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Full text of "First and second report on the noxious, beneficial and other insects, of the state of New York : made to the State Agricultural Society, pursuant to an appropriation for this purpose from the legislature of the state"

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FIRST AND SECOND REDOUT 

^[^ ON THE 

KIF NOXIOUS, 

/ 256 



Bnt. 



BENEFICIAL AND OTHER 

. .INSECTS, 



OP THE 



STATE OF NEW-YORK. 



MADE TO THE STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, PURSUANT TO AN 

APPROPRIATION FOR THIS PURPOSE FROM THE 

LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE. 



BY ASA FITCH, M. D., 



S 1 .HS-V^ 

JUL 1 1 1989 



ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE N. Y. STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY; MEMBER OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FRANCE, OF PENNSYLVANIA, ETC. 



ALBANY: 

C. VAN BENTHUYSEN, PRINTER TO THE LEGISLATURE 

No. 407 Broadwa y . 

1856. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, October 8th, 1856, in- the Clerk's 
Office of the Northern District of New- York. 



No, 215. 




REPORT 

Of Asa Fitch. M. D., on tlie Noxious, Beneficial, and other 
Insects of the State of New-York. 

I herewith submit a Report upon the Noxious and other Insects 
of the State of New-York, particularly such as are injurious to 
fruit trees, pursuant to your instructions, delivered to me in May 
last. I also present specimens of the several insects herein 
described, and of the vegetation as depredated upon by them, 
from which drawings may be taken for illustrating this report, 
and which are thereafter to be deposited in the Entomological 
department of the Museum of the Society. 

It has been common in treatises upon economical entomology, 
to arrange the several species in their scientific order. Although 
this mode of arrangement has its advantages, it presupposes such 
an acquaintance with scientific entomology as but very few indi- 
viduals in our country possess. A person who meets with a 
worm, say, mining a cavity in the leaves of the apple tree, and 
consuming their parenchyma, -knows not whether that worm is the 
larva of a Coleopterous, a Lepidopterous, or some other Order of 
insects, and consequently is at a loss in what part of a work upon 
noxious insects, arranged in the usual manner, to look for an 
account of it. Even an experienced entomologist would be 
eq 'ally embarrassed in the case we have supposed, and would be 

[Assembly, No. 215. | 1 



Z INTRODUCTION. 

unable to decide whether such worm was a leaf-mining moth of 
the Order Lepidoptera, or a prickly beetle (Hispa) of the Order 
Coleoptera— so closely, according to accounts, do the larvae of 
these*widely separated groups resemble each other. I have there- 
fore pursued a different mode of arrangement. As the insects 
which infest our fruit trees occupy the chief part of this report, 
they are first considered. Commencing with those which occur 
upon the Apple tree, I speak in succession of those which affect 
the root, the trunk, the twigs, the leaves, the flowers, and the 
fruit. In the same order, insects which occur upon the Pear, the 
Peach, the Plum, and the Cherry, are successively taken up. 
From our Fruit trees I pass to some species of much interest 
which have beeu examined, infesting our Forest trees, our Field 
crops, and our Garden vegetables. This mode of arrangement of 
the several topics will be perfectly intelligible to every reader; 
and, aided by the brief heading which precedes the account of 
each species, will enable him to turn at once to any insect which 
he wishes to find, which is here described. 

In a field of such extent, and comprising such a multitude of 
objects, it will not be expected that the researches of a single 
season can suffice to briDg this subject to anything approaching to 
completeness. I think it is Saint Pierre who remarks that he had 
made it a point to examiae the several insects which made their 
appearance upon a particular rose bush in his garden, and at the 
end of thirty years he continued to find new kinds which he had 
never seen upon the bush before. And however assiduously one 
may investigate the history of a particular species during the 
period of its appearance one season, if he returns to the same 
insect another year, additional traits in its habits commonly con- 
tinue to be discovered, equal in importance frequently to those 
Which were first noticed. Those species which I have been able 
to investigate since I received your instructions, including several 
which have never been noticed in our country before, will be 
found fully reported in the following pages. The history of some 
important depredators upon our American fruit trees, the Plum 
weevil, for instance, and the Canker worm, which I have not as 
yet had time and favorable oportunities for examining, I hope to 
present on a future occasion. 



INTRODUCTION. O 

As it is the primary object of this report to diffuse information 
upon an important topic with which very few are at present con- 
versant, I have throughout endeavored to treat the subject in a 
plain, familiar manner, avoiding any unnecessary resort to techni- 
cal language, and using no terms but such as will be found clearly 
denned in dictionaries which are in every school district in our 
State. A few words such as antenna?, thorax, abdomen, and elytra, 
which are so common in works upon insects that no one can 
expect to obtain the slightest acquaintance with this science with- 
out becoming familiar with them, I have employed, as it would 
savor of fastidiousness to substitute in their stead the correspond- 
ing Englisn terms of horns or feelers, chest, body and wing- 
covers, which applied to insects are mudined from their common 
meaning, and the general reader will encounter much the same 
task in familiarizing himself to this modified signification that he 
will have in learning the more definite and convenient technical 
terms and their signification. 

Those portions of the report which are designed for perusal 
only when one has specimens before him of which he is desirous 
to ascertain the names, are inserted in a type of a smaller size. 
The dimensions of the several insects, larva?, &c, are expressed 
in inches and the fractional parts of an inch, 1.25 thus implying 
an inch and a quarter, 0.75 seventy-five hundredths, or three- 
fourths of an inch, &c. 

With these explanations I submit to you this report, with the 
hope that it may aid in rendering this branch of science more 
known to our citizens and available in adding to their comfort 
and welfare. 

ASA FITCH. 

FitcJi's Point {East Greenwich, P. 0.), March 14, 1855. 

P. S. The Legislature having made provisions for a continu- 
ance of this work, as another report will be presented the coming 
year, a number of species which are in a state of forwardness for 
publication, and which we had contemplated insertingln the pre. 
sent document, are withheld in the crowded state of the Society's 
volume of Transactions the present year, with the hope that we 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

shall be able to obtain additional facts to render our account of 
these species more complete and exact, and also with the antici- 
pation that we shall be able to accompany them with suitable 
illustrations, which could not be got ready for insertion in the 

present volume. 

A. F. 

August 7, 1855. 



[Notk. — This report is also published in the " Transactions of the New-York State 
Agricultural Society," vol. xiv, pp. 705-880.] 



INSECTS INFESTING FRUIT TREES. 



1. THE APPLE. 



AFFECTING THE ROOT. 



Wart-like excrescences growing upon the roots, sometimes of an enormous 
size; containing in their crevices exceedingly minute lice, often ac- 
companied with larger winged ones having their bodies covered with 
a white cotton-like matter. 

The Apple-root Blight, Pemphigus Pyri. Synonyms, Eriosoma Pyri, 
Fitch, Fourth Report of the N. Y. State Cabinet of Nat. Hist., A. D. 
1851, (Senate Document, No. 30) p. 68. Pemphigus dmericanus 1 
Walker, List of Homopterous Insects in the British Museum, 1852, 
p. 1057. 

Upon the 29th day of October, 1849, 1 was occupied in setting 
out a number of young Apple trees which had been brought me 
from the nursery at Glens Falls, Warren county, when, on the 
roots of one of these trees, I observed some very singular excres- 
cences. I was conjecturing as to the cause of this remarkable 
disease, which appeared to be sufficient to destroy the tree, when, 
nearly concealed in one of the largest excrescences, a woolly Plant- 
louse was perceived, and on further inspection, a second one was 
found, similarly secreted — one of these being dead, the other 
alive. And on examining the crevices of this excrescence with a 
magnifying glass, they were discovered to be occupied by nu- 
merous lice, so minute as to be wholly imperceptible to the naked 
eye. These, there can scarcely be a doubt, were the young of 
the larger winged lice, first noticed. 

Upon the wing, ingioves, late in the autumn, I have captured 
numerous individuals of this same species, where no apple trees 
were growing within a half mile. These were probably bred 
upon the roots of the Thorn or the Shad-bush (Jlmelanckier 
Canadensis) , and it may possibly prove to be the fact that this 



6 APPLE-ROOT BLIGHT ITS EXTENT. 

insect is not limited to the Pomcoz family, but infests the roots of 
other deciduous forest and fruit trees. 

This affection of the roots of Apple trees has occasionally been 
noticed in our agricultural periodicals, and various inquiries 
have been made respecting the insect which occasions them, 
which inquiries have received no satisfactory answers, for the 
reason that the insect is a new species, different from any hitherto 
described in books or known to our nurserymen and fruit growers. 
A communication from J. Fulton, jr., of Chester county, Pa., in 
Downing's Horticulturist, vol. iii, p. 391, gives additional evi- 
dence of this being a common disease over a large extent of our 
country, and causing great losses to our nurserymen. He says : 
" The main purpose of my writing is to call attention to an im- 
portant matter, and to ask for light upon the subject. In taking 
up trees this fall (1848), I notice that some of the roots will .be 
full of excrescences, or warts, and covered with a minute white, 
woolly insect; and that some of them find lodgment on the 
trunks of the trees, in the partly closed wounds made by prun- 
ing. As the tree seemed vigorous, I paid little attention to the 
subject, until another nurseryman called my attention to the 
subject, and stated, that not being able to supply the demand 
for Apple trees, he had been at several nurseries in this State to 
purchase, and was hard set to get a supply, because so many 
proved diseased in this way, and that thousands had to be thrown 
away. Since this, a young friend of mine has returned from 
Virginia, where he had sold and delivered several thousand trees ; 
and he informs me that his trees were very generally so, and 
that he was not aware that the appearance was at all prejudicial 
to the health or value of the trees, nor did the propagator of 
them seem to be aware of their hurtful nature. Can this insect 
be the ' woolly aphis V And if so, what can nurserymen do to 
get rid of a pest which, unfortunately, is by no means rarely 
seen 1 I have detected the presence of the insect much the most 
frequently on trees which grow on a gravelly or slaty soil, and 
seldom on trees growing in a mellow loam." 

A short description of this species was published in my cata- 
logue of the Homopterous Insects, in the State Cabinet of Natural 



APPLE-ROOT BLIGHT ITS GENERIC NAME. 7 

History, under the name of Eriosoma Pyri, All those Plant lice 
Which were formerly included in Dr. Leach's genus Eriosoma, 
which have all the veins of the wings simple, and those in the 
disk of the hind pair two in number, now form the genus Pem- 
phigus of Hartig (Germar's Zeitsch. vol. iii, p. 366), to which 
genus it is therefore necessary to refer this insect.* Several of 
the other species of this genus, as well as the present one, are 
known to infest the roots of plants. I entertain scarcely a doubt 
that this is the same species which Mr. Walker soon afterwards 
described, from specimens obtained in Nova Scotia, under the 
name of Pemphigu Jlimricanus ; though the length which he as- 
signs to it (four lines) is rather greater than any individuals I 
have met with. 

To our nurserymen it obviously belongs, to fully elucidate the 
history of this species, ^ind the disease which it occasions, as they 
enjoy opportunities lor observing it such as belong to no other 
profession. The knots, or excrescences, occur both upon the 
large roots of the Apple tree and their more slender, fibrous, 
and capillary branches. In the single instance in which they 

* Mr. Westwood, In his Arcana Entomologia, vol. ii. p. S3, observes that the name Bryso- 
•crypta (Byrsocrypta) of Haliday must be retained for Hartigs genus Pemphigus. And on 
the next page we are told: " The generic name of Eriosoma (Leach) must take place of 
that of Pemphigus, and be restricted to such species as differ from Aphis bursarius." There 
is a contradiction here, which I can only account for by supposing the distinguished author, 
who is so accurate a nomenclator, has inadvertently placed the name Pemphigus in the lat- 
ter quotation, where he intended to insert Schizoncura. The first division of the old Lin- 
nsean genus Aphis appears to have been made in 1819, when Sainouelle (in his Entomologist's 
Companion, p. 232) published the genus Eriosoma from Dr. Leach's MSS., with the "E, 
Mali, the Aphis lanigcra of authors," or the well-known Apple tree blight, as its type. 
Samouelle's little work, truly a " Ui-eful Companion'' in its day, probably was not circulated 
upon the Continent, and entomologists there seem to have been uninformed of its contents. 
Several synonyms, in consequence, have unfortunately been introduced into the science. Five 
years afterwards, Blot (in the Memoirs of the Linnasan Society of Calvados, vol. i. p. 114) 
named the same insect Myzoxylus Mali, which name has been extensively circulated by 
French writers. Still more recently, Hartig (in Germar's Zeitschrift, vol. iii. p. 367) has 
proposed the name Schizoneura for this same genus; whilst Macquart has bestowed the name 
Eriosoma upon a genus of flies, in the Order Biptcra. Mr. Westwood is clearly right in re- 
taining Dr. Leach's name for the genus having Aphis lanigera as its type. 

With regard to the statement first made above, I would observe, Mr. Haliday first proposed 
the genus llyrsocrypta, if I mistake not, in the Annals of Nat. Hist, for the year 1839, page 
189, placing under this genus the Aphis Ulmi of Geoffroy, and a new species which he names 
pallida. We henee regard the Ulmi and not the bursarius as the type of Mr. Haliday's 
genus. Consequently the name Byrsocnpta must be retail, d for the genus which has Ulmi 
for its typo, namely, the Tctrancura of Hartig; whilst his crius Pemphigus, with bursarius 
as its type, is entitled to stand. I therefore give our Am' ican species under this name. 




8 APPLE-ROOT BLIGHT EXCRESCENCES DESCRIBED. 

have come under my notice, the main root of the young tree 
was half an inch in diameter, half a span below the surface, at 
which point it was two-thirds surrounded by an excrescence 
two inches in length and three inches in diameter and height, 
and connected to the root by a neck much smaller than its base. 
(The accompanying figure is a view of 
the back of this excrescence, reduced to 
one-fourth its actual size, and one of the 
small fibrous roots, with an excrescence 
thereon. The original specimen is pre- 
served in the Entomological department 
of the Museum of the State Agricultural. 
$ociet}\) It is of an irregular, knobbed 
form. Its surface is of the same yellowish-brown color as the 
bark of the root, and is everywhere crowded with little round 
elevations, from the size of a mustard se^d to that of a buck 
shot or a small pea. On cutting one of the projecting knobs, it 
is found to be of a very hard, woody texture, and without any 
cavities in its center. Upon the main root, between this and 
the surface of the earth, was a second similar excrescence, but 
smaller; whilst upon several of the small capillary fibres were 
similar tubers, from the size of a pea to that of a bullet. 

These excrescences are doubtless formed in much the some way 
that galls and other morbid enlargements in the structure of vege- 
tables are produce.d. The parent insect insinuates herself down- 
wards along the side of the root, as it would appear, at the close 
of autumn, and there deposits her stock of eggs, and perishes. 
These eggs hatch when the ground becomes warm the following 
spring, and the young lice insert their beaks into the bark of the 
root to extract their nourishment therefrom. Their punctures 
produce a kind of irritation, which causes an increased flow t)f 
fluids to the spot where they are located. This excessive amount 
of sap thus diverted to this part occasions an increased growth of 
the w r ood, and results in the enormous development which we 
have witnessed. As in other cases in this family, these lice pro- 
bably continue to multiply without any intercourse of the sexes 
until autumn, when w r inged individuals are developed, which 




APPLE-ROOT BLIGHT INSECT DESCRIBED. 9 

leave their retreat, and coming abroad into the open air, copu- 
late, and search out new situations in which to plant their 
species. Others, as I infer from the lateness of the season when 
I found young lice upon the excrescences, remain in their abode 
through the winter, to continue their operations upon the same 
roots the following year. 

The yong larva: as appears from the hasty notes and sketch which I was 
able to take whilst they were still alive, were scarcely four hundredths of an 
inch in length, of an oval form and a pale dull yellow color. 
Their legs were shortish, robust, and nearly equal in length. 
The antennae appeared much like a fourth pair of legs, be- 
jng robust, and about the same length as the legs; they 
seemed to be five-jointed, the joints successively diminish- 
ing in diameter, the one next to the last being longest. From 
the tip of the abdomen of each of these j r oung lice protru- 
ded a white filament, or short thread of flocculent cotton- 
like matter, variously curled and crinkled in different indi- 
viduals, The whiteness of this filament rendered it perceptible to the naked 
eye, and served to show the situation of the insect as it moved about upon the 
surface of the excrescence, when otherwise it would have been wholly invisible. 

The mature winged individuals are nearly or quite a quarter of an inch in 
length to the tips of the closed wings, and these, when spread, measure thirty- 
eight hundredths of an inch across. The body, legs and attennse, are coal 
black; the attennse are about half the length of the body, and the head and ab- 
domen on its back are covered with a dense mass of snow white or bluish white 
flocculent down. The upper wings are transparent and slightly smoky, as 
though fine dust had settled upon them. This cloudiness is rather mqre dense 
at their tips. The veins are black, faintly margined with dusky brown. The 
rib vein is robust, and from its base to the stigma, very slightly approaches 
the margin, it then gradually diverges from it to the base of the fourth vein, 
where it is more distant from the margin than in any other part of its course* 
it thence curves slightly towards the margin, and joins it at a very acute angle, 
the margin being commonly slightly contracted, or obtusely notched, at the 
point of junction. The first vein curves slightly towards the tip on its basal 
part, and then runs straight, or near its apex curves almost imperceptibly 
towards the inner margin. The second vein is rather more robust than the 
first, is thickest in its middle, at its base curved towards the tip, middle por- 
tion straight, apical third curving towards the inner margin; its base is nearer 
to the base of the first vein than to the outer margin, and it is about seven 
times as far from the first vein at the apex as it is at the base. The third vein 
is rather more slender than the first, nearly straight, sub-parallel with the 
second vein two-thirds of its length, its basal third abortive and imperceptible 
except in a particular reflection of the light, base about the same distance from 
the base of the second vein that this is from the first, apex nearer the apex of 
the second vein than this is to the first. The fourth vein is more robust than 
the first and third, thickest at base and gradually more slender thence to the 



10 APPLT-ROOT BLIGHT — REMEDIES. 

tip, basal portion gently curved, the remaining part straight, its apex nearer 
that of the third than that of the rib vein, about the same distance from the 
apex of the rib vein that the apex of the third vein is from that of the second. 
Marginal vein robust and black from the base to the stigma, very slender and 
black along the outer margin of the stigma, slender and brown from the stig- 
ma around the tip of the wing aud along its inner margin to the apex of the 
first vein, thence robust and black, gradually becoming brown towards the 
base, stigma dark smoky brown, oblong, its opposite sides nearly parallel, 
abruptly converging to an acute point at each end, the basal end more acute 
than the apical, and slightly attenuated. Lower wings more clear and hyaline; 
marginal vein and Suter filament of the rib vein pale brown, inner filament 
black and very gradually diverging from the outer, both filaments undulated 
beyond the base of the second vein; the two discoidal veins blackish, the first 
slightly undulated, its apex the same distance from the apex of the second that 
this is from that of the inner filament of the rib vein. 

^.n abnormal variety has fallen under my notice in one instance, in which the 
apex of the fourth vein of the right wing was slightly forked. 

When a tree ceases to grow with its usual vigor, and its leaves 
are of a paler and more yellow hue than usual, and no borers in 
the trunk, or other obvious cause of disease can be discovered, 
the presence of this blight upon its roots may be suspected, and 
the earth should be removed from them sufficiently to ascertain 
whether excrescences such as have been above described are 
formed upon them, and if discovered, it will be well to clear 
away the earth from around them as much as can conveniently 
be done, and pour strong soapsuds upon them, that it may satu- 
rate the crevices in the excrescences, for there isjittle doubt that 
every insect that is reached and wetted by this solution will im- 
mediately perish. And ashes should be freely mingled with the 
soil with which the roots are covered. It is probable that by a 
resort to these measures an affected tree can in most instances be 
cured. 

It is chiefly in nurseries, upon the roots of young trees taken 
up to be transplanted, that the blight will be detected. In con- 
sequence of it thousands of trees in our country have undoubt 
edly been thrown away. But there is probably no necessity for 
rejecting such trees. If the root be dipped in soapsuds, unless 
the lice upon it are a muchharJier race tham their kindred which 
dwell upon the leaves and twigs of trees, they will at once be 
destroyed, and such trees may then be set out w r ifh as much 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER ITS EXTENT. 11 

safety as though they had never been affected. This, at all events 
is a point which any nurseryman can easily ascertain by experi- 
ment. Mr. Downing recommends the mixing of a shovelfull 
of ashes with the earth in which such trees are set, which may 
be equally as effectual as an immersion of the roots in soapsuds. 



AFFECTING THE TRUNK. 

Excavating a round flat cavity under the bark near the root, and then 
boring a cylindrical hole upward in the solid wood: a yellowish or 
white, footless, cylindrical grub, broadest anteriorly, with a brown 
head and black jaws. 

The Apple Tree Borer. Saperda bivittata, Say. Synonym, Saperda 
Candida? Fabricius. 

This is one of the worst enemies against which our apple trees 
have to contend. It is much more common everywhere in our 
country than is generally supposed. The editor of the Ohio Cul- 
tivator (vol. x, page 212), speaks of it as a New England insect, 
which has never been seen as yet, to his knowledge, in Ohio. 
There can be no doubt, however, that it is common in that State, 
for I met with it last autumn in the orchards of Michigan and 
Illinois, and am informed by the editor of the Prairie Farmer 
that it has for many years been found in the neighborhood of 
Chicago. Specimens of the beetle have also been sent me from 
Arkansas ; and as this is a native insect which breeds in the dif- 
ferent species of thorn, in the mountain ash, and the shad-bush, 
there is a strong probability that it is as widely spread over our 
country as these trees are. And notwithstanding it*has been so 
often noticed in our agricultural and other papers, many of out 
citizens are yet wholly unaware of its existence, and others who 
are familiar with the published accounts, suppose it occurs only 
in some distant localities, and are wholly unsuspicious that their 
own neighborhoods and their own trees are suffering from it. We 
have reason to believe that in many instances where orchards are 
dwindling and dicing from the attacks of this insect, their pro- 
prietors suppose there is something in the soil or local situation 
which prevents their fruit trees from being more vigorous and 
flourishing. In many sections of our country, it is the current 



12 APPLE-TRUNK BORER — ITS EXTENT. 

opinion that particular localities are unfavorable to the growth 
of fruit trees, and this opinion has almost invariably arisen from 
the fact that orchards planted in these situations have not been 
thrifty and productive. Now there is a strong probability that, at 
least in many cases, those failures have been caused by the attacks 
of insects, and that these localities which are in such bad repute 
are in reality as well adapted for fruit culture as any others in 
their vicinity. The justness of these remarks will be evident from 
the following case : A lot at East Greenwich, Washington co., 
recently purchased by Dr Henry K. McLean, had ten young 
apple trees standing upon it, which are about ten feet high. The 
bad condition of these trees was noticed by the doctor, when bar- 
gaining for the land, and he was told by the former owner that he 
must not expect fruit trees to do well there, the soil and situation 
(a terraced flat of gravel, bordering upon Batten kill,) being 
unadapted to them. Other residents in the neighborhood reite- 
rated the same statement. The doctor, on inspecting the trees 
more closely, soon afterwards, discovered that they were badly 
infested with the borer, and going to work with his knife, he last 
spring dug out and destroyed from these ten trees, over sixty 
worms, as he assures me, although the statement is almost incredi- 
ble. Several of the trees were almost girdled, and would have 
been quite so in a short time. These trees now show for them- 
selves that during the past summer they have scarcely been 
equalled in the rapidity of their growth and their thrifty condi- 
tion, by any others in the country. And it is thus rendered evi- 
dent that the gardens and yards of that neighborhood are well 
adapted for'the cultivation at least of the apple tree, and that the 
bad repute in which they have heretofore been held, has been 
wholly unmerited. 

Elmer Ealdwin, Esq., of Farm Ridge, La Salle county, Illi- 
nois, an intelligent fruit culturist, who has had much experience 
with some of the insects infesting our fruit trees, and to whom I 
am indebted for several interesting facts relating to thi« and 
other species, informs me, that he sat out fifty apple trees in the 
year 1838, and in 1813 when they had grown to about three 
inches in diameter, a neighbor enquired if the borer was among 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER ITS EGGS. 13 

• 

his trees, saying it had killed nearly half the trees in his or- 
chard. This was the first time his attention was directed to this 
insect, and on examination he found that almost every one of his 
trees had from one to five worms in them; and several were de- 
stroyed, beyond all possibility of saving them. In one instance 
he has found twenty of these worms in one tree. For a few 
years past they have not been so numerous in his vicinity as 
they previously were. He has kept a pretty accurate account 
of his fruit trees, and finds that of all the apple trees he has 
planted, he has lost one in every eight from the borer. The in- 
sect is more fond of the quince, even, than it is of the apple, in- 
somuch that he has found it impossible to grow this fruit, the 
stalks, notwithstanding all the care he has given them, being 
almost invariably riddled by the borer. Though he has set out 
very many quince trees during the past sixteen years, he has 
never been able to get but a dozen quinces, and these were 
gathered in the fall of 1853, when all kinds of fruit were so 
abundant in his section of country. 

The accounts which have been given, and the ideas that are 
prevalent respecting the burrow which this worm excavates in 
the trees which it attacks are very imperfect, and in part erro- 
neous. It is the common opinion that it simply bores a cylindri- 
cal passage upwards in the solid wood of the tree, which passage 
it keeps clean and empty. If this were the case, a constant effort, 
I think, would be required to prevent this footless worm from 
falling to the bottom of its burrow. As we shall see, that part 
of its operations whereby it does the most injury to the tree, has 
been hitherto overlooked. 

The winged beetle makes its appearance every year early in 
June. Like other species of the family of long horned beetles 
(Cerambycidce) to which it pertains, it flies only by night. In the 
course of this and the following month the female deposits her 
eggs, one in a place, upon the bark, low down, at or very near 
the surface of the earth; but when these beetles are numerous, 
some of their eggs are placed higher up, particularly in the axils 
where the lower limbs proceed from the trunk. From each of 
these eggs is hatched a minute grub, or more properly a maggot, 



14 APPLE-TRUNK BORER ITS BURROW. 

for it has no feet. It is of a white color, with a yellowish tinge 
to its head. This maggot eats its way directly downwards in the 
bark, producing a discoloration where it is situated. If the 
outer dark colored surface of the bark be scraped off with a knife 
the last of August or forepart of September, so as to expose the 
clean white bark beneath, as can easily be done without any in- 
jury to the tree, wherever there is a young worm it can readily 
be detected. A little blackish spot, rather larger than a kernel 
of wheat, will be discovered wherever an egg has been deposited, 
and by cutting slightly into the bark the worm will be found. 
It gradually works its way onwards through the bark, in- 
creasing in size as it advances, until it reaches the sap-wood; 
here it takes up its abode, feeding upon and consuming the soft 
wood, hereby forming a smooth round flat cavity, the size of a 
dollar or larger, immediately under the bark. It keeps its bur- 
row clean by pushing its excrement out of a small crevice or 
opening through the bark, which it makes at the lower part of 
its burrow, and if this orifice becomes clogged up it opens another. 
This excrement resembles new fine saw dust, and enables us rea- 
dily to detect the presence of the worm by the little heap of this 
substance which is accumulated on the ground, commonly cover- 
ing the hole out of which it is extruded, and by particles of it 
which adhere around the orifice where it is higher up, or in the 
fork of the tree; the outer surface of the bark also often becomes 
slightly depressed, or flattened, over this cavity. 

When the worm is half grown, or more, as if conscious it would 
now form a dainty tidbit for a woodpecker or any other insect-, 
ivorous bird, and that it was daily becoming less secure in its 
present situation, by reason ol its burrow being so large, and 
forming so much of a cavity as to be liable to be detected by any 
scrutiny made on the outside of the tree, it seeks to place itself 
in 'a less exposed situation, by gnawing a cylindrical retreat for 
itself upwards in the solid heart-wood of the tree. Some of its 
habits are now reversed. The flat cavity which it was so careful 
to keep clean it is now intent upon filling up and obliterating, as 
far as it is able, that it may not be discovered. It ceases to eject 
its castings, and now crowds and packs them in the lower part of 
its burrow, as it bores a round hole, upward, in the solid wood. 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER ITS BURROW. 



15 



This hole runs slightly inwards, towards the centre of the tree, 
and then outwards, so that when it is completed its upper end is 
perfi >rated through the sap-wood, and. is only covered, by the bark. 
The lower flat portion of its burrow is by this 
time stuffed in every part with its castings, 
whilst the long cylindrical passage above is 
still empty. As if fearful that these castings, 
being so fine and dry, might sift out, and thus 
leave an open passage for some marauding in- 
sect or other enemy to crawl in and destroy it 
during its defenceless pupa state, and that it 
may, during this period of its life, be securely 
held in- the middle of its cylindrical hole, the 
worm now turns itself around, (as I think for 
it is impossible to conjecture how otherwise 
this long round cavity becomes filled in the 
manner in which we usually find it,) and with 
its jaws strips a quantity of woody fibres from 
the inner walls of the middle part of its bur- 
row, thus enlarging this part sufficiently to give 
it ample room to repose here in its pupa state, 
when its body becomes more short and broad 
than it has previously been. With these fibres 
of wood, which are from a half to three-fourths of an inch in 
length, it firmly plugs up all the lower part of its burrow above 
the flat excavation in the sap-wood, plach g the fibres frequently 
in as regular order as the hairs of a mustache. And the castings 
which it voids when in this inverted position are crowded, and 
firmly packed together in the upper end of its burrow. Thus 
the long cylindrical hole which it has bored becomes filled up, 
and securely plugged with woody debris at each extremity, leav- 
ing only a vacant space in its middle, where it is deepest sunk in 
the wood of the tree, for the insect to lie during its pupa state. 
The annexed cut will give an idea of these burrows and their 
contents, as they appear when the bark is removed and the wood 
cut away sufficiently to expose their whole length to view. 
Having now finished its labors ana attained its growth it again 
turns itself around to its former posture, with its head upwards, 




16 APPLE-TRUNK BORER ITS BURROW. 

becomes inactive, and lies dormant during the winter season, and 
the following spring is transformed to a pupa. From this pupa 
the perfect insect soon after hatches, and tearing away the saw- 
dust like powder which has been packed in the upper end of its 
burrow, it has only to break through the bark here, which it 
easily does with its sharp, powerful jaws, to come out of the tree. 

It will thus be seen that the burrow of this worm consists of 
two distinct parts — a round flat excavation in the sap-wood, im- 
mediately under the bark, and a long round hole in the solid 
wood, running upwards from the upper part of the flat cavity, 
first inwards towards the centre of the trunk, and then outwards 
to the bark. This upper portion of the burrow is variable in its 
length, being sometimes no more than an inch and three-quar- 
ters, and at other times, as I am informed, a foot or more. The 
lower flat portion as already stated, is about the size of a dollar, 
but is frequently much larger than this; and when the worm 
comes to knots or other obstructions when excavating it, instead 
of making it round it is cut out in an irregular form. But in all 
cases the worm passes the first periods of its life in consuming 
the sap-wood, its jaws probably being too weak as yet to enable 
it to work in the harder wood of the interior of the tree, and it 
is by thus mining in the sap wood, and cutting off so many of 
its vessels, that this worm does the chief injury to the tree, stint- 
ing it in its growth, and causing the leaves to assume a yellowish, 
sickly hue. And where four or five worms are at work in one 
young tree, as is often the case, these flat cavities in the sap- 
wood are liable to come in contact with each other, and thus 
completely girdle and destroy the tree. 

Numerous variations in the form and direction of the burrows 
of these borers may be met with. Some of the worms seem to be 
very wild and erratic in their proceedings. It is sometimes the 
case that as soon as it reaches the sap-wood it works directly up- 
wards, under the bark, and then turns, it may be, obliquely 
downwards before entering the heart-wood. A most singular de- 
viation from the usual habit was related to me by Esquire Bald- 
win, as follows : " The borer first made a flexuous channel up- 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER THE LARVA. 17 

wards under the bark, a distance of two feet, the channel be- 
coming gradually larger as the worm had increased in size. 
Having traced its burrow thus far by means of a pointed twig, 
for (said my informant) whenever I find one of these fellows in 
my trees I am after him immediately ' with a sharp stick,' I 
found he had bored directly through the centre or heart of the, 
tree, which was four inches in diameter, taking a course slightly 
upwards, so that after loosening and removing some of the stuff- 
ing in the hole, I discovered my rod had pricked through the 
bark on the opposite side of the tree, and yet did not encounter 
the worm; but on examining upon this side of the tree I found 
having not quite completed his feast, he had gone upwards in 
the sap-wood three inches further, where I finally discovered 
' the gentleman.' He evidently had finished his travels, for he 
was an inch and a half in length, was sluggish and inactive, and 
to all appearances was about changing to a pupa."' According to 
Dr. Harris (Treatise on New England Insects, page 95,) the larva 
state of this insect continues from two to three years. 

Mr. T. B. Ashton, of Whitecreek, New-York, informs me that 
he has in different years captured about one hundred and fifty 
of these beetles in their perfect state, and that only one-third of 
these have been females. According to his observations the time 
of their appearance varies somewhat, as the season is more for- 
ward or backward, but commonly, here in Washington county, 
forty miles north of Albany, they begin to be found upon the 
trees about the 20th of June, from which time until the close of 
the month they appear to be more numerous than they are after- 
wards. 

The mature worm varies considerably in its size, but is most commonly 
rather less than an inch long, and over a quarter of an inch in diameter ante- 
riorly at its broadest part. It is of a cylindrical form, the second segment be- 
ing bulged and rather broader than the others. It is soft and fleshy, and of a 
very pale yellow or a white color. The head is chestnut-brown, polished and 
horny, with scattered hairs; the upper jaws (mandibles) are deep black, 
sloped at their tips, which are obtusely rounded; between them appears the 
labrum or upper lip, of a tawny yellow color, and densely clothed with short 
hairs; the throat is also pale tawny yellow. The feelers (palpi) consist of a 
conical, three-jointed process, on the under side of each mandible, and inserted 
upon the lower jaw (maxilla) the tip of which slightly projects in the form of 
a short roundish process at the inner base of the feelers. The feelers of the 
[Assem. No. 215.] 2 



18 APPLE-TRUNK BORER THE BEETLE. 

lower lip (labial palpi) are also perceptible, forming a conical two-jointed pro- 
cess of a chestnut color, inside of each lower jaw. The antennae are also rep- 
resented by a small jointed, projecting point, near the outer angles of the head, 
so minute that we should little suspect it would become developed into the long 
horn which we find in the winged beetle. Scattered oyer the remainder of th& 
body, more densely in particular places, are numerous short brown hairs. The- 
second segment is larger than any of the others, as shown in the following cut; 
its upper side slopes obliquely downwards and forwards, and is occupied by a 
large smooth spot of a pale tawny yellow color, the posterior part of which is 
covered with brown points; beneath is a smaller transverse space, occupied by 
similar points, but with a band destitute of them running across its middle, 
and on each side is a pale tawny yellow spot destitute of these brown points. 
The third and fourth segments are shorter than the following ones. On the 
top of the fourth and each of the succeeding segments, to the tenth, is a trans- 
verse wart-like elevation, divided into two parts by a strongly impressed lon- 
gitudinal line. Along each side the spiracles or breathing pores form 
a row of nine chestnut brown dots, situated upon the second, the fifth 
and each of the following segments; and immediately below these is an 
elevated longitudinal ridge, which is interrupted at the joints. Beneath, 
as above, is a transverse wart like hump on the middle of each seg- 
ment from the fourth to the tenth, with a faint longitudinal impression 
across its middle. There are thirteen segments in all, separated from 
each other by strong constrictions. The last one of these is double, or 
appears like two segments, its posterior portion being but half as broad 
as the anterior, into which it is deeply sunk. 

The perfect insect or beetle measures from slightly over one-half to plump 
three-fourths of an inch in length, and frc-m 0.17 to 0.25 in width, the males 
being smaller and much more slender than the females. It is covered with 
dense appressed milk-white pubescence, and above are three broad stripes, 
formed by short appressed hairs, of an umber or butternut brown color, not a 
fuscous brown, as is stated in some of the descriptions. These stripes com- 
mence upon the base of the head and extend the whole length of the body. Both 
upon the thorax and the elytra, they are coarsely punctured, each puncture 
yielding a short black nearly erect bristle. The middle stripe embraces the 
suture of the elytra, is gradually narrowed to a point posteriorly, and does 
not reach the apex of the suture. The outer stripes are narrower on the tho- 
rax, and occupy the outer half of each etytrum, and are edged exteriorly 
at their tips with white. The white portions of the surface are clothed with 
fine white hairs, which on the face are interspersed with black bristles arising 
from fine black punctures. The head has an impressed black line in its mid- 
dle, upon which in the center of the face is a brown spot, which is round, kid- 
ney-shaped or like the letter V. In the females this spot is sometimes want- 
ing, or is replaced by two faint dots. The mouth is black, with the labrum or 
upper lip and the bases of the mandibles clothed with white appressed hairs. 
The eyes are coal black. The antennas are inserted upon a short broad promi- 
nence which arises in the notch of the eyes. They are slightly longer than the 
body in the males and shorter in the females. They are composed of eleven 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER — ITS SCIENTIFIC NAME. 19 

joints, whereof the second one is quite short and all the others long and cylin- 
drical, the basal one being much thicker than the others. They are covered 
with appressed white hairs upon a black ground, causing them to appear gray 
in the males and white in the females. The basal joint has several scattered 
black bristles, and upon the under side is a row of similar bristles to the end 
of the fifth joint, and three at the tips of each of the three following joints. 
The thorax presents a slender line in its middle, which line is impressed poste- 
riorly and elevated anteriorly, its anterior end being often of a white color. 
The legs are of the same color as the antennae, the soles of the feet being pale 
brown or yellowish, and the hooks at their tips are reddish-brown, 

This insect was regarded as a new species by Mr. Say, and he 
accordingly described it in the year 1824, in the Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, (vol. iii. p. 409,) under the name 
of Saperda bivittata or the Two-striped. Saperda, which name is 
also adopted by Dr. Harris, and is currently known throughout 
•our country as the scientific name of this insect. Fabricius long 
since very briefly noticed a species (Entomologia Systematica, 
vol. i b. p. 307,) which he found in the museum of Dr. Hunter, 
the native country of which was unknown, under the name of 
Super da Candida, or the White Saperda. He merely says of this 
insect that it is white, above fuscous with two white stripes, and 
with obtuse, smooth elytra. As Dr. Hunter's museum contained 
many insects from this country, Prof. HaldemanandDr. Le Conte 
regard our Apple tree borer as being without doubt the S. Can- 
dida of Fabricius. In this they are probably correct; but as our 
insect is clearly of an umber and not a fuscous brown color, and 
lias punctured elytra, marks which are at variance with the Fa- 
brician account, I deem it more safe to retain the name given by 
Mr. Say, connected with which there is no query, until our insect 
has been compared with the specimen, which is probably still in 
existence, and from which Fabricius drew his description. 

Among the means provided by the Author of Nature for de- 
stroying this borer and keeping it from becoming unduly multi- 
plied, the woodpeckers of our country, and particularly the 
Downy woodpecker (Picas pubesce?iSj Lin,) which is so frequently 
seen in our orchards, stands conspicuous. This gay bird seems 
to have been endowed with the habits and furnished with the 
organs which it possesses, for the express purpose of enabling it 
to discover and prey upon the Apple-tree borer and similar 



20 APPLE-TRUNK BORER DESTROYED BY BIRDS. 

larvse. As these worms place themselves under the bark, down 
at the very surface of the ground, their lurking place can only be 
found by a bird which makes its examinations with its head down- 
wards ; and the slender, extensile, flexible, barbed tongue of this 
bird was evidently constructed to enable it to probe the holes and 
explore the crevices and cavities of the bark, and transfix and 
drag from its cell any worm which is found reposing there. Es- 
quire Baldwin tells me that in numerous instances he has found 
the flat cavity excavated by the borer under the bark, without 
any vestiges of a worm in it, and has been wholiy at a loss to ac- 
count for its disappearance at this time, when its burrow is not 
half completed. My neighbor, Peter Reid, who has devoted much 
attention to our birds and their habits, informs me he has repeat- 
edly noticed the woodpecker remaining some considerable time 
down at the very root of the Apple tree, busily occupied in some 
operation at that particular part. These facts we think clearly 
elucidate each other, and render it evident that the woodpecker 
is the most formidable natural enemy to the Apple-tree borer 
which exists. And whether such a war of extermination should 
be waged against this bird, as has been declared by high authority 
(Kirtlands's Zool. 0., p. 179), we leave to be considered hereafter. 

It is probable, from what is said of the next species, that this 
also is subject to the attacks of Hymenopterous or Bee-like para- 
sites, which feed upon and destroy the worm, although I am not 
aware that any of these have as yet been actually discovered 
preying upon it. 

On glancing over the various remedies which have been pro- 
posed, and which may be met with in our agricultural papers, for 
the destruction of this borer, we are forcibly impressed with the 
fact, that, although these publications are doing great good in our 
community, they still unwittingly circulate many things that are 
foolish, and some that are pernicious. As an instance, we may 
cite the following : "One of the surest means to destroy the borers 
in Apple trees, is to make a solution of potash, two pounds to a 
gallon of water, which must be injected into the hole where the 
borer has entered, by means of a syringe holding half a pint." 
Now, we are not without suspicions that so strong a solution of 
caustic potash would destroy not only the borer, but the tree 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER REMEDIES — SOAP. 21 

also., especially if a half pint of it could be injected into each of 
the holes which are frequently made by four or five worms in one 
young tree. But as these holes are commonly already stuffed 
full of sawdust-like matter and woody fibres, we see not how any- 
thing can possibly be injected until these are removed. And 
this solution, we are further told, must be injected " into the hole 
where the borer has entered," Now this hole is at first no larger 
than a pin, and often becomes wholly closed up in the course of 
a few weeks, so that, as Hood says, " there a'n't no Billy there " 
— the worm having opened another orifice through which to eject 
its castings. Yet the terms of the prescription are explicit and 
peremptory. Through the hole where the worm has entered the 
solution " must be " injected. 

In the treatment of the Apple-tree borer, to use a medical term, 
there are two w indications." The first is, to protect the tree 
from attack; the second, to destroy the worm. And as we have 
simple, direct, and effectual modes for accomplishing both these 
purposes, there is no occasion for dwelling upon those which are 
of doubtful efficacy or inconvenient to be applied. 

Experiments amply show that alkaline preparations of suitable 
strength are most repulsive, nay, directly poisonous to most in- 
sects and their larvae, whilst upon vegetation they have an oppo- 
site effect, promoting the health and accelerating the growth of 
plants. Of these preparations, one of the least expensive, one 
which is everywiiere at hand, and of suitable strength for being 
applied freely to the outer bark of trees without danger of ero- 
ding or otherwise injuring its texture, is common soft soap. Many 
citizens from all parts of our State, who were present at the last 
annual meeting of the State Agricultural Society, will recollect 
the high encomiums passed upon this article, by the Hon. A. B. 
Dickinson, and his statement that a handful of it placed in the 
axils of the lower limbs was a sovereign prophylactic, repelling 
all insects from the tree. Although we cannot deem the applica- 
tion of this substance in this simple manner such a panacea as 
was intimated, indeed, we are confident it could have no effect 
to prevent a moth or a plant-louse from alighting and depositing 
its eggs upon the distant leaves and twigs — yet against all those 



22 APPLE-TRUNK BORER REMEDIES — SOAP. 

insects which infest the trunk or which are obliged to crawl up 
the trunk to gain access to the tree, we have little doubt it will 
prove an effectual safeguard. Washed downwards as it will be 
by the rains so as to impregnate the bark over the chief part of 
the trunk and to the very root, there is little probability that the 
beetle of the Apple-tree borer will venture to deposit its eggs in 
a situation where those eggs, or the young worms which proceed 
from them, will be exposed to destruction from encountering this 
alkaline matter. The late Mr. Downing (Horticulturist, vol. ii. 
p. 531) recommended a mixture of soap, sulphur, and tobacco- 
water, with which to paint the bark of the tree immediately above 
the surface of the ground, and in the axils of the lower limbs ; 
subsequently (vol. iv,p. 536) he recommends soap merely thinned 
with tobacco water, to the consistence of thick cream, to be ap- 
plied to the same places. According to his observations, the 
borer entirely forsook the trees which were thus washed, even 
though the mixture had been applied some weeks previous to the 
appearance of the winged beetle. There can be little doubt that 
the efficacy of these prescriptions of Mr. Downing depends chiefly, 
if not entirely, upon the soap they contain. It will be as well 
therefore, to apply this alone, in the manner in which it is used 
by Senator Dickinson, or by rubbing it in the axils of the lower 
limbs and around the base of the tree, these being the parts 
which are liable to be attacked by this insect. In all orchards 
where the borer is present or where a visit from it is apprehen- 
ded, this measure should invariably be resorted to the latter part 
of May, or in more northern localities, where the beetle will be 
somewhat later in appearing, early in June. Young thrifty trees,, 
especially, should be attended to, as this insect appears to be 
particularly inclined to infest them. 

With regard, in the next place, to destroying the worm, where 
the trees have been neglected and the beetle has been permitted 
to invade them and deposit its eggs. If time permits, the orchard 
should be examined the last of August, and the outer surface of 
the bark at the root scraped, to detect any black spots therein; 
for at tin's time, the minute worms in the bark can be more readily 
destroyed, than at any subsequent period, and before they have 



APPLE-TRUNK BORER HOW DISCOVERED. 23 

■done any injury to the tree. It is the practice of Esquire Bald- 
win to wash the butts of his trees with strong lye, the last of 
August. The newly hatched grubs are now but slightly sunk in 
the bark. The lye penetrates the small orifices which they have 
formed and destroys them. He makes it an invariable rule thus 
to wash his trees every year, and since he commenced this treat - 
aaent it is very rare that he has found a borer in them. 

But if, through the pressure of other avocations during the busy 
■summer months, the orchard has been neglected and these borers 
have penetrated the wood, they should still be carefully searched 
out and destroyed, for they continue to cause irritation and injury 
to the tree so long as they remain in it. Before the fall of the 
leaf, trees which are badly infested may be known by their 
sickly, chl orotic appearance. Mr. Ashton informs me, an expe- 
rienced person can easily determine when young trees are suffer- 
ing from the borer, by taking hold of them and swaying them to 
and fro. Infested trees, when thus handled, feel as though they 
were loose at the root, in consequence, no doubt, of having so 
many of their fibers cut off by the worm; whilst unaffected trees 
feel more stiff, and as though they were firmly bound by the soil. 
But at all seasons of the year the presence of this worm can be 
most readily and certainly ascertained by examining the surface 
of the ground where it is in contact with the tree. The small 
heap of sawdust-like castings remains piled up against the bark, 
covering the orifice from whence they were extruded, for months 
afterwards. Therefore, in warm days in winter and early spring, 
when almost every one is most at leisure and has the strongest 
relish for some out-door work of this kind, the snow being off the 
ground, these borers may be hunted with success. 

Various expedients for killing the worm, such as injecting dif- 
ferent solutions, plugging up the hole, thrusting a wire into it, 
&c, have been proposed, many of them, I must think, by persons 
who had very little practical acquaintance with the subject on 
which they were writing — the opening into the burrow being at 
the surface of the earth in most cases, so low down and difficult 
of access by grass and often by suckers or young shoots growing 
in front of it, as to render a resort to many of these remedies very 



24 APPLE-TRUNK BORER REMEDIES SCALDING WATER. 

difficult if not absolutely impracticable. On the whole, I think 
the best resort of any now in use, is that which is most commonly 
practised, namely, opening the burrow with a chisel or a stout 
bladed kniie, to where the worm lies, and destroying " the vil- 
lain." Experience shows that the wound thus made in the tree 
is of little account, as it readily heals, and injures the tree far 
less than does a continuance of the worm therein. Even where 
three, four, or five worms are cut out of one small tree, the vigor 
with which it starts forward immediately afterwards sufficiently 
attests the benefit which has been rendered it. 

But when I came to examine the situation of this worm and 
the construction of its burrow, a remedy suggested itselt to me so 
perfectly simple and sure, and so easy of application, as I have 
found on trial, that I am surprised it has never before been pro- 
posed. It consists in scalding the worm by pouring hot water 
into the top of its burrow. The upper end of the burrow can 
easily be found by puncturing the bark with an awl, or even with 
a stiff pin directly above the orifice where the castings have been 
ejected. It is commonly about three inches above this orifice, 
but may be an inch less or a few inches more. It is discovered 
by the point of the awl readily sinking in much deeper here than 
it will elsewhere. Then, with the point of a pen-knife cut away 
the bark, which is already dead, which covers the upper end of 
the burrow, and scrape out the saw-dust like castings which are 
packed into this part of the cavity, loosening and removing them 
as far down as can conveniently be done. Then from a tea pot 
or other vessel having a small spout, pour hot water into the hole, 
at intervals as it soaks downwards, for a few moments, until you 
are certain, from its oozing out at the lower orifice, or otherwise, 
that it has reached the worm sufficiently to kill it. By cutting 
downwards into the wood, and extracting the worm, a few min- 
utes after this operation^ any one can satisfy himself that the 
culprit is, as Patrick says, " killed dead," and that 

"A kettle of scalding hot water injected 

Infallibly cures the timber affected, 

The worm it will die and the tree will recorer," . 

Indeed it is quite probable that merely opening the upper end 
of the burrow, in the manner above described, so as to permit the 



APPLE-TRUNK BUPRESTIS — ITS HISTORY. 25 

rain to enter and soak downwards, will destroy the worm. And 
it may be that by introducing soap or some other substance into 
the hole, the tree will be aided in its recovery, and the bad scar- 
be prevented which commonly results from the wound made by 
this worm. These are points which can only be determined by 
experiments which I have not yet had opportunities for carrying 
into operation. 



Boring under the bark and in the solid wood; a pale yellow, footless grub, 
its anterior end enormously large, round and flattened. 

Running up and down the trunk and limbs in June and the fore part of 
July; an oblong, brassy-blackish snapping beetle, nearly half an inch 
long, its back under its wings brilliant bluish green. 

The Thick-legged Buprestis, or Snapping-beetle, Chrysobothris 
femoral a, Fabricius. 

Another insect, which has not heretofore been noticed in our 
country as a borer in the Apple tree, pertains to the Family 
Buprestidje, or the brilliant snapping beetles. Mr. P. Barry, of 
the Mount Hope nurseries, Rochester, has forwarded to us sections 
of the body of some young Apple trees, which were sent to him 
from a correspondent in Hilisboro, in southern Ohio, who states 
that in that vicinity the borer, which is contained in the specimens 
sent, is doing great damage to the Apple trees, and that lie has had 
Peach trees also killed by this same worm. From an examination 
of these specimens, it appears that this insect is quite similar to 
the common Apple tree borer in its habits. The parent insect de- 
posits its eggs on the bark, from which a worm hatches, which 
passes through the bark and during the first periods of its life con- 
sumes the soft sap wood immediately under the bark. But when 
the worm approaches maturity and has become more strong and 
robust, it gnaws into the more solid heart-wood, forming a flattish, 
and not a cylindrical hole such as is formed by most other 
borers — the burrow which it excavates being twice as broad as it 
is high, the height measuring the tenth of an inch or slightly 
over. It is the latter part of summer when these worms thus 
sink themselves into the solid heart- wood of the tree, their burrow 
extending upwards from the spot under the bark where they had 




26 APPLE-TRUNK BUPRESTIS — PARASITIC DESTROYERS. 

previously dwelt. On laying open one of these burrows I find 
it is more than an inch in length and all its lower part is filled 
and blocked up with the fine sawdust-like castings 
of the worm. Thus when the worm is destined to lay 
torpid and inactive during the long months of winter, 
it has the forethought, so to speak, to place itself in a 
safe and secure retreat, within the solid wood of the 
tree, with the hole leading to its cell plugged up, so 
as effectually to prevent any enemy from gaining 
admission to it. 

Still, this worm is not able to secure itself entirely 
from those parisitic insects which are the destroyers of so many 
other species of its race, and which, as is currently remarked, 
appear to have been created for the express purpose of preying 
upon those species, in order to prevent their becoming excessively 
multiplied. We should expect that this and other borers, lying 
as they do beneath the bark or within the wood of trees, were so 
securely shielded, that it would be impossible for any insect 
enemy to discover and gain access to them, to molest or destroy 
them. But among the specimens sent me by Mr. Barry, is one, 
where the worm has been entirely devoured, nothing but its 
shrivelled skin remaining, within and upon which are several 
minute maggots or footless little grubs, soft, dull white, shining, 
of a long egg shaped form, pointed at the tip and blunt in front, 
their bodies divided into segments by very fine transverse im- 
pressed lines or sutures. They are about one-tenth of an inch 
long and 0.035 broad at the widest part. These are evidently 
the larvse. of some small Hymenopterous or Bee-like insect, per- 
taining, there can be little doubt, to the family Chalcidid^:— the 
female of which has the instinct to discover these borers, probably 
in the earlier periods of their life when they are lying directly 
beneath the bark, and piercing through the bark with her ovipo- 
sitor, and puncturing the skin of the borer, drops her eggs 
therein, which subsequently hatch and subsist upon the borer, 
eventually destroying it. These minute larva? were forwarded to 
me under the supposition that they were injurious to the Apple 
tree, whereas, by destroying these pernicious borers, it is evident 
they must be regarded as our best friends. This fact illustrates 



APPLE-TRUNK BUPRESTIS — THE LARVA. 27 

how important it is for us to be acquainted with our insects in 
the different stages of their lives, that we may be able to discrimi- 
nate friends from foes, and know which to destroy and which to 
cherish. 

The preparatory states of but a very few species of the exten- 
sive family of insects to which the borer now under considera- 
tion belongs, appear to have been hitherto noticed; and, so far as 
I am able to ascertain, the only figure of a larva like this which 
infests our Apple trees, which has yet been published, is that of 
Jlgrilus Fagi. in Dr. Ratzeburg's work on the Forest Insects of 
Europe, (plate ii, fig. 8 c.) 

The form of this borer is quite singular, and bears some resemblance to that 
of a tadpole, or a battledoor. It consists of a very large, round, flattened por- 
tion, anteriorly, which is suddenly tapered into a long cylindrical tail or handle- 
like portion. The broad anterior part of this worm is about two-tenths of an 
inch in diameter and the narrow posterior part is but half as wide. Its length 
is about 0.G5. It is soft, flesh-like, and of a pale yellow color. 
In front two short robust jaws of a deep black color and highly 
T polished are slightly protruded. When these are spread apart 
the tips of the feelers and between them the lips are perceptible. 
The head is blackish brown and polished, and is deeply sunk 
into the second segment. Near each outer angle of the head is 
a small pale yellow, bead-like protuberance, which is probably 
the attenna. In Dr. Ratzeburg's figure, above alluded to, this 
slight protuberance is represented, probably incorrectly, as 
arising from the second segment. The second segment is deep- 
ly sunk into the third, and like all the remaining segments is a pale yellow, and 
clothed with short minute hairs. The third or large segment is rather more 
broad than long, and is round and flattened above and beneath. Its upper side 
is occupied b} r a large callous-like, transverse-oval elevation, the surface of 
which is flat and covered with numerous brown raised points, and in the mid- 
dle arc two smooth impressed lines, which diverge from the anterior to the pos- 
terior margin. Between these, on the middle of the basal edge, is a more faintly 
impressed line, running forward, but becoming effaced before it reaches the cen- 
tre. On the under side is also a callous-like elevation, similar in all respects to 
that on the upper side, except that in the place of the impressed lines it has in 
its middle a single channel or furrow, which does not extend to the posterior 
nor quite to the anterior margin. The fourth segment is a third narrower than 
the preceding, and has an impressed tranverse line in the middle. In the deeply 
impressed suture which divides this from the third segment, on each side, is a 
smooth, crescent shaped, elevated spot of a chestnut brown color, resembling 
a little tick adhering in the fold of the Skin. The nine remaining segments arc 
of nearly equal length and diameter, except the two last, which are successively 
narrower. They are separated from each other by sutures which are strongly 
constricted. Along the middle of the back is a smoothish faintly marked line, 




i X 



28 APPLE-TRUNK BUPRESTIS TREES IT INHABITS. 

and on each side of each segment is an irregular triangular indentation, from 
the inner angle of which a faint impressed line extends inwards. On each side, 
beneath, is an impressed, longitudinal line. There are no conical projecting 
points at the apex of the last segments. 

These borers, sent to me as above stated, have not yet completed 
their transformations; but they will in all probability remain in 
their present cells in the wood, and be changed to pupse the com- 
ing spring, from which the perfect insects will issue the latter 
part of May and during the month of June. And there can be 
little doubt that they will prove to be the species named by Fa- 
bricius Buprestisfemorata, which species pertains to the modern 
genus Chrysobothris . This insect may be met with in all parts of 
our country. The natural place for its larva is in the White oak, 
and it is probable that being deprived of a sufficient supply of 
this wood, in which to deposit its eggs, in consequence of our 
forests being so rapidly and extensively cut down, this insect has 
been obliged to resort to the Apple and Peach trees. Dr. Harris 
speaks of meeting with it upon and under the bark of Peach 
trees, and I have captured it upon the Apple tree. Professor 
Kirtland, of Cleveland, Ohio, doubtless alludes to this species, 
(Downing's Horticulturist, vol. ii. p. 544,) when he says, "Our 
Apple trees are often injured by the larvae of the Buprestis, which 
will girdle out extensive portions of the bark and young wood." 
This, moreover, is in all probability the beetle of which a wood 
cut illustration is given in the Ohio Cultivator, vol. x, page 242. 
Although no description of the insect or its larvse is given, the 
figure presents more points of resemblance to C.femoruta than to 
any other common American species. The following interesting 
particulars, there stated, sufficiently indicate that this beetle will 
be liable to do great damage in our orchards. The editor says, 
" The late Dr. Barker of McConnellsville, (Morgan county, Ohio,) 
called our attention to the injury done to his Apple trees, by the 
beetle represented above, several years ago. It was in the month 
of July, and large numbers of these beetles were seen running up 
and down the trunks and branches of the trees, while beneath 
the bark extensive ravages of .the larvae were found. We ob- 
served, however, that these injuries seemed in nearly or quite all 
cases to have commenced where the bark had previously been 



APPLE-TRUNK BUPRESTIS — THE BEETLE. 29 

killed from some other cause, and were almost invariably on the 
south side of the trees. We have since found occasional marks 
of these insects in other orchards, but never where the trees ap- 
peared to have been in perfect health previous to their attacks." 
This beetle, however, is by no means limited to old and decaying 
trees, as the observations of the editor of the Ohio Cultivator 
lead him to infer. The sections of wood sent me by Mr. Barry 
are from young and thrifty Apple trees; and it occurs in Oaks, 
also, of this character, as well as those which are aged and 
perishing. 

Like other species of its family, the Thick-legged Buprestis is variable in 
size, measuring from four to five-tenths of an inch in length, and about two- 
tenths in width. It is of a black or greenish black color, polished and shining 
with the surface rough and uneven.' The head, and sometimes the thorax, and 
the depressed portions of the elytra, are of a dull coppery color. The head is 
sunk into the thorax to the eyes, is densely punctured, and is clothed in front 
with fine white hairs, which are directed downwards. Upon the middle of the 
top of the head is a smooth, raised black line, with a narrow impressed line 
through its middle, a mark which serves to distinguish this from some of the 
other species which are closely related to it. The thorax is much more broad 
than long, and is widest forward of the middle. Its surface is covered with 
dense, coarsish punctures, which run into each other in a somewhat transverse 
direction. It is also somewhat uneven, with slight elevations and hollows, but 
has not two smooth raised lines on its middle and anterior part, which are 
met with in another species very similar to this, the Tooth-legged Snapping 
beetle, (Chrys 6 Ahris dentipes, Germar.) The elyra or wing-covers present 
a much more rough and unequal surface than any other part of the insect. 
Three smooth and polished raised lines extend lengthwise of each wing-cover, 
and the intervals between them are in places occupied by smaller raised lines, 
which form a kind of net-work; and two impressed transverse spots may also 
be discerned more or less distinctly, dividing each wing-cover into three nearly 
equal portions. These spots reach from the inner one of the three raised lines 
nearly to the outer margin, crossing the two other raised lines, and interrupt- 
ing them more or less. They are commonly of a cupreous tinge, and densely 
punctured, but are more smooth than the other portions of the surface. A 
smaller and more deeply impressed spot may commonly be found in the space 
next to the suture, and forward of the anterior spot, of which it is, as it were 
a continuation. The wing-covers are rounded at their tips, so as to present a 
slight notch at the suture when they are closed; and the outer margin, towards 
the tip, has several very minute, projecting teeth. When the wing-covers are 
parted the back is discovered to be of a brilliant bluish-green color, and thickly 
punctured, with a row of large impressed spots along the middle, one on each 
segment, and half way between these and the outer margin is another row of 
smaller impressed dots, having their centres black. The under side of the body 
and the legs are brilliant coppery, the feet being deep shining green, their last 
joint and the hooks at its end black. Here also the surface is everywhere 



30 APPLE-TRUKK BUTRESTIS REMEDIES. 

thickly punctured, the punctures on the venter or hind part of the body open- 
ing backwards. The last segment has an elevated line in the middle at its base, 
and its apex is cut off by a straight line, in the middle of which is commonly 
a small projecting tooth. The anterior thighs are remarkably large, from which 
circumstance this species has received its name, and they have an angular pro- 
jection on their inner sides, beyond the middle. The tibiaj or shanks of these 
legs are slightly curved. 

The remedies for destroying this borer must necessarily be 
much the same with those already stated for the common borer 
or Striped Saperda. They consist essentially of three measures: 
1st, coating or impregnating the bark with some substance repul- 
sive to the insect; 2d, destroying the beetle by hand picking; 
and 3d, destroying the larva by cutting into and extracting it 
from its burrow. 

A.s it is during the month of June and fore part of July that 
the beetle frequents the trees for the purpose of depositing its 
eggs in the bark, it is probable that whitewashing the trunk and 
large limbs, or rubbing them over with soft soap, early in June, 
will secure them from molestation from this enemy. And in 
districts where this borer is known to infest the Apple trees, the 
trees should be repeatedly inspected during this part of the year, 
and any of these beetles that are found upon them should be cap- 
tured and destroyed. It is at midday of warm sunshiny days 
that»the search for them will be most successful, as they are then 
most active, and show themselves abroad. The larvae, when 
young, appear to have the same habit with most other borers, of 
keeping their burrow clean by throwing their castings out of it 
through a small orifice in the bark. They can therefore be dis- 
covered, probably, by the new sawdust-like powder which will be 
found adhering to the outer surface of the bark. In August or 
September, whilst the worms are yet young, and before they have 
penetrated the heart- wood, the trees should be carefully examined 
for these worms. Wherever from any particles of the sawdust- 
like powder appearing externally upon the bark, one of these 
worms is suspected, it will be easy, at least in young trees, where 
the bark is thin and smooth, to ascertain by puncturing it with a 
stiff pin, whether there is any hollow cavity beneath, and if one 
is discovered, the bark should be cut away with a knife, until the 
worm is found and destroyed. After it has penetrated the solid 



APPLE-TRUNK BARK-LOUSE ITS APPEARANCE. 31 

wood, it ceases to eject its castings, and consequently we are then 
left without any clue by which to discover it. Hence the im- 
portance of searching for it seasonably. 



A small, oblong, flattisli, brown scale, shaped like an oyster shell, fixed 
to the smooth bark; often in prodigious numbers; in winter and 
spring covering a number of minute, round, whitish eggs. 

The Apple Bap.k-louse, Jlspidiotus cone hi fur mis, Gmelin; Coccus ar- 
b ,rum linearis, Modeek and others; Diaspis linearis, Costa. 

The Bark-louse is, on the whole, the most pernicious and de- 
structive to the apple tree, at the present time, of any insect in 
our country. Every where through the northern States it is in- 
festing the orchards to a grevious extent, causing the death of 
many trees, and impairing the health and vigor of many more. 
It appears in the form of minute scale«, resembling the 
shell of a muscle or an oyster in their shape, adhering to 
the surface of the bark, as shown in the annexed cut. It 
is no rare occurrence to meet with young trees, the bark 
of which is literally covered and crowded with these 
scales from the root to the end of the twigs, and some in- 
dividuals finding no vacant spot upon the bark where they can 
fix themselves, are driven to the leaves and the fruit, for upon 
these one or more of these scales may sometimes be found. And 
when a tree continues to be thus infested, year after year, it 
dwindles away and finally dies. I have observed this to be the 
case especially with young trees standing alone in fields, where, 
when the vigor of the tree becomes impaired, the insect has no 
other tree to which it can migrate, better adapted for its suste- 
nance. Other trees have been noticed as overrun by this insect 
for a year or two, when, probably from the tree becoming so ex- 
hausted as no longer to be capable of suitably sustaining the in- 
sects, they cease to affect it, and it, after a few years, recovers. 
Whether in such instances the insects perish for want of due 
nourishment, or whether they migrate to other trees, I am unable 
to say, though I incline to the opinion that the former is the case 
with the chief part oi them. 



32 APPLE-TRUNK BARK-LOUSE — ITS DESTRUCTIVENESS WEST. 

Badly as this insect is infesting our orchards in the State of 
New-York, it is scourging our western neighbors far more severe- 
ly. In those districts bordering upon Lake Michigan, in parti- 
cular, it is at the present time making the most appalling havoc, 
surpassing anything which has hitherto been recorded of this 
species. Scarcely a tree is free from them, and unless measures 
for destroying the insect are resorted to, the tree is sure to perish 
within a few years after it is invaded. 

George Kimball, Esq., of Kenosha, Wisconsin, gave me the fol- 
lowing interesting account of the introduction and spreading of 
this insect among his trees : " The bark-louse appears to have 
been introduced here in the year 1840 by four young sweet apple 
trees which my son brought from Cleveland, Ohio. These trees 
dwindled, their limbs had a black appearance, and the bark was 
everywhere covered with these lice, crowded upon and over- 
lapping each other, so that they would peel off in large scales, 
and be washed off by rains, clusters of them adhering together in 
sheets, till finally, in the year 1848, these trees died, having 
grown not more than an inch annually fur the last three years. 
And the same lice had now spread upon and were covering my 
other trees more or less. All my trees became badly infested, 
the sweet ones beimj; overrun more than the others. Some of 
them took up their abode upon my pear trees also, particularly 
upon a small tree which I happened to have, bearing hard worth- 
less fruit; this was covered with them as badly as some of my 
apple trees. We could find nothing in books, or in agricultural 
or horticultural papers which seemed to apply to this louse, and 
hence were thrown upon our own ingenuity to combat it. Efforts 
were made in this village to organize a society, with an admission 
fee of ten dollars, to raise a fund with which to encourage expe- 
riments, and handsomely reward the person who discovered the 
best remedy. A secret remedy, which proved to be worthless, 
was extensively sold all over this section of country for one dol- 
lar to each person. Hoping that my younger and more vigorous 
trees would outlive the pest, I dug up and threw away all my old 
trees, upwards of thirty in number. I have now about one hun- 
dred and fifty trees, none of them over twelve years old, and 



APPLE-TRUNK BARK-LOUSE ITS WESTERN LIMIT. 33 

have strong confidence that the remedy to which I now resort 
will keep them freed from the bark-louse But through all this 
district of country the trees are overrun and dying from these 
insects, a tree not living but about three years after it becomes 
badly infested, and on almost every farm several dead trees may 
be seen, and many more which are so far gone that they can 
never recover." 

This insect does not appear to have penetrated west, as yet, 
beyond the districts bordering upon Lake Michigan. I found the 
orchards upon the Mississippi river free from it, and on a most 
particular inspection of the trees of Esquire Baldwin, of Farm 
Ridge, less than a hundred miles west of Chicago, they were found 
to be wholly uninfested. But that it will gradually extend itself 
onwards over the entire west, there can be no doubt. And it is 
to be feared that for some years after its first arrival in each place, 
it will run much the same career it is now doing on the borders 
of Lake Michigan, it being common for a noxious insect when 
newly introduced, to multiply and thrive to a much greater ex- 
tent than it does subsequently, after it has become fully natu- 
ralized. 

At the west it is generally supposed that this insect is a new 
species, peculiar to that section of the country, as no distinct de- 
scription and account of it is given in works accessible to the 
mass of readers. And, entertaining this view, my friend Robert 
W. Kennicott, of West Northfield, Illinois, in a communication 
read in June last, before the Cleveland Academy of Natural 
Sciences, and published, with a figure of the young larva, in the 
newspaper report of their proceedings, names it the Coccus Pyrus 
Mi. lusj under which name I observe it is since spoken of in some 
of the western agricultural periodicals. But this insect is cer- 
tainly identical with the one which we have here at the east, which 
has all along been regarded as the same which has long been 
known upon the apple and some other trees and shrubs in Europe. 
It was first described by Reaumur, in 1738, who found it upon an 
elm in France; and it appears to have been named Coccus arbc- 
rum linearis, (which literally means the Linear Bark-louse of 

[Assem. No. 215.] 3 



34 APPLE-TRUNK BARK- LOUSE ITS SCIENTIFIC NAME. 

trees,) first by Modeer, (Act. Gothenb. i. 22,) by which name it 
has been noticed by Geoffroy, and authors generally since. Gmelin 
refers to the same insect, at least as it has been generally supposed, 
under the name Coccus conckiformis, or the Shell-form or Oyster- 
shaped Bark-louse. The specific name, arborum linearis, if really 
designed for the Bark-louse upon the Apple-tree, is a very unfor- 
tunate one, as this species is not linear in its form, but tapering, 
and nearly all the other species of Bark-lice infest trees as well 
as this. Costa has recently reformed this name, by omitting from 
it the redundant word arborum. But if the original name is to 
be rejected, in consequence of its non-conformity to the present 
rules of scientific nomenclature, Gmelin's name ccnchiformis must 
assuredly take its place, in consequence both of its priority and 
its appropriateness. Some of the latest authorities, however, 
regard the conchiformis and linearis as being two distinct species. 
This threw such doubt upon the question which of these names 
should be adopted for our Apple Bark -louse, provided it was 
identical with the European insect, as I felt myself scarcely com- 
petent to resolve, with the few authorities upon these insects 
which I have at hand. As Mr. Curtis, the distinguished British 
entomologist, now president of the Entomological Society of Lon- 
ilua, had communicated a series of articles upon several of the 
species of this genus, to the third volume of the Gardener's Chro- 
nicle — a volume to which I have not access — and as I had here- 
tofore had some correspondence with him, I recently enclosed to 
him for his opinion, specimens of our Apple Bark-louse, and also 
a seemingly identical species found upon our Red Osier, (Cornus 
sericea.) The following is an extract from his reply : " I have 
carefully examined your specimens. They are identical, and are 
the Coccus arborum linearis, Geoif., and I believe the C. conchi- 
formis of Gmelin, which is in that case a synonym. You are 
right in placing them in the genus Jlspidiotus." I trust this 
information will satisfy some of my western friends, who have 
been reluctant to credit my statement that their insect is not new, 
but is common here at the east, and also in Europe. 

Mr. Rennie speaks ol having found this species in great plenty 
upon currant bushes. I have never met with it upon the culti- 



APFLE-TRUNK BARK- LOUSE KINDRED SPECIES. 35 

vated currant, but have found it upon our wild currant (Ribes 
jloridvm,) pretty numerous. Scales very similar to those of the 
Apple bark-louse, but of a smaller size, of a pale brownish color, 
and not curved, may be met with also upon the twigs of the but- 
ternut. Some of these are so small as to be imperceptible to the 
naked eye. As they are evidently a distinct species, I propose to 
name them the Butternut Bark-louse, Jlspidiotus Jugldndis. My 
friend, Dr. A. S. Todd, of Wheeling, Virginia, has sent me speci- 
mens of another species of this same genus, occurring upon Rose 
bushes. He says : " My finest roses are cursed with these ver- 
min. They kill ' for certain ' every Rose bush they get upon. It 
dies to the ground." This is a round, flattish, white scale, about 
five hundredths of an inch in diameter, often with a light yellow 
spot or cloud in its center. This is probably the Aspidiotus Rosce 
of Bouehe, (Schadl. Gart. Ins., p. 53,) which is briefly noticed 
in Kollar's Treatise, English edition, page 179. 

The Apple Bark-louse is about one-eighth of an inch long, of 
an irregular ovoid form, often bent in its middle, and more or 
less curved at its smaller end, which is pointed, the opposite end 
being rounded. It is of a brown color, of much the same tint 
with the bark, its smaller end being paler and yellow. 
It closely resembles an exceedingly minute oyster-shell 
pressed against the bark — a similitude so striking as to 
I be readily perceived by every one, and is frequently 
l «lWiP> designated in common conversation, under the name of 
the Oyster-shaped Bark-louse. These shells or scales are situa- 
ted irregularly, though the most of them are placed lengthwise 
of the limb or twig, with the smaller end upwards. The^e scales 
are tlie relics of the bodies of the gravid females, covering and 
protecting their eggs. During the winter and spring, these eggs 
may be found on elevating the scales. The number of eggs under 
each scale is very variable. Several which I have counted, have 
shown the following numbers— 13, 22, 36, 54, 58, 71, 86, 102. 
I have uniformly found a greater number of eggs where the scales 
were upon a thrifty tree When a tree becomes overrun, so as 
to dwindle and not afford a copious supply of nourishment, the 
number of eggs is reduced. 




36 APPLE-TRUNK BARK-LOUSE — EGG-PARASITE, LARVA. 

Under these scales I have also repeatedly met with a small 
maggot, three hundredths of an inch long, or frequently much 
smaller, of a broad oval form, rounded at one end and tapering 
to an acute point at the other, soft, of a honey-yellow color, 
slightly translucent and shining, with an opake brownish cloud 
in the middle, produced by alimentary matter in the viscera, and 
divided into segments by faintly impressed transverse lines. This 
is probably the larva of some minute Hymenopterous insect, spe- 
cially designed by Providence for destroying the eggs of the bark 
louse. That these eggs are its food is shown by the fact that 
when the maggot is small a number of eggs are found under the 
scale with it, when it is larger the eggs are fewer. The indivi- 
dual from which the above measurement and description was 
drawn, had but two eggs remaining for it to consume. Whether 
the maggot be larger or smaller it, with the eggs, appears to com- 
pletely fill the cavity beneath the scale, and I have only met 
with this parasite upon thrifty trees, where each scale had a large 
number of eggs beneath it. It doubtless remains beneath the 
scale during its pupa state, and then makes it exit by perforating 
a small round hole through the scale. Scales which are thus 
perforated may frequently be met with. Our cut represents a 
scale magnified and perforated for the escape of a parasite, the 
short line on the right hand side of the figure indicating the 
natural length of the scale. 

The eggs are somewhat less than the hundredth part of an inch 
in length; they are of a regular oval shape, about twice as long 
as broad, smooth but not shining, opake, most of them of a white 
color, others dull pale yellow. 

As early as the 12th of May I have found individual larvae 
hatched, and running about with much activity among the eggs, 
but remaining under the scale for protection. It is not till about 
a fortnight later that the eggs mostly become hatched, and the 
young crawl out from under the scale and scatter themselves over 
the bark. To the naked eye they appear like minute white dots, 
uniformly diffused over the smooth bark of the twigs, and ap- 
pearing like natural white points or glands of the bark. A per- 
son to whom I once pointed out these white specks was reluctant 



APPLE-TRUNK BARK-LOUSE — REMEDIES. 37 

to believe they were anything else than white dots natural to the 
smooth young bark, until by careful watching some of them could 
be perceived to be moving about upon the bark. 

When first hatched from the egg the larva is but about half the 
size of the egg, of an oval form and a pale dull yellow color. 
Three pairs of legs are perceptible, two placed anteriorly, the 
other posteriorly and distant. It walks about with much life and 
agility. I have not traced this insect through the subsequent 
stages of its life with sufficient accuracy of observation to give 
its history. 

A number of remedies for the bark-louse will be found report- 
ed in late volumes of the Prairie Farmer and other western agri- 
cultural papers. The secret remedy which was hawked through 
that section, as perfectly sure of destroying these lice, was simply 
an infusion of quassia, with which the trees were to be wet from 
a syringe or watering pot. This of coarse was soon discovered 
to be worthless, or effectual only when applied to the young new- 
ly hatched lice, at which time infusion of tobacco or soap suds 
would be a more economical and still more effectual remedy. 
These, and also strong lye, potash water, whitewash, dry ashes, 
sulphur, and I know not how many more articles have been re- 
commended by different writers. In a late number of the Michi- 
gan Farmer (vol. 13. p. 82), A. G. Hanford gives a very favorable 
account of the effects of tar and linseed oil, beat together and ap- 
plied warm with a paint brush thoroughly, before the buds begin 
to expand in the spring. This, when dry, cracks and peels off, 
bringing off the dead scales with it. Trees which were thus 
treated grew from two to two and a half feet last summer, which 
had advanced only a few inches in previous years. The remedy 
to which Esq. Kimball, of Kenosha, resorts, is probably one of the 
most efficacious, and as convenient as any; he boils leaf tobacco 
in strong lye till it is reduced to an impalpable pulp, which it 
will be in a short time, and mixes with it soft soap, (which has 
been made cold; not the jelly-like boiled soap,) to make the mass 
about the consistence of thin paint, the object being to obtain a" 
preparation that will not be entirely washed from the tree by the 
first rains which occur, as lye, tobacco water, and most other 



38 APPLE TWIGS SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST. 

washes are sure to be. The fibres of the tobacco, diffused through 
this preparation, cause a portion of its strength to remain where- 
ever it is applied, longer than any application which is wholly 
soluble in rain water can do. He first trims the trees well, so 
that every twig can be reached with the paint brush, and applies 
this preparation before the buds have much swelled in the spring. 
Two men, strictly charged to take their time, and be sure that 
they painted the whole of the bark to the end of every twig, were 
occupied a fortnight last spring in going over his hundred and fifty 
young trees. When I saw his trees, the latter part of September, 
this composition was still plainly to be seen upon the rough bark 
of their trunks and upon the under sides of their limbs, resemb- 
ling a whitish mouldiness of the bark. The trees had grown very 
thriftily, and yielded well, whilst only a single scale could here 
and there be found upon the twigs of the present year's growth, 
all the older parts being entirely free from them. Although 
trees perishing with lice were standing in the adjacent yards and 
gardens, it seemed these insects preferred starvation at home 
rather than being poisoned by invading these trees, hence it ap- 
pears that one thorough application of this preparation is suffi- 
cient to destroy all the insects upon the trees, and to protect 
them from invasion from neighboring trees for a period of two 
years; for free as the trees were from these insects in September, 
there can be no call for a renewal of this composition upon them 
the coming spring. 



"Wounding the twigs and causing them to wither and fall; a very largo 
black fly with four glassy wings, with orange-colored ribs and red eyes. 

The Seventeen-year Locust, Cicada septemdecim, Linnaeus. 

On some accounts the Seventeen-year Locust is the most re- 
markable insect of which we have any knowledge. The unusual 
length of time which it requires for completing its growth, and 
the perfect regularity with which every generation, numbering 
many millions of individuals, attains maturity, so as to come forth 
at the end of seventeen years, the entire brood hatching within a 
few days' time, has caused this more than any other American 



APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST DIFFERENT BROODS. 39 

insect to be noted throughout the world. And it was, doubtless, 
from its suddenly appearing in such vast numbers, at long inter- 
vals of time, like the Migratory Locust of the East, that the early 
settlers of this continent gave it the name of " Locust," by 
which it is now universally designated; although it is wholly 
unlike those insects w r hich are properly termed locusts, both in 
its form and habits. 

Another remarkable fact with respect to this species is, that in 
different districts of our country broods appear in different years; 
yet the brood of each district invariably preserves the interval of 
seventeen years for coming out in its winged state. We have 
three of these broods partly within the bounds of the State of 
New- York, and there appear to be at least six others in other 
parts of the United States. 

One of these inhabits the valley of the Hudson river. Its nor- 
thern limit is the vicinity of Schuylerville and Fort Miller, and 
this appears to be the most northern point to which this species 
anywhere extends. From thence it reaches south along both 
sides of the Hudson, to its mouth, w r here it extends east, at 
least to New-Haven in Connecticut, and west across the north 
part of New-Jersey and into Pennsylvania. Its last appearance 
was in the year 1843, and it will consequently make its next ap- 
pearance in 1860. 

The second brood occurs in Western New- York, Western Penn- ) 
sylvania and Eastern Ohio. The last year of its appearance was 
1849; it will consequently reappear in 1866. 

The third brood appears to have the most extensive geographi- 
cal range. From the southeastern part of Massachusetts it ex- 
tends across Long Island and along the Atlantic coast to Chesa- 
peak Bay, and up the Susquehanna at least as far as to Carlisle in 
Pennsylvania. And it probably reaches continuously west to the 
Ohio, for it occupies the valley of that river at Kanhawa in Vir- 
ginia, and onwards to its mouth, and down the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi probably to its mouth, and up its tributaries, west, into 
the Indian territory. This brood has appeared the jDresent year, 
1855, and I have received specimens from Long Island, from 



40 APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST DIFFERENT BRCODS. 

Southern Illinois, and the Creek Indian country west of Arkan- 
sas, these last having been gathered by my friends, Robert W 
Kennicott and William S. Robertson. They show that from one 
end of this vast stretch of territory to the other, the species is 
quite uniform in its size and marks. Mr. Robertson, writing 
from Tullehassie, under date of May 24th, says : " I have heard 
the Seventeen-year Locusts for ten days past, but they are not 
plenty here. At Park Hill, however, twenty-five miles south of 
this, in the Cherokee country, they are very numerous, and in 
these hungry times, occasioned by the severe drouth of last year 
and this spring, the people are glad to gather and eat them." 

A fourth brood, and which has been the oftenest and most fully 
noticed of any, reaches from Pennsylvania and Maryland to South 
Carolina and Georgia, and, what appears to be a detached branch 
of it, occurs also in the southeastern part of Massachusetts. It 
was observed as long ago as 1715, and its reappearance has been 
recorded seven times since, the last one of which was in the year 
1851. It will consequently reappear in 1868. 

A fifth brood extends from Western Pennsylvania, through 
the valley of the Ohio river, and down that of the Mississippi to 
Louisiana. This appeared last in 1846, and will therefore re- 
appear in 1863. 

A sixth appeared the past year around the head of Lake Michi- 
gan, and as far east as to the middle of the State of Michigan, and 
extended west across Northern Illinois and onwards, an unknown 
distance, into Iowa. It reached south at least as far as Peoria, 
and north to the line of Wisconsin. Mr. M. P. Weter, of Tirade, 
Walworth county, Wisconsin, informed me that a narrow strip, 
but about a mile in width, extended through his neighborhood, 
and onwards, north, for a distance of at least twenty miles. 

A seventh is recorded as having appeared in the western part 
of North Carolina in the year 1847. 

An eighth was noticed at Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in 1833. 

A ninth was noticed in the valley of the Connecticut river, in 
Massachusetts, in the years 1818 and 1835. 



APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST — OTHER SPECIES. 41 

It is possible that in some of these last cases other species may 
have been mistaken for the seventeen-year locust, and that in 
those instances where straggling individuals of this locust are re- 
ported to have occurred during the intervals between the appear- 
ance of the main swarm, other species have been confounded with 
this, particularly the Creviced cicada, (C. rimosa, Say,) which 
comes out in the same month, and in its colors, &c, closely re- 
sembles the C. septemdecim* 

I have personally met with this species in two instances; the 
first was upon the forenoon of the tenth of June, 1826, upon the 
oaks and other trees and shrubs between West Troy and Cohoes, 
which were covered with these insects at that date, making the 
neighborhood ring with the discordant din of their shrill song. 
After the long interval of seventeen years, in a grove in the town 
of Stillwater, the same note was heard again, and was instantly 

* We have in our country several species of the large interesting insects which pertain to 
this family. The most common one in our State is the Dog-day cicada, (C . canicvlaris — 
Harris,) which probably is not distinct from the Frosted cicada, (C. pruinosa) of Say. It 
appears annually in most parts of the State in autumn. The Creviced cicada (C. rimosa — 
Fay,) and also the Bordered cicada, (C. marginata — Say,) occur also within our bounds. 
Farther south the species become more numerous. Among a number of those sent me by Mr. 
Robertson, from the Creek Indian Territory, the following do not appear to have been hitherto 
described. 

The Superb Cicada (C supcrba) is of a rich olive green color, having a black band be- 
tween the eyes, and six black spots upon the anterior margin of the middle segment of the tho- 
rax. The abdomen above is olive-yellow, with two mealy-white spots at the base. The un- 
der side is whitish-yellow, coated over with a mealy-white powder. The wings are clear and 
glassy, the apical row of cells of the fore wings and the hind margin slightly smoky; the veins 
are bright green, except those surrounding the apical row of cells, which are dark brown, and 
the two short anastomosing outer veinlets are margined with smoky-brown, forming the usual 
dusky W -shaped mark. This species measures an inch and three-fourths to the tips of the 
closed wings. It occurred in August upon two small elm trees growing two. rods apart, be- 
side a brook in the middle of a prairie, with no other trees near, and no elms within some 
miles of these. On climbing one of these trees the cicadas, of which there were a number of 
individuals, all flew to the other tree ; on climbing this last they all flew back ; so that on 
climbing one tree three times and the other twice, but a single specimen could be captured, so 
shy were they. 

Robertson's Cicada, (C. Robert sonii.) — Green, variegated with brown and black ; upper 
side of the abdomen black and shining, with two 3 r ellowish spots near the base; middle seg- 
ment of the thorax yellowish brown, the elevated x green, and a large green spot at the end 
of each of its anterior horns; wings glassy-hyaline, their veins slender, green, becoming light 
yellow "at their apices ; rib of the anterior wing edged with black on its inner side ; length t<? 
the tip of the closed wings, in the female, two inches and fifteen hundredths. 



42 APPLE-TWIGS, LOCUST ITS SONG. 

recognized, though at a distance of some twenty rods. As it was 
repeated at short intervals, I was able to draw near and capture 
the songster, who had come out some days in advance of the 
main swarm. The note, which is uttered only by the males, is 
peculiar, and may be represented by the letters tsh-e- e-E-E-E-E-e-cw., 
uttered continuously, and prolonged to a quarter or a half minute 
in length, the middle of the note being deafeningly shrill, loud 
and piercing to the ear, and its termination gradually lowered till 
the sound expires. In a wood in the vicinity of Ottawa, Illinois, 
on the 22d of September last, I heard the note of a cicada identi- 
cal with the above, except that the syllables were short, and 
uttered at regular brief intervals, thus, tsheeou, ts/iecou, tsheeou, 
much resembling the creaking of a grindstone when in want of 
grease. This was probably some autumnal species, a native of 
that vicinity; but it might possibly have been a straggling indi- 
vidual of the seventeen-year locust, which had not completed his 
transformation until three months after his due time, and which 
uttered his notes in this hurried, impatient manner, upon finding 
himself" solitary and alone." 

Circumstances may cause this insect to appear and disappear 
somewhat earlier at some of its visits than at others. Mr. Wright, 
editor of the Prairie Farmer, informs me that the Illinois brood 
last year had mostly disappeared upon the fourth of July, whilst 
the preceding visit of this same brood was in vigorous life and 
activity at that date, as was recollected from the fact that a 
particular neighborhood had met together to commemorate the 
day, in a barn, which was the most spacious edifice in the vicini- 
ty, and the company were much annoyed in their festivities by 
the incessant din which these locusts kept up in and around the 
building. 

This insect dwells entirely in timber land, never inhabiting 
fields which have been cleared seventeen years, or the prairie 
lands of the west. It was noticed the past year as being more 
wide spread in many places in Illinois than it was on its previous 
visit. Fruit or forest trees, wherever they had been planted 
upon the prairies, were seventeen years ago destitute of these in- 



APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST FOOD OF THE LARVA. 43 

sects, but the past year they came from the ground among such 
trees as abundantly as in the original timber lands. It has been 
commonly supposed heretofore that the larva?, derive their nou- 
rishment from the roots of the trees upon which the eggs were 
deposited, puncturing the bark with their beaks and extracting 
the juices, and in this way it has been supposed that much greater 
injury was done to the trees than by the wounds made upon the 
twigs by the perfect insects. This view has been sustained by 
Miss Margaretta H. Morris, in an interesting communication to 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and published 
also in Downing's Horticulturist (vol. ii. p. 1G), in which she 
attributes the failure of pear and other fruit trees, in many cases, 
to the exhaustion of the sap, produced by these larvse fixing them- 
selves upon the foots. On examining a pear tree which had ceased 
to thrive, she found that all those roots which were six inches 
or more beneath the surface were thronged with countless num- 
bers of the larvae, clinging to them by means of their beaks in- 
serted in the bark. From one root, a yard in length and about 
an inch in diameter, she gathered twenty- three larvse, varying in 
length from a quarter of an inch to an inch — a much greater dis- 
parity in size than could have been anticipated in larvse which 
were all of the same age. 

The habits and nourishment of these larvse is a topic which 
needs further investigation. Mr. R. W. Kennicott, of West 
Northfield, Illinois, writes me that in the month of November in 
following down the roots of several trees and shrubs, the twigs of 
which were badly cut to pieces by the locusts last year, to the 
distance of a foot or more, he Avas unable to find a single one of 
these grubs, a strong indication that when young they descend 
deeper than Miss Morris supposes. And a more important fact 
is, that they subsist upon the roots of grass and herbs as well as 
those of trees. I learn from j)r. J. W. Moody, that at Spring 
Arbor, Jackson county, Michigan, in fields which had been 
cleared of their timber some sixteen years, and which have been 
under cultivation most of the time since, the locusts came forth 
last June as plentifully as in the timber land; and these seemed 
to have been equally as well nourished, f-jr they were of the same 



44 APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST — HABITS OF THE PUPA. 

size, and came out of the ground upon the same day with those 
which appeared in the timber lands-; nor were they any more 
plenty beneath two or three shade trees standing in the cleared 
grounds than in any other parts of the fields. In other places I 
was also informed of their coming from the earth plentifully in 
fields which had been cleared several years. Indeed, the pupae 
emerge in all situations, except where the ground has been wholly 
destitute of trees and shrubs for seventeen years or more. They 
even work their way out in the middle of the most solid and 
hard-trodden roads. This fact is noticed by Rev. Andrew San- 
del in the first recorded notice which we possess of this insect, 
in 1715 (Medical Repository, vol iv., p. 71), and was also stated 
to me by different persons in Illinois. It serves to show the 
remarkable strength which the anterior legs of the pupa must 
possess to enable it to dig through ground so compacted. 

