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Full text of "First lessons in Urdu"

'iJLQ 



, 



FIRST LESSONS 



IN 



URDU 



BY 

GEORGE J. DANN, 
Baptist Missionary, Bankipore. 



CALCUTTA : 

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, 

1911. 



PREFACE. 

THIS little book, like my ''First Lessons in Hindi/' has 
been written to supply a need. It is intended to help 
those who have to study Urdu in the Persian character 
from the beginning, and, for this reason, in the Exercises, 
Vocabularies, and Grammatical Notes, that character has 
been used ; a transliteration into Roman characters being 
added, as such a transliteration will be found useful to 
beginners. At the same time those who wish, at this 
stage, to learn to use only Roman-Urdu will find the book 
useful. 

The Grammatical Notes are only introductory and ele- 
mentary, as it is hoped that the student of this book 
will go forward to more extensive and profounder works. 
They will, it is to be hoped, lead up to Platts's " Hindu- 
stani Grammar," Kempson's " Syntax and Idioms of 
Hindustani/' and other works of a more advanced charac- 
ter. 

The Vocabulary used is that of the simplest kind of 
Urdu, such as will be found helpful in acquiring the 
language of everyday life. 

Having laid a foundation of this kind, the student will 
find himself able to begin speaking the language, a most 
important factor in acquiring a sound and accurate know- 
ledge of Urdu. Reading, writing and speaking should 
be cultivated simultaneously, or the student will perhaps 
find himself able to read intelligently, to discuss points of 
Grammar, and yet be unable to express his thoughts with 
fluency and accuracy. 

A Munshi will be found invaluable for teaching to write 
with facility and correctness, and for correcting his pupil's 

2068080 



IV PREFACE. 

pronunciation, and pointing out errors in speaking and 
writing, but not for teaching grammar and vocabulary. 
The student is, therefore, advised to master this little book 
at the outset, using the Munshi for help in writing, and 
spelling, and correcting pronunciation. Ifc has been found 
a very useful plan to take a book like one of the Gospels, 
of which the general meaning will be familiar to the 
student, and, deferring translation till the First Lessons 
have been mastered, hearing the Munshi read over slowly 
and distinctly, verse by verse, or paragraph by paragraph, 
then to read it after him, while he corrects errors in 
pronunciation. 

Then by the time this book has been digested, the 
student will have learnt to use his Dictionary and his 
Grammar, he will have got over the early difficulties of 
reading and pronunciation, and will find translation and 
speaking come easily. It is advisable to continue reading 
aloud to the Munshi, who should be given plainly to 
understand that he is expected to perfect his pupil in 
pronunciation and idiom. These are properly his busi- 
ness. If the student expects more from him, he will be 
disappointed. Faithful work with Dictionary and Gram- 
mai'j and persistent practice in speaking, are indispensable 
if one wishes to learn a modern language thoroughly, and 
the best works of this kind are, in the end, the cheapest. 

This little book will help the student to make a begin- 
ning. If he does not find all he wants in it, he may 
perhaps be asked to bear in mind that it is a very small 
and elementary work, and has therefore been made as 
simple as possible. 

G. J. DANN. 
BANKIPDR : 
August, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 



LESSON 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 
VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 



Reading Exercise 
Transliteration Exercise 



Page 
3 
4 
5 
6 



The Nominative Case, Gender and Number 
The Verb, Principal parts, The Imperfect Participle 

and its Tenses . . . . 9 

Intransitive Verbs, Tenses from the Perfect Participle 12 
Transitive Verbs, Tenses from the Perfect Participle, 
Agent and Accusative Cases . . ..16 

The Genitive Case . . . . . . 22 

The Imperative, The Dative Case .. ..25 

The Aorist and Future Tenses . . . . 28 

The Ablative Case . . . . . . 31 

The Locative Case . . . . 34 

The Conjunctive Participle . . . . 36 

The Aorist Tense . . . . . . 39 

The Vocative Case, The Imperative, Relative and 

Correlative . . . . . . 43 

The Infinitive and its Compounds . . 48 
Compound Verbs, Completive, Potential, Con- 

tinuative . . . . . . 51 

Compound Verbs, Frequentative and Desiderative . . 55 

Compound Verbs, Intensive . . . . 59 

Past Conditional , Noun of Agency . . 63 

Nominal Verbs . . . . . . 66 

Direct Narration, Prepositions or Postpositions . . 70 

The Passive, The Particle of Similitude . . . . 74 

Conjunctions .. .. .. ..77 

The Perfect and Imperfect Participles . . 81 

Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases . . 85 

Numerals . . . . . . 91 

Presumptive and Conditional Forms . . . . 97 

Table of Declension . . . . . . 102 

Table of Conjugation .. .. .. 103 

Vocabularies . . 104 



First Lessons in Urdu. 



The Urdu consonants are as follows : 



Name. 


o 


Uncon- 
nected 
Form. 


CONNECTED FORMS. 


Aspi- 
rated 
Form. 


Power. 


Initial. 


Medial 


Final. 


alif 





t 


t 


f 


t 






be 


b 


v 


. j 


A 


- 


j 


^^ 


pe 


P 


V 


t v 
V V 


V 


V 


i 


ph 


te 


t 


\Si 


;c j 


I 


^ 


f3 


th 


te 


t 


& 


- w 


X c. 


^ 


th 


se 


s 


& 


* t ^ 


1 


&. 






jim 


J 





- 


?- 


*?* 


jh 


die 


ch 




Si. 


* f 


^ 


chh 


he 


h 




^ 


a^ 










t 




f 






khe 


kh 




^ 








* 




t 






ft 






ddl 


d 


a 


>> 


* 


A 


A^ 


dh 


ddl 


d 


3 


3 


S 


S 


A3 


dh 


zdl 


z 


j 


,\ 


0. 


& 






re 


r 


) 


; 


J 


^r 






re 


r 


} 


) 


j- 


J 


AJ 


rh 


ze 


z 


j 


j 


J- 


3 






zhe 


zh 


J 


, 
j 


t 


n 







Name. 


3 




Uncon- 
nected 
Form. 


CONNECTED FORM.S. 


Aspi- 
rated |j 
Form, o 


[nitial. 


Medial 


Final.! 
1 


sin 


8 


( -^,-fcT) 


~0 


w 


o- 




skin 


sh 


( U ^^ 


A 


& 


4 




sad 


s 




- 


- 


M* 




zad 


LJ 





t 


v_^ 




toe 


1 


Jr 


i 


k 


* 










11 


Jjj 


^ 




zoe 


z 





JD 








. 


f 







A 







am 


a 


t 






c 




g.ain 


9- 







A 


e 




,, 


, 


. 


$ 


ft 


oi 




j6 


J 


O 










qdf 


9 




J 


a 


l> 




Jcdf 


Jc 




r 


^ 


U 


^ /.7i 


gdf 


9 


- 






^J. 


f r 


lam 


I 


J 


j 


i 


J 


y 


mam 


m 


r 


X 


* 


r 




n&n 


n 





/t j 


A 


^ 




waw 


w 


j 


y 


i 


> 




he 


h 


i 


r A 


lie * 


A 8 




ye 


y 


C5 


j 


A 


* 





The Urdu vowels, short and long, and diphthongs, are 
as follows : 



' i .J-l JJ ] 

a * ' ^ 



o au 



Combined with consonants : 

9 



ba hi bu bd bl bu be bai lo bau 
9 , 



J ai J J au 



sa -sv su -va 5* sfi se sa so sau 



/a &w A - a ^* ^ Are kai ko kau 



tha thi thu thd thl thu the thai tho than 

4 

The mark < called jazm or sukun signifies that the con- 
sonant over which it is written is not vocalized, as 

9 

narm, sard, sust, gir, pj - ^- - c: > -jf . Tashdid * doubles 
the consonant over which it is written, as quwwat, tatll, 
O yi (j& . Other orthographical signs, occasionally used, 
%vill be dealt with in notes to the exercises, as the need 
for explanation may arise. 



LESSON I. 
READING EXERCISE. 

Note. Short a t- : will not usually be written. Where 
no vowel is written it is to be understood. 



4 

y 



! J* 



/ ^ ^ O J ^^-^^ ^r*i ^ J J*" J-J 



c/ 

f 9 9 f 9 9 



JLe j.j'LJ - Ji 



j J/ 



LESSON II. 

EXERCISE IN TRANSLITERATION. 

The following 1 words are to be transliterated from the 
Roman into the Persian character : 

Din, rat, j!, 'aql, git, bat, bat, chiz, roz, waqt, bai*as, 
kar, ba f d, bura, bara, ada, murg, shakk, fajr, zabh, qaul, j 

' 



Iiaqq, sham, bina, marz, aj, zan, sir, hil, mila, f all, Khuda, 
hai, he, bil, nief, khass, bhun, jhil, fil, him, Vaz, bish, nan. 



LESSON III. 

The following words are to be transliterated into the 
Roman character : 

- ei?.*.ci - L ._^ v^^ * - ^l*.) - /jtiLe - c_>Lsa*u - Iksv^) 

- ^,1^. - fX\ - o^Ja* - JXJb - d^Jj - vayi - ^.*j> 



Transliterate into the Persian character : 

Ganga, larka, mez, nanga, sawab, hisab, rikab, talib, 
gulab, rukj^sat* sa'atf rahmat, nihal;- patthar, gustakh" 
liyaqat, ganwar, langur, banawat, andaz, musibat, jama f at/ 
haqiqat, galati, jhutha, 'aurat, riwaj. : <=^ j ~ l -*-~ 

In the following lessons the vowel-points will not be 
written. In Urdu literature they are very rarely written 
and the student will therefore be compelled to learn to 
read without them. In this book, in order to help the 
student at this early stage, the Urdu, as romanized, is 
printed beside the Urdu in the Persian character. The 
student is advised to practise reading in the Persian 
character, so as to gain facility in it, as romanized books 
are comparatively few. 

^ 
ti*t&\ 



-t 



LESSON IV. 

THE NOMINATIVE CASE. 

Gender and Number. 

In Urdu, nouns signifying males are usually mascu- 
line, and those which signify females feminine. To this 
general rule thei-e are some exceptions, owing to the 
gender of certain nouns following their form, rather than 
their signification. 

Generally speaking, nouns ending in ' (a), $ (a o) 
) (u or o) ' (a), are masculine. Terminations usually 
denoting the feminine are ^ ~ (/), & (t), and (J ~ (ish). 

To these rules the exceptions are very numerous. For 
the beginner the safest rule is to learn the gender of 
each word when the word itself is learnt. For elaborate 
lists of rules and exceptions, the student is referred to the 
Standard Grammars of Urdu, especially that of Platts. 

Plural. 1. Masculine nouns ending in a consonant are 
the same in the nominative singular and plural, as _^_ 
yhar, house or houses. 

2. Masculines in f , a, or a, change to * , e, in 
the nominative plural, as ^ , larkd, boy, -j^ , larke, boys. 

3. Feminine nouns in <.$ ~7~ /, take the form ^J-> ~ 
iydn in the plural nominative, as (^j) larkS, girl, ^ ! i>">' , 
larkiydn, girls. 

4. Other feminine nouns terminate in ^ji , en, in the 
nominative plui'al, as o 1 ; , rat, night, ^^^ , rdten, nights. 

Adjectives ending in T , d, form their feminine in 
C5> = 3 /; as Ij^M, Kdld ghord, black horse, ^)j^(J^, 
kali ghort, black mare. Singular and plural are the same 
in form. All other adjectives are indeclinable. 



Verbs agree with their nominatives in number and 
person, excepting in the forms noted in Lesson VII, below. 

EXERCISE. 

1. & j$* Jj yih mez hai. 

2. JL- ^yoT *) with ddml hai. 

3. ,jJt z *J ih aura ten hain. 



4. .jJt ^-)+4$ *j wuh ghoi'e hain. 

5. jjt, JVJy* ^v? *J y-^- &tf mezeii hain. 

6. ^ 4r*?" ^y *J wu ^ l a Tke chhote the. 

7. ^jW ^ U^'ftlf ghoriydn kdU thin. 

8. ^ o.jjA- <: y*j> kapre sufed the. 

9. .jJfc v^ 5'^ U^y *i 2/*^ larkiydn kail hain. 

10. ,J^3 ^.jj ^J^ 8 j wuh chizen bari thin. 

11. \~)y& \y> <4 i/t'/i bard ghora hai. 

12. *J ^ 1 ^ u<w ^ 'aurat chhotl th-i. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. This is a man. 2. That thing is a table. 3. This 
horse is big. 4. Those girls were fair. 5. These boys 
\vere dark. 6. This thing is small. 7. That is (a) white 
table. 8. (The) black cloths. 9. Large tables. 10. (The) 
cloths are white. 11. This woman is small. 12, Those 
are black mares. 

VOCABULARY. 

*j, yih, pron. and adj. pron. com. gen. sing, and pi. he, 

she, it, this, these. 
j , wuh, pron. and adj. pron. com. gen. sing, and pi. he 

she, it, that, those. 



8 

hai, v. sing. com. gen., is. 
A , hain, v. plur. are. 
, thd, v. sing. m. gen., was. 
, the, v. pi. m. were. 
, 7w, v. sing. fern, gen., was. 

hm,v. pi. were. 
?ziez, n. fern, table. 
f admi, n. masc. man. 
c f aurat, n. fern, woman. 
' ghord, n. masc. horse. 
ghori, n. fern. mare. 
10-' larkd, n. masc. boy. 
L/^ larki, n. fern. girl. 
otj mi, n. fern, night. 
1>^ kaprd, n. masc. cloth. 
J*- c/ifz, n. fern, thing. 
\y. bard, adj., large, big, tall. 
^^- chhotd, adj., little, small, short. 
& kdla, adj., black, dark. 
&** sufed, adj., white. 

In Urdu the verb usually ends the sentence. In 
modern Urdu the third personal pronouns and pronominal 
adjectives have the same forms in the singular and plural. 
In the older Urdu literature, as in Hindi, the plurals are 
ye and we, respectively. The student is advised not to 
use these obsolete forms. 



LESSON V. 

THE VERB. PRINCIPAL PARTS. 
The Imperfect Participle and its Tenses. 

1. The principal parts of the Urdu verb are : 

(1) The Root, as^, gir, fall. T, a, come. &\$ , 

kah, say. 

(2) The Infinitive, as l >j$ , girna, to fall. l -t , and, 

to come. ^ , kahnd, to say. 

(3) The Imperfect (or Present) Participle, as ^ , 

girtd, falling. ', dtd, coming. ^, kahtd, 
saying. 

(4) The Perfect or Passive Participle, as !/ , gird, 

fallen. 1 1 , dyd, came. '^, kdhd, said. 
From the above examples it will be seen 
that the Infinitive is formed by adding to 
the root lj , td : the Imperfect Participle by 
adding\^,*jfi5>) and the Perfect or Passive 
Participle by adding T , a, when the root 
ends in a consonant, or ^ , yd, if it ends in a 
vowel. The final I , d, is inflected to <^ i, 
when the Infinitive, which is really a verbal 
noun, or the Participle, is in the feminine. 

2. The Present Imperfect tense is formed by adding to 
the Imperfect Participle the auxiliary verb , hai, is, 

Singular. 

1 . ^jj^y* ^j*:* , main girtd hun. I am falling. 

2. _ ^ , tu girtd hai. Thou art falling. 

3. __ bjt *j , wuh girtd hai. He is falling. 



10 



Plural. 

^ A t f* , ham girte hain. We are falling. 
y* <L/ ,.3 , turn girte ho. You are falling. 
,_,** I_y iJj , with girte hain. They are falling. 

The feminine is the same except that the participle 
ends in <_$ , l } as ^j> *j , u-uh girti hai, she is falling. 
u* crjr (** > ham girti hain, we are falling. 

3. The Past Imperfect is formed by adding to the 
Imperfect Participle the auxiliary U^, tha, was. 

Singular. 

1. l*> 4/ ^.< } ma in, girt a tha. I was falling. 

2. ^ ^/y , tu girtd tha. Thou wast falling. 

3. UJ '*j* >^, ?^M/I gfirfcZ ^a. He was falling. 

Plural. 

1. &i I_y* (*A 3 /t,vn girte the. We were falling. 

2. ^L <L/ ^ , turn girte the. You were falling. 
o. ^ L/ j , n-uh girte the. They were falling. 



Feminine <^ \J> <_;** , main girt/' thi. I was falling. 
* *) > wnh girti thin. They were falling. 



EXERCISE. 
1 . <_ U . ghar girtd hai. 

2. >& tfi_^ <Ly /arA-e d^e fcaiw. 

3. I^J (jL^ ,v main jdtd thd. 

4. ^.a> -P'-*- (^ ^ tw idtl ho. 

5. ,^3 1 ^^ l - .&)}* 'auratenjdgti thin. 



11 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



A& e) 

,$& 



bachche rote hain. 
ghord chaltd hai. 
soil hain. 



t7 chalte the. 
ek 'aurat hansti hai. 
rfo ddmi bolte the. 



Translate into Urdu : 



1. A man is laughing. 2. Two oxen are going (mov- 
ing). 3. That child is sleeping. 4. Those men were going 
(away). 5. I am coming. 6. Two houses were falling. 
7. A horse is falling. 8. This girl is crying. 9. Those 
two men are waking (awake). 10. That horse is getting 
up. 11. Two black oxen were coming. 12. You (m.) were 
sleeping. 

Note. 1. Words in brackets are not to be translated. 

Note. 2. There is no definite article in Urdu. Vari- 
ous ways of expressing its meaning may be learned by 
careful observation of the forms of the sentences given 
in this and subsequent exercises. 



l *T, 



bolnd, 
girnd, 
and, 



chalnd, 
jdgnd, 
rond, 

sond, 



VOCABULARY. 

v. intransitive, to speak. 

,, to fall. 

,, to come. 

to go away, depart. 

,, to go along, move. 

,, to awake, be awake. 

,, to cry, weep. 

to sleep. 



12 

frjl , uthnd, v. intransitive, to get up, rise. 

\AJ hansnd, ,, to laugh. 

, ghar, n. masc. house, 

u, bachchd, ,, child, infant. 

i:>, bail, ox. 

', ek, adj. one. 

, do, two. 



LESSON VI. 

TENSES PROM THE PERFECT OR PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 
Intransitive Verbs-. 

1. The Past Indefinite is identical in form with the 
Perfect Participle, which, in the case of intransitive verbs, 
is inflected to agree in gender and number with its nomina- 
tive, as: 

Singular. 

i . f - T 11 -^ " 

. U* oi" 5 , main gvra, 1 tell. 

2. I/ y , tu gird, Thou didst fall. 

3. ij* *j , ivuh gird, He fell. ^. . 

^ i 
Plural. , - 

1. __/ ^A } ham gire. We fell. 

2. <~& p* , turn gire. You fell. 

3. <_/ j , wuk gire. They fell. 

Feminine ^^ ^i* , maiw girt, I fell. ^.^ ^ ; ham 
girm } we fell, etc. 

2, The Present or Proximate Perfect is formed by 



13 

adding the auxiliary A , hai, to the Perfect Participle, 
and, I 

3. The Past or Remote Perfect by adding ^ , thd, to 
the Perfect Participle. These constructions also are used 
with intransitive verbs only. 

PRESENT PERFECT. 
Singular. 

1. uj^ !/ L^* ) main gird hiln. I have fallen. 

2. <> \ , tit gird hai. Thou hast fallen. 

3. A ]^ h } wuh gird hai. He has fallen. 

Plural. 

1. ^A <_y? p& } ham gire hain. We have fallen. 

2. )& tJ f* , turn gire ho. You have fallen. 

3. ^A __/ *j , wuh gire hain. They have fallen. 

Feminine 3 singular __ ^^ j , wuh giri hai, she has 
fallen, etc. 

PAST PERFECT. 

Singular. 
1 . ^ [yf ^j^ , main gird thd. I had fallen. 

2. ^ |y>*j ^' S r * r ^ ^^- Thou hadst fallen. 

3. k'i I , u-wA im ^/ia. He had fallen. 



Plural. 

1. l ^-;^ f* A , /iam gfire ^/ie. We had fallen. 

2. l ^_^ pi , turn gire the. You had fallen. 

3. &- <-.j t>) , wuh gire the. They had fallen. 

Feminine singular 3 ^ ^ j , wuh giri thi, she had 
fallen, etc. 



14 

The Indefinite Perfect is comparatively little used. 
The Present and Past Perfect, or as they are called by 
Indian grammarians, the Past Proximate and Past Remote, 
divide most of the work between them, according as the 
action, etc., of the verb is regarded as having taken place 
a shorter or longer time ago. 

Note. After a vowel, the terminations i- and ^ (ye 
and yi) are not fully written and pronounced, but the 
orthographical sign _*L hamza is used instead, as ^V , lie, 
instead of <&} , liye. 

EXERCISE. 

1. ,sV? ^)y* 'aurat boll. 

2. l$3 t^jf O-/ mard uthd thd. 

3. ,)Jt c. J-^j <U yih phal gire hain. 

4. ^3 <i V (j'vi ^J^' *J wuh kapre yahan pare the. 

5. ,& -J/ o^ r^y naukar kahdn gay hain, 

6. (+> \*tf vj'^ <^_$ll^ mdlik wahdn soya thd. 

7. .i3 (j^--: ( fi-: 1 '-^ J^ j j do Idl kitdben yahdn girni. 

8. i&& ^4> J^ p/iwZ khile hain. 

9. v ,,1^ ,r-^ ^ * * a ^ bans phate thr. 

jj 
10 ^ ^_^; ^.; ^>^ fea/iwf. bachche royt- (roe}. 

V 

11. ^_ ^_/y /^ w-ez <M^ /iai. 

12. <* ^- ^^ jdmudr bole the. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. (The) men had spoken. 2. All (the) women wept. 
3. Many clothes had split. 4. (The) master fell. 5. (The) 
servants got up. 6. All (the) children have slept. 
7. (The) oxen had fallen. 8. A book is lying (translate 



15 






, khilnd, v. int. 
bolnd, ., 



with present perfect of ^Jj par no] here. 9. Two red fruits 
have fallen. 10. All (the) yellow flowers have bloomed. 
11. All (the) servants have awaked. 12. (The) bamboo 
has been broken. 

VOCABULARY. 

to open (flowers), bloom. 

to speak (to utter a sound). This 
word applies to animals and in- 
animate things as well as to 
human beings, as, the cock crows, 
the chair creaks, the man speaks ; 
all are expressed by bolnd. 

to lie, to be lying. 

(perfect participle of /ana) gone. 

to break, be broken. 

to split, to be torn. 

man, as distinguished from woman. 

fruit. 

servant. 

master. 

book. 

flower. 

bamboo. 

animal. 

here. 

there. 

where ? 

all. 

many. 

yellow (Hindi). 
,, (Persian). 

red (H.). 

, (P.). 



parna, v. int. 

guy a, 

, tutnd, ,, 
, pJiatnd, ,, 
, mard, n. mas. 
, phal, ,, ,, 
, naukar, 
>,mdlik, ,, 
, kitdb, fern. 
>, phul, m. 
J , bans, ,, 
jdnwar, ,, 
, yahdn, adv. 
, wahdn, 
, kahdn, 
, sab, adj. 
? , bahut, ,, 
, pild, 
, zard, 
, Idl, 




16 

The words in these vocabularies marked " Hindi " or 
"h"are usually those understood by all classes. The 
Persian alternatives are usually employed in Urdu litera- 
ture and are preferred by educated Mohammadans. 



LESSON VII. 

TRANSITIVE VERBS. TENSES FORMED WITH THE 
PARTICIPLE. 

Agent and Accusative C<i> *. 

1. There is no Active Perfect Participle in Urdu. 
The Perfect Participle, like its original in Sanskrit, is 
really a Passive Participle, and has that title in Urdu 

Grammar (ism maf f ul, Jj*** p~^ ). In order to form the 

Perfect tenses of the Transitive Verb a construction like 
that of the English Passive is used. The Participle is 
made to agree in gender and number with the object or 
patient and not with the subject or agent of the verb, and 
the doer of the action is signified by affixing the particle 

L. , ne, the sign of the agent case, as it is called by 

European Grammarians. The Perfect Participle and its 
auxiliaries agree with the object in gender and number, ^ 
unless the object is constructed with the particle /> , ko, 
in which case the verbal forms are in the masculine singu 
lar. 

The following sentences will illustrate this construc- 
tion : 



17 



c3 

,-C 



pj fl S s 
c3 05 S o ^ 
S S &: S 



EH EH EH EH 



Si 
' 






"5i 



*- 

a- a. 



53 e 



S S 



bo 



o o 

3 2 
^ t* 



A 





-Q &C 

CD CD 



EH EH 






. -v 






--J .g "J ^ 

^ ^ v ^ x 

O O Xl ' 



2. The object of the verb or accusative is either 

identical in form with the nominative, or the particle y , 
ko, is affixed. The use, or otherwise, of this particle is 
one of the most delicate points of Urdu idiom. For the 



present the learner is advised to confine the use of 



ko, 
In 



to persons, as in the specimen sentences above given, 
subsequent lessons further hints will be given. 

3. Before affixing any of the particles (like L , ne, 
and y , ko), which signify case relations, the noun is 
inflected, when capable of inflection. The inflected form 
is called the oblique or formative. 



Norn. Sing. 

Masc. inflected. fc^ , larkd. 
Fern, inflected. ol? , bat. 
Masc. uninflected. elt? , bail. 



Formative, Sing, 
larke (k 
bat (ko). 
bail (ko). 



Masc. inflected. 
Fern, inflected. 
Masc. uninflected. 



Nom. Plural. 
larke. 
bdteu. 
bail. 



Formative Plural. 

^O<j larkon (ko). 
y^, baton (ko). 
X , bailon (ko) . 



are inflected as follows : 

C 1st pers. J- ^rff , main ne. 
' - J : tune. 

'i , us ne. 

ham ne. 
turn ne. 

inhon ne, L. 



4. The pronouns 



i j. 

Agent sing. < 2nd ., 

(.3rd ,, <!, i<? we, 

/ 1 st pers 

! \ 2nd 
Agent plural < 

/ 3rd 

v- hon ne. 

r ( y^* > mujh ko. 

( 1st pers. { 

j ( <ft? tx ' mujhe. 

Ace. sing. 1 ( ysJ ^ U ;'/i fro. 

(2nd , ., 

< < &- ) , ^w^ne. 



. . 

- 



un 



19 

~sl iff ko, 



, us ko. 



r 

v 

I 

f 
< 

f ^l m 



} ham ko. 

, 
, hamen. 



, inhen. 

j. 

i , unhen. 



c 
Acc. S ,ng. gapers. \ 

^- 

I 1st 

Ace. plural J 2nd ,, 

3rd ., .. 

