is much soi^ght after. Wealth brings with 
it many troubles. 

6. In Spitzbergen there is a long day of six months. 
In Spitzbergen there is a long night of six months. 

7. Charlemagne was the most powerful monarch of 
his age. Charlemagne added much to his glory by in- 
viting learned men to his court. Charlemagne added 
much to his glory by inviting scientific men to his court. 

8. Black pepper is produced in Java. Black pepper 
is produced in Sumatra. Black pepper grows upon a 
vine. The vine resembles our grape-vine. 

9. Plato was told that some enemies had spoken ill of 
him. Plato said, " It matters not." Plato said, " I will 
endeavor so to live that no one shall believe them." 

10* Xerxes resolved to invade Greece. Xerxes raised 
an army. The army consisted of two millions of men. 
This was the greatest force that was ever brought into 
the field. 

11. The hills are covered with a carpet of green. The 
meadows are covered with a carpet of green. 

12. Life is short. Life is unsatisfactory. Life is un- 



What is Style f 

Style is the particular manner in wliich a writer 
or speaker expresses Ms thonglits bj words. 

From what is the word style derived 1 

From the Latin word stylus^ a pointed steel in- 
strument which the Eomans used in writing upon 
their waxen tablets. 

Do the styles of most writers differ much from each other 1 

They do ; for no two writers are likely to express 
the same idea in precisely the same manner. 

What are the principal kinds of style "? 

The simple, the florid, the nervous, the concise, 
the diffiise. 

What is meant by simple style %* 

Simple style is that in which the thoughts are ex- 
pressed in a natural manner, without any attempt 
at effect. 

What is meant by florid style '? 

Florid style is that in which there is a great deal 
of ornament. 

What is meant by nervous style 1 

Nervous style is that in which fortj^ble sentences 
are employed, and which makes a s^-.rong impres- 
sion on the reader or speaker. 

What is meant by concise style 1 

Concise style is that in which tho lhouj<hls are 
expressed in very few words. 

* Examples of the different kinds of style v ill be foiw-' <r %q 
exercise at the end of this lesson. 

STYLE. 105 

What is meant by diffuse style 1 

Diffuse style is that of a writer or speaker who 
enlarges on his thoughts, and uses many words to 
express them. 

To whiat should the style of an author always be suited 1 

To the subject he is treating. 

There are certain properties which the style of every good 
"writer must possess ; what are these 1 • 

Purity, propriety, precision, clearness, strength^ 
and harmony. 

Copy and punctuate the following extracts, which 
are examples of the different kinds of style. 
Simple Style. 

" Sweet was the sound when oft at evening's close 
Up yonder hill the village murmur rose 
There as I passed with careless steps and slow 
The mingled notes came softened from below 
The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung 
The sober herd that lowed to meet their young 
The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool 
The playful children just let loose from school 
The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind 
And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind 
These all in sweet confusion sought the shade 
And filled each pause the nightingale had made" 
Florid Style. " His charmed numbers flow on like the 
free current of a melodious stream whose associations are 
with the sunbeams and the shadows the leafy boughs 
the song of the forest birds the dew upon the flowery 
bank and all things sweet and genial and delightful 
whose influence is aroujd us in our happiest moments 


and whose essence is the wealth that lies hoarded in the 

treasury of nature" 

Nervous Style. 

" Vengeance calls you quick be ready 
Rouse ye in the name of God 
Onward onward strong and steady 
Dash to earth the oppressor's rod 
Vengeance calls ye brave ye brave 
Rise and spurn the name of slave" 
Concise Style. 
'' He touched his harp and nations heard entranced 
As some vast river of unfailing source 
Rapid exhaustless deep his numbers flowed 
And oped new fountains in the human heart 
* * * With Nature's self 

He seemed an old acquaintance free to jest 
At will with all her glorious majesty 
He laid his hand upon the ocean's mane 
And played familiar with his hoary locks 
Stood on the Alps stood on the Apennines 
And with the thunder talked as friend to friend 
Suns moons and stars and clouds his sisters were 
Rocks mountains meteors seas and winds and storms 
His brothers younger brothers whom he scarce 
As equals deemed" 

Diffuse Style. " The fame of his discovery had re- 
sounded throughout the nation and as the route of Co- 
lumbus lay through several of the finest and most popu- 
lous provinces of Spain his journey appeared like the 
progress of a sovereign Wherever he passed the sur-- 
rounding country poured forth its inhabitants who lined 
the roads and thronged the villages In the large towns 

PURITY. 107 

the streets windows and balconies were filled with eager 
spectators who rent the air with acclamations His jour- 
ney was continually impeded by the multitude pressing 
to gain a sight of him and of the Indians^who were re« 
garded with as much admiration as if they had been 
natives of another planet It was impossible to satisfy 
the craving curiosity which assailed himself and his at- 
tendants ftt every stage with innumerable questions po- 
pular rumor as usual had exaggerated the truth and had 
filled the newly found country with all kinds of wonders" 



What is the first essential property of a good style 1 


In what does purity consist 1 

Purity of style consists in the use of siicli words 
and modes of expression as are warranted by good 

What is meant by " good authority." 

The usage of the best writers and speakers. 

How many rules must be observed, to insure purity of style 1 


I. Do not use foreign words or modes of con- 
struction, when there are pure Enghsh ones that 
are just as expressive. 

n. Do not use obsolete words, or such as hav6 
fallen into disuse.. 

in. Avoid words that are not authorized by 
good writers. 


Mention some of the foreign words tliat are often introduced 
by writers who violate the first rule relating to purity, and the 
corresponding English words that should be used instead of them. 

Hauteur^ haiightiness. Emeute^ disturbance. 
Delicatessen (delicacy. Bagatdh^ trifle. 

Politesse^ politeness. NHmj^orU^ no matter. 

A propos^ appropriate. Nous verronSj we shall see. 
Mention some obsolete words, and what it is proper to us6 
instead of them at the present day. 

Letj hinder. IrJcSj wearies. 

Behestj command. Wotj know. 

Quoth^ said. Wist, knew. 

M-stj formerly. Sith, since. 


Correct the following sentences, so that fchej 
contain no violation of the rules of purity. 
Example. I cannot believe it, but 7tous ven'ons. 
He repented him of his fault. 
Corrected. I cannot believe it, but we shall see. 
He repented of his fault. 

1. His manners were not marked by politesse^ but by 
an offensive hauteur. 

2. I have been disappointed, but nHmporte. 

3. Fearing that they might become involved in the 
imeute., they remained in the house. 

4. My friend made some remarks quite a propos to 
the occasion. 

5. The fleeting joys of this world are but bagatelles. 

6. I can go where likes me best. 

7. Thy voice we hear, and thy behests obey. 

8. " Come," quoth he, " lay aside thine armor." 


9. I toot not who it was. 

10. It irks me to see such obstinacy. 

11. The nobles of England dwelt erst in strongly forti- 
fied castles. 

12. Having nothing to do, he employed his time in 
stroaming about the fields. 

13. Thy speech bewrayeth thee. 

14. He comes to the city dailily. 

15. I admire his ddicatesse^ and cmididTWSS. 

16. Her mniableness endears her to all her friends. 

17. His severe administration of the laws rendered 
him very itnpopular among the people. 

18. St. Augustine lived godlily. 

19. I could not account for his merriness. 

20. Damp weather is very unagreeable. 



What is the second essential property of a good style 7 

In what does propriety consists 

Propriety consists in tlie selection of such words 
as the best usage has appropriated to the ideas in- 
tended to be expressed. 

To insure propriety, what kind of expressions must we be 
careful to avoid 1 

Low and vulgar expressions, which are often 
used in conversation, but are not sufficiently digni- 
fied to be admitted into composition. 



The words in italics in the following sentences 
are to be corrected, so that there may be no viola- 
tion of propriety. 

Example. My father has got the Hues. 

Corrected. My father is in low spirits. 

1. I s&w with half an eyeih&t it was necessary for 
me to observe great caution, 

' 2. As the noise disturbed me, I told him to hold his 

3. They have got the small-pox. 

4. Having run up to see what tJie matter was, I be- 
came involved among the rioters, and, before I could 
extricate myself, came near getting my head broken. 

5. He is not a hit better than he ought to be. 

6. My cousin is mad aif me. 

7. He saw the horses dashing towards hxmfull split^ 
and, making a desperate leap, escaped by the skin of his 

8. Every one sets store by a good boy. 

9. I would as lief live in America, as in Europe. 

10. James is something of a scholar. 

11. She is in a bad fix. 

12. John turns up his nose at every thing. 

13. If a clerk cheat, he will soon be turned out of his 

14. He tries to curry favor with his superiors. 

15. Their coming in turned every thing topsy-turvy. 

16. We have a great mhid to go to Harlem to-morrow 

17. She is a very stingy woman. 




What is the third essential property of a good style 1 


In what does precision consist 1 

Precision consists in the use of such, "words as 
exactly express tlie idea intended to be conveyed. 

In what is precision most frequently violated 1 

In tlie use of words which, are generally con- 
sidered synonymous, but which do not convey the 
same meaning. 

Give an example. 

Courage and fortitude are generally thought to 
mean the same thing ; but their exact signification 
is widely different. Courage is shown in braving 
danger ; fortitude, in supporting pain. In such a 
sentence as this, " John displayed great courage 
while undergoing the operation," precision is vio- 
lated. The word courage is misused, and the sen- 
tence should be, "John displayed great fortitude 
while imdergoing the operation." 

Mention some other words that are often used as synonymous. 

Discovery and invention ; effect and influence ; cus- 
tom and habit; vacant and empty ; great and hig. 

In what other way is precision often violated ? 

By substituting for the proper word, another 
word formed from the same primitive, bat which 
ought to be differently appHed ; as, ohservation for 
observancCj conscience for consciousness. 

Give an example. 


^^ Negligence of duty often produces misery." 
There is a violation of precision in the use of negli- 
gence for neglect; the sentence should read thus: 
" Neglect of duty often produces misery." 


The words in italics, in the following sentences, 
are to be altered, so that there may be no violation 
of precision. Examples are given above, 

1. Columbus ^;^^e?^^e(i America. '^ Q^ion invented ih.Q 
attraction of gravitation. 

2. The discovery of steamboats produced a most bene- 
ficial influence on the commerce of the whole world. 

3. The cavalry charged with their accustomed for 

4. Smoking is a bad custom. 

5. James endured the pain with a great deal of courage, 

6. The house was closed, and we naturally supposed 
it to be empty. 

7. All the furniture had been removed ; every room 
was vacant. 

8. He is a very talented and studious boy, and will, 
no doubt, "become a hig man. 

9. A frog once swelled herself out, till she thought 
herself greater than an ox. 

10. Conscience of integrity supports the misfwtunate, 

11. The observation of the Sabbath is a distinguishing 
mark of Christian nations. 

12. The bird escaped through her neglect. 

13. The bird died through her negligence. 

14. The farmers of Ohio pay great attention to the 
'vulture of corn. 


15. I made a proposal to my friend to take me into 

16. I made a proposition to my friend to embark with 
me in the speculation. 

1 7. Intoleration in religion has been the cause of much 

18. The magistrate, having heard the prisoner's story, 
expressed his disbelief of every word he had uttered. 



What is the fourth essential property of a good style? 


In what does clearness consist % 

Clearness consists in such a use and arrangement 
of words and clauses as at once distinctly indicate 
the meaning of the writer or speaker. 

What is the opposite of clearness 1 


What are the most frequent causes of obscurity 1 

The use of ambiguous or equivocal words, and 
the improper arrangement of words or clauses. 

Repeat the three rules for promoting clearness, that relate to 
the use of words. 

Rule 1. Avoid ambiguous expressions. 

Rule 2. Do not make the same pronoun refer to 
different objects in the same sentence. 

i?wZe 3. Insert words that are wanting, when 
they cannot readily be supplied by the mind. 



Correct the following sentences so that they may 
contain no violation of Enles I., II., and III., for 
the promotion of clearness. 

Example. 1. The re^roo/' of the erring is a duty. 

2. Charles promised his father that he would never 
forget his advice. 

3. We love who flatter us. 

Corrected. In the first sentence, the use of the word reproof 
makes the sentence ambiguous ; for, as it now stands, the meaning 
might be, that it is the duty of the erring to reprove others. We will 
therefore alter it thus : 

1. To reprove the erring is a duty. 

The second sentence contains a violation of Rule IT., be- 
cause the first his refers to Charles, while the second refers to 
father. This fault may be corrected by making the sentence read 

2. Charles promised his father, " I will never forget 
thy advice." 

In the third sentence, the word that is omitted cannot readily 
be supplied by the mind, and we must therefore insert it, thus : 

3. We love those who flatter us. 

1. We speak that we know. 

2. We dislike who dislike us. 

3. My heating did him good. {Ambiguous, because it 
may m£an either the beating I gave him, or the heating 
he gave m£.) 

4. The love of a parent is a natural feeling. 

5. Our rebuke had its intended eff'ect. 

6. Tim qfficer''s instructions were plain. 

7. We are naturally inclined to praise who praise us. 

8. Who is most industrioufi is most happy. 

9. There were several of the crew died on the passage. 


10. The worst can be said of him is, that he is some- 
times inattentive. 

11. There are many men waste their lives in idleness. 

12. Galileo was led to invent the pendulum, by a chan- 
delier he frequently observed swinging to and fro in the 
cathedral of Florence. 

13. The farmer went to his neighbor, and told him 
that his cattle were in his field. 

14. Damon told the king that he would not comply with 
his demands. 

15. 27^e nohlemarCs summons was unheeded. 

16. The clerk told hU employer, whatever he did, h^ 
could not please him. 

17. There was one man was struck by the ball. 

18. It was the bodies of distinguished persons only 
were embalmed by the ancient Egyptians. 



In what does clearness consist % 

What is the opposite of clearness '? 

Repeat the three rules f<^ promoting clearness, that relate to 
the use of words. 

Repeat the rule that relates to the arrangement of words and 

Place words and clauses as near as possible to 
the words to wMcli'tliey relate. 

What words are most frequently misplaced ? 
Adverbs ; particularly only^ and not only. 
What is the effect of their being misplaced '\ 

They are thereby made to modify a different 


word from the one intended, and tlie whole mean- 
ing of the sentence is changed. 

Give an example. 

" He not only owns a house^ but also a large JarmP 
Not only, as it now stands, modifies the verb owtis ; 
and from the beginning of the sentence, one would 
suppose that another verb was to follow- — that he 
not only owned the honse, but lived in it, or some- 
thing of that kind. Whereas not only is intended 
to modify house^ and it should be placed as near it 
as possible ; thus, " He owns not only a house^ hutalso 
a large farm.''^ *■ 

How should a relative clause be placed % 

Immediately after its antecedent. 

That you may accomplish this, how must you alter the fol- 
lowing sentence, in which, it wiU he seen, another noun stands 
between the antecedent and the relative clause : " J. servant wiU 
obey a master^ s orders, that he loves'^ ? 

