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Full text of "First Russian book"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/firstrussianbookOOforbrich 



FIRST RUSSIAN BOOK 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 6s. net. 

SECOND RUSSIAN BOOK. In preparation. 

THIRD RUSSIAN BOOK. In preparation. 

THE BALKANS AND TURKEY : The History of the 
Balkan States and the Turkish Empire. By Nevill 
Forbes, D. G. Hogarth, D. Mitrany, and Arnold 
Toynbee. With maps. In the press. 

OTHER BOOKS 

A FIRST RUSSIAN READER, from L. N. Toistoy. 
With English Notes and a Vocabulary by Percy 
Deabmer and V. A. Tananevich. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF RUSSIA. By LlcyCazalet. 2s. 



FIEST RUSSIAN 
BOOK 



BY 



NEVILL FORBES, M.A. 

READER IN RUSSIAN AND THE OTHER SLAVONIC LANGUAGES 
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1915 



SERVATION 
PADDED 
INAL TO BE 
JNED 

I 27 1994 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 
TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



?(s7AV 



PREFACE 



This book is intended as a practical means of 
acquainting the student of Russian with the first 
difficulties of the language, which are the case-endings. 
Without a knowledge of these no real progress can be 
made. In order that the process of their acquisition 
may be as palatable as possible many words and 
phrases of immediate utility have been inserted. Vir- 
tually no verbs are dealt with in this volume, as a great 
deal can be said in Russian without any verbs at all. 
The only one given in this book in full is the verb 
to be ; the terrors of the Russian verb are reserved for 
the Second Book. Where practicable the Russian 
words have been printed also transliterated in English 
characters to give some idea of pronunciation. When 
using the book the table of contents should be care- 
fully read. 

N. F. 

Oxford, September 1915. 



327991 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 

1. The Alphabet . 

2. Pronunciation . 

3. Indeclinable words . 

4. Easy phrases without verbs 

5. A few useful Adverbs 

6. Words with masculine and feminine endings 

7. Continuation of two previous chapters 

8. The Verb to be (6litb) .... 

9. The Nominative : Substantives 
10. Vocabulary : Outside and inside of buildings, rooms 

furniture, &c. . 

Vocabulary : Travel 

Vocabulary : Time, weather, &c. 

Vocabulary : The points of the compass, names of 
countries, nationalities, towns, rivers, and Chris- 
tian, patronymic, and surnames. The use of 
personal names in Russian ... 

The Nominative : Pronouns ..... 

Vocabulary of words denoting male and female beingi 

16. Examples of Pronouns used in agreement with Nouns 

17. The Nominative : Adjectives .... 
Examples of Adjectives used in agreement with Nouns 
Vocabulary : Adjectives denoting size, shape, and posi- 



11. 
12. 
13. 



14. 
15. 



18. 
19. 



20. 



tion 
Vocabulary : 
quality 

21. Vocabulary : 

22. Vocabulary : 



Adjectives denoting appearance and 



Adjectives denoting colour and age 
Adjectives denoting nationality ; Adjec 
tives as Surnames and Nouns 

23. The two forms of the Adjective 

24. Pronouns like Adjectives, which, &c. . 

25. The Genitive : Substantives .... 



CONTENTS 



vn 



34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 



Numbers 



chapter 

26. The Genitive : Pronouns . 

27. The Genitive : Adjectives 

28. Vocabulary : Literature, music, theatre, &c 

29. Phrases containing words in the Genitive 

30. His, her, and their .... 

31. Vocabulary: Food, drink, &c. . 

32. The Genitive in Negations 

33. The Genitive of Quantity (food, &c.) . 
Use of the Nominative and Genitive after 
The Genitive of Time 
The Genitive of Date 
The Genitive of Comparison 

38. Vocabulary : The human body, health 

39. Vocabulary : Animal and plant life . 

40. The Verb to have .... 

41. Not to have . . 

42. To have : Past and future 

43. Prepositions with the Genitive : in the possession of, 

without, for, until, out of, away from, near, after, 
except, instead of, alongside of (y, 6e3T>, rjih, ro, 

H3T>, 0TT>, OKOJIO, nOCJTE, KpOM'B, BM'ECTO, B03JTE) 

44. The Dative : Substantives 

45. The Dative : Pronouns 

46. The Dative : Adjectives . 

47. Phrases with words in the Dative ; wants and requests, 

addressing letters 

48. Vocabulary : Clothes 

49. Age ... 

50. Prepositions with the Dative : to, along, according to, 

at the rate of (in,, no) 

51. The Accusative : Substantives, Pronouns, and Adjec 

tives ..... 

52. Phrases with words in the Accusative 

53. Prepositions with the Accusative : into, to, on to, for, at 

the rate of, through, across (Bt, Ha, 3a, no, Hepe3t) 

54. The Instrumental : Substantives .... 

55. The Instrumental : Pronouns ..... 



PAGE 

96 
99 
100 
102 
105 
106 
109 
111 
114 
119 
121 
122 
129 
131 
134 
139 
140 



142 
147 
151 
153 

154 
159 
161 

162 

164 
166 

167 
171 
177 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

56. The Instrumental : Adjectives . . . . .178 

57. Uses of the Instrumental : Agent, instrument, predicate, 

time, season . . . . . . . 179 

58. Prepositions with the Instrumental : behind, for, under, 

above, before, in front of, between, from (aa, no^t, 
HaAT», nepeflt, MejKAy, c*l) . . . .181 

59. The Locative : Substantives . . . . .185 

60. The Locative : Pronouns . . . . . .190 

61. The Locative : Adjectives 192 

62. The Locative and the Prepositions : in, on, about, in 

presence of, after (wb, Ha, o, npH, no) . .^/193 

Index of Words and Phrases 200 

Subject Index 216 



NOTE ON THE ACCENT 

In Russian the accent is mobile ; it can fall on any syllable of 
a word, and in the case of declinable words it can fall on various 
syllables according to the different cases, either on the termination 
or on one of the syllables of the stem. Some words identical in appear- 
ance are totally different in meaning, and this difference is only expressed 
by the accent. The rules which govern its incidence are, however, 
so intricate that the beginner is recommended to learn by ear or by 
observation where the accent falls on the commonest cases of the com- 
monest words. In this book the accent is marked throughout. 



CHAPTER 1 






THE ALPHABET 



NAME 


VALUE 


A a 


a 




a 


B6 


6e 




b 


Bb 


Be 




V 


Tv 


re 




9 


An 


fle 




d 


Ee 


e 




ye 


5K jk 


3Ke 




zh 


33 


3e 




z 


Hh 


H 


1 

i 




Ii 1 




yi 


Hit 2 




i 


Kk 


Ka 




k 


JI ji 


3JIL 




I 


Mm 


3M1> 




m 


Hh 


3H!> 




n 


Oo 










n n 


ne 




V 


Pp 


apt 




r 





NAME 


VALUE 


C c 


3Ct 


s 


Tt 


Te 


t 


yy 


y 


u 


o$ 


3$T> 


I 


Xx 


xa 


(k)h 


Uk 


i*e 


ts 


H*I 


ie 


ch 


fflm 


ma 


sh 


mm 


ma 


shch 


"b% 


epi> 


cf . p. 6 


Hli* 


epH 


y 


bB 


ept 


cf . p. 6 


'Bi 3 


ilTB 


ye 


9 K* 


a 


e 


K)io 


K) 


yu 


Ha 


a 


ya 


0e 


GHTa 


f 


Yy 


H5KHu;a 


i 



1 Called h ct> tohkoh =i with a dot 

2 Called h ct KpaTKOfi =i with a short quantity, 

3 Has exactly the same value as e, but is of different origin. 

4 Called 3 oSopoTHoe =e reversed. 
1809 B 



THE ALPHABET 

General Observation 

a d bi o y are called hard vowels, 

t> is called the hard sign, 

5i e (i) [e] 1 K) are called soft vowels, 

h is called the soft sign. 

G b r ;a; 5K 3 are called voiced consonants, 
n $ (e) k t m c 

and x i^ q m are called voiceless consonants. 



CHAPTER 2 

PRONUNCIATION 

The Vowels 

A a like a in car 

MarymKa (mother) matushka 

3 a like ya in yard 

TaMO^KHH (custom-house) tamozhnya 

Obs. 1. a and a when followed by a consonant + b are, 
more especially when accented, pronounced almost 
like ai in Cairo (transliterated a 1 ) : 

u;apB (tsar) tsaV 

Obs. 2. si when unaccented and preceding the stress 
often sounds almost like ye, or yi, or even e or i : 

naTBflecarB (fifty) pidyesyat 
1 e =yo 9 cf. note on p. 5. 



PBONUNCIATION 3 

9 9 like e in ell 

BTzbKfc (story, sc. of a house) etazh 

Obs. When accented the pronunciation of 3 depends 
on what letters follow it. 

(1) If followed by a consonant + hard vowel or t> it 

is pronounced almost 

like ai in air (transliterated e a ) 
9Ta (this, f.) e a ta 

(2) If followed by a consonant + soft vowel it is pro- 
nounced 

like a in ale (transliterated e 1 ) 
9th (these) e ! tyi 

E e like ye in yell 

EKaTepHHa (Catherine) yekatyerina 
rHfeflo (nest) gnye3do 

Obs. When accented the pronunciation of e depends 
on what letters follow it. 

(1) If followed by a consonant +hard vowel or r b it is 

pronounced almost like yai in yair (i.e. the English 
word air preceded by the ^/-sound ; transliterated 
ye a ) 

ra3eTa (newspaper) gazye a ta 

koji4ho (knee) kalye a na 

(2) If followed by a consonant + soft vowel or h it is 

pronounced 
like ya in Yale (transliterated ye 1 ) 
ecTB (there is) ye j st' 
sjj^Gh (here) zdyeV 
B2 



4 PKONUNCIATION 

H h like y in Whitby 

6mia (she was) byla 



H ii like yie in yield 

{ I i J flHTa (cMd) dyitya 

\y v / 

Obs. 1. ft (transliterated i) is only used when this letter 
forms the second half of a diphthong : 

moh (my, m.) moi 
After bi and i (ufi, m =y, i) where it is not audible, 
it is not transliterated. 

Obs. 2. i (transliterated i) is only used when this letter 
is followed by a vowel x : 

Amelia (England) angliya 

Obs. 3. v is only used in a few ecclesiastical words of 
Greek origin and sounds like h. 

Obs. 4. y=u almost always comes between two con- 
sonants ; in those few cases where it is followed 
by a vowel, a hyphen is inserted to show that it 
does not belong to the following vowel e (ye) or 
a (ya), cf. pp. 70, 71. 

1 Except in the word Mipt = world, spelt thus to differentiate it 
from MHpT> = 'peace. 



/ 



PKONUNCIATION 5 

o (1) when accented 
like o in or 

Mope (sea) morye 

(2) when unaccented and before the accent 

like a in car 

mojioko (milk) malako 

(3) when unaccented and after the accent 

like a in paternal 

hSjioko (apple) yablaka 

Obs. When followed by a consonant + b, more especially 
when it is accented, o is pronounced almost 
like oi in soil (transliterated o 1 ) 
cojib (salt) soT 



[E e] like yo in yore 

03epa (lakes) azyora 

Obs. This is not counted a separate letter in Eussian, 
hence the brackets ; the diaeresis ("), seldom 
marked in Eussian books, implies the accent, as 
this sound never occurs in unaccented syllables. 



y y like u in push 

yTKa (duck) titka 

10 K) like yu in yule 

kjiioto (key) klyuch 



6 PEONUNCIATION 

1> £ has no sound and merely indicates that the pre- 
ceding consonant is hard : 

nojii (floor) pol 

Obs. This is called the hard sign ; it occurs also in the 
middle of words made up of a preposition ending 
in a consonant and a root beginning with a vowel, 
but never has any sound : 

noR'bisK'h (front door) pady6 a zd 

h h indicates that the preceding consonant is soft : 
cojib (salt) soT 

Obs. This is called the soft sign ; it occurs also in the 
middle of words where a consonant has to be 
softened : 

Majib^HKi, (boy) maTchik 

In such cases and at the end of words it is trans- 
literated by a comma at the top right hand of the 
consonant which is softened. 



The Consonants 

B 6 like b in English, but at the end of words almost 
like p : 

jio6fc (forehead) lop 

II n like p in English. 

B b like v in English, but at the end of words almost 
like/: 

KieBi) (Kiev) kiyef 



PBONUNCIATION 7 

CD <6 ) 

A * [ like /in English. 

T r like # in </ood, but at the end of words almost like k : 
Jiyrb (meadow) luk. 

Obs. 1. In the word Bora (God) it is pronounced like 
x, i.e. kh ; also before k : 

JierKO (it is easy) lyekhko 
Obs. 2. Before 3 (d) it is pronounced like gh x : 
rfl'fe (where) ghdye 

K k like k in English. 

Obs. Before t (t) it is pronounced like x (i.e. kh) : 
kto (who) khto 

X x like kh in (Scotch) Zocfe ; at the beginning of words 
more like English h : 

xopomo (all right) (k)harasho 

JX B like d in English, but at the end of words almost 
like t 2 : 

ro,n;i> (year) got 

T t like t in English. 

3 3 like z in English, but at the end of words almost 
like s : 

pa3i» (a stroke, a time) ras 

C c like s in so. 

3K 5K like s in measure (transliterated zh) : 
MyjKt (husband) muzh 

IE in like sfe in English. 
IJ ij like ts in English. 

1 This is the voiced sound corresponding to the voiceless kh. 
? Except when followed by b or preceded by 3 (z) and >k (zh). 



8 PEONUNCIATION 

H q like ch in English (N.B. note on p. 13). 

HI m like shch in Ashchurch. 

M m like m in English. 

H h like n in English. 

JI ji like ? in English. 

P p like r in Scots (i.e. rolled). 

Obs. Voiced consonants immediately preceding ^voice- 
less consonants become voiceless : 
Bee (everything) fsyo 

General observations on Pronunciation 

1. The consonants 

JI H T ft 

are especially affected by the quality of the following, 
vowel or sign : 

Hard ji jro6i> (forehead) lop (1 = 11 in ell) 

Soft ji Jieflt (ice) lyot (1 as in lewd) 

Hard ji nojn> (floor) pol (1 =11 in eW) 

Soft ji co jib (salt) soT (P as in lewd) 

Hard h hoci> (nose) nos 

Soft h h66o (sky) nye a ba (n as in new) 

Hard h 6apain> (sheep) baran 

Soft h kohb (steed) koV (n 5 as in new) 

Hard t tom-l (volume) torn 

Soft t t4jio (body) tye a la (t as in tune) 

Hard t pora (mouth) rot 

Soft t cjihkotb (slush) slyakat' (i' as in tune) 

Hard # aom'b (house) dom 

Soft ;n; fleHB (day) dyeV (d as in due) 

Hard ft MeftTb (honey) myot 

Soft a ftOHCftB (ram) do'zhd' (d J as in due) 



PBONUNCIATION 9 

2. After m and m the soft sign h becomes like the hard 
sign t, i.e. mute, and loses its effect. 

3. All the other consonants are softened by t, but this 
is very difficult for foreigners to express, especially at the 
end of words (h never occurs after k, r, or x). s 

4. After in and jk the vowel h sounds like bi 1 : 

pKHin> (supper) uzhyn. 

5. After all the other consonants except a, h, t, r> h 
loses its initial y-sound : 

nHBO (beer) piva. 

6. Also at the beginning of words h loses its y-sound : 

HM^Hie (property) imye ! niye 
except in the three words 

rat, nxt, hmh, cf. pp. 96, 151, 177. 

7. After 3K, in, % and m; the vowel e (i) loses its initial 
j/-sound : 

yme (already) uzhe. 

8. After all the other consonants except ji, h, t, fl, 
e (i) loses its initial ?/-sound in rapid speech when it is 
unaccented and often even when it is accented ; this is 
expressed in transliteration by bracketing the (y) : 

BpeMH (time) vr(y)e i mya. 

9. After sk, in, q, and in; the vowel [e] loses its i/-sound 2 : 

ein;e (yet, still, more) yeshcho 
colloquially : ishcho. 

10. In the masc. and neut. genitive singular of all pro- 
nouns and adjectives r is pronounced like b : 

Koro (of whom) kavo 

1 Except when followed by a soft vowel or the soft sign, e.g. 
>KH3Hb (life), zhizn\ 

2 And in these cases is sometimes even written o. 



10 





CHAF 


rEi 


l 3 




INDECLINABLE WORDS 


H 


i 


and 


a 


a 


and, but 


HO 


no 


but 


Hy, Hyc*, HyKa' 


nu, nus, nuka 


well ! 


HJIH 


iiyi 


or 


H . . . H . . . 


i . . . i . . . 


both . . . and . . . 


HH . . . HH . . . 


nyi . . . nyi . . 


. neither . . . nor . . . 


HJIH . . . HJIH . . 


. ilyi...ilyi.. 


. either . . . or . . . 


«a 


da 


yes (also =and, but) 


H^Tt 


nye a t 


no (also = there is not) 


He 


nye 


not 


17$ 


ghdye 


where 


TJTb 


tut 




here 


3ftiQ,h 


zdyeV 






TSLWh 


tarn 


there 


Bezfti 


vezdye 


everywhere 


HHr.o.'fe 


nyighdye 


nowhere 


HanpaBo 


naprava 


on or to the right 


HaJliBO 


nalye a va 


on or to the left 


cero^HH 


s(y)evodnya 


to-day 


Kor,n;a 


kaghda 


when 


Tenept 


tyep(y)#r' 


now 


Tor^a 


taghda 


then 


Bcer,o;a 


fs(y)eghda 


always 


HHor^a 


inaghda 


sometimes 


HHKor^a 


nyikaghda 


never 


AaBHO 


davno 


long since 


He^aBHo 


nyedavna 




lately 



INDECLINABLE WOEDS 



11 



BOTE 


vot 


here is, there is 


BOHfc 


von 


over there, yonder 


T65Ke 


tozhe 


- also, likewise 


T&KJKe 


takzhe 


yjice 


uzhe 






uzh 


already, now, really 


;o;a3Ke 


dazhe 


even 


ohhtb 


apy&t' 


again 


em;e 


ishcho 


yet, still, more 


yjKe He 


uzhe nye 


no longer 


enje He 


ishcho nye 


not yet 


cobc4mi> 


safsye a m 


quite 


He cobc4mi» 


nye safsye a m 


not quite 


coBcfovrc* He . . 


. safsye a m nye 


not at all . . . 


O^eHB 


ochen' 


very, very much 


He o^eHb 


nye ochen' 


not very 


Bim> 


vit' 


for 


no^TH 


pachtyi 


nearly 


CJIHEIKOMB 


slyishkam 


too 


flOBOiJIBHO 


davoTna 


enough 


MHoro 


mnoga 


much, a lot, many 


O^eHL MHoro 


ochen' mnoga 


a great deal, many 


Majio 


mala 


little, not enough 


HeMH6ro 


nyemnoga 


a little, some 


HeMH05KKO 


nyemnoshka J 


H^CKOJIBKO 


nye a skal'ka 


a few, some few 


HHCKOJIBKO 


nyisk6 i l'ka 


not in the least 


CKOJIBKO 


skoTka 


how much, how many 


CTOJIBKO 


st6Tka 


so much, as much 


TOJIBKO 


toTka 


only, however, but 



12 



INDECLINABLE WOEDS 






Kara, 


kak 


how, as 


TaKt 


tak 


so, thus 


KaKT> Majio 


kak mala 


what a little, how few 


TaKi> Majio 


tak mala 


such a little, so few 


Taicb MH6ro 

CTOJIBKO 


tak mnoga 
stoTka 


such a lot 


CKOJIBKO 


sktfl'ka 


what a lot 


pasB-fe ? 


razv(y)e 


surely not ? 


HepKeJin ! 


nyeuzhelyi 


can it he that ? 


pasB^ ... He ? 


razv(y)e nye 


surely ? 


Bpflflt JIH 


vryadlyi 


it is doubtful whether 


nomaJiyiicTa N.B.pazhalsta 


please 


cnacnSo 


spasfba 


thank you 


H3BHHHTe 


izvinyitye 


excuse me 


npocTHTe 


prastyftye 


forgive me 


nponjaiiTe 


prashchaitye 


good-bye 


3,nipaBCTByHTe 


(zdrafstvuitye)' 


how do you do (lit. be 


usually pronounced zdrastye , 


well) 


AO CBH^aHia 


dasvidaniya 


au revoir (lit. till the 
meeting) 


Hy^KHO 


ntizhna 


it is necessary, one 


Ha;a;o 


nada 


must 


He HJ^KHO 


nye nuzhna 


it is not necessary 


He Ha^o 


nye nada 


it is unnecessary, don't 


M05KHO 


mozhna 


it is possible, one may 


HeJIB3H 


nyel'zya 


it is impossible, one 
mayn't 


vjj^-to 


ghdye a ta 


somewhere 


r^i-HH6yji,B 


ghdyenyibut' 


( anywhere 

I somewhere or other 



Korfla-TO 
Korfla-HKtfyflB 

KaKT>-TO 



INDECLINABLE WOEDS 
kaghdata 
kaghdanyibut' 



13 



KaK , L-HH6y ( n;b 



some time, formerly 

any time 

some time or other 



kakta 
kaknyibut' 



somehow, sort of, such 

as 
anyhow 
somehow or other 



aBocb, He66ct, ^a KaKT>-HH6y,n;i> ! (Eussian proverb) 
avoV, nyeboV, da kaknyibut' 

with luck, no doubt, well muddle through! 



CHAPTER 4 

EASY SENTENCES AND PHRASES FORMED WITHOUT 
ANY VERB 

The present tense of the verb to be is almost always 
omitted in Eussian, but cf. p. 27. 

kto 9to ? khto e a ta ] 7 . j7 . » . *. Aa 

~ \ = who is this, who %s that t 

3T0 KTO ? j 

ito 9to ? chto x e a ta 



BTO HTO ? 
3T0 OHTb 
9T0 OH-L ? 
OH-L 2 JIH 3T0 ? 
fla, 8T0 OHa 2 



= what is this, what is that ? 
=it is he, that is he 



r =is it he ? is that he f 



) 



--yes, it is she 



KrifcTi), 8to He ohh 2 =no, it is not they 

1 Colloquially shto, 2 For the pronunciation of these cf. p. 55 



14 EASY PHEA8ES WITHOUT VEEBS 

r^i om ? = where is he f 

OHa TVTB ) . . _ 

OHa SflTBCb J 

ohh TaMt = they are there 

OHa TaMfc ? ) • 7 n 

\ =is she there ? 
TaMt jih OHa r J 

0HT>3fl'£cb? \=ishehere? 

3JI$eb JIH OHI> ? ) 

kto TaM-L ? —who is there ? 

Obs. A question must not be introduced by the inter- 
rogative particle jih when it already contains an 
interrogative pronoun or adverb such as kto, ito, 
17$. 

0H£ TjTTy h OHa Tyra =he is here and she is here 
OHa 3^cb a ohb Ta>wb=she is here but he is there 

Obs. The particle a can often be translated by and, but 
always implies an antithesis. 

9T0 hjih oht» hjih OHa = i£ is either he or she 
3to hh ohte» hh OHa = it is neither he nor she 

ohb, OHa, oho sjj^gl =it is here 

ohh, oh4 TaMi> =they ar&Jli&re . -**3^ . 

Obs. oho is the specifically neuter personal pronoun 
meaning it, but it must be remembered that if the 
object referred to is masculine, then OHt, and if 
feminine, then OHa must be used, both of which, 
in the case of inanimate objects, would be trans- 
lated in English by it The place of oho is often 
taken by bto. Similarly oh4 is the specifically 



EASY PHEASES WITHOUT VEKBS 



15 



BOT'L OHL 

BOTT> OHa 
BOTT> OHO 



feminine plural of the personal pronoun, while ohh 
is the masculine and neuter plural, both meaning 
they ; when the objects referred to are of several 
genders, e.g. masculine and feminine, ohh is used. 

here he is, there he is 
here it is, there it is 

_ { here she is, there she is 
[ here it is, there it is 

= here it is, there it is 



BOTE OHH 
BOT'L OH^ 
BOTL OHH 3^Cb 
BOTL OHi 3J^Ch 

Borb oht> TaMft 

BOTT> OHa TaML 
BOT'L OHH rfli 
BOTL rfli OHH 

botl r^i = 

ohl y^e 3^icb = 

OHa em;e TaML ■ . = . 

mli enje 3Aicb = 

oeui y^Ke TaM^ = 

a yjffe 3,nici>, a th enje TaMT> = 

oht> enje 3^cb, a OHa | 
yjKe t&wl ) 

OHT> TOJKe 3JI$Gh = 

OHa To^e TaM^b = 

ohh Tenepb t&wl Tom,e = 
mli TOJice Bceryja flOMa m 



here they are, there they are 
this is where they are, here 

there he (or it) is over there 
there she (or it) is over there 

that 's where they are 

that 9 s where (he or it is) 

he is already here 
she is still there 
we are still here 
they are already there 
I am here already, but thou 
art still there 

i he is still here, but she is 

[ already there 

he is here also 

she is there also 

they are there now also 

we also are always at home 



16 



EASY PHEASES WITHOUT VEEBS 



OHB OIIflTb TaMI> 

OHa onarb sjnich 
BOTT> ohb onaTB ! 
mbi onaTt flOMa 
ohb Tenepb onaTb 3jsfic>h 
OHa Tenepb onaTb Taivrb 

oht> cero^Ha TyTt 
OHa ceroflHa ;a;6Ma 
ohh ceroAHH TaMt 

oht> Tenept 3^cb 
OHa Tenepb TaMT> 
r^i ohh Tenepb ? 

ohh Tenepb flOMa 
ohh Tenepb ^OMa ? 
flOMa jih ohh Tenepb ? j 

Tenepb Hejib3a 
Tenepb mojkho 

oht» Bcer^a TaMT> 
OHa Bcer,n;a sjifech 
ohh Bcer,n;a ftOMa 

tbi Bcer^a sflicb ? 
a Bcer,n;a 3aicb 
bh Bcer^a TaMt ? 
mh Bcer^a TaMi» 

a sftfecb, a Tbi TaMB 
mh Tyrb, a bh TaMt 

pa3B-6 OHa 3^icb ? 
HeyacejiH ohs> Taivrb ? 



he is there again 
she is here again 
here he is again ! 
we are again at home 
he is here again now 
she is there again now 

he is here to-day 
she is at home to-day 
they are there to-day 

he is now here 
she is now there 
where are they now ? 

they are now at home 

are they at home now ? 

now one musnH, can't 
now one may, can 

he is always there 
she is always here 
they are always at home 

art thou always here ? 
I am always here - 5 

are you always there ? 
we are always there 

I am here, but thou art there 
we are here, but you are there 

is she here ? 
k surely she is not here ? 
can it be that he is there ? 



EASY PHEASES WITHOUT VEEBS 17 

pasB-fe 8to He ohh ? = surely that is they ? 

Bpaflt jih ohh ^OMa =1 doubt whether they are at home 

n ;n;aBH6 TyTt = I have been here for a long time 

OHa TaMT> He^aBHO =she hasn't been there long 

Obs. tbi is used in Eussian amongst relatives and 
intimate friends of more or less the same age ; 
parents and children address each other by th, 
and children are usually addressed by th by their 
parents' friends ; it was formerly invariably used 
by the educated classes when addressing servants, 
cab-drivers, porters, &c, but nowadays bh is much 
more generally used for this purpose, and in any 
case it is better for a foreigner to say bh. 

Obs. In correspondence Bh must be written with a 
capital even in the middle of a sentence. On the 
other hand a is only written (or printed) with 
a capital at the beginning of a sentence, after 
a full stop. 

CHAPTER 5 

A FEW USEFUL ADVERBS 

In the case of most adjectives the Neuter Nominative 
Singular, which is the same in form as the Adverb, can 
stand alone without oho or 3to and have the meaning 
of a whole sentence. 



XOpOHIO 


(k)harasho 


(it is) good, nice 


Hexoponio 


nyekharasho 


(it is) not nice 


njioxo 


plokha 


(it is) bad 


jryiine 


luchshe 


(it is) better 



18 



USEFUL ADVEEBS 



xyace (k)huzhe (it is) worse 


*rbwb chem 


than 


ropa3;n;o garazda much (only followed by 




comparatives) 


(For other common 


adverbs cf. pp. 24, 25.) 


xopomo 


= all right, very well 


xopomo 


= nice, good (neuter nom. sing.) 




( that is all right, this is all right 


9T0 xopomo 


\ that is nice, this is good 




( that is bad, this is bad 


bto Hexopomo 


= J that is wrong (sc. unpleasant 




[ or unjust) 


BOTt xopomo ! 


= isn't that nice ! 


bott. 9to xopomo ! 


= there, that 's nice ! this is nice ! 


3^ci> xopomo 


= it is nice here 


3j&ch Hexopom6 


=it is not nice here 


TaMt xopomo 


= it is nice there 


Tenept xopomo 


= it 's all right now 


KaKt 9to xopomo 


= how nice this is 


3to TaK-L xopom6 


= that is so nice 


KaKt 9to Hexopomo 


= how horrid that is 


3to oneHb xopomo 


= that is very nice 


9to oneHB Hexopomo 


= that is not at all nice 


KaKt TaivrL xopomo 


= how nice it is there 


TaKt 3Aici> xopomo 


= it is so nice here 


TaivrL TaKt xopomo 


= it is so nice there 


KaKt xopomo s^ioh 


= how nice it is here 


KaKt xopomo Tenept 


= how nice it is now 


3^ci> He TaK^ xopomo 


= it is not so nice here 


t&wl TaKt Hexopomo 


=it is so horrid there 


3A^cb Bcer^a xopomo 


= here it 's always nice 



USEFUL ADVEEBS 



19 



TaMt He Bcer#a xopomo 

TaKt, xopomo 

TaKt, Hexopomo 

3to ;iiy*nne 

3to xyace 

Biuret Jiy^me 

TaMt xyace 

3ji$ch Jiyqme ^kwh t&wl 

TaMi* xyace ^iwh sflicb 

3^cb xopomo, a Taivrb 

jiyime 
sjsfich Hexopomo, a Taint \ 

xyace 
r^i Jiyime, 3j[iQh hjih = 

TaMi. ? 
Kaics jppnne, Tarra hjih = 

TaKt? 
bott. TaK'L Jiyqme 
Hfot, TaKt xy^ce 
;n;a, TaKt jiyqme 
^a, TaKt em;e Jr^nne 
H-fcrb, TaKt enje xyace 
9to enje Jiy^me 
9to en^e xy>Ke 
ceroAHH Jiyqme 
Tenept xyace 
cero^HH onaTb Jiyqme 
Tenept onaTb xyace 
Tenepb yace Jiynme 
3^cb em;e Jiynme 
K6ua, Bcer;n;a Jiyqme 
9to nJi6xo 



--it's not always nice there 

=it 's all right like that 

= it's not right like that 

= this is better, that is better 

=this is worse, that is worse 

=it is better here 

=it is worse there 

= here it 's better than there 

= there it f 8 worse than here 

=it's nice here, but it's better 

there 
= it's bad here, but it's worse 

there 
= where is it better, here or there ? 

= how is it better, like this or like 

that f 
= there, it 's better like that 
= no, it's worse like that 
= yes, it's better like that 
--yes, that 's still better 
^no, that 's still worse 
= that 's still better 
= that 's still worse 
= it 's better to-day 
= now it 's worse 
--it's better again to-day 
= now it 's worse again 
^it 's better now (already) 
=it's still better here 
-it 's always better at home 
= that is bad 
02 



20 



CHAPTER 6 

INTRODUCING WORDS WITH MASCULINE AND 
FEMININE ENDINGS 



3A0p0BBI 



oht> 3,n;op6BTb x 
oHa 3flop6Ba 2 

OHH ' 

a sflopoB^ 
a 3AopoBa 

TH He3^0pOB'B 

th He3jiiop6Ba 

MBI 3A0p0BLI 
BH He3AOpOBH 
pa3B^ BH He3A0p0BBI ? 
BLI 3AOp6BLI ? 



= he is well (masc. nom. sing.) 
= she is well (fern. nom. sing.) 

= they are well ( . * nom. plur.) 

= 1 am well (masc.) 

= I am well (fern.) 

= thou art unwell (masc.) 

= thou art unwell (fern.) 

= we are well (masc. and fern.) 

= you are unwell (masc. and fern.) 

= aren't you well t (masc. and fern.) 

= are you well ? (masc. and fern.) 



3AOp6BLI JIH bh ? 

(jih is the interrogative particle and always indicates 
a question.) 

3T0 3AopoBO ^this is good for the health 

(neut. nom. sing.) 

I = that is bad for the health 



3T0 He3AOpOBO 

3T0 BpeAHO 



3to o^eHb xopomo 
3to oqeHb Hexopomo 

3T0 O^eHB He3AOpOBO 

3T0 o^ieHb BpeAHO 

pa3B^ 3T0 Bpe^HO ? 
Pron. zdarof. 



= that is very nice 
= that is very bad 

[ = that is very bad for the health 

= surely that isn't bad for one ? 

2 Pron. zdarova. 



MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS 21 



bto cobc£mi> xopomo 
owl Bcer^a 3AopoBfc 
OHa Tenept He3^op6Ba 

BBI OHHTB He3^0p6BI>I ? 
a. GOBG^Wb 3A0p0Bl» 

a ne COBcfeMB s^opoBt 
a o^eHb He3AopoBi» 
a y}Ke cobc£mt> 3,o;op6Bi» 
a eme He coBC&wb 3,n;op6Bi> 

oh"b 66jieHt x 
OHa fiojiBHa 2 

OHH 60JIBHBI 

oh4 Sojibhbi 
a o^eHB 66jieH r B 

TBI cepBe3H0 60JIBHa 
bbi onacHO 6ojibhh 

oh^b He o^eHB 66n.ewb 
OHa He cepBe3H0 6ojiBHa 
bbi He onacHO Sojibhbi 
oh-b TenepB 66jieHi» 
OHa Bcer/iia 6ojiBHa 
oetb eme 66jieH^B 
OHa T05Ke SojiBHa 
ohs* onaTB 66jieH r B 
HeysKeJin OHa 6ojiBHa ? 

a paA'B 3 
a pa.ua 4 

1 Pron. boJyen. 

2 Pron. bal'na. 



= that *8 quite all right 
= he is always well 
= she is not well now 
= are you unwell again ? 
= 1 am quite well 
= I am not quite well 
= 1 am far from well 
= 1 am now quite well 
= 1 am not yet quite well 

■-he is ill (masc. nom. sing.) 
-she is ill (fern. nom. sing.) 
= they are ill (masc. nom. plur.) 
-- they are ill (fern. nom. plur.) 
= I am very ill (masc.) 
= thou art seriously ill (fern.) 
-you are dangerously ill 

(masc. or fern.) 
= he is not very ill 
-- she is not seriously ill 
-you are not seriously ill 
- he is ill now 
= she is always ill 
= he is still ill 
-she is ill also 
-he is ill again 
-surely she is not ill t 

= 1 am glad (masc.) 
= 1 am glad (fern.) 

3 Pron. rat. 

4 Pron. rada. 



22 MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS 



BH paflH ? 

mh oqeHb paflH 

a TaKi» pa^t 
KaK'B a pa^a ! 
pa3Bi bh He paflu ? 

OWb C^aCTJIMB-L 1 

OHa c^acTJiHBa 2 

OHH TaKt CHaCTJIHBH 
KaK'B OHH C^aCTJIHBH ! 

owb HecqacTeH^B 3 
OHa Hec^acTHa 4 
MH TaKB Hec^acTHH 
KaK'B BH HeC^aCTHH ! 

a ftOBOJieHi> 5 
a flOBOJiBHa 6 
ohh o^eHB ;o,ob6.jibhbi 

OHH TaKfc ftOBOJIBHH 
BH flOBOJIBHBI ? 
^OBOJIBHH JIH BBI ? 
MH COBciMB flOBOJIBHLI 

mh He coBciMt #ob6jibhh 

OHB He^OBOJieHB 

OHa o^eHB He^oBOJiBHa 

BH O^ieHB HeflOBOJIBHH ? 

1 schastlyif. 

2 schastlyiva. 



= are you glad? (masc. and 

fern.) 
=we are very glad (masc. and 

fern.) 
= 1 am so glad (masc.) 
= how glad I am ! (fern.) 
= aren't you glad ? (masc. and 

fern.) 

=he is happy (masc.) 
=she is happy (fern.) 
=they are so happy 
=how happy they are 
= he is unhappy (masc.) 
= she is unhappy (fern.) 
=we are so unfortunate 
=how unlucky you are ! 
=1 am satisfied, contented 

(masc.) 
=1 am satisfied, contented 

(fern.) 
= they- are very glad 
= they are so pleased 

= are you satisfied ? 

=we are quite satisfied 
=we are not quite satisfied 
= he is displeased 
=she is angry, annoyed 
= are you angry, annoyed ? 

3 nyeschastyen. 5 davolyen. 

4 nyeschastna. 6 davoU'na. 



\ 



MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS 23 



8T0 flOBOJIBHO 
8TO He flOBOJIBHO 
flOBOJIBHO 
O^eHB flOBOJIBHO 
COBciMt flOBOJIBHO 
ysKe flOBOJIBHO 
3T0 yjKT> flOBOJIBHO 
paSB^ BBI He^OBOJIBHLI ? 

BHHOBarL ! 
BHHOBaTa ! 

oh^ npaB'B 1 
OHa npaBa 2 
bbi npaBbi 
bh HenpaBBi 

OHfc flOaJKeiTB 3 

OHa flOJDKHa 4 

MBI ftOJDKHBI 
OHH flOJDKHbl 

5to cepBe3Ho 5 
BH cepBe3HBi ? 

CepBe3HBI JIH BBI ? 
9T0 ftOBOJIBHO cepBe3HO 
8T0 O^eHB cepBe3HO 
pfeBi 3T0 cepBe3HO ? 

TOTOBO 6 

yace totobo 
eme He totobo 

1 praf. 

2 prava. 



= that is enough 
= that is not enough 
= it is enough 

- =it's quite enough 

r =that f 8 enough now 
= aren't you satisfied ? 

excuse me ! 

(lit. I am to blame, masc.) 

excuse me ! 

(lit. I am to blame, fern.) 

= he is right 
= she is right 
= you are right 
= you are wrong 

= he must 
= she must 
= we must 
= they must 

= that is serious 

= are you serious ? 

= that is fairly serious 
= that is very serious 
= is it really serious ? 

= it is ready 

= it is now ready 

= it is not yet ready 



dolzhen. 
dalzlma. 



seryozna. 
gat6va. 



24 MASCULINE AND FEMININE ENDINGS 



BBI rOTOBBI ? 


= are you ready ? 


(ma roTOBa 1 


= she is ready 


OHt rOTOBfc 2 


=ht 


I is ready 

can it be that you are not 


HeyjKeJiH bbi He totobbi ! 


ready ? 






surely you are ready ! 




CHAPTER 7 


CONTINUATION OF TWO PREVIOUS CHAPTERS 


XOJIOflHO 

(or xojio;n;H6 


(k)holadna 
(k)haladno) 


• it is cold 


Tenjio 


tyeplo 


it is warm (of the tem- 
perature, clothes) 


acapKO 


zharka 


it is hot (of the tempera- 
ture) 


npox^ia^HO 


prakhladna 


it is cool 


ropjrao 


garyacho 


it is hot {of food, water, 
tea, plates, &c.) 


TeMHO 


tyemno 


• it is dark 


(or TeMHO 


tyomna) 




CB^TJIO 


sv(y)etlo 


it is light 


paHo 


rana 


it is early 


n03AHO 


poz(d)na 


it is late 


^emeBO 


dyosheva 


it is cheap 


floporo 


doraga 


it is dear 


BKyCHO 


fkusna 


it is nice (to taste) 


HeBKyCHO 


nyefkusna 


it is not nice (to taste) 


i 


gatova. 


2 gatof. 