I. _yW f , un KO, 

5. When the pronouns are used adjectively the order 
is : 

(1) Adjective pronoun. (2) The Noun qualified. 

(3) The affixed particle, as __ \^ >c L ^^T ^ , 
is ddmt ne mdrd hai. This man has struck. 

6. The student will be relieved to know that there are 
only the six following verbs in Urdu which are irregular. 
The irregularity is in the Perfect Participle and the tenses 
formed from it. 



-y*> , hond, 


pf. 


P t. 


IjJ* , hud, 


to become. 


bj*>, marnd, 


j> 


JJ 


y , mwa, 


to die. 


LJU. ^ jdnd, 


j^ 





l * r , yaya, 


to go. 


tijf , karnd, 


> 


)) 


l^, %a, 


to do. 


Lvj.i , dena, 


? 


i) 


ljJ> , cZt't/a, 


to give. 


LijJ , lend, 


>5 


J3 


^i %*? 


to take. 



1 . 
2. 

3. 



.xfc 



EXERCISE. 
..^f ^L. ,*> ma*'n we gf/iar bandy e hain. 

.^^jT (ldm ^ ne mu f fl ko mdrd 
~ thd. 

L uJ'c 'auraton ne do 

V >y 7 . 

par hi 



20 



ilon ne ghds Ithai hat. 

5. <- blC> Ul$S <i_ ^_^y larkinekhdndpakdydhai. 

6. l$3 tf i/r' ^-- l _ ^^" " s "^ w ^ ar ^ ko kdtd thd. 
H K ft"., f * J if unhon ne do bare qhar 

7. ,0 ^. - 



8. ..$ U^J 

biddyd hai. 



- - < e yi/i bdten 

U" ' 



10. l t* tfc$ '* u unJion ne kyd Idyd thd. 

11. A- 



12. 1^3 UXj^ ^ U^^^' ^' ^ fk ^ ftm we M?l admion ko 

dekhd thd. 

13. .c^*" ,riv* cy ''- ^ 3 ^"' *'* lo>!'ke ne bat nahln NUIU. 



14. ,J^J ,<^L; rt-?^ 1 -^-"' <i- i> /'law we #a& kitdben pd,i 
' tin/in. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. (The) boys have seen (the) house. 2. We have 
eaten (the) food. 3. (The) girls have cooked (the) bread 
(plur.). 4. What had (the) man done? 5. (The) boy 
killed (the) snake. 6. You have bitten (the) bread. 
7. (The) man said this word. 8. (The) men had read one 
book. 9. These women have called (the) girls. 10. (The) 
boy gave (the) bread. 11. (The) man heard this word. 
12. You had not received two bamboos. 

VOCABULARY. 

tiUj , banana, v. trans, to make, prepare, build. 
IJ;!.*, mdrnd, to strike, kill. 

UAJJJ parhnd, to read. 



21 



uu 



ur 



khdnd, v. trans, to eat. 
pakdnd, to cook. 
kdtnd, to cut, bite. 

buldnd, to call. 

kahnd, ,, to say. 

karnd, to do. 

kiyd, p. part, of liy did, done. 
dend, v. tr. , to give. 
diyd, p. part. masc. of &}& , gave, given, 
(the fern, form, dl, is a contraction of di, *). 
dekhnd, v. tr. to see. 
,, to hear. 

to obtain, get, receive. 

n. fern, grass, weeds. 

n. m. food, dinner, 
snake. 



xnnna, 

pdnd, 

ghds, 

khdnd, 

$dmp, 



n before a labial is pronounced m, as samp, snake. 



bdt, 
roti, 
tin, 
kyd, 
nahm, 



n. fern, word, thing, matter. 

,, bread, 

adj. three, 

pron. what ? 

adv. no, not. 



N.B. When the negative particle ^jty nahm is used, 
the auxiliary ^ , hai, is not necessary. Philologists say 
that it is compounded of na + hai = is not. 



22 

LESSON VIII. 
THE GENITIVE. 

1. The relations of origin, possession, etc., are ex- 
pressed in Urdu by affixing the particle K, kd, to tlie 

formative of nouns, etc., ^ is inflected like an adjective, 
to agree with the governing noun in gender and number, 
as: 

us fa ghord, his horse. 
t , us ke ghore, his horses. 
*\ , us ke ghore kd, of his horse. 
\ , us ke ghoron kd, of his horses. 
' ) WtS ' ki ghon, his mare. 
us Tti ghoriydn, his mares. 

t ghori kd, of his mare. 

1 / ghorfyon kd, of his mares. 



2. The genitive of the personal pronouns is as fol- 
lows : 

Singular t^ , merd, my. ^ , iera, thy. ^~4 , /-s 
^a, or fc"r , ws ^a, his, hers, its. 

Plural ';U* } hamdrd, our. 'j^ tumhdrd, your. &l 
or ^>T , inkd, unkd, their. 

3. The reflexive pronoun U->! , apnd, takes the place of 
the personal pi'Oiioun when the action of the verb refers 
to the subject of the sentence, as ^_ ^^ ^^ ^j! *j , wnh 
apni roti khdtd hai, he eats his (own) bread. On the 
contrary _ ^f ^j; i^* *> , wuh uski roti khdtd hai. 
would mean, he eats his (another person's) bread. 



23 

EXERCISE. 
kj .$? Lv wera gr/iar 6ara hai. 



2. <*L I^JJ lj*i^ K iH ^ ,J* mai/ - 1 ne w*kd ghord dekha 

^ hai. 

3. 1^3 |j J .$f K ^] ^_ *J wm ?ie -unA-a gf/iar iora //ia. 

4. &*_^~y^ <z)bj^ ^- O^^y naukaron ne darwdze khole 

the. 

5. ^_^>JL. jj <i <^_ <- ijfj ws ke bete ne do samp 

mare hain. 



6. .xfc ,-ii^- .ji^^ *i < A ^ am y^ bdtenjdnte hain. 



7. <__ j*J ^5^Vi <i ^Jv^ ^f-' ^Jl^ 'aurat apne Jcapre 

thi. 



chhota hai. 

9. U 5^* ^ V^ ^ ^~$ V.T' is ^ a r^ e ke bdp ne meri 
i jntiyanlanaihaw, 



10. <*. l^ ^b 1;V> 3 tumhdra Idgh chhota hai. 

11. ,*5 ^iJbjj ^^ ^ > _/j| X_j tcuh apni kitaben parhte 

the. 

12. ^ 



13. *_ bi! ^y uT^* X J U1/u ^ me topi Idyd hai. 



14. ^- ^r*?' ^ ^j^' ^- ^ baniye ne apni' dukdn 

chhori hai. 

JX 

15. & )) cjl^J ^_ )\j> bazzdz ki dukdn dur hai. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. He raised his head. 2. (The) woman has opened 
the door of her house. 3. Your son is reading his book. 
4. This boy's head is very big. 5. That man's hat is 
small. 6. We saw that gentleman. 7. Your letters had 



24 



arrived. 8. The shop-keepers have built their own shops. 
9. He is making a large garden. 10. (The) men were 
putting on their clothes. 11. I know this thing. 12. They 
have spoken these words. 13. Cloth merchants were 
looking (at) cloths. 14. He made his own shoes. 15. They 
have seen my black horse. 



VOCABULARY. 
to break, 
to open. 



UJU 



tornd, v. t. 
kholnd. v. t. 
jdnnd, v. t. to know. 
pahinnd, v. t. to put on (clothes). 
likhnd, v. t. to write. 
IJJI , land, v. int. to bring. 

(This verb being a compound of le bringing, and and, 
to come, is intransitive, meaning taking to come.) 

chhornd, v. t. to leave, forsake, let go. 
darwdza, n. m. door. 
nrorsar,n. m. head. 



juti, 


n. f. 


shoe. 




bag., 


n. m. 


garden. 




sahib, 


n. m. 


gentleman, 


lord. 


khatt, 


n. m. 


letter. 




dukdn, 


n. f. 


shop. 





IS 



baniyd, n. m. shopkeeper, grain merchant. 

bazzdz, n. m. draper, cloth merchant. 

dtir, adj. distant. 

beta, n. m. son. 

beft, n. f. daughter. 

bap, n. m. father. 

man, n. f. mother. 

topi, n. f. hat, cap. 



25 

LESSON IX. 
THE IMPERATIVE AND THE DATIVE. 

1. The Imperative 2nd singular is identical in form 
with the root, the 2nd plural is formed by adding o to the 
root, as La- , jd, go thou, jL^ , jdo, go ye. 

2. The Precative or Respectful Imperative is formed by 
adding iye to the root as e=^jd,iye be pleased to go- 

3. The 2nd singular Imperative is only used when dis- 
respect is intended, except when used to a very near rela- 
tion. The 2nd plural is used in speaking to inferiors, and 
occasionally when speaking to equals, but in addressing 
equals it is best to use the respectful form, which must 
always be used in speaking to superiors. 

4. The particle ^ is the sign of the Dative or indirect 

object, as well as of the direct object or Accusative of the 
verb. The Dative sign indicates the recipient after 
verbs of giving, the person on whom obligation rests, the 
person who has need of anything, also place to which and 
time at which. 

5. The Precative **>{* ehdhiye of the verb LUU. chdhnd, 

to wish, is used idiomatically to signify need or obligation, 
as, usko Ititdb ehdhiye, he needs a book (literally, for him 
a book is desirable or desired), and, usko karna chdhiye, 
he ought to do so (lit. for him to do (it) is desirable or 
obligatory). 

6. Note the idiomatic use of the verb Ld* ? milnd, to 
meet. With a dative of the person concerned it means 
to obtain, to find, to get, as, ^^ ^^ j-t , usko roti milt, 

he got bread. Perhaps the distinction between pdnd 
with the nominative usne roti pd,i and milnd with the 
dative usko roti milt is that pdnd implies a greater, and 
milnd a less, degree of effort in obtaining the bread. 



26 

EXERCISE. 

1. 5' U^ " 5^ "-^ wahdnjd,o, yahdn a,o. 

2. i^j <= r 1 ^ <^l apne Itapre pahino. 



3. - ("^ yjKo v_T^' ^ baniyd a-pni diikan ko 

jdfd hai. 

& .^ * ^ kitdbeii hamko 



5. J -*** ^ v-.-~A.te sdhib ko kurti do. 



6. *JfciJJ ^ ,^j <l cA* y^^-"! its ^/ wd/< ne bachche ko 
A d?7d/i pildyd hai. 



7. <2~ 1U yv|sc Ij^s" A., y^ ghord mujh ko mild 

hai. 



8. <_ U t . i ^jh 1.) lifla. r^^ S J ^^^ ^ in ^0 jdgtd aur rat 

J J S Jj J ***' ' j . f -, ' . 

ko sola hai. 



9. Uifso jj .i^i c_Ujt ham are naukar ko do 

machhliydn dijiye. 



10. J^bU <ib ^/ H^ ^ ir-1 ^ ^ kuchh 

chahiye. 



11. JkX&U. fvJUJ^j A^j^a. .^ vj.W larkon ko jhitth bolnd 

"L/*"* -^' 4 * J> J J ' f 7 / 1 

nahin chahiye. 

12. ^ ^-J L_S^>' ^ UJ^ij^ ^ f* ^ um ne $t ari '&Q ko rot i di 

hai. 

13. < 



14 $ A-<Jkv , lUi^I ,J ).| _vJ (U. c?ia? % Zarfce aur do larkivdn 
^ > *-* - J J J' *} J * 7 . '-i-' 

madrase kojate ha in. 



15. &- UJL .iyi A^s^y ,Jt haw ko kuchh naht'n miltd 

hai. 

* See note at the end of the Vocabular}- to this lesson. 



27 



UJL 



pildnd, 
milnd, 



v. t. 
n. f. 



Translate into Urdu: 

1. (The) man went there. 2. (The) girl came here. 
3. Give my servant (a) horse. 4. We need four small 
books. 5. I have got a big mare. 6. Men should not 
tell lies. 7. She came to our house by day. 8. Leave 
this house at night. 9. (Please) give me four fishes. 
10. (Please) give bread and clothes to (the) poor. 11 . Send 
the boys and girls to school. 12. They got nothing. 
13. (The) gentleman is putting on his clothes. 14. Give 
him hot bread. 15. The poor woman is giving her child 
milk to drink. 

VOCABULARY. 

v. t. to cause to drink, give to drink. 

v. int. to meet (with dat. of person), to 
get, obtain, find. 

to wish for. 

chair. 

milk. 

day. 

night. 

fish. 

water, 
n. m. lie. 

garib, adj. and n. m. poor, poor man. 
madrasa, n. m. school. 
aur, conj. and. 
garm, adj. warm, hot. 
char, ad j . four. 
kuchh, indef. pron. and adv. some. 
kuchh nahin, indef. pron. and adv. nothing. 

Note. In forming the Precative of verbs whose roots end 
in* and e, a euphonic j is inserted between the root and 
the affix as pyiyu, please drink, from pind. When the 



cP 



chdhnd, 
burnt, 
dudh, 
din, 
rat, 

, machhli, n. f . 
pdni, n. m 
jhuth, 



n. m. 

n. f. 



* 



28 



vowel of the root is e this is changed to / as dijiye please 
to give, from dend. Hond to become and mama (perfect 
participle mu,d) form the precatives hujiye and mujiye. 




LESSON X. 
THE AORIST AND FUTURE TENSES. 

1. The Aorist is formed from the root by adding the 
personal terminations. 

1. Singular oj , un. 1. Plural ^ , en. 

2. <^,e. 2. j , 

3. ^_ , e. 3. 
These are the same for both genders. 

EXAMPLE. 
Singular. 

1. uV^ '-Hi*, mamjd,un. (If) I go. 

2. ^y, tujd,e. (If) thou goest. 

3. <^~ 1^- ) , wuhjd,e. (If) he goes. 

Plural. 

1- c^^ p* > hamjden. (If) we go. 

2. -jl^ ^>, tumjd,o. (If) you go. 

3. ^ri-'k?- ? j , icuhjd,en. (If) they go. 

2. The Future is formed from the aorist by adding 
!f , gd, if the subject of the verb is masculine singular, and 
Jf , gty if the subject is feminine singular. The plural 
terminations are _ , ye, for the masculine and J? , gi, for 
the feminine, as : 



29 

Masculine Singular. 

1. &JJP u^ > main karftnyd. I will do. 

2. &y j-> , tii karegd. Thou wilt do. 

3. &jS *j , wuh karegd. He will do. 

Masculine Plural. 

1. fi^i/f * A , ham karenge. We will do. 

2. </j>y fJ . turn karoge. You will do. 

3. <A J ^> *j , Mm/i karenge. They will do. 

1. Singular feminine, ^i/ *j , wuh karegt, she will 
do. 



2. Plural feminine cs^ ^>, ?im karogi, you will do. 

3. The Aorist forms have been given in this place as 
the Future forms are built upon them, but exercises on 
them are deferred to a later lesson, when the student will 
find them easier. In this lesson exercises are confined to 
the Future tense. 

4. The Future suffix % , yd, is a derivative from the 
Sanskrit root which expresses the idea of going. The 
Urdu Future &j> *j , wuh karegd, therefore corresponds to 
the English colloquial idiom, he is going to do (it}. 

EXERCISE. 

1. ^i^ ^4$ *) imh khdnd khd,ega. 

2. *&*- u^J f^ ham wahanjdenge. 

3. ^j*" ^b 6 ^ i - bachchd rat ko so,egd. 

^. JojJk ^>b S $ Jo) Sj with apni larke ko pain 



5. KjX }-)y t_>il ^ u. A.Le dhib ko ek yhofd milegct. 

6. KjJU- S ,4^ i- i-?b _ | x. wuh apne bdp ke ghar ko 

' -^ " " ' ^ * S 

ja,ega. 



30 




n ko madraxe bhejo. 
hamapnekapre pahinenge. 
wuhhamko ro/.t' khildenye. 

f o,uraten apne apne baeh- 

- j. j ^ 

n A;o dekhenqi. 



itnt/i Mtt^ likhegd. 
kojdgegd. 

tiaukar rott' pakdegd. 
fear/' 

khdega. 
naukar pdni Idenge. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. (The) men will eat bread. 2. (The) servants will 
bring water. 3. (The) boys will write letters. 4. (The) 
servant will put ou his clothes. 5. (The) poor (man) will 
fall. 6. (The) horses will eat grass. 7. (The) children 
will be awake at night. 8. We will come at night. 
9. They will go by (at) day. 10. (The) servants will gh-c 
the horses water to drink. 11. She will write four letters. 
12. (The) girl will cook the food. 13. Where will he go ? 
14. (The) flowers will bloom. 15. Fruit will fall. 16. I 
will see him. 



* This may also be written JUjO>x, bat in either form it should be 
pronounced madrase. 



31 

LESSON XI. 
THK ABLATIVE CASE. 

1. The ideas of separation from, means or instrument 
with or by, comparison tcith, time or place from which, are 
expressed in Urdu by the affix <i. se. It is added to the 
formative of nouns and pronouns, as will be seen in the 
sentences given in the following exercise. 

EXERCISE. 



1. A- ^T < c^liS <L IxaA. *j u-uh Jumna ke kindre xe 

dyd hai. 



2. ^^ ts^ J <- *j *-> wu ^ -A-9 se 

jdegd. 



3. -xfi> dLl^ ^l^ L < "*^ (& hamchamchese bhdt khdte 
v hain. 



n sm se kapre s 
thin. 



5. <_ J;^ );) .yr^ v-s'^* m ^* khurpi aurphdwre se 

zamzn khodte hain. 



6. 1^3 l^XJ kA. 4^ >is ,i__ Jli(j ustad ne qalam se' kliatt 

Ukhd thd. 



7 . ^- l**^- <-^^ c^lyxJ .^ | -** merd ghar tumhdre ghar 

se chhotd hai. 



8. <- )y*> )J.=>- 41 .j^-- g JL>| &y larkd apm man se juda 

hud hai. 

9. <2L <.J !. o^ ^>^ Dehli yahdn se dur hai. 

10. <- ^ ; J ^j-*-^ ^^ ^- s>^S Kalkatte se Agra kitn^ 

dur hai ? 

11. ^^ u ' ^s&**-' <- ./>)"' ^)J^ darzism se qamizst'tdhai. 



32 



12. & U*fc |p <- ~ixf \~)y^ ghord gadhe se bard hot a 

hai. 



13. 

taultd hai. 



)|.jJ <. J^crJ^^T-h r 4? mistrf karni se dhcdr 

* J J* ^~ J *~3; t_.' 7 t f 

banaega. 



15. &_ ^v ^- yjtli ^/i ^^ *i y*^ ^'^& us kitdb se bar i 

hai. 



16. JLU6i }p^ 4 

S J*t J J*J * 'i / 7 

rangata hai. 
Translate into Urdu : 

1. She will go from Dehli to Agra. 2. (The) boys will 
cut their bread with (a) knife. 3. He had gone from niy 
house to (the) bank of the Jumna. 4. (The) orarderer 
will dig the ground with his (garden) trowel and spade. 
5. How far is it from Dehli to Agra ? 6. (The) gentle- 
man will go from your house to my house. 7. Your oxen 
are bigger than theirs (their oxen). 8. (The) masons 
were building (a) wall with their trowels. 9 (The) 
gardener's garden-trowel is bigger than the mason's 
trowel. 10. He gave the poor man bread with his (own) 
hand. 11. Bring my shirt from the house. 12. Your 
child is drinking milk with (a) spoon. 13. (The) man 
sewed the book with (a) needle. 14. The dyer will dye 
my cloth with (a) red colour. 15. The boys were writing 
letters with (the) pen. 16. Our house is far from here. 



UJ 






sind, 
khodnd, 
hond. 
taiilnd, 
rang and, 
Jumna. 


V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 

V. 

n. 


t. 

t. 
int. 
t. 
t. 
f. 


VOCABULARY. 

to sew. 
to dig:, 
to become, 
to weigh, 
to dye. 
the river Jumna. 



33 



^ 



Agra, n. m. Agra. 
Dehli, n. m. Dehli. 
Kalkatta, n. m. Calcutta. 

chamcha, ") 

7 7 > n. m. spoon. 

cfiamach) j 

n. m. rice, (cooked). 

n. m. gardener. 
Tchurpi, n. f. (gardener's) trowel. 
karnt, n. f. (mason's) trowel. 
phawrd, n. m. spade, mattock. 
qalam, n. m. or f. ? pen. 
ustdd, n. m. teacher. 

n. m. tailor. 

n. m. shirt. 

n. m. ass, donkey. 

n. m. scales. 

n. m. grain. 

n. m. workman, master workman. 
listri, n. m. mason. 

n. f. wall. 

n. m. dyer. 

n. m. dye, colour. 
id, (p.) adj. 
alag, (h.) adj. 
kitnd, adj. and inter, pron., how much ? 
kindrd, n. m. edge, bank. 
sui, n. f. needle. 

zamin, n. f. earth, land. 



gadhd, 
tardzu, 
andj, 



diwdr, 
rangrez, 



34 

LESSON XII. 
THE LOCATIVE CASE. 

The local relations of the noun are expressed by affix- 
ing to the formative the postpositions <j* , men, in, into, 
jj , par, on or upon, <~& , tak, up to. 

EXERCISE. 
1. A. Uf < * fifS* *j u'uh shahr men gay a hai. 



2. A 13U. >>* <UU;JL/ JluJ ustdd madrase men jdtd 
^" hai. 



3. <*_ -P* r-> ^L> is^'-^ ustdm palang par sotihai. 



4. t^5 Ulx> ^_^iJL> <- ^jd \^y- bwhaj lakri se palang 

bandtd thd. 



5. <*J^T & jj^J ic*^ I** do sipdhi yahdn tak denge. 

6. K*jk> ^ ^;^ -^ pdnch rupaye tak dungd. 
7^ / J 1 y i i_Jo ,ji3 jJ ^ /iam tin din tak rote the. 
8 J i^ * " ;M ^ ' aura t & k hante tak 

' 



9. ^- 3^^ ^^^ .fi" '^ d^ wew fcuchh kanJear hai. 

v^^-: J?* Jl 



11. 1^3 |j.i . ^y^J^ r*JI a7U y gadhon par ladd thd. 



12. KjJbva- w G-'~)I' \ )\r~ X J 7 - ow ^ sowar apne ghocepnr 

charheyd. 



13. *J < ^* ^ '^ G J& mere bag. men malt m 

phul aur -ihal lagdye 
fcotn. 



35 



14 .** i*> 

LJ" WX 

15. A. lJ 

16. *>( 



$ 

Va^ 5 



dt un larkon ki dawdton men 

. 7 X T 7 

siyahi bharo. 

k.t^ sahib kursijwrbaithdhai. 

*&> ham ne jangal men ek 
jdnwar mdrd thd. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. They went from the city into the jungle. 2. We 
gave as much as four rupees. 3. (The) girl cried till 
night. 4. Four constables and two mounted (policemen) 
went as far as that village. 5. (The) man broke his 
bedstead. 6. We live in Dehli. 7. There are (small) 
stones on this chair. 8. They had not eaten bread for 
(from) two days. 9. (The) teacher took the pens and 
inkstand and books into the school. 10. This school-mis- 
tress has written two books. 11. The boy will read for 
(up to) two hours. 12. (The) child's mother was sleeping 
on the bed, and her child fell from the bed on (to) the 
ground. 13. We stayed in this house for (up to) four 
days. 14. (An) animal came from the jungle into the 
village. 15. The donkey was laden with small stones 
(small stones were loaded on (the) donkey). 16. (The) 
horsemen had mounted upon their horses. 



VOCABULARY. 

shdhr, n. m. city. 

ustdd, 11. m. teacher. 

, list dni, n. f. school-mistress. 

j palang, n. m. bedstead. 

, barhat, n. m. carpenter. 

n. f . wood. 

n. m. soldier, constable. 



36 



sawdr, 



n. m. 



4jj , rupiya, n. m. 

c\0 > rupaye, plural 

Ui^, ghantd, n. m. 

Jb t daZ, n. f. 

J&Z , kankar, n. m. 

y'-S', gdnw, n. m. 

etji, dawdt, n. f. 

(^A^-, siyahi, n. f. 

<Jn* t jangal, n. m. 

lj>j } rahna, v. int. 

L>4>J ^ ladnd, v. int. 

^JW , bharnd, v. t. 

grta , pdnch, ad j . 

UAJ^- , chaihna, v. int. 

UIw ^ baifhnd, v. int. 

UK) ^ lagand, v. t. 



rider, mounted soldier or police- 
man. 

a rupee. 

of above. 

bell, hour. 

pulse, lentils. 

pebbles or bits of brick, nodular 
limestone. 

village. 

inkstand. 

ink, blackness. 

forest, wood, uncultivated land. 

to stay, live. 

to be loaded. 

to fill. 

five. 

to mount upon, climb upon. 

to sit. 

to place, cause to touch, plant. 



LESSON XIII. 
THB CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. 

1. The Conjunctive Participle is sometimes identical 
in form with the root of the verb as ^- jd, but is usually 
formed by adding to the root the affixes . , ke, J , kar, 
or -/ , karke, as l - ,jd, \*> ,jdke, ^V, jtikar, or . ^V , 
jd karke. It is used to express the action of one or more 
verbs preliminary or preparatory to that of the principal 



37 



verb in the sentence, as,^y^ ,jdkarkaho,= going, say, 
or having gone, say, or when you have gone, say, or go 
and say. 

EXERCISE. 



1. jlew^jbU^ ^j & J^ kapre pahinkar bdhar jdo. 

2. jjyfc bl -$l^ ,5^ it** main rotikhdkar dyd hvii. 

3. ut-K /! y /J 1_ i/-t M*W naukar ko luldkar 

" * yahdn bhejd hai. 

- l4fJ 

/i .,<, , _ s\\ ( ,.(\ L- j .-.I usne khatt likhkar ddk men 

, rtr^ i w f^ "^r" "- ^ ^" i , , _ , , 

u chhora tna. 



5. t^y r^^ ^- J^-l <l-l 

6. U^ tf! r^U^t J'^* y ya. c/ior waZ uthdkar le gayd. 



7. t^ ^^ A^ ^;^l ,ri-!^ kitdben almdrl men rakh- 

kar band karo. 



8. lj^ S J^$ sjljj;^ ^_5>*jT ^ icuh ddmi darwdza khol- 

kar kyd dekhtd hai. 



9. e&dj^jKjL <>\A. AxJIiA.^ ham jangal men jdkar 
' ^" shikar khelenge. 



10. 5%. oj . 

chaldo. 

