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Harvard College 
Library 




By Exchange 





3 2044 102 850 310 





HOMER 
From the bust in the National Museum, Naplea 



THE 

FIRST SIX BOOKS OF 
HOMER'S ILIAD 

WITH 

Introduction, Commentary, and Vocabulary 

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS 
BY 

THOMAS D. SEYMOUR 

HiLLHOUSB PBOPB880R OF O&KEK IN YALB Ck>LL£OB 



REVISED EDITION 



boston, U.S.A. 

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

(B^e 9[t|)ett8tttiii l^xuM 

1901 



^ t c^^.^ X V n. '4 '7 . -] -] , r, 




V<^^ I 



Harvard College 
Library 




By Exchange 



(^ 



7^^ 



3 2044 102 850 310 



vi INTRODUCTION § 1 a. 

with the plan of composing a poem of 15,693 verses (like the Iliad)^ 
or of 12,110 verses (like the Odyssey) ^ but, finding that his theme 
was popular and admitted of indefinite expansion, he would natu- 
rally develop what had been only indicated before. Thus the Books 
of the Iliad doubtless were not composed in the order in which 
they stand in our texts. The first part of the First Book must 
have been the earliest composed, for that is the basis of the whole 
poem ; but Books II-VI (and still more, Books VII-X) may have 
been composed after Book XI, in order to fill up the details of the 
story. So in the Odyssey^ the First Book is the general introduc- 
tion to the rest of the poem, although scholars are not agreed in 
believing that it is now in its original form ; but Books II-IY 
(the Telemachia), which contain an account of the journey of 
Odysseus' son Telemachus to the homes of Nestor and Menelaus 
in the hope of obtaining tidings of his long-absent father, may very 
likely have been part of an independent poem, or at least may have 
been composed after Book V. Doubtless, details were sometimes 
filled in later. The reciter of five or six hundred lines might pre- 
fix or affix a few verses which would make his recitation seem 
more complete in itself, or he might insert what would make this 
more suitable to the special occasion. The Alexandrian critics 
belfeved that the original Homeric close of the Odyssey was with 
the 296th verse of the Twenty -third Book, and critics have thought 
the last two Books of the Iliady like the last part of the Odyssey, 
to be of later composition. 

The beginner need not (and should not) be disturbed by ques- 
tions as to the diverse authorship of different parts of the Iliad. 
The subject is exceedingly complicated, and cannot be studied 
profitably until the student is perfectly familiar with the entire 
poem, and with similar literature in other languages. The student 
should strive to enjoy and appreciate the Homeric poems, — not 
to analyze them.^ 

^ The famous * Homeric Question,^ as to the composition of the Homeric 
poems, — whether they were merely the remnante of the songs of many bards, 
or the creations of a single poetic genius, — was first treated in a scientific way 
by a German scholar, Friedrich August Wolf, in his Prolegomena ad Homerum, 
in 1795. He claimed that the Iliad and the Odyssey were not the work of one 



§la. EPIC POETRY 



Vil 



poet, and that the unity of each poem yrtm given to it by scholars at the court 
of Pisistratus in Athens, in the Sixth Century b.c. He based his view on 
external arguments, which have grown weaker rather than stronger since his 
day, and are almost enth^y neglected now — holding that the art of writing 
was introduced into Greece comparatively late, and that poems as long as the 
Hiad and the Odyssey would not have been composed before the use of letters 
was known. The art of writing, however, was known in Greece before 1000 b.c, 
though its application to literary purposes was much later. Just when poets 
began to write their lays, is uncertain. About half a century after Wolf, in 
1837, another German scholar, Lachmann, divided the Iliad into eighteen differ- 
ent lays, resting his division on internal arguments, i.e. on the inconsistencies 
of different parts. But we do not know just what degree of logical consistency 
the poet or the poet^s audiences required. Certainly, many of the inconsist- 
encies on which stress is laid by modern critics had escaped notice for two 
thousand years, though men have had copies of the^ poems in their hands, and 
could turn backward and forward to detect discrepancies in a way which was 
quite impossible for the poet's first audiences. Herodotus (ii. 117) said that 
Homer could not have composed the poem called Cypria ( § 2 d), because the 
Iliad and the Cypria differ in regard to the course taken by Paris on his return 
to Troy from Sparta, and Homer nowhere else recalls his statement, — oida/jii 
&\\jf dnwUi^e iwnhp. The discussion now continues with the use of internal 
ai-guments, but scholars are less inclined than a few years ago to suppose that 
either the Hiad or the Odyssey is a conglomeration of separate lays, a * fortuitous 
concurrence of atoms ' ; they have abandoned the search for independent lays, 
and seek rather for the sources of the different parts of the poem, being dis- 
posed to favor the idea of a natural and organic development, — such as was 
suggested in 1860 for the Odyssey by Kirchhoff (the first to question seriously the 
unity of the composition of the Odyssey)^ who assigned to the old ^baros of 
Odysseus (with some omissions, — 1200 lines in all) a 1-87, e 43-i7 297, X 333- 
353, and r 7-184. According to Kirchhoff, 3661 verses formed a later continu- 
ation, while the rest of the poem was made up of still later additions and inter- 
polations. In some such way the poem may have grown, but he is a bold man 
who ventures to say just what and how much is the work of one poet. A 
master mind there must have been, but yet the poems came gradually to their 
present condition. *Many brave men lived before Agamemnon,' and many 
poets preceded Homer, who used freely the poetic material which was the 
inheritance of his generation. No one has stated the case more clearly than 

Rudyard Kipling: 

Wen 'Gmer smote Ms bloomin' lyre, 

'E'd 'card men sing by land and sea, 
And wot 'e thought 'e might require, 

'E went and took, the same as me. 

We may compare also Cicero's words (Brvius xviii. 71) : Nihil est simul et invert 
turn et perfectum ; nee dtfJntari d^et quinfuerint ant^ IJomerum poetae. 



viii INTRODUCTION § 1 b. 

b. Scholars now do not ask where Homer was bom,* but rather 
where Greek epic poetry had its rise. The Muses were < Pierian 
Muses,' 'OAv/Airca Sca/Aar* cxovaai, and their earliest home seems to 
have been on the slopes of Mt. Olympus,* in Pierian Thessaly. 
Thence epic poetry was carried by the Aeolian Greeks to Asia 
Minor, where it was adopted and perfected by the lonians. The 
Homeric Poems still contain many Aeolic forms in words and 
phrases for which the lonians had no metrical equivalent. The 
Aeolic form has been disposed to persist particularly in proper 
names. 

c. No one can tell the exact date of the composition of the 
Homeric Poems. Probably they were essentially in their present 
form as early as the 'Eighth Century b.c. Herodotus (ii. 53) 
believed the poems to have been composed four hundred years 
before his time, or about 850 b.c, and this date may serve as well 
as another. 

d. Bards (doiSoi, cf, dciS<u) are mentioned in the Homeric poems 
as singing on themes connected with the Trojan War. The poems 
(doiW, Attic <^&u, English Ode^ were recited by rhapsodists 
(pa^<|)Soi),' who were at first themselves poets, but in later times 

I The so-called Lives of Homer which have come down to us under the names 
of Herodotus and Plutarch, and anonymously, have no historical value. The 
most important opinion preserved is that of Herodotus, who (ii. 53) thought 
Homer to have lived about 400 years before his own time, or 850 b.c. That we 
know nothing of Homer's life does not prove that he never existed. Seven 
cities, according to a well-known epigram, claimed each to have been the poet's 
birthplace : 

hrrk xiXeis fidpvarro ao4>^v 3i& ^ll^av *OfJL^pQv • 

Z/xl^pra, X(ot, KoXo0(6f, 'I^dm;, HlJXos, "Apyot, 'AO^poi. 

' Seven cities claimed great Homer dead, 
Through which tlie living Homer begged his hread.' 

The story of Homer's blindness rests on an expression in a so-called Homeric 
Hymn. See § 2/. 

^ The derivation of this word is not entirely clear. Pindar paraphrases it at 
the beginning of his Second Nemean Ode, *0fiript8ai, ^ttQv hritaw dotdo/, singers 
of stitched songs. Perhaps this means no more than carefully contrived songs; 
cf, tiAewn v^airoi» V 212 woue (i.e, put together) words. Hesiod (Frag, ccxxvii) 
speaks of himself and Homer as /kl^arret iM^^¥, stitching a song. 



§le. EPIC POETRY ix 

were merely reciters. We read of a guild of these Homeridae 
on the island of Chios. Nearly six hundred years b.c, Solon intro- 
duced regulations for the contests of rhapsodists at the Pan- 
athenaic festival at Athens. In the dialogue entitled Ion, ascribed 
to Plato, one of these rhapsodists, Ion of Ephesus, is introduced, 
who had just gained the prize for his recitation at Epidaurus, and 
was planning to contend at the Panathenaic festival. This Ion is 
said to have had audiences of 20,000 people. He must have 
flourished in the Fifth Century B.C., but the bloom of his art in 
Athens was more than a century earlier, before the rise of tragedy, 
in the time of Pisistratus and his sons, when epic recitations were 
an important part of the chief festival of the city, and regulations 
were adopted in order to insure the presentation of the poems in 
due form and order. 

e. The Homeric poems were enjoyed and studied by the Greeks 
through all their national life. They were learned by the children 
(the distinguished Athenian general Nicias caused his son Kiceratus 
to learn both Iliad and Odyssey by heart), they were repeated by the 
people, and they were carefully examined by scholars. The begin- 
ning of literary criticism and of linguistic study were based *on 
Homer. For the judgment of the Romans, quotations follow from 
Cicero and Horace : 

TradUum est Homerum caecum fuisse f at eius picturam, non poesin videmiLS. 
Quae regiOf quae ora, qui locus Graeciae, quae species formaque pugnae^ quae 
odes, quod remigium, qui motus hominumy quiferarum non ita expictus est, ut 
quae ipse non viderity nos ut videremus ^cerit f — Cicero, Tusc. Disp, v. 39, 114. 

Troiani belli scriptorem, maxime LoUi, 
dum tu deciamas BomaSy Praeneste relegi : 
qui qUid sit ptUdiruniy quid turpe, quid ittiley quid non^ 
planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit. . . . 
fabulay qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Graecia barbariae lento coUisa dueUo, 
stuUorum regum et poptdorum corUinet aestus. 
Antenor censet bdli praecidere causam ; 
quid Paris f ut salmis regnet vivatque beatus 
cogi posse negaJt. Nestor componere litis 
inter Peliden festinat ef inter Atriden : 
hunc amoTy ira quidem communiter urit uttumque. 



X INTRODUCTION § 2 a. 

quidquid ddirant regeSj plectuntur Achivi. 

aeditione, dolis, acelere aiqtie libidine et ira 

Iliacoa intra muros peccatur et extra, — Horace, Epist. i. 2. 1 ff. 

quanto rectius hie qui nil molitur inepte f . . . 
8emper ad eventum festinat et in mediaa res 
n^m aecus ac notas auditorem rapU et quae 
deeperat tractaJta nitescere posse^ relinquU, 
aique Ha merUiturj sic verie falsa remiacet, 

primo ne medium^ medio ne diecrepet imum. — Horace, Art of Poetry, 
140, 148 ff. 

2. a. An Epic Poem is a narration in heroic verse of a digni- 
fied story of considerable length which has a definite beginning, 
middle, and end, and an organic relation of parts. The time of the 
action should not be so long as to make difficult a general view of 
the story. The poet puts as much as possible of his tale into the 
mouth of his actors, and so the Homeric poems are strongly dra- 
matic. In the First Book of the Iliad the first 427 verses are 
almost entirely dramatic, the narrative serving simply as 'stage 
directions.' Of the 444 verses of the First Book of the Odyssey, 
285 are in speeches. Epic poetry was the mother of the drama. 
A large part of the story of the adventures of Odysseus is told 
by the hero himself, a device which not only was followed by 
Vergil in making Aeneas tell ,Dido of his wanderings, and by 
Milton in his Paradise Lost, where Raphael, 'the affable arch- 
angel,' tells Adam of the creation of the world and of the revolt' in 
heaven, but has been adopted by many modern novelists. 

b. The Homeric Poems used to be compared with Vergil's 
Aeneid, Dante's Divina Commediay and Milton's Paradise Lost; 
but men have come to see a difference between the Natural Epic 
and the Literary Epic. Vergil had no personal (only an artistic) 
interest in the battles and adventures of his hero. He sends 
Aeneas to Hades simply because the Homeric Odysseus had been 
there ; he makes Aeneas tell to Queen Dido the story of his wan- 
derings and sufferings, because Odysseus had told a similar story 
to King Alcinoils. Vergil consciously strives to unite the charac- 
teristics of both IKad and Odyssey, as he shows by beginning hi^ 



§2e. EPIC POETRY xi 

poem with armavirum que cano, — the anna being for the Iliad, 
and the virum for the Odyssey. Vergil is self-conscious, too, in the 
use of cano ; — he remembers that he is the court poet of Augustus, 
and borrows the word ^ sing,' although his poem was not meant to 
be sung but to be read. But Homer is in earnest when he says, 
accSc $€0, Sing, goddess ! 

In the epics of Vergil, Dante, and Milton, more grace and finish 
are expected, and more studied thought. < The capital distinction 
of Homeric poetry,' as Professor Jebb has well said, < is that it has 
all the freshness and simplicity of a primitive age, — all the charm 
which we associate with the " childhood of the world " ; while on 
the other hand it has completely surmounted the rudeness of form, 
the struggle of thought with language, the tendency to grotesque or 
ignoble modes of speech, the incapacity for equable maintenance 
of a high level, which belong to the primitive stage of literature.' 

c. A great Natural Epic is possible only in a nation which has a 
rich and varied mythology. lience, the Romans, being without 
a rich mythology of their own, could have no great Natural Epic. 

d. The expedition against Troy was the theme of other poems 
than the TZtW and the Odyssey, but they have long been lost, and 
little is known of them. One, the Cypria (ra Kvirpia, sc, Imj, — 
assigned to StasTnus of Cyprus), told of the events which preceded 
the action of our Iliad. The Aethiopis {klBioirk, sc. iroCrffrt^, — 
assigned to Arctlnus of Miletus) told of the events which followed 
the actiofi of the Iliad. The Iliupersis ('lAtov Ilcpcriv^ — assigned 
to Arctlnus) and the Little Iliad (Ikia^ Mticpa, — assigned to Lesches 
of Lesbos) sang of the destruction of the Trojan city. The Nooroi 
(Returns, — assigned to AgiaS of Troezen) told of the adventures 
of the Achaeans (except Odysseus) on their way home to Greece. 
These poems were much briefer than the Iliad and Odyssey ; prob- 
ably all together were not much longer than the Iliad alone. 
According to Aristotle, they had less poetic unity and less dramatic 
dialogue than the Homeric poems. 

e. The Bairachomachia, or Batrachomyomachia (' Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice '), a burlesque * epyl,' which was once thought to 
be one of Homer's Minor Poems, was composed probably not far 



xii INTRODUCTION § 2 f . 

from the time of the Persian Wars, and is assigned with reason to 
Pigres of Halicarnassus. It contains only 303 verses. 

f. The Homeric Hymns (to Apollo, Demeter, Aphrodite, Hermes, 
and other divinities) are of different ages, and in them much mate- 
rial of high antiquity is combined with what is comparatively 
recent. They are epic rather than lyric in form and manner. To 
the Hymn in honor of Delian Apollo seems to be due the fixing of 
the story of Homer's blindness, for the poet of that < hymn ' says 
that he is a blind bard of Chios. The shorter < hymns ' are a kind 
of < grace before meat,' being intended to be sung as an act of 
homage to the gods before the recitation of some epic story. 
Twenty-seven of them have each less than twenty-five verses ; only 
seven are longer. The longest (to Hermes) has 580 verses. 

3. a. Homer's story of the siege of Troy certainly was not 
intended to be a history of an actual war. The poet says again 
and again that he is of a later generation. He asks the Muse to 
tell the story, since she alone knows what really happened. 
Doubtless many such battles were fought and many such sieges 
endured in Asia Minor about 1000 years b.c. 

b. Dr. Heinrich Schliemann was led by his Homeric enthusiasm, 
a few years ago, to excavate the site of Hissarlik Q Ilium Novum ') 
in the Troad, near the Hellespont, and that of Mycenae in Argolis. 
In both places are found indications and remains of ancient wealth 
and power which justify the Homeric epithets of Ilios (as cv vox- 
ofuvov wroKitOpov I 402, iroXv^pvcrov, iroA.v;(aAxov S 289) and Mycenae 
(ivKTi/uvo¥ wroXUBpov B 569, woKv^^wroio MvKfjvrfs y 304) and make 
probable the belief that the story of the expedition against Troy 
was founded on fact. The civilization of the two cities was simi- 
lar. The king of Mycenae may have been the central power of 
Peloponnesus at one time. An armada may have been led by the 
king of Mycenae against Troy. The massive walls which have 
been uncovered at Hissarlik, about three miles from the sea, must 
have been seen long after the sack of the city, and would be 
reminders to bards and people of the conflicts on the shore of the 
Hellespont. The agreement between the ruined city which has 
been found and the situation assumed in the Iliad is too exact to 




\: 





Cc^jrJ^ttlctl, lo^t Lfj l^uui £i CvJn|KiJi> 



MYCENAE 
From a photog^ph 



S4b. LIFE IN THE HOMERIC AGE xiii 

be the work of chance, but certainly most of the incidents and 
names of heroes were invented. The traditional date of the fall of 
Troy, 1184 B.C., is not historical, but will answer as well as another. 
At that time the Mycenaean civilization was at its height, but 
nearing its close. 

LIFE IN THE HOMERIC AGE. 

4. a. The Homeric Poems give a picture of life in Greece which 
differs in important particulars from that of the classical or 
historical period. The poet knows no one name for Greece as 
opposed to other lands. The Greeks are ' Argives,' * Achaeans,' or 
* Danaans.' The * Hellenes ' are as yet only the inhabitants of 
a small district in Thessaly. The names of < Attica' and < Pelo- 
ponnesus' are unheard. Thebes seems to be in ruins. Athens 
has no special distinction. The contrast of Dorians and lonians 
is unknown. Menelaus, king of Sparta, and his country are com- 
paratively insignificant, although the war was undertaken to avenge 
the wrong which he had suffered from Paris. The k Ag of Mycenae, 
Agamemnon, brother of Menelaus, is the chief monarch of Greece. 
The Greek colonies in the west and on the Black Sea, and the 
Greek cities of Asia Minor are not mentioned. Monarchy pre- 
vails; democracies seem to be unknown. The king is also com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, judge, and priest; as head of the 
nation he represents it before the gods. His power is derived 
directly from Zeus, but it is practically limited. Public opinion is 
strong, although Homer has no word for law; he recognizes, rather, 
institutions (Biiuirrvi). That is, the Homeric Greeks had a very 
simple unwritten common law and constitution. 

b. Monarchy prevails among the gods as among men. Zeus 
('Jupiter') is mightier than all the rest together. Athena 
Q Minerva ') and Apollo are next to Zeus in power. Athena is the 
chief divinity of war. Ares (< Mars ') is comparatively insignifi- 
cant. Demeter ('Ceres') is named but six times. Dionysus 
(' Bacchus ') is not as yet admitted to the circle of gods on Olym- 
pus. Asclepius ('Aesculapius') is still a mortal. Pan and the 
Satyrs are unknown. The gift of prophecy is granted to individual 



xiv INTRODUCTION § 4 c. 

men. The oracle of Delphi is hardly mentioned. Temples are 
uncommon^ and doubtless are simple in structure. 

c. The Homeric warriors roast their meat^ and do not boil it. 
They sit at tables, and do not recline at dinner. They buy their 
wives by large gifts of cattle to the parents. The most useful 
metal is copper or bronze j iron is little used. Coined money is 
unknown; all trade is barter. The occupations of the rich and 
poor differ little. Princes tend flocks and build houses ; princesses 
fetch water and wash clothes. TKe heroes are their own butchers 
and cooks. Life even in Homeric palaces is primitive. 

d. The brunt of battle was borne by the heavy-armed warriors. 
Of these the large shield was the main arm of defense. This was 
so heavy that it rendered the chariot necessary for speedy and easy 
transportation from one part of the field to another. The battles 
were decided for the most part by informal single combats. No art 
of war, in the modern sense, was known ; the commander-in-chief 
had no plan of battle. The army had no < military organization ' 
into brigades, 'regiments, companies, or the like, though on the 
advice of Nestor (B 362) members of the same clan or tribe were 
to fight together. Ajax was not always with his Salaminians, nor 
Odysseus with his Ithacans. The light-armed troops for the 
most part stood in the rear of the spearmen, but occasionally an 
archer took his place in the front rank, perhaps partly protected by 
a friend's shield. Cavalry were unknown. 

THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR. 

5. a. Before the Action of the Iliad. The action of the Hiad 
itself covers only a few days, but many allusions are made to pre- 
ceding events which complete the story. 

Paris (whose Greek name was Alexander)^ son of King Priam of 
Troy (or Ilios) on the shore of the Hellespont, in the northwest 
corner of Asia Minor, carried away Helen, wife of King Menelaus 
of Sparta. The Achaeans (Greeks) united to avenge the wrong, 
under command of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, the brother of 
Menelaus. Nestor of 'sandy Pylus' and Odysseus of Ithaca 



§ 5 c. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR XY 

visited Thessaly and enlisted Achilles (son of Peleus and the sea 
goddess Thetis) and his friend Patroclus. The Greeks assembled 
at Aulis, a Boeotian town on the strait between Euboea and the 
mainland, opposite Chalcis. There a poi-tent was seen, which the 
seer Calchas interpreted to mean that they should fight for nine 
years around Troy, and capture the city in the tenth year. On 
their way to Troy, they stopped at the island of Lemnos, where 
they were hospitably entertained, and where they left one of their 
chieftains, Philoctetes, who had been bitten by a water snake. On 
their arrival at Troy, Menelaus and Odysseus went to the city as 
ambassadors, and demanded the return of Helen, which was 
refused. Some of the Trojans even urged that the ambassadors 
be put to death, but their host Antenor and others secured 
their safety. The Achaeans began the siege. The Trojans sent 
to their neighbors and gained allies. The Achaean ships were 
drawn up on land, sterns foremost, and supported by props or 
shores. By the side of the ships were built barracks (kXictmu) 
for the men. 

b. The siege was not very close. The Greek camp was at a 
considerable distance from the city, and the Greeks could not 
devote all of their time to fighting. They were obliged to make 
expeditions against the neighboring towns in order to obtain sup- 
plies. In these marauding forays, the men of the sacked towns 
were killed or sent to other countries to be sold as slaves ; the 
women were often brought to the Greek camp before Troy. When 
the action of the Iliad opened, the wealth of the city of Troy 
was nearly exhausted. The Trojans had been obliged to pay and 
support their allies, and had been shut out from the use of their 
fields. They were afraid to meet the Greeks in open battle. 

c. Of the gods, Hera (* Juno'), Athena,' and Poseidon (< Nep- 
tune ') favored the Achaeans ; Aphrodite (* Venus '), Ares, and 
Apollo favored the Trojans. The reasons for this division of 
sentiment are not made clear. The 'Judgment of Paris' with 
regard to the beauty of the goddesses, and the award of the prize 
to Aphrodite, seem to be unknown to the author of the Iliad 
(except, possibly, O 25 ff.). 



xvi mXRODUCTlON § 6 a. 

6. a. The action of the Iliad begins early in the tenth year of 
the war. Chrys6i*s, the daughter of a priest of Apollo^ had been 
captured on one of the marauding expeditions of the Achaeans^ 
and was given to Agamemnon as the < iirst-f ruit ' of the spoils. 
The captive's aged father came to the Greek camp, bearing the 
fillets of Apollo as his official insignia, and begged to be allowed to 
ransom his daughter, but Agamemnon sent him away, slighting his 
request. As he left the Greek camp, the old priest prayed for 
vengeance to his god, Apollo, who heard his prayer and sent pesti- 
lence upon the Achaeans. For nine days the plague raged in the 
camp, but on the tenth day an assembly was called by Achilles^ 
who urged that some prophet be questioned of the cause of 
the god's anger. The old seer Calchas told the truth. Achilles 
reproached Agamemnon, and the two heroes quarreled. At last 
Agamemnon sent ChrysfiYs home to her father, but took from 
Achilles his prize of honor, BrisSi's. Achilles refused to fight any 
longer for the Achaeans, and begged his mother, the sea goddess 
Thetis, to invoke the aid of Zeus, and to pray that victory might 
be granted unto the Trojans until the Achaeans learned to value and 
honor her son's might. This prayer was reluctantly granted by 
Zeus, and the First Book of the Iliad closes with a half-ludicrous 
scene on Olympus, where Zeus was reproached by Hera for yielding 
to the request of Thetis, — in the evening of the twenty-first day. 

b. At the opening of the Second Book of the Iliady at the begin- 
ning of the twenty-second day of the poem's action, Zeus sent to 
Agamemnon a delusive dream, bidding him to arm the Achaeans 
for battle, with all haste. After a council of the elders, Agamemnon 
tried the temper of the soldiers by proposing to return at once to 
their homes. To his grief, the men acceded enthusiastically and 
began immediately the preparations for the voyage. They were 
stopped by Odysseus, who acted under the direction of Athena. 
A second assembly was held, the Greeks were shamed and awed 
into remaining, and they prepared for battle. As the Achaean army 
advanced against Troy, the poet pauses in order to give a muster of 
the forces, — the ' Catalogue of the Ships,' — which is followed by 
a less elaborate enumeration of the Trojans and their allies. 



§ 6 g, THE STORY OF THE TROJAK WAR xvii 

c. At the beginning of the Third Book, the opposing armies were 
about to meet, when Paris challenged Menelaus to a single combat 
which should decide the war. The two husbands of Helen, — the 
wronged Menelaus and the offending Paris, — were the fit cham- 
pions of the two armies. This scene would naturally belong to the 
first year of the war ; but as the poet begins his story in the tenth 
year of the war, the best he can do is to make this combat the 
beginning of the conflicts which he describes. Priam was called 
from the city of Troy, and a truce was struck : If Menelaus slew 
Paris, the Greeks were to take Helen and peaceably return to their 
homes ; if Paris slew Menelaus, the Greeks were to withdraw at 
once. Menelaus disabled Paris and had him in his power, when 
Aphrodite snatched up her Trojan favorite, and deposited him 
safely in his home. 

d. The terms of the truce had not been fulfilled. Neither com- 
batant had been slain, but the victory fairly belonged to the Greeks. 
In order that the Trojans might not surrender Helen, and preserve 
their city, Athena (who hated Troy) descended a third time to the 
field of war, and incited a Lycian archer, a Trojan ally, Pandarus, 
to send an arrow at Menelaus. The Greek hero was wounded, and 
the Greeks, indignant at this treacherous breach of the truce, pre- 
pared at once for the battle, and advanced upon the enemy. This 
story is told in the Fourth Book. 

e. Most of the Fifth Book is devoted to the brave deeds of 
Diomed, son of Tydeus, of Argos. Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and 
Ares took part in the battle, and the two latter divinities were 
wounded by Diomed, with Athena's aid. Diomed wounded Aeneas 
also — the incident to which Vergil makes Aeneas allude in AeneM 
i. 96 f . 

f. In the Sixth Book, the Trojans were hard pressed, and Priam's 
bravest son. Hector, returned to the city in order to bid the matrons 
supplicate Athena's mercy. He called Paris to return to the field 
of battle, and took a pathetic farewell of his wife, Andromache. 

g. The day which began at the opening of the Second Book 
ended near the close of the Seventh Book. The coming on of night 
put a stop to a single combat between Heetor and Telamonian Ajax, 



xviii INTRODUCTION § 6 h. 

of SaJamis. The armies struck a truce for one day, for the burial 
of the dead. The Greeks spent another day in building a wall 
about their camp, — a wall which was not needed while Achilles 
was fighting on their side, but which was necessary when the 
Trojans were ready to assume the offensive. 

h. The Eighth Book tells of a brief day of battle, in which the 
fortunes of war were continually changing, and in which Zeus often 
interfered. At the close of this Book, the Achaeans were driven 
into their camp, and welcomed the approach of night which afforded 
them relief from pursuit and attack. The Trojans bivouacked upon 
the plain and were confident of annihilating their enemies on the 
morrow. 

i. On the night following the battle of the Eighth Book, the 
Greek leaders sent to Achilles an embassy, offering him rich gifts, 
and begging hiin to return to the battle, but he stoutly refused. 
The account of this embassy fills the Ninth Book. 

j. The Tenth Book narrates the visit (on the same night) of 
Odysseus and Diomed to the Trojan camp, where they slew Rhesus, 
the Thracian leader, who had just ai*rived on the field of action, 
and captured his famous steeds. 

k. With the Eleventh Book begins the third of the four days 
of battle of the Iliadj — a day which does not close until the end 
of the Eighteenth Book. Agamemnon distinguished himself now 
more than on any other occasion, but retired from the field wounded, 
and was followed by Diomed and Odysseus, who also were disabled. 

1. The Trojans pressed forward to the Greek wall, and, at the 
close of the TweKth Book, Hector broke down the great gates, and 
opened a way for his comrades into the Greek camp. 

m. At the opening of the Thirteenth Book, Poseidon came from 
the sea in order to aid the Greeks. Hera distracted the attention 
of Zeus while Poseidon and the Achaeans put the Trojans to rout. 

n. The previous action continues through the Fourteenth Book. 

0. At the opening of the Fifteenth Book, Zeus noticed what was 
doing on the Trojan plain, and sent Poseidon back to his home in 
the sea. The Trojans pressed forward again and reached the Greek 
ships, and Hector called for fire that he might burn the fleet. 



§ 6 V. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR xix 

p. At the opening of the Sixteenth Book, Patroclus begged 
Achilles to allow him to take his comrades in arms, the Myrmi- 
do&S; and enter the battle. Achilles consented, and gave his friend 
his own armor to wear, but directed him to be satisfied with driv- 
ing the enemy from the camp, and not to attempt the capture of 
Troy. Patroclus, however, became excited by the fray, and fol- 
lowed the Trojans to the very gate of the city. There he was 
slain by Apollo and Hector. 

q. Most of the Seventeenth Book is devoted to the battle around 
tlie body of Patroclus. Hector stripped off the armor of the friend 
of Achilles, but the Achaeans with great difficulty secured the 
corpse and carried it back to the camp, — hard pressed by the 
enemy. 

r. In the Eighteenth Book, Achilles learned with overwhelming 
grief of the death of his comrade. His mother, Thetis, came from 
the sea to comfort him. His armor was in the hands of Hector, — 
stripped from the body of Patroclus. He could not enter the 
combat, but had only to appear unarmed at the trench, and the 
Trojans were frightened away. His mother went to Olympus to 
beg for him beautiful armor from Hephaestus (' Vulcan '). Here 
ends the third day of battle, which began with the opening of the 
Eleventh Book. 

8. In the Nineteenth Book, Achilles was reconciled to Agar 
memnon. His hatred for Hector and his desire for vengeance on 
the slayer of Patroclus more than overbalanced his more ancient 
grudge on account of the quarrel of the First Book. 

t. The fourth of the battles of the Iliad begins with the Twen- 
tieth Book. The gods descended to take part in the battle, but 
did not affect its issue. 

u. At the beginning of the Twenty-first Book, Achilles has 
driven the Trojans as far as the River Scamander, which flowed 
about midway between the camp and the city. There many were 
slain, almost without resistance. 

v. On the opening of the Twenty-second Book, all the Trojans 
but Hector were either slain or had fled within the walls of the 
city. But Hector did not yield to the entreaties of his father and 



XX 



INTRODUCTION § 6 w. 



mother^ who, from the wall, prayed him to return. He awaited 
Achilles and was slain. His body was dragged to the Achaean camp, 
after the chariot of Achilles. 

w. The Twenty-third Book is devoted to the burial of Patroclus, 
and the funeral games in his honor. 

X. In the Twenty-fourth Book, the aged Priam, under the care 
of the gods, went to the Achaean camp and obtained from Achilles 
the body of his son Hector. The < iracundus, inexorabilis' Achilles 
appeared in a gentler mood. The corpse was brought back to 
Troy, and the poem closes with the funeral of Hector. 

7. a. Concise Analysis of the Iliad. 

0. Iktroductiok. A. Pestilence (nine days). Assembly. Quar- 
reL Rest from battle (twelve days). Thetis went to Zeus on the 
twenty-first day. 

p. The Four Battles before Troy. 

1. B-H 380. First great battle, on the twenty-second day. 
Single combats between Paris and Menelaus, Hector and Ajax. 

II. H 381-K. Burial of the dead and building of the wall, on the 
twenty-third and twenty-fourth days. Second great battle, on the 
25th day. Embassy to Achilles. Odysseus and Diomed entered 
the Trojan camp, and killed the Thraciaus and their king. Rhesus. 

III. A-S. Third great battle, on the twenty-sixth day. Death 
of Patroclus. Hephaestus made armor for Achilles. 

IV. T-X. Fourth battle, on the twenty-seventh day. Achilles 
killed Hector. 

y. Conclusion. *, O. Achilles abused the body of Hector on 
days 27-38 (twelve days; see a, above). Lament for Hector in 
Troy on days 39-47 (nine days). Burial of Hector and erection of 
a mound over his body, on the forty-eighth and forty-ninth days. 

This scheme shows that the action of the Iliad covers but 
seven weeks. Three of these are occupied by the action of the 
First Book, and three by that of the last two Books ; only four days 
are spent in fighting. The burial of Hector and the building of 
his tomb in the last Book correspond to the burial of the dead and 
the building of the wall about the Achaean camp, after the first 
day of battle. 



§ 7 b. THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR xxi 

b. Contents of the Iliad in Oreek Hexameters* 

1. "AX^- Xat^9 ^pvaov, Xoifiop a-rparoVf ej(Po^ avaKTmv. 

2. B^ra S* opeipop l;^€i, ayopi^v, Kal prja^ qpidfiei. 

3. rd/Afia S* ap* afMf>* 'E\ei^9 oloip fioOo^ iariv aKoiraiv, - 

4. AeXra' 0€&v a^oprjy opKtov ;^<rt9, "Apeo^ ^PXV- 

5. £Z* fiaXkei Kvd^peiav "Aprfd re TvSebv t;eo9. 

6. Zrjra &* ap* *ApSpofidj(t)^ ^^^ "E^cro/wfe €<rr' oapiOTis. 

7. ^Hra 8' • Afav woX^iitfc /aoV^ fulpo^ "^KTopi Siq), 

8. B^ra • demv ayopi], Tpwmv Kpdro^y "T&KTopo^ €i5^09. 

9. *Ef€cr/i7 8' 'A;^tXiJo9 aireideo^ iarlv 'Iwra. 

10. Kdmra Se- 'PjJo-ov t^i/ ice^aX^i/ eXc Ti;8eo9 i/ft09. 

11 • Ad/ifiSa S* ' aptarrja^ Aava&p fidkov "lEtKTopo^ avSpe^. 

12. MO* Tpdwv iraXdfAyai Kanjpiwe relxo^ ^Ayai&v. 

13. NO hi' no<r6tSaa>i/ Aai^aot? Kpdro^ (Siraae XdOpy, 

14. Hct* KpopiBffV Xex^eca-i koI vTrvtp fjira<f>€V "Hpiy. 

15. OJf KpoviSrf^ KexpXxaro lloaeiSdwvi koX "^prj. 

16. Ilct • JldrpoKXov hre^v€v 'Ap^qiop ''EKTopo^ ^^Xf^V' 

17. *P«* Aai/aol Tp&^ re v€kvv iripi jfelpa'^ €fuayov. 

18. 2,lyfJLa' Oert9 'A;^tX^t Trap' 'H^aurrov <l>€p€V SirXa. 

19. TaO S* • aireXrfye jfiXoio koI e/cdope St09 'A;^iXX€iJ9. 

20. *T' luiKdptov Ipi^ Spro, <f>4pei 8' iirl Kdpro^ 'A;^atot9. 

21. 4>€(' fi6yo^ AiaKihao irap rjiopa^ irorapmo, 

22. Xe? 8*' a/>a t/jI? ttc/jI rel^o^ aytov Krdv€v'*^KTop 'A^^XXcu?. 
28. '?^€t" ikavaolaiv ay&va SiSois ireXeaaev 'A^^tXXciJ?. 

24. *ti* n/>ia/A09 I'^icvi' i/Ia Xaficap yepa Sa>K€V *A;^iXX€t. 
* ABcribed to Stepbanus Grammaticus in the Palatine Anthology , ix. 385. 



xxii INTRODUCTION § 7 c. 

c. Arrangement of the Action according to Days. 

The action of the Uiad^ which covers only seven weeks, or forty- 
nine days, may be divided as follows : — 

Days. 

1. Visit of Chryses to the Greek camp, A 12. 

1-9. Pestilence, A 63. 

10. Assembly of the Achaeans, A 54. 

10-21. Visit of the gods to the Aethiopians, A 423. 

21. Eetum of the gods to Olympus, A 493 f. Visit of Thetis 

to Zeus. 

22. The Achaeans prepare for battle. Single combat between 

Menelaus and Paris. The battle begins. Brave deeds of 
Diomed. Hector's meeting with Andromache. Single 
combat between Hector and Ajax. B 1-H 380. 

23. Burial of the dead, H 381^32. 

24. Building of a wall for the Achaean camp, H 433-482. 

25. Second day of battle, 0. 
Embassy to Achilles, I. 

Odysseus and Diomed enter the Trojan camp, K. 

26. Third day of battle. The Trojans break down the Greek 

wall. Death of Patroclus. A 1-S 617. 

27. Reconciliation of Achilles and Agamemnon. Fourth great 

day of battle. Death of Hector. T 1-^ 61. 

28. Burial of Patroclus, * 62-225. 

29. Funeral games in honor of Patroclus, 4^ 226-897. 

27-38. Achilles drags the body of Hector around the bier or tomb 
of Patroclus, O 1-30. 
Priam visits the tent of Achilles and ransoms Hector's 
body, n 31-676, on the evening of the thirty-eighth 
day. 
39. Priam brings Hector's body to Troy, O 677-775. 
39-47. Lament for Hector in Troy, O 784. 

48. Burial of Hector, O 785-787. 

49. Erection of a mound over Hector's ashes, O 788-804. 



§7d. 



THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR 



xxiu 



d. 


The Greek Forces 

] 


. (SeeB494ff.) 
Mainland op Grbbcb. 






Order of 






No. of 






■hips. 


1. 


Boeotians 


(Peneletls) 


B 494-510. 


50 


2. 


Orchomenians 


(Ascalaphus) 


B 511-516. 


30 


3. 


PhocianR 


(Schedius) 


B 517-526. 


40 


4. 


Locrians 


(Ajax, son of Oilexis) 


B 527-535. 


40 


5. 


EuboeaDS 


(Elephenor) 


B 536-545. 


40 


6. 


Athenians 


(Menestheus) 


B 546-556. 


50 


7. 


Salaminians 


(Telamonian Ajax) 


B 557, 558. 


12 


8. 


Argives 


(Diomed) 


B 559-568. 


80 


D. 


Myceneans 


(Agamemnon) 


B 569-580. 


100 


10. 


Spartans 


(Menelaus) 


B 581-590. 


60 


11. 


Pylians 


(Nestor) 


B 591-602. 


90 


12. 


Arcadians 


(Agapenor) 


B 603-614. 


60 


13. 


Epeans 


(Amphimachus) 


B 615-624. 


40 


14. 


Dulichians 


(Meges) 


B 625-630. 


40 


15. 


Cephallenians 


(Odysseus) 


B 631-637. 


12 


16. 


Aetolians 


(Thoas) 
Insular Greece. 


B 638-644. 


40 


17. 


Cretans 


(Idomeneus) 


B 645-652. 


80 


18. 


Rhodians 


(Tlepolemus) 


B 653-670. 


9 


19. 


From Syme 


(Nireus) 


B 671-675. 


3 


20. 


From the Sporades 


(Phidippus) 
Thessalian Greece. 


B 676-680. 


30 


21. 


Myrmidons 


(Achilles) 


B 681-694. 


50 


22. 


Prom Phylace 


(Protesilaus) 


B 695-710. 


40 


23. 


Pheraeans 


(Eumelus) 


B 711-715. 


11 


24. 


Methonians 


(Philoctetes) 


B 716-728. 


7 


25. 


Oechalians 


(Podalirius) 


B 729-733. 


30 


26. 


From Ormenium 


(Eurypylus) 


B 734-737. 


40 


27. 


From Argissa 


(Polypoetes) 


B 738-747. 


40 


28. 


Enianians 


(Guneus) 


B 748-755. 


22 


29. 


Magnesians 


(Prothotis) 


B 756-759. 


40 



Total 



1186 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



§7e. 



e. Trees of Noted Families, 

THE PELOPIDS. 



(1) 



Tantalus 



1 



PeLOPS = HiPPODAMIA 



NiOBE 



Atreus 



Agamemnon 

(m. Clytaemnestra) 



\ 

Pittheus 



Menelaus 

(m. Helen) 



Orestes Electra 



Ipuigenia 



1 

Thyestes 

Aegisthus 



Hermione 



(2) 



THE AEACIDS. 
Zeus 

I 

Abacus (of Aegma) 



Peleus = Thetis 



Telamon 



Achilles 

I 

Neoptolemus 



Ajax 
eurysaces 



I 

Teucer 



(3) 



THE OENEIDS. 
Oeneus 



Tydeus = Deipyle 

(d. of Adrastufl 
of ArgoB) 

DiOMED = AeGIALEA 



1 

Meleager 



§7e. 



THE STORY OF THE TROJAN WAR 



XXV 



THE ROYAL FAMILY OF TROY, Y 215 ff. 
(4) Zeus 





Dardanus 

(foauder of Dardaniao race) 








Erichthonius 

1 








Tros 

(founder of Troy) 




Ilus 

(Founder of Ilkw) 

1 




Gantmed 

(Cupbearer of Zeus) 


ASSARACUS 


Laomedon 






Capys 


Priam = Hec 

1 


UBA 
CHE 


TiTHONUS 
(Husband of Dawn) 

Memnon 


Anchises 


Hector = Androma 

1 


Aeneas 

1 


ASTYANAX 


LI 




(ASCANIUS) 




rCIANS, Z 153 ff. 




(6) 




Aeolus 
Sisyphus 
Glaucus 

Bellerophon 

1 




ISANDROS 




Hippolochus 

1 


Laodamia 

1 






1 

Glaucus 


Sarpedon 



xxvi mXRODUCTION § 8. 

8. After the Action of the Iliad. For part of the last act in the 
siege of Troy, indications exist in the Iliad and Odyssey. Many 
other details were added by later poets, especially by those of the 
Aethiopis, the Iliupersis, and the Little Iliad (§ 2 d). 

a. After the death of Hector, the Amazons came to* the help of 
the Trojans. Their queen, Penthesilfia, was slain by Achilles. 
Memnon, — a cousin of Hector, — the beautiful son of Eos (Dawn) 
and Tithonus, came with his Aethiopians. He slew Nestor's son 
Antilochus, a dear friend of Achilles, but was then himself slain 
by the mighty son of Thetis. Achilles was overcome by Apollo 
and Paris, as he was about to force an entrance to the city through 
the Scaean Gate. His mother came from the sea, with her sister 
Nereids, and bewailed him. She offered his beautiful armor as a 
prize to the bravest of the Greeks, and it was awarded to Odysseus. 
Telamonian Ajax went mad in his disappointment at not receiving 
the armor, and committed suicide. Paris was slain, and Helen 
became the wife of his brother Dei'phobus. Philoctetes, the bearer 
of the bow of Heracles, was brought from Lemnos, where he had 
been left (§ 5 a, B 721 ff.) ; and Neoptolemus, the young son of 
Achilles, was brought from the island of Scyrus. Odysseus entered 
the city of Troy as a spy, in the guise of a beggar, and was recog- 
nized, and helped out of the city, by Helen. Athena suggested to 
Odysseus the building of the ^ wooden horse,' in which the bravest 
of the Achaeans were hidden, while the rest set fire to their camp 
and sailed away. The Trojans dragged the wooden horse within 
their city, and at night the Greeks returned, and Troy was sacked. 

b. Agamemnon reached home in safety, but was treacherously 
murdered by his wife and his cousin, her paramour, Aegisthus. 
Menelaus was driven from his course by a storm. Most of his 
ships were wrecked on the coast of Crete. He himself, with Helen, 
was carried by the wind to Egypt, and wandered for eight years 
before his return to his home at Sparta. 

c. Nestor, Diomed, and Idomeneus reached home safely. Ajax, 
the son of Oileus, was wrecked and drowned. 

d. Odysseus was driven by a storm (perhaps the same as that 
which drove the ships of Menelaus to Crete ; see b, above) to the 



§ 9 a, THE STORY OF THE ODYSSEY xxvii 

land of the Lotus-eaters, thence to the island of Polyphemus (i), 
thence to the island of Aeolus, to the land of the Laestrygonians 
(where eleven of his twelve ships were destroyed), and to the 
island of Circe, where he and his companions remained during a 
year (k). Then they went to Hades (X) to consult the old seer 
Tiresias. On their return they passed Scylla and Charybdis ; they 
came to the island of the Sun, and (urged by hunger) killed one of 
his cows. They were punished by shipwreck, from which Odysseus 
alone escaped, as innocent of the offense against the Sun. He was 
borne to the island of Calypso (/a), where he remained for eight 
years. Then he returned to his home on Ithaca, enduring many 
sufferings on the way, but receiving kindly hospitality and aid from 
the Phaeacians ({-/x ; see § 9 f-m). He found his faithful wife, 
Penelope, surrounded by a large company of young and insolent 
suitors. These he killed with the help of Athena, Telemachus^ and 
two henchmen, and regained his kingdom. 

THE STORY OF THE ODYSSEY. 

9. The action of the Odyssey opens in the tenth year after 
the close of the Trojan War, and twenty years after Odysseus and 
the other Achaeans left their homes for the siege of Troy, but 
Odysseus had not yet returned to Ithaca. Since the hope of 
his return was abandoned by all but his faithful wife, a crowd 
of suitors (more than a hundred in number) for the hand of Penel- 
ope gathered at his palace from Ithaca and the neighboring islands 
and shores. For four years these suitors had feasted riotously on 
the king's wine, flocks, and herds. The throne of Ithaca, indeed, 
would naturally descend to Telemachus, Odysseus' only son. But 
just as the widow of the elder Hamlet carried the scepter of 
Denmark to her new husband, Claudius, so these aspirants for 
Penelope's hand each hoped to gain with her the kingdom of her 
former husband. Odysseus was still on Calypso's island, Ogygia, 
in the far west. 

a. Early in the First Book, Odysseus' patron saint, the goddess 
Athena, took occasion of the absence of Poseidon (whom Odysseus 
had offended by the blinding of Polyphemus) to remind the gods 



xxviii INTRODUCTION § 9 b. 

of the hard fate of the Ithacan^ who was pining away in his 
longing for home. Zeus sent her to the island of Ithaca to 
direct Odysseus' son Telemachus in the course which he should 
pursue, and said he would send Hermes to Calypso with orders for 
Odysseus' release. She approached the palace of Odysseus in the 
guise of a Taphian prince, Mentes, and claimed to be an old guest 
of the house. Telemachus told her his story of the long absence 
of his father, without tidings, and of the persistent insolence of 
his mother's suitors ; and Athena advised him to visit Nestor, the 
oldest and wisest of the Achaean chieftains, at Pylus, and Meno- 
laus, who had recently returned to Sparta from an eight years' 
wandering. These might advise him with regard to his father's 
Return. The poet devises this journey in order to bring Telema- 
chus into connection with some of his father's friends, thus afford- 
ing an opportimity to tell of some events which had happened since 
the action of the Iliad. 

b. In the Second Book of the Odyssey, Telemachus called an 
assembly of the Ithacans and denounced the suitors, who threw 
the blame for their course on Penelope, and urged that she should 
return to her father's home and be given in marriage to a new 
husband. Athena, in the guise of his father's friend Mentor, met 
Telemachus, and promised to secure a ship and to attend him to 
Pylus, in order to consult Nestor. This boat, with Telemachus and 
a few companions, set out at evening. 

c. As the sun rose on the third day of the action of the Odyssey, 
at the beginning of the Third Book, Telemachus, accompanied by 
Athena, reached Pylus, and found Nestor and the Pylians offering 
sacrifice to Poseidon on the shore. Nestor advised Telemachus to 
seek the counsel of Menelaiis, and sent his son Pisistratus to escort 
him to Sparta. 

d. At the beginning of the Fourth Book, at the close of the 
fifth day of the action of the Odyssey, Telemachus and Pisistratus 
reached the home of Menelaus. Helen recognized Telemachus from 
his resemblance to his father. Stories of Odysseus' valor and 
prudence were told. On the next day Menelaus related part of 
his own adventures, especially his meeting with the old sea god 



§ 9 i. THE STORY OF THE ODYSSEY xxix 

Proteus in Egypt, who had told him that Odysseus was detained 
on an island by the nymph Calypso. 

At the close of the Fourth Book, Penelope's suitors oh Ithaca 
learned of the voyage of Telemachus and planned to lie in ambush 
for him and kill him on his return. 

e. With the Fifth Book begins the Odyssey proper, the No(rr<« 
'08v<r<r5os. This Book comprises the events of twenty-five days, 
the seventh to the thirty-first inclusive, in the chronology of the 
entire poem. In a council of the gods very like that at the begin- 
ning of the First Book, Hermes, who for some unexplained reason 
did not go to Ogygia after the former council, was dispatched to 
Calypso's island, where Odysseus had been detained for eight years, 
in order to secure his return. Reluctantly Calypso told the Ithacan 
that he might depart. Odysseus built himself a rude barge and set out 
upon his return. As he was approaching the land of the Phaeacians, 
he was seen by Poseidon, who raised a storm and wrecked his craft ; 
but he was brought safe to land by the sea goddess Leucotliea. 

f • In the Sixth Book, Athena suggested to Nausicaa, the beautiful 
Phaeacian princess, that she should go to the river to wash the 
family garments. The princess went to the shore, attended by 
her maids. As they were about to return, Odysseus, who had been 
sleeping, exhausted by the exertions attending his shipwreck, 
awoke, and received from them clothing, food, and instructions as 
to the wisest manner of approach to the Phaeacian king AlcinoUs. 
These are the events of the thirty-second day. 

g. The story of Odysseus' reception in the palace of AlcinoUs — 
in the evening of the thirty-second day — occupies the Seventh Book. 

h. In the Eighth Book, Odysseus was introduced to the Phaea- 
cian nobles, — on the thirty-third day of the action of the poem. 

i. In the evening of the thirty-third day, Odysseus began his 
< Apologue to AlcinoUs,' — the story of his wanderings immediately 
after leaving Troy, in the Ninth Book, and told of his adventures 
(a) at Ismarus with the Ciconians (39i-61), (h) with the Lotus- 
eaters (62-104), and (c) in the cave of Polyphemus (105-555). 
This last adventure alone is designated by the Greek caption of 
the Book, YivkK^eia. 



XXX INTRODrCTION § 9 j. 

j. In the Tenth Book, Odysseus tells of his visit to the island of 
Aeolus (the lord of the winds), of the destruction of his entire 
fleet with the exception of his own ship by the Laestrygonians, 
and of his year at the palace of Circe. 

k. The Eleventh Book is occupied by Odysseus' story of his 
journey to the land of Hades, in order to consult the soul of 
the Theban seer Tiresias, and of his meeting with the shades of the 
dead, among them being his mother, Agamemnon, and Achilles. The 
consultation of Tiresias seems to have been devised as an occasion for 
the interviews with his mother and the chieftains of the Achaeans. 

1. In the Twelfth Book, Odysseus tells of his adventures with the 
Sirens, and with Scylla and Charybdis, and of his comrades' slaughter 
of one of the cattle of the Sun, — in return for which their ship was 
wrecked, and Odysseus alone was carried by the waves in safety to 
Calypso's island. 

m. In the Thirteenth Book, Odysseus was brought by the Phaea- 
cians to his own island of Ithaca, — in the night following the 
thirty-fourth day, resuming the action of the Seventh Book. 

n. In the Fourteenth Book, at the suggestion of Pallas Athena, 
Odysseus sought the remote dwelling of his faithful swineherd 
Eumaeus, — in the morning of the thirty-fifth day. 

0. In the Fifteenth Book, Odysseus remained with Eumaeus ; 
and Telemachus, returning from Sparta, proceeded at once to the 
swineherd's hut, — on the thirty-seventh day. 

p. In the Sixteenth Book, Odysseus made himself known to 
Telemachus, and the two planned for the destruction of the 
suitors of Penelope. 

q. In the Seventeenth Book, Odysseus went to his own palace in 
the guise of a beggar, and was treated with wanton insolence by 
the suitors, — on the thirty-eighth day. 

r. In the Eighteenth Book, the insolence to Odysseus continued. 
Penelope rebuked her son for allowing the unknown stranger to be 
thus illtreated. 

8. In the Nineteenth Book, Odysseus, still in the guise of a 
beggar, had an interview with Penelope, — in the evening of the 
thirty-eighth day. He was recognized by his old nurse Euryclfia, 



§10a. THE STORY OF THE ODYSSEY xxxi 

who was set to wash his feet, by the scar of a wound which he 
received in his youth from a wild boar. 

t. Ini the Twentieth Book, as the thirty-ninth day broke, the 
suitors assembled, and victims were brought for the feast, for this 
was a festival of Apollo. 

u. In the Twenty-first Book, Penelope offered her husband's bow 
to the suitors, promising to wed the one who should string it most 
easily, and shoot an arrow most skilfully at a mark formed by axes. 
The suitors strove in vain to bend the bow, but Odysseus (who had 
now made himself known to Eumaeus the swineherd and toPhiloetius 
the neatherd), to whom the bow was borne by Eumaeus against 
the suitors' will, bent the bow, and proved his skill in archery. 

v. In the Twenty-second Book, Odysseus with his old bow slew 
the suitors, with the aid of Athena, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and 
Philoetius. 

w. In the Twenty-third Book, Odysseus was recognized by 
Penelope, — at the close of the thirty-ninth day. 

X. In the Twenty-fourth Book, on the fortieth day of the action 
of the poem, Odysseus went to his farm and made himself known 
to his aged father, Laertes. While he was there, the friends of 
the slain suitors came out to take vengeance upon him, and all 
prepared for battle, — even Laertes arming for the fray, — but 
peace was made by Athena. Thus the story ends. 

10. a. Concise Analysis of the Odyssey. 

A. a-fjL. What happened before the return of Odysseus to Ithaca. 

I. a-8. Adventures of Telemachus. 
II. €-$. Adventures of Odysseus on leaving Calypso's island. 

III. i-/i. Previous adventures of Odysseus, on leaving Troy. 

B. v-iA. What happened after the return of Odysseus to Itha>ca, 

IV. v-TT. Odysseus at the hut of Eumaeus. 
V. p-v, Return of Odysseus to his palace. 

VI. ^-ci). Odysseus slays the suitors and regains his kingdom. 

This division of the poem into two main parts, each made up of three 
sections of four books each, is curiously convenient as an aid to the 
memory, though it is not absolutely exact; but no one should suppose 
that the Greek poet had such a division in his mind. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION § 10 b. 

b. The division of the Etad and Odyssey each into twenty- 
four books was not made by the poet himself, nor was it known 
in the classical period. It seems to have been made by the scholars 
of Alexandria about 250 years b.g. The < books ' were lettered, not 
numbered. The large letters of the Greek alphabet (A, B, F, ktX.) 
are used by scholars to designate the books of the Iliad ; the small 
letters (a, fi, y, ktX.) are used for the books of the Odyssey, The 
' books ' vary in length, from 909 verses (E) to 331 ({). 

c. The Greek titles prefixed to the several books of the poems 
are of no definite authority. Some of them were the titles by 
which the lays were known before the division into 'books/ as 
the * Bravery of Diomed,' the ' Catalogue of Ships,' the * View 
from the Wall.' Others may have been prefixed by editors in 
the Middle Ages. 

HOMERIC STYLE. 

11. a. Matthew Arnold enumerates four essential character- 
istics of Homer's poetry : ' Homer is rapid in his movement, 
Homer is plain in his words and style. Homer is simple in his 
ideas, Homer is noble in his manner. Cowper renders him ill 
because he is slow in his movement and elaborate in his style ; 
Pope renders him ill because he is artificial both in his style and 
in his words ; Chapman renders him ill because he is fantastic in 
his ideas.' 

If poets and masters have thus failed, clearly it is no easy 
achievement to translate Homer well, to be at the same time 
rapid, plain, simple, and noble, — ov vtoi afui jram-a Swrja-au avroi 
€\ia&ai. The beginner can at least be simple; he should aim to 
attain the other qualities also. 

b. Pope says in the preface to his translation : < That which in 
my opinion ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates 
Homer, is, above all* things, to keep alive that spirit and fire which 
makes his chief character. In particular places, where the sense 
can bear any doubt, to follow the strongest and most poetical, as 
most agreeing with that character. To copy him in all the variar 
tions of his style, and the different modulations of his numbers. 



§llc. HOMERIC STYLE xxxiii 

To preserve in the more active or more descriptive parts a warmth 
and elevation ; in the more sedate or narrative, a plainness and 
solemiiity ; in the speeches, a fulness and perspicuity ; in the sen- 
tences [sententiae], a shortness and gravity. Not to neglect even 
the little figures and turns on the words, nor sometimes the very 
cast of the periods. Neither to omit or confound any rites or 
customs of antiquity. ... To consider him attentively in com- 
parison with Vergil above all the ancients, and with Milton above 
all the moderns.' 

< The story of the Iliad is the Anger of Achilles, the most short 
and single subject that was ever chosen by any poet. Yet this he 
has supplied with a greater number of councils, speeches, battles, 
and episodes of all kinds than are to be found even in those poems 
whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. The 
action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit, and its whole 
duration occupies not so much as fifty days. Vergil, for want of 
so warm a genius, aided himself by taking in a more extensive 
subject, as well as a greater length of time, and contracting the 
design of both Homer's poems into one which is but a fourth part 
as large as his.' 

c. Cowper says in the preface to his translation : * My chief 
boast is that I have adhered closely to the original, convinced that 
every departure from him would be punished with the forfeiture of 
some grace or beauty for which I could offer no substitute. ... It 
has been my point everywhere to be as little verbos^e as possible. 
... In the affair of style, I have endeavoured neither to creep 
nor to bluster, for no author is so likely to betray his translator 
into both these faults as Homer, though himself never guilty of 
either. . . . The passages which will be least noticed . . . are 
those which have cost me abundantly the most* labour. It is 
difficult to kill a sheep with dignity in a modern language, to flay 
and to prepare it for the table, detailing every circumstance of the 
process. Difficult also, without sinking below the level of poetry, 
to harness mules to a wagon, particularizing every article of their 
furniture, straps, rings, staples, and even the tying of the knots 
that kept all together. Homer, who writes always to the eye. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 1 11 d. 

with all Ms sublimity and grandeur, has the minuteness of a 
Flemish painter. ' 

d. Two passages from the great German critic, Lessing, are 
worthy to be remembered in this connection : < The picture of the 
plague. What do we see on the canvas ? Dead bodies, the flame 
of funeral pyres, the dying busied with the dead, the angry god 
upon a cloud discharging his arrows. The profuse wealth of the 
picture becomes poverty in the poet. . . . Now let us turn to 
Homer himself [A 44-53]. The poet here is as far beyond the 
painter as life is better than a picture. Wrathful, with bow and 
quiver, Apollo descends from the Olympian towers. I not only 
see him, but hear him. At every step the arrows rattle on the 
shoulders of the angry god. He enters among the host like the 
night. Now he seats himself over against the ships, and with a 
terrible clang of the silver bow, sends his first shaft against the 
mules and dogs. Next he turns his poisoned [deadly] darts upon 
the warriors themselves, and unceasing blaze on every side the 
corpse-laden pyres. It is impossible to translate into any other 
language the musical painting heard in the poet's words.' Laocoon 
xiii. (Miss Frothingham's translation). 

* When Homer wishes to tell us how Agamemnon was dressed 
[B 42 fF.], he makes the king put on every article of raiment in 
our presence : the soft tunic, the great mantle, the beautiful san- 
dais, and the sword. When he is thus fully equipped he grasps 
his scepter. We see the clothes while the poet is describing the 
act of dressing. An inferior writer would have described the 
clothes down to the minutest fringe, and of the action we should 
have seen nothing. . . . How does he manage when he desires to 
give a more full and minute picture [B 101 fF.] of the scepter, 
which is here called only ancestral and undecaying, as a similar 
one in another place is only xpvoretbic ijXoun rrcirapfiiyov? Does he 
paint for us, beside the golden nails, the wood, and the carved 
head ? He might have done so had he been writing a description 
for a book of heraldry, from which at some later day an exact copy 
was to be made. Yet I have no doubt that many a modern poet 
would have given such heraldic description in the honest belief 



§llg. HOMERIC STYLE xxxv 

that he was really making a picture himself, because he was giving 
the painter material for one. But what does Homer care how far 
he outstrips the painter ? Instead of a copy, he gives us the his- 
tory of the scepter. First we see it in the workshop of Vulcan ; 
then it shines in the hands of Jupiter ; now it betokens the dignity 
of Mercury ; now it is the baton of warlike Pelops ; and, again, 
the shepherd's staff of peace-loving Atreus. . . . And so at last I 
know this scepter better than if a painter should put it before my 
eyes, or a second Vulcan give it into my hands.' Laocoon xvi. 

e. Direct Discourse. Like the writers of Holy Scripture, and as 
in the simple style of ballads and fairy tales and the conversation 
of children and uneducated persons, the Homeric poet avoids the 
use of indirect discourse; he has no long passages in oratio obliqua, 
in the manner of the reported speeches in Caesar's Commentaries. 
He passes quickly from indirect to direct discourse. Contrast 6 
yap ^\$€ $oas ivl vrja^ 'A;(aiwv | • • • koI \t<r(rero iravrac 'A;(aiovs | • • • 
vfuy fikv $€ol Botev *0\vfivia SutfixiT c;(ovrcs | iKiripatu Tlpiofioio iroXiv, tZ 
S* oiKoS' iicccr^* I TratSa S' c/xoi Xva-at re ^iAi/v rd r airoiva hextfiBax^ | 
o^oficvoi Aio9 vidv, €KrjP6\ov *kir6Xkmva A 12 if. with its paraphrase 
which uses indirect discourse, cA^aiv 6 Upeu^ cvxero cxe/vots ph^ ro\K 
$€ov9 Bovvai cAovrac rrjv TpoCav avrov^ crcD^nu, rrjv Sk Bvyaripa oi Xvaru 
Scja/xckovs avoiva Kal rov Otov atSeo-^crrac ktA. in Plato Hep. iii. 393 E. 
Cf. also A 398 fF., r 87 ff., and Acts of the Apostles i. 4 : < He com- 
manded tbem that they should . . . wait for the promise of the 
Father, which ye have heard of me.' 

f. Principal Clauses, Similar to this avoidance of indirect 
discourse is the poet's frequent and ready transition from a 
subordinate to a principal clause, as os piya iravnav \ 'Apyeuov 
jcparcei Ktu oi irciOovrat 'A^aiot A 78 f. who rules with might over 
all the Argives and him (for whom) the Achaeans obey, w im voXXa 
poyrfaa, Socrov Sc poi vies 'Axatwv A 162. Cf. Xen. An. I 1. 2. This 
change is most frequent at a caesural pause or at the close of a 
verse. 

g. Thus the poet deserts the participial for a finite construction, 
as lotaiv Tc TtTiKTxo/xcwt XajuTo^L T tpoXKov V 80, where ri . . . ri mark 
the imperfect as correlative witli the participle. Cf E 594. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION § 11 h. 

h. Order of Words. The simplicity of the Homeric order of 
words is most clearly seen by comparing a passage of Homer with 
a similar passage of a later Greek poet or of Vergil. Many verses 
of the Iliad and Odyssey can be translated into English, word for 
word as they stand, as ifxofitO' e? &iifivp^ Icp^v 'n-dXii' 'HcTiiuvos, | r^v Sk 
^€irpdBofi€k T€ KM 'qyofucv ivOol^ iravra. | . . . ck 8* c\ov ^Arptt&tj XpvcnytSa 
KoXktirapflov ktX. A 366 fF. When the order differs essentially from 
the English, there are generally rhetorical or poetical reasons why the 
order is what it is. No one should suppose that the meter compelled 
the poet to adopt an arrangement of words that was not natural and 
did not please him. The verse gave prominence not merely to the first 
word bat often to the word before the principal caesural pause (§ 58). 

i. The thought of each Homeric verse is somewhat more inde- 
pendent than is the case in later poetry. Other things being 
equal, a word should be construed with words in the same rather 
than in another verse. Very rarely does a descriptive adjective at 
the close of one verse agree directly with a noun at the beginning 
of the next. The pause in the third foot also frequently indicates 
the construction of a word, by separating it from the preceding or 
connecting it with the following. 

j. A noun at the close of one verse often has an adjective 
apparently in agreement with it at the beginning of the next 
verse, but this adjective may be regarded as in apposition with the 
noun, and frequently serves to form a closer connection with a fol- 
lowing amplifying clause, as fiijviv oeiSc Btd . • • | ovXofihnfv 17 fivpC 
'Axoiots aXy€ iOrfKcv A 1 f., where the relative clause explains 
ovAo/xen/v : the wrath was mortal, deadly, because it brought ten 
thousand woes upon the Achaeans. So a few verses later, ytnurov 
ava. arparov &pa-€ KaKi^v, oXacovro Sk Xaoi A 10, the position of the 
adjective KaKi/v (following the pause in the third foot) is explained 
by its connection with the thought of the following clause; c/. 
vvv aZri fuv vtt^ 'A;(atetfi' | iv TraXdfirj^ ff^opiovfri SiKaxnrokot 01 T€ Oifu- 
aras | rrpoi Aiof eipvarai A 237 ff., where StKa<nroAot is explained by 
the following clause, avrov thus often contrasts a man with his com- 
panions or possessions, as airo fikv ^tXa Cifiara Swrw, { avrov Sk Khuovra 
doas lin v^a? aif>ya'<o B 261 ff. 



§ 12 a. HOMERIC STYLE xxxvii 

k. The subject of the sentence usually precedes its verb. Almost 
every exception to this remark is found either at the close of the 
verse, or (less frequently) before the principal caesura, where the 
same metrical freedom is allowed as at the end of the verse, § 59 a 3. 

1. In order to give prominence to an important word, it is some- 
times placed before the relative word of the clause to which it 
belongs, as oaoircpos cSs ice vci^cu A 32. This is specially frequent 
when the subordinate clause precedes the principal sentence, as 
*E#cr(i>p S' (Js %Kaids re irvXas . . . iKavey, | A/m.4>* Spa fuv , . . dcov icrX. 
Z237. 

m. Adnominal genitives and adjectives generally precede their 
noun, as in English, except at the close of the verse or at a caesural 
pause ; but there are many exceptions to the rule in the case of 
adjectives, principally, perhaps, where the adjective and substantive 
are closely connected. The adjective following its noun after a 
pause in the third foot is generally to be regarded as in apposition 
with the noun, as Kajcijv A 10, <^tAiyv A 20 (cf,j, above). A prepo- 
sition likes to stand near its noun, and so often stands between the 
adjective and its noun, as xp^^^^ ^^ a-Krjvrpiif A 15, $o€s iirl v^os 
A 12, tifuripi^ lv\ oiKO) A 30, vrja^ liri yXaff>vpds T 119. 

n. The infinitive generally follows the verb on which it depends. 

0. When a noun is modified by two adjectives, it frequently is 
preceded by one and followed by the other, as Oof mpa vrfl /xcAaiVg 
A 300. So in English poetry * human face divine,' 'purest ray 
serene,' * old man eloquent.' 

12. Epithets, a. Ornamental epithets frequently have reference 
to the most marked natural characteristics of an object rather 
than to a particular occasion. The ships are sivift (BoaC) even 
when they are drawn up on land (A 300 and passim). The heaven 
is starry even in broad daylight (Z 108). Homer calls milk Xcvkop 
(A 434), — of course, not to distinguish white milk from milk of 
another color, but to bring the object vividly before the mind by 
mentioning a quality of it which all would recognize as belonging 
to the nature of the object. The choice among these stereotyped 
conventional epithets was often determined by the convenience of 
meter or rhythm (see § 22 6 f.) 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION § 12 b. 

b. Almost every prominent person in the poems has some special 
epithet or epithets. Pope calls these 'a sort of supernumerary 
pictures of the persons or things they are joined to. We see the 
motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet KopvOaioko^,^ No one 
but Athena is yAavKco^is, and the adjective becomes virtually a 
proper name. She bears this epithet ninety times, generally in the 
phrase Oca yXavKunris 'A^ny. She is IlaXXaf 'A&iqvrf forty-one times. 
The Achaeans are €vkvi;/uSc9 'Axaiot thirty-six times, Koprf Ko/iocuvrcg 
twenty-nine times, in the genitive 'Axouwi' xoA'coxcraivaiv twenty-four 
times, vies 'A;(aioiv sixty-four times, Aaos 'A^aiwy twenty-two times, 
Kovpoi ^AxpuSiv nine times. Agamemnon is ava^ dvSplov forty-five times 
in the Iliad and thrice in the Odyssey, while this title is given to 
only five other chiefs, once to each. Achilles is iroSdpKri^ du>9 'AxtXAcvs 
twenty-one times, tto&is wjcw 'AxiAAcvs thirty times, 9roStt>Kcos AcaictSao 
ten times, 9roS<oicca ni;Aci<i>m ten times. Menelaus is < good at the 
war cry' (Pmjv aya66s) twenty-five times. Hector is KopvOalokoq 
thirty-seven times, ifnu^fioq "EKTtop thirty times. Cy. pius Aeneas, 
fidus Achates, and Longfellow's 'gentle Evangeline,' 'Basil the 
blacksmith,' 'Captain of Plymouth,' 'the Puritan maiden Priscilla.' 
'In our own national songs,' says Macaulay, 'Douglas is almost 
always the doughty Dauglds, England is merry England, all the 
gold is red, and all the ladies are gay,' Cf. § 22 a, h, e, /. 

c. The situation of the moment seems sometimes to contradict 
the epithet, as rov Sc i8<i>v piyrjac fiorfv ayaSo^ Aio/ii/Si^ E 696 at sight 
of him Diomed good at the war cry shuddered. 

d. Synonynums Expressions, The poet is fond of a cumulation 
of synonymous or nearly synonymous expressions, many of which 
remind the reader of redundant legal expressions, as ^con/aas wpwr- 
ipSa A 201 lifted up his voice and addressed her, hro^ r I^hit 2/c t' 
ovofjLoiev A 361 spoke a word and called upon him, c/xci) fGvros koI cttI 
X$ovl StpKOfitvoLO A 88, dirpiaTyjv avd'tt'oivov A 99, rtov ov ri fiCTarpiwrf ovS* 
aXeyL^tis A 160, iroXe/ioi tc fid)((u tc A 177, wdvrtov filv Kparitiv iStXci 
wdvTca'a-i 8* aydtra-civ, \ wflwrt Sk <njfjLOLiv€Lv A 288 f., out' tlpo/ixu outc 
fieraXXSi A 553, o^cat €i k iScXrjaSa koI el k€v toi ra /xc/ii/Xi; A 353, 
^yi/Topcs ^Sc fi€3ovrc9 B 79. Sometimes the same stem is repeated 
for emphasis, in a different form, as oipifjuov o^treXeoroi' B 325. 



§13 a. HOMERIC STYLE xxxix 

e. Epexegesis, A clause is often added epexegetically, to explain 
a preceding clause or word, as /x^viv . . . ovAo/xei^i/v rj fivpC *Axaiois 
oAyc* l$T^K€V A 1 f., ra TC 5a>/>' 'A^poSiri/f, j yj tc KOfirf to tc elSoc F 54 f . 
For explanatory asyndeton, see § 15 b. 

f. The sx>ecies often follows in apposition with the genus, as 
Kvfuvra lUXKpa &aXaj(T<nfi { vovrov 'iKapiCMO B 144 f., opviOwv, \ x^fviav B 
459 f., )8ov9 I ravpoi B 480 f. Cf, the explanatory use of the infini- 
tive, as ipiSi iw€rfk€ pA)(€o-OajL A 8 brought together in a strife j to 
contend, 

g. Thus also the part of the mind or body which is employed or 
specially affected is mentioned, as ovk 'Aya/ic/xvovt ijfv&xve Ovyi^ A 24, 
)((k>d/ACV09 'tajp A 44, K€)(apoiaTO Ovfi^ A 256, iv 6fl>&a\fJuounv opaxrBaJL 
r306. 

h. Stereotyped Expressions. The same expressions recur under 
similar circumstances. We find a stereotyped description of a feast 
and of the preparations for it, of the breaking of day and of the 
approach of night, of doi&ng or donning sandals and armor ; there 
are conventional expressions for setting out on a journey, for an 
attack in battle, for the fall and death of a warrior, for lying down 
to rest. Such formulae were convenient for the bard, and did not 
distract the attention of the hearer from more important matters. 
Speeches are introduced and followed by set verses, as W /xtv (or 
or^cas) ^ci>n^a9 circa wTcpdcvra wpwrqv&a A 201, and in fifty other 
places ; ^ cr^iv iv ^poviwf ayoprjaaro koL /xcrcctircv A 73 and in fourteen 
other places, while the second hemistich is found several times in 
other combinations ; ^ rot o y' (S? cittwv Kar &p* cfcro, rouri S* dvioTrj 
A 68, 101, B 76. These stereotyped verses have been compared 
with the frequently recurring * And Job answered and said,' * Then 
Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said,' of the book of Job, and 
with the set form in which the reports of the messengers were 
brought to the man of Uz, — each of the four reports ending ' and 
I only am escaped alone to tell thee.' 

13. a. Parechesis, Onomatopoeia^ etc. The poet seems to have 
looked with indifference on the similarity of sound in neighboring 
words. He does not appear to have designed the rhyme in IjccV^ot, 
h^xtxrdajL A 19 f., Scmtci, aTTUKrci A 96 f., xiowm, rtKovcra A 413 f., 



xl INTRODUCTION § 13 b. 

ipvacrav, rdywrcrav A 485 f ., or between the two hemistichs of a verse, 
as 2(nrerc injv /tot Movo-cu *OAvfiiria Sw/juar* Ixovcfu B 484. 

Most examples of parechesis (wapi^xn^^^) ^^^ alliteration are 

probably accidental, as iroXXiutv ck iroXifav B 131, h iroXefu>v ircoXi^crcai 
E 350, TrarpC re <r(^ M^y^i ir^/ta TroXi/i re jravri re Si^/aoi F 50. 

b. Occasionally an onomatopoetic (ovofiaroiroua), imitative expres- 
sion is used, giving a kind of echo in the sound, as rpixOd re icoi 
TtrpaxOd r 363, of the breaking of the sword of Menelaus; Ik Sk 
Xpva-TffU vrfo^ fiij wovroTropoio A 439, where a vivid imagination ihay 
perhaps hear the measured steps of the damsel as she leaves the 

. ship, with a quick rush at the close ; aZri^ cireira veSovSc KvXivSero 
Aaa9 6v(u^s A 598, of the rolling back of the stone which Sisyphus 
in Hades was continually urging to the summit of a hill. Cf. 
Vergil's quadrupedante putrem sonitu capit ungula cam- 
pum (Aen. viii. 596). 

c. The poet plays occasionally on the names of his heroes, as 
UpoSooi Oooq ^ye/xdvevev B 758 (^< swift by nature as well as by 
name"), TAiyTroAe/xov . « . rXrjfiova Ovfiov i^mv E 668 ff., iBicrop . . . ^9 
irov arcp Xa<ov TroAtv Ijc/xev E 472 f., where l^i/icv seems to be selected 
with reference to the assumed etymology of *£#cr(t>p. 

14. a. Camparisans or Similes. A notable characteristic of 
Homeric style is the comparison. This is designed to throw into 
high relief some point in the action narrated, especially some 
change in the situation; it often relieves the monotony of the 
description of a battle. But the poet is not always satisfied to 
illustrate the particular point for which the comparison is intro- 
duced; he often completes the picture by adding touches which 
have nothing to do with the narrative, as is done in the parables 
of Scripture, and the similarity of details must not be pressed. 

b. Illustrations are furnished by all experiences of life, from the 
lightning of Zeus and the conflict of opposing winds, from the snow- 
storm and the mountain torrent, to a child playing with the sand 
on the seashore, and a little girl clinging to her mother's gown ; 
from lions and eagles, to a stubborn ass which refuses to be driven 
from a cornfield by children, and to a greedy fly ; from the evening 
star, to women wrangling in the street. The lion is a special 



§ 15 a. HOMERIC STYLE xli 

favorite, and appears in comparisons thirty times in the Uiad, 
These comparisons afford a wider view of life in the Homeric age 
than is presented by the events themselves. 

c. Homer, like Milton, could not think of an army in motion 
without thinking of its resemblance to something else. Just before 
the Catalogue of the Ships, the movements of the Achaean armies 
are described by six detailed jcomparisons (B 455-483): the splendor 
of their armor is compared with the gleam of fire upon the moun- 
tains (455-458) ; their noisy tumult, with the clamor of cranes or 
swans on 'the Asian plain (459-466) ; in multitude, they are as the 
innumerable leaves and flowers of springtime (467 f.) ; they are 
impetuous and bold as the eager flies around the farm buildings 
(469-473) ; they are marshaled by their leaders as flocks of goats 
by their herds (474-479); their leader (Agamemnon) is like to 
Zeus, to Ares, to Poseidon, — he is preeminent among the heroes 
as a bull in a herd of cattle (480-483). 

d. The Eiad has 182 detailed comparisons, seventeen briefer 
(as irouriv coikotcs •fjyopaaa'Bt \ vrpriaxpt^ oh ov ri ftcAci voXcfirjia €pya 
B 337 f.), and twenty-eight of the briefest sort. The Odyssey has 
thirty-nine detailed comparisons, six briefer, and thirteen very 
brief. The first book of the Iliad has only two comparisons, and 
those of the briefest, 6 8' ffu wktI loiKm A 47, i^vr ofux^V ^ ^^f 
in addition to oo-orc 3c oi irvpl Xafnrcrwovrt iUrrfv A 104. Books B— Z 
have forty detailed comparisons. 

e. Comparisons are introduced by ok tc, m ci, w? ore, m trcp ktX. 
Prepositive <£$ iB not used in comparisons (except in p. 433). 

In the briefest comparisons, postpositive m is often used, generally 
lengthening the preceding syllable (§ 59 j). 

f. The aorist indicative (the so-called * gnomic aorist ') is often 
used in comparisons, as P 4, 10, 23, 33. 

15. a. Asyndeton, In the Homeric period more frequently 
than in later Greek, sentences were left unconnected by conjunc- 
tions, t.e. asyndeton (H. 1039) was allowed more freely. Omar 
mental epithets are not connected by koI, and sometimes in animated 
discourse the poet uses no conjunction between clauses or words, 
as &irptarrpp diuiroivov A 99. 



xlii INTRODUCTION § 15 b. 

b. Asyndeton of sentences is most frequent where the second 
sentence explains the first and is in a kind of apposition with it, 
repeating the thought in a different form : dXXa kox tk i$€\w 8o/Acmi 
iroXii' ci TO y ofuivov \ povXo/i fyo> Xaov o-oov ififi€vai ^ dtroXia-Oai A 
116 f., & irowot, 9 f'^O' v€v$Oi 'A;((utSa yoSav iKavet* | rj k€v yrf$i^<rai 
TlpiofAOi Hpidfioio re iroSScs A 254 f., dAA* oS' a^p iOiXti irtpl ttoktcdv 
1/i/u.cvai oAActfv, I iravroF fikv Kpariav iOiXu irdvTtatn 8* &i^<r€iv A 287 f. 
In B 299, rX^c ^tXot icac fjueivar iwi xpovov gives the sum of the 
preceding sentence, and the asyndeton marks the speaker's warmth 
of feeling. 

c. An adversative relation (but) is occasionally expressed by an 
asyndeton, especially with ye /iCK in the second clause, as B 703, 
E 516. 

d. The absence of a conjunction often gives rapidity to the style 
and thus is found often where the second sentence begins with 
avruca or oT^ as ci 8' ^yc p,rfv irtCprjaoA . . . oZ^a roi.aXpjOL iccAaivov 
ipiai^crtt v€pi Sovpi A 302 f., avriica KepTop^oia-t ACol Kpoviiava 7rpo(n;vSa 
A 539; ef. B 442. 

16. a. ChitMrnxts} For emphasis, the poet sometimes so 
arranges the words of two clauses that the extremes, as also the 
means, are correlative with or contrasted with each other, as m&d, 
T€ am dycficv, ^t)3(p ff iiprfv cKard/xjSi^v A 443, where ircu&i and 
Uarop-Prp^, aoi and ^i)3(|i respectively are contrasted. Cf. m 
'A^tA^a I Tififjaiffi oAcot/s 8i iroXw A 558 f., 8vorfLCF€<nv f*cv X^f^ 
KaTri<lnirfv Sk col avrtf T 51, apvy vrtpov Acv/cov, krip-qv 8c /liXaivavy \ Tf 
re fcai 'U€Xiff T 103 f., where the black lamb was for T^ and the 
white for 'HcAtos, — jSturtAcw r dyaSoi Kparepoi r aixfiTfn^ T 179, 
where the adjectives are brought together, A 450 f. Cf, Milton's 
''Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,' Far. Lost iv. 641, 

^ The name is given from the Greek letter X, there being a crossing of 
ideas, as: 

KpartfAt ^ alxiMiT-iit T 179. 

It should be noticed that this chiastic arrangement is often the most simple and 
natural, as in the first example above, where vol at once suggests the other 
person interested, 4H>c/3ot. 



§16d. HOMERIC STYLE xliii 

< Adam the goodliest man of men since bom | His sons, the fairest 
of her daughters Eve/ Far. Lost iv. 323 f ., and Shakspere's < Malice 
domestic, foreign levy/ McLcbeth iii. 2. 25. 

b. Epanalepsis. Sometimes a word (generally a proper name) 
or a clause is repeated in the same sentence at the beginning of a 
new verse. Cf, Milton's Lycidas 37 f . ' But the heavy change, 
now thou art gone, | Now thou art gone and never must return,' 
58 f . < What could the muse herself that Orpheus bore, | The 
muse herself for her enchanting son ? ' The name is repeated at 
the beginning of three successive verses (Nipcvs . . . Ncpcvs . . • 
Nipcvs), B 671 ff. €f, also B 838, 850, 871, Z 164. The name when 
repeated is attracted into the case of the following relative pro- 
noun, in *Ay&pofmxrif Ovydrrfp fuyaXrjropoi *Herui>vos, | 'Hertoiv o$ Ivoicv 
viro nAaic<p vXrfwaif Z 395 f. Andronidche, daughter of the great- 
souled Eetion, Eetion who dwelt a>t the foot of woody PUictts, 
' c. Litotes (Xirorrrfi or /iciWis), a simplicity of language, or under- 
statement of the truth (usually a strong affirmation by denial of the 
contrary), is common to all languages. Milton's <unblest feet' is 
stronger than cursed feet, Homeric examples abound, as ovk 'Aya- 
fi€fi,yovi ^vSave Ovfi^ A 2A it was not pleasing to the soul of Agamemr- 
nan, i.e, it was hateful, etc.; &^ 8' ^9 icovAcov Jae fitya (i4>oi ovh* 
6.iri$rf(T€y \ fivOi^ ^ASrjvoLrp A 220 f. ba>ek into the sheath he thrust his 
great sword nor did he disobey the word of Athena, i,e. he obeyed ; 
'^KTtap S' ov ri ^cas cirof •qyvoitfaey B 807. 

d. a. Periphrasis, Certain periphrases occur frequently, as ofcre 
8c npiofUHo piriv r 105 bring the might of Priam, i,e, the mighty 
Priam, Ila^Aaydvcov S* ^yciro IIvAat/xcvcos Xdatov lajp B 851, y Iwu 
wvTj<ra^ KpahCrp^ A109 i}^ kcI ipyta A 395, iroXe/u.i^ia ipya B 338, works of 
war, Le, war, fiei/09 <&v8pcii>v B 387, i,e, brave men, C/. odbra canum 
vis Yerg. Aen, iv. 132, horrentia centum terga sdum ih, i. 
634 f. ; < First, noble friend, let me embrace thine age,' Shakspere 
Tempest v. i; <The majesty of buried Denmark,' Hamlet init.; 
Milton's < Meanwhile . . . where the might of Gabriel fought,' Par, 
Lost vi. 355 ; ' The violence | Of Ramiel, scorcht and blasted, over- 
threw,' ib, vi. 371 f . ; < By them stood the dreaded name | Of 
Demogorgon,' ib. ii. 965. 



xliv INTRODUCTION § 16 e. 

p. Some of these periphrases were used simply for metrical con- 
Y^nience. E.g. Pirf 'HpaucXyftirf is equivalent to 'HpaKXirf^, which is 
not suited to the Homeric verse. 

y. 8ovAiov ^fAop Z 463 is simply a poetic expression for slavery, 
iXtvOepov ^fmp Z 455 for freedom, 

e. Zeugma, Sometimes two connected subjects or objects are 
construed with a verb which is appropriate to but one of them, 
as 17 fikv iir€tra | cis aXa. aXro • • • | Z€\s 8^ cov irpos ^/jlol (sc. Ifirf) 
A 531 ff. shs then leaped into the sea, but Zeus went to his own house, 
^Xt. tKWjrtf I tmrot dcpo-tiroScs koI ttoiklKol rtvx^ iKtiro V 326 f. where 
the high-stepping horses of each were standing, and the bright armor 
wa>s lying, Cf Shakspere, Sonnet 55, 7, * Nor Mars his sword, nor 
war's quick fire shall bum | The living record of your memory.' 

f. Hysteron Proteron. Occasionally the more important or obvi- 
ous object or action is mentioned before another which should 
precede it in strict order of time, as a/m rpa4>tv ^Sc ywvro A 251 
were bred and bom with him, Cf, Shakspere, Twelfth Night i. ii. 
< For I was bred and born | Not three hours' travel from this very 
place' and Vergil's moriamur et in media arma ruamus Aen, 
ii. 353. In some phrases metrical convenience may have deter- 
mined the order of expression. 

g. Apostrophe, At times the poet addresses directly one of his 
characters, as ovSc o-c^cv, McvcXac, Otol fmKopt^ X^XdSovro A 127 nor 
did the gods forget thee, Menelaus, Ivff dpa roi, HdrpoKXt, <l>dvrf fiioroio 
TcAcvTiJ n 787 then, Patroclus, appeared for thee the end of life. 
Fifteen times in the Odyssey the poet thus addresses the ' godlike 
swineherd' Eumaeus, — which may be there chiefly a metrical con- 
venience. Cf Milton's apostrophe to Eve, ' O much deceiv'd, much 
failing, hapless Eve, | Of thy presum'd return,' Par, Lost ix. 404 f. 

17. Later Change in Words, The student must be watchful to 
apprehend the exact Homeric meaning of words which are used in a 
slightly different sense in later Greek. Thus dyopi; and dy^v are 
used in Homer of an assembly, gatherifig, not of market and contest, 
'A1S17S is always the name of a person, not of a place. doiSoq, doi^ 
are used for the Attic ironfn^^, v/jlvo^, — ctto^ and fivSoq are used for 
Xoyos, KwrfLim for rdxra-m, fiXdirro) is to injtire by detaining, detain. 



§18b. HOMERIC SYNTAX xlv 

Seivds means terrible^ not skilfuL Scutkov is the principal meal of 
the day, whenever it is taken, ^yx^ means spear^ neyer sword. 
cftm^s is used for the Attic oim^j nevertheless, tjpioi is used of all the 
warriors ; it does not mean a hero in the English sense. Otpairtav 
was nearly the Spartan Otpaar^av^ — not a menial servant, ijytofuu is 
to leady not to think. Kpivta is to select, discrimiruUe, rather than 
to judge. Aao9 [XcoSs] is often used of soldiery. Xuraofuu is used 
only once of entreaty addressed to gods. fjL^XXm never means delay, 
voiia often has the sense of aiaOavofuu (which is not Homeric), per- 
ceive, and if>pdloiJuu is to tonsider, vofio^ is not used for law. oyofjuu 
is not to blame in a general way, but to think insufficient, despise. 
ovra{(i> is wound with a weapon held in the hand, not with a missile. 
irifjuria is escort, aMend, as well as send ; cf. iro/iin;, convoy. v6k€fioi 
is often battle rather than war. irpi^otru is to carry through rather 
than to do, as in Attic. crxcSdv is near, of place, not almost, aw/xa 
is used only of a dead body, 8^s being used of the living form, and 
avroc and irepi ;(pof taking some of the Attic uses of a^im. ra^ 
always means quickly, never perhaps, as in later Greek. rlOrnu is 
often used like irouw, make, rh^fuay is bold, or enduring, rather than 
wretched, as in later Greek. ^iXca> is often to entertain hospitably (i.e. 
as a friend, ^4X09). 4>6poi is not fright but flight; if>oP«iyuai is 
not fear but flee, cus does not mean since. xtvSvvof , opyi;, 67X11-179, 
oTpardvcSov, and irrpartfYOi are not used. 

With these changes the student may compare the changes in 
meaning of many words between Shakspere's time and our own, as 
in honest, charity, convenient, prevent, homely, painful. 

HOMERIC SYNTAX, 

18. a. In syntax, as in forms, where the Homeric dialect 
differs from the Attic it may be presumed that the Homeric usage 
is the earlier. The language was less rigid ; custom had not yet 
established certain constructions as normal. There was greater 
freedom in the use of the modes and the cases, of prepositions and 
conjunctions. 

b. It is impossible to bring the Homeric uses of the modes 
under the categories and rules that prevailed in the Attic period. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION § 18 c. 

Intermediate in force between the simple future and the potential 
optative with a» were : — 

o. The future with k^ as 6 8c jcck K^xoKwrenu A 139 ; cf. A 175, 
523, B 229. 

p. The subjunctive as a less vivid future, as ov yap vw rolov^ l&ov 
dv€pa9 ovSk IBtafjuu A 262 / never yet saw such men nor shall I see them. 
(H. 868; G. 1321.) 

y. The subjunctive with k€v or av, as a potential mode, as ci 8c Kt 
fkri BtatMnv, iytti 8c /ccv avros c\(t>/uu A 137 bid if they will not give it, 
I myself will then take, etc. ovk av roi xp^^f^V '^I'^w T ^^ l^ 
dthara would not in that case avail thee. 

8. The potential optative without av, as B 687, A 18. 

c. The subjunctive is used more freely in Homer than in later 
Greek. 

d. a. Homer prefers ci with the subjunctive to cT kcv (ou jccv) or 
et av with the subjunctive, d av is not used in general conditions. 

p. u K€v is rarely used with the optative (twenty-nine times in 
all); never in the expression of a wish, ei av is used with the 
optative but once, eiirtp iv avral I fJMva-ai aeiBouv B 597 f. 

y. The optative in indirect discourse is used for the indicative in 
direct discourse only in questions. 

8. In a few passages the optative with iccv is used in the apodo- 
sis, where Homeric and Attic usage alike lead us to expect av with 
a past tense of the indicative, as B 81,. r 220, E 85, koi vv kcv Iv^ 
diroXoiro Svai AvSpStv Aivcuis, | ct fivf op* o^v vorfct Aios ^ydrrfp *A<l>po- 
Birrf E 311 f. << Aeneas would have perished if Aphrodite had not 
perceived." 

e. a. The infinitive is often (in about two hundred cases, — nearly 
twice as frequently in the Odyssey as in the Iliad) used as an 
imperative, as A 20. 

p. The ' explanatory ' or ' epexegetical ' use of the infinitive is 
frequent, as A 8, 107, 338, B 108. Often, as in these instances, this 
is a survival of the old datival origin of the mood. 

f . K€v is used four times as frequently as av. 

g. The ' historical present ' is not lised. 

h. The imperfect is much used, even associated with the aorist. 



§ 19 g. HOMERIC SYNTAX xItu 

L hrri is not always a mere oopola, and is oecasionalljr modified 
by an adverb, as a true verb of existence ; cf, hm rv rm mau fmvOa, 
vcp, ov rt puaXa Siyv A ^Q gimee thy appointed time of life is bruf, etc, 
and iuwwOa Sc ot yoc^ 6pft4 A 466 but brief was his onseL 

19. a. The cases retained more of their original force than in 
Attic and had less need of a preposition to make the ocxistniction 
distinct (it was once thought that the poet omitted the preposition 
for the convenience of his verse), as the ablatival genitive in IpKo^ 
*A)(auMriy wtXerat voX^^oco mojcmo A 284 is a bulwark for the Achaeans 
from (to keep off) evil war, KapmaXifLmi areSv voXi^v 0A09 71^* ofuxXtf 
A 359 swiftly she rose as a mist out of the hoary sea. The dative of 
place is often found without a preposition, as rof* Zfunaiv i^m^ ^ ^^ 
having his bow upon his shoulder, 

b. The accusative without a preposition often expresses the 
'limit of motion,' as A 254, 497. This construction is frequent 
with tKm, ijcayai, ixvcofuu, but rare with dfUy Ip^o/Moif Pal^m, Cf Mil- 
ton's ' Arrive the happy isle,' Far. Lost ii. 409 ; Tennyson's * Arrive 
at last the happy goal,' In Mem. Ixxxiii. 

c. Clear examples of the so-<»klled < accusative of specification' 
are not nearly so common as in later Greek. 

d. Many cognate accusatives are on their way to become adverbs. 

e. The prepositions still retain much of their adverbial nature, 
and have not become fixedly attached to the verbs which they 
modify (§ 55). It was once thought that the occasional separation 
of verb and preposition was a poetic license, and (considered as a 
surgical operation) it was called tmesis. The student may think of 
the freedom of the prepositions of some German compound verbs. 

f . In the Homeric period certain constructions were only begin- 
ning to appear definitely in use, such as the accusative with the 
infinitive, and the genitive absolute. 

g. a. The genitive absolute is more frequent with the present 
participle than with the aorist participle. The genitive absolute 
with omitted subject is particularly rare, and is denied by most 
scholars. The participle sometimes seems to be used with omitted 
subject when it really agrees with the genitive which is implied in 
a preceding dative. 



xlviii INTRODUCTION § 19 h. 

p. It is often impossible to say categorically whether the genitive 
is in the absolute construction or rather depends on some other 
word, as viro ^ Tpoic? kcxoSovto | <!y8po9 &KovrL(r€ravroi A 497 f., where 
the position of the genitive at the beginning of the verse gives it 
greater independence, but it was probably influenced by the verb, 
the Trojwns drew back from the man a« he hurled his javelin ; ef. 
lKXay(av S' op' otOToi ctt* cS/xwi^ ^wofjJifOio | avrov kwtjOIvto^ A 46 f. 

y. Sometimes a preposition is used where the genitive absolute 
would be used in Attic prose, as <Sfi^t 8c vrjvi \ a-fupSaXtov Kovafii^aav 
dvo-ovrcDi^ vv *A;(attt>v B 333 f. 

h. The dative of interest is often used with the verb where the 
English idiom prefers a possessive genitive with a noun, as Sam hi 
oi wrat i>aavOtv A 200 terribly did her (lit. for her the) eyes gleam; 
or is used instead of an ablatival genitive with a preposition, as 
AaKoourtv dciKca Xotyov diroxrci A 97 wiU ward off ignominious destruc- 
tion from (lit. /or) the Dandi ; or instead of a genitive with verbs 
of ruling and leading, as irmrrtfrax S' dvao-crciv A 288 to reign over 
(lit. be the king for) all; or instead of an adverbial expression, as 
roid-i 8' &yi(rrri A 68 for them rose (not to be taken as a local dative, 
am>ong them). 

i. viro is used with the dative in almost the same sense as with 
the genitive in Attic, as ^So/ai; viro xcp<^^ iro3c0#ccos AuiKtSoo B 860 he 
was slain by the hands of the swiftrfooted Aeacides, with perhaps 
more of the original local force of the preposition. 

j. The use of ij after a comparative is rare; only nineteen 
instances are found in Homer. 

k. Some constructions were used more freely and constantly 
than in later Greek. Certain of these were always looked upon 
as poetic, as OtC^ ireSibio Z 507 runs over the plain, \av€(rOai irora- 
fijoio Z 508 bathe in the river. For the genitive of the place to which 
the action belongs, see H. 760 ; G. 1137. 

1. A neuter noun in the plural is the subject of a plural verb 
more frequently than in Attic. 

20. a. Particles, a. The beginner in reading Homer is per- 
plexed by a large number of particles that are not easy to render 
by English words. Their force can often be given best by the 



§21 a. HOMERIC SYNTAX xlix 

order of the words in the translation or by the tone of voice in 
reading. To translate pa as was natural (or even you see or you 
know) or yt at leaMj often throws upon the particle very dispropor- 
tionate emphasis. The student can most easily and clearly appre- 
ciate the force of a particle by comparing a number of examples 
which have become familiar to him ; he will then see the impor- 
tance of these particles to the character and tone of a speech or of 
the narrative. 

p. T€ is used far more freely than in Attic prose. A single re is 
often used to connect single notions, as Kweaaiv \ omvoUrC re A 4 f . 

y. 6<^pa is the usual particle to introduce a final clause. 

b. Interrogative Particles, a. The general interrogative particle 
in Homer is ^, but in a double question (where the Attic Greek 
uses vdrcpov ... 17) 17 or ^c stands in the iirst member, ^ or ^c in the 
second ; cf. A 190 ff. 

p. When 9 introduces a single question, it is rarely used as in 
Attic, as a mere interrogation point. It regularly implies emotion 
of some kind, as A 133, 203. 

21. a. Parataxis, The Homeric language is far less distinct 
than the Latin or the English in the expression of logical relations, 
and gives less prominence to the logical forms of syntax ; but it is 
seldom difficult to appreciate the ancient idiom if an attempt is 
made to find the Homeric point of view. 

The Homeric poems contain many survivals of the simplest form 
of sentences. In the earliest stage of the Greek language, clauses 
were not combined with each other as secondary and principal ; 
they were simply added one to the other. To use the technical terms, 
coordination or parataxis (wapdraiL^) was the rule, — not subotrlina- 
tion or hypotaxis (wrorofts). Originally the relatives were demon- 
stratives, and relative sentences have been called 'parenthetic 
demonstrative sentences.' Thus 8c was used in the apodosis of 
relative and conditional sentences. This was especially frequent 
when the relative or conditional clause preceded, as ci 8c /cc firj 
^lauHTiv, cyoi Si k€v avros c\a>/iai A 137 but if they shall not give it, 
(but) then I myself shall take, etc, cTo9 6 ravO* u}pfuuv€ . . . ^A^c 8' 
'A^ijviy A 193 f. while he was pondering this . . . (but) then Athena 



1 INTRODUCTION § 21 b. 

came, on/ ircp ^vAAo>v yevci;, roirf 8c xoi dySpoiv Z 146 as is the race of 
leaves, (but) even siLch is also the race of men. Boavrdp and dXXa are 
used with stronger emphasis than 8c, as ct 8^ crv tcaprtpo^ iaa-i, ^ca 8c 
crc yuvaro fJi-^irrfo, \ (SAA* o8c ^tpr^po^ iariv iirti irXcovccrcrtvayao'crci A 280 f. 
but if thou art mighty and a goddess is thy mother, (but) yet, etc., 
where the apodosis is really contrasted with the protasis ; ef. A 81, 
quoted in the next paragraph. 

b. Compare with the foregoing the use of icai in the conclusion 
of relative sentences, to mark the connection of the clauses. Thus 
also re was freely used in subordinate clauses, as 09 icc BtoK limrdBrftajL 
fidXa r IkXvov avrov A 218 whoever obeys the gods, (and) himself the 
gods readily hear; and tc . . . ri is found in both protasis and 
apodosis, marking their correlation, as c? ircp yap re xoAov . . . Kara- 
v&lnf, I dAAa re icai fjaromaOev c;(ei kotov A 81 f . for even if he should 
restrain his wrath, (but) yet even hereafter, etc. 

c. The first part of a paratactic sentence may introduce the 
cause or reason for what follows, as in Andromache's words to 
Hector, *Ejcrop iiTap <rv fAol iaai warrfp kcI votvul fJ^irrfp, \ -qSk icacri- 
yvi;ro9, av 8c fioi OaXtpo^ irapaKoCrrii' \ dAX' aye vvv cXeoupc koI avrov 
fjiifiv iirl wvpyif Z 429 ff. but thou. Hector, art my father, etc., 
which implies " Hector, since thou art my all." 

d. Correlative Construct iofis. The Greek language was always 
fond of a parallel or antithetic construction, a contrast, a balance, 
where the English subordinates one thought to the other ; but the 
adversative relation, where the English idiom would use a subordi- 
nate clause introduced by for, although, when, while, or since, is 
more frequent in these poems than in later Greek, as dXka viOeaS^' 
dfiifxo 8c vea>re/D<i> iarov ifieio A 259, ^vXXa ra p.€v r' avcfios xapjo^^ xiu, 
oAAa hi 9 vXt; | ri^Xetfooxra ^ucc, lapo9 8* lirtyiyvtrai wpy Z 147 f. . . . 
when the season of spring comes on, ifpjkv 817 iror" ificv irdpo% licXvcs cv£a- 
ftevoio ... '^8' In KoL vvv fioi roB* iiriKpT^rfvov iiXBwp A 453 fP. a^ thou 
didst hear my former prayer so now also fulfill this my desire. 

e. avrdp also is used where a causal particle would be used in 
English, as o8vi^i irtirappiivo^, avrap 6t(rro9 | cofup Ivl arifiap^ ^Xi/Xaro 
E 399 f. thrilled with pains since the arrow was fixed in his stout 
shoulder. 



§22 a. THE HOMERIC DIALECT U 

1 In these contrasted clauses, jit, alrrc, avrdpf Ardp, dXAo, as well as 
&€, may be used in correlation with ^cf. And teal rm and olpa (pa, 
0^) are used as well as 8c to mark the apodosis. 

g. A copulatiye conjunction is sometimes used where the English 
uses a disjunctive or, as rptirX^ rerpairX^Vc A 128 threefold or (and) 
fourfold, in which prominence is given to the second member. Cf 
€va Kol Svo B 346, xOi^d T€ K€U vpcDi^a B 303, TpiySa re «ai rerpa^a 
r 363, ttrque quaterque becUi Verg. Aen. i. 94. 

h. The Homeric poet sometimes puts into an independent clause 
the incidental thought which in later Greek would be expressed 
regularly by a participle, as Aaoi S' '^prjauvro Otols iSk x^H^^ Avitrxpv 
T 318 the people prayed to the gods wUh uplifted hands (lit. and 
lifted their hands) ; for xtipa^ iLvaxrxovTt^, ef fuyaX* €i;;(cto, x!upa% Ava- 
axtay A 450; (Zcvs fupfirjpilt ck *A;(tA7a) rifn^crj;, 6\4irg Sk iroAm im 
Yi/valy 'A;(pufi»v B 4 was pondering how he might honor Achilles by 
destroying (lit. and destroy), etc. ; cf ^XBe i^tpwy, ix,^^ A 12 f . ; dXX 
dxiown. K^Btfco, c^up &* imwciOco fjLvSi^ A 565 for ip^ ir€iBofA€vri ftv^. 

i. Conversely, the participle, as in later Greek, often contains 
the principal idea, as Karcycvcrcv | *IXiov. iicirtpanvT evrct)(cov dirovccflrAu 
B 113 promised thai I should sack Eios, and return, but in the very 
next verse is the English idiom, vvv 8i Ka#ci^v Anurrfy jSovXcucraro, koi 
fu fccXcvci I Svo-icAcDi ^Apyof txccrAu B 114 f. planned an evU deceit and 
bids me go, etc., for &Trdrrjy jSovXcveras . 

THE HOMERIC DIALECT. 

StSt. a. The dialect of the Homeric poems is in one sense arti- 
ficial : it was spoken at no place and at no time. But it is not a 
mosaic composed of words and forms chosen capriciously from the 
different Greek dialects ; it is a product of natural growth. The 
poets retained many old words and forms which had disappeared 
from the spoken language (cf hath, loved, I ween, etc., in English 
verse), and unconsciously excluded all that was not adapted to 
dactylic verse ; but they did no violence to their language ; they 
did not wantonly change metrical quantities, nor did they intro- 
duce new grammatical terminations, nor violate syntactic usage. 



lii INTRODUCTION § 22 b. 

b. The student must always remember that the Homeric dialect 
was not a modification of the Attic dialect, and was not derived 
from it, but that it represents an older^tage of the language. 
Many Attic forms can be derived from the Homeric forms. Thus 
Homer uses the longer for&s of the dative plural, as KoiXtfo-iv [icot- 
Xai^'] A 26, oliovouTi [oiwvoUf § 35 £^] A 5; of the genitive singular 
of the second declension, as Ilpia/iioio [Upia/Aov, § 35 a] A 19; and 
of the infinitive endings, as xoAoxr^icv [xoXqktciv, § 44 /] A 78, 
Bofievai [Sovvoi] A 98 ; and uncontracted forms generally, as oXyca 
[aXytf, § 24] A 2, irtXeUro [ctcXcito] A 5, 'Arptt^ A 7. Even 
where a shorter form is used, as iarav [lon^onv] A 535, irdpoiv 
[cToipcuv] A 349, this is not to be regarded as shortened from the 
Attic form, but as nearer the original. 

c. The Homeric dialect is essentially Ionic and seems to have 
been developed among the lonians of Asia Minor, influenced pos- 
sibly by the speech and certainly far more by the old poems of their 
Aeolian neighbors. The oldest form of Greek epic songs seems 
to have been Aeolic, but the lonians brought epic poetry to per- 
fection. Even the Pythian priestess delivered the oracles of 
Apollo in epic verse and Ionic dialect, and the Dorian Spartans 
sang about their camp fires the Ionian songs of Tyrtaeus. 

d. Some forms seem to be borrowed from other dialects ; but the 
student must remember that when the poems were composed, the 
difference between the dialects was less than at the earliest period 
when we have monumental evidence concerning these. 

e. The conservation of old forms together with the introduction 
of new forms was very convenient for the verse ; e.f/, for the infini- 
tive of the verb to be, Homer could use Ififievat as dactyl, _ v^ vy ; 
Hfitvai as anapaest, ^ w _ ; tfifi€v as trochee, _ w ; ifuv as pyrrhic, 

w ^ ; ctmi as spondee, Naturally, the choice being offered, 

metrical convenience determined which of these forms should be 
used. No difference in meaning exists between KpoviW, 807i of 
Cronus, and Kpovi8i;9. Metrical convenience often or generally 
decides between the use of "A^aiot or *Apycibi. If prominence is 
to be given to the name of the Greeks, at the beginning of the 
verse, "Apyctot must be used. On the other hand, the verse can 



§23 a. VOWELS AND VOWEL CHANGES Uii 

dose with 'A;^o4 but not with AaFaoi or * Apyctot, — with *Apy€iounv, 
but not with 'A^otoibriv, with 'Axoicav, but not with Aamuv or 
'Apycuuv. Vergil also uses Argi, Achivi, Danai, Dorici, and 
Pelasgi as synonymous. 

f. Synonyms and stock epithets or phrases, also, are used 
according to the poet's convenience, dvai Ay&play 'Ayaftcftvoiv is used 
after the feminine caesura (§ 58 /) of the third foot, but tvpv Kpttwv 
' AyafJL€fivi0Vf * AyafUfjivovo^ 'ArpciSao, or * Ayafitfivova woifJLtva Xauay after 
the masculine caesura of the same foot. UrfX,rfi,d&€<a 'AxiX^os is used 
after the masculine caesura of the' third foot (§ 58 e), ird&i9 <oicvs 
'AxiAXcvs after the masculine caesura of the fourth foot (§ 58 g), 
but irftSaptcrfi Sftb« *A)^iAAcu$, iroScaiceos AlaxiSauo or Afivfiovo^ AtajciSoo, 
TroSdpK€l HrjXettavif voStaKta IIi/XciCDva, Afivfiova HrjXcuava, OV 'A;(iAA^ 
wroXlwopBov, after the feminine caesura of the third foot, with SSo? 
*AxiAXcv9 as a tag when the verse is filled up to the bucolic diaeresis 
(§ 58 h), Cf, the epithets of Apollo, licaroio A 385 v^ w — w , 
iicrfPoXov A 14 v^ — vy ^ , cic<icpy09 A 479 v^ vy — vy , iKarrfpoXov 
A 370 K^ \^ ^ w \j , iKarrfPtXirajo A75v-'v>'__^^^^-_w. See § 12 b. 

g. Some anomalies of form (as of verse) are as yet unexplained, 
but the assumption is justified that all which remain either (1) 
were supported by the usage of the people and might be explained 
by more complete knowledge of the history of the language, or 
(2) followed the analogy of what was in use, or (3) are errors 
which have found their way into the text during the course of 
transmission to the present time. As the poems were handed 
down among the Greeks at first orally, and afterwards still uncrit- 
ically for centuries, errors unavoidably crept in, and when the older 
forms were unprotected by the meter, the obsolete forms were 
gradually assimilated to (or replaced by) what was later and more 
familiar. 