EASY SENTENCES WITHOUT VEEBS 25 



;na;jieK6 
(or ;n;ajieKo 


dalyeko 
dalyoka) 


}«fcjhr 


6JIH3KO 


blyiska 


it is near 


3aHHTO 


zanyata 


it is occupied, engaged 


CBoSoflHO 


svabodna 


it is free, vacant 


3anepT0 


zap(y)erta 


it is shut 


OTKpHTO 


atkryta 


it is open 


onacHO 


apasna 


it is dangerous 


6e3onacHo 


b(y)ezapasna it is safe 


cerosira xojio^ho 


= it is cold to-day 


sjifech Tenjio 




= it is warm here 


TyTi> npoxjiaflHO 


= it is cool here 


TaMt HcapKo 




= it is hot there 


y>Ke TeMHO 




= it is already dark 


eme CBfcjio 




= it is still light 


ysKe n633HO 




= it is now (too) late 


eme paHo 




= it is yet early (too soon) 



ceroflHa o^enb 5Kapico = it is very hot to-day 

ceroflira flOBoabHO Tenjio =it is fairly warm to-day 

ceroflira cjihiekomt* xojioaho = it is too cold to-day 

Tenepb yme He xojioaho = it is no longer cold now 

Tenept yjKe He Tara Tenjio = it is no longer so warm now 

Tenept ynct coBC^Mt TeMHO =it is really quite dark now 

Tenept ytfo> oieHb ho3aho = it is really very late now 
Tenepb y5K , LCJiHniKOM'B}KapKO=^ is really too hot now 



26 EASY SENTENCES WITHOUT VEEBS 



The word yrae is frequently cut down to yaci* and often 
loses its original meaning of already and comes to mean 
really. 



8to flemeBo 
9to o^eHB ;a;emeBO 
9to He ^emeBO 
KaKTb 9to ftemeBO ! 
paaBi 9to ^emeBO ? 

8to ;a;6poro 

bto o^eHB ;a;6poro 

9to He ;n;6poro 

9to coBcfeMt He ;o;6poro 

8T0 yaci> cjiHmKOMt ;n;6poro 

KaKi> 8to floporo ! 

HeysKejin 3to TaKt floporo ? 

BTO BKyCHO 
9T0 He BKyCHO 
paSBi 9T0 BKyCHO ? 
pa3Bi 8T0 He BKyCHO ? 

9to o^eHb ^aJieKo 

9T0 COBcijMTCb 6JIH3KO 

pasB-fe bto flajieico ? 
HeyacejiH 3to Taici> 6jih3ko ? 

cero^Ha 3anepT0 

CerO^HH OTKpblTO 
paSB-fe He OTKpBITO ? 

HeyjKejiH 3anepTO ? 



= that is cheap 

= that is very cheap 

= that is not cheap 

= how cheap that is ! 

= do you call that cheap ? 

= that is dear 

= that is very dear 

= that is not dear 

= that is not at all dear 

= that is really too dear 

= how dear that is ! 

= surely this is not so dear ?' 

= that is nice (only of food) 
= that is not nice (only of food) 
= is that nice ? 
= isn't that nice? 

= that is very far 

= ihat is quite near 

= is it far then? 

= surely it is not so near ? 

= to-day it is shut 
= to-day it is open 
= isn't it open? 
= surely it isn't shut ? 



EASY SENTENCES WITHOUT VEEBS 27 

onacHO =it is dangerous 

3to onacHO = that is dangerous 

3to o^eHL onacHO = that is very dangerous 

6to He onacHO = that is not dangerous 

8to 6e3onacHO =that is safe (lit. =dangerless) 

T&wb o^eHt onacHO =it is very dangerous there 

3^ici> coBoiwh 6e3onacHO =it is quite safe here 

(cf. chap. 47). 



CHAPTER 8 

THE VERB TO BE (BHTb) 

The Present 

There are only two parts of the present tense of the 
verb to be which are ever used, viz. : 

ecTL = is 
cyTt = are 

of which the second is as good as obsolete, and the first 
is only used in the sense of 

there is, there exists, is there ? does there exist ? 

ecTt Bovb= there is a God 
Bora eo,Th = God exists 

ecTB Bo;a;a ? =is there water ? 
BOfla ecTB = there is water 

There is not is always rendered by it£tb (cf. p. 10), 
followed by the Genitive ; uivb is a contraction of He ecTB. 



28 THE VEEB TO BE 



The Past 

The past tense of the verb to be, like that of all other 
Eussian verbs, is formed from the infinitive (6bitb) and 
varies not, as in other languages, according to person, 
but according to gender and number, 1 viz. : 

a 6hje& =1 was (if masculine) 
a 6mia = I was (if feminine) 

th 6bliib =ihou wast (masc.) 
th 6i>iJia =fhou wast (fern.) 

oitb 6hjfb =he was 
OHa 6tiJia =she was 
9T0 (or oho) 6bljio =it was 

mbi 6bijih =we were (masc. and fern.) 
bh 6bijih =you were (masc. and fern.) 
ohh 6bljih =they were (masc. and neut.) 
OH'fe 6hjih =they were (fern.) 

In answers to questions the verb in Eussian is often 
repeated instead of using the words 

«a = yes 
and h^tb = no 

especially in such questions as 

bh 6bijih TaMB ? ( were you there ? or, 

or 6hjih jih bbi TaMB ? J \ have you been there ? 

1 It is really a past participle active, not a tense. 



THE VEEB TO BE 29 

• if masc. sing. 



6hjh» = yes 
He 6bun> = no 



OHa 6mia 3j5^0h ?=has she been here ? 

6mia = yes 
He 6um = no 

ohh 6hjih ROMa ? =were they at home ? 
6lijih = yes 

(cf. chap. 42). 

The Conditional 

The conditional tense of the verb to be is formed, like 
that of all other Eussian verbs, by the addition of the 
particle 6h (often -6^ in poetry) to the past as follows : 



a 6iun> 6li 

or h 6h 6lljtb 



I should have been, or 
I should be 



OHa 6BLJia 6h) f she would have been, or 
or OHa 6h 6HJiaj ( she would be 



mbi Shjih 6h ) 
or mh 6bi 6hjih { 



we should have been, or 
we should be 



mli Shjih 6h oneHb paflu 

we should be (or should have been) very glad 

3to 6hjio 6bi oneHb onacHO 

that would be (or would have been) very dangerous 



30 THE VEEB TO BE 

OHt 6ijjn> 6li 30B6jieHT» 

he would be contented, pleased 

When negatived, the word He is placed immediately 
before the words 6bljtb, 6mia, 6bijio, &c. 



The Future 

a 6y;ny = I shall be 

th 6y,n;emi> =thou wilt be 

oht> ] 

OHa f 6fjfcrb =he, she, it will be 

oh6 J 

mbi GyneMt =we shall be 

bh 6yn;eTe =you will be 

± - GynyTt = they will be 



Biepa fchera yesterday 

cero;n;ira s(y)evodnya to-day 

3aBTpa zaftra to-morrow 

nocjifeaBTpa poslyezaftra the day after to-morrow 

B^epa mli 6tmn ;n;6Ma = yesterday we were at home 
3aBTpa mbi 6f jjfiwb ;a;6Ma = to-morrow we shall be at home 

The Imperative 

(2nd sing.) 6yflt but' 
(2nd plur.) 6y^BTe buttye 
6ya;BTe TaK'B ;a;o6pBi \=be so good! 



31 



CHAPTER 9 

THE NOMINATIVE 
Substantives 

Nominative Singular 

It will have been noticed in the preceding pages that 
the endings of the nominative singular x are : 

Masculine -$, e.g. om> = he 
Neuter -o, e.g. oh6 = ^ 

9to = this, or that 

*ito = what 
Feminine -a, e.g. oe&, = she 

The three endings : 

-o 
-a 

are all hard : corresponding to them are the three soft 
endings : 

Masculine -t (or -ft) 

Neuter -e (or -e) 

Feminine -h 

1 The words kto =who 
h =/ 

TBI =tk0U 

can be used for masculine or feminine. 



32 



NOMINATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



Examples : 

IMara3HHi> 
6iuieTi> 
CTOJTL 
f M^CTO 

No A uN S | Neut - hf 6 

( OOHjeCTBO 

|6a6a 
KOMHaTa 
H36a 



magazin sftop 

bilyeH ticket 

stol JaWe 

mye a sta place 

s(y)elo village 

opshchestva society, company 

baba peasant woman 

komnata room 

izba peasant's hut 



Soft 



f aBTOMoSifoib aftamabil' 

J cjiyqan sluchai 

eojiOBen salavyei 

1 BacHJiin vasilyi 

Inojie polye 

pyacbe ruzhyo 

HM^Hie imy^niye 

| He^jia nyedyeUya 

-^ J CTaTba statya 

] apMia armiya 

Poccia rassiya 



motor-car 

incident 

nightingale 

Basil 

field 

rifle 

property (land) 

week 

newspaper article 

army 

Russia 



There is no article in Bussian, either definite or inde- 
finite ; the place of the former is supplied, when required, 
by the pronoun totb = that yonder, that of the latter by 
the pronouns OftHira =one or h4kotopbih = a certain. 



NOMINATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



33 



A large number of nouns denoting males follow the 
feminine declension, e.g. : 

(hard) Mymiraa 1 mushchina= man (as opposed to woman) 
(soft) cyflta $udya,=judge. 

A large number of diminutive male Christian names 
likewise follow the feminine declension : 



Ajiema 


Aly6sha 


Alexis 


Bana 


Vanya 


John 


Baca 


Vasya 


Basil 


Boji6,o;a 


Valodya 


Vladimir 


Kojia 


Kolya 


Nicholas 


Minna 


Misha 


Michael 


IlaBJiyma 


Pavlusha 


Paul 


IleTa 


P(y)e i tya 


Peter 


Cama 


Sasha 


Alexander 


CepesKa 


Seryozha 


Sergius 


Oe#a 


F(y)eMya 


Theodore 


(For the full names cf. p. 52.) 





A large number of feminine nouns end in -&, such as : 
jiomaflfc loshat' horse 
Benjb vye^hch' thing 
ijepKOBb ts(y)e i rkaf church 
MaTB maV mother 
flora doW daughter 

A few neuter nouns end in -a, e.g. : 

BpeMa vr(y)e i mya time 
flHTa dyitya child 



1809 



1 Also spelt My>KHHHa. 
D 



84 



NOMINATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



Rules for identification 

All nouns of which the nom. sing, ends in -i>, -ft, are 
masculine. 

All nouns of which the nom. sing, ends in -o, -e are 
neuter. 

Most nouns of which the nom. sing, ends in -a, -a are 
feminine. 

Nouns of which the nom. sing, ends in -b are masculine 
or feminine. 

Nominative Plural 
The nominative plural endings are : 
Masculine 
Feminine 
Neuter 



-h, e.g. paffbi = 
-a 



These endings are hard ; corresponding to them are 
the soft endings : 



Masculine 
Feminine 
Neuter 



-H 

-a 



Examples : 






Mara3HHH magazmy 

Masculine -J 6n;o;eTi>i tily6 a ty 

( ctojili staly 

[ Mtea m(y)esta 

Hard/ Neuter J cejia sy61a 

( 66m;ecTBa opshchestva 

6a6bi baby 

Feminine • KOMHara komnaty 

L h36h izby 



NOMINATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



35 



Masculine 



( aBTOMoGifoiii aftamabilyi 



j cjiy^an 

( COJIOBBH 



sluchayi 

salavyi 

palya 

ruzhya 

imy^niya 

nyedyeUyi 

statyi 

armiyi 



Inojia 
pyjKBH 
HMinia 
IHeA^JiH 
CTaTBH 
apMiii 

Nouns denoting males which follow the feminine de- 
clension : 

(hard) MymiiHBi mushchiny 
(soft) cyflBH sudyi 

A good number of masculine nouns of which the nomina- 
tive singular ends in -s> have the nominative plural in -a, 1 
e.g.: 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. 

ffOMt dom house aoMa dama 

rjia3£ glas eye i\jia3a glaza 

ropoflfc gorat town ropofla garada 

6eperB b(y)e i rek shore 6epera berega 

A large number of masculine nouns which contain e or o 
in the last syllable of the nominative singular lose this letter 
throughout the whole of the rest of the declension, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. 

KOHeij'B kanye a ts end KOHipi kants^ 

nocojn> pas61 ambassador nocjnS pasty 

fleHB dyeV day Ami dnyi 

oroHB agoV fire, light orwk agnyi 

1 Several nouns have both plurals, in -u and in -a, with a difference 
in meaning between the two, cf. p. 37. 

D2 



Hard 



Soft 



36 



NOMINATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



All masculine nouns ending in the nominative singular in 
-rc&, -rT>, -XTb, -SK'b, -ra, -mi, -mi> 
and all feminine nouns ending in the nominative singular in 

-Ka, -ra, -xa, -aca, -*ia, -ma, -ma 
have the nominative plural in 

-kh, -rn, -xh, -5kh, -ih, -inn, mH 
because h cannot stand after these consonants ; but 
nevertheless -jkh and -mn are pronounced -skh and -hih. 



Examples : 

NOM. SING. 

MajEb*iHK r b maTchik boy 

flfeo^Ka dye a vachka little girl 

kjiiotb klyuch key 

CB-fria sv(y)echa candle 

howl nozh knife 

3KHna5Kt ekipazh carriage 

Kajioma kal6sha galosh 



NOM. PLUR. 

Majib^HKH maTchiki 
A^bo^kh dye a vachki 
kjiio^h klyuchi 
cb^h svy^chi 
hojkh nazhy 
3KHna5KH ekipazhy 
Kajiomn kaloshy 
^eHbrn dy#ngi 



— — money 

Mascuhne nouns with nominative singular in -hhi> have 
nominative plural in -e. 



NOM. SING. 



NOM. PLUR. 



KpecTtaHHirb krestyanyin peasant (man) KpecTtaHe 
aHrjuraaHHiTL anglyichanyin Englishman aHrjnraaHe 

Masculine nouns with nominative singular in -eHOicb 
(denoting the young of animals) have nominative plural 
in -a,Ta, and follow the neuter declension, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. 

pe6aTa rebyata 
u,LnuiaTa tsypfyata 



pe6eHOK , L rebyonak child 
ti.LinJieHOK'b tsyplyonak chicken 



NOMINATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



37 



A few neuter nouns have nominative plural in -h, e.g. : 



NOM. SING. 

5i6jioko yablaka apple 

iuim6 plyech6 shoulder 

koji^ho kalye a na knee 



NOM. PLUR. 

ji6jiokh yablaki 
iDiera ply#chi 
kojt&hh kaly^nyi 



A few masculine and neuter nouns have nominative 
plurals which call for particular notice ; amongst others 
the commonest are : 



NOM. SING. 




NOM. PLUR. 1 


CTyjrt stul 


chair 


CT^JILH 


Gpara brat 


brother 


6paTBH 


chite* syn 


son 


CBIHOBBH 


flpyri. druk 


friend 


Apy3Ba 


cociflTi sasye a t 


neighbour 


cociflH 


ijB'frrB tsvye a t 


colour 


DiB^Ta colours 


(ijp'kTdK'b tsv(y)etok flower) 


upkihi flowers 


^epeBO dye ! reva 


tree 


ftepeBBa 


c^rho sudna 


vessel (shij. 


cy«a 


yxo likha 


ear 


ynra 


oko 6ka 


eye (poetic 


al) oih 


TyTjo chiida 


marvel 


qy^eca 


He6o nye a ba 


heaven, sky 


f He6eca 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 
nominative plural in -h, e.g. : 



NOM. sing. 



NOM. PLUR. 



JiomaftB horse 
BemB thing 

1 For pronunciation cf. p. 95 



jiomaflu 16shadyi 
Beupi vy^shchi 



88 



NOMINATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



NOM. SING. 

ijepKOBB church 
MaTt mother 
flo^b daughter 



NOM. PLUR. 

u;epKBH ts(y)#rkvi 
MaTepn matyeri 
AO^epn d6cheri 



Two very important words have a similar nominative 
plural, viz. : 

jnoflH ly udyi = people 
flfaH dye ! tyi = children 

Neuter nouns in -a have nominative plural in -eHa, e.g. : 
BpeMeHa vremena, = times (sc. seasons). 



CHAPTER 10 



VOCABULARY 

(Where the pronunciation given differs from that laid 
down in Chapter 2 it is owing to laws of etymology or 
of colloquial use.) 

Buildings, rooms, furniture, &c. 

Outside 



s^ame n. 


zdaniye 


building 


BOK38lJn> m. 


vakzal 


terminus (or large station) 


CTaHE^ifl /. 


stantsiya 


small or country station 


TaMOJKHH /. 


tamozhnya 


custom-house 


pedopaHt m. 


restaran 


restaurant 


6y(j>6TB m. 


bufyeH 


refreshment-room 


rOCTHHHl^a /. 


gastyinyitsa 


hotel 


6ojii»HHiiia /. 


bal'nyitsa 


hospital 


TeaTpt m. 


tyeatr 


theatre 



BUILDINGS, OUTSIDE AND IN 



89 



HBOpeuyb m. 


dvarye a ts 


palace 


IjSpKOBb /. 


tsfyj^rkaf 


church 


co66pi> m. 


sabor 


cathedral 


qac6BHH /. 


chasovnya 


shrine 


k6jiokojtl (-a) m.(pl.) 


kolakal 


(church) bell(s) 


KOJIOK6jIbHH /. 


kalakoTnya 


belfry 


6aHKT> m. 


bank 


bank 


n6HTa /. 


pochta 


post-office 


My3ett m. 


muzyei 


museum 


rajiepen /. 


galyereya 


gallery 


niKOJia /. 
ymwranje n. 


shkola 
uchilyishche 


| school 


yHHBepCHT^TB m. 


unyiversity6 a t 


university 


6aHH /. pi. 


banyi 


baths 


AOMt m. 


dom 


house 


flana/. 


dacha 


country villa 


Bop6Ta n. pi. 


varota 


gate 


ABopt m. 


dvor 


court-yard 


noA r b , B3A , B m. 


padye a zd 


front-door 


9Ta>KT> m. 


etazh 


floor, story 


KBaprapa /. 


kvartyira 


flat 


Mara3HHi> m. 


magazin 


shop 


jiaBKa /. 


lafka 


small shop 


pHHOKb m. 


r^nak 


market 


pHAH m. pi. 


ryady 


covered rows of shops 


KO$eiiHaH /*. odj. 


kaf(y)einaya 


cafe 


KOHffHTepCKaa/. adj. 


kandyityerskaya 


confectioners 


6^jioHHafl/. adj. 


bulachnaya 


baker's 


nopTH6ii m. adj. 


partnoi 


tailor (sc. his shop) 


napHKMax^pcKan /. 


parikmakherskaya 


hairdresser's 


adj. 






3aB6flT> m. 


zavot 


establishment, factory 


$a6pHKa /. 


fabrika 


factory 


M6jIBHHD;a/. 


my&rnyitsa 


(water-) mill 


TpyGa/. 


truba 


chimney 


3a66pb m. 


zabor 


fence 


dauiHH /. 


bashnya 


tower 


KOHK)niHH /. 


kanyiishnya 


stables 



40 



BUILDINGS, OUTSIDE AND IN 



capaft m. 


sarai 


coach-house 


sacTaBa /. 


zastava 


barrier 


KHpnHHi> m. 


kirpich 


brick 


KaMeHb m. 


kamen' 


stone 


aspect m. 


adres 


address 


£jnma/. 


lilyitsa 


street 


Ha6epe>KHafl/. adj. 


naberezhnaya 


quay 


npocn6KTT> m. 


praspy6 a kt 


avenue (street) 


ajuiefl /. 


aly6ya 


avenue (in garden) 


uiocc6 n. indecl. 


shos(y)e 


high-road 


miomaAb/. 


ploshchat' 


square 


6yjibBapT» m. 


bul'var 


boulevard 


moctt* m. 


most 


bridge 


MocroBaH jf. adj. 


mastavaya 


paving (of road) 


TpoTyapt m. 


trotuar 


pavement (footway) 



3boh6kt> m. 

JI-BCTHHUja /. 

ffBepb /. 
KOMHaTa /. 
nepeflHHH /. adj. 
cbhh/. pi. 
3ajii> m. 
3aJia /. 

CTOJiOBan/. adj. 
rocTHHaa/. adj. 
cnajibHH /. 
Ai'BTCKaH/. adj. 

KyXHH /. 
Ka6HH6T*b m. 
6H6jiioTeKa/. 
BaHHafl/. adj. 
n6rpe6b m. 
KJiaAOBan/. adj. 
nepAaKb m. 

HyJKHHKb m. 



Inside 

zvanok 
lye'stnitsa 

komnata 

pery^dnyaya 

syeinyi 

zal 

zala 

stalovaya 

gastyinaya 

spaU'nya 

dye a tskaya 

kiikhnya 

kabinyeH 

bibliotyeka 

vannaya 

pogrep 

kladavaya 

cherdak 

nuzhnyik 



bell 

staircase 

door 

room 

lobby 

vestibule 

hall, waiting-room 



drawing-room 

bedroom 

nursery 

kitchen 

study 

library 

bath-room 

cellar 

store-room 

lumber-room, 

W.C. 



BUILDINGS, OUTSIDE AND IN 



41 



OKHO n. 


akno 


window 


CT&H&/. 


styena 


wall 


nojn> m. 


pol 


floor (sc. of room) 


yrojit m. 


ligal 


comer 


noTOJiOKt m. 


patalok 


ceiling 


Me6ejn> /. 


m#beP 


furniture 


(uenb) nteKdif. 


p(y)6 i chka 


stove 


ctojit> m. 


stol 


table 


nHCLMeHHLlfi CTOJTb 


pis'menny 


writing-table 


CKaTepTb m. 


skatyert' 


table-cloth 


6y$eTt m. 


bufy6 a t 


sideboard 


CTyjit m. 


stul 


chair 


Kp^CJIO w. 


kry6 a sla 


arm-chair 


iUHBaiTB m. 


dyivan 


sofa 


KOBept m. 


kavyor 


carpet 


KapTHHa/. 


kartyina 


picture 


nopTp^Tt m. 


partryeH 


portrait 


(cKaMBH) CKaMeHKa/. skamyeika 


bench 


iimairB, uiKaiJrb m. 


shkap, shkaf 


cupboard 


KOMOfl'b m. 


kamot 


chest of drawers 


HmHKt w. 


yashchik 


drawer, box 


nojiKa /. 


polka 


shelf 


KpOBaTt/. 


krava^' 


bedstead 


nocTejib /. 


pasty#r 


bed with bedding 


no«yuiKa/. 


padiishka 


pillow, cushion 


HSlBOJIO^Ka/. 


navalachka 


pillow-case 


BaHHa /. 


vanna 


small bath, tub 


36pKajio n. 


zye a rkala 


mirror 


npOCTHHfl /. 


prastynya 


sheet 


oa'bhjio n. 


adyeyala 


quilt, blanket 


TK)<|>HK'b m. 


tyufyak 


mattress 


yMBiBaJibHHKi> m. 


umyva^'nyik 


wash-stand 


MblJIO W. 


myla 


soap 


Ta3T> w. 


tas 


basin 


ry6Ka/. 


giipka 


sponge 


Kpy>KKa /. 


kriishka 


m 


nojiOTeHi^e n. 


palatyentse 


towel 


ropin6Kb m. 


garshok 


chamber-pot 



42 



BUILDINGS, OUTSIDE AND IN 



niTopn/. pi. 
3aHaB*kcb m. 
iniipMH /. pi. 
Hacii m. pi. 
jiaMna/. 
a6ajKypi> m. 

(CB-fe^a) CB'BHKa/. 
nOflCB'E*IHHK'B m. 

9JieKTpHqecTBO n. 
cnnHKa/. 
oroHb m. 
$OHapi> m. 
^tojib m. 
ffpOBa n. pi. 
nepHHjia n. pi. 
qepHHjiLHHD;a/. 
nep6 n. 
py^Ka/. 
KapaH^aint m. 
6yMara /. 

noHTOBan 6yMara/. 
nponycKHaa 6yMara/. 
npoMOKanina/. 
jiHCTt 6yMarH m. 

KOHB^pTTb m. 

o6jio>KKa/. 

OTKpBITKa/. 

(noHTOBaa) MapKa/. 

KHHra, KHH>KKa/. 

(TeTpa^t) TeTpa^Ka/. 
BepeBOHKa /. 
caMOBapb m. 
natiHHK'B m. 
qauiKa /. 

(JjHOfleHKO n. 

CTaKaHb m. 
noACTaKaHHHKb m. 
ji6>KKa/. 



shtory 

zanav(y)es 

shirmy 

chasy 

lampa 

abazhur 

svyeichka 

patsvy^chnyik 

elyektrichestva 

spichka 

ago 1 !!' 

fanaV 

ugal' 

drava 

chernyila 

chernyilnyitsa 

p(y)ero 

nichka 

karandash 

bumaga 

pachtovaya bumaga 

prapusknaya bumaga 

pramakashka 

lyist bumagi 

kanvye a rt 

abloshka 

atkrytka 

marka 

knyiga, knyishka 

tyetratka 

veryovachka 

samavar 

chainyik 

chashka 

blyiidyechka 

stakan 

patstakanyik 

loshka 



blinds 

curtain 

screen 

clock, watch 

lamp 

lamp-shade 

candle 

candle-stick 

electric light 

match 

light, fire 

lantern 

coal, charcoal 

wood fuel 

ink 

ink-stand 

pen 

handle, penholder 

pencil 

paper 

writing-paper 

blotting-paper 

sheet of paper 

envelope 

post-card 



book 

note-book 

string 

tea-urn 

tea-pot 

cup 

saucer 

tumbler 

tumbler-stand 

spoon 



BUILDINGS, OUTSIDE AND IN 



48 



BHJlKa/. 


vilka 


fork 


HOJK1», HOJKHK'B m. 


nozh(yk) 


knife 


caji$6TKa /. 


salfy6 a tka 


napkin 


npH66p*B m. 


pribor 


cover (sc. knife and 
fork) 


Tap6jina /. 


tarye a lka 


plate 


KptiuiKa/. 


kryshka 


lid, cover 


6jiioao n. 


blyiida 


dish 


rpa$HHt m. 


grafin 


water-bottle 


GyrLiJiKa /. 


butylka 


bottle 


pioMKa/. 


ryiimka 


wine-glass 


npooKa/. 


propka 


cork 


npoSoHHHKt m. 


probachnyik 


corkscrew 



CHAPTER 11 



rpaimua/. 
nacnoprt m. 
SnjieTt m. 
Hanaft m. 

HOCHJIbmHK'B »» 
HHHOBHHKt m. 

nojiim6ftCKiii m 
waHAapMt m 
ropOAOBoii m 
yHacTOK-L m. 
npncTaBt m. 

ABOpHHKt m. 
H3BOmHK'b m 
VLQBOZimKb) 

uio^ep-L m. 
aKHnajK-L m. 
caiin /. #Z. 

aBTOMOOHJIB m 



VOCABULARY 
Travel (cf. chapters 

granyitsa 

pasport 

bily6 a t 

nachai 

nasilshchik 

chinovnyik 
adj. palyitsyeiski 

zhandarm 
adj. garadavoi 

uchastak 

pristaf 

dvornyik 
i. (or izvoshchik 



shafyor 
ekipazh 
sanyi 
aftamabir 



47, 48) 

frontier 

passport 

ticket 

tip 

porter 

official 

| police (official) 

(town) policeman 

police-court 

commissary of police 

concierge 

cab (driver with car 

riage or sledge) 
chauffeur 
carriage 



motor-car 



44 



TEAVEL 



TaKcaMeTpa/. 

KOHTOpa/. 

AeHBrn/. pi. 
paaMtat ^eHert m. 
Cfla^a/. 

MeJIOHH/. p&. 

py6jib m. 
i^'fejiKOBtifi m. adj. 
nojiTHHa /. 
AByrpHBeHHHKt m. 

rpHBeHHHK'B ra. 

KoniiiKa/. 
6yMa>KKa /. 
no , B3A , B (-a) m. Q??.) 
BaroHB m. 
KJiaccB m. 
Kyn6 n. indecl. 
OT/vBJieHie n . 
KopimopB m. 
KOH ( a,yKTOp r b ra. 
y66pHan/. adj. 
OToimeme n. 
ocB'Bm^Hie n. 
cnsuiBHBifi BaroHT> ra. 
nocTejiB /. 

BaroHB-pecTopaHB m 
njiaT$6pMa /. 
6ara>K'B ra. 
rapaepoS'B m. 
Kacca/. 

KBHTSLHI^ifl /. 

kjiiotb ra. 
ffopora/. 
jKejitaHafl R. /. 
nyTB m. 
TpaMBaii ra. 
KOJiecb n. 
BemB /. 



taksamy6 a tra 

kantora 

dy#ngi 

razmye a n dye^yek 

sdacha 

mye a lachi 

rubl' (rup) 

ts(y)elkovy 

paltyina 

dvugrivenyik 

grivenyik 

kapy^ika 

bumashka 

poyezd, payezda 

vagon 

klass 

kup(y)6 

atdyelyeiniye 

karidor 

kandiiktar 

ubornaya 

ataply&niye 

asvyeshch^niye 

spaU'ny 

pastyeU' 

restaran 

platforma 

bagazh 

garderop 

kasa 

kvitantsiya 

klyuch 

daroga 

zhelye a znaya 

put' 

tramvai 

kalyeso 

vy&shch 



taxi 

office 

money 

moneychanger 's 

change (from coin) 

small change 

rouble 

rouble (colloq.) 

J rouble 

20 kopeks 

10 kopeks 

kopek ( =\d.) 

note 

train(s) 

railway- carriage 

class 

' compartment 

corridor 

guard 

toilet 

heating 

lighting 

sleeping-car 

bedding 

dining-car 

platform 

luggage 

cloak-room 

ticket-office 

receipt 

key 

road 

railroad (lit. iron) 

way, means 

tram 

wheel 





TEAVEL 


45 


iVBHa/. 


ts(y)ena 


price 


c^ert m. 


schot 


bill 


HT6n» m. 


itok 


total 


H6Mepi> (-a) m. (pi.) 


nom(y)er 


number (e. g. of room, 
ticket, or news- 
paper) ,of ten =roora 


B"BCb m. 


vye a s 


weight 


<j>yHTb m. 


funt 


pound (weight) 


nyflb m. 


put 


pud, 40 Russian lbs. 


BepCTa /. 


v(y)ersta 


verst, % of a mile 


ca>KeHb /. 


sazhen' 


fathom 


§yrb m. 


fut 


foot (measure) 


Hanajio r&. 


nachala 


beginning 


cepe^HHa/. 


seredyina 


middle 


KOHei^t m. 


kanye a ts 


end 


36jioto w. 


zolata 


gold 


cepe6p6 w. 


serebro 


silver 


Mtflb/. 


my^t' 


copper 


jKejifeo w. 


zhelye a za 


iron 


CTajib /. 


staU' 


steel 


npncTaHb /. 


pristan' 


landing-stage 


KynajibHfl/. 


kupa^'nya 


bathing place 


napoxo^b m. 


parakhot 


steamer 


jioflKa/. 


lotka 


rowing boat 


KaioTa /. 


kayuta 


cabin 


nany6a/. 


paluba 


deck 


Mope n. 


morye 


sea 


63epo w. 


6z(y)era 


lake 


pfea/. 


r(y)eka 


river 


ocTpoBb (-a) m. (jj|.) 


ostraf, astrava 


island(s) 


ropa/., ropbi^. 


gara, gory 


hill(s), mountain(s) 


jTECb (-a) m. (#Z.) 


lye a s, lyesa 


forest(s) 


none n. 


polye 


field, open country 


jiyrb m. 


luk 


meadow 


CTenb /. 


stye^p' 


steppe 


6epen> (-a) m. (#Z.) 


b(y)e*rek 


shore(s), bank(s) 


3ajiHBb m. 


zalyif 


gulf 


bhat> m 


vit 


view 



46 


TEAVEL 




ropoAt (-a) m. (pi.) 


gorat 


town(s) 


CTOJIHIja/. 


stalyitsa 


capital 


M^CTO n. 


mye a sta 


place (cf. pp. 67, 112) 


Kpaii m. 


krai 


region 


CTpaHa/. 


strana 


country 


ry66pHm/. 
66jiacTb/. 


gutyy^rniya 
oblast' 


I province 


y^Ri* m. 


uy6 a zd 


district 


CTopoHa/. 


starana 


side 


Hapoffi. m. 


narot 


people 


cejio w. 


s(y)elo 


village 


«ep6BHfl/. 


dyer(y)6 i vnya 


hamlet, ' the country ' 


HMtaie w. 


imy^niye 


property 


Tejierpa$t m. 


tyelyegraf 


telegraph office 


Tejie$6Hi> m. 


tyelyefon 


telephone 


TejierpaMMa/. 


tyelyegramma 


telegram 


HHCBM6 n. 


pis' mo 


letter 


ft'EJIO %. 


dy6 a la 


business, affair 


paCtora/. 


rabota 


work 


cji^naii w. 


sluchai 


incident 


o6itaaft m. 


abychai 


custom (sc. habit) 



CHAPTER 12 





VOCABULARY 






Time, weather, 


&C. 


Bp6MH 


v^yj^mya 




time 


nopa/. 


para 




(it is) time 


pa3i> m. 


ras 




a time 


roAT> m. 


got 




year 


m-echu.'b m. 


my^syats 




month, moon 


HeA'BJifl/. 


nyedye^ya 




week 


jifiKb m. 


dye^n' 




day 


CyTKH/. pi. 


siitki 




24 hours 


HOHb W. 


noich' 




night 



TIME AND WEATHEE 



47 



#Tpo n. 


utra 


morning 


B^nepB m. 


v(y)6 i cher 


evening 


3apn/. 


zarya 


damn 


qacB m. 


chas 


hour 


nacH m. pi. 


chas^ 


watch, clock (and hours) 


Mirny Ta/. 


miniita 


minute 


HHBapb m. 


yanvaV 


January 


$eBpajii> m. 


fevra 1 !' 


February 


MapTt m. 


mart 


March 


anp-BjiB m % 


apr(y)&Y 


April 


Mafi m. 


mai 


May 


iioHB m. 


iyun' 


June 


iiojiB ra. 


iyiil' 


July 


aBrycTt m. 


avgust 


August 


ceHTHGpB m. 


s(y)entya i br' 


September 


OKTH6pB m. 


aktya^r' 


October 


HOH6pB m. 


naya^r' 


November 


AeKa6pB m. 


dyeka^br' 


December 


BocKpec^HBe w. 


vaskres(y)6 i nye 


Sunday 


nOHefl'EJIBHHK'B m. 


panyedy^lnik 


Monday 


BT6pHHKt m. 


ftornyik 


Tuesday 


cpefla/. 


sreda 


Wednesday 


qeTB^prt m. 


chetvfyj^rk 


Thursday 


nHTHHD;a/. 


pyatnyitsa 


Friday 


cy666Ta/. 


subota 


Saturday 


npa3AHHKi> m. 


prazdnyik 


holiday, festival 


BecHa/. 


v(y)esna 


spring 


JITJTO %. 


ly6 a ta 


summer (and year) 


6ceHb/. 


6s(y)en' 


autumn 


3HM8L/. 


zima 


winter 


nor6Aa/. 


pagoda 


weattier 


Sokab m. 


d6 J zhd' 


rain 


ch-efb m. 


sny6 a k 


snow 


Mop63t m. 


maros 


frost 


OTTenejiB/. 


ottyepel' 


thaw 


CJIHKOTB /. 


slyakat' 


slush 


rpH3B/. 


gryaV 


mud 


nHJiB/. 


pyi' 


dust 



48 



TIME AND WEATHEE 



B^Tept m. 
TyMaHt m. 
c6jiHD;e n. 
jiyHa/. 

33^3^31 (pi. 

3ffH) /. 
CB'BT'L m. 

Mipt m. 
3eMJiH /. 
TeMHOTa /. 
He6o n. 
66jiaKo n. 
Tyqa /. 



v(y)e ! tyer wind 

tuman fog 

sontse (ji is mute) sun 

luna moon 

3B^- zv(y)ezda, zvyozdy star(s) 



svye a t 

mir 

zemlya 

tyemnata 

nye a ba 

oblaka 

tiicha 



light, world 
world, community 
earth 
darkness 
sky, heaven 

cloud 



CHAPTER 13 



VOCABULARY 

Points of the compass and names of countries, nationalities, 
towns, rivers and personal names 



C'EBep'b 


s(y)6 i ver 


North 


iofb 


yuk 


South 


BOCTOK-B 


vastok 


East 


3anaAt 


zapat 


West 


CBBepHBlft 


s (y)e ivern y 


Northern 


K»KHLlft 


yiizhny 


Southern 


BOCTOHHHfi 


vastochny 


Eastern 


sanaAHHH 


zapadny 


Western 


IjeHTpaJILHBlft 


tsentra^'ny 


Central 


EBpona 


yevropa 


Europe 


A3iH 


aziya 


Asia 


A^pHKa 


afrika 


Africa 


ABCTpaJiifl 


afstraliya 


Australia 


AMepHKa 


amjyj^rika 


America 



GEOGKAPHY AND NOMENCLATUEE 



49 



ABCTpiH 


afstriya 


Austria 


AHrjiifl 


angliya 


England 


B^Jibrin 


b(y)#lgiya 


Belgium 


BojirapiH 


balgariya 


Bulgaria 


B^Hrpia 


vCy^ngriya 


Hungary 


TepMamH 


g(y)ermaniya 


Germany 


ToJiJiaHfliH 


galandiya 


Holland 


Tpei^ifl 


gr(y)e i tsiya 


Greece 


^aHifl 


daniya 


Denmark 


HpjiaHAiH 


irlandiya 


Ireland 


HcnamH 


ispaniya 


Spain 


MTaJiiH 


italiya 


Italy 


Kjrraft 


kitai 


China 


HopB^ria 


narvfyj^giya 


Norway 


Pocci'h 


rassiya 


Russia 


PyMtmiH 


rumyniya 


Roumania 


C6p6in 


s(y)6 i rbiya 


Serbia 


CoeAHHeHHbie IIlTaTt 


[ sayedyinyony-yeshtaty United States 


Typ^H 


turtsiya 


Turkey 


OHHJIliHAifl 


finlyandiya 


Finland 


Opamjia 


frantsiya 


France 


HepHoropiH 


chernagoriya 


Montenegro 


niBeftn,apifl 


shveitsariya 


Switzerland 


IIlB6D;ifl 


shv(y)e i tsiya 


Sweden 


IIIoTjiaHAifl 


shatlandiya 


Scotland 


flnomH 


yaponiya 


Japan 


MASC. 


FEM. 




aBCTpien;!* 


aBCTpifiKa 


Austrian 


aMepHKaHe^ 


aMepHKaHKa 


American 


aHrJIHHaHHHT> 


aHrjiHHaHKa 


Englishman, -woman 


apMHHHH'B 


apMHHKa 


Armenian 


6em>rieixb 


6ejibriiiKa 


Belgian 


6ojirapHH , b 


SojirapKa 


Bulgarian 


BeHrSpeD^ 


BeHr^pna 


Hungarian 


rpeKi> 


rpeHSiHKa 


Greek 


rpy3HHe^ 


rpy3HHKa 


Georgian 


1809 


E 





50 



GEOGEAPHY AND NOMENOLATUEE 



rojuiaHfleij'B 




rojuiaHflKa 


Dutchman 


ftaTHaHHHt 




ffaTHaHKa 


Dane 


eBp^tt 




eBp6fiKa 


Jew 


HpjISLH^ei^'B 




npjiaH^Ka 


Irishman 


HcnaHei^i> 




HcnaHKa 


Spaniard 


HTajibflHei^T. 




HTaJIBHHKa 


Italian 


KHTaei^t 




KHT8lflHKa 


Chinaman 


HopB6>Keij; r i> 




HOpB6>KKa 


Norwegian 


H-BMei^t 




H'EMKa 


German 


nOJIHKt 




nojibKa 


Pole 


pyccmtt (adj.) 




pyccKan (adj.) 