11 A 3 JJ^ ^ ajuj ^ ^ ^ S kauwe ghar par baithkar 
_^r. j> -Jlj* > boltethe. 



12. & .J <u*i; <^ ^_ .s-*^^ i j us ami ne 

' ^* ^*~* ^^ ginkar mnjhko diya. 

tj J 



13. & Jo^ /! X_ *.x> cyL. X^ wt7i .vai pa*se ke dm 

kharidkar Idiid hai. 



38 



. r* Jy cM^ tx*^ 2_ fiH^-k baniye ne do ser dhdn 

taulkar diye the. 



15. .SU- <*^3L* <L ^*^T .-it * ddmi ke sdth j'dkar 

rdsta batdo. 



16. IfciU*. >* Jl&c> L^M.,J ).*> rat>ra dos De/iZi wera jd 

X . " " 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. My son went and stayed in Agra. 2. My friend 
will eat (his) dinner and go out. 3. (The) boys went and 
asked (the) teacher. 4. (The) gentlemen have gone to 
the jungle and are hunting. 5. (The) thief, seeing the 
constable, went out of the house. 6. (The) servant has 
yoked the oxen in the cart and gone to the village. 
7. Load (the) goods on (the) donkey and bring (them) 
here. 8. I will not go and tell him that. 9. My master 
has written (a) letter and sent it to Calcutta. 10. (The) 
baniya will weigh seven ser(s) rice and give it to me. 
11. (The) master counted five pice and gave to (the) 
servant. 12. My mother cried when she heard this word. 
13. The money (rupees) is shut in the cupboard (being 
placed in the cupboard is shut up). 14. He brought a 
letter from the post and read (it). 15. The boy came 
with me and showed me the way to (of) Dehli. 16. Open 
the door of the house and look out. 



VOCABULARY. 

bhejnd, v. t. to send. 

puchhnd,v. int. to ask (a question). 

uthdnd, v. t. to take up, lift. 
* rakhnd, v. t. to place, put, hold. 
^ , band karnd, v. t. to make fast, shut. 

i } shikar khelnd, v. t. to hunt, go shooting. 

jotnd, v. t. to yoke. 



39 



chaldnd, v. t. to cause to go, drive. 



M, ginnd, 


v. t. 


to count. 


k'Hr^ > kharidnd 


,v. t. 


to buy. 


);<* , chor, 


n. m. 


thief. 


csjfr, gw, 


n. f. 


cart, carriage. 


c/a.5 , dhdn, 


n. m. 


rice, in form of seed. 


l>& , batdnd, 


v. t. 


to show, point out, indicate 


s^iS , dak, 


n. f. 


post. 


Jl* , mdl, 


n. m. 


goods. 


^Ul , almdm, 


n. f. 


cupboard, press, book-case. 


f 
ty , kauwd, 


n. m. 


crow. 


* , chhah, 


adj. 


six. 


ol , sai, 


adj. 


seven. 


1* ' , am, 


n. m. 


mango. 


*-*iJ , paisa, 


n. m. 


pice. 


j*~ , ser, 


n. m. 


a ser, about 2 Ibs. 


*^*lj , rdsta, 


n. m. 


road, way. 


J^-ji , cZos^, 


n. m. 


friend. 


^l? , bdhar, 


adv. 


outside, out. 



LESSON XIV. 
THE AOBIST. 

1. The formation of this tense has been explained in 
Lesson X. 

2. Dr. Kellogg's name for this tense is the Contingent 
Future, and his summary of its uses : it " denotes a future 
action as conditioned or contingent" covers, substantially, 
the field of its action in modern Urdu. Other gramma- 



40 

rians have objected to the statement that this tense denotes 
a future action, and Indian grammarians and authors have 
claimed that " the Aorist contains in it the ideas both of 
the present and future." These are, however, niceties 
which need not be discussed at this early stage. Contin- 
gency is expressed by such conjunctions as, if, although, 
etc., and the use of such particles u>ually indicates the 
necessity for using this form of the verb. 

3. The student will not fail to notice that the sentences 
in the following exercise are balanced. This balanced 
style is characteristic of the Indo-Aryan vernaculars, of 
which Urdu is one. In a conditional, local or temporal 
complex sentence the protasis, or clause in which the con- 
dition, place, time, etc., is stated, comes first; then follows 
the apodosis, or principal clause, introduced by its appro- 
priate particle. 

The following particles should be noticed : 

\ , agar, if y to then 

**/( , agarchi, although, C5#y , tail bhi, nevertheless. 

*' Jk^ , hdl-dn-ki, although, p*& } fa ham, nevertheless. 

*O* J* i go> go ki, even if. j*-, j+ , jab, jo, if when, if 

*r3 ,y , tab, to, then. 
J3 _**. 1^3^3 } jab tak tab tak s until or so long till 

then. 

EXERCISE. 



t ^ 

1. jt^Jf .H-! y f_ 3 *=pj y agar baehcha gire to usko 

uthd,o. 



2. ISuJtj \y* y ^. 0^4. Xj /I a 9 ar 

' v saza peg 



8. * L A^saiJ^U ob./l a 9 ar wuh b <*t ^ne, to 

' mujh se kaho. 

4i. Vx^ i)u wJJ I^XjJ 2 ir-f ^~?~ job us ne dekhd, tab yih 

* cMz pat. 

* 



41 

5. .>. t_J2k. i^Jki 8 *_^=>- ,/ a & ww ^ dekhen, to khtib 



U*J> ^ 

roen. 



6. <= ,$ US J Ji U,*> tj V_~~A. ./a& WM/I bhukha ho, to 

Jf "* -/ J J " * 7.7 o 

ffa /care : 



7 ^ J UJbL*. j>,J , A^r^l aqarchi wuhnaMn chdhtd, 

' *' - > " , 7 7 7 

taubhi fcarega. 



J Jb , rJ^ U*i A*>.f) agarchi dawd karwt ho 

-^ -7 *^ x ' *"' / 77' /- 

^.^ ta^^bn^ piunga. 

f% 

9. 5^- ** v_s<H y = ^ x -? *?y^' agarchi wuh bulde taubhi 

najdo. 

10. > <w l^* ,J oh t |t^ U3| J ^wm itnd Ahdo, ki rat bhar 

* ' bhukhd na ho. 

11. ,jt^ - ij^u ^ - .j^^ ^ (&> ham kyd khaen, Ityd pien, 

hahdn soen ? 



12 iJ --I L .jtw A^5U %_ I we /la^/z- sabun se is liye 
^* , , d/ioo H bilkull saf ho 

jab *S |ytj 



18. A> u u^5 ^"^ >* ^^j-*^! \j*\ is admi ko paisa dun yd 
q .j na dun ? 



a 9 ar ma auzr mngun 
to fauran mere pas 
raltho. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. What shall I say? 2. Where shall we go? 3. 
When he saw the book then he took it up. 4. When 
(a) man is hungry what (can) he do ? (use aorist). 5. If 
my horse should fall, what will you do ? 6. If that 
gentleman calls you, go. 7. Although you should find 
that fruit, nevertheless do not eat it. 8. Although the 
medicine should be bitter, yet we will drink it. 9 Al- 



42 



though he washed his hands with water yet they re- 
mained quite dirty. 10. Shall I give this poor man a 
rupee, or shall I not give (it) ? 11. When he washes 
(fut.) his clothes with water, then they will become quite 
clean. 12. If that boy should obey my word, then tell 
me at once. 



lib 



>/, 



VOCABULARY. 

punishment. 

to be punished. 

to mind, obey. 

well. 

hungry. 

medicine. 

bitter. 

to drink. 

adj. and adv. full, complete, whole. 
n. m. soap. 
adv. entirely, completely, altogether. 

clean, clear. 

s. m. (both sing, and pi.) tool, tools. 
adv. at once, immediately. 

Note. The doubling of the zabar over the alif in 
fauran is called in Arabic tanwin or nunation, as it shows 
that the a is to be pronounced as an. It marks the Arabic 
accusative. 



sazd, n. f . 




sdzd pdnd, 


v. t. 


mdnnd, 


v. t. 


khub, 


adv. 


bhukhd, 


adj. 


dawd, 


n. f. 


karwd, 


adj. 


pind, 


v. t. 


bhar, 


adj. $ 


sdbun, 


n. m. 


bi,l-7tul, 


adv. 


/ /> 

sdf, 


adj. 


auzdr, 


s. m. 


fauran, 


adv. 



LESSON XV. 

THE VOCATIVE CASE. THE IMPERATIVE. RELATIVE AND 
CORRELATIVE SENTENCES. 

1. The? vocative is the formative of the noun with the 
nasal sign omitted, as jJ ^, ai larke, boy ! or ]} <^t, 
ai larko, boys ! 

2. There is no special form for the Imperative first 
and third persons. Instead of it, the Aorist forms are 
used. 

3. The following useful series of adjectives and 
adverbs and pronouns should be noted : 





ri CD ^H 


o 6 


O i-d -*^ 




? 


g -T ^ .^ (D 

SJ vij CO ** rG 


CD OQ 


CQ O ^ C3 




s 


"5 2 , '"i ^ -^ 


S> of 


S"^ ** -+^> 




"S 


""jS ~*" a ^ IS 


'5S * c* 


Sg . 
"s *^ 




i-2 


"^ & ^ "^ 


>i CS 




=0 


0) 




-+^j ^ 


^ o ^ 


^s 


* 


-t^s ^ ^ 


*^ ^ 


^_r ^ 


n 


o 



'! ^o X 


3 t 




"b 




a as ^ ^ 
5 > ^ j. o> 


CO 00 

sd co 


no no -ws 

03 C8 O '" 




o5 


2 S CD CS ^= 


aT "* 


^ _, ,3 ^ 




> 


> 3 ^ "^ -"S 


1^ GO 


2 'o ^ _S 




IH 


r^T ^ ? rg 


535 " 


.-SO ^ CO 


x.- 


r^ 


^ '^ '"^ ^ 


'^ '^ 


'"* '^ oT 


K'-j'"^ 


3 


<I* _* 4 


$ * 
^ 11 


'-j 1^ "^ 


^ b 


. 


c*-. c^* c*- 


-. S-. 


. a^. 




0) 


!H - p *T f-; 


>) fe 


o o 




"" 


,^ Jq 


,|t.|^ 


" S " 




>D 
o 


f ^ 1 1 2 -| 


1*^ " f^ 


1 ^ i 


^ 


rj 


"^ \ 


N ^ rx 


^ o 




d 

i i 


^ > ^ 

J- o <^ 


VJt O ^ 

^^ M 


*t*"i 


^ 




^ o5 ^ t* 


o -^ 


r=5 -+^ 




ca 




O co cs 


so ^ 5 




O -t 
_i3 -+=> 

ill 

r 


^^ ^^ 

^ -I- 3 >-S ' 

i 9'-*" 
4^ "^""^ 


I* "i 

' 2^ 

js e -i-i 

" N 


l a f 


i 


n 


~b ^ 


\ 7' 

g \j 


'nl ^ 


b 




(^ rH 


CO 00 CO 


_; 




CD i 

JS "* 
c3 .is 


^ SH O 


s a -_5 


a 1-1 

co g ^3 




.9 S 


rl ^ rS I! 


~r " 


\ 




g a'^ 3 


rCT =*s, "<S> 

^S rs *V 


'Is "1^ 


- fi 


tn 

fH 


*8 


^r 3* 

J- \ 


3 f 


t | 


1 






*-. 


^ a 

rrf ^ 
vf3- ^ 


"S 

a 




.2 


CD -3- 


0) 3 


o 




O O 

SO 0) 
cS Vi 

S S Q 


a 6 

P 


o> o 
bo p 
Q 


d 

P 




i I G<i CO 


Tji iO 


i^> i>- 





S5J 



45 

Note again (see Lesson XIV.) that the Relative is used 
in the protasis and has to be balanced by the correlative 
in the apodosis. If Shakespeare had been writing in 
Urdu he would have written " who steals my purse, 
he steals trash "jo mera batud chori kareya wuh kitra chori 
karegd. 

EXERCISE. 

* ..a *A. jo hogd so hogd. 




kis ne tumko 
buldyd hai ? 

ai bhdtl jo hukm turn ne 
diyd hai. usko us ne 
mdnd hai. 

4i.jj] J_j> #> jw* clj ^J^ t^l ab mdli bag. men by boe 

aur darakht lagde. 

5. u^^- j^ V' v ^ W wuh log ab gharjden. 

6. Jt(j U3f ^ .jj liia. yt'^wa a?eo#e Una pdoge. 

7. lj b t*Jj US ^i^" ^ ^/") W6> ne jaisd kiyd waisa 

pdyd. 

jidhar dekhtd hun udhar 
dsmdn ko sdf dekhtd 



dhdn hotd hai 
wuhdn pdm ki zarurat 
fcoi. 



jiind tez usne apnd ghord 
daurdyd utnd hi tez us 
kedushmanne daurdyd. 



L/**' u^ ^^ *) uM*" J a h<in wuh jdegd wahdn 

us ki bahin bhijdegi. 




46 



10. y^t v^J ^i$?^ 3&t *-^*. jab ustdd puchhegd tab 
% . ji ws&o m'alum hogd. 

11.? jj-^^ ^ L g'HH ic*^ ri 7 * ^ kyd main apni hetf ko 

mdrun ? 

12. jj^J 'ly^pl ^~J U^ LV ^' ddmi yahan rahe aur 

ghord ivahdn. 

18. <2L Uy LJ^ (A.) ULLu L*xa. j 7t-M/i yais(* sitn^a (hai) 

waisd kahtd hai. 

Jka. jaisd ustdd waisd shagird 
hold hai. 

yih ddmijdegd to wuh 

khet ii\t j n 
qehun boen. 

NOTES : No. 5 ko is often omitted in such locutions. 

12 As rafee is expressed in the first part of the 
sentence it is not necessary to repeat it. 

13 As the auxiliary occurs in both parts of the 
sentence it is only necessary to write it with 
the last verb. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. What has been, has been. 2. Come ! let us mount 
our horses and go to his house. 3. (The) boys obeyed the 
orders (words) their teacher gave (spoke). 4. He 
received as much as he gave. 5. Let the women cook 
their bread. 6. As fast as he ran so fast did his enemy 
run. 7. Wherever they look they see (the) sky clear. 
8. Where wheat grows (becomes) much water is not 
necessary. 9. They speak as they hear. 10. The gar- 
deners were sowing seed and planting trees. 11. Shall I 
strike my son ? 12. Let the teacher read and the pupils 
listen. 13. He will know (it will become known) when I 
shall speak. 14. When the man had gone away he did 
not come again. 15. Boys, go and play in the garden. 
16. What did I say to you ? 



47 



VOCABULARY. 

bhdt, n. m. brother. 

bahin, n. f. sister. 

huhni, n. m. command, order. 

, darakht, n. m. tree, 

fcy, n. m. seed. 

ZO<JT, n. m. people. 

dsmdn, n. m. sky, heaven. 

or <J?^ , chdmral or chdwal, n. m., rice, husked for 

cooking 1 . 
&/i n. m. rice, cooked. 

, zarurat, n. f. need, necessity. 
zarur, adj. and adv., necessary, necessarily. 
jald, adv. quickly, swiftly. 
dushman, n. m., enemy. 
shdgird, n. m. pupil, disciple. 
khet, n. m. field. 
gehiin, n. m. wheat. 

A'i/a, int. pron. what? (introducing a question). 
6o?^a, v. t. to sow. 
daurnd, v. int., to run, gallop. 
daurdnd, v. t. to cause to run. 
> puchhnd, v. t. to ask (a question), inquire. 
mdngnd, v. t. to ask for (a thing), solicit. 
chahnd, v. t. to wish for, desire, require. 
* , md'lum hond, v. int., to become known. 



48 



LESSON XVI. 

THE INFINITIVE AND ITS COMPOUNDS. 
Inceptive, Permissive, Acquisitive and Desiderative. 

1. The Infinitive or Gerund, being a verbal noun, is 
capable of inflection, but in the singular only. Its Dative 
is used to express the purpose of the governing verb, as, 
_ M y Llg> j } wuh khane ko gayd hai, he has gone to 
eat. Instead of ^ the purposive phrases 2L - , ke liye, or 
&*>)) . , ke waste, are generally used. 

2. By adding to the inflected Infinitive the verb ^ , 
lagnd, an Inceptive is formed; by adding li.^ , dena, a 
Permissive ; by adding tilj } pdnd, an Acquisitive. 

LS& i-)) *j , wuh rone lagi, she began to cry. 

Ija i_/ ^-1 , usne karne diyd, he allowed (him) to do (it). 

L> I J L./ JJj , wuh karne pdyd, he obtained permission to do 

(it), or colloquially, he got 
to do (it). 

As the permissive is formed with the transitive verb 
diyd, it is constructed accordingly ; lagnd and pdnd are 
constructed as intransitive verbs. 

3. Desiderative verbs can be formed by adding to the 
Infinitive the verb 1***$- , chdhnd. The Infinitive can be 
used in the inflected form, but it is preferable to use the 
uninflected, as _ liaU- IJ/ fy , wuh karna chdhtd hai, he 
is wishing to do (it), ^^ or L.^ ^ ^t , usne karnd or 
karne chdhd, he wished to do (it). 

EXERCISE. 



1. <_ v^~MU^> U^ L*J| *$ J turn ko aisd karnd muna- 
> - J ' ., , . 
sib hai. 

^ ^ ^-~& gosht latne ke liye chhuri 
* " zarur hai. 



49 



3- & {*> 4}*" jjv* cj+S Sj wuh kamre men sone ko 

gayd\hai. 

4. v^~j** 3s*.\3 L- J^j J-ai ^ fc am y a 6-Z <M-/me ke waste 
*, i x A~Ae ho jane lage. 

* gait men sipdhi nej'dne 
nahtn diva. 



6. ^-j-u* Jb c^U X- J^^jl J>i 5 ^ or aur & u l ke mdre ham 

sone na pate the. 



^Z Are shagirdon ko 
hoshydr hond chahive. 



8. ^ i- i> ej;lso ^^sxi *; ^ w ^ shakhs tijdrat karne 

ke liye Bagdad ko gayd 



9. U-jJ ^XI ^j^j ^j. J*y jb j wwfc ham ko qalam se 

nahm likhne detd. 

Is Madrase men shagird 
6aras ^a 



11. 5^ ^J^ &- t-j** ^^ *& m unh hdth dhone ke Uye 

pdm Ido. 

12. ^ 4.U. .^ji ^jybj dhoMJco gharjdne do. 

13. A^jiS^^^fcJ ^ xL ^.ybj <i!Aone &e %e c2%od /to 

> : I . kapre lejdne dijiye. 

ais " karnd zarur hai. 



15. >p UuJ *ju^; <Jt^.yUf w*^o chhah rupaye dend 

paregd. 

16. <- UfliU. ULu l,j lUxi bimdr dawd pind chdhtd 

t "<f * X - . 



4 



50 



Translate into Urdu: 

1. It was fitting for them to do thus. 2. Trowels are 
necessary to masons for building walls. 3. I do not wish 
to sleep in (the) room. 4. They began to go to the school 
to read. 5. This man has come from Bagdad to Agra to 
trade. 6. (The) servant of such a master should be care- 
ful. 7. He went to school for three years to learn 
arithmetic. 8. He brought water to wash the child's 
face. 9. Please let the washerman go home (to (his) 
house). 10. You must do so. 11. I shall have to give 
four pice. 12. (The) policemen do not allow the men to 
go into this lane. 13. We began to eat (the) dinner. 
14. They could not sleep for the noise and row. 15. We 
will go to his field to see (the) crop. 16. The servant 
went to cut the meat with a knife. 

VOCABULARY. 

fitting, proper. 

careful, wise. 

meat, flesh. 

knife. 

room, chamber. 

harvest, crop. 

lane. 



phrase, by reason of (lit. by 
the smiting of) . 

person. 

trade, commerce. 

Bagdad. 

arithmetic, account. 

year. 

mouth, face. 

hand. 



** 



M* 



mundsid, 


adj. 


ohshydr, 


adj. 


gosht, 


n. m. 


chliuri, 


n. f. 


kamrd, 


n. m. 


fasl, 


n. f. 


gali, 


n. f. 


, shor o gul, 


n.n. m 


, ke mare, 


prep. 


shakhs, 


n. m. 


tijdrat, 


n. f. 


Bagdad, 


n. m. 


hisdb, 


n. m. 


baras, 


n. m. 


munh, 


n. m. 


hdth, 


n. m. 



51 



dhobi, n. m. washerman. 

bimdr, n. m. sick man, invalid, patient. 

lejd'a,d } v. int. taking, to go, to take away. 

parna, v. int. to fall, to fall to the lot of, to be 
necessary, (with dat. of per- 
son), to have to do. 

sikhnd, v. t. to learn. 



LESSON XVII. 
COMPOUND VERBS ; COMPLETIVE, POTENTIAL AND CONTINUATIVE. 

1. If to the form of the conjunctive participle which is 
the same as the root the verb U&- , chuknd, is added, a 
completive, and by adding to the same form the verb lj~> , 
saknd, a potential compound is formed. 

2. If to the same form the Perfect Participle of ti*> , 
rahnd, is added the compound is called a continuative. 

3. Continuatives can also be formed by adding the 
Imperfect Participle of LU; to the Imperfect Participle 
of another verb. 

Examples : 

Completive, _^$- / fy , wuh Tear chukd hai, he has 

finished doing (it). 
Potential, \&>*>j gj , wuh bar saktd hai, he can do 

(it). 
Continuative, > IA> fy } wuh bar rahd hai, he is 

(now) in the act of doing (it). 
Continuative, ^_ Ua>j Uy s } } wuh kartd rahtd hai, he 

goes on doing it. 



52 

Note. In the form of the continuative with the con- 
junctive participle it will be noticed that although the 
form l*j y, kar rahd, is that of the Present Perfect, the 
sense is that of the Present Imperfect ; not, he has been 
doing it, but, he is now doing it. 

4. Verbs of these classes are Intransitive in construc- 
tion, whatever the first verb of the compound may happen 
to be. 

5. The Honorific Pronoun ^1 , dp, " Your Honour," is 
constructed with the 3rd person plural, as J&ij yf , dp 
karenge, Your Honour will do (it). The words jr^* 1 * huzur, 
^lis-, jandb, and other titles of respect, meaning Your 
Honour, Your Worship, etc., are all constructed with the 
3rd person plural. 

EXERCISE. 



1. J^ t**** * < "~'r^ ^?^ *^ y^ chiriyd pin j re se na/nn 

nikal sakti. 



2 ^ j^U. J> ->T v>Jjj rangrez dp lei chdddr gula- 
' v^5* s f v-5 -Jy * T > 'i^ 

LJ. , g. bi ranga sakega. 

3 ^U. JL> <dL$ jUjfc rbii darzl hamdre kurte, pae- 

*~" *" V^ S \~?/S / f 7 7 x 7 

chuha hai. 



4 l3 ^ KJ .c>^ ^s^-J^. bawarchi khichrt pakd 
* * t -*J 1 ^5^>' chukd thd. 

5. <- U 



<** vj'^ x * ma e % ghore daur 

rahe hain. 



7 v/Uj ^ 7^ ^^i4$ ^5 dushman khet chhor Tear 
^ : * "^ ,, x 7 , 7 

o/inra ?*one the. 



53 



9. J^Uk. &>}* j* ^ ) ^ ij-0 *3> Tiam sarf o nahw parhne 

chahte ham. 



wuh . 



10. .c 1 * $ to \J\ (g kyd dp ham ko Urdu aur 

Farsi parhd sakenge. 



11. Uly ujl t_5^ J A* Jfl*> Huzur I main beshakk dp 
***~ ko parM sakwngd. 



12 ^ K^. x j <$ y}^ gwdld gde duh chukd hai. 

13. 



j\ o _1^ !* sowdr ghore par 
T bdndhtd rahtd thd. 



15. A^Xf; L JjL^u^JjJ "^r^^ go-rib daulatmand xe bh?'kh 
... ^.'. mdng rahd thd. 



sikhna mushkil hotd 
hai. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. The boys are learning arithmetic. 2. Can the 
dyer dye your cloth red ? 3. I have finished reading this 
Urdu book. 4. When the tailor had finished sewing, he 
went home. 5. The women's wrappers are pink. 6. Can 
you teach me Urdu in one year ? 7. Sir ! when your head 
aches (aor.) then please drink this medicine. 8. Let the 
cowherd milk the cows. 9. The girl has finished cooking 
the fish. 10. We will certainly learn Urdu Grammar. 
11. The little boy goes on singing. 12. When the enemy 
left the plain and fled, the soldiers began to sing. 13. 
The horses were galloping on (in) the plain. 14. Let the 



54 

bird go out of the cage. 15. I have finished learning the 
alphabet. 16. Is it difficult to learn Persian ? 

VOCABULARY. 
chiriyd, n. f . bird. 
pinjrd, n. m. cage. 
chddar, n. f . sheet, wrapper. 
guldbz, adj. pink, rose-colour. 
, pdejdma, n. m. drawers. 
Jcurtd, n. m. jacket. 
bciwarchi, n. m. cook. 

kMchr/, n. f. a dish consisting of rice and 
pulse mixed. 

maiddn, n. m. plain, open field. 
dushman,n. m. enemy. 

qaida, n. m. an alphabet or spelling-book. 
s sarf-o-nahiv, n. f. grammar (lit. accidence and 
syntax). 

fdrst, 11. f. Persian. 

hiiziir, n. m. your Honour [lit. (your) Pres- 
ence.] 

be-shakk, adv. doubtless. 
duhnd, v. t. to milk. 
z^X 11. m. saddle. 

daulatmand, adj. and n. m. rich, rich man. 
Vhi'kh, n. m. alms. 
mu-shkil, adj. difficult. 
nikalnd, v. int. to go out, escape. 
dukhnd, v. int. to ache. 
bhdgnd, v. int. to flee, run away. 
parhnd, v. t. to read, learn. 
par-hand, v. t. to teach. 



55 

bechnd, v. t. to sell. 
iU t bdndhnd, v. t. to bind. 
bdzdr, n. m. market. 



LESSON XVIII. 

COMPOUND VERBS. FREQUENTATIVE AND DESIDERATIVE. 

1. By adding I*/ to the Perfect Participle or verbal 
noun in /, d, a Frequentative compound is formed, as 
^ $jt Ujj ), wuh parhd kartd hai, he reads frequently, 
he is in the habit of reading. 

2. In addition to the form of the Desiderative given 
in Lesson XVI, another Desiderative form is made by 
adding ^^, chahrui, to the Perfect Participle, as 
^ UaU. IAJJ s, wuh parhd chahtd hai, he wishes to read. 

3. The Desiderative forms sometimes express the immi- 
nence of the action of the leading verb, as, li^U- ^^ *> 
ivuh khdyd chahtd hai, he is about to eat. 