VOWELS AND VOWEL CHANGES. 

23. a. i;.is regularly used for a, as dyopi^, o/too/, n/w, except in 
$€a, goddess, Aaos, people, some proper names (as AlvtCas), and where 
a consonant has been lost, as fidi^, ^x<^^' Occasionally, as B 370, 



liv INTKODUCTION § 23 b. 

/Aoy is found instead of the less frequent fii^v (the strong form of 
fUy). i\To A 632 (from SXXofim) is another instance of a, unless it 
is to be written JDlro. a remains when it is th^ product of con- 
traction or < compensative lengthening/ as 6pf, ira^s. (H. 30 D.) 

b. The final a of the stem is retained in the gemtiy^ endings -ao 
and -diav of the first declension, as 'ArpciiSao A 203. 

c. ao and 170 often change to €w, with transfer of quantity: 
'ArpciSao, *Arpci8c«0. Cf, /ScuriA^os with Attic /Soun^ccnc, Mp^a and 
UpioL But the frequent Aads never has the Attic fbrm Xcwf. 

d. Compensative lengthening is sometimes found where it is not 
in Attic, as (twoi (^cv^os), civcjca (Lesbian Ivvcjca), Kovprf (xopfo), 
fAovvo9 [/A<$yos], oipo9 (6pf09), iovpo9 [fiopv], ttro9 (furpo^). 

e. Diphthongs occasionally preserve t where it is lost in Attic 
before a vowel : aUt, alero^, ^reXcuro (§ 47 g), vaKwaKt, ^Xoci^, wvotij. 

f . But 1 is lost before a vowel in «!«« (cJxeui) *lpi^ B 786, in -oo for 
-oio as genitive ending of the second declension (§ 35 b), and in ifih 
for ifUu}, etc. ; cf, xpvo-ctoi? A 246 with XP^^^ ^ ^^- ^ ^^ Attic, 
the penult is sometimes short in vtos (as A 489, A 473). In these 
cases i has turned into y. Likewise v is sometimes dropped between 
two vowels, — becoming w. See § 59 A; 8. 

24. Contraction, Concurrent vowels generally remain uncon- 
tracted: dcfco>v, cUyca, irw (in nominative and vocative singular), 
&f {ifi^ = ovis, ewe), Attic cv is regularly Iv before two conso- 
nants, and the adjective is always {v$ or ^v$. Patronymics from 
nouns in -cvs form -€%9, -cia>v, as 'ArpcfSi^s A 7, ni;Xefa)va A 197. 
These uncontracted vowels were originally separated by a conso- 
nant (H. 37D; G. 846.) 

25. Synixesis. a. Vowels which do not form a true diphthong 
may be blended in pronunciation into one long sound, for example, — 

*ArpetSc«0 \j \j , ^cociScn F 27, 817 ovro>s A 131, 817 avrc A 340, 

iroXiOf B 811, 'Icrruuav B 537, trxerXiri T 414, in which 1 must have 
had very nearly the pronunciation of its cognate semivowel y. 
The genitives of the first declension in -ecu, -ca>v are always pro- 
nounced with synizesis. (H. 42 D; 6. 47.) 

b. Synizesis often served the purpose of the later contraction. 
i)/uiav did not differ in metrical quantity from i^fMiv. 



§ 28 b. VOWELS AND VOWEL CHANGES Iv 

26. Crasis is not frequent. Note rowcxa (rov htKo) A 291, 
«n;rik £ 396, x^fut^ B 238 (icai ^^uk), riXXa A 465 (rk oXAa). 
(H. 76; G. 42 ff.) 

27. J^ta^ti^ (H. 75 D ; G. 34) is allowed : 

a. After the vowels i and v, as Hyxu o^vocvrt E 50. 

b. When the two yowels between which it occurs are separated 
by a caesura (ko^oto imyvdfiflfaxm A 569) or by a diaeresis (§ 58 h) : 
seldom after the first foot (avrhp 6 iyvw A 333), more frequently 
after the fourth foot (Jlyx^ o^voarra E 56S), Hiatus between the 
short syllables of the third foot is allowed nearly as frequently as 
in all other places together, — more than two hundred times. This 
freedom of hiatus emphasizes the prominence of this caesura 

(§58d). 

c. When the final vowel of the first word is loug and stands in 
the accented part of the foot (§ 57 a), as r<p crc Ka#c^ alarf A 418. 
See § 59 A; c. 

d. When a long vowel or diphthong loses part of its quantity 
before the following vowel (§ 59 k), as rrjv 8' ^yw ov Xwrcu A 29, 
fiii vv rot ov xP^t^V ^ ^^* ^^® ^^^^ ^^^ initial vowels may be 
said to be blended in the first example, while in the second the 
final letter may have been pronounced as y. This is called weak 
or improper hiatus ; it is essentially the same as the following. 

e. When the last vowel of the first word is already elided, as 
fivpC 'Axouoif oXyc' iOrjK€v A 2. 

N.B. Hiatus before words which formerly began with a con- 
sonant (§ 32) is only apparent. 

The poet did not avoid two or more concurrent vowels in the 
same word (§ 24). 

28. Elision. (H. 79 ; G. 48.) a. a (in inflectional endings and 
in Sifid and ^), c, t, o may be elided, at is sometimes elided in the 
verb endings, ot is elided seven times in /moi, three times in roi, 
once in o-oi A 170 (unless ovSc crot oio> or ov croi 6Cia should be read 
there for ovSc cr' 6lJ), 

b. T<J, irpo, dvTi, ircpi, rt, and the conjunction ori do not suffer 
elision, or' is for ore (either the temporal conjunction or the rela- 
tive i with r€ affixed ; § 42 q), r for ri or roi. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION § 28 c. 

c. t is seldom elided in the dative singular, where it may origi- 
nally have been long. 

d. Oxytone prepositions and conjunctions lose their accent in 
elision; other oxytones throw the acute accent upon the preceding 
syllable, as ra kok [Ka#ca] A 107. 

N.B. Elision is not left to the reader, as in Latin poetry. 

29. Apocope. (H. 84 D; G. 53.) a. Before a consonant the 
short final vowel of a^ and of the prepositions (iva,Vxara, wapd may 
be cut off (diroicain;, airoKOTma). The accent is then thrown back 
upon the preceding syllable (although it might be more rational to 
consider it lost, as it is in elision). 

b. After apocope, the v of ova and t of Kara follow the usual 
rules for consonant changes : o/AireiraXcav F 355, a/m vtSiov E 87, 
Kdpfia\€v E 343 (icaT€/3aAcv), iciS 8c (Kara 8c) frequently, icaicravc 
Z 164 (icaraKTavc), Kawirtaerrfv E 560, Kappiiovaa E 424, icoL\Xiirc Z 223 
(icarcXiirc). 

c avipvaav A 459 is explained as derived by apocope, assimila- 
tion, and vocalization of f, from Avd and f€pvw. Cf. § 32 h. 

d. Apocope was no mere metrical license ; it was common in the 
conversational idiom of some dialects. More striking examples of 
apocope and assimilation than any in Homer are found in prose 
inscriptions. 

CONSONANTS AND CONSONANT CHANGES. 

30. a. Where collateral forms appear, one with single and the 
other with doubled consonants, the form with two consonants 
is generally the older, or justified etymologically, as iroaaC, irwrC 
(from 7ro8-o-i) ; vtiKta-at, v€lk€<t€ (micos, vcixco--), owirtMi^ (oKfo)^, cf, Latin 
qnis, etc.)y orrt, ktX. 

b. Single initial consonants, especially X, ft, v, p, cr, are often 
doubled (as p is in Attic) when by inflection or composition a short 
vowel is brought before them (see § 59 h), as JAAtWcro Z 45, IXAajSc 
r34. 

c. But sometimes p is not doubled where it would be in Attic, as 
(aKvpow E 598, Kar^c^cv A 361. 



§31. CONSONANTS AND CONSONANT CHANGES lyii 

d. Palatal and lingual mutes often remain unchanged before fi^ 

as thfJL€¥ [uTflCv], KtKOpvSflivOi, 

e. Lingual mutes are commonly assimilated to a following a, as 
Tocriri (iroS-o-i). a is sometimes assimilated to /& or v: l^ficvai 
[c?Mu] for ia-fiivai, d/iycwds) white, for dpy€<r-vo9, as Apycyvamv T 198, 
hryvfu for f ccrvup (§ 32 a), iptfieyy^ £ 659 c^arA;, c/. ''Epc/Sos. 

f . <r is frequently retained before a-, as ccr<rofuu from the stem 
co^, ^rcXccnrc (r/! rc\o« from the stem reXccr-), /3c\ccrcriv, from the 
stem j3cXc<r. 

g. Between fi and \or p, p is sometimes developed, as dfiPparoi 
from stem fxpo or /top (murder, Latin mors, m o r i o r), while in jSporos, 
mortal, the /& of the stem is lost ; fiifipXtuKt A 11 from /aXo or /toA 
(cf, ifioXov) ; ^fi/3porc9, aorist of apjaprayw, Cf, the 8 of avSpos and 
the 6 in English chamber (camera). 

h. KOfjkPaXe E 343 is found occasionally in the Mss. as a variant 
reading, a sqfter pronunciation for KaPfiaXt (§ 29 b), 

L A parasitic r appears in tttoXi^, irrokefioi for irdXi9, irdAc- 
/ios. Cf, &x^<^ rpixBa with Attic &';(a, rpix<^. The proper names 
Neoptolemus (NcoirrdAc/ios) and Ptolemy (IlroAc/xaZos) preserved this 
T to a late period. 

j. The rough breathing (h) has no power to prevent elision or 
weaken hiatus. The smooth breathing is found with several words 
which have the rough breathing in Attic, as a/tftc [i}fia«], 17/iap 
[i)/i^], aAro (from oAAofuu), i^c^ios [ijAios], *A(8i;s [*Ai8i;s], rim [cois]. 

k. The V movable was written by some ancient critics after the 
ending -« of the pluperfect, as PtpkrjKtw E 661, ^vwyciv Z 170 ; cf. 
vfiTKuv V 388 (rja-Keev), iif^opuv (impf. of 4>op€w) A 137. It is freely 
used before consonants to make a syllable long by position (§ 59/). 

1. The final a- of adverbs is omitted more often than in prose. 
Not merely c{ and cV, ovrm and ovr<i>, but also wm and via, woXXaKi^ 
andiroAAoKi, &fiil>Cs and &fi<f>i (adverbial), are found as collateral forms. 

31. Metathesis of a and p is frequent (H. 64 ; G. 64) : icaf>&g 
B 452, KpaBijf a 353 ; KapriaToi A 266, Kparo^ A 509, KpdiraBo^ B 676, 
and KdprraBoi. Cf, rpairtiopjtv V 441 from ripma, rtpwiKipawoi from 
rpana, 

7or the shifting of quantity from -ao and -170 to -coi, see § 23 c. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION $ 82 a. 

32. The Digamma, (H. 72 D.) a. The following words seem 
to have been pronounced by the Homeric poet more or less con- 
sistently with initial digamma (consonantal u, van, fj pronounced 
as English w): — 

ayw/Uf breaky aXis, enough, dXmftu, am captured, 3va$y king, aviavio, 
please, dpai^, thin, dpvo^, lamb, acrrv, city, c, ov, ot, him, etc., with a 
possessive pronoun o^, rj, ov (los kt\.), lap, spring, IBva, wedding gifts, 
iOvo^, tribe, uKoai, twenty, uKia, yield, upm, say (future iplw)^ IkoIs, far, 
hcaaro^, each, hcvpo^yfaiher-in-law, €K<av, willing, iXiofuu, desire, iXuraia, 
wind, iXirofiax, hope, hnntp* (/rccr-w/u), clothe, itrOi^^, tip/vra, clothes, iwoi, 
word, ipyov, ip&a, work, ipwa, draw, hnrtpos (vesper), evening, cf, six, 
iroi, year, irtfi, companion, ^&v^, sweet (avSovw, please)^ ^Oo^, haunt, 
^pa, favor, lax^y cry aloud, icfuu, desire, strive, l&dv, see (and otSa, dSos), 
ifccXof , like, ioiKOL, am like, U, strength, sinew, t<f>i, mightily, taoi, equal 
(ef Ifuroi), Ttvs, felly, and irciy (withe), willow, oTkos, house, oTros, 
wine, &i, as, 

b. Probably ^IXios , 'Ipis, and several other words also were pro- 
nounced with initial p. 

c. dv&£vtt>, I, €Kvpo9, % i}6eaL, and others seem to have begun 
originally with two consonants, a-f, 

d. In more than two thousand cases ' apparent hiatus ' (§ 27 /) 
is caused by the omission of initial p. Less frequently a f must 
be supplied in order to make an apparently short syllable long by 
' position ' (§ 59 j). 

e. The verse alone affords no sufficient test for the former exist- 
ence of p in any word ; it only indicates the loss of some conso- 
nant. This is not conclusive evidence for f, since a- and y were 
also lost. Which consonant originally was present has to be 
learned in each case from inscriptions of other Greek dialects, 
from a few notes of ancient grammarians, and from other cognate 
languages; cf Ipyov with work, ofvos with wine, obcos with vicus and 
wich (in Norwich), liros and o^ with vox. 

f. The sound of f evidently was going out of use in the Homeric 
period. It is not infrequently neglected in our texts, and sometimes 
this neglect seems to be due to the poet himself, but p can be 
restored in many passages by minor changes. For vUv kxtiPoXoy 



{ 3d c. DECLENSIOir lix 

A 21 it is possible to read via f€KVffi6XoVf for iroyreocri S* iydmruv 
A 288 it is easy to read irSuriv fie favaxrauv, and xH^*' f^f^PoKov for 
Xc/Krlv ^KtfPoXov A 14. Perhaps ktcivoi, fiiv fi* dkiuve Z 167 may have 
been nerciKou /icv pt kt\. 

g. That the sound of f was still alive in the Homeric age is 
shown by the accuracy of the poet in its use where comparative 
philology shows that it once existed. But it ha<f disappeared from 
some words, and was often neglected in others. 

h. p sometimes leaves a trace of its existence in its cognate 
vowel V : avipwrav A 459 for Afftpwrav (§ 29 c), raXavpivoy E 289 for 
raXorfpivov. So doubtless dirov/xif A 356 for Awo-fpas, 

i. Some irregularities of quantity may be explained by this 
vocalization of f. Thus <iiroeiira>v T 35 may have been diro^ctviav, 
pronounced nearly as dirovciir«l»v. avtaxoi finds its analogy in ymro 
laxrf A 456 (ycKerovca;(i/). 

J. A neighboring vowel sometimes seems lengthened to compen- 
sate for the loss of f (§ 59 c). 

k. An e sometimes was prefixed to* a digammated word and 
remained after the p was lost, as jcXSoip, UUoaiy lipya, il 

1. Sometimes the rough breathing represents the last remnant 
of a lost consonant (especially in the words which once began with 
(Tff as dyfioKCD fcrX. ; c/. e, above), as Uiay, hnrepo^. Often the same root 
varies in breathing, as dvSwia and ^8v9, but $&>s, — hnrvfu, but ioBij^. 

m. For the augment and reduplication of digammated verbs, see 
$43(2. 

n. For 8^ci8«0, 8f i^v, see § 59 h. 

DECLENSION. 

33. Special Case Endings, (H. 217; G. 292 ff.) a. The suffix 
-^(v), a remnant of an old instrumental case, added to the stem, 
forms a genitive and dative in both singular and plural : AyiXtfif^i, 
in the herd, t<f>ij with might, vav^tv, from the ships. 

b. The (old locatival) suffix -Oi is added to the stem to denote 
place where: o$i [ov], where, rrfXoOi [riyAov], /ar away, 

c. The (old ablatival) suffix -Otv is added to the stem to denote 
place whence: Mcr, whence, ^IfiiT^cv, from Ida, ovpavoStv, from 



Ix INTRODUCTION § 33 d. 

heaven. Cf. ivrtvBfv. It forms a genitive with the pronominal 
stems, as Wtv €iv€Ka T 128, irp6 ^ev E 96, o-c^cv A 180. 

d. The suffix -crc is added to the stem to denote place whither : 
Kcurc, thither, irdvroac, in all directions^ iripoHre, to the other side. 

e. The enclitic -Sc is added to the accusative to denote more dis- 
tinctly the limit of motion : oi#cov8c, hometvard (also otjcaSc, especially 
of the return of the Achaeans to their homes), ovSc 8o/aov8c, to his 
own house, oAoSc, sexiward, #cXio-ii;v8c, to the tent, OvXv/iirovSc, to Olyrm- 
pus, x°^f^^9 ^^ ^^^ ground, Ovpai^ (Ovpa^-ht), to the door, out, 

34. First Declension, (H. 134 ff. ; G. 168 fF.) a. i; is found 
for final a of the stem with the exceptions mentioned in § 23. 

b. The nominative sing^ular of some masculines ends in -ra 
for -Try; : linrora, horseman, fAjfTUTa, counselor, Cf. the Latin 
poeta, nautd. tvpvowa, far sounding, is used also as accusative, 
e,g. A 498. 

All of these words are adjectival (titular) except ^ucora B 107. 

c. The genitive singular of masculines ends in -ao or (by trans- 
fer of quantity, § 23 c) nccD. After a vowel this ending may be 
contracted to -o>, as Alvtiut E 534, Bopccu "¥ 692, ivfifjL€\iui A 47. 
The ending -€a> is always pronounced as one syllable by synizesis 
(§ 25). 

The Attic ending -ov (apparently borrowed from the second 
declension) is not used. 

d. The genitive plural ends in -ao>v or -twv : Otdwy, /SovXcW. -eoiv 
is regularly pronounced as one syllable. 

e. The dative plural ends in -i^i(v) or rarely in -ry:, 

35. Second Declension, (H. 151 ff.; G. 189 ff.) a. The geni- 
tive singular has preserved the old ending -to, which, affixed to the 
stem-vowel, makes -oio. 

b. The termination -oo (shortened from -oio, cf, § 23/) is indicated 
by the meter in certain places where all the Mss. give a corrupt 
form, as o^trcXco-rov oo k\w ov itot' oXc?r<u B 325. Cf. 'I^tov B 618, 
*Airx^rfviov B 731. It is to be recognized also in Uereloo B 552 for 
Ilcreaoo, from Ilerco)? for Ilcrcao?. 

The -oo was afterwards contracted to ov. 

c. The genitive and dative dual end in -ouv : rouv, Z/iouv. 



§ 37 d. DECLENSION Ixi 

d. The dative plural ends in -oi<ri(v) or -ois. As in the first 
declension, the long ending is the rule ; the short ending is very 
rare before a consonant. 

36. Third Declension, (H. 163 ff. ; G. 205 ff.) a. The ending 
i of the dative singular is sometimes long and sometimes short. 
It is seldom elided. It is often long before a single consonant, but 
only in the first syllable of the foot : Ati fjLjjriv draXavTo^, cf. {nrtp- 
fuvii <f>i\ov B 116. 

b. The dative plural has the Aeolic ending -co-o-i(v) as well as 
the Attic -cri(v) : iroSco-o-i, iro<rcri (§ 30 c), iro<ri, — avSpeo-cri, avSpaxri, — 
tcvv€a'a-t,f KvaCf — vi/ccro't, vrfval, — /ufiv6vT€<ra-i, fjufivovai, 

c. Nouns in -is and -us usually retain i or v throughout, but in its 
stead may insert c, which is sometimes lengthened, as irdXi/cs (iroXets). 

d. Nouns in -cvs generally lengthen c to 17 (perhaps in compen- 
sation [§ 69 c] for the v which between two vowels becomes f and 
is lost), as jSourtAcvs, jSdo-tA^os. 

37. Anomalous Forms, a. As verbs appear in the present system 
with a variety of collateral forms derived from the same root 
(cf, licctf, (jcavo), ucviofjuuf — irtvOofjuii, irvvOdyofJuou, — ficvot>, fiifivn), fUfjivdi*o, 
— dxcvcD, dicaxt{<i>, dxjmjfmi), SO nouns of different declensions are 
sometimes formed from the same root and are used without appre- 
ciable difference of meaning. 

b. Some noims have both vowel and consonant stems: oA^ny 
r 45, but i\Ki E 299 ; ipljipo^ craipos A 266, but ipiTfp€^ eraipot F 378 ; 
cf. iroXiiTrat B 806 with iroAirot. epos (A 469) and ye\os are used for 
the Attic ^/oa>s and ycXws. 

c. Of ulos three stems are found : (1) ulos, vlov, vll The other 
forms of this declension are very rare. (2) vieos, vice, vica, as if 
from vlus. (3) vtos, vti, via, as from a nominative vts. 

In this Word the first syllable is sometimes short (§,23/), as it 
often is in Attic and in other dialects. 

d. Certain names of cities are found in both singular and 
plural : MvK-^vtf A 52, Mviciyms B 569 ; Giy/Siys A 378, 0i7/3as £ 804 ; 
*A^vas B 546, but 'ASi^vrfv -q 80. Instead of the later plural 0c(nriai, 
IIAnrauu, Homer uses only the singular : ©coTrciav B 498, Jlkdraxav 
B504. 



Ixii INtRODUCTION § 38 a. 

ADJECTIVES. 

38. a. Some adjectives of three terminations are used as if of 
two terminations, i.e. the masculine form is used also for the femi- 
nine : l<I^BifjLovi ^xd^ A 3| kAvtos 'Iinro&[fi,c(a B 742, "qtpa irovXvv 
E 776, nvXoio 7ffui66€VTa% B 77. 

b. The feminine of adjectives in -vs ends in -eta (gen. -cti/s), -ca 
(§ 23 f) or -ct; : fiaOtUL, — cJ#ccti, — fia$€irpj PaOirf^y — mx€iYfy — fiaBlfpt. 

c. voXvs (irovXvs) has in the masculine and neuter both stems 
iroXw- (irovAv) and voXXo- (for toXvo-, § 37 a), with a nearly com- 
plete set of forms for each : voXXoi and iroXXoi^, iroXcos , ^roXccs , iroXccuy, 
iroXcccr<rt, #crX. 

PATRONYMICS. 

39. (H. 559 ; G. 846 f .) a. Suffixes which originally expressed 
connection or possession are used to form patronymic adjectives. 
The original force of these suffixes is occasionally preserved : (tfcoi) 
Ovpayiiavei A 570 is a mere adjective of connection, like (OtcMriv) 
iwovpavioiai Z 129 ; Homer does not recognize Ovpavoq as the ances- 
tor of the gods. 'OXv/iir(a8€9 /lovo-ai B 491 is equivalent to /tovom 
*0\vfi.iria SutfuiT* i)(pv<rai B 484. 

b. Patronymics are frequently used as proper names ; cf. *Arpci8i;s 
A 7, Mcvoiriafii; A 307, before the names Agamemnon^ Patroclua 
had been mentioned. Cf. the English names Thompson, Wilson, 
Richardson, Dixon, Dix, Micks, etc. 

A. c. The patronymic is formed from stems of the iirst declen- 
sion by adding -8a- : Avyi;ia8ao B 624, or more frequently by adding 
-io&i-, as AacprtaSi79 F 200. 

d. This analogy, giving an ending in -coSi/s, is followed by stems 
in -10 of the second declension : MevoinoSi/s. So also by stems of 
the third declension, as Oi/Xi/iaSca) A 1 (as well as ni/XctSi/g S 316, 
UrjXdwva A 197). See^, below. 

e. The suffix -iSa- is added to stems in o, and the o is lost as in 
d above, as Kpovi8i;s, — also to stems in cv, which lose their v between 
two vowels (cf, 23 /), as 'ArpciSi;? A 7, — also to consonantal stems, 
as 'AyaiA€fivoyC&rp a 30. 'Ai^c/uiiSi/s A 488 is formed as from ^Ai^c/aos 
rather than from ^AvOtfiitov (AvOtfiCtovtn vlov A 473). 



SiOc- COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Ixiii 

f . Patronymics from stems in -cv, after the loss of the v, do not 
in Homer suffer contraction of the e of the stem with the i of the 
suffix. The poet says *ArpcfSi;s, 'ArpcW, as tetrasyllables not tri- 
syllables. The verse ictus never falls on the ci, although Vergil 
wrote Atrides and Pelides. 

g. Female patronymics are formed by the suffix -i^, which loses 
S before the nominative sign, as XpwnjCSa (ace. of Xpvarfk) A 182, 
BpttniCSa A 184. 'Axai(8c9 B 235 corresponds to icovpoi 'A^atcov A 473. 

B. h. Patronymics are formed also by the suffix -lOl^•, as KpovCwv 
A 528 (with genitive Kpovia>vo9 or Kpoi^ovos), ^Arptttov, IIi/Actoiv. In 
these last forms from nouns in -evs the i is always short. 

i. The corresponding female patronymic is found in ^ASprforCvrf 
E 412. 

J. ToAaiovtSao B 566 is irregular; it seems to be formed by a 
cumulation of suffixes from ToAaos . So Aao/ic8oyria8i;9 (Aao/ic8ovriaSi; 
r 250) is formed from Aao/AcSoyrios, which itself appears as a patro- 
nymic (itk the form Aofu&oimoi) in a Boeotian inscription. 

k. Some adjectives in -to9 are used as patronymics, as TcXa/icovtos 
Alas B 528, Ni/Xi/to^ viosy cf. B 20, Kawajn^io^ vios A 367. 

1. The patronymics in -&79 are far more numerous than those in 

m. The patronymic is sometimes derived from the grandfather's 
name : Achilles is called AiaKiSi/s B 860 ; Priam, AapSaviSi/s F 308 ; 
the two grandsons of Actor, 'AicropiWc B 621. Thus in later 
poetry Heracles is called Alcides ('AAicciSi/s) from Amphitryo's father 
'AXicd£os or ' AXiccvg. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

40. a. Comparatives and superlatives end in -toiv, -loro^ more fre- 
quently than in Attic. (H. 253 ; G. 357.) 

b. dya^os has comparatives dptuav (cf, fllpioros), ^cXrcpov, KptUrvnw, 
AdMOV, <f>€pTepoS' 

c. In some comparatives in -rcpo« the poet has no thought of a 
greater or less degree, but of a contrast, as dypdrcpos, wild, (S^urrcpos, 
l^, as opposed to ScfiVcpos, riffht Cf, the use of the same ending 
in i)/icrcpof, our (as opposed to all others). 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION § 40 d. 

d. dya-, as in dyawK^os^ dpi-, as in dpi(riX<Ky ipi-, as in ipirifio^f 
ipifiSiXaiy 3a-, as in 8a<^oivos, and (a-, as in (dBtty:, are strengthening 
prefixes. Cf. n-dftn-pcDra. 

NUMERALS. 

41. (H. 288 ; G. 372 f .) a. . ivi has a collateral form i^ Z 422 ; 
cf. the feminine form la A 437. 

b. Suctf; 3vo is indeclinable. It has the collateral forms Soiw, 
Soio^ #crX. 

PRONOUNS. 

42. a. Personal Pronoiiiis, 

Singular. 
N. ^(^, iyiliv. ai6, r^vrj (E 485). 

6. ^/ic?o(c/. §35a), ^M«C, trecb (c/. § 35 a), a4o tfo (c/. § 35 a). «o (§ 23/), 
AkC (end.), ^M^ey (§23/), (rev (end.), cv (encL), l^y (§33 c> 
(§ 33 c) [ifwG, fioO]. <riB€p (§ 33 c) [<roO]. [ow]. 

D. iiiol^ fuU (end.). vol (end.), toI (always of (end.). 

end.). 
A. ifii, fU (end.). <r^ (end.). i (end.), i4^ idv (end.) 

[a^6ir]. 
Dual. 

N. A. vSny N. ¥(&. a^ik, <r^(b. a^i (end.). 

G. D. pmv, ff^Ckp, <r^iv (end.). 

Plural. 

N. ^Mect, d/A/iet. ^Mccf, v^/uct. 

G. iffulutv, iifUiap \jiii(ap], {tfjteUay, ^/x^iaw [ufitap"]. a^Uap^ ff^iiav^ v^C^p» 

D. iitup^ Afifu. iffup, vtt4u(y). 0^0/ (end.), 0-^£0'c(y) (end.). 

A. iifUasy dfifu [iifJMs]. hfidaty v/ifie [ifftat], ff^at (end.), a^s (end.). 

b. Possessive Pronouns, 

i/jiSs, my. r€6f, ^6f, thy. Hi or 6s, ^, 6p, own, his. 

»<alT€pot, of us two. ir<f>ialT€pos, of you two. 

ilfUrepos, o^As, oup. 6/*/Tepof, </fi6s, your. ff4>4T€pos, a^06», their. 

c. Demonstrative and Relattve Pronouns, 

6, il^, r6, this; 6s (in nom.), he; 'ovrof, this; iKetvosy kcTvos, that^ the [man] there, 
yon; Me, this, the [man] here. Relative^ 6s or 6, ^, 5or t6; Nom. pi. rol 
or oX^ who, which. 

Adverbs, oirtas, us or Jj, tws, cJ5«, ^Aw^. 



§ 42 j. PRONOUNS Ixv 

t60'(0')oy, ro<r6o'6€, roaffwroty 80 great. Relative, ie{a')os<, iffedrioi, how large, 

(as large) as. 
Toios, T0ij6aS€, ToiouTosy such. Relative, otos^ of what sort, (such) as, 

d. Interrogative^ Indefinite, afid hulefinite Relative Pronouns, 

IrUerr. N. rli, rl (rlwrt). Gen. t4o [riifos], Ace. rlva, who, which, whatf tow, of 

whoA sort f r6r€pof , which of two f 
Indef. N. rls, rl, G«n. red, Ace. ripd, rl, mme one, something. 
Indef. ReL N. St nt or Bnt, &n or Stti, Ace. 6trripa, rjrriva, 5tti, Nom. pi. ot 

riref, Acc. ovs Ttvat, &ar<ra [A riva]. 

e. The oblique cases of the third personal pronoun when enclitic 
are ^ anaphoric/ like avrov ktX. in Attic ; when accented they 
have their original reflexive use, like Attic cavrov, limvrov, o-cavrov, 
ktA., which compounds are post-Homeric. 

f. fitV, orffxiii^ a'<f>Q}iv, a'<f>i, and a-<f>d^ are always enclitic. 

g. a. The possessive os, 17, 6v is carefully to be distinguished 
from the relative os, rj, o. This distinction is generally easy, since 
the possessive once began with a consonant (f, § 32 a). 

p. The place of the possessive pronoun is often filled by a dative 
(of interest) of the personal pronoun. 

h. avros regularly retains its intensive force in the oblique cases, 
even when not connectetl with a noun expressed, often marking a 
contrast which it is difficult to render smoothly in the English 
idiom. Cf. § 11 j fifi. The presumption is always strongly in 
favor of the original use, but all shades of meaning are found, 
from the strict intensive to the simple anaphoric use of the Attic 
dialect. The weaker use, as a simple personal pronoun, is particu- 
larly common after prepositions. 

i. For avTois in the sense of cuaavrcu^, see k, below. In this use it 
has a large variety of meanings, as (a4>povd t) avrcu^ T 220 a mere 
(simpleton) ; without cause A 520, without a prize A 133, absolutely 
B 138, vainly B 342, without chariot E 255. Most of these mean- 
ings are derived from in the same way as before, the connection 
determining the special sense of each passage. 

j. The Attic article 6, ly, to generally retains its demonstrative 
force in Homer, but, like the intensive pronoun in the oblique cases. 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION § 42 k. 

appears occasionally in its Attic signification. Elsewhere it is 
found as a personal or a relative pronoun. 

In their demonstrative use 6, ij, ol, at are written also o, 17, 01, ai. 
ToCf raif Tias are used besides oT, at, cSs. 

k. Thus the absence of the article does not mark a noun as 
indefinite; cf. firjviv octSc Btd A 1 with arm a virumque cano. 
Frequently avrtaq is equivalent to Attic cMravrois («s being the 
adverb of the article; see c, above, and § 56 c), while m 8* avrox 
r 339 is equivalent to Attic ovtu} 8* wravrtoq. 

1. The demonstrative article is often followed by a noun in appo- 
sition with it, as 01 3* ixaprfo-av 'Amatol tc TpStti rt T 111 htU these 
rejoiced, both Achaeans and Trojaiis, avrap 6 flovv icpcv<rcv amf &iSp(av 
' Ayafiifiviav B 402 lyiit he, Agamemnon, king of men, sacrificed an ox. 
C/. §13e,/. 

m. The forms of the article with initial t often have a relative 
force, but refer only to a definite antecedent. This is a relic of 
paratactic construction (§ 21), as is particularly clear in AXAa ra itkv 
TToXiW i$€irpdOofi€v rh 3cSa<Trai A 125 hift what we took as sjjoils from 
the cities, these hai^e been divided, 

n. T<p, the dative of the article (sometimes written tw), is often 
used as an inferential conjunction, then, in tJiat case. 

0. ovTos is not frequent. It is never used after prepositions. 

p. The form os has also a demonstrative use, especially with ouSc, 
firfii, KoX, and yap. 

q. The neuter 6 is frequently used as a conjunction, like quod. 
So also oTi and o re. 

r. ^0 07ie is ov tis or firj ns, — not ov3ec$ or firf^k. ovSiv is rare. 

CONJUGATION. 

43. Augment and Reduplication. (H. 354 ff. ; G. 510 ff.) a. The 
augment was for a time considered unessential ; whether temporal 
or syllabic, it may be omitted in the Homeric poems. The syllabic 
augment is omitted rather more frequently than it is used; the 
temporal augment is used rather more frequently than it is omitted. 
When the augment is omitted, the accent is thrown back as far 
as possible, as rcv^c A 4, oXIkovto A 10, d^ici A 25 ; cf Kamrtfrov 



S U c. CONJUGATION Ixvii 

[mrcrcirov] A 593, Ifi/SoAc [M/SoAc] F 139. This free omission of the 
augment is very odd, since this element was an old inheritance of 
the Greek language, and has never been lost, even to the present day. 

b. When the augment is omitted, monosyllabic forms with long 
vowel take the circumflex accent, as fi^ for ifiriy ^ for 1^, ^ for 

c. Sometimes initial p is not doubled after the augment, as l^c 
B 400 ; sometimes initial X, fi, or <r is doubled after the augment, as 
^XXoLp€ r 34. 

d. Stems which originally began with a consonant may take the 
syllabic augment or reduplication, as Iciirov, ^kc, — loiica, lopya. 

e. The second aorist active and middle of verbs whose stem 
begins with a consonant is often found with a reduplicated stem, as 
iiccicXero, dfiirciraXcov, Ircr/AC, rcrvJcoKro, vcvitfoi/uv, rerayoiv, icc;(apofaro. 

f. The so-called Attic reduplication is more common in Homer 
than in Attic, and its use extends to the second aorist, where the 
augment also may be used (ef. Attic rjyayov), as rjpaptf cSpopc, rfpvKaK€, 
and the peculiar form rjvvtran€ B 245 from ivCimaj in which the final 
consonant of the theme is reduplicated with a as a connective. 

g. SciSoiica and ficiSia have irregular reduplication ; probably these 
are to be explained as for ScS^oiica, ScS^ia. Cf. § 59 A. 

h. IfifjLopa (from fuipofim) and Icnrviuu (from <rcuu) double the 
initial consonant and prefix e as if they began with two consonants. 

41 Endings. (H. 375 ff. ; G. 551 flf., 777 flf.) a. The singular 
endings -fu, -o^, -o-i occur more frequently than in Attic; especially 
-fu and -o-i in the subjunctive, as ZSoifu [i8<i>], dydywfu^ iOtkjyn [^iO^jj], 
paXryri. These endings are rare in the subjunctive of the contracted 
/u-forms, as Suo-i [8<^] A 129. 

b. In the pluperfect, the older endings na icrX. are preserved. 
The third person singular ends in -cc(v) or -ctv (§ 30 k)^ as fitp-JKtiv 
A 221, ^8ce B 409. 

c. The second and third persons singular of the first aorist optar 
tive active end in -etas, -€ic(v), as fuivtms, #caX«rcicv. The second per- 
son in -cus occurs very rarely. The third person in -cu is more 
common, as yrfirffrai A 255. The third person plural ends in -ctav, as 
rUrtwy A 42, axoutrciav B 282. 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION § 44 d. 

d. The third person plural optative active of fu-verbs ends in ttv, 
as cTcv, Safuuvy Sotev. 

e. The third person plural imperative ends in -r<ov, -a-Otay (never 
-ToxraVf -o^ftxrav). 

f . a. Active infinitives (except in the first aorist) frequently end 
in -ficvai, which is sometimes shortened after a short vowel to -/iacv, 
as IfifjLCvaty ififitv [clvoi], i\$€fi€v((u) [cX^civ], T€OvdfjL€y(ai). 

p. The shortening of -ficvai to -ftcv occurs generally before a 
vowel, where it may be called elision. 

y. The ending -mi is found only after a long vowel, as ^vvai. 

8. The second aorist active infinitive sometimes ends in -cciv, as 
<^vycciv B 393, n-eorcciv Z 82. (Perhaps these were once <^vycficy, 
wetrifuv.) 

g. Aorist passive infinitives end in -fievtu or -vai. 

h. The second person singular of the middle generally remains 
uncontracted (§ 24), as «vpcai, 18701 r 130, jSoUco A 297. Con- 
tracted forms are used occasionally, as fieraTphry A 160, yvwcn; 
B 365, K€K\^<ni r 138. 

i. In the perfect middle, -aui regularly loses its or. 

J. -co retains its <r only in the imperative, as co-o-o, loroo-o. 

k. The first person plural middle often ends in -fieaOa. 

1. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect indica- 
tive middle often, and of the optative middle always, ends in -arot, 
-aro for -Krai, -kto. Before these endings smooth labial and palatal 
mutes are aspirated, as ItnTtrpaffiaTai (perfect passive of Imrphrui). 

m. The third person plural indicative of the aorist passive 
generally ends in -cv instead of -i/aav, as ^ytpOev A 57, tfxmvOev A 200, 
Tpd<f>€v A 251 Si€TfjLay€v A 531. Cf. the active i-XxMra-v, l-Xvo-v. 

n. Similarly, v is used for the later -o-av in the imperfect and 
second aorist of fw-verbs, as (wuv [fwM/ouv] A 273, eorav, <rrav 
[loTiycrav], €)3av [^^i/o-ay] (§ 22 ft). 

0. For the optative ending of fi.i-verb9, in -uv, not -irj<ravy see rf, 
above. 

45. Svbjunctive Mode, a. The variable vowel ('connecting 
vowel') of the subjunctive is generally short in the present of 
verbs in -ftt, the first aorist, second aorist of /xt-forms, second aorist 



§ 47 e. CONJUGATION Ixix 

passive, second perfect of primitive formation, as Pi^aofjuev, iytipofuy, 
iOfi€V, $€iofi€v [^ctf/iACv], TpaTTtCofAevj SafieuTi, c&8oficv [ci8itfficv3# n€woi$OfUv, 
(H. 373D; G. 780.) 

This short vowel is found before the endings -/icv, -rov, -re, and in 
middle forms. 

b. A few forms of the first aorist have a long vowel, following 
the analogy of the present, as Srjkrfarrfrai T 107. 

c. There are no certain examples of the short mode-vowel in the 
present of verbs in -<i>. (For ^ovXeroi avriaaas A 67, Povkrjr dvriMraq 
may be substituted, etc) 

N.B. The forms of the first aorist subjunctive are easily con- 
fused with those of the future, with which they are identical in 
appearance. 

46. Optative Mode. For the optative endings, see 44 e, d, 

47. Contract Verbs. (H. 409 D; G. 784 ff.) a. Verbs in ^w 
exhibit unchanged, assimilated, and contracted forms; the poet's 
choice between contracted and uncontracted forms seems to have 
been determined largely by the rhythm. The vowels are regularly 
contracted when the second is in a short syllable. 

b. Uncontracted forms without assimilation occur rarely, as 
ircivactfv T 25. (oh-a A 525 and often, is a second aorist ; see § 63.) 
Probably such forms were more frequent in the earliest form of the 
poems. 

c. The vowels of the uncontracted forms are generally assimi- 
lated, a prevailing over a following c or 17 but being assimilated to 
o, w, or ov. These forms are intermediate between the original 
and the contracted stage. 

d. One of the vowels is usually lengthened in the text of the 
Mss. Sometimes this appears to be a conformation to Attic usage 
(§ 22 g). 

e. Verbs in -ceo generally remain uncontracted (except cc, which is 
generally contracted in the Mss.), but often the uncontracted forms are 
metrically possible, co is very rarely contracted except in the parti- 
ciple ending -cv/acvo? (where contraction occurs to prevent a too fre- 
quent recurrence of short syllables ; § 69 e). ca> is never contracted, 
but is often pronounced as one syllable by synizesis (§ 25). 



hex INTRODUCTION 1 47 f . 

f. Sometimes the variable vowel e is contracted with c of the 
stem instead of with the termination. One of these vowels is 
sometimes dropped, as dmaipto A 276. 

g. The older form of these verbs, in -cmd, is sometimes pre- 
served, as irtX€i€To A 5, v€iK€iri<n A 579. See § 23 «. 

h. ^piia forms ^piuv A 144, ^p^vai B 107. 

i. Verbs in -o<i> are generally contracted. Sometimes they have 
forms with the double o sound, like verbs in -ao), as iarparotovro 
r 187 (which might be written iarpaToorro), with which may be 
compared <f>wa9 [^009, ^«ik] B 49. 

TENSES. 

48. Future and First Aarist, Active and Middle, (H. 420 ff. ; G. 
777.) a. Pure verbs which do not lengthen the stem-vowel in the 
formation of the tenses often have crv in the future and first aorist, 
active and middle. 

b. In the future the <r of the before-mentioned verbs often dis- 
appears, as ScLfAf A 61, KoAcouora r 383, SXdrau B 325. 

c. Stems in 8 often show <r<r in the aorist. 

d. Most of these forms with ao' may be explained as original or 
assimilated, as vcucccro-c, from the theme vcikco- (cf, vcticof), KopMranro 
for jcofuSouro (cf, ko/uSi;), as iroao'i [irocri] for iro&ri. Thus the 
stem-vowel of these verbs was not final originally, and hence is not 
lengthened in the future and aorist. 

e. Some stems in X and p retain the o- of the future and aorist 
(as some do in Attic), as IXo-cu A 409, Kvpaa^ F 23, cSpo-c A 10. 

1 The so-called Doric future with tense-sign <rc is found in 
icaurai [corcu] B 393. 

g. Some verbs have a future without tense-sign, as cZ/u, KoxKct- 
ovT€9f to lie down, cSo/iat, viopm, ipwa. Most of these verbs are old 
presents which acquired a future signification, cffu is not often 
future in Homer ; cf, B 87. 

h. Some verbs form the first aorist active and middle without <r, 
as ix^€y Z 419 (from Ix^ ^^^ ^X^f l<r<reva E 208 (from trcuu)), Imp 
A 40 (from louco). 



§ 60 c. VOICES Ixxi 

i. The first aorist often has the variable vowel of the second 
aorist ^/e, as t^ov, Svo-cro. So in the imperative, as /3i7<rco E 109, ipcto 
r 250, afere V 105, olacrc T 103; infinitive, o^rc/icvai T 120; par- 
ticiple, ifnfiffa'OfAtyov E 46. 

j. Verbs in -{oi often have themes in y, and thus futures and first 
aorists in n^<i> and -fa, as liaXandiai A 129, wroktfiiiofiev B 328. 

49. Perfect (H. 446 ff., 490 ; G. 682 fP.) a. The so^alled first 
perfect in -xa is formed from only twenty vowel-stems. It is 
almost as rare as the first aorist in -xa (cSoiKa, l/jKa, l^xa). Forms 
without K are derived even from vowel-stems, especially participial 
forms, as K€KfiriKai Z 262, but K€Kfirfini Z 261 ; c/uin-€<^vvux A 513, but 
irc<^vicci A 109. 

b. The final mute of the stem is not aspirated. 

c. The endings are affixed immediately to the reduplicated verb- 
stem in j9c)3aao'i, ycyacoras, SciSi^i, ^iKrijv, iSficv, kcx/iai;ciis, iv€iri$/JL€Vf 
rerXaOi. 

d. ippiyrfai T 353 and okfaky A 164 have the force of present sub- 
junctives. 

e. &Kaxifi€voi and iaavficvo^ are accented irregularly as presents. 

f. The second perfect often has a long vowel in the stem where 
the second aorist has a short vowel, as opiapev B 797, cupopc B 146. 

g. In the feminine participle the short form of the stem appears, 
as dpffpuiSf but dpapvid ; hcnce iiKvta (f€fiKVWL), not eiicvui, r 386. 

VOICES. 

50. Middle, a. The active and middle forms opSv (about forty 
times) and bpaxrOajL (about twenty times), Ihdv (more than two hun- 
dred times) and i3c<r^at (ninety times), are used often without 
appreciable difference of meaning ; cf. A 56, 203, 262, 587, B 237, 
r 163. C/. l4>aTo B 807, 14^71 A 584. 

b. The first aorist middle is sometimes used without difference 
of meaning from the second aorist active, as fii^atro T 262, iprf 
A 311; i&rxTcro T 328, I8v T 36. 

c. The future middle is sometimes used as passive, as rcXcco-tfeu 
B 36. Cf. 51 e. 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION § 50 d. 

d. The aorist middle is often used as passive. Cf, yoKiadfLikhrq 
r 413 with ^\ijii9^l% A 9, x^P^ ^ ^^ with KcxapoCaro A 256, iiyipovro 
B 94 with rjytpBtv A 57, oft^c^vro B 41, XiVoiro F 160, KTafi€voio 
T 375. C/. i\€kCxOrf(rav E 497 Mey m/Zie^, ^wpiyx^'^ ^ 226 arm 
himself. 

51. Passive, a. For the ending of the aorist passive infinitive, 
see § 44 g, 

b. For the ending of the third person plural indicative, see 
§ 44 m. 

c. The second aorist subjunctive passive usually remains uncon- 
tracted, and follows the rule of /lAt-verbs (§ 52 c). 

d. In the second aorist subjunctive, the passive suffix is often 
long (and the mode-vowel short in the dual and in the first or seo 
ond person plural ; § 45 a), as Safjirjrf^ F 436 (8a/iivi7/xi), rpantiofitv 
F 441 (rcpn-oi, § 31), but /uycoMriv B 475 (fuayto). 

e. Homer has only two futures from passive stems. Cf. 50 c. 

f. Some verbs have both first and second aorists passive, as 
ifJiCxPrf £ 134, ifJLiyrjv F 445. 

g. The < verbal adjective ' is not always passive. 

N.B. The passive formation in Gi-eek is comparatively late, 
and infrequent in Homer. The so-called second aorist passive is 
closely related to the intransitive aorist active, like Ifirf, larrf. Cf. 
cSai/v, learned or wa^ taught. 

52. Verbs in -MI. (H. 476 if. ; G. 787 ff.) a. Some verbs in 
-fu have forms in the present and imperfect indicative which follow 
the analogy of contra(;t verbs : nOtty StSot, StSoOo-i, d<^i€i, rrpoBiown 
A 291. 

b. For the ending -v for -o-av, see § 44 n. 

c. The second aorist subjunctive active generally remains uncon- 
tracted. The stem- vowel often appears in its long form with short 
mode-vowel in the dual and in the first and second persons plural 
{cf §§ 45 a, 51 d), as S<orj(nv A 324, Swoxriv [Siio-tv] A 137, Belofuv 
A 143 (better Oi^ofiev, Attic ^oi/licv), yvtauxri A 302, iif>€ita [c<^<i>] 
A 567, Airrftj [aKj] B 34, cpcio/Ltcv A 62 (lx?tter ipi^fitvn as from an 
iprffjn). The short form of the stem is seen in fidrrjv [c/Ji;ti;v] 
A 327. 



§ 55 d. PREPOSrnOXS Ixxiii 

53. Secoiid Aorists wUhom Variable Vowel. (H. 489; G. 798 f.) 
Many second aorists, active and middle, are found without variable 
vowel, following the analogy of verbs in -/it, as dXro A 532 (oAXofiai), 
S€xOai A 23, 8cKTo B 420 (Scxo/iwu), /SX^to A 618 (/SciAXo,), icXOft A 37, 
#cAvTC B 56 (kXvcii), ovra Z 64, taavro B 809 (orcvcu). 

54. Iterative Forms. (H. 493 ; G. 778.) a. Iterative forms of 
the imperfect and aorist indicate the repetition of a state or action, 
as (^lAcco-Kc r 388. The augment is generally omitted. These forms 
are characterized by the suffix -<rx, and have the inflection of the 
imperfect of verbs in -w. They are confined to the Ionic dialect. 
The iterative idea is occasionally wanting, as in co-kc [17 v] T 180. 

b. Verbs in -oi add the endings -otkov or irKOfiijv to the c-form of 
the stem of the present or second aorist, as lorxc, ecTrco-xe, iSco-xc. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

55. a. Prepositions often retain their original adverbial force 
(as iv Sc, but therein, inro, below, beneath, trapa 8c, and beside him), 
especially with reference to place. They may be placed after the 
verbs or nouns with which they are connected. See § 19 e. (H. 
785 ; G. 1222 ff. ) Frequently an editor must be in doubt whether 
to print the preposition as part of the verb or separately. 

b. The preposition is often separated from the verb which it 
modifies, as trap Sc K€<f>a\X,rjv(t)v afjL<l>l aTi)(€^ ovk dXavaSvaC | icrToarav 
A 330 f., where vdp modifies lorao-av. 

c. Anastrophe, (H. 109; G. 116.) a. Disyllabic prepositions, 
when they immediately follow the word with which they are con- 
strued, take the accent upon the penult, except d/Lt<^t, avrC, ava, 8ia. 
om Z 331 stands for avaxTT-qOi. m is used for ivti.cn. or cvco-ti, ciri for 
circoTi, /Licra for /xerco-ri, irapa for irapco-rt E 603 f . 

p. Elided prepositions suffer anastrophe only when they as ad- 
verbs modify a verb to be supplied, as W T 45 for lirtfm, — or by 
way of exception, in order to avoid ambiguity, as l<^' A 350, to show 
that the preposition is to be connected with the preceding word. 

d. a. Iv has the parallel forms dv, IvL dv stands only in the 
part of the foot which receives the stress of voice, and its use ip 
nearly confined to certain phrases, as dv ayoprj, tlv *Ai8ao SopLOLonv. 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION §66e. 

fi. The poet uses both U and c^s, irpds* irporiy and norCj \nr6 md 
^val (B 824), wapd and mpai (B 711), ^4p and ^e^p (B 426). 

e. ^<f>if ivd, and fura are used also with the dative. 

f . For the short forms of dvo, icard, trapoy see § 29. 

ADVERBS. 

56. (H. 267 ff. ; G. 366 ff.). o. A predicate adjective is often 
used where the English idiom has an adverb or an adverbial phrase, 
as x^^i^ ^Pv ^ ^^^ ^^^ yesterday, rfepirj A 497 early in the morning, 
TravTffiipioi A 472 all day long, irprfyi^^ £ 68 (pronus) on his face, 
KotovTo Az/Actoi A 62 hurried thickly, p^rapAiioy E 19 between the 
breoMs. 

p. np6(f>pitiVf willing, is used only as a predicate, where the English 
idiom uses willingly. 

b. Adverbs ending in -a are common: aa^a (not o-a^^), raxa 
(raxccos only once), <Sica (not wkcws). These seem to have been 
originally neuter cognate accusatives, and many are such still ; cf. 
woXA' iirirtKXty iroAA^ 17/oaro, ftcya n/Tric, ficyoX* €v\€ro. See on A 78. 

c. Adverbs in -ok are not common ; they are most frequent from 
o-stems : ovna^ (ovros); ok (o), avrta^ (avros), KaKu»s (jcaicds). to-ais and 
bpjol^ are not found, icaXm only p 63, <^iXa>s only A 347. 

HOMERIC VERSE. 

The beginner should remember that, while both Homer and 
Vergil use the dactylic hexameter, 

(1) Homer has far more dactyls than Vergil ; his verse is much 

lighter and more tripping (§ 67 d), 

(2) Homer slightly prefers a pause between the two short syl- 

lables of the third foot (§ 68 c), while Vergil strongly 
prefers a pause after the first syllable of that foot. 

(3) Homer freely begins his verse heavily, with one or two 

spondees, while Vergil prefers a dactylic beginning. 

(4) Homer has a spondee in the fifth foot (§ 67 h) more com- 

monly than Vergil. 
(6) In the Homeric text, elision is already made. 



§57 a. HOMERIC VERSE Ixxv 

The beginner should remember also, that 

(6) The ' rough breathing ' has no power to make ' a short 

vowel long by position/ nor to prevent elision. So, of 
course, $, ^, and x ^^ i^ot * double consonants/ 

(7) An enclitic in reading should be connected with the word on 

which its accent is thrown. 

If the beginner has not already made the general rhythm of the 
verse familiar to himself from Vergil and his followers, he may 
read to advantage Longfellow's Evangeline^ and Miles Standish, 
and CloMgh^ s Bothie, He will do well to commit to memory a few 
(if not many) verses of the Iliads and repeat them when he is walk- 
ing at leisure, keeping time, uttering the first syllable of the foot 
as he sets his left foot down, and the other half of the metrical 
foot as he plants his right foot. 

The exact division of the verse into metrical feet is the foundar 
tion of all good scanning, but it is useless in itself. The scholar 
must read the verse metrically and yet in harmony with the sense, 
— not allowing his voice to fall* mechanically at the close of the 
verse, nor at the caesural pause, and still less making VergiPs 
pause after the first syllable of the third foot, whether Homer 
made the pause there or not. 

57. The Heroic Hexameter, (H. 1064 fP., 1100 ; G. 1668 f.) 
a. The poems are to be read with careful attention to the metrical 
quantity of each syllable, as well as to the sense of the passage. 
There are six feet (bars or measures) in each verse; hence the 
name hexameter. Emphasis or stress of voice (ictus) is laid on the 
first syllable of each foot. The part of the foot which has no ictus 
(the arsia) should receive as much time though not so much stress as 
the ictus-syllable (the thesis). The rhythm would be called } time 
in modem music. The English hexameter {e.g, in Longfellow's 
Evangeline) is generally read as of f time, without much reference to 
the quantity of the syllables, and so, too, the Aeneid is often scanned. 

lAs 

' Thfs is the fdrest primeval, ^^ the mdrmaring pines and the hemlocks 
StiCnd like Dnf ids of ^d ^ with vofces slCd and prophetic, 
Stand like hirpen hoar ^ with bedrds that rest on their bosoms.' 

Evang. init. 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION § 57 b. 

b. The written word-accent must be disregarded in reading 
Homeric verse. Occasionally the verse-ictus and word-accent may 
coincide (as in a 1, quoted in % 5S c), but the word-accent had no 
influence on the formation of the verse. 

c. The dactyl^ (J ^ ^ or ^kj w), with the ictus on the first 
syllable, is the fundamental and prevailing foot of Homeric verse. 
It is often replaced by a spondee ^ or heavy dactyl (J J or ). 

Dactyls ai'e about three times as frequent as spondees in the 
Homeric poems. 

d. Verses in which each of the first five feet is a dactyl are 
far more common in Homer than in Vergil ; there are 1^50 in the 
first book of the Iliad alone, and very nearly three thousand in 
the entire Iliad. Many frequently recurring verses have this 
rhythm; as tov 8' aTra/j^ifiofAtvo^ irpoa-€it>r) iroSa^ wkv? *A;(iAA€us, — avrap 
^n-ct irdcrco^ icai iSrirvos cf Ipov cvro. Many other verses have but one 
spondee (generally in the first foot) among the first five feet; as 
^/jLos 8* ^eA.6o$ KariSv koI cVt xv£</kis ^A^ct^. Seven verses, according 
to the usual text, have each six spondees : B 544, A 130, ^ 221, 
o 334, <^ 15, X 175, 192. 

e. Spondees are most coimnon in the first two feet; they are 
more and more avoided in each foot toward the close of the verse. 

f. The first foot allows more freedom tlian any other. A short 
vowel there more frequently retains its natural quantity before a 
mute and a liquid, and yet is more frequently lengthened in the 
imaccented part of the foot before that combination. At the close 
of the first foot, hiatus is allowed (§ 27 b). 

g. The bucolic diaeresis (58 h) is seldom immediately preceded 
by a word of three long syllables. Before this diaeresis, a dactyl 
is strongly preferred. 

h. Verses which have a spondee in the fifth foot are called 
spondaic verses (iirrf <T7rov8ciaxa). They are more common in Homer 
than in the Latin poets, — about four per cent of the verses of 
the Hiad being spondaic. 

1 This name is bonowed from ddxrvXas, finger^ and the fanciful explanation was 
given that this foot, like the finger, has one long and two short elements. 

3 This name is derived from the use of tliis slow, solemn measure m the 
hymns which accompanied the libation {vToifd-fi) to the gods. 



§58c. CAESURAL PAUSES Ixxvii 

i. These spondaic verses seem especially frequent at the close of 
emphatic sentences or of divisions of the narrative (c/. A 21, 157, 
291, 600) and in descriptions of suffering and toil, but often no 
rhythmic effect is sought ; the convenience of the verse determined 
the measure. 

j. In about half of the cases, a word of four syllables closes the 
spondaic verse. Never should the fifth foot be filled by a disyl- 
labic word. 

k. The last foot in each verse is a spondee, but the final syllable 
may be short ; the deficiency in time is then made up by the slight 
pause which follows at the end of the verse (§ 59 a, I). A heavy 
or consonantal ending is preferred ; hence the v-movable is often 
used. 

1. Though the student need not concern himself about elision, 
as in Latin poetry, yet he must be watchful for synizesis (§ 25). 

CAESURAL PAUSES. 

58. (H. 1081 ; G. 1642.) a. Each verse has one or more caesural 
pauses (caesura = rofiij, cutting), — pauses within a foot. 

b. The principal caesura of the verse is always a pause in the 
sense, which is often indicated by punctuation, but occasionally 
commas are found where no pause is necessary, and at times the 
poet indicates by the rhythm a pause where not even a comma 
could stand, as A 152, 154. 

Of course no pause can be made immediately before an enclitic, 
since this is closely connected with the foregoing word. 

c. A caesura is found almost always in the thini foot; only 
185 verses of the Iliad and seventy-one of the Odyssey have no 
pause there. It occurs either after the first syllable (as ft^^tv 
ociSc Ota A niyXi^ioScw 'A^tA^o? Al_^w|__vy w|_A_|_<u'w|_ 

w ^ I I ) or between the two short syllables (as ayhpa fioi cwcirc 

Movau A iroKvTpoTrov os fuiAa TroXAa a 1, _>^w|_ww|_vyAv>'| 
__^^»o^|_wvy| I). These two caesuras are about equally fre- 
quent; but the second slightly predominates and seems to have 
been preferred. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION § 58 d. 

d. The pause after the first syllable of a foot is called a masculine 
caesura^ because of the vigorous movement which it gives to the 
verse. Cf. also 

Arma virumque cano . Troiae qui primus ab oris, Vdrg. Aen, i. 1, 

and 

' Sat by some namelesB graye . and thought that perhaps in its bosom 
He was already at rest . and sue longed to slumber beside him.' 

LongfeUow, Evang. 

The pause between two unaccented syllables is called o, feminine 
caesura. Cf. also 

' This is the forest primeval. ^ The murmuring pines and the hemlocks.' 

Longfellow, Evang. 

e. The importance of the caesura in the third foot is marked not 
only by the freedom with which hiatus is allowed there (§ 27 ft), 
and by the evident avoidance of elision at that point, but also by 
the large number of tags of verses which are suited to follow it ; as 
irar^p &.vhpiav re BfMV re, Pown^ itotvia ^Hpij, ^ca AcvkcoXcvos *^PV> ^^^ 
y\avKwnn.9 *A^ki;, <f>ikofifUi^ 'A^poSiri;, Aios Ovydrrfp * A(f>poSLTrf, iv- 
Kvi/fuScf *A)((uoij *A;(ai<i>v xaXjco-)(iriav<oVf icdprj KOfiotavrt^ 'A;(aioi, df>i;i<^iAo$ 
McvcXaos, ava$ dv^pwv *Aya/xcfivaiv, ^o^v dyaOo^ AiOfii;8i;9, Fcpiyvtof in^ora 
Nc(rr<i>p KrX., — all of which must be preceded by the feminine 
caesura (see d) of the third foot ; while * Ayafiifivovo^ 'ArpciiSao, evpv 
KptCiov * AyafA€fivutVf ^yi^opcf "^^ f&eSoyrcg, airafuCPero f^^vyftriv re icrX. 
must be preceded by the masculine caesura of the third foot. 
See § 22 6,/. 

f . The pause after the first syllable of the third foot is called the 
penthemimeral caesura (n-cn-c, ^/u-, fiipos) because it comes after the 
fifth half-foot ; it divides the verse into 2^^4-3^ feet. The pause 
between the two short syllables of the third foot divides the verse 
into 2f+3i feet. 

g. Sometimes the principal pause of the verse is the masculine 
caesura of the fourtii foot. This is called the hephthemimeral 
caesura (ivrd, ^/u-f fiipos). It is frequent after a feminine caesura of 
the third foot. It gives an energetic movement after a penthe- 
mimeral caesura, when the verse is divided into 2|- + 1 + 2^ feet 



§58n. CAESURAL PAUSES Ixxix 

h. Sometimes the pause of the verse is at the close of the 
fourth foot ; this is called the bucolie diaeresis (a diaeresis being 
a pause at the end of a word between two feet) or caesura^ since 
it is most evidently aimed at in the bucolic or pastoral poetry of 
Theocritus. Occasionally there is a transition at this point to 
another part of the story, as A 318, 348, 430. This bucolic 
diaeresis with the penthemimeral caesura divides the verse into 
2i4-li + 2feet. 

i. The importance of the bucolic diaeresis is marked by the 
large number of tags of verses which are ready to follow it, as 8u>9 
'OSvcrcrcik) IpKO^ *A;(aia>V) imrora NorrcDp, o^pi/tos "Xprji, i^aiSifioi 
*E#cr<i>p, ^ifioi 'AwoXXiavy HaXXas 'A^i/vi;, Sui ^cocov, ikyfrUra Zcvs, 
io-o^€09 4^m, See § 22 /. Hiatus is allowed here occasionally. 
See § 27 b, 

j. A slight . pause occurs often after the first short syllable of 
the fifth foot. The poet prefers to close the verse with the rhythm 

— w, w (where the comma represents the end of a word) rather 

than — w wj ; hence outc reXeairas A 108, not ovr irAea'aas, 

and oXye* lOrjKtv A 2, not oXyca BrJKev. This rhythm is found in all 
verses which close with IlaAAas "A^^ijviy, ^ifios 'AiroXAwv, 8u>s 'OSvcr- 
aciky *A;(iAA,€vs, 'A^aioC ktX, 

k. The principal pause of the verse is found seldom at the close 
of the third foot. This would divide the verse into two equal 
parts and cause monotony. A word ends there not infrequently, 
but tliis is accompanied by a more prominent caesura in the third or 
fourth foot ; as Ma IBov ttXciotovs ^pvyas avcpas F 185, where the 
last two words are so closely connected that no caesura is felt 
between them. 

1. Even a slight pause is rare between the two short syllables of 
the fourth foot. In koX ivdOtro ^vOi^ A 33, the objectionable pause 
might be avoided by omitting the augment, but the conjunction is 
connected with the verb so closely that no caesura is felt. 

m. No sentence ends with the second foot. 

n. The pause in the third foot gives to the rest of the verse an 
anapaestic movement, from which it is often recalled by the bucolic 
diaeresis. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION § 58 o. 

0. The varied position of the main caesura, and the minor 
pauses in different parts of the verse give perfect freedom from 
monotony without detracting from the grace and dignity of the 
measure.^ 

QUANTITY.* 

59. (H. 92 ff. ; G. 98 ff., 1622.) a. Metrical convenience or 
necessity often determined the poet's choice among synonymous 
words (§ 22 a, a, /). The poet in general preferred the light dactyls 
to the heavy dactyls or spondees, and retained in the epic dialect a 
large number of dactylic forms which were afterwards contracted. 
An amphimdcer (— \j — , a/i<^t, /ia#cpov) was avoided often by means 
of apocope (§ 29), synizesis (§ 25), or elision (§ 28). 

Most exceptions to the rules of quantity are only apparent. The 
poet, for example, did not lengthen a short syllable by placing the 
ictus upon it. If an apparently short final syllable stands where a 
long syllable is expected, it is probable either 

(1) that the final syllable was originally long, and later lost part 
of its quantity ; or 

(2) that the following word has lost an initial consonant which 
would have made the preceding syllable long by position (see^, 
below) ; or 

1 Coleridge's lines with regard to the Homeric verse are worth remembering : 

' Strongly it bears us along in swelling and limitless billows, 
Nothing before and nothing behind but the sky and the ocean.' 

* The beginner will find it convenient to remember with regard to a, t, u, the 
vowels whose quantity is not clear at the first glance, that 

(1) they are short in the final syllable of any word when the antepenult has 
the acute or the penult has the circumflex accent ; 

(2) they are regularly short in inflectional endings, as tidxv<fh 5/>wa, rp^ovai, 
HOvTiKa^ — in the final syllables of neuter nouns, as dtu^a, ^fiap^ fUXi^ ddxpv, — in 
suffixes, except where v has been lost before er, as ^wrtj, SoXfiyj, i^oLvuraa, — in 
particles, especially in prepositions, as dud, vtpi, inrdy 4pa, ^rt, — and generally 
in the second aorist stem of verbs ; 

(3) they are long in the final syllable when the penult is long by nature and 
has the acute accent ; 

(4) they are long when they are the result of contraction, as h-lfui from 
irlfiat, ip6v, from lep6v, and as the final vowel of the stem of nouns of the first 
declension. 



§ 59 d. QUANTITY Ixxxi 

(3) that the pause (musical resf^ at a caesura or diaeresis fills 
out the time occupied by the foot, allowing the same freedom as at 
the end of the verse (§ 57 k). 

b. A considerable number of anomalies, however, remain unex- 
plained. Prominent among the unexplained anomalies of quantity 
is the t of certain abstract nouns, which form such a definite class 
that it may be assumed that there was some explanation, perhaps 
physiological, for them all ; as v7r€poir\iyaL A 205, wpo^fiCricri. B 58S. 

c. Many apparently irregular variations of natural quantity, as 
well as apparent freedom in allowing hiatus, and variations of 
quantity made by position (see^*, below), seem to be explained best 
by the loss of a consonant, e.f/. - Al'Sos r 322 but - AiSt A 3, from a-^ iS 
(§ 32), fi€fia(rav B 863 but fit^dort'S B 818 (fi.€fiafOT€^) . 

d. eu A syllable which contains a long vowel or a diphthong is 
Jong by nature. Final at and oi are metrically long, although short 
as regards accentuation. 

p. The quantity of some vowels is not fixed, as - AttoXAuivos A 14, 
'AttoXXcov a 380 ; 'Apes, 'Apes E 31 (if the text is right). 

y. Most of these vowels with variable quantity were originally 
long and were becoming short, as the Homeric Itros, #caXos, and 
<f>apo^ became to-os, KaAos, and ^apos in Attic poetry, ^eiopivos (cf. 
iLprj €lapi,vrj B 471), Attic capivds, is found in a Boeotian inscription. 
Evidently every vowel which at first was long and afterwards 
became short must have had at some time a metrical quantity 
which could be treated as either long or short, i.e. its quantity was 
variable. 

8. For the length of final t in the dative singular of the third 
declension, see § 36 a. irpiv in irplv air Z 81 retains its original 
length, as a contracted comparative. 

£. With this variation of natural quantity may be compared the 
double forms employed in Homer, — one with a single consonant, 
another with two consonants, as *A)(tXAcvs A 54, 'A^iAcvs A 199 ; 
•08v<r<Tcv5 A 430, 'OSvo-cife A 494 ; Tpticioyv B 729, Tpt'ici/s A 202 ; 
omrcos A 344, oTTois A 136 ; /nco-o-ov T 266, fico-ov A 481 ictA., many 
of which doubled consonants are known to be justified etymo- 
logically. 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTIOX § 59 e. 

e. Sometimes a naturally short vowel was lengthened (not by 
the poet, but in the speech of the people) in order to avoid the too 
frequent recurrence of short syllables. This is illustrated by the 
rule for the use of o or cu in the comparison of adjectives (o-o^oire- 
poq but jcou^oTcpos), and by the words which have a vowel similarly 
lengthened in the Attic dialect (as aSayaro^, irpoariyopo^y vmiperrii). 
We find ayfjp but av€p€^, npfa/ios but UplapX^ffif Bvyarrfp but Ovyaripa. 

f . a. In Homeric verse a syllable which contains a short vowel is 
long by position when the vowel is followed by a double consonant 
({, (y ^) or by two or more consonants, whether these are in the same 
or in the following word or are divided between the two words. 

p. This rule holds good also in case of a mute followed by a 
liquid. This combination rarely fails to make position within 
a word, and generally makes position when it stands at the begin- 
ning of a word, especially when this word is closely connected with 
the preceding. 

g. a. Sometimes a vowel remains short before a mute followed 
by X or p, as''*A^po3tri| T 380, afi(f>xpp6Trj^ B 389, o/i^tSpv^i;? B 700, 
•jrpoTpairixrBai 7t 336, vevcc Kpoviituv A 528, )3aA.€ IlpiafiiiSaui F 356, yap 
pa KXirroi/in/o-rpi/s A 113. These words and phrases could not have 
been brought into the verse if the mute and liquid must make 
length by position, and the history of the language shows that this 
combination of mute and liquid was gradually losing its weight. 

p. That a mute and a liquid do not always make length by posi- 
tion is explained by the ease with which the combination can be 
pronounced at the beginning of a syllable, leaving the preceding 
vowel short and ' open.' 

y. Before four words, two of which begin with the double con- 
sonant i and two with the two consonants <rK (not a mute and a 
liquid), the preceding vowel remains short : ot tc Zdicvvdov B 634, 
oi 8c ZeXciav B 824, 7rpo\€ovro 'XKap.avBpiov B 465, iireira a-Keirapvov 
c237. 

h. a. A single A, fXy Vy p, a- at the beginning of certain words 
may ' make position ' (c/. § 30 ^») : lirea vt<^a8£<r<ri T 222 (c/. Aya- 
m<^ov A 420 and English snow), IS /icya B 239, B 43, B 196, Ato 
Aurai A 394, ivl /icyapc^ B 661. 



§ 59 k. QUANTITY Ixxxiii 

p. So also h ^ makes position ' in the stem hpv (&daai, fear) and 
always in Si;v, long, as cScio-cv 8* 6 ytpwv A 33^ ov n fulka ii^v A 416^ 
cTTi Scos A 515. 

i. a. Cognate languages and collateral dialectic forms show that 
most words which in the Attic dialect began with p once began 
with <r/> or pp. This explains the doubling of the p after the aug- 
ment and in composition, as well as its power to ' make position ' in 
Homeric verse. 

p. Of the instances of lengthening before Jk, many are only 
physiologically explained, — the /A-sound being easily continued 
xmtil it is virtually a double consonant. But this lengthening 
occurs only before certain stems (especially before ficya? and its 
kin), — not before /idxto'Saiy fiivtiv, fiovvo^. 

j. One of the consonants which ' made position ' has often been 
lost, as ypffi 8c fuv f€iKvui T 386, ^c\os ix^vtvKts A 51, Stoi ok F 230 
(for 0€oi fwi), cf. KOfcov (US B 190, opvi^cs cSs F 2, ttcXckvs ok F 60, ot 8* 
op' IxFikv (tfs €1 re B 780. (/: has been lost more frequently than any 
other initial consonant. See § 32.) 

k. ou A long final vowel or diphthong in the arsis of the foot is 
generally, but not always, shortened before a following vowel : 
'Arp€f8(u re Kal oXAoi lvKvqpj&t% *A;(ouoc A 17, r^v 8* cya> ov Xutro) A 29. 
The shortening of a long vowel is essentially the elision of half the 
vowel (§27rf). 

j3. Final at, ot, ei are most frequently shortened before an initial 
vowel. Final oi is shortened eight times as often as final j;. 

y. The diphthongs ending in v seem to have been more firm in 
retaining their quantity than those which end in t. 

8. This shortening of diphthongs seems to indicate a tendency 
of the final t or v of the diphthong to go into its cognate y (J) 
or w (f) sound and disappear (cf. § 23 /). In Pindar, also, a 
final diphthong is shortened five times as often as a long final 
vowel. Of course there was no hiatus as long as the y or w was 
spoken. 

e. Final t^ and jj are shortened before an initial vowel more 
rarely than other diphthongs. <|) is seldom shortened except before 
an e or (less frequently) an a. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION § 59 L 

1. Before a pause (as before the close of the verse ; see § 57 A:), a 
short vowel may be used in place of a long vowel : Uiripaai Upid- 

fjMio woXiv A 19 1— wv^l— ww|iiA. Not infrequently thus 

the short final vowel of a vocative takes the place of a long syl- 
lable, even cS vu IXcrcok) A 338 ; in such cases the nominative form 
generally could be used. The pause in the rhythm occupies the 
remainder of the time which would be spent in pronouncing a long 
syllable, ^n J ~ J J' before a pause, also, a long final vowel 
may preserve its quantity although the following word begins with 
a vowel, as <jl\A* ovk *Arp€% 'Aya^c/ivovi A 24, — just as a verse 
may close with a short vowel although the next following verse 
begins with a vowel, as Iplaavrt \ 'ArpeC^ A 6 f . 

m. A few verses seem to begin with a short syllable, as os gfSi; 
rd T iovra A 70 (for & /rciSiy, § 32). 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The Homeric Mss. are better and more ancient than those of 
any other secular Greek author. In all, more than one himdred are 
known and described. In the last century about fifty portions of 
the Ilidd were found written on papyrus in Egypt, — some of them 
written before the beginning of our era, — and others are found 
almost every year. The most valuable of all Mss. for the Homeric 
text, and far the most valuable for the old Greek Commentary 
(S;(oAxa), is known as Venetus A, in the library of San Marco at 
Venice. It contains the entire Iliad, with Introduction and Scholia, 
on 325 leaves of parchment in large folio, 15 x 11 inches. It was 
written not later than the eleventh century of our era. 

The earliest printed edition of Homer was that of Demetrius 
Chalcondylas, in two large and handsome volumes, Florence, 1488. 

The text published by Henricus Stephanus, Foetae Graeci prin- 
cipes hero let carmiiilsj Paris, 1566, long served as the vulgate. 

The most important critical editions of the Iliad are those of 
Bekker (1858), La Roche (1873), Nauck (1877), Christ (1884), van 
Leeuwen and Da Costa (1895). 

Convenient text editions are those of Dindorf-Hentze (Leipzig, 
1884) and Cauer (Leipzig, 1890). 

The most scholarly English edition of the Riad is that of Leaf, 
in two volumes, London, Vol. I, ed. 2, 1900 ; Vol. II, 1888. 

The most complete exegetical edition of the Homeric poems is 
that of Ameis-Hentze (K. F. Ameis and Carl Hentze), published by 
Teubner at Leipzig, with German notes, to which the present edi- 
tion for schools is greatly indebted. 

The most convenient small work treating of (a) the general 
literary characteristics of the poems, (b) the Homeric world, (c) 
Homer in antiquity, {d) the Homeric question, is Homer : An Intro- 
duction to the Iliad and the Odyssey, by Professor Jebb, Boston, 1887. 

Monro's Grammar of the Horner ic Dialect, 2d ed., Oxford, 1891, 

is the best work on the subject in any language. 

Ixxxv 



OMHPOT lAIAAOX A 

'AX0a Xtrdt Xpdffovj Xoifibp 0-rparoO, ^X^' dpdtcnap. 

Alpha precea Chrysae^ peatia mala, iurffia regum, 

'Alpha the prayer of Chrysea sings: 
The army^s plague: the strife of kings. ^ 

Xoi/xd9' iirjvL^. 
IiiYOcation of the Muse. Theme of the Iliad. 

ovXo/iarrfv, iq fivpC* *A;(atot9 aXye* iOrjKePj 
7roXXa9 8' t<f>9Liiov^ ^x^^ *AiSi Trpota^jfep 
ripuHiiVy avTOV9 Sc eXcipia r^^!^ Kvveco'LV 
6 oltopolcL T€ Saira, Atos 8* crcXctcro fiovhj, 
i^ ov Brf ra TrpSna hiaarrJTqv ipiaavre 
'ATpetBrf^ T€ ava^ avSp&v Kal 8to9 *A;(tXXci;9. 

The Injured Priest. The Ayenging Apollo. 

Tts T ap (r<f><i}€ 9€(ov cptSt $vv€rjK€ fidx'^o-OaL; 
ArjTOv^ Kal Atos vtd?. o yap Pacikfji xpXwOa,^ 

10 vovcrov ava arparov cjpcre Kaic/jVy okiKomo 8c Xaoi, 
ovv€Ka TOP Xpvaiffv rfTLfiao'ev aprjrtjpa 
'Atpci8t75. 6 yap -^X^c 6oa^ ini vrja^ *Ar)(aiS)v 
Xvcro/icvo^ T€ dvyarpa <f>€poi}v r anepeicn.* airoiva, 
ore/x/xar* ej(0)i/ €v x^pclv eKrj^oXov ^AnoWtovo^ 

16 ;(pv<r6&) di/a (TKTjwTpoiy Kal IkUrcero ndvra^ *A;(atov5, 

*ATpetSa 8c /utaXicrra 8v<u Kocfirjrope Xa&v 

" 'ATpct8<u T€ icat aXXoi evKinjiiiBe^ *A;(aiot, 

1 



! OMHPOY lAlAAOS A 

vfiiv fiep 0€OL Solev 'OXu/XTTia Sco/xar' €)(ovt€^ 
eKiripfrai Ilpia/xoio ttoXii/, iv S' oiicaS* iKeo'dau* 

20 iraiSa 8* i/iol kvcai re <f>C\riv^ rd t airoiva S^ecr^at, 
al^oiievoi A109 vlovy iicrifiokov 'ATrdXXcova." 

6/^* dXXoi fiev ndvT€^ in€v<f>7]fi7ja'av 'A;(atot 
alhelcrOai 9* iepija kol ayXaa S^^at airoiva - 
aXX' ovic 'ArpetSg * Ayafiefivovi "^vhave Ovfi^, 

25 dXXa icaica>9 d<^t€i, Kparepov 8* ctti {ivOov ercXXci/- 
"/xt/ (TC, yepov^ KoCXTjaLv iyw napa vrfvcrl klx^Uo 
rj vvv SrjOvvovT rj varepov avrt? iovra, 
fiTj vv Toi ov XP^^I^V <y^TrTpov KoX aTefifia 0€olo. 
TTjv 8* cyco ov Xvcro)- Trpti/ /xti' ical yrjpa^ eireiaiv 

30 rj/iercpo} ipl otica> cv "Apyct, TrjkoOi irdrpTj^, 
ioTOP iiroi\oii€in)v koX ifiop X^o? dKridcocrai/. 
dXX* t^t, /i.7^ /x* ipeOi^ey cawrepo^ cU? icc vojat." 

Prayer of the Old Priest and its Answer. 

a>S €<f>aT, eheLcep 8' 6 yepwp Kal cttci^cto fivOw, 
firj 8* aKCCDP napa ffipa 7ro\v<f>koCa'^OLO ^aXocrcnj?, 

36 TToXXa 8' eirctr' airdpevOt klwp rjpaO* 6 yepaio^ 
*A7rdXXo)vt apatcriy top iqvKOfio^ T€K€ Arjrd' 
" kKvOC /xcv, dpyvpoTO^*, 05 XpHariP d/x<^i/8€)8''}fca9 
KiXXai/ T€ l^aOerjPy TeveSoLo re l(f>L di/ocrcrct?, x^ 
S/xii/deS, ct TTorc rot xapUvr €7rt i/rjov ep^^a, 

40 17 ct 81/ TTore rot icard iriova fiflpC €K7fa 

ravpcDP 178* atyci)v, Td8€ /xot Kprjripop iekhwp • 
rureiai/ Aai^aol e/xd SaKpva crolcn Pektaaipy 

cS? €<f>aT ev)(6ii€PO^j Tov 8* cicXvc 4>or)8o5 'AttoXXo)!/. 
/8tj 8c icar* OuXv/xTToirO Kapyjptop ^((oofiepo^ '^VRy 

46 TO^* ^fiOLcrip €)({t}p dii<f>rip€if>€a re if>ap€TpT)P • 
eKkay^ap 8' dp' dtcrrol ctt* oi/xcov ^KnoiJiipoiOy 




APOLLO BELVEDERE 
From the statue in the Vatican Museum, Rome 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 3 

airov Kiv7)devTO%' 6 8* 1716 wktI ioiK<i^. 
€^€T eneLT airavevue pewv, fiera o lov eqKep- )^ 

§€11/17 Sc icXayyj) yever dpyvpcoio ^loto, 
60 ovpfja^ fi€v irponov iTr<i\ero koX Kvva% apyov^y 
avrap eneiT avroicrt ficXo^ ix^'^evKe^ €<f>L€U 
/SaXX'- aUl Sc nvpal veiciwv Kaiovro da/xeiai. 

Assembly of the Achaeans (58-305). Achilles calls an Assembly to 
consult with Regard to the Plague. 

ivvrj/iap fiev di/a arparov <^xeTO ic^Xa deolo, 
Ty ScKCtrg 8' ayoprjvhe icaXccrcraTo \aov 'A^^tXXci;?- 

56 TO) yap cVl <f)p€crl 0rJK€ Oedj XevKciXepo^ "HpTj- 
icifScro yap Aai/a&>i/, art /5a OvrjcKovra^ opdro, 
ol 8* cVcl oSi/ TJyepdev Ofirjyepee^ re yivovroy 
Toia 8* dvLordfievo^ /ictcc^tj 7rd8a9 oJicv? 'A^tXXcv?* 
" 'Arpcffiij, i/ui/ d/i./jL€ TTCiXti/ 7r\ay\0€PTa^ oio) 

60 di/r dnovoanjo'eLP, ei Kev Odvarov ye <^vyoi/i,€v, 
ei 8^ 6/jlov 7rdXe/i.o9 re 8a/i.^ ical Xoi/jl69 'A^atov^- 
dXX' dye. Sij Tiva fidimv ipciofiev rj Uprja 
rj Kal oveipoTTokoVy koX ydp r ovap Ik Aid? ecrni/, 
09 K eiTTOi on Tocraov l)(,oHraTO ^ol/So^ 'AttoXXo)!/, 

65 et T dp* o y ev^cDXTy? inLii€fi<f>€TaL et 0* iKaToii/Sris, 
at K€i/ TTco? dpvS)v Kviait)^ aiyS)v re reXetoii/ 
)8ovXerat di/rtdcra? i7/Ati' dTro Xotyoi/ d/xSi/at." 

Calchas states the Cause of the Plague. 

•^ rot o y C09 etTTCJv icar ap etero, rotcrt o avecrrr/ 
KdX^as ®ecrTopt87js, otcui/OTrdXcui/ o^* dptoro?, 
70 05 ^017 ra T eoi/ra ra r eaaofieva irpo r eovra, 
Koi vrjto'fr jfyija'aT 'A^ataii/ *IXtov etcro) 
77V 8td /lauToaijprjVj nfjv oi trope 4>otj8o5 *A7rdXX<Mv. 



4 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

o (Tf^ti' €v ^pov4o}v ayoprjo'aTo icat fureeiirep' 
" (3 'A^^tXcv, iceXcat /ui€, Stu^tXc, fLvdrjO'aa'dajL 

76 /x^i/ti' 'AirdXXctti'o?, cfcanj^ScXerao avaicro^' 

Tovyap iyiav cpeoj, (rv Se aijvdeo, Kai fioi ofioo'a'ov 
^ fiev /mot np6(f>p(ov hrtcnv koX ^tpcrXv apij^eiv. 
^ yap oiofiai avhpa ^oXtaacfievy 09 fieya vdpTcjv 
^Apyeuav fcpareet, icai ot irtidovTOJ, ^K^aioL 

80 Kpeia-acjp yap /SaaXev^y ore ^(aKrerat di/Spl X^P^^' ^ 

/ €t TTcp yap T€ xdXoi/ yc icat avrrjiiap fcaraire/^, ' 1 

aXXa T€ Kal /leronurOev c^^t kotop^ o<f>pa TeXea-arg^ 

ip <mj0€aaLv iolai. <rv 8c ^pdaai ci /xc o-acScrct?." 

Tov 8* aira/ui€t)3dfi€i/09 irpoai^ri ird8a9 ejicv9 *AxiXXcv9- 

86 *^ OapoTJaa^ fiaXa elnk deonpomov &n otada' 

ov /xa yap 'A7rdXXcui/a 8ii<^iXoi/, <5 re cru, KaX^^ai/, 
€v\6fi€vo^ AavaoiaL deonpoma^ dva<l>aivei^y 
ov rt9 ifioj ^S)VTo^ Kal iirl \dovi hepKOfiei/oio 
(Tol KoCXji^ rrapd in^vci fiapeia^ ^^eipa? iiroicr^i 

90 (rvfindpT<ov AavaStv^ ov8* 171/ ^Ayaficfivova eliry^y 
09 wv TToXXoi/ aptoTo? *Axai£i/ cu^^erai cli/ai." 
ical rare 8^ OdpairjO'e Kal i^vSa fidvTL^ dfiviKov 
ovr ap o y cu;(cuAi}9 eiri/xe/uKperai ovc/ eKaTo/ipriSy 
aXX' ci/€ic* dpriTrjpos, op 'qrCfirja ^Aya/ieiiPOiP 

96 ov8* aircXvcrc Ovyarpa koX ovk dir^hi^ar airoii/a, 
Tow€K dp* d\ye ehioKev cktj^SoXo? '78* m 8c5(r€i. 
ov8' d y€ Trpii/ Aavaolaip deiKca Xoiyoi/ airoMrei, 
irpii/ y diro trarpl (f>C\<o 8dp.€i/ai €Xi/ccuirt8a Kovpr/p 
dirpf^dnqp dpdiroiPOPy dyeip 0' ieprjp iKaTo/i/Srjp 
100 C9 Xpv<r7)P' rdrc icei/ /xti/ iXacra'ap.ei'oi nerriffoLfiep.^^ 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 6 

Agamemnon ia Ready to giro np Ghryseia, bat demanda Recompenaa. 
T) roi o y ctt9 ctTTon^ icar ap €Qero^ Toici o avicm) 

ayyvfi^vo^' li€V€o^ hk fiiya <f>p€y€^ aii^ifi4\axvax 
TrCfiTrXcurTy ocrcrc 8c oi irvpX kafiTrerocjpTL iCfcnjv. 

106 Kd\)(avTa rrpdnoTa kok oaaoiievo^ irpoaeeLvep • 
^^ fidpTL KaK&Pi ov ird irori fioi to Kprjyvov clira?- 
aleC rot ra kok iorl (f>Cka ^p^aX fiavreveaOcUy -V 

iaOkov 8* ovT€ rC ttoi cT7ra9 eiro? ovt€ rcXccrcra?. 
fcal vvi' iv iLavaolai 0€O7rpo7r€O}v dyopevei^y 

110 619 8^ T0v8* &€ica cr^ii' iKj/fioXo^ aXyea Tcv^feij 
ovvcK iyo} KovpTj^ XpvairiCho^ ay\d* airotva 
ovK lOeKov hi^axrdajL^ — cttcI ttoXv fiovko/KU avrfjp 
OLKOi €)(eiv. Kal ydp pa YLkvranivrjoTpri^ irpofii^ovka^ 
KovpiZvq^ dko^ovy CTTcl otJ kdey iari ^^p^uoVy 

116 ov he/ias ovhe <l>vi]Py ovr dp <j>p€pa^ ovre tl epya. 
aAAa Kai cu9 eueXxo oofiei^cu iraKip^ ci to y afieipov 
ISovkofi iyo) kaov aoov e/ifiepox 17 dnokeadcu. 
airrdp ifiol yepa^ axrrix eroifidxraTy 0(f>pa firj olo? 
^ApyeUop dyipaxTTo^ &», cttcI ov8^ eoticev* 

120 Xcvcrcrerc yap to ye 7rai^€9, o ftot yepa^ €p\€TaJL akkiQ^ 

Immediate Recompenae ia Impoaaible. 

Tov 8* '^[leCfieT ejTCtra rroSdpKT)^ 8109 'AxtXXev?- 
"'ArpciKi; in;8torT€, <j>iXoKT€apcjTaT€ trdimav^ 
TToi? yap rot 8aHrov(rt yipa^ iieyddvfioi, *A)(atot; 
ov8e Tl TTOv cS/xci' ^vvfji,a KeCfieva TroXXa, 
126 dXXa ra fiep irokUov i^eirpdBofiev^ ra 8e8acrr(u, 
Xaovs 8* OVK iireoLKe TraXiXXoya raur* ivayeCpetv. 
dXXa (TV fi^ vw TijpSe dew irpoe^y avrdp 'A;(<uot 



>i 



6 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

rpiirk^ TeTpanXy r aTroricroiieVj at k4 nodi Zcv? 
S^cri iroXti/ Tpovqv ivreCxeov efaXaTrafat/' 

* Agamemnon will take the Gift of Honor of one of the Achaean 

Princes. 

180 TOP 8* d7ra/uiei)8ofi€i/09 Trpocrei^T} Kpeuov * Ayafie/jLvcjv - 
" /jLTi hrf ovTCt)^^ dyaOo^ nep idvj deoeiKcX* *A^tXXd), 
fcXcTTTC v6(Oy inel ov TrapcXcvcreat ovhe /ut€ ircuret?. 
7j cC/€Aet9, 09P avT09 €;(>j9 yepa^, avrap €fi avT<i}<; 
^cdaL Sevo/ievoVy /ccXeai 8c /utc Ttjvh* anoSovvai ; 

136 aXX* et fjL€v hcocovcL yepa^ fieydOvfiOL *A^atot, 
■apcavre^ Kara dvfiovy ottoj? avrd^iov corat, — 
et 8c KC fijf haxaaiVy iycj 8c /cci/ avro? iXcjfiai 
rj T€ov rj A ta VT09 tcii/ yepa^, 17 *08v(r^09 
afcu cXwi/ • 6 8c K€v Ke)^ok(jj(reTaL^ ov k€v i/coj/jiai. 

140 aXX' ij TOt /utci/ Tavra iieraf^pacofi^a-da /cat avrt?, 
j/vi/ 8' aye i/i7a /MeXaLvav ipvaao/jLev ct? aXa 8tai/, 
C9 o ep€Ta^ C7rtn70c9 ayeLpo/xev, c? o eKaTOfipriv 
deCo/xeVy dv 8' avri^i' Xpv(rr)C8a KaWiirdprpv 
fiyjcofiep. ct? 8c rt? ap^o? ai^p /SovXijc^dpo? coto) 

146 17 Ata? 17 'l8o/utci/cv9 17 8to9 '08ucrcrcv9 

lyc (TV, ni7Xci8i7, irdvTCJV iKirayXorar dvSpiov, 
09P Tj/jLti/ eKoepyov tXacrcrcat tcpa />cga9. 

Achilles reproaches Agamemnon with Ingratitude, and threatens to 
return to Achaea. 

roi/ o ap VTToopa lotoi/ npoaeipr) nooa^ (okv^ A^tAAcv?- 
" (S /jLot, ai/at8cti7i/ cVtct/jicVc, fccp8aXcd<^poi/, 
60 TTiS? Tt9 TOt 'n'p6(f)p(ov eir^aiv Trct^ijrat *Axat<Si/ 

\i7 680V iXde/ievai 17 dvhpdo-iv X<f>L iid^^adai; 
, ov yap cyci Tpcaeov iveK rjkvdov aixfirjrdcDV 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 7 

SeSpo iiaxqaoiievo^, inel ov tC [iol ainoC clclv' 

oi yap rrd nor ifia<; l3ov<; ijXacrai/, ovSe fiev ittttov?, 

166 ovSc TTOT iv ^dirj ipLfidkaKL fi<oTiav€ipri 

Kapnov iSrjXrja'avTj inel 17 fidka noWa /jiera^v, 
ovped T6 (TKioevra ddkaao'd t€ '^^(Tjccrcra • 
aAAa crot, cu /utey ai/atO€9, a/jt ea-nofieu , 09pa crv ;(atpp9, 
TifiTjv dpirufievoL Mevekdo) aoC re, Kwcjira, 

160 irpo9 Tpanav. tcjv ov tl fieraTpeTrg ov8' dXcyt^ct?* 
icat Siy ftot yepa^ avro? d<f>aLpT]a-€(r0 ai dTretXeZ?, 
w CTTi TToXXa ixoyrjaaj hoaav 8c /jiot utc? 'A^atcSi;. 
ov /xci' <rot TTorc Icov cj^cu ycpa?, ottttot' 'Amatol 
TpcocDi/ iKTrepcata iv vaiofievov irrokvedpov 

165 aXXd TO /jLCi/ TrXctoi' TroXvdtfco? TroXcjfjioto 

;(etp€9 c/jiai StcVovo"*, drap 171/ ttotc Sacr/xo? t/crjrat, 
col TO yepa^ iroXv fiel^ov, iyoj 8' okiyov Te <f>C\op re 
cpxop'* €)(0}v inl vrja^j inei k€ Kd/ict) TroXc/jLi^ajp, 
vvv 8' ct/xi ^Biy)vV^ iirel ^ noXv <f)€pT€p6v icmv 

170 oi/caS* Ifiev aifv vrfval KopwvUriv^ ovSc <r' otcu 
€vuao ari/ui09 ewi' atpevos /cat ttaovtoi/ a<pvqeiv, 

Agamemnon does not heed Achilles' displeasure, and will take his 
Prize, Briseis. 

Tov 8* rifieipeT erreiTa dva^ dvhp5>v * Aya/jLefjLvcjp • 
" <f>€vy€ fid\\ ct TOL dvfio^ iireo'a'VTaL^ ov8c' c* cyc5 yc 
XiCCOfioA, elv€K ifielo fiiveiv nap* c/utot ye Kal dXXot, 

176 Ot K€ fJLe TLflTJCOVO'Ly fldkLCTa 8c fJLrjTL€Ta Zev9. 

exdicrro^ 8c /xot ecr<rt 8ior/9c<^ccui/ fiaa-ikTJcjv 
aiel ydp rot cpt? re c^tXij ttoXc/aoi tc [id^aL t€* 
el fidka Kaprepo^ ccrcrt, ^co? ttov crot to y c8a>/cci/. 
orica8* tcii/ (Tvv v7)V(Ti Te (7^9 /cat cot? eTapoiaiv 
180 Mvp/xihoveo'a'LU dvaaae, aeOev 8' cyci ovic dXcyt^cti 



3 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

ovS* oOofioL KoreovTo^' dirciXijcra) Sc roi eSSe. 
C09 €(1 affxupelrai Xpva'7)l!Sa ^olfio^ 'AttoXXcui/, 
TTju fikv iy<a (tvv vrji t ifi^ kol 6/1019 irdpoiaiv 
ir€/xi/rctt, eyctt Se k dyco BpicnjiSa icaXXiTrapijoi' 
185 auro9 tcoi' icXicroji'Sc, to o"oi/ yepa^, o<^p* cu €iS^9, 
oaaov <^€jf>r€po9 ct/xi aedev, aruyeu hk koI aXXo9 
taov ifiol (fxiaOai Koi ofiouodijixevcu ayn}!/." 

Achillet is restrained from killing; Agamemnon by the Goddess Athena, 
who promises Satisfaction. 

cus (f>dro' UriXetoiVL 8* d^o^ yeveTy iv 8c oi ^rop 
(mjOeaaLv kaaioLO'L 8iai/8t;(a iiep[ii]pi,^€P, 

190 ij o y€ <f>dayapov ofv ipvaadfiepo^ rrapd firfpov 
T0V9 /iii/ avooTT^crctci^, 6 8* *Arp€&r)v ivapV^oi^ 
tJc x^^oi/ Travcrctci/ iprqrvo'^U re dvfiop. 
do? 6 Tav^* cop/ui(ui/€ icara <f>p€va Koi Kara dvfiovy 
cXkcto 8* €/c icoXcoio /xeya ^i^o^y Jj\de 8* *Adrjvri 

196 ovpavodev irpo yap '^k€ ^ca, XevfccuXei^o? *Hp>j, 
dfiffxa Ofica^ dvpLta i^ikiova'd re KTjSofievrj re. 
crr§ 8* omdePy ^avdrj^ 8c KOfiri^ cXc Ili^Xcfctti/a, 
oti^ (fxuvoii^irrfy tcjv 8* aXXctii/ ov ri9 oparo. 
ddfi/Srio'ep 8' 'AxtXcv9, /icra 8' irpdireTy airruca 8* eyi/a> 

200 naXXot8* *A0rjvairiv heivci he oi oaae <f>dap0€P. 
KaC fiiv ^(ovrjaa^ eirea Trrepoevra npocrrjvha' 
^^tCttt avTy aiyio;(Oio A109 rcico?, elXijXovda^; 
tJ ti/a vfipLP t^ij *Aya/ji€/jii/oi/09 *ATp€i8ao; 
dXX' eK Toi ipecDy to he koI rekeeaOax ouo* 

206 ^s vnepoirXCjja'L rd)^ dv vore 0v[iop oXeaarg.^' 

rov 8* avre irpocreeiire Oed^ yXavic£iri9 *A$ijvT]' 
^^^\dov eycj rravaovca to aov pLO/o^y a? icc iriOriajLy 
ovpavodev irpo he /x* rJKe $ed, XevKcokeuo^ ^^PV* 




ATHENA 
From the statue in the National Museum, Naples 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 9 

a/A<^ctt 6/jict>9 dvfiw i^iKiovai T€ K7)ho[i€vri r€. 

210 dXX' dy€ \rjy e/oiSo?) fir/hk ^i^o^ i\K€0 X^V^* 
dXX* tJ Tot iireaLv fxev ovtlhiaov, 019 eaeraC nep. 
(5Sc ydp €^€p6cu, TO 8c fcat TeTekccfievov iarai - 
/cat TTOTC Tot rpt? Tocrcra Trapiccerai dyXaa S£/:>a 
vppio9 €ti/cica rrycroc- crv o tcrxco, ireiueo o ijfiLv, 

216 T^i/ 8' d7ra/Xr€t)3dfi€i/o9 Trpoacifyrj ird8a9 cjkv? 'Ax^^XXcu? • 
" x/>''7 M'^*' (T(f>it}iT€p6v y€y ded^ eiro^ elpvaaao'daiy 
Koi fid\a irep Ovfi^ KC^oXcjiievov - cS? yap dfieipov 
09 ic€ ^€ot9 inLneidriTaXy fidXa r ckKuov auroC." 
tJ fcal eTT* dpyvpejg KomiQ <T^Bt ^X^pa fiapeiav, 

220 di/r 8* €9 icouXcoi/ c3<r€ /xeya ^u^09, ov8' dnidyjO'ei^ 
Iiv0(o *A07)vai7)^. 7) 8* OvXv/x7rdi/8€ fiefifJKeLv 
hdfiar €9 aiyidxoto A109 fierd 8ai/AOi/a9 dXXov9* 

Achilles swears that Agamemnon will repent his Action. 

IXTjXciSrj? 8' i^avTi^ dTapnqpoi^ iirieao'Lv 
*ATp€t8riv irpocreEiire, Koi ov ttoi \rjye x^Xoio- 

225 '^ olvofiape^j Kwo^ OfiiiaT €)(<av^ KpaZvqv 8* i\d(f>oio, 
ov7% nor C9 noXefiov dfia Xaol dcjprixdrjpcu 
ovT€ Xo^ovh* Uvai (Tvv dpKmjeo'a'Lv ^K^aiSiv 
TerXrjica? Ovfi^- to 8c tol KTjp ciScrai elpai. 
tJ ttoXv Xdiov iari Kara orpaTov evpifv ^K^ai&v 

230 hSip anoaipeladaLj 09 rt? crc^ei; dvriov cwrjj- 

hrjixofiopo^ )8a<rtXcu9, eVct ouri8ai/ora'ii/ di/dcrcrct?- 
tJ ydp di/, 'ArpctSij, in)!/ varara \Q)fiTJ<raio. 
dXX' cK roi cpcoi, fcal cVi fieyav opKov ofiovficu. 

vat /xd Td8c (TKr)TTTpOV • TO /XCI/ OU TTOTC <^vXXa Kal O^OU9 

236 <^v(rci, eVcl 817 TrpcjTa TOfirjv iv opccrcri XcXotTrci/, 
ou8* dva67)\7]a'€L' nepl ydp pd c x^^'^o? cXe/rci/ 
i^vXXa Tc fcat (f>\oL6v vvv aCrc' /utti/ vfc? 'AxatSi/ 



10 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

iv nakdiJL'Q^ ^opiovai 8t/ccur7rdXot, ol t€ Oc/iurra^ 
npo^ Ato9 ctpvarai- 6 he tol fi€ya<; ecacTai opKO^- 
240 tJ ttot 'AxtXXi709 iro^i7 i^ercu via? 'Anatoli/ 

cvinravra^' t6t€ 8* ov rt SvKijcrcai d^fyvfiepo^ nep 
XpO'f'O-fjLeivj €VT »dv noWol v(f>* '^Eicropo^ avhpo<^6voio 
OmjaKovre^ TrtTrrctwri * <rv 8' h/hodi dvfiov d/xv^ei9 
;(a>d/x€i/09, o r* dpiarov *Pi.\aiS>v ovhkv ertcra?." 

Nestor strives to reconcile the Angry Princes: Agamemnon should 

not take Briseis; Achilles should pay Honor to 

the Commander-in-Chief. 

246 CO 9 ^dro Yi'r)\eth'r)^y irorrX 8c a-Krjnrpov fidXe yatrj 
y^pvacLOL^ rjXoLCL Trcirap/jLcVoi/, c^cto 8' avrd?. 
*Arp€t8i79 8' ercpcjdev ifiyjvLe, rolo'i he ^earcop 
-qSveirfj^; dvopovae, Xtyv9 TlvXCojv dyopT)Trj^^ 
Tov /cat ttTTo y\(MT(rr)<; fieXLTos ykvKLcov peep avSyj, 

250 ro) 8' 1787} 8i;o [lev yeveal fiepontop dvdpcoTrcjv 
e(l>0Ca9\ ol oi npocdev a/uta rpdtfyev rjSe yevovro 
iv UvXco riyadejiy fieTa 8c TpirdTOLCiv dvaaaev^ 
6 a'<f>Ly cv (l>popeQ}v dyopTjaaro kol /xcrcctTrci/* 
^ * " cS TTOTTOt, -^ fxeya irepdo^ *Axatt8a yatai/ LKapei • 
'^ ^iob -ij /cci/ yridrja'aL Ilptafto? IIpta/jLotd re 7rat8c9, 
,. ^ \ ^3 aXXot TC Tpolc? ftcya Kep Ke^apoiaTO dvfit^^ 
el a'if><oLP rdhe ndpra Trudoiaro fj^appa/xepouPy 
OL nepl fiep )8ovXtji/ Aapaojp, nepl 8' ccrrc /jLCt^^ccr^at. 
dWd nCdecO^ ' dfjLtfxo 8c peayrepo) ecTOP ifielo. 

260 17817 ydp TTOT eyo} koX dpeioaip rje trep v/ilp 

dpSpdcLP (oiiikria'a, kol ov irore fi ol y dQepilpp, 
oi ydp not} roCovs l8op dpepa^, ov8c iSco/jiai, 
olop TleLpidoop re Apvaprd tc, Trot/jLcVa kawp, 
KaLpea t ^E^dSiop re kol dprideop Ilo\vif>7ifiop 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 11 

266 [^crca r AtyctSiji/, inuiKekop aOapdroio'Lp]. 
KapTiOTOL S17 KelvoL iiTixOovlcav rpoj^ey avhpwv 
KapTiaroi fiep eaav koI KaprUrroi^ ifia)(ovTOy 
{fyripalv 6p€a'K(ooia'ij kol iKiraykoi^ atrokecro'av. 
KoX fikv rouriv iyta [leOofiCXeop ck IIvXov iXddpy 

270 Tr)\6dtv i^ dirir)^ yaCtj^* KoKcaavro yap airoi* 

Koi iia)(6fi7]v Kar efi avrov iyd- Keivoicri 8* dp ov rt? 
rSiPj ot vvv fipoToC eiaiv ciri;(^di/tot, [ia)(€oiTO. 
Kal fiev fiev fiovXecjv ^vviev neCdovro re fivOtf. 
dXXa ir!0€crde koX v/x/uie?, circl rreideaOtu afieipov. 