Change masUr^s io of a master^ and place orders 
before it ; thus, " A servant will obey the orders 
of a master that he lovesj' We thus bring the re- 
lative clause immediately after the antecedent, 

Alter in this way the following sentences, so that the relative 
clause may immediately follow its antecedent. 

1. The mariner's compass was Gioia's invention, a cele- 
brated mathematician of Naples. 

2. Have you read Tasso's work, the immortal Italian 


Arrange the words and clauses in the following 
sentences in such a way, that there may be no vio- 
lation of the last rule for promoting clearness. 


Example. 1. The mate saved a man from drowning, 
who was an excellent swimmer. 
~ 2. The man was digging a woxl, with a Roman nose. 

3. It is my friend's son, whom I love so well. 

4. We should not only love our relatives, but our 
friends also. 

Properly Arranged. 1. The mate, who was an excel- 
lent swimmer, saved a man from drowning. 

2. The man with a Roman nose, was digging a well. 

3. It is the son of my friend, whom I love so well. 

4. We should love not only our relatives, but our 
friends also. 

1. The Romans now proclaimed war against the Par- 
thians, who had conquered all the rest of the world. 

2. Glass windows were first used in England, in the 
year 674, A. D., as we learn from Bede's works, the vene- 
rable historian. 

3. Many of the best English authors flourished in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, who patronized not only literary 
men, but herself pretended to be an author. 

4. The lady was sewing with sore eyes. 

5. Boston was Franklin's birth-place, the celebrated 
American philosopher, who not only won the respect of 
his own country, but of all Europe. 

6. Washington not only won the respect, but the love, 
of all true Americans. 

7. Dr. Johnson was once arrested for a debt of five 
guineas, the author of the dictionary. 

8. Sir Isaac Newton's great mind was principally 
directed to mathematics. 

9. The ungenerous person only thinks of himself. 
10. The horse is ploughing with a switch tail. 


11. This work, being afflicted with the rheumatism, I 
am obliged at present to discontinue. 

12. I was afraid to ride a horse, having a disease of 
the heart. 

13. The disorderly persons were removed from the 
room, in consequence of being intoxicated, by the assist- 
ance of several gentlemen present. 

14. The emperor Augustus was a patron of learned 
men, at least. 

15. So utterly was Carthage destroyed, that we are un* 
able to point out the place where it stood at the present 

16. The steamer from Liverpool is soon expected to 



What is the fifth essential property of a good style 1 


In what does strength consist 1 

Strength consists in such a use and arrangement 
of words as make a deep impression on the mind of 
the reader or hearer. 

Would strength be a characteristic of the following sentence : 
" The general ordered the captain to order the soldiers to observe 
good order" ? 


What makes it weak 7 

The repetition of the word order. 

What is this fault in writing called 1 

Tautology.- t:.v 


What is tautology 1 

Tautology is the repetition of the same, or a 
similar, word in a sentence. 

How may tautology be corrected 1 

By substituting a synonyme for the word re 

What is a synonyme 1 (See Lesson XL VII.) 

Correct in this way the sentence given above. 

" The general directed the captain to command the 
soldiers to observe good orderP 

In the sentence, " We looked out of the window^ and took a view" 
does the clause, took a view, add any thing to the meaning 1 

It does not. 

What then is its effect on the sentence 1 

It weakens the sentence. 

What is this fault called ^ 
What is redundancy 1 

Eedundancy is the repetition of an idea in the 
same sentence. 

How may redundancy be corrected '? 

By leaving out the superfluous word or clause. 

Correct, in this way, the sentence given above. 

" We looked out of the window." 

What two short rules wiU conduce much to strength of style 1 
Bule L Avoid tautology. 
Bute 11. Avoid redundancy. 

Correct the tautology and redundancy in the fol- 
lowing sentences. 

Example, 1. He said that his father said that he 
would not leave the city. 

2. Washington was a good and excellent man. 


Corrected. 1. He stated that his father said that he 
would not leave the city. 

2. Washington was a good man. 

1. The sexton told the minister that he had tolled the 
bell for an hour, 

2. He went to Baltimore by steamboat, and thence 
went to Philadelphia by rail-road. 

3. Mahomet was distinguished by the dignity and 
majesty of his person. 

4. She is so lovely a woman that no one can help 
loving her. 

5. The ancient Egyptians used to use myrrh, spices, 
and nitre, for embalming the dead bodies of the deceased. 

6. Sit down, and take a seat. 

7. The brilliant brightness of the sun makes all 
nature look lively and animated. 

8. The children are playing in the umbrageous shad- 
ow of a shady oak. 

9. They returned back again to the same place from 
whence they came. 

10. While travelling through Russia, we met a traveller, 
who, in seven days, had travelled over a thousand miles. 

1 1. Grenerals are generally men of decision and energy. 

12. No Christian will revenge himself on his enemies, 
and take vengeance on his foes. 

13. Charlemagne found that his subjects were very 
ignorant, and therefore founded several seminaries of 
learning ; but all his attempts and efforts were insuffi- 
cient and unable to enlighten the darkness of his age. 

14. No learning is generally so dearly bought, or so 
valuable when it is bought, as the learning that we learn 
in the school of experience. 

1 5. Pity us. and have compassion on us. 




In what does strength consist 1 
What is tautology 1 
What is redundancy 1 

Repeat the two short rules for promoting strength. 
Repeat three more rules, the observance of which will con- 
duce much to strength of style. 

Bute III. Do not use the conjunction and too 
mucli, or let it commence a sentence. 

Bule IV, Do not end a sentence with a prepo- 
sition, an unimportant word, or a succession of 
short words. 

Eule V. When there are several similar de- 
pendent clauses, as a general thing, place the long- 
est last, and do not let a weaker assertion follow a 


Correct the following sentences, so that there 
may be no violation of the rules just given. 

ExAJiPLE. 1. Idleness, and luxury, and pleasure de- 
stroy many a youth. 

2. Ingratitude is a crime that I cannot accuse my- 
self of 

3. Catiline plunged into every species of iniquity, and 
left the path of virtue. 

Corrected. 1. Idleness, luxury, and pleasure destroy 
many a youth. 

2. Ingratitude is a crime of which I cannot accuse 


3. Catiline left tlie path of virtue, and plunged into 
every species of iniquity. 

1. Charlemagne was a successful warrior, and a sound 
Btatcsman, and an able monarch. 

2. And he evinced incredible activity; he superin- 
tended the public improvements, and managed the affairs 
of the kingdom, and still found time to foster literature 
and the arts. 

3. He is one that I cannot depend on. 

4. Galileo made many discoveries in astronomy, but 
he was imprisoned on account of them. 

5. Charity ought to exert an influence over all our 
actions, and regulate our speech. 

6. The faith which Mahomet professed, and which he 
was the author of, soon spread over Arabia, and Turkey, 
and the northern part of Africa. 

7. His conduct was disgraceful ; it was unbecoming. 

8. There are many mysteries which we 'cannot under- 
stand, yet which we must believe in. 

9. His assistance I am sure of 

10. Robert Burns, although originally a poor plough- 
man, was one that men of letters were glad to be ac- 
quainted with, and associate with 

11. When one is out of health, life becomes a burden, 
and there is no pleasure in it. 

12. His gross excesses, and indulgence in pleasure, cut 
him off at an early age. 


What is the sixth essential property of a good style 1 


In what doai harmony consist % 

Harmony consists in that smooth and easy flow 
which pleases the ear. 

What words are, for the most part, inharmonious 1 

1. Such as are derived from long compound 
words; as, sohermindedness, shamefacedness. 

2. Such as contain a great number of conso- 
nants; as, j^hthisic, asthma. 

3. Such as are composed of a number of short 
syllables, with the accent on or near the first; as, 
'primarily^ temporarily. 

What combination of words is found to be inharmonious '? 

A succession of words of the same length ; thus, 
" no kind of joy can long 'please usj^ is by no means 
as harmonious as, '•'•no species of joy can long de- 
light vs.'''' 

What other combination of words should be avoided 1 

A succession of words that resemble each other 
in the sound of any of their syllables ; thus, " a 
fair fairy," " a mild child," are less harmonious 
than " a handsome /«?>?/," ^' a gentle childr 

As to the general arrangement of words and clauses, what 
is the best guide % 

The ear. 

Is not a strong style generally harmonious T 
It is. 


Correct the following sentences in such a way 
that their harmony may be increased. When any 
particular word causes the want of harmony, it is 
in italics. 


Example. 1. Shamefacedness has been a characteris- 
tic of many distinguished men. 

2. He went to Rome with a friend.* 

3. This I consider to be a true union. 

Corrected. 1. Bashfulness has been a characteristic of 
many distinguished men. 

2. He proceeded to Rome with a friend. 

3. This I consider to be a true friendship. 

1. All rich men have a sly way of jesting, which would 
make no great show were they not rich men.* 

2. Reason seldom governs passion, but passion often 
governs reason. f 

3. The slow horse goes not to the race till it is done.* 

4. Camoens lived temporarily in the East Indies. 

5. Many men disregard their duty. 

6. In India, wnocent mfants are thrown into the 

7. Peace should be sought for by us, and by all.* 

8. The peaceableness of his disposition gained for him 
many friends. 

9. He kept wriggling in a very uneasy manner. 

10. Pope was accustomed to speak derogatorily of hia 

11. Her cheerful temper and pleasant humor procured 
her general esteem. f 

12. All that afflicts us here will pass away soon. 

13. The seas shall waste, and rocks shall fall to dust.* 

14. T\iQ favorableness with which the Waverley novels 
were received is almost incredible. 

* Too many words of one syllable. 
t Too many words of two syllables. 

UNITY. 125 

15. Seizing the first oppwtunity^ I importuned him 
for his assistance. 

16. The homely home of poverty is often the seat of 
greater happiness than the grandest mansion. 

17. It impossible to possess wisdom without learning. 

18. Some regard soberm^indedness as essential to a good 

19. He repressed the expression which was on his lips. 

20. He conducted the business unsatisfactorily. 



What does every sentence contain? 

One leading thought, or proposition. 

May it not contain more than one proposition ? 

It may, if they are intimately connected with the 
leading one, and properly introduced. 

What do you mean by properly introduced 7 

Introduced without too frequent a change of sub- 

Give an example. 

" My friends turned back, after we reached the 
vessel, on board of which I was received with kind 
ness by the passengers, who vied with each other 
in showing me attention." In this sentence we 
have no less than four nominatives^ friends^ lue, ij 
who ; and the frequent change produces great con- 
fusion in the mind. 

What is the fault in this sentence called 1 

A violation of unity. 


In wliat does unity consist 1 

Unity consists in the restriction of a sentence to 
one leading proposition, modified only by such 
kindred ideas as are closely connected with it. 

Give an example of a sentence in which unity is violated by 
joining two propositions that have no connection, 

"Archbishop Tillotson died in this year. He 
•was exceedingly beloved by King William and 
Queen Mary, who nominated Dr. Tennison, bishop 
of Lincoln, to succeed him." In the last sentence 
there is a gross violation of unity, in connecting the 
nomination of Dr. Tennison with the great love en- 
tertained by the King and Queen for Archbishop 

Give three rules that will conduce to the preservation of 

^JRuIe I. Introduce as few subjects as possible into 
a sentence. 

Hule II. Do not crowd into one sentence things 
that have no connection. 

Buh III. Avoid the introduction of long paren- 

Are parentheses as much used as they formerly were 1 
No ; good writers of the present day, for the most 
part, avoid them altogether. • 

Are all parentheses inadmissible 1 

No ; short ones, when properly introduced, add 
'iiO the strength of a sentence ; but in long and com^ 
plicated ones the mind is distracted from the lead- 
ing proposition, and obscurity and weakness ensue. 

When a violation of unity occurs, how are we to correct it 1 

I. If it proceeds from a variety of subjects, get 

UNITY. 127 

rid of some of tliem, by adopting participial 
clauses, or a different form of the verb. Tlins, the 
first sentence given in this Lesson, as containing a 
violation of unity, may be corrected as follo^Ys: 
" My friends having turned back after we reached 
the vessel, the passengers received me on board 
with kindness, and vied with each other in show- 
ing me attention." The sentence, as thus correct- 
ed, has but two subjects, vje and passeiigers. 

II. If it proceeds from the introduction of two 
or more unconnected propositions, or of a paren- 
thesis, we must separate the sentence into two or 
more shorter sentences, as may be required. Thus, 
the second example of a violation of unity given 
above, may be corrected as follows : " Archbishop 
Tillotson died in this year. He was exceedingly 
beloved by King William and Queen Mary. Dr. 
Tennison, bishop of Lincoln, was nominated to 
succeed him." 


Correct the following sentences, so that they may 
contain no violation of unity. The pupil will of 
course make such changes in the punctuation as 
may be required. 

Examples of this fault and its correction have been given 

1. The next lady to whom I was introduced was the 
Duchess of Devonshire, who received me with great affa- 
bility, and, no long time afterwards, had her neck broken 
m consequence of being thrown from her carriage. 


2. Lord Bacon's maxims are full of philosophy ; but 
lie was a very mean man. 

3. The bear is capable of strong attachment, and its 
flesh makes very juicy and excellent food, 

4 Father Carli says that the camel, which is the most 
patient of animals, retains the remembrance of an injury 
that has been done to it, until an opportunity of revenge 

5. The dog is an animal of wonderful sagacity, and it 
is used by the Esquimaux for drawing sleds. 

6. The quicksilver mines of Idria, in Austria, (which 
were discovered in 1797, by a peasant, who, catching 
some water from a spring, found the tub so heavy that 
he could not move it. and the bottom covered with a 
shining substance which turned out to be mercury,) yield, 
every year, between 300,000 and 400,000 pounds of that 
valuable metal. 

7. The trappers of the Rocky Mountains obtain the 
necessaries of life in exchange for beaver-skins, which 
are worth from four to eight dollars a pound. 

8. The first gold pens, (which have now come into use 
both in this country and in Europe, and which are 
generally preferred to any other kind,) were made in 



What is style 1 (See Lesson LIT.) From what is the word styh 
derived 1 What are the principal kinds of style 1 Describe sim- 
ple style ; florid style j nervous style ; concise style ; diffuse style. 


Mention the six essential properties of a good style. 

In what does purity con,'-;!s.t 1 (See Lesson LIII.) What three 
classes of words do the rnles for purity forbid us to use 1 

In what does propriety consist 7 (See Lesson LIV.) What 
kind of expressions does propriety forbid us to use 1 

In what does precision consist 1 (See Lesson LV.) In what 
way is precision often violated '? Mention some words that are 
often used as synonymes, but which really differ in their meaning-. 

In what does clearness consist 1 (See Lessons LVI. and LVII.) 
What is the opposite of clearness 1 To promote clearness, what 
words must be avoided 1 What is the rule with regard to mak- 
ing the same pronoun refer to different objects 1 When mi^st we 
insert words that are omitted 1 How must words and clauses be 
placed 1 What words are most frequently misplaced 1 

In what does strength consist 1 (See Lessons LVIII. and LIX.) 