4. The form of the Perfect Participle of the verb li^*- 
j'dnd, used in the Frequentative and Desiderative is not 
the common irregular form 1^, gdyd, but the regular form 
bl^jdyd, as _ tf/ l;l*> Jij, wuh jdyd kartd hai, he is in the 
habit of going. In like manner \j* mard, the regular 
Participle of ly marnd, is used in these compounds 
instead of the irregular |y mud. 

EXERCISE. 



1. aiXLS^xf L- j_ i&feiiSjfl&ym sauddgar tijdrat karne ke 

liye Kalkatte ko bardbar 
jdyd kartd hai. 



56 

2. <- U&U. ] r x> -oJb |lacu A* 2/*^ bechdrd harin mard 

3. .yiAU. Ul^J ,_<J^* u^i^ X J WW ^x ^* r **y^9 mithai 



4s, <^ ^_*u J K ->T V-A. ^ a ^ P &<* naukar sone se 

jdgtd hai tab wuh afmi 
'aurat ko gaU diyd 

a ,- ( , , , kartd hai. 

<_ b b 



5. ^tl) ^_| ,j *&. i -j) 3 kiy mazdur is jaqah par apne 

> >^ >> > - 



I -L 7 7 17 

apwe %/fc Aro rakhkar 



sipdhi yahdn roz roz ban- 
duq chaldyd kart.e hain. 



7 ITJ^ )%)'J,jb xx> , .-J^ X, iruh kdrtus men bdrud aur 
^ a- r>> J c ^fe arra bhard karte 



^ 1^ Aaiw. 

8. v J>u*x> -) wsa.Le ^j-^y* Maulvi Sahib is masjid 

men namdz parhd karte 



9. *& v^^-o^J jjl^j ^^-=>- v^^^Le Sdhid jab Dalian de tab 
A . , ham ko baithne kiijdzat 

2- oI 



10. Ujt (jp^ y J^i <^ c -yisoL) pinjre se nikalkar chifiyd 

urna chdht?' hai. 



1 Maulvi being a title of honour, the verb is in the plural. 
* Usne, in the apodosis, is understood. 



57 




chhord jdega tab 
wuh harin Jeo daurkar 
pakarega. 



ham jane par the tab 
dp Ice naukar ne dkar 



is lugat kv kitdb ki qvmat 

18. 



f ' 

, . ^ tfzt/i sTiam A-O gewd 

15. ^ JL^ *!*.* / fU j Awrifi fca*. 

16. ^J ^U^ .x* t^ltH'* ^ U?^ Iwkon ko maiddn men 

khelne do. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. (The) gentlemen are in the habit of playing ball 
regularly in (at) the evening. 2. What is the price of 
these birds? 3. (The) Maulvis say their prayers in that 
mosque. 4. (The) dogs ran and caught (the) deer. 
5. When (the) servant was asleep (use rahnd) his wife 
came and abused him. 6. Let the children eat sweet- 
meats. 7. When (the) pupils were about leaving (upon 
leaving) the school, then the teacher told them your 
Honour's order. 8. Fill the cartridges with powder and 
shot (fill into the cartridges). 9. When the soldiers go 
to the plain they let off (freq.) their guns. 10. This 
merchant goes regularly to Dehli for trading. 11. Let 
the child go home, she wants to sleep. 12. The cow was 
at the point of death. 13. Go and give my order to the 
gardener. 14. When he opened the cage, (the) bird 
began to go out and fly. 15. The dictionary was lying 
on the table. 16. Put the spelling-book and the gram- 
mar-book (book of grammar) into the box. 



58 



VOCABULARY. 

, sauddgar,n. m. merchant. 

bardbar, adv. regularly, equally. 

, bechdrd, adj. helpless, poor. 

harin, n. m. deer, antelope. 

, mithdt, n. f . sweetmeats. 

gdlt, n. f. abuse, foul language. 

mazdur, n. m. hired labourer, coolie. 

jagah, n. f. place. 

&ojh, n. m. load, burden. 

>f>f, dram, n. m. rest. 

55*-V, banduq, n. f. gun. 

', kdrttis, n. m. cartridge. 

bdrud, n. f. gunpowder. 

chharrd, n. m. shot. 

, maulvt, n. m. (Mohammadan) doctor of law, 
learned man. 

namdz, n. f. prayer. 

, masyid, n. f . place of prayer. 

*ajM , ijdzat, n. f . permission. 

lug.at, n. f. dictionary. 

qimat, n. f. price. 

dam, n. m. price. 

sham, n. m. evening. 

gend, n. f. ball. 

&***, sanduq, n. m. box, chest. 

U&$- , chaldnd, v. t. to cause to go, to let off. 

Uj$i . bharn-d, v. t. to fill (into or with). 

l*Jf , urnd, v. int. to fly. 

pakarnd, v. t. to catch, to hold. 



59 

sundnd, v. t. to cause to be heard. 
roz roz, adv. day by day. 



LESSON XIX. 
COMPOUND VERBS. INTENSIVES. 

Intensive Compound Verbs are formed by adding to 
the root, (or rather, to the form of the Conjunctive Parti- 
ciple which is the same as the root) certain other verbs, 
as &,> , dend, ^*J, lend, ^13, ddlnd, Ula. , jdnd, etc. In 

some cases the action of the leading verb is intensified, 
in others it is so modified as to need an adverb or prepo- 
sition to be added in order to express it in English. The 
exercises will furnish examples. 

EXERCISE. 



1. ,j*) -_ Uf yn-jLi. *&jjJ AJ yih dudh kkarab ho gayd 

hai, us&o phenk do. 



2. Lf &JLw j ^ yj JiU .-I u* gdfil naulcar ne pirich 

piydle gird debar tor 
dale hain. 



3. v.^u .-! ly J* Ijj^ X j]j*u sawdr Jca ghord gir para 

is sabab se wuh mar 
d hai. 



shdddsh I mere dachche ne 
sad Icarwi dawd pv U 
hai. 



5. ^ IjUfe 1^,^-J) ^-j^Jl a/so* a/sos/ few^e hamdrd 

khdnd sab khd qae hain. 



60 

6. * <* ^ * l'* khabarddr raho icarna chil 

sab murgi ke bachchon 
ko mar 



7. S^-** c/*Jf v_5*^/ <*-&^ jy mez,palang, hurst, almdri, 

sab asbab pochh ddlo. 



8. tx> &i*) i li" jljl; ..^ Ujr*^* tt^l in wusdfiron ko bazar kd 

rasta batd dij'iye. 



sahib! shdgirdon 
fco wwA-e fard,iz samjhd 
dij'iye. 



10. -*J S^ ^- uT^ (^5 8 ^ ww ^ larki gdrf ke niche 

dabjdegt. 



11. ^Jjkjla. -* y ^jla. i_5j ^ y^' ct^ar wit/i dab jae to mar 



12. f g**f y 5^1*1 ^ ir'ty j;^ P /i a ^ ar ' M7H daurka-r usko 

' uthfio to kuchh nuqsdn 



18. u-w Xj ^j] L jjlZ^i JL<^ A- ./o musdjir Peshawar se de 
*' ' 



14 ^ Aswi -u/t U5 Ul Ji ^. yo AraZ at/a thd usi shakjis 

* ^ *^^ ^^ * " **^ .y " . - 

~ 

ib 



15. ./ c^y^) olx-,) JU v^ AJ !/* sa 

'^ ghar par pahunchd di- 

jiye. 



16. **i >5b AJ JL*. f-b /^"T US^T pas j'dkar yih bdten 

^ * * ^ * ^^ 



61 



Translate into Urdu : 



1. Two men fell down under (a) cart and were crushed. 
2. If they were crushed under (a) cart they certainly died 
(use intensive). 3. (The) constables ran and seized (the) 
thieves. 4. The patients have drunk up all their medicine. 
5. The cows have eaten up all the grass. 6. The servants 
went into the room and wiped down all the furniture. 
7. I went and told them all your Honour's words. 8. The 
table your Honour bought from the merchant, I have 
brought it to the house. 9. The person who came to-day, 
call him to me. 10. The travellers who came from 
Peshawar yesterday have gone away to-day. 11. If you 
cut the wheat to day there will be no loss. 12. Throw 
away this dirty water. 13. The teacher will explain their 
duties to his pupils. 14. The dogs have killed a chicken 
in the garden. 15. That woman will break the cups and 
saucers. 16. The man fell down and died. 



JiU, 










yUo, 



VOCABULARY. 



khardb, 

gdfil, 
piricht 

piydld, 



adj. 

adj. 

n. m. saucer. 

n. m. cup. 



bad, evil, spoilt, 
careless. 



, is sabab se, for this reason, because of this. 
shabdsh f int. bravo ! well done ! 
of sos ! int. alas J 

huttd, n. m. dog. 



khabarddr, adj. 



warna, 



murgi, 

asbdb, 

musafir, 



conj. 
n. f. 
n. f . 
n. m. 
n. m. 



careful. 

and if not, else, otherwise. 

kite. 

hen, fowl. 

property, chattels, furniture. 

traveller. 



62 

faraiz, pi. of /arz, n. m., duty, obligation. 

niche, prep, with gen., beneath, under. 

nuqsdn, n. m. loss, harm, damage. 

Peshawar, n. m. Peshawar, 
f, #;', adv. today. 

j" , A-aZ, adv. to-morrow, yesterday. 

sab, adv. all, every. 

phenk dend, v. t. to throw away. 

gird dend, v. t. to throw down. 

for ddlnd, v. t. to smash. 

^i> parnd, v. int., to fall down. 

marjdnd, v. int. to die. 

y* lend, v. t. to drink up. 

khdjdnd, v. int. to eat up. 

mdr ddlnd, v. t. to kill outright, slaughter. 

ponchh ddlnd, v. t., to wipe down. 

batd dend, v. t. to point out, show. 

samjhd dend, v. t. to explain, inculcate. 
,s t dab j and, v. int., to get crushed. 
, uthdnd, v. t. to raise, pick up. 

. . , chalejdnd, v. int. to go away. 

^wZa lend v. t. to call and bring. 

pahunchd dend, v. t., to bring, cause to arrive. 
lij^ *^ , Ji'ah dend, v. t. to tell. 

Note. Intensive verbs are constructed transitively or 
intransitively according as the second member of the com- 
pound is transitive or intransitive. 

The form chale jdnd should be noted. 



63 

LESSON XX. 
THE PAST CONDITIONAL AND THE NOUN OP AGENCY. 



1. The Past Conditional, t3/ ^j& , main kartd, cor- 

responds to the English Perfect Subjunctive, as the Aorist 
does to the Present and Future Subjunctive. It signifies 
a condition which has not been fulfilled, thus preventing 
the consequent action etc. of the leading verb in the 

sentence from taking place. GL* u y> Gl Bj^l , agar wuh 

dtd, to main jdtd, if he had come (which he did not) I 
should have gone, (because he did not come, I did not go). 

2. The student is cautioned against using this form as 
an Indefinite Present. Some of the older Urdu grammars 
have treated it as such, but not correctly. See Platt's, 
section 186. The English Present Indefinite, I go, I do, 
I say, should be rendered by the Present Imperfect, if the 
idea is that of continued action ; or by the Frequentative, 
if the idea is that of habitual action. 

3. The noun of agency is formed by adding the affix 
ty , wdld, to the inflected Infinitive. This is not properly 
a substantive, but an adjective. It is most frequently 
used without an accompanying substantive, but some such 
substantive as person, thing, is understood. If this fact 
is borne in mind, many of the false idioms which are 
frequently heard on the lips of Europeans will be avoided, 
such as " this wdld," " that wdld." This form has also 

the force of a Future Participle as __ $) L.\ $ *y , wuh 
kal anewdld hai, he is coming to-morrow. 

EXERCISE. 

1. *;yi luj )^j AJ .jT Sj t^l agar wuh ddmt, yih dawd 

pita to wuh j ltd rahta. 



2. a^sS A/ JL. . ~! J j$] tigar turn is sdlan men 
^^ kuchh mirchd detr to 

* mazaddr hota. 



64 



3. Xjj i_ US 

Uyfc 1^1 y UG v- 
4. 



. 

to JU 



y 



f 

b. 

7. 



,; 



y AJ 



9. 



10. 



L.-J JL 

C > 



lv{ 

>' 



a # a7 " dhobi kapron men 
kalaf dekar istri khiib 
f^ Jo achchhd hot a. 



agar turn hal joikar bij 
bote to tumhare l;h*'t 
menfaslhotf. 



s rupaye 
kharch na karte to ab 



11. itjb, ,j } f J), Lbi I_ JLftj 
-2 < -- v." 



a g ar bachchd rota to main 
ear-wr suntL 

agfar 6achcM roegd to 
main suniing/'. 

mihnat karneicale daulat- 
mand hote hain. 

khelneicdh' larke maidan 

7 , ,7 

men daurte the. 

* panlihdwdld bard 
soneicdld hai. 

e rahneivdle Urdu 



14. 

15. 



^ a - r sdf bolnewdld 
hai. 

kaunjdnewdld hai. 



^ U. J Djfc 

* ^^ "^ 



agfar tcw/i jdnewdld hotd 

f X T , 

to jane aero. 

agar turn parhne ke icaqt 
wa/i/n khelte to ad khelne 



65 



~w 



Translate into Urdu 



ugar turn sone ke waqt 
jdyte rahoge tojdgne ke 
ivaqt sone chdhoge. 



1. He is going to Agra to-morrow. 2. A tailor is a 
sewer of clothes. 3. Wake up, sleeper ! 4. If the cook 
had put sugar in this rice it would have been sweet. 
5. If those women had taken my medicine, they would 
have lived. 6. Starch and well iron those shirts. 7. If 
that man spend all his money, he will be in difficulties. 
8. If that woman's baby had cried, she would certainly 
have heard (it). 9. If you had been a worker you would 
have become rich. 10. Those teachers are not clear 
speakers. 11. Dwellers in villages are not speakers of 
pure Urdu (do not speak Urdu clear). 12. If the boys 
play at sleeping time they will be sleepy (want to sleep) 
at play-time. 13. If you had meant to go (had been 
goers) he would have let you go. 14. If I had known this, 
I would not have spoken. 15. Put red pepper in the 
meat curry. 16. That man is a teller-of-the-truth. 



VOCABULARY. 



salan, 



n. m. curry, especially of meat or 
fish. 

n. f. curry, especially of vege- 
tables. 

red pepper. 

round or black pepper, 
red pepper or chillies, 
tasty. 

a kind of starch, 
starch, gruel, 
smoothing iron. 
khub, adj. and adv. good, well, fine. 



Idlmirck, 


n. f. 


golmirck, 


n. f. 


rnirchd, 


n. m. 


mamddr, 


adj. 


kalqf, 


n. m. 


kdnji, 


n. f. 


istrL 


n. f. 



66 



achchhdy adj. good, well. 
J> , hal, n. m. plough. 

IVJ^A. JA , kal jotna, v. t. to plough. 
4/ 5,7*- > Itharck karnd, v. t. to spend. 
JU. ^_x> ^ lanff-hdl, adj. in difficulties. 

mihnat, n. f . labour, toil, work. 

pankhdwald, n. m. punkah-puller. 

zubdn, n. f. tongue, language. 



LESSON XXI. 
NOMINAL VERBS. 

1. Nominal Verbs are formed by combining a noun, 
substantive or adjective, with a verb, usually karnd or 
Twwia. Some of these compounds are really phrases, but 
in many cases the ideas of the noun and the verb combine 
so as to form but one conception. Many of the nouns 
used are derivatives from the Arabic and Persian and are 
used in elevated or honorific style. In some cases, the 
compound, when the verb is Transitive in meaning, 
governs the object, in the accusative case, in other in- 
stances one of the other cases is used. The learner is 
recommended to note, if possible, the construction of each 
nominal verb as it occurs in his reading, because as in the 
matter of the gender of nouns, it is difficult to compile 
an exhaustive list. In the exercises in this book the con- 
struction of the nominal verbs used will be noted. 

2. The verbs dikhdi dend (or par no) sundi dend (or 
parnd) are in somewhat frequent use. It is therefore 
necessary to remember that, contrary to the general rule, 
the verb dend does not, in these cases, make the com- 
pound a transitive one. '^ (^V-i j$ -jf, e Jc ghar dekhdi 



67 



diyd, a house appeared. ^ ^U- jty ^\ } ek dwdz sundi 
di t a voice was heard. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Ujfcjj vUi ^_ v^a^Lo ^y^* Maulvi sahib ne namdz 

. A par And shuru' kiyd hai. 

< bo c ,_ko 
' C^ 

2. (JT$ ^^ ^ -i- jli*T jLi shdgird ustdd ke kaldm 



par gaur karta hai. 



3. cL- uo*c li^b^j L )j*^*>- *&> ham huzur se yih, bat a'rz 

karte ham. 



. ~ 

4. ^yt I3j$ e^L ^.oj ^ main dp se minnat karta 

hiin. 

5. ^t-L" jl^T u/tii^a- ^ v_^c^ jab wuh khaufndk dwdz 

sundi di to sab ddm 
-y ^J Ihdggdye. 



6. vjlx.| ^^^ J/ L- ^_y ^ A-^c^ Carrie ke liye sab 

asbabjam'a karo. 



7. ly^> /U*'* i J _rj^<> Ul !tJw wera and mere naukar ko 

1 ^ -^ ^" iT X 7 f 

ma turn nua. 

8. ^_ Uf jjl^ Xj tS jj> ^^-Jb;J darydft karo, ki wuh 

kahdn gayd hai. 

^w/ &? gf/5ar were tashrif 
f ~ le diye. 



sa/j,z'6 ^ lashrif le gae. 

11. &4r>} * *^o ! j^^. Huzur \ tashrif rakhiye. 

12. ^ ^ o' 1 ^? ^^v* ^ vt AJ 7/a ^a^ >5am a/im lay an 

kar zakte. 



68 



. > 

13 ^L*.* 1 /l**^ & J^ jU*} ustdd likhnemen ma.shg.ul 
r ^ hote the. 



14 US j*-J^ ^r? ^^jft <j_- !> Khuda ne jhuth bolnd 

man 'a kiyd hai. 



15. J^-l^ -X" *y-& v .-v^Le --T s#/fo'fe shahr men dakhil 

hue hain. 



16. *!; .<i u^^Le v cyV'* /^ ^wi mmilvi sahib ki rah 

dekh rahe hain. 



Translate into Urdu: 

1. He began to beseech me. 2. We ought to pay 
attention to what our teacher says (the words of our 
teacher). 3. The men began to say their prayers. 4. I 
am making known my affairs (baten) to your Honour. 
5. When her father's voice was heard the girl ran into 
the house. 6. Go into the village which appeai-s yonder 
(there). 7. The gentleman came yesterday into the house 
of his devoted servant. 8. We will find out. 9. This 
matter has become known to every man in the city. 
10. The servants went and explained this matter to their 
master. 11. The woman forbade her daughter to cook 
rice to-day. 12. Maulvi Sahib! please to sit down. 

13. Those gentlemen ate their food and went away. 

14. The pupils are engaged in learning arithmetic. 15. The 
men collected their luggage and departed yesterday. 
16. The Maulvi has entered the mosque. 

VOCABULARY. 

^ ^jijf , 'arz karnd, v. t. to petition, report, re- 

present (with ace. 
or gen. fern). 

i } namdz parhnd, v. t. to pray, say prayers. 



69 



GU 



UU. 



shuru* karna, 
g.aur karna, 

minnat karnd, 
sundi dend, 

dikhdi dend, 
bhdg jdnd, 
ktich karnd, 
darydft karnd, 

tashrif lej'dnd, 
tashrif le and, 
tashrvf rakhnd, 
baydn karnd, 

mashgiU hond t 

rnan'a karnd, 
ddkhil hond, 
rdh dekhnd, 

jhuth bolnd, 

kaldm, 

dwdz, 

khaufndk, 

fidwi, 



v. t. 
v. t. 

v. t. 



to begin (with ace.), 
to think upon (with 
par) meditate. 



to entreat, beseech 
(with se.} 

int. to sound, cause itself 
to be heard. 

int. to appear, show itself. 

v. int. to run away. 

v. t. to set forth, depart. 

v. t. to ascertain (with 
ace.). 

v. int. to go away, 
v. int. to come, 
v. t. to sit. 

v. t. to explain, to state 
(with ace.). 

v. int. to be busy in (with 
men). 

v. t. to forbid (with ace.). 
v. int. to enter (with men). 

v. t. to look for, expect 
(with gen. fern.). 

v. int. to tell lies, 

n. m. word, saying, 

n. f. voice, sound, 

adj. terrible, awful, 

n. m. devoted servant. 



Note. Tashrif is an Arabic factitive form, meaning 
honour-conferring In polite language it is often used, 
as " please deposit your honour-conferring (presence) "= 
tashrif rakhiye for " sit down please." 



70 

LESSON XXII. 
DIRECT NARRATION. PREPOSITIONS OR POSTPOSITIONS. 

1. In Urdu the indirect narration is not used, but a 
statement is repeated, or a message is delivered exactly 
in the words of the speaker or sender of the message. 
Instead of saying " tell him that he must come," the 
Urdu speaker says, " tell him that ' you must come "* ; " us 

se kaho ki * turn ko and chdhiye,' " <^^- L>l p> *& ^f < <jJ. 

2. The function performed in English by prepositions 
is in Urdu mostly performed by certain nouns, some 
masculine and some feminine, used in the formative. 
They put the word they govern in the genitive case, the 
masculine if they are masculine and the feminine if they 

are feminine, as, ^-^> . j, ghar ke pas, near the house. 
Oj^= ^ j^ , ghar kitaraf, in the direction of the house. 

These are called postpositions, as, with few exceptions. 
they follow the nouns they govern. 

EXERCISE. 
1 , K-U L- ijvJ *> <nJ> 4L *$** i ft us naukar se kaho ki 

' ^ Y ' J -7* ^ J \J 77 7 '77.T 

larkon ke pas kucnh, 
5U ^Ul^ 14=6 khdnd lejdo. 



2. <^-ri xl A^ ^ ^~ J^i*l ^(^1 usne ustdd se kahd ki mere 

pas qalam dawdt nahm. 



3. _ -tx* * ty^ri 1 V_.-NA.L sahib ne farmdyd ki mere 

nazdik baithiye. 



4. ^^ *j *^ V ^ ^^ L/*' ws 'aurat lie kaha ki wuh 
. larki mere sdmne khari 

rjf* ^ U *-&* ho'kar gdli dene lagL 



71 

} <L. t^A. naukar ko hukm do ki 

chulhe ke upar degchi 
rakkho. 



khdne ke bayair mar 
jdenye. 

7. * j & blJo ^*> ^_ i^ju] usnemujhe batdyd ki ghar 

men pahunchne ke b'ad 
us ~kd bap mar gay a. 



8. *$ j&k j4* \-Z~j * \*)^ *j wuh din ko ghar ke bdhar 
f . . kdm karte aur rat ko 

j* y ^ ] J )? <*-? ghar ke bhttar sole hain. 



9. L '__^ L. <L-^ ;^L*J^ khidmatgdrkhanekekam- 

re ke andar jdkar mez 
*\ par chddar bichhdne 



10. ^^1 i/-' *^j^ f^y (-^J! barhai ko hukm do ki is 

almdri ke muwdfiq dusri 
& ] y* *~ bando. 



11. *-^-^*J _ ^ $ ^' 2- ^^ main ne dp ke kahne ke 



.^ y ^ ba mujib usko dp led 

^ ' - '' hukm sundyd hai. 



- 

12. .JI.J <_ lii'fcfi L cr k/ * ^i'r 6 c^l ***&* i'zzat mere i'zzat ke 

' ' J ^5 -L 'i ^ ' 

' oaraoar hai. 



13. J.fUi w-* A*3t.^ < jlxt <st_l apwe ustdd ke sdth sab 

shdyirdjdte hain. 



14. f* t& ^^r* -J- u^-^ ,c^ / * Maulvi sahib ne farmdyd 

ki main is bhdri kdm ke 
nahm. 



72 

16. i_ fijMt >* iS ly ^__ AJ^|J Ddroyd ne kdhd ki main 
, sar ar Ae 7m/. w kebar- 

*- f**- khildfnahin kar sakta. 



16. ,xJ T*^ ^ '**" <- r\ i s ke siwd koi tadbir nahin 

1 * *' cl^ T it 

ma Lum hot^. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. I have nothing to drink (near me is nothing 1 , etc.). 
2. The workman said that he had no trowel. 3. The boy 
was sitting near his mother. 4. His father's house is 
opposite our house. 5. The crow flew over the mosque. 
6. How can we live without water ? 7. Tell the Sub- 
Inspector that he must not do anything contrary to the 
orders of Government. 8. The lazy boy said that he was 
not fit for such important work. 9. The master told the 
servant to devise some expedient. 10. Tell the pupil 
that he must write according to his teacher's reading. 
11. Conformably to your Honour's orders, your devoted 
servant has explained the .matter to them. 12. All the 
boys went away with their fathers. 13. Tell the table 
servant to spread the cloth on the table. 14. He went 
into the dining room. 15. She came out of the house at 
night. 16. After cutting the bread lay the knife by me. 

VOCABULARY. 

<_rb -, ke pas, postp. with, by, near. 

mere yds paisa hai, I have money (pice). 

- , ke nazdik, postp. near to, adjoining. 

~ . , ke sdmne, in front of, facing. 

} ke upar, over. 

t- , ke bag.air y without, lacking. 

- , ke 6'ad after. 

tL , ke Mhar, without, outside. 



73 



UUy, 



ke bhitar, postp. 

ke andar, 

ke muwdfiq, 

ke ba-mujib, 

ke bardbar, 

ke sath, 

ke laiq, 
ke barkhilaf, 

ke siwd, 

daw at, n. f. 

farmdnd, v. t. 

khard hond, v. int. 

ch-ulha, n. m. 

degchi, n. f. 

khidmatydr, n. m. 



biclihand, 


v. t. 


dusrd, 


adj. 


'izzat, 


n. f. 


bhdri, 


adj. 


Sarkdr, 


n. m. 


ddroga, 


n. m. 



tadbir, 



n. f. 



? within, inside. 

accordinsr to, like. 

conformably to. 

equal to. 

in company with. 

fit for, worthy of. 

contrary to. 

except. 

inkstand. 

to command, say, speak 
(honorific). 

to take one's stand, be 

standing, 
fireplace, stove, 
cooking pot. 
(table) servant. 

to spread, 
second, another. 

honour. 

heavy, weighty, important, 
chief, Government. 
Police Inspector, or Sub- 
Inspector, 
plan, expedient. 



74 

LESSON XXIII. 
THE PASSIVE. THE PARTICLE OF SIMILITUDE. 



