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Full text of "The first philosophers of Greece : an edition and translation of the remaining fragments of the pre-Sokratic philosophers, together with a translation of the more important accounts of their opinions contained in the early epitomes of their works"

PUIVATI 



THE 



FIRST PHILOSOPHERS 
OF GREECE 



AN EDITION AND TRANSLATION OF THE 

REMAINING FRAGMENTS OF THE PRE-SOKRATIC 

PHILOSOPHERS, TOGETHER WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE 

MORE IMPORTANT ACCOUNTS OF THEIR OPINIONS 

CONTAINED IN THE EARLY EPITOMES 

OF THEIR WORKS 



BY 

ARTHUR FAIRBANKS " 




NEW YORK 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

1898 



PEEFACE 



THE Hegelian School, and in particular Zeller, have 
shown us the place of the earlier thinkers in the history 
of Greek thought, and the importance of a knowledge of 
their work for all who wish to understand Plato and 
Aristotle. Since Zeller's monumental work, several 
writers (e.g. Benn, Greek Philosophers, vol. i. London 
1883 ; Tannery, Science hellene, Paris 1887 ; Burnet, 
Early Greek Philosophy, London 1892) have traced for us 
the history of this development, but the student who 
desires to go behind these accounts and examine the 
evidence for himself still finds the material difficult 
of access. This material consists of numerous short 
fragments preserved by later writers, and of accounts 
of the opinions of these thinkers given mainly by 
Aristotle and by the Greek doxographists (i.e. students 
of early thought who made epitomes of the opinions 
of the masters). The Greek text of the doxographists 
is now accessible to students in the admirable critical 
edition of H. Diels (Berlin 1879). The Greek text 
of the fragments has been published in numerous short 
monographs, most of which are not readily accessible 
to the student to-day ; it is contained with a vast 
deal of other matter in Mullach's Fragmenta Graecorum 
Philosophormn (Paris 1883-1888, vol. i.-iii.), but the text 

2052656 



vi PREFACE 

is in many places so carelessly constructed that it does 
not serve the purposes of the scholar. 

In the present work it has been my plan to prepare 
for the student a Greek text of the fragments of these 
early philosophers which shall represent as accurately as 
possible the results of recent scholarship, and to add 
such critical notes as may be necessary to enable the 
scholar to see on what basis the text rests. From this 
text I have prepared a translation of the fragments into 
English, and along with this a translation of the impor- 
tant passages bearing on these early thinkers in Plato 
and Aristotle, and in the Greek doxographists as col- 
lected by Diels, in order that the student of early Greek 
thought might have before him in compact form practi- 
., cally all the materials on which the history of this 
thought is to be based. It has been difficult, especially 
in the case of Herakleitos and the Pythagoreans, to draw 
the line between material to be inserted, and that to be 
<? omitted ; but, in order to keep the volume within mode- 
rate limits, my principle has been to insert only the 
passages from Plato and Aristotle and from the doxo- 
graphists. 

The Greek text of Herakleitos is based on the edition 
of Bywater ; that of Xenophanes on the edition of the 
Greek lyric poets by Hiller-Bergk ; that of Parmenides 
on the edition of Karsten ; and that of Empedokles on 
the edition of Stein. I have not hesitated, however, to 
differ from these authorities in minor details, indicating 
in the notes the basis for the text which I have given. 

For a brief discussion of the relative value of the 
sources of these fragments the student is referred to the 
Appendix. 



PREFACE Vll 

My thanks are due to several friends for their kind 
assistance, in particular to Professor C. L. Brownson and 
Professor G. D. Lord, who have read much of the book 
in proof, and have given me many valuable suggestions. 
Nor can I pass over without mention the debt which all 
workers in this field owe to Hermann Diels. It is my 
great regret that his edition of Parmenides' Lehrgedicht 
failed to reach me until most of the present work was 
already printed. Nevertheless there is scarcely a page 
of the whole book which is not based on the foundation 
which he has laid. 

ARTHUE FAIRBANKS. 

YALE UNIVERSITY : 

November 1897. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

I. IONIC SCHOOL : THALES . . . . . . . 1 

II. IONIC SCHOOL : ANAXIMANDROS 10 

III. IONIC SCHOOL I ANAXIMENES 20 

IV. HEKAKLEITOS 28 

V. ELEATIC SCHOOL : XENOPHANES 68 

VI. ELEATIC SCHOOL : PARMENIDES 91 

VII. ELEATIC SCHOOL : ZENO 119 

VIII. ELEATIC SCHOOL : MELISSOS 129 

IX. PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS .... 142 

X. EMPEDOKLES 174 

XI. ANAXAGOEAS 253 

APPENDIX 263 

INDEXES ... . 289 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

Dox. = Diels, Doxographi Graeci, Berlin 1879. 
Aet. = Aetii de placitis reliquiae. \ 

Hipp. Phil. - Hippolyti philosophumena. Included in 

Epi. = Epiphanii varia excerpta. Diels, Dox. 

Herm. = Hcrmiae irrisio gentilium pliilosopliorum. ' 
Simp. Phys. = Simplicii in Aristotelis pliysicorum libros quattuor 
priores edidit H. Diels, Berlin 1882. 

Simp. Gael. = Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle's De caelo. 

For other abbreviations, see list of authors in the Index of sources. 



THE 

FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



i. 

THALES. 

ACCOEDING to Aristotle the founder of the Ionic physical 
philosophy, and therefore the founder of Greek philo- 
sophy, was Thales of Miletos. According to Diogenes 
Laertios, Thales was born in the first year of the thirty- 
fifth Olympiad (640 B.C.), and his death occurred in the 
fifty-eighth Olympiad (548-545 B.C.). He attained note 
as a scientific thinker and was regarded as the founder 
of Greek philosophy because he discarded mythical 
explanations of things, and asserted that a physical 
element, water, was the first principle of all things. There 
are various stories of his travels, and in connection with 
accounts of his travels in Egypt he is credited with intro- 
ducing into Greece the knowledge of geometry. Tradition 
also claims that he was a statesman, and as a practical 
thinker he is classed as one of the seven wise men. A. 
work entitled ' Nautical Astronomy ' was ascribed to 
him, but it was recognised as spurious even in antiquity. 

Literature : F. Decker, De Thalete Milesio, Diss. Halle, 

1865 ; Krische, Forsch. auf d. Gebiet d. alt. Phil. 

i. pp. 34-42 ; V. also Acta Phil. iv. Lips. 1875, 

pp. 328-330; Revue Philos. Mar. 1880; Archiv 

} 2 f.d. Geschichte d. Phil. ii. 165, 515. 

B 



2 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

(a) PASSAGES KELATING TO THALES IN PLATO AND 
IN AEISTOTLE. 

Plato, de Legg. x. 899 B. And as for all the stars 
and the moon and the years and the months and all 
the seasons, can we hold any other opinion about them 
than this same one that inasmuch as soul or souls 
appear to be the cause of all these things, and good souls 
the cause of every excellence, we are to call them gods, 
whether they order the whole heavens as living beings 
in bodies, or whether they accomplish this in some other 
form and manner ? Is there any one who acknowledges 
this, and yet holds that all things are not full of gods ? 

Arist. Met. i. 3 ; 983 b 6. Most of the early students 
of philosophy thought that first principles in the form 
of matter, and only these, are the sources of all things ; 
for that of which all things consist, the antecedent 
from which they have sprung, and into which they are 
finally resolved (in so far as being underlies them and is 
changed with their changes), this they say is the ele- 
ment and first principle of things. 983 b 18. As to the 
quantity and form of this first principle, there is a 
difference of opinion ; but Thales, the founder of this 
sort of philosophy, says that it is water (accordingly he 
declares that the earth rests on water), getting the idea, 
I suppose, because he saw that the nourishment of 
all beings is moist, and that warmth itself is gene- 
rated from moisture and persists in it (for that from 
which all things spring is the first principle of them) ; 
and getting the idea also from the fact that the germs 
of all beings are of a moist nature, while water is the 
first principle of the nature of what is moist. And 
there are some who think that the ancients, and they 
who lived long before the present generation, and the 
first students of the gods, had a similar idea in regard 
to nature ; for in their poems Okeanos and Tethys were 



THALES 3 

the parents of generation, and that by which the gods 
swore was water, the poets themselves called it Styx ; 
for that which is most ancient is most highly esteemed, 
and that which is most highly esteemed is an object to 
swear by. Whether there is any such ancient and early 
opinion concerning nature would be an obscure ques- 
tion ; but Thales is said to have expressed this opinion 
in regard to the first cause. 

Arist. de Coelo ii. 13; 294 a 28. Some say that 
the earth rests on water. We have ascertained that the 
oldest statement of this character is the one accredited 
to Thales the Milesian, to the effect that it rests on water, 
floating like a piece of wood or something else of that sort. 1 

Arist. de Anima i. 2 ; 405 a 19. And Thales, 
according to what is related of him, seems to have 
regarded the soul as something endowed with the 
power of motion, if indeed he said that the loadstone 
has a soul because it moves iron. i. 5 ; 411 a 7. Some 
say that' soul is diffused throughout the whole uni- 
verse ; and it may have been this which led Thales t 
think that all things are full of gods. 

Simpl. in Arist. de Anima 8 r 32, 16. 2 Thales posits 
water as the element, but it is the element of 
bodies, and he thinks that the soul is not a body 
at all. 31, 21 D. And in speaking thus of Thales 
he adds with a degree of reproach that he assigned 
a soul to the magnetic stone as tbe power which 
moves the iron, that he might prove soul to be a 
moving power in it ; but he did not assert that this 
soul was water, although water bad been designated 
as the element, since be said that water is tbe ele- 
ment of substances, but be supposed soul to be un- 
substantial form. 20 r 73, 22. For Tbales, also, 
I suppose, tbougbt all things to be full of gods, the 
gods being blended with them ; and tbis is strange. 

1 Cf. Herm. /. G. P. 10 (Dox. 653). 

2 In references to Simpl. in Arist. de Anima and Physica, the first 
numbers give folio and line, the second, page (and line) in the edition 
published by the Berlin Academy. 

B 2 



4 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

(b) PASSAGES RELATING TO THALES IN THE 

DOXOGEAPHISTS. 

(Theophrastos, Dox. 475) Simpl. Phys. 6 r ; 23, 21. 
Of those who say that the first principle [p%??] is one 
and movable, to whom Aristotle applies the distinctive 
name of physicists, some say that it is limited ; as, for 
instance, Thales of Miletos, son of Examyes, and Hippo 
who seems also to have lost belief in the gods. These 
say that the first principle is water, and they are led to 
this result by things that appear to sense ; for warmth 
lives in moisture and dead things wither up and all 
germs are moist and all nutriment is moist. Now 
it is natural that things should be nourished by that 
from which each has come ; and water is the first 
principle of moist nature . . . ; accordingly they assume 
that water is the first principle of all things, and they 
assert that the earth rests on water. Thales is the first 
to have set on foot the investigation of nature by the 
Greeks ; although so many others preceded him, in 
Theophrastos' s opinion he so far surpassed them as to 
cause them to be forgotten. It is said that he left 
nothing in writing except a book entitled 'Nautical 
Astronomy.' 

Hipp. i. ; Dox. 555. It is said that Thales of Miletos, 
one of the seven wise men, was the first to undertake the 
study of physical philosophy. He said that the begin- 
ning (the first principle) and the end of all things is water. 
All things acquire firmness as this solidifies, and again 
as it is melted their existence is threatened ; to this are 
due earthquakes and whirlwinds and movements of the 
stars. And all things are movable and in a fluid state, 
the character of the compound being determined by /the 
nature of the principle from which it springs. T*his 
principle is god, and it has neither beginning nor end. 



THALES 5 

Thales was the first of the Greeks to devote himself to 
the study and investigation of the stars, and was the 
originator of this branch of science ; on one occasion 
he was looking up at the heavens, and was just saying 
he was intent on studying what was overhead, when 
he fell into a well ; whereupon a maidservant named 
Thratta laughed at him and said : In his zeal for 
things in the sky he does not see what is at his feet. 1 
And he lived in the time of Kroesos. 

Plut. Strom. 1 ; Dox. 579. 2 He says that Thales was 
the earliest thinker to regard water as the first principle 
of all things. For from this all things come, and to it 
they all return. 

Aet. Plac. i. 2 ; Dox. 275. Thales of Miletos regards 
the first principle and the elements as the same thing. 
But there is a very great difference between them, 
for elements are composite, but we claim that first 
principles are neither composite nor the result of 
processes. So we call earth, water, air, fire, elements ; 
and we call them first principles for the reason that there 
is nothing antecedent to them from which they are 
sprung, since this would not be a first principle, but 
rather that from which it is derived. Now there is 
something anterior to earth and water from which they 
are derived, namely the matter that is formless and 
invisible, and the form which we call entelechy, and 
privation. So Thales was in error when he called water 
an element and a first principle, i. 3 ; 276. Thales 
the Milesian declared that the first principle of things is 
water. [This man seems to have been the first philo- 
sopher, and the Ionic school derived its name from 
him; for there were very many successive leaders in 
philosophy. And Thales was a student of philosophy in 

1 Cf. Plato, Theaet. 174 A ; Diog. Laer. i. 34. 

2 Epiphan. iii. 1 ; Dox. 589 ; Herm. I. G. P. 10 ; Dox. 653. 



6 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Egypt, but he came to Miletos in his old age.] For he 
says that all things come from water and all are resolved 
into water. The first basis for this conclusion is the 
fact that the seed of all animals is their first principle 
and it is moist ; thus it is natural to conclude that all 
things come from water as their first principle. Secondly, 
the fact that all plants are nourished by moisture and 
bear fruit, and unless they get moisture they wither 
away. Thirdly, the fact that the very fire of the sun 
and the stars is fed by the exhalations from the waters, 
and so is the universe itself. 7 ; 301. Thales said that 
the mind in the universe is god, and the all is endowed 
with soul and is full of spirits ; and its divine moving 
power pervades the elementary water. 8; 307. Thales 
et al. say that spirits are psychical beings ; and that 
heroes are souls separated from bodies, good heroes are 
good souls, bad heroes are bad souls. 8 ; 307. The 
followers of Thales et al. assert that matter is turned 
about, varying, changing, and in a fluid state, the 
whole in every part of the whole. 12; 310. Thales 
and his successors declared that the first cause is im- 
movable. 16; 314. The followers of Thales and Pytha- 
goras hold that bodies can receive impressions and can 
be divided even to infinity; and so can all figures, lines, 
surfaces, solids, matter, place, and time. 18 ; 315. The 
physicists, followers of Thales, all recognise that the 
void is really a void. 21 ; 321. Thales : Necessity is 
most powerful, for it controls everything. 

Aet. ii. 1 ; Dox. 327. Thales and his successors hold 
that the universe is one. 12 ; 340. Thales et al. hold 
that the sphere of the entire heaven is divided into five 
circles which they call zones ; and of these the first is 
called the arctic zone, and is always visible, the next is 
the summer solstice, the next is the equinoctial, the next 
the winter solstice, and the next the antarctic, which is 
invisible. And the ecliptic in the three middle ones is 



THALES 7 

called the zodiac and is projected to touch the three middle 
ones. All these are cut by the meridian at a right angle 
from the north to the opposite quarter. 13 ; 341. The 
stars consist of earth, but are on fire. 20 ; 349. The 
sun consists of earth. 24 ; 353. The eclipses of the sun 
take place when the moon passes across it in direct line, 
since the moon is earthy in character ; and it seems to 
the eye to be laid on the disk of the sun. 28 ; 358. 
The moon is lighted from the sun. 29 ; 360. Thales 
et al. agree with the mathematicians that the monthly 
phases of the moon show that it travels along with 
the sun and is lighted by it, and eclipses show that it 
comes into the shadow of the earth, the earth coming 
between the two heavenly bodies and blocking the light 
of the moon. 

Aet. iii. 9-10 ; 376. The earth is one and spherical 
in form. 11 ; 377. It is in the midst of the universe. 
15 ; 379. Thales and Demokritos find in water the cause 
of earthquakes. 

Aet. iv. 1 ; 384. Thales thinks that the Etesian 
winds blowing against Egypt raise the mass of the Nile, 
because its outflow is beaten back by the swelling of the 
sea which lies over against its mouth. 2; 386. Thales 
was the first to declare that the soul is by nature always 
moving or self-moving. 

Aet. v. 26 ; 438. Plants are living animals ; this is 
evident from the fact that they wave their branches and 
keep them extended, and they yield to attack and relax 
them freely again, so that weights also draw them down. 

(Philodemos) Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 10; Dox. 531. 
For Thales of Miletos, who first studied these matters, 
said that water is the first principle of things, while god 
is the mind which formed all things from water. If 
gods exist without sense and mind, why should god be 
connected with water, if mind itself can exist without 
a body ? 



THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



II. 

ANAXIMANDEOS. 

ANAXIMANDROS of Miletos was a companion or pupil 
of Thales. According to Apollodoros he was born in 
the second or third year of the forty- second Olympiad 
(611-610 B.C.). Of his life little is known ; Zeller infers 
from the statement of Aelian (V. H. in. 17) to the effect 
that he led the Milesian colony into Apollonia, that he 
was a man of influence in Miletos. He was a student 
of geography and astronomy ; and various inventions, 
such as the sundial, are attributed to him. His book, 
which was referred to as the first philosophical treatise 
in Greece, may not have received the title ' jrspl 
(j>va-(os ' until after his death. It soon became rare, and 
Simplicius does not seem to have had access to it. 

Literature : Schleiermacher, Abh. d. Berl. Akad. 1815 ; 
Op. Phil. ii. 171 ; Krische, Forschungen, pp. 42- 
52 ; Teichmiiller, Studien, pp. 1-70, 545-588 ; 
Biisgen, Das airupov Anax. Wiesbaden 1867 ; 
Liitze, Das aimpov Anax. Leipz. 1878 ; J. Neu- 
hauser, De Anax. Miles. Bonn 1879, and in more 
complete form, Bonn 1883 ; Tannery, Rev. Phil. 
v. (1882) ; Natorp, Phil. Monatshefte, 1884 ; 
Tannery, Archiv f. d. Gesch. d. Philos. viii. 443 ff. ; 
Diels, ibid. x. (1897) 228 ff. 

(a) FRAGMENTS OF ANAXIMANDROS. 

1. Arist. Phys. iii. 4; 203 b 13 ff. The words aOdvardv 
yap Kal avaiXedpov and by some the words 



ANAXIMANDROS 9 

airavra xal iravra icvfiepvav are thought to come from 
Anaximandros. 

2. In Simpl. Pliys. 6 r (24, 19) ; Dox. 476, it is 
generally agreed that the following phrase is from Anaxi- 
mandros : Kara TO xpswv SiSovac yap avra a\\rf\,ois 
ri(Tiv Kal ^IKTJV rrjs dSiKias. 1 

Translation. 1. ' Immortal and indestructible,' 
' surrounds all and directs all.' 2. ' (To that they 
return when they are destroyed) of necessity; for he 
says that they suffer punishment and give satisfaction 
to one another for injustice.' 

(6) PASSAGES RELATING TO ANAXIMANDROS IN 
ARISTOTLE. 

Arist. Phys. L 4 ; 187 a 12. For some who hold that 
the real, the underlying substance, is a unity, either 
one of the three [elements] or something else that is 
denser than fire and more rarefied than air, teach that 
other things are generated by condensation and rare- 
faction. ... 20. And others believe that existing 
opposites are separated from the unity, as Anaximandros 
says, and those also who say that unity and multiplicity 
exist, as Empedokles and Anaxagoras; for these separate 
other things from the mixture [/uy/za]. 2 

Phys. iii. 4 ; 203 b 7. There is no beginning of the 
infinite, for in that case it would have an end. But it is 
without beginning and indestructible, as being a sort of 
first principle ; for it is necessary that whatever comes 
into existence should have an end, and there is a conclu- 
sion of all destruction. Wherefore as we say, there is 
no first principle of this [i.e. the infinite], but it itself 

1 The fragment is discussed at length by Ziegler, Archiv f. d. Gesch. 
d. Philos. i. (1883) p. 16 ff. 

- Cf. Theophrastos (Dox. 478) under Anaxagoras, infra. 



10 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

seems to be the first principle of all other things and to 
surround all and to direct all, as they say who think that 
there are no other causes besides the infinite (such as 
mind, or friendship), but that it itself is divine ; for it 
is immortal and indestructible, as Anaximandros and 
most of the physicists say. 

.Simpl. Phys. 32 r; 150, 20. There is another 
method, according to which they do not attribute 
change to matter itself, nor do they suppose that 
generation takes place by a transformation of the 
underlying substance, but by separation ; for tbe 
opposites existing in tbe substance which is infinite 
matter are separated, according to Anaximandros, 
who was the earliest tbinker to call tbe underlying 
substance the first principle. And tbe opposites 
are beat and cold, dry and moist, and the rest. 

Phys. iii. 5 ; 204 b 22. But it is not possible that 
infinite matter is one and simple ; either, as some say, 
that it is something different from the elements, from 
which they are generated, or that it is absolutely one. 
For there are some who make the infinite of this 
character, but they do not consider it to be air or water, 
in order that other things may not be blotted out by 
the infinite ; for these are mutually antagonistic to one 
another, inasmuch as air is cold, water is moist, and fire 
hot ; if one of these were infinite, the rest would be at 
once blotted out ; but now they say that the infinite is 
something different from these things, namely, that from 
which they come. 

Phys. iii. 8; 208 a 8. In order that generation 
may actually occur, it is not necessary to prove that the 
infinite should actually be matter that sense can per- 
ceive ; for it is possible that destruction of one thing is 
generation of another, provided the all is limited. 

De Coelo iii. 5 ; 303 b 11. For some say that there 
is only one underlying substance ; and of these some 



ANAXIMANUROS 11 

say that it is water, some that it is air, some that it is 
fire, and some that it is more rarefied than water and 
denser than air ; and these last say that being infinite 
it surrounds all the heavens. 

Meteor. 2 ; 355 a 21. It is natural that this 
very thing should be unintelligible to those who say 
that at first when the earth was moist and the universe 
including the earth was warmed by the sun, then air was 
formed and the whole heavens were dried, and this pro- 
duced the winds and made the heavens revolve. 1 

Metaph. xii. 2 ; 1069 b 18. So not only is it very 
properly admitted that all things are generated from 
not-being, but also that they all come from being : 
potentially from being, actually from not-being ; and this 
is the unity of Anaxagoras (for this is better than to say 
that all things exist together [o/ioO TrdvTa]), and it is the 
mixture \_iM<yfjLa\ of Empedokles and Anaximandros. 

Pint. Symp. viii. 730 E. Wherefore they (the Syrians) 
reverence the fish as of the same origin and the 
same family as man, holding a more reasonable 
philosophy than that of Anaximandros ; for he 
declares, not that fishes and men were generated 
at the same time, but that at first men were gene- 
rated in the form of fishes, and that growing up as 
sharks do till they were able to help themselves, 
they then came forth on the dry ground. 

(c) PASSAGES RELATING TO ANAXIMANDROS IN 

THE DOXOGRAPHISTS. 

(Theophrastos, Dox. 477) Simpl. Pliys. 6r; 24, 26. 
Among those who say that the first principle is one 
and movable and infinite, is Anaximandros of Miletos, 
son of Praxiades, pupil and successor of Thales. He 
said that the first principle and element of all things 
is infinite, and he was the first to apply this word to 

1 Cf. Theophrastos, Dox. 494, infra, p. 12. 



12 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the first principle ; and he says that it is neither water 
nor any other one of the things called elements, but 
the infinite is something of a different nature, from 
which came all the heavens and the worlds in them ; 
and from what source things arise, to that they 
return of necessity when they are destroyed ; for he 
says that they suffer punishment and give satisfaction l 
to one another for injustice according to the order of 
time, putting it in rather poetical language. Evi- 
dently when he sees the four elements changing into 
one another, he does not deem it right to make any one 
of these the underlying substance, but something else 
besides them. And he does not think that things come 
into being by change in the nature of the element, 
but by the separation of the opposites which the eternal 
motion causes. On this account Aristotle compares him 
with Anaxagoras. 

Simpl. Pliys. 6 v; 27, 23; Dox. 478. The trans- 
lation is given under Anaxagoras, infra. 

Alex, in Meteor. 91 r (vol. i. 268 Id.), Dox. 494. Some 
of the physicists say that the sea is what is left of 
the first moisture ; 2 for when the region about the earth 
was moist, the upper part of the moisture was evapo- 
rated by the sun, and from it came the winds and the 
revolutions of the sun and moon, since these made their 
revolutions by reason of the vapours and exhalations, 
and revolved in those regions where they found an 
abundance of them. What is left of this moisture in 
the hollow places is the sea ; so it diminishes in 
quantity, being evaporated gradually by the sun, and 
finally it will be completely dried up. Theophrastos 
says that Anaximandros and Diogenes were of this 
opinion. 

1 Archiv f. d. Geschichte d. Phil. i. p. 16 sqq. 

2 Aet. iii. 16 ; Dox. 381. 



ANAXIMANDEOS 13 

Hipp. Phil. 6 ; Dox. 559. Anaximandros was a pupil 
of Thales. He was a Milesian, son of Praxiades. He 
said that the first principle of things is of the nature of 
the infinite, and from this the heavens and the worlds 
in them arise. And this (first principle) is eternal and does 
not grow old, and it surrounds all the worlds. He says of 
time that in it generation and being and destruction are 
determined. He said that the first principle and the 
element of beings is the infinite, a word which he was the 
earliest to apply to the first principle. Besides this, motion 
is eternal, and as a result of it the heavens arise. The 
earth is a heavenly body, controlled by no other power, 
and keeping its position because it is the same distance 
from all things ; the form of it is curved, cylindrical 
like a stone column ; l it has two faces, one of these is 
the ground beneath our feet, and the other is opposite to 
it. The stars are a circle 2 of fire, separated from the 
fire about the world, and surrounded by air. There are 
certain breathing-holes like the holes of a flute through 
which we see the stars ; so that when the holes are stopped 
up, there are eclipses. The moon is sometimes full and 
sometimes in other phases as these holes are stopped up 
or open. The circle of the sun is twenty-seven times that 
of the moon, and the sun is higher than the moon, but the 
circles of the fixed stars are lower. 3 Animals come into 
being through vapours raised by the sun. Man, however, 
came into being from another animal, namely the fish, 
for at first he was like a fish. Winds are due to a 
separation of the lightest vapours and the motion of 
the masses of these vapours ; and moisture comes from 

1 Aet. iii. 10 ; Dox. 376. Cf . Plut. Strom. 2 ; Dox. 579. 

2 KVK\OS, the circle or wheel in which the stars are set, and in which 
they revolve. The circle of the moon is farther from the earth, and 
last comes the circle of the sun. 

3 Cf. Aet. ii. 15-25, infra. 



14 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the vapour raised by the sun ' from them ; 2 and 
lightning occurs when a wind falls upon clouds and 
separates them. Anaximandros was born in the third 
year of the forty-second Olympiad. 

Plut. Strom. 2 ; Dox. 579. Anaximandros, the com- 
panion of Thales, says that the infinite is the sole cause 
of all generation and destruction, and from it the 
heavens were separated, and similarly all the worlds, 
which are infinite in number. And he declared that 
destruction and, far earlier, generation have taken 
place since an indefinite time, since all things are in- 
volved in a cycle. He says that the earth is a cylinder 
in form, and that its depth is one-third of its breadth. 
And he says that at the beginning of this world 
something \TL Diels] productive of heat and cold from 
the eternal being was separated therefrom, and a sort of 
sphere of this flame surrounded the air about the earth, 
as bark surrounds a tree ; then this sphere was broken 
into parts and defined into distinct circles, and thus 
arose the sun and the moon and the stars. Farther he 
says that at the beginning man was generated from all 
sorts of animals, since all the rest can quickly get food 
for themselves, but man alone requires careful feeding 
for a long time ; such a being at the beginning could 
not have preserved his existence. Such is the teaching 
of Anaximandros. 

Herm. I. G. P. 10 ; Dox. 653. His compatriot Anaxi- 
mandros says that the first principle is older than 
water and is eternal motion; in this all things come 
into being, and all things perish. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 'ill. Anaximandros of Miletos, 
son of Praxiades, says that the first principle of things 
is the infinite; for from this all things come, and all 

V 

1 Aet. iii. 6 ; Dox. 374. 2 Cf. Aet. iii. 3 ; Dox. 367. 



ANAXIMANDROS 15 

things perish and return to this. 1 Accordingly, an 
infinite number of worlds have been generated and 
have perished again and returned to their source. So 
he calls it infinite, in order that the generation which 
takes place may not lessen it. But he fails to say what 
the infinite is, whether it is air or water or earth or 
some other thing. He fails to show what matter is, 
and simply calls it the active cause. For the infinite is 
nothing else but matter ; and matter cannot be energy, 
unless an active agent is its substance. 7 ; 302. Anaxi- 
mandros declared that the infinite heavens are gods. 

Aet. ii. 1 ; Dox. 327. Anaximandros (et al.) : 
Infinite worlds exist in the infinite in every cycle ; 
Dox. 329, and these worlds are equally distant from 
each other. 4 ; 331. The world is perishable. 11 ; 
340. Anaximandros : The heavens arise from a 
mixture of heat and cold. 13 ; 342. The stars are 
wheel-shaped masses of air, full of fire, breathing 
out flames from pores in different parts. 15 ; 345. 
Anaximandros et al. : The sun has the highest posi- 
tion of all, the moon is next in order, and beneath it 
are the fixed stars and the planets. 16 ; 345. The 
stars are carried on by the circles and the spheres in 
which each one moves. 20 ; 348. The circle of the sun 
is twenty-eight times as large as the earth, like a chariot 
wheel, having a hollow centre and this full of fire, 
shining in every part, and sending out fire through a 
narrow opening like the air from a flute. 21 ; 351. 
The sun is equal in size to the earth, but the circle from 
which it sends forth its exhalations, and by which it is 
borne through the heavens, is twenty- seven times as 
large as the earth. 24 ; 354. An eclipse takes place 
when the outlet for the fiery exhalations is closed. 25 ; 
355. The circle of the moon is nineteen times as large 

1 Epiphan. iii. 2 ; Dox. 589. 



16 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

as the earth, and like the circle of the sun is full of fire ; 
and eclipses are due to the revolutions of the wheel ; for 
it is like a chariot wheel, hollow inside, and the centre 
of it is full of fire, but there is only one exit for the fire. 
28 ; 358. The moon shines by its own light. 29 ; 359. 
The moon is eclipsed when the hole in the wheel is 
stopped. 

Aet. iii. 3 ; Dox. 367. Anaximandros said that 
lightning is due to wind ; for when it is surrounded and 
pressed together by a thick cloud and so driven out 
by reason of its lightness and rarefaction, then the break- 
ing makes a noise, while the separation makes a rift of 
brightness in the darkness of the cloud. 

Aet. iv. 3 ; Dox. 387. Anaximandros et al. : The 
soul is like air in its nature. 

Aet. v. 19 ; Dox. 430. Anaximandros said that the 
first animals were generated in the moisture, and were 
covered with a prickly skin ; and as they grew older, 
they became drier, and after the skin broke off from 
them, they lived for a little while. 

Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 10 ; Dox. 531. It was the 
opinion of Anaximandros that gods have a beginning, 
at long intervals rising and setting, and that they are 
the innumerable worlds. But who of us can think of 
god except as immortal ? 



17 



III. 

ANAXIMENES. 

ANAXIMENES of Miletos, son of Eurystratos, was the 
pupil or companion of Anaximandros. According to 
Apollodoros, quoted by Diogenes, he was born in the 
sixty- third Olympiad (528-524 B.C.). Diels l has, how- 
ever, made it seem probable that this date refers to his 
prime of life, rather than to his birth. Of his life 
nothing is known. 

Literature : Krische, Forschungen, i. 52-57 ; Teich- 
miiller, Stiidien, 71-104; Revue Phil 1883, p. 6 ff.; 
Archivf. d. GescJiichte d. Phil. i. pp. 315 ff. and pp. 
582 ff. 

(a) FRAGMENT 'ACCREDITED TO ANAXIMENES. 

Collection des anciens alckiinistes grecs, Livre i., 
Paris 1887, p. 83, 11. 7-10, Olympiodoros. ^iav Ss 
KtvovfAEVrjv aTTStpov dp%r)v irdvrwv rwv ovrwv s&oa%is 
' Avaf ifj,svrjs rov dspa. \sysi yap OVTWS' syyvs scrriv 6 drjp 
TOV dcrw^drov Kal on icar' eicpoiav rovrov yiv6fjL0a y 
dvdyKtj avrov Kal airsipov slvai Kal 7T\ov(riov Sia TO- 



Translation Anaximenes arrived at the conclusion 
that air is the one, movable, infinite, first principle of 
all things. For he speaks as follows : Air is the nearest 
to an immaterial thing ; for since we are generated in 



1 Rhein. Mtis. xxxi. 27. 



18 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the flow of air, it is necessary that it should be infinite 
and abundant, because it is never exhausted. 1 

(1) PASSAGES RELATING TO ANAXIMENES IN ARISTOTLE, &c. 

Arist. Meteor, ii. 1 ; 354 a 28. Most of the earlier 
students of the heavenly bodies believed that the sun 
did not go underneath the earth, but rather around the 
earth and this region, and that it disappeared from view 
and produced night, because the earth was so high 
toward the north. 

Simpl. de Coelo 273 b 45 ; Scliol. Arist. 514 a 88. He 
regarded the first principle as unlimited, but not 
as undefined, for he called it air, thinking that air 
had a sufficient adaptability to change. 

Simpl. Phys. 32 r 149, 32. Of this one writer alone, 
Theophrastos, in his account of the Physicists, uses 
the words pdvuxris and TTUKI/WO-IS of texture. The 
rest, of course, spoke of //.averts and TTUKVOTT;?. 

Simpl. Phys. 257v. Some say that the universe always 
existed, not that it has always been the same, 
but rather that it successively changes its character 
in certain periods of time ; as, for instance, Anaxi- 
menes and Herakleitos and Diogenes. 

Arist. de Coelo ii. 13 ; 294 b 13. Anaximenes and 
Anaxagoras and Demokritos say that the breadth of the 
earth is the reason why it remains where it is. 

Arist. Meteor, ii. 7 ; 365 (a 17), b 6. Anaximenes says 
that the earth was wet, and when it dried it broke apart, 
and that earthquakes are due to the breaking and falling 
of hills ; accordingly earthquakes occur in droughts, 
and in rainy seasons also ; they occur in drought, as has 
been said, because the earth dries and breaks apart, 
and it also crumbles when it is wet through with waters. 

Arist. Metaph. i. 3 ; 984 a 5. Anaximenes regarded 
air as the first principle. 

1 For a discussion of the above fragment, v. Archiv f. d. Geschichte 
d. Phil. i. 315. 



ANAXIMENES 19 

Pint. Prim. Frig. vii. 3, p. 947. According to Anaxi- 
menes, the early philosopher, we should not neglect 
either cold or heat in being but should regard them 
as common experiences of matter which are inci- 
dent to its changes. He says that the compressed 
and the condensed state of matter is cold, while 
the rarefied and relaxed (a word he himself uses) 
state of it is heat. Whence he says it is not 
strange that men breathe hot and cold out of the 
mouth ; for the breath is cooled as it is compressed 
and condensed by the lips, but when the mouth is 
relaxed, it comes out warm by reason of its rare- 
faction. 



(c) PASSAGES RELATING TO ANAXIMENES IN 

THE DOXOGRAPHISTS. 

Theophrastos ; Simpl. Phijs. 6r 24, 26; Dox. 476. 
Anaximenes of Miletos, son of Eurystratos, a companion 
of Anaximandros, agrees with him that the essential 
nature of things is one and infinite, but he regards it as 
not indeterminate but rather determinate, and calls it 
air ; the air differs in rarity and in density as the nature 
of things is different ; when very attenuated it becomes 
fire, when more condensed wind, and then cloud, and when 
still more condensed water and earth and stone, and all 
other things are composed of these ; and he regards 
motion as eternal, and by this changes are produced. 1 

Hipp. Philos. 7 ; Dox. 560. Anaximenes, himself a 
Milesian, son of Eurystratos, said that infinite air is the 
first principle, 2 from which arise the things that have come 
and are coming into existence, and the things that will be, 
and gods and divine beings, while other things are pro- 
duced from these. And the form of air is as follows : 
When it is of a very even consistency, it is imperceptible 
to vision, but it becomes evident as the result of cold or 

' Cf. Arist. Phys. i. 4 ; and de Coelo iii. 5. 
- V. Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 3 ; Dox. 589. 



20 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

heat or moisture, or when it is moved. It is always in 
motion ; for things would not change as they do unless 
it were in motion. It has a different appearance when 
it is made more dense or thinner ; when it is expanded 
into a thinner state it becomes fire, and again winds are 
condensed air, and air becomes cloud by compression, 
and water when it is compressed farther, and earth and 
finally stones as it is more condensed. So that genera- 
tion is controlled by the opposites, heat and cold. And 
the broad earth is supported on air ; l similarly the sun 
and the moon and all the rest of the stars, being fiery 
bodies, 2 are supported on the air by their breadth. 3 And 
stars are made of earth, since exhalations arise from 
this, and these being attenuated become fire, and of this 
fire when it is raised to the heaven the stars are con- 
stituted. There are also bodies of an earthy nature 4 in 
the place occupied by the stars, and carried along with 
them in their motion. He says that the stars do not 
move under the earth, as others have supposed, but 
around the earth, 5 just as a cap is moved about the head. 
And the sun is hidden not by going underneath the 
earth, but because it is covered by some of the higher 
parts of the earth, and because of its greater distance 
from us. The stars do not give forth heat because they 
are so far away. Winds are produced when the air that 
has been attenuated is set in motion ; and when it comes 
together and is yet farther condensed, clouds are produced, 
and so it changes into water. And hail is formed when 
the water descending from the clouds is frozen ; and 
snow, when these being yet more filled with moisture 
become frozen ; 6 and lightning, when clouds are separated 
by violence of the winds ; for when they are separated, 

1 Act. hi. 15 ; Dox. 380. - Aet. ii. 13 ; 342 ; ii. 20 ; 348 ; ii. 25 ; 3i(6. 
3 Aet. ii. 22 ; 352. Aet. ii. 13 ; 342. 

5 Aet. ii. 16 ; 346. 6 Aet. iii. 4 ; 370. 



ANAXIMENES 21 

the flash is bright and like fire. 1 And a rainbow is pro- 
duced when the sun's rays fall on compressed air ; 2 and 
earthquakes are produced when the earth is changed yet 
more by heating and cooling. 3 Such are the opinions 
of Anaximenes. And he flourished about the first year 
of the fifty-eighth Olympiad. 

Plut. Strom. 3 ; Dox. 579. Anaximenes says that air 
is the first principle of all things, and that it is infinite in 
quantity but is defined by its qualities ; and all things 
are generated by a certain condensation or rarefaction of 
it. Motion also exists from eternity. And by compres- 
sion of the air the earth was formed, and it is very broad ; 
accordingly he says that this rests on air ; and the sun 
and the moon and the rest of the stars were formed from 
earth. He declared that the sun is earth because of 
its swift motion, and it has the proper amount of heat. 

Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 10 ; Dox. 531. Afterwards 
Anaximenes said that air is god, 4 [and that it arose] 
and that it is boundless and infinite and always in 
motion ; just as though air without any form could be 
god, when it is very necessary that god should be not 
only of some form, but of the most beautiful form ; or as 
though everything which comes into being were not 
thereby subject to death. 

Aet. i. 3 ; Dox. 278. Anaximenes of Miletos, son of Eu- 
rystratos, declared that air is the first principle of things, 
for from this all things arise and into this they are all 
resolved again. As our soul which is air, he says, 
holds us together, so wind [i.e. breath, Trvsvpa] and 
air encompass the whole world. He uses these words 
' air ' and ' wind ' synonymously. He is mistaken in 
thinking that animals are composed of simple homo- 

1 Aet. iii. 3 ; 368. - Aet. iii. 5 ; 373. 

3 Cf. Aet. iii. 15 ; 379 infra and Arist. Meteor, ii. 7, supra. 

4 Aet. i. 7 ; 302. 



22 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

geneous air and wind ; for it is impossible that one 
first principle should constitute the substance of things, 
but an active cause is also necessary ; just as silver 
alone is not enough to become coin, but there is need of 
an active cause, i.e. a coin-maker ; [so there is need of 
copper and wood and other substances]. 

Aet. ii. 1 ; 327. Anaximenes et al. : Infinite worlds 
exist in the infinite in every cycle. 4 ; 331. The world 
is perishable. 11 ; 339. The sky is the revolving vault 
most distant from the earth. 14 ; 344. The stars 
are fixed like nailheads in the crystalline (vault). 19 ; 
347. The stars shine for none of these reasons, but 
solely by the light of the sun. 22 ; 352. The sun is 
broad [like a leaf]. 23 ; 352. The stars revolve, being 
pushed by condensed resisting air. 

Aet. iii. 10 ; 377. The form of the earth is like a 
table. 15 ; 379. The dryness of the air, due to 
drought, and its wetness, due to rainstorms, are the 
causes of earthquakes. 

Aet. iv. 3; 387. Anaximenes et al. : The soul is 
like air in its nature. 



23 
IV. 

HERAKLEITOS. 

ACCOKDING to Apollodoros, Herakleitos son of Blyson 
flourished in the sixty-ninth Olympiad (504-501 B.C.)." 
An attempt to fix the date from his reference to the expul- 
sion from Ephesos of his friend Hermodoros (Frag. 114) 
has resulted in a somewhat later date, though it is by no 
means impossible that Hermodoros was expelled during 
Persian rule in the city. Beyond the fact that Herakleitos 
lived in Ephesos we know nothing of his life ; of the 
many stories related about him most can be proved 
false, and there is no reason for crediting the remainder 
His philosophic position is clear, however, since he refers 
to Pythagoras and Xenophanes (Fr. 16-17), and 
Parmenides (Vss. 46 sqq.) seems to refer to him. His 
book is said to have been divided into three parts : 
(1) Concerning the AU ; (2) Political ; (3) Theological 
Even in antiquity he was surnamed the ' dark ' or the 
' obscure.' 

Literature : Schleiermacher, Op. Phil. ii. 1-146 ; Ber- 
nays, Ges. Abhandl. i. ; Lassalle, Die Philosophic 
Herakleitos des dunklen, Berl. 1858 ; P. Schuster, 
' Heraklit von Ephesos,' in Act. soc. phil. Lips. 
1873, 111 ; Teichmiiller, Neue Studien zur Gesck. 
d. Begriffe, Gotha 1876-1878; Bywater, H&racl. 
Eph. Reliquiae, Oxford 1877 ; Gomperz, ' Zu 
Herakl. Lehre,' Sitz. d. Wien. Ak. 1886, p. 977 ff. ; 
Patin, Herakl. Einheitslehre, Leipzig 1886, ' Quel- 
lenstudien zu Heraklit,' in Festschrift/. L. Urlichs, 
1880, Herakleitische Beispiele, Progr. Neuburg, 
1892-1893 ; E. Pfleiderer, Die Philosophic des He- 
raklits im Lichte der Mysterienidee, Berlin 1886 ; 
also Rhein. Mus. xlii. 153 ff. ; JBB. f. protest. 
Theol. xiv. 177 ff. ; E. Wambier, Studia Heraclitea, 
Diss. Berlin 1891. 



THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



(a) FKAGMENTS OF HERAKLEITOS. 

1. OVK sfMSv aX\,d rov_\6<yoi^ aKoixravras o 
ov scrri, v rcavra slvai. 



2. rov Se \6yov rovB' sovros alii dj~vvsroi, ytvovrai 
dvOputrroi Kal irpocrdsv rj atcovcrat KOI aKOvcravres ro 
jrpwrov. <yivofj,sva)v yap rrdvrwv Kara rov \6yov rove's 
airelpouri soiKacn Treipw/Msvoi /cal srcswv KOI spyoov rotov- 
rscov OKOLWV s<yu> Snjysv/jiat, Siaipso&v stcaa'rov Kara (ptxriv 
Kal (f>pd(i)v OKCOS S'XJci. rovs SH a\\ovs avdpcairovs \av- 
6dvsL OKOcra syspdsvrss Troisovcn, OKwcnrsp OKOcra svSovrss 



3. d^vverot, aKOvaavrss Kux^olcn soitcacri' <f>dns avrolcri 
/jiaprvpesi Trapsovras drrsivai. 

4. KaKol fjidprvpss dvOpwTrotat, o^^aX/iot Kal S)ra, 
ftap/3dpovs -^fv^as s^pvrwv. 

5. ov <^>povsovcn, roiavra 7ro\\ol OKOfroia-i syKVpsovari 
ov$e padovrss yivccxTKovcri, scovrolat Ss BOKSOV<TI. 

6. aKovcrai, OVK STricrrdfjiSvot ouS' SLTrslv. 

Sources and Critical Notes. 

1. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 9 (cf. Philo, Leg. all. iii. 3, p. 88). 

\6yov Bernays, 86yfj.aros MS., Bgk. : elvai Miller, ci'SeVou MS., 
Bern. Bgk. 

2. Sext. Emp. adv. math. vii. 132 ; (except last clause) Hipp. Ref. 
haer. ix. 9. In part : Arist. Rhet. iii. 5, 1407 b 14 ; Clem. Al. Strom. 
v. 14, p. 716 ( = Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 680) ; Amelius in Euseb. P. E. 
xi. 19, p. 540, (and elsewhere). Cf. Philo. Quis rer. div. haer. 43, p. 505 ; 
Job. Sic. in Walz, Rliett. Gr. vi. p. 95. 

rov Sfovros vulg. except Sext. Emp. : erol (for avvfroi) MS. Hipp. : 
aTTflpoiffi Bern., frweipoi eialv Hipp., Hirfipoi Sext. Emp. 

3. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 718 (Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 681) ; 
Theod. Ther. i. 13, 49 : a-*itva.i MS. Clem. 

4. Sext. Emp. adv. math. viii. 126 ; Stob. Flor. iv. 56 ; cf. Diog. 
Laer. ix. 7- 

5. Clem. Al. Strom, ii. 2, p. 432 ; cf. M. Antoninus, iv. 46. 
6it6ffois Gataker, 6it6ffoi vulg. : iyitvpeovai Schuster, 

vulg. 
0. Clem. Al. Strom, ii. 5, p. 442. 



HERAKLEITOS 25 

TRANSLATION. 

1. Not on my authority, but on that of truth, it is 
wise for you to accept the fact that all things are one. 

Hippolytos quotes this with Fragment 45, to show that 
Herakleitos taught the underlying unity of all 
things. On the word Ao'yos (meaning both discourse 
and the truth the discourse contains), v. Zeller, i. 
630, n. 1. 

2. This truth, though it always exists, men do not 
understand, as well before they hear it as when they hear 
it for the first time. For although all things happen in 
accordance with this truth, men seem unskilled indeed 
when they make trial of words and matters such as I am 
setting forth, in my effort to discriminate each thing ac- 
cording to its nature, and to tell what its state is. But 
other men fail to notice what they do when awake, in 
the same manner that they forget what they do when 
asleep. 

Hippolytos quotes this passage with reference to a 
universal all-pervading reason. 

3. Those who hear without the power to understand 
are like deaf men ; the proverb holds true of them ' Pre- 
sent, they are absent.' 

Quoted by Clement in illustration of Ev. Luc. xiv. 35. 

4. Eyes and ears are bad witnesses for men, since 
their souls lack understanding. 

Sextus Emp. interprets this as meaning 'rude souls 
trust the irrational senses.' Cf. Zeller, i. 716, n. 5. 

5. Most men do not understand such things as they 
are wont to meet with ; nor by learning do they come to 
know them, though they think they do. 

6. They know not how to listen, nor how to speak. 
Clement compares this with Eccles. vi. 35. 



26 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



7. sav firj I'XTTT^at, dvs\7ricrTOV ovtc s^svprjasi, dvs^s- 
psvvtjTov sov KOL aTropov. 

8. %pvcrov 01 Sityftevoi yr)i> 7ro\\r/v opvcr(rov<Ti Kal 
vpl<ricovcn 

9. 

10. <f>v(Tis KpvTrTsadai <f>i\si. 

11. 6 ava [ov TO fiavTslov sari TO] sv AgX^oty OVTS 
\eysi OVTS tcpvirTSi, d\\a crij/Maivsi. 

12. <ri/3v\\a 8e /u-ati/o/ieVw o-ro/iart a/ye'Xacrra Kal 
a,Ka\\a)7ri(TTa KOI dfj,vpi(TTa (jidsyyofisvr) %i\ia)v STSWV 
s^i/cvssTai, Trj (fxovfj Sia TOV dsbv. 

13. o(TO)v O-^TLS d/cor) /jiddi]o~is, TavTa syo) 

14. diria'TOvs 



15. o<f>0d\fjLol TWV WTCOV d/cptftea-TSpot 



7. Clem. Al. Strom, ii. 4, p. 437 ; Theod. Ther. i. p. 15, 51. 

e\in)ff6f Steph., eAirrjat Byw. Schus. : eei/p^<rer6 Steph., '|u- 
pfl<reis Schus. On punctuation \. Gomperz, Archiv f. d. G. d. 
Phil. i. 100. 

8. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 2, p. 565 ; Theod. Ther. i. p. 15, 52. 

9. Suidas, under d/u^io-jSaTeu/ and ayx^are'iv. 

10. Themisf. Or. v. p. 69 (xii. p. 159). Cf. Philo, Qu. in gen. iv. 1 
p. 237, de profug. 32, p. 573, de somn. i. 2, p. 621, de spec. legg. 8, p. 
344 ; Julian, Or. vii. p. 216 c. 

11. Plut. de pyth. orac. 21, p. 404 E ; Stob. Flor. v. 72, Ixxxi. 17 ; 
Iambi, de myst. iii. 15. Cf. Lucian, vit. auct. 14. 

rb (j.avTf'iov appears only in Plutarch, and should probably be 
omitted. 

12. Plut. de pyth. or. 6, p. 397 A. Cf. Clem. Al. Strom, i. 15, p. 
358 ; Iambi, de myst. iii. 8 ; Pseudo-Herald. Epist. viii. 

13. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 9. 
MS. Sffov, corr. Miller. 

14. Polyb. iv. 40. 

15. Polyb. xii. 27 ; cf. Hdt. i. 



HERAKLEITOS 27 

7. If you do not hope, you will not find that which 
is not hoped for; since it is difficult to discover and 
impossible to attain. 

Clement compares this with Isaias vii. 9. With Gom- 
perz's punctuation : ' Unless you expect the unex- 
pected, you will not find truth ; for, &c.' 

8. Seekers for gold dig much earth, and find little 
gold. 

9. Controversy. 

10. Nature loves to hide. 

' So we worship the creator of nature, because the 
knowledge of him is difficult.' 

11. The Lord [whose is the oracle] at Delphi neither 
speaks nor conceals, but gives a sign. 

12. And the Sibyl with raving mouth, uttering 
words solemn, unadorned, and unsweetened, reaches with 
her voice a thousand years because of th e god in her. 

Quoted by Plutarch to show that allurements of sense 
are out of place in the holy responses of the god. 
Both this fragment and the preceding seem origi- 
nally to have referred to the nature of Herakleitos's 
teaching ; it is obscure, and yet divine. 

13. What can be seen, heard, and learned, this I 

prize. 

Hippolytos contrasts this with Fr. 47, and in this con- 
nection the translation of Schuster, ' Am I to prize 
these (invisible) things above what can be seen, 
heard, learned ? ' seems the more natural. 

14. (For this is characteristic of the present age, 
when, inasmuch as all lands and seas may be crossed by 
man, it would no longer be fitting to depend on the 
witness of poets and mythographers, as our ancestors 
generally did), 'bringing forth untrustworthy witnesses to 
confirm disputed points,' in the words of Herakleitos. 

15. Eyes are more exact witnesses than ears. 
Cf. Bernays, Rhein. Mus. ix. 261 sqq. 



28 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

/ 16. Trokvjjiadlf) voov s^eiv ov Bi8d<r/ci- 'Ha-loSov jap 
? av eBlSa^s Kal TlvOayoprjv avris re fzsvotydvsa teal 
r 



17. Tlvdayop'rjS M.vi}(rdp%ov icrropfyv ijcr/c'rjcre dvQpa)- 
Trdvrwv' Kol [sKks^dfLSvos ravras ras 
siroifjcrs SWVTOV <ro<J)ir)v, 7ro\vjj,adlr]v, tca/co- 



18. OKOCTCOV \6yovs ij/covcra ovSels d<piKVTai is roOro, 

&Q-TS <yiv(a(TKiv OTi<ro<l)ov_(TTt 'rrav'Twv_KZ'y(i)pia^iyov. 
^*~ ----- 

19. v TO cro<f)6v, [sTTLO'Tacrdai yvcajjujv fj /cv/Bspvarai 
Trdvra Bia Trdvrcov]. (65) \sjcrdai OUK sOsXsi Kal eOe\i 



20. Koapov < rov&s > rov avrov dirdvTwv ovr TIS Oswv 
OVT dv0p(i)7ra>v 7TOLT f ]a', d\X? rjv alsl real jSffTl teal sg-rai 
aejigtoov, aTTTOjisvov psrpa Kal d < 7ro(rBvvvf J Lvov fjierpa. 



16. Diog. Laer. ix. 1. First part : Aul. Gell. N. A. praef. 12 ; Clem. 
Al. Strom, i. 19, p. 373 : Athen. xiii. p. 610 B : Julian, Or. vi. p. 187 D ; 
Proklos in Tim. 31 F. 



ij MSS. Clem. Athen. 
17. Diog. Laer. viii. 6. Cf. Clem. Al. Strom, i. 21, p. 396. 

Schleiermacher omits eK\f^d/j.evos T. r. ffvyypatyas : Vulg. 
eavTov, the text is from Laurent, ed. Cobet : Casaubon 



18. Stob. Flor. iii. 81. 

19. Laer. Diog. ix. 1 ; Plut. de Is. 77, p. 382 c. Cf. Kleanthes, H. Z. 
36 ; Pseudo-Linos, 13, Mul. Byw. 65 ; Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 718 
(Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 681) ; Cf . Bernays, Rhcin. Mus. ix. 256. The 
fragments are combined by Gomperz, 1. c. 

fjre oj eyKvfifpvlio'ei Diog. Laer., rov Qpovovvros KvfStpvaTai rb 
<rvfj.irav, Plut., yv(afj.T]s y . . . irdvra Kv/3epvij.s. Kleanth. 

20. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 711 (Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 676). 
First clause : Plut. de anim. procr. 5, p. 1014 A. Last clause : Sim. in 
Arist. de coelo, p. 132, Kars. ; Olympiocl. in Plat. Phaed. p. 201, Fine 
Bywater traces the thought through writers of Stoical school. 

fjLfTptf Euseb. ed. Steph. p. 132. 



HERAKLEITOS 29 

16. Much learning does not teach one to have 
understanding ; else it would have taught Hesiod, and 
Pythagoras, and again Xenophanes, and Hekataios. 

17. Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, prosecuted in- 
vestigations more than any other man, and [selecting 
these treatises] he made a wisdom of his own much 
learning and bad art. 

18. No one of all whose discourses I have heard has 
arrived at this result : the recognition that wisdom is 
apart from all other things. 



V. Teichmiiller, i. 109 ff. on the idea of katharsis in 
Herakleitos. 



19. Wisdom is one thing : [to understand the intel- 
ligence by which all things are steered through all 
things] ; it is willing and it is unwilling to be called by 
the name Zeus. 



The first two clauses follow Fr. 16 in Diog. Laer. 
the idea in parenthesis often appears in Stoic 
writers. 



20. This order, the same for all things, no one of 
gods or men has made, but it always was, and is, and 
ever shall be, an ever-living fire, kindling according to 
fixed measure, and extinguished according to fixed 
measure. 



Zeller, i. 645 n. 1, discusses the various interpretations, 
and prefers to translate the first phrase ' This 
world, the same for all,' i.e. including gods and men. 



30 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

21. Trvpbs rpoTTal TTpwTov 0d\acr(ra 6a\d<ra"n$ 8s TO 

/J,V TJfJ,lO"V 7*7, TO B ijfJLKTV 7Tp / TJO'T1Jp. 

22. Trvpbs dvrafj,sl{3ETai Trdvra /cat Trvp drrdvrwv, 
wcnrep jyivcrov xpifaara KOI 



23. 0d\acrcra St,a%ssrai, KCU fj^srpssrai ss rov avrbv 
\6yov OKOIOS Trp6o~0sv r)v rj ysv<r0ai 



24. xprjcrfjLoa-vwr) . . . Kopos. 

25. fj Trvp rbv yrjs Bdvarov, KOI drip fj rov irvpos 
Odvarov voiop %fj rov dspos ddvarov, 7^ rov 

26. Trdvra rb rrvp srrs\.6bv tcpivssi KOI 

27. TO IJLT) ovvov Trors rrfas dv ris \d6oi ; 

28. Ta Bs rrdvra ottucl&t icspavvos. 



21. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 712 (Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 676). Cf. 
Hipp. Bef. haer. vi. 17. 

irvp TpoTths Eus. D, trvpbs rpoiras Eus. F G, ed. Steph. : SoAacrcro 
Eus. F. ; elsewhere 6a\dff(rns. 

22. Plut. de El 8, p. 388 E ; cf. Philo, de incor. mun. 21, p. 508 ; 
Diog. Laer. ix. 8; Herakl. alleg. Horn. 43*; Euseb. P. E. xiv. 3, p. 720 &c. 

Probably only the word d/cm'/Bo/tai comes from Herakleitos ; cf. the 
two forms of Fr. 31 in Plutarch. 

23. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 712 (Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 676). 
Euseb. omits 77), Schuster reads yrjv : irpoaQfv Eus., rpuTov Clem. 

24. Philo, Leg. all. iii. 3, p. 88, de vict. 6, p. 242 ; Hipp. Ref. haer. 
ix. 10. Cf. Plut. de El 9, p. 389 c. 

25. Maxim. Tyr. xli. 4, p. 489. Cf. M. Antoninus, iv. 46. Plut. de 
El 18, p. 392 c (Eus. P. E. xi. 11, p. 528) and de prim. frig. 10, p. 949 A, 
gives simply irvpbs Odvaros atpos yeveffts. 

26. Hipp. Bef. haer. ix. 10. 

27. Clem. Al. Paedag. ii. 10, p. 229. -m, TWO. Schleierm., TI Gataker. 

28. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 10. Cf. Klean. H. Z. 10. Philodem. de 
piet. p. 70, Gomp. 



HERAKLEITOS 31 

21. The transformations of fire are, first of all, sea ; 
and of the sea one half is earth, and the other half is 
lightning flash. 

Zeller, i. 647 n. 1, regards irprjorrrjp as identical with 
/cepawos of Fr. 28. Burnett, Early Greek Philo- 
sophy, p. 153 n. 53, suggests fiery stormcloud, 
Seneca's igneus turbo. 

22. All things are exchanged for fire, and fire for all 
things ; as wares are exchanged for gold, and gold for 
wares. 

23. (The earth) is poured out as sea, and measures 
the same amount as existed before it became earth. 

V. Lassalle, ii. 63 ; Heinze, Logos, p. 25 ; Schuster, 
p. 129; Zeller, i. 690 n. 1. 

24. Want and satiety. 

Context : Fire is intelligent and the governing cause 
of all things. Herakleitos calls it want and satiety. 
In his opinion want is the process of arrangement, 
and satiety the process of conflagration. 

25. Fire lives in the death of earth, and air lives in 
the death of fire ; water lives in the death of air, and 
earth in that of water. 

Not accepted by Zeller, i. 676, who regards it as a 
Stoic version of Fr. 68. 

26. Fire coming upon all things will test them, and 
lay hold of them. 

Burnett suggests that the reference to a judgment 
(KpLveft) was inserted by Hippolytos to obtain the 
Christian idea of a judgment. 

27. How could one escape the notice of that which 
never sets ? 

Cf. Schuster, p. 184 ; Zeller, i. 649 n. 2 ; Teichmuller, 
i. 184. 

28. The thunderbolt directs the course of all things. 
Cf. Fr. 19. 



32 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

29. 77X10? ov% VTrspftrjasTai fjusrpa si 8s /AT;, 'Eipivvs? 
ftiv 8ticr)s sTTiKovpOL s^svprfcrova't,. 

30- qovs Kal so-7rsp^s rsp/juara 77 apicTos, ical avrioi 
rrjs ap/crov ovpos alOpiov Ato?. 

31. si /AT) 77X10? rjv, sv(f>povr) av r)V. 

32. vsos sty rjlASpr) 77X40*. 
34.* wpai Trdvra <f)spovcri. 

35. 8i8d(rfca\os 8s 7r\sl(7TO)v 'HWoSos rovrov STTI- 

TrXstcrra siSsvai, ocrns ^fjusprjv Kal sv(j)p6vr)v ovtc 
SCTTI yap sv. 

36. 6 ^0* rjfJ'Sp'ri sixppovr), ^si/icav Ospos, 7ro\s/j,o? 
lprjvr}, Kopos Xt/xos" dXXotoOrat 8s oicwcrTrsp btcorav <rv/j,- 

fi <0va>fj,a> OvcafAacri' ovofj,d%STai Kad' r/8ovr)V SKCKTTOV. 



29. Plut. de exil. 11, p. 604 A ; de Iside 48, p. 370 D. Cf. Hipp. Ref. 
liaer. vi. 26 ; Iambi. Prot. 21, p. 132. 

Pseudo-Herakl. Ep. ix. reads wo\\al S/KTJS 'Epwves, afj.apTi)fj.a.T(av 
<f>6\aites : Plut. 370 D reads \av6dveiv <f>t]trl rfj irdvrtav yevfcrei 
Karapu>fj.vov, fK fJ.&X' l l s Ka ^ o-vriiradeias ri]v ytvecriv exAvrcov ; 
9l\iov Sf n^i virtpP-fitreffdai rovs irpoffijKoi/Tos Spovs el 8s p-f), 
7\ctfTTas [K\<aOas, Hubnian] fj.iv S(/c?js etriKovpovs e^evpiiffeiv. 

30. Strabo, i. 6, p. 3. Vulg. adds 70? after ^oCs. 

31. Plut. Aq. et ign. 7, p. 957 A. Cf. Plut. de fort. 3, p. 98 ; Clem. Al. 
Prot. 11, p. 87 ; Somn. Scip. 1, 20. 

32. Arist. Met. ii. 2, p. 355 a 9 ; Alexander Aph. in Met. 1. 1. 93 a ; 
Olymp. in Met. 1. 1. ; Prokl. in Tim. p. 334 B. Cf. Plotin. Enn. ii. 1, p. 
97 ; Plato, Polit. vi. p. 498 B (and Schol.) ; Olymp. in Plat. Phaed. p. 
201 Fine. 

33. Diog. Laer. i. 23 yields no fragment. 

34. Plut. Quass. Plat. viii. 4, p. 1007 E. Cf. Plut. de def. orac. 12, 
p. 416 A ; M. Antonin. ix. 3. 

35. Hipp. Ref. liaer. ix. 10. MSS. ev<ppo<ri>i'riv, corr. Miller. 

36. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 10 (cf. v. 21). 

After Aijuek Bergk inserts from Hippolytos ravwria airavra &VTOS 
v&os. Bergk adds olvos after S/coxrTrep, Schuster after Ov<a/j.a<ri ; 
Bernays suggests Ovo>/j.a after a-v^ryy, Zeller typ, Diels irvp. 
MSS. read arvfj.fj.iyfi. 

* I keep Bywater's numbers, though I omit some of his fragments. 
Such omissions are referred to in the critical notes. 



HERAKLEITOS 33 

29. The sun will not overstep his bounds ; if he does, 
the Erinnyes, allies of justice, will find him out. 

30. The limit of the evening and the morning is 
the Bear ; and opposite the Bear is the boundary of 
bright Zeus. 

Strabo regards this as a Homeric expression for the 
fact that the northern circle is the boundary of 
rising and setting. Zeus aithrios means the clear 
heavens. 



31. If there were no sun, it would be night. 

32. The sun is new every day. 

33. (Herakleitos and Demokritos bear witness that 
Thales was an astronomer, and predicted eclipses, etc.) 

34. The seasons bring all things. 

' Time is not motion of a simple sort, but, so to speak , 
motion in an order which has measure and limits 
and periods. The sun, guardian of these, .... 
appoints and announces the seasons, which, accord- 
ing to Herakleitos, bring all things.' 

35. Hesiod is the teacher of most men ; they suppose 
that his knowledge was very extensive, when in fact he 
did not know night and day, for they are one. 

36. God is day and night, winter and summer, war 
and peace, satiety and hunger ; but he assumes different 
forms, just as when incense is mingled with incense ; 
every one gives him the name he pleases. 



34 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

37. si Trdvra ra ovra KCITTVOS ysvoiro, plvss av 
8iayvoisv. 

38. fa/ ^rv^ai oer/A&Wat KaO' "AtS^i/.f 

39. ra tywxpa dspsrai, dsppov -^rv^srai, vypov avaivs- 
rai, tcap<f>a\sov vori^erat. 

40. CTKiSvrjcri real (rvvdysi, Trpoasiai /cat arczicri. 

41 42. TTora/jLotcri Sis roi(Ti avrolcrt OVK av sfJL/Sairjs' 
sTspa yap (/cat srspa] sirippssi, v8ara. 

43. /jLSfJi<f>srai ro) 'Qftripat 'Hpdic\siTos SITTOVTI' a>s 
spi,s SK TS Oswv EK T' dv6pct)'7rci)v aTroXotTO ofyijGsa'Oai, 
yap (frrjcn iravra. 

44. TToXs/ioy Travrwv jj,sv Trarrjp scrri trdvrwv 8s 
ftacri\svs, /cat rovs fjisv dsovs sSsi^e TOVS Sg dv0po)7rovs, 
rovs [Asv SovXovs sTroi7)<rs TOVS 8s s\svdspovs. 



37. Arist. de sensu 5, p. 443 a 21. 

38. Plut. de fac. in orbc lun. 28, p. 943 E. Patin, Einheitslehre, p. 23, 
points out that this so-called fragment is probably due to a misunder- 
standing of the passage in Aristotle (Fr. 37). 

39. Schol. Tzetz. ad Exeg. in Iliad, p. 126, Hermann. Cf. Hippo- 
krates, trepl SIGU'TTJS 1, 21 ; Pseudo-Herakl. Epist. \. 

40. Plut. de El 18, p. 392 B. V. Pseudo-Herakl. Epist. vi. 

41. Plut. Quaes. nat. 2, p. 912 A. First half : Plato, Krat. 402 A; 
Arist. Metaph. xiv. 5, p. 1010 a 13 ; Plut. de sera num.vind. 15, p. 559 c ; 
de El 18, p. 392 A ; Simplic. in Arist. Pliys. 17 p. 77, 32 ; Ibid. f. 308 v. 

Plato and Simpl. read e's rbv avrbv irora.fji.6v. Byw. inserts ica.1 
e-rfpa, cf. his fr. 42 infra. 

42. Arius Didymus in Euseb. P. E. xv. 20, p. 821. [Cf. Sext. Emp. 
Pyrrh. hyp. iii. 115.] irorafjioicri -rolffi avroitri f/j./3a.ivovffiv trtpa. Kal crepe 
vSara tirippei. 

43. Simpl. in Arist. Cat. p. 104 A ed. Basil. (Scholl. in Arist. 88 b 28) ; 
Schol. Yen. ad II. xviii. 107, and Eustath. p. 1133, 56. Cf. Arist. Eth. 
Eud. vii. l,p. 1235 a 26 ; Plutarch de Isid. 48, 370 D ; Numen. in Chalcid. 
on Tim. 295. 

44 Hipp. Eef. haer. ix. 9. First part : Plut. de Iside 48, p. 370 D ; 
Prok on Tim. 54 A (cf. 24 B) ; Lucian, quomodo hist, cause. 2 ; Tear. 8. 



HERAKLEITOS 35 

37. If all things should become smoke, then percep- 
tion would be by the nostrils. 

Arist. ' Some think that odour is a smoky exhalation, 
. . . and that every one is brought in contact with 
this in smelling. So Herakleitos says that if all 
things,' etc. The reference is originally to the 
conflagration of the universe [exTrvpoxris]. 

38. Souls smell in Hades. 

Plutarch adds the reason : Because they retain a per- 
ception of what is fiery. 

39. Cool things become warm, the warm grows cool ; 
the wet dries, the parched becomes wet. 

40. It scatters and brings together ; it approaches 
and departs. 

This follows the next fragment, as illustrating change. 



41-42. You could not step twice in the same rivers ; 
for other and yet other waters are ever flowing on. 

43. Herakleitos blamed Homer for saying: Would i 
that strife might perish from among gods and men ! For i 
then, said he, all things would pass away. 

Aristotle assigns a different reason : For there could be f i 
no harmony without sharps and flats, nor living Lf 
beings without male and female, which are con- X 
traries. 



44. War is father of all and king of all ; and some 
he made gods and some men, some slaves and some 
free. 

D2 



36 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

45. ov vvia(ri OKWS Bia<f)Ep6/j,svov scovrw 6/j,o\oyesf 

TTCL\ivTp OTTOS CtpfAOvlr] OKWCTTTSp TO^OV KOI Xvptjf. 

46. TO avri^ovv <rvfj.<f)spov. SK rcov Bia(f>sp6vT(i)v 
Ka\\,i<TTr)v dpfiovlav. Travra ar' spiv 

47. dpfAOvlr/ d(f)avr/s <j>avspr)s 

48. fir) siKtj Trspl TWV iAS<yi(TT(i)v 

49. xpr) sv fMaXa TroXXwi/ 'icrropas (f)i\o(r6<f>ovs avBpa? 
elvai. 

50. <yva(f)a)V 6Sos svdsia Kal crKO\irj [lia scrrl teal 77 
avrr). 

51. ovoi cryp/xar' av s\oivro /jid\\ov rj %pvcr6i>. 

52. 6d\a(Tcra vBcop KaOapforarov /cat fjnapcorarov^ 

I'XJdvO'l /JiSV TTOTl/AOV KOL CTfOTIjplOV, dvdpUtTTOLS $5 CtTOTTOV 

KOL o\sdptov, 

58. Sues coeno, cohortales aves pulvere (vel cinere) 
lavari. 54. /3op/36pw 



45. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 9. Cf. Plato, Symp. 187 A, Soph. 242 D; 
Plut. de anim. procr. 27, p. 1026 B. 

MSS. 6/j.oXoyeetv, corr. Miller. Cf. (Bywater 56) Plut. de tranq. 
15, 473 ; de Is. 45, 369 ; Porphyr. de ant. nym. 29 ; Simpl. 
Phys. 11 r 50, 11. These writers give ira\lvTovos ; ira.\tv- 
Tpowos is probably from Parmenides v. 59 ; Plutarch inserts 

K6fffJ.OV. 

46. Arist. Eth. Nic. viii. 2, p. 1155 b 14. Cf. Theophr. Metaph. 15 ; 
Arist. Eth. End. vii. 1 ; 1235 a 13. These are rather summary 
phrases than quotations. 

47. Plut. de anim. procr. 27, p. 1026 c ; Hipp. Ref. Jiaer. ix. 9-10. 

48. Diog. Laer. ix. 73. 

49. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 733. 

50. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 10. MSS. ypcupfwv, corr. Duncker. The 
MSS. reading may be a participle introducing the quotation, and 
wrongly included in the excerpt, as Tannery suggests (Science hellen. 
pp. 198 ff.). 

51. Arist. Eth. Nic. x. 5, p. 1176 a 6. Cf. Albertus M. de veget. vi. 
401 (p. 545 Mey.) R. P. 40 B : ' Boves . . . felices . . . cum inveniant 
orobum ad comendum.' Bywater, Journal Philol. 1880, p. 230. 

52. Hipp. .Re/, haer. ix. 10. Cf. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. hyp. i. 55. 

53. Columella, de R. R. viii. 4. Cf. Galen, Protrept. 13, p. 5 ed. Bas. 

54. Athen. v. 178 F. Cf. Clem. Al. Protrept. 10, p. 75 ; Sext. Emp. 
Pyrrh. hyp. i. 55 ; Plotin. Enn. i. 6, p. 55. 



HERAKLEITOS 37 

45. Men do not understand how that which draws 
apart agrees with itself ; harmony lies in the bending 
back, as for instance of the bow and of the lyre. 



V. Bernays, Ehein. Mus. vii. p. 94. Beading 

TOVOS from fragment 56, we obtain the meaning 
' opposite tension ' more distinctly. 



46. Opposition unites. From what draws apart 
results the most beautiful harmony. All things take 
place by strife. 

Quoted by Aristotle as an illustration of the search for 
a deeper principle, more in accordance with nature. 

47. Hidden harmony is better than manifest. 

48. Let us not make rash conjectures about the 
greatest things. 

49. Men who desire wisdom must be learners of very 
many things. 

50. For woolcarders the straight and the crooked 
path is one and the same. 

51. Asses would rather have refuse than gold. 

52. The sea is the purest and the foulest water ; it 
is drinkable and healthful for fishes ; but for men it is 
unfit to drink and hurtful. 

Quoted by Hippolytos as an example of Herakleitos' 
identification of opposites. 



53-54. Swine like to wash in the mire ; barnyard 
fowls in the dust. 



38 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

55. rrav spTTsrov 77X77777 vsfisrai. 
56 = 45. 

57. dja6ov Kal /catcov ravrov. 

58. ol larpol rs^vovrss Kaiovrss Trdvrtj ftacravi^ovrss 
rovs dppuKj-rovvras siraiTiwvTCii iLrftiv aiov 

\afjif3dvsiv rcapa rwv dpptocrrovvrcov. 