Russian 


cepS^ 




cep6iflHKa 


Serb 


TaTapHHT> 




TaTapna 


Tartar 


TypoKt 




TypnaHKa 


Turk 


$paHii;^3 r b 




$paHi^y?KeHKa 


Frenchman 


(JjHHJIHHfleiJ'B 




(jjHHJIHHftKa 


Finn 


qepHoropei^t 




qepHoropna 


Montenegrin 


nepK^ct 




nepK^cKa 


Circassian 


next 




q£uiKa 


Chekh, Bohemian 


niBefiijapeij'L 




niBeftijapKa 


Swiss 


niBeflt 




niB^Ka 


Swede 


inoTJiaHji;ei^t 




niOTjiaH^Ka 


Scot 


HnoHeDjt 




HnoHKa 


Japanese 


aHrjiHHaHe 




aBTJIHHaHKH \ 




H-BMI^H 




H-BMKH 




c6p6ti 




Cep6iHHKH 




$paHi^y3H 




(j)paHIli^>KeHKH 




pyccme (adj.) 




pyccKia (adj.) 


y PLURALS 


nOJIHKH 




nOJIBKH 




TypKH 




TypnaHKH 




eBp6n 




eBp^iiKH 




TaTapti 




TaTapKH j 




XpHCTi^HHHt 


s* 


. XpHCTiflHe 


Christian 


H3BIHHHK , b 


pi 


. H3BWHHKH 


heathen 


npaBocjiaBHHft 


pi 


. npaBocjiaBHBie 


Orthodox 


KaTOJIHKt 


pi 


. KaTOJIHKH 


Roman Catholic 



GEOGEAPHY AND NOMENCLATUEE 



51 



MASC. 



Towns, rivers, &c. 



BepjraiTB 


berlyin 


Berlin 


B-fejirpajTb 


b(y)elgrat 


Belgrade 


( ZjH r fcnpT> 


dny6 a pr 


Dnieper 


KaBKa3t 


kafkas 


Caucasus 


KaM6pHAWb 


— 


Cambridge 


KieBt 


kiyef 


Kiev 


KpblMb 


krym 


Crimea 


JIOHflOHb 


— 


London 


HblO-IopKb 


— 


New York 


6kc$opa , b 


— 


Oxford 


IlapHJK'L 


parizh 


Paris 


IleTporpajrb 


p(y)etragrat 


Petrograd 


Phmt> 


rim 


Rome 


PoCTOBb 


rastof 


Rostov 


XapBKOBB 


ha^rkaf 


Harkov 


GeBacTonojib 


sevastopal' 


Sebastopol 


HpocjiaBJiB 


yaraslavP 


Yaroslav 


FEM. 






AeHHLI pi. 


afiny 


Athens 


BapuiaBa 


varshava 


Warsaw 


B6jira 


volga 


Volga 


B£Ha 


vy6 a na 


Vienna 


MocKBa 


maskva 


Moscow 


HeBa 


nyeva 


Neva 


OA^cca 


ady6 a sa 


Odessa 


Pnra 


riga 


Riga 


T6M3a 


ty6 a mza 


Thames 


HjiTa 


yalta 


Yalta 


AcTpaxaHB 


astrakhan' 


Astrakhan 


Ka38LHb 


kazain' 


Kazan 


06l 


oip' 


Obi 


Pfl38LHb 


ryazain' 


Ryazan 


Gn6Hpb 


sibir' 


Siberia 


TBepb 


tv(y)£ir' 

E2 


Tver 



52 



GEOGEAPHY AND NOMENCLATUEE 





Christian Names 




AjieKcaH,o;pT> 


alyeksandr 


Alexander 


AjieKcfeii 


alyeksyei 


Alexis 


BacHJiiit 


vasilyi 


Basil 


BjiaAHMipt 


vladyimir 


Vladimir 


Teoprift 


g(y)eorgi , 




Er6pi» 


yegor 


• George 


K)piH 


yuri 




MBaHi> 


ivan 


John 


MnxaHJi-L 


mikhayil 


Michael 


HHKOJiaft 


nyikalai 


Nicholas 


IlaBeji-B 


pav(y)el 


Paul 


IleTpT, 


pyotr 


Peter 


CeprM 


s(y)ergyei 


Sergius 


GeAopt 


fyodar 


Theodore 


(For the diminutives of these names cf . p. 


33.) 


AjieKcaHApa 


alyeksandra 


Alexandra 


AHHa 


anna 


Anne 


EnaTepHHa 


yekatyerina 


Catherine 


EjieHa 


yelye a na 


Helen 


EjiH3aBeTa 


yelyizavyeHa 


Elizabeth 


Mapifl 


mariya 


Mary 


G6$ifl 


sofiya 


Sophia 


TaTiaHa 


tatiyana 


Tatiana 


And the very 


common diminutives : 




AHKvra 


anyuta 


Anne 


KaTH 


katya 


Catherine 


JleHOHKa 


lye a nachka 


Helen 


JlH3a 


lyiza 


Elizabeth 


Mania 


masha 


Mary 


GameHbKa 


sashenka 


Alexandra 


G6hh 


sonya 


Sophia 


TaHH 


tanya 


Tatiana 



GEOGEAPHY AND NOMENCLATURE 



53 



AjieKCaHflpOBHTB 

AjieKcteBHTB 
BacHJiieBHHt 

BjiaAHMipOBHHt 

TeoprieBHH'b 
or EropoBHTL 
or lOpteBH^t 
Hbsihobh^'b 
or HBaHtwb 

MHXaHJIOBHTB 

or MnxafijiLiHt 
HnKOJiaeBHHt 
or HnKOJiaHHt 

naBJIOBHHT> 
neTpOBHHt 

Cepr-feeBHHt 
or Ceprinqt 

GeAOpOBHH'B 

AjieKcaHApoBHa 

AjieKCBeBHa 

BacHJiieBHa 

BjiaAHMipoBHa 

TeoprieBHa, &c. 

HBaHOBHa 

MaxaftjioBHa 

HnKOJiaeBHa 

IlaBJioBHa 

IleTpoBHa 

CeprfeeBHa 

GeaopoBHa 



Patronymic 

alyeksandravich 

alyeksy6yevich 

vasiliyevich 

vladyimiravich 

g(y)eorgiyevich 

yegoravich 

yuriyevich 

ivanavich 

ivanych 

mikhayilavich 

mikhailych 

nyikalayevich 

nyikalayich 

pavlavich 

petrovioh 

s(y)ergyeyevich 

s(y)ergy6yich 

fyodaravich 



Alexanders son 
Alexis"* son 
BasiVs son 
Vladimir's son 

' George's son 

John's son 
Michael's son 

Nicholas' son 

Paul's son 
Peter's son 

Sergius' son 

Theodore's son 



Alexander's daughter 
Alexis' daughter 
Basil's daughter 
Vladimir's daughter 
George's daughter 
John's daughter 
Michael's daughter 
Nicholas' daughter 
Paul's daughter 
Peter's daughter 
Sergius' daughter 
Theodore's daughter 



In ordinarily rapid speech the patronymics both masc. 
and fern, are always curtailed, the syllable -ob-, -eB- being 
usually inaudible except when accented, as IleTpoBHTB. 



54 



GEOGEAPHY AND NOMENCLATIVE 





Surnames 






MASC. 




JlepMOHTOBt 


lye a rmantaf 


Lermontov 


CoJIOBbeB'L 


salavyof 


Solovev 


TypreHeBt 


turg(y)einyef 


Turgenev 


ITyniKHHt 


pushkin 

FEM. 


Pushkin 


IlaBjioBa 


pavlova 


Pdvlova 


Apc^HteBa 


ars(y)6 i nyeva 


Arseneva 


KapcaBHHa 


karsavina 


Karsdvina 



Note on the use of personal names in Russian 

Eussians possess three names : 

1. The Christian name (hmji, neut). 

2. The Patronymic (oraecTBo). 

3. The Surname (^aMHJiia). • 

The patronymic always varies according to gender, and 
in almost all cases the surname does also. If a man's 
name is HBam, his father's name IIeTpi>, and his surname 
ApceHbeBt, then his full name will be : 

HBain> IleTpoBiFrB ApceHbeBi.. 
If his wife's name is Aima, and her father's name was 
naBejit, her name will be : 

Aima IlaBJioBHa ApceHteBa. 
Together they are ApceHteBH. 
Their son will be HBaHOBHTb, e.g. : 

Cepr^ii HBaHOBHTB ApceHteBt, 
and their daughter HBaHOBHa, e.g. : 

Mapia HBaHOBHa ApceHteBa. 
Eussians call each other, unless they are relations or 
intimate friends, by the Christian name and the patro- 
nymic. 



55 



CHAPTER 14 

THE NOMINATIVE 

Pronouns 

All the essential pronouns are given in the following 
list, in the nominative singular and nominative plural, 
with the pronunciation : 

a ya =1 

th ty =ihou 

owl on =he 

oho mo=it 

OHa ana=s/ie 

mbi my =we 

bh vy = you 

ohh anyi = ihey (masc. and neut.) 

ori any q= they (fern.) 



SINGULAR 

Masc. moh moi 

Neut. Moe mayo 

Fern. moh maya 

Masc. tboh tvoi 

Neut. TBoe tvayo 

Fern. TBoa tvaya i 



PLURAL 



moh mayi =my 



■ tboh tvayi =thy 



Masc. Hann> nash ) 

Neut. Hauie nashe Y Hamn nashy = our 

Fern. Haina nasha J 



56 



NOMINATIVE OF PEONOUNS 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

b. Banrt vash | 
Neut. Bame vashe [ Banra vashy =your 
Fern. Baina vasha J 

Masc. CBoii svoi ) 
Neut. CBoe svayo 
Fern. CBoa svaya 



cboh svay 1 = one s own ] 



Masc. 
Fern. 



kto khto= who 



(can be used for either singular or plural) 
Neut. hto $hto = what 



SINGULAR 

Masc. *iefi chei 
Neut. qte chyo 
Fern. qi>a chya 

Masc. o^nm adyin 



PLURAL 



«n>H 



chyi 



Neut. oaho adno}°«™ ^ 
Fern. o^Ha adna oj^i adnye 






--whose 

( one 
alone 
only 
some 



Masc. caMt sam 
Neut. caMo samo 
Fern. caMa sama 



caMH sami 



(self 



1 This pronoun is always used with reference to the subject of 
the sentence ; it may mean my own, thy own, his own, her own, our 
own, your own, or their own ; for the ordinary words for his, her, 
and their see p. 105. 



NOMINATIVE OF PEONOUNS 



57 



SINGULAR 

Masc. 3toti> e !, tot 
Neut. 3to e a ta 
Fern. 9Ta e a ta 



PLURAL 



Masc. toti> 
Neut. to 
Fern. Ta 

Masc. Becb 
Neut. Bee x 
Fern, bch 



tot 

to 

ta 

vy^s 

fsyo 

fsya 



3th e^yi = 



Ti 



tye 



bc£ fsye 



this, or that 
these, or those 
the latter 

that yonder 
those yonder 
the former 

the whole 
all 



CHAPTER 15 

VOCABULARY OF WORDS DENOTING MALE AND 
FEMALE BEINGS 



- father 



OTeu> 


atye a ts 


SaTiomKa 2 


batyushka 


nana, nanaina 




MaTb 


maV 


MaTymna 


matushka 


Mii-Ma, MaMama 





mother 



OTen> and MaTb are the formal words for father and 
mother ; they are used in literature, in narration, and in 
conversation by younger people to older. 

1 This word is very often used adverbially with the meaning 
continually, nothing but, keeps on. . . . 

2 The plurals 6aTK)inKH and MaTyuiKH are only used as exclama- 
tions of intense surprise or horror 



58 



MALE AND FEMALE DESIGNATIONS 



BaTiomKa and MaTynnca are used by older people to 
younger, in addressing peasants and people of the working 
class, and by these latter in addressing educated people ; 
the former is also used in addressing priests. 

The four last names are those most used by children 
of and to their parents and by grown-up strangers to 
children of their parents. 



poAHTejin 

^AyniKa 
6a6yinKa 



radyityelyi 
dye a t 

dye a dushka 
babushka 



parents 

grandfather 

grandmother 



son 



daughter 



cuwb syn 

chhoicl (dim.) synok 

;o.o*n> do^ch' 

flOHKa (dim.) dochka 

^o^Ka is much more frequently used than chhokt> ; 
AOTOa is the ordinary word for daughter, and chitb for son. 



grandson 

granddaughter 

brother 
sister 

uncle 
aunt 

child 
children 
child 
children 



BHyK'L 

BHy^eKt (dim.) 
BHy^Ka 


vnuk 

vniichek 

vniichka 


SpaTb 
cecTpa 


brat 
s(y)estra 


A^AH 

TeTH 


dyadya 
tyotya 


pe6eH0K r L 
pe6aia 


dyitya 
dy#tyi 
rebyonak 
rebyata 



MALE AND FEMALE DESIGNATIONS 59 

In ordinary conversation peSeHorcb and flfoH are most 
often used for child and children ; flirra is common in 
literature ; pe6aTa is very commonly used in the non- 
literal sense, as * boys ' in English, e.g. amongst soldiers. 

J\m& is always neuter and pe6eHorcb always masculine 
whatever the sex of the child. 



MyacL 
cynpyra 

jKeHa 
cynpyra 



muzh 
supriik 

zhena 
supruga 



husband 
. wife 



Cynpyrt and cynpyra are the terms of polite reference 
most often used amongst friends and acquaintances after 
the pronoun your; My^Kt and 5KeHa are those used 
amongst relations, and otherwise always when referring 
to people not actually present. 



JKeHHXt 

HeB^CTa 

TOBapHH^ 



zhenyikh 
nyevye a sta 

druk 
tavarishch 



fiance 
fiancee 

friend (masc. or fern.) 
companion (masc.) 



^pypb can refer to either sex ; there is a word no^pyra 
for female friend, but it means rather a girl-companion ; 
if a specifically male or female friend is indicated the 
following words must be used : 

npiaxejib priyatyeP friend (masc.) 

npiaTeJibHHij.a priyatyelnyitsa friend (fern.) 



60 



MALE AND FEMALE DESIGNATIONS 



ywrejib 


uchityel' 


teacher (masc.) 


yTOTejibHHija 


uchltyelnyitsa 


teacher (fern.) 


yqeHHKb 


uchenyik 


pupil (masc.) 


yieHHija 


uchenyitsa 


pupil (fern.) 


rocnoAHHt 


gaspadyin 


Mr., gentleman 


rocnoaca 


gaspazha 


Mrs., Miss 


AaMa 


dama 


lady 


rocnofla pi. 


gaspada 


Messrs. or Mr. and Mrs. 


6apHHi> 


barin 


the gentleman, themaster 


GapuHH 


barynya 


the lady, the mistress 


6apLimHa 


baryshnya 


the young lady 


cjiyra 


sluga 


male servant 


npncjiyra 


prisluga 


female servant 


ropmraHaa adj. 


gornyichnaya 


maid 


X03HHin> 


(k)hazyayin 


host, master 


xo3aHKa 


(k)hazyaika 


hostess, mistress 


xo3aeBa pi. 


(k)hazyayeva 


host and hostess 


nont 1 


pop 


priest 


nonaAta x 


papadya 


priest's wife 


u;apb 


tsa/r' 


tsar 


ijapnija 


tsaritsa 


tsaritsa 


u,ecapeBH*n> 


tsesar(y)evich 


tsesarevich (eldest son, 
Crown Prince) 


u.apeBnq'b 


tsar(y)evich 


tsarevich (any other son 
of Tsar) 



1 More respectfully : CBHmeHHHKt (svyashchenyik) and ?KeHa 
CBHmeHHHKa. 



MALE AND FEMALE DESIGNATIONS 



61 



TocyflapB 1 
TocynapHHa x 


gasud&r' 
gasudarynya 


the Sovereign, the Tsar 
the Sovereign, the Tsar- 
itsa 


HMnepaTopt 

HMiiepaTpHija 

HacjrfeflHHK'b 


imperator 

imperatritsa 

nasly^dnyik 


the Emperor 
the Empress 
the Heir-Apparent 


KOpOJIB 

KopojieBa 


kar6T 
karalye a va 


king 
queen 


KHH3B 

KHarHHH 

KHHJKHa 


knyaV 

knyaghinya 

knyazhna 


Prince 

Princess (wife) 
Princess (daughter) 


BeJiHKin Khh3b 
BejiHKaa KirarHira 


velyiki k. 
velyikaya k. 


Grand Duke 
Grand Duchess 


rpa^t 
rpa$HHa 


graf 
grafinya 


Count 
Countess 


MaJIB^HK'L 


maTchik 


boy 


napeHB 

leJIOBilCB 
CTapHKt 


paren' 

chelavye a k 

starik 


lad 
man 
old man 


^BO^Ka 

^BymKa 

ftfeinja 

jKemijHHa 

CTapyxa 


dye a vachka 
dye a vushka 

dyevitsa 

zhenshchina 

stariikha 


little girl (till about 13) 
girl (from 13 till about 

25) 
spinster 
woman 
old woman 



1 cyflapb and cyflapHHH are the old words for Sir and Madam. 



62 MALE AND FEMALE DESIGNATIONS 

HejiOBircB is the ordinary word for man, but its real 
meaning is human being, and thus it can also be used 
with reference to women, e.g. : 

OHa HeC^aCTHblH ^eJIOB'ljK'L 

she is an unfortunate person. 

The plural of lejiOBiic^ is jiio^h, which includes both 
men and women. HejiOB^Kt is also used for waiter. 
JKeHmHHa is the ordinary word for woman. Mymiraa (also 
spelt MyjKTOHa) is the specific word for man as opposed 
to woman. 

MysKHKt = a male peasant, 6a6a = a female peasant. 

Ea6i>i is colloquially used for womenfolk. Other equally 
common and rather more respectful terms for the 
peasants are : 

KpecTbamnrb = peasant man 
KpecTtaHKa = peasant woman 
KpecTtaHe ^peasants. 



CHAPTER 16 

EXAMPLES OF PRONOUNS USED IN AGREEMENT 
WITH NOUNS 



moh OTeii,^ = my father 
moh MaTL =my mother 

moh poflHTejiH =my parents 

Bann> 6aTioniKa =your father 
Bama MaTyuiKa =your mother 
Banra a^th =your children 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



63 



Hann> CHHTb 
Hama ftoiKa 
HamH ^4th 

tboii 6paTt 
tboh cedpa 



= our son 

= our daughter 

= our children 

= thy brother 
=thy sister 



tboh poflHT&JiH =thy parents 

Obs. tboh: is used in the same way as th : cf. p. 17. 

N.B. The words moh and tboh are diphthongs pro- 
nounced moi and tvoi ; the words moh and tboh are each 
of two syllables and are pronounced ma-yi, tva-yi. 



KaKT> BamH poftHTejiH ? 

OHH 3^6pOBLI 

KaKT> Bann> 6pan> ? 

OHT> SftOpOBT. 

KaKT» Baina ^o^Ka ? 
OHa 3AopoBa 

KaKT. TBOH ^TH ? 

OHH 60JIBHBI 
KaKT. TBOH CLIHT. ? 

OHT» 66jieH r b 
KaK^b TBOH ftOTOa ? 

OHa SojitHa 
Mot ^i^yniKa o^eHt 66jiem> 
moh 6a6ymKa o^eHB 6ojn>Ha 
Bann> SaTiomKa He3ia,op6BT> ? 
Bama MaTynnca He3^op6Ba ? 
tboh nana ^OB6jieHT> ? 

TBOH MaMa flOBOJIBHa ? 



= how are your parents ? 

= they are well 

=how is your brother ? 

= he is well 

= how is your daughter ? 

= she is well 

= how are thy children ? 

= they are ill 

= how is thy son? 

= he is ill 

=how is thy daughter ? 

= she is ill 

= my grandfather is very ill 

= my grandmother is very ill 

=is your father unwell ? 

=is your mother unwell ? 

= is thy father pleased ? 

= is thy mother pleased ? 



moh poftHTe;jiH oieHb flOBOJiBHH =my parents are very much 

pleased 



64 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



BamH fliTH OHeHB CiaCTJIHBH 

tboh po^HTejiH 6*ieHB He;n;oB6- 

JEbHH 

moh ^aji;a qj^cb 
moh TeTa T&wb 
17$ BamH poflirrejEH ? 
MOH po^HTejin flOMa 

BOT'L HamH ^TH 
BOTT> MOH CUWb 

botl Moa floiKa 

BOTT> MOH 5KeHHXt 

BOT'L Moa HeB'fecTa 
17$ Bamt cynpyrL ? 

MOH MySKL TyTT> 

r^i Bama cynpyra ? 
Moa 5KeHa ROMa 

9TO MOH BHyK^ 

8to Moa BHy^Ka 

9T0 MOH JI,4tH 

iyv£ Bamt rowl ? 

rp$ flOMT* ? 
BOTT> flOML 

BOTh Hamt ROM'S 

9T0 Barnt ROWb ? 

;n;a, 3T0 moh ROMh 

H^TB, 8T0 He MOH ROM'S 

KaKt Bdinrh aspect ? 
Bort Moft aspect 



=your children are very 

happy 
= thy parents are much 

annoyed 
= my uncle is here 
=my aunt is there 
= where are your parents ? 
=my parents are at home 
=here are our children 
= here is my son 
=here is my daughter 
=here is my fiance 
= here is my fiancee 
= where is your husband ? 
= my husband is here 
= where is your wife f 
=my wife is at home 
= this is my grandson 
=*this is my granddaughter 
= these are my children 
= where is your house ? 
= where is the house ? 
= there is (here is) the 

house 
= there is (here is) our 

house 
=is this your house ? 
=yes, that is my house 
=no, that is not my house 
=what (lit. how) is your 

address ? 
=this is my address 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



65 



Moe M^CTO 
TBOe M^CTO 

Haine HM^Hie 
Baine m4cto 
HamH MicTa 
BamH MicTa 

Beet ropoflt 
Bca yjraija 
Bca KBapTiipa 

BCH flepeBHH 

Bee cejio 
Bee nojie 

BCfe H3BOmHKH 

Bcfe AOMa 
bc6 ropofla 

BCfe yJIHI],I>I 
BCi KBapTHpbl 

Bcfe ^epeBHH 

BCfe MiCTa 

bc6 ce^ia 
Bcfe nojia 

3T0TI» fl.OM'L 
OTOTt ^eJIOBiKt 
9T0TT> rocnoAHHt 
9Ta JKeHHJHHa 

9Ta flaMa 
BTa SapHinHa 

3T0 M^CTO 
aTOT'B MaJIL^HKt 
1809 



=my place 
= £% pZace 
= our property 
= your place 
= our places 
= your places 

= Jfoe whole house 
= the whole town 
= the whole street 
= the whole flat 
= the whole hamlet 
= the whole village 
= the whole field 
= all the cabs 
= all the houses 
= all the towns 
= all the streets 
=-- all the flats 
= all the hamlets 
= all the places 
= all the villages 
= all the fields 

= this house 
= this man 
= this gentleman 
= this woman 
= this lady 
= this young lady 
= this place 
= this boy 



66 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



3TOTl> pe6eH0Ki> 
9Ta A^ByniKa 

3T0 flHTH 
3TH flOMa 
3TH ^TH 
3TH M^CTd 
3TH JIK)^H 
3TH MaJIB^HKH 
3TH K&BOttKH 
3TH ^ByiHKH 
3TH JKeHmHHBI 

stotb MymHHa 

3TH MyiU,HHbI 
3T0TI> MyaCHKt 
3TH My^KHKH 

3Ta 6a6a 
3th 6a6bi 
3th rocno^a 

3TH ^aMBI 

3th SaptimHH 

TOTt ROMS* 

Ta yjraija 

TO M^CTO 

stot'l ropoRt 
3Ta KBaprapa 

3T0 MicTO 

3TH flOMa 



= this child 

= this little girl 

= this girl 

= this child 

= these houses 

= these children 

= these places 

= these people 

= these boys 

= tffeese Ziftfe girls 

= J/iese gw-Zs 

= these women 

= £/m man 

= these men 

= tfm peasant man 

= tffeese peasant men 

= this peasant woman 

= these peasant women 

= these gentlemen (or ladies 

and gentlemen) 
= these ladies 
= these young ladies 

= that house yonder (or that 

other) 
= that street yonder, that 

other street 
= that place yonder 
= this town 
= this flat 
= this place 
= these houses 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



67 



t4 flOMa 
3TH ^epeBHH 
t4 flepeBHH 

3TH M^CTa 
T^ M^CTa 

Beci> 3tott> ;o;omt> Hami> 

BCt 3TH A^TH MOH 

bch Hama KBapTiipa 

OHH BCfe 3A0p0BBI 
BCe 3T0 M^CTO 
BO'S 3TH JIIORH 60JIBHH 
3Ta KBapTHpa MOH 

sto Moa KBaprapa 

3TH M^CTa Hainn 
3T0 HaiHH M^CTa 

bott> Baina KOMHaTa 

3T0 MOa KOMHaTa 

qeii 3T0tt> #omt> ? 
or 3to *ieii aomt* ? 

3T0 MOft flOMt 
3T0TT> #OMT> MOH 

hbh 3Ta KBapTiipa ? 
or sto qta KBaprapa ? 

Hbe 3TO M^CTO ? 
or 3T0 Hbe M^CTO ? 



= those houses yonder 

= #iese hamlets 

= tfiose otf&er hamlets 

= these places 

= #iose oJ/ier places 

= aZZ #ws Zio'wse is cwrs 

= all these children are mine 

= the whole of our flat 

= they are all well 

= the whole of this place 

= all these people are ill 

= this flat is mine 

= this is my flat 

= these places are ours 

= these are our places 

= this is your room 

= this is my room 

-- whose house is this ? 

= this is my house 
= this house is mine 

[ = ivhose flat is this ? 
j- = whose place is this ? 



Obs. m^cto never means property, but always a locality 
or a seat in the theatre, train, &c, also a piece of 
luggage. 



F2 



68 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



1BH 3TH fleHBrH ? 
Or 9T0 HBH fleHBrH ? 

8to moh fleHBrn 

9TH fleHBrH MOH 
BCfc HaiHH AGHBrH 

3th ^eHBrn Hamn, a 

Ti BamH 
Bci 3th fleHBru BamH 
r^ ^eHBrn ? 
boti> fleHBrn 



= whose money is this ? 

= that is my money 
= that money is mine 
= all our money 
_ J this money is ours, and 
{ that over there is yours 
= all this money is yours 
= where is the money ? 
= here is the money 



Obs. JJeHBrci is a feminine nominative plural ; the 
singular fleHBra is the name of a coin now obsolete. 



a caMt 
h caMa 

TBI CaMTb 

tbi caMa 

OHT, CaHTL 

(ma caMa 
m^cto caMo 
or caMo m^cto 

MBI CaMH 
BBI CaMH 

ohh caMH 
oh4 caMH 

a oahhb 
a o^Ha 

TBI OflHHT, ? 
TBI o^Ha ? 
OHB OflHHT* 



= 1 myself (masc.) 
= I myself (fern.) 
= thou thyself (masc.) 
= thou thyself (fern.) 
= he himself 
= she herself 



r =the place itself (neut.) 

= we ourselves (masc. and fern.) 
= you yourselves (masc. and fern.) 
= they themselves (masc. and neut.) 
= they themselves (fern.) 

= 1 am alone (masc.) 
= J am alone (fern.) 
= art thou alone t (masc.) 
= art thou alone ? (fern.) 
= he is alone 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



OHa oflHa 

MH OftHH 

Bbl OflHH ? 
OHH OflHH 
BLI OAHi ? 



= s/&e 15 atone 

= we are alone (masc. 

masc. and fern.) 
= are you alone ? 
= they are alone 
= are you alone t (fern.) 
= they are alone (fern.) 



69 



or 



Obs. In all these cases o^hhi,, &c, can also mean only : 

-- 1 alone, only I 



or oflHHfc a 



OftHH MaJIbTOKH 

MaJIbHHKH OflHH 
A^BOHKH OAH^ 

OAHHt leJIOBiKl. 

oflHa sKeHnjiraa 

OftHO M^CTO 

oahh jho^h 
oahh M^CTa 
OflHITL HeMOflaHfc 

oahhi. py6jn> 
o^Ha JiouiaAb 
o^Ha KoniiiKa 
OAHa KOMHaTa 



= only toys, some boys 
= only girls, some girls 
= the boys are alone 
= the little girls are alone 

= (1) one man 
(2) a certain man 

= (1) one woman 
(2) a certain woman 

= (1) one place 
(2) a certain place 

= some people 

= some places 

= one trunk 

= one day 

= one rouble 

= one horse 

= one kopek 

= one room 



70 



PEONOUNS WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



OflHa KpOBaTb 

OflHO h6jioko 

OflHO CJIOBO 
OflHO okh6 



= one bed 
= one apple 
= one word 
= one window 



CHAPTER 17 

THE NOMINATIVE 

Adjectives 

Examples of all the essential forms of adjectives are 

given in the following list in the nominative singular and 

plural : 

Hard 

Plural 
beautiful 

krasivy 

krasivoye 

krasivaya 

Soft 
dark blue 



Singular 

MaSC. KpaCHBBIH 

Neut. KpaeHBoe 1 
Fern. KpaciiBaa 



KpacHBbie 

KpaCHBBIH 



krasivy-ye 2 
krasivy-ya 2 



CIIHlfl 



Masc. dimit sinyi craie 

Neut. ciiHee sinyeye 

Fern. chhhji sinyaya 

Hard accent on termination 
young 
Masc. MOJiofloft maladoi mojioabic 

Neut. mxom maladoye ) fllia 

Fern. MOJiOAaa maladaya j 

1 This -oe sounds in rapid speech like -oft or -bi. 

2 In rapid speech the -ye and -ya of the plural termina- 
tions are indistinguishable. 



smyiye 2 
sinyiya 2 



malady-ye 2 
malady-ya 2 



NOMINATIVE OP ADJECTIVES 

Stem in k r x 

Singular Plural 

high, tall 
Masc. bbicoiuh vysoki BBicome 

Neut. BbicoKoe l vysokoye 
Fern. BticoKaa vysokaya 



71 



• BBICOK1H 



vysokiye 2 
vysokiya 2 



Masc. floporoft 
Neut. floporoe 
Fern. floporaa 



Same, with accent on termination 

dear 
daragoi floporie daragiye 2 

• floporia daragiya 2 



daragoye 
daragaya 



Stem in jk h in m 

good, nice 
(k)haroshy xopoinie (k)haroshy-ye 2 

2 



Masc. xoponiift 

Neut. xopoinee 3 (k)harosheye ) 

t-, , \ C . * \ xopoima (k)haroshy-ya 

Fern, xoponiaa (k)harosnaya J v } J J 



Same, with accent on termination 

big 
Masc. 6ojiBinoH bal'shoi 6ojiBinie bal'shy-ye 2 

Neut. 6oJii>in6e bal'shoye 
Fern. 6ojn>maa bal'shaya 



60 Jibinia bal 'shy-ya 2 



1 This -oe sounds in rapid speech like -oft or -h. 

2 In rapid speech the -ye and -ya of the plural termina- 
tions are indistinguisable. 

3 This -ee sounds in rapid speech like -e. 



72 



CHAPTER 18 

EXAMPLES OF ADJECTIVES USED IN AGREEMENT 
WITH NOUNS 






KpaCHBHH flOM'b 

KpacHBoe M^CTO 
KpaciiBaa KBaprapa 
KpacHBLie ftOMa 
KpaciiBLia MicTa 

KpaCHBBIH KapTHHH 
CHHifi KOCTIOMI* 

ciiHee njiaTbe 
CHHaa KHHra 

MOJIOflOH tieJIOBiKL 

MOJio^oe flepeBO 
MOJioflaa ftfayniKa 
MOJIOftLie jiioah 

mojio^hh flepeBba 
mojioahh ftfeymKH 

BLICOKill ROWb 

BLicoKoe ^epeBO 
BLicoKaa ropa 
Bbicome ji,OMa 
BLicoKia flepeBba 

BblCOKia H.'liHbl 

^oporoii MarasHH-b 
Roporoe H3,n,aHie 
jjoporaa KHHra 



a (or the) beautiful house 
a beautiful place 
a beautiful flat 
(the) beautiful houses 
beautiful places 
beautiful pictures 

a dark blue suit 
a dark blue dress 
a blue book 

a young man 
a young tree 
a young girl 
young people 
young trees 
young girls 

a tall house 

a tall tree 

a high hill (or mountain) 

tall houses 

tall trees 

high prices 

an expensive shop 
an expensive edition 
an expensive book 



ADJECTIVES WITH SUBSTANTIVES 



73 



floporie 6nJieTH 




expensive tickets 


jnoporia Mida 




expensive places 


;n;oporia BemH 




expensive things 


xoponiiii MarasHH-L 




a good shop 


xopomift pedopaHt 




a good restaurant 


xopoiniii fteHb 




a nice day 


xppoinee Macjio 




good butter 


xoponiee iihbo 




good beer 


xopoinee bhho 




good wine 


xopoinaa KBapTiipa 




a nice flat 


xopomaa KOMHaTa 




a nice room 


xopoinaa noro/ja 




nice weather 


BoJibinoH ropofl'b 




a large town 


6oJn>in6e ce^io 




a large village 


6ojibinaa AepeBHH 




a large hamlet 


Sojibinfe ropo.ua 




large towns 


6ojiBmia cejia 




large villages 


Sojibmia KOMHaTbi 




large rooms 




CHAPTER 19 




VOCABULARY 


Adjectives denoting size, shape, position 


6ojilui6h 


bal'shoi 


big, large 


Gojibiuiii 


boU'shy 


bigger, larger 


BejiHKitt 


velyiki 


great 


orpoMHutt 


agromny 


huge 


rpoMaflHbitt 


gramadny enormous 


He6ojibiii6tt 


nyebal'shoi small 



74 



ADJECTIVES OF SIZE AND SHAPE 



MaJieHLKift x 


malyenki 


little 


MeHBIIlift 


mjyj^nshy 


smaller 


KpyrjiBiii 


kriigly 


round 


KBaApaTHtiit 


kvadratny 


square 


iHJIHHHBIH 


dlyinny 


long (of objects) 


AOJiriM 


dolgi 


long (of time) 


KOpOTKM 


karotki 


short (of both) 


IIIHpOKM 


shyroki 


broad 


y3Kiii 


uski 


narrow 


rjiy66KiH 


gluboki 


deep 


MejiKiii 2 


mye a lki 


shallow 


TOJICTBIH 


tolsty 


thick (only of solids) 


TOHKift 


tonki 


thin (only of solids) 


noJiHBiii 


polny 


full, fat (of people) 


xysoii 


(k)hudoi 


thin (of people) 


nycToft 


pustoi 


empty 


rycToft 


gustoi 


thick (of liquids, hair, &c.) 


p-fe^Kiit 


rye a tki 


sparse, rare 


JKHAHift 


zhytki 


thin (of liquids) 


BBICOKift 


vysoki 


tall, high 


HH3Kitt 


nyiski 


low 


Bepxmft 


v(y)e i rkhnyi 


upper 


cpeffHiii 


sr(y)e j dnyi 


middle 


HHH^Hifi 


nyizhnyi 


lower 


pOBHBlfi 


rovny 


even 


JI-feBBlfi 


lye a vy 


left 


npaBBitt 


pravy 


right 


3aAHift 


zadnyi 


back 


nepeAHitt 


per(y)e i dnyi 


front 


cji'kayiomni 


slye a duyushchi 


next, the following 


nocjrfeflHiii 


paslyeMnyi 


last 


TaMOUIHitt 


tamoshnyi 


belonging there 


QR-fcumift 


zdye'shnyi 


belonging here 


M-feCTHBlft 


mye a stny 


local 



1 MajiBiii = small is seldom used. 

2 Also = fine (of print), petty, small (e.g. money). 



75 



CHAPTER 20 





VOCABULARY 




Adjectives denoting appearance, quality 


xopouiift 


(k)haroshy 


nice, good 


xopoiuenLKift 


(k)haroshenki 


pretty 


KpaCHBLlft 


krasivy 


beautiful 


npeKpacHHft 


prekrasny 


fine, very beautiful 


npejiecTHbiii 


prelye a stny 


charming, exquisite 


HyAHLiii 


chudny 


marvellous 


OTJiii^HBiii 


atlyichny 


[ excellent 


npeBOCXOAHLIH 


prevaskhodny 


BeJIHKOJTBIIHHH 


velyikalye a pny 


magnificent 


yAHBHTeJIbHHtt 


udyivityelny 


astonishing 


npiHTHbiii 


priyatny 


pleasant 


JIK)6e3HbIH 


lyubye a zny 


amiable 


#66pbift 


dobry 


kind 


MHJIblH 


mily 


nice, dear 


CHMnaTHqHHM 


simpatyichny 


sympathetic 


Becejibifi 


vesyoly 


merry 


3a6aBHLifi 


zabavny 


amusing 


HHTepeCHblft 
BaHHTHbIM 


intyer(y)e a sny 
zanyatny 


I interesting 


npHBJieKaTeJibHbiii 


privlyekatyelny 


attractive 


BKycHbiii 


fkiisny 


nice (to taste) 


Hexopouihi 


nyekharoshy 


not nice 


HeKpacHBbiii 


nyekrasivy 


ugly 


njiox6tt 


plakhoi 


poor, bad, miserable 


CKBepHblft 


skvye a rny 


horrid, nasty 


napniHBHtt 


parshyvy 


rotten 


flpHHHOH 


dryannoi 


worthless 


HenpiflTHbitt 


nyepriyatny 


unpleasant 


flypHOtt 


durnoi 


bad, wicked 


SJIOtt 


zloi 


malicious 



76 ADJECTIVES OF APPEAEANCE AND QUALITY 



rpycTHLiii 


griistny 


sad 


CKyHHBltt 


skfichny 


tedious, boring 


HenHTepecHbift 


ny einty er(y ) e a sny 


uninteresting 


onacHtifi 


apasny 


dangerous 


CTpaniHtiH 


strashny 


terrible 


y>KacHLitt 


uzhasny 


awful 


npOTHBHHft 


pratyivny 


disgusting 


Heo6xoAHMtift 


nyeapkhadyimy 


essential 


jraiiraift 


lyishnyi 


extra, superfluous 


06BIKH0BeHHBIH 


abyknavy6nny 


usual 


Heo6BIKHOBeHHBltt 


nyeabyknavyenny 


unusual 


oc66eHHBiii 


asob(y)enny 


especial 


66miii 


opshchi 


general 


rOTOBBIH 


gatovy 


ready 


TpyflHBIH 


triidny 


difficult 


THJKeJIBlfi 


tyazholy 


heavy 


jierKift 


lyokhki 


light, easy 


npocToii 


prastoi 


simple 


CJIO>KHBIM 


slozhny 


complex 


IipHMOH 


pryamoi 


direct, straight 


Aoporoii 


daragoi 


dear, expensive 


AeineBBitt 


dyeshovy 


cheap 


HHCTBltt 


chisty 


clean 


rpfl3HBIH 


gryazny 


dirty 


6oraTBiit 


bagaty 


rich 


S'feAHBlit 


byedny 


poor 


CHaCTJIHBBIM 


schastlyivy 


hippy 


HecnacTHBiii 


nyeschastny 


unhappy 


y^oSHBifi 


udobny 


convenient, comfort 
able 


HeyAo6HBitt 


nyeudobny 


inconvenient, uncom- 
fortable 


3«Op6BBltt 


zdarovy 


healthy 


60JIBHOH 


bal'noi 


sick 


CBO 66 flHBlft 


svabodny 


free 


cjrfenoft 


slyepoi 


blind 


rjiyxoit 


glukhoi 


deaf 


H^MOfi 


nyemoi 


dumb 



ADJECTIVES OF APPEAEANCE AND QUALITY 77 



CJiJIbHBltt 


sil'ny 


strong (physically and 
figuratively) 


KpinKift 


krye a pki 


strong (of drinks, 
health), firm 


TBepflHii 


tvyordy 


hard, firm 


CJiaoHft 


slaby 


weak 


MnrKift 


myakhki 


soft 


rjiaflirift 


glatki 


smooth 


rpyStiii 


griiby 


rough, coarse^ rude 


cjiaflirift 


slatki 


sweet 


KHCJIBlft 


kisly 


sour 


ropbKitt 


goVki 


bitter 


CB'EJKift 


svye a zhy 


fresh 


cnijiMH 


spye a ly 


ripe 


ropflniii 


garyaehi 


hot (of objects) 


jKapiriii 


zharki 


hot (of temperature) 


TenjiHH 


tyoply 


warm 


npoxjiaAHbiH 


prakhladny 


cool 


xojioahhh 


(k)halodny 


cold 


CKoptiii 


skory 


rapid 


uiH6Kiii 


shypki 


quick 


6tICTpHft 


bystry 


swift 


THXift 


tyikhi 


quiet, slow 


MeflJieHHBlft 


myeidlyenny 


slow 


MOKpBlft 


mokry 


wet 


CBip6ft 


syroi 


damp, raw 


cyxoii 


sukhoi 

CHAPTER 21 

VOCABULARY 


dry 



Adjectives denoting colour and age 

CB'ETjibifi svyeHly light 

TeMHBift tyomny dark 

nepHbiM chorny black 

KopHHHeBBiii karichnyevy brown 



78 



ADJECTIVES OF COLOUK AND AGE 



cfepHii 


sy6 a ry 


grey 


6ijiuA 


by6 a ly 


white 


KpaCHHtt 


krasny 


red 


3ejieHHH 


zelyony 


green 


>KejiTLiii 


zholty 


yellow 


CHHitt 


sinyi 


dark blue 


rojiy66ft 


galiiboi 


light blue 


JIHJIOBBlft 


lyilovy 


lilac, mauve 


6jrE#HBift 


blye a dny 


pale 


CM^TJIBlft 


smugly 


dark (of complexion) 


pikmiPi 


ryzhy 


red-haired 


pyctiH 


riisy 


flaxen-haired 


dtaoKyptiii 


byelakury 


fair-haired 


CE;n6ft 


syedoi 


gray-haired 


HCHLlfl 


yasny 


clear, plain 


nprnft 


yarki 


bright 


h6bbi# 


novy 


new 


MOJiofloft 


maladoi 


young 


CTaptiii 


stary 


old 


CTapHHHLlft 


starinny 


old-fashioned 


AP^BHitt 


dr(y)6 i vnyi 


ancient 


CTapinitt 


starshy 


elder 


MJia^uiiii 


mladshy 


younger 


nojKHJioii 


pazhyloi 


elderly 


np6>KHift 


pr(y)e i zhnyi 


former 


npouiJiBiti 


proshly 


last, the previous 


6yAymin 


budushchy 


the coming, next 


paHHift 


ranyi 


early 


no3Rmvi. 


pozdnyi 


late 


BeceHHiil 


v(y)esy6 i nnyi 


spring 


ji'BTHin 


ly^tnyi 


summer 


OC^HHitt 


asy^nnyi 


autumn 


3HMHifi 


zimnyi 


winter 


yTpeHHiii 


utrennyi 


morning 


BeqSpmft 


vfyjech^rnyi 


evening 


Ten6peniHift 


tyep(y ) e^eshnyi 


of nowadays 


Tor^aniHitt 


taghdashnyi 


of those days 



79 



CHAPTER 22 





VOCABULARY 






Adjectives denoting Nationality 


aBCTpiiiCKift 


afstriski 


Austrian 


aMepHKaHCKitt 


amerikanski 


American 


aHrjiiftCKifi 


anglyiski 


English 


GejibriftcKift 


belgiski 


Belgian 


6ojirapcKitt 


balgarski 


Bulgarian 


BeHrSpcKift 


veng(y)6 a rski 


Hungarian 


rojiJiaHACKitl 


galantski 


Dutch 


rp^ecKift 


grtyj&cheski 


Greek 


^.aTCKitt 


datski 


Danish 


HcnaHCKiii 


ispanski 


Spanish 


HTaJILflHCKiti 


italyanski 


Italian 


KHTSLHCKiii 


kitaiski 


Chinese 


H0pB6>KCKitt 


narv(y)6 a zhski 


Norwegian 


ITBMglJKift 


nyemy6 a tski 


German 


nojibCKitt 


poU'ski 


Polish 


pyMfc'lHCKiH 


rumfnski 


Roumanian 


pyccKifi 


riiski 


Russian, a Russian 


c6p6cmft 


s(y)6 a rpski 


Serbian 


TypSumft 


tur(y)e a tski 


Turkish 


(J)HHJIHHflCKifi 


finlyantski 


Finnish 


$paHi^^3CKiii 


frantstjski 


French 


HepHor6pcKift 


chernagorski 


Montenegrin 


qSniCKitt 


che a shski 


Chekh, Bohemian 


uiB^ACKiii 


shv(y)e a tski 


Swedish 


uiBeftuapcKitt 


shveitsarski 


Swiss 


nnoHCKitt 


yaponski 


Japanese 



N.B. the common adverbial expressions formed from 

these words, e. g. : 

no-pyccKH = in Russian 
&c. 
KaKt 3TO no-p^ccKH ? = what is that in Russian ? 
no-aHrjiiiicKH bto ... = in English that is . . . 