1. The Passive is formed by adding the verb ^^ jand, 
to the Perfect Participle of the principal verb, as 
JL cs" C5*^ v^j kitdb likhi gat hai, the book has been 
written, or translating jdna more colloquially and literally, 
the book has got written. When the Passive is used, the 
doer of the action is very rarely mentioned. Owing to 
the wealth of Intransitive verbs in the language, and to 
the construction of the Passive Participle of Transitive 
verbs, there is not much use for the Passive voice in 
Urdu. 

2. The particle t~>, sd, which is, like the genitive sign tf, 
kd, inflected to agree with the governing noun, signifies 
likeness, similitude. It also signifies degree. The two 
uses may be thus illustrated : 

(a) Similitude : 0)j*> ^ ^ <)&, ghore M si surat, 

a form like a horse's. 
&j* ^ji*> t sher sd mard, a lion-like man. 

*" 
(6) Degree of quality : **f l~ M, kdld sd kuttd, a 

blackish or very black dog. 
(c) Degree of quantity : _ )y$ ^ *^>, baliut se 

ghore, " a goodish number of horses." The 
adjectives and pronominals of manner as 
jaisd, are formed with this particle. 



EXERCISE. 

^ hal 6ahut si bdten Jcahi 



t .j 

gan 



2. tif JtjJ jJt? <e~ ^^ *J fy fahul sigden duhigdin. 

3. U^ljt <)x> L- $% uJol e h kdld sd bail mdrd gayd. 



75 



J 2/t'A &ia& guzre sal men 

* * / 

qa^. 



5. oj* t - .c;^ i f-l J^ /' iwwaZ is gori si 'aurat 

'* v?y-/ y^/ ** \ T f T f t ' 

shadi noQ^. 



6. ^ v^^j >^ ^r*^ <^) w-s^re kamre men bahut si 

kitdben rakkhi qain. 



7. lUJt* ,1 ,-- j))j1 J i< x '^^ adm/ A:/ auldd uski 

mdnind hoti hain. 



8. 1^3 Uf b^ ^_C1^ <^_ .^j U*jj=. ^aisa MS se swZw^ kiyd gayd 

thd, waisdhi us ne kiyd 



9. *Xb jj -. ^3 i ^^^ *j WM ^ ^ m * ^* ^a^a/i nahm 

dalki jdnwar ki tar ah 



10. ^_^ c--;li^ <_ Lyj ^aw v^^.*,, sab chor daryd ke kindre 

** s. ki tarafbhdg gayehain. 

^JjO ^Ai l_^ I^J __J^J3 

11. -r>l ,<' e it ^3 ^1. j^ ^) un men se tin ddmi ab 



pakre gaye hain. 
U < <^ 

1 2. cJ^*y'J *- 



ke darmiydn bari si 
^ v ^ ^^ Zara hut thi. 



13. ^ (( ^ixi^ "^ ii^^ *i y 1 ' 1 kitdben kisi munshi 

ki ma'rifat likhi qai 
thin. 

khidmatgdr bdwarchi ki 
madad kar rahd hai. 



76 



15. K iCjJ^ vj^Jjjj Jr^-- huzur ki ba-daulat fidwi 

* kd muqaddama tah kiyd 

_ Lxf US < 



16. AJ jj^- _ -** ! '*>' behral sab chddar tah 

</ > * v'"' 7 

Araro. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. This thing was said yesterday. 2. Five cows will be 
milked here to-morrow. 3. A whitish cow has been killed. 
4. The tiger killed a whitish ox in the jungle. 5. All 
these books were written by (the agency of) a Munshi. 
6. Tell the teacher he ought to help his pupils. 7. There 
was much conversation between the boy and his mother. 

8. Tell the washerman to fold the clothes and sheets well. 

9. By the kind assistance of your Honour my (your devoted 
one's) account has been settled. 10. The case of those 
thieves is not settled. 11. The Inspector came from the 
bank of the Jumna and told us that the thieves had been 
caught. 12. Just as the Maulvi behaved to us, so we have 
behaved to him. 13. The boy runs like a horse. 14. One 
of those cows is sick. 15. This year this fair girl was 
married. 16. Last year seven thieves Avere caught in the 
jungle. 

VOCABULARY. 

Ij^ , guzrd, p. part of guzarna, gone, past. 

JUxt , imsdl, n. m. (P.) this year. 

sal, n. m. (P.) year. 

, gord adj. fair. 

(Used with ellipsis of ddmt, etc. as = European.) 

iti , shddi, n. f . wedding festivities, wed- 

ding. 

auldd, n.-f. descendants, children. 

suluk, n. m. treatment (esp. kindly). 

balki, conj. moreover, but, nay, rather. 



77 



4**, 



kinara, n. m. 

dart/a, n. m. 

munshi, n. m. 

pulis, n. m. 

lafdi, n. f. 

madad, n. f. 

behra, n. m. 

muqaddamaj n. m. 
&* mdnind, postp. 
&*' tarah, 

k'i taraf, 

ke darmiydn, 
k r i m'arifat, ,, 

ki ba daulat, 
suluk Jcarnd, v. t. 

tah karnd, v. t. 
do. 



edge, margin, bank. 
sea, river, waters, 
writer, secretary, teacher 

(esp. of Persian and 

Urdu). 

police. 

fighting, quarrelling, 
help, assistance. 
" bearer." 

case, suit. 

like (to be) with nouns, 
like (to do) with verbs, 
in the direction of. 
between, in the midst of. 

by means of, by the art 
or skill of. 

by means of, by the kind 
offices of. 

to behave, esp. to treat 
well. 

to settle a case, etc. 
to fold, to straighten. 



LESSON XXIV. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 

The following are the most generally used conjunctions : 
1. Copulative. ;V, aur, and; ^&, bhi, bht also; j, via, 
and 3V niz 3 also. 



78 

2. Adversative. c^> lekin, but ; j>, par, but ; *Q, balki, 

but rather, on the contrary, moreover. 

3. Exceptive. j^, magar, but, except, unless ; ^-, par, 

but. 

4. Disjunctive. Vi, yd, or; ^>L>, yd to - yd, either 

-- or ; stji. --- ulyLj khwdh khwdh, whether 
or (used with clauses). ^ ^ kyd kyd whether 
or (used with nouns). 

5. Conditional, ^\, agar t or; ^, jo, if, >> c^f> nahin to, 

<^, warna, if not, else, otherwise. 

6. Concessive. **/', agarchi* although ; ^ &\ J 1 *-, hdl- 

dnki; although, notwithstanding; c^y, taubhi, 
even then, still, yet ; |* Al ^ td-ham, yet ; notwith- 
standing. 

7. Causal. <^, ki, because ; *&?&, kyunki, because ; ^j^-, 

chunki, whereas, since ; *& <_rJ 3', az~bas-ki, inas- 
much as. 

8. Illative, y, to, then ; &<* ^j*., chundnchi, so therefore ; 

o*j, j5os, hence, therefore ; ^J, p/iir, again, then, 
therefore. 

9. Final. &$, tdki, in order that ; **, ki, that ; ^ ^ *> Ul, 

aisd na ho ki, lest it be, else ; b 1 **, mabddd, lest 
(may it not be). 

EXERCISE. 



1. u-s^O ^ ^ ) <i-^5; r^^'b r ^ ho roshni aur din ko 

** X -^X V X Tl/ 7XX TX7 

dhup ki ar cliariiye. 



. khwdh sote ho khwdh jagte 
ho magar yahdn rahnd 



79 



3. ,it ,xJ Uf-^ujb . j^J-d .o) w larkon Jed bap mar 

U (J - - J ... M7> ^ , - . f . 

gay a lefcin man JIM hai. 



jT A> wa am khdiingd na seb 
khaungd balki angur 
AXL khdvngd. 

5. li& JJ <wJj U^XJ ^J^e &i w S2? / likhnd balki likh- 

kar parhnd bhi chdhiye. 



6 .*-} Jol ^_ <LJ -> i r--f ws ^ rg larke ne apm 

^^ bahin ko mdra to hai 
t^ <- ^J 1;^* ^ y^ chot na lagi hai. 



7. ^Ce jb J t^| LiU- 0^1 'H^ shdyad wahdn jdna ach- 

chhd to ho magar nahm 
jdungd. 



8. ,*$ &Jb laj/ U$ '1*4^ ^ kyd ffhord kydgadhd balki 
" kisijdnwar par Iddo. 



9. *-Xb .j v^iJLj U$ .^ ,< / ^ ^2/^ ^urs* par kyd palang 
- par balki kisi chiz par 

^ tashrif rakhiye. 



10. ,// y .jyi jJ") <. .j .^ gharpar se utaro, nahm 

to giroge. 



11. AJa^L* ^> iai. ^g| )*^- huzur is khatt ko muldhiza 

warna natija 



12. y <2_jUjo Kj Kj *^-/l agarchi uskd larkd btmdr 

hai, taubhi munshi hdzir 



13. Ifcjjjsu ^ ^-J^ ,L. 1-5? Woj^. cMnki dp ne sarfonahw 
\ 7 , parhi hai is waste dp 

jOl t_J ^O*" ) , -. > TT J 'T.- r. ' 

J ' *- ' ^T ' *- Urdu 'men manir ham. 



80 

14. <- if I <u3j.x$ JL (jl .iyi Sj HJwTi, nahm dydhai kyiinki 

us ke sir 'men dard hai. 



15. IA^*U _ft) r-ela*. J..J >J .*) 8. with is live nahin hdzir ho 

J ^ {J^ ' ^~~ \^^ * 7 I f 1 ' 7 ' 7~ / f / 

f . sakta k% uski, biwi guzar 



16. <^- IP -x^ x^| JO* j^L. KAU") wsAra sard mdl Agre men 

' chundnchi 
n lane ke 



17. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. Put these clothes on the bed and those on the chair. 
2. Do not cut the bread now, but cut it when the guests 
arrive. 3. Whether a fowl or meat is cooked, let it be 
well cooked. 4. Whether the dhobi is washing or 
whether he is ironing yet he is not fit for work (doing 
labour). 5. He brought from Delhi mangoes, apples and 
grapes, so we all sat and ate them up. 6. The horse has 
(indeed) fallen down but he is not hurt. 7. Dismount 
from that horse or he will throw you down. 8. The 
gentleman read the letter because (it) was (an) important 
matter. 9. Learn your arithmetic lest the result be 
unpleasant (not good). 10. Although I have ordered 
(gave order of) dinner to-day yet I shall not be able to 
eat it. 11. You should not only learn to read and write 
Urdu but should also study (the) grammar. 12. Because 
he was proficient in Persian many men wished to read his 
books. 13. We came to Delhi yesterday in order that 
we might be present at (in^ your Honour's wedding. 

14. His wife died last year, but his mother is living. 

15. The sky is clear therefore there is (a) good light. 

16. Perhaps the man is ill, but yet he ought to be careful. 



81 







VOCABULARY. 

roshni, n. f. light. 

dhup, n. f. sunshine. 

dr, n. f . shelter. 

seb (or sev), n. m. apple. 
angiir, n. m. grape. 

burd, adj. bad. 

chot, n. f. hurt, wound, blow. 

Iddnd, v. t. to load. 

muldhaza karna, v. t. (with ace.), to inspect, 
look at. 

natija, n. m. issue, result. 

hdzir hond, v. int. (with loc.), to be present. 

mdhir hond (men), v. int., to be proficient, skilled 
in. 

dard, n. m. pain. 

b'lwi or bibi, n. f. lady, wife. 

guzar j'dnd, v. int., to pass away, die. 

sdrd, adj. the all, whole. 



LESSON XXV. 
THE PERFECT AND IMPERFECT PARTICIPLES. 

A thorough and exhaustive treatment of the usesjof 
the Participles is beyond the scope of the present ele- 
mentary work. The learner will, it is to be hoped, pursue 
his studies further under the guidance of Kempson'and 
Platts. At the present stage all that can be done is 
to indicate very briefly some of the more common and 
obvious uses of the Participles. In the following exercise 

6 



82 

examples will be given of its use, as an adjectival and 
adverbial adjunct, and as a substantive. In its adverbial 
form the Imperfect Participle is often followed by the 
emphatic particle hi, as dekhtehi, at the very moment of 
seeing. In their adjectival form both Participles are 
usually constructed with hud the Perfect Participle of 
hond. 

EXERCISE. 

I. In these sentences the Participle indicates the con- 
dition of the (1) subject or object of the principal verb. 

(1) Subject 

1. > U>i (^ La> LjLu ^c'OjT *? wuh ddmi baithd hud khd 

rahd hai. 



2. J/ (-> <>*<' J$ti -JaA. *Jfc ham khatt likhte likhte 

thak gae hain. 



3. czJj& ^ ^/ ^ 'w-^^Le sahib log gend khelte hut 

dil bahldte hain. 



wuh hanstd hud gh-ar men 
gayd hai. 

(2.) Object 

5. 1^5 iUt )*& blC> cylfj bhdt pakdyd hud taiydr 

thd. 

6. *j ji 4L ^ L. ^y^^ dhobi ke gadhe par kapre 

dhoe hue lade hain. 



9e -.$jlb ^j> *ijjj; *i ^ -jy main ne yih rupaye -pare 

hue dekhe hain. 



In the following sentences the Participle is used. 

II. Adverbially, qualifying the action, etc., of the 
principal verb. 



8. c=;*j&> ^ j^i .i/o <J^iUi j wuh hath men qalam liye 

hue kahne laqd. 



9. <^>b A$jL. <_ ,c^*> icf"^^ bdwarchi dhobi fee sdth 

batch ft karte hue gosht 
*^~ty c^jb eL-^> v^^J^ Jcdt raha thd. 

lJ lit; tistf 

10. bl JtU aJfyfc ,iv G ^ Xj wu h kapre pahinte hue 

' '* Z '7 f f 

oahar ay a. 

11. .x& j^^* <i-lf Llf u lj^jJ larkiy an gate gate sitihain. 

12. / J^"> ^%- JU. p_A ^am c^aZ^e cAa^e 

,,. . ^o pahunchenge. 

e -v Vi 



13. Uf IjO lyfc Ufl^j^^ L tcjj.j ddroga se chor bhdgta hud 

pakrd gayd hai. 



Jo 2_ Ljj Jfc <LJt i->! . rai fco^e 7i/ 

*~ * <*- ^"^ ' "f 2 '7 ' 7 

nat. 



15, ^A> J^\i irf^ r*^ C H^ C X J uw ^ 'aurai ghar men 

pahunchte hi rone laqL 



III. Adjectively as qualifying a noun. 

*i* 
16. |&a. LZ~^>y ^ ^yt <i-y* fotehuekuttekomatjaguo. 



17. *3 ^T - ^jlf ^y^ v_5^ chalii hui gad ke age na 

dauro aisa na ho ki air 



IV. As a substantive. 
18. &- .jK I;L/ % Xxj ^ ij.J ^w^e ko tinke kd sahdrd 

^^ ' ' ^ "' 7 // 



84 



19. / ^1^*. t^jU ^ c-Sjb ^L- girte hue ko mdrnd fehardb 

kdm hai. 



wen yre Tiwon ko 
tasallt dend nihayat 



In translating the following sentences the participial 
construction should be used, even though an alternative 
construction may be possible. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. The boy was writing seated. 2. The travellers while 
moving along were looking at Agra. 3. The cloth mer- 
chant, telling lies, was selling clothes. 4. The thief 
(while) abusing the police was being punished. 5. The 
dogs caught the deer (while it was) fleeing. 6. He lifted 
the full cup and drank the water. 7. Bring the shirt 
ironed. 8. The shopkeeper told me this while weighing 
the wheat. 9. The secretary fell ill while he was writing 
(a) letter. 10. He began to speak (while) washing his face. 
11. Continuing to read (double the participle) you will be- 
come proficient in Persian. 12. Going along the road we 
were looking at Agra. 13. The enemy was slain while 
fleeing. 14. (While) day still remained (participle with 
hi), she went to sleep. 15. The boy began to read as soon 
as he arrived at home (house). 16. Do not wake up a 
sleeping snake. 17. The child ran in front of a moving- 
cart and was crushed. 18. Do not wake up (the) sleeping 
one. 19. It is an evil deed to abuse (the) dying. 20. It 
is a very good thing (deed) to help those who are lying 
ill (in illness). 

VOCABULARY. 



UU. u3, thakjdnd, v. int. to get tired. 

***$ t gend khelnd, v. t. to play ball. 

Ji , dil dahldnd, v. t. to amuse one- 

self. 
taiydr adj. prepared, ready. 



85 



UJL 



b J> < 

or 



dhond, 

pahunchnd, 

batti, 

bdlnd, 

age (with ke), 

dubnd, 

sahard, 

khardd, 
dukh, 



v. t. to wash. 

v. int. to arrive. 

n. f. wick, lamp. 

v. t. to light (a lamp). 

postp. before, in front of. 

v. int. to sink, drown. 

n. m. aid, support, re- 
liance. 

adj. bad, evil, 
n. m. sorrow, pain. 

tasalU dend (with ace.) v. t. to comfort, cheer. 

nihdyat, adv. exceedingly. 

'umda, adj. excellent, good. 

eU, bdtchtt kdrnd, v. t. to converse. 

gdnd, v. t. to sing, 

adj. & adv. sufficient. 



LESSON XXVI. 

ADVERBS, AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES. 

Many of the expressions, by which adverbial meanings 
are to be rendered in Urdu, are adjectives used adverbially, 
nouns compounded with postpositions and phrases. As will 
have been learnt from Lesson XXV, many participles also 
are constructed adverbially. 

The following is a list of useful adverbs and phrases. 

1. Time. (See also the Pronominals.) 



aj, 
kal, 



to-day. 

yesterday or to-morrow. 



86 



* 



parson, 

tarson, 
narson, 



day before yesterday, or day 
after to-morrow. 

three days ago, or hence, 
four days ago, or hence. 



pahile, 
qabl, 


> before. 


picfihe, 
b'ad, 


> after. 


saiuere. 


early. 


ad, ab/ti, 
fi-l-Kdl, 


^now, just now, etc. 
) (and their cognates). 



abtak, etc., till now, etc. 

aj Jcal, nowadays. 

kabhi kabhi, sometimes. 
, kabhi na kadhv, some time or other. 

frequently (lit. every hour), 

again and again, often. 

continually, regularly. 

always. 

hitherto, yet. 

delaying, 
never. 

never. 



, ghari ghart, 
bar, bar, 
bardbar, 
hamesha, 
hanoz, 
der se, 

hargiz nahm, 
Ttofchi nahm, 
fauran, 
jhat , 
jald, 
har roz, 
roz roz, 

kar, 



? immediately. 



[every day, daily, 
at last. 



job, 



87 



2. Manner. Some adverbs of time can also be used 
as adverbs of manner (see above). 



zarur, necessarily, certainly. 

albatta, decidedly. 

bilkull, altogether, totally. 

zor se, vigorously. 

Ithub, well. 

tez, swiftly. 

judd, separately. 

dhire, gently. 

thik se, exactly. 

muft, gratuitously. 

befaida, vainly, uselessly. 
nihdijat, exceedingly. 

tanhd, ) 

7 7 > alone. 

alee la, j 

bahut, much, many, very. 

bard, as an adjective this means great, 

but as an adverb it means 
very. 

saf, clearly. 



3. Place. See Pronominals and Postpositions. Most 
postpositions of place can be used as adverbs by being 
constructed absolutely, i.e., without the genitive sign, as 

4^1, age, before, etc. 



** 



4. Miscellaneous 

, hdn, yes. 

nahm, no. 

na, no. 



88 

mat, not, " dont." l 

y'ani, that is to say, viz. 

sirf, 
faqat, 

EXERCISE. 



> only. 



1. -x*> _.- Jlfc <^_^ L Jiy* mehtar se kaho ki Ml 

kanire men khub jhdru 




ho hukm 

diya hai ki Jchdne ke 
kamre aurpalang kamre 
bichhdo. 



tumne chhoti hdziri taiydr 
ki yd nahin. 



we bahut 

sawere char sdhlbon ke 
Zi'ye taiyar ki hai. 

hamarf jiltiyon par siydhi 

7 '7 7 f ? 

lagakar zor se ma to tab 
icuhkhvb chamkengi. 

6. <_ LJ *X- b ,U Ji_ v.^o^L^ .v^/ii6 Tie fear bar hukm 

diya hai, ki har roz 
akhbdr Ido. 



7. f j^> J^ - L J L$ ^_ ^^AL-o sahib ne kahd to kahd 

maffar main ne abtak 
iiahin xund. 



1 Used colloquially in Urdu with the 2. s. and pi. imp. in forbidding 
an action to be done at or near the time of speaking. Continuous 
prohibition is expressed by the Infinitive wittrria, as chor{' f na karnd j = 
do not steal, never steal. Chor{ mat kuro would-be said to a person on 
the point of committing an act of theft. 



se al dore par 
zin khub kaske bdndho. 
ob L- 



9. & j^o s IS ._JL0 <L oti-T -w-s-^c? ne sdf kdha hi main 

yih kitdb hargiz nah/'n 
^ parhdunyd. 



10. <- txJJ -r*" *^x*Jb 3 with hamesha sack boltd 

^ ' & " 7 

riai. 

11. AJ j^ A$ L^ te kai J_ -x* watw nefaqat yah Jcahd ki 

main yih kam akela 
' C^ nahm harungd. 



12. u^* -.} K-ji to >*.> ^j"^. ^ d baras tak yih larka 

apni man se judd rahd 

(v U^ )4..<, thd. 

j ap log yahdn Jcab tak 
tashrif rakhenge ? 

14. ^L* _^si^ ^ ^ ^jJuW AJ T/i/i kitdben ham Jco muft 

- w^7^' ^w. 

15. .jiU. c_^tj 45.^x4) j ^^xi J turn Jcyun dhire, dhire 

U. *j a> c/iaZ^e ho ? jald do. 



16. *$ j&> &J Uol j^ fi <SL c_Xj^J /MA; .se kam Jcaro, aisa na 

- ho Jfi turnhdri mihnat 



17- ^ (^5^^ <^-j^^* M^"^ f* /iam parson sawere Delhi 
f *e kuch karenge tdkiitxi 



kabhi kabhi 
owr kabhi kabhi 
i hai taubhi wuh 



90 



ILI wU , *ar6ar apa' gf/iar 

rakhti hai. 



19. <-Ui*. jjo L^-olyi 'j>^ ^ V^ ^ ^ ghord nihdyat tez 

chaltd hai. 



20. <2- t>, ^,5 r>\r>j$ *&> .c^T *j w ' u ^ adww hamko bardbar 

diqq kartd hai. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. The boy gave the dog a good beating (beat well). 
2. That man comes to our house sometimes. 3. Rouse us 
in the morning early in order that we may eat our chhoti 
hdziri. 4. They arrived before we (did). 5. When the 
teacher punishes the boys, he punishes them well. 6. Ho\v 
long shall I, in vain, tell you to do your work properly ? 
7. He came and bothered me every day. 8. She is always 
sleeping. 9. I have told you again and again to polish 
my shoes vigorously and make them shine well. 10. The 
day before yesterday the constable (by) running swiftly, 
caught the thief. 11. The Inspector may or may not 
have heard, but he has not yet told me. 12. I got this 
bread for nothing. 13. All I said was this, that men do 
not work without pay. 14. He did not labour in vain 
because he did his work properly. 15. The master has 
just come, and is calling you loudly (with vigour). 16. 
The boys came again and again to (the) teacher and said 
that they could not do (the) arithmetic right. 17. Some 
time or other we will set out for Calcutta. 18. Nowadays 
boys do not mind their father's word, as they used to do 
formerly (nowadays just as they used to -- boys do 
not,etc.). 19. Your clothes are quite ready, sir. 20. Some- 
times this boy reads well, but sometimes he is very lazy. 

VOCABULARY. 

j+ J lA , hdl kamra, n. m. drawing-room. 
X >1 ^ j jhdrti, n. m. broom. 



91 



, jhdru dend, v. t. to sweep, 
yy* , mihtdr, n. m. sweeper. 

The word is a title of honour, applied as a euphemism 
to the " knight of the broom." 



J ) 


dare, 


n. f. carpet (made of cotton). 




* , hdziri, 


u. f. breakfast. 


r m 


, chhott, hdziri, 


n. f. early or "little" breal 
fast. 


*U- 


, siydhi, 


n. f. blacking, or ink. 


XI 


malnd, 


v. t. to rub. 


"^ 


, chamaknd, 


v. int. to shine. 


**3 


nkhbdr, 


n. m. news, newspaper. 


[), 


ztn, 


n. m. saddle. 


> , 


kasna, 


v. t. to tighten, bind. 


.SL. 


, sdis, 


n. m. groom. 




r* , sach bolnd, 


v. int., to tell the truth. 




>, diqq karnd, 


v. t. to annoy. 


LESSON XXVII. 


NUMERALS. 


1. 


-j| , ek. 


8. **jf , dth. 


2. 


)t> f do. 


9. )* , nan. 


3. 


e,'^ , tin. 


10. l- /<3 , das. 


4. 


;^, char. 


11. 8)^ , gydrah. 


5. 


g>\-j , panel/ . 


12. ?)lj , dtirah. 


6. 


*s^- , c/i/ia. 


13. *>j , terah. 


7. 


el, .sai. 


14. *&$ , chauda h. 



92 



15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 

"21. 

-22. 
53. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 



, pandrah. 
, soldh. 
, sattrdh. 
, athdra. 



* , bis. 



, teis. 

> chaubfo. 

> pachis. 

^- , chhabbis. 
, satdts. 



, untis. 



a ^ chauntts. 
^ paint is. 
? chhattitt. 
, saintis. 



, untdlis. 
> chdlis. 
, c/rf^Z/s. 
, baydlis. 
^ 3 , tentdlis. 
^ j chaudlis. 



45. 

46 . 

47. 

48. 

49. 

50. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 



tr; , paint dlis. 



' 



, saintalis. 

fartdlis. 

unchds. 
, pachas. 
, ikdwdn. 
ltdican. 
tir-pan. 
chauwan. 
? pachpan. 
, chhappan. 
, satdwan. 
, athdican. 
, unsath. 



iksath. 

bdsath. 

tirsath. 

, chaunsath. 

painsath. 

., chhiydsath. 



, arsath. 
unhattar. 



, ikhattar. 
, bahattar. 
> tihattar. 
, chauhattar. 



93 



75. 
76. 

77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 



, pachhattar. 
) chhahattar. 
5 sathaftar. 
athattar. 
, unasi. 
ossi. 



81. 45**^ , ikds'i. 



82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 



biydsL 
tirdsi. 
, chaurasL 
, pachdsl. 
, chhiyasi. 
, satdsi. 