What is tautology 1 How may it be corrected 1 

What is redundancy 1 How may it be corrected 1 

Repeat the two short rules for the promotion of strength. 
What rule relates to the conjunction and ? With what must you be 
careful not to end a sentence '? When you have several similar 
dependent clauses, which should come last 1 When you have 
several assertions, which should come last 1 

In what does harmony consist 1 (See Lesson LX.) What 
three classes of words are, for the most part, inharmonious 1 
What combinations of words are found to be inharmonious 1 
What is the best gflide for the general arrangement of words 
and clauses 1 

In what does unity consist! (See Lesson LXI.) Repeat th^ 
three rules for the preservation of unity. 

Miscellaneous Exercise. 
Punctuate the following sentences, and correct 
them so that thej may contain no violation of the 
rules for purity, propriety, precision, clearness, 
strength, harmony, and unity. 

1. In the last Punic war the Eomans soon got the 
upper hand of the Carthaginians 

2. The earth moves round the sun at a quick rate 


3. A French savant at a late meeting of the literati 
and scientific men of Paris I-y a chemical process froze 
some drops of water in a red-hot cup 

4. The sky in New Holland is so singular and so beau- 
tiful in appearance that even the writers^ descriptions 
who have been there can give us no adequate idea re- 
specting it 

5. No nation on the earth are so generally cheerful 
and light-hearted that I have met with as the French 

6. He endeavored to disarm my fears by ordering the 
army who were all well armed to lay aside their artns 

7. He looked coldly at me and eyed me sternly 

8. The criminals were next placed in an ei^ormous car 

9. We know that it is hard to do right still let us try 
to do it 

10. J.wze^7i2/5^ means ' that which does not intoxicate' 
and it was so called because it was a prevalent doctrine 
among the ancients that wine would lose its intoxicating 
injlutnce A-^w^ from a cup of this precious stone 

11. In the middle ages it was a hahit for pilgrims to 
flock from all parts of the globe to the tomb of our 

12. There was no crime that Catiline was not guilty 
of. He ruined not only a great number of young men 
but attempted to ruin his country itself. 



What is Composition. 

Composition is tlie art of expressing one's 
thonghts by means of written language. 


What are the two great divisions, under which all composi- 
tions may be classed 1 

Prose and Poetrj^ 

What compositions fall under the head of prose 1 

All those in whicli a natural method of expres- 
sion, and a natural order, are employed, without 
reference to the recurrence of certain sounds, or 
any exact arrangement of syllables. 

What compositions fall under the head of poetry ] 
All those in which there is a departure from the 
natural order, or mode of expression ; or in which 
there is a recurrence of certain sounds, or an exact 
arrangement of syllables. 

Which of these two great divisions shall we now proceed to 


What are the principal divisions under whicli the varieties of 
prose composition may be classed 1 

There are five leading divisions; viz.. Letters, 
Descriptions, Narrations, Essays, and Argumenta- 
tive Discourses.* 

When a subject has been selected, no matter to which of 
these divisions your composition is to belong, what is the first 
thing to be done 1 

To reflect upon the various branches of the sub- 
ject, to think what can be said about it, and then 
proceed to its analysis. 

What is meant by the analysis of a subject 1 

By the analysis of a subject is meant the draw- 

* Note to the Teacher. The author has deemed it inexpedient 
to present the formal divisions usually given by rhetoricians. 
He Jias selected such as are essential, and seem properly to fail 
within the province of an elementary work. 


ing out of the various lieads under whicli it is in- 
tended to treat it. 

Will the analysis of all subjects be the samel 

No; the heads will depend altogether on the 

Suppose " Commerce" to be given you as your subject, bow 
would you analyze it 1 

A proper analysis of ^' Commerce" would be as 
follows : 

I. Definition. (What is commerce ?) 
II. Origin. (Under this head state who were the first 
to engage in commerce ; the date ; what other 
nations soon followed in their steps.) 

III. History. (State how commerce was originally car- 

ried on ; describe the over-land trade between 
Europe and the East Indies.) 

IV. Discoveries. (Describe the two important discov- 

eries that were made near the close of the 
15th century, viz., the discovery of America 
by Columbus, and that of a passage to the 
Indies around the Cape of Grood Hope. Men- 
tion their effects on the commerce of the 
V. Advantages. ' 

1. Equalizing the supply of the productions of 
the earth. 

2. Diffusing the blessings of education and civil 

3. Spreading the truths of Christianity. 

When you have a material object to describe, the analysis 
would be somewhat diflferent. Take, for example, " Ships" for 
your subject, and analyze it. 

letter-wkiting. 133 

I. Origin. (When and by whom were the first ships 
II. Appearance. (What was their original form, and 
what improvements have modern times made 
in them?) 

III. Objects for which they are used. 

IV. Inventions that have added to their usefulness. 

(Particularly the mariners' compass, and its 
V. Effects that ships have produced on mankind. 
VI. Feelings excited by seeing a ship under full sail. 

What heads belong to almost every subject 1 

Such general heads as Origin, History, Object, 
Effects, &c. 


Copy the tvs^o analyses given above. 

Analyze the following subjects according to the 
directions and models that have been given, re- 
membering to ponder each subject carefully, and 
to give all the heads, under each, that you can 
think of. 

I. A City. IV. Evening. 

II. Schools. V. Houses. 

Ill A Railroad. VI. WiNTEiL 



What is the first division belonging to prose composition 1 



What makes this an important branch 1 

The necessity tliat exists for all persons, no mat- 
^ter wiiat tlieir business may be, to write letters. 

Upon what subjects are letters most frequently composed 7 
Upon the ordinary topics of business or friendship. 
Is the form of the letter ever used for any other subjects 1 

Yes ; some writers have adopted the letter form 
in the composition of Philosophical Essays, Novels, 
Histories, &c. ; that is, they have published these pro- 
ductions, with an address to some friend, as if they 
had really passed as letters. 

Would compositions of this kind properly fall under the head 
of Letters'? 

No, they should be classed under the division tc 
which they really belong. 

What, then, are properly embraced under the head of Letter- 
Writing, or Epistolary Correspondence, as it is sometimes called 1 

Letters that are really intended for those to 
whom they are addressed. 

What is the principal requisite of a good letter '? 

A simple and concise style. There should be 
no attempt at display. 

What is to be avoided '? 

A tendency to diffaseness, proceeding from a 
fear that there may not be enough to say to fill 
out the sheet. 

Before commencing your letter, what is it best to do ? 

To think over the various su.bjects on which it is 
intended to ^Tite, and draw out the various heads 
on a separate piece of paper. In this way repetition 
will be avoided, and a proper arrangement insured. 

What rule is to be observed with regard to commencing a 
new paragraph in either a letter or any other piece of composition 1 


Commence a new paragraph, whenever it is ne- 
cessary to pass from one head of the letter or subject 
to another. • 

What is the best method of preserving neatness in a letter or 
other composition 1 

Draw two light pencil lines parallel with the 
left edge of the sheet, the first about half an inch, 
the second an inch, distant from it. Commence 
jour first line, and the first line of every successive 
paragraph on the second or inner line ; but carry 
out every other line to the first or outer marginal 
line. When you have completed a page, erase the 
lines neatly with india-rubber."^ 

Describe the date of a letter. 

A letter should always be dated. The date con- 
sists of the name of the place, the day of the month, 
and the year ; thus, Charleston^ January 1, 1850. 

Describe the address of a letter. 

It is proper in the first line of the address to 
give the name and title of the person to whom the 
letter is written ; on the second line, to address a 
gentleman as "Sir," ''Dear Sir," or "My dear Sir" 
— a married lady as "Madam," "Dear Madam," 
or " My dear Madam" — according to th.e different 
degrees of intimacy. 

How is an unmarried lady best addressed 1 

In one line ; as, " My dear Miss ." 

How should a relative, or friend be. addressed 1 

* Note to the teacher. The teacher will find that the observ- 
ance of these directions will conduce much to the neatness of a 
composition. He is requested to explain them to the pupil, and 
is advised to insist on their being followed. 


A relative is properly addressed by tlie name that 
indicates the relationship; as, "My dear Father,'* 
'^My dear Aunt," " My dear ]N'ephew." Or, a rela- 
tive or friend may be addressed by the Christian 
name, if intimacy will allow it; as, "My dear Sa- 
rah," " My dear William." 

Give the proper date and address of a letter to Mr. Henry 


Describe the clause of respect at the close of a letter. 

There are various clauses of respect, appropriate 
to different letters, according to the relative posi- 
tions of the writer and the person addressed. A 
few of the most common are subjoined ; the pupil 
will at once see in what cases each is appropriate. 

t->^ 'i^-t^a^tt'fs^^ . -t^a^z^ *q!!^-^x^ (3^^. 


* Note to the pupil. Observe the punctuation of these signa- 




^■e'ia^ -^^^^^^e^iJi^^-^!^^ ■^-f^t.t^ '^^i^t-ty^^ 't^-ex'e^4<t , 

'g-ea.i-a of^^-^ . 

.fiS^ .£a.i-£^ ^ 


'i <Z-^<*«-<3i&'^ 


f (3^ 


Copy according to tlie directions given above, 
and punctuate, tlie following letter, which is sup- 
posed to have been written from the followiog 
heads, by a young man on a voyage. 

I. Acknowledgment of the reception of letters from home. 

tures. When the initial letter is used for a name, a period should 
l)e placed after it, to denote the abbreviation. A period shonld 
be placed after the surname also. 


IT. Feelings after starting, 
in. Sea-sickness. 
IV. Storm. 

Y. Arrival at Rio Janeiro. 

N.B. In letters of friendship, the first line of the address, con 
taining the name and title, is generally omitted. 

Rio Jafieiro, July ^th^ 1850. 
My dear Father, 

You wlio have been such a traveller 
must know the pleasure afforded one that is separated 
from his family by the receipt of letters from home you 
may therefore imagine my delight on beholding the full 
budget which awaited my arrival here I had hardly 
ventured to hope for letters lest I might be disappointed 
for though we had tarried some time at Trinidad I was 
fearful that no other vessel would have arrived at Rio 
Janeiro before us My apprehensions however were soon 
put to flight by the reception of a most welcome package, 
from which I was glad to see that I had not been for- 
gotten by any member of our little household 

While preparations were being made for my leaving 
home I looked forward to my proposed voyage with ar- 
dent anticipations of pleasure But when the moment 
for starting arrived and I was called upon to bid farewoU 
to all that were nearest and dearest my heart was full of 
sorrow and I bitterly regretted that it had been thought 
best for me to go When the pilot-boat left us and your 
form my dear father gradually faded from my view I 
could no longer restrain my feelings but burst into a 
flood of tears The recollection of the friends and be- 
loved relatives that I had left behind me and of the pos- 
sibility that I might never meet them again on earth 
overwhelmed me with sorrow 


How long these feelings might have continued I do 
not know but on the second day out a fresh breeze sprung 
up the sea became quite rough and my mind was called 
away from its gloomy reflections by a sudden fit of sea- 
sickness Much as I had read in travellers' note-books 
respecting this most disagreeable companion of a sea- 
voyage I did not realize a tithe of its discomfort until I 
became a victim of it myself For three days I lay in 
my berth without tastiiig food in a state of perfect in- 
difference to all that was going on around and heartily 
sorry that I had ever consented 

" to roam 
O'er the dark sea-foam" 

On the morning of our sixth day out I felt a little 
better and though my brain was so dizz}^ that I could 
hardly see and my limbs seemed almost unable to sup- 
port me I attempted to get up Not till then was I 
aware that we were in the midst of a terrible storm The 
vessel was plunging and the timbers were creaking as if 
every instant they must part while ever and ancn above 
the bowlings of the gale were heard the hoarse tones of 
the Captain shouting through his speaking-trumpet to 
the men Full of fear I managed to creep back into my 
berth, and it was not until near evening I learned that 
for the past twenty-four hours we had experienced one 
of the heaviest gales ever known off Cape Hatteras 

The remainder of our voyage was not marked by any 
incident worthy of narration. We arrived here this 
morning and I hasten to dispatch this letter to relieve 
your anxiety. There are as you may suppose many 
interesting objects in this city these together with the 


beautiful bay and the surrounding country I shall At- 
tempt to describe in my next 

Remember me affectionately to each member of out 
family I shall write to them all at the next opportu 
nity For yourself my dear father accept the best 
wishes and grateful love of 

Your affectionate son 

Jacob Perry, Jr. 



What is requisite in business letters 1 

Business letters should be as short as possible, 
and confined strictly to the subject in hand. 
Give an example of the proper form of address to a Firm. 

The folio vnng is an example of the proper form. 

^<^-rf'^. 'y -^i.^-^:^'i 

How sliould a letter be folded '? 

As envelopes are now generally used for inclo- 
sing letters, the most convenient way of folding is 
as follows: as the sheet lies before you, turn up 
the bottom until its edge exactly hes upon the edge 
at the top, and make a fold in the middle. The 
sheet is now in an oblong form. Bring the side 
that is at your right hand towards your body, and 
fold over about one-third of the letter towards tha 
top ; finally, turn as much of the upper part over 



in tHe opposite direction, and the sheet is properly 
folded for inclosing in an envelope.* 

What is meant by the superscription of a letter 1 

The direction on the outside, consisting of the 
name of the person addressed, the name of the 
place and the state in which he lives ; thus : 




In the superscription, what common error must be avoided % 

The use of two titles that imply the same thing. 
Thus, instead of directing to '■^Mr. William Walton, 
Esq.^'' we should direct either to " Jir. William 
Walton," or to " William Walton, ^sg." 

Correct the following direction : Dr. James Purple. M. D." 


Write a letter according to the analysis given 
below. Follow the directions for dating, address- 
ing, folding, and superscribing ; above all, let your 
letter contain no bad spelling or incorrect punctu- 
ation. The pupil will imagine that he is writing 
from a boarding school, in Salem, Massachusetts, 
to a sister at home, in New- York city. 

* 'Note. As a practical illustration seems necessary, the 
teacher is requested to fold a sheet for the pupil according to 
these directions. 

142 first lessons in composition. 


I, Acknowledge receipt of a letter from home, and 

state the feelings it awakened. 
II. Describe the weather, and state its effect on the 
spirits and amusements of the scholars. 
III. Give an account of the daily routine of exercises 

in the school. 
TV. Describe the teacher. 

Y. State when the next holiday occurs ; how it is an- 
ticipated by the scholars ; how they will spend 
it ; state your feelings with regard to your an- 
ticipated return home. 



Write a letter from PoTiglikeepsie, N. Y., to 
your grandmotlier at Danburj, Conn., according 
to the following analysis. Date, &c., as directed. 
Do not use the words of the analysis, where it can 
be avoided. 