It is in the night time that the pupa (of which the accompany- 
ing figures, taken from specimens of C. rimosa, 
give a view) emerges from the ground. The 
warmth and dryness of the air by day would 
doubtless cause its exterior shell-like case to 
become stiff and crack open prematurely. 
Some of the pupa hatch upon the ground, near the holes from 
which they have emerged; others crawl up the sides of fences 
and upon bushes and trees, sometimes to a height of twenty feet. 
The pupa fixes itself securely by its feet, its thin shell-like cover- 
ing cracks open anteriorly upon the back, and the inclosed insect 
withdraws itself therefrom, leaving the empty case adhering to 
the place where it was fixed. 

The oak is the tree which the seventeen-year locust appears 
most to infest, for the purpose of depositing its eggs, and next to 
this is probably the apple tree. So numerous were these insects 
in several orchards in Illinois last June, and such injury did they 
threaten the trees by their w T ounds, that the proprietors were in- 
duced with poles and goads to whip and drive them from the trees. 
And B. S. Rollin, of Wyoming, Wisconsin, in the Wisconsin and 
Iowa Farmer of November last (vol. vi. p. 254), reports that in 




APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST — EGGS, HOW DEPOSITED. 45 

his vicinity the oak and apple tree limbs were breaking off with 
every wind, at the point where they had been operated upon by 
the'locustSj and that some of the trees were badly injured thereby. 
The editor of the Farmer, in commenting upon this communica- 
tion, thinks that the damage will prove to be but slight, and will 
in realtiy be that " heading in" which is often serviceable to fruit 
trees. But it must be rare that our apple trees can be benefited 
by any heading in, all experience showing that the perfection of 
the fruit requires that this tree should be kept well trimmed, so 
as to permit a free circulation of air and light among its branches ; 
and the same condition of the tree is one of its best safeguards 
against tree-hoppers, plant-lice, and many other insect enemies 
which particularly prefer situations where the foliage is dense. 

In addition to the trees already mentioned, this insect deposits 
its eggs in the poplar, the locust, the hazlenut, and probably in 
all our deciduous- trees and shrubs. The different species of wal- 
nut and hickory, however, are said to be exempt from its attack. 
It will probably prefer those trees having the twigs thick and 
robust, to those in which they are slender and flexile; it has even 
been known according to Dr. Harris, to commit its eggs to the 
white cedar, but it is probable that pines and the evergreens 
generally will be avoided by it. 

Dr. Harris, (New-England Insects, p. 184,). gives the following 
description of the manner in which the female locust wounds the 
twigs and deposits her eggs. They select those branches and 
twigs which are of a moderate size. These they clasp on both 
sides with their legs, and bending their ovipositor downwards at 
an angle of about forty-five degrees, they repeatedly thrust it 
obliquely into the bark and wood in a longitudinal direction, at 
the same time putting in motion the lateral saws of the ovipositor, 
and in this way detach small splinters of the wood at one end, 
and turn them upwards, so as to form a kind of lid or cover to 
the perforation. The hole is bored in a slanting direction, to the 
pith, and by a repetition of the same operation, is gradually 
enlarged, forming a longitudinal fissure of sufficient extent to 
receive from ten to twenty eggs. The lateral pieces of the ovi- 



46 APPLE TREES, LOCUST ITS WOUNDS OF TREES. 

positor serve as a groove to convey the eggs into this nest. They 
are placed in pairs side by side, but separated from each other by 
a portion of woody fibre, and they are fixed into the limb some- 
what obliquely, so that one end points upwards. When two eggs 
have thus been placed, the ovipositor is withdrawn for a moment, 
and is. then inserted again, dropping two more eggs in a line with 
the first; and this operation is repeated until the fissure is filled 
from one end to the other. The insect then removes a short dis- 
tance, and commences making another nest, to contain two more 
rows of eggs. She is occupied about fifteen minutes in making 
one of these slits and filling it with eggs ; and frequently fifteen 
or twenty of these nests are formed upon one limb. Fifty nests 
have been counted in one instance, upon a single limb, extending 
along in a line, each containing from fifteen to twenty eggs in 
two rows — the whole appearing to be the work of one insect. 
After one limb is sufficiently stocked, the insect passes to another. 
She thus goes from limb to limb, and from tree to tree, until her 
supply of eggs, consisting of four or five hundred, is exhausted. 
And by her assiduous labors in thus providing for a succession 
of her kind, she becomes so wearied and weak as to fall tothe 
ground, in attempting to fly, and soon dies. 

From the wounds which are thus made in the limbs, the sap 
exudes, often profusely. This attracts numerous ants to the spot, 
to regale themselves upon this sweet fluid. The naturalist, Pon- 
t^dera, who gave some attention to the operations of the insects 
of this family, says that when the eggs have been deposited, the 
insect closes the mouth of the hole with a gum, capable of pro- 
tecting them from the weather. M. Reaumur thinks this is only 
a fancy, as he could discover nothing of the kind. But to us it 
appears quite probable that what Pontedera supposed was a gum 
which had been deposited by the parent insect, was the dried 
juice of the twig. 

The fissures which the female makes, in which to deposit her 
eggs, are not the only wounds which this insect occasions upon 
the trees. It inserts its sharp beak into the bark for the purpose 
of sucking the sap, this being the nourishment on Avhich the locust 
subsists. Although some of my correspondents express doubts 



APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST THE LARVA AND FLY 



47 



whether this insect takes any nourishment after it arrives at its 
perfect state, Mr. Weter informs me that an orchard of young 
trees upon his farm had the smooth bark of the trunk and limbs 
punctured profusely, and that the sap exuded copiously from 
these punctures; and Mr. Robertson makes the same observation. 

It however is only those twigs and limbs which are badly 
wounded by the female in depositing her eggs, which perish and 
fall to the ground. But in this way extensive injury is often 
done. Mr. Thomas W. Morris speaks of having seen the tops of 
the forest trees in Pennsylvania and Ohio, for upwards of a hun- 
dred miles, appearing as if scorched by fire, a month after this 
locust had left them. (Horticulturist, vol. ii, p. 17.) Many of 
the wounded limbs, however, survive the injury which they 
receive. 

The Eggs of the locust are 0.08 long and 0.06 in diameter. They are of an 
oval form, rounded at each end, and of a white c:dor. Statements are very 
conflicting as to the length of time that elapses after the eggs are deposited be- 
fore they hatch, some saying it is but a fortnight, others that it is six or seven 
weeks. 

The young Larva, when 'it hatches from the egg is but 0.06 in length, and of 
a yellowish-white color, clothed with fine hairs, its eyes and the claws of its 
fore legs being tinged with red. It has six legs, of which the anterior pair is 
much the largest, resembling the claws of the lobster, and armed on the under 
side with strong spines. It is quite active and lively in its motions, and drops 
itself from the limb to the ground, in which it immediately buries itself by 
means of its fore legs, which are admirably adapted for digging. 

The perfect insect varies from an inch and a half to nearly an inch and 
three-quarters in length, to the tips of its closed wings, and when these are 
spread, they measure from two inches and a half to three and a quarter across. 
It is of a coal black color, marked with bright orange yellow as follows— upon 
the transverse and oblique raised lines at the base of the thorax, a large spot on 
each side of the thorax forward of the wings, the whole under side of the ab- 
domen in the males, but only the posterior margins of the segments in the fe- 
males, the veins of the wings, the beak and the legs. Varieties occur having 
the feet black, the shanks marked with black towards their bases, this color 
either occupying the whole outer side, or merely formidg a stripe on their an- 
terior side. The anterior thighs are also black along their inner edge, inclu- 
ding the spines which arise from this edge. The four hind thighs often have a 
black stripe along their posterior sides. The angular edges of the anterior hips 
are also black. There is commonly a small dull white spot in the groove on 
the middle of the head, behind the small simple eyes. The veins of the wings 
are margined each side by a slender black line; they become dusky at their 
tips, and the oblique vein, parallel with the apical margin, is black, and is 



48 APPLE TWIGS, LOCUST PERSONS STUNG BY IT. 

margined with smoky. The two outer anastamosing veinlets of the fore wings 
are black, with only a slender orange line along their middle, and are margined 
Avith smoky, forming a W-shaped mark, which superstition to this day, con- 
tinues to a slight extent, to regard as portending " war." The small opake 
orange basal cell is black on its inner side, and the elevated vein running from 
the outer side of this cell to the base of the wing is also deep black, with a large 
black spot behind and a small one before its basal extremity, as seen when the 
wings are spread. The folded inner part of the hind wings is margined with 
smoky, and on its apical side with black. 

Characters drawn from the veins of the wings, by which to discriminate the 
species, would appear from this insect to be of little value. Thus, the first, or 
outermost veinlet, or cross-vein as it is termed by Mr. Walker, is separated 
from the second veinlet about the distance of its length in the male, but often 
by double this distance in the female. The second veinlet is slightly curved 
in the male, whilst in the female it is straight, with a slight curve towards its 
inner end, and in one specimen before me it is abruptly bent, forming an angle 
of less than 135 degrees. It is of the same length with the first veinlet com- 
monly, but is sometimes much longer. 

It would be interesting to carefully study over a large collec- 
tion of specimens of the seventeen-year locust, belonging to sepa- 
rate broods of this insect, and gathered from different localities, to 
ascertain if some marks cannot be detected by which the individu- 
als belonging to each brood can be discriminated from the others. 

When newly hatched from the pupa, the locust is soft, heavy, 
and sluggish in its motions. At this time, as I am informed by 
Mr. Kennicott, it is preyed upon by our large species of dragon- 
flies or darning-needles {Libellulidce)^ which seize and devour 
numbers of them. 

Mr. W. S. Robertson informs me, that the Indians make the 
different species of cicada an article of diet, every year gathering 
quantities of them, and preparing them for the table by roasting 
them in a hot oven, stirring them until they are well browned. 

Accounts of persons having been stung by the seventeen-year 
locust, and dying in consequence of the wound, are current in 
different sections of our country, every time this insect makes its 
appearance. The past summer, a newspaper article gave the 
name, residence, and particulars of the death of a young lady in 
Illinois, who was thus stung, stating the attending circumstances 
so definitely as to leave no doubt that the story was authentic. 
And it is possible that the sharp beak of this insect, or the ovi- 
positor of the female, may inflict a puncture so extremely painful 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE ITS NUMBERS. 49 

as to cause death in a delicate person of irritable habits. But 
such instances must be extremely rare. The insect has been freely 
handled, times without number, by different persons, without its 
manifesting any malevolence or disposition to injure, and to se- 
cure a concert of their shrill notes, boys have been known sport- 
ively to imprison numbers of them in the crowns of their hats, 
without harm. Upon this subject R. W. Kennicott writes me as 
follows: " I consider the common idea that Cicadas can produce 
death by stinging to be highly preposterous. If it were so, I 
fancy I ought myself to be about a dozen corpses at this time, for 
I have handled hundreds of them in such a manner as gave them 
a fair chance to try their stinging powers on me, had they been 
possessed of such. I observed that when I 'pulled them off from 
a branch, while in the act of depositing eggs therein, they would 
often continue instinctively to work the ovipositing apparatus 
for some time; and should any one's hand or finger happen to 
be in the way at this time, it would be very apt to get severely 
pricked, such is the sharpness of the instrument." 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Small green lice without wings, accompanied by a few black and green 
ones having wings, all crowded together in vast numbers upon the 
green tips of the twigs and under sides of the leaves, sucking their 
juices. 

The Apple Plant-louse. Aphis Mali, Fabricius. 

The Apple Leap-louse. Aphis JIalifoliee. 

These insects pertain to the Order Homoptera and the Family 
Aphidje. The Genus Aphis is at once distinguished from all other 
insects by having its fore wings with one longitudinal vein, the 
rib- vein, from which branches three oblique veins, the last or 
outermost one of which is twice forked. The insects of this 
family, and of the closely allied family Coccid^ or Bark-lice are 
among the greatest pests which the fruit grower and the gardener 
have to encounter. Th%y are astonishingly prolific; and every 
kind of tree, shrub and herb, it is probable, has a species of louse 
infesting it, whilst many have two, three or more, each part of 
thi tree having its peculiar species. Thus upon the apple tree, 

[Assem. No. 215.] 4 



50 APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE ITS HISTORY, 

we have already noticed the Apple root blight, a species of woolly 
louse producing excrescences upon the roots, and the Apple Bark 
louse. There is also the tree blight (Eriosoma lanigera), which 
infests the trunk and limbs. We come now to consider this 
species, which affects the young succulent ends of the twigs and 
the leaves, and another species which we have observed upon 
the leaves, which appears to be distinct from the Mali, though 
probably possessing the same habits. We thus have five kinds 
of these vermin infesting our apple trees. 

In many instances it is extremely difficult to determine whether 
the lice upon our American trees and plants are identical with 
those which occur upon the same or similar vegetation in Europe, 
the descriptions given of them by the old authors being so very 
brief, and often drawn up from a superficial examination of the 
species. And I have heretofore been in much doubt whether this 
common Aphis of our apple trees w r as the same insect which 
similarly infests the orchards of Europe, named Aphis Mali by 
Fabricius; that species being described by him, by Kollar and 
others, as being of a green color, whereas, our insect in its winged 
state is almost invariably black, its abdomen only being green. 
But having recently been favored with specimens of the Euro- 
pean insect, from my esteemed friend Dr. Signoret, of Paris, and 
also on comparing our Aphis with the description given of the 
European by M. Amyot, (Annals Entom. Soc. France, 2d series, 
vol. v. page 478,) and the detailed account of the veins of its 
wings, furnished by Mr. Walker, (List of British Museum, page 
985,) not the slightest doubt remains in my mind, but that the 
insects of the two continents are identical, and that upon -this 
side of the Atlantic it has been introduced by the trees brought 
hither from Europe. 

The history of this species and its annual career is as follows : 
Early in the spring, sunk deep in the cracks and crevices in the 
bark of the apple trees, may be seen numbers of small, oval, black, 
shining eggs, from which these insects are produced. Scraping 
off the dead bark of old trees, and coating the trunks of all the 
trees with whitewash at that period of the year is a practice of 
much utility, since thereby most of the eggs of this and some other 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE ITS FECUNDITY. 51 

insect depredators will be destroyed and the health of the tree 
promoted. These eggs hatch quite early, as soon as the buds 
begin to expand, and the young lice locate themselves upon the 
small, tender leaves, inserting their beaks therein and pumping 
out their juices. All of the lice thus hatched are females, and 
reach maturity in ten or twelve days. Without any intercourse 
of the sexes, these females that were produced from eggs, now 
commence giving birth to living young, bringing forth about two 
daily, for a period of two or three weeks, when having become 
decrepid with age, they perish. The young mostly locate imme- 
diately around the parent, as closely as they can stow themselves. 
Upon a young leaf, in a space less than half an inch long and the 
tenth of an inch wide, I counted thirty-six young lice and four 
winged females, which Lad recently alighted there to begin a new 
colony. The young reaching maturity after a similar length of 
time in their turn become parents. Thus these vermin continue 
to breed, and as fast as new leaves expand they are in readiness 
to occupy them. When favorable circumstances attend them, 
their multiplication surpasses all power of computation. In the 
warmth of summer they attain maturity in less than half the time 
they do early in the spring. And like most of the species of the 
Aphides they at this period of the year produce winged as well 
as wingless females, the former dispersing themselves to found 
new colonies upon other trees. It is reported of the insects of 
this family, that there are from sixteen to twenty generations 
in the course of the season, from twenty to forty -young being pro- 
duced from each parent. Thus, from one egg, as stated by Mr. 
Curtis, in seven generations, 729 millions of lice will be bred. 
And if they all lived their allotted length of time, by autumn 
everything upon the surface of the earth would be covered with 
them. When cold weather begins to approach, males as well as 
females are produced, and their operations for the season close 
with the deposit of a stock of eggs for continuing their species 
another year. On the last day of last October, it being a warm 
sunny day, after many nights of frost, I observed myriads of 
winged and apterous lice wandering about upon the trunks, the 
limbs and the fading leaves of all my apple trees, many of them 
occupied in laying their eggs. These were scattered along in 



5£ APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE BLACKENS THE TREE. 

every crevice of the bark, in many places piled up and filling the? 
cracks, and others were irregularly dropped among the lichens 
and moss growing upon the bark — every unevenness of the sur- 
face, or wherever a roughness afforded a support for them, being 
stocked with as many as could be made to cling to it. The eggs 
were then of a light yellow or green color, and were so slightly 
glued in their places that it was evident by far the largest part of 
them would be washed away by rains or brushed off by the driv- 
ing snows of winter. But I by no means anticipated such a great 
diminution in their numbers as actually occurred. I should judge 
that in the spring several hundreds had disappeared for every one 
that then remained. 

The present year (1855) the apple plant-louse, as well as species 
infesting willows and some other trees, appears to be unusually 
prolific, and has excited much alarm among many owners of young 
orchards/for it is young thrifty-growing trees which are most in- 
fested by it. In one instance a gentleman came to me a distance 
of twenty-five miles, bringing specimens of this insect, to learn its 
name and what measures he could resort to for destroying it, and 
in the Country Gentleman of July 19, (vol. vi. p. 48,) is a letter 
from William Gilchrist, of Hebron, Washington county,giving an 
account of its depredations upon his trees, many of which were in 
danger of perishing unless they were relieved from these vermin. 
Norman Briggs, Esq., of Schaghticoke Point, informs me that par- 
ticular varieties of the apple appear to be much more infested by 
this insect than other varieties; thus the Sour Bough, wherever it 
was growing in his grounds, was overrun with lice, whilst among 
the, kinds least affected were the Northern Spy and Red Astrachan. 

As already stated, this insect locates itself upon the green suc- 
culent shoots at the end of the twiggs, upon the under surface of 
the leaves, and upon the leaf-stalks. The leaves being of a com- 
paratively stiff, leathery texture, do not become w r rinkled and 
plaited like those of the p^ach, the snowball, and many other 
shrubs and trees; they, however, curve backwards, often to such 
an extent that the point of the leaf touches the stalk on which it 
grows, thus furnishing to the insect a comparatively secure covert 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE — HONEY DEW. 53 

from rains and the night dews. The leaf-stalks also become bent, 
so that all the leaves growing upon a twig are, in badly-infested 
trees, turned backwards, pressing against the twig, and thus 
shielding that part of the colony which is located thereon. An 
infested tree may be distinguished at a distance of several rods 
by the leaves on the ends of its twigs being thus turned back- 
wards, instead of standing freely out in their natural position. 
The bark of the limbs, and the surface of the leaves also, becomes 
blackened as if it had been smoked by the flame of a candle or 
other burning substance. This blackness does not rub off upon 
white paper, but Mr. Briggs informs me that washing the bark 
with a solution of sal soda removes it entirely. He had observed 
this black appearance of his trees before he noticed the lice which 
caused it, and seeing a newspaper-recommendation of this wash 
for cleansing trees, he applied it to four of those in his orchard. 
The next day he was astonished at finding myriads of these lice 
crawling down and up the trunks of these four trees, and upon 
the ground they were heaped together in a ring around their 
bases. The alkaline matter in this wash had evidently tinctured 
the sap of the tree, and made it unpalatable to these insects, and 
they endeavored to emigrate to some place free from it, but on 
reaching the ground they knew not where to go, and many, there- 
fore, travelled up the trunk again in search of some other avenue 
of escape. 

A strong disagreeable smell is also emitted from trees that are 
badly infested with the apple-plant louse, and when a person has 
been examining infested twigs this smell remains upon his hands. 
The odor is peculiar and very loathsome, and reminds me of the 
smell of stale fish more than anything else with which I am able 
to compare it. 

All the insects of this family secrete copiously a sweetish fluid, 
called honey dew. This is ejected from the two little horns, or nec- 
taries, which project one on each side of the hind part of their 
bodies. Often a clear drop of this fluid may be seen at the tip of 
one or both of these horns. This fluid, falling upon the leaves 
and evaporating, gives the leaves, under a colony of these lice, a 



54 APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE — DESCRIPTION. 

shining appearance, as though they were coated with varnish, 
For the purpose of regaling themselves upon this honey dew, or 
to destroy the aphides, different species of ants, flies, and quite a 
number of other insects are always found in company with them. 
Several of these, and their habits, will be more particularly con- 
sidered at the close of our account of this species. 

Grouped together, and covering the surface of the twigs and 
leaves which they infest, these lice are found in all stages of their 
growth. When newly born they are almost white, but soon be- 
come pale dull greenish yellow, which is their prevailing color 
during the larva period of their lives, the antennae, the nectaries, 
the knees and feet being dusky, and sometimes black. The ma- 
ture females are generally without wings, and their bodies are 
much broader than in the larva state, being shaped like an egg, 
the smaller end forward. These, as well as the winged indivi- 
duals, vary greatly in their colors and marks, as will be seen 
from the description of this species and its varieties which we 
here give. 

The wingless females are somewhat less than the tenth of an inch long, 
and are of a pale yellowish green color, with the head frequently more yellow 
than the body. Stripes of a deep green color are commonly present upon the 
back, or sometimes there is a single stripe in the middle, and transverse ones 
at each of the sutures or impressed lines between the segments, but these trans- 
verse stripes do not extend to the margin upon either side. The eyes are black. 
The beak, by which it pierces and sucks the juices of the twigs and leaves, 
the antennae, and the legs, are whitish, their tips black or dusky, and the 
knees also are commonly dusky. The nectaries are equal in length to the dis- 
tance from their bases to the tip of the abdomen, and are dusky or white, with 
their outer ends black. Protruding from the extremity of the abdomen, is a 
short tail-like appendage, nearly half as long as the nectaries, and of a black 
color. But in females examined in autumn, at the time of depositing their 
eggs, this appendage was not observed. I hence infer it pertains only to those 
which bear living young. 

The males and the winged females appear to be alike in their colors. They 
measure about 0.12 to the tips of the wings, this being double the length to 
the tip of the abdomen, or more. The head and thorax are of a coal black 
color, with the neck commonly green. The antennas are inserted upon the 
front part of the head, between the eyes. They are black, slightly tapering 
towards their tips, scarcely as long as the body, and slightly covered with very 
fine short hairs. They are seven-jointed, the two basal joints short and thick, 
almost as broad as long; the third joint is longest of all, and often shows seve- 
ral slight equidistant constrictions, dividing it seemingly into several 
short joints; the fourth and fifth joints are equal, and each but little 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE VARIETIES. 55 

shorter and more slender than the third, whilst the sixth is but half 
as long, and the seventh is double the length of the sixth, and quite slender 
and thread-like. The abdomen is short and thick, of an oval form, and ob- 
tusely rounded at its apex, of a bright grass-green color, with a row of black 
dots along each side forward of the nectaries, one dot upon each segment. On 
its under side at the tip, are two square brown spots, more or less separated 
from each other as the abdomen is distended with aliment in a greater or less 
degree, and above the apex are often three short blackish transverse stripes. 
The tail-like appendage in the female is black, and about a third as long as the 
nectaries, which are also black, and if pressed against the abdomen, would 
reach its tip in the females, but are shorter in the other sex. The legs are pale 
dull yellow or whitish, with numerous even hairs; the feet, tips of the shanks, 
and of the thighs, black or dusky; the hind thighs black, except upon their 
basal third. The wings are transparent, but not perfectly pellucid, the stigma 
or opake spot towards the end on the outer margin, is dull white, and the 
veins are dark tawny brown, the longitudinal rib-vein being paler and becom- 
ing whitish towards its base, the third or forked vein is abortive and colorless 
at its base, and, as in many other species, the first vein has a dusky mark 
from its tip, running upon the margin, towards the base. The first and second 
veins are more than twice as far apart at their tips as they are at their bases; 
the third vein is slightly farther from the second at its tip than at its base, and 
is a third farther, or more, from the second at base than this is from the first; 
the tip of the first fork is much nearer the tip of the second fork than that of 
the third vein, and is about the same distance from the tip of the third vein 
that this is from the second; the tip of the second fork is equidistant between 
the tips of the first fork and the fourth vein ; the tip of this last is commonly 
twice as near the tip of the second fork as it is to that of the rib-vein. 

Individuals have been observed, in which the wing-veins varied from their 
normal state as follows : 

1. Tip of the third vein nearer that of the first fork than that of the second. 
Common. 

2. The second and third veins parallel with each other. 

3. The second fork very short, its tip only half as far from the tip of the first 
fork as from that of the fourth vein. 

4. Left wing with but one fork to the third vein, the second wanting. 

5. Right wing with three forks to the third vein. 

6. Left wing with the second vein slightly forked at its tip. 

The following varieties in the colors and marks of this species may be spe- 
cified. The greatest diversity in these respects occurs after the coming on of 
frosty nights in autumn, it being then difficult to find two individuals with 
precisely the same hue and marks. This diversity is undoubtedly produced 
by the cold to which the insects have been exposed, and the unhealthy juices 
of the faded and decaying leaves which now furnish the only nourishment which 
is accessible to them. It might hence be deemed that the whole race was now 
in a diseased state, if it were not that sexual intercourse takes place freely, 
and the females are all industriously occupied in depositing their eggs. 

Variety a, pallidicornis. The antennae brownish yellow instead of black. 
Young individuals. 



56 APPLE LEAVES — LEAF-LOUSE DESCRIBED. 

Variety b, nigricollis. The neck not green, but of the same black color as 
the head and thorax. Common among aged individuals. 

c, thoracica. The thorax dull green, with a black band forward of 

of its middle. Young. 

d, fulviventris. The abdomen pale dull yellow instead of green. 

e, nigriventris. The abdomen greenish black, with the row of 
black dots along each side, indistinct. 

/, immaculata. The abdomen without any dots or darker colored 

marks. 
g, obsoleta. The lateral row of black dots faint and scarcely per- 
ceptible. 
h, triseriata. A row of black dots along the middle of the back,. 

as well as upon each side of the abdomen, 
i, bivincla. Two black bands towards the apex of the abdomen, 

on its upper side. 
j, iergata. Abdomen aboye, with two black bands towards its tip r 
and three rows of black dots anteriorly. 
Several specimens of Plant-lice which I gathered from the 
leaves of Apple trees, in Mercer county, Illinois, upon the 4th 
day of October last, and which at the time of capturing them I 
supposed were varieties merely of the common species which we 
have been considering, prove on examination to pertain to a dif- 
ferent species. They are of a size larger and of a shining black 
color throughout. In the common species the legs are uniformly 
pale with black feet and knees,, the preserved specimen showing 
this character almost as distinctly as living individuals; in these 
specimens on the contrary the legs are entirely black, or at most 
brownish yellow at their bases in some instances. The wing- 
veins moreover differ notably from those of Aphis Mali in several 
points. They are more slender, and the fourth vein is relatively 
shorter and more strongly curved through its whole length. In 
consequence of this curvature it is nearer to the second fork at 
its base than at its tip. Two-thirds of the specimens which were 
captured at that locality coincide with each other in these differ- 
ences. This fact would indicate this to be a more common species 
upon the Apple trees in Illinois than the Aphis Mali-, but its dark- 
er color and larger size rendering it more conspicuous than that 
species, may have occasioned a disproportionately larger num- 
ber of this species to be gathered. It may appropriately be named 
the Apple-leaf louse {Aphis Malifolicc). The specimens show the 
following marks in addition to what has already been stated : 

The Apple-leaf louse measures 0.15 to the tips of its wings. The third 
vein of the fore wings is but slightly abortive at its base. The second and third 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE REMEDIES, SOAP. 57 

veins arc parallel with cacli other, or in some instances arc nearer at their tips 
than at their bases. In jlphis Mali the first fork branches from the third vein 
beyond its middle. Here it is given off much lower down, at about a third the 
distance from the base to the tip. Commonly the second fork is here half as 
long as the first fork ; in jlphis Mali it is much shorter. The tip of the fourth 
vien is as near that of the rib vien as it is to that of the second fork* The cal- 
lous point on the outer margin of the hind wings is much more distinct in this 
species, and here the two oblique veins branch from therib-vien at a much less 
acute angle than in jlphis Mali. 

We come next to speak of the remedies for destroying these 
vermin. 

Drenching the vegetation infested with any of the species of 
Aphis with strong soap-suds or weak lye is a measure which has 
been much recommended, and is certainly one of the most effica- 
cious within our knowledge. But it is those insects only which 
are wetted by the solution that are destroyed. These are crea- 
tures which " sprinkling" will not cleanse from the tree; " im- 
mersion" must be resorted to. As it is the green succulent ends 
of the twigs of young thrifty trees, and the leaves growing from 
these parts that are most infested and liable to be seriously in- 
jured, they may be rid of these vermin to a great extent by pre- 
paring a solution of soft soap in a tin pan or other convenient 
vessel, and whilst one person holds this under the infested twigs, 
let another person bend them one after another down into it, 
holding them there for several seconds. This will, in most cases, 
destroy all of the lice upon the twigs and leaves which are thus 
immersed, and will cleanse and impart new vigor to them. But 
this is by no means so infallible a remedy as some writers have 
represented it to be. Some of the lice, perhaps from being more 
hardy than the generality of their race, will survive. It, how- 
ever, will reduce their numbers so far as to allay all fears of im- 
mediate injury to the trees from this pest. 

Instead of a solution of soft soap, a writer in a late number of 
the American Agriculturist, (vol. xiii. p. 295,) recommends 
thoroughly rubbing this substance about the trunks and limbs 
two or thee times a year. It is very probable that thus applied, 
a sufficient amount of the alkaline matter would be absorbed and 
taken into the circulating fluids of the tree to render these fluids 
distasteful, and perhaps poisonous to the Aphides. We have al- 



58 APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE, — REMEDIES, TOBACCO. 

ready seen how repulsive to these insects the trees of Mr. Briggs, 
immediately became upon being washed with a solution of soda. 

Tobacco water, prepared by pouring a gallon of boiling water 
upon a quarter of a pound of tobacco, and used in the same man- 
ner as above directed in the case of soap suds, has been reported 
as a certain remedy. Moses L. Colton. of West Bolton, Vermont, 
says (Country Gentleman, vol. vi. p. 78), a nursery of about 
twelve hundred Apple trees became so infested with lice that 
most of the trees turned black and the leaves withered and died, 
until he tried tobacco water, prepared however, much stronger 
than above recommended. This completely destroyed the insects, 
and the leaves they had killed having fallen off, neAV ones started 
out. For six years past he has been obliged to resort to this more 
or less every year, in his nursery and orchard, and he finds it an 
effectual remedy when made strong enough. He prepares a de- 
coction, made by boiling four or five pounds of tobacco in water 
sufficient to nearly fill a tin pan. 

The remedy which is admitted on all hands to be the most 
effectual, and sure of ridding infested vegetation of every aphis 
upon it, is the smoke of tobacco. But unfortunately this 
can only be resorted to in the case of rose bushes and other low 
shrubs or small trees. For enclosing a shrub to be operated upon, 
gardeners abroad use a large box, a hogshead, or a kind of small 
tent humorously described some time since by Prof. Lindley 
(Gardener's Chronicle, July 11, 1846,) under the name of a 
" parapetticoat," made by sewing the upper end of a wornout but 
entire petticoat to the outer edge of an opened parasol that has 
been thrown aside, any holes in its cover being first mended, and 
a staff six feet long securely tied to its handle. The petticoat 
being then raised up in folds to the parasol, the staff is inserted 
into the ground under the centre of the infested shrub, and the 
petticoat is drawn down to surround aDd inclose all of the foliage 
of the shrub. The interior is then filled densely with tobacco 
smoke for the space of five or ten minutes, or long enough to in- 
sure the fumes penetrating every curl, plait and crevice of the 
foliage. The apparatus is hereupon removed, and the ioliage 
immediately washed with lukewarm water from a large syringe 



APPLE LEAVES, PLANT-LOUSE — REMEDIES, ITS INSECT ENEMIES. 59 

else it too would be liable to be destroyed. This utterly exter- 
minates the aphis from the shrub, every insect being suffocated 
and dropping from the plant, so that 

"unnumbered corses strew the fatal plain." 

One measure more, and this the most important of all, whereby 
to subdue these insects, remains to be stated. A person who is 
acquainted with the aphides, and the several kinds of other in- 
sects which prey upon and destroy them in different ways, will 
never permit a valuable tree or plant to suffer injury from them. 
He will at once repair to the hedges and borders of the forest in 
his vicinity, and with a beating net, such as is used by entomolo- 
gists for gathering insects, or an 'open inverted umbrella, or some 
other implement convenient for this purpose, he will soon collect 
from the foliage a few scores of these natural enemies of the plant- 
lice, and conveying them alive in small boxes and vials, will set 
them free upon the tree or shrub that is infested. Most of these 
being in the larva state, and without wings, will not leave their 
new situation so long as any food for them remains there. This 
is said to be the remedy to which all the more intelligent French 
and German gardeners are accustomed to resort in an emergency 
of this kind. The rapidity with which these natural enemies of 
the aphides not only suppress but utterly exterminate them, in 
instances where they are so multiplied and excessively numerous 
as to seem unconquerable, is truly surprising. At one time the 
present season (1855) the cherry trees in my grounds became 
overrun with the Cherry plant-louse — to be considered hereafter, 
to such an extent that the under surface of the more young and 
tender leaves, and the succulent ends of the limbs and twigs, 
were all covered and black with them. If not checked it was 
evident that every tree would soon perish. I was about to im- 
port from the neighboring fields and forests a stock of the natural 
destroyers of these pests, when I found on examination that nature 
had already scattered numbers of these everywhere among the 
aphides. All apprehensions as to the result were hereupon at 
once allayed. A week afterwards, upon a careful inspection, 
not a single aphis could anywhere be found upon these trees. 
Of the teeming millions which were revelling there so recently, a 



60 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS — ANTS. 

few of the empty, shrivelled skins, adhering to the leaves, was 
all that remained' 

We have seen the prodigious increase of these creatures which 
would take place if they were allowed to multiply to the extent 
they are susceptible of doing. Such is their fecundity, that if no 
check was given them, it is evident, that from the cedars of Le- 
banon to the hyssop upon the wall, every leaf and spear of vege- 
tation springing from the bosom of mother earth, would be 
thronged and blighted by the countless myriads which would be 
produced in the space of a few months. Fortunate indeed is it 
for man that in this, as in so many other instances, Providence 
has furnished remedies for an evil which would otherwise be so 
calamitous — remedies which are far more effective than any which 
human skill has been able to devise. As this family of insects 
appear to outstrip every other in the rapidity with which it is 
liable to multiply, to keep it restrained within its appropriate 
bounds means more efficient are here requisite than elsewhere, 
and we accordingly find that the aphides have enemies more 
numerous, more active and inveterate, than any other group 
in this department of the works of nature. Whole families of 
other insects, some of them numerous in species, appear to have 
been called into existence chiefly for the purpose of feeding upon 
and destroying these vermin, and an acquaintance with the seve- 
ral kinds of insects which, in our country, occur in company with 
these pests of vegetation is quite important, that we may know 
which to destroy or pass by in indifference, and which to cherish 
and protect, and call to our aid in instances where nature her- 
self does not furnish them in sufficient numbers. 

By far the most constant comrade of the aphis is the ant. One 
species or another of this family of insects (FoRMiciDiE) is almost 
invariably found wherever a colony of plant-lice have established 
themselves. By this means we frequently discover colonies of 
these insects which would escape our search if our attention was 
not attracted by these larger sized sable colored attendants. The 
fondness of the ant for sweet substances is well known, as it is 
always prowling about cupboards and other places where saccha- 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS ANTS. 61 

rine matters are kept, and it is for the purpose of feeding upon 
the honey-dew that the aphides secrete so copiously that they are 
such constant attendants upon these insects. The mode in which 
they obtain this from the plant-lice is quite interesting; with 
their long flail- shaped antennae they gently touch the backs of the 
plant-lice, whereupon these eject this sweet fluid, which stands in 
the form of a small clear drop at the tip of one or both of the 
nectaries or little horns towards the end of their bodies. This 
the ant immediately sips, and by passing from one aphis to an- 
other he obtains his fill of this delicious sweet. A family of ants 
is thus supplied with an important part of its nourishment by dis- 
covering a tree on which the aphides have located themselves, 
and thereafter one after another of the ants may always be seen 
passing up and down the trunk of the tree. Plant-lice have hence 
been styled the kine or cattle of the ants, as they come to them 
regularly to milk them as it were, and in return for this savory 
food which they furnish the ants, some of the latter remain con- 
stantly by them night and day to protect these small weak crea- 
tures from being molested by their insect or other enemies. Thus 
before we are able to inspect a colony of plant-lice we are first 
obliged to brush off or destroy the ants which are guarding them, 
and T have frequently noticed that when a colony of aphides 
is newly established, and before it has been found by these in- 
sects, it remains small and does not thrive and increase so rapidly 
as when nursed and guarded by these industrious heroic creatures. 
Thus a colony of the Cone-flower plant-louse (Aphis Rudbeckice) 
a species which I described in the Fourth Report of the State 
Cabinet, page 66, which has been established more than a fort- 
night upon a stalk of golden rod (Solidago) near my door, al- 
though it has not been molested by any destroyer, numbers only 
twenty-five individuals, and these are scattered about upon the 
stalk and leaves, seemingly pining in want of their accustomed 
attendants to herd and nurse them. 

The species of ant which I have most frequently met with, asso- 
ciated with plant-lice upon the apple tree, is a large black ant, 
with a dark red thorax, and is very similar in its size and colors 
to the wood-eating ant, (Formica hcrculeana, Linn. F. lignivcra. 



62 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS WASPS. 

Latr.) which excavates its burrows in the trunks of old and 
decaying trees, in which it is sometimes met with in countless 
numbers. And I am not without suspicions this may be a variety 
of that species rendered darker in its colors by being more ex- 
posed to the light and air. It is much darker colored than the 
species alluded to, its thorax being deep chestnut red. and its legs 
black, with the thighs tinged with chestnut red, but always 
darker than the thorax, instead of being of the same color as we 
generally find them in F. hcrculeana. These and other differences 
to be specified, appear to be constant, occurring in all the speci- 
mens which I find attending the aphides of the apple and other 
trees, and induce me to regard it as a distinct species, which I 
propose to distinguish under the name of 

The New-York Ant (Form ; ca Nov boracensis). The neuters are uniformly 
about 0.30 long. The body and legs, as in F. hercuhaia are covered with very 
short fine appressed hairs, which on the head and body are interspersed with 
a few longer erect bristles, whereof several are clustered upon the elevated pos- 
terior part of the thorax, others stand out from the edge of the wedge like scale 
at the base of the abdomen like eye-lashes, and others are arranged in transverse 
rows upon the abdomen, of which there is one upon each side of each suture. 
The scale at the base of the abdomen, instead of being the same red or yellow 
color as the thorax, or only somewhat dusky at its summit, is here black, 
with its base only sometimes dark red. The posterior face of this scale in F. 
hcrculeana has a broad shallow concavity, like the hollow of the hand, whilst 
here it is merely flattened, or in some instances has a small concavity in its 
middle. In the preserved specimen, the edges of the abdominal segments, 
especially the basal one, are often membranous and of a pale dull yellow color; 
and a variety occurs in which the anterior suture is impressed or constricted. 

In addition to ants, different kinds of wasps are common, 
hovering about the foliage of trees infested with plant-lice. Most 
of these appear to be attracted to them on the same errand with 
the ants, namely, to regale themselves upon the honey-dew, with- 
out molesting them further than to obtain this fluid. Thus I 
have observed our common Blue wasp,. (Pelopceus cceruhus, Lin- 
naeus) the base of whose abdomen is contracted into a long slen- 
der penduncle, standing beside a colony of lice, and turning its 
head from side to side, gently touching their backs with its anten- 
nae, hereby tickling and causing them to eject their honey dew, 
and their mouths following in the track of the antennae, sipping 
up this fluid. Our common hornet or " yellow jacket"' ( Vespa 



APPLE LEAVESj APHIS ATTENDANTS WASPS. 63 

maculata, Linnaeus) is also frequently noticed in the same situa- 
tions. These insects are so much larger and more powerful than 
the ants that the latter make no attempts to drive them away 
as they do most other intruders. They quietly stand aside and 
permit the large wasp to pilfer from them what would serve as 
a meal for a dozen of their own family. 

Other wasp-like insects, of a smaller size, pertaining to the 
family Crabronid^:, seize and carry off the plant-lice. These 
excavate holes in decaying posts, rails and similar situations, and 
collect young spiders for food for their young, several of the spe- 
cies gathering plant-lice for the same purpose. These they 
enclose in the same cells in which they drop their eggs, the egg 
being in the bottom of the cell, often attached to the end of the 
abdomen of an aphis, that the young worm when it hatches may 
find its food placed directy in contact with its mouth; and the 
exact quantity of food is put into each cell before it is sealed up, 
which the worm will require for bringing it to maturity. But 
the most astonishing trait in the instincts of these small wasps, is 
their manner of preserving the spiders and other food which they 
gather. The wasp is evidently aware that if it kills the spider or 
aphis before packing it in its cell, it will become putrid and una- 
dapted for the nourishment of the worm before the latter will 
hatch from the egg. On the other hand, if the young spiders are 
enclosed in the cell alive and in full vigor, their incessant strug- 
gles to escape from their prison will wound and destroy the egg 
or the young tender worm which is in the same cell. How is the 
wasp to proceed in this dilemma without salt or spices with 
which to preserve from putrefaction the, stock of provisions which 
she amasses 1 Nature has furnished her with a resort for effecting 
this, superior to any known to man for a like purpose; and if 
some chemist, taking the hint from these little insects, could 
devise some analogous mode whereby we might preserve animal 
food for weeks in all the perfection it has when newly slaugh- 
tered, it would be a discovery conducive to human health and 
comfort equal to any of the other great discoveries of this remark- 
able age. The wasp on seizing her prey appears to sting it 
slightly, injecting into the wound only so much venom as will 



64 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS FLIES. 

serve to paralyze and stupefy her victim, without killing it. It 
remains alive, but lies perfectly still and passive. The insects 
thus prepared are stowed away in the cells of the wasp as skill- 
fully and compactly as the most expert packer in our slaughter 
houses fills his barrels. The former in repairing his fences will 
sometimes notice on splitting a decayed rail or stake, holes exca- 
vated therein and filled with young spiders, commonly of bright 
beautiful colors, which lie still and quiet, with only a slight 
quivering of their limbs, and is puzzled to know why, when thus 
broken in upon, they do not awake from theirjethargy and run 
away, little suspecting the manner and purpose of their being 
accumulated there. And similar interesting and curious pheno- 
mena are passing under the farmer's eye daily, as he pursues his 
labors — phenomena which, if 

" In nature's infinite book of seeresy 
A little he can read," 

aid in rendering his vocation beyond all comparison the most 
pleasant of any pursuit known to man. 

In addition to ants and wasps several kinds of flies are common 
about cherry and other trees infested with plant-lice, being at- 
tracted hither, like the ants, for the purpose ot sipping the sweet 
honey dew. One of these which is common during the month 
of July, and which will be most likely to attract notice, both 
on account of its prim neat appearance and the briskness of its 
gait when walking, is a small blackish green fly, with clear 
glass- like wings, which are crossed by three black bands. With 
its wings extended horizontally outwards, and often gently 
waving them up and down, with many abrupt turns it walks 
with a rapid pace up and down the limbs, and out upon the leaves 
in the vicinity of colonies of plant-lice. It is so tame that if the 
hand has hold of a limb it fearlessly walks around upon it. But 
the most curious part of its movements can only be seen with a 
magnifying glass. Watching its opportunity, when the ants have 
all left a herd of their cattle, the plant-lice, unguarded, it runs 
in upon them, where they are crowded together, as closely as they 
can stow themselves, and using its four hind legs for walking 
and turning around, with its two fore feet it gently scratches 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS HONEY-DEW FLY. 65 

upon the backs of the lice, its feet at this time moving with in- 
credible rapidity, corresponding exactly with those of a dog when 
eagerly occupied in digging open the hole of a woodchuck; at 
the same time the lips at the end of its beak are held down be- 
tween its fore feet, instantly sucking dry every particle of honey 
dew wiiich the lice, having their backs thus briskly irritated, in- 
continently spirt out. Thus in a moment the fly runs about over 
the backs of the whole flock, milking every one of them " dry," 
as a dairyman would express it, and filling himself with the de- 
licious sweet. But rapid as the fly is in doing this work, he 
finishes it none too soon for his own safety, for any ant that is 
near by, from a cry or some other signal given by the lice, seems 
immediately to know that a thief has broken in among the flock, 
and with his utmost speed hastens to the spot. As soon as the 
ant approaches, the fly takes to his heels, as if aware he mighty 
come off minus a leg or a wing, if he allowed the enraged ant 
to grapple him. And the ant now with his antennse gently 
strokes the backs of the aphides, as if soothing them after such 
rude treatment, and assuring them of his future watchfulness and 
protection. 

This fly pertains to the genus Tephritis, in the Ortalidan group 
of two-winged flies (Family MrsciDiE, Order Diptera). Though 
of the same size it is clearly a different species from the Tejihritis 
i-fasciata of Macquart (Exotic Diptera, ii. 226), and also from 
his %-maculata^ two species which inhabit our southern States. 
It may be named the Honey-dew fly, or the Honey-dew Tephri- 
tis, .(71 melliginis.) 

It measures about 0.23 to the tip of its abdomen, and 0.28 to the end of its 
wings. It is polished and shining, its head black, the orbits of the eyes mar- 
gined above with white; the thorax is dark green and the abdomen greenish 
black; the under side of the abdomen, when distended, is of a dull reddish or 
yellowish brown color and somewhat hyaline, with a broad black stripe in the 
middle, which is interrupted at the sutures; the legs are black, the basal joint 
-of the feet dull yellow; the wings are perfectly colorless and pellucid, and are 
crossed upon the disk by three black bands, which are narrower than the in- 
tervening spaces; the middle and inner of these bands are oblique and shorter, 
not reaching the inner margin of the wing, and the inner one is broadly dilated 
towards its anterior end, which dilation is extended along the margin of the 
wing to its base. The outer one of these three discoidal bands is confluent at 
its anterior end with a fourth band which is situated upon the anterior apical 

jAsseni. No. 215.J 5 



66 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS GOLDEN-ROD FLT. 

margin. These four bands upon the wings thus present a resemblance to thi 
Roman numerals VII placed in an inverted position. 

Another of our New-York species of Teph it 's is closely related to the one now 
described, and probably has the same habits, though as I have met with it but 
seldom, I have not had an opportunity to observe its movements. It is slightly 
smaller than the honey dew fly, and like it has four black bands upon the wings, 
but here these bands are broader than the intervening spaces, and the two inner 
ones are confluent at their posterior ends, which do not reach the margin, whilst 
the two outer ones arc confluent at their anterior ends, the bands thus resembling 
an upright letter V followed by an inverted one. The other band, moreover, only 
touches the margin at its ends, and the wings are somewhat opake and of a white 
color, with only the axillary portion hyaline. The head and antenna) are light 
yellow, the face white; the thorax is black, with a milky-white stripe on each 
side and four broad ash-gray stripes above, the outer ones interrupted towards 
their anterior ends ; the scutel is white and waxy, or porcelain-like ; the abdomen 
is black, with the posterior edges of its segments whitish; the feet and shanks 
are yellow, the thighs black. I name this, in allusion to the marks upon its 
wings, the Lettered Tephritis (71 tabdlaria). 

Ill this connection I may observe that the fly named Tephritis 
Asteris by Dr. Harris (New England Insects, p. 498,) the larva 
of which infests the stalks of our American Asters producing glo- 
bular swellings or galls therein, the size of walnuts, I have never 
met with. But a larger species, attacking the Solidago or golden- 
rod in the same manner, is quite common in eastern New- York.. 
This fly, however, pertains to the genus Acinia, which has been 
separated from Tephritis by Desvoidy. Every larmer's boy has 
noticed how the slender, straight, smooth stalk of the golden-rod, 
growing with other weeds along old fences, quite often has one 
and sometimes two large round galls or ball-like swellings upon 
them, an inch in diameter,, when the stalk above and below is 
less than a quarter of an inch. And many have had the curi- 
osity to cut into these balls, and have found a plump well-fed 
white maggot in their centre. By the first of August the swel- 
lings have about completed their growth, although the worm 
within is as yet so small as to be scarcely perceptible to the naked 
eye. In the winter season, the leaves having fallen and left the 
stalks naked, these balls are more frequently observed; but at 
this period of the year most of them are found to be empty, with 
a round hole perforated in them, the worm having completed its 
growth and the winged fly having come out through this perfora- 
tion the preceding autumn. But occasionally one of these balls 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS NEW- YORK ACINI A. 67 

is found at this season without any hole in it. In these the worm 
is still remaining, to complete its changes and continue its spe- 
cies the coming summer. And if one of these balls be placed in 
a tumbler with a piece of paper tied over it, the fly can in due 
time be obtained therefrom. Its form and size is much like that 
of the common house-fly, but it has an odd appearance from its 
wings being opake and of a tawny brown color, with clear spots 
upon the inner margin and at the tip. It may appropriately be 
named the Golden-rod fly (Acinia Soiidaginis). 

This fly measures from 0.35 to 0.40 to the tip of its wings. Tts body is of a 
pale brownish yellow or a tawny whitish color with two darker brown stripes 
above upon the thorax. The antennae, mouth and legs, are dull yellow, the 
face white, and the top of the head yellowish or reddish brown, with a black- 
ish spot at base where the three ocelli or simple eyes are situated. The wings 
are tawny brownish-yellow, with blackish clouds, and with several dots, and 
the veins lighter yellow. On the outer margin beyond the middle, are two 
small triangular hyaline spots, and a third longer one inside of these, a large 
transverse hyaline spot on the apex, and two large triangular ones upon the 
inner margin, the inner one being larger and prolonged upon the margin to the 
base. Upon the margin of the wing, in these large hyaline spots are some 
tawny yellowish dots or small spots, namely, three in the apical spot, one in 
the smaller triangular one, one or two in the larger triangular one, and three 
where this last S£>ot is prolonged in the axilla. 

Another pretty species of Acinia, which is commonly found resting upon 
brakes in our meadows in midsummer, but which I have not yet discovered in 
its preparatory state, may be named the New-York Acinia {A. Novaboracen- 
sis.) It measures 35 to the tip of its wings, and is of a pale brownish or 
tawny flesh color, and like- the preceding species, is clothed with a short stiff 
beard, which is of a silver gray color, with scattered black bristles. The or- 
bital edge of the eyes is whitish, and the eyes, when the fly is alive, are of a 
pale coppery red color, crossed with three golden yellow stripes having a green 
reflection, the middle one of these stripes being broadest, and the upper one 
slightly narrower than the lower one. When dead the eyes change to black- 
ish brown and the stripes to black, and they are now much less obvious. The 
antenn?e are pale, tawny yellow, with a simple black seta or coarse bristle on 
their upper side. The face is whitish, with two large black dots in the mid- 
dle and one on each side between the antennae and the eye, and a transverse 
brown spot is placed on each side between the anterior part of the mouth and 
the eye. The abdomen is dull pale yellow, with the apical segments black ex- 
cept on their posterior margins. The wings are opake, black, with a slender, 
hyaline-white crescent upon their tips, the anterior horn of which is sometimes 
tinged with tawny yellow, and upon the middle of the anterior margin is a 
small streak of the same color. The whole wing is covered, except towards 
the anterior side and the apex, with numerous white dots, those in and to- 
wards the axilla being larger. In some specimens a pruinose powder of a 
more intensely white color forms a ring upon the margin of all the larger dots- 



68 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS — SARATOGA TETANOCERA- 

Similar to the fly last described, in size and in the dots of its 
wings, is another species which Macquart regards as being the 
Tetanocera guttularis of Wiedemann, although it differs slightly 
from his description. The genus Tetanocera, belongs to a small 
group of the Ortalidan flies, differing from the other genera in 
having the second joint of the antenna? equal in length to the 
third joint, instead of being but half as long or less. Another 
character presented by all the species I have seen I do not ob- 
serve noticed in books. The whole surface of the wings in our 
American Tetanocerides is finely striated with obtusely impressed 
lines and intervening ridges, which have a longitudinal direction 
towards the apex, and an oblique one towards the inner margin. 
These flies also subsist upon the honey-dew secreted by plant- 
lice, and, according to Desvoidy, their larvae live, some in the 
unripe seeds of plants, others in the parenehyma of the leaves, 
stems or roots. In addition to the guttularis or Dotted-winged 
Tetanocera, we have, common in the State of New- York, a spe- 
cies which is probably the Canadian Tetanocera (T. Canadensis) 
of Macquart, although the spots in its wings are sub-hyaline 
rather than white, and there are six only of these spots in the 
outer or costal cell. Associated with this species is frequently 
found another, similar to it in size and colors, but without any 
sub-hyaline sjiots in the dusky outer and apical margins of the 
wings. From that part of our State in which I have captured 
this species, I propose for it the name Saratoga Tetanocera (71 
Saratogensis), as the mineral waters in this neighborhood have 
given to the locality a world-wide celebrity. 

The dried specimen of this fly measures 0.23 to the tip of the abdomen and 
0.30 to the end of the wings. The head above is golden yellow with two small 
rusty stripes on its forepart, a black spot at base and dot each side anteriorly, 
almost in contact with the eye, and a second one, also black, on the anterior 
margin, between the eye and the antennae. Face silvery white. Antennas 
light yellow, second joint longer than broad, with fine short black bristles 
along its upper and under edge; third joint tinged with brown, narrow and 
curved, its upper side being concave, its lower side convex and nearly parallel 
with the upper side, but slightly narrowing towards the apex, which is 
rounded; seta yellowish white, plumose. Thorax pale dull yellow, with a 
faint darker stripe each side of the middle, which stripes have an ash gray re- 
flection when viewed from the front; clothed with a short black beard and a 
few long black bristles. Scutel ash gray with two nearly erect black bristles 
each side. Poisers (the little pedicels back of the insertion of the wings, end- 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS — SHORT-HORNED STEM-EYE. 69 

ing in an oval knob) yellowish white. Abdomen dusky, clothed with a short 
black beard, hind edges of the segments pale dull yellow. Legs pale yellow, 
with a fine black beard, and the spine-like bristles at the end of the shanks 
black. Wings iridescent, smoky brown on the outer and apical margins, hya- 
line towards the axilla, the space between divided into numerous square hya- 
line spots by dusky longitudinal stripes, one stripe being placed in the middle 
of each cell, and sending short, transverse branches to the veins at regular in- 
tervals; veins and veinlets black. 

Nearly related to the flies which we have been considering are 
those very singular ones, called Stem-eyed flies from having 
straight horn-like processes extending outwards from the sides of 
the head, upon the ends of which the eyes are inserted. These 
form the old Linneeari genus Diopsis. About a dozen species are 
known, all inhabiting tropical Africa and the East Indies, with 
one exception — the Short-horned Stem-eye of this country, origi- 
nally described by Mr. Say under the name of Diopsis brevicornis. 
As this species has the tubercles on which the eyes are inserted 
•quite short, their length being less than their breadth, whilst in 
the other species they are much longer, and cylindrical, Mr. 
Say, in the third volume of his American Entomology, plate 52, 
proposed for it a distinct genus, which he named Sphyracephala. 
The European entomologists, however, ignore this genus and con- 
tinue to arrange our species in the old genus Diopsis. I am 
somewhat surprised at this. A specimen from Senegal, ticketed 
D. thoracica by Macquart, for which and numerous other speci- 
mens of Diptera, I am indebted to M. Bigot, of Paris, indicates 
the foreign species of this tribe to be quite unlike ours in their 
general appearance. Having recently taken a second species 
closely related to the brevicornis, I think our two American spe- 
cies must be ranked as generically distinct from those of the 
•old world. In addition to the extreme shortness of the ocular 
protuberances and the minuteness of the projecting points to the 
scutel and on the sides of the thorax towards its base, they are 
further distinguished by having an anastamosis between the cos- 
tal or anterior marginal vein and the sub-marginal or short vein 
which runs into the anterior margin near the middle, this anas- 
tamosis taking place a short distance before the two veins unite. 
In the new species which I have alluded to a dusky spot or short 
band extends from this anastamosis across the two basal cells of 
the wing, and a second band half way from this to the tip 



70 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS ATTENDANTS TWO-BANDED STEM-EYE. 

reaches nearly or quite across the wing, the same that it does ire 
brevicornis, whilst the apex of the wing is hyaline, without any 
vestiges of the dusky spot which occurs at the tip of the wing in Mr. 
Say's species. This species, which I name the Two-banded Stem- 
eye (Sphyraccphala sub-bifasciata), was swept from grass at the 
baseoi the bluffs of the Illinois river, north of the city of Ottawa, 
the middle of last October. The Short-horned Stem-eye I first 
captured in Saratoga county, upon a cold windy day the latter 
part of May, between the leaves of the Skunk's-cabbage ( Symplo- 
carpus fatidus), where it had, probably, retired for shelter — this 
being the same situation in which it was originally discovered by 
Mr. Say. Near my present residence, upon sunny days in the 
middle of April several were found associated with other flies and 
small bees, drinking the sweet sap of a newly cut maple, beside 
a stream of water at the base of a hill. It was more tame and 
less inclined to take wing when approached than any of the other 
flies. It seems limited to low shady situations, for other stumps 
upon the side and summit of the same hill, equally frequented by 
other flies, had none of this species. Near the same spot I once 
captured a specimen the last of October, resting upon a sand bank 
and basking in the sun. I state these facts thus particularly as 
so little is known respecting the habits of this tribe of insects. 

The Two-banded Stem-eye measures 0.15 to the tip of its abdomen. It is 
black and polished, the thorax brownish, the head and anteniue tawny yellow, 
and above on the middle of the head is a black spot. The legs also are tawny 
yellow, and the anterior thighs have a brown cloud-like spot upon each side, 
the anterior shanks being black. The middle legs have a brown band above, 
and another below the knee. The hind thighs and shanks each have a brown 
band at tip. The wings are hyaline, with two dusky bands, the inner one 
short, as already described. 

Prominent among these insects which subsist upon and destroy 
plant-lice are the Aphis-lions as they have been termed. These 
are larvae of the Golden-eyed and Lace-winged flies, insects which 
form the Family Hemerobiid^: in the Order Neuroptera. In 
their perfect state they are delicate slender-bodied insects, most of 
them less than half an inch long, with four large wings beautifully 
reticulated with veins, resembling the finest gauze or lace work, 
whence they have received the name of Lace-wings, and with 
prominent globular eyes, which in many of the species have a 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS EGGS. 71 

brilliant golden appearance, which has obtained for them the 
name of Golden-eyes. These last are mostly of a bright pale 
green color, and several of these, although they have such a 
pretty appearance, emit a peculiar and very disagreeable odor, 
which remains upon the fiugers for some time after one of them 
has been handled. This odor appears to be given out constantly 
by those species which possess it, and not merely when they are 
disturbed, as is frequently stated; for in numerous instances I 
have by it been aware of my nearness to one of these insects be- 
fore I had seen it. 

These flies may be met with daily during the summer season, 
generally in the vicinity of trees or other herbage infested with 
plant-lice. Their eggs are placed in a very curious manner. 
This work is done in the night time, so that no one has been able 
to inspect one of these insects when engaged in this operation, 
they being so timid as to flit away when approached with a light. 
Still, the mode in which the fly proceeds in this work is sufficiently 
evident. Nature has furnished these insects with a fluid analogous 
to that which spiders are provided for spinning their webs, which 
possesses the remarkable property of hardening immediately on 
being exposed to the air. When ready to drop an egg, the female 
touches the end of her body to the surface of the leaf, and then 
elevating her body, draws out a slender cobweb-like thread, half 
an inch long, or less, and places a little oval egg at its summit. 
Thus a small round spot resembling mildew is formed upon the 
surface of the leaf, from the middle of which arises a very slen- 
der glossy wMte thread, which is sometimes split at its base, thus 
giving it a more secure attachment than it would have if single. 
The egg, at its summit, is of a pale green color, when newly de- 
posited, but before it hatches it becomes whitish, and shows two 
or three faint dusky transverse bands. The larva leaves it, com- 
monly I think in less than a week from the time it is deposited, 
through an opening which it gnaws in the summit, and the empty 
shell remains supported on its stalk, somewhat shrivelled and of 
a white color. And where several of these are placed together 
in a group, they bear a close resemblance to the fruit-bearing or- 
gans of those mosses whose capsules are elevated upon capillary 



72 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS — EGGS. 

pedicels, insomuch that botanists have in some instances actually 
mistaken them for vegetable productions of this kink. 

Authors state that these eggs are deposited on leaves in clusters 
of ten or a dozen. I have a small willow leaf, upon the mid- vein 
of which, in a distance of one inch, twenty-three of these eggs 
are implanted, with seven more in a row close by the side of these, 
and five more in a second row, making thirty-five eggs in all, 
which undoubtedly was the stock deposited by a single individual 
in one night. But however it may be with the European Lace- 
wings, certain it is that most of our American species of these 
insects do not place their eggs in clusters, 'but singly, one or two 
upon the edges or surface of the leaf. On a young apple tree in 
my yard, about eight feet high, I found these eggs the first of July, 
scattered over all the leaves. This tree had ten limbs, each about 
three feet long, and inserted upon the leaves of one of these limbs 
and its twigs I counted sixty-four eggs, and some probably escaped 
my notice. There was thus at least six hundred eggs upon that one 
small tree, all seeming to have been newly laid. And upon look- 
ing about, I discovered these eggs upon every other fruit and for- 
est tree in my yards, and also upon the fillets of cloth by which 
newly set trees were tied to stakes for support, and two were even 
found attached to the iron trimmings of the latch to my office 
door. Being thus profusely scattered, it will readily be con- 
ceived what an amount of benefit these insects render us. 

Having enjoyed favorable opportunities for inspecting the habits 
of this family of insects, and having noticed several points in 
their economy different from the observations which have hereto- 
fore been recorded, I give their history somewhat in detail, be- 
lieving I shall thus render a more valuable contribution to the 
stores of human knowledge, than by occupying the same space 
with brief and superficial notices of a number of dissimilar 
insects. 

From the accounts usually given in books it would be inferred 
that plant-lice were the exclusive food of the larvae of this family 
of insects. It however is recorded that when in confinement and 
pressed with hunger, they will devour each other, and Mr. Curtis 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS FOOD WHEN YOUNG. 73 

relates (Journal Royal Agricultural Society, iii. 62) that having 
enclosed two of them in a box with a caterpillar three-fourths of 
an inch long, one overcome and devoured the other, and then 
sucked the juices out of the caterpillar, leaving only the skins 
of his victims remaining. In the same connection, he says these 
larva? " begin to feed upon the Aphides as soon as they escape 
from the egg." Such being the current account of the larva?, I 
was surprised at meeting with their eggs in abundance upon trees 
which were wholly free from Aphides, and which had none of 
these insects established anywhere in their vicinity. The small 
apple tree which was stocked with so many hundred eggs had no 
lice or other insects upon it or near by it, that I could discover. 
And still more was I surprised on hatching some of these larva? 
from their eggs, and putting both old and newly born plant lice into 
the vials with them, to find that they died of starvation, utterly 
refusing to touch the lice or to devour each other. In one instance 
a hungry young aphis lion was noticed to cautiously approach a 
louse which was standing still, and grasp one of her feet between 
his jaws. The louse instantly pulled her foot away, whereupon 
the Aphis-lion drew back in evident fear, as though expecting the 
aphis would pounce upon and destroy him. Had it been a spider 
he could not have showed more alarm. Repeated experiments 
produced the same results — the infant larva? dying of starvation 
with young and tender plant-lice wandering around them. At 
length, the middle of July, I found upon a leaf a cluster of insect's 
eggs of a brick red color, and a half-grown aphis-lion standing 
with his jaws sunk into one of them, sucking out its contents, 
three eggs in the group having been already exacted, nothing 
remaining of them but the empty clear and glass-like shells. 
Every observer knows it is not rare on meeting with a cluster of 
the eggs of insects to find some of them which are mere empty 
transparent shells, but I believe it has never been noticed before 
that it is young aphis-lions which thus destroy these eggs. 

The leaf above alluded to was secured with its contents and 
placed in a vial. Only two or three more of the eggs were sucked, 
when they became too old for the use of the aphis-lion, and he 
remained without food for a time. Six days after they were 



74 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS DEVOUR WORMS AND SPIDERS. 

found, small inch-worms (Geometrid^e), about 0.15 long Avere 
hatched from them. The aphis-lion was at this time reposing at 
the top of the vial when one of these worms approached him. It 
was instantly seized, and - the contents of its skin were sucked out 
with avidity, and he now commenced searching for another worm, 
probing every crevice in the cork stopper with his long jaws, and 
then walking down the vial, examining from side to side as he 
went along, until he came to the leaf at its bottom, now curled 
and shrivelled. He first crawled through every fold of this and 
then wandered over its surface, till coming to another worm, it 
was instantly seized. Thus sixteen of these newly-born inch- 
worms were consumed as fast as he could find them. They were 
seized indifferently by whatever part of their bodies was first ac- 
cessible, and he was occupied four or five minutes in sucking out 
the fluids of each worm. As the skin became empty it was folded 
together, and rolled about between the tips of his jaws in a little 
wad, until the last particle of juice which it contained was ex- 
hausted. The skin was then adroitly wiped off from the tips of 
his jaws, and he started off in search of another worm, always 
carrying his head down close to the surface on which he was 
walking. Sometimes on coining to a skin which had already 
been sucked, it was taken up and rolled between the tips of his 
jaws again, as if to asceitain whether he had done his work well. 
When occupied in sucking a worm he stood still, adhering more 
by means of his tail than his feet, and there was a pulsating mo- 
tion to his body indicating the satisfaction he felt in the act in 
which he was engaged. If another worm approached so near as 
to touch him at this time, he gave a sudden spiteful shrug, where- 
by it w r as frightened away. Only three worms remained when 
I introduced into the vial a cocoon of spider's eggs, with some of 
the young spiders hatched and crawling about the cocoon. These 
were immediately discovered by the aphis-lion, and leaving the 
worms he commenced devouring these small spiders in the same 
manner, each spider occupying him about half the length of time 
one of the worms did. The fine cobweb of the spiders appeared 
to adhere closely to his jaws, and to wipe this off, after finishing 
one spider, and before seeking another, he thrust his jaws repeat- 
edly into the cocoon. Thus quite a number of the spiders were 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS DEVOUR THEIR OWN EGGS. 75 

destroyed, when, having fully glutted his appetite, he retired into 
a corner of the vial to repose. This larva pertained to the spe- 
cies hereinafter described under the name of the New-York 
golden-eye. • 

It is thus evident that many of the species of this family of in- 
sects, contrary to what has been heretofore published, when first 
hatched are too feeble and timorous to attack plant-lice or any 
other living prey, and subsist during the first stages of their lives 
upon the eggs of insects. By destroying these eggs they are often 
as beneficial to us, probably, as they would be if aphides were 
their sole food. The aphis-lion, however, is perfectly indiscrimi- 
nate in his appetite, consuming the eggs of beneficial as well as 
injurious insects, and we now learn why it is that the parent of 
these insects places her eggs upon thread-like pedicels, whereby 
they are elevated from the surface of the leaves. Hitherto it has 
been unknown why this insect deposits her eggs in this singular 
manner. By a reference to that mine of information upon all 
subjects of this kind, Westwood's Introduction, (vol. ii. p. 47,) 
w r e find it merely stated that these eggs have been supposed to be 
placed in this manner to protect them from the attacks of para- 
sites. But we see not why a parasitic insect may not alight upon 
and puncture and drop its eggs within these eggs almost as readi- 
ly as it could do if they were placed upon the surface of the leaf. 
Certainly many of these parasitic insects display far more sagacity 
than this would be in discovering the appropriate receptacle for 
their eggs. But speculation upon this subject is no longer neces- 
sary when we have facts to guide us to a conclusion. In a recent 
communication to the Country Gentleman, which is not yet pub- 
lished, (No. 5 of my series of entomological articles in that peri- 
odical,) I suggested that these eggs are elevated upon pedicels to 
prevent their being found by the young larvae of their own kind, 
which probably would instantly devour them if they were laid 
upon the surface of the leaves. To ascertain more fully the cor- 
rectness of this opinion, I sought an egg which was upon the point 
of hatching, and placed it in a vial; the next day a young aphis 
lion was found disclosed from this egg. Two freshly laid eggs 
were now obtained; one of these was placed in the vial elevated 



76 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS — THEIR CANNIBALISM. 

upon its pedicel, the other was laid upon the surface of a leaf in 
the vial. Next morning the latter was found flattened, and with 
only a small portion of fluid remaining in one end, and the plump 
size and green tinge of the young larvzf showed plainly that he 
had appropriated the missing contents of this egg to himself, and 
in a short time he approached the egg and inserting his jaws into 
it wholly exhausted it of its remaining contents under my eye. 
We thus see that the young aphis-lion will devour the eggs of its 
own species if they are placed within its reach. Is it not won- 
derful that the female knows this fact when no other insect pos- 
sesses this knowledge ? It would seem as though she had a re- 
collection of what her own habits were in the larva period of her 
life, else why does not instinct inform other insects of this same 
fact, and excite them to similar artifices for placing their eggs be- 
yond the reach of these destroyers 1 

A cocoon of spider's eggs was now introduced into the vial last 
spoken of, upoh which the aphis-lion therein became plump and 
well fed. Three days after this, the other egg elevated upon its 
pedicel, having been wholly undisturbed, hatched, and the infant 
larva from its approaching the older one, which was full three 
times its size, the latter to my astonishment, passively and with- 
out manifesting the slightest resentment, permitted the newly- 
born infant to pierce him repeatedly with its jaws until life was 
extinct. His carcase was then shoved off from the leaf, and aban- 
doned, little if any of the juices being sucked from it. I can only 
account for this strange phenomenon — the young and weak de- 
stroying the strong — by supposing there had been some poisonous 
quality in the spider's eggs on which the older aphis-lion had fed, 
which had rendered him diseased and weary of life, for he even 
seemed to solicit his pigmy kinsman to slay him. Our American 
species, however, appear to be less inclined to cannibalism than 
those of Europe, this being the only instance in which I have 
known one to destroy another, and for several days I have had a 
Chrysopa and a much larger Hemerohius larva enclosed together 
and left at times without food, yet they have manifested no incli- 
nation to molest each other. 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS USE OF THEIR LONG JAWS. 77 

Later in the season I have known young plant-lice to be de- 
stroyed by newly born aphis-lions. And although the fact is 
indisputable that plant-lice are the chief food of this family of 
insects during their larva state, they are by no means so limited 
in this respect as is represented in the accounts heretofore pub- 
lished. They appear to seize and devour worms of different 
kinds with the same avidity that they do the plant-lice. I have 
more than once seen them devour the maggots of the Syrphus- 
flies which were feeding upon the plant-lice on the same leaves 
with them. And a few days ago I placed in a box with a newly 
captured aphis-lion an imbricated gall which is formed by a 
species of midge (Cccidomyia) at the summit of the stalks of the 
golden-rod, having first torn off the outer valve-like leaves of this 
gall until I came to one of the larvse residing in it. The aphis- 
lion immediately began to examine this gall, and coming to the 
maggot, instantly grabbed it, sucking out the contents of its skin 
with an evident relish. With his long jaws he then commenced 
probing the fissures between the remaining valves ol the gall and 
soon found another worm so deep between the valves that he 
could only reach and pierce it with one of his jaws, and thus he 
remained stationary until he had sucked the fluids of this worm, 
the point of the unemployed jaw being pressed against the outer 
surface of the gall during this operation. His proceedings at this 
time plainly showed the purpose, I think, for which Nature has 
furnished these larvse with such remarkably long slender sickle- 
shaped jaws, namely, to probe narrow crevices and small holes 
and fissures — the situation in which a portion of their prey lurks. 
The dexterity with which he insinuated sometimes one, at other 
times both of these instruments between the valves of the gall, 
showed he was no tyro in operations of this kind. He even 
crowded the valves somewhat apart, at times, to reach further in 
between them. Whether these larvse are able to separate the 
chaff surrounding a kernel of wheat sufficiently to insert their 
jaws therein to destroy the larvse of the wheat-midge (C. Trilici), 
I have not ascertained, though I should judge them capable of 
doing this. If so, it may be possible to turn the labors of the 
aphis-lion to a most valuable account in restraining the ravages 
of this insect which is making such appalling havoc in our wheat 



78 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS DESCRIPTION. 

crops of late years. A number of the small yellow grubs 
sufficient to destroy every kernel in a head of wheat would no 
more than suffice an aphis-lion for a single meal. And if these 
voracious creatures are usually so common as I have found them 
to be the present season, it would be an easy matter for a person 
who is familiar with them to gather such a number of the eggs 
and larvae as, scattered through a wheat-field infested by the 
midge, would greatly diminish the damage done by this insect. 

The larvae of different species of these insects differ considera- 
bly in their colors. They' are mostly of a reddish-brown color, 
with a darker stripe in the middle, and a cream-colored along 
each side. They have bodies of a long narrow weasel-like form, 
wrinkled transversely, with six rather long legs anteriorly. But 
they may be distinguished from all our other insects and larvse by 
their two long slender jaws, curved like sickles, which project 
horizontally forwards from their heads. Along each side is a 
row of projecting points, one to each segment, from the ends of 
which several fine bristles radiate in all directions. Others have 
the whole of their backs covered with rows of similar elevated 
points and radiating bristles, giving them a truly frightful ap- 
pearance. But these have the artifice to conceal themselves from 
view, by placing the empty skins of their victims between their 
radiating bristles, so that they adhere, and completely hide the 
insect from view. It is the skins of the woolly plant-lice which 
they mostly employ for this purpose. Thus covered they resem- 
ble a little mass of white down adhering to the bark of the apple 
tree, and at a short distance one of these insects thus covered can 
scarcely be distinguished from a colony of the Apple-tree blight, 
which is usually covered with a mass of down of similar size and 
appearance. Thus disguised they are able to approach their vic- 
tims without exciting their alarm and putting them to flight. It 
is in autumn that the species which thus cover themselves appear 
upon the apple trees. I have noticed none but the naked kinds 
without bristly backs in July and August 

The Larvae cast their skins soon after birth and often before they have taken 
any nourishment. No other moulting occurs, that I have observed, until they 
change to pupae. When newly born, the larva of the New-York Golden-eye 
is 0.05 long, soft and tender, long and narrow, with the opposite sides of the 
head and thorax straight and parallel, the abdomen tapering. It is white, with 



APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS — DESCRIPTION. 79 

two dusky stripes upon the head, and the outer side of its long sickle-shaped 
jaws is blackish. Its back is at this time clothed with numerous long line 
hairs. It walks about with an easy, sedate step, making very good progress, 
and could readily crawl down a tall tree and probably travel some distance 
therefrom before it has taken any nourishment. When full grown it is about 
0.J50 long, broadest in the middle, and tapering thence to both ends, but more 
posteriorly; its color is reddish brown, paler in the middle of the back, with 
a narrow darker stripe the whole length of its body. It presents numerous 
transverse impressed lines above, those at the sutures being more conspicuous. 
The sides of each segment are cream-yellow and protuberant, forming elevated 
points, with short diverging white hairs A 1the apex. Under side pale. Head 
pale with two blackish stripes which taper and diverge from each other anteri- 
orly. The antennae are about as long as the jaws, slender and tapering, with- 
out any apparent joints. The jaws are tinged with dusky. The legs are pale 
and somewhat translucent, with a dusky band above and another below the 
knees; the feet are also dusky. The twelfth and thirteenth, or the two last 
segments are quite narrow and destitute of tubercles tipped with radiating 
hairs on each side, but have two black stripes on their upper side. They form 
a kind of tail turning in every direction, and by the tip of the last segment the 
insect adheres, particularly to smooth surfaces like glass, much more securely 
than it can do with its feet. This adhesion appears io be effected by a power 
of suction in this part. 

The larvae of the other species of Chrysopa appears to be similar to the one 
which has now been described. One of them, however, has fallen under my 
notice, having the whole surface above mottled with light yellow and brownish 
red, with a slender black line on the middle of the back, having a reddish spot 
upon it in the centre of each segment, and the head with two black spots on 
its base and a black stripe anteriorly upon the middle. The species which is 
produced from this I have not yet ascertained. 

Having attained its growth, the aphis-lion for its final meal 
gluts itself as full as its skin can hold. For two days afterwards 
it remains torpid and inactive, as though sick of a surfeit. It 
then commences spinning its cocoon. This operation is performed 
by its tail, which is supplied with a glutinous fluid similar to that 
from which the spider spins its web, which adheres to whatever 
point it is applied, and hardens immediately upon exposure to the 
air. The amount of lite and motion which the tail possesses at 
this time, when all the rest of the body is lying still and unem- 
ployed, is truly astonishing. Like the head of a leech, it con- 
tracts, elongates and turns from side to side and up and down 
with the vivacity of the hand of a musician beating upon a tarn 
bourine, attaching its thread here and there as it darts around 
from point to point. By the New-York Golden-eye scattering 
threads are first fixed around the hollow in the bark, or elsewhere 



80 APPLE LEAVES, APHIS LIONS COCOONS HOW SPUN. 

where it lies, and to these the skins of any dead plant-lice or 
particles of dirt which may be within reach are affixed, to serve 
as more convenient points of attachment for the threads which 
are afterwards spun than what the naked threads would be. In- 
side of these the. insect lies, with its tail playing around back- 
wards and forth. At first the skin is so distended and the body 
so stiff that it can only bend inwards in the form of a semicircle 
or of a horse-shoe, and the head is thus brought opposite the tail, 
giving the insect a ludicrous aspect as it lies still, with its eyes 
gazing fixedly at the tail as if in astonishment at seeing it fly 
around in such a singular manner. The tail at this time reaches 
around to every part of the half of a sphere, and when one side 
has become sufficiently filled with threads, the body moves along 
to give it acces to another side, the insect thus lying at one time 
upon its side or its back, and at another time standing as it were 
upon its head. Occasionally, as if tired with its cramped position 
it straightens out somewhat, thus putting the threads upon the 
stretch and moulding the sides of the cavity in which it lies into 
a smooth and even surface. As so much matter is given out from 
its body to form the threads of the cocoon, the skin ceases to be 
distended as it was at first, the body shrinks and becomes more 
flexile, and as the cavity in which it lies becomes more and more 
contracted in size by the threads which the tail is constantly add- 
ing on every side, the insect is drawn together into a smaller 
space and becomes coiled into the form of a ball, the head being 
pressed down upon the breast, with the tail directly over it briskly 
continuing its work in the small vacant space which here remains. 
The feet are now so cramped that they are incapable of turning 
the body around as at first, and it now only moves along slightly 
by a vermicular motion often repeated. The threads have now 
become so numerous and close that finally no open meshes are 
left between them-, and thus a small ball of paper-like texture is 
formed in the centre of the cocoon, within which the insect is 
entirely hid from view, tightly bandaged like the feet of a Chinese 
lady and compressed to a quarter of its previous size. This is 
a most remarkable circumstance in the history of these insects — 
that the larvse contract and compress themselves into cocoons of 
scarcely one-fourth their size, and from these cocoons come flies 



APPLE LEAVES APHIS-LIONS, PUPA. 



81 



which are double the size of the larvae. It is like a full-grown 
hen hatching from an ordinary-sized egg. 

It requires five or six hours for the New- York Golden-eye to 
spin so much of its cocoon as to hide itself from view. The 
threads of which it is composed are of a white color, and the 
little paper-like ball in its centre is scarcely the tenth of an inch 
in diameter. Within this the insect changes to a pupa of a pale 
green color, with large hemispherical eyes, and with each of the 
legs, the wings and the antennae enclosed in separate sheaths. 
The antennae -sheaths show the bead-like joints of these organs 
very distinctly. They stand out in strong relief upon the sur- 
face, passing above the eyes and along the sides of the thorax, 
and on the outer surface of the wing-sheaths near their anterior 
margin to their tips, where the remainder of their length is 
coiled and doubled together in a singular and curious manner. 

These insects lie through the winter enclosed in their cocoons. 
Some of the species, however, have two generations annually, and 
these remain in their pupa state in the summer season about a 
fortnight. M. Andouin informed Mr. Westwood that they escape 
from their cocoons by means of a slit made in a spiral direction 
at one end. But this certainly is not their usual manner of open- 
ing their cocoons. One side of the cocoon where it is globular, 
and one end where it is oval, is cut smoothly off, so as to form a 
little lid, which commonly hangs to the cocoon by some of the 
loose exterior threads, which serve as a hinge to retain it in its 
place. Through the opening thus made the pupa crawls out of 
its cocoon before it casts its skin to become a perfect fly. 

Of this family of insects, which are rendering us such important 
services, our American species are somewhat numerous. Only 
two of these, I believe, have as yet been named and described. I 
therefore present herewith descriptions of most of the species 
which are known to me. These pertain to two genera, Hemerobius 
or the Lace- winged flies, having the joints of the antennae globu- 
lar, and Ckrysopa or the Golden-eyed flies, in which they are 
short cylindrical. To these genera it is necessary to add a third, 
resembling C/irysopa in most of its details, but instead of having 

(Assembly, No. 215. | 5 



82 APPLE LEAVES SIGNOREt's GOLDEN-EYE. 

the antennae inserted close together, they are separated at their 
bases, and a cylindrical protube;anc s or horn projects from the 
front between them. For this genus I propose the name J\Iclcoma T 
formed from two greek words, implying bad smell, in allusion to 
the odor which in common with several species of Chrysopa, these 
insects exhale. But one species is known to me, which may be 
named and described as follows : 

Signoret's GOLDEST-EYED Fi.y , (Mtkoma Signarelti} is of a pale yellowish 
green color, and is clothed with a fine short pubescence, especially upon the 
abdomen. The cylindrical horn which arises between the base of the antennae 
is longer than broad, and is directed forward upon a line with 'the head and 
thorax. It is a third longer and somewhat thicker than the enlarged basa* 
joints of the antennae, is slightly dilated at its anterior end, where \Hs abruptly 
turned downwards almost at a right angle, this deflected part forming a thin 
transverse lamina of a light yellow color, vertically striated on its anterior 
face, and with a projecting acute tooth in the middle of its lower margin, which 
is of a brown color and turned backwards. Upon the top of tlic head is a 
transverse elevation, with a deep excavation immediately back of it. The face 
has a round smooth elevated brown spot upon each side of its centre. The 
antennae are very pale brownish, the two basal joints light green. The basal 
edge of the anterior segment of the thorax is elevated, and there is a more 
prominent obtuse elevation forward of this, separated from the base by an in- 
tervening transverse groove. The basal elevation shows a longitudinal im- 
pressed line on its middle, and back of this a more strongly impressed line 
extends across the middle of the anterior elevated lobe of the second segment. 
The legs are whitish, the feet tinged with dull yellow, with black hooks at 
their tips. The wings are slightly angulated at their tips, the hind pair more 
conspicuously so. They are hyaline and glass-like, with a slight opacity at 
the stigmas or that part of the wing which is forward of the extremity of the 
outer margin. Their veins and veinlets are whitish except the two subapical 
scries of veinlets of the anterior pair, and tho.se which are given off along the 
inner side of the rib-vein, which are brownish black. This species measures 
1.15 across the wings when spread. It was captured the latter part of July, 
near the summit of Mount Antonio, one of the outliers of the Green Mountain 
range, slightly beyond the boundary of our State, in Rupert, Vermont. I 
name it in honor of my valued friend, Dr. Signoret, of Paris, whose elegant 
Iconograph of the Tetligoniides now publishing in the Annals of the Entomo- 
logical Society as well as his previous productions, are an enduring monument 
of the extent and accuracy of his researches in that branch of the science to 
which he devotes himself. 

The sp( cies of the genus Ciirysopa are all of a bright pale green 
or yellowish co'.or; tl e number and situation of the veins and 
veinlets or short connecting veins in their wings, is the same, 
and they differ but 1 ttle in size. To the naked eye they seem to 
form but a single species. I had long noticed that individuals of 



APPLE LEAVES — GENUS CHRYSOPA. 83 

this genus presented black dots and other marks upon the head 
and thorax, but they were in all other respects so much like 
others destitute of these spots, that I was in doubt whether they 
were anything more than mere varieties of two species, the Pcrla 
and chrysops of the old authors, or the American representatives 
of those species, the one having the veinlets pale green, the other 
having them varied more or less with black. Awaiting for some 
fact that would throw light upon this subject, I several years ago 
met with ten chrysalids upon the leaves of a yellow pine, attached 
near each other, and all obviously the progeny of one parent. 
It occurred to me that when these disclosed the perfect insect 
they would furnish evidence whether the same species presented 
those slight differences in its markings which I had noticed 
among different individuals of this genus. I accordingly gathered 
them, and in a short time obtained from them the mature flies. 
These were all alike in every respect, and were destitute of any 
dots or other marks except a tawny yellow spot upon the cheeks. 
I therefore regarded this mark upon the cheeks as forming the 
distinctive character of a species. All the specimens which 
were obtained in the manner stated, had the veinlets of their 
wings pale green; other individuals, however, occurred, having 
the same tawny yellow spot upon the cheeks, but in which the 
ends of the veinlets were dark green or black. These I had been 
inclined to regard as only varieties of the species, until the pre- 
sent season I discover that these individuals which have the 
ends of their veinlets black or dark green come from cocoons 
which a.re globular, white, with a rough ragged surface from nu- 
merous loose fibers of silk adhering to them, whilst those which 
were gathered upon pine leaves were oval, pale green and smooth. 
From the cocoons, therefore, it is evident that they are of dif- 
ferent species. It is thus shown that a variation in the color of 
the veinlets of the wings, as well as in the dots and other marks 
upon the head and body in this genus, is to be regarded as indi- 
cating a difference in the species. The general reader is com- 
monly inclined to the opinion that naturalists make their favorite 
science unduly complicated and obscure by founding multitudes 
of species upon what appear to be slight and unessential dis- 
tinctions. But the facts here stated will show him some of the 



84 APPLE LEAVES CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 

evidences which compel us to regard these minute and seeming- 
ly unimportant marks as valid indications of differences which?, 
actually exist in nature. 

To facilitate the discrimination of these species of this genus 
which are here described, they are arranged in an analytical se- 
ries, which, on a slight inspection, will be intelligible to every 
reader. 

1. (18.) Sockets in which the antennse are inserted margined 
more or less with black. 

2. (5.) Two black or dusky stripes upon the top of the head- 

3. (4.) Veinlets mostly black, a few with a short green band 
on their middle. 

The White-horned Golden-eye (Chrysoja albicornis'). Antennse whi- 
tish, basal joint with an orange-red ring surrounding it wholly or in part, se- 
cond joint with a black ring ; sockets at their base with an uninterrupted black 
margin. Head above with two parallel black stripes confluent anteriorly with 
the black margins of the antennse sockets; face with an orange-red spot each 
side upon the cheeks and a black crescent under each eye, its anterior horn run- 
ning into the black margin of the antennae sockets. First segment of the tho- 
rax with an impressed line in its middle, and three brown spots on each side, 
behind which are two black dots and a fourth brown spot situated upon the 
basal edge; second segment with two short black lines upon its anterior and 
two brown spots near its posterior edge. Veinlets black, those in the disk 
green in their middle, those ending on the inner and apical margins green ex- 
cept at their bases, those of the hind wings green except the row towards the 
tips, those outside of the rib-vein and the bases of those branching from the in- 
ner side of the rib-vein. Wings expanded 1.15. My specimens of this species 
were captured in the State of Mississippi, in April. 

4. (3.) Veinlets green 3 slightly marked with black at their 
bases. 

The Disagreeable Golden-eye ( C. illepida'). Pale yellowish green clothed 
with short white hairs. Head yellowish white, pale yellow above with two 
black stripes which are often dusky in their middle and slightly converge an- 
teriorly, their anterior ends confluent with the black margins of the antennae 
sockets; a black dot on the base behind each eye. Antennae pale yellow, be- 
coming dark brown towards their tips; basal joint white with a pale tawny 
spot on the upper side; second joint with a black ring; sockets broadly mar- 
gined with black except above between the anterior ends of the longitudinal 
stripes where is an interruption of bright tawny red. Eyes dark golden green. 
A black crescent under each eye, the anterior horn of which joins the black 
margin of the antennse sockets in the middle of their under sides, and 



APPLE LEAVES CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 85 

from that point a black stroke is sent down-wards upon the cheeks, 
which stroke is margined on its anterior side with tawny red. Palpi black 
with white rings. A small oval black spot upon each side of the throat. 
Thorax with a dusky or black mark each side at its apex and four spots above 
at the angles of an imaginary square, and behind these a faint yellowish brown 
■spot each side of the middle. Feet pale dull yellowish. Wings pellucid, their 
tips angular, those of the upper pair very slightly so; an opake pale greenish 
yellow stigma; veins pale green; veinlets branching from the rib vein on both 
sides black at their bases; two series of veinlets towards the tip of the wings 
black, some of them sometimes pale green. Lower wings, veinlets on the out- 
side of the rib-vein and bases of those opposite to them black. Wings expand 
1.10. Found the last of June in this State and also in Illinois. When captured 
it emits the disagreeable odor peculiar to several of its kindred species. 

5. (2.) Head above with black dots but no stripes. A tawny 
yellow spot on each cheek, commonly with a black line or dot 
on its posterior edge. 

6. (17.) More than two dots upon the top of the head. 

7. (12.) Dots six in number, four at the angles of an imaginary 
square, the anterior two often confluent with the black margin 
of the antennse sockets, and one each side behind the eye. 