276 fiyjre <rv toi/8*, dyado^ nep idv^ dnoaCpeo Kovprqvy 
dXX' €0, cI)? ot rrpioTa Sdcrai/ yipa^ vfc? *A,\axSiV' 
liTJre aii, IlTjXcfSiy, OdX* ipL^efievcu fiaaikyji 
dvTipCriv, inel ov irod* ofioCri^ ififiope rifirj^ 
aKJiTTTOvxo^ )8cMriXcv9, ^ T€ Zcv? Kvhos ihcjKep. 

280 €t Sc <rv Kaprepo^ ccrcri, Scd 8c crc yeivaro injrrip, 
dXX* 08c <j>€pT€p6^ ioTiVy iirel irXeoveaaiv dvaaaei. 
'ArpctSr;, crv 8c iravc tcoi' fievo^' avrdp iyd ye 
XUrao/i 'A^iXX-^i /leSefiev xdXoi/, 09 /jieya irdcriv 
epKO^ * AxoJi>OL(Tiv mkercu TroXefiOLO icaicoto." 

Neither of the Angry Men will yield. 

286 Tov 8' dirafieifiofievo^ rrpoo'eifyrj Kpeuav 'AyafiefiPtav 
* " VOL 817 Tavrd ye iravra^ yipoVy Kara fiolpav eEiirc?. 
dXX* 08* dvrip ideXei ncpl ndvrcDv ififievtu dXXcui/, 
irdvTiav fiev Kpareeiv e^cXci, iravreao'i 8* di/dcrcrcii/, 
Tracri 8c <r7)fiaCv€iVy d tlv* ov ireuTeadax oCo). 
290 el 8c /Ati/ alxp.riTi]v edecav deol alep iovre^y 
TovveKa ol irpodeovau/ oveiSea pAjdrjcao'dai;^^ 

TOV 8* dp* vTTofiXTJhriv 'qfieCfiero 8109 'A^^tXXcw' 
"tJ yap Kev 8ciXd9 re /cat ovrt8ai/o9 fcaXcot/xiji', 



12 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

ct 8^ (Tol trav Ipyov vnei^oficu^ ottl k€v mtq^' 
296 aX\oi(Tiv 817 ravr cttct/XXco, /xt) yap i/ioi ye 

[cny/xaii/'. ov yap iyd y ert crol TreCaea'daL oio).] 
aXXo 8^ Tot cpcoi, aif h* ipl if>p€(rl /SdWeo (rgaiv* 
X^P^^^ H'^^ ov rot cycu yc /jiaxTjcro/Jiat eii/eica Kovprf^ 
ovT€. crol ovre tq) aXX6>, circi /a' aa^ikeo'di ye 8di^€9* 
300 rS)v 8' aXXoii/ a /xoi coTi do^ napa vrjl fieXaCvyy 
tUp ovk av TL (f>€poL^ oivekcjv dcKovTO^ ifieio. 
el 8* aye iirjv neCpria'ai, Iva yvmnai Kal otSc* 
a^a roi alfia KekaLvov epanjaeL irepX hovpiy 

Chryseis is diapatched to her Father. The Camp is purified. 

a>9 Tci y avTifiioKTi iiayyiaafLevoi eireeao'iv 
305 dvcrrrJTqv^ \vcrav 8* dyoprjv irapd vrjvalv *A.\ax<av, 
n>jX€t87j9 iiev eirl kXktUl^ koX vfja^ eUras 
17 1€ aiiv re MeuoiTLahrj Kal ol^ erapotcrtv, 
^Arpethri^ 8* dpa vrja 6o7)v aXa8c irpoepvaa-evy 
C9 8* cpera? eKpivev eeiKoaiv^ c? 8* eKaropL^'qv 
310 ^rjcre 9e£, avd 8e Xpv<r7)i^a KaWnrdprjov 

^urev dydiv ev 8* dpyp^ efir) iroXvfirjTL^ *08u<ro"Ci;9. 

oi fiev eireiT dvafidvre^ inenXeov vypd Kekevda^ 
Xaov9 8* *Arpet8T)^ diTokvfLaivea'dai dvaryev. 
ol 8* direkvfiaCpovTO Kal €19 oXa XvfiaT efiaWov^ 
316 ephov 8* 'AttoXXcui/i rcXijccrcra^ cfcard/x^Sa? 

Tavpoiv '78' alytav irapd ffiv aXo9 drpvyeTOio' 
KvUrq 8* ovpavov iKev eXLaaofievrj irepl Kairvta. 

Heralds of Agamemnon fetch Briseis from the Tent of Achillei. 

a>9 61 fJLev ra irevovro Kara (rrparov • ov8 ' *Aya/jLCjfi.i/cui/ 
X'^y* €pi8o9, i^i' np&rov ein)ireCkT)(T 'A^tXi^t, 
320 aXX' o ye Takdyfiiov re /cat EvpvfidrYjv irpoaeenrev^ 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 13 

Tw 01 iaap K7JpvK€ koX (yrfyqpta depdnovre* 

\€ipo^ i\6vr dy^fiev Bpioi^cSa KaWnrdp-Qov. 

326 iXdcjv aifv irXcoi/ccrcri • to ot icat piyiov corot." 
y'\\*|i/Y>>i cS? eiTTCJi' irpdUi^ Kparepw 8* cttI pJodov ereWev. 
Tci 8* a€KovT€ ^dnqv napa ffiv ctXo? drpvyeroio, 
Mvpfiihoptov h* irrC re kXktui? ical i/^a9 ticccr^i/. 
TOP 8* 6upoi/ irapa t€ KXicrt^j ical i^ijl fieKaCirg 

330 rjfjLevov ov8* apa roJ y€ t8a>i/ yrjOtio'ev ^A^^iXXcv?. 
TC(i /ui€i/ rapfiTJaavre ical ai8o/Ji€Vai ficuriX'^a 
anjrtjVy ovSe tC pxv irpoaei^wveov ov8* ipeovro* 
avrap 6 cyi/o) ^crti/ €i/l (f^peal (fximjo'ev re- 
"X^tpcTC, KrjpvK€s^ Ato? ayycXot 1786 ical di/8pei>v. 

336 aaaop It' ov tC (jlol vfifie^ CTrairtot, dXX* * AyafiefipwPy 
o (Ti^Zi rrpotei Bpurrftho^ €LV€Ka Kovprj^. 
dXX' dye, 8toyci/€9 IlarpdicXct?, c^ayc KovpTjv 
Kai (TifxoLv 809 dy€ii/. rcu 8' auroi fidprvpoi ecrrajv 
irpo^ re dewv fiaKdpojv irpo^ re dprfrStv dvO^wrmv 

340 ical 7rpo9 ToS ^ojctiXtjo^ dinqvio^y et ttotc 8^ avrc 
XP^^^ e/Xreio yivrfrax deticca Xotyoi/ dfivvai 
T0t9 dXXoc9- ij ydp o y* 6Xot^<rt if>p€a'l Oveiy 
ovhc Ti olSe voyjatu afia npoao'd) ical orrio'a'Wj 
OTTTTCJ? ot Trapd j/tyucrl crdot fiax^oCaT 'A;(atoi." 

346 eS^ <^dro, ndrpoicXo9 86 <^iXa) iireTreCOed* eraip<fy 
CK 8* dyaye icXio-ny? BpiOTjCSa KoXXiTrdp'QoVy 
8a>ic€ 8' dycti/. rcu 8* aurt? tnji^ Trapd i/^a? *A;(cuaJi/, 

Achilles appeals to his Mother, the Goddess Thetis. 

i) o a€icou<r afia tolcl yvirq Kiev, \ avrap A;(tAAcv5 
8aicpvcra9 erdpaiv dd>ap ll^ero v6a-<f>L Xtacr^cl? 



14 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

350 fflv €<j>* aXo9 TToXvrj^i opotav iir drreCpova wovrov 
TToXXa 8c injTpl <f>i\ri Jiprja-aro x^tpa^ opeyvv^' 
^^ lirJT€,py iireC fi ercicf? ye iiivvvdaZiov rrep coi/ra, 
TLfijjp irip fioL o<j>e\\ev *0\v[imo^ iyyvaki^aLj 
Zcv? {nlttfipefieni^ ' vvv 8* ovSc /xc tvtOop enaev. 

366 ij yap fi *At/[>€i8tj9, evpif KpeUov ^Ayafie/xpcaVj 
7friiiri<r€v* k\^v yap e)(€t yipa^^ avro? dirovpa?." 

cS? <^aro Saicpv x^^^» '''^^ ^* cicXvc^ori/ia injrijp, 
rifieirq iv fievdeaav aXo? irapa irarpXyipovri. 
icap7raXt/ACtt9 o ai/cov itoXit;? aAo? i)i/r o/uic;(A7}, 

360 icai /5a irdpoid* avrolo Kadil^ero haKpv \4ovto^^- 

X^^P^ T^ /Atv Karepe^ev^ eiro^ r i<f>aT cic t* ovofia^ep- 
" t4kvov^ tC icXai€i9 ; rt 8/ crc (f>pa/a^ iKero rra/do^ ; 
i^av8aj firj k€v0€ i^o^, Iva eiSofiep dfiifxa.^^ 

AchiUes tells his Story. ^ 

TTjP Sk fiapif aT€pd)(<ov 7rpo<r€<f>ri noha^ cu(cv9^;(tXXcv9 • 
365 "oltr^a- Ti 17 rot ravra tSvnj Trai/r* ayopo^,- 
{^XPfied* C9 STJfirfVy Uprfv nokiv 'Hctmoi/o?, 
Ti7»' 8c hi€Trpd0ofi€p T€ icttl 7jyofi€v ivdd&e irdvra. 
Kal rd fiev ev hdaaapro fierd (n^Uriv vtc? *A;(ata>i/, 
CK 8* cXoi/ ^Pirpethifj Xpva'7)Cha KaKKindp'gov. 
370 Xpvaiff^ 8' av^* i€pev9 iKaTTjfioXov ^AttoWcjpo^ 
rj\0€ 0od^ iirl yrja^ *A)(aL&v xaXico;(tTali/ft>i/ 
Xvaofiepo^ re Ovyarpa ^epoiv r direpeUrC diroiva^ 
crrefiiiaT €)(cov iv xepaXv eKi)P6\ov 'AirdXXa)i/o9 
Xpvo'eto dvd crKryTrrp^, icat eXCaaero irdvra^ *A;(aiou9, 
376 'Arpcffia 8^ /iaXiara 8ua> Koafirjrope Xawv. 
Q/0* aXXoi fiev irdvre^ eTrevif>7]fjLria'av 'A;(atol 
aiheladaC 0* ieprja Kal dyXad he^Oai diroiva' 
dXX* ovK ^hrpethrj * Ayafie/xpovL TjvBave dvfJL^^ 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 15 

aWa KaKCJ^ d<^i€c, Kparcpbv S' iirl fivdov erekkev. 

380 )(cj6ii€vo^ 8* 6 yipoiv iraXiv ^^ero' rolo 8* 'AiroXXcui/ 
eif^afievov TJKOvceVy inel fidka oi (f>Cko^ ijci/, 
^K€ 8* in ^ApyeCoLCL KaKoi/ )8cXo9- oi 8c w kaol 
OvrffTKov iiraacrvTepoiy ra 8' iir<f\ero Krjka 0€olo 
irdvTjl dva crrparov evpifv *Pi.\axSiv. dfifii 8^ /tai/n? 

386 €v €i8a)9 dy6p€V€ dcoTrponia^ efcaroio. 

avTiK iycj irpioTo^ Kekoiir/v deov IXcuricccrdcu * 
'Arpciaiva 8* hreira xoko^ kdfievy auffa 8* dvaard^ 
-^TTCtXijaw fivdovj o 8ri reTekeaixevo^ icrriv. 
T7IV pAv yap (Tvv vrjl do^ ikuccime^ *Ax<uol 

390 C9 XpvoTjv nep^TrovaiPy dyovai, 8c h(opa dvatcn,' 
rfiv 8c v€ov KkKrirjOev ifiav KrjpvKe^ dyovre^ 
Kovpriv Bpi<r^o9, ttjv /aoi 8oa'ai/ vfc? *A;(aiaJi/. 
dXXa cru, ci Svpacai ye, 7rcpur;(Co 7rai8o9 c^o?* 
cX^oucr* OvXv/ui7rdi/8c Aia Xurai, ci norc 8rj ri 

395 17 CTTCt olvT^cra? KpaZvrfp^io^ rjk kclI ^pyff- 

iroXXdici ydp crco narpo^ ivl p^eydpoimv aKovaa 
cuxo/XrCvr;?, or* ci^ijcr^a iccXaii/c<^ct KpovUovi 
ovri iv adavdroKTiv dct/cca Xoiyoi^ dpJvvai^ 
07nwT£ pLiv ^vvhyfcax *OXv/Ji7riot i^dcXoi^ <^\Aoit] 

400 ^H/Mj T* '78c noo'ci8<xaii/ ical IlaXXd? ^Adyjvrf. 

dkkd av TOP y cX^oCcra, ^cd, vrrcXvcrao 8c(r/uia>i/, 
ci5;(' iKaToy)(€ipov icaXccracr* €9 p^aKpov *OXu/iiroi/, 
w Bpidpetov Kakeovaj, dcoCy dvSpe^ 8c re 7rdi/rc9 
kiyaUtiV' 6 yap aurc ^St^/ ov irarpo^ dpeCvcov 

406 - 09 /oa Trapd Kpovuai^i Kade^ero Kvhei yauov * 

To«/ ical i;irc'8cwrai/ p^dKape^ 0eol ovhi r iSriaav, 
rtav vvv piv p^mjaaaa nape^eo ical ka/Se yovvtov^ 
at Kiv ira>9 idekyaiv iirl TpcjeacLV dprj^aiy 
roif^ 8c Kara irpvpva^ re /cat d/x<^* dXa cXcrat *A;(atov9 



16 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

410 Kreivofi4vov<;^ Iva irai/rc? inavpcovrai ^SacriXijo?, 
yv^ 8c KoX 'ArpetSij? evpif Kpeuov * Aya/ie/ivtov 
Tjv arriVy o r apiarov *PL)(aiSiv ovhkv ericrci/." 

Thetis promises to secure Honor for Achilles from Ztm^^ 

Tov 8* 'qficifier ejrctra ©ert? Kara Saicpv xeovaa- 
" (3 fiOLy T€Kvov ifiovj tC vv a erp€if>ov alva rcKovaa ; 

415 aW* of^eXe? napa vrjvalv dSaicpi/ro? Koi amjficjv 
rjadaLy iireC mi roi aura fiiuwdd rrepy ov tl fiaXa 8tJv. 
vvv 8* a/jia T (OKVfiopo^ Koi OL^vpo^ nepl iravnav 
enk^O' TftI <r€ icaic^ auri; rcicoi/ ci/ p.eydpoio'i.v. 
TOVTO 8c Tot ipeovaa erro^ Ail repiriKepavvia 

420 el/Xr* airni npo^ ^OXv/attoi/ aydvvLif>oVy at k€ iriffifjfrax. 
dXXa (TV /XrCi/ vvv vrival napyjiievo^ (oKxrrropoKTLv 
fiijvi *Axaiorcrti/, Trokefiov 8* diroTraveo rrdiiirav' 
Zcu9 yap €S 'fifC€ai/oi/ /act* dfivfiova^ AldiOTrfja^ 
^(01^0^ efij) Kara hairay deol 8' afia 7rdvT€^ hrovro- 

426 hoj^eKdrj) 8c roi axrri^ cXcucrerat OuXu/ui7rdi/8€, 

ical TOT* ineiTd tol cT/ai Aio? ttotI xa\KofiaT€^ 8aJ, 
icai fill/ yowdxro/xaij /cat /uiii/ Trcurccr^ai occo." 

cS? dpa (fxovrja-aa anefiyjo'eTOj tov 8* cXtir' avrov 
)((o6fi€vov Kara dvfiov iv^dvoio yvvaiKO^, 

430 TTji/ pa pCji deKovTo^ dirrjvpcjv. avrap '08u<r<rcv9 

Chryseis is conducted to her Home and delivered to her Father, who 
prays that the Plague may cease. \ ^ 

€9 Xpvairjv LKav€v dywv iepriv iKaro/ifiriv. 
oi 8* 5t€ Srj Xi/uici/09 noXvfievOeo^ iyyif^ ikovto^ 
Urria fikv OTctXa^ro, dicav 8* cV Krjl /AcXau^, 
tOToi/ 8' LOTohoKri Trekaaav irporovoKTiv v(f>€VT€^ 
435 KapnakiiKoSi Trjv 8* ct9 opfjLOv irpoip^o'O'av iperfiols* 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 17 

€K 8' cwa? e)8aXoi/, Kara 8c Trpv/imjo'L cSTjcrai/- 
CK 8c Kol avTol ^aivov ini pjiyfilvi, daka(T<rt)^y 
CK 8' eKOToiifirfP firjo'av cktjjSoXq) ' AttoXXcui/i • 
iK 8c Xpucnjl? 1/1705 )8>j irovTOTTopoio. 

440 7171/ /xci/ CTTCtr' CTTt fi(t}iiov oiycjp TToXu/iTjrt? *08vcrcrcu5 
iraTpl if>L\a} iv X^P^^ rt^ct, icat /xti/ Trpoa-eenrev 
" <i5 Xpv(rr)^ npo fi iircpApcv avaJ^ avhpSiu ^Ayaiie/ivcov 
naihd t€ crol dyc/xci/, 4>oi)8^ ^' tc/y]7i' kKaT6p.fiy)v 
pi^ai virip i^avaSiv^ 64>p^ IXacro/xccr^a avaKra^ 

445 o? i/ui' ^ApyeCotai iroXvoTova /o;8c* iif)7JK€i/.^^ 

Oi? CtTTOil/ C|/ X^P^^ TlU^ly O 0€ OCfaTO X'^^P^^ 

TraiSa (f^iXrjv. rot 8* c5Ka ^cg> tcp-j^i/ iKarofifiriv 

\€pvii^avTo 8' cTTCtra ^al ovXoxvra? ai/cXoi/ro. 

460 TOio'iv 8c Xpv(nri^ fieydX* cvx^ro x^lpas dvaa'X(DV' 
" KkvOi fievy dpyvp6TO^\ 09 Xpvairip d/x<^t)8cj87}Ka9 
KiXXai/ TC ^aderjVy TevcSoio re uf>L di/cwrcrct?- 
i^/xci' 81/ TTor' c/xc5 irdpo^ cicXuc? eif^a/ievoLOy 
rifiTfa'a^ /ikv i/ic^ fieya 8' u/rao Xaoi^ 'Axatcli/- 

455 '^8' ert Kat wj' /utot Td8* imKpijrivov ccX8oip* 
1787; i/ui' Aai/aoicTii/ dci^ca Xotyoj' a/ivi/oi/." 

G)? ci^ar* euxoficvosy rov 8' ckXvc 4>ot)8o5 *A7rdXXG>i/. 
airrdp iirei p ev^avro kol ovXoxvras irpofidkovroy 
avcpvaav pJev irpwTa kol ccr^a^ai/ Kat cSctpai/, 

460 iii)pov<; T i^erafiov Kard re kvlo-jj cicdXi^ai/ 
8t7m;X^ 7rot7ycrai/TC9, ctt' avT(ov 8' (Ofj.oderrja'ap. 
Kate o CTTt crx<4]75 o y%Pf>^^y ^'"'^ ^ aiuoira oivov 
Xct)8c" i/cot 8c Trap' avroi' ^01/ TrefindfioXa xepciv. 
airrdp cVcl Kara /xi^pa kcitj ical cr7rXdyx^<^ ndaaproy 

465 /uttcTTvXXdi/ r' dpa raXXa Kal d/x<^' ojScXotcrti/ erreipav, 
wirrqo-dj/ t€ Trcptc^paScw?, ipvQ'diyro r^ TTCii/ra, 



18 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

avrap cttcI irava'avTO novov TervKovro re Sairo, 
Sauori/r', ouSc tl Ov/ios cScucro Sotro? iUrri^. 
avrap irrel rroa-ios kol iSrfTvo^ c£ ipov arro^ 
470 KOvpoL fi€P Kprjrrjpa^ iTrearopavTO ttotoio, 

i/(ifi7)a'av 8* apa iraciv iTrap^d/icvot, ScTraccrcrw/, 
ot 8c TramffiepLOL /xoXtt^ 0€ov tXacr^oi/ro, 
KaXoi/ d€t8oi/r€9 Trairjovay Kovpot ^Axou^i^y 
fieXnovres iKaepyov 6 8c <f}p€va Tipirer aKovcjp. 

Return of Odysseus to the Camp. Achilles 'sulks in his Tent.' 

475 'Jjfio^ 8' ^cXi05 KarcSv Kal iirl KV€<f)as "^X^ci/, 
817 TOTC KOiii'qa'avTO rrapa Trpvp.injo'La vrjo^, 
•Jjlios 8* ripiyiv^La ifximj poSohaKTuko^ 'Hw?, 
Kal TOT cTTCtr* avdyovTo /lerd orpaTov €vpvv *A)(aioii/' 
TouTLv 8' LK/ievov ovpop lei, cKacpyos ^AiroWiov. 

480 ot 8' loTOv (irrja'avT^ dvd 6^ IotUl Xcvkoi irerao'a'av' 
iv 8* di/€fios irprjo'ei/ fieaov lotCoVj dfi<f}l 8c tcvfia 
areipiQ Trop<f)vp€ov /xcyaX' tax'^ mjoq toucnj?- 
rj 8' ci9€CJ' Kara Kv/xa hiair prjacova'a K^XevOov. 
avrap cttci p lkopto Kara arpaTOP cvpvv 'A^^cuoli/, 

486 i/^a /xci; ot ye ficXaipav in iqireCpoio ipvaaav 

inltov CTTt xlfafiddoLSy viro 8' cp/xara /laKpd Tdwaaat/^ 
avTol 8* icKthpaPTo Kara KXtcrta? re i/ca? re. 

avrap 6 fnjvLC mfval TrapTj/utci/o? cuKVTrdpotcrti/, 
8toy€i/i79 ITtjXtjo? vtd?, 7rd8a? cukv? 'A^^tXXcv?. 

490 ovrc TTor' ct9 dyoprjv wctiXeo'KeTo Kvhidveipav 

OVT€ TTOT is TToXc/XOI/, (xXXa <f)dlPV0€a'K€ <f}C\0P KTJp 

avOt, fiePKoVy TTo^cccTKC 8* dvTrjp t€ TrrdXc/xdi/ re. 

Zens promises Thetis to honor her Son by punishing the Achaeans. 

aAA ore 07/ p €k tolo ovcodeKaTr) yepeT -qwSy 
Kal t6t€ 87) Trpos *OXv/x7roi/ laap deoi alkp cdi/rc? 




ZEUS OF OTRICOLI 
From the bust in the Vatican Museum, Rome 



f 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 19 

495 iravres a/xa, Zevs 8* ^px^' Bert? 8* ov \tJ0€T iif>€Tii€0)v 
naiSos €o5, aXX' rj y di/c8vcrcTO icS/xa QaXaa'^rr)^ 
'i]^pif] 8' ape^Tf fieyap ovpavov OvXvinrov re. 
\^ '^ ^pev 8' evpvoira l^povihijv arcp rj/iepov aW(ov 
{y\^dKpoTdT'g Koprjifffj TroXvheipc&os OuXv/xttoio, 

KaC pa ndpoid* avroZo Ka^ci^cro, Kal XajSe yovvtov 
(TKouy' Se^iTcp'g 8' ap* vtt' dvOepecjvo^ cXovcra 
Xio'O'oiiivr] wpocrcctTTC Ata Kpopuova dvatcra' 
" ZcC Trdrepy el irore 8t] crc /xcr* ddavdroiaiv omfo'a 
7J €7ra 17 Cjpyo), to8€ /utot Kprjrjpop iiXhcjp' 

606 rCfiTjcop fioL vloPy 09 (OKVfiopdraTo^ d\\(t}p 

cttXct'- arap /xti/ i/ui/ yc ai/a£ dpSpiop 'Ayafie/ipctip 
rJTifiTfO'ep ' cXcui/ yap €;(« ycpa?, avro? dirovpa^. 
dXXa en; TTcp /acj' tictoj', 'OXv/atti-c /xT/ricra ZcC, 
TOifypa 8' CTTi Tpcwccrcrt rti^a KpdroSy o<f}p* dp *A;((uot 

610 vtoi' c/xoi' Turcjcrti/, o<^cAAa)crti/ re € rt/utiy. 

0)9 <^c{ro: 7171/ 8* ov Tt Trpo(r€<f)7f peifyekrjyepera Zeu^y 
dXX* dKem^ Btjp tjctto. ©m? 8' 015 '^aro yovpoip^ 
cS? c^cr' c/x7^c<^1n;ic^ /cat ctpero hevrepop aurts* 
^^prffiepTC^ fiep 87/ /Aot uttoct^^co Kat KardpevaoPj '^ 

516 7/ aTTOCtTT , CTTCt OU TOt CTTt OCOS, (Xpp CV CtOOi, 

oaaop iycj fierd nd(Tip driyLordrq Oeo^ €t/xt." 

rfjp Se fiey oxdijaa^ Trpocrci^ pe^f^cXrfyepera Zeus' 

"-^ 8tj Xotyta €py\ ore fi ixOoSoirrja'aL €<^7jcr€t9 

''Hpi/, or* di/ /A* ipeOrjCLP 6i/ct8ctot9 ineea'aLP. 
520 17 86 /cat ai!roi9 /t' at6t ci^ ddapdroLCL Oeoio'ip 

peiK€i, KaC T€ fi€ <^Tjcrt iid^jQ TpcSccrcrti/ dpTjyeip. 

dWd (TV fiev pvp aurt? aTrdoTtxc, /x>j rt poTJarj 

apyj' €/utot 8c Kc ravra /xcXi/cr^at, o<^pa reXccrcrcu. 

ct 8* dye rot K€(f>akjj Karai^evcro/uiat, o<^pa ireTroid-g^' 
625 rovTo ydp c^ ificOep yc /utcr* ddapdroiai /utcytcrroi/ 






20 OMHPOY IAIAA05 A 

T€Kfi<op' ov yap ifiop Trakivdyperov ov8' aTrarqkov 
ov8' drcXcvnjToi/, ort k€p k^^oK^ Karai/cvcrw." 
rj KoX Kvapeijcip in o^pvci i/cScrc Kpovuop- 
yiftfipoaiat 8* apa x<^^Tat ineppcxraPTO apaKTO^ 
630 ^aro? air adapdroio^ fieyap 8* cXc'Xir^ci/ '^OkvfiTrop. 

Strife between Zeus and Hera on Olympus. Hera reproaches Zeus 
for his Promise to Thetis, but is sternly rebuked. 

T(D y Q>9 fiovkevo'aPTc hierfiayep' rj fikp cTTCtra 
€19 aXa aXro fiaOelap an atyXi/ci/ro? *OXv/i7rou, 
Z€V5 0€ €op rrpos ocu/uta. C/cot o a/uta Trai/rc? ai/corai^ 
c^ iSccjp^ (r<f}ov narpos ipaprCop- ou8c rt? ctXtj 

636 fielpai i7r€p)(6fi€POP^ dXX* di/riot earap anapreq, 

£^ 6 fikp €p9a Kad4t<er cttI dpopov ov8c /utti/ '^Hpij 
riypoiif)a'€P t8oi;cr*, ort ol (rvii<f}pdo'a'aTO jSouXa? 
apyvpone^a ©ert?, dvydrrip oKioio yipoPTO^. 
avTiKa K€pT0fiLOi(n Aia Kpopuopa npo(r7fv8a' 

640 " rts St) av rot, 8oXoft>Jra, ^ccii/ avin^pdxro'aTO ^ovka^ ; 
aiei rot i\>i\op ccrrti/, e/xcO anop6a'ff>LP iopra, 
KpvwrdSia <f}poP€OPTa SiKa^efiep' ou8c ri tto) /aoi 
Trp6(f)p(op rerXTjKa? ctTrcti/ ctto? am i/ot/ctt^?." 

r^i^ 8* '^[leCfier CTrctra nartjp dp8pS)p re 0€S)p r€* 

646 "''H/57J, /iTj 8t7 ndpTa^ i/iov^ imeXTreo fivdov^ 
elhTJaeiP' x^^^''^^^ '''^^ eaoPT aXd^w 'rrep iovay. 
dXX* OP flip K CTTtciKC? OLKOvifiePy ov Tt9 CTretra 
ovT€ ^ectJi/ npoTcpo^ top y ctcrerai ovr* dpdpamcjp- 
OP 8c K* cycuv awdpevOe 0€(op idcXiofii poTJaai, 

660 /XT7 rt crv ravra Scaora 8t€ip€o /xt/Sc /xcrdXXa." 
Toi/ 8* TJiieCficT errcira jSowtti? Trori/ta '^Hpij* 
" ati/orarc KpopChrf^ ttoIop top fivdop IctTTC?. 
Kal Xnyj' <7C vdpos y ovr eipofiai ovt€ ^craXXfi, 




JUNO 
From the statue in the Barberini Palace, Rome 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 21 

dXXa /utaX* €VKri\o<s ra (f^pd^ecUy acrcr* i0€kji(rda' 
665 vvp 8* alvS)^ SctSpiKa Kara <^pa/a, /utij crc TTapeiirg 
apyvpOTTC^a ©crt^, dvydrrip oKLolo yipovro^- 
rfcpiTf yap aoC ye nape^ero koI XajSc yovvoDi/, 
ry (Ty^aUo Karapevaai irrJTvpLOVy d^ '-^X^'^^^v^^,^ 
Tt/xi/cr€i5, oXccrct? 8c TroXcia? cttI viqva'Xv 'A;(cu5i'." 
560 7171/ 8* d7rafi€i,l36fi€Pos Trpoaiif}!) v€if>€\7jy€pera Zeu^' 
" 8at/xoi/i7}, ai€i /X61/ oieat ovSe ere kTJ0<t)y 
TTpTJ^OLL 8' ifiTTTj^s ov Tt, 8vi/7;crcat, dXX' aTTO Ovfiov 
fiSXXoi/ iiiolj^^oLL' TO 8c rot Kal pir/iov corat. 
ct 8' ourco Tovr* corti/, c/xot /xcXXct <f}Ckop elvau. 
565 dXX* aKCovcra Ka^ijcro, c/xol 8' imireideo fiv0(^, 

[17] vv Toi ov xpaUrficjaii/ ocoi OeoC ctcr* ci' 'OXv^utTTGi 
dacov i6v0*y ore kcV rot daTrrovs xelpa^ i<f}€ia).^^ 

HephaestuB restores Good Humor at the Feast of the Gods. 

019 e^ar', cSctcrci^ 8c fiowm^ irorvia ^Hpij, 
KaC p* aKCovcra KaOijaTOy imyi/dfixj^aa'a^^^^iXov KTJp' 

570 &)(6y)a'av 8* dw 8ai/Lia Ato5 ^col Ovp(wiloves' 
ToUriv 8* "Ht^atoTo? kXvtotcxi^? ^pX dyopevetVy 
firyrpl <^iX]j cttI '^pa <^cpa>i/, XcvkcoXcW ^Hpiy* 
"-^ cnj Xoiyta epya too ea-a-ercu^ ovo er ai^cicra, 
ct 817 cr<^a> €i/€Ka 0v7jt<op ipihaCuerov g>8c, 

575 iv 8c deouTL KoXwop ikavperop' ovSi tl 8atT69 
ccr^X^5 ccrcrcrat '^809, inel rd x^peCopa piko,. 
fitfrpX 8* cyoi irappiffyqiiLy kol airrg rrep poeovay, 
narpl <f}C\(o iirl 'Jjpa ifyepeip Ai^ o<f}pa firj aurc 
peiKeCj/at Trarrjp^ crvp 8' ruiip 8arra Tapd^y. 

580 ct irep ydp k iOekjiaip *0\vfi7nos darepomfnis 
cf c8ca>i' OTv^cXtfaf o yap ttoXv ^ipraros iartp, 
dXXd (TV rdi' y' ineeo-o-t, KaddTrreddau p.aXaKolo'ip' 



22 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

avTLK eneiu lAao? OAv/xirto? ccrcrcrai- 17/111/. 
0)5 dp' c^T^, Kttl dvat^as Sezra? d/x<^tin;7rcXXoi/ 

586 [irfTpl <l)i)^j) Iv X^^P^ Ti^ct, Kat /utw/ TTpoceenrev ' 
"rerXa^i, fiTfrep ifiij, kol avdaxeo icyjhofiem} rrcp^ 
fiT] ce ^i\i)v TTCp iovaap ii/ 6<f>0a\fiolcrLV tBcjficu 
6eLi/oii€vrfv ' Tore 8' ov ri hvinjaofiai axvvfievos 'rrep 
Xpatcrfielv apyakeos yap *OXi;/x7rto9 apTL(f)€pea'0€U. 

590 1787J yap fi€ Kal dXkoT ake^efievai fi€fia&ra 
/>u/f€ 7ro8o5 Terayojv ano fiifkov deaircaioLo. 
irdp 8' ^fiap <f}€ppu^Py dfia 8' rfekuj} KaTaSvvri 
Kamreaov iv ATjfiihp, oXtyo? 8' eri- Ov/ios iinjev 
a/da fie Xu^te? dpSpe^ d<f}ap KOfiuravro irccroi/ra." 

596 fi)5 <f}dTo, fiei^aa/ 8c ^cd, X€vkcoX«/o9 ^H/twj, 
fieiSTJaaxra 8c 7r(u8o9 c8c£aro x^V^ kvttcXXoj'. 
avrdp 6 Toi^ dXXouri ^col? ci/8c£ta irdo'iv 
oivo\6Bi yXvtcif vcKTap, diro Kprynjpo^ d(f>va'a'Q}v. 
dcrjScorb? 8' dp' ivoipro ycXcu? fiaKapeaat Oeoicrtp, 

600 (05 iSoi/ "Hf^cuoToi' 8td hajfiara Troiirvuopra. 

cSs TOTC /xci/ TTpoirav Jjfiap is rjiXiov KaTahvvra 

atl/V|/T, OVOC Tt UVflOS €0€V€TO OOXTOS CUT7J5, 

ou fi€P <f>6pfiLyyos TTcptKaXXco?, 171' ^' 'AttoXXcoj', 
Movadojp d^y at dct8ov d/xcijSd/xci/ou ottI ^aX]^. 

605 avrdp inel KarcSv Xa/nrpov <f>dos lycXibto, 
01 fi€P KaKKeiovres efiap qIk6v8€ eccurro?, 
TJX*' eKaarq} h(Ofia wepiKkvTos dfi<f)iyvijeLS 
'^Hi^atoTos TTOvqccv ihvC'jga'L irpaTriheo'a'iv. 
Zcv9 8c Trpo? w X^o9 TjC 'OXv/xTTto? daTcponrfnjsy 

610 ci'^a rrdpos KoifiSt^ ore fiiv yXvKifs vwi/os iKapot,' 
' €P0a KaO&ih* dva/SaSy irapd 8c xpvcro^poi/05 ^Hpf)- 



OMHPOT lAIAAOS B 

Brjra 8' 6peipop Hx^h ^yop^i^y koX wifas dptSfui. 

Somnia Beta refert, caetum populique raJtesque. 

*Beta the dream and synod cites; 
And catalogues the naval knights.' 

oi/€tpo9. SiaTreipa. Boioireia rj Kardkoyos v€(oi/, 
Zeus sends a Deceitful Dream to Agamemnon. 

aXXot [leu pa 0€ol re Kal avipes imroKopvarcLi 
cvSoi/ Ttavvvr^ioi^ Aia 8* ovk €)(€ injhvfio^ virvo^y 
aXX* o ye fiepfiijpi^e Kara ^peva^ 019 *A;(cXiya 
riinjtrgj okea^ he rrokea^ eiri vrjva-lv 'Axoaoiv. 

6 Tjhe 8c oi Kara Ov/iov dpUrrtj ^aivero fiovkrj^ 
mpAJfOA, en *Arpeth'g *Ayafi€fii/oi/i oikoi/ oveipov 
Kai fuv ifxainjaa^ errea irrepoevra irpoaifvha' 
^^ fidfTK Wiy ovke oveipe, dod^ errl vfjas *K\aiS>v' 
ekdtav €9 Kkurirjv *Ayafiefivovo^ *Arpethao 

10 irdvra fidk* drpeKeto^ dyopevefiev cu? emrekko). 
doipfj^aC e Kckeve Kdpq KOfiocavras *Axcuov9 
navavSCji' vvv ydp Kev cXot irokiv evpvdyviav 
Tpflmv ov ydp er dfiif>ls 'OXv/mirta 8(0fiar exppres 
dddvaroi (f>pd^opraL' eTreyvapA^ev ydp diravra^ 

16 ^HpTj kta-a-opemj, Tpcka-m 8c KT78C' eif}rjirr(u.^^ 

cS^ <f>dro^ fiyj 8' dp* di/€tpo9, cttcI rov pvdov aKovaev 
KapirakCpo}^ 8' iKave 6od^ cirl vrja^ ^A^OLiSiv. 
firj 8* dp* CTT* *ArpethT]P ^Ayapepvova- rw 8c Ki)(avev 
evhovr ev Kkiai-Qy rrepl 8' dpfipoaio^ K€yyd* virvos- 



24 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

20 arri 8* dp* vnep K€<f>akrjs Nt/Xtjiq) vli ioLKCj^ 

NcoTo/31-, Tov pa fidkioTa yepoPTODV tV * Ayafiifivojv. 
T^ fiLP leto'diievo^ wpoaeilxopee Oelos oveipos' 
"€v8a9, *Arp€o<: vie 8at<^poi/09 tTnroSd/Ltoto ; 
ov xpri iravvvxLOv evhetp fiovkij^opov di/Spa, 
26 ft> Xaot T CTTtrcrpcM^aTcu Kal rocrcra fidfirjkev. 

vvv 8' ifi€0€v ^v€^ cjKa- Ato? 8c rot dyycXo? €t/utt, 
09 <r€v avevdev icjp [leya fajSeroLi '^8' eXcatpa. 
0<t)p7i^ai a iKekeuae Koiprf KOfioojvra^ *A;(atov5 
Trai/auSty vvv yap k€v cXot? TrdXti; evpvdyvtav 
30 Tpdxov ov yap er afi<f)l^ *OXu/i7rta Sdfiar ^oirrc? 
addvaToi <f}pd^ovTaL' iireyvafixlfep yap dnapras 
"H/twj Xtcr<ro/x€K?j, TpaJccrcri 8c ^t78c' i<f}7JirTaL 
CK Aio9. dXXa crv ayaiv €;(c ^p^ai, iiif)h4 crc Xt/^t^ 
^0 , atpcircu, cut' di/ crc /leXi^pODV vrrvos dinjjy." 
* ' " 3e^ CU9 dpa ifxainjaas aTTCjSTfcrcTO, roi/ 8c Xitt* avrou 
W' ' rd if>pop€oin'* dva dvfiop a p ov rcXcccr^ai cftcXXoi/- 

<^i7 ydp o y' aipijacLV Upidfiov w6\ip TJ/iari Keipw. 
prjmo^^ ovO€ ra jyoij, a pa Zcv? firioero cpya- 
Orjo'^ip yap er i/icXkep in dkyed T€ aTOPa)(d^ re 
40 Tpcxri re Kal Aapaolai 8id Kparcpas vafiipa^. 
eypero 8* cf vnpovy Oeir) 8c /xti/ aii<f>€)(yr 6fi<f)TJ. 
c^cro 8' opdcjOeC^y fiaXaKOP 8* ci/8vi/c j(tr5i/a, 
KaXoi/ mfydreoPy ircpl 8c /xeya jSdXXcro <f>apo^' 
TTOcrcri 8* VTTO XiTrapourip ihrjaaro Koka Trc'StXa, 
45 d/ui<^i 8* dp* aniOKTip fidK€TO ^Uf>^i<apyvp67i\op - 
elkero 8c (TKyjirrpop Trarpokop, d<f}0LTw atct- 
crvi' TftJ Cj|8i7 Kara i/i7a? 'Aj^cuoii/ )^akKO)(LT(OP(ap. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 25 



Council of the Achaean Princes. 

*Hci9 [icv pa 0ea irpoc^firjo'eTo fioKpoi/ '^OXvfiwoVy 
ZtjpI <f)6tas ipeovaa Kal aXXot9 adavfxroKTiv' 
60 airrap 6 KT/pvKeo'a't, \iyv^d6yyoia'i KcXevaev 

KTjpvo'a'eip ayopijpSc Kaprj KOfiocjpra^ 'A^^cuov?. -y^ 

oc fiei/ €K7ipvo'a'0Vy rot o ijyeipovTo [lak (OKa. 

fiovkrjP 8c TtpioTOV fi€ya0vfi<i}v t^c y^povrtov ^ ^ 

NccjTopejy Trapa vrji Jlvkoiy^vio^ fiaaikrjo^. 
65 Toif^ o ye ovyKaXccra? irvKtinjv riprvvero fiovkTJv 

" kXvTC, <f}LkOL. deloS flOL ivVTTPlOP '^\0€P 6p€LpOS 

dfifipodrfp Sia vvtcra^ /xaXtcrra 8c Ncoto/^i- Stip 

cISd? re fieyeOos re <f}vrjp r ay^iara it^KCip. 

(rrfj 8 ' dp* vTTcp KC<^aX^9» Kat fie 7rpo<; /ivOop eevnev • 

60 'ci;8€ts, 'Arpeos vie Sat<f}popos iinroSdixoLo ; 
ov XPV ''rappvxtop evheip fiovXrfifyopop dphpa^ 
& Xaot T €7rtTCTpa<^arat kaX rocrcra fiefJLTjkep. 
pvp 8' ifieOep £wc9 cuKa • Ato5 8c rot ayycXo9 ct/At, 
o5 crcu dpevOep ewv fieya KTJheTou 7)8* cXcatpci. 

65 Ocjprj^aC (T eKeXevae Kdpi) KOfioojpra^ 'A^^cuov? 
7rai/(n;8tjy • pvp yap Kep cXot? TrdXti/ evpvdyviap 
Tpdxop' ov yap er dfi<f)l^ "OXv/xiria Sajfiar €)(Ovre% 
dOdparoL ifypd^oprai' eTreypafjiAlfep yap dtrapras 
"'Uprj Xio'O'Ofievri^ Tpcuccrcri 8« icrjhe Cf^-^irrac 

70 CK Ai,d9. aXXa <ru ajjcrip €)(€ <^pccrti/.' cS? o fiep eiircjp 
^X^* diroTTrdfiepo^, ifie 8c ykvKifs vttpo^ dprJKep. 
dXX' ayeTy at Kep ttcjs doypTJ^o/iep via? ^A^aioip. 
irpwra 8' cyciv eneaip Treipn/jaoiiai^ ij ^c/ai? cotiV, 
Kal <f>evyeLP avp mfvcl TroXv^Xi/tcTt KcXcvcrcw 

75 v/xci? 8* aXXo^ci/ aXXo9 epnrfTveiP eneeao'ip-^^ 

-^ rot o y fti? ctTTO/i/ fcar ap eQero, rotcrt o apecrrr) 



26 OMHPOY IAIAA05 B 

NcoTcop, 09 pa IlvXoto avaJ^ Jjv rjtiadoevTo^' 
6 c^iv iv <f)pov€oi}v ayop'qa'aTO Kal iierecnrev • 
" (0 <^tXoi, *Apy€Ut}v TjyyJTOpes rj^€ /xc8oi/rc9, 
80 el lieu T19 TOP oveipov *A.^aLS)v aXXo? iptairevj 
\lf€vh6s K€v <f}alfi€v Kal vo(rif>L^oCiJ,€0a fiaWov 
vvv 8' iScj' 09 /xey* dpiaro^ ^A^axStv ev^erai eti/ai. 
dXX' dyer\ at kcV ttcm? dctiprj^Ofiev vla^ 'A^^otcSi/." 

Aaaembly of the Achaeans. Agamemnon's Speech. 

CU9 dpa <f)(ov7]a'a^ fiovkTJs i^ '^PX^ vieaOai^ 
86 ot 8' iiravitrrqo'av iteiJBovTo re Troifievi \aS)v, 
aKTjTrrovxoi fiaaikrje^. iTreaaevoPTo 8c Xaot. 
7fVT€ €0vea clcrt fiekuraauov dSiPouoVy 
irerprj^ ck y\a<f}vp'fj^ alel viov ipxofievdcjv 
fioTpv8ov 8c TrirovToi iir di/Oeaiv ciaptvolo'tv ' 
90 at [lip r €uda aXt? TrcTronyarat, at 8c re cv^a- 
(sS? t£v cl9i'ca iroXXa veSyv diro Kal KkLCidcjv 
•^two9 iTpondpoiOe fiaOevqs icTixocjvro 
iXahop ct9 dyoprjv* fierd 8c (rifyicnv ocrcra 8c8i/ctv 
orpvi/ovcr ta/at, Ato9 ctyycXo?- ot 8' dyepovro. 
96 Terpi^\ei 8* dyoprjy viro 8c OTCi/a^t^CTO yata 
Xact)i/ i^6pT(t}v, o/xa8o9 8* -^j/. ci/vca 8c (r<^ca9 
KTJpvKes fioocjvre^ iprjrvoVf ei nor dvrrjs 
cr^otar', aKOvcrctai' 8c 8torpc<^ca>i/ /SaxrikTJojv. 

(TTTOvSy 8* C^CTO Xa09, ipTJTV0€V 8c Ka^ iSpa^ 

100 ira\KTdp.€i/oi KXayy^?. ai^a 8c Kpeuov * AyafiifivoDP 
ioTT) (TKyjirrpov €)((op ' ro fikp *H<^atoT09 ^a/xc revytap, 
"H^atoTo? ftcv 8G>fcc Att Kpopuopi dpaKTiy 
avrdp dpa Zcu9 8ctiKC 8taKropct) dpyei^opng' 
'Ep/xcta9 8c ai^a^ 8wfccj' IIcXoTrt irXrf^imrWj 

106 avrdp 6 avT€ IIcXcw/i 8cu#c' *Arpct, Trot/xcVt Xaaii^* 



SECOND BOOK OF THK ILIAD 27 

*Ar/)€V9 8c dmja-Koyv eXtirep trokvapvL SveaT-g^ 
airap 6 avrc Svear ' Ayaiidfivoi/i kelne (f^oprjpcUy 
iroW'go'tv mjaourL Koi ApyeC Travri avaucro'^iv. 
Tftl o y ipcLO'dfiepo^ hre ^Apyeioun /xcnyvSa- 

110 " (3 (f)C\oL riptae^ i^avaoiy Oepdirovre^ *A/)ij09, 
Zcv9 /x€ fieya KpopCSrj^ arj ipiSrjO'e fiapeCjiy 
cr^erXto?, 09 Trpti/ ficp /loi virea^eTO kol Karh/eva-^v 
*lXioi/ CKTTcpcrai/T* cvrctj^coi/ aTroi/cccr^at, 
10)1/ 8c KdKrjv andrrjv jSovXcvcraro, icat /utc KcXcvct 

116 8v(r^X€a *Apyov iKCcr^at, cttcI iroXw cSXccra Xadi/. 
[ovro) TTOv Alt fieWet {nrepficvcL (fyiXov e&at, 
o? 817 TToXXoucii' TToXuui/ icaTcXvcTC KapTji/a 
'^8* ert Kat Xucrci- rov yap Kparos corl /Lteytoroi/.] 
alaxpov yap roSe y corl Kal ccrcro/xa/otcrt irodicdax^ 

120 /Lta^ ovroi TOidi/8c Tocrdi/8€ re Xaoi/ *A;(atc!Ji/ 
anprjKTOP iroXefiov Trokefii^eip iqSk fidx^cOat 
dvhpdo'i iravporipoKTi^ t4\o^ 8* ov ttcu rt Tri^avroL, 
€t TTcp yap k' iOekoLfiev 'A^^atot re Tpcjes r€y 
opKia Tnard ra/xdi^€9» dpiOfiTfdrjfievat dfiifxt), 

125 TpctJc? ftci/ Xe^aaOoL i^eoTioi occoi cacrtj/, 
Tjlicis 8* €5 8€ica8a9 SiaKoa'p^TfOeLfiep 'A^atoi, 
UpdtKov 8* avhpa clcaoTOi eXoCfieda olpoxoeveiVy 
TToXXai K€v 8eKa869 86votaro oii^o^^doto. 
roaaov iyd (fyrffiL TrXca? c/i/xei/ai via? *A;(axaJi/ 

130 TpcMoVy OL vatovo'i Kara TrrdXti^. aXX' iTriKovpoi 
TToXXidiv Ik TToXifDP ly^io'TraXoi dvSpe^ eveicriVy 
ol fi€ fieya TrXd^ovat Kal ovk ctoicr* idiXovra 
*lXioi/ cicTrepcrai, cv vaio/ievov moXUdpov. 
ivpea 817 fiefidao't Ato9 ficydXov eviavroiy 

135 Kal 817 8oi)pa o'ifrqTre vecov Kal CTrdpra XiXvvrai* 
at 8c irov rjfiirepai r aXo^oi koX vrjiria reKva 



28 OMHPOY IAIAA02 B 

ciar* ivL /icydpots irorihiyiievai' a/x/jii hk epyov 
avTa>9 aKpdaPTov, ov elveKa 8evp* iKo/JLeo'da. 
aXX* ay€d\ 019 av iyo) eiTTcu, ireiddfieOa irdpre^' 
140 <^€vya>/i.€)/ aitv invert ^i\y)v C9 irarpCha yalav 
ov yap en Tpoiijv aiprja-o/iev cvpvayvtai/." 

Unexpected Bifect of Agamemnon's Speech. 

a>9 <f>dro^ TOLO'L 8c Ov/jloi/ ivl arrjd^cra'iv 6piv€v 
nao'L /xcra ttXtj^w, ocrot ov fiov\fj^ iiraKovaav. 
KLVTJdT) 8' ayoprj <f>7i Kv/iara [lakpa ^aXcwr(rrj9, 

146 TTOi^ou 'Ifcapioto' Tol /jlci/ t* Evpd9 TC Ndro9 T€ 
(upop* iirat^a^ irarpo^ Ato9 Cfc v€<f>€\da}v. 
C09 8* arc Kivrjarrj Z€<f>vpo^ fiadv Xtjlou iXddvy 
Xa)8po9 €TraiyUfi}Vy iirC r iq/ivei aora^^vccrcrw/, 
C09 rail/ Tracr' ayoprf KLinjOij, toI 8* dXaXijTa! 

150 i/^a9 C'H'* ecraevovTOy irohwv 8* vna/epde kovlt) 
LOTar aeipofiarr). rol 8' aXXi^XoKri KcXeuoi/ 
aTTTCcrc/cu wjoii/ ^o ekKCfiep ct9 aAa otai/, 
ovpow r i^eKddaipov ax/rfj 8' ovpavov Xk€v 
oiKahe ic/jicWi/* iJtto 8* 'gpeop epfiara vrjiov. 

Interference of Athena. Odysseus checks the People. 

155 €v6a K€v ^ApyeCoLCLv vnepfiopa poaro^ iruxdij, 
el fiTj 'A^Tji/atTji/ ^Upyj irpo^ [ivOov eeLirev 
" ciS TTOTTOL, aiyioxoLO A109 TCKo^y arpvTOJinjj 
ovTCj 871 oLKovhey ^ihqv C9 iraTpiha yaiavy 
*Apy€ioL <f>€v^ovTaL in evpea vwra 0a\da-(rqs; 

160 /ca8 8^ Kev €v)(^co\riv Uptdfiw kol Tpaxrl Xlttoic)/ 
^ApyeCr/v 'EXcwji/, -^9 cti/c/ca ttoXXoi 'A^^atoii/ 
iv TpoCrj anokovTOy 1^1X179 dno irarpiho*; aii]^, 
dXX* Wi vvv Kara \aov *A^ataJi/ ^aXicoj^trcoi/aii/, 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 29 

<roi9 ayavoL<; ineeccw iprjrve ^Sna Ikoxttov^ 

166 /xTjSc ca K^a9 aXaS* iXKC/iev ayL^ieKuro'a^y 

0)9 €<f>aT, ov8* diridyjce ded, yXavKciTn,^ *K6rjv7)y 
fiyj Sc KaT Ov\v[nroLO Kaprjvtov at^aca, 
KapnaKiiio)^ S* LKav€ Ood^ cVl vrja^ *KyajiS}v. 
evpej/ erreLT *OSv(rfja Ail /jltJtlp drdXapTouj 

170 ioTe&r ' ovS* o yc 1/7J09 ivco'dXfjLOLo /i.€Xau/7}9 
dirTer, iireC [ilp axo9 Kpahi-qv koX Ov/ioj/ LKavcv. 
dy)(ov S* tora/xcVjj irpoo'€<f>7i yXavKaJVL^ *Adijv7j' 
" 8toy«/c9 AaepTidSy], iroKviirjyav 'OSvcrcrci), 
ovro) 817 oifcdi/Se, ^i\y]v C9 iraTpCha yaiavy 

176 <f>€u^ea'6* iv vrjeao'i iroKvKkiqLa'i wecopre^; 

fcaS Sc fcci^ cu;(a>Xi^i/ TlpidyLW kol Tpoxrl XCnoLTe 
*ApyeL7iv *EX6/t;i/, '»j9 cti/€fca -jroXXoi *A^cuoii/ 
€1/ TpoLji dnoXopTOy <f>C\7]^ dno 7raTpi8o9 atT79. 
dXX* 29t vuj/ fcara \aop 'Aj^aicSi/, /xtjSc t* ip^oei, 

180 0*019 S' dyai/ot9 iweeao'ip iprjrve <f>(aTa Scaoroi/, 
/JI1706 6a vrjas akao eKKCfiep a/KpLeKura'a^. 

a>9 <f>dd*y 6 8c ^vei/]K€ ded^ ona {fxavrfadairi^, 
fiyj 8c ^€€11/, dno Se ;(Xati/ai/ fiake- rffv 8c KoiiKTcev 
KTJpv^ Evpv/8ctT7;9 'I^aKtjcrio9, 09 ot 67r7;8€t. 

186 auT09 8* *ATp€t8c(u *AyafJL€fivovo^ dvrCo^ cX^ai/ 
he^aro ol atcfjirTpou Trarpcotoi/, d^dirov aleC' 
avv TO) c/Stj fcara i/^a9 *A^aia>i/ ^aX/co^ircoi^cui/. 

01/ rti/a /jici/ fiaarikrja koX e^o^ov avhpa ^i^^cnj, 
Tw 8* dyai'or9 CTTCCcrcni/ iprjTvo'aa'Ke Trapaard^' 

190 ^^dcuiJLovL, ov crc coiKC KaKov 0)9 8€t8urcr€cr^ai, 
dXX* avrd9 re KdOijao /cat dXXov9 Spvc Xaov9- 
ov ydp TTcu a'd<f>a ovrd* 0109 1^009 * ATpcia>i/o9 * 
ia)i' /xci/ TTCtparat, rdj^a 8' u/^crai vra9 *Aj(aift>i/. 
cV ^ovky 8* ov ndvTe^ d/covcra/xci/, otoi/ ceLirev. 



30 OMHPOY IAIAA02 B 

195 /xtj TL ;(oX<ucra/xci/o9 p^^Jj KaKov via? *Ax(U(ov. 
6vfio^ 8c fieya^ iari 8ioTpe<f>€o^ /SacrtXi^o?, 

TLflTj 8* €IC Aid? COTt, <^lX€r 8c C /XTJTlCTa ZCV?." 

w 8* aS hrjiiov avhpa ffiot fioocjprd r i^evpoi^ 
Tov a-KTJTrTpa) cXacracrfcci/ biioKkrjcracrKi re iivOif- 

200 " 8(u/i.di/i', aTpe/ia^ -^cro Kal dXXcuj/ /ivdov afcovc, 

ot crco <l>€pT€poi ctcrt, crv 8* aTrrdXc/jio? zeal ai^aXKi?, 
ovTC TTOT* ci^ TToXe/x^ ivapCdfiLO^ ovT €v\ fiovX-g. 
ov ii€v 7ra>9 TTctKrc? fiaaiXeuaoiiev ivOd^* *A.\aioL 
ovK ayadov irokvKoipavi'q - €19 Koipavo^ eoTco, 

206 cI? )8acnX€U9, ^ cScokc Kpoj/ov ttcu? ayKvXo/iTJreci) 
[crK^TTTpdi/ r' i)8c ^c/xwrra?, ti^a a'<f>Lcn fiacriXe&g]" 

C09 o y€ Koipav€(i}v 8tC7rc OTparov ot 8* ayoprjvhe 
aSn9 iireco'evovTo ve<ou ano kol kXiclcuop 
VXV^ 019 or€ Kv/ia iro\v<f>\oLa'fioLo dakaxrayis 

210 oiytaXoi /xcyaX^ fipcfiercUy cr/JLapayei 8c tc -jtoi^o?. 

. The Insolent Thersites criticises Agamemnon. 

aXXoi /xcV />* c^oi^o, ipiJTvOev 8c fca^* cSpa?* 
^cpcLTr)^ 8' eri /jiovi/09 a/ierpoeTrri^ CfcoXa>a, 
OS />* cTTca <f>p€a'lv ycrtv aKociid t€ ttoXXcx tc ^87;, 
/xcu/r, arap ov fcara Kocfiop^ cpt^^/ici/ai /SacrtXcCcrti/, 

216 dXX* ort ot etxrcuTo yekouou *Apyctotcrti/ 

c/x/jici/at. atcTxtoTos 8c di/^p utto *lXtoi/ -^X^ci/* 
90AK09 071/, ;(a>Ao9 o erepov trooa* ro> oc ot oi/icu 
KvpT(o, inl oTTJdo^ avvoxojKore • avrap virepdev 
<^o^o9 oji/ K€<f>ak7JVf xl^ehinj 8* iirevrjvode Xdj^wj. 

220 exOiOTo^ 8* 'A;(tXi7t fidkior Jjv rfh* *08v(r^f 
Tco ydp vetKeUcTKe. ror air ^Aya/ie/jLvovL 8ta> 
ofca K€K\7fya)s Acy oi/ctoca- ro) o ap A;(atot 
iKirdyko)^ Koreopro, vefxicra^dev t ivl dvfiS. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 31 

avrap 6 fiaKpa fio<oj/ 'Aya/xe/xi/oi/a u€Ck€€ fivdo)' 

226 " 'ArpctSij, T€o hrj air CTrt/itciLw^ccu ^8c x^'^^^^^ y 
wkeiaC rot j^aXfcoS kXictuxi, TroXXal Sc yvi/atKC? 
ctcrli' cVl KXiaCg^ c^atpcrot, d? rot *Aj(atol 
TrparrtOTa) StSo/utci/, cSr' ai/ wrokUdpov eXcj/iev. 
-^ cTt Kal xpvcov 67rtSei;€(u, oi/ kc ns owrct 

230 Tpdxop iTnroSa/xcoi^ €^ *lXtov vlo? airoiva^ 

OP K€P iyo) Si^cra? aydyo) rj aWo^ 'AxcucDi/- 
ijc yvvalKa verfv^ Iva [liayeaL ev (^tXanjri, 
171/ t' auro9 atrovocr^i KaTurxeax- ov /ikp eoiK€v 
apxpv lovra KaKwv imfiao'Keiiei/ via? 'A^^cucSi/. 

236 c5 -jreTTOi/c?, fcaic' iXeyx^'^ *Aj(ait8c9, ovkct *A;(aiot, 
oticaSe TTcp crvi/ wjvcri pedfieday rovhe 8* iS}yL€p 
airov ivX Tpoug yepa irecrariiiev^ o<f>pa ZSiyTai, 
17 /5a ri 01 XV H'^^^ irpoaaiivvoii^v ^e koI ovkl- 
09 Kttl vvp *A;(tXi7a, €o /utey' aji^ivova <f>S>Ta^ 

240 'qrCiiTjcrcv cXcii/ yap c^ct y^pcL^^ auro5 awovpas, 
dXXa /xdX' ovfc 'A^tX'^i x^Xo9 <f>p€a'LPj dXXd iLedyJinav 
Jj yap Wj 'ArpctStj, wi/ varara Xco^Si/croxo." 

Thersites is chastised by Odysseus. 

0J9 i^dro veiKeuov * Ayafieiivova, noifieva Xaoii/, 
^epcvrri^. roJ S* cSica wapCaTaTo 8109 *08vcrcr€U9, 

246 fcat /xii^ vTTohpa i8ci)i/ ^aXcTTo! '^vLTTane [ivda)' 
" %€p<rir OLKpiToiLvd^y \iyv^ nep ia)v ayopTjnj^y 
urx€Oy 117)8* eOek* 0I09 ipil^efievai /SacnXeCcrti/. 
ov ydp cyci crco <^i7/jil ^(cpctdrcpoi/ fiparov aWov 
€yni€vaiy oaaoL aifi ^ATpetSjj^ vno *lXioi/ tJX^oi/. 

260 T^ ovK av fiao'ikrja^ di/a OTO/i ^a>i/ dyopa;oi9, 
Kat o'<^ii/ 6i/€i8€d re Trpo<f>€poL^j vootov re <^vXd{rcrot9. 
ov8c Tt TTo* (Tou^a tS/xci/ 07ra>9 corat Td8c cpya, 



82 OMHPOY IA1AA02 B 

17 c5 -^6 KaKO}^ vooTTjaoiia/ vle^ *A.\aiS}v. 
[rol vvv ^Arpethy * AyayiiyLVovi^ Trot/jicVt \aS}v^ 

265 rjaax oi^eiSi^coi/, ori ol [laXa iroXXa SiSovcrti^ 
rjp(0€^ AavaoL ay 8c KepTOfiecjv dyo/ocvct?.] 
aXX' €K Toi ipecjy to 8c kol reTekecfia/ov caraw 
€L K en <r a<f>paLvopra Kiyj^iroyLai cS? vv vep w8c, 
fjL7]K€T eiretT *08vcr^t Kaprj loyLOKTiv iTreiyjy 

2eo /XT78' m TijXc/jta^oto irarffp KeKXijfia/o^ ctiji/, 

ct /xij cyc5 crc Xa)8a>i/ aTTo /uici/ <^iXa ci/xara 8v(ra>, 
^Xati/ai/ T* 1^8^ x*'''"^^^' '^^ ^* at8a> a/i.<^ifcaXu7rrct, 
avTOv 0€ KKaiovra C/oag ctti 1/7709 aiprqaa) 
TrcTrXijyci? ayoprjdei/ aeiKio'Ci TrXijy^crti'." 

265 COS ap' c<^i7, (rtajirrpto Be iJLeroi<f>p€vov ^8c fcat cu/xco 
ttXi^^ci/- 6 8* i8i/a>di}, dakepop 8c ot eKireae 8a/cpv, 
a'/i.a>8i^ 8' aifiaToeaaa iiera<f>p€vov €^virav4(m] 
cncjirrpov viro xpvcrcov. 6 8* dp* c^cro Tapfirjcrev t€j 
dXyjycras 8', a^p^iov Ihdvy anofiop^aTO 8d^pv. 

270 01 8c fcai dxyvfievoi Trcp ctt' auroJ 1781; ycXacrcrai/- 
a>8c 8c Tt9 ciTTCcrfcci/ t8(ui/ cs TrXT/aibi/ dXXoi/* 
" (o TTOTTOt, -^ 8»j fjLvpC *08vcrcrcv9 iadXa eopyev 
fiov\d<: T i^dp^cjp dya6d<; voXefiov re Kopvcacjv' 
vvv Be t68€ fiey apiarov iv ^Xpy^ioKriv cpc^ci/, 

276 OS Tov \o)firfT7Jpa iir^crfioXov €cr\ ayopdcov. 
ov drjv fiLV irdkiv avrts avfjaei dv/io^ dyrjvoyp 
veiKeUiv ^acrtX'^as oi/ct8ctoi9 iireeccLvy 

Odysseus urges the Continuance of the War, reminding of the Portent 

at Aulis. 

cSs <f>da'av 17 ttXtj^v?, dvd 8' o TrToXinopOo^ *08v(rcr€V9 
COT7J cncfjirrpov €)((ov. irapd 8c yXav/ca>7rt9 ^AOrjvri 
280 €i8o[i€vrj KTJpvKi (Ticonav Xaov dvoryeiv^ 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 33 

0)9 aifia ff oX ttpSnol re Kal vorarot vies *Aj^ata>j/ 
fivdov aKovaeiav koX CTrti^pacrcrataTO fiovhjp. 
o <r<\>iv cv <f>pop€0}v ayoprjaaTo Kal fiereetTrev' 
" 'ArpctStj, vvj^ hij (TC, ai/a^, idiXovaiv 'Amatol 

286 TraiTLv iKey^ioTov dd/iej/oL /xcpoTrccrcri /Sporotcrti/, 
ovSc rot €KTekiovcnv vTrocr^ecriVy ifv nep viriarav 
ii/0dh' €TL OTeC^ovres an *Apyco9 hnrofiorroiOy 
*lXioi/ eKTrepcaPT* cvrct^coi/ aTroi/cccr^at • 
ct)9 TC ya/> -^ -jratSc? veapoi XVP^^ '^^ yvpaiKes 

290 aXXtjXotcrii/ ohvpopreu oifcoi/Se i/eeadai. 

'^ fiTju Kal wopos iarlv avvr]64vra veeo'doA. 
Kal yap rt? 6* ii/a [irjva fiivdiv airo yjs aXd^oio 
acr)(aXaj^ avv vtjI TroXvJvyo), ov irep aeXXcu 
\eni4piax eiKioxriv opivoiihrt) re Oakaxra'a' 

296 TjiiLP 8* cii/aro? ioTL nepLTpovdcjv iviavros 

ivddhe iiL/ipoprea'a'u roJ ov peiiecL^oii 'A^atov? 
aa\akdaj^ irapd vrfvcl KopoivLcriv • dXXa Kal c/x7nj9 
axcrxpov tol hrrfpov re fi€P€iv Kepeov re i/eecr^ai. 
rXi^rc, <^iXoi, fcat [leivaT inl \p6voVy o(f>pa haco/ievy 

300 17 CT60I/ KaX;(a9 /xai/rcvcrat -^c /cat ovki. 

cv yap OTj rode vo/iev ept ippccrw^, core 0€ irairre^ 
fidprupoLy ovs fiTj KTjpes ifiav davdroio ^ipovaai- 
X^t^a Te KoX irptoiX^y or €9 AvXiSa vrjes *A)^aLOi}v 
iqyepedovTo, fca/ca Ilpia/i.^ /cat Tpcocrl ^ipovcrai' 

306 i7/xct9 S* d/ji<^l TTcpi Kprjvriv Upovs Kara ficj/iovs 
€p8ofi€i/ dOavdroKTi rcXijecrcra? eKarofifiaSy 
KoK'g VTTO TrXaTai/wrro), o0ev pdep dyXaop vScup, 
ivff" i<f>dv7f [leya (rfjiia, 8pdK(op iirl vorra Sa<^oii/d9, 
(T/xepSaXeo?, rw p avro9 *OXv/ji7rto9 ij/cc <f>6(it)a'8€y 

310 ficj/iov vnat^as irpos pa TTkaTdvicTTOv opovaep. 
€1/9 a 8* ccrai' arpovOoto veoacoCy vrjiria TcTci/a, 



34 OMHPOY IAIAA02 B 

6^(o in a^porarfi*, TrcraXot? VTroTrcTmjoirc?, 
otcrdy drap fnJTrjp ivaTt) ^v^ rj T€Ke rcTci/a. 
€i/d* o ye T0V9 iXceivd KaTrjcrdie Terptywra^, 
316 fJ^yJTTjp S* afi(f>€7roTdTO oBvpofiemj <f>L\a T€Kva' 
TTjv S* €XcXi^a/jt«/09 Trripvyo^ kdfiev dfi<f>La)(yLav, 
airrdp inel Kara tckv €<f>aye arpovOoio koX aimju, 

TOV [ikv dpC^-qkoV 0rJK€P ^€09, 09 nep €(f>7]V€P' 

\dav yap fiiii eOiqKe Kpovov irdts dyKvXo/iijTea} - 

320 T7/itct9 8* C(rTaorc9 davfid^ofiev olov irvxdy). 
(09 ovv 8ct«/a TTcXco/oa Oeiop €l<rrj\6^ €/card/ui)8a9, 
KaX^a9 S* avTLK ejrctra dconpoircojv dyopevev • 
*Ti7rr* aveto cycWcr^c, icapij fco/iida>Kr€9 'A^^atot; 
TjiiLv iiev rdS* €(f>7fv€ repas fieya fxifTvera Z€i;9, 

326 onltLfiov oxIfLTckeaTov, oov /cXco9 ov voT dXctrat. 
0)9 0VT09 fcara t€Kp* ci^ayc CTpovdolo Kal axmjvy 
oKTcjj drdp fi'^Trfp ivdrt) rivy tj TiK€ rcici/a, 
cS9 T7/itct9 roo'cavT erca TrroXcfii^ofxev aSdi, 
Tw Scfcarw Sc ttoXii/ alprjcofiev €vpvdyviav.^ 

330 ic€ti/o9 Ta)9 dy6pev€ • ra 817 i^vi/ vdvra TcXctrat. 
dXX' dye /iCfiveTe irdvrt^^ ivKvyjfiihe^ *A^atot, 
avrov, ^19 o ^€i/ darv [leya Upidfioio ikojfiev.'' 

0)9 ctpar , ApyeiOL 0€ fiey ta^oi/, a/i.91 0€ i^c9 
a-fiepSakeov Kovdfi-qcrav dvadintov vn *A;(ato)i/, 

336 iivdov i7raiinj(TavT€s '08v<rcr»jo9 Scioto. 

Nestor would have the Dissatisfied return. He advises a New 
Organization of the Army. 

roLCL he Kol ii€T€€L7re TepTJvLo^ hnrora NcoTOjp- 
" cS TTOTTOi, Tj 817 TTOLO'lv eoticdr€9 dyopdaaOe 
vrimd^oi^y 019 ov rt fieXeL woXefiTjia ipya. 
Try 817 (Tuvdeo'CaL re kol opKia ^TJaeTat rffjlv; 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 35 

340 iv TTvpl S17 fiovXaC T€ yevouLTO fnjSed t avhptov 
cTTFOvhal T aKpnqroL Kol Se^ia^ ^9 immdfiep • 
avTfi)9 yoip p lirieaa ipihaCpofiePy ovSc tl fiyjx^^ 
€ifp€fi€vaL hvvdfieada, ttoXvv \p6vov ivddS' iovre^. 
'ArpctStj, <rv 8' eff* cu9 nplp €)(a}p aoT€/x<^ca fiovkriv 

346 dp^ev 'A/oycioicri Kara Kparepa^ vcfiCvas, 

TovcrSc 8' €a <f>0Lvvd€iVy €i/a koX 8vo, tol Kev *A)(aL&p 
p6(r<f>Lv fiovk€ua}(r\ ai/ucrt? 8' ovk Srcrcrai auroJj/, 
Trpli/ "Apyoah* iivaiy irplv kol Ato9 aiytd;(oio 
yvdiLtvoL €1 TC i/iet)8o9 vTrdo^ccrt?, €t t€ /cat ovkL 

350 <^7}/i.l yap oSi^ KaTav^vacu virepfieuia Kpopuova 
Tj/jtart ToI, OT€ vr)v<rlv iv (OKimopoLCLv cfiaivov 
*Apy€LOL Tpckaa-L <f>6pop koL Krjpa <f>€pom€Sy 
aarpdirTCDy imhe^v, ivaiaL/ia crrj/xara <f>aii^(it)v. 
T^ fiT] rt9 nplv CTTCtyccr^cj oi/cdi/8€ i/C€cr^at, 

356 Trpii/ TLpa Trap Tptlmv ak6\(f KaraKOLfirjdrjvcUf 
TiaacOcu 8' 'EXeoj? opinjfiaTd re CTOpaxds t€. 
€1 8c rt9 CKirayXco? iOekei oiKovhe pceaOoLy 
aTTTCcr^ai 179 ^1709 ivao'ekiJLOLo /x6Xaix^9, 
CK^pa irpocrd* dWaiv ddvaTov koX ttotiiov iTrurvg. 

300 aXXa, di/a^, aurd9 r iv fjLTjSeo TreCdco r aXXoi- 
ov TOL dirofiXriTov c7ro9 orcrcrai, orrt fC€i/ cwrco • 
Kptp* ai/8pa9 fcara <^vXa, icara <f>p7]rpa^y * AydfjLCfipoVy 
C09 ^pyjrpri <f>pTJTp7]<f>Lv dpyjyjf, <f>v\a 8c <^vXot9- 
ct 8c Kep cS9 €p^9 'Cat rot Treidwprai 'A^^aioi, 

366 yv<aa"ij eneid* 09 ^* rjyefiovcov /cafcd9, 09 re in; Xaoji', 
178* 09 K* ccr^X69 C77<rt • /cara cr<^ca9 yap /xa^^coi^at • 
yi/cocrcai 8' 17 fcat ^co-TTCcrirj ttoXii' ovfc dXa7ra^ci9i 
-^ dvhpSiv KaKOTrfTL KoX d<f>pa8Cji noXefioLO.^^ 



36 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

Agamemnon orders Preparations for Battle. 

rw 8' d7ra/i.€i)8o/i.€i/o9 Trpoai^i] Kpeuop 'Aya/xc/ii/cui/ • 

870 "-^ fiav aZr iyop-g viKa^, yipovy via? *Aj((u5i'. 
at yap, ZcC T€. Trdrep Kal 'A^iji/anj kol ^AttoXXoi/, 
ToirOVTot ScTca /xot (Tvp,<l>pd8iiop€^ ctei/ *A;(atftii/ • 
T^ /C€ Ta;(* 7)ILVa'€l€, TToXis Hpid/ioio WaKTO^y 
\€.pa'\v v<l>* yfii^rip-Qcriv akovcd r€ ircpOo/iein] t€. 

876 aXXa fioL aiyioxo^ KpovLhrj<: Z€V9 aXye' eScjKevy 
o9 ft€ fi€T dnpijKTov^ €ptSa9 /cat v€LK€a )8aXXci. 
/cat ya/> cycii/ 'A;(tXci;9 re /uta^^ijcra/xc^* eti/Cfca Kovprfs 
avTifiioL^ imtarciVy iy(o 8' ^px^^ x^^^^*^^^^* 
ct 8c TTor* €5 yc /uitai/ fiovkevcroii^Vy ovk€t cTrctra 

380 Tpowrti/ di/a/SXijcrt? KaKov ecra-eraXy ovh* yjfiaxov. 
vvv 8* ipx^o'^* c-rrt 8ct7n'oi/, ti/a ^pdyto/iev ^Apr)a. 
€? /lo/ Tt9 8d/3v 0r)^do'0(i}y c5 8* da'7rt8a ^ccr^cu, 
ev 8c Tt5 ImroKTip heLni/oi/ 8orQ> <ufcvTrd8c(rcrti/, 
c5 8c Tt9 dpfiaTos d/jL<^t9 t8cii/ TroXc/xoto /xc8ccrdciti, 

886 0)5 Kc Travrf/iepioi arvyep^ KpLv(0[ie6* '^Aprji. 
ov yap wavccjkT] ye /xcrccrcrcTat, ov8' i^fi(u6vy ^ 
ei [iTj vi)^ ikdovcra SiaKpn/eeL /levo^ dvhpiov. 
IhpcMreL fia/ rev reXafitov dji^X oTrjdeo'a'iv 
acnriho^ d/jw^t^Sporrj?, Trcpt 8* eyxct X^^P^ Kaiieirax' 

890 ihpciXTei 8c T€v tTTTTO? iv^oov dpfia TiTaivtov. 
oi/ 0€ K cycDi/ avavevue /xa^^ij? cC/cAoi^a votjco) 
fiviivd^eiv irapa vrivcrl KopwvCaiv^ ov oi eireira 
apKiov icrcreLTaL {f>vy€€LP Kvva^ ^8* oltovov^y 

The Assembly is dismissed. Sacrifice and Feast. 

a>9 cipar , ApyeioL 0€ iiey taj^oi/, <U9 ore icv/xa 
396 dfcr^ i<f>* v^/njX^, ore Kivrjirji Noro5 iXOdv, 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 37 

irpofiXffTL arKOtri\(f' tov 8' ov iroT€ Kv/iara k€C7r€i 
itoLvrouav aveiKoPy or av a/0* rj €i/0a yevfovrtu. 
avaravre^ 8* op4ovro KthaxrOhrr^^ Kara vrja^^ 
KaTTvicrcrdv re Kara /cXtcrux?, zeal 8ct7ri'oi' eXovro. 

400 dXXo9 8' aXXa> cpe^e 0€(ov adeiyevercuovy 

€v)(6ii€vo^ davaTov re <f>vyelp kol jiiokov ^Aprjo^. 
airrap 6 fiovv Upevaep ava^ avhpSiv * AyafiCfivtoVy 
iriova irevraenjpov, vnep/jLei/ei ILpovuaviy 
KucXyja'Kev he yepopra^ -apiOTrja^ Ylava\auiS^Vy 

405 NcoTopa iikv Trpdmara koX *\hoyLevfja ai/aicr<i, 
avrap erreiT Ata^rc 8v<o koL Ti;8€05 vldi/, 
€KTOP 8* air *08vcr5a, Atl fjLTJTiv ardkavrop. 
airrofiaTo^ Be oi -^X^c fiorjj/ ayado^ Mcj/eXao?' 
]58cc yap Kara Ov/iop a8€X<^€oi/ cos ciroi'ctro. 

410 fiovp 8c TrtpiaTTfO'dv re /cat ovXo;(vra9 aveXovro. 
TOiciv 8* cvj(d/utci/o5 fieri^j) Kpeuou * Aya/jt€/xi/a>i/ • 
" ZeS icv8t(7T€ fieyioTey KekaLve<f>€^y aidipi vaUov, 
fiTj TTplv lir tJcXioi/ 8vi/€U /cal cttI Kvi^as cX^cti/, 
7r/3ii^ /uie Kara irpr)V€^ fia\€€LP npi^d/ioio fi€\a0pop 

416 atdaXdei/, nprjo'cu Se ^rvpo^ St^ibto dvperpa^ 
^EicTopcop 8c x^'Toli/a -jTC/jl onjSea'tn hat^au 
^oKk^ paryaXeop' iroXcc? 8' d/uK^' airrop eraipoi 
npripce^ ip KopiycLP o8d^ ka^oCaro yatai/." 

ci()9 €<f>aT, ov8' d/3a tto) ol iireKpaUupe Kpopi(i}Py 

420 dXX* o y€ ScicTo /utci/ ipct, irdi/oi/ 8* dXiaarop CK^eXXei/. 
avrdp inei p ev^apro Kal ovXo^^vra? irpofidkoproy 
avcpvcap fikp irpSna koX icifxi^ap Kal iheipaPy 
[iTjpov^ T i^era/iop Kard re Kpiajj e/cdXi^ai/, 
hL7TTv)(a TTOLTJaairre^y in air&p 8* (o/ioSerria'ap. 

425 Kal rd /i.6i/ d/3 o'^iJ^xjaip d^vWoiaip KaTCKaioPy 

cirXdy^fpa 8' d/5* d/iir€ipapT€^ v7r€ipe)(OP 'Hi^aurroto. 



88 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

avrap iirel Kara iiyjpa Kwq koX (rirXdyxya irdaavrOy 
/xurrvXXoi/ r apa raXXa Kal a/KJ}* ofieKolcLP eneipavy 
amrqadv T€ 7r€/>t<^/>a8€o>9, ipvcavro tc Trdvra. 

430 avrap iiro. iravcavro irovov rervKovro re Satra, 
aiio^i^ , ovoc TV uvfio^ eoevero ooatos cunj?. 
avrap inel Troaio^ Kal cSijrvo? €^ epov euroj 
rots a/>a fLvdoiv ^px^ Fcptjwo? Vmrorra ^earo^p' 
" 'ArpcfSij /cv8toT€, ai/a^ di^Spoii/ 'Aya/i.€/jii/oi/, 

436 /irfKen vvv ^6* aWi \€yciii€0a, /iTjSe ri Sr/pw 
a/ilSaWdiieSa ipyov, o Srf Oeos eyyuaXii^et. 
aXX' aye, KrjpvK^^ /lev *A')(cu^^ xakKox'^Tdptop 
\aov KTipvccopre^ ayeip6vro)P Kara prja^^ 
rifiel^ 8* do pool <58€ Kara arparov evpvv *K)(aL(^v 

440 LOfjLeVy 6<f>pa K€ daccov cyetpo/xei/ o^w ^Aprfa" 

The Army adrances to Battle. 

CU9 ci^ar*, ov8* diriByfO'tv dva^ dvhpS>v *Aya/xc/xi/G>i/* 
avruca KrjpvKeo'a'L \iyv^d6yyoia'i KeXevaev 
Krjpvcra'^iv 7roXc/xdi/8c /capij fco/idaiKra? 'A^^cuov?. 
ol /x€i/ eKrjpvo'a'oVy ro\ 8* Tjy^Lpovro jid^ cjKa. 

446 oi 8' a/i.<^' *Arp€tcDva 8ior/>€<^€C9 /SacrtX'^c? 
^wjpi/ Kpivovre^y fiera Se yXavfca>7ri5 ^Adrjin], 
aiyiS* €xpv(r ipiniiovy dyrjpojov ddavdrrfp re 
r§9 c/caroi/ Ovcavoi iray)(pva€OL rjepcdovrcuy 
7rdpr€^ ivn\€K€€^y iKaro/ifioio^ 8c cicaoTO?- 

460 (Tvi/ r]5 TTai^do'a'ovaa hUaa^rro \aov 'Aj^oxcSi/ 
orpvvova I4vax • ci/ 8c aOa/o^ wpa^v iKdxrr^f 
KapSCyy aXXijKrop ttoXc/xi^cii/ ^8c /xaj^ccr^at. 
rowri 8' a<^ap ttoXc/jio? yXvKLtov ya/er -^c vdeaOaL 

N/' CI/ i/Tjvcrl y\a<f>vp'ija'i <f>C\7fv is irarpCha yaiav, 

455 -^urc TTvp dihy)\ov CTrii^Xeyct dairerov v\y}v 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 39 

ovp€o^ iv Kopv<f>y^, €Ka$€P 86 T€ <f>aLper<u avyijy 
CU5 T(ov ipxofiepcjv ano j(aXKOv ^ccrTTCcrtbto 
atyXi} Traii<f>av6<iHra St' ai0€po^ ovpavov Ik€i/. 
r&v 8*, C09 T opvid(t}v trereqvSiv iOvea iroXXa, 

460 yy]vS)v rj yepapotv 17 kvkvwv SovXi^oSei^coi/, 
'Acrty €v Xeifiiovi, KavoTpiov aii<f>l peeOpa^ 
€i/6a /cat €uda TroT&PTcu dyaXXd/tei/a nrcpvyeco'iPy 
K\ayyyf8w trpoKoBil^ovroiVy cr/xapayet 8c re Xet/xcoi/, 
C09 tS}v edvea TroXXa j/ew avo koI icXtcrtacoi/ 

466 €9 TTcStb)/ trpo^iovro XKafidi/hpiov - avrap vtto ^Otav 
aiiephakcov Kovd^itfi irohSiv airwi/ t€ /cat Ittttcjp, 
iarav 8' iv Xet/ta>i/t XKaiiavhpuf avO^yioeim 
ILvptoiy oaaa t€ <f>vWa /cat avd^a yCyvercu oipjj. 
rjvr^ fivLCUop ahivdoiv eOufietr iroXXci, 

470 at T€ KaTOL oTafffiov TToi/JLvr^op rjkdo'Kova'iv 
iapifj iv clapitr^j ot€ re ykdyo^ ayyea Sevet, 
Toaaoi iirl Tpcjeaai Kaprj KOfiocjpres ^A^aiol 
€v TTcSto) uTTavTO hiappaLO'aL /t€/jiaa>r€9. 

rov^ o y 0)^ r atTroXta TrAarc auycov atiroAot apope^ 

476 pela ZiaKpivQiO'iVy iircC kc pop,^ /xtyeoMrti/, 
(09 rov9 '7y€/i.di^€9 8t€/co(r/i€oi^ evda /cat cvda 
va/iCvTjph* levoLy per a 8c Kp€i(ffvJ AyapepvotPy 
oppara /cat K€<f>ak7iP t/c6Xo9 /mi' T€p7nK€pavp(Oj 
^Ap€i 8c l^(0P7]Py arippop 8c IlocrctSctaii^t. 

480 ^vrc )8cn)9 dye\7]<f>L pey c^o;(09 cttXcto irdpT(op 
Tavpo^' o ydp t€ j8d€0"crt perairpeirci aypopepj/aip' 
Toiop dp* ^ArpetSrip $7Jk€ Z6V9 rfpan K€LP(py / ( /P^ 
iiarp€ir€* ip iroWoLCv '/cat €^o\op 'qpckaaip. _^ ^ 



40 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. 

Achaean Forces (4S4-7S5). Prooemiam. Inrocation of the Moses. 

ecTTTcrc vvi/ /xot, /lovccuy *0\vfi7na hd/iar exovaax^ 
486 v/xei? yap Oeai ccrrc, irdpeare t€ urre t€ iravray 
rHiel^ 8c kX€09 olov aKovofiep ovSe ri tS/iei/, 
oXtiv^^ Tjy^yLOv^^ ^avaSiv koX Koipavoi ^aav. 
'ifKrqdxfv 8* ovk av iyo) iivdrjo'oiJLaL ov8* ovofirjvat, 

OVO CI flOL 0€Ka fJLCV yKwCTO'CU 0€Ka 0€ OTOfJLar €ICI/, 

400 <f>a}vfi 8* appTjKTo^y ')(dKK€ov 84 fioi ^Top ip€vr), 
el firf 'OXv/x7ria8€9 /xovcrat, Ato9 atyid^^oto 
dvyaripe^y livrja'aCaS* oaoi vno ^IXlop '^\0ov. 
apxoifs ad vrfojv ipecj vfjd<; t€ Trpoirdaa^. 

Greece South of Thermopylae, and Adjacent Islands (494-644). 

Boeotia (494-), Pliocis (5x7-), I'Ocris (527-), Kuboea (53^), 

Athens (546-), Salamis (557). 

Boic»tAv fiev ni)WXcc»s Kal Atjlto^ ^PX^^ 
496 *A/5KccriXao9 re Ilpodonrjv(ap re KXoi/u>9 re^ 

ol 0* ^TpCrjp ivc/iovTo Kal AvXi8a irerprjecriTav 
Xxoi'Vov T€ Xk(o\6p tc- irokvKvrnLov r 'Elrccui^di/, 
©ccrTTCtai^ Vpaidv tc koX evpvxopov MvfcaXijcrcrdi/, 
ol r a/i.<^' ^^Pl^ ive/iovTO Kal EtXccrtoi/ Kal *Epvdpa^y 
500 ol T 'EXcoii/* elxov ^8* "TXtjj/ Kal TJereiopa, 
*ilKaKei/]p Mc8ca>i/a r*, evKriyLevov moXUdpoPy 
Kaiira9 Evrprjciv re TrokvrpTJpcDpd re ^urfiriVj 
ol re Kopdveiav Kal iroirjevd^ 'AkiaproVy 
ol re nXaratai/ expi^ "^8' ot FXurai^a pe/ioproy 
60b ol 0* *T7ro07]fia<; el)(0Vy evKrCfievop irro\U0poVy 
*Oy)(7)(rr6p 0* lepovy nocrt87;toi' ayXaoi^ aXcro?, 
ot re iro\vaTd(f>v\op ^Aptrrjv e)(pvy olre Mi8eiai/ 



*SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 41 

Nto'di^ r€ ^a0€r)v *Av6i)h6va r co^arooHrai^. 
rcSi/ fikv Trem^KOPTa i/cc9 ictoi/, ip 8c iKdarry 

510 KOvpoL BoLorrwv iKarov Kai eiKoai fialvov. 

ot 8* *Aa'n\7)S6va vaiov t8* 'Opxo|uv&v Mtin/etoi^, 
Tftii/ ^PX 'Ao-KdXa^os koX 'laX/x€i/o9, vtc? ^Aprfo^^ 
ovs T€K€v ^AoTvoxy) 8d/jia> *AKropo9 *A£cf8ao, 
7rap0a/o^ aihoLTjy vnepckov €t(rai/a/8a(ra, 

615 "AprjL KpaT€p£ ' 6 Sc ot napeke^aro XdOpy. 
Tot9 8c rpirJKovTa y\a^vpaX i^cc? i(TTL)(0(t)PTO. 

avrap #c»in\c»v S;(c8u)9 Kal 'ETrurrpo^o? ^pxov^ 
vtcc9 ^l^iTov fieyadvfiov Nav/8oXt8ao, 
ot Kvndpio'a'ov €)(ov Uvdiovd t€ Trerprjeo'a'av 

520 Kpiadp T€ l^adeqv koX AavXt8a ical IXai^oTr^a, 
ot r' * Av^fidpeiav kol 'Ta/uiTroXti^ dfii^^€v4iiovro^ 
ot r* apa Trap irorafiov Kyjc^tcroi/ 8101^ a/cuov, 
ol T€ ACXcuau €Xpu Tnjyp9 CTrt Kji^iaolo' 
rot? 8* d/ia TeaaapdKovTa p.4\aivax i/^C9 hrovro. 

525 ot /jici/ ^(OKTjcju OTixa^ lo'Taa'av d/Ji<^tC7roi/rc9, 
Botoiroji/ 8* €fi7r\r)v iir dptcrrcpd dtaprjo'a'ovro, 
AoKp&v 8' riy€fi6v€vev *OtX7jo9 ra^v? Alas, 
li€U0Vj ov TL Toao^ y€ oco^ TcXa/x(oi/t09 Ata?, 
dXXd TToXv fi€uov' 6Xtyo9 /x-ci' ctji/, Xivoddprj^y 

530 iyx^^V ^' CKcicaaTo IXai/cXXTji/a? /cat "A^fatov?* 
ot Kvi^di/ T* ipeiiopT ^Oiroevrd t€ KaXXtdpdi/ tc 
Brjaadv T€ XKdptfiTjv t€ koI Avyctd? ipareiva^ 
Tdp(l>7fi/ T€ SpovLOv re Boaypiov afKJn p€€0pa. 
T(o 8' d/ia TeaaapdKovTa fiiXaxvai i/^C9 errovro 

535 AoKpcjVj ot vaLOVCL ir4pi)v Uprj^ ^Evfioirj^. 

ot 8* 'Eiipoiav c^oi^ fia/€a TrveCovre^; *A)8aKr€9, 
XaXictSa T* Elperptdp t€ 7ro\v(rrdff>v\6v 0* 'loTCaxav 
KTjpLpdop T ci^aXoi/ Atov r* atTTV TrrokUOpoVj 



42 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

ol T€ Kdpvarov expv 178* ot Srvpa paxerdcurKOPj 
640 roll/ aS^' 7iy€fi6i/€v 'EXcc^ifi^cop, 0^09 *Apijo9, 
XaXKoiSoKnaSr}?, fieyaOvficjv ap^o^ ^Afidvriov. 
T^ 8* d/i' *A)8ai/TC9 eirovro dooi^ ottiO^v KOfiocavTe^y 
ai^Qiyiraiy /xc/iaeorc? opeKTyav iieXugcLP 
Odpr/Ka^ pTf^^iv hr/Uov dfi^l cmjOeo'a'Li/. 
646 r^ 8' a/xa TeacrapaKovra fieXcupaL vrje^ hrovro. 

0% 8' ap' 'AOifvas cI;(oi/, ivKTifiei/ov irroXUdpov, 
Srjfiov *Ep€)(07)o^ fieyakijropo^y ov ttot* ^AOtJpj) 
dpoffCj A109 Ovyarr)py t€K€ 8e ^€i8(iopo9 apovpa, 

660 €uda 86 /xii/ ravpoKTi koX apv€Lol^ ikdovTcu 
KovpOL ^AOffvaixav nepLTeWoiieviov iviavrSiV' 
tS)v avd* 7iy€fi6p€v vto9 HcTcaio Mcvco'Oc'Os. 
ra> 8' ov TTco Tt9 6/aou>9 iirij^dovio^ yivtr dvi)p 
Koo'iiija'cu LTTTTOV^ T€ Kol dv4pa^ acTrihidrra^' 

666 ^carcjp 0I05 €pL^€v 6 yap irpoyeuearepo^ 'Jjev, 
raJ 8* a/xa irevnJKOpra p,e\axvax i^C9 enovro. 

Alas 8' €ic 2!aXa|iXvos dyei/ 8voKai8€/ca i/i7a9. 
[oT^cc 8' dyo)!/ ti^' *Adi)vautiv laravro c^dXayyc?.] 

Peloponnesua' (559-), Western Islands (625-), Aetolia (638-). 

ot 8' "ApYOS r elxop TipvvOoi re T€LXt6€<T<TaUy 
660 'Epinovrfv ^Aaiirqv r^y fiadvv Kara KoKirov c^fovo'a?, 
Tpot^'^i/* 'Htdi^a? T€, KoX afinekoevT 'E7rt8avpoi/, 
ot T €)(ov Alyivav Maxrqrd re Kovpoi ^A)(aiSiv, 
Tcjp avO* Tfyefioveve fiorjp ayadb^ Aio|ifjSTfs 
Kol XOepeko^y Kanav^o^ ayaKkeurov <^iXo9 vid9> 
666 TOMTi 8* aifi Evpvako^ rpiTaro^ kUv^ io-odeo^ <^co9, 
Mtjkiot^o? vto9 TaXaioi'tSao di^aKro?. 
avfindpToiv 8* rfyelTo fiorfv ayado^ Ato/xiySi;?* 



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SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 43 

Tovcri 8* d/x* oyhwKOPTa fieXaipai vrje^ eirovro. 
QL Se MvKT)vas cI;(oi/, ivKTifievop nrokUOpoVy 

570 d<^i/€tdi^ T€ KopivOov ivKTLfi€va^ r€ KXccoi^d?, 
'Opi/ctd? r* ivifiovro ^Xpaxdvpeqv r ipaTCLvrjv 
Koi Ximrnvj od* ap^ "ASprforos irpSn iiificta'CXevevj 
ol 0^ *Tir€pi)a'ii)v re koX aXir^ivriv Tovo^aaav 
Yl€k\rjin)v T ^xov^ -^8' Alyiov dfi^€V€fiovTo 

676 AtyiaXdi^ r' apa iravra koX d/ji<^' 'EXunji^ evpeiav, 
tS}v iKarov vq&v ^PX^ Kpeuov ' AYa|U|jLVc»v 
'ATp€i8»j9. d/xa rol y€ ttoXv TrXctorot /cat apiaroi 
Xaol iirovT' ip 8* avro? c8va'€TO vdpoira xoKkov 
kv8l6(»}v^ naaiv 8c fiercnpeirev rfptoeaaiVj 

580 ovv€K apiaroi erfv^ ttoXv 8c ttXcuttou? dye Xaov?- 
ot 8' clj^^^ Koihrfv AaK€8a(|iova Krirdka-a-aVy 
^apiv T€ Xirdprrip t€ Trokvrpi)p(avd Te Mccrcnji', 
Bpvcrctd? r ivcfiovro kol Avyeid^ ipareLvd^, 
ot r* dp' 'A/xvKXa9 €l)(ou "EXo? r', S^aXoi/ irrokUOpoVy 

585 ot re Adai^ elj^oi/ 178* OitvXoi' afi^€u€fiovTOj 
rSiv ol d8eX<^eo9 '^PX^* ^0171^ dyado9 McWXaos, 
i^Kovra pecjv airaTcpde 8c dtopTJaaovTo. 
iv 8' aur69 Ktci/ ^ct trpodvyLii[j(TL TreiroLOci^, 
oTpvvcjv TroX€/xdi^8c • /idXtcrra 8€ tero 6vfi(f 

590 TUTajcrdai ^^EX4vrf<; opfnjfiard re oroi/axds re. 

ot 8c IIvXov r* iv€fiovTo koI ^Apijpjjv ipaTeivrjp 
KoX Spvop, 'AX<^etoto tropov^ koX ivtcnrov AtTru, 
KoX KynapLcaijcPTa kol "A/jw^tyei/ctai^ euaxovy 
KoX UreXeoi/ icat ^EXo9 Kat Acoptoi/, ei^da re /iovcrat 

595 avTOfiepoL Sd/ivpiv top SpijiKa navaap dot8i79, 
Olxakiridep lopra Trap' Evpvrov Ot^aXt^o?- 
aT€VTo yap evxofi^po^ pucqacfiep^ et Trep dp avral 
fiovaaL det8otei/, Kovpat Ato? aiytd^oto- 



44 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

at 8c ^okbia'anitvax Trqpov OiaaVy avrap aoi^p 

600 Oea-neairiv a^eXovro Kal iKXeXaOop Kidapicrrvv. 
T&v aW 7jy€ii6v€V€ Fepijvio^ inirora N^oTcop, ' 
T^ '8' iveinJKOvra y\a^vpai v€€^ i(m)(6(ovTo. 

ot 8* €)(ov 'ApKaSiTfv VTTO KvXhjvrji; 6po^ atTrv, 
AiiruTLoy irapa rvfi^ouy Iv avip^^ ^yX^Ma^fTyrat, 

006 ot ^v^ov T iv€fiopTo Kal *Op\op.€uov 7ro\vfi7)\ou 
''PCmfv T€ l^rparvqv t€ kol '^vefioeaa'av ^EvCcnrr/v^ 
Kal Teyeqv €t\ov koX MavTLV€r)p ipareivTJVy 
Srv/jw^TjXdj/ T €l)(ov Kal UappaaLTfp €i/e/xoi/ro, 
T&v ^px *A.yKaLOLo irat?, KpeCcjv ^ Ayainjvaip^ 

610 i^rJKOPTa vetov ttoXcie? 8* iv vr)l iKOOTy 

'ApKa8€9 avSp€^ efiaivoPf CTTtcrra/xei/oi rroXe/xt^cti^. 
avro9 yap a^iv c8a»c€i^ ai/a^ apBpcjv 'Aya/xe/xi^a)i/ 
vrja^ cvcrcrcX/xov? Trepdav inl oivoira novrovy 
'Arp€t8T;9, CTTCt ov a^L OoKaao'ia ipya iiefnjXeiv. 

616 ot 8' apa BovTrpourtdi^ re Kat ''HXiSa 8101^ evaxovy 
oaaov i<f>* 'Tpiilvrj kol Mvpavo^ iaxarocjaa 
irerpri t ^ilXevCj) Kal 'AXcurtoi/ ivro^ iepyei^ 
T&u av Tccra-apc? dp^ol iaavy 8cica 8' apSpl iKoarca 
inJ€^ errovTO Ooaiy ttoXcc? 8' ififiaLvop 'ETrctot. 

620 T&v ii€v dp' *A/ji<^t/xa;(09 icat OdX7rto9 yfyyia-da-Qfiv^ 
vtC9 6 /xci^ Ktccitov o 8* dp* EvpvTov, *AKTopuov€' 
T&p 8* *A/xapvyKCt8»j5 "^PX^* ^poLTepo^ At(opi}9* 

Toil' 8c T€TdpT(OV rjpXJE. IloXv^Ctl^O? 0€O€l8tJ^^ 

vto9 'Ayaa'^cVco9 AvyrjidZao di^airro?. 
626 ot 8' cic AovXixCoio *E;(ii/da)i/ ^ Updtop 
inja-fovy at vaiovai iripi)v oKo^y *HXt8o9 di/ro, 
roll/ aS^ iTyc/xdi/cvc Meyr;?, drdXai/ro9 *ApT;t, 
^XcfSrj?, w rwcTC 8iu^iXo9 Imrora ^X€i;9, 
09 7roT€ ^ov\l)(l6vS* airevdaaaTo warpl ;(oXcii^ct9. 




ITHACA — NORTHERN PART, FROM MT. AETOS 
From a photograph 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 46 

eso T(o h* afia TcaaapaKOvra ii4\axvax vrJ€^ erroKro. 
avrap 'OSvo'O'C'Os 'Jjyc Kc^aXXf^vas fi€ya0viiovSy 

ol p ^lOoKTIV €l)(OV KOL ^TfplTOV €t|/OCrU^vXXoi/, 

KoX KpoKv\€L ivefiovTo KOI AtytXtrra Tpri')(€iaVy 
OL re ZaKvvOov €)(ov ifh* oX Xd/iop aiiif>€V€fiopTOj 

636 ol r rjireLpov ^ov rjh* avrnripoLa vefiovro, 
T(ov fikv *08vcra'cv9 ^PX^^ ^'^ /jf^Tti^ draXai^o9, 
to) 8' a/xa K^C9 eirovro SvcSScica fiiXTOTrdpijOL. 
AItcoXAv 8* iTyctro 6das, ^ Avhpaifiovo^ vtd?, 
ot IXXcvpoJi'* Iv^iiovTo KOLi "OXei/ov 178c IXuXt/i/iji/ 

640 XaXici8a T ayj^uxXoi/ KaXi;8€i>i/a tc irerpyj^(T(Tav' 
ov yap er Olinjo^ fieyaXTfropo^ vt€C9 ^caVy 
ov8* d/j' er* avT09 erji', ^di/c 8c ^audo^ McXcaypo9' 
ro> 8' CTTi irdi/T* iTcrakTo avaxraeficp AtrcoXouni^- 
raJ 8* aifia TeaaapaKovra fiiXaxvai V7}e^ errovro. 

The Islanda in the Southern Part of the Aegean Sea. 

646 KpifT&v 8' 'l8o/x€i/cv9 8oi;pticXuro9 rfyeiiovevePy 
ot Kvaxrop r elxov Toprvvd re Teixi^oeaaaPy 
AvKTOv MikifTov T€ Kol dpyivoevTa Avkoxttov 
4>at<rrdi/ re *Vvti6v T€y 7rdXct9 ev i/axerociKra9, 

dXXot ^ ot KpTJTTJV €KaT6fl7ro\LV dfl(l>€P€llOVTO.' 

660 ra>i/ /x€i/ dp' 'ISoiuvc'Os 8ovpticXirro9 rfyefiovevev 
MtipidvTis t\ drdkavTO^ 'Ein;aXia) dvSpeC^ovry* 
roMTt 8* d/x* 6y8oiKOi/Ta fidXacvai i^€9 hrovro, 

TXifirdX€|iOS 8' 'HpaKXct8T;9, i)v9 T€. fieya^ T€y 
c#c 'PdSov ivvda vrja^ dyev *Po8uuj' dycpco^cDi/, 

666 ot *Pd8oi/ dii^evifiovro 8td Tpi)(a KOCfiriOarre^y 
AlvSov *l7)\v(r6v T€ KoX dpyLp6€PTa Kdfieipov. 
T&v fiev T\7)7r6\€fio^ 8ovpt*cXvro9 riy€fi6v€V€Vy 
ov T€K€v 'Aorvd^cta fivg 'HpaKXrjctjy, 



46 OMHPOY IAIAA02 B 

Trjv ayeT i^ 'Ec^vpi;?, irorafiov ano XeWrjevro^y 

660 rrc/xra? aorca TroXXa hiorpe^iinv ai^r)S)p. 

TXtjttoXc/xo? 8* inel oSp Tpd<fj>* iul fieydp^ cvth^/cto), 

avTLKa warpo^ iolo ^iXov iirjrpfoa /careVra, 

rfhyf yyipdcKovTOj AtKVfiuLOu, o^ou "Aprjo^. 

au/ra Se vrja^ ^htj^c, ttoXvv S* o ye \aop ayeipa^ 

666 fiyj if^evycjv iwl irovrov aTTei\i)<Tav yap ol aXXot 
t;t€€9 vuavoi re fiii)^ 'HpaKXiyciTj?. 
airrap o y C9 *Po8oj' l^ev aXdfievo^ dXyca Trda\o}V' 
TpL)(da Se <aicf)d€v icara^vXaSdi/, lySe ^tkijOev 
iK Aid?, 05 T€ 6eoi(Ti koX avOpumoKTiv ai/accct, 

670 Kat (Tc^ti/ deanea-LOv ttXovtov KaT€)(€v€ KpopCcjv, 
Nipcis aS 2!v|ii)0€V dye r/[>€r9 v^a? €ura9, 
Ntpcv9, 'AyXati79 vt69 XapoTTOtd t* dvaKTo^^ 
Ntp€i;9, 09 icdXXtoTo? ai/i^p viro *IXtoi/ -^X^ci/ 
rail/ aXXcoi/ ^apacip fi€T afivfiova UriXetwva- 

676 dXX* dXa7raSi/09 ctjj', 7raSpo9 8c' oi elnero Xad9. 

ot 8' dpa ^Uropov t el^ov KpdiraOdv re Kda-ov T€ 
Kol Kftii/, EvpvTTvXoio TToXti'; K>;crov9 re KaXi;8i/a9, 
T(op av 4>€t8t7r7rd9 re /cat *Ai/ri<^o9 '}iy7)<Tdadi)v^ 
©ccrcraXoi) vie 8va> 'HpaKXeiSao di/a/cT09. 

680 7019 Se rpnJKOPTa y\a(l>vpal vee^ ia'TLx6<oPTO. 

Northern Greece. Forces of Achilles and Protesilaus. 

vvv av rov9 ocrcrot to HekaayiKov "Apyo^ ei/aiov 
OL r A\op 61 T *AXdi77ji^ ot re Tp7])(li/a vifiovrOy 
ol T ^ypv ♦OiT^v -^8* *EXXa8a icaXXtyt^i^at/ca, 
Mvp|iiS6v€S Se KaXevi/ro /cat "EXXtfvcs icat 'AxaioC, 
685 TcSi/ aS iT^vrriKovra peiop rjv apyp^ 'AxiXXcvs- 
dXX' ot y ov TToXe/ioLo Svoiri)(€o^ ifivdoPTo- 
ov yap eqp 09 rt9 cr<f>iv inl ariya^ rfyrjcatTo. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 47 

K€iTo yap iv mjeaai 7ro8ap*CTj9 Sto? 'A;(tXXci;9, 

KOVpH^ )(a)6fl€POS B/3iCnjt8o5 TJVKOflOLO, 

690 rriv iK AvpvTjO'a'ov i^eCXero TroXXd /xoyi^cra?, 
Avpin)(T(Tov hiavopOrjaas koX T€L)(ea 81^/8179, 
Kah Bk Mvpr/T ifiaXev Koi *ETrC(rTpo<f>ov iyxea-ifidpov^^ 
vt€a9 EuYji^oto X€kr)7n(i8ao ai/aitro9* 
T^9 o y€ kcIt dx€(oPy Ta)(a 8' avanjo'eadcu e/xeXXei/. 