88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99. 
100. 



f, athdsL 
, naudsi. 
, nawwe. 
il^t , eMnwe. 
k , bdnwe. 
{^ , tirdnwe. 
J'j >* , chaurdnwe. 
lJ , pachdnawe. 
*- , chhiydnawe. 
, satandwe. 
? athdnawe. 
nindnawe. 
, saw. 



The ordinals are formed by adding wa/i or torn (masc. 
or fern.) as the case may be, except in the case of the first 
four, and the sixth. 



\r, pahild (le, li), first, iy>>, dusrd, second, [;~ 
third, ^^-, chauthd, fourth, u'^f ^* panchivdn, fifth, 
u'>*H^-j chhathwan, sixth, u'^^, sdtwtin, seventh, and so on. 
;!>*, hazar, one thousand, **'3f, Z((/c/i, a hundred thousand, 
ji>j>, karor, ten millions. 

The following fractionals are in constant use : 
*-, chauthd, a fourth. 

, a quarter less, as, panne do, If. 
-", ftawa, a quarter more, as, sawa tin, 3. 
;5, der/i, one and a half, cs^j' or (^S, arhdi or ^M/ 
two and a half. 

, sdrhe, a half more, as, sdrhe char, 4%. 

when added to a number means " fold" as do 
gnnd, two-fold. 



94 

EXERCISE. 



larkiydn do sAiydn chdht/ 
thin. 



"2. e=i<* *-oa<tft)jj5 ^ ^1 <_ jt /iam ?ie 15 &e liye derh 

paisa diye hain. 
U- 



3. *x> o i,lsx> v^^N*^* .^ ..l wW qimat pachas rupaye 

hai. 



4. ^^- * ^" ^ ^ ^ ne ^ e kotdm kharfdo. 



-5. ^ jt*u J - At*. .J AJt^>5 ^ r ^ ser chdical, do ser 
^^ * * natnak 



,x* U.JJ y 'jl chdhiye. 

6. < ,_jo? J ^BU jJ ^''i &a;'e ko diye. 

7. ^/ y ^-^ &&jj>5 ^ wufe rferfe 607*? A-O 

pdnch 



nthenge. 

9. Ki*?t i_^3 ,yj ^J x^ TH/I do pahar tak uthegd. 

10. J** L. *>!; ^t^T v^^Le srf^i6 ddhi rat ke qall 



tashrrfldenge. 

11. LA. >> jJ fituu'j ^- c J*4^ ghore ke waste do man 

chand manqdo. 



12. tf&i^^ **J - 24 { .& *& ham tin baje ke b'ad 

jdenge. 

13. ^_sJ^- j$ cEH J^ ^-jU- <^^f larke sdrhe char baje ko 

chhutti p'aenge. 

do pipe tel hdmdre ghar 
ko bhejo. 



95 

15. A$a^ J cJJ 1 ^ y* - (j^** *)^. bdrah qamiz, do darzanr 

kdlar, chhah galaband, 
c har rat ke jore, nan 
jore moze, chaubfa 
rumdl, chdr kof, Us 
banyan, char wdskit, 
chdr patlun, char kam- 
arband ; yih sab gin/car 
sanduq men tah karke 




16. Ki.,$ u-JU/t S AAI) <^: .yo maiw pahile dafd ko 

mu'df karunga, lekin 
j)hir nahm karunga. 

Translate into Urdu : 

1. Give the darzi twelve buttons. 2. Order a dozen 
shirts, six (pairs of) trousers, six coats and six handker- 
chiefs. 3. Tell the dhobi to bring my night suits and 
two pairs of socks quickly. 4. Give me a ser and a half 
of rice and three quarters of a ser of salt. 5. Buy four 
maunds of gram for the horse. 6. Send them not later 
than (up to) six o'clock. 7. You do not need half a ser of 
ghi to cook to-day's dinner. 8. Bring five sers and a half 
of milk for the school-boys. 9. I sell twenty-four man- 
goes for the (one) rupee. 10. The Maulvi went to say 
prayers at 5 o'clock in the (at) evening. 11. He will not 
reach the mosque before half -past one. 12. They arrived 
after half past-two. 13. I have not two tins of oil in 
(the) shop (in shop are not, etc.) 14. Bring two rupees 
worth of grapes (grapes of two rupees). 15. Yesterday 
that lazy man did not wake till eight o'clock. 16. I will 
go to his house the first time, but after that he must come 
to me. 

VOCABULARY. 

C 1 ^ , botam, n. m. button. 

tff> , ghi, n. m. clarified butter. 



90 



liKU 



namak, 
bajd, baje, 



n. m. 



salt. 



p. part, adverbially used of bajnd 
to strike o'clock. 



do pahar, n. m. noon. 

Pahar means a watch of 3 hours, noon is the 

2nd watch of the day and midnight of the 

night. 

adhi rdt, lit. half night, midnight. 

man, n. m. 40 sers. 

dafd, n. m. time, turn. 

chand, n. m. gram, chick pea. 

mangdnd, v. t. to order. 

chutthi, n. f. leave, holiday, release. 

ptpd, n. m. tin, barrel. 

" darzan" n. m. a dozen. 

kdlar, n. m. collar. 

galadand, n. m. necktie. 

rumdl, n. m. handkerchief. 

JOT a, n. m. suit of clothes, a pair. 

moza, n. m. sock, stocking. 

banyan, n. m. undervest. 

" wdskit," n. f .(?) waistcoat. 

" patlun" n. m. pantaloons, trousers. 

kamarband, n. m. sash. 

mudf karnd, v. t. to forgive. 



97 



LESSON XXVIII. 

PRESUMPTIVE AND CONDITIONAL FORMS. 

By adding the Aorist, Future, or Present forms of the 
verb hond, to become, to the Imperfect and Perfect Parti- 
ciples of the verb, three pairs of tenses can be formed, all 
of them conveying the ideas of contingency, presumption 
or potentiality. Each grammarian seems to have a special 
name for each of these tenses. Dr. Kellogg's nomen- 
clature is the most luminous and logical, Mr. Platts's is 
careful and laborious, but does not label these tenses as 
contingent, and Mr. Kempson's translates strictly the 
nomenclature of the indigenous grammarians. We give 
Kempson's, with Kellogg's in brackets. 

1. Present Dubious. (Contingent Imperfect), y* ^1 *j wuh 
did ho, he may be coming. 

2. Past Dubious, (Contingent Perfect), j* ^t iy } u-uh dyd 
ho, he may have come. 

3. Present Presumptive, (Presumptive Imperfect), I3f jjj 
fry*, wuh dta hoga, he will, or must be coming. 

4. Past Presumptive, (Presumptive Perfect), fejjfc U ^ 
wuh dyd hogd, he will, or must have come. 

5. Past Conditional, (Past Contingent Imperfect), ^l > 
tij*, wuh did hotd, had he been coming. 

6. Past Conditional, (Remote) (Past Contingent Perfect), 
^ l -' *j> had he (not) come. 

No. 1. "If Mohan be on the way here we may see him 

to-day " ; he may be coming, but of this we 

cannot be sure. 
No. 2. "If Mohan has arrived here we might see him 

to-night " ; he may have arrived, but of this we 

are ignorant. 
No. 3. (Mohan promised to come, therefore) " he will be 

on the way here," so we may expect to see 

him to-night. 



98 

No. 4. (Mohan was to arrive this afternoon therefore) 
"he will have come," so let us go and see him. 

No. 5. "Had Mohan been (on the road) coming, we 
should (be able to) see him on the road." He 
is not coming therefore we do not see him. 

No. 6. " Had Mohan arrived we could have seen him." 
He had not arrived so we could not see him. 



EXERCISE. 

1. > ..3 ..& I3lj lil$$ L_s^J!;^ 7^' cigar bdwarchi Jchdnd 

f . pakdtd ho, to ham dth 

H **' baje khdne pdenge. 



2. *& y& b3 jfii 1 ?* lj^v*^ agar mehtar nejhdrn diyd 

ho, to ham hdl kamre 
jb* c -y^ <j*> men baith sakenge. 



3. ^j Jb J^&vJ <- jJ J^t*o shdyad larke parhte lion. 

4. Lj ^ ..$ Jy ^_ u-^Jt* iX>t~ shay ad malik ne naukar 

' r - A;o /iw/cm ^'a Tio. 



5. ^ lift.jy ^ }!!/ v' a6 9 W ? 1 " 9 ko duhta 
J hogd jd/far dekho K% 

a milde. 

sahib masjid se 
dye hong.e, do ham^dkar 
5' *y*> us se darydft kdren. 




7 *ioJ U>- - If .A UL^ t-jL) IjU^J tumhdrd bdp khdtd hog^ 

J* " X ^f ' S\^ . f 777 

ja dekho. 

8. ^> - tfb Uf SLJ .) a^ bachcha so gaya hoga 

, kyunki us ki dwaz nahin 

] sundi dett. 



99 



9. l-yfc \3 %sxi^ ) ^7"" 4>> /I #?' naukar jhdr ponchh 
f , kartd hota to wuh ghar 

b Ajytb L. ^f X, y / 



. 



10. *J ^^ v_$^ ^ ^~y L^'^r' agar is larke ne gdU di 

na hoti to wuh ndhin 
b V ^ U& hS ._sy> mdrdjdtd. 

11. ^>* ^^AJ - I^xj yy ^ftxj 5^ z naukar behra, bax 

mehtar, bdz bawarchi 



1 O ** >lC ~*t V C ' 

1Z. y ^^ ^l ^^-so v^^^r 1 agar das hi andepakdo to 

k" ~kafi honge. 



13. - - **?&> **" ^ cJ!/^ t/"^ S^s ^ar' t/ sa6z /io^ hai 
" magar yih ghds nahin 



A. 

14. ^1 ^J ^L" *^s^ ^ L.^^^ dhobi ko kuchh sdbun do 

f j, aur us ko tdkid karke 

jfib 9 ^ Tr J *$"* Jr \J"^ kaho ki phir apnd kam 

'' .1 ix i , adhurd na chhoro. 

*-)}*$- " b^ ] r ' 

15. .H* s$ t^* *i **- r -A-^ s7ii^, yi^ mumkin ndhin 



H waiw- ay se jhuth bdt. 
" 



16. X^ y ^J^J _jJKi ^1. cb 6 gde ko bdyh se nikdlo nahin 
( to wuh ghds ke 'aldwa 

-r^" 8 ** c * U"^* sab phul charegi. 



17 -> v^L , ,Cv^ J,4=- J,*^ chhofi chhoti chijiydn 

J- ^^J U ~J* ^ ~ 7T - *-_ -7' 7 j ^ / 7 

sarak, par dana chug 
rahthain. 



18. <S- e^;^ Liy$ 6\.jT dp M kahnd durust hai. 



100 




hoshydri he sdih likhnd 
icojib hai. 



"^' ri'* ^MMP ^'^ chukd hiin ab 
addb e arz Jfartd hun. 



Translate into Urdu : 

1. If the master is now writing a letter, you will 
to take it to the post. 2. If the table servant has laidlFe 
cloth we shall soon have (eat) the dinner. 3r Perhaps he 
may be telling the truth. 4. Has the boy not arrived ? 
look, he may have fallen into the river. 5. The cow 
will just now be grazing in the garden, go and catch 
her. 6. The gentleman will have read Persian, that i& 
why (for this reason) he is proficient in Urdu. 7. The 
tailor will be making (sewing) niy trousers, tell him to 
bring them quickly. 8. The girl will have fallen off the 
chair, for she is crying. 9. If you had been wishful (wish- 
ing) to hear my order, you would certainly have heard. 
10. If the thief had not stolen the grain he would not 
have been seized and punished. 11. Some people laugh, 
some cry, and some neither laugh nor cry. 12. If the 
dhobi will bring only one shirt that will be enough. 
13. This is not a mango because it is red and mangoes are 
green or yellow. 13. Insist on the boys reading Persian. 

15. That is a bad servant, who leaves his work half done. 

16. Besides bread give the poor man some fish. 17. The 
little birds will peck up the wheat. 18. The ox is grazing 
in the jungle. 19. Before I finish writing I will make 
my parting salutation. 20. It is fitting that you write 
this carefully. 

VOCABULARY. 

, darydft karnd, v. t. to ascertain. 
kahldna, v. int. to be called. 

tnildnd, v. t. to mix. 



101 

fe'az, indef. adj. and pron. some. 

|5.>t , andd, n. m. egg. 

.^'(^ , kdfif adj. enough, sufficient. 

taktd karnd, v. t. to insist. 

adhiird, adj. half done, half and 

half. 

mumkin, adj. possible. 
ke 'aldwa, postp. in addition to, besides. 
,jhdr ponchh karnd, to dust a room. 
charnd, v. int. to graze. 

chiignd, v. t. to pick up food with the 

beak, to peck. 

safak, n. f. roadway, road. 

ddnd, n. m. grain. 

durust, adj. straight, correct. 

hoshiydri, n. f. carefulness, vigilance, 

v^fj , u'djiby adj. fitting, proper. 

^J* o*^ v'- 5 ' ) <*dd& a'rz karnd, to make a parting salu- 
tation. 



102 



* a 

s 


e 


& % $ i 


i 


"1 


O ff) 

PL, 


f 


^ ^ ^ -* 


* 


r< 

X 


r^ , ~*~J 

r^ "1 CD 


i 


j i 3" " 


" 


J 


^H 


J 


.^i * ^ \. 


*- 


^ 


O -^ 




S Si 


Si 




S3 S3 




' > -w 


o 





.2 S3 S3 


1 


J i. * *- 


? 




ST-l O 
00 

r* 9 
fe 


i s 


f ^l ? if 3 


1 


-V 






( Si 


Si 




r* 




^ ^'S 


o 




-H 


v 


N V >} 


S 5 ** 




a 


1 


S S ^ 

^r^ ^i?* *\ V^ 


1 


5 


'3 " H " 


rO 


rO **O *Q 


rO 




'3 


^ 


^ 


^7 




S 


| 


1 1 a 1' 

~J -J' 


1' 


R 


S 




1 


Si 




"*2 


t*& 




-2 




ri z 




* - * - ' ~~- 


* 




~ S3 


rO 


rO **O fO 


3 


^ 


3 O 




0. 






w S3 
c3 O 
22 O 


Jf" 


i -j = ^ : 


i 


*V 

















gj 


Si 




g 


v s 


< < P 

* n 



K. 










o- ^' 5 j 


O 


* 


.S 


cs> 


o o * 


Oj 




3 i 




^^ 






o 




A 






at 




4x ^ ** 


** 




c3 




"> %^ ' ( ^> 


Xx* 




^ 


^ 


vl ^ , ^ 
-J vl J 


1 


N 




CQ 


02 OQ CQ (^ 


^ 


* 






g ^ 


-i 











^J ^ 








"^ Co 


'ji 








-*3 ^ ^1^ 








3 
o 
*z 


fl f fc a 

bo o o 

^ fe &3 


^ 


a 

(O 



103 



THE URDU VERB. 

Root, <JjJ, bol. 

Infinitive, UfjJ , bolnd. 

Conjunctive Participle, j&jt 1;* , bolke, bolkar. 

Imperfect ^ji , boltd. 

Perfect *M , bold. 

Noun of Agency, Sffj &>. , bolnewdld. 

Tenses from the root (3rd pers. sing.). 

Aorist, eL;*. , 'bole. 

Imperative (2nd pers. pi.) y*. , bolo. 

Future (3rd pers. sing.) &Jj* bolegd. 

Tenses from the Imperfect Participle (3rd pers. sing.). 

Past Conditional, l*-|y , boltd. 

Present Imperfect, ^ ^j> , boltd hai. 

Past Imperfect, ^J li ^> , boltd thd. 

Present Dubious, 3* l*Jy , boltd ho. 

,, Presumptive, '^ l *^J , boltd hogd. 

Past Conditional or Optative, 

2nd form, ^ W# , boltd hotd. 

Tenses from the Perfect Participle (3rd pers. sing.). 

Past Absolute or Indefinite, Jfy , bold. 

Proximate or Present Perfect, ^ 3I>> , bold hai. 

Remote or Past Perfect, l *> V>J , bold thd. 

Past Dubious, >fc U^j f bold ho. 

Past Presumptive, lf>* ^jj , bold hogd. 

Past Conditional or Optative, 

3rd form, IJ>A i^j , bold hotd. 



104 



VOCABULARY. 
URDU ENGLISH. 

Adj., Adjective ; adv., Adverb ; n. m.. Noun Masculine ; 
n. f., Noun Feminine; v. int., Verb Intransitive; v. t., 
Verb Transitive ; postp., Postposition ; pron., Pronoun. 

v' ab> adv. now. 

L>' & tak, up to now, yet, hitherto. 

c*-t , abhi, just now. 

yf , dp, honorific pronoun, you, your honour. 

This same form is used in a reflexive sense, " self." 



UJf 



itnd, 


adj. 


utnd, 


adj. 


d$h, 


adj. 


uthdnd, 


v. t. 


ulhnd, 


v. in 


dj, 


adv. 


'ijdzat, 


n. f. 


achchhd, 


adj. 


dkhir kdr, 


adv. 


ddmi, 


n. m 



adhurd, 
dram, 

urdnd, 

urnd, 

arhdi, 



as much, so much, 
so much, 
eight. 

to raise, lift up. 
v. int. to rise, get up. 
to-day, 
permission, leave. 

good. 

at last, finally, 
n. m. man, human being. 
n. m. news, newspaper. 

hither. 

thither. 

half done, incomplete,. 

rest, ease. 

shelter, covering. 



adv. 
adv. 
adj. 
n. m. 
n. f. 



v. t. 



to cause to fly. 
v. int., to fly. 
adj. two and a half. 



105 



<_rl , '*', formative of yih. 

4,j*i, us, wuh. 

V^~l , asbdk. n. m. effects, luggage, furni- 

ture. 

*l**t , ustdd, n. m. teacher. 

ty^-l , ustdni, n. f. teacher (female). 

4__A~' , istri, n. f . iron, (polishing), 

v^-l , dsmdn, n. m. sky, heaven. 

<_r>-*f , afsos, n. m. sorrow^ alas ! 

^1 , akeld, adj. alone. 

_^f , agar, conj. if. 

**-y f , agarchi, conj. although, even if. 

j*l , -Agra, s. m. Agra. 

^L, agfe, adv. before, in front of. 

M 

^y' , albatta, adv. certainly, indeed. 

**^t, aZa^, adj. and adv., apart, separately. 

v?;^' , almari, n. f. press, cupboard, book- 
case, wardrobe. 

f', am, n. m. mango. 

J L ~ X5 ' , imsdl, adv. this year. 

^ 5 ' , and, v. int., to come. 

gM' , a?i<y', n. m. grain. 

3**t , andar, postp., in, within, into. 

'^' , andd, n. m. egg. 

Ujf jUai>i ^ intizdr Jcarnd, v. t. to expect. 

^y&l , angur, n. m. grape. 

jlj' j a?^z, n. f. voice, sound. 

^5' , ^par, postp., over, above. 

^ > and, conj. and, also, other, 

j'i)' > auzdr, n. m. (sing, and pi.), tools. 

weapons. 



106 



***, 



UJU 



auldd, n. f. children, offspring. 

aisd, e, adj. and adv., so, thus, this 

way. 

aisd na ho ki, so that it may not be that lest. 
ek, one. 

bap, n. m. father. 

bdt, n. f. word, matter, thing. 

bdt chit karnd, v. t., to converse. 



bar bar, 

bar yd, 

bdrah, 

bag., 

bilkull, 

ddlna, 

bdndhnd, 

bans, 

bdwarchi, 

bdhar, 

batdnd 

bat a dend, 

battt, 

bachchd, 
bichhauna, 
ba-daulat (let 

bura, 
bardbar, 
barkhilaf (ke) 



adv. again and again, often, 
gunpowder, 
twelve, 
garden, 
altogether, entirely. 

to light, (candle or 
lamp). 

to bind, fasten, 
bamboo, 
cook, 
outside. 



n. f. 
adj. 
n. m. 
adv. 
v. t. 

v. t. 
n. m. 
n. m. 
adv. 

v 
v 

n. f. 



t ~) 

> to show, point out. 
. t. ) 



wick, candle, lamp. 

n. m. child, infant, baby, 
n. m. bed, bedclothes. 

, postp., by means of, favour 
of, prestige of. 

adj. bad, evil, wicked, 
adv. equally, regularly. 

adv. and postp., against, con- 
trary, opposite to. 



107 



1* 



bard, adj. and adv., big, large, great,, 

very. 

baihai, n. m. carpenter. 

bazzdz, n. m. draper, cloth- seller. 

b'ad, adv. and postp., after. 

I)' az, adj. some, a few. 

Bagdad, n. m. Bagdad. 

bagair, postp. without. 

buldnd, v. t. to call. 

buld lend, v. t. to call up. 

balki, adv. and conj., but, but rather,, 

moreover, on the con- 
trary. 

bandnd, v. t. to make, cause to make. 

band karnd, v. t. to shut, close, stop. 
bandit q, * n. f. gun. 

bannd, v. int., to be made, to become^ 

baniya, n. m., shopkeeper, grain-seller. 

banyan, n. m., singlet, vest. 

5otdm, n. m., (English, corruption of) 

button. 

bfy'h, n. m., load, burden. 

bolnd, v. int., to utter sound, speak. 

bond, v. t. to sow. 

bhdt, n. m., (boiled) rice. 

bhart, adj. heavy, weighty, im- 

portant. 

bhdgnd, v. int., to flee, escape. 

bhdgjdnd, v. int., to flee away, escape. 

bhai, n. m., brother. 

bahut, adj. and adv., much, many. 



108 



k>->, 



bhar, adv. fully, whole. 

behra, n. m. (English) bearer. 

bharosd, n. m. reliance, trust. 

bharnd, v. t. to fill, with men, of 

thing filled ; or, with 
se, of thing with 
which filled. 

n. f. sister. 
adj. hungry. 

conj. also, too, and, even, 
with. 

adv. within, inside, 
v. t. to send, 
v. t. to beg. 

v. t. to explain, relate, nar- 
rate. 



ddhin, 

bhukhd, 

bhi, 

bhztar, 
bhejnd, 

bhikh mdngnd, 
bayan karnd, 

beta, 
beti, 

bait And, 
baith jdnd, 

be-chdrd, 

bechnd, 

bis, 

be-fdida, 

bail) 

bimdr, 

biwi, 
par, 
pds, 
pdnd, 



n. m. son. 

n. f. daughter. 

v. int. to sit. 

v. int., to sit down, be seated. 

n. m. seed. 

adj. poor, helpless, wretched. 

v. t. to sell. 

adj. twenty, a score. 

adv. in vain. 

n. m. ox, bullock. 

n. m. and adj., sick man, 

patient, sick, 
n. f. lady, wife, 
postp. and adv., across, 
adj. and adv., near, by, with. 
v. t. to find, get, obtain. 



109 



*> 



.A, 



pdnsh, 


adj. j 


pant, 


n. m. 


pahild, 


adj. 


pahile, 


adv. 


pdejdma, 


n. m. 


patlun, 


11. m. 


par, 


postp., 


par, 


conj. 


pirich, 


n. m. 


parson, 


adv. 


parnd, 


v. int. 


parhdnd, 


v. t. 


parhnd, 


v. t. 


pas, 


conj. ; 


pildnd, 


v. t. 


paltan, 


n. f. 


pulis, 


n. m. 


palang, 


n. m. 


X 




pinjra, 


n. m. 


pankhd. 


n. m. 


pochhnd, 


v. t. 


piichhnd, 


v. t. 


panne, 


adj. 


phdwrd, 


n. m. 


phatnd, 


v. int, 


pJiat jdnd, 


v. int 


phir, 


adv. 


phal 


n. m. 



five, 
water, 
first, 
firstly, 
drawers. 

11. m. trousers, " pantaloons. ' y 
on, upon. 

but, moreover, only, 
saucer. 

day before yesterday, 
day after to-morrow. 

to lie, be lying. 

to teach, cause to read. 

to read aloud, recite, 
learn. 

conj. and adv., therefore. 

to cause to drink, giv& 
to drink. 

regiment. 
(Eng.) police, 
bedstead, 
cage. 

punkah, fan. , 

to wipe, to dust, 
to ask, with se. 
a quarter less than 
mattock, spade, 
to split, tear. 

v. int., to get split, be torn, 
again, 
fruit. 



110 



SN, 



pahunchdnd, v. t. to send, bring, cause to 
arrive. 

, to arrive, reach, 
to clothe with, dress, 
flower, 
to throw, 
to throw away. 

canister, barrel, (Eng. 
pipe). 

. and adv., behind, after. 

cup. 

pice, money. 

Peshawar. 

yellow. 

to drink. 
, to drink up. 

to drink, " to take and 
drink." 

to insist, enjoin, 
nevertheless, still. 
in order that, 
then. 

trade, commerce, 
formative of 3, tu. 
expedient, plan, 
to arrange, contrive, 
scales. 

three days ago, or 
hence. 

vegetables, curry. 



pahunchnd, 


v. int. ; 


pahinnd, 


v. t. 


phul, 


n. m. 


phenknd, 


v. t. 


phenk dend, 


v. t. 


pijpd, 


n. m. 


ptchhe, 


postp. 


piydld, 


n. m. 


paisd, 


n. m. 


Peshawar, 


n. m. 


pilct, 


adj. 


pind, 


v. t. 


pijdnd, 


v. int., 


pi lend, 


v. t. 


tdk'id kdrnd, 


v. t. 


tdham, 


conj. 


tdki, 


conj. 


tab, 


adv. 


tijdrat, 


n. f. 


twjh, 




tadbir, 


n. f. 


Jcarnd, 


v. t. 


tardzu, 


s. m. 


tar son, 


adv. 



t ark an, 



n. f. 



tashvif rakhna, v. t., to be seated. 



Ill 



tashrtf le and, v. int., to come. 

lejand, v. int., to depart. 
tasalli dend, v. t. to comfort, cheer. 



A 



tak, 
htm, 

tumhdrd, 
tumhen, 
tang hdl, 



tanhd, 


adv. 


tu, 


pron. 


to, 


conj. 


taubM, 


conj. 


tornd, 


v. t. 


tor ddlnd, 


V. t. 


taulnd, 


V. t. 


thd, 


v. in 


thaknd, 


v. in 


tliak jdnd, 


v. in! 


tez, 


adj. i 


tin, 


adj. 


taiydr, 


adj. 


tytin, 


adv. 


tutnd, 


v. in 


topi, 


n. f. 


thi/c, 


adj. 


jdgnd, 


v. in 


jdnd, 


v. in 


jdnnd, 


v. t. 



postp., up to. 
pron. you. 

your. 

you. 

n. m. straits, necessitous cir- 
cumstances. 

alone, 
thou. 
then, 
nevertheless. 

to break, to gather 
(flowers or fruits). 

to break up, smash.. 

to weigh. 

was. 

v. int., to tire, be tired, 
v. int., to get tired, 
adj. and adv., swift, quickly. 

three. 

ready, prepared. 

just so. 
v. int., to be broken. 

hat, cap. 

adj. and adv., right, correct, 
correctly. 

v. int., to wake, be awake, 
v. int., to go, go away, 
to know. 