8. (11.) A black dot or streak on the posterior edge of the 
tawny spot on the cheeks. 

9. (10.) Ends of the veinlets black. 

The O-marked Golden-eye ( C. Omikron). This is of a pale green color 
with a light yellow head and a black mark surrounding the base of each an- 
tenna, broader on the upper side, and above interrupted with orange red be- 
tween the two anterior dots on the top of the head, which are commonly con- 
fluent more or less with these black rings. This species corresponds with the 
one last described in all its details, except that in addition to wanting the black 
stripes on the head, the veinlets branching from the rib-vein on both sides are 
black at their tips as well as their bases, and the remaining transverse veinlets 
are mostly black at their bases ; and instead of a line in the tawny spot upon 
the cheeks this commonly has only a black dot. A variety occurs in which 
the tawny reddish spot on the upper side of the basal joint of the antennse is 
wanting. The wings expand from 0.95 to 1.10, the females being slightly 
larger than the other sex. It is a common species during the month of June, 
and exhales the same disagreeable odor as the preceding. 

10. (9.) Ends only of the veinlets on the outer side of the rib 
vein and bases of those given off from its inner side black, all 
the others green. 

The Yellow-headed Golden-eye ( C. xanthoce 2 .hala) is distinguished from 
the foregoing by having the veins and veinlets all green, except those veinlets 



86 APPLE LEAVES — CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 

which are given off from the rib vein, which are black at their bases, and those 
on the outer side at their tips also. It is of a pale yellowish green color with 
a light yellow head, the orange red spot on the cheeks with a black streak to- 
wards its hind edge, and the two anterior dots on the top of the head confluent 
with the black margins of the sockets of the antennae, which, between these 
spots, is interrupted with tawny yellow. Its wings, expanded, measure 1.10. 
It is much less common than the preceding species, and occurs with it in the 
month of June. Specimens have also been sent me from Michigan by T. E. 
Wetmore, Esq. 

11. (8.) The tawny spot on the cheeks without any black dot 
or mark. 

The Yellow-cheeked Golden-eye ( C. fulvibucca) corresponds with the 
O-marked golden-eye in the color of its veinlets, and the spots and marks upon 
its head, except that no black dot or streak occurs in the tawny spot upon its 
cheeks. Like that species also, this has an impressed line the whole length of 
the first segment of the thorax, but here that line is crossed slightly back of 
its middle by a straight transverse one, the ends of which on each side are 
deep black, and a pale umber brown spot extends from this backwards, nearly 
to the base of this segment, having an oval black dot outside of it. Forward 
of the brown spot is a smaller one of the same color, and on the anterior mar- 
gin on each side behind the eye, as in several of the species, are too shorfc 
blackish lines converging and confluent at their hind ends. The second seg- 
ment has also an impressed medial line, and two brown spots upon each side. 
A variety occurs in which these spots last mentioned are wanting. The wings 
expand 1.10. This species occurs the last of July and in August. 

12. (7.) Four clots only upon the top of the head, situated in 
a transverse row. 

13. (14.) A black crescent-shaped mark under each eye.- 

The Mississippi Golden-eye (C Mississippicnsis.) The dead specimen 
sulphur yellow. Antennae white, dull yellowish towards the tips, their sockets 
margined with black with a tawny yellow interruption above in the middle. 
Head with two black dots above, and one behind each eye. A black crescent 
under each eye, its anterior horn uniting with the black margin of the antennae 
sockets, from which point a black dash is sent downwards upon the cheek, 
which is edged with pale tawny yellow. Thorax with spots on the first and 
dots on the second segment analogous to those in the following species. • Legs 
pale green, feet pale dull yellow. Wings rounded at tips; veinlets mostly 
black, their middle pale green, those towards each end of the outer cell and 
the two veins towards the tip entirely black. Wings expand 1.20. Taken in 
the vicinity of Jackson, Mississippi, by my daughter, in the month of April. 

14. (13.) A black dot under each eye. Tips of the wing8 
rounded. 



APPLE LEAVES CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 87 

15. (16.) Sockets of the antennae broadly margined with black 
except upon their outer sides. 

The X-marked Golden-eye (C. Chi). Antennae whitish, towards the apex 
black, their sockets widely edged on their inner sides with hlack, forming a 
mark resembling the Greek letter chi, or an italic x. A large black dot under 
each eye and another- forward of it, with a black point in the centre of the face. 
Four large black dots in a transverse row upon the top of the head. First seg- 
ment of the thorax with four large brownish black spots at the angles of an 
imaginary square; second segment with four black dots also forming the angles 
of an imaginary square, and a minute one above the base of each fore wing. 
Abdomen black, except at its tip. Veins black at their ends; veinlets black, 
the middle ones on the outer side of the rib-vein with a green band on their 
middle; veinlets of the hind wings which branch from the rib-vein, black; those 
on its inner side with a green band on their middle, those branching inwards 
from the wavy longitudinal vein slightly black at their bases. Wings expand 
1.25. Taken the last of June upon bushes in swamps. 

16. (15.) A black Y-shaped mark between and dot below the 
bases of the antennae. 

The Y-marked Golden-eye (C Upsilori). Light yellowish green. Anten- 
nae dull whitish, dusky towards their tips; basal joint palegreen, blackish at its 
apex on the under side. A black dot under each eye and a somewhat square 
spot forward of it towards the mouth. Mouth tinged with dirty whitish. 
Palpi with black rings. Four black dots in a transverse row upon the top of 
the head, the two inner ones larger. Thorax with four equidistant black spots 
upon each side in a row, the hind ones on the anterior edge of the second seg- 
ment; back of these four black dots at the angles of an imaginary square, and 
another above the base of each fore wing. Abdomen obscure greenish above 
with two faint brownish dots near ihe middle of each segment. Wings pellu- 
cid, veins pale green, veinlets black, mostly with a pate green band on thek 
middle, their hairs and those of the veins black; hind wings with the veinlets 
towards the tip, those in the outer cell and bases of those in the next cell black. 
Wings expand 0.90 in the male, and 1.10 in the female. This is one of the 
^earliest appearing species, coming out the last of May and early in June. 

17. (6.) T#o black dots only upon the top of the head. 

The Two-dotted Goldsn-eyk (C. bipunctata). Pale yellowish green. Head 
pale yellow, with a black dot on each side of its base above, almost in contact 
with the eye. Antennae whitish, dark brown towards their tips; basal joint 
white, with a tawny red band on its upper side; second joint black; their 
sockets margined with tawny red on the upper and with black on the under 
side. Eyes brilliant coppery red when alive. Face with a tawny red spot en 
each side, having an oval black dot in its hind margin. A black stripe undeT 
each eye sending a slender line from its lower end forwards to the margin of 
the antennae sockets. Palpi white with black tips and rings. Thorax without 
gpots. Wings rounded at tips; veinlets green, some of those arising from the 
rib vein slightly marked with black at their bases, those in the outer cell of 



88 APPLE LEAVES CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 

the hind wings black. Wings expand 1. 05. Taken the. fore part of June- 

18. (1.) Sockets of the antenna} not marked with black. 

19. (38.) A dot or spot upon the cheeks. 

20. (29.) Cheeks with a black streak or dots under each eye 

21. (22.) Two black dots under each eye. 

The Colon Golden-eye ( C. colon). Light yellow. Antennse pale tawny 
yellow, black towards their bases; basal joint light yellow, unspotted. Face 
with two black dots each side upon the cheeks. Thorax with a black dot on 
each side at the apex, and in the middle a transverse but no longitudinal im- 
pressed line. Wings slightly angulated at their tips; the two rows of subapi- 
cal veinlets, those branching outwards from the rib vein and bases of those 
branching inwards black. Wings expand 1.40. Taken the fore part of June 

22. (21.) A black streak or short line under each eye. 

23. (26.) The black line not margined with tawny yellow. 
23. (25.) Several of the veinlets black at one or both ends. 

The Clean Golden-eye ( C. emuncta). Light yellow. Head without dots 
or marks except a short black stroke under each eye, anteriorly joining the 
narrowed end of a second black stroke. Thorax without spots, save a black 
point at the apex on each side. Wings rounded at tips, hind pair slightly an- 
gulated ; veinlets on the outer side of the rib vein black at their bases only in 
part, all those upon the inner side black at base and tip. Palpi black on their 
outer sides. Wings expand 1.30. Taken the middle of August. 

25. (24.) Veinlets all green. 

Robertson's Golden-eye ((7. Roberlsonii}. Pale green with a whitish 
stripe from the head along the middle of the back. Head sulphur yellow, with- 
out spots except a short shining black stripe under each eye. Antenna? pale 
dull yellow, basal joint white. Thorax without spots. Legs whitish, feet 
tinged with brown. Wings rounded at their tips; stigma green, slightly opake;. 
veins and veinlets all pale green. Wings expand 1.05. Captured at Tullehas- 
sie, in the Creek Indian Territory, west of Arkansas, the middle of May, and 
sent me by William S. Robertson. 

26. (23.) Cheeks with a tawny yellow spot in which or on its 
hind edge is a black line or dot. 

27. (28.) Color pale green. 

The Weeping Golden-eye (C plorabunda). Very pale green, with a 
paler cream yellow stripe from the head the whole length along the middle of 
the back. Head cream yellow; cheeks pale tawny yellow, with a small black 
stripe posteriorly under each eye. Antennae whitish, clay yellow towards 
their tips. Thorax without spots. Beneath and legs greenish white, feet pale clay 



APPLE-LEAVES — CIIRYSOPA SPECIES. 89 

yellow. Wings rounded at tips, the hind pair slightly angular; veins and 
veinlets pale greenish. A variety, which is common, has a brown or reddish 
spot above upon each side of the head, contiguous to the eye, in which an ocel- 
lus or small simple eye appears to be situated. Wings expand one inch. This 
is an abundant species the last of September and in October, both in this State 
and in Illinois, occurring upon the foliage of apple and peach trees, and also 
upon various wild bushes and weeds. 

28. (27.) Color straw yellow. 

The Counterfeit Golden-eye ( C. pseudographa). Very like the preceding 
species, but of a straw yellow color without any tint of green, the head brighter 
cream yellow, the cheeks tawny yellow with a short black stripe running down- 
wards from the under side of the eye, the antennas, legs and feet, and veins and 
veinlets of the wings pallid white, the wings rounded at their tips, the abdo- 
men with a smooth more clear white stripe along the middle of the back, upon 
each side of which at the apex of each segment is a pale tawny yellow spot. A 
variety has a band of this last color upon the apex of each segment of the abdo- 
men. Though so closely related to the weeping golden-eye, and associated with 
it, it is evidently a distinct species and is easily discriminated. The wings 
expand one inch. Several specimens were captured upon apple trees in nor- 
thern Illinois the fore part of October. 

29. (20.) No black dot or mark under the eye. Cheeks tawny 
yellow between the eye and the mouth. 

30. (35.) Ends of some or all of the veinlets black or dark 
green. 

31. (32.) Color sulphur yellow, with orange yellow spots each 
side of the abdomen at base. 

The Sulphur Golden-eye ( C. sulphurea). Bright sulphur yellow, with 
an orange colored spot under each eye, one on each side of the apex of the tho- 
rax and of the basal segments of the abdomen. Antennae, legs and feet whitish . 
Wings rounded at tips, the hind pair slightly angular, veins white, the rows 
of veinlets towards the tips of both pairs. of wings and the ends of most of the 
other veinlets black. Wings expand 1.05. Taken in New- Jersey the latter 
part of September. 

32. (31.) Color pale green, with a pale yellow stripe on the 
back. 

33. (34.) A row of orange-colored spots above on each side 
of the thorax and abdomen. 

Sichel's Golden-eye ( C. Sichelli). Pale yellowish green with a pale 
bright yellow stripe along the middle of the thorax and abdomen. Head white 
with a large pale yellow spot above, a streak from the eye to the mouth, a 
small dot between the antennas and a spot on the base behind each eye bright 



90 APPLE LEAVES — CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 

orange yellow. Eyes brilliant coppery red with a golden j-ellow reflection in 
the living specimen. Antennas white. Palpi white, their tips brownish. 
Thorax pale yellow above, pale bright green on each side, bluish white beneath ; 
first segment with a row of three equidistant bright orange spots on each side, 
the anterior one largest and placed rather more outwardly, an impressed trans- 
verse line across the middle; second segment with an impressed longitudinal 
line crossing the two anterior elevated lobes, and a bright orange spot on each 
side on the anterior edge. Abdomen pale greenish yellow with a deeper bright 
yellow stripe above, on each side of which on the five first segments is a bright 
orange spot, each spot crossed by an impressed longitudinal line, those on the 
second and third segments larger, their centres tawny; those on the fifth 
segment small and pale. Legs pale bluish white, feet yellowish. Wings ob- 
tusely angular at their tips, the fore ones very slightly so; stigma opake pale 
green; veins pale green, the marginal one white; veinlets pale green, the two 
series towards the tip and the ends of most of the others black. Wings ex- 
pand 1.05. Taken the first of August. This is the most variegated of our 
American species belonging to this genus. I name it in honor of my esteemed 
friend and correspondent, Dr. Sichel, President of the Entomological Society 
of France. 

34. (33.) No orange spots along the sides of the back. 

The New- York Golden-eye ( C. NovcEboracensis'). Pale green with a pale 
yellow stripe from the mouth the whole length of the body. Eyes dark green- 
ish golden when alive. A bright orange red stripe between each e} r e and the 
mouth. Sides of the head greenish white. Palpi pale dull yellowish, tips 
black and a black line on their outer side. Antennas whitish slightly tinged 
with dusky towards their tips. Thorax commonly with a large blackish spot 
anteriorly on each side, formed of two or three confluent smaller ones. Be- 
neath greenish white. Legs very pale green, feet yellowish white. Wings 
angular at their tips, the hind ones more conspicuously so, veins pale green; 
veinlets black at both their ends except those ending in the inner and apical 
margin, the two series of veinlets towards the tip entirely black; veinlets of 
the outer cell of the hind wings black at both ends, those branching from the 
inner side of the rib vein black at their bases. A variety has the veinlets 
marked with dark green instead of black. Wings expand 1.05. Common the 
latter part of June and through most of the month of July, depositing its eggs 
singly, commonly on the margins of apple and other leaves, elevated upon 
threads the tenth of an inch long. This, like some of the other species, is per- 
fectly inodorous. 

35. (30.) Veinlets entirely pale green or white. 

36. (37.) Stigma hyaline, scarcely obvious. 

Harris's Golden-eye (C Harrisii). Like the preceding in all respects, 
except that it is slightly larger and the veinlets of the wings arc greenish white 
without any traces of dark green or black at their ends. Wings expand 1.15. 
Taken the last of July and in August. Its cocoon is smooth, of a bright pale 
green color and a regular oval form, 0.14 long by 0.11 in diameter, whilst 
that of the preceding species is rough externally, with numerous threads loosely 



APPLE LEAVES CHRYSOPA SPECIES. 91 

attached to its surface, and of a white color and a globular form. I have here- 
tofore regarded this species as the Chrysoj a Perla of Europe, and it is proba- 
bly the species designated under this name by Dr. Harris (New England In- 
sects, page 215). It does not appear to be fully settled to what species this 
name is to be applied, the British entomologists (Curtis, Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, iii, 63; Stephens, Illustrations Mandib. vi. 105) descri- 
bing a different insect from that of Rambur (Neroptcres, p. 424). But on 
comparing our species with the full descriptions given by these authors, it is 
evidently distinct from both the European species that have received this de- 
signation, neither of which appear to possess a paler dorsal stripe and some other 
marks belonging to our insect.* 

37. (36.) A blackish brown opake spot on the stigma. 

The Virginia Golden-eye (C Virginica). Immaculate, save a blackish 
spot on each side of the thorax at its apex. Wings slightly angular at their 
tips, veins and veinlets pale green, those branching from the inner side of the 
rib vein faintly tinged with dusky at their bases; first veinlet of the second row 
towards the tip black, and margined with smoky; stigma with an opake brown 
spot, more strongly marked on the hind pair. The small semi-oval cell which is 
formed in the straight mid-vein towards its base in all our other species is here 
irregularly quadrangular, and bounded by straight veinlets on each of its four 
sides. Wings expand 1.35. Taken in Virginia, near Cartersville, by the late 
Thaddeus A. Culbertson, of Chambersburg, Pcnnsjdvania, whose love of sci- 
ence and activity in its pursuit, rendered his early death a loss to our country. 

38. (19.) Cheeks pale and without any spot or dot. 

39. (42.) Antennae black towards their bases. 

40. (41.) A black stripe on the outer side of the basal joint 
of the antennae. 

The Stripe-iiorned g6lden-eye ( C. lincaticornis'). Pale green. Head 
white, greenish on the top with two or three small dark brown dots on each 
side anteriorly, upon the upper edge of the sockets of the antennse. Antennse 
pale brown, basal fourth part of their length black, basal joint white with a 

* Next to the Perla, Fabricius describes a species from the Society Islands in the Pacific 
ocean, which he met with in the cabinet of Sir Joseph Banks, which is rather larger than Perla 
and of an ash gray color with whitish wings and antennae double the length of the body, from 
which last character he names it filosus, or the Threadlike golden-eye. I hare specimens 
from the same locality, presented to me by Lieut Pattison, U. S- Navy, which are perhaps the 
game species, as they coincide with the description in most of its points. They, however, are 
rather smaller than Perla, the wings expanding from 0.75 to 0.90, and only the posterior part 
of the thorax is ash gray, its anterior part and the head being bright yellow and without spots. 
The antennae are double the length of the body, blackish, becoming yellow at the base, with 
a black dot on the upper side of the basal joint; the wings white, but pellucid, their veins and 
veinlets pale dull yellow. Should this prove to be different from the Fabrieian species, as it 
appirently is, it mxy appropriately be named the Chrysopa filicomis or Thread-horned 
golden-eye. 



92 APPLE LEAVES — HEMEB.0BIUS SPECIES. 

black stripe the whole length on its outer side. Thorax with an impressed 
transverse line forward of the base of the first segment, and a longitudinal on e 
on the anterior elevated lobe of the second segment. Legs white. Wings very 
slightly angulated at their tips; stigma marked by a slight opacity; veinlets 
dusky ox black. Wings expand 1.10. Taken the middle of July. 

41. (40 ) A black dot on the outside of the first joint of the 
antennse at its tip. 

The Dotted-iiorned Golden-eye ( C. punctic-rnis} is perhaps only a va- 
riety of the preceding, as it corresponds with it in all respects, except that the 
basal joint of the antennas has only a black dot at its apex on the (niter side, 
and there are no dots on the edge of the sockets of the antennas ; the first seg- 
ment of the thorax has two transverse impressed lines and a longitudinal one 
behind the middle. The abdomen has a brown stripe above on each side. Wings 
expand 1.15. This also occurs in the middle of July. 

42. (39.) Antenna? pale. 

The Consumptive Golden-ete (0. tabida) is pale green, almost white; 
the head is white and without spots, except a slight discoloration on the cheeks 
in some individuals which commonly disappears in the preserved specimen; 
the antennas are white their whole length; the thorax is white along the mid- 
dle, and pale green upon each side; the wings are obtusely angulated at their 
tips, their veins white tinged in places with green, the veinlets greenish white, 
their ends black, the two series towards the tip entirely black. Wings expand 
0.95. Occurs the fore part of August. 

The Lace-wing flies pertaining to the genus Hemerobius differ 
from each other much more than these we have been considering. 
They are generally of pale dull colors, but vary greatly in size, 
in the veins and spots upon their wings, &c. Most of the fol- 
lowing species have three longitudinal veins branching from the 
rib vein towards its base on the inner side ; the three last species 
however, have only two such veins, whilst the first has several, 
and the second has four. 

The Freckled lace-winc (Flemerobius irrara'us, Say) is black and hairy 
with a pale yellowish stripe on the middle and another upon each side of the 
thorax. The head, scutel and under side of the body is also pale yellowish. 
The wings are hyaline and glassy, with numerous irregular blackish spots and 
dots, those on the margin larger and alternated with whitish spots, and there 
is a largish darker colored spot near the middle and another towards the tips 
of the inner longitudinal veins, situated upon their connecting veinlets. The 
veins are black alternating with white. The hind wings are without spots ex- 
cept in the region of the stigma; their veins are black with only the marginal 
and rib veins alternating with white. The wings expand from 2.25 to 3.20 



/ 

APPLE LEAVES HEMEROBIUS SPECIES. 93 

This species is rather rare. It begins to be met with about the middle of July 
and continues until the arrival of cold weather. 

Mr. Stephens has also described a species under this same name. Mr. Say, 
however, appropriated the name to our insect more than ten years anterior to 
its use by Mr. Stephens. Another name therefore becomes necessary for the 
British species, which, if it has not already been re-named should be designa- 
ted the Stephensii, in honor of its first describer, the eminent entomologist 
recently deceased. 

Mr. Say in connection with the preceding (in the appendix to Long's Expe- 
dition, page 30G) describes another species, the vittatus or Striped lace-wing, 
from a specimen in the Philadelphia museum, found by Mr. Titian Peale, in 
New Jersey. This is of the same size with the Freckled lace-wing and closely 
resembles it, but has the body of a pale yellowish color, with a broad blackish 
stripe upon each side of the thorax, and a small white spot on the outer edge 
of the fore wings near the tip. I have never met with this, which appears to 
be a rare species. 

The Alternated lace-wing {II. allerna us) is dull whitish or yellowish 
white varied with dark brown, and is clothed with short pale yellowish hairs. 
Its face and a stripe on each side of the thorax is blackish brown. The abdo- 
men is dull whitish with a clearer white stripe along each side, which is mar- 
gined above by a row of spots and below by a slender line of a brown color. 
The wings are pellucid and iridescent red and green; the veins are white with 
alternating blackish spots giving off fine bristles of the same color. The vein- 
lets are black, robust, and broadly margined with smoky, forming two irregu- 
lar rows of spots across the wing, with a third short one betw T een them upon 
the inner margin. The margin is whitish, with dusky spots of different sizes, 
the larger spots having two or sometimes only one smaller spot between them. 
The hind wings arc pellucid, their veins white, those next to the rib vein with 
dusky spots, the veinlets blackish but not margined with smoky; the inner 
fork of the innermost longitudinal vein is also blackish from the anastamosing 
veinlet half way to the furcation. The margin of these wings is whitish alter- 
nating with dusky spots around the apex. A dot or short line is placed on the 
margin between the tips of all the veins and their forks.- The wings expand 
0.80. This occurs the last of June, particularly upon pine and hemlock 
bushes. 

The Stigma-mariced lace-wing (//. stign.aterus) has the veins of the fore 
wings black with white bands; the cells are smoky with clearer spots at each 
of the white bands upon the veins; stigma opake tawny-reddish; two series of 
black anastamosing veinlets; a third veinlet near the inner base connecting the 
first longitudinal vein with the inner fork of the second longitudinal, and on 
the opposite side continued to a branch of the first longitudinal, thus forming 
two closed basal cells, the outer one of which is long and narrow, with the 
second longitudinal vein forking near the middle of this cell. This last men- 
tioned veinlet is more robust and more obviously margined with dusky than 
the others. Head and antenme pale dull yellow; legs paler; thorax and ab- 
domen blackish brown. A variety which is common has the tip of the abdo- 
men pale yellow, and another variety has a pale stripe along each side of the 
abdomen. The wings expand from 0.55 to 0.60. This is a common species 
throughout the Northern and Western States, occurring from March until Oc- 
tober, resting upon the foliage of various evergreen and deciduous trees, and 



94 APPLE LEAVES — HEMEROBIUS SPECIES. 

upon the grass of meadows and prairies. I have met with it upon peach but 
never upon apple leaves. The margin of the fore wings presents a curious ap- 
pearance, being occupied like several of the other species with a row of dots, 
which, when magnified, resemble a string of beads, and it is almost always the 
case that, around the entire margin, every fourth dot is white, the other three 
being black. 

The Chesnut lack-wing (//. Castanecb) has all the veins white alterna- 
ted with black or brown rings, with the usual two series of veinlets black fee- 
bly margined with dusky; a large blackish dot on the first longitudinal vein at 
the apex of the outer basal cells, and a smaller one at the next fork beyond 
this, and similar dots on the inner rib-vein at the origin of each of the discoidal 
veins; wings hyaline, the margins faintly tinged with smoky. Body whitish 
with a large spot under each eye, a stripe on each side of the thorax and a row 
of spots on each side of the abdomen, brown. Wings expand 0.G5. This is 
one of the most common species throughout the northern and northwestern 
States, and both the larvas and the perfect insects may always be found upon 
chestnut trees infested with plant-lice, and also upon the walnut and other 
trees, from April till October. It varies much in the depth of the color of the 
dots on the wings and the rings upon the veins, these being sometimes black 
and very distinct and at other times much more faint, either brown or tawny. 
The dots on the margin are white interspersed irregularly with black ones. A 
variety has all the rings upon the veins black and more broad than usual, and 
instead of the three dots which commonly occur upon the inner rib-vein, this 
vein is annulated with black through its whole length. The larva is white or 
tawny yellowish, with a slender brown line in the middle and a row of black- 
ish spots on each side, the head with two large longitudinal black spots and a 
black dot above the base of each leg. Its sides have a serrated appearance, from 
a row of projecting tubercles the tips of which are furnished w r ith slender ra- 
diating hairs. 

The Preserver lace-wing (//. lutatrix) has translucent wings with white 
veins, which on the fore wings have black rings at somewhat regular intervals, 
and from each side of each ring proceeds a short smoky brown line, which is 
inclined towards the apex of the vein, thus forming a series of V-shaped marks 
crossing the veins at each ring; near the base of the inner margin of the fore 
wings are a few black dots. The body throughout is white, tinged with yel- 
lowish; the thorax has three brown spots on each side which are often some- 
what confluent into a continuous stripe; the abdomen has a row r of eight brown 
spots each side of the middle, situated upon the sutures. The wings expand 
0.60. This is much like the preceding species, but is a size smaller, with the 
wings more clear and glassy and without any dusky tinge towards their mar- 
gins, and with the scries of marginal dots all white. It was captured in Sep- 
tember upon apple trees. 

The United-veined lace-wing (//. conjunctus) has pellucid wings becom- 
ing dusky towards the margins; veins of the fore wings white with blackish 
rings and bands; a blackish spot around each of the veinlets except the two 
innermost ones, and a smaller spot at the base of each discoidal vein; marginal 
dots alternately black and brown, the black ones occupying the apices of the 
veins; lower wings and their veins without spots. Wings expand 0.53. The 
wings arc spotted much like those of alternatus, except that the margin is 



APPLE LEAVES HEMEROBIUS SPECIES. \)9 

wholly immaculate. Its spotted wings at once separate it from the following 
species, which differ from all our other lace-wings with three discoidal veins hy 
having, like this species, an anastomosing veinlet running inwards from the 
base of the first discoidal. This species occurred upon pine bushes the latter 
part of May. 

The Pine-bush lace-wing (//. Pinidumus). Wings hyaline, slightly tinged 
with smoky, the marginal dots all of a uniform brown color; veins of the fore 
wings white with brown rings; veinlets black margined with dusky, forming 
a few brown spots, of which three or four form a curved row across the disk. 
Body pale dull yellow, sides of the thorax brown. Wings expand 0.45. This 
is nearly related to tutatrix, from which, however, it is readily distinguished 
by having a slender anastamosing veinlet connecting the second longitudinal 
vein with the base of the third longitudinal or the first of the three which 
branch from the rib-vein. It may frequently be met with upon pine bushes, 
from May till the last of July. 

The Glassy lace-wing (//. hyalinalus) is much like the preceding, but the 
wings are more clear and glass-like, their veins very faintly mottled with dusky 
the veinlets colorless instead of brown and not in the least margined with 
dusky, and in the middle of the inner margin forward of the medial series of 
veinlets, arc two or three veinlets connecting the first longitudinal vein and its 
branches with the margin. The marginal dots are unicolor. Wings expand 
0.45. Possibly this is only a variety of the preceding. It occurs with it upon 
pine bushes in May, June, and July. 

The Little friend lace-wing (//. amiculus). Two discoidal veins only 
arising from the inner rib-vein, as in the remaining species. Wings hyaline 
mottled with smoky dots and irregular unequal spots; margin of the fore 
wings with a regular series of black dots, one between the apex of each of the 
veins, but none upon the tips of the veins; veins brown dotted with black, 
more conspicuously so in the axilla and the area outside of the rib-vein; veins 
of this last mentioned area (the costal) forked; the two rib-veins rather dis- 
tant from each other, with an anastamosing veinlet towards their base; second 
discoidal fork anastamosing with the outer branch of the first near its base, 
then forking, with the outer fork anastamosing twice with the rib-vein and 
once with the inner fork; slightly forward of this last is another veinlet con- 
necting the inner fork of the second discoidal with the outer fork of the first 
discoidal, and a second, commonly continuous with this last, connecting the 
outer with the middle fork of the first discoidal; another veinlet is situated 
halfway between this and the base of these forks, which is the first of a series 
extending inwards and bordered with dusky, which color is continued onwards 
to the inner margin; there are also three veinlets towards the base. The hind 
wings are hyaline and without spots or veinlets; the margin has a dot between 
the tip of each vein. Body dull brown, antennae yellowish, legs dull white. 
Wings expand about 0.42. Taken from May until October, on peach trees 
and on wild shrubs, both in this State and Illinois. 

The Western lace-wing (//. occidentalis) has the wings hyaline and not 
mottled with smoky dots or clouds, but adorned with two faint parallel lines 
of a more dusky tinge in all the cells; margin dusky; veins and veinlets ro- 
bust, black; a black dot on the margin between the tips of each of the veins; 
outer fork of the first discoidal vein anastamosing with the rib-vein near its 
base instead of with the second discoidal as in the preceding species, the other 



96 APPLE LEAVES — MEALY-WINGED FLY. 

veinlets similar in situation to those of the preceding. Body blackish; anten- 
nae shorter than the body, robust, thread-like and not tapering, black; legs 
pale. Wings expand 0.38. Taken in Illinois, on bushes beside Henderson 
river, the first of October. 

The Titman lace-wing (if. delicatulus). Two veins arising from the in- 
ner rib-vein, the first more towards its base, the second more towards its tip 
than in the preceding species; wings hyaline with dusky dots on the veins 
and a single row of veinlets running obliquely across the disk from the rib- 
vein to the first longitudinal and broadly margined with dusky; veins pale 
brown, those of the costal area blackish, the alternate ones towards the base 
forked, all the others simple; margin thinly fringed with short hairs, a dot on 
the tips of the veins and a smaller one between them. Body dusky yellowish; 
antennas longer than the body, brownish; legs pale. Wings expand about 
0.40. Swept from the grass of prairies in Illinois, the first of October. 

Another insect closely related to the HexMerobiidje, and the 
larva of which is supposed to feed upon plant-lice, may be noticed 
in this connection. It is of minute size, and by no means rare, 
occurring upon apple and other trees, and also upon the wing at 
twilight or in shady situations, from early in June until the end 
of July. It is so anomalous that, at one time and another, I have 
been occupied several days in investigating it and determining 
where it should be arranged. When first captured I supposed I 
had a species of Jlhurodes in hand, its minute size, its mealy- 
white coating, and the size of its wings giving it a close resem- 
blance to the insects of that group. Indeed the European species 
allied to this were at first placed by Mr. Stephens in that family. 
But the number of veins in the wings and of joints in the feet and 
antennae, and above all the structure of the mouth with jaws for 
masticating food and not a beak for suction, absolutely excludes 
these insects from'such an association, and also from being arranged 
with the moths, where the old authors placed them. It is ob- 
vious that our insect pertains to the order Neuroptera. And in 
this order its many points of resemblance to the Coniopteryx 
Tineiformis, Curtis, leaves no doubt that it finds its true relatives 
with that insect and its associates, the classification of which has 
so much perplexed the entomologists of Europe. Whilst Messrs. 
Curtis and Stephens associate this genus with the Psocim:, Mr. 
Westwood regards it as having more affinities with the Hemero- 
BiiDiE. Important differences, however, separate it from both ot 
these families. It is unlike the Psocidae in having five-jointed 
feet, and antennse of a different form and with joints doubly 
numerous: and differs from the Hemerobiidse in having wings 



APPLE LEAVES MEALY-WINGED ELY. 97 

with but few veins and veinlets, the hind pair smaller than the 
anterior, &c, and is separated from both these families by the 
mealy coating of the perfect insects. Its arrangement in either is 
evidently incongruous Dr. Burmeister has therefore elevated 
these insects to the rank of a distinct family, named Conioptery- 
gidje or Mealy-wings, the single genus Coniopteryx, with its four 
European species, being all that is at present known pertaining 
to this family. 

On comparing our insect with those of Europe, although its 
general resemblance is so close, we notice some important dis- 
crepancies in its details. The veins of its wings are more simple 
and less connected by anastamosing veinlets, there being but one 
of these veinlets in the disk of the wing, and three near the base, 
arranged in a continuous line, and leaving only the outer and 
inner veins insulated from their origin to their tips. Thus, while 
the European insects have three closed discoidal cells, in our 
insect there is but one. The veins of the hind wings in the 
European species are forked and connected by veinlets, whilst in 
ours there are no veinlets, and only one of the veins is forked. 
Westwood states the wings to be wholly destitute of cilise or 
fringe-like hairs along the margin, whilst here a series of short, 
fine erect hairs are very distinct along the apical and inner edges. 
The eyes moreover are widely notched and kidney-shaped, instead 
of being round. These differences forbid our including our insect 
in the same genus with those of Europe. It will therefore form 
a second genus in this family, for which I propose the name 
Jileuronia (Greek aXsupov, farina or dust) having allusion to the 
mealy coating with which these insects are covered. And as Mr. 
Westwood (through whose kindness my cabinet has been enriched 
with specimens, particularly of some of the minute and interest- 
ing species which he has described) was the first to separate the 
insects of this group generically, this species may appropriately 
be dedicated to him. Whilst the more simple veins of its wings 
would approximate this family more closely than heretofore to 
the Psocidee their ciliated margins give it an additional resem- 
blance to the HemerobiidsB, and leave the question as to which 

[Assem. No. 215.] 7 



98 APPLE LEAVES MEALY-WINGED FLY. 

of these families the present is most nearly related in much the 
same doubt in which it has hitherto been. 

Westwood's mealy-wing (Jllcuronia Westiooodii) measures one-tenth of 
an inch to the tips of its wings which project a third of their length beyond the 
tip of the abdomen, against the sides of which they are held almost perpen- 
dicularly when at rest. It is of a blackish color, its abdomen bright yellow of 
a paler or deeper tint, its legs pale, and the whole surface of its body and limbs 
is dusted over with a white meal-like powder, except the antennge, which are 
black, thread-like, about two-thirds the length of the body and comjwsed of 
about twenty-eight joints, whereof the basal is the thickest, and the second is 
longer than those which succeed, which are all of equal size and short cylin- 
drical, their length and breadth equal, the apical oval. The head is elevated 
upon a short neck in the living specimen and is wider than long, round and flat- 
tened in front; the palpi rather long; five-jointed, the apical joint oval, and as 
long as the two which precede it taken together; the labial palpi three-jointed, 
their apical joint large, and egg-shaped. Legs of medium size, the hind pair 
longest, and about equalling the body in length; feet five-jointed, the basal joint 
cylindric and forming nearly half of their whole length; the third joint short- 
est, the tips ending in two minute hooks. The wings are broad, rounded at 
their ends, with six veins proceeding from the base, whereof the second or rih- 
vein gives off two branches, one at the end of the anastamosing veinlet near the 
base and the other forward of the middle, both of these branches forking rather 
beyond their middle, thus making ten veins which end in the apical and inner 
margin. The first of these branches forward of its furcation sends an anasta- 
mosing veinlet inward to the next or mid-vein, which, with the rib-vein, are 
obviously thicker and more robust than the other veins. The hind wings have 
five veins ending in their margin, whereof the second and third unite near the 
middle of the wing. 

Having occupied so much space in describing the aphis-lions 
and their habits, we present but a brief sketch of the habits of 
the remaining destroyers of the plant-lice, reserving a description 
of their species for a future occasion. 

Equal to, or even surpassing the aphis-lions, in the havoc which 
they make among colonies of plant-lice and the numbers which 
they devour, are the insects popularly called lady-bugs or lady- 
birds. These pertain to the family CocciNELLiDiE, in the Order 
Coleoptera. The eggs of these insects — smooth, oval, and of a 
bright yellow color — may frequently be met with upon the under 
surface of leaves, placed in a cluster of twenty — thirty or forty, 
in contact with each other, and gummed by one end to the leaf. 
These hatch within a few days, a small blackish larva coming 
from them, which is slender bodied, tapering posteriorly and with 
six legs anteriorly. It walks about with much animation, and 



APPLE LEAVES LADY-BIRDS. '9$ 

*ommg to a plant-louse, much larger than itself it may be, the 
little hero, though only a few minutes old, boldly seizes the louse, 
which, like a cowardly poltroon, makes no resistance except try- 
ing to pull himself away. But the little assailant hangs lustily 
to him, preventing his advancing a single step further, and using 
his anterior legs as arms, he commonly raises the louse off from 
the leaf and leisurely devours his body, leaving only the empty 
skin remaining. As he grows, the sides, and in some species the 
whole surface, becomes diversified with bright red and yellow 
spots and rows of tubercles or elevated points. He is a most ac- 
tive voracious little creature, running briskly over the limbs and 
leaves in search of his prey, and consuming hundreds of aphides.. 
He grows to about a quarter of an inch in length in the course of 
two or three weeks^ he then fixes himself by his tail to a leaf, or 
the limb or trunk of a tree, and hanging with his head downwards 
the skin cracks open along the middle of his back, and the smooth 
back of the pupa protrudes partly out of the prickly skin of the 
larva, and thus remains, the old larva skin continuing to cover 
the pupa on each side and beneath. But in some of the species, 
a, fact which I do not find mentioned by authors, the larva skin 
is thrown entirely off, its shrivelled relics remaining around the 
tail. It is thus with one of our largest species, named the apple- 
tree lady-bird [Coccindla Mali) by Mr. Say, but which had long 
before been described by the celebrated French entomologist 
Olivier, under the name of the fifteen-spotted lady-bird ( C. 15- 
punctatci) ; and probably the pupa of the European C. occellata 
will be found to throw off its larva skin in this same manner, as 
these two species are closely related, and have been elevated to 
a distinct genus named Anatis by Mulsant. The pupa of the 
fifteen-spotted lady-bird is quite pretty, being of a clear white 
color with the middle of its back tinged with flesh-red, and with 
from two to six black spots of different sizes on each of the seg- 
ments, the sheaths of the elytra also having a broad black border 
upon their inner side and four black spots. Exposed as the pupa 
is upon the surface of a leaf or of the bark, it probably is often 
discovered and devoured by birds, and to save it from such a 
casualty appears to be the design of Nature in having most of the 
species retain their prickly larva skins. When annoyed by the 



100 APPLE LEAVES LADY-BIRDS.. 

approach of a fly or other insect, the pupa gives a s jdden spiteful, 
jerk, by which to frighten the intruder away, and if this fails, by 
a sudden spring it elevates itself so as to stand out at right angles- 
from the surface to which it is attached, remaining motionless in 
this posture about half a minute, when by a similar spasmodic 
snap it returns to its usual position. 

The insect remains dormant in its pupa state about a fortnight,, 
when its hard exterior shell cracks open, and from it crawls a 
small shining beetle nearly the size and shape of a half pea ? 
though often much smaller than this. The species generally are 
prettily colored, being bright red, yellow or white, with black 
spots, or black with red or yellow spots. These different spots- 
and colors serve as marks whereby to distinguish the different 
species, of which nearly a hundred are named and described, in- 
habiting the United States. The perfect insects subsist upon 
plant-lice also, though they pursue and devour them with less 
avidity than when in the larva stage of their lives. They may 
always be met with where plant-lice abound, and I have known 
persons who supposed that it was these insects which bred 
the plant-lice, and who consequently made it a point to destroy 
every one which they could discover upon the currant bushes, 
cherry trees, &.c, in their yarus, and who were surprised to find 
that notwithstanding all their care and pains in searching out 
and destroying these " old ones," their shrubs and trees appeared 
every year to be worse infested with lice than were those of their 
neighbors. This fact is but one of a multitude which might be 
adduced, showing to what sad mistakes ignorance leads, and how 
important it is that information with respect to our insects and 
their habits should be diffused among our citizens. 

Other inveterate enemies of the plant-lice are certain two- 
winged flies pertaining to the Family Syrphid^, in the Order Dip- 
tera, which family has the genus Syrphus as its type. These 
flies resemble our common house-fly in size and shape but are 
much handsomer, being of a bright yellow color with various 
spots and bands of black, according to the species. They may 
frequently be seen in summer hovering around and alighting 



Apple leaves — syrphus-flies. 101 

upon flowers. These flies drop their eggs, one in a place, upon 
leaves and twigs which are infested with plant-lice, so that their 
young may have their appropriate food immediately around them 
the moment they require it. One can seldom inspect many in- 
fested leaves without meeting with one or more of the eggs of 
these flies scattered around among the lice — little white smooth 
oval bodies, much like the eggs which the bot fly glues to the 
hairs of horses' fore-legs. From them a maggot hatches which 
in its motions will remind one of a leech or blood-sucker. It has 
no eyes, and consequently cannot see in which direction to crawl 
in search of its food; but fixing the hind extremity of its body to 
the surface of the leaf, it reaches as far as it is able to stretch it- 
self and feels around first upon one side and then upon the other. 
If nothing is discovered it moves along one or two steps and again 
feels all around, until finding a plant louse it at once fixes its 
tiny mouth at the slender-pointed anterior end of its body to its 
prey, having such power of suction as not only to hold the louse 
from escaping but to tear it away from its attachment and raise 
it up in the air wholly away from the surface of the leaf. The 
louse sprawls its long legs about in a vain endeavor to touch some 
support so enable it to escape. Its body is soon perceived to be 
diminishing in size, the worm sucking out the fluids which it con- 
tains, and in a minute's time, or less, nothing of it remains but 
an empty shrivelled skin. These Syrphus-worms are of various 
colors, almost transparent and watery, or white, or greenish, and 
•commonly clouded or spotted, particularly in the centre of their 
bodies, with more opake white, yellow, tawny or red, and their 
skin is so thin and transparent that the circulation of the fluids 
within may be distinctly seen even with the naked eye In the 
larger worms. Some of them have two cylindrical processes like 
little straight horns jutting out from the hind part of their bodies. 
One or inore of these worms may almost always be met with 
wherever a colony of plant-lice is located, and one medium sized 
Worm will consume a hundred of these insects in an liour. The 
ants do not appear to molest them, but the aphis-lions, as already 
remarked, devour them with avidity. When the worm has com- 
pleted its growth it fixes itself to the surface of the leaf or the 
bark, and contracts to a shorter oval form; its skin becomes hard 



102 APPLE. FRurT APPLE THRIPS; 

and horny, with numerous impressed transverse lines, and change? 1 
to a dull yellow or a black color, and those species which have 
two horns forward of the tip still retain them. Within this shell 
the insect puts on its pupa form, from which the fly subsequent- 
ly hatches. 

The aphis, likewise, has foes within as well as without. In 
addition to the several insects of which we have now treated, all 
of which attack it externally, it has internal enemies also, a group 
of insects which dwell in the interior of its body during their 
larva state, and eventually kill it. These are nearly as efficient 
in keeping its numbers reduced as any of those which we have 
been considering. We will speak more particularly of them in 
connection with the aphis which infests the cherry. 

A succession of the several species of these different kinds of 
destroyers are making their appearance the whole season through, 
and as many of these species are among our most common insects, 
it will at once be perceived that thsy render us most important 
services in destroying these pests of vegetation, and preventing 
them from becoming excessively multiplied notwithstanding their 
unparalleled fecundity. But without actually observing them at 
their accustomed work no one can fully appreciate their value 
to us, and the amount of herbage which they save from destruc- 
tion. Wherever plant-lice become numerous, there these several 
kinds of enemies speedily congregate and rapidly multiply, de- 
vouring incredible numbers of these vermin, and often in a sur- 
prisingly short space of time completely exterminating, them. 



AFFECTING THE FRUIT. 

In a round cavity ate near the tip end of the young fruit'; a minute, very 
slender blackish-purple insect, with narrow silvery-white wings upon 
its back resembling a long Y-shaped mark. 

The! Apple Theips. Phlceothrips Mali. 
Although a profusion of flowers in the spring is often hailed as 
a harbinger of a copious yield of fruit, this expectation is very 
frequently disappointed. Whilst they are yet young, quantities of 



APPLE. FRUIT — APPLE THRIPS. 103 

apples, plums, and other fruits wither and fall from our trees, 
often literally covering the ground beneath them. Young apples 
are thus blasted in consequence of the punctures and wounds 
which they receive from the Apple worm or Codling moth, the 
Plum weevil, and other insects. Among these destroyers is one 
which has hitherto escaped notice, more in consequence of its 
minute size, probably, than its rarity; for we suspect it will 
prove to be a common insect. 

In the month of August several apples were noticed upon the 
trees, which were small, withered, and ready to %11, yet without 
any of those worms in them which occasion the destruction of so 
much fruit at this season of the year. On searching for the cause 
of this withering of these apples we found a small 
cavity or little hollow at the tip end, commonly close 
beside the relics of the flower. This cavity had the 
appearance of having been gnawed; it was about the 
size of a pea, and its surface of a black color. Several 
of these cavities were occupied by a minute slender 
insect; and from appearance I inferred that the young of these 
insects had taken up their residence upon the apples whilst they 
were quite small, and by wounding them slightly day after day, 
had retarded their growth and finally caused them to wither. It 
is possible that some other insect had originally produced these 
wounds, and that these which were now there had been attracted 
to the wounds to suck their juices; but every appearance indi- 
cated that these were the real culprits. They pertain to the 
group THRipsiDiE, which is composed almost entirely of minute 
species like the present, which subsist upon the juices of plants, 
especially melons, cucumbers, beans, &c, to which they are often 
quite injurious, producing small decayed spots upon the leaves. 
They also occur in numbers upon different flowers. We have 
several American species of these insects, none of which have yet 
been studied out and described. This which occurs in wounded 
spots upon young apples, appears to pertain to the genus named 
Phlaolhrips by Mr. Haliday, and I propose for it the specific name 
Mali^ or the Apple Thrips. 




104 APPLE. FRUIT APPLE THRIPS. 

This insect measures only six hundredths of an inch in length and one hun- 
dredth in width. It is polished and shining, and of a blackish purple color, 
Its antennje which are rather longer than the head and composed of eight 
nearly equal joints, have the third joint of a white color. The abdomen is 
concave on its upper side, and is furnished with a conical tube at its tip which 
has a few bristles projecting from its apex. The wings when folded are linear, 
silvery white, and as long as the abdomen; they are pressed closely upon the 
back, spreading asunder at their bases, and appear like an elongated white Y- 
shaped mark. Viewed from above, the head is of a square form, longer than 
wide. The first segment of the thorax is well separated from the second, is 
broadest at its base, and gradually tapers to its anterior end, where it is as 
wide as the head. The following segment is the broadest part of the body and 
square, with its length and breadth equal. 

The insects of this tribe, abroad, are found to be great pests 
and difficult to exterminate. Dusting the vegetation which they 
infest with flour of sulphur and washing it off a few days after- 
wards has been found successful in some cases. It is probable 
that when young and in their larva state they are more tender 
and more easily destroyed than when mature. But until the 
history of this species which infests our apples has been more 
fully observed we shall scarcely be able to decide upon the most 
judicious measures for combatting it. 



2. THE PEAR. 



AFFECTING THE LIMBS. 



A hemispherical chestnut-brown scale, the size of a half pea, upon the 
under sides of the limbs the latter part of June. 

The Pear Bare-louse. Lecanium Pyri, Scurank. 

As the pear is so closely related to tlie apple, most of the in- 
sects which affect one of these trees will be found upon the other 
also. We have already noticed this fact in repeated instances 
when considering the insects of the apple tree. But in addition 
to those species which are common to both, there are others 
which are limited to one of these trees and never invade the other, 
except perhaps in those extreme cases when they become so mul- 
tiplied upon their appropriate tree that it fails to afford sufficient 
room and nourishment for all the individuals which are called 
into existence. 

Of those insects which are peculiar to the pear, the only one 
which has as yet fallen under my notice is a species of bark-louse, 
which, it is altogether probable, is the same which occurs upon 
this tree in Europe, named Coccus Pyri by Schrank (Fauna Boic. 
ii. 1. 145), and which pertains to the modern genus Lecanium in 
the Family CocciDiE and Order Homoptera. This insect had 
never been publicly noticed as an inhabitant upon this side of the 
Atlantic, that I am aware, when, upon the first of July, 1854, I 
met with it quite common upon pear trees in the cities of Albany 
and Troy. I observe, however, that Dr. Harris, in his discourse 
before the American Pomological Society in September last (page 
8), incidentally mentions the fact that our pear trees " suffer oc- 
casionally from bark-lice." 

The form under which this insect appears is that of a hemi- 
spherical scale about 0.20 in diameter and of a chestnut brown 



106 PEAR. LIMBS — PEAR BARK-LOUSE. 

color, adhering to the bark on the under sides of the limbs, par- 
ticularly of young trees which are growing thriftily. These 
scales are the relics of the dead females covering and protecting 
their young. Some are of a darker color than others, and smaller 
ones occur which are of a dull yellow hue. These scales are not 
freckled with paler spots like many of our species of bark-lice; 
their surface frequently presents shallow identations as though 
it had been slightly pressed upon in places Avith the head of a 
r~ — i pin, and the outer margin is wrinkled, as shown in 
'Jl^, accompanying figure, and is sometimes marked with 
[ faint black bands. If one of these scales is removed 
^'j a round white spot the size of the scale remains upon 
the bark, appearing as though made with chalk. Upon the un- 
derside of one small twig, in a distance of nine inches, thirteen 
of these scales occurred and five white spots where other scales 
had been rubbed off. 

4 

At the time when I noticed these scales the young lice under 
them were active and so minute that they appeared to the eye 
like particles of dust. I conveyed a twig to my residence and 
bound it to a thrifty limb of a young apple tree, to ascertain 
whether they could subsist upon this tree; but they all perished, 
not one of them leaving the pear twig, that I could discover. The 
following May the chalk-like spots where the scales had been 
fixed upon the twig were still distinct, the storms and frosts of 
autumn and winter having scarcely dimmed them in the least. 

Beneath the scales the young lice are interspersed through a 
mass of white cotton-like matter. This subsequently increases in 
volume and protrudes from under one end of the scale, elevating 
it from the bark, as shown in the annexed cut. The 
young lice now crawl out from among this matter and 
diffuse themselves over the smooth bark, appearing to 
the eye like minute whitish specks or fine dots. When 
magnified they are found to be of an oval form, somewhat flat- 
tened, about the hundredth part of an inch in length, and two- 
thirds as broad as they are long. They are of a dull white color, 
with six legs and two short antennse of a hyaline-white appear- 
ance. The antennge are thread-like or of equal diameter through 




PEAR. LIMBS — PEAR BARK-LOUSE. 107 

their whole length, and are about one-fourth the length of the 
body. They are composed of several small joints and are clothed 
with a few fine longish hairs. 

I have not had an opportunity to trace the history of this insect 
further, but doubtless, like the other species of this genus, the 
young larvse in a short time fix themselves to the bark and in- 
crease somewhat in size, but retain the same form through the 
winter; and early in the spring the males enter their pupa state, 
and soon after come out under the form of minute delicate flies 
with only two wings; whilst the females, without undergoing 
any very obvious change, gradually grow to the size and form 
of the hemispherical scales already described. 

A parasitic insect, which probably pertains to Mr. Westwood's 
genus Coccophagus, in the Family Chalciuid^: and Order Hyme- 
nopetra, lives in the bodies of the females, subsisting upon their 
young. The worm, which is doubtless similar to that noticed 
under scales of the Apple bark-louse, but of a larger size, having 
completed its changes makes its escape through a rather large 
round hole which it gnaws in the scale. Several scales were ob- 
served which were thus perforated, the hole being rough and 
jagged at its edges, and the scale being of a paler color at the part 
surrounding this peforation. 

This insect cannot but prove very detrimental to the pear tree 
when the females were present in such numbers as they were in the 
instances in which I met with them. No tree can remain thrifty 
and vigorous with such a number of tiny beaks inserted every 
where in the smooth tender bark as a few of those females upon 
each limb will breed. Fortunately they are of such a size that they 
can easily be seen upon a careful inspection of the under sides of 
the limbs, and can readily be removed. They should be looked 
for the latter part of June, as the females will then have attained 
their full size; and wherever they are discovered the under side 
of the limbs should be rubbed with a brush or a sponge to dis- 
lodge every scale which can be perceived. Being at this time 
nearly or quite dead, and wholly destitute of legs, they will be 
unable to reascend the tree when brushed off, nor are the young 
sufficiently strong to crawl away from their parents. 



3. THE PEACH. 



AFFECTING THE ROOT. 



Cankering and destroying the bark of the root and causing the gum td 
exude profusely; a white cylindrical fourtecn-jointed worm, with six 
true legs and ten pro-legs. 

The Peach-tree Borer. JEgeria exitiosa. Say. 

With all the care and attention which can be bestowed upon 
the peach tree, it is much more short lived at the present day than 
when the country was newer. What medical men would term a 
change of " diathesis " appears to have taken place; some altera- 
tion in the soil or climate has occurred, whereby this valuable 
fruit tree cannot be grown so readily and successfully as formerly. 
Hon. John A. King informs me, that when the property which he 
now occupies at Jamaica, on Long Island, was purchased by his 
father, in the year 1816, there were growing contiguous to the 
farm mansion, peach trees which were thrifty and vigorous, 
although they were scores of years old and of such size that it 
was necessary to climb up among the limbs to gather the fruit. 
The fruit, moreover, was of a finer quality and more delicious 
flavor than any which is met with at the present day. Upon the 
same ground he can now obtain but one fair crop of fruit; as soon 
as a tree has yielded this it produces no more, but rapidly dwin- 
dles and dies. The Messrs. Parsons, nurserymen at Flushing, 
confirm this statement. They say that four bearing years is the 
utmost that can be anticipated from this tree, and that to insure 
a supply of this fruit annually, it is indispensable that new trees 
be set out every year. They say there would seem to be 
some peculiar principle or quality in the soil favorable to the 
growth of the peach, which has now become exhausted upon 



PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. ITS EXTENT. 109 

Long Island and in the adjacent districts, so that this tree does 
not now flourish as formerly. And similar to this is the concur- 
rent testimony of nurserymen and writers in our agricultural 
periodicals. Whilst upon new land at the west and southwest, 
without any of the care and attention which we here bestow, this 
tree grows with all its pristine vigor and luxuriance. 

Two maladies, more particularly seem to attack and destroy 
this tree, preventing it from attaining that age and size which it 
formerly acquired. These are, the " yellows," which seems to be 
a kind of decline or consumption peculiar to this tree, and the 
borer or grub at the root, the insect which we are now to consider. 
This last it confessedly the worst enemy which the peach tree has 
to encounter in our country. During the past year, 1854, I 
noticed it everywhere, from the banks of the Hudson to those of 
the Mississippi. At the west, however, it is much less common, 
and by no means so destructive as with us. My own residence is 
near the northernmost limit where the peach can be cultivated, 
the severity of the winters commonly destroying the trees whilst 
they are young and tender; and as I here had never captured the 
moth which produces these borers, I have hitherto supposed 
this was beyond the limit to which this insect reaches. But of a 
dozen peach trees in my yard, now about ten years old, I the pre- 
sent spring, find all except one are destroyed, the roots being sur- 
rounded and enveloped in a mass of jelly-like gum from one to 
three inches in thickness at the surface of the ground, and the 
bark entirely eroded and worms of all sizes burrowing in it. 
And throughout this district of country the peach trees are almost 
all found to be dead the present spring. It is universally sup- 
posed and confidently affirmed that it has been the winter which 
has destroyed them. But in several instances where I have in- 
formed persons of the condition of my own trees, they find, on 
coming to examine theirs, that the roots are surrounded in the 
same manner with a bed of exuded gum, in which a number of 
worms are nestled. It is thus evident that it is the borer and not 
the winter that has occasioned this wide-spread calamity, and 
that the evil which we have suffered might have been averted by 



110 PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. TIME OF ITS APPEARANCE. 

timely care. It would appear that the excessive drouth of the 
past summer and autumn had favored the multiplication of the 
moths which produce these borers, bringing them out in such 
numbers that the roots of all our peach trees were stocked to 
repletion, and the insects were obliged to resort to other kinds of 
trees to dispose of a surplus portion of their eggs, as we shall 
presently see. 

Many intelligent persons who are acquainted with this insect 
and the Apple tree borer only in their larva states, cannot fully 
persuade themselves that the two are really different insects, so 
much do the worms resemble each other in their external appear- 
ance and the habit of attacking the trees at the surface of the 
ground. But any one Avho places them side by side will readily 
perceive that they differ from each other in several important 
particulars. The Peach borer is cylindrical and not broader 
anteriorly, like the Apple tree borer; it has three pairs of small 
feet, whilst the Apple tree borer has none; it has only a few 
scattered coarsish hairs, whilst the Apple tree borer has numer- 
ous fine shorter ones. Such important differences prove that these 
worms are really distinct. They differ much more widely when 
they come to attain their perfect state. Whilst the Apple tree 
borer is transformed, as we have already seen, to a Long horned 
beetle, the worm of the peach tree changes to a four-winged fly, 
bearing some resemblance to a large wasp, and pertains to the 
Family iEGERiiDiE of the Order Lepidoptera. 

This insect was named JEgeria exitiosa or fhe destructive iEgeria 
by Mr. Say, and was described by him in a communication giving 
an account of its habits by Mr. James Worth, which was pub- 
lished in the Journal of the Philadelphia Aacademy of Natural 
Sciences, (vol. iii. p. 216) in the year 1823. Mr. Worth having 
obtained the winged moths in July supposed this month only was 
the one in which the perfect insect makes its appearance. But 
whoever examines infested roots will find worms upon them of 
all sizes, at all times of the year. Even in the winter, small 
worms occur with others which are full grown, showing that these 
last will complete their changes much earlier in the season than 



PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. ITS HABITS. Ill 

the former. The insect, however, does not commence coming out 
in its winged form so early as would be expected from the large 
site and matured appearance of many of the worms in the winter 
season. The stumps of five of my dead trees were allowed to 
remain undisturbed. Around these thirteen chrysalids were 
found upon the tenth of July, none of them having hatched the 
perfect insects. They were removed to a pot of moist earth, and 
the first winged moth came out upon the fourteenth of that month. 
The first female appeared upon the twenty- fourth, six males 
having hatched upon the preceding days. Twelve more chrysa- 
lids were found at this dafe and were placed in the pot with the 
others. Males and females continued to come out in about equal 
numbers- afterwards, the two last of this stock making their ap- 
pearance upon the fifteenth of August. The pupa state there- 
fore lasts at least three weeks in the warmest part of the summer, 
and it appears to be the latter part of July and in August that the 
females come abroad to deposit their eggs in this latitude. Far- 
ther south they doubtless begin to appear earlier in the season. 

The eggs are smooth, oval, slightly flattened, of a dull yellow 
color and 0.025 long. Some of the dark blue scales from the tip 
of the abdomen of the parent fire often glued to them. They are 
deposited upon the bark at the surface of the ground, and the 
worms hatching from them work downwards, at first in the bark 
of the root, forming a slender flexuous channel which becomes 
filled with gum. At a distance of an inch or two below the 
surface the whole of the bark of the root be- 
comes consumed in badly infested trees, and 
the soft sap wood is also extensively gnawed 
and eroded, so that frequently the root is 
nearly severed, as shown in the accompany- 
ing figure. The larger worms in the winter 
season repose with their heads upwards, in 
contact with the exterior surface of the root, 
commonly in smooth longitudinal grooves 
which they have excavated, their backs being covered over with 
the castings mingled with the gum and with cobweb-like threads. 




112 PEACH. ROOT — THE BORER. INFESTS THE PLUM ALSO. 

thus forming a kind of cell the cavity of which is considerably 
larger than the body of the worm inhabiting it. The smaller 
worms have no such cells, but lie promiscuously in the gum %r 
between it and the root. Although from their habits they would 
seem to have no particular use for it, these worms, like those of 
their order generally, spin a silken thread as they crawl about, 
which is of sufficient strength to hold them suspended in the air 
when one drops from a stick on which he is placed. 

When ready to enter its pupa state the worni crawls upwards 
to the surface of the ground, and there forms for itself a follicle 
or pod-like case of a leathery texture, made from its castings, held 
together by dry gum and cobweb-like threads. This follicle is of 
a brown color and oval in its form, with its ends rounded; it 
is about three-fourths of an inch long and over one-fourth in dia- 
meter, but is variable in its size, being sometimes but half an inch 
long. Its inner surface is perfectly smooth and of the color of 
tanned leather. It is placed against the side of the root, often 
sunk in a groove which the worm appears to have gnawed for 
this purpose, with its upper end slightly protruding above the 
surface of the ground. But if the earth has been recently stirred 
so as to lie loose around the root, the worm will commonly form 
its follicle an inch or more below the surface. 

Among the means whereby to grow the peach securely from 
the depredations of this worm, Dr. Harris, in his discourse before 
the Pomological Society (page 9), suggests that of grafting it upon 
plum stalks, saying when it is thus reared he believes it is never 
injured by the borer. Unfortunately for the success of the plan 
proposed, the root of the plum is attacked by this same borer, 
in which it appears to thrive equally as well as in the peach 
root. My friend Mr. J. E. Gavit, of Albany, who is a close 
observer, recently assured me of this as an item of information 
which he presumed I would be reluctant to credit, not supposing 
I had myself already noticed the same fact. Some young plum 
trees in my grounds were found to be dead this past spring, and 
on rooting them up, the peach borer was discovered to be the 



PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. THE WORM DESCRIBED. 



113 




cause of the mischief, several of the worms being present in the 
roots. This, taken in connection with the modification which the 
habits of the worm undergo when in this situation, 
is a remarkable fact. Although the plum abounds 
in gum like the peach, none of this gum exudes 
from its root when attacked by this borer. The 
worm, therefore, having no covering to protect it 
does not erode the bark and nestle upon the out- 
side of the root of the plum as it does in the peach, 
but lies under the bark and subsists entirely upon 
the soft sap-wood of the root. Commencing slight- 
ly below the surface of the ground it works its way 
downwards immediately under the bark for a dis- 
tance of about four inches, forming a long and some- 
what irregular cylindrical channel. The annexed 
cut shows this burrow as it appears when the bark is removed from 
the root. As the worm moves along it packs its castings which 
appear like a tan colored powder, into the channel behind it. 

This is an important fact, showing that if no peach trees were 
cultivated in our country this species would still sustain itself 
without difficulty in the roots of the plum. Indeed, as this insect 
is a ' Native American,' wholly unknown in the peach trees of 
other countries, it is quite probable that before the peach was in- 
troduced upon this side of the Atlantic it bred exclusively in our 
indigenous species of plums, and has now almost entirely forsaken 
these and attached itself to this more congenial foreigner. 

The Larva is a naked soft white cylindrical grub, slightly flattened on its 
under side (of which the left hand figure of the accompanying 
cut gives a view,) and when full grown measures over half an 
inch in length and nearly a quarter of an inch in diameter. It 
is divided into fourteen nearly equal segments by broad shallow 
transverse constrictions. Its head is shining yellowish red, 
marked in front with black and at base in the middle with whi- 
tish, which last is also the color of the throat. Two impressed 
lines on the face converge and meet each other towards the base 
of the head and then diverge. Inside of and parallel with these are two slen- 
der black lines, meeting each other in the form of a letter V. The jaws are 
black and strongly notched at their tips, forming two sharp equal teeth. The 
upper lip is blackish with a pale stripe in the middle. The palpi or feelers are 
conical and two.jointcd, and inside of their base is the apex of the lower jaws, 




[Assem. No. 21 5. J 



8 



114 PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. PUPA. MALE MOTH. 

a short obtuse projection with minute hairs at its tip. The antennae are coni- 
cal and three-jointed, the last joint minute and the second one armed exterior- 
ly with a short bristle. At their base en the under side of the head, are three 
or four dilated punctures. There are a few scattered brown bristles upon the 
head and also upon each of the other segments; those on the third, fourth, 
twelfth and thirteenth segments, are arranged in transverse rows, and on the 
other segments they are placed symmetrically and arise from faint, smooth, 
wart-like spots. The second segment is tinged with yellowish above and has 
a breathing pore upon each side. The two next segments are somewhat short- 
er than the following ones and are destitute of breathing pores. These three 
segments each bear a pair of conical legs ending in a black polished claw. The 
remaining segments except the two last show a faint stripe, at least posterior- 
ly, upon the middle of the back, and each has also a transverse impressed line 
in the middle and a breathing pore upon each side. The two last segments, 
which perhaps should be regarded as one double segment, are narrower, short- 
er, and retractile, shutting into each other and into the segment forward of 
them, like the joints of a telescope. Beneath is a pair of prolegs upon the 
seventh and three following segments, which scarcely protrude from the gene- 
ral surface, but are very perceptible from their soles being furnished with two 
transverse rows of minute black hooks, about twelve hooks in each row; and 
the last segment has a single shorter row of six similar hooks upon each side. 
The young worm is quite similar in its details to the mature one; its breath- 
ing pores upon the second and the twelfth segments, however, are much larger 
and more obvious than the intervening ones. 

The Pupa enclosed within its follicle is at first white, the wing and leg sheaths 
and the thorax being slightly tinged with tawny yellow. The breathing pores 
form a row of tawny dots along each side of the abdomen, each segment of 
which has a row of little sharp-pointed teeth on its anterior and a second short- 
er row of smaller ones on its posterior margin, extending half way around, 
from one row of breathing pores over the back to the opposite row, these teeth 
being of a pale, tawny color, and directed backwards. The three apical rows 
of these teeth, however, have no intervening rows of smaller ones. At the tip 
is a row of eight larger teeth extending entirely around. It is by means of 
these teeth that the pupa when ready to disclose the winged fly crowds itself 
forward, out of its follicle. All the teeth become longer and more sharp-point- 
ed as the pupa approaches maturity, and the whole of the surface now assumes 
a pale tawny yellow color, with a darker ring at each of the sutures. 

The mature insect, like most of the species of butterflies and moths, varies 
considerably in its size. It measures from one-half to three-fourths of an inch 
in length, and the wings when extended, are from 0.80 to 1.30 across, the fe- 
male being more variable in its size than the male and furnishing both the 
smallest and the largest individuals. The wings of the female also measure 
more than those of the male when their bodies are of equal length, the more 
thick and heavy body of the female plainly requiring larger wings to sustain it 
in the air. 

The male is of a deep steel blue color, with various sulphur yellow marks, 
and has a glossy lustre like that of satin. The antennae are black, less than 
half as long as the body, abruptly curved outwards at their tips and densely 
fringed along their inner sides with numerous fine short hairs, with a slight 



PEACH. ROOT — THE BORER. VARIETIES. FEMALE. 115 

vacancy between them at each of the joints. The feelers are yellow on their 
lower sides; there is a paler yellow spot between the bases of the antennas and 
a deeper yellow transverse stripe at the base of the head both above and be- 
neath. The thorax has a yellow stripe on each side of its middle, a transverse 
one at its base which is slightly interrupted in the middle, and a short broader 
one on each side under the wings; its base on the underside is white. The 
abdomen commonly has two slender yellow bands above, at the apex of the 
second and fourth segments, and a white line on each side of the tuft of hairs 
at its tip. The forward hips are yellow on their anterior face, the four others 
at their tips. The shanks are yellow at their tips, the hind ones have a yellow 
ring on their middle interrupted on the inner side, the other four have a large 
yellow spot on their anterior sides; their spines are white, their upper sides 
black at least on the basal half. The fore feet have a white ring at the apex of 
each joint, and a broad white stripe upon the inner side; the middle and hind 
feet have a slender white line on their inner sides, which is often nearly oblit- 
erated, showing only a few white scales at the apex of each joint. The wings 
are transparent and glass-like, with a slight tinge of smoky yellow; their veins, 
margins and fringe is steel-blue. The fore wings have a steel-blue band beyond 
the middle upon their transverse anastamosing veinlet, a slender yellow line 
upon their outer or anterior margin both above and below, and a similar line 
on the inner edge of their inner margin, the hind wings also have a similar line 
on the inner edge of their outer margin. 

The following varieties occur in this sex : 

a. The pale yellow spot between the bases of the antennae wanting. 

b. The same spot enlarged and extending backwards to the neck. 

c. The abdomen without white stripes upon the sides of the tail. 

d. The abdomen without any yellow bands. 

e. The abdomen with but one band, that upon the apex of the second seg- 
ment wanting. 

f. Three yellow bands, one on the apex of the fifth segment. Common. 

g. Four bands, one on "the apex of each segment from the second to the fifth 
inclusive, that upon the third segment often imperfect. 

The female differs from the male so much that it would not be supposed to 
pertain to the same species. The abdomen is of a long oval form instead of 
being slender and cylindrical, and is twice as broad across the middle as that 
of the male. This sex is of a glossy steel blue color, with a purplish reflection 
in places, and blackish upon the face, and upon the middle of the abdomen is a 
broad band of a bright glossy orange yellow color occupying the whole of the 
fourth and fifth segments* except upon the middle of the underside, where, at 
least on the fourth segment some orange scales often occur interspersed with 
the steel blue ones. The antennae have no fringe along their inner sides. The 
fore wings are opake and of the same steel blue color as the body, their tips 
and fringes being of a purplish tint both above and beneath. The bind wings' 
are transparent broadly margined upon both sides and marked at the base with 
steel blue, the glass-like portion being crossed by five robust veins, and com- 

*Say describes the abdomen as having only the fifth segment of an orange color, but in every 
specimen which I have seen, the fourth segment also is of this color. 



116 PEACH. ROOT THE BORER. REMEDIES. 

monly there are traces of a straw yellow stripe on the outer margin towards 
the tip. 

The female presents the following varieties :"' 

a. A slender transverse black line in the middle of the orange hand upon the 
suture between the fourth and fifth segments of the abdomen. Common. 

b. The outer edge of the hind wings with a slender straw yellow stripe its 
whole length.' 

c. No vestiges of a straw colored stripe on the outer edge of the hind wings. 

d. The space between the two inner veins of the hind wings nearly or quite 
covered with blue-back scales, forming a stripe which divides the transparent 
disk into two parts. Quite common. 

Various remedies have been proposed for protecting the peach 
trees from this pernicious insect, by the numerous writers who 
have treated upon this subject in our agricultural and horticul- 
tural publications, such as raising a mound of earth around the 
tree and removing it during the winter season; pouring boiling 
water around the root; placing around it abed of cinders, of 
ashes, of lime, &c; surrounding it with a collar of mortar; en- 
veloping the root and base of the trunk in matting or in paper. 
There is much testimony showing that several of these measures 
are, singly, a sufficient safeguard. Recently an article has been 
going the rounds of the papers, stating that tanzy set out around 
peach and other fruit trees would protect them against this and 
other insects. Attention was said to be directed to this remedy 
from the fact of a large peach tree, upwards of torty years old, 
being noticed as having a bed of tanzy growing around its trunk, 
and the account states that upon setting out this herb around 
several trees it grew thriftily, and it appeared that whilst sound 
trees were preserved by it, unsound ones were renovated. Al- 
though some editors have expressed themselves as skeptical with 
regard to the efficacy of this measure, I am inclined to think it 
merits a trial. That this herb is repulsive to insects generally I 
infer from the fact, that on sweeping it for insects only a very 
few can, be obtained, when a similarly dense growth of other 
weeds is certain of yielding to the collector quite a variety. This 
at least has been my own experience. One of my correspondents 
however, thinks he has captured insects as abundantly from this 
as from other weeds. 

The hollow cavity extending down the side of the root of the 
peach tree which is formed by the peach borer, does not become 



PEACH. ROOT — SOW-BUGS. 117 

obliterated after the worm has left it, but remains often for years 
afterwards, and forms a favorite abode for those pseudo-insects 
which are commonly designated sow-bugs or wood-lice. When 
one of these old burrows of the borer is examined, these little 
animals will commonly be found huddled together within it, and 
covering the sides of the cavity as closely as they can stand. And 
on digging around the roots of a peach tree at any time several of 
them will commonly be found. As no notice of our American 
species of these creatures has ever been published, that I am 
aware, some account of them may appropriately be given in this 
connection. 

These animals are popularly known in different countries under 
the names of millipedes, wood-lice, hog-lice, slaters or sclaters, 
and sows. In this section " sow bugs " is the popular name in- 
variably given to them, whilst the name wood-lice would here be 
understood as designating the wood-tick, Ixodes Americanus, and 
its kindred species, and millipede would be regarded as a synonym 
of centipede or " thousand-legged worm," a species of Julus or 
Scolopendra. The sow-bugs were ranked as insects by the older 
naturalists, but by most writers at the present day they are 
grouped with the lobster, crab, craw-fish, horse-hoof, &c, in a 
distinct class, which is named Crustacea, in allusion to the hard 
shell-like crustaceous covering which forms the exterior coat in 
most of the species. They differ from true insects essentially 
in their breathing apparatus, which is a kind of gills of a 
pyramidal form, and made up of thin plates or short threads 
placed on the under side of the body, commonly at the base of 
the legs. Insects on the other hand, respire through spiracles or 
breathing pores, placed in a row along each side of the body, 
through which, by small pipes, air is admitted into two principal 
tubes which run parallel to each other, and are extended the 
whole length of the body. The crustaceans, like insects, have 
jointed antennae and legs, and the body composed of a number of 
segments connected by transverse sutures, but they differ from 
most insects in being destitute of wings, and in undergoing no 
metamorphosis, the young, when first hatched, having the same 
form and parts which belong to it when mature. In this class 



118 PEACH. ROOT SOW-BUGS. 

the animals under consideration pertain to the order IsopodAjL e„ 
equal-footed, having fourteen pairs of legs of nearly equal size, 
and to the family ONisciDiE, which, like other families of this 
order has four antennae, but here the inner pair of these antennae 
is quite short and little apparent, consisting at most of only two 
joints. The typical genus of this family, named Oniscus, by Lin- 
naeus, is by modern naturalists restricted to those species in which 
the external antennae have eight joints, the three last joints being 
much more slender than the others, and the sutures separating 
them much less distinct than those between the other joints. I 
have never met with any American species having this number 
of joints to the antennae. The general Porcellio and Armadillo 
differ from Oniscus in having the slender terminal portion of the 
antennae divided into but two joints instead of three, making the 
number of joints seven in all. 

The genus Armadillo is distinguished from Porcellio, and from 
Oniscus also, by being destitute of the two conical projecting 
points or short tail-like processes which we observe at the tip of 
the abdomen in those genera, and also by having the faculty of 
rolling itself into a ball, resembling when thus rolled up, a pea 
or pill, whence they are popularly named pill-millipedes. We 
have one or more species of these inhabiting the southern part 
of the State and Long Island, but they do not extend to the 
neighborhood of my residence, and I have not examined them 
sufficiently to determine whether they are different from the 
European species of this genus. 

All the animals of this family which have yet been discovered 
in the central and northern sections of our State pertain to the 
genus Porcellio. These crustaceans are everywhere common 
about the roots of trees, under logs and stones, in the crevices of 
the foundation walls of our buildings and in our cellars, and they 
are particularly numerous under any logs or billets of wood 
which are left in our chip yards. They occur, in short, in all 
situations that are damp, cool and dark. Frequently, by night 
in wet weather, they crawl about the rooms in our dwellings. 
They are perfectly innocent and harmless, subsisting upon decay- 



PEACH. ROOT — SPECIES OF PORCELLIO. 119 

lag vegetable and animal substances. They afford a dainty bit 
to domestic fowls, which devour them with avidity, and are always 
scratching our yards in search of these more than any other arti- 
cle of diet This is their chief importance in an economical aspect, 
and being so abundant they form an item of no small value to the 
poultry breeder, though one of which but little notice is taken. 
In former times the species of this family were highly reputed for 
their supposed medicinal virtues, and old books upon the materia 
medica inform us that when dried and pulverized " they have a 
faint disagreeable smell, and a somewhat pungent sweetish nause- 
ous taste, and are highly celebrated in suppressions, in all kinds 
of obstructions of the bowels, in the jaundice, ague, weakness of 
sight, and a variety of other disorders." And the wine of Milli- 
pedes, prepared by crushing these animals, when fresh, and in- 
fusing them in " Rhenish wine," is spoken of as "an admirable 
cleanser of all the viscera, yielding to nothing in the jaundice 
and obstructions in the kidneys." In the light of modern science 
we can impute the cures attributed to these creatures only to the 
effect produced upon the imagination of the patient, and the 
curative powers of nature, for beyond some slight demulcent qua- 
lities, they must be wholly inert, and are now wisely discarded 
from the pharmacopeias. 

Six American species, pertaining to the genus Porcellio are 
known to me, as follows: 

The Smooth Porcellio ( P. glaber) has the surface of the body smooth and 
slightly shining, of a brownish black color, each segment presenting, except along 
the middle of the back, numerous short whitish lines or oblong clots arranged 
longitudinally and near the outer margin a whitish spot; under side and legs 
white or cream yellow; antennas and projecting apical filaments unicolor with 
the body. Length half an inch This sometimes when captured doubles i'tserj 
into a ball, similar to the Armadillos, but is incapable of assuming a form so 
compact and perfectly spherical as the crusteceans of that genus. It is less 
common than our other species. Young individuals are slightly paler, and a 
variety which I name conjhtentus , and which is quite rare, has the oblong 
dots more or less confluent, forming irregular white spots. This is at once 
distinguished from all our other species by having the surface perfectly smooth 
and even, without either elevated points or granules. I had long regarded 
this as identical with the P. hvis of Europe, but specimens of that species, 
taken in the forest of St. Germain, France, and kindly sent me, with other 
species of these crustaceans pertaining to western Europe, by my esteemed 
friend and correspondent, Andrew Murray, AY. S., Edinburgh, show it to be 
'different. That species has a dusky spot below the knees which does not ap« 



120 PEACH. ROOT SPECIES OF PORCELLIO. 

pear in ours. It also has a double row of whitish lines, more or less distinct, 
towards the outer margin, which in our species is replaced by a single row of 
whitish spots. Other differences might be specified, but these suffice to show 
the glabcr distinct from its European analogue. 

The Unspotted Porcellio (P. immacu'atus) is dull blackish brown or 
leaden brown with faint short pale lines and the middle of each segment rough 
from elevated granules; under side and legs white or lurid. Length 0.30 or 
less. This is readily discriminated by its uniform brown color unvaried by 
spots or stripes save the short longitudinal lines which are so faint as scarcely 
to be perceived and are frequently wholly wanting. It is also our smallest 
species. It probably occurs throughout the United States, for I met with it in 
Illinois, and specimens have also been sent me by Mr. Robertson from west 
of Arkansas. 

The Striped Porcellio (P. vittatus) is black or leaken blackish with tlio 
head deeper black and the under side whitish; the segments are rough from 
elevated granules with their hind margins smooth; along the middle of the 
back is a row of white spots and another more distinct near the outer margin; 
these spots are often confluent, forming continuous stripes. Length 0.35. The 
same pale short longitudinal lines which are common in other species are more 
or less perceptible in this also. Young individuals are of a pale or even whitish 
color but show the usual stripes of a more clear white. It is one of our most 
common species. 

The Mottled Porcellio (P. Mixtus) is tawny yellow variously dotted and 
spotted with black, and with a row of whitish spots which are often confluent 
into stripes along the middle of the back and near the outer margin; outer 
edge pale, at least on the angles -of the segments; segments rough from elevated 
black granules, their basal and apical margins smooth. Length 0.40. The 
elevated granules form round and oblong black dots, and often on each side of 
the back the intervals between them are white, thus presenting short longitu- 
dinal lines of this color, and in a variety (yariega'us) these lines are confluent, 
forming a longitudinal row of white blotches between the dorsal and lateral 
stripes. Sometimes the stripe on the middle of the back is tawny yellow in- 
stead of whitish. This appears to be the most rare of any of our species. 

The Pretty Porcellio (P. limalus'). Black or blackish, with a stripe 
each side and the outer margin broadly whitish, and two rows of bright yel- 
low spots along the back ; the segments rough with raised granules over their 
whole surface. Length 0.50. This is our most common species, being thrice 
as numerous as any other. It occurs in abundance in our cellars, and under 
stones and billets of wood in the yards about dwellings and barns. It is quite 
variable in its colors. In young individuals the two rows of spots along the 
back are pale or whitish. As it increases in size they all gradually change to 
yellow, or one or two of these spots take on a bright yellow color whilst the 
rest remain whitish, but this yellow color is successively assumed by the others, 
and in old individuals the whole become of a vivid ochre yellow. Dots of this 
same color sometimes appear also upon the narrow posterior or caudal seg- 
ments prolonging the rows to the tip of the body. The following varieties of 
this species may be distinguished. 



PEACH. ROOT SPECIES OF POItCELLIO. 121 

a. d rsalis. The space between the rows of yellow spots of a deeper black 
color than other parts of the body, forming a black broad stripe along the mid- 
dle of the back. This stripe is much more obvious in the living specimen than 
after death. 

b. mulligutlatus. A row of smaller whitish spots along ihe middle of the 
back between the yellow ones. Common. 

c. marginatus. The hind margins of the segments pale or whitish. 

d. lateralis. The outer fourth part of each segment whitish with a black 
spot therein. 

e. limba is. The spots of var. d confluent forming a black stripe with a 
brown or blackish spot on each side of each segment outside of the stripe. 

It is difficult, in short, to find two individuals of this species which are alike 
in every respect. Still, the species is in all instances readily distinguished by 
its sculpture, the raised granules occupying the hind margins of the segments 
although they are less elevated here than upon the disk. In all our other spe- 
cies having the surface granulated, these margins are smooth. 

The Hough Porcellio (P. scaler, Latreille). Blackish lead-colored often 
varied with irregular blotches of whitish, the surface rough from numerous 
elevated points which are arranged in irregular transverse rows. Length 0.45. 
This is much more rough and the elevated points more acute than in either of 
the foregoing species. I have not met with it in this State. Specimens sent 
me from Ohio by Dr. Robert H. Mack, and from Illinois by R. W. Kennicott, 
differ in no respect that I am able to perceive from European individuals of this 
species. 



THE PLUM. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Wrinkling and distorting the leaves; a black, shining plant-louse, with a 
pale green abdomen. 

Th\e Plum Leaf-louse, JJphls Prunifoli<z. 

The Aphis which infests the under sides of the leaves of our 
native and also our cultivated plums, curling and distorting 
them, is one of the most variable species which I have met with 
pertaining to this family. And so much does it disagree with the 
accounts which we have of the plum louse of Europe {Aphis 
Pruni, Fab ) that I am constrained, though with some doubt, to 
record it as a distinct species. The descriptions given of the 
plum louse are quite discordant. Walker (List of British Mu- 
seum, p. 989) describes the viviparous winged female as dark 
gray with nectaries hardly projecting above the surface of the 
abdomen, whereas, in all the winged individuals of our American 
insect which have fallen under my observation, the nectaries are 
cylindric, nearly or quite equalling the tip of the abdomen. It 
further disagrees with his description, in having the third vein 
of the fore wings not much further from the second at tip than at 
base, and the fourth vein strongly instead of slightly curved. 
Fabricius (Ent. Syst. iv. 213) describes the European insect as 
having a greenish body, antennae and legs, with a darker abdo- 
minal stripe and point each side of the base, and the margin 
plaited. Unless this description is very faulty our plum louse 
must be distinct, it having the thorax and antennae uniformly 
black, and no plication on the sides of the abdomen; nor can the 
large dusky spot be termed a stripe. Since the foregoing was 
written I notice that M. Amyot (Annals Entom. Soc. 2d series, v. 
476,) gives the top of the head and the thorax of the plum aphis 
as brown and dusted with a white powder. This more strongly 



PLUM. LEAVES — PLUM LEAF-LOUSE. 123 

indicates the European species to be distinct from ours, which 
has a smooth shining thorax not in the least coated with any 
meal-like matter. 

This aphis is much less common than those which pertain to 
our other fruit trees. Its generation and habits are so similar to 
those of the Apple plant louse, that a separate account would be 
little more than a repetition of what has already been related. 
It only remains, therefore, to give a description of this species 
in its larva and its perfect states. 

The Larva when first hatched is of a white color, the body slightly tinged 
with green, the feet, tip of the beak and eyes black. As it increases in size 
three stripes of a deeper gre.en begin to appear and become more distinct and 
are finally of a bright green color. One of these stripes extends along each 
side of the thorax and abdomen, and has in it on the thorax a large deep green 
dot, and upon the abdomen two or three less deeply colored dots; the third 
stripe is on the middle of the abdomen and is not extended to the thorax. The 
body has now become of a greenish white color, the legs, nectaries, antennae 
and beak white, without any tint of green, and somewhat pellucid. The tip 
of the beak, the ends of the feet and the eyes are black. It is of an oval form, 
and measures 0.0G in length, by 0.03 in width. 

The W"in t ged Plum Leap-louse is 0.14 long to the tip of its wings. It is 
black and shining, its abdomen pale green with a black dot on each side of the 
middle of the two or three anterior segments, a large dusky spot rather behind 
the middle, and a short dusky band between this and the base; tip of the ab- 
domen acuminate; nectaries cylindric, equalling the tip. The legs are pale yel- 
lowish, the tips of the thighs and the feet dusky or black. The antennas are 
black, their bases pallid. The wings are pellucid, their veins slender, blackish, 
the rib-vein and base of the third vein pallid ; inner margin with a black line 
extending inwards from the apex of the first vein. The veins are analogous to 
those of A Pruni in their relative distances, except as already noticed; they, 
however, vary so much that it is seldom an individual occurs having them nor- 
mal in both wings. The third vein is as near the second at its apex as at its 
base, oftener than it is more distant. 

The following are some of the varieties which may be met with among in- 
dividuals of this species : 

a. Abdomen above deep black and shining. 

b. Abdomen pallid whitish; tips of the thighs and veins of the wings 

dusky, not black. 

c. First fork at tip as far from the tip of the second fork as from the third 

vein. 

d. First fork at tip much farther from the tip of the second fork than from 

the third vein, the cell between the first fork and third vein narrower 
at its base. 



124 PLUM. LEAVES — PLUM LEAF-LOUSE. 

e. First fork at tip much farther from the tip of the second fork than from 

the third vein, the cell as broad towards its base as at its apex. 

f. The same cell very narrow, not half the width of those each side of it. 

g. Only a single fork in the left wing. 
ft. Only a single fork in the right wing. 

The remedies already stated for the apple aphis, will be equal- 
ly efficacious for this and other species of this family. 



5. THE CHERRY. 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 



Black wingless lice with a few winged ones, their wings appearing like 
white parallel lines each side of the body; covering the under side of 
the young leaves. 

The Cherry Plant-louse. Jlphis Cerasi, Fabricius. 

No tree or plant within the sphere of my observation is so con- 
stantly infested with Aphides as the garden cherry, the Primus 
Cerasus of L inneeus, Cerasus vulgaris of modern botanists. Upon 
other vegetation where these vermin become located they are 
commonly broken up by their insect enemies after a time and do 
not again become established upon the same tree. But upon the 
cherry within a week or two after every individual appears to be 
destroyed, new colonies are discovered to be planted upon one 
and another of the young leaves. 

This species commences to appear as soon as the leaves begin 
to put forth in the spring; these first individuals being hatched 
from eggs which were deposited the preceding autumn. All the 
individuals which are bred during the spring and summer appear 
to be females, some of them with wings upon almost every leaf, 
but most of them without wings. The individuals which are 
hatched from the eggs resemble the mature wingless females, ex- 
cept that they are smaller and lighter colored, none of the species 
of this family passing through those remarkable changes in their 
form which most of the orders of insects undergo. They bring 
forth their young alive during the continuance of warm weather. 
These huddle around their parents upon the under surface of the 
leaves as closely as they can crowd themselves; indeed they often 
are found two deep, a portion of the colony standing upon the 
backs of the others, requiring only sufficient space between them 
to insert their beaks into the leaves to suck their juices. The 



126 CHERRY. LEAVES CHERRY PLANT-LOUSE. ITS NUMBERS. 

numbers which thus make out to stow themselves within a nar- 
row compass are almost incredible. Upon the under surface of a 
small leaf three-fourths of an inch long and half an inch wide I 
have counted upon one side only of the mid-vein one hundred 
and ninety of these lice. Yet this leaf was not more densely 
covered than many others. The two surfaces of a small leaf but 
an inch long would therefore furnish ample space to accommo- 
date a thousand of these insects. 