80 ADJECTIVES OF NATIONALITY AND NAMES 



Surnames 

such as 

(rpa^t) TojiCToft talstoi 

(rpa<J)HHfl) ToJiCTan talstaya 

flocroeBCKift dastayefski 
HaftKdBCKift chaykofski 
(KHflrHHfl) BapHTHHCKafl baryatyinskaya (Princess) Barydtinslci 

Many adjectives are used as nouns, e.g. : 
ropHHHHafl =house-maid MHCHoe 2 

ropo^OBoft =policeman 
rocTHHaa l = drawing -room 
R'BTCKaH i =nursery 

>KapK6e 2 =roast meat (course) 

>KHBOTHoe =animal 

3HaKOMuti, -an = acquaintance 
30JiOToii =10-rouble gold coin 

KJiaftOBaH * = store-room 



(Count) Tolstoi 
(Countess) Tolstdi 

Dostoyevski 
Chaikdvski 



= meat-course 
Ha6epe>KHafl =quay 
HacfeKOMoe =insect 



Mopo>KeHHoe =ice (to eat) 



noAAaHHBifi 
ptiGHoe 2 
cjia^Koe 2 

CTOJIOBafl * 
XOJIOCTOft 
ITBJIKOBbltt 
HaCOBOtt 



= subject 
=fish-course 
= sweet-course 
= dining-room 
=bachelor 
=a rouble 
= sentry 



CHAPTER 23 



THE TWO FORMS OF THE ADJECTIVE 

The adjective in Eussian has two forms : 

(1) the short, or predicative ; 

(2) the long, or attributive. 

The former is exactly like a noun, and, except in poetry, 
is only used as the predicate and in the nominative, e.g. : 

a 3,nop6Bi> =1 am well 

th flOB6jiein> = thou art pleased 

oht> roTOBTb = he is ready 

OHa KpaciiBa =she is beautiful 
1 Sc. K6MHaTa = room. 2 Sc. Cjiibflo = dish. 



THE TWO FOEMS OF THE ADJECTIVE 81 

The latter is used as an attribute and must agree with 
the noun it qualifies. Examples of both forms of the 
adjective have already been given, but it is necessary to 
add the following observations on their use. 

1. In theory the short or predicative form of the 
adjective is always used when the adjective forms the 
predicate ; in practice, however, it will be found that the 
long or attributive form, more often than not, takes its 
place, all the more as the adjective, when it forms the 
attribute, in Kussian is frequently placed after the noun 
which it qualifies. Examples : 

offb o^eHB mhjibih = 7i6 is (a) very nice {fellow) 
(ma KpacHBaa = she is (a) beautiful (woman) 

2. Adjectives containing two consonants before the 
termination sometimes have an e or o inserted between the 
two consonants in the short form in the masc. nom. sing. : 

6ojn>Hoit 66jieHT> 

HecHacTHLiii Hec^acTeirc* 

n6jIHHH iiojiohb 

jierKiii jieroM> 

3. EojitmoH, He6ojn>m6H and MajieHBKiii have no short 
forms ; the following adjectives are used instead if pre- 
dicative forms are required : 

ropoft'B BejiHK'B the town is big 

KOMHaTa BejiHKa the room is big 

Mope BeJiHKo the sea is big 

flOMa BejiHKH the houses are big 

KBapTiipBi BejiHKH the rooms are big 

nojia BejiHKH the fields are big 

HeBejimcB, &c. small 

MajTB, Majia, Majio, MajiBi little 

1809 G 



82 THE TWO FOEMS OF THE ADJECTIVE 

(BejiHKi, and Majrt are often used in the sense of too 
big and too small.) MaJieHtmft is much more often used 
than MaJTb. Such predicative forms of the adjective as 
have been given in the preceding pages, e.g. : a sflopoBt =» 
I am well, a 66jieHt=I am ill, are all very commonly 
used; the word Sojibhoh, 6ojn>Haa (i.e. the attributive 
form of this adjective) as a rule means the patient, the 
invalid. The word paflt is only used in the short form. 

4. Adjectives denoting colour and those ending in -CKiii 
are only used in the long form, e.g. : 

OHt pyccKifi he is a Bussian 

3Ta flaMa — pyccnaa this lady is a Bussian 

Moa co6aKa — nepHaa my dog is black 

Obs. The dash is often used to take the place of is, are. 





CHAPTER 


24 


PRONOUNS LIKE ADJECTIVES, AND THE SUPERI 


nepBHfi 


pye a rvy 


first 


BTopoii 


ftaroi 


second 


TpeTiii 


tr(y)e i tyi 


third 


APyrott 


drugoi 


other 


KaSKflHH 


kazhdy 


every, each 


BcaKiii 


fsyaki 


of every kind 


K0T6pHH 


katory 


which 


H^KOTOpHH 


nye a katory 


a certain, some 


KaKOH 


kak6i 


of what sort 


KaKOBfc 


kakof 


what like 



PKONOUNS LIKE ADJECTIVES 



83 



HHKaK6ft nyikakoi 
KaKoit-TO kakoita 


of no sort 
of some sort 


KaK6H-HH6y,nib kakoinyibut' 


f of any sort 

[ of some sort or other 


TaKOH tak6i 


of such a sort 


TaKoii-To tak6ita 


such and such 


caMHH samy 
jih)66h lyuboi 
hhoh inoi 


the very 
any you like 
some 


MHorie mnogiye 
HeMHorie nyemnogiye 
H^CKOJiBKie nye a skalkiye 


many (people), several 
not many, few 
a few 


and the adjective used 


as a noun 


MH6roe mnogoye (cf . p. 71) much 


ojmwh past ) 

r r = once 
or pa3Tb J 

nepBLiii past = the first time 

nepBBiii A6HB = the first day 

nepBHii KJiaccs* = first class 

nepBoe ftijio = the first thing (matter, business) 

nepBaa yjinija = the first street 

nepBoe m^cto = the first place 



BTopoft pa3i> = the second time 
BTopoii fleHb = tfie second day 
BTopoft KJiacci* = second class 
BTopoe j$Jio = the second thing 
BTopaa hohb = the second night 

TpeTin pa3s> --* the third time 
Tperin &eKb = the third day 
TpeTift KJiaccL = third class 

G2 



84 PEONOUNS LIKE ADJECTIVES 

TpeTte a^jio = the third thing 
TpeTte m^cto = the third place 
TpeTba yjiHi],a » the third street 
TpeTbH ho% = the third night 
TpeTbH ^0^ = ^ third daughter 

Kaacflbiii nofefl'b = every train 
KajKfloe cjiobo = every word 
KajKflan CTamjia = ei?en/ station 

flpyroii pa3-b = another time 

Apyroii AeHb = another day 

ftpyroe m^cto = another place 

ji,pyr6e nojiOTemi;e = another towel 

flpyraa KOMHaTa = another (or different) room 

flpyraa yjimja = another street 

kot6phh HOMepi. ? = which number ? (cf. p. 45) 
K0T6pbiii no fl'bfefl'b ? = which front door ? 
KOTopaa KOMHaTa ? = which room ? 
KOTopaa JiicTHima ? = which staircase ? 

KaKoii cyirb ? = what hind of soup ? 
KaKoe Maco ? =ivhat kind of meat ? 
KaKaa yjiHi],a ? = what street ? 

9T0 KaKoii ropoA'b ? = what town is that ? 
3to KaKoii aomt* ? = what house is that ? 
KOTopHii Bam-b romi* ? = which is your house ? 
KOTOpblH ceroflHH fleHb ? 



, = ivhat day is it to-day ? 
or KaKoii ceroflHa j^eHb r ■ J 

cerojjHa BocKpeceHbe = to-day is Sunday (Resurrection) 

3aBTpa noHeA'kjibHHK'b = to-morrow is Monday 

ceroflHa BT6pHHK r b = to-day is Tuesday 



PEONOUNS LIKE ADJECTIVES 85 

3aBTpa cpe.ua = to-morrow is Wednesday 

Biepa 6lijtb ^eTBeprt = yesterday was Thursday 

3aBTpa naTHHii,a = to-morrow is Friday 

B^epa 6HJia cy66oTa = yesterday was Saturday 

3T0 KaKan yjimja ? = what street is this ? 

3to HeBCKiii IIpocneKT'b = that is the Nevski Prospect 

3to KaKaa p^Ka ? =what river is this ? 

3T0 HeBa = that is the Neva 

KOTopaa Bania KBapTiipa ? = which is your flat ? 

KOTopaa Bania KOMHaTa ? = which is your room ? 

BOTb Haina KBapTiipa = that is our flat 

3to Moa KOMHaTa = this is my room 

KOTopoe Bame m^cto ? = which is your place ? 

boti> 3TO Moe m^cto = this is my place here 

3to KaKoe m^cto ? =what place is this ? 

3T0 6ojibnioe ceji6=i£ is a large village 

3to U,apcKoe Cen6 = it is Tsarskoye Selo 

(lit. the Tsar's Village) 
KOToptie Hauin 6nJieTbi ? = which tickets are ours ? 
3to KaKie jnoflu ? =what people are these ? 
KOToptia BaniH Bein,H ?~ivhich are your things ? 
bott» 3to moh Beiu,H = these are my things here 
bc6 3th Beiu,H BaniH ? = are all these things yours ? 
,a,a, oh4 Bcfc mA = yes, they are all mine 
3to KaKia fleHbrn ? =what money is this ? 
3to pyccKia fteHbrH = i£ is Bussian money 
Hira, 3to He pyccKia j$m>m=no, it is not Russian money 
t4 fl^HbrH B aniH, a 3th moA^that money is yours, but this 

is mine 
3to KaKia nrfiCTa ? =what places are these ? 
3to o^eHb xopouiia, ho o^eHb ) _ f those are very good but 

floporia MicTa j 1 very expensive places 



86 PEONOUNS LIKE ADJECTIVES 

KOTopua BainH nojia ? = which are your fields ? 
Bcfe 9th nojia moh = all these fields are mine 
KOTopua Bainn a^th ? =which are your children ? 
BOTb oto moh infan = these are my children here 



what beautiful and nice 
children ! 



Kama KpacHBbia h xopoinia 

A^th ! 

KaKOH KpacHBHH romt> = what a beautiful house 
Kanaa njioxaa noroAa = what bad weather 
KaKoe xoponiee m£cto = what a nice place 
Kanie SoJibinie Mara3HHbi=w/ia£ large shops 
Kama fleineBbia Ku&m^what cheap books 
Kania crapbia ftepeBba=w/ia£ old trees 

TaKoii xopoiniit Rem, = such a nice day 
TaKaa Kpaciteaa yjnma = such a beautiful street 
TaKoe 6oJibnioe ceji6 = such a large village 
TaKie xopoinie immL = such nice people 
TaKia KpacHBbia ^ByinKH = such pretty girls 
TaKia 6ojibinia ;nepeBba = swc/i large trees 

Obs. A more emphatic form of this word, but little used 
by educated people, is 9TaKoft, BTaKaa, 9TaKoe, &c. 

KTO 8T0 TaKOH ? 



, =who is that? 

Or BTO KTO TaKOH t 

kto oht> TaKoii ? =who is he ? 
kto 0Ha TaKaa ? =who is she ? 
kto ohh TaKie ? =who are they ? 
hto 9to TaKoe ? 



, =what is that? 
or bto *ito TaKoe r j 

kto-to T^wh^ there is some one there 
ito-to TaMT>= there is something there 
TaMT» 3iH KT6-Hn6yAi> ?»« any one there ? 
Tawra* an ^TO-HH6yftb ? =is anything there ? 



THE SUPEELATIVE 87 

KaKOii-TO lejiOBiKt = some man, a certain man 
KaKaa-TO yjnma = some street, a certain street 
Kaicoe-TO cejio = some village, a certain village 
Kame-TO JiK)AH = some people or other 
KaKm-TO HceHmHHbi = some women or other 
KaKiH-TO n$m = some sort of affairs 
KaKOH-mrfyflb Mara3HHi> = any (sort of) shop 
KaKaa-HH6yAb Benjb = any (sort of) thing 
KaKoe-HH6yAB M'fecTO = any (sort of) place 
Kame-HH6yAb ropo,n,a = any towns 
KaKia-HH6yAi> Bew& = any things 
KaKiH-HH6y r n ) i> MicTa = any places 

irkKOTopbie R¥)j5 t n = certain people 
HfeoTopbia Beui,H = certain things 
HfeoTopbia M^CTa = certain places 

KaKofi cynfc ? =what kind of soup ? 
KaKOBfc cyuL ? —what is the soup like t 
KaKoe bhho ? =what kind of wine f 
KaKOBO bhho ? =what is the wine like ? 
KaK&H pbi6a ? =what kind offish ? 
KaKOBa pbi6a ? =what is the fish like? 

caMbifi KpacHBbiii rowl = the most beautiful house 
caMbiH SojibiHoii v6ipo]j s r h = the biggest town 
caMaa KpaciiBaa yjiHU,a = the most beautiful street 
caMafl HOBaa Bemb = the newest thing 
caMoe KpacHBoe M4cTO = £foe most beautiful place 
cainoe dapoe ftepeBO = the oldest tree 
caMbie MaJieHbKie ftOMa = the smallest houses 
caMbia ftoporia KHiirH = the dearest books 
c&mhh ^emeBbia Mijcra = the cheapest places 



THE SUPEELATIVE 



N.B. caMbiii Jiynniitt =best 

CaMHH njioxoii 
caMbiii CKBepHbiii 



= worst 



Obs. Adjectives in the superlative degree have only the 
longer or attributive form : 

9tott> Mara3Hirb caMbiii Jiy^iniii 
this shop is the best 

9Ta KOMHaTa caMaa M&JieHbKaa 
this room is the smallest 

£to ira/jame caMoe aemeBoe 
this edition is the cheapest 

N.B. m JiaftiniH = younger 

CTapiniii = elder 

caMHH MJiaftiniii = youngest 
caMbiii CTapiniii = eldest 

oht> moh caMbiii MJiaAiniit 6paT r b = he is my youngest brother 

tboji CTapinaa cecTpa = thy elder sister 

oht> caMbiii CTapiniii = he is the eldest 

9to Moa MJiaAinaa cecTpa = £/&a£ is my younger sister. 

tott> caMbiii ropofl'b = the same town 
Ta caMan fmii\a> = the same street 
to caMoe m^cto = the same place 
rfj caMbie Mara3HHbi = the same shops 
t4 caMbra Beni,H = the same things 
Ti caMbm flijia = the same affairs 






89 



CHAPTER 25 

THE GENITIVE 
Substantives 



The genitive singular endings are 

Hard 
and 



Masculine 
Neuter 
k Feminine 






Examples : 



IMara3HHa 
SnjieTa 
CTOJia 



Hard j ^ 

Nouns 



IM^CTa 
cejia 
66mecTBa 



|6a6ti 
KOMHaTH 
H36tl 



-a 

-H 



I Masculine ) 
Neuter J 
Feminine -h 



magazma 

bilye a ta 

stala 

mye a sta 

s(y)ela 

opshcbestva 

baby 

komnaty 

izby 



90 



GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



Soft J 

Nouns 



Masculine 



Neuter 



f aBT0M06HJIH 

) cjiyqaa 

COJIOBbH 

BacHJiia 

Inojra 
pyjKba 
HM^HiH 



( He^4jin 

k Feminine J ™ Th * 
apMin 

V Poccih 



aftamabilya 
sluchaya 
salavya 
vasiliya 

polya 

ruzhya 

imy^niya 

nyedyeUyi 
statyi 
armiyi 
rassiyi 



Masculine nouns which contain e or o in the last syllable 
of the nominative singular and lose it throughout the rest 
of the declension : 



NOM. SING. 

IKOHeiji* kanyeHs 
nocojrb pasol 
peSeHOKt rebyonak 



Soft 



«eHb dyeV 
oroHb ago^n' 



GEN. SING. 

KOHu;a kantsa 
nocjia pasla 
pe6eHKa rebyonka 

AHH dnya 
orHH agnya 



Some masculine nouns have an alternative genitive 
singular in -y (hard), -10 (soft), called partitive, which is 
used after words denoting substances of which a definite 
or indefinite quantity is indicated : 



NOM. SING. 



tt J caxapt sakhar sugar 
\ Ta6aKi> tabak tobacco 



Soft 



*ian 



chai 



tea 



GEN. SING. 

caxapy 
Ta6aKy 
^aio 



GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 91 

But the use of this genitive has been considerably- 
extended and is common where there is no idea of parti- 
tion ; cf . Hfoy, an alternative and colloquial form of 
HiTi» = there is not. 

All feminine nouns which have nominative singular in 
-Ka, -ra, -xa, -3Ka, -Ha, -ma, -ma 
have genitive singular 

-KH, -rH, -XH, -3KH, -TO, -IEH, -IIJH, 

because u cannot stand after these consonants ; but 
nevertheless -3kh and -inn are pronounced -jkh and -mH. 

Examples (with pronunciation) : 

NOM. SING. GEN. SING. 

flfaoHKa dye a vachka j^Bo^um dye a vachki 

cBina sv(y)echa cb4to sv(y)echi 

Kajioina kalosha Kajiomn kaloshy 

Feminine surnames in -OBa, -eBa, -HHa, have genitive 
singular in -oh : IlaBJiOBOH, ApceHbeBoii, KapcaBHHoft. 

Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 
genitive singular in -h, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. GEN. SING. 

aioinaflb horse JiomaflH 

Bemt thing BemH 

ijepKOBB church ijepKBH 

MaTb mother MaTepn 

.HOHb daughter floiepn 

Neuter nouns in -a have genitive singular in -eHH, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. GEN. SING. 

BpeMa time BpeMeira 



92 GENITIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 

The genitive plural endings are : 





i 


Masculine 


-OBI 


► 


Hard - 

a t\f\ 


Neuter 
Feminine j 


-i> 




[ Masculine 


-en, 


-eBt 


Soft j Neuter 


-eft, 


-iii 


1 Feminine 


■*V" 


en, -in 


Examples : 








( Mara3HH0Bi> 
Masculine \ 6iuieT0Bi> 




magazinaf 
bilye a taf 




1 CTOJIOBl. 




stalof 


Hard 

Nouns ^ 


[ MiCTTb 

Neuter \ cejit 

( 66mecTBi> 




mye a st 

syol 

opshchestf 




[ 6a6i> 
, Feminine \ KOMHarL 




bap 
komnat 


( H36 r b 




izb 




[ aBTOMoSHJien 
Masculine \ cjiyqaeB^ 

( COJIOBbeBI> 


aftamabllyei 

sliichayef 

salavyof 


Soft 

Nouns \ 


[ nojieii 
Neuter j pysKen 
inMimii 




palyei 
ruzhei 
imye^nyi 




, Feminine 


Heflijit 
■ CTaTeft 
apMiii 




nyedyeU' 

statyei 

armi 



GENITIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



93 



Several masculine nouns have genitive plural in -t>, e.: 


NOM. SING. 


GEN.' PLUR. 


cojiftarb soldier 
past time (a) 
msbST* eye 
apmHHt yard 


cojifla/rt 
pa3i 

apinirat 


saldat 
ras 
glas 
arshyn 


NOM. PLUR. 






b6jioch hair (collective) 

KOH$eTH sweets 

$pyKTH fruit (collective) 


BOJIOCt 
KOH^eTB 

$pyKTt 


valos 

kanfyeH 

frukt 



Likewise nouns in -hht>, e.g. 

NOM. PLUR. 

KpecTBjrae krestyanye 
aHrjinnaHe anglyichanye 

Likewise the neuters : 

NOM. PLUR. 

h6jiokh yablaki apples 
miera ply^chi shoulders 
koji^hh kaly^nyi knees 



GEN. PLUR. 

KpecTLflHt kresty&n 
aHrjinqaHt anglyichan 



GEN. PLUR. 

aSjioKt yablak 
njieqt plye a ch 
KOJi^Ht kalye a n 



Masculine nouns which contain e or o in the last syllable 
of the nominative singular and lose it throughout the rest 
of the declension : 



NOM. PLUR. 

| kohijli kantsy 
{ nocjiti pasly 

Soft I « HH , dn ^ , 
( orHH agnyi 



GEN. PLUR. 

kohh^bi* kants6f 
nocjiOBt paslof 

^Heii dny6i 
or-Heft agny& 



94 GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 

Obs. Those in -eip» which have not the accent on the 
termination have gen. plur. in -eBi> : 

NOM. SING. 

M'fecflu.t my^syats month 
H'tivieip. nye i m(y)ets German 

NOM. PLUR. GEN. PLUR. 

MicaijH my^syatsy MicaijeBt mye'syatsef 

h4mii;h nye a mtsy H^Mi^eBi. nye a mtsef 

Masculine nouns with nominative singular in 
-act, -it, -nn>, -mi» 
have genitive plural in -eft, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. 

hohcb nozh knife 
kjiiotb klyuch hey 

NOM. PLUR. GEN. PLUR. 

hojkh nazhy Hoaceii nazhei 

kjiiohh klyuchi Kjnoqeit klyuchei 

Feminine and neuter nouns with two consonants before 
the final -a, -a, -o, -e, which in the genitive plural (without 
termination) would be difficult to pronounce, insert e or 
o between them to facilitate pronunciation, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. GEN. PLUR. 

A'&BoqKa little girl flfeoqKH A^BOHeK'L 

fliBymica girl fliBymKH ^BymeK't 

jjepeBHa hamlet ;n;epeBHH flepeBeHB 

GapLinraa young lady SaptmiHH SapHineHt 



GENITIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



95 



NOM. 


SING. 


NOM. PLUR. 


GEN. PLUR. 





money 


fleHtrn 


fleHero* 


OKHO 


window 


OKHa 


6Kom> 


IIHCbMO 


letter 


nncbMa 


niiceM'b 


The following must be remembered : 




NOM. 


PLUR. 


GEN. 


PLUR. 


CTyjita x 


stulya x 


CTyjibeBi* 


stiilyef 


6paTbH 


bratya 


6paTi>eB r b 


bratyef 


CblHOBbH 


synavya 


CLIHOBeil 


synavyei 


wy3bH 


druzya 


APypeii 


druzyei 


COciflH 


sasy^dyi 


cocifleii 


sasy^dyei 


H.B'feTa 
U,BfobI 


tsv(y)eta 
tsv(y)ety t 


IJB'fcrtfB'b 


tsv(y)etof 


^epeBba 


dyer(y)eV 


ya flepeBBeB'b 


dyer(y)e ! vyef 


cy«a 


suda 


cyAOB^b 


sudof 


o6jiaica 2 


ablaka 


oSjiaKOB'L 


ablakof 


yinn 


ushy 


ymeii 


ushei 


oqn 


ochi 


o^eii 


achei 


qy^eca 


chudyesa 


vywvb 


chudye a s 


He6eca 


nyeb(y)esa 


b He6ecb 


nyebye a s 


Mi\& 3 


yaitsa 


anu.'b 


yayits 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b, and 
nominative plural in -h have genitive plural in -eft, e.g. : 



NOM. PLUR. 



GEN. PLUR. 



jioina^H loshadyi 

Beiu,n v(y)e i shchi 

1 For meanings cf. p. 37. 

3 AT 



jionia^eii 
Bemeft 



lashadyei 
v(y)eshchei 



>. 37. 2 Nom. sing. 66jiaKO =cloud. 

Nom. sing. Hftijo =egg. 



96 



GENITIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



NOM. 


plur. 


GEN. 


PLUR. 


IjepKBH 


ts(y)e i rkvi 


n;epKBeH 


tserkvyei 


Ma/repH 


matyeri 


MaTepeii 


matyeryei 


Ao^epn 


d6cheri 


^oqepen 


dacheryei 


mbpji 


lyudyi 


jnofleii 


lyudyei 


^4th 


dy#tyi 


^Teit 


dyetyei 



Neuter nouns in -a have genitive plural in -em, e.g. 
BpeMeHa vremena / BpeMeHt vremyon. 



CHAPTER 26 







PRONOUNS 




NOMINATIVE 


GENITIVE 






a 




MeHa 


m(y)enya 




TLI 




Te6a 


tyebya 


masc. 
neut. 


OHt ] 

oh6 j 




ero 1 


yevo 


fem. 


OHa 




ea 1 


yeyo 




MH 




HaCL 


nas 




BLI 




Bacfc 


vas 


masc, neut. 
fem. 


ohh) 

Olrfj j 




HXI* 1 


yikh 


m M n., f. 


— 




ce6a 2 


s(y)ebya 



1 When governed by a preposition these words assume an initial 
h, e.g. oti> Hero, otb Hen, otb hmxt,. 

2 cedfl is the reflexive pronoun, which can be used of any person in 
either number, but must always refer directly to the subject of the 
sentence ; it can mean : myself, thyself, himself herself, itself, our- 
selves, yourselves or themselves ; it has no nominative. 






GENITIVE OP PKONOUNS 

GENITIVE 



97 



SING. 



masc. 
neut. 
Jem. 



plur. m.,n.,f. 



SING, 



[ masc. 
\ neut. 
(fern. 



plur. m.,n.,f. 



SING. 



masc. 
neut. 
Jem. 



plur. m.,n.,f. 

Imasc. 
neut. 
fern. 

plur. m.,n.,f. 



SING. 



Imasc. 
neut. 
fern. 



plur. m.,n.,f. 



NOMINATIVE 

Moii ) 
Moe j 
Moa 

MOH 



TBOH 
TBOe 
TBOH 

TBOH 

Hann> 
Haine 
Hama 

Hainn 

Bamt | 
Banie J 
Baina 

BaniH 

cboh l 

CBoe 

cboh 

cboh 



masc, fern, kto 
neut. ito 



Moero 
Moeii 

MOHXT> 

TBoero 
TBoeii 

TBOHXT, 

Hamero 

Haineit 

HaniHXT» 

Bainero 
Baineii 

BaiHHXT, 

CBoero 
CBoen 

CBOHXfc 

Koro 
nero 



mayevo 

mayei 

mayikh 

tvayevo 

tvayei 

tvayikh 

nasheva 

nashei 

nashykh 

vasheva 

vashei 

vashykh 

svayevo 

svayei 

svayikh 

kavo 
chevo 



1809 



1 Cf. note on p. 56. 
H 



98 



GENITIVE OF PEONOUNS 



SING. 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR.- 



SING. 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR. 





NOMINATIVE 


GENITIVE 




masc. 
neut. 


neii 1 
*n>e J 




qbero 


chyevo 


fern. 


m>a 




qbefi 


chyei 


m., n., f. 


HbH 




HbHXT. 


chyikh 


masc. 
neut. 


OflHO 




o^Horo 


adnavo 


fern. 


OflHa 




o,o,h6h 


adnoi 


masc, neut. oflira 




OflHHXT) 


adnyikh 


fern. 


OfllTE 




O^H^XI) 


adnye a kh 


masc. 
neut. 


caMi> 
caMO 


1 


CaMOTO 


samavo 


fern. 


caMa 




CaMOH 


samoi 


m., n., f. 


caivin 




CaMHXTb 


samikh 


masc. 
neut. 


9T0TT> 
3T0 


'* 


BToro 


e a tava 


fern. 


3Ta 




3T0H 1 


e a toi 


m., n., f. 


9TH 




3THXT> 


eHyikh 


masc. 
neut. 


TOTI> 
TO 


\ 

) 


Toro 


tavo 


fern. 


Ta 




TOH 


toi 


m., n., f. 


t£ 




TiX'b 


tye a kh 


masc. 
neut. 


Beet 
Bee 


1 


Bcero 


fs(y)evo 


fern. 


Bca 




Been 


fsyei 


m., n., f. 


bc4 




BCfext 


fsye a kh 


1 This 


-oh in rapid s 


peech 


sounds like -u 





99 



CHAPTER 27 

ADJECTIVES 

NOMINATIVE GENITIVE 



Imasc. KpacHBHfi 
neut. KpacHBoe 
fern. KpacHBaa 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR. 



m. KpacHBue 

n.,f. KpacHBHa 

masc. cmiifi 

neut. cHHee 

k fern. CHHaa 

' m. cmiie 

n., f. cnma 



KpacHBaro 

KpaCHBOH x 
KpaCHBLIXT* 

CHHaro 

CHHeH 
CHHHXfc 



krasivava 
krasivoi 

krasivykh 

sinyava 
sinyei 

sinyikh 



masc. MOJiofloii 
■ neut. MOJio^oe 
k fern. MOJio^aH 



PLUR, 



SING. 



|m. 
W,f. 



MOJIOftLie 
MOJIOftHfl 



masc. BHCoKifi 
neut. BHCOKoe 
fern. BHCOKan 



MOJiofloro 
mojioaoh 



BticoKaro 



BblCOKOH 



; fm. 

►LUR.i 

In., 



BHCOKIIX'Jb 



maladova 
maladoi 



mojioahxt» maladykh 



BHCOKie ) 
f. BBICOKia J 

1 This -oh in rapid speech sounds like 
H2 



vysokava 
vysokoi 

vysokikh 



-u. 



100 



Imasc. floporoii 
neut. floporoe 
fern 



PLUR. 



m. 
ln.,f. 



GENITIVE OP ADJECTIVES 

NOMINATIVE GENITIVE 

flopororo daragova 
Aoporoii daragoi 

floporfab daragikh 



floporaa 

floporie 
inoporia 



Imasc. xopoinin 
neut. xopoinee 
fern. xopomaa 



PLUR. 



SING. 



PLUR 



m. xopomie 
n.,f. xopoinia 

masc. SojiBinoii 

neut. 6ojibinoe 

k fern. 6oJibmaa 

6ojibmie 
Sojibinia 



jm. 

U.,f. 



xopoinaro (k)haroshava 
xopomeii (k)haroshei 

xoponiHXT» (k)haroshykh 



6ojibinoro 
6oJibmoH 



bal'shova 
bal'shoi 



60 JibinnxT* bal 'shykh 



CHAPTER 28 





VOCABULARY 






Literature, Music, 


Theatre, &c. 


ra3eTa/. 


gazyeHa 




newspaper 


/KypHaJiT> m. 


zhurnal 




magazine 


CTaTbH/. 


statya 




article 


poMaHt m. 


raman 




novel 


pa3CKa3b m. 


raskas 




tale 


TOMb m. 


torn 




volume 


H3Aanie n. 


izdaniye 




edition 


coHHHeHie n. 


sachinye^iye 




work, composition 


coGpame n. 


sabraniye 




collection 



LITEKATUKE AND MUSK 



101 



CTHXOTBopeme n. 


styikhatvar(y)e ! niye 


poem 


nBeca /. 


pye a sa 


play 


djeHa/. 


sts(y)e a na 


stage 


npeACTaBJi^Hie n. 


pretstavly^niye 


performance 


jTEftcTBie n. 


dyeistviye 


act 


cjiobo n. 


slova 


word 


cjiOBapb m. 


slavaV 


dictionary 


H3fcIKT> m. 


yazyk 


language 


KapTHHa/. 


kartyina 


picture 


xyflOHmHKt m. 


(k)hudozhnyik 


artist, painter 


nncaTejiB m. 


pisa^yel' 


writer 


aBTopt m. 


aftor 


author 


jiHTepaTypa/. 


lyityeratura 


literature 


xyAOJKecTBo n. 


(k)hudozhestva 


painting 


ypoKt m. 


urok 


lesson 


My3Bma/. 


miizyka 


music 


POHJIB m. 


rayaU' 


grand piano 


IIBHHHHO n. 


pyanyino 


upright piano 


HOTBl/. #L 


noty 


music (printed) 


KOHIjepTB m. 


kants(y)e a rt 


concert 


n'BCHfl/. 


p(y)e i snya 


song 


KapTti/. pi. 


karty 


cards 


nrpa/. 


igra 


game 


uiaxMaTti m. pi. 


shakhmaty 


chess 


paaroBopt m. 


razgavor 


conversation 


ndj&mmf. 


nadye a zhda 


hope 


B-fepa/. 


vye a ra 


faith 


jik>66bb/. 


lyuboif 


love 


BOHHa/. 


vaina 


war 


MHpT> m. 


mir 


peace 


3aK6HT» m. 


zakon 


law 


MBTBHie m. 


mnyeiniye 


opinion 


cnacTie w. 


schastiye 


happiness 


Hec T iacTie n. 


nyeschastiye 


unhappiness 


yflHBJieme n. 


udyivlyeiniye 


surprise 


comajrBHie n. 


sazhalyeiniye 


regret 


yAOB6jiBCTBie 


udavo^'stviye 


pleasure 



.102 
CHAPTER 29 

PHRASES CONTAINING WORDS IN THE GENITIVE 

neTporpaflt h MocKBa — CTOJrihju Poccin 
Petrograd and Moscow are the capitals of Bussia 

JIoHflom — cTOiJiHija Anrjiin 
London is the capital of England 

moh TOBapnni.'b — clihi> Bamero 3HaKOMaro 

my friend is the son of your acquaintance (masc.) 

Bamt 3HaKOMLiH — flpyri> Moero OTija 

your acquaintance is a friend of my father's 

bto 6ojibm6ii Apyr'L Moero 6paTa 
that is a great friend of my brother's 

moh cecTpa — npiaTejibmu^a Bameft RO^epn 
my sister is a friend of your daughter 

BamT> cum — yiemircb Moero RaflH 
your son is a pupil of my uncle 

Bama ^o^Ka — y^eHHn;a Moeii 3HaKOMOH 

your daughter is a pupil of my acquaintance (fern.) 

Baromb nepBaro Knacca 

a railway carriage of the first class 

6njieT r b BToporo KJiacca 
a ticket of the second class 

3ajia TpeTLaro KJiacca 
a third-class waiting-room 

^ejiOBfet TaK6ro po^a 
a man of such a hind 



PHEASES WITH THE GENITIVE 103 

TaK6ro p6fla jho^h 
people of such a kind 

9T0 KaKoro po^a TeaTpt ? 
what sort of theatre is that ? 

9to Kaic6ro p6;na 3;naHie ? 
what sort of building is that ? 

3to romt> Moero crapmero 6pa/ra 
this is the house of my elder brother 

3to KBapTiipa Moeit MJia^meii cecTpii 
this is the flat of my younger sister 

9to HMfeie Moiixt poRHTejreii 
this is the property of my parents 

rjife nopTpeTi> TBoero OTija ? 
where is thy father's portrait ? 

rfli nopTpert TBoeit MaTepn ? 
where is thy mother's portrait t 

rji$ HM^Hie tbohx'b Apy^eit ? 
where is your friends' property ? 

9to TiOR'h&3R r b Hamero flOMa 

this is the front door of our house 

Bovh oKHa Hamefi KBaprapH 
these are the windows of our flat 

3to KOMHaTa Hanrax'b ^Teft 
that is our children's room 

KaKt 3ftopoBbe Bamero cynpyra ? 
how is your husband's health ? 



104 PHEASES WITH THE GENITIVE 

Ka>Kb 3ji;op6Bi>e B&meft cynpyrn ? 
how is your wife's health ? 

k&kl 3AopoBi>e BainnxTE) poflirrejieii ? 
how is your parents' health ? 

nojraoe coSpame coraHemii rpa$a JltBa x HnKOJiaeBiraa 

TojiCToro 
a complete collection of the works of Count Leo Nikolayevich 

Tolstdi 

bc£ co^HHeHia AjieKcaH,n;pa Cepi4eBiraa IlymKHHa 
all the works of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin 

CTHxoTBopemtf Mnxanjia IDpbeBiraa JlepMOHTOBa 
the poems of Michael Yurevich Lermontov 

coHHHeHia HnKo^aa BacHJiteBirea Torojin (nom. TorojiB), 
HBaHa Cepi4eBiraa TypreHeBa h 9e,n;opa MnxaitaoBiraa 
^ocToeBCKaro 

the works of Nicholas Vasilevich Gogol (pron. GdgaV), Ivan 
Sergeyevich Turgenev, and Theodore Mikhailovich 
Dostoyevski 

ohi, 6paTi» C6$in HnKOJiaeBHH AHflpeeBoii 
he is the brother of Sophia Nikolayevna Andreyeva 
(i.e. of Mrs. or Miss Andreyev) 

3to HMteie EjiH3aBeTti Cepi4eBHbi IleTpoBCKOH 
this is the property of Elizabeth Sergeyevna Petrovskaya 
(i.e. of Mrs. or Miss Petrovski) 

1 Nom. sing. JleBt, often pronounced Lyof ; jieBt, pron. lyef = 
lion. 



105 
CHAPTER 30 

THE EXPRESSION OF HIS, HER, THEIR 

There is no possessive pronoun of the third person in 
Eussian, and this want is supplied by the genitive of the 
personal pronoun, e. g. : 

17$ er6 flOMt ? = where is his house ? 