59. avvd-^rsias ov\a Kal ov^l o5Xa, 
St,a(f)p6fAvov, <rvvaBov Sia&ov EK rrdvrwv l sv Kal 
Trdvra. 

60. SiKijf ovvofjia OVK av fjftscrav, si raOra /AT; 

61. frcG p,sv 0w Ka\a Trdvra Kal dyaOa Kal 
dv0pa>7roi Se a /Jiv aSiKa vTrsiX.ifaao'iv, a 8s St/cata.f 

62. lBsvai %prj rov 7ro\/jiov sovra %vvov, KOL SIKTJV 
spiv ' Kal yivo^va Trdvra Kar' spiv Kal '\xpa)/j,va'f. 

63. sari jap sifjLapftsva Trdvrws. . . . 



55. Ari^t. de mimdo 6, p. 401 a 8 (Apuleius, de mundo 36 ; Stob. 
Eel. i. 2, p. 86). From Cod. Flor. of Apuleius Goldbacher obtains the 
following (Zeit.f. d. Oester. Gymn. 1876, p. 496) : Zeus avavra evepycre? 
6/j.ais &s &v riva pepr) ffia/jiaros ainov. 

56. V. 45. 

57. Arist. Top. viii. 5, p. 159 b 30 ; Phys. i. 2, p. 185 b 20; Hipp. 
Ref. haer. ix. 10; Simpl. in Phys. 11 v. 50, 11 ; 18 v. 82, 23. 

58. Hipp. Ref. haer. ix. 10. Cf. Xen. Mem. i. 2, 54 ; Plato, Gorg. 
521 E, Polit. 293 B ; Simpl. in Epict. 13, p. 83 D, and 27 p. 178 A. 

Vulg. iufi$(i>, Sauppe /uTjSeVo : vulg. (j.i(r8cav, Wordsworth /jucr6bv. 
Bywater objects to fiaffavifrvrts and omits the phrases rovs 
appoxTTOvvras and irapa, TUIV appeaffrowrcav. 

59. Arist. de mundo 5, p. 396 b 12 (Apuleius, dc mundo 20 ; Stob. 
Eel. i. 34, p. 690). 

Stob. VA 0-uA.Actyei eis, Arist. Q <rvv&fyas, OR ffvvd\l/tfs : Arist. 
P, Stob. and Apul. oAo : Zeller omits Kal. 

60. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 3, p. 568. Cf. Pseudo-Herakl. Epist. vii. 

61. Schol. B in H. iv. 4, p. 120 Bk. Cf. Hippokr. de diaeta i. 11 
RP. 37 c ; Bernays, Herakl. 22. Probably a Stoic deduction from 
Herakleitos, and therefore to be omitted here. 

62. Orig. emit. Gels. vi. 42, p. 312. Cf. Pint, de soil. anim. 1, 
p. 964 ; Laer. Diog. ix. 8. 

Vulg. fi Se, Schleierm. dSc'j/ai : vulg. fptw, Schl. fpiv. 
[63. Stob. Eel. i. 6, p. 178. Vulg. f!/j.apnfvi), A ei'j 



HERAKLEITOS 39 

55. Every beast is tended by blows. 

Cf. Zeller, i. p. 724 : ' Every creature feeds on earth.' 

(56. Identical with 45.) 

57. Good and bad are the same. 

58. (Good and bad are one ; at any rate, as Hera- 
kleitos says) physicians, who cut and burn and in 
every way torment the sick, complain that they do 
not receive any adequate recompense from them. 

59. Thou shouldst unite things whole and things 
not whole, that which tends to unite and that which 
tends to separate, the harmonious and the discordant ; 
from all things arises the one, and from the one all 
things. 

60. They would not have known the name of justice, 
were it not for these things. 

According to the context in Clement ' these things ' 
refers to injustice. 

61. (God, ordering things as they ought to be, perfects 
all things in the harmony of the whole, as Herakleitos 
says that) for god all things are fair and good and 
just, but men suppose that some are unjust and others 
just. 

Cf. Hippocr. de Diaeta (Bernays, Herakl. 22 ; RP 37 c) 
Accordingly the arrangements (laws) which men 
have made are never constant, either when they 
are right, or when they are not right ; but the 
arrangements the gods have made are always right, 
both those which are right and those which are 
not right ; so great is the difference between them. 

62. Men should know that war is general and that 
justice is strife ; all things arise and [pass away] through 

' strife. 

63. For they are absolutely destined. . . 



40 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

64. Odvaros sa-rt, 6fc6(ra syspdevTS? opso/jisv, OKoaa 8s 
svBovTSf VTTVOS. 

65. v. 19. 

66. TOV (3iov ovvofia /Stos-, epyov 8s ddvaros. 

67. Osol OvrfToi, avdpanroL dddvaroi, ^WVTSS TOV 
sKslvoav OdvaTOv TOV BE efcstvwv ftiov TsdvswTSS. 

68. TJrvxfjcri jap ddvaTOS v8a>p ysvsa-Qai, vBctTi Be 
6dvaTOS jrjv ysvsa-Qaf etc yrjs 8s vBwp ylvsTai, e vBaTOS 

8s tfvxn- 

69. 6Bos dvw tcaTO) fj,a Kal oavTrj. 

70. %vvbv dp^rj Kal rrspas. 

71. ^v)(vjs TrsipaTO, OVK av sgsvpoio -rrdo-av STTI- 

6B6v. 



64. Clem. Al. Strom, iii. 3, p. 520. Of. Strom, v. 14, p. 712 ; Philo,. 
de Joseph. 22, p. 59. 

66. Schol. in II. i. 49 ; Cramer, A. P. iii. p. 122 ; Etym. Mag. under 
&los ; Tzetz. Ex. in II. p. 101 ; Eust. in II. i. 49, p. 41. Cf . Hippokr. de 
diaeta 21 otivona rpotyri, tpyov 8e ovxt. 

67. Hipp. Bef. haer. ix. 10 ; Herakl. Alleg. Horn. 24, p. 51 ; Maxim. 
Tyr. x. 4, p, 107, xli. 4, p. 489 ; Lucian, Vit. auct. 14 ; Porph. de ant. 
nymph. 10 ; Clem. Al. Paed. iii. 1, p. 251 ; Philo, Leg. alleg. i. 33, p. 65, 
and Qu. in Gen. iv. 152, p. 360. Human and divine nature identical : 
Dio Cass. Frr. i.-xxxv. Ch. 30, i. 40 Dihd. ; Stob. Eel. i. 39, p. 768. 

Hipp, reads aOdvaroi OVTJTOI, Gviyroi aOdvaroi ; Clement 
Oeol, 6fol 



68. Philo, de incorr. mundi 21, p. 509 ; Aristides Quint, ii. p. 106 
Meib. ; Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 2, p. 746 ; Hipp. Ref. haer. v. 16 ; Julian, 
Or. v. p. 165 D ; Prokl. in Tim. p. 36 c ; Olympiod. in Plat. Gorg. p. 357 
Jahn ; idem, p. 542. 

69. Hipp. Bef. haer. ix. 10. Cf. Plato, Phileb. 43 A ; Kleomed. it. 
p.fred>p<av i. p. 75 Bak. ; Maximus Tyr. xli. 4, p. 489 ; Tertull. adv. Marc. 
ii. 28 Diog. Laer. ix. 8 ; Plotin. Enn. iv. 8, p. 468 ; Iambi. Stob. Eel. 
i. 41 ; Hippokr. IT. rpoQrjs 45; Philo, de incorr. mun. 21, p. 508; and de 
somn. i. 24, p. 644 ; and de vit. Moys. i. 6, p. 85 ; Muson. Stob. Flor. cviii. 
60 ; M. Antonin. vi. 17. 

70. Porphyr. Schol. B. II. xiv. 200, p. 392 Bek. Cf. Hippokr. . 
r6ir(av 1, it. Siairijs 1, 19, it. Tptxprjs 9. Philo, Leg. all. i. 3, p. 44 ; Plut. 
de El 8, p. 388 c. 

71. Diog. Laer. ix. 7; Tertull.de anima 2. Cf. Hipp. Bef. haer. v. 7. 



HERAKLEITOS 41 

64. All the things we see when awake are death, 
and all the things we see when asleep are sleep. 



For various interpretations, v. Teichmiiller, i. 97 sq. ; 
Zeller, i. 715 ; Patin, Einheitslehre, 19. 



65. v. 19. 



66. The name of the bow is life, but its work is 
death. 

A similar play on words is found in Fr. 101. 



67. Gods are mortals, men are immortals, each 
living in the others' death and dying in the others' life. 

Of. Sext. Emp. Pyrrli. iii. 230, R.P. 38. 



68. For to souls it is death to become water, and for 
water it is death to become earth ; but water is formed 
from earth, and from water, soul. 

Clement quotes this as borrowed from Orpheus ; and 
Hippolytos also found it in the poets. 



same. 



69 Upward, downward, the way is one and the J 



70. Beginning and end are common (to both ways). 

71. The limits of the soul you could not discover, 
though traversing every path. 



42 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



72. -^rv^rja-i Tsp-^ris vypfjcri 

73. avrjp 6/coV av fA6v<T0r), aysrat VTTO TraiSos avrjfiov 
a-<f)a\\6/jisvos, OVK STraiwv OKTJ fialvsi, vyprjv rrjv 



74-76. avrj "*lrvxf) cro^wrdrr] KOI apia-ri). 

77. avdpcoTros, OKWS ev v(f>p6vrj <aos, aTrrsrai cnro- 
svvvTai. 

78. Tav'r slvat wv KOL rsOvrjKos, KOI TO eypijyopbs 
I TO /caOsvSov, fcal vsov Kal yrjpaiov rafts yap /tTa- 

ovra e/csivd s<7Ti tcafceiva 7rd\iv /jiSTajreaovTa ravra. 

79. aia>v irals sffri irai^wv Trsaa-svcov ' TraiSos 77 



72. Numen. Porphyr. de antro nymph. 10. 

73. Stob. Flor. v. 120. Cf. M. Antonin. iv. 46. 

74-76. Plutarch, Rom. 28; Aristid. Quint, ii. p. 106; Porphyr. de 
antro nymph. 11 ; Synesius, de insomn. p. 140 A Petav. ; Stob. Flor. v. 120 ; 
Glykas, Ann. i. p. 74 B ; Eustath. II. xxiii. 261, p. 1299, 17. 

Beading o^ ftp)] ^vx^i (Bywater 75 and 76) ; Philo, Euseb. P. E. 
viii. 14, p. 399 ; and de prov. ii. 109, p. 117 ; Muson. Stob. 
Flor. xvii. 43 ; Plut. de csu earn. i. 6, p. 995 E ; and de def. 
orac. 41, p. 432 F ; Clem. Al. Paedag. ii. 2, p. 184 ; Galen, it. 
ruv rfjs tfvxijs TlQuv 5, i. p. 346 Bas. ; Hermeias on Plato, 
PJiaedr. 73 ; Porphyr. d^op/x. irpbs TO VOT\TO. 33, 78. ' Ac 
suspicor illud avy)] irrepsisse pro aijtj ; quod aliquis exposuerit 
ilia voce frpd, unde orta est ilia lectio,' Stephan. Foes. Phil. 
p. 139. 

77. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 22, p. 628. 

Bywater emends the text of Clement to read : &vdpcairos ttirus eV 
ev(f>p6vr) (f)do$ airTfTai, waav-rus airoQavlbv otyeis. ca>> Se SiirreTat 
TfOveuros ev5(ai>, airofffieffBets ttyfis. typrfyop&s HirrtTai tvSovros, 
and compares Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 130 ; Seneca, Epist. 54. 

78. Plut. Consol ad Apoll. 10, p. 106 E; and de El 18, p.392D. (Ber- 
nays, Rhein. Mus. vii. p. 100, thinks that more of the contents of these 
passages is drawn from Herakleitean sources.) Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 22, 
p. 628; Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. iii. 230 ; Tzetz. Chil. ii. 722. 

79. Hipp. Ref. hacr. ix. 9. Cf. Clem. Al. Paed. i. 5, p. Ill ; Iambi. 
Stob. Eel. ii. 1, p. 12; Prokl. in Tim. 101 F; Plato, Legg. i. 644 D, x. 903o ; 
Philo, de vit. Moys. i. 6, p. 85 ; Plut. de El 21, p. 393 E ; Lucian, vit. 

. auct. 14. 



HERAKLEITOS 43 

72. It is a delight to souls to become wet. 

73. Whenever a man gets drunk, he is led about by 
a beardless boy, stumbling, not knowing whither he 
goes, for his soul is wet. 

74. The dry soul is wisest and best. 

Byw. 75. A dry beam is the wisest and best soul ; 
Fr. 76. Where the earth is dry, the soul is wisest and best. 



If Fr. 74 is the genuine form, the corruptions are 
very early. We cannot, however, regard all three 
forms as genuine, and it is at least doubtful whether 
Fr. 75 expresses a Herakleitean idea. 

Zeller and others add to Fr. 74 the rest of the phrase 
in Plutarch, ' flashing through the body as light- 
ning through the cloud.' 



77. Man, like a light in the night, is kindled and 
put out. 

78. Life and death, and waking and sleeping, and 
youth and old age, are the same ; for the latter change 
and are the former, and the former change back to the 
latter. 



79. Lifetime is a child playing draughts ; the king- 
dom is a child's. 



Clement understood alwv to be Zeus ; Hippolytos made 
it equivalent to cucivios, the eternal (king). 



44 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



II 



80. e&ifytrdfjbrjv E/ASCOVTOV. 

81. TroTafAoicri rola'i avrolcri s^alvo^sv TS KOI OVK 

E/jLJ3alvO/J,V, sl/JiSV TS KOI OVK slfASV. 

82. KapaTos iffTi TOIS avTols po^Bsiv KOI 

83. fASTa/3d\\ov avaTravsrai. 

84. Kal 6 KVKSWV SiicrraTai fjurj KIVSOJASVOS. 

85. VSKVSS KOirplwv sKftXrjTOTSpoi. 

86. ysvofisvoi (asiv sds\ovcn popovs r' s^s iv 
Se avcnravscrdaL^ Kal iralSas KaraXsiTrovai 



90. rows KaOsvSovTas spydras slvai [/cat crvvspyovs] 

TWV SV TU) KOCTfJiK) 



80. Plut.adv. Colot. 20, p. 1118 c; Dio Chrys. Or. 55, p. 282; Tatian, 
Or. ad Grace. ; Diog. Laer. ix. 5 ; Plotin. Enn. iv. 8, p. 468 ; Julian, Or. 
vi. p. 185 A ; Prokl. on Tim. 106 E ; Suidas s. v. iroo-rovpos. Cf . Clem. 
Al. Strom, ii. 1, p. 429 ; Plotin. Enn. v. 9, p. 559 ; Hesychius tSifrffa. 

81. Herakl. Alleg. Horn. 24 ; Seneca, Epist. 58. Cf. Epicharm. Fr. 
B 40 Lorenz. 

82. Plotin. .Ewn. ix. 8, p. 468; Iambi. Stob. Eel. i. 41, p. 906 ; Aeneas 
Gaz. Theophrast. p. 9 Barth. Cf. Hippokr. v. SICUTTJS i. 15 ; Philo, de 
clierub. 26, p. 155. 

83. Plotin. Enn. iv. 8, p. 468 and p. 473 ; Iambi. Stob. Eel. i. 41, p. 
906 and p. 894 ; Aeneas G. TJieophrasi. p. 9 and p. 11. 

84. Theophrast. ir. l\iyywv 9, p. 138 Wim. ; Alexand. Aphr. Probl. 
p. 11 Usen. Cf. M. Antonin. iv. 27. 

MSS. Alexander, n\>K\tv<av and IO-TOTOU : Theophrast. begins the 
sentence with n^, corr. Bernays. 

85. Strabo, xvi. 26, p. 784; Plutarch, Qu. conv. iv. 4, p. 669 A ; Pollux, 
Onom. v. 163 ; Origen, c. Gels. \. 14, p. 247 (quoting Celsus, v. 24, 
p. 253) ; Julian, Or. vii. p. 226 c. Cf. Philo, de profug. ii. p. 555 ; 
Plotin. Enn. v. 1, p. 483; Schol. V. ad II. xxiv. 54 ( = Eustath. ad II. 
p. 1338, 47) ; Epictet. Diss. ii. 4, 5. 

86. Clem. Al. Strom, iii. 3, p. 516. Mullach assigns the bracketed 
words to Clement. 

87-89. Plut. de orac. def. 11, p. 415s, andcf. Plac. phil. 24, p. 909 ; 
Censorin. de D. N. 17 ; lo. Lydus, de mensibus iii. 10, p. 37, ed. Bonn 
(Crameri A. P. i. p. 324) ; cf. Philo, Qu. in gen. ii. 5, p. 82. These 
passages do not yield any definite fragment of Herakleitos. 

90. M. Antonin. vi. 42. Pfleiderer rejects /ecu irwtpyobs. 



HERAKLEiTOS 45 

80. I inquired of myself. 

The translation follows the sense in Diogenes ; in 
Plutarch it is parallel with the Delphic oracle, 
'I have sought to know myself.' 



81. In the same rivers \ve step and we do not step ; 
we are and we are not. 

Cf. Fr. 41. 



82. It is weariness to toil at the same things, and to 
be subject to them. 

83. Changing it finds rest. 

84. Even a potion separates into its ingredients 
when it is not stirred. 

85. Corpses are more fit to be thrown away than 
dung. 

86. Being born they wish to live and to meet death, 
[or rather to find rest,] and they leave behind children 
to die. 



87. Thirty years make a generation, according to Hera- 
kleitos. 88. Not without reason does Herakleitos call a 
month a generation. 89. A man may become a grandfather 
in thirty years. 



90. The sleeping are workmen (and fellow-workers) 
in what happens in the world. 



46 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

91. %vvov so-Ti Tracrt TO <f>povssiv. vv vow \syovras 



Kal 7TO\V la-^VpOTSptJOS. Tpe<f)OVTat jap TTaVTSS 01 

dvdp&TTSioi vo/JiOL VTTO svos TOV Bstov KpaTssi, yap 
TOCTOVTOV OKOCTOV sdsXsi KOI s^apKssi Tracn teal irspi- 



92. rov \6yov S' SOVTOS gvvov, ^(oovo-t ol TroXXot cos- 

/// I8lr)v SVOVTSS (bpovricrw. 
1 1 1 /**. r - - 

93. u> fjid\io~Ta BII]VSKSO)S 6/j,i\eovo~i, rovra) SicMps- 

povrai. 

94. ov Ssl &Q-7rsp KaQsvSovras TTOLSIV Kal \sjstv. 

95. Tots s<ypr]<yop6o-iv sva Kal tcoivbv KOO-JJUOV elvai,, 
rwv 85 Koifj,a>/J,evo)v SKacrrov sis iSiov cnroo~Tp(f)o~6ai. 

96. rjdos dvOpaiTrsiov /JLSV OVK I^et jvwfias^ Osiov Ss 



97. dvrjp V^TTIOS ijtcovo-e Trpos SeUpOVOS otccoo-Trsp irais 
Trpbs dvBpos. 

100. /j,d%so-6ai %pr) rov Sfjftov vTrsp TOV vbpov OKCOS 

VTTSp 



91. Stob. Flor. iii. 84. Cf. Kleanth. H. Zeus 24 ; Hippokr. IT. 

15; Plut. de Isid. 45, p. 369 A; Plotin. Enn. vi. 5, p. 668 ; Empedokles, 
v. 231 Stn. 

92. Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 133, where the quotation is apparently 
longer. Burnett, 140, n. 35, acutely suggests typovetiv for \6yov. 

93. M. Anton in. iv. 46. 

94. M. Antonin. iv. 46. 

95. Plut. de supcrst. 3, p. 166 c. Cf. Hippolyt. Eef. liaer. vi. 26 ; 
Iambi. Protrept. 21, p. 132 Arcer. The form is Plutaroh's. 

96. Origen, c. Gels. vi. 12, p. 291. 

97. Origen, c. Gels. vi. 12, p. 291. Cf. M. Antonin. iv. 46 Bern. 

Safoovos E. Petersen, Hermes, 1879, xiv. 304. 

98. Plato, Hipp. Maj. 289 B. Cf. M. Antonin. iv. 16. 

99. Ibid. 289 A. The words of Herakleitos cannot be restored. Cf. 
Plotin. Ennead. vi. p. 626 ; Arist. Top. iii. 2, 117 b 118. 

100. Diog. Laer. ix. 2. 



HERAKLEITOS 47 

91. Understanding is common to all. It is neces- 
sary for those who speak with intelligence to hold fast 
to the common element of all, as a city holds fast to 
law, and much more strongly. For all human laws 
are nourished by one which is divine, and it has 
power so much as it will ; and it suffices for all things 
and more than suffices. 

92. And though reason is common, most people live 
as though they had an understanding peculiar to them- 
selves. 

93. With what they most constantly associate, with 
this they are at variance. 

94. It is not meet to act and speak like men asleep. 
Cf. Fr. 2 and 90. 

95. They that are awake have one world in common , 
but of the sleeping each turns aside into a world of his 
own. 

96. For human nature has not wisdom, but divine 
nature has. 

97. Man is called a baby by god, even as a child is 
by man. 

The translation is Burnett's, following the suggestion 
of Petersen in Hermes xiv. 1879, p. 304. 

Fr. 98. And does not Herakleitos, whom you bring 
forward, say this very thing, that the wisest of men will ap- 
pear as an ape before God, both in wisdom and in beauty 
and in all other respects ? Fr. 99. You are ignorant, sir, 
of that fine saying of Herakleitos, that the most beautiful 
of apes is ugly in comparison with beings of another kind, 
and the most beautiful of earthen pots is ugly in compari- 
son with maidenkind, as Hippias the wise man says. 

100. The people ought to fight for their law as for 
a wall. 



48 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

101. fiopoi fj,sov$ p,s^ovas fJLolpas \ay%dvov(ri. 

102. dprjKpaTOvs Osoi TIJAOMTI /ecu dvOpcoiroi. 

103. v/3pw xpr) a-ftsvvvsiv TJ vrvpKaiijv. 

104. dvOp(O7roi(ri yivsa-ffai oKocra 6s\ovcn OVK dfj,stvov. 
vovcros vyisiav eTroiijcrs ^Su ical djaOov, \t/j,bs icopov, 
.tcd/jLaros dvdiravariv. 



105. Ovfjiw fia^ea-Oat, %a\S7r6v o rt, yap av 
ytvecrOai, 



106. "\dv0pa)7roi(ri Trdai fisrscrrt <yi<y voter KSIV savrovs 

teal <TtO(f)pOVlV^. 



107. ^croMfrpovslv dpsrrj fMsyio-T'T)' /cal ffo^lrj d\f)dea 
~\,eysiv ical TTOISIV Kara (f)v<riv S 



108-109. d/j,aOlr)v dfisivov /cpvirreiv spyov 8s sv 
.dvs<ri real Trap' olvov. 

110. vofAos /cal /3ov\fj irsiOsa-Oai svos. 



101. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 7, p. 586 ; Theodor. Ther. viii. p. 117, 33. 
Cf. Hipp. Ref. Jiaer. 8. Theodor. reads /j.6voi. 

102. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 4, p. 571 ; Theodor. Ther. viii. p. 117, 33. 

103. Diog. Laer. ix. 2. M Cobet aftevvvvai, L a&evvvtiv. 

104. Stob. Flor. iii. 83, 4. Cf. euapeVrTjo-u, Clem. Al. Strom, ii. 
21, p. 497 ; Theodor. Ther. xi. p. 152, 25. 

105. Arist. Eth. Nik. ii. 2, p. 1105 a 8 ; and Eth. End. ii. 7, p. 1223 b 
22; and Pol. v. 11, p. 1315 a 29 ; Plut. de cohib.iraQ, p. 457 D; and 
Erot. 11, p. 755 D ; Iambi. Protrep. p. 140 Arc. ; and Coriol. 22. 

106. Stob. Flor. v. 119. Neither this nor the following fragment can 
be regarded as genuine. 

107. Stob. Flor. iii. 84. 

108. Plut. qu. conv. iii. prooem. p. 644 F ; and de audien. 12, p. 43 D ; 
and vi/rt. doc. posse 2, p. 439 D ; Stob. Flor. xviii. 32. 

109. Stob. Flor. iii. 82 Kpvirreiv a/j.adiriv itpeffffov t) ts rb fueffov fpepeiv. 
A variation of 108. 

110. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, p. 718 (Euseb. P. E. xiii. 13, p. 681). 

Euseb. jSot/Ajj, Clem. ^ov\^. /ecu' is suspicious. 



HERAKLEITOS 49 

101. Greater deaths gain greater portions. 

102. Gods and men honour those slain in battle. 



103. Wantonness must be quenched more than a 
conflagration. 



104. It is not good for men to have whatever they 
want. Disease makes health sweet and good ; hunger, 
satiety ; toil, rest. 



105. It is hard to contend with passion ; for what- 
ever it desires to get it buys at the cost of soul. 



106. It is the part of all men to know themselves and 
to be temperate. 107. To be temperate is the greatest 
virtue ; and it is wisdom to speak the truth and to act 
according to nature with understanding. 



108. It is better to conceal stupidity, but it is an 
effort in time of relaxation and over the wine. 



109. It is better to conceal ignorance than to put 
it forth into the midst. 



110. It is law to obey the counsel of one. 

E 



-50 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



111. TLS yap avrwv voos rj (frpriv ; [S^/icoy] doiBoiat 
STrovrai Kal SiSacr/caXro %psa)i>Tai 6/uA&), OVK slBorss on 
7ro\\ol KdKol, oXlyoi Bs dyaOol. alpsvvrat, yap ei/ avria 
irdvrwv ol apicrTOi, K\.eo9 dsvaov Ovnrwv, ol 8s TTO\\OI 



112. sv Tlpirjvr) Btas- sysvsro o Teirra/iHw ov TT\SU>V 
\6yos rj rwv aXktov. 

113. sis spol fivpioi, sav apto-rots 77. 

114. a^iov 'E^ecr/ots 1 rj/3r)8ov aTrdy^acrdai Tracrt Kal 
rols dvrjftois rrjv iroKiv KaTa\i7reiv, otTWSS 'E,p/j,68a)pov 
avBpa sa)vra>v ovrjicrrov s%sfta\ov, (fidvrss- 

sis ovr/iaras scrrfw, si Be pij, aX\,rj 8s teal //.er' 

115. KVVSS Kal (3avovcrt bv av 

116. amcfrir] Biacfrwyydvsi y 

117. ySXaf avdpWTros sjrl Travrl \6ya) 

<f)t,\Sl. 

118. Bofcsovrcav 6 BoKifAOiTaros yivdtxrKSt, <j>v\dff<T8lv 
/cal jbsvTOi ical SlK'T) Kara\^-rai suBewv rsKrovas Ka 



pprvpas. 



111. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 9, p. 682 ; and iv. 7, p. 586; Prokl. onAlkib. 
p. 255 Creuz, ii. 525 Cous. Clement omits first clause ; Proklos ends 
with ayaOo I. 

Some MSS. omit cw-riav, Prokl. alSovs f/iriJcoc re KO.\ 5i8a<r/caA.y 
Xpei&v Tf d/j.i\(f) OVK. Clem. Kal v6fj.oi<ri xP* ff Q al <5/i"A<p elS6ras. 
MSS. p. 682 ZvavTia. Eestored by Bernays, Heraclit. i. 
p. 34. 

112. Diog. Laer. i. 88. 

113. Galen, IT. Siayvwarecas <T(f>vy/j.cav 1. 1. iii. p. 53 ed. Bas. ; Symmachus, 
Epist. ix. 115 (105 Paris 1604) ; Theod. Prod, in Lazerii Misc. i. p. 20 ; 
and Tetrastich, in Basil, i. (fol. K 2 vers. ed. Bas.) ; Diog. Laer. ix. 16 ; 
Cicero, ad Att. xvi. 11 ; Cf. Seneca, Ep. 7. 

114. Strabo, xiv. 25, p. 642 ; Cicero, Tiisc. v. 105 ; Muson., Stob. 
Fkrr. xl. 9 ; Laer. Diog. ix. 2 ; Iambi, de vita Pyth. 30, p. 154 Arc. Cf. 
Lucian vit. auct. 14. 

115. Plut. An seni sit ger. resp. vii. p. 787. 

116. Plut.'ConoZ. 38; Clem. Al. Strom, v. 13, p. 699. Clem, airiarln. 

117. Plutarch, de audiendo 7, p. 4lA ; de and. poet., p. 28o. 

118. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 1, p. 649. Bergk <t>\vdffa-fiv, Bernays By- 
water ir\dfffffiv. 



HERAKLEITOS 51 

111. For what sense or understanding have they ? 
They follow the bards and employ the crowd as their 
teacher, not knowing that many are bad and few good. 
For the very best choose one thing before all others, 
immortal glory among mortals, while the masses eat 
their fill like cattle. 

112. In Priene was born Bias son of Teutamas, who 
is of more account than the rest. 

Diogenes adds the apothegm ' most men are bad.' 

113. To me one man is ten thousand if he be the 
best. 

114. The Ephesians deserve to be hanged, every one 
that is a man grown, and the youth to abandon the city, 
for they cast out Hermodoros the best man among them, 
saying : Let no one among us be best, and if one be 
best, let him be so elsewhere and among others. 

115. Dogs also bark at those they do not know. 

116. As the result of incredulity (divine things) miss 
being known. 

Either because men are incredulous, or the things in- 
credible. Cf. Zeller, Phil. Gr. i. 4 574A 2. Gomperz 
combined this with fragment 10. 

117. The fool is wont to be in aflutter at every word. 

118. The most esteemed of those in estimation knows 
how to be on his guard ; yet truly justice shall overtake 
forgers of lies and witnesses to them. 

If the reference is to Homer, read irXarre-w, ' knows 
how to create myths.' 

E 2 



52 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

119. rbv r 'Ofjbr)pov a^iov SK TWV dye/avow sK(3aK\ecr6ai 
teal pairi^scrdai, KOI 'Apxl\o%ov opoiws. 

121. r)9os avdp(t)TT(f> BaifjLcov. 

122. avOpwTrovs psvsi TS\svrr](Tavras aa-aa OVK 

ovSs SoKsovat. 

123. svOa t&oi>Ttf eTravia-Tao-Oat Kal <j)v\a/cas jivs- 
i sysprl ^wvrwv Kal 

124. vvKTtTro\o 

125. rd yap vopi^ofjisva /car' dvdpcajrovs ^v<nr]pt,a 



126 = 130Z>. 

127. i f*>r) jap AIOVIHTW 7ro/ji7rr)v STTOISVVTO Kal 
acr/ia alSoioicri, dvai&scrraTa etpyacrT' av wvros 
orsai 



119. Diog. Laer. ix. 1. Schleiermacher attributes to H. on the basis 
of Schol. Ven. A. on Iliad xviii. 251 Eustath. 1142, 5; Bywater suggests 
Herakleides and compares Eust. p. 705, 60, and Achilles Tat. Isag. p. 
124 B Petav. 

120. Seneca, Ep. 12 ' Unus dies par omni est.' The Greek cannot 
be restored from Plutarch, Camill. 19 <f>ixnv Ji/j.epas airda-ris /j.iai> ofto-av. 

121. Plutarch, Qu. Plat. i. 2, 999E ; Alex. Aphrod. defato 6, p. 16 (de 
anima ii. 48, p. 150) ; Stob. Flor. civ. 23. Cf. Pseudo-Herakl. Ep. 9. 

122. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 22, p. 630 ; Protrept. 2, p. 18 (Euseb. P. E. 
ii. 3, p. 66) ; Theodoret. Ther. viii. p. 118, 1. Cf. Themist. (Plut.) in 
Stob. Flor. cxx. 28. 

123. Hippolyt. Bef. haer. ix. 10 ; the fragment is quoted to show that 
Herakleitos believes in the resurrection of the flesh, and recognises that 
god is the cause of this resurrection. Cf. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 1, p. 649. 

Sauppe suggests evOa. debv Set ... <^uAa/ca, Bernays evdaSe f6vras : 
MSS. eyepTi6vTcav, corr. Bernays. Schuster suggests 5alfj.<av 
6e\ei evdaSf tovn firiiaraa'Qa.L Kal (f>v\ai<bs K. r. A. 

124. Clem. Al. Protrept. 2, p. 18 (Euseb. P. E. ii. 3, p. 66). 

125. Clem. Al. Protrept. 2. p. 19 (Euseb. P.E. ii. p. 67). Bywater 
compares Arnobius adv. nat. v. 29. 

126. (v. 130.) 

127. Clem. Al. Protrept. 2, p. 30. MSS. tiroiovvro, corr. Lobeck: 
MSS. efpyaffrai, corr. Schleierm. Clem. Al. Sreep, Plutarch, de Isid. 28, 
p. 362A lire oSi/ . . . \ripalvovfftv. 

128. lamblich. de Myst. v. 15. The Greek text cannot be restored. 



HERAKLEITOS 53 

119. (He used to say that) Homer deserved to be cast 
out of the lists and flogged, and Archilochos likewise. 

120. One day is equal to every other. 

121. Character is a man's guardian divinity. 

122. There awaits men at death what they do not 
expect or think. 

123. Then [it is necessary] that God raise them up ? 
and that they become guardians of the living and the 
dead. 

Or adopting Sauppe's conjectures in full ' that he become 
a watchful guardian. . .' 

124. Night-walkers, wizards, bacchanals, revellers, 
sharers in the mysteries. 

125. For what are esteemed mysteries among men 
they celebrate in an unholy way. 

127. For if it were not to Dionysos that they made 
the procession and sang the song with phallic symbols, 
their deeds would indeed be most shameful ; but Hades 
and Dionysos are the same, to whomever they go mad 
and share the revel. 



128. I distinguish two kinds of sacrifices ; those of men 
altogether purified, which would occur rarely, as Hera- 
kleitos says, in the case of a single indi^ 7 idual, or of some 
very few men easily counted ; secondly, those that are 
material and corporeal and composite through change, such 
as are in harmony with those who are still restrained by the 
body. 



54 THE FIHST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

129. atcsa. 

130. KaOaipovrai 8s aifjuari fj,iaivo/j,svoi wcnrsp av si 
TIS ss TrrfKov spfBas TTIJ^OJ aTrovl^otro. i^aivsadai S' av 

8oKol'TJ, Si TIS aVTOV dv6pC07TCi)V STTKJipda'atTO OVTCl) 

TTOisovra. fcal rots dydkftaa-i rovTsoicn 
OKolov si ris TOIS 86/j.oicri ^scr^rjvsvotTo, ov rt 
Osovs ou8' rjpwas arrives slcri. 

130a. si 0soi slcri,, f iva ri Qprjvssrs avrovs ; si 8s 
Oprjvssrs avrovs, JMTJICSTI, rovrovs rjysscrds dsovs. 



SPURIOUS FEAGMENTS. 

1.31. Trdvra -fyv^SiV sivat, KOI Sat/Aovwv 

132. TTJV TS oLr\cnv Ispav vocrov s^sys (cal rrjv opacriv 



133. sjKa\v7rrsos SKaaros 6 fjuaraiws sv 86^rj <ysvo- 

fJiSVOS. 



129. lamblich. de Myst. i. 11. 

130. Greg. Naz. Or. xxv. (xxiii.) 15, p. 466, ed. Par. 1778 irr)\f 
KaQaipovraiv . Elias Cretensis on the Gregory passage (cod. Vat. Pii II. 6, 
fol. 90 r) gives first thirteen words (Byw. 130). Cf. Apollonius, Ep. 27. 
Byw. 126, the last sentence, from Origen, c. Cels. i. 5, p. 6 (quoting Cel- 
sus) ; and in part vii. 62, p. 384, Clem. Al. Prot. 4, p. 44. The whole 
passage, lacking the last eight words, is published by Neumann, Hermes 
xv. 1880, p. 605 (cf. also xvi. 159), from fol. 83 a of a MS. entitled 
Xprj<7>tol dfcav (containing also works ascribed to Justin Martyr) formerly 
in the Strassburg library. 

This same MS. gives the following fragment, the last clauses of 
which Neumann joins to the passage as given in the text : 5ai/j.6vcav 
asyd.\l.a.<Tiv tlj^ovrat OVK aKovovtriv, Sxrirep atcovoifv, OVK aTroSiSovtriv, Siffwep 

OVK aTTCUTOlfV. 

130a. Given by Neumann from the Strassburg MS. just referred to- 
The saying is attributed to Xenophanes by Aristotle, Ehet. 23 ; 1400 b 5 
and Plutarch, v. infra, p. 78. 

131. Diog. Laer. ix. 7. 

132. Diog. Laer. ix. 7. Cf. Floril. MOIMC. 195, p. 282. 

133. Apollonius, Ep. 18. 



HERAKLEITOS 55 

129. (Herakleitos fittingly called religious rites) cures 
(for the soul). 

130. They purify themselves by defiling themselves 
with blood, as if one who had stepped into the mud were 
to wash it off with mud. If any one of men should 
observe him doing so, he would think he was insane. 
And to these images they pray, just as if one were to 
converse with men's houses, for they know not what gods 
and heroes are. 

180a. If they are gods, why do ye lament them ? And 
if ye lament them, no longer consider them gods. 



The fragment in the critical notes reads : ' To images 
of gods they pray, to those who do not hear, as 
though they might hear ; to those who do not 
answer, as though they might not make request.' 



131. All things are full of souls and of divine spirits. 

132. He was wont to say that false opinion is a sacred 
disease, and that vision is deceitful. 

133. Each one who has come to be esteemed without 
due grounds, ought to hide his face. 



56 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

134. ollfCTiS "TTpOKOTT^S SJKOTriJ irpOKOTrrjS. 

135. rrjv TraiSsiav srspov rfkiov slvai TOIS 

/JLEVOIS. 

136. rj sv/caipos %dpis Xt/iw KaOaTrsp rpocprj dpfjior- 
Tovcra rrjv TTJS tyv^s sv8siav larai. 



137. crvvroiJiwrdrriv o8bv 6 avrbs s\<ysv sis evSoglav 
TO ysvsaOai d<ya0dv. 



134. Floril. Monac. 199, p. '283. Cf. Philo, ap. loan. Dam. S. P. 
693 E, fr. p. 652 Mang. Stob. Flor. iv. 88 credits it to Bion ; Maxim. 
Conf. Serin. 34, p. 624 Combef. 

135. Floril. Monac. 200, p. 283. 

136. Maximus Conf. Serm. 8, p. 557. 

137. Maximus Conf. Serm. 46, p. 646. 

138. Schol. ad Eurip. Hek. 134, i. p. 254 Dind. 



TEANSLATION. 

134. False opinion of progress is the stoppage of 
progress. 

135. Their education is a second sun to those that 
have been educated. 

136. As food is timely in famine, so opportune 
favour heals the need of the soul. 

137. The same one was wont to say that the shortest 
way to glory was to become good. 

138 Timaios wrote thus : So Pythagoras does not 
appear to have discovered the true art of words, nor yet 
the one accused by Herakleitos, but Herakleitos himself is 
the one who is the pretender. 



HERAKLEITOS 57 

PASSAGES IN PLATO AND ARISTOTLE REFERRING TO 
HERAKLEITOS. 

Plato, Theceet. 160 D. Homer, and Herakleitos, and 
the whole company which say that all things are in 
motion and in a state of flux. Cf. 152 D H. 

Kratylos, 401 D. According to Herakleitos all things 
are in motion and nothing abides. Cf. 402 A, and frag. 
41 ; also 412 D, 440 c. 

Plato also alludes to fragments 32, 45, 98-99. 

Aristotle: Topica i. 11, 104 f 21. All things are in 
motion, according to Herakleitos. 

Top. viii. 5 ; 155 f 30. Wherefore those that hold 
different opinions, as that good and bad are the same 
thing, as Herakleitos says, do not grant that the opposite 
cannot coexist with itself ; not as though they did not 
think this to be the case, but because as followers of 
Herakleitos they are obliged to speak as they do. 

Phys. i. 2 ; 185 b 19. But still, if in the argument all 
things that exist are one, as a cloak or a himation, it 
turns out that they are stating the position of Herakleitos ; 
for the same thing will apply to good and bad, and to 
good and not-good, so that good and not-good, and man 
and horse, will be the same ; and they will not be argu- 
ing that all things are one, but that they are nothing, 
and that the same thing applies to such and to so much. 

Phys. iii. 5 ; 205 a 3. As Herakleitos says that all 
things sometime become fire. 

De ccelo i. 10 ; 279 b 16. And others in their turn . 
say that sometimes combination is taking place, and at C 
other times destruction, and that this will always con- 
tinue, as Empedokles of Agrigentum, and Herakleitos of 
Ephesos. 

De aniina i. 2 ; 405 a 25. And Herakleitos also 
says that the first principle is soul, as it were a 



58 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

fiery exhalation, of which all other things consist ; 
for it is the least corporeal and always in a state of 
flux, and the moving is known by the moving ; and he 
agreed with most thinkers in holding that things are in 
motion. 

De part anim. i. 5 ; 645 a 17. And as Herakleitos is 
reported to have said to strangers who wanted to meet 
him, who stopped when they entered and saw him 
getting warm by an oven for he bade them enter boldly, 
since, said he, gods are here so should one enter upon 
the investigation of each of the animals without timidity, 
as there is in them all something natural and beautiful. 

Met. i. 3 ; 984 a 7. Hippasos of Metaponturn' and 
Herakleitos of Ephesos call fire the first cause. Cf. 
996 a 9, 1001 a 15. 

Met. iii. 3 ; 1005 b 24. For it is impossible for any 
\ - one to postulate that the same thing is and is not, as 
*L some think Herakleitos says. 

Met. iii. 5 ; 1010 a 13. V. Frag. 41-42, supra. 

Met. iii. 7 ; 1012 a 24. For the word of Herakleitos, 
- that all things are and are not, se'ems to make all things 
) true. 

Met. x. 5 ; 1062 a 32. For one might ask Herakleitos 
himself after this manner and speedily compel him to 
agree that it is never possible for opposite statements to 
be true about the same things. Cf. 1063 b 24. 

Met. xii. 4 ; 1078 b 12. For the doctrine of ideas is 
held by its supporters because they are convinced by 
Herakleitos's words in regard to the truth, viz., that all 
things perceived by the senses are always in a state 
of flux ; so that if there is to be a science and a know- 
ledge of anything, it is necessary to assume the existence 
of other objects in nature besides those that are perceived 
by sense, for there can be no science of things in a state 
of flux. 



HERAKLEITOS 59 

Eth. ii. 3; 1105 a 8. It is harder to fight against 
pleasure than against anger, as Herakleitos says. 

Eth. vii. 3 ; 1146 b 30. For some believe their 
opinions no less strongly than what they know by scientific 
procedure ; and Herakleitos is an example of this. 

Eth. viii. 2; 1155b4. And Herakleitos says that 
opposition unites, and that the most beautiful harmony 
results from opposites, and that all things come into 
being through strife. 

Eth. x. 5; 1176 a 6. As Herakleitos says, an ass 
would prefer refuse to gold, for natural food is sweeter 
to asses than gold. 

Sext. Emp. adv. Math. vii. 129. According to Hera- 
kleitos we become intelligent when we get this 
divine reason by breathing it in, and in sleep we 
are forgetful, but on waking we gain our senses 
again. For in sleep since the pores of the senses are 
closed, the mind in us is separated from what is 
akin to it in what surrounds us, and its connection 
through pores is only preserved like a sort of 
root ; and being cut off it loses its former power of 
memory ; but when we wake it peeps out through 
the pores of sense as through little doors, and 
entering into connection witb wbat surrounds us it 
regains the power of reason. 



PASSAGES REFERRING TO HERAKLEITOS IN THE 
' DOXOGRAPHISTS.' 

Ar. Did. Epit. 39, 2; Dox. 471. Zeno as well as 
Herakleitos says that the soul is a perceptive exhalation. 
The latter desiring to make it clear that souls always 
gain mental faculties by giving forth exhalations, likened 
them to rivers ; and these are his words : (Fr. 42) ' Other 
and yet other waters are flowing on upon those who step 
in the same rivers.' 

Sim. in Phys. 6r ; Dox. 475. (Theophrastos says) 



60 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Hippasos of Metapontum and Herakleitos of Ephesos 
teach that the one is moved and limited, but they make 
fire the first principle and derive all things from fire by 
condensation and rarefaction, and again they resolve 
them into fire since this one thing is the essential 
nature underlying their appearance ; for Herakleitos 
says that all things are transformations of fire \_7rvpos 
afj,oij3vjv~], and he finds a certain order and definite time 
in the changes of the universe according to a fated 
[slfiapfiewriv] necessity. 

Theoph. de Sens. 1 ; Dox. 499. The followers of 
Anaxagoras and Herakleitos say that men perceive by 
the presence in themselves of the opposite quality. 

Phil, de Piet. 14, 25 ; Dox. 548. (Chrysippos) in 
his third book says that the universe is one of the beings 
endowed with sense, fellow-citizen with men and gods, 
and that strife and Zeus are the same thing, as Hera- 
kleitos says. 

Hipp. Phil. 44 ; Dox. 558. Herakleitos the Ephesian, 
a philosopher of the physical school, was always lament- 
ing, charging all men with ignorance of the whole of life, 
but still he pitied the life of mortals. Eor he would say 
that he himself knew all things, but that other men knew 
nothing. His language agrees quite well with that of 
Empedokles when he says that strife and love are the 
first principles of all things, and that god is intelligent 
fire, and that all things enter into a common motion 
and do not stand still. And as Empedokles said that 
the whole region occupied by man is full of evils, and 
that the evils extend from the region about the earth as 
far as the moon but do not go farther, inasmuch as all 
the region beyond the moon is purer, so also it seemed to 
Herakleitos. 

Epi. adv. Haer. iii. 20 ; Dox. 591. Herakleitos the 
Ephesian, son of Bleson, said that fire is the source of 



IIERAIvLEITOS 61 

all things, and that all things are resolved into fire 
again. 

Galen, His. Phil. 62 ; Dox. 626. Herakleitos says 
that the sun is a burning mass, kindled at its rising, 
and quenched at its setting. 

Herm. I.G.P. 13; Dox. 654. Perhaps I might 
yield to the arguments of noble Demokritos and want 
to laugh with him, unless Herakleitos led me to the 
opposite view as he said weeping : Fire is the first 
principle of all things, and it is subject to rarefaction 
and condensation, the one active, the other passive, the 
one synthetic, the other analytic. Enough for me, for I 
am already steeped in such first principles. 

Aet. i. 3 ; Dox. 283. Herakleitos and Hippasos say 
that the first principle of all things is fire ; for they say 
that all things arise from fire and they all end by 
becoming fire. As this is quenched all things come 
into the order of the universe ; for first the dense part 
of it contracting into itself becomes earth, then the 
earth becoming relaxed by fire is rendered water in its 
nature, then it is sublimated and becomes air ; and again 
the universe and all bodies are consumed by fire in the 
conflagration. [Fire then is the first principle because 
all things arise from this, and the final principle because 
all things are resolved into this.] 

Aet. i. 5 ; Dox. 292. Hippasos of Metapontum and 
Herakleitos the Ephesian say that the all is one, ever 
moving and limited, and that fire is its first principle. 

Aet. i. 7 ; Dox. 303. Herakleitos says that the 
periodic fire is eternal, and that destined reason working 
through opposition is the creator [Srj/jno vp<yov] of things. 

Aet. i. 9 ; Dox. 307. H. et al. declare that matter 
is subject to change, variation, and transformation, and 
that it flows the whole through the whole. 

Aet. i. 13 ; Dox. 312. H. introduces certain very 



62 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

small and indivisible particles (or H. seems to some to 
leave particles, instead of the unity). 

Aet. i. 23 ; Dox. 320. H. denies rest and fixed 
position to the whole ; for this is the attribute of dead 
bodies ; but he assigns eternal motion to what is eternal, 
perishable motion to what is perishable. 

Aet. i. 27 ; Dox. 322. H. says that all things happen 
according to fate and that fate itself is necessity. Indeed 
he writes ' For it is absolutely destined.' (Frag. 63.) 

Aet. i. 23 ; Dox. 323. H. declares that reason, pervad- 
ing the essence of the all, is the essence of fate. And 
it is itself ethereal matter, seed of the generation of the 
all, and measure of the allotted period. 

Aet. ii. 1 ; Dox. 327, Herakleitos et al. The universe 
is one. 4; Dox. 331. The universe is generated not 
according to time, but according to thought. 11 ; Dox. 
340 ; H. et al. The heaven is of a fiery nature. 
13 ; Dox. 342. H. and Parmenides. The stars are 
compressed bits of fire. 17 ; Dox. 346. H. and Farm. 
The stars are nurtured by an exhalation from the earth. 
20 ; Dox. 351. H. and Hekataios. The sun is an 
intelligent burning mass rising out of the sea. (The 
same words are assigned to Stoics, Plut. 2, 890 A ; Dox. 
349.) 21 ; Dox. 351. It is as great ' as the width of a 
human foot.' 22 ; Dox. 352. It is bowl-shaped, rather 
gibbous. 24 ; Dox. 354. An eclipse takes place by the turn- 
ing of the bowl-shaped body so that the concave side is 
up ward, and the convex side downward toward our vision. 
[25 ; Dox. 356. The earth is surrounded with mist.] 27 ; 
Dox. 358. (The moon) is bowl-shaped. 1 28 ; Dox. 859. 
Sun and moon are subject to the same influences. For 
these heavenly bodies being bowl-shaped, receive bright 
rays from the moist exhalation, and give light in 
appearance [irpos TIJV <f>avTaa-iav] ; the sun more 

1 Cf. Galen. Hist. Phil. 64 ; Dox. 626. 



HEKAKLEITOS 63 



brightly, for it moves in purer aether [.*?/)], and the moon 
moves in thicker aether and so it shines more dimly. 
29 ; Dox. 359. Eclipses of the moon are occasioned by 
the turning of the bowl-shaped body. 32 ; Dox. 364. 
The great year consists of eighteen thousand sun-years. 
According to Diogenes and Herakleitos the year consists 
of three hundred and sixty-five days. 

Aet. in. 3 ; Dox. 369. Thunder is occasioned by 
a gathering of winds and clouds, and the impact of 
gusts of wind on the clouds ; and lightning by a 
kindling of the exhalations ; and fiery whirlwinds 
[Trprjar-fjpas] by a burning and a quenching of the clouds. 

Aet. iv. 3 ; Dox. 338. Parmenides and Hippasos 
and Herakleitos call the soul a fiery substance. 7 ; Dox. 
392. H. says that souls set free from the body go 
into the soul of the all, inasmuch as it is akin to them 
in nature and essence. 

Aet. v. 23 ; Dox. 434. Herakleitos and the Stoics say 
that men come to maturity at about fourteen years, with 
the beginning of sexual life ; for trees come to maturity 
when they begin to bear fruit. . . And at about the age 
of fourteen men gain understanding of good and evil, 
and of instruction as to these matters. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 65 



V. 

THE ELEATIC SCHOOL : XENOPHANES. 

XENOPHANES of Kolophon, son of Dexias (Apollodoros 
says of Orthomenes) , was the founder of the Eleatic 
School. After a careful review of the evidence, Zeller 
(Vorsokr. Phil. pp. 521-522) concludes that he was born 
about 580 B.C. ; it is agreed by all writers that he lived 
to a great age. The stories of his travels and adven- 
tures are very numerous. He speaks of the war between 
the Ionic colonies and the Persians as beginning in his 
youth. According to Diogenes he sang the founding of 
Elea in 2,000 hexameter verses. The reference to him by 
Herakleitos (Fr. 16) indicates the general respect for his 
philosophy. He composed poetry of all varieties, and is 
said to have recited his own poems. His philosophic 
views were embodied in a poem which was early lost, and 
to which later ages gave the name ' Trspl 



Literature : Brandis, Comm. Eleat. 1813 ; Cousin, 
Nouv. frag. phil. 1828, pp. 9-45; Karsten, Phil. 
Graec. vet. reliq. i. 1, 1830 ; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
Graec. ii. ; F. Kern, Quaestionum Xenophanearum 
cap. duo, Naumb. 1864 ; Beitrdge, Danzig 1871 ; 
Ueber Xenophanes, Stettin 1874 ; Freudenthal, Die 
Theologie des Xenophanes, 1886 ; and Archil) f. d. 
Gesch. d. Phil. i. 1888, p. 322 sqq. ; Thill, Xeno- 
phane de Colophon, Luxemb. 1890. 

On the book De Xen. Zen. Gorg. Aristotelis, v. Fiille- 
born, Halle 1789; Bergk/ 1843; Mullach, 1845; 
Ueberweg, Philol. viii. 1853, p. 104 sqq. ; xxvi. 
1868, p. 709 sqq.; Vermehren, 1861; F. Kern, 
Symbola crit. ad libellum IT. Hevo^>. etc. Oldenb. 
1867; Diels' Doxogr. pp. 109-113; Zeller, Ge- 
schichte d. Phil. d. Griechcn, i. 499-521. 



66 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 
(a) FRAGMENTS OF XENOPHANES.* 

1 19 6e6s SV TS 0ol(Tt Kdl dvOpCOTTOKTl p.S'yHTTOS, 

ovrs 8sfjids OvrjToicriv opouos ovrs vorjfAa. 

2 ov\os opa, ov\o$ 8s vast, ov\os 8s T' d/covsi. 

3 aXV airavsvOs TTOVOIO voov <f>psvl Trdvra Kpa8alvei. 

4 dlsl 8' SV TdVTO) fJLtfJLVSl, KlVOVfAVOV Ov8sV, 

oi>8s f^rsp^<r6dl puv sTmrpSTrsi a\\ors d\Xr/. 

5 aXXa /Sporol 8oKsov<Ti yswdadat Osovs, 

Trjv (T(f>Tpav S' scrdf)Td r' s^siv fywvrjv TS SsfACis re. 

6 ... d\\' s'l %slpas s^ov (3oss rjs \sovrs, 

<Ct>y> rypatycu ^ip(T(Ti KCU Spja T\IV ttTTSp av8pS, 

Kdi K 0SWV i8sas sypa<f)ov KOI crco^aar' STTOIOVV 
roiavd', olov Trsp Kal avTol 8s/j,as sl^ov <e/cacrTOt> 

ITTTTOl JJUSV 6' 'iTTTTOlCri, (3oS 8s T /SoVCrlv O/jlOid. 

Sources and Critical Notes. 

1. Clem. Alex. Strom, v. p. 714. Euseb. Praep. Ev. xiii. 13, p. 
678 D. MS. ot>5e 5', ... ovrt, corr. Potter. 

2. Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 144. 

3. Simplic. Phys. 6 r 23, 20 ; Dox. 481. 

4. Simplic. Phys. 6 r 23, 11 ; Dox. 481. 

5. Clem. Al. Strom, v. p. 714 ; Euseb. Praep. Ev. xiii. 13, p. 678 D, 
following Fr. 1. Theodoret, Gr. Aff. Curat. iii. 72, p. 49. 

V. 1 : Theod., Clem. cd. Par. and Ed. Floren., Euseb. C-FGJread 
a\\' ol Pporoi. Text follows remaining MSS. of Clem, and 
Euseb. V. 2 : Theod. Kal foriv, Clem, and Euseb. r^v fffytTfpav; 
Theod. r' aX<rOi)ffiv, Clem, and Euseb. 8' fffd^ra. 

6. Clem. Euseb. and Theod. after preceding fragment. Line 5 stands 
third in MSS. and earlier texts ; Karsten places it fifth. 

V. 1 : Clem, and Theod. dAA' ft TOI x'P as 'X" : Clem. Euseb. 
AeWes, Theod. eAe^vres. V. 2 : Euseb. FG /eal, other MSS. 
*), corr. Killer. V. 3 : Euseb. and Theod. nai ice : Eus. DEFG 
Senior'. V. 4 : MSS. fcrxov, corr. Karst. : MSS. buoiov, 
Meineke fKcwroj. V. 5 : Clem. Theod. 6/j.o'ioi, Eus. '6/j.oioi, 
Earst. o/j.o'ia. 

* The text follows in the main the edition of Bergk-Hiller, Poet. Lyr. 
Grace., Leipzig, 1890. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 67 

TRANSLATION. 

1. God is one, supreme among gods and men, and 
not like mortals in body or in mind. 1 



2. The whole [of god] sees, the whole perceives, the 
whole hears. 2 



3. But without effort he sets in motion all things by 
mind and thought. 



4. It [i.e. being] always abides in the same place, not 
moved at all, nor is it fitting that it should move from 
one place to another. 



5. But mortals suppose that the gods are born (as 
they themselves are), and that they wear man's clothing 
and have human voice and body. 3 



6. But if cattle or lions had hands, so as to paint 
with their hands and produce works of art as men do, 
they would paint their gods and give them bodies in 
form like their own horses like horses, cattle like cattle. 4 



1 Zeller, Vorsokratische Philosophie, p. 530, n. 3. 
- Zeller, 526, n. 1. No author is given in the context; Karsten 
follows Fabricius in accrediting it to Xenophanes. 

3 Zeller, 524, n. 2. Cf. Arist. Bhet. ii. 23 ; 1399 b 6. 
1 Zeller, 525, n. 2. Diog. Laer. iii. 16 ; Cic. de nat. Dear. i. 27. 

F 2 



68 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

7 Travra dsjis avsdr]<cav"O^p6s 0' 'Hcr/oSos- TS 
oacra Trap av6pu>TTOicrLi> ovsiSsa /cal fyo'yos sent, 
Kal TrXftar' <f)dey};avTO Oswv d@Sfj,l(TTia spya, 
K\s7TTtv, pot'xsvsiv TS Kal aXXr/Xous aTrarsvsu'. 

8 SK <yair]9 <yap irdvra, Kal sis <yr/v Trdvra rsXsvra. 

9 TTCLVTSS jap yairjs rs Kal vSaros sKysvo/ASa-da. 

10 77} Kal vBwp Trai/r' sa& ocra ylvovr' i}8s <J3vovraL. 

11 7T7/7?; 8' scrri 6d\acrcr' vlaros, Trr/yr) S' dvsfj,oio" 
ovrs <yap sv vs<f)scriv < Trvoiai K dvs/j,oio fyvoivro 

KTTVioVTOS> (7(1)6 SV O.VSV TTOVTOV jjiS^aXoLO 

GVTS poal TTorafAwv our' aldspos o/uiftptov v8a>p 
aXXa. /j,>yas TTOVTOS ysvsrwp v<psa)v avsp^wv TS 

Kal TTOTajJiWV. 

12 <yairjs psv roSe Trslpas avw Trapa Troaalv opaTai, 
aldspi 7rpO(nr\'i^ov, TO, Ktirw $ ss ajrsipov iKa 

13 rfv r' 'Ipty Ka\sovai, vsfyos Kal TOVTO 

Kal <f)oiviKSov Kal 



7. Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 193 and i. 28'J combined. 
V. 3 : MSS. 8s, Karst. /cal. 

8. Sext. Emp. Math. x. 313 ; Stob. Eel. Phys. i. p. 294, Dox. 284 ; 
Schol. Vill. and Schol. Min. to Homer, II. H 99. 

9. Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 361 arid x. 313 ; Eustath. II. H 99, p. 668, (50. 

10. Simplic. Phys. 41 r 189, 1, attributes this verse to Anaximenes 
on the authority of Porphyry. Joh. Philoponus (Phys. i. 188 b 30) attri- 
butes it to Xenophanes on the same authority. 

MS. y(vovra.i, corr. Diels. 

11. Schol. Genev. to Homer, II. I 199, 2. V. Sitz. d. berl. Akad. 
June 18, 1891. I have inserted Diels' emendation in lines 2 and 3. The 
first line also occurs in Stob. Fior. ed. Gais. iv. App. p. 6. 

12. Achill. Tat. in Isagoge ad Aratum (Petavii Doctr. Tensor, iii. 
p. 76). Cf. Aristotle, da Xenophane, &c., 2 ; 976 a 32. 

V. 2 : Kal f>e~L Trpoffir\a.^ov, ra Kdrta 8' els, Karst. ai6fpi. 

13. Eustath. II. A 24, p. 827, 59 ; Schol. Vill. ad II. A 27 and Schol. 
Leyd. in Valckenaer, Diatr. Eurip. p. 195. 



THE ELEATIC SCIiOOL: XENOPHANES 69 

7. Homer and Hesiod attributed to the gods all things 
which are disreputable and worthy of blame when done 
by men ; and they told of them many lawless deeds, 
stealing, adultery, and deception of each other. 1 



8. For all things come from earth, and all things end 
by becoming earth. 2 



9. For we are all sprung from earth and water. 3 



10. All things that come into being and grow are 
earth and water. 



11. The sea is the source of water and the source of 
wind ; for neither would blasts of wind arise in the clouds 
and blow out from within them, except for the great sea, 
nor would the streams of rivers nor the rain-water in 
the sky exist but for the sea ; but the great sea is the 
begetter of clouds and winds and rivers. 

12. This upper limit of earth at our feet is visible 
and ttouches the air,f but below it reaches to infinity. 4 



13. She whom men call Iris (rainbow), this also is by 
nature cloud, violet and red and pale green to behold. 



1 Zeller, 525, n. 3. Of. Diog. Laer. ix. 18 ; Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. L 224. 
- Cf. Stob. Eel. Pliys. ii. 282, /c irvpbs yap ra iravra Kal fis irvp rn 
iravra rftevrq, which Karsten does not assign to Xenophanes. 

3 Zeller, 541, n. 1. Cf. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. ii. 30. 

4 Cf. Arist. dc Coelo ii. 13 ; 294 a 21. 



70 

14 KOI TO fj,sv ouv tracts ovns dvrjp yevsr' ov$s ris scnat 
i8o)s dfAipl 6ewv rs KOI acrcra \sya) r rrpl vrdvrwv 

si yap KOI TO, /jid\i(TTa rv^oi TT\s<rfisvov eiTTMP, 
avros ofjiws OVK ol8s" So/cos 8' sjrl Tra&t TSTvrcrai. 

15 ravra 8e&6gacr6ai JJLSV soifcora rots srvf 

16 ovrot air dp^rjs iravra 9 soil Ovrfrois vTrs 
aXXa %p6va> fyrsovrss s(j)evpi(TKOV(Tii> apsivov. 

17 Trap Trvpl %pr) roiavra \sjsiv %i/j,(!)vos sv &prj 
sv K\.ivy /taXa/c?} KaTa/csl/ASvov, SJJLTT\OV ovra, 
irivovra <Y\VKVV olvov, vTroTpwyovr' spsftlvOovs 

TIS 7r60v ls dv&pwv ; Troaa rot, ere' Jerri, <f>epi<TTE ; 
7rij\iKos TjcrO^ od' 6 M^Sos d(f)iKro ; 

18 vvv avr' a\\ov sTrstfJii, \6yov, Sei'^w Se KS\vOov. 



/Cat 7TOTS fAiV <TTV(f)\l%0/J,SVOV (TKV\aKOS TTaptOVTO, 

(paalv STToi/cripai ical TO& fyda'dai, STTOS 
Travcrai fjurj^s pdiri^, sirii rj <piXov dvspos SCTTCV 5 
^1^77, rrjv syvwv ^d^^ap.svqs dla)v. 



14. Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 49 and 110, and viii. 326. Vv. 1-2 : Hut. 
aud. poet. 17 E ; Laer. Diog. ix. 72. Vv. 3-4 : Hipp. Phil. 14, Dox. 
565 ; Origen, Philos. xiv. vol. i. p. 892 ; Galen, de diff. puls. iii. 1, viii. 
p. 62. Last half line : Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. ii. 18 ; Proklos in Tim. 
p. 78, &c. 

V. 1 : Sext. Diog. 1$tv. V. 3 : Galen V 70^ KO! TO yueyitrra rvxy 
rfTe\ffffjifva, Hipp. TWXJ?. 

15. Plut. Symp. ix. 746 B. Karst. reads SfSd^currai. 

16. Stob. Flor. xxix. 41 G, Eel. Phys., I. 224. 

V. 1: Flor. eV<=8e<a>/, Eel. irapt^av. V. 2: Eel. MS. Flor. 
f<t>fvpiffKovffiv, other MSS. <p(vpi<ricov. 

17. Athen. ii. p. 54 E. V. 3 : Eustath. p. 948, 40. 

18. Diog. Laer. viii. 36 ; Suidas, v. sevotyavtis. AntJwl. Graec. i. 86, 
p. 345, ed. Bosch, prefixes two verses which Karsten assigns to Apollo- 
doros on the evidence of Athen. 418 E. 

V. 1 : MSS. vw ovv T', corr. Steph. V. 3 : Suidas Qwi 7'. V. 5 : 
Karst. Ti?y. Suidas BE <t>Ofya(jLevi)v. 



THE ELEAT1C SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 71 

14. Accordingly there has not been a man, nor will 
there be, who knows distinctly what I say about the 
gods or in regard to all things, for even if one chances 
for the most part to say what is true, still he would 
not know ; but every one thinks he knows. 1 



15. These things have seemed to me to resemble the 
truth. 



16. In the beginning the gods did not at all reveal 
all things clearly to mortals, but by searching men in 
the course of time find them out better. 



17. The following are fit topics for conversation for 
men reclining on a soft couch by the fire in the winter 
season, when after a meal they are drinking sweet wine 
and eating a little pulse : Who are you, and what is your 
family? What is your age, my friend? How- old 
were you when the Medes invaded this land ? 

18. Now, however, I come to another topic, and I will 
show the way. . . . They say that once on a time when a 
hound was badly treated a passer-by pitied him and said, 
* Stop beating him, for it is the soul of a dear friend ; I 
recognised him on hearing his voice.' 

1 Zeller, 549, n. 2. Burnett, ' All are free to guess.' 



72 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

19 aXX' si /J>sv ra^vrijTi iroSwv VIKTJV ris dpoiro 

r) 7rsvra6\sv(i)v, svOa Atos rspsvos 
Trap Tlicrao pofjo-' sv 'OXfyu-TTir;, sirs TraXatW, 

r) teal TrvKTocrvvr/v a\,<yivos(Tcrav s^wv, 
sirs TO 8stvov as@\ov, o Trayicpdriov tcaXsovffiv, 5 

dcrroio-iv K sir) Kv8porspos Trpocropav, 
icai KS TrposSplrjv (fravsprjv sv dywcriv apoiro, 

Kai KSV crtr' 177 8rjfji0(7ici)v KTSCLVWV 
ex TToXscos KOI Bwpov, 6 ol KSi/Jiri\iov sirj 

sirs Kal iTnroicriv, ravrd ^ diravra Xa^ot, 10 
OVK s(t)v a^tos, OHTTrsp tyco fxafjirjs jap 

dvSpwv 778' i7T7ra>i> rjfjLsrspr] crofyir). 
a\V sttcfj yttaXa TOVTO vofAL^srai' ovfts 

TTpOKpivsiv pcoprjv rrjs dyadijs (ro^irfs. 
ovrs jap si TrvKTrjs djados \aolai, fjisrsirj, 15 

our' si Trsvra6\slv, ovrs TrdXaia-pocrvvriv, 
ov8s /JLSV si ra^vrr}rt TTO^WV, roTrsp sari Trport/Jiov 

pcbfjLrjs ocrcr' dvSpwv sp<y ev dywvi TTS\SL, 
TOVVSKSV av or) fj,d\\ov sv svvo^irj rro\is sir) 

a/jiiKpov o' av rt, TTO\SI ^dp/jia jstsoir' sirl T<W, 20 
si rts ds&\ev<av VIKW ITicrao Trap' 

ov yap Triaivsi ravra fjivj^o 

20 dftpocrvvas 8s fiaOovrss dvw(f)S\sas irapa A.v8wv, 

o<f)pa rvppavirjs f/crav avsv arvysprjs, 
rjs<rav sis dyoprjv 7rava\ovpysa (paps' 

OV pSlOVS OHTTTSp ^t'XtOt SIS STTlTTaV, 



do-fcr/roi$ oS/jirjv ^pifjiao-i Ssvopsvoi. 



19. Athen. x. 413 F. 

V. 3 : Schneidewin ^oeis, cf. v. 21. V. 5 : MSS. T, Wakef. rb. V. 6 : 
Vulg. irpbs &Kpa, Jacobs irpocropav from MS. A irpofffpav. V. 8 : MSS. 
frirenj, corr. Turnebus. V. 10 : Dindorf connects with the preceding line 
and reads oft K lot &ws. V. 15 : A Kaoiyiv er' tit], corr. Steph. 

20. Athen. xii. p. 526. 

V. 1 : MSS. atypoffvvas, corr. Schneider V. 2 : Vulg. M trrvytpris. corr. 
Dindorf. V. 4 : AB &<rirep, PVL tfirep. V. 5 : Last word : Schneidewin 
Tavaficriv, Bergk' prefers ayd\fjiaari T'. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPIIAXES 73 

19. But if one wins a victory by swiftness of foot, or 
in the pentathlon, where the grove of Zeus lies by Pisas' 
stream at Olyrnpia, or as a wrestler, or in painful boxing, 

5 or in that severe contest called the pancration, he would 
be more glorious in the eyes of the citizens, he would win 
a front seat at assemblies, and would be entertained 
by the city at the public table, and he would receive a 
gift which would be a keepsake for him. If he won 

10 by means of horses he would get all these things 
although he did not deserve them, as I deserve them, 
for our wisdom is better than the strength of men or of 
horses. This is indeed a very wrong custom, nor is it 
right to prefer strength to excellent wisdom. For if there 

15 should be in the city a man good at boxing, or in the 
pentathlon, or in wrestling, or in swiftness of foot, which 
is honoured more than strength (among the contests men 
enter into at the games), the city would not on that 
account be any better governed. Small joy would it be 

20 to any city in this case if a citizen conquers at the games 
on the banks of the Pisas, for this does not fill with 
wealth its secret chambers. 

20. Having learned profitless luxuries from the Ly- 
dians, while as yet they had no experience of hateful 
tyranny, they proceeded into the market-place, no less 
than a thousand in number all told, with purple garments 
completely covering them, boastful, proud of their comely 
locks, anointed with unguents 6f rich perfume. 



74 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



21 vvv yap Srj ^aTTsBov rcaOapbv teat ^slpss d 

Kal KV\tK!f ir\,KTOVS S' afJi(j)iTl6si <TT(j)dvOVS, 

a\\os 8' va)Sss fjivpov sv <pid\r) Traparslvsi 
tcparrjp 8' saTtjKSV fAScrrbs sv<ppocrvvi]S ' 

B 1 oilvos STOi/jios, os OVTTOTS (faqo'i, TrpoSwa'Siv, 5 

sv Kspdfioicr' , avdsos ocrBopsvos' 
sv os /zaro/.cr' dyvrjv ob/jrjv \iftavwros fycnv, 

^rv^pov 8' scrnv vSwp teal <y\vicv KCU KaOapov 
Trdp/csivrai S' aproi %avdol <yspapij TS rpaTrs^a 

KOl fJLsXlTOS TTLOVOS d%6 'o fASVr) ' 10 

S' avOs&iv dv TO /JLSCTOV Travrrj 

' dfA(pls s%si Sco/iara K 

r) Ss Trpwrov JJLSV dsbv vpveiv svfypovas avSpas 
u<f]fAOis fjLvdots Kal Kadapoicri \6jois. 
(T7TlcravTas &s real sv^afisvovs rd Sl/caia Svvaadai 15 
(ravra yap &v scrri irpo^iporspov) 

piS 7TiVlV OTTOCTOV KV %(i)V dcpLKOlO 

' dvV 7rpo7ro\ov, pr) Trdvv yr)pa\sos 
dv8pa)v 8' alvslv TOUTOV, os scr0\d TTIOOV dva<j)alvi, 

&s 01 /AwrjfJLOcrvv'ti Kal <TTOVOS> dfjb(f>' dpTfjs. '20 
ovri p.d'xas $is7Tiv Tirdvwv ovos Tiydvrwv, 

ovSs n K.evravp(i)v, TrXao-yLtara TWV Trporspwv, 
r) <TTacr('a9 crfaoavdf roicr' oiiSsv ^pir^arov svscniv 

alsv i 



21. Athen. xi. p. 462. 

Vv. 4-8 : Eustath. Od. t 359, p. 1633, 53. V. 2 : MSS. a/j.<f>iTi8els, con. 
Dindorf . V. 13 : Bergk 4 reads iropavvet. V. 4 : East, omits 5e and reads 
tfnQpoffvvris. V. 5 : AE olvos fcrrlv erot/ixos, Karst. &\\y S' o7i/os eroiyuos. Text 
follows Meineke and Bergk. V. 11 : Vulg. avrb nf<rov, corr. Karst. V. 14 : 
MSS. \6yots, Eichstadt v6ots, Schneid. v6/j.ois. V. 16 : Vulg. puts colon 
after Trp^a-tretv and period at end of line. Meineke puts comma at end of 
line, and colon after vfipis. Bergk reads ravra yap Sin . . . vfipts as paren- 
thetical. Schneid. irpoaipertov. V. 19 : Hermann avatpaivri. V. 20 : Vulg. 
7] fivr\tJLoffvvTH, KO.} T~bv t>s, Schneid. of nvrifjLoo-vvT] Kal ir6vos, Bergk of fj.vrifj.o- 
fftiv' ?i, Kal rov, &$. V. 21 : Bergk SjeVe:. V. 22 : Hermann ouSe' TJ, Bergk 
ov8" av : MSS. irAao-yuaTcoy, corr. Hermann. V. 23 : MSS. <pev$6vai, 
Scalig. tf>\fS6vas, Osann. tr^eSai/cis. V. 24 : Scalig. adds 8e : MSS. 
v, corr. Franke et al. 