As all the leaves are tender and juicy early in the season the 
aphides multiply rapidly, and in about a month after the first in- 
dividuals make their appearance, namely, between the 15th and 
25th of June, as I find the dates entered several times in my notes 
taken in different years, some of the trees become literally over- 
run with these vermin, their black bodies covering not only the 
under sides of the leaves but also the leaf-stalks, the tender suc- 
culent ends of the twigs, and sometimes the green young cherries 
and their stems; whilst a swarm of flies, wasps and other insects, 
attracted to them to feast upon their honeydew, keep up a con- 
stant buz and hum around the infested trees during warm sunny 
days. The leaf of the cherry, however, is of such a tough coria- 
ceous texture that it does not become curled and corrugated like 
those of most trees when similarly circumstanced. Its edges 
merely turn backwards or become slightly rolled. The tips of 
the twigs, however, and the young leaves growing from them, 
having their juices pumped out and drained by such a multitude 
of tiny beaks, shrivel and die, looking as though they had been 
scorched by fire; and the whole tree would soon perish, it is evi- 
dent, if this severe infliction was protracted. But when the 
aphides become thus numerous their natural enemies and de- 
stroyers are attracted to the tree and multiplied in such numbers 
as to make the most astonishing havoc among this feeble race of 
beings. Although single trees in my grounds have been equally 
infested in some former years, I never knew them all to be over- 
run with these lice as they were the 25th of June the present 
year. It was evident if the evil continued the trees could live 
but a short time. But on examination upon that day I found 
two or three yellow larvae of the Syrphus flies upon almost every 



CHERRY. LEAVES — CHERRY PLANT-LOUSE. ITS NUMBERS. 127 

leaf, whilst the Lady birds or Coccincllidce with their larvse and 
Aphis-lions and other destroyers were equally numerous. All 
fears as to the result were consequently allayed. Still I little an- 
ticipated such a rapid and utter extermination of these vermin as 
actually occurred. A week afterwards upon a careful examina- 
tion not a living aphis could be found upon the leaves of any of 
the trees, and the conquerors had already disbanded their forces 
and had nearly all retired. The empty skins of the slain, adhe- 
ring to the leaves, with the swollen bodies of others which had 
been punctured by parasites — for these, too, it appeared, had 
stepped in to give their progeny a share in the feast — were the 
only relics of the teeming myriads which had so recently swarmed 
there. It is by looking at the works of Nature in a definite man- 
ner and tracing out her operations specifically and in their minute 
details that we arrive at some faint conceptions of their magnitude 
and grandeur, and become vividly impressed with the truth that 
no other agency than that of a Creator .infinite in wisdom and 
power could have peopled the world which we inhabit with such 
countless numbers and such an endless variety of objects animate 
and inanimate, each occupying its appropriate sphere, and all so 
arranged as to fulfil the objects for which they were called into 
existence. Has the reader as he has passed a forest ever at- 
tempted to conjecture the number of trees which it contained ? 
and has his mind passed onwards to a surmise of the probable 
number of leaves growing upon each tree, and onwards still to 
the number of insects which may be drawing their sustenance 
from each one of these leaves, and still further to the number of 
minute and infinitesimal parasites which may be subsisting upon 
each of these insects 1 Among the cherry trees alluded to above, 
was a row of seven young ones which had attained a height of about 
ten feet. By counting the number of leaves upon some of the limbs 
and the number of limbs upon the tree, I find a small cherry tree 
of the size above stated is clothed with about seventeen thousand 
leaves. And at the time alluded to these leaves could not have 
averaged less than five or six hundred lice upon each, and there 
was fully a third more occupying the stems and the tips of the 
twigs. Each of these small trees was therefore stocked with at 
least twelve millions of these creatures. And yet so vigilant, so 



128 CHERRY. LEAVES CHERRY PLANT-LOUSE. ANTS WITH IT. 

sharp-sighted and voracious were their enemies that at the end 
of a few days the whole were exterminated. 

The aphides being thus swept away from the cherry the latter 
part of June, almost every year, the trees enjoy a temporary re- 
spite. But the insect soon shows itself again. Most of the foliage, 
however, has by this time become so mature and hardy that their 
weak beaks appear unable to pierce it. They therefore occupy 
only the few young and tender leaves at the ends of the twigs 
and upon the young shoots which start up from the roots. This 
being the only foliage from which they are able to draw their 
nourishment they do not again multiply and flourish as at the 
beginning of the season. But they continue to dwell upon these 
tender leaves through the summer. On the approach of cold 
weather males are produced, a stock of eggs is placed about the 
bases of the buds and in the fissures of the bark for the continu- 
ance of their race another year, and their career for the season 
terminates. The leaves fall from the cherry earlier in autumn 
than from the apple and peach, and whilst the lice which infest 
those trees are still abroad in full force those of the cherry have 
all disappeared. 

A small black ant is a constant attendant upon the plant-lice 
of the cherry tree. It remains with them more constantly and in 
much greater numbers than the New-York ant which we have 
described upon a preceding page as accompanying the aphides 
upon the apple and other trees. Upon one small leaf half a 
dozen or more of these ants are often present, a part of them 
industriously occupied in vibrating their antennse over the backs 
of the aphides so as to rub them gently. They are constantly 
engaged in this employment and appear to be much more atten- 
tive and faithful nurses than the larger New- York ants. They 
pertain to the genus Myrmica of Latreille, differing from the true 
ants in being furnished with stings. These insects however are 
so small and this implement is so weak that it is wholly incapa- 
ble of penetrating the human skin. It may be seen in preserved 
as well as living specimens, resembling a 'short fine hair protud- 
ing from the tip of the abdomen. In addition to this, in place of 
the single wedge like scale on the peduncle at the base of the 



CHERRY. LEAVES LITTLE YELLOW ANT. 129 

abdomen which we meet with in the true ants, these have two 
round knot-like swellings; and their thorax is also armed with 
thorn-like spines, of which there are in most of the species two, 
situated at its base and projecting backwards. 

Altogether the most abundant and annoying species of ant 
which we have in the State of New York pertains to this genus. 
It is commonly called the " Little yellow ant " and was named 
the Troublesome ant (Myrmica molesta) by Mr. Say in a communi- 
cation published in the first volume of the Boston Journal of 
Natural History, page 293, and by a strange oversight the same 
species is again described upon the succeeding page under the 
name M. minuta. The neuter or worker of this species is of a 
honey yellow color with the head and abdomen tinged with brown, 
the abdomen being broad oval and almost globular. It is but six 
hundredths of an inch in length, and being so small it is able to 
penetrate the slightest cracks in boxes or cupboards. It is com- 
mon in our dwellings, and when an individual finds any saccha- 
rine substance the information is communicated to the rest of the 
colony, and before the housewife is aware of the depredation that 
is going on, the dish of sweetmeats or other preserved substance 
becomes covered with them, whilst a procession of individuals 
going and returning in a particular track maybe traced along the 
shelves and wainscoats, frequently extending through different 
rooms of the house. I have experienced some difficulty in pre- 
serving my collection of insects from this depredator, some box 
or drawer not perfectly tight being invaded by them ere I am 
aware of it, almost every season. But by crushing every indivi- 
dual which does not escape into some crevice, and permitting their 
bodies to remain where they are slain, their comrades take warn- 
ing and cease to frequent the spot. The vapor of camphor also 
repels them. Small colonies of this same species are also com- 
mon in our gardens, throwing up in the paths and beds little 
hillocks of dirt around the hole which leads to their underground 
dwelling. It is also common in our pastures and plowed fields, 
and sometimes does much injury in cornfields, gnawing the blades 
of corn when they are but a few inches high, for the purpose of 
drinking the sweet juice which flows from the wounds. It was 

[Assembly, No. 215. j 9 



130 CHERRY. LEAVES CHERRY ANT. 

on this account much complained of in this vicinity in the spring 
of 1850, being so numerous and active in some fields as to threaten 
to cut off every blade of corn in them. 

The species which accompanies the plant-lice of the cherry 
tree does not appear to have been described hitherto, I therefore 
name it 

The Cherry ant (Myrmica Cerasi). The neuters are 0.14 long, of a dark 
brown color and slightly translucent, resembling resin; their abdomen is deep 
black and highly polished, egg-shaped and acutely pointed at its apex, its basal 
segment covered with minute punctures of an oval form placed longitudinally, 
and the remaining segments are similarly punctured upon their apical margins; 
the head, thorax, and anterior sides of the legs are also covered with similar 
punctures, but more fine; the jaws are reddish-brown and have four teeth of 
equal size along their inner edge; the antennas are black, their tips brown and 
clothed with very fine -short hairs, the long basal joint punctured; the legs 
are black, their bases and the tips of the shanks pale brown, and the last joints 
of the feet brown; a few gray hairs are scattered over the head and body. 

The abdomen of this ant presents a curious appearance. It is 
flattened upon its upper side and very convex on its under side, 
thus looking as though it was attached to the thorax in an inverted 
position. This, however, adapts it to the direction in which it is 
frequently used — this ant being accustomed to throw its abdomen 
upward over its head and back, thus presenting its sting to any- 
thing which molests it in front. The venom of its sting has a 
peculiar pungent smell which remains upon the fingers when they 
crush one of these insects. This venom is ejected copiously and 
may frequently be seen forming a small clear drop at the end of 
the sting. And being thus armed these small ants are able to 
defend themselves against other insects far superior to them in 
size. It is wonderful to witness this ant conquer the large New- 
York ant and rob him of his flock of aphides. This may be wit- 
nessed by placing two or three of the cherry ants in a vial and 
introducing into it a leaf of poplar or apple-lice with one of the 
New-York ants attending them. No sooner does one of these 
small ants approach, than jealous of the intrusion, he seizes it by 
its thorax in his powerful jaws, but is instantly informed of the 
fact that it carries a sting in its tail and knows how to use it. He 
is as prompt to drop his intended victim as he had been to seize 



CHERRY. LEAVES CHERRY LEAF PLANT-LOUSE. 131 

it, and returns to guarding his flock of aphides, till another of 
the small ants approaches, which is similarly seized, but with the 
same result as before. After two or three such encounters he 
seems to suspect that some mischance has thrown him out of his 
proper latitude, and he walks around to take a survey of the 
parts adjacent. He no sooner leaves the flock of lice than one of 
the small ants hastens to them and rapidly passes its sting around 
among them, hereby marking them as its own property. From 
that moment the large ant ceases to notice them, and the small 
ones gather around and commence rubbing and nursing them as 
attentively as though they were old acquaintances. It is evidently 
the pungent fluid of their stings which they throw around among 
the aphides which render them repulsive to the large ant; and 
when he first seized one of these small ants it was the suffocating 
fume of this fluid which induced him to drop his victim so 
hastily, for their sting is not powerful enough to penetrate the 
hard horny outer surface of his body. 

It is somewhat remarkable that, so closely related to each other 
as the different kinds of cherry trees are, the aphides which in- 
fest one of these kinds of trees do not establish themselves upon 
the others also. Yet we never see the black aphis of the garden 
cherry invading any of our native or wild cherry trees, and these 
appear each to have a species of plant-lice peculiar to them which 
seldom if ever fix themselves upon the foliage of the other kinds. 
Thus a species which I described in the Fourth Report of the 
State Cabinet, page 65, under the name of the cherry-inhabiting 
aphis (-#. Cerasicolens), pertains to our common black cherry. 
Another species may here be noticed which infests the under sides 
of the tender apical leaves of the choke cherry, curling their 
margins downwards and inwards, and changing them to a paler 
yellowish green color. It may be named and characterised as 
follows : 

The Cherry Leaf Plant-louse (rfphis Cerasifolia), measures 0.08 to the 
tip of its abdomen, and 0.15 to the end of its wings, which expand 0.26. It is 
black with a pale green abdomen, which has three dark green dots on each 
side forward of the nectaries, and above these a row of impressed deep green 
dots extending backwards past the nectaries with a deep green stripe upon the 
middle of the back which does not reach to the tip; the sutures are also of a 
deeper green color; the nectaries reach half way to the tip and are dusky at 



132 CHERRY. LEAVES CHERRY PLANT-LOUSE. 

least at their ends; the neck and lower side of the head are green ; the an- 
tennae are two-thirds of the length of the body, dusky, and in young indivi- 
duals green at their bases; the beak is short, pale green, its apex blackish; the 
legs are dull white, the feet and four hind thighs except at their base, blackish; 
the wings are pellucid, the stigina salt white margined with dusk}^, more wide- 
ly so on its inner side, the veins black, the rib-vein white, the second fork very 
short. 

The wingless female are 0.08 long, egg-shaped, pale yellowish green, their 
abdomens coated with a white meal-like powder except at the sutures and on 
the medial lines, which last is deeper green, and the legs and antennae dull 
white. 

The larva when young are pea green with white antennas, nectaries and legs. 
When older a deeper green stripe appears along the middle of the back and a 
row of deeper green spots each side which are more or less confluent into 
stripes. 

The aphis upon our garden cherry is the species which is named 
Jlphis Cerasi by Fabricius. It undoubtedly has been introduced 
upon this side of the Atlantic with the tree which it infests. M. 
Fonscolomb (Annals Ent. Soc. x. 173), speaking of this species 
in the southern part of France, says it occurs the last of July, 
and that he has never met with any winged individuals. This 
would indicate the species to be much more rare than it is with 
us. Here from the middle of May till the last of September it is 
the most common of any species of this family. For years when 
I have wished to investigate any fact in connection with the 
aphides I have turned to this species, always finding it at hand, 
and always with two or three winged individuals upon every leaf, 
in company with larvae, pupse and wingless females. 

The lakvje when newly born are about 0.03 long, of a dull white or pale 
yellow color, with transparent and colorless legs and antennae. They are of 
an oblong oval form, with the opposite sides of their bodies parallel and their 
nectaries shorter than to the tip and transparent or slightly dusky. As they 
become larger they are broader across the abdomen and deeper yellow, the 
tips of the antennae and the feet dusky and the nectaries black. After casting 
their skins they are dull reddish brown or chestnut colored with black heads, 
and are much broader across the abdomen, being now shaped like an egg and 
measuring 0.05 in length. Their legs, antennae and nectaries are whitish 
transparent, the last equalling the tip. Others of this same size and form 
have the thighs, feet, nectaries and tips of the antennae dusky. 

The wingless females are 0.05 long, with very plump broad egg-shaped 
bodies, which are black and shining, with a slightly projecting tail, the nec- 
taries equalling or even surpassing its tip and of a black color, the antennas 
shorter than the body and whitish, their two short basal joints and the apical 
half black; the beak whitish with a hlack tip; the legs white with the feet, 



CHERRY 



LEAVES — CHERRY PLANT-LOUSE. 133 



tips of the shanks, and commonly the thighs at least of the hind legs, except 
at their bases, black. The abdomen has an elevated lateral margin, upon the 
upper side of which is a row of large impressed punctures. 

The Pupje are 0.06 in length, and like the wingless females in the details of 
their colors and like the larvae in their form, but are known by having the 
rudiments of wings which appear like vesicular scales of a white or pale green 
color on each side of the body rather forward of its middle, and as it approaches 
maturity the thorax between the fore part of these scales becomes swelled, 
presenting a blistered-like appearance of a dull reddish yellow color, which 
sometimes is the color of the body also; its nectaries equal the tip, which has 
no projecting tail-like appendage. If M. Fonscolomb had confined the pupte 
which he describes, they would probably have furnished him with winged 
specimens within twenty-four hours. When the perfect insect crawls out of 
its pupa skin the head and thorax are dark reddish brown, and the wings are 
milk white and still folded in the form of small scales, as they are in the pupa; 
but in a few moments they start out longer and longer, gradually extending 
and unfolding until they attain their full size, but still retaining their white 
hue. They soon, however, become transparent, but like all the other aphides 
when newly hatched, the wings remain dim for several hours, their surface 
appearing as though it was sprinkled over with dew. The antennae and legs 
are also white when it first comes from its pupa state. 

The winged females measure 0.05 to the tip of the abdomen, and 0.12 to 
the ends of the wings, which when spread are 0.20 across; they are deep 
black and shining, the abdomen nearly twice as broad as the thorax, and egg- 
shaped, with an acute apex from which projects a short conical tail-like appen- 
dage, the nectaries reaching to its base; attennaj black and about three-fourths 
as long as the body; the beak short, arising between the two fore legs and 
scarcely reaching the bases of the middle pair, its color black or dusty with 
the tip black; the legs black with the shanks except at their tips, and the basal 
half of the thighs white. The wings are transparent, their bases, outer mar- 
gin and rib-vein white, the remaining veins blackish with their bases pale; the 
stigma opake and dull white with its margins black, that on the inner side 
being wider; the second vein is about a third farther from the first at its tip 
than at its base; the third is slightly farther from the second at its tip than at 
its base, and rather farther from the second at its base than this is from the 
first; the tip of the first fork is but little nearer the tip of the second fork than 
to that of the third vein, much nearer the tip of the third vein than that is to 
the second; second fork nearer at tip to the fourth vein than to the first fork, 
much nearer the fourth vein than this is to the tip of the rib-vein. 

Varieties have been observed in which the tip of third vein is equidistant 
between the first fork and second vein, in which the left wing has but one fork, 
and in which the right wing has three forks. 

The remedies already spoken of in connection with the Apple 
plant-louse are equally applicable to this species, and the same 
destroyers which were there described, namely, the Aphis-lions, 
the Lady-birds or Coccinellidts and their larvae, and those of the 



134 CHERRY. LEAVES — ICHNEUMON-FLIES. APHIDIUS. 

Syrphus flies are equally efficient in destroying this and all the 
other species of plant-lice. In connection with our account of 
those destroyers, all of which attack the aphides externally, it 
was stated that there were others which live in the bodies of 
these insects and thus destroy them. And we come now to pre- 
sent to the reader some information respecting our American 
species of these insects whose habits are so remarkable. 

It was anciently supposed that an Egyptian quadruped which 
is named the Ichneumon had the habit of darting down the throat 
of the crocodile when it was sleeping, and there remaining, feed- 
ing upon the entrails of this reptile until it perished. This, how- 
ever, has long been known to be fabulous. But among insects 
there is an extensive group, resembling wasps and bees, which 
possess this very habit which was formerly ascribed to the Ichneu- 
mon. They in their larvae state reside within the bodies of their 
victims, feeding upon them until they destroy them. They have 
from this circumstance obtained the name of Ichneumon-flies, and 
they form the Family Ichneumonim: in the Order Hymenoptera. 
One branch of this family is composed of species which feed inter- 
nally upon plant lice. It consists of the genus named Jlphidius 
and other genera, of the group which is named Aphidiides. These 
are all exceedingly small insects little exceeding the twentieth of 
an inch in length, and mostly with black bodies variously adorned 
with bright tawny yellow and pale sulphur yellow bands and 
other marks. One of these small Ichneumon-flies, resembling a 
winged ant in appearance, may occasionally be discovered busily 
at work among a colony of aphides. With her long thread-like 
antennae stretched out in front of her and rapidly vibrating, she 
approaches an aphis and touches it gently, much like an ant when 
nursing these creatures. By this slight touch she at once ascer- 
tains whether the aphis has been previously visited. If it has 
not she curves the tip of her abdomen forwards under her, punctu- 
ring the body of the aphis and inserting an egg therein. She 
then passes to another and another. From this egg hatches a 
minute worm which resides within the aphis, subsisting upon the 
juices which the latter extracts from the plant. Thus it grows 
with the growth of the aphis, which furnishes the exact amount 



CHERRY. LEAVES APHIDIUS. ITS HABITS. 135 

of sustenance which the worm requires for bringing it to maturity. 
It is singular that the parent ichneumon-fly knows if two eggs 
were deposited in the aphis the worms from them would die for 
want of a due supply of food, and that by a mere touch with her 
horns she is able to ascertain which individuals have already been 
impregnated. Some of the species of Aphidius are larger than 
others and their offspring consequently require a larger quantity 
of food; but each parent has the instinct to select an aphis of 
such size as will yield the precise amount of sustenance which its 
young requires. 

By the time the worm has attained its growth the aphis becomes 
so exhausted that it dies. If it should now drop from the leaf to 
the ground it would be liable to be found and devoured by centi- 
pedes or other insects which feed upon the carcases of animals of 
this class, and thus the worm within it would be destroyed. Na- 
ture has therefore so constituted the aphis that in these circum- 
stances it dies without a struggle or a spasm, with its beak inserted 
and its claws clinging to the surface of the leaf, standing with its 
antenna? turned backwards and its whole aspect so life-like that 
in the infancy of my studies I supposed these were one of the 
varieties natural to the species with which they occurred. Their 
bodies are remarkably plump and smooth, commonly clay colored 
or the hue of brown paper, and the aphis-lions and other insects 
which destroy the aphides appear to pass by those which have 
these parasites within them. Hence where a leaf or twig has 
recently been cleared of plant-lice by their enemies, several of 
these ichneumonized individuals may frequently be found remain- 
ing upon it, dead and unmolested. In other instances the whole 
colony of aphides appears to be exterminated by these parasites 
alone, the dead swollen bodies of their victims covering the sur- 
face of the leaves or twigs as closely as they can stand. The 
worm remains within the body of the dead aphis during its pupa 
state. It then cuts a circular hole through the dry hard skin and 
comes out in its winged and perfect form. 

These parasitic insects which feed internally upon the aphides 
are as efficient in destroying them as the aphis-lions or any other 
class of their enemies. And it is truly wonderful that whilst 



138 CHERRY. LEAVES — APHIDIUS SPECIES. 

every kind of tree and plant appears to have one or more species 
of aphis infesting and blighting it, each species of aphis seems to 
have a particular parasite preying upon and devouring it; for 
each kind of aphis from which I have reared these insects hag 
furnished a species differing from all the others, and in some in- 
stances two species have been obtained from one kind of aphis. 
The British entomologists enumerate upwards of fifty species of 
these insects, which is nearly equal to the number of their aphides. 
They differ from all the other insects of the family to which they 
pertain, by having commonly a very large triangular stigma to 
the fore wings, and very few veins, and these commonly enct 
abruptly without reaching the apical or inner margins. Hence 
there are but few if any closed cells or panes to the wings. One 
of our species having the wings more fully veined and forming 
complete cells may be met with accompanying what appears to be 
an undescribed species of aphis which infests the stalks of lettuce 
in our gardens. This in my manuscripts is named 

The Lettuce-louse Aphidttts {A. Lactucapkis} . It is deep black with legs- 
tinged with brownish, their bases and knees very slightly palar ; the abdomen 
long obovate, flattened, rather narrower than the thorax, its apex rounded j 
antennae almost as long as the body, 19-jointed, second joint smallest, globu- 
lar, third joint longest with a slight constriction in its middle, the succeeding 
joints successively shorter, the last scarcely longer than the preceding one, 
long ovate; wings slightly smoky, outer marginal vein and the vein bordering 
the cell beyond the stigma black, the outer veins brown, stigma dusky white. 
Length 0.06 to the tip of the abdomen. 

One of the prettiest species which I have met with was bred 
from aphides upon the spotted knot-weed {Polygonum persicaria) 7 
and may be named 

The Knot-weed Aphiditts (Praon Polygonaphis), It is black und shining 
with a slender elliptical abdomen of a bright sulphur-yellow color tinged with 
dusky above and at its tip beneath, with broad clear yellow bands at the an- 
terior sutures, its base being narrowed into a short cylindrical pedicel, which 
with the legs and bases of the antennae are of a bright reddish or beeswax 
yellow color, the tips of .the feet being black; its antennae are inserted on 
slight broad elevations upon the front of the head and are 17-jointed, the two 
short basal joints being a third thicker than the following ones, which are 
equal, cylindric, four times as long as they are thick, the last rather longer 
than the preceding, its apex abruptly rounded. Length 0.08, wings expand 
0.15. 

Another species is a common destroyer of a species of aphis 
which infests the fruit stems of the high cranberry, {Viburnum 



CHERRY. LEAVES — APHIDIUS SPECIES. 137 

Opulus, var. Jimericanum). These stems are often covered with 
lice, and the aphidius discovering them passes from one indivi- 
dual to another, dropping an egg into the body of each. The 
whole colony is thus destroyed by this parasite alone, the dead 
swollen bodies of its victims remaining upon the stems crowded 
together as closely as they can stow themselves. I name this 
species. 

The Cranberry Apttmirrs (Praon Viburnaphis'). It is black and shining 
with the short abdominal pedicel and the anterior legs wax yellow, their feet 
blackish at the tip, the hind knees yellowish; antennae 15-jointcd, the basal 
joint wider than long, the second nearly globular and slightly thicker than the 
following ones, the last not larger than the one preceding it; wings hyaline, 
veins outer margin and stigma black and shining. Length 0.075, wings expand 
0.15. 

In the following species the veins are fewer in the fore wings 
and do not form any closed cells in the disk; there is merely a 
short robust curved vein from the inner angle of the stigma di- 
rected towards the apex and ending abruptly, and a vein running 
obliquely from the mid-vein to the outer margin forward of the 
stigma. These pertain to the genus Trioxys. 

The latter part of June the present year, the willows in this 
vicinity Avere overrun, and many trees were almost defoliated by 
an undescribed species of aphis. But in a short time these in- 
sects were all destroyed by their enemies, and the under surface 
of the leaves were thickly covered with the swollen gray bodies 
of those which had been killed by parasites. These yielded the 
following species : 

The Willow Apiudius (Trioxys Salicaphis). This is black and shining, 
with a long elliptical abdomen, of a honey-yellow color at its base gradually 
passing to black on its posterior part, legs honey-yellow, tips of the feet and 
of the shanks and sometimes the outer sides of the thighs dusky; feelers honey- 
yellow; antennae black, two-thirds as long as the body, 13-jointed; the third 
and following joints nearly equal, cylindrical, thrice as long as wide; stigma 
dusky. Length with the abdomen in its usual arched posture, 0.0G. 

The Poplar Aphidius (Trioxys Populaphis) is black and polished, the 
abdomen long elliptical and much narrower than the thorax, the basal sutures 
sulphur yellow; legs sulphur yellow, the hind thighs black; antennae nearly 
as long as the body, 15-jointed, third and following joints about equal, cylin- 
drical, the last joint rather longer and thicker, oval with its apex rounded; 



138 CHERRY. LEAVES — CHERRY APHIDIUS. 

stigma dusky, veins and outer margin of fore wings blackish. Length about 
0.07. Hatched from an undescribed aphis infesting the base of the leaves of 
the Balm of Gilead (Populus candicans). 

But without dwelling longer upon this interesting group of in- 
sects which render us such important services, we close with a 
notice of a species which destroys the aphis of the garden cherry, 
and which differs from all the foregoing in its residence when in 
the pupa state. As if fearful that the beak and feet of the dead 
aphis would not hold its swollen body securely to the smooth 
surface of the cherry leaf, the worm of this species when ready to 
enter its pupa state perforates the abdomen of the aphis upon its 
under side, probably as soon as its life is extinct, and spins a 
cocoon for itself between the leaf and the body of the aphis, the 
leaf forming the floor of the room for its residence, the abdomen 
of the aphis forming its roof, and a gray paper-like membrane 
which it weaves constituting the sides and attaching the body of 
the aphis securely to the leaf. The walls of its domicil are so 
thin that the inclosed pupa can sometimes be seen faintly through 
them, of a bright yellow color. 

The CnERRT Aphidius (Trioxys Ccrasaphis^) is black, with its palpi or 
feelers and legs pale yellowish brown ; antennge almost as long as the body, 
18-jointed, the third and following joints equal, cylindric, thrice as long as 
broad, the last elongated ovate; abdomen elliptic, rather narrower and short- 
er than the thorax, scarcely pedicelled at its base, shining, tinged with brown- 
ish; wings pellucid, stigma smoky white. Length 0.07. 



6. THE GRAPE-VINE. 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 



A pale green cylindrical worm, nearly half an inch long, with rows of 
white elevated dots sending out radiating white hairs. Consuming 
the young leaves, and hiding itself in a hollow ball made of leaves 
drawn together by cobweb-like threads. 

The Gartered or Grape-vine Plume. Pterophorus periscdidactylus. 

Both in Europe and. in this country the leaves of the Grape- 
vine constitute the favorite food of a number of larvse as well as 
of several insects in their perfect state. Dr. Harris has given the 
history of seven American larvae, mostly of the larger moths, 
which feed upon these leaves; and every season, species which 
have not yet been described are presenting themselves to notice. 
One of these equally interesting and quite as injurious as either 
of the species whose history has already been published, I here 
present to the reader's view. 

On a visit to Union Village upon the 16th of June, John T. 
Masters, Esq., pointed out to me several curious instances of the 
depredations of insects, in trees along the village streets, and in 
the vegetation of his garden and yards. One of these insects was 
then in the midst of its career, consuming the young and tender 
leaves of his grape vines, which are mostly of the Isabella variety, 
and forming a retreat for itself by drawing the edges of one, two, 
or three leaves together, by means of fine silken threads like cob- 
web, thus making a large roamy cavity, commonly of a globular 
form, within which the worm appeared to lie in repose during 
the day time. If the edges of the leaves at any place did not 
exactly come together, the gap between them was closed by a 
patch made of silken threads woven together into a membrane 
resembling bank note paper. 



140 GRAPE-VINE. LEAVES GARTERED PLUME. LARVA. 

The larva when full grown measures about half an inch in length. It is al- 
most cylindrical, sixteen-footed, of a very pale green color, divided into fourteen 
segments by rather deep wide transverse constrictions. It has two rows of 
elevated white spots along the back, and one along each side, each segment 
having one spot in each row, or four spots in all, and between the spots is a 
smaller white elevated dot, and another similar dot below thr loAver spots. 
From each of these elevated spots and dots white bristles of difFerent lengths 
stand out in all directions. 

Two of these worms which I enclosed in a breeding cage had 
changed to pupee on the 25th of June, one suspending itself from 
the gauze top of the cage, and hanging obliquely downwards, the 
other attaching itself to the glass side of the cage, having first 
spun several short threads here and there upon the surface of the 
glass as if to ascertain whether they Avould adhere to it, and then 
making a small patch of numerous threads, into which to insert 
the minute hooks at its tail, whereby to suspend itself. The 
relics of its larva skin, forming a little lump of fine hairs, remained 
adhering to the glass, downwards and to one side of the spot 
where the pupa was attached, being as far oif as the length of the 
insect enabled it to reach. After releasing itself from this skin 
the pupa had turned to the opposite side, and thus remained 
hanging stiffly downwards and outwards from the surface of the 
glass, resembling the dead fragment of a little scraggy twig. It 
is of a slender conical form obliquely truncated at the head, and 
has two long compressed horns placed side by side and jutting 
upwards from the middle of its back. Numerous smaller pro- 
jecting points and ridges diversify its surface, a particular de- 
scription of which would occupy a page or two. I therefore limit 
myself to a recital merely of some of its most prominent marks. 

The chrysalis is about 0.35 long and 0.08 in diameter. About the mouth 
and head are divers raised lines and projecting angular points. The obliquely 
truncated face is convex or gibbous in the middle, and here commence two 
elevated carina or sharp edged ridges which extend backwards nearly parallel 
with each other to the middle of the back, where they shoot upwards into the 
compressed horns already spoken of. Their length is equal to half the di- 
ameter of the body. Viewed laterally their outline is egg-shaped, with the 
edges irregularly toothed and the apex drawn out into a long sharp thorn- 
like point. Forward of these horns the raised lines are more elevated in the 
middle of each segment, where they present two small tooth-like spines, the 
anterior one larger, and also two short diverging white bristles which are club 
shaped or enlarged towards their tips. And on the five abdominal segments next 
back of the horns and in a line with them is a row of spines, one on each side of 
each segment near its middle, which spines are inclined forward, and each has a 



GRAPE VINE. LEAVES — GARTERED PLUME. CHRYSALIS. 141 

slight tooth upon its posterior face, and two short diverging club-shaped white 
bristles. Lower down upon the sides is a row of slight oblong elevations, one 
on each segment, below which the breathing pores form a row of minute round 
points, and below these an obtuse angular edge divides the lateral from the 
under side. On the under side are four longitudinal rows of short white club- 
shaped bristles, inclined backwards, two bristles at each point. Between the 
two inner rows of these bristles are two rows of small, elevated, wart-like 
pimples, which are the scars left by the pro-legs of the larva. The legs, an- 
tennas and wings are enclosed apparently in a common sheath, the forked veins 
of these last forming faint elevated lines upon the smooth outer part of the 
sheath. The crysalis varies in color. One of the specimens was bright pale 
green with a deeper green stripe along the middle of the back, and the long 
horns and a spot on the crown of the head dull brownish yellow. The other 
was pale brownish yellow throughout, with a black stripe along its middle. 

These insects remained at rest in their pupa state only six and 
eight days when they hatched moths, pertainimg to the genus 
Pterophorus in the family Alucitid.e and the order Lepidoptera. 
The moths of this family are distinguished from all others by 
having their wings singularly cleft into two, three or more long 
narrow lobes, whence they were termed Fissipennes or Split- 
winged moths by Latreille. The lobes are densely ciliated with 
fine hairs, which, along their inner margins are very long. They 
thus resemble the feathers of a bird, and have hence in English 
received the name of Plumes. Their legs are long and slender, 
and are furnished with long robust spines, of which there is a 
single one at the tip of the forward shanks, and a pair at the 
tip of the middle shanks, whilst the hind ones have a pair at 
their tips and another near the middle. 

The names of all the species belonging to this family are com- 
pounds ending with the word dactylus, meaning a finger; Lin- 
nseus at first, when but a half a dozen species were known to him 
(Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758), having supposed they 
could all be distinguished merely by the number of the branch- 
es of their wings, he hence numbered them two-fingered, five- 
fingered, &c; and at a later period, when two or more species 
were discovered which were alike in the number of their lobes, 
he named these wing-fingered, square-fingered, &c. The species 
of which we are speaking, at each pair of spines, has tufts 
of scales of a tawny yellow color surrounding its hind legs 



142 GRAPE-VINE. LEAVES — GARTERED PLUME. MOTH. 

like a garter, and as its wings are also banded, the name perisceli- 
dactylus or Gartered Plume, may appropriately be given to it. 

Like other species of this family, this moth is very agile, rapid, 
and impetuous in its motions, when disturbed, bounding from 
side to side of the cage in which it is confined, almost with the 
velocity of lightning, for a moment, and then resting, clinging 
with its four anterior feet to the top of the cage, its wings spread 
and its body hanging perpendicularly downwards and swinging 
to and fro with the wind, with its long hind legs extended as if to 
protect the sides of the abdomen, and the feet nearly in contact 
below its tip. It is of a tawny yellow color, the fore wings with 
three white spots and beyond these two white bands, the fringe 
white with a blackish spat on the middle and another on the 
apex oi the inner margin. 

This moth measures 0.35 to the tip of its abdomen, and its wings expand 
0.85. Its antennae are 0.20 long, black, with a row of small white spots on 
each side running their whole length. The palpi which curve upwards in front 
of the head to a level with its crown, resembling two little horns, are tawny 
brown or rust-colored in front, their bases whitish. The thorax is tawny yel- 
low, white at its base. The three first segments of the abdomen have a 
white spot at their bases and the third has two diverging white stripes which 
reach its apex. The fourth segment is without spots and of a darker color, its 
apex blackish. The remaining segments have two parallel white stripes which 
are faint or obsolete on the base of each segment. Beneath, the abdomen is 
snowy white with two tawny yellow stripes, or tawny yellow with three 
rows of large white spots confluent into ■ stripes at the base. Legs white; 
haunches with a tawny yellow stripe on their outer side; four anterior legs 
with black stripes; middle shanks with a projecting spine-like tuft of tawny 
yellow scales above their middle, and encircled at tip by a darker colored tuft; 
hind shanks with a similar tuft at each pair of spines; spines black beneath 
and at base, those of the hind shanks black at their tips also. Feet white, 
apical joints of the four anterior ones, and a band on the apex of each of the 
other joints tawny-yellow. Fore wings bifid, the cleft reaching almost to their 
middle, tawny-yellow, with two oblique white bands crossing both their forks, 
the space between these bands often rusty brown; a transverse white spot at 
the commencement of the cleft, edged on its inner side with rusty brown; two 
white spots inside of this, the first towards the outer the second upon the inner 
margin. Fringe white with a blackish spot on the middle and a larger one at 
the apex of the inner margin. The inner lobe of the wing between the black 
spot and its tip notched in the form of a semicircle, with a blackish line upon 
the base of the fringe in this notch. Hind wings trifid, the anterior cleft reach- 
ing their middle, the posterior one extending to the base; rusty brown, tawny 
yellow at base; hind lobe slender, white and fringed with white with a broad 
blackish band near its tip. 



GRAPE-VINE. LEAVES — GARTERED PLUME. REMEDIES. 143 

As this insect completes its transformations so early in the sea- 
son, it is quite probable there are two generations of it annually, 
the moths which come out the first of July laying their eggs for 
another brood of worms at a later period, when the foliage upon 
the vines will be so dense that they will be much less liable to be 
noticed. Whether this second generation completes its trans- 
formations and the winged moth appears in autumn, and deposits 
its eggs to be hatched the following spring, or whether it only 
reaches its pupa state, and thus remains through the winter, 
future observations must determine. The former, however, ap- 
pears most probable. 

When these worms are neglected and are permitted to feast 
unharmed upon the foliage of the grape vine, unless they are kept 
in check by their natural enemies, they will be liable to appear 
in increased numbers, with each succeeding generation. To pre- 
vent them from becoming so multiplied as to injure the vines, 
they should be carefully sought for in the fore part and middle 
of the month of June. Wherever one or two leaves are found 
drawn together by cob-web like threads, forming a lurking place 
for one of these worms, they should be picked off, gently, that the 
worm may not be alarmed and escape from his retreat, and thrown 
into the fire, or crushed beneath the foot. The pupa probably 
attaches itself to the trellis work of the arbor, most commonly, 
during the few days that this stage of its life continues, and if 
any of these happen to be seen, they also should be crushed, or 
cut asunder with a knife. 

This, I believe, is the first American species of this family of 
moths that has ever been described. In connection with it, there- 
fore, a few other species pertaining to the same genus may be 
briefly noticed. The genus Pterophorus embraces those species of 
Alucitidje which have the fore wings divided into two and the 
hind wings into three lobes. The two first of the following spe- 
cies have several points of resemblance to the Gartered Plume, 
but are much darker colored, and are otherwise clearly distinct 
from it. 

The Lobe-winged Plume (Pterophorus lobidactylus') is of a blackish 
color. Its fore wings are ash gray towards their bases, freckled with tawny 



144 GRAPE-VINE. LEAVES SPECIES OF PLUME-MOTHS. 

brown atoms; towards their tips brownish black. An oblique tawny yellow 
band ending in white on the outer margin extends across the outer lobe near 
its base, and on the apex of the outer margin is a white stripe. The fringe 
along their inner margin is blackish, with a few white hairs forming a small 
spot at its apex, another white spot forward of it, a larger one towards the 
base of the inner lobe, and a small one forward of the base of this lobe. The 
hind wings and their fringes are blackish brown, and the inner lobe near the 
middle of its inner side sends out some coal black scales forming a spot of 
this color in the fringe, with a faint ash gray spot immediately forward of it. 
Beneath, the wings are blackish brown and the anterior pair have three equi- 
distant white streaks on the outer margin, the first rather forward of the 
middle of the last on the apex; the outer lobe of the hind wings has a white 
spot near its tip, the inner lobe has a slight white spot on its apex and another 
on the middle of its inner margin. The antennas are black with white rings, 
and on their under sides ash grey. The abdomen has white stripes on its un- 
der side. The legs are striped alternately with black and white and are banded 
with a broom-like tuft of black scales at each pair of spines. The spines are 
white, their bases, under sides, and also the tips of those on the middle shanks, 
black. The feet are white with a black band on the apex of each joint, and 
the hrst joint of the two anterior pairs has a black stripe on its outer side. 
The wings when spread measure 0.80 from tip to tip. Taken the last of June 
on bushes in meadows. 

The Slender-lobed Plume (P. tenuidocylus*) is of a dark tawny brown 
color somewhat tinged with coppery red, and on the fore wings has a white 
spot towards the base of each lobe, and often on the outer lobe has a transverse 
white streak between the spot and the apex; their fringe is whitish, with a 
black spot in the middle and larger one at the apex of the inner margin. The 
hind wings are of the same color, their lobes very slender, the inner one thread- 
like, white, its fringes white with a broad black band near the tip. The legs 
are white, striped with black, the feet and hind shanks with black bands. 
The antennas are white with a slender black ring to each joint. The abdomen 
is blackish, and at base on the under side silvery white. The wings when ex- 
tended measure 0.60 across. This species is common upon brakes and other 
weeds growing in swamps in the middle of July. 

The Ashy Plume ( P. cincridactylus') is ash grey throughout, of a darker tint 
upon the breast. The fore wings are sprinkled with blackish brown atoms, 
chiefly towards the inner margin and the base. The antennas have a pale brown 
ring on each joint, which is widely interrupted on the under side. The feet 
and shanks are whitish and the hind shanks have a faint brownish band at 
tip and another on the middle. The expanded wings measure 0.75. Taken 
the fore part of July, in yards around dwellings. 

The Brown-bordered Plume (P. marginidactylus) is tawny brown, the 
fore wings varied with white cloud-like spots, whereof there is one on the 
outer margin towards the tip and two on the inner margin, the apical and 
outer margins and a cloud-like central space extending from the cleft inwards 
are of a dark brown color; fringe whitish, brown at the outer and inner apical 
angles, and a small brown spot beyond the middle of the inner margin; under 
side and hind wings pale tawny brown ; legs white, thighs, anterior shanks 



GRAPE-VINE. LEAVES SPECIES OF PLUME-MOTHS. 145 

and apical third of the hind shanks brownish on their outer sides. Wings ex- 
pand one inch. Occurs the latter part of June, on weeds along the borders of 
meadows. 

The Cloudy Plume (P. nebulcedactylus) is milk white, the fore wings 
clouded with pale tawny brown which color occupies the basal portion and 
forms two broad bands towards the apex, the last one often faint and not 
perceptible on the inner lobe; hind wings and their fringe and under side of 
both pairs of the same pale tawny brown color; abdomen white, sides and 
stripe on the middle of the back pale tawny brown ; legs white. Wings expand 
one inch. The tawny marks on the fore wings are often obscure in old indi- 
viduals and sometimes wholly obliterated; still the species may be discrimi- 
nated by the pale tawny color of the hind wings and the under surface of the 
fore one contrasting with the whiteness of their upper surface. It is our most 
common species, occurring from the middle of June till the middle of July, in 
yards around dwellings, frequently entering opened windows in the evening, 
being attracted by the light of the lamps. 

The Freckled Plume (P. ruBvosidactylus). Milk white, the fore wings 
sprinkled with black atoms, which form a black spot at the commencement of 
■the cleft and a dot half way from this to the base; a tawny brown spot on the 
outer margin near the tip; fringes, under side, hind wings and their fringes 
ashy brown. Wings expand 0.90. Appears towards the middle of August, in 
rthe same situation as the preceding. 

The Chalky Plume (P. cretidaetylus) is white, tinged with tawny yellow, 
and has a small brownish black spot on the fere wings at the cleft and a brown 
streak on the outer margin slightly beyond the black spot, with traces of a 
brown oblique band from the one to the other; legs white, four anterior 
shanks banded each with a broom-like tuft of scales of a pale tawny yellow 
color at tip and another upon the middle. Expands one inch. Taken the 
middle of July, in forests. 



{Assem. No. 215.J 10 



INFESTING INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES. 



THE HICKORY. 

AFFECTING THE TRUNK AND LIMBS. 

Boring large holes, lengthwise in the heart-wood; a long, soft, whitish,, 
flattened grub. 

The Tiger Cerambyx. Monohammus tigrinus, De Geer. M. tomen- 
tosus, Zeigler. 

The insect which we are now about to consider is one of the 
largest and finest of our American insects pertaining to the family 
Cerambycim: or Long-horned beetles. Hitherto it has not been 
known in what kind of wood the larva of this species occurred. 
Indeed, the insect itself is rarely met with in collections, having 
been captured only in the State of Pennsylvania. But from the 
number of its burrows, which I find in almost every hickory and 
walnut tree which I have had an opportunity of examining, I am 
impressed with the belief that this is a much more common insect 
than has been hitherto supposed, and now that the trees which it 
frequents are known, it will probably be readily found, over a 
considerable extent of our country. 

Some hickories and bitter walnuts which were split for fuel at 
my door, gave me opportunities for observing the extensive exca- 
vations made by this borer and by the ants next to be noticed, 
which take up their residence in the burrows which this worm 
forms. The trees alluded to had stood solitary in the open fields, 
a situation in which all trees are much more liable to be infested 
with insects than when growing together in forests. And though 
to external appearance, these trees were sound and healthy, they 



HICKORY. TRUNK TIGER CERAMBYX. ITS BURROW 



141 



nad for many years advanced but little in size, and some of their 
limbs were annually perishing and falling to the ground. And 
in every instance where a tree was infested at all, it was badly 
infested; and the wood of the hickory which is so much esteemed, 
and for particular uses is so valuable in consequence of its tough- 
ness and elasticity, when once attacked by these borers and the 
ants which succeed them, becomes so extensively perforated and 
mined as to be worthless for anything except fuel. 

The burrow of this worm is excavated in the solid heart wood 
of our American hickories and walnuts, and is almost two feet in 
length. It runs longitudinally upwards, in- 
creasing in diameter as the worm has increased 
in size. The annexed cut gives a view of por- 
tions of two of these burrows much reduced in 
size. The hole which the worm bores is some- 
what flatfish, or more wide than high, and in its 
largest part it is nearly half an inch in width, 
and considerably over a quarter of an inch in 
depth. At its upper extremity it turns obliquely 
outwards through the sap-wood to the bark. 
All the lower part of this gallery is filled with 
a fine powder, of a tan color, the castings of the worm ; and some 
two or three inches below its upper end, in place of these fine 
castings, it is stuffed for a distance of an inch and a half, or more, 
with a coarser material, namely, short fibres of wood, which are 
bent and packed together commonly in a perfectly regular man- 
ner. Above these is another layer of the finer castings, the upper 
end only of the burrow being vacant. And I presume this borer, 
like that of the apple tree, having completed its burrow and 
opened it out to the bark, retires backwards a short distance and 
stuffs the upper end of the cavity with its castings, having the 
castings above it and the cushion of coarser woody fibres imme- 
diately below it during its inactive larva and its pupa state — the 
coarser fibres being placed there as a bed for the pupa to lie 
upon — by their elasticity yielding to any elongation or other mo- 
tion of the slumbering insect, which the fine castings would 
become too compact and solid, by their settling together, to per- 




148 HICKORY. TRUNK TIGER CERAMBYX. ITS BURROW. 

mit. And when the beetle hatches from its pupa, it tears awsy 
the fine powder above it, as it crawls forward, which powder 
thus falls down upon the cushion of woody fibres, where we 
meet with it in the evacuated cells — and breaking through the 
bark, it emerges from the tree. 

What is here described seems to be the common habit of most 
kinds of our timber borers. They complete their burrow by 
gnawing a passage out to the bark, and then retire backwards a 
short distance and stuff this upper extremity of the burrow with 
their castings, that birds, especially the woodpecker, may not be 
able to detect, by its hollowness, the hole which they have here 
formed under the bark. But this artifice is not always successful. 
Mr. P. Eeid informs me that he once observed in the trunk of a 
sapling, a funnel shaped opening which had been dug by a wood- 
pecker, some two inches in depth, at the bottom of which, incased 
in the wood, was the shell-like relics of a pupa which the bird 
had devoured, and below was the track by which the worm had 
come upwards in the wood to this point. At first he was exces- 
sively puzzled to account for this phenomenon — by what instinct 
or other faculty it was possible for a bird to discover a worm 
which was buried two inches deep in the wood, so as to be able 
to bore directly inwards to the exact point where it was lying — 
until it occurred to him that the worm had itself made an open- 
ing outwards to the bark, by which to effect its escape after its 
changes were completed, and had then retreated backwards into- 
the wood again; and the woodpecker by tapping upon the bark 
had ascertained that there was a cavity beneath, and immediately 
thereupon opened and enlarged this cavity sufficiently to enable 
him to reach the insect. What curious habits, what astonishing 
instances of foresight and intelligence do we daily meet with in 
studying the works of nature, all concurring to show that these 
myriads of creatures, each furnished with its peculiar organs, 
and endowed with such marvellous faculties and instincts, could 
have been formed no otherwise than by a Creator who is infinite 
in his attributes. 




HICKORY. TRUNK TIGER CERAMBYX. THE LARVA. 149 

Except in those cases where its burrow is taken possession of 
by ants, the exterior opening which is made 
by this beetle when it crawls out from the 
tree, soon closes up, leaving a round, ragged 
scar upon the smooth bark of the bitter wal- 
nut and the limbs of the shag-bark walnut, 
which is visible for many years afterwards. 
Two of these scars are represented in the 
annexed cut. By the occurrence of these 
scars upon the bark we may be able to ascer- 
tain what trees have been infested by these 

and other borers, and will consequently have the wood perforated 

with holes and unfit for any valuable use. 

Neither in Dr. Ratzeburg's celebrated work upon forest insects 
nor any other author which I have at hand do I find any account 
of the larvae of the important genus of wood-boring beetles to 
which this species pertains. I therefore give a more full and 
particular description of it. 

The Larva when full grown is somewhat over an inch in length and a quar- 
ter of an inch in diameter across the second or broadest segment. It is a soft 
smooth and slightly shining worm of a cream yellow color and a cylindrical 
form, slightly bulged and broader at the thorax, and is divided into 
thirteen segments by strongly impressed transverse lines, the sutures of 
the abdominal segments being more wide than those of the thorax. The 
jjM nine breathing pores upon each side form elliptical pale yellow spots 
Qpf with a dark chesnut colored line in the centre of each; the first pore is 
situated in the suture at the base of the second segment, the others are 
near the middle of the fifth and each of the following segments. A faint 
darker stripe extends along the middle of the back and is interrupted at 
the sutures, and upon the top of each segment except the three first and two 
last is a transverse oval space composed of somewhat irregular rows of small 
elevated points, one row forming a ring upon the outer margin of the oval 
space and one or two other rows running transversely across its disk. Beneath, 
upon these same segments is a similar oval space, but the elevated points are 
here rather more confused and indistinct. The second segment is longest and 
the two next are shorter than any of the following ones. The second segment 
upon its upper side is flat and inclines obliquely downwards and forwards; it 
is clothed with fine brown hairs, and similar hairs are scattered alon" the sides 
of the body ; across its middle is an impressed transverse line forming the arc of 
a large circle, the ends of which line are turned backwards and are continued 
to the basal margin by a small semicircular impressed line. The anterior part 
of this segment is of a pale tawny color, with numerous minute punctures; its 
basal part has coarser punctures and short impressed longitudinal lines which 



150 HICKORY. TRUNK — TIGER CERAMBYX. THE BEETLE. 

are more or less confluent with each other. The head is retractile within and 
.but half as broad as the second segment, and is coal black except at its base, 
the black being edged posteriorly with chesnut brown. The upper lip or labrum 
is transverse oval, rather broader towards its base, honey yellow, and covered 
with short yellow hairs which incline forwards. The upper jaws or mandibles 
are robust, with an angular obtuse tooth-like projection near the middle of their 
inner sides, their tips being simple and rather blunt. The antenna; are minute 
conical two-jointed points projecting outwards at the base of the mandibles and 
distant from the base of the head. The feelers are thrice the size of the antennae, 
conical, three-jointed and of a chesnut brown color; the lobe of the lower jaws 
pr maxilla3 projects at the inner base of the feelers and is more than half their 
length and clothed with short dense pubescence. The feelers of the lower lip 
or the labial palpi are minute but perceptible. The throat is whitish, the suture 
at the base of the oral organs black edged posteriorly with chestnut brown. The 
apical segment of the body is divided into two parts by a transverse impressed 
line, and might, as in many other larvae, be counted as two segments, the last 
one being much more narrow and short in this insect. 

, The celebrated Swedish entomologist, Baron De Geer, long ago 
published a description and k figure of this beetle in the fifth volume 
of his Memoires on Insects, page 113, under the name of Cerambyx 
tigrinus, or the Tiger Cerambyx, a name suggested perhaps from 
its size and colors. It has lately been described by Rev. IX 
Zeigler, and by Prof. Haldeman, under the name of Monokammus 
tomentosus, or the Wooly Cerambyx, which name, however, must 
give place to that which was previously bestowed. Some of the 
descriptions that have been published have evidently been drawn 
from imperfect specimens, denuded of their pubescence in places. 

The medium length of this beetle is about one inch, though, like most other 
Long horned beetles the two sexes differ much in size, the males being often 
only 0.85, whilst the females are 1.15. The ground color is brown, sometimes 
tinged with reddish or on the elytra with pale yellow; and the surface is 
covered beneath and for the most part above with fine short appressed hairs of 
an ashy or a tawny-yellowish white color. The head is punctured, at least, 
on its summit, and has an impressed line in its middle. The mouth is of a 
honey-yellow color above and beneath, the upper lip being hairy and blackish 
except at its anterior edge, and the mandibles are deep black, their bases 
brown. In the notch of the eyes is an elevation on which the antennae are in- 
serted. These are rather shorter than the body, eleven-jointed, the second 
joint very short and more broad than long; the basal joint is double the thick- 
ness and but half the length of the third joint, which, with those that succeed 
it are about equal in length and gradually diminish in thickness. The two 
basal joints are brown, all the others whitish or pale yellow and stained with 
brown at their tips. The thorax is everywhere covered with short appressed 
hairs, which are more dense beneath, and has on each side in the middle, a 
conical erect spine rounded at its apex. The scutel is brown, its apical half 
covered with whitish or light yellow hairs. The elytra are covered with simi- 



HICKORY. TRUNK WALNUT ANT. ITS BURROW. 151 

lar appressed hairs on the middle and posterior parts, leaving a broad brown 
band behind the middle (which is interrupted at the suture and sometimes 
does not attain the outer margin), and at the base a similarly colored band, 
which, posteriorly, is gradually shaded and without any definite edge. The 
anterior half of the elytra is punctured, the punctures black and becoming 
more dense and coarse towards and at the base, where they open backwards 
and have their anterior edges elevated into little callous points, rendering the 
surface rough and shagreened, each puncture yielding a short black bristle. 
The hooks of the feet are pale yellow. 



Mining long narrow passages in the trunk and limbs, and staining the 
wood light brown; a longish, black, shining ant, its abdomen with 
equidistant transverse rows of fine bristles, two rows upon each seg- 
ment. 

The Walnut Ant. Formica Carj/oe, 
The fact is reported in the Albany Cultivator (1853, page 116) 
by C. B. Brown, of Damascus, Pa., that a house that was overrun 
with ants had been rid of this pest by placing a piece of shag- 
bark hickory wood upon a shelf in the pantry where these ver- 
min appeared to be the thickest. The ants gathered upon this 
billet of wood in the course of an hour or two in such numbers 
as literally to cover it, whereupon they were brushed and shaken 
off into the fire, and the stick was replaced to collect another 
swarm; and in this mode the house was soon entirely cleared oi 
them. No reason is assigned for the ants being thus attracted by 
this wood, but there can be no doubt that the sweet syrup-like 
sap of the hickory was more congenial to their taste than any 
other food within their reach, and was the cause of their collect- 
ing together in the manner stated. And it is quite probable that 
a recently cut piece of hickory wood may prove in other cases 
one ol the best traps for these pests, which occasionally become 
quite an annoyance in our dwellings. Hickory and walnut trees 
whilst growing are also a favorite resort of these insects, and we 
have one American species which appears to be a constant resi- 
dent upon them, to the great injury of the trees. In the winter 
season I have repeatedly met with little clusters of this ant, when 
searching for insects under the loose scales of bark of the hickory, 
and on coming recently to work up some of these trees for foe], 
these same ants were found in the wood, occupying most of the 
galleries which the tiger cerambyx had bored therein, which gal- 



152 HICKORY. TRUNK — WALNUT ANT. ITS BURROW. 

leries they had extended and connected together by their own 
mining labors. These passages were extended everywhere through 
the wood of the trunk and branches, often running out even into 
the small limbs less than three inches in diameter. 

Our other wood-eating or carpenter ants {Formica Pcnnsylvanica 
lig?iiperda i fyc.) seem to reside only in the dead wood of the in- 
terior of trees and in the timbers of our buildings, but this species 
is of a more pernicious character, attacking the sound wood of 
living trees. Its burrows are long narrow passages, never widen- 
ed into those spacious apartments which our other carpenter ants 
excavate. Sometimes portions of dead wood in the heart of the 
tree and at its butt will be met with, mined in a different manner,, 
large chambers and galleries being excavated which are separated 
by partitions no thicker than pasteboard, and not unfrequently 
a few dead individuals of the Pennsylvania ant, which is a larger 
species, may be found lying in these galleries, showing that these 
apartments were constructed by them and not by the walnut 
ant. And it appears to be a common occurrence for a colony of 
the Pennsylvania ants to establish themselves in the dead wood 
of the walnut, and to be afterwards so encroached upon by the 
more numerous and thriving colony of the walnut ants that they 
abandon or are driven from the tree, for I have never met with 
any living individuals of this species in these cavities, which had 
manifestly at some previous period been excavated by them. 

It has been remarked of one of the European ants {Formica 
fuliginosa) that the sides of its burrows are always of a black 
color, and our American ant has a similar habit. It paints the walls 
of its rooms, as we may say, of a butternut or snuff brown color. 
Huber could not satisfy himself whether the black color of the 
wood occupied by the European ant alluded to was caused by its 
being exposed to the air, by some vapor emanating from the 
bodies of the ants, or by its being acted upon and decomposed by 
the formic acid which ants secrete. To us it appears that the 
last of these is probably the cause, for with our species this dis- 
coloration is not confined to the surface of the burrow, but pene- 
trates through the wood surrounding it on all sides, to the dis- 



HICKORY. TRUNK WALNUT ANT. TICKS UPON. 153 

tance of an inch or more. This discoloration will be observed in 
every part of the trunk and limbs of the walnut tree, wherever 
the burrows of these ants occur. And it seems quite probable 
that the ant by thus saturating the wood with acid, hastens its 
decay, in order to adapt it for being more easily mined. If we 
are correct in this supposition, this curious faculty which our 
walnut ant possesses of softening the wood in order that it may 
be able to gnaw and excavate it more readily, renders this species 
much more injurious than it otherwise would be. 

It is commonly stated of the insects of this family that males 
and females are developed only in the summer, and that it is the 
neuters alone that are to be found at other seasons of the year; 
but of this species I meet with all three of the sexes, in a torpid 
state in their burrows in the winter season. Those parts of the 
burrows where the ants were present had their walls quite wet, 
probably from the perspiration given off from their bodies. 
And nestling in this wet surface a few larvse of the ants were 
also met with. 

These larvx were very small footless grubs, measuring from 0.03 to 0.08 in 
length, the largest individuals being about 0.03 in diameter. They are of a 
cylindrical form, but always lie with the body doubled together in the form of 
the letter U, or in the larger individuals with the head bent downwards against 
the breast. They are of a white color, shining and semipellucid, with a black- 
ish cloud in the center of the body from alimentary matter in the viscera. 
The surface is covered with numerous shortish white hairs, and the segments 
are marked by transverse impressed lines, which are much more obvious in 
the large than in the small individuals. No projecting jaws can be discerned 
at the mouth. 

Upon the wet surface of the walls of the cavities occupied by 
these ants, extremely minute ticks may also be met with, numer- 
ous in particular places, and of a pale red color, bearing some re- 
semblance to a minute Coccinella or Lady-bird. These, it is 
probable, are parasites living upon the ants. They are similar in 
their form, texture, &c, to the common Beetle-tick (Gamasus 
coleoptratorura, Lin.), but the hard shining plate covering their 
back consists of one piece only. They consequently pertain to 
the genus Unopoda of Latrielle, and the species may appropriately 
be named Formica, or the Ant-tick. Of the species fio-ured in 
Baron Walckenaer's Atlas of Apterous Insects, it bears the closest 



154 HICKORY. TRUNK WALNUT ANT DESCRIBED. 

resemblance to that of Unopodo vegetans (PI. 34, fig. 6), a species 
which is quite common upon several of our American beetles. 

The An"t-tick measures from 0.010 to 0.015. It is of a cherry red color, 
younger individuals being translucent and pale reddish; it is shining, with 
translucent legs clothed with short hairs. It is of a circular form, very slightly 
longer than wide, flattened, and commonly presents a translucent margin. 
The legs arc shortish, taper gradually, and the feet are not half the thickness 
of the shanks. The anterior legs have not the slender feet of the three other 
pairs, but are antennaj-like, and have at their tips several short coarsish hairs 
and a single bristle slightly longer than these hairs. The palpi or feelers rarely 
project bej^ond the anterior margin, and their tips are also clothed with short 
hairs. 

This ant appears to be a distinct species from those which have 
been heretofore described, and I therefore propose for it a name 
in allusion to the situation in which it occurs. It may be distin- 
guished by the segments of its abdomen being glabrous and 
polished at their bases and minutely punctured on their posterior 
half, with two transverse rows of fine erect bristles, one in the mid- 
dle the other at the tip of each segment. The Silky ant (Formica 
subsericea) described by Mr. Say in the Boston Journal of Natural 
History (vol. i, p. 289), is closely related to this species, but is 
destitute of*punctures on the abdominal segments. 

The mai.es of this species measure 0.30 to the tip of the abdomen which is 
about 0.08 in diameter, 0.32 to the tip of the closed wings, and the wings spread 
0.45. They are black and shining. The head is nearly globular, and there 
are, as usual in this sex, three distinct ocelli or little eyes upon the crown, and 
from the anterior one of these a fine impressed line runs forward to the face. 
The face is rough and unequal, with impressed punctures, from each of which 
arises a short hair. The tips of the jaws are tinged with brown; the upper 
lip is blackish-brown or sometimes cinnamon-yellow; the feelers are long 
slender and thread-like, and are clothed with fine short hairs; the antennae are 
long and slender, of equal thickness, their tips with an ash grey reflection. 
The thorax is slightly broader than the head, oval, smooth, and without 
punctures or hairs. The abdomen is somewhat wider than the thorax, and 
composed of seven segments, of which the basal one is contracted as usual, form- 
ing a slender pedicel, with an erect hump or scale on the middle of its upper 
side, which, viewed laterally, is of a wedge-shaped form, short and thick, and 
bears a few short hairs; its summit is cut off transversely and is distinctly 
notched in its middle. The remaining segments form a regular oval mass, rounded 
at base pointed at tip. The basal third or half of each segment is glabrous 
and shining, the remainder is minutely punctulated and clothed with 
fine short hairs, scarcely perceptible, whilst on each segment are two trans- 
verse rows of fine bristles which are sometimes interrupted along the mid- 
dle of the back, one row on the posterior margin, the other near the 
middle, these bristles arising from rows of equidistant punctures. At the tip 



HICKORY. LIMBS HICKORY-GALL APHIS 155 

protrude three short thread-like processes, of which the outer ones are slightly 
longer. The feet are long, slender, and tinged more or less with brownish 
towards their tips. The single spur at the tip of each of the shanks is of a pale 
yellow color. The wings arc transparent and glassy but not clear, the surface 
being minutely granular as usual in this genus and strongly iridescent. Their 
veins are honey-yellow and have a waxj r appearance; those which traverse the 
posterior portion of the wings are hyaline and colorless, and become abortive at 
their tips in the margin. 

The females differ from the males in being of a much larger size, measuring 
almost half an inch to the tips of the wings, which, when spread, arc three- 
fourths of an inch across. The head approaches to a square form, and is broad- 
er than the thorax; the upper jaws are more robust, and of a dark reddish 
brown color; both the head and thorax are minutely punctured and pubescent; 
the abdomen is proportionally larger and less narrowed towards each extremi- 
ty, is but six-jointed, and has no projecting processes at its tip, the scale on 
the peduncle at its base is very slightly and sometimes not at all notched, and 
the two transverse rows of short bristles on each segment are much more dis- 
tinct; the feet and sometimes the shanks are of a dark reddish brown color; 
and in the wings the vein which bounds the inner side of the cubital cell arises 
outside of the middle of the transverse medial vein, instead of in the middle, 
which is the point where it originates in the males. Some females are met 
with which have gnawed off their wings and cast them away, this being a com- 
mon habit among ants of this sex. These wingless females may be distinguished 
from the largest sized workers by being of a still larger size, and the cicatrices 
of the cast off wings are very obvious on the sides of the thorax. 

The neuters or workers are always destitute of wings, and are generally 
smaller than the males, varying in length from 0.20 to 0.33. In all other re- 
spects they resemble the females, except that they have no ocelli and a very 
narrow thorax plainly divided into three segments by impressed sutures. The 
scale of the abdominal pedicel is almost circular, being a little higher than it is 
wide, and is regulaly rounded above, without being cut off as in the female, or 
notched as in the male; it is convex on both sides, but with a slight concavity 
in the middle of its posterior face. 

The following varieties may be found among these ants : 

a. Female. Scale of the abdominal pedicel not at all notched. 

6. Female. Middle transverse sutures of the abdomen strongly constricted. 

c. Female. Middle sutures of the abdomen pale, forming a transverse band. 

d. Neuter. Basal suture of the abdomen pale yellowish brown. 

e. Neuter. Two basal sutures of the abdomen pale yellowish brown. 

/. Neuter. Antennae and legs dark reddish brown, instead of black. These 
are probably young individuals, recently hatched. 



Upon the twigs and leaf-stalks hollow green bullet-like galls of a leathery 
texture, their inner surface covered with minute white and yellow 
lice; the gall afterwards turning black, opening and becoming cup- 
shaped. 

The Hickory-gall Aphis. Pemphigus Carymcaulis. 

A disease of the young limbs of the hickory, which will remind 
one of the well known black knots upon the cherry, is of such 



156 HICKORY. LIMBS HICKORY-GALL APHIS. 

frequent occurrence that it has probably been observed by many 
of my readers. About fifteen years ago I first noticed a tree upon 
my farm which was severely affected by this disease, and which 
has continued to suffer from it annually down to the present time. 
Within two rods of this tree are two others which have remained 
wholly unaffected, and have regularly produced a fair yield of 
fruit, whilst not a single nut has been matured upon the diseased 
tree. The excrescences upon the limbs at the time of gathering 
the fruit in autumn, which was the only time I had heretofore 
noticed them, are black, ragged, leathery and cup-shaped, having 
a marked resemblance to some of the species of fungi of the genera 
Peziza, Cenangium, and their kindred. But whether they really 
were of a vegetable nature or were the work of insects I was un- 
able to determine from their appearance at that period of the year. 
Mr. T. B. Ashton having recently informed me that he had al- 
ways met with the Elegant weevil (Conotrachelus elcgans Say), 
a species most nearly rejated to the Plum weevil (C. Nenuphar 
Herbst), exclusively upon these diseased hickory trees, although 
I had myself captured it upon butternut, hazlenut and other foli- 
age, I resolved the present year to investigate these excrescences 
at the commencement of their growth, and ascertain their cause, 
not knowing but it might throw some light upon the mooted 
origin of the black knots upon the plum and cherry. I have been 
successful in this examination, and have ascertained that although 
these excrescences are of insect origin, the weevil alluded to has 
no direct connection with them, and if it really is more common 
upon these diseased walnut trees than elsewhere, as Mr. Ashton's 
observations indicate, it is only because, like many other insects, 
it prefers diseased and weakened vegetation to that which is 
healthy and of rank vigorous growth. 

The insect which forms these excrescences is a female plant- 
louse, and her proceedings and the effect which they produce is 
truly wonderful. Hatching probably from eggs that were laid 
the preceding autumn, each individual, early in the season, sta- 
tions herself at a particular spot, either upon the mid vein of one 
of the leaflets, upon the leaf-stalk, or still further down, upon the 
green succulent twig which is the growth of the present year. 



HICKORY. LIMBS HICKORY-GALL APHIS. 157 

This last is most frequently the situation which she prefers. Punc- 
g turing the part with her beak she causes a profusion of sap to 
flow from the wound. This evaporating and coagulating becomes 
organized vegetable matter, which gradually grows upward into 
a wall around her, and as she continues to puncture it its growth 
continues until it finally closes together over her, and shuts her 
into a cavity having only sufficient room for her to turn freely 
around in it. Yet within this cell in which she is thus closely im- 
prisoned, she is to give birth to several hundreds of young. To 
make the cavity sufficiently roomy for them she continues to 
puncture its walls upon every side, thus causing them to expand. 
Her young also, as soon as they are born, fix themselves to the 
inner surface of the gall, inserting their beaks therein to feed 
upon the vegetable juices, thus adding to the irritation and expe- 
diting the growth of their domicil. Thus as they increase in 
number and size the gall increases, so as to furnish the amount 
of room which each requires, without any vacant space between, 
the whole surface being covered with these young lice. 

It is thus that these excrescences are produced. They are of a 
globular form and of different sizes, from that of a pea to an 
ounce ball, and are attached to the side of the stem the whole 
length of their base, often causing a bend or distortion of the 
stem, especially when two or three are contiguous and confluent, 
as they frequently are. The walls of the gall are about the tenth 
of an inch in thickness, and of a succulent fleshy texture, white 
upon the inside and green on the outside at first, but soon becom- 
ing discolored with black, which spreads until the whole is of 
this color. The hollow inside has its surface covered with minute 
smooth shining lice of different ages and sizes, so that it resembles 
the geode of a mineral, the surface of which is lined with a mul- 
titude of minute crystals, whose sparkling points are everywhere 
glittering in the light. Numerous dusky specks are also observed 
among the lice. These are the cast skins of the lice, all of which 
moult as they increase in size, their original skins becoming too 
small to contain them, and being of too firm a texture to expand 
with the growth of the insect. 

In addition to the dusky cast skins which have been mentioned, 
in many of the galls numerous round black grains occur. These 



158 HICKORY. LIMBS — HICKORY-GALL APHIS. 

are die excrement of a larva which lives in the walls of the gall, 
mining cylindrical channels in it. This larva is about the tenth 
of an inch long, shining watery whitish, with a pale yellow cloud 
in the middle of its body, from visceral matter in the intestines, 
and a flattened polished pale tawny head with the jaws appearing 
like two brown dots on its anterior edge. It has no feet, and to 
crawl forward it elongates itself and with its jaws grasps the 
spongy side of its burrow, and then contracting, it draws its body 
up towards its head. By this singular mode of progression it 
moves along with rapidity in its burrow, but when placed upon 
paper it strives in vain to lay hold of the smooth surface with its 
jaws, and is incapable of advancing. It is quite probable that 
this worm is the larva of the Elegant weevil above spoken of. 

It would be supposed that the lice which occupy these galls, 
being wholly shut in as they are by a thick wall upon every side, 
would be secure from the assaults of the numerous and inveterate 
enemies of the aphides which have been noticed in the preceding 
pages. But in one instance, four worms, which from their appear- 
ance and motions I supposed to be the larvae of a Syrphus-fly, 
were met with in one of these galls. They were the tenth of an 
inch long, of an elongated oval form, more pointed anteriorly, 
and of a pale rose-red color, with a broad yellow stripe in the mid- 
dle from inclosed visceral matter. 

Though I have not been able to find winged individuals of 
the insect which forms the galls upon the hickory twigs, it is so 
like the Pemphigus bursarius of Europe in its habits, a species 
which forms similar galls upon the leaf-stalks of the poplar, that 
I entertain no doubt our insect is co-generic with that species. 
We have still another species which is closely related to these in 
its habits. It is the grape leaf louse {Pemphigus Vitifolice) of my 
manuscripts, and forms small globular galls about the size of a 
pea, upon the margin of the leaves of the grapevine. They are 
of a red or pale yellow color, and their surface is somewhat 
uneven and woolly. They are met with the fore part ot June, hav- 
ing only the wingless females inclosed within them at that time. 
These closely resemble the same sex in the species under con- 
sideration. 



HICKORY. LEAVES HICKORY TUSSOCK-MOTH. 159 

The larva which occur in the walnut galls are of different sizes, the largest 
being 0.025 long, of an oval form and a light yellow or yellowish green color, 
with dusky legs and antennas. Younger individuals are white, shining, and 
somewhat hyaline, with pellucid white legs. The antennae are short and 
robust, consisting of two short thick basal joints and a longer terminal one of 
a conical form, and giving off a short bristle on one side near the tip. The 
legs are also short and thick. 

The wingless Females, of which one is found in each gall, she being the 
parent of the multitude of larvas around her, measures 0.04 in length, or 
somewhat more. She is of a plump egg-shaped form, narrower posteriorly 
and flattened on the under side. The segments of the abdomen are much longer 
than those of the thorax, and are separated by impressed lines. The legs are 
short, scarcely projecting beyond the outer margin, and with the antennas are 
blackish, the general color of the body being yellow, often of a dull or dirty 
tinge. 

Trees are much disfigured by the excrescences upon the ends of 
the limbs which this louse produces, which show conspicuously 
after the leaves have fallen. It requires two or three years for 
them to decay and become obliterated, and in the mean time a 
new stock is annually added, for where these insects obtain a lodg- 
ment they continue year after year, stinting the tree in its growth 
and blasting its fruit. Though there sometimes grows upon such 
trees nuts which are full sized and appear externally to be fair 
and well formed, they are found upon cracking to be destitute of 
meats. 

It is quite probable that these insects may be expelled from the 
trees which they infest by rubbing the ends of the limbs with soft 
soap soon after the leaves put forth. Or a month afterwards, 
when the galls are green and filled with lice, by eutting off and 
burning all the twigs and leaf-stalks on which these galls are 
growing, the tree will probably be relieved from a renewed at- 
tack the following year. 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Consuming the leaves ; white caterpillars with eight tufts of converging 
black hairs on the back and towards each end a pencil of long black 
ones on each side. 

The Hickory tussock-moth. Lophocampa Caryce. Harris. 

Of the caterpillars of our State, one which will be most apt to 
be observed on account of its clean neat appearance, and the re- 



160 HICKORY. LEAVES HICKORY TUSSOCK-MOTH. 

gular arrangement of the colors to the tufts and long pencils of 
haii-s with which it is clothed, is the hickory tussock-moth. And 
any one who is desirous of rearing an insect in order to inspect 
the remarkable ehanges which it undergoes as it grows up to its 
perfect state will succeed better with this, probably, than with 
any other species. One or more of the caterpillars placed in a 
tumbler or a box, and supplied with fresh leaves two or three 
times a week, will require no further care. So hardy are they 
that they will even feed upon leaves which are dry and brittle, 
and their cocoons may be kept in a warm stove-room during the 
winter wi thout the inclosed insect withering from the dryness of 
the atmosphere. 

Although the hickory and walnut appear to be the trees of 
which these caterpillars are most fond they are by no means 
limited to them. Dr. Harris records his meeting with them upon 
the ash and elm, and I have found colonies of the young worms 
upon the butternut, the sumach and the slippery elm. They 
hatch from the eggs early in July, and whilst young they re- 
main together, a hundred or more in a company, all being pro- 
bably from one parent. They occupy a leaf near the end of a 
limb, forming for their residence a slight covering or tent made 
of the fine silken threads which they spin. If the limb is jarred 
most of them let themselves down from it by means of their 

threads, some dropping to the ground 
others remaining suspended in the air at 
different heights. They have their re- 
gular periods for feeding and reposing. 
They consume the whole of the leaves 
where they reside, leaving only the mid- 
veins and some small fragments of the 
green tissue remaining. The annexed 
figure is taken from a leaf partly con- 
sumed by them. If when engaged in 
feeding a fly or other insect annoys it, 
or even if the rays of the sun shining 
through the foliage happen to fall directly upon it, it moves away 
to another place; and if when thus crawling away its hairs touch 





HICKORY. LEAVES HICKORY TUSSOCK-MOTH. 1G1 

those of one of its comrades, he too stops feeding and moves at least 
a short distance aside. When ready to cast its skin it fixes itself to 
the surface of the leaf by means of the minute sharp hooks of its 
feet; its exterior skin separates, and through a cleft at its anterior 
end the worm crawls from it, leaving the empty skin with its 
white and black tufts and pencils of hairs adhering to the leaf, 
with the legs, particularly the pair at the extremity of the body 
spread widely apart. They cast their skins three 
times in attaining their growth. The accompany- 
ing cut gives a view of these cast skins at each of 
the moultings, and shows the increase which takes 
place in the size of the caterpillar during the inter- 
vals. With each change of its skin a very perceptible alteration 
takes place in the appearance of the caterpillar. Its hairs, which 
at first are so fine as to be scarcely noticed by the naked eye, be- 
come so coarse and numerous at last as to hide from view the 
skin and the dots with which it is ornamented. 

The Larva or caterpillar is sixteen footed, cylindrical, clean, clear white, 
with numerous black dots, and clothed with tufts and longer pencils of hairs, 
which are beautifully branched or bearded, and of a white color, interspersed 
with other tufts and pencils which are black, the longest of the pencils being 
half as long as the body. The accompanying figures 
present a dorsal and lateral view of the young, and a 
dorsal view of the mature caterpillar, the last much 
contracted in its length, being taken from a dried cabi- 
net specimen. On the anterior segments, the black dots 
are arranged in a transverse row; on each of the others 
there are four black dots above, at the angles of an imaginary square, the ante- 
rior two being nearer each other, and upon each side is a row of three equidis- 
tant dots, the upper one larger, with three minute black dots slightly below it, 
and a short black stripe back of it. From each of these dots arises a tuft of 
white or black hairs, there being a row of eight black tufts along the back, the 
ends of which converge in the form of a steep roof, and two pencils of long 
black hairs on the fourth and also on the tenth segments. Some Ion"' white 
hairs overhang the head, which is black, smooth and shining, the bases of the 
feelers and of the jaws and upper lip being white. The neck has a large cres- 
cent-shaped spot above, placed transversely, and two small black dots on each 
side, with two larger ones anteriorly below these. The legs are black, the 
prolegs whjte, with a large black spot on their outer sides. 

The caterpillars attain their full size in about two months, and 
are then nearly an inch and a half in length. Before they are 
half grown they scatter themselves and thenceforth live apart and 

[Assem. No. 215.] 11 




162 HICKORY. LEAVES HICKORY TUSSOCK-MOTH 

solitary. The state of the atmosphere influences them somewhat 
as to the time of spinning their cocoons. Ten worms which I 
reared in a cage together from their infancy, after a period of 
severe drouth, on the occurrence of a rainy day the second of 
September, spun their cocoons simultaneously, all save one which 
performed this labor ten days earlier. When ready to form its 
cocoon the caterpillar crawls into some secure cavity, in the 
crevices of a wall or beneath a stone, to which the cocoon is very 
slightly attached. From this the winged moth is given out the 
following spring, though when reared in a dry room I have known 
individuals to come forth in their winged state the latter part of 
October and in November. These moths pertain to the family 
Arctiid^ or the Tiger-moths. They cannot be referred to any 
of the genera denned by the European naturalists, and Dr. Harris 
(New England Insects, p. 279) has therefore constructed for them 
a genus which he names Lophocampa, a word meaning crested 
caterpillar. He indicates lour species pertaining to this genus, 
and the caterpillars oi two additional species are known to me. 

The Cocoons of the hickory tussock-moth are of a regular oval form, nearly 
an inch long and over a half inch broad, of an ash gray color, composed exte- 
riorly of the short stiff hairs of the caterpillars, woven loosely together and 
with their points standing in all directions, so that it is impossible to touch one 
of these cocoons without having the skin filled with these hairs, resembling 
cowhage and producing the same irritation of the skin which that substance 
causes. The pencils of long black hairs of the caterpillar are separated and 
drawn in among the others so skilfully that the eye is seldom able to discern 
their color. The whole are held together by a thin clothlike fabric formed of 
white silken threads matted closely together which lines the cocoon upon its 
inner side. Its texture is so slight that when the moth is 
ready to leave the cocoon, by merely crowding its head for- 
m ward it ruptures it at one end, and forms a round orifice 
Bw through which it makes its exit, elongating the cocoon slight- 
ly hereby, at this end, as represented in the accompanying 
figure. 

The Chrysalis or pupa lies in the cocoon with the black head and other 
relics of the larva at its pointed end. It is 0.70 long by 30 in diameter, of a 
pale chestnut color, its sutures marked by slender black impressed lines, and 
the breathing pores forming a row of seven oval black dots along each side. Its 
surface is smooth, without those rows of little spines which we see in the pupa 
of the peach borer and several other moths, and the empty shell remains with- 
in the cocoon after the moth is disclosed. The figure presents a 
dorsal view of the sutures, breathing pores, &c, but is unduly 
contracted on the anterior half, the width here being the same 
as across the middle. 



HICKORY. LEAVES — LITTLE HICKORY APHIS. 163 

The winged Motii measure* from 0.G5 to 0.80 in length to the tip of its ab- 
domen and the expanded wings are 1.70 to 2.20 across, the females being 
larger than the males. It is of a pale ochre yellow color, hairy above, the 
abdomen on its under side covered with scales of a whitish and somewhat sil- 
very appearance, with a row of tawny spots in the middle in the female; a 
band in front between the eyes, two dots on the neck and the inner edge of the 
shoulder covers tawny; eyes spotted with black; antennae three-fourths the 
length of the body, tawny yellow, with two rows of teeth along their inner 
sides, which are short in the female, and in the male long and comb-like. Fore 
wings long and narrow, somewhat pointed at their ends, nankin yellow freckled 
with tawny yellow atoms, and with the veins and a ring surrounding each of 
the spots tawny yellow; spots mostly round or oval, white and somewhat 
transparent, arranged in three rows extending obliquely across the wings pa- 
rallel with the hind margin, each row having one spot between each of the 
veins, the number being eight in the two hindmost rows and six in the forward 
one; the third spot in the middle row the largest; the forward row situated 
half way between the middle one and the base, with two additional spots be- 
hind and two forward of it, and a large irregular spot upon the inner margin 
at its base; under side similarly colored and marked. Hind wings whitish, 
thin and semi-transparent, without spots. The spiral tongue is almost as long 
as the antenna}. The feelers project horizontally forward and are clothed with 
hairs similar to those upon the head, their apical joint being covered with scales 
only. 



On the under surface of the leaves, sucking their juices; small flattish pale 
yellow lice, their antennas with black rings. 

The Little Hickory Aphis. Aphis Caryella. 
The extensive genus Aphis, several species of which we have 
had occasion to treat of in the preceding pages, is well character- 
ised by having three oblique veins crossing the disk of the fore 
wings, the third one of which is twice forked, and seven-jointed 
antennse. The species, however, which are embraced in this 
genus admit of being divided into smaller groups. This has beezi 
shown in a very able manner by M. Kaltenbach, whose arrange- 
ment is reproduced by M. Amyot in his valuable review of these 
insects in the Annals of the Entomological Society of France, 2d 
series, v. 437 — 480. Eut none of the sections which these authors 
define appear to present differences of sufficient value to warrant 
their elevation to the rank of genera, although Mr. Curtis in his 
British Entomology has proposed to separate those having the 
antennse shorter than the body, and the beak arising from the 
lower part of the head instead of between the base of the fore 



164 HICKORY. LEAVES — LITTLE HICKORY APHIS. 

legs into a distinct genus under th^ name Cinara. But we 
have certain American species inhabiting the leaves of the 
hickory, oak, and high cranberry, which differ so much both 
in their form and habits from the general character of these 
insects, that they will probably be regarded as entitled to 
the rank of an independent genus. Having the last joint of 
the antennas shorter than that which precedes it, they would be 
included in the last section of M. Amyot's arrangement, the type 
of which is the Jlphis Tilim. But, from specimens of this species 
received from Dr. Signoret of Paris, and the descriptions given of 
it byM. Fonscolomb and others, our American insects differ in 
several important points. Their wings are not elevated in the 
usual steeply inclined manner but are laid flat upon the back in 
a horizontal direction; their bodies are stiongly depressed; their 
nectaries are merely pores without any perceptible elevation, 
though in one instance, examined when a globule of honey dew 
was protruding, the end of an exceedingly short cylindrical tube 
could be discovered with a lens, which tube appeared to be re- 
tracted and became imperceptible soon after. Their secretion of 
honey dew appears to be quite limited as compared with other 
aphides, nor do they extract a sufficient amount of juices from 
the leaves to cause any very perceptible distention of their flat- 
tened abdomens. They do not remain fixed to the leaves with 
their beaks inserted therein, but are wandering over its surface 
much of the time, nor do they live in societies like other aphides, 
only a. few being met with upon the same leaf, and these are scat- 
tered up-m its under side, chiefly along the sides of themidveinJ 
in the angles where the lateral veins are given off from it. Ants, 
moreover, are never met with accompanying them. 

These aphides are of a smaller and of a more tender delicate ap- 
pearance than their kindred. Most of the species are of a pale 
yellow or white color, with black rings upon their antennae, and 
their legs and wings are frequently varied with black or brown 
marks, which are much more clear and distinct than is usual in 
this family, the species of which, Linnseus well remarks, are diffi- 
cult to distinguish and more difficult to describe. That which is 



HICKORY. LEAVES LITTLE HICKORY APHIS. 1G5 

most common upon the leaves of the hickory may be distinguished 
by the following characters. 

The little Hickory Aphis {Aphis Caryrila) is pale yellow with whito 
antennae which are alternated with black rings, 'the wings transparent and 
without spots, their veins slender and pale yellow, the legs yellowish white to 
their ends. Length 0.12 to the tips of the wings. The abdomen is depressed, 
egg-shaped, its apex slightly narrowed and elongated. The antennae arc" 
longer than the body, tapering, scven^jointcd; two basal joints as broad as' 
long, twice the diameter of the following joints: third joint longest, slightly 
thicker towards its base; fourth and fifth joints rather shorter than the third, 
cylindric; two last joints together about equaling the fifth in length; the sixth 
swelled at its tip into a long oval knob, the seventh more slender but not capil- 
lary, shorter than the sixth; a broad black band at the apex of the third and 
each of the three following joints. First vein of the fore wings straight and ! 
almost transverse; second vein bent near its base, running first towards tho 
apex and then turning rather abruptly and continuing straight to the inner 
margin, more than twice as far from the first at tip as at base; third vein 
arising from the stigma near its anterior end, and not from the rib-vein for- 
ward of the stigma, as it does in the aphides generally, except those pertaining' 
to this group, its base and its apex about the same distance from the second' 
vein that this is from the first, forking rather foward of its middle, strongly 
bent at this point, and from hence to its tip parallel with the third vein or but 
slightly diverging from it, its tip a third nearer* that of the third vein than 
this is to the second; second fork nearer the fourth vein at tip than to the first 
fork, the triangular cell between it and the first fork with its three sides'equal; 
fourth vein short and often nearly abortive, shorter than the second fork, 
equally curved through its whole length, its tip much nearer that of the rib- 
vein than that of the second fork; rib-vein very slightly diverging from tho 
margin from the base to the stigma, curved from thence to its tip. Stigma 
oval, about twice as long as wide, watery, sometimes tinged with yellowish. 
A variety has the stigma dusky at its tip. Another variety {cost alls) has the 
rib-vein coal black interrupted with whitish towards the stigma, which is 
dusky, and black at each end. 

In addition to the species now described, four others occur 
upon the under surface of the leaves of the hickory and walnut, 
similar to it in size, form and general color, and as some of these 
are frequently met with upon the same leaves with the preceding 
they might be suspected to be mere varieties. Their spots and 
maiks, however, are so clear and definite and the veins of their 
wings are so dissimilar that we are obliged to regard them as dis- 
tinct species. They may be named and briefly characterized as 
follows. 

The little dotted-winged aphis {A. punctaldla) is much like the pre- 
ceding in the color of its body, antennae and wings, but has black feet and a 
black dot on the base and another on the apex of each of the veins of the fora 
wings; the stigma is salt-white with a brown streak at each end; the second 



166 HICKORY. LEAVES LITTLE HICKORY APHIS. 

vein is "wavy and at its tip is curved towards the tip of the first vein; the- 
third vein arises from the basal extremity of the stigma and forward of its 
furcation curves perceptibly towards the apex of the wing; the fourth vein is 
longer than the second fork. 

Tub little spotted-winged aphis (A. maculella') differs from the Caryella 
in having only a slender black ring at each articulation of the antennae, the 
feet and a band near the tips of the hind thighs blackish, the stigma salt-white, 
its base black, its apex dusky; fourth vein with a black dot on it9 base and a 
dusky one on its apex; the first vein, apical third of the second vein, and the 
first and second forks broadly margined with smoky brown; second vein 
wavy and parallel with the third vein till near its tip where it curves towards 
the first vein, its base a third nearer the third than it is to the first vein; third 
vein arising from the anterior extremity of the stigma, with a dusky spot on 
its apex. 

The little smoky-winged aphis (A. famipennclla) is of a dull yellow 
color with blackish feet and the wings smoky with robust brown veins, the 
rib-vein much more distant from the margin the first half of its length than 
in the other species, and from its middle to the stigma approaching the margin,, 
the fourth vein, equaling the stigma in length. 

The little black-margined aphis (A. marginella). Pale yellow, an- 
tennae white, their bases and four bands black; a coal black band in front 
between the eyes and continued along each side of the thorax to its base; ely- 
tra pellucid, stigma, outer margin and rib-vein coal black, first vein with a 
black dot on its base; fourth vein slender, black, the other veins colorless;, 
outer margin of the hind wings black. Length 0.1S. 

In addition to the preceding, a remarkably large aphis is des- 
cribed by Dr. Harris, under the name of A. Carya. A species 
which forms plaits or folds in the veins of the leaves and which 
probably pertains to the genus Pemphigus, and also a woolly 
aphis (Eriosoma) inhabiting this tree is known to me. These, 
with the species which forms galls upon the leaf-stalks and twigs, 
make nine different kinds of these vermin, which live at the ex- 
pense of our hickory and walnut trees. 



INFESTING FOREST TREES, 



THE PINE. 



AFFECTING THE TRUNK. 




Patches of white, flocculent, down-like matter on the smooth bark, 
covering exceedingly minute lice invisible to the naked eye. 

The Pine Blight. — Coccus Pinicorticis. 
Upon young White Pine trees, especially those which are 
transplanted to ornament our yards, may frequently be seen a 
species of blight, showing itself in the form of a white, flocculent 
cotton or down-like substance growing upon the smooth bark, par- 
ticularly around and immediately below the axils 
where the limbs are given off from the main trunk 
of the tree. Often small white spots of this 
same substance are scattered irregularly and more 
or less densely over the whole of the bark from one 
whorl of limbs to v another. It is upon the north or 
shaded side of the trees that these patches are most numerous, 
and upon the lower part of the body of the tree, where the foliage 
of the limbs growing above, produce a constant shade. Those 
parts of the body of the tree which are much exposed to the light 
of the sun are seldom, if ever, coated with any of these spots. 

Where a tree is much coated with this white substance, it be- 
comes sickly and presents a slender, dwindled appearance, its 
leaves are short and stinted in their growth, and of a dull green 
color, and the annual growth of the tree is much curtailed. 