3to ero R0Mb = ihat is his house 

3to eii My5Ki> = that is her husband 

3to ero EKeHa = that is his wife 

oite> eii JKeHiixT) = he is her fiance 

oiia ero HeB^CTa = she is his fiancee 

3to nxt ji^tr = these are their children 

ero KOMHaTa sjifech = his room is here 

ea KOMHaTa TaMt = her room is there 

9to hxt» KBapTiipa = ^s is their flat 

bott> ero nnctMO = here is his letter 

bott. eii imchuo = here is her letter 

3to HM^Hie ero M&repn = this is the property of his mother 

9to HM^Hie eii 01^ = this is the property of her father 

KaKt ero &Hpeo, r b = what (lit. how) is his address 

bott> esi aflpecL = here is her address 

In all such cases the use of the pronoun cboh (one's own) 
would be incorrect. 



106 



CHAPTER 31 





VOCABULARY 






Food, drink, &c. 




saKycKa 


zakuska 


hors-d* 1 ceuvr 


HKpa/. 


ikra 


caviar 


COJIb /. 


so*r 


salt 


nepeuyb m. 


p(y)eirets 


pepper 


ropHiiua/. 


garchitsa 


mustard 


xjtb'S'l m. 


(k)hlye a p 


bread, loaf 


6f JIKSif 


bulka 


little loaf, roll 


Kajiant m. 


kalach 


a loaf with handle 1 


CBipt m. 


syr 


cheese 


Macjio n. 


masla 


butter (also =oil) 


yKcyct m. 


uksus 


vinegar 


nHpomoKb m. 


pirazhok 


little pie 1 


cynt m. 


sup 


soup 


mn/. pi. 


shchi 


cabbage-soup 1 


CopuTL ra. 


borshch 


beetroot-soup l 


CMeTSLHa/. 


sm(y)etana 


sour cream 


pti6a/. 


ryba 


fish 


ptiGHoe n. 2 


rybnoye 2 


fish-course 


MHCO w. 


myasa 


meat 


MHCHoe n. 


myasnoye 


meat-course 


wapK6e w. 


zharkoye 


roast meat, joint 


roBHAHHa/. 


gavyadyina 


beef 


TeJIHTHHa/. 


tyelyatyina 


veal 


Gapainraa/. 


baranyina 


mutton 


KOTJieTb m. 


katlye a t 


cutlet 


$nn6 n. 


filye 


fillet 


P6ct6h$i> m. 
GH^mreKCB m. 


rosbif 
bifshtye a ks 


| roast beef steah 


coycb m. 


sous 


sauce 


noJiHBKa /. 


palyifka 


gravy 


1 National sp( 


^cialities. 


Of. note 1 on p. 71, 



FOOD AND DEINK 



107 



CBHHIIHa/. 


svinyina 


pork 


dKopoKt m. 


okarak 


a ham, gammon 


BeTqHHa/. 


vechina 


ham (in slices) 


rycB m. 


gus' 


goose 


^TKa/. 


titka 


duck 


HH^-BlIKa/. 


indyeika 


turkey-hen 


Kypnija/. 


kuritsa 


fowl 


ijBnuieHOK'B m. 


tsyplyonak 


chicken 


PhShhk'l m. 


ryapchik 


grouse 


flHHB/. 


dyich 


game 


H3BIKT> m. 


yazyk 


tongue 


KOJi6aca/. 


kalbasa 


polony {sausage) 


COCHCKa/. 


sasiska 


small sausage 


flftlJO w. 


yaitso 


egg 


HHIJO BB CMHTKy U. 


yaitso fsmyatku 


boiled egg 


HHHHHIja/. 


yayichnitsa 


scrambled eggs 


OMJieTB m. 


amlyeH 


omelet 


OBOII^B/. 


ovashch 


vegetable 


36JieHB /. 


z(y)6 i lyen' 


green vegetable 


KapTo$ejiB/. 


kartofel' 


potato(es) 


KanycTa/. 


kapusta 


cabbage 


i^B'feTHafl KanycTa/. 


tsv(y)etnaya kapusta 


cauliflower 


MOpKOBB /. 


markoif 


carrot(s) 


CBeKjia /. 


svyokla 


beetroot 


6o6bi m. pi. 


baby 


beans 


P'fcna/. 


rye a pa 


turnip 


jiyK-B m. 


luk 


onion 


orypen/B m. 


agurye a ts 


cucumber 


noMH 1 a;6p , B m. 


pamidor 


tomato 


p-lAtKa/. 


rye^'ka 


radish 


(rpnd'B) rpn6Bi m. 


(grip) griby 


mushroom(s) 


CJia^Koe n. 1 
rfecTO w. 


slatkoye x 


sweet course 


tye a sta 


dough, pastry 


nupopB m. 


pir6k 


pie 


komilotb m. 


kampot 


stewed fruit 


Bap^HBe n. 


var(y)6 i nye 


jam 



1 Cf. note 1 on p. 71. 



108 



POOD AND DEINK 



(iuicwb) ruiORt'i m. 


(plot) plady 


fruit (still growing) 


((jjpyKT'L) (|)pyKTH?7Z. 


frukty 


fruit (on table) 


Me^t m. 


myot 


honey 


nroffa/. 


yagada 


berry 


h6jioko n. 


yablaka 


apple 


rpynia/. 


grusha 


pear 


anejibci'iHi, m. 


ap(y)elsin 


orange 


(bmiiihh) bhuihh/. pi, 


vishnyi 


cherries 


CJTHBa /. 


slyiva 


plum 


MajiHHa/. 


malyina 


raspberries 


KJiySHHKa /. 


klubnyika 


strawberries 


3eMJIHHHKa /. 


zemlyanyika 


strawberries (wild) 


CMOpOAHHa/. 


smarodyina 


currants 


kpbi>k6bhhk , l m. 


kryzhovnyik 


gooseberries 


BHHorpaflt m. 


vinagrat 


grapes 


BHHHaH Hro,n;a/. 


vinnaya yagada 


figs 


$HHHKH m. pi. 


finyiki 


dates 


nepcHKH m. pi. 


pfy^rsiki 


peaches 


KOH$eTH m. pi. 


kanfye a ty 


sweets 


iHOKOJia^'B m. 


shakalat 


chocolate 


6HCKBHTBI m. pi. 


biskvity 


biscuits 


Op'BX'B m. 


arye a kh 


walnut 


jihm6ht> m. 


lyimon 


lemon 


AkIHH/. 


dynya 


melon 


ap6y3T> m. 


arbus 


water-melon 


caxapt m. 


sakhar 


sugar 


Mop6>KeHHoe n. 1 


marozhennoye 1 


ice (cream) 


po^t m. ° & ) 
cojm.rn.Ml C ° PTa 


ro sarta 
sort 


■ kind, quality, sort 


BOfla/. 


vada 


water 


KHnHTOKt m. 


kipitok 


boiling water 


nHBO n. 


piva 


beer 


BHHO W. 


vino 


wine 


BOAKa/. 


votka 


vodka 


i iatt m. 


chai 


tea 



1 Cf. note 1 on p. 71. 



FOOD AND DEINK 



109 



Kocj)e(H) m. 

MOJIOKO n. 


kof(y)e 
malako 


coffee 
milk 


cjimbkh/. pi. 
KBact m. 


slyifki 
kvas 


cream 
kvas x 


KOHbflK'L m. 

ofti/rfc m. 


kanyak 
abye a t 


cognac 
dinner 


y?KHHi> m. 
3a.BTpaKt m. 


uzhyn 
zaftrak 


supper 
lunch 


KycoK-L m. 
nycoHeK'L m. 


kusok 
kusochek 


piece 
bit 


niTyKa/. 
Ta6aKT> m. 


shtuka 
tabak 


a piece, a head, a unit 
tobacco 


nannpoca /. 

ijurapa/. 

TpydKa/. 


papirosa 

tsigara 

trupka 


cigarette 

cigar 

pipe 



CHAPTER 32 

THE GENITIVE IN NEGATIONS 

In simple negations the word He is used : 
9to He moh Rowb = ihis is not my house 
9to He Hama KOMHaTa=tfm is not our room 
3to He cejio, a ;n,epeBHH = £/m is not a village, but a hamlet 
9to He py6jib, a tojibko nojiTiraa (or noJivmiRmvb) = this is 

not a rouble, but only half a rouble 

But in a great many cases the word Hfe> meaning no 
(which is really a contraction of He ecTb= there is not) is 
used, and this always requires the genitive : 

ero 3jj,icb wkrb = he is not here (lit. of him here there-is-not) 

ea. T&wb Kkrb^she is not there 

hxi> e^tl jj,OMa = they are not at home 

ea Hfe> rqm&= she is not at home 

1 A national non -intoxicating drink made from rye and malt. 



110 GENITIVE IN NEGATIONS 

wbrb MicTa = there is no room (nom. sing. m£cto, gen. sing. 
inicTa, nom. plur. ftri&CTa, gen. plur. u'hcTbj 

MeHa Tor^a He 6hjio AOMa 
I was not at home then 

Haas Tor^a He 6hjio flOMa 
we were not at home then 

Te6a yace He 6buio flOMa Tor^a 

thou wast then no longer at home . 

(ysKe He or ysKe H^rt (already not) =no longer.) 

BacL yme He Slljio ftOMa Tor^a 
you were no longer at home then 

ero enje He 6hjio ftOMa 
he was not yet at home 

ea enje He 6hjio ^OMa 
she was not yet at home 

MeHa 3Aict Tor^a yace He 6yAeri> 
I shall no longer be here then 

Hacfc Tor^a yace He Sy^eT^ xaM£ 
we shall no longer be there then 

hxi> B^epa TaMfc He 6hjio 
they were not there yesterday 

3aBTpa hxt> sj^ch yjice He 6fRQTb 
to-morrow they will no longer be here 

H3BomnKa h4ts> = there is no cab 
Hfefc romr&= there is no rain 
H^TTb MHJia= there is no soap 
wkrb noaiOTemja = there is no towel 
E^Tb borm = there is no water 
H^Tb KJionoB'B ? = there are no bugs 1 



GENITIVE IN NEGATIONS 111 

fiojibine h4tl Mida = there is no more room 
66jibnie wkvb Micro = there are no more places 
fteHerfc h§ti> (nom. pi. R&Hbm)=ihere is no money 
fleHerb coBciwb Hira = there is no money at all 
KoniftKH aaace Hfot =not even a kopek 

In Eussian two negatives are often necessary to express 
the negation, and they do not make an affirmative, e.g. 
ROMa HHKoro e^tl = there is no one at home 

HH^ero sjj^ch Hira = there is nothing here 

hh ero hh eii H^ra ftOMa == neither he nor she is at home 
HHKaKOH HaftesKAH h&tte> = there is no hope (of no sort) 
HHKoro 3]i$Q,h em,e Hfe> = there is no one here yet 
HHKoro y^ce He 6hjio TaMT» = there was no longer any one there 
HHKoro He 6hjio AOMa = there was nobody at home 
He 6hjio HMero = there was nothing 

HHKoro He 6fp$rb = there will be no one 

HH^ero He 6yaeTfc = there will be nothing 

HHiero He Ha^o V = nothing is necessary 

HH^ero He HyacHO J ( = 1 don't want anything) 

(N.B. The direct object in any negative sentence after a transitive 
verb is always in the genitive, cf. vol. ii.) 



CHAPTER 33 

THE GENITIVE USED TO EXPKESS QUANTITY 

ckojibko fleHers ?=how much money ? 
MHoro Rmevb = a lot of money 
HeMHoro ;a 1 eHei v b = a little money 
AeHerL Majio = there is but little money 



112 GENITIVE OP QUANTITY 

ckojilko HacoBi) ? = how many hours ? 
H'fecKOJibKO ^acoBt = several hours 

ckojibko past ? =how many times ? 
HicKOJibKO pa3^= several times 
MHoro pa3*L= many times 

h^ckojibko ]*p.q¥l= several days 
H'Ickojilko wko,sui<dB r b= several months 
h^ckojibko wi>rh= several years (lit. summers) 

TjTb MHoro M-icTa= there is plenty of room here 
T&wh Majio MicTa= there is little (sc. not enough) room there 
H-icKOiJibKO m^ct^ Saraaca = several pieces (lit. places) of 
luggage 

ckojibko m^ctb (6ara$Ka) ? =how many pieces of luggage ? 

Bcero oahh-l qeMO^aH , b = m all (lit. of all) one trunk 

ckojibko Hapo^y (gen. sing, of Hapoflt) \=what a lot of people! 
Tyro MHoro HapoAy = there are a lot of people here 

TaMi> Hap6,n;y • , [ =there are not many people there 

CKOJIBKO JiioaeH ? ) 

ckojilko seaon***? =how many people? 



eAckojibko jnofteii 

H^CKOJIBKO ^eSlOB^Kb 



=afew people, several 



qaio, no^aJiyiiCTa 1 = some tea, please 

CTaKain> qaio=a tumbler of tea 

HamKa qaio =a cup of tea 

eme MOJiOKa, noraaJiyftCTa = some more milk, please 

eme cjihbokb = some more cream 

1 Always pronounced pazhalsta, of. p. 12. 



GENITIVE OF QUANTITY 113 

eme Macjia = some more butter 
eme xjrl6a = some more bread 
cojih, nojKaJiyftCTa = some salt, please 
nepuy, noacaJiyiiCTa = some pepper, please 

BOi"b CTaKaHi» BOR& = here is a glass of water 
bot£ CTaKaHt *iaio = here is a glass of tea 
BorB qamKa naio = here is a cup of tea 
bot£ ^ainKa KO$eio = here is a cup of coffee 
BOTt KycoHerct caxapy =here is a bit of sugar 
BOTt KycoKt jrHMOHa = ftere is a piece of lemon 
bott> KycoKt xji46a = here is a piece of bread 

em;e HeMHOJKKO Maca = a little more meat 

eme HeMHOJKKO qaio = a little more tea 

eni;e HeMH05KKO xjii6a = a little more bread 

eme H^CKOJibKO 6yjiOKi> = a few more little loaves 

eme irlcKOJitKO nmpoMKQB'b = a few more little pies 

SyTHJiKa BHHa = a bottle of wine 
6yTHJiKa nHBa = a bottle of beer 
piOMKa boji,kh = a glass of vodka 

KycoKfc MHJia = a piece of soap 

ropOTeii bo^h, noHcajiyiicTa = some hot water, please 

xojiorhoh bo^h = some cold water 

ihctoh BO,n;Bi= some clean water 

cejiBTepcKOii bo^h = some soda water 

HeMHOJKKO ropOTeii BO,n,Li=a little hot water 

KumraeHHOii boah = some boiled water 

KnnaTKy = some boiling water 



1809 



114 



CHAPTER 34 

USE OF THE NOMINATIVE AND GENITIVE AFTER 
NUMBERS 

After 1 and all words compounded with 1, except 11, 
e.g. 21, 31, 101, the substantive is always in the nomina- 
tive singular, e.g. : 

TpnflijaTB o,hhht> py6;rci> = 31 roubles 
copoKt o,o,Ha BepcTa = 41 versts 

o;o;hhi> KycoKfc = one piece (e.g. sugar) 

o;o;h6 m^cto = one piece (of luggage) 

oflHa KoniftKa (or KoneftKa) = one kopek 

In expressing years two different words are used ; from 
1-4, 21-24, 31-34, &c, inclusive, it is ro^ : 

oahh-l tort* = one year 

ftBa ] 2 ' 

Tpn ■ ro,n;a = 3 • years 

qerape ) 4 , 

^BajmaTb o^hhi> rojrb = 21 years 
TpHAmaTb jj,Ba ro^a = 32 years 

and from 5-20, 25-30, &c, inclusive, it is ji£to = summer : 
iraTb JiiT-L = 5 years 
#ecaTi> JiiTi> = 10 years 

After the numbers 2, 3, 4, and after all compounds of 
them such as 22, 34, 43, 52, 63, 74, the substantive is 
always in the genitive singular, e. g. : 

flBa (dva) ^ejioBiKa two men 

;n,Bi (dvye) jKeHiiprabi two women 

flBa M^CTa two places 
(nom. plur. Micra) 






EXPEESSION OF NUMBEES 



113 



;o;Ba 6paia 
flBi cedpH 

(nom. plur. cecTpu) 
ABa cejia 

(nom. plur. cejia) 

ABa ahh 

AB'fe HO*IH 

(nom. sing, hohb) 
ABa Haca 

flB^ MHHyTBI 

ABa KycKa caxapy 
flBi naniKH qaio 

ABa py6jia x 
ABi KoniiiKH 2 

ABa ny«a 3 
^b^ Bepcra 4 

Tpn (tri) MajibHHKa 

Tpn s^bohkh three little girls 

Tpn 03epa three lakes 

(nom. sing. o3epo, nom. plur. 03epa) 

Tpn py6jia three roubles 

Tpn Kon^HKH three kopeks 

Tpn BepcTLi three versts 



two brothers 
two sisters 

two villages 



two days 
two nights 



2 o'clock or 2 hours 
2 minutes 

two pieces of sugar 
two cups of tea 

two roubles 
two kopeks 

two puds 
two versts 

three boys 



1 1 rouble = about 2s. 
3 1 pud = about 371b. 



2 1 kopek = Id. 

4 1 verst = about § of a mile. 



12 



116 EXPKESSION OF NUMBEES 

qeTbipe (chetyre) Cbraa four sons 

qeTBipe aotoh four daughters 

qerape pyacba four rifles 

qerape py6jia four roubles 

leTbipe KoniiiKH four kopeks 

ie™pe Bepcra four versts 

If such words have to be put in the genitive, the noun 
is then in the genitive plural, e.g. : 

9thxi> flByxTb jno^efi SfliiCb ynce h^tl 

these two people (men or man and woman) are no longer here 

OKb OTGixb 8thxt> AByx-b ^i-reft 

he is the father of these two children 

H^Tb TpeXS> M^CTb 

there are not three places 

E'hrb qeTbipexi. SraeTOBi. 
there are not four tickets. 

In certain expressions the words 

flBoe (dvoye) =a couple 
Tpoe (troye) 
qeTBepo (cheHvera) 

are used, and these always require the genitive plural e.g. : 

flBoe flfeeH = a couple of children 

Obs. These words must be used before nouns which are 
only used in the plural. 

When an adjective is placed between a number and 
a noun it can be in either the nominative plural or genitive 
plural, e.g. : 



EXPEESSION OF NUMBEES 117 



flBa KpacHBLie MajiBinica , „ , 

r , , \ =two pretty boys 

or flBa KpacHBbix^ Majib^HKa J r * , ■ 



flBi KpaCHBHH fl^BOIKH 
Or AB^ KpaCHBHXt JH^BO^KH 



• —two pretty little girls 



After the numbers 5-20, 25-30, 35-40, &c, inclusive, 
the substantive is always in the genitive plural, e.g. : 

iraTB (py&f) py6jien 5 roubles 

naTB Kon'ieKfc 5 kopeks 

hhtb cyTOKi* 5 days and nights 

niecTb (she^sf) flHeii 6 days 

inecTB Honeii 6 nights 

ceMB (syeW) M^can;eB'b 7 months 

ceMB He^ijib 7 weefcs 

BoceMB (vo'syem') qacoBi. 8 o'clock or 8 Ziowrs 

BoceMb rpiiBeH'B 80 kopeks 

(nom. sing. rpiiBHa was 10 kopeks ; the name for the coin 
of 10 kopeks is now rpHBeHHHK^) 

fleBHTB (dyeVyaf) CLiHOBeii 9 sons 
fteBaTB AO^epeii 9 daughters 

fleBHTB apniHHt x 9 ar shins 

(nom. sing. apnraHi,, gen. plur. apinHHT>) 

^eciiTB (dye^syat 5 ) lenoB'liKi, 10 men or 10 people 
(qejiOBiicfc is the gen. plur. of HeJioB'iK'b, and after numbers 
is always used instead of juo^eii ; it includes men and 
women) 

flecflTB m^cto 10 places 

flecHTB nynoBt 10 puds 

1 1 arshin = about a yard. 



118 



EXPEESSION OF NUMBEES 



OAHHHaAUiaTB ^aCOBt 


11 o clock or 


11 hours 


(adyinatsaf) 






o^HHHaAu;aTb Tbica^b 


11,000 




OAHHHaAn;aTb flecaTHirb 1 


11 desyatins 




AB4HaAU,aTb qacoB-L 


12 o'clock or 


12 hours 


(dvyenatsat') 






flBijHa.imaTb Tbica^rb 


12,000 




^BiHa.o.ii.aTb BepcT^ 


12 versus 




TpHHaAUiaTb 


trinatsat' 


13 


qeTbipHamaTb 


chetyrnatsat' 


14 


naraaflijaTb 


pitnatsat' 


15 


niecTHaAii;aTb 


shesnatsat' 


16 


ceMHa^DiaTb 


s(y)emnatsat' 


17 


BoceMHa^DiaTb 


vos(y)emnatsat' 


18 


fleBHTHaflijaTb 


dyev(y)atnatsat' 


19 


3,Bajiii];aTb 


dvatsat' 


20 


TpiijmaTb 


trftsat' 


30 


COpOK'b 


sorak 


40 


naTb^ecHT'b 


pidyisyat 


50 


mearbftecarB 


shesdyesyat 


60 


ceMb^ecaTt 


sy^mdyesyat 


70 


BoceMb^ecaT^b 


vosyemdyesyat 


80 


^eBaHOCTO 


dyevyanosta 


90 


CTO 


sto 


100 


flBicTH 


dvye ! styi 


200 


TpiiCTa 


trista 


300 


qerapecTa 


chetyresta 


400 


naTb cott> 


py&t' sot 


500 


Tbicaqa 


tysyacha 


1,000 



1 (nom. ;n;ecHTHHa) 1 desyatin = about 3 acres. 



EXPEESSION OF NUMBEES 119 

flBajimaTB apniKHTb 20 arshins 

HBaflijaTb-nHTb py6jieit 25 roubles 

TpnjmaTB ny^OB^ 30 puds 

copoKfc flecHTHirb 40 desyatins 

iraTb/iiecaT'L Beporc. 50 versts 

The expression 1| requires the gen. sing. : 

nojiTopa (paltara) ro^a a year and a half 

nojiTopa Micaiiia a month and a half 

noJiTopa py6jia a rouble and a half 

noJiTopH Bepcra a verst and a half 

nojiTopH ca^KeHH a fathom and a half 
(nom. sing. ca5Kem>) 

The word for half (noJiOBHHa) is in many cases cut down 
as follows : 

nojiCTaKana half a tumblerful 

noJi6yTHJiKH a half-bottle 

noji$yHTa \ lb. 

nojraaca half an hour 



CHAPTER 35 

USE OF THE GENITIVE IN THE EXPRESSION 
OF TIME 

KOToptitt Haas ? =what time is it ? 
qac r b = one o'clock (lit. =hour) 

nojioBHHa BToporo) =1 3o(\i t .= a half of the second, se.hour) 
palavina ftar6va J 
iUBa qaca = 2 o'clock 



120 



EXPEESSION OF TIME 



= 2.15 (lit. = a quarter of the third) 



= 7.25 



qeTBepTb TpeTtaro 

chetvert' tr^tyava l 

Tpn gaca = 3 o'clock 

iihtb MHHyT't qeTBepTaro = 3.5 

lerape *iaca = 4 o'clock 

6631) naTii (MirayTT.) iihtb = 4.55 (lit. = without 5 min. 5) 

nflTt qacoB'L = 5 o'clock 

;a;Ba;n;u;aTB MHHyT'b mecToro w^ 

dvatsat' miniit shestova j 

mecTL qacoB'L = 6 o'clock 

^ecHTB MHHyTi* ce^BMoro | =6.10 

dye i s(y)at' miniit syed'mova . 

ceMB qac6B r B = 7 o'clock 

ftBa/maTB n^TB MHHyTB BOCBMOrO 

dvatsat' pya^' miniit vas'mova 
BoceMB qacoB-B = 8 o'clock 
6e3i) ABaTOaTH ;n;eBHTB = 8.40 
nojiOBHHa ^eBHTaro 

dyevyatava 
iijeBHTB ^acoB-L = 9 o'clock 
qeTBepTB ^ecaTaro 

dyesyatava 
6es r h HeTBepra ^chtb 
bes chetvertyi 
aecHTB gacoBi> = 10 o'clock 
nojiOBHHa oAHHHa,n,i];aTaro = 10.30 
663^ flBajmaTH mmi OAHHHaflijaTB = 10.35 
o^HHHaTOaTB qacoBi> = ll o'clock 
6es r b qeTBepTH flBiHaflijaTB = 11.45 
flBiHaflijaTB qacoB r b = 12 o'clock 

nojiOBHHa nepBaro = 12.30 (lit. = half of the first, sc. hour) 
6e3i> A^caTH MHHyTt naci> = 12.50 



= 8.30 



= 9.15 



• =9.45 



121 



CHAPTER 36 

USE OF THE GENITIVE IN EXPRESSING THE DATE 

TpeTtaro Run — the day before yesterday (lit. of the third day) 
nepBaro * aHBapa = on the 1st of January 
BToporo $eBpajia = on the 2nd of February 
TpeTtaro MapTa = on the 3rd of March 
qeTBepTaro anpijra = on the 4th of April 
mrraro Maa = on the 5th of May 
niecToro iiOHH = on the &th of June 
ce^BMoro irojiH = on the 1th of July 
BOCBMoro aBrycTa = on the 8th of August 
fleB&raro ceHTa6pa = on the 9th of September 
;n;ecHTaro OKTfl6pa = ow the 10th of October 
oflHHHa;n;D 1 aTaro Hoa6pa = on the 11th of November 
flBiHajmaTaro jj;eKa6pa = on the 12th of December 
TpHHa^UiaTaro jraBapa = on the 13fh of January 
HeTLipHaflijaTaro $eBpajra = on the 14th of February 
naTHajmaTaro MapTa = on the 15th of March 
mecTHa,n;D,aTaro anp4jra = on the 16th of April 
ceMHaroaTaro Maa = on the 11th of May 
BOceMHajmaTaro iiOHH = on the 18th of June 
^eBaTHa,n;iiiaTaro iiojia = on the 19th of July 
ftBaflijaTarp aBrycTa = on the 20th of August 
;n,Ba;imaTi> nepBaro ceHTa6pa = on the 21st of September 
iHBajmaTB BToporo OKTa6pa = ow the 22nd of October 
TpHflijaTaro Hoa6pa = on the 30th of November 
TpnjmaTB nepBaro ^eKa6pa = on the 31st of December 

1 sc. qncjia, gen. sing, of hhcjio = date or number. 



122 THE DATE 

KOToparo incjia bh 6y;neTe flOMa ? 
what date will you be at home ? 

but KOTopoe ) 

or KaKoe J ™ CJl6 cer6 « HH ? 

what date is it to-day ? 

ceroflHH nepBoe HHBapa 
to-day is the 1st of January 
in the nominative. 



CHAPTER 37 

EXPRESSION OF COMPARISON 

Comparison is expressed in two ways, either by t£m£ 
(or HejKeJin) followed by the nominative, or by means of 
the genitive of comparison, e.g. : 

9to o^eHb xopomiii nofefl'b 
this is a very good train 

(1) 8toti> nofeflfc 3iy<mie wkwb toti 

(2) BTora uoisj^ Jiy^me Toro 
this train is better than that 

9to 6neHb njioxaa flopora 
this is a very bad road 

(1) 9Ta ;n;op6ra xyace wbwb Ta 

(2) 9Ta flopora xyace toh 

this road is worse than that 

3to 6^eHb 6ojiBmoe 63epo 
this is a very large lake 



COMPAEISON 123 

(1) 3T0 63epo 66jn>me ^mt* to 

(2) aTO 63epo 66ju>me Toro 
this lake is bigger than that 

3to o^eHb MajieHtKiii ^omt. 
this is a very small house 

(1) 3th flOMa MeHBme ^ ; kwb t4 

(2) 3th ftOMa MeHtme t^xt. 

these houses are smaller than those 

3to o^eHb BticoKaa ropa 
this is a very high hill 

3th ropH BLime T^xt 

these hills (or mountains) are higher than those 

t4 ropH HIDKe 3THX2, 

those hills are lower than these 

HeBa — innpoKan, rjiy6oKaa h StiCTpan pfoca 
the Neva is a broad, deep, and swift river 

HeBa ropa3,n;o nrape h TRj6me h 6i>iCTp4e TeM3H 
the Neva is much broader, deeper, and more rapid than 
the Thames 

ho HeBa 6*ieHB Kop6TKaa pfoca 
but the Neva is a very short river 

HeBa ropa3,o;o Kop6*ie TeM3Li 

the Neva is much shorter than the Thames 

TeM3a — ^3Kaa, Mejmaa h Tiixaa piuca 

the Thames is a narrow, shallow, and slow river 



124 COMPAEISON 

TeM3a ropa3;n;o yace x h Mejime h Tihne HeBH 
the Thames is much narrower, shallower, and slower than 
the Neva 

ho TeM3a flOBOJibHo fljiiiHHaa pfoca 
but the Thames is a fairly long river 

TeM3a ropa3flo Rjmmi&e HeBH 

the Thames is much longer than the Neva 

9to 6qeHB floporan Bemb 

that is a very precious (sc. expensive) thing 

Bame H3,n;aHie coraHeHift IlymKHHa flopojKe h jiyqme Moero 
your edition of the works of Pushkin is more expensive and 
better than mine 

bto o^eHb inemeBan 6yMara 
that is very cheap paper 

Moe H3AaHie CTHxoTBopemH JlepMOHTOBa flemeBJie h xyace 

Bamero 
my edition of the poems of Lermontov is cheaper and ivorse 

than yours 

3to o^eHb crapaa Jioma^B 
that is a very old horse 

8T0 cobc4mi> MOJio^an jiomaAB 
that is quite a young horse 

owh ropa^o CTapme MeHH • 
he is much older than I 

a ropa&flo MOJiojKe ero 

I am much younger than he 

1 yme =narrower, yme ^already. 



COMPARISON 125 

pycciciii h3hk?> oieHb Tpy^HHH 

the Russian language is very difficult 

HiMeipciii h $paHn;y3CKift h3i>ikh TOJKe Tpy^HLie 
the German and French languages are also difficult 

ho aHrJiiitCKiii muKT* Jiendft 
but the English language is easy 

aHrjiiacKiii muKT> Jienie $paHii;y3CKaro h TaKHce Jierne 

H^Meii;Karo 
the English language is easier than French and also easier 

than German 

pyccKiii sisukt, Tpy^H^e aHrjiiiicKaro, h flaace TpyAH^e 
H4Mei],Karo h $paHii;y3CKaro ; ohs* Tpy^H'le Bcixt 

the Russian language is more difficult than English, and 
even more difficult than German and French ; it is the 
most difficult of all 

moh ieMo;nain> nycToit h coBciMt aeritift 
my trunk is empty and quite light 

oitb ropasfto Jierie Bamero 
it is much lighter than yours 

#a, moh leMOflaHt coBciMt noJiHtin h cjinniKOMt THJKejiHH 
yes, my trunk is quite full and too heavy 

oht> ropa3;a;o TajKeJiie (or TJKKeae) Baniero 
it is much heavier than yours 

HKpa Tenept ^oposKe npemraro 
caviar is now dearer than formerly 

IleTpt CTapnie IlaBJia 
Peter is older than Paul 



126 COMPAEISON 

Cep&Ka dapme Mhihh 
Serge is older than Michael 

Mama h Kara MOJi65Ke Cohh 

Mary and Kate are younger than Sophia 

yrpo Beiepa My^peH^e 

morning than evening is wiser (proverb) 

ceroflHa xoaoflHie BHepanraaro (sc. ana) 
to-day it is colder than yesterday^s day) 

ceroflHH Tenji'fee B^epamiraro (sc. am) 
to-day it is warmer than yesterday^ s day) 

OHa KpacHB-fee CBoeit cecTpii 

she is more beautiful than her (own) sister 

oin> CHJitH'fee Meira, oin> o^eHb chjibhlih 
he is stronger than I, he is very strong 

3T0Tfc KO$e CJIHIHKOMfc CJia6HH 

this coffee is too weak 

3toti» qaii cjihihkom'b KpinKiii 
this tea is too strong 

3T0TI) KO$e Kp4irae -this coffee is stronger 

3T0T-B nail cna6'le= this tea is weaker 

9Ta BOfta coBciMt xojioAHaa 
this water is quite cold 

BTOTfc cym crainKOMi. ropaniii 
this soup is too hot 

BOTt 8Ta BOfla 6fj5 t eT r b ropa^ie 
here this water will be hotter 



COMPAEISON 127 

3to bhho Kpinne Toro 

this wine is stronger than that 

3T0 niiBO cjia6ie Toro 

this beer is weaker than that 

8th nnpo^KH 6 i seHb BKycHbie 
these little pies are very nice 

ohh rop^o BKycH'le rferc* 
they are much nicer than those 

aTO o^eHb 6oraTHH rdpoftt 
this is a very rich town 

MocKBa 6ora<ie IIeTporpa;n,a 
Moscow is richer than Petrograd 

HeBCKift IIpocneKTi> oneHb flJiHiraafl, innpoKaa h KpacnBaa 

yjiHD,a 
the Nevski Prospect is a very long, broad, and beautiful 

street 

oHb ftjiHHH'&e, iirape h KpacHB^e Bcixi> ^pyrHxt yjiimb 
it is longer, broader, and more beautiful than all other streets 

Hnr^i Hin> TaKoii fljiffiraoii, nrapoKoii h KpacHBOH yjraijH 
nowhere (sc. else) is there such a long, broad, and beautiful 
street 

3TO O^eHb CKOpHH UO^SJi^ 

this is a very fast train 

ho TOTb 6bun> eme CKopie 

but that (other) one was still faster 

9to oneHb THxifi (or MeAJieHHbiii) nofeflb 
this is a very slow train 



128 COMPAEISON 

a tot£ 6fReTi> enje Tinne 

but that (other) one mil be still slower 

CKop'&e (or no-CKopie) ! = quick ! hurry up ! 
Tmne (or no-rame) ! =go slow 1 not so fast I 

The words for far and near are frequeutly used ad- 
verbially : 

Tearpi* coBciMt 6jih3ko 
the theatre is quite near 

Tixiy nwkme 6jih3ko Hamero (or oti» Hamero) 
their property is near ours 

IleTporpafl'B OTCio^a 6jiibKe t6mi> MocKBa 

Petrograd is nearer from here (lit. hence) than Moscow 

B0K3ajn> o^eHb AaJieKo (or flajieico) 

the station (sc. big station or terminus) is very far 

npncTaHb enje Aajibme 

the landing-stage is still further 

rocTHHHija OTCiofla ^ajieKo 
the hotel is far from here 

B0K3aJTL HeMHO^CKO flaJIbllie rOCTHHHU,H 

the station is a little further than the hotel 

rocTHHima SjiHtfce OTCio^a whwb BOK3a;jn> 
the hotel is nearer here than the station 

The word no is often added to the comparative : 

no-66jibme MOJiOKa, nojKajiyfiCTa 
rather more milk, please 

no-MeHbme Maca, no^KaJiyiicTa 
rather less meat, please 



COMPAEISON 



129 



Adverbial 


comparatives : 




OHt Bcer;a;a dojiero, 66jr£e hjih Meirfce 


he is 


always 


i iB, more or Jess 




h TaKt flarf 


le (h.t.3.) 




and i 


so /ortffo 








CHAPTER 38 






' 


VOCABULARY 






The human body, health, &c. 


TBJIO W. 




tye a la 


body 


ayina/. 




dusha 


soul 


Ayxt m. 




dukh 


spirit 


rojiOBa/. 




galava 


head 


men/. 




sheya 


neck 


JIHIJO w. 




lyitso 


face (also person) 


rjia3T>(-a) m. 


(pl.) 


glas, glaza 


eye(s) 


hocte. m. 




nos 


nose 


meKa /. 




shcheka 


cheek 


port m. 




rot 


mouth 


^xo w. 




ukho 


ear 


(yniH pi. 




ushi 


ears) 


jio6t> m. 




lop 


forehead 


saTHJioKt m. 




zatylak 


back of head 


ropjio n. 




gorla 


throat 


3y6t m. 




zup 


tooth 


ry6a/. 




guba 


lip 


«ecHa/. 




dyosna 


gum 


H3LIK*B m. 




yazyk 


tongue 


ycH m. pi. 




usy 


moustache 


6opo«a/. 




barada 


beard 


noAOopoflOKt 


m. 


padbarodak 


chin 


6aKeH6apji;Li/. pi. 


bakenbardy 


whiskers 


bojioch m. pi 




volosy 


hair (collective) 


noma/. 




kozha 


skin 



1809 



180 



BODY AND HEALTH 



mie^o n. 


plyecho 


shoulder 


(iijiShh pi. 


ply^^hi 


shoulders) 


cniraa /. 


spina 


back 


pyKa/. 


ruka 


arm, hand 


KHCTb/. 


kist' 


turist 


Jl6KOTb m. 


lokat' 


elbow 


nsuieirb m. 


palyets 


finger, toe 


HoroTb m. 


nogat' 


nail 


Hora /. 


naga 


leg, foot 


6e,np6 n. 


b(y)edro 


hip 


KOJTEHO(-h) n. (pi.) 


kalye a na 


knee(s) 


CTynenb m. 


stupye 1 !!' 


foot 


nHTa/. 


pyata 


heel 


noAoniBa /. 


padoshva 


sole 


jkhbotl m. 
menyROK-b 1 m. 


zhyvot 
zhelddak 


I stomach 


cSpaije n. 


s(y)e a rtse 


heart 


jierKin n. pi. (adj.) 


lyokhkiya 


lungs 


KOCTb /. 


koigf 


bone 


KpOBb /. 


kroif 


blood 


6ojib /. 


boU' 


pain 


3«opoBbe n. 


zdarovye 


health 


GoJTEBHb/. 


baly^zn' 


illness 


jinxopa^Ka /. 


lyikharatka 


fever 


Bocnajieme n. 


vaspalye^iye 


inflammation 


TeMnepaTypa/. 


tyemperatura 


temperature 


rpaAycHHKT> m. 


gradusnyik 


thermometer 


rpaffycb m. 


gradus 


degree 


Kauiejib m. 


kasheP 


cough 


npocTyaa/. 


prastuda 


cold in the chest 


HacMopKi. m. 


nasmark 


cold in the head 


nax6TKa/. 


chakhotka 


consumption 


flOKTOp'b m. 