THE ELEATIQ SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 75 

21. For now the floor is clean, the hands of all and 
the cups are clean ; one puts on the woven garlands, 
another passes around the fragrant ointment in a vase ; 
the mixing bowl stands full of good cheer, and more wine, 
5 mild and of delicate bouquet, is at hand in jars, which 
says it will never fail. In the midst frankincense 
sends forth its sacred fragrance, and there is water, cold, 
and sweet, and pure ; the yellow loaves are near at hand, 
and the table of honour is loaded with cheese and rich 
^ honey. The altar in the midst is thickly covered with 
flowers on every side ; singing and mirth fill the house. 
Men making merry should first hymn the god with 
propitious stanzas and pure words ; and when ihey have 
poured out libations and prayed for power to do the 
15 right (since this lies nearest at hand), then it is no un- 
fitting thing to drink as much as will not prevent your 
walking home without a slave, if you are not very old. 
And one ought to praise that man who, when he has 
drunk, unfolds noble things as his memory and his toil 
20 for virtue suggest ; but there is nothing praiseworthy in 
discussing battles of Titans or of Giants or Centaurs, fic- 
tions of former ages, nor in plotting violent revolutions. 
But it is good always to pay careful respect to the gods. 



76 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



22 irsfJL-^ras <-/dp Kd)\,r)v spifyov crtcs\os ijpao Trlov 

Tavpov \apivov, Ti/Jiiov dvBpl \a^siv, 
rov K\SOS 'EXXaSa Trdcrav s(f>l$;eTai oyS' a 
e<rr' av doi&dayv y yevos 'EX 

23 Ol>8s KSV SV KV\LKl TTpOTSpOV KSpdo'StS TtS ol 

sj^sas, clXX' v8a)p Kai Kadvjrspds fisOv. 

24 ij^ S' sirrd T' lacrt real sgtj/covr' sviavroi 

j3\Tr](rTpi%ovTs e^v (f>povrl& av 1 'EXXaSa 
SK lysvsTrjs 8s TOT' rjcrav SSI'KOO-I TTSVTS TS irpos Tots, 

SlTTSp SJO) TTSpl TWvft ol8a \8ylV STVfJiWS. 

25 OVK Hav) irpoK\ri(Ti,s avri), das/Bst irpbs svcrs(3f]. 

26 dvSpos yrjpsvros 7ro\\bv dffravporspos. 

27 scTTaa-Lv 8' sKdrrfs </3aK^oi> TTVKLVOV irepl Sw/ia. 

28 e dp^f)? KaO'"Oijir)pov STTSL fjLS^aOrjKaa'i, irdvrss. 

29 si fJ-r) ^\a>pbv severs 6ebs /AfXt, TroXXoi' e^acr/cov 
yXvcraova crvKa TrsXscrOai. 

80 <d<yvbv> svl crTrsdrsacri, rsols KaTO\i'/3eTai v$Q)p. 

81 OTnrocra 8r] 6vr}Tol<ri 7T<fjvacriv sl 



22. Athen. ix. p. 368 E. V. 3 : MSS. a^frai, corr. Karst. V. 4 : 
Meineke (cXe'os 'EAAaSiKoii/, Bergk aoiSoir6\cav y yevos 'EA.Aa5i(cij/. 

23. Athen. xi. p. 782. V. 2 : Vulg. eyxevas, corr. Casaub. 

24. Diog. Laer. ix. 19. 

25. Arist. Rhet. i. 15 ; p. 377 a 20. 

26. Etym. Magn. s.v. Ttjpds ; attributed to Xenophon. 

27. Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. v. 408. Vulg. e'Adrai, MS. e'Aare, 
V t\dri). Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 308 i, suggests eKffraffiv 8' f\aria irvnivol 
irfpl SiStfiara ^o(cx'> and compares Eurip. Bacch. 110. 

(28). Draco Straton. p. 33, ed. Herm. ; Cram. An. Oxon. iii. p. 296 
(Herod, wepi Sixpoy. p. 367 Lehrs) ; Cram. An. Oxon. iv. p. 415 (Choerob. 
diet. p. 566 Gais.). 

(29). Herod, wfpl pov. Ae'f 41, 5. MSS. s,evo<puv, corr. Dind. Cf. 
Etym. Magn. 235, 4. J%m. Gw<Z. 301, 15. 

(30). Herod. Ibid. 30, 30. MSS. ical ^v, corr. Lehrs. Cf. irepi (fAttr. 
oco^. 772, 33. 

31). Herod, irepl Sixp6t>. 296, 5. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XEXOPHANES 77 

22. For sending the thigh-bone of a goat, thou didst 
receive the rich leg of a fatted bull, an honourable 
present to a man, the fame whereof shall come to all 
Greece, and shall not cease so long as there is a race of 
Greek bards. 

23. Nor would any one first pour the wine into the 
cup to mix it, but water first and the wine above it. 

24. Already now sixty-seven j^ears my thoughts have 
been tossed restlessly up and down Greece, but then it was 
twenty and five years from my birth, if I know how to 
speak the truth about these things. 1 

25. Nor is this (an oath) an equal demand to make of 
an impious man as compared with a pious man. 

26. Much more feeble than an aged man. 

27. Bacchic wands of fir stand about the firmly built 
house. 

28. From the beginning, according to Homer, since 
all have learned them. 2 

29. If the god had not made light-coloured honey, 
I should have said that a fig was far sweeter. 

30. Holy water trickles down in thy grottoes. 

31. As many things as they have made plain for 
mortals to see ! 



1 Bergk 4 interprets Qporri&a by carmen. 

2 Hiller, Deut. Litt. Zeitg., 1886, Coll. 474-475, suggests ' (Men know 
the wanderings of Odysseus) from the beginning as Homer tells them, 
since all have learned them.' 



78 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

SAYINGS OF XENOPHANES. 

Arist. Rhet. ii. 23; 1399 b 6 (Karsten, Fr. 34). 
Xenophanes asserts that those who say the gods are born 
are as impious as those who say that they die ; for in 
both cases it amounts to this, that the gods do not exist 
at all. 

Ibid. 1400 b 5 (K. 35). When the inhabitants of 
Elea asked Xenophanes whether they should sacrifice to 
Leukothea and sing a dirge or not, he advised them not 
to sing a dirge if they thought her divine, and if they 
thought her human not to sacrifice to her. 1 

Plutarch, de vit. pud. p. 530 F (K. 36). When Lasos, 
son of Hermiones, called that man a coward who was 
unwilling to play at dice with him, Xenophanes 
answered that he was very cowardly and without daring 
in regard to dishonourable things. 

Diog. Laer. ix. 20 (K. 37). When Empedokles said to 
him (Xenophanes) that the wise man was not to be found, 
he answered : Naturally, for it would take a wise man 
to recognise a wise man. 

Plut. de comm. not. p. 1084 E (K. 38). Xenophanes, 
when some one told him that he had seen eels living in 
hot water, said : Then we will boil them in cold water. 

Diog. Laer. ix. 19 (K. 89). ' Have intercourse with 
tyrants either as little as possible, or as agreeably as 
possible.' 

Clem. Al. Strom, vii. p. 841. And Greeks suppose 
the gods to be like men in their passions as well as in 
their forms ; and accordingly they represent them, each 
race in forms like their own, in the words of Xenophanes : 
Ethiopians make their gods black and snub-nosed, 
Thracians red-haired and with blue eyes ; so also they 
conceive the spirits of the gods to be like themselves. 2 

1 Cf. Plutarch, Amat. p. 763 D ; Is. et Os. p. 379 B. 
- Cf. Theod. Grace. Aff. Cur. iii. p. 49. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 79 

A. Gellius, NocL Att. iii. 11 (K. 31). Some writers 
have stated that Homer antedated Hesiod, and among 
these were Philochoros and Xenophanes of Kolophon ; 
others assert that he was later than Hesiod. 

(b) PASSAGES EELATING TO XENOPHANES IN PLATO AND 
ARISTOTLE. 

Plato, Soph. 242o. And the Eleatic group of thinkers 
among us, beginning with Xenophanes and even earlier, 
set forth in tales how what men call all things is 
really one. 

De Coelo, ii. 13 ; 294 a 21. On this account some 
assert that there is no limit to the earth underneath us, 
saying that it is rooted in infinity, as, for instance, 
Xenophanes of Kolophon ; in order that they may not 
have the trouble of seeking the cause. 1 

De mirac. oscult. 38 ; 833 a 16. The fire at Lipara, 
Xenophanes says, ceased once for sixteen years, and came 
back in the seventeenth. And he says that the lava- 
stream from Aetna is neither of the nature of fire, nor is 
it continuous, but it appears at intervals of many years. 

Metaph. i. 5 ; 986 b 10. There are some who have 
expressed the opinion about the All that it is one in its 
essential nature, but they have not expressed this opinion 
after the same manner nor in an orderly or natural 
way. 986 b 23. Xenophanes first taught the unity of 
these things (Parmenides is said to have been his pupil), 
but he did not make anything clear, nor did he seem to 
get at the nature of either of these things, but looking 
up into the broad heavens he said : The unity is god. 

1 Two passages from the Ehet. ii. 23 are translated above, p. 78. 
Extracts from the book ordinarily called DC Xenophane, Zenone, Gorgia, 
and ascribed to Aristotle, are in part translated below, p. 80, n. 2 ff., 
.in connection with the fragment of Theophrastos which covers exactly 
the same ground. 



80 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

These, as we have said, are to be dismissed from the 
present investigation, two of them entirely as being 
rather more crude, Xenophanes and Melissos ; but Par- 
menides seems to speak in some places with greater care. 1 



(c) PASSAGES KELATING TO XENOPHANES IN THE 

' DOXOGRAPHISTS.' 

Theophrastos, Fr. 5 ; Simpl. Phys. 5v : 22, 36 ; Dox. 
480. Theophrastos says that Xenophanes of Kolophon, 
teacher of Parmenides, asserted that the first principle 
is one, and that being is one and all-embracing, and is 
neither limited nor infinite, neither moving nor at 
rest. Theophrastos admits, however, that the record 
of his opinion is derived from some other source than 
the investigation of nature. This all-embracing unity 
Xenophanes called god ; he shows that god is one be- 
cause god is the most powerful of. all things ; for, he 
says, if there be a multiplicity of things, it is necessary 
that power should exist in them all alike ; but the most 
powerful and most excellent of all things is god. 2 And 
he shows that god must have been without beginning, 
since whatever comes into being must come either from 
what is like it or from what is unlike it ; but, he says, 
it is no more natural that like should give birth to like, 
than that like should be born from like ; but if it had 
sprung from what is unlike it, then being would have 

1 V. Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. i. 513, n. 1 ; Diels' Dox. p. 110 ; Teich- 
miiller, Studien, p. GOT. 

2 Cf. Arist. Xen. Zen. Gorg. 977 a 23. It is natural that god should 
be one ; for if there were two or more, he would not be the most 
powerful and most excellent of all. ... If, then, there were several 
beings, some stronger, some weaker, they would not be gods ; for it is 
not the nature of god to be ruled. Nor would they have the nature of 
god if they were equal, for god ought to be the most powerful ; but 
that which is equal is neither better nor worse than its equal. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 81 

sprung from not-being. 1 So he showed that god is 
without beginning and eternal. Nor is it either infinite 
or subject to limits ; for not-being is infinite, as having 
neither beginning nor middle nor end ; moreover 
limits arise through the relation of a multiplicity of 
things to each other. 2 Similarly he denies to it both 
motion and rest; for not-being is immovable, since 
neither could anything else come into it nor could 
it itself come into anything else ; motion, on the one 
hand, arises among the several parts of the one, for 
one thing changes its position with reference to another, 
so that when he says that it abides in the same state and 
is not moved (Frag. 4.), 'And it always abides in the 
same place, not moved at all, nor is it fitting that it 
should move from one place to another,' he does not 
mean that it abides in a rest that is the antithesis of 
motion, but rather in a stillness that is out of the sphere 
of both motion and rest. Nikolaos of Damascus in his 
book On the Gods mentions him as saying that the first 
principle of things is infinite and immovable. 3 Accord- 
ing to Alexander he regards this principle as limited 
and spherical. But that Xenophanes shows it to be 
neither limited nor infinite is clear from the very words 

1 Of. Arist. X.Z.G. 977 a 19. He adds : For even if the stronger were 
to come from the weaker, the greater from the less, or the better from the 
worse, or on the other hand the worse from the better, still being could 
not come from not-being, since this is impossible. Accordingly god is 
eternal. 

2 Of. Arist. X.Z.G. 977 b 6. The second part reads : But if there 
were several parts, these would limit each other. The one is not like 
not-being nor like a multiplicity of parts, since the one has nothing by 
which it may be limited. 

3 Arist. X.Z.G. 977 b 13. He adds : Nothing, however, can be moved 
into not-being, for not-being does not exist anywhere. But if there is 
change of place among several parts, there would be parts of the one. 
Therefore the two or more parts of the one may be moved ; but to remain 
immovable and fixed is a characteristic of not-being. The one is 
neither movable nor is it fixed ; for it is neither like not-being, nor like a 
multiplicity of being. 



82 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

quoted, Alexander says that he regarded it as limited 
and spherical because it is homogeneous throughout ; 
and he holds that it perceives all things, saying (Frag. 3) 
' But without effort he sets in motion all things by mind 
and thought.' l 

Theophrast. Fr. 5a ; Galen, in Hipp. d. n. h. xv. 35 K. ; 
Dox. 481. Several of the commentators have made 
false statements about Xenophanes, as for instance 
Sabinos, who uses almost these very words : ' I say that 
man is not air, as Anaximenes taught, nor water, 
as Thales taught, nor earth, as Xenophanes says in 
some book ; ' but no such opinion is found to be ex- 
pressed by Xenophanes anywhere. And it is clear from 
Sabinos' s own words that he made a false statement in- 
tentionally and did not fall into error through ignorance. 
Else he would certainly have mentioned by name the 
book in which Xenophanes expressed this opinion. On 
the contrary he wrote ' as Xenophanes says in some 
book.' Theophrastos would have recorded this opinion 
of Xenophanes in his abridgment of the opinions of 
the physicists, if it were really true. And if you are 
interested in the investigation of these things, you can 
read the books of Theophrastos in which he made this 
abridgment of the opinions of the physicists. 

Hipp. Philos. i. 14; Dox. 565. Xenophanes of 
Kolophon, son of Orthomenes, lived to the time of 
Cyrus. He was the first to say that all things are in- 
comprehensible, in the following verses : (Frag. 14) ' For 
even if one chances for the most part to say what is 
true, still he would not know ; but every one thinks he 

1 Arist. X.Z.G. 977. Since god is a unity, he is homogeneous in all 
his parts, and sees and hears and has other sensations in all his parts. 
Except for this some parts of god might rule and be ruled by one another, 
a thing which is impossible. Being homogeneous throughout he is a 
sphere in form; for it could not be spheroidal in places but rather 
throughout. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 83 

knows.' l And he says that nothing comes into being, 
nor is anything destroyed, nor moved ; and that the 
universe is one and is not subject to change. And he 
says that god is eternal and one, homogeneous 
throughout, limited, spherical, with power of sense- 
perception in all parts. The sun is formed each day 
from small fiery particles which are gathered together ; 
the earth is infinite, and is not surrounded by air or by 
sky; an infinite number of suns and moons exist, and 
all things come from earth. The sea, he said, is salt 
because so many things flow together and become 
mixed in it ; but Metrodoros assigns as the reason for 
its saltness that it has filtered through the earth. 2 And 
Xenophanes believes that once the earth was mingled 
with the sea, but in the course of time it became freed 
from moisture ; and his proofs are such as these : that 
shells are found in the midst of the land and among 
the mountains, that in the quarries of Syracuse the 
imprints of a fish and of seals had been found, and in 
Paros the imprint of an anchovy at some depth in the 
stone, and in Melite shallow impressions of all sorts of sea 
products. He says that these imprints were made when 
everything long ago was covered with mud, and then the 
imprint dried in the mud. Farther he says that all men 
will be destroyed when the earth sinks into the sea and be- 
comes mud, and that the race will begin anew from the be- 
ginning; and this transformation takes place for all worlds. 
Plut. Strom. 4 ; Dox. 80. Xenophanes of Kolo- 
phon, going his own way and differing from all those 
that had gone before, did not admit e ; ther genesis or 
destruction, but says that the all is always the same. 
For if it came into being, it could not have existed 
before this ; and not-being could not come into existence 

1 Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 9 ; Dox. 590. 

2 Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. 543, n. 1. 

o 2 



84 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

nor could it accomplish anything, nor could anything 
come from not-being. And he declares that sensations 
are deceptive, and together with them he does away with 
the authority of reason itself. And he declares that the 
earth is constantly sinking little by little into the sea. He 
says that the sun is composed of numerous fiery particles 
massed together. And with regard to the gods he 
declares that there is no rule of one god over another, 
for it is impious that any of the gods should be ruled ; 
and none of the gods have need of anything at all, for 
a god hears and sees in all his parts and not in some 
particular organs. 1 He declares that the earth is infinite 
and is not surrounded on every side by air ; and all 
things arise from earth ; and he says that the sun and 
the stars arise from clouds. 

Galen, Hist. Phil. 3 ; Dox. 601. Xenophanes of 
Kolophon is said to be the chief of this school, which is 
ordinarily considered aporetic (skeptical) rather than 
dogmatic. 7 ; Dox. 604. To the class holding eclectic 
views belongs Xenophanes, who has his doubts as to all 
things, except that he holds this one dogma : that all 
things are one, and that this is god, who is limited, 
endowed with reason, and immovable. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 284. Xenophanes held that 
the first principle of all things is earth, for he wrote 
in his book on nature: 'All things come from earth, 
and all things end by becoming earth.' 2 

Aet. ii. 4 ; Dox. 332. Xenophanes et al. : The 
world is without beginning, eternal, imperishable. 
13 ; 343. The stars are formed of burning cloud ; these 
are extinguished each day, but they are kindled again 
at night, like coals ; for their risings and settings are 

1 Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. p. 526, n. 4 ; Arch. f. d. Gesch. d. Phil. ii. 
1839, pp. 1-5. 

- Epiph. adv. Hacr. iii. 9 ; Dox. 590. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: XENOPHANES 85 

really kindlings and extinguishings. 18 ; 347. The 
objects which appear to those on vessels like stars, and 
which some call Dioscuri, are little clouds which have 
become luminous by a certain kind of motion. 20 ; 548. 
The sun is composed of fiery particles collected from the 
moist exhalation and massed together, or of burning 
clouds. 24 ; 354. Eclipses occur by extinction of the 
sun ; and the sun is born anew at its risings. Xeno- 
phanes recorded an eclipse of the sun for a whole month, 
and another eclipse so complete that the day seemed as 
night. 24 ; 355. Xenophanes held that there are many 
suns and moons according to the different regions and 
sections and zones of the earth ; and that at some fitting 
time the disk of the sun comes into a region of the earth 
not inhabited by us, and so it suffers eclipse as though 
it had gone into a hole ; he adds that the sun goes on 
for an infinite distance, but it seems to turn around by 
reason of the great distance. 25 ; 356. The moon is a 
compressed cloud. 28 ; 358. It shines by its own light. 
29 ; 360. The moon disappears each month because it is 
extinguished. 30 ; 362. The sun serves a purpose in 
the generation of the world and of the animals on it, as 
well as in sustaining them, and it drags the moon after it. 

Aet. iii. 2 ; 367. Comets are groups or motions of 
burning clouds. 3 ; 368. Lightnings take place when 
clouds shine in motion. 4 ; 371. The phenomena of the 
heavens come from the warmth of the sun as the principal 
cause. For when the moisture is drawn up from the 
sea, the sweet water separated by reason of its lightness 
becomes mist and passes into clouds, and falls as rain 
when compressed, and the winds scatter it ; for he writes 
expressly (Frag. 11) : ' The sea is the source of water.' 

Aet. iv. 9 ; 396. Sensations are deceptive. 

Aet. v. 1 ; 415. Xenophanes and Epikouros abolished 
the prophetic art. 



86 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



VI. 

THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES. 

PABMENIDES, the son of Pyres (or Pyrrhes), of Elea, 
was born about 515 B.C. ; his family was of noble rank 
and rich, but Parmenides devoted himself to philosophy. 
He was associated with members of the Pythagorean 
society, and is himself called a Pythagorean by later 
writers. In the formation of his philosophic system how- 
ever he was most influenced by his aged fellow-townsman, 
Xenophanes ; the doctrines of Xenophanes he developed 
into a system which was embodied in a poetic work ' On 
Nature.' The statement that he made laws for the 
citizens may have reference to some connection with the 
Pythagorean society. 

Literature : The fragments of Parmenides have been 
collected by Peyron, Leipzig 1810 ; Karsten, Amster- 
dam 1880 ; Brandis, Comm. Eleat. Altona 1818 ; 
Vatke, Berlin 1864; Stein, Symb. philol. Bonn. 
Leipzig 1867 ; V. Revue Phil. 1883, 5 : 1884, 9. 
Berger, Die Zonenlehre d. Parm. Miinchen, 1895. 

(a] FBAGMENTS OF PABMENIDES. 
ral /AS <f>epovcriv, ovov r sirl OvfMos itcdvoi, 
v, STTSi p ss 68bv ^rftrav TroXixprjpov avowal 
8aifj,ovos r) Kara Travr* avrrj <f>spsi el86ra <pwra. 
ry fapoprjv rfj <ydp p,s Tro\v<ppa<rroi <f)spov iTnrot 
5 appa rirawova-af tcovpat 8' 68ov rjrys/Aovsvov. 
a%wv o sv ^yoirj(nv c' t / et> crvpiyjos dvrriv 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 87 

aldofjisvos (Soiols yap STTSI^STO Sivwrolcrw 
KVK\OIS a/ji<f)OTepa)0i>), ore (nrsp-^oiaTO TTS/JLTTSIV 
'HXtaSss- Kovpai, 7rpo\nrovcrai Sahara VVKTOS, 

Sources and Critical Notes. 

1-30. (Followed without break by 53-58) Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 111. 
Cf. Porphyrius, de antro nymph, ch. 22. 28-32. Simpl. de coelo 
557, 25. 28-30. Laer. Diog. ix. 22. 29-30. Plot. adv. Colot. 1114 D. 
Prokl. Tim. p. 105 B ; Clem. Al. Strom, v. p. 682. 

Vv. 6-8 Karsten transfers to a position after v. 10 (order : 5, 9, 10, 6, 
7, 8, 11), comma at end of v. 5 and period at end of v. 8. Stein transfers 
vv. 4-8 to a position after v. 21, and changes Saiuovos of v. 3 to Sal/moves 
in apposition with 'HAmSes Kovpai. Order : 3, 9, 10 ... 20, 21, 4, 5 ... 
7, 8, where a break occurs, and v. 22 begins a new section. 

V. 2 : SV frffav. V. 3 : MSS. iravra TTJ (pe'pei, Karst. irdvr' aSari 
(p., Hermann Kal iravr' UVT)], Stein TTCLVTO. /uafl-jj. Diels compares 
v. 32 and Verg. Acn. vi. 565. V. 4 : C <pfpofj.fvi]v, G (pipo/tat. 
V. 6 : Karsten inserts 'lei. V. 7 : G aia-66/j.fvos, Stein ax06fj.evos : 
OR fir-f)yeTO, C eir^e-ros V. 10 : MSS. Kparepuv, except G 
Kparepdis, corr. Karsten. V. 12 : MSS. Kal a-tpas. V. 14 : 
CRVSUriv. V. 17: FGrals. V. 20 : MSS. CGRVapr]p6ra rrj, 
Hermann o.prtp6ras p. V. 25 : V'linroi : R rt, other MSS. rot. 
V. 26 : CR oKroi, G oSre. V. 27 : Stein rt)\ov for e/crbs. V. 
28: CR ireiOeffOai. V. 29 : Prokl. eixpfyyeos, Simpl. eu/cufcA^ov : 
Plut., Diog., Sext. L arpeices ; text follows Prokl. and other MSS. 
of Sext. Stein compares Sextus's explanation ap.tr aKivijTov 215 6. 
V. 31 : Stein'suggests rovro. V. 32: MSS. flvai, corr. Karsten. 



TRANSLATION. 

(Prooemium) The horses which bear me con- 
ducted me as far as desire may go, when they had 
brought me speeding along to the far-famed road 
of a divinity who herself bears onward through all 
5 things the man of understanding. Along this road 
I was borne, along this the horses, wise indeed, bore 
me hastening the chariot on, and maidens guided 
my course. The axle in its box, enkindled by the 
heat, uttered the sound of a pipe (for it was driven 
on by the rolling wheels on either side), when the 
maiden daughters of Helios hastened to conduct me 



88 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



10 sis <aos, wadpsvai tcparaiv atro %f/>o"t 

svOa TruXat VVKTOS rs Kal f)p.ar6s fieri tcsXsvdwv, 
ical cr(f>as vTrspBvpov dpfyls s%i Kal \divos ov86s, 
avral &' aldspiai Tr\r)vrat /j,s<yd\oi(rt dvpsrpois. 

TO)V 8s kiKV) 7rO\V7TOtVOS S%1 K\r)l8aS 

15 rrjv 8rj Trap<f)d/jivat Kovpai pakaKolcri 
e(t)S, u>s cr(f>iv f3a\avun 
wcrsis irvKscav CLTTO. ral 8s Ovpsrpwv 
? d^avss Troirjcrav dvaTrrdfAsvai, 7ro\v%d\Kov? 
a^ovas si' crvpij^iv dfjuoifiaSov etX/^acrai, 
20 yo^ois Kal Trspovrjcrtv dprjpOTS- rfj pa &' avrwv 
Idvs s%ov Kovpai Kaff 1 a/iaftroy ap/j,a Kal ITTTTOVS. 

sa irpofypwv vTrsSs^aro, %ipa 8s yip\ 
rjv s\sv, toSf 8' STTOS (fraTO Kai p,s TrpocnjvSa 
w Kovp' ddavdroKri avvrjopos ^vioyotcnv., 
25 nnrots rat as <j>spovcriv iKavcov r)fisrpov Sw, 

%alp , S-TTsl OVTi (T fAOlpa KttKT) TTpOVTTSfJbTTS VSS 

r^vS' 686v r) jap CLTT dvdpcoTrwv SKTOS Trdrov s 
aXXa Osftis TS Shot) rs. j^psw 8s crs irdvra 
r/fisv dXijOsfys svTrsidsos drpsfiss fjrop, 
30 7785 fiporwv 86%as rfis OVK svt TTicrrty d\rjd^s. 
a\X' l/iTTT/y Kal ravra fjbad^asai, os TO, 8oKovvra 
rj 8oKifj,a)$ Kpivai' 8ia Travros iravra irspwvra. 



ra Trpos a\r)0siav. 

el 6' ay, sywv spew, K6/jbi<rat 8s <rv fivdov a 
anrep 68ol povvai 8i^a-ios slt7i vofja-ai. 
35 17 pev OTTWS ea-nv rs Kal <as OVK scrn fir} slvat 

33-40. Prokl. Tim. 105 B. 35-40. Simpl. Phys. 25 r 116, 28. 40k 
'lot. Enncad, v. 1, 8, p. 489 ; Clem. Al. Strom. 749. 

V. 33 : MSS. frye rS> v , corr. Karsten. V. 34 : MSS. ^ovffai, corr. 
Brandis. V. 38: Prokl. 8' W : Simpl. a0 6 'a, Stein 
*et, text follows Prokl. V. 39 Prokl. ^ tKT b y , text follows 
Stem compares Simpl. D 109, 24 ; 111, 25. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 89 

10 to the light, leaving the realms of night, pushing 
aside with the hand the veils from their heads. 
There is the gate between the ways of day and night ; 
lintel above it, and stone threshold beneath, hold it 
in place, and high in air it is fitted with great doors ; 
retributive Justice holds the keys that open and 

15 shut them. 1 However, the maidens addressed her 
with mild words, and found means to persuade her 
to thrust back speedily for them the fastened bolt from 
the doors ; and the gate swinging free made the 
opening wide, turning in their sockets the bronze 

20 hinges, well fastened with bolts and nails ; then 
through this the maidens kept horses and chariot 
straight on the high-road. The goddess received 
me with kindness, and, taking my right hand in 

25 hers, she addressed me with these words : Youth 
joined with drivers immortal, who hast come with 
the horses that bear thee, to our dwelling, hail ! 
since no evil fate has bid thee come on this road 
(for it lies far outside the beaten track of men), 
but right and justice. 'Tis necessary for thee to 

30 learn all things, both the abiding essence of per- 
suasive truth, and men's opinions in which rests 
no true belief. But nevertheless these things also 
thou shalt learn, since it is necessary to judge 
accurately the things that rest on opinion, passing 
all things carefully in review. 



CONCEBNING TKUTH. 

Come now I will tell thee and do thou hear my 

word and heed it what are the only ways of 

35 enquiry that lead to knowledge. The one way, 

1 Archivf. d. Gesch. d. Phil. iii. p. 173. 



90 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

TTSidovs ea-ri KsXsvdos, d'Kydsit] yap 07rr)8st 
f) 8' <as OVK eo-Tiv rs ical a>$ XP 5 " *" Tt W s " Lvai> 
rrjv 8ij rot (f>pda) TravairsiQea sppsv drapirov 
ovrs <va/3 av yvoirjs TO ys pr) sov ov yap dvvarov 
40 ovre $pd(rais. rb yap avrb voslv ecrriv rs KOI slvai. 



gvvbv 8s fji 
apfapai, roQi yap rrd\iv io/iat avQis. 

TO \sysiv re voslv r sbv sppsvai. sari yap 
slvai, 

S' OVK slvai, rd cr' 700 (ppd^edai avwya, 
45 Trpairrjs yap <r' d<$> 6Sov ravrrjs Sityo'ios < sipyw > 
avrap STTSLT drrb rijs, rjv Brj ftporol sl86rss ovSev 
ir\d^ovrai bbcpavof OfJ/rfflavGr) yap sv avrwv 
(rrijOsaiv lOvvei ir\ayKrbv voov ol 8s 
KW(f)ol ofiws rv<f)\oi rs rsdrjTrorss aicpira 
50 ols TO TTS\SIV rs Kal OVK slvai ro)vrbv vsv 

KOV TGovrov, Trdvrwv 8s iraXivrpoTros sari Ks\sv6os. 
ov ydp inq rrors rovro 8afjbfj, (frrjcriv, slvai fir) sovra 
d\\a <rv TT^crS' d<f> 68ov 8trj(Tio$ slpys 



41-42. Prokl. Farm. ii. 120 ; Vulg. Sp|o/iot corr. Karst. 
43-51. Sirapl. Phys. 25 r 117, 4. 43-44. Ibid. 19 r 86, 27. 45. Cf. Ibid. 
17 r 78, 6. 50. Ibid. 17 r 78, 3. 

V. 43 : F Ttov, &DE (19 : 86) rb fa. V. 44 : MSS. (19 : 86) and a 
(25 : 117) : D ^ 8 o75', F olS', E ^ Se'oi 8' : f efrai, DEF (25 : 
117) IOTI. V. 45 : Diels supplies ttpyu, Stein concludes the 
line likev. 52. V. 47 DEF irAaTi-oirai, text follows a. Vv. 50, 
51 : Diels ravr6v. 

53-58a follow 1-32 in Sext. Emp. 52-53. Plato, Soph. 237 A, 258 D; 
Arist. Met. xiii. 1089 a ; Simpl. Phys. 29 v 135, 21 ; 31 r 143, 31 ; 53 v 
244, 1. 53. Simpl. Phys. 11 r 78, 6; 152 v 650, 13. 54-56. Diog. Laer. 
ix. 22. 

V. 52 : Plato, TOUT' ovtianfj, Arist. ToCro Sojjs Simpl. Sajurj, corr. Stein. 
Karsten omits v. 52. V. 55 : Bergk efaKoirov. V. 56 : CRV 
xpivf, O npivav -. L iroK-lnrtipov. Vulg. \6y(p, corr. Burnet. Stein 
rejects v. 53, and transfers 54-57a to the prooemium following 
32. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 91 

assuming that being is and that it is impossible for 
it not to be, is the trustworthy path, for truth 
attends it. The other, that not-being is and that 
it necessarily is, I call a wholly incredible course, 
40 since thou canst not recognise not- being (for this is 
impossible), nor couldst thou speak of it, for thought 
and being are the same thing. 



It makes no difference to me at what point I 
begin, for I shall always come back again to this. 



It is necessary both to say and to think that being 
is ; for it is possible that being is, and it is impos- 

45 sible that not-being is ; this is what I bid thee 
ponder. I restrain thee from this first course of 
investigation ; and from that course also along 
which mortals knowing nothing wander aimlessly, 
since helplessness directs the roaming thought in 
their bosoms, and they are borne on deaf and like- 

50 wise blind, amazed, headstrong races, they who 
consider being and not-being as the same and not 
the same ; and that all things follow a back-turning 
course. 1 



That things which are not are, shall never 
prevail, she said, but do thou restrain thy mind 
from this course of investigation. 

1 Stein, Symbol, p. 782 ; Bernays, Ehein. Mus. vii. 115 ; Zeller, 738 
and n. 1. 



92 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

fjirj&s d sOos 7ro\V7retpov oSov Kara rijv8s /3ui(T0ay 
55 vw/jidv acTKOTTOv OPILCL Kal fyijscra-av d/covrjv 

KOI. <y\)crcrav, tcpivai 8s \6<ycov 7ro\vSr)piv s\sy^ov 
s% epsQev pr)dsvTa. uovos S' STL pvQos oSoto 
\et7rerai, cos- sanv. ravrrj 8' STrl trrj/jiar' eacri 
TroXXa /naX', &>s dyivrjrov sov Kal dv(o\sdp6v scrrw, 
60 ov\ov /jiovvoysvss re teal arps^ss ^8' ars\(Trov. 
ov8s TTOT' rjv ouS' Icrrai STrsl vvv scrriv o/iou Trav, 
iv y ^vvs^ss' riva yap ysvvav Sitycrsai avrov ; 
jrff Trodsv av^rjOsv ; ovr* EK pr) sovros sacra 
<f>dcr6at cr' ovSe voslv ov jap (ftarov ov8s vor^rov 

65 <TT\V 07Tft)S OVK SCTTt. Ti &' aV fJUiV Kttl XP^ OS <*>p(TV, 

vo-rspov rj Trpoadsv rov fjbijbsvbs dp^dusvov <f>vv ; 
ovrws -r) 7rd/j,7rav trs\eva(, ^pscav SCTTIV rj ov%i. 
ovos TTOT' SK Try SQVTOS e^tfcrsi irLcmos Icryvs 
yivso'uai Ti Trap 1 avro' rov S'LVSKSV ovrs 
70 ovr' 6\\vcr6ai dvrjKS AI/CT; ^aXacracra Trs 



[17 Be Kpicns Trspl rovrcav sv T&58' svamv\ 



57 b-1 12 (except 90-93). Simpl. Phys. 31: 145-146. 57b-59. Ibid. 
31 r 142, 34. 57 b-70. Ibid. 17 r 78, 12. 59-60. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 716 ; 
Euseb. Praep. xiii. 680 c. 59-61. Simpl. Phys. 7 r 30, 1. 60. Plut. adv. 
Col. 1114 D ; Euseb. Praep. i. 23 ; Theod. TJier. Ser. iv. 7 ; Phil. Phys. 
B5r: 65; Simpl.de Caelo 557,17; Phys. 26 r 120, 23. 60a. Simpl. 
Phys. 19 r 87, 21 ; Plut. Strom. 5 ; Dox. 580. 61. Ammon. on Herm. 
D7 ( = Cramer A. P. 1388); Philop. Phys. 5r: 65; Prokl. Farm. iv. 
62. t 62-66. Simpl. Phys. 34 v 162, 18. 62-65. Simpl. de Caelo, 137, 1. 

V. 57 : Stein jud^j : F8e TI, CH 8 TOJ, FG 8e 76. V. 60 : Plut. 
Strom. 5 reads ^tow/or for oS\ov : a (17 : 78) are'XeuToi/, MSS. 
(26 : 120) and Dox. 284 and 580 ayevrirov. V. 62 : F 5t^<rTai. 
V. 66 : D (31 : 145) /uTjSa^s : E (31 : 145) av^tvov : Da (17 : 
78) a (31 : 145) Qwai, E <t>vv. Cf. Stein, p. 786. V. 68 : MSS. 
(K ye p.), &VTOS, DE om. yt, Karst. e/c TOV Uvros, Stein IK ye 
irt\ovTos. Corr. Diels, paraphrasing Simpl. 78, 27. V. 70 : 
EF Bergk, Diels *tir,<r tv . v. 71b : v. Stein, Symbol 787. 
V. 73 : aDE a.v6vnrov text follows F. V. 75 : MSS. fireira. 
ire'Aoi TO, corr. Karsten, Stein a*6\ono ir4\ov : MSS. &v, corr. 
Stein. V. 76: EF *yeW, D ? yeT ', corr. Bergk 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL : PARMENIDES 93 

And let not long-practised habit compel thee 

55 along this path, thine eye careless, thine ear and thy 

tongue overpowered by noise ; but do thou weigh 

the much contested refutation of their words, which 

I have uttered. 



There is left but this single path to tell thee of : 
namely, that being is. And on this path there 
are many proofs that being is without beginning and 

60 indestructible ; it is universal, existing alone, im- 
movable and without end ; nor ever was it nor will it 
be, since it now is, all together, one, and continuous. 
For what generating of it wilt thou seek out ? From 
what did it grow, and how ? I will not permit 
thee to say or to think that it came from not-being ; 
for it is impossible to think or to say that not-being 

65 is. What thing would then have stirred it into 
activity that it should arise from not-being later 
rather than earlier ? So it is necessary that being 
either is absolutely or is not. Nor will the force 
of the argument permit that anything spring from 

70 being except being itself. Therefore justice does 
not slacken her fetters to permit generation or de- 
struction, but holds being firm. 

(The decision as to these things comes in at 
this point.) 



94 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

sa-nv r) OVK ecrrtv. KS/cpiTai, 8' ovv wvrrsp dvdjtcr), 
rrjv JAW sdv dvorjrov, dvavvpov ov jap d\-r)6rjf 
sa-rlv 686s ' Tr)v 8' OKTTS 7T\tv fcal sTr/rv/AOv slvai. 

75 7TWS 8' av STTSLT ttTToXotTO SOV ', TTWS 8' ai> K JEVOiTO ; 

el jap ijvr' OVK S<TT' ou8' si TTOTH /JLS\\SI scrscrBai. 
TWS jsvcns p,sv airsaftzcrTai K.CLI airvcnos oksQpos. 
ov&s Siaipsrov ea-riv, sirel irav sa-nv o^olov' 

Ol)8e Tl T77 fJLCL\\OV, TO KV SlpJOl /JilV (TVVS-^(rdaL, 

80 ov&e TI %ip6Tpov, irav 8' S^TT\OV SO-TLV SOVTOS. 
TW ^vv-)(S Trdv svTiV, sov yap SOVTI TrsXa^ei. 
avrap aKivijTOV fjiyd\u)V ev Trsipacri Bso-pwv 
scTTtV) dvap^ov, aTravGTov, sirsl <yVcris KOL oKsdpos 
Tf}\ ficOC ir\d<y)(dri<Tav, aTrcocrs 8e Trlcms d^rjOijs. 

85 TWVTOV T' EV TWVTW T /JLVOV KttO' (i)VTO T KlTCll, 

yovrws sfjL7T8ov av0i fjbVi' KpaTprj <ydp dvdjKrj 

TTlpaTOS V 8e<T/AOt<TtI/ X t ' TO A tll/ Upfa 5 SSpJSL. 
OVVKV OVK dT\VTrjTOV TO SOV OsfJLiS SlVai ' 

jap OVK eTrtSsues', ov 8' av Travros &ITO. 



90 \vcra- 8' ofj^ais dirsovTa vow Trapzovra 
ov jap aTTOTfJirj^Eis Trj sov Trj sovros 

77. De Caelo, 559, 115. 78. Simpl. Phys. 19 r 86, 24, 31 r 143, 3 ; 
81. Simpl. Phys. 86, 22 ; 87, 23. Plot. Ennead. vi. 4, 4, 648 A ; Prokl. 
Parm. ii. 62 and 120 ; Philop. B 5: 65. 82-89 (except 85). Simpl. Phys. 
9 r 39, 26. 82-84. Ibid. 17 v 79, 32. 85-89. Ibid. 7 r 30, 6 ; 9 r 40, 3. 
85. Prokl. Parm. iv. 32. Simpl. Phys. 31 r 143, 15. 

V. 78: FSiaiptrfov. V. 79 : For fj.a\\ov Stein reads Ktv e6v. V. 
80 : F 5e K\tov. V. 82 : D a.KLvi\rtav. V. 84: MSS.rrjSe, corr. 
Seal. DEF tir\d,xOi)ffa.i', corr. a. V. 85 : Diels ravr6v, 
raiirf, tavr6. Simpl. 30, 6 omits the last re. V. 86 : C oi/x ovrws, 
& OVTUS, text from DF. V. 88 : Stein ire\ov. V. 89 : Simpl. 
nil 4bv 5e &v iravrbs. Karsten reads firiStves in three syllables 
and puts K* for &v. Preller omits /u^. Stein considers these 
views untenable, and finds a break, probably longer than one 
line, after firiSfves. 

90-93. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 2, 653. 90. Theod. Ther. Ser. i. 13. 
V. 90 : Stein suggests airf6v re v6ip ira.pt6v re pefSaicp, V. 91 : 
Stein irt\ov : Vulg. oiroT^|ei, corr. Brandis. MSS. rb tbv rov, 
corr. Preller, comparing vv. 105 and 108. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 95 

Either being exists or it does not exist. It has 
been decided in accordance with necessity to leave the 
unthinkable, unspeakable path, as this is not the 
true path, but that the other path exists and is true. 
75 How then should being suffer destruction? How 
come into existence ? If it came into existence, it is 
not being, nor will it be if it ever is to come into 
existence. ... So its generation is extinguished, 
and its destruction is proved incredible. 



Nor is it subject to division, for it is all alike ; 
nor is anything more in it, so as to prevent its co- 
hesion, nor anything less, but all is full of being ; 
80 therefore the all is continuous, for being is con- 
tiguous to being. 



Farther it is unmoved, in the hold of great 
chains, without beginning or end, since generation 
and destruction have completely disappeared and 
85 true belief has rejected them. It lies the same, 
abiding in the same state and by itself ; accordingly 
it abides fixed in the same spot. For powerful neces- 
sity holds it in confining bonds, which restrain it on 
all sides. Therefore divine right does not permit 
being to have any end ; but it is lacking in nothing, 
for if it lacked anything it would lack everything. 1 



90 Nevertheless, behold steadfastly all absent things 
as present to thy mind ; for thou canst not separate 

1 Following Karsten and Preller ; Stein rejects the interpretation. 



96 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



ovrs (TKiSvdusvov rrdvrr) irdvrws Kara KO 
ovrs a-vvio-Tausvov. 

rwvrov 8' so-rl vosiv rs ical OVVSKSV S<TTI vor)ua. 
95 ov jap dvsv rov sovros, sv c5 Trs^ana^'svov e<rrlv, 
svprjvsis TO vosiv. ovosv xpeoy sanv TJ sarat 
a\\o rrdps^ rov sovros, STTSI TO <ys fiolp' STrsSr)<rsv 
ov\ov aKivrjTQV r efisvai. rq> ndvr bvop, sarat 
oa-aa ftporol Karsdsvro, TTSTroiOorss slvai dXrjdrj., 

100 <ylvsa6al rs Kal o\\va6a^ slvai rs teal OVKL, 

ical rorrov d\\dcraew oi,d re XP a <j> av v dpsipsiv. 
avrdp sTrsI Trsipas rrvparov, rsrs^safjusvov scrn 
TrdvroOsv, SVKVK\OV cr^aiprjs sva\l*yKiov ay/cy, 
^saaodsv la-orrdKss rrdvrr) TO <ydp ovrs rt 

105 ovre rt /BaioTSpov 7rs\svai XP 5 ^ ^" 
ovrs ydp OVK sov sen, TO KSV rravoi 
sis 6fi6v, OWT' sbv scrriv orrws SITJ KSV sovros 
rr) fia\\ov rf) S' rjcrcrov, sirsl rrav scrriv acrvXov. 
si yap rrdvrodsv Icrov 6/iws- sv rrsipaai Kvpsi. 

ra rrpos Bo^av. 

110 sv Tc5 (rot reaver w mo~rov \6yov rjos vorj/jua 

d\r)6sirjs' Bo^as S' drro roves fiporsias 



94-112. Simpl. Phys. 31 v 146, 7. 94-98. Ibid. 19 r 87, 13 and 86, 31. 
94-96. Ibid. 31 r 143, 22. 98. Plat. Theaet. 180 E, and from this Simpl. 
Phys. 1 r 29, 18. 103-105. Plat. Soph. 244 E ; from Plato, Simpl. Phys. 
12r52, 23; 19 v 89, 22; Stob. Eel. i. 15, p. 352. 103-104. Arist. de 
X.Z.G. ch. 2 and 4; Prokl. Tim. 160 D; Simpl. Phys. 27 r 126, 
22 and 127, 31 ; 29 v 137, 16. 104-105. Prokl. Parm. iv. p. 62. 

V. 95 : DS (87, 15) irf^rtffufvov. V. 96 : (19 : 86, 13) olStv ydp 
forty, (31 : 146) ou5' et XP^VOS la-riv, corr. Stein. V. 98 : Text 
from Simpl. 19 : 87. Simpl. 31 : 146 TTO.VT' oW/x<rrcH. Plato 
oloi' aKlvrtrov f r\46fi T< irdvn f foo/j.' flvai. V. 100 : MSS. 
oi x f, corr. Karst. V. 105 : E and Plato XP^. V. 102 : Kar- 
sten avrap S'TTI, Stein av-rap t6v. V. 106 : DEF iratioi, text 
from a: F KiveiaQai, Stein i'/ce'<r0<u. V. 107: MSS. oSre ov, 
corr. a. DEF Kal 'iv, a Kfvbv, corr. Karsten. V. 109 : DEF ol 
yap, a i} 700, Diels el ydp or 77 ydp: MSS. KvpeT, corr. Stein. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 97 

being in one place from contact with being in an- 
other place ; it is not scattered here and there 
through the universe, nor is it compounded of parts. 

Therefore thinking and that by reason of which 
95 thought exists are one and the same thing, for thou 
wilt not find thinking without the being from which 
it receives its name. Nor is there nor will there be 
anything apart from being ; for fate has linked it 
together, so that it is a whole and immovable. 
Wherefore all these things will be but a name, all 
these things which mortals determined in the belief 
that they were true, viz. that things arise and perish, 
100 that they are and are not, that they change their 
position and vary in colour. 

But since there is a final limit, it is perfected on 
every side, like the mass of a rounded sphere, 
equally distant from the centre at every point. For 
105 it is necessary that it should neither be greater at 
all nor less anywhere, since there is no not-being 
which can prevent it from arriving at equality, nor 
is being such that there may ever be more than 
what is in one part and less in another, since the 
whole is inviolate. For if it is equal on all sides, 
it abides in equality within its limits. 



CONCERNING OPINIONS. 

110 At this point I cease trustworthy discourse and 
the thought about truth ; from here on, learn the 
opinions of mortals, hearing of the illusive order of 
my verses. 

H 



98 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

pdvOave, Kocrpov spwv STTSWV dirarrp^ov aKovav. 
uoofbds <ydp Karsdsvro Svo yvfapais ovo/^a^eiv 

, , , f -v / > ' 

TWV fjuiav ov XP a)V sa " riv ) sv V TTSTrhavrmsvoi, Si<riv. 

115 dvria S' SKpivavro Sspas Kal ar^ar Wsvro 

ytopls air* aXX^Xeoy, Ty p^sv (p\oybs aWsptov Trvp 
iJTTiov f4fj<i> dpaiov, savrm Trdvroas TGVVTOV, 
TO) S' STspy ftr) Tcovrov drap KUKSIVO /car' avTOv 
dvria vvKr 1 dSaf), TTVKIVOV Ssfjias saftptdss re. 

120 TWV croi sryut Sta/cocr/ioi' soiKora irdvra fyari^o), 
a)s ov u,r] TTOTS ris trs /BpOTWV yvw/jw] TrapsXacrr). 



ainap STrsiSr) irdvra <>dos ical vv% Qvo 
Kal ra Kara <T^>rspas Bvvdfjusis sirl rotcri rs ical 
irav TT\SOV scrTlv opov (frdsos Kal VVKTOS d 
125 iffcov dfji^OTspcov, sirsl ovBsrspa) 



a <yap a-rsivorepai 7r7jvrai irvpoy 

al 8' eirl rals VVKTOS, /isra Be (f)\ojos Yerai alva, 

sv 8e p^so-w Tovrwv 8alpo>v, rj Trdvra Kvftspva. 



110-121. Simpl. Phys. 9 r 38, 30. 110-119. Ibid. 1 v 30, 4. 113-119. 
Ibid. 38 r 180, 1. 110-113. Simpl. de Coelo 138, Peyr. 55 sq. 

V. 113 : (9 r 38) DEFyvd,fj.as. 110-111. Phys. 9 r 41, 8 (7 v 30 and 
38 r 180 all MSS. give yvdpau and Stein prefers this, p. 794). V. 
117 : (9 r 39) DE, (39 r 180) DEF faiov apaibv I\a.<pp6v (effnv a), 
7 r 30, and (9 r 39) &F %iriov *ov /ueV apaibv t\a<t>p6v, EP \eirrbv 
ct.fa.ibv i\a<ppbv, text follows Stein V. 118 : (9 r 39) &EF 
(39 r 180) &F, (7 v 31) MSS. /COT av-r6- (9 r 39) DE /caret 
ravrov, text follows Stein, who uses first letter of the next line. 
V. 119 : F /car' aurd ravria, aDE ravavTia, text from Stein by 
change of T to T. V. 120 : MSS. rbv, corr. Karsten. V. 121 : 
Stein reads yvtopri. 

122-125. Simpl. Phys. 39 r 180, 9. 

V. 125 : D Tow, Stein suggests afj.<j>6Tepov. 
126-128. Ibid. 9 r 39, 14. 127-131. Ibid. 7 v 31, 13. 

V. 126 : E'D 1 irdrivro, D-E TTVTJVTO, a iroii\vro, corr. Bergk : DE* 
a.Kpi)Tois, a o/cpiVoio, corr. Stein. V. 127 : E* oferai. V. 129 : 
MSS. vtivra, Mullach iravrri, Stein iraffiv: aF &pxn, text 
follows DE. V. 130 : Stein suggests ptyriv, TO T'. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 99 

Men have determined in their minds to name two 

principles [lit. forms] ; but one of these they ought 

115 not to name, and in so doing they have erred. They 
distinguish them as antithetic in character, and give 
them each character and attributes distinct from 
those of the other. On the one hand there is the 
aethereal flame of fire, fine, rarefied, everywhere 
identical with itself and not identical with its oppo- 
site ; and on the other hand, opposed to the first, is 

120 the second principle, flameless darkness, dense and 
heavy in character. Of these two principles I declare 
to thee every arrangement as it appears to men, so 
that no knowledge among mortals may surpass thine. 

But since all things are called light and darkness, 
and the peculiar properties of these are predicated of 
one thing and another, everything is at the same 
time full of light and of obscure darkness, of both 
125 equally, since neither has anything in common with 
the other. 

And the smaller circles are filled with unmixed 
fire, and those next them with darkness into which 
their portion of light penetrates ; in the midst of 
these is the divinity who directs the course of all. 

H 2 



100 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



Trdvrrj yap <rrvyspoio roKov Kal /u'f tos a 
130 Tre/iTTOuo-' apasvi QrjXv piysv TO r' svavnov avdis 
dpasv drjKvrspu). 

irpmriCrrOV fjisV "E/3G)Ta 0SWV ftr)rl<rarO TTOLVrOiV. 

sitrrj 8' aldsplav rs fyvviv rd T' IV aiflept irdvra 
(T^fjuara KOI KaQapas svaysos r/e\ioio 
135 Xa/A7raSoy 2/37' di8r]\a KOL oTnrodsv I 
spya rs KVK\(t)Tros Trsvcrrj 7rspi(f>oi,ra 
Kal fyvcnv. sl&rjvsis rs KCU ovpavov 
svdsv s(j)v TS, Kal MS fjiiv ayova' 
irsipar 1 S-^SLV aarpcov. 

110 TTWS yata Kal r^Xtos- rjSs 

aWrjp rs %vvb$ <yd\a T' ovpdviov Kal 
scr^aros 778' acrrpwv dsppov /JLSVOS a)pfj,rjd'r](rai> 



vvKTi<baes Trspl yaiav 
145 aUi iraTrraivovcra Trpos avyas rjs\,i,oto 



yap l/cacrror' 



rcoy voos dvdpwTroicri, Trapsar'rjKSv TO <yp avr 
sanv OTrsp (frpovssi ue\sa)v Averts dvdpatTTOLcrw 
Kal TratTtv Kal iravri- TO yap TT\SOV sari vo 

150 Ssfyrspoicriv JJLSV Kovpovs, \aolcn Be Kovpas. 



132. Plato, Symp. 178 B ; Arist. Met. i. 4, 984 b 26 ; Plut. Amat. 756 r ; 
Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 9 ; Stob. Eel. i. 10, p. 274 ; Sim*pl.P%s. 9 r 39, 18. 
133-139. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 14, 732. Stein assigns to Empedokles. 
140-143. Simpl. de Coelo f. 138 : Peyr. 55 sqq., Brandis 510a. 
V. 140 : Stein introduces \syetv before irws from what precedes. 

144. Plut. Colot. p. 1116 A. 

145. Plut. Quaest. Rom. 282 A ; de fac. lun. 929 A. 

146-149. Arist. Met. iii. 5, 1009 b 17 ; Theophr. de sens. 3 ; Dox. 499. 
V. 146 : Text follows Arist. SB b C b , Theophr. PF ; Vulg. e/cao-ros : 
MSS. Kpafftv, corr. Stephan. V. 147 : Arist. irapiVraTai ; text 
follows Theophr. 

150. Galen, Hipp. Epid. vi. 48 ; Comm. ii. (ix. p. 430 Char). 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 101 

For she controls dreaded birth and coition in every 

130 part of the universe, sending female to join with 
male, and again male to female. 

First of all the gods she devised love. 

Thou shalt know the nature of the heavens and 

135 all signs that are in the sky, the destructive deeds of 
the pure bright torch of the sun and whence they 
arose, and thou shalt learn the wandering deeds of the 
round-eyed moon and its nature. Thou shalt know 
also the sky surrounding all, whence it arose, and 
how necessity took it and chained it so as to serve as 

140 a limit, to the courses of the stars. How earth and 
sun and moon and common sky and the milky way 
of the heavens and highest Olympos and the burning 
(might of the) stars began to be. 

It (the moon> wanders about the earth, shining 

145 at night with borrowed light. She is always gazing 
earnestly toward the rays of the sun. 

For as at any time is the blending of very com- 
plex members in a man, so is the mind in men con- 
stituted ; for that which thinks is the same in all 
men and in every man, viz. the essence of the 
members of the body ; and the element that is in 

150 excess is thought. 

On the right hand boys, on the left hand girls. 
So, according to men's opinions, did things 
arise, and so they are now, and from this state when 
they shall have reached maturity shall they perish. 
For each of these men has determined a name as 
a distinguishing mark. 
K. When male and female mingle seed of Venus 

150 in the form [the body] of one, the excellence from 
the two different bloods, if it preserves harmony, 
fashions a well-formed body ; but if when the seed is 
mingled the excellencies fight against each other 



102 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

OVTO) rot Kara Sogav s<f)W TaSs vvv TS saai, 

teal /j,TS7Ti,T a-rrb TOV&S TS\VTq(rovcri Tp 

rots 8' ovo/JLa avdpcoTroi KaTsdsvT 1 sTricr^^ov sicd<rT<a. 



Kars. (150) Femina virque simul Veneris cum germina 

miscent 

unius in formam diverse ex sanguine virtus 
temperiem servans bene condita corpora fiugit. 
at si virtutes permixto semine pugnent 
nee faciant unam permixto in corpore dirae 
nascentem gemino vexabunt semine sexum. 

Simpl. Pliys. 1, v. 81, 4. STTL TWOS sari TO dpaLov ical 
TO deploy Kal TO <f>aos ital TO p,a\6aKov fcal TO rcov(j>ov, sirl 
os TTVKVW owo/iacrrai TO tyv^pov Kal o %o<j)os /cat (TK\r)pov 
Kal /3apv" TavTa jap aTTSKpidrj sKaTspws S 



151-153. Simpl. de Coelo f. 138 ; Peyr. 55 sq., Gaisf. Poet. Min. 287. 
V. 151 : MSS. ?<K corr. Stein. MSS. (ita.1) vvv loo-i, Peyr. vvv re 
tafft, Stein vvv Kal fa<ri. V. 153 : Text follows Oxford MS. : 
Turin MS. transposes last two words. 

150-155. (Karsten) Coelius Aurel. de Morb. Chron. iv. 9, p. 545 
Wet. HP. 102 c. V. (151) Vulg. venis informans, corr. Diels, Dox. 193, 
n. 1. 



and do not unite into one, they will distress the sex 
that is coming into existence, as the twofold seed is 
mingled in the body of the unfortunate woman. 

With this there are fineness and heat and light 
and softness and brightness ; and with the dense 
are classed cold and darkness and hardness and 
weight, for these are separated the ones on one 
side, the others on the other. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 103 

&) PASSAGES EELATING TO PARMENIDES IN PLATO AND 
AEISTOTLE. 

Plato, Theaet. 180 D. I almost forgot, Theodores, 
that there were others who asserted opinions the very 
opposite of these : ' the all is alone, unmoved ; to this 
all names apply,' and the other emphatic statements 
in opposition to those referred to, which the school of 
Melissos and Parmenides make, to the effect that all 
things are one, and that the all stands itself in itself, not 
having space in which it is moved. 

Ibid. 183 E. Feeling ashamed before Melissos and the 
rest who assert that the all is one being, for fear we should 
examine the matter somewhat crudely, I am even more 
ashamed in view of the fact that Parmenides is one of 
them. Parmenides seems to me, in the words of Homer, 
a man to be reverenced and at the same time feared. 
For when I was a mere youth and he a very old man, 
I conversed with him, and he seemed to me to have an 
exceedingly wonderful depth of mind. I fear lest we 
may not understand what he said, and that we may 
fail still more to understand his thoughts in saying it ; 
and, what is most important, I fear lest the question 
before us should fail to receive due consideration. . . . ' 

Soph. 238 c (concluding a discussion of Parmenides). 
You understand then that it is really impossible to speak 
of not-being or to say anything about it or to conceive 
it by itself, but it is inconceivable, not to be spoken of or 
mentioned, and irrational. 

Parm. 150 E. Accordingly the unity itself in relation 
to itself is as follows : Having in itself neither greatness 
nor littleness, it could not be exceeded by itself nor 
could it exceed itself, but being equal it would be equal 
to itself. 

1 Cf. Soph. 217 c. 



J04 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Ibid. 163 c. This statement : It does not exist, means 
absolutely that it does not exist anywhere in any way, 
nor does not-being have any share at all in being. 
Accordingly not-being could not exist, nor in any other 
way could it have a share in being. 

(Symp. 178 B, 195 c : Reference to the stories which 
Hesiod and Parmenides told about the gods. Line 132 
is quoted.) 

Arist. Pliys. i. 2 ; 184 b 16. The first principle must 
be one, unmoved, as Parmenides and Melissos say, . . . 

Ibid. i. 3 ; 186 a 4. To those proceeding after this 
impossible manner things seem to be one, and it is not 
difficult to refute them from their own statements. For 
both of them reason in a fallacious manner, both 
Parmenides and Melissos ; for they make false assump- 
tions, and at the same time their course of reasoning is 
not logical. . . . And the same sort of arguments are 
used by Parmenides, although he has some others of his 
own, and the refutation consists in showing both that he 
makes mistakes of fact and that he does not draw his 
conclusions correctly. He makes a mistake in assuming 
that being is to be spoken of absolutely, speaking of it 
thus many times ; and he draws the false conclusion that, 
in case only whites are considered, white meaning 
one thing, none the less there are many whites and 
not one ; since neither in the succession of things nor 
in the argument will whiteness be one. For what is 
predicated of white will not be the same as what is pre- 
dicated of the object which is white, and nothing except 
white will be separated from the object ; since there is 
no other ground of separation except the fact that the 
white is different from the object in which the white 
exists. But Parmenides had not yet arrived at the 
knowledge of this. 

Ibid. i. 5 ; 188 a 20. Parmenides also makes heat 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 105 

and cold first principles ; and he calls them fire and 
earth. 

Ibid. iii. 6 ; 207 a 15. Wherefore we must regard 
Parmenides as a more acute thinker than Melissos, for 
the latter says that the infinite is the all, but the former 
asserts that the all is limited, equally distant from the 
centre [on every side]. 1 

Gen. Corr. i. 3 ; 318 b 6. Parmenides says that the 
two exist, both being and not being i.e. earth and 
water. 

Metaph. i. 3; 984 b 1. None of those who have 
affirmed that the all is one have, it happens, seen 
the nature of such a cause clearly, except, perhaps, 
Parmenides, and he in so far as he sometimes asserts 
that there is not one cause alone, but two causes. 

Metaph. i. 5 ; 986 b 18. For Parmenides seemed to lay 
hold of a unity according to reason, and Melissos accord- 
ing to matter ; wherefore the former says it is limited, 
the latter that it is unlimited. Xenophanes first taught 
the unity of things (Parmenides is said to have been 
his pupil), but he did not make anything clear, nor 
did he seem to get at the nature of either finiteness or 
infinity, but, looking up into the broad heavens, he said, 
the unity is god. These, as we said, are to be dismissed 
from the present investigation, two of them entirely as 
being somewhat more crude, Xenophanes and Melissos ; 
but Parmenides seems to speak in some places' with 
greater care. For believing that not-being does not 
exist in addition to being, of necessity he thinks that 
being is one and that there is nothing else, . . . and 
being compelled to account for phenomena, and assuming 
that things are one from the standpoint of reason, plural 
from the standpoint of sense, he again asserts that 
there are two causes and two first principles, heat and 

1 V. Parmenides, Frag. v. 104. 



106 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

cold, or, as he calls them, fire and earth ; of these he 
regards heat as being, its opposite as not-being. 

Metaph. ii. 4 ; 1001 a 32. There is nothing different 
from being, so that it is necessary to agree with the 
reasoning of Parmenides that all things are one, and that 
this is being. 



(c) PASSAGES EELATING TO PAKMENIDES IN THE 

DOXOGKAPHISTS. 

Theophrastos, Fr. 6 ; Alexander Metaph. p. 24, 5 
Bon. ; Dox. 482. And succeeding him Parmenides, son 
of Pyres, the Eleatic Theophrastos adds the name of 
Xenophanes followed both ways. For in declaring 
that the all is eternal, and in attempting to explain the 
genesis of things, he expresses different opinions accord- 
ing to the two standpoints: from the standpoint of 
truth he supposes the all to be one and not generated 
and spheroidal in form, while from the standpoint of 
popular opinion, in order to explain generation of 
phenomena, he uses two first principles, fire and earth, 
the one as matter, the other as cause and agent. 

Theophrastos, Fr. 6a ; Laer. Diog. ix. 21. 22 ; Dox. 
482. Parmenides, son of Pyres, the Eleatic, was a pupil 
of Xenophanes, yet he did not accept his doctrines. . . . 
He was the first to declare that the earth is spheroidal 
and situated in the middle of the universe. He said that 
there are two elements, fire and earth ; the one has the 
office of demiurge, the other that of matter. Men first 
arose from mud ; heat and cold are the elements of 
which all things are composed. He holds that intelligence 
and life are the same, as Theophrastos records in his 
book on physics, where he put down the opinions of 
almost everybody. He said that philosophy has a two- 
fold office, to understand both the truth and also what 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 107 

men believe. Accordingly he says : (Vv. 28-30), ' 'Tis 
necessary for thee to learn all things, both the abiding 
essence of persuasive truth, and men's opinions in which 
rests no true belief.' 

Theoph. Fr. 17; Diog. Laer. viii. 48; Dox. 492. 
Theophrastos says that Parmenides was the first to call 
the heavens a universe and the earth spheroidal. 

Theoph. de Sens. 3 ; Dox. 499. Parmenides does not 
make any definite statements as to sensation, except that 
knowledge is in proportion to the excess of one of the two 
elements. Intelligence varies as the heat or the cold is 
in excess, and it is better and purer by reason of heat ; 
but nevertheless it has need of a certain symmetry. 
(Vv. 146-149) ' For,' he says, ' as at any time is the 
blending of very complex members in a man, so is the 
mind in men constituted ; for that which thinks is 
the same in all men and in every man, viz., the 
essence of the members of the body ; and the element 
that is in excess is thought.' He says that perceiving and 
thinking are the same thing, and that remembering and 
forgetting come from these ' as the result of mixture, 
but he does not say definitely whether, if they enter into 
the mixture in equal quantities, thought will arise or not, 
nor what the disposition should be. But it is evident 
that he believes sensation to take place by the presence of 
some quality in contrast with its opposite, where he says 
that a corpse does not perceive light and heat and 
sound by reason of the absence of fire, but that it per- 
ceives cold and silence and the similar contrasted 
qualities, and in general that being as a whole has a 
certain knowledge. So in his statements he seems to do 
away with -what is difficult by leaving it out. 

Theophr. Fr. 7 ; Simpl. Pliys. 25 r 115 ; Dox. 483. In 

1 Karsten understands ' heat and cold,' Diels ' perceiving and think- 
ing.' 



108 THE FIKST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the first book of his physics Theophrastos gives as the 
opinion of Parmenides : That which is outside of being 
is not-being, not-being is nothing, accordingly being is 
one. 

Hipp. Phil. 11 ; Dox. 564. Parmenides supposes that 
the all is one and eternal, and without beginning and 
spheroidal in form ; but even he does not escape the 
opinion of the many, for he speaks of fire and earth as 
first principles of the all, of earth as matter, and of 
fire as agent and cause, and he says that the earth will 
come to an end, but in what way he does not say. He 
says that the all is eternal, and not generated, and 
spherical, and homogeneous, not having place in itself, 
and unmoved, and limited. 1 

Plut. Strom. 5 ; Dox. 580. Parmenides the Eleatic, 
the companion of Xenophanes, both laid claim to his 
opinions, and at the same time took the opposite stand- 
point. For he declared the all to be eternal and immov- 
able according to the real state of the case; for it is 
alone, existing alone, immovable and without beginning 
(v. 60) ; but there is a generation of the things that 
seem to be according to false opinion, and he excepts 
sense perceptions from the truth. He says that if any- 
thing exists besides being, this is not-being, but not- 
being does not exist at all. So there is left the being 
that has no beginning ; and he says that the earth was 
formed by the precipitation of dense air. 

Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 10 ; Dox. 590. Parmenides, 
the son of Pyres, himself also of the Eleatic school, said 
that the first principle of all things is the infinite. 

Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 11 ; Dox. 534. For Parmenides 
devised a sort of contrivance like a crown (he applied 
to it the word o-re^a^), an orb of light with con- 
tinuous heat, which arched the sky, and this he called 

1 V. Herm. Irr. Gen. Phil. 6 ; Dox. 652. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES 109 

god, but in it no one could suspect a divine form or a 
divine sentiment, and he made many monstrosities of 
this sort ; moreover, he raised to the rank of gods War, 
Discord, Desire, and many other things which disease or 
sleep or forgetfulness or old age destroys ; and similarly 
with reference to the stars he expresses opinions which 
have been criticised elsewhere and are omitted here. 

Aet. i. 3 ; Dox. 284. Parmenides, the Eleatic, son of 
Pyrrhes, was a companion of Xenophanes, and in his 
first book the doctrines agree with those of his master ; 
for here that verse occurs : (v. 60), Universal, existing 
alone, immovable and without beginning. He said that 
the cause of all things is not earth alone, as his master 
said, but also fire. 7 ; 303. The world is immovable and 
limited, and spheroidal in form. 24 ; 320. Parmenides 
and Melissos did away with generation and destruction, 
because they thought that the all is unmoved. 25 ; 321. 
All things are controlled by necessity ; this is fated, it is 
justice and forethought, and the producer of the world. 

Aet. ii. 1 ; Dox. 327. The world is one. 4 ; 332. It 
is without beginning and eternal and indestructible. 
7 ; 335. Parmenides taught that there were crowns 
encircling one another in close succession, 1 one of rare- 
fied matter, another of dense, and between these other 
mixed crowns of light and darkness ; and that which 
surrounded all was solid like a wall, and under this was 
a crown of fire ; and the centre of all the crowns was 
solid, and around it was a circle of fire ; and of the mixed 
crowns the one nearest the centre was the source of 
motion and generation for all, and this ' the goddess 
who directs the helm and holds the keys,' 2 he calls 
'justice and necessity.' The air is that which is 
separated from the earth, being evaporated by the 

1 Cf. vv. 123-131. 

2 V. Simpl. Phys. 8: 34, 14. 



110 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

forcible pressure of the earth ; the sun and the circle of 
the milky way are the exhalation of fire, and the moon 
is the mixture of both, namely of air and fire. The aether 
stands highest of all and surrounding all, and beneath this 
is ranged the fiery element which we call the heavens, 
and beneath this are the things of earth. 11 ; 339. The 
revolving vault highest above the earth is the heavens. 
340. The heavens are of a fiery nature. 13 ; 342. The 
stars are masses of fire. 15 ; 345. He ranks the 
morning star, which he considers the same as the 
evening star, first in the aether ; and after this the sun, 
and beneath this the stars in the fiery vault which he 
calls the heavens. 17 ; 346. Stars are fed from the 
exhalations of the earth. 20 ; 349. The sun is of a fiery 
nature. The sun and the moon are separated from the 
milky way, the one from the thinner mixture, which is 
hot, the other from the denser, which is cold. 25 ; 
356. The moon is of a fiery nature. 26 ; 357. The 
moon is of the same size as the sun, and derives its light 
from it. 30; 361. (The moon appears dark) because 
darkness is mingled with its fiery nature, whence he 
calls it the star that shines with a false light. 

Aet. iii. 1 ; 365. The mixture of dense and thin gives 
its milk-like appearance to the milky way. 11; 377. 
Parmenides first defined the inhabited parts of the earth 
by the two tropical zones. 15 ; 380. Because the earth 
is equally distant on all sides from other bodies, and o 
rests in an equilibrium, not having any reason for sway- 
ing one way rather than another ; on this account it only 
shakes and does not move from its place. 

Aet. iv. 3; 388. The soul is of a fiery nature. 
5 ; 391. The reason is in the whole breast. 392. Life 
and intelligence are the same thing, nor could there be 
any living being entirely without reason. 9 ; 397. Sen- 
sations arise part by part according to the symmetry of 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PAEMENIDES 111 

the pores, each particular object of sense being adapted 
to each sense (organ). 398. Desire is produced by lack 
of nourishment. 

Aet. v. 7 ; 419. Parrnenides holds the opposite 
opinion ; males are produced in the northern part, for 
this shares the greater density ; and females in the 
southern part by reason of its rarefied state. 420. Some 
descend from the right side to the right parts of the womb, 
others from the left to the left parts of the womb ; but if 
they cross in the descent females are born. 11; 422. 
When the child comes from the right side of the womb, it 
resembles the father ; when it comes from the left side, 
the mother. 30 ; 443. Old age attends the failure of 
heat. 



112 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



VII. 

THE ELEATIC SCHOOL : ZENO. 

ZENO of Elea, son of Teleutagoras, was born early in 
the fifth century B.C. He was the pupil of Parmenides, 
and his relations with him were so intimate that Plato 
calls him Parmenides's son (Soph. 241 D). Strabo (vi. 
1, 1) applies to him as well as to his master the name 
Pythagorean, and gives him the credit of advancing the 
cause of law and order in Elea. Several writers say that 
he taught in Athens for a while. There are numerous 
accounts of his capture as party to a conspiracy ; these 
accounts differ widely from each other, and the only 
point of agreement between them has reference to his 
determination in shielding his fellow conspirators. We 
find reference to one book which he wrote in prose (Plato, 
Farm. 127 c), each section of which showed the absurdity 
of some element in the popular belief. 

Literature : Lohse, Halis 1794 ; Gerling, de 
Zenonis Paralogismis, Marburg 1825 ; Wellmann, 
Zenos Beweise, G.-Pr. Frkf. a. 0. 1870 ; Kaab, d. 
Zenonische Beweise, Schweinf. 1880 ; Schneider, 
Philol xxxv. 1876 ; Tannery, Rev. Philos. Oct. 
1885 ; Dunan, Les arguments de Zenon, Paris 
1884 ; Brochard, Les arguments de Zenon, Paris 
1888 ; Frontera, Etude sur les arguments de 
Zenon, Paris 1891. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: ZENO 113 

(a) FRAGMENTS OF ZENO, FROM SIMPLICIUS ON THE 
PHYSICS. 

1. Simpl. Pliys. 30 r 139, 11. si yap d\\w ovrt Trpotr- 
ysvoiTO, ov8sv av psl^ov Trotrjcrsisv fivy40ov9 yap fjLtj8svos 
OVTOS, Trpoo-ysvofAsvov 8s ov8sv olov rs sis psysOos STTI- 
8ovvai. Kal OVTCOS av ij8r) TO 7rpocryiv6/j,svov ov8sv sllr). 
si 8s airoytvoftsvov TO srepov fjLrjSsv s\arrov saTi, fjurfSs av 
TTpocryivo/Asvov av^jcrsTai, 8rj\ov on TO 7rpocrysv6fj,svov 
ov8sv rjv ov8s TO aTroysvoftsvov. 