605 ot 8' cl^^oi/ #vX&KT)v /cal Hvpacov avdefioepra, 

/^TJllTjTpO^ T€ll€PO^j "iTiOpd T€, flTfTepa /XTjXoJI/, 

dyj^taXdi/ r* *ApTpct)va t8c IlrcXcoi/ Xc^cttoitji/, 

roil/ aS npttTcoiXaos dpTjLo^ jfyefiovevev 

^0)09 €c5i/- rare 8* 1781^ c^ci/ Kara yaia /xeXoti/a. 

700 Tou 86 Kol d/ji<^t8pv<^i79 dXo;(09 ^Xdicjy iXeXeLTTTO 
Koi 8d/Jio9 i7/xtrcXi79' rw 8* €KTav€ AdpBavo^ din)p 
vi)0^ dTroOpoKTKovra ircikv Trparnarov *A)(aL(ov. 
ov8€ fi€v ov8' ol avapxoL caav, wodeov ye fiev dpxov* 
dWd cr<^€a9 KoafiTjo-e UoSdpto)^, 0^09 "Apyjo^Sy 

705 *l<f>ucXov vto9 TToXv/xi/Xov ^XaKi8ao, 

avTOKoaiyvrfros lieyadvfiov UporrecLkdov, 
6TrXarcpo9 yci^cp- o 8* d/xa nporepo^ koI dpeUoPy 
rjpo}^ llporrea'CXao^ dprjio^- ovSe n Xaol 
Sevovd* riyefiovo^y nodcop ye fiev iaOkov iovra, 

710 TO) 8* d/xa Tco'a'apdKOPTa fiekaxvac 1/17C9 inovro. 
OL 8e #€pds ivcfiovTO napal BoifiyjiSa \ip,vqvy 
BoCfiyfv Kal TXa(f>vpa^ kol ivKTLfievrjP ^laoiXicdi^, 
Tcjv ^PX *A8/nJTOLO <^iXo9 7rdt9, ei/heKa vqSiVy 
EvfJLTfXoS, TOI^ VTt' ^ABflTJTO) T€K€ 8ta yui/atfco)!/, 

715 *AXiojOTt9, IlcXtao dvyarpcov €1809 dpCarrf. 

ot 8' dpa Mi)O(0Vi]V fcat ^avfiaKvqv ivifiovro 
KoX MeXifioiau e^ov koX *OXt^ftii/a Tpr)x^OLVy 
Tiov 8c ♦iXoKTiiTus >/p;(€r, To^cjv iv ct8ct>9, 



48 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

cirra peS}V' ipercu 8* iv cicctoTjy warnJKovra 

720 iiifid/Saa-aVy t6^(ov iv €t8or€9 Vf>c /idxea-doLL. 

dXX* 6 ficv iv vijam k€lto Kparcp" aXyca ira(T\(aVy 
KrifLvfo iv 7JyaL0€j[ij oOi fiLv XCnov vie? ^Aj^cuHv 
cXkci fio^OLl^ovTa KaKOi okoo^povo^ v8pov, 
€vd* o y€ Kelr a)(€(ov' Ta)(a 8c fivrjaeo'dcu i/ieKkov 

726 *Apyctot irapa njvcrt <I>tXo#cn7rao avoKTos^ 

ovSi pjiv ov8' ot avapxoL caavj wodeov ye fikv ap^ov 
dXXa MeScui^ Koo-fJiTja-eVy *OtX^o9 1/0^09 vtd?, 
Toi' /5' ereK^p 'Ttjpj) vn "OtXi^t irroXiTropdtp. 

ot 8' elxov Tp(KKT)v #cat ^idtofirjv KXajfiaKoea-a-av. 

780 ot r' c^oi/ Ot;(aXn7i', ttoXlv 'Evpvrov Ot^faXt-^o?, 
rcSi' av^ riyeiadrip 'Acr/cXTjirtoO 8t;o 7rar8€, 
ir)T7Jp* dyaOdy IloSaXcCpios yjSe Max^v. 
Tot9 8c TpnJKovra y\a(l>vpal vie^ iarixooivro. 
ot 8' ^oi' 'Op|Uviov, ot re Kprjvr)v 'TiripeLaVj 

736 ot T €xpv *AaT€piop TirdpoLO tc Xcvko, Kdpjjpay 
T(op 'Jjpx E-OpiiirwXos, *Evat/ioi/09 dyXao9 vtd?, 
T^ 8' dfia TtaaapdKovra p,4\axpaL i/^C9 erroirro. 
ot 8* "ApYurcav c^oi^ Kat VvpT(!nn)p ipifioproy 
"Opdyjp ^HkdpTjp T€ noXip r 'OXooaaopa XevKrjpy 

740 T(op add* Tfyeiiopeve iiepevroXeiio^ noXvirotTifS, 
vio^ Ilctpt^doto, TOP dOdparo^ t€K€To Z€i;9i 
TOP p VTTO Ilctptdda) TCKero icXvro9 *l7r7ro8d/jicta 
rjiiaTL T^ oT€ if^rjpa^ iTvcraTo \a\prjepTa^y 
rov9 8* iK niyXtov (io'e koX AldiKea'aL TreXao'a'ep ' 

745 ovK oto9, dfia t£ ye AeopTev^, 0^09 '^Aptfo^y 
i;to9 vtrepdviLOio Kopdpov KaipetSao, 
rot9 8' dfia TeaaapdKOPTa /xeXati/at prje^ erropTo, 

Fovvcvs 8* iK Kv(l>ov '^ye 8va) icat ctKoo-t trrja^' 
TO) 8* 'Evi<iv€S enopTo fieveTnokefioi re TlepacfioCy 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 49 

750 ot irepl AcoScorv}!^ Sva^eCfiepop oIkC €0€ptOj 
ot T afi^* lfi€f}TOv TiTapTJatov ipya vifLOVTO^ 
09 p is Ur/peiop trpoUl KaWippoov vScup- 
ouS' o ye Hr/pei^ avfifiuryercu dpyvpo&urgy 
dXXd TC fiLv KaOvnepdev hnppiei rfur eXouoi/* 

766 opKov yap Scti/ov Xiuyos vharos iariv aTToppto^. 
MayvifnAV 8' ^px^ IlpiOoos, TevOprfSovos viosy 
ot TTcpl UTjpeLOP Kal UtJXlop eipoai^vWop 
paUcKop' tS^p fi€P UpoOoos 600s y]jyep.6p€U€Py 
T^ 8' d/xa rea-a-apaKOPTa iicXcupcu t^es eiroPTo. 

Spilogue to the Catalogue of Achaoan Forces. 

700 ovTot ap* T/yefiopes Aapa&p Kal KoCpapoi ^aap. 
rCs T dp Tojp 6)(^ apiaros erfPy av fioi eppeire, iiowra^ 
avT(op 7fS* ImroDP^ ot afi ^Arpeth-jjaip cttopto. 
Zimot pJkp fiey dpLoraL ccrai/ ^7)p7]TidZaOy 
rd9 'EV/X17X09 tkawe TToSciicca? oppiOas ol^, 

766 orpixas oterca?, oTac^vXjy iTTi pwtop iCcras' 
rds ip HifpeCji Opojt* dpyvporo^os 'AttoXXcoi/, 
diiffna OTjXeCaSy <f>6fiop ^Aprjos ^opeovaas* 
dpSp&p a5 fiey dpiaros erjp TeXafidpios Ami9, 
CK^p' 'A^tXcvs iirjpiep' 6 ydp ttoXu <f>€pTaTos ^€Py 

770 hnroL d\ ot if^opeeaKOP dfiv/iopa IlijXcuoi'a. 
dXX' 6 fi€p ip pTJeacL Kopwpiai iropTonopoicrLP 
KeiT dirofirjpiaas ^ Ayafiifipopiy iroifiivi Xaa>i/, 
'ArpciSjy* Xaot 8c Trapd prjyiiLPL doKdaarfs 
SiaKourip rcpiroPTO Kal alyapego'ip lepres 

TIB to^olcCp 0*' finrot 8c Trap' dpfiaxTip oXaip cicaoTo?, 
Xcoroi^ ipeTrrofiepoL iXeodpeirrop t€ a-iXiPOP^ 
earaa'ap' dpfiara 8' cv rrcTru/cao'/iCi/a Keiro dpaKrcjp 
ip KXtcriys* ot 8* dp^op dprqv^ikop iro0€OPT€s 



60 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

<^oira)i/ ^vda kcu €V0a Kara arparovy ov8* ifid)(ovTo. 

780 ot 8* ap* Icravy o>9 ct re irvpt \d(iiv iraaa viiioLTo- 
yaia 8' VTr^aT^va)(il^€ Atl o>9 T€pmK^pavv(fi 
^a>o/xei/a>, ore t* a/x<^t Twjxaei yalav Ifidaay) 
elv 'Apt/xot9, odt (^ocrl Twfxocos iiifievaL €wd^. 
(S^ apa rS}v viro ttocto'I /leya orci/a^^tjcro yata 

785 ip\oyL€i/iav' fidka 8' cuica SUnp7)aaov neSioio. 

Forces of the Trojans (786-877). Introduction. 

TpoHrti/ 8* ayycXo9 -^X^c TroSifjvefios (0K€a *Ipi9 
irap At09 aiytd;(oto crvi/ dyyekCy dXcycti/^* 
ot 8* dyopa9 dyopevov inl Ilptd/jioto dvpyatv 
vdpTt^ oiiTjyepee^j rHikv v4oi 178c yepovre^. 

790 dy^ov 8* loTafiei/Tf npoaeifni 7ro8a9 <w#C€a *Ipt9' 
€uraTO 8c <f>doyyriv vli npid/xoio IloXtriy, 
09 TpoKov a-KOTTO^ r^c, 7ro8a>ic€i]}(n irenoLdck^ 
Tvyifi(f iir aKpordrio AlainJTao yipovro^^ 
heyfievos oTnrore vav<l>Lv d^oppL-qd^iev ^A\aLoL 

705 T^ /xti/ icLaafiei/yj TrpoaeKJ}!) 7rd8a9 (OKea 'lpt9' 
" ^ yipovy atct rot pJvOoi <^tXot aKptrot ctcrti/, 
0)9 TTOT* cV* eipqvTj^' 7rdXe/xo9 8' dXiaoT09 opcopei/. 
^ pJkv 8-^ /idXa TToXXd /xd^a9 cZot^Xv^oi^ dvBpioVy 
dXX' ov TTO) Totdi'8c TO(rdi'8c re Xaoi/ OTrcuTra- 

800 Xayi/ ydp (^uXXotcrii^ ioiKore^ rj ^Ifafiddoiacp 
€p\ovrai Tr€8ioio fiax'^o'OfiepoL vporl darv, 
^^iKTOpy col 8c fidkiar CTrtrcXXo/iot c58€ yc pi^am, 
TToXXot ydp Kara dcrrv /xe^a Hpidfiov iirCKOvpoL^ 
dXkrj 8* dXXoji/ yXcScra'a irokvaTT^pdcjv dvdpum(av' 

805 Tolaiv cKa<rro9 din7p cnj/xaii/crco, owrt trcp dpx^iy 
Tcjv 8' i^yeiaOcjy KocfiTjO'dfievo^ iroXnjTa^.^^ 
ws €^ad*f ^EiKrojp 8* ov rt ^eSs ciro9 yjyvoCrfacv^ 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 61 

au/ra o cA.v<r ayoprfv cirt Tcv;(ca eaaevovro, 
Traacu 8* dCyinjvro irvXat, c/c 8' iaa^JTo Xao9, 

810 TTC^oi ^' iTTTT^ej Tc * woXv9 8* opvfiayBo^ optapeiv^ 
coTi 8c Tt9 TrpoTrdpotde 7rdXto9 airrcta KoXciin7, 
€1/ Tr€8ta> oLTrdvevde, irepCBpofio^ h/da koX a/Ooy 
rfjp ^ TOL avBpe^ BaTieiav KiKkyjaKovaiVy 
addvaroi 8c T€ arjfia irokvaKapOfioio MvpCirq^' 

815 €uda Tore Tpo>€9 re hieKpiOtv ^8' iirucovpoc. 

The Trojana and their Allies (816-877). 

TpcMil /mil/ ijycftwcvc /leya^ KopvOaioXo^ 'EiCTo>p, 
UpLafiCSri^' aifia ro) ye rroXv TrXeiorot ical apiaroL 
Xaol OtopTJaaovTOj fieiiaore^ iyxeiga'Lv. 

AapSavicov aSr' ^px^^ ^^^ rrat? 'Ay^urao, 

820 AlvcCas, Toj/ vrr* *Ay\Urrf t€K€ 8V *A<^po8tTT7, 
*I8t;9 iv Kvrjiioi<n d€a fiporw evnj^eto-a, 
ovK dto^y aifia r^ ye 8vfti ^Avnjvopo^ vie, 
*Ap;(€Xoxo9 t' 'A#ca/jia9 re, fidxr)^ eu ct8(>rc ndjcrq^. 
oX 8e Z^ciav euaiov viraX iroha v^iarov *l8y}9, 

825 d^veioiy wCpovt€^ vh(op [lekap AiaijiroLOy 

TpcSe^, TcSi/ aSr* "^px^ Avfcaoi/09 dyXoo? vio^i 
ndvSapos, ^ #cal to^ov 'AttoXXo)!/ auro9 e8ct>icei/. 

ot 8* * ASptioTCiav r' clxoi/ Kat Srjfiov 'ArrcucroO, 
#cat Iltrvctai/ ej(oi/ Kal TrfpeCrj^ opo^ aiirvy 

830 tSi/ ^Px' "ASpTicTis re ical *A|i^ios kLvoOdpri^y 
vU SvQ) MipoTTO^ HepKoxrioVy 05 nepl iravnav 
^8e€ fLavroavva^y ov8e ou9 7rar8a9 eaxTKev 
areCxew e9 TrdXe/jiov <f>dLoijvopa. Tci 8€' oi ov rt 
irti64a'6riv • Krjpe^ yap aiyov fiikapo^ davdroio. 

835 ot 8' apa IlepKflbTTiv Kal UpaKTiov anLi^€v4fiovro 
KoX Znordv Kat "ApvSov €\ov koX hlav 'ApUrfirfv^ 



52 OMHPOY lAIAAOS B 

rS)v aW* *T/>Taict8Tj9 ^px "Actios, 6p\ayLO^ avhptovy 
* Actios 'TprafctSijs, 6v ^ApUrfirfdev <f>€pop imrot, 
aW(ov€^ /x€yc£Xot, worafiov airo ScXXi^cktos. 

840 *Iinr60oos 8* ciye c^SXa IIcXacr'Y&v ey^ecri/xco/oooi^, 
TO)i^ ot Adpixrap ipifidkaKa vaxerdao'KOV' 
rwp ^px ^I'nirodoo^ re HvKollos t o^o^ ^A/yqos, 
vU Svcu A'qdoio IlcXacryoS Tcvra/xtSao. 

avrap dp'^iKas ^y* *AK&|ias kol IleCpoo^ i^pcus, 

846 ocrcrovs 'EXXiycTTroKTos aydppoo^ ivros iepyei. 
E{)^t)|iOS 8* ctp;^os KiKdvttV -i^i/ alxfirjTaxov, 

VIOS TpOlCljPOLO 8lOTp€<^60S KccSoO. 

avrdp nupdCxiitis aye Ilaiovas clyfcvXoTC>^oi;s 
TTjXd^cr ef *A/xv8oli/os, ciir* *A^toC evpu peoKros, 
860 'A^toS, ou fcciXXtcrror v8co/!> iniKihvaraA oIolv. 

na^Xa^ydvttv 8* iTyctro nvXai|Uvcos Xourtoi/ ir7p 
cf 'Ei^cTwi^, o^cr Tjfiiovwv ya/os ayporepatov^ 
ol pa KvT<opov €xpv Koi XTjaafiov dfi<f>€P€fiopTo 
dfi<f>C T€ HapOiviov norafiov Kkvrd hdfiar epaiovy 
866 Kp&fii/dv T AtytaXc)!' re ical vi/njXous 'EpvdCvov^. 

avrdp *AXi]^ttVttV *06(os ical * EirioTpo^os ^PX^^ 
rq\60€v i^ 'AXv^Stjs, o^cr dpyvpov iarl yevdOXri. 

Mw&v 86 Xp6|iis '^PX^ ^^^ ^Ei/i/o/xos otcoi/tcm/s- 
dXX' ovfc QLCDVOuriv ipvaaaro tcrjpa fiekavvav, 
800 diXX* i^dfiTj vvo X^P^^ 7ro8ci()fC6os AtafCt8ao 

61/ TTora/xo), o^t ire/o T/ooias Kepdc^e Kal aXXoi;s- 

^6pKvs ai ^pi^as ^ye ical 'Actk&vios d606t8i7S 
T17X' 6^ 'AcTfcai/Mjs • fi€fiacrav 8* vcfiivL fidx^cdaL. 

M'Qocriv aS M<crOXt)s re fcal "Avric^os ijyijcracrftji/, 
866 vie TaXai/xo^eos, rco Fvyafi} reice Xi/xi/i}, 

ot Kal M27oras ^yov vno T/xcoX^ ycyaaJras* 

N&o-Tt)s av KapAv '^yTja-aro /3ap/3apo<f>civ(ov^ 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 58 

ot MCkrjTOv €XOP ^OipSiv T opos OLKpiTO^vWoV 
MatdvSpov T€ poa^ MvfcaXi}9 r aineiva Kapr/va, 

870 rail/ fi€v ap* *Afi<f>Lfiaxos Koi Ncumjs Tfyria-atJcrdyjVy 
tidcmis 'A/x<^t/xaxos re, Ho/iiopo^ dyXaa rcici/a, 
OS KoX ^vaov ^ct>v TroXe/xoi/8' Zci^ tjvt^ Kovprj^ 
vrjmo^y ovSc rt ol to y iinjpK€a-€ \vypov okcOpov^ 
aAA €Oafirj xmo X^P^^ woO(uk€OS AiaKLOao 

876 er TTOTa/xal, xpvaov 8' 'A^tXcvs cico/xtcr<r€ hat^p<ov, 
I!apiri)8o>v 8' ^px^^ AvicCttV fcal FXaflKos ayLvpxov 
Tq\60€v iK Avicn}9» BwOov ano hivjjevro^. 






OMHPOT lAIAAOX V 

Tdfi/UL 9' ip dfjL4> 'EX^n^f otoip fjuMot icrlv dxolraip, 

Oamma — sua pugruU pro coniuge uterque maritus. 

* Gramma the single fight doth sing 
'Twixt Paris and the Spartan king.* 

opKov. T€L\o(rK07rCa. ndpiSos Kal Mei^eXaov 
fioi/o/iax^oL. 

Both Armies adyance. 

avraoejr^l Koa-firjOev a/i Tjyc/xdi/eo-crti/ cfcaorot, 
Tpft>€9 /xc> Kkayyy r ivoiry r urav oppide^ d)9, 
^vre ir€p Kkayyfi ycpcti/coi/vircXct ovpavodi npOy 
at T CTTcl oZv ^(eifiiova <f>vyoi/ Kal adia^arov ofifipov^ 
6 KXayyg rat yc^^erovrat in *SlK€avolo poaucavy 
avSpdcL UvyfiaLOLCL <f>6vop Kal Ktjpa ^ipovaai' 
i^eptoL 8' apa rat ye KaKTjv ipiBa npo<f>€povraL' 
oi 8' ap* leap CLyy fi€P€a irv^Lovr^s ^A^olol, 
iv ^vu^ fi€fiawT€^ dke^€fi€v akkijkoKrLv. 
10 ^* 6p€o^ Kopinfiya-L Naro9 KaT€)(€V€v ofiixkrjVy 
TTOifiea-Lv ov n <f>Lkrjv, KXcTrrg Se re vukto^ d/xeii/a>- 
Toaaov Ti9 T iirl Xcvcrcrct, oaov r iinSkaap vqaLV' 
cSs apa T<ov V7TO 7rocr<rl KOPuraXo^ (opwr dcXX'^9 
ip)(oiJL€PO)v ' fiaXa 8* cSfca hieirpqo'a'ov Tr€8u>to. 

Paris stands forth as Champion for the Trojans, but withdraws 
at Sight of Henelaus. 

16 01 8* ore 817 crxcSoi/ ^aav in aXXiyXotcrti/ to^res, 
TpcDclv fikv npofid)(il^€v 'AXcfai/Spos ^cociStj?, 

54 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 56 

irap&ahhfv ci/iOKrip e)(ct>v koL Kafiirvka ro^a 
Kol ^uf}OSi airrap Sovpc Svco KeKOfiv^^Ui^a ^oXk^ 
TraXXcDi^ *Apyeui}v npoKaXil^ero Trc&fa? apurrovs 

20 avrifiiov iia^iaaadax Iv aivy Stjiot^ti. 
TOP 8* 0)9 oZp ivoriaev ap7iuf}iXo^ Mei^eXaos 
ipx6fi€pov trpoTrdpoL0€p ofiCXov fiaKpa fiifidvrai^ 
ct>9 re \4(av ix^PV /^cyaXo) inl adfiaTi Kvpaa^y 
€vpwv tJ €\a<f>ov K€paop 17 aypiov alya, 

26 ireivaucov fioKa yap re KareaOUvj ei wep av avrov 
(revojvTai toxics t€ kvp€s dak^poi r ai^rjoC- 
0)9 ^xoipj) MevdXaos *A\€^apSpov deoeiSea 
6<f>dakiioLa'i,v ih<ov <f>dTo yap rCarao'daL ctXctTTji^. 
avTuca 8' cf 6)(€wv aifv T€v-)(€a'Lv aXro ;(a/xa^6. 

30 Tor 8' (09 oui^ ivoritrev 'AXefai/8/)09 5coct8i79 
ci^ trpoiJLd)(OLa-L ^avivra^ KaT€Tr\rjyy) <f>i\ov ^Top^ 
a\p o erapoiv ei9 eC/i/09 e^^a^ero /a;p aKeewcDv. 
619 8* ore Tt9 re hpaKovra 18011/ 7raXti/opa'09 ancarq 
ovpco^ iv fiyjaaiQ^y imo t€ rpo/ios eXXa^Se yuta, 

36 ai/f 8' av€X^copria'€v, c5xpo9 re /xti/ clXc napetd^^ 
0)9 avTt9 fca^' o/xiXoi/ €8u Tpdxav ayep(o)((ov 
8€ura9 'ATp€09 utoi/ 'AXc^ai'8po9 5coct8i79. 

Hector rebukes Paris for Cowardice. 

Tov 8' ''EfCTa)p veiKeaaev i8<ov ala^pol^ ineeaaiv 

"Avcrtrapt, €1809 dpLore^ yvvaifiavi^y 'qweponevrdy 

40 a29* o<^€Xe9 ayoi/ds^* e/xci^at ayafios r anoXea-dai' 

fCCuScC TO fiovkoLfllfVy Kai K€V TToXif K^phiov ^€1/, 

-^ ovro) kdjSriv t e/xci^at ical viro^^iov dWoiv. 
^ irov fcay;(aXoa)0't fcapT} KOfi6<ovr€s 'A^fcuot, 
<f>dvT€^ dpiaTf)a wpofiov e/x/xei^at, ovv€Ka Ka\ov 
45 €1809 €7r', dXX' ovfc ccrrt )8nj <f>pe(rlv ov8c Tt9 dXfciy. 



! 1 



56 OMHPOY lAIAAOS T 

Tj TotocrSc iwv iv novrovopoKTi vieaaiv 
novTov €7rtirXci5<ras, irapov^ ipCrjpa^ ayeCpa^^ 
fiL^Oels aXXoSairotcrt yvvtuK cuctSc* avrjy^^ 
ii dirvTjs yaiTj?, vx/ov avbpiav alxfiTyrdoiVy 

50 warpC re crol /xeya mjfia TroXrji re iravri T€ Sijfi<ay 
^va-fievea-Lv fiep xdpfia, KaTri<f>€Lriv 8c crol avr^; 
ovK av hrj /JLeCpeia^ apr]uf}iXov Mepekaov; 
yvoLTjs x'» ^^^^ <f>aiTO^ ^'^^^ dakepy]v wapoKOLTiv. 
OVK av roi xpaUrfi-g KiBapi^ rd re S&p* 'A<^po8tT7;9, 

66 rj re KOfirj to re etZoSy or ev Kopvgo-L fiiyeCrj^. 
akkd fidka Tpoies SciStj/xoi/c? • ^ re Kev rfirq 
\djLvov etrao x^'^^^°' KaKwv €i/e\y ocrcra copyas." 

Paris offers to meet MeneUns in Single Combat, to decide the Issue 

of the War. 

TOP 8* axrre npoceenrev 'AXefai/Spo^ deoeihri^' 
^^^EKTop, eireC fie Kar aurav iveCKeaa^ ov8' vnep alcrai/, 

60 aleC roL KpaBirj veXeKv^ d)9 eanv drctpij?, 

OS T elcTLv 8ia hovpos in dvepo^y os pd re rexyy 
vrjiov eKrdyLvrfO'iVy 6<f>eWei 8' dpSpo^ epojrjv 
. (09 crol evl anjdea'a-Lv drdpfiriTo^ i^dos eariv 
fiij fioL Stop" epard irp6(f>epe ^vaei)^ ^Xi^pohirq^* 

65 ov TOi diToPkifr^ earl deS>p epLKvBea ^(opoLy 

ocaa Kev avrol hioa'iVy eK(ov 8* ovk dv rts cXoiro. 
vvv avTy el /i edeXei^ TroXc/xt^cti/ -qhe fid^eadaiy 
aXXovs ftii' Kddiaov Tpoias Koi irdvra^ 'A^^atovs, 
avrdp i/i ev fieacio koI dpr]uf>i,kov MeveXaov 

70 (rv/jifidker* d/KJ}* ^Ekevr) koL Kn]fia(ri Tracrt pid^ecrdax, 
omrorepo^ he Ke viKyjarj KpetaaoDv re yevyfrat, 
KTrJiiaff eKfixv eif ndvra yvvaiKd re oucaS' dyetrdto' 
oi 8' aXXot <^iXonjTa kol opKia Tnard ra/iovre^ 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 57 

vaioLTe TpoCrfv ipifidkaKaj rot Se veecOwv 
76 *Apyo9 €9 imrofioTOv koI 'AxottSa ^aXXtyurcuica." 

Hector makes known the Proposition of Paris. 

0)9 €<pau, EKT<op o OUT ^X^PV /xeya fivuov aKOvaa^y 
KaC p €9 iiicaov iw TptocDV aveepye <^aXayya9, 
fieaa-ov Sovpo^ iXdv rol 8* Ihpvvdyfo-av airavres- 
ra 8' inero^d^ovTo Kapnr) KOfiocjvr^^ 'A^fcuoi^ 

80 ioiciv T€ Tvruo'KOfiepoi, Xdea-trC t ifiaWov. 

avrap 6 fiaKpov avcrci/ ai/a^ avSpwv ^AyaixefiPfov 
" urx^ad*^ *Apy€ioLi fir) ^SaXXcrc, Kovpoi *Ax(u&v • 
OT€vrcu yap rt e7ro9 ipceiv Kopvdaioko^ "Eicroip." 
a>9 €<f>aff'y oi 8' €(r)(ovro fioixyi^ av€<i re ya/ovro 

86 iaavfieuio^. *Eicra>/) 8c /xcr* afufxyrepoiavv eemev 
" k€kXvt€ /xcv, TpcS€9 fCttl evKinjfiihe^ 'A^atot, 
fivdov *A\€^dv8povOy Tov €lp€Ka mfC09 optopev. 
aXXou9 /xci' KcXerai TpcSa9 fcal 7rai^a9 'A;(cuou9 
Tcv^ca KoX* dvodeo'dax inl \dovX novkvfioTeipn, 
. 90 avroi/ 8* 61/ fiea-ata kol dp7fi(f>iKov Mei/eXaoi/ 
ou>v9 d/x<^' *EXao7 fcat Krrjfiao'L irda fidx^aOai. 
owrroTcpo^ 8c fcc 1/1/07077 icpcur<ra>i/ t€ yanfrau^ 
icnfp.au €\o}v cu iraKra yvvaiKa t€ olkoo ayccr^oi. 
ol 8' dXXot <f>L\6T7iTa Koi opKia mard rd/jLtop^ev.^^ 

Menelans accepts the Challenge. 

96 ct)9 €<f>ad*y oi 8' dpa 7rdKrc9 dic^i/ iyevovro CLayirfj. 
TouTL 8c fcal per€€LW€ fioifv dyados Mci/€Xao9* 
" KCicXvrc ia)i/ ical e/xeio • /xdXiora yap dXyo9 Udi/ct 
0vpx>v Ipov* <f>pop€a} 8c hiaKpivdrjp€.vaL 1781} 
*A/>ycu)U9 Kal T/)ala9, crrct fcafcd TroXXa ireiroa'6^ 
100 cii/cfc' C/X179 €jpi8o9 KoX *AXc^ai/8pov G/£fc* dp;(i79. 



68 OMHPOY lAIAAOS V 

7ifi€(ov 8' oinrorcp^ ddvaros koL fioZpa rervicraL, 

ourerc 8' apvy erepov \evKOP eripnv hk p^ekaxpap^ 
yy T€ fcat ijeXto)* Atl 8' i7/x€t9 olaopeu aWov. 

106 d^ere 8€ Hpidpoio /SCrjp^ o<f>p* opKia rdpjrg 
avrdsi crret ot 7rar8c9 vTrc/x^iaXot fcal airtaTot, 
/xTj Tt9 vnepfiaa-LT] Atos o/)fcta 87^X17017x01. 
atcl 8' OTrXorepaiv avSpwp <f>p€P€^ jfepeOopTOLL - 
oh 8' 6 yiptav perega-iv, apa trp6(T(T<a koX owiaa-o) 

110 Xcvcrcrct, 07ro)9 o^' apiara per* dpif^oTepovai yonjrcu." 
(09 €<f>a^, oi 8' i^dpyia-av ^AxaxoC t€ Tp&e^ t€, 
ekiTopevoi TravaaaOai 6it,vpov voXepoio. 
Kai p t7r7rou9 /xci^ ipv^av iirl arC^a^, iK 8* €^ai^ avrol 
T€if\€d T i^€8vopTo. TOL pkv Kojidein iirl yairj 

115 ttXtjctu)!/ d\hj\(aPy okiyif 8' 1J1/ dp<f>l^ apovpa- 
^EicTwp 8€ Trporl aoru 8va> mjpvKas iwepircPj 
KapnaXCpo)^ apva^ re <f>€p€iv nptapov re icaX6(r(rcu. 
avrdp 6 Takdvfiiov wpotei Kp^Unp * Ayapdpvoiv 
1/1709 errt y\a(f>vpa^ ievaiy rfi* dpva xiXevcv 

120 oiaip^voL' b h* dp ovk diridyftT *Ayap4pvovi 8toi. 

The View from the Walls. Helen names to Priam the Achaean 
^ ^^ Leaders (121-244). Helen goes to the Tower by the 
i » ^ Scaean Gate. 

*. j\r lpt9 8' aZd* 'EXo^t; XevfccuXeVa) ayyeXo9 ^X^ei/, 
I elSopevT] yaXdai, * KvrtfvopLhao hdpapriy 
rriv * A.vrqvopih-q^ el^c Kpeuov 'EXifC€Ucii/, 
AaoSucriv, Upidpoio OvyarpHv €l8o9 dpiarrfp. 
126 n^i/ 8' evp' er peydpw- r/ 8c peyav lotop v<f>aLLP€Py 
SCirXaKa vopif^vperiPy 7roXea9 8' ipeiraao'ep deOXov^ 
Tpdmp 6^ IvTTohdpcjp kol 'Anatoli' ^aXfco^iroii/aii/, 



3 

3 

I 

U 

-, m 

1 c 



i 



3* - 
a o 
3 z 




THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 59 

ovs ^dev €LV€K liraaxov in ^A/yiyos waka/Jidtov. 
ay\ov S* iarafiani npoaeifyq irdSa? c5fcca '^Ipt?* 

130 " Bevp* ri9i, vvfi<f>a <^iXi}, ti^a .deVfceXa epya tSijou 
Tpdxap 0* tmroSa/xcDi/ icat 'A^atalr ;(aXfco;(tra)i^6ii/. 
ot nplv in aXXiyXotcri <f>€pov wokvBaKpvv ^Aprja 
iv TTcStoi, oXooto XiXatd/xei^ot ttoXc/xoio, 
ot 8t) wi^ exrat crtyp, TrdXe/xo9 Se Tren-avrcu, 

135 acwCcL k€k\lii€vol, wapa 8* cyx^^ iiaKpa neirriyev. 
avrap 'AXefai^Spo? fcal dprji^iXo^ Mevekaos 
P'dKp-g^ ^^ei-gcL fiaxTJaovTai ircpl crcto* 
To> Sc Kc viKrj(TavTi <f>i\ri KeKhjtry ctfcotris." 
0)9 €iTrov(ra dcd ykvKifv l/jiepov c/x^SaXe dv/xoi 

140 ap8p6^ T€ vpoTepoLO Kal aareos ^Sc roicrjiav. 
avTuca 8' dpyevvycL Kokv^afJievri oOovjiO'iv 
dpiMT iK doKdfioLO T€p€v KaTOL haKpv x^^^^^i 
oifK OLTjy a/xa rg yc Kal dfi<f>Ciro\oL 8u' firojjjo, 
AWprjj nirdrjo^ dvydrqp^ KXu/xonj t€ /3o<om^. 

146 au/ra 8' eneiO* iKavov odi Xiccuai ttvXcu ^(rdi/. 

The Old Trojan Senators on the Tower. 

oi B* d/Jiifn npta/jLOV Kal Ildvdoop 'qSe ^/jLoCrifv 
Adfinov T€ KkvrCov 0* 'iKerdovd t\ o^oi/ ^Apijos, 
OvicaXeycor re ^ai *Avr7Jv(op^ ircTTi/u/xeW a/x<^a>, 
eiaro Brj/jLoyepovre^ inl XKoxya irvkjfO'LP, 

160 yrjpa'C Brj TroXcfioto Trctrav/xo/ot, dXX' dyopyfrai 
€0-0X01, T€TTLy€a-a-iv ioLKOTeSy ol T€ Ka^' uXtji' 
8€v8/!>6a> i<f>€l^6fievov OTta X^ipio^aaav leiiTiv * 
rotoi apa Tpmjv rjyiJTopes rjvr inl nvpytp. 
ot 8* 019 oZv €Lhop0* 'EkevTjv inl nvpyov iowavy 

165 ^Ka npos dXXT7Xov9 errca nrepoevr dy6p€vop' 
"ov vc/xccrt9 Tpc!ia9 ^at ivKVijfii^a^ 'A;(cuou9 



60 OMHPOY lAIAAOS V 

Toi^S* afi<f)l ywoLLKL nokw xpovov dXyea nda\eLV' 

dXXa Kal cS9, roCrf nep iova, iv vrfvaX veeadio^ 
leo /xTjS* Tjfuv r€K^€&(rC r OTrura-o^ mjfia Xwrotro." 

Priam calls Helen, who names Agamemnon. 

cSs dp* i<f>av^ Upiaiio^ 8* 'EXci/tji/ efcaXero-aro <f><ovy- 
"8cC/)o ndpoid* ikOovaay <l>Ckop 7€kos<, Z^cv i/jLelo, 
6<f>pa iSy trporepov re troav mjow t€ <^tXov9 t€- — 
ov rt /xot aiTti; iaaC' 0€oC vv fioL amot eio'tv, 

165 ot /xot iffxipiirfa'av mXefiov vokvhaKpvv *A\aMv 

cS? /xot Kal TOILS' avhpa ireKiopiov iioi/ofiijvg^y 
09 Tt9 o8* eoTir *A;(cuos avffp tJv? T€ ii4ya% re. 
^ rot /xei/ K€<f>aXy koI /jieC^oves dXXot eacrti^, 
KaXov 8' ovT(D iyaa/ ov tto) Sor off^daK/jLolo'iVj 

170 oi8* ovrco yepapov jSaa-Lkyji yap aphpl colkcv.^^ 

TOP 8* *EXanj /jLvdoLCLV d/x€t)3ero, 8ta ywoLLK&v 
"atSotos TC /xot ecrcrt, <^tX€ iicvpe, 8€trd9 tc 
cJs o<f>€k€p ddvaros /xot d8etr fcaico9, omrore Baipo 
vtct cr^ iirofirjVy daXa/iov yvorrovs T€ Xt7roC<ra 

175 TratSd T€ TTjXvyenyi/ #cat OfirfXiKLrfv ipareivrjv. 

dWa rd y ovk iyevopro- to koI Kkaiovaa rerrjKa, 
TOin'o o€ rot €/!>6a>, o /x aveipeai i^oc /xeraAA^S' 
0VT09 y* *AT/J€t8T79 CV/)U KpeUiiv *Aya/x6/xi^o>i/, 
/^fjL^orepov^ /8ao'tXcv9 t* dya^^ Kparepo^ r alxfi7iT7)s ' 

180 8a'^/9 aSr' c/xo9 cctkc ia;i^€i7rtSo9, ct iror' 071/ y^." 

cS9 <f>dTO^ Tov 8' 6 yiptov Tfydxra'aro ^anrqaev T€' 
" a> fidjcap *AT/J€t8iy, fioiprjycveSi 6X/8to8cu/xov, 

^ pd vv TOI, TToXXot Seh/lTJaTO KOVpOl *A\([U&V> 

1787J fcat ^pvyirfv eiaijkvSov diiirekoea-a-av 
186 ci'^a tSor 7rXctOTOv9 4>/3vya9 dvepaSy atoXo7rc5Xov9, 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 6J 

Xaov9 'Orfyrjos Koi MvySoi^os avriOioiOy 
ol pa TOT iarpaTooiVTO nap* ayOa^ Xayydpioio' 
KcX yap iytav eiriKovpos €cor /xera Tolaiv ik€)(0rjp 
rjfiaTL T<p ore t ^kdov *Afia^6v€^ avTidvupai' 
190 aXX' oiS* oi Toaoi, ^cav^ ocrot ekucome^ 'Axcuot." 

Priam asks about Odysseus. 

SeuTcpov avr' *Ohv<r!ja tSw ipeeiv* 6 ycpcuo?* 
ctTT aye /xot icat totoc, <f>L\ov tcko^, 09 Tt9 00 eariPy 
fieUov fi€v fC€<^aX^ ^Aya/jLCfiyoyo^ 'Ar/oeiSao, 
evpvTepo^ 8' aifiouTLP tSc arepyoLCLP iScadau, 
196 Tcv^ca ft^ ot fc^trou eirl xOovl novkv/SoTeiprj^ 
avro9 Se fcrtXo? G19 CTriircoXctTcu OTtx^^ avhpwv 
apv€L^ fiLv iy(o ye itaKco Tnyyccrt/xaXXft), 
09 t' oUdp fieya iriov Bv€p)(€TaL apyeppdtop.^* 
TOP 8* TffieCfieT ineiO* 'EXci/rj, At09 cicycyavta' 
200 " o5ro9 8* aS Aac/>Tta8T79, TroXi;/x'j;Tt9 ^Q8vcrcr€i;9, 
09 Tpaufyrf ip 8ijfi(a *l0dKris Kpopar}^ nep iovarj^, 
6t8a»9 napToiov^ re 8oXov9 ical p/ijSea Tn/ici/a." : i 

Antenor tells his Recollections of Odysseus. 

Tr/p 8* axir *ApTi}pa}p ireiruviiipo^ dprCop rjvha' 
** (3 yvpai, ^ fidka tovto e7ro9 prffiepTCs ieiwes ' 

206 1781^ yap fcal 8eS/!>d ttot rjXvOe 8109 '08vcrcr€i;9, 
crcS €P€K ayyekirj^^ <rvp dpifi^^tkifi Mei/eXa^* 
T0U9 8' cyci i^eipLca'a kol ip fieydpovai <f>i\ria'aj 
dii<f>OT€pa}p he <f>xrfip iSdrfp Kai fiTjSea irvKpd. 
aXX* oT€ 81) TpokacLP ip dypoyLepoinip €fit)(0€Py 

216 ardpTwp fikp ^Lepikaos vrreLpe^ep evpia^ ct>/xov9, 
a/x<^ci> 8* i^ofiepcDy yepapcjrepos ^€p *08u<r<rci;9. 
dXX' arc 81) fivOov^ Kai fiijSea Trdcrip v(f>aLPOP, 



62 OMHPOY lAlAAOS T 

^ TOL iikv McvcXaos ivi/rpoxdBriv ayopeveu^ 
wavffa fiePy aXXa fidka Xtyeiw?, iwel ov iroXuftv^os, 

215 oi8* aff>aiiafyro€inj^i el Koi yevet, varepo^ ^ev. 
dXX' OT€ S17 TToXv/XT/TtS avat^€i€v '08vo"<r6vs, 
crrdaKevj vnal Sc tSecKe Kara )(dopo^ o/x/tara inf^as, 
afcrjirrpov 8' ovr' onuro) ovt€ irpoTrprjves ipdfia, 
aXX* doTe/x<^€9 ^ccricci', aC8peC <f>arri ioiKws' 

220 ^aiy]^ K€ ^aKOTov T€ Tiv e/ifiepaL a<f>popd t avra)9. 
dXX' ore 817 orra tc fieyakrju cic (mjdeo^ elrf 
Koi area vufxiSea-aLV ioiKora -)(€Lfi€piji(rLVj 
ovK av €Tr€LT *OSv<rfJL y ipUraeu /Sporo^ dXXo9* 
OV Tore y wo Oovoijo? ayaxra-ayiW €R>os iooktc?. 

Helen names Ajaz and Idomeneus. 

226 TO rpirov avr hlama Ihtav ip€€Lv* 6 ycpcuos* 

Tts T ap 00 aAAo9 A;(aio9 ai/i;p i)v9 re fieya^ t€^ 
e^oxos ^Apyeuop K€<l>a\yjp T€ Kai evpea^ cS/xow;" 
^ / TOP 8' *EXci/i^ Tai/vir€7rXo9 afi^ifieroy 8ta yvpaxkwp' 
-^^* OUT09 8' Ara9 c'otI 7r€Xa)pto9, c/t)fC09 'A^^aioii^. 
230 *l8o/xci/cv9 8' eripcaO^p ip\ KpTJrea-(rL deos (S^ 
€(m)K\ afi<l>L 8c flip KprjTiop ayoi 'qyepcdoprax. 
TToXXdfCi flip ^eipurcep dpriul>iko^ Mepekaos 
OLKO) ip rjii€T€p(Oy oTTore KprirqOep Ikolto. 
" pvp 8* dXXov9 /x€i/ irdpTas opS) iXiKoyira^ 'A;(cuoi;9, 
236 OV9 fC€i^ €u ypoirjp Kai r ovpofia fivOyitraCfiriP ' 
8oia> 8' oif hvpa/jLai iSeeip KoaiifJTope Xaa)i/, 
KdoTopd 0* imroSafiop koL mj^ dyaOop UoXvSevKea^ 
avTOfcacrtym/Tfti, rd fioi /jlUl yeCparo fiTjrrip. 
rj ov\ eanco'dyip AaKedaCfiopos i^ ipareLpfj^^ 
240 17 hevpci) fi€P enopTo pi^xni €pl nopro^rropoio'ip^ 

PVP avT OVK iOeXovai p^d^ytP fcaTa8v/xci/at dphpwpy 



THIRD BOOK OF THE H^IAD 68 

W ^^/ N»/^ '\\>V ¥ » 

aur^ea 0€totor€9 Kat opeioea ^oAA., a fiot, ecrriv. 

cS? <^aro, TOV5 8* 17817 KaT€)(€v ^vcUflo^ aux 
CI/ Aaic€8at/Aoi/(r aSdi, i^tXj; ci/ trarpihi yaCy, 

Preparations for the Truce. Priam is summoned. 

246 mjpvKe^ 8* ai'a aarv dewv (f>€pov opKia ma'Tdy 
apv€ Svo) Kal olvov iv<f>pova^ Kapirov apovprfSy 
aa-K^ iv aiyeuo' (f>^p€ 8c KprfTTJpa <f>a€Lvov 
KTJpv^ '180109 ^8c ^pvc^La icvircXXa- 
cirpwev 8c yipovra irapiardfievo^ circccrcni'- 

250 '* opcrco, Aao/ic8oi^ta8i;, KoKeova-iv apioToi 

Tptacav 6 linrohdfKov Kal *A)(aLa)v ^a\Ka)(yrtovtov 
€9 TTcStov KaTafirjvaLy Iv opKia inoTa rdfiryre. 
avrap *A\€^avhpos Kal dpr)C(f}Lkos Mci/cXao9 
fiaKpys ^yX^^W^ fiaxTjcopT* afi<f>l yvvaiKi- 

266 T^ 8c K€ viKTJaavTL yviTYj Kal KTTjfiaO* eiroLTO' 
oi 8' aXXoi <f>L\6TrjTa Kal opKia tnora rafiopre^ 
vaLOifi€v TpoLTfv cptjScuXaKa, rol 8c i/coi/rcu 
*A/)yo9 C9 hnrofiorov koX *A;(att8a KoXkiyvvaiKay 

Priam descends to the Field of Action. 

0)9 <^aTO, piyrfcev 8* 6 yipmv^ CKcXcvcrc 8* eraCpois 
260 ?7r7rov9 l,€vyvvfi€vaL' Tol 8* 6rpaXcco9 inCdovro. 

dv 8* ap' €j8i7 llpiafio^y Kara 8 i7j/ia rctj^ci/ 6iruro"ft>' 

irap 8c ot *Avn]v(op irepiKaWea fiTJcrero hv(^pov. 

Tci 8c 8ta Sicataii/ ^c8ibi/8 ^01/ cufcca9 r7nrov9. 

dXX' ore 87; p* LKovTO fierd Tp&as Kal *Aj(atov9, 
266 i( LirncDP dirofidvres iirl \66va TrovXvjSorctpai/ 

€9 fieacrov Tpcmv Kal *Pi.\aLS)v iaTL\6<ovTo. 

cjpjruTO 8' avriK cTrctra dva^ dv8p<ov ^Ayafiifivwi^. 

dv 8' *08vo"cv9 TToXvfirjTLS ' drdp KijpvKes dyavol 



64 OMHPOY IAIAA02 r 

opKia mora Oecov (rivayov^ Kprynfpi hk oIpop 
270 iJAxryt>Vy drap fiacik^va-iv vScop cVl x^ipa^ ixevav. 

The Sacrifice and the Prayer. 

^ArpetSrfs 8e ipvaa-dfiepo^ ^ctpco-o-t fid^aipab^^ 
7) ot Trap. (uf>€o^ fieya KovXeov aiev aoi/sro, 
dpvS)v iK K€<f>a\€0)v TOftpe Tpi^af;- airrdp eneira 
KTJpvKe^ Tpdxav koX *A.\aiS}v velfiav dpCaroLS' 

276 roliriv 8* *Arp€i8iy9 fieydk* €V)(ero^ ')(€Lpas dvao^dv 
"ZcO irdrepy ^iSrfdeu fiehetoPy taihiare fieyiarey 
-^eXtd? 0*, o9 irdvr i<f>op^^ kol irdvr cVaicovct?, 
KoX irorafioX koX yata, koX ot inrei^epde Kap^ovras 
dvOpwrrov^ riinxrOoVy otl^ k iniopKov 6/i<Kro"]y, 

280 v/ici^ p^dpTvpoL ecrTCy (f>v\dcrcr€T€ $* opKia Tnord. 
el pep Kev ^eve\aov 'AXefai/8po9 Karaire!J>vjj^ 
avTo^ eireid* *lEXevy)v ixero} Koi Knjpara Trctrra, 
Tfpels 8* iv mjecra-L vecopeOa iropTowopoLO'Lv - 
el 8c K *A\€^avSpov Kreivjj ^av6o^ Mci/eXao9, 

286 Tpoia? eireiO* *E\ejrrjv kol Krqpara irdvr aTroSovvcu, 
TLprfv 8' *A/yyctot9 dnorivepevj rjv riv eoiKev^ 
rj re koX ecnropevoKTi per dvOpdmoio'i irekqrai, 
el h^ dv epol ripyjv IlpCapo^ npidpoio re naihe^ 
riveiv ovk edeXwcnv *A\e^dv8poio necrovroSy 

290 avrdp ey(o kol eneira paxvcropai elveKa iroiinj<; 
avdi pevoiVy cto)? Ke tcXo9 irokepoio KixeCco,^^ 

^ Koi dno crropd)(ovs dpvcjv rape vrjkei ;(aXic^. 
KOL roif^ pev KaredrjKev enl x^ovo^ dairaipovra^^ 
dvpov Sevopej/ov^' dno yap pevo^ eikero j^aXicd?' 

296 ou/ov 8' CK KpTfrrjpof; d(f>v(rcr6pej/oL heTrdeaa-iP 
eK)(eoVy 178* ev\ovro deot^ aleiyever-QO'iv. 
c58c 8c rt9 eiwecrKep 'A^atcli/ re Tpdxou re- 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 65 

"Zcv KvStoTc /leytoTC, ical addvaroi deal aXXot, 

OTTTTOTCpOt TTpOT^pOl VTTep OpKia 7nifl7]V€LaP, 

300 She Cif}* iyK€<f>a\os ;(a/xa8t9 />€oi (U9 oSc oTvo9, 
avrciii/ ical t€K€(i}v^ dXo;(ot 8* aXXotcri Sa/iclci/." 
cS^ €<f>avy ovS* apa ttcu (r<^ii/ ineKpaCaxve KpopCcov. 

Priam returns to tlie City. 

Touri Sc Aap8ai/tSi;9 llpiafio^ fiera fivOov iemev 
"KcicXvre /xcv, Tp&e^ kol ivKvrjfiS^^ 'A^^atot- 

30& -^ Tot cycSi/ cT/it irporX "Wjlov rjuefioeaaav 

ai/r, CTTcl ov ir(o rXijaofi iu 6<f>6aKfiola'Lv opao'dcu 
^ fiapvdfi€vov <f>C\ov viov dprjL<f>C\^ Mei^cXou^'- 

Zeifs fi€P TTov TO yc otSc icat addvaroi. deol dXXoi, 
omrorriptfi OavdroLO reXo^ venpcjiUj^v cortv." 

310 ^ pa Kal €9 hUf>pov dpvas Oero laoOeo^ <f>(o^y 

ai/ o ap epaxp avros, icara o i)i/ta t€iv&/ onuraa}' 
Trap 8e ot ^Avnjvcop nepiKakXea fiyjaero hUf>pov. 

Preparations for the Single Combat. 

Toi fih/ ap* OAJfoppoi irpori *lXtoi/ dnoveovTo- 
^Etcrwp 8e Ilpid/xoio 7rcu9 Kal 8m)9 *08i;<rcrcv9 

316 x^P^^ M^^ irpSnov hi€fierp€OPy avrdp cireira 
KXijpov^ iv Kxn/ey ^(aXicifpct irdXXoi/ cXdi^c^, 
oTTTTOTcpo? 8i) vpoaOep d^eif) x^\k€ov eyx^^' 
Xaot o ripTfaavTo c/€ot9 toe ^etpa^ apca^ov 
She 8e rt9 etireaKev *A)(cu(ov re Tpanop re* 

320 "Zcv wdrep, "'iSriOev fiehecov^ KvhioT€ /xeytorc, 
ovnorepo^ rdhe ipya fier* dfi<f>OT€poL(nv WiiKeVy 
Tw 8o9 dvo<f>6Cfi€vov 8vi/at Sofiov *At8o9 eurci), 
17/xtv 8* aS <f>ik6rr7fTa Kal opKia Triard yevdaOai" 
cy? dp* €<^ai/, TrdXXci/ Sc /xeya9 KopvOaCoXo^ ^EKT(i}p 



\; 



66 OMHPOY IAIAA02 T 

326 iaff 6p6(ov ' HdpLO^ he doS)^ iK KXrjpos opovaev. 
ol fi€v etreiff H^ovro Kara oTLxaSj "^X' eKourrov 
hnroL aepaCwohe^ kol iroLKika t€U)(€* eicctro • 
avrap o y a/x<^' oifioicnv ihvaero rcv^ca icaXa 

330 KvrnuZa^ fi€v irpSna Trepl Kurjfijgcnv eOrjKev, 
icaXa9, apyvpioKTiv mia^vplbi^ apapvCas' 
hevrepov ad OdprfKa nepl (mjdeacnv ISvvev 
^oto KaaiyvijTOLo AvKoovo^y rjpfioae 8' avro!. 
afiifn 8' dp' wfioicnp jSctXcro ^«^o9 apyvpoffkovy 

336 \aKKeoVy avrap eireira aaKos fieya re orifiapov re. 
Kparl 8* cV* i<f>6Cfi<o Kvveqv ivrvKTov edrjKet^y 
hr'irovpiv heivov 8c Xo<^o9 Kadvnepdev a/eveu, 
elXero 8* dkKifiov cyx^^y ^ ^^ 7ra\dfi7f<f>iv dpyjptiv. 
(S^ 8* avrcos Mei/€Xao9 aprjioq crrc* €8vi/€i/. 

The Combatants meet and strike. 

340 Ol 8' CTTCt o5i/ eKarepOev 6/itXov 9(i}p7J)(^0rjcraVy 
is fieaaov Tpomv koX *Ar)(aiS}v i(m\6tovro 
heivov hepKOfiepoi' Odfifios 8' €\€P eicropofovras 
TpSids 9* iTnrohdfiovs Kal ivKinjfiiha*; *A)(cuovs. 
KaC p iyyvs arrjruv SiafierpifT^ cVt X^PV 

346 ceLovr iyxeCaSi aXkTJkoiaLv Koreovre. 

wp6a9e 8* ^Ake^avSpos Trpotei hokixoaKLov ey^o^j 
Kal fidXev ^ArpetSao Kar d(r7ri8a Ttdvroa iUrrfv 
ovh* €ppr)^€v xaiiKoSy dp€yj/dfi(f>07) 8€ oi aixp^^ 
acTTiSL iv Kparepfj. 6 he hevrepo*; a^pvvro x^^V 

360 *Arpct8iy9 McvcXao?, iirev^dfievo^; Atl narpC' 

"ZcC dj/a, 8o5 Turaa-daL o fie Trpmepos Kdic eopyevy 
hHov 'Ake^avSpoVy koI ifijjs viro X^P^^ hafiyjvaLj 
5<f>pa rt9 eppLyrfCi Kal oxjfiyovtov av0pwno)u 




APHRODITE OF MELOS 
From the sutue in the Louvre, Paris 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 67 

* \ \ 

866 ^ pa Kal a/iircTraXcii/ npotei SoXlxoo'klov ey^o^j 
KoX fiake Ilpia/iiSao Kar danCha navroa iurrfv. 
8ta fjLCv aaniSos ^Xde <f>a€Lvrj^ ojSpt/xoi/ eyxoSy 
[Kal hid 9(ofyrfKo<; TroXvSotSaXov TJprjpeioTO' 
avriKpv^ Se irapal \airdprqv Sta/iT^cre \iTS>va 

360 e/X^^' ^ S* iKkCvdrf koI dkevaro Krjpa fieXtuvav. 
*Arp€t8i79 8e ipva-adfievo^ ^v(^o^ dpyvp6rq\ov 
irXrjiev dvaxrxofievos Kopvdo^ <f>d\ou' dfiifn 8* dp* avr^ 
Tpi\6d T€ Kal Terpa\6d hiarpv^kv cKveae )(€Lp6^. 
'Arp€iSi;9 8' ^[i(o^€v t8o)v €i$ ovpavov evpvv 

366 "Zcv Trdrep^ ov Tt9 crcto ^coii/ oXoon'epos aXXo9' 
^ T iif>dfirjv TCcraadaL *A\€^ap8pov KaKorniro^' 
vvv 8e /iot €1/ ')(€Cp€aaLv dyq ^uf>oSj eK 8e fioi eyx^^ 
yftx^ ''''di^d[i7)<f>iv irwaiov^ ovhk hdfiaxra'a" 
^ Kal iirat^a^ Kopvdo^ \dfiev InnoSao'eLriSi 

370 eXicc 8* irrLOTpeiffa^ fier ivKinjfiiSa^ 'Aj^otovs* 

dy)(€ 8e fiiu 7roXvKcaT09 t/i,a9 dvaXriv vrro heipijvj 
o9 ot vn dpOepecivo^ 6;(cvs reraro rpv^^aXciT^^. 

Aphrodite sares Paris, carries him to his Home, and smnmons Helen. 

KaC mi K€v elpvaaa/ re Kal danerov TJparo KvSo^y 
ct fiTj dp* 6^ voTjae Ato? Ovydrifp *A<^po8tr)j, 

876 17 ot pij^ev ifidvTa j8oo9 u^t Krafia/oio- 

Keijrrj he Tpv^d\eia dfi* ecrirero X^ipl naxeCji. 
rrjv fiev hreid* rjpo)^ fier* ivKinjfiLha^ 'A;(atov9 
pv^ft* €7ri8tin^a'a9) KOfiicrav 8' ipCrjpe^ eraipoi' 
airrdp 6 ai/r iTropovae KaTaKrdfievai fiet^eaCvaov 

880 eyx^i' x°'^'^^^9*' "^^^ ^* ^f'7P^cif* *A(f>pohLT7l 

peia fidk* a>9 re ^€09, eicaXin/rc 8' ap* i^epi ttoXX^, 
Ka8 8* cEtr* €J/ OakdfKf ivwSei KTjtoevTL. 



68 OMHPOY lAIAAOS T 

avTTi 8' aid* *EXci^v /caXcovcr* Zc. rffv 8c Ki)(ai/ei^ 
mipyto i<f>* v^\^y fr^pl 8c TpoHit aXi9 Jjcav. 

386 X^^P^ ^^ P€KTap€ov iavov eriva^e XajSovcro, 
ypi;t 8e fiiv iiKvla ncLkaxyepci vpo<r€€i,rr€Vy 
eipoKOfKpy T] oi AaKeSaXfiovL viuerotoa^ 
7]aK€iv elpia /caXo, /xaXurra 8c fiLv <^tXcc<ricci^* 
rg pxv ieiaafietni 7rpoa'€<f>(oP€€ Si* *A<f>pohLTrj' 

390 "8€vp* W*^ *A\€(avhp6^ <rc fcaXct oiKdi/8c viecrdax. 
Ktivo^ o y* cv daXdfitf Koi hLPayroiai \€)(€a(riVy 
KoXKet T€ arCXPcDV kol elfiaa-Lv ovSc k€ <^an}9 
avBpl fia)(ri(raifi€vov top y* cX^ctj/, aXXa x<>P^i/8c 
€pxea9*y rj€ ^opoio veov XTjyovra ica^t^ctv." 

Helen chaigtp Aphrodite with Deception and Wrong. 

306 €t>9 <^aro, T]^ 8* apa dvfiov ivl arijdea'a'iv opivev 
Kat p 0)9 oSv ipoTjae 0€a^ vepiKoWea Seipfip 
giijded 0* ifiepoevra koX ofifiara fiapfiaCpopra^ 
uafiprjaeu r ap circirc^ ciros r c^ar ck t ovofiaiev 
^^haufiovLTfj rC fi€ ravra XiXaicat 'qneporreveip ; 

400 ^ irg fie npoTepo) rroXCcov iif uaLOfievaMu 
afct9 '^ ^pvyCrjs yj MjjopCrj^ cparcti^?, 
ct Tif rot ical iccidi <^tXo9 fiepontov avdpwr<aVy 
ovv€Ka Brj vvv Stop *A\€^ap8pov Mci^cXao^ 
VLKTJa'as c^cXci oTvyepffp ific olkoS* dycaOfW 

406 TovP€Ka Srf pvp 8ci}po ho\oif>pop€ova'a napeari]^; 
rjao wap* avrop lovcra, ^ccii/ 8' aTrocticc kcXcv^ov, 
/X178* ert (rowrt 7rd8€a"(rti/ uiroorpci^CLa^ ^OXv/attov, 
dXX' aid TTcpl K€ipop ot^vc fcai c <^i;Xacr(rc, 
ct9 o K€ a rj a\o)(OP irovrjO'erai rj o ye hovkrip, 

410 Kcurc 8* cycii/ ovk cI/lu, pefieaairfTOP 8c kcv citj, 
Ketpov 7rop(rup€ovaa \€)(^o^' Tpfoal 8c /x* onuraw 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 69 

TraaoL fKOfiTJaovraij €\(a 8* a)(€ aKpira dvfi^" 
rfjv 8c xokoiHrafiani irpoaeilxovee 8t* *A<^po8tr)j- 

416 TcS? 8c a aTrexdrjpa} cu9 WJ' eicirayXa <f>C\riaa^ 
fi€(ra<p 8* afi<f>oT€pa}P iirirCaoiiaL ej^^ca \vypa^ 
Tp(a(ov Kal Aavact>v, (rv 8c kci/ KaKov oXtov oXijot." 

Helen follows Aphrodite to her Home. 

cS? €<f>aTj iSeLCCP 8* 'ElXci^, Ato9 iKyeyavla^ 
firj 8c KaTa(r)(Ofi€V7i iav^ apyTJri <f>a€iv^y ^ / 

420 crtyp, naara^ 8c Tpoia^ XdBev ^px^ Sc haC/icip. 

at 8* or* 'AXc£aj'8poto Sofiop ircpticaXXc* ucoi/ro, 
afi<f>iTro\oi fjLev erreira 0o(os inl €pya rpdnovro^ 
'^ 8' ct9 xn^opo^ov daXafiov kU hla yvpouK&v, 
rg 8* apa Suf>pov cXovcra <^(rXo/x/xct8'^9 *A<f>po8iT7) 

426 ai^r *AXc£ai'8poto ^ca KarcdrjKe ^ipovcra' 
a/da KaffiC 'EXw/, Kovpr) Ato9 atyto;(oto, 
ocrcrc TraXii/ icXiVacra, iroo'iv 8* '^i/wrairc p.vd<f' 
"ijXv^c? c/c TToXc/iov oJ^ ft><^Xc9 avToO* okdadaiy 
avhpX 8a/ici9 Kparep^^ o$ c/i09 Trporcpo? Trdcrt? '^ci/. 

430 tJ /icj' 817 irpti/ y' €v;(C* aprii<f>i\ov Mevekdov 
(ry T€ fii-ji KoX X^P^^ '^^^ ^X^^ <f>€pT€po^ cTi/at' 
aXX' i59t wj/ TrpoKokeaa-aL aprqi^iKops^ev4\aov 
c£avTt9 fiax^caaOcu ivavriov. aXXa cr* cyco yc 
Trav€a9aL Kckofiai, fir)8€ ^av6^ Mcj/cXou^i 

435 avri^iov noXefiop noXefiC^ew rjhe fidx^o'daL 

d<^pa8co)9, /A'*? 7r<w9 rax* vtt* airrov hovpl Safirjii^-^* 
rrjv 8c HdpL^ fivdoLO-iv dfieifiofievo^ TrpocrcctTrci/ • 
"/it; /ic, yuj'cu, x^^^'""^^''' 6i/ct8ca"t dvfiov epLTrre. 
vvv fi€v yap Mci/cXao9 ivimfo'tp ktvv 'AOtjitq^ 

440 Keipop 8' aurts cycu* 'jrapa yap 9eoi ctcrt ical '^/itv. 



70 OMHPOY IAIAA02 r 

dXX* aye 817 {(nXorrfn. rpaireiofiev euvqdetrre' 
ov yap TTio TroT€ fi cSSe y epo^ <f>p€i/as dfi<f>€Kd\vilf€i/^ 
ovS* ore (TC TrpSnov AaKeSaCfiopo^ i^ iparetvfj^ 
€ir\€OP dprrd^as iv novronopoLai vceaaiVy 
446 vrjao) 8* iv Kpavdjf ifiiyrfu <^tXonjTt kox cvi^, 
619 (Tco iniv cpafioL KaC fie yXv/cv9 ifiepo^ aipeV^ 
1^ pa Kal dp)(e kej^oahe Kidv dfia 8* etircr* dicotrts* 

Menelana searches in Vain for Paris. Agamemnon claims the Victory 
and demands the Fulfillment of the Treaty. 

Tcu fi€P dp* iv TpTfroiO'i KarevvaaOev \€)(€€a<riVy 
^ArpetSii^ 8' dv ofiiXov i^oira drfpl ioiKok, 

450 'tf^'jrov i(radprja€L€P *K\,4^avhpov ^€0€t8ea. 

dXX* ov r«r9 8waT0 T/xuoiv Kkeiriav r iwiKovptov 
Sct^cu *A\€^av8pov TOT dpr)i^i\(fi MevcXd^. 
ov pAv yap <^tXonjT^ y iKCvOavov^ ei rts tSotro* 
Icrov ydp a'(f>iv ndaLv dirrj\dero fCTjpl pekauqj, 

466 roMTt he Koi perievirev dva^ dvhp&v ^Ayapip^vtov 
" k€k\vt€ pev^ Tpct>€9 Kal AdpSavoL rjh* inucovpoi. 
vucri pev 817 <f>aLper dp7iL(f>C\ov Mevekdov 
vpel^ 8' ^ApyeCrfv ^EXivrfv Kal fcnjpad' dp* airrg 
cicSore, Kal Tiprjv diroruvipev^ rjv tuv ioiKCVy 

460 Tj T€ KoX iacopevoiaL per dvdptlmoiai nikriTax" 
clf? i<f>aT *AT/)€t8i/9, eirl 8' -gveov dXXot 'A;(<uot. ^ ^ ' 



T 



OMHPOT lAIAAOS A 

AAra* OeQp iyofiii, 6pKU9 X^''» 'Apcot AfiX't' 

Bdta Deum /ora, laeaa fides, primordia pugna, 

' In Delta is the God's assize ; 
The truce is broke; wars freshly rise.' 

Breach of the Tmce (1-219). Assembly of the Gods. Vexation 
of Hera and Athena. 

ot hk dtoX nap Zrjvl KaidTJfievoL yfyopoanrro 
^vcita iv SaTTcS^, fLera Se a<f>i,aL irorvia ^HjSi; 
v€KTap €(fvox6€i- Tol Sc \pv<T€oi<; ScTTCtccrcrti/ 
SctSej^ar* aXXi/Xov9, Tpcxov vokip eiaopooivr^^. 
5 avTLK CTTCtparo Kpoi/iSi;? ip€0L^€fi€v ^Hprjv 
K€pTOfiLOLS CTTCCcrcrt, irapajSXTjSi^i/ ayoptvtov 
"Sotal fi€v McvcXa^ aprqy6v€% 6i(ri dedcDP, 
^apTj T ^ApyeCrj koI "AXaXKo/xcmjU ^Ad^in). 
aXX* Jj TOL ral v6a<f>i Kadrjfievax eiaopooHrai 

10 TepneaOop- r^ 8* aSrc <^iXo/A/i€tSi79 *Aif>pohCrrj 
(U€t vapfiefifiXfoKe koI airov idjpa^ dfivpeLy 
Kol pvp i^eadoxrcp oLOfiepop OapeeaOai. 
dXX* tJ rot i/woj /i.cj' ap7)L<f>C\ov MepeXdov 
'^fiei^ he <f>pa^<ofi€6*^ ottoi? corot rctSe cpya, 

16 17 p* aSrt9 TToXc/idi/ t€ KaKop Kal <f>vkoinp atinji/ 
opiToiL€Py ^ ^i\6nf}fra fier* dfi<f>oT€poia'i fiaKcofiep. 
ct 8* aS TTco? rd8e iracrt <f>C\op koX rfhif yivovroy 

^ TOL fi€P oiiceoiro 7rdXi9 UpLdfioLO dpatcro^^ 

71 



72 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

a3rt9 8* *Apy€Lriv 'ElXo^v Mei/eXao^ ayot^o." 
20 cS^ €<f>aff^y at 8* ivefiv^av *A.dr)vair) t€ ical ^Hprf 
7r\ri<rCaLL cu y rjadrjUy koko, he Tpcaeaa-i, fieheadrip. 
^ rot *Adrivairi aK€(ov ^v ovhi rt cIttcv, 
{ncv^ofietni Ail iraTpL, \oko^ hi fiiv aypio^ UP^^^' 
"Hpi/ 8* ovK ex^cthe arrjOo^ ;(dXoi/, aXXa Trpoairjvha- 
26 " cuvorarc Kpovthrj, irolop top fivdop hine^. 
irS^ ideXei,^ oXlop deivax irovov ij8* aTeXcoroi/, 
I8pai ^', oi/ iSpoKTa /loy^, ica/ienji/ 8c' /iot tTTTTot 
Xaoi/ dy€ipov(ryj Ilpia^a) icaica roto re TTcucrti^. 
Cjq8*' arap ov rot irdvres cVoti/eo/iCi/ ^col aXXot." 

Zens rebukes Hera's Implacable Hatred for Troy. 

80 rfjv 8e fiey* o^drjaa^ rrpoceffyq ve^ekrfyepera Zcv?- 
" haxfiovCriy ri vv ae IlpCafio^ nptdfioLo r€ 9rat8€9 
Toaaa Kaica pitpvaiv^ o r dairepyk^ fieveaivei^ 
^iXtov i^oKand^oLy ivicrCficpop tnokUOpov; 
€t he (TV y elaekdovaa iriXa^ Kai rct^^ca fiaKpd 

86 wfiw fiefipwOoL^ Upiafiov Upidfioio re wailha^ 
aXXov9 re Tpa>a9, Tore Kep \oKov l^aKeaaxo. 
ep^ovj o7rai9 iOekei^' firj tovto ye pelKos oirUra-ii^ 
(Tol KoX ifiol fiey epuryjL fier dfiifxyrepoiai, yeinfrax. 
aXXo 8c Toi cpectf, crv 8' ci^t <f>pe(rl fiakkeo (r^aiP' 

40 OTnrore Kev koX eyoi /x€/jiaa»9 irdXtv e^akarrd^oL 
tt)i/ e6e\(0y odi toi <f>C\oi dvepe^ eyyeydcunvy 
fiT] TL hiarplfieiv top ifiop x^^^^y aXXct ^' eaxrax' 
KoX yap eyo} aol hiaKa eKw deKOPrC ye 6vfi^. 
at yap \nr i/eXtiji) re koX ovpap^ doTepoepri 

46 vcueroovcrt Trohrje^ ewixdopCcop dpOpwrtop^ 
rduxp fioL irepX fcfjpL rieaKero *IXt09 ipr/ 
fcal Upiafiov Kal Xao9 ivfifieXlco Uptdfioio' 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 78 

cv yap fioC irore ficjfio^ iSevero 8atro9 iurq^^ 
Xotfirj^ .T€ KvUn)^ re* ro yap Xdxofiep yipas '^fieis-^^ 
60 rw 8* T7/A€t)8cT* erreira Powm^ worpia "Hpij* 
"-^ TOi ifJLol rpci^ /xcv TToXif <f>L\raTaC ctcrt itoXtjcs, 
"Apyo^ T€ Xndprri re Kal evpvdyvia MvKTJvrf 
ra^ SuLn€p<rcUy St av rot dir€)(Biavrax wept lajpi- 
raxov ov tol eyco npoo'd* tara/xat ouSc fieyaCpo}. 

65 [et TTcp yap <f>9ov€<o re icat ovfc eiS) hiairepaaxy 
oifK dvvia <f>dop€ov(ry ivel 'Jj nokif <f>€pT€p6^ ccrcrt.] 
dXXa XP"^ '^^^i €/iOJ' dcfiepiu ttovov ovk arcXcorov 
ical yap cyoi dco? et^t, ya/o^ Se /xot evdev^ odep (toL, 
Kal fi€ TrpecfivTdrrjP rciccro Kpdvo9 dyicvXofiiJTri^^ 

60 afi<f>6T€pop, 7€v€^ r€ #cal ovv€Ka (rf/ irapdKOvri^; 
K€K\riiiaXy aif hi iraai fier ddavdroiaiv apaxraei^. 
aXX* ^ TOL pJkv Tav9* vrroei^ofiev dXXT^XoKTii/, 
crol [lep iydy <rv 8* ifioC' iirl 8* offoirrai 0€ol dXXot 
dddvaroL, aif 8e daa'aov ^AdrfvaCy CTrtretXcu 

66 iXdelp 69 Tpcxap Kal *A)(aL(op <f>vXonLP aiinjp, 
ireupav 8', cli? ^e Tpcie^ vwepKvSavra^ *A;(<uoi;9 
ap^oKri TTporepoL virep opKia ^XijaaxrOcu" 

Athena is sent to the PUin of Troy to effect a Bzeach of the Trace. 

cS^ €<f>aTj ov8* diri0ri(r€ warfip avhpiav re 9^&v re- 
avTiK *A6rjpaCriv «r€a irrcpoepra npo<n)vSa' 
70 ^^aijfa fidX* is arparop iX0€ fiera Tp&as Kal 'A^aiov?, 
veipap 8*, ws K€ Tpct>€9 vnepKvSapras *A^cuovs 
dp^oKri, nporepoi vnip opKia hrfXTJa-acrdaM" 

<Ss eiiriop cjTpvP€ irdpos fiefiavlap ^Adrjpyfp^ 
fifj 8e Kar OvXvfi^oio Kapijpojp dtfacra. 
76 olop 8* aarepa ^Ke Kpopov ircus dyKvXofiiJT€(o^ 
rj pavTjjo-L ripas ife arparia evpcL XawPy 



74 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

\afiiTp6p' Tov 8e T€ TToXXol airo tTirwdifpe^ tei^cu* 
T^ iiKvV rJL^ev iirl \d6va HaXXas *A9rjurj^ 
KoS 8* edop* €9 fieccov ddfifio^ 8* €)(€p elaopOiovTa^ 
80 Tptods 9* imroSdfiov^ Kal ivKviJiuha^ 'A;((uoi;9* 
fiS8c 8c Tt9 elnea-K^v iSc^v is ttXtjclop aXXov 
"-^ p* a3n9 iroXefios re icaicos ical <^vXa7rt9 (uvrj 
©trcrcTcu, -17 (^iXoTT^ra /li€t* dfK^orepouri rid'qa'iv 
Zei;9t 09 T* avdpwTTCJV Tafiirjs TroXe/ioto rervicTcu." 

Athena persuades Pandarns to wound Menelans. 

86 cS^ apa Tt9 €LTreaKev *AxaL(ov re Tpcxop re. 
ij 8* di/8pl ticeXi} Tpdxov icareSvcrc^' o/JLiXoi/^ 
AaoSoKO) * Avryivopih-Qy Kparep^ O'^XH'V'^y 
ndvhapov dpTiOeou St^ij/io^, ct ttov i<f>€vpou 
€vp€ AvKdopos viop ifivfiopd r€ Kparepop re 

90 €OT€(0T' afi<f>l Sc flip Kparepal arix^s acrrrurrdcDP 
Xa&Py 61 oi eiroPTO dw Aidjiroio podcap. 
dyxpv 8* larafiepri €7rea irrepoepra vpoaijvSa' 
^^ij pd pv fioC ri iriBoiOy Avkoopos vvk hat^pop; 
rkaCrjs k€p McvcXdo) im7rpo€fi€P rayyp lop^ 

95 iraxTi hi k€ Tpdk&ai xdpip /cat *n)So9 dpoio, 
€/c ndpTCjp Se fidKiara *A\€^dphp(o fiaa'LkrJL, 
TOV K€P 8^ irdfinpayra Trap* dyXad hwpa <^€poto, 
at K€P iSjg MepiXaop dpijiop "Arpco? viop 
a^ jScXct Sfirjdepra nvprjs i^mfidpr dXeyennj^. 
100 dXX' dy ourreuaop Mei/eXdov icv8aAt/ioto, 
ci5;(€0 8' *A7rdXXcui/t \vKir)y€P€i k\vtot6(<o 
dppwp irpctiToyopfop pc^eip KXeiTrjv iKarofiPrjp 
OLKo&e pooTTJaas tcp-^s els darv ZcXctij?." 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 75 

Pandarus shoots an Arrow at Menelana. 

cS^ <f>(ir *A.d'qvavr)y r(f Se <f>p€i/a^ a^povi neldep • 

106 ovtCk iaij\a t6(ov iv^oov l^dkov atyo9 

dypiovy 6v pa irm avro? wo arcpvoio n^ijcra? 
irerpT]^ iKfiaivovraj heheyfi€POS iv irpoSoKyaiPy 
fiefiXyJKet, npo^ ar^do^' 6 8* vwrto? ifiireae irerpy. 
Tov K€pa eK K€<f>aKrjs iKKaiSeKohcjpa 7r€<f>vK€LV' 

110 icat ra fiki/ dafC7J(ras Kepao^oos rjpape ritcnav^ 
irdv 8* cS X€ti}i/a9 xpvtreqv ivedriK€ Kopwv7)v. 
/cat TO phf cJ KaT€97fK€ raiwaadfiei/osy norl yaCjf 
ayKXCva^' npoaOev 8c aaKea <r)(€dov icdXol iraipoi, 
fiTf irplv dvat^eiav aprjioi vie? 'A^^atoii/, 

116 irpiv fikrjaOoL MepeXaov dprjiov *Arp€09 vlov. 
avrdp 6 cnJXa nHfia <f>ap€TprjSj c/c 8* iker lop 
dfiXrjra m^poema^ fiekaLvewu ipfi oSvvdcov 
ao/^a 8* iirl i/evpy KareKocrp^ee iriKpov otoroi/, 
^^ero 8* *A7roXXci>j/t Xu/cTjycm KKvroro^ia 

120 dpvtov irpwToyovcjv pi^tiv Kk^iTrfv iKaTopfirjv 
oucahe voarrjaa^ ieprj^ et? darv ZekeCrj^, 
eX«c€ 8* opov y\v(f>LSas r€ \afioiv kol v€vpa jSdeta' 
vtvpyjv pkv pat,^ mXaxrevy t6^(o 8c aiSifpop. 
avrdp inel 8i) icv/cXorcpc? peya ro^ov er^ivev^ 

126 Xtyfc )8io9, pevprj Se pey La)(€v, akro 8* otoro? 
o^/ScXt;?, Ka0* opikov cVturecr^at peveaivtov. 

Menelaus is wounded. 

ov8€ aeOtPj MepeXae, Oeol pdKape^ \e\ddovTo 
dddparoiy nparrri 8c Ato9 dvydrifp dycXctr;, 
17 rot wpoaOe oracra fieko*; ixenevKe^ dpvvev. 
130 17 8c roaov pkv eepyep dwo XP^^^^ ^^ ^^ H'V'^P 



76 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

7ratSo9 ^^fyyV /^vtai/, off 178a Xe^erat vnv(j)' 
avTT) 8* avT Wvj/evy odi ^(ocrflpo^ 6)(7J€^ 

)(pva'€LOL (TVV€,\OV KoX 8t7rXdo5 7JPT€TO ddpTj^. 

iv 8* iTT^ae. ^(ooTrjpi apifpom niKpo^ otoro?" 
136 8ta [lev dp ^(iHrrfjpo^ iXijXaTO SatSaXeoio, 
Koi Sia d(op7)KO^ 7roXv8ai8aXov riprjpuaTO 
liirpif^ ^', tJj/ i(f}6p€Lj/ ipvfia xpoo^^ ipKos aKovroiv, 
Tj 01 TrXctoTOj/ epvTO' StaTrpo 8c curaro Kal rtj^. 
aKporarov 8* ap* oicrro? ineypa^c XP^^ ff>oyr6s' 
140 avTLKa 8' €pp€€P alfia K€\aLP€(f}e<: i^ wreiXyj^. 

cJ? 8* ore 715 T Iki^avra yvinj <f>OLi/LKL iiirjviQ 
M})oi/i9 yjk Kaeipa, Traprjiov ififiei/ai hnroiV' 
Keirat 8* iv dakdfia), noXee^ t4 fiip -qpijaaPTo 
tTTTT^c? (f}op€€LPy ^SttCTcX'^t 8c K€trai ayoKfia, 
146 dft(^or€poi/, Kocfio^ 0* LTrno) iXarfjpL t€ kvSo^- 
TOLOL rot, Mci/eXae, fiLapdrfj/ aiftari firipol 
€v^ut€^ Kpfjiiai T€ tSc a'<f>vpa KaX* vtriv^pd^v. 

Agamemnon grieyes for the Hurt of his Brother. 

piy7)a'^v 8' d/5* cTTCiTa di'af av8pa>j/ ^Aya/xc/xi/coi/, 
cJ? elSei/ fi€\aj/ alfia Karappeoj/ cf c5rciX^5" 
160 piyi)(T€v 8c Kal avro^ dpi7M^tXo? Mci/cXao9- 

G)5 8c t8cj/ P€Vp6v T€ KOL OyKOV^ €KTO% COI^tt?, 

a}popp6v OL dvfio<: ii/l (rnjdeo'crLv ayepOr). 
rot5 8c )8apv aT€vdx(t)P fi€T€(f}7i Kp^ixov * AyafxefjiViOPy 
X^f'po^ €XOiv Mci/cXaoi/- iwea'TevdxoPTo 8* cratpot- 
155 " <^tXc KaaLyvrfTej ddvaTov vv roi opKi* erafivov^ 
olov npocmja'a^ npo 'A;(atalj/ Tpa>o"l /Ltdj(co"^at • 
(09 <r* c)8aXoi/ Tpoic?, /cara 8* op/cta Triard Trdrqo'av. 
ov flip 7rft>5 dXtoj/ ttcXcc opKiov alfid t€ apvoiv 
airovhai r aKpyfroi /cat 8cftat, 179 cVcTrt^/xci/. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 77 

iflO el vep yap re kol avriK 'OXu/xmo? ovk eTcXeaaev^ 
iK 8c Kol 6\l^ TcXct, aijv t€ fieyd\<o aTrertcrai/, 
aifp cr<f)rja'Lv /c€<^aX^(n yvvai^i re /cat TCKeea'O'Lv. 
€v yap iyo) ro8e olSa /cara ^p4va /cat /cara Ovfiov 
ccrcrerat iffiap^ or av iror oAa>A|} lAt09 tp'»j 

1G5 /cat TlpCafio^ /cat Xao9 ivfifieXio} Ilpta/ioto, 
Z€V5 8c (r<^t KpoviSr)^ inftC^vyoSy aid4pi vauoi/, 
avro5 imaaeC'jfja'LP ipefivfjp aiyCSa naaip 
Tij<r8* ctTraTTj? kotccop. tol fikp circrcr at ov/c are^Xeora- 
dXXa /Ltot ati/oi/ a;(09 aidep ccrcrerat, c5 Mci/cXac, 

170 at /cc ddp^s /cat noTfiop apa7r\TJa"j[i^ ^Storoto. 
/cat /ccp cXey^toTo? TToXi^a/^toj/ *A/yyo5 lKoifiJ)P' 
avTLKa yap iLprjaoprai *Aj(atot iraTpLho^ avq^' 
/ca8 8c /cci/ cv;(a)Xi7i/ Ylpidfia) /cat Tpoxrt Xlttol/icp 
*Apy€L7jp *¥t\€P7)P' aio 8' oorca Tiwct apovpa 

176 /cctftcvov ci/ TpoLji OTcXcimyrcu cttI cpycu. 

/cat /cc rt9 c58* cpcct ^pdnop virepTjPopeopTcjp^ 
rvfifiai im0p(ia'K(ap Mci/cXaou /cv8aXt/Lioto * 
*ati9* ovra>9 cttI TrScrt j^dXoi/ TeXeacL ^AyafxefipwPy 
(09 /cat wj/ aXtoi/ arparop r\yay^p ipddh^ 'A^^atolj/, 

180 /cat St) cJSi? ot/cdi/8c <f>iXir]p c? Trarpiha yaiap 
(Tvp K€LP^aip prfvaLy Xtndjp dyadop Mci/cXaoi/.' 

dJ? TTOTC Tt9 C/)CCt ' TOTC /LtOt ^fttJ/Ot CVpCta ^diaP,^' 

The Wound is not Fatal. The Surgeon Machaon comes. 

roi/ 8* imdapaijpcop irpoaii^'r) ^ap0o^ Mcj/cXao?* 
" ddpaetj /LtTjSc Tt TTft) SctStcrcrco \aop ^K^aiSip. 
186 ov/c CI/ Kaipita dfv Trayij )8cXo9, aXXa wdpoidep 
elpvaaTo ^cocmjp re Trai/atoXo? -^8* vwepepdep 
tfifid re /cat [iLTpri, Trjp ^(aX/ci^c? Kdfiop dj'8pc5." 

TO J/ 8* dTrafi€tp6iJL€Pos 7rpoa€<f>7) Kpeitop *Ayafi€fiP(i)P' 



78 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

"at yap 8^ ourcu9 citj, <^tXo$ cS Mci^cXac- 

190 €Xko9 8* irfrrjp imiidaaeraL TJh* ivLdtjo'eL 

<l>dpiiax\ a K€v navaTjai ixekcuvdojv oSvi/cuui/." 

i5 Koi TaXOvfiiov Oelop mjpvKa npoar/vSa' 
"TaX^v)8t*, oTTi rixioTa Maxoiova Sevpo KctXco-crop, 
<^air* *A(rKXij7rtov vtoi/ afivfiovo^ tijTijpo?, 

195 o<^pa iSj/'Mc^eXaoi/ apijiov 'Arpeo? vtdi/, 
ov rt9 oioTCvcra? cpaAei/ Tog(OP cv etoco^, 
Tpwov 7J AvkUop^ T(p iikv icXcb?, a/iftt 8c irevdo^" 
CU9 €<f>aT y ovo apa ol icrfpvq ainu7j(r€P aKovaa^y 
firj 8' ta^cu Kara Xaoi/ *A;(<uc!>i/ ;(aX/co;(tTa)i/6t>i/ 

200 iravraCviov riptaa M.a\dova. top 8c vorjaep 

cotcoJt*- aft<^t 8c fiiP KpaT€pal ortxc? aamoTouop 
\awpy ol oi hropTo Tpucri^ i^ Itttto^Sotoco. 
ay\ov 8' ioTaixepos cTrca 'rrrepoepra irpoai/vBa' 
^^op(Ty 'Ao'KXrjma^y /caXccf Kpeuop 'AyafiefipfoPy 

206 GK^pa JSj; Mci/cXaop dprjiop ap^pp 'Aj^atcS^, 
OI/ rt5 owrrcvcras cpaAci/ rogtop cv ctoco?, 
Tp(0(op rj AvKuop, r^ ftci/ kXco9, d/Liftt 8c iripOo^y 
(OS <f>dTOy Tft) 8* apa Ovfiop ipl' onjdeo'aLP opLP€P' 
pdp 8* tcVeu /ca^' ofttXoi/ dpd OTparop €vpifp *Aj(ataii/. 

210 dXX* ore 8')7 p* t/cai/oi/, odi ^apdos Mci/cXao5 

Pkrjii€POS ^Py iTe.pl 8* avToi/ dyj)y4pa6*y oaaoi dptorot, 
Kv/cXdo**, 6 8* €1/ ftc(ro"ot(rt napurraTo iaodeos (f}(os, 
avTLKa 8* c/c 4^oTT7po5 ipjjpoTos cX/cci/ OtOTW- 
rov 8* i^ekKOixepoLO TrdXi)/ dyci/ ofcc9 ojkoi, 

216 Xwc 8c ot {cooT^pa 7rai/atbXoi/ -^8* virepepdep 
^(Ofid r€ Koi fiLTprfPy rfjp xakfcrje*: Kdfiop di/8pc9* 
airrdp cttcI r8ci/ cXico^, od* efirreae Tri/cpo? oiord?, 
al/i iKfivt^TJaas iw* ap* yjma (f}dpiiaKa ci8&>9 
wdxro'c, rd ol irore trarpX <^iXa (f}pop€(op nope XeCpcDP. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 79 

The Battle begins again. Agamemnon reriews his Forces and 
orders an Advance (220-421). 

220 6(f>pa Tol diJL<l>€ir€POPTO fiorfv ayaOov Mci/cXaoi/, 
T6(f}pa 8* inl Tp(0(op ort^^c? rjkvOov aaTrixTTOxav 
61 8* avTi? Kara t€&)(€ eSvi/, fiinjo'apTO 8c j^ap^nj?. 

€vd* oifK dp PpC^opTa i!Sot9 * Ayafxefivova hlov 
ovSc KaraTrroKra'ovT ov8* ovk idiXopra iid)(€adcu, 

225 dXXa fiaXa (nrevhopra /id^Tjp i^ KvSidveLpav. 

Innovs fjLCP yap iaxre kol dpfiara noLKiXa ^^oXk^* 
/cat rous fi€P depdircjp dwdpevd* i^e (f}va'L6(aPTa^ 
^vpv/ieScjp vios TlToXe/iaiov TleLpatSady 
Tol ftaXa TToXX* iwereWe 7ra/5tcr;(Cft€i/, OTrnore k€p /up 

230 yvla Xdfiig Kdyiaro^ irokia^ 8ta KOipapcopra' 
avrdp 6 netp^ icjp cTreircuXJcTo ortj^as dphpS>p. 
Kai p' OV9 fi€P (TwevBopTa^ tSot Aapacip ra^^inrcSXcoi/, 
TOV5 ftaXa dapaijP€a'K€ Trapiardfi^po^ CTrcco'cnp' 
"*Apyccot, /Lt-jy ttcS rt fiedCere dovpiBos dXtd}^' 

236 ov yap CTTi ^/rcvSecrcrt narfip Zcv? iaaer dpcjyo^^ 
aXX* ot ircp rrpor^poi inrep opKia hT]krja'apro^ 
T(op ^ TOL avTcop rcpei/a XP^^ yvwe^ eSoi/rat, 
17^1615 avr* aXd^ov? re (fyCka^ koL prjina riicpa 
d^ofxep ip prjeacLPy iirrip irroXUdpop eXco/Ltei/." 

240 ov? Tti/a? av fiedupTa^ 1801 arvyepov TToXe/ioto, 
rov5 /LiaXa peiKeUaKe )(o\ayroia'LP iiri^aaip ' 
" *Apy€ioL iofifopOLy cXcyx^€5, ov lo; (rcJSco'^c ; 
TM^^' ovrcu9 i<rrqT€ re^TjTrorc? -^vrc pefipoC, 
at r' CTTCt oSi/ €Kafiop TroXeo? TrcStoto deovcai, 

246 corao-*, ou8* apa rt9 <r<^t /xcra ffypeal yiyperai dkKTJ- 
cS? v/i€t9 e(miT€ Tedjinore^ ouSc iidx€<r0€. 
^ fi€P€T€ TpcSa? (TxcSoi/ i\d€fi€Py €P0a TC K>Jcs' 



80 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

eipvoT evirpviipoL ttoXctJ? cVl Owl dakdo'crrf^y 
6(f>pa 18177', at K vfi/iLP inr€p(rxjo X^^P^ Kpoj/uoj/,-" 

Agamemnon praises Idomeneus and the Cretans. 

260 cS? o ye KOLpavdo)!/ €7rc7ro>Xctro orij^a? avhpwv. 
'^\0€ 8* cirl Kpijr€<r<rt kicwi/ ai/a ovXafioi/ avSpwp- 
ol 8* dfi<^' 'l8oft«/Tja hat(f}poi/a Otaprjo'a'ovTO' 
*l8ofLCP€u? ftcj/ €j/l 7rpofid)(pL^, cvt ci/ceXo^ aXioji/, 
Mjipiovrf^ 8' apa ot TTVfidra^ anpvve <l>dKayyas. 

255 TOV9 8e iScii/ ytjOrjo'ep di/a£ dvBpwp * Aya/iefipcDPy 
avTLKa 8* *l8oftCK>Ja npoairfvBa ftciXt;(ibt(rtj' • 
" *l8oft«/cv, TTcpi /LtcV <rc ruu Aai/aa>i/ ra^^VTTcuXcoi/ 
Tjfiev ipl TTToXefKo '^8' dXXoicu eirl €/>yai 
•^8* ev hq,i6^j ore Trip re yepovaiov aWowa oIpop 

260 *Apyei(op oi apioTot *ipl KpTjrfjpi KepcjPTcu • 

€L irep yap t dXXot ye Kaprj KOfiocjpre^ *A;((uol 
8<ur/5oi/ TripiaaiPy hop he tfkeiop ScVa? alei 
eoTTjXy w trep ifioCj meeip, ore Ovjio^ dpdrfQ. 
dXX' opcev 7roXc/Ltdi/8', olo<; trdpo^ evxeoLi cii/at." 

265 TOP 8* a5r* *l8oftci/€V5 Kprjroip ayo^ ipriop ijv8a* 
" ^ArpetSjiy fidXa fiep rot cycij/ epvqpo^ eroLpo^ 
ecrcro/Ltat, cJ? to Ttpwrop xmearqp koI Karevevaa- 
dXX' dXXov9 orpvpe Kdprj KOfiocjpras *A;(atou9, 
GK^pa rdj^iora fiaxfofied*^ eircl crvi/ y* op^t' ^cvai/ 

270 Tpcoe^' Tolaip 8' a5 ddparo^ /cat /o^8c* orrCo'a'o} 
eaaer, enel irporepoi xnrep opKia hijlkrjaaproy 

Agamemnon wishes that All were Like the Ajazes. 

cS^ e^aTy ^Arpethn^ 8c rrap(o\eTO yrfd6(rupos Kjjp. 
^\0e 8* en Aidpreao'L kioxp dpd ovXafiop dphpwp- 
T(o he Kopvcaeo'dTiPy d/ia 8c pe<f)os elneTo irel^wp. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 81 

276 C05 8* or* ano cr/coTTC^? cISci/ vi<\>o^ aiiroKo^ avfjp 
ipx6fi€vop Kara ttoptop vtto Zcijyvpoio iojTJ^- 
ra> 8c r av€v$€P iovrt fiekdprepop t]vt€ nCtra'a 
<l>aLV€T iov Kara ttoptop^ ayct 8c t€ Xnikana iroWijp' 
pCyr/o'ep t€ IBwip xmo re (xmos ijXacrc iiffXa- 

280 Tolau aifi Atawctrcrt 8LOTp€<f>€(op aiijiSiP 

StJlop C9 noXefiop TrvKLPoi klpvpto <^aXayyc9 
KvdpeoL, aaKeatp re kol ey^eai Trcc^pi/cvtat. 
KoX Tov^ fi€p yqd'qa'ep Ihttxp KpeCcjp * AyafiifiPdiP^ 
Koi (r<^ca9 (fxaprjaa^ CTrca Trrepoepra irpoarjvBa' 

286 " AuLPT, ^KpyeUop yiyjjrope xakKO)(LT(opa)Py 

crf^iOL fi€P ov yap colk orpvpefiep^ ov tl Kekevo}' 
avTCO yap fiaXa \aop apdryerop I<^i /ia^^co'^ac. 
at yap, ZcC re irarep koI 'Adrfpair) kol "AttoXXoj/, 
roto9 irao'LP dvfios ipl OTTJdeaai yepoiro- 

290 TO) KC ro)^ rifiva'€L€ TToXi? npidfioto apaKTO^ 

Xepalp v<\> yfiierepjyrip dXovo'd t€ nepdofieprj re." 

Nestor marshals his Troops skilfully. 

CU9 ctTTcui/ roifs fiep XCnep avrov, fiij 8c ftcr* aXXov? • 
€P0* o yc Ncirrop' ereriie^ \iyvp Hvkixop dyopyjnjpy 
OV9 irdpov^ oTeWopra kol orpvpopra /id^eadax 

296 afi<l>l fieyap IlcXayoi^a ^AXdcrropd Te XpofiCop re 
Alfiopd Te KpeiopTa Biaprd re noifiepa Xaiop. 
Unnjas iiep irpcora (Tvp hnroKTip koX o;(€(r<^«/, . 
7rc{ou5 8* i^oTTtde arrjaep TroXca? t€ kol ia-BXow^ 
cpico9 cftci/ TToXc/Ltoco- KaKov^ 8* C9 fiicaop eXauro'ePy 

300 GK^pa zeal ovK ideXcjp ri5 dpayKavQ TroXcfti^ot. 

iiTTrcvcrti/ /Ltcj/ irptoT iireTeWero' rov^ yap apcjyeip 
cr<^ov5 iTTTTOv? i)(€fi€p firjhe KkopeeaOax ofiiXa}' 
^^ lirjBe rt5 I'rrTroavp'Q T€ /cat rjpopeqt^i 7reiroi6(a^ 



82 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

0I09 npoo'd* aWfop ixefidTO} Tpdeaat ixd^eadauy 

305 ii7)&* dvaxfopeirci) ' dXaTroSporepot yap eo'eade. 

09 oe K avffp awo (op oxetop erep apfiau ucTfrajL^ 
€y\GL 6p€^d&0(Ot CTTCt ij no\if (f^eprepop oww?. 
cSSe icat ot irporepoi iroXta? /cat rct^c* iwopdeoPy 
roi/8c i/dop icac dvfiop ipl anjdeo'a'LP e)(oi/r€5." 

310 (09 6 y€p(op wTpvP€ iraXeu iroXcftoii/ ev etSoi?' 
/cat TOP pAp yrjOyja^p cScop KpeUop 'Ayafic/ii/Qii/, 
icai ftti/ <^C(iinf(ra9 orca Trr^potpra npoayjvSa. 
"c5 yepopy €W\ aJs $vp,o^ ipl (mjOea-ai ^iXoia-ip^ 
cS? rot yovpad* hrovrOy fiCrj 8c rot c/attcSo? cti/. 

316 dXXa (r€ yrjpas rctpct op^oUop* 015 o^€\€P rt? 

dphpiap aWo^ ^^^^f ^ ^^ Kovporepotai ftercti/ot." 
roi/ 8' T)/Ltct)8cr' areiTa Fcpiji/to? imrora Ncoroip' 
"'ArpctSiy, fidXa fici/ iccp cycii^ c^eXot/Ac ical avro9 
019 €/x€)^, 0)9 aT€ Sloi/ '£p€vdaXta>i/a Kariicrap. 

320 dXX' ov 77(09 d/ia ndpra deal hocap dpOpdiroiaiP' 
€t roTc Kovpo^ ca, wi/ avrc /xc yfjpa^ ottcz^ci. 
dXXd /cal (09 iTTTTcScrt p.erea-o'op.aL ijSc iC€X6i;(r(o 
)8ovX^ Kttl p.vdoio'i,' TO yap ykpa% iarX yepoPTtop. 
aixP'ds 8* ai\p.d(Ta'ov(Ti pedrepoiy ol nep 6/i€iO 

326 67rX(>T€pot yeydaat tretroWaa'ip t€ )8tij<^ti'." 

Menestheus and Odysseus are unjustly rebuked by Agamemnon, 
who apologizes. 

(09 €<f>aT\ *Arp€t8iy9 8c TrapoJj^cro yqOoavpo^ Kjjp. 

€vp* viop IIcTCwo Mei/ccr^i7a nXTJ^iTrirop 

€(rrc(or • a/iKpt o Kuy^paioiy firjOTcopes avrrf^' 

avrdp 6 ttXtjo'Cop ianJKei rrokvprfTt^ *08v(r(rcv9, 

830 Trap 8c Kcf^aXXi/i/coi/ (i/lk^I (jTtj(C9 ovk dXaTraSi/al 

eoTaaap' ov ydp ird a^ip dKovero Xao9 avrrj^^ 

(zXXd p€op avpopipopepai klpvpto <f)d\ayy€^ 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 83 

TpcMoi/ LTnroSdfKov Koi ^A\aL&Vy ol Se ft6i/oi/r€9 
iarao'av, omrore irvpyo^ 'Axcuwp aXXo? iireXdan/ 

335 Tp(oci}p 6pfiija€Le Koi ap^eiav TroXcftoto. 

Toif^ he ihwn/ j/€LK€a'a'€P di/a^ avhpSiv *Ayafie/xi/a)P, 
Kttt (r<^€a9 <l>(oinja'a^ eirca irrepoepra rrpoairjvha' 
"c5 vt€ XlercSo Storpc<^€09 ^ao"cXiJo9 
ical (TV KaKoUn SoXokti K€Kaxrfi€V€^ K€pSaKe6<l>pov^ 

340 rwrrc Karavrco<r<rovT€S ac^ecrraTC, /iLfivere 8* dXXov9; 
(r<^Q>ti/ ftei' T* in€OLK€ fxera irpdnoio'iv iovra^ 
iardiiev lySe fi^xn^ Kavarreipi)^ avn^okifa'ax' 
np(ar(o yap Kal Sotro^ aKovd^€(rdop e/Lieco, 
OTTTTOTC Satra yipovtriv iifyonktC^H'^^ *A;(atoi. 

345 o'da <^tX' oirraXca /cpca iSfievai i^Sc icvireXXa 
oti/ov irivifievai fiekiriSeo^y o^p idehrjTov 
vvp 8c <^tX6t>9 X* op6(^€y Kal ct 8eKa Tpipyot *A)(cuwv 
vfieiiop iTpondpoide fiaxotaro mjXct xc^XkoI." 
TOi/ 8* dp* vTTohpa t8a)i/ npoo'eifyri noXv/njris *OBvaa€vs' 

360 "*ATp€t8T7, TTOioi/ <r€ cWo5 ^vy€v epKo^ 68di/rc(ii/. 
ttS? St) <^^9 iroXcjixoto fiedieixev; omror *Ax<uot 
TipaHrlv i<l>* ImroSafioLa-vv iyeCpofiev o^vv *A/>*ja, 
o^aLy 'qv ideXyo'Ba koi at /c6/ rot ra fiefirjXjiy 
TrjXefiaxpLO (f}C\ov warepa rrpoixaxotaL ixtyeura 

366 TpoMDi/ tiriroSd/xoii/ * crv 86 ravr' di/cftoiXta )8d{€t9." 
TOP 8' C7rtftct8>7(ra9 vpoae^ Kpeuov * Ayaixefij/wi/y 
CU5 yi'fiti ^wofiepou)' naktp 8* o ye Xd^cro fjLvdov 
"8toyci/C9 AacpTtd8iy, noXvfiiJxav* *08v(r<rcv, 
ovrc <r€ v€iKeuo irepifoaiov ovre KeXevo)- 

360 oI8a ydp, (U9 roi Ovfio^ ipl arrjdeo'a'i ^tkoiaiv 
ryma hrjpea oI8c* rd ydp <^poi/66t9, d r' cycu Trcp. 
dXX* tl9t, Tavra 8* oTnaOev dptaaofieff , ct Tt ica/coi/ wi/ 
etpt^rot, rd 8c Trdvra deol /xcrafta>i/ta ^ctci/." 



84 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

Diomed is compared with his Father, Tydeas. 

cS? eiTTCUi/ Toifs fiev Xinep aurov, firj 8c fier aXXov9* 

366 €vp€ 8c Tv8cos viov vTTepBvfiov Aiofiijhea 

ioTecoT €U ff iTnTOtcrc ical apixaxri KoXXijrourtp • 
Trap 8c ot €(rhJK€i %d4v€Ko% Kairavrjios vlo^. 
KoX TOP fiei/ i/cucc(rcrci/ iScop icpcuui/ * Ayafie/ivc^Vy 
KaC /iiv (fxoinjo'as errea irrepocpTa npocrr/vSa • 

370 " €0 /ioc, Tv8co9 vtc Bat(f}poi/os t7nro8a/xoto, 

rt 7rra)<rcrcc9, rt 8* oTrtTrcvcts iroXc/xoto y€<f)vpa^; 
ov iikv TuSci y* cSSc <\>ikov TrrcucTKa^cftci/ -^ci/, 
dXXa TToXv Trpo <f>L\(oi/ Irdptav h'qtoio'i fid)(€a'dcu. 
cS? ij>da'avy ol fiiv lSovto novevfievov ov yap iyd yc 

376 rjvrrja ovSk lSoj/- ircpl 8* dXX&ii/ (fxurl yeviadax. 
Tj rot /ACi/ yap arep noXe/iov el<rrj\d€ Mvicjvas 
^elpos a/i dvTidifo IloXv^ci/cct, \aov ayeipoDV^ 
ot pa TOT* ioTpaTOODvO* iepa irpo^ rcij^ca ^firjs. 
KaC pa ftdXa kCaaopTO 8d/ici/ /cXctrovs iiriKovpov^' 

380 ot 8* cl^cXoi/ 8ofici/ai /cat iirgveov, cJ? c/ccXcvoi^- 
dXXd Zcv9 €Tpe^€, TrapaUria cnjp^aTa <f>aCv(ov. 
ot o CTTCt oui/ ftijfoi^o toe TTpo oOov €yevovTOy 
*Aaa}noj/ 8* Ikopto ^adva^oivov Xc^fCTTotTjj/, 
5/^ avT ayyeXirij/ cttI Tv8tJ orctXai/ *A;(atot. 

386 airrap 6 firj, iroXca? 8c Ki^rjo'aTO Kahfiettova^ 
SaLirufiepov^ KaTOL ha>fia fivq^ 'Erco/cXTjcnj?. 
ci/^* ou8c ieli/o*: wep iwv tTTTTTjXdra Tv8cu9 
Tappet, fiovj/o^ ict)P TtoXicriv /icra KaSftctotcrti/, 
dXX* o y' dc^Xcvcti/ Trpo/caXt^cro, Trdi/ra 8* ci/uca 

390 p7)ihuji}^' TOLTf oi inippodos yjev ^\drjirq- 

ol 8c x^Xwo'dfiepoL KaS/Lictot, KevTopes iTnrojp, 
dijf dp" dp€p\oiJL€P(fi TTVKLPOP \6\op claap dyoi^C5, 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 85 

Kovpovs ncvnJKOPTa- Svco 8* rjyTjropes '^o'avy 
Mauoi/ AtfL0i/t8i79 ctticckcXo? adavaroiaiv 

305 vtd? r AvTO(f}6i/oio ficveTrroXeiios Ilo\v<f>6vrri^. 
Tv8cv5 iiej/ /cat rolcnv deiicea rroTfiov i<f>7JK€P' 
itam(x% errvpv , ci/a o otoi/ tct oi/coi/oe i/eeauai • 
Matoi/* apa irpoeqKe, d^Siv repdeaa-t nidTJa-a^. 
Toto9 C7JJ/ Tv8cv9 AtrcoXto?* dXXa tw vtoj/ 

400 yeivaro elo x^PV^ /^^XI7» ^J^PV ^^ '''* dftctj/w." 

Diomed's Comrade repels the CriticiBm. 
cS? (^ctTo, TOJ' 8* ov rt npoa'Cifyr] Kparepo^ Aioinj^yj^y 

TOP 8* V109 KaTrai^'Y^o? afieinjtaTo KvhaKifiOLo- 

"'ATpCt8iy, /it) !/>ClJ8c' iTTLOTdfiei/O^ (TCU^a CtTTCtl/. 