BpaHb m. 


doktar 
vrach 


[ doctor 


jieKapcTBO n. 


lyekarstva 


medicine 


jieqe6HHna/*. 


lyechebnitsa 


nursing-home 


airreKa/. 


aptye a ka 
1 A politer word. 


chemist's 



131 



CHAPTER 39 





VOCABULARY 






Animal and plant life 


>KH3HB/. 


zhizn' 


life 


CMepTL /. 


sm(y)6 i rt' 


death 


rcHBOTHoe 1 n. {adj.) 


zhyvotnoye x 


animal 


3B-fepb m. 


zv(y)e i r' 


beast 


jiouiaAb /. 
jioinaAKa /. 


loshat' 
lashatka 


\ horse 


>Kepe6eHOKi. m. 


zherebyonak 


foal 


kohl m. 


ko*n' 


steed 


co6aKa/. 


sabaka 


dog 


nect m. 


pyos 


hound 


meHOKt m. 


shchenok 


puppy 


KOTTb m. 


kot 


I cat 


KOHIKa/. 


koshka 


KOTenoKt m. 


katyonak 


kitten 


6hkt> m. 


byk 


ox 


KopoBa/. 


karova 


cow 


TejieHOKt m. 


tyelyonak 


calf 


OBHa/. 


aftsa 


sheep 


6apaHB m. 


baran 


ram, sheep 


SapauieKL m. 


barashek 


I lamb 


HrHeHOKT> m. 


yagnyonak 


K03ejn> m. 


kazyol 


he-goat 


K03Jia /. 


kazla 


she-goat 


K03JieHOK'L m. 


kazlyonak 


kid 


CBHHBH /. 


svinya 


pig 


nopoceHOKt m. 


parasyonak 


young pig 


n'BTyx'b m. 


p(y)etukh 


cock 


KypHHa/. 


kuritsa 


hen 


HtinjieHOKt m. 


tsyplyonak 


chicken 


oceJiL m. 


asyol 


donkey 


BepSjuoAL m. 


verblyut 


camel 


CJIOHB ra. 


slon 


elephant 




1 Cf. note 1 on p. 71. 




K2 





182 



ANIMALS AND PLANTS 



jieBT> m. 


lye a f 


lion 


THrpi> m. 


tyigr 


tiger 


MeRB^Rh m. 


medv(y)6 i t' 


bear 


bojikb m. 


volk 


wolf 


JiHca/. 

JIHCHI^a /. 


lyisa 
lyisitsa 


\M 


3aflirB * m. 


zayats 


hare 


kpojihkt, m. 


krolyik 


rabbit 


6-EjiKa/. 


bye a lka 


squirrel 


co66jil /. 


saboU' 


sable 


ojieHB m. 


aly^n' 


deer 


jiocb m. 


loV 


elk 


o6e3BHHa/. 


abezyana 


monkey 


JiHryniKa/. 


lyagushka 


frog 


rH-fe3AO n. 


gnyezdo 


nest 


nTHi^a/. 


ptyitsa 


bird 


opejiB 2 m. 


aryol 


eagle 


>KypaBJiB m. 


zhuraM' 


crane 


roJiy6B 3 m. 


golup' 


dove, pigeon 


coJiOBeft m. 


salavyei 


nightingale 


Bopo6eii m. 


varabyei 


sparrow 


jiacTOHKa /. 


lastachka 


swallow 


3ivrfcH/. 


zmeya 


snake 


pBida/. 


ryba 


fish 


JIOCOCHHa/. 


lasasina 


[ salmon 


ceMra /. 


syomga 


CeJIB^B/. 


syeU'd' 


herring 


HacfeKOMoe 4 w. 


nas(y)ekomoye 4 


I insect 


6yKauiKa /. 


bukashka 


Myxa/. 


mukha 


fly 


KOMapi> m. 


kamar 


gnat, mosquito 


nnejia /. 


pchela 


bee 


oca/. 


asa 


wasp 


6jioxa/. 


blakha 


flea 


1 Gen. sing 


. 3aftn;a. 




2 Also the name of the town Orel, pron. Aryol. 


3 rojiydnHKi. (m.), rojiyGynma 


(/. ) = my dear. 


4 Cf. note 1 


on p. 71. 





ANIMALS AND PLANTS 



133 



TapaKaHt m. 


tarakan 


cockroach 


KJiont m. 


klop 


bug 


pacT^Hie n. 


rasty^niye 


plant 


flSpeBO n. 


dy6reva 


tree 


jty6-b m. 


dup 


oak 


6epe3a/. 


beryoza 


birch-tree 


Tononb m. 


topal' 


poplar 


cochsl/. 


sasna 


Scotch fir 


(ejib) ejina/. 


yolka 


spruce fir 


ijbIjtok'b m. 


tsv(y)etok 


a blossom 


IJB'BTbl m. pi. 


tsv(y)ety 


flowers 


p63a/. 


roza 


rose 


(J)iaJiKa/. 


fiyalka 


violet 


rB03ja;HKa f. 


gvazdyika 


pink 


MaKt m. 


mak 


poppy 


He3a6yAKa /. 


nyezabutka 


forget-me-not 


hGjiohh/. 


yablonya 


apple4ree 


cnpeHb/. 


sir^n' 


lilac 


po>Kb/. 


ro^h 


rye 


nmeiniija /. 


pshenyitsa 


wheat 


H^MeHB m. 


yachm6 i n' 


barley 


OBect m. 


avyos 


oats 


rpeniixa /. 


grechlkha 


buckwheat 


npoco n. 


prosa 


millet 


KyKypy3T> m. 


kukurus 


maize 


TpaBa/. 


trava 


grass 


cbho n. 


sye^a 


hay 


ypoKaii m. 


. urazhai 


harvest (good) 


HeypoKafi m. 


nyeurazhai 


bad harvest 


3acyxa/. 


zasukha 


drought 


>KaTBa/. 


zhatva 


reaping 


CHont m. 


snop 


sheaf 


caAT> ra. 


sat 


garden 


oropoAt m. 


agarot 


kitchen garden 


flopo>KKa/. 


daroshka 


path 


IJB'BTHHK'L W. 


tsv(y)etnyik 


flower-bed 


rpHA«a/. 


gryatka 


vegetable-bed 



134 
CHAPTER 40 

THE VERB TO HAVE 

The Present 

Although there is a verb to have x in Russian, by far the 
most common means of expressing the idea is by a para- 
phrase to be in the possession of followed by the genitive ; 
this expression is formed by the preposition y = m the 
possession of (also at the house of or near), by the genitive 
of the personal pronoun, and by ecTB (yeW) = is, which is 
all that is left of the present tense of the verb to be, e.g. : 

y Meira ecTB * 1 have 

y Te6a ecTB = thou hast 

y Hero ecTB = he has, it has 

y um ecTb = she has 

y HacL ecTB = we have 

y Bact ecTB = you have 

y hhx-l ecTB -they have 

The word ecTB is omitted more often than not, and 
can also be placed first. 

y Meira coSaica ) 

y Meira ecTB coSaica Y =1 have a dog 

ecTB y Meira coSana ) 

but N.B. 
co6aica y Meira = I have the dog or the dog 

is with me 

1 Inf. hm^tb, pres. hm^io, HM'fceiuB, HM^eTt HM-feeMt, uuieie, 

HMilOTt. 



TO HAVE 



135 



y Te6a KHiira 
y Te6a edb KHnra 
ecTb y Te6a KHiira 

but 
KHiira y Te6a 



= thou hast a book 



= thou hast the book 



It will have been noticed that the words ero, eii, and 
hxt* are prefixed by the letter h ; this h is inserted when- 
ever these words are preceded and governed by a pre- 
position, e.g. : 

y Hero nncBMO 



y Hero ecTb nnc&MO 
ecn> y Hero nncLMO 

but 
nncbMO y Hero 

y Hen flfaKa 

y Heii ecTb flOHKa 

edb y Heii ftOHKa 

but 
flOHKa y Hea 

y Hacfc nacnopTt 
nacnoprb y Hacb 

y Bad. ^eHbrn 
^eHbrn y Bac-b 

y Hnxi* 6nJieTbi 
6HJieTH y hhx-b 



=he has a letter 



=he has the letter 



--she has a daughter 



= the daughter is with her 

= we have a passport 
= we have the passport 

--you have money 
-you have the money 

--they have tickets 
--they have the tickets 



When the verb is used interrogatively the interrogative 
particle -jih may be added, but is not necessary if the 



136 



TO HAVE 



voice is sufficiently raised to indicate interrogation : 
indefinite questions ecTB must be added, e.g. : 

ecTb jih y Te6a Komejiercb ? 
edb y Te6a KomejieKt ? 
y Te6a ecTb KomejieKt ? 
y Te6n KoinejieKt ecTb ? 
KomejieK'L y Te6a ecTb ? 

but 
Komejiercb y Te6a ? 
y Te6a jih KomejieKt ? 



in 



= hast thou a purse ? 



-- hast thou the purse , 



ecTb jih y Bacb fleHbra ? 
ecTb y Bac-b ^eHbrn ? 
y Bacb ecTb fleHbra ? 
fleHbrn y Baes> ecTb ? 
^eHbrn ecTb y Bacb ? 

but 
^eHbrn y Bacb ? 
y Baci> jih fleHbrn ? 



= have you any money I 



= have you the money i 



Phrases containing the word 'to have* 

KaKoft y Bact KpacHBbift rowl 
what a beautiful house you have 

KaKaa y Bacs> npeKpacHaa KBapnipa 
what a splendid flat you have 

KaKie y Bacb npejiecTHbie rjia3a 
what exquisite eyes you have 

y Bacb oneHb njioxoft bh^ 

you look very ill (lit. have a bad look) 



TO HAVE 137 

y Hero 6*ieHB 3aopobbih bha^ 
he looks very well 

ckojibko y Bact ftfeen ? 

how many children have you ? 

ckojibko y Baa& m'Sct'b Saraaica ? 

how many pieces of luggage have you ? 

y Haci> Bcero Tpoe flfeeii 
we have in all three children 

y Meira nerape M^CTa 6ara5Ka 
I have four pieces of luggage 

y Meira o^eHB MHoro Bemeii 
. I have a great many things 

y Heii o^eHB m&jio ReiierB 
she has very little money 

y HMX-B HicKOJIBKO HM^EM 

they have several properties 

y Meira h'Ickojibko H3,n,aHiH btoh KHiirH 
I have several editions of this booh 

y Bact co6aKa ecTB ? 
have you a dog ? 

y Meira ;n,a3Ke j^i 
I have even got two 

y HMX^ eCTB CBOH aBT0M06HJIB 

they have their own motor-car 

y Heii ecTB cboh .hom^ 
she has her own house 



138 TO HAVE 

y Hac^ ecTt cboh SKHnami 
we have our own carriages 

y 9Toro pe6eHKa oieHB KpacnBtie r;na3a 
this child has very beautiful eyes 

y 3toh 6apLimHH o^eHb xopoinie 3y6i>i 
this young lady has very good teeth 

y 3toh ji;aMi>i npejiecTHLie bojioch 
this lady has exquisite hair 

y 3Toro ^ejioBiKa o^eHb 6ojiBm6H poTB 
this man has a very large mouth 

y 3Toro CTapHKa fljiniraaa 6opo;a;a 
this old man has a long beard 

y 3Toro Majit^HKa o^eHt MHoro bojiocb (gen. pi.) 
this boy has a great deal of hair 

y 3toh infeyniKH oneHB MajieHBKia yinn 
this girl has very small ears 

y 3Toro qejiOB^Ka o^eHB mnpoma iraera 
this man has very broad shoulders 

y 3T0H JKeHHJHHbl 6*ieHB HenpiaTHLift TOJIOCL 
this woman has a very unpleasant voice 

y Bainen co6aKH npejiearaaa roaoBa 
your dog has a lovely head 

y 3Toro qejiOB^Ka 6ojn>niia ynra, MajieHBKie rjia3a, KopoTKia 
Horn n ^JiHHHHa pyKH (ynra, rjia3a, Horn, and pyKH : 
nom. plur.) 

this man has large ears, small eyes, short legs, and long arms 



TO HAVE 139 

y KajKflaro qeaoB'ljKa ;n,Ba yxa, ;n,Ba rjia&a, ab^ Horn h ab^ 

pyKii (gen. sing.) 
every man has two ears, two eyes, two legs, and two arms 

y MeHH npooryfla = I have a cold in the chest 
y Hero HacMopKt = he has a cold in the head 
y Heii Kamejib = she has a cough 



CHAPTER 41 

NEGATION OF THE VERB TO HAVE 
(cf. p. 109.) 

y MeHH Hfci) co6aKH = I have no dog 
y MeHH Hfo-L fteHerb = I have no money 
y Hero HirL poflHTe;jieH = foe has no parents 
y Heii H^Tt ji^Tm = she has no children 
y Hact H^Tt 6HJieTOBi>=t(;e have no tickets 
y hhx?> h^ts 6a 1 Ta > wz& = they have no luggage 

y MeHH Hfo-L hh co6aKH hh kohikh 
I have neither dog nor cat 

y Hero hh OTii,a hh M&repn h^ti*, ohi> cnpoTa 
he has neither father nor mother, he is an orphan 

y Heii h4ti> hh SpaTa hh cecTpti, 0Ha cobc£mi> oflHa 
she has neither brother nor sister, she is quite alone 

y Hact h nacnopTt h 6HJiera ecTb 
we have both passport and tickets 

nacnopTt y hhxt> ecTb, a 6n;jieT0BT> Hirb 
they have a passport, but no tickets 






140 NOT TO HAVE 

Questions in the Present 

are often asked negatively : 

Hira jih y Te6a nepa ? 
hast thou a pen ? 

nepo ecTb, a 6yMarn h^ti* 
I have a pen, but no paper 

6yMara ecTb, a lepHiforL Hiit 
I have paper, but no ink 

lepHHJia Tyra, h boti> KapaH^anit 
here is the ink, and here is a pencil 

Hira jih y Baci> fleHerfc ? 
have you any money ? 



CHAPTER 42 

TO HAVE (CONTINUED) 
The Past 

of to have is expressed as follows : 

y MeHa 6him> 6parb =1 had a brother 
y MeHa 6mia cedpa =1 had a sister 
y MeHa 6hjio pfejio =1 had business 
y MeHa 6hjih poAHTejra = I had parents 

that is to say, the verb was must agree with what in 
Bussian is the subject but in English is the object in such 
phrases ; similarly : 



HAD AND SHALL HAVE 141 

y Hero 6HJia co6aKa = 7ie had a dog 

y Hen 6bun> ROMh=she had a house 

y HHXTb 6hjio Kukme^they had a property 

y Moero o*rn;a Sbljio nukme^ my father had a property 

y Moet Ma/repH 6hjio mime = my mother had a property 

The neuter singular 6hjio is sometimes used even when 
the object referred to is in the plural, e.g. : 

y Hero 6hjio ab^ R6wipii = he had two daughters 
y Hea 6lijio ABa Cbraa = she had two sons 

When negatived the neuter is invariably used, the word 
He withdrawing the accent from the verb. 

y MeHH He-6i>rao fleHeri^I had no money 

y Hero He-6mio mraer6 = /ie had nothing 

y Hen He-6i>iJio Hafl&KflH = she had no hope 

y MeHa He-6i>iJio hh oji;h6h Kon^HKH = 1 hadn't a single kopek 

y Hero He-6mio HHKaKHXt p,eHeri> = he had no money at all 

y Heii HHRor^a He-6tmo ji$Tm = she never had any children 

y HacL He-6i>iJio HHKoro = we had no one 

When using the word hhkto = no one, the preposition 
divides the hh from the kto. 

hh y Koro He 6tmo j$nevb = no one had any money 

The Future 

of to have is expressed as follows : 

y MeHa 6y,n;eTfc aBTOMo6iijn> = I shall have a motor-car 

y Te6a 6yfleTT> jioniaflb = thou wilt have a horse 

y Hero dyflerb %owb=he will have a house 

y Heii 6y;neTi> c&jip^she will have a garden 

y Haci» SyAeT'L poHJib=we shall have a grand piano 



142 HAD AND SHALL HAVE 

y BacB 6y,n;eT'L MH6ro 6ara$Ka ? 
shall you have much luggage ? 

y hhx^ Sy^eTTb o^eHb m&jio BpeMeHH 
#iej/ wiW have very little time 

y Hero 6yp$Tb tocth (nom. sing. rocTb) = he will have visitors 
y Hea 6y^yTi> ,neHBrH = sfee wZi have money 

In negative sentences the third pers. singular is always 
used : 

y Meira He 6y ( a,eTi> ^eHeri>=I shall have no money 
y HacB He 6yflera wkc,Ta, = we shall have no room 
y HHX'b He Sy^eTt rocTeii=#^i/ will have no visitors 
y MeHa HH^ero He 6y r n,eTi» = / shall have nothing 



CHAPTER 43 

PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE GENITIVE 

y=at the house of, near 

It must be understood that this preposition is often 
used in the above meanings as well as in that of ' in the 
possession of ', e.g. : 

a 6hjtb y Heii B^epa = I was at her house, or, I went to see 

her yesterday 
OHa B^epa 6mia y Hacb=sfee came to see us yesterday 
bli 6lijih y hhxi> B^epa ? = did you go to see them yesterday ? 

TpeTbaro flim a 6hjh> y Bamero oma 
the day before yesterday I went to see your father (lit. of the 
third day I ivas at your father's) 



PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING GENITIVE 143 

TpeTtaro ^ha 0Ha 6mia y MeHH 

she came to see me the day before yesterday 

OHt cero^Hfl y Heii = he is at her house to-day 
OHa ceroflHH y Hero =she is at his house to-day 

owl 6fj\evb y Haci> cero^Ha 
he is coming to see us to-day 

bh 6y,n;eTe y hhxi> cero^HH ? 

are you going to see them to-day ? 

* 6yay y hhx^ 3aBTpa 

I am going to see them io-morrow 

nocjiisaBTpa ohh 6y^yTi» y HacL 

they are coming to see us the day after to-morroiv 

mh 6yaeMi> y Heii cero^HH 
we are going to see her to-day 

tli 6y,n,eiHB y Her6 3aBTpa ? 

art thou going to see him to-morrow ? 

Obs. When the preposition does not directly govern 
the words ero, ea, and hxi>, i.e. when these words 
are used in the meaning of his, her, and their, the 
h is not inserted, e.g. : 

y ero OTija 6lijio HM^me 

his father had a property 

y ero Marepn 6hjio o^eHt MHoro fleHert 
his mother had a great deal of money 

y ea fipara 6hjfb xopomin poajib 
her brother had a nice grand piano 

y ek cecTpbi 6*ieHb KpacHBtie bojioch 
her sister has very beautiful hair 



144 PBEPOSITIONS EEQUIKING GENITIVE 

y nxh po^HTejiea o^eHt 6ojn>maa 6n6jii6TeKa 
their parents have a very large library 

y ex's fliTeii oneHt ivraoro khhpb 
their children have a great many books 

6e3 r E>= without 

(before words beginning with two consonants difficult to 
pronounce : 6e3o) 

owl 6e3t 6njieTa = /ie is without a ticket 

6es r b nacnopTa nejn>B& = without a passport it is impossible 

6e3i> aToro rgstlbA =this is indispensible (it is impossible 

without this) 
9T0 6hjio 6esT> uen&^that was in my absence 
6e30 Bcero= without anything (lit. all) 

6es r b cojih, 6e3t x^6a — nojioBiraa o6i;n;a 

without salt and without bread is only half a dinner (proverb) 

fljra =for 

jpa kopo 3T0 nncBMO ? =for whom is this letter ? 

jpa ^eFO 3T0 T&Kb ? =why is this like that ? (lit. for what) 

3to jpfl MeHH cjinmKOMTb ;n;6poro 
that is too dear for me 

9to Rim Heii He aobojibho xopomo 
that is not good enough for her 

flo =up to, until, before 

ott> IleTporpa^a ao Mockbli 
from Petrograd to Moscow 

OTb JIoH^OHa jj;o IlapHTKa 
from London to Paris 



PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIRING GENITIVE 145 

0H£ ftO CHXt nop^ T&Wb 

he is there till now (lit. until those times) 

OHa ao chxtE) nop-L 3A^Cb 
sfte is still here 

flO 3T0r0 OIT& 6bIJTE> TaMTb 

imfa!? now (or before this) he was there 

3T0 6hjio ro MeHa 

£/ws was before my time 

;n;o CBH,o;aHm = till we meet again 

113^ =from out of 
(before words beginning with two consonants difficult to 
pronounce : H3o) 

3T0 IIHCBMO 031. POCCIH 

this letter is from Bussia 

3Ta TejierpaMMa 03^ JIoH^OHa 
this telegram is from London 

3Ta OTKpHTKa H3i> OKC$op;a;a 
this postcard is from Oxford 

3Ta OTKpHTKa H3T. K^pHflSKa 

this postcard is from Cambridge 

N.B. o;n,inn> irat hhxi> = one of them (masc.) 

ojniirb H3i> hxi> ^py3eii = one of their friends 
ORHa 031. hx^ jiomaAeii = one of their horses 

OR&Wh 03^ MOHXt 3HaKOMLIX r b 

one of my acquaintances 

OftittTB 031. 3THX1> jnOfleH 

one of these people 

1809 L 



146 PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING GENITIVE 

otb = away from 
(before words beginning with two consonants difficult to 
pronounce : oto) 
3to iihcbmo otb Moero Apyra 
this letter is from my friend 

otb Kor6 3Ta TejierpaMMa ? 
from whom is this telegram ? 

HeH3B'tcTH0 OTS> KOr6 3Ta OTKpBITKa 

I don't know (it is not known) from whom this postcard is 

3TH IIHCbMa OTB MOHXI) Apy3eH 

these letters are from my friends 

ciofla otb hhxi» AaJieK6 

it is far from them here (lit. hither) 

ciofla otb Mockbbi o^eHB ^aJieKo 
it is a long way here from Moscow 

Ty^a orb Haci> 6jih3Ko 

from our house there (lit. thither) is not far 

Tyaa otb IIeTporpa,n;a cobcImb 6jih3ko 
it is quite near from Petrograd there 

botb iihcbmo otb nero = here is a letter from him 

BOTb iihcbmo otb ero skghbi 
here is a letter from his wife 

BOTb OTKpBITKa OTB Heil 

here is a postcard from her 

BOTb OTKpBITKa otb en MyjKa 

here is a postcard from her husband 

Bame iihcbmo otb nepBaro $eBpaJia 
your letter of the 1st of February 



PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIKING GENITIVE 147 

okojio = about, near, around 
6kojio AByxt pySjieii = about two roubles 
CTyjrs okojio CTOJia = the chair is near the table 

nocjrfc = after (also = afterwards) 
nocjrfc 3aBTpaKa = after lunch ( = in the afternoon) 
nocjii *iaa (or qaio) = after tea 
nocjrfe o6i,n;a = a fter dinner 

KpoM^ ^besides, except 
Bci KpoM^ MeHH = all except me 
Kpoivrfe Toro = besides that 

bm4cto= instead of 
B03Jrk = alongside 
flopora B03jrfc piKH = a road alongside the river 

CHAPTER 44 

THE DATIVE 
Substantives 

The dative singular endings are : 
Masculine ) 



Hard 
Soft 



Neuter J 

Masculine ) 
Neuter ) 



-10 



and 



Feminine -i 

for both hard and soft nouns, but feminine nouns in -in 
have dative singular in -in. 

L2 



148 



DATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



Examples : 



IMara3iray 
6njieTy 
crony 



Hard 

Nouns { 



' M^CTy 

Neuter • cejiy 

k 66m;ecTBy 

|6a6i 
Feminine \ KOMHart 

I H36i 



/ Masculine 



Soft 
Nouns ^Neuter 



Feminine 



aBT0M06HJIK) 

cjiy^aio 

COflOBBK) 

Bacimiio 

nojno 
pynctK) 

ttwkmW 

( He^Jii 

J CTaTB^ 

apMin 
, Poccin 



The dative singular of the other words mentioned on 
pp. 90-91 is : 

Komiy ^hio 

nocny ormo 

pe6eHKy ^bowI* 

Feminine surnames in -OBa, -eBa, -iraa have dative 
singular in -oh : IlaBJiOBOH, ApceHBeBOH, KapcaBHHoii (cf. 
pp. 54, 104). 



DATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



149 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 
dative singular in -h, e.g. : 



JioinaAH 


U,epKBH 


Bem,H 


MaTepn 




^o^epn 



Neuter nouns in -a have dative singular in -erni, e.g. : 
BpeMeim 



The dative plural of all nouns, pronouns, and adjectives 
without exception ends in ~wh. 

The dative plural endings of the substantives are : 

Masculine ) 
Hard - Neuter [ -&wb 
i Feminine ) 



Soft - 



Masculine ] 
Neuter Y -nwb 
Feminine J 



Examples : 



Mara3HHaMi> 
1 Masculine \ 6njieTaMi» 

I CTOJiaMfc 



Hard 

Nouns < Neuter 



Feminine ■ 



wkGmWb 

i 66m;ecTBaM , b 
6a6aMi> 

KOMHaTaM^b 

i n36aM r f> 



150 DATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 

aBTOMoSHJiaMTB 



/ Masculine 



cjiyqaaivrL 

{ COJIOBbHMfc 



Nouns 



•{ Neuter j py^KBaivrL 

l HM^HiflM-L 

IHejuijiaMt 
CTaTtaMt 
apMiaMt 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 
dative plural in -hmi>. 

JiomaAaM'B lashadyam 

^o^epaM'L dacheryam 

flfaaMt dye j tyam 

jnoflaMt lyudyam 

But those ending in -;>kb, -hb, -hib, -iijb have -aivrb, e.g. : 
BemaMt v(y)eshcham 



also 



UjepKBaMTE* 



ts(y)erkvam 



Neuter nouns in -a have dative plural in -eHaivrb, e.g. : 
BpeMeHaM-L vr(y)emenam 

The dative plural of all the words of which the genitive 
plural has been specially given is perfectly normal, viz. 
-aMt or -RWb> according to whether the noun is hard 01; 
soft ; it can always be recognized by the ending -Mb. 



DATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 151 

The following may be specially mentioned : 
CTyjibflMt ctic&RSiWb HeSecaM^ 

6paTtaMt inepeBbflMfc njieqaivrc* 

chhobbhm'b ymaivrb KOirknsiMb 

jipjshAwb Hy^ecaMt 



CHAPTER 45 

THE DATIVE 
Pronouns 

Dativs 
mh^ mnye = to me 

Te64 tyebye = to thee 
eMy * yemu = to him, to it 
eii 1 yei = to her 

HaM-L nam = to us 
Baivn> vam =to you 
wwh * yim = to them 



ce6& 2 s(y)ebye = to oneself 



Sing. Plur. 

M. N. MoeMy may emu 

F. Moeii mayei 



mohmi. mayim 



M. N. TBoeMy tvayemu ) , , 

_ , J ,. r tbohmt* tvayim 

Jb. TBoeft tvayei J 

1 When governed by a preposition these words assume initial H, 
e.g. kt> HeMy, kt> Hen, kl hhmt>. 

2 Cf. note on p. 96. 



152 



DATIVE OF PEONOUNS 





Sing. 


Plur. 


M.N. 
F. 


HanieMy 
Hanieit 


nashemu j 
nashei 


HaiHHM'L 


nashym 


M.N. 
F. 


BaineMy 
Bameit 


vashemu 
vashei 


BaniHM^ 


vashym 


M.N. 
F. 


CBoeMy 
CBoeii 


svayemu 
svayei 


CBOHMT> 


svayim 




M. 


F. KOMy 


kamii 






N. 


^eMy 


chemu 




M.N. 
F. 


iteMy 
Hben 


chyemii 
chyei 


HbHRTb 


chyfkh 


M.N. 


OflHOMy 


adnamii 


OflHHM'b 


adnyim 


F. 


oflHoii 


adnoi 


-oah£m , l 


adnye a m 


M. N. 
F. 


caMOMy 
caMoii 


samamu 
samoi 


CaMHM'L 


samim 


M.N. 
F. 


3T0My 
9T0H 


e a tamu 
e a toi * 


dmwb 


e^yim 


M.N. 
F. 


TOMy 
TOH 


tamu 
toi 


T^Mh 


tye a m 


M.N. 
F. 


BceMy 
Bceti 


fs(y)emu ' 
fsyei 


BCilVrb 


fsye a m 



1 This -oi in rapid speech sounds like the letter li. 



153 



CHAPTER 46 

THE DATIVE 
Adjectives 



M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 

M.N. 
F. 



Sing. 

KpaCHBOMy 
KpaCHBOH 

CHHeMy 
CHHeii 

MOJiOAOMy 

MOJIOAOH 

BblCOKOMy 
BblCOKOH 

^oporoMy 
Aoporon 

xoponieMy 
xopoineii 



krasivamu 
krasivoi 1 

sinyemu 
sinyei 

maladomu 
maladoi 

vysokamu 
vysokoi x 

daragomu 
daragoi 

(k)haroshemu 
(k)haroshei 



Plur. 

KpacHBbiML krasivyin 

chhhm'l sinyim 

mojioahml maladym 

BbicoKHMb vysokim 

r soporHMi* daragim 

xopouiHMTb (k)haroshym 



6oJibinoMy 
SoJibinoii 



bal'shomu 
bal'shoi 



6ojibuiHM'b bal'shym 

1 This -oi in rapid speech sounds like the letter u. 



154 



CHAPTER 47 

PHRASES CONTAINING WORDS IN THE DATIVE 

9T0 mh4 ? = is this for me ? 

9T0 Te64 = this is for thee 

9T0 HaMi> ? = is this for us ? 

9to BaMT> = this is for you 

6ojibmoe Te6i cnacn6o = many thanks to thee 

Sojitmoe BaMi> cnacii6o = many thanks to you 

(contracted from cnacn Eon> = God save) 
6jiaro;n;apH 9T0My 
cnacn6o BTOMy 

cjiaBa Bory ! = (glory to God) thank goodness ! 
(often=very well indeed) 



--thanks to this 



= here you are, take this 



BOT!> Te6i 
BOTb B&Wb t 

boti> BaMt KHiira = here is the book for you 
boti> BaMT> fteHBrn = here is the money for you 
B(m> Baivrb nepo = here is a pen for you 
boti> B&wb MicTO = here is a place for you 
Bora BaMi> nncLMO = here is a letter for you 
BOTb BaMi> OTKpHTKa = here is a postcard for you 

MHi xojioji,ho = J am cold 

euf Tenjio = he is warm 

Mirk coBciivrB Teiuio = I am quite warm 

MHi ^ajKe cjinniKOMTb jKapKO = J am even too hot 

Baivrc> xojioaho ?=are you cold ? 

BaMt Tenjio ? = are you warm ? 



WANTS AND BEQUESTS 155 

cnaciiSo, MH-fe cobc£mi> xopoino = thanks, I am quite all right 

Mirk njioxo = I/ee? bad 

eMy cero^HH xfme = he is worse to-day 

HaMt sy&ch ^ajKe Jiy*mie wbwh TaMt 
we are even better (off) here than there 

6oJiBHOMy ceroftHH ropa3^o Jiyqnie 

the patient (masc.) is much better to-day 

6ojibh6h ceroAira ropa3^o xyrae 

the patient (fern.) is much worse to-day 

MoeMy OTDiy B^epa 6hjio ayqnie 
my father was better yesterday 

mit£ 3aBTpa Sy^eTt Jiynnie 
I shall be better to-morrow 

eMy ysKt o^eHB ruioxo 
he is really very bad 



eft ym* cobcIm'b xoponio 
she is quite all right now 



mh£ 3]5$Q,h xoponio = I am all right here 

mh^ 3^icb Jiyqme = I am better here 

mh4 3ji$Gh Hexopomo = I don't like it here 

(Mirk) mojkho ?=may I ? 

(b&wl) HejiB3a = you may not 

mojkho MHi Tyjj;a ? =may I (go) there (lit. thither) ? 

B&wb Ty,n,a HejiB3a = you may not (go) there 

a cio;n,a mojkho = but you may here 

MHi 8to HeB03MO5KH0 = that is impossible for me 

Mirk 3to Henpiarao = that is disagreeable to me 



156 PHRASES WITH THE DATIVE 

B&wb 9to npiaTHO ? =is that agreeable to you ? 

yroftHO jih BaM-L ? = do you wish ? (lit. is it pleasing to you) 

ito BaMfc yroflHO ?=what do you want t 

KaKt B&wb yroAHO = a5 you like 

B&wb ya66ho TaK£ ? = are you comfortable like that ? 

mh^ cobcIjm£ ya66ho = I am quite comfortable 

MHi Heyn,66HO=*I am uncomfortable, it is awkward for me 

mh4 HejioBKO = I don't like to 

3T0 MHi robojibko^ that is enough for me 

9T0 mh4 M.a>3io = ihat is not enough for me (lit. little) 

3T0 MHi Syflera MHoro = that will be (too) much for me 

Mirk 66jh>ho = ^ hurts me 

rj^h BaM-L 66jibho ? = where does it hurt you ? 

3to BaMTb Ta.VKem=that is (too) heavy for you 

Mirk 3to JierKO=^ is light (or easy) for me 

MHi bto Tpy,HHO=i£ is difficult for me 

8T0 Syflerb Mirk bhtoaho = that will be advantageous for me 

9to Syaera BaMt nojie3HO = ^a£ will be good for you 

8to 6ynerb b&wl Bpe < a;HO = that will be bad for you (sc. for 

your health) 
BaMTb 6yAerB njioxo = j/ow will fare badly 
mit£ CKyrao =1 /eeZ depressed (bored) 
MHi rpycrao = J/eeZ sad 
MHi Tonrao = I feel sick * 
mh£ AypHO = I feel faint 

TOO BaMTb Ha^o (or HyjKHo) ? 

what do you want ? (lit. is necessary) 

mh£ Ha,o.o HepHrat, nomoBoft 6yMarn, nepo, KapaHAainL 
I want some ink, some writing (lit. postal) paper, a pen, 
and a pencil 



WANTS AND BEQUESTS 157 

MHi HySKHO KOHBepTL (or 06jI03KKa) H OTKpHTKa H JIHCPB 

noiTOBoft 6yMarn 
I want an envelope, a postcard, and a sheet of writing paper 

MHi Haflo MapoKt, noacajiyiiCTa 
I want some stamps, please 

MHii h&;o;o ropa^eH bo^iS 
I want some hot water 

MH'fe Ha;n;o MBijia h nojiOTemje 
I want some soap and a towel 

MHi Haflo xoporaaa, iHCTaa h He cjihiekom'b floporaa K6MHaTa 
I want a nice, clean, and not too expensive room 

mh4 Ha;n;o acejii3Haa kpob&tb h iHCTaa nooreJiB 
I want an iron bedstead and clean bedding 

MHi Ha;n;o noflymKa, *racTaa HaBOJKHKa, BTopoe o^Mjio, h 

ihctbih npocTBiHH 
I want a pillow, a clean pillow-case, a second blanket (or 

quilt), and clean sheets 

Mirk Haflo HOCH;jiBmHK£ = I want a porter 
me* Ha^o H3B6m;HK r b = J want a cab 

ckojibko BaMi* HyaKHO ?=how much do you want? (or how 
many) 

cnacnSo, Mirk (66jiBme) rnraero He HysKHo 
thank you, I don't want anything (more) 

Obs. HyaKHHft is often treated as the predicate and 
must then agree with the noun, e.g. : 

MHi HysKeHt 9T0T& 5KypHMt = I require this magazine 
Mirk nymni 9Ta KHnra = I require this book 



158 PHEASES WITH THE DATIVE 

BaMt HpKHbi 9th fleHBrn ? = do you require this money ? 

nojKajiyiiCTa, ftaiiTe MRi=please, give me 

nepeflairre mh^ = hand me, pass me 

CKajKHTe mh^ = tell me 

noKa^KHTe mh^ = show me 

npHHeciiTe mh^ = bring me 

no3BOJiBTe mh^ = permit me 

npocTHTe MHi = forgive me 

noMorHTe MH& = help me 

flairre mh^ 6njieT r b = give me a ticket 

nepe^aHTe mh^ cojib = hand me the salt 

CKa^KHTe MErifc, rpik rocTiraiiija 
tell me where is the hotel 

noKajKirre mh^ KOMHaTy 
show me a (or the) room 

9TO MH^ (He) HpaBHTCH 

this (dis-) pleases me, I (don't) like this 

npHHeciiTe mh^ ropOTeii bo ah, KycoKt Mtuia h raoroe iiojio- 

TeHn;e 
bring me some hot water, a piece of soap, and a clean towel 

Addressing Letters 

Ero BBicoKo6jiarop6^iio (abbreviated E.B.E.) 

HBaHy HnKOJiaeBH^y AippeeBy 
to his highlywellborn-ness (=Esq.) 

Ivan Nikolayevich Andreyev 

Eh BLicoKo6jiaropoAiio 

Airai HBaHOBHi AH,n;peeBOH 
to her . . . Anna Ivanovna Andreyeva (=Mrs.) 



WANTS AND EEQUESTS 

Ero npeBoexoflHTHJibCTBy 

Ceprkio MnxaHJiOBHqy CojiOMnpcKOMy 
to his Excellency 

Sergius Mikhailovich Solomirski 

Ero CijrrejibCTBy Kh«3K) 

IlaBJiy IleTpoBHqy JJojiropyKOMy 
to his Serenity Prince 

Paul Petrovich Dolgoruki 



159 



CHAPTER 48 





VOCABULARY 






Clothes 




my 6a/. 


shuba 


fur coat 


M-fexT> (-a) m. {pi.) 


mye a kh 


fur(s) 


naJibTO n. (indecl.) 


pal' to 


overcoat 


$paKt m. 


frak 


evening-dress coat 


dopTyK-L m. 


syurtuk 


frock-coat 


jKHJieTt m. 


zhylyeH 


waistcoat 


nnff^KaK-L m. 


pidzhak 


short day -coat 


6pK)KH m. pi. 


bryuki 


breeches 


iHTami m. pi. 
naHTajiOHLi m. pi. 


shtany 
pantalony 


[ trousers 


py6auma/. 


rubashka 


shirt 


$y$aiiKa/. 


fufaika 


undervest 


noAiiiTaHHHKH m. pi. 


patshtanyiki 


drawers 


(hoc6kt>) hockh m. pi. 


naski 


socks 


(qyjiOKt) nyjiKii m. pi. 


chulki 


stockings 


(can6n>) canorii m. pi. 


sapagi 


top-boots 


(6aniMaKi>) 6auiMaKHm. 


pi. bashmaki 


boots, shoes 


(Ty<|)jifl) Ty^jin/. pi. 


tuflyi 


slippers, light shoes 


(najioiua) Kajioinn/. pi 


kaloshy 


galoshes 


xaJiarL m. 