2. Simpl. Phys. 30 r 140, 29. si Tro\\d SO-TIV, avdyKij 
TOcravTa slvai ocra scrTl Kal OVTS 7r\slova ai>TO)v OVTS 
s\aTTOva. si 8s TocravTci SGTIV o<ra ecrrt, TTSTrspacrpsva 
av strj. si 7ro\\d SCTTLV, aTrsipa TO, ovTa SCTTIV. dsl yap 
sTSpa fMSTa^v TWV OVTCOV ecrrt, Kal 7rd\iv sicsivwv STSpa 
fjiSTa^v. Kal OVTWS ajrstpa TO, ovTa SCTTL. 

3. Simpl. Phys. 30 v 141, 1. si //.^ s^ot psysOos TO ov 
oi>8' av sir], si 8s SCTTIV, dvdyKrj sKacrTOv psyeOos TI sx stv 
Kal ird^os Kal aTrs^stv avTov TO sTSpov airo TOV STSpov. 
Kal TTSpl TOV irpov^ovTOS o avTos \6yos. Kal yap SKslvo 
s^si peysOos Kal irpos^Si avTov TI. O/JLOIOV 8rj TOVTO a?raf 
TS siTTslv Kal dsl \sysiv ov8sv yap avTov TOIOVTOV 
sa"%aTOV scrTai OVTS STSpov Trpos STSpov OUK Icrrat. OVTWS 
si TroXXa SCTTLV, dvdyKTj avTa /AiKpa TS slvai Kal fj,syd\a, 
fjLLKpa fj,sv WCTTS fj,rj s%siv [Asysdos, fj,syd\a 8s &O~TS airstpa 
slvai. 

4. Simpl. Phys. 130 v 562, 4. si SVTIV 6 TOTTOS, 
sv TIVI scrTai Trav yap ov sv TIVI TO 8s sv TIVI Kal sv 
TOTT&). Icrrat dpa Kal 6 TOTTOS sv TOTTW Kal TOVTO sir'' 
dirsipov' OVK dpa SCTTIV o TOTTOS. 

Sources and Critical Notes. 

Fr. 1. D et yap, EF ov yap, a ov yap el: E &\\tav. irpoffyevofjievov $f] 
Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. 591, n. 2, strikes out 5e : F olovrai els : E gives oi> 
Sja for ou5e : DEF a.iroyiv6^evov. 

Fr. 2. a adds Kal irdXiv after av efTj. 
Fr. 3. DF fx<", *E tx*<- 
Fr. 4. E omits Kal after 'dpa. 

I 



114 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

(a) SlMPLICIUS's ACCOUNT OF ZENO's AKGUMENTS, INCLUDING 
THE TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS. 

30 r 138, 30. For Eudemos says in his Physics, 
' Then does not this exist, and is there any one ? 
This was the problem. He reports Zeno as saying that 
if any one explains to him the one, what it is, he can 
tell him what things are. But he is puzzled, it seems, 
because each of the senses declares that there are 
many things, both absolutely, and as the result of 
division, but no one establishes the mathematical point. 
He thinks that what is not increased by receiving addi- 
tions, or decreased as parts are taken away, is not one 
of the things that are.' It was natural that Zeno, who, 
as if for the sake of exercise, argued both sides of a case 
(so that he is called double-tongued), should utter such 
statements raising difficulties about the one ; but in his 
book which has many arguments in regard to each point, 
he shows that a man who affirms multiplicity naturally 
falls into contradictions. Among these arguments is one 
by which he shows that if there are many things, these 
are both small and great great enough to be infinite in 
size, and small enough to be nothing in size. By this 
he shows that what has neither greatness nor thickness 
nor bulk could not even be. (Fr. 1) ' ' For if, he says, 
anything were added to another being, it could not 
make it any greater ; for since greatness does not exist, 
it is impossible to increase the greatness of a thing by 
adding to it. So that which is added would be nothing. 
If when something is taken away that which is left is no 
less, and if it becomes no greater by receiving additions, 
evidently that which has been added or taken away is 
nothing.' These things Zeno says, not denying the 
one, but holding that each thing has the greatness of 

1 Cf. Arist. Metaph. ii. 4 ; 1001 b 8. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: ZENO 115 

many and infinite things, since there is always some- 
thing before that which is apprehended, by reason of its 
infinite divisibility ; and this he proves by first showing 
that nothing has any greatness because each thing of 
the many is identical with itself and is one. 

Ibid. 30 v 140, 27. And why is it necessary to say 
that there is a multiplicity of things when it is set 
forth in Zeno's own book ? For again in showing 
that, if there is a multiplicity of things, the same things 
are both finite and infinite, Zeno writes as follows, to 
use his own words : (Fr. 2) ' If there is a multiplicity of 
things, it is necessary that these should be just as many 
as exist, and not more nor fewer. If there are just as 
many as there are, then the number would be finite. If 
there is a multiplicity at all, the number is infinite, for 
there are always others between any two, and yet others 
between each pair of these. So the number of things 
is infinite.' So by the process of division he shows that 
their number is infinite. And as to magnitude, he begins 
with this same argument. For first showing that (Fr.. 
3) ' i'f being did not have magnitude, it would not exist 
at all,' he goes on, ' if anything exists, it is necessary 
that each thing should have some magnitude and thick- 
ness, and that one part of it should be separated from 
another. The same argument applies -to the thing that 
precedes this. That also will have magnitude and will 
have something before it. The same may be said of each 
thing once for all, for there will be no such thing as 
last, nor will one thing differ from another. So if there 
is a multiplicity of things, it is necessary that these 
should be great and small small enough not to have 
any magnitude, and great enough to be infinite.' ' 

Ibid. 130 v 562, 3. Zeno's argument seems to deny 
that place exists, putting the question as follows : (Fr. 4) 

1 Cf. Diels, Archiv f. d. Gesch. d. Phil. i. 245 ; Zeller, i. 5 593 n. 1. 

i 2 



116 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

' If there is such a thing as place, it will be in some- 
thing, for all being is in something, and that which is 
in something is in some place. Then this place will be 
in a place, and so on indefinitely. Accordingly there is 
no such thing as place.' 

Ibid. 131 r 563, 17. Eudemos' account of Zeno's 
opinion runs as follows : ' Zeno's problem seems to 
come to the same thing. For it is natural that all 
being should be somewhere, and if there is a place for 
things, where would this place be ? In some other 
place, and that in another, and so on indefinitely/ 

Ibid. 236 v. Zeno's argument that when anything 
is in a space equal to itself, it is either in motion or at 
rest, and that nothing is moved in the present moment, 
and that the moving body is always in a space equal to 
itself at each present moment, may. I think, be put in 
a syllogism as follows : The arrow which is moving 
forward is at every present moment in a space equal 
to itself, accordingly it is < in a space equal to itself * 
in all time ; but that which is in a space equal 
to itself in the present moment is not in motion. 
Accordingly it is in a state of rest, since it is not moved 
in the present moment, and that which is not moving is 
at rest, since everything is either in motion or at rest. 
So the arrow which is moving forward is at rest while 
it is moving forward, in every moment of its motion. 

237 r. The Achilles argument is so named because 
Achilles is named in it as the example, and the argu- 
ment shows that if he pursued a tortoise it would be 
impossible for him to overtake it. 

255 r. Aristotle accordingly solves the problem of 
Zeno the Eleatic, which he propounded to Protagoras 
the Sophist. 1 Tell me, Protagoras, said he, does one 
grain of millet make a noise when it falls, or does the 

1 Arist. Phys. vii. 5, 250% 20. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: ZENO 117 

ten-thousandth part of a grain ? On receiving the 
answer that it does not, he went on : Does a measure of 
millet grains make a noise when it falls, or not ? He 
answered, it does make a noise. Well, said Zeno, does 
not the statement about the measure of millet apply to 
the one grain and the ten-thousandth part of a grain ? 
He assented, and Zeno continued, Are not the state- 
ments as to the noise the same in regard to each ? For 
as are the things that make a noise, so are the noises. 
Since this is the case, if the measure of millet makes a 
noise, the one grain and the ten -thousandth part of a 
grain make a noise. 



(b) ZENO'S ARGUMENTS AS DESCRIBED BY ARISTOTLE. 

Pliys. iv. 1 ; 209 a 23. Zeno's problem demands 
some consideration; if all being is in some place, evi- 
dently there* must be a place of this place, and so on 
indefinitely. 3 ; 210 b 22. It is not difficult to solve 
Zeno's problem, that if place is anything, it will be in 
some place ; there is no reason why the first place should 
not be in something else, not however as in that place, 
but just as health exists in warm beings as a state while 
warmth exists in matter as a property of it. So it is not 
necessary to assume an indefinite series of places. 

vi. 2; 233 a 24. (Time and space are continuous 
.... the divisions of time and space are the same.) 
Accordingly Zeno's argument is erroneous, that it is 
not possible to traverse infinite spaces, or to come in 
contact with infinite spaces successively in a finite time. 
Both space and time can be called infinite in two ways, 
either absolutely as a continuous whole, or by division 
into the smallest parts. With infinites in point of quan- 
tity, it is not possible for anything to come in contact in 
a finite time, but it is possible in the case of the infinites 



118 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

reached by division, for time itself is infinite from this 
standpoint. So the result is that it traverses the infinite 
in an infinite, not a finite time, and that infinites, not 
finites, come in contact with infinites. 

vi. 9 ; 239 b 5. And Zeno's reasoning is fallacious. 
For if, he says, everything is at rest [or in motion] when 
it is in a space equal to itself, and the moving body is 
always in the present moment < in a space equal to 
itself, > then the moving arrow is still. This is false ; 
for time is not composed of present moments that are 
indivisible, nor indeed is any other quantity. Zeno pre- 
sents four arguments concerning motion which involve 
puzzles to be solved, and the first of these shows that 
motion does not exist because the moving body must go 
half the distance before it goes the whole distance ; of 
this we have spoken before (Phys. viii. 8 ; 263 a 5). And 
the second is called the Achilles argument ; it is this : 
The slow runner will never be overtaken by the swiftest, 
for it is necessary that the pursuer should first reach the 
point from which the pursued started, so that neces- 
sarily the slower is always somewhat in advance. This 
argument is the same as the preceding, the only 
difference being that the distance is not divided each 
time into halves. . . . His opinion is false that the one 
in advance is not overtaken ; he is not indeed overtaken 
while he is in advance ; but nevertheless he is overtaken, 
if you will grant that he passes through the limited 
space. These are the first two arguments, and the third 
is the one that has been alluded to, that the arrow in 
its flight is stationary. This depends on the assumption 
that time is composed of present moments ; there will 
be no syllogism if this is not granted. And the fourth 
argument is with reference to equal bodies moving in 
opposite directions past equal bodies in the stadium with 
equal speed, some from the end of the stadium, others from 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: ZENO 119 

the middle ; in which case he thinks half the time equal 
to twice the time. The fallacy lies in the fact that while 
he postulates that bodies of equal size move forward with 
equal speed for an equal time, he compares the one with 
something in motion, the other with something at rest. 

(c) PASSAGES RELATING TO ZENO IN THE DOXOGRAPHISTS. 

Plut. Strom. 6 ; Dox. 581. Zeno the Eleatic brought 
out nothing peculiar to himself, but he started farther 
difficulties about these things. 

Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 11 ; Dox. 590. Zeno the 
Eleatic, a dialectician equal to the other Zeno, says that 
the earth does not move, and that no space is void of 
content. He speaks as follows : That which is moved is 
moved in the place in which it is, or in the place in 
which it is not ; it is neither moved in the place in which 
it is, nor in the place in which it is not ; accordingly it 
is not moved at all. 

Galen, Hist. Phil. 3 ; Dox. 601. Zeno the Eleatic is 
said to have introduced the dialectic philosophy. 7 ; Dox. 
604. He was a skeptic. 

Aet. i. 7 ; Dox. 303. Melissos and Zeno say that the 
one is universal, and that it exists alone, eternal, and 
unlimited. And this one is necessity [Heeren inserts 
here the name Empedokles], and the material of it is 
the four elements, and the forms are strife and love. 
He says that the elements are gods, and the mixture of 
them is the world. The uniform will be resolved into 
them ; * he thinks that souls are divine, and that pure 
men who share these things in a pure way are divine. 
23 ; 320. Zeno et al. denied generation and destruc- 
tion, because they thought that the all is unmoved. 

1 Beading irpbs TO.VTO. Au^trerat, which, as Mr. G. D. Lord suggests to 
me, is probably the source of the corruption irpoffra.vXvQfaeTai. The 
Vatican vulgate combines both readings. 



120 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



VIII. 
THE ELEATIC SCHOOL : MELISSOS. 

MELISSOS of Samos, son of Ithagenes, was a contem- 
porary of Zeno, though he may have been slightly 
younger. Parmenides is said to have been his teacher, 
and it is possible that he may have made the acquaint- 
ance of Herakleitos. According to Diogenes, he was a 
respected statesman, and there seems to be good evidence 
(Plutarch, Perikles 26, after Aristotle) that he com- 
manded the Samian fleet at its victory over the Athe- 
nians, 440 B.C. He wrote a book which later writers refer 
to under various titles. 

Literature : The fragments are treated by Brandis, 
Commen. Eleat. iii. and by Mullach de Melisso X. G. 
p. 80 ; Pabst, de Meliss. Fragmentis, Bonn 1889, 
disputes the authenticity of Fr. 1-5. Spalding, 
Vindic. philos. Megar. Berlin 1793, first showed 
that the first two chapters of the book called de 
Xenophane, Zenone, Gorgia, refer to Melissos. Cf. 
also Fr. Kern, Zur Wurdigung des Melissos, Fest- 
schrift d. stettin. Stadtgym. 1880. 

Sources and Critical Notes. 

Fr. 1-5. The passage giving these fragments, as they have been 
called, contains little that is not found in the remaining fragments, and 
in spite of the fact that it is given as a direct quotation, it seems best 
to regard it as a condensed statement of the opinions of Melissos. V. 
Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. 607, n. 1, and Pabst, de Meliss. Fragmentis, 
Bonn 1889. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 121 

(a) FRAGMENTS OF MELISSOS MAINLY FROM SIMPLICIUS 
ON THE PHYSICS. 

Simpl. Phys. 23 v 109, 20 (Fr. 7). OTS TOLVVV OVK 
sysvsTO, SO~TI 8s, dsl rjv Kal del scrrai KOI dpyrjv OVK 
s%si ov8s TS\svTrjv, aAA,' aTrstpov SCTTIV. si psv jap 
sysvsTO) dp^v av sl%sv rjp^aTO yap av TTOTS yivoasvov ' 
/cal TsXsvTrjv ' STS\svTr)crs yap av TTOTS yivoasvov ' si 8s 
ptJTS rjpgaTO arJTS STS\svTr)(rsv dsi rs rjv Kal dsl carat, 
OUK s%sc dp%rjv ov8s TS\SVTIJV ' ov yap dsl slvat dvvcnov 
o TL fir) Trav sari,. 1. 31. (Fr. 8.) aAA' &<nrsp sariv dsl, 
ovro) Kal TO jjusysOos aTrsipov dsl %pr) slvai. 1. 33. (Fr. 
15.) si yap StyprjTai, TO sov, KivslTai. KIVOVUSVOV os OVK 
ai> sir] aua. 

Phys. 24 r 110, 1. (Fr. 16.) el fiev ov sit], Ssi avTo sv 
slvai ' sv Ss ov 8sl avTo crwua fj,r) S^SLV- (19 r 87, 6) si 
8s '%ot irdOos, S%OL av popia Kal OVKSTL sv sir]. 1. 3. (Fr. 
9.) dp-^rjv TS Kal TS\OS s^ov ov8sv OVTS dlSiov OVTS 
airsipov scTTtV' 1. 5. (Fr. 10.) si pr) sv sir), irspavsi TTpos 



Phys. 24 r 111, 19. (Fr. 11.) OVTWS ovv aftiov s 
Kal airsipov Kal %v Kal ofjioiov TTCLV. Kal OUT' av air- 
O\OLTO OVTS fisi^ov yivotTO OVTS fASTaKocrfAsoiTO OVTS d\ysl 
OVTS dviaTai. si ydp TI TOVTWV Tracr^ot., OVK av STL v 
ii). si ydp sTspoiovTai, dvdyKrj TO sov p<r] bfioiov stvai, 

a diroKkvaOai TO TrpocrQsv sov, TO os OVK sov yivscrdai. 

TOiVVV rpi^l /jLlfj fJiVpLOlS STSO-IV STSpOtOV yiVOlTO TO TTCIV, 



Fr. 7. -D omits Kal . . . jLv6^vov. Simplicius writes yiv6fj.tvov, Diels 
would restore yev6/*fvoi' regularly, and compares Spengel ad Eudem. fr. 
p. 18, 18. DE e X fi, &F e X ov. 

Fr. 15. &F o/ua, E a.\\a. 

Fr. 16. &D "ov fly, EF olv eft;, Brandis suggests *ov I<TT. F Se rf i>- 
Cf. 19 r 87, 6. 

Fr. 11. &F ylyvoiro. E ovKeri, omits kv. E omits 8 after rb. aD 

(F) rpixi M?> E rpi ^ . Vulg. from Brandis el TOIVVV 
ereffi. F irap6vTi for iravri. 



122 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



o\siTai av sv TU> Travrl XP V ' ^ ^4. (Fr. 12.) a\V ovSs 
fjLSTaKoa^Orivai dvvffTov ' b yap K0<r/jios 6 irpoadsv scav 
OVK airb\\vT<u OVTS 6 pr) scov yivsTai. OTS 8s prjTS 
irpoayivsTai fjnj8sv piJTS (i7ro\\vrai f^rjrs STSpotovTai, 
Trws av fjisraKoa-fji^dsv TWV SOVTWV TI y ; si fJ^sv yap TI 
sjivsro srspoiov, rj&r) av real /jbsraKoa-fj.'rjBsir]' ov&e d\ysi 
ov yap av TTCLV e'lrj aX-ysov ov yap av Svvairo asi su>ai 
'ypfj/j,a aKysov ov&s ^X i ^ a ' r l v ^>vvapiv rw vyisi' OVT' av 
6/jLoiov SiT}, el a\ysoi ' aTroyivo/jisvov yap rsv av d\ysoi rj 
TrpocryivojjLsvov, KOVK av STC OJAOIOV s'iij. ovB' av TO vytss 
a\,yfj(rai Bvvairo" cnro yap av 6'Xotro TO vyiss Kal TO sov, 

TO 5s OVK SOV ySVOLTO. Kttl TTSpl TOV CLViaaQai (OVTOS 

\byos TU> a\ysovTi. 1.6. (Fr. 14.) ovos KSVSOV saTiv ovbsv 
TO yap KSVSOV ovSsv SCTTIV OVK av ovv e'lrj TO ys jATjSsv. 
OVOE KtvstTai' vTroxayprjcrai yap OVK l^et ovSapf), d\\a 
77\sa)v SCTTIV. si /j,sv yap KSVSOV rjv, uTre^copet av sis TO 

KSVOV KSVOV OS fir) SOVTOS OVK S^St OKT) VTrOXCOprjCTSl,. 

TTVKVOV &s Kal dpaiov OVK av s'lr)- TO yap dpatov OVK 

dw(TTOV 7T\S(i)V slvai O/JUOLCOS Tft) TTVKVW, aXX' ij^T) TO 

dpaiov ys KsvswTSpov yivsTai TOV TTVKVOV. Kpicrtv 8s 
TavT'rjv %pr) TTOttja-aa-dai TOV fresco Kal TOV pr) TrXea) si 

fJLSV OVV %U>psl Tl ?) elff&fvimU, OV 7T\S(OV Si 8s fM]T 

iJ,r)TS slaSs-^STai, TT\SU>V. dvdyKT] TOLVVV r jr\swv 

t, si KSVOV /Jt,r) S(7TIV. si TOLVVV 7T\SCi)V SCTTIV, OV 
KlVSlTai. 

Phys. 34 v 162, 24. (Fr. 6.) ael r,v 6 TL r,v K a\ dsl 
ecrrat. si yap sysvsTO, dvayKaiov SCTTI jrplv ysvsaOai 
slvai fMtjSsv. "fsl TV)(OI vvv jjifjBsv TJV, oySa/u-a av ysvoiTO 
ovosv SK 



Fr. 12. D ,UT& rb KOfffiriOfivat: a airo^flrai : DP neTa.Koar[j.T)Oet>Tcav 
l&vrwv : a ydp, DFE ye : a a\yfLv6v (twice) : D OVK for KOVK : DP wvrl>s, 
aE 6 av-rbs. 

Fr. 14. Of. Simpl. 40, 12. E TrAeoi/ et passim, Text follows aD : 
DF Kfv&Tfpov, E Koiv6repov : a omits ovv. 

Fr. 6. E fl rvxoi vvv, D el TV-XT), &F el roivvv. Diels suggests (5re 
TOLVVV ; cf . 109, 20. DE ovSev, &F pySfv. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 123 

Simpl. de Coelo, 137 r ; Schol. Aristot. 509 b 18 ; cf. 
Aristokl. Euseb. Pr. Ev. xiv. 17. (Fr. 17.) JJLSJKTTOV fisv 
ovv arjfjisiov OVTOS b \6jos on, %v abvov SCTTIV. arap Kal 
TciSs arjfjisia' si jap rjv Tro\\a, roiavra ^pfjv avTa slvai, 
olov Tcsp sjo) (f>r)f4i TO sv slvai. si jap SCTTI jfj Kal vocop teat, 
dr}p Kal aiorjpos Kal ^pvcrbs KOI Trvp Kal rb p-sv %wov TO 8s 
Kal fjis\av Kal \SVKOV Kal TO, oera fyacrlv ol 
sivai a\,Tjdr], si 8rj TavTa SCTTL Kal rj/jisls opdws 
6pw/j,sv Kal aKovofisv, slvai %pr) SKUCTTOV TOIOVTOV olov 

TTSp TO TTpWTOV sSo^SV rjfUV, Kal fir) pSTaTTLTTTSlV 

yivscrdai STSpoiov, a\,\' alsl sivai SKaaTov olov irsp 
vvv os (^a/Jbsv bpdws bpav Kal aKovstv Kal crvvisvai, 
Bs rj/jiiv TO TS 6spfj,bv tyvxpov <ylvscrdai Kal TO -^r 
OspfJibv Kal TO o-KKTjpbv /xa\daKbv Kal TO 
o~K\rjpbv, Kal TO <aov airodvrio'KSiv Kal SK fir) 
ylvscrdai^ Kal TavTa irdvTa sTspoioixrdai,, Kal o TI rjv TS 
Kal o vvv ovSsv ofjioiov slvai, aXX' o TS (riBrjpos 
swv TO) Sa/cruXft) KaTaTpiftsadai f oaov psa)v Kal 
Kal \idos Kal a\\o o TI la"%vpbv SOKSL slvai TTOLV , OXTTS 
(rv/jL/3aivsi /jbrjTS bpav fj,TjTS TCL ovTa yivfocrKSiv' ej; v 
TS fyf) Kal ~\,ldos yivs(T0ai. ov TOIVVV TavTa a 
bfjLO\ojsl ' fya/Jisvois yap sivai TroAAa Kal diSia Kal siot) 
TS Kal icr^vv s'^ovTa, irdvTa STSpotovcrdai rjplv SOKSI Kal 

fASTaTTlTTTSlV SK TOV SKaaTOTS OpWUSVOV- 8rj\OV TOIVVV 

OTI OVK bpOws swpwfisv ovBs sKscva 7ro\\a bpOws SOKSI 
sivai,- ov jap av fiSTSTrnrTSV si aX.rjdf) r)v, aXX' r}v olov 

TTSp SOOKSl SKaCTTOV TOiOVTOV TOV Jap SOVTOS ok.TjdlVOV 

KpSLcro-ov ovSsv- f)v Bs /ASTaTTsar), TO fj,sv sbv a.7r(o\STo, 
TO Ss OVK sbv jsjovsv. OVTWS ovv si TroXXa sir), 
slvai olov Trsp TO sv- 



Fr. 17. Vulg. xp^J : Simpl. fov, Aristokl. feov (twice) : Aristokl. flvai 
rjv, Kal TO ebv TOIOVTOV, olov irpSiTov e5ofv rtfj.1v flvai, Simpl. omits 
irdvTa and a\7)6i) : Aristokl. erepoj/, a\\' elvai '6fJ.oiov, o16v irtp effTi ficaffTov, 
Simpl. omits ttrTiv : Bergk 6/j.ovpfcev, digito conterminus, aptatus, 
MSS. TO fifffov, corr. Brandis, Gescli. d. Phil. i. 403 : Vulg. fly. 



124 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

SIMPLICITY'S ACCOUNT OF MELISSOS, INCLUDING THE 
TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS. 

22 ; 103, 13. Now let us glance at Melissos' argu- 
ment, which we ran across a few lines back. Melissos, 
making use of the axioms of the physicists, in regard to 
generation and destruction, begins his book as follows : 
(Fr. 1) If nothing is, how could this be spoken of 
as though something is ? And if anything is, either 
it has come into being, or else it always has been. If 
it came into being, it sprung either from being or from 
not-being; but it is impossible that any such thing 
should have sprung from not-being (for nothing else 
that is could have sprung from it, much less pure 
being) ; nor could it have sprung from being, for in that 
case it < would simply be, and > would not have come 
into existence. So then being is not generated ; being 
always is, nor will it be destroyed. For being could 
not be changed into not-being (this also is conceded by 
the physicists), nor into being ; for then it would abide 
as it is, and would not be destroyed. Accordingly being 
was not generated, nor will it be destroyed ; so it always 
was and always will be. (Fr. 2) But while that which 
comes into existence has a beginning, that which does 
not come into existence does not have a beginning, 
and being which did not come into existence would not 
have a beginning. Farther, that which is destroyed has 
an end ; but if anything is not subject to destruction, it 
does not have an end ; and that which has neither begin- 
ning nor end is of course infinite ; so being is infinite. 
(Fr. 3) And if it is infinite, it is one ; for if being were 
two, both parts could not be infinite, but each would 
be limited by the other. But being is infinite ; there 
could not be several beings ; accordingly being is one. 
(Fr. 4) Farther, if being is one it does not move ; for the 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 125 

one is always homogeneous [lit. like itself] ; and that 
which is homogeneous could not perish or become greater 
or change its arrangement or suffer pain or annoyance. 
If it experienced any of these things it would not be 
one ; for that which is moved with any sort of motion 
changes something from one thing into something 
different ; but there is nothing else except being, so this 
will not be moved. (Fr. 5) To follow another line of 
argument : there is no place void of being, for the void is 
nothing ; but that which is nothing could not exist ; so 
then being is not moved : it is impossible for it to go 
anywhere, if there is no void. Nor is it possible for it 
to contract into itself, for in that case different degrees 
of density would arise, and this is impossible ; for it 
is impossible that the rare should be as full as the dense ; 
but the rare is more empty than the dense, and there 
is no such thing as emptiness. It is necessary to judge 
whether being is full or not by its capacity to receive 
something else : if it will not receive anything it is full ; 
if it will receive something it is not full. Now if the 
void does not exist, it must of necessity be full ; and if 
this is the case it does not move, not because it is im- 
possible for it to move through space already filled, as 
we say of bodies, but because all being cannot be moved 
into being (for there is nothing besides itself), nor can 
being be moved into not-being, for not-being does not 
exist. 

23 ; 109, 7. Melissos also is blamed because in his 
frequent references to the beginning he does not use 
the word to mean a beginning in time which applies to 
that which comes into existence, but rather to mean 
a logical beginning which does not apply to the things 
that are changing collectively. He seems to have 
seen clearly before Aristotle that all matter, even that 
which is eternal, being limited has a limited capacity, 



126 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

and in itself is always at the end of time, and because 
of the ever-moving beginning of that which passes, 
it is always at the beginning, and remains eternal, 
so that that which has beginning and end in quantity 
has also beginning and end in time, and the reverse ; 
for that which has beginning and end in time is not 
everything simultaneously. So he bases his proof on 
beginning and end in time. Accordingly he says 
that that which is not everything i.e. which is not 
the whole simultaneously is not without beginning or 
end; what applies to things that are indivisible and 
infinite in their being, applies so much the more to pure 
being ; and that all applies to being. Melissos puts it 
as follows : (Fr. 7) Since then it did not come into being 
but is, it always was and always will be, and has 
neither beginning nor end, but is infinite. For if it had 
come into existence it would have had a beginning (for 
that which once came into existence would have a begin- 
ning) and an end (for that which once came into exist- 
ence would come to an end) ; if it neither had a beginning 
nor came to an end, it always was and always will be ; 
it has not beginning or end ; but it is impossible 
that anything which is not the whole should always 

exist 1. 31. (Fr. 8) But as it always exists, so 

it is necessary also that it be always infinite in magnitude. 
1. 33. (Fr. 15) If being is separated it moves ; and 
that which moves could not exist simultaneously. 

24 ; 110, 1 (Fr. 16) If being exists it must be one, 
and being one it is necessary that it should not itself 
have body ; (19 ; 87, 6) and if it should have thickness, 
it would have parts and would no longer be a unity. 
1. 3 (Fr. 9) Nothing which has beginning and end is 
either eternal or infinite. 1. 5 (Fr. 10) If it were not 
one, it would be bounded by something else. 1 

1 The paraphrase above (Fr. 3) gives the argument in fuller form. 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 127 

24 ; 111, 18. Melissos bringing his previous topic to 
a conclusion goes on to consider motion. (Fr. 11) So 
then the all is eternal and infinite and homogeneous ; 
and it could neither perish nor become greater nor 
change its arrangement nor suffer pain or distress. 
If it experienced any of these things it would no longer 
be one ; for if it becomes different, it is necessary that 
being should not be homogeneous, but that which was 
before must perish, and that which was not must come 
into existence. If then the all should become different 
by a single hair in ten thousand years, it would perish in 
the whole of time. (Fr. 12) And it is impossible for its 
order to change, for the order existing before does not 
perish, nor does another which did not exist come into 
being ; and since nothing is added to it or subtracted from 
it or made different, how could any of the things that are 
change their order ? But if anything became different, 
its order would already have been changed. (Fr. 13) 
Nor does it suffer pain, for the all could not be pained ; 
it would be impossible for anything suffering pain always 
to be ; nor does it have power equal to the power of what 
is healthy. It would not be homogeneous if it suffered 
pain ; it would suffer pain whenever anything was added 
or taken away, and it would no longer be homogeneous. 
Nor could what is healthy suffer a pang of pain, for both 
the healthy and being would perish, and not-being would 
come into existence. The same reasoning that applies 
to pain applies also to distress. (Fr. 14) Nor is there 
any void, for the void is nothing, and that which is 
nothing could not be. Nor does it move, for it has 
nowhere to go to, since it is full ; for if there were a void 
it could go into the void, but since there is no void it has 
nowhere to go to. It could not be rare and dense, for 
it is not possible for the rare to be as full as the dense, 
but the rare is already more empty than the dense. 



128 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

This is the test of what is full and what is not full : if it 
has room for anything, or admits anything into it, it is 
not full ; if it does not have room for anything, or admit 
anything into it, it is full. If no void exists it must be 
full ; if then it is full it does not move. These are the 
doctrines of Melissos. 

34; 162, 24. (Fr. 6) What was, always was and 
always will be ; for if it had come into existence, it 
necessarily would have been nothing before it came into 
existence. If now there were nothing existing, nothing 
would ever have come into existence from nothing. 

Simpl. de Coelo 137 r; Schol. Aristot. 509 b ; cf. 
Aristokl. Euseb. Pr. Ev. xiv. 17. (Fr. 17) This argument 
is the strongest proof that being is one only. And the 
proofs are as follows : For if a multiplicity of things 
existed it would be necessary that these things should be 
just such as I say the one is. For if earth exists, and 
water and air and iron and gold and fire and the living 
and the dead and black and white, and everything else 
which men say is real, if these things exist and we see 
and hear them correctly, it is necessary that each thing 
should be such as we first determined, namely, it should 
not change its character or become different, but should 
always be each thing what it is. Now we say that we see 
and hear and understand correctly ; but it seems to us 
that hot becomes cold and cold hot, that hard becomes 
soft and soft hard, that the living being dies and life 
comes from what is not living ; and that all these things 
become different, and what they are is not like what 
they were. It seems to us that iron, being hard to the 
touch, wastes away fbecoming liquefied,! 1 and so does 
gold, and rock, and whatever else seems to be strong, 
so that we conclude that we do not see or know things 

Zeller i. J 613 n. 1 suggests for' lov $>i<av, ' passing away because of 



rust.' 



THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 129 

that are. And earth and rock arise from water. These 
things then do not harmonise with each other. Though 
we said that many things are eternal, and have forms 
and strength, it seems that they all become different and 
change their character each time they are seen. Evi- 
dently we do not see correctly, nor is the appearance of 
multiplicity correct ; for they would not change their 
character if they were real, but would remain each thing 
as it seemed, for nothing is nobler than that which is 
real. But if they change their character, being perishes 
and not-being comes into existence. So then if a multi- 
plicity of things exist, it is necessary that they should be 
such as the one is. 

(I) ARISTOTLE'S ACCOUNT OF MELISSOS. 

Pliys. i. 3 ; 186 a 6. Both Melissos and Parmenides 
argue fallaciously, and they make false assumptions and 
their reasonings are not logical ; but the argument of 
Melissos is the more wearisome, for it sets no problem, 
but granted one strange thing, others follow ; and there 
is no difficulty in this. The error in the reasoning of 
Melissos is plain, for he thinks that if everything which 
has come into being has a beginning, he can assume 
that that which has not come into being does not have 
a beginning. This, then, is strange, that he should 
think that everything has a beginning except time, and 
this does not, and that simple generation has no begin- 
ning but change alone begins, as though change as a 
whole did not come into being. Even if the all is 
a unity, why then should it not move '? Why should 
not the whole be moved even as a part of it which is a 
unity, namely water, is moved in itself ? Then why 
should there not be change? It is not possible that 
being should be one in form, but only in its source. 

K 



130 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Soph. Elen. 5; 163 b 13. The same is true of 
syllogisms, as for instance in the case of Melissos' argu- 
ment that the all is infinite ; in this he assumes that the 
all is not generated (for nothing is generated from not- 
being), and that that which is generated, is generated 
from a beginning. If then the all was not generated, it 
does not have a beginning, so it is infinite. It is not 
necessary to assent to this, for even if everything which 
is generated has a beginning, it does not follow that if 
anything has a beginning it was generated, as a man 
with a fever is warm, but one who is warm may not have 
a fever. 

Soph. Elen. 6 ; 164 b 35. Or again, as Melissos 
assumes in his argument that generation and having a 
beginning are the same thing, or that that which is 
generated from equals has the same size. The two 
statements, that what is generated has a beginning, and 
that what has a beginning is generated, he deems equiva- 
lent, so that the generated and the limited are both the 
same in that they each have a beginning. Because 
what is generated has a beginning, he postulates that 
what has a beginning is generated, as though both that 
which is generated and that which is finite were the 
same in having a beginning. 

(c) PASSAGES RELATING TO MELISSOS IN THE 

DOXOGRAPHISTS. 

Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 12 ; Dox. 590. Melissos of 
Samos, son of Ithagenes, said that the all is one in kind, 
but that nothing is fixed in its nature, for all things are 
potentially destructible. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 285. Melissos of Miletos, son of 
Ithagenes, became his companion, but he did not pre- 
serve in its purity the doctrine that was transmitted to 



-THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: MELISSOS 131 

him. For he said in regard to the infinite that the 
world of those things that appear is limited, i. 7 ; 303. 
Melissos and Zeno say that the one is universal, and 
that it exists alone, eternal, and unlimited. And 
this unity is necessity [Heeren inserts here the name 
Empedokles], and the material of which it consists 
is the four elements, and the forms are love and strife. 
He calls the elements gods, and the mixture of them the 
world. And the uniform will be resolved. He thinks 
that souls are divine, and that pure men who share 
these things in a pure way are divine, i. 24; 320. 
Melissos (et al.) deny generation and destruction, because 
they think that the all is unmoved. 

Aet. ii. 1; 327. Melissos (et al.) : The universe is one. 
328. The all is infinite, but the world is limited. 4 ; 332. 
Melissos (et al.) : The world is not generated, not to be 
destroyed, eternal. 

Aet. iv. 9 ; 396. Melissos (et al.) : Sensations are 
deceptive. 



132 THE F1HST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



IX. 

PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS. 

PYTHAGOKAS, son of Mnesarchos, a native of Samos, 
left his fatherland to escape the tyranny of Polykrates 
(533/2 or 529/8 B.C.). He made his home for many years 
in Kroton in southern Italy, where his political views 
gained control in the city. At length he and his followers 
were banished by an opposing party, and he died at 
Metapontum. Many stories are told of his travels into 
Egypt and more widely, but there is no evidence on 
which the stories can be accepted. He was a mystic 
thinker and religious reformer quite as much as a 
philosopher, but there is no reason for denying that the 
doctrines of the school originated with him. Of his 
disciples, Archytas, in southern Italy, and Philolaos and 
Lysis, at Thebes, are the best known. It is the doctrine 
of the school, not the teaching of Pythagoras himself, 
which is known to us through the writings of Aristotle. 

Literature : On Pythagoras : Krische, De societatis a 
Pythagora conditae scopo politico, 1880 ; E. Eohde, 
Ehein. Mus. xxvi. 565 sqq. ; xxvii. 23 sqq. ; Diels, 
Ehein. Mus. xxxi. 25 sq. ; Zeller, Sitz. d. kgl. preus. 
Akad. 1889, 45, p. 985 sqq. ; Chaignet, Pythagore, 
1873, and the excellent account in Burnett. 

Philolaos : Boeckh, Philolaos Lehren, nebst den 
Bruchstiickcn seines Werkes, 1819 ; V. Rose, 
Comment, de Arist. libr. ord. et auct. Berlin 1854 ; 
Schaarschmidt, Die angebliche Schriftstellerei de-i 
Phil. Bonn 1864 ; Zeller, Gesch. d. griech. Phil. 
4 Auf. 261, 341, 886 ; Hermes x. 178 ; By water, 
Journal of Philol. i. 21 sqq. 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 133 

Archytas : Hartenstein, de, Archyt. Tar. fragm. Lips. 
1833 ; Gruppe, Die Fragm. d. Archyt. Berlin 1840 ; 
Petersen, Zeitschr. f. Altertumsk. 1836 ; Chaignet, 
Pythagore, 1873, pp. 191, 255. 

PASSAGES IN PLATO REFERRING TO THE PYTHAGOREANS. 

PJiaedo 62 B. The saying that is uttered in secret * 
rites, to the effect that we men are in a sort of prison, / 
and that one ought not to loose himself from it nor yet * 
to run away, seems to me something great and not easy 
to see through ; but this at least I think is well said, that 
it is the gods who care for us, and we men are one of the 
possessions of the gods. 

Kratyl. 400 B. For some say that it (the body) is 
the tomb of the soul I think it was the followers of 
Orpheus in particular who introduced this word which 
has this enclosure like a prison in order that it may be ** 
kept safe. 

Gorg. 493 A. I once heard one of the wise men say 
that now we are dead and the body is our tomb, and that 
that part of the soul where desires are, it so happens, 
is open to persuasion, and moves upward or downward. 
And, indeed, a clever man perhaps some inhabitant 
of Sicily or Italy speaking allegorically, and taking 
the word from credible ' (iri6avos) and ' persuadable ' 
(TTIO-TIKOS), called this a jar (TtiOos) ; and he called those 
without intelligence uninitiated, and that part of the 
soul of uninitiated persons where the desires are, he 
called its intemperateness, and said it was not water- 
tight, as a jar might be pierced with holes using the 
simile because of its insatiate desires. 

Gorg. 507 E. And the wise men say that one com- 
munity embraces heaven and earth and gods and men 
and friendship and order and temperance and righteous- 
ness, and for that reason they call this whole a universe, 



134 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

my friend, for it is not without order nor yet is there 
excess. It seems to me that you do not pay attention 
to these things, though you are wise in regard to them. 
But it has escaped your notice that geometrical equality 
prevails widely among both gods and men. 

PASSAGES IN ARISTOTLE REFERRING TO THE PYTHA- 
GOREANS. 

PJiys. iii. 4; 203 a 1. For all who think they have 
worthily applied themselves to such philosophy, have 
discoursed concerning the infinite, and they all have 
asserted some first principle of things some, like the 
Pythagoreans and Plato, a first principle existing by 
itself, not connected with anything else, but being itself 
the infinite in its essence. Only the Pythagoreans found 
it among things perceived by sense (for they say that 
number is not an abstraction), and they held that it 
was the infinite outside the heavens. 

iii. 4 ; 204 a 33. (The Pythagoreans) both hold that 
the infinite is being, and divide it. 

iv. 6 ; 218 b 22. And the Pythagoreans say that 
there is a void, and that it enters into the heaven itself 
from the infinite air, as though it (the heaven) were 
breathing ; and this void defines the natures of things, 
inasmuch as it is a certain separation and definition of 
things that lie together; and this is true first in the 
case of numbers, for the void defines the nature of 
these. 

De coel i. 1 ; 268 a 10. For as the Pythagoreans say, 
the all and all things are defined by threes ; for end and 
middle and beginning constitute the number of the all, 
and also the number of the triad. 

11. 2 ; 284 b 6. And since there are some who say that 
there is a right and left of the heavens, as, for instance, 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 135 

those that are called Pythagoreans (for such is their 
doctrine), we must investigate whether it is as they say. 

ii. 2 ; 285 a 10. Wherefore one of the Pythagoreans 
might be surprised in that they say that there are only 
these two first principles, the right and the left, and 
they pass over four of them as not having the least 
validity ; for there is no less difference up and down, 
and front and back than there is right and left in all 
creatures. 

ii. 2 ; 285 b 23. And some are dwelling in the upper 
hemisphere and to the right, while we dwell below and 
to the left, which is the opposite to what the Pytha- 
goreans say ; for they put us above and to the right, 
while the others are below and at the left. 

ii. 9 ; 290 b 15. Some think it necessary that noise 
should arise when so great bodies are in motion, since 
sound does arise from bodies among us which are not so 
large and do not move so swiftly ; and from the sun and 
moon and from the stars in so great number, and of 
so great size, moving so swiftly, there must necessarily 
arise a sound inconceivably great. Assuming these 
things and that the swiftness has the principle of 
harmony by reason of the intervals, they say that the 
sound of the stars moving on in a circle becomes musical. 
And since it seems unreasonable that we also do not hear 
this sound, they say that the reason for this is that the 
noise exists in the very nature of things, so as not to be 
distinguishable from the opposite silence; for the dis- 
tinction of sound and silence lies in their contrast with 
each other, so that as blacksmiths think there is no 
difference between them because they are accustomed 
to the sound, so the same thing happens to men. 

ii. 9 ; 291 a 7. What occasions the difficulty and makes 
the Pythagoreans say that there is a harmony of the 
bodies as they move, is a proof. For whatever things 



136 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

move themselves make a sound and noise ; but whatever 
things are fastened in what moves or exist in it as the 
parts in a ship, cannot make a noise, nor yet does the 
ship if it moves in a river. 

ii. 13 ; 293 a 19. They say that the whole heaven is 
limited, the opposite to what those of Italy, called the 
Pythagoreans, say ; for these say that fire is at the centre 
and that the earth is one of the stars, and that moving 
in a circle about the centre it produces night and day. 
And they assume yet another earth opposite this which 
they call the counter-earth [dvrfyQmi], not seeking 
reasons and causes for phenomena, but stretching 
phenomena to meet certain assumptions and opinions 
of theirs and attempting to arrange them in a system. 
. . . And farther the Pythagoreans say that the most 
authoritative part of the All stands guard, because it is 
specially fitting that it should, and this part is the centre ; 
and this place that the fire occupies, they call the guard 
of Zeus, as it is called simply the centre, that is, the 
centre of space and the centre of matter and of nature. 

iii. 1 ; 300 a 15. The same holds true for those who 
construct the heaven out of numbers ; for some con- 
struct nature out of numbers, as do certain of the 
Pythagoreans. 

Metaplnjs. i. 5 ; 985 b 23-986 b 8. With these and 
before them (Anaxagoras, Empedokles, Atomists) those 
called Pythagoreans applying themselves to the sciences, 
first developed them ; and being brought up in them 
they thought that the first principles of these (i.e. num- 
bers) were the first principles of all things. And since 
of these (sciences) numbers are by nature the first, in 
numbers rather than in fire and earth and water they 
thought they saw many likenesses to things that are 
and that are coming to be, as, for instance, justice is 
such a property of numbers, and soul and mind are 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 137 

such a property, and another is opportunity, and of other 
things one may say the same of each one. 

fAnd further, discerning in numbers the conditions 
and reasons of harmonies alsof; since, moreover, other 
things seemed to be like numbers in their entire nature, 
and numbers were the first of every nature, they assumed 
that the elements of numbers were the elements of all 
things, and that the whole heavens were harmony and 
number. And whatever characteristics in numbers and 
harmonies they could show were in agreement with the 
properties of the heavens and its parts and with its 
whole arrangement, these they collected and adapted;- 
and if there chanced to be any gap anywhere, they 
eagerly sought that the whole system might be con- 
nected with these (stray phenomena). To give an 
example of my meaning : inasmuch as ten seemed to be 
the perfect number and to embrace the whole nature 
of numbers, they asserted that the number of bodies 
moving through the heavens were ten, and when only 
nine were visible, for the reason just stated they postu- 
lated the counter-earth as the tenth. We have given 
a more definite account of these thinkers in other parts 
of our writings. But we have referred to them here 
with this purpose in view, that we might ascertain from 
them what they asserted as the first principles and in 
what manner they came upon the causes that have been 
enumerated. They certainly seem to consider number 
as the first principle and as it were the matter in things 
and in their conditions and states ; and the odd and 
the even are elements of number, and of these the one 
is infinite and the other finite, and unity is the pro- 
duct of both of them, for it is both odd and even, and 
number arises from unity, arid the whole heaven, as has 
been said, is numbers. 

A different party in this same school say that the 



138 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

first principles are ten, named according to the following 
table : finite and infinite, even and odd, one and many* 
right and left, male and female, rest and motion, straight 
and crooked, light and darkness, good and bad, square 
and oblong. After this manner Alkmaeon of Kroton 
seems to have conceived them, and either he received 
this doctrine from them or they from him ; for Alkmaeon 
arrived at maturity when Pythagoras was an old man, 
and his teachings resembled theirs. For he says that 
most human affairs are twofold, not meaning opposites 
reached by definition, as did the former party, but 
.opposites by chance as, for example, white-black, 
sweet-bitter, good-bad, small-great. This philosopher 
let fall his opinions indefinitely about the rest, but the 
Pythagoreans declared the number of the opposites and 
what they were. From both one may learn this much, 
that opposites are the first principles of things ; but 
from the latter he may learn the number of these, and 
what they are. But how it is possible to bring them 
into relation with the causes of which we have spoken 
if they have not clearly worked out ; but they seem to 
range their elements under the category of matter, for 
they say that being is compounded and formed from 
them, and that they inhere in it. 

987 a 9-27. Down to the Italian philosophers and 
with the exception of them the rest have spoken more 
reasonably about these principles, except that, as we 
said, they do indeed use two principles, and the one of 
these, whence is motion, some regard as one and others 
as twofold. The Pythagoreans, however, while they in 
similar manner assume two first principles, add this which 
is peculiar to themselves : that they do not think that 
the finite and the infinite and the one are certain other 
things by nature, such as fire or earth or any other 
such thing, but the infinite itself and unity itself are 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 139 

the essence of the things of which they are predicated, 
and so they make number the essence of all things. So 
they taught after this manner about them, and began 
to discourse and to define what being is, but they made 
it altogether too simple a matter. For they made their 
definitions superficially, and to whatever first the defini- 
tion might apply, this they thought to be the essence of 
the matter ; as if one should say that twofold and two 
were the same, because the twofold subsists in the two. 
But undoubtedly the two and the twofold are not the 
same ; otherwise the one will be many a consequence 
which even they would not draw. So much then may 
be learned from the earlier philosophers and from their 
successors. 

i. 6 ; 987 b 10. And Plato only changed the name, 
for the Pythagoreans say that things exist by imitation 
of numbers, but Plato, by sharing the nature of numbers. 

i. 6 ; 987 b 22. But that the one is the real essence of 
things, and not something else with unity as an attribute, 
he affirms, agreeing with the Pythagoreans ; and in 
harmony with them he affirms that numbers are the 
principles of being for other things. But it is peculiar 
to him that instead of a single infinite he posits a double 
infinite, an infinite of greatness and of littleness ; and it 
is also peculiar to him that he separates numbers from 
things that are seen, while they say that numbers 
are the things themselves, and do not interpose mathe- 
matical objects between them. This separation of the one 
and numbers from things, in contrast with the position 
of the Pythagoreans, and the introduction of ideas, are 
the consequence of his investigation by concepts. 

i. 8 ; 989 b 32-990 a 32. Those, however, who carry 
on their investigation with reference to all things, and 
divide things into what are perceived and what are not 
perceived by sense, evidently examine both classes, so 



140 THE FIKST PHILOSOPHERS OF GEEECE 

one must delay a little longer over what they say. They 
speak correctly and incorrectly in reference to the ques- 
tions now before us. Now those who are called Pytha- 
goreans use principles and elements yet stranger than 
those of the physicists, in that they do not take them 
from the sphere of sense, for mathematical objects are 
without motion, except in the case of astronomy.* Still, 
they discourse about everything in nature and study it ; 
they construct the heaven, they observe what happens in 
its parts |and their states and motionsf ; they apply to 
these their first principles and causes, as though they 
agreed entirely with the other physicists that being is only 
what is perceptible and what that which is called heaven 
includes. But their causes and first principles, they say, 
are such as to lead up to the higher parts of reality, and 
are in harmony with this rather than with the doctrines 
of nature. In what manner motion will take place when 
finite and infinite, odd and even, are the only underlying 
realities, they do not say ; nor how it is possible for 
genesis and destruction to take place without motion and 
change, or for the heavenly bodies to revolve. Farther, 
if one grant to them that greatness arises from these 
principles, or if this could be proved, nevertheless, how 
will it be that some bodies are light and some heavy ? 
For their postulates and statements apply no more to 
mathematical objects than to things of sense ; accord- 
ingly they have said nothing at all about fire or earth 
or any such objects, because I think they have no dis- 
tinctive doctrine about things of sense. Farther, how 
is it necessary to assume that number and states of 
number are the causes of what is in the heavens and 
what is taking place there from the beginning and now, 
and that there is no other number than that out of 
which the world is composed ? For when opinion and 
opportune time are at a certain point in the heavens, 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 141 

and a little farther up or down are injustice and judg- 
ment or a mixture of them, and they bring forward as 
proof that each one of these is number, and the result 
then is that at this place there is already a multitude of 
compounded quantities because those states of number 
have each their place is this number in heaven the 
same which it is necessary to assume that each of these 
things is, or is it something different ? Plato says it is 
different ; still, he thinks that both these things and the 
causes of them are numbers ; but the one class are ideal 
causes, and the others are sense causes. 

ii. 1 ; 996 a 4. And the most difficult and perplexing 
question of all is whether unity and being are not, as 
Plato and the Pythagoreans say, something different 
from things but their very essence, or whether the un- 
derlying substance is something different, friendship, as 
Empedokles says, or as another says, fire, or water, or air. 

ii. 4 ; 1001 a 9. Plato and the Pythagoreans assert 
that neither being nor yet unity is something different 
from things, but that it is the very nature of them, as 
though essence itself consisted in unity and existence. 

1036 b 17. So it turns out that many things of which 
the forms appear different have one form, as the Pytha- 
goreans discovered ; and one can say that there is one 
form for everything, and the others are not forms ; and 
thus all things will be one. 

ix. 2 ; 1053 b 11. Whether the one itself is a sort of 
essence, as first the Pythagoreans and later Plato 
affirmed. . . 

xi. 7; 1072 b 31. And they are wrong who assume, 
as do the Pythagoreans and Speusippos, that the most 
beautiful and the best is not in the first principle, 
because the first principles of plants and animals are 
indeed causes ; for that which is beautiful and perfect is 
in what comes from these first principles. 



142 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

xii. 4 ; 1078 b 21. The Pythagoreans (before Demo- 
kritos) only denned a few things, the concepts of which 
they reduced to numbers, as for instance opportunity or 
justice or marriage. . . 

xii. 6 ; 1080 b 16. The Pythagoreans say that there 
is but one number, the mathematical, but things of 
sense are not separated from this, for they are com- 
posed of it ; indeed, they construct the whole heaven 
out of numbers, but not out of unit numbers, for they 
assume that the unities have quantity ; but how the 
first unity was so constituted as to have quantity, they 
seem at a loss to say. b 31. All, as many as regard 
the one as the element and first principle of things, except 
the Pythagoreans, assert that numbers are based on 
the unit ; but the Pythagoreans assert, as has been 
remarked, that numbers have quantity. 

xii. 8 ; 1083 b 9. The Pythagorean standpoint has on 
the one hand fewer difficulties than those that have 
been discussed, but it has new difficulties of its own. 
The fact that they do not regard number as separate, 
removes many of the contradictions ; but it is impossible 
that bodies should consist of numbers, and that this 
number should be mathematical. Nor is it true that 
indivisible elements have quantity ; but, granted that 
they have this quality of indivisibility, the units have no 
quantity ; for how can quantity be composed of indivisible 
elements ? but arithmetical number consists of units. 
But these say that things are number ; at least, they 
adapt their speculations to such bodies as consist of 
elements which are numbers. 

xiii. 3 ; 1090 a 20. On the other hand the Pytha- 
goreans, because they see many qualities of numbers in 
bodies perceived by sense, regard objects as numbers, 
not as separate numbers, but as derived from numbers. 
And why ? Because the qualities of numbers exist in 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 143 

harmony both in the heaven and in many other things. 
But for those who hold that number is mathematical 
only, it is impossible on the basis of their hypothesis to 
say any such thing ; and it has already been remarked 
that there can be no science of these numbers. But we 
say, as above, that there is a science of numbers. Evi- 
dently the mathematical does not exist apart by itself, 
for in that case its qualities could not exist in bodies. 
In such a matter the Pythagoreans are restrained by 
nothing ; when, however, they construct out of numbers 
physical bodies out of numbers that have neither 
weight nor lightness, bodies that have weight and light- 
ness they seem to be speaking about another heaven 
and other bodies than those perceived by sense. 

Eth. i. 4 ; 1096 b 5. And the Pythagoreans seem to 
speak more persuasively about it, putting the unity in 
the co-ordination of good things. 

ii. 5; 1106b 29. The evil partakes of the nature of 
the infinite, the good of the finite, as the Pythagoreans 
conjectured. 

v. 8; 1132 b 21. Eeciprocity seems to some to be 
absolutely just, as the Pythagoreans say; for these defined 
the just as that which is reciprocal to another. 

Mor. i. 1 ; 1182 a 11. First Pythagoras attempted to 
speak concerning virtue, but he did not speak correctly ; 
for bringing virtues into correspondence with numbers, 
he did not make any distinct. , 

PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS : PASSAGES IN 
THE DOXOGRAPHISTS. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 280. And again from another 
starting-point, Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, a Samian, 
who was the first to call this matter by the name of 
philosophy, assumed as first principles the numbers and 



144 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the symmetries existing in them, which he calls har- 
monies, and the elements compounded of both, that are 
called geometrical. And again he includes the monad 
and the undefined dyad among the first principles ; and 
for him one of the first principles tends toward the 
creative and form-giving cause, which is intelligence* 
that is god, and the other tends toward the passive and 
material cause, which is the visible universe. And he 
says that the starting-point of number is the decad ; for 
all Greeks and all barbarians count as far as ten, and 
when they get as far as this they return to the monad. 
And again, he says, the power of the ten is in the four 
and the tetrad. And the reason is this : if any one 
f returning f from the monad adds the numbers in a 
series as far as the four, he will fill out the number 
ten (i.e. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10) ; but if he goes beyond the 
number of the tetrad, he will exceed the ten. Just 
as if one should add one and two and should add to 
these three and four, he will fill out the number ten ; so 
that according to the monad number is in the ten. but 
potentially in the four. Wherefore the Pythagoreans 
were wont to speak as though the greatest oath were 
the tetrad : ' By him that transmitted to our soul the 
tetraktys, which has the spring and root of ever-flowing 
nature.' And our soul, he says, is composed of the 
tetrad ; for it is intelligence, understanding, opinion, 
sense, from which things come every art and science, 
and we ourselves become reasoning beings. The monad, 
however, is intelligence, for intelligence sees according 
to the monad. As for example, men are made up of 
many parts, and part by part they are devoid of sense 
and comprehension and experience, yet we perceive 
that man as one alone, whom no being resembles, 
possesses these qualities ; and we perceive that a horse 
is one, but part by part it is without experience. 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 145 

For these are all forms and classes according to monads. 
Wherefore, assigning this limit with reference to each 
one of these, they speak of a reasoning being and a 
neighing being. On this account then the monad is 
intelligence by which we perceive these things. And 
the undefined dyad is science ; fittingly, for all proof and 
all persuasion is part of science, and farther every 
syllogism brings together what is questioned out of some 
things that are agreed upon, and easily proves something 
else ; and science is the comprehension of these things, 
wherefore it would be the dyad. And opinion as the 
result of comprehending them is the triad; fittingly, 
for opinion has to do with many things ; and the triad 
is quantity, as ' The thrice-blessed Danaoi.' On this 
account then he includes the triad. . . . And their 
sect is called Italic because Pythagoras taught in Italy, 
for he removed from Samos, his fatherland, because of 
dissatisfaction with the tyranny of Polykrates. 

Aet. i. 7 ; Dox. 302. Pythagoras held that one of the 
first principles, the monad, is god and the good, which 
is the origin of the One, and is itself intelligence ; but 
the undefined dyad is a divinity and the bad, surrounding 
which is the mass of matter, i. 8 ; 307. Divine spirits 
[ai/jiovs$] are psychical beings; and heroes are souls 
separated from bodies, good heroes are good souls, bad 
heroes are bad souls. i. 9 ; 307. The followers of 
Thales and Pythagoras and the Stoics held that matter 
is variable and changeable and transformable and in a 
state of flux, the whole through the whole, i. 10 ; 309. 
Pythagoras asserted that the so-called forms and ideas 
exist in numbers and their harmonies, and in what are 
called geometrical objects, apart from bodies, i. 11; 310. 
Pythagoras and Aristotle asserted that the first causes 
are immaterial, but that other causes involve a union 
or contact with material substance [so that the world is 

L 



146 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

material], i. 14 ; 312. The followers of Pythagoras held 
that the universe is a sphere according to the form of 
the four elements ; but the highest fire alone is conical. 
i. 15 ; 314. The Pythagoreans call colour the manifesta- 
tion of matter, i. 16 ; 314. Bodies are subject to change 
of condition, and are divisible to infinity, i. 18 ; 316. 
(After quotation from Arist. Phys. iv. 4 ; 212 a 20) 
And in his first book on the philosophy of Pythagoras 
he writes that the heaven is one, and that time and 
wind and the void which always defines the places of 
each thing, are introduced from the infinite. And 
among other things he says that place is the immovable 
limit of what surrounds the world, or that in which 
bodies abide and are moved ; and that it is full when it 
surrounds body on every side, and empty when it has 
absolutely nothing in itself. Accordingly it is necessary 
for place to exist, and body ; and it is never empty except 
only from the standpoint of thought, for the nature of it 
in perpetuity is destructive of the interrelation of things 
and of the combination of bodies ; and motions arise 
according to place of bodies that surround and oppose 
each other; and no infiniteness is lacking, either of 
quantity or of extent, i. 20; 318. Pythagoras said 
that time is the sphere of what surrounds the world. 
i. 21 ; 318. Pythagoras, Plato : Motion is a certain 
otherness or difference in matter. [This is the common 
limit of all motion.] i. 24 ; 320. Pythagoras and all 
that assume that matter is subject to change assert that 
genesis and destruction in an absolute sense take place ; 
for from change of the elements and modification and 
separation of them there take place juxtaposition and 
mixture, and intermingling and melting together. 

Aet. Plac. ii. 1 ; 327. Pythagoras first named the 
circumference of all things the universe by reason of the 
order in it. ii. 4 ; 330. Pythagoras, Plato, and the Stoics 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 147 

held that the universe is brought into being by god. 
And it is perishable so far as its nature is concerned, 
for it is perceived by sense, and therefore material ; it 
will not however be destroyed in accordance with the 
foreknowledge and plan of god. ii. 6 ; 334. Pythagoras : 
The universe is made from five solid figures, which are 
called also mathematical ; of these he says that earth 
has arisen from the cube, fire from the pyramid, air 
from the octahedron, and water from the icosahedron, 
and the sphere of the all from the dodecahedron, ii. 9 ; 
338. The followers of Pythagoras hold that there is a 
void outside the universe into which the universe breathes 
forth, and from which it breathes in. ii. 10; 339. 
Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle : The right hand side of the 
universe is the eastern part from which comes the 
beginning of motion, and the left hand side is the west. 
They say the universe has neither height nor depth, 
in which statement height means distance from below 
upwards, and depth from above downwards. For none 
of the distances thus described exist for the universe, 
inasmuch as it is disposed around the middle of itself, 
from which it extends toward the all, and with reference 
to which it is the same on every side. ii. 12 ; 340. 
Thales, Pythagoras, and their followers : The sphere of 
the whole heaven is divided into five circles, which they 
call zones ; the first of these is called the arctic zone 
and is ever visible ; the second the summer solstice, 
the third the equinoctial, the fourth the winter solstice, 
and fifth the antarctic zone, which is invisible. And 
the ecliptic called the zodiac in the three middle ones 
is projected to touch the three middle ones. And the 
meridian crosses all these from the north to the opposite 
quarter at right angles. It is said that Pythagoras was 
the first to recognise the slant of the zodiacal circle 
which Oenopides of Chios appropriated as his own dis- 



148 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

co very. ii. 13 ; 343. Herakleides and the Pythagoreans 
asserted that each world [/cocryaoy] of the stars is air and 
aether surrounding earth in the infinite aether. And 
these doctrines are brought out in the Orphic writings, 
for they construct each world of the stars, ii. 22 ; 352. 
The Pythagoreans : The sun is spherical, ii. 23 ; 353. 
Plato, Pythagoras, Aristotle : The solstices lie along the 
slant of the zodiacal circle, through which the sun goes 
along the zodiac, and with the accompaniment of the 
tropic circles ; and all these things also the globe shows, 
ii. 24 ; 354. An eclipse takes place when the moon comes 
past. ii. 25 ; 357. Pythagoras : The moon is a mirror- 
like body. ii. 29 ; 360. Some of the Pythagoreans 
(according to the Aristotelian account and the statement 
of Philip the Opuntian) said that an eclipse of the moon 
takes place, sometimes by the interposition of the earth, 
sometimes by the interposition of the counter-earth 
\avri)(Bwv\, But it seems to some more recent thinkers 
that it takes place by a spreading of the flame little 
by little as it is gradually kindled, until it gives the com- 
plete full moon, and again, in like manner, it grows 
less until the conjunction, when it is completely extin- 
guished, ii. 30; 361. Some of the Pythagoreans, 
among them Philolaos, said that the earthy appearance 
of the moon is due to its being inhabited by animals 
and by plants, like those on our earth, only greater and 
more beautiful ; for the animals on it are fifteen times 
as powerful, not having any sort of excrement, and 
their day is fifteen times as long as ours. But others 
said that the outward appearance in the moon is a 
reflection on the other side of the inflamed circle of the 
sea that is on our earth, ii. 32 ; 364. Some regard 
the greater year .... as the sixty year period, among 
whom are Oenopides and Pythagoras. 

Aet. Plac. iii. I ; Dox. 364. Some of the Pythagoreans 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 149 

said that the milky way is the burning of a star that fell 
from its own foundation, setting on fire the region 
through which it passed in a circle, as Phaethon was 
burned. And others say that the course of the sun- 
arose in this manner at the first. And certain ones sav 

/ 

that the appearance of the sun is like a mirror reflecting 
its rays toward the heaven, and therefore it happens at 
times to reflect its rays on the rainbow in the clouds. 

Aet. iii. 2 ; 366. Some of the followers of Pythagoras 
say that the comet is one of the stars that are not 
always shining, but emit their light periodically through 
a certain definite time; but others say that it is the 
reflection of our vision into the sun, like reflected 
images, iii. 14 ; 378. Pythagoras : The earth, after the 
analogy of the sphere of the all, is divided into five 
zones, arctic, antarctic, summer, winter, and equinoctial ; 
of these the middle one he defines to be the middle of the 
earth, called for this very reason the torrid zone ; but 
the inhabited one [the one between the arctic and the 
torrid zones] being well-tempered. . . . 

Aet. iv. 2 ; Dox. 386. Pythagoras holds that number 
moves itself, and he takes number as an equivalent for 
intelligence, iv. 4 ; 389. Pythagoras, Plato : According 
to a superficial account the soul is of two parts, the one 
possessing, the other lacking, reason ; but according to 
close and exact examination, of three parts; for the 
unreasoning part they divide into the emotions and the 
desires. (Theodor. v. 20) ; Dox. 390. The successors of 
Pythagoras saying that body is a mixture of five elements 
(for they ranked the aether as a* fifth along with the 
four) held that the powers of the soul are of the same 
number as these. And these they name intelligence 
and wisdom and understanding and opinion and sense- 
perception, iv. 5 ; 391. Pythagoras : The principle of 
life is about the heart, but the principle of reason and 



150 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

intelligence is about the head. iv. 5; 392. Pythagoras et 
al. : The intelligence enters from without, iv. 7 ; 31 J 2. 
Pythagoras, Plato : The soul is imperishable, iv. 9 ; 
596. Pythagoras et al. : The sense-perceptions are 
deceptive, iv. 9 ; 397. Pythagoras, Plato : Each of the 
sensations is pure, proceeding from each single element. 
With reference to vision, it was of the nature of aether ; 
hearing, of the nature of wind; smell, of the nature 
of fire ; taste, of the nature of moisture ; touch, of the 
nature of earth, iv. 14 ; 405. The followers of Pytha- 
goras and of the mathematicians on reflections of vision : 
For vision moves directly as it were against the bronze 
[of a mirror], and meeting with a firm smooth surface 
it is turned and bent back on itself, meeting some such 
experience as when the arm is extended and then bent 
back to the shoulder, iv. 20; 409. Pythagoras, Plato, 
Aristotle t Sound is immaterial. For it is not air, but 
it is the form about the air and the appearance 
[sTn<f>aveia~\ after some sort of percussion which becomes 
sound ; and every appearance is immaterial ; for it moves 
with bodies, but is itself absolutely immaterial ; l as in 
the case of a bent rod the surface-appearance suffers 
no change, but the matter is what is bent. 

Aet. Plac. v. 1 ; 415. Pythagoras did not admit the 
sacrificial part alone (of augury), v. 3 ; 417. Pytha- 
goras : The seed is foam of the best part of the blood, 
a secretion from the nourishment, like blood and marrow, 
v. 4 ; 417. Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle : The power of 
seed is immaterial, like intelligence, the moving power ; 
but the matter that ia poured forth is material, v. 20 ; 
432. Pythagoras, Plato: The souls of animals called 
unreasoning are reasonable, not however with active 
reasoning powers, because of an imperfect mixture of 
the bodies and because they do not have the power of 
1 Cf. Galen, 27 ; Dor. 615 sq. 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 151 

speech, as in the case of apes and dogs ; for these have 
intelligence but not the power of speech. 

Ar. Did. Ep. Fr. 32 ; Dox. 467. Apollodoros in the 
second book Concerning the gods : It is the Pythagorean 
opinion that the morning and the evening star are the 
same. 

Theophr. Phys. Op. Fr. 17 ; Dox. 492. Favorinus 
says that he (Pythagoras) was the first to call the heavens 
a universe and the earth round [a-TpoyyvXqv']. 

Cic. de Deor. Nat. i. 11 ; Philod. piet. Fr. c 4 b ; Dox. 
533. For Pythagoras, who held that soul is extended 
through all the nature of things and mingled with them, 
and that from this our souls are taken, did not see that 
god would be separated and torn apart by the separation 
of human souls ; and when souls are wretched, as might 
happen to many, then part of god would be wretched ; 
a thing which could not happen. 

Hippol. Phil. 2 ; DoJc. 555. There is a second philo- 
sophy not far distant from the same time, of which 
Pythagoras, whom some call a Samian, was the first 
representative. And this they call the Italian philo- 
sophy because Pythagoras fled the rule of Polykrates 
over the Samians and settled in a city of Italy where 
he spent his life. The successive leaders of this sect 
shared the same spirit. And he in his studies of 
nature mingled astronomy and geometry and music 
<and arithmetic >. And thus he asserted that god is 
a monad, and examining the nature of number with 
especial care, he said that the universe produces melody 
and is put together with harmony, and he first proved 
the motion of the seven stars to be rhythm and melody. 
And in wonder at the structure of the universe, he 
decreed that at first his disciples should be silent, as it 
were mystae who were coming into the order of the all ; 
tfcen when he thought they had sufficient education 



152 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

in the principles of truth, and had sought wisdom 
sufficiently in regard to stars and In regard to nature, 
he pronounced them pure and then bade them speak. 
He separated his disciples into two groups, and called 
one esoteric, and the other exoteric. To the former 
he entrusted the more perfect sciences, to the latter 
the more moderate. And he dealt with magic, as they 
say, and himself discovered the art of physiognomy. 
Postulating both numbers and measures he was wont 
to say that the first principle of arithmetic em- 
braced philosophy by combination, after the following 
manner : 

Number is the first principle, a thing which is unde- 
fined, incomprehensible, having in itself all numbers 
which could reach infinity in amount. And the first 
principle of numbers is in substance the first monad, 
which is a male monad, begetting as a father all other 
numbers. Secondly the dyad is female number, and 
the same is called by the arithmeticians even. Thirdly 
the triad is male number ; this the arithmeticians have 
been wont to call odd. Finally the tetrad is a female 
number, and the same is called even because it is 
female. 

All numbers, then, taken by classes are fours (for 
number is undefined in reference to class), of which is 
composed the perfect number, the decad. For the 
series, one two three and four, becomes ten, if its own 
name is kept in its essence by each of the numbers. 
Pythagoras said that this sacred tetraktys is ' the spring 
having the roots of ever-flowing nature ' in itself, and 
from this numbers have their first principle. For the 
eleven and the twelve and the rest derive from the 
ten the first principle of their being. The four parts of 
the decad, this perfect number, are called number, 
monad, power, and cube. And the mtenveavings 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 153 

minglings of these in the origin of growth are what 
naturally completes nascent number ; for when a power 
is multiplied upon itself, it is the power of a power ; 
and when a power is multiplied on a cube, it is the 
power of a cube ; and when a cube is multiplied on a 
cube, the cube of a cube ; thus all numbers, from which 
arises the genesis of what arises, are seven : number, 
monad, power, cube, power of a power, power of a cube, 
cube of a cube. 

He said that the soul is immortal, and that it changes 
from one body to another ; l so he was wont to say that 
he himself had been born before the Trojan war as 
Aethalides, and at the time of the Trojan war as 
Euphorbos, and after that as Hermotimos of Samos, 
then as Pyrrhos of Delos, fifth as Pythagoras. And 
Diodoros of Eretria and Aristoxenos the musician say 
that Pythagoras had come into Zaratas of Chaldaea ; 
and he set forth that in his view there were from the 
beginning two causes of things, father and mother ; 
and the father is light and the mother darkness ; and 
the parts of light are warm, dry, light, swift ; and of 
darkness are cold, moist, heavy, slow ; and of these all 
the universe is composed, of male and female. And he 
says that the universe exists in accordance with musical 
harmony, so the sun also makes an harmonious period. 
And concerning the things that arise from the earth 
and the universe they say that Zaratas spoke as follows : 
There are two divinities, one of the heavens and the 
other of the earth; the one of the earth produces 
things from the earth, and it is water ; and the divinity 
of the heavens is fire with a portion of air, warm, and 
cold ; wherefore he says that none of these things will 
destroy or even pollute the soul, for these are the essence 
of all things. And it is said that Zaratas forbade men 
1 Cf. Epiph. Haer. i. 1 ; Dox. 589. 



154 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

to eat beans because he said that at the beginning and 
composition of all things when the earth was still a 
whole, the bean arose. And he says that the proof of 
this is that if one chews a bean to a pulp and exposes it 
to the sun for a certain time (for the sun will affect it 
quickly), it gives out the odour of human seed. And he 
says that there is another and clearer proof : if when a 
bean is in flower we were to take the bean and its flower, 
and putting it into a pitcher moisten it and then bury it in 
the earth, and after a few days dig it up again, we should 
see in the first place that it had the form of a womb, and 
examining it closely we should find the head of a child 
growing with it. 

He perished in a conflagration with his disciples in 
Kroton in Italy. And it was the custom when one 
became a disciple for him to burn his property and to 
leave his money under a seal with Pythagoras, and he 
remained in silence sometimes three years, sometimes 
five years, and studied. And immediately on being 
released from this he mingled with the others and con- 
tinued a disciple and made his home with them ; other- 
wise he took his money and was sent off. The esoteric 
class were called Pythagoreans, and the others Pytha- 
goristae. And those of the disciples who escaped the 
conflagration were Lysis and Archippos and Zalmoxis 
the slave of Pythagoras, who is said to have taught the 
Pythagorean philosophy to the Druids among the Celts. 1 
It is said that Pythagoras learned numbers and measures 
from the Egyptians ; astonished at the wisdom of the 
priests, which was deserving of belief and full of fancies 
and difficult to buy, he imitated it and himself also 
taught his disciples to be silent, and obliged the student 
to remain quietly in rooms underneath the earth. 