406 ifftei? rot narepajp fiey dfi€LPOv€<: ev^pii^d* cTi/at- 
I7ft6t9 /cat ^hj^rj^ c8o? etXo/Ltei/ CTrraTrvXoto, 
navporepov \aop dyayovd* vtro TCt;(09 d/>€toi/, 
TTCt^d/ici/ot repdeaai $€a)p /cat Z771/09 dpayy^- 
/ceti/ot 8c a'(f}€T€pria-LP draadoKirjO'iv okovro, 

410 Tw ftTj /Ltot TrarCjpa? tto^' ofioCr) €v0eo Tt/Lt^." 

TO J/ 8' dyo' V7rd8pa t8(oi/ irpoaif^T) Kparepo*: AiOfiTJ^rj^* 
"rerra, a-ico'n"^ rjcro, ifiw 8' i-mneLdeo fiv0(o. 
ov yap iyo) P€fiea'<i) ^ Ayaficfipovi noifievi Xaa>i/ 
orpvvopTL fid)(€crdaL IvKvrjpnha^ 'A;(atou9* 

415 TovTO) fiev yap /cG8o5 d/Lt' e/rerat, ct /cci/ *A;(atot 
Tpcia? 8]jaKra>crti/ cXcucrt re "IXtoj/ tpiji/, 
rovro) 8* aS /Lteya irivdo^ *Kr)(<^L(i)v hjjcjdevTcjp, 
dXX* dye 817 Kat i/cJt iiehdfieOa dovpt^ho^ dX/ci^?." 
ij /5a /cat e'f 6)(^e(t)P avp Tevx^aip aXro xafid^e* 

420 8eti/oi/ 8* efipax^ ;(aX/co? eTrt cmjdeo'a'LP dpaicro^ 
. 6ppvfi€Pov' imo K€P raXaaufipopd wep 8cos elXei/. 



86 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

The Armies advance. Athena is with the Achaeans; Ares, with the 

Trojans. 

cJ? 8* OT iv alyioKw ttoXutj^^ci KVfia dakdaayi^ 

OpWT iTTOaaVT^pOV Z€(f}VpOV VTTO KLVrjo'aVTO^' 

TTovTio fia/ Tc irpcjTa Kopvaaerai^ avrap eireira 
426 xepo'ifi pT]yvviievov fieyaXa fip€fi€L, ifi^l 8c' t d/cpa^ 
Kvprov lov Kopvi^ovTai^ aTroTrrvct 8* a\o% a^prjj/* 
015 TOT iiraaaiiTepax Aavaioi/ klwpto ^dkayye^ 
v(o\eii€(t}s TToXe/idi/Se. KeXeve Se otcrti/ e/courro9 
Tfyefiovo)!/ ' oi 8* aXXot aKr)v taav, ovhe k€ (f^airj^ 
430 Toaaop \aoi/ eireo'dcu €)(ovt iv anjdeo'iv avSijv, 
(Tty^, SctSiOTC? crrifidpTopa^ ' dft(^l 8c vSlo'lj/ 

TeVX'^OL TTOLKlX* cXa/LlTTC, TO, ^lllivOl ioTLXOWPTO. 

TpoJc? 8*, c3s t' oics iroXv7rdfLOi/o5 di/Spo9 ip avX^ 
fivpicu iaryJKacLP dfieXyofiepai yaXa \evKop 

436 a{T7;(C9 fiefiaKVLOL^ aKovovaai ova appoip, 

(OS Tp(oo}p dXaX>7T09 apd orpaTOP eipvp opdip^iv 
ov yap TrdvToiP 7j€P 6/L109 6 poos ov8' ta yrjpvSy 
aWd y\SiiT(T ifie/iLKTo, ttoXukXtjtoi 8* ccrai/ di/8pc9- 
copcrc 8c TOV5 ftcj/ ^ApyjSj tovs 8c -yXavKciTrt? ^Kdrjirq 

440 AeLfios T yfhk ^ofios Kal *Epc^ afioTOP /xcftavia, 
*A/5C05 dphpoij>6poio KaaiyprfTri erapj) t€j 
'q T oklyri fikp irpioTa KopvaaeTaLy airrap CTrcira 
ovpap^ ianjpi^e Kaprf /cat cVl X^^*'^ fiaCpei. 
7j a'(f}LP.Kal t6t€ peLKos 6/iouop cfifiakc fica'atp 

446 ipxofiepTj Kaff oixiKop^ 6<^cXXovcra otopov dphpwp. 

The Armies meet. 

01 8* OTC 817 p is x^P^^ ^^ ^vpl6pt€S IkoptOj 
(TUP p €paKop pLPOvs, (TOP o eY\€a /cat ftci/c apoptop 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 87 

')(^cikK€od(opnJKOi}v arap acTTriSc? ofw^aXoccrcrcu 
€ir\7iPT aWrjXyaL^ iroXvs 8* opvfiayho^ opdpeiv. 

450 a/da 8' aft* oifiayyTJ re Kal cv^^coXi^ weXev avhpSiv 
oWvvTfav T€ Kol oWviiivoiVy pie 8' at/iart yata. 
0I9 8* aT€ \eiiiappoi norafiol Kar opea^i, piovre^ 
C9 fiiaydyKeiav ^fifidWerop ofipiixop vha}p 
Kpovv!av iK iieydXxop Koikyi^ arrocde xapd&prr)^' 

465 riav hi re nyXocrc 8oi)7roi' & ovpeaiv €k\v€ TroL/njp' 
cSs roil' fiLoyofieuwp yivero la)(ij re ttovo^ re. 

AntilochuB kills Bchepdlns. 

trpSno^ 8* 'Ai/rtXo;(09 Tpci(ov ekev ivhpa Kopvarfip 
eo'dXop ei/i irpofiaxoLai^ Sakv(na&qi/ 'Ej^cttcoXoi/ • 
rop p efiake irpSno^ Kopvdo^ {jxiKop InnoSao'eCTi^y 

400 ep he /lerciirto tt^^c, neprjO'e h* ap* oareop euro) 
^Xf^V X^^*^^"?' ™^ ^^ (TKoros oo-ae KoKv^ev^ 
rjpirre 8', 019 arc wipyos, ipl Kparep-g vaiiipjj. 
rop he TTeaopra ttoScSj/ e\afie KpeUop *¥t\e(f>TJpa}p 
XaXxa>8oi^i(£8i}9, fieyadviidiP ap^s ^AfidprwPy 

465 ehce 8' vTTC/c fiekeojp Xekufiiepo^y 6<f>pa rd^iOTa 
rev\ea (rvkrjo'eie' iiipvpOa he oi yepeff opfiij' 
peKpop ydp p ipvopra 18011/ fieyddvfio^ *Ayrjp(ap 
nkevpdy rd oi Kv^j/apri rrap* aanCho^ e^eifyadpOr/y 
ovrrjae ^ar^ xakicjpeCj XScrc he yvla, 

470 cS? rop fiep Xwrc dvixoSy en airr^ 8* epyop enix^V 
apyakeop Tpcmp /cat *Axcttaii/* oi hk Xvkol cS? 
dXXifXot^ eTTopovaaPy aprjp h* dphp* ehpo7raKit,ep. 

Ajaz and Odysseus slay Trojans. 

€pff efioK* * Apdefiuopos viop TcXaftcSi/to? Ata?, 
rjideop dakepop XifioeurLOP, op rrore fiyjrqp 



88 OMHPOY IAIAA02 A 

475 "iSij^cp Kartovaa nap" oxOjfO'Lj/ %ifi6€PTos 

yeCi/aT, ineC pa roKcvaiv aifi ianeTo firjXa IheaOai- 
Tovv^KO. fiLv KoXeov ^Lfioeio'LOj/ ' ovSk TOKevaiv 
Opiirrpa (^1X019 aTrcScoKC, fiivvi/ddSLo^ 8c 01 alajip 
eirXed* vtt* Aiai/ro? fieyadvfiov hovpl hafieim. 

480 wpwTov yap fiiv iovra fiaXe arrjdo^ trapa fialfiv 
Sc^LOv, avTiKpv^ 8c 8t' cuftov xoKk^ov eyxos 
ijX^ci/' 6 8' CI/ Koj/vgai xafial necrev aiyeipo^ C09, 
7j pa T iv elafieirg cXco? fieyakovo tt€<\>vkiq 
Xcoj, ardp ri 01 o^ot itr aKpordrg 7r€(f>vaa'iv - 

485 rfjv iiiv d* apfiarowqyo^ dvrfp aWcoi/i (riSijpa} 
i^erafij o<^pa Irvv Kafixlrg Trcpt^aXXci Buf)pw' 
Tf fi€u T d^o/LtcVrj KCLTai noTafiolo Trap* o^^^a?. 
Toloi/ dp* * Apdefilhyji/ ^nio^Uriov i^evdpi^ev 
Aia? Bioyeprj^. tov 8* "Plvth^o^ aioXodwprj^ 

490 nptaftt8i79 Kad* ofiiXoi/ aKovTicei/ ofct Bovpi- 

TOV fi€v diJLap$\ 6 8c A€VKOv '08vcrcrco9 iadkov iralpop 
)8c)8Xi}KCi fiovfiwi/a v€Kvv ircptoa ipvoma' 
jjpirrc 8' d/Lt<^* avroJ, i/c/cpo^ 8c ot c/cttcctc ;(Cip09. 
roC 8' '08vcrcv9 /xdXa dvfiov dTro/cra/xci/oto ^oXoJ^t/, 

495 /817 8c 8td 7rpofidx<op K^KopvdiLivo^ aWoiri ;(aXKft>, 
OTTj 8c /xdX' iyyifs idv, Kal aKOPTure Bovpl ij>a€iv(o 
dfiffn c na7mji/as. vtto 8c Tpoic? Kcicd8oi/To 
di/8po9 aKOPTLaa'aPTo^. 6 8* ov^ dXtov )8cXo? tJiccp, 
dXX' vtoi/ npidfioLO vodov fidke ArjfioKocjvra, 

oOO o? ot *A)8v8d^ci/ ijX^c, Trap* iTnriov (OKeidcDV 

TOV p *08ucrcv9 crdpoto ^oXcocrd/uici/o? )8dXc 8ovpl 
Kopcrrfv 17 8* €T€poLO 8td KpoTd(f>oLo ircprjO'ej/ 
alxp-^ ;(aXKCti7' roi/ 8c ctkoto? oo-o-c KaXin/rci/, 
SovTHjcrci/ 8c TT^adiVy apd^Tjae 8c rcv^c* cV airrco. 

505 x^pyjaav 8' utto re 7rp6fia\OL kol (^ac8i/xo9 "Eicrcop' 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 89 

Apollo rouses the Trojans. A General Slaughter begins. 

^Xpytioi 8e /xeya la)(0Vy ipvaavTo Se veKpov^, 
iOvaav 8c TToki) Trporepw. vefieayiae 8* 'AttoXXow/ 
n^pydfiov CK/carc8c5j/, Tptoeo'a'L he kcTcXct* dvcra?" 
^^ 6pirua'$\ iTnroSafioi Tpoic?, firjS* cuccrc X^PI^V^ 

510 *Apy€LOLS, iirel ov (TKfyL \l0o<; xP^^ ^^^^ crc8iypo5 
^(aXicoi/ dpaaxeadcu Tafxeaixfioa fiaWofiepoKriv. 
ov fiav ov8' *A;(cX€U5 Beri8o9 ttcu? 'qvKOfioto 
IxdpvaToXf dXX' cVl injucrl ;(dXoi/ ^v/xaXyca Trecrcrct." 
ft)5 9ar ttTTO TTToXtos 0€ti/09 C/C09 • avrap A;(atov9 

616 copcrc Aco9 dvydrqp tcohuTTTf TptroyeVcta, 
ipXpiiivi) Kad* ofttXoi/, o^i /Ltc^tcVra? tSotro. 

ci/^' * AfiapvyKethr)]/ Aicopea fioipa irehrfO'ev' 
^€p/ia8i^ yap ^Kjjto napd a<f>vpbp OKpioevTi 
KPTJfiTjv he^LTeprjV' fidke 8c Sp^Kcov dyo^ di/8pa>j/, 

620 IIcipoo^ *Ift/8pao't8779, o? dp* Aivodev exKifkovdeiv 
dii<l>0T€pcD 8c revovre koX oarea Xda? di/at8i79 
dxpLS dirrfkoLTfO'ei/ ' 6 8* VTrno? ci/ Kovijjaiv 
KdmreaePy afiffxi} X^^P^ <^tXot? Irdpoiai Trcrdcrcra?, 
uvfiov airoTTveuov. o o CTrcopa/Liei/, 05 p epaKeu irep, 

626 IIcipoo^, ovra 8c 8ovpl Trap' 6fi<f>a\6p • c/c 8* dpa ttSctcu 
XvvTo ;(a/ial j(oXd8c5, toi^ 8c (Tkoto? ocr(r€ /cdXiA/rc)/. 
roj/ 8c 6da9 AtrcoXo? direa'aviievov )8dXc 8ovpl 
aripvov imep fta^oto, Trdyi; 8' cj/ irvevfiovi ^(aX/cd?. 
dy^^t/LtoXoj/ 8c ot ^X^c ©da?, c/c 8* ofipiiiop cyxo^ 

630 iairda-aTO arepvoLOj ipvacraTo 8c ^u^o? ofv, 

roi o yc yaoTcpa rv^/rc [itaifPy cic 8* ati/vro $vfi6p. 
rcv^ca 8* ovK d7rc8v(rc- irepUrrqo'av yap cratpot 
©pTjiKC? aKpoKOfioL hoXlx ^y^^ctt ;(cpa-tj/ e)(oi^C5, 
ot c [leyav nep cdi/ra icat l(f>0Lfioi/ Koi dyavov 



90 OMHPOY lAIAAOS A 

636 Zaav aiTO a<f>€uop • 6 he yajraanievo^ ireXe/jLCxdyj. 
cU? Tco y iv Kovi-Qdi Trap* ak\rj\oixri Terdcrdrij/j 

^ TOL 6 ll€V Sp-QKioV^ 6 8* 'ETTCtoij' ^aXKO^^lToll/CUI/ 

i7y€ftdi^c9 • TToXXol Se irepiKT^ivovro koX aXXoc. 
€pOa K€v ovK€TL ^pyov ain)p opoccuro /lerekdciPf 
640 o9 Ti9 er' a^SXr/Tos Koi apovraTOS 6^€l j^aX/c^ 
hLpevoL Kara /leao'oPf ayot Se c IlaXXa? 'A^ifinj 
X^^po^ eXovcra, drap fiekewp dnepvKOL iparjp' 
TToXXoc yap Tpwcjp /cat *A;(atc5i/ rjfiaTL k€lp(o 
irpripce^ ip KOpCyat Trap' dXXijXowrt rerapTO. 



OMHPOT IAIAAO2: E 

Ef- /SdXXei KvedpeuiP 'Aprid re TvSdos v{6f. 

Ei Venerem et Mortem Diomedis tela cruentant. 

*In Epsilon, Heaven^s blood is shed 
By sacred rage of Diomed.^ 

AiOfiijhov^ dptorreia. 

Diomed begins his 'Bravery.' Athena and Ares leave the Field. 
The Achaeans turn the Trojans to Flight. 

O'^* ad TvSetSy /iaofirjhei naXXa9 *A07JvT) 
8wK€ fiepo^ Koi ddpa-osy Iv* 50817X09 fiera iracriv 
*A/>ycw)Mri yevoiTo i8c fcXcos icrOXov apotro. 
Sate oi €K Kopvdos re kol dorTriSos aKcifiaTOv irvp^ 
6 doTcp' OTTcopii/o) ivakiyKLOVy 09 re fiakiara 
\afnrpov TtafK^aLirQci Xckovfievo^ 'fifceai/oto • 
rolov ol TTvp halep ano Kpar6% re koX cificovy 
wpce 8c fiLV Kara fiiccrovy odi TrKeiaroi Kkoviovro, 

Jjv hi Tt9 ev TpdjecrcTL Ad/)7}9 d(f>v€LO^ dfivficovj 

10 ip€V9 HcpatOTOlO* OVd) 0€ OL VICC9 rjOTTjPf 

^ycv9 'l8atd9 re, H'^XV^ ^^ eiSore Trdari^' 
r(o oi diroKpLvdepre ivavruo opfiridijrrjp ' 
Tco fiev d(f>* linrouvj 6 8' dno ^^ovo^ cjpvuro ir€^o9. 
oi 8' ore 817 (r)(ehw Jjcrav in aWijXoLa-ip lovreSj 
15 ^y€V9 /5a irporepo^ Ttpotei hoXi^ocTKiov ey)(o^' 
Tv8cf8€co 8' vwep (ifiov dpicrrepov rjXvd* aKcoKri 
eyx€09, ov8* efia)C avrov. 6 8' varepo^ wppvro x^XkoI 

Ti;8ct8i79' rov 8' ov^ dXiov fie\o^ eK^vye x^V^^' 

91 



92 OMHPOY IAIAA02 E 

dXX' ejSaXc OTfjdo^ fierafid^ioPy ciS(rc 8* a<^* iTrncuv. 

20 'lSau)9 8' anopouire Xxttcui/ irepticaXXca Suf^pov^ 
ov8* erXyj Tr^pifiijvax dSeXi^eiou Krafievoio- 
ovSe ydp ovSe icei/ avro? vir€K(f>iry€ Krjpa fieXaivaVy 
aXX' *H<^aurro9 cpvro, aauoae 8c i/v#ctI icoXvi/fa?* 
<09 8i^ ol ^-^ Trdyxy yipwv aKa)(i]fi€Pos etq. 

25.t7rirov9 8' c^cXcuras iieyadvfiov Ti;8co9 vio9 
8aiic€i^ eraipoKTiv Kwrdyeiv icotXa9 cttI i^as* 
Tpct)C9 8c fieydOvfiOL iirel iSov vfc AdprjTos 
TOP fi€P akevdfiepoPj top 8c tcrdfiepop irap* o^<eo'<l>LPy 
iracrip opipOi) dvfio^- drap yXavica>iri9 *A0yjprj 

30 X€Lpo^ iXova €7r€€(r<rL 7rpo<rqv8a dovpop ^A/nja* 
"*A/)cs, *A/)C9 PpoTokoiyiy /xiat<^ovc, rcixccrtTrX'TTa, 
ovfc dv 817 Tpoias ficv idxrcufiep kol *A;(aiov9 
fidppacd^y OTnrorepoicn TraTrjp Zcu? ici;8o5 ' opc^g, 
vail 8c ')(a^<ifi€a'0aj A109 8' dXccop^c^a fiyjpLP.*^ 

Six Achaean Leaden slay Each a Trojan. 

36 cS? ct7roS<ra fid^yj^ i^ijyaye dovpop "Kprqa. 
TOP fi€P cTTCtra KaOeUrep in rjioepTi %KafidpSp(Oj 
Tpcia? 8* €K\Lpap AapaoL' €\€ 8' dphpa cicacrro? 
riy€fi6po}p. 7rpa>T05 8c dva^ dphpiop *Ayafi€fiPwp 
dpxop 'Aki^wpdjPy *OSiop fiiyaPy cW^aXc Buf>pov' 

40 Trp(ljT(a yap crrp^^depTi fiera<l>p€P(p ip hopv 7r!j^€P 
ojfKop fieo'OTjyvSi 8id 8c (mjd€a'(j>LP cXacrorcv. 
LooirTTTjOTci/ oc irecrwPy apaprjcre oe t€vx^ €7r airroi.J 
'l8op,cj'CV5 8' dpa ^auTTOP ipijpaTOy Mrjopo^ viop 
Bcipotr, 09 c/c Tdpp7)s ipt,fi(o\aKo^ elXrjXovdeip ' 

45 Tov fi€P dp *l8op,cvcv9 8ovpt/cXi/ro9 cyjfci fiaKp<fi 
pv^* linrwp imfiyjcrofiepop fcard he^iop (ofiop' 
rjpLire 8' cf 6\€(0Py aTvyepo^ 8* dpa p.tv ctkoto^ clXci/. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 98 

TOP fiev dp* *lSofi€V7Jo^ iavkevov depdirovr^^ ' 
vu>v Se %Tpo(f>LOLO %Kafidv8piov, alfiova Oijpri^j 

60 *At/)6i8i)5 MepeXao^ cX* ey^ci' o^vo^vriy 

icrdkov dyjprjrrjpa' 8t8a£c yap ^Aprefit^ avrrj 
fidkkcLv dypia ndvra^ rd tc r/96<^€i ovpecLV vXij. 
dXX' ov oi t6t€ ye ^palcrii *ApTC/it9 io\4aipay 
ovhk ifcrffioXioLy ^aiv to irpip yc iccicaoro- 

66 dXXa flip *At/)€i87J9 8ouptfcX€iT09 MevcXaos 

vpotrdev €0€v (f>€vyovTa ii€Td(f>p€vop oxnacre hovpt 
[co/Ltctiv fieatrqyv^y hid 8c arrjOtcri^iv cXocrorcv.] 
TjptTTC oc Trp'qvTi^y apaprjcre oc rcu^^c 67r avro>. 
MTjpiovrj^ 8c <I>cpc*cXov imjpaTO^ Tcktovo^ viw 

60 ^ApfiovCSefOy o5 x^P^^^ CTTtoTaro 8at8aXa irdina 
T€6\€iv' c^o^a ydp /xtv i(f>i\aTO IlaXXd? *A0T]vrj' 
05 'Cat * Ake^dvhpcfi TeKrtjpaTo vfja^ iUra% 
dpx^KdKov^y at irda-i KaKov Tp(o€<T<Ti yivovTO 
oi r avTft), CTree ov rt C/ccoi/ c*c uecnpaTa 'QOr). 

65 Tov ftcv M7j/3toKij9, ore 817 KaTefiapuTe SitoKcaVy 
fiefikiJKeL ykovTop fcctra he^Lov 17 8c 8ia7r/)o 
dvTLKpijs Kara kvcttlp in ocrrcoi/ -^Xv^* aKcjidj. 
yvv^ 8* CjptTT* olfKo^a^y ddvaTO^ 8c ^tv d/i<^cicdXtn/fCv. 
n7y8atov 8' dp' €7re(f>ue MeyTj?, ^ Amrjvopo^ viovy 

70 09 ^a vodo^ [i€v erfVy irvKa 8* €Tp€(f>e 8ta Bcavco, 
tcra (^tXoicri rcicco'crt, ^a/JtJo^cVij iroo'ci' "<w. 
roi/ /xcv ^Xct8i79 8ovpt*cXvro9 iyyvdtv lk6<av 
fiePkrjKei K€(f>a\7]s Kara tvcov 6£ci hovpi' 
dvTiKpv<s K dv ohovTa^ xmo yXcja'cav Tdfie xoKko^. 

75 rjpLve 8* cv KovCgy \lfv\pov 8* cXc ^^^^^^ oSoCcrtj'. 
EvpvTTvXo? 8' 'Ei;at/iovt87}9 'Txjnjpopa hloi/y 
viov vtrepOvfiov AoXo7rtovo9, 09 /oa %KafidvSpov 
dpTjTrjp iTeruKTOy deo^ 8' ciS9 riero Sijixwy 



94 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

Tov yuev ap* Evpi^TTvXos 'Evai/10^09 ayXaos vios 
80 irpoaOev SSev (f>€vyovTa fierahpofiabrjv cXaor' oifiop 
<l>aaydp(o di^a9, airo 8* i^ecre X^^P^ fiapelav. 
alfiaToecra'a 8c j(ctp 7r€8t^ Tricre* top 8c Kar* oorcrc 
cXXa^c 7rop^vp€o^ ddvaTO^ koX fiolpa KpaToirj, 

Further Introdnction to the ' Bravery ' of Diomed. 

a>9 oi fiev iroviovro Kara Kpareprip vcrfiimjv 
85 Tvhet^Tjv 8* ovic av yi/onj9, ironripoicri iiereCyj, 
17c ^era TpckcrcLP o^iXcoi -^ /icr' 'A^^atot?. 
^ui/c yap a/1 irc8u)i/ irorafi^ ttXiJOoptl ioLKc^ 
-)(€Lfidppq)y OS T cjKa pcW iKcSaa-cre y€(f>vpa^' 
TOP 8* ovr' ap re y€(f>vpcu ccp/icVat itrxavooxTLv^ 
90 ovr' apa cpicca Zcrxci dXcoacor ipi67)\4<av 
iKdovT i^aTTLvrj^y or ^mfipUrg A109 ofifipo^' 
TToKKa o VTT avTov cpya Kanqpnre icaA ail,7)iav. 
<Ss viro TvSei&ji nvKipal Kkoviovro (fxikayye^ 
TpcMoVy ov8* apa fitv fiCfipov iroXde^ irep iovre^. 

Diomed is wounded, but is strengthened by Athena. 

05 roi^ 8* 6)9 ovp ivorqcr^ AvKoiovas dyXao9 V109 
dvvovT Afi neSiOP Trpo idtv Kkoviovra <^dXayya9, 
at/r* iirX Tu8ci8u criratvcro KafiiruXa rd^a, 
Kal fidk* iTratcrcrovra, ruxa>v Kara he^ibv (ofioVy 
9(ap7iKo^ yvakov 8ta 8' cTrraro irt*cpo9 oiords, 

100 avriKpv<; 8c 8tc(rx€, iraKdxrcr^ro 8' ai/jiari dtapi]^, 
ro> 8' cttI fiaKpov aivcre AvKaovo^s dyXao9 vtd9* 
" opwcd^y Tpa>c9 ftcyd^v/Ltot, Kcvrope^ linrwp • 
pipKrqTOL yap dpicrro^ 'A^^atcSv, ov8c c <^/lii 
817^' av(rxyjcr€crd(u Kparepov )8cXo9, ct crcdi/ p,c 

105 {opaev dva^ Ato9 uto9 dnopinjfi^vov Av/cnj^cv." 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 95 

0)9 eqyar cv^o/ici/os- top O ov pcAo9 (okv oafiaa'crePf 
dXX' dvaxopija'a^ irpoaff Ittttouv kol o')(<ecr<f>Lv 
coTTj, *cat %0a/ekov irpoceKf}!) Kairavrjiop viov 
" opaoy ireirop Kanavrjia^j KaTafiijcreo hi(f>poVy 

110 o^pa iiOL i^ ^fioLO ipv<ra"ii^ iriKpov oiarovy 

6)9 ap* €<^, lEdo/cXos 8c Kad* hnroiv olKto ^(a^a^e, 
Trap 8c crra9 )8cXo9 coicv 8ta^irc/)C9 i^epva cifiov 
alfia 8* airqKovril.'e 8ia OTp^TTTOio x^t5)vo<;. 
817 TOT* CTTCiT* ^pSro )8oT7J/ aya^o9 Ato/i7/8T;9" 

115 "fcXS^t ^cv, atytd;(oio Ato9 tcko^, aTpvTdpyjy 

€L TroT€ fioL Kol itaTpX <^iXa (f>pov€ov<ra 7ra/)ccmj9 
8i}ti^ cv TToXc/ici), wv avT* c/ic <^tXat, ^Xdrjirq • 
009 oc TC ^ avopa cActv icat C9 opfir/v eyx^o^ cAe^civ, 
09 fi* CjiSaXc (f>Oaiii€vo^ kol CTrcv^^crai, ou8c /ic (jyqcriv 

120 Srjpov €T o\jf€a'0aL Xafiirpop (f>do^ iJcXibto." 

cS9 ci^ar' euxofievo^^ rov 8' cicXvc naXXa9 'AOjJpt)^ 
yvla 8* iOyjKev cXa<^pa, 7ro8a9 ical X'^^P^^ virepdtv 
dyxov 8* ioTafia/Tf area Trrepoevra trpoaiqvha' 
*^ Oapcrcop vvvy Aid/i7}8c9, cttI Tptoeo'crL fidx^aOcw 

126 cV yap rot (mjdecra-L fiepos narpwiop rJKa 

arpofioPy olop ^cor/cc o'a*c€<r7raXo9 vmrora Ti;8cv9' 
a;(Aw o au rot aTr o<l>(7a\fio}p cAo^, tj irpti/ evijePy 
o<pp CV yiypoMTK-Q^ -qfiep ueop rjoe Kai apopa, 
T(o pvp, at K€ ^co9 Treipdiiepos cV^a8' i^rax, 

130 fii/ Ti (Tu y dOapdroLCTL 0€ol^ dpTiKpv /la^ccrdai 
T0t9 aXXot9' arap ct *cc Ato9 dvydrtip 'Aif>pohCrri 
ikdjjcr C9 TToXefioPj ttjp y ovrdfiep 6^4i ;(aXfc^." 

Tj /Ltci/ ap' cS9 ciTTouor' dmfir) yXavKCjm^ 'A^i^kij, 
Ti;8ct8i79 8* i^avTL^ l(op irpoiidxoKTip IfiixOy)' 

136 Tcal Trpiv TTcp dviiw fie/iac^ TpcSccrort iidx^adaUj 
817 Tore /Lttv Tpi9 roacop cXcv fiepo^, cS9 re Xcoi^a, 



96 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

OP pd T€ Troifi7)v ayp<a in eiponoKOLS oUccriv 
Xpovarg fiet/ r avXrj^ imepdkfievov^ ovSc hafida-ayi' 
Tov fiev T€ aOevo^ wpcrcv, cTrcira 8c r ov irpoaafivvei 
140 dXXa Kara aradfiovs Svercw, ra 8' ip^fia (jyofielTcw 
at fi€p T ay)(^LaTLPaL in aXkqXjjai, Keyyvraiy 
avrdp 6 ififi€[iam fiadeq^ c^aXXcrat avXyj^' 
€09 fiefiad)^ Tpckco'L fiiyy) Kparepo^ AiofiTj^r)^. 

Diomed slays Sight Chiefs, among them Two Sons of Priam. 

€vO* ikcv *Aarrvpoop Kal ^Tneipova iroifiei/a Xooii/, 

146 TOV fi€v inep fial^olo jSaXco^ xakfajpei hovpC^ 
TOV 8' erepov ^uf>€C fieyaXo) Khrjlha nap wfiov 
nKTjg , ano o av)(Cvo^ (ofiov ecpyauev r/o ano vo/rov. 
Toi)^ fi€v eacTy o 8' "XfiavTa fier(a\ero koX Wokmhovy 
viia<; Ev/w8a/iai/ro9 ov^iponokoio yepovTO^^ 

160 Toi^ ovK ipxoiJL€voL^ 6 yepcjv iKpivaT oveipovSj 
dXXa (Tineas /cparepo? Aio/li7}87}9 i^evdpi^ev. 
^7) 8c fierd Sdvdov t€ Socavd t€ ^aCvono^ vfc, 
dyi^Qi rtj[kvyer(i}y 6 8* iTeipero yrjpaC \vyp^y 
vlov 8* ov T€K€T* dkkov inl KTedTeacL XinccOai. 

156 €vd* o y€ Toif^ ivdpiC^e, <f>L\ov 8' i^aCvvTO dvfiov 
dfi(f>OT€po)y naTepi 8c yoov koX icjSea Xvypd 
Xcitt', cVct ov [,(oovTe fid^^ iKvoanjcravTe 
Scfaro • yifptaoral 8c 8ta KTrjav haTcovTo, 
€vd* vXa^ Hpidjioio hvio Xdfie ^aphavihao 

160 eiv ivl hi(f>p(o iovTa^, *E)(€[i[iovd Te XpofiCov T€. 
(09 8c Xcoji/ iv fiovcrl Oopcjv i^ av;(Ci/a d^y 
nopTio^ ^c )8od9, ^v\o\ov KdTa fiocrKOfievdcjVy 
(Ss TOV9 dii(f>OT€pov^ cf Inncav Tv8co9 vio9 
firjae KaKO)^ dcKovra^, ineiTa 8c T€v\e iavka • 

166 r7r7rou9 8' 019 iTdpoiai 8t8ov fierd vrja^ iXavveiv. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD .97 

Aeneas and Pandarus against Diomed and Sthenelns. 

TOP 8* rScv AiveCa^ akand^opra ort^^a? apSpwp, 
firj 8* Lfiep ap t€ fioixV^ '^^^ ^^^ k\6pop €y\€idoiP 
Hdphapop dpTiOeop Si^^ftcvo?, ct nov i(f>€vpoL. 
€vp€ AvKOOPO^ viop dfivfiopd t€ Kparepop T€, 
170 arrj 8c irpoaO* avroio ino^ t4 fxip dpriop Tjvha- 
"nai/8a/)c, TTov Toi to^op ihc TTTepoei/re^ oLorol 
fcai ICAC09; Cf> ov rt? tol epiQerai epuaoe y aprjpy 
ovSc Tts 6v AvKLjj ceo y eo^rax cTvat dixeCptop. 
dXX* aye roIS* €<^C9 dv8/)l )8cXos, Att j(ctpas dpa<r)((op^ 

176 OS Tt9 08c KpaT€€L KOL 817 fCafcd TToXXfll €Opy€P 

TpSas, cVcl iroXXoii/ re *cat icrdXiop yovpar eXvcrep' 
ct ^7/ T19 ^cos c'oTi Korecradfiepos TpcoecraiPj 
ipmp fiTjPLO'a^ • ;(aX€7n7 8c ^coO ctti firjpt^.^* 

Pandarus recognizes Diomed and regrets that he has not come 
as a Spearman. 

TOP 8* avT€ Trpoa'€€L7r€ AvKdopo^ dyXaos vlos' 
180 " Alicia, Tpcoojp fiov\7]<l>6p€ xa\Ko\iTiapo}p^ 

Tv8ci8j7 iiip iyd ye hat<^popi irdpra ctcr*cco, 

dcr7rt8t yiypdxTKOiP av\(!mi8i Te Tpv<^aXctj7, 

linrov% T elaopoojp* a'd<f)a 8* ovk 018', el Oeos ionp. 

ci 8* o y* dpTjp^ OP (f>r]ixij Sat(f>p(op Tu8co9 vtos, 
186 ov\ o y dpevde Oeov rdSc /lai^crcu, dWd ri? dy^t 

eoTTjK ddapdT(op pe<^4\ri eikvfiepo^ a>/xov9, 

09 TovTov fieXo^s (oKif KL)(TJiJL€POP crpavep dXXjj. 

'17877 ydp oi iif>7JKa )8cXo9, KaC [ilp fidkop wfiop 

he^LOPj dpTLKpifq 8td dojprjKO^ yudXoto, 
100 KaC flip iycj y iif>dix7ip 'AtSwi/^t Ttpoid^eip^ 

efiTTJ)^ 8' OVK c8d/ia<r<ra* ^cd9 pv tC^ ccrrt Konjeis. 

MTTTOi 8* ov irapeacL /cat dp/iara, tw k iTnfiaiTjP' 



98 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

dXXa TTOv iv fieydpouri Avkoopo^ cpheKa huf>pot 
Kokol vpo/ronayel^ i/€ot€v;(C€9, dfiifn 8c ireTrXoi 

195 mTnavrax' irapd 8c' a<l>Lv iifdoTco St^iryc? IvTroL 
iardaL Kpl XevKop ipeTrTOfiepoi kol oXupas- 
•Jj fi€P fiOL /xaXa iroXXa yeptop al)(fi7jTd Avkoodv 
ip)(Ofi€v(^ CTrercXXc hofioi^ evi noLTjTolaiv' 
ImroLcrCp fi iK€\€V€ koL dpfiao'iv ififiePa&ra 

200 dp^eu€iv l^poktrcri Kara Kparepd^ vcrfiiva^' 

aXX' iy<o ov inOoiirjVj ^ r av irokv Kiphiov Jjeuy 
Itnrcjv <^€i8d/i€i/o9, fif] fioi h^voCaro (jyopfi'^s 
avhp&v elkofieucavj eltoOore^ iSfiei/ai a&qv. 
019 \iirov^ airrdp ne^os C9 '^Wlop eiXrjXovddy 

206 TO^OLO'Lv TTurvvo^' TO. 8c ft* ovK dp* c/icXXoi/ ovrjcT^iv. 
[rjhy) yap hoioicriv dpitrrq^cra-iv c<^^/ca, 
Tvhethjj T€ KOL ^ATpeth-Qy c/c 8' dii<f>oT€pouv 
drp€fcc9 ai/x' iacreva /SaXcov, rjyeLpa 8c /jidXXoi/.] 
r^ pa KaK'^ aur]/ aTTo iraorordXou dyievXa ro^a 

210 yjfiaTi T^ Ikop/qv, ore *lXtoi/ ci? ipareLvrjp 
yfy^ofufv Tp<iea'<rLy <l^€p(ov \dpiv '^IStKTopi hUf. 
ci 8c ICC vo<mj(r(t) kol iao^oiiax 6<f>0oiXfiota'iP 
TTarpih* ifiriv aXo^w re koX vi|rcpc<^9 fieya 8c()p,a, 
avTLK erreLT dn ifi€lo Kapy) rdfioi dXX(>rpt09 <^a>9, 

215 ct fiTj iyoi Td8c rofa (f>€L€LV^ iv wpl Oeiifp 
;(cpori 8ta/cXd(rara9 ' dpefiwkia yap [loi o7nj8cr." 

Aeneas takes Pandarus npon his Chariot. 

roi' o avr Atv€ta9 Tpoxap ayo9 ai^ioi' ijvoa* 
"/i-^ 817 ovra>9 dyopevc ndpo^ 8' ovic cirorcrcu dXXa)9, 
Trptj' y iiTL po) T^8' dv8pl aifv LTrrroKrip Kal o^ecn^w 
220 dpTL^LTjv iXOopre trvv cWccrt Tr€ip'qdy)vai. 

dXX' dy* c/ia>v o\(i<av imfiyjcreoj 6(f>pa iSijcu, 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 99 

otot TpclurOt iTnrot, iirKTrdfiepoi irehioio 

KpoLirva fiak* ivda Koi evda hicjKCfiep rfSe ^cfiecdai* 

Tfa KoX vS)L iroXti/Sc (racucrcTov, ct irep dp avre 

226 Z€V9 inl Tv8ci8|; MofiijSeC icvSos ope^y. 
aXX* aye vvv fiaxmya koX tji/ui crLyakoevra 
Se^at, eyci 8* Imrcov imfirjaofKUy oif>pa fid)(<oiiai' 
•^c (TV TOpBe SeSc^o, fiekyjaovaLv 8* ifiol wnrot." 
rw 8' aSrc TrpocreeiTre Avkolovo^ dyXaos vid9" 

230 " Aivcca, (TV ftei/ avT09 ^* 171^101 ical rcco rTTTTcti • 
pJaXkov v<f>* TjPLOxco elfodoTL KafiiruXov apfia 
oiaeroPy ct irep dv avre (f^eficifxeda Tu8eo9 viov 
fiTj Tco fi€v Seurairre fiarTJaerov^ ovh* iOehrjTOv 
eK^epeficv iroXdfioLOy Teov <l)06yyov irodiovre^ 

235 i/£t 8* iirat^a^ fieyaOvfiov Tv8€09 vto9 

aird re KT€urQ kol iXdcraji fi<ow\a^ Ittttov^. 

dXXa (TV y avro^ iXavve re* dp/xara kol t€(o iinrwj 

roi/0€ o eycjv eiriovra oeoe^ofiaL ofct oovpt. 

Stlieiielas calls Diomed's Attention to Aeneas and Pandarns. 

6)9 ipcL {fxamjcavre^ €9 dpfiara TroiictXa fidpre^ 
240 ififieiiaon iirl Tv86t87j ej(ov (u/c€a9 Mr7rou9. 
T0U9 8c iSc S^cvcXo9 Kawamjio^ dyXao^ i;to9, 
ao/ra 8c Tvhethrjp inea irrepoepra irpoaiqvha' 
"Ti;8cf87j Aio^7}8c9, c/Lt^ K€)(apicrii4v€ dv/xS, 
avhp* 6p6(o Kparepca inl crol fie/iaayre fid^ecrdax^ 
246 Iv* dmXedpov €\ovra^* 6 fikv t6^(op cv ci8{09, 
ndi/8apo9, V109 8* avrc AvKdovo^ cvj^crot cli/ai* 
Aii/cia9 8' i;to9 fieyakTjTopo^ *Xy)(Urao 
ej^erai iKyeydfievy fnjrrip 8c 61 iar ^X^pohirti^ 
dXX* aye 8t) ^^a^w/xc^' c<^' L7nr(0Py fiifii /lot ovr{09 
260 ^i/c 8td irpoiLd^oiv, /lij wa)9 <f>iXov TjTop oXecrtrg^y 



100 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

TOP 8' ap* virohpa Ihcjj/ 7rpoa'€<f>r) Kparepos MofirfSyj^- 
^' fjLTJ TL (jyofioph^ ay6p€v\ cttci ovSc (tc Treicrefiev ot(o' 
ov yap fioL yevvalov akvcKdJ^ovri fid)(ea'0(u 
ou8c KaTawrdKro'^iv' en ftot fiipo^ efiirehop ioTiv 

255 oKveUo 8' LTTTTCop imfiaLvifiev, dXXa /cat avrco9 

avriop elfi avriov' rpeip [i ovk ia IlaXXa? *A0tJv7]. 
TovT(o 8* ov irdkLv avri9 anoUrerov cokge? tTTTTot 
afKJxg} a(f>* riiieUoVj ci y* ow erepo^ yc (jyvYQcrw 
aXXo 8c rot epeico, (tv 8* ci'l (jypecrl fidWco (rgaLv 

260 at fcci^ ftot 7roXi;)8ouXo9 ^AOtJvti icv8o9 opi^jj 

dii<f>OT€p(o KTelpaty (tv 8 c rovahe p,kv eJ/cca? Itnrov^ 
airov c/)v/ca/cccti/, cf djm;yo9 yjvia rctvas, 
Atvctao 8* CTrat^ot fieixvrjfia/os tTTTrcoi^, 
Cfc 8* cXctcrcu Tpcoojv fier ivKPTjfiihas *A)(cuovq. 

265 T^9 ydp rot ycvc^9, 779 Tpwt ircp evpvona Zcv9 
85;^' ut09 TTOLvrjp rairufiijSeo^, ovv€K apiaroi 
vmrdiVy ocraoL iaxrip xnr Tjia t -^cXtdv T€' 
r^9 ycvc^9 c/cXc^cv di'af dvhpwv *Ay\Cairj^y 
Xadp-jfi AaofichovTo^ itrocr^Ciiv drjkeas linrov^' 

270 tS}v oi c^ iyepovTO ivl fieydpoicri yepiOXif 

rou9 ftcv recraapas avro9 c^wv drtraXX* cttI <f>dTirg^ 

TQ> 8c 8ir Alveia 8a)fccv, iiyjoTdtpi <^d)8oto. 

ct rovTO) K€ XdfioL/ieVj dpoCfiedd k€ fcXco9 co'^Xdi/." 

Pandarus wounds Diomed, but then is slain by him. 

c59 ot ii€v Toiavra irpo9 dXXT/Xov9 dyopevovy 
275 TO) 8c rd^* iyyvdev ^\dov iXavvovr coicca9 wr7rov9. 
TOP irpoTCpo^ irpoaeenre AvKaopo^ dyXao9 vtd9* 
^* KapTepodvfJLe hat(f>pop, dyavov Tv8co9 vtc, 
7} fidXa <T ov )8cXo9 cJ/cv SafidcrcrarOy iriKpo^ oloto^' 
vvv avr* ^yx^^V TreLpTJcrofiaLy at *cc rvxcofii,^^ 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 101 

280 rj pa Kol dfinenakdiv npotei 8oXi;(oor/ctoi/ eyxp^j 
Kol pdXe TvSeiSao Kar acnrtSa- rfjs Sk Siair po 
alxP''fj x^^'^^^V 'TTa^cVij dcipriKL ttcXcwt^tj. 
T^ 8' iirl fiaKpov avae Kvkolovo^ dyXao9 vid?* 
"^c)8X7jat K^v^iova Stafivepc^, ovSc (r oua 

286 hrjpov er avfrxrjcrecrd ai- ifiol 8c fiey cS^^o? eScuica^-'' 
Toi/ 8' ov Tapfirjcra^ vpoa-Cifyri Kparepo^ Ato/i7/87/5- 
"i7/i^poT€9, ov8' €nr)(€^' arap ov fxeu cr<f)(OL y him 
irpCv y dnonavcr€(T9aL, irpiv y rj erepov yc ir^crovTa 
alfiaros acrat *A/Mja Tokavpivov TroXc/itcmfv." 

290 (Ss <l>(ifi€voq TrpoeqKe- fieko^s 8' lOvvev ^XOrjvr) 
plva nap* o^daXyioVy Xcu*cov5 8' impTjcrev oBovras. 
rov 8' ttTTO ^ci' yXSororav TTpvfivrjv rdfie ;(aXico9 dreipri^y 
ouXH'V 8* i^€<ru07i irapd peiaTOv apdepetava. 
TJpLire 8* c^ ox^coPj dpdfirjcre 8c Te&x^ ctt' avr^ 

295 atoXa TTafi^avotavray irapcrpeaaap 8c ot iTTTTOt 
(o/ci57ro8cs* ToC 8* av^i Xu^tj ^X^ '''^ fievo^ re. 

Aeneas withdraws. He is sadly hurt by a Stone thrown by Diomed, 
but is saved by his Mother. 

Ai^cui9 8* diropovcre avv dcnrihi hovpi t€ fiaKpw^ 
8ciara9, P''^ 7r(09 ot ipvcraCaro v^Kpov 'Axo^oi 
dp(f>l 8* dp* avro) fialve Xccoi/ c59 aXfcl irc7rot^co9, 

300 npoo'de 8c ot Sopv r e.o'x^ 'fctl dar7rt8a irdmotr liai\v^ 
TOP Krdp€vai pepads^ 09 Tt9 tov y di/rto9 cX^ot, 
crpepSakca idxfov. 6 8c ;(C/)/id8tov Xd^c X^^P^ 
Ti;8ct8i79, /leya epyoPy o ov 8vo y* dvhpe if>€poL€Vy 
oloL vvv fipoToC ct<r'* o 8c /Ltti/ ^ca irdW^ /cat oto9' 

306 Tw fidkev At^ctdo /car' Icrx^ov^ a/Oa re prjpo^ 
Icrxio} iv<rrp4<^eraiy Korvk'qv 8c ri piv KakeovcLV 
0\d<r<r€ 8c ot KOTvkrjv^ 7rpo9 8' dp(f>a) prj^^ t4vovt€' 



102 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

(ocre o ttTTO pivop Tpjjx^s Atcros. avrap o y rfpo)^ 
coTTj yvif^ cptTTcov icat ipeuraro x^^P^ ^*X^^2? 
310 yan}9* d/i<^t Se ocrcre KcXcuin) in;^ iKokiAJfev. 
KaC vv K€p €vff aTToXotro ava^ avhpS>v Aipeia^, 
ct fiTj ap* 6£v poTjae Atos dvydrrip 'Ac^poStn;, 
fiTJrrip, 'q fiLv vn 'Ayx^^T? '^^'^^ fiovKokiovTi- 

a/191 O €0|/ <l>l\OV VLOV €)(€UarO 7r7IX€€ KeVKCJy 

315 7rp6a'0€ 8c ot ircVXoto <l>a€ivov Trrvyfia KoKiAJf^v, 
ipKos efiev fi^ketav, fiij ri9 Aai/aaii/ ra^vTr^Xcoi/ 
XctXfcoi/ €1/1 (rhj0€cr<ri, ^aXcoi/ cic dvfiop eXotro. 

Sthenelns captures the Horses of Aeneas. 

Tj pjkv iov (\>i\ov VLOV \me^i(\>€p€v Trokifioio' 
ov8' uto? Ka7rai/^o9 ekrjdero (rvvdeaidtov 

320 rcuuv, a9 CTrercXXe ^017^ dya^os ^lOfirj^^^ 

dXX' o yc rou9 /xcv covs iqpvKaK€ fi(ow\a^ Imrov^ 
v6a'(f>LP diro (f>\oLa'fiovy i^ aivrvyo^ -qvia retvas, 
AlveUio 8* ivat^a^ KaWiTpixa^ lttttov^ 
e^cXacrc Tp<o(oi/ [ler ivKvrJiLiha^ 'Amatol;?, - 

325 Sa)K6 86 A7;t7rvXa> irdpco (f>C\<py op nepl ttoutt/s 

TL€P OflTjkLKLTj^y OTl ol ^p^CTlP cLpTia ^8lJ, 

pTjvcrlp CTTi y\a^vp^crip iXavpe/iep. avrdp o y* rjpcj^ 
(ap linrwp imfid^ ekaj^ ripCa aiyaKoepTOy 
audita 8e Tv8ct87ji/ ficdene Kpareptopvxas ittttov? 

Diomed pursues and wounds Aphrodite. 

330 ifi[i€iia(ii^. 6 8c Kvirpip iiTw\ero prjkii ^oKk^^ 
yiyp<ticrK<i}Py o r dvaX^ct? h)P deo^, ov8c Ocdcop 
rdcaPy at r dphpcjp ttoXc/iov fcdra Koipapcovci^p, 
ovT dp* *Adr)pai7j ovrc mokinopdo^ 'Ej^vcS. 
dXX' ore 87/ p c/ct^ctvc ttoXuv *ca^* o/xiXo^ ond^oDPj 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 103 

336 tpd* iirope^dfievo^ fieyadvfiov Tv8€09 vio9 
aKprfv ovracrc X^^P^ fierdXfiepo^ 6^€i hovpl 
ap\ri)(jy)jp' eWap 8c hopv xP^os apTeroprfa-ei/ 
afifipoaCov 8ta ttcttXov, op ot ;(aptT€9 Kcifiop airraij 
irpvfivov xhrep divapo^. pee 8* afifiporop at/xa deoiOy 

340 ix^P^ ^^^ ^^P '^^ M^^ [laKapeacTL deoliTip* 

ov yap crlrop ehoviTy ov iripova aWona oIpop' 
TOVPeK apaifiopis cicrc ical dddparoi KokeopTcu. 
^ 0€ fieya la^ovcra aTro eo Kafipakep vlop' 
Kol TOP fi€P fierd xepcrXp ipvacraTO ^oifio^s 'AiroXXwi/ 

345 Kvapeji i/cc^cX^;, fii) rt?- Aai^aoii' ra;(i;7ro>XG)i/ 

XoXkop ipL anjOecr&L fiakcjp ck dvfiop ekoiTO' 
ry 8* inl fiaKpop avcrc fiofjp dyado^ ^nofiyjhrj^ ' 
"clicc, Ato? 0vyaT€pj iroXcfiov koI 8ijtoT^T09' 
"^ ovx aXt9, OTTL yvpoLKas dpdXKiha^ iqirepoireveis ; 

350 el Be cru y c? ttoXc^oi/ TrctiXiycrcat, ^ re <t quo 
piyrjcreip iroXefiop ye, koX el x erepmdi irvdyiau" 
(Ss ci^a^, ly 8' dhiovcr* dTrefirjcreTo^ TeCpero 8' aivois. 

Aphrodite returns to Olympus on the Car of Ares. 

rfjp fiep dp* *Ipt9 ekovcra woBTJpe/xo^ e^oLy ofiCXov 
dxOop,epr)p ohvpjfaiy fiekaCpero he XP^^ koKop. 

355 evpep eirei/ra ftaj^ij? ctt' dpiarepd dovpop ^Aprja 
rjfiepoPf rjepi 8' eyxo^ c/ccicXtro /cat rax^* tTnrcw 
Tf 8e ypv^ epiTTovcra Ka<TiyprJTOio if>l\oLO 
TToXXa yacraofiepT] ^(pvora/iTrv/ca? jjreep iTnrou?* 
"<^iXc Kacriyprfre, KOfiLcrai Te ftc, 809 8c /lot tTnrov?* 

360 o(f>p* 69 ^OXv^TTOv LKtofiaiy LP* ddapdrcjp c8o9 iorip. 
XCrjp dxOoficu cX/co9, o /xc fiporo^ ovracrep dpTjp^ 
Tv8€i8ij9, 09 i^J' ye KOL dp Att irarpX fidxoLTo" 
cS9 <^aTO, r^ 8* dp* '^Aprj^ S&Ke xf>vora/i7rv/ca9 rTr7rou9. 



104 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

17 8' €9 Suf>pop €fi(uv€P aKr))(€ii€vrj (f>C\ov rJTopy 
365 Trap Se 01 *I/)ts • eficupe /cat rfuia Xa^cro x^pcriv^ 
[id<m^€v 8' eXaav, rci 8' ovk acKOpre ireriad'qv. 
au/ia 8' eireid* Ikovto deS}v cSos, alrrvv "Okviivov 

Xvaacr* i^ 6\4oiVy vapa 8* dfifipocriou fidkev cISap* 
170 Tj 8' cV yowocn Trlwre Aicivrj^ SV *A<f>pohCrriy 
liTjTpo^ €YjS' if ayKa^ eKaQero uvyarepa tjv, 
;(ctpt TC ^ij' Karepe^ePj e7ro9 r' ci^ar* cic r' opofia^ev 
" Tts i/u ore rota8' cpc^€, if>L\op Tcico?, Ovpavi<ov<av 
^at/ri8uu9, €09 €t ri KaKov p4l,ovcrav iponry ; '' 

Aphrodite complains of her Treatment by Diomed. 

375 rfiv 8' rifieifier etreira (f>L\ofiii€L^^ ^X^pohvn]' 
" ovra /Lie Ti;8eo9 vt09 VTrepdvfio^ A10/L1778179, 
ovv€K iyoi ^i\ov vlov iire^i^epov iroXcfioLO 
Alveiavy 09 c/xot iravToyp irokv <f>ikTaT6^ iarip. 
ov yap en Tpdxav koX 'A^atcSv <^vXo7rt9 atinj, 

380 dXX' 17877 Aavaoi yc Koi adavdroKTi /ia;(oi/rat." 
719 v 8' rjfieifieT cTrctra Aidvrj hla dedajv 
" rerXa^t, reKvov ifiov, kcu dvdcrxeo KrjSofianj irep • 
TToXXol yap 8^ tX^/icj' *OXv/i7rta Sd/iar €)(oin'e^ 
i^ dvSpcov, xaken dXye* in dXXT/Xotori Tidivre^. 

386 rX-^ fikv ''Aprj^Sy ore fiiv *ftT09 Kparepo^ r 'E<^tdXnj9, 
7rat8c9 *AXoj^o9, "^yfo^av Kpar€p(o ipl Secrfx^' 
^aXfceo) 8' iv Kepdfia) SeSero TpiCTKaCSeKa firjpa^s* 
Kai vv K€v €vff dirokoiTo "Apt)^ aT09 ttoXc/xoio, 
ct pjTi injTpviri 7rcpt*caXX>)9 *Hcpt)8ota 

390 'Epixea i^TJyyeiXev 6 8* cfcicXc^cj' "ApTja 

17817 T^ipofi^vovy ;(aXc7ro9 8e c 8cor/Lto9 ihd/ipa. 
rkij 8' ^Hprj, ore /iti/ Kparepo^ 7rdt9 ^A/i^irpvcjvo^s 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 105 

Sc^iTcpoi/ Kara fia^ov oiotgJ Tpiykor^ivi 
fi€fi\r]K€L' Tore Kai jiiv dmJKeoTov Xdficv aXyos. 

395 tXt) 8* 'At87j9 ip Totcrt 7rcXa)pto9 w/cw owrrw, 
€VTC ^11/ (ovros amjp, vio^ Ato9 atyioxoto, 
ci^ inJXoi eV p€KV€a'a'L fiakcjp 6Svjrj[faLv cScoicci/. 
avrdp 6 pij irpo^ hw/xa Ato5 ical fiaKpop "OXv/xttoi/ 
ir^p d^^tavy ohvpiQcri ir^irapiidvo^y avrdp otoTo? 

400 cS/Lty ci/i OTL^ap^ iJXTjXaTO, /ci78€ 8c dvfiov. 

r<f 8' €7rt IlatT/cov 6Svu7]<f>ara (f>dpiiaKa irdcrcrdiv 
r\Kiaar ' ov fiev yap ri Karadirqro^ yc reruKro. 
<rx^Xio9, ofipL/ioepyoSj 09 ov/c o^cr* aurvXa /oei^cov, 
09 ro^oio'iv cK7j8c deov^y oX '^OXv/jlvov ej^ovcrtv. 

406 orot 8' CTTt TOVTOv (iK^fcc ^co, yXav*ca)7ri9 ^Adijvrj' 
ihjTno^y ovSk rb oISc Kara if>p€pa Tv8co9 vid9, 
om iidK* ov Syjpaio^y 09 ddavdroicri fid)(y)raiy 
ovhi ri fiLv 7rar8c9 ttotl yovvaci iraTrrrdC^ovcriv 
iKdovr 6/c iroXe/xoto *cal aii^9 817107^7x09. 

410 TG) wi/ Tv8ct87j9, 61 KoX fioKa Kaprepo^ itmvy 
<\>pal^ia'd<iiy fiTj ri^ 01 dfieCvajp crelo fid^raxy 
fir) 817V AtytaXcta 7r€puf}p(0P ^ A.hp7)<rriirq 
i^ vnvov yoowca <^tXou9 olKrja^ iyeCpjiy 
KovpLhiov TToOdovaa noaiVy rov dpicrrov *A.yaiS)Vy 

415 i<f>dCfi7j aXo^09 ALOfJLijS^os i7r7ro8a/ioio." 

Aphrodite's Wound is healed. Athena's Jest. 

rj pa Kal dfKfxyrcpjjcrip dn t^^ X^V^^ o/jLOpyvv 
akOero x^V* o8wat 8c Karrjmocopro jSapciai. 
ai 8' avr ^Icropofocrax *A07)vaC7] r€ Kal *H/)7j 
KeprofiCoL^ iTreecrcL Ata KpoviSrjp ep4dit<ov. 
420 rotcrt 8c fivdoiv rip^e ^ca, yXau*cc!l7rt9 ^AOtjinf 

" Zcv ndrepy rj pa ri fioi iccxoXokrccu, om /ccj' cittg) ; 



106 OMHPOY IAIAA02 E 

17 fiaXa S77 Tiva KvrrpL^ *Axaua&(ov avieUra 
Tpo}crlv ifia ctttcct^cu, roif^ vvv eKirayka <f>C\7ia€Py 
T&v riva Kappitfivaa *A;(attc£8o>i/ ivn€irk(op 

425 7r/)09 XP^^^ ir€p6vjf Kara/iv^aTO X^P^ apaxrjv^^ 

cS? <^aTO, fieihucrei/ Sc irarfip avhpSiv re d^Siv re, 
Kai poL KaX€(r(ra/ji€i/09 irpoci^ xpvaeqv ^A^pohvnjv 
" ov rot, t4kvov ifiop, ScSorat TroXc/xifta €/3ya, 
dXXa crv y' Ifiepoevra fierepx'^o ipya ydfioLO, 

430 ravra 8* ^Aprfi 60^ kol ^Adrfvy irdvra fjLcXijacL.^^ 

Aeneas is assailed by Diomed, but saved by Apollo. 

ci)9 oi fiep TOtavTa 7r/)09 dXXiyXov? ayopevov, 
Aii/eia 8* inopovcre Por/p ayado^ AloiitJSt)^, 
ytypoKrKfoPj ol avT09 vTTCt/oc^c ^et/oa? 'AttoXXcoi/ • 
aW o y ap ovO€ ueop fieyap aQeTO, l€to o at€t 

436 Alp€LaP KT€LP(U KOL dlTO fcXuTCt T€VX€a hvCCU. 

T/>t9 fi€P inetr iiropovae KaTaKTaficpaL fi€P€aCpo}p, 
Tpl^ 8c ol coTv^cXt^c (f)a€tpr)p dcTrCS* *A7roXXa>i/. 
dXX* oT€ 817 TO reraprop inecrauTO SaC[iopL Icro9, 
8€ti/d 8* o/jto^Xiycra? irpoai^'q eKoepyo^ ^AttoWcop' 

440 " (f)pd^€o, Tv8ct8i7, Kol x^C^^» /xTj8c deoicLP 
Icr ideke (f)pope€LP, iirel ov 7roT€ (f>v\op ofioiop 
dOapdrcop T€ decjp ^afiai ipxofiepojp r dpdpdmoipy 
cS? ^droy Tu8€t8i79 8* di/c^d^cro rurOop onCo'a'a), 
fiTJpip d\€vdfi€PO^ eKarrjfioXov 'AttoXXcdi^o?. 

445 AtpeCap 8* dndTepOep ofiCXov drJK€P 'AttoXXo)!/ 
Il€pydfi(o eip Upjjj 061 ol 1^709 y€ t€tvkto. 
^ rot Toi/ Atjtc5 tc fcat *A/)r€/xt9 ioxecupa 
ip fi€yd\(o dSvT(o dKCOPTO re Kv8ati/di/ re 
avrdp 6 €i8(o\op revf dpyvporo^o^ 'AttoXXcdi/ 

450 avToJ r' Ati/cict tfceXoi/ ^ai rcv^^ecrt tolop' 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 107 

aii(f)l S' ap* eiSfiiX^ T/>a>€9 Kal Siot 'A;(atol 

dcTTTtSa? cvkvkXov? Xcuori^ta re Trrepoevra. 

Ares, roused by Apollo, takes Part in the Battle. 
817 t6t€ dovpov "ApTfa TTpocrrivSa ^olfto^ * AttoXXcoi/ • 

466 "*A/)€9, *A/)€9 fipOToXoiye^ IJLL€U(f>6p€y TCtX^CTtTrX^Ta, 

ovK ai/ 81^ rdi/S' avhpa fta^ij? ipvcraxo fierekddp, 
TvBetBriP, 09 wi/ y€ ical cti/ All irarpl fid^OLTo; 
Kv7r/)i8a /Ji«/ irpSna a^thov ovracrc X^V* ^'"'^ KapittOy 
avrap entLT avro) fiot eVccrcrvTo 8ai!/jio)/t «ro9." 
460 0)9 eiirciv avro9 /xei/ i^4t<eTo TLepydfiia iKpif, 
Tp<fa^ 8c oTixct? ovXo9 *A/)ij9 cirpvpe fierekdwp 
elBofiepo^ ^AKdfjLapTL do^ riyrJTopL %pjiK(op. 
vlourt 86 npLafiOLO SLOTp€<f>€€a'a'L Kckevep' 

" c5 Vt€t9 TLpLdflOLO 8tOT/)€<^C09 )8aa"i,Xl709, 

466 C9 Tt cTi KTtLPtcrdaL idcere \aop 'Axatots; 

^ €19 o K€P afi(f>L TTvk'Q^ iimoLTJrjja'L [id)((t)PTaL; 
KtirajL dpTjp^ op r Icrop iTLOfiep ''EKTopL SU^, 
Aii/€ui9 vto9 fieyaKiJTopo^ ^Ay^urao • 
dXX' dy€T* €K (f>\oLa'fioLO a-acjaofiep icrdXop iroLpop'^ 

Sarpedon taunts Hector with Lack of Spirit. 

470 0)9 eCTTO))/ CJTpVP€ fl€PO^ KOL OvflOP efCCUTTOV. 

ep6* av XapirqSojp [id\a peucefrep ^Eicropa Blop- 

"*E/CTO/>, TT^ 877 fOL fl€PO^ OLXeTfU, O TT/OIJ/ CX€CrfC€9 ,' 

^^9 TTov drc/o Xao)!/ ttoXlp i^efitp -^8' lirLKovptop 
0I09, crvi/ yafiPpoLCTL KacrLyprjroLcrL re crolaLP- 
476 t5i; 10)1/ ov Tii/* cycl) i8€€ii/ Svpafi ov8c i^oi^crat, 
dXXd fcaTaTrroKrcrovcri, kwc9 a>9 d/jt<^i Xcoi^a- 
17/Jier9 8* au fia)^6ii€a'0\ o? ttc/o t' iiTLKovpoL €P€Lfi€P. 



108 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

Kal yap iy(av iirucovpo^ iwp fiaXa rqXodev iJkcii- 
rriXov yap AvKLifj Sai/^co im StPTjevri' 

480 €U0* dXo)(6v T€ <f>L\7)v iXiTTov Kol vrjmov vlovy 

KttS 8c KTTJfiara TroXXa, rd r cXScrat, 09 k iTnSewj^- 
dXXa Kal 0)9 AvkCov^ oTpvvoi koX fi4p.ov airo^ 
dvhpX fiaxrjcracrdcu ' drap ov ri fioL ipddhe roioi/, 
otdi/ K lyc (f)€pOL€P 'A^cuot 7) K€v dyouv. 

485 Tvvj) 8' c<myica9, arap ov8' aXXotcri KcXcvct? 
Xaoccrci/ [levefiev Kal dfivpifievax cipeacLV' 
firj 7ra>9» 0)9 axj/to'L \Ci/ov aXoi/re iravdypovy 
dvhpdjcn BtHrfiepeecrcTLP eXcup ical Kvpfia yeprfaOe' 
oi 86 Ta;(' iKirepaova iif poxop^iprfp irokip vfirjp. 

490 (rot 8c XP''? ''■^S^ wdpTa fieXetp pvicra^ re koL ^/xap, 
dp)(oif^ Xtacrofiepo} TijXcicXccTaii/ imKovpojp 
ptokefJLecD^ cx€/jici/, Kpareprfp 8' dirodeaOai ipimjp.'' 

The Trojans rally. Aeneas returns. 

0)9 <^aro %apm)S(op, 8aicc 8c <^pcVa9 ^E#cropt pvdo^. 
avTLKa 8* cf o^ioiP avp rei^ecrip aXro ^a/xa^c, 
495 TTCiXXwi/ 8' o^ca 8o{;/)c Kara crrparop w^ero vdpTjj 
oTpvpoiP fiaxeaao'datj eyeipe 8c <f}v\omp aiprjp. 
ol 8* iXekCxOyfO'ap Kal ipaprioL iarap 'A;(ataii/' 
'Apy€LOL 8* vwefietpap aoXXce9 ov8c (f)6P'q0€P. 
(OS 8' dp€fios a)(pas <f>op€eL iepds Kar dXa)a9 

500 dpSpWP \lK[l(ipT(OP, OT€ T€ ^aP0^ ^7)yLrJTf)p 

KpCpji iireiyoficpcDP dpifioip Kapirop t€ Kal a)(pas' 
ai 8' imokevKaCpopraL d^vp/xtai- ci59 tot *Aj(aiol 
XcvKol vnepOe yepoPTo KOPicrdXa), op pa 8t* avrSip 
ovpapop C9 TToXv^^aXKoi/ ineTrXriyop 7rd8c9 iTnroiP, 
506 a^ lirniiayofiipiap • xmo 8' €aTp€(f>op rfptoxijes' 
oi 8c fiipos x^ipSyp idvs (f>€pop. dfi^l 8c pvKTa 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 109 

dovpo% "A/ar;? ckciXia/^c fioixO Tpcoccrcrti/ aprjytiVy 
TrdvToa iiroLxofiei/oSi rov 8' eKpaicuvcv 6^er/Jia9 
<boifiov *A7rdXXa>i/09 xpvcaopovy 09 fitp dvwyeiv 

610 Upwalv dv[iov iyeipcu, eVel tSc IlaXXciS' *A07Jinip 
oI)(Pil4v7)V' 17 yap pa, ireXep Aavaourip dprqydv. 
avro9 8' AiveCav fioKa iriovo^ i^ dSvroto 
17KC, Kal €1/ (TTTJdeo'a'L fiii/o^ fioKe 7roLfi€PL kaHp. 
Aipeia^ 8' erdpoicri ficdurraro' rol 8c xaprfa'aPy 

516 019 cISoi/ £{i)di/ r€ fcai aprcfiea Trpoaiopra 

Kal fi€PO^ icrdXop ^opra • /jteraXXijcrai/ y€ /xci/ ov rt • 
ov yap €a ttopo^ aXXo9, op apyvporo^o^ eyeipep 
^ApT)^ T€ PpoToXoLyo^ *Epi9 T a[ioTOP pj^pLavZa* 

The Achaeans await the Trojans. 

Tov^ 8* Atai^e hvio Kat *08v(r(rcv9 koX Aioinjhri^ 

620 turpvpop Aai/aov9 TToXe/xi^e/jiei/ - ot 86 Kal avroX 
ovT€ )8ta9 TpoKop vfreheCSta'ap ovt€ icjKci^, 
dXX* €fiepop p€(f)€\'ga'ip €otfcoTC9, d9 re KpopUop 
irrjpefiiT)^ earr/o'ep in aKponoXounp op^aaip 
dT/>€/jia9, 0^/0* ci;82jo"i fiepo^ Bopeao Kal dXXcui/ 

625 ^a;(p6ca)i/ ap€fi(t)Pf ot re p€(f>ea CKioepra 
TTPOL'Qa'LP Xiyvp'^CL Stao'KLhpda'LP depre^' 
<o^ Aapaol Tpa>a9 fiepop efiirehop oiSe (fyefiopTo. 
'At/)ci8i79 8* dp* ofiikop i(f>oCTa TroXXa KeXevcDP* 
"c5 <^iXot, dpepe^ ccrre Kal dkKifiop rjrop iXeaOcy 

530 dXX7^Xov9 T alBelo'de Kara Kparepds vcrfiCpa^. 
ai8ofi€P(op dpSp<0p 7rX€oi/C9 cool rfe Trei^ai^ot, 
<f>€vy6pTQ)P 8' ovT* dp fcX€09 oppvrai ovt€ T19 dX/o;/' 
17 fcal dKOPTCae hovpl Oow^y fidke 8e irpofiop dpSpa, 
AlpeUo erapop fi€ya6vfiov, ArftKoajPTa 

636 Ilepyaa'iSrjPy op T/)cS€9 6/Lt59 Ilptd/jtoto riK^aaip 



110 OMHPOY IAIAA02 E 

TLOPj iirel Ooo^ erfce fjLera irpaSrourt fid^eirOaA. 
TOP pa Kwr dcrirtSa Sovpl pdke KpeUov *Ayafi€fiv(ap' 
17 8' ovK eyx^^ ipxrroy Stairpo Se curaro j^oXko^^ 
v€LaLpjj 8' ip yaarpi 8ta JoKTr^po? cXocrccv. 
640 8av7njcrcv 8€ irco-cSi^, apafiifo-^ Se t€&)(€ in avr^. 

Aeneaa sUys two Aclueaiis, but yieldB before MeneUns and 
Antilochns. 

€P0' air Aipcia^ Aapaiap iXep ap8pa^ apiarovSi 
vU AtoicX^o9 Kptjdcjpd T€ *Opa'L\ox6p t€, 
rSip pa narrip fikp epcuep ivKTLfiepjj ipl ^rfpy 
a(f>p€LO^ PioTOLO, yevo^ h* ^p iK Trorafioio 

^6 'AX<^€ioi;, 09 T €upv p€€L IlvkUop 8ta yaCif^j 

09 T€K€T *Opa'C\oxop 7roXc€o-(r' aphpeaaip apojcra' 
'OpcriXo^o? 8' ap* enicre AioKkija fieydOvfiop, 
Ik Se AtoicX^o9 StSv/xaoi/c iratSc yepiadifp^ 
Kp7}0(t}p 'OpcrtXo;(d9 re, iidyyt^ cv €i8or6 ircuny?. 

660 Tci ftei' a/3* riPT]craPT€ fieXaLpdcDP iirl prf&p 
*lXtoi/ ct9 evTroiXoi/ d/x* ^ ApyeCoLo-LP iTrea-drfp, 
TLfi'^p ^ATpethji^ * Ayafi€fipopL Kal MepeXdw 
apPV[i€P(t)' T(o 8' aidi tcXo9 dapdroio KaXv^ep. 
ouo T(o ye Xeopre 81/0* opeo^ Kopv^^aip 

666 eTpa<f>enfP viro fJLTjTpl fiaOeirj^ Tap^eaip vXtj?" 
rcii pjep dp* dpTrd^opre )8oa9 Kal uf>La firjXa 
OTaOfiov^ ap0pcj7r(op KepattfiTov, 6(f)pa kol avrw 
aphp&p ep naXdfijia'L KareicTaOep o^ei ^aXfco)* 
Totoi Tcu yeipecrcrip mr AipeCao Safiepre 

600 Kainre(Terqp ekaTQcriP eoiK&re^ ui/njX^crci'. 
rdi 8c TreaoPT ekerfo-ep dpr)uf>i\o^ MepeXao^, 
firj 8c 8ta irpofiaxoDP KeKopvdfiepoq aWain ;(aXica!, 
aeUop eyxelifp' rov 8' wrpvpep fiepo^ "Aprj^y 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 111 

ra (f>pop€<i}Vy Iva x^pcrlv vir Atpeiao Sa/xcii}. 

566 Tov S* tSci/ ^AvTikoxo^ /leyadvfiov NcVropos vtd?, 
firj Se Sia 7rpOfid)(o}p ' ir^pX yap hU Trotfiepi Xaoii/, 
firj Tt nddoLj fieya 8c cr<^a9 aTroo-c^iyXcic ^di/oto. 
Tcu /ici' 817 X€Lpd^ re Kat ey^ca o^vo^vra 
dvriov aiCKrjktov i^enfv fi€[ia<iT€ fidxeaOcu^ 

570 'Ai/rtXo;(09 8c /xaX' aT^t irapiaraTO iroi/jtei/i Xaaii/. 
Aii/€ui9 8' ov ii€LV€, doo^ ir€p iot)p TToXc/jtwrny?, 
(09 cISci' 8vo <f>Syr€ irap dXXi^Xoicn fiepopre. 
oi 8* iir^l ovp P€Kpoif^ cpvaap [lera \aop *A)((uo)p 
TO) fi€P apa 8€tXct) PaXerqp ip )(€pcrlp iraCpcoPy 

575 avra» 8c aTp€(f>0epT€ fierd irpforoKri fiax^o'6'qp. 
€pda TLvkaLficpea Ikerqp aToKaPTOP "ApTfi^ 
dpypp Ila<f}\ay6p(t)P fieyadv/KOP dcTruTrdcDP ' 
TOP ii€P ap* *AT/)cf8i79 8ov/)tfcXciT09 Mci/cXao? 
koT^Sn ef)(€i w^c, Kara icXi}r8a Tvyrjaa^' 

580 'Ai/riXoxo9 8c Mi^(i)i/a /SaX* yipio^op depdnopra^ 

iaOkop * ArufiPtaSijPy 6 8' v7r€OT/)c<^c fidpvxa^ Imrov^y 
XC/)fia8ta) dyKOipa rvx'^v fiecrop* Ik 8' a/oa ^(Ctpaii/ 
171/ta Xcvfc' i\€(f>apTL ;(a/Jiai itecrop ip Kopiyo'tp. 
^AptCXoxo^ 8* a/o* CTraf^as £u^ct ijXao-c Kopcrr/p, 

685 airrap o y dadfiaCpfop ivepyco^ CKnea-e Buf}pov 
KVfifiaxo^ ip KOPijja-ip inl fipexP'OP t€ koI cS/xov^. 
8T}da fiaX* €(rhJK€ty tux^ ydp p afiddoio fiaOeuq^y 
o^p linra} irXij^apTe ;(a/Jiac fidkop ip KOpCjjo-LPy 
TOif^ Ifiaa *Ai/TtXo;(09, fiera 8c arparop rjkacr *Axata>i/. 

Before Hector and Ares Diomed bids the Achaeans yield. 

590 T0V9 8**EfCTa)/) ipoTfo-e Kara <rrtj(a9, wpro 8* cV* avrov? 
KCicXTjycu? • a/xa 8c TpcaoDP eiTropro (f>d\ayy€^ 
KapT€pai' ^px^ S' dpa a'(f>LP '^Apjj^ kol itotpl* *Epv(Oj 



112 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

Tf fikp exovcra KvSoifiop apcuBea hrjioTrjro^y 
"ApT)^ 8* ip nakdfi'ga'L Trekdpiop ey^o^ ip(Ofiay 

696 (f)oCTa 8' aXXoT€ fi€P irpoaO* *E#cro/)09, aXXor' oiria-O^p. 
TOP 8e ihci)p piyrjo'e fioTfP ayado^ Aiofirj^^. 
(OS B* or apTfp airaka/ipoSi ioip irokeos TreSCoLo, 
(mj-g in (0Kvp6(a Trora/i^ dXa8€ irpopiopri^ 
a<f>p^ fiopfivpopTa i8<op, apd r iBpa/i oiruTiTaiy 

600 (Ss t6t€ Tv8€t8rj9 dj^c^a^ero, cTttc t€ Xaoi- 
" <S (f)i\oLy olop 817 6avfid(,ofi€P ^Eicropa Slop 
aixfirfn/jp r i/iepcu kol dapaakeop iroX^yLioTrjp - 
to! 8* aiei ndpa els ye de&p^ 09 Xoiyop afivpei* 
Koi pvp oi irdpa k€lpos ^Aprfs fiporta dphpX ioiKfos^ 

606 dWa TTpos Tp(ias rerpafifiepoL alep OTrurcrcn 
cticcrc, firfSe deols fiepeaxpefiep Ir^t [id)(€a'6(u.*^ 

(OS dp* ©^17, Tpio€s 8c fidXa trxehop rjXvdop avriop. 
epff "E^cToip 8vo ^(ore KarcKTapep €t8dr€ xdpfirfs, 
elp ip\ Buf>p(o cdi/rc, M€P€(rdr)p *AyxLa\6p re. 

610 TO) 8c wefroPT ikerftre fieyas Teka/Koptos Alas • 

art) 0€ fiak eyyvs i(op Kai aKOPTicre oovpt 9acti/^, 
Koi fidXep *Afi<f}LOP Xekdyov viop^ 09 p ipl Tlcutr^ 
pai€ irokvKTTjiKop TrokvkTJioSy dkkd c fiolpa 
^y iitiKovprjaoPTa fierd UpCafiop re Koi vlaS' 

616 TOP pa fcard ^(oarfjpa fidkep Tekafifoptos Ata9, 
p€LaCpjj 8' ip y aoT pi irdyr) 8oXi^d(rfccoi/ €79(09, 
Sovwri<r€P 8c iretrdp, 6 8* iireBpa/JLC <f>aCBLfios Atas 
T€U)(€a <rukijcr(op' Tp(0€s 8* inl hovpaT €\€vap 
o^ia Trafi<f}ap6(0PTa' crdfco9 8* dpthi^aTO ttoXXci. 

620 axndp 6 kd^ irpocrfids iK p€Kpov x^tXiccov eyxps 
itTTrdxraT' ov8' dp* er dkka SvP7J<TaT0 Tcv^ea Kakd 
wfioup dij^ekiad ai' iireCyeTo yap fiekietrtrip. 
Selo'c 8* o y* dii(f>LPa(rLP KpaTepifp Tpanop dyepdxotPj 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 113 

ol TToXXot T€ Koi icdkol i<f>€aTaa'av ey^c' ej(oi/r€9, 
625 01 € fieyap irep iovra koX l^diikov koX ayavov 
(ocrav ttTTo a'(f)€Uop' 6 8c ^aaadijuevo^ 7r€\€[ii)(07f. 

Tlepolemus and Sarpedon fight. 

cS? ot fi€v irovdovTO Kara KpaTtprjv vtrfiCvriP' 
TkyfTTok^fiov 8' 'H/>afcX€l^8i}i/ tjvp tc fieyav re 
(opcrep in avrid4(a XapirrjSopi fiolpa KparaLij. 

630 ot 8' ore 8i) (Tx^^op rjaap In dXXifXoio-t)/ idi^c?, 
vt09 Q^ viiovo^. re Ato9 pe^€Ky)yeperao^ 
TOP KoX TXt/ttoXc/jio? nporepo^ npo^ fivdop eetirep- 
"2a/37r^8oi/, AvKuop fiov\ri(f>6p€, ri^ rot apayio) 
TTTtoo'a'eLP ip6aJ8* iopTi fioixV^ dSarjfioPL (fxtyrC; 

635 ^evSofiepoL 8c ae (f)aa'L Ato9 yopop alyioxpio 
c&^ou, CTTcl TToXXoi/ KeCpoDP C7ri8cvc(u dphpSip^ 
ot At09 i^€y€POPTO CTTi nporepcDP dpdpam<ap' 
dXX' olop Ttpd {fxiCL piy)p *H/)afcXijctiji/ 
Clival, c/xoi/ Trarcpa 6pa(rufi€fipopa ^v/xoXcoi/ra, 

640 09 TTOTC 8cv/)* cX^cii/ O'c;^* hnrtop AaofieSopro^ 
i^ of|79 o^i' injvo-t fcal dphpaurt iravporr^poKTip 
*IXtov i^aXdna^e TrdXti/, XVP^^^ ^* dyutct?* 
o'ol 8c icafco^ /xci/ 6vfi6^y dTro(f>6iPvdova'L 8c Xaoc. 
ov8c ri ere Tpcaecrcrip oCofiat dkKap ccrco'^at 

645 cX^di^' cfc Avicnj?, ov8' ct /xdXa Kaprepo^ iaaiy 
dXX' VTT c/xol hpLiqOipTa TruXa? *At8ao nepijaeip.^^ 
TOP 8* av 2ap7nj8cii/ AvkUop dyo9 di/ribi/ •)7i;8a- 
"TXijTrdXc/jt', ^ TOt fccti/o? ctTrcoXco'ci/ "ikiop iprip 
dpdpo^ df^pahiga-ip dyavov Aaofic8oi^o9, 

660 09 pet /jtti/ cv ep^aPTa KaK^ Tipitrane fivda), 
ovS* dwehfoX Tttttov? cSi/ cti/cfca rrfkodep ^kOep, 
crot o cyo) epuaoe <f>7)iiL (popop icat fc')7/3a fiekcupap 



114 OMHPOY IAIAA02 E 

i^ ified^v Tcv^ccr^cu, c/x^ 8* viro Bovpl Saficvra 
€i)(os c/jtot 8coo"€iv, ^f^V^ S' *At8t KXtrroTTcuX^." 

Sarpedon is wounded; Tlepolemus is killed. 

656 cS? ffxiTO ^apirqhdpy 6 8' avetrxero ii€l\li/ov cyxp^ 
TXifTTokefio^ ' Kai tZp fikv d/iafyry hovpara fiaKpa 
iK \€ip<0p Tji^ap' 6 fiev pdkcv av;(Ci/a fidaaov 
XapirqBdv^ ^X/^^ ^ 8tafiir€pc9 ^X^' dXeyecio;, 
TOP 8c Kar' 6<f>dakiiiop ipefieppri pv^ IkoXip^^p' 

660 TXijTrdXc^o? 8* apa fir) pop dpioTtpop ef)(€i fiaKp^ 
PcfikrJKtLPy cdxfi'^ Se Siecravro fiaLfiaHocra^ 
6a'T€(a cy^pt/jK^dcura, irarrfp 8' ert \oiyop dfivpep. 

ot /Jt€i/ d/3* dprid^op XaprrqBopa Stoi kraipoi 
i^€<f}€pop TToXe/jioio- fidpvpe S4 fiip Sopv fiaKpop 

665 iXKOiiepoP' TO fikp ov tls i7r€<f>pda-aT ovBk ponqcr^p^ 
fiTjpov i^cpvaai hopv /xciXti/oi/, 6<f>p* imPaCri, 
(TTrexjSoPTCJP ' TOLOP yap €\op iropop dfi(f)L€TropT€^. 
TXijTroXc/jioi/ 8* €T€p(o0€P ivKinjiicBe^ 'A^^cuol 
i(€(f>€pop TToX^fioiO' p6rja'€ 8c 8to9 *08va"a"cv9 

670 TXiJiiopa dvfiop €XO)P, fiaCfiJio'c 8c oi <^tXoi/ ^Top* 

Odysseus slays Seyen Lycians. 

fi€pfiijpi^€ 8* circtra Kara <f>p€pa Kal Kara dvfiop, 
rj npoTepo} Atos vtoi/ ipiyhovnoio 8t(OKot, 
•^ o yc rSi; ttXcoi/coi/ AvkUop dno dvfiop iXoiTO. 
ov8* d/o' *08vcr(r7)t fieyahJTopL fiopCLfiop 'JJ€P 
675 uf}dLfiop Ato9 vtoi^ dnotcrdiiep 6^4i ^aXfcoJ- 

Tol />a Kara Tr\i)9vp Avkuop Tpdire dvfiop ^Adrjmj, 
epff* o yc KoCpapop ciXci/ ^AXdaTopd t€ Xpo/iiop t€ 
'^AkKapSpop 6^ *AXtoi/ Tc Noijfiopd re TLpvTapip T€. 
Kai pv K ert 7rXcoi/as AvkUop KTdpe 8to9 *08v<r(rcv9, 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 115 

680 €t /Ji^ a/o' 6^v poTfa-e fieya^ KopvdaioXo^ "Ektcu/). 
firj Se Sta Trpo/idxcov K€KOpv6fi€i/o^ aWom xaXKoi 
Sct/Jta <f>epo}v Aapaolcrt: X^PV ^' ^P^ ^^ irpoo'iovri 
Xapirqhw A109 vtd?, C7ro9 8* 6ko(f)vhvop ienrei/- 
^' npiafLiSr}, /jt^ 877 fie eKcDp ^avaoiaiv idcg^ 

686 K€Lcr0at, dXX* indfivpop' eireiTai fie kol Xlttol aiw 
ip TrdXet vfierepjfy eVcl ovic a/3* c/xcXXoi^ iy<a yc 
pooTTja'a^ olkopSc <f>C\r]p C9 irarpLha yaiap 
€u<f>pap€€ip aXoxop t€ <f>Ck7fp KOL pyjiriop vtdi/." 

Hector and Ares again drive the Achaeans. 

CO? <^aro, Toi/ 8' ov rt 7rpoa'e<f>7i Kopvdaidko^ *E#cra)/3, 

690 dXXa 7rapr]L^€P XcXii7/x€Vo9, o<^/)a rd^^tcrra 

aKTcur' *ApycM)V9, ttoXciwi/ 8' ciTro dvfiop cXoiro. 
ot /Ji€i/ d/)* aprCdcop Xapwqhopa 8101 eraipot 
elaap vn aiytoxoto Ato9 Trc/otfcaXXci, (f)7)y^' 
€fc 8' dpa 01 fiTjpov Sopv fieCXiPOP (oae dvpa^e 

696 uf>6L/io^ TLekdy^op, 09 ot <^tXo9 ^«/ cratpos- 

Tw 8' cXtTTC ^jrux^y f^oLTa 8* 6(f>da\fi<ip K€xvT d^^Xvs. 
aSrc? 8* dfiTTPVpOi), nepl 8c tti^oi'^ Bopedo 
^(iypei iniTTPetova'a KaKw^ KCfcaf^ijdra dvfiop. 

'Apyetot 8* vtt' "Apyjt kol ^KicropL ;(aXfcoKO/)voT|J 

700 ovr€ 7roT€ TrpoTpenoPTO fiekaLPOtop ini mjiop 
ovT€ WOT dpT€(f>€popTO fid^'Q^ dXX* atci/ oniaaoi 
;(dJoi/^*, (09 iTTvOoPTO fierd Tpdeaa-tp "Aprfa. 
cp0a ripa irpajTOP, ripa 8' vararop i^epdpt^ap 
"E^crw/o T€ HpidfioLo 7rdt9 fcal ;(dXx€09 *A/)7j9 ; 

706 dpTL0€OP T^vdpapTj cttI 8c Tr\rj^nntop ^Op4(rrqp^ 
Tpfj)(op T aixp^'^TYiP AItcoXiop Oipofiaop T€, 
OipoTrihrfp 0* "Ekepop Koi ^Opea-fiiop aioXofiirprjp, 
09 p' ci/ ''TXiy paUaKe [leya ttXovtolo fi€fi7)\(o^, 



116 OMHPOY IAIAA02 E 

kifii/ji K€K\Lfi€PO^ Ki}<^i(riSt' Trap 8c oi aXXoi 
710 i/alop BoLCJToij fidXa iriova 8rjfioi/ ej(oi/rc9. 

Hera and Athena prepare to go to the Field. 

TOVS 8* COS OV1/ ivOTjCrC ^Ca, \€VK(ok€PO^ *H/317, 

*A/5yetbv9 oXeKovra^ ivl Kparep'g va-fiCvg, 
airriK ^ Xd'qvavqv cTrea irrepoevra irpo<rt)vha' 
" c5 TTOTTot, aiyto^^oto Ato9 Tcico9, arpvrmrq^ 

716 ^ /5' ctXtoi/ Toi/ fivdov {nrecmjfiev Mei^cXctct), 
*lXtoi/ iKirepcrapT ivT€i)(€OP dTropeea-dai^ 
ei ovTO} fiaCpea-Oat ida'Ofi€P ovXov '^Aprja. 
aXX* aye hrj kol v(oi fieScofieda dovpiSo^ dXic^9." 
<o^ ei^ar*, ov8* ditidifO'e ded^ yXavkioirL^ *A0ijirrf. 

720 17 fici/ inoixoiiivj) xpva-dinrvKa^ hrrvev limov^ 
*H/)i7 Trpeafia Bed, dvydrqp fieydXoLO KpovoLO- 
^11 firi 8* dfi(f>* o^decrcri OoS)^ fidXe KafiirvXa icvkXo, 
^dXKta OKrdKvrjfia, a'ihy)p4(a d^ovi d/ji<^t9. 
tS)p ^ rot XP^^^ *'^^^ d(f>0LTo^^ avrdp virepdev 

726 x^^'f^' CTTMTcrcur/oa irpocrapTfpoTay davfia iBccrdoM* 
wXyjfivoL 8* dpyvpov eicrl TrepChpofiot dfKfxyrepojdev. 
8u^/)09 8c XP^^^^^^^ '^^^ dpyvpioicriv ifiaxriv 
ci/rerarat, 8o6al 8c TrepiSpofioL dvrvyi^ elatp. 
rov 8* c^ dpyvpeo^ pvfio^ ttcXci/- avrdp iw* aKp(o 

730 87j(rc x/ovo-ccoi/ icaXoi/ ^vyov, ip 8c Xc7ra8i/a 

KctX' efiaXe ^(/ovcrct*- vtto 8c ^vyoi/ rjyayev "Hpij 
tTTTTOVs <u*cv7ro8a9, fiefiavV c/)t8o9 fcal dvn79. 
avrdp *Ady)vaii} Kovpr) Atos atytd^^oto 
iretrXov fiev fcarcj^cvci/ cai/oi/ irarpo^ in ovhei 

736 TTOifctXoi/, 01/ /o avn^ iroirjo'aro koX Kdfie j^c/ocrti/* 
17 8c ^tToii/* cj/8v(ra Ato9 i/e<^cXijyc/3CTao 
Ttvx^o'^v C9 TToXc/xoi/ 0(opij<r<rero haKpvoevra. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 117 

afiifn 8* ap* cifioLCLv Poker alyCSa dvaavoeca'ap 
hcLinjvy T]P TrepL fiei/ Trdvrjj <f>6fio^ iaT€<f>di/cjT(Ui 

740 iv 8* €/)t9, ip 8* aXtcj^ iv 8c Kpyoeaca icumf, 
ip Se T€ TofyyeCr) K€<f}akri 8cti/oto Trekdpov 
hcLPTj T€ crfiepSprj re, Ato? rcpa? aiyio;(oto. 
KparX 8* CTT* aiJL<f>uf>a\oy Kweqp dero T€Tpaxf>dkyjpop 
XpyaeCifv, €KaTov iroXUov irpyXeeaa apapvlai/. 

745 C9 8' o;(€a <^Xoy€a ttocti firjaeroy \a[<ero 8* ey^os 
fipL0v iieya OTtfiapov, rol hdiiprjo-L KTTvya^ dvhpS>v 
riptoQiVy tolo'Cp t€ KOTea-aerax ofiptfiondTpri. 
^Hpy) 86 iidxTTiyi 0o(o^ iirefiaier dp* Imtov^' 
avTOfiaraL 8c ttuXou fivKOP ovpavov^ a? cx^*' ^ft/ocu, 

750 r^s iiTLTerpaiTTax /xeya? ovpai/o? OuXu/xTrd? re, 
rffiep dpaKXlpax ttvklpop p€(f>o^ rjB* imdeipcu. 
ry pa 8t* avrdcop KepTpr/peKea^ Vi^^ Imrov^. 

Hera secures Zens' Approval of their Plan. 

€vpop 8c KpopiQ}pa 6€(ov drep rjfiepop dWcDP 
aKporrdrQ Kopv(f>'Q 7roXv8c6pa8o9 OuXv/jlttoio • 

755 CP0* tTTTTov? arija'acra Oed^ Xcv/ccuXci/09 ''Hpij, 
Z^i/' virarov Kpopi^p i^upero /cat TrpoaeeLirep' 
" ZcG irdT€.py ov pefieaU^jf "Apet jdSe Kaprepd epya ; 
ocrcrdTiop re /cat otop dTrdXeae \aop *AxcuS)p 
fidAJ/y drdp ov Kara KocfioPy ifiol 8' d^o^, oi 8c ciCTjXot 

760 repiroprcu KvTrpts re /cat dpyvporo^o^ ^AiroWoiu 
d<f>popa rovrop ai/cVrc?, 09 ov ripa oiSc defiLora. 
Zev trdrep, ^ pd rC fioL /ccxoXaxrcat, at Kep "Aprja 
\vypo}^ TTCTrXijyuta P'dyy)<; i^aTTohuofiat ; " 

rrjv 8' aTrafietfiofiepo^ 7r/)0(rc<^ pe<f>e\rjyepera Zcv?- 

766 " dypei fidv ol eiropaop *A6j)paiy)p dyekeiifp^ 
Tj e fidXicrr euoOe KaKjjs oSvpyai TrcXa^cti^." 



118 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

The Goddesaes reach the Trojan Plain. Hera shouts to encourage 
the Achaeans. 

fidoTL^tp 8' MTTTOW Tci 8' ovK aiKovT€ 'trerio'd'qv 
/jiecrcnjyus yairj^ re Kal ovpavov doTCpoevro^. 

770 ocrcrop 8* '^€/>o€i8€9 dpTip ibev 6<f>0aKiiOLcriy 
Tjfiepo^ ip cKom'^ kevao'cDP iwl oipona ttoptop, 
Tocrcop imdp<aaKov<ri d^iap {nfrrfx^^^ tTnrot. 
dXX' ore 8^ TpoCrfp l^op Trora/xcu re pcopre, 
'^XL pod^ Xi/xo€t9 (rvfifidWerop rjBc X/ca/jiai'8po9, 

776 epd* MTTTOv? €(mia-€ dedy XeuKtoXcpo^ 'Hpi;, 

Kvaacr eg ox€(OPy irept o rfepa irovKvp exevcp* 
TOLO'ip 8* dfifipocrCrjp Si/xoets dperetke pcfieo'dau,. 
T<i 8c pdrqp Tprtjpoxri nekeidcrtp Wfiad* ofioltu, 
dphpdcrip *Apy€LOLa'LP dXe^e/xei/ai /Jtc/xavtcu. 

780 aXX' or€ 81; p LKapoPy oOi TrXctorot Kal dpwrrot 
iaraa'aPy dfi(f)l fiirjp Aiofnjheo^ iTnroSdfioio 
€iXd/Ji€i/ot, Xetovo'ci/ eoifcdres co/xo^dyourii/ 
17 crvcrl KdirpouTLPy riop re adipo^ ovk d\airahp6py 
€pda (TTdfr rfva-e Oed^ Xev/ceiXei/09 ^H/^ij, 

786 %T€PTopL eicafieprj iieyaXrJTopi ;(aXK€o<^c5i/^, 
OS Toaop av^rjcraucrx 'i oaop dWot TrepnJKOPra' 
"ai8fi()9, *A/3yctoi, fcd/c* cXey^ca, €1809 dyqToC' 
o^pa fiep €9 TrdXe/jtoi/ irtokccKero 8109 'A^^tXXcv?, 
ov86 TTorc Tpai€9 7r/)o ttvXguui/ AaphapcdoDP 

790 ofj^j/ccr/coi/ • K€LPOV yap iheihtcrap ofipifiop eyx^^' 
pvp 8c cfcas irdXio9 Koikj)^ irrX pj)va\ /Jtct^oi/rat." 

Athena goes to Diomed. 

c3s ctTTovo-' wrpvpe fiepo^ Kal dvfiop iKdarov. 
Ti;8ci8]7 8* iiropova-e ^cct, yXavKa)7ri9 *AdT}in)' 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 119 

€vp€ 8c TOP y€ ai/atcra nap* hnroia-iv /cat oxecifx.v 

706 6X/C09 avatlfvxovra, ro [ilv fioKe Ildvhapo^ l^. 
tSpco9 yoip fii'V eretpep vwo TrXarco? TeXa/jici)i/o9 
dcTTrtSo? €vkvk\ov' t^ TCi/ocro, fca/xi/€ 8c x^^P^^ 
ap 8* taxci}p reXaficipa K€\axp€<f>€s alfi airofiopypv. 
tTTTTCibv 8c 0€a [,vyov 'qxl/aro (fxoprfcrep T€' 

800 "-^ okCyop ol 7rat8a cot/cora yeCparo Tv8ci;s. 

Tu8cv9 Toi fiLKpo^ ii€p hfp 8c/jia9, dXXa fiaxrinj^' 
KaC p ore wep fitp iyci TToXc/xt^cti/ ovk eiaa-KOP 
ov8* iKTr(u<f>da'a'€LP^ — arc r rjXvOc pocifyLP ^AxcuSip 
ayyeXo^ C9 ©^)8a9 TroXca? /xcra Ka8ficta»/a9, 

805 haipvadai [ilp apcryop ipl fieydpoia-ip cio}Xov, 

avrdp 6 dvfiop exfop op Kaprepop^ (o^ to wdpo^ ttc/j, 
Kovpov^ KaS fieUop Trpo/caXt^cro, irdpra 8' cVtKa 
[/>i7i8i6>9' Towj ot €y(op imrappodo^ ija]. 
cjot 8* -^ rot /jici/ cycl) irapd &* urra/xat Ty8c t^vkdo'a'Qi^ 

810 fcat crc Trpo(f>pope(t)^ Kekofiax Tpdecrcn /xd^^ecr^af 
dXXd crcv 17 Kdfiaro^ TroXvat^ yuia 8c'8u/cci/, 
17 pv ce TTOV 8co9 tercet aKijptop- ov av y cTrctra 
Tv8co9 €Kyop6^ ccrcrt Sat(f)popo^ OlpetBao" 

Diomed explains to Athena his Retreat. 

TTjP 8* dTrafieLfioiiepo^ 7rpoa'e(f)7i Kparepo^ AiofiTjSri^' 
816 " ytyi^oKriccu crc, ded dvyarep Atos atyid^^oto* 
T(3 TOL Trpo(f>poP€(t)^ ip€0} iuo^ ovS* iTTLKeva-oi}. 

OVT€ TL fie 8coS ZoTfCt diCJpLOP OVT€ T19 OKPO^, 

dXX' cTt crccov /xc/xinj^at c^cr/xciwi/, d? cVerctXa?* 
ov ft* cia? iiaKdpeao'L Oeot^ dpriKpv fidx^o'OaL 
820 rots dXXot9 • drd/o c? k€ Ato9 dvydvqp *A(f>po^T7] 
ekOycr c? TrdXc/xoi/, tt^i/ y* ovrdfi^p o^ct ^(aXica!. 
TOVP€Ka pvp avrd? r* di/a;(d^o/jiai t)8c /cat dXXov9 



120 OMHPOY lAIAAOS E 

*A/3y€tovs cfccXevcra akTjfiepcu iv0d8e irdvra^' 
ytyvioaKO) yap "Aprfa fioixv^ dva KOipaviovra.^^ 

Athena bids Diomed driye against Ares, and wounds him. 
826 Tov S* -^fieCp^T CTTCira Oedy yXavKa^m^ 'A^ijinj- 

fi7JT€ (TV y "Apyja to ye SetScdi f*'^^^ tlv* dWov 
ddavdruiv rovq rot lytau iinTdppoOo^ elfii. 
dXX' ay* in *A/3iji 7rp(ar(a e\€ fKovx/xa^ iTnrov^y 

830 Tvtjfop §€ (rxe^LTjP fJLrjB' a^eo Oovpov "Aprfa 

TovTov fiaivofievov, tvktop KaKoVy dXXoTrpocraXXoi/, 
o9 irp(ar)v fiev ifioC re Kal '^Up'jfl otcvt' dyopevcjp 
Tpcacrl fiax'ija'ea'Oax, drdp ^ApyeCoKrip aprj^eip, 
pvp 8c /jLCToi TpcjeaaLP o^tXci, roii; 8c XcXaorai." 

835 a>9 <f>afi€irrj Xdepekop fi€P d(f>* iTnrcDP cScrc ^a/xd^c, 
^cipl irdKip ipva-acT' 6 8* d/)' ififiairea)^ diropovaeu. 
17 8' C9 8L(f>pop cfiaLpe Trapal AiOfiijhea hlop 
ififiefiavla Bed- fieya 8' ifipax^ <f>TJyLPo^ d^top 
fipidoavpji' heiprfp yap dyep Oeop dpSpa t dpiarop. 

840 \d[,ero 8c fidoTiya koX rfpia IlaXXd? ^Adijpr)' 
avTiK iir *A/)Tjt irpcira} €)(€ ficipvxas ittttov?. 
'^ rot 6 fi€P Il€puf>aPTa weXwpLOP i^epdpiC^ep^ 
AiT(o\S)p o\ dpioTOP, ^OxTjcriov dyXaop viop • 
TOP fiep A/)Tj9 ipdpL^e iiiaL(f)6po^' avrdp *A0ijp7i 

845 8vi/* *At8o9 Kvperjp, firj fiip Ihoi ofiptfio^ *ApTj9. 
619 8c ?8e fipoToXoLyo^ "Aprfs AiOfnjSea 8101/, 
^ Tot 6 fi€P IlepL<f>aPTa nekdjptop avroO* iaaep 
KCtcr^at, o^t wpioTop KjeipcDP i^aipvTo dvfioPy 
avrdp 6 firj p lQv% AiofiirjSeos iinroSdfiOLo. 

850 oi 8' oT€ 817 a")(eSop ^aap in dXXi^Xotcrti/ ioi^c9, 
np6(T0€P "Aprj^ (ope^ad* vnep [yyop rfpia 0' InncDP 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 121 

eyx^i )(aXK€iai, fiefiad^ ano Ovfiop tkicOai' 

Kttl TO y€ x^^P^ Xa/SoCcra ^ca, y\avKS)in% 'A^ijinj, 

mrei/ inreK Su^poto iraKriov aix^yjvaL. 

856 Seurcpo? aW dpfiaTO ^ot^v aya6o% Atofirjhrj^ 
€yxti ;(aXK€ta)* cVcpctcrc 8c IlaXXa? *A0TJvri 
veiarov €? Kci/coii/a, o^t IfiivvwrKero ixirfyrjp' 
T]5 /o^^i /ill' ovra rvjfcul/, 8ia 8c XP^^ koKov c8ai/ici/, 
CK 8c 86pv aiToaev avri^. b 8* eftpax'^ }(aXKC09 ^Apij^, 

860 oaaop T cvi/ca^tXot iniaxop rj 8cKa}(iXoi 
di^cpc9 €1/ TToXcjfi^, cpi8a ^vvayovT€% *Ap7jo^, 
Toif^ 8' dp* VTTO rpofio^ elXep 'Axaiov? tc Tpcid^ re 
Scurai/Ta?- rdcroi^ c/Spa^* ^Aprj? aro? TroXc/ioto. 

Ares departs to Olympus and complains to Zeus. 

oiT) 8' c#c p€<f>€a}p ipefiepvTf <f>aCperaL ar/p 

805 KovfiaTO^ c^ di/c/jtoio 8va'aco9 opirufiei/OLO^ 
T0t05 Tv8ct8u Aio/i>}8cc ;(dXKC09 *Aprj5 
€f>aii/€0' ofiov i/cc^cWcriv tcui/ Ci9 ovpavov evpvv. 
Kap7raXi/jta>9 8' ucavc ^caJi/ c8o9) aiTTVi/ *OXvft7roi/, 
Trap 8c All Kpopuovi KaOe^ero Ovfiop d)(Cvcoi^, 

870 8ctfci/ 8* dfifipoTOP alfia Karappiov i^ cJrctXi^?, 
Ktti p' 6\o<f>vp6ii€Poq cTTca TTTepoevra irpoayivSa' 
" ZcS Trdrep^ ov pefieo-C^'g opaJi/ Td8c Kaprepa cpya ,* 
cuct TOt piyioTa deol TerXrjore^ ct/ici/ 
dXXi^Xoiv toTTjn, X^P^^ avSpccrcrt <f>€povT€^. 

875 crol iravre^ fiaxofieada • cru yap tckc? a<f>popa KovpyfVy 
ovkofLtirqVy ^ r atci/ dijcruXa cpya fiefirjXev. 
dXXot ftci/ ydp Trdj^c?, ocrot ^cot ctcr* ci/ 'OXv/iTTw, 
crot T* iTTiiTtiBovTai KoX he^iirjiieada cicaoro? • 
ravTyjp 8' ovr' cttci. Trport/SdXXcat ovrc rt cpy^, 

880 dXX* di^ici^, CTTcl avro5 iyeivao 7rat8* dtSiyXoi^* 



122 OMHPOY IAIAA05 E 

^ vvp Tv8co9 viop virep^iaXop AtofiTjSca 
fiapyaCpeip aperjKev in adavaroKTi OeoUrip. 
KvirpiSa fikp irpcJTOP o'X'^^op ovraae Xtip* cttI Kapir^y 
avrap iireir airrw jjlol iTTeaavTO Saiiiopi uro^' 
886 dXXa fi vTnjp€iKap raxcc? ttoSc?- -jJ t€ k€ Sripop 
avTov uiJiiaT CTracr^oj/ ip aip^cip veKO&ea'a'LP^ 

Ares reoeiyes Slight Comfort from Zeus, but his Wound is healed. 

TOP 8 ' ap* vTTohpa tSdii/ Trpocri^y) P€(f>€\7iy€p€Ta Zev^ • 
"/iij Ti ftot, dXXoTrpdcraXXc, Trape^^ofiepo^ fLiPvpilje. 

890 €)(dLaTO^ hi fiOL ia'd decjp, ot *OXv/i7roi/ ej^ovcrtj/* 
atcl yap rot ipi^ t€ c^iXtj iroXeixoC t€ /id;j(afT€. 
firfrpo^ TOL fiipo^ itrTLp adaxeTOP, ovk imeLKTOPy 
^Hpy)^' TTfP flip iyo) (TTTOvSy hdiiprjii iTriecaip- 
Tol (T out} K€Lprf^ rdSc Trda\€ip ippecLiga'ip. 

895 dXX' ov ftctj/ cr* eri hyfpop dpi^oyLOL akye* i^opra' 
€K yap ifi€v yipo^ iacri^ ifiol hi ae yeiparo iirjrTjp. 
el hi T€v i^ dXXov ye detop yipev c58' (11817X09, 
KaC K€P 817 TrdXai ^a6a ipiprepo^ Ovpapidpwp.^^ 
cS? (f>dTOj KOL liaLTJop* dp(oy€ip irjcaa'dat,. 