I. Express satisfaction at having heard, through your 
father, who has just returned from Danbury, 
that her health continues good ; hope that you 
may see her before long, so as to judge for 

II. Tell her that the Hudson River Railroad is now 
finished as far as Poughkeepsie ; mention the 
results — increase of travel ; excitement caused 
by the frequent passage of the cars ; greater 


facility of communication with New-York, par- 
ticularly in winter when the river is frozen ; &c. 

III. Oive an account of the way in which you spend 
Sunday ; describe the place of worship which 
you attend. Describe your new clergyman. 
Tell what his text was last Sunday, and de- 
scribe his sermon. 

TV. Ask your grandmother to write to you often, and 
to state in her next letter when she will come 
to Poughkeepsie ; state how glad you will be to 
see her, and what amusements you have devised 
to interest her. 



What is the second division embraced under the head of 
prose composition '? 

In what does description consist "? 

Description consists in noting down the cliarac- 
teristics or peculiarities of any particular object. 

To write a description, what is necessary % 

For tlie writer to be familiar with, what lie is at- 
tempting to describe. 

Do descriptions admit of analysis 1 

Yes ; all subjects of composition do. 

Before commencing your description, then, what will it be 
best to do 1 

To analyze tbe subject, according to tbe direc- 
tions already given.* 

* Note to the teacher.— It will be well for the teacher to iuisi.'jt 


What objects admit of description 1 

All objects that meet the eye. 

What are the three classes of objects that writers are most 
frequently called on to describe 1 

I. Material objects ; such, as houses^ ships^ &o. 
II. Natural scenery. 
III. Persons. 

In describing the first of these classes, material objects, what 
heads will generally be foun^ appropriate 'i 

All of the following heads may not be appro- 
priate in each case, but a selection may be made of 
such as are. 

I. The place where the object was seen ; the tima 
when it was made, invented, or discovered ; its 
II. The purpose for which it was designed, 
III. The materials of which, and the persons by whom, 

it was made. 
lY. Its form, size, and general appearance. 
y. Compare it with any other object which it may re- 
yi. The effects it has produced. 
VII. The feelings excited by beholding it. 


Copy and punctuate the following description ; 
observe its characteristics carefully. Use capital 
letters where they are required. 

that an analysis be drawn up, in all cases, before the pupil pro- 
ceeds to his composition. Besides imparting precision to the 
mind, this practice will insure a proper arrangement in the com- 


Ihe great clock of STRASBURG. 

There is no subject that i can think of which will be 
«o likely to interest you as the great astronomical clock 
which i saw the other day in the cathedral at strasburg, 
this cathedral by the way is one of the finest and oldest 
in europe. it is twenty-four feet higher than the great 
pyramid in egypt and one hundred and forty feet higher 
than st pauls in Ion don. the astronomical clock stands 
in the inside in one corner of it and is a most imposing 
and beautiful edifice, five or six hundred people visit it 
every day at twelve o'clock when it performs some ex- 
traordinary feats which I shall presently mention 

There have been two or three clocks in the same 
place upon the model of which the present one is formed 
but it is almost a new one. it was constructed in 1838 
by a mechanic named schwilque to whom a festival was 
given by his fellow-citizens on the occasion of its com- 

To give you some idea of the size of this clock i will 
inform you that it is as high and about as wide as the 
old State-house in Washington street boston there are 
means oi going into the inside of it and ten or fifteen 
people perhaps more may stand in its very heart and ex- 
amine the machinery mr neale two other gentlemen and 
myself with the conductor went into it and spent about 
an hour there we went first into a lower then into a 
higher and then into a still higher apartment of it and saw 
the various parts of the machinery they consisted i should 
think of more than a thousand pieces splendidly polished 
and all dependent for their harmonious action upon the 
short thick brass pendulum which swings in the centre 
This clock points out net only the hour« and thp 


days "but the timW and tlie seasons tlie revolutions of the 
stars the solar and lunar equations the conjunctions and 
eclipses of the heavenly bodies their positions at any 
given time and the various changes through which they 
pass for thousands of years it points out apparent time 
mean or real time and ecclesiastical time on its face 
you see the motions of the stars of the sun and planets 
of the moon and her satellites two little cherubs who 
sit the one on one side the other on the other strike the 
quarters of the hour death strikes the hour with a mace 
while four figures pass and repass before him represent- 
ing the various stages of human life 

Every day when death strikes twelve the apostles 
who are represented each with the sign of his martyrdom 
come out from the clock and pass before an image of the 
saviour bowing as they pass and receiving his benediction 
which he gives with a movement 'of the head when the 
apostle peter makes his appearance a gilded cock which 
is perched on one side of the clock flaps his wings raises 
his head and crows so long and so loud as to make the 
whole cathedral ring again this he repeats three times 
in memorial of the cock that crowed three times before 
the fall of Peter during the crucifixion of our saviour 
of course the cock makes no further noise or motion till 
the next day at twelve o'clock when he repeats the same 
loud and startling crow flapping his wings and raising 
his head 

Now i dare say you will all exclaim what a wonderful 
clock what a wonderful man must he be that made it but let 
us remember how much more wonderful are the mechan- 
'*im of the universe and the god who made it how won- 
derful that being who made us and all mankind and keeps 
the whole universe going and every heart beating from day 


to day and from year to year '• Lo tKese are but a part 
of his ways but the thunder of his power who can un- 



Write a description of A Ship according to 
tlie analysis given on page 133, omitting tiie third 
and fourth heads entirely, and enlarging on the 
second and sixth. 


In describing natural scenery, what heads is it best to take 1 
Selections may be made from the following : 
1. The circumstances under which it was seen; 
whether at sunrise, at noon, or by moonlight ; 
the effect, &c. 
II. The natural features of the scene ; whether level 
or undulating ; whether fertile or barren, &c. ' 
Til. The improvements made by man ; whether well 
cultivated ; whether any buildings are in sight ; 
if so, describe them. 
lY. The figures in the scene ; if any human beings, 
describe them. 
V. The neighboring inhabitants ; their character, pe* 
culiarities, &-c. 


VI The sounds that meet the ear ; as, the murmur of 
a stream, the noise of a waterfall, the rustling 
of the leaves under the influence of the wind, 
the lowing of cattle, the harking of dogs, the 
singing of birds, the cries of children ; the 
sounds of industry, such as the noise of ma- 
chinery, &c. 
VII. The distant prospect. 

VIII. A comparison with any other scene which it may 
IX. The historical associations connected with the 

X. The feelings which the view awakened in the 

Is it necessary for these heads to be considered in the order 
given above *? 

No, they may be taken in any order that may 
suit tlie convenience of the writer. 


Copj and punctuate tlie following description 
written by Sir Walter Scott. Observe its charac- 
teristics. Use capitals where they are required. 

An ancient Yorkshire forest scene. 

" in that pleasant district of merry england which is 
watered by the river don there extended in ancient times 
a large forest covering the greater part of the beautiful 
hills and valleys which lie between Sheffield and the 
pleasant town of doncaster. the remains of this exten- 
sive wood are still to be seen at the noble seats of went- 
worth of wharncliffe park and around rotherham here 


haunted of yofe the fabulous dragon of wantley here 
were fought many of the most desperate battles during 
the civil wars of the roses and here also flourished in 
ancient times those bands of gallant outlaws whose deeds 
have beeii rendered so popular in english song. * * * * 
the sun was setting upon one of the rich grassy glades 
of the forest that has been mentioned, nundreds oi 
broad-headed short-stemmed wide-branched oaks which 
had witnessed perhaps the stately march of the roman 
soldiery flung their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of 
the most delicious greensward in some places they were 
intermingled with beeches hollies and copsewood of va- 
rious descriptions so closely as totally to intercept the 
level beams of the sinking sun in others they receded 
from each other forming those long sweeping vistas in 
the intricacy of which the eye delights to lose itself while 
imagination considers them as the paths to yet wilder 
scenes of sylvan solitude, here the red rays of the sun 
shot a broken and discolored light that partially hung 
upon the shattered boughs and mossy trunks of the trees 
and there they illuminated in brilliant patches the por- 
tions of turf to which they made their way. a consider- 
able open space in the midst of this glade seemed for- 
merly to have been dedicated to the rites of druidical 
supeistition for on the summit of a hillock so regular as 
to seem artificial there still remained part of a circle of 
rough unhewn stones of large dimensions, seven stood 
upright the rest had been dislodged from their places 
probably by the zeal of some convert to Christianity and 
lay some prostrate near their former site and others on 
the side of the hill, one large stone only had found its 
way to the bottom and in stopping the course of a small 
brook which glided smoothly round the foot of the emi- 


nenee gave by its opposition a feeble voice of murmur to 
the placid and elsewhere silent streamlet. 

tlie human figures which completed this landscape 
were in number two partaking in their dress and appear- 
ance of that wild and rustic character which belonged to 
the woodlands of the west riding of yorkshire at that 
early period. 

(Here follows a description of the persons.") 


Write a description of the " Scene from Fort 
Lee Bluff," according to the hints in the following 
analysis. Do not use the words of the book, but 
express the thoughts in your own language. 

L Alone ; sunrise ; appearance of the sun as he 
gradually emerges above the eastern horizon. 
11. Eye rests first on the Hudson flowing at the base 
of the bluff; effect of water on a landscape. . On 
the opposite side, a fine country, hill and valley, 
studded with villages. 
IIL While in the distance many evidences of cultiva- 
tion meet the eye of one looking eastward, on 
the west is an unbroken forest, not even an 
occasional house; one might suppose that he 
were in a wilderness far from civilization, were 
it not for one evidence of human mdustry and 
ingenuity, a high post for the telegraph wire, 
which here crosses the river. Remarks on this 
great enterprise. ' 

L>J£SCEIPiluX. 151 

lY. No person in view; sloops with white sails, look 
like large birds. 

V, While the eye is thus pleased, the ear is no less 
delighted; describe some of the sounds that 
usually meet the ear in the country on a sum- 
mer morning. 

VI. Feelings awakened ; contrast with the excitement 
of a city life ; the grandeur and beauty of the 
scene lead the mind to the Creator, and a thanks- 
giving goes up to Him from the heart — (for 
- what?) 



In what varieties of composition is the writer most frequently 
called on to describe persons 1 

In biographical sketches, travels, history, and 

In describing persons, what heads is it best to take 1 

A selection may be made from the following. 
I. Person ; whether tall or short, fieshy or thin. 
II. Dress. 
III. Face ; features ; expression^ 
lY. Manners ; whether dignified, graceful, awkward, 

active, indolent, haughty, or affable. 
Y. Any peculiarity of appearance. 

Copy and pnnctnate the following description of 
" Leather-stocking," extracted from one of Cooper's 



" There was a peculiarity in the manner of the hunter 
that struck the notice of the young female who had been 
a close and interested observer of his appearance and 
equipments from the moment he first came into view 
He was tall and so meagre as to make him seem above 
even the six feet that he actually stood in his stockings 
On his head which was thinly covered with lank sandy 
hair he wore a cap made of fox-skin His face was skinny 
and thin almost to emaciation but yet bore no signs of 
disease on the contrary it had every indication of the 
most robust and enduring health The cold and the ex- 
posure had together given it a color of uniform red his 
gray eyes were glancing under a pair of shaggy brows 
that overhung them in long hairs of gray mingled with 
their natural hue his scraggy neck was bare and burnt 
to the same tint with his face though a small part of a 
shirt-collar made of the country check was to be seen 
above the over-dress he wore A kind of coat made of 
dressed deer-skin with the hair on was belted close to his 
lank body by a girdle of colored worsted On his feet 
were deer-skin moccasins ornamented with porcupines' 
quills after the manner of the Indians and his limbs 
were guarded with long leggings of the same material 'as 
the moccasins which • gartering over the knees of his tar- 
nished buck-skin breeches had obtained for him among 
the settlers the nick-name of Leather-stocking notwith- 
standing his legs were protected beneath in winter by 
thick garments of woollen duly made of good blue yarn 
Over his left shoulder was slung a belt of deer-skin from 
which depended an enormous ox-horn so thinly scraped 
as to discover the dark powder that it contained The 


larger end was fitted ingeniously and securely with a 
wooden bottom and the other was stopped tight by a 
little plug A leathern pouch hung before him from 
which as he concluded his last speech he took a small 
measure and filling it accurately with powder he com- 
menced reloading the rifle which as its butt rested on 
the snow before him reached nearly to the top of his 
fox-skin cap" 


Exercises in Description. 
"Write descriptions of 

A Eail-Eoad. 
The Country in Summer. 

[N. B, The pupil is expected in every case to prepare an 
analysis of his subject, before he proceeds to the composition it- 
self. This will not, therefore, be repeated any more in the direc- 
tions. If he meet with difficulty in drawing out his analyses, 
it will be wel for him to review Lesson LXIII., which treats of 
that subject.] 



What is the third division embraced under the head of prose 
composition '? 


In what does narration consist 1 

In giving a deti'iled acconnt of incidents wliich 


have taken place, or wliicli tlie writer imagines to 
have taken place. 

When the incidents have no foundation in fact, but are created 
by the imagination of the writer, what is the composition called 1 


"What are the principal divisions embraced under the general 
head of fiction 1 

Tales, Novels, and Eomances. 

When confined to fact, what are the principal divisions em- 
braced under the head of narration 1 

I. History ; or, an account of general incidents. 
II. Biography ; or, an account of the incidents 
that have happened in the lives of indi- 
m. Travels and Yoyages; or, accounts of inci- 
dents that have happened to persons while 
away from home, or while traversing the 

In narration, must we confine ourselves strictly to an account 
of the incidents 1 

No ; we may with advantage introduce descrip- 
tions of scenes, and of the persons concerned. 

In narration, what is particularly necessary 1 

That the sentences be clear, and the connection 
between the parts be properly maintained. 


Copy and punctuate the following specimen of 
historical narration, which is based on the Scrip- 
tural account of Belshazzar's Feast in the 5th 
chapter of the book of Daniel. The pupil is re- 
quested to t^irn to this chapter ; he will find that 


the language used in tlie extract below is entirely 
different from that of the Bible. From this he will 
understand what is meant, when, in following an 
outline given in the book, he is (Erected to v^e his 
own language. 