Epiph. Pro. i. ; Dox. 587. Pythagoras laid down 

1 Cf. 25 ; Dox. 574. 



PYTHAGORAS AND THE PYTHAGOREANS 155 

the doctrine of the monad and of foreknowledge and the 
interdict on sacrificing to the gods then believed on, and 
he bade men not to partake of beings that had life, and to 
refrain from wine. And he drew a line between the 
things from the moon upwards, calling these immortal, 
and those below, which he called mortal ; and he taught 
the transmigration of souls from bodies into bodies even 
as far as animals and beasts. And he used to teach his 
followers to observe silence for a period of five years. 
Finally he named himself a god. 

Epiph. Haer. iii. 8 ; Dox. 390. Pythagoras the 
Samian, son of Mnesarchos, said that the rnonad is god, 
and that nothing has been brought into being apart 
from this. He was wont to say that wise men ought 
not to sacrifice animals to the gods, nor yet to eat 
what had life, or beans, nor to drink wine. And he was 
wont to say that all things from the moon downward 
were subject to change, while from the moon upward 
they were not. And he said that the soul goes at death 
into other animals. And he bade his disciples to keep 
silence for a period of five years, and finally he named 
himself a god. 

Herm. I.G.P. 16 ; Dox. 655. Others then from the 
ancient tribe, Pythagoras and his fellow-tribesmen, 
revered and taciturn, transmitted other dogmas to me 
as mysteries, and this is the great and unspeakable ipse- 
dixit : the monad is the first principle of all things. 
From its forms and from numbers the elements arose. 
And he declared that the number and form and measure 
of each of these is somehow as follows : Fire is com- 
posed of twenty-four right-angled triangles, surrounded 
by four equilaterals. And each equilateral consists of 
six right-angled triangles, whence they compare it to the 
pyramid. Air is composed of forty-eight triangles, sur- 
rounded by eight equilaterals. And it is compared to 



156 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

the octahedron, which is surrounded by eight equilateral 
triangles, each of which is separated into six right-angled 
triangles so as to become forty-eight in all. And water 
is composed of one hundred and twenty triangles, sur- 
rounded by twenty equilaterals, and it is compared to the 
icosahedron, which is composed of one hundred and 
twenty equilateral triangles. And aether is composed 
of twelve equilateral pentagons, and is like a dodeca- 
hedron. And earth is composed of forty-eight tri- 
angles, and is surrounded by six equilateral pentagons, 
and it is like a cube. For the cube is surrounded 
by six tetragons, each of which is separated into eight 
triangles, so that they become in all forty-eight. 



157 



X. 

EMPEDOELES. 

EMPEDOKLES, son of Meton, grandson of an Empedokles 
who was a victor at Olympia, made his home at Akragas 
in Sicily. He was born about 494 B.C., and lived to the 
age of sixty. The only sure date in his life is his visit 
to Thourioi soon after its foundation (444). Various 
stories are told of his political activity, which may 
be genuine traditions ; these illustrate a democratic 
tendency. At the same time he claimed almost the 
homage due to a god, and many miracles are attributed 
to him. His writings in some parts are said to imitate 
Orphic verses, and apparently his religious activity was 
in line with this sect. His death occurred away from 
Sicily probably in the Peloponnesos. 

Literature : Sturz, Emped. vita et phil. carm. rell. 
Lips. 1805 ; Karsten, Emped. carm. rell. Amst. 
1838 ; Bergk, Kleine Schnften, Berl. 1839 ; Pan- 
zerbieter, Beitr. z. Kritik u. Erkl. d. Emped. 
Meining. 1844 ; Stein, Emped. Frag. Bonn 1852 ; 
Schneidewin, Philol. xv. ; H. Diels ; Hermes xv. 
pp. 161-179 ; Gorgias und Empedocles, Acad. 
Berol. 1884; Unger, Philol Suppl. 1883, pp. 
511-550; 0. Kern, Archiv f. d. Gesch. d. Philos. 
i. 498 ff. ; Knatz, ' Empedoclea ' in Schedae Phil. 
H. Usener oblatae, Bonn 1891 ; A. Platt, Journal 
of Philology, xxiv. p. 246 ; Bidez, Archiv, ix. 190 ; 
Gomperz, Hermes, xxxi. p. 469. 

NOTE. I print Stein's numbers at the left of the Greek text, Karsten's 
numbers at the right. 



158 THE FIEST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOKLES. 
IIEPI 4>TSEOS nPHTOS. 
Hav<ravia, av 8s rc\vdi, Safypovos 'Ay^lrov vis. 54 

l fjisv <yap Tra\d/j,ai Kara yvta Ks^vvrai ' 32 
e/j,7raia, TO, T' dfA/3\vvovcri 



jravpov Be ^wrjs dfiiov [tspos dd 

5 a)KVfj,opoi icairvolo Slicrjv dpOevrss aTrsirrav, 35 

avro novov TrsicrdsvTSS, OTO) TrpocrsKvpasv EKacrros 
Trdvrocr' sKavvopsvos, TO 8' o\ov f^a-^r sv^srai 

svpslv ' 
ovrws oyr' STTiSsp/CTa raS' dvSpdaiv ouS' sjra- 

Kovcrra 

OVTS VOW TTSpiX-yTTTd. (7V S' OVV, STTsl w' \ld- 



10 TTSlKTSat 0V 7T\SOV 7J /SpOTSLT) [AtJTlS OTTMTTSV. 40 

a'XXa, dsol, rwv /JLSV iiavirjv aTrorps^ars y\(t)(r- 

a-rjs, 
SK S' ocriwv (no^drwv Kadaprjv o- 



KOL as, -/roXfyu^cTTT/ \VKCt)\sv irapOsvs 
avTOfj.at } wv QS/AIS scrrlv (f)r}fMpLOL(Tiv d/covi,v, 
15 7re/A7re Trap' gv<rt/3vt)f, \dovcr' v^ 



Sources and Critical Notes. 

1. Diog. Laer. viii. 60. 2-10. Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 123-124. 
3. Prokl. on Tim. p. 175. 5. Plut. Jf or. 360 c. 6. Diog. Laer. ix. 73 ; 
8-9a. Plut. Mor. 17 E. 

3. MSS. $ei\tfj.ir(a, corr. Emperius. Prokl. Sen/' lireo. 4. MSS. frya-i 
P'tov, corr. Scaliger. Cl^B a.6poiffavTos. 7. M.SS. t\aw6/j.ei>oi, 
ri> 8' 8\oj/ eCxTa, corr. Stein. 9. Bergk adds 8' after ffb. 
10. MSS. ir\(i6v 76, Karsten irAeW ^J, Stein jrAeoj/ ; MSS. 
opaptv, corr. Panzerbieter. 

11-23. Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 125. 16-17. Clem. Al. Strom, p. 682: 
18. Prokl. Tim. 106 ; Plut. Mor. 93 u. 

12. MSS. ox<5<raTf, corr. Steph. 16. MSS. art, Stein /*'. 17. Sext. 



EMPEDOKLES 159 



TRANSLATION. 

Book I. 

1. And do thou hear me, Pausanias, son of wise 
Anchites. 



2. For scant means of acquiring knowledge are 
scattered among the members of the body ; and many 
are the evils that break in to blunt the edge of studious 
thought. And gazing on a little portion of life that is 
not life, swift to meet their fate, they rise and are borne 
away like smoke, persuaded only of that on which each 
one chances as he is driven this way and that, but the 
whole he vainly boasts he has found. Thus these things 
are neither seen nor heard distinctly by men, nor com- 
prehended by the mind. And thou, now that thou hast 
withdrawn hither, shalt learn no more than wj^at mortal 
mind has seen. 



11. But, ye gods, avert the madness of those men 
from my tongue, and from lips that are holy cause a pure 
stream to flow. And thee I pray, much-wooed white- 
armed maiden Muse, in what things it is right for beings 
of a day to hear, do thou, and Piety, driving obedient 
car, conduct me on. Nor yet shall the flowers of honour 



100 THE FIRST PHILOSOPBERS OF GREECE 



' 



7' suSofoto /3irj<7Tai avOsa rifj,rjf 
TTOOS Qvr\TU>v dv\cr0ai, (/>' cS $' ocrlrjs irXfbv 



ddp<Tl Kal TOTS 8rj ao^lTjs JTT' d/cpoiai Ood^eiv. 
aXX' ay' a#/3t Trao-?? TraXa/iT? Trfj 8fj\ov SKaarov, 
20 /-ufre nv otyiv tywv irLa-rsi ir\sov rj /car' d/covyv 50 
r^r' aKorfv spi&ovrrov inrsp rpavoaf 

TjTS Tl TtoV d\\d)V, OTTOO'WV TTOpOS <TTl 

<yvt(ov TTLCTTIV spvKS, vosc 8' fj $rj\ov s/caa-TOv. 

<f)dpfj,afca S' o<rcra ysydai KCLKMV Kal <yr)paos d\tcap 

25 Trsva-rj, ami fjiovvw aol sja) Kpavsw rd&s Trdvra. 425 

Traverses 8' aKa^drwv dvsp.u>v psvos oi r' STTI 

yalav 
opvvfj-svot, TTVoialcrt Kara^Oivvdovcnv dpovpas' 



S' ef QfjijSpoio K\at,vov Kaipiov av 
30 dvdpwTTQis, 6r}<jsis Bs Kal % av-^fjiolo fapsiov 430 

v8podpTrra /car' al0pos dta-aovTa' 
' st; 'A/Sao KarafyOifJisvov fjivos dv8pos. 



rscraapa TWV irdvrwv p^M^ara irpwrov O,KOV ' 55 



MSS. t<t>a>doeii)s, corr. Steph. Clern. confirms correction. 18. MSS. 

8od^t, Plut. tfa^^ctc, corr. Hermann. 19. MSS. dAAa 70^ adpti 

TTO.S, corr. Bergk. 20. Bergk ri . . . TTJO-T^J/, Gomperz, oi|/t 

xw ir^Ttv tr\tov\ 22. MSS. oTrdffrj, corr. Stein. 23. MSS. 6', 

Karsten 5'. 

24-32. Diog. Laer. viii. 59 from Satyros ; Suidas under &TTVOVS ; 
Eudocia, p. 170 ; Tzetzes, Chil. ii. 906 f. ; Iriarte, Catal. Hatrit. p. 
450. 26-28. Clem. Al. Strom, p. 754. 

27. Clem. evrjToTcrt ; Clem., Diog. Laer. Yin. MS., Tzt. apoi-poy. Else- 

where bpovpav. 28. Clem, tlr', others tfv K'. Diog., Clem. 

iraKivrtra, corr. Stein. 29. Tzt. o-r^o-eis, Suidas a-ri,<rn. 

30. Tzt. <rrr,fffis. 31. Diog. ra 5' tv 9tpei ar,ffavra, Hermann 

rd T' aldtpi alQvffffovrai, corr. Stein. 

33-35. Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 362, and x. 315; Plut. Mor. 878 A 
(Eus. Pr. Evang. xiv. p. 749) ; Probus on Verg. Ed. vi. 31 ; Hipp. Eef. 



EMPEDOKLES 161 

"well esteemed compel me to pluck them from mortal 
hands, on condition that I speak boldly more than is 
holy and only then sit on the heights of wisdom. 

19. But come, examine by every means each thing 
how it is clear, neither putting greater faith in anything 
seen than in what is heard, nor in a thundering sound 
more than in the clear assertions of the tongue, nor 
keep from trusting any of the other members in which 
there lies means of knowledge, but know each thing in 
the way in which it is clear. 

24. Cures for evils whatever there are, and protec- 
tion against old age shalt thou learn, since for thee alone 
will I accomplish all these things. Thou shalt break 
the power of untiring gales which rising against the 
earth blow down the crops and destroy them ; and, 
again, whenever thou wilt, thou shalt bring their blasts 
back ; and thou shalt bring seasonable drought out of 
dark storm for men, and out of summer drought thou 
shalt bring streams pouring down from heaven to 
nurture the trees ; and thou shalt lead out of Hades the 
spirit of a man that is dead. 

33. Hear first the four roots of all things: bright 
Zeus, life-giving Hera (air), and Aidoneus (earth), and 
Nestis who moistens the springs of men with her tears. 1 

1 Cf. Dox. p. 90, n. 3. 

M 



162 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

85 Nr}<rm 6' r) Sarcpvois reyyet, Kpovvwpa fiporeiov. 
a\Xo S4 TOI spsa) ' <j>v<ris ovBsvos sariv cnravrav 

6vr)r)V, Ov8s riS OV\O/J>VOV QavdrOLO TS\VTr) f 

dXXa povov pelvis re 8id\\aj~i$ re pvysvrwv 

eo-n, (frva-is & sirl rols ovopA^srai dvdpanrotffiv. 80 

40 01 S' ore KSV Kara tfitora fuyev <f)a>s aldspi <iicrj> 
rf Kara 6r)p(t)V dyporepcov yevos rj Kara ffdfjtvwv 
ye Kar olwvwv, rore fjisv ra \e<yov<ri ysvsa-Oai ' 
evrs 8' aTTOKptdsata-i, ra S' av SvcrSaipova Trorpov, 345 
r) 6ep,is sari, /caXoycrt, vop.a> 8' sTTL^rjpi real avrbs. 

45 vqTTioi' ov <ydp <T(f>iv So\i%6(f)poves slat 
o't 8r) <yi,yv<r()ai irdpos OVK sbv s\7 
TJ ri Karadvyfftceiv rs Kal ef;o\\vcr6at a 
IK rs yap ovSdp' eovros dp,rj^avov ecrri yevsa-Qat, 81 

haer. 246 ; Stob. Eel i. 10, p. 287. 34-35. Athenag. Legatio, p. 22 ; 
Diog. Laer. viii. 76; Herakl. Alleg. Horn. 443 o. Clem. Al. Strom. 
p. 746 joins 33, 78, and 104. 

33. TVV, Sext. 7&/>, Prob. 5)?. Last word Prob. IMTIV. 34. Plut. 
Zus aiOfyp. 35. Diog. Laer. tviiriKpo? 5/tfto ^p6mov, Prob. 7* 
iriKpols VW/JM (vuifiq, ? ) Qpfofiov yevos. 

36-39. Plut. Mor. 1111 r, 885 D. 36 b, 38. Arist. Gen. Corr. I. 1 ; 
314 b 7 ; Meta. iv. 4 ; 1015 a 1. 38, 39. Arist. de X.Z.G. c. 2 975 b 7. 
36. Plut. de placit. ovSf, adv. Colot. fKaatov. Ar. Meta. ttv-rus. 
37. Plut. adv. Col. ouAo/tevrj 6. -ffviBK-n. 39. Plut. de placit. 
<pvtra 5e ySporoTi. 
40-44. Plut. Colot. 1113 c. 44. Plut. Mor. 820 F. 

40. MSS. ST nev . . . <pus alBepi, Mul. 8 ri Kty, Panz. aldepos Kp. 
42. MSS. rbv yfvfff6ai, Eeiske rb \fyovtri ytv., Karst. SoKeovffi 
ytv. 43. MSS. awoKpiOaffi, corr. Eitschl. 44. MSS. thai Ka\eovffi- 
%H<as. Plut. Mor. 820 F gives the line as in the text. Duebner 
suggests tiitalws for elvtu here. 
45-47. Plut. Colot. 1113 c. 

47. MS. JTOI, corr. Eeiske. MS. irdvri], corr. Steph. 

48-50. Arist. de X.Z.G. 2 ; 975 a 36. 48-49. Philo, de incorr. mundi 
p. 488. 

48. Vulg. tit re f*},, Cd. Lps. Syl. ^ rov ^, Philo &c rov yap 
oMarf. 49. MS. r6 re f ov, Stein KOI' T' t'bv. Arist. fapriKrov, 
Philo Sirauo-roi/. Text from Diels, Hermes xv.p. 161. 50. MS. 
eV(T0ai, corr. Karst. 



EMPEDOKLES ] 63 

36. And a second thing I will tell thee : There is no 
origination of anything that is mortal, nor yet any end in 
baneful death ; but only mixture and separation of what 
is mixed, but men call this ' origination.' 



40. But when light is mingled with air in human 
form, or in form like the race of wild beasts or of plants 
or of birds, then men say that these things have come 
into being ; and when they are separated, they call them 
evil fate ; this is the established practice, and I myself 
also call it so in accordance with the custom. 



45. Fools! for they have no far-reaching studious 
thoughts who think that what was not before comes 
into being or that anything dies and perishes utterly. 



48. For from what does not exist at all it is impos- 
sible that anything come into being, and it is neither 
possible nor perceivable that being should perish com- 
pletely ; for things will always stand wherever one in 
each case shall put them. 

ii 2 



164 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Kdi r' ov %a7ro\cr0ai, dvrjvv<rrov Kal aTrva-rov' 
50 alsl jdp crTTJcrovTai OTTTJ KS n$ alkv EpSLorj. 

OVK av dvrjp roiavra crocpbs (ppscrl fjiavTSvcraiTO, 350 

COS 0<f>pa fJ,V T /3lOV(Tl, TO 8r) ftlOTOV Ka\OV(Tl, 

r6d>pa fiV ovv slcrlv Kai <r<f>i,v irdpa tsi\,a Kal 



irplv 85 TTUJSV re ySporol Kal STrsl \vdsv, ov8si> 
ap i<rlv. 

55 d\\a tea/cols psv Kapra ir\i tcparsova-tv 

dTricrTiv. 84 

cos & Trap 1 rj/JLSTsprjs Ks\srai iriaTWfJiara Mover?;?, 



v 



K0pv(f>as Tpas Tpr}(n TrpocrdTTTutv 447 

/jiv6u>v, fj-iJTE T\sli> drpajrov fjkltov ' 
60 Bis jap Kal rpls Set o rt Srj Ka\6v ianv svi- 

(TTTSiV, 446 

\Trstpara /j,vda)v~\ 87 

8t7rX' spew TOTE /AW jap Iv riv^drf povov slvai 



51-54. Plat. Colot. 1113 D. 

53. MSS. flffl Kai <r<pi, corr. Karst. MSS. Seiva, corr. Bergk. 
55-57. Clem. Al. Strom. 656. 56-57. Theod. Serm. 476 Sch. 

56. Theod. 58e yap. 

58-59. Plut. de orac. def. 418 c. Arranged in verse by Xylander. 
MSS. /J.'ffre A7iv corr. Knatz, Empedoclea, p. 7. 

60. Plut. nonpos. suav. viv. 1103 F Sis yhp 6 Set ica\6i> firriv anovo-at, 
Schol. Plat. Gorg. 124 Euhnk. 51s Kal rpls rb na\bv. . . 'E/xireS. rb eiros 
" Kal Sis yap t> 8T ica\6i> lanv fvfaireiv." Text from Sturz. 

61-73. Simpl. in Arist. Phys. 34 r 158, 1 sq. 66-68. Tzetzes, Horn. 
58 Sch. 67-73. Simpl. de caelo Peyr. p. 47 sq. 67-68. Simpl. Phys. 
6v25, 29, and 310 r. Diog. Laer. viii. 76; Stob. Eel. i. 11, p. 290; 
vit. Horn. p. 327 G'al. 69-73. Arist. Phys viii. 1 ; 250 b 30. 

61. Karst. supplies veipara nvOuv from v. 75. 62. Cf. 104. 65. E 
SpvQOe'iffa, MS. 5/>jrHj. 66-67. Cf. 116-117. 68. Simpl. 158, 
8 Si'xa travra. Elsewhere as in text. 69. Om. Simpl. 158 b 
1. 73. MSS. euciVrjTot corr. Bergk. 



EMPEDOKLES 165 

51. A man of wise mind could not divine such things 
as these, that so long as men live what indeed they call 
life, so long they exist and share what is evil and what 
is excellent, but before they are formed and after they 
are dissolved, they are really nothing at all. 

55. But for base men it is indeed possible to withhold 
belief from strong proofs ; but do thou learn as the 
pledges of our Muse bid thee, and lay open her word to 
the very core. 

58. Joining one heading to another in discussion, 
not completing one path (of discourse) ... for it is 
right to say what is excellent twice and even thrice. 

60. Twofold is the truth I shall speak ; for at one 
time there grew to be one alone out of many, and 
at another time, however, it separated so that there 
were many out of the one. Twofold is the coming into 
being, twofold the passing away, of perishable things ; 
for the latter (i.e. passing away) the combining of 



166 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

etc TrXeoftof, TOTS B 1 av Sityv TT\SOV si; svbs 

elvai. 

Soirj 8s 0wr]TCt)v ysvcns 1 8otr) 8' aTroXen^ty. 90 

Trfv pev yap Trdvratv (rvvo&os TIKTSI T' O\SKI re, 
65 T) 8s 7rd\iv Bia(f>vofJ,eva)v 0p(f)0t(ra SieTTTi). 

teal TavT* aXXa<r<rofTa StafJL7rpss ou8a/xa X^iyst, 
a'XXore p.sv <&i\6Ti)Ti cfuvsp")(o^v is if avrafra, 
aXXore 8' av &%' stcaa-ra <f>opvji,va Nft/csos 

" A QK 

yt/l, yo 

118 sis 6 Kv if (rvf^<f>vvTa TO Traf V7rsvp0 ysvtjTai. 144 

OUTWS J7 /if if EK TrXgOf &)f fJi/J,dd'TJK (j)VCr6ai 

70 7785 TraXtf 8ia(f>vvTos svbs TrXeof' sfCT\edov(Ti, 
Trj fjisv ylyvovTai TS /cat oy (r^icriv e/iTreSoy aiwv 



ravrrj alev sacriv dKivrjrov Kara KVK\OV. 100 

dXX' 0175, fjivdwv K\vOi, fjiddt) yap rot fypsvas 



75 a>s yap teal trplv eiira T 

0(i>V, 

' spew TOTS fjisv yap ii/ tjit^Or) fjLOvov 



74-95. Simpl. Phys. 34 r 158, 13 sq. following the preceding with- 

out break. 74. Stob. Eel. App. 34 Gais. ; cf. Clem. Al. Strom. 697. 

77-80. Simpl. Phys. 6 v 26, 1 ; Sext. Emp. Math. ix. 10. 78. Plut. 

de adult, p. 63 D; Clem. Al. Strom. 746 (with v. 33). 79-80. Sext. 

Einp. Math. x. 317. 79. Plut. Mor. 952 B. 80-81. Plut. Amat. 756 D. 

81. Clem. Al. Strom. 653 ; Simpl. Phys. 41 r 188, 26. 91. Cf. Stob. Eel. 

i. 18; Placit. i. 18 and Theod. iv. 529 c (Dox. 316); Galen, Hist. phil. 
0. 92. Arist. X.Z.6. 975 b 10. Simpl. omits 91. 

74. Simpl. jw'eTj, corr. Bergk from Stob. and Clem. 78. Sext. 
fliriov, Clem, aldtpos, Plut. alOtpos ^triov. 79. Simpl. 
Sext. oirdi/Tj?, corr. Panz. 80. Plut. iv TO?*, Sext. 
Ivor. 81. Simpl. &F ffvv v$; cf. Plut. 82. Simpl. F Qvroiaiv : 
Bergk, Karst. eVfferai. 83. Simpl. DE KOI fy>0.uia, F Kal &p 
ouoia. 85. Simpl. /UT' ocroKru/, Panz. fj.fO' %\otffiv, Prel. 7' 
5o-o-ot(n'. I have suggested /uer& roTo-ii/. 89. Simpl. KaJ irpis TO?S 
ofa' &pri. Cf. 159, 8Mij5ev^irj-yiVeo-0cu|i7)5'oiro\^'y6', corr. Stein. 
93. Simpl. DE& Kf KO.\ K-fipv^, F omits /ce, corr. Stein (notes). 
95. D -yivovrai. MS. &\\ort, corr. Stein. DE Ka.1 iiveicfs (cf. 
Hesych.), &F 5i?)v6(c. 



EMPEDOKLES 167 

all things both begets and destroys, and the former 
(i.e. coming into being), which was nurtured again out 
of parts that were being separated, is itself scattered. 
66. And these (elements) never cease changing place 
continually, now being all united by Love into one, now 
each borne apart by the hatred engendered of Strife, 
until they are brought together in the unity of the all, 
and become subject to it. Thus inasmuch as one 
has been wont to arise out of many and again with the 
separation of the one the many arise, so things are con- 
tinually coming into being and there is no fixed age 
for them ; and farther inasmuch as they [the elements] 
never cease changing place continually, so they always 
exist within an immovable circle. 

74. But come, hear my words, for truly learning 
causes the mind to grow. For as I said before in 
declaring the ends of my words : Twofold is the truth 
I shall speak ; for at one time there grew to be the one 



168 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

etc 7T\s6v(i)V, TOTS S' av &is<f>v TT\Ov e% svos- slvai, 
Trvp Kal vBa>p Kal yata ical aWspos a,Tr\erov 
(5fo*- 105 

Nf IKOS T' ov\6fisvov 8i%# rwv, drdXavrov l/cacrro), 
SO Kal <t>cAoT7?y ev rolariv 'ia~r) pijKos re TT\aros rs. 

' - 



ri)v (TV voy BspKSv /A7/8' ofi^aaiv 770-0 

rjris Kal 0vr)Toicri vopi&Tai s^vros apffpots-, 

Trj TS <^>tXa (frpovsovcri KOI apQpia spja TS\,V<TI, 110 



85 rrjv OVTIS 1>T' OO-OKTI.V e\,i<rcrofj,V'r}v 

avrjp. av S' O.KOVS \6<yov crroXov OVK 



ravTa <yap lad TS Trdvra Kal rj\iKa ysvvav sacri, 
Ttfjifjs S' aXX.'rjs aXXo /j,sBst,,7rdpa 8' r^Bos s Kacrry. 115 
ov&ev yap Trpbs rois STnylyvsTai o^S' cnroKriyst,. 
90 fire yap efyOsipovro Bia/j,7rpsf, ou/cer' av rjcrav. 
ov$s TI TOV iravros KVov irs\t ot8e Trspia'a'ov. 
rovro S' STrav^crsis TO irav TI KS Kal irodsv 

i\06v; 120 

Trf & KS Kal aTToXotar' fTTft rw^S' ov&ev 



112 sv 8s p,spsi, Kparsovcri TrsptTrXo/iei/o^o KVK\OIO 



96-109. Simpl. Phys. 34 r 159, 13. 98-107. Simpl. Phys. 7 v 33, 8, 
98 and 100. Arist. Gen. Corr. i. 1, 314 b 19 ; Philopon. Comment, on this 
passage ; Plut. de prim. frig. 249 F ; Galen, vol. xiii. p. 31 Chart. 
104-107". Arist. Meta. ii. 4 ; 1000 a 29. 

98. Arist. Philopon. \fvKbv . . . Beppbv, Simpl. Galen Oepfdiv . . . 
Xapirphv : Simpl. Arist. iptiv, Plut. Aristot. Spa, Simpl. F 6pa. 
99. Simpl. eSerai or tSfiro : Stein '6(r<ra irf\ti, Diels o<r<ra 6ift 
rf. 100. Some MSS. Arist. and Plut. o<p6et>Ta. 101. Simpl, 
flf'Arjjua, a Of\i/j.va, corr. Sturz : Simpl. 33, 11 errfpeo^o. 102. 
Simpl. 159, 19 vt\ovra. 104. Simpl. 159, 21 D Travrbs &TTIV, 
a F irdvr' i\v : Arist. Met. t'| >v irdvO' offa T' ?iv ocra r' fff6 y 
oaa T' effrai oiriffffai. 105. Simpl. 133, 15 SevSpa -re fiefi\dffTrjK<:-, 
108. ED royov, Diels r6 y' 6v ? Hermes xv. 163 rtcrov : 
E StaKpaffis, D SiaKptffis. Sturz. Sidirrv^is from Simpl. 34 v. 
161, 20. Platt 5ii* Kuirpis- dpe//86j Journ. Philol. 48, p. 246. 
I bracket 108-109 as another form of 94-95. 



EMPEDOKLES 169 

alone out of many, and at another time it separated so 
that there were many out of the one ; fire and water 
and earth and boundless height of air, and baneful 
Strife apart from these, balancing each of them, and 
Love among them, their equal in length and breadth. 
81. Upon her do thou gaze with thy mind, nor yet sit 
dazed in thine eyes ; for she is wont to be implanted in 
men's members, and through her they have thoughts of 
love and accomplish deeds of union, and call her by the 
names of Delight, and Aphrodite ; no mortal man has 
discerned her with them (the elements) as she moves on 
her way. But do thou listen to the undeceiving course 
of my words. 1 . . . 

87. For these (elements) are equal, all of them, and 
of like ancient race ; and one holds one office, another 
another, and each has his own nature. . . . For nothing 
is added to them, nor yet does anything pass away from 
them ; for if they were continually perishing they would 
no longer exist. . . . Neither is any part of this all 
empty, nor over full. For how should anything cause 
this all to increase, and whence should it come ? And 
whither should they (the elements) perish, since no place 
is empty of them ? And in their turn they prevail as 
the cycle comes round, and they disappear before 

[aura 'yap ecrri ravra, St' a\\rj\o}V 8s 6sovra 
109 jivsrai aXXotwird. "\TOJOV Bia Kpavis a/if//3ft.] 137 

1 Cf. Parmenides v. 112. 



170 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

113 Kal (f>0ivsi elf aX\7;\a Kal avgsTai ev pep si 138 



94 aXV avr ecrrtv ravTCf 81' d\\^\o)v Be Osovra 122 

95 yivsTai d\\o6sv &\\a Kal rjvsKss alsv ofiola. 

110 Kal yap Kal irdpos rjv re Kal fWerat, ovBe TTOT', 

Did), 

111 TOVTWV dpfyorepaiv KSivojcrsTat aa-TTSTOS alcav, 

96 a\\' ays r&vS' odpwv irpoTspwv eirifJidpTvpa 

BspKSV, 

ei rt Kal ev Trporspotcri \t,7roj;v\ov TT\STO nop^y. 125 
r)e\iov IJLSV Qspfibv opav Kal Xa/i7Tpoi> a 
a/z/3pora S' oaaa TreXet re Kal dpysri 
avyfj, 

100 o/ji/3pov S' ev iraat, Bvo^osvrd rs piya\eov re, 
etc &-atr)t Trpopsovcri, @s\vfAvd TS Kal crrspSfOTrd. 

- "^- ev Be KOT&) Sta/iop^a Kal avBi-^a iravra 7rs\ovrai, 130 

,<7vv S' e/Sr] ev <>i\.6T / r)Ti Kal d\\r]\oicn Trodstrai. 

SK TOVTWV yap irdvd' oca T r\v ocra r' e<m Kal 
ecrrai, 

105 BevBpsd T' e/SXacrTrjcrs Kal dvspss r)Sg yvvaiKSS 
6r)pes T olavol TS Kal vSaTodps/jifAovss l^6vs 
Kai TS 6sol Bo\i%aia>vss Tip^cri, fyepia'TOi. 135 

CDS S' OTroTav 7 payees dvadrjftaTa 7rotKi\\a)(rtv 

120 dvspss dfi(f)l Te^vrjs VTTO p,rjTios ev BsBa&TS 155 

110-111. Hippol. Ref. haer. 247 Mill. 

110. MS. fl y&p . . . ttffrai ouSeVw rolu, corr. Schneid. Phil. vi. 

160. 111. MS. KfixLererat So-^etrroj, corr. Mill. 
112-118. Simpl. Phys. 8r33, 19. 

114. MS. fan, corr. Panz. 115. MS. Ki\pSiv, Stz. Orip>t>, Bergk 
Ov-nrSiv. 118. E fv, D dv, F JK, A &v, Text Hermes xv. 163. 

Lines 114-115 are bracketed as a duplication of 94-95, and 
accordingly 112-113 are inserted before 94-95, where 113 
corresponds excellently with 93 ; 116-117 are bracketed as 
another form of 67-68 (cf. 248), and accordingly 118 finds its 
proper place after 68. Cf. "Repetitions in Empedokles," 
Classical Review, Jan. 1898. 



EMPEDOKLES 171 

each other, and they increase each in its allotted turn. 
But these (elements) are the same ; and penetrating 
through each other they become one thing in one place 
and another in another, while ever they remain alike 
(i.e. the same). 

110. For they two (Love and Strife) were before and 
shall be, nor yet, I think, will there ever be an unutterably 
long time without them both. 

96. But come, gaze on the things that bear farther 
witness to my former words, if in what was said before 
there be anything defective in form. Behold the sun, 
warm and bright on all sides, and whatever is immortal 
and is bathed in its bright ray, and behold the rain- 
cloud, dark and cold on all sides ; from the earth there 
proceed the foundations of things and solid bodies. In 
Strife all things are, endued with form and separate | 
from each other, but they come together in Love and 
are desired by each other. 104. For from these (ele- 
ments) come all things that are or have been or shall be ; 
from these there grew up trees and men and women, 
wild beasts and birds and water-nourished fishes, and 
the very gods, long-lived, highest in honour. 

121. And as when painters are preparing elaborate 
votive offerings men well taught by wisdom in their 



114 \_avra jap scrTiv ravra, Bt 1 aXX^Xtui/ Be Osovra 140 

115 ylvovT* avOpwTroi rs KOI a\\(ov eOvea icripwv, 
aX\ors fj^sv ^i\6rr)ri crvvsp^o/MSv" 1 sis sva fcocrfiov, 

' av Bi 



els o KSV li> <rv[j,<f)vvTa TO Trav virsvspds 



172 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

oi T' eTrsI ovv fjidp-^raicn iroXv^poa < 



ra [lev 7T\ea), a\\a B' f 
123 etc TWV SiBsa irdcnv dXi/y/aa Tropavvova-i 
127 ovra) pr) (7 dirdrif] (frpsva tcatvvrw aXXo#ev elvai 162 

6vr)Twv, off (7 a 72 Bfj\a rysyaaiv dda-irsra, Trrjjijv. 

aXXa Topws ravr' IcrQi dsov Trdpa p.v6ov 



130 si 8' ays, vvv TOI eya \e|&> TT/JW^' r)\ov a 
s u>v Br) eysvovro ra vvv scropco/Jisva irdvra, 
iyald rs Kal TTOVTOS iroXvicv^wv rjS' vypos drjp 
Ttrav ^8' aWrjp o-tyiyycav Trspl KVK\,OV aTravra. 

[crfyalpov erjv^] 

135 eV$' OUT' TjeXioio BsBia-Ksrai dj\abv slBos 

ovBs ftsv ouS' a'lrjs \dcriov JJLSVOS ovBs Qa\.aaaa 
OVTWS dpfjiovirjs TTVKIVW tcvrst scrr^piKrai 59 

ofaipos KVK\,OTpiis povLp Trspirjysi jaiatv. 



119-129. Simpl. Phys. 34 r 160, 1. 

120. DEF &n<t>ta : F SfSacares. 122. MSS. op/uovi'ij : J fn'^avrfs > & 
fiA^av Tt. 123. a F iraa-' (va\iyKia. 124. D Kri&vrfs . . . avepts. 
127. F ov-rta juV airaxTj ; a us vv Ktv : Bergk <pp4vas : Katvvrai 
(Hesych. VIKO.TU) corr. Blass for MSS. KO.( vv TC?, 128. MSS. 
yfydacriv fio-jrero, corr. Bergk. 

130-133. Clem. Al. Strom. 674. 

130. fl 5' &yt roi \fw, Pott, d 8' &yt rot i>.1v lyit. 131. Gomperz, 
Hermes xxxi, 469 4aopiafj.tv airavra. 

134. Simpl. Phys. 258 r /cal Bfbv eirovo^a^ei Kal ovStrfptas irore /caXe? 
ffQaipov ti)v. Cf. \. 138. 

135-138. Simpl. Phys. 272 v. 135-136. Plut. cfe fac. in lun. 926 E. 
138. Simpl. de caelo, Peyr. 47 ; M. Antonin. xii. 3 ; Stob. Eel. Phys. i. 
15, 354 ; Achilles (Tatius) IN ARAT. 77 Pet. and frag. Schol. p. 96 ; Prokl. 
in Tim. 160. 

135. Simpl. SteiSerai ie'a yv7a, Plut. 5.'TTETcu, corr. Karst. 
136. Plut. MS. ytvos, Bergk ntvos. 137. MS. Kpv<pf or 
Karst. Kpvtycf, Stein Kvrft. 138. Simpl. Phys. juovj^ ire 
altav, Text from Simpl. de caelo. Stob. Tatius x ai P uv - Schol. 
in Arat. Kv/cAortpe? j 



EMPEDOKLES 173 

art they take many-coloured pigments to work with, 
and blend together harmoniously more of one and less 
of another till they produce likenesses of all things ; so 
let not error overcome thy mind to make thee think there 
is any other source of mortal things that have likewise 
come into distinct existence in unspeakable numbers ; 
but know these (elements), for thou didst hear from 
a god the account of them. 

130. But come, I will tell thee now the first principle 
of the sun, even the sources of all things now visible, 
earth and billowy sea and damp mist and Titan aether 
(i.e. air) binding all things in its embrace. 

135. Then neither is the bright orb of the sun 
greeted, nor yet either the shaggy might of earth or sea ; 
thus, then, in the firm vessel of harmony is fixed God, 
a sphere, round, rejoicing in complete solitude. 



[Ssv&psd rs KTi&VTS Kal dvspas rjSs 
125 Ofjpds r olwvovs TS Kal v^arodps^^ovas l^Ovs 160 
Kal rs Osovs BoXi^aitovas 



174 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



avrap eirsl fjJya Net/coy evl jj,\cr<nv edpe<f>dij 66 
140 es Tifids r dvopov<7 rsXeiopevoio %povoto, 

os <r<f>iv dfjioiftaios TtXaT^os 7raps\r)\aTai opicov. 

irdvra jap egui)? TrsXsfii^sro jvia 6 solo. 70 

'Xwpls jap ftapv r rrdv^ %<wpts tcovtyov. 71 

aa-ropyoi Kai aKpijroi. 
145 awpsvofisvov fjbsjeOos. 

iiirsp aTTslpova jrjs rs /3d0ij Kai SatyiXbs aWijp, 199 
coy Sia "7ro\\S)V &r) Pporswv prjdsvra ^aTaiws 

, 6\iyov TOV Travros l$6v- 



rjS* av i~\dsipa <T\ijvr). . . 168 

150 a\V 6 fisv a\i<r6sls fisjav ovpavbv dfA<f>i7ro\vsi. 187 
dvrawyiv TT/JOS "OXu/^Troi' drapftrJTOicri Trpoa- 



fOTTOlS. 188 

139-141. Arist. Meta. ii. 4 ; 1000 b 13 ; Simpl. Phys. 272 b. 

139. Arist. aAA.' tire 5)>, Simpl. avrap tvfl. 141. Simpl. ft : Arist. 
E 



142. Simpl. Phys. 272 v. associated with v. 135. 
143-144. Plut. de fnc. lun. 926 F. 

143. Sturz ends the line ZOriKev with object Newtcy. 144. MSS. 
&npcnot Kai &ffTopyot, corr. Stein. 

145. Arist. Om. et Corr. i. 8 ; 325 b 22. 

146-148. Arist. de X.Z.G. 2 ; 976 a 35 ; de coelo ii. 113 ; 294 a 25 ; and 
Simpl. on this passage. 147-148. Clem. Al. Strom. 817. 

147. Arist. X.Z.G. pporttav, de coelo, Clem. 7X^0-0-771 : Clem. 
iKQ&vra. 148. Clem. eiSdrcov. 

149. Plut. defac. lun. 920 c. 

MS. otvfj.f\fr, Xylander o|uy3eA^s : MS. T|5e \diva, corr. G. Dindorf . 
Cf. Hesych. l\dftpa ; Preller \div' ^5e. 

150. Macrob. Saturn. \. 17 ; Etym. Mag., Orion Etym., Suidas, under 
5)Awj ; Cramer, Anec. ii. 444. 

Macrob. OWK' ava\ur8ds, Suid. Cram. a\6?o-0at ; Et. M. pfffov. 

151. Plut. Pyth. or. 400 B ; Galen, de us. part. iii. 3. 
Plut. a.rra.vy(~iv, Galen a 



EMPEDOKLES 175 

139. But when mighty Strife was nurtured in its 
members and leaped up to honour at the completion of 
the time, which has been driven on by them both in turn 
under a mighty oath 

142. For the limbs of the god were made to tremble, 
all of them in turn. 

143. For all the heavy (he put) by itself, the light 
by itself. 

144. Without affection and not mixed together. 

145. Heaped together in greatness. 

146. If there were no limit to the depths of the earth 
and the abundant air, as is poured out in foolish words 
from the mouths of many mortals who see but little of 
the all. 

149. Swift-darting sun and kindly moon. 

150. But gathered together it advances around the 
great heavens. 

151. It shines back to Olympos with untroubled 
face. 



176 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

77 Bs </>Xo i\dsipa (juvv0aBirjS rv-^sv avyrjs. 193 

o>s avjr) Tvtyacra crsXr/vairis KVK\OV svpvv. . 192 

KVK\oTpe$ TTSpl jatav \icrasTat a\\6rpiov (f>a)s 190 
155 apparos wcnrsp av i%vos 189 

adpsi P'SV jap avatcros svavriov aysa KVK\OV. 191 



o 



sis aWpriv Kadinrspdsv, sTrscncvifywa-s Bs yairjs 195 
rocra-ov ocrov r' svpos <y\avK(t)7riSo$ TT\STO /jujvrjs, 

160 vvKra Bs <yala ridrjcnv v(f)icrTa/jii>r) (frasEcrcriv. 197 

vv/CTOf spijf4,air)$ akawTTiSos. 198 

a B' svspd' sBsos Trvpa Kaisrai. 207 



152. Simpl. Phys. 74 v; 331, 7. 

&DF fyvx*, E T^X* ' MSS. yai'rjj, Stein aii^^s. 

153. Plut. de fac. lun. 929 E. 

153a. Diels, Hermes xv. 175, constructs the following line from 
Philo ed. Aucher, p. 92 : 

Kdl fifjav, avTiK avr)\df, Stow' ws obpavbv "KOI. 

154. Achill. Tat. Introd. in Arat. c. 16 p. 77 Pet. 155. Plut. de fac. 
orb. lun. 925. 

155. Plut. (ffeX^jj'T)) irfpupepo/jLfvii v\-f)ffiov, apfj.aros Sxntep tx v 3 
avf^ifffftrat 5)r irepl &Kpav. 

156. Bekk. Anecd. i. 337. 

157-159. Plut. defac. lun. 929 c. 

157. MS. airfffKfvafff, Xyl. a.irtcrKtlia.ffet', Bergk direcrKiaerec. 
158. MS. tffrf yaia, J^yl. es yalav : Stein /(rra^eVrj or (Is aUpi\v : 
MS. a.irtffKvi<pie<T, corr. Karst. 159. y\avKtaiTioos, cf. Plut. de 
fac. lun. 934 D (Diels, Hermes xv. 176). 

160. Plut. Quzest. Plat. 1006 F. 

161. Plut. Quaest. conv. 720 E. 

MS. o7A.a(ir5os, corr. Xyl. Cf. Hesych. a\auw . . . oi> 0\f- 

TTOUffaV. 

162. Prokl. on Tim. iii. 141. 

MS. otfSeoy, Sturz writes S5eo$ from following. Diels finds con- 
nection only with preceding and writes e'Jeoy. Cf. Hesych. 



EMPEDOKLES 177 

152. The kindly light has a brief period of shining. 

153. As sunlight striking the broad circle of the 
moon. 

154. A borrowed light, circular in form, it revolves 
about the earth, as if following the track of a chariot. 

156. For she beholds opposite to her the sacred circle 
of her lord. 

157. And she scatters his rays into the sky above, 
and spreads darkness over as much of the earth as the 
breadth of the gleaming-eyed moon. 

160. And night the earth makes by coming in front 
of the lights. 

161. Of night, solitary, blind-eyed. 

162. And many fires burn beneath the earth. 

K 



178 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

tca/j,a<rrj- 



vvv. 205 

a\s eTrdyt) pnrr/a-iv ew&fjievos rj\ioio 206 

165 yf)S ISpwra Qakavaav. 

<d\V> aidrjp paicprjai Kara ^6 ova Sve TO pi^ais. 203 
ap (rvvsKvpcrs 6sa>v TOTE, 7ro\\d/ci o' 



Kapira\Lfj,(0s dvoTraiov. 202 

avrap eya) TraXivopaos s\vcrofjLat es iropov VIMVWV, 165 
170 rov irporspov /carf'Xe^a, Xo7ou \o<yov s^o^Tva>v 
KSivov Zirsl NSIKOS JJLEV svsprarov IKSTO ftsvOos 
Sivys, sv Be jA0"r) f&iXoTqs arpo^dXiyyt <yewr)Tat, 
ev ry &r) raSf iravra crvvsp^srat, %v JAOVOV sivai, 
OVK a(f)ap, a\Xa 6e\rnJiCi avvicrrd^v' a\\o0v 

aXXa. 170 

175 T<UI> 8e <Tvv'oiiva)v STT Jhfarov &TTOTO Net/coy. 



163. Plut. Quaes. conv. 685 F. 
Karst. iroKvffTtoptwv. Cf. 214. 

164. Hephaest. Enchir. c. 1 p. 4 Gais. 

165. Arist. Meteor, ii. 3 ; 357 a 26 ; Plut. Placit. phil. iii. 13, and de 
Is. 365 B. Clem. Al. Strom. 676. Porphyr. Vit. Pyth. c. 41. 

166-167. Arist. de Gen. et Corr. ii. 6 ; 334 a 3. 167. Phys. ii. 4 ; 196 
a 22. 

166. Diels suggests ^a-alj. Cf. v. 164. 

168. Eustath. on Od. a 320, p. 1 (from Herodian, -n-fpl <rxiM- 'OMP-). 
Cf. Arist. de gen. et corr. ii. 6 ; 334 a 1. 

169-185. Simpl. de caelo, Peyron p. 27 ; Gais. Poet. Min. Gr. ii. p. xlii; 
Schol. Aristot. Brand, p. 507 a. 171-185. Simpl. Phys. 1 v 32, 11. 
175. Stob. Ed. i. 286. Cf. Arist. Met. ii. 4 ; 1000 b 2. 178-181. Simpl. de 
caelo, Peyr. p. 37. 182-183. Theophr. Athen. x. 423 ; Arist. Poet. c. 25 ; 
1461 a 24. Eust. ad Iliad, i. p. 746, 57. 

170. MS. \Aycf, corr. Bergk. Peyr. viroxertvuv, Brand. &TOX-, corr. 
Bergk. 173. Simpl. Phys. iv TJJ 5^, de caelo Cd. Taur. Peyr. iv 
rfj ^5e, corr. Bergk. 174. Phys. DE e(\nn&, FBe\ijfj.a, de caelo JP 
Cd. Taur. a\A' tteA.T^a. 175. Simpl. repeats 184 instead of 175, 



EMPEDOKLES 179 

163. (The sea) with its stupid race of fertile fishes. 

164. Salt is made solid when struck by the rajs of 
the sun. 

165. The sea is the sweat of the earth. 

166. But air l sinks down beneath the earth with its 
long roots .... For thus it happened to be running at 
that time, but oftentimes otherwise. 

168. (Fire darting) swiftly upwards. 

169. But now I shall go back over the course of my 
verses, which I set out in order before, drawing my 
present discourse from that discourse. When Strife 
reached the lowest depth of the eddy and Love comes to 
be in the midst of the whirl, then all these things come 
together at this point so as to be one alone, yet not 
immediately, but joining together at their pleasure, one 
from one place, another from another. And as they 
were joining together Strife departed to the utmost 
boundary. But many things remained unmixed, alter- 

1 In Empedokles' verses, cdety regularly means air. 

v 2 



180 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



a 8' a'/ 

STI Net/cos epvtcs ^rdpaiov ' ov yapdps 
TTCO Trdv s^sa-rrjKSV STT' samara rsp/jiara KVK\OV. 
d\\a ra psv r svs^^vs p.\(av, ra Be r %&- 

PJ K i. 175 

180 oaaov ' aiev virsKTrpoOsoi, rocrov alsv sirr/si 

rj7ri6(j>p(i)V ^iXorijTOS dp,sp,d>sos afjiftpOTOS oppi] 
altya 8e &VIJT' e<f>vovro ra irplv fiddov aQdva-r 

slvai, 

%a)pd rs ra irplv aKprfra, ^ia\\d^avra K\sv6ov$. 
TWV &s rs [ucryo/JisiHiov %SIT' Wvsa p,vpla OvTjrSiv, 180 
185 TTavToiys ISsy&iv dpypora, 6avp.a IBsvOai. 

apO/jiia fjisv <yap savra savrwv irdvra /jLepscrcriv 326 

r)\KT(0p T X9(*>V T- KOI OVpdVOS rjB Qa 

6'crcra >t\' ev 



o)f 8' ainws ocra tcpacriv Eirdprsa yu,aX\ov ivai, 
390 d\\ij\oi$ sa-TsptCTdi o^oiwQsvr ' A(f)po$iTr). 330 



T KpcTl T KOI 

drfda ical p.a\a \wypd 



\vhich is inserted from Stob. by Schneid. 176. Phys. E tffn : 
DEF KfKfpafffnevoiffiv, Taur. Kepai^ofj.(voi<rtv, text from de caelo. 
177. de caelo a/j.<pa.<(>f(t:s. 178. Phys. &F irta irav, DE ovrrou TTO.V, 
de caelo rb irav. 180. &F virtKirpoBifi. 181. Phys. DE iri<f>p(av, 
F $i irepi(ppwv, DEF (de caelo P) <t>i\6rriros, Phys. a./j.ffi.<peos, de 
caelo a.fj.tyfffffoi', Stein <t>t\6rris re /col f/n-irtcrfv. 182. Arist. omits 
!vai. 183. Phys. &Kptra, Theophr. &/cp?jra: Arist. faJa rt irplv 
KtKpiro Athen. Sia\\drrovra, Phys. SiaXXalafra. 

186-194. Simpl. Phys. 34 r 160, 28. 191-192. Theophr. de sens. 16. 

186. DE &p8fj.ia., &F &prta : DE eot/ri eo.vrS>v, &F aura twrSiv, 

Stein suggests it&vO' aur&v eyivovro, Diels tafftv ia.vr>v. 

188. MS. Sffffo. $iv, Diels oVo-a <t>i\', Hermann <WaKis. 

189. MSS. iirdpKta., Karst. firdprea,. &F exQpa, ED p>'a; 
MS. /taXto-ro, Karst. &HIKTCI. 192. DEF Kpio-fi, a Kpdffti, 
193. DE 6' bypii, a \vypa. 194. MSS. and Simpl. 161, 12 
vtiKtoytvvfffTt}fftv, Panz. vtiiefos tvve<riri<ri, MS. a<pi<ri yivvav 
itpya (a -yWs), Panz. o-^/cri ^e^' fi(TTCp7os, Diels eo/jytv. 



EMPEDOKLES 181 

nating with those that were mixed, even as many as 
Strife, remaining aloft, still retained; for not yet 
had it entirely departed to the utmost boundaries of 
the circle, but some of its members were remaining 
within, and others had gone outside. 180. But, just as 
far as it is constantly rushing forth, just so far 
there ever kept coming in a gentle immortal stream 
of perfect Love ; and all at once what before I learned 
were immortal were coming into being as mortal things, 1 
what before were unmixed as mixed, changing their 
courses. And as they (the elements) were mingled to- 
gether there flowed forth the myriad species of mortal 
things, patterned in every sort of form, a wonder to 
behold. 

-\ 

186. For all things are united, themselves with parts 
of themselves the beaming sun and earth and sky and 
sea whatever things are friendly but have separated in 
mortal things. And so, in the same way, whatever 
things are the more adapted for mixing, these are loved 
by each other and made alike by Aphrodite. But what- 
ever things are hostile are separated as far as possible 
from each other, both in their origin and in their mixing 
and in the forms impressed on them, absolutely unwonted 
to unite and very baneful, at the suggestion of Strife, 
since it has wrought their birth. 

1 6i/T]rd, ' perishable things ' in contrast with the elements, might 
almost be rendered ' thing's on the earth.' 



182 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



Net/ceo? evvsa-Lrja-^ <m cr^iVt ysvvav sopjsv. 
195 rfi&s pev ovv IOTIJTI TI^S Trs^povr^KSv ajravra. . . 312 
/cat Kd9' oa-ov pev dpatorara %WKvp(T Trscrovra. 
fiev 7ap vSa>p,~] irvpl 8' av^srai [aiyvytov] 

270 

(T<f>Tepov &sjj,as, aWspa 



17 Se %^ft)f STrlrjpos sv su&Tspvots ^odvoi(Tt 211 

200 TW Bvo r&v O/CTOJ pspecw \d% NTj'crTiSos at 
Tscra-apa 8' 'H^ala-roio- ra 8' oarsa 



aptjpora 

) 8e j(6(av TOVTOtcriv icrrj crvvKvpa- yLtaXtcrra 215 
T' "Op/Spy re /cat A.i6fpt 



205 KyTrptSos opuicrOricra reXetoty i/ \ifjisv crcriv, 
sir o\iyov yu,e:^<wv etre Tr\ovcr(Tiv eXdcrawv. 
SK TWV alfjid T ryevro Kal a\\r)$ et'Sea crapicos. 

. . . 208 



195-196. Simpl. P%s. 74 v 331, 12. 

195. &F omit olv. 
197-198. Arist. de yen. et corr. ii. 6 ; 333 b 1. 

197. Arist. irvpl yap atfei rt> irvp, corr. Karst. 198. jevos H, 5e/j.as. 

199-202. Simpl. Phys. 66 v 300, 21. 199-201. Arist. de anima i. 5 ; 
410 a 4 ; and commentators on this passage. 

199. Simpl. &EF fi>rvKrois, D and Arist. fvyrtpvois. 200. &F TO, 
DE ray, Diels T& : &F ntpwv, DE noipdwv. 

203-207. Simpl. Phys. 1 v 32, 6. 203. 74 v, 331, 5. 

205. &DE 6pnijff8e'i<ra, F dpnurOe'tira. 206. MS. irXe'ov Iffriv, corr. 
Panz. 287. &F dinar' tytvovro, D aT/xa Tfjevro, E cu^ar' 
tyevTO. 

208. Arist. Meteor, iv. 4 ; 382 a 1 ; ProM. 21, 22 ; 929 b 16 ; cf. Plut. 
(le prim. frig. 952 B. 

209. Plut. de prim. frig. 952 B. 



EMPEDOKLES 183 

195. In this way, by the good favour of Tyche, all 
things have power of thought. 

196. And in so far as what was least dense came 
together as they fell. 

197. For water is increased by water, primeval fire 
by fire, and earth causes its own substance to increase, 
and air, air. 

199. And the kindly earth in its broad hollows 
received two out of the eight parts of bright Nestis, 
and four of Hephaistos, and they became white 
bones, fitted together marvellously by the glues of 
Harmony. 

203. And the earth met with these in almost equal 
amounts, with Hephaistos and Ombros and bright- 
shining Aether (i.e. air), being anchored in the perfect 
harbours of Kypris; either a little more earth, or a 
little less with more of the others. From these arose 
blood and various kinds of flesh. 

208. . . . glueing barley-meal together with water. 

209. (Water) tenacious Love. 



184 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



IIEPI 3>T2En2 AETTEPO2 

210 Ei Bert ffoi Trspl T&vSs \nr6gv\os STT\STO TriffTis, 186 
TTWS vSaTos yatrjs TS real aWspos ysXiov TS 
Kipvau,va>v ypoiai T' siSi) TS ysvoiaTO 
Tot', offct vvv ysyaacrt o'vvapfioa'vsv'T i 

irS)S /ecu Ss'vSpsa paicpa teal s ivd\ioi fcafj,acrf)vss. . 248 

215 cos- Ss TOTS 'xjOova KvTrpis, sirst T' sSlyvsv ev 

o/iySpft) 207 

aWs^p 1 STrnrveiovaa 6ou> irvpl Swtes KpaTvvai. 

fisv TTVKvd,, Ta 8' sKTodi fiava 

230 
rr\dBr)9 TOtrja'Ss TV)(ovTa. 

OVTCO S' (dOTOKsl /j.aKpd BsvSpsa Trp&TOV eXatas. 245 

220 OVVSKSV otyiyovoi TS aiBai KCU vTtsptyXoa pJrfka 246 

olvos inrb ^>Xoic5 TraXsrai crairsv sv %v\w vScop. 247 

210-213. Simpl. de caelo, Peyr. p. 28 ; Gaisf. Poet. Min. Or. II. xliii. 
Brand. Schol. Arist. 507 a. 

210. A 8' f-ri ffoi, B (IStrt a-oi, Taur. el Se TJO-J. 212. MS. ftS?; 
T jfvolaTo xpoidffTf, corr. Bitschl. 

214. Athen. viii. 334 B. 

215-218. Simpl. de caelo a little after 213. 218. Simpl. Phys. 74 v 
331, 9. 

215. MS. <S>J 8 . . . ?weT', corr. Karst. : A ttiiyvev ey, B tSt'iKvvev 
lv, Taur. t$dKt>vtv. 216. A rj Se axoirveovffa, B el Se airoTrvoiovira, 
Taur. ft 8i airovyfiovcra,, Panz. ySv 8' eitiirveiovaa, corr. 
Stein. 217. Phys. E ir\d<rris, a irXdffios, text from de caelo. 

219. Arist. de gen. anim. i. 23 ; 731 a 5 ; cf. Philop. on this passage 
and Theophr. de cans, plant, i. 7, 1. 

Philop. and Arist. . . . fjuKpa . . . Ao'aj. 

220. Plut. Quaest. conv. 683 D. 

221. Plut. Quaest. nat. 912 c, 919 D ; cf. Arist. Top. iv. 5 ; 127 a 18. 
MS. o.ifb <pA.oiov, corr. Meziriacus. 



EMPEDOKLES 185 



Book II. 

210. And if your faith be at all lacking in regard to 
these (elements), how from water and earth and air and 
sun (fire) when they are mixed, arose such colours and 
forms of mortal things, as many as now have arisen under 
the uniting power of Aphrodite. . . . 

214. How both tall trees and fishes of the sea (arose). 

215. And thus then Kypris, when she had moistened 
the earth with water, breathed air on it and gave it to 
swift fire to be hardened. 

217. And all these things which were within were 
made dense, while those without were made rare, 
meeting with such moisture in the hands of Kypris. 

219. And thus tall trees bear fruit (lit. eggs), first 
of all olives. 

220. Wherefore late-born pomegranates and luxu- 
riant apples . . . 

221 . Wine is water that has fermented in the wood 
beneath the bark. 



186 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

el yap KSV <r<f>' dBivfjtriv viro TrpaTriSe<r<riv speia-as 
evfievscos icadapfjo'iv eircnrrevo'rjs f&e\Tr)O'iv, 
ravrd re <roi /xaXa irdvra Bi J alfavos irapscrovrai, 
225 aXXa re iroXX' airo rtavBe Kefcrij<reai avra yap 

av^ei 

ravr els rjdos exaffrov, OTTIJ <f>v<ris e<rr\v eicd<Trq>. 
el Be <rv y a\\oi<ov e-rropegeai ola icar avBpas 
/jivpia Bei\d TreXovrat, rd r' dpl3\vvov<Ti p.spip.- 

vas, 



230 <r<f>a>v avT&v irodsovra <f>i\r)v ETTI ysvvav f iK<rdai f 
jrdvTa yap ta-Qi <ppovr)(riv e%eiv Kal vca^aros 
alcrav. 

<nvysi ^va-rXrjTov 'A.vdyKT)v. 69 



TOVTO [tsv ev Koyxjaicri 0a\acrcrov6ij.ois /3apvva>- 
TOIS 220 

KrjpvKav re \idoppLvwv -^sXvatv re. . 



235 ev0' o-fyrj ^06va xpoarbs virsprara vairdov<rav. 



222-231. Hippolyt. Ref. haer. 251 Mill; Schneidewin, PhiloL vi. 
p. 165. 

222. MS. ical ec, corr. Mill. MS. ffQaSirqfftv . . . corr. Schneid. 
223. MS. broTrrtvfts, corr. Schneid. 224. MS. ravra. 5, corr. 
Schneid. 225. MS. KT. . . Schneid. KartpxAftfv, corr. Stein. 
227. MS. TJAA.' olStv t-riptets, corr. Schneid. 228. MS. Srj\a. 
Te'Xovrou . . . fj.fptu.vai, Schneid. $ti\' cnrz\au.va. . . . (itplft-va,^ . 
229. MS. OTJS, Schneid. la\ 231. Cf. Sext. E. Math. viii. 286. 
MS. of Hippol. Kal yvufjunoffiffov. 

232. Plat. Quaest. conv. 745 D. 

233-235. Plat. Quaest. conv. 618 B. 234-235. de fac. lun. 927 F. 

234. Quaest. conv. Kal /tV, de fac. lun. ical T^V, Stein pouvwv, Diels 

KaAxw", comparing Nicander, Alexipharm. 393 and Schol. 

Schneid. p. 98 for the interpretation of a fish furnishing a 

dye. Also Arist. Hist. anim. viii. 13 ; 599 a 10 trop^vpan *ca>. 



EMPEDOKLES 187 

222. For if thou shalt fix them in all thy close-knit 
mind and watch over them graciously with pure attention, 
all these things shall surely be thine for ever, and 
many others shalt thou possess from them. For these 
themselves shall cause each to grow into its own cha- 
racter, whatever is the nature J of each. But if thou 
shalt reach out for things of another sort, as is the 
manner of men, there exist countless evils to blunt 
your studious thoughts ; f soon these latter shall 
cease to live as time goes on, desiring as they do to 
arrive at the longed-for generation of themselves.f For 
know that all things have understanding and their 
share of intelligence. 

232. Favor hates Necessity, hard to endure. 

233. This is in the heavy-backed shells found in the 
sea, of limpets and purple-fish and stone-covered tortoises 
.... there shalt thou see. earth lying uppermost on 
the surface. 

1 f v<ns here seems to mean ' nature,' and not ' origin.' 



188 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

ravra Tpfyes Kal <u\Aa Kal olcw&V 7TTpa TTVKVO, 223 
Kal d>\oviSs tyiyvovrai 7rl aTiftapoicri p,\cra'iv. 

avrap %LVOIS 225 

ogv/3\is ycCiTai VWTOIS fTTiTre 

240 % u>v o/iyu,ar' -mjgv arsipsa 8t' 'j 

<yo/jt,<f)0is d&Kijcraa-a Karacrropyois 'A^poStTT/. 228 
KvirpiSos v TraXa/iTycrti/ ors gvfj, Trpcor' (f)vovro. 229 



y TroXXal fisv Kopcrat avav%VS J3\dcm]iTav, 232 

245 yV/MVol 8' 7T\d%OVTO ^pa^LOVSS 5VV&SS WfJLWV, 

' oT sirKavaro 7Tvr)TvovTa /4T(i)Trcov. 



TOVTO fJ,eV V /3pOT(t)V fJL\WV dpt$lKTOV O^KO). 335 

aXXorf pJsv QiXoTrjTi crvvp')^6fjbv > sis %v aTravra 
yvla ra awpa \\oy% ftiov 6a\s6ovcnv sv a 
250 aXXors 8' a,VT /cafcrjcri ^Larp.riOsvT' epi<T(Ti 
vSi^ l/cacrra irapa prj<y/4tvi, /3lOlO, 



236-237. Arist. Meteor, iv. 9 387 b 4. 

237. MS. \firt8fs, corr. Karst. from a gloss of Hesych. 
238-239. Plut. de fort. 98 D. 

238. MS. ^x'"<>s. corr. Steph. 239. MS. 6^e\^s 54 re, text follows 
Cd. Vulc. 

240-242. Simpl. de caelo, Peyr. 28; Gaisford xliii. Brand. Schol. 512 a. 
The three lines are cited separately. 

242. A v/j.irp(t>T\ B tvnirpurais, corr. Karst. 
243. Plut. Quaest. conv. 683 E. 

244-246. Simpl. de caelo, Peyr. 46 ; Gaisf. xliv. Schol. Brand. 512 a. 
244. Ar. de anim. iii. 6 ; 430 a 29 ; de gen. an. i. 18 ; 722 b 20, and com- 
mentators. 

244. MS. $, <, us. 245. woAAa!, iro\\wt> ffnr\dovTo. 
247-253. Simpl. Phys. 258 r. 

247. MS. TOVTOV pev &/... OJKOV, Vulg. omits &v, text from 
Diels. 249. MS. ea\f6ovros, corr. Karst. 253. Aid. 6pei.utA.e- 
tfffftif, corr. Schneider (cf. 438). 



EMPEDOKLES 189 

236. Hair and leaves and thick feathers of birds are 
the same thing in origin, and reptiles' scales, too, on 
strong limbs. 

238. But on hedgehogs, sharp-pointed hair bristles 
on their backs. 

240. Out of which divine Aphrodite wrought eyes 
untiring. 

241. Aphrodite fashioning them curiously with bonds 
of love. 

242. When they first grew together in the hands of 
Aphrodite. 

243. The liver well supplied with blood. 

244. Where many heads grew up without necks, and 
arms were wandering about naked, bereft of shoulders, 
and eyes roamed about alone with no foreheads. 

247. This is indeed remarkable in the mass of 
human members ; at one time all the limbs which form 
the body, united into one by Love, grow vigorously in the 
prime of life ; but yet at another time, separated by evil 
Strife, they wander each in different directions along' 
the breakers of the sea of life. Just so it is with 



190 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

toy 8' avTws 6dfji,voi(ri KOI ijftwnv vSpofj,\ddpots 340 

BrjpCTL T Opl\^(T(TCV I8e 7TTpofidfJ,Oiai KVfJ.- 

fiais. 

avrap STTSI Kara [isl^ov sfj,la<yTO Bafaovi Salpwv, 235 
255 Tavrd TS a-vn-rriTTTSO-KOV OTTTJ avvsKVpasv e/cacrra, 
aXXa TS Trpbs rots vroXXa SirjVKrj s^yvovro. 

TroXXa fisv a/ji(f>nrp6<T(j)7ra KOI dfj,<f)i<TTpv' (f)V- 

ovro, 

fiovysvr) dvSpoTrpwpa, ra 8' sfiTraXiv s^avsrs\\ov 239 
dv$po<f)vrj fiov/cpava, fj,fj,iy^sva rfj pJev air av- 

Sp&v, 
260 TJ} & yvvaiKO(f>vf), <TTipoi? r}<TK,rniva yvlois. 

f/X/TToS' aKpiTo^ipa. 242 

VVV S 1 ay\ 07TWS dvSp&V T 7TO\VK\aVTU>V T 

yvvaiicwv 248 

sp,p,v)(jiovs opirrjKas dvtj < ya r y Kptvofisvov Trup, 
/cXu' ov <yap fj,vdos dTrocr/coTros ouS' d 



265 ov\o(f>vls fjisv Trpwra TVTTOL %6ovos s^avsT\\ov, 
dfi<j)OTSpa)V vSaros r real et'Seoy alcrav s^ovrS^ 

TOVS fJLSV TTVp dvS7rfjLTT 0S\OV TTpOS 6/JLOlOV IK- 



254-256. Simpl. de caelo following 246 after a break. 

254. B Taur. omit Soi'/uoj/j. 256. B Taur. ^eyevfro. 
257-260. Aelian, hist. anim. xvi. 29. Cf. Plut. Colot. 1123 B. 

257. MS. <(>iiff6ai, Karst. tyvovro. 258. MS. avSpoirpiava . . . 
f^avarfivfiv, corr. Gronovius. 259. MS. VTT', corr. Jacobs. 
260. MS. ffKiepols, corr. Diels. 

261. Plut. Colot. 1123 B. 

MS. fl\iirooa Kpir6xfipa, corr. Karst. and Duebner. 

262-269. Simpl. Phys. 86 v 381, 31. 

^ 

263. MS. tvvvxiovs, corr. Panz. cf. Odyssey \ 344 airb <TKOTTOV, 
which perhaps should be restored here. 266. MS. eftfos, Stz. 
oCStos, but cf. Simpl. 382, 7. 269. E oia r', F ofa', a ofo' o5, 
Diels ol6v r' : EF yvtay, a yripw, corr. Stein. 



EMPEDOKLES 191 

plants ! and with fishes dwelling in watery halls, and 
beasts whose lair is in the mountains, and birds borne 
on wings. 

254. But as divinity was mingled yet more with 
divinity, these things kept coming together in whatever 
way each might chance, and many others also in addi- 
tion to these continually came into being. 

257. Many creatures arose with double faces and 
double breasts, offspring of oxen with human faces, and 
again there sprang up children of men with oxen's heads ; 
creatures, too, in which were mixed some parts from men 
and some of the nature of women, furnished with sterile 
members. 

261. Cattle of trailing gait, with undivided hoofs. 

262 But come now, hear of these things ; how fire 
separating caused the hidden offspring of men and 
weeping women to arise, for it is no tale apart from 
our subject, or witless. In the first place there sprang 
up out of the earth forms grown into one whole, 2 having 
a share of both, of water and of fire. These in truth fire 
caused to grow up, desiring to reach its like ; but they 

1 ed/tvo*, ' bush,' I have rendered regularly ' plant.' 

2 Cf. Act. v. 19 ; Dox. 430. 



192 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

OVTS rl 7TO) fieXetov iparbv Ss/j,as s^aivovras, 

OUT' SVOTTTJV olbv r' sTri^piov dvSpd<ri yviov. 255 

270 aXXa &t,e<r7ra<TTat /J,S\(DV (pitais ' t] psv sv dvBpbf 257 
17 5f yvvaiicbs ev. . . 
TW ' siri Kal iroOos r)\6s Bi o^frios a^i-^Qsvri. 256 

sv 8' e'xydrj KaOapoiai ' ra /ASV rs\edova-i yvvaiKEs 259 
^rv^os dvrtdcravTa. 
275 \tfisvas a^tcTTovs 'A^poBlTtjs. 261 

v jap dspfAOTspw TOKCLS appsvos Tr\STo yaar^p, 262 
KOI psXavss Sia TOVTO KOI Ivw^sarspot, avSpss 
/jiaX\ov. 

Xa \svtcbv eybpfywcrsv Kal s8r)cr. 265 
280 fjirjvbs ev oySodrov BsKarrj TTVOV STT\TO \svtcov. 266 
yvovs on irdvrwv slcriv diroppoal ova sysvovro. 267 

toy rf\VKV f4V <y\VKV ndplTTS, TTlKpbv S' STrl 

TTLKpbv opovcrsv, 268 

o^u 8' 7r' ou sftr), Bd\,spbv 



270. Arist. de gen. anim. i. 18 ; 722 b 12 ; ibid. i. 1 ; 764 b 17 ; and 
270-271 in Philop. on this passage. 

270. Z omits iv. 271. Stein transposes last two words. 
272. Plut. Quaest. nat. 917 c. 

MS. T<f Se T( . . . elre Sia trtyfws a./j./j.i<rycav. Karst, rf 8' Vt 
. . . Si' fyfos avr' aiffffdiv, Stein a-niuxBivri. 

273-274. Arist. de gen. anim. iv. 1 ; 723 a 24 after 271. 
S ^Xufljj. 

275. Schol. Eur. Phoen. p. 600 Valck. Stein transposes first two 
words. 

276-278. Galen in Hippokr. Epidem. iv. 2. 

276. MS. rb Kar &pptva. fit-Aero yairis. Text from Diels. 

279. Plut. de amic. mult. 95 A ; cf . Arist. de gen. anim. iv. 4 ; 771 b 23. 

280. Arist. de gen. anim. iv. 8 ; 777 a 10 ; and Philop. on this passage., 

281. Plut. Quaest. Nat. 916 D. 
282-283. Plut. Quaest. Conv. 663 A. 

282. MS. niv M y\vt<v, corr. Macrob. 283. MS. omits ?? and 
ends $a\epov XajSeVoi, corr. Karst. 



EMPEDOKLES 193 

showed as yet no lovely body formed out of the members, 
nor voice nor limb such as is natural to men. 

270. But the nature of the members (of the child ?) 
is divided, part in the man's, part in the woman's 
(body). 

271. But desire also came upon him, having been 
united with ... by sight. 

273. It was poured out in the pure parts, and some 
meeting with cold became females. 

275. The separated harbours of Aphrodite. 

276. In its warmer parts the womb is productive of 
the male, and on this account men are dark and more 
muscular and more hairy. 

279. As when fig-juice curdles and binds white 
milk. 

280. On the tenth day of the eighth month came 
the white discharge. 

281. Knowing that there are exhalations from all 
things which came into existence. 

281. Thus sweet was snatching sweet, and bitter 
darted to bitter, and sharp went to sharp, and hot 
coupled with hot. 



194 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

oivw vBa)p fMi\\ov p.sv svdpdfjiiov, avrap eXai'w 272 

285 OVK S0\i. 

@vcr<rq> Be y\avKTJ KOKKOV Karapia-ysrai (avOos) 274 

o)Bs 8* avarrvel irdvra KalsKirvu' iracyi \l(f>ai/j,oi, 275 
aaoKwv <rvppiy f ys Trv^arov Kara crw/ia rsravrai, 
Kai <r<j>iv STTI crro/Jiiois TrvKvais rsrpyvrai aXofyv 
290 piv)v samara rspQpa Bta/jiTrsp^s, wars <povov p*V 
Kv0iv, aldspi B' evrropiriv BioBoicrt rrfj>rj(r0ai,. 
sv0v 7Ttd' OTTorav fJ>sv arcat^r) rspv at/Lta, 280 

aldrjp Tra(p\dci)v Karatcra'rai o'iofian fiapyy, 
vr 8' avaOpuxTKr], 7rd\iv Krrvt ' uxrrrep orav 



295 

sure fiev av\ov iropOpJov JTT' svsiSst %spl 

els vSaTos ftaTTTrjcri rspsv BsfMas dpyvfpsoio, 285 

ov TOT' ss ayyocrB' Ofj,{3po$ ia-sp^rai, d\\d ^iv 

eipyst 
aldepos O<Y%OS aa>6 TTSCTMV sjrl rprj^ara rrvKva, 

800 is o K' d7roa-r<ydcrr] TTVKLVOV poov' avrap srczira 
TTVsvfAaros \\L7rovros ecrnp^STat atcrt/iov vSoop. 
o)s S' avrcos 60' v8a)p pJkv &X i Kara ftsvdza 
%a\tcov 300 

284-285. Pbilop. on Arist. de gen. anim. 59 a. 