900 T(o 'h* CTTt IlaLijwp 6hvinj(f>aTa <f>dpiiaKa irdacep. 
[^Kccrar** ov fiep ydp ti KaTadprjro^ ye rervicro.] 
CU5 8* or' OTTO? yctXa XevKOP iwetyofiepo^ avpiirq^ep 
vypop iop, /idXa 8' wKa 'n'€pLTpi<f>€TaL kvk6<optl, 
CU9 apa KapnaXCiuo^ i7J(raTo dovpop ^Aprja. 

905 TOP 8' ''HjSrj Xovo"ci/, ;(api€i/ra Sc ci/xara iaaep- 
nap he Ate Kpopuopt Kadit,eTo Kvhei yauop. 

ai h* aSri? 7rpo5 8a>/xa A105 fieydXoio piopTO^ 
Hprj T* *ApyeL7) Kal * AXaXKOfieprfl^ ^AOrjpt), 
Travo'aa'ai ftpOToXotyop "ApTjp dphpoKTaadtop. 



OMHPOT lAIAAOS Z 

ZijTa d' dp 'ApSfiondxv* ical "Eirrop^t io-r dcLptffr^, 

Colloquium Hectoreum narrat cum coniuge Zeta. 

^In Zeta, Hector prophesies; 
Prays for his son ; wills sacrifice.' 

^EKTopo^ Kal 'Ai^Spo/ia^rj? 6/xcXta. 

After the Departure of the Diyinities the Achaeans preyail. 

Tpdxop 8* oidOrj Kal * Anatoli/ <f>v\om^ aivrj' 
iroXXa 8' ap* tvda kgX ivO* Wvae fiaxO 7r€8ioto, 
dXXijXoiv idvvoiiivo}v \aKKrjpta 8ovpa, 
[leaariyifs 2tfto€j^9 t8c 'Btdvdoio poaaov. 

6 Ata? 8c irpSno^ TcXa/ictfi/109, cpfco5 'A^atwi/, 
TpoKov pfj^€ <f>d\ayya^ <f>6o}^ 8* kTapoiciv edrjKev^ 
avhpa fia\(oPy 09 apioTo^ ivl Sp-gKea-CL rervKro^ 
vvbv ^Evaadpov ^AKafiavr -qvv re fiiyav re. 
TOP p' ifiake irpSiTo^ KopvOo^ <f>d\ov t7r7ro8aa'cti;9, 

10 iv 8c yLerdm^fi 'W^f^i weprfo'e 8' ap' oorcoi/ euro} 
aixfiTj ')(^clXk€L7] ' TOP 8c CKOTo^ occe KaXtAJtev. 

'^A^vXov 8' ap' €7r€<f>P€ ^or/p dyado^ /liofiijSrj^ 
TevOpapChrfp^ 09 €PaL€P ivKTifiep-g ip ^ApCa-fi-g 
d(f>p€io^ /StoToio, (^1X09 8' 171/ dpOptDiroKriP' 

16 ndpTa^ yap (^iXcWkci^ o8a> ctti oikux paUop. 

aXXa ot ov T19 Tcii/ yc tot' rjpKeo'e \vypop oXedpop 
vpoadep vnapTtda'a^j dXX* aiKfxa dvp.op dirrfvpa, 
avTOP Kal Oepdnopra KaXi^crtoi/, 09 pa rod* Inncjp 

ea-Kep v^y)pio\os' Tci 8' dfi<f>a} yalap i8iJTy)P. 

123 



124 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

20 /\pfja-oi/ 8* EvpvaXo^ kol *0<f>€\TLOv i^tvdpi^ev 

BovKoXuui/ 8' ^v vlo% ayavov Aao/jtcSoi^o? 

irptafivraro^ y^v€,^y ckctiov hi i ytivaro firJTTjp' 
26 voLiiaCv(i}v 8* in occrcrt liiyq (fxXorqjL Kal evpy^ 

17 8* imoKvo'afiivri 8i8v/iaoi/€ yeiparo Traihe. 

Kal [ikv rS>v vniXvae fiivo^ kol <^ac8t/ia yvia 

M7]KL<miidSrf^ Kal an cifKop T€&)(€* iavXa. 

*AaTva\op 8* ap* €n€<f>p€ fiepenroXefio^ IIoXviroiTTj? • 
30 UlStSttip 8* *08va'€V9 ll€pK<o€n,ov i^€vapi^€v 

eyxct \a\Ktitfy TojKpo^ 8' ^Aperdopa Slop. 

*AptC\o')(o^ 8* *A/8Xrjpoi/ ivrjparo hovpl ^aeivtf 

NcoToptBrj?, *EXaTOi/ 8c ai/a^ avhpS)v * Ay afiifipiov ' 

i/at€ 8c SaTi/tdc)^o9 ivppeCrao nap* o)(0a^ 
36 nTj8a<roi^ alnetvTJp, 4>vXafcoi/ 8* cXc Atjito? yjpo}^ 

<l>€vyovT' EvpvTTvXo? 8c McXcti/^toi/ i^epdpi^ev. 

Menelaus takes Adraatus. 

^ASprjOToi/ 8* ap* CTTCira /80171' aya^o? Mci'cXao? 
^0)01/ cX*' ?7nra> yap oi drv^o/jta/oi 7rc8ioio 
o£ct) m pkai\>divT€ yLvpiKivfOy dyKxikov dpfia 

40 d^avT iv npdrro} pvfi^ aurcu /ici/ ifirJTTjP 

npo^ TToXii/, ^ TTcp ot dXXoc drv^o/icj/oi <f>ofiiovTOj 
avT05 8* CK SC(f>poio napd rpoxpp l^eKvklcrdy) 
nprjvri^ iv kovitjO'iv inl oro/xa. Trap 8c ot ccmj 
*ATp€f8ij5 Mci/cXao5 e^cov 8oXt^dcrfctoi' iy^o^' 

45 *A8pTjcrro9 8* dp* CTrctra Xa/8cui/ cXXurcrcro yovvtov 
" C^P^i, *Arpio^ viiy <rif 8* d^ia 8€fat anoiva. 
noWd 8* €1/ d<f>P€LOv narpo^ KCt/i7;Xia KCirat, 
^aXfcd^ TC xpvcro? re TroXvK/jtrjrd? tc aiSrfpo^' 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 125 

rSiv k4v rot xapiaaxro irarfip awepcia-L a7roti/a, 
60 ct K€v c/i€ ^(oov iT€irvdoiT Itti vrfvalv *Axataii/.*' 

cS? (fxiroy T^ 8' apa dvfxop ivl OTrjdeaaiv eweiOep. 
Kai Sif flip rd^ ifieWe Ooa^ iirl inja^ *A)(aiQ}p 
Sciicrcii^ ol OepdnopTL Kara^ciiev • aXX* *Ayafi€fiv(ov 

65 "c5 irenoPy c5 Mci^eXac, rt -ij 8c crv #c7;8€ac ovrcu? 
av8p(op ; ^ aol apioTa ircirotTjrat Kara oLcoi/ 
irpo^ Tp<o(op; riav [lyj rt9 inr^K^vyoi almw ok^dpov 
Xelpd^ 6* 7ifi€T€pa<Sy firjh* op riva yaxTripi iiTJrrjp 
Kovpov iovra <f>€poLy — fxrih* S^ <f>vyoiy — dXX' a/ia ndpre^ 

00 *lXtbv i^anokoiar ainj8ccrrot koL d<f>aPTOL.^^ 

cS? ccTTcui/ irapen€iatv a8€X<^€tov i^piva^ Tjpa)^, 
aurtfia irapenrtop - 6 8' aTro ci^cy oKraro X^^P^ 
ijpiu' '^ASprfOTOv. TOP 8c KpeioiP 'Aya/i€/ii/o>i/ 
o5ra Kara Xandprjp' o 8* aperpdirer^ 'ArpciSi;? 8c 

65 Xa^ cV OTijOeo'i /Sa? i^eciraae fieiXiPOP fyxp^* 

NcoTcup 8' ^Apyetoiatp eKeKXero fiaKpop dva-a^- 
"w (f>L\oi rjpcoe^ Aavaoi, depdnopre^ ^Apijo^, 
/it; rt9 wi/ ipdpoi}p C7ri/8aXXo/ici/09 iieroTnaOep 
liLlipereoy cu9 kci/ TrXctora <f>€p(op inl pyja^ ikt^ox, 

70 dXX' ai/8pa9 KreCptofiep- areira 8c Kal ra SnjXot 
I/CK/90V9 a/i irc8ioi^ cruXTycrcrc reOprjwra^.^^ 

^ Helenns sends Hector to Troy, to order a Sacrifice to Athena for the 
/kv\-* Safety of the City. 

a>9 ciTTcui/ wrpvpe fiepo^ koI Ovfiop eKdarov, 
€P0a K€P aire Tpclc? dpni^iXiop inr *Ax(ua>p 
*lXtoi^ eicapcBrj^ap apaKKeCjjO'L 8a/ici^c9, 
75 €1 firj ap* Atp^ T€ Kai "Eicropi cTttc vapaard^ 
lipLafii^T]^ ''EXci/09, oi(opon6\(op o^ apiaro^' 



126 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

"Ati^cui re KoX ''Eicrop, circl irdi^o? v/i/it ftaXwrra 

TptOCDP KoX AVKUOV iyK€K\Lr€U, OVP€K apioTOi 

iraaaaf eir Wvv iare fidx^aOai re <f>pove€LP tc, 

80 arrJT avrov, #cat \aw ipvKaKere npo nv\d(ov 
vdprg inoLXOfiepoL^ irpXv avr ev X^pcX yvvauKCJp 
<f>€vyovra^ -Trccrccti/, SyjCoLai 8c ^dpyLa yepeaOau. 
avrap circt k€ <^aXayya9 iirorpvirqrop dirdaa^j 
i}fi€C9 P'^p Aavadtai p.ax^aop.tff aZOi p,a/ovr€^y 

86 Kal p,d\a T€ip6p.€i/oC nep' avayKairf yap ineCyec 
^EtcrSp, drap av ttoXIi/Sc fierdpx^o^ ^Ink 8* inei/ra 
firjrepL trg Kal ipy- tj 8c ^vpdyovcra yepaid^ 
vrjov ^AOrfpaCri^ yXavKwinho^ iv irdXct dKp'jjy 
ol^acra Kkifihi Ovpa^ lepolo 8d/ioio, 

90 ircTrXoi/, o oi 8oKCCt yapiioTaro^ rj^k fieyiaTO^ 
cTi/cu^w p.€ydo(o Kal ol irokv ^CkraTo^ avr^^ 
Oelvair *Adrivaa)k cirt yovvaxriv TjvKop.oiOy 
KaC oi viro<rx€<r0aL 8voKac8c#ca /8ov9 ci/l m}^ 
'iji't? -^KCOTa? tcpciKrcftci^, at k' iXeija-g 

96 aoTu re Kal Tpcxop aXdj^ov? Kal vTJma rcici/a, 
at Kci/ Tv8€09 vtoi/ dirofrxo *I^w>v tpi)9> 
dypiov aiyjfJLiqrriVy Kparepop p^rjaroipa <^d/8oto, 
OI/ 8-^ cyai KdpTitTTOv ^A.\aiiSiv ffyrffil yci/ccr^at. 
ovo A;)(tA7}a 'TTOC/ code y coctot/ici/, op\ap.ov avopmVy 

100 01/ TTcp <^ao't dca9 i^epfiepof dXX' o8c Xti^i/ 
/jtati/crat ov8c Tt9 ot 8vi/arat fia/o^ to'o<^apt^cti/." 

Hector rallies the Trojans. 

<S^ i(f>a0*y ^EKTcop 8* ov Tt KaaiyvrJTta dniOyio'eu. 
avTLKa 8* cf o^4q}v (tvv rev^tciv aXro ;(a/ia£c, 
iraXXcoi^ 8' ofca 8o5p€ Kara oTparov WC^to irdvrg 
105 oTpvv(av p,a\4a'aa'daiy eyeipe 8c <f>v\(ymp aivTjv. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 127 

oi 8* iXeXCx^^o'av Kai ipavrCoi corav *A)(at5i/' 
*Apy^OL 8* viT€)(<apy)aav^ \rj^ap 8c <f>6voiOj 
^av hi Tiv adavdroiv i£pvpap6v darepoepTo^ 
Tpaxrlv akt^aovra KarekOefia/- cS? iXeXixOev. 

no "EicTcop 8c Tpcoecaip cfccicXero fiaKpov dvcras* 
"Tpa>€9 vnepOvfioi ttjXckXcitoi r imKOvpoCy 
dv4p€% coT€, <f>i\oL, [xprjo-QLcrde 8c dovpiho^ aXir^?, 
o<pp av cvcuMBiyo) irpori Wiov riO€ yepovcLV 
ctTTO) /SovXfvf^ct Kttl Tjfieripjiy akoxoKriv 

115 haCfiocLv apyja-acdau^ vwoa^la-dat 8* eKard/i/8a9." 
cS? dpa ilxopTfca^ dire fir) KopvOaCoKo^ "EKTcup* 
d/i(^l 86 /jtii^ a(f>vpd TVTTT€ Kal avxiva Scpfia KekatpoPy 
apTV^ rj nvfidrri ditv dciriho^ 6/i<^aXo€0"cnj9. 

"^ Meeting of Glaucus and Diomed. 

rXavKO? 8* *\Tnro\6)(oio irdt? Kal Tv8co9 vto9 
120 €5 fieaop dfi(f>OT€po}p (rvviTy)v fiefiawre [id^ea-diu. 
oi 8* arc 8ij (TxeSov riaav in dXXTyXowrtJ/ toi^c?, 
Toi\np6T€po^ -Trpoo-cciTTC /80171' dya^o9 Aco/1778179' 
"rt? 8c (TV cccrt, <^cptaT€, KaradvTfrwv di/dpwTTwv; 
ov ftci/ ydp 7roT\o7r(ona p^d-^jo ivi Kvhiavtipjj 
126 TO Trpii/- drdpukv vvv yc ttoXv vpofiifiriKa^ dirdvroiv 
<r(p ^dfiaeiy o i^' c/utoi/ 8oXt;(da'Ktoi/ eyxo^ c/jtcti/a9* 
8vcrt7; 1/0)1/ 8c TC 7rai8c9 c/xol /Lia/ct dvriooHnv. 
ct 8c Tt5 ddavdrtav yc #caT* ovpavov ctXijXov^a?, 
ovK di/ cyci) yc dtdlcnv iirovpavioio'i p.a)(pip.'r)v. 
130 ov8€ yap ov8€ Apvavro^ vio^ Kparepos AvKoopyo^ 
Srfv ^p, 09 pa deoia-LP iTTOvpavioia-iv cpc^ci/, 
09 tTKyre p,aiLvop,ii/oio AtoiPvcroio rtdrjpas 
aoje Kar 'qyddeop ^vtrrjiop' at 8* d/xa Tracrat 
6v<r0\a ;(a/iai Kar^cvai/, vtt' dvhpo^voio AvKovpyov 



128 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

135 0€Lp6fi€P(u fiovTrXrjyf Aidwco^ he <f>ofiri0€l^ 

8v(r€0* aXo9 Kara Kv/xa, 0ert5 8' vneSe^aro koXito) 
SctSidra- Kparepo^ yap ej(c rpofio^ ai/8po<: ofioKX^. 
T^ fikv eircLT oSvcrapTO deol p€ia ^(oovre^, 
Kaip.iv rv<l>\op €0rfK€ Kpopov vcU^- ov8* ap* en hffv 

140 lyi^c^cl adavdroKriv amJxO^ro vaa-t deotaiv. 

ovo av iyo) p^aKap^cci Oeoi^ idcXoipi pd)(€adaL. 
ei 8c Ti9 ccro-t /Sporoii/, ot apovprj^ Kapnop cSovcrii/, 
aaaop W\ cS? k€p daaaop okidpov ireipajO* tiojcu." 

The Family of Glauctts. 

TOP 8* aid^ *l7nroXo)(oto irpoairivSa (^at8i/io9 vlo?- 

146 "Ti;8ci8i7 /i€yadv/ie, Tt -ij yci/ei^j/ ipeeipei^; 
oiTj TTcp <f>v\\a}p yeperj^ toCtj 8c Kai apSpwp. 
(f>vX\a TO, p,€p T di'€/i05j(a/ia8t9 x^^**' <3t^^a 8c 6* vXij 
TTjXc^ocuo'a (^i/ct, capo?" 8* iTriyCyperai cUprj, 
cS? aphpcjp y^V^Jl fi^P <^v€t, 17 8' ttTToXi^yct. 

150 C6 8' cWXcc9 Kai ravra ha7Jp,€paLj ot^p* iit ci8^9, 
7ip,erip'r)p yepeqp- ttoXXoI 8c /xii/ apSpe^ laraaip- 
'*€OTt TToXt? 'Eiypi^ M^^ '^Apyeos innofioroLO, 
€P0a 8c XUnxpo^ ecTK^Py 6 K^phioTO^ yever aphptop^ 
%uru<f>o^ AtoXt8i7S- 6 8* apa TXavKOP T€Ked* vtdi/, 

155 avrap FXavKo? €Tlkt€p afivfiopa B€Wep<Hf>6pT7jp. 
T<a 8c OtoX KaXXo9 TC #cal -qpoperfp ipareiprip 
(oiraxrap' av^ap ot IIpotTo? ^fca fiijaaTO dvp.^y 
09 /o' CK 8T;)iob cXao'crci/, cVci irokv (f>€pT€po^ ^€P, 
^Apyeicjp' Zcu? yap ol vtto (TKrJTrTpif ihafiaaaep. 

160 TO) 8c yvi/17 Ilpotrov iwefiTjpaTOj 8t* *Ai/Tcta, 

KpVTTTahiQ <f>L\6T7fTL p,Lyij p^epoL ' dXXa TOI/ OV Tt 
irct^* ayada <f>pop€OPTa, hat(f>popa BcXXcpoi^diAnji/. 
rj 8c i/icvcra/jtonj IIpotToi/ ^acikfja 7rpo(rqv8a' 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 129 

* TeOvjuiq^j ci TlpoiT, rj KaKrape B€KX€po<f>6m7)Vj \ A 

166 09 ft l&cXci/ <f>LX6rr)TL fiLyyJiievaL ovk ideKovay.* 

CU9 <^aro, TOP he avaKra X^^o? Xa/Sei/, oXov aKovaev 
KT€LvaL fia/ p dX€€ci/6, cTC/ScuTCTaTO yap T^ye dvflWy 
7r€/i7r€ 8c ftti^ AvKtrji^Sc, iropev 8* o yc aijiia}ta \vypd^ 
ypoAJfa^ iv irivaKi wrvKrtf 0viio<f>06pa TroXXa, 

170 8et^ac 8' 'qvwyei £ nepOep^, o(f>p* diroXoiTo. 

avrdp 6 firj AvKiriphe OeS^v vir afiviiopL 'rrofiirg. 
dXX' ore 817 KvKitjv Ifc Saipdop re /koi/ra, 
vpo<f>pop€(i}^ fLiv TL€P oiva^ AvKvt)^ fvpeit)^' 
ivvfjliap ^tivia-a-e koX ivvia /80S9 Upeuaep. 

176 dXX' 5t€ 817 8cKdT7j i<f>dvrf po8o8dicTvXo9 'HcS?, 
fcal TOT€ fiLv ip€€LV€ KOI ^€€ (rfjfia i8ecr^€u, 
OTTi pd 01 yafifipoLO irdpa UpoiroLO <f>€poLTO. 
avrdp inel 817 (rrjiia KaKov irapehi^aTO yafifipoVy 
irpSnov fi€P pa \ifiaxpap dfiaLfiaKcrrfv iKeXevrrev 

180 7r€<f>P€iM€P. Tj 8' dp' erfv delov ycpo^ ov8* dvdpomoiv^ 
vpoade \eo}p, omdev 8c BpdKioVy /leaairi 8c ^i/icupa, 
8cii/oi/ aTTOTiveiova'a irvpo^ fi€Po^ aWofiei/OLO. 
Koi rffi/ [lev /carcTTCc^i^c ^ccJi/ rcpdccrcrt mdrja-a^' 
hevrepop aZ SoXv/iOicri ftax^caTO Ki;8aXt/ioto'ii/ - 

186 KapTLorrjP Stj rtjv ye /id^^iji/ <^dro 8i;fici/(u dvhp£>p, 
TO rpirov aZ KaTeire^vev *Afia^6va^ dvTiaveCpa^. 
TO) 8' dp' dp€p')(Ofiev<p TTVKLPOP 80X01/ dXXoy v<l>aiP€P' 
Kpivas iK AvKLTj^ evpeCt)^ <f>Syra^ dpCarov^ 
clcrc \6xov' rot 8* ov tl irdXtp oc#coi/8c veopro' 

190 Trdvra^ yap KareireAvev dfivfKOP BcXXcpo<^dKn79. 
aAA oT€ 071 yLypo)&K€ ueov yovov rfw tovra^ 
airrov p,iv fcarcpvKC, 8t8ov 8' o yc Ovyaripa rjp, 
ha>K€ 8c 01 TLfiTJ^ /8ao"iXi7i8o9 rjfii(rv 7rd(rq^- 
Kal fiiv ol AvKLOi T€fi€i/o^ rdfLov l^o\ov dXXo>i/, 



130 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

105 KaXw <l>vTaKLrj^ Kai apovprf^y 6<f>pa vefiotTO. 
17 8' €T€K€ rpuL T€Kva hat^povi B€XX€po<f>6vT'gy 
"laavhpov T€ Kttl *\Tnr6ko\ov koL AaoSa/ietai/ * 
AaoSaixeCji fiep irapeXe^aro [iTfTiera Zev^, 
17 8* €T€K avriBtovs^apirrihova xaXKOKopvarijp. 

200 dXX* oT€ 8j) Kai k€u^9 amJxOero iraai dcoUriv, 
^ TOL 6 Kan nehCop ro *AXijtoi/ 0109 aXaro 
6v Ovfiw KardSoiVy ndrov avdpdytrfav aXeeti/a)i/, 
"icavhpov 8c 61 vlhv '^Ap'qq aro9 iroXeiioto 
ixapvafiepov SoXvfiourt KaTEKrave #cv8aXtfioc<ni/, 

205 rfiv 8c xoXdxrayLevT) xpvarjvto^ *A/0T€fH9 cicra. 

'iTnToXo^o? 8* cft* erticrc, Kai cic roC <^i7fAl ytviadai' 
vcfiTTC 8c 4f^i^ TpoCriPy Kai ftot /laXa irdXX' cir^-cXXcy 
atci^ apioTeutLv Kai v7r€ipo\ov c/i/ici/at aXXcoi/, 
fiTfhe yci/05 7raT€p<av al<rxyv€iiev, ot fiey* apiaroi 

210 & t' *E(f>vp'g iydvovTO koX iv AvKvg eupeCg. 

TavTTj? rot yci/€i75 re /cal at/iaro9 evxofioL cli/at." 

Glauctts and Diomed prove to be Old Friends. They exchange Arms. 

0)9 (fxiTOj yTJOrfaep 8c /80171' ayaOo^ AiofiTjSri^. 
fyX?^ M^^ KarcTnjfci/ ci/i ^^^^^ irovXvfioreCpjjy 
avrap 6 /ictXt;(ibt(n irpo(rqvha iroiyLeua XaS^v 

215 "17 /oa w ftot ^eipo^ irarpcko^ iccri TraXaxo^' 
Oti/cv9 yap irorc 8109 apvfLova BcXXcpcx^di^i^ 
^^tivKT ivX iieydpoLO'tp ietKoaLv rjfiar ipv^a^. 
01 8c Koi aXXTJXoKrL iropop ^etinjia KaXd* 
Oti/cv9 ftci^ ^oion^pa 8i8ov <f>OLvtKL <^acti^di/, 

220 BcXXcpo<^di^9 8c xpvaeov 8c7ra9 afK^tm^cXXoi^, 
Kat /ill/ cyci Kar4XeiiTov tcii/ cV 8a>/jtao'' ip.oio'iv* 
Tvoca o ov /ic/iin}/iat, cttci /i crt rxrruov eovra 
icaXXt(^\ or' cV StJ^jjclp airdiXero Xao9 'Aj^atJii/. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 131 

r^vvp col ficp iycj ^eivo^ <^tXo5^Apy€l' /jteca'a) 
226 €t/jt£, (TV 8' €1/ AvKij/, 0T€ Kev ^^S^ hrjjxop ticai/jtcu. 
eyxea S' aXXi^Xcov dXeoi/ic^a #cal St' ofiCXov 
TToXXol fi€p yap i/iol TpaJc? KXeiToC r inucovpot 

KT€W€lVy OP K€ ^€09 yC ITOpi^ fCttl TTOCCrl ICIXC«0, 

TToXXol 8* aS col * Amatol €vaip4yL€v^ 6v k€ hvvrjat. 
230 T€v\€a 8' dXX7;Xoi9 cVa/icu|ro/utci/, o(^/)a Kal oiSc 
yvfoa-Lv^ on ^ewoi Trarpcutoi evxofi^S' cli/at." 
0)9 dpa ifxavijaavre Kaff iTnroiv di^avre 
\^ Xelpd^ T dXXijXoii/ Xafierqv Kal nioTckraPTO. 
'^ o/^* aSrc rXavK^ Kpoi/t8i79 <f>p€va^ i^eXero Zcv9, 
236 05 irpo9 Ti;8€t8i7i' Ato/iijSca T€u\e ayLtifitv 
Xpvo'ea xaXKeCtoVy €Kard/i/8oi' ivveafioUov. 
^ ^-» > . 

^ '^ Hector bids Hecuba offer Sacrifice to Athena. 

^EKT<op 8* CU5 ^Kaid^ T€ TTuXa^ Kal (fyr/yop iKapeVj 
aii<f>* apa fiiv Tpcjcov oXoxol diov rfik ffvyarpe^ 
elpofiepoL naLSd^re Ka(riyvrJTOv<; re era? r€ 

240 Kal iToaia^' 6 8* eweira deol^ cuj^ccr^at dvcuyttv 
ndaa^ cfccij^- ttoXX^J^i 8c kijSc* i<f>7J7rTo. 

dXX* Srt hrf Ilpid/ioio 8o/ioi/ TreptKaXXc* iKai/o/, 
^eoTg^ aWowrgai rervyiiei/ov^ avrdp ip avro! 
iT€inrJK0VT a/ecrav ddXafioL ^otolo XCOolo, 

246 irXi}(ru>t dXXi}Xa>i/ SeS/xr^/ia/ot * a/da 8c iratSe? 
KOLfiioPTO Ilptd/ioto Trapd /iptjot^^ dX6\OL(nv' 
KovpdoDV 8' irepcoOep ivamioi h/hoda/ avXrj^ 
htSScK icrap reyeoi ddXafioi ^coroto Xtdoto, 
irXijaioL dXXijXcui/ ScS/ir^/icVoi * ci^da 8c yafifipol 

260 Komwvro Ilptd/ioio Trap' ai8oi2}9 dXo^^oicriv. 
cwa ot i}7rid8copo9 Ivavrit) rjXvde [I'fJTrjp 
AaoSiKT}!/ io'dyovaa^ dvyarpwu cISo? dpiaTrjP' 



132 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

€v T apa OL (f>v X^^P^ ctto? r €(f>aT .€k t oi^o/ia^cy- 
^^T€KPOP, TLirre Xittcui/ iroXefiov dpaxrvv aXrjkovda^; 

256 ^ fidka hrf T€Lpov(ri Svcroii/u/iot vle^ ^A.-yaiSiv 

liappdiiepoL vepl aoru, ae 8' ivOdSe dv/jto9 avfJKtv 
Ikdovr i^ aKprf^ ttoXio? Atl ^ctpa? di/acrxcti/. 
dXXa /ifi^', CK^pa k€ rot /icXtr^Sea oIi/oi/ ipeuuo, 
CU9 (TireixTji^ Atl Trarm ical dXXoc? ddavdrouriv 

260 irpSnoVy ineiTa 8c Kavro? oi/i^crcat, at k€ mjjo'da. 
dpSpl 8e K€Kfiri(orL fia/o^ [i^p^ oh/o^ de^ct, 
oi? TVKi/ KCKfirfKa^ dfivptov aolaiv enffaiv^ 

rffv 8' rjfieCfieT^cneLTa /icya? KopvdaioKo^ ''EicrcDp' 
*^ fit] fioL oIpop a€ipe fi€\i(f>popay irmvia iiyjrepy 

266 fiT] fi dTToyvtctJo-^T?, fia/eo^ 8* dXK^9 tc Xddaiftat* 
j(cp<Tl,8* dpinroLO'Lv Att Xeifieip aWona oTyov 
a^ojiai' ov8e tti; eort Ke\aiv€(f>€L KpovUoPL 
atjfxart Kat \v6p(o ireiraKayiiepop eifxerdao'dai. 
dWd (rif ii€P npo^ vrfop 'A^Tji/awj? dycXctrj? 

270 cp^co crui/ dveeaa-LVj doXXurcrao'a yepaid^- 

TreTrXoj/ 8', 05 rts rot ^apUararo^ rihk /leytoro? 
coTti/ cvt iM€ydp<o Kat rot ttoXv c^tXraro^ avr^, 
Toi/ ^C9 *A0riPaCri^ iirl yovvaa-iv 'qvKOfioiOy 
Kat ot v7roo')(€(r0aL SvoKaCheKa fiov^ ivl injal 

275 rjpi^ lyKcaras iepeva-eiiev^ at k* iXerjaji 

doTv re kol Tp<a(ov aXo^ov^ Kat mjma T€Ki/a, 
at K€p Tv8€09 vtoj/ diroirxji 'IXtbu tp-^?, 
aypiov at^/iTjnjV, Kparepov fiTJartopa <f>6fioLO. 
dXXd cru /xci/ tt/oo? wjoi/ *X6y}vavt)% dyeXeCr)^ 

280 cpx^Vj cycu 8c Ildpiv fLertkevcoiiaiy 6if>pa KaXccrcrai, 
at K eueK'ga' €inoin'o^ aKove/iev* 0)9 kc ot axrc/t 
/"^ata ^dvoL' ficya ydp fiiv ^OXvfnnos €Tp€(f>€ TriJ/xa 
Tpcoai re Kat lipLdfKo ixeyakyJTopt rotd re iraLcip. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 133 



ct k€lv6p ye tSoi/it KareXOoPT ^AiSo^^uro), 
285 <f>aCrjy K€v <f>C\op ^rop di£i;09 eKXeXod^o'dat." 

Sacrifice to Athena by Trojan Matrons. 

c^^^<f>a0', Tj 8c fiokovca ttotI fieyap* d/ic^iTToXoto'ii/ 
k€kK€to. rac o ap aoAAtcrcrai^ Kara aarv ycpoua^. 
avTTj o €9 uaKafiov Kareprja-eTO Krioaevray 
€v6* ea'av oi irenXoi 7ra/i7roiKi^ot, ipya yvvaiKoip 

Tjyaye %iZovvrideVy iirv^ta^ eupea ttovtov^ 
rrjp 68di/, iqp ^TSXarrji/ nep atnjy^ev exmaffpeiav. 
tS>v h/ aeLpafiarrj '^dfir) <f>epe hiopov ^Adijirg, 
o9 KaWtorro^ erfv Troi^ctX/iacrti/ -^Sc iieytaTO^j 

296 aarrfp 8* (U5 aTTC Xa/i7r€i/ • €K€iro 8c i/€uxro9 aXXo)!/. 
/817 8* 161/ai, iroXXal 8c fLertaceuovro yepaiai 

at 8' ore mpv iKavov ^Kdrjvy)^ iv iroXcc cLKpjfy 
rgai 6vpa<s cStfc 6cava> fcaXXiTrapiyo? 
Ktcrcnyi?, aXoj^os ^Avnjpopoq t7r7ro8a/ioco' 

300 77)1/ ya/) Tpo>c$ idr/Kav ^Ad7)pairj<s iepeiav. 

at 8* oXoXvy^ Tracroi ^Adrjvg ^eipa^ avio')(ov' 
If 8* apa irCTrXoi/ cXovcra 0cai/a> KaXXtTrapjjo^ 
OrJKev ^AdjjvaLTis cVi yovvaciv -^vKOfioto, 
ev^oyiivy} 8* yiparo At09 Kovp-g fieyaXoio- 

305 ^^voTVL *A0rfpai7j, pvcrtTrroXt, 8ta OeaxoVj 
a^ov 8^ eyxos ^lOfiijSeoSy ^8c Kai avroi/ 
irpnqvia 809 Tr^a-eetv 1,k(uS)v npoirdpoLde irukaxov^ 
0(f>pa Toi- avTuca vvv 8voKai8€^a )8oi;9 ci/l inj^ 
171/19 i7fccoTa9 iepevcofiePy at /c' cXc7/a7j9 

310 aoTV re /cat Tpdcjp aXovov^ kol mjma TcVci/a." 
(i59 ci^ar* €V)(Ofi€pr)y avev^ve 8c naXXa9 *A6ijvr). 



134 OMHPOY IAIAA02 Z 

Hector goes to the House of Paris. 
(Ss ai lieu p €V)(OPTO Ato5 Kovp-g fieyd^mpy 

KaAa, Ttt p avT09 crcvfc^vi/ avopaxriv^ ot tot apicrroi 
315 ^aapiyl TpoC-g ipifidXaki T€Kroi/€<s avSpe^- 
ol OL eTroiTfa'avS^aKafiov kqX Swjxa kol avX^v 
iyyvOi re TlpiaiioLO kol ''Eicropo? iv ttoXci aKpjj. 
€V0* *E/cTcup ctcriJX^c 8cu^iXo9, cv 8* dpa X^^P^ 
cyxos €)( ivheKdirrfxy' ndpoide 8c Xa/i7rero hovpo^ 

320 dlxi^V X^^*^^"?' '''"^P^ ^^ XP^^^^^ ^'*^ 'rropKri^. 

Tov 8* cvp* €1/ daXa/jtct) TTcptfcaXXca tcv;(c* eiropray 
acTriSa koL ddpriKa^ kol ayicvXa ro^ d<f>6a)VTa' 
*Apy€i7) 8' 'EXci/Tj /iCT* apa 8/ia)^a'c yvvajL^iv 
yjoTO Kol dfi<f>L7r6\oLa'L irepiKXyrd ipya kcXcvci^. 

326 Toi/ 8* ^EKToip veLKea-a-ei/ i8a>i/ ai(rxpol^ inceaaw 
^^haiiJLOvi, ov' fikv KoKd x^^ov tw8* cvdco Ovfiw. 
Xaol ^€1/ <l>0Lvv6ov(n irepl tttoXlp aiTTv tc rctxo? 
fiapvdiievoL' aeo^ cti/CK* dvTT; tc TrroXc/id? tc 
aoTv TOO afi(f>iO€Ori€' av o av fiaxeaano Kat aXA^, 

330 OP TLvd TTOv fi€0L€VTa 18019 OTxryepov TToXcfioto. 
dXX' dva, fiTj rdya iorv irvpo^ Srfloto ^cpijTot." 

Paris promises to "go forth to fight. 

TOP 8* aSrc TrpoaeeLnep 'AXcifai/8po9 ^coci87f9- 
""EKTop, CTTCt /xc KttT* otaap ci/ci/cccra? ov8* vTTcp alcrai/, 
Tovp€Kd TOL ipeo)' <rif 8c avpdeo KaC fiev aKoxxrop. 
336 ov Tot cyft) TpcMop Toacop x^Xa> ov8c ptfiico'i 
rjfirfp ip daXdfKpy ideKop 8' d^ct TrporfianecrOaL, 
pvp 8c /ic iraptiTTOva akoxo^ /xaXa/cofe imeacLP 
<apfjLy)<T C9 TToXc/xoi/, So/ccct 8c /xot cl58c KoX avTw 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 136 

\ckop eaaea-OoLL. pitci} S' inafieifieraLL avSpa^, 

340 dXX* aye vvv eiri/ieti/oi/, aptjca rvix^d Bvai' 
-17 t^, cyo* 0€ iiereifiL, Ki^a-eauax 0€ <r otoi. 

0)9 <^aro, TOi^ 8' ov Tt Trpoaeifyq KopvdaioXo^ ^^EKT<op • 
roi/ 8* 'EXonj iivdoicri irpo(rqvha fieiKi^ioiaiv ^ 
"8a€p ifieioy kwo^ KOKoprq^avav OKpyoiaaiff^^ 

346 cS? /i* CK^cX' rj/jLaTL ro), arc ftc irpSnov T€K€ p/rfTrfpy 
ol)(€a-daj, "npo^ipovaa kokti dpcfiOLo dvcXXa 
€19 0/909 17 €19 KVfia irokv^XoUr^oio daXdcaJi^y 
€v6a fJLe KVfi aTToepa-e irdpo^ ToSe ipya yevia-dax. 
airrdp cttcI ra8c y whe Oeol KaKa TeKfiijpavrOy 

350 aphpo^ eneiT omI>€\\op ayL^ivovo^ €u/at aKOirc9> 
09 ^817 vifieciv r€ #cai aUr)(€a -ttoXX* dvdpamfav* 
TOVTia o ovT ap vvv tppeve^ €/i7r€Oot our ap oiruraw 
iaaovTaL' r^ fcat /xti/ i'rravprjaea'dax oua. 
aAA aye i/ui^ curcA^e /cat e^eo ra)0 €7r6 Ouppoi, 

366 8ae/), cVet ore /laXtcrTa 7roi/o9 ^piva^ d/ji<^t)8€)8i}fc€i/ 

ClI/C/c' e/X€60 KVJ^09 Kal ^We^dvSpOV €V€K dT7J9, 

oSnj/ €7rl Z€V9 ^'^fcc KaKov fiopovy 019 Kal ovUnroi 
/\avdp(!moi(TL ircXcS/ic^' doi8i/jtoi icaoiiivoLcnvy 

Hector refuses to sit down. He is needed on the Battle Field, and 
he wishes to see his Wife and his Child. 

r7)v 8* 'qfieCfier areira fieya^ KopvOaioko^ "EKTcup' 
360 "/it; fi€ Kadil^y *EXcV>j, <f>L\eova'd irep' ovSd [le 7rcurci9* 
17817 ydp /lot Ovfio^ iiriaavTOLLy 6<f>p* cVa/iwo) 
TpcScco"', ot fiey ifielo TroOr/v dweovro^ €)(ov(riv. 
dWd <ru y opvoBi tovtovj CTTCtyccr^ai 8c kol avT09, 
ci^ Kev €[1 evToo-dev 7rdXto9 KaTa/^dpilrg iovra. 
366 Kal ydp iywv oiKovh* cccXcvco/xat, o^pa 18(01101 
OLKrja^ a\o)(6v t€ <f>i\7)v koX vrjiriov vlov 



136 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

ov yap T oZ8*, 17 ert C7<^ti/ virorpoiro^ l^oficu aurt9, 
-^ iqOTj fi vno X^P^^ "^^^ oafiotoo'iv A^^otcoi/. 

Hector goes to his Home, but Andromache is not there. 

a>9 oipoL (fxamjaa^ airefirj Kopvdaioko^ ^FtKTcjp. 

370 ali|ra 8* eiruff iicai/e Sd/xov9 cu pcuerdopra^j 

ov8* cup' * Av8 pofid)(rjv XevKcjXepop ip fieydpoi^aiPj 
aXX* 17 yc ^ifp iraiSl kol afi^Lir6\(o cWcrrXw 
TTvpyo) i(f}€cm]K€L yoocoad t€ fivpoficpri t€. 
'^EKTwp 8' 0)9 ouK €p8op ifivfiopa reTfiep aKoi/np^ 

376 cimj cV ou8oi/ tcyj/, /jiera 8c SfKajjap ienrep' 
"ct 8* aye /xot, 8/xcoat, prjfieprea /ivOija'aa'Oc' 
TTjJ c)8tj ^ApSpofid^r) XevKciXepo^ cic fieydpoLo; 
Tjc TTji €9 yaXdo)}/ 17 elpaTcpcjp hm€irk<ap^ 
rj €9 'A^7jj/aiTj9 c^oij^crat, ev^a Trcp aXXot 

380 Tpcoat cWXdica/xot 8611/7)1/ ^coj/ iXacricoKrat ; " 

Toi/ 8' avr' orprfprf TafiCrj wpbs fivOop eeiwcp' 
"''EKTop, CTTcl /LtaX* aj/ciiya9 aXrj^ca fivOrja'aa'dau,, 
ovT€ irii €9 yaXdcDi/ ovr' elparepcjp i\m€irk(op 
ovT is 'A0r]paCr]s cfoij^crat, a/^a Trcp aXXot 

385 Tpcoal ivTrXoKafioL Scik^j/ ^coj/ iXacricoi/rai, 

aXX' CTTt TTvpyop efirf fieyap *lXa)v, ovp€k aKovaep 
TeCpeaOoL TpStaSj fieya 8c Kpdros ctj/at 'A;(ataii/. 
17 /xci/ 817 Trpos relxos iir^iyofiipT) d^iKdp€i 
ficupofiepy iiKVLa' <^cpct 8* dfia walha ridrjpy).^^ 

Hector and Andromache meet near the Scaean Gate. 

390 Jj pa yvPTj TafiCrfy 6 8* dneo'crvTo hd/iaTOs "Eicroip 
rfip airrrjp 6801/ avTi9 ivKTifiepas /car* ayuta9* 
. cvrc 7nJXa9 t/cai/c hiep^ofiepos /leya darv, 
Xfcaia9, rrj dp" efieWe hie^ifievai 7rc8toi/8c, 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 137 

€vd* aXo^o? TToXuSoipo? ivavritf 7j\de 0€ovcra 
395 "Aj/Spo/xa^c*;, dvyartfp fieyakyJTopo^ *Hcticui/09, 
'HerUbi/, 09 ivauev vrro XlXa/co) vhrfeaajiy 
^fijl xnroTTXaKvjjy Kikuceaa aphpeaaiv avdaacDV ' 
Tov TTcp 817 dvydrrfp €)(€d* *E/CTopt y^akKOKopvarrj. 
t; ot erreiT rjvrq(T ^ afia o a/Li<piTroAo9 kl€v ax/rg 
400 TraiS* CTTt icoXtt^ €)(ova aTa\d(f>povay v^iriov avrcos, 
'^KTopiSrfp ayaTnyroVy oKiyKiov aaripi icaXo!, 
Toi/ p* ^EicTGip KaXcccTKe ^Kaiidvhpiovy avrap ol aXXoi 
*AaTvdpaKT' 0I09 yap ipvero *lXtoi/ ^EKToip. 
-^ Tot o /xcj/ fieC^TfO'ev I8wv c? TraiSa cricDTr^" 

^ ^ (0^' Andromache begs Hector to remain within the Walls. 

405 *Avhpofid^ hi ot dy^i irapiararo Saicpu ;(€ov<ra, 
€1/ T apa ot 91; X^^P^y eiro^ r c<paT cic t ovofiaQev 
^^h(Ufi6vi€y (fidicrei ae to aop fiepo^y ov8* eXcatpct? 
TratSa t€ prjirCaxop koI €fi dfifiopoPy 7} rd^a XVPV 
cTcC iaoficu' rdxa ydp ae KaTaKrapeovaip 'A;(atot 

410 irdpT€^ i^Opfir)0€PT€^ ' ifiol Sc /CC K€p8lOP €l7j 

cTcS d^afiaprovcg x^^^^ BvfiepaL- ov yap er cxXXtj 
cbrat OaXircjpTJy cVct aj/ <n; yc iroTfiop iTrCairgs, 
aXX' ax^*' ovSc /xot cbrt Trarffp kol iroTPia fnjrrip. 
-^ rot ydp Trarep* dfiop dweKrape 8to9 'Ax^-XXcv?, 

415 c/c 8c TToXti/ wepaep KlXCkcjp iv paierocjo'ap, 
STJfirjp v\ffL7rv\op' Kara 8* eicrapep 'Hcruwi/a, 
ou8€ fiLP i^€pdpL^€y (refidaaaTO ydp to ye 0vfi^y 
dXX' dpa flip KaT€Kr]€ (Tvp ePTecri 8at8aXcotcrti^ 
1^0 CTTt OT7/X ex^^v frepi oc TrrcAcas c<purcvc7ai/ 

420 pvfi(f>aL opedTidhe^y Kovpai Ato9 atyto;(oto. 

ot 8c' /Ltot cTTTa KaaiypifToi eaap ip fieydponTLPy 
ol [i€P wdpTe^ 1(0 KLOP yjfiaTL *At8o9 cJcrcy 



138 OMHPOY IAIAA02 Z 

rrdvTa^ yap KaTer^e^e irohaipKris Sto? 'A^iXXcu? 
fiovaiv in eiXnroobj'a'i kol afyyevpy^ oCeao'iv. 

426 fi7yr€pa 8*, -^ fiaixikevev vtto TlXaKO) v\7jea'a"Q^ 
Trjv CTTcl ap Bojp* rjy ay a/i aXXowrt KreaT^a'aiv^ 
a}p o ye tt/p arrcXvcrc Xafiwv airepeuri airoiva^ 
narpo^ 8* iv fieydpoKTi fiak* *ApTC/xi5 Lo\€au,pa. 
^]StKTop^ arap (tv fioi iaci irarfip Kal rrorvia p^ijrrfp 

430 rjSe KocriyvyfTo^y av 8c /xot OaXepo^ TrapaKoirrf^ - 
dXX* aye vvv ekecupe kol ovtov fiifiv em mipy^i 
fiTf TratS' op^avLKov 6rjji% XV PV^ ''"^ yvvalKa' 
[kaop 8c arfjo'OT/ irap* epiveovy ei/da fidkurra 
dfifiaro^ eoTi ttoXi? icat eTrCSpofiov enkero relx^S' 

436 rpt? yap Tjj y ekdome^ eireipija'avd^ ol apioTOL 
aifi^* AtaKTC 8iJo) Kal ayaKkvrop *l8ofiev!ja 
'^8' a/x<^' *ATpci8a9 /cat Tv8co9 okKifiov viov 
7) irov Tt9 a'(f>iv eviaire deoirpoirioiv iv ci8ai9i 
^ i/v KoX avrSiv dvfio^ etrorpvvei koX aj/c5ycc."] 

Hector must fight among the Foremost. 

440 TTfv 8* avre Trpoaeenre fieya^ Kopvdaioko^ "E/croip- 
^ icai c/xoi raoe iravra /Lie Act, yvi^ai * aXXa /xaX cui/cds 
alSeoficu Tpcia? Kal Tpa>a8a9 cXfcccrtTrcVXov?, 
at KC KaKO^ cS? voa^iv okvaKalfi} irokefioLO' 
ov8e fie dvfio^ avwyevy eTrei fiddov e/ifievai eaOko^ 

446 atct icat TrpdyroKTi /xcra Tpokaai fid^ecrOcUy 
^^dpyjifievo^ irarpo^ re fieya Kkeo^ tjB* ifiov avrov. 
ev yap ey<a rd8c otSa icara <f}peua kol Kara Ov/iop' 
eaaeraL ^fiap^ or av tror okdikri *IXto9 ipri 
KoX UpCafio^ Kal Xaos ivfifiekio) UpidfioLO. 

450 aXX* ov fioL TpcooDV Tocraop fiekei aXyog OTTMrcrcy, 
ovT avrfj^ 'E/ca^Tjs ovre Upidfioio avaKTO^ 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 189 

OVT€ KaiTLyviJTtOPj ol K€V 7roX€€9 T€ Kol €<r^Xot 

iv KOpC-gai mcoicp in avhpaucri hv<Tii€v4€<Ta'iv^ 
oaaov (rev, ore Kiv rt? 'A^atw^ ^aXKo^vnavtav 

456 SaKpyoeaaav dyr^r ai, Ikevdepov ^f^afy-aTrovpa^, 

KaC K€P iv '^ApyeL iovixa nph^ aXXij? iarop v^aivoi^^ 
Kai K€p vSoip <^op€ot9 McrfcnjcSo? 17 'TrrepkLTj^ 
TToW deKaZ^o/ieirrj, KpaTepr/ 8* imKeUrer avayicf)' 
Kai iroT€ Tt5 ctirjia'LP cScij/ icara SaKpv xdovtrav • 
' 460 **Eicropo9 178c yvi^, 09 dpLOTeveaKe /xa^^ccr^at 
Tpwoiv LTnroSdfKoPj ore ^Ikiop dfi<^c/xa;(oi/ro.' 
aJ9 TTorc' Tt9 €^€€1, (Tol 8* ttS i^€Oj/ cc70"erat dXyo9 
^fifrci' Totoi)8* di/8po9, a/ivpeip SovXlop ^fiap, 
oKkd ii€ T€0PT)ayra X^^ Kara yaia fcaXvTrrot, 

466 irpCp yi Tt 0^79 T€ )8o7j9 o-oC ^' IkKTiOiiolo 7rv0€(r0(u.^ 

Hector takes his Child in hia Arms and prays for him. 

o>9 ei^wp ov Trat8o9 ope^aro <^aiSi/Lio9 ^^EicTeop' 
di/i 8' 6 7r<u9 '7rpo9 Kokwop iv[,(opoLO tiOtJpt]^ 
iKkipdi) ldxo>Pi narpo^ ^iXov o^fiiP drvxdeC^y 
rapfirj<Ta^ XolXkop T€ t8c \6<f>op iTrTrto^^aMnji/, 

470 heLPOP aw* aKpordrrj^ Kopvdo^ ptvopra porjaa^. 

eK 8* cycXacTCTc irarrjp re <^tXo9 icat worpia fiTJTrjp 
avTLK diro Kparo^ Kopvd* eiXero <^at8i/Lio9 ''E/crtop, 
fcal rfip fiep KaT€0r)K€p iirl ^f^oj/t^a/LW^a^ooxray, 
avrdp o y* oi/ (f}C\op viop cVct /cvd'c tt^Xc tc x^P^^^ 

476 cTttci/ iirev^dfiepo^ Att r* dXXotcrti/ re deolaip- 
"ZcC dXXot TC ^coi^ 8oT€ 8^ icat Tdi/8c yepeaOcu 

^ 7rat8* e/xdi/, cu9 icat cyci rrcp, dpnrp^Tria Tpoka'aLP, 
£Se fiijjp T dyadop koX *lXtoi; I^t dpdaaeip • 
KaC TroT€ Tt9 ctTTOt ^TTaTpo^ y 08c TToXXoj' dfieipfop^ 



140 OMHPOY lAIAAOS Z 

480 iK iroke/iov aviovra' ^ipoi 8* €vapa fiporoevra 
KT€Lva^ 87JLOV dvSpoLt ^apeiq 8c ^p€va injrqp.'^ 

Hector comforts Andromache and sends her home. 

6>9 €ciran/ dkoxoLO <^cXt}9 ip x^pirXv ^rjKev 
Traio €01/ * 17 o apa /xi^ Krftaoei oegaro KoKir(f 
hojcpvoev yekaaaa'a' Trocrt? 8* iXetjire voTJa-a^ 

486 X^^P^ '''^ t*'^^ Karepe^eVf eiro^ r €^ar €k t ovofiaZ^ ' 
'* 8ai/xot/cT}, firj fioi ri \Cr)v dKa)(^L^€o dvfi^ * 
ov yap Tt9 /x* vTTcp attrai/ av^p *Ai8t irpoutt|r€i' 
fiolpav 8' 01; rti/a <^7}/xi ire^vyfia/ov e/ifiepcu dvhpw, 
ov KOKOPj ovSc fi€i/ iaOXoVy iTrrfv rd np&ra yanfrou. 

490 dXX' €19 olrco^ toScra rd <r axrrr\% ^pyoL KOfii^c, 
Icrrov r y\ktucdTt]v t€, kox dfi<f>iir6\oi,a'i iccXo/c 
epyov €iroi')(€a'daL' irokefio^ 8* avhp€.<T€n /xcXt/ctci 
ira<rtt/, c/xot 0€ /xaAtcrra, rot lAty eyy^yaaucriv. 
6>9 apa (fxavrjiTa^ KopvO* eiXero <^atSt/xo9 ^Efcroip 

405 hnrovpiv* ako^o^ Se <^tX7} oiicdi/8€ fi^firJK^iv 
e^rpoTTaXt^o/xcVi}, ddkepop Kara Saicpv xeovaa. 
al^ 8' etreiff t/cai/€ So/xov9 ev vouerdopra^ 
''EjcTopo^ dvSpo<f>6voLOy Ki^TJo'aTo 8' a/8odi iroXXa9 
d/Li<^t7roXov9, rgcLv 8c ydoi/ Trdo"Q(Tvi/ ivSip<T€v, 

600 at fL€i/ ert ^cooi/ ydov "Eicropa ^ ci/t ot/coi* 
ov ydp /Ltti/ er* e^avro vnorponop iK irpkiiioio 
X^eo'doL irpo^iryovra /i&fo^ Kal ^(elpa^ ^Axauciv. 

Paris overtakes Hector by the Scaean Gate. 

ovSe ndpt9 ^6w€v ip {njnfXolai Sofiouriv^ 
dXX* o y* cTTCt icaTcSv KXvrd Tcu^ca rroiictXa ^^^'^9^9 
505 (revar eirctr* di/d doTu, ttoo"! KpouTrvoicn miroLdfo^. 
019 8' ore Tt9 <7TaT09 tTTTro?, dKoartja'a^ cttI ^^dri^, 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 141 

hecfiov diroppij^as deiji ttcSioio Kpoaivcav^ 
€ia)da>9 koveadai ivppelo^ noraiioloj 
KvoLO(ov inpov o€ KapTf €)(€L, afi<f}L 0€ ^atrot 

610 cifiOL^ auTaovTOL' 6 8* ay\atr](f}L ireiroidwy 

pCii<f>a i yovva ^ipei fierd t rj0€a kol pofiop hnr^av 
cS? vIo9 Jlpiafioio Hdpi^ Kara Tlepydfiov aKpij^y 
reu^feai iraLfL^aivtav oJ? r iqXeKTCDpy ifie^TJKeiv 
KayxakocjPj Ta;(€€5 8c 7ro8c9 ^ipov. aL/ra 8' cTrctra 

515 ^EicTopa 8toi/ €T€Tfi€v d8eX<^€di/, c5r* dp* e/xcXXci/ 
OTpoffeaff' c/c X^PV^^ ^^^ V '^^P^C^ yvvcuKL 
TOP nporepo^ wpocreeirrev 'AXcfai^8po5 ^€oci8t;9* 
" '^^et', -^ /xdXa 817 crc icat icraiJiiepop KarepvKOi 
h7}dvv(avy ov8* rjkdov ipaUrifioPj 019 c/cc'XcvC?." 

620 TOP 8* d7raft€i^d/x€i/09 wpo(r€<f}rf icopv^atbXo? ^EfCToip • 
" 8(Uftdi^t*, ov/c dj/ T19 rot di/iyp, 09 ipaicLfio^ en;, 
epyop dninjceLe fid^rj^y cttcI dXfcc/Lid9 ccrcri- 
aAAa €ica)^ fi€UL€L<s re fcat ou/c €t/€Act9* to o c/xoi/ Kijp 
dj^j/vTot cj/ Ovfi^j o0* xnrkp credep ala^ii d/covco 

525 Trpo9 TpcoioPy ot ixovcL iroXifp ttopop cii^e/ca <rcto. 
dXX* to/xci/ • rd 8 ' oniadep dpeaaofieff^^ at icc tto^i Z€U9 
8015 iirovpapiouri deoi^ al€iy€perjj<Tip 
Kpryrfjpa anja'aaOcu iXevdepop ip fieydpourip, 
Ik TpoM79 iXdaapTa^ ivKPTjfiLSa^ *A\aLOv^'^ 





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HOMERIC GREECE 

(AFTER KIBFERT) 




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C.Taanarum d 



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cytmIiu 



COMMENTARY 

TO THE FIRST BOOK OF THE H^IAD 

1-7. Prooemium: The wrath of Achilles y from its very beginning, and the 
destructive consequences which followed in accordance with the will of Zeus, 
This is the principal theme of the Iliad. * These first verses are like the 
tones of a funeral march rising to a sky shrouded in gloomy clouds/ < A 
series of verses which like heralds announce the whole poem. A gloomy 
cloud gathers over the Greeks. The field is covered by the corpses of 
fallen heroes. Dogs and vultures tear the bodies of the slain. The most 
powerful of men and the mightiest mortal descendant of Zeus quarrel. 
Zeus has determined the destruction of the people. — All this in a single 
sentence which closes with 'A^iXXeus.* Hermann Grimm. 

The First Book serves as an introduction to the whole poem. It nar- 
rates the story of the strife between Achilles and Agamemnon, and the 
decree of Zeus, which is made on the intercession of Thetis. — The events 
narrated in this Book occupy twenty-one days. See § 6 a. For the situa- 
tion at the opening of the war, see § 5. 

1. fii^viv: the wrath, lasting anger, the memorem iramof Verg. A en. 
i. 4. Cf 81, 247, 488. This receives prominence as being most impor- 
tant for the subject of the poem. — The definite article is not needed in 
early Greek. The connection decides, as in Latin, whether the article 
should be used in translation. See § 42 k. — 0fd : i.e. the Muse. The 
Muses bestow the gift of song {6 64), and take it away (B 599 f.). — 
Homer does not assign special names and offices to different Muses. See 
on B 484. Cf dvSpa fwi cwcirc fjuowm a 1. — For the following caesura! 
pause, see § 58 a, c, f. — ni|XT|Ul8f«» [Tl'qkrfuu&ov or Hi^aSov] : for the geni- 
tive-ending, see § 34 c. This adjective is called a * patronymic,* and is 
often used as a proper name. See § 39. The last two vowels are pro- 
nounced as one. Cf^w^ 15; see §25 'Ax^Xijot [*A;(iAA.€<i)$] : for 

the ending, see § 23 c. Homer often drops one of two doubled consonants. 
See § 59 d, e. 

2. oiXo|ilvi)v : destructive, deadly : cf Milton Par. Lost i. 2, * forbidden 
fruit . . . whose mortal taste | Brought death into the world,' and Shaks- 
pere's * mortal sword,' Macbeth iv. 3. 3. This is put in a kind of apposi- 
tion with iirjvw, as if it were an afterthought. The idea is amplified in 

1 



2 COMMENTARY TO THE 

the following relative clause; cf, 10, B 227; see § 12 e. — (ivpCa: counliess ; 
not a numeral (fivpui) in Homer. — For the < elision ' of a, see § 28 a. — 
For the * hiatus,' allowed when the final vowel has been elided, see § 27 e, 
— 'Axcuoif : often used for all the Greeks ; see § 4 a. — ftX-yia [oAyiy] : i.e. 
the defeats caused by the absence of Achilles from the conflict. — For the 
uncontracted form, see § 24. — IOv|iccv: caused, as T 321 (see § 17), nearly 
equivalent to tcv^c, below, or to the Attic iTrotr/a-ev. 

3. itoXX^b: the second clause of the relative sentence is closely con- 
nected with the first, since iroAAac repeats the idea of /av/mo, while the third 
clause is added in the form of a contrast, avrovs 3c ktK. — l^8(f&ovs 
[x/MiTcpas] : the feminine form IfftOifjui^ is used by Homer only of persons. 
See § 38 a. — Mighty souls is nearly equivalent to * souls of mighty men.' 
— "AiSi irpotcbipiv : sent off to Hades, a vigorous expression for a violent 
death, as E 190, Z 487. Cf, multos Danaum demittimus Oreo Verg. 
Aen. ii. 398. For the use of irpo, cf. irpo rfKt 195. — "AiSi [*Ai8i;] : a « meta- 
plastic ' form of 'Ai&^, which in Homer is always the name of a person, 
the ruler of the nether world. See § 37. 

4. 4|p^v : brave warriors. The word had not acquired the meaning of 
heroes in the English sense (§ 17). — abro^: themselves, i.e. their bodies as 
contrasted with their souls. — iX^^pta [Attic a/wrayijv] : booty: cf. canibus 
data praeda Latinis | alitibusque Verg. Aen. ix. 485 f. For the 
preceding hiatus, see § 27 6. — tv^i tdivtoviv : since the bodies often had 
to lie unburied ; cf. B 393. Dogs are the scavengers of the East. Cf. 
* Him that dieth of Ahab in the city the dogs shall eat ; and him that 
dieth in the field shall the fowls of the air eat ' 1 Kings xxi. 24 ; * And the 
Philistine said to David, " Come to me and I will give, thy flesh unto the 
fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field " ' 1 Sam. xvii. 44. To be 
left unburied was a dreaded fate ; so Hector at the point of death besought 

Achilles not to allow the dogs to devour him (X 339) tivx* [^^^^X^] • ^or 

the omission of the augment, see § 43 a. — idivfoviv [kuo-iv] : for the 
ending, see § 36 b. 

5. oUvotoa [occovoT?] : the long form of the dative is more frequent in 
Homer than the dative in -ocs. See § 35 d. — Saira [Attic copnyv]: here of 
the food of brutes ; cf. B 383. — Aids . . . povX^ : instead of Aios /tcyoXou 
&a PavXis. This is joined parenthetically (§ 21) to the preceding relative 
clause. — The will of Zeus was accomplished in the consequences of the 
wrath of Achilles. Cf. * Such was the will of heaven,' Milton Par. Lost ii. 
1025. — povX^ : trill; cf Povkofuu. This corresponds to the $i\rffm (^c\o>) 
of the New Testament (y€yr]$T]T0) to OfXrjfm a-ov, in the Lord's Prayer). 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 3 

6. I( ol^ jcrX. : since Jirst, since once : the starting point for firjviv ovAo- 
fjAvrpf. This expression takes the place in Homer of the prose cttci aira^, 
€ir€4 Taxwrra, cf. 235. TrpSnov and irp&Ta are used adverbially with little 
difference of meaning ; cf. 276, 319. — rd : for the short vowel lengthened 
before the following consonants, see § 59 /. — Scoor^v [&€<m7Ti7v] 
ipfaum: contending separated, ue. contended and separated, parted in strife 
(cpts). 

7. 'ArpitSip : of four syllables ; see § 39 /. For the use of the patro- 
nymic, instead of 'Ayoftc/Avcuv, see § 39 h. — For the genealogy of Agamem- 
non, son of Atreus, see § 7 e. He is described by Helen as * a good king 
and a brave warrior ' (F 179). — &va( dv6p6v : elsewhere precedes a proper 
name ; only here is it found after a patronymic. It is generally applied 
to Agamemnon (as 442, 506), as commander-in-chief. He is /Soo-iXcvmros, 

most royal, in I 69. — For the * apparent hiatus,' see §§ 27 N.B., 32 SCo< : 

godlike, glorious (evycvi/s), a standing epithet of Achilles and of Odysseus. 
No special excellence of character is implied. Observe the metrical adap- 
tation to the names of these two heroes, allowing the < bucolic diaeresis ' 
after the fourth foot ; see § 58 i ; cf <M^09 *AiroXXwv 64, HoAAas *A&ijvrj 
A 78. SuK *A;((XA€V5 closes the verse in Homer more than fifty times. 

8. r(s r &p : who then f Cf res apa ovros cortv Luke viii. 25. A ques- 
tion from the standpoint of the hearer, suggested by 6. Cf * Who first 
seduced them to that foul revolt? — Th* infernal serpent,' Milton Par. 
Lost i. 33. Some god must have decreed the calamity ; the Homeric 
theology recognized no blind chance. — fytBi tvWi|icf: brought together in 
strife. — {iwliim [(Tw^Kc] : for the augment, see § 43 d |&dx«9^0i: to con- 
tend; sc. cTTCco-criv.. Cf 304, B 377 f. For the explanatory infinitive, see 
§§12/, 18e; H. 951 ; G. 1533. 

9. Airrofis : cf 36. — For the inflection, see H. 197 ; G. 242 f . Arpria 
seems to be a short form of L at on a, but the latter does not appear in 
Greek. Apollo was the mediate cause of the trouble, since the pestilence 
occasioned the quarrel. — 6 [cnrroi'] : for the demonstrative use of the 
article, see § 42 j. — poo-iXi^i IfiaxriKd] : ue. Agamemnon, avai av8p!av. — 
For the 'dative of association,' see H. 772 ; G. 1177. For the form, cf 
'A;(cX^09 1. — x®^**^^' see on 81. 

10. vo^ov [vocrov, § 23 (/] : this is called Xxufwi (pestilence) in 61. — 
&vd rrpardv: up through the camp {cf Kara arrparov 318), as the plague 
spread from tent to tent. Cf 53. — fipom : for the retention of or after p, 
see § 48 e. — kcuc^ : the adjective is explained by the following clause, the 
first word of which takes up the thought of the adjective, For the prder 



4 COMMENTARY TO THE 

of words, connecting Ktuapf with what follows, see § 11 j. — XaoC [X€<p] : 
his men, soldiery; cf, T 186 and Agamemnon's epithet woi/jaiv XaSiv B 243 
shepherd of the people. — Attic airfOvryrKoy oi arpaTiMToi. 
^ 11. t6v [rwToy rov] Xp^wTjv : that Chryses, well known to the hearers 
from stories or other songs. Nowhere else in Homer is the article used 
with a proper name. — yf^ri^xurw : slighted. — dptp-f^pa : receives prominence 
from its rhythm and position, almost equivalent to " though he was," etc. 
He is called Upevs (the Attic word) below — This verse has a * spondee * 
in the fifth foot, and hence is called < spondaic/ See § 57 A ; cf, 21, 157, 
291, 600. This gives an emphatic close to the sentence. 

12. Oo^ : cf. vrpxrl ^tomopoignv 421. A standing epithet of the ships 

even when they were on shore; see § 12 a 4»l vijas [mvs] : i.e. to the camp, 

where the ships were drawn up on land ; cf. B 688 For the position of 

the preposition between the adjective and noun, cf. 15, 26 ; see § 11 m. 

13. Xvo^|Lfvos : to release for himself to ransom. The active is used of 

him who receives the ransom (20, 29) ; the middle, of him who offers it 

8^Tpa [duyar^] : for the form, see H. 188, D ; G. 276 Homer knows 

her only by her patronymic Xpixn/tV (111, see § 39 g), daughter of Chryses. 
— ^^v : bringing with him, probably on a wagon or pack animal, iyiov 
id used 139, 367, 431 of living creatures. — AmpcCoa &iroiva: bullion 
(either of gold, silver, or copper), or vessels of precious metal, or clothing. 

14. o^ffcfjiar 'AirdXXtfvot: cf ApoUinis infula Yerg. Aen. ii. 430. 
This ribbon, or chaplet, of white wool, bound about the head and falling 
down on both sides, marked the priest's official character. He came under 
the god's protection, but as a suppliant carried the fillet, instead of wear- 
ing it. Cf. laurumque manu vittasque ferentem | Chrysen, 
Ovid Ars Am. ii. 401. — iicT|p6Xov : he was the Archer Apollo. For similar 
epithets, see § 22 /. -7- For the loss of quantity in the final diphthong 
before an initial vowel, cf 17 ; see § 59 k. — 'Air^XXMvot: for the length of 
the first syllable, as 21, 36, etc., see § 59 d. 

15. XP^'*'^ [XP^^^ * ^^^ ^^ solid gold, but adorned with golden studs 
or nails. See on 219, B 45 ; cf. 246. So the soul of the seer Tiresias had 
a )(pva€0v a-K^wrpav in Hades. — xpwrii^ is pronounced as of two syllables 
((/. 1) and is thus metrically like the Attic form. — dvd o^Hprrp^: on a 
staff. Construe with arefi/juoLT e^cov. Equivalent to Attic ^iri aicprTpov. 
For the dative, cf § 55 e; H. 792, 1 ; G. 1196. — Princes, judges, priests, 
and heralds carried a-fojirrpa as symbols of authority ; kings were a-Kiprrw- 
Xoc, scepter bearers (B 86). Cf. B 100 ff., 186. A a-K^irrpov was placed in 
the hands of him who was about to address the assembly, as a sign that he 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 6 

( had the floor ' ; r/. 2i5, F 218, ar^ Sk fUinf Ayopfj - aiaJTrrpov 8c oc fufiaXt 
XeifH I K^pvi P Zl f. Achilles swears by it (234). The judge in an 
Athenian court had a Paicrrfpui. The Spartans also carried stout staffs, 
and Athenian gentlemen carried canes. — irdvrat : the bard's hearers easily 
made for themselves the necessary limitations for such general expressions. 
The priest's errand was to the army and its leaders. 

16. 6^ [Svo] : for Svcu with the dual, cf. Atavrt Suco B 406, F 18, kwvrt 
Suo> £ 554. This form is more frequent in Homer than 8vo. — The pause 
in the verse throws this with xoo-^iTropc. — Menelaus, king of Sparta (B 586), 
as husband of Helen, is associated with his brother Agamemnon ; cf, 
B 408. See § 5 a. — Koo-|i^pc : Koafiiw (cf. KoafjuK, order) is used of mar- 
shaling troops in the sense of the later rojora-ia. Cf. B 126, 476, 554, F 1 ; 
8ee§ 17. 

17. The usual introduction to a speech (§ 12 A) is omitted. — For the 
use of the speaker's very words, instead of indirect discourse, see § 11 «. — 
IvKv^iuSct: a standing epithet of the Achaeans (§ 12 6). In historical 
times, Herodotus mentions greaves as worn by the Lycians in the army of 
Xerxes. 

18. OcoC: monosyllable by < synizesis '; see § 25. — Cf. Horace's translar 
tion, di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troia Sat. ii. 3. 191. 

19. nptdfioio [H/xo/Aov] : for the form, see § 35 a. — vdXtv : for the 
length of the last syllable, see § 59 /. — oCkoSc: homexcard, always of the 
return to Greece, not like oiicdv&, into the house. See § 33 e. 

20. vaSSa 8^ : made . prominent because of the priest's love for his 
daughter ; instead of the ifjucH 8c which is expected in contrast with v/uv 
fuy 18. — XOroi : corresponds to SoUv. Cf. 13. — ^(Xt|v : in apposition with 
inuSo, after the pause in the verse (§ II j), — " my dear child." Its position 
shows that it is not an otiose epithet, meaning not much more than my. 

— "As I pray that you may be victorious and have a safe return, so may 
ye restore to me " etc, Cf. the prayer of Priam for Achilles, av 3c t«k8* 
airovato, xxu €XBoii \ cr^v cs inxr/M&x yauiv O 556 f. mayst thou enjoy these 
(fifis and in safety reach thy native land, where the return of Hector's body 
is the condition implied for the prayer. The infinitive is here used for 
the imperative, but in an optative sense (like aci8c 1), not as a command ; 
cf. the infinitive and imperative in parallel clauses (322 f., F 459). — rd t* 
&iroiva : the priest points to the gifts which he brought with him. 

21. &(6|uv6i [Attic a-tpofjuevoi] ktX. : a prime motive for granting the 
request. The Achaeans were to honor the god in the person of his priest. 

— For the spondee in the fifth foot, see on 11. 



6 COMMENTARY TO THE 

22. fim4^|iT|o-av : for the usual hnjvTja-av, because of the awe which was 
required by the priest. It is followed by the infinitive as being equivalent 
to cKcAcixrav CTreiM^iyfiowTes, they bade with pious reverence : cf, B 290. 

23. otScitrOai : jej^eats the thought of o^d/uicvoi. — Up4^ C^^^] '- equivalent 
to afnfrrjpa 11. — AyXnA : an important epithet, introducing a motive for the 
action 8^801 [SiburOau.] : second aorist infinitive from ^ofuu. See § 53. 

24. dXX' o^K icrA. : a sharp contrast to aAXm fuv, giving prominence to 
the negative, — but not to the son of Atreus. — 'ArpttSg: receives further 
emphasis from its position immediately before the pause of the verse. 
Thus in the preceding verse Uprja is contrasted with Siroiva, as $vyaTpa 13, 
and the Xwrai re 20 with Sc^ca^cu. — Ov|ji^ : local, in heart. See § 12 ^. — 
This verse in prose would be oAX* 'ATpei&y? ovx W^- 

25. KcucAf : harshly. Cf. the use of laucqv 10. — &^Ui : for the form, as 
from a verb in -co), see § 52 a ; for the omission of the augment, see § 43 a, 
— Homer is fond of using the imperfect to describe an action as in prog- 
ress ; cf. TaJX€ 4 . — KpaTfp6v : strong^ stem. — Ivl |ifi0ov InXXiv : laid upon him 
his command. — M : construe with ^rcAAcv. See § 55 a, b. — |ifi0ov : had not 
yet received the idea of fiction which is contained in the English myth. It 
and liros (216) are often used for the Attic Aoyog, which is found but twice 
in Homer (§ 17). 

26. (i^ jcrA. : see to it that I do not, let me not, etc. This warning use of 
fuq with the first person singular is rare. (f. B 195, £ 487 f. — KoCXnartv 
[xofc Am9] : for the form, cf. otcDvouri 5 ; see § 34 c. — vi)iNr( [Fatxrt ] : for the 
form, see § 23 a. 

27. a$Ti« Urra: returning ; cf. irdXiv irXayxOivra^ 59, SofUvauL iraXiv 116. 

28. |i4 v6 TOi ktX. : lest perhaps, etc., adds to the preceding command 

the result that was to be feared if the command were disregarded oi 

XpaCo^iD : the negative and the verb form but one idea, be useless, of no 
avail; cf. 566, T 289. — o-Kijirrpov kt\. : " thy priestly dignity." 

29. irpCv : sooner, adverb with hrturw, with strengthening xot, even ; much 
rather. {Cf. the change in use of rather.) — For the animated * adversative 
asyndeton,' see § 15 c. — |Uv [avnyv] : her. — Imurtv: shall come upon. 

30. 4||ut4py: the familiar our of the household kv'Apyu: i.e. in Pelo- 
ponnesus (which name is not found in Homer), "Apyo^ *A;(auicdv, not 
ntXacryucbv 'A/jyos (Thessaly, B 681), nor the city *A/yyo9, where Diomed 
ruled (B 559). — This clause is in apposition with the first clause of the 
line, and it is repeated again by rrjKoOi mrfyrfi [poKpav airo rrj^ irarp^Soc]. 
The pause is very distinct after ptK^, although it is not marked in print- 
ing. Cf 'ArptiSrf 24. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD ^ 

31. UrrAv liroixo|&ivi|v : ffoing to and fro be/ore the loom^ paying the loom. 
The Greek women stood as they wove at their upright looms. Weaving 
was the principal occupation of the female slaves. — X^os : accusative of 
* limit of motion,' only here with dvrcoo), approachy share the couch. See 
§ 19 h. 

32. fOi IplOilf : for the * explanatory asyndeton,' see § 15 h. — o-cU&Ttpos: 
more safely; sc. than if thou shouldst refuse to go. This independent use 
of the comparative is frequent in Homer. — m9 : tVi order thaty here follows 
the emphatic word (§ 11 /) ; so ori, o, o^pa, and tm may have the second place 
in the clause. Cf B 125. — For kc with the subjunctive, see H. 882 ; 
G. 1367. 

33. Cf, 568, r 418. — SSctovv : " fear came upon him." For the < incep- 
tive aorist,' cf. pfj 34, l^fMraro 64, Odpayja-t 92, rapPriativTt 331, &iicpixra$ 
349, ox^v^ms 517 ; see II. 841 ; G. 1260. Observe the change to the imper- 
fect. — For the quantity of the first syllable, cf. 406, 568, T 418 ; see § 59 A. 
— h fipn^ : 6 ytpojuk 35. 

34. Pf| {ip-ri] : set out; cf B 183. For the accent, see § 43 6. — Aidwv: 
sc. in terror at the harsh words. 

35. voXXd: earnestly, cognate accusative used as adverb with -^paro. 
See § 56 6 and on 78. — AirdvivOc kuIv : i.e. as he left the Achaean camp. 

36. t6v [ov] : relative pronoun ; see § 42 m. 

37. icXi)Oi : for the forms of this verb, see H. 489 D 30. — |ui) [f^v] : for 
this contraction, from /xco, see H. 37, D g. — dfryvpdro^f: the use of the 
epithet instead of the name gives a touch of intimacy to the address. 
Odysseus thus addresses Athena as yXavKSnri, and Athena addresses Apollo 
as tKocfyyt. See § 12 &. The gods' instruments are of precious metal even 
where the metal is not best adapted to the work ; cf. E 724, 731. In 
Homer, Apollo has a golden sword, Hera golden sandals. Iris golden 
wings, Hermes a golden wand. — Xpiwniv, KCXXav : Mysian cities, seats of 
the worship of Apollo, on the gulf of Adramyttium. They disappeared 
before the classical period. Chrysa was the home of the priest, who 
received his name from it. — 6^t.fUfii\Kas: "dost guard." The figure is 
taken from a beast standing over (bestriding) its young in order to protect 
it; cf E 299. For the figurative use, cf *Let us rather | Hold fast 
the mortal sword, and like good men | Bestride our down-fall'n birthdom,' 
Shakspere Macbeth iv. 3. 3; cf. another figure in the psalmist's <As 
the mountains are round about Jerusalem so the Lord is round about his 
people,' Psalm cxxv. 2. Cf Gradivumque patrem Geticis qui 
praesidet arvis Verg. Aen. iii. 35. 



8 



COMMENTARY TO THE 



38. TfWSoio: cf. est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama | 
insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant Verg. Aen. ii. 
21 f. — The genitive probably depends on the notion of the noun avai, 
which is contained in av«unrci$. — Avdovfis : in its original meaning, art 
protecting lord. PouriXtwo is not used of tlie gods in Homer. 

39. ft iroTf : if ever, a form of adjuration. — x^H^^**^^ • * proleptic,' to thy 
pleasure; literally, as a pleasing one. — ktrX Spci|ra: roofed over, i.e. completed, 
built. The early temples were of simple construction. In general the groves 
were sacred, rather than a building. The temples of Athena and Apollo 




EARLY TEMPLE OF OELOS 



•>«•;"' 



in Troy and of Athena in Athens are the only temples named by Homer. 
The first temple of Apollo at Delphi was built of laurel boughs, according 
to the ancients. — The suppliant believes that he has made the god his 
debtor by his services, and he claims favors in return ; cf. 503 f. The 
gods themselves recognized this obligation. — vffAv [vcwv] : Homer follows 
the so-called Attic second declension in but a few words. Cf Xaoi 10. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 9 

40. 8^ : nearly equivalent to ^3i;. — icard : construe with licqa. — vCova : 
as covered with fat ; c/. 460. — For the details of a sacrifice, see 458 if., 
B 421 if. 

41. t68c |iOi jcrX. : a formula, after which < this desire ' is expressed by 
the optative, as here ; by the imperative, as 456, 505 ; or by m with the 
optative. 

42. ria^Mv: the verb is placed first, as containing the sum of the 
speaker's desire. — p^Xco-o-iv : piXxxriv. See § 30 /. 

44. Pfj . . . Kop^vwir: as B 167, A 74. — pf|: set out. The motion is 
continued in 6 8* ^i€ 47. — OiXviivoio: Olympus in Homer is always the 
Thessalian mountain as home of the gods (not heaven itself), as is indi- 
cated by its epithets, dyavFi^os 420 snoto-capped, vi^oas, fuucpos 402, iraXv- 
Scipa? 499, iroKvmvxoq. But the peaks tower above the clouds into 
heaven (ovpavos). Of. 195. And see atrtPrf yXavocwirts 'Aftyviy | OvXv/xirov8* 
o^t ifxurl dfSiv l$09 ao'<^aAcf aici | Ififuvai. cUrr dvifjuouri rtvdxra-troi . . . ovrc 
Xiwv hrnriXvarojL kt\. f 41 ff. Athena departed to OlympuSy where (nien say) 
w the everjirm seat of the gods. It ut not shaken by toinds, nor does snow came 
nigh it. — Kap^vwv : construe with Kara. For its use for the summits of 
mountains, cf. B 167, 869. Of. Kopa, head; see H. 216, D 8; G. 291, 16. 
— Ki^ : accusative of specification, as ^op, $vpj6v, 4>p€ya, all frequent with 
verbs of emotion (§ 12 ^). — For this description of the plague, see Lessing 
as quoted in § 11 {/. 

45. j^ioiaiv: dative of place (see § 19 a), equivalent to Attic cirt ra>v 
o»/ui)v. — &|i^pc^fo : i.e. closed both above and below as it hung on the 
shoulder; see on B 389. The explanation of the lengthened ultima is 
uncertain. — Apollo as god of the bow always carries bow and quiver ; cf. 
his words cruvrfifs det ravra PaxTraffiLv ipjoi Eur. Ale. 40 it is my custom ever 
to hear this how. So he is often represented in works of art. 

46. !icXa7(aif : seems to represent to the ear the sound of the arrows in 
the quiver; cf. A/y^c )3ios A 125. Cf. tela sonant humeris Nerg.Aen. 
iy. 149. 

47. a^TO^ Kivi|(MvTo«: airrdv contrasts the god with his arrows (§§ 11 y, 
42 K). For the genitive absolute, see § 19/, g. — wktC: a time of dread. 
Cf. i<r$op€ ^i&fi09 ^EicTwp I vvKTt Bo^ droAavTos wnairia M 462 f . Hector 
rushed in, like in countenance to swi/l night, and * He on his impious foes right 
onward drove, | Gloomy as night,' Milton Par. Lost vi. 831 f. For Homeric 
'comparisons,' see § 14. — Ioik^ [ciocws] : for the inflection, see H. 492 ; 
G. 537, 2. 

48. (urd : into the midst of the camp. 



10 COMMENTARY TO THE 

49. 8civ^ : attributive with icAayyi;. Cf, horrendum stridens 
sagitta Yerg. Atn, ix. 632. — y^vtro: arost^ was heard. — PioSo : Jrom the 
bow; ablatival genitive; § 19 a. 

50. oip1)a« Kol Kvvds : mules and dogs in the baggage train of the array. 
— kfr^X"^ ' attacked with his deadly missiles. — dfyo^ : swift, — The Attic 
might be irpCrroy fuv roT? ^/uovots iir((yu koI toTs Ta;(art kvo-lv. 

51. oMtp : stronger than 8^ correlative with fiev 50 ; § 21 /. — aWoCa% : 
the Greeks themselves, contrasted with their domestic animals. The inten- 
sive pronoun is reinforced by the pause in the verse. — P^os : for the 
quantity of the ultima, see 59 J, — J^uCt : iterative in meaning, like /SoXXc 
following. 

52. pdXXi : shot, with emphatic position at the close of a sentence and 
beginning of a verse; c/. 143 f., 241, 296, 501, 506, 523, 526. — mipaC: 
plural, since a new pyre was built each day. — viiciM*v : so-called < genitive 
of material.' — This is a poetic form of the statement that multitudes per- 
ished from the pestilence. — OaiutaC : predicate adjective, where an adverb 
might have been used ; § 56 a. 

53. <wf||uip : iwh. is a round number in Homer. Of, * Nine times the 
space that measures day and night | To mortal men,' Milton Par, Lost 
i. 50. — VX<^ • "flew." The arrows are personified; cf. aXro 8' ocorros | 
d^)9eAi^, Kaff ofJuXov hnirr&rOai fuvtcuviov A 125 f. leaped, eager to fly into 
the throng, 

54. rg Scxdrg : dative of time. The article calls attention to this as 
the decisive day. — The adjective agrees with ly/Acpi; or ijoi implied in 
Iwijfmp. Cf, the omission of xopt 501, B 341, jSovXiJv B 379, yg B 162, 
Bopdv r 17, ^Aoimv r 126, irvXcW T 263, and the use of neuter adjectives 
as substantives, as c/idv 526, K€pTOfiioun 539, A 256. — hi: may stand after 
the second word in the clause, since the first two words are so closely con- 
nected. — &70f»4v8c: for the ending -&, see § 33 e. The agora of the 
Achaeans was at the center of their camp, a little removed from the sea, 
by the ships of Odysseus. The dyoprj in Homer was not yet degraded to 
be a market place (see § 17) ; it corresponded to the meeting place of the 
Athenian ckkXi^ctoi. — KoXio-o-aro : summoned ; cf. B 50. Other princes 
than the commander-in-chief had authority to call an assembly of the 
people. In Vergil's Aeneid (ii. 122), Odysseus (not Agamemnon) demands 
of Calchas what must be done to appease the gods. — This expresses pic- 
turesquely the prosaic ckkAito-oii/ lirotrjo't, — For the (rtr, see 48 a. 

55. Ty: equivalent to Attic avrcu (§ 42 </, y) ; literally, /or him. — krt\ 
^pco-V Of|Kc : put into (literally, upon) his heart. The Homeric Greeks did not 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD H 

think of the head as the seat of the intellect. — XtwcdlXivos: frequent epi- 
thet of Hera (§ 12 2>), not often of women, as ri21 ; cf. PotavK 551. — 
'Hini : for Hera*B motive, c/*. § 5 c. 

56. AavoAv : genitive after a * verb of mental action.' See H. 742 ; G. 
1102. — ^: you see, with reference to the scene depicted in 51 f. — 6p&To : 
for the middle voice, see § 50 a. 

57. ^ffi^pBw ktX. : the two verbs are thought to express the beginning 
and the completion of the act ; but we may compare the < assemble and 
meet together ' of the Prayer Book. For the full expression, see § 12 {/. 

58. Tofa% [avrots] : 'dative of advantage.' Cf, 68, 247, 450, 571. — W: 
for its use in the <apodosis,' see § 21 4x. — AviordiMvot: the members of 
the assembly are seated (B 09), the speaker stands in their midst holding 
a staff (see on 15). — v68at wicvt «cr\. : see § 12 (. 

59. *ATpftSi| : the speaker addresses Agamemnon as chief in command. 

— vOv : t'.^. as things now are. — vdXiv irXayxMrrof : driven back, i.e. unsuc- 
cessful, r/. B 132. 

60. ft mv ^^ifuv: the optative is used instead of the subjunctive, 
because escape is thought of only vaguely. — 6dvaTdv yt : contrasted with 
Amvoarrffrav. "If indeed we may expect to return, and are not to die 
here." 

61. cl S4 : if now, as seems likely. — SofAf : future ; see § 48 6. 

62. &7f : has become a mere interjection, and is used with the plural, 
as B 331, but ayere also is used, as B 72, 83. — lptU>|uv [cpw/xev, Attic cpco- 
fifBai] : let ris ask. — Upf^a [Uf>m, § 23 c] : here some Trojan priest seems to 
be meant, since a priest could not desert the sanctuary of which he had 
charge, and so there were no priests in the Greek camp before Troy. The 
kings performed the sacrifices and offered prayers for the army. Cf. 
B411ff., r275ff. 

63. oMipow^Vov: a dream oracle is described by Vergil, A en, vii. 86-91. 

— Kol ^df kt\, : for a dream also, as well as other signs. Cf. the dreams of 
the < dreamer ' Joseph, and the prophet Joel's < Your sons and your daugh- 
ters shall prophesy ; your young men shall see visions, and your old men 
shall dream dreams.' — -ydp Tt : closely connected, like nam que. — U 
A%i% : Zeus sends to Agamemnon (B 6) a dream that calls itself Aco$ ayyc- 
Aos. Athena also sends a dream to Penelope. 

64. 8f K cCvoi : potential optative in final sense, since the end aimed 
at is considered as a possible result of the principal action (Iptioiuv). — 
h -n: at what, toherefore. — t6ovov k%<Sta^i/ro\ conceived such heavy anger. 
For the inceptive aorist, cf. thiurtv 33. — r^wov : cognate accusative, used 



12 COMMENTARY TO THE 

as an adverb. Cf, 35. — AvtfXX«*v : Achilles assumes that the pestilence 
was sent by the god of health and disease. 

65. c( Tt . . . ft Tt ictX : indirect questions explaining the previous verse ; 
c/. B 349. — 6 -yi: for the repetition of the subject, see on 97. — d^MXf^t, 
iKaTd|ipi|« : becawfi of an unfulfilled vow or a hecatomh which has not been 
offered ; cf. ipiav firjviaas E 178 angry on account of the omission of sacrifices. 
Cy. * He is dying for [lack of] bread.* — For the genitive of cause, cf. 429, 
B 225, 689, 694, t^o-S' diran;? kotcW A 168. 

66. ot wv [cov] kt\. : if perchance (in the hope that) he may please. See 
H. 907. Connect in thought with 62. — ApvAv : for the inflection, see H. 216, 
2 ; G. 291, 4. — KvCoK|f : partitive genitive with dvriacmf. — rtkaUnv : con- 
strue with both nouns. Only unblemished victims were well pleasing to 
the gods. Thus the heifers offered to Athena were « sleek, untouched by 
the goad, upon whose necks the yoke had never rested* (Z 94). (f. * Thou 
shalt not sacrifice unto the Lord thy God any bullock or sheep wherein is 
blemish or any evil-favouredness,' l^ut. xvii. 1. But rc\c(09 may mean ' 
full-grown, in contrast to immature. 

67. po^fXtTcu [PovXifToi] : for the short mode-vowel in the subjunctive, 
see § 45. — Arndrot ktA.. : to partake of the sacrifices and ward off from us 
(literally, ybr us; see § 19 h). — &v6 : construe with ofivvai. 

68. For such stereotyped verses, cf 73, 201. See § 12 h. — Cf the 
prose equivalent in Xen. Hell. ii. 3. 35, 6 /xcv tovt dmav CKatfetero- ^fxi- 
fuvrji 8' oLvaaraq ktX. — &pa: here refers to the participle, like dra in 
prose, as B 310. — rcXax : for them; see on 58. 

70. 8ff : is long * by position,' since jf&y once began with vau ; cf B 38. 
See § 59 m. — 4ov^|uva : iaofuvi.. § 30 /. — irp6 t Mvra : and which were 
before (i.e.) past, — the mental eye being thought of as turned to the past 
(what was Itefore), and not toward the future (as we say, what is before us). 
Cf &jrUT(T(a r 160 {behind) hereafter. — 46vra: forms of dpi in Homer regu- 
larly retain the c of the stem. — This verse describes tlie seer's power in 
its full extent; cf. novit nam-que omnia vates | quae sint, quae 
fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur Verg. Georg. iv. 392 f. See 
r 109. 

71. v^jcav% [yavaC] : * dative of interest ' with the verb. — For the inflec- 
tion, see § 36 6; H. 206 D; G. 270. — ^rrt^raro : he led the umy, guided. 
Here metaphorically of the seer who interpret*»d the portents relating to 
the voyage ; cf. B 322 f. So on the Argonautic Expedition, the seer 
Mopsus gave the word for setting out. No expedition was complete with- 
out a soothsayer, even in the time of the Persian War; cf. Hdt. ix. 37. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 13 

But Xenophon and Clearchus in person inspected the sacrifices and 
observed the omens. — TXiov : here like TpoCrf, of the kingdom of Priam. 

72. {(v : possessive pronoun, where the Attic prose would use the article 
n^v. This must not be confounded with the relative pronoun. See § 32 b, 
— *8id: by the help of; Attic Sia rijs frnvruaj^. For the thought, see on 
B 832. — 'AvdXXMv: the sun god, the god of physical and intellectual 
lights — the prophet of Zeus and the patron of prophecy. 

73. tr^lv : construe with 6yopi^aTo, — Iv ^poWcnr : cf, ^Xa ^pwiiav 
A 219, Attic CVVOV9. — &«yop^aTo : addressed them. 

74. idXfcU |u: Calchas as fleam's felt himself called to speak by the 
words of Achilles (62), and he turns naturally to the one who had < called 
the meeting.' — Si(^iXc : cf. aprtjii^ikas F 21. For the length of the ante- 
penult^ see § 36 a. — ^xMfrwj^vx : declare, interpret. 

75. immiPiXirao : for the form, see §§ 22 /, 34 c ; H. 148, D 1 ; 6. 188, 3. 

76. Ipi» ktX. : / will speak, etc. A solemn form of introduction. Cf. 
* Behold now I have opened my mouth, my tongue hath spoken in my 
mouth,' Job xxxiii. 2. — iyuoavov [o/ixxrov'] : see § 48 a. 

77. 'Sj |Uv [f»7v] : surely and truly. — irp6^p«iif : construe with aprf^uv. 
§ bQ a p. — Ivwiv Kol x<f^^^ • " ^^^^ hand and voice," equivalent to the 
prose Xoyip ical Ipy^, by word and deed. Cf. 395. — df»^iv: observe the 
future infinitive after words of promising or hoping. 

78. &v8pa : object of )(cXu>a'€fuy [;(QA.<iKr€iv, § 44 /], shall enrage. — ^Jya : 
used adverbially with kparia, cf. 103, iroXAw 91, iroXv 112, evpv 102. It 
strengthens all three degrees of comparison in Homer ; cf. B 274, 239, 480. 
See § 56 6. 

79. KaC ol [avr<p] : for xot «. The relative construction is abandoned, 
as often in later Greek. Cf. 162, 506. See § 11 /; H. 1005 ; G. 1040. 
This was especially natural after the pause in the verse. — The last half 
of the verse repeats the same thought in reverse order. 

80. -ydp : introduces a further explanation of his special need (cf. vpo- 
ff>piov 77) of protection. — Sri x&vvnu [orav ;(aKn;Tai] : whenever hut wrath is 
roused. For the short mode-vowel, see § 45 a. For the hypothetical rela- 
tive sentence without av or <ce, cf. 230, 543, 554 ; see H. 914 a; G. 1437. 

81. ft wfp ktX. : for even if, with the subjunctive. See § 18 rf ; H. 894 b ; 
G. 1396. — x^^^' ^ burst of anger, while kotos is the lasting grudge, resent- 
ment, which plans for revenge, and the pijvts of Achilles led him simply to 
withdraw from the fight (see on 1). ;(oXov is emphasized in contrast with 
KOTov by yc and by its * chiastic ' position (§ 16 a). The Attic Spyrj is not 
found in Homer. — KcvrcMr(i|rg : digest, suppress. Cf. *A;(i\cv$ . . . hrl wfvai 



14 COMMENTARY TO THE 

Xokoy &vfiaXym ir&TU'a A 512 f . Of. « Then he chew'd | The thrice-turn'd 
cud of wrath, and cook'd his spleen,' Tennyson The Princess i. 64. 

82. dXXd : after a vtp, as Latin at after si, yet. The apodosis is really 
contrasted with the protasis (§ 21 a). — The reciprocal relation of the 
thoughts is marked by the re, tc (§ 21 b); cf. 218, T 12, 33 f. — Ixtt: 
holds fast, cherishes, — J(^pa: temporal, until. — tiXIw-q [reXccrjy] : «c. kotovj 
accomplishes, satisjies, his wrath, i,e, does what he plans in anger. 

83. 4v rrffiwvw [onT^oni', cf. pikaraw 42] : not capriciously, nor for the 
sake of the meter, separated from l)(u kotok, but added with greater 
emphasis than it could have at the close of the verse; § 12 e. — 4oto% : pos- 
sessive pronoun. The Attic might be satisfied with the article ; cf, 72. — 
^pdircu : aorist middle imperative, make clear to thyself, consider, — tl : 
whether, — otU&oifis : Attic o-oxrct?. 

84. The first « hemistich ' (with njv occasionally for tw) is used in 
Homer more than one hundred times. — Tdv : construe with Trpocrc^i;. — 
d4ro|ufcP6|uvot kt\. : with epic fullness and dignity instead of the prosaic 
dircK/xmro. Achilles is forward in taking the lead here, but he had sum- 
moned the assembly. 

85. Oofo^^^xbB : cf, 02. — For the aorist, cf Ihturtv 33. — |&^a : construe 
with the imperative, as 173. — 0foirp6vu»if : equivalent to Attic fmvruov. 

86. oi |fcd : no, in truth, fjui ia a, particle of swearing with the accusar 
tive, which probably depends upon a verb implied. In affirmative assev- 
erations vol fui is used, as 234. The negative is repeated in 88 for 
greater earnestness. — Stt^iXov: only here as an epithet of a divinity. 
— f Tt d^6|uvot : Calchas prayed to Apollo as his patron, the god of 
prophecy, who revealed to him what he declared to the Greeks. — KAXxo^v • 
vocative. See H. 170 D. 

87. OtoirpovCat: a collateral form to Beoftrpon-uov 85 ; see § 37. — &va^ai- 
vii« : art wont to reveal. 

88. ^0 (AvTos : while I live ; in a threatening tone. — ktt\ y^jMi ktX. : a 
poetic expression for ^Snrroi, c/. vivus vidensquein Terence. For the 
fullness of expression, see § 12 rf; cf 57, 99, 160, 177, 288 f., 533, T 71, 
< as sure as I live and breathe.' 

89. X^^P^ IvoCtrfi : cf )(€tpa^ c^ocd 567. 

90. oiS* ^v: not even if generally, as here, after a negative. " This promise 
will hold even if." — * A^oiUfjivova: Calchas had indicated him clearly in 78 f. 

91. iroXXtfv : for its adverbial use, see on fieya 78. — fipurros : mightiest, 
as commander-in-chief of the army. Cy. B 82, 580 ; see on B 108. — The 
Homeric heroes were always frank of speech. Achilles calls himself 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 16 

ipurroi Axamv 244, 412; Odysseus says that his fame reaches to the 
heavens; Hector challenges the bravest of the Achaeans to fight *B^opi 
Sity H 75. C/. sum plus Aeneas fama super aethera notus Verg. 
A en, i. 378 f. But the formula fvxofuu dvai often contains no idea of 
boasting, and may mean only claim to be, affirm oneself to be, 

92. Kol r6m S^ : and so then (temporal). — Odparivi : took courage. 
Cf. illehaec, deposita tandemformidine, fatur Verg. Aen, ii. 76. — 
&|ii|unr : refers generally to nobility of birth, or to beauty or strength of 
person, — not to moral quality. 

93 = 65, with the change of ovrc for cire. 

94. IvcK* dfi|T4|po« : construe with iirifjL€fi<l>€TaL, The preposition is used 
here, perhaps, because of the remoteness of the noun from the verb, but 
the poet was free to use the preposition or not, just as he chose. 

95. oiS* &ir£lv9i ktA.. : a more definite statement of ^ffn^o-c, abandon- 
ing the relative construction ; cf, 79, — In later Greek, participles would 
be expected, instead of the indicative ; § 21 A. — koI o^k : is used, not 
oif^ since the negative is construed closely with the verb. See on 28. 

96. TO^K* &!» : on this account then (as I said). This repeats emphat- 
ically 94, and adds a prediction of the results of the god*s anger. 

97. 6 7f : emphatic repetition of the subject ; cf. 65, 496, iraAAa 8* o y cv 
iroKf^ va$€y aXyea, a 4, which Vergil copied in multum ille et terris 
iactatus et alto Aen, i. 3. — AavooCo-iv icrX. : cf. 67. — AiNloni: metaphor- 
ically, of a heavy burden. 

98. &«6 86|iivai [SoOi/ou] : cf. Sofjxvai rraXty 116. The subject of the verb 
is easily supplied from Aavaouriv, 

99. &vpidTi|v Avdvoivov : « without money and without price." For the 
< asyndeton,' see § 15 ; cfB 325. — U^v : standing epithet, as 431, 443. 

100. tXaro'd|ftivov : for the manner of propitiation, cf. crrperrroi Sc re joou 
$€oi avToi . . . KOi fuv rois &v€taxn koll cy^cuX^f dyav|J(rti' | XoL^y t€ Kvurg t€ 
Traparptanlaa avBpunroi | Aiotrdfuvoc I 497 ff. the gods themselves may be bent, 
and men move their hearts by supplicating them with offerings and goodly vows 
and the savor of burnt sacrifices. — mirCOoifuv : § 43 e. 

101 = 68. 

102. fli|»u KpcCfltv : standing epithet of the king, as 355, 411, F 178. See 
§§ 12 6, 22/. Cf, B 108. —For the adverbial use of cvpv, see on ftcya 78. 

103. iUmos: with rage; genitive of material. — Afi^iiA^Xcuvoi : darkened 
on all sides. The mind is dark with passion, which is thought of as a 
cloud enveloping the <^f>m9. Cf V 442, $dp(r€is irXxjat tftptva^ dfKJHfJutXaivas 
P 573 filed his dark heart with courage. 



16 COMMENTARY TO THE 

104. ol [aunp, § 42 e] : dative with the verb, instead of a limiting geni- 
tive with 6axr€, Cf. rf 55 ; see 19 g. — Xc4fc«fT6«ivTi [AofurerwKn] : in con- 
trast with SLfji,ff>ifjJXaivajL. 

105. For the lack of a conjunction, see § 15. — icdx 6ffv4|uvof : looking 
evil thingsy i.e. with look that boded ill. — For the accent of kok (for Kojcd), 
see § 28 d. 

106. |fcdvTi kokAv : prophet of illy ill-boding seer. Some of the ancients 
thought this referred to the seer's words at Aulis, where he showed that 
Artemis demanded the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia in 
return for a proud word of the king (Soph. El. 566 fE.). — Cf. « But I hate 
him; for he doth not prophesy good concerning me, but evil,' 1 Kings 
xxii. 8. — T& Kf^lY^v : equivalent to MXov 108, in contrast with KOMSty. 
For the < generic ' use of the article, cf ra KOKa. 107, and see on ra \€fidof¥a. 
576. — ctirat [Jircs] : has the < variable vowel ' of the first aorist. 

107. aUC: Agamemnon exaggerates in his anger. — rd xoicd: subject 
of the verb of which ^Xa is predicate. — iMivrdpflo-^ : explanatory infini- 
tive ; cf. pAx^o'Sai 8. — " Always dost thou delight to prophesy calamity." 

108. TflUovot : brought to pass. — << Nothing good in word or deed comes 
from thee." 

109. Ka\ vOv : a special instance under aid 107. — iv : in the presence of 
before. — 9ww^inr4mv i,yopt6n9 : as B 322. 

110. 8^: ironical, like the later ^Ofv, Si/irov, scilicet; construe with 
T€vS cycKo, evidently on this account. — lioipoXos: for the epithet used as a 
proper name, cf. 37. — Tt^ct: see on l&rjKty 2. 

111. fy^: Agamemnon speaks only of the rejection of the ransom, not 
of the slight offered to the priest; but gives prominence to the odious 
charge that he, their king, was the cause of the sufferings of the Danal. 
— Kci^pft\[i Xpvo^CSof : genitive of price ; cf Swk' vlos iroivriv (as a price for 
his son) TawfiT^oi E 266. For the < patronymic,' see on 13 ; it is used here 
exactly like the genitive Xpva^oi. 

112. kni: introduces the explanation of ovk lOekov, was not inclined. 
Cy. 156. — Po^Xofuu: contains the idea of < choice,' < preference' (sc.*^ 
c[?r(Mm 8€X€xr$ai), which is here strengthened by the adverb wXv (accusa- 
tive of extent). Cf 117. — aMjv : the maiden herself contrasted with the 
ransom. — To his accusation of Calchas, the king adds at once his own 
defense. 

113. otKOi IxHv : i.e. to retain in my possession kcU: even. Construe 

with KXvraifivrftrrfny:. — -yAp pa : for, you see. — KXvTttt|iv^igTp m : according 
to the later story, Clytaemnestra was daughter of Tyndaretls and Leda, 



FIKST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 17 

and thus half-sister of Helen. The ancient Greek on hearing these lines 
remembered well that she proved unfaithful to Agamemnon, and slew him 
on his return to his home. According to the later story, she was herself 
in turn slain by her son Orestes. The deaths of Agamemnon and Cly- 
taemnestra formed the theme of famous tragedies by the three greatest 
tragic poets of Greece, — the Agamemnon and Choephoroe of Aeschylus, the 
Electra of Sophocles, and the Electra of Euripides. — vpoP^povXa: with 
present signification. — For the form, see H. 510, D 4. 

114. o^ Mtv: for the hiatus, see § 27 N.B. The negative receives 
emphasis from its position. — x^^^ [x^H^v] ' </• X'H^i'' ^' 

115. oi hfyaa: not in build. This probably refers to her stature, since 
the Greeks always associated height and beauty; c/*. F 167 — oiSc ^iW^: 
has reference to her fair proportions. — With these two qualities of her 
person are contrasted by * asyndeton ' two mental characteristics, neither in 
mind nor in accomplishments. 

116. Kol &9: even thus, « although Chryseis is so beautiful and accom- 
plished." Cf. r 159. — 86|uvcu w6Xlv : restore ; cf. Atto SoGwu 98, 134. —t* 
y &|Mivov: the < copula ' is here omitted in a condition, as V 402, E 184. 

117. For the lack of a conjunction, see § 15 — Po^Xofuu ij : see on 112. 

118. vArix krw^jijmm: the unreasonable, demand provokes the quarrel 
with Achilles and elicits the epithet ^cAoicreavctfTarc 122. — 'Y^pot ktA.. : 
this is made more definite later ; cf. 138, 182 ff . 

119. Im [&] : for the form, see on covra 70. — oW loucfv: it is not even 
seemly, to say nothing of its unfairness. 

120. 6: like quod, equivalent to ori, that. Cf. ytyvtoaKtov 6 oi avros 
vircipcxc X^^^ 'AiroXXcov E 433 . — Ipx^**^^ ^^^H • * '^ • leaves me . The present 
ipXcrojL is used of the immediate future. 

122. KirSio^n: a standing epithet of Agamemnon, like an official title; 
cf. B 434. The following epithet is contrasted bitterly with this. 

123. wfitKrX. : the question implies the absurdity of the proposition. 
— -ydp : introduces the explanation of some gesture of surprise or vexation. 
Its force may often be given by the exclamation * what I ' 

124. fS|Mv: ta-fuy. § 30 d. — fwi^ia [Kocva] kt\.: undistributed treasures 
lying in abundance, from which the king could be recompensed easily for 
the loss of his prize. This again refers to Agamemnon's avrum. 118. All 
had been distributed. — Booty taken on their marauding expeditions was 
the common property of the army after the several prizes of honor (y^ 
185) had been selected for the chiefs ; cf 368 f ., iK iroXio9 8* oXoxovs mu 
Kn^fiara iroAAa XaPovr€S \ SaxradfuO* 0)S f»7 ri9 fUK ar€fjiP6fjLtvoi kum. unii 



18 COMMENTARY TO THE 

I 41 f . taking from the city the wives aiid many treasures we divided them^ that 
no one might lack his fair share, — These prizes were sometimes selected by 
the leaders themselves, but are often spoken of as the gift of the people 
(276, 369, 392). Doubtless they were distributed by the general, with the 
approval of the army. Thus I 367, Agamemnon is said by Achilles to 
have given Briseis to him. 

125. tA, tA : strictly both are demonstratives (§§ 21 a, 42 m) (the sec- 
ond repeating the first), although the first may he translated as a relative. 