(k)halat 


dressing-gown 


KOCTKUVTB m. 


kastyum 


suit, coshime 



160 


CLOTHES 




nJiaTBe n. 


platye 


suit, dress 


i66Ka/. 


yupka 


shirt 


KyinaKt m. 


kushak 


sash 


n6flci> m. 


poyas 


belt 


npnnma /. 


pryashka 


buckle 


6ji^3a/. 


bluza 


blouse 


KO$TOHKa /. 


koftachka 


lady's jacket 


(nepnaTKa) nep^aTKH /. pi. perchatki 


gloves 


BOpOTHnKT* m. 


varatnyik 


collar 


3anoHKa /. 


zapanka 


stud, link 


nyroBHi^a /. 


pugovitsa 


button 


raJiCTyKt m. 


galstuk 


tie 


nORTHJKKH /. pi. 


patyashki 


braces 


(pyKaBt) pynaBa m. pi. 


rukava 


sleeves 


no^KJia^Ka /. 


patklatka 


lining 


manna/. 


shapka 


marts hat, cap 


M-BXOB8LH IH. /. 


m(y)ekhavaya sh. 


fur cap 


nnrana /. 


shlyapa 


lady's hat 


(HOCOBoft) nnaTOKt m. 


platok 


(hand)kerchief 


HenpoMOKaeMoe n. (adj.) 


nyepramakayemoye 


1 waterproof 


3ohthkt> m. 


zontyik 


umbrella 


najiKa /. 


palka 


stick 


TpOCTOHKa /. 


trostachka 


cane 


d'BJite n. 


bilyo 


linen (garment 


nnaTBe n. 


platye 


j- clothes 


ov£mmf. 


adye a zhda 


66yBB/. 


obuf 


footwear 


CTiipKa /. 


styirka 


the wash 


KpaxMajrB m. 


krakhmal 


starch 


HOJKHHIJBl/. pi 


nozhnyitsy 


scissors 


GyjiaBKa /. 


bulafka 


pin 


aRTJiittcKan 6.f. 


anglyiskaya b. 


safety pin 


uinHJiBKa /. 


shpil'ka 


hair-pin 


nrojiKa /. 


igalka 


needle 


HHTKa /. 


nyitka 


thread 


cyKHo n. 


sukno 


cloth 


nojioTHO n. 


palatno 


linen 


1 


Cf. note 1 on p. 70. 





s) 





CLOTHES 


• 


inepcTt /. 


sh^rst' 


wool 


meTKa /• 


shchotka 


brush 


rpe6eHKa/. 


greby onl a 


comb 


GpHTBa/. 


britva 


razor 


CaKBOHJK'L m. 


sakvayash 


hand-lag 


nopT$6jit m. 


partteU' 


pocket-book 


KoinejieKt m. 


kashelyok 


purse 


qeMOAaH-B m. 


chemadan 


trunk 


(peM^Hb) peMHH m. pi. 


remnyi 


(strap) holdall 


nsiejj^b m. 


plyeH 


rug 


inajib /. 


shaft' 


shawl 


KapMaHi> m. 


karman 


pocket 


apuiHHt m. 


arshyn 


yard 


kojild;6 n. 


kal'tso 


ring 


ohkh m. pi. 


achki 


spectacles 



161 



CHAPTER 49 



AGE 

ckojibko BaMi> jrfcrc> ? = how old are you ? (lit. how many to 

you of years ?) 
mh£ ftB&jmaTb Ji r kvb = I am twenty 
eMy ^BaTOaTb OR&wh roji^^e is twenty -one 
evL TpHAU,aTb ji,Ba ro^a = she is thirty-two 
eMy copoK'b TpH ro^a = he is forty-three 
e& nflTbRecarb qerape r6Ra = s/ie is fifty -four 
eMy mecTbji.ecaT'b naTb jrfrrb=fte is sixty-five 
en Jifc'b ceMb,o,ecHTi> = she is about seventy 
3T0My pe6eHKy TOJibKO mecTb n$n otitis child is only six 
3toh a^bo wfe noqTH ceMb Jiirb = this little girl is nearly seven 
eMy 66jibine bocbmh (gen. of comparison) jrfcTfc = /ie is more 

than eight 
eMy irfrrb em,e BOCbxMja flirt = fee is not yet eight 
eMy yace BoceMb jrim* = he is already eight 



1809 



M 



162 EXPEESSION OF AGE 

flBa ro;n;a TOMy na&kRb = two years ago (lit. to that back) 
MHoro jrfvrL TOMy na,3a,R r b=rnany years ago 
h4ckojii>ko aneit TOMy Ha3a,n;i»= several days ago 

CHAPTER 50 

PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE DATIVE 

Kb =tO 

(before words beginning with two consonants difficult to 
pronounce : ko) 

npnxoflHTe Kt HaMi> = come and see us 
prikhadyitye k nam (lit. come to us) 

npuxoflirre ko mh^ = come and see me 
ka mnye 

Kb MoeMy coJKajitniio hx-l He-omio flOMa 
to my regret they were not at home 

Kt MoeMy yAHBJieHiio oh-l Sluts ynce T&wb 
to my astonishment he was already there 

KT> C^aCTlH) OHH BCfe 3A0p0BH 

fortunately, they are all well (lit. to good fortune) 

Kb Hec^acTiio, hxt> Tyrt h^ts Teneps 
unfortunately they are not here now 

Kb Ha^iajiy MapTa a 6y^y onaTt ftOMa 

by the beginning of March I shall again be at home 

kt& HOBOMy ro^y a 6fjny onaTB spfecb 
by the New Year I shall be here again 

Kb KOHny 9Toro Micaija 

by (or towards) the end of this month 






PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING DATIVE 163 

no = according to, along, on, at (the rate of) 
(cf. p. 199) 

nO MH^ ) . /.,xt 

• =m my {opinion), I consider 
no MoeMy j v \ r » 

no BaineMy=m your (opinion) 

no ero Milium = in his opinion 

no MoeMy Hejn>3H = I don't think it is possible 

no BameMy mojkho ? = do you think it is possible ? 

KaK'L no BameMy ?=what do you think about it? (lit. 

how in your) 

no 9T0My =for this reason 

noqeMy ? =why ? for what reason ? 

noTOMy, tto = because (lit. for that what) 

no MOCKOBCKOMy BpeMeHH 
by Moscoiv'time 

SBi MapKH no oahoh Kontairfi 
two stamps at one kopek each 

flecHTb MapoicB no ceMH KonieiO) 
ten stamps at seven kopeks each 

3th h6jiokh no hhth KonieKT* (nrryKa) 
these apples are at five kopeks each (piece) 
but for prices at two, three, and four, cf. pp. 170-71. 
no jKejrfeHOH floporfc = iy ra n 
no BocKpeceHBHM r t = on Sundays 
no noHefl'fcjibHHKaM'B = on Mondays 
no BTopHHKaM'L = on Tuesdays 
no cpe^aMt = on Wednesdays 
no qeTBepraMi> = on Thursdays 
no naTHHijaM'L = on Fridays 
no cy666TaMT> = on Saturdays 
M2 



164 PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING DATIVE 

no saKOHy = according to the law 

no yjinii.i = along the street 

no Ha6epe5KHOii = along the quay 



CHAPTER 51 

THE ACCUSATIVE 

The accusative singular and plural of all masculine 
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, and the accusative plural 
of all feminine nouns, pronouns and adjectives is the same 
as the nominative (singular and plural respectively) in 
the case of inanimate, and the same as the genitive 
(singular and plural respectively) in the case of animate, 
or once animate things. The accusative of all neuter 
words is always the same as the nominative, singular 
and plural, with one exception. 



Feminine Substantives, 


singular 


Feminine nouns have the 
accusative singular : 


following endings in the 


Hard 

Soft 


-y 

-K) 




I 6a6y 
Hard Nouns \ KOMHaTy 
( H36y 




babu 

komnatu 

izbu 


Soft Nouns h 


He^Jiio 

CTaTBK) 

apMiio 
, Pocciio 




nyedyeUyu 
statyii 
armiyu 
Eassiyu 



THE ACCUSATIVE 



165 



The accusative singular of all feminine nouns in b- is 
the same as the nominative singular, viz. : 

NOM. AND ACC. 

Jiomaflb ijepKOBB 

Benns MaTB 

As regards the accusative plural ending these nouns 
follow the general rule given on p. 164. 

Feminine Pronouns and Adjectives, singular 

The accusative singular endings of feminine pronouns 
and adjectives are : 



ee 


yeyo 


her 


MOK) 


mayii 


my 


TBOK) 


tvayu 


thy 


Hainy 


nashu 


our 


Bamy 


vashu 


your 


CBOK) 


svayii 


own 


qtio 


chyii 


whose 


oflHy 


adnii 


one 


caMoe 


samayo 


herself 


9 T y 


e a tu 


this or that 


T y 


tu 


that yonder 


BCK) 


fsyti 


all, the whole 


KpaciiByH) 


krasivuyu 


beautiful 


CHHIOK) 


sinyuyu 


dark blue 


MOJIOAyH) 


maladuyu 


young 


BLICOKyiO 


vysokuyu 


tall 


flopor^io 


daragiiyu 


dear 


xopomyio 


(k)haroshuyu 


nice 


6ojibmyio 


bal'shiiyu 


big 



166 THE ACCUSATIVE 

The only exceptions to the above rules are that the 
accusative of 

kto is always Koro 
oho is always ero 

i.e. is always the same as the genitive, while the accusative 
of 

ito is always ito 



CHAPTER 52 

PHRASES IN WHICH THE ACCUSATIVE IS USED 

SjiaroAapio Baci» = J thank you 

fijiaroflapio Baci» o^em = thank you very much 

Mirfc ee 5Kajn> = I am sorry for her (lit. to me is pity) 

uwk ero SKaJib = I am sorry for him 

MH^ 6tIJI0 6^eHB 5KaJIb HX1> 

I was very sorry for them 

flaftTe mh^ BTy KE&ry=give me this book 

AaiiTe eMy ara ReEbTii=give him this mone% 

noKajKirre mh^ Banii> nacnoprt 
show me your passport 

noKajKHTe MHi Bama 6HJiera 
show me your tickets 

npHHeciiTe Mirf* moh Bemn 
bring me my things 

cen-qacL = immediately 
ciio mmyTy= this minute 



PHEASES WITH ACCUSATIVE 167 

The accusative is used to express time : 
KaaKflHii pa3i>= every time 
KajKflHH fleHb = every day 
KajKfltift Be*iepfc= every evening 
KajKflkift tort* = every year 
Kaac^oe yTpo = every morning 
KajKji.yio nei$3m = every week 
KjfoKflyio hohb = every night 

3Ty nejifemo^ihis weefc 

8Ty Bemf = ihis spring 

8to jr&ro = #m summer 

3Ty 6ceHb = #m autumn 

9Ty 3&My = this winter 
but for ttis morning, in the winter, &c, cf. pp. 180-1. 

With the names of the days of the week (cf. pp. 84-85^ 
168) and with those of the seasons KasKABiii is also used 
in the accusative. 1 

CHAPTER 53 

PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE ACCUSATIVE 

bt>= into, to 
(before words beginning with two consonants difficult to 
pronounce: bo) 

b'l Pocciio = fo Russia 

KB A.H.vmx) = to England 

Bt repMaHiio = fo Germany 

1 Other words similarly so used are 

npouiJiBiii =last (sc. the previous) 
6ynyuj\pL =the next 
CJi-iffyiomiH =the following 



168 PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING ACCUSATIVE 

bo <BpaHijiK) = fo France 

Vb Ch6hpb = to Siberia 

Bt KpHMT. = to the Crimea 

bi> HTajiiio = fo Italy 

B'b MocKBy = io Moscow 

bt» Ofteccy^o Odessa 

bs> mKOJiy = to school 

Bt Te&rpt = to the theatre 

Bt cas'B = into the garden 

bi> aoM'L = into the house 1 

bi> ropoftt = into the town 

bt> pecTopaHt^o the restaurant 

b^ rocTHHHuy = to the hotel 

SHJierL bt. KieBT» = a ticket to Kiev 

6n;jieTi> b-l MocKBy = a ticket to Moscow 

b-l BocKpeceHte 6y^eT^ npeflCTaBJieme 
on Sunday there will be a performance 

bs» noHe r n ( ijibHHK r b Sy^eTt KOHijepT'L 
on Monday there will be a concert 
bo BTopmiKT* He 6yn;eTi> npe^CTaBJienia 
on Tuesday there will be no performance 

bt> cpefly He 6j%erb KomjepTa 

on Wednesday there will be no concert 

b'l qeTBepr-L ecTb napoxoflt 
on Thursday there is a steamer 

bt> naTHHii;y h^ts napoxo^a 
on Friday there is no steamer 

bi> ey66oTy SyflerL napoxofli. 

on Saturday there will be a steamer 

1 But jhomoh -home, to one's home, homewards. 



PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING ACCUSATIVE 169 

n6 r fe3,ni r B b-l ffBa qaca 
the train, is at 2 o'clock 

nofeflTb bi» naTB qacoBfc 
the train is at 5 o'clock 

nofefli* vb nojioBHHy nepBaro 
the train is at 12.30 

saBTpaKt b^ ^acfc 
lunch is at one o'clock 

oSiflt bt> ceMt qacoBt 
dinner is at 7 

bt. nojiOBiray oAHHHaOTaTaro a Sy^y sjvfccb 
at 10.30 I sfeaM &e here 

Ha^ajio npeAdaBJieHia b^ noJiOBiray BOCbMoro 
the beginning of the performance is at 7.30 

pKHHi> 6yfler& Bt ,o;6BaTb ^acoBt 
supper will be at 9 o'clock 

a Bflict B^ nepBLift pasi* 
I am here for the first time 

9to dyneTb b'l Apyroii pa3T> 
that will be for another time 

bi> 3to BpeMa a 6bim> 66jiein> 
at that time I was ill 

17$ bli 6bijih Bt 3T0 BpeMa ? 
where were you at that time ? 

ohi> Bcer,n;a Bo-BpeMa 

he is always in (good) time 

bo BpeMa ypoKa 

during the (time of the) lesson 



170 PKEPOSITIONS REQUIEING ACCUSATIVE 

Ha = on to 
nojiosKHTe KHHry Ha ctojtb 
lay the book on (to) the table 

nocT&BbTe CTaK&HTb Ha noftHoci, 
put the tumbler on (to) the tray 
nojiosKHTe qeMOftaHfc Ha-nojrb 
put the trunk on (to) the floor 
3to Syfle-TL Ha moh mevb 
that will be on my account 

a oieHb paflfc Ha c^era 3Toro 

I am very glad about this (on account of this) 

MHi oneHB acajib Ha c^en. 9Toro ^ijia 
I am very sorry about this business 

Ha KaBKa3'B = ^o the Caucasus 

Ha B0K3ajrb ! = fo the station! (sc. terminus, big station) 

Ha CTaHH.no \ = to the station! (sc. small station) 

Ha npiiCTaHB ! = to the landing-stage ! 

3a =for 
Sjiaro/japK) Bact 3a Bame nncBMO 
thank you for your letter 

6jiaroAapio Bact 3a 9to 

thank you for this 

BOTb cwdvb 3a Bamy KOMHaTy 

here is the bill for your room 

BOTb fleHbrn 3a Shjictbi 

here is the money for the tickets 

no =at(d. pp. 163, 199) 
naTb MapoK'B (nom. sing. MapKa) no-flBi Kontacn 
five stamps at 2 kopeks each 



PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING ACCUSATIVE 171 

qenipe MapKH n6-Tpn KoniiiKH 
four stamps at 3 kopeks each 

Tpn MapKH no ^erape Konifen 
three stamps at 4 kopeks each 

hhtb OTKpHTOKT> no ie™pe KOn'tllKH 
five postcards at 4 kopeks each 

flBi OTKpiiTKH n6-TpH KOnfelKH 

two postcards at 3 kopek's each 

*iepe3T> (or qpe3t, or nepe3o) = through, via, across 

qepe3B MocKBy = through, or ma Moscow 

iepe3B nojie = across the field 

iepe3B Mope = across £fee sea 

qepe3B BecB ropo^t = through the whole town 

nepes'B Koro ? = by whose agency ? through whom ? 



CHAPTER 54 

THE INSTRUMENTAL 
Substantives 

The instrumental singular endings are : 

{Masculine ) 
Neuter J 
Feminine -oft (or -oio) 

{Masculine ) 
Neuter ) 
Feminine -eft (or -eio) 



172 INSTEUMENTAL OP SUBSTANTIVES 
Examples : 



/ 



Masc. 



MarasHHOMT* 

6HJieTOMTE> 
. CTOJIOMT* 



EARD f M^CTOML 

Nouns { Neut.j cejioMt 

i 66ni;ecTBOM'L 



\Fem. 



magazmam 

bilyeHam 

stalom 

mye a stam 

s(y)elom 

opshchestvam 



6a6on or 6a6oio baboi \ -oyu 

KOMHaToii or KOMHaTOio komnatoi *, -oyu 
> h366h or H36610 izboi, -oyu 



Soft J 

Nouns 



/ aBT0M06HJieMt 

Masc. ca^iaeMB 

COJIOBLeMt 

BacHJiieM^ 

InoJieMTE, 
py^beMt 
HMiHieMl> 

' Heaijiefi or He^ijieio 

Fern J CTaT ^ or CTaTeio 
apMien or apMieio 
Poccieii or Poccieio 



aftamabilyem 
sluchayem 
salavyom 
vasfliyem 

polyem 

ruzhyom 

imye^iyem 

nyedyeUyevyeyu 
statyoi, -yoyu 
armiyei, -yeyu 
Rassiyei, -yeyu 



Masculine nouns ending in -up (also neuter nouns 
in -ijo, -ije, -me) have instrumental singular in -omi. 

1 The fern. inst. ending -oil when unaccented sounds almost 
like -H. 



INSTEUMENTAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 173 



when the ending is accented and in -eMi> when it is 
not, e.g. : 



Masc. 



NOM. SING. 


INST. 


SING. 


( KOHei],T> 




kohd,6mt> 


kantsom 


OTeip* 




OTIJOM'L 


atsom 


M'tcHU.'L 




wkcnuewb 


mye'syatsem 


v H^Meii^ 




E&MnfiWb 


nye^mtsem 


jihijo (face 


, person) 


jihu,6mi> 


litsom 


, nojiOTemje 


(towel) 


nojioTeHiiieM^ 


palaty^ntser 



Neut. 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -u,a have 
instrumental singular in -eft, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. INST. SING. 



yjiHija (street) 



yjiffljeii 
(or yjinijeio 



ulyitsei 
ulyitseyu) 



Masculine nouns with nominative singular in -3KT>, -*te>, 
-nn,, -mt, and feminine nouns with nominative singular in 
-5Ka, -*ia, -ma, -ma have instrumental singular in -owl, 
-oh when the ending is accented, and in -eMT», -en when 
it is not (nevertheless the masculine accented ending is 
still often written -eMT>, of course pronounced -omt>, because 
e after jk, h, m, m; becomes o), e.g. : 



NOM. SING. INST. SING. 

k;jiio*i6mi> * 

KJIKHeMT) 



KJIIOTb 



klyuchom 



H05KI> 



CBi^a 



HOEKOMT. 
H03KeMT> j 



J CB^HOH 
[ CBiHOK) 



nazhom 

sv(y)echoi 
sv(y)echoyu 



174 INSTRUMENTAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 

NOM. SING. INST. SING. 

aKHnaact BKunajKeivrb ekipazhem 

HBaHOBHq'B 



or HBaHBiqt 
Kajioma 



T , , . HBaHOBH^eM'L 

• Ivanych 1 TT t 

J or HBaHLraeMT> 



Ivanychem 



= son of Ivan 

f Kajiomeii kaloshei 

I KaJiomeio kalosheyu 



Masculine surnames in -obi,, -eBT, and -hhi> have the 
instrumental singular in -uwb, like adjectives : Typre- 
HeBHMt, JlepMOHTOBHM'L, IlymKHHHM'L ; feminine surnames 
in -OBa, -eBa, -HHa have -oh. 

Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 
instrumental singular in -lio (sometimes spelt -iio), e.g. : 
jiomaflBio loshadyu njepKOBbio ts(y)e i rkavyu 

Bemtio vye^hchyu MaTeptio matyeryu 

AO^eptio docheryu 

The masculine noun ujTh=way 9 means, which is other- 
wise declined exactly like Jioina^b, has instrumental 
singular : 

nyreMi. ( = by means of) putyom 

Neuter nouns in -a have instrumental singular in 
-eiieM^, e.g. : 

BpeMeHeMTb vr(y)e i menyem 

raeHeM'L ( =by name) imenyem 

The instrumental plural of all nouns, pronouns, and 
adjectives without exception ends in -mh. 

1 Patronymics are in talking always ruthlessly thus abbreviated. 



INSTEUMENTAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 
The instrumental plural endings are : 

I Masculine I 
Neuter r -aMH 
Feminine I 

{Masculine ] 
Neuter [ -hmh 
Feminine ) 



175 



Examples 



Hard 

Nouns 



IMara3HHaMH 
6njieTaMH 
CTOJiaMH 

f M^CTaMH 

Neuter \ cejiaMH 

( 66m;ecTBaMH 

( 6a6aMH 
I Feminine \ KOMHaTaMH 

I H36aMH 



( aBT0M06HJIHMH 

( Masculine \ cjiy^iaaMH 

( COJIOBBHMH 



Soft 

Nouns \ 



Neuter 



InOJIHMH 
pyjKBHMH 
HMtHiHMH 



IHefltjIflMH 
cxaTtaMH 
apMiaMH 



176 INSTEUMENTAL OF SUBSTANTIVES 

The instrumental plural of all the words of which the 
genitive plural has been specially given is perfectly normal, 
viz. -aMH or -aMH, according to whether the noun is hard 
or soft ; it can always be recognized by the ending -mh. 

The following may be specially mentioned : 



CTjmaMH 


flepeBbHMH 


SpaTBHMH 


yniaMH 


CBIHOBBaMH 


qyflecaMH 


^py3BaMH 


njie^aMH 


COcfeftaMH 


KOJiiiraMH 



Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -b have 

instrumental plural in -aMH, though some can also have 
-bmh, e.g. : 

jiomaflBMH lashad'mi 

or JiomaflHMH lashadyami 

^o^epBMH dacher'mi 

or AO^epaMH dacheryami 



± \ have only 

ftTBTH l 



jho^bmh lyud'mi 
A^tbmh dyet'mi 



Those ending in -jkb, -hb, -hib, -hjb have -aMH, e.g. : 

BenjaMH v(y)eshchami 

also 

ii,epKBaMH ts(y)erkvami 

Neuter nouns in -a have instrumental plural in -eHaMH, 
e.g.: 

BpeMeH&MH vr(y)emenami 



177 



CHAPTER 55 

THE INSTRUMENTAL 
Pronouns 

mhoII {or mhoh)) mnoi (mnoyu) 



to66h {or to66io) 

M. N. HMT> 1 

F. eii {or eio) x 


taboi (taboyu) 

yim 

yei (yeyu) 


HaMH 


nami 


BaMH 


vami 


HMH * 


yimi 


co66h {or C06610) 


saboi (saboyu) 


SINGULAR 


PLURAL 



M. N. MoAwb mayim 

F. Moefi {or Moeio) mayei 

M. N. tbohmt> tvayim 

F. TBoeii {or TBoeio) tvayei 

M. N. HamHMTb nashym ) 

F. Hameii {or Hameio) nashei J 

M. N. BamHMi» vashym ) , 

™ „ , , v , , . \ BamHMH 

F. Bainen (or Bameio) vasnei J 



MOHMH 



TB0HMH 



HaniHMH 



mayimi 
tvayimi 
nashymi 
vashymi 



CBOHMH 



svayimi 



M. N. cbohm^ svayim 

F. CBoeii {or CBoeio) svayei 

M. F. icem^ kye a m 

N. *iiwb ch(y)e a m 

1 When governed by a preposition these words assume initial H, 

e.g. CT> HHMT>, CT> Heft, CT> HHMH. 
1809 N 



178 INSTEUMENTAL OP PEONOUNS 

SINGULAR PLURAL 



M. 
F. 


N. 


IBHMt 

iLeii (or qteio) 


chyim 
chyei 


*IBHMH 


chyimi 


M. 
F. 


N. 


3THM1> 

9T0H 1 (or &TOK)) 


eHyim 
e a toi * 


3THMH 


e^yimi 


M. 
F. 


N, 


CaMHMt 

caMOH (or caMoio) 


samim 
samoi 


- CaMHMH 


samimi 


M. 


N, 


OflHHMt 


adnyim 


OflHHMH 


adnyimi 


F. 




OflHOH (or OflHOK)) 


adnoi 


O^H^MH 


adnyehni 


M. 
F. 


N. 


TOH (or TOK)) 


tye a m 
toi 


• T^MH 


ty^mi 


M. 
F. 


N. 


BC^M^ 

Bceit (or Bceio) 


fsye a m 
fsyei 


• BC^MH 


fsy^mi 






CHAPTER 5 


6 








THE INSTRUMENT 


'AL 








Adjectives 










SINGULAR 


PLURAL 





M. N. KpaCHBLUVTB 

_ , „ i , ^ \ KpaCHBLIMH 

F. KpaCHBOH^Or-OK)) J 



M. N. CHHEMTB 

F. CHHeft (or -eio) 

M. N. MOJIOflLIM'B 

F. mojio^oh (or -OK)) 

M. N. BBICOKHMt 

F. BBICOKOH 1 (or -OK)) 

1 This -oft in rapid speech sounds like -h. 



CHHHMH 



MOJIORBIMH 



BBICOKHMH 



INSTEUMENTAL OF ADJECTIVES 179 



SINGULAR PLURAL 

M. N. floporHM^ 

F. floporon (or -610) 

M. N. xopomHM'L 

F. xopomeii (or -eio) 

M. N. 6oJibmHM r & 

F. 6ojn>m6it (or -6k>) 



^oporHMH 
xopomHMH 

603IbmHMH 



CHAPTER 57 

USES OF THE INSTRUMENTAL 

The instrumental is used as a rule to indicate the agent 
by whom or the instrument by which anything is done : 

KiMfc 9Ta KHHra HairacaHa ? (past participle passive) 
by whom was this booh written ? 

K^Wb 3T0 6bljio CKa3aH0 ? 
by whom was this said ? 

wbwh oHt 6tijr& y6nT r B ? 
by what was he killed ? 

vfewb 9to 6hjio cji,ijiaHO ? 
by what was this done t 

owb 6hjt& y6irrb cbo6h SKeHoii 
he was killed by his own wife 

3T0 6LLJIO Cfl^JiaHO HOJKeMfc 

that was done by a knife 

nfcwh 6oraTbi, ri&Mfc h paflH 

what we are rich in, that we will gladly give (proverb) 

N 2 



180 USES OF THE INSTEUMENTAL 

A very common and, to the foreigner, puzzling use of 
this case is that known as the ' predicative ' ; when a con- 
dition or position, usually of a temporary, accidental, or 
hypothetical kind, is indicated in the past or the future, 
the predicate, if a substantive, is very frequently put in 
the instrumental, e.g. : 

Kor,n,a a 6hjt& MajitraKOM'L =when I was a boy 

6yjsj> Moeft 5KeH6io \-bemy wife ! 

si HHKor,o;a He 6yny ero 5KeH6io 
I will never be his wife 

npHTOHOio ero 6ojtIj3hh 6tuia npocTy.ua 
the cause of his illness was a chill 

owb B£\)x6m>=he is on horseback (lit. he is the upper 
part, nom. Bepxi») 

The instrumental is used to indicate times and seasons 
as follows : 

MH 6tIJIH TaMTE> BeCHOH 

we were there in the spring 

jrfcroM'B mli 6fnewb y ce6a ^6Ma 

in the summer we shall be at our own home 

oceHbio 0Ha 6HJia o^eHb 6ojn>Ha 
in the autumn she was very ill 

3hmoh ohh Bcer;n;a 3a rpaHmjeii 
in winter they are always abroad 

but N.B. 3Ty BecHy, 9to jrfcro, 3Ty oceHb and 3Ty 3HMy 
in the accusative. 

B^epa Be^epoM'L OHa 6bDia y Hac^ 
yesterday evening she came to see us 



USES OP THE INSTEUMENTAL 181 

ceroflira yTpoMT> a 6biJTb y Her6 
this morning I went to see him 

ceroflHH ^HeMt He Cyders npe^CTaBJieHia 

this afternoon (lit. by day) there will be no performance 

3aBTpa BeiepoMt SyneTi) npe^CTaBJieme ? 

will there be a performance to-morrow evening ? 

ceroftHa BenepoM'L 6*ieHB xopomiii KOHijeprB 
this evening there is a very good concert 



CHAPTER 58 

PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE INSTRUMENTAL 

3a, = behind 

OHH y5Ke 3a CTOflOMTb 

they are already at table 

3a flOMOMt ecTb cas'L 

behind the house there is a garden 

saniwh bh 3j^Gh ? 

why are you here ? (lit. behind what, after what, for what) 

OHa 3a-My^ceMi» 

she is married (lit. is behind a husband) 

OHa flaBHo y^ce sa-My^ceMTb 

she has been married a long while already 

3a wkwb OHa sa-My^eMt ? 
to whom is she married ? 

3a wwb = to him (h inserted after preposition, cf. p, 177) 



182 PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING INSTRUMENTAL 

OHa 3a-MpKeM r B 3a aHrjiiraaHHHOM'L 
she is married to an Englishman 

ea CTapmaa cecTpa 3a-My3KeM r B 3a $paHu,y30Mi> 
her elder sister is married to a Frenchman 

ea MJiaflmaa cecTpa sa-MpKeMt 3a pyccKHMt 
her younger sister is married to a Russian 

ea ;n;o*n> 3a-My5KeMi> 3a aMepHKamjeMfc 
her daughter is married to an American 

ohh TenepB 3a rpaHHijeH 

they are now abroad (lit. beyond the frontier) 

ohi> flaBHo jme 3a rpaHinjeii 

he has been (lit. is) abroad already long since 

mh sflict KaKi» y XpncTa 3a na3yxoii 
we are in clover here (lit. as in Christ's breast-pocket — 
a proverb) 

hoa'l = under 
Ha^Tb = above 

(before most words beginning with two consonants written 
no,a;o, Ha,o;o) 

Ha^o-MHoit He6o, noAO-MHoii 3eMJia 
above me is the sky, under me the earth 

coSaKa noflfc ctoji6m£ 
the dog is under the table 

uojj^ CTOJiOMt cooaica 

there is a dog under the table 



PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING INSTEUMENTAL 183 

nepeji.'L = in front of, before 

(before most words beginning with two consonants written 
nepe,q;o) 

3a mhoh JiicL, nepe/jo mhoh Mope 

behind me is the forest, in front of me the sea 

nepeflfc ^omom^ yjiinja, a 3a yjiHU.en p&ca 

before the house is the street, and beyond the street the river 

nepers* cejiOM^ py^eii, a 3a py^teMt nojie 

in front of the village is a stream, and behind the stream afield 

nepers, dthm^ oHa 6biJia 3a rpaHHijeH 
before this she was abroad 

a. 6hjte> Gojieirb nepe,p» t4ml 
I was ill before that 

M&Kfly ^between 

M&K,a,y j4.Hrjiieii h (Dpamjieii — Mope 
between England and France is the sea 

Meac^y niBeHijapieH h Hiajiiei: — Ajimh 
between Switzerland and Italy are the Alps 

Me3K/j,y Poccien ii CnfiiipLio — ypara 

between Bussia and Siberia are the Ural Mountains 

CDnHJiaH^ia MesK^y Poccieii h HlBei4eii 
Finland is between Bussia and Sweden 

BoiiHa MesK^y Poccien h TypijieH 
the war between Bussia and Turkey 



184 PBEPOSITIONS REQUIRING INSTRUMENTAL 

(before most words beginning with two consonants written 
co) 

1T0 CI> BaMH ? 

what is (the matter) with you ? 

mraero co mhoh Hfoi» 

there is nothing the matter with me 

co mhoh ftypno 
I feel bad 

CI) K^Wh BH 6HJIH TaMt ? " 

with whom were yon there ? 

ct> mohmt> flpyroMt 
with my friend 

a He-6LiJTL hh ct> k^mi, 
I was not with any one 

qan c& caxapoM-L h ct> jihmohom'l 
tea with sugar and lemon 

KO$e CL MOJIOKOM'B H CO CJIHBKaMH 

coffee with milk and cream 

xjrk6i> ob MacjiOMt 
bread and butter 

nHpOJKKH Ct MHC0MT> 

little pies with meat (in them) 

y MeHa ct> coooH nannpocL H^rt 

I have no cigarettes on me (lit. with myself) 

y Te6a fleHbrn ct> co66h ecTb ? 
ftcwe i/ow any money on you ? 



185 
CHAPTER 59 

THE LOCATIVE 
General use 

The locative case is only used after the five preposi 
tions : 

bi> (or bo) =m 

Ha = on 

o (or 061) or 060) = about, concerning 
( in the presence of 



iron 



in the time of 
in addition to 
in spite of 
no = after 

It can never be used except when preceded by one of 
these prepositions (some of which, it must be remembered, 
take other cases as well) ; hence it is fairly easily to be 
recognized ; hence, too, it is sometimes called the pre- 
positional case. 

Substantives 

The locative singular endings are : 
Masculine ] 
Feminine r -i 
Neuter ) 

for both hard and soft nouns ; but 

masculine nouns ending in -in (-i) 
feminine nouns ending in -in (-iya) 
and neuter nouns ending in -ie (-iye) 

all have locative singular in -in (-iyi) 



186 



LOCATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



Examples : 

IBfc Mara3HHi 
Ha 6iuieTi 
Ha CTOJii 



Hard . 

Nouns \ 



I Ha Midi 
bt> oSn^ecTBi 

[ o SaSi 
k Feminine -j bt> KOMHarf* 

1 BT> H36i 

f BT> aBTOMOfiHJrfe 

MasculineJ 00 ^^, 

O COJIOBL'B 

V o BacHJiin 



Soft / 
Nouns \ Neuter 



Ha nojii 
Bt pyncbi 
bi> Minima 

L Bi POCCIH 



vmagazinye 
nabily^tye 
nastalye 

namye^tye 

fs(y)elye 

vopshchestv(y)e 

ababye 

fkomnatye 

vizbye 

vaftamabilye 
ashichaye 
asalavye 
avasilyi 

napolye 
vruzhye 
vimy^nyiyi 
vrassiyi 



' o neftini 
y Feminine - bt> CTaTbi 
( bt> apMin 

Masculine nouns which contain e or o 



anyedy^lye 

fstatye 

varmiyi 

in the last 



syllable of the nominative singular and lose it throughout 
the rest of the declension : 

NOM. SING. LOC. SING. 

K0HeH,1> Ha KOHIji 

nocojn> o nocjii 



Hard Nouns 



Soft Nouns 



neHB 
oroHb 



o ah* 
bt> onii 



LOCATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



187 



A large number of masculine nouns have a locative 
singular in -y (if hard) and in -10 (if soft) when used with 
the prepositions B1) = { n 

Ha = ow 

This form of the locative singular always has the accent 
on the end. 

These nouns are mostly of one syllable (at most two) 
in the nom. sing., e.g. : 



NOM. SING. 


LOC. SING. 


6eperb b(y)e i rek shore 


Ha 6epery naberegii 


6oK , h bok side 


Ha 6oKy nabaku 


Bepxi vy^rkh top 


Ha Bepxy nav(y)erkhu 


B03i> vos cart 


Ha B03y navazu 


roflt got year 


bi> ro;n,y vgadu 


Kpaii krai edge 


Ha Kpaio nakrayii 


KpHMt krym Crimea 


bi> KpHMy fkrymii 


Jiyra luk meadow 


Ha Jiyry nalugu 


jrfcab lye a s forest 


bt> jrfecy vlyesii 


MOCTt most bridge 


Ha MOCTy namastii 


nom pol floor 


Ha nojiy napalii 


paflfc ryat row 


Ha pa,o;y naryadu 


ca^i» sat garden 


bt> ca^y fsadii 


CH'fcr'b snye a k snow 


bt> CH'fery fsnyegii 


yrojra ugal corner 


bi> yrjiy vuglu 


iaci> chas hour 


B'L iacy f chasii 


mKant shkap cupboard 


bi» micany f shkapii 


and many 


others. 


Notice especially 




jieflfc lyot ice 


Ha JiBfly nal'du 


poTi> rot mouth 


bo pTy vartii 


•^ u ^ : KHHra O KpLIM^ 




a book about the Crimea 



188 LOCATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 

Feminine surnames in -OBa, -eBa, -iraa have loc. sing, 
in -oft, like the adjectives : 

o IlaBJioBOH, ApceHteBoft, KapcaBiraoft 

Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -h have 
locative singular in -h. 

NOM. SING. LOC. SING. 

jiomaflB Ha jiomaAH 1 naloshadyi 

Benns B£ Benpi vv(y)e i shchi 

ii;epKOBB bt> ijepKBii fts(y)6 i rkvi 

MaTb npn M&repn primatyeri 

;n;o*n> npn ftoiepn prid6cheri 

Neuter nouns ending in -a have locative singular in 
-eHH, 

NOM. SING. LOC. SING. 

BpeMH o BpeMeHH avr(y)e i menyi 

The locative plural of all nouns, pronouns, and adjec- 
tives (except that of two pronouns) ends in -xt. 
The locative plural endings are : 

I Masculine ] 
Neuter r -axt 
Feminine j 



' Masculine 
Neuter 
k Feminine 



-axt 



Soft - 

1 = on the horse, not on horseback, cf. p. 180. 



LOCATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES 



189 



Examples : 



Hard 

Nouns 



Ibi> MarasHHax^ 
Ha 6mieTaxfc 
Ha CTOJiaxt 



Neuter 



Feminine 



bi> MicTax-L 
Wb cejiaxt 
. bt> 66m;ecTBax'L 

o 6a6axi» 
bt> K6MHaTaxt 
i bt. nsSaxTb 



( b^ aBTOMo6Hjiax r b 
f Masculine j b'l cjiygaaxi* 

( O COJIOBLaXT* 



Soft 

Nouns 



J Neuter 



Ha nojiax r b 
Biy pyacbaxt 
bt» HMfeiaxt 



[ o He.o.'fejiax^ 
{ Feminine \ Wb CTaTBax'b 
( Bt apMiaxt 

Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -h have 
locative plural in -hxi>: 



. SING. 


NOM. PLUR. 


LOC. PLUR. 


jiomaflB 


jioina^H 


Ha Jiomaflaxt 1 


flora 


fto^epu 


o flo^epaxt 


[ffHTa] ^ 


iH^TM 


npn flfaax'B 


[qejiOB'liK'L] 


JIIOflH 


npn jiioahxi* 



1 This phrase means : by carriage, driving. 



190 



LOCATIVE OP SUBSTANTIVES 



But those ending in -act, -it, -mt, -mi> have -axT>, e.j 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. LOC. PLUR. 

Benjt Bem;H bt> Bemax'b 

also ijepKOBt u;epKBH bi i^epKBaxt 

Neuter nouns in -h have loc. plur. in -eHax'B, e.g. : 

NOM. SING. NOM. PLUR. LOC. PLUR. 



BpeMfl 



BpeMeHa 



o BpeMeHaxt 



060 mh4 
Te64 
HeM£ * 
Heft 1 

Haob 
Bact 

O HHX'L 1 

ce6i 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. 

Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. 



CHAPTER 60 

THE LOCATIVE 

Pronouns 

abamnye = about me 
atyebye = about thee 
any6m = about him, or it 
= about her 



anyei 

anas 
avas 
anyikh 

as(y)ebye = about oneself 



= about us 
= about you 
= about them 



SINGULAR 

MoeMi* amayom 
Mo6it amayei 

TBoeMt atvayom 
TBoeft atvayei 



PLURAL 



MOiixt amayikh 

-* about my 

tbohxi» atvayikh 
about thy 



1 These three forms of the pronoun never occur without the 
initial H, being always preceded by a preposition. 



LOCATIVE OF PEONOUNS 191 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

j- / [ o Hamem anashem I o Hanraxt anashykh 

™ , e * . j about our 

Fern, o Hamen anasnei j 



Masc 
Neut. 



o BameMt avashem I o BanraxL avashykh 



Fern, o Bamen avashei ) r 



Masc 
Neut, 
Fern, o CBoeit asvayei 

Masc 



o CBoeM^ asvayom I o cbohxl asvayikh 
about one's own 



i o koml akom= about whom 
Fern. 

Neut. o *iewb ach(y)6m = about what 

SINGULAR PLURAL 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. B'L %eii fchyei 



B'B qteMt fchyom [ b^ qLHXL fchyikh 

in whose 



bl o^homl vadnom bl ojuhhxl vadnyikh 
Fern, b-l oflHoii vadnoi B'L oah^xl vadnye a kh 



in one, %n some 
• bt» caMOM^ fsamom ! Bt caMiixL fsamikh 



Masc 

„ ' ' ,„ „ ,. [in -self, -selves 

Fern. B^ caMOH fsamoi ) J 



Masc. 
Neut. 



„ , , , a , ) oS'L BTHxt abe'tyikh 

• o6t 3toml abe a tam , , A% ., • ' 

r about this, that, these, 

Fern. o6l btoh x ab6 a toi * ) or those 
1 This -oft in rapid speech sounds like -H. 



192 



LOCATIVE OF PEONOUNS 



SINGULAR 

Masc. ) 

Neut. j B1> T0M * ftom 

Fern, kb to# ftoi 

Masc. ) 

Neut J B0 BcgM1> va %° m 

Fern, bo Bceft vafsyei 



PLURAL 

I BtTfe, ftye a kh 
r in that yonder, in the 
) former 

I bo Bcfext vafsye a kh 
in the whole, in all 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. 



CHAPTER 61 

THE LOCATIVE 
Adjectives 

Hard 

Singular 

O KpaCHBOMt 
O KpaCHBOH 1 

Soft 



Plural 

O KpaCHBLIX^ 



BTE> CHHeMT, 

Bi) CHHeit 



BT> CHHHXt 



Hard (accent on termination) 

Masc. ) , ) 

Neut. j ° MOJIO * omj o Moaoaiteb 

Fern, o mojio^oh j 

1 This -oh in rapid speech sounds like -bl 



Masc, 
Neut. , 
Fern. 



Neut. 
Fern. 



Plural 



Ha BblCOKHXt 



LOCATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 

Stem in k r x 

Singular 

Ha BblCOKOM'b 

Ha BbicoKoii 1 j 

Same, with accent on termination 

Masc 

o ffoporoM* i AOporte 

o Aoporon j 

Stem in jk h hi m 



193 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fern. 



Bfc xoponieML 
Bt xoponieii j 
Same, with accent on termination 

• BT> dOJIblHOlVTb 
Bt 60JIbHI0H 



Masc. 
Neut. 
Fam. 