112 



vjjla* jamcar, 


n. m. 


T*^ , jab, 


adv. 


'.AL*. f jitnd, 


pron., 


\&*> , juda, 


adj. ai 


y*<xa. f jidhar, 


adv. 


*^ , jagah, 


n. f. 


*1+ , jald, 


adv. 


li*^- , Jamnd, 


n. f. 


d& s * , jangal, 


n. m. 


J* , J> 


pron. 


j* > 


conj. 


^J* > >oina, 


v. t. 


t5^ /^' 


n. f. 


!l>* , >or, 


n. m. 


jjl^a. ? jhdru, 


n. m. 


Ijjijjl^a. ^ jJidrw dend, 


v. t. 


o 1 ^ , jahdn, 


adv. 


=*** , y a ^ 


adv. 


i -7. 'il. 

4<jJ^*. , J flUt fa, 


n. m. 


^2^. , jaise, 


adv. 


^^ > jyun. 


adv. 


)*^*~ > chddar, 


n. f. 


jU- , char, 


adj. 


Jjla. , chdwal, 


n. m. 


li*U. ? chahnd, 


v. t. 


IJ.=. ? charnd, 


v. t. 


IJI.AJ&. j charhdnd, 


v. t. 


liAja. charhndf 


v. int, 



animal. 

when. 

pron., adj. and adv., as much, 
adj. and adv., separate, alone. 

whither. 

place. 

quickly. 

Jumna. 

wilderness, forest r 
weeds. 

who. 

if. 

to yoke, to plough. 

shoe. 

a pair, a suit of clothes. 

broom. 

to sweep. 

where. 

immediately, at once, 

lie. 

as. 

just as. 

sheet, tablecloth, wrap- 
per. 

four. 

rice, (husked, ready for 
cooking). 

to desire, wish for. 
to graze. 

to lift up, to raise, 
v. int., to mount, ascend. 



113 



5- or 



**, 



chiriya, 
chugnd, 

chaldnd, 
chalnd, 
chale jdnd, 
, chamach or 
chamakna, 
chdna, 
chot, 
chulhd, 
chundnchi, 
chunki, 

chhutti, 

chhuri, 

chJiarrd, 

cHhotd, 

chhornd, 

chhah, 
chfe, 



hdzir, 
lidziri, 



hdl-dn-Jci, adv. 



hisdb, 
huzur, 



n. f. bird. 

v. t. to peck, to feed (as 

birds). 

v. t. to cause to move, drive, 
v. int., to move, to go along, 
v. int., to go away. 
chamcha, n. m., spoon, 
v. int., to shine, glitter, glisten, 
n. m. "gram," chickpea, 
n. f. hurt, wound, 
n. m. fireplace, stove, 
adv. so that, so. 

conj. and adv., inasmuch as, 
since. 

n. f. freedom, relief, leave, 

holiday, 
n. f. knife. 

n. m. shot, small shot, 
adj. small, little. 

v. t. to leave, release, for- 
sake. 

adj. six. 

n. f. thing. 

n. f . kite, 

adj. present. 

n. f. presence, attendance, 

breakfast. 

whereas, now that, al- 
though. 

n. m. account, arithmetic. 

n. m. presence, "your 
honour. " 



114 



_ JJfyL 



*0te , 

Ub, 



hukm, n. m. order, command. 

khabarddr, adj. careful, mindful. 

khidmatgdr, n. m., servant, especially table- 
servant. 

kbardb, adj. bad, evil, wicked. 

Wsaridnd, v. t. to purchase, buy. 

Hbatt, n. m. letter, note. 

fehwdh Wywdh) conj., whether or. 

fcb'ud. adj. and adv., well, beautiful, 

J j 

good. 

khaufndk, adj. terrible, terrific, awful. 
dam, n m. price, cost. 

ddtihil hona, v. int. (wen), to enter. 

daroga, n. m. Inspector or Sub-In- 
spector of Police. 

ddnd, n. m. grain. 

dabjdnd, v. int., to be crushed. 

darakhht, n. m. tree, plant. 

dard, n. m. pain. 

darzan, adj. (Eng.) dozen. 

darzi t n. m. tailor. 

durust, adj. and adv., straight, level, 

correct. 

darmiydn (ke} } adv. and postp., between, 
within. 

darwdza, n. m. door. 

daryd, n. f. m., river, sea, flood. 

durydft karnd (ko) t v. t., to ascertain. 

dart, n. f. carpet. 

dushman, n. m. enemy. 

dukh, n. m. sorrow. 



115 



&*& , dukhnd, 


v. int., 


Uji ij^ii , dikhai dend, 


v. int., 


*i* , dafd, 


n.f. 


Uj> Oi , diqq karnd, 


v. t. 


Ja , dil, 


n. m. 


liA^j J> } dil bahldna, 


v. t. 


j& , do, 


adj. 


Uji , dubnd, 


v. int. ; 


2<i) , dudh. 


n. m. 


jj* 9 dur, 


adv. 


tyjz } daurdnd, 


v. t. 


^J^i , daurnd, 


v. int.. 


^seji } dost, 


n. m. 


^J M )i> , dusrd, 


adj. 


\ijtfj& , du/cdn, 


n.f. 


** oJji , daulatmand, 


adj. 


fj> , dawd, 


n. f. 


ofji T dawdt, 


n.f. 


e>^> , dhdn, 


n. m. 


is>j*& , dho&i, 


n. m. 


Y^*^ , dhv.p, 


n. f. 


^i , dhond, 


v. t. 


li^A , dikhdnd, 


v. t. 


'H^* , dekhnd, 


v. t. 


ty -^i , degchi, 


n.f. 


ji& , <^e>', 


n. m. 


ji>J> , dtwdr, 


n.f. 


t5 ^*<> , Dehli. 




^(3 , <&&, 


n.f. 


^51*5 , ^a'/, 


adj. 



turn, time. 

to make uncomfortable, 
heart, soul, 
to amuse oneself, 
two. 

, to sink, drown, 
milk, 
far. 

to cause to run or gallop. 
, to run. 
friend, 
second, 
shop. 

rich, wealthy, 
medicine, 
inkpot. 

rice, as seed or crop, 
washerman, 
sunshine, sun's heat, 
to wash, 
to show, 
to see, look at. 
cooking-pot, 
delay, time, 
wall. 

post. 

two and a half. ' 



116 



*,!,, 



rat, 

raj mistri, 

rdsta , 



adj. one and a half. 

adj. yellow. 

n. f. night. 

n. m. mason, bricklayer. 

n. m. way, road. 



Edsta, means road or way to a place, rah means the 
same, but has also an ethical aspect. Sarak is the 
material roadway on which one travels. 

dekhnd (ki), v. t., to look for, expect. 



titt 



rakhnd, v. t. to keep, retain, hold. 

rang, n. m. colour, dye. 

rangdnd, v. t. to dye, colour. 

rangrez, n. m. dyer. 

roti, n. m. bread. 

roz, n. m. day. 

roz roz, adv. day by day, every day. 
roshni or raiishni, n. f., light. 

rumdl, n. m. handkerchief. 

rond, v. int. to cry, weep. 

rahnd, v. int. to remain, stay. 

zubdn, n. f. tongue, language. 

zamin, n. f. earth, land. 

zor, n. f. power, violence (with 
se), strongly. 

2/n, n. m. saddle. 

sd, adj. and adv. of similitude- 
like, isb, very (?) 

sdbun, n. m. soap. 

sat, adj. seven. 

sdth (ke), postp., with, in company of. 

sarhe, adj. plus a half. 



JL , sal, n. m. year. 

^pLa } sdlan, n. m. meat-curry. 

^- , sdmne (ke), postp., in front of, opposite. 

_Jl- } sdnp, n. m. snake. 

<j"^L y sdis, n. m. groom, 

v** , sab, adj. all, every. 

<yU* 9 sipdhi, n. m. soldier, constable. 

-r-, sac/i, adj. true. 

^,~ , surkh, adj. red. 

^- , sir or sar, n. m. head. 

^so j jy*> } sarf-o-nahw, n. f. grammar (lit. accidence 

and syntax). 

j~ , sarkdr, n. m. chief, " government." 

-(j- , sarak, n. f . road (the material road 

on which one travels), 
synn. rdsta or rdh. 

j> , sazd, n. f . punishment. 

-^ r j 

**&~> , sufaid or sufed, adj., white. 

j-iTjJ-' , suluk, n. m. treatment (especially 

good). 

sttZw& karnd (with se), v. t., to treat (esp. well), 
to behave to. 

samjhd dend, v. t. to explain thoroughly, 
to cause to be under- 
stood. 

samajhnd, v. t. to understand. 
sund't dend, v. int., to be heard. 

sundnd, v. t. to cause to hear or be 

heard. 

sunnd, v. t. to hear. 

sauddgar, n. m. merchant, shopkeeper. 



sona, 

so-jana, 

sawd 



'.int. ) 

>to sleep. 
r . int. ) 



v. int. 
v. 

adj. a quarter more than ^ 
a (with A;e), postp., except. 

sawere, adj. adv., early, in the early 

morning. 

n. m. support, reliance, help. 
postp. by, with, from, than. 



Sahara, 

se, 

seb or sep, 

ser, 

sikhnd, 

smd, 

siydh'i, 

shdbdsh, 

shdgird, 

sham, 

shakhs, 



n. m. apple. 

n. m. a weight (abt. 21bs.) 

v. t. to learn. 

v. t. to sew. 

n. f. ink, blacking. 

interj., bravo ! well done ! 

n. m. pupil, disciple. 

n. m. evening. 

n. m. person, individual. 
shur'u karnd (ko), v. t., to begin. 
shikar khelnd, v. t. to hunt, go shooting. 
shakr, n. m. city, town. 

shor-o-gul, n. m. noise and row. 
sdhib, n. m. (lit. lord of ) gentle- 

man, master. 

sirf, adj. and adv., only, merely. 

sanduq, n. m. 

zarur, adv. 

zarurat, n. f . necessity, need. 

tarah, n. f. manner (with verbs " he 

does it like this"). 

taraf f B. f . (and postp. with M), side, 

direction. 



? f., box. 
necessarily, certainly. 



119 



'izzat, 
t aurat, 



g.arib, 



v. t. to fold, roll up, to dis- 
pose of (a case). 

'arz karnd, (with hi or ko), v. t., to report, 
state, request. 

n. f. honour, esteem, reputa- 
tion. 

n. f. woman, 
adj. careless. 

adj. and n. m., poor, meek, 
poor man. 

g.aur karnd (par), v. t., to reflect, meditate. 

Farsi, adj. and n. f., Persian people 

(m.), Persian 1 a n - 
guage (f.). 

fidwi, n. m. devotee, slave. 

fardiz, n. m. pi. of /arz, duties, obli- 

gations. 

farmdnd, v. t. to command (used hon- 
orifically of merely 
saying or doing any- 
thing). 

fasl, n. f. division, harvest, crop. 

faqt, adv. only, merely. 

fauran, adv. immediately, at once, 

quickly. 
filhdl, adv. in the (present) case, 

just now. 

qd'ida, n. m. rule, primer, alphabet 

book. 

qabl (ke), postp., before, previously. 
qalam, n. m. (? f.) pen. 

qamiz, n. m. shirt, chemise. 

qimat, n. f. price. 



120 



Kl 


kd, 


postp. 


ufc, 


kdtnd, 


v.t. 


o-y^> 


kdrtus, 


n. m. 


**, 


Mfi, 


adj. 


#, 


kdld f 


adj. 


J*, 


kdlar, 


n. m. 


C^K, 


kdnji, 


n. f. 


SK, 


kdhe ko. 


adv. 


**, 


kai, 


adv. 


c^, 


kabhi, 


adj. a 




kdblii kabhi, 






kahlii nahin 




t^jiC 


kaprd, 


n. m. 


li^ 


kitdb, 


n. f. 


ur , 


kuttd. 


n. m. 


Of, 


kitnd, 


adj. a 


**, 


kuchh, 


pron. 




nahin, 




j** > 


kidhar, 


adv. 


\jj 


kurtd, 


n. m. 


sr!/ 


kursi, 


n. f. 


L>^ 


kamd, 


v. t. 


C*v 


karni, 


n. f. 


'^>^ ' 


karwd, 


adj. 


1>U/ 


karwdnd, 


v. t. 


Uf, 


kasna, 


v. t. 


JS , 


kal, 


adv. 



to cut, bite, 
cartridge, 
enough, sufficient, 
black, dark, 
collar (Eng.). 
gruel, starch. 

why ? for what pur- 
pose ? 

when ? 
id adv., ever. 
sometimes. 

never. 

cloth, clothing. 

book. 

dog. 

adj. and adv., how much, how 
many. 

pron. and adv., some, any. 
nothing. 

where ? whither ? 
jacket, vest. 
chair, throne, 
to do. 
trowel, 
bitter. 

to cause to do. 
to bind, tighten. 

to-morrow, or yester- 
day. 

n. m. word, saying. 



121 



kalaf (or kalap), n. m., starch. 



Kalkattd, 


n. m. 


Calcutta. 


kamarband, 


n. m. 


belt, girdle, waistband. 


kamra, 


n. m. 


chamber, room, apart- 
ment. 


kindrd, 


n. m. 


edge, border, bank 
shore- 


kaun, 


pron. 


who ? 


kauwd, 


n. m. 


crow. 


kuch karnd, 


v. int., 


to set forth. 


ki, 


conj. 


that, so that. 


kahdn, 


adv. 


where ? 


khdnd, 


v. t. 


to eat. 


khdjdnd, 


v. int., 


to eat up. 


khdnd, 


n. m. 


food, dinner, meal. 


lehichr{ 9 


n. f. 


a dish of rice and pulse. 


khurpi, 


n. f. 


a kind of spud or 
garden trowel used 
by gardeners and 
grass-cutters. 


khard hond, 


v. int., 


to be standing, to stand 






up. 


kMlna, 


v. int., 


to open, bloom, as a 






bud. 


khulnd, 


v. t. 


to open. 


kdhnd, 


v. t. 


to say, tell. 


khodnd, 


v. t. 


to dig. 


kholnd, 


V. t. 


to open, set open. 


khet, 


n. m. 


field. 


kaisd, 


adj. and adv., how ? what kind 



of? 



122 



^j kyd, adj. what? 

^ , kyun, adv. why? 

</J^> g&rf, n. f. cart, carriage. 

l *^r, gdUdena, v. t. (lit.) to "cheek," ta 

abuse in obscene lan- 
guage. 

'*> gdnd, v. t. to sing. 

gadhd, n. m. ass, donkey. 

)^ ffu,zar jdnd, v. int., to pass away, die. 

Lr > girdnd, v. t. to throw down. 

-^jr , gird dend, v. t. do. 

r/ 1 garm, adj. hot, warm. 

4/ , ^'rnrf, v. t. to fall. 

i ' ^ 

4J ir> , gir parnd, v. int., to fall down. 

*? > guldbi, adj. rose-colour. 

** > galaband, n. m. necktie. 

</ ? gah f n. f. a lane. 

> ginnd, v. t. to count. 

3 > go, conj. if. 

*^ ^ H if indeed, although. 

Sr firora, adj. and n. m.. fair, a fair man, 

esp. European soldier^ 

****? > gosht, n. m. flesh, meat. 

i^y Jr * S'oZ mirch, n. f . round or black pepper. 

u~* , ghds, n. f. grass, herbage. 

fP > ghar, n. m. house. 

^ ghard, n. m. jar, pot. 

<*J*r , ghar{ } n. f. watch, clock. 

%*& , ffhord, n. m. horse. 

{.SJJ& , ghor'if n. f. mare. 

<^ * ffhi, n. m. ghi, clarified butter. 



123 



Kl 



13KJ 



gend, 


n. f. 


gend khelnd, 


v. t. 


Iddnd, 


V. t. 


Idkh, 


adj. 


Idl, 


adj. 


Idl mirch, 


n. f. 


land, 


v. in 



Idiq (ke), 

ladnd, 
lardt, 



ball. 

to play ball. 

to load, lade. 

hundred thousand, a 
lakh. 

red. 

red pepper. 

v. int., to bring (contraction 
of le-dnd). 

adv. and postp., worthy of, be- 
fitting, fit. 

v. int., to be loaded. 

n. f. fight, quarrel, battle. 



lardi karnd (se), v. t., to fight with or against. 

larkd, n. m. boy. 

larki, n. f. girl. 

lugat, n. f. dictionary. 

lakfi, n. f. wood, stick. 

HkJind, v. t. to write. 

lagdnd, v. t. to apply to, to place, 

spread, plant. 

lagnd, v. int., to touch (physically or 

mentally), begin. 

log, n. m. people, folk. 

lej'dnd, v. int., to take away. 

lend, v. t. to take. 

lekin, conj. but. 

mdrnd, v. t. to strike, kill. 

mdr ddlnd, v. t. to kill outright, violent- 
ly murder. 

ma?, n. m. goods, pos sessions, 

wealth. 



124 



mdlik, 
mdhir hond, 



N.B. Platts says, with 
have consulted say men. 



mdU, 
man, 
mdnnd, 
mdngnd, 
mdnind (&*), 

mabddd, 



UJU 



tiUo 



top* 



, 



mithdv, 

machhl^ 

mihnat, 

madad, 

Madrasa, 

mirchd, 

mard , 

murda, 

murgiy 

marnd, 

mar j and, 

mazaddr, 

mazdur, 

mazduri, 

musdfir, 

mistri, 



n. m. master. 

v. int. (with men), skilled in, 
proficient in. 

se t but all Indian scholars I 

n. m. gardener, 

n. f. mother. 

v. t. to mind, obey, 

v. t. to ask for. 

adv. and postp., like, resem- 
bling. 

adv. lest, that not. 

adv. don't. 

n. f . sweets. 

n. m. fish. 

n. f. labour, work. 

n. f. help, aid, assistance. 

n. m. school. 

n. m. red pepper. 

n. m. man (w'r, as male or 
manly). 

adj. and n. m., dead, corpse. 

n. f. hen, fowl. 

v. int., to die. 

v. int., do., ' ' to go and die." 

adj. tasty. 

n. m. hired labourer, " coolie. 1 ' 

n. f. wages, hire. 

n. m. traveller, stranger. 

n. m. (master-) workman. 



125 

masjid, n. f . place of prayer, mosque. 

mashgul, adj. engaged in, busy with. 

J&i , mushkil, adj. difficult, hard. 

c^yw , m'arifat (Arc), postp., by means of, by the 

agency of. 

muft, adv. gratis, free, for nothing. 

m'alum hond, v. int., to be known. 



muqaddama, n. m. case. 

magar, conj. only, but, except. 

muldhiza karnd, v. t., to inspect. 

mildnd, v. t. to mix, cause to meet. 

UJ^ ; milnd, v. int., to meet with (with 

dat. of person), to be 
obtained. 

liLx JL, mil j 'and, v. int., to mix, meet. 

LiLc t malnd, v. t. to rub. 

mumkin, adj. possible. 

man, n. m. a maund=40 sers. 

mundsid, adj. fitting, proper, meet. 

munshi, n. m. writer, teacher (of Urdu 

and Persian). 

man'a karnd, v. t. to forbid, prohibit. 

mangdnd,* v. t. to ask for, call for, 

order. 



iy oJ^Oj minnat karnd (ki), v. t., to entreat, beseech. 

*** , munh, n. m. mouth, face. 

*jy } moza, n. m. sock, stocking. 

ty ol** , mu'af karnd, v. t. to forgive. 

maulvi, n. m. a Mohammadan doctor 

of law, a person 
learned in Arabic. 



126 



muwdfiq (ke), adv. 



J**, 



*, 

*J - i 



<=**> 



wez 



n. m. 
n. m. 
n. f. 



na, 
na-na, 



narson, 



resembling, according 
to. 

sweeper. 

plain. 

table. 

I. 

no, not. 

neither nor. 

result. 

four days ago, or since. 



pron. 

adv. 

adv. 

n. m. 

adv. 

nazdik (he), postp., near. 
nuqsdn, n. m. loss. 

nikalnd, v. int., to go out, issue. 

namdz, n. f. prayer. 

namaz parhnd, v. t., to recite or say prayers 
namak, 
naukar, 
nihdyat, 
ndhin, 
niche (ke), 



n. m. salt. 
n. m. servant, 
adv. exceedingly, 
adv. no, not; 
postp., beneath, under. 



niz, adv. along with. 

wdjid, adj. proper, fitting. 

was kit f n. m. (Eng.) waistcoat. 

warna, adv. if not, otherwise. 

wun, adv. so. 

wuh, pron. he, she, it, that, they. 

wdhdn, adv. there. 

waisd, adv. so, in that manner. 

hath, n. m. hand. 
, Kdzir hond, v. int., to be present. 



127 



Ja 



hdl, n. m. state, condition, account. 

hdl Jcamra, n. m. drawing-room. 

hdn, adv. yes. 

har, adj. and adv., every. 

hargiz nahtn, adv. never. 

harin, n. m. deer, antelope. 

hazdr, adj. thousand. 

hal, n. m. plough. 

haljotna, v. t. to plough. 

ham, pron. we. 

hamesha, adv. always. 

hansnd, v. int., to laugh. 

hanoz, adv. yet, still, up to now. 

hoshydr, adj. vigilant, sensible. 

hond, v. int., to become, to be. 

ho j and, v. int., to become. 

hiin, v. int., I am. 

haiy v. int., art, is. 

yd, conj. or. 

yd to-yd, conj. either or. 

ya'ni, adv. that is to say. 

yun, adv. thus. 

yih, pron. he, she, it, these. 

yahdn, adv. here. 



ENGLISH URDU. 

The gender of nouns, and the " voices " of verbs are 
marked, as n. m., n. f., v. t., v. int. 



abuse, 
abuse, to 



n. f. 
v. t. 



gdU, 
gdli dend, 



128 

accidence, n. m. sarf, jy<> 

N.B. Sarf alone is masc., sarf-o-nahw together are fern. 

according to, ke muwdfiq, &\j* - 

account, n. m. hisdb, v_>l A. 

ache, to, v. int. dukhnd, ^t 

addition to (in) ke a'ldwa or 'ildwa, 

after, ke ba'd, s*j . 

ke pichhe c-*^! - 

again, phir, j** 

again and again, bar bar, ^ ^ 
Agra, n. m. Agra, $/t 
aid, to, v. t. madad karnd, 
alas ! afsos I 

all, kull, 
sab, 



alms, to ask, v. t., bhikh mdngnd, U&l* 
alone, (h) akeld, &$l 
(p) tanhd, ^ 

alphabet-book, n. m. qd'ida, 
although, agarchi, *^j^\ 
,, hal-dn-ki, 

go U, 

altogether, bilkull, 

always, hamesha, 

among, ke darmiydn, cj^j^ ^ 

kebich, ^HO . 

amuse oneself, v. t., dil bahldnd, 
and, aur, o, ;jl j! 

and if not, warna AJJJ 



129 

animal, jdmvar, j^^- 

antelope, harin, &j* 

appear, v. int , dikhni dend, l^i i^ 
nazar and, Ut^JiJ 

apple, seb, ,seo, k-**"*^** 

are, hain v^: A 

arithmetic, liisdb, *_>' =* 

arrive, v. int , phunckn<i, USL^J 
cause to, v. t., pahunck'lna, 
pa/itmchdclend, 

as, juisd, l -i-?- 

as mucli as, jitnd, ii^. 

ascertain, v. t., dnrydft karnd, V>/ 

ask (a question), v. int., puchhnd, 

ask (request), v. t., mdn^nd, 

ass, gadhd, l**> 

assistance, n. f., madnd, z* 

assist, v. t , madud karnd, \*/ 

at last, dlthir Ao, j^ ^l 

at once, fauran, \^ 
awake, (pres. part, of jdgna), jdjtd, 
awful, khoufnci.c, ^ i?*- 
bad, 6urd, ktmrdb, \^> ^j^- 
Bagdad, n. m. Bug.d<id, 
ball, n. f. 0emi 

bamboo, n. rn. bans, 
bank (of a rivers, n. m., Jcindra, 
barrel, n. \n.,pipd, U*j 

be, become, v. int. hand, ho j ana 
bearer, n. m., behra, t.^ 
because, chun.i, i\yun,.,i, *^->*- 
9 



130 



bedstead, n. m., palang, *f*k 
before (of place), Le dye, \_ - 

(of time), ke or se, pahile, 
begin, v. t., shuru' ,.arnd, 

(in comp. with inf. formative), v. int., lagnd, 
bell, n. m., yhantd, 
beneath, ke niche 
beseech, v. t. (H), minnat karnd, ^ ^ 
besides, a'ldwa, j^* 
between, ke bich, *&* - 

ke darmiydn, cJ^;^ - 

big, dard, IjJ 

bind, v. t., bdndhnd, 
bird, n. f ., chi : iyd, 
bite, v. t., kdtnd, 
bitter, karwd, ij}f 

black, kdln, siydh, W 8'i- 

blacking, blackness, n. f. siydhi, 
bloom (as a flower), v. int., khulnd, 
blow, n. f. chot, *%^ 



book, 


n. f. 


kitdb. 


box, 


n. m. 


sanduq, 


boy, 


n. m. 


larkd, 


brave, 




bahddur, 


bravo ! 




shdbdsh, 


bread, 


n. f. 


roli, 


break, 


v. t. 


tornd, (h) 






UU 



., v. t. shikast karnd, (p) ^ ^-X 
breakfast, n. f. hdziri, ^sj^^ 
bring, v. t. land, le and, W lit^L 

(cause to come), v. t., pahunchdnd, 



131 

bring (cause to come), v. t., pahunchd dend, U 

broken (be), v. int., tutnd, tutjdnd, Ujy tU 

broom, n. m. jhd- u, \j,^ 

brother, n. m. bhdi, 

build, v. t. banana, 

burden, n. m. bqjh, 

busy, to be, v. int., mashgul hond, 

but, le/cin, magar, par, < 

butter, n. m. makkhan, 

button, n. m. botdm, (*^ 

buy, v. t. Jchartdnd, ^^J 

by, (near), nazdik, pas, qarib 

by, (means of), ke wasib, Jce ma'rifat, 

cage, n. m. pinjrd, 

Calcutta, n. m. Kalkatta, 

call, v. t. buldnd, l -^ 

called, to be (named), v. t., kabldnd, 

,, (to oneself) or call and bring, v. t., buld lend, 
cap, n. f. fopi, ^ 
careful, hoshzydr or hoshydr, ^t^^ 
careful, to be, v. t., hoshiydrt karnd, 
careless, gdfil, J^^c 
carpenter, n. m. barlia't, 
carpet n. f. dart, 

carriage, n. f. gdrf, 
cart, ,, 

cartridge, n. m. kartus, 

case (at law), n. m., muqaddama, 
catch, v. t. pakarnd, ti} 

chair, n. f. /mm, ^ M 



132 



chamber, n. m. larara, *j> 
chattels, n. m. mdl nsbdb, , 
cheer, to, v. t. tasulU dend 
chest, n. m. sanduq. 

chief, n. m. sarddr. 

child, infant, n. m. bnchcha, 
children, offspring, n. m., auldd, 
city, n. in. shahr, j\*> 
clean, sdf, o u 

clear, 3 > 

clearly, safdi *e, - \J"&* 
climb, v. int., cha. hnd, ( ^}^- 
cloth, n. m. a/> ; d, LH> 

collar, n. m. ualdband, ***** 
colour, n. m. rang, -^; 

come, v. int., and, 
comfort, to, v. t. 
command, n. m. 

to, v. t. 

commerce, n. f. 
company (with), 
complete, yurt 

completely, bilkull, 
conformably, bamujib, 
constable, n. m. 
continually, bardbar, j>lj> 
contrary, to, bar khildf, J^J 
converse, to, v. t. (se) (p) guftogd karnd, 
(h) bdt chit larnd, 
cook n. m. bdwarchi, ts^j^^ 



tasalli dend, 
hu*m t 
hukm dend, 
tijdrut, 
ke satin, 
iZ, samuchd, 



133 

cook, to, v. t. pak ma, 

cooking pot, n. f. de^chi, 

correct, durust, 

count, v. t. ginnd, 

crop, n. f. foul, J* 13 

JX 

crow, n. m. kauwd, \ 

crushed, to be, v. int. dibjdnd, 
cry, weep, v. int. rond, Ijj 

cup, n. m. piydld, 5/ l -iJ 
cupboard, n. f. almdri, 
curry (meat), n. m. sdlnn, 

vegetable, n. f. tar'cdri, 
cut, v. t. kdtnd, Uj| 
daily, roz roz, roz bn roz, j }>; 
damage, n. m. nuqsdn. &k*& 
dark-complexioned, kdld, % 
daughter, n. f. be//, (^^ 

day by day, see d ily. 