— rd fiiv : the thought contrasted with this, is implied in 127 ff . — woKimv 
[ttoXccdv, § 36 c] : i.e. cities near Troy, of which Achilles had sacked twelve 
with his fleet and eleven with a land force ; see I 328 f . Homer mentions 
the sack of Lesbos, of Lyrnessus, of Pedasus, of Scyrus, of Tenedos, of 
Theba. Cf Nestor's words, (vv vrpxrlv iv ^tpoaZea irovrov \ irXaio/ievoi 
Kara ktfCK anij apieuv 'A^iXXm y 105 f. . . . wandering for booty wherever 
Achilles led. See § 5 '6. — The genitive depends upon the following 
preposition in composition. — IEnrpd0o|uv : equivalent to c^ci Ao/xcv irtp- 
oavrcs. — S^Soon^u : the tense marks that the matter is not to be recon- 
sidered. 

126. Xou>^ : receives emphasis from its position, while the contrast lies 
in SeSacmu and ttoAi AAoya liraytCpuv, collect again what has been distributed. 

— voXCXXoYa: *proleptic,' "so as to be together." 

127. Off: in honor of the god, for the god*s sake; dative of interest. — 
aMLp : as in 51. 

128. TpiirXj TfTpairXf Ti : for the copulative conjunction, see § 21 ^. 

129. ivTfCxcoif : Poseidon built the walls of Troy (O 446). 

131. |i^ 8^ : with imperative, as E 218 ; with subjunctive, used as 
imperative in E 684. — Si| ovtms : for tlie * synizesis,* see § 25. — i,yaB6i : no 
moral quality is implied. Cf. afivfitov 92. 

132. icXiirrf vdip: have secret thoughts in mind, be deceitful, — an accusa- 
tion most hateful to the outspoken Achilles. Cf English steal and stealth. 

— irofMXfvo'f at : for the uncontracted form, cf veqai 32. — yA\ construe 
with both verbs. 

133. ^ iMXfi« icrX. : dost thou wish indeed that thou thyself shouldst have a 
prize of honor (referring to 126) while (literally, but) I, etc, Agamemnon 
replies to the charge of covetousness (122) by the assertion that Achilles 
has a selfish end in view in urging him to give up Chryseis. — ^ : is never 
used in Homer as a simple interrogation point. It always expresses 
emotion. Cf 203, 365. — 5^p' Ixti« kt\, : instead of the customary infinitive 
or an object clause with ori. Cf Ovfw^ iir€a-(rvTai o<^p lirafivvm Z 361. — 



FIBST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 19 

aMip: for the use of the « adrersatiFe ' conjunction, see § 21 <f. — cArwt: 
exphuned by Smpoor. See § 11 j. 

134. j^v^Bt: with a participle marks the continuance of a state, 
especially where a person is given up to sadness or misfortune ; c/1 B 255. 

136. fipromt icrJL : suiiing it to mff mind, t.e. choosing one which will 
be satisfactory. — nnA Jii rf i : nearly equivalent to $vfM/f. — dwrAliav: .<c. 
Xflvar/iStK. — The conclusion of the sentence is omitted (< aposiopesis *) ; 
cf. St. Luke xiii. 9 « And if it bear fruit, — [well].' It would be perhaps 
d; €X€ij ffoAws ^ €xou When two mutually exclusive conditional sentences 
stand side by side, the conclusion of the first may be omitted. See H. 904 a. 

137. Iy4 M: Sc in apodosis, as in 58. — IXmiim: for the subjunctive 
used almost like'a future, see § 18 6; cf, 184, 324, T 417. 

138. tvdv [aw, § 42 6] : sc. ytpas. — Alnvrot: son of Telamon, from 
Salamis. — I4r : cf.wf¥ xXioxig^Se 185. Homer is fond of a participle which 
completes the picture but is not strictly necessary to the sense, as ayuv 
311, iXBw 401, cXcMT 139, iSovtra 537, Ao^uf B 261, wnfwrrdis B 189, 
i^€flowm T 425, ofi^cmnre? B 525, cvx^acvo? B 597. These participles are 
commonly intransitive in this use. — *0€«r1|ot ['OSuotrcus] : Odysseus or 
Ulysses, the hero. — For the single a, cf, ^KyiXSjon 1. — Agamemnon 
expresses his sovereignty in an arbitrary way, declaring his absolute 
authority over the three mightiest princes of the army. 

139. &£» DUhr : shall seize and lead away. The return to the principal 
thought (cXoifuu) betrays the king's passionate excitement. — mv mxoXd^ 
9vrcu: he will he angry, I think. The tone is sarcastic. — &v: accusative 

of < limit of motion,' to whom. See on 254 ticti|Mu : for the hypothetical 

relative sentence, see H. 916 ; 6. 1434. 

140. Tavra: t.e. what is to be the recompense |ftrra4po0^|uv4a : yun-a, 

afterwards, is repeated more definitely in koL a^rrc? " We will discuss that 

later." — For the ending, see § 44 i: — Here the speaker adopts a more 
quiet tone (interrupted only by an echo of his anger, in 146) and enters 
into the details of the ship's equipment. 

141. fiiXatvav: for the color of the ships, see on B 637. — lpiiovo|uv 
[Ipwrmiuv] : * hortatory subjunctive.' 

142. 4t ti: adverb, as 309 ; see § 55 a ; proleptic, " so as to be therein." 

143. OtCofuv [to/iev] : cf, ipeiofuy 62. — &v [dra] : up, on hoard. Adverb 

with Pyax}fuy. — For the loss of the final o, see § 29 a^Hpn herself, as 

the person principally concerned. — Xpvo^(8a : in apposition with aim^v. 

144. A|ix^ : predicate, Of commancfer. — dv)|p povXi^^^pot : in apposition 
with cIs ns. 



20 COMMENTARY TO THE 

145. 'I8o|uvii»s: leader of the Cretans (B 645). 

147. iiifctv : dative of interest Mapjov : for similar epithets of Apollo, 

see 14, 75, 370, 385 ; § 22 /. — tXAowca : agrees in person with the nearest 
subject. 

148. W68pa t&Av: Vergil's torva tu en tern Aen. vi. 467. 

149. IvMif&lrf : clothed with. Of the two accusatives which the verb 
governs in the active, the < accusative of the thing ' is retained with the 
i>assive. See H. 724 a ; 6. 1239. Cf. Aulvtcs Aw/mv (impetuous) invufiiyoi 
dXjajv (valor) H 164. — icip8aXf6^pov : cunning minded, referring to 146. — 
Achilles thinks that the king wishes to send him to Chrysa in order to rob 
him in his absence of what he would lack the courage to take in his 
presence. 

150. ToC: dative of interest — v^d^pmv: c/.77 — iri(Oi|Tcu: deliberative 
subjunctive in the third person. — For the alliteration of ir, cf. 165; see 
§13 a. 

151. 686v (cognate accusative; see H. 715 b; 6. 1052): journey, of 
an embassy like that suggested for him in 146 . — IX04|uvai : IKduv. § 44 /. 

152. -yAp: the reasons for the preceding question (which is equivalent 
to a negative assertion) continue through 162. — "Thou dost repay with 
base ingratitude us who are fighting not for our own cause but only for 
thee." — fydi: sudden transition from the indefinite rts of 150. — Observe 
the force of tlie caesural pause, throwing emphasis on T/swaiv. Cf, i/juis 
154 l)Xv6oif [i^X^] : for the v of the penult, cf. the penult of iXt^XvOa. 

153. .8c€po: construe with tjXvBov. — iMtx^F^f^*^ • ^^^ ^^^ length of the 
last syllable, cf, 226 ; see § 59 /. — oKnoC ttmr : are to blame for me, have 
done me icrong, Cf, F 164. 

154. <|»4i: is made emphatic by the following pause, where of course 
no punctuation mark could stand. Cf. TpvuBv 152. § 58 b. — poOs: femi- 
nine, of the herds. — l)Xagraif: drove off. — o^ |jiv: nor in truth; cf. 603. — 
This verse and the next indicate the common causes of war in the heroic 
period, as between the English and the Scotch in the time of the border 
troubles. 

155. ^Ijji : the later Phthiotis (B 683), not the city, as is shown by the 
epithet IpiPutXaxi. 

156. iroXXd |fttTo(^ : much lies between, explained by the following. 

157. oifpca KTk. : in apposition with iroAAo, above tjx^iwva: only here 

as epithet of the sea. Cf. voKwftXoia'Poijo 34, B 209. 

158. i^iya: see on 78. — X<^9* subjunctive in a final sentence after 
the aorist, as B 206, Z 357 f . 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 21 

159. Tift^v: recompense, satisfaction^ especially the return of Helen and 

the treasures carried away by Paris. Cf, F 286, E 552 KvvMira : the dog 

was to the oriental the personification of sliamelessness ; cf, 225. Helen 
in self-reproach applies to herself the epithet Kwwrvi F 180 ; cf. Saxp ifjudo 
(addressing Hector), icwo$«ic(ucofii;xaKov oKpvo&rayji Z 344. The highest 
impudence was indicated by kwo/avco, dog Jit/. In the Odyssey, however, 
the dog is in better favor. Argus, the old hunting dog of Odysseus, 
remembers his master during the twenty years of his absence, and alone 
recognizes him on his return, dying as he welcomes him home. 

160. t6v : neuter, referring to the various details included in the pre- 
ceding thought (158 f.). 

161. Kol S^ : and now, nearly equivalent to kcI rf&rj, as in Attic. Cf, 

40, B 135, Kol 8tf Ifijj oucoiSf A 180 |io£: dative of disadvantage with 

d^ai/M/o-ccrAu. Cf -^fuv 67, FAavK^ KpwCBTp 4>p€va% t^iXxro Zeus Z 234 

^4pat: see on 124. — aW6s : ue. of thine otcn will, arbitrarily, as 137. Con- 
strue with the subject of it^HuprifTtxrOaLL. 

162. f hn, : for which. For the < anastrophe * of the accent^ see § 55 c. 
— 8^av 8^: the relative construction is abandoned, as 79. 

163. o* |Uv [/x^v] kt\. : yet never have I. A present expression of past 
experience. This thought increases the unfairness of Agamemnon's pres- 
ent course. — o^(: i.e. like to thine, equivalent to T<p <r« y^pai, the person 
instead of the attribute being compared. See H. 773 b ; G. 1178. 

164. Tp^v irroXUepov : a city of the Trojans, as B 228. See on 125. 

165. T& fiiv : the principal thought follows (167). The English idiom 
prefers the subordinate construction, " although my hands . . . yet." § 21 rf. 

167. T^ Y^pot : the article is used almost as in Attic, the usual gift of 
honor. — oXC^ov ti icrA.. : the thought is * adversative,' though the con- 
junctions are * copulative * ; cf Socris oXiyi; t€ 4>C\ti tc f 208. See § 21 rf. 
Cf. *an ill-favored thing, but mine own,' Shakspere As You Like It v. 
4. 60. 

168. IfTiKfi^jax IxMv : go off to my tent with, more picturesquely descrii> 
tive than Ixw 163 ; cf 391, B 71. — krl vfjo*: cf 12. — «««C kc ktA. : when 1 
have fought myself weary. This gives renewed prominence to the thought 
of insufficiently recompensed effort. 

169. vOv Sc kt\. : contrast with Achilles' previous activity in battle. 

170. oiS^ iroK : construe with d^u^av. For the elision, see § 28 a. — 
him: as 296. 

173. ^vyi: odious expression for the return to his home which 
Achilles had announced (169). — |&dXa: by all means; cf. 85. 



22 COMMENTARY TO THE 

174. i|uto [c^] : for the form, see § 42 a ; H. 261 D ; 6. 393. — l|io( 
7f : with self-assertion. — &XXoi : sc. dtrCv, 

175. |u rv^'IfTwax: will gain me honor, referring to 159. — ^ffrlrra: a 
standing epithet of Zeus; cf. Au fM^rtv AraXavrov B 169. — In this confi- 
dence of the king is seen the poet's irony, wh^ the later course of Zeus is 
remembered, which brought defeat and humiliation to Agamemnon. 

176. lovC [c7] : in this form are preserved both the original stem, ccr, 
and the original ending -o-i. — Storpc^lttv : the royal power had its source 
in Zeus, the patron god of princes; cf. 279, B 205. Cf, Scoyevc? 337, 
B 173. Kings are called Otpdirovrt^ (attendants, as 321) Acos, as warriors 
are Btftairovrt^" hfnfo^ (B 110). 

177. ^CXi| : the predicate adjective agrees as usual with the preceding 
noun, and the rest of the verse is in a sort of apposition with ^19. 

178. The * asyndeton ' here and below shows the speaker's excitement. 
— c( |iAXa kt\. : cf 280, 290. — Ka|mp6t : refers to lQb,—M% vov [Si/irov] 
ktX. : " it is not thy merit." 

179. vv¥ vipfo-l icrX. : Agamemnon returns to the thought of 173. The 
circumstantial fullness of the expression, as of 183, marks the complete 
separation of the two forces. 

180. Mvp|u86vMrriv : cf B 684. Dative of advantage. This word is 
made prominent since the thought is before the speaker's mind that 
Achilles, in the consciousness of his strength, desires to usurp Agamem- 
non's prerogatives; cf 287 flF. (f ilia se iactet in aula Verg. Aen, i. 
140. — «r^v KorfovTos : " thy anger" ; cf 160 ; the participle is really sup- 
plementary. — vHkv [<r<w] : for this form of the genitive, cf Wev 114. 

182. wt : just OS. The corresponding thought of the apodosis is found 
in (yw ktX. 184. The interposed clause, rrjv fuv ktX., has i>roperly only the 
value of a subordinate clause, though with the form of a principal sentence. 
Cf 165. — d^otpctTOi : here followed by two accusatives, as 275. Cf 161. 

183. Tf\v: either ravnjv or aunyv could have been used in Attic. — <rw 
vt^C T Ifjig: with a ship of mine. 

184. &Y«: subjunctive as future. Cf. 262; see § ISb. — Agamemnon 
now acts in accordance with his threat of 137. 

185. t6 a-6v 'y^pot : emphatic contrast, that prize of thine. In apposition 
with BpurrfiSa. 

186. Scnrov: how much; accusative of extent where the Attic might 
have used ocro), dative of « degree of difference.' Cf fieya 78. — ^4f»npot: 
sc. as commander of the entire army and powerful king ; cf 281, B 108. — 
&XXos : i.e. every other. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 28 



187. low : masculine with cfux <t>^(rOcaj assert himself my equal — ^ 
follows oTvyq;.— 6|iou»64|icvcu &im|v: liken himself to me, to my face, 

188. &< ^To: Attic ovrois ^^i;. — ntiXitwvt: for the formation of the 
patronymic, see § 39 A. — &xos •xhrro: grief arose for, i.e. grief came upon 
him. Cf dxyvfuvoi 103 — ^tv hi : within, adverb, defined more exactly by the 
local anjSwvxv* Cf h 8c 142. — ot : dative of interest. 

189. Xoo-CoM^ : a shaggy breast was thought to indicate manliness and 
courage. Cf B 743, 851 . 

190. I) : for rj, 7c (192) in a double indirect question, see § 20 b. 

191. To&« |ilv : I.e. the other princes, who were seated (cf 58) between 
him and Agamemnon (cf 247). — dvatrHjaiu: should rouse from their seats, 
and drive away, as he sprung at the king — 6 U: repeats the last subject; 
it is almost equivalent to avro9 8c. Cf fyw &€ 184. This either makes 
prominent the identity of subject in a contrast of actions, or marks the 
progress of the action by calling renewed attention to the doer of the 
deed. — IvopCtoi : the optative represents the < deliberate subjunctive' of 
direct discou^jie; cf T 317. 

193. Kord ^plva ktX. : in mind and heart, 

194. IXxtTo: he was drawing ; the act was interrupted (cf 220). — ^^ 
8<: 8c in the apodosis, as in 58. 

195 . oipavtfOcv : but Athena returns OvXv/iirov8e (221) . See on 44 vpi 

^Ki: sent forth, i.e, sent hither; cf 442. Athena often acts as subordinate 
to Hera; cf B 156, E 713 — Hera is patron goddess of the Atridae. 

196. &|A^: object of ^tXeovoa, to which KtjSofiiinj is added in a freer 
relation. — Ov|if : as in 24. 

197. airii 8' ^tnldw: she stepped up behind, — t"**^ • epithet of Menelaus, 

as r 284; of Meleager, B 642; of Rhadamanthys ; of Demeter, E 500 

k6|jii|s: genitive of the part touched. See on 323. 

198. ot^: Homeric divinities appeared only to single persons; not to 
companies of men, except when disguised in human form. Only to the 

people of the fairyland Phaeacia were the gods wont to appear visibly 

tAv 8' &XXi»v kt\, : the thought of the first word of the verse is repeated in 
negative form. 

199. BA^fnfTw: sc, at being thus seized. — i&crd 8' frpdvtro: since 
Athena stood behind him. Literally, not as 160. 

200. 8€ivA : predicate. They were the eyes of yXavKmins 'A^ijny (206). 
— hi: for the use of the adversative instead of a causal conjunction, cf 
228, 259 ; see § 21 d, — ol: dative of interest. — wro-e as a neuter dual may 
have a verb in the plural as here, or in the singular, or in the dual. 



24 COMMENTARY TO THE 

201. An often-repeated verse; see 12 A. — fUv: object of irpcxnpSa — 
^mvifTwg: lifted up his voice; c/. § 12 cf ; not e<iuivalent to ciirwv, which in 
Homer is used only of what has just been related — impdcvra: for the 
final vowel, here short though before two consonants, see § 59 ^. 

202. rtirr aZn: "What now! why art thou come?" aSre is here not 
equivalent to aZri^, and does not imply that she had been there before, but 
is uttered in a tone of vexation — rCvn ctX^|Xov6a« [cA.i;XvAx«] : for this 
greeting, cf. rcicKOV, nirre Xtiraiv vokefjuov Bpauvv ctAi/Aou^s; Z 254. — 
alyi^xoio . . . rlicof : ten times repeated in Homer ; c/*. § 12 6. 

203. This verse contains several metrical peculiarities. For the hiatus 
after the first foot, see § 27 6; for that after I8j;, see § 27 c — ^ tva kt\, : 
Achilles answers the question himself by a conjecture; cf, B 229, Z 255. 
— Kg : for the voice, cf. oparo 56. 

204. ix: construe with ip€<a. Cf. 212 — kcU: also; construe with rc\e- 
€ir$ajL (future). "This will not be a mere prediction." 

205. 4««povX(x)«ri: for the long antepenult, see § 59 ft. For the plural 
(especially in the dative), cf B 588, 792, dmAxcijyo'i Z 74. — rdxa jtrX. : a 
covert hint at his murderous thoughts. — &v: construe with o\&r<nj(§ 18 6). 

206. YXavKAim: gleaming-eyed; cf 3avai xrX. 200. The Homeric 
Athena is the fierce-eyed, courageous goddess of war. Cf ravra (so, voXit- 
firjta tpiya.) 8* *Apijc do^ Kol 'ABrjvrf mvra ftcXi/o-ci E 430. Her epithet 
HoAAa? seems to belong to her as wielding the lance. She became 'Aft/va 
Nun; and *A$ijva llpofjui-xai at Athens. 

207. j|X0ov: not equivalent to the perfect ctXi/AovAi, but presenting the 
same act from a different point of view — miWovo-a: to stop, to allay; cf 
192. — tA o-^v |Uvos: this thy rage, this rage of thine, Cf fffSura <rt ro cror 
pjyoi Z 407 aC Kf ktA. : cf 66. 

210. lpi8os: ix. the contest of force to which he is inclined. — IXmo: 
present imperative, continue to draw; cf 194. 

211 . AXX' ^ TQi : after a negative idea this emphasizes the affirmative 
thought. — wt lovrai [hrrax] : "as opportunity shall offer." 

212. A set verse, often accompanied by a sharp threat. — TmXioiUvov 
lo^nu: will he a thing accomplished, i.e. shall surely he done. 

213. KcU iron ktX.: affords the motive for 210, and recalls Achilles 
from his decision to return to his home. "Thou hast no need to wreak 
bloody vengeance on him, for thou shalt at some time receive," etc. — ical 
TpCt: even threefold, proverbial; cf. t/ks rdcrcw iXev fievoi E 136. — 
iraplffwrcu : the gifts offered to Achilles as atonement for the wrong are 
enimierated in I 121 ff . (seven tripods, ten talents of gold, twenty basins, 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 25 

twelve race horses, seven slaves, etc), in a passage closing ravra fuv avriKa 
vavra irapwirrrai I 135. These treasures were delivered in T 243 ff. 
214 . iiPpioc [ypptioq'] : for the form, cf. ttqAxW 125. — Ccrxfo : check thyself, 

216. yJhi indeed, — o-^CTcpov: of you twoj Athena and Hera. The 
emphasis given by yc marks the reverence felt for these goddesses. — kro«: 
word, command. — tlpi^avraa^tu : protect, observe, by obedience. Cf, 239. 

217. Kol tcrX. : <* however much enraged." 

218. 6« ici kt\. : i.e, if any one. "Whoever obeys the gods is himself 
heard by them." Cf idv rts Btoa-tPrjq y kol to BiXiffia avroO iroi^, rovrov 
oKovu (sc. 6 ^09) St. John iz. 31, and Psaim czlv. 19. — ladXa: surely, 
readily. — ri: for its use in marking the reciprocity of the two clauses, see 
on 82 — bcXvov: gnomic aorist; H.840; G. 1292.— aAroO: himself The 
prominence given to the object of the verb, which is also the subject of the 
previous clause, makes prominent the identity of the two and contrasts 
the man with OtoK* 

219. ^ Koi: he spake and, as 528, T 292, 310, 355, 369, 447. This is 
always used after a speech which is reported, where the same gram- 
matical subject is continued. — Afryvp^ : adorned with silver nails or studs ; 
cf 246.— ox«i: kept, held, as A 113. 

220. oM* Amdh^rw : < litotes,' — in form saying less than is really meant; 
see § 16 c. Cf, 24, 536 f., B 166. 

221. fkfefyaw : had set out, was gone, 

222. fftfrd: into the midst of, among, as 423, T 264. — 8cU|M»vac &XXovt : 
these assembled daily in the palace of Zens as nobles in the hall of their 
feudal lord. C/*. ol 8c Otoi mp Zrpii KaBijfjjeyoi ^yopotavro \ xpwrii^ Iv &urc&p 
A 1 f . All were members of his family although they had separate man- 
sions (607). — Homer does not clearly distinguish between ^fwyes and 
Otoi, but see on F 420. — The second half- verse is explanatory of the first, 
repeating the thought in a different form. Cf. Z 105 ff. 

223. Ifaihit: anefo, after the interruption by Athena which no one 
had noticed. 

224. oi Xfjryf x^oM '• the goddess had not forbidden the anger, but 
only a certain expression of it. 

225. olvoPap^ : this was a grievous reproach in the eyes of the tem- 
perate Greeks icw^ 5|i|&aTa: see on 159. — IXd(^u» : the deer was the 

personification of cowardice ; cf A 243. The poet shows in his story that 
these epithets were undeserved by Agamemnon. — Observe the < chiasmus,' 
i.e. that icwo9 and iXd<t>oio are separated, while o/jifiara and KpaJUqv are 
brought together ; § 16 a. Cf 255. 



26 COMMENTAKY TO THE 

226. It ir6X«|&ov : /or (literally, into) battle. For the lengthened ultima 
before the caesura, as 491, cf, 153. — The last three feet of the verse are 
spondees ; c/". B 190. 

227. XdxovSc : c/. h Xoxw hOa fiAXurr dfitni SuuiSmi Av^v N 277 
to ambush, where es^tecially the valor of men is discerned. This is contrasted 
with the open battle (ir6X€fju3v) of 226. The knights of the Middle Ages 
were the first to count ambush dishonorable. — Af w r^ iuux v [cSpurreixrcy] : 
mark the contrast with Aof . 

228. TfrXi|Kci« : hast had the courage, Cf. 543 — xi^p : cf. T 454, *'Ti8 
death to me to be at enmity,' Shakspere Richard Third ii. 1. 60. — The 
accent distinguishes Kyp, death, from K^p, heart. 

229. 4} : in truth, yes. The speaker pretends to recognize his opponent's 
motives. Cf 17 im kt\. of 203. 

230. 86pa: yipa. — dvocupf Cv^cu : present infinitive in iterative sense; 
the following clause supplies its object. For the hiatus between the prepo- 
sition and the verb, see on 333. — «rMfv: genitive after the adverb. — 
drr(ov ctro : oppose. 

231. 8«||ioP6pot ktX. : emphatic exclamation of vexation. — kn\ ktK. : 
this does not give the reason for the exclamation, but shows why Agar 
memnon's course is possible. Cf iiru 112. — ofriSavoto^v : interpreted by 
Achilles (293 f.). He holds the Greeks in part responsible, since they did 
not oppose and restrain the king. 

232. 4} -ydip ktX. : for else, surely. With aorist optative as potential of 
the past, where in Attic we should expect a past tense of the indicative 
with 3lv. C/ B 81 ; see § 18 d 8; H. 896 ; G. 1399. 

233. Ivl e|M>fl|iai : swear thereto, take an oath upon it. 

234. Td8c o-Ki^vrpov: by this scepter here, which he had just received 
from a herald; see on 15. For oaths by this symbol of power, see ok 
ciirwv TO frtajvrpw AvlaxtOt wSun Otoi&iy H 412 icith these words he lifed the 
scepter to aU the gods, 6 8' Iv x^pal o'ltyfirrpov \afit ical ol opjoaaey K 328. 
So King Richard swears *Now, by my sceptre's awe, I make a vow,' 
Shakspere Richard Second i. 1. 118. — tA |ilv: demonstrative. — "As surely 
as this staff shall never put forth leaves, so surely shall the Achaeans miss 
me sorely." — This is imitated by Vergil (Aen. xii. 206 ff.), utsceptrum 
hoc . . . nunquam fronde levi fundet virgulta nee umbras, | cum 
semel in silvis, imo de stirpe recisum, | matre caret, posuitque 
comas et bracchia ferro; | . . . patribusque dedit gestare Lati- 
nis. Cf Wagner's Tannh&user, <Not till this crosier buds and blooms, 
shall thy sin be forgiven.* 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD 27 

235. kn\ 89| irpAra : see on 6. 

236. y6Lp ^a: as 113. — I: the living shoot, while /itV below is the 
a-iafTrrpoy made from it. — x<^^: «•«• the tool of bronze; c/. the English 
poetic use of steel for sword. 

237. ^^iXXa kt\. : IXMnf/ey as a * verb of depriving ' is followed by an 
accusative of the thing taken away — vvv aZn: now on the other hand, but 
now. a^€ in this use differs little from avrap. Cf. 51, 127, 333, A 321. 

238. Suceunr^Xoi: appositive, as ministers of justice. For its position, 
see § 11 y.— Wfiurros: for the inflection, see H. 216, D 7 ; G. 291, 14. 

239. irp^ Ai^ : before the eyes of Zeus, in the name of Zeus. Cf. vpoi 
aXXrp Urrov wfMivoii Z 456. — ctpvaroi: defend; cf 216. — For the ending, 
see § 44 /. — 6 « : attracted to the gender of op#co9. Cf. B 5, 73 ; see H. 631 . 

240. Tj: repeats the vox of 234. Cf 86.— 'AxiXXfjos: instead of ifjuav, 
with feeling. Cf. B 259, T 99, and Hector's challenge to the bravest Greek 
to fight ^Exropc 8u0 H 75. Edmund says, <Yet Edmund was beloved,' 
Shak^>ere King Lear v. 3. 239 ; Antonio says, « Tell her the process of 
Antonio's end,' Shakspere Merchant of Venice iv. 1. 274. 

241. o^|&iravTa« : for the prominence of its position, see on 52. 

242. xfiour^lv: aimU, help; without oblique case, as 589. — ^ "^icTopof 
0v^KovTi« : viro is used, since the verb is passive in sense, and active only 
in form; cf. T 61, 128; see H. 820. — For the epithet of Hector, cf 
homicidam Hectorem Hor. Epod. xvii. 12. 

243. irCirTMo-i: for the mood, cf uctapm 139 — SvSoOt: "in thy breast." 

244. x«^|Mvos : full of rage (sc. at thyself).— 4 « : on rt, that; cf 6 120, 
412. — oMv: accusative of specification (strictly, cognate accusative) 
instead of the simple ov. — ftpurrov: this was strictly true; see 283, B 769. 
See on Stb? 7. 

245. »otI . . . yaijn [y^] : here a sign of anger. — »otC: adverb with 
pdXe. It is followed by the dative because of the state of rest that 
follows the action. Cf 441, 593, B 175, T 89; see H. 788; G. 1225, 2. 
— By this act, Achilles says plainly that he will not discuss the matter 
further. 

246. vnrof |Uvov : studded, as decoration. 

247. IWp«6cv: see on 191 — {fi^ivu : was raging, continued his rage. Cf. 1. 
— Toto-i: for the dative, cf 58. — N<o^fl»p: the oldest and wisest of the 
Achaeans before Troy. For his interposition here, cf Nestor conpo- 
nere lites | inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden: | hunc 
amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. | quidquid deli- 
rant reges, plectuntur Achivi Hor. Epist. i. 2. 11 ff. 



249. ToO: relative, limiting ykiaaxrrii, — mcU: also, belongs to the whole 
sentence, referring to ^Svcwiq^j which is explained by the comparison ; cf. 
406, B 827, 866, 872. Cicero translates: ex eius lingua melle dulcior 
fluebat oratio de Sen, 10; cf, tibi Homerici senis mella proflu- 
ere Pliny Ep, iv. 3, yXvKc/wJ oi awo (rrofioTOi piu aw&y Hes. Theog. 97, and 
cf. < Pleasant words are as an honeycomb, sweet to the soul, and health to 
the bones' Proverbs xvi. 24. 

250. T^: for the dative of interest with itf>$uiTo, cf, B 295,—'ft¥9ai: 
generations, reckoned as of about thirty years each. Since Nestor was now 
in the middle of the third generation, he is to be thought of as about < three 
score and ten* years old.. In y 245, ten years later, he is said to have 
reigned rpts ym' dvSptav. Cf ter aevo functus senex Hor, Carm, ii. 9; 
Tennyson's words of Sir Bedivere in the Morte d* Arthur, <Not tho' I live 
three lives of mortal men.' 

251. ot : construction according to sense, referring to &vBptinrtav rather 
than to ycvcoi. — ot : dative of accompaniment with aim, — rpA^v ktX, : for 
the 'hysteron proteron,' see § 16 /, The more important or obvious 
element is mentioned first. 

252. Tpifdroioav: i.e, in the third generation. 253 = 73. 

254. & vAvot: can this be! — 'Axai(8a yoXAv: i,e, the Achaeans. For the 
accusative of limit of motion, see § 19 6 ; H. 722 ; G. 1065. Cf 31, 322. 

255. The thought of the preceding verse is repeated in different form; 
hence the lack of connective ; see § 15 b, — yiifiifTtu : singular to agree with 
the nearest subject; contrasted, by the caesural pause, with irMoi ikdvu. 
The aorist is inceptive; cf 33. For the form, see § 44 c, — For the 
<chiastic' arrangement of verbs and their subjects, cf 225. — IIpUiMs . . . 
«al8«t: as F 288, A 31, 35. Of course, if Priam should be glad, all the 
Greeks would be sorry. Cf, Sinon's argument, hoc Ithacus velit,et 
magno mercentur Atridae Verg. Aen. ii. 104. 

257. a-^Aw |iapva|Aivouv : de vobis rixantibus, genitive after Tv^maro. 
The participle is supplementary. — ndSc : direct object of the verb. 

258. inpl |iiv. Iff pi hi : construe with corr^ superior to : with the geni- 
tive, as 287. — povX^: as to counsel, in council. — |idxf<rOai: in battle, like 
fioxrfv, — For the thought, cf T 179, Tv8ei^, ircpt fuv woXyiM^ m Koprtpoq 
€tr<n, I Ktu fiovkg ivXiEv opumK I 53 f. "First in war and first in peace." 
Cf, 490 f., B 202, 273. 

259. W : cf, 200. — Cf *■ Love and be friends, as two such men should 
be ; I For I have seen more years, I'm sure, than ye,' Shakspere Jul, Caes, 
iv. 3. 131 f . 



260. i|^ wtp ifjitv : i.e, rji ircp vfUK corrc. The pronoun in attracted to 
the case of dpcuxriv, cf. olov ktX. 263 for olos H€ipi$oo^ ^v. — Nestor here 
reckons himself with the fonner generations, in praising the past in con- 
trast with the present. 

261. Kal o& von : the contrast might have been marked by dAAo, but 
is only implied by the context. — ot ^t: emphasized with reference to 
a/Htbcriv. 

262. "Y^: refers to dfHtoa-iv 260. — (SMficu: for the subjunctive as 
future, cf. 184. 

263 f . UnpiBoov . . . IloXi^iiov : Lapithae, a Thessalian mountain folk 
famed for its conflict with the centaurs. This strife began at the wedding 
feast of Peirithous (a friend of Theseus) because of the insolence of the in- 
toxicated centaurs; cf, B 741 ff. The battle furnished subjects for the 
sculptures in the west pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, for the 
metopes on the south side of the Parthenon at Athens, for the decoration 
of the shield of Athena Proniachus on the Acropolis, and for the orna- 
ments of the shoes of the chryselephantine statue of Athena in the Parthe- 
non, for the frieze of the temple of Apollo at Phigaleia, and for the frieze 
of the tomb of Mausolus (the < Mausoleum *) at Halicamassus, as well as 
for vases and other works of art. 

266. Kdpno^roi: predicate; "these were the mightiest ever bom on 
earth "; cf. B 216, 673. — For tlie repetition of Kofyrurroi, cf. that of ireii^c- 
crAu 273 f. ; see § 16 6. — Wj: doubtless, strengthens the superlative, as it 
often does. 

267. |ii»: without corresponding Se, as 269 and frequently. In such 
cases, it is equivalent to firjv — j<rav [^ouv] : without an augment. 

268. iHpo-Cv: c/. B 743. 

269. KcU: even. Construe with rduriv. The new thought is intro- 
duced by lotu also in 271, 273, with increasing emphasis. — The thought 
returns to 261. — rotinv: i.e. the Lapithae. The dative is governed by 
fifrd in composition ; cf. iroXtW 125. 

270. IJ dv£i|s 'Ya(i)« : from a distant land; explains rqXoOey. — KoXlo-avro : 
called to their aid. — Nestor is fond of relating achievements of his youth, 
as at A 319 ff., H 124 ff., A 670 ff. 

271. KOT 8|ji' airdv: by myself alone, i.e. as a single champion (irpofiax^ 
r 31). Cf. Kara o-^eois B 366. — mCvouri : i.e. the centaurs. 

272. ot vOv ktX.. : trho now live as mortals upon the earth. The construc- 
tion would have seemed more natural if pporo^ had been in the main 
clause, as ov ns rdv Pfjordv m. €7ri\66vioi eia-iv. (f. Z 452. — iinx06viOi: 



equivalent to ^wt x^^ ovreq. See H. 588 — (uix^to: present optative 
from fmxtofuu, a collateral form of liAyofmiL, cf. alSeurdai 23 with ai8oficv€i> 
331. 

273. fiovkimv [jSouXtiv] : for the form, see § 34 J. — Note the parallelism 
of the two halves of the verse ; c/*. 79. 

275. d^yoOds vip lAv : as 131. — dvocUpco [d^cufKn)] : < syncopated ' from 
dirooxpcco, § 47/. It is followed by two accusatives, as 182. 

276. la: sc. Kovfnjv «t irpwra: as once; cf. 6 86o-av: see on 124, 

299. 

277. |i>i|Ti 0^: noli; cf. B 247 poo-iXfji: used of Agamemnon, as 9. 

278. dvrvp£i|v: originally cognate accusative ; ^c. I/n&i, c/*. F 435. The 
adverb receives emphasis from its position. — oii iro0* 6|&o(i)«: ue, a greater. 
The Greek idiom leaves to the connection the determination of the exact 
meaning. C/. postmihi non simili poena commissa luetis Verg. 
Aen, i. 136. — 2Hu>pc: has share of, has received.' This is followed by a 
« genitive of the whole.' 

279. <rK i yn ToOxo» ' 8^^ on 15. — f n Zeus icr\. : see on 176. 

280. cl : not conditional in thought here, but refers to a matter of fact. 
Cf. ei rore Kovpo^ la, vvv aZri fu y^pas oira^u A 321. — KOfynpdt : as 178. — 
Ocd 8c kt\. : second clause of the protasis, explaining the first; *< being son 
of a goddess." — aid: i.e. Thetis; cf. 351 ff. 

281. dXXd: as in 82 . — irX«Sv«nriv : see B 108, .576 ff. 

282. 'ArpctSi), vv W: the vocative in Greek poetry often precedes the 
clause with which it is connected ; of course it has no syntactical construc- 
tion in the sentence, and tlius cannot be followed immediately by 8c. Cf. 
B 344, Z 86, 'EKTop, arap av pjoi iaa-i irarrjp ki1 irdrvia prfTqp 7t 429. — 
ira€c : cf. 192, 207. — a^rdp fyA -yc : " And I also on my part beg thee." 

283. XCo-o-oficu: sc. ai 'AxiXXfjt: dative of opposition. The name is 

used with special emphasis (cf. 240), instead of the pronoun (275, 281). 
— ^udfyMv: cf. pjSripMv B 241. — hi fifya ktX.: the motive for the request. 

284. IpKOs iroX^i&oio: as A 299; cf. €pK<K aKovrtav A 137, €pKiK /SeXcwv 
E 316. For the ablatival genitive, see § 19 a. With another use of the 
genitive, Ajax is called cpico9 'Axcuilv F 229 bulwark of the Achaeans. 

' 286. irdvra: is not to be urged in meaning. It refers especially to 
284. "All this is true, but — ." Agamemnon admits no fault on his 
part, but throws all the blame on Achilles; cf. dAAo, below. 

287. ircpl irdyritv : r/. 258. 

288. This verse repeats the thought of the foregoing. The speaker's 
passion is shown by the use of synonymous exj>ressions. § 12 </. 



289. &: in tohich, accusative of specification. — nvd: same one, espe- 
cially Agamemnon himself. — inCo^o^oi: from vuBia. 

290. alxfkiiT^v: pregnant, for Kpar€poi axxfurfrrf: T 179 lOirav: 

equivalent to hnuqarav. Cf. iOrfKcy 2 aUv idvng: cf, Ottav oiciycvcrcduv 

B400. 

291. irpoMou(nv: t.e. commission him, allow him. The word seems 
chosen here with reference to IBtcrav, 

293. ^ -ydip: Achilles gives at once the reason for his course. — koXmC- 
l&i|v: should he called, i.e. should be. C/. B 260, F 138. 

294. From Agamemnon's complaint, 287 ff., Achilles infers with 

exaggeration that he is expected to obey in everything (vav ^pyov) cl 

S^ : « in case that I actually." — vvt ({o|tai : the form of the condition is 
changed, and the future indicative is used in the protasis instead of the 
optative. 

295. 8^: construe with the imperative, as 131 rairra: i.e. wav Spyov 

vireuccoAu. — |ji^ y6p i|u>£ : in contrast with oXAouriv. 

296. oi: construe with cti, as in prose they are united, oviceri. — oCm: 
with the future infinitive, as 170. — This verse is parallel with 289. 

297. This verse is used when the speaker changes the subject in the 
middle of his speech. It is followed by the new thought, without a con- 
junction. — C/. accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta 
Verg. Aen. iii. 250. 

298. |ilv: correlative with 8c 300. The contrast is changed from that 
between action and heart, to one between Kovpvp and rwv aX\a>v. — Koi»pf|s : 
would have the article in prose. 

299. d^4Xfa6i : the aorist assumes that Agamemnon's threat has been 
executed, and the second person holds the Achaeans responsible because 
of their acquiescence (c/. 231). — S^vng: ye who gave. Cf. Achilles' 
words, y€pa% Si iwl os ir€p ^Scoiccv | avro$ c^v)3pti£a)v eXrro Kputav 'Ayafilfivwv 
I 367 f . The ytpa^ was a gift (cf. Soaav 276), not a right, like the share 
in the booty. 

300. Ooj: for such standing epithets, see § 12 a trapd vt|(: i.e. in my 

tent; cf. 329. — For the position of the adjective, see § 11 m. 

301. tAv : repeats rtav aXXtav oiic &v rt ^^it : the optative with av 

and a negative often expresses a confident expectation, and sometimes 
approaches a threat, as here. — ^ipoit dviX^v : cf. 3i<a cXwv 139. 

302. cl: retains its original force as an interjection. << Up then, 

come." — &«yf : as in 62 yvAnax: shall recognize it y perceive it, referring to 

the following verse. Cf. 185, 333. — For the form, cf Swcixriv 137. 



303. The preceding vaptfrai represents a protasis to which this would 
be the apodosis ; cf, 583. « If he tries, he and the rest will find out." 

304. |uixi)o-a|iiM» : cf,fmx€(r&(uS. 

305. dv«rHjn|v: stood upy rose from their seats. — X<w«|r: the dual and 
plural are seen to be used in this verse without special distinction. Cf. 
321 ; see H. 634; G. 155. — The speeches of 285-303 were uttered infor- 
mally, while sitting ; cf. 246. 

307. McvoindSi) : Patroclus was so well known to the hearers of Homer, 
from old stories and songs, that he needed no more exact designation 
here; see § 39 &. When a boy in Opus, Patroclus killed a comrade in a 
fit of anger and was taken by his father to Phthia, where Peleus received 
him kindly (^ 84 ff.), and brought him up with Achilles. He attended 
Achilles on this Trojan expedition as his warmest and most faithful friend 
and squire (^^irtov). The narrative of his exploits fills a large part of 
the Sixteenth Bopk of the Iliad. He was slain by Hector (U 818 ff.). To 
avenge his death, Achilles ends his quarrel with Agamemnon. Most of 
the Twenty-third Book is occupied with an account of the funeral games 
in his honor. 

306 — 'ArpctSi|« ktA. : sc. as he had planned (clfm), 141 ff — irpo^pvonomv : 
caused to be drawn doum from its position on shore ; cf, 486, B 152 f . 

309. It 8<: as 142. All four adverbs (h, hy am, cv) refer to vvja, sup- 
plied from 308. — It 8<: into it, adverb with prjtrt ifCxoo^v: ships for 

other purposes than war generally have twenty oarsmen in Homer. 

310. Pf^oi : cf. fiija-ofijey 144 dvd: adverb with cicrcv (aorist from ijo)). 

311 . k)gm¥ : see on Iwv 138 dpx^ • cf 144 'OSvovdit : as irokvfirfns, 

iroXvfirj^voqy he was often sent on embassies ; cf T 205. See § 5 a. 

312. The story which is here broken off, of the voyage to Chrysa, is 
resumed at 430. 

313. diroXviMUvw^oi : they were to purify themselves symbolically from 
the sin of Agamemnon which had brought upon them the pestilence. Cf 
the action of the children of Israel, after their idolatry : « And they 
gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and poured it out before 
the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there. We have sinned against 
the Lowi,' 1 Sam. vii. 6. They trusted that the pollution would depart 
from them into the sea, where they washed themselves. 

315. TiXiilovot: see on 66. 

316. tropd 6tva: as 34. The line of people was stretched out along the 
strand. 

317. inpl Kairv^: around, in the smoke. See § 55 a. 



318. Transition to another scene, which fills the blank during the 
jouraey of the embassy to Cbrysa. — Kord vrpor^v: (down) through the 
camp; cf, dvet orr/mrov 10, 53, Kara v^as B 47, xara fiwfjutnk B 305.— For 
the transition, at the < bucolic diaeresis,' see § 58 A. 

319. IfMSos: as210. — irpArov: once; see on 6. — 4wipriCXn«w: see 181 ff. 

320. wpoa^iiiw: is regularly foUowed by the direct address in the 
next verse, but occasionally some incidental remark intervenes by way of 
parenthesis. 

321. Ocpdirovn : companions, squires, Patroclus is B^tairiav of Achilles, 
brave warriors are called ^epanwre? "kfnjoi (B 110), and kings are B^tdr 
TTomrcf AioS' 

322. if»XM^v: here followed by the accusative of * limit of motion.' 
§ 19 6. — Agamemnon does not go in person (avro9 185), since Achilles had 
declared (298) that he would make no resistance. 

323. x<^P^* genitive of the part touched, with cXoirrc. Cf. KOfirp 197, 
yowiav 407, 500, iroSos 591 — d'y^uv [aytiy] : infinitive for the imperative, 
parallel with tpywOov. Cf, \wtqi 20. — This contains an explanation of 
the preceding imperative and hence is not connected with it by a conjunc- 
tion (§ 15 h) ; cf 363. 

324 = 137, with hmjaiv for ScuctKny. 

325. Kof: strengthens ^ycoi^. 

326. Cci . . . InXXfv: as 25. — |&00ov: t.e. the preceding command. 

327. A^Kovn : because of their dread and reverence for Achilles ; cf, 331. 
— pdrviv (§ 52 c) : dual forms generally have no augment in Homer — trapd 
0iva : cf 347. The quarters of Achilles were at the extreme right of the 
camp ; cf hr Atavrx)? KXur(a% , . . 178' iv *A;(cAA,^o9, roc p tayara vvja^ 
iiavs I etpvauv, ''/voplrf irCawoL mL Koprtl x€ip(ov A 7 ff. to the tents ofAjax 
and to those of Achilles, who drew up their ships at the extremities of the line, 
trusting to their bravery and the strength of their arms, 

329. t6v : refers back to 322, viz, Achilles. 

330. oM' &pa: but naturally not yifiifg^: <<did joy enter his heart"; 

inceptive aorist; cf 33, 92, 255. 

331. rapp^avn : seized by fear (the opposite of Oap(n^^ 85), while the 
present ai8o/Aci^ expresses the continued attitude of their minds. 

333. 6 lyvw: for the hiatus, cf 532, B 105 ; see § 27 6. — lyw: sc, 
their errand. Cf 302. 

334. x^L^pc^ : the customary greeting. — Ai^ &YyiXoi ktX,: they are 
inviolable servants of &or/9€^ea)v fiaxriXyjiov (on 176). Hermes is not yet 
the patron god of heralds in Homer. 



335. liraCTiOi : to Uame ; sc. iari. C/. 153. — *Aya;^im¥: sc. hrmrioi cori. 

336. ft: OS — Kovpf|« : Kovpos and Kovptj are used especially of young 
men and women of noble families. But KovpoL 'A;(auav (473) does not 
differ materially, except in metrical form, from vies 'A;(cuwv (162). 

338. &7fiv: final infinitive ; c/. imy^trBaj. 8, dy^ 443, B 477, T 117. ~ 
T» 8* aMs: these two themselves. The very men who executed the unjust 
order are to be witnesses of its injustice and of Achilles' justification in 
withdrawing from active service. 

339. irp6f : in the sight of, before, Cf 239, Xen. An, i. 6. 6. For the 
repetition of the preposition, cf, that of Ik 436 ff — 6c Av, dvOp^amv: for a 
strong « all persons." 

340. Ka£: after re, re, gives special prominence to this clause — vp^ 
tt^ Poo^fjos din|vfos : before that king, the cruel king; equivalent to ir/ios 
TovTov rov fiatrtXiioq tov dm/vovs* For the order of words, cf, 11, tov 
XiaprfT^pa cireo-)3oAov B 275. Since the article is still a demonstrative in 
Homer, the foregoing are merely apparent exceptions to the rule that the 
attributive adjective stands between the article and its noun. — 8^ a£n: 
for the <synizesi8,' cf. 131. — a^n : not again, marking a repetition, but 
indicating a situation opposed to the present ; cf, 237. 

341. XP*i^ yivT^nu: this happens in the Ninth Book; see § 6 t — The 
object before the speaker's mind is Agamemnon. Hence at the close of 
the sentence, rocs dAXois is used instead of the general word 'A;(aiois. 

342. TQit &XXoif: dative of interest with ofivvoL, cf. 67. — ^ap: length- 
ened, as B 39, for an unknown reason. 

343. oifU Ti : and not at all, — vol^inu ktX.: proverbial expression for 
prudence; cf, T 109 — The infinitive follows oJSe, knows how. 

344. ot: ethical dative with croot /laxeotaro fjiaxfoCorp [/uui;(oivro] : 

that they should fight. The present of the principal sentence is followed by the 
optative, since the purpose is presented as a mere conception of the mind. 

347. &Yfiv: as 338. — a^ns: like iroXtF 59. 

348. A^KoiNra : this indicates that Briseis was more than a mere yipas 
to Achilles, and that his anger arose not simply from the insult offered to 
his dignity but also from wounded love. So at I 340 he asks whether the 
sons of Atreus alone love their wives; he loves his heartily, though she is 
a captive. In T 287 ff., she mourns bitterly for the dead Patroclus on her 
return to the tent of Achilles — Yvv^ : explanatory appositive with ^. — 

The scene ends at the * bucolic diaeresis' (§ 58 h) ; cf. 318, 430 aMlp 

'AxiXXcus ktX. : a simple description of the effect which the loss of Briseis 
had upon the hero, without depicting his feelings in modern fashion. 




ACHILLES SENDS AWAY BRISEIS 



349. Scucf^MTCit : fell to weeping. Burst into tears is perhaps too strong a 
translation, but gives the inceptive force of the aorist — Mp«»v : construe 
with voa-ifn }sjuaxrBufi. — &^ap : construe with XumOtU, cf, 594. 

350. etv If &X6t: i.e. ^i ^iva kt\. Construe with c^cro 8^': is 

accented, in spite of the elision, in order to prevent the reader from con- 
struing it with d\6i (55 c fi). — &X6t : aXs and $dXaa-<ra are the general 
words for sea ; iron-os is the high, deep sea (often with reference to a par- 
ticular tract ; c/. B 145) ; iriXayo^, the open sea. 

351. troXXd: as 35. — opryviis: not av(ur\<av (x^ififK dvoo^cov 450), since 
while invoking the sea divinity he stretched out his hands toward the 
deep. Cf, I 568, where Althaea beats upon the ground as she calls upon 
the nether gods; palmas ponto tendens utrasque . . . Di, quibus 
imperium est pelagi Verg. Aen. v. 233 ff. 



352. tntUs yt: the proniineiice jpven by yc emphasizes the fact as 
responsible for the inference wliich is drawn from it. ** Since you gave 
me birth, you ouglit to see that I am made happy. Zeus ouglit to grant 
me honor since he does not vouchsafe me long life." — |uvvv0d8iov : equiva- 
lent to caicv/Aopos 417 ir<p: in its original use, very. 

353. Ti|&yivirfp: honor at least : placed first with emphasis. ^Chia^stic' 
with fuwvBdBiov (§ 16 a) — ^4**^^^ • ^^^ P*st tense of verbs of obligation 
is used to imply that the obligation was not complied with. 

354. 'bilrippciifnit : cf. Savov 8c Pp6imj(r€ Trarrjp di^Spa)v re Oeuiv t€ \ vij/oOev 
(thundered terribly from on high) Y 56. — vOv ti: but as it is, marking a return 
to the reality from a merely hypothetical case ; c/*. 417, B 82. 

356. IX«v Ixci : differs from cTXc chiefly in giving prominence to the 
possession as still continued. (y\ (of the same act) ciXcr' c;(ei 8' oXo^ov 
1336. — diro^pot: participle of d^n/vpcuv 430; explanatory of cXcov. For 
the strengthening by avros, cf. 137, 161, 185, 324. 

357. m% ^To ktX. : cf. sic fatur lacrimans Verg. Aen. vi. 1. 

358. irarpl y4pom : i.e. Nereus, who is not named by Homer but only 
designated as aXuys yipwv (538). 11 is home is in the Aegean Sea. AVith 
him is Thetis, who has left her aged husband Peleus. 

359. AX6s : ablatival genitive, yrom the sea. See § 19 a. — y\W' o|iCxXi| : 
like a mw<, which rises easily and quietly from the water; the com- 
parison is especially fitting for a sea goddess. Cf. » As evening mist | 
Risen from a river o'er the marish glides,* Milton Par. Lost xii. 629 f. — 
For the Homeric comparison, (f. 47 ; see § 14. 

360. irdpoiO' airoCo: before hivi(self). The intensive pronoun contrasts 
Achilles himself with his voice, which his mother had just heard; cf 47. 
See § 42 A. — Sdxpv x^^''^^^' ^^^ repetition of these words from 357 is 
characteristic of the fullness of epic style. — The Homeric heroes were 
never ashamed to express emotion. They wept copiously. 

361. KaT^pc(c: for the single p after the augment, see § 30 c. — For the 
epic fullness, cf 57, 88. 

362. (T^, ^p^va«: accusatives of the whole and part, — thy heart. 

363. IfaiSa icrX. : the second imperative repeats the thought of the 
first, hence the * asyndeton'; cf 323. — vdy: as in 132. 

364. Pap^ : cf tvpv 355, /icya 78. 

365. otcrOa : cf 355 f — t| : is not a simple sign of a question in Homer 
(see on 133), and hence can be joined with rt. — 18v(tj : intransitive. — 
Though his mother knows all, Achilles tells the story. A man in suffer- 
ing finds relief in rehearsing his ills, and this recital was followed by the 



sympathy of the poeVs hearers. The repetition is more natural because 
the consequences of these events continue through the whole poem — 
dYoptiMft : < subjunctive of deliberation.' — For the verbal repetition, r/. 
B 10-15, L>3-;34, 60-70. 

366. Observe that this story is introduced without a conjunction — 
^X^N^*^- 9c- ^^ hi'' marauding expeditions in the neighborhood of Troy. 
See on 125. — Bifiv\¥ : the connection of Chryseis with Theba is not made 
plain. Was she there on a visit? Or were Theba and Chrysa sacked on 
the same expedition?— Uft^v : since the gods were worshipped there. — 
Note the simple order of words. 

367. I(yo|mv iv6dSc : Andromache tells of the sack of the city, of her 
father's death and her mother's captivity, in Z 414 ff. — ^j^oiuv: implies liv- 
ing creatures, especially prisoners. Of. <f>€p<ov 13. 

368. fC: properly y so that each received his due share — SAov^vro: cf, 
Sc&uTTcu 125, ^auTfijoq 166. 

369. Ik 8' IXov: as y^« (^jcupcrov, cf. B 227), besides his share of the 
spoils. See on 124 — The capture of Chrysa (37), or at least of Chryseis, 
on the same expedition is assumed here. B 690 ff. shows that Lyrnessus 
was sacked, and Briseis taken captive, on the same voyage, which seems to 
have been shortly before Chryses' visit to the camp. 

371-379 = 12-16, 22-25. 

380. vdXiv: hack; cf. irdXiv vXay^hrra^ 59, Sd/uvot voXlv 116. 

381. ^(Xo« ^v: sc. 6 yipiov. This was shown by the event. 

382. kr 'Apn/tiow^ : Ivi with a dative of the person in Homer often 
implies hostility, like cire with the accusative in prose ; cf 51, F 15, 132. 
— Kflucdv: cf 10.— p£io«: as 51. 

383. Ivoo-o^iTipoi : in quick succession; cf 52. 

384. &|i|u [riiixv] : for us. 

385. 9ioirpov(a« : as 87. — Mtom : of the Far Darter. iKoro^ is a short, 
«pet' form of iKarrfPoXo^ (as 'Eican; was a name of the moon goddess). 
Cf IffuyOiv 39. For similar epithets of Apollo, see § 22 /. 

386. airCica: for the lack of a conjunction, see § 15 d KcXd|ii|v : cf 

62 ff., and see on 74. 

387. Arpftwva ktX. : equivalent to 'ArpcW ^oXcS^ (cf xoX<tf^(9 9). 

388. T|v«(Xi)ortv |ii)9ov : the English idiom reverses the construction, he 
uttered the threat.— h: os, as 336. 

389. Ti|v |Uv : contrasted with rtfv Sc 391. — o^ vi\l : with a ship, almost 
equivalent to by ship. This expression seems more instrumental than 
where the comrades also are mentioned ; cf 179, 183. 



38 COMMENTARY TO THE 

390. v^vouoav: escort (§ 17). The present is used, since the act 
is not completed. The < historical present' is not Homeric. — tfovax 
ti: a subordinate member of the sentence, with <chiastic' relation to 

ir^irova-iy (§ 16) 8Apa : t.«. victims for sacrifice &voim: Apollo; c/*. 

36, 444. 

391. Ti|v Si Kr\>\ contrasted with 389. — viov: adverb with Ifiav 

ayovTC9 ipav [l)3i;cmy] flLyovnt : r/. Ifiav ffUpownu B 302, p!i ^cvyvuv 

B 665. oixofWA is more frequently used with a participle; cf. B 71, 
(Mxc<r6bu irpo<lHpovan OvtXXa Z 346. See on liay 138, 168. 

392. litrav icrk. : as 162 ; see on 124. 

393. v«u8^ il|of : thy valiant son. It seems part of the poet's naivete 
that the heroes apply such epithets to themselves ; but the phrase is part 
of the poet's stock, and he hardly thinks whether he is applying the epi- 
thet himself or is putting it in the hero's mouth. 

394. ACK: for the length of the ultima before Xunu, see § 59 h fC« 

won : cf, 39, 503 ff . 

395. fam, IpY^: emphatically placed in contrast, at the beginning and 
the close of the verse. — Kpa8(i|v Aitft : for the < periphrasis,' see § 16 </. — 
fjc Kot: or cUso, 

396. voXX^: for the omission of final s* see § 30 /. — o4o: genitive of 
source with oKovan. — vorpdt : i.e. of Peleus, in Thessaly, where Thetis 
seems to have remained after her marriage until the outbreak of the 
Trojan War; cf. H 221 ff. (where mention is made of the chest of Achilles 
that Thetis packed for him as he set out for Troy). See on 358. 

397. tixo|<i^v*|t : supplementary participle with aeo, cf. 257. — &t« ktX. : 
explains €vxpfjuanfp. See § 11 j. 

398. diiida KTk. : as 341 ; cf 67. 

399. 6virdTi: when once upon a time. — Thetis makes no use of this 
suggestion in her interview with Zeus. Aristotle observes this, and 
remarks that men do not care to be reminded of the favors which they 
have received. 

400. The three divinities named are now on the side of the Achaeans. 

401. IXOoQora : see on Iwv 138 — M: marks her power to accomplish. 
— ^mkWao 8to>Av : didst loose from under the chains, didst free from the 
pressure of the chains. — Transition to direct discourse from the infinitive 
construction of 398 ; cf. B 12, 126 ; see § 11 e. 

402. <KOTdYX«fov : cf centimanus Gyas Hor. Carm. ii. 17. 14, 
belua centiceps ib. ii. 13. 34. — KoXlo^m : by calling, coincident in time 
with vTrcXutroo. 



name (/feav^handed ; cf. fipuipoi) marks his strength and character. 
He is called AiyouW (Stormt/ ; cf, alyk, AlyaC, Aiyim) in the popular speech, 
as a sea divinity. He is the j^rsonified might and roar of the seA. Hesiod 
makes him aid Zeus against the Titans. — Homer attributes to the lan- 
guage of the gods names which are going out of use (but which may seem 
clearer in meaning than the others) ; cf, B 813 f. See on B 782. 

404. ttikt: on his part. — o4 irarp^s: i.e. Poseidon, the mighty sea god. 
All of Poseidon's sons are represented as violent. — o4: cf. rjv 72. 

405. It pa: so he ; for the demonstrative use of the relative, see § 42 p. 
— K^i ToCmv: delighting in the fullness of his might. — This seems to play 
upon the name AiyouW. 

406. Ka(: a/^o; marks the effect corresponding to icuSciyoucuy. Cf. 249. 
— ^ir^icrav : for the length of the antepenult, cf. 33. vrrd with verbs of 
fearing, fleeing, yielding marks the superiority on the side of the person 
who is the efficient cause — ri: indicates the close connection of the two 
clauses ; cf. 82, 218, B 179. — ISi^oxiv: possibly a play on USeurav. 

407. TMv : see on 160. — fiCv : construe with fun/ffnura. ira/>c(co would 
govern the dative. — -yoifvwv: for the genitive, cf. X€ip6i 323 — This was 
the attitude of a suppliant ; cf. 500 ff. 

408. at tUv vMt : cf. 66. — kr\ d(»i){ai : come to the aid of. Cf. the force of 
cm in 345. 

409. Kard irpv|ivat : the ships were drawn up with their stems toward 
the land. — d|M^* &Xa : about the sea, i.e. on the shore between the promon- 
tories Siggum and Rhoeteum. Until now the battles had been fought on 
the plain, far from the ships and near the city. Cf. Achilles* words, 6<f>pa 
8* eya> fur *K')(ajuoUnv iroXc/u^ov, | ovk lOiKLtrKt fia.X'T^ ^^^ tc(xco9 opvvfuv 
*EicT<i>p I 352 {.As long as I wasfghting among the Achaeans, Hector idos not 
willing to rouse the battle away from the wall (of the city) . — * Axaio^ : in 
apposition with tovs. 

410. 4irai>pMVTcu : may come to enjoy; ironical. Cf quidquid deli- 
rant reges, plectuntur Achivi Hor. Epist. i. 2. 14. 

411. KoU : also, i.e. as well as the other Greeks. 

412. Ijv iTf|v : h'ls blind infatuation, his blindness. This is made more 
definite by 5 tc kt\. (i.e. ori re), as 244. Cf B 111. 

413. Kard : construe with ;(€oixra. 

414. t( yv: why now, to what end; accusative of specification. — atvd : 
cognate accusative with rtKOwra, dreadfully, to sorrow. Cf. kok^ oIktu 418. 
Thetis calls herself hKrofMrrofroKoa 2 54 mother of an unhappy hero. 



415. ate o^cXft: for this form of expression for an unattainable wish, 
see H. 871 a; G. 1512 — dSdKfnrrot ktA. : i.e. full of joy and happiness. 
This thought receives the enii)hasi8. 

416. aXa-a: sc. cort. Here like oictfv, tenn of lifr. — fiCwv^: adverb 
modifying the cort to be supplied, which is sometimes modified by an 
adverb in Homer (§ 18 t). Cf. dic^v eyiyovro auajr^ T 95, ov^ ap m ^v \ 
riv Z 139 f., A 466, "nor did he live long.*' — o{» tv |idXa S^iv: the preceding 
thought is repeated in negative form. — For the length of the ultima of 
ftaXa, see § 59 A fi. 

417. vO¥ «: as 354.— W: its position is free; cf. B 281. 

418. lirXfo: thou art^ literally thou becamest by decree of fate ordered at 

thy birth t^: therefore. She infers from the foregoing, not the fact 

but the justification of the expressions oimoi racoMra, kokj altrrf. — kokj aCtrn: 
to an evil lot. 

419. toOto liros: i.c. 407 ff — to(: dative of interest; cf. rot 425 f 

<pfovo«: future participle, expressing purpose. — Both * hiatus* in this 
verse are merely ap[)arent. §§ 27 N.B., 32. 

420. 'OXviiirov ^.y^vw^ov: see on 44 — at kc trdhf^rfu : cf. 207. 

421. arv |Ur: correlative with 426. The inter|>osed explanation makes 
it natural to change the form of the apodosis from fyw 8c. — vOv: i.e. until 
her visit to Zeus. — irof>4|uvof: as 488. Inactivity is implied; cf, B 688, 
694. — Thetis does not encourage her son to carry out his threat of 169, 
to return to Phthia. 

422. fi^vu: present imperative, continue to rage. See on 210. Cf. 
firjviv 1, 247. 

423. Ztvt Y^p icrX.: gives the reason for the preceding direction, espe- 
cially for vvvy showing why his request cannot be granted at once. — it 
'(iKcavdv: to the abode of Oceanus, near which was the home of the Aethio- 
pians. The Aethiopians lived in the southeast and southwest of the 
Homeric world. They are represented as a god-fearing people, enjoying 
the personal intercourse of the divinities. — fMrd: as 222. 

424. x^^l^- predicate adjective instead of adverb, as 472, 497, B 2, 

r 7 . See § 56 a Kard [ftcra] SoCra : cf Kara irp^$iVy on an errand ^ wXaiofuvoi 

Kara Xi/i3a, wandering for plunder. — Afia irdvrtt : cf. 495. — lirovro : apparent 
contradiction of 195, 221 f ., where Athena and Hera are thought of as on 
Olympus. 

425. SttScKdrg: cf 54. This is reckoned from the day on which 
Thetis is speaking. Twelve is sometimes a round number, in Homer as 
well as in the Bible. — IXciwrrnu: cZb-c 




426. x<^KoPaT<t: with bronze threshold^ an epithet applied four times 
to the home of Zeus, once to that of Hephaestus, and once to the palace of 
Alcinous. The threshold of wood was probably covered with a plate of 
bronze. The floor of the hall of Zeus was covered with gold, A 2. Cf. 
«and the floor of the house he overlaid with gold, within and without/ 
1 Kings vi. 30, of Solomon's temple. 

427. KoU |uv, KcU fiiv : for the animated repetition, cf. hoi fuv ^aXov 
wfjMv . . . KOI fuv eyfio y i<l>dfi7jv *Ai3ciiv$£ irpdiwffuv E 188, 190 and I hit him 
in the shoulder, and I said that I should send him to Hades. — Youvdvoiicu: 
cf. Xafi^ yovytav 407. 

428. dinp^ioTro : only in this place in the verse, before the bucolic 
diaeresis (§ 58 h) ; elsewhere, dirifirf is used; see § 50 b. — a^rrofi: intensive 
when adverbial (not very frequent) in Homer, as well as when a pronoun. 

429. Yvvauc6«: genitive of cause, with x^f^^^y^* ^^^ on cvx^X^q 65. 

430. pCn kt\. : by force, against his will. — iuUomn sc. I^cv, genitive of 
separation. 

430-487. The scene in Chrysa naturally intervenes between the 
promise of Thetis and its fulfillment, and thus seems to fill up in part the 
twelve days' delay. See on F 121. 

430. a^rdp 'OStwnrfvs ictA. : cf. 311 fif . — For the beginning of the narra- 
tive, cf. the transition at avrap 'AxiAAcvs 348. 

431. ticavfv &Ytt»v: cf. tp^fJL Ixuiv 168, rfK€ Turaa<l>€pvrji €xtav rrjv lavroS 
Svva^v Xen. An. ii. 4. 8. a[yo>v, with, is used because the hecatomb was 
composed of live animals. See on 13. 

433. Irria mCkavro: they took in their saibt. The middle takes the 
place of a possessive pronoun. Cf. 480, 524. 

435. irpo4pco-o-av : when near their haven they furled their sails and 
rowed the boat to land. 

436. Ik U: for the repetition, cf 339 f . ; see § 16 ft. — iMs : these were 
large stones which served as anchors. These were cast from the prow, 
while the vpvfjLvi^ui (476) held the stern. When the boat was to remain 
long, it was drawn up on land. 

437. paSvov: for the descriptive imperfect, cf. a<f>ta 25. — M: for the 
length of the ultima, see § 59 /. 

438. pi^av: first aorist, transitive. Cf 144, 191, 310, larrfoav 448. 

439. The rhythm has been thought to imitate the maiden's measured 
steps ; § 13 ft. — Ik : adverb, as above, but more exactly defined by vi^. 

440. *irl P<»(ft4v: the god is thus made a witness of the return. Thus in 
a Boeotian inscription a man emancipates his slave cvaKriov *A,a-KX.r/irun), in 



the presence of Asclepius. The priest dwelt in the sacred inclosure (rcficvo9) 
aXcroi) of the god. Observe that no tenjple is mentioned. 

441. kv x<P^^ TCfift: placed in the arms. For the dative, cf. youi; 245. 
For xcif) as arm, cf. Z 81, 482.— TtSfi : for the form, cf. SL<t>ia 25. 

442. irp6 (hither) lir«|ii|riv: cf. irpo rjKt 195. 

443. &7tf|uv: for the infinitive, cf, ayav 338. — lKaT6|iPi)v ^^: cf Itpa 
^^s 147. 

444. viTfp AavcUtv: in behalf of the Danal, This figurative use of vrr^, 
frequent in later Greek, hardly appears elsewhere in Homer. 

446. Chryseis here disappears from the story. 




RECONCILIATION OF CHRYSES 



448. ^(t|«: in order, since iKarofjLprjv is collective. — lo^n|o^v: first 
aorist, transitive ; cf prjauv 438. 

449. xcp^^'c^*^^ • *^^y could not pray to the gods with unwashed hands. 
Cf r 270, xtpfrl 8* avLirroicnv Au AeijSctv alOoTra otvov | alopm (dread) 
Z 266. — o^iXox^Tos: unground, bruised barleycorns (ovXcu KpSal), which, 
roasted and mixed with salt (cf * with all thine offerings thou shalt offer 
s:ilt,* Levit, ii. 13), were thrown upon the fire (irpofiaXovro 458) as an 




out barleycorns. The use of these in sacrifices is a survival of usage from 
the time when the grinding of grain was unknown. Vergil (Aen. i. 179) 
is accurate in making the Trojan heroes parch their grain and then bruise 
it. — Mkovro : took up ; sc, from the basket standing on the ground. 

450. Tokriv:/or them, as 68, 247.— |Ary^a: loudly; cf, woXXd 85.—- 
X<Cpo« &vcurx^v : the palms were extended towards the gods, the usual atti- 
tude in prayer, as is shown by works of art. Cf. 351, F 318. So also 
among the Hebrews. Cf. * And it came to pass, when Moses held up his 
hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek 
prevailed,' Exodus xvii. 11. See Vocabulary s,v. xctp. 

451 f. = 37 f. With the same formula with which the priest began 
his prayer for vengeance, he now prays that the punishment may be 
averted. 

453. tjiUy, ifii : paratactic construction, where the English idiom uses 
" as . . . so " ; see §21 d. — 6^ won : once already y correlative with cri 455 
once more, 

454. Explanatory < appositive asyndeton.' — ri^rfirwt kt\, : sc, by send- 
ing the pestilence which avenged the slight offered to the priest. 

455. Kol vOv : contrasted with mpo^y above. — t6Sc ktX., : i.e. the follow- 
ing wish, as 41. 

456. im vOv: now at once. — Aavaokriv ktX, : cf. 97. 457 = 43. 

458. In the sacrifice described in y 440 ff., the victim's forelock is cut 
off and thrown into the fire, before the barleycorns are offered. — a^rrdp hni : 
this is repeated in this narrative, 464, 467, 469, 484. 

459. aUpvvav: they drew up (back) the head of the victim, in order to 

tighten the muscles of the neck 2o^a(av: i.e. opened the large artery of 

the neck, to let the blood. 

460. |&i|povt 4{fro|iov : instead of the more definite ix firfpui rdfiyov, cf. 
40. — KvCv^: dative of means. Two layers of fat were placed over the 
thigh pieces; and upon the fat, bits of raw meat from all parts of the 
body (iravraiv /acXcoiv), symbolizing a sacrifice of the whole animal. These 
were burned, and thus the gods, according to the Homeric belief, took 
part in the sacrificial feast. C/*. 317. 

461. Siirruxa : sc. tcviayjv, equivalent to SivXaju Si/fup. 

462. KaCk : sc. the firfpui with the fat and flesh. — ox4tI< • ^f- ^ 425. 

463. Wot: i.e. the companions of Odysseus, in contrast with 6 y^xav, 
the old priest. Cf. B 789. — irop* airdv: by the priest himself who is thus 
marked as the principal, directing person at the sacrifice. — «f|i'>^PoXa: 



tnese DTonze jive<tnea jotks seem to nave oeen usea to Keep tne sacnnces 
from rolling into the ashes. 

464. Kord icdi|: these pieces were intended for the gods and therefore 
were entirely (icara) consumed by the fire; cf. 6 8'^ ttv/x )3aAAc BvrjXd^ 
I 220 he threw the sacrificial pieces into the fre. — irAor a vro : sc, in order to 
have a share in the sacrifice. This was no part of, but only an introduc- 
tion to, the meal which followed. 

465. lito^niXXov #ctA. : cf. pars in frusta secant, verubusque tre- 
mentia figunt Verg. Aen, i. 212. 

466. wipi^paSlMt : sc to keep it from burning. — 4p^avro : drew it off 
from the spits, after it was roasted. 

467. ira^io^vro: the aorist indicative is often used in relative clauses 
(with ^ira) where the English uses the pluperfect. Cf, 484, B 513. See 
H. 837. 

468. l(o-i|t : equaU i.e, of which each had a fair share. The feast was 
common to all, but the leaders had the better portions. 

469. A set verse to mark the end of a feast ; see § 12 A. Vergil imitates 
this in postquam exempta fames et amor compressus edendi 
Aen. viii. 184. — 1{: construe with hrro. — l^v [IfHura]'. for the form, 
see § 37 6. — The previous pouring out of the wine (which might be 
expected) is not mentioned. 

470. Ko{)poi |Uv #ctX. : sc. for a solemn libation of the whole company, 
since only Chryseis poured a libation before (462). — iroroto : genitive after 
the idea of * fullness* in the verb. — This verse seems to have been mis- 
understood by Vergil (or did he think to improve the description?) ; cf 
crateras magnos statuunt et vina coronant ylf'n. i.724, magnum 
cratera corona | induit, iniplevitque mero Aen. iii. 525 f. 

471. vAimo^v {sc. iroTov)'. a frequentative of v^io). The 6ivo\6o^ 
dipped (a<^ijo-aro)v 598) the wine from the large bowl (Kfyrjrrjp) into a 
pitcher (irpoxoo^)' The icovpoi proceeded from left to right (cvScfca 597) 
through the company, distributing to the guests (ttoo-iv, to all), i.e. filling 
their cups for the libation and the banquet. — lirap{d|Mvoi : thus beginning 
the religious ceremony, equivalent to ap(dfieyoi iinvifuovrei. Construe with 
ScTraca-a-iv. 

472. vavi||UpiOi : through the tvhole day which remained, uninterruptedly 
till sunset. For the predicate adjective, cf 424. 

473. KaX6v : cognate accusative with dei'Sovres, instead of mXm. Cf. 35, 
78. — iroi^ova [irtuawx] : here a song of praise to Apollo as their preserver. 
— The verse explains fwhrrjy above. 



' XX yuj,iiiiift£ lilt cic^tiiaa x: abiici ^Txiivuii x ur • 



LiMi vi. 96, * singing their great Creator ' ih. iv. 684. — For the quantity 
of the ultima of /icA^rovrcs, see §§ 32 a, 59 j, — ^plva : cf. lajp 44. — Wpvrr 
dicoiwir : delighted in hearing. The god hears the song (as he had heard the 
prayer), although he is far away, among the Ethiopians. 

475. M t|XOcv : came on, 

476. KOi|i^avro : observe the force of the aorist, laid themselves to rest, 
— irapd irpvfiWiotA : along by the stem hawsers (see on 436), i.e. on the sea- 
shore. Their boat was not drawn up on land; they remained but one 
night. Of course the tides on the coast of Asia Minor are insignificant. 

477. ^o8o8dKTvXos : g, notable epithet. The ancients had observed the 
diverging rays of rosy light before sunrise. Cf, 'Hu>s #cpofco7reirXo9 1 
saffron robed, * in russet mantle clad.* 

478. Kal r&n: Trjfwq is expected after ^fwq, but the relative is not 
always followed by the corre8iX)nding demonstrative. For kbu in the 
apodosis, see § 21 b. — &vdYovro: (were putting out), put out ujHjn the high 
sea ; cf, Karayovro, came to land, 

479. Ck|uvov oSpov ktA. : Aeolus was master of the winds, but each god 
could send a favorable breeze. 

480. oT^ttvTo: for the middle, see on 433. — Irria,: what pertains to 
the iOToS) strictly an adjective which has become a substantive. The 
Homeric boat seems to have had but one sail. 481. dfi^C: adverb. 

482. irop^ifpiov: foaming, — |Ary^a: construe with tax^. — vtj^: in the 
transitional stage from limiting genitive with artipvf to the genitive abso- 
lute ; aee %19 g p, 

484. ^6.: refers to the preceding verse. — tKovro: for the use of the 
tense, cf. irawravro 467. — xard o-rpaTdv : opposite (off') the camp, i.e. to the 
landing place. — ^^The verse closes like 478. 

485. vi^ |Uv: correlative with avrol 3c. — hr T|v«(poio: up on land. No 
difference is discernible between €iri with the genitive here and iwi with 
the dative in 486. Cf T 293 and Z 473. 

486. v+o« ktX, : explanatory of iir' rfTr€ipoio, — i.e. so as to rest high on 
the sands, where it was before; cf. 308. — vir6 ti: adverb, beneath, i.e. 
under the ship. — lp|uiTa: as B 154, props (sometimes stones), which were 
put along the keel on either aide in order to hold the boat steady. 

488. a^rrdp 6 fi^vu : sc, as his mother had directed, 421 f. ; cf. 428 f. — 
Achilles withdraws from the action for the present. In the Ninth Book, 
an embassy is sent to him, begging him to give up his wrath and take 
part in the war (I 119 ff.). In the Eleventh Book, he is roused from his 



Book, when Hector reaches the Greek ships and throws fire into one 
of them, Achilles sends Patroclus and the Myrmidons into the conflict 
(11 1 ff.). He receives the news of the death of Patroclus in the Eight- 
eenth Book (5 1 ff.), and is reconciled to Agamemnon in the Nineteenth 
Book and arms himself for battle (T 40 ff., 364 ff.). He takes part in 
the fourth (and last) great battle of the Iliad, on the twenty-seventh day 
of the action of the Iliad, See, further, § 6. 

489. vU«: for the short penult, where i has virtually been lost between 
two vowels, see § 23 /. — ir68a« mcvs ktA. : cf. 58. 

490. For the 'asyndeton,' c/. 117, 255, 288, 363 inaXicncfTo : for the 

♦iterative' formation, see § 54. — icvStdvi tpav : elsewhere epithet of fux^i/v. 

— The poet does not say that assemblies were held and battles fought 
during these days, but perhaps he implies it. 

491. irdXf|iov: for the long final syllable, cf, fmxrfO'OfJifviK 153. — ic%>: 
object of ^^ivv^o-KC. 

492. a26i : right there, in the same place, i.e, in his tent. — iroO^o-icf U : 
the participle mtOewv might have lieen used in the same sense. See § 21 h. 

— &vr^v: battle cry. Always a trisyllable, and thus never to be con- 
founded with avrqv, herself, 

493. Ik Toto : the hearer easily recalled the words of Thetis (which 
form the starting point of the /i^vcs) (421 f.) and the definite statement of 
time (425) and referred Ik roib to that interview between mother and son. 

494. to^v : the stem of cT/xi is here preserved, without augment. 

495. tipx« : l^d the way, as the highest in rank. Cf V 420. 

496. H -Y*' resumes the subject; cf 97. — AvtS^ranfro K^ffia: i.e, as she 
sprang up she left the wave. Cf 359. 

497. TJcpCi| : cf. 557, V 7 ; with emphasis in this position in the verse. 
" While it was yet early morning." — o^v6v 0{{Xv|iir4v « : see on 44. 

498. cip^oira : far sounding, far thundering. For the form, perhaps a 
stereot^T^ed nominative, see § 34 ft. 

499. AkpotAtq Kopv^: from which Zeus looks out upon the world 
again, after his long absence. C/. sum mo sedetaltus Olympo Verg. 
Aen. xi. 726. — troXvSctpdSot : epithets appropriate to men are often applied 
to natural objects. Cf xopi/vbiv 44, « crest,' * foothills,* < shoulder of the 
mountain,' * arm of the sea,' * mouth of the river.' 

500. irdpoiOi Koeijrro : cf, T 162. — Yoi»iN»v : cf. 323. 

501. o-KOij, 8c£iT^ : for the adjectives used as substantives, see on 54. 

— vir* dv^pcAvof : under the chin, as V 372. 



502. A(a KpovUva: closely connected; cf, B 375. 

503. ZcfiirdTfp: this address, put into the mouths of gods and men, 
marks his patriarchal, royal dignity ; c/. 534, 544, hominum sator 
atque deorum Verg. -4cn. xi. 725, divum pater atque hominum 
rex ib, i. 65 cC inm : r/. 394. 

505. r(|fti|(rov: by its position is strongly contrasted with ij^rL^-qtrtv 
507; cf. 353, 356. — wicv|iop^&TaTos : into this is condensed the thought of 
415 ff, — &XX«*v: of all; literally, in comparison with the rest; ablatival 
genitive, as with the comparative (where it marks the starting point of 
the comparison). — This construction with oAAoiv is distinctly Homeric. 
C/. B 674, Z 295, hi ceterorum Britannorum fugacissimi Tac. 
Agric. 34, solusque omnium ante se principum [Vespasianus] 
in melius mutatus est Tac. Hutt, i. 50, <Adam the goodliest man 
of men since born | His sons, the fairest of her daughters, Eve,' Milton 
Par. Lost iv. 323 f. — Cf, this construction with furaircunv ArifurrdTrf 516. 

506. lirXiTo : cf. iirXjEo 418. — Ardp kt\. : for the transition from the 
relative to the demonstrative construction, cf. 79. 507 = 356. 

508. o^ vfp: in contrast with Agamemnon. Cf. the force of ir^ in 
353. — 'OXi>|Mru icrk^i as Thetis renews her request, she renews impress- 
ively her appeal to the might and wisdom of Zeus. 

509. kr\ rOIci : put upon, grant to. C/. B 39. 

510. o^4XX«o-iv ktX. : only here construed with a person. — Thetis as a 
suppliant presents her request in general terms, while Achilles had spoken 
more definitely, 409-412. C/'E/cropc yap oi (Zeus) Bv/juk ipovkero icvSos 
6p€^ I HpuLfuSru, Iva vqvai KoptavurL ^ccm-iSa^v irvp \ ip.pd\oi oKoparovy ®€rir 
8os 8* i(aurujv aprfv \ vcurav hrucppffvue O 596 ff. the heart of Zeits icished to 
give glory to Hector, son of Priam, that he might throw fire into the ships, and 
accomplish aU the dreadful prayer of Thetis. 

511. T^v Si kt\. : the reason of this silence appears from 518 ff. 

513. it: demonstrative corresponding to the relative wq above. — l|i«i- 
^wta : literally, grottm into, clinging closely to : cf. the formula Hv r apa oi 
<l>v X<upi Z 253. Construe with ^^^^^ ^^ '*'*? 'n'poa-<f>\s ixopr/y a>s wtcrtpk 
/i,433 clinging to this, I held on like a bat. Cf et genua am plexus 
genibusque volutans | haerebat Verg. Aen. iii. 607 f. For the 
form of ipir€<f>wui, see § 49 a. — cCpcro: asked, as she demanded a definite 
answer, ^yes' or <no.' — Sc^tnpov afns : again, a second time. Cf. vaXiv 
aftri?B276. 

514. n\^uiprrh: adverbial. — inr&axw koI Kardvfvirov: set expression, 
only at the end of the verse; cf B 112, wrtirrqv km Kariyevau A 267. 



Karavewa is the contrary of avavcvtOj nod up (Z oil). Thus even now m 
Greece, negation is indicated by an upward motion of the head, and 
affirmation by a downward nod (with an inclination toward the left). 
Cf. quibus adnuis arcem Verg. Aen. i. 250. 

515. d'vdciin : speak out plainly ; re/use is implied in the context. — hn: 
t.tf. circoTi. § 55 c. For the length of the ultima, see § 59 A. — "Thou 
hast nothing to fear." — 5^p' iv ilZA : cf, 185. 

517. axBifo^ui : inceptive; see on 33 ; but not so violent as "falling into 
a passion " or "bursting into a rage." Cf, &u(pixra$ 349. 

518. XoCyia tfya: sc, larai, as 573. There will be dreadful trouble — 
in : wheny not ci, if since Zeus sees the inevitable consequences and 
already has the situation before his mind's eye. 

519. *Hpi| : emphatic, since Hera desires the most speedy destruction 
of Troy (A 31 ff.). 

520. Kol aitrMt : even as it is y without special occasion. See § 42 i 

aUv : exaggerated ; cf 541, 561. 

521 . KoU W |U ^1)0*1 : and says, too^ that /. koI marks the agreement of 
this specification with the preceding general remark ; cf V 235. 

522 . voVn • *^' *^** Thetis had been with Zeus. For the meaning, see § 1 7. 

523. *HfW| : emphatic, as 519 ; here so placed in contrast with c^t' — 
i|iol fuX^jovnu : shall be my care. For the future with icc, c/. 139 ; see § 18 ft, 

— «+pa: f/. 82. 

524. cl S' d'yt : as in 302. — Karavivo-oiiai : shall nod with my head. 
Only here in the middle; see on 433. 

525. toOto ktX. : this answers vqfUfnk^ ktX. 514. 

526. T^iuAp : surety, pledge, — k^v : neuter adjective as substantive (see 
on 54) ; literally, anything from me, i,e, a promise or purpose. This is 
explained by on kt\, — iraXivdYprrov ; revocable, from ayp&a [olpcctf], take, 

527. Karavfiro-flt : aorist subjunctive. C/. 514. 

528. ti : he spoke: see on 219. — kir\ vtinri : nodded thereto, annuit. — 
6^pv<ri : mth his brows, Zeus was represented in works of sculpture with 
heavy, projecting brows. — For the dative, cf KC<^aAi^« 524 . 

529. d|iPp6o>uu xoS^^u ' ff- ambrosiaeque comae Verg. Aen, i. 403. 

— Itrippd^avro : rolled dottm at the nod, fell down on both sides of his head. 
These locks are conceived as long and flowing. See on B 11. 

530. KplHr&9 : distinguished from KpartK 509 by the accent and the 
length of the first syllable. — Cf. adnuit et totum nutu tremefe- 
cit Olympum Verg. Aen, ix. 106, x. 115. — Phidias embodied in his 
colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia the expression of 



reproaches is in marked contrast to this majestic demeanor. 

531. SUriiaytv lhuTfmyrf(mv'\ : for the form, cf. rjytfStv 57, avurrav 538. 

532. &Xa aXro: for the hiatus, see on 338. — aXro: second aorist with- 
out variable vowel, from JIAXo/luu, § 53. For d, see § 23 a. 

533. irp^ S6|ia: sc. ^/3i;, a general word of motion, implied in aXro. 
Cf, r 327; see § 16 e — The home of Zeus on the summit of Olympus 
was not far from the peak on which he had been visited by Thetis. — 
&i4o^rav: dvcon^fTav. 

534. I{ ISUnv: from their seats. Each god had his separate dwelling on 
Olympus (see 607 f .) and his special seat in the hall in which they gath- 
ered. Ihoi is strictly not < seat ' (13^1/), but place where the seat stands. — 
o-^O ictA. : proleptic, with aveorav, they rose and went to meet their father. 
Motion is implied in the connection, as below. — This mark of respect is 
noted both negatively and affirmatively. 

535. &vr(oi : predicate nominative after ccrrav, cf. B 185. 

536. M Opdvov: makes IvBa more definite. Cf xnlfoiv iwl ijnLfwBoi^ 486, 
in apposition with iv rfireCpoio. — o^ ktX. : i.e. nor did she fail to per- 
ceive. — |i(v: * proleptic' object; cf B 409. See H. 878. — The poet has 
to inform his hearers whether the gods were acquainted with the /SovAi; of 
Zeus, and what their feelings were concerning it. 

537. tSoQora: on seeing him, when she saw him. See on iwv 138. 

538. dXCoio Y^irro« : see on 358. 

539. airCxa: straightway. Without Bi, as 386 — Kf pTO|i€oio% : see on 54. 

540. rin Si| a{ Mv : what one of the gods now, this time. This is uttered 
in a vexed tone; cf 202. 

541. aUC : contrasted with ouSc rC irto, cf 106 f . — Uvra : naturally 
would agree with roi preceding, but is attracted to the usual case of the 
subject of the infinitive, the poet having the infinitive construction already 
in mind. 

542. KpvirrdSia . . . SiKot^v : consider and decide upon secret plans, Cf 
the words of Hera, icctKOS (Zeus) 8^ ra a <f>pov€iav m OvfiM \ Tptaai -re #cai 
Aamouri &xa{er<i), o>s oricwccs 430 f. let him, considering these his otm 
affairs in his mind, decide between the Trojans and the Danal, as is seemly, 

544. toH|p kt\, : cf 503. 

545. |ii| 8^1 : cf 181. — ^^9qv9 : i.e. thoughts, plans, the content of speech. 

546. x<>^^*^o^ *^^' ' **'^* ciScKou. The personal construction is used as in 
589, pi/trcpoi TToXcfu^ctv ^auv 'A^otot 2 258 the Achaeans were easier to fight 
with. H. 944. 



547. 6v: sc. fLvOov. — imtuclt: sc, y. — Akov^uv: with indefinite subject, 
Tii^. — Itrfira: Men, since the relative protasis is hypothetical. 

550. Zeus, in his excitement, passes at once to apply his principle to 
the present situation, instead of giving to the apodosis a general form cor- 
responding to the protasis. — raOra: refers to Hera's question, 540. — 
iKcurra: i.e. the details, exaggerated in the speaker's anger. 

552. iroCov: predicate. Equivalent to irocbg o fivOo^ iariv ov cciircs. 
See H. 618, 1012 a — This is a mere exclamation, expecting no answer. 

553. irdpof : else, at other times ; with the present tense. <* I have not 
been wont. " Cf. A 264. — olhn ktX.: emphatic repetition. The idea is 
negatived in every form ; cf. 550. 

554. Lrv WKxfl^ : for the conditional relative sentence, cf. 218, 230, 
543. — &ova: a rtm. — M^X^go^ [^^«'^27^]' ^^r the ending, see § 44 a. 

555 ff. After the rather harsh reply of Zeus, Hera shows that she knew 
not only the person concerning whom she had asked (540) but afeo what 
Thetis had requested, and what Zeus had promised. 

555. iropcCvg : should persuade, ue, lest it prove true that she ha^ per- 
suaded. Anxiety about a fact of the past, for which the aorist indicative 
might be used. 

556 = 538. — This is not spoken out of special animosity to Thetis, for 
whom in fact Hera had special affection. Hera claims Thetis as a sort of 
foster child, fjv iy<o avrtf { Opojfa re koI artTrfXa kxu AvSpi iropov irapoKOLTiv 
CI 59 f . whom I myself bred and cherished and gave as wife, etc. According to 
a myth found in Pindar and Aeschylus, both Zeus and Poseidon strove 
together as rivals for the love of Thetis, but bestowed her upon Peleus on 
learning from Themis that this goddess of the sea was destined to bear a 
son mightier than the father. 

557. tiipCn : as 497 ; cf 424. — voi -yt : emphasized in reference to crc 555. 

558. * Asyndeton,' since the following is only a more distinct state- 
ment of the preceding (555 f.). — Ir^^Tvi&ov: cf 514, 526. — w% ri|&^i« : that 
thou wilt honor. 

559. Ti|i^j(rfit, oXItntf : coincident actions, in chiastic position. For the 
< chiasmus,' see § 16 a ; for the * parataxis,' see § 21 h. Achilles was to be 
honored by the suffering of the Achaeans, who were to see how necessary 
he was to their success. — 'Ax<umv: construe with wpxriv (not iraAas), as 
is indicated by the order of words, and by the frequent repetition of the 
phrase hrl i^as 'Axatwv, 12, B 8, 17, 168. 

561. aUl kt\. : always art thou thinking. An echo of the 6i<o of 558, show- 
ing vexation ; cf. alalO?. ^^ a^ <" \ifii» : " thou art always watching me." 




9%»A. «nro irv|Hiv ; jur jruin my ttcuri, uj/cvnun, r or mis use ox OTTO, 
cf, B 162, 292, <l>i\otv airo irrifuiTa irwayu a 49 suffers woes aumy from his 
friends, 

563. ri . . . corroi : as 325. — koI /^Cyiov : «c. than what now cauMes her 
ill hiimor. 

564. cl 8' o5t« #ctA. : the reply to 555 f . — toOto : t.e. that I gave this 
promise. — Sic volo, sic jubeo. — lUXXtt: impersonal; cf B 116. 

565. AXXd #ctX. : the English idiom, " sit quiet and obey," instead of 
the more usual Greek idiom iaBTja-o wetjBofianfj. — dic^ovoxi : dicecov is gener- 
ally indeclinable. 

566. |i^ : threatening, as 28. — oi xp«^l&«o^v - not ward off. Cf 28. 

567. ojoxrov Idvra: him who comes near, implying injury or attack. The 
accusative follows ^^fxiurfutxriv on the analogy of )(patja'fjL€ot rivi ri. — Jk« . . . 
4^U» : this explains curcroy iovra. — For the thought, cf 588 if. — X<4><^ 
i<^(M: cf xdfxis hroura. 89. 568. Cf 33. 

569. firvyvdfi^ao-a : cf B 14. For the hiatus before it, justified by the 
caesural pause, see § 27 b. 

570. &vd S6|ia: cf ava arparov 10, 53. — OipavU»vfs: like iirovpdvuM^ 
inhabitants of heaven: § 39 a. Contrast iirixOovun 266. 

571. ToCo%v : as 68. — The amusing figure of Hephaestus as butler is 
introduced in order to give a more cheerful character to the assembly of 
the gods, after the quarrel. 

572. *irl ^pMv : generally with a notion of hostility, as 89 ; ))ut here 
with ^pa, loving service. 

573. TA8i: here. See II. 695 a. — dyficrd: predicate; cf amcrxeo 586. 

574. ft 8^1 : if in truth now, as 61. — IviKa OvifrAv : with contempt. 

575. KoXf^v IXavvrrov : carry on a brawl. Cf B 212. — ScuTds : here first 
do we learn that the gods were feasting at this time ; but doubtless they 
always feasted when they came together. 

576. rd x<P<tov<^ kt\. : in such contrasts, the demonstrative and adjec- 
tive have the force of a relative clause; cf 106. The article strengthens 
the contrast. 

577. Kol a^TJ inp : with Homeric courtesy, the speaker intimates that 
his counsel is not needed. 578. a^ : i.e. as often before. 

579. «Hhr : construe with rapair}. — i\^lv : dative of disadvantage. 

580. ft inp: if only. — M^X^Qoav: the verb for emphasis here precedes its 
subject; see § 11 X: ; or 'OXvfwrios ktX.. can be taken as in apposition with 
the subject of €6fX.y(nv. — 'OXi>|iirios ktA. : this indicates his exalted power, 
although in 609 this expression is used without special reference to the 




f 



circumstances of the case. — &flrTfp<mT|T^ : for Zeus as god of the lightning 
and storm, see on B 146. 

581. The conclusion of the sentence is omitted (anxxruaTrrfO'is). "It 
will be the worse for us," or ** he can, /or," etc. Cf. 136. 

582. KoOdiTTfo^ai : always metaphorical, as here. Infinitive for the 
imperative, as 20, 323. 

583. The preceding infinitive represents a condition, hence no conjunc- 
tion is needed to connect the verses. Cf. 303. — tXaos : cf, [Aao-craficvoi 
100, 147. 

585. iv xnpX rCAft : placed in her hand; generally used of presenting a 
cup of wine. Iv xy^'' "rtdrjfu is used of gifts or prizes ; c/*. 441. 

587. |fc^: as in 28. — ^Cki\v tnp 4oW'av: very dear as thou art, v^p 
strengthens, as 352 and frequently. — 4v 6^6aX|iotoav : before my eyes, as 
r 306. Cf. r 169 ; see § 12 g. 

589. XP'^^^1'^^^ • ^ ^^^- — ApYoXios kt\. : personal construction as 546, 
apyaXw yap r eori Bw PponS av^l SafjSjvai 3 397 " it is hard for a god 
to be overcome by a mortal man." 

591. iro86t: for the genitive, see on 323. — dir6 pi|XoO ktX,.: from the 
mighty threshold of Olympus. 

592. mv S* ^tiop: equivalent to 'jmvrffi€puK 472; cf. 601. — ^p6|fci)v, 
icdinriTOv [xarcirccrov] : the imperfect is used of the continuance of the 
motion, the aorist marks the conclusion of it ; cf B 94 ff . — ^tp&^r\v : is 
frequently used of ships driven by the wind, and marks the motion as 
involuntary. — KaraS^vrt : the aorist participle is here used (without refer- 
ence to time as past, present, or future) of an act coincident with Kamrtatw 
at the beginning of 593. 

593*. h A^|fcv^ : for the dative of rest, cf 245 Hephaestus had his 

workshop on Olympus, but Lemnos was considered his island — a belief 
to which the mountain Mosychlus (then believed to be volcanic) seems to 
have given rise. — 0vti6s: anima. — At another time, apparently when an 
infant, Hephaestus was cast out of heaven by his mother, and saved by 
Thetis (2 395 ff .) . — Cf. * Nor was his name unheard or unador'd | In ancient 
Greece ; and in Ausonian land | Men calPd him Mulciber ; and how he 
fell I From heaven they fabled, thrown by angry Jove | Sheer o'er the 
crystal battlements; from mom | To noon he felli from noon to dewy 
eve, I A summer's day ; and with the wetting sun | Droi)t from the zenith 
like a falling star | On Lemnos, the Aegean isle,* Milttm Par. Lost i. 738 ff. 

594. SCmct &v6p€«: the earliest pojmlation of Lemnos. To judge from 
their name they were marauding (crivofjuu) Pelasgians who had emigrated 



irom lurace. — w^op* coiisu-ue witu TrccrovTO, c/. ♦:»•»». — KO|M«ruvTv; uw>t 
me up and cared for me. Cf. B 183, F 378. 

596. lutS^jo^M^: smiling^ inceptive, repeats the preceding fjuuBfrja-tV' — 
vcuS6t : from her son ; ablatival genitive, depending on ^3c£aro. Cf, KvireWw 
c8c^ro rfs dX6)(<HO Q 305 received the cup from his wife. — X<H>^ dative of 
instrument with ^8c^ro, cf Ao^cro ytfttrlv E 365 took in his hands. 

597. Mi^: from left to rights through the company, according to 
established custom. To pass to the left would be an act of ill omen. 
For the procedure, see on 471. 

598. olvox^^ i4KTap: cf. C^Pv) I'^icrap ii^voxxi A 3. The meaning of 
the first part of the compound was overlooked; cf. imroi fiovKoktoirro 
Y 221, obcoSofuw rdxoiy equum aedificant Verg. Aen. ii. 15, * tin 
box,' 'weekly journal.' — icpnTi^po t : the red nectar of the gods, like the 
wine of men, was mixed with water before it was drunk. — A^iov^tv: 
see on 471. 

599. iurfUmt : hence the proverbial * Homeric laughter.' 

600. S^itara: palace, hall The laughter arose because of the striking 

contrast between the puffing, hobbling Hephaestus as cupbearer, and the 
graceful Hebe who usually performed the duties of that office. 

601. -^itiap: accusative of duration of time, as 592. 602 = 468. 

603. o* |iiv [fwyv] : as 154, 163. — ^6p|UYyofi : cf fioXirrj r 6pxrj(rnk tc* 
ra yap r SanBrfpara ^to^ a 152 song and dance, for these are the accompani- 
ments of the feast. — Ix* [^X*] ' *^'^» *•*• played. 

604. d|uvp6|uvcu: the Muses sing alternately, one relieving the other, 
as the rhapsodes at the festivals. Cf incipe, Damoeta, tu deinde 
sequere, Menalca, | alternis dicetis; amant alterna Camenae 
Verg. Eel. iii. 59, * Divinely warbled voice | Answering the stringed noise,' 
Milton Christmas Hymn 96 f . 

605. a*TAp : correlative with /ACF 601 . T/. 51. 

606. KoicmCovTft : for the form as future of KarauK^ipai, see § 48 g 

fKoo^rot: in partitive apposition with oi, giving prominence to the indi- 
vidual, after the collective expression. Cf. B 775 and F 1 (where the 
plural is used). 

610. KOiffcaTo: was wont to lie. — Sri ktA.. : whenever, etc. The condi- 
tional relative sentence expresses indefinite frequency of past action. 
This iterative optative is more frequent after the relative pronoun than 
with the conjunction. 

611. KoOc^: slept dvap4t: of ascending a couch, only here and 

bpjov A.c;(09 da-avoiPaivoi 291. No special height of couch is to be 



J 



inferred irapd U: adverb, beiside him : § 55 a xf^'^^P^^^' see on 37. 

The throne was covered with thin plates of gold. 

< No Book of Homer is so full of dramatic groups and situations as 
this : Apollo striding with his bow and ringing quiver ; Thetis caressing 
the grieving and angry Achilles ; Thetis before Zeus, clasping his knees 
and extending her right hand toward his chin ; Zeus with his dark brows 
and ambrosial locks nodding a confirmation to his promise ; Chryses with 
his filleted scepter and his gifts, before the two sons of Atreus ; Odysseus 
ut the altar of Apollo with the maiden whom he is restoring to her aged 
father, — with his companions and the hecatomb ; Achilles in his rage 
drawing his sword from its sheath, calmed by Athena, who takes him by 
his long locks, — with Agamemnon before him and the other chiefs 
aroirnd him; the heralds of Agamemnon at the tent of Achilles, as 
Patroclus leads forth the fair Briseis ; Zeus and Hera on Olympus, with 
Hephaestus playing the part of Hebe ; the assembly of the gods, Apollo 
playing the lyre, and the singing Muses.' 



SECOND BOOK OF THE iLlAD 

Zeus prepares to fulfill his promise to Thetis (A 509 f ., 523) by sending 
a dream to Agamemnon. The intended battle, which is to be disastrous 
to the Achaeans, is delayed by a test of the disposition of the army ; the 
Greek and Trojan forces do not advance to meet each other until the close 

of the Book (780, 809 f .) The events narrated in B occupy the first part 

of the twenty-second day of the action of the Iliad. See §§ 6 6, 7 a. 

1. ^: so; refers to A 606-611. — Otol ktA.. : appositive with SXKm, 

2. vaw^tot: c/. A 472. — oix Ix* [«^X*] '^^' • **^' ^® ^^^ ^^^ sleep; cf, 
avSk noo-ct&utfva ycA.<i>9 c^e 344 <*but Poseidon did not laugh." 

3. ^plva ^: hiatus allowed at the < bucolic diaeresis'; see § 27 6. — «t : 
how ; sc. in accordance with his promise to Thetis. 

4. Tiffc^^ ktX. : see on A 559. * Deliberative subjunctive* after a 
secondary tense in the principal clause. The direct question would be 
irtoq Ti/iTO-o). — For the 'chiasmus,' see § 16 a. 

5. ^: this. The subject is attracted to the gender of PavKq^ the 
predicate; cf, 73, A 239. 

6. 'v^ifrai icrX, : in apposition with ^Sc. Cf, to fikv ovSe virrfr€v \ fJ^rfptm 
iitpvaxu Sopv E 065 f. ^^ Jie did not think of this — to draw the spear out of 



his thigh, — o«\ov dviipov : a banejul dream; a deceptive, illusory vision, 
instead of a kindly dream of warning. (/. (Zeis) Ifairar^ toi^ 'Ayo/i^x- 
voKi ovapov riva ijfevS^ iinirifjmlfas, &i ttoXXm tS>v *A;(atQ>v diroOavouy Lucian 
Jup, trag, 40. On the deceitful measures of Zeus, cf. A 64 ff., where Zeus 
sends Athena to the Trojan army in order to incite an archer to wound 
Menelaus and break a truce. — Homer elsewhere knows of no dream gods 
but only individual dreams; cf, A 63. Not all dreams were thought to be 
significant. 

7 = A 201. — For the two accusatives, one of the person (direct object) 
and the other of the thing (cognate accusative), cf. 59, 156, A 201. 

8. pdo-K tOt: up and go, a formula used by Zeus in addressing his mes- 
sengers. Cf vade age, nate, voca Zephyros Verg. Aen, iv. 223. For 
the asyndeton, cf A 99, 363. — oSXt : sc, for the Achaeans. 

10. lUJ^a: construe with iravro. — dyopcv^uv: as imperative ; cf A 20. 

11. idXcvc: note the lack of connectives — icd|n| K0|i6a»vTo«: a frequent 
epitliet of the Achaeans. Among them to cut the hair was a sign of 
mourning. Achilles' hair which he cuts off at the funeral pile of Patro- 
clus is called n^Xc^ooxra ^142 luxuriant^ and Athena attracts his attention 
by laying hold of his locks (A 197). Paris is proud of his hair (F 55). 
Apollo is aK€ptTtK6p.rfi Y 39 (Milton's < unshorn Apollo '). On archaic works 
of Greek art the men are always represented with long hair. See on 872. 
The Euboean Abantes are oinBtv Kopjomrrv: 542 ; i,e. their back hair only 
was long, their front hair was * banged ' (of course, no Chinese cue is to be 
thought of in their case). The Thracians are iKpoKopjoi A 533, with their 
hair bound in a knot on top of the head ; cf apud Suevos, usque ad 
canitiem, horrentem capillum retro sequuntur, ac saepe in 
ipso solo vertice religant Tac. Germ. 38. Thucydides (i. 6) says it was 
not long since the * gentlemen of the old school' had given up wearing their 
hair in a knot fastened by a golden cicada. The Spartans retained to a 
late period the custom of wearing long hair. Before the battle of Ther- 
mopylae, the Persian scout saw the Spartans combing their hair (Hdt. vii. . 
208), preparing for glorious victory or honorable death. Among the 
Hebrews, the long hair of Absalom is familiar to us. In the later clas- 
sical period, fashions changed. Only dandies wore long hair at Athens in 
the time of Aristophanes ; and in the post^ilassical period St. Paul could 
write to the Corinthians : ovSk -^ <^txri9 avr^ StSoo-xa v/xav ori &vrfp pkv lav 
KOfJL^ irLpM avrw iariy 1 Cor. xi. 14. 

12. vihf ictX.: transition to the direct construction. Cf 126, A 401. — 
irdXiv Tpdlttv: not as A 164. 



13. d|i^l« ^pd^omu: sc. about the destruction of Troy. For the cr of 
dfi<l^iSy see § 30 /. — •OX*|Mria kt\. : cf. 484, A 18. 

14. iirfyvc4fci|Mv : cf. A 569. This statement is intended only for Aga- 
memnon, not for the Dream. 

16. &fa : soj i.e. as had been directed. 17. Cf. A 12. 

19. dfiPpdoaos : only here, of sleep. — k^vto : had poured itself out, like 
an enveloping cloud ; cf. 41. 

20. ^vip Kt^aXf^ : every Homeric dream appears above the head and 
takes a familiar form. Cf (Iris) devolat, et supra caput astitit 
Verg. Aen. iv. 702 — Ni|Xi)(y vU : to the son of Neleus. The adjective is 
equivalent to a genitive; cf 54, 416, 46.5, 528, 604, V 180. — The Dream 
took this form in order not to terrify the king, and to persuade him most 
readily. Penelope is visited by a dream in the shape of her sister, and 
Nausicaa by one in the guise of a close friend. 

21. t6v ^: whoniy you know -^^P^^^*^^' ^^® nobles without regard to 

age formed a fiovXi^ (see 53). Cf the Spartan ycpovo-ca, senatus, aider- 
men. So * the elders of Moab ' (Numbers xxii. 7) are identical with * the 
princes of Moab ' (Numbers xxii. 8, 21). Cf hrffuoytpoirre: V 149. Achilles 
and Diomed were young in years. 