If, with the point of a needle, this white cottony substance be 
carefully parted asunder, under it, attached to the bark of the 
tree, may frequently be found the insect which is the cause of this 



168 PINE. TRUNK— PINE BLIGHT. 

evil. When parted under a magnifier, the white matter appears 
like very fine Saxony wool, the crinkled fibres drawing apart as 
do those of wool. And under them, in each tuft, is discovered 
by means of the lens, a cluster of the insects alluded to, huddled 
closely together and fixed to the bark. They are so very minute, 
and so like the bark in their color, that it was not till after re- 
peated examinations, that I was able to detect them. The insect 
is a louse so exceedingly small as to be wholly imperceptible to 
the naked eye, and is discovered with difficulty even when the 
eye is aided by a magnifying glass. Of these lice the larger indi- 
viduals are little over the hundredth part of an inch in length, 
and smaller ones are associated with them not half this size. 
They are broad, oval, and nearly hemispherical in form, soft, of a 
black or blackish brown color, with their backs coated over more 
or less with a whitish meal-like powder. Three pairs of legs are 
perceptible, which are equidistant from each other. They are 
short, filiform and black. Little more than what has now been 
stated can be discerned with a common magnifying glass. When 
placed upon white paper, the dark color of the insect renders it 
very perceptible, and a very slight motion may be seen, but for 
which, one would deem it a speck of shapeless inorganic matter. 
Its powers of locomotion are so small that it does not attempt to 
crawl away from the point where it is placed, a slight gliding 
motion, to the distance of little more than a hair's breadth, being 
all that it commonly accomplishes. 

When highly magnified, the white meal-like substance upon the back of this 
insect is found to be a mass of short curling uneven filaments, coating the back 
and giving it a rough, shaggy appearance. The logs are short and robust, the 
shanks being nearly equal to the thighs in diameter, and the feet but little nar- 
rower at base than the shanks; they are conical, and seem to be of one single 
piece, ending at tip in two minute short bristle-like setae. The shanks are but 
little longer than broad, and slightly enlarged towards their tips. The thighs 
are slightly longer than the shanks and thickest in their middle. There are no 
thread-like or other projections at the hind end. The head appears to be sepa- 
rated from the body by a very faint transverse line. In the meal-like powder 
with which it is coated, no antennse or organs to the mouth can be discerned; 
but on carefully rubbing off this powder, two little projecting conical points, 
one upon each side of the head, standing outwards like little ears, appear to 
represent the antennae. Often the white powder upon the back appears like 
transverse bands, separated from each other by the slightly constricted black 
sutures of the body. The flat underside of the body is of a pale color, and in 
some individuals the upper side is also tinged with pallid. 



PINE. TRUNK PINE BLIGHT. 169 

I have never succeeded in discovering any winged individuals 
of this species, and hence cannot decide with confidence as to its 
genus. The one-jointed feet indicate that it pertains to the Family 
CoccmiEof the order Homoptera, and the facts in its history which 
are above recited, leave but little doubt that it belongs to the 
genus Coccus as restricted in systematic works at the present day. 

By many the white pine is much esteemed as a shade tree 
around dwellings, particularly upon their north and west sides, 
for breaking off the winds of our severe northern winters. It is 
also highly prized as an ornamental tree in those sections of our 
country where it does not grow naturally. Hence whatever re- 
tards the growth and impairs the health of these cultivated trees, 
becomes a matter of interest. I have repeatedly noticed this 
blight upon transplanted trees, but have never observed it upon 
trees growing in their native situations. 

There is every probability that scrubbing the affected parts of 
a tree with soap-suds, will prove a sovereign remedy for this as 
it is known to be for other species of lice. And this remedy will 
be ot easier application here, than in most other cases where it is 
the small twigs of trees which are infested with these vermin. 
As this blight is located upon the trunks, chiefly of young trees, 
it can be readily reached by the scrub-broom. The remedy is so 
simple and so easy of application, that no one should suffer the 
young pines in his yards to dwindle and become stinted and 
sickly from this cause. 



INFESTING GARDEN VEGETABLES. 



THE CABBAGE. 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 



Eating holes in the outer leaves late in autumn; a small, cylindrical, 
pale green worm, wriggling briskly when disturbed, and letting itself 
down by a thread. 

The Cabbage Moth. Cerostoma Brassicella. 

One of the most important culinary vegetables which we culti- 
vate, the cabbage, is in Europe subject to the attacks of quite a 
number of caterpillars and moths, some of which prey voraciously 
upon it. In our own country this vegetable probably has as 
many of these enemies as abroad; but so little attention has been 
bestowed upon our noxious insects, that only two of these have as 
yet been publicly noticed; the cut worm, which is everywhere 
such a grievous pest, and the caterpillar of our white butterfly, 
which, however, subsisting upon mustard, turnip, and most other 
plants of the extensive orchjr Crucifera, seldom invades cabbages 
in such numbers as to injure them. But I come to speak of 
another worm, a moth, which makes greater havoc upon the 
leaves of the cabbage than any insect which has yet been noticed 
at home or abroad. And although it has not yet been observed 
within the confines of our own State I entertain no doubt that it 
exists here, and that it will at times become multiplied in par- 
ticular localities, to the same extent that it has been in one of 
our sister States the past season. 

In the neighboihood of Ottawa, Illinois, in October last, I ob- 
served the cabbage leaves in the gardens perforated with nume- 
rous holes of variable size and irregular form, by a small green 
worm. Some gardens were so much infested that all the outer 




CABBAGE. LEAVES — CABBAGE MOTH. 171 

leaves of the cabbages were literally riddled with holes, more 

than half their substance being 
eaten away. And at almost every 
step, numbers of the little moths 
which hatch from these worms 
would arise upon the wing and 
flit away a few yards, to some 
covert. Fortunately, it is only 
the free outer leaves of the cab- 
bage which are preyed upon by 
this worm, whilst the compacted 
inner leaves, forming the head, 
on which the value of this vegetable depends, are left uninjured. 
But there is no doubt the eating away of the outer leaves, to such 
an extent as is frequently done by this worm, weakens and stints 
the growth of the head, which, it is well known, continues to 
advance in size until the very end of the season. And among 
those varieties of the cabbage which do not form large and com- 
pact heads, such as the Savoy and broccoli, this moth must be 
utterly ruinous. Even if it did no direct injury to the vegetable, 
the presence of these little green worms, in such numbers upon 
the leaves, wriggling about so spitefully when disturbed, is quite 
annoying; and the eroded leaves mar the tidy appearance of the 
garden. 

It is a little remarkable that this species occurs in all its states 
so late in the autumn as the middle of October, as the several 
British moths which are co-generic with it all make their appear- 
ance in July and August. It is hence altogether probable that 
there are two generations of the moth in each year; and if so, the 
first generation will make its appearance, it is quite likely in the 
month of June, or at all events before the heads have begun to 
form and when all the leaves are young, open, and adapted for 
its resort. It will consequently be liable, then, to do great 
injury to this vegetable. 

This worm in its appearance, motions and habits, has a close 
resemblance to the Palmer worm which has recently stripped 
the foliage from our orchards and forests so extensively, and to 



172 CABBAGE. LEAVES — CABBAGE MOTH. 

which, as we shall presently see, it is nearly related. When it is 
disturbed, with a wriggling motion it runs briskly backwards, or 
by a fine cob-web like thread lets itself down from the leaf. Its 
castings are little black grains, which appear like gunpowder 
sprinkled thickly over the leaves and the ground beneath them. 
The pupa or chrysalis is enveloped in a very pretty gauze-like 
cocoon, which may be found attached to the eaten 
leaves, two or more of them frequently in a clus- 
ter together. It is spun of clean white threads, 
crossing each other and forming an open net work, through the 
meshes of which the enclosed chrysalis may be distinctly seen. 
The threads composing the net-work are coarsish' and not very 
stout. They may readily be broken with the point of a needle, 
and the inclosed pupa be thus removed from its case for exami- 
nation, though the cocoon is so slightly attached to the leaf that 
it is frequently torn loose in thus breaking it open. 

Interspersed with these gauze-like cocoons upon the leaves, 
others maybe met with quite different in their appearance, being 
opake and of a thick paper-like texture and a brown color. They 
are of an eliptic form, rounded at both ends, and only about the 
tenth of an inch long and a third as broad. These have been 
constructed by the larvse of parasitic Ichneumon-flies which have 
destroyed the worms of the cabbage moth. And from the infor- 
mation I possess, it appears that this parasite deposits but a single 
egg in each worm, from which a maggot hatches, which feeds 
internally upon the worm, yet without attacking any vital part 
whereby the worm would be prematurely destroyed. Thus the 
parasite, as in other cases of this kind, attains its growth at the 
same time that the worm reaches maturity, when the maggot 
finishes its work by destroying the little that remains of its foster 
parent, and immediately incloses itself in this paper-like cocoon. 
Of three mature worms which I enclosed in a small box over 
night, only two were found the next morning. All vestiges of 
the third had disappeared, and in place of it was one of these 
paper-like cocoons. 

But as the worm of the Cabbage moth is such a choleric, mer- 
curial little fellow that when he is molested, be it ever so slightly, 



CABBAGE. LEAVES CABBAGE MOTH. 173 

be darts backwards and wriggles about so suddenly and spitefully, 
it will be an interesting topic for some future observer to notice 
by what artifice his mortal foe induces him to remain quiet or is 
able to cling to him long enough to puncture and drop an egg 
within his skin. The knowledge and skill which these Ichneumon 
and other parasitic Hymenopters often show in their proceedings 
is truly wonderful. Every person will recollect the larva of the 
Isabella tiger-moth (Jlrctia Isabella) — the large caterpillar with 
stiff even-shorn hairs of a tan color and black at each end of his 
body, which crawls about our yards and often enters our dwell- 
ings — and will probably have observed the fact that if when 
crawling he is rudely touched he suddenly stops and doubles him- 
self together for a moment, and then straightens himself again 
and resumes his journey. The long stiff hairs with which he is 
protected much like a porcupine, we should think would render 
it impossible for an insect enemy to place an egg anywhere upon 
his skin. Mr. P. Reid tells me he once saw one of these cater- 
pillars crawling with a hurried eager step across a dusty road, 
with an Ichneumon fly pursuing him, striving to cling upon his 
back, but falling off in consequence of the rapid motion of the 
caterpillar. The fly finding itself frustrated in its every effort, 
next, as if humming to itself the refrain " Twill never do to give 
it lip so," flew a few feet forward of the caterpillar, and turning, 
darted back with all its energy, hitting the caterpillar square in 
his face. The caterpillar thus roughly assailed suddenly stopped 
■and bent himself together in his acustomed manner, and in an 
instant the fly, alighting upon his back, appeared to fix an egg at 
the margin of one of the breathing pores, which had become fairly 
exposed by the caterpillar doubling his body thus together. In a 
moment the caterpillar was recovered from his shock and was 
crawling rapidly forward again, when the fly struck him a second 
time in the same way, and thus he was stopped and had an egg 
deposited upon his side three times, before he reached the tall 
grass beside the highway, in which he was secure from further 
molestation. And it is probable that by some artifice equally 
curious and remarkable, the parasite of the Cabbage moth is able 
to drop an egg into the skin of his irritable, brisk motioned 
victim. 



174 CABBAGE. LEAVES CABBAGE MOTH. 

This motli pertains to the genus Cerostoma of Latreille and the 
British entomologists, a genus belonging to the family Tineidje, and 
intimately related to that to which the Palmer worm pertains — 
both genera having the feelers with a tuft of scales projecting for- 
ward like a beak, from the middle of which beak the slender ter- 
minal joint stands upwards like a little horn. The larvse of the 
two genera are also identical in their appearance and habits. The 
genus Cerostoma is described as differing from that of Chatochilus 
in having the wings narrower and rounded at their ends, differ- 
ences which are so slight as to be scarcely discernable on a com- 
parison of this species with the moth of the Palmer worm. The 
antennre, moreover, are directed forward instead of being turned 
backwards and lying upon the back; but this is a character which 
is liable to be deceptive except when observed in the living speci- 
men. The light color of the inner margin of the wings, however, 
and the lace-like cocoon of the pupa, leave no doubt that it is the 
genus Cerostoma to which our insect must be referred. Stephens 
(Illustrations, Haustellata, vol. iv. p. 341) says the spiral tongue 
in this genus is " shortish," whilst Westwood (Humphrey's British 
Moths, vol. ii. p. 245) gives it as "long and slender." The lat- 
ter is certainly its character in our insect, where it is about equal 
to the antennse in length. Our species is closely allied to the C. 
porrcctella, Lin., the worm of which Mr. Westwood found feed- 
ing upon the buds of the White Rocket, a plant of the same family 
with the cabbage, and which forms an open-net work cocoon the 
same as our species. 

The worm of the Cabbage moth is nearly cylindrical in its form, rather 
thickest in the middle, and slightly tapering towards each end. It is over a 
quarter of an inch long, measuring when full grown 0.35, and is the thickness 
of a coarse knitting needle. It is varied in its color, but is most commonly 
pale green, of the same hue as the cabbage leaf. Some are of a deeper tinge 
and others paler, varying to greenish yellow or pale yellow. Often the hind 
part of the body is paler than the fore part. Frequently the head or the apical 
segment or both are pale yellow, the rest of the body being of the usual green 
hue. Individuals may sometimes be met with having the head dusky 
or black with dusky clouds. The neck is frequently tinged with 
red. Commonly a stripe along the middle of the back is more 
or less distinct, of a deeper green color or blackish in places; and on 
each side of the back a similar stripe may be discerned, whilst 
low down on each side a whitish stripe is sometimes apparent. 
With a magnifying glass the body is perceived to be clothed 
with several short black hairs which proceed from minute black 




CABBAGE. LEAVES — CABBAGE MOTH. 175 

dots each of which is surrounded by a faint pale ring. These dots are 
symmetrically arranged, and are situated the same as in numerous other larvae 
of moths, each of the segments of the body having four of them above, placed 
at the angles of an imaginary square, of which the anterior side is shortest; 
whilst on each side are four other dots, placed at the angles of an imaginary 
rhombus, the upper and lower angles of which are very acute. There are nu- 
merous dots on the neck, and the head is commonly freckled with a number of 
dark brown dots. There are sixteen legs, and the two first segments of the 
abdomen at first glance appear to be furnished with legs also, being bulged on 
their under sides, so as to touch the surface on which the worm stands. . 

The chrysalis or pupa is one-fourth of an inch long by 0.05 in width. It is 
commonly of a white color, with large deep-black eyes situated inside of the 
base of the antennae sheaths. Quite frequently the white 
color is varied with umber-brown stripes, whereof there is 
one on each side of the back, with a very slender brown line 
between upon the middle of the back. The wing sheath is brown on the upper 
margin, with a brown stripe in the middle and a more slender one inside of it, 
parallel to each other, and both running into the marginal stripe, this last be- 
ing prolonged upon the abdominal segments to the tip. The sheath of the an- 
tenna) and of the legs are also brown. These brown stripes remain upon the 
pupa skin after the moth has been hatched from it, but the black color of the 
eyes then disappears. 

The winged moth measures 0.30 in length to the tips of the closed wings, 
and these, when expanded, measure 0.58. It is of an ash gray color. The 
fore wings are freckled with black dots on the disk and apex and have a com- 
mon white stripe on their inner margin reaching to the hind angle, which stripe 
is wavy upon its inner edge and near the middle of the wing is bordered by a 
dark brown streak; the fringe of 'these wings is traversed by one or more 
blackish lines which are parallel with the margin. The hind wings and also 
the under sides of both pairs are leaden brown, glossy, and without any spots 
or dots. The antennas and the under side of the abdomen are white. This 
moth is somewhat variable in the depth of its color, being frequently dark gray, 
and the stripe on its wings is not always pure white and distinct. 

Facts so far as observed indicate that when this and its kin- 
dred species are favored with unusually dry weather at the date 
of their appearance in the larva state, the species suddenly be- 
comes excessively multiplied, overrunning particular sectiuns of 
country like an invading army. When I observed this cabbage 
worm a drouth was prevailing through northern Illinois, that was 
said to be without a parallel since its settlement. And hence we 
infer that thoroughly showering the vegetation which is attacked, 
with water, will be found a most effectual remedy for the expul- 
sion of the worms of this group. With the cabbage moth this 
measure can easily be resorted to, a common watering pot being 
the only apparatus which is required. 



THE GOOSEBERRY. 

AFFECTING THE FRUIT. 

The young fruit becoming red and putrid, containing within it one or 
more small bright yellow maggots. 

The Gooseberry Midge. — Cecidomyia Grossularia. 

It is common to find upon the gooseberry bushes in our gardens 
some of the young fruit of a prematurely ripe appearance, turn- 
ing red and dropping to the ground. Some years much of the 
fruit is lost in this way. This premature ripening of the goose- 
berry is caused by insects puncturing and depositing their eggs 
in it. We have at least two insects which thus attack the goose- 
berry. One of these appears to be a species of moth which I have 
not yet obtained in its perfect state. The other is the larva of a 
midge or a bmall two-winged fly, of the genus Cecidomyia and 
family Tipulidje. On examining some of these affected gooseber- 
ries early in July, their pulp was found to be putrid and infested 
with small maggots of a bright yellow color and oval form, their 
bodies divided into segments by five impressed transverse lines, 
and their whole appearance being closely like the larvae of the 
Wheat midge, found in the ears of wheat. These completed their 
transformations and gave out the winged flies the latter part of 
the month of July. In size, number of joints to the antenna?, etc., 
these correspond with the C. Ribesii of Europe, but that is de- 
scribed by Macquart (Dipteres, vol. i. p. 162,) as having black 
bands upon the thorax, the abdomen blackish, &c. Hence it is 
evidently a much darker colored species. 

The Gooseberry Midge is scarcely the tenth of an inch in length to the tips 
of the closed wings. It is of a pale yellaw color, the thorax paler than the 
abdomen, and of a wax-yellow hue; eyes black; antennae blackish, of twelve 
joints, separated by hyaline pedicels one-third as long as the joints, which are 
short cylindrical with rounded ends, their length scarcely more than double 
their breadth; legs straw yellow, faintly tinged with dusky towards their tips; 
wings hyaline, faintly tinged with dusky. 

It is probable that those flies which come out the latter part of 
July deposit a second crop of eggs in the gooseberries, or else re- 
sort to some other fruit of a similar nature, and that the larvae 
which come from these eggs lie in the ground during the winter; 
for we do not perceive how, otherwise, there can be flies in June 
to deposit their eggs in the young Iruit. 

All fruit upon the gooseberry bushes which is found premature- 
ly decaying and assuming a ripened appearance, and all which 
falls to the ground, should be gathered and thrown into the fire, 
to destroy the worms which the berries contain. By attention to 
this measure the haunts of this insect in the garden can be easily 
broken up, whereas, if this step is neglected the evil will be liable 
to continue year after year. As this insect breeds equally 
well in the wild gooseberries, we cannot hope to exterminate it 
from our country. Eut none of these wild gooseberries should be 
permitted to grow in the vicinity of the garden, for from them, 
if near, this midge will continually be finding its way to the 
bushes of the cultivated gooseberry. 



REPORT 




STATE OF NEW-YOKK. 



By Asa Fitch, M. D. 



Executive Committee of the New-York State Agricultural Society: 
I herewith present a second Report on the Noxious and other 
Insects of the State, continuing the account of those species which 
are injurious to fruit and forest trees, and commencing those 
which are injurious to field crops. The Report heretofore pre- 
sented has been so favorably received, and has made the plan 
and character of the work in which I am occupied so generally 
known, that no explanations upon this subject are required. 
Nor is it necessary that I should say a word upon the importance 
of this Survey of the Economical Entomology of our State, our 
citizens being universally aware of its value, and of the benefits 
which will result to agriculturists, orchardists, and others 
from being informed how they may manage their crops, treat 
their fruit trees, &c, to shield them from the depredations of in- 
sects. Yet but a small part of the injury which we are sustain- 
ing from this class of creatures is at present known. Many of 
them are so minute, so seemingly insignificant and powerless, 
and conduct their operations where they are so concealed from 
view, that the damage which they occasion is currently imputed 
to other causes, and the real culprit is never suspected. Thus, 
it is commonly supposed that the reason why we now fail to 
raise such crops of wheat as our lands produced when they were 
[Assembly, No. 21 5.J 12 



178 

newly cleared, is because the soil has become exhausted, the 
temperature of the winters has changed, &c. But my researches 
the present season have impressed me with the belief that the 
insect depredators upon this grain, which have found their way 
into all parts of our country where wheat has long been culti- 
vated, are the sole cause of the present meagerness and uncer- 
tainty of this crop. Having been looking at the wheat midge 
and the Hessian fly only, in former years, other insects living at 
the expense of this grain had escaped my notice ; and now, on 
turning my attention again in this direction, I have been aston- 
ished to find our growing wheat preyed upon by multitudes of 
different species of Chlorops, Oscinis, and Thrijys, insects which in 
Europe have long been known as most inimical to the wheat 
crops there, but which have never hitherto been noticed on this 
side of the Atlantic. From the time that the blade shoots from 
the ground until the ripened grain is carried into the barn, it 
appears at every stage of its growth to be exposed to the attacks 
of one and another of these vermin. And with such a host of these 
enemies to withstand, our chief wonder is that this crop is not 
utterly devastated every year. Could it be released from them, 
it is evident wheat in all the old settled parts of our State and 
country would be as sure and productive a crop now as it was 
when our lands were newly cleared. Whether we shall be able 
to discover remedies or modes of cultivation by which their at- 
tacks may be prevented appears doubtful. Still, every one is 
aware it is highly important that the habits and transformations 
of each of these insects should be fully examined, and the infor- 
mation thus elicited should be diffused among the cultivators of 
our soil. That such knowledge will enable them to elude at 
least a portion of these depredators, in many instances, there can 
be no doubt. The following extract from the commencement of 
a letter from a gentleman in Ohio, written soon after the wheat 
harvest of 1855, shows what benefits result from knowledge of 
this kind. He says : " I see from the Country Gentleman that 
you have become very familiar with the whole insect family. I 
think that when this subject is brought to bear upon agriculture, 
horticulture, &c, its usefulness will be unlimited. The farmers 
here are beginning to see the necessity of some knowledge of 



179 

Entomology; for when they see whole fields of wheat and corn 
cut off and wholly destroyed by insects, they are in deep trouble, 
and would spare no pains or expense to get out. A year ago 
last fall as I was about to sow my wheat, I read very carefully 
your articles on the wheat fly or weevil as we call it here, and 
the Hessian fly, and treated the crop according to your reason- 
ing, and the consequence was, I got one-third more wheat to the 
acre from the poorest of my land than my neighbors did from 
new ground." 

In a document of such compass as the one I here present, em- 
bodying such a multitude of observations, upon subjects which 
have hitherto been but little studied in our country, I do not 
flatter myself that every thing stated is accurate and free from 
error. Aware from my own experience in how many instances 
reinvestigating the structure and habits of an insect causes me 
to modify and change the opinions which previous observations 
have led me to form, I cannot doubt that in numerous instances 
further examinations of the species here treated of will show 
that amendments are required. I regard these reports as only a 
foundation, a stepping-stone to further researches in this direc- 
tion, whereby any errors into which I may have fallen will be 
corrected and the habits of each particular species will become 
fully examined and made known. As it is german to this sub- 
ject, I take the liberty to add a paragraph from a letter which 
came to hand as my previous report was passing through the 
press, from Mr. Curtis, whose recent articles on insects injurious 
to field and garden crops, in the Journal of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society furnish such admirable models for essays of this 
kind, and whose great work on British Entomology, illustrated 
with unsurpassed clearness and accuracy, constitutes an endu- 
ring monument to his fame. He says, " I rejoice to find 
you are setting to work in good earnest with the noxious Insects 
of America. One of the most important steps is to get their cor- 
rect scientific names, and as far as possible to identify your spe- 
cies by giving good figures of them. For want of correct names 
a vast portion of the published accounts by Gardeners and Far- 
mers previous to the publication of Dr. Lindley's Gardeners' 
Chronicle, relative to economic Entomology, were worthless. 



180 

Wireworms, Bugs and Spiders, meaning anything and everything. 
You must not hope, however, to arrive at perfection at once; 
for the greater my experience, the more I am convinced that the 
first accounts of the economy of noxious insects cannot be made 
quite correct. So that in fact they become feelers and targets 
for the critics to fire at. But from such attacks, it is incredible 
what information may be collected and errors corrected. I am 
sure you will excuse the liberty I take in thus offering you my 
experience, and urging you to persevere in exploring the path 
you have chosen, so full of interest to yourself, and so important 
to mankind." 

Respectfully submitted, 

ASA FITCH. 



INSECTS INFESTING FRUIT TREES. 



THE APPLE. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Consuming the leaves of apple and cherry trees in May, and forming large 
cobweb-like nests in the forks of the limbs; black, hairy, caterpillars, 
with white lines and along each side a row of blue spots; living 
together in societies. 

The Common Apple-tree Caterpillar, or American - lackey moth, 
Clisiocampa Americana, Harris. (Plate 3, fig. 3, the male; fig 4, 
the female.) 

There is scarcely an insect in our country more universally 
known than is the one which we are now to consider, when in 
its larva state, it being the common caterpillar, whose cobweb 
like nests are everywhere seen, in the month of May and the 
fore part of June, upon apple and cherry trees. But, though 
every person is so well acquainted with these caterpillars, there 
is not one of our citizens who knows the moth or miller into 
which they change; and those to whom I have shown this miller, 
have generally expressed their disappointment at finding it so 
small, so dull colored, and so little ornamented with spots or 
marks, they having supposed from the size of the caterpillar, 
and the colors with which it was variegated, that it produced a 
much larger and more gay looking insect. 

This insect pertains to the Family Bombycid^:, or the thick, 
hairy bodied moths of the Order Lepidoptera, the silk worm 
(Bombyx Mori) being the type of this group. And the moth of 
our apple-tree caterpillar in its size and general appearance has 
much similarity to that of the silk worm, though differing from 
it notably in its color, and also in some of the minute but im- 
portant points in its structure, which cause it to rank in a dis- 



182 AFFLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — DIFFERS FROM THE EUROPEAN. 

tinct genus, named Clisiocampa. This genus was formed by Mr. 
Curtis, for the reception of two common European moths, which 
are most intimately related, both in their appearance and habits 
to our American insect, one of them named C. Neustria, strip- 
ping the foilage from the fruit trees in Europe, and forming its 
nests upon the trees in the same manner as does our caterpillar. 
It was hence formerly supposed that our insect was probably 
identical with the Neustria. The botanist Sir James Edwin 
Smith, however, in editing Abbot's notes and drawings of the 
Lepidopterous insects of Georgia, deeming that another American 
moth which has been named Clisiocampa sylvatica by Dr. Harris, 
was the Neustria , supposed this was the other European species, 
and accordingly published it as the castrensis of Linnaeus. It is 
to Dr. Harris that we are indebted for setting this subject in its 
correct light, and showing that both our American species are 
distinct from those of Europe. And he accordingly named our 
apple-tree caterpillar Clisiocampa Americana, or the American 
lackey moth, the name lackey being the current English desig- 
nation for these moths, in consequence of the blue, red and 
yellow stripes upon the caterpillars having some resemblance to 
those on the coats in which the lackeys or footmen are dressed. 
About the only difference which can be discerned between our 
American lackey moth and the Neustria, is in the two stripes 
upon its fore wings, they being straight and parallel in our insect, 
whereas in that of Europe these stripes diverge slightly, so that 
at their inner ends especially, they are more distant from each 
other than in the middle. But as the colors and stripes are sub- 
ject to considerable variations, we could not be fully assured that 
the insects of the two continents are distinct by merely examin- 
ing them in their perfect state. When we come to look at their 
larvee, however, all doubts upon this subject vanish, the cater- 
pillar of the Neustria having three red stripes along each side, 
which do not appear in our caterpillar, and it is destitute of the 
rows of light blue spots on the sides which we always find in 
the latter. And if any further evidence was necessary as to the 
correctness of Dr. Harris in regarding these insects as being dis- 
tinct species, we have it in some of the habits of the caterpillars. 
The European insect attacks almost all kind of trees, evergreens 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — LEAVES WHICH IT EATS. 183 

as well as deciduous. But our American caterpillar is unable, 
I think, to subsist upon any trees of the evergreen class. A nest 
of the young worms, on being attached to the limb of a pine 
tree all died of starvation. A nest of half grown ones, tied 
among the foliage of a tamerack or larch all forsook the tree in 
the course of two or three days, without eating any of the leaves 
that I could discover. Another nest of half grown worms 
having consumed all the foliage of the bush on which they were 
hatched, and being obliged to migrate elsewhere, came first to a 
spruce tree, but passed on without ascending it, as though aware 
it was unsuitable for their nourishment. And in those rare in- 
stances in which single full grown caterpillars may be met with 
upon the hemlock and pine, they have probably ascended these 
trees in search of a secure place for spinning their cocoons, and 
not to feed upon the leaves. 

Nor is our caterpillar by any means a general feeder upon de- 
ciduous trees. The experiments and observations which I have 
made, to ascertain upon what kinds of foliage it is able to sus- 
tain itself may here be briefly recited. It is well known that it 
decidedly prefers the wild or native black cherry to any other 
tree, and next to this it is most fond of the apple, although it is 
about equally fond of the choke cherry and of the cultivated 
garden cherry. Its nests may also be occasionally met with upon 
the bird or small red cherry, upon the wild plum and upon dif- 
ferent species of the thorn (Crataegus), and I doubt not the cat- 
erpillar will thrive and grow to maturity upon almost any oi 
the trees and shrubs which pertain to the natural order Rosacea 
as I have repeatedly noticed it feeding upon the leaves of the 
shad bush (.dmelanchier), the rose, &c. Some of the trees of this 
group, however, are unadapted to it; the peach, for instance. 
On the tenth of June, when the caterpillars had mostly attained 
their full size, a nest was noticed upon a peach tree, below the 
belt of eggs from which it had hatched. But all the worms in 
this nest, were at that late date quite small, being only about a 
third grown. So far as a single observation can be relied upon, 
it appeared that this tree was unadapted to these caterpillars, 
and that the parent insect had erred in placing her eggs upon it, 
probably having mistaken it for a species of cherry. 



184 AFPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — LEAVES WHICH IT EATS. 

But this insect is not entirely limited to trees of the cherry 
and apple kind. I have seen its eggs placed upon the witch 
hazel (Hamamelis), and the caterpillars from them when nearly 
mature, appeared as thrifty and well fed as those upon the apple 
trees. Three small nests, each containing about two dozen 
worms, were once seen upon a small beach tree. On willows 
numbers of these caterpillars may be seen every year, when they 
are nearly mature; and on tieing a cherry twig, containing a 
nest of worms but two or three days old, to the limb of a yellow 
willow, they were found to grow as thriftily as those in other sit- 
uations. The poplars, at least our indigenous species, appear to 
be equally congenial to them. And the white oak, the leaves of 
which are small and tender when the caterpillars are nearly full 
grown, they feed upon freely. The black or quercitron oak 
seems unadapted to them. The young worms of a nest tied to 
this tree languished and after a time all died; a nest of half 
grown worms ceased to advance further in size, and finally the 
more robust individuals appeared to have abandoned the tree, 
and the remainder perished. Nests of worms when half grown 
were placed upon the lilac, the syringa (Pkiladelphus coronarius) 
and the striped dogwood (Viburnum Acerifolium). In each of 
these instances the nests were forsaken by the worms within a 
day or two. A nest of worms newly hatched and too young to 
migrate elsewhere, was placed upon the garden currant, and 
another upon the alder (Alnus). In each of these instances the 
worms sustained themselves upon the leaves but made scarcely 
any advancement. When the caterpillars on other trees were 
mature these had not attained a third their size. They however 
all continued in their nests, feeding slightly upon the foliage 
around them, until the period for spinning their cocoons had 
nearly expired. They then suddenly dispersed themselves and 
probably all perished, being too small and weak to construct 
their cocoons. The fact shows that animal life may for a long 
time be sustained upon food which is so unpalatable and so lit- 
tle nutritious to the individual that no growth or development 
can take place. 

Like other insects, this is much more numerous in particular 
years. This fact has been noticed from the earliest times. We 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR ITS EGGS. 



185 



thus have it on record within thirty years after the first settle- 
ment of Massachusetts, that 1646 and 1649 "were caterpillar 
years," and that in 1658 " caterpillars did great harm to fruit 
trees " (Flint's Agricult. of Mass. 2d report, p. 33). Without 
specifying other years which have been similarly distinguished, 
I would state that during the past twenty-five years I have never 
seen these insects a fourth as numerous as they have been the 
present year, 1856; and they appear from accounts to have been 
multiplied to an unusual degree all over our country. And it 
would seem that those seasons which favor the growth of fruit 
also favor the increase of these insects, our orchards having never 
been so overloaded with fruit before as they were in the year 
1855. 

The eggs from which these caterpillars come are placed near 
the ends of the twigs, in clusters, forming a ring or rather a 
broad thick belt, surrounding the branch entirely or in part, as 
represented (diminished in size) in the annexed cut. In these 
belts I have counted from three hundred to three 
hundred and thirty eggs. They are about three 
fourths of an inch in length and the tenth of an 
inch thick. 

The eggs are of a short cylindrical form with abruptly- 
rounded ends. They are about 0.04 long and two-thirds as 
broad. The shell is of a very tough leathery texture and of 
J. an ash-gray or white color, the inside having a bluish tinge, 
somewhat resembling that of mother-of-pearl. The e^s are 
placed perpendicularly upon the twig, to which they are 
firmly glued, the lower end being indented to give it a more 
secure attachment to the bark. They are also arranged side 
by side somewhat symmetrically in rows, their sides being slightly indented 
or moulded to each other and firmly glued together in one mass. Those ego-s 
which are at the ends or margin of the mass are placed in an inclined position 
and the outermost ones are laid horizontally upon the bark, in order to pro- 
duce a gradual slope from the surface of the mass to that of the bark. 

The eggs are covered over with a thick coating of glutinous 
matter which entirely hides them from view and protects them 
from the weather. This matter is slightly transparent, and full 
of small air bubbles, giving its surface the appearance of net 
work. Its color varies from black to pale, but it is commonly 
darker than the bark, and its outer surface is smooth and shining 
as though coated with varnish. Although moisture cannot dis- 




186 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR MODE OF ITS HATCHING. 

solve and wash off this glutinous matter, it softens it, so that it 
can readily be indented by the finger nail, whenever it is wet by 
rain or dew. And when thus softened, birds frequently pick 
into it, forming irregular openings in its surface, as represented 
at the lower part of the figure in the foregoing cut. They proba- 
bly suppose it to be the chrysalis of a moth, and that they will 
enjoy a dainty repast on reaching the inside; but on coming to 
the outer ends of the eggs and finding how tough and compacted 
together they are, they desist, never destroying any of the eggs 
that I have noticed. 

These eggs are deposited upon the twigs the fore part of July, 
and remain through the autumn and winter, and until the latter 
part of April and the beginning of May, when the young cater- 
pillars hatch from them. Thus during ten of the twelve months 
of each year these insects repose in their egg state. They always 
hatch in wet or at least damp weather, when the thick covering 
of glutinous matter in which they are enveloped is soft, so that 
they gnaw a passage through it with ease. If it were not thus 
softened the infantile worms would be wholly unable to work 
their way through it. If a twig containing one of these belts ol 
eggs be brought into a stove room where the atmosphere is con- 
stantly dry, scarcely a half dozen of the worms, if any, will be 
able to come forth from their nest. And this glutinous matter 
thus softened, forms a store of nourishment for the worms when 
they first hatch. They remain clustered together upon its sur- 
face and feeding upon it, for one or two days, until they have 
acquired strength to travel away and forage for themselves. 
Thus more or less of this matter is consumed, and 
the belt of eggs now presents the appearance shown 
in the accompanying figure, its surface not smooth 
and shining as before, but rough and ragged, with 
the white ends of the eggs exposed to view, at least 
in places, and each egg showing a smal] perfora- 
tion in its end through which the worm made its 
exit. 

The infantile worms having fed upon the matter which en- 
velopes the eggs until they have obtained sufficient strength for 
the journey, move down the limb one after another, each spin- 




APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR TIME OF HATCHING. 187 

ning from his mouth a fine silken thread which he attaches to 
the bark, whereby his foothold and that of those who follow him 
is rendered more secure. On coming to a fork of the limb, they 
halt, and there erect a kind of tent for their subsequent resi- 
dence, by traveling around the spot, spinning their threads in 
every direction, hereby forming a web resembling that of a spider. 
This at first is quite slight, and wholly inadequate to shelter 
them. Hence if a rain comes on it penetrates the web every- 
where, and the young worms may be seen crowded together in a 
mass, in its driest part, upon the under side of the limb. But 
thousands of additional threads being added to it each fair day, 
it rapidly becomes more substantial and better adapted for their 
protection. 

The caterpillars hatch earlier or later as the season is more 
forward or backward. Commonly the earliest clusters of eggs 
are hatched by the twenty-fifth of April, and the latest are a 
fortnight afterwards or even later in giving out their broods; 
but the worms are mostly out of their shells by the first of May. 
At this time the apple-trees are as naked as in winter, their buds 
being merely swollen, and showing the red and green awl-like 
points of the leaves beginning to protrude from their ends; and 
the leaves of the garden cherry are also still inclosed within 
their buds. The wild black cherry, however, is much earlier 
in putting forth its foliage, its young leaves at this date and also 
the stems which bear its flowers being half an inch in length. 
Hence the young caterpillars which find themselves upon the 
latter tree are most fortunate, having an ample supply of food to 
meet their wants, whilst those upon the apple and cultivated 
cherry are obliged to wander about, nibbling what little they 
can reach in the ends of the buds, and probably are often much 
pinched with hunger before the vegetation has advanced suf- 
ficiently to enable them to feed fully. 

When they first come from the eggs these worms are less than 
the tenth of an inch long, and about the thickness of an ordinary 
sized pin, their bodies broadest at the head, and slightly taper- 
ing, of a black color with pale feet and slightly clothed with 
fine whitish hairs. At first they merely nibble a small spot 
upon the surface of a leaf, or perforate a small hole through it, 



188 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR ITS TIMES OF FEEDING. 

or gnaw a slight notcli in its side, for a meal, and as soon as 
they have fed thus much it can be seen that their bodies are 
more plump, and fine whitish lines begin to appear upon them. 
As they increase in size, and especially each time they change 
their skins, their color becomes more diversified. They change 
their skins five or perhaps six times at intervals of from three to 
nine days, the worm gaining from an eighth to a quarter of an 
inch in length each time it throws off* its old skin. 

When young they go out to feed much less frequently 
than when they are larger. They move about entirely at hazard 
in search of food, having no power of smell or other sense to 
guide them, as I infer from having placed apple and cherry 
leaves in the direction in which famishing worms were travel- 
ing, and seeing them pass quite near and almost touching such 
leaves without discovering them. Nor when a store of food has 
been discovered by some of the worms of a starved nest, have 
they any mode of communicating the information to the others. 
The rest of the nest probably discover the fact that some of their 
comrades have obtained a full meal, and thus know that food is 
somewhere within their reach, but they are obliged to wander 
about at hap-hazard until they find it. And I have noticed one 
hungry worm and another after examining the end of every twig 
upon a limb unsuccessfully for food, on returning down the limb 
meet several others going out upon the same errand; yet they 
pass their comrades without those who are coming in having 
any mode of informing those who are going out that their jour- 
ney will be wholly fruitless. 

As a general rule each nest has its stated hours for feeding and 
for repose, all the worms going out and returning in a regular 
procession, one after another. They repair to a particular limb 
of the tree, frequently a limb which is distant from the nest, 
and there feed together, occupying every leaf and three or four 
worms often eating upon one leaf. In pleasant weather they 
have usually three meals in twenty-four hours, one in the morn- 
ing, one in the afternoon, and another in the night. But there 
is much irregularity in all these points of their history. A part 
of the worms are often at rest in their nest while the others 
are out feeding. And when they are about to cast their skins 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — QUANTITY OF FOOD ATE. 189 

they wholly cease from feeding for one or two days, remaining 
all the time within the nest, those portions of the brood which 
are not ready to moult being at such times the only ones which 
go out to feed. From the most exact observations which I have 
been able to make, each worm appears to consume about two- 
thirds of an apple leaf at each meal — the leaves being small 
when the worms are young, and fully grown as they attain their 
full size. A worm an inch long which I confined in a tumbler 
fifteen days, noting the number and size of the leaves I fed to it, 
ate on an average an ordinary sized apple leaf, two and a half 
inches long and half as broad, daily. But thus confined, it took 
no exercise, and spun no web ; and it thus required but half the 
food, probably, which it would have consumed had it been at 
liberty. I regard this therefore as confirming the correctness of 
the observations which I had previously made. It thus appears 
that each worm devours two leaves daily. And as each nest 
contains about three hundred worms, every owner of an orchard 
will perceive that with every caterpillar's nest which he allows to 
remain upon his trees, the trees lose six hundred leaves daily. 

They always travel upon the upper side of the branches and 
limbs. And each worm, wherever it goes, spins a thread of 
silk, which not only gives it a more secure foothold, but serves 
also as a clue to guide it back to the nest again. Much of the 
traveling of these worms appears to be solely for exercise. As 
one after, another has satisfied himself with food, he comes back 
to the nest and walks around upon its surface in every direction, 
thus adding new threads to it. Other worms having also com- 
pleted their meal, are coming home to their tent every moment. 
Thus its surface begins to become crowded and is perfectly black 
with the multitude of full fed individuals which are rambling 
about upon it, and the throng is constantly becoming more dense 
with new arrivals from the feeding ground. Hereupon some of 
them start away, up one of the limbs leading from the nest, and 
which is covered with cobweb threads from having been so 
often traveled before. Others follow after these leaders, and 
the limb through its whole length is soon thronged and black 
with a procession of worms, going out to its extremity and back; 
thus making room on the surface of the nest for other individ- 



190 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR EXERCISE AND REST. 

uals who are every moment returning there from feeding. 
Having taken this journey to the end of the limb and back and 
thus had the amount of exercise which they require, they crawl 
into the tent and there compose themselves to rest. Thus when 
but a few straggling worms remain upon the limb on which 
they have all been feeding, a few others will be seen journeying 
homeward to the tent, a multitude of others will be seen walk- 
ing about upon the surface of the tent spinning their threads, 
many more will be seen traveling upon both of the branches 
which fork off from the tent, some of them going out and others 
coming in, whilst the inside of the tent is black with the multi- 
tude that has completed their labors and retired to repose. The 
ranks of each of the sections first specified gradually become 
thinner, until at last all have withdrawn into the tent. 

Dr. Harris (Injurious insects, 2d ed. p. 287) says these cater- 
pillars "all retire at once when their regular meals are finished;" 
and it must hence be inferred from his account that it is after 
reposing and before going out to feed that they strengthen their 
nests with additional threads. But from repeated observations 
I am assured that it is after feeding and before retiring to rest 
that they add the new threads to their nests. The routine in 
which they pass their lives consists of the three acts, feeding, 
exercising, and resting. Dr. H. also says that "At all times 
when not engaged in eating, they remain concealed under the 
shelter of their tents." But upon warm days when the sky is 
serene, they do not retire into their tent at all, but repose upon 
its outside, which is literally covered with them, and so black 
that at first sight persons suppose the nest to be a black hat 
placed in the tree. They are very sensitive to atmospheric 
changes. Upon rainy days they remain within their tents and do 
not go out to feed; yet I have repeatedly seen them feeding at 
night when the leaves were wet with dew, and still oftener in 
the morning before this moisture had evaporated. On the eighth 
of May, the worms on a bush which I had taken into my study, 
went out of their nest to feed in the morning; but it coming on 
to rain out of doors, they all quickly returned into the nest. 
I hereupon kindled a fire in the stove and the warmth had no 
sooner commenced diffusing itself through the room than these 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR ITS NEST,' HOW BUILT. 191 

worms poured out of the nest again and commenced eating, vora- 
ciously. And invariably upon very warm days these caterpillars 
eat much more ravenously than at other times. Two or three 
days of hot weather, such as frequently occur about the time of 
planting corn, give them greedy appetites and cause them to 
advance rapidly in size. 

The tent or nest, which is always placed in the fork of a limb, 
is enlarged from time to time, until it becomes from eight inches 
to a foot in diameter. It is composed of a number of sheets or 
layers formed of silken threads woven closely together like dense 
cob-webs. These sheets are placed parallel to each other, and 
at such distances apart as enable the worms to crawl between 
them to repose, the spaces being much narrower between the 
inner layers, formed when the worms were small, than between 
the outer ones. The nest thus resembles the several sheets, 
blankets and other coverings upon a bed, separated sufficiently 
to receive a row of sleeping persons between each of them. As 
each new layer which is added to the structure is exactly pa- 
rallel with the one below it 3 presenting the same elevations and 
hollows, it was formerly a query in my mind how the worms 
were able to place the first threads of these layers, for a scaffold- 
ing on which to walk to complete the tissue. But, like many 
other phenomena in nature which are a mystery to us at first, 
this becomes quite simple when fully observed. The caterpillars 
as already stated, repose in serene weather on the outer surface 
of the nest, lying side by side as compactly as they can stow 
themselves. Straggling individuals coming in from feeding at 
this time, to spin their threads upon the surface of , the nest, and 
finding it covered to a greater or less extent by their slumbering 
comrades, proceed with their work as usual, traveling over the 
backs of the reposing caterpillars to and fro in every direction, 
thus spreading a blanket upon them as it were. These caterpil- 
lars on awakening from repose, in order to make their exit, 
crowd the thin threads aside in two or three places, thus form- 
ing round holes through the web, which thenceforth become the 
doors through which they pass in and out of the new apartment. 
The old portions of the nest become foul, being filled with the 
shrivelled cast skins and black grains excreted by the worms. 



192 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR CHERRY TREES OVERRUN BY IT. 

In almost every nest a few small worms may be seen, not half 
the size of the others. These do not appear to be individuals 
which have been stung by parasites, as some have supposed, for 
I find such dwarfs in nests I have reared within doors, where it 
is not probable any parasites had ever invaded them. They are 
probably individuals which have been diseased, or which have 
been less fortunate than their comrades in finding the supply of 
food which they required. 

Sometimes also one or two very large worms may be found 
reposing in a nest of small and more lately hatched ones. These 
are evidently stragglers which have abandoned their own nest, 
and in wandering about, happening to come to this nest, have 
crowded into it to repose temporarily. The proprietors of the 
nest make no resistance to these intruders. Nor do we ever see 
these caterpillars show any unfriendliness towards one another. 
When one of them is annoyed in any way, it throws its head 
spitefully and with a sudden jerk from side to side, and when 
menaced with danger it holds its head upwards and remains stiff 
and rigid, or else it drops itself to the ground and there lies per- 
fectly still, as though aware that if it moved its enemy would 
more readily discover it. 

As the black cherry is the favorite of these insects it often 
happens that trees of this kind which stand solitary in the fields 
or along the fences, attract the female moths from all directions, 
and become greatly overstocked with eggs. A hundred nests 
may sometimes be counted upon a small tree. In such instances 
before the caterpillars are half grown every particle of foliage 
upon the tree is consumed and every bud is gnawed to its core. 
The small amount of succulent matter which continues daily to 
grow in the buds does not suffice to give a taste of food to a 
tenth part of the ravenous multitudes. The situation of the 
worms at such times is truly pitiable. Famishing and tormented 
with hunger and feeling that a mouthful of sustenance must and 
can somewhere be found to alleviate the cravings of their appe- 
tite, each worm hurriedly crawls for the hundreth time to the 
end of every limb and twig. The tree thus becomes carpeted 
over and the angles of the branches become filled with the cob- 
web-like threads which are spun in these numberless journeys. 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR THE YOUNG WORMS. 193 

At length driven to migrate elsewhere or perish from starvation, 
they leave the tree, one following the track of another, travel- 
ing in the direction in which they discern or suppose they dis- 
cern other trees to be standing. If it is pasture land in which 
they are traveling, every stalk of clover, every dandelion leaf 
and other weed which they come to is examined to its summit 
in search of something which is edible. I once saw a heap of 
dry brush, every limb of which was overspread with the threads 
of a swarm which was thus emigrating, so little ability have 
they for discerning where food can be found. Their track may 
commonly be traced through the grass by the threads which they 
spin, to a distance of one or two rods, it gradually becoming 
less distinct as one worm after another has strayed away from it, 
impatient to find something wherewith to appease his hunger. 
Being already famished before leaving the tree it is probable 
that most of them perish before finding anything nutritious on 
which to feed. The cherry puts forth a scanty crop of new 
leaves after the worms have left it : and I have known trees to 
be totally defoliated three and four years in succession by these 
caterpillars, without being killed. But when thus assailed they 
grow but little, if any, and acquire a decrepit appearance from 
which they do not recover for several years. 

The larvae when they first come from the eggs are 0.08 long, slightly taper- 
ing, of a black color, the under side and legs pallid, and they are slightly 
clothed with soft gray hairs. After they commence feeding they show a pale 
ring at each of the joints, and a faint pale stripe lengthwise along the back upon 
each side of its middle, and another low down upon each side. The head is 
deep black, and some deep black dots may be discovered upon the body, from 
which the hairs arise. When they are a few days old and before the first 
moulting, they have increased to double their original size, and show some 
ash-gray or whitish lines more or less distincly, running lengthwise upon the 
back and sides. 

A worm which I confined by itself cast its skin the first time on the 6th of 
May, again on the 12th, a third time on the 15th, a fourth time on ttie 19th, and a 
fifth time on the 28th, being now an inch long. I think it would not have 
moulted again, but as it escaped from its confinement, a week after the last 
date, I cannot be certain upon this point. 

Jlftcr the first moult this worm was 0.20 long, of a dark gray color with 
two ashy-white lines along the back and two along each side, the space above 
the upper lateral line having a large blackish spot on each segment. The 
hind edges of the segments and the under side of the body was' also pale ash 

[Assembly, No 215.] 13 



194 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR THE MATURE WORMS. 

gray, the head velvety black, and the body was clothed with numerous ash 
gray hairs of different lengths. 

After the second moult it was half an inch long and nearly cylindric, the 
head being scarcely any broader than the body. It was black and hairy, the 
neck with numerous long hairs directed forward and overhanging the head, 
which was velvety black. A broad dull blue stripe extended along the back 
and a narrower wavy brighter blue one along each side, with several short 
curved blue lines between them. 

After Ihe third moult it was three-fourths of an inch long, with yellowish 
white hairs, and' stripes, &c, much the same as before. 

After the fourth moult it was 0.95 long, of a velvet black color with numer- 
ous yellowish or fox-colored hairs, with a white stripe down the back and nu- 
merous short crinkled white lines on the back and sides; a large black spot on 
each side of each segment, in the hind part of which spot was a transverse oval 
pale blue spot having an impressed line across it; a second pale blue spot in 
the crinkled white lines below the black spot. 

The full grown caterpillar is about two inches long and over a quarter of an 
inch thick, cylindrical, sixteen-footed, and thinly clothed with line soft yellow- 
ish or fox-colored hairs of different lengths, the longest ones measuring a quar- 
ter of an inch. These hairs are rather more numerous upon the neck, where 
they project obliquely forwards, shielding in some measure the head, which is 
black and furnished with shortish black hairs. The body is of a deep black 
color. A white stripe extends along the back its entire length, commencing 
upon the second or the base of the first segment back of the head. In this 
stripe are numerous minute black dots. On each side of it are a number of 
short crinkled irregular longitudinal lines, of a yellow color, which become 
paler down upon the sides. Above the lowermost series of these lines is a row 
of transverse oval pale blue spots, one upon the middle of each segment. On 
the anterior side of each of these spots is a broader deep velvety black spot, as it 
appears to the naked eye, forward of which is a rather faint pale blue oblong spot 
or short stripe, reaching to the anterior margin of the segment. Lower down 
the sides are mottled with the same tint of pale blue coloring, interspersed with 
short crinkled pale yellow or whitish lines. The under side of the body and 
the legs are black, the soles of theprolegs white. The neck or anterior edge of 
the segment next to the head is also white, with two small somewhat square 
yellow spots above. 

Early in June, as these caterpillars approach maturity they 
lose their social habits and leave the trees on which they have 
been bred, wandering about and feeding upon whatever foliage 
they find that is palatable to them. Being now so large and 
well fed, they are able to travel considerable distances, and can 
sustain themselves on such a variety of plants that they incur 
little risk of suffering from hunger. For a number of days at 
this period they may be seen everywhere, on plants in our yards 
and gardens, or crawling along fences and upon the walls of 
buildings, and frequently entering our dwellings at the open 



APPLE-TREN CATERPILLAR ITS COCOON AND CHRYSALIS. 195 

windows and doors. They still prefer the cherry and apple to 
all other food. One season on looking through an orchard of 
young apple trees at this time, I was surprised to find some of 
these caterpillars upon almost every tree. They must have come 
from considerable distances, as every nest in the orchard and its 
vicinity had been destroyed two or three weeks before. 

It is for the purpose of finding secure retreats in which to form 
their cocoons that the caterpillars thus disperse themselves. The 
cocoons are mostly spun about the end of the first week in June. 
They are placed commonly in a horizontal position, in crevices 
in the rough bark of trees, on the lower edges of boards where 
they are nailed to the posts of fences, on the under sides of rails, 
in the corners at the lower side of clapboards of buildings, be- 
neath the cornices, and in a variety of similar situations where 
they will be sheltered from the rain. They are held in their 
places by numerous loose crinkled threads on their outer sur- 
face. 

The cocoons are oval, white or pale yellow, hardly an inch 
long and 0.40 in diameter. They are rather 
...f; ^"2^ loosely woven, and so thin that the inclosed 
insect may be discerned through their sides. 
Their meshes, however, are filled with a kind of thin paste, 
which when dry crumbles to a fine powder resembling sulphur, 
which sifts from the cocoons when they are handled. The loose 
texture of the cocoon enables the moth when hatched to crowd 
itself out through one end of it, forming a large round opening 
therein, and giving to this end afterwards the blunt appearance 
shown on the left end of the above figure. The moth also dis- 
charges a colored fluid which wets and softens this end of the 
cocoon and thus facilitates the operation of working a hole 
through it; and this fluid also stains the orifice to a greater or 
less extent, making it a light tawny yellow color. 

The chrysalis which lies within this cocoon is variable in its 
size, measuring 0.65 to 080 in length and about 0.28 
in thickness. The accompanying figure will give the 
reader an idea of its appearance. Its surface is densely 
covered with fine short erect hairs, except upon the head and 
the sheaths in which the wings, legs and antennae are inclosed. 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR THE WINGED MOTH. 

When first formed it is of a dull while color with the head pale 
green and a pale brown stripe along the back; but it gradually 
changes to a darker color, and the shell which remains in the 
cocoon after the insect has come from it is sometimes black and 
sometimes chestnut brown irregularly spotted and blotched with 
black. 

Dr. Harris states that the chrysalis state of this insect lasts 
from fourteen to seventeen days. The specimen which Abbot 
bred was twenty-six days in its pupa form. Of nine early ma- 
tured caterpillars "which I had placed in a box the first 
formed its cocoon on the morning of June 2d; two others spun 
themselves up in the afternoon and two others in the evening 
of the same day, and the remaining four enclosed themselves 
the following night. The first moth was found in the box on the 
morning of June 23d, four more were found in the box the fol- 
lowing morning, three more came out in the course of that day, 
and the remaining one that night. Three weeks thus appears to 
be the usual period that these insects repose in their pupa state. 

The winged moths (see plate 3, fig. 3, 4) are of a dull reddish or fox color, 
different individuals varying in the depth of their coloring, the females (fig. 4) 
being often paler, approaching to grayish, and the males (fig. 3) often darker, 
sometimes brown with scarcely any tinge of red. The mark by which this 
species is most readily distinguished is two straight white stripes which extend 
obliquely across the fore-wings, parallel to each other and to the hind margin, 
dividing the wing into three nearly equal portions. The anterior stripe is often 
slightly broader than the posterior one, especially towards the outer margin 
of the wing. In some females these stripes are placed nearer to each other; and 
though commonly parallel, in some instances from the middle of the wing to 
the outer margin, or even through their entire length they diverge from each 
other. In the males they are less variable, but the space between them in this 
sex is frequently pale gray, and there are also numerous gray hairs on the 
basal portion, and a few towards the apical margin also. The hind wings are 
of the same color as the anterior ones, but without any pale marks. On their 
under sides the wings are the same color as above, and commonly a white band 
extends across both pairs near their middle, that on the fore wings being 
straight and widened at its outer end, that on the hind wings broader and 
curved. The fringe on the fore wings has a white alternation near the outer 
angle and another broader one on the middle; along the inner angle and on the 
hind wings it is white slightly varied in places with dull reddish. These colors 
of the fringe are much more distinct in the darker colored varieties of the male. 
The hairs with which the thorax is densely coated are often grayish. The 
Stalk of the antenna is dull white and its branches are dark rusty red, some- 
times with a whitish line on their outer side. The feet are white or yellowish 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR VARIETIES OF THE MOTH. 197 

white, particularly in the males. The wings when spread measure from 1.20 
to 1.30 in the males, and in the females from 1.40 to two inches. 
The following varieties may be noticed. 

I. In the males. 

a. The space between the bands on the fore wings pale gray. Common. 
6. The bands undulated near their outer ends. 

c. The basal outer half of the hind wings whitish. 

d. The hind wings with a whitish band across their middle. 

e. The whitish band on the under side of the fore wings wanting. 

/. The whitish band on the under side of both wings obsolete or wanting. 

II. In the females. 

g. The bands on the fore wings unusually distant, the middle space of the 

wing wider than the hind space. 
k. The bands unusually near each other, the space between them more than 

four times as long as wide. 
i. The bands perceptibly diverging from the middle of the wing to its outer 

margin. 
j. The bands slightly diverging through their whole length from the inner to 

the outer margin. 
These moths are most numerous about the end of the first week 
in July. They pair and the females deposit their eggs within a 
day or two after they come from their cocoons. Thus the belts of 
eggs begin to be seen upon the twigs of the apple trees as early as 
the first of July. Like other insects of this group, these moths 
frequently enter the open windows of our dwellings in the even- 
ing, attracted by the lights. A dozen will sometimes come in 
thus, in an hour or two of a sultry dark night. It is readily 
known from other species at such times, by its motions. Dazzled 
and bewildered by the light, it darts crazily about, here and there, 
thumping against the table, the wall and the floor, and instantly 
rebounding it circles around the candle with Jehu-like velocity, 
till it blurts through the flame, nearly extinguishing it and 
singeing its horns and wings, when it is glad to withdraw to 
some obscure corner and there remain at rest. 

This moth inhabits all parts of the United States. Persons 
who have removed from New-York to Illinois and Wisconsin 
inform me that they have these caterpillars in their orchards 
there, but that they are by no means so common. as here at the 
east. Abbot remarks that in Virginia whole orchards are strip- 
ped of their leaves by them, but that in Georgia it is not very 
common. From the specimens of the moths which have been 
sent me from Mississippi and from the Indian territory west of 



198 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR THE FOREST CATERPILLAR. 

Arkansas, I should judge it to be common through the south 
western states. And it probably occurs over all those parts of 
our continent where the black cherry is a native tree. 

Another caterpillar which has already been mentioned, named 
Clisiocampa sylvatica by Dr. Harris, or the Forest caterpillar, is 
so v.ery similar to the insect we are considering, in its appearance 
and habits, that it merits a notice in this connection, but as I 
have not enjoyed an opportunity for carefully noticing its history 
and transformations, I shall only allude to it briefly at present^ 
It is most fond of the oak but it is also frequently met with upon 
the apple. Here at the north it is far less common than the 
other species, and I have only occasionally met with one of its 
nests, and with the caterpillars when they were wandering about 
in search of retreats in which to spin their cocoons. But in 
Virginia it is so abundant some years, according to Abbot, as to 
strip the oaks of their leaves. Among my neighbors it has the 
reputation of being more injurious to apple trees than the com- 
mon species, as it not only consumes the leaves, they say, but 
gnaws the stems of the young apples, causing them to wither and 
fall to the ground. 

These caterpillars build their nests against the side of the tree 
instead of in a fork of the limbs. The worm has the same form 
and size and is clothed with hairs similar to the common species, 
but may easily be distinguished from it by its color and stripes. 
It is pale blue tinged with ashy greenish low down on the sides, 
and is everywhere sprinkled over with black points and dots. 
Along the middle of the back is a row of white spots and on 
each side of these an orange yellow or tawny reddish stripe, 
and a paler cream yellow stripe lower down on each side, these 
stripes and spots being margined with black; and each segment 
has two elevated black points upon the back, from each of which 
arise four or more coarse black hairs. They are rather later 
than the common caterpillars in spinning their cocoons and in 
giving out the winged moths, and these moths resemble those of 
the common species, being of a cinnamon brown color, the fore 
wings paler or nankin yellow, crossed by two oblique straight 
parallel stripes of a rusty brown color, and the whole space 
between these stripes is in many specimens rusty brown. 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR DESTROYED BY PARASITES. 199 

The caterpillars which are seen wandering about, everywhere, 
the fore part of June, all disappear by the middle of that month, 
having wound themselves up in their cocoons. Straggling indi- 
viduals, however, may be met with after this time. So late even 
as the fourth of July, when the winged moths are generally out 
of their cocoons, I have met with individual caterpillars still 
lingering upon the leaves of apple trees. Several of these late 
stragglers I have confined in boxes, deeming they might be infest- 
ed with internal parasites. But in every instance they refused to 
eat, and have died within a few days and their bodies have be- 
come putrid, and no parasites were to be found within them 
when examined. Hence it is probable that all these late indi- 
viduals are diseased and too debilitated to spin cocoons, and that 
they all perish. It will not therefore be worth while to give 
any care in destroying them when we happen to meet with them. 

When the caterpillars disperse themselves abroad, a few re- 
main upon the tree and continue to occupy the nest. These also 
appear to be diseased individuals which are too feeble to roam 
abroad like their comrades And they eventually form their 
cocoons within the nest. Thus on tearing open old nests a few 
cocoons will almost always be found in them. Some of these 
yield winged moths, but the insects in most of them are destroyed 
by parasites. There are probably different species of Ichneumon- 
flies and kindred insects which prey upon and destroy the Lackey 
moth in its larva and pupa state. Sometimes a very small white 
cocoon not half the size of a grain of wheat, and of a texture like 
that of the silk paper on which bank bills are printed, may be 
found slightly attached to the outer surface of the cocoons of the 
Lackey moth. The insects make their escape therefrom by cut- 
ting one end of the cocoon nearly off and pushing it up like a 
lid. These small cocoons are probably formed by parasitic 
worms which feed upon and destroy the inmate of the larger 
cocoon and make their way out of its body as soon as they have 
attained their growth. 

Many of these cocoons which are found in the old nests of the 
caterpillars have a large hole perforated in them near one end, 
this perforation also extending through the shell of the chrysalis. 
In July and the forepart of August a multitude of minute Chal- 



200 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR CLEONYMUS PARASITE. 

cidian insects of a deep metallic green and black color, may be 
found issuing from this orifice, being doubtlessly hatched from 
small maggots which have subsisted upon the chrysalis. Why 
the orifice is so much larger than is necessary for their exit I 
am at a loss to conjecture. These same insects may also be seen 
at the same time, walking around upon the exterior surface of 
the nests and the limbs and leaves around it. They appear to 
pertain to the genus Cleonymus of Latreille, as this genus is re- 
stricted and defined by Westwood (Synopsis of British Genera, 
p. 72) and by Brulle (St. Fargeau's Hymenopteres, vol. iv. p. 
594), and this species may appropriately be named 

The Lackey-moth Cleonymus (C Clisiocampj). The males are about 
0.09 in length to the tip of the abdomen and of the wings, and the females 0.11. 
The head and thorax are somewhat rough from numerous minute elevated 
points giving their surface a shagreened appearance. They vary in color from 
dull metallic green to black, being the former color commonly in the males, 
the latter in the females, with the face green in both sexes and sometimes with 
a golden yellow reflection. The abdomen is smooth and highly polished, black 
or purplish black, immaculate in the females, in the males with a large pal 
yellowish spot near the base above and beneath, varying in its size in different 
individuals, the sutures also being more or less marked with the same color. 
The antennae are black or dark brown, their long basal joint pale dull yellow, 
which is also the color of the legs the tips of the feet being black, and in the 
female the thighs are more or less dusky or brown. The wings appear whitish 
when closed and carried flat upon the back as they are when the insect is walk- 
ing. When spread they are hyaline and glassy, their whole surface covered 
with minute punctures, each bearing a fine short hair. The stigma or short 
thick branch at the end of the rib-vein is slightly enlarged and triangular at 
its apex, the angle which is towards the outer margin being prolonged into an 
acute point, this stigmal branch being hereby curved on its outer and straight 
on its inner side. The thickened rib-vein is confluent with the outer margin 
about three times the length of the stigmal branch before giving off this branch. 
The antennae are eleven jointed, the joints beyond the first compacted and 
forming an elongated club, the third and fourth joints being much smaller than 
the others, the third but half the size of the fourth and often difficult to per- 
ceive. The second joint is longer than the fifth and following ones. The last 
joint is double the preceding. The male is more slender than the other sex 
and has the abdomen oval and convex above, its segments faintly marked by 
slender transverse impressed lines, the fifth segment being longer than the 
fourth. In the female the abdomen is broader than the thorax and has an 
ovate form tapering to an acute point. It is flattened above and strongly pro- 
tuberant in the middle beneath. 

In the old nests of these caterpillars, in August, the larva of 
a moth, probably of the family Tineim?., is common. It is a slen- 
der sixteen-footed soft fleshy worm over a third of an inch long> 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — REMEDIES. DROWNING. 201 

of a dull reddish color with a black head and neck. It subsists 
upon the old effete matters of the nest, or perhaps consumes the 
shells of the chrysalids after the moths or their parasites have 
come from them, for cocoons frequently occur from which these 
shells have disappeared. 

For destroying these caterpillars a variety of measures are re- ' 
sorted to by different persons in all parts of our country. Whilst 
some of these are more or less efficacious others are puerile and 
worthless, and some do the worms more benefit than harm. 

I have known persons to content themselves with simply 
thrusting a stick into the nest and tearing it asunder and knock- 
ing or shaking the worms to the ground, thinking that few of 
them would be able to find their way up the tree again and that 
at least a part of them would perish from starvation. Such per- 
sons have no correct conceptions of the distances which these 
caterpillars can travel and the variety of leaves on which they 
can subsist. 

I have known other persons to tear open the nest and pour 
water into it till it was saturated, thinking this operation drowned 
the worms. And in former years I was myself accustomed to 
cut off the limbs containing nests upon the choke cherries in my 
meadow and throw them into the adjacent creek, supposing the 
worms would thus be drowned and become food for fish. I have 
since learned that in this act I was no more wise than the sages 
of Gotham when they sat about destroying an eel by drowning 
it. I have known one of these worms after being immersed un- 
der water two hours revive and crawl away on becoming dry. 
Nor is hot water more efficacious. Several nests of quite young 
caterpillars, through which water that was near the boiling point 
was profusely poured were next day found all alive and appa- 
rently unharmed by the operation. 

I have sometimes poured soap suds into the nests and upon the 
worms when exposed upon the limbs and leaves. When wetted 
in this manner they shrink up and fall to the ground, dead as I 
have supposed, but I am not certain that none of them have re- 
vived again when thus treated. Some persons have used ley in 
the same manner, and this is undoubtedly more destructive. A 
swab charged with spirits of turpentine or with whale oil soap 



202 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR BURNING THE NESTS. 

and thrust into the nest, it is said will kill many of the insects 
and compel others to escape. 

Burning the nests and thus destroying the worms when at rest 
within them, has been recommended. A very neat method of 
effecting this was given by Prof. Mapes at the meeting of the 
Farmers' club of New-York on the fourth of September last. It 
is to saturate the nest with a mixture of alcohol and camphene 
and set it on fire. I have not tested the efficacy ot this mode, but, 
clustered together in a mass as the worms commonly are in their 
nests I should be fearful those in the inner part of the mass 
would not be killed by the transitory heat thus produced, since 
hot water fails to destroy them. Another method which has 
often been resorted to is to hold to the nest the muzzle of a gun 
lightly loaded with powder and discharge it. I have been in- 
formed that only a part of the worms are commonly destroyed 
by this operation. 

Sulphur has been in higher repute and has been oftener re- 
sorted to in this country than any other remedy, for expelling 
caterpillars and all kinds of worms from trees. A hole is bored 
in the trunk of the tree to the depth of about six inches; this is 
filled with sulphur and a plug is inserted to retain it from being 
washed out by the rain or by sap flowing from the wound. This 
remedy obtained much currency from the experiments of the 
late George Webster of Albany, reported in the Memoirs of the 
old New- York Board of Agriculture, vol. ii, p. 250, and exten- 
sively copied into other publications at that period. And like 
Mr. Webster, many others have become assured of the efficacy of 
this remedy, from the mere fact that the worms have all disappear- 
ed from the infested trees within a day or two after this measure 
has been resorted to. Now there is a peculiar liability to be de- 
ceived and misled, by experiments like this. The larvae of in- 
sects generally, become most voracious and make the greatest 
havoc, just as they are arriving at maturity. And as they are 
now grown to a larger size than they had previously been, they 
commonly are not noticed until this time. Having nearly com- 
pleted their growth, they of course forsake the tree which they 
infest within a few days. Persons nut conversant with the hab- 
its of these vermin, will hence suppose the remedy which they 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR SULPHUR AS A REMEDY. 203 

have applied has driven them from the tree; whereas it is their 
natural habit to crawl from the tree at this time. Now in all 
cases like this it is an easy matter to conduct an experiment in 
such a manner that there can be no deception or mistake in the 
result. Obviously, if sulphur, applied in the manner stated, has 
any effect in rendering a tree repulsive to the worms infesting 
it, it is in consequence of its being absorbed and circulated in 
the sap to every limb and leaf of the tree. For the purpose, 
therefore, of ascertaining the effect of sulphur upon the apple 
tree caterpillar, I on the third of May cut off the limb of a wild 
cherry tree on which w T as a nest, the worms of which were a 
quarter of an inch in length, and inserted the but-end of this 
limb in a cup of sulphur slightly moistened with water — where- 
by the twigs and leaves would certainly become much more 
strongly impregnated with this substance than they ever can be 
from sulphur inserted in a hole bored in the trunk of a tree. A 
limb containing another nest was also cut off and inserted in a 
cup containing water only. These two nests were placed side 
by side in my office, where they would be subject to the same 
temperature and influences, except in the one particular speci- 
fied. As the leaves upon the first mentioned limb became con- 
sumed by the worms, a fresh limb the but of which had been in- 
serted in moistened sulphur during the twelve hours preceding, 
was placed in 'contact with it. Sulphur was also sprinkled upon 
a part of the nest. But the worms seemed to wholly disregard 
this, traveling freely around and over it, and soon inclosing it 
under the newly woven tissues of their nest. At the end of nine 
days the caterpillars in both nests were larger than any of those 
out of doors, the temperature of the office warmed by a stove 
upon chilly days and evenings, having evidently favored their 
growth. At this time, May 12th, the worms which had fed upon 
ordinary leaves were four-tenths of an inch in length; those 
which had subsisted upon leaves impregnated with sulphur were 
double their size, measuring 0.80 to 0.85. It was clearly appa- 
rent, therefore, that so far from being in the least degree prejudi 
cial to them, the sulphur had rendered them more healthy and 
robust, rapidly accelerating their growth. And it hence is quite 
probable that those hundreds of persons in our country who 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR SOAP AS A REMEDY. 

have spent more or less time in inserting sulphur in the trunks 
of trees infested with worms have hereby benefitted these vermin 
more than they have injured them. 

Soap being so efficacious a remedy against some insects in- 
duced me to test its effects upon these. A nest of late caterpil- 
lars, only half grown upon the last day in May, were upon the 
limb of a small garden cherry, when I placed a band of soft soap 
around the limb, slightly below the nest. Several worms started 
out of the nest to feed, but each on touching its nose to the 
soap retreated back hastily into the nest. Three worms coming 
in from feeding, on touching the soap, turned about and crawled 
away from it, whereupon I placed a second ring around the limb, 
below them. On coming to this they again turned around, up 
the limb, and continued traveling backwards and forth from 
one barrier to the other, without attempting to pass either of 
them. My hopes were high that this substance would prove in- 
valuable in combating these insects. Other rings quarentining 
more worms, were placed around other limbs, and a quantity of 
the soap was put in the forks of all the larger limbs. But, two 
hours afterward, the surface of the soap having become dry so 
as to give the worms a foothold, they were found everywhere 
traveling over and scarcely noticing it. 

Next, to ascertain whether the alkaline matter of the soap 
would be absorbed and pass into the circulating juices of the 
tree and impregnate the leaves sufficiently to render them un- 
palatable to the caterpillars, the main trunk of the tree from 
near the ground to the limbs, a distance of five feet, was pro- 
fusely coated over with soap, and some of the larger limbs were 
also rubbed with it. A slight rain coming on aided in washing 
this substance into the small crevices of the bark. But I could 
not discover that it had any effect upon the worms. They con- 
tinued to feed and to thrive upon this tree. A fortnight after- 
wards, when the caterpillars had almost universally forsaken the 
trees, a few were still remaining upon this tree. And I may 
add that the leaves of this tree after the soap was thus copiously 
applied to it, appeared as much infested with the black aphides 
or cherry plant lice described in my First Eeport, as were the 
leaves of other trees around it. It thus appears that this sub- 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — DESTROYING THE EGGS. 205 

stance is not such a sovereign prophylactic against all insects 
upon fruit trees as the observations of some of our most success- 
ful fruit growers have led them to suppose. And there can be 
no doubt that in this as in the higher classes of animals, what is 
poison to one may be meat for another. 

There are two measures only which we can confidently recom- 
mend, whereby to subdue these insects and save the fruit trees 
from defoliation by them. And these universal experience con- 
curs in pronouncing the only efficient and reliable measures to 
which recourse can be had. 

The first of these is destroying the eggs. This must be at- 
tended to in the winter or early in the spring before the leaves 
begin to put forth. As this is a period of t\\e year when other 
avocations leave us comparatively at leisure, it is economy to 
accomplish now whatever can be done which will diminish the 
demands upon our time during the busier parts of the year. And 
every cluster of these eggs which can be discovered can be much 
more easily and speedily destroyed than a nest of caterpillars 
can be exterminated at a later date. The orchard should there- 
fore be carefully passed through at this time and the ends at 
least of all the lower limbs should be examined. And for this 
work it is necessary to call into exercise the sharpest scrutiny 
which we are able to give, for despite of our utmost care some 
of these clusters will elude our search. A practised eye will 
detect the unevenness or swelled appearance of the twig where 
these eggs are placed, much more readily than that of a novice. 
They are sometimes at the very end of the twig, sometimes one 
or two feet from its extremity, and not unfrequently two belts 
of eggs occur upon the same twig. The eggs are to be gathered 
either by cutting off the twig to which they are attached or by 
breaking and tearing them from the twig. They should be car- 
ried to the house in a basket and thrown into the stove, for if 
merely dropped upon the ground the worms will afterwards 
hatch from them and many of these will be apt to find their way 
to some tree or shrub on which to subsist. There perhaps has 
never been more urgent necessity for a universal resort to the 
measure now specified than there will be the coming winter, the 
trees being stocked with eggs at the date when these pages are 



206 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR CRUSHING THE WORMS. 

going to the press, to an extent never before known. Persons 
who have never seen these eggs upon their trees hitherto, now 
notice them frequently, notwithstanding the trees are in full 
leaf. And should the season prove favorable to them, and no 
artificial destruction be had recourse to, our orchards bid fair to 
be stripped of their foliage next year to an extent never before 
paralleled. 

But, as already stated, notwithstanding the most searching 
scrutiny, many of these clusters of eggs will escape notice, par- 
ticularly upon the higher limbs of the trees. The proprietor of 
an orchard, therefore, is often vexed, after entirely ridding his 
trees of the eggs of these insects, as he supposes he has done, to 
find nests of caterpillars appearing upon them when the leaves 
are beginning to put forth. A second measure, the destruction 
of the caterpillars, therefore becomes necessary. And certainly 
the most expeditious and effectual method for accomplishing this 
is to crush them when they are gathered together and reposing 
in their nests. Practical orchardists are quite unanimous upon 
this subject, although in killing the worms there is some diver- 
sity in their practice. The best method is that stated by the 
late Willis Gaylord : " With a suitable ladder and a pair of 
stout mittens, if you are fastidious about using your hands, * 
* * when the worms are all in their web, at a single grasp 
every occupant may at once be destroyed." (Trans. N. Y. State 
Agric. Soc, vol. iii, p. 153.) Those, however, who are at all 
squeamish in encountering work of this kind, which it must be 
confessed is more agreeable when done than when doing, prefer 
tearing the nest from the tree and trampling its contents into the 
earth beneath the sole of the boot. By thrusting a stick or pole 
through the nest as low down in the fork of the limbs as possible, 
and then raising it outwards, nearly the entire nest and its occu- 
pants can be removed from the tree, when there are no small late- 
ral limbs growing within the fork to catch and retain portions of it. 
Others thrust into the nest a cylindrical brush constructed by 
the manufacturers for this purpose, or the top of a dry mullen 
stalk, attached to a pole for those nests which are high up in the 
tree, and turning it about in such a manner as to wind the nest 
around it, by pressing and rubbing it against the limbs, hereby 



APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR CRUSHING THE WORMS. 207- 

crush most of the worms, and complete the work by returning 
to the nest on a subsequent day and repeating this operation. 
Whichever of these methods is adopted, the work is in all cases 
the most easily performed and the least disgusting, when the 
worms are young and small. It should therefore be done early 
in May, as soon as the white nests, appearing like cobwebs in the 
forks of the limbs, become sufficiently conspicuous to be readily 
seen. The worms of some nests will be out, feeding, at the same 
hours when others are resting within their tents. They are 
more universally in their webs in the morning than at any other 
time. But days during which there is a slight sprinkling rain 
are probably the best for this work, as the worms are then all 
in their nests, as a general rule, and are more torpid and less apt 
to crawl away; though the nests when wet are not so easily dis- 
covered. Often, too, when from the number of worms reposing 
in the nest we imagine the whole of the brood is there, a portion 
of them are in reality absent, engaged in feeding. Thus it fre- 
quently happens that w r hen we suppose we have entirely exter- 
minated a nest, on returning to it a few days afterwards we are 
surprised to find it rebuilt and quite a number of worms inhab- 
iting it. In order therefore to entirely destroy these pests, it is 
necessary to go through the orchard repeatedly. And every 
owner of an orchard should make it a point to wage a war of 
extermination against these insects, annually. Not the fragment 
of a nest which is accessible should be allowed to remain. The 
rich green foliage in which the trees will be clad when released 
from this most common enemy, and the quantity and fairness of 
the fruit which they are then enabled to grow, will amply repay 
the care which is thus bestowed upon them. Within the circuit 
of my own observation I presume one-half the owners of 
orchards give no attention whatever to the caterpillars which 
yearly invade their trees. Most of them are men of such strict 
economy they think they cannot afford to spend their time in 
such trifling work as destroying these worms' nests. Now it re- 
quires but a few moments, with a suitable ladder, to mount into 
a tree and with one hand covered with a buckskin mitten, crush 
every worm in the nest there. Ten of these nests can thus be 
destroyed with ease in an hour. Each of these nests contains 



-208 APPLE-TREE CATERPILLAR — CHERRY TREES AS DECOYS. 

about tliree hundred worms, and each worm, as already stated, 
devours two leaves daily. Six hundred leaves are each day 
stripped from each tree on which there is one of these nests. 
An hour's labor therefore saves to the orchard six thousand 
leaves daily, for the space of two or three weeks. Where else 
can an hour's labor be so profitably devoted as in destroying 
these worms? Surely men who are such close economists, when 
they are apprised of these facts, will never allow one of these 
nests to remain upon their trees for a single day. 

Some persons do not allow any wild cherry trees to grow on 
their lands, in consequence of the numbers of these caterpil- 
lars which they breed. But the orchards of such men are 
probabiy about as much infested with these insects, coming in 
to them from the fields and forests of their neighbors, as they 
would be were wild cherries growing upon their own lands. 
And valuable as the timber of this tree is for cabinet work, we 
cannot recommend its extermination. It appears to be the 
young, thrifty growing trees of this species which are the espe- 
cial favorites of these insects. Large old trees are rarely infest- 
ed to a great extent, especially when trimmed of their limbs to 
a considerable height from the ground. And even if every wild 
cherry tree in our country was cut down and not a caterpillar's 
nest was tolerated in any of our orchards, these insects would con- 
tinue to sustain themselves, though no doubt in greatly dimin- 
ished numbers, upon the other species of cherry and upon the 
thorn apples and other trees and shrubs on which they are able 
to subsist and thrive. 

As the wild black cherry is so much preferred to the apple or 
any other tree by these insects, and as it is easier to destroy a 
hundred nests upon one tree than a quarter of that number 
where they are scattered upon different trees, it strikes me that 
this tree may perhaps be turned to a valuable account as a decoy 
for these insects. If one or two cherry trees are standing in the 
fences on each of the sides of an orchard, the eggs of these 
insects it is probable will nearly all be deposited upon these 
trees which otherwise will be scattered over all the trees in the 
orchard. These trees can be kept trimmed and headed down so 
that all parts of them will be readily accessible. The ends of 



VAPORER MOTH BEAUTY OF THE CATERPILLAR. 209 

the limbs, moreover, are so much more slender, long and straight 
than those of the apple tree, that the eye detects the belt of 
eggs upon them far more readily than upon the latter tree. 
Hence a hundred clusters of eggs or a hundred caterpillars' 
nests upon a half dozen cherry trees on the outer edge of the 
orchard can be exterminated much more easily than half that 
number upon forty or fifty apple trees within the orchard. And 
the work when brought within so small a compass can be much 
more completely accomplished, leaving nothing to produce a 
crop of these vermin another year, except what straggles in 
from the surrounding premises of shiftless neighbors. Every 
reader will perceive the plausibility of the measure now sug- 
gested- but it is only after testing it by carrying it into practice, 
that we can know with certainty whether it will fulfill our 
expectations. 

Eating the leaves, in July; a slender caterpillar with pale yellow hairs 
and tufts and hlack pencils, its head and two small protuberances on 
the hind part of the back bright coral red. 

In winter, clusters of white eggs and a dead leaf adhering to a whitish 
cocoon attached to the twigs or limbs. 

The American Vaporer moth, Orgyia leucostigma, Abbot and Smith. 

The term "caterpillar" is applied to a worm which is clothed 
with hairs; and we commonly associate this term with something 
which is ugly and repulsive in its appearance. But many cater- 
pillars are far from meriting this prejudice, being in reality ob- 
jects of much beauty. This is eminently the case with one 
which may frequently be seen in the month of July upon apple 
trees, and also in our yards upon rose bushes. We cultivate the 
rose for ornament; and nature, as if to further our designs, places 
upon the leaves this neat prim little caterpillar, which is a more 
delicate, elegant object than the handsomest rose that ever grew. 
I well remember the first time I noticed one of these caterpillars. 
It was in the hay-field, in my boyhood. One of the laborers, 
who had little taste for any of the beauties of nature — a man of 
that class of whom the poet sings, 

" The primrose growing by the river's brim 

Is but 'A yellow primrose' — nothing more — to him" — 

in stooping for a handful of grass to wipe off his scythe, had his 
attention arrested by one of these caterpillars. Taking up the 
[Assembly, 215.] 14 



210 VAPORER MOTH CATERPILLAR. 

leaf on which it was standing, he was for several moments ab- 
sorbed in contemplating its bright colors and the artistic arrange- 
ment of its elegant plumes. Then, as he was laying it down he 
said to himself, " That is the prettiest thing I ever saw ! " Let 
us not murmer, if the leaves of our rose-bushes are somewhat 
gnawed and eroded, when they hereby produce for our admira- 
tion objects far more beautiful than we look for them to yield. 

These caterpillars are an inch or more in length, slender, sixteen footed, and 
have the skin of a cream yellow color with a black stripe along the middle of 
the back and a broader brown or black one upon each side. The body is thinly 
clothed with pale yellow hairs which radiate from small wart-like elevations, 
and in a row on the fore part of the back are four brush-like tufts of a deeper 
yeilow color. On the hind part of the back are two little knobs or bosses of a 
bright coral red color, or like sealing wax, and the head is of the same color. 
Projecting upward from the hind end of the back like a camel's hair pencil is 
a bundle of long black hairs, and inclining forward and outward from each side 
of the neck is a similar pencil. The hairs of these pencils are minutely bearded 
through their whole length, and each hair has a small knob at its end, which 
is formed of a tuft of minute bristles. The pencils have a jointed appearance, 
from their hairs being in sets of different lengths. The yellow hairs are also 
bearded, but have no knobs at their ends. 

I have, on willows and on basswood met with caterpillars differing from the 
preceding in having the head yellow, no red knobs upon the back, a black 
spot behind each of the brush-like tufts except the first, and beyond these a 
deep yellow instead of a black stripe, and no brown stripe along the sides. 
Whether these are a distinct species, or only a variety, I am unable to say, two 
individuals which I reared having proved to be wingless females. 

These caterpillars do not associate together in companies, nor 
form any web for their protection, but live solitary, exposing them- 
selves openly upon the leaves and in the glare of sunlight, as if they 
thought that no creature would have a heart to injure anything 
so pretty as they are. They eat irregular notches in the margins 
of leaves, and where they are very numerous they consume the 
whole of the leaf, leaving nothing but the mid-vein. They feed 
upon many different kinds of trees, the elm, the maple, the horse 
chestnut, the oak, &c, but they appear to be most fond of the 
apple, the plum, the rose, and other perennials belonging to the 
Family Rosacea. They attain their growth and spin their co- 
coons mostly during the latter half of the month of July. The 
cocoons are attached to the twigs and limbs of trees, and some- 
times to the leaves, and also to the posts and rails of fences, it 
probably being some of those caterpillars which are to produce 
male moths which select the latter situations. The cocoons are 



VAPORER MOTH COCOON. 211 

formed of whitish silken threads so loosely woven together that 
the enclosed chrysalis can often be seen. They consist of an outer 
and an inner covering or tunic. The outer covering is commonly 
formed in part of two leaves, which are bent and tied together 
in such a manner as to make a kind of roof, sheltering the co- 
coon from rain, the lower leaf being overlapped by the lower 
edge of the upper one. There is considerable diversity, however, 
in the mode in which the leaves are attached to the cocoon. 
Sometimes they are drawn around it in the form of a cone with 
its point upwards. Sometimes but a single leaf is used. I once 
met with one of these cocoons upon the upper surface of a but- 
ternut leaf, the sides of which were drawn upwards so that the 
leaf formed half of the exterior portion of the structure. And 
as if the worm was aware of the brittle attachment of the leaf 
to the main stem, and was conscious that its own weight added 
to that of the leaf would inevitably cause it to break off and 
fall should a gale of wind arise, it had spun several threads to 
the main stem, thus securely tying it thereto. It is impossible 
for us to conceive how this worm came to possess such know- 
ledge. The main stem would have fallen with the fall of the 
leaves in autumn. This cocoon produced a male moth. The 
female caterpillars undoubtedly place their cocoons, in every 
instance, where they will remain upon the tree through the win- 
ter; whilst the males are indifferent in this matter, caring for 
their safety only for the short time they remain withiu them. 
This is a signal instance of the harmony of nature, as will ap- 
pear when we come to see where the eggs of the female are de- 
posited. 

Woven into the cocoon are numerous black and pale hairs, 
derived from the body of the caterpillars; and the remains of 
plant-lice are sometimes interspersed, probably from these stu- 
pid creatures having wandered over the cocoon at the time of its 
construction, and becoming inextricably involved in its meshes. 
The cocoon is about an inch and a half long. The inner tunic 
is but half the size of the outer, the space between being occupied 
with single threads crossing each other in every direction, and 
with the shrivelled remains of the caterpillar lying in the lower 
end. This inner covering is a closed sack of a regular oval form. 



212 VAPORER MOTH CHRYSALIS. 

smooth on its inside, and a little larger than the chrysalis which 

reposes within it. The cocoon is placed indifferently either in 

a perpendicular, an oblique, or a horizontal direction. 

The chrysalis is of an oval form, twice as long as broad, measuring from 0.60 
to 0.70 in length. It is rounded anteriorly and drawn out into a little horn- 
like point at its hind end, furnished with minute hooks at its tip, which are 
fastened into the threads of the cocoon. It is of a brown color with pale clouds 
and the under side of the abdomen whitish. Sometimes it is black and shin- 
ing, with scarcely any traces of whitish. Upon the head back and sides it is 
thickly covered with rather long fine white hairs. The three anterior segments 
next to the head have each upon their middle, above, an oval or square trans- 
verse spot of a pale clay color, formed of scales which resemble little collapsed 
vesicles or bladders, and each of these spots is crossed by a slender line upon 
its middle. The wing-sheaths appear to be of the same length in both the 
sexes, reaching to the anterior edge of the first abdominal segment. On break- 
ing open a female chrysalis, its inside is found filled with eggs which appear to 
be grown to their full size. 

In each instance when I have bred these insects, the moth 
made its appearance on the thirteenth day after the cocoon was 
spun. It therefore begins to appear abroad upon the wing about 
the first of August. We sometimes, however, meet with the 
chrysalis unhatched in the cocoon in the winter. These are 
doubtless individuals which have been later in completing their 
growth and from which moths will be given out early in the fol- 
lowing spring. From the gay appearance of the caterpillar one 
would expect a very pretty moth to be produced by it, and will 
be disappointed on obtaining a dark sooty brown thing, little 
variegated with spots or streaks. These moths may sometimes 
be seen resting upon the door posts or the shady side of build- 
ings, with their fore legs stretched out in front, and their antennae ' 
elevated. They frequently enter open windows in the evening, 
attracted by the light. They fly also in the day time. Their 
mode of flight is peculiar, consisting of short jerks or in a flirt- 
ing manner. This has probably obtained for insects of a similar 
kind which occur in England, their common name, vaporer moths, 
a term indicating something of a volatile, peevish, hysterical dis- 
position. They pertain to the genus Orgyia in the family Arc- 
TiiDiE and order Lepidoptera, and this species is named leuco- 
stigma or the Pale vaporer moth, in the splendid work of Abbott 
and Smith upon the Insects of Georgia, plate 79. The epithet 
" pale," however, is inappropriate for these moths as they occur 



VAPORER MOTH VARIETIES. 213 

in the State of New- York. Indeed the specimens which I meet 
with in Washington county, fifty miles north of Albany, are so 
uniform in their characters, and so unlike the insect figured and 
described by Abbott and Smith that I should deem them a dis- 
tinct species, were it not that the caterpillars, which are so pe- 
culiarly colored and clothed, appear to be identical with those 
of Georgia, and specimens of the moths from the vicinity of the 
city of New-York are intermediate in their marks, between the 
more northern and the Georgia insects, thus indicating that there 
is a gradual transition from the one to the other. 