Belshazzar's Feast 

" It was night but the usual stillness of that hour waa 
broken by the sounds of feasting and revelry It had 
been a festival day in Babylon and the inhabitants had 
not yet sunk into repose The song and the dance still 
continued and the voice of music was heard All seemed 
in perfect security and no precautions had been taken to 
avoid the danger which hung over their devoted heads 
An invading army was even then surrounding the walls 
of the cit}^ but those who ought to have defended it con- 
fident and secure left it unguarded and exposed to the 
attacks of the enemy Fear was excluded even from the 
walls of the palace and the monarch was giving his own 
example of rioting and mirth to his subjects A thou- 
sand of the noblest lords in his kingdom were feasting 
with him as his invited guests They had ' already tar- 
ried long at the wine' when Belshazzar in the pride and 
impiety of his heart commanded the servants to bring 
the silver and golden vessels which had been taken by 
his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar from the temple at Je- 
rusalem They were brought and filled with wine and 
as they drank it they extolled their gods of wood and of 

But while they were thus sacrilegiously employed 
their mirth was suddenly changed into amazement and 
consternation A hand like that of a man was seen to 


write upon the wall of the palace and acs they gazed upoij 
it it traced the sentence ' Mene, Men*e, Tekel, Upharsin' 
No one among the vast company understood its meaning 
but to their affrighted imagination it was full of porten- 
tous import The king who was e^iceedingly terrified 
sent in haste for all the astrologers And those persons in 
whose powers of divination he had been accustomed to 
place confidence but none could explain the mysterious 
warning "^^ 

At this juncture the queen entered and informed the 
king that Daniel was in the city and that he was sup- 
posed to possess the wisdom of the gods He was hastily 
summoned into the royal presence and after reproving 
the trembling monarch for the pride which he had mani- 
fested revealed to him the doom which was pronounced 
upon him He told him that his kingdom and his own 
life were nearly at a clo*e that his empire should be di- 
vided between the Modes and Persians and also that hia 
own character had been examined and found lamentably 

The reward which had been promised was now be- 
stowed upon Daniel He was arrayed in a kingly robe 
adorned with a golden chain and proclaimed the third in 
authority in the kingdom Ere the next rising sun Bel- 
shazzar was numbered with the dead" 


Exercise in Historical Narration. 

Write in your oiun language an account of "Tbe 
Casting of Daniel into the Den of Lions," from the 


facts recorded in the 6th chapter of the book of 
Daniel. Attach to it such reflections on the pre- 
servation of Daniel, and the destruction of his 
wicked enemies, as suggest themselyes to your 
mind. ^ 


Exercises in Historical Narration. 

Write m your oiun language an extended ac- 
count of the incidents described in the foUomng 
outlines. In doing this you may have occasion to 
follow the directions given in Lessons XLIIL, 

Roman Virtue. 

Pyrrhus was king of Epirus, The Samnites were at 
war with Rome; they invited Pyrrhus to help them. 
He accepted their invitation. The physician of Pyrrhus 
was a bad man ; he told the Romans that, for a large 
reward, he would poison his master. Fabricius was the 
Roman general ; he was an honorable man ; he was 
shocked at the physician's treachery, and sent the traitor 
away with scorn, saying, " We should be honorable even to 
our enemies." Pyrrhus heard of this ; he would not be 
outdone in generosity ; be sent his prisoners to Rome 
without ransom, and consented to negotiate a peace. 

[Close with reflections on the "baseness of such treachery, and 
the pohcy of always pursuing an honorable course, as the Ro- 
mans did on this occasion.] 


The Disobedient Captain. 

Frederick 11., the Great, king of Prussia, was a famons 
warrior ; remarkable for strict discipline. In one of his 
campaigns he intended, during the night, to make an 
important movement ; gave orders that ev^ light in 
the camp should be put out at eight o'clock, on pain of 
death. At that hour he went out himself, to see if the 
order was obeyed. Saw one light ; in the tent of Cap- 
tain Zietern ; king entered ; Zietern -^as folding a letter. 
Zietern was dismayed at beholding the king ; threw him- 
self on his knees and implored pardon ; said he was 
writing to his wife, and had retained the candle to finish 
his letter. The king told him to go on, and write one 
line more which he would dictate to him ; that line was 
to inform his wife that by sunrise the next day he would 
be a dead man. The letter was sent; at the appointed 
time Zietern was executed. 

[Close with reflections on tlie necessity and policy of obe- 


What is a biographical sketch 1 

. A biograpliical sketcli is a narration of the prin- 
cipal events in the life of an inclividnal. 

What is it proper to include in a biographical sketch 1 

A description of the person nnder consideration, 

according to the heads given in Lesson LXXI. 
What other particulars are to be considered in a biographical 

sketch 1 


I. Birth, condition in life, vocation. 

II. Cliaracter, disposition. 

III. Mental abilities, leading characteristics of 


IV. Successive events, beginning at the earliest 

period of life. 

V. His peculiarities, or what rendered him fa- 


How do biographical sketches rank among other pieces of 
composition 1 

They are among the most interesting and useful. 

What renders them useful 1 

Thej are useful, because the lives of the most dis- 
tinguished men teach us that a course of uprightness 
and industry secures the respect of the world, and 
that idleness and vice brmg their votaries to suf- 
fering and disgrace. 

What length is proper for biographical sketches 1 

They may be of any length. Some men's lives 
are so eventful as to furnish sufficient matter for 
volumes. When brevity is required, only a few 
of the leading facts may be presented, and the whole 
may be so abridged as to occupy but a few pages, 
or be reduced even to the compass of a single page. 


Copy and punctuate the following specimen of a 
biographical sketch. 


'• Mahomet was born at Mecca in 569 A D The 
tribe from which he descended was that of the Korash- 


ites and tlie most noble in Arabia His immediate an- 
cestors seem however to have been undistinguished and 
though his natural talents were great it is certain that 
his education was inconsiderable He acquired know 
ledge but not from books Intercourse with mankind 
had sharpened his faculties and given him an insight into 
the human heart ^ 

In 609 when he was about 40 years old he began to 
concert a system of measures the issue of which was the 
establishment of a new religion in the world and of an 
empire which spreading over many countries lasted more 
than six centuries The religion still remains 

His impostures were not at first well received The 
citizens of Mecca even opposed them Forsaking his na- 
tive city where his life was in jeopardy he fled to Medina 
at the epoch called by the Mahometans the hegira or 
flight which was m the year 622 By the aid of his dis- 
ciples at Medina he returned to Mecca as a conqueror 
and making numerous proselytes he soon became master 
of Arabia and Syria and was saluted as king in 627 

The main arguments which Mahomet employed to 
persuade men to embrace his religion were promises and 
threats which he knew would easily work on the minds 
of the multitude His promises related chiefly to Para- 
dise and to the sensual delights to be enjoyed in that 
region of pure waters shady groves and exquisite fruits 
Such a heaven had strong charms for the Arabians whose 
burning climate made them regard images of this sort 
with excessive pleasure His threats on the other hand 
were peculiarly terrific to this people Those who re- 
jected his religion were in the next world to drink rotbing 
but putrid and boiling water to breathe nothing but ex- 
ceedingly hot winds they were to dwell for ever in con- 


tinual fire intensely burning and be surrounded with a 
black hot salt smoke as with a coverlet 

Mahomet was distinguished for the beauty of his per- 
son he had a commanding presence a majestic aspect 
piercing eyes a flowing beard and his whole countenance 
depicted the strong emotions of his mind His memory 
was retentive his wit easy and his judgment clear and 
decisive In his intercourse with society he observed th 
forms of that grave and ceremonious politeness so com- 
mon in his country 

Mahomet persisted in his fanaticism to the last On 
his death-bed he asserted that the angel of death was not 
allowed to take his soul till he had respectfully asked the 
permission of the prophet The request being granted 
Mahomet fell into the agony of dissolution he fainted 
with the violence of pain but recovering his spirits in a 
degree he raised his eyes upwards and looking stead- 
fastly said with a faltering voice God pardon my sins 
Yes I come among my fellow-citizens on high and in 
this manner expired" 


Exercise in Biographical Narration. 

Write, in your own language^ a biograpliical 
sketcli of Newton from the facts furnislied below. 
You may adopt whatever arrangement is most con* 

Sir Isaac Newton. 

The most illustrious philosopher and mathematician 
that ever livsd. Born, 1642, at Woolsthorpe, Lincoln- 


shire,' England. Lost his father when very young ; his 
mother took great care of his early education. At 18, 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge; here he devoted 
himself to mathematics ; displayed great ability in the 
various ]^ranches of that science. At 22, discovered the 
method jof fluxions, which, however, he afterwards greatly 
simplified and improved. Next, made important im- 
provements in telescopes, by the grinding of optical 
glasses. Next, began to investigate the prism, and put 
forth a new theory respecting light and colors. His 
next discovery startled the whole world— rthis was the 
, principle of gravitation. He was led to this by seeing 
an apple fall, while he was reclining under a tree in an 
orchard ; his inquiring mind at once set about investi- 
gating the cause. His great work entitled " Principia," 
was published in 1687 ; this added much to his reputa- 
tion, and procured him the respect of the learned and 
scientific of all countries. The friendship of Lord Hali- 
fax obtained for him the lucrative situation of master of 
the mint. 

At 80 he became affected with a painful disease, which, 
five years later, proved fatal. Suffered great agony 
during the last five weeks of his life ; bore it patiently ; 
even smiled, while the paroxysms caused large drops of 
sweat to roll down his cheeks. 

Newton was amiable ; a Christian ; studied the Bible 
much. Always rebuked irreverence. He was of mid- 
dling height ; his countenance, venerable and pleasant. 
His power of mind is universally admitted. A great 
writer has said that, if the learned men of all ages could 
meet in one assembly, they would choose Sir Isaac New- 
ton for their president. 

FICTIOK. 1(66 


What is fiction 1 

Fiction is a species of composition in wliicb 
events are narrated that have no foundation ex- 
cept in the imagination of the writer. 

What makes fiction interesting '? 

Striking scenes, and novel combinations of 

Repeat the three divisions that are embraced under the head 
of fiction. * 

Tales, novels, and romances. 

What is the difference between a tale and a novel 1 

A novel is longer than a tale. 

What is the difference between a novel and a romance 1 

A novel is founded on events that resemble 
those of real life ; Vhile a romance is a narration 
of wilder and more unnatural incidents. 

In fiction, what other species of composition may be intro- 
duced with advantage 1 

Description and historical narration. 

An extract illustrative of fiction is unnecessary, as the pupil 
will recognize specimens of it in the various stories and fairy- 
tales which he has read. 

Imagine that you had an encounter with ban- 
ditti, while travelling in Italy, and write an account 
of it according to the following hints. 

The Bandit of the Apennines. 
Describe the scene ; pass in the Apennines ; night j 


moon struggling with clouds. I was travelling in a large 
comfortable carriage ; cold ; sleepy. 

Suddenly carriage stopped. Voices ; oaths ; traces 
cut ; door opened ; ferocious fellow masked ; presented 
pistol ; demanded money. Felt for pistols ; not in their 
piaee ; must have been removed by postillion ; in league 
with the banditti. Had to give up money and jewels. 

One ring had been given me by my mother ; prized 
it much ; asked the leader to let me retain it ; he handed 
it to me with a polite bow, so much like the courteous 
salutation of the inn-keeper at the last stopping-place, 
that I could not help fancying that they were one and 
the same man. 

Stripped me of all they could get ; tied me to a tree ; 
shouted ; did no good. Was obliged to stay there till 
morning ; a Count passed by with a large retinue of ser- 
vants. Eeleased me. 

Six months after this was in Florence. There was 
to be a public execution. I happened to be out, and 
met the procession that was conducting the criminal to 
the gallows. They told me that he was one of the most 
daring bandits of the Apennines. Our eyes met ; with 
imperturbable politeness he rose in the car, all manacled 
as he was, and made me that same bow to which T could 
have sworn among a thousand. It was no other than 
my host of the mountain inn, and my polite friend of the 
mountain pass. It was his last bow ; in less than an 
hour his body was dangling from the gallows. 

ESSAYS. 165 



What is tlie third division embraced under the head of prose 


What is an essay 1 

An essay is a composition, generally on some 
abstract subject, devoted rather to an investigation 
of causes, effects, &c., than to an examination of 
visible and material peculiarities. 

May essays ever contain description or narration 1 
Yes; brief descriptions and narrations may be 
introduced into essays with advantage. 

In essays, what heads is it proper to take 7 
Almost any that occur to the mind. 
What name has been given to essays that treat of the princi- 
ples of art. science, or moral truth *? 

Philosophical essays. 


Write an essay on Commerce according to the 
analysis given on page 132. It will be seen that 
the second, third, and fourth heads will introduce 
some historical narration ; but this is not objection- 


"Write an essay on Friendship, according to the 
folio \^dng analysis. 


I. Definition. (What is friendship ?) 
II. OpwIgin. (Friendship took its rise in the social feel- 
ings implanted in the breast of man.) 
III. Antiquity. (Existed in the earliest times ; much 
regarded by the- ancients ; Cicero composed a 
volume on it.) 
IV". Instances. (David and Jonathan ; Damon and 
Pythias ; &c. You may briefly relate the story 
of Damon and Pythias, if you are familiar with 
it.) ' . 

V. Necessity. (What would be the state of society 

without friendship ?) 

VI. Effects. 



What is the fifth division embraced under the head of prosa 
composition 1 

Argumentative discourses. 

What is an argumentative discourse 1 

An argumentative discourse is a composition in 
wliich. the writer lays dov^n a proposition, and at- 
tempts to persuade others that it is true. 

What are the facts and reasons which a v^riter brings for 
ward to sustain his position, called ] 


What are argumentative discourses called when delivered 
before popular assemblies 1 

When on sacred subjects, they are called sei 


mons; when on other subjects, speeches or ora- 

In the orations and argumentative discourses of the ancients, 
what formal divisions were adopted 1 

Six regular divisions were adopted, viz. : 
I. The Exordium, or introduction; in which 
the speaker strove to make his hearers at- 
tentive, and disposed to receive his argu- 

n. The Division, in which the speaker stated 
the plan he intended to pursue in treating 
the subject. 

m. The Statement, in which the subject and 
the facts connected with it, were laid open. 

TV. The Eeasoning, in which the arguments 
were, set forth in order, the weakest being 
generally in the middle, and in which the 
reasoning of opponents was refuted. 
Y. The Appeal to the feelings, one of the most 
important divisions of the discoiirse. 

VI. The Peroration, in which the speaker sum- 
med up all that had been said, and brought 
his discourse to a close. 

Is it customary to adopt this arrangement and division in dis- 
courses at the present day 1 

It is with some speakers- but others use less 
formal divisions. There are many excellent dis- 
courses, in which several of these parts are alto- 
gether wanting. 

Copy and punctuate the following specimen of 


a short argumentative discourse. It will be seen 
that tlie regular division is not strictly adhered to. 

Happiness is not always the Reward of Virtue. 