284. MS. v5o)p otvtf na\\<n> evap'tQuiov. Text fr jm Stein. 
236. Plut. de def. arac. 433 B. 

MS. y\avKT)s KP&KOV, corr. Karst. and Xylander. 
287-311. Arist. de respir. 7 ; 473 b 9. 

287. Mil Stat/j.01. 289. MSS. fTriffro^lois, ZMil eiriffrop.ia.is, corr. 
Stz. MSS. wvKvats or iru/ctVois, Mil 56vai. 290. Some MSS. 
T60pa, Mil <p6vov, others <pavbv. 291. M fj.ev y' tvfitivai dfpfi, 
pr Z efavotav. 292. Several MSS. ^wa]7, liraQri. 293. Bekker 
with majority of MSS. Kara^o-erai. 294. MSS. avaQp&crKfi, 
corr. Karst. 295. Several MSS. K\e^vSpats, il iraifriffi, MZ 
iraiifovcri, others vaifovffa, MZil Snirereos, others Si' evirertos. 
298. i\MZ ovS' '6r\ oii5er\ Bk ou8' Sy', Stein ov TOT\ 299. MSS. 
dtpos, corr. Stein. 301. MSS. offtjtov, a few others a.ttnp.ov. 



EMPEDOKLES 195 

284. Water combines better with wine, but it is un- 
willing to combine with oil. 



286. The bloom of the scarlet dye mingles with 

shining linen. 

287. So all beings breathe in and out ; all have 
bloodless tubes of flesh spread over the outside of the 
body, and at the openings of these the outer layers of 
skin are pierced all over with close-set ducts, so that the 
blood remains within, while a facile opening is cut for the 
air to pass through. Then whenever the soft blood 
speeds away from these, the air speeds bubbling in with 
impetuous wave, and whenever the blood leaps back the 
air is breathed out ; as when a girl, playing with a 
klepsydra of shining brass, takes in her fair hand the 
narrow opening of the tube and dips it in. the soft 
mass of silvery water, the water does not at once flow 
into the vessel, but the body of air within pressing 
on the close-set holes checks it till she uncovers the 
compressed stream ; but then when the air gives way 
the determined amount of water enters. (302.) And so 
in the same way when the water occupies the depths 
of the bronze vessel, as long as the narrow opening 
and passage is blocked up by human flesh, the air 
outside striving eagerly to enter holds back the water 
inside behind the gates of the resounding tube, keeping 
control of its end, until she lets go with her hand. 

o 2 



196 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



S' SKTOS sa-0) \\ir]fj,vos opftpov epvtcsi 
305 tt/i</H Trv\as Icr6p,olo Bvarjx^os, aicpa Kparvvwv, 
sis 6 KS 



/Z7ri7rToz'Toy vTrsicOsst, aiaifjiov vSwp. 295 
tus S' avro)S Tspsv alpa K 
OTTTTore fJ^sv 7ra\ivop(rov analysis 
310 alQspos i>0vs psvfjia Karsp^srai otS/iiart dvov, 

VT 3' aVCtOpUHTKr), 7TO\,IV KTTvhl l(TOV OTTttTCTft). 

VKTijpaiv psvvwv. 300 

T X.\6y%ao'i iravra KGLI 

301 

315 (rdpKtvov o^ov. 

toy 8' ore rts Trpoobov vo^cov a)7rXtcro"aTO 
ysi^spLriv 8ta VVKTO,, Trvpbs o~\as 
cnjray, Travroiwv avfytov \an f irTr)pas a/juopyovs, 
OJT' avfJiu>v fMV irvsv^ia BiacrKiSvacnv asvrcov, 305 
320 ^>ws 8' f'fa) SiaOpuxTicov, ocrov ravawrspov tfsv, 
\dfnrcrKV Kara /3^A,of aTipcnv dfcrivEcra-iv 
toy Se TOT" Ji/ fMjVlj^lV p<y/JLvov uyvyinv irvp 



Ci. Simpl. Phys. 151 v. 303. Many MSS. 

307. MSS. oCftjuov, Bk. alfft/jiov. 309. MSS. 

Stein. 310. MZ\\ alOtpos, others trfpov, MZi\ oTS/xa Ttra'^cuy. 

311. 1 a.va.6p<5iffKoi. 

313. l Plut. Quaest. nat. 917 E ; de curios. 520 F. 

MS. (Q.n.) Kffifj.ara, (de c.) rep^uara, Buttmann Kipnara. 

From Plutarch Mor. 917 E and Arist. Problem, inedit. II. 101, 

(Didot, IV. p. 310) ; Diels Hermes xv. 176 restores the following 

line after 313 : 

< fi> Spicp > o<r<r' OTrt'Aenrf trodoav oiraA^j irepiirvom. 

314. Theophrast. de sens. 22. 

315. Theophr. ibid. 9. Diels Dox. 501 suggests OO-TOVV. 
316-325. Arist. de sens, et sensib. c. 2 ; 437 b 26. Alex. Aphrod. on 

this passage. 

318. YE arfpyovs, Ml apovpyots. 320. Many MSS. vvp. 323. MSS. 
7' bQ6vriffiv corr. Bekker : several MSS. ix f v aTO > 

324. Several MSS. dyu<p jj/aeVroy. 
1 Stein omits 312 from his numbering of the lines. 



EMPEDOKLES 197 

(306.) Then, on the other hand, the very opposite 
takes place to what happened before ; the determined 
amount of water runs off as the air enters. Thus in 
the same way when the soft blood, surging violently 
through the members, rushes back into the interior, a 
swift stream of air comes in with hurrying wave, and 
whenever it (the blood) leaps back, the air is breathed 
out again in equal quantity. 

313. "With its nostrils seeking out the fragments of 
animals' limbs, < as many as the delicate exhalation from 
their feet was leaving behind in the wood. > 

314. So, then, all things have obtained their share 
of breathing and of smelling. 

315. (The ear) an offshoot of flesh. 

316. And as when one with a journey through a 
stormy night in prospect provides himself with a lamp 
and lights it at the bright-shining fire with lanterns that 
drive back every sort of wind, for they scatter the breath 
of the winds as they blow and the light darting out, 
inasmuch as it is finer (than the winds), shines across 
the threshold with untiring rays ; so then elemental 
fire, shut up in membranes, it entraps in fine coverings 
to be the round pupil, and the coverings protect it against 
the deep water which flows about it, but the fire darting 
forth, inasmuch as it is finer. ... 



198 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



\STTTfjs elv oOovrjcri \o%dsTO KVK\oira tcovpijv' 
at S' vSaros pev fievdos dirscrrs'yov apfyivdovros, 310 
825 -jrvp ' f&> SiaOpwcncov, ocrov ravawTSpov r)v. . . 



(o(pda\n(t)v) fjiia yiyvsrai dfJi(j)OTp(av oi/r. 311 



al/Maros sv 7r\dy<rcn rsdpa/jifJisvr) avridopovros, 315 
rrj re voijfia fj,d\KTra /cvfcXio-Ksrai dv6pa>Trot,(riv 
al/j-a jap dvdpwTrois TrspiiedpSiov scrrt 



330 irpbs jrapsov <yap /j,rjris astral dvOpwrroicriv. 318 

ocrcroi/ T' aXXotot fjisrs(f)vv, r ocrov ap cr<f)i,o-Lv alsl 319 
Kal (frpovesw d\\ola Traptcrraro. 

<yair) psv yap jatav oTranra/jisv, vSart 8' vSa>p, 321 
aWspi 8' al6epa Biov, drdp irvpl Trvp dlSi]\ov, 
335 cnop<yrj Be crrop'yr]v ) VSIKOS &s TS vsi/csl \v<ypw. 
SK rovrwv <yap iravTa TTSTri^'yacriv appLoadsvra 
KOI TOVTOIS <J>povsovcrt Kal TJ&OVT' r/8s dviwvrai. 



326. Arist. Poet. o. 21 ; 1458 a 5. Strabo, viii. 364. 
327-329. Stob. Ed. Phys. i. p. 1026. 

327. MSS. rerpafj.fva, corr. Grot. ACt. avriQpStvros, other MSS. 
aimepoiavTos, corr. Bergk. 328. ACt. KiK\^<rKfrai 329. Cf. 
Etym. M. and Or. under al/j.a ; Tertul. de an. xv. 576 ; Chal- 
cid. on Tim. p. 305. 

330-332. Arist. de anim. iii. 3 ; 427 a 23 ; and Philop. on this passage. 
Arist. Met. iii. 5 ; 1009 b 18 ; Themist. on Arist. de anima 85 b. 

330. Some MSS. <W|Teu. 330. MS. omits r\ 331. MS. *al rb 
v, corr. Karst. 



333-335. Arist. de anim. i. 2 ; 404 b 12 ; Met. ii. 4 ; 1000 b 6 ; Sext. 
Emp. Math. i. 303, vii. 92, 121. Philop. on Arist. de Gen. et corr. 59 b ; 
Hipp. Eef. liaer. p. 165. Single lines are mentioned elsewhere. 

334. Sext. ijepi 8' fc>a. 335. Sometimes aropy^v Se orop-yf). 

336-337. Theophr. de sens. 10 ; Dox. 502. 

336. MS. &>s <?* Toirav TT., corr. Karst. 337. MS. nSovrai KOU a., 
corr. Karst. 



EMPEDOKLES 199 

326. There is one vision coming from both (eyes). 



327. (The heart) lies in seas of blood which darts in 
opposite directions, and there most of all intelligence 
centres for men ; for blood about the heart is intelligence 
in the case of men. 



330. For men's wisdom increases with reference to 
what lies before them. 



331. In so far as they change and become different, 
to this extent other sorts of things are ever present for 
them to think about. 



333. For it is by earth that we see earth, and by 
water water, and by air glorious air ; so, too, by fire 
we see destroying fire, and love by love, and strife by 
baneful strife. For out of these (elements) all things 
are fitted together and their form is fixed, and by these 
men think and feel both pleasure and pain. 



200 THE FIRST PH1LOSOPHEES OF GREECE 



IIEPI <T2En2 TPITO2. 

Ei yap styrj/ASpltov SVSKSV ri croi, d}if3pOT Movovz, 



340 v%opsv<i> vvv avT irapiaracro, 

0eS)v fj-atcdpcov dyaObv \6yov 



6\/3ios os dsicov TrpaTTLo'tov sKr^a-aro TrXoOroi/, 354 
os S' cS oveoTo'fcrcra BSMV Trspt S6t;a /J,S/ 



ovx sariv 7re\dcracr0' ovS' o(f)6a\iiol<nv S^IKTOV 356 
345 r)fjLTspoi,s TI %/oo-t \afifiv, rfrrsp TS /Jiji(nr) 

7Tidovs dv6p(t)7roicriv dfta^irbs is (f>psva TTITTTM. 
ov fjisv >yap ftporer} K<j>a\fj Kara yvta Ks/caarai, 
ov fjisv aira\ VWTOIO 8vo K\.d8oi at'enroi/rat, 360 

ov TroSey, ov 6oa yovv*, ov fiitfSsa \a^vr)vra, 
35(V aXXa- <f>pr)v tspr) KOI adscrfyaros S7r\ro povvov, 
i fypovricn Kocrfjiov CLiravra Karaia-crova-a dorjcnv. 



338-341. Hipp. Ref. haer. vii. 31 ; 254. Cf. Schneid. Philol. vi. 167- 

338. MS. flKapai $>rj,ufpfcoj', corr. Mill. MS. ni/bs, corr. Schneid. 

339. MS. fipfrepas /ufAe'ras, corr. Schn. 340. MS. tv^o^vutv , 

corr. Schn. 341. MS. fj.andpu>v, corr. Mill. Schn. tta.Qap'bv 

\6yov. 

342-343. Clem. Al. Strom. 733. 

344-346. Clem. Al. Strom. 694 ; Theodor. Ther. i. 476 D. 
344. Theod. ve\dcraffff oi>5', Clem. -ire\dffaff6cu Iv. 

347-351. Ammon. on Arist. de interpret. 199 b ; Schol. Arist. i. 35 b. 
Tzet. Chiliad, xiii. 79. 348-349. Hippol. Ref. haer. p. 248. 350-351. 
Tzet. vii. 522. 

347. Ammon. otrre ykp di/Spo/ue'jj *cf>aAfi, Tzt. ov futv yap Pporir) 
Jce^oAfi. 348. Tzt. ow ft.fv airal, Hippol. ou yap curb, Ammon. 
Tzt. vd>T<ov 76 ... a.!ffaovffiv. Text from Hippol. 349. 
Hippol. yovvar' ov ju^Seo yevfievra. (349a. Hippol. adds after 
349 the following d\Aa <T<j>cupos tr^v al loos fff-rlv airy, Schneid. 
alpos ceix /cal vdvroBfv T<ros 



EMPEDOKLE8 201 

Book III. 

338. Would that in behalf of perishable beings thou, 
immortal Muse, mightest take thought at all for our 
thought to come by reason of our cares ! Hear me 
now and be present again by my side, Kalliopeia, as I 
utter noble discourse about the blessed gods. 

342. Blessed is he who has acquired a wealth of 
divine wisdom, but miserable he in whom there rests a 
dim opinion concerning the gods. 

344. It is not possible to draw near (to god) even 
with the eyes, or to take hold of him with our hands, 
which in truth is the best highway of persuasion into the 
mind of man ; for he has no human head fitted to a 
body, nor do two shoots branch out from the trunk, nor 
has he feet, nor swift legs, nor hairy parts, but he is 
sacred and ineffable mind alone, darting through the 
whole world with swift thoughts. 



202 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



KA6APMOI 

*fl <j>i\oi, o't fis^a da-TV Kara adov'Afcpd<yavTos 889 
isr' av dxpa TroXet/y, dyaOwv /j,s\sSri povs 



alBoioav \iusvs, tca/coTijTOS enretpot, 
855 'xalpsr' 70) 8' vpfjuv Osbs apPpoTos, OVKSTI 



fjisra iracn, TSTL/ASVOS, wcnrsp SOIKS, 
raiviais re TrspLcrrsirros crrsfaaiv rs 6a\siois. 
rotaiv ap svr av fatapai ss acrrsa TrjXsQocovra, 395 

7785 yvvaigl o-e^t^o/iat- ol 8' ayu,' 



360 /iuptot, egepeovTSS OTTIJ irpbs KspBos drapTros, 
ol /j.sv fjbavToavvewv KSXprjfAevoi, ol 8' 
vovcrcov, 



K\ViV SVTjKSa fidj~lV. 400 

Tt rolcrS' 7rt/cet/i', wcrst fjisya %pijfj,d rt 



365 Si BviJTOW TTpilfJl,t TTO\V(f)0pCt)V 



352-363. Diog. Laer. viii. 62. Omitting 354, 362, Anthol. Bosch, i. 
86. 352-353, 355-356. Anth. gr. Jacobs ix. 569. 352-353. Diog. Laer. 
viii. 54 (cited as beginning of Book on Purifications). 354 inserted by 
Stz. from Diod. Sic', xiii. 83. 355. Diog. Laer. viii. 66 ; Sext. Emp. Math. 
i. 302 ; Philost. vit. Apoll. i. 1. ; Lucian, pro laps, inter salut. i. 496 ; 
Cedren. chron. i. 157. 

352. MS. av6ov, Bergk faOeov. 353. variant vaiere &icpr)v : variants 
av, av\ &v. Anth. ir6\ftos, Bergk ir6\i>s, Steph. ir6\fvs. 354. MS. 
ewSoToi, Bergk alSoitov. 355. Vulg. vfjuv, Bergk Vfj.fjuj>. 356. Cd. 
Vind. TfTi/j.ri/j.fvos . . . eoiKa. 357. Vulg. 6aA.efajs, corr. Karst. 
361. MS. Se TI, corr. Stz. Clem. Al. Strom. 754 irapaico- 
\ov6fiv . . . roiis /j.tv navroffwiav (texpij/xe'vous, rovs 5' eirl vovffov 
triSripbv $)) xaA.iroi(T weirop^fVous. 363. Platt, Journ, Philol. 
48 p. 247 l&6\ovTo : MS. evrjKea, Seal. v^x e - 
364-365. Sext. Emp. Math. i. 302. 

365. Some MSS. iroKvfyQoptwv. Cf. 163. 



EMPEDOKLES 203 



ON PUKIFICATIONS. 

852. friends, ye who inhabit the great city of 
sacred Akragas up to the acropolis, whose care is good 
deeds, who harbour strangers deserving of respect, who 
know not how to do baseness, hail ! I go about among 
you an immortal god, no longer a mortal, honoured by 
all, as is fitting, crowned with fillets and luxuriant 
garlands. With these on my head, so soon as I come 
to flourishing cities I am reverenced by men and by 
women ; and they follow after me in countless numbers, 
inquiring of me what is the way to gain, some in want 
of oracles, others of help in diseases, long time in truth 
pierced with grievous pains, they seek to hear from me 
keen- edged account of all sorts of things. 

364. But why do I lay weight on these things, as 
though I were doing some great thing, if I be superior 
to mortal, perishing men ? 



204 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



<w <iXeu, olBa jj,ev ovv or' ahijOsif) rrapd pvOois, 407 
ovs 700 sgspsw ' fJid\a B' apya\'rj ys re'rvtcTai 
dvBpda-i Kal BIKTTJ\OS eirl (f>psva Tria-rtos oppij. 
SCTTIV dvd<yrcr]s ^prj^a^ 6sS)v -^r^ia-f^a TraXaiov, 

370 diBiov, 7T\aTS(T(ri Karsa-(f:pr)<yio-^svov op/cois. 
vrs ris dfA7r\aKiycn fyovw <f)i\a <yvia /Anjvr) 
a'ifiaros 77 siriopicov d^aprrja-as sTro/jLoa-a-j) 
Scuyutoi/, OITE ftafcpaiwvos XeXa^acrt /Stoto, 4 

rpis fiiv [ivplas &pas airo fiaicdpwv d\d~\,rjcr0ai, 

375 <f)v6fj,svov iravrola Bed %povov s'ISsa OvrjTwv, 



aldsptov /Jisv <ydp <r<j) psvos TTOVTOV^S BKOKSI, 16 

TTOVTOS $' ss ydovbs ovftas aTrsTrrva'S, <yaia o ss 

avyds 

rjsXiov aKa^avros, 6 8' alOspos /x/3aXs Sivais. 
380 d\\os B' et; dXXov Several, arvysovat Bs 
ro)V Kal 70) vvv sl/u, <f)v<yds dsodsv KCU d 
vsitcsi 



366-368. Clem. Al. Strom. 648. 

366. AH 3r' a\i)6fir], Cd. Paris. V T' aA^flenj. 367. Diels ovs 

epeto ' /J.d\a S' apya\ffj irdvrfffffi TfTvurai. 
369-382. 369, 371, 373-374, 381 Plut. de exil. 607 c. 369-370, 

372-383. Hippol. Eef. haer. 249-251 (scattered through the text). 

369-370. Sftnpl. Phys. 272 v; Stob. Eel. ii. 7; 384. 374-375. Origen 

c. Cels. viii. 53 p. 780. 377-380. Plut. de Is. et Os. 361 c (Euseb. Praep. 

Ev. v. 5 ; 187). 377-379. Plut. de vit. alien. 830 F. 381-382. Asclep. 

in Brand. Schol. Arist. 629 a ; Hierokl. carm. aur. 254 ; Plotin. Enn. iv. 

81; 468 c. 

369. Plut. tcrrt TTJJ (rt), Hippol. ecrrt rl : Simpl. ff<f>pdytffv.a. 
371. Panz. Schneid. <ppft>av. 372. MS. &s Kal tiriopKov o^op- 
T^cray firo/j.<i>fffi, corr. Schneid. Schneid. alpua-tv, Stein 
OU>OTOS. Knatz rejects 372 as a gloss from Hesiod Theog. 
793. 373. Plut. Sa ! fj.ov(s o'lrt p.a,Kpaliavfs \t\6yx aal &ioio, Hippol. 
Sain6vioi T (remainder as in text), Heeren 5a.ifj.wv., Orig. Hipp. 
p.(v airb. Cf. aval v. 348. 875. Orig. yiyvo/j.tvr)v iravrolav 5ia 
Xp6vov iSf'oi/, Hippol. <pvo(n.tvovs iravrola. Sia xP^ " '8ea. 
377. Hippol. yue'f 7- 378. Plut. de vit. alien. 5e x ew *>s 
aveirTvffe . Plut. de Is. t<rav0is. 378. Hipp. <pae6ovros. 
381. MSS.ir, rr,v, rws, corr. Seal. ; Hippol. confirms correction. 
Hippol. omits vvv. Asclep. Stvp'. 382. Asclep. o.l6ou.fvcf>. 



EMPEDOKLES 205 

366. Friends, I know indeed when truth lies in the 
discourses that I utter ; but truly the entrance of assur- 
ance into the mind of man is difficult and hindered by 
jealousy. 

369. There is an utterance of Necessity, an ancient 
decree of the gods, eternal, sealed fast with broad 
oaths : whenever any one defiles his body sinfully with 
bloody gore or perjures himself in regard to wrong-doing, 
one of those spirits who are heir to long life, thrice ten 
thousand seasons shall he wander apart from the 
blessed, being born meantime in all sorts of mortal forms, 
changing one bitter path of life for another. For mighty 
Air pursues him Seaward, and Sea spews him forth on 
the threshold of Earth, and Earth casts him into the 
rays of the unwearying Sun, and Sun into the eddies of 
Air ; one receives him from the other, and all hate him. 
One of these now am I too, a fugitive from the gods 
and a wanderer, at the mercy of raging Strife. 



206 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

77877 <ydp Tror' sya) <ysv6fji,r/v tcovpos rs /coprj rs 380 

OdiLVOS T' ol(i)VOS TS Kal slv d\l sX\,07TOS l^jdvS. 

385 icXavcrd TS /cal /eca/cvcra, ISwv dcrvvrjOsa %<w/3oz>, 13 

svda <>6vos rs Koroy rs KOI d\\cov Wvsa Kr/pwv 21 
atyp/rfpai rs vocrot /cal crrj-fyiss I'pyo. rs psvard. 

'Arrjs dv \sifJ.S)va /card CTKOTOS r)\da/covcnv. 23 



awvos 

890 f^ otijs rtfj,f)S rs /cal oacrov prjicsos 6'X/Sou 11 

wBs 7recr(ov Kara yalav dvaa-rps^of^ai p.srd 
Ovrjrols. 

r/\v0o/j,sv ToS' VTT' dvrpov VTroarsyov. 

sv6' r)(rav XOovirj rs /cal 'HXtoTT?; ravawms, 
Arjpis 0' aifj,aroscr<Ta /cal 'ApfA.ovi'rj 



383-384. Clem. Al. Strom. 750 ; Diog. Laer. viii. 77 ; Athen. viii. 
365 ; Philostr. vit. Apoll. i. 1 ; 2, and often. 

383. Hippol. Philos. 3 V\TOI /j.ev yap, Cedren. Chron. i. 157 tfroi /j.fv 
KpatTa, Often Kovpri re Kopos Tf. 384. Cedren. Kal 6^p K.9. e'^ aAbs 
ffjiirvovs IxQvsKal tv 'O\v/j.iria /3ovs, Diog. Laer. f/j.irvpos, Athen. 
f/j,iropos, Clem, (\\oiros. Others &/j.(f>opos, v-fixvros, <paiStfj,os. 

385-388. 385. Clem. Al. Strom. 516. 385b-386. Hierocl. carm. aur. 
254. 386, 388. Synesius de prov. i. 89 D. 386-387. Prokl. on Kratyl. 
103 ; 386. Philo vol. ii. 638 Mang. 388. Synes. epist. 147 ; Julian. Imp. 
oral. &c. 

385. Clem, atrw^eo, Hierocl. drepirea. 386. Synes. QOovos, Philo 
<(>6voi re \!noi rt. 388. Syn. lul. eV \eifj.a>vi, Hier. ava \et/j.<ava, 
corr. Bentl. 

389. Hierocl., as just cited ; Aeijuwva $>v a.TTo\nr!>ii> . . . tls yfitvov 
fpXfrai <ra'|U.a oA/Siou alSivos a/j.fp8eis. 

. 390-391. Clem. Al. Strom. 516. 390. Plut. de exil 607 E ; Stob. 
F lor. ii. 80 Gais. 

390. Clem. Kal o'lov. 391. Clem. AimW. 
392. Porphyr. de ant. nymph, c. viii. 

393-399. (United by Bergk.) 393-396. Plut. de tranquil, an. 474s. 
394. Plut. de Is. Os. 370 E. 396. Tztz. Chiliad, xii. 575. 397- 
399. Cornut. de nat. dear. chap. xvii. 

394. Plut. 7s. Os. nipoiri. 395. MS. A(tvair), corr. Bentl. 396. Tzt. 



EMPEDOKLES 207 

383. For before this I was born once a boy, and a 
maiden, and a plant, and a bird, and a darting fish in 
the sea. 385. And I wept and shrieked on beholding the 
unwonted land where are Murder and Wrath, and other 
species of Fates, and wasting diseases, and putrefaction 
and fluxes. 

388. In darkness they roam over the meadow 
of Ate. 

389. Deprived of life. 

390. From what honour and how great a degree of 
blessedness have I fallen here on the earth to consort 
with mortal beings ! 

392. We enter beneath this over-roofed cave. 

393. Where were Chthonie and far- seeing Heliope (i.e. 
Earth and Sun?), bloody Contention and Harmony of 
sedate face, Beauty and Ugliness, Speed and Loitering, 
lovely Truth and dark- eyed Obscurity, Birth and Death, 
and Sleep and Waking, Motion and Stability, many- 
crowned Greatness and Lowness, and Silence and Voice. 



208 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 
395 KaXXtcrrco T' Ala"xprj rs, Socoad rs AyvctLr) rs, 



r 
ft> re <&di,fjivr) rs, /ecu Evvaii) Kal " 

r' 'Acrrs/jL^njf rs, 7ro\vcrrs(f)av6s rs 
f/cat <&opvr}, SteoTTT; re /cat 'O/i^>ai7/.| 

400 <w TroTrot, w Bsi\ov OvijTwv ysvos, co &v<rdvo\/3ov, 14 
ieoi/ l T' spiBcav SK T ffTOva^wv eysvsads. 

alo\o^pa}Ti Trspia-TsXXovcra yyrwvi. 379 



etc [lev <yap &>a>i> sridsi vs/cposiSs' dpsiftuiv. 378 

405 ov8s rt,s rjv KSLVOHTIV "Apr/$ 6sos ovBs KuSot/zos, 368 
ouSe Zsvs /SaatXsvs ovBs K.povo$ ovBs IlocrstSwi/, 
aXXa KuTrpts /SacrtXsta. 370 

017' siKTsfiesa'a'iv a^aK^acnv i\a< 

Tf L(t)Ol(Tt U,l>plOl(Ti rS 

410 cr[Avpvr]s rs a/cpr/rov Ovcriais \i/3dvov rs 

fj.e\dyico(v)pos, Plut. /J.f \dyKapwos. MSS. fpoprf], <ro<t>T). Mullach 



400-401. Clem. Al. Strom. 516-517. Timon Phlias. in Euseb. Pr. eu. 
xiv. 18. 

400. MS. *) 5, corr. Scalig. 401. MS. ol<av, corr. Stein. Cf. Timon 
and Porphyr. de abstin. ii. 27. 

402. Stob. Eel. i. 1050; Plut. de esu car. 998 c. 
Plut. aKKoyvSni, Stob. V aAAotx^Tj, A a\\oy\<ari. 

403. Plut. Qwaesi. com;. 683 E. 

404. Clem. Al. Strom. 516. 

MS. re^pa, efte', Flor. r;5e, corr. 

405-414. Porphyr. de abstin. ii. 21 (405-412), 27 (413-414). 405- 

411. Athen. xii. 510 D. 405-407. Eustath. Iliad, x. p. 1261, 44. 412- 

414. Euseb. Pr. ev. iv. 14 from Porphyry ; Cyrill. adv. Julian, ix. 307. 

406. Porphyr. ot-S' 6 Kp6vos, Eustath. omits. 407. Porphyr. adds 

9> la-riv i] <f>t\ia. 408. Cf. Plato Legg. vi. 782 D and lamblich. 

Vit. Pyth. 151. 409. Athen. yp. 8e, Burnett ^a/crols : 

Porphyr. $atia\e6<r(j.ois. 410. Porphyr. cucpdrov. 411. Athen. 



EMPEDOKLES 209 

400. Alas, ye wretched, ye unblessed race of mortal 

beings, of what strifes and of what groans were ye born ! 

402. She wraps about them a strange garment of 
flesh. 



403. Man-surrounding earth. 



404. For from being living he made them assume- 
the form of death by a change. . . . 

405. Nor had they any god Ares, nor Kydoimos (Up- 
roar), nor king Zeus, nor Kronos, nor Poseidon, but queen- 
Kypris. Her they worshipped with hallowed offerings, 
with painted figures, and perfumes of skilfully made odour, 
and sacrifices of unmixed myrrh and fragrant frank- 
incense, casting on the ground libations from tawny bees. 
And her altar was not moistened with pure blood of 
bulls, but it was the greatest defilement among men, to 

deprive animals of life and to eat their goodly bodies. 

P 






'2 JO THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



TS CTTTOvBaS /ieXtTOJI/ plTTTOVVTSS S 

Tavp(0v B' aKpijTOicri <f)6vois ov Bsvero /3&>/ios. 375 
dXXa iiixros TOUT' SGKSV sv avdporiroicrt 
ov dTroppaicravTas ssBfASvai yea yvia. 



415 fjv Bs TIS sv Ksivoi(Tiv dvtjp TTcpioixna iB(i)s 440 

TravToiatv TS /iaXtcrTa ao<f>wv STTirjpavos spycov, 442 

os Srj /jbrjKicrTov TrpairiSutv stcnjcraTO TrXouTOv. 441 
OTTTTOTe yap Trdcrycnv ops^atro 
psid ys rwv ovrwv Travrwv 

420 /cat T Sstc' dvdpwTTwv tcai T' S'IKOCTIV alwvsaaiv. . . 445 

rjaav yap Krl\a Trdvra KOI dv6pa>7roicri Trpoo-rjvij, 364 
fyrjpss T' olwvoL Tf, (f)i\o<ppO(7Vi">j rs BsSijei,, 
SsvBpsa 8' f/ATTsSo^fXXa KOI 



/caropa Trvr sviavrov. 
425 ov 7rs\srai rols JJLSV Osfjurbv ToSe, Tots 



403 

d\\a TO fisv TrdvTcov vo^ifjbov Bid T' svpvfjbsSovTos 
aldspos r)vsKS(os TSTaTat Bid T' uTrXsTov avyfjs. 



Biav . . . f>ivrovTs. 412. Porphyr. Cyrill. aKpiroiffi, Euseb. 
aroiffi, corr. Scalig. Porphyr. Several. 413. Cyrill. earxov. 
414. Porphyr. airoppeVavres . . . e\/j.t>cu, corr. Stein and Viger. 
415-420. lamblich. Vit. Pyth. 67. Porphyr. Vit. Pyth. 30. 415, 
417. Diog. Laer. viii. 54. 

Order of verses in MS. 415, 17, 16. 

421-424. 421-422. Schol. Nicand. Theriac. p. 81 Schn. 423-424. 
Theophrast. de cans, plant, i. 13, 2. Cf. Plut. Quaest. conv. 649 c. 

422. MS. $i\o<ppoffvvn, corr. Stz. 423-424. a.ti<pv\\a. Kal 6>7re8o- 
Kapira. <f>ri<n 6d\\eiv ttapircav a(j>dovlri<ri /car' T/e'p a irdvr' tviavrbv 
restored by Hermann. Herm. aiei<f>v\\a, corr. Karst. from 
Plutarch. Stz. war' iff pa, Lobeck. KarTjopo. 
425-427. Arist. Rhet. i. 13 1373 b 15. 

425. Arist. rovro yap ov ritrl ptv Slicaiov, -riffi 8' ov Si/caiov, Karst. 
0M'T^ . . . a.dffj.KT-r QV . 427. l*b^b^lc 01/77}$, Bekker from one 
MS. a? 7^1. 



EMPEDOKLES 211 

415. And there was among them a man of unusual 
knowledge, and master especially of all sorts of wise 
deeds, who in truth possessed greatest wealth of mind ; 
for whenever he reached out with all his mind, easily he 
beheld each one of all the things that are, even for ten 
and- twenty generations of men. 

421. For all were gentle and obedient toward men, 
both animals and birds, and they burned with kindly 
love ; and trees grew with leaves and fruit ever on 
them, burdened with abundant fruit all the year. 

425. This is not lawful for some and unlawful for 
others, but what is lawful for all extends on con- 
tinuously through the wide-ruling air and the boundless 
light. 

427. Will ye not cease from evil slaughter ? See ye 
not that ye are devouring each other in heedlessness of 

mind? 

p 2 



212 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

ov Travfrsads <f)6voio Sva-rj^sos ; OVK so-opars 416 
a\\rf\ovs SaTTTOvrss atcrjbtlipri vooio ; 

430 popffiv & d\\d%avra TraTrjp <f)\ov vlbv dzipas 410 
a-(j)d%i sTrsv^ofisvos, fjis<ya vrjirios 01 Be tyopsvvrai, 

\KTO-6fjiSVOi 0VOVTOS ' 6 B' ap VnKOVGTOS 6pOK\E(i)V 

cr<f)d%as sv ftEydpoia-i Ka/crjv dXsyvvaro Satra. 
MS B' avrws Trarep' vios sXwv teal fjLTjrspa 
435 dv/j,ov aTTOppaicravrs <pi\as Kara adptcas s 

oil/tot, or' ov irpocrOev JAS BicoXsas vr)\sss TJ/ 
irplv a~^r\' ep<ya ftopas irspl 
craa-dai. 



sv 0ijp<rcn \SOVTSS opi\S'% ^afiaivvai 382 
yiyvovTai, Sd<j)vai 8' svl B^vSpttaiv rjVKOfiOHTiv. 

440 Sa<f>valo)v ^yXXtor 0,770 Tra^irav %cr6ai,. 419 

/, r 7ravBi\oi, /cvdpwv CUTTO -^slpas e^sadai. 418 

Kprjvdwv airo TTSVTS Ta^iwv ev dripi ^aX/cw 422 



vr)<TTi>crai KaKoryTOS. 406 



428-429. Sext. E. Math. ix. 129. 

430-435. Sext. following the last verses. 430-431. Plut. de super- 
stitione 171 c. 

431. MSS. of 8 iropevvTai, Scalig. fcs . . . Tropevrai, Diels <j>opevvrai. 
432. MSS. BvovTfs 85' avfiKovoros, corr. Hermann. 435. MSS. 
aTroppaiffavra, corr. Karst. 

436-437. Porphyr. de abst. ii. 31. 

438-439. Aelian, Hist. An. xii. 7 ; Orphic. Frag. p. 511 Herm. 
438. Ael. iv 6-npirl 8*. 

440. Plut. Quaest. conv. 646 r. 

MSS. TTJS Sd(j>v7)s rSiv tpv\\aiv diri ird/jLvav ex<rOot XP^* corr. Stein. 

441. Aul. Gell. N.A. iv. 11 ; Didym. Geopon. ii. 35, 8. 
442-443. Theo. Smyrn. Arith. i. 19 Bull, p. 15, 9 Hill. 

MS. Kpyvdaiv etiro irevr' lunpftm, <f>ij(riv, areipet x a ^ K V ^fif airoppv- 
infffBai, Arist.poei.xxi. ; 1457 b 13 Ta^v ortipe'i x a *- K V- Text 
from Diels. 

444. Plut. de ira 464 B. 



EMPEDOKLES 213 

430. A father takes up his dear son who has changed 
his form and slays him with a prayer, so great is his 
folly ! They are borne along beseeching the sacrificer ; 
but he does not hear their cries of reproach, but slays 
them and makes ready the evil feast. Then in the 
same manner son takes father and daughters their 
mother, and devour the dear flesh when they have 
deprived them of life. 

436. Alas that no ruthless day destroyed me before 
I devised base deeds of devouring with the lips ! 

438. Among beasts they become lions haunting the 
mountains, whose couch is the ground, and among fair- 
foliaged trees they become laurels. 

440. Eefrain entirely from laurel leaves. 

441. Miserable men, wholly miserable, restrain your 
hands from beans. 

442. Compounding the water from five springs in 
unyielding brass, cleanse the hands. 

444. Fast from evil. 

445. Accordingly ye are frantic with evils hard to 
bear, nor ever shall ye ease your soul from bitter woes. 

447. But at last are they prophets and hymn-writers 
and physicians and chieftains among men dwelling on 
the earth ; and from this they grow to be gods, receiving 
the greatest honours, sharing the same hearth with the 
other immortals, their table companions, free from, 
human woes, beyond the power of death and harm. 



214 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

445 roiydprot ^a^sirrja-iv akvovres Katcor^fftv 420 

OVTTOTS 



els Bs rs\bs fidvrsts rs KOL vpvoiroXot, ical Irjrpol 384 
Kal Trpo/iot avdpotiTToiaiv sTri^dovLotai TrsXovrai, 
svOsv dva/3\a(7Tov(ri Gsol rif^fjcrt 
450 adavaTOis a\\oicriv o/iecrrtoi, 

sijviss dv&psiwv a^swv, air OKI] pot, aTStpsis. 

445-446. Clem. Al. Protr. p. 23. Cf. Carmen aureum v. 54 f. 
447-449. Clem. Al. Strom, p. 632 ; Theod. Therap. viii. p. 599. 
450-451. Clem. Al. Strom, p. 722; Euseb. Praep. evang. xiii. 13. 
MSS. t6vr(s d. 'Axoiaiv dn-JKXijpoi dirrjpf'is corr. Scaliger. 

PASSAGES FROM PLATO RELATING TO EMPEDOKLES. 

Phaed. 96 B. Is blood that with which we think, or 
air, or fire . . . ? 1 

Gorg. 493 A. And perhaps we really are dead, as I 
once before heard one of the wise men say : that now we 
are dead, and the body our tomb, and that that part of the 
soul, it so happens, in which desires are, is open to per- 
suasion and moves upward and downward. And indeed 
a clever man perhaps some inhabitant of Sicily or 
Italy speaking allegorically, and taking the word from 
' credible ' (indavos) and ' persuadable ' (TTKTTIKOS), called 
it a jar (Tridos). And those without intelligence he called 
uninitiated, and that part of the soul of the uninitiated 
where the desires are, he called its intemperateness, and 
said it was not watertight, as a jar might be pierced with 
holes using the simile because of its insatiate desires. 

Meno 76 c. Do you say, with Empedokles, that there 
are certain effluences from things ? Certainly. 

And pores, into which and through which the 
effluences go ? Yes indeed. 

Cf. Cicero, Tusc. I. 9 : ' Empedocles animum esse censet cordi 
suffusum sanguinem.' 



EMPEDOKLES 215 

And that some of the effluences match certain of the 
pores, and others are smaller or larger ? It is true. 

And there is such a thing as vision ? Yes. 

And . . . colour is the effluence of forms in agree- 
ment with vision and perceptible by that sense ? It is. 

Sophist. 242 D. And certain Ionian and Sicilian 
Muses agreed later that it is safest to weave together 
both opinions and to say that Being is many and one 
[TroXXa TS KOI sv], and that it is controlled by hate and 
love. Borne apart it is always borne together, say the 
more severe of the Muses. But the gentler concede that 
these things are always thus, and they say, in part, that 
sometimes all is one and rendered loving by Aphrodite, 
while at other times it is many and at enmity with itself 
by reason of a sort of strife. 

PASSAGES IN ARISTOTLE REFERRING^ TO EMPEDOKLES. 

Pliys. i. 3 ; 187 a 20. And others say that the opposites 
existing in the unity are separated out of it, as Anaximan- 
dros says, and as those say who hold that things are 
both one and many, as Empedokles and Anaxagoras. 

i. 4 ; 188 a 18. But it is better to assume elements 
fewer in number and limited, as Empedokles does. 

ii. 4 ; 196 a 20. Empedokles says that the air is not 
always separated upwards, but as it happens. 

viii. 1 ; 250 b 27. Empedokles says that things are 
in motion part of the time and again they are at rest ; 
they are in motion when Love tends to make one out of 
many, or Strife tends to make many out of one, and in 
the intervening time they are at rest (Vv. 69-73). 

viii. 1 ; 252 a 6. So it is necessary to consider this 
(motion) a first principle, which it seems Empedokles 
means in saying that of necessity Love and Strife control 
things and move them part of the time, and that they 
are at rest during the intervening time. 



216 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

De Caelo 279 b 14. Some say that alternately at one 
time there is coming into being, at another time there is 
perishing, and that this always continues to be the case ; 
so say Empedokles of Agrigentum and Herakleitos of 
Ephesus. 

ii. 1 ; 284 a 24. Neither can we assume that it is 
after this manner nor that, getting a slower motion 
than its own downward momentum on account of rota- 
tion, it still is preserved so long a time, as Empedokles 
says. 

ii. 13; 295 a 15. But they seek the cause why it 
remains, and some say after this manner, that its 
breadth or size is the cause ; but others, as Empedokles, 
that the movement of the heavens revolving in a circle 
and moving more slowly, hinders the motion of the earth, 
like water in vessels. . . . 

iii. 2 ; 301 a 14i It is not right to make genesis take 
place out of what is separated and in motion. Wherefore 
Empedokles passes over genesis in the case of Love ; for 
he could not put the heaven together preparing it out 
of parts that had been separated, and making the 
combination by means of Love ; for the order of the 
elements has been established out of parts that had been 
separated, so that necessarily it arose out of what is one 
and compounded. 

iii. 2 ; 302 a 28. Empedokles says that fire and earth 
and associated elements are the elements of bodies, and 
that all things are composed of these. 

iii. 6 ; 305 a 1. But if separation shall in some way 
be stopped, either the body in which it is stopped will be 
indivisible, or being separable it is one that will never be 
divided, as Empedokles seems to mean. 

iv. 2 ; 309 a 19. Some who deny that a void exists, 
do not define carefully light and heavy, as Anaxagoras 
and Empedokles. 



EMPEDOKLES 217 

Gen. corr. i. 1 ; 314 b 7. Wherefore Enipedokles 
speaks after this manner, saying that nothing comes 
into being, but there is only mixture and separation of 
the mixed. 

i. 1 ; 315 a 3. Empedokles seemed both to contradict 
things as they appear, and to contradict himself. For 
at one time he says that no one of the elements arises 
from another, but that all other things arise from these ; 
and at another time he brings all of nature together 
into one, except Strife, and says that each thing arises 
from the one. 

i. 8; 324 b 26. Some thought that each sense impres- 
sion was received through certain pores from the last and 
strongest agent which entered, and they say that after 
this manner we see and hear and perceive by all the other 
senses, and further that we see through air and water 
and transparent substances because they have pores that 
are invisible by reason of their littleness, and are close 
together in series ; and the more transparent substances 
have more pores. Many made definite statements after 
this manner in regard to certain things, as did Empe- 
dokles, not only in regard to active and passive bodies, 
but he also says that those bodies are mingled, the pores 
of which agree with each other. . . . 

i. 8 ; 325 a 34. From what is truly one multiplicity 
could not arise, nor yet could unity arise from what is 
truly manifold, for this is impossible ; but as Ernpe- 
dokles and some others say, beings are affected through 
pores, so all change and all happening arises after this 
manner, separation and destruction taking place through 
the void, and in like manner growth, solid bodies coming 
in gradually. For it is almost necessary for Empedokles 
to say as Leukippos does ; for there are some solid and 
indivisible bodies, unless pores are absolutely contiguous. 
325 b 19. But as for Empedokles, it is evident that he 



21 S TILE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

holds to genesis and destruction as far as the elements 
are concerned, but how the aggregate mass of these 
arises and perishes, it is not evident, nor is it possible 
for one to say who denies that there is an element of 
fire, and in like manner an element of each other thing 
as Plato wrote in the Timaeos. 

ii. 3 ; 330 b 19. And some say at once that there are 
four elements, as Empedokles. But he combines them 
into two ; for he sets all the rest over against fire. 

ii. 6 ; 333 b 20. Strife then does not separate the 
elements, but Love separates those which in their origin 
are before god ; and these are gods. 

Meteor. 357 a 24. In like manner it would be absurd 
if any one, saying that the sea is the sweat of the earth, 
thought he was saying anything distinct and clear, as 
for instance Empedokles ; for such a statement might 
perhaps be sufficient for the purposes of poetry (for the 
metaphor is poetical), but not at all for the knowledge of 
nature. 

369 b 11. Some say that fire originates in the clouds ; 
and Empedokles says that this is what is encompassed 
by the rays of the sun. 

De anim. i. 2 ; 404 b 7. As many as pay careful 
attention to the fact that what has soul is in motion, 
these assume that soul is the most important source of 
motion; and as many as consider that it knows and 
perceives beings, these say that the first principle is 
soul, some making more than one first principle and 
others making one, as Empedokles says the first prin- 
ciple is the product of all the elements, and each of these 
is soul, saying (Vv. 833-335). 

i. 4 ; 408 a 14. And in like manner it is strange that 
soul should be the cause of the mixture ; for the mixture 
of the elements does not have the same cause as flesh 
and bone. The result then will be that there are many 



EMPEDOKLES 219 

souls through the whole body, if all things arise out of 
the elements that have been mingled together ; and the 
cause of the mixture is harmony and soul. 

i. 5 ; 410 a 28. For it involves many perplexities to 
say, as Empedokles does, that each thing is known by the 
material elements, and like by like. . . . And it turns 
out that Empedokles regards god as most lacking in the 
power of perception ; for he alone does not know one of 
the elements, Strife, and (hence) all perishable things ; 
for each of these is from all (the elements). 

ii. 4 ; 415 b 28. And Empedokles was incorrect when 
he went on to say that plants grew downwards with their 
roots together because the earth goes in this direction 
naturally, and that they grew upwards because fire goes 
in this direction. 

ii. 7 ; 418 b 20. So it is evident that light is the 
presence of this (fire). And Empedokles was wrong, 
and any one else who may have agreed with him, in 
saying that the light moves and arises between earth 
and what surrounds the earth, though it escapes our 
notice. 

De sens. 441 a 4. It is necessary that the water in 
it should have the form of a fluid that is invisible by 
reason of its smallness, as Empedokles says. 

446 a 26. Empedokles says that the light from the 
sun first enters the intermediate space before it comes to 
vision or to the earth. 

' De respir. 477 a 32. Empedokles was incorrect in 
saying that the warmest animals having the most fire 
were aquatic, avoiding the excess of warmth in their 
nature, in order that since there was a lack of cold and 
wet in them, they might be preserved by their position. 

Pneumat. 482 a 29. With reference to breathing some 
do not say what it is for, but only describe the manner 
in which it takes place, as Empedokles and Demokritos. 



220 THE FIKST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

484 a 38. Empedokles says that fingernails arise from 
sinew by hardening. 

Part. anim. i. 1 ; 640 a 19. So Empedokles was 
wrong in saying that many characteristics appear in 
animals because it happened to be thus in their birth, as 
that they have such a spine because they happen to be 
descended from one that bent itself back. . . . 

i. 1 ; 64'2 a 18. And from time to time Empedokles 
chances on this, guided by the truth itself, and is com- 
pelled to say that being and nature are reason, just as 
when he is declaring what a bone is ; for he does not say 
it is one of the elements, nor two or three, nor all of 
them, but it is the reason of the mixture of these. 

De Plant, i. ; 815 a 16. Anaxagoras and Empedokles 
say that plants are-moved by desire, and assert that they 
have perception and feel pleasure and pain. . . .Em- 
pedokles thought that sex had been mixed in them. 
(Note 817 a 1, 10, and 36.) 

i. ; 815 b 12. Empedokles et al. said that plants have 
intelligence and knowledge. 

i. ; 817 b 35. Empedokles said again that plants 
have their birth in an inferior world which is not perfect 
in its fulfilment, and that when it is fulfilled an animal 
is generated. 

i. 3 ; 984 a 8. Empedokles assumes four elements, 
adding earth as a fourth to those that have been men- 
tioned ; for these always abide and do not come into 
being, but in greatness and smallness they are com- 
pounded and separated out of one and into one. 

i. 3; 984 b 32. And since the opposite to the good ap- 
peared to exist in nature, and not only order and beauty 
but also disorder and ugliness, and the bad appeared to 
be more than the good and the ugly more than the 
beautiful, so some one else introduced Love and Strife, 
each the cause of one of these. For if one were to 



EMPEBOKLES 221 

follow and make the assumption in accordance with 
reason and not in accordance with what Empedokles 
foolishly says, he will find Love to be the cause of what 
is good, and Strife of what is bad ; so that if one were to 
say that Empedokles spoke after a certain manner and 
was the first to call the bad and the good first principles, 
perhaps he would speak rightly, if the good itself were 
the cause of all good things, and the bad of all bad things. 

Met. i. 4; 915 a 21. And Empedokles makes more use 
of causes than Anaxagoras, but not indeed sufficiently; 
nor does he find in them what has been agreed upon. 
At any rate love for him is often a separating cause and 
strife a uniting cause. For whenever the all is separated 
into the elements by strife, fire and each of the other 
elements are collected into one ; and again, whenever 
they all are brought together into one by love, parts are 
necessarily separated again from each thing. Empedokles 
moreover differed from those who went before, in that he 
discriminated this cause and introduced it, not making 
the cause of motion one, but different and opposite. 
Further, he first described the four elements spoken of 
as in the form of matter ; but he did not use them as 
four but only as two, fire by itself, and the rest opposed 
to fire as being one in nature, earth and air and water. 

i. 8 ; 989 a 20. And the same thing is true if one 
asserts that these are more numerous than one, as 
Empedokles says that matter is four substances. For 
it is necessary that the same peculiar results should hold 
good with reference to him. For we see the elements 
arising from each other inasmuch as fire and earth do 
not continue the same substance (for so it is said of 
them in the verses on nature) ; and with reference to 
the cause of their motion, whether it is necessary to 
assume one or two, we must think that he certainly did 
not speak either in a correct or praiseworthy manner. 



222 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

i. 9; 993 a 15. For the first philosophy seems to 
speak inarticulately in regard to all things, as though 
it were childish in its causes and first principle, when 
even Empedokles says that a bone exists by reason, that 
is, that it was what it WAS and what the essence of the 
matter was. 

Meta. ii. 4 ; 1000 a 25. And Empedokles who, one 
might think, spoke most consistently, even he had the 
same experience, for he asserts that a certain first prin- 
ciple, Strife, is the cause of destruction ; but one might 
think none the less that even this causes generation out 
of the unity ; for all other things are from this as their 
source, except god. 

Meta. ii. 4 ; 1000 a 32. And apart from these verses 
(vv. 104-107) it would be evident, for if strife were not 
existing in things, all would be one, as he says ; for when 
they come together, strife comes to a stand last of all. 
"Wherefore it results that for him the most blessed God 
has less intelligence than other beings ; for he does not 
know all the elements ; for he does not have strife, and 
knowledge of the like is by the like. 

Meta. ii. 4 ; 1000 b 16. He does not make clear any 
cause of necessity. But, nevertheless, he says thus much 
alone consistently, for he does not make some beings 
perishable and others imperishable, but he makes all 
perishable except the elements. And the problem now 
under discussion is why some things exist and others do 
not, if they are from the same (elements). 

Meta. xi. 10; 1075 b 2. And Empedokles speaks in a 
manner, for he makes friendship the good. And this is 
the first principle, both as the moving cause, for it brings 
things together ; and as matter, for it is part of the 
mixture. 

Ethic, vii. 5 ; 1147 b 12. He has the power to speak 



EMPEDOKLES 223 

but not to understand, as a drunken man repeating 
verses of Empedokles. 

Ethic, viii. 2 ; 1155 b 7. Others, including Empe- 
dokles, say the opposite, that the like seeks the like. 

Moral, ii. 11 ; 1208 b 11. And he says that when a 
dog was accustomed always to sleep on the same tile, 
Empedokles was asked why the dog always sleeps on the 
same tile, and he answered that the dog had some like- 
ness to the tile, so that the likeness is the reason for 
its frequenting it. 

Poet. 1; 1447 b 16. Homer and Empedokles have no- 
thing in common but the metre, BO that the former should 
be called a poet, the latter should rather be called a 
student of nature. 

Fr. 65 ; Diog. Laer. viii. 57. Aristotle, in the 
Sophist, says that Empedokles first discovered rhetoric 
and Zeon dialectic. 

Fr. 66 ; Diog. Laer. viii. 63. Aristotle says that (Em- 
pedokles) became free and estranged from every form 
of rule, if indeed he refused the royal power that was 
granted to him, as Xanthos says in his account of him, 
evidently much preferring his simplicity. 



PASSAGES IN DIELS' ' DOXOGRAPHI GKAECI ' RELATING TO 
EMPEDOKLES. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 287. Empedokles of Akragas, 
son of Meton, says that there are four elements, fire, air, 
water, earth ; and two dynamic first principles, love and 
strife ; one of these tends to unite, the other to separate. 
And he speaks as follows : Hear first the four roots of 
all things, bright Zeus and life-bearing Hera and 
Aidoneus, and Nestis, who moistens the springs of men 
with her tears. Now by Zeus he means the seething 
and the aether, by life-bearing Hera the moist air, 



224 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

and by Aidoneus the earth ; and by Nestis, spring 
of men, he means as it were moist seed and water. 
i. 4; 291. Empedokles : The universe is one; not 
however that the universe is the all, but some little 
part of the all, and the rest is matter, i. 7 ; 303. And 
he holds that the one is necessity, and that its matter 
consists of the four elements, and its forms are strife and 
love. And he calls the elements gods, and the mixture 
of these the universe. And its uniformity will be re- 
solved into them ; l and he thinks souls are divine, and 
that pure men who in a pure way have a share of them 
(the elements) are divine, i. 13 ; 312. Empedokles : 
Back of the four elements there are smallest particles, 
as it were elements before elements, homoeomeries (that 
is, rounded bits), i. 15; 313. Empedokles declared that 
colour is the harmonious agreement of vision with the 
pores. And there are four equivalents of the elements 
white, black, red, yellow, i. 16 ; 315. Empedokles (and 
Xenokrates) : The elements are composed of very small 
masses which are the most minute possible, and as it 
were elements of elements, i. 24 ; 320. Empedokles et al. 
and all who make the universe by putting together bodies 
of small parts, introduce combinations and separations, 
but not genesis and destruction absolutely ; for these 
changes take place not in respect to quality by transfor- 
mation, but in respect to quantity by putting together. 
i. 26 ; 321. Empedokles : The essence of necessity is the 
effective cause of the first principles and of the elements. 
Aet. Plac. ii. 1 ; Dox. 328. Empedokles : The course 
of the sun is the outline of the limit of the universe. 
ii. 4 ; 331. Empedokles: The universe < arises and> 
perishes according to the alternating rule of Love and 
Strife, ii. 6 ; 334. Empedokles : The aether was first 
separated, and secondly fire, and then earth, from which, 
1 Cf. p. 119, note 1. 



EMPEDOKLES 225 

as it was compressed tightly by the force of its rotation, 
water gushed forth; and from this the air arose as vapour, 
and the heavens arose from the aether, the sun from the 
fire, and bodies on the earth were compressed out of the 
others, ii. 7 ; 336. Empedokles : Things are not in 
fixed position throughout the all, nor yet are the places 
of the elements defined, but all things partake of one 
another, ii. 8 ; 338. Empedokles : When the air gives 
way at the rapid motion of the sun, the north pole is 
bent so that the regions of the north are elevated and the 
regions of the south depressed in respect to the whole 
universe, ii. 10 ; 339. Empedokles : The right side is 
toward the summer solstice, and the left toward the 
winter solstice, ii. 11 ; 339. Empedokles: The heaven 
is solidified from air that is fixed in crystalline form 
by fire, and embraces what partakes of the nature of 
fire and of the nature of air in each of the hemispheres. 
ii. 13 ; 341. Empedokles : The stars are fiery bodies 
formed of fiery matter, which the air embracing in itself 
pressed forth at the first separation. 342. The fixed stars 
are bound up with the crystalline (vault) , but the planets 
are set free. ii. 20 ; 350. Empedokles : There are two 
suns ; the one is the archetype, fire in the one hemi- 
sphere of the universe, which has filled that hemisphere, 
always set facing the brightness which corresponds to 
itself ; the other is the sun that appears, the corre- 
sponding brightness in the other hemisphere that has 
been filled with air mixed with heat, becoming the 
crystalline sun by reflection from the rounded earth, and 
dragged along with the motion of the fiery hemisphere ; to 
speak briefly, the sun is the brightness corresponding to 
the fire that surrounds the earth, ii. 21 ; 351. The sun 
which faces the opposite brightness, is of the same size 
as the earth, ii. 23; 353. Empedokles: The solstices 
are due to the fact that the sun is hindered from moving 

Q, 



226 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

always in a straight line by the sphere enclosing it. and 
by the tropic circles, ii. 24 ; 354. The sun is eclipsed 
when the moon passes before it. ii. 25 ; 357. Empedo- 
kles : The moon is air rolled together, cloudlike, its fixed 
form due to fire, so that it is a mixture, ii. 27 ; 358. The 
moon has the form of a disk. ii. 28 ; 358. The moon 
has its light from the sun. ii. 31 ; 362. Empedokles : 
The moon is twice as far from the sun as it is from the 
earth (?) S63. The distance across the heavens is greater 
than the height from earth to heaven, which is the dis- 
tance of the moon from us ; according to this the heaven 
is more spread out, because the universe is disposed in 
the shape of an egg. 

Aet. Plac. iii. 3 ; Dox. 368. Empedokles : (Thunder 
and lightning are) the impact of light on a cloud so that 
the light thrusts out the air which hinders it ; the ex- 
tinguishing of the light and the breaking up of the cloud 
produces a crash, and the kindling of it produces light- 
ning, and the thunderbolt is the sound of the lightning, 
iii. 8 ; 375. Empedokles and the Stoics : Winter comes 
when the air is master, being forced up by condensation ; 
and summer when fire is master, when it is forced down- 
wards, iii. 16 ; 381. The sea is the sweat of the earth, 
brought out by the heat of the sun on account of 
increased pressure. 

Aet. Plac. iv. 3 ; Theod. v. 18 ; Dox. 389. Empe- 
dokles : The soul is a mixture of what is air and aether 
in essence, iv. 5 ; 392. Empedokles et al. : Mind and 
soul are the same, so that in their opinion no animal 
would be absolutely devoid of reason. Theod. v. 23 ; 392. 
Empedokles et al. : The soul is imperishable. Aet. iv. 9 ; 

396. Empedokles et al. : Sensations are deceptive. 

397. Sensations arise part by part according to the sym- 
metry of the pores, each particular object of sense being 
adapted to some sense (organ), iv. 13; 403. Empe- 



EMPEDOKLES 227 

dokles : Vision receives impressions both by means of 
rays and by means of images. But more by the second 
method ; for it receives effluences, iv. 14 ; 405. (Re- 
flections from mirrors) take plaee by means of effluences 
that arise on the surface of the mirror, and they are 
completed by means of the fiery matter that is sepa- 
rated from the mirror, and that bears along the air which 
lies before them into which the streams flow. iv. 6 ; 406- 
Empedokles : Hearing takes place by the impact of wind', 
on the cartilage of the ear, which, he says, is hung up 
inside the ear so as to swing and be struck after the- 
manner of a bell. iv. 17 ; 407. Empedokles : Smell is 
introduced with breathings of the lungs ; whenever the 
breathing becomes heavy, it does not join in the per- 
ception on account of roughness, as in the case of those 
who suffer from a flux. iv. 22 ; 411. Empedokles : The 
first breath of the animal takes place when the moisture 
in infants gives way, and the outside air comes to the 
void to enter the opening of the lungs at the side ; 
and after this the implanted warmth at the onset from 
without presses out from below the airy matter, the 
breathing out; and at the corresponding return into the 
outer air it occasions a corresponding entering of the air,, 
the breathing in. And that which now controls the bloodi 
as it goes to the surface and as it presses out the airy 
matter through the nostrils by its own currents on its 
outward passage, becomes the breathing out ; and when- 
the air runs back and enters into the fine openings that 
are scattered through the blood, it is the breathing in. 
And he mentions the instance of the clepsydra. 

Aet. Plac. v. 7 ; 419. Empedokles : Male or female 
are born according to warmth and coldness ; whence he 
records that the first males were born to the east and 
south from the earth, and the females to the north, v. 8 ; 
420. Empedokles : Monstrosities are due to too much or 

Q 2 



228 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

too little seed (semen), or to disturbance of motion, or to 
division into several parts, or to a bending aside, v. 10 ; 
421. Empedokles : Twins and triplets are due to excess of 
seed and division of it. v. 11 ; 422. Empedokles : Like- 
nesses (of children to parents) are due to power of the 
fruitful seed, and differences occur when the warmth in 
the seed is dissipated. 1 v. 12 ; 423. Empedokles : Offspring 
are formed according to the fancy of the woman at the 
time of conception ; for oftentimes women fall in love with 
images and statues, and bring forth offspring like these. 
v. 14; 425. Empedokles: (Mules are not fertile) be- 
cause the womb is small and low and narrow, and 
attached to the belly in a reverse manner, so that the 
seed does not go into it straight, nor would it receive the 
seed even if it should reach it. v. 15; 425. Empedokles : 
The embryo is [not] alive, but exists without breathing 
in the belly ; and the first breath of the animal takes 
place at birth, when the moisture in infants gives way, 
and when the airy matter from without comes to the 
void, to enter into the openings of the lungs, v. 19 ; 430. 
Empedokles : The first generations of animals and plants 
were never complete, but were yoked with incongruous 
parts ; and the second were forms of parts that belong 
together ; and the third, of parts grown into one whole ; 
and the fourth were no longer from like parts, as for 
instance from earth and water, but from elements 
already permeating each other ; for some the food 
being condensed, for others the fairness of the females 
causing an excitement of the motion of the seed. And 
the classes of all the animals were separated on account 
of such mixings ; those more adapted to the water rushed 
into this, others sailed up into the air as many as had 
the more of fiery matter, and the heavier remained on 
the earth, and equal portions in the mixture spoke in 

1 Cf. Galsn, Hist. Phil. 118 ; Dox. 642. 



EMPEDOKLF.S 229 

the breasts of all. v. 22 ; 434. Empeclokles : Flesh is 
the product of equal parts of the four elements mixed 
together, and sinews of double portions of fire and earth 
mixed together, and the claws of animals are the product 
of sinews chilled by contact with the air, and bones of two 
equal parts of water and of earth and four parts of fire 
mingled together. And sweat and tears come from blood 
as it wastes away, and flows out because it has become 
rarefied, v. 24 ; 435. Empedokles : Sleep is a moderate 
cooling of the warmth in the blood, death a complete cool- 
ing, v. 25 ; 437. Empedokles : Death is a separation of 
the fiery matter out of the mixture of which the man 
is composed ; so that from this standpoint death of the 
body and of the soul happens together ; and sleep is a 
separating of the fiery matter, v. 26 ; 438. Empedokles : ' 
Trees first of living beings sprang from the earth, before 
the sun was unfolded in the heavens and before day and 
night were separated ; and by reason of the symmetry 
of their mixture they contain the principle of male and 
female ; and they grow, being raised by the warmth that 
is in the earth, so that they are parts of the earth, just 
as the foetus in the belly is part of the womb ; and 
the fruits are secretions of the water and fire in the 
plants ; and those which lack (sufficient) moisture shed 
their leaves in summer when it is evaporated, but those 
which have more moisture keep their leaves, as in the 
case of the laurel and the olive and the date-palm ; 
and differences in their juices are (due to) variations in 
the number of their component parts, and the differences 
in plants arise because they derive their homoeomeries 
from (the earth which) nourishes them, as in the case 
of grape-vines ; for it is not the kind of vine which 
makes wine good, but the kind of soil which nurtures 
it. v. 26 ; 440 : Empedokles : Animals are nurtured by 
the substance of what is akin to them [moisture], and 



230 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

they grow with the presence of warmth, and grow smaller 
and die when either of these is absent ; and men of the 
present time, as compared with the first living beings, 
have been reduced to the size of infants (?). v. 28 ; 440. 
Empedokles : Desires arise in animals from a lack of the 
elements that would render each one complete, and 
pleasures . . . 

Theophr. Phys. opin. 3 ; Dox. 478. Empedokles of 
Agrigenturn makes the material elements four : fire and 
air and water and earth, all of them eternal, and 
changing in amount and smallness by composition and 
separation; and the absolute first principles by which 
these four are set in motion, are Love and Strife ; for the 
elements must continue to be moved in turn, at one 
time being brought together by Love and at another 
separated by Strife ; so that in his view there are six 
first principles ; for sometimes he gives the active power 
to Love and Strife, when he says (vv. 67-68) : ' Now 
being all united by Love into one, now each borne apart 
by hatred engendered of Strife ; ' and again he ranks 
these as elements along with the four when he says 
(vv. 77-80) : ' And at another time it separated so that 
there were many out of the one ; fire and water and 
earth and boundless height of air, and baneful Strife 
apart from these, balancing each of them, and Love 
among them, their equal in length and breadth.' 

Fr. 23 ; Dox. 495. Some say that the sea is as it 
were a sort of sweat from the earth ; for when the earth 
is warmed by the sun it gives forth moisture ; accord- 
ingly it is salt, for sweat is salt. Such was the opinion 
of Empedokles. 

Theophr.de sens. 7; Dox. 500. Empedokles speaks in 
like manner concerning all the senses, and says that we 
perceive by a fitting into the pores of each sense. So they 



EMPEDOKLES 231 

are not able to discern one another's objects, for the 
pores of some are too wide and of others too narrow for 
the object of sensation, so that some things go right 
through untouched, and others are unable to enter com- 
pletely. And he attempts to describe what vision is ; and 
he says that what is in the eye is fire and water, and 
what surrounds it is earth and air, through which light 
being fine enters, as the light in lanterns. Pores of fire 
and water are set alternately, and the fire-pores recog- 
nise white objects, the water-pores black objects ; for 
the colours harmonise with the pores. And the colours 
move into vision by means of effluences. And they are 
not composed alike . . . and some of opposite elements ; 
for some the fire is within and for others it is on the out- 
side, so some animals see better in the daytime and 
others at night ; those that have less fire see better 
by day, for the light inside them is balanced by the 
light outside them ; and those that have less water 
see better at night, for what is lacking is made up for 
them. And in the opposite case the contrary is true; 
for those that have the more fire are dim-sighted, since 
the fire increasing plasters up and covers the pores 
of water in the daytime; and for those that have 
water in excess, the same thing happens at night ; for 
the fire is covered up by the water. . . . Until in the 
case of some the water is separated by the outside light, 
and in the case of others the fire by the air ; for the cure 
of each is its opposite. That which is composed of both 
in equal parts is the best tempered and most excellent 
vision. This, approximately, is what he says con- 
cerning vision. And hearing is the result of noises 
coming from outside. For when (the air) is set in motion 
by a sound, there is an echo within ; for the hearing is 
as it were a bell echoing within, and the ear he calls an 
' offshoot of flesh ' (v. 315) : and the air when it is set 



232 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

in motion strikes on something hard and makes an 
echo. 1 And smell is connected with breathing, so those 
have the keenest smell whose breath moves most quickly ; 
and the strongest odour arises as an effluence from fine 
and light bodies. But he makes no careful discrimina- 
tion with reference to taste and touch separately, either 
how or by what means they take place, except the 
general statement that sensation takes place by a fitting 
into the pores ; and pleasure is due to likenesses in the 
elements and in their mixture, and pain to the opposite. 
And he speaks similarly concerning thought and igno- 
rance : Thinking is by what is like, and not perceiving 
is by what is unlike, since thought is the same thing as, 
or something like, sensation. For recounting how we 
recognise each thing by each, he said at length (vv. 
336-837) : Now out of these (elements) all things are fitted 
together and their form is fixed, and by these men think 
and feel pleasure and pain. So it is by blood especially 
that we think ; for in this especially are mingled <all> 
the elements of things. And those in whom equal and 
like parts have been mixed, not too far apart, nor 
yet small parts, nor exceeding great, these have the 
most intelligence and the most accurate senses; and 
those who approximate to this come next ; and those 
who have the opposite qualities are the most lacking in 
intelligence. And those in whom the elements are 
scattered and rarefied, are torpid and easily fatigued ; 
and those in whom the elements are small and thrown 
close together, move so rapidly and meet with so many 
things that they accomplish but little by reason of the 
swiftness of the motion of the blood. And those in 
whom there is a well-tempered mixture in some one 
part, are wise at this point ; so some are good orators, 
others good artisans, according as the mixture is in the 

1 Beading Kivovfj.evov with Diels. 



EMPEDOKLES 233 

hands or in the tongue ; and the same is true of the 
other powers. 

Theophr. de sens. 59 ; Box. 516. And Erapedokles 
says of colours that white is due to fire, and black to 
water. 

Cic. De nat. deor. xii. ; Dox. 535. Empedokles, 
along with many other mistakes, makes his worst error 
in his conception of the gods. For the four beings of 
which he holds that all things consist, he' considers 
divine ; but it is clear that these are born and die and 
are devoid of all sense. 

Hipp. Phil. 3 ; Dox. 558. And Empedokles, who 
lived later, said much concerning the nature of the 
divinities, how they live in great numbers beneath the 
earth and manage things there. He said that Love and 
Strife were the first principle of the all, and that the 
intelligent fire of the monad is god, and that all things 
are formed from fire and are resolved into fire ; and the 
Stoics agree closely with his teaching, in that they ex- 
pect a general conflagration. And he believed most fully 
in transmigration, for he said : ' For in truth I was 
born a boy and a maiden, and a plant and a bird, and 
a fish whose course lies in the sea.' He said that all 
souls went at death into all sorts of animals. 

Hipp. Phil. 4 ; Dox. 559. See Herakleitos, p. 64. 

Plut. Strom. 10 ; Dox. 582. Empedokles of Agri- 
gentum : The elements are four fire, water, aether, 
earth. And the cause of these is Love and Strife. From 
the first mixture of the elements he says that the air was 
separated and poured around in a circle ; and after the 
air the fire ran off, and not having any other place to go 
to, it ran up from under the ice that was around the air. 
And there are two hemispheres moving in a circle around 
the earth, the one of pure fire, the. other of air and a 
little fire mixed, which he thinks is night. And motion 



234 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

began as a result of the weight of the fire when it was 
collected. And the sun is not fire in its nature, but a 
reflection of fire, like that which takes place in water. 
And he says the moon consists of air that has been shut 
up by fire, for this becomes solid like hail ; and its light it 
- ^_/)(gets from the sun. The ruling part is not in the head 
or in the breast, but in the blood ; wherefore in whatever 
part of the body the more of this is spread, in that part 
men excel. 

Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 19 ; Dox. 591. Empedoklesof 
Agrigentum, son of Meton, regarded fire and earth and 
water and air as the four first elements, and he said that 
enmity is the first of the elements. For, he says, they 
were separated at first, but now they are united into 
one, becoming loved by each other. So in his view the 
first principles and powers are two, Enmity and Love, 
of which the one tends to bring things together and the 
other to separate them. 



235 



XI. 
ANAXAGOBA8. 

ANAXAGORAS of Klazomenae, son of Hegesiboulos, was 
born in the seventieth Olympiad (500-497) and died 
in the first year of the eighty-eighth Olympiad (428) , 
according to the chronicles of Apollodoros. It is said 
that he neglected his possessions in his pursuit of 
philosophy ; he began to teach philosophy in the archon- 
ship of Kallias at Athens (480). The fall of a meteoric 
stoneatAegps Potamoi (467 or 469) influenced pro- 
foundly his views of the heavenly bodies. Petikles 
brought him to Athens, and tradition says he remained 
there thirty years. His exile (434-432) was brought 
about by the enemies of Perikles, and he died at Lam- 
psakos. He wrote but one book, according to Diogenes, 
and the same authority says this was written in a 
pleasing and lofty style. 

Literature : Schaubach, Anax. Claz. Frag. Lips. 
1827 ; W. Schorn, Anax. Claz. et Diog. Apoll. 
Frag. Bonn 1829 ; Panzerbieter, De frag. Anax. 
ord. Meining. 1886 ; Fr. Breier, Die Philosophie 
des Anax. nach Arist. Berl. 1840. Cf. Diels, 
Hermes xiii. 4. 



23 G THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



FRAGMENTS OF ANAXAGORAS. 

1. O/JLOV vpij/jLara iravra r\v aTrstpa Kal 7T\rj0os teal 
crfjiiKpoTrjTa' Kal yap TO afAiKpov aTrstpov rjv, Kal TrdvTwv 
oaov SOVTCOV ov&sv svSr)\ov rjv VTTO crfiiKporrjTOS' TcdvTa 
jap ar]p TS Kal aWrjp Karsl^sv aa^orspa ajrstpa sovra- 
TavTa y<}p asyiaTa svscrriv sv rots avfATracri Kal 7r\r)dsi 
Kal fisysQsi. 