The winged moths as they occur in the Southern States, appear from the 
representations given, to be of a pale graj r or ash' color, the fore wings with a 
white crescent near the inner hind angle, and crossed by two conspicuous curv- 
ed black bands, the hind one of which and the black spots upon these wings 
are nearly as in the following variety. 

The intermediate variety (0 Icucost'gma var. intermedia) which" occurs in 
the southern part of New-York measures about 1.40 across the extended wings. 
The fore-wings are ash-gray, their basal third smoky brown, paler on the 
inner side and crossed by a faint wavy pale band, which is confluent outwardly 
with an ash-gray cloud which extends from this band to the base. A blackish 
crinkled band commences on the inner margin behind the middle, runnin"- in- 
ward and then curving backward, till it approaches the outer edge, when it 
abruptly turns forward almost at a right angle and extends straight in an ob- 
lique direction more than the tenth of an inch to the outer edge. In the mid- 
dle of the pale gray space forward of this band is a slender black crescent hav- 
ing some resemblance to the letter L, with a dot between it and the outer mar- 
gin, a slender black line sometimes reaching with a curve from the crescent to 
the dot. The wing back of the band is pale smoky brown, except towards the 
outer margin, where it is pale gray, with a rhombic black spot on the margin 
immediately behind the band, this spot being cut across longitudinally by a 
slender gray line. Inside of this spot and much nearer the hind edge are two 
smaller blackish spots or streaks. Near the inner hind angle is a large white 
comma-like dot having its tail towards the inner edge. From this dot a pale 
streak often extends across the wing, parallel with the hind mar°in. The 
fringe is smoky, crossed by pale lines at the tips of the veins. 

In the northern variety ( O. leucustigma var. borealis) which is met with 
in the more northern sections of the State, the wings when spread measure 
from 1.20 to 1.30. Both pairs are alike in color, being dull smoky or dingy 
brown. The upper ones have a large ash-gray patch on the middle of the outer 
margin, which commonly extends to the tip, and is crossed by an oblique 
blackish streak, which is all that can be perceived of the band noticed in the 
preceding variety. Immediately back of this is a blackish spot, commonly of 
a rhombic form and sometimes crossed by a pale line. The base of these wings 
is somewhat clouded with ash-gray ; and near the inner hind angle is a roundish 
white spot which is sometimes faint and almost effaced. Sometimes a row of 
small dark brown crescent-shaped spots is perceptible along the apical edge at 



214 VAPORER MOTH — FEMALE. 

the base of the fringe. The specimens which I have gathered in Washington 
county have uniformly been of this variety. 

The antennae of these moths are about a third of the length of the wings. 
They are gray, with a double row of dark brown branches resembling the teeth 
of a comb. Each branch has a row of very fine hairs, like eye-lashes, along 
each side, and at its tip three bristles, one of which is much longer and direct- 
ed inward towards the head. The body is gray, with a small black tuft near 
the base of the abdomen. The under side is paler and the legs are varied with 
blackish. 

It is the male insects which we have described above. The 
females are totally different objects, to appearance, being desti- 
tute of wings, and having in place of them two small scales the 
tenth of an inch long and half as broad, situated upon each side 
of the thorax. The vaporer moth therefore is analagous to the 
canker w r orm in this respect, the females in both species resem- 
bling worms more than perfect insects. The body of the female 
vaporer moth is short and thick when it first crawls from the 
cocoon, and longer and more cylindrical after the eggs have 
been deposited, being over half an inch long and a third as 
broad. It is of an ash-gray color from the hairs with which the 
body is densely covered, and often a broad dusky stripe runs 
the whole length along the middle of the back. The colors be- 
come more dull and obscure after the eggs are deposited. The 
antennce in this sex are short and not branched as in the males, 
merely presenting a row of saw-like teeth along their inner side, 
each tooth having a short bristle at its apex. 

The females merely crawl from the inner to the outer side of 
their cocoons, and there remain awaiting the approach of their 
mates, who invariably find them immediately. The instinct of 
the males for discovering the opposite sex is remarkable; and 
collectors are accustomed to avail themselves of it for obtaining 
specimens. By placing a box in which a newly hatched female 
is enclosed, in the haunts of this species, dozens of males will 
sometimes be attracted to it. Thus the females commence de- 
positing their eggs often within a few hours after they have left 
the chrysalis state. The eggs are from one to two hundred in 
number, about the size of a mustard seed, white and round with 
a small depression in the summit. They are placed upon the 
cocoon from which the female came, and are enveloped in a large 
quantity of frothy, milk-white, viscid matter, causing them to 



VAPORER MOTH EGGS HOW DEPOSITED. 215 

adhere securely to the cocoon and to each other. They are ex- 
truded in a continuous string, which is folded and matted 
together so as to form an irregular mass. I once pierced one of 
these females with a pin while she was in the act of depositing 
her eggs; and so tenaciously did she adhere to them that for a 
time it was uncertain whether the body would not tear asunder 
before it would separate from the string. Within a day or two 
after she comes out of the cocoon the female has completed her 
labors. Her body which was at first plump, swollen and un- 
wieldy, is now shrunken and flaccid, and she is so exhausted 
that she soon lets go her foothold, falls to the ground and per- 
ishes. The designs of nature in giving to these insects the 
habits which they possess are very evident. Having no wings by 
which to escape when menaced with danger, were these worm- 
like females to crawl about 'the limbs and trunk of the tree, as 
the canker worms are accustomed to do, their pale gray bodies 
would cause them to be discovered and devoured by birds. The 
canker worm runs no risk of this kind, as it makes its ascent in the 
winter and early spring when the birds are all absent upon their 
migration to a warmer climate. The vaporer moth, coming out 
in August, by remaining stationary upon its light colored cocoon, 
is but little liable to be noticed. Still, there being even here 
some risk of its discovery, it hastens to fulfill the purpose of 
its existence immediately upon coming out of its cocoon, lest 
some mishap should befall it if it were to remain longer in this 
exposed situation. 

The white frothy matter with which the eggs are covered be- 
comes dry and hard and impervious to wet, thus protecting them 
through all the storms and vicissitudes of autumn, winter and 
spring. Nor will a bird be inclined to pick off and devour these 
eggs with this foam and the hairs of the cocoon adhering to them. 
They are thus shielded from harm although placed in such an 
exposed situation, until the return of warm weather brings out 
a crop of leaves for the subsistence of the worms; whereupon 
they hatch from the eggs, early in May, and grow up till they 
become the gay caterpillars which we first noticed above. 

But though the vaporer moth is able to guard itself and its 
progeny from destruction in several directions, it is not thus 



216 VAPORER MOTH PARASITES. 

fortunate in other particulars. It is exposed to the attacks of 
parasites. These are minute bee-like insects pertaining to the 
Family Chalcididje |n the Order Hymenoptera. They puncture, 
the skin of these pretty caterpillars dropping an egg therein, 
from which hatches a minute maggot which feeds internally upon 
the fatty matter of the caterpillar, thus exhausting and eventu- 
ally killing it. I once gathered two of these caterpillars which 
I placed with some leaves in a box- Two days afterwards one 
of them was found to be dead, and the other being lively and 
vigorous was removed to another box. Next day, what appeared 
to be the ends of little worms were seen protruding from the 
body of the dead caterpillar. Upon the following day these 
worms were found to be seventeen in number. They had all 
left the dead carcase of the caterpillar and just above it upon 
the side of the box they had arranged themselves in a circular 
row, and had changed to pupse of a milk white color, 0.12 long 
and half as broad, hanging by their tails with their heads down- 
ward and their backs against the side of the box. This was upon 
the last day of July. Next day they had changed to a pale red 
color and had somewhat shrivelled, each having discharged a 
little cluster of clay-yellow graias which were adhering to the 
side of the box at the tip of their bodies. They subsequently 
altered to a black color, and on the sixth of August they hatched 
the winged insects, which were of a brilliant brassy green color, 
with a blackish purple abdomen and white legs, and about the 
same size as the pupse. In an account of the vaporer moth 
which I published in the Country Gentleman in reply to enqui- 
ries respecting it from some of the subscribers of that paper, I 
named this insect (vol. vii,p.235) the vaporer-moth parasite (Tri- 
chogramma 1 Orgyia) . 

This parasite measures 0.12 to the tip of its abdomen, the wings being 
slightly longer. The head is brassy green, as broad as the thorax, three or 
four times as wide as long, and appearing slightly notched in front when 
viewed from above. The antennae are brown, the basal joints pale yellow. 
They are composed of six very distinct joints, of which the first is long and 
forms an elbow with the following ones. The second joint is smallest; 
the fourth and fifth are equal, oval, and shorter and thicker than the 
third; the last is boader than the preceding and longer than the third, and is 
shaped like an elongated egg. The thorax is brassy-green and finely sha- 
greened, twice as long as wide, broadest across the middle, the collar of a 
crescent shape and separated by a very distinct suture, the scutel large, pro- 



VAP0RER MOTHS PARASITES. 217 

niinent, rounded, tinged with golden-yellow, with an elevated line on each 
side at its base, extending obliquely forward and outward upon the thorax. 
The abdomen is purplish-black, very smooth and polished, shorter than the 
thorax, short cylindrical with rounded ends, depressed above and in the dried 
specimen deeply excavated and boat-like. Near its base is a pale yellow band 
occupying the apex of the basal segment above and beneath, and nearly or quite 
interrupted upon each side. The legs are yellowish-white, including the ante- 
rior haunches, the tips of the feet being black. The shanks are without con- 
spicuous spines at their tips, and the feet are composed of four cylindrical, 
nearly equal joints, each joint having a coarse bristle at its tip on the upper 
side. The wings are clear and glassy, with numerous minute punctures except 
upon the basal part, each puncture yielding a fine bristle. A broad glabrous 
stripe extends along the inner margin of the fore wings, in which is a single 
row of equidistant punctures and bristles. The fore wings are destitute of 
veins/except a robust one of a pale color near the outer margin, which unites 
with the margin through about one-fourth of the length of the wing, separating 
from it again towards the tip, where it ends in a short branch or stigma which 
is slightly thickened and notched at its apex. 

Another parasitic insect, so much like the preceding in all its 
details that it might be regarded as its brother reared at the 
same table, I met with upon rose leaves in September last, where 
it was very probably searching for these same caterpillars in 
which to deposit its eggs. In the Country Gentleman this was 
named 

The Brother parasite, (Trichogrammal fraterna.') It is 0.10 in length 
and its wings when extended are 0.15 across. The thorax is much less rough 
than in the foregoing species, being very minutely shagreened and the abdomen 
is of the same brilliant brassy-green color as the thora£, without any pale spot 
or band towards its base, its under side being black. The sub-marginal vein 
of the fore-wings is also black, and is united with the margin two-thirds of its 
length, with the stigmal branch quite short and more conspicuously notched 
at its end. In all other respects the description given of the preceding species 
applies to this also. 

By these parasites, and probably other means of which we 
are yet in ignorance, the vaporer moths of our country are crip- 
pled and restrained from becoming so numerous as they other- 
wise would be. In the vicinity of my residence I have never 
known them to be sufficiently multiplied to merit any attention 
on account of the depredations they commit. I should judge I 
had never met with a half dozen of the caterpillars in any one 
year, until last summer (1855), when they were noticed as being 
unusually common. This is probably near the northern extreme 
of their geographical range. In districts farther south and east, 
where the climate is warmer, they are much more numerous and 



218 VAP0RER MOTH ITS DESTRUCTIVENESS. 

are frequently quite a nuisance. How pernicious they are upon 
fruit trees, even when their numbers are not excessive, is suffi- 
ciently shown in a communication from H. B. Ives, of Salem, 
Mass., published in Hovey's Magazine, vol. i, p. 52. Mr. Ives 
removed all the eggs of these insects from three of his apple 
trees. He found twenty-one clusters of eggs upon these three 
trees. The rest of the trees in his orchard he left untouched. 
The eggs hatched and the* young worms had commenced their 
ravages upon the tenth of May. He watched them " from time 
to time, until many branches had been spoiled of their leaves, 
and in the autumn were entirely destitute of fruit; while the 
three trees which had been stripped of the eggs, were flush with 
foliage, each limb without exception, ripening its fruit." Dr. 
Harris states (Treatise, p. 283) that these caterpillars were quite 
abundant in the vicinity of Eoston in 1848, '49 and '50; and 
that the horse-chestnuts planted beside the streets and in the 
parks of that city — trees which are so little liable to be attacked 
by insects — were almost entirely stripped of their leaves by 
them. 

Fortunately it is an easy matter to exterminate these insects 
from the trees which they invade, by picking off and destroying 
their eggs. These are readily found during the winter, the dead 
leaf adhering to th« cocoon to which the eggs are attached, being 
conspicuous upon the naked twigs. Sometimes, though very 
rarely, little clusters of dead leaves will be met with adhering 
to the limbs of fruit trees, which have not been tied there by 
the vapor er moth, but by another creature belonging to this di- 
vision of the animal kingdom. The careful orchardist will 
hereby, when gathering the- eggs of the vaporer moth, be some- 
times deceived, and put to the trouble of mounting into a tree 
and bending a limb towards him, by this impostor; though from 
the greater number of the leaves, their more dull and decayed 
appearance, and their being more loosely tied together, making 
a rattling noise when agitated by the wind or by shaking the 
limb, the cheat will generally be known at a distance of several 
feet. These counterfeit clusters of dead leaves originally formed 
the nest of a Palmer worm {Chatochilus pometellus) or some other 
worm having the same habit of drawing several leaves together 



VAP0RER MOTH THE DECEIVING SPIDER. 219 

by cob-web like threads, around the little web within which it 
dwells. This is evident from the leaves as we see them in win- 
ter, being worm-eaten and having the castings of the worm, in 
the form of dry grains, still adhering to them. But the threads 
by which such worms tie the leaves together are so slight and 
fragile, that the leaves forming their nests are all torn off and 
dispersed by the storms of autumn. In some instances, however, 
it appears that after the worm has evacuated this abode, another 
tenant takes possession of it, finding it to be the very situation 
which he desires for his winter quarters. This new occupant is 
a small spider, which ties the leaves anew, with threads of its 
own, numerous threads being woven together, forming a narrow 
fillet or ribbon which is so strong that although the leaves flut- 
ter and rustle with every breeze, they are not torn away by the 
most violent winds of winter. And within the leaves this spider 
forms for itself a little oval cot of soft silken threads of snowy 
whiteness and matted densely together, within which as in a bed 
of down, it reposes through the winter in comfort ant:! security. 
This spider is very closely allied to an Alabama species, named 
Epeira displicata, by Prof. Hentz in his valuable monograph of 
the spiders of the United States, published in the Boston Jour- 
nal of Natural History, (vol. v. p. 476.) It however is suffi- 
ciently distinguished from that species by wanting the impressed 
black dots on the anterior part of the abdomen, and by its col- 
ors. In allusion to the circumstance which will probably cause 
this minute object to be most frequently noticed, I propose to 
name it 

The deceiving spider {Epeira decipiens). As it occurs in its nest in the 
winter season, this spider is 0.12 long, and of a pale hrown color, reddish 
brown beneath, the head and legs being paler brown or yellowish horn colored, 
sometimes with a greenish tinge. The abdomen is nearly globular, slightly 
depressed, and is surrounded horizontally with a whitish band. Posteriorly 
upon the upper side of this band is a row of six large equidistant black dots, 
each of which is encircled with a pale yellow ring. Behind the two posterior 
dots are two very minute ones, which are encircled in the same manner. The 
spinnerets at the tip of the abdomen are olive green. There are traces of two 
white cloud-like stripes along the middle of the abdomen, and in a particular 
reflection of the light it appears to be crossed by imperfect white bands. The 
legs are furnished with blackish bristles. As in several of the other species of 
this extensive genus the two upper or posterior eyes are largest and are almost 
in contact with each other, and the two outer ones upon each side are conflu- 



220 VAPORER MOTH ITS EGGS TO BE DESTROYED. 

ent, forming but a single dot, which is slightly elongated. When preserved in 
balsam of fir this spider retains the black dots and pale rings and band, but 
the abdomen changes to a bright blood red and the thorax and legs to a honey 
yellow color. 

In a few other instances dead leaves will be found upon the 
apple and other trees during the winter; but these are chiefly 
single leaves at the tip ends of the twigs, which had withered 
prematurely from being infested with plant lice, and will not be 
liable to be mistaken for the work of the vaporer moth. One of 
the most remarkable pieces of mechanism may be met with upon 
the sycamore or button wood, where the dead leaf is drawn to- 
gether in such a manner as to form a little wheel, whirling 
around and sliding up and down upon the last joint of the twig, 
the bud at the end of the twig forming a knob or button which 
prevents this wheel from sliding off its axle, and a tube or socket 
in its centre the fourth of an inch long serves as a hub, prevent- 
ing it from turning askew. It appears to be an insect, perhaps 
a species of plant louse, which draws the sycamore leaf around 
the twig in this truly curious manner. 

Care should be taken to rid fruit trees especially from the 
vaporer moth; for whenever one of these insects takes up its 
abode upon a tree, a part at least of its progeny will be apt to 
remain for several generations, sustaining themselves at the ex- 
pense of the tree. In the winter, or before the foliage puts forth 
in spring, search should be made for their nests of eggs. They 
will be much more readily discovered than those of the common 
caterpillar. Occasionally a cocoon will be met with having no 
eggs upon it. In this the chrysalis is still lying unhatched, or a 
male moth has been given out from it. It will be the safest 
course to strip the trees of all the cocoons found upon them, 
whether covered with eggs and foam or not, tearing them off 
from the larger limbs and cutting off the smaller twigs to which 
they are attached, and throwing the whole into the fire. No 
one but the veriest sloven will permit his fruit trees to be depre- 
dated upon by insects which can be so easily subdued as the va- 
porer moth. 



PALMER WORM EARLY NOTICES OF IT. 221 

A pale yelloAvish green worm having a dusky or blackish stripe along 
each side of the back with a narrower whitish stripe on its upper side 
and a dusky line in the middle, and a shining yellow head, the hue 
of beeswax; residing in worm-eaten leaves drawn together by silken 
threads, and when jarred, dropping and hanging in the air suspended 
by threads; appearing the latter part of June, at times excessively 
numerous. 

The Palmer-worm, Chatochilus pometellus, Harris, (Plate 4, fig. 4.) 

Though not abundant, this worm is common upon the leaves 
of orchards and forests, making its appearance every year about 
the middle of June and continuing till the last of the month. 
But it sometimes becomes multiplied in a most astonishing man- 
ner, appearing suddenly in prodigious numbers over a vast ex- 
tent of country, in a single day changing the green foliage every- 
where to a withered brown hue, as though it had been scorched 
by fire. And after continuing a week or two it disappears as 
suddenly as it came, so that on a tree which to-day contains 
hundreds of these worms, to-morrow not one can be found. 
And the following year when the same season comes round and 
we are looking for multitudes of these insects to make their 
appearance again, no traces of them are to be seen. 

As this worm comes forth nearly a month later in the year 
than the apple tree caterpillar spoken of in the foregoing pages, 
it is much more destructive to the trees. When their foliage is 
stripped off and destroyed by this worm, only a slight crop of 
leaves puts out upon them after it disappears. Old trees 
and many of the limbs upon young thrifty trees die; and 
after a visitation of these worms, should the weather during 
the month of July'prove to be dry, and hot, as it frequently is, 
the damage is much more extensive, whole orchards and forests 
perishing. 

At a former period when the surface of our country was 
covered with one continuous forest it must have been a singular 
and sad spectacle to see the timber over such vast districts all 
blighted and leafless, as it doubtless was at times, from havrng 
been overrun by these worms. It is most probably these insects 
to which the Sweedish naturalist, Kalm, in his travels through 
this country a century ago, alludes in the following passage, 
(vol. ii, p. 7.) " There is likewise a kind of caterpillars in these 



222 PALMER WORM ORIGIN OF ITS NAME. 

provinces, which eat the leaves from the trees. They are innu- 
merable in some years. In the intervals there are but few of 
them : but when they come, they strip the trees so entirely of 
their leaves, that the woods in the middle of summer are as 
naked as in winter. ^They eat all kinds of leaves, and very few 
trees are left untouched by them; as, about that time of the 
year the heat is most excessive. The stripping the trees of their 
leaves has this fatal consequence, that + hey cannot withstand the 
heat, but dry up entirely. In this manner, great forests are 
sometimes entirely ruined. The Swedes who live here showed 
me, here and there great tracts in the woods, where young trees 
were now growing, instead of the old ones, which, some years 
ago, had been destroyed by the caterpillars. These caterpillars 
afterwards change into moths, or phalence." 

If our western prairies were ever covered with wood it is most 
probably by this insect that they were first made naked, those 
trees only surviving the attack which grew upon the bottom 
lands along streams, where the drouth of mid-summer would be 
less felt than upon the uplands. 

In the year 1791 , the orchards and forests of New England were 
overrun by this worm, and the leaves of the apple, oak and 
other trees were devoured by it. It was at this time that it re- 
ceived the name "palmer worm" by which it has since been cur- 
rently designated. This name was evidently derived from our 
English translation of the sacred scriptures. Another insect 
which a month or two before had devastated the fruit trees to 
an extent never previously known, appears simultaneously to 
have received the name which it still retains, the canker worm; 
for previous to this date we find this name given to what is now 
called the army worm. Many persons at that time, we doubt not, 
supposed them to be the very insects to which the inspired pro- 
phet alluded. Two years before, a clergyman who, from some 
remarkable phenomena which had just then occurred, had formed 
the opinion that the arm of the Lord was extended in wrath over 
our laud, had written a discourse, in which it was predicted that 
great calamities were soon to happen. And the advent at that 
time of one of these strange insects immediately after the other, 
in such countless numbers all over the country, 'the palmer worm 



PALMER WORM ITS APPEARANCE IN 1853. 223 

eating what the canker worm had left,' was an event well calcu- 
lated to make a deep impression upon community, and to strike 
superstitious and weak-minded persons with awe and terror. 
The facts here stated we obtain chiefly from Webster on pestilen- 
tial diseases, vol. i, pp. 286, 293. 

Another remarkable visitation of these insects occurred in the 
year 1853, unparalleled by any event of this kind within the 
memory of the present generation. It at this time appeared 
suddenly in excessive numbers, over all the eastern part of the 
State of New-York, and all the New England States, the news- 
papers noticing it everywhere from Maine to Connecticut. Al- 
though we have no definite information respecting it beyond 
these limits, it was probably numerous in most parts of our 
country, several specimens of the moth having been sent me 
this year from the state of Mississippi, this being the only in- 
stance in which I have ever received this insect from any of my 
correspondents. It was on the sixteenth day of June that it first 
attracted notice in the section where I reside, but in the southern 
part of the State it began to be observed about a week earlier. 
When attention was once directed towards it, it was found to be 
common in all the orchards and forests around; and within a 
few days of the date mentioned, its depredations were so conspic- 
uous that in every town and neighborhood thoughout this dis- 
trict of country it was noticed and had become the leading sub- 
ject of conversation, commonly before they were aware at each 
locality that every place aronnd them was invaded in the same 
manner; and the worms were sent to me from different directions 
by persons who supposed it did not extend beyond the vicinity 
where they resided. It was currently regarded as a new and 
unknown insect; and in the prevalent ignorance upon matters 
of this kind, the most absurd and extravagant conjectures with 
regard to the origin and transformations of this worm were 
passed from mouth to mouth, even among educated men and 
persons of good general intelligence. 

As it is probably atmospherical causes or some peculiarity of 
the seasons which favors the multiplication of this as of other 
insects, it merits to be observed that the weather had been re- 
markably dry and hot for some time previous to its advent. And 



224 PALMER WORM ITS SUDDEN DISAPPEARANCE. 

according to my own observations, those trees which stood in 
situations where they were openly exposed to the sun appeared 
to be most severely devastated, whilst in some instances at least, 
those standing in the shade of buildings remained green and un- 
harmed; though I was informed of cases in which trees in shaded 
situations were stripped of their leaves. 

The trees everywhere assumed a brown withered appearance, 
looking as though they had been scorched by fire. Apple trees 
and oaks seemed to suffer most, but all other trees and shrubs 
were more or less infested with these worms at this time. On 
jarring or shaking a tree, hundreds would instantly let them- 
selves down from among the leaves, by fine threads like cobweb, 
some dropping to the ground, others remaining suspended in the 
air. Persons at work at this time upon potatoes or other field 
crops growing in orchards would have numbers of them crawl- 
ing everywhere over their clothes, and, as an instance of the 
power of the imagination, the following may be related : A ro- 
bust laboring man assured me that in three instances in which 
these worms happened to fall upon his naked arm he felt a sting- 
ing sensation like that from the puncture of a mosquito, this 
being occasioned, as he was firmly persuaded, by their bite. But 
other persons, with these worms crawling in numberless in- 
stances upon their naked skin, experienced nothing of this kind; 
and subsisting as they do exclusively upon leaves and other 
succulent vegetation, it is not probable that they employ their 
jaws upon any substance for which they can have no relish; their 
natural resort when irritated being not to bite but to wriggle 
violently and thus throw themselves away from the place where 
they are molested. 

The worms continued in full force until the night of the 
twenty-third of June, when brisk showers occurred, accompa- 
nied with heavy thunder, terminating the drouth which had pre- 
vailed, and with this the worms suddenly disappeared. Upon 
the following day not one could be obtained by shaking trees 
which had been overrun with them the day before — the rain 
drops falling upon the leaves having doubtless dislodged them, 
in the course of the night, and perhaps drowning a considerable 
portion of them after reaching the ground. With a beating net. 



PALMER WORM FRUIT DESTROYED BY IT. 225 

however, a few specimens could be gathered from the leaves for 
several days afterwards. 

The weather now becoming more moist, with copious showers 
repeatedly during the month of July, the trees in a measure re- 
covered their leaves, although the crop of fruit for the year was 
everywhere destroyed. George Christie of East Greenwich 
informed me that the trees on his farm, in good bearing years 
produce probably a thousand bushels of apples, and the pros- 
pects for an abundant yield were never fairer than they were 
this year, until this worm made its appearance, blighting the 
trees and causing the orchard to look as though it had been frost 
b'tten. And he gathered from it this year only two or three 
bushels of fruit, of a quality so inferior that it was scarcely 
worth picking. And similar to this was the experience of the 
owners of orchards generally — young thrifty trees yielding a 
scanty supply of inferior fruit which commonly sufficed for 
family use, nothing being gathered from full grown and old 
trees. 

The following year, in June, it was universally expected that 
these worms would again appear, but the month passed away and 
no traces of them were anywhere to be seen. They could readily 
be found, however, on searching upon the leaves of the apple trees, 
but were no more common than several other kinds of worms in 
the same situation. Last year, 1855, they were quite rare, a very 
few specimens only having presented themselves to my notice. 
The present year 'they have been much more abundant, and in 
gardens in the city of Albany I observed a number of fruit 
trees the leaves of which had been badly eaten by them. 
|2 At the time of the appearance of this worm in such myriads 
in 1853, I was answering a letter from Hon. B. P. Johnson upon 
another apple tree insect, and inserted therein an account of 
this worm, with a description of it and the cocoon which it had 
then formed, stating that I would subsequently complete 
its history. I suggested that a small gay yellow moth 
which frequently occurred among apple leaves, a descrip- 
tion of which under the name of Jlrgyrolepia pomariana I thereto 
appended, might probably be the parent of these worms. For 
tfrS'information of my immediate neighbors and friends upon a 

[Assem. No. 215.] 15 



226 FALMER WORM— ITS SCIENTIFIC NAME. 

topic which was of surpassing interest to them at that time, a 
copy of this communication was inserted in the Salem Press 
newspaper of July 12th, copies of which were distributed to all 
my correspondents. Upon the 8th of Juy I obtained the insect 
in its perfect state, and met with specimens in abundance, in 
orchards and forests upon the following day. A postscript 
to my previous communication was accordingly prepared, giving 
a description of the moth, when I was not a little surprised to 
receive from Dr. Harris a slip from the Cambridge Chronicle of 
July 19th, containing a short description of this same insect, 
under the name of Rhinosia pometella. Although this name, 
thus published in a local newspaper, had no scientific validity, 
I cheerfully adopted it. My communication of June 30th, and 
a postscript thereto dated July 23d, was published in the Jour- 
nal of the New-York State Agricultural Society, September 1853, 
(vol. iv, p. 36), and was re-published with Dr. Harris's article 
from the Cambridge newspaper appended, in the Society's Tran- 
sactions for that year, (vol. xiii, pp. 178 — 192). These are the 
principal papers upon this insect, so far as I am aware, which 
have hitherto appeared. 

Although from its habit of drawing leaves together in a clus- 
ter, secreting itself between and feeding upon them, letting 
itself down by a thread, &c, the palmer worm corresponds with 
the Family Tortricidce of the Order Lepidoptera, there is a section 
of moths of Family Tineidje which possess these same habits, 
and it is to this latter family which this insect pertains. The 
genus to which it belongs is characterised principally by having 
the scales with which the feelers or palpi are clothed very long, 
jutting forward of the head horizontally like a camel's hair pen- 
cil, or a beak, with the last joint slender and projecting upwards 
from the middle of this beak like a little horn or spur, as repre- 
sented in the profile view of the head, plate 4, fig. 4 a. The name 
Chatochilus given to this genus by Mr. Stephens, is retained by 
Westwood and Humphrey in their recent work on British moths. 
The name Rhinosia bestowed almost simultaneously upon this 
genus by the German naturalist Treitschke and adopted by Dr. 
Harris, is too nearly identical with the name Rhi?wtia, gkfPp. 
many years anteriorly by Mr. Kirby to a genus of weevils^) 



PALMER WORM THE WORM DESCRIBED. 227 

allow its being retained, were it otherwise entitled to stand. 
Chaetochilus pometellus thus becomes the scientific name of the 
palmer worm moth. Dr. Harris proposes "the little Snout moth" 
as the common name for this insect; but the designation Snout- 
moth is popularly applied to a very different group of insects, 
pertaining to the genus Hyjjena in the Family Pyralidce; and the 
name palmer worm is so well established that no other designa- 
tion for this species appears to be required or desirable. 

When they are young these worms eat only the green pulpy 
tissues of the leaf, leaving its net work of veins entire. But as 
they become larger and more robust they consume the whole of 
the leaf except the coarse veins. It is the young and tender 
leaves, however, which grow at and near the tips of the limbs, • 
which they prefer; the older and tougher leaves are commonly 
eaten only at their tip ends, and have irregular holes of various 
sizes gnawed in them, some of these holes being no larger than 
a puncture made with a pin. The green succulent ends of the 
twigs are also frequently ate off. And the young apples which 
were nearly as large as walnuts when these worms made their 
appearance, almost without exception had either round holes or 
larger irregular cavities gnawed in their surface. Thus wounded 
they wilt and fall from the tree, a few only having the wounds 
so slight that they recover and remain upon the tree till they 
ripen. 

Both the larvae or worjns, and the moths are much more vari- 
able in their colors and irregular in their marks when they are 
excessively numerous, than they appear to be at other times. 
The larvx when small are somewhat tapering, as represented in the first 

figure of the cut, and pale yellow varied only 
with a darker stripe along the middle of the 
back and a darker head. They grow to 
nearly half an inch in length, and are then 
more nearly cylindrical, as represented in 
the second figure. They have sixteen feet, 
and bodies divided into thirteen segments by transverse constrictions. When 
approaching to maturity they are commonly of a pale green or yellowish 
green color, but when these worms are numerous, specimens of a sulphur 
yellow, watery whitish and flesh red colors will be met with. They are paler 
or whitish beneath. Along each side of the back a dusky or blackish stripe 
running the whole length of the body is the most conspicuous and constant 
mark which they possess. Above this a narrower whitish stripe is more or 




228 • PALMER WORM — ITS PUPA. 

less distinct, and along the middle of the back is a slender dusky stripe between 
the whitish ones. A transverse line of a clearer white color occupies the hind 
edge of each segment. Several small black dots symmetrically arranged and 
each one yielding a fine hair, may be perceived, whereof two above near the 
hind edge of each segment are the most conspicuous. The head is polished and 
of the yellow color of bees-wax. The neck or second segment is of the same 
color, and has above on each side of the middle a black stripe which curves 
inwards at its hind end, sometimes forming a hook, and outside of this are two 
black oblong dots, the lower one smaller. 

It appears to be the ordinary habit of these worms to remain 
upon the trees and change to pupa? in the same tuft of leaves in 
which the larva? have resided, the worm retiring into a plait or 
fold of a particular leaf and spinning a slight web of fine silken 
threads over itself, of so thin a texture that it may be seen 
through this web. But when they are numerous, multitudes of 
the worms live openly exposed upon the leaves, and the foliage 
is so totally destroyed on many trees that it can furnish no safe 
retreats in which they can conceal themselves when they are 
ready to change to pupa?. In such cases, as I infer from the 
habits of the worm when bred in cages, they secrete themselves 
under dry leaves on the surface of the ground, in crevices of the 
bark and similar situations, spinning a slight web over them- 
selves. As they remain in the pupa state only a short time they 
require no regular cocoon or other substantial fabric for their 
protection. 

The pupa is at first of a pale tawny yellow color with the head 
and sheaths of the wings and legs lighter yellow, 
and is about a quarter of an inch long. It gradu- 
ally changes to a darker color, and in about ten or twelve days 
after the worm ceases feeding and shuts itself up within its web 
the perfect insect is disclosed. In different years the moths 
which I have bred have mostly come out of their pupse state 
upon the eighth of July; and on one occasion, passing on this 
day under a large white oak tree which had been entirely 
stripped of its leaves by these insects, at every step among the 
weeds and grass a swarm of the moths would arise and flit a yard 
or two aside and alight again, this fact showing that they were 
mostly hatched at this date or earlier. The moths are of a gray 
color and three-eighths of an inch long, and rest with their long 
narrow wings folded together and laid flat upon their backs, the 



PALMER WORM THE MOTH DESCRIBED. 229 

fore part of the body being slightly raised from the surface on 
which they are standing and the antennae turned backward and 
pressed down upon the wings. 

The moth of the palmer worm (see plate 4, fig. 4) measures about 0.65 
across its wings when they are expanded. It is of an ash-gray color. The 
fore wings are sprinkled more or less with black atoms, and have on the apical 
edge at the base of the fringe six or seven equidistant black dots. On the disk 
are also four larger black or brown dots, two before and two behind the mid- 
dle, the latter nearer together than the former. These dots are placed ob- 
liquely with regard to each other, the anterior pair having the outer dot more 
towards the base of the wing than the inner one, whilst the posterior pair has 
the inner dot nearer the base than the outer one. Frequently there is a tawny 
yellow streak or cloud between the anterior dots and the base, situated upon 
the slight plait or groove formed by the midvein. Sometimes also a dusky 
transverse band may be discovered on the posterior part of the wing, half way 
between the posterior dots and the tip. The fringe on the inner tips of these 
wings is dusky, with a pale tawny band occupying its basal half. The hind 
wings above and beneath. are dusky with a glossy azure blue reflection, and 
blackish veins, their long fringes being dusky. The under side of the body and 
the legs are dull whitish with a silky lustre, the feet darker with a white ring 
at each joint. The antennae are alternated with rings of black and white. 

The varieties of this moth are numerous, particularly in those years when 
it is abundant. The more important of these are as follows : 

a. Ground color of the fore wings dull white instead of ash-gray. 

b. Ground color of the fore wings pale tawny yellow. 

c. The fore wings with a strong purplish-red reflection. 

d. Dots on the middle of the fore wings three only, the anterior one being 

effaced. Rare. It appears to have been a specimen of this variety 
from which Dr. Harris's description of the species was taken. 

«. The four dots on the middle of the fore wings all wanting. 

f. The dots on the apex of the fore wings faint or wanting. 

Numbers of these worms are every year destroyed by a small 
footless grub or maggot, which lives in the palmer worm until 
it has attained its growth, when it perforates a hole through .the 
side of the worm, and crawling out, spins a small white oval 
cocoon for itself, commonly attaching this cocoon very slightly 
to the surface of the leaf. The worm from which this parasite 
has crawled remains upon the leaf beside it, its feet seemingly 
paralyzed, so that it is unable to move from the spot. It turns 
its head at times from one side to the other, but eats no more 
and soon perishes. 

When these worms were present in 1853 some persons 
attempted to save favorite trees from their ravages by repeatedly 
jarring the trees and with a pole breaking off the threads by 



230 PALMER WORM REMEDIES. 

which the worms, suspended themselves and carrying them to a 
distance, repeating the operation day after day. But little benefit, 
however, appeared to result from this measure. More good may 
undoubtedly be done by attaching a long stiff handle to an old tin 
pan, smearing the inside of the pan with tar, bird lime or some 
similar adhesive substance, and catching the worms in this by 
swinging it around under the tree, as they hang suspended — 
renewing the coating as often as it becomes so covered with the 
worms and their threads as no longer to adhere to them. 

The fact of the sudden disappearance of these worms with 
showers of rain was noticed in several places in the year 1853, 
and suggests the showering of trees when infested with the palmer 
worm, with water, by means of a garden engine, as a measure 
whereby to dislodge and destroy this enemy. At the time of 
its disappearance in the manner stated, worms of all sizes old 
and young were upon the leaves, showing it was not in conse- 
quence of their having come to maturity and being ready to 
withdraw, that they left the trees thus abruptly. The fact is 
reported (Trans. N. Y. State Ag. Soc, vol. xiii, p. 187) that 
a gentleman having a farm near Albany, discovering that two of 
the trees in his orchard had their leaves destroyed by these 
worms, procured some whale oil soap and diluting it with water, 
drenched the remainder of his trees with it, with a garden en- 
gine, whereby they were entirely preserved from the ravages of 
these worms. The worms were no doubt numerous upon those 
as they were upon all other trees at that time. Whether the 
whale oil soap made the application more efficacious than it would 
have been without it can only be known by further experi- 
ments. But the suddenness with which a portion of these 
worms drop themselves from the leaves of a tree when it is 
shook or jarred, renders it probable that the greater agitation 
which showering the leaves, simply, will occasion, will entirely 
rid them of these vermin. 



TAWNY-STRIPED PALMER WORM. 231 

A slender pale yellowish worm with a tawny yellow stripe along each 

side of its back, this stripe having a whitish stripe upon its lower as 

well as its upper side, and a pale yellow head; residing in the fold of 

a worm-eaten leaf, the fore part of July. 

The tawny-striped palmer-worm, Chrvtochilus Malifoliellus, new species. 

A similar worm, but having a shining black head and neck; residing in 

a similar situation, the latter part of June. 
The comrade palmer-worm (probably), C. contubernalellus, Fitch. 
In addition to the common Palmer worm, described in the pro- 
ceeding pages, other worms very similar to it in their appear- 
ance, motions and habits, and pertaining to the same genus of 
moths with it, are occasionally met with upon the leaves of ap- 
ple trees. One of these I have noticed in different years, the 
fore part of July, at which time the common Palmer worm has 
nearly or quite disappeared. It is rather more narrow and slen- 
der than that worm but is otherwise like it in form and size. 
The stripes along each side of its back, however, are of a tawny 
yellow color, instead of dusky or blackish, and it has a pale 
stripe along the lower as well as the upper side of this dark 
stripe. It appears to be even more agile than that species, when 
disturbed wriggling and throwing itself about with lightning- 
like velocity. 

One of these worms which I met with in an apple leaf which 
it had folded and tied together with silken threads was placed in 
a large mouthed vial. Three days afterwards it had eaten the 
whole of the leaf except its mid-vein, under which and some 
fine threads which it had spun, it remained concealed. Two 
fresh leaves were now put into the vial, July 4th. Forsaking 
its former domicil the worm now took up its abode in one of 
these leaves, which it folded neatly together, with the edges ex- 
actly adjusted to each other and securely sewed in their places. 
Here entirely hid from view it ate but little more before enter- 
ing its pupa state, from which the perfect insect was obtained 
on the twenty-fifth of the same month. The accompanying fig- 
ure is designed to represent the manner in which 
these different species of Palmer worms draw the 
leaves around them, tieing them together with 
fine silken threads and gnawing them more or 
less. The pupa also lies within these tufts of 
worm-eaten leaves, and when ready to disclose 




232 TAWNY-STRIPED AND BLACK HEADED PALMER WORMS. 

the winged moth it crowds itself partly out from between them, 
in which situation the empty shell remains after the moth has 
evacuated it. At the upper left-hand corner of the figure the 
relics of the pupa are represented, protruding in this manner 
from between the leaves. 

The larva when full grown is half an inch long and about 0.0G in diameter, 
composed of thirteen segments, distinctly marked by strong wide contractions 
at each of the sutures. The last segment is divided into two parts by a su- 
ture across its middle. The body is slightly flattened and of a pale tawny 
yellow color above, with two stripes upon the back and one along each side 
of a white or yellowish white color. Below the lateral white stripe the body 
on the sides and beneath is pale watery yellowish. Upon the back the edges 
of the segments are j^ellowish white, and on the hind part of each, outside of 
the white dorsal stripes is a polished black dot, from which arises a fine hair. 
A few other hairs are scattered symmetrically over the surface, arising from 
small faint dots. The head is flattened, slightly shining and of a paler yellow 
color than the body, with the antennae and the tips of the feelers dusky. The 
neck has five or six dark brown dots each side, irregularly placed and some of 
them slightly confluent. 

The moth is very similar to that of the common species, from which it may 
be distinguished, however, by its fore wings being destitute of any black or 
darker colored atoms. They are ash-gray and glossy, often with a purplish 
red reflection, with a row of equidistant black dots on the apical edge at the 
base of the fringe. Forward of the tips is a dull tawny yellow band margined 
on its anterior side with dull white. Two dots behind and two forward of the 
middle, placed as they are in the common species, are also of a dull tawny 
yellow color margined anteriorly with dull white, sometimes these dots are 
confluent, forming two short oblique stripes. The expanded wings measure 
0.65. 

The common Palmer worm is so variable both in the larva and 
the perfect stages of its life, that I am not without suspicions 
this may be merely a variety of that species. But as it is later 
in the season in making its appearance in each instance where I 
have met with it, and is differently marked in its larva as well 
as its perfect state, I am induced to regard it as a distinct spe- 
cies. 

Associated with the Palmer worms on apple and also on forest 

trees are found worms which are in all respects like them, ex- 
cept that the head and the upper side of the neck or second seg- 
ment is black and highly polished, the neck having a slender 
whitish line on the middle. Though I have not succeeded in 
breeding any of these it is quite probable they are the progeny 
of a moth which may occasionall > be met with in company with 
that of the Palmer worm, and which I named C. contubemalellus 



COMRADE AND TRIPLE SPOTTED MOTHS- 233 

or the Comrade in the postscript to my communication on these 
insects (Trans. N. Y. S. Ag. Soc. vol. xiii, p. 187). This moth is 
of the same size with that of the Palmer worm and has the same 
black dots on the middle and apex of the fore wings, but the 
ground color of these wings is so very dissimilar as to separate it 
at once from that species. 

Tub Comrade of the Palmer worm moth has the fore wings dark brown on 
their inner sides and their outer half white, often tinged with tawny yellowish, 
and sprinkled with minute black atoms. When the insect is at rest this white 
color forms a broad stripe along each side. The inner edge of this stripe is 
well defined, and the stripe occupies all that part of the wing which is outside 
of the two outer dots of the four black ones near the middle of the wing, these 
two dots forming indentations upon its inner edge. Posteriorly the white 
stripe is gradually narrowed and ends in the fringe slightly forward of the tip; 
the fringe being black at the tip and yellowish white inside of this, becoming 
pale dusky towards the inner angle of the wing. On their under sides the fore 
wings are smoky and the fringe is blackish at the tip and pale dull yellow on 
each side of this. In all other points this moth is quite similar to that of the 
palmer worm. 

We have several other New-York species pertaining to the 
genus ChcBtochilus. One of these is occasionally met with the 
latter part of June in the yards about our houses. It also is of 
an ash-gray color and has a white band near the tips of its fore 
wings and three small pale yellowish spots on their outer 
edge beyond the middle, from which circumstance I propose 
naming it 

The triple spotted, ( C. trimaculcllas'). It measures 0.G5 across the wings 
when spread, is ash-gray and very glossy, the fore wings paler on the inner 
ba-al portion, black at their tips and on the outer margin towards their tips, 
and with a broad blackish streak through the middle, not reaching to the base. 
The surface of the fore wings is sparsely sprinkled with whitish scales, which 
forward of the tips become more numerous and condensed, forming an angu- 
lated white band, very obvious to the naked eye, shaped like the letter V with 
its angle towards the tip of the wing. This band ends on the outer margin in 
a somewhat triangular pale yellow spot, with a smaller spot of the same color 
beyond it, almost on the tip, and another forward of it, nearly on the middle 
of the outer edge. The fringe is black, with a row of small whitish spots on 
its base and larger ones opposite them on the outer edge. The hind wings are 
sooty, their outer margin broadly whitish except at the tip, and their fringe 
pale dusky with a band on its middle formed of black spots transversely con- 
fluent. The wings on their under sides are dark gray, the anterior pair slightly 
freckled with whitish and on their outer edge showing the three pale yellow 
spots which occur above. The body and legs are silveiy white, the latter 
blackish on their outer sides with a white band at each of the joints of the feet. 
The feelers which project forward of the head are rather short and thick, of a 



234 BELLY-SPOTTED MOTH. 

gray color marked on their outer side with a broad black stripe which contin- 
ues backward to the neck and embraces the eye. The spur-like tips of the 
feelers are white with a black line on the fore side. The spiral tongue when 
uncoiled is nearly as long as the antennae, and these reach backward almost 
two-thirds the length of the wings, and are black alternated with white rings. 

I notice this species as it is the only one belonging to the genus 
which I have captured when in the act of depositing its e^gs. It 
passes these through a long tube or ovipositor which is half the 
length of the abdomen when extended, and is composed of three 
cylindrical joints of a pale color, which shut into each other like 
the joints of a telescope. Its eggs are quite small, oval and opake 
white, and those of the other species are probably similar. 

Another species larger than either of the preceding occurs in 
woods at the close of autumn, and is remarkable for having both 
pairs of wings relatively broader and the tips of the anterior ones 
much more obtuse and cut off obliquely so that the extreme apex 
forms an obtuse angle instead of an acute one as in the other 
species; and whilst the other species show no very distinct spots 
or marks upon their bodies we here upon the under side of the 
abdomen meet with a broad white stripe having a row of black 
spots along its middle. It may hence appropriately be named 

The belly-spotted ( C. ventrcllus'). Its expanded wings measure 0.80. It 
is of an ash gray color with a satin-like lustre, the fore wings varied with paler 
freckles and sprinkled with numerous black atoms which in places are partial- 
ly arranged in irregular transverse wavy lines, and on the apical edge is a row 
of equidistant black dots or short streaks placed on the intervals between the 
ends of the veins. The fringes and hind wings are pale lead colored or smoky. 
The abdomen is obscure yellowish, its apex ash-gray, and along each side is a 
row of glossy whitish spots, one upon the hind edge of each segment. Its un- 
der side is smoky, with a very broad white or pale dull yellow stripe along 
the middle, in which is a row of conspicuous black dots, one upon the hind 
edge of each segment, and on each side of these dots the edges of the segments 
have a glossy white reflection forming bands of this color. The wings are paler 
on their under sides and very glossy, the anterior ones whitish towards their 
tips and along the hind edge and regularly alternated with dark spots, whereof 
one is situated on the extreme tip, four others forward of it along the outer or 
costal edge and four slightly smaller ones upon the apical edge. 

Time only can show whether any of these near relatives of the 
palmer worm which we have now been considering are liable at 
times to become excessively numerous like that insect, and like 
an allied species, the cabbage moth, described in my First Report. 
Should artificial interference to check their depredations become 



YELLOW-NECKED APPLE-TREE WORM. 235 

necessary, it is probable that the same remedial measures to 
which allusion has been made under the palmer worm, will be 
of equal efficacy here. But commonly the numbers of these in- 
sects are so limited that they are unable to do any amount of 
injury which requires attention. 



Cylindrical dull yellow worms, with light yellow stripes and black heads, 
when large becoming black with light yellow stripes and a yellow 
neck; when alarmed holding both ends of their bodies stiffly upward; 
clustered closely together and wholly stripping the leaves from one 
particular limb, in August. 

The Yellow-necked apple-teee worm, or the Handmaid Moth, Eu- 
metopona ministra, Drury. (Plate 4, fig. 3.) 

There is probably no other insect invading our apple trees which 
excites more notice and alarm than does this. As it lives toge- 
ther in families, and commencing at the end of a limb, strips it 
perfectly clean of its leaves, the proprietors of orchards are ap- 
prehensive when it makes its appearance that it will continue 
and multiply until it utterly devastates their trees; and persons 
have repeatedly brought this worm to me, sometimes coming sev- 
eral miles to enquire its name and whether it is usual for it to 
remain where it has once made a lodgement. The insect, how- 
ever, is not very common. Some years a few clusters of these 
worms will be found scattered upon different trees and then 
several years will commonly elapse before it is again seen. As 
these pages are passing through the press it is far more common 
in the vicinity of my residence than I have ever seen it before. 
In 1853 it was also to be met with in almost every orchard. And 
except in these years I have very seldom seen it. 

The nakedness of the limb on which these insects are located 
attracts attention to it, and on coming to look for the cause of 
this nakedness, a whole family of plump glossy dull yellow or 
large black worms is found upon one of the branches next below 
those which have been devastated. If engaged in feeding they 
are huddled together upon the under surfaces of the leaves, a 
row of shining black heads, like a string of large beads, appear- 
ing along the sides of the leaf, each mouth busily engaged in 



236 YELLOW-NECKED WORM ITS HISTORY. 

gnawing the margin, which rapidly melts away as they progress 
in their operations. If at rest they are all crowded together as 
closely as they can stow themselves, upon the twig where they 
have last been feeding, clinging to it with their four middle 
pairs of feet and with the ends of their bodies raised upwards. 
If the limb be touched or any other alarm is given them they 
all suddenly throw their tails upward at right angles with the 
body and curve their heads backward over their backs, with 
their anterior pairs of feet projecting outwards and resembling 
little black prickles; and they remain rigidly fixed and motion- 
less in this grotesque posture for several moments and until the 
apprehended danger has passed away. 

The moths begin to make their appearance upon the wing each 
year as early as the middle of June and continue till the end of 
July. Each female deposits her whole stock of eggs in a single 
clustre upon the under side of one of the leaves at the end of a 
limb. The eggs are from seventy to a hundred in number, white, 
globular, about three-hundredths of an inch in diameter, placed 
side by side in nearly straight rows, and securely glued to each 
other and to the surface of the leaf. The young worm gnaws a 
large opening through the top of the shell to make its exit. 
Those eggs which are first laid are hatched about the twentieth 
of July; others are fully a month later in giving out their broods. 
Thus some colonies of worms that are almost full grown will be 
met with when others are small and but a few days old. 

The young worms eat only the pulpy under surface of the leaf, 
leaving its upper surface and veins entire. But when the brood 
has thus fed upon two or three leaves they acquire sufficient 
strength to consume the whole substance of the leaf, so that only 
its stem and a part of the mid-vein is left. The tender succulent 
leaves growing at the end of the limb where the worms have 
been placed by their parent, are first devoured ; and as the worms 
advance in size and become more robust, they gradually as they 
move along down the limb come to leaves which are older and 
more tough and leathery, such as they would not have been able 
to feed upon when they were young and small. When the last 
leaves upon one twig or branch have been consumed, they crawl 
away to another, to finish their meal. Two or three stragglers 



YELLOW-NECKED WORM — -LARVA DESCRIBED. 237 

may be left behind when this migration occurs, being so intently 
occupied in feeding as not to notice the departure of their com- 
rades. But on becoming aware of their solitary situation they 
hasten after their associates ; and it is curious to observe the un- 
erring accuracy with which they track and find them. On com- 
ing to where a twig branches off, it is examined, the worm reach- 
ing up it a third of its own length it may be, when it ascertains 
that the brood is not upon that twig, and drawing back, it tra- 
vels onward, until it reaches the identical twig up which its pre- 
decessors have gone, and up which it at once mounts. The worm 
would seem to have some instinct by which it is informed of the 
direction in which its fellows have located themselves, or to 
possess an acutenessof smell like that for which the dog is noted, 
to be thus able to scent their footsteps. But when we come to 
examine the road they have followed, with a magnifying glass, 
we discover the clue which has doubtlessly served to guide them 
in this journey. Stretched along upon the bark we find a mul- 
titude of threads resembling the finest cobweb, so fine that they 
are wholly invisible to the eye. These threads the worms spin 
from their mouths wherever they go. And though so exceed- 
ingly slender they possess a surprising degree of strength, it be- 
ing sufficient to sustain the weight of the worm. Individual 
worms sometimes when they are disturbed suspend themselves 
in the air hereby. They are more apt, however, to drop them- 
selves to the ground. Others, when annoyed, throw their heads 
spitefully from side to side; but their most common resort, as 
already stated, is to throw the extremities of their bodies up- 
ward, and some will even bend themselves so far as to touch 
their heads and tails together, their bodies thus resembling a 
hoop or a ring. 

The Larvae are plump cylindrical shining worms, thinly clothed with long 
soft white hairs . When young their ground color 
is tawny yellow or sometimes tawny red; when ma- 
4 . ture they are coal black. They have been described 
as gradually changing to a darker color with each 
change of their skin, but I think this is a mistake- 
They remain of nearly the same hue from infancy until 
the last time they change their skins, when they are about an inch and a quarter 
in length. It is commonly with this change of their skins that they lose their yel- 
low color and become black. When quite young and less than a quarter of 




238 YELLOW-NECKED WORM THE PUPA. 

an inch in length, two black points surrounded by a pale yellow ring are 
visible above upon each segment, and others upon the sides. From each of 
these a white hair arises. These dots disappear as the worm becomes larger. 

The immature or tawny yellow larvae have black heads and feet, and a spot 
on each of the prolegs, another on the tip and the two conical processes on the 
apex are also black. They have four slender pale or sulphur yellow stripes 
along each side of the body, and between the two lower of these stripes the 
breathing pores form a row of black dots, one upon each segment. 

The mature or black worm grows to two inches or more in length, and has 
the same pale yellow markings as the immature worm. The head is black and 
without any spots. The second segment or neck is of a wax yellow color, and 
the lower one of the four sulphur yellow stripes on each side of the body is 
prolonged forward across this segment, with a black stripe contiguous to it on 
its lower side, and on its upper side a wider black stripe reaches half way 
across this segment. Above this the next sulphur yellow stripe is prolonged 
upon the base of this segment and has a short black line upon its upper side. 
Beneath, this worm has a sulphur yellow stripe along the middle and another 
upon each side. These lateral stripes are interrupted by a wax yellow spot on 
the middle of each segment, which spots are larger upon each of the feet-bear- 
ing segments and are prolonged inwards, forming transverse bands across the 
middle of these segments. The six anterior legs are black, the eight prolegs 
are wax yellow with a black spot upon their outer sides. In place of the pair 
of prolegs usually occurring at the end of the body this worm has two conical 
processes, which are abruptly cut off at their tips, and project horizontally 
backwards. They do not aid the worm in walking, being always elevated from 
the surface over which it is moving. 

These worms are from six to eight weeks or more in growing 
up to their full size. More than half of them are usually de- 
stroyed, mostly, no doubt, by birds, so that of a brood of eighty 
or a hundred worms which come from the eggs only from twenty 
to forty are commonly remaining when they approach maturity. 
It has been reported that the worms of each brood all reach ma- 
turity at the same time and evacuate the tree in a single night. 
But in many broods dwarfish individuals occur, which are 
scarcely half the size of their fellows, and I have noticed worms 
which were still engaged in feeding a week or longer after the 
first ones of their brood had buried themselves. 

The pupa state of this insect, which lasts from September to 
the following June does not appear to have been fully observed, and 
I regret that I am not able at present to fully complete this impor- 
tant link in its history. If Dr. Harris's observations have been 
exact, there is some diversity in the habits of these -moths at this 
time. He says they enter the ground to the depth of three or 
four inches and within twenty-four hours cast their caterpillar 



YELLOW-NECKED WORM THE MOTH. 239 

skins and become chrysalids. But on examining several of these 
worms which buried themselves about ten days since, I find they 
are not yet changed to pupse. They have not inclosed them- 
selves in follicles or formed the slightest cavity in the earth 
surrounding them. They are lying with their backs upwards, 
and have become rigid and motionless, and are contracted to half 
their previous size, now measuring an inch in length and 0.38 in 
diameter. They are about two inches below the surface, and it 
is surprising that such thick-bodied, soft and flesh-like worms as 
these were, were able to penetrate earth which is so firmly com- 
pacted that it almost breaks the blade of a knife to open and 
pry it asunder in clods. 

The moths (plate 4, fig. 3) commonly measure from two inches to 2.40 
across the wings when spread. The fore wings vary from pale huff yellow to 
russet and auburn brown. They are crossed by four and sometimes five nar- 
row bands of a rusty or auburn brown color or blackish when the ground 
color of the wings is dusky, and their surface is more or less sprinkled over 
with rusty or blackish atoms. The anterior band is transverse and regularly 
curved like a bent bow, with its concave side towards the base of the wing. 
The other three bands are parallel with the hind margin. The second, which 
is commonty slightly broader and more distinct than the others, begins on the 
middle of the inner margin and runs nearly straight three-fourths of the dis- 
tance across the wing, when it curves strongly forward to the outer margin. 
The third band is the most faint and is sometimes wholly wanting. It is par- 
allel with the second and is similarly curved at its outer end though in some 
individuals less strongly. The fourth band is half way between the third and 
the tip and is slightly bent like a bow through its whole length, its inner half 
being nearly parallel with the hind margin and its outer half gradually rece- 
ding from this margin. A fifth band sometimes occurs, situated slightly for- 
ward of this last one and parallel with it. Between the posterior band and 
the hind margin, commencing on the outer edge of the wing is an oblique rusty 
brown line, running obliquely inward and forward. Between the first and 
second bands, outside of the middle of the wing is often a dusky dot and back 
of it a transverse streak. The fringe of these wings is short and of the same 
color with the bands, and is edged with whitish on the apex. The hind wings 
are pale or whitish tinged more or less with tawny yellow or dusky. The 
hind edge of both pairs is entire and not in the least scalloped or toothed. 
Beneath they are paler, sometimes dull silvery white, sometimes dusky, at 
least on the forward pair. The head and fore part of the thorax is bright 
orange or tawny yellow, this color being deeper or brownish towards its pos- 
terior edge. The remainder of the thorax and the <ibdomen and legs partake 
of the color of the wings. The tongue or maxillae is almost the tenth of an 
inch in length, when extended upward reaching the base of the antennas, and 
is spirally coiled. The feelers or palpi are quite small, being only 0.05 long, 
and are appressed to the under side of the head, occupying the space between 



240 YELLOW NECK-WORM ITS NAME AND RELATIVES. 

the oral orifice and the eye. They are clothed with short hair-like scales, their 
tips heingvery slightly exposed. The basal joint is obconic, compressed, and 
curved; the second or middle joint is scarcely as long as the basal and about 
twice as long as wide, cylindric and compressed; the apical joint is minute, 
egg-shaped, and but half the diameter of the preceding joints. The antennae 
in the males have two rows of short hairs along their inner sides, in the females 
they are entirely naked and scarcely a third the length of the wings. 
The following varieties occur in this species. 

a. The third band on the fore wings wanting. 

b. A fifth band slightly forward of the hind one, and parallel with it. Common • 

c. A brown dot and behind it an oval transverse spot or short line between the 

the first and second bands. Common. 

d. The second and third bands straight and not curved forward towards their 

outer ends. 

e. The whole space between the first and second bands darker than the rest 

of the wing. 
/. The fore wings dark auburn brown, sprinkled with black atoms and the 
bands black. 

This insect was first described and figured in the year 1773, 
from specimens gathered in New- York by Mr. Drury. He named 
it Phalcena minislra, the Latjn word ministra meaning a maid-ser- 
vant or handmaid. This name was perhaps suggested from the 
plain, modest appearance of this moth, without any diversity of 
colors or gay ornamental marks such as deck the insects of this 
order generally. The Handmaid thus becomes the most appro- 
priate common name for this moth, whilst its larva will most 
readily be distinguished by the name Yellow-necked apple-tree 
worm. It belongs to the Order Lepidoptera, and it can be refer- 
red to no Family of this order except that of Notodontid^e. The 
essential mark by which this and the closely allied Family Arc- 
tiidse are distinguished, is, that they possess a minute rudiment- 
ary tongue (maxillae) — the larvae of the latter family being ge- 
nerally thickly covered with hairs whilst those of the Notodon- 
tidse are nearly or quite naked. The insects of these two groups 
are thus intermediate between the Bombycidee in which the 
tongue is wholly wanting and the other families of this order 
which have it long and spirally coiled. In none of the genera 
of the Family Notodontidse however is the tongue so long as to 
be coiled, as we find it in the handmaid moth, save one, the ge- 
nus Lophopteryx. In this genus also, the larva when alarmed 
throws the ends of its body upwards, in the same manner that 
our insect does. And in many of its other characters it coincides 



MANY-DOTTED APPLE-LEAF WORM. 241 

closely with this genus, far more closely than with the genus 
Pygsera in which it is placed by Dr. Harris, who had probably 
overlooked the remark made by Mr. Westwood (Drury's Exotic 
Entomology, vol. ii, p. 28) that from the structure of the larva 
this insect " is nearly allied to Ptilophora and Petasia, and not to 
Pygsera." Mr. Westwood accordingly places our insect, though 
with a query, under the genus Petasia. His specimens of the 
larva, however, in being wholly denuded of hairs, misled him in 
one character of some importance, the larvse of Petasia being 
destitute of hairs. And not to mention other marks of more or 
less moment, as from the full descriptions above given these 
marks will be sufficiently obvious to professed entomologists, 
who are the only persons that will be interested in this topic, I 
may observe that in being destitute of any hump or protuber- 
ance upon the back of the last segment of the larva, our insect 
differs from both Petasia and Lophopteryx. Indeed it does not 
appear to find an exact representative in its preparatory and 
perfect states, in any European species, and its arrangement, 
therefore, in any of the genera which have been instituted is pal- 
pably incongruous. I am hence obliged to propose a new genus 
for this insect, which, in allusion to the bright orange or tawny 
yellow color of its head and the anterior part of the thorax, may 
be named Ewaetopona (sv beautiful, p-erwrrov front). In a system- 
atic arrangement of this group this genus will stand next to Lo- 
phopteryx. 

As the works of this insect are ' evil only and that continu- 
ally,' and as the worms are so easily destroyed by cutting oif 
the twig on which they are clustered and throwing it into the 
fire, whenever a brood is met with it should be exterminated at 
once. Hens do not appear to relish them. 



Eating irregular notches in the margin and holes in the middle of the 
leaves, in June and September; a rather thick cylindrical light green 
worm an inch long with five white lines and numerous white dots. 

The Apple shoulder-striped Tortrix, or the Mant-dotted Apple- 
leaf worm, Brachytcenia Malana, new species, (plate 8, fig. 5.) 

There are many other kinds of worms in addition to those 
which we have already spoken of, which feed upon the leaves 
[Assem. No. 215.] 16 



242 MANY -DOTTED WORM ITS HABITS. 

of apple trees. But they are seldom noticed, as they are not 
numerous and do not cluster together in societies, but occur soli- 
tary and sparsely scattered among the leaves. One of the most 
common of these, every year, is a pale green worm of nearly the 
same hue as the under surface of the leaves, and having numer- 
ous pale or white dots and five whitish lines running lengthwise 
of its body. On beating the leaves of apple trees some of these 
worms almost always fall into the net. They begin to appear 
the last of May, and are then small and of a more bright lively 
green color than when they are full grown. They live openly 
exposed on the under sides of the leaves, without forming any 
web or fold in the leaf for their concealment and protection. 
Though they are more common upon the apple than elsewhere 
they are not limited to this tree, but occur also on the cherry, 
the peach, and upon elm, poplar and other forest trees. They 
reach maturity about the last of June, and then measure an inch 
and a quarter in length, and 0.20 in diameter. The worm then 
selects an entire, thrifty leaf and contrives to bend one half of 
it into a convex form by attaching a fine silken thread which it 
spins from its mouth, first to the outer edge of the leaf and then 
to or beyond the middle vein, drawing each successive thread 
tight, as it fastens its end . It thus gradually curves the leaf until 
it forms a hollow or cavity of sufficient depth to receive its body 
under the threads. It then crawls into this cavity and continues 
to spin its threads, crossing them in every direction, until it has 
wholly shut itself in beneath the paper-like tissue which it 
weaves. Thus whilst many insects are put to the labor of spin- 
ning a ball or a pod-like cocoon for their protection during their 
pupa state, this worm has the artifice of bending a leaf so that 
it forms nearly two thirds of its cocoon, thus greatly abridging 
the amount of work to be done at this period of its life. Within 
the cavity thus formed it changes to a chrysalis, from which the 
perfect insect, which is an ash-gray moth or miller with a few 
slender black lines marking its fore wings, is subsequently 
hatched. One of the worms which shut itself within its cocoon 
on the twenty- fifth of June gave out the moth on the twenty-fifth 
of July. But I have captured the moths as early as the begin- 
ning of July, and worms which have not enclosed themselves in 



MANY-DOTTED WORM AUTUMNAL BROODS. 243 

their cocoons will also be met with at this date. Hence it ap- 
pears that some reach maturity and come out in their winged 
state a month earlier than others. 

The moths probably attach their eggs to the leaves, and from 
them comes another generation of worms the same year. These 
feed upon the leaves in August and September, and having en- 
closed themselves in curved leaves in the same manner, are with 
the fall of the leaves in Autumn carried to the ground, where 
they lie in their pupa state through the winter and hatch winged 
moths when the warmth of spring returns. It is quite probable, 
however, that some moths come from their cocoons late in au- 
tumn, and crawling into crevices under the loose bark of trees 
and similar situations, pass the winter in a torpid state, and come 
forth again upon the wing early in the spring — for freezing does 
not kill them, as is shown by the following fact. A worm hav- 
ing inclosed itself in an apple leaf the last of September, the 
leaf was placed in a lumber of moist earth and was kept in a 
warm room, whereby the winged moth was disclosed one even- 
ing in the latter part of December. The tumbler was hereupon 
placed out of doors, the night being intensely cold. Next morn- 
ing the moth within it was found frozen as hard as a stone; but 
on bringing it within doors, it thawed in a few minutes, and im- 
mediately revived, flying and skipping about in perfect health. 
' The larvae of this insect will be recognised with ease from 
what has already been stated respecting them. Worms however 
which have a most close resemblance to them produce another 
species of moth. When ready to change to pupae these bury 
themselves in the earth and are eventually changed to a larger 
ash gray moth pertaining to the Family Noctuidse. The two spe- 
cies are so closely alike when in their larva state that I have 
supposed they were but one. And I refrain from presenting a 
description of this larger moth and a full description of the lar- 
vae until more exact observations will enable me to state the 
marks by which the worms of the one species may be distin- 
guished from those of the other. 

The insect whose transformations have been narrated belongs 
to the Family Tortricidje and the Order Lepidoptera. It is most 
intimately related to a European species named semifuscia?ia i 



244 MANY-DOTTED WORM DESCRIPTION OF ITS MOTH. 

which was formerly placed by Mr. Stephens in the genus Ditula, 
but in his last work (Catalogue of British Micro-Lepidoptera, p. 
25) he makes it the type of a new genus, named Brachytamia, a 
name meaningshort marked or short barred, in allusion to the 
stripes upon its fore wings. And I propose to designate our in- 
sect Brachytamia Malana, or the short-barred apple Tortrix, 
whilst its larva will be most readily distinguished as the Many- 
dotted apple-tree worm. 

This moth (see plate 3, fig. 5) measures from 0.80 to 1.15 across its wings 
when spread. Its fore wings are ash-gray of a rather dark shade, but towards 
their outer margins ashy-white and sprinkled with a few black atoms. A ser- 
pentine black line towards their base extends from their outer nearly or quite 
to their inner edge, this line being broader and less flexuous near its outer end, 
and from this end a black streak on the outer edge of the wing reaches to the 
base, where it meets a black band which runs across the anterior part of the 
thorax. Parallel with this streak is another interrupted one, placed upon the 
base of the cubital vein. From the middle of the outer margin a straight black 
stripe extends obliquely towards the inner angle and ends abruptly near the 
middle of the wing. Slightly back of this a small triangular black spot is 
placed on the outer margin; and nearly half way to the tip is a second oblique 
black stripe, parallel with the first and nearly as long, and from its inner end 
a very zigzag and serpentine black line runs across to the inner margin. On 
the hind part of the wing the middle veins are black, commencing at their 
forks, forming about four slender longitudinal lines. Near the centre of the 
wing is often a round whitish spot having a black dot in its middle. The hind 
wings are dull whitish, slightly dusky towards their tips. Both pairs beneath 
are silvery whitish thickly sprinkled with blackish points towards their outer 
sides, and on their hind edge is a black line which is slightly interrupted by 
the tips of each of the veins. The head and thorax are of the same ashy-white 
color as the outer part of the fore wings. The head has an elevated transverse 
ridge or crest between the bases of the antennae and another below this upon 
the middle of the face, the space between these crests being occupied by a black 
band. On the hind part of the thorax the scales are also elevated, forming a 
semicircular crest. The antennas in the males are pectinated with two rows 
of short robust branches. Those of the female (fig. 5 a) have rows of ex- 
ceedingly fine short hairs along their insides. 

A species which is closely related to the one now described 
may be found in the forests early in the spring, before the leaves 
have put forth. It is of an ashy white color with a large three- 
sided black spot on the middle of the outer margin of the fore 
wings, from which it may be named 

f The triangular-spotted tortrix, Brachytania triquetrana. Its ex- 
panded wings measure 0.80. The shoulders or outer bases of the fore wings 
are occupied by a short broad black stripe, and immediately back of this is a 
black transverse angular mark, shaped like the letter V, with its inner part 
more or less interrupted into two or three small spots. The triangular black 



THE ROSE-BUG DO FOWLS EAT IT? 245 

spot back of this on the middle of the outer margin, has its anterior side oblique 
and its posterior transverse. Beyond this on the outer margin are two or 
three obscure dusky spots, and the apical portion of the wing faintly shows 
some way}' transverse clouds and vestiges of a transverse row of black dots. 

These worms do not usually occur in such numbers as to ren- 
der any efforts for their destruction necessary. Should they at 
any time become so multiplied as to require attention, it is pro- 
bable that by spreading sheets under the trees and shaking the 
limbs or beating upon the foliage, most of them may be gathered 
and destroyed, their thick heavy bodies rendering them so lia- 
ble to loose their foothold and fall when the leaves are agitated. 



AFFECTING THE FRUIT. 

> Clustering upon and devouring the young apples the latter part of June; 
also infesting roses, plums, cherries and grapevines : — a smallish buff- 
yellow beetle, with shining yellow legs and very long black feet. 
The Rose-bug, Macrodactylus subspinosus , Fabricius. (Plate 2, fig. 3.) 
An insect was recently (June, 1856) received from Dr. John 
Doy, of Lawrence, Kansas, with a statement that it was greatly 
infesting the young oak trees, and also the grape vines in that 
vicinity. He also said it appeared to be virulently poisonous. 
One of his hens with her nine chickens were found dead one 
morning, and on opening them a quantity of these insects were 
found in the crops of each. But the surmise that these insects 
are poisonous is certainly erroneous, though it may be that the 
poultry in this instance died in consequence of eating them. 
Dr. Harris in his prize essay upon the insects of this family 
(Mass. Agric. Repository, vol. x, pp. 1-12), informs us that fowls 
eat these insects greedily, and that young chickens sometimes 
suffer severely from swallowing them alive. He adds that a 
simple remedy in such cases is pouring sweet oil down their 
throats. It is not improbable, therefore, that full grown hens 
when rapidly picking up these insects, may sometimes swallow 
them whole, and that the irritation and wounds which their 
prickly feet and sharp claws will occasion may prove fatal. 

In his report to the Massachusetts legislature in 1838 (House 
document No. 72, p. 72), Dr. Harris again states that these 
insects are eaten greedily by domesticated fowls, and the same 



246 ROSE-BUG FEEDS ON ALL LEAVES. 

remark is repeated in both the editions of his treatise on injuri- 
ous insects. This testimony in connection with the known 
fondness of poultry for other species of insects most closely 
related to these, led me to speak of fowls as one of the most 
efficient means for restraining this insect from increasing, in a 
communication to the Country Gentleman (vol. viii, p. 75). 
But according to the observations of C. B. Meek, Esq. (Country 
Gent. vol. viii, p. 106), fowls and birds will not touch these 
insects. The fact related by Dr. Doy, however, fully confirms 
the statements of Dr. Harris. The discordant testimony upon 
this subject may be reconciled by supposing, what is probably 
the fact, that fowls after having suffered a few times from feeding 
upon these insects, will afterwards avoid them. 

This insect is a beetle which is known by the name of the 
Rose-bug in different parts of our country. It has doubtless 
received this name from the fact that it makes its appearance 
towards the middle of June, about the time that the roses com- 
mence flowering, and from the injury which it does them. 
When these beetles are not excessively numerous it is chiefly 
upon rose bushes that they are noticed, and they would appear to 
be most fond of this and other vegetation pertaining to the same 
natural order, including the apple, the plum and cherry. But 
when we see the avidity with which they consume the foliage 
of forest trees also, as well as garden vegetables, grain and grass, 
we are left in doubt whether they really have any discrimination 
in their taste. Elder, which from the earliest times has been 
popularly esteemed as peculiarly repulsive to insects, and 
sumach, they eat freely. Grape vines suffer severely whenever 
these insects are numerous. They may frequently be met with 
upon Indian corn. And they seem to be much attached to a 
worthless weed which in many of our pastures usurps the place 
of more valuable herbage, the ox-eye daisy {Chrysanthemum 
hucanthimum). Fond as they are of the wild and the garden 
rose, still there are some species of this shrub which it is reported 
that they never molest — the cinnamon rose (R. cinnamomea) for 
instance. And they devour with avidity the fruit as well as the 
leaves and flowers of the plants which they visit. 

It is somewhat remarkable that whilst in many places all over 
our country this beetle is excessively numerous, in other districts 



ROSE-BUG INCREDIBLY NUMEROUS IN PLACES. 247 

it is quite rare or wholly unknown. It is only occasionally that 
I have found a specimen of it in the vicinity of my own resi- 
dence, during the past twenty-five years. Some insects brought 
me from Bethlehem, Pa., while writing these lines, have this 
species among them, but the collector informs me it is not so 
common there as to have been noticed as a depredator. Dr. 
Harris states that it was wholly unknown in Maine and New 
Hampshire, and in the northern and western parts of Massachu- 
setts, although in and around Boston it was excessively numer- 
ous. My correspondents in some parts of Ohio mention it as one 
of the greatest pests in their neighborhoods. And in Mercer 
county, Illinois, two years ago, I received surprising statements 
respecting it. It was the chief and almost the only pernicious 
insect which had ever been known upon the fruit trees there. 
The clerk of the county, T. C. Cabeen, Esq , of Keithsburgh, 
stated to me that in many orchards its numbers could scarcely 
be credited by persons who had not seen them. It invades the 
trees when the young apples are about the size of hazelnuts ; 
and so eager is it for this fruit that it gathers upon the apples 
like bees when swarming, crowding together and clinging one 
on top of another, forming bunches as large as a tea-cup around 
a single apple, or the two or three apples which commonly grow 
from one bud. The fruit is wholly consumed by them, not an 
apple remaining in the orchard; and when there are not apples 
enough to satisfy them they eat the leaves of the trees also, more 
or less. He said he was particularly acquainted with one 
orchard, which had then for seven years in succession been 
wholly stripped of fruit by these insects, except two of these 
years, when the insect from some cause being not quite so 
numerous, here and there a straggling apple could be discovered 
upon some of the trees. Mr. James Burnet, residing in the same 
vicinity, informed me, that whilst these insects are out, a person 
cannot go into an orchard without their alighting upon his 
clothes, frequently in such numbers as almost to cover him. 
Though they do not continue long, their numbers and voracity 
make ample amends for what they lack in consequence of the 
shortness of their lives. They devour the young peaches also, 
though they are less eager for them than for young apples. 



248 ROSE-BUG ITS NAMES. 

From other sources I was told that when they first show 
themselves each year, it is chiefly in the fields of spring wheat. 
They entirely consume the young wheat plants, and then invade 
the orchards. In consequence of this, many persons are firmly 
persuaded it is the spring wheat that breeds these beetles ; and 
some have made it a point not to have any spring wheat sowed 
upon their farms, so long as these insects continue in their 
neighborhood. But this idea is evidently erroneous. We have 
a sufficient proof of this, in the fact, that this same insect has for 
many years been excessively numerous in Eastern Massachusetts, 
where no wheat, or but a very small quantity, is raised. The 
known habits of the larva, moreover, show that wheat is by no 
means essential to it. 

This beetle belongs to the Family Melolonthid^: and the 
Order Coleoptera, the same group which includes a common 
insect of kindred habits, the May beetle (Lachnosterna quercina), 
which some years is so numerous in particular localities, as to 
wholly destroy the fruit when in its* germ. One of the insects 
most common in Europe and most often mentioned in books, the 
cockchaffer, also belongs to this group; and Dr. Harris states 
that it would be more correct to call the species under considera- 
tion the rose-chaffer, instead of rose-bug. But this would lead 
to confusion, as another insect (Celonia aurata), is commonly 
called the rose-chaffer. Rose-beetle would be the most appro- 
priate name by which to designate it, the term u bug " in strict- 
ness belonging only to insects of the Order Hemiptera, although 
in this country it is universally current for Coleopterous insects 
also; and the proper term for the latter insects, "beetle," is 
never heard among us, except occasionally from a person who 
has learned it from books. This insect, however, has become so 
widely known by the name rose-bug, that it is useless to attempt 
changing this name. 

Its scientific name is Macrodactylus subspinosus . The generic 
nameMacrodactylus, i. e. great claws or great feet, was bestowed 
upon it by the eminent French entomologist Latreille, in conse- 
quence of the remarkable length of its feet. Nearly a dozen 
other insects are now known which rank in this genus, all of 
them natives of Brazil or of Mexico. Its specific name subspin- 



ROSE-BUG DESCRIPTION THEREOF. 249 

osus, meaning slightly or somewhat spined, has allusion to the 
sides of the thorax which jut out into an obtuse angle merely, 
many beetles closely related to this having sharp pointed spines 
or teeth where this angle occurs. In Dr. F. E. Melshcimer's 
Catalogue of Coleoptera, lately published, Linneeus is cited as 
having originally given this name to this species, but on what 
authority it is credited to him does not appear. Dr. Harris says 
this insect was first named and described by Fabricius in 1781; 
but this author had previously described it (Syst. Entom. p. 39) 
in the year 1775; and this appears to be the first notice of it on 
record. Herbst subsequently described it under the name elon- 
gata and Beauvois under that of angustata^ both these names 
having allusion to its long, narrow form. 

The Rose-bug is 0.35 long or a little less. (The figure, plate 2, fig. 3 is in- 
tended to represent it its natural size.) It is covered with minute scales which 
give it a buff or ochre yellow color above, the head and thorax being of a 
lighter yellow tint, and the under side of the body is white. If these scales 
are rubbed off, the head, thorax and under side of the body is black and the 
wing covers yellowish brown. The antennae are bright tawny yellow, their 
tips black. When extended backward they reach the middle of the thorax. 
They are composed of nine joints (as shown, magnified, plate 2, fig. 3 a), the 
three last being long, flattened and shutting together like the leaves of a book, 
and forming a large oval knob. The mouth and feelers are tawny yellowish- 
red often tinged more or less with black. The thorax is longer than wide, nar- 
rower than the wing covers, broadest across its middle, where on each side it 
bulges outwards forming almost an angular protuberance, from whence it is 
strongly narrowed both before and behind, making it nearly six-sided. The 
scutel between the base of the wing covers is rounded at its tip and almost 
semicircular, being rather longer than broad. The wing covers have slightly 
elevated ridges lengthwise. The whole of the last segment of the abdomen is 
exposed beyond their tips and is inclined obliquely downwards. The legs are 
bright tawny yellow, the four hind shanks are black at their tips and armed 
with a pair of thorn-like spines. The feet are alike in both sexes; each joint 
is narrower towards its base and of a tawny yellow color, black at its tip and 
furnished with a crown of black spines and bristles. The feet end in two strong 
claws or hooks of equal size, the tips of which are split. 

This species presents several varieties, the scales being sometimes grayish- 
white above instead of yellow, the thorax beneath the scales brownish-red, &c. 

The rose-bug first strongly excited public attention, in Massa- 
chusetts, in the year 1825, and the accounts of the extensive de- 
vastation which it was producing in various parts of the State 
induced the Massachusetts Agricultural Society to offer a pre- 
mium for an essay upon its natural history, and some probable 
means for checking its progress. No such essay being presented 



250 ROSE-BUG ITS HISTORY AND CHANGES. 

within the time specified, one of the active managers of the so- 
ciety, John Lowell Esq., the following year drew up an interest- 
ing statement of the facts in its history which had fallen under 
his observation, which was published in the Massachusetts 
Agric. Repository, vol. ix, p. 143. In the succeeding volume of 
the same publication appeared, in July 1827, Dr. Harris's essay 
already referred to, entitled u Minutes towards a history of some 
American species of Melolonthidse particularly injurious to veg- 
etation,"' to which the prize which had previously been offered 
was awarded. And shortly afterwards a communication from 
Dr. Green appeared in the New England Farmer (vol. vi, p. 41 
&c.) giving additional information respecting this insect. These 
are the principal articles upon the rose-bug which have hitherto 
been published; and from them w T e learn that its history and 
transformations are as follows. 

The insects make their appearance suddenly, in incredible 
numbers. Esq. Lowell states that in 1826 not a rose-bug was 
visible on the last day of May. On the first of June at eight o'- 
clock in the morning he gathered a mess of peas, and not a bug 
was then to be seen on the vines. At 10 o'clock happening to 
visit the vines again, they were literally overrun with rose-bugs 
of both sexes, generally paired or double. He proceeded to 
kill them by hand. Three hours afterwards they had appeared 
upon some row r s of bush beans to the number of some thousands. 
These w r ere all killed, and then on returning to the peas to see 
if any there had been overlooked, he found the vines as full as 
before. The next day he found them upon his corn, then only 
six inches high, twenty-five bugs being counted upon a single 
leaf, and one hundred and five on one of the hills. They also 
attacked his young cherry trees, and in twelve hours completely 
stripped them of their leaves. He says it would be but a mode- 
rate computation to allow that they killed a hundred thousand 
of these insects on a quarter of an acre. They followed them 
up regularly every morning, for a week, and thus nearly sub- 
dued them upon that piece of ground. 

They continue about a month, and then all disappear. To- 
wards the close of their lives the females crawl an inch or more 



ROSE-BUG ITS ENEMIES AND REMEDIES. 251 

into the ground, where they deposit their eggs, which are about 
thirty in number, whitish, and almost globular. These hatch 
twenty days afterwards, and the little grubs which come from 
them, feed upon whatever tender, juicy roots they find. They 
grow to their full size before winter, and are then three-quarters 
of an inch long, and an eighth broad, of a yellowish white color, 
the head darker, tawny yellow and polished, and with six short 
legs inserted beneath upon the breast. The last segment of their 
bodies is much the largest, bluntly rounded at its end, and is 
turned under the body. To pass the winter these grubs descend 
in the ground below the reach of frost, and become torpid. When 
warm weather returns they revive and crawl back towards the 
surface, and each worm then forms for itself a pod-like cell of 
a regular oval form, and smooth on its inside. This is made by 
the worm turning round and round in one spot, whereby the 
dirt surrounding it becomes firmly compacted together. In this 
cell it changes to a pupa, which is soft and of the same color as 
the worm, but in shape resembles the beetle, the short wings and 
the horns and legs being traced out upon its surface, enveloped 
in a thin film, which, when the beetle becomes matured, is cast 
off. It then breaks open the earthy pod and digs through the 
ground till it reaches the surface. On its first coming out it is 
found upon the oak and elm before it invades either the wild or 
the garden rose. 

These beetles have several natural enemies. The large dragon- 
fly or darning needles, and several other predaceous insects, 
seize and devour numbers of them, whilst the insect-eating birds 
as well as dung-hill fowls have been' said to feast and fatten 
upon them. But when they become so excessively multiplied 
as they do in particular districts, these natural enemies are 
unable to produce any material diminution in the myriads which 
are abroad, and it becomes necessary to resort to artificial means 
for destroying them. The only reliable measure for this pur- 
pose, yet known, is to gather them day after day by hand, or by 
brushing them into tin vessels of water, and by shaking and 
beating them from trees into sheets spread underneath, and then 
crushing, burning, or scalding them. This beetle is easily 
captured, being sluggish and drone-like in its motions, and a 



252 APPLE-MIDGE FRUIT HOW AFFECTED BY IT. 

person who enters resolutely upon this work will destroy count- 
less numbers every hour. But it requires the combined efforts 
of a multitude of persons, when a district is overrun, to rid it of 
this pest; and bounties from the public treasury to encourage 
the destruction of such vermin, might as appropriately be paid, 
as for the destruction of wolves and other animals which are a 
public nuisance. 

I have only further to remark that where these insects have 
abounded, grapes and other choice fruits, which it was earnestly 
desired to save from destruction, have been effectually protected, 
by covering the vines and shrubs with millinet or some other 
similar netting. 



In the interior of ripened and stored apples accelerating their decay, 'whilst 
the outside remains fair; numerous slender tapering glassy-white 
worms. 

The Apple midge, Molobrus Mali, new species. 

The common apple worm or larva of the codling moth (Car- 
pocapsa Pcmonella,) a soft flesh-colored or white worm with a 
shining tawny yellow head, which feeds upon the seeds and ad- 
jacent fleshy parts of the apple and perforates a hole in its side 
through which to make its escape when ready to become a pupa, 
is the only insect which has been as yet noticed in our country 
as residing within this fruit. But from having observed apples 
the cores of which appeared to be depredated upon in a differ- 
ent manner from that of this worm, I have long entertained the 
opinion that we have other insects also which spoil this fruit 
from feeding internally upon it. And I have recently met with 
one insect of this kind, my investigations of which I here pre- 
sent. 

Among the apples exhibited at the annual meeting of the 
State Agricultural Society, February 1856, I noticed one perfo- 
rated with a hole from which a worm of the codling moth had 
made its exit. I took this apple at the close of the exhibition 
and examined it next day. It was a fine large specimen, fair 
externally and without any blemish except the perforation al- 
ready mentioned. But on cutting it open almost the whole of 
its interior was found to be decayed. Its fleshy part was mostly 



APPLE-MIDGE ITS DELICATE WINGS. 253 

changed to a dull yellowish spongy substance resembling dried 
apple, with deep fissures or sinuses running through it. The 
seeds were blackened but entire and perfect, one only being worm 
eaten. In the centre was a large irregular cavity or vacant 
space, the sides of which were wet and slimy, and with numer- 
ous black grains, the castings of the worms which had occupied 
this cavity. And adhering to this slimy matter were found two 
pupae of a small fly or midge, with numerous empty shells or 
skins of other pupae from which the flies had hatched. And the 
remains of some of these flies were also present, having perished 
from their wings becoming entangled in this slimy matter. But 
they had mostly disappeared, the hole perforated by the codling 
worm giving them a passage way out to the external air. And 
it hence appears probable that it is those apples only, which are 
thus perforated, which are resorted to by these insects, as the 
passage which may be seen leading from the flower end into this 
cavity is scarcely of sufficient size to give them an exit after 
they have completed their transformations. 

A fly was also discovered, which had that moment left its pupa 
shell, its wings being then undeveloped and only a third the 
length of its body. Bat in less than half a minute they had ex- 
panded to a length equalling that of the body, in which state 
they remained, the dry atmosphere let into the apple by cutting 
it asunder rendering them rigid and incapable of expanding to 
their fall size. This fact beautifully illustrates how extremely 
delicate the wings of these flies are, requiring the damp atmos- 
phere which they find in the interior of the apple to keep them 
soft and pliant until they become fully developed; and if a 
breath of dry air passes over them at this time, it dries them pre- 
maturely and they thenceforth remain deformed. 

Whether the parent fly places her eggs upon the flower end of 
the apple and the young worms mine their way from thence into 
its center, or whether she attacks those apples only which the 
codling worm has left, crawling into the fruit through the per- 
foration in the side which this worm has made, future researches 
must determine. The latter, however, appears to be the most 
probable. And this insect would hence appear to merely con- 
tinue the mischief which the codling moth has commenced. The 



254 APPLE-MIDGE THE PUPA AND FLY. 

larva? of insects of this kind are long slender footless worms, 
tapering gradually to a point at the head, the opposite end being 
blunt. They are of a shining glassy white color, the viscera 
and alimentary matter contained therein showing more or less 
distinctly through their semi-transparent skins. They are more 
than double the length of the pupse. 

The Pupa of this species is 0.12 long, though slightly variahle in its dimen- 
sions. It is not enclosed in a cocoon, and its surface is somewhat glutinous, 
causing particles of dirt to adhere to it. It is of an elongated ovate form, 
pointed at one end and rounded at the other. Its head, thorax and wing and 
leg cases are black, the abdomen dull pale yellow, some specimens showing a 
short broad pale dusky baud upon the back, on each segment, and some have 
a faint dusky stripe on the opposite side, from the leg cases to the tip. The 
thorax has the same color as the abdomen. The region of the throat is dull 
yellowish, more or less tinged with dusky. 