In contemplating the maxims of the ancient Stoic 
philosophers we cannot help being struck with the sound- 
ness of their principles and the stern requirements of 
their moral code Yet there is one of their propositions 
to which we cannot yield assent and that is that tempo- 
ral happiness is the necessary consequence of virtue So 
important a question one on which so many issues and 
those the practical issues of life are staked is well worthy 
of discussion 

In treating the question it is well understood that 
prejudices will have to be combated and removed for 
there are many who without having looked closely at the 
subject have followed the ancient Stoics and because it 
IS a convenient creed to teach and one which it is be- 
lieved will lead to the practice of virtue have sought to 
inculcate this selfish principle A regard for virtue 
should be instilled by higher arguments than this virtue 
should be practised because it is a duty because it is the 
command of Grod 

In the first place I lay down the proposition that there 
is no necessary connection between virtue and happiness 
To the ancients who knew not that the soul was immortal it 
may have seemed necessary that the patient self-denial 
the forgiving charity and the active benevolence of virtue 
should be rewarded in this world but we who live in the 
light of a revelation from on high know that there is a 
hereafter and look to that infinite cycle of ages not to 
this finite state of probation for that degree of reward 
which virtue may procure ^ 


But again no one can deny that it is an important 
principle of our religious system that the virtuous and 
the pious should be put to the trial and that afflictions 
and crosses are sent by the Omnipotent to test the sta- 
bility of their faith and practice As Job a man that 
" feared God and eschewed evil'' was tried by visitations 
from on high so have the good of all ages been obliged 
to submit to similar probation Yiewed in this light it 
would seem that trisl is peculiarly in this world the lot 
of virtue the necessary preparation to be made in time 
by those who would enjoy a blissful eternity 

But those who with the poet believe that 

" Virtue alone is happiness below" 

point Gs to the pleasures of a quiet conscience and the 
peace which a knowledge of the performance of duty brings 
with it It is admitted that these are great blessings 
and that without them happiness cannot exist but are 
they alone sufficient to make a man happy Can the 
quietest conscience in the universe remove the pangs of 
hunger alleviate the sufferings of the sick or comfort 
the mourner The experience of the world will answer 
no There are many Jobs there are many good but un- 
happy men 

To go a step further to say what is necessary to in- 
sure happiness to point to religion the hope of that which 
is to come as an anchor to which the soul may cling 
" amid a sea of trouble" would be foreign to the question 
In view of the arguments we have advanced in view of 
the striking argument furnished by our own experience 
we think we may fairly conclude that 

*• Virtue alone is" not ■' happiness below." 





[The pupil is now familiar with the principal kinds of com- 
position. All that remains to complete the course, is one or two 
lessons on the principal figures.] 

When we say, " Saladdin loas a fox in the council, a lion in tJie 
field,'' do we mean that he actually became at one time a fox, 
and at another a lion 1 

No; we mean that he was cunning in laying 
plans, and bold in executing them. 

When language is used in this way to represent not the ideas 
which the words reaUy express, but some thought that is analo- 
gous or has some resemblance to them, how is it said to be used 1 


What are the principal figures "? 

Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. 

What is simile 1 

Simile is a figure by which we liken one thing 
to another. 

Give an example. 

" Oood nature, like the sun, sheds a light on all 

In making similes, what must we observe 1 

That the objects compared have a resemblance. 

What words are used to introduce simfles 1 

lAJce and as. 

For what two purposes are similes used 1 

Similes are used, 
I. For illustrating or explaining the meaning 

such similes are called explaining similes. 
11. For embellishing the style ; they are then 

allied embellishing similes. 


What rules are to "be observed in using- similes 1 

I. Objects tliat are little known sliould be com- 
pared with, things that are better known. 
n. Objects should be likened to other objects 
which possess the quality in which they 
resemble each other in a higher degree 
than themselves; thus, in the sentence, 
" The moon is like a jeioel in the sTcy^^^ the 
simile is bad, because the moon sheds more 
light than a jewel, and should not be com- 
pared with it. 


Complete the following sentences by introducing 
a simile wherever a dash occurs. Kemember that 
similes are introduced by the words like and as. 

Example. Temptations, , beset him on every 


Completed. Temptations, like so many snares^ beset 
him on every side. 

1. He who is a traitor to his country is — - — which 
turns to bite the bosom that warms it, 

2. Richelieu upheld the state which supports 

the weight of a whole edifice. 

3. Anger consumes the heart. 

4. Her eyes shed a mild radiance on all around 

5. Her brow was — — fair, 

Her cheeks red. 

6. Satan goes about , seeking whom he may de- 

7. A virtuous man slandered by his enemies, is 


8. She was as unsuspicious which " licks the 

hand just raised to shed its blood." 

9. She mourns which has lost its mate. 

10. Sorrow shades the soul, as a cloud . 

11. He is as firm which rears its head unmoved 

above^the billows. 

12. Man is which to day springeth up and bloom- 

eth, and to-morrow withereth away. 

13. Shakspeare tells us that Desdemona's skin was as 
Fhite as , and as smooth . 

14. He stood silent and motionless . 



What is the most common figure 1 


What is metaphor % 

Metaphor is a comparison in wbicli the words 
denoting the similitude are omitted; as, " Good na- 
ture is a sun which sheds light on all around J' 

HoTv may a simile be converted into a metaphor ? 

By omitting the wc^rd like or as, and slightly- 
altering the construction of the sentence, as may be 
required by this omission. 

Give an example. 

" Vice like a Siren^ sings her songs in the ears of 
youth y" here we have a simile. By omitting like. 
and slightly altering the sentence, we convert the 
simile into a metaphor ; thus, " Vice is a Siren thai 
sings her songs in the ears of youth." 


What is essential to the effect of a metaphor 1 

That the resemblance between the objects com- 
pared should be evident. 

Is it well to crowd a number of metaphors together into a 
small compass 1 

It is not ; they lose their effect, when used in 
too great abundance. 

What is the most important rule relating to the use of meta- 
phors ] 

Always carry out the figure ; that is after hav- 
ing introduced a metaphor, do not in the same sen- 
tence return to the use of plain language. 

Give an example in which this rule is violated. 

Pope, in his translation of Homer's Odyssey, 
makes Penelope, when speaking of her son, say, 

" Now from my fond embrace by tempests torn, 
Our other column of the state is borne, 
Nor took a kind adieu, nor sought consent." 

In the second line she calls her son a "column of 
the state," and in the third speaks of his taking a 
kind adieUj and seeking consent. Kow as colwnns are 
not in the habit of taking kind adieus^ or seeking 
consent^ there is an inconsistency, and the metaphor 
is faulty. The poet should either not have likened 
him to a column, or else should have assigned to 
him no action that a column cannot perform. 

How may such metaphors be corrected % 

By assigning to the leading object an action no* 
incompatible with the object to which it is com 

Give an example. 

"J. torrent of swperstition consumed the landf^ here 


the metaplior woiild be faulty because torrents do 
not consume. We correct it by assigning to tlie 
leading object an action not incompatible wftli tlie 
nature of torrents; tbus, "J. torrent of su;persiition 
floweid over the landy 

What other rule must be observed with regard to metaphors % 

They must be appropriate. 

Give an example of an inappropriate metaphor 1 

The clergyman who prayed that ' Grod would be 
a roch to them that are afar off upon the sea,' used 
a very inappropriate metaphor, because as rochs in 
the sea are a source of great danger to mariners, he 
was in reality asking for the destruction of those 
for whose safety he intended to pray. 


1. Complete and alter sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 

7, in the Exercise at the close of the last Lesson, so 
that they may contain metaphors instead of similes. 
Remember that in a metaphor the comparison is 
not introduced by the word like or as. 

2. Complete the following sentences so that they 
may contain metaphors. 

Example. The cares of riches are with which 

we bind ourselves to earth. 
Completed. The cares of riches are golden chains 

with which we bind ourselves to earth. 

1. Truth is a beautiful but simple — — - in which 
wc should all seek to array ourselves. 

2. Money is the which the miser worships. 

3. He became involved in the of vice. 


4. Honesty is a brighter than that which 

adorns a king's head. 

5. Roman eloquence was — of late growth. 

6 When industry sows the , the harvest ia 


7. Death is but a long . from which all shall 

one day awaken. 

8. He is travelling the of pleasure. 

9. The kindness of otir Creator is from which 

all our blessings flow. 

10. Love is a to which opposition only adds fuel 



Convert the following figurative language into 
plain language which will express the same idea. 
Example. The evening of life, 

A hard heart. 
In plain language. Old age. 

An uncompassionate heart. 

1. The morning of life. Them/ of night. K fiery 
temper. A deep thinker. A light disposition. A cold 
heart. A warm friend. 

2. We met with defreezing reception. 

3. Richard was now at the zenith of his glory. 

4. The earth is thirsty. 

5. The sea swallows many a noble vessel. 

6. Ajax was the bulwark of the Greeks. 

7. His hard heart was mdted by the speaker's ^/fy-e. 


Convert the following plain language into figu- 
rative language tliat will express the same idea. 
The words in parentheses after each sentence are 
intended to suggest an appropriate figure. 

Example. The meadows are covered with grasa 
(Clothed, r©bes.) 

In figurative language. The meadows are clothed in 
their robes of green. 

8. The ocean was calm. (Waves, asleep, bosom.) 

9. In youth all things seem pleasant. (Morning, 
colored, roseate hue.) 

10. A true friend will tell us of our faults. (Friend 
ship, mirror.) 

11. Let us renounce the dominion of the tyrant. (Cast 
off, yoke.) 

12. Guilt is generally miserable. (Wedded.) 

1 3. Hope is a great support in misfortune. (Anchor, 
soul clings, sea.) 

14. Homer's poetry is more sublime than Virgil's. 
(Genius, soars higher.) 


What is personification 1 

Personification is a figure bj which we attribute 
life, sex, or action to inanimate objects. Thus, 
when we say "the land smiles with plent}^," we 
represent the earth as a living creature, smiling. 

What effect has the judicious use of this figure upon style 7 



It enlivens and embellislies it, bj bringing 
striking pictures before tlie mind. 

What is meant by attributing sex to an inrtnimate object "? 

Speaking of it as he or she ; thus we say of the 
sun, "he sheds his light over hill and dale;" of a 
ship, ^^how bravely she rides the waves,^^ 


Make sentences, each of which shall contain one 
of the following words personified. 
Example. War. 


War flings 

his blood-stained banner to 




A ship. 




The wind. 




The moon. 




The waves. 




The grave. 



The pupil is now prepared for exercises in any 
department of prose composition. As a great deal 
of time is often lost in the selection of themes, a list 
of subjects is here subjoined, each of which, if prop- 
erly treated, will be found sufficient for one exer- 
cise. They have been so arranged, as far as possi- 
ble, as to make the progress in difficulty regular, 
but exceedingly gradual ; and the author would 



advise that they be taken ia turn, in the order in 
which they are here presented. It will be well 
for the teacher to prescribe some limit of length — ■ 
that no composition, for instance, contain less than 
thirty lines of manuscript. 

Before entering on this list of subjects, if there 
be any part of the book with which the pupil is not 
famihar; it will be best for him to review it. 


1. "Write a letter to your 
teacher, giving an account of the 
manner in which you spent your 
last vacation. 

2. Write to a friend, describ- 
ing your sister's wedding, and 
the fectivities on that occasionv 

3. Write to a cousin in the 
country, giving an account of a 
concert, the Museum, or any 
place of public amusemenb 
which you may have recently 

4. Write to a parent, or other 
relative, travelling in Europe, 
about domestic matters. 

5. Write an answer to the 
preceding letter, in wliich the 
parent would naturally give 
some account of his travels in 

6. Announce in a letter to a 

friend that his brother whom 
you knew, and who resided in 
the same place that you do, is 
dead, frive an account of his 
sickness. Offer such consola- 
tion as is in your power. 

7. Write a note to a friend, 
requesting the loan of a volume. 

Write a note, inviting a friend 
to spend the holidays at your 
father's house. 

Write a note, regretting that 
prior engagements will compel 
you to decline a friend's invita- 

8. Write a letter to a mer- 
chant, applying for a situation 
as clerk, and stating your quali- 

Write an answer from the 


9. An Elephant. 

10. A ^^arket. 

11. A Farm. 

12. A Canal. 

13. A Hotel. 

14. A Garden. 

15. A Manufactory. 

16. A Church. 

17. A Fire-engine. 

18. A Dry-goods Store. 

19. Describe "A Steamboat" 
and "A Ship ;" tell wherein 
they differ, and wherein they- 
are alik°. 

20. Treat m like manner, " A 
Clock and a Watch." 

21. A Bird and a Beast. 

22. A Man and a Monkey. 



23. A Snake and an Eel. 

24. A Horse and a Cow. 

25. A Sleigh and a Carriage. 

26. Describe the place in 
which you live. 

27. A Thunder-storm. 

28. A Lake Scene. 

29. A Storm at Sea. 

80. The Country in Spring. 
31 , Scenes of Peace. 

32. Scenes of War. 

33. Contrast between a Morn- 
ing and an Evening Scene. 

34. A Scene in an Auction 

35. The Good Scholar. 

36. The Idle Boy. 

37. The Intemperate Man. 

38. An Indian . 

39. Thanksgiving Day. 


40. Adventures in California. 

41. An Encounter with Pi- 

42. A Lion Hunt in Southern 

43. The Indian's Revenge. 

44. The History of a Pin. 

45. The History of a Bible. 

46. The History of a Cent. 

47. The History of a Shoe. 

48. The Story of an old Sol- 

49. Robinson Crusoe. 

nistorical Narratw7is.'f 

50. The Discovery of Amer- 

51. The American Revolu- 

52. The Reign of the Emper- 
or Nero. 

53. The Invasion of Russia 
by Napoleon. 

54. The Crusades. 
65. The Reformation. 

56. The Crossing of the Red 
Sea. (Exodus, chap, xiv.) 

57. David and Goliath, (I. 
Samuel, chap, xxii.) 

58 Jephthah's Daughter. 
(Judges, chap, xi., verse 29.) 

59. Naaman, the Leper. (H. 
Kings, chap, v.) 

60. The History of Jonah. 

* For the Exercises in Fiction it will be necessary to draw on 
the imagination ; in some cases it may be well for the teacher to 
assist the pupil with remarks on the subject. In the case of 
"the History of a Pin," it is necessary only to imagine some of 
the scenes that a pin would be likely to pass through, and to re- 
late them as if the pin itself were speaking ; thus, " The first 
recollections that /have," &c. 

t In the Historical Narrations and Biographical Sketches, the 
pupil must obtain his facts from some history. He must clotho 
them, however, in his own language. 



Biographical Sketches. 