2. Kal yap arjp TS Kal aWrjp aTTOKpivovraL UTTO rov 

TToXXoO TOV TTSptS^OVTOS. Kal TO 75 7repl%OV CtTTSlpCV 
SCTTl TO TT\r)6oS. 

4. Trplv &s aTTOKpidfjvai . . . iravrwv 6/iou SOVTWV ouBs 
Xpoirj ev8r)\os f)v ov^s^ila' a7TSKa>\vs yap rj crvp,p.i^is 
7rdvTG>v xprj/jbdraiv TOV TS Btspov Kal TOV ^rjpov Kal 
TOV 6sp/jiov Kal TOV tyvypov Kal TOV \afJL7rpov Kal TOV 
o<j>spov Kal yrjs Trd\\r/s svsova-rjs Kal 
7r\i]6ovs ovSsv soiKOTO)V aXX^Xots 1 . ova's <yap TU>V 

OVOSV SOIKS TO STSpOV TO) STSpO). 

3. TOVT(i)V Bs OVTWS S^OVTWV, XP^ BoKStV SVSLVai 

vroXXa TS Kal TravTola sv iracri TOIS (rvyKpivo/jisvois Kal 
Tcdvrwv ^prjfiaTwv Kal I8sas iravToias s^pvTa 
as Kal r 



Sources and Critical Notes. 

1. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 155, 26. (First clause 8 r 34, 20, and 37 r 
172, 2.) 

34, 20 and 172, 2 irav-ra xp-n^ra. 155, 28. &D fV3r)Xov, Text 
from DE. 

2. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 155, 31. 

155, 31. aD & a-fip re Kal 6 alQtip, Text follows EF. 

4. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 156, 4. (8 r 34, 21 substitutes for the last 
line a paraphrase of Fr. 3.) 

34, 21 inserts ravra after airoKpidrjvai. 34, 24 Kal rris, Text from 
356,7. 

3. Simpl. Phys. 8 r 34, 29. 33 v 156, 2. 33 v 157, 9. (Cf. 
p. 34, 25 at end of Fr. 4.) 



ANAXAGORAS 237 



TRANSLATION. 

1. All things were together, infinite both in number 
and in srnallness ; for the small also was infinite. And 
when they were all together, nothing was clear and dis- 
tinct because of their smallness ; for air and aether com- 
prehended all things, both being infinite ; for these are 
present in everything, and are greatest both as to num- 
ber and as to greatness. 

2. For air and aether are separated from the sur- 
rounding mass ; and the surrounding (mass) is infinite 
in quantity. 

4. But before these were separated, when all things 
were together, not even was any colour clear and distinct ; 
for the mixture of all things prevented it, the mixture 
of moist and dry, of the warm and the cold, and of the 
bright and the dark (since much earth was present), 
and of germs infinite in number, in no way like each 
other ; for none of the other things at all resembles the 
one the other. 

3. And since these things are so, it is necessary to 
think that in all the objects that are compound there 
existed many things of all sorts, and germs of all objects, 
having all sorts of forms and colours and tastes. 



238 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



10. Kal dvdpcoTTOvs TS (Tv^a^vdi real ra a'XXa %wa 
6<ra ^ITVY^V s^ei. Kal rots ye avOpwiroicriv slvai Kal 
TroXfty <rvv(i)Kri/j,Evas Kal spya KarsaKSvaa-fjiSva, &<T7Tp 
Trap rjfuv, Kal r)\iov TS avroicriv slvai Kal a-\i']vr]v Kal 
ra aXXa, wcnrsp Trap' rjpJiv^ Kal rrjv <yrjv avrolcri <pvsiv 
TroXXa re KOI rravroia, u>v SKSIVOI, ra ovrjia-ra <rvvVy- 



ef rrfv oiKrjcnv %p<avrai. ravra i^sv ovv pot, 
\s\SKrat Trspl rrjs aTTOKpicnos, ort, OVK av Trap i]p2v /JLOVOV 



11. ovrco rovreav Trepi^wpovvTcov re Kal arroKpivo- 
fievwv VTTO yStT/s re Kal ra^vrrjros. ^LTJV Bs ?; ra^yr^s 
Trotet. 97 Sg Ta%vrr)S avrS)v ovbsvl SOIKS ^p^an rrjv 
ra^vrijra rwv vvv eovrcov ^pij/jidrcov sv avOpwrcois, a\\a 
Trdvrats rroKXarrKacriws ra^u sari. 

14. rovrwv Be ovrw SiaKSKpifisvwv <yiv(t)<TKiv XP*)> ri 
irdvra ovBsv fXa<rcr<w sa-rlv ovSs TrXe/a). ov jap avvcrrov 
Trdvrwv TrXfi'tB slvai, aXXa rcavra Icra asi. 

5. sv rravrl iravros fjiolpa svearw rc\^v vov, scrriv 
qlcrt^Bs Kal vovs svi. 

6. TO. [lev aXXa. rravros /moipav fjisrs-^si, vovs Ss_ sanv^ 
a7Tipov Kal avroKpare? Kal pLSfMiKrat, ovbsvl ^p^fiari, aXXa 

avros efi savrov scrriv. el jj,r) <yap eft savrov rjv, 



10. Simpl. Phys. 8 r 35, 3. 33 v 157, 9 (continuing Fr. 3). 
Simpl. de coelo. 

157, 12. ffw-niuiiva.'!, Text from 35, 4. 157, 13. '^\iov . . . av-rols 
Ivtivai. 35, 7. E -rhawviiHTTa., &F T& OVKT-T&, Text from 157, 15. 
35, 8. (ravra . . . &\\y) is omitted at 157, 16. 

11. Simpl. Phys. 8 r 35, 14. 

35, 16. DE xp^ara. 17. DE vow. 
14. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 156, 10. 
DE ra. -rdvra, Text from &F. 

5. Simpl. Phys. 35 r 164, 23. 

6. Simpl. Phys. 35 v 164, 24 T ^tv . . . M f>(Krai obSfv!, and 33 r 156, 
13, beginning vovs Se tfrriv. Phys. 156, 13 cf. 67 V 301, 5, and 38 v 
176, 32 (37 r 174, 16). Phys. 156, 19 cf. 38 v 176, 34. Phys. 156, 24 
cf. 35 v 165, 31 and 37 r 174, 7. Phys. 157, 2 cf. 37 r 175. 11 and 38 



ANAXAGORAS 239 

10. And men were constituted, and the other animals, 
as many as have life. And the men have inhabited 
cities and works constructed as among us, and they have 
sun and moon and other things as among us ; and the 
earth brings forth for them many things of all sorts, 
of which they carry the most serviceable into the house 
and use them. These things then I have said concerning 
the separation, that not only among us would the 
separation take place, but elsewhere too. 

11. So these things rotate and are separated by force 
and swiftness. And the swiftness produces force ; and 
their swiftness is in no way like the swiftness of the 
things now existing among men, but it is certainly many 
times as swift. 

14. When they are thus distinguished, it is necessary 
to recognise that they all become no fewer and no more. 
For it is impossible that more than all should exist, but 
all are always equal. 

5. In all things there is a portion of everything except 
mind ; and there are things in which there is mind also. 

6. Other things include a portion of everything, but 
mind is infinite and self-powerful and mixed with no- 
thing, but it exists alone itself by itself. For if it were 



240 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

d\\d rsw e/j,efJiiKTO aXXw, /Msrslysv av aTravrav 
el sfjLSfitKTO rso). sv iravrl jap iravrbs polpa s'vs<rrtv, w 
sv rots Trpoadsv pot \s\SKrai, KOI av SKCO\VSV avrbv ra 
crv^JifiSfjiij/jisva, &<rrs fjLrjSsvbs ^prj/j,aros Kparstv opolcas cos 
teal fiovov sovra <' savrov. s'crri jap \S7rrdrarov rs 
irdvrwv %pr)p,dra)v Kal Kadapwrarov Kal yvwfArjv <ys Trspl 
iravros frdaav ttr^ei Kal lar^ysi fAsjicrrov, Kal oaa <ys "^rv^ijv 
Kal fjLsi^a) Kal eXa(7cr&), Trdvratv vovs KparsL Kal rrjs 
vovs sKparr/asv, ware jrspi- 



rrjv pxrfv. Kal Trpwrov ir rov crftiKpov 

sfrsl Bs irKslov 7rpi%a)psi, Kal 
sirl TT\SOV. Kal ra a-vppKryofASvd rs Kal drroKpivop,va Kal 
&iaKpivb/Jiva, Trdvra s<yva) vovs. Kal OTrola sfjbsXXsv sas- 
cr6ai Kal OTroia rjv, Kal ocra vvv scrri Kal oirola scrrai, 
irdvra SLSKOG (j,r)(T vovs, Kal rrjv Trspi'^wpija'iv ravrrjv TJV 
vvv TTSpi^copssi rd rs aarpa Kal 6 ijXtos Kal rj a-\r)vt) Kal 
6 dr)p Kal 6 aWrjp ol dtroKpivo^svoi. i] 8s 7rspi%a>pr)cris 
avrrj sTroiija'Sv aTTOKpivscrdai. Kal aTTOKptvsrai airo rg 
rov dpaiov TO TTVKVOV Kal aVo rov -^rv^pov TO 6sp/jibv Kal 
CJTTO TOU %o<f>spov TO \a/A7rpbv Kal CLTTO rov Bispov TO ^rjpov. 
/jioipac os 7ro\\al 7ro\\wv slcrt. TravraTracn Ss ovBsv 
dtroKpivsrai ovos Biatcplvsrat, srspov aVo TOV srspov ifkr/v 
vov. vovs Bs iras O/JLOIOS sari Kal 6 /JLSL^WV Kal 6 s\drru>v. 



v 176, 24. Phys. 157, 3 cf. 35 v 165, 14. Phys. 157, 4 cf. 35 v 

165, 3. 

156, 15. 176, 34 & twvrov : D a\\k -rev, E a.\\k rtws, F a\\\ Text 
from a. 156, 16. DEF /ueT*: x * i"", Text from a. 156, 17. 
Refers to Fr. 5. &EF aveKti>\vfv, Text from D. 156, 20. &TX*'. 
177, 1 ?x- 156, 21. &DF omit Kal before o<ra, Text from E 
and 177, 2. 177, 2 ra pdfa Ka l T^ <?A<o-trco. 156, 22. ED 1 
TrtpiXupfaeus, Text from aZ) 2 F. 177, 3 omits fierre eVi 
TT\(OV. 156, 23. E omits rov before ff/juKpov. &F irfpixwpri<Tou, 
Text from DE. 156, 26. 165, 33 Kal 6w6<ra vvv e<rri Kal 
tffrat, 177, 5. affffa vvv /UTJ earn. 157, 3. 165, 15. After fyotov 
ovSevl the words ert'py aireipfav uvrcav should probably be 
ascribed to Simpl. 157, 4. DE a\\' orai, F oAAco ra : F ra 
*\ti<jra. (also 165, 3), Text from &DE. 



ANAXAGORAS 241 

not by itself, but were mixed with anything else, it would 
include parts of all things, if it were mixed with any- 
thing ; for a portion of everything exists in everything, 
as has been said by me before, and things mingled with it 
would prevent it from having power over anything in the 
same way that it does now that it is alone by itself. For 
it is the most rarefied of all things and the purest, and it 
has all knowledge in regard to everything and the greatest 
power ; over all that has life, both greater and less, mind I 
rules. And mind ruled the rotation of the whole, so that 
it set it in rotation in the beginning. First it began the 
rotation from a small beginning, then more and more 
was included in the motion, and yet more will be 
included. Both the mixed and the separated and distinct, 
all things mind recognised. And whatever things were 
to be, and whatever things were, as many as are now, 
and whatever things shall be, all these mind arranged 
in order ; and it arranged that rotation, according to 
which now rotate stars and sun and moon and air and 
aether, now that they are separated. Eotation itself 
caused the separation, and the dense is separated from 
the rare, the warm from the cold, the bright from the 
dark, the dry from the moist. And there are many 
portions of many things. Nothing is absolutely separated 
nor distinct, one thing from another, except mind. All 
mind is of like character, both the greater and the 
smaller. But nothing different is like anything else, but 



242 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

srspov cs ovosv ia-riv opoiov ovoevt, aXX' oro> irXsiara IW, 
-ravra svor)\6rf)ra sv sKaarov sari ical fy. 

7. K al srcii rtp&To 6 vovs Kivelv, arro rov KIVOV^SVOV 
rravros a7TKp[vro, Kal oa-ov SKivyo-sv 6 vovs, irav rovro 
StexpiBii. Kivovpevtov & Kal SiaKpivopsvvv f) fepitfb- 
prjns TroXXw fj,a\\ov eiroisi SiaKpivsvQai. 

8. TO flsv TTVKVOV Kal Sispov Kal ^rv^pov ical^ TO 
frfcpbv sv6d awex<bpii<rev sv6a vvv <r) 777 > TO 5g 
Zpcuov Kal TO 0eppbv Kal TO frpov <xal TO \afwpbv > 
s^s^apria-sv sis TO irpoffw rov alBspos. 

9. a-TTo rovrevv airoKpivopsvwv OTfjarfavVTfU 777- SK 
fjisv yap TWV v6$ehS>v v%(0p airoKpCveTtu, SK Ss TOU vSa-ros 
7^, SK 8s Tr}s- 7775- \C0ot a-vpirfavwrai VTTO TOV tyvxpov, 
ovroi &s sK^wpsovvi /j,a\\ov rov v&aros. 

12. 6 8s vovs, o)s asi TTOTS, Kapra Kal vvv scrriv, Iva 
K al ra a\\a iravra, sv TW TroXXw Kepi^x Kal * v rols 
ttTTOKpiOsta-i Kal ev rots aTTOKpivopsvois. 

18. ov KS^picrrai, aXX^Xwv ra sv rw svl Koa-fiw ov&s 

aTTOKSKOTTTat TTS\SKt OVT TO 0SpfAOV aTTO TOU ^VXPOV 

ovrs TO tyv%pbv arro rov 0p/J<ov. 

15. OUTS <yap rov a-piKpov sen TO y eXaxto-TOV, aXX' 
asi. TO <yap sbv OVK sari TO pr) OVK dvai. 



7. Simpl. Phys. 66 r ; 300, 31. 33. DE Kal, &F omit. 

8. Simpl. Phys. 38 r ; 179, 3. Cf. Dox. 562, 3. 

4. 179, 4 Diels would supply -ri> before Siepbi/ and ^v x pi>v. 5. From 
Dox. 562 add ^ 7^ ... T& \aftvphv. 

9. Simpl. Phys. 38 r 179, 8. In part 33 r 155, 21. Cf. 106 v 460, 
13-14. 155, 22. \i9oi ffv^wfiyvvvrat. 

12. Simpl. Phys. 33 r 157, 7. Simpl. Ua. effri re, corr. Diels : iroAAi 
irepic'xom, corr. Diels ; cf. p. 155, 31 : irpoffKpiQ^i . . . AHcpj^J, 
corr. Diels ; cf. 156, 28. 

13. Simpl. fhys. 37 r 175, 12 beginning with ovSe. To ireAe'/cei, 38 v 

176, 29. 

15. Simpl. Phys. 35 v 164, 17. Cf. 35 r 166, 15. 

164, 17. MS. -rb nit, Zeller, Phil. Or. i. 4 , 884 n. 3 TO/AT). After 



ANAXAGORAS 243 

in whatever object there are the most, each single object 
is and was most distinctly these things. 1 

7. And when mind began to set things in motion, 
there was separation from everything that was in motion, 
and however much mind set in motion, all this was 
made distinct. The rotation of the things that were 
moved and made distinct caused them to be yet more 
distinct. 

8. The dense, the moist, the cold, the dark, collected 
there where now is the earth ; the rare, the warm, the 
dry, the bright, departed toward the farther part of the 
aether. 

9. Earth is condensed out of these things that are 
separated. For water is separated from the clouds, and 
earth from the water ; and from the earth stones are 
condensed by cold ; and these are separated farther 
from water. 2 

12. But mind, as it always has been, especially now 
also is where all other things are, in the surrounding 
mass, and in the things that were separated, and in the 
things that are being separated. 

13. Things in the one universe are not divided from 
each other, nor yet are they cut off with an axe, neither 
hot from cold, nor cold from hot. 

15. For neither is there a least of what is small, but 
there is always a less. For being is not non-being. 

1 I.e. things are called after the element or elements (homoeon:eries) 
which predominate in their make-up. 
* Cf. Herakleitos. Fr. 68. 

& 2 



244 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 



a Kal rov fj,syd\ov dsi sari ftsi^ov. Kal icrov scrrl ra> 
w rc\rjdos, Trpos savro 8s SKCKTTOV scrri Kal /zeya Ka\ 



16. /cat ors 8s laat, fjuoipai slcri rov rs ftsyakov KOI rov 
<r/j,iKpov rr\ridos, Kal ovrws av strj sv rcavri irdvra. ovos 
%(i)pis scrriv slvai, aXXa rcavra iravrbs polpav 
ors rov^dyicrrov firj scrriv slvat, OVK av Svvairo 
crdijvai, ouS' av sfi savrov ^/svsadai' aXA,' OTraxnrsp 
slvai Kal vvv, rcavra 6p,ov. sv rcacn 8s 7ro\\a svsari, Kal 
ra>v aTroKptvofAsvajv icra ir\fidos sv rots fAsi^ocrL rs Kal 



17. TO Ss jlvsadai Kal d7r6\\vcrdai OVK opOws 
ovcriv ol "EiXX.TjUef ouSsv jap %pf)fj.a jivsrai ov8s cnro\- 
Xyrat, aXX' CLTTO sovrwv ^pTjfidruiv av^^icr'^srai rs Kal 
BiaKpivsrai. Kal ovrais av opQws Kakolsv TO rs <yivs(rdai 
(TVjJLfjiLo-^eaOai Kal TO arroKkvaOai StaKpivecrOai. 

(18.) rrSis jap av SK ftr) rpij(jus yivoiro 0pl% Kal crapi; 
SK fjt,ij aapKos ; 

elvot Schorn inserts oCre rb p.tyi<rrov, comparing previous line 
and 166, 16. 

16. Simpl. Phys. 35 v 164, 24. 

17. Simpl. Phys. 34 v 163, 20. 

18. Schol. in Gregor. Naz. Migne 36, 911. (Cf . Hermes xiii. 4, Diels.) 



ANAXAGOEAS 245 

But there is always a greater than what is great. And 
it is equal to the small in number ; but with reference 
to itself each thing is both small and great. 

16. And since the portions of the great and the 
small are equal in number, thus also all things would 
be in everything. Nor yet is it possible for them to 
exist apart, but all things include a portion of every- 
thing. Since it is not possible for the least to exist, 
nothing could be separated, nor yet could it come into 
being of itself, but as they were in the beginning so they 
are now, all things together. And there are many 
things in all things, and of those that are separated 
there are things equal in number in the greater and 
the lesser. 

17. The Greeks do not rightly use the terms ' coming 
into being ' and ' perishing.' For nothing comes into 
being nor yet does anything perish, but there is mixture 
and separation of things that are. So they would do right 
in calling the coming into being ' mixture,' and the 
perishing ' separation.' 

(18.) For how could hair coma from what is not 
hair ? Or flesh from what is not flesh ? 



PASSAGES FKOM PLATO REFEKRING TO ANAXAGOKAS. 

ApoL 26 D. He asserts that I say the sun is a stone 
and the moon is earth. Do you think of accusing 
Anaxagoras, Meletos, and have you so low an opinion of 
these men and think them so unskilled in letters as not 
to know that the books of Anaxagoras of Klazomenae 
are full of these doctrines ? And forsooth the young 
men are learning these matters from me, which some- 
times they can buy from the orchestra for a drachma at 
the most, and laugh at Sokrates if he pretends that they 
are his particularly seeing they are so strange. 



246 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Phaedo 72 c. And if all things were composite and 
were not separated, speedily the statement of Anaxa- 
goras would become true, ' All things were together.' 

97 c. I heard a man reading from a book of one 
X Anaxagoras (he said), to the effect that it is mind which 

^ arranges all things and is the cause of all things. 

98 B. Beading the book, I see that the man does 
- ''not make any use of mind, nor does he assign any causes 

for the arrangement of things, but he treats air and 
aether and water as causes, and many other strange 
things. 

Lysis 214 B. The writings of the wisest men say . . . 
that it is necessary for the like always to be loved by 
the unlike. 

Hipp. Mai. 283 A. They say you had an experience 
opposite to that of Anaxagoras ; for though he inherited 
much property he lost it all by his carelessness ; so he 
practised a senseless wisdom. 

Kratyl. 400 A. And do you not believe Anaxagoras 
that the nature of all other things is mind, and that 
it is soul which arranges and controls them ? (cf. Phaedo 
72 c). 

409 A. It looks as though the opinion Anaxagoras 
. recently expressed was a more ancient matter, that the 
^ moon has its light from the sun. 

413 c. Anaxagoras is right in saying that this is 
, mind, for he says that mind exercising absolute power 
; and mingled with nothing disposes all things, running 
through all. 

Rival. 132 A. But the youths seemed to be quarrel- 
ling about Anaxagoras or Oenopedos, for they were 
evidently drawing circles and imitating certain inclina- 
tions by the slope of their hands with great earnestness. 
Phil. 28 c. All the wise men agree that mind is king 
of heaven and earth for us. 



ANAXAGORAS 247 

30 D. Some long ago declared that always mind 
rules the all. 

Legg. 967 B. And some had the daring to conjecture 
this very thing, saying that it is mind which disposes 
all things in the heavens. And the same men again, 
being in error as to the nature of soul, in that it is 
older than bodies, while they regarded it as younger, to 
put it in a word, turned all things upside down, and 
themselves most of all. For indeed all things before 
their eyes the things moving in the heavens appeared 
to them to be full of stones and earth and many other 
soulless bodies, which dispose the causes of all the 
universe. 

Phaedr. 270 A. All the arts that are great require 
subtlety and the higher kind of philosophy of nature ; 
so such loftiness and complete effectiveness seem to come 
from this source. This Perikles acquired in addition to 
being a man of genius ; for as the result, I think, of his 
acquaintance with such a man as Anaxagoras he became 
imbued with high philosophy, and arrived at the nature 
of intelligence \yovs~] and its opposite, concerning which 
Anaxagoras often discoursed, so that he brought to the 
art of speaking what was advantageous to him. 

PASSAGES IN ARISTOTLE REFERRING TO ANAXAGORAS. 

Phys. i. 4 ; 187 a 20. And others say that the oppo- 
sites existing in the one are separated out of it, as 
Anaximandros says, and as many as say that things are 
one and many, as Empedokles and Anaxagoras ; for 
these separate other things out of the mixture. . . And 
Anaxagoras seems to have thought (the elements) in- 
finite because he assumed the common opinion of the 
physicists to be true, that nothing arises out of non- 
being; for this is why they say, as they do, that all 



248 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

things were together, and he established the fact that 
such ' arising ' was change of form. 

Phys. L 4 ; 187 a 36. They thought that (what arose) 
arose necessarily out of things that are and their attri- 
butes, and, because the masses were so small, out of 
what we cannot perceive. Wherefore they say that 
everything was mixed in everything because they saw 
everything arising out of everything ; and different 
things appeared and were called different from each 
other according to what is present in greater number 
in the mixture of the infinites ; for the whole is not 
purely white or black or sweet or flesh or bone, but the 
nature of the thing seems to be that of which it has 
the most. 

Phys. iii. 4 ; 203 a 19. And as many as make the 
elements infinite, as Anaxagoras and Demokritos, the 
former out of homoeomeries. . . . 

Phys. iii. 5 ; 205 b 1. Anaxagoras speaks strangely 
about the permanence of the infinite ; for he says that 
the infinite itself establishes itself that is, it is in itself; 
for nothing else surrounds it, so that wherever anything 
may be, it is there in virtue of its origin. 

Phys. iv. 6 ; 213 a 22. Some who try to show that the 
void does not exist, do not prove this of what men are 
wont to call a void, but they make the mistake Anaxa- 
goras did and those who attempted to prove it after this 
manner. For they show that air is something, blowing 
skins up tight, and showing how strong air is, and shut- 
ting it up in clepsydrae. 

Phys. viii. 1 ; 250 b 24. For Anaxagoras says that 
when all things were together and had been at rest for 
an infinite time, mind introduced motion and caused 
separation. 1 

Phys. viii. 5 ; 256 b 24. So Anaxagoras is right in 

1 Cf. 265 b 22. 



AXAXAGOEAS 249 

saying that mind is not affected by other things and is 
unmixed, since he makes it the first principle of motion. 
For thus only, being unmoved, it might move, and being 
unmixed, it might rule. 1 

De caelo i. 3 ; 270 b 24. Anaxagoras does not use 
this word [aiOijp] rightly, for he uses the word aether 
instead of fire. 

De caelo iii. 2 ; 301 a 12. Anaxagoras starts to con- 
struct the universe out of non-moving bodies. 

De caelo iii. 3 ; 302 a 31. Anaxagoras says the oppo- 
site to Empedokles, for he calls the homoeomeries ele- 
ments (I mean such as flesh and bone and each of those 
things), and air and fire he calls mixtures of these and of 
all the other ' seeds ; ' for each of these things is made of 
the invisible homoeomeries all heaped together. Where- 
fore all things arise out of these things ; for he calls fire 
and aether the same. And since there is a peculiar 
motion of every material body, and some motions are 
simple and some complex, and the complex motions are 
those of complex bodies and the simple motions of simple 
bodies, it is evident that there will be simple bodies. For 
there are also simple motions. So it is evident what 
elements are, and why they are. 

De caelo iv. 2 ; 309 a 20. Some of those who deny 
that there is a void say nothing definite concerning 
lightness and weight, for instance Anaxagoras and 
Empedokles. 

Gen. corr. i. 1 ; 314 a 11. Others assert that matter 
is more than one, as Empedokles and Leukippos and 
Anaxagoras, but there is a difference between these. 
And Anaxagoras even ignores his own word, for he 
says that he has shown genesis and destruction to bo 
the same as change, but like the others, he says there 
are many elements. . . . Anaxagoras et al. say there 

'Cf. Met. 989 b 15. 



250 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

are an infinite number of elements. For he regards the 
homoeomeries as elements, such as bone and flesh and 
marrow, and other things of which the part (nepos) has 
the same name as the whole. 

De anima i. 2 ; 404 a 25. In like manner Anaxa- 
;oras says that soul is the moving power, and if any 
one else has said that mind moved the all, no one said 
it absolutely as did Demokritos. 

De anima i. 2 ; 404 b 1. Anaxagoras speaks less 
clearly about these things ; for many times he rightly 
and truly says that mind is the cause, while at other 
times he says it is soul ; for (he says) it is in all animals, 
both great and small, both honoured and dishonoured. 
But it is not apparent that what is intelligently called 
mind is present in all animals alike, nor even in all 
men. 

De anima i. 2 ; 405 a 13. Anaxagoras seems to say 
that soul and mind are different, as we said before, but 
he treats both as one in nature, except that he regards 
mind especially as the first principle of all things ; for 
he says that this alone of all things is simple and un- 
mixed and pure. And he assigns both to the same 
first principle, both knowledge and motion, saying that 
mind moves the all. 1 

De anima i. 19 ; 405 b 19. Anaxagoras alone says 
that mind does not suffer change, and has nothing in 
common with any of the other things. 

D<> anima iii. 4 ; 429 a 18. It is necessary then that 
it be unmixed since it knows [yosi] all things, as Anaxa- 
/ goras says, in order that it may"rule, that is, that it may 
J know \^v<t>pi,y\* 

De partTanTm. iv. 10 ; 687 a 7. Anaxagoras says 
that man is the most intelligent of animals because he 
has hands. 

'Cf.iii. 4; 429 b 24. 



ANAXAGOEAS 251 

De plant, i. ; 815 a 16. Anaxagoras said that plants 
are animals and feel pleasure and pain, inferring this 
because they shed their leaves and let them grow again. 

De plant, i. ; 816 b 26. Anaxagoras said that plants 
have these (motion and sensation) and breathing. 

De plant, i. ; 817 a 26. Anaxagoras said that their 
moisture is from the earth, and on this account he said 
to Lechineos that the earth is mother of plants, and the 
sun father. 

De X. Z. G. ii. ; 976 b 20. Anaxagoras busying him- 
self on this point, was satisfied with saying that the void 
does not exist, nevertheless he says beings move, though 
there is no void. 

Meta. i. 3 ; 984 all. Anaxagoras of Klazomenae, 
who preceded him (Empedokles) in point of age and 
followed him in his works, says that the first principles 
are infinite in number ; for nearly all things being made 
up of like parts (homoeomeries), as for instance fire and 
water, he says arise and perish only by composition and 
separation, and there is no other arising and perishing, 
but they abide eternal. 

Meta. i. 3 ; 984 b 8. Besides these and similar causes, 
inasmuch as they are not such as to generate the nature 
of things, they (again compelled, as we said, by the truth 
itself) sought the first principle which lay nearest. For 
perhaps neither fire nor earth nor any other such thing 
should fittingly be or be thought a cause why some things 
exist and others arise ; nor is it well to assign any such 
matter to its voluntary motion or to chance. Moreover 
one who said that as mind exists in animals, so it 
exists in nature as the cause of the universe and of all 
order, appeared as a sober man in contrast with those 
before who spoke rashly. 

Meta. i. 4 ; 985 a 18. Anaxagoras uses mind as a de- 
vice by which to construct the universe, and when he is 



252 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

at a loss for the cause why anything necessarily is, then 
/he drags this in, but in other cases he assigns any other 
' cause rather than mind for what comes into being. 

Meta. i. 8 ; 989 a 30. And if any one were to assume 
that Anaxagoras said the elements were two, he certainly 
would assume it according to a principle which that one 
did not describe distinctly ; nevertheless he would follow 
along a necessary path those who guided him. For 
though it is strange particularly that he said all things 
had been mixed together at first, and that they must 
first have existed unmixed because they came together, 
and because chance had not in its nature to be mingled 
with chance ; and in addition to this it is strange that he 
should separate qualities and accidental characteristics 
from essences (for there is mixture and separation of 
these), nevertheless if any one should follow him and try 
to put together what he wanted to say, perhaps he would 
seem to speak in a very novel manner. For when nothing 
was separated, clearly it was not possible to say anything 
true of that essence, I mean to say that anything was 
white or black or grey or any other colour, but every- 
thing was necessarily colourless ; for it might have any 
of these colours. In like manner it is tasteless, nor 
according to the same line of argument could it 
have any other of the like qualities; for it could not 
have any quality, or quantity, or anything. For then 
one of what are sometimes called forms would exist for 
it, and this is impossible when all things are mixed 
together ; for it would have been already separated, 
and he says that all things are mixed together except 
mind, and this alone is unmixed and pure. It results 
from these views that he says the first principles are unity 
(for this is simple and unmixed), and what is different 
from unity, such as we suppose the undefined to be 
before it was defined and partook of any form. So he 



ANAXAGORAS 253 

does not speak rightly or clearly, still he means some- 
thing like those who spoke later and with greater 
clearness. 

Meta. iii. 5 ; 1009 b 25. And he called to mind the 
saying of Anaxagoras that just such things as men 
assume will be real for them. 

Meta. iii. 7 ; 1012 a 26. The thought of Anaxagoras 
. . . that some things exist between contradictory propo- 
sitions, so that all things are false ; for when they are 
mixed together, the mixture is neither good nor not- 
good, so that there is nothing true to be said. 1 

Meta. x. 6 ; 1063 b 25. According to the position of 
Herakleitos, or of Anaxagoras, it is not possible to speak 
the truth. 

Ethic, vi. 5 ; 1141 b 3. Wherefore they say that Thales 
and Anaxagoras and such wise men are lacking in intelli- 
gence, when they see them ignorant in things that are 
for their own advantage, and they say they know things 
extraordinary and wonderful and dreadful and divine, 
but these are of no use, because they do not seek human 
good. 

Ethic, x. 9 ; 1179 a 13. And Anaxagoras did not 
seem to regard the rich man nor yet the powerful man 
as the happy one when he said he would not be sur- 
prised if any one appeared strange to the many ; for 
these judge by what is outside, for that is all they can 
see. 

PASSAGES IN THE DOXOGRAPHISTS REFERRING TO 
ANAXAGORAS. 

Aet. Plac. i. 3 ; Dox. 279. Anaxagoras of Klazo- 
menae declared that homoeomeries are the first prin- 
ciples of things. For he thought it most difficult to 
'Cf.iv.4; 1007 b 25. 



254 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

understand how anything should arise out of not-being, 
or perish into not-being. Certainly we take simple food 
of one kind, such as the bread of Demeter, and we drink 
water ; and from this nourishment there are nurtured 
hair, veins, arteries, sinews, bones, and the other 
parts. Since these arise we must acknowledge that 
in the nourishment that is taken are present all 
realities, and from them everything will grow. And 
in that nourishment there are parts productive of 
blood and of sinews and bones and the rest ; these 
are the parts that may be discovered by contempla- 
tion. For it is not necessary to perceive everything 
by sense, how that bread and water give rise to these 
things, but the parts may be discovered in them by 
contemplation. From the fact that parts exist in the 
nourishment like the things that are generated, he called 
them homoeomeries, and declared that they are the first 
principles of things ; and he called the homoeomeries 
matter, but the active cause that arranges all things is 
mind. And he began thus : All things were together 
and mind arranged and disposed them. So we must 
assert that he associated an artificer with matter, 
i. 7 ; 299. Anaxagoras says that bodies are established 
according to first principles, and the mind of God 
arranged them and caused the generations of all things. 
i. 7 ; 302. The mind that made the universe is God. 
i. 14; 312. Anaxagoras : The homoeomeries are of many 
shapes, i. 17 ; 315. Anaxagoras and Demokritos : The 
elements are mixed by juxtaposition, i. 24 ; 320. (See 
p. 241. i. 29 ; 326.) Anaxagoras and the Stoics : Cause 
is not evident to human reason ; for some things happen 
by necessity, and others by fate, and others by purpose, 
and others by chance, and others of their own accord, 
i. 30 ; 826. Anaxagoras : Origination is at the same 
time composition and separation, that is, genesis and 
destruction. 



ANAXAGORAS 255 

Aet. Plac. ii. 1 ; 327. The universe is one. ii. 4 ; 831. 
The universe is perishable, ii. 8 ; 337. Diogenes and 
Anaxagoras : After the universe arose and the animals 
were brought forth out of the earth, it tipped somehow 
of its own accord towards its south part, perhaps inten- 
tionally, in order that some parts of the universe might 
be inhabited and others uninhabited according as they 
are cold, or hot, or temperate, ii. 13 ; 341. Anaxagoras : 
The surrounding aether is of a fiery nature, and 
catching up stones from the earth by the power of its 
rotation and setting them on fire it has made them into 
stars, ii. 16 ; 345. Anaxagoras et al. : All the stars move 
from east to west. ii. 21 ; 351. Anaxagoras : The sun 
is many times as large as the Peloponnesos. ii. 23 ; 
352. Anaxagoras : The solstices are due to a repulsion 
of the air towards the south, for the sun compressed it 
and by condensation made it strong, ii. 25 ; 356. Anaxa- 
goras and Demokritos : The moon is a fiery solid body 
having in itself plains and mountains and valleys, 
ii. 29; 360. Anaxagoras, as Theophrastos says, at- 
tributed eclipses to bodies below the moon which 
sometimes come in front of it. 1 ii. 30 ; 361. Anaxa- 
goras says that the unevenness of the composition (the 
surface of the moon) is due to the mixture of earthy 
matter with cold, since the moon has some high places 
and some low hollows. And the dark stuff is mingled 
with the fiery, the result of which is the shadowy appear- 
ance ; whence it is called a false-shining star. 

Aet. Plac. iii. 1 ; 365. Anaxagoras : The shadow of 
the earth falls along this part of the heaven (the milky 
way), when the sun is beneath the earth and does not 
shed light on all things, iii. 2 ; 366. Anaxagoras and 
Demokritos : (Comets etc.) are due to the conjunction of 
two or more stars, and the combination of their rays. 367. 

1 Cf. Theophr. Phys. op. Frag. 19 ; Dox. 493. 



256 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

The so-called shooting stars come darting down from the 
aether like sparks, and so they are immediately ex- 
tinguished, iii. 3; 368. Anaxagoras : When the hot falls 
on the cold (that is, aether on air), it produces thunder 
by the noise it makes, and lightning by the colour on the 
black of the cloud, and the thunderbolt by the mass and 
amount of the light, and the typhoon by the more material 
fire, and the fiery whirlwind by the fire mixed with cloud, 
iii. 4 ; 371. Anaxagoras : Clouds and snow are formed 
in somewhat the same manner ; and hail is formed 
when, already cooled by its descent earthwards, it is thrust 
forth from frozen clouds ; and it is made round, iii. 5 ; 
373. Anaxagoras : (The rainbow) is a reflection of the, 
sun's brightness from thick cloud, and it is always set op- 
posite the star which gives rise to the reflection. And in, 
a similar way he accounts for the so-called parhelia, which, 
take place along the Pontos. iii. 15 ; 379. Anaxagoras : 
(Earthquakes take place) when the air falls on the thick- 
ness of the earth's surface in a sheltered place, and if 
shakes the surrounding medium and makes it tremble, 
because it is unable to effect a separation, iii. 16 ; 381. 
Anaxagoras : When the moisture which was at first 
gathered in pools was burned all around by the revolution 
of the sun, and the fresh water was evaporated into 
saltness and bitterness, the rest (of the sea) remained. 

Aet. Plac. iv. 1 ; 385. Anaxagoras : The Nile comes 
from the snow in Ethiopia which melts in summer and 
freezes in winter, iv. 3 ; 387. Anaxagoras et al. : The 
soul is of the nature of air. iv. 5, 392. The intelligence 
is gathered in the breast. The soul is imperishable, 
iv. 9 ; 396. Anaxagoras et al. : Sensations are decep- 
tive. 397. Sensations arise part by part according to 
the symmetry of the pores, each particular object of 
sense corresponding to a particular sense (organ). 
iv. 19 ; 409. Anaxagoras : Sound arises when wind falls 



ANAXAGORAS 257 

on solid air, and by the return of the blow which is 
dealt to the ear ; so that what is called an echo takes 
place. 

Aet. Plac. v. 7 ; 420. Anaxagoras, Parmenides : 
Males are conceived when seed from the right side enters 
the right side of the womb, or seed from the left side 
the left side of the womb ; but if its course is changed 
females are born. v. 19 ; 430. As Anaxagoras and 
Euripides say : Nothing of what is born dies, but one 
thing separated from one part and added to another 
produces different forms, v. 20 ; 432. Anaxagoras : 
All animals have reason that shows itself in activity, 
but they do not have a sort of intelligence that re- 
ceives impressions, which may be called the interpreter 
of intelligence, v. 25 ; 437. Anaxagoras : Sleep is due 
to a weariness of the body's energy ; for it is an ex- 
perience of the body, not of the soul ; and death is the 
separation of the soul from the body. 

Theophr. Phys. opin. Fr. 4 ; Dox. 479. Theophrastos 
says that the teaching of Anaxagoras is much like that 
of Anaximandros ; for Anaxagoras says that in the sepa- 
ration of the infinite, things that are akin come together, 
and whatever gold there is in the all becomes gold, and 
whatever earth becomes earth, and in like manner each 
of the other things, not as though they came into being, 
but as though they were existing before. And Anaxa- 
goras postulated intelligence (vovv) as the cause of mo- 
tion and of coming into being, and when this caused 
separation worlds were produced and other objects 
sprang forth. He might seem, he says, to make the 
material causes of things taking place thus infinite, 
but the cause of motion and of coming into being 
one. But if one were to assume that the mixture of 
all things were one nature undefined in form and in 
amount, which he seems to mean, it follows that he 

S 



258 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

speaks of two first principles, the nature of the infinite 
and intelligence, so that he appears to treat all the 
material elements in much the same manner as Anaxi- 
manclros. 

Phys. op. Fr. 19 ; Vox. 493. See Aet. ii. 29 ; Vox. 
360, translated above, p. 255. 

Phys. opin. Fr. 28 ; Dox. 495. And the third opinion 
about the sea is that the water which filters and strains 
through the earth becomes salt because the earth has 
such flavours in it ; and they point out as a proof of this 
that salt and saltpetre are dug up out of the earth, 
and there are bitter flavours at many places in the 
earth, Anaxagoras and Metrodoros came to be of this 
opinion. 

Theophr. de sens. 27 ; Dox. 507. Anaxagoras held 
that sensation takes place by opposite qualities ; for like 
is not affected by like. And he attempts to enumerate 
things one by one. For seeing is a reflection in the pupil, 
and objects are not reflected in the like, but in the oppo- 
site. And for many creatures there is a difference of 
colour in the daytime, and for others at night, so that 
at that time they are sharpsighted. But in general the 
night is more of the same colour as the eyes. And thft 
reflection takes place in the daytime, since light is the 
cause of reflection ; but that colour which prevails the 
more is reflected in its opposite. In the same manner 
both touch and taste discern ; for what is equally warm or 
equally cold does not produce warm or cold when it ap- 
proaches its like, nor yet do men recognise sweet or 
bitter by these qualities in themselves, but they perceive 
the cold by the warm, the drinkable water by the salt, 
the sweet by the bitter, according as each quality is 
absent ; for all things are existing in us. So also smell 
and hearing take place, the one in connection with 
breathing, the other by the penetration of sound into 



ANAXAGOBAS 259 

the brain ; for the surrounding bone against which the 
sound strikes is hollow. And every sensation is attended 
with pain, which would seem to follow from the funda- 
mental thesis ; for every unlike thing by touching pro- 
duces distress. And this is evident both in the duration 
and in the excessive intensity of the sensations. For 
both bright colours and very loud sounds occasion 
pain, and men are not able to bear them for any long 
time. And the larger animals have the more acute 
sensations, for sensation is simply a matter of size. For 
animals that have large, pure, and bright eyes see large 
things afar off, but of those that have small eyes the 
opposite is true. And the same holds true of hearing. 
For large ears hear large sounds afar off, smaller ones 
escape their notice, and small ears hear small sounds 
near at hand. And the same is true of smell ; for the 
thin air has the stronger odour, since warm and rarefied 
air has an odour. And when a large animal breathes, it 
draws in the thick with the rarefied, but the small animal 
only the rarefied, so that large animals have a better 
sense of smell. For an odour near at hand is stronger 
than one far off, because that is thicker, and what is 
scattered is weakened. It comes about to this, large 
animals do not perceive the thin air, and small animals 
do not perceive the thick air. 

Cic. deNat. Deor. i. 11 ; Dox. 532. Whence Anaxa- 
goras, who was a pupil of Anaximenes, first taught that 
the separation and character of all things were deter- 
mined and arranged by the power and reason of infinite 
mind ; but in this he fails to see that no motion can be 
connected with and contiguous to infinite sensation, and 
that no sensation at all can exist, by which nature as a 
whole can feel a shock. Wherefore if he meant that 
mind is as it were some sort of living being, there will 
be something inside of it from which that living being 

s 2 



260 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

is determined. But what could be inside of mind ? So 
the living being would be joined with an external body. 
But since this is not satisfactory, and mind is 'open 
and simple,' joined with nothing by means of which 
it can feel, he seems to go beyond the scope of our 
intelligence. 

Hipp. Phil. 8 ; Dox. 561. After him came Anaxa- 
goras of Klazomenae, son of Hegesiboulos. He said 
that the first principle of the all is mind and matter, 
mind the active first principle, and matter the passive. 
For when all things were together, mind entered and 
disposed them. The material first principles are infinite, 
and the smaller ones of these he calls infinite. And all 
things partake of motion when they are moved by mind 
and like things come together. And objects in the 
heavens have been ordered by their circular motion. 
The dense and the moist and the dark and the cold and 
all heavy things come together into the midst, and the 
earth consists of these when they are solidified ; but the 
opposite to these, the warm, the bright, the dry, and the 
light move out beyond the aether. The earth is flat in 
form, and keeps its place in the heavens because of its 
size and because there is no void ; and on this account 
the air by its strength holds up the earth, which rides 
on the air. And the sea arose from the moisture on 
the earth, both of the waters which have fallen after 
being evaporated, and of the rivers that flow down into 
it. 1 And the rivers get their substance from the clouds 
and from the waters that are in the earth. For the 
earth is hollow and has water in the hollow places. And 
the Nile increases in summer because waters flow down 
into it from snows fat the north. f 2 

Sun and moon and all the stars are fiery stones that 

1 I translate the suggestion of Diels in his notes. 

2 Cf. Act. iv. 1, supra, p. 256. 



AXAXAGORAS 261 

are borne about by the revolution of the aether. And 
sun and moon and certain other bodies moving with 
them, but invisible to us, are below the stars. Men do 
not feel the warmth of the stars, because they are so far 
away from the earth ; and they are not warm in the 
same way that the sun is, because they are in a colder 
region. The moon is below the sun and nearer us. The 
sun is larger than the Peloponnesos. The moon does 
not have its own light, but light from the sun. The 
revolution of the stars takes them beneath the earth. 
The moon is eclipsed when the earth goes in front of it, 
and sometimes when the bodies beneath the moon go in 
front of it ; and the sun is eclipsed when the new moon 
goes in front of it. And the solstices are occasioned 
because the sun and the moon are thrust aside by the air. 
And the moon changes its course frequently because it 
is not able to master the cold. He first determined the 
matter of the moon's phases. He said the moon is 
made of earth and has plains and valleys in it. The 
milky way is a reflection of the light of the stars which 
do not get their light from the sun. The stars which 
move across the heavens, darting down like sparks, are 
due to the motion of the sphere. 

And winds arise when the air is rarefied by the sun, 
and when objects are set on fire and moving towards the 
sphere are borne away. Thunders and lightnings arise 
from heat striking the clouds. Earthquakes arise 
from the air above striking that which is beneath the 
earth ; for when this is set in motion, the earth which 
rides on it is tossed about by it. And animals arose in 
the first place from moisture, and afterwards one from 
another ; and males arise when the seed that is separated 
from the right side becomes attached to the right side of 
the womb, and females when the opposite is the case. 
He was in his prime in the first year of the eighty- 



262 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

eighth Olympiad, at the time when it is said Plato was 
born. They say that he became endowed with know- 
ledge of the future. 

Herm. I. G. P. 6 ; Dox. 652. Anaxagoras takes me 
aside and instructs me as follows : Mind is the first 
principle of all things, and it is the cause and master of 
all, and it provides arrangement for what is disarranged, 
and separation for what has been mixed, and an orderly 
universe for what was disorderly. 



APPENDIX 



THE SOURCES OF THE FRAGMENTS. 

THE value of a quotation depends on two things, (1) the habit 
of accuracy in the person who quotes it, and (2) whether it is 
quoted from the original or from some intermediate source. 
Consequently the careful student of the early Greek philo- 
sophers, who depends wholly on quotations for his direct 
knowledge of these thinkers, cannot neglect the consideration 
of these two questions. Closely connected with the accuracy 
of quotations is the question as to the accuracy of later writers 
in the opinions which they have attributed to these thinkers. 
These topics I propose to consider very briefly, that the student 
may have at least some clue to guide him in his studies. 



1. We find in Plato 1 scarcely any quotations, since the literary 
character of the dialogue excludes anything that might seem 
pedantic. There are allusions to certain phrases of Herakleitos 
which had already become all but proverbs : the Herakleitean 
sun, the harmony of opposites, ' all in motion ' with the 
example of the river ; and the comparison ' god : man :: man : 
ape ' is also given as the teaching of Herakleitos. 2 Similarly 
phrases of Anaxagoras are brought into the dialogues ' all 
things were together,' ' vous disposed all things,' 3 but they 
hardly deserve the name of quotations. Other allusions to his 

1 Cf . the consideration of this topic by Zeller in the Archiv f. d. 
Gesch. d. Philos. Bd. V. (1892) p. 165 f. 

2 See I. Index of Sources, ' Plato.' Cf. Krat. 401 D, 402 A, 412 D, 
439 B, 440 c, TJieaet. 152 D. 

3 Phaed. 97 B, Gorg. 465 c, Phaed. 72 c, Legg. 595 A. 



264 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

theory do not even suggest a quotation. The only real quota- 
tions are from Parmenides, 1 and in two of these passages the 
text as read by Simplicius was corrupt and unmetrical. Simpli- 
cius quotes the game passage at one time from Plato, at another 
time apparently from the original, 2 so that he enables us to 
correct the form of the quotation which he (or the writer from 
whom he drew) read in his MS. of Plato. Plato's writings 
betray no particular interest in any of the pre-Sokratic thinkers 
except Parmenides and the Pythagorean school, nor do they 
convey any hint as to the value of the work of the other early 
thinkers. So it need not surprise us that he alludes to 
popular phrases and seems rather to avoid exact quotation. 

2. Beyond these allusions we get comparatively little light 
from Plato as to the teachings of his predecessors. Xeno- 
phanes is once spoken of as the founder of the Eleatic school 
and of its doctrine of unity. Parmenidea is a far more inter- 
esting character to Plato, and the highest regard is expressed 
for him. 3 When his position as to the unity of being and the 
non-existence of not-being is discussed, there is no reason to 
think that his opinions are not correctly given ; but when 
Parmenides is introduced as a speaker, we are not to believe 
that he states the opinions of the real Parmenides any more 
than the Platonic Sokrates states the positions of the real 
Sokrates. Of Zeno we learn that he was skilled in the 
art of dialectic. 4 Zeno's statement of the occasion and 
purpose of his book 5 is of course Plato's deduction from the 
book itself. The speculations of Anaxagoras are several times 
mentioned. 6 The statement that he regarded the heavenly 
bodies as ' XLOoi ' is a welcome addition to our knowledge of 
his doctrines ; and Plato's criticism of Anaxagoras' use of his 
fundamental principle is most important. Of Empedokles we 
hear but little ; the statement of his doctrine of sense-percep- 
tion is a happy exception to the rule. The accuracy of Plato's 
statements where they can be tested gives an added importance 

1 Farm. 52, 53 ap. Soph. 237 A, 258 D ; 98 ap. TJieact. 180 E ; 103- 
105 ap. Soph, 244 E ; 132 ap. Symp. 178 B. 

2 Cf. Simpl. Phys. 1 r 29, 42 and 19 87, 1. 

3 Theaet. 183 E, Soph. 237 A. 

4 Phaedr. 261 D. ' * Farm 128 B. 

8 Apol. 26 D, Krat. 400 A, 409 A, 413 A, Legg. 967 B. 



APPENDIX 265 

to what he says about the Pythagoreans. 1 In a word all the 
data which we have from Plato are valuable, but these data are 
much fewer than we might expect. 

3. Both the citations from earlier philosophers and the 
statement of their opinions are much more frequent in the 
writings of Aristotle. Two of his references to the sayings of 
Herakleitos are not new to the reader of Plato ; indeed Fr. 41 
ap. Meta. 1010 a 13 is cited with direct reference to the passage 
where it is cited in Plato. Fr. 37, if we may accept the con- 
jecture of Patin, 2 is a sarcastic phrase of Herakleitos which 
Aristotle has introduced seriously into a theory of sense-per- 
ception. Fr. 46 and 57 are summary phrases stating the 
fundamental positions of Herakleitos ; Fr.51 and 55 proverbial 
sayings attributed to him ; Fr. 59 alone has the form of a 
genuine quotation. 3 It is evident that summary phrases give 
the philosopher's impression, just as proverbial sayings may 
come through the medium of popular thought, so that neither 
have quite the value of direct quotation. 

From Xenophanes Aristotle gives two mots, which were 
attributed naturally enough to the poet-skeptic. There is no 
proof that Xenophanes was the original author of either of them. 

From Parmenides four passages are quoted; strangely 
enough three of them are passages that had been quoted by 
Plato. Lines 52-53 in our texts of Aristotle repeat the same 
error that appears in our texts of Plato ; 11. 103-105 are not 
so near to what seems to be the original (judged by the quota- 
tion in Simplicius) as is the Platonic version. Unless our 
MSB. are greatly at fault, two of the four passages were very 
carelessly reproduced, and we have reason to believe that they 
were drawn from Plato. The fourth passage, given by Aris- 
totle and Theophrastos, has the appearance of careful 
quotation, though one verb has an unmetrical form in our 
Aristotle (where Theophrastos gives a correct form). Aristotle 
does not quote directly from either Zeno or Melissos. 

Coming now to Empedokles, we find two extended passages 
which can only be regarded as genuine quotations, namely 

1 See supra, p. 133 f. ; also Phileb. 16 c, 23 c, Pol. 530 D, 600 A. 

- Die Einheitslehre Heraklits, p. 17 f. 

3 See I. Index of Sources, under 'Aristotle.' 



266 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

11. 287-811 and 316-325. On the other hand several phrases 
(11. 208, 326, 443) give only a general idea of the language of 
Empedokles. Most of the quotations consist of from one to 
four lines preserving their metrical form, so that they deserve 
the name of quotations ; but their accuracy is doubtful in 
matters of detail. This is most clearly seen by an examination 
of the ten cases where the same passage is quoted twice by 
Aristotle, namely : lines 36-39, 104-107, 146-148, 167, 208, 
244, 270-271, 330-332, 333-335. In only three of these 
instances (38-39, 270-271, 333-335) is the quotation identi- 
cal ; in the other cases there is some slight difference in the 
text, although commonly both versions scan correctly. An 
examination of the lines quoted only once in Aristotle shows 
very frequent deviation from the same lines as quoted by others. 
In two instances a line is omitted from the context (37 and 99); 
a case is changed, a connecting particle changed or omitted 
entirely, a common word is substituted for a rarer one (236-237) 
or an Aristotelian word for the word required by the full context 
(e.g. Meta. 1015 a 1), or finally only the substance of the line is 
given (e.g. lines 91, 92). These variations are so numerous as 
to justify the conclusion that the text furnished by Simplicius 
or by Sextus Empiricus deserves quite as much weight as 
that furnished by Aristotle, since the latter cares only for the 
thought and not at all for the exact language in which the 
thought had been clothed. 

4. In addition to these quotations we find in the writings 
of Aristotle a comparatively full statement of the opinions of 
the pre Sokratic philosophers. Aristotle was interested in the 
work of his predecessors, since he rightly regarded his own 
system as the crowning result of partial views that had been 
set forth before. All that is valuable in their work he would 
give its place in his own philosophy, and their false or partial 
opinions he would controvert. Accordingly his ordinary 
method is to commence the discussion of a theme by stating 
the opinions of his predecessors and criticising them ; and it 
is natural that the early thinkers who first set forth charac- 
teristic views with force and vigour should receive the fullest 
consideration, for indeed this position is still due to them in 
the history of philosophy. 



APPENDIX 267 

Inasmuch as Aristotle set the fashion for later philosophic 
writers in collecting and criticising the opinions of earlier 
thinkers, it is important to form a clear conception of both the 
excellence and the defects of his method. 

On a first examination of his statements of these opinions 
the student is struck by their fullness and comparative 
accuracy. Emminger l has collected and discussed these 
data, and arrives at the conclusion in every instance that 
Aristotle's statement is based on a use of the best materials 
at his command, and that it reproduces correctly the view of 
the philosopher in question. It is true that Emminger takes 
the position of an apologist. There is no doubt, however, 
that Aristotle was very familiar with the poems of Empedokles, 
the arguments of Zeno, the system of the Pythagoreans ; when 
he cannot verify his opinions, as in the case of Thales, they 
are commonly introduced with a Ae'yerat of caution ; and where 
the views of earlier thinkers seem to be distorted, it is generally 
due to one of several simple causes which we can estimate 
with considerable accuracy. 

My own conclusion is that the data given by Aristotle are 
of the greatest value for the study of his predecessors, though 
they are to be used with caution. 

Turning to the defects of the Aristotelian method, I would 
point out that there is apparently no little difference in the 
care with which Aristotle had studied the writings of his 
predecessors. His general attitude towards the Eleatic school 
is well known, and there is no evidence that he was really 
familiar with the works of Xenophanes or Parnienides or 
Melissos. The fact that three of the four quotations from 
Parnienides were at least suggested by Plato's writings should 
not receive undue weight, yet it is certainly suggestive. 
Several sayings are quoted from Herakleitos, and his logic is 
severely criticised ; we do not, however, obtain from Aristotle 
any conception of the real importance of Herakleitos. In 
fact, Aristotle does not seem at all to have understood the 
meaning of Herakleitos' work, whether we are to attribute it 
to his inability to put himself in sympathy with so different a 

1 Emminger, Die vorsokratischc PhilosopJiie der Griechen nach den 
Berichten des Aristoteles. Wtirzburg 1878. 



268 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

thinker, or to his failure to study his writings. If we had 
only the data from Aristotle, we should really know more 
of the significant work of Anaximandros than of Herakleitos. 
The conception of the earlier Greek thinkers whicli we 
obtain from Aristotle's writings is distorted along four lines. 

1. Whether or not it was due to his failure to study certain 
of these thinkers, Aristotle's comparative estimate of them 
is not one with which we can agree. As for Herakleitos, we 
can say that Aristotle assigns him a very important place in 
early thought, even though he gives us but little clue to what 
his work really was. Perhaps he overestimates the work of 
Anaximandros and Anaximenes because he finds in them so 
clear an anticipation of his own thought. Certainly he does 
not give due weight to the Eleatic school as a whole, and in 
particular to Melissos. Melissos was not a great original 
thinker along entirely new lines, but his work in systematising 
Eleatic thought was very important. Perhaps because he 
resembled Aristotle in what he sought to do, although from so 
very different premisses, he is handled with the greater disdain. 

2. We may get from Aristotle a slightly distorted view of 
the earlier thinkers because he stated their views in the terms 

. of his own philosophic system. The commonest philosophical 
terms, such as aTreipoy, ev, Averts, KCVOV, TO. ovra, OTMycibi', crw/xa, 
ovo-ia, TrdOrj, slightly changed their meanings as they gradually 
took their place in a definite philosophical terminology. aW-gjji, 
regularly used by Aristotle to denote the original principleof 
all things which the early thinkers sought, eT8osj soused in 
the statement of Herakleitos' position l and of the Pythagorean 
philosophy 2 : the latter a word introduced into philosophy by 
Plato, the former probably not used in this sense before Aris- 
totle himself. 

3. This tendency, however, is not limited to the use of 
philosophical terms. Aristotle states the general position of 
earlier thinkers from the standpoint of his own developed 
system. The arguments of Zeno and Melissos are thrown 
into logical form that he may the better criticise them. 
Herakleitean teachings also are stated in Aristotelian logic, 
and thereby lose the truth they might have had. Aristotle 

1 Meta. 1078 b 12. 2 Meta. 1036 b 18. 



APPENDIX 269 

finds his own theory of indeterminate potential matter in 
Anaximandros, and it is no easy task to discern what is due 
to Aristotle and what to Anaximandros in the Aristotelian 
account. Again in the case of Parmenides we may well 
question the statement l that his two principles were heat=fire 
= being, and cold=earth=Mo-Z>emg 1 . 

4. Finally Aristotle may be said to give a false impression 
of his predecessors when he assigns the probable causes for 
their opinions. Cf. Meta. 983 b 18, supra p. 2 ; Phys. 204 b 26, 
supra p. 10 ' in order that other things may not be blotted 
out by the infinite ; ' cle anima 405 a 25, supra p. 58. 

The mere statement of these lines, along which Aristotle 
may be said slightly to distort the views of his predecessors, 
is sufficient to put the reader on his guard ; and it is com- 
paratively easy to make allowance for them. 

5. The fragments of Theophrastos that remain are suffi- 
cient only to show that he studied the work of the pre-Sokratic 
thinkers even more carefully than Aristotle; to make any 
exact inferences as to his method of making quotations, how- 
ever, is impossible on the basis of these fragments. Four of 
his quotations are also cited by Aristotle, 2 and it is interesting 
to notice that in the second and the fourth of this list Theo- 
phrastos gives a text that is probably more correct than that 
found in our MSS. of Aristotle. The remaining quotations 
found in Theophrastos 3 show a familiarity only with Empe- 
dokles. Only one of these scans correctly, and that by the 
change of one word, which probably was erroneously copied. 
LI 191-192 have lost some words, and 11.- 423-424 are quite 
rewritten in prose. Apparently Theophrastos was even more 
careless of the form of his quotations than Anstotle, though 
he knows the early thinkers at first hand and can correct 
Aristotle's quotations. The statement of the op^nwns of 
these thinkers by Theophrastos will be considered later in 
connection with the doxographic tradition. 

& 6 From the time of Aristotle to Plutarch we know com- 
paratively little of the works of the early philosophers or of 
The habit of quoting from them. There is abundant evidence, 



270 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

however, that they were studied ; the positions and sayings of 
Herakleitos especially seem to have attracted much attention. 
The works extant under the name of Hippokrates are 
attributed by some writers to a period even before Aristotle. 
In these works there are allusions to the positions of Empe- 
dokles and Anaxagoras, and Book I of the treatise irepl SICUTI/S 
contains much Herakleitean material. There is scarcely one 
direct quotation (cf. Fr. GO), and Bernays cannot be said to be 
successful in reconstructing phrases of Herakleitos from this 
source. The book, however, is a comparatively early witness 
to the work of Herakleitos, and doubly important because it 
is independent of that Stoic study to which is due most of our 
knowledge of him. 

7. More than the other schools that succeeded Aristotle 
the Stoics devoted themselves to the history of philosophy, 
and they were interested in Herakleitos for the same reason 
that Aristotle had been interested in Anaximandros, because 
they regarded him as a precursor in their own line of thought. 
Herakleitean phrases occur already in the hymn of Kleanthes 
to Zeus, thus showing that they had already been adopted into 
the Stoic phraseology. 1 Philodemos (vii. 81) quotes Chrys- 
ippos also as giving a quotation from Herakleitos. 

It is only from later writers, however, that we can ascer- 
tain how much Herakleitos was studied in this period. Ap- 
parently collections were made of his sayings, which soon 
displaced the more complete form of his writings. Indeed, it 
is hard to prove that his book existed at all in later times, 
although Sextus Empiricus quotes a passage of some 
length which is considered to be the beginning of the work. 
Further, the works of at least some Stoic writers must 
have abounded in quotations from Herakleitos. In the 
writings of Philo there are numerous allusions to sayings of 
Herakleitos ; and the Stoic context, the connection with Stoic 
ethics, as well as Philo's general interest in the Stoic school, 
make it probable that he finds his Herakleitos in his Stoic 
sources. But while Philo is thus an important witness to the 
study of Herakleitos among the Stoics, he is of little value in 
reconstructing the text of the Ephesian philosopher. The 

1 See Index of Sources under ' Kleanthes.' 



APPENDIX 271 

carelessness of his method of quotation is shown by the form in 
which he gives three lines of Empedokles (48-49, 386). To 
seven fragments of Herakleitos (1, 22, 24, 46, 56, 64, 70) 
Philo makes a mere allusion ; in another series of instances 
(10, 67, 69, 79, 80, 82) a phrase, often a single word, of 
Herakleitos is worked into the context. Fr. 68 and 85 are 
quoted very carelessly, and 76 and 89 have assumed a form 
very different from that which they originally had. Com- 
monly the name of the author (Herakleitos) is not given. 

Cicero quotes Herakleitos 113 in Greek without the author's 
name, and translates 114 carefully; Bywater, p. x, suggests 
that he found the latter in somebody's de exilio commentatio. 
Eeturning to the Stoic school, we find in Seneca an accurate 
translation of Herakleitos 77 and 81, so that we are inclined 
to trust his version of 120. What seems to be Herakleitos 113, 
however, is assigned to Demokritos in an expanded form. 
The epistles attributed to Herakleitos belong to approximately 
this period, and are interesting only as additional evidence to 
the study of Herakleitos by Stoic philosophers Stobaeos 
quotes several Herakleitean phrases from Musonius. Fr. 20 
and 69 are given only in substance, a phrase from 114 is 
worked into the context, and 75 is quoted in a later form. 
Fr. 75 as well as 27 and 67 is found in the second and 
third books of Clement's Paedagogos, books which draw largely 
from Musonius. The use of Herakleiteao material by Lucian, 
especially in his Vitarum auctio, ch. xiv., is doubtless based 
on a Stoic source, as is indicated by the work eW^'/awo-is. 
We may conclude this survey of Stoic writers with Marcus 
Aurelius. In his writings we find bare allusion to Herakleitos 
2, 5, 20, 73, and perhaps to 97 ; a word or two of 34, 84, and 
98 are worked into the text ; while 25, 69, 90, 93, 94 are 
half quoted in the text. Apparently all are allusions to, or 
abbreviated citations of, sentences with which the reader was 
supposed to be familiar. It is wholly improbable that citations 
made in this manner were drawn from the book itself; rather 
they seem to point to a collection of sayings ' of Herakleitos 
which must have been quite generally known. Unless such 
a collection is assumed, they must be regarded as phrases 
which were familiar to all because they were so often quoted. 
The former hypothesis seems to me the more tenable. 



272 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

8. We find in Plutarch one of the principal sources of 
our fragments. Nearly fifty fragments of Herakleitos are 
quoted more or less fully in his writings. Many of these 
quotations consist of a single phrase containing perhaps only 
a word or two of the original writer, so that they are not of 
much value for purposes of reconstruction. Sometimes the 
citation is given in Plutarch's own words ;* sometimes there 
is only a careless allusion, as to Fr. 41, 48, and 120. Even 
when we seem to have a real quotation, it may be expanded, 
as in the case of Fr. 108 ap. Moral. 143 D compared with Moral. 
644 F, or Fr. 31 ap. Moral. 98 D as compared with Moral. 957 A. 
So I am inclined to regard Fr. 11, 22, and 44 as having been 
expanded by Plutarch. We cannot therefore place much 
reliance on the form of Plutarch's quotations from Herakleitos. 
As to the source of these quotations we should notice that 
two of them (Fr. 41 and 45) had been mentioned by Plato, 
and others (88, 41, 43, and 105) by Aristotle ; it is probable 
that Plutarch quotes these because they were familiar to the 
readers of Plato and Aristotle. Fr. 20, 22, 24, 25, 34, 44, 75, 
and 85 occur in Stoic writers, and Plutarch himself refers 91 
to the Stoics. Fr. 45-56 are made Stoic in Plutarch by the 
addition of the word KOO^LOV (defining appovi-ri) which does not 
appear e.g. in Plato ; and Fr. 19, 20, 74, 75, and 87 have a 
decided Stoic colouring. Thus we may suspect that about 
half the quotations from Herakleitos were drawn from Stoic 
sources. On the other hand 78 with its context seems to be 
based on a considerable passage of Herakleitos, and 11, 12, 
and 127 have the appearance of careful quotation. 

Plutarch's method in handling quotations from philoso- 
phers who wrote in poetry is more satisfactory. It is only 
rarely that the thought is put in his own words, 2 or that the 
quotation consists of less than a full line. Sometimes lines 
are grouped which do not belong together, as ap. Moral. 607 c 
and 618 B. In. some instances the text itself seems to be at 
fault. 3 In general, however, the poetic form protected such 
quotations from change, and the poetic form was naturally 

1 E.g. 78 ap. Moral. 106 E; 95 ap. 166 c. 

2 E.g. Emped. 272 ap. Moral. 917 c ; 369 ap. Moral. 996 B. 

3 Emped. 232 ap. Moral. 745 c ; 154-155 ap. Moral. 925 B; 
farmen. 29-30 ap. Moral. 1114 D. 



APPENDIX 273 

retained in quotations for the purpose of embellishment. I 
may add that Plutarch rarely neglects to give the name of the 
author from whom he quotes. As to the source of these poetic 
quotations, we cannot doubt that Plutarch sometimes quotes 
Enipedokles from the original. A literary man could hardly 
fail to be acquainted with his poems, and it is by no means 
likely that the quotations Moral. 607c, 1111 F, 1113 are taken 
from an intermediate source'. Five of the quotations from Par- 
menides, on the other hand* were not new to the readers of 
Plato and Aristotle, and the two remaining ones, together 
with some of the lines from Enipedokles, as I have tried to 
show elsewhere, 1 were probably drawn from a collection of 
passages on the moon. There is no evidence that Plutarch 
knew Parmenides at first hand. Many passages of Empedo- 
kles also had become common property in the time of Plutarch, 
and in some instances Plutarch no doubt found collections of 
quotations suitable for his purpose, so that we cannot attribute 
all the single lines quoted from Enipedokles to Plutarch's own 
study of his poems. 

9. Judged by the Herakleitos fragments which they yield, 
the works of Clement and Hippolytos are hardly second in 
importance to Plutarch for the student of early Greek philo- 
sophy. In the Protreptikos of Clement there is an interesting 
series of passages from Herakleitos on popular worship ; in the 
Paedagogos and the first and fourth books of the Stromata 
there are scattered quotations most of which bear clear marks 
of their secondary origin ; book II contains several quotations 
from the introduction to Herakleitos' works ; while the third 
and fifth books of the Stromata contain a much larger collection 
of passages from Herakleitos, Xenophanes, Parmenides, and 
Enipedokles. A casual glance at the whole series of quotations 
shows that Clement's method was by no means uniform, and 
that he was often contented with a secondary source for his 
quotations, not taking the trouble to look them up in the 
original. In the first book of the Stromata the first quotation 
from Herakleitos is a proverb familiar in Greek literature, the 
second passage a bare allusion to a sentence quoted by Plu- 
tarch, and the two remaining ones refer to two quotations also 

1 Transactions of American Philol Assoc. XXVIII. pp. 82 

T 



274 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

given by Diogenes. That Clement used the /Si'ot which were 
the basis of the work of Diogenes Laertios is probable from 
his quotation of Parmenides 28-30 and Empedokles 26-28, 
383-384. It is also highly probable that Clement found much 
of his material in Stoic sources. It is generally agreed that in 
Paedagogos ii. and iii. he freely used Musonius. Hera. 122 ap. 
Clement 188 ' what men do not expect at death ' is interpreted 
by Clement as referring to Stoic fire, and Clement 649 (Hera. 
123) also attributes to Herakleitos and the Stoics an idea be- 
longing to the latter only. Hera. 77 is alluded to by Seneca as 
familiar to his Stoic readers, and other fragments cited by 
Clement were apparently found by Philo in his Stoic sources. 
Hera. 69 ap. Clement 718 looks like another form of Hera. 19 
which Plutarch quotes from a Stoic source, and perhaps we may 
regard 20 also as from the Stoic source from which Plutarch 
drew. Hera. 31 ap. Clement 87 includes an added phrase (as to 
the stars) which appears also in one of the two passages in Plu- 
tarch where it is quoted. One of the lines of Parmenides and six 
of the single lines of Empedokles given by Clement are also 
found in Plutarch. Consequently I regard it as not impro- 
bable that Clement drew quotations from Plutarch, and as all 
but certain that he drew from the Stoic sources of Plutarch. 
The wrong interpretation of Hera. 116 (op. Clement 699), 122 
(ap. 18), 67 (ap. 251), 79 (ap. Ill), and perhaps 27 (ap. 229) 
is additional proof that Clement was entirely unfamiliar with 
the context in which these passages originally stood, and 
therefore probably did not draw from the original. While we 
are quite unable to trust Clement's interpretation of his quota- 
tions, it should be remarked that he is exceedingly careful to give 
the correct form (e.g. Hera. 101 ap. Clement 586 as compared 
with the same fragment in Hippolytos ; in this quotation he 
gives the dialect forms with his usual fidelity). 

It remains to consider several series of passages, and to ask 
whether these were quoted at first hand. In the Protreptikos 
we find Herakleitos fragments 122, 124, 125 together, and -a 
little farther on 126-127 (cf. 122 ap. Clement 630, and 123 
ap. 649) on the topic of popular worship. These are clearly 
quoted from a connected passage, and not phrases that have 
been passed on as proverbs. Moreover 124-127 are somewhat 



APPENDIX 275 

closely connected with each other (perhaps 122 belongs with 
them). It is evident that Clement (or possibly the immediate 
source -of Clement) drew them from a somewhat extended 
passage in the original. Another series of passages from 
Herakleitos and Empedokles (op. Clement 516 and 520) are 
quoted as illustrating the misery of human life. They occur 
together in a long series of quotations on this topic, and at 
least one line, Empedokles 404, is not quite pertinent ; its 
lack of fitness in this connection may mean that Clement is 
adapting a collection of passages made (wholly or in part) by 
another hand for a slightly different purpose. Again, a con- 
siderable number of fragments, especially in books ii. and v. of 
the Stromata, are pithy proverbial statements of the funda- 
mental attitude of Herakleitos toward other men (cf. Herakl. 
5-8, 104, 2-3, 49, lllb with its addition from Demosthenes 
de corona p. 324). These are all marked by their proverbial 
form, and are many of them quoted by other writers. It is 
most natural to think that they were drawn from a collection 
of Herakleitean sayings such as is presupposed by the allusions 
of Marcus Aurelius and perhaps by the parody of Lucian. 

As to the poetic citations in the fifth book of the Stromata 
it seems to me wholly likely that the verses of Xenophanes, 
and Parmenides 133-139, are quoted from the original poems. 
Empedokles lines 74 and 165 are repeated as proverbs; lints 
33, 74, 104 (quoted with Herakleitos 68) are often-quoted 
verses on the favourite topic of the elements ; lines 342-343 are 
quoted with Herakleitos 49, lines 16-17 with Parmenides 28-80 
and Herakleitos 111, and it is quite probable that Clement 
found the topical groups of quotations ready to his hand. 
Empedokles 26 f., 55 f., 81, 130 f., are all introductory lines, 
and these too may have been collected by some earlier writer. 
We may conclude, then, that many of the citations in Clement 
were not taken from the original works, but that some may 
have been ; the most important fact is that Clement tran- 
scribes his quotations with great faithfulness. 