The flies when at rest and with their wings folded and laid 
flat upon their backs have a close resemblance to the Hessian 
fly in every respect except that their legs are not so long and 
slender. And they pertain to the same group of insects with 
that, in the Family Tipulid^ and Order Diptera. They belong, 
however, to a different genus, named Molobrus by Latreille, 
which may be recognized by its having five longitudinal veins 
in its wings, the middle one of which is forked. And the pre- 
sent species, which appears to be different from those which have 
hitherto been described, may be named 

The Apple midge, Molobrus Mali. It measures 0.15 in length to the tips 
of its wings. The head is black, spheroidal, transverse. The thorax is black 
and smooth, the scutel separated from it by a deep wide fissure. The abdo- 
men is dusky, almost black, with a bright yellow band at each of the sutures; 
beneath it is yellow with the middle of each segment occupied by a large square 
dusky spot; its tip is black, as is also the ovipositor, which is inclined down- 
ward and is composed of two pubescent linear valves. The legs are about as 
long as the body and are black as are the antennae also, though of a less deep 
tint than the head and thorax. The poisers are dusky. The wings are dull 
hyaline tinged with smoky, and are a fourth longer than the abdomen. In the 
female the antenna? are half the length of the body and composed of fifteen short 
cylindric joints half as broad as long, clothed with short bristles which incline 
towards the tip, the joints very slightly diminishing in diameter outwards and 
but slightly separated from each other. The two basal joints are thicker and 
shorter than the following ones, as broad as long, and compacted together, the 
second and third joints being most widely separated from each other. 

The flies belonging to this genus are all small, like the one we 
have described, and of black or blackish colors. Most of the 
larva? which have been noticed have been found in the roots of 



APPLE-MIDGE FLIES SIMILAR TO IT. 255 

decaying trees, beneath the bark. The genus is somewhat ex- 
tensive, nearly thirty species occurring in Great Britain alone, 
and they appear to be equally common upon this side of the 
Atlantic. Three of our species have been described by Mr. Say, 
and several others are in my own collection. Our most com- 
mon species occurs from the last of June till the middle of Au- 
gust, in woods and in the yards about our buildings, and may 
frequently be met with upon the windows in our houses. It may 

be named 

The Common midge, Molobms vu'garis. It measures 0.10 to 0.12 in length, 
and is black, with blackish brown legs and pale thighs. Its poisers are whitish, 
and its wings hyaline. The sides of its thorax below the wings are tinged with 
pale, and the abdomen with brown, rarely pale. 

Another common species found in the same situations and at 
the same dates with the preceding, and quite similar to it in its 
colors, may be distinguished from it by its much larger size and 
the smokiness of its wings. 

The Smoky-winged midge, Molobrus fuliginosus, measures 0.18 in length, 
and is black with blackish brown shanks and pale thighs, their haunches being 
commonly white. Its wings are semi-transparent and smoky. The sixteen 
cylindrical joints of its antennas are more widely separated from each other by 
short intervening pedicles than in the preceding species. The gravid female, 
when pinned, extrudes her eggs, connected together in a continuous string. 

A smaller species than either of the preceding, attracted my 
notice from the singular manner in which it ran about upon 
the paper on which I was writing, one night the latter part of 
December. As other individuals were found at the same period 
upon the windows, there is little doubt they had hatched from 
the earth in some flower pots which were in the room. This 
tiny insect would advance very rapidly two or three inches and 
then abruptly pause or move backwards a step or two and in- 
stantly run again in another direction about the same distance, 
and then back up again and start off in another course. It is 
quite similar to the Molobrus (Sciara) femoratus of Mr. Say, which 
like the foregoing, is a common species on windows in the month 
of July, but here the abdomen is of a uniform color, or pale 
only at its tip. It may be named in allusion to its mode of 
running, 

The Fickle midge, Molobrus inconstans. It measures 0.08 in length, and 
is black with the thorax smooth and slightly shining, the thighs pale and 
whitish, and the wings pellucid and glassy with an iridescent violet and red 
reflection. 



INFESTING FOREST TREES. 
1. THE PINE. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Fixed upon the sides of the leaves, exhausting them of their juices; small 
oblong flattish white scales, with a pale yellow spot upon their pointed 
end. 

The Pine-leaf Scale-insect, Aspidiotus Finifolia, new species. 

In those sections of our country where it is not common as a 
native of the forests there is scarcely any tree which is more 
esteemed for ornamenting the grounds around a dwelling than 
the white pine. Especially is it a favorite, and strenuous 
attempts are making to cultivate it about houses upon the prai- 
ries of the west; its tall growth and perennial foliage adapting 
it so well for a shelter from the winds of winter which sweep 
over those vast plains with such piercing severity; whilst by 
many of the residents there it is further prized as having been 
associated with the scenes of their early life, and thus reviving 
pleasant remembrances of their childhood's home. 

But when it is transplanted the pine appears to be much more 
subject to the attacks of insects than when it is growing sponta- 
neously. At least we meet with some kinds of these depredators 
upon cultivated pines, which we have never been able to discover 
upon these trees when growing wild in our forests. One of these, 
a species of coccus infesting the bark, and named the pine blight, 
was described in my First Report. We come now to treat of 
another insect of the same Family Coccid.e, which fixes itself 
upon the leaves, exhausting them of their juices and thus causing 
them to perish and fall, and the ends of the limbs to die when 
thus defoliated. Specimens of the leaves, thronged with these 
insects, were sent me by Robert W. Kennicott, of West North- 



PINE-LEAF SCALE DESCRIPTION. 257 

field, Cook comity, Illinois, who gathered them the fore part of 
September, from pines in the yard of S. Francis, Esq., in the city 
of Springfield, in that State. These insects pertain to the genus 
Jlspidiotus. No species of this genus has hitherto been discov- 
ered, infesting any tree of the pine or fir family. I infer this to 
be different, therefore, from anything which has been as yet de- 
scribed, and accordingly name it the Pine-leaf scale-insect, Jls- 
pidiotus Pinifolm. In size and shape these scales bear a marked 
resemblance to those of the Apple bark-louse {A. conchiformis) 
described in my last year's report, except that they are not 
curved as those are. Thus their form is like that of a muscle 
shell (Mytilus) rather than that of an oyster. Their color more- 
over, distinguishes them from any of the other kinds of scale- 
insects which are known to me, it being pure white, with a small 
pale yellow spot upon the pointed end, which spot is readily dis- 
cerned by the naked eye. 

The leaves of the pine are three-sided or shaped like a prism, 
and it is along one of the sides of these leaves that the scales 
are mostly placed, a few scattering ones, however, frequently 
being stationed on one of the other sides. In the specimens sent 
me they are crowded as closely as they can stow themselves, end 
frequently one scale overlaps the end of the next one. They are 
arranged lengthwise in a row, extending the whole length of 
the leaf, their width being just equal to that of the leaf. The 
small end in some is towards the base, in others towards the 
apex of the leaf. 

When examined with a magnifier, those scales which are fully 
grown appear externally to be composed of three distinct scales, 
representing seemingly the head, thorax and abdomen of the 
living insect — each being of an oval form with rounded ends, 
and overlapping each other like the tiles of a roof. The largest 
of these three segments is of a pure white color, and of a some- 
what waxy lustre, resembling in its appearance a small oblong 
drop of spermaceti tallow. Numerous parallel curved lines are 
sometimes perceptible across its surface. Overlapping the end 
of this is a pale dull yellow scale, a third or fourth of its size, 
and having a raised line along its middle. To this succeeds 

[Assembly, 215.] 17 



258 PINE-LEAF SCALE — ITS ENEMIES. 

another, half the size of the preceding, this third segment being 
subhyaline, yellowish, and obtusely striated transversely. Be- 
neath, this scale is white its whole length, without any indica- 
tions of those divisions which appear upon its upper side. It is 
the tenth of an inch in length. Specimens but half grown are 
interspersed with the others, and all the scales on some ©f the 
leaves are of this small size. These show a raised line or slightly 
elevated keel along the middle of the white portion. Other 
specimens still, are merely minute oval dull yellow scales, with 
out any whiteness at the end. 

The scales which we have now described are the relics of the 
dead bodies of the female insects, forming a shield for covering 
and protecting their eggs. At the time the specimens before me 
were gathered the eggs had not become developed. Consequently 
on elevating one and another of these scales with the point of a 
needle, nothing is found beneath them except a small shapeless 
mass of dried black matter, the remains of the viscera of the 
insect. But at any time during the winter season, the little 
cavity under these scales will undoubtedly be found filled with 
minute round eggs. And the transformations of this species 
will be similar to those narrated of the Apple bark-louse. 

It is evident that an insect of the pernicious character of the 
one under consideration, when so abundant as this appears to 
have been upon the pines from which the specimens before me 
were gathered, would soon cause the leaves to perish and the 
trees to die, if permitted to proceed unchecked in its career. 
But, fortunately, nature has in this as in most other analogous 
instances, provided means for restraining these creatures from 
becoming unduly numerous. A minute worm which feeds upon 
the eggs of the Apple bark-louse was noticed in our account of 
that species. Another insect, a species of Lady-bird, or Cocci- 
nella, common throughout the United States , devours both the 
Apple bark-lice and those of this species. I have repeatedly met 
with this Coccinella upon apple trees, but had not ascertained 
which particular kind of vermin it was in pursuit of upon those 
trees. For authentic information upon this interesting topic we 
are indebted to Mr.Kennicott, who has observed the larvae 
this lady-bird preying with tiger-like ferocity upon the Apple 



PINE-LEAF SCALE — BARK-LOUSE LADY-BIRD. 259 

bark-lice, and who met with the same larvae and also the pupa} 
and perfect insects upon the pines on which the scale-insects of 
which we are speaking occurred. Specimens of the insects and 
their pupse which he sent me, enable me to present an account 
of the preparatory states of this species. The habits of the 
group of insects to which this belongs, were narrated in my last 
report. The lice upon which this species feeds are so exceed- 
ingly minute that a large number of them will no more than suf- 
fice it for a single meal; and therefore, in the course of its life, 
each individual probably slaughters and devours such a multi- 
tude as can scarcely be computed. They thus render us a ser- 
vice of great value, and it is to be hoped that no one will fall 
into the enormous mistake of supposing that these lady-birds 
breed the lice among which they are found, and therefore under- 
take to exterminate them, as was once done where a similar spe- 
cies occurred upon currant bushes, as related in my last report. 
In allusion to its habits this species may be named the Bark- 
louse lady-bird. It pertains to the genus Chilocorus of the Family 
Coccinellid^e and Order Coleoptera. It was noticed more than 
a century ago, by the Swedish naturalist, Kalm, when traveling 
through this country, who supposed it to be identical with the 
European C. bipustufata. It was afterwards for a long time con- 
founded with the C. Cacti, Linn., a Mexican species closely re- 
lated to it, which feeds upon the Cochineal insect (Coccus Cacti.) 
We accordingly find it entered under this name in Dr. Harris's 
Catalogue of the Insects of Massachusetts. Mr. Say corrected 
this error in an article in the Boston Journal of Nat. Hist. (vol. 
i, p. 202) published in 1835, in which he thus speaks of this 
subject: — ■■" C. Cacti Fabr. This species occurs abundantly in 
Mexico; it certainly resembles very closely the stigma, Nobis, so 
common in this country, and the renipustulata, Mull, of Europe; 
but it is more than twice the size of either of those, insects, and 
may also be distinguished from the former by the superior mag- 
nitude of the rufous spot of which the form is transversely oval, 
whilst that of the stigma is orbiculor." Two years after this, 
this same species was named bivulnerus in the third edition of 
Dejean's Catalogue, and in 1851 Mulsant (Coleopt. Trimer. Secu- 
rip. p. 460) published a description of it under this latter name, 



260 PINE-LEAF SCALE BARK-LOUSE LADY-BIRd's LARVA. 

which is also the name under which it is entered in Dr. Mel- 
sheimer's Catalogue (p. 130) published by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Although the name stigma is but incidentally given 
by Mr. Say in the extract above quoted, it still is a published 
name, accompanied with such a description as makes it perfectly 
clear to what species this name is applied. This is all that is 
requisite, in my view, to establish Mr. Say's claim in the premi- 
ses. In how many instances have authors bestowed names ac- 
companied with no other description than a mere statement of 
one or two points in which the species designated differed from 
another known species. I consequently regard the correct sci- 
entific designation of this insect to be Chilocorus stigma. 

The larvae are of a dull white color, with black shining heads, 
black legs and six rows of long black thorn-like spines running 
the whole length of the body, one spine of each of the rows 
arising from each segment. The spines are branched, sending 
off numerous small slender sharp points on every side. Covered 
thus formidably with prickles, it is probable that these little 
alligator-like animals are never devoured by birds, and are able 
to pursue their useful labors incessantly and without molesta- 
tion from enemies. 

At almost every step when studying this department of the 
works of nature, we are meeting with phenomena which excite 
our astonishment and admiration. These lady-birds are destined 
to remain dormant and motionless in their pupa state, for a pe- 
riod of about two weeks, in the middle of summer, when all 
nature around them is full of life and activity. We should ex- 
pect they would at this time select some obscure retreat where 
they would not be apt to be noticed and devoured by birds or 
annoyed by any other creature. We have already observed that 
the leaves of the pine which are infested by the scale insect 
perish and fall, and that the twigs thus denuded become with- 
ered and dry. We should suppose that these dead leafless twigs, 
where it will be so conspicuously exposed, would be especially 
avoided by the lady-bird when seeking a place to repose during 
its pupa state. But, to our surprise, we find these insects at this 
time all crowding together upon the ends of these naked twigs. 
And they here fix themselves by their tails, and become motion- 



PINE-LEAF SCALE BARK-LOUSE LADY-BIRd's PUPA. 261 

less pupse, retaining around them the prickly skins of their lar- 
va state. The appearance which they now present is truly re- 
markable, the twig thus covered bearing the most perfect resem- 
blance to a stem covered with burrs or thorny seeds, like the 
ripened spikes of the hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) or 
some more prickly plant. No bird will be djsposed to approach 
anything having such a ?wli-me-tangere aspect. And how curi- 
ous it is that the scale insect by killing the leaves and making 
the twigs bare should be adapting them for the abode of its mor- 
tal foe. With such a discriminating eye has the Author of na- 
ture planned the economy of these useful little creatures, making 
It on the one hand their especial work to destroy a pernicious 
family of insects, and on the other hand shielding them from 
being destroyed in their turn. They would thus appear to be 
under the special protection of Providence, and it is remarkable 
that long ago, in a superstitious age, and when the habits of this 
tribe of insects could have been but vaguely if at all known, 
they were regarded in this same light, and in different countries, 
and are supposed to have thus obtained in France the name of 
" God's cows " and " The Virgin's cattle "and in England " Our 
Lady's birds," and children were incited to regard them with 
kindness and leave them at liberty, by chanting to them to " fly 
away home, your house is on fire, your children will burn." 

In this family, as stated in my last Report, the pupse remain 
partly enveloped in the prickly skin of the larvse. In some spe- 
cies, however^the larva skin is thrown entirely off, as I stated it 
to be in the fifteen spotted or apple-tree lady-bird, and I observe 
Mr. Westwood (Introduction, vol. i, p. 396) describes the C. bi- 
pustulata as throwing off its skin in the same manner. In the 
species now under consideration, the pupa appears from the 
empty skins to be almost entirely enveloped in the skin of the 
larva, with the rows of spines and their prickles protecting it in 
every direction, and the head and legs of the larva retaining 
their natural form, the latter being on the side towards the twig 
from which the pupa is suspended. The empty pupa skin is 
glassy and of a dull yellow color with blackish clouds. It re- 
mains partly protruded from the lower or anterior part of the 
cleft in the back of the larva skin. 



262 LARCH CHEATER — ITS DECEPTIVE APPEARANCE. 

In its perfect state the Bark-louse lady-bird is 0.17 or 0.20 
long, very convex and almost hemispheric, highly polished and 
shining, covered with numerous very minute punctures. It is 
black with a round red or reddish yellow spot on the middle of 
each wing cover. Beneath it is black with the abdomen red or 
yellow, its basal segment black except upon each side. 

It is probable that the scale insect of the pine can be destroyed 
by thoroughly showering the leaves with a solution of soap or 
with tobacco water immediately after the young larvae have 
hatched from the eggs. Could we be so fortunate as to devise 
some mode by which we could multiply the lady-bird at plea- 
sure, it would undoubtedly be the most effectual mode of rid- 
ding the pine and also the apple tree of these minute vermin 
which are so pernicious to them. 



2. THE LARCH OR TAMARACK. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

On the limbs in June and July, consuming the leaves; a large flattened 
ash-gray worm, resting appressed to and closely resembling the bark. 
The Larch cheater or lappet MOTn, Planosa Laricis, (plate 2, fig. 5,6,) 
new species. 
The modes by which nature has endowed many insects to ena- 
ble them to elude the search of birds and other enemies are 
often truly wonderful. Among the insects thus endowed, the 
lappet moths and their caterpillars have often excited the ad- 
miration of the curious. The latter when in repose have the 
body flattened, somewhat like that of a leech, and on eaeh side 
of each segment projects a little lappet or flat lobe. These lap- 
pets are pressed down upon the surface of the limb on which 
the worm is at rest. The sides of the. body are also fringed with 
hairs which are similarly appressed to the limb. Thus all ap- 
pearance of an abrupt elevation or an interstice to indicate the 
ends and sides of the worm is obliterated, and it resembles 
merely a slight swell of the natural bark, the deception being 
made complete by the color, which is commonly identical in its 
hue with that of the bark. And when there are spots or marks 
upon the caterpillar, they imitate the glandular dots, scars and 



LARCH CHEATER — ITS DECEPTIVE APPEARANCE. 2G3 

•other discolorations which will be seen upon the bark around 
it , Even upon the closest scrutiny the eye fails to detect any- 
thing by which we can be assured this slight elevation is not a 
tumor which has grown in the bark. A lady to whom I once 
pointed out one of these caterpillars, I could perceive distrusted 
my statement and supposed I was imposing upon her credulity, 
the slight inequality at the point indicated being so exactly like 
a natural tumor upon the bark and so totally unlike a living 
worm. But a mite, wandering over the limb, on coming to this 
elevated spot sought to crawl under it, whereupon it gave a con- 
vulsive shrug to frighten the intruder away, by which the lady's 
skepticism was dispelled. The cocoons which they construct 
upon the limbs are equally exact counterfeits of the bush. One 
of these upon a limb of the wil'd black cherry is now in the mu- 
seum of the State Agricultural Society. It is placed longitudi- 
nally in the slight angle formed exteriorly where one limb 
branches from another, and a piece of putty could not be more 
perfectly moulded into this angle and smoothed off so as to leave 
no inequality. The bark of the cherry is blackish with trans- 
verse whitish streaks, and this cocoon presents the same colors 
and of tints almost the same, and what is most remarkable, it 
in one place shows a whitish streak continued from the bark 
upon the surface of the cocoon. And finally, in their perfect 
state, the moths imitate appearances which are common upon the 
particular trees on which they dwell; those upon deciduous 
trees, in the colors and scalloped margins of their wings resem- 
bling a tuft of withered leaves; those upon evergreens resem- 
bling a scar where the turpentine has exuded and concreted into 
a whitish mass. 

Two American species of these curious insects are already 
known, both of them occurring in our State, upon the apple and 
other deciduous trees. To these we now add a third species, 
which resides upon the tamarack or American larch, Abies (La- 
rix) Americana. It appears to be a rare insect. A specimen was 
presented to me by Dr. Emmons, in 1847, captured in the neigh- 
borhood of Albany that year by Mr. J. H. Salisbury, the chem- 
ist. The only other instance in which I have met with it, was 
upon a drooping larch in my front yard, in the year 1854. Upon 



264 LARCH CHEATER ITS LARVA. 

a dead, leafless limb of this tree two worms were detected upon 
the twenty-second day of June, reposing near each other. They 
crawled from this limb by night to feed upon the leaves of the 
other limbs and returned to it to repose during the day, as though 
conscious that such tumors or excrescences as their bodies imi- 
tated were natural to diseased and dead limbs rather than those 
which were thrifty and in full foliage, and that they therefore 
would be less liable to attract notice here than elsewhere. They 
were observed daily upon this limb for a week, when one of them 
having disappeared, the limb was cut off to secure the other, 
although as I afterwards learned, the worm was now but half 
grown. 

The young larva is pale ash-gray, identical in its hue with that of the 
limhs on which it resides. Its surface is^ varied with minute brown points, the 
larger ones of which are impressed. Along the middle of the hack is a narrow 
black streak which is interrupted at each of the sutures. On each side of this 
is a row of small elevated black dots or warts, one on each segment, these dots 
giving out several black diverging bristles. On the outer side of each dot upon 
the fifth and the following segments is a small yellow spot. The fourth seg- 
ment or last one of the thorax is black above and on its sides and has a trans- 
verse cream yellow spot on its hind margin; and the three segments before the 
last are black above, between the black dots. The lappets or lobes along the 
sides of the body are black at their tips and yield a few black bristles, and un- 
der these and also along the sides of the lappets and of the body between their 
bases arise numerous diverging white hairs, which are appressed to the surface 
on which the worm is reposing. The head is ash-gray, with several blackish 
spots, and is clothed with gray hairs. 

The branch containing this worm was placed in a breeding 
cage, and also a twig clothed with leaves, and to this the worm 
immediately crawled, resting concealed among the leaves. But 
it was very intolerant of confinement, eating but little if at all, 
and in about a fortnight it perished. When in motion it has a 
very different appearance from what it presents when at rest, 
being much longer and of a nearly cylindrical form. It moves 
in a hurried impatient manner, its gait resembling that of the 
hairy Arctian caterpillars. 

On carefully examining the tree on which these two worms 
were observed, July 17th, I was so fortunate as to find a mature 
worm and four cocoons. None could be discovered upon other 
larch trees in the yard, and these insects were probably the pro- 
geny of one single parent, which had strayed hither from a 



LARCH CHEATER ITS COCOON AND PUPA. 265 

distance, there being no self-planted trees of this kind within a 
circuit of several miles. The first moth came from these cocoons 
upon the twenty-fourth of July and the others hatched soon after. 
The mature larva was 1.38 long and about 0.25 broad when in repose. It 
was of a very dull umber brown color, resembling that of the old rough bark 
upon the body of the tree; its extremities were of an ash-gray tinge and upon 
each side of the fifth segment was a cloud of the same color. Under a lens 
some short, wavy, black streaks were perceptible upon the surface. Along the 
back were little projecting points with rounded summits, one on each side of 
the middle of each segment, those upon the ninth segment larger and of a paler 
color, and with a small pale yellowish spot forward of their bases. The lap- 
pets and hairs upon the sides were the same as in the younger worm. Many of. 
the white hairs were dilated at their ends into flat triangular heads, ciliated or 
fringed at their tips. The under side of the body was naked and pale bluish 
green. 

The cocoon is of an ash-gray color, of the identical hue of the 
bark of the smaller limbs to which it is attached, lengthwise. 
It is an inch and a quarter in length, 0.30 broad, flattened and 
moulded to the limb and partly surrounding it, its middle ris- 
ing 0.20 or less than a quarter of an inch in height, forming 
merely a slight bulge upon the limb, which is only observed upon 
a particular search. Some wrinkles lengthwise at its ends and 
sides may also be seen, similar to those of the adjacent bark; and 
on its surface here and there is a little blackish wart-like spot, 
placed transversely, closely counterfeiting the glands upon the 
bark, and also minute blackish points, resembling the pores in 
the bark. It is of a tough texture with a roughish surface, very 
similar in appearance to the pale gray wrapping paper which 
was formerly in common use among grocers and shop men. 
Woven into its surface is an occasional hair derived from the 
body of the caterpillar. Its inner surface is smooth and of a 
paler gray color than exteriorly. The naked bark of the limb 
forms the floor of the cavity within. And the moth makes its 
exit by crowding itself forward and thus separating one end of 
the cocoon from its slight attachment to the bark. 

The pupa is 0.60 long and 0.25 wide, slightly depressed, 
rather broadest across the middle, and tapered to a point 
abruptly, with a very minute tooth standing outward upon each 
side of -its apex. Its relics are of a chestnut brown color, the 
sheaths of the wings and legs paler and yellowish. 



266 LARCH CHEATER THE MOTH DESCRIBED. 

The moths are short, stout, thick-bodied, densely coated with 
long soft hairs, the males dark gray or almost black, the females 
white and a third larger. Both sexes have a singular crest upon 
the hind part of the thorax, formed of long curved scales which 
are glistening and resin-like, of an auburn brown color, arranged 
like the hairs of a moustache and jutting up from the surround- 
ing prostrate hairs, forming a large tuft or protuberant oblong 
spot, broadest posteriorly and narrowing to its anterior end. 
The scales of this crest are of a peculiar form, being slender and 
hair-like with their ends dilated into an oval flattened knob, 
their shape thus resembling that of a spoon. When they are at 
rest these moths appear like excrescences upon the limb on 
which they repose, so exactly do they adjust themselves to it, 
their wings being held together in the shape of a roof, with their 
lower edges pressed firmly against the sides of the branch, and 
their white fore feet stretched forward resembling pitch which 
has exuded from a wound and running downward has dried in 
white streaks upon the bark. 

The males (plate 2, fig. 5) measure 0.60 in length to the tip of the abdomen 
and of the wings, and one inch across the latter when they are spread. The 
head is densely clothed with white hairs in front and with blackish ones upon 
each side around the eyes. The feelers are minute and are wholly enveloped 
and concealed by long fine hairs, their ends forming a slight projection like the 
point of a camel's hair pencil. These hairs are blackish on their outer sides 
and ash-gray within. The antennas are short, about a third of the length of 
the body, and are abruptly bent near their middle (as shown in the magnified 
fig. 5 a,) or with the ends straight in both directions from the crook near their 
middle, when they present the shape of an inverted V. They are furnished 
with two rows of coarse branches, which are long from the base to the crook, 
where they are abruptly shortened to half their previous length, and continue 
thence to gradually diminish in length to their tips. Each branch has a row 
of very fine hairs along one side, resembling eye lashes. The mouth has only 
the minute rudiments of a spiral tongue, and this not coiled as we see it in 
moths generally. The thorax is clothed with long hairs of a dark gray color, 
those at its anterior end white, and on its posterior part is the oblong crest of 
flossy spoon-shaped scales previously mentioned. The abdomen tapers slight- 
ly from its base to the tip and is clothed with blackish hairs above, whitish 
ones beneath, its apex having a dense tuft of long pure white ones. The wings 
are quite small for such a thick-bodied heavy moth. They are semi-trans- 
parent, being thinly covered with brown scales which are commonly denuded, 
the wings then appearing perfectly transparent like glass. Their veins are 
robust and white with darker irregular bands. The hind margins of both 
pairs of wings are entire and not in the least toothed or scalloped. When at 
rest they are pressed against the sides of the abdomen, in the form of a steep 



LARCH CHEATER OTHER LAPPET MOTHS. 267 

roof, the outer edges of the hind wings protruding more or less from under the 
outer edge of the fore ones. The legs are heavily clothed exteriorly with tufts 
of lono- snowy white hairs, the forward shanks having a tuft of blackish ones 
on their insides at the base. 

The female (plate 2, fig. 6) is quite unlike the male, being much larger and 
differently colored. It has a peculiarly delicate or mellow appearance, from 
the softness of its colors and the thinness and translucency of its wings. The 
latter when extended measure an inch and a half or slightly less. Their hind 
edge is occupied by a slender white band or line. Forward of this is a narrow 
pale dusky band which is abruptly widened near its middle to double its usual 
breadth, this widened part occupying two of the intestines between the veins. 
This band is margined on its anterior side by a white line, by which it is sepa- 
rated from a much broader and more dusky band, which is waved in its mid- 
dle in conformity with the dilation in the narrow band behind it. Forward of 
this the wings are milk white, crossed by four very faint equidistant wavy 
bands of the same delicate pale dusky hue with those behind, these bands being 
often obsolete upon the middle of the wing and distinct at their ends only. 
The veins are prominent and white, forming slender lines of this color crossing 
all the bands. The hind wings are of the same soft dusky tint as the bands 
on the fore wings, but more pale, and on their hind margin is a white line or 
slender band. The hind edge of both pairs of wings is perfectly entire as in 
the male, and their fringe is pale dusky, on the fore wings crossed with white 
lines at the tips of the veins. The body is clothed with incumbent milk white 
hairs, the tip of the abdomen having a pale brown tuft, and the crest on the 
base of the thorax appears like a large elevated blackish spot. The antennae 
in this sex (fig. 6 a) are very slightly crooked in their middles, and their 
branches though equally thick with those of the males, are much shorter, be- 
ing but about four times as long as the diameter of their stalk. These branches 
are longest in the middle, and are gradually shorter from thence, both towards 
the base and the tips. 

This insect belongs to the Order Lepidoptera and the Family 
BoMBYCiDis. Those European caterpillars which have the sides 
of their bodies projecting in lappets such as the larva of this 
species presents form a genus to which the name Gastropacha 
has been given, and it is to this genus that Dr. Harris refers 
the two American species of lappet caterpillars which have 
already been alluded to. One of these, named Americana by 
Dr. Harris (the Ilicifolia of Abbot and Smith, but not the 
species thus named by Linnseus) in its colors and other charac- 
ters is intimately related to the European species of Gastropacha. 
The other, originally named Bombyx Velleda by Stoll, closely 
coincides with the insect which we have now described, and 
differs like it from the other insects included in the genus Gas- 
tropacha in several important points. It has the same singular 



268 LARCH CHEATER ITS GENERIC PLACE. PARASITES. 

crest upon the hind part of its thorax. In both these species 
the hind margin of the wings is entire and not scalloped as they 
are in the genus Gastropacha, and their wings are more thin, 
delicate and semi-transparent. In G. Americana the second vein 
which is given oft* from the outer side of the outer principal 
vein of the fore Avings forks forward of its middle and both its 
branches terminate in the outer edge of the wing forward of its 
apex. In these two species the same vein forks much beyond 
its middle, the two branches diverge much more strongly, and 
both end in the hind margin of the wing, rather inside of the 
apex, the tip of the wing here being rounded and not forming 
an angle as it does in the former species. Such differences for- 
bid our associating these insects together in the same genus. 
And as their deceptive appearance is one of their most promi- 
nent characteristics in each stage of their lives, the generic name 
Plancsa (Greek «rXavos ? a deceiver,) or in English, the cheaters, 
may appropriately be given to the Velleda and the species which 
we have here described. The best distinctive name for the lat- 
ter will be that of the tree which it infests. We therefore pro- 
pose calling it Planosa Laricisj or the Larch cheater. 

From one of the four cocoons mentioned above, came five 
parasitic insects, which had destroyed the pupa. These gnawed 
their way out of the cocoon at short distances from each other, 
each making a round hole, the edges of which were rough and 
jagged. They were all females of a pretty species of Ichneu- 
mon fly (Family Ichneumoniok Order Hymenoptera) 0.30 long, 
of a black color with the abdomen and legs tawny red and the 
hind feet, scutel and a band on the middle of the antennas 
white. They pertain to the genus Phygadeuon of Gravenhorst, 
which genus is distinguished by having a depressed abdomen nar- 
rowed at its base into a slender stalk or petiole, a protruded ovi- 
positor, the joints towards the base of the antennae somewhat 
long and the small cell in the middle of the fore wings with five 
sides. This genus embraces a number of described species, most 
of which have the abdomen red or red and black, with Che scu- 
tel also black and not pale as we find it in the present instance. 
This insect may be named 






MAPLE LEAF CUTTER— LEAVES BLIGHTED BY IT. 269 

The cheater's parasite, Phygadeu n Planoscr. Its head is hlack with 
the feelers and orbits of the eyes broadly white. The antennre are nearly as 
long as the body, black, with a broad white band beyond the middle, which 
includes four of the joints and is interrupted on its under side by a black line. 
The thorax is rough from numerous confluent punctures, which are more 
coarse and confused on its basal part, the angles on each side of the base above 
presenting a small tubercle or obtuse tooth. It is black above and tawny red 
beneath and on the sides, and shows several yellowish-white marks, as follows: 
a short line above on each side of the anterior middle; the wing sockets and a 
stripe from them to the head; an oblique stripe above the base of the^interior 
legs; a spot behind the wing sockets; a transverse square spot occupying the 
scutel, and an oblique spot upon each side of the base. The abdomen is as 
broad as the thorax, elliptic, flattened, convex above, concave beneath, the first 
segment narrowed into a petiole, the following segments abruptly bent down- 
wards at a right angle with the first; surface with close fine distinct punctures; 
first segment smooth and polished, punctured each side at its apex, slightly 
margined by a slender elevated line along each side through its whole length; 
color tawny red, the five small segments which form the tip black with a slen- 
der white band on the apical edge of each. Ovipositor half as long as the ab- 
domen, tawny red, its valves black. Legs tawny red, hind shanks black at 
their tips, hind feet white, their bases and tips black. TVings glassy-hyaline 
and iridescent, without spots, their veins and triangular stigma black. 

The following varieties occurred among the five individuals alluded to, two 
of them being of the first and one of the other variety. 

a. An additional white spot, upon each side of the thorax. 

b. The two short white lines above on the anterior middle of the thorax 

wanting;. * 



3. THE MAPLE. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

Round holes cut in the leaves, and their pulp consumed in rings and semi- 
circular spots; round scales containing a small white worm between 
them, adhering to the surface of the leaves. 
The Maple leaf cutter, Omix ylcerifoliella, new species (plate 4, fig. 
5.) 
In the summer of the year 1850 an affection of the maple trees 
causing their leaves to turn brown, appearing as though they 
had been nipped by the frost, was so common in the eastern sec- 
tion of New- York that it became a common subject of remark. 
This withered appearance of the leaves began to be noticed the 
fore part of August and it continued to increase for three or 
four weeks, and remained until the fall of the leaves in autumn. 
It was so conspicuous that it could be plainly perceived as far 



270 MAPLE LEAF CUTTER THE CASES WHICH IT MAKES. 

as a grove of maples could be seen. And what appeared to be 
most singular, whilst the maples growing in forests were every- 
where affected in this manner, those standing alone as shade 
trees in fields, and those planted around houses and along the 
streets of villages remained green and wholly exempt from the 
prevalent malady. 

The cause of this fading of the leaves was readily discovered 
upon examination. They were found, when inspected, to present 
the appearances which are very well illustrated, plate 4, figure 6. 
The green parenchyma or pulpy substance of the leaf was de- 
stroyed in spots and irregular patches, leaving only the fine net- 
work of veins and the transparent cuticle. These spots were 
commonly in rings or in segments of a circle, with the centres 
green and unaffected. In addition to these, holes of a nearly 
circular form appeared in the leaves, about a quarter of an inch 
in diameter, with others of a smaller size. A dozen or more of 
these holes were at that time found in almost every leaf. And 
some of the pieces which had been cut out of the leaf, forming 
these holes, might be observed, adhering like round scales to the 
surface of the leaf, some on its upper others on its under side. 
On elevating this scale from the surface of the leaf, another 
smaller one was found beneath it, and between them was a small 
white worm, which was evidently the artizan by whom all this 
work had been done — cutting out these circular pieces from the 
leaf to form a cloak for himself, and when hungry feeding upon 
the pulpy substance of the leaf, thus forming the circular and 
irregular spots seen upon it. Occasionally one of these scales 
might be observed to move slightly along, the worm at such 
times protruding its head from under the edge of the scale and 
with its feet pulling its unwieldy domicil to another part of the 
leaf. 

Generally the worm was found inclosed by three of these 
round pieces which it had cut from the leaf probably at succes- 
sive periods of its life. First was a small one upon its back, 
about 0.18 long and two-thirds as broad, slightly concave on its 
under, convex on its upper side. Next was a larger piece, of 
similar form, placed on the under side of the worm, its edges 
overlapping those of the first piece, its concavity facing the con- 



MAPLE LEAF CUTTER LARVA AND PUPA. 271 

cavity of the first piece, thus forming a little hollow between, 
within which the worm lies like a clam within its shells. Fi- 
nally, covering these two was a third piece still larger, 0.30 to 
0.40 in length, placed on top of the first. The several pieces 
were connected and held together at their edges by fibres of fine 
silk. On the left hand of the leaf, plate 4, fig. 7, shows one of 
these cases its natural size ; that on the right hand represents it 
magnified, whilst three cases of smaller sizes are represented 
adhering to the surface of the leaf. Frequently, as is shown in 
these illustrations the largest piece is cut from the leaf where it 
is crossed by one of the coarse veins, perhaps to render the struc- 
ture more substantial 

The worm within these cases is nearly a quarter of an inch in 
length when mature. It is slender, and of a flattened cylindri- 
cal form, soft and contractile, composed of thirteen segments 
marked by slight intervening constrictions. It is dull white, the 
head, which is strongly depressed, and the three thoracic seg- 
ments pale rusty brown. An interrupted broad blackish stripe 
along the middle of the back is more or less distinct. Only the 
three pairs of legs upon the thoracic segments are distinctly de- 
veloped. 

These worms, or many of them at least, are carried to the 
ground upon the leaves, when they fall from the trees in au- 
tumn. They remain in their cases and change to pupse, among 
the fallen leaves beneath the trees, in which situation they may 
be found early in the following spring. 

The pupse are 0.18 long, pale yellow, and of an oval form, taper- 
ing abruptly to a point at their tips. The wings, legs and antennae 
are enclosed in separate sheaths, not attached to each other or 
to the surface of the body. Upon the back each of the segments 
of the abdomen except the two last have a row of minute teeth 
along their anterior edges, inclined backwards, like the points 
of needles. By means of these teeth, the pupa when ready to 
disclose the perfect insect, crowds itself forwards out of its case, 
by bending itself alternately up and down, the sheaths of the 
feet upon the opposite side of the body serving as props to aid 
in effecting this movement. From it comes a small moth of a 
dark brilliant blue color with a bright orange yellow headj 



272 MAPLE LEAF CUTTER THE MOTH. 

which may frequently be seen during the month of May, flying 
by day or resting exposed upon the leaves, in forests and along 
their borders. 

The moth (plate 4, fig. 5, the cross lines above the left wing indicating its 
natural dimensions) measures 0.35 across its wings when they are spread. 
The fore wings are brilliant steel blue or sometimes bluish green, with a purple 
reflection, and without any spots. The mid-vein forms a deep groove, length- 
wise, from the base parallel with the inner margin almost to its tip, and on 
the middle of the wing towards the tip is another similar groove. The tips of 
these wings are commonly bent inwards, giving them when closed, the appear- 
ance of a little pod enveloping the abdomen. Their fringe is black interspersed 
with scales of brilliant blue. On their under sides they are dusky with a 
grayish silvery lustre and a pale purple reflection. The hind wings are pale 
smoky brown and translucent, with pale blue and purple reflections, and their 
fringe is pale brown. The head on the crown and between the antennas has a 
dense tuft of erect bright orange yellow hairs. The feelers are straight, thread- 
like, shorter than the head, inclined obliquely downwards and forwards, of a 
gray color. The antennas are black-brown, very thick and robust, thread-like, 
their tips curved and often spirally coiled. In the males they show a short 
spine-like tooth on each side of the apex of each joint, giving them a doubly 
serrated appearance. The thorax is brilliant steel blue. The abdomen is 
quite short and conical in the males, cylindrical and with a thin tuft of hairs 
at its tip in the female. In common with the under side and the legs, it 
is dark brown with a strong satin-like lustre, the feet being whitish. 

This moth pertains to the Family Tineid^: of the Order Lepi- 
doptera. Many of the members of this family reside in mova- 
ble cases of. various kinds, which they construct from the sub- 
stances on which they feed. The clothes' moths, furrier moths, 
and others thus fabricate garments for their covering. Others 
roll pieces of leaves into cylindrical or conical tubes, within 
which they reside. And a few cut out circular pieces from 
leaves and stitch them together as it were, like the insect we 
have now described. The moths having this last habit pertain 
to the genus Ornix of Treitschke, one of the Greek terms for a 
bird, the wings of some of these moths resembling those of par- 
ticular birds, which has led to their being named the goose- 
winged, turkey-winged, &c. The species under consideration, 
however, will be best distinguished by the name of the tree 
which it infests, and I accordingly call it Ornix Jlcerifoliellus, or 
the Maple leaf cutter. In the arrangement of the British ento- 
mologists it would probably be referred to Mr. Curtis's genus 
Erioccphala. 



MAPLE LEAF CUTTER HOW DESTROYED. 273 

This moth was much more common five and ten years ago 
than it is at the present time. With the return of the month of 
May each year it was then met with in numbers in the forests. 
But for two years past not one has been seen, and last spring on 
searching among fallen leaves for its pupse where they were for- 
merly found in plenty none could be discovered. Still, a few 
holes perforated in the leaves of maples continue to occur, show- 
ing that the insect is still present in the neighborhood, though 
in greatly reduced numbers. These holes are always nearly 
circular when they are first cut, but by the subsequent growth 
of the leaf they become oblong. A small Ichneumon fly of a 
pale yellowish color, the tenth of an inch in length, with black 
antennse longer than its body, has repeatedly hatched from the 
cases containing the pupae of this moth, and this has probably 
been one of the most efficient agents in reducing its numbers. 

The fact has already been stated, that these insects do not in- 
vade trees standing alone in fields and in yards around houses. 
The reason of this is sufficiently evident, now when we know 
their history. The leaves when they fall from such trees are blown 
away by the winds, or are trampled into the earth by cattle tra- 
veling around and standing under them. If any of these worms, 
therefore, happen upon such trees, when the leaves fall and carry 
them to the ground, they become scattered and destroyed. And 
a knowledge of this fact at once suggests a remedy, whereby to 
save the trees from the depredations of this moth. Groves of 
maples more especially which are valued for the sugar they pro- 
duce, will be materially injured, there is no doubt, by having 
their foliage destroyed as it was by these insects in 1850. But 
all mischief of this kind will probably be prevented by allowing 
sheep or cattle to range the grounds occupied by the sugar 
orchard; and if, notwithstanding this, the leaves of particular 
trees show that they are preyed upon by this moth, it will be 
well after the leaves have fallen in autumn, to feed salt to the 
animals under such trees, that any insects among the leaves may 
be trampled upon and destroyed. 



[Assembly 2 15. J 18 



274 THE WHITE S CATERPILLAR, 

4. THE POPLAR. 

AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 

In July, consuming all the leaf except its coarse veins, and reposing in a 
cavity formed of leaves drawn together like a ball; large black cater- 
pillars with white and yellow dots and stripes, and a hump on their 
backs anteriorly and behind. 
The "White-S, Clostera albosigma, new species, (plate 2, fig. 4.) 

Several different kinds of singular looking caterpillars, humped 
upon their backs and otherwise closely related to each other, 
occur upon the poplars and willows in Europe and this country. 
Although these insects upon the two continents very much re- 
semble each other, the remark made by Dr. Harris appears to be 
correct, that they differ essentially in their caterpillar state, and 
their moths also present certain characters, which, on close 
comparison, will enable us to distinguish them. One of our 
species, named the American Clostera by Dr. Harris, corresponds 
in its marks with the anastomosis, and still more closely with 
the reclusa of Europe ; and we come now to present another 
similarly analagous to the curtula and anachoreta. 

The caterpillars attain their full size about the middle of July 
and are then an inch and a quarter in length, black, dotted with 
white above and with numerous wavy white lines on the sides, 
where are two rows of yellow spots, and on the back are four 
dull white stripes alternated with orange yellow on the middle 
of each segment. On the top of the fourth or last thoracic seg- 
ment is a conspicuous black hump prolonged into a teat-like 
protuberance and a smaller hump upon the eleventh segment. 

The caterpillar has a cylindrical form, and is clothed with fine white hairs. 
The white lines along each side form divers shaped rings and letter-like marks. 
The stripes upon the back are interrupted upon the two humped segments, and 
upon the middle of the two segments between the head and the anterior hump 
is a slightly elevated point in each stripe, of a brighter orange color. The an- 
terior hump is inclined backward, and is furnished with two long and numer- 
ous short white hairs. The breathing pores form a row of broad oval black 
dots along each side, each dot surrounded by a white ring. Above these is a 
row of oblong yellow spots and below them another, each spot having a pimple 
in its centre from which arises a hair, and the posterior spots of the lower row 
having two of these pimples. On the third and fourth segments, the breathing 
pores being wanting, the two yellow spots are confluent, forming a single 
large spot with a pimple in its centre. The head is black and the Y-shaped 



THE WHITE S MOTH. 275 

suture upon its front is tawny yellowish. The legs are black and the prolegs 
pale brown with a white ring on their middle. 

Several of these caterpillars commonly live together upon a 
particular limb, which they strip of its leaves, eating all the 
leaf except its midvein and portions of the other coarse veins. 
They construct a kind of nest by drawing two or more leaves 
together, with the silken threads which they spin from their 
mouths, forming a hollow ball-like cavity within, in which they 
repose when not engaged in feeding. Three of these caterpillars 
which I transferred with their nest to a breeding cage on the 
14th of July all spun their cocoons within the nest a day or two 
afterwards. The cocoons were formed of yellowish gray silk 
loosely woven and attached to the under side of a leaf. The 
moths all came out on the 25th of July, thus remaining in their 
pupa state but a little over a week. The moth crawls from its 
cocoon, and with its fore feet clinging to a twig, hangs perpen- 
dicularly downwards, swinging with the breeze, until its wings 
become dry and stiff. It then discharges one or more drops of 
an opake brick red fluid, and takes to flight. One of these 
moths dropped a number of eggs, which were of a hemispheric 
form and dark brown with a wide glaucous gray ring on the 
outer margin. 

The moths (plate 2, fig. 4) measure an inch and a half across their wings when 
spread. They are greyish brown, of a pale umber hue, with a large oval velvet 
black spot, reaching from the front between the bases of the antennas to the middle 
of the thorax. The fore wings are slightly sprinkled with black atoms, and are 
crossed by four nearly equi-distant pale lines, forming slender bands, each of which 
is faintly margined on its hind side by a darker line. The two anterior bands are 
nearly straight and parallel, crossing the wing transversely. The third is less dis- 
tinct than the others and can scarcely be discerned in some individuals. It begins 
on the inner margin in contact with the fourth band, and inclining towards the sec- 
ond, with a gentle curve becomes parallel with it through most of its length. It 
commonly ends before reaching the outer margin and is interrupted in its middle, 
and is sometimes dislocated at this interruption, as represented in the figure, its 
outer part being moved backwards from the line of its course. This baud is mar- 
gined posteriorly by a broad band which is but slightly darker than the groundcolor 
of the wing and of an olive green tint. It is broader on its inner end, where it is 
cut across by the fourth band. This last is nearly parallel with the hind margin, 
and is straight the first half of its length, when it curves slightly forward and then 
gradually turns directly backward, running parallel with the outer margin a short 
distance, and changing to a vivid snow-white color; with a curve it again turns out- 
ward and forward, and finally with an abrupt turn it runs straight and obliquely 
backward to the outer margin. Its white outer end thus nearly forms a letter S, 
which is the most conspicuous mark upon the wing. Immediate ^ back of this on 



276 THE WHITE S ITS NAME. 

the outer edge is a rust red spot, and the outer half of all that part of the wing 
which is back of this fourth band is of a darker brown color, becoming velvet black 
at its anterior side next to the band. Halfway between the fourth band and the 
hind edge, on the middle of the wing, an irregular row of black spots or transverse 
streaks is more or less distinct. The hind wings are paler, and beneath are crossed 
by a slightly waved dark brown line. 

This insect pertains to the same family with the handmaid 
moth, described in the preceding pages, and to the genus Clostera, 
which is characterised as having the scales upon the thorax 
elevated into a crest, the wings entire at their hind edges, and 
the antennae (fig. 4 a) short, curved and with two rows of 
branches in both the sexes. The English species are popularly 
named chocolate-tips, the dark spot at the tips of their fore wings 
being of a chocolate brown hue. But in the species before us 
that tint is so slight as to be scarcely obvious, and it will be better 
distinguished by the name White-S, Clostera albosigma, this cha- 
racter being in most individuals more conspicuous and vivid 
than it appears in our figure of the species. 



INFESTING FIELD CROPS, 

1. WHEAT. 

AFFECTING THE STALK. 

Externally on the stalks sucking their juices, turning the field white in spots 
where they are numerous; after harvest migrating to corn; a small narrow 
coal-black bug, with closed white wings, having a black dot on the middle 
of their outer edge. 

The Chinch bug, Micropus leucopterus, Say. (Plate 4, fig. 2, and 2a, the 
same magnified.) 

This is unquestionably one of the most pernicious insects 
which we have in the United States. The locusts of Utah and 
California are the only creatures of this class which exist within 
the bounds of our national domain, whose multiplication causes 
more sweeping destruction than does that of this diminutive and 
seemingly insignificant insect. Although it has never appeared 
as a depredator in this section of the Union, and was for a long 
time supposed not to occur to the north of the celebrated " Mason 
and Dixon's line," I have at different times met with three 
specimens of it in our own state, and Dr. Harris found it once 
in Massachusetts. As it exists in our midst, therefore, we have 
reason to fear that peculiar seasons or other favorable circum- 
stances may at some future time arrive, which will cause it to 
multiply and become as destructive here as it now is in some of 
our sister states south and west. Hence its history is as deeply 
interesting to us as that of any other insect within our borders. 
And as enquiries respecting its correct name, its habits and 
depredations are so frequently appearing in our agricultural 
papers, I probably cannot render a better service than to present 
these topics as fully and definitely as I am enabled to do from 
the information which I have gathered. 



278 CHINCH BUG — ITS FIRST APPEARANCE. 

The chinch bug is a small insect of a coal-black color, with 
snow white wing-covers, which are laid flat upon its back, and 
show a black dot upon the middle of their outer sides. The 
figure representing this insect its natural size (plate 4, fig. 2), 
will give the reader a very correct idea of its appearance. It 
belongs to the Order Hemiptera, the same order to which that dis- 
gusting object, the bed-bug belongs, and it exhales exactly the same 
loathsome smell which that insect does. It is by puncturing 
the plants with its sharp, slender, needle-like beak, and sucking 
out their juices, that this insect subsists. As it does not wound 
the plant by gnawing it, one would suppose that it could do no 
great injury. But their numbers are so immense that they bleed 
the plants on which they congregate, so copiously, as not only 
to arrest their growth, but cause them to wither and die. They 
prefer wheat to every other kind of herbage, and when that is 
not at hand they gather upon oats or Indian corn or grass ; but 
they seem to be able to nourish themselves upon the juices of all 
kinds of vegetables. They remain upon the wheat until it is 
harvested. They then migrate to oats or corn growing adjacent 
to the wheat field, running nimbly over the ground, appearing 
at first glance like a swarm of black ants. Though they have 
wings they seldom use them, and only fly the length of one or 
two paces at a time. 

It was just at the close of our revolutionary struggle, or about 
the year 1783, that this bug was first noticed as a depredator upon 
wheat, in the interior of North Carolina. It was at first supposed 
to be identical with the Hessian fly, which at this time was mak- 
ing such destruction in wheat crops on Long Island and in New 
Jersey. Two years before this, the British army accompanied 
by a detachment of its German auxiliaries had marched through 
North Carolina, and the battle of Guilford was fought. Mr. J. 
W. Jeffreys states (Albany Cultivator, first series, vol. vi, p. 201) 
that an aged and highly respectable citizen of Orange county, 
N. C.j informed him that it was "immediately after this event 
that the Hessian fly or H&sian bug destroyed their crops of 
wheat; and they believed and do believe to this day (1839), that 
those soldiers left the flies or bugs as they passed through the 
country." The insects continued to increase and spread through 



CHINCH BUG ITS APPEARANCE A. D. 1839. 279 

the Carolinas and Virginia for several years. In 1785 the fields 
in North Carolina were so overrun with them as to threaten a 
total destruction of the grain (Webster on Pestilence, vol. i, p. 
279). And at length the crops were so destroyed in some 
districts that they were obliged to wholly abandon the sowing of 
wheat. It was four or five years that they continued so numer- 
ous, at this time. 

The only particular account whicTL was published, of the 
insect and its habits at this period, of which we have any 
knowledge, appeared in London, in Young's Annals of Agricul- 
ture, vol. xi, p. 471. It is from this notice of it, Kirby and 
Spence state, that they derived the information given in their 
Introduction to Entomology (p. 127, American edition), which 
is as follows : "America suffers also in its wheat and maize from 
the attack of an insect, which, for what reason I know not, is 
called the chintz bug-fly. It appears to be apterous, and is said 
in scent and color to resemble the bed-bug. They travel in 
immense columns from field to field, like locusts, destroying 
eVerything as they proceed; but their injuries are confined to 
the states south of the 40th degree of north latitude. From this 
account the depredator here noticed should belong to the tribe 
of Geocorisce Latreille; but it seems very difficult to conceive 
how an insect that lives by suction, and has no mandibles, could 
destroy these plants so totally." 

About the year 1809, we are informed by Mr. Jeffreys that 
the chinch bug again became so destructive in North Carolina, 
that in Orange county the farmers had to abandon the sowing of 
wheat for two years, and according to his statement the insects 
were subdued hereby. At various other times of which we 
have no record, it has undoubtedly been abundant in that and 
the adjacent states, that section of country appearing to be its 
head quarters. 

In 1839 we have accounts of its having again become exces- 
sively numerous and destructive in Virginia and the Carolinas. 
W. S. Gibbes, writing from Chester district, S. C, June 27th, 
says, " Though we are not yet afflicted with the grain worm 
(wheat midge), nor much injured by the Hessian fly, a pest has 
appeared among us within the last two years, which from their 



280 CHINCH BUG IN SOUTH CAROLINA, 

prodigious numbers threaten to be even a more serious eviL 
They are called chinch bugs in Virginia, though they have no 
resemblance to our domestic pests (the bed-bug, which is com- 
monly named the " chinch 1 ' at the south), but their disgusting 
smell. They are nearly the shape and size of the small black 
flour weevil; can fly, but take to their wings reluctantly; have 
no mandibles, but a proboscis with which they penetrate the 
stalks of plants near the jmnts, and suck them to death. They 
have destroyed my oat crop totally; I shall not make the seed 
sown; my white May wheat, harvested the 28th of May, came to 
maturity too early for them r and was but slightly injured; but 
my white bearded wheat, harvested the 12th of June, was seri- 
ously injured by them — many ears not having a single grain 
filled in them. Bad as this is, it is nothing to what followed; 
for as soon as the small grain was cut, they took to our corn- 
fields in such myriads as is inconceivable to any but those who 
have witnessed them. I have seen some of my corn so perftctly 
black with them for two feet up, no particle of grain was to be 
seen but five or six inches of the tips of the leaves; and they 
hung to the under parts of them in knots like little swarms of 
bees. It takes them only one or two days to destroy the corn. 
From such an attack I saw no remedy bat burning them up ? 
corn and all; and by prompt doing so in that part of the field 
into which they first migrated in such immense numbers, hope I 
have saved the rest of it from total ruin, though patches of corn 
in some of my other fields have been totally killed." (Cultiva- 
tor, vol. vi, p. 103.) Although Mr. G. does not surmise that 
this excessive increase of the chinch bug was caused by any 
peculiarity of the season, yet we learn from another part of his 
communication that the weather at this time was remarkably 
dry and hot. He says, " We are suffering severely from drought. 
The whole spring has been dry. Our gardens are burnt up, with- 
out having yet given us anything. Our corn is in a most 
deplorable state — so wilted it must perish if we do not get rain 
in a few days. We have had but one rain to wet the earth 
below the furrow of a shovel plow since the 8th of May, and 
very little all April." 



CHINCH BUG IN NORTH CAROLINA. 281 

J. W. Jeffreys, writing from North Carolina the same year, 
gives the following history of their operations through the sea- 
son. " They make their appearance in our wheat fields the last 
of May and the first of June, and continue therein and in oat 
fields until the grain is cut and secured, and they then march 
with all their forces and commence their attack on our corn- 
fields, where they continue until the cold weather commences, 
and then take flight to the woods, though you may discover them 
in our cornfields sheltered in the boot of the stalk in the depth 
of winter, yet they rarely survive the winter. I have discovered 
them in July taking flight from our wheat and oat fields, and 
you may see thousands and millions flying to the woods, from 
which I am under the impression that they never return, but 
they leave a new generation behind, which are more destructive 
than their progenitors. No person can have the faintest idea or 
conception of the ratio of their increase, unless they study their 
history and movements. At this time there are myriads in our 
cornfields attached to the stalk, and they shelter under the boot 
or shuck of the stalk, and there multiply beyond conception, 
hundreds perhaps thousands attached to a single stalk." (Cul- 
tivator, vol. vi, p. 201.) It would appear from this statement, 
that in July the old insects, probably, which are about to perish, 
take wing and fly to the forest; and that on the approach of cold 
weather a large part of the new generation also makes the same 
migration. It may be that there is some truth in this statement, 
as the bugs would thus obtain a more secure shelter than they 
can find in the open fields; but I have seen no other testimony 
corroborating this. 

The bug had now become so numerous in Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, that with its continued increase in 1840, the total destruc- 
tion of their crops appeared inevitable. The prospect was so 
alarming, that Sidney Weller, of Brinckleyville, Halifax co., 
N. C, and others in his neighborhood, united in the spring of 
1840, in pledging a handsome sum as a prize for some feasible 
method to arrest the career of this depredator. But at this junc- 
ture, Providence interfered to accomplish what no human agency 
could haye effected. Instead of being dry like the two or three 
preceding years, the summer of 1840 proved to be of an oppo- 



282 CHINCH BUG IN ILLINOIS. 

site character, and the ravages of this insect were at once sup- 
pressed. Mr. Weller, writing in November, says, " Our fears 
were disappointed and our hopes exceeded as to this pest, by the 
hand of an overruling Providence. The season turned off wet 
and very propitious to crops of all kinds, and the ravages of this 
bug were arrested. Even fields of wheat that had been greatly 
injured, suddenly revived and produced tolerable crops; and the 
corn crop, which last season in places here, was ruined, escaped 
uninjured." (Cultivator, vol. viii, p. 21.) 

It was about this period that the Chinch bug began to be no- 
ticed along the upper Mississippi, and through the northern 
parts of Illinois. It made its appearance there simultaneously 
with the establishment of the Mormons at Nauvoo (1840-1844) 
and many ignorant people firmly believed they were introduced 
there by these strange religionists, and " Mormon lice " became 
the name by which they were currently designated, through that 
district. When we have such instances of the credulity and ig- 
norance of our own day and generation, let us not smile at our 
patriotic grandsires for deeming that the Hessian soldiers were 
breeding and shaking off pestilent vermin and scattering them 
over the country wherever they marched. It is quite probable 
that these insects were originally natives of Illinois, and now 
became multipled in consequence of the settlement of the coun- 
try and the extensive cultivation of wheat, giving them a copi- 
ous supply of more congenial food than they previously had ac- 
cess to; or if it was newly introduced there at that period, as 
was universally believed, it probably arrived by gradually ad- 
vancing from the south. In that excellent periodical, the Prai- 
rie Farmer, which has contributed so much to render the agri- 
culturists of the west enlightened and intelligent in their voca- 
tion, several communications upon the chinch bug appeared in 
1845 and the following years. An enlarged figure of the insect 
was given at this time (vol. v, p. 287) and in September 1850 
vol. x, pp. 280, 281) a summary account of the insect with a 
description and a scientific name for it, appeared from the pen 
of Dr. Le Baron. As this is one of the most important origi- 
nal papers which has ever appeared, relating to this insect, and 
the volume containing it is now nowhere accessible, we repro- 
duce it erftire in the subsequent pages. 



CHINCH BUG ITS DESTRUCTIVENESS. 283 

The chinch hug has now multiplied and extended itself over 
all parts of Illinois and the adjacent districts of Indiana and 
Wisconsin, and has become a most formidable scourge. The dry 
seasons which have recently occurred have increased it exces- 
sively. In passing over northern Illinois, in the autumn of 1854, 
I found it in myriads. In the middle of extensive prairies, on 
parting the grass in search of insects, the ground in some places 
was found covered and swarming with chinch bugs. The ap- 
pearance reminded me of that presented on parting the hair on 
a calf that has been poorly wintered, where the skin is found 
literally alive with vermin. Our western neighbors have for 
many years been congratulating themselves upon the security of 
their wheat crops, exempt from the midge and other insect dep- 
redators which were causing us such losses here at the east. But 
they now find they have in the chinch bug a foe more formida- 
ble and destructive even than the wheat midge ; since it not only 
cuts oif their wheat but in many localities it takes the corn and 
other cultivated crops also. Although it is commonly only a 
strip upon the outer edge of the field which they devastate, yet 
in several instances the entire field is invaded and swarms with 
them, so that no grain is developed in the heads, and some have 
set fire to their wheat fields to consume the hosts of these ver- 
min which were gathered therein, with the hope of hereby les- 
) ning the numbers upon their farms the following year. The 
disgusting smell, moreover, which these bugs emit, is most loath- 
some and sickening to the laborers engaged in harvesting the 
wheat fields. Cilley's reaping machine, made at Elgin, Illinois, 
has small deep boxes sunk in the platform, for the raker and 
three binders to stand in, that they may not have to stoop to 
their work as they would if standing upon the platform. As the 
machine is in operation, the feet of the men standing in these 
boxes become buried among the insects and fine chaff which fall 
into them. The men are so annoyed by these vermin, thus cov- 
ering their feet and crawling up their legs, that they many times 
stamp to shake oft* and crush the tormenting things. And 
whether dead or alive, when thus heaped together in masses, 
such a stench arises from them, as, when wafted by the air it 
happens to come full in one's face, is the most loathsome and 
nauseating of anything that can be imagined. 



284 CHINCH BUG SUNDRY STATEMENTS. 

This information is communicated to me by Mr. Albert Bur- 
net, of Merc'er county, 111., who further states, that in that vicin- 
ity the chinch bug was the most numerous last year (1855) that it 
has ever been known. Having attended a reaping machine through 
the season of harvest, he says it was noticed in a number of 
instances, that these insects were most numerous upon the south 
and east sides of the fields. This is probably owing to these 
parts of the field being more warm and dry, from their greater 
exposure to the sun. And where a low damp "spot occurs in a 
field, the grain or corn is there wholly exempt from injury, 
although all the rest of the field may be badly affected. He 
says he first saw the insect in 1850, at which time it was very 
abundant. The two following years it was but little noticed, 
but the three dry summers which have now occurred have 
increased it prodigiously. 

William Patten, of Sandwich, De Kalb county, informs me that 
it was in 1850 that it was first noticed in his neighborhood, and 
that last summer it was more destructive than it had ever been 
before, the last sowed wheat being greatly injured by it in many 
fields. The early wheat in Illinois, as in Carolina, is ripened 
before the bugs become so numerous as to injure it. 

Charles Hastings of La Salle, tells me the chinch bug had not 
been noticed in his vicinity until the year 1854, and it then did 
but little damage, but the following year many fields were much 
injured, and some were so much damaged that they were not 
harvested. 

Edward McCollister of Juliet, tells me it has been less destruc- 
tive the present year (1856) than it was last, though it has 
everywhere been quite a serious evil this season. Wheat from 
fields which have been infested by the chinch bug is readily dis- 
tinguished by the grain dealers, the kernels not being plump 
and full, but more or less shrivelled and light of weight. These 
insects seldom if ever injure the first crop upon newly broken 
prairie. A strip of greater or less width upon one of the sides 
of a field is sometimes destroyed in autumn, when the plants are 
but a few inches high. Entering the field upon the side adjacent 
to an old wheat field, they advance with the regularity of an 
army, farther and farther, killing every leaf and spear as they 



CHINCH BUG SUNDRY STATEMENTS. 



285 



proceed, until a frosty night occurs, when their operations 
instantly cease. 

Dr. ^arshall of Keithsburg, informs me that in destroyed 
patches individual stalks sometimes occur, which have been 
missed by them. These remain green and thrifty, and their 
heads become well filled, when all around is bleached and with- 
ered. It is commonly a strip, two, three or even five or ten 
rods in width upon one of the sides of a field, which is whitened 
and destroyed by them ; but in some instances they enter a field 
in a narrow strip, and then spread out into a large patch. 

D. Williams of Geneva, Wisconsin, says the chinch bug made 
its advent there in 1854, coming apparently from the south, 
its nearest approach the year before being thirty miles south. 
In a letter written July 9th, 1855, he says it had that year caused 
considerable damage, especially in spring wheat, but a heavy 
rain two weeks before had checked its ravages. 

The first appearance of the chinch bug at a particular locality 
and its progress from year to year, is related with more exact- 
ness than I have elsewhere seen, in a communication to the 
Country Gentleman (vol. v, p. 396) from E. C. Smith of Christy's 
Prairie, la., from which the following extracts, containing further 
information upon the economy and destructiveness of this insect 
are taken. It is dated May 20th, 1855, before the extent of the 
depredations of the bug that year could be fully known, and 
was accompanied with specimens and a request for information 
as to tl^ correct name of the insect, it being termed the "corn fly" 
in that neighborhood. Mr. Smith says : — 

" The first time they were ever observed in this vicinity, so far 
as I have been able to ascertain, was nine years ago last summer. 
They were seen in a cornfield, about three miles from this place. 
They appeared to come from the stubble of a wheat field that 
bordered on the corn. They did but little damage. A few suc- 
cessive days of rainy weather put a stop to their progress, and 
nothing more was seen of them, that season. Two years later, 
they appeared on the farm of one of my neighbors, about half a 
mile distant. They came apparently, as before, from wheat 
stubble, though none had been observed in the wheat while 
growing; and they began on that part of the corn adjacent to it. 



286 CHINCH BUG STATEMENT OF E. C. SMITH. 

But few appeared at this time, and not much damage was done. 
In 1851, 1 observed them for the first time, on the farm where I 
now reside. The field in which they made their appearance had 
corn on one side and oats on the opposite side, with a strip of 
wheat between. They were seen immediately after the wheat 
was cut, on the rows of corn next to the stubble ; and were so 
numerous, as to cover from one-fourth to one-half of the stalk, 
in many of the hills. The corn soon began to wither. They 
did not devour the solid parts of the plant, but pierced the outer 
part or skin, full of holes, or destroyed it in large patches, here 
and there, over the stalk, and appeared to feed on the juice. A 
few rows next to the wheat, were completely destroyed. The 
crop was more or less injured to the distance of about eight rods 
from the stubble. On the opposite side, the oats were killed to 
the distance of two or three rods from the wheat. The remain- 
der ripened without injury. 

"They appeared again the next year, and about the same time 
of the year; but did little damage. Strange to say, it had not 
yet entered my thoughts, that they had done, or could do, any 
damage to wheat. The next spring, (1853,) my wheat looked 
unusually promising. But when it had grown to the height of 
a foot or more, I observed that more than half of it had stopped 
growing. This portion was only six or eight inches in height, 
and it grew no more, but withered and died ; from what cause I 
could not imagine. The same fly appeared again in the corn, 
after the wheat was cut. The rank growth of the corn, together 
with one or two heavy showers, prevented it from doing much 
injury. 

" Last summer, there was the same appearance in the wheat, 
as the summer previous. A part of it dwindled away, after it 
had grown to the height of a few inches. At the time of cutting 
the wheat, these insects were observed, in motion towards the 
corn, which was close by. In a few days the corn nearest to 
the stubble was so covered with them, as to appear, at a little 
distance, as if covered with black paint. The corn was back- 
ward and dwarfish, and the season excessively dry, both of which 
circumstances favored their destructive effects. About fifteen 
acres of corn was destroyed by -them. They swept over about 



CHINCH BUG— ITS GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT. 287 

forty acres more, some parts of which were nearly destroyed, 
others only slightly injured. One of my neighbors, had twenty- 
six acres of corn completely destroyed by them last summer, and 
fifty acres more greatly damaged. There was not a corn-field on 
the prairie, in which the crop was not greatly damaged. I do 
not know that they have ever been seen in this region, anywhere 
else than on the prairies, till last summer. Then, they were seen 
on farms formerly covered with timber, many miles distant from 
any prairie. 

" The attention of people here, was so thoroughly called to 
this insect, last summer, that when it appeared this spring, it 
was readily recognized. It was first observed on fences, or flying 
about, and alighting here and there, like other winged insects. 
Soon it was found about the roots of wheat,— then in oatfields, 
and in timothy grass. Wherever it has been seen among grain 
or grass, some of the blades were seen to turn yellow, and the 
growth to be checked, or stopped entirely; and in many cases, 
the whole plant completely killed. Probably, not less than one- 
third of the wheat crop, in this vicinity, has already been des- 
troyed by them; and their destructive operations are still in 
progress." 

In Virginia and Carolina during the past year or two there has 
also been great complaints of this insect, and the present year 
an editorial in the Richmond (Va.) Whig, the latter part of July, 
says "A general alarm, from the mountains to the seaboard is 
felt for the corn crop. The chinch bug is universal, and like 
the sand of the sea-shore for numbers. Many corn-fields are 
entirely destroyed by them already, and others can only be saved 
by timely and copious rains." 

The chinch bug is probably a common insect through all the 
southern states. I have received specimens of it from Mississippi, 
and am informed it some years has done much injury to the crops 
of Indian corn there. I also have a specimen from western 
Pennsylvania. It therefore appears to occur in all parts of the 
United States between the Atlantic and the Mississippi, although 
in the Eastern and Middle states it is exceedingly rare. 

The three specimens which I have met with in this state, oc- 
curred upon willows in the spring of 1847 and May 12th 1851. 



288 CHINCH BUG DR. LE BAROn's ACCOUNT. 

It would thus appear to leave its winter quarters with nearly the 
first warm days of spring, and resort to the earliest foliage which 
puts forth, for nourishment after its long fast. It passes the 
winter under the loose bark of decaying trees, in the cracks and 
crevices of stumps and logs, and similar sheltered situations. 
Mr. Albert Burnet informs me that i ri turning over chips and 
pieces of boards lying upon the surface of the ground he has 
frequently met with it alive, in February, though in a torpid 
state upon cold days. 

The history and description of these insects given in 1850 by 
Dr. Le Baron, of Geneva, Kane Co. 111. in the Prairie Farmer, 
is as follows : — 

These insects have prevailed the present season throughout this and the adjoining 
counties in ruinous profusion. The season has heen excessively dry, which has 
probably been favorable to their multiplication. I find by reference to the back 
numbers of the Prairie Farmer that they have been equally destructive in other 
sections of the country in former years. 

They make their appearance in the latter part of June, confining their depreda- 
tions at this period chiefly to the spring wheat. So rapid is their multiplication, 
that in the course of a few days from the time of their first appearance, whole fields 
are overrun by them, every straw being more or less intested. 

They belong to the suctorial division of insects, and do their damage by imbi- 
bing the juices of the plants which they infest. The sucking instrument, as in 
other insects of the kind, consists of a slender four jointed beak, which when not in 
use is bent back under the body, and rests upon the breast. Upon that side of the 
beak which is undermost when at rest, is a narrow groove, in winch is contained an 
extremely fine bristle-like lancet, which is capable of being disengaged from its 
sheath and used as an instrument for puncturing the straw. When a flow of sap 
has been thus produced, the lancet is returned to its sheath, and the whole instru- 
ment is used for the purpose of suction. Collected in dense clusters, chiefly about 
the lower joints of the straw, with their suckers partially inserted into it, or applied 
to the punctures previously made, these little insects appear to repose in luxurious 
contentment. Meanwhile the grain being deprived of its necessary nutriment, 
becomes wholly blasted or much shrunken, whilst the straw turns white prematurely 
and at length crinkles down beneath the lancets of this infinity of phlebotomists. 

When the wheat becomes too much dried up to afford them nutriment, they leave 
the wheat field, and may be seen at this time running on the ground in all directions 
in search of appropriate food. Next to wheat they usually attack oats, then corn, 
and lastly timothy or herds-grass; and if none of these are at hand, they will subsist 
upon some of the wild grasses. The Indian corn is so rapid and vigorous in its 
growth that it is not usually much injured; yet I have seen, this season, whole 
fields blackened with them, and large patches of corn blasted and prostrate, as if a 
fire had run over them. 

They migrate from one field to another by running over the surface of the earth. 
Nevertheless when they are obliged to move to a distance, the perfect or winged 
individuals readily take to flight, and they have been seen flying in dense swarms. 

They are seen in about equal numbers in their different stages of growth. The 
younger specimens are found especially abundant in the earth to the depth of an 



CHINCH BUG — ITS EGGS. 289 

inch ot more, about the roots of the grain; from which it may be inferred that the 
eggs are deposited in this situation, though I have not as yet succeeded in discover- 
ing them. 

These insects present, in the course of their development, the following charac- 
ters. The youngest individuals are vermillion red, the thorax or anterior part of 
their bodies inclining to brown, and with a white band across the middle of the body, 
comprising the two basal segments of the abdomen. As they increase in size they 
become darker, changing first to brown, and then to a dull black, the white band 
still remaining. The antennas and legs are varied with reddish. In their final or 
perfect state they acquire white wings varied with a few black spots and lines. 

These insects belong to the Hemipterous order, and to the genus'Rhyparochromus 
in the family of Lygaeidae. The generic name is of Greek composition, and signifies 
sordid color, in reference to the dull colors of the majority of the species. I have 
not at hand the means of determining whether the present species has been scientifi- 
cally described and named. It might be appropriately called the Rhyparochromus 
devastator. The following may serve for a more accurate description of the per- 
fect insect than, so far as lam aware, has been heretofore published. 

Length 1 2-3 lines, or three-twentieths of an inch. Body black, clothed with a 
very fiue greyish down, not distinctly visible to the naked eye,- basal joint of the 
antenna? honey-yellow, second joint the same tipt with black, third and fourth joints 
black, beak brown; wings and wing-cases white; the latter are black at their inser- 
tion, and have near the middle two short irregular black lines, and a conspicuous 
black marginal spot; legs dark honey-yellow, terminal joint of the feet, and the 
claws black. 

So sudden is the invasion and so rapid the progress of these insects, that it is 
scarcely probable that any preventive or remedy for their devastations will ever be 
discovered. Yet it is an admirable provision of nature, that those creatures which 
multiply at certain seasons in alarming profusion, do as suddenly and often as unac- 
countably disappear. The common method by which the excessive increase of such 
creatures is kept in check, is by the appropriation to each of them of some para- 
sitic insect, which multiplies coextensively with them, and by preying upon them 
restrains their increase within moderate limits. The migratory locust, for example, 
and also the Hessian fly, and most kinds of caterpillars, are known to be infested 
by parasitic insects. It is devoutly to be wished that nature may have provided 
this, or some other remedy, against the indefinite extension of the ravages of the 
present species, whose origin and progress seem to be so wholly removed from the 
reach of human control. 

Little requires to be added to this account. The eggs of these 
insects according to an editorial in the Southern Planter (vol. 
xv, p. 269) are deposited in the ground, in autumn, where they 
remain through the winter and until the warmth of the ground 
the following year causes them to hatch. This takes place in 
May at the South and probably not till June at the West. 

This insect never appears in the form of a worm or maggot, 
like the larvse of moths, flies and beetles. Still, in its larva state 
it is quite unlike what it is after it acquires wings, being more 
flat and broad and having considerable resemblance to a bed- 

j Assembly 21 5. J 19 



290 CHINCH BUG LARVA, AND VARIETIES, 

bug, though of a brighter red color When it is small. One of 
these young chinch bugs which I met with in some diseased 
wheat straw sent from Virginia presented the following charac- 
ters : 

The young larva when 0.06 long is about 0.03 in width, with a very flattened 
body of an oval form and a bright blood red color, with a band across its middle 
above, of a yellowish white color, occupying the two first or basal segments of its 
abdomen, behind which, in the centre of the back are two black spots, one behiud 
the other. Its six legs and its beak or sucker, are of a honey-yellow color. Its 
antennne are analagous to what they are in the mature insect, having four joints, 
the last enlarged, forming an oval knob tapering to a point at its end, the two ba- 
sal joints being light yellow, and the two last ones dark brown. 

These larva? as they advance in size become darker colored 
and finally blackish, still showing the white band across the 
middle of their bodies. At length this band disappears, and 
the insect becomes a pupa. It is now much like the perfect in- 
sect in its form and colors, except that it is destitute of the white 
wings upon its back, having in place of them an oval black 
scale upon each side of the base of the abdomen. The edges of 
the abdomen in the pupa are also of a dull pale yellow color. 
So late as the fore part of October I met with several of these in- 
sects still in their pupa state, and some of these I do not doubt, 
would pass the winter in that state, and therefore would not de- 
posit their eggs until the following spring. 

The females of this species are tenfold more numerous than 
the males. The magnified illustration, plate 4, fig. 2 a, shows all 
parts of the insect so distinctly and exact that no description of 
it is necessary, beyond what is given in Dr. Le Baron's account. 
It may be observed that the hind edge of the thorax is of the 
same deep honey-yellow color with the legs, the beak, and the 
base of the antenna?, all the rest of the body and the antenna? 
being coal-black and clothed with fine erect hairs, except the 
wing-covers which are snow white. The anterior end of the 
thorax is not so full and broad as represented in the figure, and 
extending across the thorax rather back of its middle is a trans- 
verse depression, much more deep and distinct in some individ- 
uals than in others. 

This species presents several varieties. On a comparison of numerous speci- 
mens the following will be readily distinguished: 
a, immarginatus. Basal margin of the thorax not edged with yellowish. Common. 



CHINCH BUG ITS NAME. 291 

b, dimidiatus. Basal half of the thorax deep velvety black, anterior half grayish. 

Common. 

c, fulvivenosus. The stripes on the wing covers tawny yellow instead of black. 

d, albivenosus. Wing covers white, without any black marks except the margi- 

nal spot. A male. 

e, apterus. Wingless and the wing covers much shorter than the abdomen. 

f, basalis. Basal joint of the antennas dusky and darker than' the second. 

g, nigricornis. Two first joints of the antennas blackish. 

ft, femoratus. Legs pale livid yellow, the thighs tawny red. Common- 
i, rujipcdis. Legs dark tawny red or reddish brown. 

As will be seen from the historical notices which are given 
above, this insect was at first called the Hessian fly or Hessian 
bug, in Carolina. And as appears from the description given by 
Kirby and Spence, it was only the red larvae of these insects 
which were then supposed to be the depredators, no one being 
aware that the black bugs with white wing covers were the same 
insects in a more advanced state. As these larvae have a close 
resemblance to the common bed-bug (Cimex ledularius, Linnaeus) 
which through the Southern states is everywhere designated by 
its name in the Spanish language chinche,* when it was ascer- 
tained that they were a very diiferent insect from the Hessian 
fly of New York, they were definitely distinguished by the name 
chinch bug, or chinch bug fly. It is altogether probable, how- 
ever, that the latter was the term by which the winged insects 
were designated, and that the former was the name given to the 
larvae; and Kirby and Spence might well be at a loss to under- 
stand why the epithet " fly " should be given to an insect with- 
out wings, as this was represented to be. The name chinch bug 
has now become the established title of this insect, and as the 
same word has been adopted as a specific name in Natural His- 
tory (e, g. Argas chinche, Gervais) it would be the most appro- 
priate scientific designation for this species, had it not already 
received a different one. 

The chinch bug was first scientifically named and described by 
Mr. Say, in a pamphlet (page 14) entitled " Descriptions of New 
Species of Heteropterous Hemiptera of North America," pub- 
lished at New Harmony, Indiana — the eight first pages of which 
appeared in the year 1831, the remainder the following year. 
This insect must have been much more rare throughout our 

* For full philological information respecting this word and its use at the South I am under 
cbligations to W. F. Brand, Esq. of Emerton, Maryland. 



292 CHINCH BUG ITS GENERIC NAME. 

country thirty years ago than it is at present, for Mr. Say had 
only met with a single specimen of it, an individual of our 
Variety dimidiutvs, which he found on the eastern shore of Vir- 
ginia, and he was wholly unaware of its importance in an 
economical aspect. He named it Lygceus leucopterus or the white- 
winged Lygseus. This genus now forms the Family Lygaida, 
and is chiefly characterised by having the scutel or triangular 
piece between the base of the wings short and not reaching the 
middle of the abdomen, the antennae inserted upon or below a 
line drawn from the eyes to the base of the beak, four-jointed 
with the last joint thickest or at least not more slender than the 
preceding one, and the thin membrane at the end of the wing 
covers with not more than four or five veins. 

At the date when Mr. Say described this insect, M. Serville 
had proposed separating those species of the old genus Lygseus 
in which the anterior thighs are swelled or thickened, into a 
distinct genus which he named Pachymerus. But as this name 
had anteriorly been applied by Latreille to another genus of 
insects, it became necessary to alter it; and Mr. Say therefore 
proposed abbreviating it to the name Pamerus, under which 
name he placed nine of the nineteen new species which he de- 
scribed in this family. The European naturalists have proba- 
bly been unaware of this correction made by Mr. Say, and the 
following year M. De Laporte proposed to substitute the name 
Jiphanus for that of Pachymerus. But M. Guerinhad anteriorly 
given the badly constructed name Aphccna to another genus of 
insects, the orthography of which, when it came to be rectified, 
became Aphanus. As this name, therefore, could not be retained, 
Mr. Curtis proposed the name Rhyparochromus for these insects, 
which name has been adopted by M. Serville and the European 
naturalists generally. But the rule of priority will certainly 
give Mr. Say's name, Pamerus,the precedence of Rhyparochromus. 
It may be objected to this name, however, that it is a hybrid, 
not being regularly constructed nor yet a purely fantastic name. 
Yet under the circumstances, it appears to us it was more judi- 
cious and serviceable to the science thus to alter a name which 
had become current, than to abolish it and introduce a new 
one. 



CHINCH BUG ITS GENERIC NAME. 293 

What has been stated will serve to give the common reader 
some view of the embarrasments often encountered in this vast 
science, in arriving at the correct designation for an insect. 
Especially in this country do we experience such embarras- 
ments and are obliged in many instances to remain in doubt and 
uncertainty, from being unable to find in any of our public 
libraries those authorities a reference to which is indispensible 
for obtaining the information we desire. 

The pamphlet of Mr. Say in which this insect is described is 
out of print and very scarce. Dr. Le Baron not having seen it 
suggested the name Rhyparochromus devastator as being an ap- 
propriate one for this insect. Although all the thighs are 
slightly thickened in this species, the anterior ones are not ob- 
viously more enlarged than the others, and are not sufficiently 
inflated to place it in the genus to which Dr. Le Baron assigns 
it, in which there is a striking contrast between the anterior and 
the four slender posterior thighs. In more than two dozen 
species of this genus which are now before me, this contrast is 
very plain and evident in every instance. Mr. Say therefore 
was clearly correct in referring this insect to the genus Lygseus 
and not to his genus Pamerus, which, as we have seen above, is 
synonymous with Rhyparochromus. 

This group of insects has been subdivided into quite a number 
of genera since Mr. Say's day, and the present species now per- 
tains to the genus Micropus, a name meaning small footed or 
short legged, proposed by M. Spinola in his Essay upon the in- 
sects of this order, published in 1840, page 218. I announced 
this fact a year since in the Country Gentleman (vol. v, p. 396) 
in reply to the enquiry of E. C. Smith, asking the correct name 
of this insect. A communication appeared in the same periodi- 
cal soon after (vol. vi, p. 106), stating among other things, that 
the genus Micropus had not been recognized by some of the 
standard writers upon this order of insects, and that " Herrick 
Schaffer would have placed^the chinch bug, had it been known 
to him, in the genus Pachymerus" — the same genus in which, as 
we have seen above, Mr. Say long ago determined it did not be- 
long ! I deem it unnecessary further to notice an anonymous 



294 CHINCH BUG INSECTS SIMILAR TO IT. 

writer, who is aiming to appear very erudite upon a theme on 
which he unwittingly betrays himself to be very ignorant. 

Another species of Micropus, named f aliens by Mr. Say, who 
discovered it in Missouri, I found common in northern Illinois 
in October, and I have also met with specimens of it in New 
Jersey in the month of May, though it has not yet occurred to 
my notice in the State of New- York. Whether it partakes of 
the injurious habits of the chinch bug I know not. It may be 
called the Black-veined Micropus, its wing- covers being dull 
white with black longitudinal stripes, following the veins to 
their tips. It is longer and also narrower than the chinch bug, 
being of a long linear form, 0.20 in length by scarcely 0.05 in 
width. It is black with the base of the thorax and the legs 
yellow. 

The Black-veined Micropus has the base of the thorax elevated and smooth, 
forward of which is a transverse wide shallow depression, and forward of this is a 
slight elevation with a short wide longitudinal impression in its middle. The wing 
covers and wings reach only to the anterior edge of the last segment of the abdo- 
men, and are frequently shorter with the wings wanting or merely rudimentary. 

Its pupa is dull yellow, except the antenna?, which are black, with short fine 
hairs, and are rather shorter and more thick than in the mature insect. Along the 
back it often shows two rows of black punctures, one situated upon each side of the 
middle of each segment. 

Another insect which may frequently be met with upon the 
same flowers and leaves with the chinch bug, in Illinois and 
Wisconsin, from the fore part of July until the close of the sea- 
son, so exactly resembles this culprit that no one would suspect 
its being different unless apprised of the fact. Indeed it is only 
by a very close inspection that the one can be distinguished 
from the other. In one instance this has been sent me as the 
chinch bug; my correspondent, as I suppose, on finishing his 
communication, happening to meet with this, immediately in- 
closed it in his letter, without a suspicion that it could be any- 
thing else than the insect of which he had been writing. It 
however is but little more than half the size of the chinch bug, 
is destitute of hairs, its surface being smooth and shining, and the 
thin membranous posterior part of the wing covers are without 
any distinctly traced veins. Though belonging to the same 
family it pertains to a different genus, named from the circum- 



CHINCH BUG — REMEDIES. 295 

stance of the species being mostly found upon flowers, Jinthocoris 
or flower-bug. 

The False chinch bug, Anthocoris pseudo-chinche , is but 0.08 in length, and is 
black, smooth and shining, with its antennae, feet and four anterior shanks and 
knees pale dull yellow. Its wing covers are white, tinged anteriorly with yellowish 
with a large triangular black spot across their middle, occupying the whole poste- 
rior part of the thick coriaceous portion, this spot being brownish on its anterior 
"edge. The thorax has an impressed line or groove across its middle. The thin 
membranous part of the wing covers is somewhat transparent and clear, but a va- 
riety (which may be named semiclarus) occurs, in which its posterior half is per- 
ceptibly tinged with smoky. This species is closely related to the European species 
minutus Linn., and nigrella Zetterstedt, but is readily distinguished by the colors 
of its legs, not to mention other characters. Identical as so many of our American 
species of this order certainly are with those of Europe, it is possible that this 
■species has been described by some author whose work I have not seen. Another 
small species resembling this in many points, the Xylocoris domcslicus Hahn, ap- 
pears to be as common upon this side of the Atlantic as it is in Europe, as is also 
the variety of this species, named dimidiata by Spinola and Parisiensis by Amyot 
and Serville. 

This insect, so far as we yet know, is exempt from any molesta- 
tion by predaceous insects and other animals. No bird probably 
lias a relish for such an unsavory morsel as one of these fetid 
chinch bugs. And this is undoubtedly one of the chief reasons 
why no check is given to its multiplication, and when one or two 
favorable seasons arrive, it is able to increase with a rapidity 
■and to an extent which has few parallels among the insect races. 

Nor has any mode for destroying this insect or preventing its 
depredations, been discovered, of such efficacy as to bring it into 
public notice and favor. When they are migrating from one field 
into another, it is reported that they have been arrested by dig- 
ging a trench before them, up the crumbling dirt of the sides of 
which, they are unable to climb; and when the whole colony is 
thus imprisoned, they have been covered with straw and burned. 
By burning the dry leaves of the forest in places where they have 
settled in numbers, multitudes have been destroyed. A subscri- 
ber to the Southern Planter (vol. xv, p. 275), says he knows that 
strong soap suds will kill them, when on corn, if a half gill or 
gill be poured upon each stalk — a labor not half so great as a 
single hoeing of the crop is. When this insect became so numer- 
ous in North Carolina, in 1839, Mr. J. W. Jeffreys proposed 
that the farmers and planters should all abandon the sowing of 
wheat for two or three years, he deeming this the only measure 



296 CHINCH BUG REMEDIES. 

by which it was possible to subdue it. Dr. Le Baron thinks if 
improbable that any remedy can ever be discovered whereby tc 
prevent its devastations. My own belief is very different. I 
do not think Providence has sent any injurious insect into our 
world, but that when we come to study its history and habits? 
and become fully acquainted with its economy, we can discover 
some point where it is assailable, and human ingenuity will be 
able to devise methods by which it will be practicable, either to 
destroy the insect, or to shield the vegetation on which it preys. 
from its depredations. Though often, no doubt, much patient 
investigation and many experiments conducted by different per- 
sons will be necessary, before we can arrive at the most certain 
and successful remedies. 

As regards the chinch bug, if the facts reported are true r we 
think they point us to a feasible mode for subduing it. They 
indicate that moisture is most uncongenial to this insect, If. 
when it is overruning the land in myriads, a wet season arrives? 
it is at once quelled in its career. Mr. Williams speaks of its 
ravages as having been perceptibly checked by a single heavy 
rain. And it appears from the statement of Mr. Albert Burnet 
that so slight a circumstance as the dew evaporating before the 
morning sun, first upon the south and east sides of a field, often 
causes it to congregate upon those sides of the field exclusively. 
In view of these facts it would seem that by drenching that part 
of a field in which these insects are clustered, with water, by 
means of a fire or a garden engine, they may be washed from 
the plants and destroyed. Though it will be a formidable task 
to shower a large wheat field profusely, yet if the crop can here- 
by be saved from ruin, it will amply repay the expense. But 
commonly it is only a narrow strip upon one side of the field 
which will require this operation. And where there is a brook 
or stream of water passing through or adjacent to a wheat field, 
this measure can certainly be resorted to, repeatedly should it 
be necessary, at no great cost. When the small red bugs, the 
tender young larva? of these insects, have made their appearance 
and are clustered about the roots of the wheat plants, in the 
month of June, they can probably be more easily destroyed, than 
at any subsequent stage of their lives. And it is earnestly to be 



WHEAT FLIES — THEIR ABUNDANCE. 297 

hoped that some one who is conveniently situated for testing the 
efficacy of this measure, will do so, and make the result known 
to the public. 