61. Washington. 

62. Franklin. 

63. Chariemagne. 

64. Alfred the Great. 

65. Shakspeare. 

66. Queen Elizabeth. 

67. Columbus. 

68. Julius Cseser. 

69. Alexander the Great 

70. Homer. 

71. Moses. 

72. Ruth. 

73. Solomon. 

74. Daniel. 


75. Spring. 

76. The Beauties of Nature. 
77 The Mar'ner's Compass. 

78. The Advantages of Edu- 

79. Evening. 

80. The Fickleness of For- 

81. Disease. 

82. Chivalry, 

83. Honesty. 

84. The Ruins of Time. 

85. Gambling. 

86. The Study of History. 

87. Youth. 

88. Winter. 

89. The Starry Heavens. 

90. Government. 

91. Old Age. 

92. Anger. 

93. Ambition. 

94. Contentment. 

95. The Sun. 

96. City Life. 

97. Life in the Country. 

98. The Life of the Merchant. 

99. The Lifs of the Sailor. 

100. The Life of the Soldier. 

101. Manufiictures. 

102. The Spirit of Discovery. 
108. Newspapers. 

104. Freedom. 

105. The Art of Printing. 

106. The Influence of Woman. 

107. The Ocean. 

108. The Pleasures of Travel- 

109. TheWrongs of the Indian 

110. Summer. 

111. Night. 

112. Death. 

113. Revenge. 

114. The Study of Geography 

115. Music. 

116. The Moon. 

117. The Stars. 

118. Comets. 

119. The Earth. 

120. Day. 

121. Autumn. 

122. The Pleasures of Memory. 

123. The Sabbath. 

124. The Fifth Commandment. 

125. Virtue. 

126. Egypt. 

127. Snow. 

128. Mountains. 

129. Forests. 

130. Character of Jihe Ancient 
Romans. * ■ ? 

131. Our Country. 

132. The Miser. 

133. Oriental Countries. 

134. Hope. , 

135. Life. 

136. Rivers. 

137. Astronomy. 

138. Rain. 

139. Vice. 

140. Riches and Poverty, 

141. The Fourth of July. 

142. The Bible. 

143. Morning. 

144. The Art of Painting. . 

145. The Mahometan Religion 

146. TheApplications of Steam 



147. The Great West. 

148. TdleiK'ss. 

149. Gratitude. 

loi>. The In<iuisition. 
^ 151. The Advantage of Study- 
ino- the Classics. 

lo2. The Hermit. 

158. Coura2:e, 

154. Early Rising. 

155. Perseverance. 

156. Flowers. 

157. Modesty. 

158. Intemperance. 

159. Genius. 

160. The Orator. 

161. Peace. 

162. War. 

163. Patriotism. 

164. The Jews. 

165. The English Noble. 

166. Peasant Life. 

167. The Sources of a Nation's 

168. Truth. 

169. A Republican Govern- 

170. Dissipation. 

171. Envy. 

172. The Attraction of Gravi- 
tat ion. 

173. Love. 
Nature and Art. 
The Progress of Civiliza- 



The Feudal System. 
Silent Influence. 
The Drama. 
The Mind. 
















" Whatever is, is right." 

" Beware of desperate steps ; the darkest day- 
Live till to-morrow— will have passed away." 
'•' There's a Divinity that shapes our ends, 

Rough hew them how we mav." 
" Health is the vital principle of bliss." 
" Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate." 
" Be it ever so homely, there's no place like home." 
"Hypocrisy, the only evil that walks 

Invisible except to God alone." 
" Kings are earth's gods ; in vice their law's their will; 

An(yf Jove stray, who dares say, Jove doth ill." 
" Sweet is the image of the brooding dove ! 

Holy as Heaven a mother's tender love !" 
" The bolt that strikes the tov^'ering cedar dead, 

Oft passes harmless o'er the hazel's head." 
'•'Who by repentance is not satisfied, 

Is nor of heaven, nor earth." 
" Honor and shame from no condition rise; 

Act well your part; there aU the honor lies." 
'= Suspicion is a heavy armor, and 

With its own weight impedes more than it protects." 
" Treason does never prosper." 
"I love thee, twilight! for thy gleams impart 

Their dear, their dying influence to mv heart." 
" True charity's a plant divinely nursed.'" 
" Good name in man and woman 

Is the immediate jewel of their souls." 
" Sweet are the uses of adversity." 


199. " Man yields to custom as he bows to fate, 

In all things ruled — mind, body, and estate." 

200. " Experience is the school 
Where man learns wisdom." 

201. Honesty is the best policy. 

202. All is not gold that glitters. 

203. One to-day is worth two to-morrows. 

204. Birds of a feather 
Flock together. 

205. Great talkers, little doers. 

206. Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee. 

Argumentative Discourses. 

When the subject is given in the form of a question, the pu- 
pil may take either side. 

1. Is conscience in all cases a correct moral guide 1 

2. Do public amusements exercise a beneficial influence on 
society 1 . 

3. Does the study of the classics, or of mathematics, afibrd 
the better discipline to the mind 1 

4. Is a monarchy the strongest and most stable form of go- 
vernment % 

5. Did the Crusades have a beneficial influence on Europe 1 

6. Do the learned professions offer as promising an opening 
to a young man as mercantile life 1 

7. Is a nation justified in rising against its rulers 1 

8. Is a lawyer justified in defending a bad cause 1 

9. Is it an advantage for a young man who intends to become 
a merchant to go through college 1 

10. Do parents or teachers exercise the greater influence in 
forming the character of the young 7 • 

11. Is it best forjudges to be elected by the people 1 - 

12. Does the Pulpit or the Bar afibrd a better field for elo- 
quence "? 

13. Does the reading of novels have a good or bad efiect on 
the community 1 

14. Do inventions have a tendency to improve the condition of 
the laboring classes 7 


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tion and rhetGiic. It will doubtless become a standard work in schools and colleges." 

" It comprises some five hundred pages of the best selections we have ever seen 
compiled. It is worthy a place in every family library." — New RaA;en Register. 

"This work contains a collection of extracts in prose and poetry, with selections from 
the speeches of the most eminent American and English orators, suitable for exercises 
in public speaking. It is designed for the use of colleges, academies, and schools, and is 
the be-^t compilation for that purpose we have ever seen. The selections are very judi- 
ciously made, and are calculated to interest the scholar, as weU as to furnish him with 
models after which to form his style." — Evening Post 

" This compilation for the use of students in elocution has been prepared with great 
judgment by the author, who has had much experience in this branch of education, 
ha\ing been for many years a professor of elocution at West Point. A principal feature 
in this work is that the selections have been mostly made from the speeches of great 
orators of the present century, and many of them are specimens of tts eloquence of dis- 
tinguished statesmen of our "mion." — Phil. Advertiser. 

'' This work is a complete cyclopedia of specimens of English and American oratory 
and poetry, for the use of colleges and schools, selected and arranged with skill and good 
taste. The plan of the work, which is quite original, and will commend itself to every 
mind, is to present the best specimens which can be obtained of the oratory and poetry 
of all parts of the Union, and of living authors. This has not been attempted so tho^ 
oughly in any similar work, and as this is decidedly the Book of Oratory of the Uuicm, 
wo doubt not that it will be eminently successful." — Borne Journal. 


The First Book of Oratory, 

One volume 12mo. Price 62 cents. 

D. Appleton & Co.^s UducationM Publicaiion% 

A Hand-Book of the English Language ; 

For the Use of Students of the Universities and Higher Classgs cl 
Schools. 12mo. ^1 25, 

TMs {3 an abridgment, or a compendium, by tlie author, of his large and celebrated 
work on the English language ; and must prove an invaluable aid to every inteHiger^t 
teacher of English Grammar. It is quite unlike any work ^lat has heretofore been pub* 
lished among us, except It may be some that have borrowed largely from this treasur*a 
house of information on the English language. It is divided into seven Parts. Tha 
first and second parts, occupying nearly 80 pages, are devoted to the history and analysis 
of the English language, designed to show the various elements of which this langu^o 
ia composed, and the manner in which these elements were introduced gradually into 
tlie language. 

These parts contain the results of very extended and profound study, and furnish m- 
formation of great value to the siudent. After this follows the gi-ammatical parts of the 
>s-ork, strictly so called, in which the learned grammarian treats in Part III. of sounds, 
letters, pronunciation, and speUing, concluding with an historical sketch of the English 
Alphabet: m Part IV., of Etymo1o,gy, under its various usual heads: in Part V., of 
Bjnitas; in Part VI., of Prosody ; and in Part VII., of dialects of the English language. 
Such is the general plan of a work which cannot fail to receive a cordial welcome among 
the scholars of America, coming to them, as it does, with the seal of English approval 
on it, a-s tlte work of the age on'English Grammar, and presenting, as it does, on its very 
face, the evidence of profound and patient scholarship and philosophical discrimination 
and analvsis. 

" We' should be glad to see this excellent work introduced into all our colleges and 
higher schools of learning. The ethnology of the English language is toe rarely under- 
stood Most men of education seem to think their native tongue a vulgar study, and 
confine their researches to the dead languages, or to modern dialects, which are far in- 
ferior in variety and power to the noble idibm in which Milton sung and Addison wrote. 
Dr. Latham's prot'ound and acute investigations have enabled him to throw a flood of 
light on the derivations of words, and the mutations of orthography. His larger tre:t- 
tises have given him a name among the most learned ethnologists, and this summary of 
the results of his labors will make him more Vvidely known "among general readers."— 
Commsrcitil Advertiser. 

" A work of great rese.arch, much learning, and to every thinking scholar, it will be 
a book of studv. The Germanic origin of the English language, the affmities of the- 
English with other languages, a sketch of the Aljjhabet, a minute investigation of the 
Etymology of the language, &c., of great value to every philologist— O^sez-^er. 


English Sgnonymes, Classified and Explained \ 

With Practical Exercises. Designed fcr Schools and Private Tuition, 
With an Introduction and Illustrative Authorities, by Henrt Ee£!>, 
LL.D. 12mo. $1. 

"This is one of the best books recently published in the dopartm^ent of language. st!<3 
??i)l do much to arrest the evil of making too common use of inappropriate words. Th3 
work is well arranged for classes, and can be made a branch of common school studf. 
The e\cellent and elaborate work of Grabb is adapted to the private study, and has beoa 
s?.?(l by many scholars and professional men with great profit, but never could find its 
place in the school-room ; consequently, this important department of study has been left 
Eo such means as common conversation and miscellaneous reading might afford. 

"This work is admirably arranged. The Synonymes are treated with reference to 
feAi? character, as generic and specific ; as active and passive ; as positive and negativaf 
Kd as miscellaneous svnonvmei. 

"A cUss in this book should be organized in ^"nziy school"-- 7<«CfCr^€rs' AdifOcaU, 


D.- Af-pleion & Cu.''s Educational PubUcaiio7i9. 


First Lessons in Compcsitmi^ 

In which tLe Principles of the Art are Developed, in connection wlfk 
the Principles of Grammar; embracing full Directions on the Subje& 
of Punctuation : with Copious Exercises. 12mo. 45 cents. 

*#* This work has received the universal approbation of Practical Teachers and th« 
fJess of the United States. 

. From the Principal, and assistant Teachers, of the Mechanics' Institrtte, N. K 
J "With feelincs of unfeigned pleasure, I have examined the 'Fii-st Lessons in Coia» 
position," by G. P. QuAr-iinxBos. 

"This work possesses the rare merit of combining what is new with what is already 
familiar iu publications of the science upon whiclj it treats. The matter wliich is c">m- 
frised in the first fifty pages is in%'ahiable. If tlie pupil be faithfully trained in tnes« 
fTeliiiiiuarj exercises, he will be amply prejiared to ai>preciate the principles detailed ia 
the latttr part of the volume. It is, without question, the best treatise that has ap« 
peare<i on the subject wiiicli it jirofesses to illustrate, as ever^' part can be made availa^ 
Die lo pujiils by the. judicious te<acher; and it appeai-s to be admirably adapted to me«^ 
tlie present requirements of schools. 

J. T. BERGEN, Profpssor of Belles- Lettres. 

AL C. TRACY, Principal of Mec. Inst. School, 

"This book pres'^nts an exceedingly simple method of learning the principles ol 
Grammar, and it is so completely atlapted even to the understanding of the yoiuigest 
pupil, that it cannot fail to be a great assistant to the teachers of schools. It is pre- 
pared with much skill and, judgment, and from the suggestions of long experience. It 
will be found to possess & more than ordinary intrinsic value." — iV. Y. Courier <fi 


The Shakspearian Reader; 

A Collection of the most approved Plays of Shakspeare, carefully re 
vised ; with Introductory and Explanatoiy Notes, and a Memoir of the 
Author. Prepared expressly for the use of Classes and the Family 
Eeading Circle. 12mo. $1 25. 

** At a pei-iod when the fatne of Shakppeare is "striding the world Hk« a colossns," 
fid editions of his works are multiplied with a profusion that testifies the desire awak« 
wed in all classes of society to read and study his imperishable compositions, — tuera 
needs, perhaps, but little a])ology for the fallowing selection of his works, prepared ex- 
pressly to render them unexceptionable *br the use of Schools, and acceptable for Fami'y 
reading. Apart from tho fact, that Shakspeare is the "well spring" from which may ba 
traced the origin ot tlie purtst poetry in our language, — a long course of professional ex- 
perience has "satisfied me that a necessity exists for the addition of a work like tha 
present, to our stoek of Educational Literature. His writings are peculiarly adapted f"r 
the purpose of Elocutionary exercise, when the system of Instruction pursued by tlia 
Teacher is ba*ed upon tlu^ true ])rinciple of the art. viz- — a careful analysis of tne struo- 
tnre and meaniu'jr of language, rather than a servile adherence to the arbitrary and me 
ehaiiica! rules of Elocution. " 

" To impress u[ion the mind of the pupil that words are the exposition of thousTI, 
K)d Dial I'd reading, or speakinir, every shade of thought and feeling Ikus i s appropriat« 
■hade of ;nnc!n!;Ued tone, ought to be the especial aim of every .Teacher: and an antho? 
like Shakspeare. whose every Hue embodies a volume of meaning, should surely form 
cue of our Elocutionary Text Books. * * * Still, in preparing a selection of hia 
^orks foi Uie express purpose contemplated in mj' design, I have not hesitated to exer* 
else a severe revision of his language, beyond that adopted in any similar imdertaking 
•—"Bowdler's Family Shakspeare" not evan excepted; — and simply, because I practi- 
cally know the impossibility of introducing Shakspe.ire as a Class Book, or as a satisfao* 
lory Eeading Book for Families without this precautionary revision."— i7«£?'a<^/^<ws 
the Preface. 


D. Appletoii S Co. s Educational PulUcatiotts. 

The History of Rome. 

Keprmted entire from the last London Edition, 'iliree volumes in one 

evo. %Z. ^ 

" j4 mold's History of Eom els a well known standard work. Pull and accurate m. 
Hiebuhr, but much more readable and attractive; more copious and exact than Knight- 
ley or Schmitz, and more reliable than Michelet, it has assumed a rark second to none 
in value and importance. Its style is admirable, and it is every where imbued with the 
truth-loving spirit for which Dr, Arnold was pre-eminent For Colleges and Sch-xjlf 
tLis History is invaluable ; and for private, as well as public librarieB, it is indispensable.* 


Lectures on Modern History. 

Edited, with a Preface and Notes, by Henet Ebed, LL. D. 12mo, 

Extract from the American Editor''s Preface .•—♦'In preparing this edition, I bav« 
had in view its use, not only for the general reader, but also as a text-book in education, 
especially in our college course of study. * * * * The introduction of this work 
as a text-book I regard as important, because, as far as my information entitles me to 
Bpeak, there is no book better calculated to inspire an interest in historical study. That 
it has this power over the minds of students I can say from experience, which enables 
me alio to add, that I have found it excellently suited to a course of college instruction. 
By intelligent and enterprising members of a class especially, it is studied as a text- 
book with zeal and animation. 