.* 
decidedly, zarur, albatta, fieshakk, ^^ &*>\ 

deer, n. m. liarin, ^y* 
Dehli, p. n. Dehli, ^A* 
delay, n. f. der, ^ 
depart, v. int., chalejana, ^*4t' 

., t:ishi'if IP, j and, \J\A J_cij^iJ 

descendant, n. m. auldd, *t)\ 
devotee, n. m. fidwi, ^j^ 
dictionary, n. f. lug.nt, *^*^ 
did, v. t. Jciyr, l*> 
die, v. int., mnrnd, ly 
,, marjdnd, UU^c 



134 

die, pass away, v. int., guzarjdnd, U'I 
difficult, difficulty, mushkil, J^*> 
dig, v. t. khodnd, taj$> 
dinner, n. m. khdnd, ^>^ 
direction (of), ~ki tnraf, o^t ^/ 

disciple, n. m. shdqird. ^Li 

^V ;* >>y, 
distant, dur, ^ 

do, v. t. karnd, l>/ 

* 
dog, n. m. Jcuttd, Uf 

done, v. t. /at/a, l^ 
donkey, n. m. gadhd, 
doubtless, 6eshaJck, 
dozen, darjan, 

draper, n. m. bazzdz, }\j* 
drawers, n. m. paty'dma, **^ 
drawing-room, n. m. gol tamra, 
drink, v. t. pmd, l^j 

up, v. t. pi j 'and pi lend, ^^- ^ U 
drive, v. t. Tidn.nd, U^Lk 
drown, v. int., duhnd, dub j and, 1^3 UU. 
dust, to, (a room), v. t. jhac poch kornn, 
duty, duties, n. m. farz.fn.niz, <Joj> 



dye, 


v. t. 


rungdnd, 


dyer, 


n. m. 


rangrez, 


early, 




sawere, 


earth, 


n. f. 


zamm, 


eat, 


v. t. 


A hand, 


eat up, 


v. t. 


A hd jdnd, 


edge, 


n. m. 


kindra, 


egg, 


n. m. 


a(.dd, 



135 



else, ai-m na Tic hi, 

warna, nahm to, *> 

enemy, n. m. dushman, 
enough, &#/', ^o 

enquire, v. t., (h) puchhnd, li*-* 

(p) duryiift ! arnd, li/ 

enter, v. int., ddkhil hond U ^A J^l 
entreat, v. t. (k'i) minnnt harri'f, 
equal, to, equally, he barabar, ^^ C. 
escape, v. int., bTiaq jdnd or ni,\alnd, 
evening, n. m., shdm, f*Li 
every, Tzar e/, -^Jt ^ 
evil, (p 1 ) l.hardh (It) fewra, v ^^ l 

exactly, (h) #/i//r se ^p) dnrust, 
exceedingly, tiih<iy<it. "^V 
excellent, u'mdn. ^-c 
except, ^e *?/', '^ 

explain, v. t. bay6n karnd, ^f- ^.. 
expect, v. t. (kd\ intizdr Larnd, l 
expedient, n. f., tadbir, & 
face, n. f., munh, ^i- 
facing, &e muqabala, 
fair, Tthubsunit, d^y ^^ 
fall, v. int. girnd ^ 
fall, (to the lot of), v. int., parnd, 1 JJJ 
fall down, v. int.. j/*Y parnd, b}j ^ 
fan, n. rn. pn\hd. U^ij 
frist, (make) v. t. foancZ knrnd } Uy J.A 
father, n. m. &ap, vj^ 
field, n. m. /. het, ^*Z 
fight, v. t. larnd, Inrdi karnd, 



136 



fighting, n. f. latdi, ^tjJ 

fill, v. t. bharnd, I'^-J 

filled, to be, v. int., bhar jdnd, l>t^J 

find, v. t. pdnd, Ulj 

fine, khub, W.JA- 

fire, n. f . dg, iJT 

fire, (a gun), v. t., bandu'c chnldnd or chhornd, 



fire-place, stove, n f. m., chvlhd, 

fish, n. f. machhli, ^-m* 

fit, //i//i;, taiydr, 

fitting, mnndsib, 

five, punch, ^^ 

flee, v. int., bhtgnd, bhtg jdnd, U^l$j ULa. 

flesh, n. in. go<ht, **^ 

flower, n. ra. phiil, Jj+j 

fly, see flee. 

forbid, v. t. mana' karnd, U^f ji/o 

forgive, v. t. mna'f Itnrnd, ly ,J*x> 

forsake, v. t. chhorni, chhor denii, ^ 9 &*. lij 

four, c/iar, ;l 

fourfold, chtiujund. 1*^^ 

fowl, n. f. murg.i^ ^f* 

friend, n. m. <2o#, ^*-ji 

front, in-of Are ftimne, ^vol- ^. 

fruit, n. m. (h) p/i'/Z. (p) mw>i t Jlfj - 8^* 

full, purn, bhar, \p* ^J 

furniture, n. m. ashdh, ^J*^,\ 

gallop, v. int. dnu.nd, l > js 

cause to, v t., daurdnd, ( *\ 
garden, n. m. 60^, & 1 J 



137 

gardener, n. m. malt, ^^ 
gave, v. t. diyd, l.^ 
gentleman, n. m. sahib, ^*-(*> 
gently, (h) dhire dhire, (p) ahista, 
get, obtain, v. t. pdnd, tflj 

v. int , (with ko) milnd, 
get up, v. int., uthnd, 
give, v. t. dend, Uj 
given, v. t. diyd, ^ 
go along, v. int., chalm'i, 
go away, v. int., jand, chalejdnd, I La. - 

cause to, v. t. cfinldnd, L>H^. 

out, v. int., ni.aljdnd, t U. J^> 

v. int., bdan.rja.mi, Ul^^tilj 

jj 
good, (h) achchha, (p) u'mda, 1*^ 

goods, n. m. mt/l, Jl* 
gone, v. int., guyd, ^ 
government, n. m. suriar, ;'^- 
grain, n. m. ddnd, an-ij, ^l^i - jl 
gram, n. m. chund, ^^~ 
grammar, n f . snrf o nahw, j"**-* 
grass, n. f. g.hds, ^4 
graze, v. t. chrnd, tj*- 

cause to, v t. chardnd, lij 
gratuitously, muft, ^s*-* 
green, (h) hard, (p) sabz, \j&> -J.> 
groom, n. m. sdis, (j^-'L-* 8 
gruel, n. f. l.dnji, ^^- ^ 
gun, n. f. banduq, &-*> 
gunpowder, n. f., bdrud, ^^> 



138 

half, ddhd, lAit 

half done, adhurd, fjjy^T 

hand, n. m. hdth, **JlA 

handkerchief, n. m. nimdl, J^ 

harm, n. m. nuqsdn 

harvest, n. f. fasl, 

hat, n. f. topi, 

have to do, v. int., (ko) karna pa.'nd, 

he, yih, wuh, ^ 

head, n. m. sir, j 

hear, v. t. sunnd, U~ 

heard (be) v. int., sundi dend, 

heaven, n. m. dsmdn, ^U-of 

heavy, bhdri, ^jl-j 

help, v. t. (&/) madad karnd, IJ 

helpless, bechdra, J5,U. i. 

hen, n. f. murgi, t #- c j x) 

hence, is liya, is waste, 2 

here, yahan, o^ 

liither, idhar, ^4^1 

hitherto, , (h)'abtak, (p) hanoz, 

hold, v. t. pakafnti, l>.fj 

holiday, n. f. chhutti, ^/v*- 
Honour, your, huzur, 

honour, n. f. i'zzat, 

horse, n. m. yhord, 

hot, garm, 

hour, n. m. gh'infd, 

house, n. m. ghar, ma\dn,jJ - ^ 

how, kaisd, I j^ 



139 

how much, kitnd, ^ 
hungry, bh^i/lhd, Ui^j 
hunt, v. t. shikar khelna, 
hurt, v. t. chot lnydnd, L&J 
if, (p) agar, (h)jo,J\ ^ 
immediately, faurun, lj- 
important, bhdri, ^^v 
inculcate, v. t. sfimjhd dend, 
indicate, v. t. batdnd, 

infant, n. m. bachcha, 

ink, n. f. siyahi, 

inkstand, inkpot, n. f., daivdt* 

insist, v. t. td.^d kamd, 

inspect, v. t. muldkiza kurnd, 

Inspector (of police), n. m., ddrog'i, 

invalid, n. m. wmriz, bimdr, 

iron (laundry), n. f. iatri, 

is, v. int. hai, ,> 

issue, offspring, n. m. avltid, z 

it, yih, with, *J - j 

jacket, n. m. kurtd, ^ 

Jutnna, p. n. Jamnd % 

khichari, n. f. khicharl, 

kill, v. t. mdrnd, mar ddlna, - ^l* 

kite, n. f. chtl, Jl-^- 

knife, n. f. chhuri, _cj*^ 

know, v. t. j'dnnd, ^ L* 

known, to be, v. int., (,.oi mi'liim hond, 

labour, n. f. mihnnt, <^^< 

labourer (hired) n. m. ma..dtir, 



140 

lacking, (without), ke bagair. 

lacking, (incomplete), b/iq/', ^^ 
lady, n. f. biwf, 
lamp, n. m. chirdp, i 

(The English word lamp is also used.) 
land, n. f. zamt'n, e^- ) 
lane, n. f. gait, ^ 

language, n. f. zdhdn, e/0 

bad, n. f. gdli, 
large, barii, \y. 
laugh, v. int., hnnvnd, 
law, (doctor of), n. m. maulvi, 
learn (to acquire knowledge*, v. t., st.'chnd, U,^ 

(to study), v. t. jiarhmt, UAJJ 
learned man, n. m. 'dlim, ^Jl* 

leave, v. t. chho nd, l\^-^- 

*L 
leave (of absence), n. f. chhutfi, ^H^ 

lentils, n. f. ddl, J'o 

lest, aisd na ho ki mdbada, &')& *- ; lj| - L'U>o 

let go, v. t. chhor dend, Liu^ j^^- 

let, (permit, allow), v. t. karne dend, Uj^ L.f 

* 
letter, n. m. (p) khatt, ^ 

*i, 

n. f. (h) chit (hi, ^V 
lie, n. m. jhuth, * J ^"^ 

lies, to tell, v. int. jhuth bolnd, U^ 4^^ 
lift, v. t. uthdnd, UlJ| 
light, (a lamp), v. t bdrnd.jnldnd, 
light, n. f. roshni, ^^ 
like, M mdnind, ^' lx) ^ 
live, v. int., (p) zinda hand, (\\)jind, 



141 



mango, 
many, 
mare, 
margin, 



load, n. m. bojh, ^H 
load, to, v. t. Iddud, ^.'K 
loaded, to be, v. int. ladnd 
look, v. t. de hnd, Lw^v 

v. t. de,.h lend, l^ <* 
look for, v. t. tald*h karnd, 
loss, n. m. nufjsdn, 

lying, resting, (pirt of parnd) para, 
make, v. t. btindnd, l-w 
mat), (homo), n. m. ddmi. ^^ 
man, (wVi, n. m. mard, Sj*> 
n. m. dm, pf 
bahut, *^v? 

n. f. ghon, ^ y$ 

n. m. i.indra, *J- 
n. tn. bdzdr, ;'}lj 

n. m. r; mistri, 
n. f. (h) fca, 

n. m. (p.), mu'dmalu, 

mattock, n. in. phdwrd, ';^J 
maund, n. m. mnn, &* 

by means of, A/ m arifat. ^ j 

J, e wnsile se, <?L t 

meat, n. m. gosht, c^iy 

medicine, n. f. dawd, I 9 t 

meditate, v. t. g.aur karnd, \>j < 
meet, v. int., milnd, liu 

merchant, n. m. sanddgar, jf^y 
midnight, n. f. adki rdt, cut; ^j 
in the midst, Le, durmiydn, ^U 

milk, n. m. dudh, *^ij 



mason, 
matter, 



142 



mind, n. f. 


l aql, JA* 


mind, to, v. t. 


manna, U I* 9 


money, n. m. 


ruptiye, &$9) 


month, n. m. 


mahitia, *^if 


moreover, 


bzlui, A!J 


mosque, n. f. 


masjid, ^- 


mother, n. f. 


m<m, ^ 


mount up, v. int. 


t cha' hj'dnd, L>La- V 


much, 


bahut, ^*t? 


nay, rather, 


bal'ii, &k 


near, 


nazdik, -^i>* 


necessarily, 


zarur, *jj*> 


necessity, n. f . 


zariirat, &)}}'* 


necktie, n. m. 


gal>iband, *i j ^ 


need, n. f. 


zariirat, o;?^^ 


needle, n. f. 


' * 5 

O W V* if 9**^ 


never, 


(h) labhi nahm. ^ 





(p) hargiz nahin, 


news, n. f. 


khabdr, j*^- 


newspaper, n. m. 


akh6dr } )^^^ 


no, not, 


nahm, ^^ 


noise, n. m. 


shor o a.ul t JLc ^p* 


noon, 


do pahar, jtf)^ 


nothing, 


kuchh nahin, ^tj > 


now, just now, 


ah, abhi, ^j' - v 


till now, 


ab tak, -> v' 


nowadays, 


dj kal, $ jft 


obey, v. t. 


manna, l -^U 


obligation, n. m. 


farz, (Jc>j* 


obtain, v. t. 


pdnd, hdsil karna, 


one, 


ek, JL;t 



J^U 



143 

only, sirf,faqat, o^ 

open, (as a flower), v. int., khilnd, 

9 

open, v. int., khulna, 

open, v. t. kholnd, U 

or. yd, I 

order, n. m. hukm, p 

order, to, v. t. hukm dend, li 

otherwise, warna, & 

out, outside, bdhar, j& 

ox, n. m. bail, <J 

pain, n. m. dard, ^ 

pantaloon, n. m. patlun, & 

pass away, v. int., guzarjdnd, I 

patient, n. m. mariz, 

pebbles, n. m. kankar, 



peck, 


v. t. 


chugnd, 


pen, 


m. f. 


(?)< qalam, 


people, 


n. m. 


log, 


pepper, 


n. f. 


mirch, 


permission, 


n. f. 


ij'dzat, 


Persian, 


n. f. 


Fdrsi, 


person, 


n. m. 


shakhs, 


Peshawar, 


n. m. 


Peshawar, 


petition, 


n. f. 


'arzi. 


pice, 


n. m. 


paisa, 


pick up, 


v. t. 


ufhdnd, 


pink, 


adj. 


gulibi, 


place, 


n. f. 


jagah, 


plain, 


n. f. 


maiddn, 


plan, 


n. f. 


tadbir, 



144 



plant, 
plough, 
to, 



v. t. Ingdnd, 
n. m. hal, 
v. t. haljotna, 
point out, v. t. batand, 
police, n. m. "pulis" 

policeman, u. m. si pah t, 
poor, indigent, (n. and adj. 
poor, helpless, (n. and adj.), bechdra, >;U. 
possible, mum ^in, ^+0 

post (office), d'i'c, da, c khina, 

pot, n. m. gh<nd, \}j 

prayer, to say, v. t , namiz pa hnri, 
prayers, liturgy, n. f., namciz, }U> 
prepare, v. t. taiydr karnd % *> 
prepared, taiyar, } 
present, hdzir, 

press, cupboard, n. . (dmirf,, 
price, n. m. (h>, dam, 

n. f. (p>, qimd, 

primer, n. m. q'aid'i, 
proficient, (men) mdhir 

proper, muudsib, *- 

property, n. m. mil, asbdb, 
pulse, n. f. ddl, 

punish, v. t. 8'izii dend, \* 
sh igird, 
ra'.hnd, 
pnhinnd, 
lurdi karnd, l i 
jnld, 
uthdnd. l^l 



JU 



pupil, n. m. 

put, place, v. t. 
put on, v .t. 
quarrel, v. t. 
quickly, 
raise, v. t. 



145 

rather, balki, * 

read, to oneself, v. t., dekhnd, \ 

read, aloud, v. t. parhnd, 

ready, taiydr, 

reason, sa&ab, 

receive, v. t. pdnd, IJL> 

red, Idl, J3J 

regularly, bardbar, 

release, v. t. chhor dend 

reliance, n. m. bharosd, 

represent, report (case), v. t., 'arz karnd, 

require, v. t. chdhnd, 

rest, n. m. dram, 

result, n. m. natija, 

rice, grain, crop, n. m., dhdn, o^ 

ready for cooking, n. m., chdwal, 

cooked, n. m., bhdt, al^ 
rich, daulatmand, 

rider, n. m., sawdr, 

ride, v. int., sawar hona, 

rise, v. int., uthnd, 

river, n. m. daryd, (j^ 

road, way to a place, n. m., rdsta, &*\) 
road, material road, n. f., sarak, 
room, n. m. kamrd, ij 

rose-coloured, guldbv, ^ 
rub, v. t. malnd, LU 

run, v. int., daurnd, l>j 

cause to, v. t., daurdna, I>f 

away, v. int., daurjdnd, Li 
10 



146 



rupee, n. m. rupiya, 
saddle, n. m. zin t 
salt, n. m. namak, 

salute, v. t. saldm Jcarnd, 
sash, n. m. Jcamarband, 

saucer, n. m. pirich, 
say, v. t. (se), kahnd, 

scales, n. m. tardzu, 
school, n. m. Madrasa, 
schoolmaster, n. m. ustdd, 
schoolmistress, n. ., ustdni, 



sea, 

second, 

see, 

seed, 

sell, 

send, 

separate, 

separately, 

ser, 

servant, 

set forth, 

settle, 

seven, 

sew, 

she, 

sheet, 

shelter, 

shine, 

shirt, 



n. m. 

v. t. 

n. m. 
v. t. 
v. t. 



daryd, 
dusrd, 
dekhnd, 



dechnd, 

bhejnd, 

alag,judd, 

alag,judd, 

ser t 

naukar, 

baydn kdrnd, 

tnh karnd, l> 

sdt, 

sind, 

wuh, *j 

cnadciT, 

dr, }< 



n. m. 
v. t. 
v. t. 

v. t. 

n. f. 

n. f. 

v. int., chamaknd, 

n. m. qamfa, 



147 



shoe, n. f. /#, 

shoot, v. t. banduq chaldnd, 

shop, n. f . dukdn, 

shopkeeper, n. m., baniyd, 

show, v. t. dikhdnd, 

show, (itself), v. int., dikhdi dend, 

sick, n. m. b'imdr, martz, 

since, chunki, 

sing, v. t. gdnd, 

sink, v. int. dubnd, 

sister, n. f. bahin, 

sit, v. int., baithnd, 

six, chahh, 

sky, n. m. dsmdn, 

slay, slaughter, v. t., mar ddlnd, 

sleep, v. int., sond, sojdnd, 

small, chhotd, vj> 

smash, v. t. tor dalnd, 

snake, n. m. sdmp, yil-* 

so, adj. and adv., aisd waisd, 

so, conj. chundnchi, 

sock, n. m. moza, 

soldier, n. m. sipdhi, 

solicit, v. t. 'arz karnd, 

some, kuchh, 

sometimes, kadhz kabhi, 

sometime or other, kabhi na kabhi, 

son, n. m. beta, l>j 

sorrow, n. m. (n) dukh (p) afsos, 

sound, n. f. dwdz, j\)\ 



148 

sow, v. t. bond, &y. 

spade, mattock, n. m., phawrd, tj' 

speak, v. int., bolna, Wy 

spend, v. t. kharch karnd, U 

split, v. int., phatnd, 

spoilt, Jchardb, 

spoon, n. m. chamach, 

stand, v. int., khard hond, IJ 

starch, kalaf (m) kdnji (f), JU> 

state, to, v. t. 'arz karnd, 

stay, v. int., thaharnd, 

still, yet, (h) taubhi, (p) tdham, 

store, n. f. dukdn, \J^^> 

straight, (h) sidha, (p) durust, 

straighten, v. t. do. with karnd, IJ/ 

strike, v. t. mdrnd, ^U 

sufficient, kdft, 

suit, of clothes, n. ra.,jord } 

sunshine, n. f. dhup, 

support, n. m. sahdrd, 

,, v. t. dend, 

syntax. n. f. nahw, 
sweep, v. t. jhdru dend, 
sweetmeats, n. f . mithdt, 
swiftly, jald, 

table, n. f . mez, 

tailor, n. m. darzi, 

take, v. t. lena, ^ 

up, v. t. uthdnd, LLgjf 
away, v. int., le-jdnd, U(^ 



149 



tasty, maza ddr 

teacher, m. n. m. ustdd, 
,, f. n. f. ustdn'i, 
teach, a matter, v. t., sikhdnd, 
teach, a subject, v. t., parhand, l 
tell, v. t. kahnd, batdna, 

terrible, khaufndk, 

then, tab, to, v 

there, wahdn, u 

therefore, to, is liye, 

these, yih* > 

thing, n. f. chit, 

think, v. int., sochnd, ^r* 

upon, v. t. (par), g.aur karnd, 
thief, n. m. chor, )j^ 

this, yih, *J 

those, wuh, *j 

three, tin, & 

throw away, v. t., phenk dend, ^J 

down, v. t., gird dend, 
tighten, v. t. kasnd, 
time, n. m. waqt, 

tin (canister), n. m., pipd, ^ 
tired, to be, v. int., thakjdnd, LJLx 
to-day, a;, _ I 

toil, n. f. mihnat, 

to, v. t. karnd, LJ 

to-morrow, kal, J> 

tongue, n. f. zubdn, c>^3 
torn, to be, v. int., phatjdnd, UU 



150 



totally, 

touch, 

towards, 

trade, 

traveller, 

treat, 



bilkull, 
v. int., ko laynd, 

ki taraf, v 
tijdrat, < 
musafir, j 
suluk karna, 
suluk, 



n. f. 

n. m. 

v. t. 

treatment, n. m. 
trousers, n. m. patlun, 
trowel, mason's, n. f., karni, 

gardener's, n. f., khurpi, ,. 
true, n. m. sach, g* 

truth, tell the, v. int., sach bolnd, 
turn, v. int. phirnd, ^j 

two, do. j& 

under, lee niche, e~^ 

understand, v. t. samajhnd, 
unless, warna, 

uselessly, befaida, 

vainly, 

very, bahut, 

vest, n. m. kurtd, 

vigilance, n. f. hoshiydri, 
vigorously, zor se, 

voice, n. f. dwdz, 

wall, n. f. diwdr, 

warm, garm, 

was, v. int., ihd, 

wash, v. t. dhond, 

washerman, n. m.^dhobt, 
waistcoat, n. (?), " wdskit,' 



V 



151 



water, n. 


m. pdni, &^, 


way, n. 


m. rastd, **-[; 


wedding, n. 


f. shddi, {jth* 


weed, n. 


m. jangal, J&*- 


weep, v. 


int., rond, l^ 


weigh, v. 


t. taulnd, Wy 


weighty, 


bhdri, is)^- 


well, 


achchhi tarah se, a ^ 





Ithub, *->}* 


well done ! 


shdbash, c^t^l-i 


were, v. 


int., the, &L 


what ? 


kiyd, bf 


wheat, n. 


m. gehun, (jj*4 


whereas, 


chunki, *^>$- 


white, 


sufaid, H fl - 


who, which, what ? kaun, ^ 


whole, 


sard, bhar, ljl - j&. 


why ? 


kyun, ^j* 


wick, n. 


<** 

f. batti, ^ 


wife, n. 


J X X 
OlWl, t5^ 


wipe, v. 


t. pochhnd, {**&$*> 


wise, n. 


m. ( agl mand, ^ J^* 


with, 


Tte sdlh, a^jU> 


within, 


bhitar, j*+# 


without, 


bdhar, j&b 


woman, n. 


f. 'aurat, ^y 



woodland, n. m. jangal, 

work, n. m. kdm, 

workman, n. m: mazdur, 

worthy, Idiq, 



152 



wound, 


n.f. 


chot, 


wrapper, 


n. f. 


chddar, 


write, 


v. t. 


likhnd, 


writer, 


n. m. 


munshi, 


year, 


n. m. 


(p), sal, 


f> 





(h), baras, i 


this year, 




imsdl, 


last year, 




par sal, 


next year, 




sal dyanda. 


yesterday, 




kal, 


yoke, to, 


v. t. 


jotnd, 



JU 



Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta. 



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