Burrowing in different parts of the stalks, rendering them dwarfish and often 
causing the heads to perish; small, slender, pale-green and watery-white 
shining maggots. 

The larvae of several small wheat flies and barley flies of the genera 
Chlorops, (plate 1, fig. 4), and Oscinis (plate 1, fig. 5). 

In Europe it has long been known that among the worst depre- 
dators upon the grain crops there, are the larvse of several small 
flies belonging to the genera Chlorops and Oscinis. Some of these 
attack the young plants, and taking their station slightly above 
the root destroy the central stalk. Others burrow in the stalk 
or straw, and others infest the heads. Thus every part of the 
plant finds an enemy in one species and another of this group of 
insects. And so seriously do they injure the crops on which 
they prey, that Linnaeus a century ago computed the loss occa- 
sioned by one of them {Chlorops Frit), which infests the heads of 
barley in Sweden, to amount to nearly half a million of dollars 
annually. 

It has not hitherto been known that the wheat in this country 
was attacked by any insects of this kind. But I have the pre- 
sent season discovered these small flies in abundance, in every 
wheat field in my neighborhood. On sweeping with a net any- 
where among growing wheat, a multitude of them will be 
gathered. They are of several different kinds and all appear to 
be of species distinct from those described in the works of Mac- 
quart, Zetterstedt, and other European writers to which I am 
able to refer. And upon examining the wheat stalks at different 
times during the season, the larvse of one and another of these 
flies are found therein — smooth, shining, footless little maggots, of 
pale green and watery-white colors, commonly imbedded in the 
straw in small burrows or cylindrical channels which they have 
excavated. 

As these flies appear to be native species, it is probable that 
before wheat was cultivated upon this continent they sustained 



298 WHEAT FLIES THEIR INJURIES. 

themselves upon some of our wild grasses. Their numbers must 
therefore have been very limited at that period". But when 
wheat was introduced and became extensively cultivated, it 
gave them such an ample supply of most palatable nourishment 
that they have gradually increased and are now excessively 
numerous all over our land, laying every wheat field under con- 
tribution for their support. And I doubt not it is from the 
numbers of these and other insect depredators which abound 
upon our wheat, that we are no longer able to produce such 
crops of this grain as were uniformly harvested formerly, when 
our lands were newly cleared. How is it possible for wheat to 
grow with any thriftness when it is incessantly assailed by such 
hosts of these enemies, bleeding it at every pore? And if any 
mode could be discovered by which our wheat could be pro- 
tected from these depredators, I do not doubt that on our old 
lands which have been under cultivation a century, we could 
now, with our improved methods of tillage, rear crops of this 
grain, surpassing those which grew upon the same lands when 
they were newly cleared. And if wheat could thus be groAvn, 
the intrinsic worth and the market value of lands in the old 
settled sections of our state would be advanced probably one- 
half. 

At the time of placing the specimens from which the accom- 
panying illustrations were taken, in the hands of the draughts- 
man, I supposed I should obtain some one or more of the larvae 
of these insects, in its perfect state, and thus be able to present 
its history with some approximation to completeness, in the pre- 
sent report. But my efforts to rear them have been unsuccess- 
ful. And it will scarcely be worth while to state the situation 
in which one and another of these worms is found, and the 
manner in which it mines or otherwise injures the straw, until 
the particular species by which the mischief is done in each case, 
can be identified and named. For the present, therefore, I 
merely state what will serve to explain the accompanying figures, 
and give the reader some acquaintance with this group of flies 
as they appear upon the wheat in their perfect state. 

These flies form a particular tribe or sub-family, named the 
Oscinides, the members of which may be distinguished from 



WHEAT FLIES — MEROMYZA AND SIPHONELLA. 299 

those of the other groups of the extensive Family MusciDiE in the 
Order Diptera, by their small size, by having the last joint of 
their antennae globular insead of oval or oblong; by being desti- 
tute of winglets, those small scale-like appendages which occur 
at the base of the wings, having some resemblance in their shape 
to the bowl of a spoon; and the veins and veinlets of the wings 
being as they are represented in the accompanying figures. 

One of the prettiest of the flies of this group, which we meet 
with upon growing wheat the latter part of June, pertains to the 
genus Meromyza, which is readily known from the other genera, 
by having the thighs of the hind pair of legs thick and appearing 
as though they were swelled. It is very similar to the European 
M. saltatrix Linn., but is larger, the stripes on its thorax are 
deeper black than those upon its abdomen, and here it is the 
latter stripes which are united or confluent at their ends and not 
the former. It may be named 

The American Meromyza, M. Jlmericana. It is 0.17 in length to the tip of its 
abdomen, and 0.20 to the end of its wings. It is yellowish white with a black spot 
on the top of its head, which is continued backward to the pedicel of the neck. 
Thorax with three broad black stripes, approaching each other anteriorly but not 
coming in contact, the middle stripe prolonged anteriorly to the pedicel of the neck 
and posteriorly to the apex of the scutel. Abdomen with three broad blackish 
stripes, which are confluent posteriorly and interrupted at each of the sutures. 
Tips of the feet and veins of the hyaline wings blackish. Eyes bright green. An- 
tennae dusky on their upper side. 

Another minute pretty fly, often found wi^th the preceding 
upon wheat, and resembling it in its colors, is generically dis- 
tinguished from it by its short, thick body, its abdomen, when 
distended by a recent meal, being perfectly spherical and ab- 
ruptly drawn out at its tip into a conical point. The second 
veinlet of its wings, moreover, is very oblique instead of being 
transverse as in all the other genera of this group. It thus be- 
longs to Macquart's genus Siphonella, and the present species 
may be named in allusion to its plumpness 

The obese Siphonella, S. obesa. It measures only 0.09 in length, to the tip of 
its abdomen and 0.12 to the end of its wings. It is black and polished, with a slen- 
der stripe on the middle of the thorax, the scutel and the under side of the body 
bright sulphur yellow, the abdomen having a tinge of green beneath. Legs bright 
tawny yellow. Head yellowish white. Antennas tawny yellow, their tips black. 
Two dots on the anterior edge of the mouth, a large egg-shaped spot on the crown, 
two short stripes low down on each side of the breast, and the anterior pair of 
feet, black. 



300 WHEAT FLIES CHLOROPS AND OSCINIS. 

In the genus Chlorops, as the name will indicate to those who are 
acquainted with the Greek language, the eyes are green. They 
might hence be popularly named the green-eyed wheat-flies. 
But as their scientific name Chlorops will be a more definite and 
convenient designation it will be better to adopt it as the popular 
name of these flies. Their bodies are commonly of a yellow 
color, varied more or less with black in the different species. 
One of these species was so abundant the latter part of June that 
at almost every step in any of our wheat fields a dozen or more 
of them could be seen. It may therefore be termed 

The common Chlorops, C. vulgaris, (plate 1, fig. 4, the short line to the left of 
the figure indicating the natural length.) It measures 0.15 or a little less to the 
end of its abdomen and from 0.18 to 0.20 to the end of its wings. It is of a pale 
tawny yellow color, with a round black spot on the top of its head, and the tips of 
its antenna? and of its feelers arc also black. It has two black bristles at the end 
of the middle shanks, and one at the end of the forward ones, and rows of black 
bristles upon the thorax. On the top of the head (fig. 4 a) are two pairs of bristles 
inclining backward and two pairs inclining forward, the anterior pair of the latter 
being shorter. The abdomen is oval, and in its normal state is of the same color 
with the thorax; but from inclosed alimentary matter it becomes variously dis- 
colored, often showing obscure brown or reddish spots. 

The feather-horned Chlorops, C. antcnnalis, is the same size as the preced- 
ing, but with the abdomen commonly shorter. It is pale yellowish varied with tawny 
and is whitish beneath. The antenna? are pale orange, their tips black, and the 
bristle which arises from them, and which is simple in the other species, is here 
feathered or plumose. On the top of the head is a black spot and the feelers are 
also black. It is also clothed above with black bristles. The abdomen when dis- 
tended with aliment is broad oval and of a dull livid or pale brown color, with the 
sutures whitish. 

The genus Oscinis is distinguished from Chlorops by having 
the coarse vein which forms the outer edge of the wing prolong- 
ed around the tip of the wing to the end of the inner of the two 
middle veins of the wing, at which point this marginal vein ab- 
ruptly becomes slender, (see plate 1, fig. 5); whereas in the 
genus Chlorops it is at the end of the outer middle vein that this 
thick robust marginal vein terminates, (see fig. 4 of the same 
plate). The species of Oscinis are further distinguished from 
those of Chlorops by being of a smaller size and of black instead 
of yellow colors. Several species of both these genera, in addi- 
tion to those here presented were met with upon wheat, but I 
defer a description of them to a future occasion. 

The shank-banded Oscinis, O. tibialis, (plate 1, fig. 5) is 0.08 in length to the 
tip of its abdomen and 0.11 to the end of its wings. It is black, polished and 
shining, its shanks and feet being pale dull yellow, the hind shanks having a broad 



WHEAT FLIES DECEIVING. 301 

black band towards their bases (as shown in the separate illustration of the leg, 
fig. 5 a), and the middle ones having a narrower faint blackish one; the tips of the 
feet being also black. Bristle of the antenna} black. A slight transverse tawny- 
yellow line above the base of each antenna?. The two vcinlets of the wings are 
distant from each other thrice the length of the second or outer veinlet. 

Two of these flies were enclosed in a vial when captured. Adhering to one of 
them was a small bright red mite, which is parasitic upon these flies. This fly died 
in about three hours, the other remaining brisk and lively twelve hours afterwards, 
when it was removed for examination. 

The yellow-hipped Oscinis, 0. coxendix , is 0.07 in length to the tip of its ab- 
domen, and 0.10 to the end of its wings. It is black with a white face and buff 
yellow front shaded to blackish on the crown, where is a polished deep black semi- 
circular mark, its concave side facing backward. Its anterior hips are testaceous 
yellow. The veinlets are less than twice the length of the second from each other. 

The thick-legged Oscinis, O. crassifemoris, is the same size with the last, 
and is black with a white head and the thorax with a gray reflection. The last 
joint of the antenna? with its bristle is black. The legs are pale yellow, the tips of 
the feet black. The veinlets are so near each other that they are almost united. 
In the female the abdomen is egg-shaped and polished, its apex drawn out into a 
long sharp-pointed ovipositor. The middle and anterior thighs are rather short 
and thick, the hind ones longer and cylindrical. 

The fly figured, plate 1, fig. 3, is a much larger species pertaining 
to another group. It occurs in abundance upon the heads of wheat 
the latter part of June. This is the species which was currently re- 
garded in the circle of my acquaintance as being the fly from which 
the little yellow maggots, the larvse of the wheat midge, proceeded, 
until I came to investigate this subject,and discovered in our coun- 
try the real culprit (Cecido7iiyia Tritici) described by Mr. Kirby. 
As I have had occasion repeatedly to allude to this popular mis- 
take, and this fly has received no name, as I have been able to 
discover, by which it may be specified, I here present a name 
and description of it, and also of another common species closely 
related to it. I as yet know nothing of their habits, beyond the 
fact that they are both numerous, hovering over and alighting 
upon the heads of wheat at the time they are in flower. 

The deceiving wheat fly, Hijlemyia d'Ceptiva, is a quarter of an inch in length 
to the tip of its wings. It is ash gray, with black legs, antenna? and feelers. Ab- 
domen with a row of longditudinal brown-black spots forming an interupted stripe 
along its middle. Thorax in a particular reflection of the light showing a brown 
stripe anteriorly and on each side of it a brown spot. A tawny yellow spot upon 
the front, more conspicuous in the females, and passing into a black stripe upon 
the top of the head. 

The similar wheat fly, Hymelyia similis, resembles the preceding, but is a 
size smaller, measuring 0.22 in length, and of a paler shade of ash gray, with the 
tawny yellow spot upon the front replaced by black, and is destitute of the brown 
stripe and spots upon the thorax. 



302 WHEAT MOW FLY ITS HISTORY. 

Myriads of small pale maggots crawling from the mow of wheat soon after it 

is placed in the barn; the kernels of grain shrivelled and dwarfish. 
The wheat mow fly, Agromyza Tritici, new species (Plate 2, fig. 1). 

Several years ago a farmer in my neighborhood, soon after 
gathering his wheat into the barn, found countless myriads of 
small worms were crawling out of it, literally covering the mow 
of grain and wandering away from it to every part of the barn. 
These worms it is evident had just now completed their growth 
and were crawling about in search of the moist earth, wherein 
to bury themselves, to repose during their pupa state. It would 
seem that some cause had made them later than usual in reach- 
ing maturity; and had the wheat remained in the field a few 
days longer, they would have escaped from it there, so generally 
that no notice of them would have been taken, and the fact 
would never have been known that such an army of insects had 
had their subsistence upon this crop. 

Alarmed with the numbers of these worms, and fearing they 
would perhaps wholly destroy the mow of grain, the proprietor 
had the whole of it threshed immediately. I happened to visit 
the barn as the threshed grain was being winnowed, when the 
above facts were communicated to me. The heap of uncleaned 
grain was literally alive with these worms and the cracks in the 
floor were filled with them. The kernels of wheat appeared to 
be shrunk in the same manner as when they have been infested 
with the wheat midge. I put a number of these worms into a 
small box, with some of the chaff and grain. Other engage- 
ments diverted my attention from this subject and it was wholly 
forgotten until many months afterwards, when, happening to open 
the box, I found in it quite a number of small flies, which had 
completed their transformations and perished in their confine- 
ment. It therefore appears that it is by no means essential to 
these worms to bury themselves in the moist earth, though that 
is doubtless their natural habit. But if they can find any cre- 
vice in the dry barn where they can stow themselves and lie un- 
disturbed, it is all they require in order to complete their trans- 
formations. 

The worms, according to my recollection, were much like the 
little yellow maggots of the wheat- midge, but were of a dull 



WHEAT MOW FLY DESCRIPTION, AND ITS PARASITE. 303 

white color, and rather larger. Their transformations are like 
those of flies generally, the outer skin of the larva or maggot 
contracting and becoming dry and hard, and forming the case 
within which the insect lies in its pupa state. When the larva 
skin of this species is thus dried, with the pupa reposing within 
it, it appears as represented, plate 2, fig. 2, 2 a being a highly 
magnified view of its upper and 2 b of its under side. It is but 
the tenth of an inch long, and 0.03 in diameter; it is shining and 
of a pale yellow color, of an oval or rather an elliptical form, 
more rounded at the head and pointed at the opposite end, the 
segments distinctly marked by transverse constrictions. 

These flies appear much like the common house fly, reduced to 
an infantile size. I supposed they would prove to be one of the 
European species of Oscinis, until I came to examine them, 
when I found that, though they belong to the group Oscinides, 
they are generically distinct from both Chlorops and Oscinis, in 
having bristles or hairs upon the face as well as upon the crown, 
and in having the two little transverse veinlets of the wings sita- 
ated quite near the base. They thus pertain to the genus JJgromyza 
a name meaning field flies, as this genus is characterised by Mac- 
quart, and to his section AAA, and to his subsection DDD, but 
they are clearly distinct from either of the species which he de- 
scribes; nor am I aware that any of the members of this exten- 
sive genus have hitherto been noticed as depredators upon wheat, 
like their kindred of the genera Chlorops and Oscinis. The 
present species may therefore be designated 

The wheat mow fly, dgromyza Tritici, (plate 2, fig. 1.) It is 0.08 in length, 
and to the tip of the closed wings 0.11. It is black, with a broad pale reddish yel- 
low band upon the front above the base of the antennas, and the mouth broadly 
margined with dull yellow. The legs are brownish black, the knees slightly marked 
with pale yellow. The wings are notched on their outer margin near the base, at 
the apex of the first vein. The veinlets are situated near the base of the wing and 
near each other ; and the inner middle vein is not prolonged beyond the second 
veinlet. 

In the same box in which these flies were hatched was found 
four individuals of a parasitic fly which had evidently come from 
some of the worms of the wheat mow fly. They pertain to the 
Family Proctrotrupid^e of the Order Hymenoptera, and to the 
genus Diapria. They may therefore be named 

The wheat siow fly's parasite, Diapria Jlgromyzce. They measure 0.06 in 
length, and to the tip of the closed wings 0.08. They are black and shining, with shanks 



304 WHEAT THRIPS — IN WISCONSIN. 

thickened towards their tips, the hind pair heing very long, and the legs are pale 
yellowish, with the thighs and the thickened ends of the shanks hlack. The abdo- 
men is elliptic. The antennse in the males are thread-like and nearly as long as 
the body, composed of fourteen joints, which are very distinct, equal, oval, a third 
longer than broad, the apical one being a little longer and egg-shaped, and the ba- 
sal one club-shaped and thrice as long but scarcely thicker than the following ones. 
In the female they are shorter and composed of twelve joints which are compacted 
together, the three last enlarged and forming a kind of knob or club, the last joint 
nearly as long as the two which precede it, its end bluntly rounded. 



Upon the heads and stalks in June and July, exhausting the juices of the 
kernels and rendering them dwarfish and shrivelled; exceedingly minute, 
active, long and narrow, six-legged insects, of a bright yellow or of a shin- 
ing black color. 

The Wheat Thrips. Thrips Tritici, new species. 

The Three-banded Thrips, Coleothrips trifasciata, new species. 

My attention lias been called to these insects by a letter from 
David Williams, dated Geneva, Wisconsin, July 9th, 1855, which 
says : " Enclosed I send you specimens of a minute little insect 
that is causing some alarm in this vicinity. They are found in 
all blossoms in great numbers. They first made their appear- 
ance about the middle of June, or at least they were then first 
noticed, so far as I have heard. For about two weeks they were 
found in the blossoms of wheat and of clover, causing numbers 
of the blossoms to wither, and in some cases the kernel was also 
attacked. About a fortnight ago we had a very heavy fall of 
rain, which appeared to destroy them; but within a few days I 
have noticed their reappearance in countless numbers. They 
are very nimble, requiring good eyes and ready fingers to secure 
them, and I was obliged mainly to my wife for the capture of 
those which I send you." 

The insects alluded to in the above extract are so minute, that 
had only two or three specimens been sent me, I should have 
been unable to give any definite account of their species. . An 
acknowledgment is due Mrs. Williams for the number of these 
insects which she enclosed in the quill — a task which the bung- 
ling fingers of a man could scarcely have accomplished. Among 
them I find specimens in all the stages of their growth, and am 
hence able to present a tolerably complete history and description 
of the species; although it is only from living specimens that such 



WHEAT THRIPS EUROPEAN GRAIN THRIPS. 305 

minute objects can be satisfactorily studied, and described with 
that precision and fullness which science requires. 

Insects of the kind to which these belong may be distinguished 
from all others by their wings (see the accompanying figure, e), 
which are long, narrow and strap-like, and in most of the species 
are fringed on both sides with long hairs like eye-lashes. Their 
mouths are also different from those of all other insects, being 
nearly intermediate between the beak or bill with which some of 
the orders of insects puncture and suck the fluids on which they 
subsist, and the jaws with which all the other orders gnaw the sub- 
stances on which they feed. These insects originally formed the 
genus Thrips, placed by Linnaeus next to the plant-lice, in the 
Order Hemiptera. But as their wings and the structure of their 
mouths is so wholly unlike that of any other insect, naturalists 
of late rank them as a distinct order, which is named Thysan- 
optera, i. e. fringe- winged. This order contains the single 
family Thripidid^: (currently written Thripidae by authors, but 
incorrectly), which is divided into seven genera by Mr. Haliday, 
whose researches in this group have been unsurpassed. About 
fifty species of these insects are known to the entomologists of 
Europe. They are all of small size, more than half of them 
being only about the twentieth of an inch in length, or less, and 
but few slightly exceed the tenth of an inch; though recently 
some have been found in Australia which are three times as large 
as any which were previously known. 

Most of the species are found in the flowers of different plants. 
They feed upon the juices, and are very injurious, especially in 
hot-houses, causing small dead spots upon the leaves and flowers 
wherever they wound them. Some of them also infest melons 
and cucumbers. One species is very injurious to the olive trees 
in Italy. Another attacks peaches and other fruit to a mis- 
chievous extent. But the species which appears to do the 
greatest amount of damage is the grain Thrips (T. cerealivm). 
Our first accounts of this insect are from Mr. Kirby, in 1796 
(Linnaen Transactions, iii, 246), who however supposed it to be 
the Thrips physapus of Linnaeus, until Mr. Haliday showed it to 
be distinct from that species. An excellent history of this 

[Assembly, No. 21 5. J 20 



306 WHEAT THRIPS AMERICAN SPECIES OF THRIPS. 

species is published by Mr. Curtis in his paper on insects affecting 
the corn crops, in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, 
vol. vi, p. 499; and figures of the insect and its dissected parts, 
in the several stages of its growth, from Mr. Ilaliday's manu- 
scripts, are given in the list of Homopterous insects in the British 
Museum, part iv, plates vi,vii and viii. In the year 1805, one- 
third of the wheat crop in the province of Piedmont is said to 
have been destroyed by this seemingly insignificant little insect. 
Mr. Kirby says it is by far the most numerous of any insect upon 
the wheat in England; he does not think he ever examined an 
ear of wheat without meeting with it. He says it takes its station 
in the longitudinal furrow of the seed, in the bottom of which 
it seems to fix its beak, and probably sucks the milky juice which 
swells the grain. Thus by depriving the kernel of part, and in 
some cases perhaps the whole of its moisture, it causes it to shrink 
up and become what the farmers call "pungled." According to 
Vassali Eandi, it also gnaws the young stalks just above the 
knots, causing the ear to become abortive in consequence of these 
wounds. It is late sown wheat which is reported to be chiefly 
injured by this insect; and early sowing is the only remedy 
which I find spoken of by those who have written upon it. 

Our American species of this order of insects are probably as 
numerous as those of Europe, but none of them have been ex- 
amined and described, except one which occurs in small hollows 
gnawed in young apples, of which some account was given in 
my last report. I have repeatedly noticed different kinds of 
these insects upon growing wheat in the State of New-York, but 
not in such numbers that I supposed they were doing any ap- 
preciable injury to the crop. One of these species is very simi- 
lar to the P/ilaothrips Statices, Haliday, which in Europe occurs 
in myriads upon the flowers of the Thrift (Statice Armeria Lin.) 
That which I have met with most common, upon wheat in my 
own vicinity is the Three-banded Thrips, hereafter described. 
Dr. Harris has also seen the larva of a Thrips (Treatise, p. 205) 
which he supposes to be the T. cerealium. He merely states 
that it was orange-colored; and as the larva of T. cerealium has 
a black or dusky head and two spots of the same color on the 
fore part of the thorax, and its antennae and legs have alternate 



WHEAT THRIPS EGGS AND LARVA. 307 

blackish and whitish rings, it is more probable that bis speci- 
mens were the same which I now have before me from Wiscon- 
sin. Be this as it may, the communication from Mr. Williams 
is important, as making us acquainted with an enemy of the 
wheat crop of which we heretofore have had no definite know- 
ledge, and which will undoubtedly at times be quite detrimental 
in the wheat-growing districts of our country. 

Although this species, like many others in this order, occurs 
upon the flowers of different plants, it is upon wheat, in all pro- 
bability, that it will be oftenest noticed, and to which it will 
prove most injurious. It may therefore appropriately be named 
the wheat Thrips, T. Tritici. 

Attached to the surface of the shrivelled flower-leaves in the 
quill in which these insects were sent me, I meet with what 
I doubt not are their egg<t (see figure a, next page,) deposited pro- 
bably by one of the females after being imprisoned. They are so 
minute as to be wholly invisible to the naked eye, except when 
placed upon clean white paper, when they can be merely dis- 
cerned, appearing like an atom of dark colored dust. Under the 
magnifier they are discovered to be of a bright red color, like par- 
ticles of sealing-wax, and of an oval almost globular form; and 
they are attached to the leaf by a short, thick, crinkled stalk or 
stem, which is of a dull white color. 

The larvce (fig. b) resemble the perfect insects, except that 
they are wholly destitute of wings and are smaller and softer, 
with the several segments of the body more equally and distinct- 
ly separated from each other by transverse, constricted lines. 
They are throughout of a bright orange-yellow color, of the 
same hue as the worms of the Wheat-midge, which worms, how- 
ever, small as they are, appear like giants when placed by the 
side of these larva?. 

Two minute blaclc dots upon the anterior end of the head are the eyes. The 
head is square and but half as broad as the second segment, which is broadest at 
its base, narrowing forward to its apex, where it is of the same width as the head. 
The third and fourth segments are slightly longer and wider than the second, and 
much longer than the following ones, which are about equal to each other, the 
apical one being narrowed, of a tubular conic form and two-jointed. The body is 
quite convex above and beneath. The legs and antenna? are much like those of the 
perfect insects, except that they are shorter. The two minute joints at the end of 
£he antennae ,(see figure / ) can commonly be pereeived in the larva state of these 
organs. 



308 



WHEAT THRIPS THREE- BANDED THRIPS. 



During their larva state the insects of this order are very 
nimble, skipping and throwing themselves to a distance by strik- 
ing their abdomen suddenly against the surface upon which they 
are placed. In their pupa state they are much more slow and 
sluggish in their motions, and become quite active again when 
they reach their perfect state. 

The pupa are like the perfect insects in size and shape, except 
that their wings are short or rudimentary. At first they are 
merely oval scales, situated upon each side of the two last 
segments of the thorax. Subsequently they become more de- 
veloped so that they reach to the middle of the abdomen or 
slightly beyond, but they are still incapable of being used for 
flying. The species under consideration, when in its pupa state, 
is of the same yellow color as when a larva, but the abdomen, at 
least towards its base, is paler than the thorax. 

The perfect insect (figure c) is but four hundredths of an inch (0.04) in lengthy 

Its length is indicated by the short line near 
the left forward leg in the cut. It is thus & 
fourth smaller than Thrips cerealium, and 
instead of being black like that species, this 
retains the yellow color which it has when a 
larva, the head and thorax (which includes 
the three large segments next to the head, 
from each of which a pair of legs arises, as 
shown in the figure) being of a deep orange 
yellow, or like the yolk of an egg, whilst the 
abdomen is paler, and the legs are yellowish 
white. The antennas (the apical joints of which 
are represented more enlarged at/) are whi- 
' tish, tinged towards their tips with dusky. 
The fringes of the wings are also dusky. The fore legs are shorter but no thicker 
than the others. All the other details of its structure are so distinctly represented 
i n the figure, that a particular description is unnecessary. 

The species which I have noticed as the most common upon 
wheat in Washington county, New- York, may be named the 
Three-banded Thrips (Coleothrips trifasciata). It is clearly dis- 
tinct from the three European species included in this genus, 
though nearly related to the C.fasciata, Lin. It is nearly double 
the size of the wheat Thrips, being 0.07 in length, and is so dis- 
tinctly marked that even our preserved specimens can be readily 
discriminated. It is of a black color, polished and shining, with 
the third joint of its antennae white, and its wings black or dark 




WHEAT THRIPS — THREE-BANDED THRIPS. 309 

smoky brown, with three broad white bands, whereof one is upon 
the base, another across the middle, and the third, which is 
somewhat narrower, upon the tip. The wings show two longi- 
tudinal veins, but no transverse ones were noticed upon them, 
nor could I discover any fringe upon either their outer or inner 
margin. The fore legs are larger than the others, and the 
antennae (see figure g of the preceeding cut, representing the head, 
eyes, left antenna and base of the right) instead of arising far 
apart as in most of the species I have examined, come out from 
the front of the head close together, and are composed of only 
five principal joints, of which the two first are short, and a third 
thicker than the others, which are long and cylindrical, the last 
one gradually tapering to a slender point, its apical portion being 
divided into small indistinct segments. 

This species is common upon wheat as early as the first of 
June. When the grain ripens it probably forsakes it and becomes 
dispersed upon plants which flower later in the season; for I 
have met with it upon flowers of tanzy (Tanacetum vulgar e) the 
last of July. 



310 CUT WORMS POPULAR IGNORANCE RESPECTING, 



2. INDIAN CORN. 

AFFECTING THE STALKS. 

Severing the young stalks by night at or near the surface of the ground ; a 
thick cylindrical pale dull colored worm an inch or more in length. 

Cut-worms, the larvte of different species ofAgrotis, (plate 3, fig. 1, 2 and &.)• 

Common as the cut-worm is in all parts of our State and 
country, our knowledge of it is still very imperfect. I remem- 
ber in my boyhood it was a subject of discussion in my neighbor- 
hood, whether if these worms were cut in two, both ends did not 
live, thus producing two worms where but one existed before. 
Though at this day I suppose no such absurd idea is anywhere 
entertained, yet with regard to the transformations of these 
worms, and their economy generally, very little authentic in- 
formation is possessed. This clearly appears from the following 
enquiry from West Haven, Ct., July, 1855, addressed to the 
Albany Cultivator (third series, vol. iv, p. 115). "Will some 
of your readers inform us how the Cut-worm is produced — 
whether from the miller, or whether they bring forth their young 
like the rabbit or any of the animal creation 1 I would like to 
know also whether one kind of soil more than another, or 
whether different manures, coarse or fine, have a tendency to 
increase their numbers. Their name is legion with us, this sea- 
son. More than thirty have been found around one cucumber 
hill. Whole fields of cabbages have been cut down in a night. 
The subject of their production has been up for discussion, but 
no one seems to know, nor is there any author that we have 
that throws any light on the subject. I have had some experi- 
ence relating to their production, but it is so at varience with 
my previous ideas that I want more light before publishing it." 

Whether the cut-worm is more numerous in one kind of soil 
than another, I am unable to say. The soil of my own neigh- 
borhood is a gravelly loam, and in this the cut-worm is common. 
I presume it is equally common in sandy and clay soils. In one 
instance, at the bottom of a bowl-shaped hollow, where the soil 



CUT WORMS THEIR METAMORPHOSES. 311 

partook of the nature of a stiff clay, a number of cut-worms 
were found, when there were scarcely any in the surrounding 
gravelly soil; but it was probably the more juicy, tender growth 
of the corn in this damp hollow, which caused the worms to 
gather there, rather than the nature of the soil. 

I do not think the fertility of the soil, or the kind of manure 
which is applied to it, has any influence upon these worms, ex- 
cept in making the plants grow more succulent, for it is vegeta- 
tion of this character which appears to be their favorite food. 
We all know these worms are common in our highly manured 
gardens. And I have never found them more plenty than on 
one occasion among beans planted upon a hill-side, so barren that 
it was thought nothing else could be raised there. 

The biography of these worms is briefly as follows : The parent 
insect drops her eggs upon the ground, the latter part of summer. 
These soon hatch, and the young worms which come from them 
crawl into the ground and feed upon the roots and tender shoots 
of herbaceous plants. When cold weather arrives they descend 
a few inches below the surface and there lie torpid during the 
winter, and renew their activity when spring returns. It is not 
until they have nearly completed their growth, in the month of 
June, that they show that habit which renders them so injurious, 
and has acquired for them their name, " cut- worm." They then 
crawl from the earth, by night, and with their sharp teeth cut 
off the young succulent plants of maize, cabbage, beans, &c, 
almost as smoothly as though it were done with a knife. When 
daylight approaches, each worm crawls into the ground again, 
entering it within a few inches of the plant it has severed — the 
newly disturbed and rough appearance of the dirt showing the 
exact spot where it has gone into the ground, and rendering it 
easy to uncover and destroy the worm. Having got its growth 
it forms a little oval cavity in the ground, within which it lies 
and changes to a pupa or chrysalis. In this state it has some 
resemblance to a long slim egg of a chestnut brown color, having 
several impressed rings or joints towards its pointed or tail end. 
From this pupa, in three or four weeks, hatches the perfect in- 
sect, which is a dark colored miller or moth. 



312 CUT WORMS DIFFERENT KINDS, 

Every observing person is aware there are several kinds of 
these worms, differing from each other in the color of their heads, 
the stripes upon their bodies, and in their habits. But unfortu- 
nately we do not yet know which particular species of moth it 
is which either of the kinds of these worms produces. I have 
repeatedly endeavored to breed the moth from these worms, by 
placing them in cages into which I transplanted young corn, 
beans, &c, and also by placing bell-glasses over corn hills where 
worms had buried themselves. But I have never been able to 
succeed. The worms on finding themselves imprisoned, refuse 
to eat, and hurriedly crawl around and around the inner side of 
their prison, night after night, until they literally travel them- 
selves to death. They are by no means such sluggish, stupid 
creatures as one would suppose from seeing them in the day 
time. By night they are as active as any other animal whose 
skin is stuffed and distended with food as theirs is. They are 
evidently able to crawl quite a distance in a single night. It is 
the common opkiion that they are always bred in the ground near 
the spot where they do their mischief. But I suspect they are 
everywhere wandering about, nightly, in search of such tender., 
succulent plants as will furnish them a dainty repast, and that 
they thus in many instances enter our gardens and corn-fields 
from the surrounding enclosures. ,They certainly, if so inclined, 
could travel across the largest of our arable fields in a few hours. 

The following short descriptions of the different kinds of cut- 
worms which have fallen under my notice, and their habits, I 
extract from my manuscripts. All these worms, except the 
White one, are about an inch and a quarter in length when at 
rest, and an inch and a half when crawling. They all have four 
polished elevated dots upon each segment, on the back, and a 
few others which are less distinct, upon the sides, each dot bear- 
ing an exceedingly fine hair. 

The Red-headed cut-worm is of a dull pale brown color, with- 
out any stripes, and may be distinguished from all the other 
kinds by its head, which is of a tawny red color, instead of 
smoky yellowish as it is in each of the following, except the 
last one. Common in corn-fields, cutting off the plants slightly 



CUT WORMS — DIFFERENT KINDS. 313 

below the surface of the ground, and thus always destroying 
them. On Staten and Long Islands, I am told, this species is 
popularly named the "Tiger worm," from its destructive habits, 
and that the name cut- worm is there applied only to the next 
species. 

The Striped cut-worm is dirty whitish or pale smoky, with 
darker brown stripes, of which there are two along the back and 
three broader ones along each side; dots black, as they are in the 
preceding species, but not so minute. This is the most common 
kind in corn-fields, cutting off the plants half an inch above the 
ground; hence the stalk frequently shoots up again, from the 
middle of the stump. This occasionally occurs among beans 
also. It buries itself but slightly, and may sometimes be found 
with half its back exposed, even though the sun be shining clear 
and hot. 

The Faintly-lined cut- worm is dull brown, with very faint 
I ale longitudinal lines, and the polished dots but little darker 
than the general color. Found in cornfields, but more commonly 
in gardens among cabbages and sometimes among onions. Buries 
itself but slightly. 

The White cut-worm is smaller, being scarcely an inch long 
when at rest. It is dull white, with black dots and no stripes or 
lines except a row of very faint brownish touches along the upper 
part of each side. It is rare, a single individual being occasion- 
ally found among corn and beans. 

The Black-headed cut-worm is dull dark brown, with faint 
traces of pale lines, and its head deep black. This is probably 
what is named the "Black worm" in some neighborhoods. It 
is the most common kind among beans, cutting them off slightly 
below the surface, and drawing the severed stem into the hole 
where it buries itself, and there feeding upon it during the day, 
till the whole is devoured, or only pieces of the wilted leaves 
remain, plugging up the entrance of the hole. Either the Striped 
or the Lined cut-worm frequently treats corn in this same way. 
Hence the stump may often be found without any wilted leaves 
lying near it. 

There are doubtless other species of cut-worms which have 
not yet presented themselves to my notice, my investigations of 



314 CUT WORMS GOTHIC DART JMOTH 

these insects being as yet far from complete. My young cucum- 
bers being always enclosed in boxes open at the bottom and top, 
are never molested by cut-worms, and seldom by other insects j 
hence I know not the worm which depredates on them. 

As already stated, the particular species of moth or miller 
into which either of our American cut- worms changes, has never 
been ascertained. Most of the species, however, pertain to the 
genus Jlgrotis, of the family Noctuidje, or Owlet-moths. In 
England the insects of this genus are named " Dart moths," from 
a peculiar spot or streak which many of them have near the base 
of their fore wings, resembling the ' point of a dart or spear. 
Much the most common species of this genus in the state of New- 
York, can be nothing else than the Gothic Dart Jlgrotis sub- 
gothica of the British entomologists, (Plate 3, fig. 1). This was 
first described by Mr. Ha worth in the year 1810, and is current 
in all the books as a British insect. Mr. Stephens, however, says 
it is very rare, onl)' three or four specimens having been found 
in England. I doubt not it is an American insect, the eggs or 
larvse of which have accidently been carried to England, pro- 
bably in the earth in which plants have been transported thither. 
Here it is one of the most common of those moths which come 
in at the open windows of our houses on warm summer evenings, 
attracted by the lights of the candles. I have thus taken more 
than a dozen specimens in an hour. It begins to appear early 
in July and continues till September, and in Illinois I met with 
it on one of the last days of this month. Its wings when spread 
measure from over an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half 
across. It is of a grayish-brown color, and the fore wings have 
a broad whitish stripe on the outer margin from the base to be- 
yond the middle, and another branching from this and running 
through the centre of the wing. Between these whitish stripes 
is a pale triangular spot having its outer side wholly confluent 
with the outer stripe, and back of this is a second pale spot 
which is kidney-shaped, the space before, between and behind 
these spots being black or dark brown. And extending from the 
base of the wing along the inner side of the inner stripe is a 
broad black or dark brown streak (representing the dart head 



CUT WORMS DEVASTATING DART MOTH. 315 

above alluded to,) which streak is crossed by two slender pale 
lines, these lines not parallel with each other. This last mark 
with the two pale lines across it, will alone distinguish this from 
all our other moths. 

Our next most common species is the Devastating Dart 
Agrotis devastator, (Plate 3, fig. 2,) thus named by Mr. Brace in 
the year 1819, in a short article upon the cut-worm, published 
in the first volume of Silliman's Journal, page 157. And it ap- 
pears to be this same species, which has recently been figured 
and named Jlgrotis Marshallana by Mr. Westwood, from a single 
specimen found in England by T. Marshall, Esq., (Humphrey's 
British Moths, vol. i, p. 122.) In this species the wings when 
spread are from an inch and a half to over an inch and three- 
fourths across. The fore wings are grayish brown, and are 
crossed by four equidistant wavy whitish lines, which are edged 
more or less with blackish. But commonly only the last one or 
two of these lines can be perceived; and the last line has a row 
of blackish triangular spots, like arrow heads, along its anterior 
side, their points directed towards the base of the wing. Often 
these spots are so obliterated that only one or two of the middle 
ones can be discerned in a particular reflection of the light. 
But it is by these spots more than any other character that I dis- 
criminate specimens of this species; for it is variable, with its 
marks obscure and more or less obliterated, from its wings when 
flying having been fluttered and rubbed against grass, leaves, &c, 
as is apt to be the case with most of the insects of this order. 

A third species, also very common, (Plate 3, fig. 6,) differs 
generically from the two preceding, and appears to coincide more 
closely with Graphiphora than with any other genus characterised 
by European writers. It is named the clandestine owlet-moth, 
JVoctua clandestina, by Dr. Harris. It is of an obscure brown or 
gray color, its wings when most perfect marked as represented 
in the figure. Our illustrations of these three species are quite 
exact, and will give the reader a much clearer view of the com- 
plicated markings of their wings than he can obtain from any 
written description. 



316 CUT WORMS — THEIR ENEMIES. 

The insect figured in Dr. Emmons' volume, plate 45, fig. 2 
and mentioned in the text as being a common species of Agmtis, 
is the Hadena arnica of Stephens. 

Although more than a dozen other species of Dart-moths are 
known to me, those now described will suffice as examples of 
the insects whose eggs produce the cut-worms. Though so 
common, they are seldom seen in the day time, being then at 
rest, secreted in dark situations, such as the crevices in stone 
walls and the cracks under the clapboards of buildings. By 
looking behind the window-shutters of my office at any time in 
July or August, I am able to obtain specimens of the Devastating 
Dart and one or two other less common species. 

These worms have several natural enemies. That universal 
pest of the cornfield, the crow, visits the fields, equally as much 
to obtain cut-worms as for corn, and would probably do but little 
injury to the latter if he could find worms enough to glut his 
appetite. Numbers of them are also destroyed by predaceous 
insects. One of the most common of these is pretty generally 
known to our farmers, who sometimes designate it the " cut- 
worm's dragon," from its singular form and ferocious habits. It 
is a large black and rather slender and flat larva of a beetle of 
the family Carabidje, and I presume it is the Pa?igus caliginosus, 
but those individuals which I have attempted to rear have 
always perished before completing their growth. It is very 
agile in its motions, and roots and buries itself under the loose 
dirt with facility. "When not glutted with food, it is running 
about incessantly, in search of these worms, and slays them with- 
out mercy, with its powerful jaws seizing them commonly by 
the throat, and regardless of their violent writhings and contor- 
tions, sucking out the contents of their skins. M. F. Morrison, 
of Bath, Steuben co., N. Y., gives some interesting particulars of 
another insect enemy of the cut worm, in the Albany Cultivator, 
vol. v, page 18. He says, " A few years since a remarkable insect, 
somewhat resembling the black wasp, but longer, shaped some- 
what more like the hornet, but of a shining black, and very 
active, was pointed out to me as the natural enemy of the grub 
worm. Its evolutions when on the ground were similar to that 



CUT WORMS REMEDIES. 



317 



of the hound upon the track of the hare. Its head was down, 
as if in the act of smelling, and every few minutes it would dig 
with its fore feet in the manner of the dog. At length it dug up 
a worm, stung it to death, and left it. On a succeeding .day I 
saw the same insect engaged in burying the victims of its war- 
fare. A hole was excavated in the soil sufficient to deposit the 
worm by the use of its fore feet. The dead worm was then 
seized by the forcep jaAvs of the insect, who drew it backwards 
into the hole into which it entered in rear of the worm, and from 
which it immediately emerged, and scraping the earth together 
raised a tumulus over the grave." % 

As to the best modes for subduing the cut-worm and guarding 
against its ravages, only a few words will be necessary, as this 
topic has been so often discussed in our agricultural journals. 
Commonly only one or two stalks in a hill of corn or beans are 
cut off, and the remainder are left unmolested, the worms appear- 
ing to require but a few meals of this kind, just as they are 
on the point of changing topupse. It is well, therefore, to plant 
so much seed as will enable these depredators to glut their appe- 
tites without taking all the stalks in the hill. Observation has 
long pointed to this as a precaution which should always be 
taken. Hence the old rule as to the number of kernels which 
should be planted in each hill of corn — 

" One for the black -bird and one for the crow, 
Two for the cut-worm and three to grow." 

But occasionally these worms are so numerous that active ex- 
ertions must be put forth to save the crop from destruction. 
And general experience shows we have as yet only one resort 
which is perfectly certain and reliable, to wit, digging the worms 
out from their retreats and destroying them. To go over a large 
cornfield carefully, on this errand, and promptly as the exigency 
of the case demands, is quite a formidable task. Still, every one 
will perceive on a moment's reflection that when this measure is 
necessary to save the crop, the same amount of labor can scarcely 
be bestowed elsewhere so profitably. 

It however is very desirable that some effectual and more 
speedy mode of combating these insects should be discovered. 
So long ago as 1817, a notice in the newspapers stated that making 



318 MAIZE APHIS ITS SITUATION. 

a few holes about the hills with a sharp stick was an easy way 
to entrap these worms, as they would fall into such holes, and 
being unable to crawl out of them, would perish — some of the 
holes being found half full of worms thus gathered in a single 
night. A writer in the Michigan Farmer, whose communication 
was fully noticed in the Country Gentleman of June 7th, 1855, 
bears strong testimony to the efficacy of this measure. From 
my own observations it appears that these worms are never able 
to crawl the length of their bodies up a perpendicular bank of 
earth, before they loose their foothold and fall. I hence pre- 
sume the measure above spoken of will be effectual. Indeed, if 
my supposition is correct, that these worms mostly come from 
the surrounding fields, to the places where we notice them, I have 
thought that a single deep furrow, struck around the outside of 
a field or garden, when the worms are first beginning to appear — 
any break in the land-side of the furrow being repaired with a 
hoe — would form a barrier over which it would be impossible 
for them to make their way — thus protecting the whole field 
effectually and at a very trifling cost. I hope in one or two sum- 
mers to complete my observations so that I can speak with more 
confidence upon this subject than I am able to do at present. 



Crowded together and covering the stem which bears the ear; small dull- 
green and reddish lice, slightly dusted over with a fine white powder. 

The Maize Aphis, Aphis Maidis, new species. 

In August, the person who is selecting soft corn for boiling, 
will sometimes come to an ear, the stem of which is entirely 
covered with vermin. On examining them they are perceived 
to be small plant-lice of a lurid green color, intermixed with 
slightly larger dull reddish ones, and an occasional individual is 
found among them having wings and a black body. They are 
thinly dusted over with a fine white powder, like meal, and 
scattered about among them are seen the empty skins which the 
larger ones have shed. Each individual is stationary, with its 
beak inserted into the stalk, sucking its nourishment therefrom. 
They continue upon those stems where they have once established 



MAIZE APHIS DESCRIPTION OF. 319 

themselves, until the corn is cut down or ripens and the sap 
ceases to circulate in the stalks, whereupon they perish. The) 7 
occur upon no other part of the stalk except the peduncle or 
stem which bears the ears. And such a multitude of them as is 
found clustered together upon this stem,, of course abstracts 
from it much of the sap which should go to nourish the ear and 
swell the kernels. Should these insects, therefore, ever become 
multiplied so as to infest a considerable portion of the ears in a 
field, it is evident they would do much injury to the crop. And 
like other kindered insects, it is probably they will at times 
become thus multiplied. 

These insects belong to the family Aphidje in the order 
Homoptera, and to the genus Jlphis. They are plainly a different 
species from one which infests the maize in Europe, the Jlphis 
Zece, of Eonafous, described in the Annals of the Ent. Soc. of 
France, vol. iv, p. 658, and I propose to designate them the 
Maize Aphis, Jl Maiidis. The remedies for insects of this kind 
were treated of in my first report, under the apple plant-louse, 
and it only remains for me to give a description of this species in 
the different stages of its growth. 

The larva, when newly born, is 0.03 in length, with the opposite sides of its 
body parallel, or very slightly wider posteriorly; of a yellow color, the hue of bees- 
wax, the head pale watery yellowish,the eyes black, the antennae, legs and beak white, 
the latter long, reaching beyond the base of the hind legs, the nectaries or honey 
tubes short, merely slight tubercular elevations, and white. These, I think, are 
individuals which are destined to acquire wings, whilst those which are to remain 
without them are pale green, much the same color with the surface on which they 
are placed, the thorax and the tip of the abdomen greenish white, the head slightly 
dusky, and the tips of the antennae, legs and beak acquiring a blackish tint soon 
after birth. 

These latter larvae grow to an oval form and a dull green color, with the head and 
thorax blackish, the abdomen above with two rows of black spots along the middle, 
the anterior spots confluent transversely, forming a short band, and with three bands 
at the tip, and an additional row of black spots upon each side. 

The wingless females are dull blackish faintly tinged with green, the color 
obscured by a glaucous bloom or fine powder with which they are dusted over, the 
head and commonly two bands upon the thorax smooth and black, with spots of t lie 
same along the sides of the abdomen and sometimes upon its middle also, the tip 
of the abdomen drawn out to a black point with two smooth black bands forward 
of it, the nectaries black and their length about half equalling the distance from 
their base to the tip, the antennae black and nearly half as long as the body, the 
legs black with the shanks whitish except at their tips. They are of a plump oval 
form, rather broadest back of the middle. Their beak is pale, its tip black; it 
arises from the lower part of the head and reaches only to the base of the middle 
legs, between which is a deep groove for its reception when at rest. 



320 MEAL MOTH — WHERE FOUND. 

The yellow larva? first spoken of are about as numerous as the green ones, and 
acquire a pale obscure red color, dusted over with a fine whitish powder. They 
change to pup^:, which are known by having a scale on each side of the body, which 
is the sheath in which the future wing is enveloped at this period. These scales 
are pale yellowish, their tips dusky. The pupa? are 0.06 in length, dull red and 
dusted over with a glancous powder, oval and less plump and convex above than 
when they were in the larva state; their heads are dusky, antenna? obscure yellow 
with dusky tips reaching to the base of the wing scales, legs dusky, the thighs except 
at their tips, and also the anterior shanks obscure pallid. 

The winged females which come from these pupa? are scarcely 0.06 in length, 
and to the tips of their wings 0.10. They are black, the abdomen dull lurid green, 
with black punctures and dots along each side, and three black bands at the tip, 
and opposite these on the under side a transverse black spot. The nectaries, legs 
and antenna? are similar to those of the wingless female. 



AFFECTING THE STORED GRAIN AND MEAL. 

In stale Indian meal and eniptying-cakes made thereof; a soft white worm 
half an inch long, with a brownish yellow head and polished yellowish 
white spot above on the neck, and on the last segment. 

The Indian meal moth, Tinea Zeee, new species (Plate 4, fig. 1). 

Our housewives are sometimes vexed with finding their 
store of emptying cakes, which are used for exciting fermenta- 
tion in dough, invaded and spoiled by worms. If the bag or 
box in which these cakes are kept happens at any time to be 
left open, the winged moths from which these worms proceed 
are liable to find their way into it, and scatter their eggs through 
the cakes, so that the whole of them are at a subsequent day 
discovered to be infested with worms. As Indian. meal is the 
chief ingredient in these cakes, I infer that to be the favorite 
food of this insect, and that it might therefore exclaim, with the 
enraptured Barlow in his Hasty-pudding, 

"All my bones were made of Indian corn — 
Delicious grain !" 

More particularly where the meal of maize has been long kept 
and has become stale, I suspect this insect will be apt to infest 
it. But it is only in the situation first spoken of that I have as 
yet met with it. 

The worms appear to have the same habits with the larva of the 
grain moth or the wolf, Tinea granella. They form cylindrical 
burrows through the substance on which they feed, lining the 



MEAL MOTH DESCRIPTION OF. 321 

sides of this passage with fine threads like cobweb. They crawl 
over a smooth surface with facility but not rapidly, and when 
annoyed they wriggle slightly and walk backwards. They grow 
to the length of half an inch, and are of a cylindrical form, 
slightly broadest in the middle. They are dull white, soft 
and flesh-like, the sutures between the segments but slightly 
marked and not constricted. Their heads are of a hard horn-like 
consistence, shining, brownish-yellow. The second segment or 
neck on its upper side is also horny, shining, yellowish- white j 
and on the top of the last segment is a spot similar to this. 
They are sixteen-footed, the prolegs being short, and their minute 
hooks form a brown ring around their soles. The surface shows 
a few scattering hairs, which on the sides arise from very faint 
smooth wart-like dots. 

The pupa or chrysalis is 0.30 long, pale yellow or yellowish 
white, its sutures marked by fine slender chestnut brown lines, 
and the eyes prominent, rather large and black. It lies within a 
slight cocoon which is attached to the side of the bag within 
which the larva has been reared. The cocoon is formed of fine 
snow-white silken threads, appearing like a coating of mildew, 
through which the chrysalis is very visible. 

The winged moth moves with frequent skips as it is walking 
along. It crawls out of its lurking place, till it sees its way 
clear from any obstruction, when it spreads its wings and flies 
away, hovering about the shady corners of the room and sustain- 
ing itself some time upon the wing without alighting. It is des- 
titute of any marks or spots by which to distinguish it, being 
merely of a dull gray or blackish color with the basal third of 
the fore wings whitish. It pertains to the Family Tineid.se of 
the Order Lepidoptera, and appears to coincide more closely 
with the genus Tinea than any other which has been cha- 
racterised by systematic writers, although in the greater 
length of its spiral tongue and of its body it does not fully agree 
with the typical species of this genus. 

The Indian-meal moth, Tinea Zece, (plate 4, fig. 1) is about 0.35 in length 
to the tip of its abdomen and closed wings, and when the latter are spread 
it is from half an inch to 0.00 in width. It has a slightly greasy appearance, and 
its fore wings are obscure gray or blackish, their basal third dull white or cream 

[Assem. No. 215.] 21 



322 MEAL MOTH — DESCRIPTION OF. 

colored, appearing as though denuded of their scales. Commonly a dull tawny yel- 
low spot beyond the centre of the wing is more or less distinct, and sometimes 
there is a band of the same color on the hind margin, which is broader towards the 
outer edge. Their tips are rounded and the hind margin is cut off obliquely and 
feebly rounded. The hind wings are white and slightly glossy, with a pale leaden 
blue reflection, their hind edge and tips pale brown. They have a long silky 
whitish fringe, which is longer on the inner margin, and shows a more pure white 
band on its base. The body is of the same blackish gray color with the fore wings, 
often varied with tawny yellow or reddish upon the neck and the hind part of the 
thorax. Beneath it is of the same color as above, the wings being pale leaden, 
the lustre of satin, the hind pair paler. The shanks of the hind pair of legs are 
thickened and robust. The antenme are without any hairiness; they taper slightly, 
and are about two-thirds the length of the body. The feelers are longer than the 
head and are held horizontally forward, forming, in connection with a small tuft of 
hairs projecting forward from the face between their upper edges, a conical beak. 
Their apical joint is distinctly exposed, small, twice as long as broad, and is oval 
or slightly thicker towards its base. The spiral tongue is long, and when alive the 
abdomen extends to the tips of the closed wings. 



HOP-VINE HYPENA. 323 



3. THE HOP. 



AFFECTING THE LEAVES. 



Eating numerous holes of various sizes in the leaf, often consuming nearly- 
all the leaves except their veins; a small pale green worm with whitish 
' stripes and black dots placed symmetrically. 
The Hop-vine Snout-moth, Hypena Hamuli, Harris, H. rostralis ? Linnjeus. 
(plate 1, fig. 1.) 

Although throughout our countiy generally, no attention is 
given to the cultivation of the hop, it is a staple product of a 
few of the central counties of our own State, and at times a most 
lucrative crop, yielding its growers munificent returns. Nearly 
three-fourths of all the hops produced in the United States are 
raised in the State of New- York, the single county of Otsego, 
according to the cenus of 1850, yielding over a million of pounds, 
and the adjoining counties of Madison, Oneida, and Herkimer each 
much surpassing any other districts of similar extent in any part 
of our country. 

In England, where the hop has been extensively cultivated 
for a long time, it is well known that it is liable to be severely 
depredated upon at times, by insects; insomuch that the revenue 
which the government derives from this source is extremely 
fluctuating, frequently varying to the amount of half a million 
of dollars per annum. And Kirby and Spence, alluding to this 
subject, say : " The hop-grower is wholly at the mercy of insects. 
They are the barometer that indicates the rise and fall of his 
wealth." In our own country this crop appears to be similarly 
exposed to injury from this class of beings, that it is abroad. 
The larvae of the insect which we have named above, is with us 
the most universal and formidable of these depredators, making 
their appearance suddenly, and in a few days sometimes, and 
before their presence is noticed, completely riddling and destroy- 
ing the. leaves of whole fields. 

These worms begin to appear upon the leaves as early as the 
fore part of June, and by the middle of that month they will be 
found of all sizes. The vines are now rapidly climbing the poles, 
and the older leaves, near the ground, where the dense foliage 
enables the worms to secret themselves more securely, are those 



324 HOP-VINE HYPENA LARVA. 

on which they first feed, perforating them with round holes 
between the veins. The leaves are also sprinkled over with 
black grains, the excrement of the worms. When not engaged 
in feeding they repose upon the under surface of the leaves or 
upon the leaf stalks, stretched out straight and more slender 
than at other times, showing three or four fine transverse 
impressed lines at each of the sutures. When crawling it arches 
its back upwards, like a span worm. Dr. Harris is in error in 
saying that it does not suspend itself by a thread. On carefully 
looking at an infested vine, some specimens will almost always 
be noticed hanging down from the leaves. Their attachment 
however is very slight, and on the slightest agitation of the leaf 
the worm lets go its hold and drops to the ground, wriggling 
briskly for a short time after touching the surface. They con- 
tinue upon the leaves until the middle of August or later, new 
broods appearing as the old ones vanish. The hops growing 
upon vines thus stripped of their leaves are small and but few 
in number. 

The larv^; when young are not thicker than a pin and are broadest at the head 
and gradually taper from thence to the tip; they are watery white, more or less 
clouded with grass green in the middle from inclosed alimentary matter. When 
larger they become of a cylindrical form, strongly constricted at the sutures, and 
are pale green above, commonly showing a deeper green stripe along the middle of 
the back; head and under side greenish white; awhile or pale greenish stripe 
along each side of the back, and sometimes a slender whitish line along the middle 
of each side; four black dots above, on each segment, at the angles of an imaginary 
square; five dots upon each side, the upper one above and the next one in the 
lower edge of the slender lateral whitish stripe; each of these dots yielding a hair; 
head with several black dots symmetrically arranged, and on the three next seg- 
ments the dots are placed in transverse rows; mouth yellowish, with the tips of the 
jaws black. The legs are but fourteen in number, the prologs being placed on the 
8th, 9th and 10th of the thirteen segments. 

The worms attain their full size in about a fortnight after they 
hatch from the eggs, and are then an inch or more in length, 
when stretched out in repose. Some of them enter the loose 
dirt slightly, to change to pupa?, others crawl between or beneath 
lumps of dirt, and others merely secrete themselves under or 
partly under leaves lying on the surface of the ground. They 
do not enclose themselves in cocoons, but assume the pupa form 
by throwing off their larva skin. The pupa is half an inch long 
and is at first of a grass green color on its back and greenish- 
white beneath, with a tawny band on the middle of each seg- 



HOP-VINE HYPENA DESCRIPTION OF. 325 

ment. It gradually changes to a mahogany brown and finally to 
a black color. The pupa state, in the middle of summer, lasts 
about twelve days. 

• The moths which come from these worms belong to the Family 
Pykalim: of the Order Lepidoptera, and to the genus Hypena, 
which is characterised by the length and form of its feelers, one 
of which, highly magnified, is represented, plate 1, fig. 1 b. 
They are quite long, and project horizontally forwards in front 
of the head, resembling, when pressed together as they usually 
are, a beak or proboscis, from which circumstance the species of 
this genus have derived their common name, snout-moths. 
These moths are extremely variable, being sometimes much 
darker colored, and the markings and scales upon their wings 
are peculiarly liable to be more or less obliterated from frequent 
contact with the rough scabrous leaves of the hop. This ren- 
ders it difficult to determine whether the hop-vine snout-moths 
of this country are a distinct species from those of Europe, 
which are similarly variable. Dr. Harris has treated of our in- 
sect " upon the supposition that it is distinct," though he alludes 
to no marks which indicate it to be different; and the full de- 
scriptions of the European moth given by writers coincide quite 
accurately with our insect. Mr. Westwood notices the singular 
fact that some of these moths come from their chrysalids in win- 
ter, about the period of Christmas, and that all these individuals 
are the most dark colored and sooty, with their marks the most 
obscured of any belonging to their race. And on last Christmas 
eve captured a moth flying about my room which was found to be 
one of these black obscure individuals of this species. From 
whence it could have come at that inclement period of the year 
was a mystery. Thus all the circumstances indicate that this is 
a species which has been introduced upon this side of the At- 
lantic among hop plants brought here from Europe. But until 
I am able to verify this fact more fully, by comparing our insect 
with European specimens, I refrain from making any alteration 
in the record as it now stands. 

The hop-vine snout-moth or hop-tine Hypen.y (plate 1, fig. 1), measures 
about an inch and a quarter across its wings when extended. It is very variable. 
The most perfect specimens are of a dull brown color with a black stripe on the 
middle of the thorax; fore wings with a large rhombic darker spot on the middle 



326 HOP-VINE HYPENA VERNAL VARIETY. 

of their outer margin, with two elevated coal black dots near its inner anterior and 
two others near its inner posterior angle ; this spot sometimes extends to the base 
of the wing, and is commonly margined behind by a pale gray oblique spot or 
streak, in which is sometimes an angular brown line, like the letter V when most 
distinct ; often a row of black dots posteriorly, parallel with the hind margin, as 
shown in the figure; hind legs black; fringe blackish brown; surface with scattered 
elevated black points. Hind wings pale dusky brown, edged posteriorly with a 
darker brown line, the fringe paler. 

When the worms commence their depredations on the leaves, 
in June, the winged moths which are then found among the 
leaves, and which there can scarcely be a doubt are the parents 
of the worms, are of an ash gray or dull white color, so much 
paler than those which hatch from the worms later in the sea- 
son that they would not be regarded as belonging to the same 
species. They at this time appear much like the species de- 
scribed by British writers, supposed by Mr. Stephens to be the 
Hypena obesalis of Treitschke. This came to be regarded as a 
British insect, from a single specimen which was found in the 
celebrated collection of Mr. Francillon. But as no other speci- 
men has ever been met with in England, Mr. Stephens finally 
rejected it from the British list, and supposes that the specimen 
which had misled him was probably a native of Bavaria, where 
Treitschke met with the species which he describes. But as it 
is now known that many North American insects were carelessly 
placed with the British specimens in Mr. Francillon's collection, 
it is quite probable that this Hypena was also from this country, 
and is merely one of these pale vernal varieties of the hop-vine 
snout-moth which occur upon this side of the Atlantic. Except 
in being so much lighter colored and having their marks more 
pale and indefinite, they correspond with the description above 
given, but show in addition an oblique dusky streak upon the 
tip of the wing, running towards the disk, this streak being 
caused by a slight plait or groove in the wing, in which groove 
the scales are less effaced. 

Several of the species of Hypena are marked like the present, 
with little elevated tufts of scales jutting abruptly out from the 
surface of the fore wings. In other species no such tufts appear. 
We have a rather pretty example of this last kind of snout-moths, 
in an insect which may be met T.lth with in our forests about 
the middle of June, and which I name. 



HOP-VINE HYPENA REMEDIES. 327 

The elegant ITypena, H. elegantalis (plate 1, fig. 2). It is an inch in width 
across the expanded wings, and of a bluish gray color, sprinkled with innumerous 
tawny atoms. Across the middle of its fore wings is a broad wavy tawny yellow 
band, edged posteriorly with a black line. This band is widened in its middle, 
where it incloses a large cream white spot having a black dot on its inner part. 
Forward of this, towards the base, is a narrow wavy tawny yellow band. On the 
apical pajt of the wing is a large pale tawny cloud, around a gray patch upon the 
apex. On the hind margin is a narrow tawny band, edged on eacli side by a black 
line, the inner line regularly undulated. The fringe is white with black alterna- 
tions. The hind wings have a black central dot in a broad whitish band which is 
edged on each side with tawny brown lines, and behind this is an irregular tawny 
yellow band. The hind margin is marked the same as that of the fore wings, and 
the outer or anterior margin is white. 

Syringing or showering hop vines with strong soap suds or 
with a solution of oil-soap in the proportion of two pounds of 
the soap to about fifteen gallous of water is the only remedy 
which I have seen mentioned for ridding them of the Hypena 
worms. 

[Supplementary note to page 220. The dry leaf, forming a wheel or whirlgig on 
the ends of the twigs of the button-wood or sycamore in the winter season, noticed 
as being perhaps drawn into this position by plant-lice or some other insect. I 
since find to be the natural leafy bract or stipule of the twig, which upon withering 
in autumn separates and surrounds the twig, forming the revolving wheel or collar 
alluded to. It is certainly quite a curiosity, which I do not observe noticed in any 
of our botanical works.] 



i 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Acerifoliella, Ornix, 269 

Acinia Novajboracensis. 67 

" Solidaginis 66 

JEgevia. exitiosa, 108, 114 

Agrilus Fa.gi, 27 

Agromyza Tritici, 303 

Agromyza3, Diapria, 302 

Agrotis devastator, ; 315 

" subgothica, 314 

albicornis, Chrysopa, 84 

albosigma, Clostera, 274 

Aleurodes, 96 

Aleuronia, new genus, 97 

il Westwoodii, 98 

Alternated lace-wing, 93 

alternatus, Hemerobius 93 

Alucitkke, 141 

American Clostera, 274 

" lackey moth, 181 

" Meromyza, 299 

" vaporer moth, 209 

Americana, Clisiocampa, 181 

" Gastropacha, 267 

Americanus, Ixodes, 117 

"' Pemphigus, 7 

amiculus, Hemerobius, 95 

anachoreta, Clostera, 274 

anastomosis, Clostera, 274 

Anatis 15-punctata, 99 

angustata, Macrodactylus, 249 

Ant. carpenter, 152 

" cherry, 130 

'•' little yellow, 129 

" New-York, 61,130 

' ' Pennsylvania, 152 

" silky, 154 

" troublesome, 129 

•• walnut 151 

•• wood-eating, 61, 152 



Pago. 

antcnnalis, Chlorops, 300 

Anthocoris pscudo-chinche, 295 

Ants, Larvae of, 153 

" with plant-lice, • 60 

Aphamis, genus, 292 

Aphidius genus, 134 

cherry, 138 

cranberry, 137 

knot-weed, 136 

Lactucaphis 136 

lettuce, 136 

Polygonaphis, 136 

poplar, 137 

willow, , 137 

Aphis genus, 163 

bursarius, 7 

Caryce, 166 

Caryella, 163 

Cerasi, 125, 132 

Cerasicolens, 131 

Cerasifoliae, 131 

cherry, 125, 132 

cherry-inhabiting, 131 

•cherry-leaf, 131 

fumipennella, 166 

hickory -gall, 155 

little black-margined, 166 

" dotted-wiuged, 165 

" hickory, 163 

li smoky-winged, 166 

'" spotted-winged, 166 

maetik'lla, 166 

Maidisj 318 

Mali,...' 49, 54 

Malifolhe, 56 

marginella, 166 

Pruni, 122 

Prunifolia?, 1-^ 

punctatella, 165 



330 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Aphis Tiliae, 164 

" Ulmi, 7 

" woolly, 7, 50. 166 

" Zea3, 319 

Apple bark-louse, 31 

" leaf-louse, 59 

" " worm, 241 

" midge, • • • • 252 

" plant-louse, 49, 54 

■" shoulder-striped Tortrix, 241 

" thrips, 102 

" tree blight, 7, 50 

" " borer, 11, 25 

" " caterpillar, 181 

'•' " lady-bird, 99 

" " worm, 235 

" root blight, 5 

" worm, 252 

arborum linearis, Coccus. 31, 34 

Arctia Isabella, 173 

Argas chinche, 291 

Armadillo, 118 

Ashy plume, 144 

Aspidiotus Pinifolia?, 256 

Asteris, Tephritis, 66 

Asters, galls on, 66 

Aspidiotus conchiformis, 31, 34 

" Juglandis, 35 

" Rosse, '.,... 35 

aurata. Cetonia, 248 

Bark-louse, apple, 31 

" butternut; 35 

" currant, 34 

ozier, 34 

pear, 32, 105 

" rose, 36 

Barley flies, ' • 297 

Bed bug, 291 

Beetle tick, 153 

Belly-spotted moth, 234 

bipunctata, Chrysopa, 87 

bipustulatus, Chilocorus, 259 

bivulnerus, 259 

Black-headed palmer-worm, 232 

Black-headed cut-worm, 313 

" -margined aphis, 160 

•'' -veined Micropus, 294 

Blight, apple root, 5 

" apple tree, 7, 50 

" pine 167 

Blue wasp, 62 

Bordered cicada, 39 



borealis, Orgyia, 213 

Borer, apple tree, 11, 25 

" hickory, 146 

" oak, 28 

" . peach tree, 108 

Brachytaenia Malana, 241 

" triquetrana, 244 

Brassicella, Cerostoma, 107 

brevicornis, Sphyracephalus, 69 

Brown-bordered plume, 104 

Buprestis, apple, 25 

bursarius, Pemphigus, 7, 158 

Butternut bark-louse, 35 

Byrsocripta genus, 7 

Cabbage moth, 170 

Cacti, Chilocorus, 259 

Canadian Tetanocera, 68 

candida, Saperda, 19 

canicularis, Cicada, 39 

Canker worm , 215 

Carpenter ants, v . . . . 152 

Carpocapsa Pomonella, 252 

Carya?, Aphis, 166 

" Formica, 151 

" Lophocampa, 159 

Carysecaulis, Pemphigus, 155 

Caryella, Aphis, 163 

Castanene, Hemerobius, 94 

castrensis, Clisiocampa, 182 

Caterpillar, apple tree, 181 

" forest...... 198 

Cecidomyia, 77 

" Grossulariae, 176 

Centipede, 117 

Cerambyx, tiger 146 

" woolly, 150 

Cerasaphis. Trioxys, 138 

Cerasi, Aphis, 125 

" Myrraica, 130 

cerealium, Thrips, 305 

Cerostoma genus, 174 

" Brassicella, 170, 175 

Cetonia aurata, 248 

Chretochilus contubernalellus, 233 

" Malifoliellus, 221 

" pometellus, 231 

" trimaculellus, 233 

" vcntrellus, 234 

Chalcididc-e 26 

Chalky plume, 145 

Cheater, larch, 262 

Cheater's parasite, 269 



INDEX. 



331 



* 



Cherry, Aphidius,. 138 

" -inhabiting aphis, 131 

" -leaf aphis, 131 

" plant-louse, 125,132,204 

" -tree caterpillar, 181 

Chestnut lace-wing, 91 

Chi , Chrysopa, 87 

Chilocorus stigma, 259 

" bivulnerus, 259 

Chinch bug, 277 

" false, 295 

Chinche, 291 

Chlorops, antennalis, 300 

" Frit, 297 

" vulgaris, 300 

Chrysobothris dentipes, .' 29 

femorata, 25 

Chrysopa genus, 82 

" species of, 84, 92 

Cicada Robertsonii, 39 

" septemdecim, 38 

" superba, 39 

Ciraex lectularius, 291 

cineridactylus, Pterophorus, 114 

Clandestine Owlet moth, 315 

Clean golden-eye, 88 

Cleonymus Clisiocampa?, 200 

Clisiocampa Americana, 181 

" sylvatica, 190 

Clisiocampre, Cleonymus, 200 

Clostera albosigma, 278 

Cloudy plume, 143 

Coccinella bark -louse, 259 

" 15 punctata, 99 

" Mali, 99 

Coccinellidne, 98 

Coccophagus, 107 

Coccus arborum-linearis 31, 34 

" Pinicorticis, 167 

." Pyri, 105 

" Pyrus Malus, 33 

Codling moth 252 

coeruleus, Pelopoeus, 62 

coleoptratorum, Gamasus, 153 

Coleothrips trifasciata, 308 

Colon golden-eye, 88 

Common Chlorops, 300 

" midge, 255 

Comrade moth , 233 

conchiformis, Aspidiotus, . 31, 34 

Confluent Porcellio, . 119 

Coniopteryx Tineiformis, 90 



Page. 

conjunctus, Ilemerobius, 94 

Conotrachelus elegans, 156 

" " larva, 158 

Nennphur, 156 

Consumptive golden-eye, 92 

contubernalellus, CliEetochilus, 233 

Counterfeit golden-eye, 89 

coxendix, Oscinis, 301 

Cranberry Aphidius 137 

crassifemoris, Oscinis, 301 

cretidactylus, Pterophorus, 145 

Creviced cicada, 39 

Crustacea class, 117 

Currant bark-louse. 34 

curtula, Clostera, 274 

Cut-worms, 310 

Dart moths, 314 

Deceiving spider, 219 

" wheat-fly, 301 

delicatulus, Hemerobius, 96 

dentipes, Chrysobothris , 29 

Destructive ./Egeria, 110 

devastator, Agrotis, .-. 319 

Ehyparochromus, 293 

Diapria Agromy/.a?, 303 

Diaspis linearis, 31, 34 

dimidiata, Xylocoris, 295 

Diopsis brevicornis, 69 

" thoracica, 69 

Disagreeable golden-eye, 84 

displicata, Epeira, 219 

Dog-day cicada, 39 

domesticus, Xylocoris, 295 

dorsalis, Porcellio, 121 

Dotted-horned golden-eye, 92 

" -winged aphis, 165 

" " Tetanocera, 68 

Dragon-flies, 48 

Eggs of insects, 73, 85 

" spiders, 76 

elegans, Conotrachelus, 156 

Elegant Hypcna 327 

Elegant weevil, 156, 158 

elongata, Macrodactylus, 249 

emuncta, Chrysopa, * 88 

Epeira decipiens, 219 

" displicata, 219 

Eriosoma lanigera. 1 7, 50 

" Mali, 7 

" on hickory 166 

Eumetopona, new genus, 241 

" miaistra, 235 

exitiosa, yEgeria, •• 108 



332 



INDEX. 



Fagi, Agrilus, 72 

falicus, Micropus, 294 

False chinch hug, 295 

Feather-horned Chlorops, 300 

femorata, Chrysobothris, 25 

femoratus, Molobrus, 255 

Fickle midge, 255 

Fifteen-spotted lady-bird, 99 

filicornis, Chrysopa, 91 

filosus, Chrysopa, 91 

Fissipennes, 141 

Flies, golden-eyed, 82, 92 

" Ichneumon, 134 

" lace-winged, 92, 96 

" mealy-winged, 96 

" Syrplms, 100 

" wheat, 297 

Fly, golden-rod, 66 

" honey-dew, 65 

" wheat mow, 302 

Forest caterpillar, 198 

Formica Caryse, 151 

" herculeana, 61 

" ligniperda, 61, 152 

'"'' Nova>boracensis, 62 

" Pennsylvanica, 152 

" subsericea, 154 

Formicie, Uropoda, 152 

fraterna, Trichogramma, 217 

Freckled lace-wing, 92 

" plume, 145 

Frit, Chlorops, 297 

Frosted cicada, 39 

fuliginosus, Molobrus, 255 

fulvibucca, Chrysopa, 86 

fumipennella, Aphis, 166 

Galls on asters, 66 

" golden-rod, 66, 67 

" grape leaves, 158 

" hickory twigs, 155 

'•' poplars, ■ 158 

Gamasus coleoptratorum, 153 

Gartered plume. 139 

Gastropacha Americana, 267 

Geometridaj, 74 

glaber, Porcellio, 119 

Glassy lace-wing, 95 

Golden-eye, Signoret's, 82 

species of. 84, 92 

Golden-rod fly 66 

" galls, 66, 67 

Gooseberry midge, 176 



Gothic Dart motli, 314 

Grain Thrips, 305 

" moth, 320 

Grape leaf galls, 158 

" " louse, 158 

" vine plume, 139 

Graphiphora clandestina, 315 

Grossularias, Cecidomyia, 176 

guttularis, Tetanocera, 68 

Hadena arnica, 316 

Handmaid moth, 235 

Harris's golden-eye, 90 

HemerobiidaB, 70 

Hemerobius, species of. 92-96 

herculeana, Formica, 61 

Hickory aphis, 163 

" borer, 146 

" gall aphis, 155 

" tussock moth, 159 

Hog-lice, 117 

Honey-dew, 50 

fly, 65 

Hop-vine Snout-moth, 323 

Hornet, 62 

hyalinatus, Hemerobius, 95 

Hylemyia deceptiva, 301 

" similis, 301 

Hypena Humuli, 323 

'•' elegantalis, 327 

Ichneumon-flies, 134 

Ilicifola, Gastropacha, 267 

illepida, Chrysopa, 84 

immaculatus, Porcellio, 120 

Inch-worms, 74 

Indian meal moth, 320 

inconstaus, Molobrus, 255 

Insects, distinctive marks, 117 

intermedia, Orgyia, 213 

irroratus, Hemerobius, 92 

Isabella tiger moth, 173 

Isopoda order, 118 

Ixodes Americanus, 117 

Jaws of Aphis-lions, 77 

Juglandis, Aspidiotus, 35 

Julus 117 

Knot -weed Aphidius, 136 

Lace -winged flies, 92-96 

Lachnosterna quercina, 248 

Lackey-moth, American, 181 

" Cleonymus, 200 

Lactucaphis, Aphidius, 136 

Lady-bird bark-louse, 259 



■ 



INDEX. 



333 



Page. 

Lady-bird 15-spottcd, 99 

lanigera, Eriosoma, 7, 50 

Lappet -moth, larch, 262 

Larch-cheater, 262 

Laricis, Planosa, 202 

Larva of ants, 1 53 

" lady-birds, 98 

" Monohammus. 149 

'■' Syrphus, 100, 158 

li weevils, 158 

Lateral-spotted Porcellio, 128 

" -striped Porcellio, 121 

lateralis, Porcellio, 121 

Leaf-cutter, maple, 209 

Leaf-louse, apple, 56 

grape, 158 

plum, 122 

Lecanium Pyri,. 105 

lectularius, Cimex, 291 

Lettered Tephritis, 66 

Lettuce-louse Aphidius, 136 

leucopterus, Micropus, 277 

leucostigma, Orgyia, 209 

Libellulidae, ' 48 

ligniperda, Formica, 61, 152 

limatus, Porcellio 120 

limlialis, Porcellio, 121 

linearis, Diaspis 31, 34 

lincatieornis, Chrysopa, 91 

Lined cut-worm, 313 

Little black-margined aphis, 166 

" dotted-winged aphis, 165 

" friend lace-wing, 95 

" hickory aphis, 163 

" smoky-winged aphis, 166 

" snout-moth, 2^7 

" spotted-winged aphis, 166 

" yellow ant, 129 

Lobe-winged plume, 143 

lobidactylus, Pterophorus, 143 

Locust , seventeen-year, 38 

Lophocampa Caryse, 159 

Louse, apple, 49, 54 

" apple bark, 31, 34 

' ' butternut bark , 35 

'' cherry 125 

" cherry-inhabiting, 131 

" cherry leaf, 131 

' ' currant bark, 34 

; ' grape-leaf, 158 

' ozierbark, 34 

•' ' pear bark, 32, 105 



Page. 

Louse, plum, 122 

" plum-leaf, .• 122 

" roscbark, 36 

L\ gaeus leucopterus, 292 

Macrodactylus subspinosus, 245 

maculata, Vespa, 62 

maculella, Aphis 166 

Maize aphis, 318 

Malana, Brachytamia, 241 

Mali, Aphis, 49, 54 

" Coccinella, 99 

" Eriosoma, 7 

" Molobrus, 252 

'' PhkeotliripS, 102 

Malifolise, Aphis. # . . . . 56 

Malifoliellus, ChsetochiluSj 231 

Many-clotted apple worm 241 

Maple leaf-cutter, 269 

marginata, Cicada, 39 

Margined Porcellio, 121 

marginella, Aphis. 166 

marginidactylus, Pterophorus, 144 

Marshallana, Agrotis, 314 

May-beetle, 248 

Mealy-winged flies, . . . .' 96 

Meleoma, new genus, 82 

" Signoretii, 82 

melliginis, Tephritis 65 

Meromyza Americana 299 

Micropus, genus, 293 

" black-veined, 294 

" falieus, 294 

leucopterus, 27 7 

Midge, 77 

" apple, 252 

" common, 255 

" fickle, 255 

" gooseberry, 176 

" smoky-winged, 255 

Millipedes, 117 

ministra, Eumetopona 288 

minuta, Myrmica, 129 

minutus, Anthocoris 295 

mixtus, Porcellio, 103 

Mississippi golden-eye, 86 

molesta, Myrmica, 129 

Molobrus femoratus 255 

" fuliginosus, 255 

" inconstans, 2V3 

" Mali, 252 

" vulgaris. 255 

Monohammus tigrinus, 146, 150 



334 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Monohammus, tomentosus, 150 

Moth, cabbage, 170 

" Isabella tiger, 173 

Moths split-winged. 141 

Mow fly, wheat, 302 

multiguttatus, Porcellio, 121 

Myrmica Cerasi, 130 

" minuta. 129 

" molesta 129 

Myzoxylus Mali, 7 

nffivosidactylus, Pterophorus, 145 

nebulsedactylus, Pterophorus, 145 

Nenuphar, Conotrachelus, 156 

Neustria, Glisiocampa,' 182 

New-York Acinia, 67 

" ant, 62* 130 

" golden-eye, 90 

nigrella, Anthocoris, 295 

Northern vaporer moth, 213 

O-marked golden-eye, 85 

Oak borer, 28 

obesalis, Hypena 326 

Obese Siphonella, 299 

occidentalis, Hemerobius, 95 

ocellata, Coccinella, 99 

Omikron, Chrysopa, 85 

Oniscidte, 119 

Orgyia leucostigma, 209 

" " borealis, 213 

" " intermedia, .. . . 213 

Orgyia3, Trichogramnia, 216 

Ornix Acerifoliella, 269 

Oscinis coxendix, 301 

'' crassifemoris, 301 

" tibialis, ■ 300 

Osier bark louse, 34 

Pachymerus, genus, 292 

Palmer worm, ' 221 

" black-headed, 232 

" comrade 233 

" tawny-striped, 231 

•'' triple spotted, 233 

Pamerus, genus, 292 

Parasites of apple borers, 26 

" bark lice, 36. 107 

" cabbage moth, 172 

" Isabella tiger moth, . . . 173 

Parisiensis, Xylocoris, 295 

Peach tree borer, 108, 114 

Pear bark louse, 36, 105 

Pelopceus coeruleus, 62 

Pemphigus Americanus, 7 



Page. 

Pemphigus bursarius, 158 

Caryaacaulis, 155 

Pyri 5 

Vitifoliae, 158 

" on walnut leaves, 166 

Pennsylvania ant , 152 

periscelidactylus, Pterophorus, .... 139 

Perla, Chrysopa, 91 

Phalama ministra, 240 

Phheothrips Mali, 102 

" Statices, 306 

Phygadeuon Planosse, 269 

Pine blight, 167 

Pine-bush lace wing, 85 

Pine-leaf scale-insect, 256 

Pinicorticis, Coccus, 167 

Pinidumus, Hemerobius,.. 95 

Pinifolia?, Aspidiotus, 256 

plorabunda, Chrysopa, 88 

Planosa, new genus, 268 

" Laricis, 262 

" Yelleda, 267 

Planosfe, Phygadeuon, 269 

Plant-louse, apple, 49, 54 

" cherry, 125, 132, 204 

" cherry leaf, 131 

< : plum, 122 

" plum leaf, 122 

Plum leaf louse, 122 

" louse, 122 

'' root borer, 112 

tk weevil, 156 

Plume moths, species, 141-145 

Polygonaphis, Praon, 136 

pometellus, Chajtochilus, 221 

Pomonella, Carpocapsa, 252 

Poplar Aphidius 137 

Populaphis, Trioxys, 137 

Porcellio genus, 118 

" species, ,.... 119-121 

porrectella. Cerostoma, 174 

Praon Polygonaphis, 136 

" Viburnaphis, .• 137 

Preserver lace -wing, 94 

Pretty Porcellio 120 

pruinosa, Cicada, 39 

Pruni, Aphis, • 122 

Prunifoliae, Aphis 122 

pseudo-chinche, Anthocoris, 295 

pseudographa, Chrysopa, 89 

Pterophorus periscelidactylus, 139 

" species, 143-145 



INDEX. 



335 



Page. 

punctatella, Aphis, 165 

punetieornis, Chrysopa 92 

Pygsera, genus, 241 

Pyri, Eriosoitia, 5 

•' Lecanhim, 105 

" Pemphigus, 5 

Pyrus Mains, Coceus, 83 

quadrifasciata, Tephritis, 65 

quercina, Lachnosterna, 248 

quindecim-puncflata, Coccinclla, ... 99 

reclusa, Clostera 274 

Red-headed cut-norm, 312 

renipustulata, Chilocorus, 259 

Rhinosia pometella, 226 

Rhyparochronius, geuus, . . . , 292 

" devastator, . ... 293 

Ribesii, Cecidomyia, ^ 176 

riniosa, Cicada, 39 

Robertson's cicada, 39 

" golden eye, 88 

Rose bark louse, ; 35 

" bug, 245 

" chaffer, 248 

rostralis, Hypena, 323 

Rough Porcellio, , 121 

Salicaphis, Trioxys, 137 

saltatrix, Merorayza, 299 

Saperda bivittata 11 

" Candida, 19 

Saratoga Tetauocera, 68 

scaber, Porcellio, * 121 

Scale-insect, pine-leaf, \ 256 

Schizoneura genus, I . . . . 7 

Sciara feraorata, •>•••». 255 

Sclatcrs, <... 117 

Scolopendra, , . . 117 

Seventeen-year Locust, «. . 3S 

Shank -banded Oscinis, \ . 300 

Short-horned stem-eye, 1 69 

Shoulder-striped Tortrix, \ 241 

Sichel's golden-eye, .\ 89 

Signoret's golden-eye, \ 82 

Silky ant, 154 

Similar wheat fly, SOI 

similis. Hylemyia, 301 

Siphonella obesa, 290 

Slaters, 117 

Slender-lobed plume 144 

Smoky-winged aphis, 166 

" midge, 255 

Smooth Porcellio, 119 

Snapping-beetle, thick-legged; .... 25 



Page. 
Snapping-beetle, tooth-legged, .... 29 

Snout-moth, hop-vine, 323 

Snout-moth, little, 227 

SolidagipiSj Acinia, 66 

Solidago, galls, 66, 77 

Sow-bugs 117 

Spliyracephala brevicornis, 69 

" sub-bifasciala, 70 

Spider, deceiving, 219 

Spiders, 63, 74 

" eggs, 76 

Split-winged moths, 141 

Spotted-winged aphis, 166 

Statices, Phlaeothrips, 306 

Stem-eye, short horned, 69 

two-banded, 70 

stigma, Chilocorus, 259 

Stigma-marked lace-wing, 93 

Stripe-backed Porcellio, 121 

Striped cut-worm, 313 

' ' lace-wing, 93 

" Porcellio, 120 

Striped-horned golden-eye 91 

sub-bifasciata, Spliyracephala, 70 

subgothica, Agrotis, 314 

subsericea, Formica, 154 

subspinosus, Macrodactylus, 245 

Sulphur golden-eye, 89 

Superb cicada, , 39 

sylvatica, Clisiocampa, 198 

Syrphus-flies, 100, 158 

tabellaria, Tephritis, 66 

tabida, Chrysopa, 92 

Tawny-striped palmer worm, 231 

tenuidactylus, Pterophorus, 144 

Tephritis Asteris, 66 

" lettered, 66 

" melliginis, 65 

" tabellaria 66 

Tetanocera, Canadian, 68 

Tetanocera, dotted- winged, 68 

Saratoga, 68 

Tetraneura genus, 7 

Thick-legged Oscinis, 301 

" snapping-beetle, 25 

thoracica, Diopsis, 69 

Thousand-legged worm, 117 

Thread-horned golden-eye, 91 

' ' -like golden-eye, 91 

Th-ips, apple, 108 

\' three-banded, 308 

wheat, 340 









336 



INDEX. 



Page. 

tibialis. Oscinis, <■■• 300 

Tick, on ants, 153 

" beetles, 153 

Tiger Cerambyx, 144 

" -moth, Isabella, ■ 173 

tigrinus, Monoharanms, 144 

Tilije, Aphis, 164 

Tinea Zese, 320 

Tineiformis, Coniopteryx, 96 

Titman lace-wing, 9G 

tomentosus, Monohammus. 150 

Tooth-legged snapping-beetle, 29 

Tortrix, shoulder-striped, 241 

" triangular-spotted, 244 

Trichogramma fraterna, 217 

" Orgyiae, 116 

trifasciata, Coleothrips, 309 

trimaculata, Tephritis, 65 

t rimaculellus, Chastochilus, 233 

Trioxys Cerasaphis, 138 

" Populaphis, 137 

" Salicaphis, ...... 137 

Triple -spotted moth, 233 

triquetrana, Brachytamia, 244 

Tritici, Agromyza, 302 

" Cecidomyia, 77 

Troublesome ant, , 127 

Tussock-moth, hickory, 159 

tutatrix, Hemerobius, 94 

Two-banded stem-eye, 70 

Two-dotted golden-eye, 87 

Ulmi, Aphis, 7 

United- veined lace-wing, 94 

Unspotted Porcellio, 120 

Upsilon, Chrysopa, 87 

Uropoda Formica? 153 

" vegetans, 154 

Vaporer moth, 209 

parasite, 216 

Variegated Porcellio, 120 

vegetans, Uropoda, 154 

Velleda, Planosa, 2G7 

ventrellus, Chajtochilus, 234 

Vespa maculata, 02 

Viburnaphis, Praon, 137 



Page. 

Virginia golden-eye, 91 

Vit ill >li;e, Pemphigus, 158 

vittatus, Hemerobius, 93 

" Porcellio, 120 

vulgaris, Chlorops, 300 

Molobrus, 255 

Walnut ant 151 

" borer, 146 

Wasp, blue, 62 

Weeping golden-eye , 88 

Weevil, elegant, 156, 158 

" plum, 156 

Western lace-wing,. 95 

Westwood's mealy-wing, 98 

Wheat-flies, 297 

' ' -fly, deceiving, 301 

" " similar, 301 

" midge, 77 

" mow-fly, 302 

" Thrips, 304 

White cut-worm, 313 

White-horned golden-eye, 84 

" -Smoth, 274 

" -winged Lygseus, 292 

Willow Aphidius, 137 

Wood-eating ants, 152 

Wood-lice, 117 

Woodpecker, 19, 150 

Wood-tick, 117 

AYoolly aphis, on apple, 7, 50 

" hickory, 166 

Woolly Cerambyx, 150 

X-markcd golden-eye. 87 

xanthocephala, Chrysopa, 85 

Xylocons domesticus, 295 

Y-mafeed golden-eye, 87 

Yellow-ant, 129 

" -cheeked golden-eye, 86 

" -headed golden-eye, 85 

" -hipped Oscinis, 301 

" jacket hornet, 62 

-necked apple-tree wornr.. . 235 

Zese, Aphis, 319 

" Tinea, 320 



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