" These Lectures, eight in number, ftrmi3h the best possible introduction to a philo« 
iophical study of modern history. Prof Keed has added greatly to the worth and inter- 
est of the volume, by appending to each lecture such extracts from Dr. Arnold's othef 
writings as would more fully illustrate its prominent points. The Notes and Appendix 
which be has thus furnished are exceedingly valuable." — Evening PMfc 


A History of Germany ; 

From the Earliest Period to the Present lime. Translated from tht 
last German Edition, by James D. Haas. "With a Complete Index? 
prepared expressly for this Edition. 8vo. %1 75. 

•M^SKS. Appmiton: 

" Gentlemen,— Rs,Ying adopted Kolrausch's History of Germany, as a text-book ftw 
•n advanced class in history, I take great pleasure in stating that I have found no work. 
In a wide range of historical instruction, both ancient and modern, devoured with mora 
avidity by my pupils, or resulting in their greater profit Next to the history of our 
*wn country and that of England, I know of none so important to be familiarly under- 
stood by our American youth, as the History of Germany; in its bearings on modem 
civiliaation, the Protestant Eeformation, the progress of literature, the advancement of 
the Arts and Sciences, and high classical scholarship, as well as also our own very orighi 
end language. 

" The history of a nation %vith whose past and present we especially, not to say th« 
whole civilized world, have such vital connections, though unknown perchance to a 
great extent to dut sducated men of a preceding generation, ought now to be introduced 
every where at once into all our high schools, as an essential part of a course of liberal 
#dTication. " Yours, &c, 

<*& W DwiOBb 
" Bbooki.tmj ^atk ^itht 185i" 

D. Appleton & Co.^s Educational Publications, 


History of the Middle Ages. 

For Colleges and Schools (chiefly from the French). 12mo. $1 25. 

"No portion of history has been less studied, either by old or yonng, than thatof th» 
middle ages. This is owing in a great degree, we believe, to the defective text-books 
which have hitherto been in use, for the period in question is itself one of the most in- 
teresting and important in the annals of mankind. It was the birth-time of modem 
Booiety— the somxe and fountain of modern civilization— the period in which a larg» 
portion of the civil and religious institutions which we now most highly prize had their 

"The work before us, compiled principally from the French, by Professor Qreene, 
of Brown University, is the fruit of much learning and research. It furnishes a brie^ 
though clear and well digested, exposition of the leading revolutions of the middle ages, 
and is designed to introduce the student to an acquaintance with those various and 
complicated agencies which, out of barbarism and decay, slowly built up the nations of 
Modern Europe. The plan is judicious, and the execution is in the admirable literary 
taste which always characterizes the writings of Mr. Greene. 1'he period embraced in 
the work reaches ft-om the first general irruption of the barbarians at the beginning ol 
the fifth century, to the fall of Constantinople, near the middle of the fifteenth— a period 
crowded with momentous changes in both the civil and ecclesiastical affairs of the 
•world— marked by the rise and fall of numerous dynasties, and bv the utter extinction 
of the ancient civilization and the formation of another entirely new. 

'• We hope to see this \\ ork generally adopted as a text-book in schools and colleges 
where History is made a part of the course of instruction, for we feel asstu-ed that both 
instructors and pupils will find it admirably suited to explain the interesting and impor* 
tant period to which it relates." — Providence Journal. 


Atlas of Mediceval Geography ; 

Designed to accompany the above. One volume 8vo. {In press.) 

CoNTEN'TS : — Map 1. The Eoman Empire and Northern Barbarians in the Fourtb 
Century. Map 2. Europe in the Sixth Century. Map 3. Europe in the times of Char- 
lemagne. Map 4 Europe in the second half of the Tenth Century. Map 5. Europe ia 
the time of the Crusades. Map 6. Europe at the end of the Fourteenth Century. 


The First History of Rome ; 

■VYith Questions. 16mo. 50 cents. 

^^NorfolTc Academy, Norfolk, Va. 
"I must thank you for a copy of ' Miss Sewell's Roman History.' Classical teachom 
have long needed just such a work: for it is admitted by all how essential to a propei 
comprehension of the classics is a knowledge of collateral history. Yet most pupils are 
construing authors before reaching an age to put into their hands the elaborate worka 
W3 have heretofore had upon Ancient History. Miss Sewell, while she gives the most 
Important facts, has clothed them in a style at once pleasing and comprehensible to tha 
most youthful mind. 

" E. B. TscHTOi, Prof, of AnHent LanguagesJ" 


The First History of Greece ; 

With Questions, on the Plan of the First History of Rome. 16mo 
(/» 'press.) 

D. Appleton & Co.^s Educational Fuhlicatiom, 

A. llmmal of Grecicm and Roman Antiquities. 

Translated from the German. Edited, with Notes, and a complete 
Series of Questions, by the Kev. Thomas K. Abnold, M. A. 1 vol. 12itio 
rri3e f 1. 

"The present Manual of Grsek and Koman Antiquities is far superior to any thii'.g 
OS the saniy topics as yet offered to the American public. A principal Eevi«jv »f (J or- 
Jiisny says : 

'■' Small as tlie compass of it is, we may confidently affirm that it is a great nnprove- 
SxeHt- en all pTeralintr works of the kind. We no longer meet with the" wretclied old 
m>'tho<\, in uhic.'n siibiects essentially distinct are herded together, and connected su't- 
|e<:;s ;li>c(,';;T,ec!ed, liut have a siinp'.-e, systematic arran.'iement, by which the reader 
«»<*-i!y I'jcoive.s a clear representation of* Roman life. We no longer stumble au'ainst 
ecuiiikss errors in detail, which though long ago assailed and extirjjated by Niebtiiir and 
others. ha\e found tlieir last place of refuge in our Manuals. The recent investigations 
.?f>pi;il()Iogi--ts have been extensively, but carefully and circumspectly used The con- 
eisent-~> aii'l precision wliicli the author has every where prescribe" *.f> 5ii»i.coh! prp.venta 
tlie -iiiierlicial nl>server from perceiving the essential superiority of the book to" its pre- 
dfotrssors. but v.'hnever subjects it to a careful examination will discover this on every 
page.' " — Sout/iern Lit. Gazette. 

From Frnfessor Lincoln, of Bi own University, 
"T fonhd on my table, after a short absence from home, your edition of Bojesen 8 
Greek and-Koinan Ant quities. Pray accept my acknt)wledgments for it. I am agree- 
ablv sur])rised to find on examining it, that within so very narrow a compass for so com- 
nreliensi'.'e a subject, the book contains so much valuable matter ; and, indeed, so far as 
I see, oniiis noticing no topic essential. It will be a very useful book in Schools and 
ColleL'^es. and is far superior to any thing that I know of the same kind. Besides being 
cheap and accessible to all Students, it' has the great merit of discussing its topics in a 
consecutive and connected manner." 

Extract of a Letter from Professor Tyler, of Amherst College. 
"I have never found time till lately to look over.Bojesen's Antiquities; Oi which yon 
were kind enough to send me a copy. I think it an excellent book ; learned, accurate, 
concise, and perspicuous ; well adapted for use in the Academy of the College, and com* 

C-ehending in a small compass more that is valuable' on the subject than many extended 


A Course of the History of Modern Philosophy, 

Translated by 0. "W. Wright. Two volumes 8vo. Price $3. 

•jHiis is th^ ablest and most popular of all Cousin's works. It contains a full expo^ 
Sition of Eclecticism, by its founder .ind ablest supporter ; gives a collected account oi 
the history of philosophy from the earliest times ; makes a dislinct classificati-Mi of sys- 
tems: affords brief yet' inteliigible glimpses into the interior of aluiost evo.-f scb(-(i, 
wliether ancient or modern ; and a detailed analysis of Locke, which unanswerably re- 
tates a seusualistic theory that has borne so many bi ter fraits of irreligion and atheism 

" !vl. Cousin is the greatest philosopher of France."— 5'ir William [LnniUon. 

"A writer, whose i)ointed periods have touched the chords ot modern society, and 
fcrilleii <l;rongh the minds of thousands in almost every quarter of the dvilized world." 
^-E'iinbui'qh Reinew. 

" The most accomplished and acatest thinker of modem times." — American 

«^* The above work has, in the original, for some time been a text-book of phUoB» 
p!iy at Dublin TTnlversity, and at Cambridge, England, 

D, Api^leton & Coh Educational FiihlicatiQns. 

Mamtal of Ancient Geofjrcqjhy and History. 

Translated from the German. Edited by the Eev. Tho^ias K. Aiixold, 
M. A. 12mo. Price $1. 

"At no period has History presented such strong claims upon the attention of th3 
teamed, as at t!ie present day; and to no people were its lessons of sr.;h value as t3 
those of the United States. With no past of our own to revert to, the gi-eat raasies A 
our better educated are tempted to overlook a science, which compreliends all others ia 
Us grasp. To prepare a text-book, which shall present a full, clear, and accurate view 
ef the ancient world, its geography, its political, civil, social, religious state, must be t!iij 
result only of vast industry and learning. Onr examination of tile present volume lead? 
U8 to beheve, that as a text-book on ancient history, for Colleges and Acailemies. it xa. 
the best compend yet published. It bearS marks in its metiiod:cal an-angement. atid 
condensation of materials, of the untiring patience of German scholarship: and in its 
progress through the English and American press, has been adapted ijr acceptable use 
in otir best institutions. A noticeable feature of the book, is its complete list of 
'sources of information' upon the nations which it describes. Tliis -fadll be aa iavala- 
ftble aid to tie student in his future course of reading." •- 


Hand-Booh of Mediceval Geography and His- 

tm'y. Translated frofn the German, by Eev. E. B. Paul, M. A. 12mo. 
Price 75 cents. 

"The characteristics of this volume are— Precision, condensation, and himinons ar- 
mnsement. It is precisely -^vhat it pretends to be— a manual, a sure i.nd conscientious 
guide for the student through the crooks and angles of Mediieval history. * * * * 
Ail the great pruiciples of this extended Period are carefully laid down, and the most 
hr.portant facts skilfully grouped around them. There is no period of History for which 
it is more difficult to prepare a work like this, and none for which it is so much needed. 
The leading facts are well established, but they are scattered over an immense space, 
'i o reduce such materials to a clear and definite form is a task of no small difhcuky, and 
la which partial success deserves gi-eat praise. It is not too much to say th-it it haa 
never been so well done within a compass so easily mastered, as in the little volum* 
which is now offered to the public" 


Manual of Modern Geography and History ^ 

Translated from the German. Eevised and corrected. 12mo. %\ 50. 

"This voltmie completes the series of the author's works on geography and history. 
First came his consideration of ancient and meihajval geography and history; and tldi 
continues the fiibiect, trom the conquest of the Byzantine empire by tlie Turks. i!<iw3 
to the present time. Every important fact of the period, comprehensive as it is both in 
geography and history, is presented in a concise yet clear and connected manner : so ss 
to be of value, nut only as a text-book for students, but to the general reader lur reft.r- 
i=nce. Although the facts are greatly condensed, as of necessity they must be, yet thev 
are presented with so much distinctness as to produce a fixed impression on the mino. 
It is also reliable as the work of an indefacisable German scholar, for correct infof.'natioa 
?s'3cLGg to the progress and changes of states and nations— literature, the sciences, and 
fee arts— and all that combines in modern civilization. The portion relating to oar o wb 
^atinent has been carefully revised, so as to free it from mistakes which all foreignrrj 
are liable to make when speaking of our complex institutions of government. Appeno ed 
to the work is a chronobgieal table ; and also an estecded series of questions, oesig: £<l 
to faeilitat© the xjs^ of the work bi the schoplg.'' 

D. Appleton S Co.^8 Educational Publications. 

Historical and Miscellaneous Questions. 

From the Eiglity-fourtli London Edition. With large Additions em- 
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&c. Adapted for Schools in the United States. By Mrs. Julia Law- 
EENCE. Illustrated with numerous Engravings. 12mo. $1. 


A Short View of Scripture History, from the Creation to the Eeturn of the Jew»-> 

Qaestions from the Early Ages to the time of Julius Csesar — Miscellaneous Questions ia 
Grecian History— Miscellaneous Questions in General History, chiefly Ancient— Quea- 
Uons containing a Sketch of the most remarkable Events from the Christian Era to th« 
elose of the Eighteenth Century — Miscellaneous Questions in Eoman History — Questions 
In English History, from the Invasion of Cfesarto the Reformation— Continuation of Ques- 
tions in English History from the Reformation to the Present T^'me— Abstract of Early 
British History — Abstract of English Reigns from the Conquest-:-Abstractof the Scottish 
Eeigns — Abstract of the French Eeigns, from Pharamond to Philip I. — Continuation of 
the French Eeigns, from Louis VL^to Louis Philippe — Questions relating to the His- 
tory of America, from its Discovery to the Present Time— Abstract of Eoman Eings 
and most Distinguished Heroes — Abstract of the most celebrated Grecians — Of 
Heathen Mythology in General — Abstract of Heathen Mythology — ^The Elements of 
Astronom}' — Explanation of a few Astronomical Terms — List ot Constellations — Ques- 
tions on Common Subjects— Questions on Architecture— Questions on Heraldry- Expla- 
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History of the Middle Ages. 

" This is an admirable work to aid both teachers and parents in instructing children 
and youth, and there is no work of the kind that we have seen that is so well calculated 
* to awaken a spirit of laudable curiosity in young minds,' and to satisfy that curiosity 
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History of England ; 

From the Invasion of Julius Cassar to the Reign of Queen Victoria. 3 
New Edition, with Questions adapted for Schools in the United States. 
By Eliza Eobbins, Author of " American Popular Lessons," " Poetry 
for Scnools," &;c. One volume 12mo. Price 75 cents. 

"There is nothing more needed in our schools than good histories; not the dry com' 
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and the providence of God, manifest in the affairs of men. 

"Mrs. Markham's History was used by that model for all te'achers, the late Dr. Ar- 
nold, master of the great English school at Rugby, and agrees in its character with his 
enlightened and pious views of teaching history. It is now several years since I adapted 
this history to the form and price acceptable in the schools in the United States. I have 
recently revised it, and trust that it may be extensively serviceable in education. 

" The principal alterations from the original are a new and more convenient division 
(^paragraphs, and entire omission of the conversations annexed to the chapters. In 
the place of these I have affixed questions to every page that may at once facilitate the 
work of the teacher and the pupil. The rational and moral features of this book first 
comrrvended itself to me, and I have used it successfully with my own scholars.— JSSo* 
^ract from, the American Editor's Preface. 


Mythology of Ancient Greece a7id Italy. 

For the Us© of Schools. 16mo. 42 cents. 

"This is a volume well adapted to the purpose fbr which it was prepared It pre- 
tents, In a very compendioue and coavenieBt form, every tbisg Telating to the lahjeet, 
9t Importaoce't^ the young ptudoat.' 






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