Bt XOpOHIHX'b 



Bl, OoJIbHIHX'b 



CHAPTER 62 

EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE LOCATIVE WITH 
THE PREPOSITIONS 

B£ (or bo) 
Bt *ieMT> a^jio ? = what is the matter f (lit. in what is the 

business) 
fleHbrn 6hjih y mchh 2 Wb KouiejibK'l 
the money was in my purse 

1 This -oft in rapid speech sounds like -H. 

2 This is better than saying Bt MoeMt KOinejibK'B. 
1809 O 



194 PBEPOSITIONS REQUIRING LOCATIVE 

a KoinejieKi, 6bun> y MeHa b-l KapMaHi 
and the purse was in my pocket 

a Tenept ero TaMT> h^tt, 
and now it isn't there 

nacnoprt 6biJTb y Meim Bt ^pyroMt KapMairfc 
the passport was in my other pocket 

h ero TOJKe Hin> 

and that isn't (there) either (lit. also) 

6njieTH 6hjih y MeHa bi> Tp&rbeivrb KapMaHi 
I had the tickets in a third pocket 

h Tenepb RzbKe hxt> TaMTb H^T-b 
and now not even they are there 

bi> 9tomt> nois^i o^eHL MHoro Hapo^y 
in this train there are a lot of people 

bt> TeaTpi cero^HH o^eHb Mano Hapo^y 

in the theatre there are very few people to-day 

bi> Bainen KBapTHpi Bcer^a Temio 
in your flat it is always warm 

Moa HeB^CTa Tenept bi> JIoHAOHi 
my fiancee is now in London 

moh ^KeHHX'L Tenept bt» Mockb4 
my fiance is now in Moscow 

BT> 3TOMT> TOpO^i H^TT) XOpOUieil rOCTHHHIJbl 

in this town there is no good hotel 

bt> aTOMT. cejii ecTb o^eHb KpacHBaa u,epKOBb 
in this village there is a very beautiful church 

bt> 9tomt> pecTopaHi Beer#a MHoro Hapoay 

in this restaurant there are always a lot of people 



PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING LOCATIVE 195 

moh cecTpa b^ ca,ny = ?m/ sister is in the garden 
Molt 6parB bi> Jiicy = my brother is in the forest 

B% Cafly MHOrO IJ.B'fcTOB'B 

in the garden there are many flowers 

bb Jiicy MHoro rpH6oBi> 

in the forest there are many mushrooms 

BB 3T0M1> TOftf MBI 6bIJIH Bt KpBIMy 

this year we have been in the Crimea 

oin> Beet BTb nhiJiA = he is all covered with dust 

OHa Bca bt> rpa3H =■ she is all covered with mud 

Bci moh BemH bb uiKany 

all my things are in the cupboard 

bi> kotopom'b Hacy 
at what o'clock ? 

nacti TaMt m yray 

the clock is there in the corner 

1TO-TO BT> dTOWh po^ 

something in this style 

dtot'l ca^t bt> po/vk Hainero 

this garden is like ours (in the kind of) 

B'B H^KOTOpOMt pOfli 

in a certain way, to some extent 

b'b H^KOTopBix^ MicTax-B ecTB jrfeca, a bi> ftpyriix'B nojia 
in some places there are forests and in others fields 

bbi 6bijih Korjja-HnSyflB bb PoccIh ? 
have you ever been in Russia 1 

a bt> Aurjiin bi> nepBBiii paa'B 
I am in England for the first time 

o 2 



196 PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING LOCATIVE 

Ha 9tomi> napoxo/vfc H-frra Sojitine Mida 
there is no more room on this steamer 

Ha btoh ynmsfe oneHb xopomie Mara3HHH 
in this street there are very good shops 

boti> Hann> homs. Ha btoh yjiniji 
here is our house in this street 

Hamn a^th Ha depery Mopa 
our children are at the seaside 

bli 6hjih B^epa Ha btomt> KOHijeprfe 
were you at that concert yesterday ? 

Ha btomt> nofefli ecTL BaroHT^pecTopaHt 
on this train there is a restaurant-car 

Ha 3Toft CTaHD,iH eari> xoponiin 6y$eTT> 

at this station there is a good refreshment-room 

Bania KOMHaTa Ha nepBOMi>, btqpomt>, TpeTbeMt hjih leTBep- 

TOWb BTaaci ? 
is your room on the first, second, third, or fourth floor ? 

Ha #Bopi = <m£ of doors (lit. on the yard) 

Ha flBopi ceroflHa chjibhhh Mopost 

out of doors to-day there is a strong frost 

ohh Tenept Ha KaBKa&i 
they are now in the Caucasus 

IleTporpaAfc Ha Heni^Petrograd is on the Neva 

MocKBa Ha MocKB't-piK'l = Moscow is on the Moscow river 

BapuiaBa Ha Bacni = Warsaw is on the Vistula 

Pnra Ha JJpmi'h^Biga is on the Dvina 






PEEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING LOCATIVE 197 
KieBt Ha .Hjrimpi =Kiev is on the Dnieper 
HoBropoiHT* Ha BojixoB'fe = Novgorod is on the Volkhov 

HHJKHiii-HoBropoflT. Ha Bojirfe = Nizhni-Novgorod is on the 
Volga 

PocTOB'B-Ha-^OHy == Bostov-on-the-Don 

Ha ROM'S oh^ ^KeHaTt ? 
to whom is he married ? 

ohi> aceHa/rb Ha pyccKoft 
he is married to a Bussian 

oht. 6hjfb jKeHaTt Ha aHrjinqaHK'k 
he was married to an Englishwoman 

co6aKa Ha nojiy, a Konma Ha CTyjrfc 

the dog is on the floor, and the cat is on the chair 

na nojiy co6aKa, a Ha CTyjrfc KomKa 

on the floor there is a dog, and on the chair there is a cat 

Ha MOCTy 6bijtl aBTOMo6njiB, a Ha aBTOMo6nJii Slijtl *ieMo;n;aH r & 
on the bridge there was a motor-car and on the motor-car 
was a trunk 

Ha btom'b nojrfc 6hjio BticoKoe ;n,epeBo, a Ha RepeBi 6mia 

GojiBinaa nTHi];a 
in this field was a tall tree, and on the tree there was a big bird 

na He6i ceroftHfl MHoro oSjiaKOB^ 

in the sky to-day there are many clouds 

y hhxi> Ha CT^Haxt MHoro KapTHHl. 
there are many pictures on their walls 

raaeTa Ha ctoji^, a mypHajrb Ha flHB&H'k 

the newspaper is on the table, and the magazine is on the sofa 



198 PKEPOSITIONS EEQUIEING LOCATIVE 

o = about 

(06^ before words beginning with a vowel, occasionally 
060 before some words beginning with two consonants) 

CKaJKHTe MHi 06t 3T0MT, 

tell me about this 

^ewb 9Ta m>eca ? 
what is this play about ? 

ecTt CTaTba bt> Hobomt* BpeMemi ceroflmt 06^ Anrjiin 
there is an article in the Ndvoye Vremya to-day about 
England 

bt> PyccKOMt Cjiob^ B^epa 6tma oqeHB xopoman CTaTta 

JlBBi HHKOJiaeBH^i ToJICTOMfc 

in the Busskoye Slovo yesterday there was a very good article 
about Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoi 

npn = in the presence of, in the time of 

npn IleTpi BejiiiKOM'B = in the time of Peter the Great 

npn EKaTepHHi BejiHKoii = in the time of Catherine the Great 

3T0 6hjio npn mh4 = that was in my presence (or, in my time, 

1 was there then) 

npn tomT) = in addition to that 

npn newb = in addition to which 

npn BceMt tomt> = in spite of all that 

npn komt> ? = in whose presence ? 

npn Bcfcxt = in the presence of all 

9to He npn *ieMi> = that has nothing to do with it 

ohs> sjtfach He npn HeMi> = this doesn't concern him 



PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING LOCATIVE 199 

no = after 

iiotom'& = then, thereupon 

no vewb ? = at what price are ? (cf. pp. 163, 170-1) 
no *iewh hSjiokh ? = how much are the apples each ? 
no MoeMt npifefl'li (nom. npife^) = after my arrival 
no ero OT'bfeft'fe (nom. OTT> r ksR r b) = after his departure 
no HameMfc B03BpamemH = after our return 
no ieMi> bli 3HaeTe ? = how do you know ? 
no nojiyflHH = in the afternoon 



INDEX OP WORDS AND PHRASES 



a great deal 1 1 

about (approximately) 147 

— (concerning) 185-93, 198 
above 182 

abroad 180, 182 

according to 163 

account 170 

acquaintance 80 

across 171 

act 101 

addition (in — to) 185, 198-9 

address 40, 64 

advantageous 156 

affair 46 

after 147, 198-9 

afternoon 147, 181, 199 

afterwards 147, 198 

again 11, 16 

ago 162 

— (long), v. long since 
all 57, 65 

all right 7, 17 ; 155 

alone 56, 69 

along 163 

alongside 147 

already 9, 1 1 and passim 

also 11, 15 

always 10. 16 

ambassador 35 

amiable 75 

amusing 75 

and 10 and passim 

and so forth 129 

ancient 78 

angry 22 

animal 80, 131 

annoyed 22 

another 84 

— time 169 



any 83, 87 

anyhow ( = somehow or other) 

13 
any one 86 
anything 86 
any time 13 
anywhere 12 
apple 5, 37, 93, 108 
apple-tree 133 
are, v. is 
arm 130 
arm-chair 41 
army 32 
around 147 
arrival 199 
arshin 114-19, 161 
article (newspaper) 32, 100 
artist 101 
as 12 

as much 11 
ass, v. donkey 
astonishing 75 
at (table) 181 
at (what price) 163, 170, 

198-9 
at (the rate of) 163, 170, 198-9 
at (-o'clock) 119-20, 169, 194 
at (the house of) 142 
at all (not) 11, 18 
at home 15, 16 
attractive 75 
aunt 58 
au revoir 12 
author 101 

automobile, v. motor-car 
autumn 47, 180 
autumn (adj.) 78 
avenue 40 
awful 76 



INDEX OF WOED8 AND PHEASES 201 



bachelor 80 

back (adj.) 74 

back (subst.) 130 

back(-wards) 162 

back of head 129 

bad 75 

bad (I feel) 155 

bad (it is) 17, 19 

bad (for the health) 20 

baker's 39 

bank (building) 39 

bank (shore) 45 

barley 133 

barrier 40 

basin 41 

bath 41 

bathing-place 45 

bath- room 40 

baths 39 

be (can it— that ?) 12 

be (to) 27 

beans 107 

bear 132 

beard 129 

beast 131 

beautiful 70, 75 

because 163 

bed 41 

bed (in garden) 133 

bedding 41, 44 

bedroom 40 

bedstead 41 

be 132 

beef 106 

been 28 

beer 9, 108 

beetroot 107 

before 144, 183 

beginning 45 

behind 181 

belfry 39 

bell (church-) 39 

bell (house-, room-) 40 

belt 160 

bench 41 

berry 108 



besides 147 

better (it is) 17, 19, 122, 

155 
between 183 
big 71, 73, 81 
bigger 73 
biggest 87 
bill 45 

birch- tree 133 
bird 132 
biscuits 108 
bit 109 
bitter 77 
black 77 

blame (to be to) 23 
blanket 41 
blind 76 
blinds 42 
blood 130 
blossom 133 
blotting-paper 42 
blouse 160 
blue (dark) 70, 78 
blue (light) 78 
boat (rowing-) 45 
body 8, 129 
boiled egg 107 
boiling water 108, 113 
bone 130 
book 42 
boots 159 
bored 156 
boring 76 

both . . . and ... 10 
bottle 43 
boulevard 40 
box 41 
boy 6, 36, 61 
braces 160 
brandy 109 
bread 106 

breakfast, v. tea, coffee 
breeches 159 
brick 40 
bridge 40 
bright 78 



202 INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHEASES 



bring me 158, 166 

broad 74 

brother 37, 58, 95 

brown 77 

brush 161 

buckle 160 

buckwheat 133 

bug 133 

building 38 

business 46 

but 10, 11, 15 and passim 

butter 106 

button 160 

by (alongside) 147 

by carriage 189 

by means of 174 

by name 174 

by (whom, what) 179 

cab 43 

cabbage 107 

cabin 45 

cafe 39 

calf 131 

camel 131 

can it be that ? 12 

candle 36, 42 

candle-stick 42 

cane 160 

cap 160 

capital 46 

car (motor-) 32 

cards 101 

carpet 41 

carriage 36, 43 

carriage (by) 189 

carriage (railway-) 44 

carrot 107 

cart 187 

case, v. incident 

cat 131 

cathedral 39 

cauliflower 107 

cause 180 

caviar 106 

ceiling 41 



cellar 40 
central 48 

certain (a) 69, 82, 87 
chair 37, 41, 95 
change (coins) 44 
chamber-pot 41 
charcoal 42 
charming 75 
chauffeur 43 
cheap 76 

cheap (it is) 24, 26 
cheek 129 
cheese 106 
chemist's 130 
cherries 108 
chess 101 

chest of drawers 41 
chicken 36, 107, 131 
child 4, 33, 36, 58, 59 
children 38, 58, 59, 96 
chill 180 
chimney 39 
chin 129 
chocolate 108 
Christian 50 
Christian name 54 
church 33, 38 
cigar 109 
cigarette 109 
class 44, 102 
clean 76 
clear 78 
cloak-room 44 
clock 42 
cloth, v. towel 
cloth (material) 160 
cloth (table-) 41 
clothes 160 
cloud 48, 95 
coach-house 40 
coal 42 
coarse 77 
coat (fur) 159 
cock 131 
cockroach 133 
coffee 108 



INDEX OF WOEDS AND PHEASES 203 



cognac 100 
cold (subst.) 130 
cold (it is) 24, 25 
cold (I am) 154 
cold (adj.) 77 
collar 160 
collection 100 
colour 37, 95 
comb 161 
come 162 
comfortable 76 
coming (adj. ) 78 
community 48 
companion 59 
company 32 
company, v. visitor 
compartment 44 
complex 76 
composition 100 
concerning 185-93, 198 
concert 101 
concierge 43 
confectioner's 39 
consider (I) 163 
consumption 130 
content(ed) 22 
continually 57 
convenient 76 
conversation 101 
cool (it is) 24, 25 
cool (adj.) 77 
copper 45 
cork 43 
corkscrew 43 
corner 41 
corridor 44 
costume 159 
cough 130 
Count 61 
Countess 61 
country 46 
court-yard 39 
cover (knife and fork) 43 
cow 131 
cream 106, 109 
cucumber 107 



cup 42 
cupboard 41 
currants 108 
curtain 42 
cushion 41 
custom (habit) 46 
custom-house 2, 38 
cutlet 106 

damp 77 

dangerous (adj.) 76 

dangerous (it is) 25, 27 

dangerously 21 

dark (it is) 24, 25 

dark (colour) 77 

dark (complexion) 78 

darkness 48 

dates 108 

daughter 33, 58 

dawn 47 

day 8, 35, 46 

day after to-morrow (the) 30 

day before yesterday (the) 121 

143 
dav (to-) 10, 16, 30 
deaf 76 

deal (a great) 11 
dear (adj.) 71, 75, 76 
dear (my) 132 

dear (expensive, it is) 24, 26 
death 131 
deck 45 
deep 74 
deer 132 
degree 130 
departure 199 
depressed 156 
desyatin 114-19 
dictionary 101 
difficult 76 
dining-car 44 
dining-room 40, 80 
dinner 109 
direct (adj.) 76 
dirty 76 
disagreeable 155 



204 INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHEASES 



disgusting 76 

dish 43, 80 

dislike (I — ) 158 

displeased 22 

displeases (it— me) 158 

district 46 

do (how do you — ) 12 

doctor 130 

aog 131 

done 179 

donkey 131 

door 40 

door (front—) 6, 39 

doors (out of) 196 

doubtful (it is — whether) 12 

dough 107 

dove 132 

drawer 41 

drawers (pants) 159 

drawing-room 40, 80 

dress 160 

dress- coat 159 

dressing-gown 159 

driving 189 

drought 133 

dry 77 

duck 5, 107 

Duchess (Grand) 61 

Duke (Grand) 61 

dumb 76 

during 169 

dust 47 

each 82 

eagle 132 

ear 37, 95, 129 

early (it is) 24, 25 

early {adj.) 78 

earth 48 

easier 125 

east(ern) 48 

easy 7, 76 

edge 187 

edition 100 

egg 95, 107 

either . . . or . . . 10, 14 



elbow 130 
elder 78, 88 
elderly 78 
eldest 88 
electric light 42 
elephant 131 
elk 132 

Emperor (the) 61 
Empress (the) 61 
empty 74 
end 35, 45 
engaged (it is) 25 
enormous 73 
enough 11, 23 
enough (not) 11 
envelope 42 
especial 76 
essential 76 
establishment 39 
etc. 129 
even (adj.) 74 
even (conj.) 11 
evening 47 
evening (adj.) 78 
evening clothes 159 
ever (at any time) lf.5 
every 82, 84, 167 
everything 8 
everywhere 10 
excellency 159 
excellent 75 
except 147 
excuse (me) ! 12, 23 
exists (there) 27 
expensive, v. dear 
expensive (adj.) 71, 76 
exquisite 75 
extra (adj.) 76 
eye 35, 37, 93, 95, 129 

face 129 

factorv 39 

faint 156 

fair-haired 78 

faith 101 

far (it is) 25, 26, 128 



INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHEASES 205 



fare badly 156 

fat 74 

father 57, 58 

fathom 45, 114-19 

fence 39 

festival 47 

fever 130 

few (a) 11 

few (a — more) 113 

few (how) 12 

few (so) 12 

few (some) 11 

fiance(e) 59 

field 32, 45 

figs 108 

fillet 106 

fine 75 

finger 130 

fir 133 

fire (flame, light) 35, 42 

firm 77 

first 82 

fish 106, 132 

flat 39 

flaxen 78 

flea 132 

floor (of room) 6, 8, 41, 187 

floor (story) 39, 196 

flower(s) 37, 95, 133 

flower-bed 133 

fly 132 

foal 131 

fog 48 

following (the) 74 

foot 130 

foot (ft.) 45 

footwear 160 

for (conj.) 11 

for (prep.) 144 

for (you) 154 

forehead 6, 8, 129 

forest 45 

forget-me-not 133 

forgive me 12, 158 

fork 43 

former (the) 57 



former, v. first 

former (previous) 78 

formerly 13 

forth (and so) 129 

fortunate, v. happy 

fowl 107 

fox 132 

free (adj.) 76 

free (it is) 25 

fresh 77 

friend 37, 59, 95 

frock-coat 159 

frog 132 

from (away from) 145 

from (out of) 145 

front (adj.) 74 

front (in — of) 183 

front door 6, 39 

frontier 43 

frost 47 

fruit 93, 108 

fuel 42 

full 74 

fur(s) 159 

furniture 41 

future (adj.) 78 

gallery 39 
galosh(es) 36, 159 
game (to eat) 107 
game (to play) 101 
garden 133 
garret 40 
gate 39 
gay, v. merry 
general (adj.) 76 
gentleman 60 
girl (little) 36, 61, 94 
give me 158, 166 
glad 21, 22 
glass (wine-) 43 
glass (tumbler) 42 
glasses, v. spectacles 
gloves 160 
gnat 132 
goat 131 



206 INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHEASES 



God 7, 27 

gold 45 

good 71, 75 

good (for the health) 20 

good (it is) 18 

good-bye 12 

good time (in) 169 

goose 107 

gooseberries 108 

granddaughter 58 

Grand Duchess 61 

Grand Duke 61 

grandfather 58 

grandmother 58 

grandson 58 

grapes 108 

grass 133 

gravy 106 

gray-haired 78 

great 73 

great deal (a) 11 

green 78 

green vegetable 107 

grey 77 

grouse 107 

guard 44 

guest(s), v. visitor 

gulf 46 

gum 129 

habit (custom) 46 
hair 93, 129 
hair-pin 160 
hairdresser's 39 
half 119-20 
half an hour 119 
half a rouble 44, 109 
hall 40 
ham 107 
hamlet 46 
hand 130 
hand me 158 
hand-bag 161 
handkerchief 160 
handle 42 
happiness 101 



happy 22, 76 

hard 77 

hare 132 

harvest 133 

hat 160 

have (to) 134 

have been 28 

hay 133 

he 13, 14, 55 

head 129 

health 130 

healthy 76 

heart 130 

heathen 50 

heating 44 

heaven 37, 48, 95 

heavy 76 

heel 130 

Heir- Apparent (the) 61 

help (me) 158 

hen 131 

her 105, 165 

here 3, 10 

here is 11, 15 

herring 132 

herself (56), 68, 96 

high 71, 74 

high-road 40 

hill 45 

himself (56), 68, 96 

hip 130 

his 105 

holdall 161 

holiday 47 

home (at) 15, 16 

homewards 168 

honey 8, 108 

hope 101 

horrid 75 

horrid (it is) 18 

hors d'oeuvre 106 

horse 33, 131 

horseback 180 

hospital 38 

host 60 

hostess 60 



INDEX OP WORDS AND PHRASES 207 



hot (adj.) 77 




into 168 


hot (I am) 154 




iron 45 


hot (it is) 24, 25 




is 3, 13, 27 


hotel 38, 128, 168 




island 45 


hound 131 




it 13, 14, 55 


hour 47, 114-19 




itself (56), 68, 96 


hour (at what) 169 


• 




house 8, 35, 39, 168 




jacket 159, 160 


house (at the — of) 142 


jam 107 


how 12 




joint 106 


how do you do 12 




judge 33 


how few 12 




jug 41 


how little, v. what a 


little 




how many 11 




key 5, 36, 44, 94 


how much 11, 198-9 




kid 131 


how old 161 




killed 179 


however 11 




kind (adj.) 75 


huge 73 




kind (subst.) 108 


hurry up ! 128 




kind (of such a) 102 


hurts (it) 156 




kind (what, every) 82, 87 


husband 7, 59 




kind (no, some) 83 


hut (peasant's) 32 




king 61 
kitchen 40 


I 16, 55 




kitchen garden 133 


ice 8, 




kitten 131 


ice-cream 80, 108 




knee 3, 37, 93, 130 


ill 21 




knife 36, 43, 94 


illness 130 




kopek 44, 114-19, 163, 170-1 


immediately 166 




kvas 109 


impossible (it is) 12, 


155 




in 185-95 




lad 61 


in (addition to) 185, 


198-9 


lady 60 


in (the possession of) 134-44 


lake 5, 45 


in (the presence of) 185, 198-9 


lamb 131 


in (the time of) 185, 


198-9 


lamp 42 


in front of 183 




lamp-shade 42 


in good time 169 




land, v. earth, country 


incident 46 




landing-stage 45, 128 


inconvenient 76 




language 101, 125 


indispensable 144 




lantern 42 


inflammation 130 




large 71, 73 


ink 42 




larger 73 


ink-stand 42 




largest 87 


insect 80, 132 




last (the) 74 


instead of 147 




last (adj.) 78 


interesting 75 




late (it is) 24, 25 



208 INDEX OP WOKDS AND PHBASES 



late {adj.) 78 

lately 10, 17 

latter (the) 57 , 

latter, v. last 

laundry, v. wash 

law 101 

lay 170 

left (adj.) 74 

left (to the, on jfehe) 10 

leg 130 

lemon 108 

lesson 101 * 

letter 46 

library 40 

lid 43 

life 9, 131 

light (it is) 24, 25 

light (colour) 77 

light (weight) 76 

light (the) 48 

light (artificial) 42 

lighting 44 

like (I — ) 158 

likewise 11 

lilac (subst.) 133 

lilac 78 

linen 160 

lining 160 

link(s) 160 

lion 104, 132 

lip 129 

literature 101 

little 74, 81-2 

little (a) 11 

little (a — more) 113 

little (but) 11 

little (such a) 12 

little (too), v. not enough 

little (what a) 12 

loaf 106 

lobby 40 

local 74 

locality 67 

long 74 

long (a — way), v. far 

long (not), v. lately 



long ago, v. long since 
long since 10, 17 
longer (no) 11 
look well, ill 136-7 
lot (a) 11 
lot (such a/ 12 
lot (what a) 12 
love 101 
low 74 
lower 74 
luck (with) 13 
lucky, v. happy 
lugg a g e 44, 112 
lumber-room 40 
lunch 109 
lungs 130 

Madam 61 

magazine 100 

magnificent 75 

maid 60, 80 

maize 133 

malicious 75 

man 33, 61, 62 

many (how) 11, 112 

many 11, 112 

many thanks 154 

market 39 

marvel 37, 95 

marvellous 75 

many (so), v. so much 

married (woman) 181-2 

married (man) 197 

master 60 

match 42 

matter (what is the) 184, 193 

mattress 41 

mauve 78 

may I ? 155 

may (one) 12 

mayn't (one) 12, 155 

meadow 7, 45, 187 

means 44 

means (by — of) 174 

meat 106 

medicine 130 



INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHKASES 209 



melon 108 

merry 75 

middle 45 

middle (adj.) 74 

milk 5, 109 

mill (water-) 39 

millet 133 

minute 47, 114-20 

mirror 41 

miserable 75 

Miss, Mr., Mrs., Messrs. 60 

mistress 60 

money 36, 44, 95 

moneychanger's 44 

monkey 132 

month 46 

moon 46, 48 

more (em;e) 9, 11, 112 

morning 47 

morning (good), v. how do you do 

morning (adj.) 78 

mosquito 132 

most (the) 87 

mother 2, 33, 57, 58 

motor-car 32, 43 

mountain 45 

moustache 129 

mouth 8, 129 

much 11 

much (followed by a comparative, 

e. g. better, worse) 18 
much (as) 11 
much (how) 11 
much (so) 11 
much (too) IV 
mud 47 
museum 39 
mushroom 107 
music 101 
must 23 
must (one) 12 
mustard 106 
mustn't (one) 12 
mutton 106 
my 4, 55, 62 
myself (56), 68, 96 

1809 



nail 130 

name (by — ) 174 

napkin 43 

narrow 74 

nasty 75 

near (it is) 25, 26, 128 

near (prep.) 142, 147 

nearly 11 

necessary (it is) 12, 111 

neck 129 

necktie 160 

need (I) 157 

needle 160 

neighbour 37, 95 

neither . . . nor ... 10, 14 

nest 3, 132 

never 10 

new 78 

newest 87 

newspaper 3, 100 

newspaper article 32, 100 

next (the) 74, 78 

nice 71, 75 

nice (it is) 17, 18 

nice (to taste) 24, 26 

night 46 

nightingale 132 

no 10, 13, 28 

no longer 11, 110 

no one 111 

nor 10, 14 

north(ern) 48 

nose 8, 129 

not 10, 13, 27 and passim 

not at all 11 

not enough 11 

not in the least, v. not at all 

not long, v. lately 

not much, v. some 

not nice (it is) 17 

not nice (to taste) 24, 26 

not quite 11, 21 

not really ?, v. can it be that 1 

not very 11 

not yet 11 

not (there is) 10, 27, 91 



210 INDEX OP WOEDS AND PHEASES 



note (money) 44 
note-book 42 
nothing 111 
novel 100 

now 10, 11, 15, 16, 25 and pas- 
sim 
nowhere 10 

number (on anything) 45 
nursery 40, 80 
nursing-home 130 

oak 133 

oats 133 

occupied (it is) 25 

o'clock (at — ) 119-20, 169, 194 

office 44 

official 43 

oil 106 

old 78 

oldest 87 

old-fashioned 78 

old (how) 161 

old man 61 

old woman 61 

omelet 107 

one 56, 69, 145 

one's own 56, (105) 

onion 107 

only 11, 56 

on 163, 168, 185-93, 196-7 

on to 170 

once 83 

open (it is) 25, 26 

open country 45 

opinion 101, 163 

or 10, 14 and passim 

orange 108 

orphan 139 

orthodox 50 

other 82 

our 55, 63 

ourselves (56), 68, 96 

out of doors 196 

overcoat 159 

own (adj.) 56, 137-8 

ox 131 



pain 130 

painter 101 

painting 101 

palace 39 

pale 78 

pants 159 

paper 42 

parents 58 

pass (me) 158 

passport 43 

past (adj.) 78 

pastry 107 

path 133 

patronymic 54 

pavement 40 

peace 4, 101 

peaches 108 

pear 108 

peasant (man) 36, 62 

peasant (woman) 32, 62 

peasant's hut 32 

pen 42 

pencil 42 

penholder 42 

people 38, 96 

people (the, a) 46 

pepper 106 

performance 101 

permit me 158 

person 129 

piano 101 

picture 101 

pie 106, 107 

piece 109 

piece of luggage 67, 112 

pig 131 

pigeon 132 

pillow 41 

pillow-case 41 

pin 160 

pink (subst.) 133 

pipe 109 

place 32, 46 

plain (clear) 78 

plant 133 

plate 43 



INDEX OF WOEDS AND PHEASES 211 



platform 44 

play 101 

pleasant 75 

please 12 

pleased 22 

pleases (it — me) 158 

pleasure 101 

plum 108 

pocket 161 

pocket-book 161 

poem 101 

police (man) 43 

police-court 43 

poor 75, 76 

poplar 133 

poppy 133 

pork 107 

porter 43 

portrait 41 

possible (it is) 12 

post-card 42, 171 

post-office 39 

potato 107 

pound (lb.) 45, 114-19 

presence (in the — of) 185, 198-9 

present (adj.) 78 

pretty 75 

previous (the) 78 

price 45 

priest 60 

priest's wife 60 

Prince 61 

Princess 61 

profitable 156 

property (land) 9, 32, 46 

province 46 

pud 45, 114-19 

pupil 60 

puppy 131 

purse 161 

put 170 

quarter 119-20 
quay 40 
queen 61 
quick 77 



quiet 77 
quilt 41 
quite 11, 21 
quite (not) 11, 21 

rabbit 132 

radish 107 

railway 44 

railway-carriage 44 

rain 8, 47 

ram 131 

rapid 77 

rare 74 

raspberries 108 

rather more, rather less 128 

raw 77 

razor 161 

ready 23 

ready (adj.) 76 

really 11, 25, 26 

reaping 133 

receipt 44 

red 78 

red-haired 78 

refreshment-room 38 

region 46 

regret 101 

require (I) 157 

restaurant 38 

return 199 

rich 76 

rifle 32 

right (adj.) 74 

right (all) 7, 17 

right (to be) 23 

right (to the, on the) 10 

ring 161 

ripe 77 

river 45 

road 44 

roast beef 106 

Roman Catholic 50 

room (a) 32, 40 

room ( = place), v. place 

rose 133 

rouble 44, 80, 114-19 



P 2 



212 INDEX OF WOEDS AND PHEASES 



rough 77 
round 74 
rowing-boat 45 
rows (covered) 39 
rude 77 
rug 161 
rye 133 

sable 132 

gad 76 

safe (it is) 25, 27 

safety pin 160 

said 179 

salmon 132 

salt 5, 6, 8, 106 

same (the) 88 

sash 160 

satisfied 22 

sauce 106 

saucer 42 

sausage 107 

school 39 

scissors 160 

scrambled eggs 107 

screen 42 

sea 5, 45 

seat (in train etc.) 67 

second 82 

see (come and) 162 

self 56, 68, 96 

sentry 80 

serious 23 

seriously 21 

servant 60 

shall be 30 

shallow 74 

shawl 161 

she 13, 14, 55 

sheaf 133 

sheep 8, 131 

sheet 41 

sheet (of paper) 42 

shelf 41 

shirt 159 

shop 32, 39 

shoes 159 



shore 35, 45 

short 74 

short (a — way) v. near 

should be 29 

should have been 29 

shoulder(s) 37, 93, 130 

show me 158, 166 

shrine 39 

shut (it is) 25, 26 

sick 76, 156 

side 46, 187 

sideboard 41 

silver 45 

simple 76 

Sir 61 

sister 58 

skin 129 

skirt 160 

sky 8, 37, 48, 95 

sledge 43 

sleeping-car 44 

sleeve(s) 160 

slippers 159 

slow 77 

slower! 128 

slush 8, 47 

small change 44 

small 73, 81-2 

smaller 74 

smallest 87 

smooth 77 

snake 132 

snow 47 

so 12 

so few 12 

so little, v. such a little 

so many, v. so much 

so much 11, 12 

soap 41 

society 32 

socks 159 

soda-water 113 

sofa 41 

soft 77 

soldier 93 

sole (of foot) 130 



INDEX OF WOEDS AND PHEASES 213 



some 11, 56, 69, 82, 83, 87, 112, 

113 
somehow 13 
somehow or other 13 
some one 86 
something 86 
some time 13 
some time or other 13 
sometimes 10 
somewhere 12 
somewhere or other 12 
son 37, 58, 95 
song 101 
sorry (1 am) 166 
sort (what, every) 82, 87 
sort (no, some) 83 
sort (subst.) 108 
sort of 13 
soul 129 
soup 106 
sour 77 
south(ern) 48 
Sovereign (the) 61 
sparrow 132 
sparse 74 
spectacles 161 
spinster 61 
spirit 129 
sponge 41 
spoon 43 

spring (season) 47 
spring (adj.) 78 
square 40 
square (adj.) 74 
squirrel 132 
stables 39 
stage 101 
stairs 40 

stamp(s) 42, 163, 170 
star 48 
starch 160 
station 38, 128, 170 
steak 106 
steamer 45 
steed 8, 131 
steel 45 



steppe 45 

stewed fruit 107 

stick 160 

still (conj.) 9, 11 

stockings 159 

stomach 130 

stone 40 

store-room 40, 80 

stork 132 

story (floor) 39 

story (of house) 3, 39, 196 

story, v. tale 

straight 76 

strap 161 

strawberries 108 

street 40, 196 

string 42 

stroke (a) 7 

strong 76, 77 

stud 160 

study 40 

subject (of a state) 80 

such 83, 86 

such a little 12 

such a lot 12 

such as 13 

sugar 90, 108 

suit 159 

summer 47 

summer (adj.) 78 

sun 48 

superfluous 76 

supper 9, 109 

surely ? 12 

surely not ? 12 

surname 54 

surprise 101 

swallow 132 

sweet 77 

sweet(s) 93, 107, 108 

swift 77 

sympathetic 75 

table 32, 41 
table (at) 181 
table-cloth 41 



214 INDEX OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



tailor's 39 

take 154 

tale 100 

tall 71, 74 

taxi 44 

tea 90, 109, 112 

tea-pot 42 

tea-urn 42 

teacher 60 

tedious 76 

telegram 46 

telegraph-office 46 

telephone 46 

tell me 158 

temperature 130 

terminus 38 

terrible 76 

than 18, 19 

thank you 12, 166, 170 

thanks 154 

that (those) 13, 14, 57 

thaw 47 

theatre 38 

their 105 

themselves (56), 68, 96 

then 10, 198-9 

there 10, 14 and "passim 

there are, v. there is 

there is (bott>) 11, 15 

there is not 10, 27, 91 

there is (ecTb) 27 

thereupon 198-9 

thermometer 130 

they 13, 14, 55 

thick 74 

thin 74 

thing 33, 44 

third 82 

this (these) 3, 13, 57, 65, 167 

thou 16, 17, 55 

thread 160 

throat 129 

through 171 

thus 12 

thy 55, 63 

thyself (56), 68, 96 



ticket 32, 43 

ticket-office 44 

tie 160 

tiger 132 

till 144 

time 9, 33, 46 

time (a) 7, 46, 93, 112, 169 

time (at that) 169 

time (in the— of) 185, 198-9 

time (a long) 17 

time (in good) 169 

tip 43 

to 162, 167 

to-day 10, 16, 30 

to-morrow 30 

tobacco 90, 109 

toe 130 

toilet 44 

tomato 107 

tongue 107, 129 

too 11, 25, 26 

too little 11 

too much 11 

tooth 129 

top (on the) 187 

total (sum) 45 

towel 41 

tower 39 

town 35, 46 

train 44 

tram 44 

tray 170 

tree 37, 95, 133 

trousers 159 

trunk 161 

Tsar (the) 61 

Tsaritsa (the) 61 

tsar 2, 60 

tsarevich 60 

tsaritsa 60 

tsesarevich 60 

tub (bath) 41 

tumbler 42 

tumbler-stand 42 

turkey-hen 107 

turnip 107 



INDEX OF WORDS AND PHRASES 215 



ugly 75 
umbrella 160 
uncle 58 

uncomfortable 76 
under 182 
undervest 159 
unfortunate 22 
unhappiness 101 
unhappy 22, 76 
uninteresting 76 
university 39 
unjust (it is) 18 
unlucky 22 
unnecessary (it is) 12 
unpleasant (adj.) 75, 155 
unpleasant (it is) 18 
until 144 
unusual 76 
unwell 20 
up to 144 
upper 74 
usual 76 

vacant (it is) 25 
veal 106 
vegetable 107 
vegetable -bed 133 
verst 45, 114-19 
very 11, 18 
very well 18 
very (the) 83 
vessel (ship) 37, 95 
vest 159 
vestibule 40 
via 171 
view 46 
villa 39 
village 32, 46 
vinegar 106 
violet (subst.) 133 
visitors ) 142 
vodka 108 
volume 8, 100 

wagon, v. cart 
waistcoat 159 



waiting-room 40 

wall 41 

walnut 108 

want (I) 156-7 

war 101 

warm (it is) 24, 25 

warm (I am) 154 

warm (adj.) 77 

was 4, 28 

wash (the) 160 

wash-stand 41 

wasp 132 

watch (clock) 42 

water 27, 108, 113 

water-bottle 43 

water-melon 108 

waterproof 160 

way (subst.) 44, 174 

way (a long), v. far 

way (a short), v. near 

W.C. 40 

we 16, 55 

weather 47 

week 32, 46 

weight 45 

well ! 10 

well (far from) 21 

well (in health) 20 

well (very) 18, 154 

were 28 

west(ern) 48 

wet 77 

what 13, 56, 82, 84, 86 

what a little 12 

what a lot 12 

what like 82, 87 

wheat 133 

wheel 44 

when 10 

where 7, 10 and passim 

which 82, 84 

whiskers 129 

white 78 

who 7, 13, 56 

whole (the) 57, 65 

whose 56, 67 



216 INDEX OP WORDS AND PHRASES 



why, 144, 163 

wicked 75 

wife 59 

will be 30 

wind 47 

window 41, 95 

wine 108 

wine-glass 43 

winter 47 

winter (adj.) 78 

with 184 

without 144 

wolf 132 

woman (peasant) 32, 62 

woman 61-2 

wood, v. tree 

wood (forest) 45 

wood fuel 42 

wool 161 

word 101 

work 46 

work (literary) 100 

world 4, 48 

worse (it is) 18, 19, 122, 

worthless 75 

would be 29 



S» 



155 



would have been 29 
wrist 130 
writer 101 
writing-paper 42 
writing-table 41 
written 179 
wrong (it is unjust) 18 
wrong (to be) 23 

yard (measure) 93, 161 
yard (court-) 39 
year 7, 46, 47, 114-19 
yellow 78 
yes 10, 13, 28 
yesterday 30 
yet 9, 11 and passim 
yet (not) 11 
yonder (that — ) 57 
you 16, 17, 55 
young 70, 78 
younger 78, 88 
youngest 88 
young lady 60 
your 56, 62 
yourselves (56), 68, 96 



SUBJECT-INDEX 



age (expression of) 161 

authors (names of) 80, 104 

countries (names of) 49, 167-8 

date (the) 121-2 

days of the week (the) 47, 84, 
163, 168 

food and drink (portions of) 
112-13, 115, 119, 126-7, 184 

meals 109, 169, 184 

money (expression of money- 
values) 44, 80, 109, 111, 114- 
19, 163 

months (names of the) 47, 121 

names (family) 54, 80, 104, 124 



names (personal, use of) 54 
names (personal) 33, 52, 80, 104, 

125, 126 
nationalities 49, 79, 181-2, 197 
numerals 69, 82, 114-22, 161 
personal names (use of) 54 
price (expression of) 163, 170. 

198-9 
rivers (names of) 51, 196 
seasons (the) 47, 167, 180 
time of day 119-20, (cf. 167), 

169, 180-1 
times (of the year), v. seasons 
towns (names of) 51, 196 



Printed in England at the Oxford University Press 



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