10. The citations given in the works of Sextus Empiricns 
are important because they are in a measure independent of 
the Stoic line of tradition ; we may even say with confidence 
that some of them are cited from the original works. For 



276 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Herakleitos there is only one important series of fragments, 
namely that found in adv. Math.vii. 126-134. Fragments 
52 and 54 of Herakleitos are indeed mentioned in a series of 
epigrams with no name attached to them (Pyrrh. i. 55), and a 
little later (Pyrrh. iii. 115 and 230) there is an allusion to the 
well-known Fr. 42 and a statement of Herakleitos' opinion as 
to life and death (cf. Fr. 78). The discussion adv. Math. vii. 
126-134 is a statement of the doctrine of sense-perception 
which Sextus attributes to Herakleitos. Diels has given good 
reasons (Dox. 209-211) for believing that this passage is 
based on Aenesidemus, a skeptic philosopher with strong 
Herakleitean leanings of the first century B.C. In it are 
contained tine full form of Fr. 2 (cited in part by other writers) 
and Fr. 4 and 92 (with comment based on a longer passage) ; 
there is also a phrase reminding the reader of Fr.77 in 130. 
This is the fullest extant material for reconstructing the 
introduction to Herakleitos' book, and was evidently based on 
the text of Herakleitos. While it is cited quite accurately, it 
is probable that Sextus took the citation from the same source 
as the rest of the discussion ; still, when we remember Sextus' 
fondness for citing procemiums, we cannot say definitely that 
he did not take it himself from the work of Herakleitos. 

Xenophanes is cited in passages varying in length from 
one to four lines. Most of these passages are not known from 
other writers or known only from late Homeric commentators. 
Where the same passage is cited twice, there is no variation 
except in the arrangement of the lines. Fr. vii. is given in 
part twice once lines 3-4, and again lines 1, 2, and 4 (see 
supra p. 66). From Parmenides (in addition to the line 132 
given by Plato and Aristotle) Sextus gives the prooemium of 
his work. Although earlier editors have extensively re- 
arranged this passage, I believe it is substantially correct in 
Sextus, and I see no reason to doubt that it was taken from 
the work itself. The citation of other lines before 53 by 
Plato and by Simplicius confirms the suspicion, however, that 
Sextus had omitted something at this point. From Empedo- 
kles' main philosophical work Sextus gives a portion of the 
proffimium (lines 2-28), as well as four lines from the intro- 
duction to the Kafiapmra. It is reasonable to believe that 



APPENDIX 277 

these lines with 428-435 were cited from the original poem ; 
the only errors are copyists' blunders. Sextus also cites 
Empedokles 83-35 and 78-80. These are much copied lines, 
and the form in Sextus includes some obvious errors, e.g. d^' 
for aldrip (1. 78) and <iAi'a for ^lAdY^ (1. 80), (cf. ^tov 1. 79) 
errors which very likely were found in the source from which 
Sextus drew the lines. 1 We may conclude that Sextus cited 
sometimes from the original, sometimes at second hand ; and 
that his citations reproduce his source accurately except that 
he sometimes omits verses from their connection. 

11. The quotations in the Befutatlo omnium Jucrcsium, 
which is now attributed to Hippolytos, include some that are 
very accurate and others of which the text is hopeless, an 
anomaly that is very difficult to explain. In the fifth book 
one phrase reminds the reader of Herakleitos 71, while Hera- 
kleitos 68a is quoted with the author's name, and 101 without 
it. In the sixth book there is an allusion to two forms of 
fire (Hera. 21), and Herakleitos 29 combined with 95 is quoted 
under the name of Pythagoras. Most of the quotations from 
Herakleitos, however, are closely grouped in ix. ch. 9-10. Some 
of these are phrases familiar in earlier writers (e.g. Hera. 3, 47, 
and 69) ; 2, 44, 45, and 35 are passages of some length which 
Hippolytos gives in accurate form ; 24 is accompanied by a 
Stoic explanation, and probably the phraseology of 28 and 36 
is Stoic ; in most of the citations in this group the text is very 
carefully given, even to the connecting particles, but besides 
the fragments in Stoic form just mentioned, the text of 123 is 
corrupted beyond possibility of restoration, and 58 is almost as 
bad. These fragments are consistently interpreted as antici- 
pating the views of a Christian sect, and it is possible that the 
p/e'et of 26 is due to this influence rather than to the Stoics. 
Bywater (p. ix) suggests that Hippolytos drew his quotations 
directly from the work of Herakleitos ; but it is not easy to 
regard the difference in accuracy as wholly a difference in the 
accuracy of one man's copying. 

The quotations from Empedokles, as indeed from other 
poets, show that Hippolytos was often very careless. The 

1 Simplicius copies the same error in line 78, probably finding it in 
his copy of Empedokles. 



278 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

omission of a word (e.g. lines 334, 335 ap. Hipp. 1G5, 1. 34 ap. 
246) is too common to be attributed wholly to the carelessness 
of copyists, nor would the rest of the text of Hippolytos 
justify this supposition. Lines 33-35 are quoted twice (p. 246 
and p. 813), and the last line differs in the two cases ; 
such a change as from reyyei to crvrovSe (p. 313) is not one 
that a copyist would be very likely to make. On the other 
hand, it is hardly conceivable that the errors in 11. 110 f. ap. 
p. 247, 222 f. ap. p. 251, 338 f. ap. p. 254 existed in any text 
that Hippolytos copied. The only possible explanation for 
this phenomenon is that sometimes Hippolytos quoted from 
memory, paying no attention either to metre or to phraseology, 
and sometimes (as in his quotations from Herakleitos gene- 
rally) from either the original or a source that was very close 
to the original. Since so many of the Empedoklean passages 
are not cited by any other writer, we may suppose that 
Hippolytos drew them from the original. 

12. Of the quotations in Diogenes Laertios from Hera- 
kleitos, By water says (p. x) : ' Laertium . . . libro pervetusto 
usum ease nemo jam adfirmaverit.' We do find four sentences 
of some length from Herakleitos, the genuineness of which is 
not questioned (Fr. 16, 17, 112, 114) ; it is noticeable that 
these fragments, together with the allusions to Fr. 33 and 
119, all refer to particular men, and so possessed a special 
interest for the biographical writers, who were Diogenes' main 
source. Three other fragments of more than two words are 
given by Diogenes (71, 100, and 103), and these are not 
found in any other Greek writer. The remaining fragments 
consist of only one or two words (22, 48, 62, 69, 80, 113), or 
are now regarded as spurious (131, 132), There is no reason 
to think that the fragments of Herakleitos contained in this 
work are not copied with reasonable accuracy ; on the other 
hand, we may assume from what we know of Diogenes' 
method of work that they were not drawn directly from the 
writings of Herakleitos. 

Diogenes quotes Xenophanes xiv. 1-2, and Empedokles 
1. 6, in a series of passages on skepticism, Xen. xviii. in a 
series on Pythagoreanism ; Fr. xxiv., the only one not found 
elsewhere, relates to the life of Xenophanes. From Parmenides 



APPENDIX 279 

are quoted lines 28-30 and 54-56. The last passage does 
not really illustrate the point for -which it is quoted (the 
senses inexact), and our text of Diogenes contains two 
blunders from some copyist. Portions of the prooemium of 
Empedokles' main work on philosophy ( 1, 24-82, ap. viii. 60 
and 59) are mentioned in connection with the name of Satyros. 
It is pretty clear (ap. viii. 62) that a ' Herakleitos ' is the source 
from which lines 352-363 are taken ; if so, the statement 
viii. 54 that this is the beginning of the Ka8dp/j.aTa comes from 
the same writer. Lines 384-385 are quoted much in the form 
in which they appear in Athenaeos, though with one copyist's 
error ; from the same work of Empedokles we have also lines 
355, 415, 417 in passages where Diogenes had just mentioned 
Timaeos. The familiar lines 35 and 67-68 are found here 
line 35 in a very confused form. In general these lines from 
poetic writers show numerous small errors, which may be due 
to the state of our manuscripts. Both the fragments from 
Herakleitos and those in poetic form are of great value, 
though we are in the dark as to their immediate source. 

13. The works of neo-Platonic writers frequently mention 
the earlier philosophers, but yield few fragments of value. 
Plotinos refers to ten fragments of Herakleitos. Four of 
these (80, 82, 83, 85) have the form of quotations, and in 
two instances the name of Herakleitos is mentioned ; they 
are, however, very short, and give no clue to their source. 
Sometimes Plotinos plays on words that were evidently known 
as Herakleitean, e.g. Fr. (47?), 54, 69, 80; or again an 
Herakleitean idea is stated in his own words, Fr. 32, 83, 99, 
130. The manner in which these quotations and allusions 
are made shows that the phrases were very familiar, either in 
earlier writers or possibly in some collection of sayings. 
Line 81 b of Parmenides is quoted with no name ; line 40 b 
is quoted with the author's name, and is followed by an 
account of the context which shows that it was drawn from a 
passage of some length. From Empedokles we find only two 
phrases, taken from lines 381 and 882, that are worked 
the text of Plotinos. 

Porphyry quotes from Herakleitos only familiar phrases, 
and these in the briefest form (74 ap. de antr. nym. xi. and 



280 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

72 ap. de antr. nym. x.). The phrases were so familiar that 
it was only necessary to suggest the idea (e.g. 56 ap. de antr. 
nym. xxix.) without mentioning the name of the philosopher. 
Parmenides is not so well known ; Greeks and Egyptians, we 
read, say that he mentioned the two gates in his Physika (de 
antr. w?/ra.xxiii.). Only the ^addp/jara of Empedokles is quoted, 
but here Porphyry knows the subjects treated in the work (de 
abst. II. xxi.), and sometimes the full context of the passage 
he quotes (e.g. de antr. nym. viii.). In the case of lines 
415-420 we are not sure that Porphyry was right in applying 
the verses to Parmenides ; still, the quotations would seem 
to be taken directly from the KaBdp^ara and copied with fair 
accuracy. 

lamblichos draws a few quotations from his predecessors 
in the neo-Platonic school (Empedokles, lines 415-420 from 
Porphyry ; and Herakleitos, Fr. 69, 82, 88 from Plotinos, if 
Stobaeos is correct in attributing this group of fragments to 
lamblichos). Most of the allusions to fragments of Hera- 
kleitos, however, cannot be traced to this source. The com- 
bination of Herakleitos 29 and 95, which Hippolytos had 
attributed to Pythagoras, lamblichos also attributes to the 
same thinker ; his language, however, differs in detail from 
that used by Hippolytos. Two words of Herakleitos 114 
(which had been cited by the Stoics and by Diogenes) are 
given, with the additional statement that Herakleitos gave 
laws to the Ephesians. Bywater's number 128 is an allusion 
probably including a single word from Herakleitos, as does 
129 also. Two words each from Fr. 11 and 12 (both found 
in Plutarch) are worked into the text of lamblichos in the 
former instance with the name of Herakleitos. Finally 105, 
which also appears in Plutarch, is given here in more accurate 
form. These references to Herakleitos, like those of the 
earlier neo-Platonists, are all made to fragments assumed to 
be familiar because they had been quoted often by earlier 
writers. 

The writings of his predecessors in this same school are 
frequently mentioned by Proklos, but his quotations from pre- 
Sokratic thinkers seem not to be derived from them. In the 
commentary on Parmenides several scattered lines are quoted 



APPENDIX 281 

from the works of the original Parmenides. The quotations 
are very brief ; they include in all only parts of six or seven 
lines, and sometimes these are cited more than once. It is 
therefore quite unlikely that Proklos drew them directly 
from the poem of Parmenides. In his commentary on the 
Timaeos Proklos uses the form of quotation from Herakleitos 
six times (alluding to Fr. 16, 32, 44, 68, 79, 80), but only 32 
and 44 can be called quotations, while even these are very 
brief. On p. 106 E we find part of what Diogenes gives in 
connection with Fragment 80, but no part of 80 itself ; 79 was 
cited by the early Christian writers, and Proklos interpreted 
it in the same manner that they had done ; 68 also had been 
paraphrased in the source from which Proklos drew it. So 
far as Herakleitos is concerned, we see how far from their 
origin the tradition of the fragments had gone, but we get no 
new light on their original form. 

A few lines of Parmenides we know only from Proklos. 
Verses 29-30 had been given by Diogenes and Clement, but 
some of the verses 33-40 are new. In these instances, as is 
usually the case with the quotations in Proklos, the text of 
the quotations is in a condition almost hopeless. Indeed, at 
p. 160 D a line and a half of Parmenides are filled out with 
half a line from Empedokles under the name of the former 
writer. From Empedokles only single lines (once two lines 
together) are given, and they aid but little in the reconstruc- 
tion of the text. Proklos, like Plutarch, is very careful to 
cite the name of his authorities ; but the text of the quota- 
tions is so carelessly reproduced that they are of little value. 

14. The commentators on Aristotle early began to illus- 
trate his statements about earlier thinkers by passages copied 
from their works. Alexander of Aphrodisias and Job. 
Philoponos seldom add fragments not contained in the works 
of Aristotle himself ; but Simplicius copies long extracts, so 
that, except for Herakleitos, his commentaries are the most 
important source for our knowledge of the writings of the 
pre-Sokratic philosophers. There can be no doubt that most 
of these quotations at least in his commentary on the 
Physics of Aristotle were drawn from the original works. 
The most careful scrutiny of the passages from Zeno, Melissos, 



282 THE FIEST PHILOSOPHERS OF GHEECE 

and Anaxagoras fails to reveal any reason for questioning 
their character as genuine quotations, except in the case of 
some of the fragments of Melissos. Pabst (and independently 
Burnet) has shown that the so-called Fragments 1-5 of 
Melissos, though given in the form of quotations, are 
in reality an epitome covering more briefly the same 
ground that is covered by the following fragments, and 
adding almost nothing to our knowledge of Melissos. It 
is wholly unlikely that Simplicius made this epitome him- 
self, for that would be at variance with his ordinary method 
of work, and with his custom later in dealing with Melissos. 
So we are driven to assume either that he drew them from 
some epitome of Melissos to which he had access, or, what 
seems to me more probable, that he copied them from an 
earlier commentator, whose habit it was to condense his 
quotations rather than to copy them at full length. If now 
we examine the quotations in Simplicius' commentary on the 
de caelo (Melissos Fr. 1 7 and numerous lines from Farm enides 
and Empedokles), it is noticeable that a considerable number 
of them occur also in the scholia to Aristotle. It is possible 
that as they appear in our scholia they all come from 
Simplicius. One long quotation (Melissos Fr. 17) is, however, 
taken by Eusebios from Aristokles, a much earlier commen- 
tator on Aristotle. This fact of course confirms the belief 
that earlier commentators on Aristotle accessible to Simplicius 
already contained quotations from the philosophers in question ; J 
and the presence in our scholia of so many fragments quoted 
by Simplicius on the de caelo would at least suggest an inves- 
tigation of the question whether our scholia drew them from 
an earlier source than Simplicius in other words, whether 
Simplicius did not in all probability take them from the 
commentaries of his predecessors. So when we find Par- 
menides line 78 ap. Simplicius, Physica 29, 18 in the form 
that Plato had quoted it, 2 when we find line 60 ap. 120, 23 
quoted from an indirect source (cf. p. 145, 4, where it is 
quoted in context), we may conclude that Simplicius took 

1 Diels, Doxographi Graeci, p. 112, shows that Simplicius used the 
work of Alexander of Aphrodisias. 

'* Cf. the correct form Simp. Pliys. 159, 15 ; it is not unlikely that 
lines 52, 53 ap. 135, 21, and 122 ap. 39, 18 were also taken from Plato. 



APPENDIX 283 

those quotations from Parmenides at second hand, and not 
improbably from earlier commentators on Aristotle. The 
quotations from Herakleitos are all of them in a late form, 
and show that Simplicius was not familiar with any work 
under the name of Herakleitos. 1 Nor did Simplicius know 
Xenophanes at first hand. The two quotations from his poem 
occur in the discussion of a passage from Theophrastos, and 
are probably taken from him. The quotations show, how- 
ever, that Simplicius knew at first hand the works of Zeno, 
Melissos, Anaxagoras, Parmenides, and Empedokles, and it 
remains to examine the numerous quotations from the last 
two thinkers in order to form some idea as to the probable 
accuracy of Simplicius' method of quotation. 

Stein in his attempt to restore the text of Parmenides 
finds numerous misarrangements of the lines and breaks where 
one or more lines have dropped out. Certainly there is 
evidence that Simplicius omitted four or more lines between 
89 and 94, nor does he indicate the break in any way. Several 
times a phrase of his own is inserted in the middle of a line 
(e.g. Phys. 39, 28 ; 143, 22), and once a line is filled out 
metrically, according to our manuscripts, by a phrase which is 
generally regarded as a comment from Simplicius (Phys. 
145, 16). The text itself of these fragments is often very 
dubious in our manuscripts (e.g. lines 96, 98, 100), but 
Simplicius may not be responsible for this. In our manu- 
scripts also we read sometimes covros, sometimes auro?, and 
when either u>v or ewv (ova or eoVra) is metrically possible, the 
shorter is usual ; here again we cannot with any confidence 
hold that Simplicius is responsible. 

The quotations from Empedokles shed more light on the 
method of Simplicius. Not infrequently lines are omitted in 
sequence, as two lines between 68 and 70 (Phys. 158, 1 f.), 
and again in the same quotation one line between 90 and 92, 
and two lines between 93 and 94. According to Bergk the 
line between 174 and 176 should be omitted (it is identical 
with 184) ; and Schneidewin inserts here line 175 (of Stein) 

1 Four out of the six quotations from Herakleitos are given either in 
Plato or Aristotle, or both ; Frag. 20 comes directly or indirectly from a 
Stoic source. 



284 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

from Stobaeos ; the passage occurs twice in the same form in 
Simplicius, however (and once in the scholia to Aristotle), so 
that this error probably existed in the text from which Simpli- 
cius copied. On p. 33, 19 of the Physica two passages from 
different parts of the poem of Empedokles are joined without 
break, and the end of line 95 (Stein 115) is modified to 
make the connection between the two passages. In two 
instances I believe that Simplicius (or some copyist) has 
repeated in a quotation some lines from the last previous 
quotation. On p. 159 of the Physica the end of the first 
quotation is repeated as the end of the second, except that a 
summary phrase is substituted for the last half-line ; again 
on p. 160 (lines 6-8) we find three lines which had occurred 
in the last previous quotation, and which are inserted here 
with the change of a connecting word. Sometimes we can 
point out an error that probably existed in the text from which 
Simplicius copied, as in the case of line 175 mentioned above. 
Thus eSeiTo in line 99, rijpv in 93, /Je/SAacrrT/Ke at 105, and 
probably r/eoos in 78 appear in repetitions of the same 
quotation at different points, and so may be assigned to the 
source of Simplicius. ' In other instances we may say that 
Simplicius copied carelessly, as in the case of line 89, which 
is corrected in the prose paraphrase, and possibly 138, where 
the curious text in the Physica may be corrected from the de 
caelo. The state of our manuscripts of Simplicius, however, is 
probably responsible for most of the numerous errors in the 
forms of words. 

From this survey of the sources I have omitted the names 
of many writers who furnish some little addition to our know- 
ledge of the fragments, for their method of quotation is 
relatively unimportant, nor have I thought it necessary to 
consider later writers who throw light only on the later 
history of the fragments. Accordingly I have not spoken of 
Eusebios, who repeats quotations from Plutarch and from 
Clement, or of Theodoret, who drew from Clement, or of 
Julian, who drew from Plutarch. Again, I have not spoken 
of Stobaeos, or Eustathios, or the scholia generally, as 
sources, for we are not at present able to determine the 
line of tradition for these fragments. I have, however, 



APPENDIX 285 

examined the more important sources of fragments, in order 
that the student may be able to estimate the relative value 
of the sources, both as to text and as to directness of trans- 
mission, in his own study of them. 

II. 

15. Turning now to the doxographic tradition, we may 
state the problem as follows : In the Placita philosophorum 
attributed to Plutarch, in the Eclogaephysicaeof Stobaeos, in 
fragments from Arius Didymos, in Hippolytos, and in other 
writers, we find copious statements as to the opinions of the 
early philosophers. These opinions shed light on many points 
not mentioned in the fragments of their writings now remain- 
ing, and so they have great importance for the student of their 
systems. At the same time they are often confused and unre- 
liable. The problem is to determine the relation of these 
writers to each other, as well as to the source of the whole 
series, in order that we may estimate their relative value. 
This work has been most successfully accomplished in the 
Prolegomena to Diels' Doxographi Graeci, a work that is 
absolutely indispensable to the student of this subject. There 
is no occasion to reopen here a question that Diels has so suc- 
cessfully solved, but I propose to state briefly a few of the 
conclusions which the reader will find substantiated in the work 
of Diels. 

The most obvious fact to one who takes up the study of 
the doxographic writers is that the Placita attributed to Plu- 
tarch, and the Eclogae physicae, which was originally a part of 
the Florilegium of Stobaeos, are intimately related ; and when 
the two are printed side by side, as the reader finds them in 
the text of Diels, the likeness of the two is most striking. At 
the same time the two books are not identical, and each gives 
much material that the other omits. Stobaeos cannot have 
copied from the work attributed to Plutarch, for even in pas- 
sages that occur in the Placita Stobaeos not infrequently 
gives the fuller form ; nor can the writer of the Placita have 
copied from Stobaeos, for his work can be traced back nearly 
three centuries before the time of Stobaeos. It was used by 



286 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Athenagoras in his defence of the Christians 177 A.D. (Dox. 
p. 4) ; it was mentioned by Theodoret (Dox. p. 47) ; and im- 
portant corrections of the text are made by Diels on the autho- 
rity of Eusebios, Cyril, and the pseudo-Galen, all of whom had 
used it. Theodoret (Therap. IV. 31, Dox. 47) mentions the 
epitome by Plutarch, but only after he has mentioned the 
Pladta of Aetios, 'Aertou rrjv Trepl apeo-KovTW o-waywy^i', and 
it is this work of Aetios which Diels vindicates as the source 
both of Plutarch and of Stobaeos, while Theodoret also quotes 
from it occasionally. A careful study of these three writers 
and their methods enables Diels to reconstruct a large part of 
the work of Aetios ; and it is the sections of this work bearing 
on the earlier philosophers which I have translated (see III. 
English Index under 'Aetios '). Of Aetios himself almost 
nothing is known ; the work assigned to him must have been 
written between the age of Augustus and the age of the 
Antonines (Dox. 100). It was in four books, divided into 
chapters by topics, and in each chapter the opinions of the 
philosophers were given not by schools but by affinity of their 
opinions. 

16. Fortunately we are in a position to say what was the 
beginning of that style of composition of which the work of 
Aetios is an example. Aristotle, as we have seen, paid con- 
siderable attention to the earlier thinkers and often stated 
their opinions as the introduction to his own position. A list 
of the works of his pupil and successor Theophrastos is given 
by Diogenes Laertios (v. 46, 48), and in the list there is 
mentioned a book in eighteen chapters -n-epl rS>v <f>vo-LKtav, and 
a little later another book in sixteen chapters of <wn.Kwv 
Sdw. We have a long fragment de sensibus which Diels has 
edited in connection with the later doxographists (Dox. pp. 
499 f.), and from this we can learn something of his method. 
In this fragment he discusses the opinions of his predecessors 
as to sense-perception, grouping them by affinity, and not 
chronologically or by schools. The work is done conscien- 
tiously, and is based on a study of the original writings of the 
thinkers he treats (v. supra, pp. 230f.). Other fragments from 
the first book have been pointed out by Brandis and Usener 
(Analecta Theoplirastea) in Simplicius' Commentary on 



APPENDIX 287 

Aristotle's Physics ; while we have also several pages pre- 
served in Philo de incorrupt, mundi. In the first book, to 
judge from the fragments in Simplicius, Theophrastos arranged 
the earlier thinkers by schools and accompanied his statements 
with brief biographical notices (e.g. pp. 11, 257 supra). Such 
a work was of the greatest convenience to later writers, and 
especially to the compilers who were so numerous in the age 
of the decadence. In fact the whole doxographic tradition 
may be traced back to this work of Theophrastos. 

In the last centuries of the pre-Christian era there was an 
unusual interest in the biographies of famous men. Apocry- 
phal anecdotes were gathered from popular gossip, deduced 
from the works of these writers, or made up with no foun- 
dation at all. In the second century several writers of the 
peripatetic school wrote the lives of the philosophers after this 
fashion. We hear of /o/ot by Hermippos and by Satyros, and 
of the StaSo^at ra>/' cj>L\ocro(j)a)v of Satyros ; and we are told that 
Herakleides of Lembos worked over what his immediate pre- 
decessors had collected. Phanias of Eresos is one of the 
' authorities ' of this school. Much of this material has come 
down to us in the work of Diogenes Laertios. 

On the book of Theophrastos, and on the ' Lives ' or the 
' Successions of the philosophers,' as they were often called, 
the later doxographic writers based their work. Even in 
Diogenes Laertios there is material from both sources, and we 
can define some fragments almost in Theophrastos' own words. 
In the Philosophumena of Hippolytos the two sources are 
pretty clearly distinguished : chapters 1-4 and 10 (on Thales, 
Pythagoras, Empedokles, Herakleitos and Parmenides, see III. 
English Index under ' Hippolytos ') are made up of personal 
anecdotes such as writers of the lives were eager to collect and 
to repeat; chapters 6-8 and 11 (on Anaximandros, Anaxi- 
menes, Anaxagoras, and Xenophanes) come indirectly from 
the work of Theophrastos. The Stromatois attributed by 
Eusebios to Plutarch (see III. English Index under ' Plutarch,' 
and Dox. pp. 579 f.) are like the last-mentioned chapters of 
Hippolytos, though the language is often more careless. 

A comparison of Aetios with Hippolytos, the Stromateis, 
and the doxographic material in Cicero and Censorinus (from 



288 THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS OF GREECE 

Varro) makes, it clear that the Placita of Aetios are not based 
directly on the work of Theophrastos. Indeed (Dox. p. 100, 
and pp. 178 f.) it is evident from an examination of the work 
of Aetios by itself that much of his material is drawn from 
Stoic and Epicurean sources. As the main source for what 
remains after Stoic and Epicurean passages have been cut 
out, Diels postulates an earlier Placita (Vetusta placita, pp. 
215 f.). He finds traces of this in the work of Varro as used by 
Censorinus, in Cicero's Tusculan Disputations, and in some 
later writers. 

17. Resume. The doxographic tradition starts with 
the work of Theophrastos on the opinions of his predecessors. 
On this work is based immediately the Vetusta placita ; on 
the Vetusta placita is based the Placita of Aetios, and there 
are traces of its use by later writers ; the Placita, of Aetios 
may be partially reconstructed from Plutarch's Placita and 
Stobaeos' Eclogae. Again, using Theophrastos and gathering 
anecdotes from every side, writers of the second century B.C. 
wrote the lives of the philosophers. A line of tradition pro- 
bably independent of the Placita just considered appears in 
the work of Hippolytos, who used now the work of Theo- 
phrastos, now the lives ; in Diogenes Laertios, where 
material from most various sources is indiscriminately mixed ; 
and in the Stromateis attributed to Plutarch by Eusebios, 
which are related to the better material of Hippolytos. Sim- 
plicius used Theophrastos directly. Finally in the fragments 
of Philodemos and the related material in Cicero's Lucullus 
and De natura deorum we find traces of a use of Theophrastos 
either by Philodemos himself, or in a common source of both 
Cicero and Philodemos probably a Stoic epitome of Theo- 
phrastos made by the Phaedros whom Cicero mentions, 



INDEXES 



I. INDEX OF SOURCES 

The references are to the critical notes. Anaximandros (Ad.), Herakleitos (H.), 
Zeno (Z.), Melissos (M.), and Anaxagoras (A..), are referred to by fragments ; Par- 
menides (P.) and Empedokles (E.) by lines. Other references are by pages (p.) 



Achilles (commonly called Tatius) 
in Petavii de doctrina tempo- 
rum. Antwerp 1703. H. 119 ; 
Z. 12 ; E. 138, 154 

Aelian de natura animalium, ed. 
Hercher. E. 257-260, 438-439 

Aeneas Gazaeus, Theophrasttis, ed. 
Wolf. Turici 1560. H. 82 

Albertus Magnus de vegetabilibus, 
ed. Meyer. H. 51 

Alexander of Aphrodisias, Com- 
mentaries on Aristotle. H. 32, 
84, 121 

Amelius in Eusebios, Praeparatio 
evangelicae. H. 2 

Ammonius on Aristotle de inter- 
pretatione. P. 60 ; E. 347-351 

Anecdota Graeca, ed. Bekker. Ber- 
lin 1821. E. 156 

Apollonios, Epistolae, in Hercher, 
Scriptores epistolographi. Paris 
1873. H. 130, 133 

Apuleius de mundo, ed. Gold- 
bacher. Wien 1876. H. 55. 59 

Aristides Quintilianus de musica, 
ed. Meibomius. Amst. 1652. 
H. 68, 74 

Aristokles in Eusebios, Praeparatio 
evangelicae. M. 17 

Aristotle (Edition of the Berlin 
Academy), Ad. 1 ; H. 2, 32, 37, 
41, 43, 46, 51, 55, 57, 59, 105 ; 
Z. 12, 25; P. 52-53, 103-104, 
132, 146-149 ; E. 36-39, 48-50, 
69-73, 92, 98, 100, 104-107, 
139-141, 145, 146-148, 165, 
166-167, 168, 175, 182-183, 



197-198, 199-201, 208, 219, 221, 
236-237, 244, 270, 273-274, 279, 
280, 287-311, 313 b, 316-325, 
326, 330-332, 333-335, 425-427 

Arius Didymus in Eusebios, Prae- 
paratio evangelicae. H. 42 

Athenaeos, Deipnosophistae. H. 
16, 54 ; Z. 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 ; 
E. 214, 383-384, 405-411 

Athenagoras, Legatio in Migne, Pa- 
trologia Graeca, vol. vi. E. 34-35 

Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae. H. 
16 ; E. 441 

Caelius Aurelianus de moribus 
acutis et chronicis, ed. Wetstein. 
Amst. 1709. P. 150-155 

Cedrenus, Chronicles in Scriptores 
historiae Byzantinae. Bonn 
1838. E. 355 

Censorinns de die natali, ed. 
Hultsch. Lips. 1867. H. 87 

Cicero, opera. H. 113, 114 

Clement of Alexandria (references 
are to the pages of Potter's 
edition, Oxford 1715). H. 2, 3, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 
23, 27, 31, 49, 54, 60, 64, 67, 68, 
74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 86, -101, 102, 
104, 110, 111, 116, 118, 122, 123, 
124, 125, 127, 130 ; Z. 1, 5, 6 ; P. 
29-30,40, 59-60,90-93,133-139 ; 
E. 26-28, 33, 55-57, 74, 78, 81, 
130-133, 147-148, 165, 342-343, 
344-346,366-368, 383-384, 385, 
390-391, 400-401, 404, 445-446, 
447-451 



290 



INDEX OF SOURCES 



Columella de re rustica, ed. 

Ernesti. 1774. H. 53 
Cornutus, Compendium graecae 

theologiae. E. 397-399 
Cyrillus adversum Julianum in 

Migne, Patrologia Graeca. E. 

412-414 

Didymos, Geoponica in Niclas, 
Geoponicorum libri xx. Lips. 
1781. E. 441 

Dio Cassius, Historia Eomana. 
H. 67 

Dio Chrysostom, Orations, ed. 
Eeiske. H. 80 

Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, his- 
torica. E. 354 

Diogenes Laertios de vitis philo- 
sopkorum. H. 4, 16, 17, 19, 22, 
33, 48, 62, 69, 71, 80, 103, 112, 
113, 114, 119, 131, 132 ; Z. 14, 
18, 24 ; P. 28-30, 54-56 ; E. 1, 
6, 24-32, 34-35, 67-68, 352-363, 
383-384, 415, 417 

Draco Stratoniceus de metris 
poeticis, ed. Hermann. Lips. 
1812. Z. 28 

Elias Cretensis, p. 54 
Epicharmos- in Mullach, Frag- 

menta Philos. Graec. H. 81 
Epictetus, Dissertationes. H. 85 
Etymologicum Magnum. H. 66 ; 

Z. 18 ; E. 150 
Eusebios, Praeparatio evangelicae. 

H. 2, 3, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 110, 

122, 124, 125; Z. 1, 5, 6 ; M. 

17 ; P. 60 ; E. 33-35, 377-380, 

412-414, 450-451 
Eustathius, Commentaries on 

Homer. H. 43, 66, 74, 119; 

Z. 13, 17; E. 168, 182-183, 

405-407 

Florilegium Monacense , ed. 
Meineke. H. 132, 134, 135 

Gaisford, Poetae minores Graeci. 

P. 151-153; E. 169-185, 210- 

213, 240-242, 244-246 
Galen, in Scriptores medici, ed. 

Kuhn. H. 53, 74, 113 ; Z. 14 ; 

P. 150; E. 91, 98, 100, 151, 

276-278 



Glykas, Annales, ed. Bekker, 
Bonn 1836, in Corpus script. 
Byzant. H. 74 

Gregory Nazianzen, Orations. 
H. 130 

Hephaestion, Enchiridion, ed. 
Gaisford. Lips. 1832. E. 164 

Herakleitos (pseudo-), Epistolae'm 
Bywater's Heraclitus. H. 12, 
39, 40, 60, 121 

Herakleitos (Herakleides), Alle- 
goriae Homericae. H. 22, 67, 
81 ; E. 34-35 

Hermeias on Plato's Phaedros, ed. 
Ast. H. 74 

Herodian, Reliquiae, ed. Lentz. 
Lips. 1870. Z. 28, 29, 30, 31 

Hesychius, Lexicon. H. 80 

Hierokles, Commentary on the 
Carmen aureum, in Mullach, 
Fragmenta Philos. Graec. vol. i. 
E. 385-386, 389 

Hippokrates, in Bywater's Hera- 
clitus. H. 39, 61, 66, 69, 70, 82 

Hippolytos, Refutatio omnium 
haeresium, ed. Duncker, Schnei- 
dewin. Gottingen 1859. H. 1, 2, 
13, 21, 24, 26, 28, 29, 35, 36, 44, 
45, 47, 50, 52, 57, 58, 67, 68, 69, 
71, 79,101, 123; Z. 14; E. 33-35, 
110-111, 333-335, 338-341, 348- 
349, 369-370 

lamblichos de mysteriis &c. H. 11, 
12, 29, 69, 79, 82, 83, 95, 105, 
114, 128, 129 ; E. 415-420 

Johannes Lydus de mensibus, ed. 
Bekker. Berlin 1837, in Corpus 
scriptorum historiae Byzantinae. 
H. 87 

lohannes Siceliotas in Walz, 
Rhetores Graeci. Stuttgart 
1836. H. 2 

Julian, Orations, ed. Spanheim. 
Lips. 1696. H. 10, 16, 68, 80, 85 

E. 388 



Kleanthes' Hymn to Zeus, in 
Heeren's Stobaei Eclogae Phy- 
sicae. 1792. H. 19, 28, 91 

Kleomedes irtpl /jitTewpwv, ed. 
Bakius. Lips. 1832. H. 69 



INDEX OF SOURCES 



291 



Linos (pseudo-) in Mullach, Frag- 
menta Philos. Graec. vol. i. 
H. 19 

Lucian, Dialogues. H. 14, 44, 67, 
79, 114 ; E. 355 

. Macrobius, on Somnium Scipionis, 

and Saturnalia. H. 31 ; E. 150 
Marcus Antoninus, Commentaries. 

H. 25, 34, 69, 73, 84, 90 ; E. 138 
Maximus Confessor, Sermones, ed. 

Combefisius. Paris 1675. H. 34, 

136, 137 
Maximus Tyrius, Dissertationcs. 

H. 25, 67, 69 
Musonius in Stobaeos, Florilcgium. 

H. 69, 74, 114 (Cf. H. 27, 67, 74 

in Clement, Paidagogos) 

.Numenius in Chalcidius on the 
Timaeos, in Mullach, Fragmenta 
Philos. Graec. vol. ii. H. 43 
(Cf . H. 72 in Porphyry, de antro 
nympharum) 

Olympiodoros (cf. p. 17), Commen- 
taries on Plato and Aristotle. 
H. 20, 32, 68 

Origen contra Celsum. H. 62, 85, 
130 ; Z. 74 ; E. 374-375 

Orphica, ed. G. Hermann. Lips. 
1805. E. 438-439 

Philo Judaeus, Opera, ed. Mangey. 

H. 1, 2, 10, 22, 24, 64, 67, 68, 

69, 70, 74, 79, 82, 85, 87, 134 ; 

E. 48-49, 386-387 
Philodemos de pietate, ed. Gom- 

perz. H. 28 
Philoponos, Commentaries on 

Aristotle. Z. 10 ; P. 60-61, 81 ; 

E. 98, 100, 219, 244, 270-271, 

280, 284-285, 330-332, 333-335 
Philostratos, vita Apollonii, ed. 

Kayser. E. 355, 383-384 
Plato (Stephanus' pages). H. 32, 

41, 45, 58, 69, 79, 98, 99 ; P. 52- 

53, 98, 103-105, 132 
Plotinos, Enneades. H. 32, 54, 

69, 80, 82, 83, 85, 99 ; P. 40, 81 ; 

E. 381-382 
Plutarch, Moralia and Lives. H. 11, 

12, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31, 34, 

38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 62, 70, 

74, 78, 79, 80, 85, 87, 105, 108, 



115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 127, 
138; Z. 14, 15; P. 60, 132,144, 
145; E. 5, 8-9, 33-35, 36-39, 
40-44, 45-47, 51-54, 58-59, 60, 
78, 79, 80-81, 98, 100, 135-136, 
143-144, 149, 151, 153, 155, 
157-159, 160, 161, 163, 165, 
208, 209, 220, 221, 238-239, 

243, 257-260, 261, 272, 279,281, 
282-283, 313, 373-381, 390, 393- 
396, 402, 403, 423-424, 430-431, 
440, 444 

Pollux, Onomasticon. H. 85 
Polybios, Historia. H. 14-15 
Porphyry, de antro nympharum, 

&c. H. 67, 70, 74 ; P. (1-30) ; 

Z. 10; E. 165-392, 401, 405- 

420, 436-437 
Probus, Comment, in Virgilii Bu- 

col. et Gcor. E. 33 35 
Proklos, Commentaries on Plato. 

H. 16, 32, 44, 68, 79, 80, 111 ; 

P. 29-30, 33-42, 65, 81, 85, 103- 

105 ; Z. 14 ; E. 3, 18, 138, 162, 

386-387 

Satyros in Diogenes Laertios. E. 

24-32 

Scholia to Aristophanes. Z. 27 
Scholia to Aristotle. P. 140-143 ; 

M. 17; E. 169-185, 210-213, 

244, 246, 240-242, 381-382 
Scholia to Euripides. H. 138 ; 

Z. 13; E. 275 

Scholia to Homer. H. 39, 43, 61, 
66, 85, 119 ; Z. 8, 11, 13 ; E. 168, 
182-183, 405-407, 67-68 

Scholia to Nicander, TJieriaca. 
E. 421-422 

Scholia to Plato, ed. Ast. E. 60 

Senec&,Epistolae. H.77, 81, 113, 120 

SextusEmpiricus,odu. Matliemati- 
cos, ed. Bekker. H. 2, 4, 42, 52, 
54, 78 ; Z. 2, 7, 8, 14 ; P. 1-30, 
53-58,132; E. 2-10, 33, 35, 77, 80, 
333-335, 355, 364-365, 428-429 

Simplicius de caelo. M. 17 ; Z. 
28-32, 60, 62-65, 77, 110-113, 
140-143, 151-153; E. 67-73, 
114-115, 128, 169-185, 178, 181, 
210-213, 215-218, 240-242, 244- 
246, 254, 256 

Simplicius, Commentary en tJie 
Physics. H. 20, 41, 43, 56, 57, 
58; X. 3,4; Z. 1-16 ; M. 1-10; 



292 



GREEK INDEX 



P. 35-40, 43b-51, 52-53, 57-70, 
82-89, 94-112,110-121,122-125, 
126-128, 132 ; E. 61-73, 74-95, 
96, 109, 112-118, 119-129, 135, 
138, 139, 141, 152, 171-185, 
186-194, 195-196, 199-202, 203- 
207, 218, 247-253, 262-269 

Stobaeos, Florilegium and Eclogae 
physicae. H. 4, 11, 18, 59, 63, 67, 
73, 74, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
134 ; Z. 8, 11, 16 ; P. 103-105, 
132; E. 67-68, 71, 91, 138, 175, 
237-239, 269-270, 390, 402 

Suidas, Geography. H. 30, 85, 
114 ; E. 326 

Symmachus, Epistolae. H. 113 

Synesius, Epistolae, ed. Hercher. 
Paris 1873. E. 386-388; De 
insomnia, 474 

Suidas, Lexicon. H. 9, 80 ; E. 
24-32, 150 



Tatianus, Oratio ad Graecos in 
Otto, Corpus apologet. vi. Jena 
1851. H. 80 



Tertullian, in Migne, Patrologia 
latino, i.-iii. H. 69, 71 

Themistius, Orationes, ed. Trunca- 
vellus. Venet. 1534. H. 10 ; Para- 
phrases Arist. libr. ed. Spengel. 
Lips. 1866. H. 122; E. 330 

Theodoret, Ecclesiastica historia. 
H. 3, 7, 8, 101, 102, 104, 122 ; 
Z. 5, 6 ; P. 60, 90 ; E. 56-57, 
91, 334-336 

Theodoras, Prodromus, v. supra, 
p. 50 

Theon Smyrnaeus, Arithmetica, 
ed. Killer. 1878. E. 442-443 

Theophrastos, Opera, ed. Wimmer. 
H. 46, 84 ; P. 146-149 ; E. 182- 
183, 219, 314-315, 336-337, 
423-424 ; Ad. 2 ; Z. 2, 3 

Timon of Phlius in Eusebios, 
Praeparatio evangelicae. E . 
400-401 

Tzetzes, Chiliades, and Exeget. in 
Eiadum. H. 66, 78 ; E. 24-32, 
66-68, 244, 347-351, 396 

Xenophon, Memorabilia. H. 58 



II. GEEEK INDEX 

Parmenides (P.) and Empedokles (E.) are referred to by lines ; Anaximandros (Ad.), 
Herakleitos (H.), Xenophanes (X.), Zeuo (Z.), Melissos (M.), and Anaxagoras (A.), by 
the number of the fragment in which the word occurs. Occasional references to 
pages are indicated by p. 



aya96s, H. 57, 61, 111 

&ya\pa, H. 130 ; E. 408 

ayx i fi aa 'i' r l< H. 9 

&yuv, H. 119 ; X. 19 

adiKla, Ad. 2 

&f0\ot>, X. 19 

aJip, pp. 17, 63 ; M. 17 ; E. 132 ; 
A. 1, 2, 6 ; P. 24 ; E. 450 

dedvaros, E. 425 ; H. 67 

0pe'o>, E. 4, 19, 156 

diSios, M. 17 ; E. 370 

alBepios, E. 377 

o0T7p, X. 11 ; P. 133, 141 ; E. 31, 
40, 78, 133, 146, 166, 198, 204, 
211, 216, 291, 293, 299, 304, 310, 
334, 379, 427 ; A. 1, 2, 6 
i, E. 158 
ios, H. 30 
, E. 207, 292, 308, 327 



aT<ra, P. 127 ; E. 113, 231, 266 

alin/tos, E. 301, 307 

alffxp'fl, E. 395 

afov, H. 79 ; E. 71, 111, 224, 389, 

420 

axivriTos, P. 82 
&KOS, H. 129 

aicoiri, H. 13 ; P. 55 ; E. 20, 21 
d/coiW, H. 2, 6 ; X. 2 ; M. 17 ; E. 

14,33 

&KPTITOS, E. 144, 183, 410, 412 
uA.7j0ei'7j, P. 29, 36, 111 ; E. 366 
aA7j0ijs, P. 73, 84, 99 ; M. 17 
anfrivu, E. 3, 228 
&fj.Bporos, E. 99, 181, 355 
awxavii), P. 47 
a-noiM, P- 60 
a.fjitr\aKi-n , E. 371 
O.VOLJK-H, P. 72, 86, 138 ; E. 232 



GREEK INDEX 



293 



a.vdira.vffis, H. 104 
avcnravca, H. 83, 86 
ava*veu>, E. 287 
wfrfs, X. 11 

ttJ/OTJTOS, P. 73 

avrixBtov, pp. 136, 148 

a^vveros, H. 2, 3 

aoiSSs, H. Ill ; X. 22 

&wfipos, H.2; X.12; A.I, 6; Z.I, 3; 

M. 7, 8, 9, 11 
airoyii>ofj.ai, Z. 1 
aTroKpivofj.ai, E. 43 ; A. 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 

11, 12, 16 
cucdxpiffts, A. 10 
air6\fityis, E. 63 
aWAAt/A", M. 11, 12, 17; A. 17; 

E. 93 

airoppori, E. 281- 
&paios, p. 102 ; M. 14 ; E. (196) ; 

A. 6, 8 
&p6pov, E. 82 
&P/CTOS, H. 30 
apuovir), H. 45, 46, 47 ; E. 122, 137, 

202 
apx-fi, H. 70; M. 7, 9 ; E. 130; 

A. 16 

&o"irfTos, E. Ill, 128 
d(rreM<H*> E. 398 
airf, E. 99, 152, 153, 157, 427 
poTTJj, A. 6 



/3a/c X ot, H. 124 ; X. 27 

ftdppapos , H. 4 

/Wcw'^a), H. 58 

.os, H. 66, 67 ; E. 249, 251, 373 

P\TKrrplw, X. 24 

P6p&opos, H. 53-54 

frporeios, P. Ill ; E. 10, 35 

Pporos, X. 5 ; P. 46, 99, 109, 121 ; 

E. 54, 147, 247, 303, 347 
fr^ds, X. 21 ; E. 412 

7W, P. 77, 83 ; E. 63 

7eVv7j, P. 62 ; E. 87, 192, 194, 230 

7^, 7a?a, H. 21, 25, 68 ; X. 8, 9, 10, 
12 ; P. 140, 144 ; M. 17 ; E. 26, 
78, 132, 146, (152), 154, 158, 160, 
165, 211, 333, 378, 391 ; A. 4, 9, 
10 

y-npeis, X. 26 

yivonai, P. 69, 100 ; M. 6, 11, 17 ; 
E. 46, 48, 71, 95 

yivdffKu, H. 18, 35, 106, 115, 130 ; 
X. 18 ; P. 39 ; A. 14 ; E. 281 

7A.au/carrty, E. 159 



yvcuptvs, H. 50 

7"M^, H. 19, 96 ; P. 113, 121 
yvcaplfa, p. 250 
y6p<t>os, P. 20 ; E. 241, (279) 
yviov, E. 2, 23, 142, 249, 260, 269 
308,347, 371, 414 



I/, H. 97, 121, 131 ; P. 3, 128, 

p. 145 ; E. 254, 373 
Sat(ppt0i>, E. 1 
$fl\aios, E. 446 

Sei\6s, E. 3, 53, 228, 343, 400, 441 
5e>as, P. 115, 119 ; E. 198, 268 
Sri/j.iovpy6s, p. 61 
Sfjjtoy, H. 100 
SiaKorrue'u.', A. 6 
8id.KOfffj.os, P. 120 
$ia.Kpii>o/j.ai, A. 6, 7, 14, 17 
8idAAa|t*, E. 38 
Sidnopcpa, E. 102 
5(a4>e>>, H. 45, 46, 59, 93 
Si'Cw, H. 80 ; P. 62 
8i'j>;<m, P. 34, 45, 53 
SfKatoj, H. 61 ; X. 19, 21 
SIKTJ, H. 60, 62, 118; P. 14, 28, 70; 

E. 5 

SiVrj, E. 378 
SoAixaiW, E. 107, (126) 
5o'|rj, H. 133 ; P. 30, (31), 111, 151 ; 

E. 343 

s, P. 123 



Mos, P. 54 

eiSos, M. 17 ; E. 123, 135, 192, 207, 

266, 375 

f!u.apuva, H. 63, p. 60 
<?/cirW, E. 287, 294, 311 
eAe7xos, P. 56 
eniraios, E. 3 
eV, H. 19, 59, 91 ; M. 11, 17 ; E. 62, 

67, 118, 70, 76, 248 
<T|ai/aTe'AAa>, E. 258, 265 

t^fVpiffKCO, H. 7 

\v(ii, E. 47 

i, H. 123 
i, H. 6, 19, 35 
tirixOovios, E. 448 

<F>70TT)S, H. 90 

tpis, H. 43, 46, 62 
tD'Sw, H. 2 
tvvofi.(i], X. 19 
ev<re$fo, X. 25 ; E. 408 
fv<pp6rn, H. 31, 36, 77 
ftjXO(j.ai, X. 21 
f<pri/j.fpioi, E. 14, 338 



294 GREEK INDEX 



fo, H. 56, 78, 123 Kte^vSpij, E. 295 

far), E. 4 K6irpios, H. 85 

K6pos, H. 24, 36, 104, (111) 

r,6os, H. 96, 121 ; E. 88, 226 KopvQr,, E. 58 

T}AIOS, H. 29, 31, 32, 135 ; P. 134, rierfios, H. 20, 90, 95 ; P. 92, 112, 

140, 145 ; E. 98, 130, 135, 149, pp. 146, 148 ; E. 116, 351 ; A. 13 

164, 211, 379 ; A. 6, 10 npacris, E. 189, 192 

^juop, P. 11 ; E. 436 Kpia-is, P. 72 ; M. 14 

i)(i.epil, H. 32, 35, 36 KpoiW/uct, E. 35 

?lpas, H. 130 Kvfcpvdu, Ad. 1 ; H. 19 ; P. 128 

KVKeAv, H. 84 

ed\affffa, H. 21,23; X. 11 ; E. 136, /cwcAos.P. 7; E. 73, 112, 133, 153, 

187 178 

edfj-vos, E. 41, 252, 384 KIHOV, H. 115 

6a.va.Tos, H. 25, 64, 68 Kta<p6s, H. 3 ; P. 49 
0(\-nnd, E. (101), 174 

0e>is, P. 28, 88 : E. 14, 44 \a/j.Trds, P. 135 

Of flirts, E. 425 Xfffxnvefa, H. 130 

e*6s, H. 12, 43, 44, 61, 67, (91), (96), \-hyw, E. 66, 72, (89) 

102, 130, 130a ; X. 1, 5, 6, 7, 16, \yvcu, H. 124, (127) 

21, 29 ; P. 22 ; E. 11, 107, 129, AtjSavomk, X. 21 

142, 341, 343, 355, 369, 405, \l6os, A. 9 

449 \oyos, H. 1, 2, 92, 116, 117 ; X. 18 ; 

flHjcncw, H. 78 P. 15, 56, 110 ; M. 12, 17 ; E. 57, 

6vi)T6s, H. 67, 111 ; X. 1, 16, 31 ; 59, 86, 170, 341 

E. 17, 37, 63, 82, 86, 115, 128, Avprj, H. 45 

182, 184, 188, 212, 355, 365, 375, 

391, 400 pdyoi, H. 124 

Opl, E. 237 ; M. 11 ; A. 18 naivo^ai, H. 12, 127, 130 

6vfn6s, H. 105 ; P. 1 ; E. 414, 436, paprvs, H. 4, 15, 118 

446 fj.fyf6os, Z. 1, 3 ; M. 8 

yw'Aea, P. 146, 148; E. 139, 179, 

jarpo's, H. 58 238, 247, 268, 270, 312 

i'St'a, A. 3 (jie\eS-fi/j.(av, E. 353 

Iep6s, E. 350 /ueAe'rT?, E. 223, 339 

l\deipa, E. 149, 152 MV?Ae, E. 343 

lo-Topii), H. 17 fifvca, P. 85, 86 

IffTiap, H. 49 ptpinvn, E. 3, 45, 228 

Hfpos, E. 112, 186, 200 

Ka.6a.lpu, H. 130 juerajSciAAai, H. 83 

Ka.6apu.6s, E. 352 /j.TaKoff/J.eca, M. 11, 12 

KaOapds, H. 52 ; X. 21 ; P. 134 ; E. /ueram'*, H. 78 ; M. 12, 17 

12, 223, 273 neTpfopai, H. 23 

Ka6fvSce, H. 78, 90, 94 ^TOOV, H. 20, 29 

KaKOTexvfri, H. 17 WT topai, P. 131 ; E. 437 

/ea/ia<n)j/es, E. 163, 214 WTIS, E. 10, 120, 330 

Ka/ioTos, H. 82, 104 /j.iaivta, H. 130 

K awv6s, H. 37 M'W, p. 9, 11, 122 

KaraeiyiTKu, E. 47 piyvvni, P. 130; E. 38, 259 ; A. 6 

Kf\ev6os, P. 11, 36, 51 ; E. 183, ^vu>, X. 4 

376 pTi^s, P. 129 ; E. 38, 40 

nevfos, M. 14 ; E. 91 p-iffyta, E. 184, 254 

KepatWs, H. 28 no7pa, P. 26, 97 ; A. 5, 6, 16 

K<pa\r), E. 347 unpos, H. 86, 101 

Kivtw, M. 8, 14 ; A. 7 ftoptpn, P. 113; E. 97, 430 



GREEK I^DEX 



295 



/j.ovvoyfvf]s, P. 60 

fj.v6os, P. 33, 57 ; E. 58, 74, 75, 129, 
264, 367 

/KWTTTJ, H. 124 
/J.V(Trrjpia, H. 125 

vflKos, E. 68, 79, (117), 139, 171, 

175, 177, 194, 335, 382 
vtxp6s, H. 123 
vfKvs, H. 85 
voea, X. 2 ; P. 34, 40, 43, 64, 94, 

96; E. 22, 23, 316, p. 250 
VOIHM, X. 1 ; P. 53,94, 110, 149 ; E. 

328, 329 
vorjrAs, P. 64 

yrf/xoi.H. 91, 100, 110; E. 44 
vovs, H. 91, 111 ; X. 3 ; P. 48, 90, 

147 ; E. 9, 81, 429 ; A. 5, 6, 7, 12 
voiiffos, H. 104 

VVKTlltoXoS, H. 124 

oyicos, E. 247 

656s, H. 69, 71, 137 ; P. 2, 27, 34, 

45, 54, 57, 74 
6os, E. 315 
oi'aKia>,H' 30 

oTSa, X. 14, 24 ; P. 3, 46 ; E. 417 
olSMa, E. 293, 310, 367, 415 
ol-nffis, H. 132, 134 
o'lvos, X. 17, 21 
6\fOpos, P. 77, 83 
oAAiyjtu, P. 70, 100 
vrfpos, E. 100, 204, 215, 298, 304 
ZHL\OS, H. Ill 
Ofj.ov irdma, p. 11; A. 1, 16 
opeiAexfc, E. 253, 438 
otTios, E. 12, 17 
otrrea, E. 201 
o-j\o/j.vos, E. 37, 79 
ov\o(f>wfis, E. 265 
otpavos, P. 137 ; E. 150, 187 
o<p0aAMos, H. 4, 15, 326, 344 
fyir, H. 13 ; E. 20, 272 

iro0oj, M. 16 

iroi'Cw, H. 79 ; E. 295 

irot's, H. 73, 79, 86, 97 ; E. 294 

Tra\a.M, E. 2, 19, 218, 242 

ira\ivrovos, H. 45 (note) 

ira\ivr pottos, H. 45 ; P. 51 

TrejflcS, P. 36 ; E. 346 

ir?pap, H. 71 ; X. 12 ; P. 82, 87, 

102, 109, 139 ; E. 75 
irtAt'/crjs, A. 13" 
irtpas, H. 70 



irfpi(-)(<a, A. 2, 12 

irtpiX<ap4(a, A. 7, 11 

irepix<apTfiffis, A. 6 

irfffffevta, H. 79 

iT7)A.ds, H. 130 

viOavos, pp. 133, 214 

Tridos, pp. 133, 214 

TclffTts, P. 30, 68, 84 ; E. 20, 23, 

210, 368 
wiffTtana, E. 56 
viffvvos, E. 382 
irAtifeo, P. 47 ; E. 251 

, X. 21 

tfos, A. 1, 4, 15, 16 
irveC^o, p. 21, E. 301, 307, 319 
in/oi'rj, E. 314 
iro'AeMos, H. 36, 44, 62 
iro\v8-r]pis, P. 56 
iroAi^afliri, H. 16-17 
iro\v<pQfpT]s, E. 365 

TTO.UTTT), H. 127 

Trpdnio-fs, E. 222, 342, 417, 418 

irp-flffr-np, H. 21, p. 63 

irpoa'yii'ofj.ai, Z. 1 ; M. 12 

irvKv6s, p. 102, M. 14 ; E. 217 

iruA??, P. 11 ; E. 305 

irvvQa.voiJ.ai, E. 10, 25 

irDp, H. 20, 21, 22. 25, 26 ; P. 116, 

126 ; M. 17 ; E. 78, 197, 216, 

263, 267, 317, 322, 334 

pi^wfiara, E. 33, 55 
poos, E. 300 

<rap|, E. 207, 402, 435 ; A. 18 
ff f \-f,vn, P. 136, 140 ; E. 149, (153); 

A. 6, 10 

o-rjua, P. 58, 115, 134 
ffij/J.aiv<a, H. 11 
<n/3uAAa, H. 12 
(T/ciiAa, X. 18 

fffUlKpOTTIS, A. 1 

ffoji-n, H. 107 ; X. 19 ; E. 18 

ffo<p6s, H. 1, 18, 19, 74 ; E. 51, 416 

<rirfpfj.a, A. 3, 4 

<rirAa-yx i ' os ! E. 57 

ffreiviairos, E. 2 

ffTftpdvt), p. 108, 109 

ffropy-fi, E. 335 

<TTpoyyv\-n, p. 151 

ffTu<pe\ita, X. 18 

ffvy-ypcupri, H. 17 

ffvytcpivofiai, A. 3 

(Tvytapi<a, A. 8 

<TVfj./j.iis, A. 4 



296 



ENGLISH INDEX 



ffvfj.fj.iffy u, A. 17 
(Tv/j.ir-hyvvij.1, A. 9, 10 
<rvtj.<f>fpu>, H. 46, 59 
<rvvfpxoiJ.a.i, E. 173, 175, 248 
ffwlffr-nfu, P. 93 ; E. 174 
<r(palprj, P. 103 
ffQaipos, E. 134, 138 
ffX&vv-n, E. 209 
ffupa, M. 16 ; E. 249 
ffwQpovew, H. 106-107 

s, A. 11 

rAs, P. 49 ; E. 81 
re\evrdta, H. 122 ; P. 152 
TfXevr-fi, M. 7 ; E. 37 
re\os, M. 9 
T'PM, E. 178 
rifj.'fi, E. 16, 88 
TiVis, Ad. 2 
T(J|OI>, H. 45 
roW, P. 101 ; Z. 4 
rp-ftfj.ara, E. 299 
rux^J, E. 195 

8j3pt9, H. 103 ; X. 21 

$7prfy, H. 72, 73 

5o>p, H. 25, 68 ; X. 9, 10, 11 ; M. 17 ; 
E. 78, 208, 211, 221, 266, 284, 
297, 301, 302, 307, 324, 333 ; A. 9 



a, p. 62 

<pdos, P. 10, 144 ; E. 40, 72, 320 
<t>dpna.Ka, E. 24, 121 
<t>i\6<ro<pos, H. 49 



<t>i\6rr,s, E. 67, 80, 103, (116), 172, 

181, 209, 248 
<p\6, E. 152 

<p6vos, E. 371, 384, 412, 428 
tppfa, H. Ill ; X. 3 ; E. 51, 74, 

127, 346, 350, 368 
<ppovw, H. 5, 90 ; P. 148 ; E. 195, 

332, 337 

<t>p6v-n<ris, H. 92 ; E. 231 
Qpovris, X. 24 ; E. 339, 351 
$v\\ov, E. 237, 440 
<pv\ov, P. 49 ; E. 163 
<!>t(ns, H. 2, 10, 107 ; P. 133, 137, 

148 ; E. 36, 39, 226, 270 
<t>v(a, X. 10 ; P. 66, 138, 151 ; E. 

69, 182, 188, 242, 257, 375 ; A. 10 

Xp, H. 136 

Xe/p, P. 22 ; E. 296, 306, 345, 441, 

443 
xMv, E. 166, 187, 198, 199, 203, 

215, 235, 378, 403 
Xtavos, E. 199 
Xptos, P. 65, 96 
XpeAv, Ad. 2 ; P. 28, 37, 67, 105, 116 

XpT/tf/UOfTWTJ, H. 24 

Xpo?, A. 3, 4 

^evSos, H. 118, (132) 
^vxt, H. 4, 38, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 
105, 131, 136 ; X. 18 ; A. 10 

IpOTOKfW, E. 219 

8>pri, H. 34 ; E. 374 



III. ENGLISH INDEX 

The references are to pages ; a star * indicates the important reference in a series. 



Achilles argument, the, 116, 118 
Aether, 110, 149, 183, 223, 237, 

261 
Aetios, 5, 6, 7, 14 ff., 21 f., 83 f., 

109 f ., 119, 129, 143, 146 f ., 223 f ., 

253 f. 
Aetna, 78 
Aidoneus, 161, 223 
Air, 17, 19, 179, 223, 237, 248 
Akragas, 203 
Alexandros, 12, 81 
Alkmaion, 138 



All, the, 78, 105, 108 ; one, 57 
Anaxagoras, 18, 215, 216, 220, 

*235 f. 

Anaximandros, *8, 215, 257 
Anaximenes, *17, 81 
Animals, 13, 171 ; origin of, 189, 

191, 228, 261; from moisture, 

16 ; souls of, 150 
Anthropomorphism, 67, 77 
Aphrodite, 167, 181, 185 
Apollodoros, 17, 23, 151 
Archilochos, 53 



ENGLISH INDEX 



297 



Archippos, 154 

Archytas, 132 

Ares, 209 

Aristotle, 2, 8, 9, 18, 57 f., 78, 104, 

129, 134 f., 145, 215 f., 247 
Aristoxenos, 153 
Arius Didymus, 151 
Arrow argument, 116 
Astronomy, 5 
Ate, 207 
Athletic contests vs. wisdom, 71 

Banquet, sacrificial, 75 
Beginning of the universe, 124 f., 

129 
Being, 91 f., 108, 124 f., 173, 243; 

not moved, 95 ; not generated, 

95 ; not divided, 95, 126 
Bias, 51 

Blood, seat of thought, 214, 234 
Blyson, 23 
Body, the tomb of the soul, 133, 

214 ; subject to change, 146 ; 

infinitely divisible, 146 
Breathing, Empedokles on, 195, 

227 

Cause, active, 22 

Change, constant, 35, 165 ; impos- 
sibility of, 127, 129 

Chariot of Parmenides, 87 

Chrysippos, 60 

Chthonie, 207 

Cicero, 7, 16, 21, 108, 151, 233 

Circles of the heavens, 99 

Clouds, 19, 256 

Comets, 84, 255 

Community of gods and men, 133 

Condensation of matter, 9, 21, 
60 f., 125 

Counter-earth, 136, 148 

Cube, 152 f. 

Cycles of the universe, 179, 216 

Darkness as first principle, 99 
Day and night, 89 
Death, 45, 53, 229 
Decad, 144, 152 
Delphi, oracle at, 27 
Demokritos, 18, 33, 248, 250, 254 
Destruction of things, 10, 13, 14, 
82, 93 f., 119, 124, 165, 222, 245 
Diodoros, 153 
Diogenes Laertios, 63, 64, 120 



Discord, 39 

Divisibility of matter, infinite, 115 

Dyad, 144, 152 

Earth, the, 31, 67 f., 83 ; a heavenly 
body, 13; form of, 13, 14, 22, 
106 ; is infinite, 78 ; once covered 
by the sea, 82 ; rests on water, 
3, 4 ; rests on air, 20 ; is sinking 
into the sea, 83 

Earthquakes, 7, 18, 22, 261 

Eclipses, 7, 15, 63, 84, 148 

Ecliptic, 6 

Egyptian wisdom, 154 

E lea tic school, 64 f . ; unity, 79, 
103, 105, 119 

Elements, 41, 161, 167, 183, 221, 
224; imperishable, 169, 230; 
indivisible, 142 ; motion of, 215 ; 
separation of, 12 

Embryo, 228 

Empedokles, 57, 60, *157 f., 247, 
249 ; reverenced as a god, 203 

Enquiry, ways of, 89 

Epikouros, 85 

Epiphanius, 108, 119, 129, 154 f., 
234 

Equality, geometrical, 133 

Erinyes, 33 

Esoteric class, 154 

Eudemos, 116 

Euripides, 257 

Eurystratos, 17, 19, 21 

Eye, Empedokles on the, 197 

False assumptions of Melissos, 129 

Fate, 39, 62, 97, 163 

Fire, 19, 99, 155, 191; central 
Pythagorean, 136 ; ever-living, 
29 ; periodic, 61 ; transforma- 
tions of, 31 

First principle, 2, 5, 67, 218, 230, 
234, 260 ; are ten, 138 ; heat and 
cold as, 104 ; is eternal, 13 ; is 
fire, 58 ; is water, 4, 67 

Flame, sphere of, 14 

Flesh forbidden, 205, 213 

Fossils, 82 

Friendship, 222 

Galen, 81, 83, 119 
Gate of Parmenides, 89 
Generation, 10, 13 f., 20, 82, 93 f., 

119, 124, 129 f., 163, 245 
Genesis, 165 

X 



298 



ENGLISH INDEX 



God, 33, 39, 47, 65, 79, 147, 151, 
173, 201, 222, 254 

Gods, 2, 3, 7, 21, 41, 58, 201, 233 ; 
anthropomorphic, 67, 77 ; are 
born, 16, 171 ; Homeric treat- 
ment of, 67; goddess of Par- 
menides, 89 

Good and bad, 39, 57 

Habit, 93 

Hades, 35 

Hail, 20 

Harmony, 35, 37, 39, 137, 153 ; of 

the spheres, 135,. 15.1 
Heavens, 101, lio, 134, 137; 

revolution of, 11, 216 
Hekataios, 29, 63 
Heliope, 207 
Helios, 87 
Hephaestos, 183. 
Hera, 161, 223 
Herakleides, 148 
Herakleitos, *23 f., 120-, 216, 253 
Hermeias, 14, 23, 155, 262 
Hermodoros, 51 
Heroes, 6, 145 
Hesiod, 29, 33 
Hippasos, 58, 60, 63 
Hippolytos, 13, 19, 25, 108, 151, 

233, 260 f. 

Homer, 35, 53, 57, 103, 223 
Homoeomeries, 248 f . 
Homogeneous, Being is, 125, 127 

Ignorance, 49 

Incredulity, 51 

Infinite, the, 9, 11, 15, 114, 125, 

134, 138, 248 ; double, 139 
Infinites, 117, 237 
Invocation of Empedokles, 159 
Ionic school, 5 

Justice, 39, 51, 89 

Kalliopeia, 201 

Klepsydra compared with breath- 
ing, 195 

Knowledge, 89 ; of the gods, 69 ; 
progress of, 69 

Kronos, 209 

Kypris, 183, 185, 209 

Law, 47, 49 
Leukippos, 217, 249 



Lightning, 14, 16, 20, 31, 63, 84, 

226, 256, 261 
Lipara, fire at, 78 
Loadstone, 3 
Love and strife, 167, 171, 179, 

215 f., 218, 221, 224, 230 
Luxury, 73 
Lysis, 132, 154 

Many, the, 165 

Matter, 6, 15, 145; eternal, 125; 

divisibility of, 6 
Melissos, 79, 103, 104, 109, 119, 

*120 f. ; fallacies of, 129 
Men, origin of, 106 ; from animals, 

14 ; from fish, 11, 13 ; mind of, 

101, 107 

Metempsychosis, 71 
Meteor, 235 
Metrodoros, 82, 259 
Milky Way, 101, 110, 148, 255 
Mind as first principle, 239 f., 

246 f. 

Mnesarchos, 29, 132 
Monad, 144 f., 151 f. 
Moon, 7, 13, 14 f., 20, 62, 84, 101, 

110, 148, 175, 177, 226, 246, 255, 

261 ; phases of, 7 ; revolution 

of, 12 
Motion, 119, 126 f., 146, 248, 249 ; 

eternal, 14, 21, 62 ; universal, 

57, 58, 243 

Multiplicity, 114, 128, 217 
Muse, invocation of, 159, 201 
Mysteries, 53 

Necessity, 6, 95, 119, 131, 187, 203 

Nestis, 161, 183, 223 

Nikolaos, 80 

Nile, 256, 260 ; rise of, 7 

Noise, Zeno on, 116 

Not-being, 11, 103, 108, 124, 243, 

254 
Number, 134 f., 152 

Oenopides, 147 f., 246 

Olympia, 71 

Olympos, 101, 175 

Ombros, 183 

One, the, 114, 119, 131, 139, 145 

One, all are, 57 

Opinion of men, 89, 97, 145 ; vs. 

truth, 187 
Opposites, 35, 37, 58, 138, 247; 

separation of, 12 



ENGLISH INDEX 



299 



Order, 29 
Origination, 163 
Orpheus, 133 

Parmenides, 23, 62 f., 78, *86f., 
112, 120, 129, 257 ; fallacies of, 
104 ; theory of sensation, 107 f., 
110; theory of thought, 107; 
Plato on, 103 

Passion, 49 

Perception by pores, 230 ; by likes, 
199 

Perikles, 235, 247 

Philip the Opuntian, 148 

Philodemos, 7 

Philolaos, 132, 148 

Pisas, the, 71 

Place, 146 ; existence of, 115 ; 
Zeno on, 117 

Plants, 7, 220, 229, 251 

Plato, 2, 57, 78, 103 f., 112, 133, 
141, 146, 148 f., 214, 245 f., 262 

Plutarch, 5, 11, 14, 21, 82, 108, 119 

Polykrates, 132 

Poseidon, 209 

Praxiades, 13 

Progress, 56 

Protagoras, 116 

Purifications, Empedokles on, 203 

Pythagoras, 23, 29, 56, 132 f. ; 
science of, 151 

Pythagoreans, 86, 132 f . 

Rainbow, 21, 69, 149, 256 
Rarefaction, 9, 21, 60 f., 125 
Reason, 47, 62 ; authority of, 83 ; 
' destined,' 61 ; in the universe, 6 

Sabinos, 81 

Sacrifice, 53, 155, 209 

Samian fleet, 120 

Science, 58, 145 ; of numbers, 143 

Sea, the, 12, 37, 69, 179, 218, 226, 

259 
Sensation, 85; validity of, 128 f., 

131, 159, 226, 256 
Sense-perception, 27, 60, 108, 150, 

161 ; theory of, 214, 217, 258 f. 
Senses, Empedokles on, 227, 231 
Separation, 217, 237, 239, 245 
Sibyl, 27 

Simplicius, 114 f., 124 f. 
Sky, 22 
Sleep, 25, 59, 229, 257 



Solstice, 6, 147 f., 225, 255, 261 
Soul, 2, 3, 7, 21, 41, 43, 57, 59, 63, 

110, 149, 153, 218, 225, 250, 256 ; 

transmigration of, 71, 155, 203 f., 

213 

Space, 117 
Speusippos, 141 
Stars, 6, 7, 13 f., 20, 22, 62, 84, 110, 

225, 255, 260 ; revolution of, 22 
Stoics, the, 63, 145 f., 226, 254 
Stones, 19 
Strife, 35, 37, 39, 60, 167, 171, 175, 

179, 215, 218 
Sun, 6, 7, 13 f., 22, 33, 61 f., 84, 

101, 110, 148, 171, 175, 225, 255, 

260 ; revolution of, 12 ; setting 

of, 18, 20 

Temperance, 49 

Tetrad, 144, 152 

Tetraktys, 152 

Thales, *1 f., 33, 81, 145, 147, 253 

Theology of Xenophanes, 65 f., 77 

Theophrastos, 4, 11, 19, 59, 79,81, 

106, 155, 230 f., 257 f. 
Things eternal, 129 
Thought equals being, 91, 97 
Thunder, 63 
Thunderbolt, 31, 256 
Timaios, 56 
Time and space, 117 
Tomb, the body a, 133, 214 
Tortoise, 116 

Treatise, first philosophical, 8 
Truth, 69, 89 f. ; vs. opinion, 106 
Tyche, 183 

Understanding, common to all, 47 ; 

lacking, 25, 51 
Unity, 78, 129 ; of being, 103 ; is 

God, 79 
Universe, the, 60, 62, 146 f., 153, 

224, 255, 262 ; structure of, 109 

Void, 6, 119, 125, 127, 134, 146 f., 
216, 248, 251 

Wantonness, 49 
War, 35, 39 
Water, 2, 67 
Weather, control of, 161 
Winds, 13, 19, 20, 63, 261 
Wisdom, 29, 47 

Worlds, 15 ; infinite in number, 
14,22 



300 ENGLISH INDEX 

Worship, 209 ; popular, 55 Zaratas, 153 

Zeno, 59, *112 f., 120 ; arguments 

Xenophanes, 23, 29, *64 f., 105 ; of, 114 f. ; on motion, 119 

sayings of, 77 ; skepticism of, Zeus, 29, 33, 60, 71, 136, 161, 209, 
82 f. ; theology of, 65 f., 77 223 

Zodiac, 147 f . 
Zalmoxis, 154 Zones, 6, 110, 147, 149 



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