22. For the order of words, cf T 386. — i^Cv : construe with wpoatijxovet, 
Cf 795, r 389. 

23. Mtvg fcrA.. : the question implies a reproach, for which the reason 
is g^ven by a commonplace remark (24). (f nate dea, potes hoc sub 
casu ducere somnos? Verg. Aen. iv. 560. 

26. The change from the character of Nestor to that of a messenger 
from 2^us is suited to the nature of a dream. — A^M W : * paratactic,' 
instead of a causal clause; cf. A 200. (/. imperio lovis hue venio, 
qui classibus ignem | depulit, et caelo tandem miseratus ab 
alto est Verg. Aen. v. 726 f. 

27. o^O: depends on avtvStv, while the object of the verbs is easily 
supplied, ('f A 196. — The care and sympathy of Zeus are motives to 
prompt Agamemnon to a 8j>eedy execution of the command. 

28-32=11-15, with slight change. 

33. U A%A9 : with the passive, in the sense of inro Aio9, indicating Zeus 
as the source of the woe. (/. ^iXrfitv Ik Ato? 668 f. they were loved by Zeus. 
— Ix*' ^^^^ it fast, followed by a negative form of the same command; cf 
A 363. Dreams are easily forgotten. 

34. Mfui : cf 2, and Moore's * When sluml)er*s chain hath bound me.* 

35. Cf A 428. 



oo. ttva wfMiy ; inrouyn nuf nctiri, Kara vvfJUiv is Jiiuit; Lrc^uciit, as .rv xou, 

193 ; c/. dm (rrpaTov A 10, and Kara arparov A 318. — ^ : "as you know.** 

— o* 2|icXXov : were not about to be, were not fated to be. The plural verb is 
oft^n used in Homer with a neuter subject ; cf. 135, 465. § 19 k. 

37. +fj : i.e. thought, imagined ; cf. T 28. For the accent, cf. Prj A 34. 

— 8 "Yi ; emphasized in contrast with Zcvs 38. — ^^r\, KiCv<p : emphatic, 
on that very day. 

38. v^ios : blind fool, infatuated, an appositive exclamation. A stand- 
ing predicate of those who thoughtlessly and fearlessly enter on a course 
which ends in their ruin. Cf. 873. It is explained by the following 
clause; cf 112; see§liy. Cf. Vergil's d e m e n s ! qui nimbos et non 
imitabile fulmen . . . simularet Aen. vi. 590 f. — Sljrya: attracted into 
the relative clause. 

39. WjoTiiv Im: r/. A 509.— -yop: for the quantity, cf A 342.— In: 
i.e. before the capture of Troy. 

40. TpoicrC Ti kt\. : emphasizes the consequences of the fiovXtj Aios, 
disastrous alike to both armies. — Std jKryLlvas'. through the conflicts, "in 
the course of the battles." 

41. &|<^^vTO : surrounded him, " rang in his ears,** i.e. he remembered 
it well. ry. 19. afi<f>i seems to be used with reference to both ears. 

42. ItfTO : the heroes seem to have put on their tunics while sitting on 
the couch. — tvSwt kt\. : the Homeric heroes had no special night gear, 
but slept naked (or at least without their outer garments), like the 
Eskimos and lower-class Italians of to-day, and like the P2nglish of the 
Middle Ages. — Epic simplicity describes the most trifling acts; see § 11 c. 

43. KoXbv kt\. : where a noun is accompanied by three or more 
epithets, often two stand at the beginning of the next verse, as here. — 
^apos : this upper garment was put on when no armor was worn. The 
skin of some wild beast was sometimes worn in its st«ad (cf. T 17), serving 
in particular also as a light shield. The Homeric hero generally caiTied a 
lance, even on a peaceful journey, but Agamemnon here takes his sword, 
since he could not carry conveniently both lance and a-iajirTpov. The 
sword was little used in combat, but often worn. — P'or this description of 
Agamemnon's dress, see § 11 d. 

45. dfi^l pdXcTo : the sword hung, not from a belt but from a strap 
which passed over one shoulder. The aorist of 45 is not widely different 

from the imperfect of 43. Convenience here determined the choice 

&fa : then, further : cf 546, 615. — dfryvp^iiXov : the hilt is studded with silver 
nails, as a decoration ; cf A 219, 246* 



ever in the possession of the same family; c/*. 101 ff. It was a symbol of 
their unending rule. 

47. icarA vfjo* (cf, Kara Xaov 179, Kara arfxiTov A 318, vapa vfja^ A 347) : 
I.e. to the ayofyq, which was at the middle of the camp ; cf, A 54. — 'AxoiAv 
XaXKoxiT^vwv : used as genitive of cvicvi^fuSe? *A)(aioi 331. 

48. irpoo-tP^rro rrX. : i.e, illuminated the mountain of the gods on 
whose summit the first beams of light fell. Cf, 'Hcos S* ex Xexitov irap* 
dyawn) TtStoyoio | Sipvvff, Iv aOavarouri <^oa>9 <l>€f}Oi -q^ pporouriv A 1 f. 
Daum arose from her couch, from the side of the illustrious Tithonus, in order 
to bring light to immortals and to mortals, 

49. 4p^ovoxi: to herald, Cf. aarrjp , , , oi T€ pakurra lp\traL ayyeXAcov 
i^MJoq riciuq V 93 f . the star which comes as the herald of the morning light, 

50. h : i.e, Agamemnon. 

53. povXV 'Y«P^v«»v : council of the chiefs (* elders'; see on 21) who 
discussed important questions before presenting them to the popular 
assembly. Allusions to this council are found in 143, 194. Who consti- 
tuted it, is not clear ; probably not many, perhaps only six besides the 
Atridae; cf 404 ff. — |iryaO^|fcc»v : in plural elsewhere only as an epithet of 
peoples, as A 123. — Q^ : caused to hold a session, called a council. 

54. poo-iXfjos : in apposition with 'S&rropoi, which is implied in Nccr- 
TopcQ, See on 20. 

55. wKiv))v ktX. : prepared {formed) the prudent plan, which he after- 
wards unfolds. 

56. IWhnaov : cognate accusative, adverbial. It is equivalent to cv vTrvtp. 
For the compound, cf, €<^€crrtoi 125, evapiOfuo^ 202, cVix^oviot A 272. See 
H. 588. 

57. dfiPpoo-Citv : a standing epithet of night as a gift of the gods for 
the refreshment of man's nature, with reference to sleep. Cf xxu vwov 
Scopov cXovTO H 482 took the gift of sleep. — fUlXurra : strengthens ay\urra, 
cf 220. 

58. it8o« ktX.: cf. A 115. — &Yx^^^Ta' nearest, i.e. most exactly; marks the 
degree of resemblance. — ^cpKCiv: for the final v, see § 44 b, 

59. Cf 20. — |u, ^iAov: for the two accusatives, cf 7. 

60-70 = 23-33. Epic poetry prefers these verbal repetitions to the use 
of 'indirect discourse.' See § 11 e, 

71. ipx<^* AirowTAjuvos : few away. See on A 391. — dvi^icfv : as 34. Cf, 
nox Aeneam somnusque reliquit Verg. Aen, viii. 67. 

72. dXX' &YCTf : cf A 62. —at kcv kt\, : cf A 66. 




assured that the army was still ready for the fray. It had become demor- 
alized by the length of the war, by the pestilence, and by the quarrel and 
the withdrawal from service of Achilles. — 4^ M|u« irrlv : i,e, as the general 
has the right. For the attraction of the relative, cf. 5. 

74. Koi: introduces a more definite statement of rmpn^ofuu. Cf, 114, 
132, 251. — ^c^ryfiv kt\. : this proposition is intended to touch their sense 
of honor and rouse anew their martial zeal. vW 'A;(atQ>v is supplied from 
72 as the subject of ^cvyav and the object of the following iprfrvay. — vv¥ 
npio-C: c/. A170, 179. 

75. &XXo9fv &XXot: aliunde alius, from different sides, each from his 
own place, — lpi|Tvciv: seek to restrain from flight Cf 97. 

76 = A 68. — Agamemnon had risen to speak at 55, though this act is 
not mentioned as usual. 

77. T||ia96cvrot : here as an adjective of two endings ; cf 508, 561, 570, 
695, 742 ; see § 38 a. 78. Cf A 73. 

79. Conventional form of address to the princes. The corresponding 
address to the warriors is «u <^iAoc ^pio€s Aavoo^ Btpdwcvrtq *A/m/os 110. — 
|U8oms: rulers; cf "Idv/Scy fuhmv V 320 and the proper name Mc&nxra 
{^Medusa), equivalent to Kpaouau (^Creusd), which is feminine of Kpuwv, 
ruling prince, 

81. ^rd^Sdt Kfv ^t|Mv : sc. cTvot, u^e might have said (potential) that it (i.e, 
what the Dream promised) uxis a delusion; cf 349. — koI voo^i{o(|MOa : and 
might turn away, i.e, be on our guard against the Dream's questionable 
counsel to try a decisive battle at this time when the mightiest of the 
Achaeans held aloof from the fight. — |&aXXov: all the more; sc. since they 
could put no real confidence in the Dream's message. 

82. irOv W: asin A 354. — 4pio-ro« ktX. : as A 91; cf 197. 

83 = 72. — The answer of the generally loquacious Nestor is remark- 
ably brief. He gives courteous assent in the very words of the king, 
without saying a word about the proposition. 

85. hravimfrav: thereupon (i.e, likewise) rose. — mCOorro: i.e. they 
made no objection, but prepared to go to the popular assembly. — iroiiUvi 
XoMv: i.e. Agamemnon, as 243. 86. cKiprroOxot : see on A 15. 

87. iffirt : introduces a detailed comparison, as 455, T 3. See § 14. — 
SBvM : swarms. The following hiatus is probably * weak * ; § 27 rf. — dn : 
retains its force as a present, especially in comparisons; cf. F 61. See 
§ 48 ^. — luXunrdttv : i.e. wild bees which live in hollow trees and in holes 
in the rock. — For the comparison of bees, cf. ac veluti in pratis ubi 




cum I lilia fuDduntur; strepit omnis murmure campus Verg. 
Aen. vi. 707 ff., *as bees | In spring-time when the sun with Taurus 
rides, | Pour forth their populous youth about the hive | In clusters ; they 
among fresh dews and flowers | Fly to and fro ... So thick the airy crowd 
swarm'd,' Milton Par, Lost i. 768 ff. 

88. aiil Wov: ever anew, Cf, illae (bees) continuo saltus sil- 
vasque peragrant Verg. Georg, iv. 53. 

89. porpv86v: in clusters^ like bunches of grapes. C/I lentis uvam 
demittere ramis Verg. Georg, iv. 558 kw &vOco-iv: to the flowers, 

90. IvOa &Xit: for the hiatus, see §§ 27 N,B,, 32 a, 

91. &s : the point of comparison lies in the coming forth and approach 
in separate crowds (swarms), fiorpv^v 89 and iAa8ov 93 have the same 
position in the verse. 

92. irpoirdpoiOf : before^ i.e, along, — pa0cCi|f : deep bayed, extended, 

93. 6a-a-a: rumor, whose source is unknown, and which is therefore 
ascribed to the gods (Aio? ayyeXo9). — ScS^tv: had blazed forth as a fire. 

94. orpvvovo** Uvai: they conjectured that Agamemnon would propose 
some important measure. — &,y4poYro : they came together. The aorist after 
t]ie descriptive imperfects marks the conclusion of the movement. Cf, 99, 
A 592, r 78. 95. Wd : adverb, beneath. 

96. XoAv Vi6vtwv : genitive absolute. See § 19 g p, 

97. 4fW|Tvov : imperfect of * attempted action.* " They were trying to 
bring them to order." Cf 75. — fdrtfrf kt\, : a wish, on the part of the her- 
alds. " If ever they would stop their clamor." — dvH^s : ablatival genitive 
with o^ocaro, might cease from; cf 275, A 210, F 84. 

99. ip4\fnA€¥ : for the aorist, see on 94 ; for the plural with the collec- 
tive Aao«, cf 278. — koO* ISpos: along the rows of seats, on the seats, as 211. 
For the use of Kara, cf, 47, T 326. 

100. dvd : adverbial with tcrrq. Cf avicrrq 76. 

101. t6 |Uv : this, as A 234. — icd(u nvx^v : lorought with toil. The prin- 
cipal idea is in the participle, as A 168 and frequently. 

102 ff. SAKf : for the repetition, cf Ik A 436. 

104. '£p|u(a« kt\. : Hermes, the messenger of the gods, bore tlie 
a-Kfjirrpov from Zeus to Pelops, as a symliol of empire. The kingdom 
descended with the scepter. — irXi|t(inr^ : cf iTnrara, lirrro&ifjuoi. Pelops 
gained his kingdom by a chariot race. 

105. 6 a^ : for the hiatus, cf A 333 n^oi|r : in apposition with 6. 

See § 42 /. 



107. 6vio-ra : &v€<rrrp. For the form, see § 34 6. Thyestes was brother 
of Atreus. Homer evidently does not know the (later) story of the mutual 
hatred of the brothers that was the subject of tragedies by Sophocles and 
Euripides. The feud became proverbial as a chapter of unrivaled hoi^ 
rors. ^- XcCtrt ^of»f[vai : for the infinitive, cf, dvaxra-uv, below. 

108. iroXX^ci, iravrC: according to the poet's view of the situation at 
the time of the Trojan War (c/. A 78 f.) the Pelopidae had the hegemony 
in Peloponnesus. Agamemnon ruled over Achaea, Corinth, Sicyon, and 
part of Argolis; see 569 ff. — dvdovfiv: to rule over them. For the infini- 
tive, cf. imxtfrBax A 8, ayav A 338. 

109. rf : local ; cf. tL/jLouriv A 45. — 4pcurd|Mvos : not an attributive par- 
ticiple with o ye, but a predicate participle of manner. Cf. KOipaviiav 207. 

110. Cf. 79. — ecpdiroKm "Afwioi : see on A 176. Cf ofos "Api^ 540. ^ 
For this feigned exhortation, cf the speeches of Clearchus and his 
f/KcXcvoTOi, Xen. An. i. 3. 9 f. Agamemnon does not desire his argu- 
ments to be convincing. He reminds his men covertly of the promise of 
Zeus that they should capture Troy, and that nine years of the ten are 
already past ; he calls that man hwTKkhfi who returns to Argos with his 
end unattained, especially since they had remained so long before Ilios ; 
he exaggerates the disparity of numbers of Achaeans and Trojans. 

111. |ifya MbtfTt : fast entangled. Agamemnon in testing the temper 
of his army complains of his infatuation only as a pretense; in 114 he 
utters unconsciously the unpleasant truth, while in the Ninth Book he 
uses the same words in bitter earnest. 

112. vxfrXiot : terrible, cruel god. See on 38. — ^rwirjfjm ktK. : cf. 
A 514. 

113. ^KtHpo-avra : for the accusative, cf A 541. The participle here 
contains the leading thought ; they were to sack Troy before their return. 
Cf 101. — dirovifo^ku : always stands at the close of the verse, ¥dth length- 
ened initial syllable (§ 59 e). 

114. vihr ictX. : "but now I see that he planned," etc. — Avdnpr: the 
poet's hearer thought especially of the deceitful Dream, but this was not 

in Agamemnon's mind here xaC : introduces a specification of the 

general statement, as 74 KcXdMt : the speaker infers this direction from 

their lack of success. 

115. Svo-icXfa: emphatic position. The hiatus may be explained as 
* weak ' (§ 27 d), d losing half its quantity. — v6kv¥ ktK. : se. in battle and 
in the plague. 




U 



117. S^ : rfintji as 134 f ., A 40. — KaWXvo^ K^va : overthrew (he heads, ue, 
the citadels. Cf, Kafyqviov A 44. 

118. In Koi: hereafter also; cf. A 96. — toO rr A. : cf. rerum cui 
prima potestas Verg. Aen. x. 100. 

119. ^dp : refers to SixricXca 115. — riSc y^i "if anything is a disgrace, 
this is,** — Kal ktA. : even /of future (fenerations to learn, 

120. TOitfvSc Tocrd v Si : (an army) so brave and so many as toe here ; cf. 799, 
qualis quantusque Verg. Aen, iii. 641. 

121. &irf»|icTov : predicate ; cf, 452. — w6Xf|iov : cognate accusative. 

122. vavporipoun : cf, TpCk^ S* avff krifttuBev Ml irriikiv inrXx^ovro \ 
fnLvpir€poi, fUfiaaav Sk kgu w^ mt/uvi fidxeaOai | XP^^ dyayKouff, vpo re mlhtnv 
Kxu irpo ywojucatv 55 ff. but the Trojans armed themselves throughout Uie city ; 
fewer in number, but even thus they were eager to fight, of stem necessity, for 
their children and their tcives, — WXot #ctX. : no end has yet appeared, A fuller 
expression for airprtficTov, instead of " without attaining our end," " without 
gaining decisive victory." 

123. cC mp Ydp rrA. : in case we should wish, A concessive clause with 
potential optative and kc, of what is conditionally conceivable. — The 
thought is completed in 127, <* if we should take only one Trojan as cup> 
bearer for a squad of Achaeans." — ^dp : refers to mtvpor^ooco-i. 

124. (pKia ra|ik^vTft : the victim's throat was cut (F 292), hence 
opKta rapjuv was to make a solemn treaty, like foedus icere, ferire 
foedus. Cf r73, 94, 105, A 15.5. — &|i^: dual with reference to the 
two nations. 

125. TpAct |Uv : sc. k iOiXouv. — Xlfao^cu : collect themselves, — l^imoi 
ktX. : equivalent to oi vaiova-i Kara irrokiv 130. — lavo^ : the relative pro- 
noun follows the emphatic word, as A 32. 

126. SiaKoo>|a.T|Oit|uv : should he divided and arranged; cf dispone re. 
For the transition to the finite construction, see on A 401. For Koa'pufta oi 
marshaling troops, cf A 16. 

127. &v8pa : cf, 198. — iKoo^rot : i,e, each squad of ten; in apposition 
with 'Axoux. The plural is used because of the number in each company ; 

rf r 1. 

129. T^oiTov vXlat : according to 562 f., there were 60,000 Trojans 
and allies. For the numbers of the Achaeans, see on 494 ff. 

130. lirCicovpoi : predicate, as allies. Observe the contrast with TptSmv. 

131. itoXXImv Ik v6K(m¥ : construe with aySpcs. For the similarity of 
sound of the two words, see § 13 a tvtiaxv : are therein ; cf 803, 



xox. |wya VAO^owTi : anve me jar away^ i.e. niriuer my ai^uuning my ena. 
Of. A 59. For the adverbial use of fi^ya, see on A 78. — oix %Ukn : do not 
aUoWy i.e, prevent. — ^Xovra : concessive, in apite of my desire. 

134. Sf| pcpdcuTi : already have passed At^ ^vtavroC : see on A109 146. 

135. 8ovpa : timbers. For the form, sse § 23 //. — (nrdpra : ropes, cMes, 
of reeds or rushes. The ship's ropes in general were of oxhide ; a ship's 
cable at the home of Odysseus was made of papyrus. — X^Xwroi : plural 
verb with neuter subject, as 36, although Sovpa o-wnyirc has preceded. 

136. cl hi: hut those others, explained by oAoxot ktX. — W : correlative 
with K(Uj in free position, since •^fierepai dXoxoi are closely connected in 
thought with vqwia racya. 

137. ftarou [^ktou] iroTtSfy^uvcu : see on A 134. — iroriSfyiuvcu : feminine 
to agree with aXoxpi, who were more prominent before their minds than 
rcKva. 

138. afn*s : Attic o>aavr<i>9, i.e. simply, wholly (with dxpaavrov). See 
§42tf. 

139. ftiTM : for the subjunctive, cf. A 137. 140. ^^m^uv: cf. 74. 

141. o* In : belongs to the idea of expectation implied in the future. 
" We can no longer hope," " to capture Troy is no longer a possibility." 

142. Totoa : dative of interest. — This undesired impulse was called 
forth by the longing for home awakened by 134 ff. 

143. max lurd frkifivv : in apposition with roto-i, in contrast with the 
yipovrei who had been present at the council. The dative with puera 
would be regular. — rtktfiiv : " the rank and file " ; cf. 278, 488. 

144. iciWj0i| : cf. 95. — +^ : as, an obsolescent particle, distinguished by 
its accent from <f>TJ [€<f>rf\ . — idi|iaTa |Mucpd : long-stretching billows ; cf. 
longi fluctus Verg. Georg. iii. 200. 

145. vtJvTov 'IxapCoio : in apposition with da\ao-(n;9, as the part with the 
whole; cf. aKoirtX^ 396; see § 12/. The irovros is a particular tract of 
the BdXaa-fTa (see on A 350). The Tcarian high sea received its name from 
Icaria, a small island off Samos ; it was notorious for its frequent stomis. 
— rd |Uv: cf. 101, A 234. — E{»pas ti Noros n : thought of as united, as is 
shown by inai^aq. " A southeast wind." A single wind never raises a 
storm in Homer. Cf 019 S* avtpoi &vo irovrov opivtrov l)(BvofvTa \ 'Boppri% 
Kxu. Zc<^v/909, Tw T€ ©p^KtjOev orfTov Hi. as two winds rouse the fishy sea, 
Boreas and Zephyrus, which blow from Tlirace. 

146. ^SpofM [Sypa-t] : gnomic aorist, frequent in comparisons. § 14 f. — 
firaltaiB : rushing upon it. Cf (venti) incubuere marl ... una 
Eurusque Notusque ruunt Verg. i4en. i. 84. — Lw%\ he is ve<^i;ycpcra 



\ 



A 511. Zens sends rain, thiinder and lightning, wind and storm, snow, 
hail, meteors, and the rainbow. Cf, Aio$ hnavToi 134. 

147. 2^vpo« : this was a cold and stormy wind to the people of Aeolis 
and Ionia, for it came over the mountains of Thrace. It is called Sixmi/s, 
fierce-blowing ^ and xcAa&ivo?, loud roaring. It is never a gentle < zephyr * in 
Homer, unless perhaps in the fairyland Phaeacia and in Elysium — fkM : 
literally, deep, t.e. high IXO^v : see on i^v A 138. 

148. XdPpos liroi'yCt^'y • violently dashing upon it, Xafipoi is predicate; 

see § 56 a. — k«i n : and thereupon, i.e. as Zephyrus descends i||fc^ : sc. 

Xi/cov, an independent addition to the picture, without direct relation to 
the comparison ; cf. 210 ; see § 14 a. The construction of the dependent 

sentence is abandoned Cf. * With ported spears, as thick as when a 

field I Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends | Her bearded grove of 
ears, which way the wind | Sways them,* Milton Par. Lost iv. 980 ff. 

149. votr dYop)| iciWj0i| : a return to 144. — Both comparisons are meant 
to depict the whole scene. The first (144-146) describes the sudden con- 
fusion with which the assembly dispersed; the second (147-149), the 
uninterrupted rush in one direction, toward the ships. — AXoXifrf : dative 
of manner, in which sense a participle is often used. 

150. vf^ lir : i.e. iirl vvjaq. § 55 c )3. — ^ ioxTt^rro, Irraro, ic4Xfvov icrX. : 
descriptive imperfects, much like the historical present (which is not 
Homeric). — iro8«v 8* W^pOf : from under their feet. 

151. Irrar &fip#|Uvt) : literally, teas placing itself as it arose. 

152. IXk^^uv rrX. : cf Ipwra-ofuv ktX. A 141. 

153. oipoirs : the trenches, the later hXKoi, by which the ships were 
drawn from the sea upon the land, and from the land into the sea; cf 
A 308. — iff icdOoipov : some of the trenches had not been used for a long 
time and had become filled with sand. 

154. U|Uv«tv : subjective genitive with dvn/, not genitive absolute. § 19 ^. 
— W6 8* QMOv : they took out from under. This is the opposite of A 486. 

155. The leaders were so dazed by the sudden and disorderly breaking 
up of the assembly and by the rush to the boats of the shouting mass of 
men, that they were unable to carry out the plan of Agamemnon. The 
intervention of a friendly god became necessary in order to cut the knot 
of difficulty. 156 f. C/. A 195. 

158. o^TM 8^ fcrA.. : thus as it seems, etc. An expression of vexation or 
surprise, in interrogative form. Cf. A 202. 

159. 'ApY*^ ' emphatic. — lir cipla vAra kt\. : over the broad hack of 
the sea. The water at rest seems to be the top of an arch. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 66 

160. tM Bk jcrX. : virtually a conclusion to the condition implied in 
158 f. << If they should thus flee, then they would," etc, — cix*^^^ - <^ o 
triumphj a boast ; predicate with "EXcn/v. For the construction, cf, V 50. 

161. 'Af^i|v: standing epithet of Helen; cf, ornatus Argivae 
Helen ae Verg. Aen, i. 650. The word here has considerable emphasis, 
placed at the head of the verse like 'ApydtN, above. 

162. TpoC^i («c. 7^) : the Troad, as 237, T 74. — diro' : cf, A 562. 

164. coCt d^avoCt ktA. : with thy winning words. For the short form of 
the dative, see § 35 d. — For the * asyndeton,' cf. 10. — ^pA^im : cf. 75. 

165. la : sc. 'Axoious, from the preceding verses. 

166. oM' dvCOi|(ri : cf A 220. 

167. Cf. A 44. — dttaora : starting up, « with a rush." 168 = 17. 

169. 'OSvo-fja : Odysseus was the special favorite of Athena whose care 
alone secured his return to his home after his long wanderings. 

170. irr tA ra [loroira] : Odysseus was not carried along by the rout, 
and the agora was nearest his own ships (see on A 54). — vq^: t.e. his 
own ship. — |MXaCvi)f : cf. A 300. The ships of Odysseus are called 
luXroiraprgioi (vermilion-cheeked^ in 637. 

171. Odysseus with this feeling was the right man for Athena's work. 
— |fcCv : < limit of motion ' with Lcavev, cf. A 254. — icpa8Ci)v : accusative of 
the part, in apposition with /uV, cf. A 362. 172. wpovi^ : sc. fuv. 

173. This verse is found seven times in the //mu/, fifteen times in the 
Odyssey. It is the only conventional verse in which no caesura occurs in 
the third foot (§ 58 c). — SmyiWs : Arceisias, father of Laertes and grand- 
father of Odysseus, was son of Zeus, according to a later myth. But this 
epithet is applied in a general way to princes. See on A 176. 

174-181. Cf. 158-165. 

175. 4v WJiovi wMrovTft: marking the disorderly flight. This is a 
standing combination of expressions for motion and rest. See on A 245. 

179. |M|84 T ipdfi : and draw not back, do not rest. 

181. vf^as : for the length of the last syllable, see § 59 /. 

182. &tnk : object of ^ci/kc, while Om is a limiting genitive. This 
indicates that Odysseus did not see Athena. 

183. M ^ ^^v '• ^^ »^^ out to run ; cf A 34. — dir6 kt\. : sc. in his haste, 
since it hindered him in running. 

184. Eipvpdnit : described (r 244-248) as slightly older than Odysseus 
himself, with round shoulders, dark complexion, and curly hair. — The 
herald here, as usual, serves as the prince's personal attendant. 

185. drrCoff : for the construction, cf. A 535. 



186 f . Cf, 45 f . — 8l|ar^ ol : literally, took for him^ recehetl from him, 

as a sign that he acted in the name of Agamemnon varpdkov: see 

103 £f. 

188. 6v Tiva |jiv : correlative with ov S' a? 198 poo^f|a kt\, : prince 

or noble who had not been present at the council of the ^Oerontes.* — 
KiXiCi) : iterative optative, with 6v riva, cf 215. 

189. tAv 8c kt\, : apodosis to the hypothetical 6y riva. For 8e in apod- 
osis, cf 32l> ; see § 21 «.— d^avolt: cf 164, 180. 

190. Sai|iovu : the connection decides whether this is used in a respect- 
ful, a pitying, or a reproving tone; cf 200. — kok&v &s: for the length of 
the ultima of koxov, cf opviOd^ w? 704, T 2, 00, 230. See §§ 14 e, 59 f 
When this ioq follows the word to which it belongs, it is accented. For 

the comparative u)9, cf 209, 289, 326 xoicdv: coward, icaxos and dya^o9 

have no moral quality in Homer. They are useless and useful, according 
to the circumstances of the case ; here, kokov is useless in war. 

191. &XXovs Xooifs : Xaoik is virtually in apposition with aXXous. See 
§ 12 y. The others, namehj the soldiers. 

192. For the *sigmatism/ cf. A 179 f. — o>4^: Attic aa^$, which is 
not found in Homer. See § 56 h, c. — V&99 : miud^ purpose. 

193. mtpaTcu: cf. 73. — t«|rcTat: cf A 454. 

194. 4v povX j : construe with otov ccittcv. — oi irdvTft dKO^»o^4uv: the 
speaker politely includes himself with the persons addressed, as in 342. 
The first person is used in a different tone in 203. 

195. |4^ Ti: lest perchance. Cf. A 28. — xo^wo'^vos : cf. A 387, T 413. 
— KOKhv wlat: for the two accusatives after pefiy* cf T 351, 354. 

196. <Ki|i^ 8c |ifya9 : terrible (> the anger. For the length of the 3^ see 
§ 59 A. 

197. Ti|4i| kt\.: "he is king dei gratia: the rest must obey." Cf 205; 
see on A 176. 

198. S^iMv &v8pa: the common people are contrasted with the nobles of 
188. The ultima of 8^/jjov remains long; see § .j9 k. 

199. cidjirrp^ : Odysseus uses the staff in a similar way at 265 f. 

200. &Kovi: gice ear. Present as a general injunction, "be obedient." 

201. aio: not enclitic, since there is a contrast in the comparison. — 
^^pTipot: cf. A 281. — <rv 8c: closely connected with the relative clause, 
since <rv repeats cca The English idiom prefers the subordinate construc- 
tion, "while thou art." ia-aC is to be supplied. 

202. 4vaf>(0|iu>9 : counted^ not a mere cipher. Cf in numero nullo 
Cic. de Or. iii. 56. 213.^ — ^ovX j : as A 2.58; not in its technical meaning 



of council. Here again appears the frequent contrast of stren] 
and of mind ; cf, A 258. 

203. o^ |Uv V99 jcrX. : a drastic form of expression, suited 
mon soldier. « Agamemnon commands here, the rest of us mi 

204. For the 'asyndeton/ c/. A 117. — o^ d^oOov : as a pi 
stantive (not a good thing). C/. tr is te lupus stab ul is Verg. 
— tit ktX. : 'asyndeton ' of contrast. See § 15 c. 

205. I8c»m : granted ; sc. jSourcAcvav, implied in jSourcAcvs (u 
read). 

206. a'^(a% i for tJiem. 'A;(ouoc from 203 is before the mind, 

208. Cf. 86, 91. 

209. T|xfiv ^* ^^^ ^h® hiatus justified by the pause, c/. 211 ; 
for the hiatus allowed after the first foot, see on A 333. — 
^XiTco-oa A 157. — The second < hemistich ' as A 34. 

210. alYioX^ pp^firnu : roars on the shore. — o'ltopayct kt\. 
with the previous clause (§ 16 a); * paratactically ' (§21 a] 
result. « So that the high sea resounds from the noise of the 

211. Ilorro, ify^TvOiv : for the hiatus, cf. 216, 315. — koA' IS|i 

212. Sfpo-Cnif : from $€paoi, the Aeolic form of ddpa-o^, dan 
Observe that the poet does not say from what country of Gree 
came, and thus offends no one by the episode. — Thersites mal; 
odious by his advocacy of it. The vulgar demagogue was inti 
poet to awaken antipathy, and thus is represented to be just 
able and deformed in body as in character. The Greeks alwaj 
a beautiful soul with a beautiful person. — ' In Thersites we li 
He was the incarnate spirit of criticism in the army befc 
IMihros : made emphatic by its position before the caesura. F«i 
see § 23 d. — d|MrpociHit : predicate. Cf. 246 ; contrast F 21 : 
equivalent to #coA<pov rjXawt, cf. A 575. 

213. ftt ta ktX.: a more explicit statement of Afurpoeir \ 
{Si| : literally, knew disorderly things, had a disorderly mind. 

214. 4pit^|icvai : the result of oKoa-fm ktX. ; cf ^xttrOai A ^ , 

215. dXX' txi fcrX. : contrasted with fcara Koa-fwvj while c/ 1 
plies the idea of saying. He was an insolent clown. — cCo-* i 
lent to Soieu. For the optative in a conditional relative i 
188, 198, A 610. See H. 914 B; G. 1431. 

216. abrxiVTot : predicate. " He was the ugliest man wh« 
cf. 673, A 266. — \nr6 IXiow: up under Ilios, i.e. under tlie %c\ 
cf. 249, 492, 673. 



217. TJ^ 84 pi 6|Mt : «tho6e two shoulders of his." 

218. KvprA, avrox«Mc^: in contrast with a broad-shouldered, heroic 
form. — ffwo x *" *^ ' a^rAp : the hiatus is justified by the bucolic diaeresis ; 
§§ 27 b, 58 h, — (i«ip0iv : as contrasted with ^oXicof icrX. 

219. ihSv)| fcrk. : t.e. his misshapen, sugar-loaf head was not concealed 
by the thick locks of the icdpi^ KOfsjotavrt^ 'A;(auK^ but was covered only by 
sparse hair. 

220. Ix^ivTot: cf. A 176. — 'AxiX% 'OSwri^i: Achilles and Odysseus 
represented the two cardinal virtues of the heroes, bravery and prudence, 
in which qualities Thersites was lacking. — li^tXiara : potissimum. Con- 
strue with ixl^urT09, cf, 57. 

221. vMCfCfow : was wont to upbraid, contrasted with t6t aZrt. — 'A^yofU- 
livovi: against Agamemnon ; dative of interest. 

222. hlfftSk micXiiYd&f : with discordant cry, — X^' mCSfa: rehearsed (enu- 
merated) reproaches. Xryciv in Homer is never strictly equivalent to dvuv. 
— Thersites accused the king of covetousness, sensuality, cowardice, injus- 
tice. — r^ : t.e. Agamemnon, at whom the Achaeans were then angry, so 
that Thersites felt sure of the applause of his audience. 

223. KoriovTo: imperfect to express a continued state of feeling, while 
yyiiirxnfify refers to the occasion of their anger. Cf. A 331. 

225-242. Speech of Thersites. This assumes a knowledge of Aga- 
memnon's real intention to continue the war. Such knowledge might 
have been gained from the words of Odysseus. 

225. 'ArpttSi| : Thersites gives him no title of honor, but this was not 
necessary; see 284, A 17. — t<o [tivo?, tov] : for what. For the genitive, 
see on A 65. — S^ oU^ : cf, A 340. — Instead of inquiring the purpose of 
Agamemnon, Thersites attributes to the king the most selfish motives 
(implying that he continues the war only for his own private advantage), 
and alludes maliciously to the quarrel with Achilles. — *' What dost thou 
lack? Hast thou not enough?'' These are * rhetorical questions.^ 

227. ivl KXio-(Dt : in your quarters, — IgoifMTOi : explained by the follow- 
ing relative clause. Cf. ovXofihnjy A 2, kokjjv A 10. 

228. SCSofuv : are wont to give, with a conditional relative sentence ; cf, 
A 654. For the thought, see on A 124. — Thersites reckons himself 
among the brave warriors. — vroXCiOpov : as A 164. 

229. ^ In kt\. : surely, etc, Thersites answers ironically the question 
which he himself had put. Cf A 203. — In xal xpvo^^ : gold also as well 
as copper and slaves. Gold was rare in Greece before the Persian wars, 
but was abundant in Asia Minor. Schliemann, however, has found 



treaaures of gold ornaments not only at Hissarlik (which see 
Bite of the ancient lUos) but also at Mycenae. — ki oCvn : see 

230. &voiva : as ransom, in apposition with ov. 

231. Sv jcrX. : wham I shall take captive and lead, etc. ; boast 

232. ywaStok Wi|v : t.^. such as Chryseis or Briseis. Th 
seems to be caused by attraction to the construction of the pi 
tive clause ; or voBuiq may be in the speaker's mind, — a tho 
on from iviScvtai. 

233. ^¥ Tf KarCo^ccu : relative clause with the subjunctive ii 
cf, r 287. — a*TAt dwovbo+i : for thyself alone. 

234. iifx6¥ Urra ktX, : that one who is a leader, etc, i.e. tha 
their leader. — kokmv Impoo-ic^uv : bring into misfortune. Tl 
refers to the pestilence and the alienation of Achilles. 

235. ircirovB: "my good fellows." This word is gener 
an elder or superior, either in an affectionate tone, or (f 
tone of contemptuous superiority, as here. — xdic' IXfyx**^- 
personal sense, coward caitiffs, — 'AxcuCScs ictA. : cf o vere 
neque enim Phryges Verg. Aen. ix. 617. For the <pat] 

§39(7. 

236. oCkoM mp : homeward, at all events, — a^ vi|vo-C : as A 
cf oS* dviyp A 287. — iAfjufv: i.e. leave behind. 

237. airod : right here, explained as usual by the followin 
often stands, as here, at the beginning of ar verse ;• cf 332. — -y 
i.e. learn and suffer the consequences of his greed. 

238. Ii KoX 4|}uCf ktA. : whether we, too (the rank and file of th 
are of use to him or not. As if Agamemnon in his pride trust( 
might and to that of the other leaders, despising the rest, w 
help he can do nothing. — For the *crasi8* (x^fMi)^ see § 
o^C: cf. 300, 349. The speaker presents the alternatives 
still implies a choice between them. 

239. Ik: exclamatory, he who. — xal vihr: see on A 109. 
duces an example of Agamemnon's failure to recognize otl 
— lo: for the length of the last syllable before fi, see § 59 h. 

240 = A 356, 507. — Thersites, who was wont to speak i 
Achilles (221), now plays the part of his advocate (and i 
words) in order to attack Agamemnon in a sensitive spot; 
duces a fling at Achilles into the next verse. 

241. i&AX' ote X^^ • '^* ^^^ ^^^ anger at all. — |M^|i«v : p 
Achilles as subject. Cf luSifuv xoAov A 283. 24 



244. Sfpo-Cnit : strongly contrasted with 'OSixroreus by its position 

T^: for the dative of rest with irapurraro, cf, 175. 

245. ^voSpa : as A 148 — x*^^**'^ I^^V • ^^ opposite of i.fkvwi 164. 

246. &icpiT^|fcv6t : iliou endless babbler; cf. 212, 796. For the opposite, 
cf, r 214. — ViY^ trip k&in cf. A 248. Sarcastic recognition of his ability. 
Plutarch calls attention to the fact that Nestor does not refer to Thersites' 
physical ugliness. 

247. Cirx<o : as A 214. — |fci|8* MiXf : cf, A 277. 

248. oi : construe with ^fu. 

249. Sovoi: i.e. of all who. The relative clause represents a genitive. 

250. rf o^ &v ktX, : therefore (since thou art the basest of all) shall 
(shouldst) thou not. See on A 301. The speaker returns to the admo- 
nition of 247. — poo^i|o« : for the plural, cf F 49. — dvd o^|ia : i.e. on 
your lips. 

251. Koi: as in 74. — o^Cv: for the dative, cf. *Ayafi€fivovi 221. — 
v^o-Tov ^vX4ovxH« : guard the return, which now threatened (as it were) to 
escape them. 

252. oM ri vw ktX. : but not at all clearly yet. — 8vi»t icrX. : how these 
matters here (of which they are speaking) shall end. This verse is explained 
by the following. — Ipy^: cf A 518. 

253. vov<H)o^|atv : we shall return. A brief expression for « shall enter 
upon our return, with good or evil fortune." 254. t^: as 250. 

255. 4(oxu : rf<r$(u with a participle often has no thought of contrast of 
position (as sitting to standing), but denotes a continuance in the action 
of the participle ; cf. A 134. The verb is the more noteworthy here since 
Thersites is not sitting (cf. 268). 

256. 4ipmn : observe the contrast with av. — KfprofUMv : cf. A 539. 

257. Cf A 204, 212. Formula to introduce a sharp tlireat. 

258. In : again. — &9 v^ tnp &8c : a< / did just now. — Construe v€p 
with o>s. 

259. |fci|icM rrX.: apodosis in the form of an imprecation. «May 
destruction come upon me and my house." — 'OSvcH^: more impressive 
than the personal pronoun ifjuoL Cf. A 240. 

260. iciicXi)|iivQ« cCi)v : being is included in being called; cf. A 293. Thus 
this prayer includes the ruin of Telemachus. 

261. ft |fc)| kt\. : this sentence contains two clauses, connected by ficK, 
Sij preceded by ere Xafttav, which is common to both clauses and which 
gives to avrov 263 its personal reference. — XoP^v : see on Itav A 138. — 
dvd S^M : strip off, followed by two accusatives. 



262. rd Tf : combines the objects. Whatsoever coven thy nakedness. — 
This would be the most bitter disgrace. 

263. aiTc»v : thyself; the man in contrast with his clothing ; cf. A 47. 

264. inirXipf«*t ictX. : flogging thee away from the place of assembly, 
wiwkrjyio^ like KtKXrfytoi 222, rerpiyiaTai 814, does not imply past time. 
See H. 849. — dciic^avk : a standing epithet of blows. 

265. a^dprrptf . . . vXf|{fv : i.e, he gave him a heavy blow over the back 
from one shoulder to the other, as a foretaste of the harder beating which 
would follow if he continued his insolence. 

266. Ikvioii : escaped him, against his will. 

268. o' K iprrpov 5iro : repeats viro of i(v7rav€XTTrj. — IJrro : evidently Ther- 
sites was not seated at 25.5 ; cf 211 f. 

269. dXT^^rot: seized by pain ; cf cSeurcv A 33. 

270. Kol dxvi»|uvoC trip: they still sympathized with Thersites; they had 
not entirely recovered from their ijomesickness. — ifi^ y&Mrvav : burst into 
a hearty laugh, which quieted their excitement ; cf A 599. 

271. rCt : represents public opinion tSAv : not of an action prior to 

that of the principal verb, but coincident with it. Casting a glance. — 
vXtfriov: as substantive. — &XXov: as 191. 

272. & vtfiroi : the interjection which expressed sorrow in A 254 here 
expresses pleased surprise. Its meaning in each case is determined by the 
connection. — ^ Wj : verily before now, contrasted with vw 8c 274 — lofrycv : 
the perfect marks the character of Odysseus as shown in the past, while 
Ipeiev 274 refers to the single act ; just as in English, « he has done, etc., 
but he never did a better thing." 

273. 4£dfixwv : flrst suggesting, proposing. 

274. ii^Y* &pio"rov : predicate to ra8c the object. *< This is far the best 
thing that," etc. ; cf 216. The difference between this and ox apurrov {cf 
A 69) is simply metrical ; see § 22 e — lpi(iv : for the single p after the 
augment, see § 43 c. 

275. St kt\. : relative clause with causal force, since he. — t^ X»Pi|Tf^ 
4vfo-poXov : for the order of words, cf A 340 — lox« • checked, equivalent 
to hravo'tV' Coincident with Ipc^cv 274 ; cf the explanation of ra3e Ipya 
252 by the following verse. — dyopdctv : speeches before the people ; cf 788, 
For the genitive, cf Avrrj^ 97. 

276. If a conjunction had been used here, it would have had the force 
of so, therefore. — o1{ Otiv : hardly, I think. Orfv is ironical here, like Attic 
Si/irov. — irdXkv a^Snt : literally, back again, again, anew. iraXw marks a 
return to the same point ; c/l A 116. Cf. ievT€poy a^c? A 513. 



i 



278. 4\ vXi|9^: the crowd there; with plaral as collectiTe. Cf. 99. — 
dvd %im\ : shows that Odysseus resumed his seat after chastising Thersites. 
Cf. 76. — «ToXCvop0ot: a general title of honor. The same epithet is 
applied to Achilles. In the Odyssey^ it is given only to Odysseus. 

279. vopd: adverb, by hig side. 

281. d|ia Ti: the position of re is free; cf. A 417. It seems to be 
intended here to unite the two verbs, and properly has its place after the 
first of the ideas which it connects. It is the more remarkable here since 
a combination with re koi follows. — ol vpArot kt\. : i.e. the most remote as 
well as the nearest. 283. Cf. A 73. 

284. 'ArpttSi|: Odysseus turns first to the king whose authority has 
been challenged. He now defends the king's purpose directly, as he had 
defended it indirectly in his address to Thersites. He then opposes the 
motives for return which had been advanced. 

285. voo^v ppoToto-iv : literally, for qfl mortals, in the eyes of all men. — 
iMfjfyrr^ ' most disgraced. For its formation from iXeyX'^i ^f* ly^wron 
(from IxBoi) A 176. — M|uvai : make. Cf 319, l^cv A 2. 

286. 9M TOi icrX.: <* since they do not.*' — ((v tnp vvirrav: which they 
surely promised (see 339) or the very promise that they made; see on 318. 

287. iv6d8f tcrk. : as they were still coming^ ** as they were on their way 
to Troy." — "Apywt: t.«. Peloponnesus; cf. A 30. For the epithet, cf. 
aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas Hor. Carm. i. 7. 9. 

288 = 113. — UwipawmLi o-c is subject, supplied from rot, above. — 
dvov^Mr^cu: in apposition with vtrotrxeaiv. 

289. ^ : in truth, as 229, 242, 272. 

290. dXX^jXoioav: with each other, to each other. — hSi^orrai: mournfully 
they long; with pregnant force, followed by the infinitive. Cf. A 22. 

291. ^ |ii|v Kal fcrX. : concessive and excusing. ** Our trouble has been 
enough to make a man return to his home." The other side of the pic- 
ture is introduced in 297 by oAAa kcu liurrp. As a wise orator, Odysseus 
concedes that Uieir longing for home is natural (many a man is home- 
sick after a single month away from his family), but he emphasises 
the motives for continuing the struggle. — dvit)MvTa: agrees with rtya 

implied as the subject of the infinitive Wiv^cu: for the infinitive, cf. 

fmxea-Ocu A 8. 

292. Kol Iva: even a single. This introduces an inference a minori 
ad mains. — tCsti: many a one. — dW: cf 162, A 562. 

293. t¥ mp : refers to w re. 

294. clXIftioav : for the mode, cf A 554. — ^voplni : when it is excited. 



i 



295. 4||fc£v |U|ii^vTiavi [fuftvoixri] : for us remaining here. ** We have 
been here nearly nine years." For the case, cf, A 250 — inpvTp€m4mv : ef. 
551, volventibus annis Verg. Aen, i. 234, Yolvendis mensibus ib, 
269. — Nine years seem to have passed at 134. 

297. BtU even in spite of all that, it is a shame to return unsuccessful. 

298. Si|p&v icrX. : equiyalent to ^/qplav fuivavra Ktv€ov vuxtBoju — mWv : 
empty, i,e. empty^anded, without the booty gained from sacked Troy. Cf 
the words of Agamemnon, when after Menelaus has been wounded he 
supposes some Trojan to say: koI ^ Ifiri oucovSe ^i\rp^ cs rraTpiSa, yauiv \ <rvv 
Kuvja-w (empty) vrpxri A 180. 

299 ft, Cf Cicero's translation: Ferte viri, et duros animo tole- 
rate labores, I auguris ut nostri Calchantis fata queamus| 
scire ratosne habeant an vanos pectoris orsus, etc, de Div. ii. 30. 

299. For the * asyndeton,' cf 276. — lirl xpovov : for a time, 

300. Ii krm&¥ : whether in truth. For ^, ^e, cf 238 ; see § 20 b, 

301. To8f : refers to 303 ff., and thus to 308 ff. 

302. ffc^ : as hypothetical. This is the only instance in Homer of fiij 

with the indicative in a conditional relative clause. Cf 143 Ipav 

^Ipovom : see on A 391 . 

303. x^^ 1^ K<^ vp«Mtd : proverbial of an event still well remembered. 
For re kol, see § 21 ^. — AiXCSa : a Boeotian harbor on the Euripus, oppo- 
site Chalcis in Euboea, where the Achaean forces gathered, in order to set 
sail together for Troy. See § 5 a. This place and the muster of the 
troops there received greater prominence in the later stories of this Trojan 
expedition. 

304. T|Yip<Oarr o : descriptive imperfect. Cf A 25. 

305. 4|}uCf U : independent sentence, explaining St€ icrX. 303. — &|i^l 
mpt : on both sides around, round about. Such a spring is still shown at 
Aulis. — Kard p«*|&o^ : see on A 318. The numerous altars of the differ- 
ent tribes occupied considerable space. Evidently the Greeks had no 
temple there, or it would have been mentioned. As in the earliest times 
of their religion, the woods were their temples. See on A 39. 

307. irXaTavUrry: the plane tree was highly valued by the orientals. 
It often shades springs and streams. A fragment of this tree was shown 
ai a holy relic in the temple of Artemis, in the time of Hadrian. 

308. Ma : then ; repeats the idea of yfiiia. rt icrX. 303. — SpdxMv : < apposi- 
tive asyndeton.' Cf 145. — 8a^iv^ : all blood red, 

310. Pi*|io9 ^vatfobt : darting from under the altar. — ^ : points back to 
ct yof) S^ ro8e Z^ficv. 



311. Hjvia TtKva : tender brood (Jledghngs) ; cj. fitirrjp 313 of the mother 
bird. The terms of human relationship are used of birds and beasts. 

312. ^■auiwin ft m : crouched under. 

313. Utr^ : part of the wonder, since sparrows generally lay only four 
or five eggs. The numbers receive prominence, since the interpretation of 
the omen rests only on the equal number of sparrows and years of war. 
Cf. Pharaoh^s dream with its seven fat kine for seven years of plenty, and 
seven lean kine for seven years of famine, Gen, xli. — |i^p, ^ rim : for 
the <epexegesis,* see § 12 «. 

314. IXiiivd : cognate accusative, adverbial with rcrptyctfTus. — TrrpiYArog : 
for the tense, see on 264. 

315. &|i^tvoTdTo 68vpo|Uvi|: for the hiatus, cf, 211. — Wkvo: object 
of the finite verb. 

316. <XiXi{d(uvo« : coiling itself, in order thus to strike the bird with 
greater force — irWptryot : for the genitive, c/. yowiav A 407. — &|i^taxvSav : 
repeats concisely the verb and participle of 315. 

317. Kord t^yt : #cara is used as in icanjaOu 314, icaraicauo. 

318. dpq;i)Xov : neuter adjective as substantive. Cf, 204. The adjective 
is in the predicate after ^#ccv. Made this (serpent) to be something very 

clear, i.e. a sign from the gods ftt inp : the same god who, — l^vcv : 

equivalent to ^#ce ^oaxrSe 309. 

319. >JSuok¥y6u^ ^v'lli^mx Tnade it a stone, turned it to stone, (?/. fit lapis 
et servat serpenti^s imagine saxum Ovid Met, xii. 23. 

320. otov Mx0i) : what had happened; exclamation giving the con- 
tents and reason of OavfjiAiofjusv* 

321. Scivd vlXavpa : dire portents, i,e, the serpent with its deeds and its 
petrifaction. — cto^Ot : here followed by an accusative. 

322. Cf. A 109. 323. &vfY kyivw^ : became mute, 

324. {iiitv : emphatic. — to8c : object, with T€pai fitya as predicate. 

325. ^i|u>v o^iWXco^rov : for the repetition, see § 12 d; for the < asynde- 
ton,* see § 15. — 8av kXIos : because of the fulfillment of the prophecy. 

327 = 313. — This verse is repeated, since the numeral adjectives are 
most important for the interpretation of the omen. 

328. aMi : t.e. before Ilios, like avroO 237. 

329. T^ScKdry : on that tenth, « then, in the tenth year " ; the article calls 
attention to this as the decisive year. Cf, Ma fjutv civoere? ToXjquiofuv 
vZcs *A)(ajmv, \ r<p ScKar<p Sk woXjv TlpiAfiov ircpoavrcs l^riiiJfv \ wjcaJU avv 
vrjeo'tn i 240 f. there for nine years we Sons of the A chaeans fought, biU on the 
tenth we sacked the city of Priam, and set out for home with our ships. 




oox. oyi : as imerjeciiion, wii^u lae piurai ; see on a. oz. 

332. &VTV : t.tf. the voXjlv of 329. The poet's choice bet 
words is often determined by the convenience of his verse ; § 

333. d|i4^ S) jcrX. : so that the ships resounded, etc. ; * para 
to express result; parenthetical, as A 10, F 134, 410. hm 
refers not to *Axauav 334 but to 'A/yyetbt 333. 

334. diw^vriiv ktX, : from the shout, etc. For the genitive, s* 

335. Iirouv^ams : adds the reason for the shout. — '08i 
standing verse-close; see § 12 b. 8tbs 'OSvcnreus (244) a 
nominative. 

336. Kol : cdsoy with reference to the preceding speakers. - 
called from the Messenian town where Nestor was bred and *< 
place of refuge when Heracles sacked Pylos. 

337. dyopdoo^ : with lengthened initial vowel ; see § 
reproach, though addressed to all the Greeks, is directed 
those who sympathize with Thersites in his longing to rel 
speaks more vehemently than Odysseus, who had prepared 
arguments-. — For the brief comparison, see § 14 (/. 

338. voXcifc^ia lpY« : < periphrasis ' for iroXc/ios. § 16 J. 

339. vg S^ p^^oTTOi: a rhetorical question. «What wi 
compacts if no one thinks of keeping them?" — oiivOfo-Coi ti 
compacts sworn at sacrifices, here referring to the solemn saci 
Hence Dido says: non ego cum Danais Troianam 
gentem | Aulide iuravi Verg. Aen. iv. 425 f. Odysseus 
an inrotrxea-vs (286). — V^v : ethical dative. «Our agreement 

340. h mipl icrX. : ironical wish in his indignation, 
thrown into the flames, as worthless." — h mipC: c/*. E 21 
archer Pandarus, in vexation, vows to break his bow and 
the fire, as useless. 

341. o^irovSol &Kpi|TOk : libations to the gods with unmixed 
T 270), although no wine was drunk unmixed with water, 
pledges given by the right hand. See on Scicari; A 54. 

342. a^hiMt : without change, vainly; cf, 138. It is expla 
follows. — ffcibC^ • ^^y ^f ^^^^fi ^' from this contest of wor« 
deeds and the conquest of Troy. 

344. 'Atp<1Si|, o^ 8^ : as a 282. — Irt : construe with apx 
future as in the past." — lx«v ktX. : holding firmly to thy deten 
capture Troy. Here begins the direct exhortation to Agame 
again with decision the reins of his authority. 



of KOI, cf. 303, A 128, F 363. Nestor depreciates the number of the rene- 
gades and mentions no names. — 'AxcuAv : partitive genitive with rot. 

347. v6a^i¥ PovXcicM-i : '^plan apart from ns, separating their cause 
from ours, like Thersites." — &vuo-it . . . airAv : parenthetical, connected 
with the preceding by the contrast between PavXcvwn and anxri^. — 
airAv : neuter, of the plans (fiovXjtvfmra) implied in )3ouXciWt. 

348. wplv Uvw : depends on /SouAcuoxTt. — Awfe : by * prolepsis ' (cf. 
dBfX^ov 409) connected with yvai/Acwu and supplied in thought for 

349. ft Tf, ft Tf : indirect questions, as A 65. — koI o^kC : cf, 238. 

350. ^|U : maintain, assert. — o^ : at all events. This particle is not 
frequent in Homer. It occurs about sixty times in the Iliad and Odyssey. 

— Karavt^axu : intransitive, gave a promise. See on A 514. 

351. l)|iaTi T^ &TC : closely connected, as a standing formula, as 743. — 
vipio-lv h ipcuvov : cf, 510, 619, h Tpoirp^ Avafi^fiOKu a 210 embark and set 
saiiybr Troy, 

352. 'AfryfSoi : for the position, see § 11 j, — ^povrts : cf, 304. 

353. Ao^rpdvTwv : as if ori KaT€V€va'e KpoyCutv had preceded. This change 
of construction is caused by the intervening 351 f. A more violent 
* anacoluthon * is F 211. — iinS^ta : on our righty i,e, on the propitious side. 

— ^vwv : interpretation of Aarpdirrwv. For the * chiastic ' order of words, 
cf, A 443, 558 f . 

355. wplv kt\, : i,e, before the capture of Troy, — but with special 
reference to the booty. The women and children of a captured city 
were treated as slaves, the men were killed. -r- nvA : in a collective 
sense, referring to each individual, as is also Tpiotav dXox<^' 

356. rCoiM^ai: < chiastic' with KaToxoifirjOrjvcu, with which it is coin- 
cident. The Trojans shall be repaid, like for like. — "EX^inig ^pii^o*'*^ 
ktX, : the longings and sighs of Helen, i,e, those which she felt and uttered. 
The poet attributes to Nestor a knowledge of Helen's repentance (see on 
r 173) and earnest longing to return to Greece (see F 139 f.). Paris is 
everywhere in Homer held chiefly responsible for Helen's fault, although 
she followed him willingly. She is always attractive in Homer. Vergil 
{Aen. vi. 611 ff.) represents her in a much more unpleasant light. 

358. 4vWo^ ^ vi|6s : cf, 171. In a threatening tone. "Only let him 
prepare to depart ! Instead of returning as he wishes, before the rest, he 
will find death here, before the rest." For the imperative, cf A 302. 

— lvcnriX|iOio kt\. : as 170. 



359. ^pa: in order that. This was the natural conse 
expected. — OdvaTov : sc, as punishment. — vffr|AOv : ef, y^ *! 
crcNfios S 96 after thou hast killed Hector, death is ready for thee 

360. &vci(: Nestor turns to Agamemnon. — vifOio r ftXXi 
leading thought, as is shown by what follows, while cS fu/Scc 
344 f . « As thou must plan wisely thyself, so also follow anotl 

361. dWpXi|Tov : for the final syllable, long by position 
consonant, see § 59 y. 

362. Kptvf : separate, i.e. place in position separately, ac 
^fiXa : distributive, by tribes, the principal division of each < 
c/. 668. For this use of Kara, cf A 487. — Kard ^f»4jrpa« 
which the separate families belonged. — Cf, < According U 
. . . according to the families thereof ; and the family wh 
shall take shall come by households,* Joshua vii. 14. — Tl 
gests such a catalogue as follows (484 ff.). — This separatioi 
into divisions might have been expected early in the war. 

is the beginning of the war, so far as the hearer is concerned 

363. ^fW^rpi) icrX. : equivalent to dXXrjXoK, 

365. ftt Tf XoAtr : sc, irjat. The clause is relative, not inte: 

366. Kord a-^wt : by themselves separately. Cf. A 271. 

367. i\ Kol Btmriq: whether thou hast failed not simp! 
the inefficiency of the army, but also by decree of the gods. 
to 111 ff. — dXavdffis: future, since the success of this met 
appear until in the future. 

368. ^ : or only, as the English idiom requires, to corresponc 

370. ^ |idv : strong asseveration, in very truth. — aJw : agi 
before." Agamemnon's praise is for Nestor's whole speech. 

371. This appeal to the three chief divinities is made 
ardent wishes. Generally, as here, fulfillment of the wish is 
Cf. dux ille Graeciae nusquam optat ut Aia< 
habeat decem, sed ut Nestoris; quod si sibi ace 
dubitat quin brevi sit Troia peritura Cicero de Sen. 

374. X9^iv ^wo : for inro with the dative, in its transition 
instrumental sense, see § 19 t. — dXo€o-a : aorist, to mark t) 
the city as the decisive moment, while vtpffofiivrj refers to 
of the work of destruction ; </. A 331. 

375. Kpov(St|$ Zt6t : closely connected ; cf. A 602. — The 
immediately follow seem inconsistent with the confidem 
expressed in 412 ff. — For the complaint, r/". 111. 



376. Ss : as 275. — |MTd : into the midst of; cf, A 222, 423. — dirp^itrovt : 
cf. 121. — pdXXn : casts, is wont to entangle in, 

377. fiaxti^rdiMOa : cf, c/k& ivyerjK€ im\€XTOax A 8. — cfviKa Kovfn)t : here 
marks the insignificant occasion of the quarrel. 

378. '^iPX^v: construe with the participle x9>jnnJiim¥: i.e. the 

quarrel. 

379. Is Y< F^^^ f^^' • '^* fiov^V^i f^f' ^uu 341. Agree in counsel, the 
opposite of afi<l>U <l>pdi€a'dat, cf. 1^. 

381. Sctirvov : the principal meal of the day, no matter when it is 
taken. See § 17. The warriors would have no more food until night. 
A considerable part of the day had passed during the events narrated since 
48. — (wd^Miicv "Afnia : i.e. begin the sharp contest; see on 426. Cf. 440, 
A 8, r 70, committere proelium. 

382. tC« : collective. — ^ i the repetition is rhetorical ; cf. Ik A 436 ff. 
— Cf. * Arm, warriors, arm for fight ! ... let each | His adamantine coat 
gird well, and each | Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed shield,' Milton 
Par. Lost vi. 537 ff. 

384. ftpiuiTot Afi^^ ' construe with iScov, looking carefully about his 
chariot, to see that all was in good condition. The principal idea is in the 
participle, not in the finite verb. See § 21 t. 

385. travi||fc/piOk : as A472.— «s Kpivd&i&cOa : that we mag measure our 
strength. — omrytpf "Afn^i : dative of interest, i.e. in dread battle. 

386. lafWo'OTrcu : shall be between^ sc. the conflicts. 

387. |Uvo« dvSp«0v : for the periphrasis, cf. 851, F 105. See § 16 d. 

388. TfO [rtvos, ro^f] : many a one's. The strap of the shield ran over 
the left shoulder and under the right arm. The shield was so heavy that 
it needed support from the body as well as from the arm. 

389. x<^ • "'^Z accusative of specification. — KoiuCroi : sc. rU from 

TCV. 

391. Cf. A 549. — Wkovra : inclined, ready. — voi^tt : perceive. 

392. (iifivdlfiv : object of iSiXovra. A collateral form of ficvu}, fUfivu}, 
§ 37 a. — o* : by no means; emphatic at the head of the clause, to contrast 
the following thought with the coward's expectation. — ot : personal pro- 
noun instead of a demonstrative after the conditional relative sentence. 
Cf. A 218. 

393. Kvvas kt\. : see on A 4. — " Nothing shall save him from death." 

394. MS fixf : introduces a comparison, as A 462. § 14 e. 5c. iaxjy. — 
Cf < He scarce had finished when such murmur filled | Th* assembly, as 
when hollow rocks retain | The sound of blust'ring winds, which all night 




long I tiaa rousea ine sea, eic. sauvou jrar, l,osi ii. ^o=k u. ; ' xie enaea, 
and the heavenly audience loud | Sung Hallelujah as the sound of seas/ 
ib, X. 641 f . ; * He said, and as the sound of waters deep, | Hoarse murmur 
echoed to his words applause/ ib, v. 872 f. 

396. KiWjoTi : for the subjunctive, cf, A 80. 5c. icOfui as object. 

396. o-KoircXtp: locative, in partitive apposition with okt^. Cf. 145. 
— KbyxkTSL dWfiaiv : i,e, waves roused by the winds. Cf. cXxcc vBpov 723, 
^o^w" kfyrjoi 767, vinxTov AmJ? i 411 disease sent by Zeus. 

397. &r &v ^^vwvrcu : sc, avcftoc. This explains iravroiW, but the whole 
sentence is a picturesque decoration of the comparison. See § 14 a. — 
M* i| Ivea : in this direction or in that; cf 90, 462, 476, 812. 

398. ^ovTo : they hastened away. — xard vi^ : cf 47. 




A SACRIFICE 



400. Ipftc: for the imperfect, cf a4>iu A 25. — etdw ktX. : cf A 290. 
Each of the tribes offered sacrifices to its national god. 

402. UpciNTiv: sc. as he prepared a feast for the ^Gerontes.* Kings 
generally sacrificed to Zeus, as their patron. See on A 176. — *XyfMj^^imv : 
in apposition with 6. See § 42 /. 



403. imriWnipov : i.e. full-grown. This age was approved for beef and 
pork. An ox was the most honored victim. — Kpoviitvi: dative of inter- 
est, in his hotior, with Itpevo'ey. 

404. TipovTot: see on yepoimov 21. The following seem to be the 
members of the povXrj of 53. 

405. vftAna-ra : Nestor has the first place in the regard of Agamemnon. 
See 20, 371 ff. Idomeneus has a high place; cf. A 145. Idomeneus is 
also a great friend of Menelaus ; cf. T 232. 

406. TvS^os vlov: i.e. Diomed, king of Argos. See on 567. 

408. ubro^Tot : Menelaus needed no invitation, holding a special rela- 
tion. — poT|v dYotfos : this epithet is applied often to Menelaus. § 12 6. 

409. dScX^ov : the subject of the subordinate clause is taken by antici- 
pation (H. 878) as the object of the principal clause ; cf. 348, « I know 
thee who thou art/ 5/. LtiLe iv. 34. — «*t lirovftTo : how busy he teas in pre- 
paring for the feast and the battle. 

410. inplmfrav : second aorist ; cf. A 448 oiXox^rot kt\. : as A 449. 

412. Zci) ktA. : equivalent to Jupiter Optimus Maximus The 

different attributes are given without conjunctions; see § 15 a. — The 
elated tone of the prayer results from the king's infatuation by the dream ; 

cf. 37 ff mXcuvf^s : since the god appears in the dark thundercloud. — 

ctiecpi : cf. A 44, 195. 

413. M : construe with Swot, sc. upon the battle. — iirl xW^ot IXOttv : 
cf A 475. — The infinitives depend on So? implied in the invocation. The 
optative follows in 418. — For the wish, cf. Joshua's words: *Sun, stand 
thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou. Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And 
the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged 
themselves upon their enemies,* Joshua x. 12 f. 

414. irf»T|v^ : proleptic predicate after Kara fiaXtuv. Cf. par/aXiov 417, 
aXuujTov 420. 

416. ciUkiX^v : the ceiling timbers were blackened by the smoke from 
the fires and torches, for which no adequate outlet was provided. — vpfjo^u ; 
construe with the genitive. — Oiprrpa : i.e. the double door which with its 
decorations formed a principal ornament of the palace. 

416. 'EicTopiov: equivalent to TEicro/oos. See on 20. 

417. x^^i^l^* bronze, i.e. stoord; cf. 578, A 236. — dfi^* afrrrfv : about him- 
self, as the chief personage. 

418. o8d( icrX. : bite the dust, in the last convulsive agony of death ; cf. 

humum semel ore momordit Verg. Aen. xi. 418 o6d(: equivalent 

to rots oSowriv. CfirviT 237 with the fist, Xfl^ Z 65 with the foot. 



419. iwiKpoCoiVf : cf, A 455. Coincident in time with 1^ 

420. SlitTo : second aorist ; cf, UxOtu A 23. Zeus gave n< 
pleasure, hence it was inferred that he accepted the saqrific 
i,e. he gave them greater labor of war instead of giving the 
39 f. 

421^24 = A 458-461. 425. 

426. *H^CoTOio : ue. blazing fire. The god is put for 
Cy, *A/ot;s for wokefMcq 381 ; 'A/i^ir/Kn; for 6aXjuT<ra fi 97 ; 
ifxasx^^^ 9 Vulcanura spargere tectis Verg. Aen, vii. ' 

427^32 = A 464-469. 433. ToSt 

435. |fci|icfri jcrX. : no longer now let us talk here for a long > 
wished to prevent the conversation that generally followed 
agreed with Agamemnon (381 if.) in calling for action. 

436. d|iPaXXd&|ifOa: cf. Avafikqa^K ^S0,-—^: noer. — Otdt: 
fyyvoXCIii: gives into our hands, sc, in so far as the Dream 
immediate preparation for battle. 

437. &yi : here only in Homer with third person imperati' 
equivalent to " bid the heralds/' etc, — idjinNCff : i.e. Agameii 
442.' — 'Axoidv : construe with Xaw, as 163. 

439. 4||u€i : i.e. the princes who are named in 405 ff. — d6p<i 
bled as we are. 

440. 0a4rvov: the quicker, ^kytlpa^v kt\. : cf. 381. Cf 
sleeping sword of war,' Shakspere Henry the Fifth, i. 2. 22. 

442-444. cy. 50-^2., 442. airCictt :* asyndetic ' : 

445. ol 8' dfi^' 'ATp«ti»va: *< the son of Atreus and the ol 
Cf r 146. See H. 791, 3 ; G. 1202, 3. 

446. Kp(voms : following Nestor's advice (362) . — lurd I 
them, as 477 — Athena is unseen. So Apollo leads the Tr< i 
eifjL€ViK Sifwuv v€^\rpf O 308 with a cloud wrapped about his i I 
on A 198. — 'A0^ : sc. &vvt, which is taken up by Stccroim) ! 

447. atyiSa : as goddess of war (see on A 206), Athena wes 
Zeus, apparently as a light shield. The aegis was a symbol c I 
cloud, just as the Gorgon's head upon it (E 741) represente i 
storm. This is worn by Athena regularly in works of art.— 
explanatory of ipCrifiov. Ayi^paxK is always associated b} 
dOdvaroi, and elsewhere in the poems is used only of persons 
gold and silver dogs that guard the palace of the king of tl 

448. Tf)«: from which. Construe with rf€p€$ovT(u — The ) • 
of a divine and unchanging quality. 



449. iwXiictftt : evidently the art of drawing gold into thin threads was 
known in the Homeric period. — iKardiiPoios : cattle formed the standard 
of value in those times. Coined money was unknown. 

451. kv: construe with c^/xrcv. 

452. KopSCn: cf. Ovfjuf A 24. Kop^rf is found in Homer only in this 
verse, elsewhere Kpa&itf, asl71; see §31. 

455-483. See § 14 c. 

455. fjfirt: as 87. — Ao^vrrov : 8c. in extent. This is essential for the 
comparison, since the extent of the fire b a condition of its brightness as 
seen at a distance. 

456. IxoOtv : from afar^ where the poet chooses his station with the men 
who are looking on. 

457. t6v : of these ; limits \aXKOv. — 4pxo|Uv«»v:' (u they were going forth. 
— Ocor«fo>Coio : sc, because of the throng. 

458. 8i al6f pot : i.e. reaches through the aether to the home of the 
gods. See on A 44. 

459. T&¥ : prepares the way for the leading clause. It is taken up by 
TWK 464, as ro&s 474 is taken up by rov^ 476. — lOvta : cf 87. 

460. x^^^ • ^^^ specializing of opviOiav forms a concrete picture, of 
which the definite local designation forms a part. § 12/. Cranes were 
only birds of passage in Greece. Cf T 4. — iciiicvwv: cf ceu quondam 
nivei liquida inter nubila cycni Verg. Aen. vii. 699. 

461. 'Ao-C^ : for the use of the adjective, cf iv Xa/juuvi liKOfuavSpu^ 
467, Asia prata Verg. Georg, i. 383, quales sub nubibus atris | 
Strymoniae dant signa grues Verg ^«n. x. 264 f. — From this plain 
of Lydia south of Mt. Tmolus, the name of Asia spread to the Persian 
Empire and finally over the whole continent ; just as * Europe ' at first was 
only the Boeotian plain. 

462. Iv6a ktA. : to this side or to that ; cfS97. — dToXXofuva ktA. : literally, 
delighting with their wings, i.e. mth joyous play of their wings. 

463. KXa*fyv|8^v irpoKoOitorrwv : settling (forward ) with loud cries, referring 
to opviBinv 459. The flocks with incessant noise fly on again and again to 
settle in another spot, and the last birds to reach the ground take their 
places in front of the rest. — o-iuipaTcC St : for the * parataxis,' see on 
210. 464 = 91. N 

465. inSCov : i.e. the plain between the camp and the city. — irpoxcovro : 
cf * Saw what numbers numberless | The city gates outpour'd, light-arm'd 
troops,' etc., Milton Par. Regained iii. 310 f. — <nr6'. adverb, explained by 
the following ablatival genitive ito&iif. 




466. aMhr icrX. : of both themselves and their horses ; cf. 762. 
iroSuv. 

467 f. The third comparison is closely connected with th 
— Ivrav : halted, stopped, as they came to the field of battl 
aorist, cf, 94. 

468. &f»Q : in the season, i,e. in spring. 

460. tii»Tf ktX. : protasis to rwfroi ktA. 472. The verb is 
in the first member of a comparison. — (ividttv : the fiy has el 
the character of an impudent, eager insect. — dSiv^Mv lOvta : 
< Or as a swarm of flies in vintage time, | About the wine 
sweet must is pour'd, | Beat off, returns as oft with humr 
Milton Par, Regained iv. 15. 

470. voi|&W)iov : the Homeric Greeks did not use the mill 
i|Xdo'Kov0av : always hover about, 

471. Sn ktX. : explains SifyQ iv dapiv^. Clearly the Hor 
did not expect to have milk through the entire year. — r{ : mi 
connection of the clauses. See § 21 6. 

472. hr\ Tp&tavi : to battle against the Trojans, lirl is he 
the dative, implying hostility. Cf A 382. 

473. tsrravTo : were taking their positions, — Siop p a fa rot : sc, 1 

474. irXarfa : standing epithet, broad, wide feeding, i.e. 
they feed ; in contrast with * huddling ' sheep. — aliroXoi &vSp« 
av&pC r 170, ficfvKri^iopov av&pa B 24, ^pvyas dvcpas T 185, dv&f 
avSpes aTpartmrajL, dvSpes dBeX<f>oi Acts xxiii. 1. 

475. SiOKpCvcMTiv : subjunctive of a general supposition; 
vo|if : dative of place. — fuyc mo%v : sc. alwoXm aiyfov as su 
comparison implies common pastures, not held in severalty/ 

476. SuKoo-iuov : cf, iuucoafiriOdfjuey 126, &a Tpi)(a KoaprfifVi 

477. Uvoi : for the infinitive, cf paxyrdax A 8. — lurd : adv 

478. All ktX. : Agamemnon combines the majesty of Z 
grace of Ares. These characteristics of the gods seem k 
hearers from works of art. Cf V 167 ff. Homeric compar 
with gods do not generally specify a particular feature. — ( 
a grace was seated on this brow ; | Hyperion's curls ; the 1 
himself ; | An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ; | ^ 
the herald Mercury | . . . A combination and a form inc 
every god did seem to set his seal,' Shakspere Hamlet iii. 

479. For the < chiasmus,' cf. A 443, 558 f. See § 1 
waist. 



480. PoOt : made more definite by its appositive ravpoq, Cf. 460 i^Ta : 

far; cf, A 78. — IvXrro: gnomic aorist, frequent in comparisons; cf, A 418. 

481. Y^ Ti: always connected, like nam que. 

482. Tofov: such a one; sums up the characteristics which have been 
mentioned. In spite of 419, Zeus sustains the royal honor which he him- 
self had granted (see on A 176). 

483. Imrpcv^a: in appotiiion with tcXov. — Ifoxov: elsewhere followed 
by the genitive. 

The Catalogue of the Ships. 

484. Solemn invocation of the Muses where a faithful memory is 
needed for telling the story, or where the theme taxes the poet's powers. 
Cf, ^[c(& $€d A 1, dvipa /mh Iwcttc fujwra a 1, pandite nunc Helicona, 
deae, cantusque movete, | . . . et meministis enim, divae, et 
memorare potestis; | ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur 
aura Verg. Aen. vii. 641, 645 f. — For the repetition of the invocation, 
cf < Descend from Heaven, Urania,' Milton Par, Lost vii. 1. — vOv: now, 
closely connecting what follows with the advance of the Achaeans that has 
been described (455-483). — lioOo-ou : plural, as 594. Homer does not know 
the name of any Muse, and has their number as nine only in <o 60. The 
earlier number seems to have been three, — the same as of the Fates, 
Graces, Hours, etc. The Muses could not be assigned to different arts and 
sciences before the arts and sciences existed. — 'OXi»|iiria : the earliest 
home of the Muses seems to have been on the slopes of Mt. Olympus ; they 
were thence caUed Pierian (Verg. Eel. viii. 63) ; Hesiod transferred them 
to Boeotia, and calls them Heliconian, — For the rhyme between the words 
before the caesura and the close of the verse, see § 13 a. — For this Cata- 
logue of forces, cf Joshua xv-xix. Numbers xxvi, Hesiod *s Theogony^ 
Vergil's Aeneid vii. 641-817, and Milton's list of fallen angels (Par, 
Lost i. 392-521). 

485. irdpfo^ri : «c. waxriv from iravra, — This verse and the next follow- 
ing are parenthetical. — Cf * Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy 
view, I Nor the deep tract of Hell,' etc, Milton Par, Lost i. 27. 

486. 'f||utt : we bards, — kXIos : report, " what people say," in contrast 
with iBfjucy, — dKoi^o|uv : we hear, i.e, we have heard, as in English. 

487. C/. 760. 

488. itXtiO^: as 143. — &v ^xA^o^joi: for the mode, cf, A 139. 

489. oM' cl : not even if, — Cf non ego cuncta meis amplecti 
versibus opto, | non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque 




centum, | ferrea vox Verg. Georg. ii. 42 f., Aen, vi. 
infragilis, pectus mihi firmius aere, | pluraque ci 
pluribus ora forent Ovid Trist. i. 5. 53 f. 

490. xQmiw¥1 epithet of strength and firmness — ^irop: i. 

491 f. This thought is hard to reconcile with the pre© 
notes the physical impossibility of rehearsing the names of so 
titude. — 'OXvf&mdStt : not a true patronymic here, but a mer< 
connection ; cf, Ovpavuovt^ A 570. The Muses are 'OXv/iiria 
am 484. See § 39 a. -- Ai^ kt\. : cf. 598, ^ca [fixnxm] oir/an 
The mother, according to the later myth, was Mnemosyne (Ai 

492. ^v^OXiov: see on 216. 

493. This verse promises something different from 487. 

in contrast with vXrfivv ^SS irpoirAco*: all together; as tl 

a statement of the number of the ships to the names of t] 
each people. 

494 ff. The Catalogue seems to have been prepared for a 
the mustering of the Greeks at Aulis and the embarkatiot 
509 f.), and to have been inserted here with divers alterations, 
here an account of the forces, not of the ships. 

The nations, their leaders, and the number of their sh: 
merated in a definite geographical order, in three principal 
(a) The mainland of Greece south of Thermopylae; (6) 
southern Greece with the islands immediately adjoining. I 
tingents. (-194-644.) II. Insular Greece, from Crete to Caly 
contingents. (645-680.) III. Thessalian Greece, from M 
Mt. Othrys on the south, to Olympus on the north. Nine 
(681-759.) See § 7 rf. 

The Achaean ships number in aD 1186. The number of 
ship is stated for only two contingents: each Boeotian ship 
men (510); each of the ships of Philoctetes brought 50 
The ships of Achilles also brought each 50 men (II 170). 
average of the two numbers given for the Boeotians and 
Philoctetes, the ancients reckoned the whole number of Ach 
Troy as 100,000. Others reckoned the ships roundly as 15 
100 men to each ship, and estimated the whole number of 
120,000. 

The Greeks valued this list highly, because of its geogi 
statistical information. They looked upon it as a part o 
versified geography and gazetteer. They appealed to it to se 



questions, and the charge of interpolating verses in it was like a charge of 
falsifying public records. 

The poet evidently desires to represent this expedition as a. great 
national undertaking. He enumerates even those nations which from 
their inland position were not likely to have had anything to do with such 
a war, e.g. the Arcadians (603-614), who are not mentioned in the rest of 
the Iliad as taking part in the battles on the plain of Troy. The poet 
does not seem to exalt one nation at the expense of another, either here 
or in the other parts of the Iliad, A bard wandering from country 
to country would acquire a wealth of geographical information, but would 
form no strong local attachments. 

'EIAAa9 and the^EAAi/vef in this Catalogue are restricted to a part of 
Thessaly (683 f.). The Dorians and lonians are not mentioned. Xo Greek 
colonies are known, whether in Asia Minor, in Sicily and the West, or 
elsewhere. The names Peloponnesus, Attica, Eleusis, Megara, Delphi, 
Olympia, and Pisa do not appear. Thus this Catalogue seems to have 
been composed before the Dorian migration into Peloponnesus, aud the 
sending forth of colonies to Asia Minor and the West. 

494-558. Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Euboeay Athens, Salamui. The enu- 
meration proceeds northerly from Boeotia, then to the east, then south- 
ward, and so to the west, around Boeotia. Seven contingents; 262 
ships. 

The poet begins with Boeotia, probably because the fleet collected 
at Aulis (303). Because of this beginning, the ancients gave the name 
BoKorta or Bouurcui to the Catalogue of the ships. 

494-510. Boeotia, This document presents a distribution of the Greeks 
such as existed after the Trojan War. According to Thucydides (i. 12), 
the Boeotians lived in Thessaly until sixty years after the fall of Troy. 
See on 507. More towns are mentioned in Boeotia than elsewhere, which 
seems to indicate a Boeotian poet The Thebans are not prominent in 
the action of the Iliad,. and Thebes is not mentioned; see on 505. 

494 f. |Uv: correlative with 8c 511. — The five leaders are all men- 
tioned elsewhere. 

496. ot Tf : refers to Boio>ra>v, resumed in tcov 509. — 'Ypt^iv: not far 
from Tanagra and Aulis. — Ai\(Sa : where the Achaean forces gathered 
before setting sail for Troy; see on 339. 

498. S^oTWMiv [©ccnrias] : without a conjunction to connect it with the 
preceding, in order to mark the beginning of a new series, as 501 f., 560 f ., 
647» 739. — For the singular, see § 37 (/. — Thespiae and Platea were the 



only Boeotian cities to refuse tribute of < earth and water ' t 
cip^xopov: generally of cities (with broad squares for the chor 
here. Even now in Greece the Tillagers assemble on the pubi 
their dances. — Frequently in this Catalogue are three sul 
placed in a verse that but one has an adjective, and this adjec 
noun fills the second half of the verse. Cf, 497, 502, 532, 5 
647, 739, etc, — MvKaXi)Tordv : on the road from Thebes to Chi 
499. &|4l 4W|iovTo : dwelt about, inhabited, Cf, 521, 574, I 
— 'Api&a: here Amphiaraus (the chief hero of the expedi 
Seven-gated Thebes) and his chariot sank into the earth. 

502. K^hras: this town gave its name to the lake on whi 
OCo^v : Shakspere's * Thisbe ' was named for the nymph of tl 

503. voii^cvra: here feminine, an adjective of two endings 

504. rXCo-avra: at the foot of Mt. Hypatus, where the d( 
between the Kpigoni and the Thebans was said to have been : 

505. 'Yiro0^pat: Lower Thebes, which lay on the plain; i 
from Seven-gated Thebes with the Cadmean citadel which w 
in the second Argive invasion by Diomed and his associates, 2 
seem to have been rebuilt in the Homeric time. 

506. &Xo^t: in apposition with 'Oyx>7<rrov, cf 592, 696. 

507. "Apniv: to be distinguished from the Thessalian 
same name, which was the old home of the Boeotians and 
town its name. 

509. Wfs kCov : cf, V70S lavayfi A 482. >— 4v 8i Mtrr^ PaCvov : 
sailing, sc, from Aulis. See on 494 ff. 

510. PaCvov: cf, 351, 611, 619. — kaT^v kt\,: probably i 
large number. 

511. 'Opxo|uv((v: the rich capital of the famous empire of 
called Mivvccov in distinction from the Arcadian city (6( 
renowned for its worship of the Graces, who were said to ha 
worshiped there. Both Orchomenus and Aspledon (a sma 
near Lake Copals, on the left bank of the Boeotian Cephisus 
on the fertile plain of Boeotia. The realm of the Minyae did 
Boeotian until later. 

512. 4px<: singular, although two personal subjects folio 
650, 830, 842, 844, 858, 862, 876. See H. 607. The secor 
many cases seems to be added as an afterthought. 

513. 8^|iy: local, in the house 'Aicropot: i.e. Astyoche's 

514. Wtp^iov: this served as the sleeping chamber for the 



515. "Afifii: she bore to AreSy the national god of the warlike Minyae. 
For the dative, cf, 658. For the long first syllable of 'Afnji^ cf. 767, 
'AiroXXoivo? A 14 The second half-verse is equivalent to a relative clause. 

516. ToSs: construe with the verb, rlav might have been used with 
V€€?, § 19 h, 

517-526. The Phocians, These also may be supposed to have fitted 
out their fleet on the Euripus. 

518. 'I^Crov : for this traditional form, the meter indicates the truer 
form to be *I^(roo, with ultima lengthened before the fi (§ 59 h), § 35 b, 

519. nv9Ava : the epithet vtrpi^irav is well deserved. 

520. KpCo-av : on the plain, near the gulf of the same name. It seems 
in early times to have controlled the Pythian sanctuary. — AavXCSa : east 
of Delphi, on a hill; cf. Daulis quia in tumulo excelso sita est, 
nee scalis nee operibus capi poterat (sc, by the Romans) Livy 
xxxii. 18. — IlavotH^ : burnt, like Daulis, by the Persians under Xerxes. 

522. &pa: further; uniting the following to form a series with the 
preceding. — Kv|^io^v: the Cephisus takes its rise near Lilaea, on the 
north slope of Mt. Parnassus. It flows with many windings through 
Phocis into Boeotia, and empties into Lake Copals. 

524. &|Mi lirovTo : accompanied, 

525. ol |uv: i.e. the two leaders mentioned in 517. — d|i^«ovTi«: for 
the use of the participle, see on liav A 138. 

526. BourrAv 8' c|iirXv|v : next the Boeotians. — Iv dfio^repd : to the left of 
the Boeotians, in the line of the ships. Cf. cinSifia 353. 

527-535. The Locrians. 

527. 'OiXfjot : genitive of connection, with AZa?. See H. 729 a, 730 a ; 
G. 1085, 1. Cf. TcAa/x(ovi09 AZas, where the adjective is equivalent to a 
genitive. — rax^: cf celerem sequi AiacemHor. Carm. i. 15. 18. In 
the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, this Ajax runs a race with 
Odysseus and would have won the prize, but Athena caused him to slip. 

529. oKly99 : small, like Attic fUKpo^y which is rare in Homer. — Xivo- 
6^&fn|{ : with linen doublet, i.e. in a closely woven, thick linen jacket. Linen 
armor later became more common (see Xen. An. iv. 7. 15 of the Chalybes, 
Tov Xivavv Bfapaxa o? iin\iji>pKK ^v avrot? Xen. Cyr. vi. 4. 2). Such a cuirass 
of cocoanut fiber was the usual armor of some of the South Sea Islanders, 
and would repel a ball frpm a revolver or a cut from a saber. 

530. naWXXv|v«i«: the Pan-Hellenes (cf. UavoLxaiwv 404), only here. 
This unites under one name the peoples of northern Greece, as *A;(iuov9 
is used of the peoples of Peloponnesus and the adjacent islands. Cf 



Ma$* 'EXXoSa km fiurov''Afrfos a 344 through Hellcut and the mids 
including all Greece. Cf. < from Dan even to Beersheba,' Judge. 
John O'Groat's to land's End.' 531. ot : refers to A< 

535. AoicpAv: for its position at the beginning of the ^ 
ovXoficnTV A 2.'-Upfkt: as A 366. The cult of Apollo and 
especially prominent in Euboea. 536-545. The Euh 

536. The second half-verse is in apposition with the 
wfCovTis: brecUhing courage^ i.e. inspired with courage and f 
plural because of the number of men ; cf. Shakespere's * W 
Caesar thus deserved your loves,* Julius Caesar iii. 2. 241. 
"Aparrit : pre-Hellenic Thracians who from the Phocian town A 
to Euboea and gave to the island its earlier name. 

537. XoXicCSa : the chief town of Euboea, on the strait o 
its very narrowest part. It is separated from Boeotia by { 
narrow that the rocks have been blasted away in order to oi 
for steamers of ordinary size. In the early times of Gi 
Chalcis exhausted ita own strength by sending out colonies 
the first Greek settlement in the West (Cumae in Campania), 
in Sicily (Naxos, about 735 B.C.), and sending so many co 
southern shore of Thrace as to give its name to the great p 
Chalcidice. — EtpcrpCav : the later Eretria. The short quantity 
is unusual in Homer. § 59 g. — 'larCoiav : trisyllabic by * syniz( 

540. 4o9'Afn|09: scion of AreSy denoting bravery; only me 
Homer. Cf. 0€pairovTei'' kpntfa 11(K 

542. 5iri0cv KO|ji6c»vTct : see on 11. — Mark the new thoug 
this sentence by the adjectives without conjunctions. 

544. This verse is composed apparently of six spondees 
Si|Uiv: construe with on/^co-o-iv. i is here pronounced as y. 

546-558. The Athenians and Salaminians. 546. 'A&^vos : 
represents Attica. The "promontory of Sunium and Maratl 
tioned in the Odyssey. — In the line of battle, the Atheni 
Pylians on their left and the Cephallenians on their right. T 
prominent in the conflicts. — Ivkt£|uvov : cf. * Where on the i 
a city stands | Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil; 
eye of Greece, mother of arts { And eloquence,' Milton P 
iv. 238 fiP. 

548. rim tk ktX. : parenthetical clause. Erechtheus is c 
by Herodotus and others. The Athenians boasted that they 
of the soil (avrdx^oves). 



549. icd8: construe with clo-cv. Cf^&yada-fv A 310 f irCovt: with 

reference to the votive offerings and other treasures stored there. — vt|^ : 
recent excavations show that before the Persian invasion the temple of 
Athena on the Acropolis stood to the north of the Parthenon (dedicated 
at the great Panathenaic festival 438 B.C.), with foundations extending 
under the Hall of the Caryatides of the Erechtheum (completed about 
407 B.C.) . Columns and other architectural fragments of the pre-Persian 
temple of Athena were built into the wall of the Acropolis. 

550. |iCv: t.e. Erechtheus, who was worshiped with Athena, since the 
two were considered the founders of the civilization of the country. 

551. irfpiTfXXo)Aiv«»v : see on 295. — This then was an annual festival. 







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\*tfeO'jU'\i^ fcl " ^ 




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CORRIDOR OF THE CITADEL OF TIRYNS 



552. IltTCMo : the family of Peteos claimed descent from Erechtheus. 

553 f. Tip 8' ^ irw ktX. : according to Herodotus, an ambassador of the 
Athenians in the time of the second Persian War referred to these verses 
with pride before Gelo, tyrant of Syracuse. But the Iliad does not else- 
where mention or show this skill of Menestheus. 

554. Koo'|i1)o'ai [to^cu, § 17] : the infinitive is used here as an accusa- 
tive of specification. — Cinrovs: i,e, men on chariots, horses, and all that 
went with them. 



557. ACttt: t.«. theeonof Telamon. — 2aXa|&(vo«: Salamis 
of stepping-atone in the enumeration, as the poet passes f 
Greece to Peloponnesus. Telamon had removed to Salamis i 
(the home of his father Aeacus), because he had killed his bro 

558. frywv : for the participle, cf. <J[/i^ieiroin-cs 525. Ajax hei 
into such close connection with Athens that he appears as a n 
of Attica. This was in accord with the later Athenian traditi( 
the ten tribes (^vW) of Attica was named Aiavris, after him. 

559-624. Peloponnesus, 559-56 

559. Ap^ot : the city, not the country. — TiiXi^Mro-av : well i 
ally, rich in walls, since Tiryns was famous for its walls, — the 
and perhaps the oldest extant example of the so-called Cyclops 
ture. These walls are thought to have been fifty or sixty fee 
and in places are twenty or twenty-five feet thick. In the tii 
ninus Pius they were declared to be as great a wonder as tl 
pyramids. Excavations were conducted there by Dr. Schliema 
85, laying bare the plan of an extensive and elaborate structur 

560. Kd.rd kxp^vat : which occupy, 

561. T|>oilf|va : famous for the worship of Poseidon and , 
home of Theseus. — d|iinX6<vra : for the form, cf, iroi-qtim 501 
pov: famed for its temple of Asclepius. The theater (buil 
direction of Polycletus, with seats and orchestra still well pr< 
other ruins there were excavated during 1881 and the followir 

562. AtTivav: this island in very early times was conque 
daurus. — In the eighth century B.C. it was ruled by Pheido 

— Koi^poi 'AxcuAv: differs only slightly from vUq 'AxouSiv 281. 

563. AiO|&^8f|s : Diomed belonged to the old race of rulers 
nesus (the race of Danaus and Perseus) who preceded Pelops a 

566. Mv|icio"rf)of : brother of Adrastus, and thus great-uncle 

— vUt : for the short penult, cf, 544, A 489. 569^80. Agamei 
569. Mvidjvas: the residence of Agamemnon, whose n 

northern Peloponnesus (the later Achaea), extending to I 
the gate of the citadel remains the sculptured representation c 
probably the earliest extant specimen of Greek sculpture on 
Kear the citadel are great subterranean structures, tombs, of wh: 
and largest is the so-called < treasure house of Atreus.* M 
singular form also is used; see § 37 </) is called by Homer ci 
iroXv^v(ro9. The latter epithet was shown to be justified b^ 
eries in the excavations by Dr. Schliemann in 1876-77. See § 



92 COMMENTARY TO THE 

570. A^vH^ K6piv#0v: Corinth was made wealthy in early times by 
its trade, lying as it did between two seas. The old name was Ephyra, 
and the poet does not put the name Corinth into the mouth of his actors. 

572. 'ASf»i|rTot: king of Argos, grandfather of Diomed. He was 
driven out of Argos by Amphiaraus, and fled to Sicyon, to his mother's 
father, whom he succeeded on the throne. He was the leader of the 
* Seven against Thebes ' and the only one of the seven who returned home 
alive. — wpAra : at firsts with reference to his return to Argos. 

574. IIfXX^vi|v: in Achaea, about six niilt^s from the sea. — AXfMvi 
later the capital of the twelve Achaean cities. Near it was a sanctuary of 
Zeus *Ofiayijpios, where Agamemnon was said to have planned the expedi- 
tion against Troy, with the most honored of the Greeks. 

575. dvd: cf.iiva, ^/jui A 570. — cipitav: a frequent epithet of a 
country (as of Crete and the Troad) ; rarely ai^plied as here to a city. 

576. tAv [rovra>v] : i.«. the inhabitants of the cities mentioned just 
before. The genitive depends upon vrfitv^ the nhips of these, their ships. Cf, 
509, 685, while in 587, 610, 713, 719, vtS^v is in apposition with r«»v. 

577. mXh irXtto^roi: since the kiufrdoni of Agamemnon was most 
extensive. Thus he had the largest force of ships himself, and could 
beside these lend sixty ships to the Arcadians (610-614). His rule 'over 
many islands,' implying naval power, is mentioned in 108. 

578. kvU. hut among them; cf, 588, A 142.— x«^k*v: cf. 417. 

580. ovviica : becawtey referring to tcvSiotav. — &pio^ro« : sc. in kingly 
dignity and power, as is shown by the next verse. See on A 91. 

581-590. The realm of Menelaus. 

581. mp'd&covav : the sharply cut ravines of the. mountains are one of 
the most striking characteristics of the Spartan landscape. 

584. 'A|fci»KXa«: this was one of the most important Laoonian cities 
before the Dorian conquest, and long maintained its independence, by the 
side of Sparta. — "llXog: a city on the coast, from which the name helnt 
was said to be derived, since its inhabitants were enslaved by the Spartans. 

585. A^v: for the name, cf * *S/o«eham,* * Stonington.' 

586. ot : for him^ his. 

587. vtAv : in apposition with rtav. See on 576. — dvdTipOi : sc. from the 
troops of Agamemnon. This marks the political independence of Mene- 
laus. 

588. Iv y : as 578. — Tpo6v|iCt|oa imroiO^&t: for the antepenult of irpoBv- 
fufjo'ty see § 59 b. The plural is used because of the many occasions on 
which his zeal had prompted him to act. Cf /xo/ea 536. 



590 = 856. 591^02. The forct 

591. n^Xov : Messenian Pylus, on a harbor that is weU 
the island Sphacteria. During the Peloponnesian War ( 
Athenians established themselves here and held the positi 
years. In this harbor (then called Navarino), Oct. 20, 1827 
fleet was nearly annihilated, and the Greek war for inde 
virtually decided. — The realm of Nestor was founded by his 
(son of Poseidon), who had been driven from lolcos in T 
brother Pelias (c/. 715). 

592. «6pov: ford; in apposition with 0piW. Cf, aA<ro9 ' 

594. i&ote-oi : for the plural, cf, 484. 

595. T&v Op^Ma : that Thracian. For the use of the arl 
The Thracian bards, Orpheus, Musaeus, Eumolpus, etc^ whi 
the fathers of Greek poetry, did not live in historic Thrace I 
in southern Macedonia, on the east slope of Olympus. The 
ship of the Muses was brought to Helicon and Parnassus. — 
here thought of as wandering after the manner of the later 1 
and visiting the courts of the princes. 

597. <ix^|Mvot : for the participle of manner, see on iwv A 
&v : even granted that, supposing that. Here alone is av foim 
KcV, with ci and the optative ; r/. A 60 ; see § 18 ri fi. The f< 
discourse would be vucrjatufu av, d ir€p £v avnu /yunxnu diiSouv. 

598. Ro^poi icrX. : cf. 491 f. 

599. «i|p6v : maimed, here probably mute (cf 596), though 
tion represented him as blind. — oMip tcrX. : this states the n 
action, although elsewhere avrdp is used to introduce somethi 

500. IkX^oOov (sc. fuv) : reduplicated aorist (§ 43 e), used 
only here construed like a verb of depriving, with two accusat 

€03-614. The Arcadians. The Arcadians are not mentio 
part in any of the conflicts before Troy. They may be t 
closely connected with (or included among) the forces of Aga 

603. ^ov: cf. 'OAv/iiria SiofAar €\ovT€i A 18. — inrh jpos: 
mountain. 

604. Alv^nov : of Aepytus. For the use of the adjective, c 
Aepytus, son of Flatus, was an old Arcadian hero whose 
reigned long in Arcadia. His mound, which in the time 
Roman emperors still rested on its circle of stones, reminds s< 
German graves of the Huns. — tva (where) : sc. dtrCv. For th 
the copula in a relative clause, cf A 547. 



605. 'Opx^l^Wv : to be distinguished from Mioyan Orchomeniis (511). 

608. 2T^|j4t|Xov : famous for its lake (which has a subterranean chan- 
nel that comes to the surface and empties into the sea near Argos) and 
for the labor of Heracles in killing the birds here. 

610 f . Iv vT|l ktX. : c/. 509. 

614. OoXdo-o-ui Ifrya : cf, iroAe/ii^ca c/oya 338. — Arcadia, alone of the 
countries of Peloponnesus, touched the sea at no point. Cf, praetor 
Achaeorum [Philopoemen] . . . rudis in re navali erat, Areas, 
mediterraneus homo Livy xxxv. 26. 

615-624. The Eleans. 615. Boinrpdo^v: the * whole and part* 
are often thus united ; cf. 632, * Peter and the Apostles,' Acts v. 29. 

616. hwov <4': t.o. i<l> wra-w. Construe with ^09 i^pyei, incloses, 
bounds; literally, to as far, i.e. as far as, Cf T 12, 

620. ^ryrio-dflreTiv: aorist, as 678, 864, 867, 870. Cf, ^jpx^ was leader, 

621. 6 |Aiv : i,e, Amphimachus. — "Eip/^rov : not to be confounded 
with Eurytus of 596. — 'AicTop(«»vi : here of the grandsons of Actor. See 
§ 39 m. 

624. A^idSao: Augeas was the king of Elis whose stables have 
become proverbial. See on 660. 

625-644. The Western Islands and A etotia. 625-630. DuUchium, 

625. ot 8^ : sc, ^(rav, — The poet places Dulichium and the other Echin- 
ades (which lie off the mouth of the Acheloils) far to the south of their 
real position, off the coast of Elis. — UpdMv : the position of the adjective 
indicates that it is construed with 'Ex^vacov, with which vij<nav is in 
apposition. 

626. ir^v &X6t : i.e. separated from Elis by the sea. 
629. 6s : i.e. Phyleus. — varpC : i,e. King Augeas. 
631-637. The forces of Odysseus. 

631. Kf^oXXi^vas : the common name for the subjects of Odysseus. 

632. ^6l : namely , to wit. The relative sentences are virtually in appo- 
sition with Kcf^oAA^vas. — 'I0Aict|v xal N^pirov: see on 'Rcnmpaxruw 615. — 
clvoo-C^vXXov : literally, leaf-shaking, as if the mountain caused what it 
suffered. 

635. i^vfipov : refers to Leucadia and Acamania, which were conquered 
by Laertes. — dyriir^Kua: neuter adjective as substantive. The opposite 
coast in Elis, where the Ithacans had herds. Odysseus himself had on the 
mainland twelve herds of cattle, as many flocks of sheep and of goats, and 
as many droves of swine. 

636. All icrA. : Odysseus is fi*equently called 7roA.v/xi/ri9 and TroKviLq^fovoi, 



637. (MStica: a small number in comparison with the 
Dulichium (630) or the eighty ships of Diomed (568). The 
of Odysseus' ships is mentioned in the Odyssey. See ^Sd.— 
red-cheeked. Their bows (cheeks) were painted with vermil 
other hand, cf. 170, and i 482, where the ship of Odyss 
KvavowfHfpfK, dark'provoed — The forces of Odysseus are the 
the enumeration of the twenty-nine contingents. Correspoi 
position, these ships are said to be at the middle of the line. 

638-644. The Aetolians. 

640. KoXvSAva: on a shoulder of Mt. Aracynthus. It w 
the Calydonian Hunt of the boar that was killed at last by M 

641. Y^ : introduces the explanation why Thoas was in c< 
not Oeneus or one of his sons, Tydeus or Meleager. — ^av: 

642. a^k^: i.e. Oeneus {avOdt: cf, A 197. — McXlaY|M 

distinguished of the sons of Oeneus. 

643. rf : i,e. Thoas. — ^i : construe with ^eraAro. — vdvn 
explained by Avaxraifuv in apposition with it; i.e. the whole * 
A(TwXoSd%v : dative of interest ; cf. A 180, ^1. 

645-652. The Cretans. 645. KpT|TAv: this includes a 

population of the extensive island. — The cities here menti 
in the interior of the island, at the foot of Mt. Ida. 

646. KvttM^v: the principal city of the island. Excava 
site in the spring of 1900 brought to light the ruins of an exte 
palace (probably destroyed somewhat before Troy), and othe 
an early Greek civilization. — Tdprwo: the Cretan city next 
importance. Herein 1884 was discovered a long inscription 
the fifth century B.C.) containing an elaborate code of laws. — 
cf 559. 

647. MCXirrov : this city gave colonists and name to the loi 
— ipyivdtvra: cretosum, chalky, as 656. The town lay on c 

648. ^aurrdv : southwest of Gortyna ; birthplace of tl 
prophet Epimenides. There half of the ships of Menelaus w 

649. &XXoi : made prominent before the relative clause. — 
a round number; cf 449. Cf centum urbes habitan 
uberrima regna Verg. Aen. iii. 106. 

650. &pa: recurs to 645. * 653-670. The 
653. liiit TV yjiywi ti : two essential qualities of a hero ; cf 
655. 8Uk : construe vrith Koa-firfihnre^y divided in three parfe 

dians dwelt according to tribes (#axTa^vAa3ov 668) in their 



Pindar tells in greater detail the story of the settlement of the island, and 
calls it rpCiroXis vatroi, 

656. ACvSov: famed for its worship of Athena and Heracles. From 
this name came that of Lincoln (Lindi colon i a). 

658. This episode is intended for the glorification of the Rhodians. 

659. 'E^i»fn|t : the seat of King Augeas (c/. 624). 

660. v^po-ot : 8c. when he made his expedition against Augeas to 
avenge the wrong done in refusing the reward for cleansing the stables. 

661. Tpd^: intransitive, grew up. Construe with hrti, when he had 
grown up, — M firydp^: t.«. in his father's house at Tiryns. — kvi: for the 
length of the final i before the following /ia, see § 59 h, 

662. a^Ua : refers to the preceding lira, ktX. — ^(Xov : evidently only 
as a standing epithet here. — |i^p»a: brother of Alcmena, son of Alec- 
tryon. — KaWicra: * in a burst of anger,* says Pindar; by accident, accord- 
ing to another tradition. 

663. 4ov'A|n|09: c/. 540. 

664. ty€: for its position in the second member of the sentence, cf. 
r409. 

665. pfj ^firyMv: set out in flight; cf. 71, A 391. The participle 
indicates the manner of his going, — as a fugitive, since he feared the ven- 
geance of the relatives. « A life for a life * was the old Greek law ; but 
sometimes a fine was paid. Flight from the country was frequent, as in 
the case of Tydeus, and of Patroclus (see on A 307). 

667. It 'P68ov \ft¥ : this is an anachronism. Even the Dorian migration 
into Peloponnesus, according to the ancients, followed the fall of Troy by 
eighty years. — &X'yfa irdarx«»v : iifith sorrow. Construe with dAw/tevos. 

■668. TpixO^ : cf ^pOc°^ 655. ^ Karcu^vXaSdv : equivalent to Kara ^vAa 
362. See on 655. 669. 4k AuSs : cf. 33. 

670. KaC o-^iv ktA. : an independent sentence illustrating <l>L\rfi€v. — 
KaWx<vi : poured down upon them. This indicates the abundance of their 
wealth. This expression seems to have given rise to the later myth that 
Zeus literally rained gold upon the island. 

671-675. The forces of Nireus. The smallest contingent of all. 

671. NifM^ : mentioned only here in Homer. He is celebrated as a 
pattern of beauty. Lucian invents a dialogue between him and Thersites. 

— For the repetition of his name (* epanalepsis '), cf. 838, 850, 871. § 16 h. 

— 2^|ii)6cv : a small island, off the Carian coast, north of Rhodes. A Dorian 
colony, like the islands of 676 ft. 

672. The names of Nireus' parents are significant. 




673. KAXXurrot: predicate. Cf. 216. 674. OsXm 

675. AXaMra8v>6« : the opposite of Kpartpoi. 

676-680. The Sporades. 676. Kfdva0ov : KdfnnSw. 
pathus is an island between Rhodes and Crete which gave i 
Carpathian Sea. 

677. EUhr : elsewhere Kdcos in Homer. An island o 
Halicamassus. — E^^pviHiXoio : king of Cos. He was slain 
the latter's return from Troy. His daughter Chalcio{)e bor I 
son Thessalus (679) KaX^va« : small islands near Cos. 

678. ^ffiiinros, "Avrt^ : not mentioned elsewhere in th 
680 = 516. 

681-694. The forces of Achilles. 681. vOv a« : iuOio 
to the forces of northern (Thessalian) Greece. This verse f 
prelude and announcement for what follows. — roi^ : ipita i 
the mind ; cf 493. — r6 : demonstrative, that, — IlfXao^N i 
Thessaly. See on A f3(X Thessaly is represented as being r 
in Homeric than it was in historical times. 

683. MCi|v: home of Peleus and Achilles (cf A 169), i 
the Sperchetls. 

685. tAv: cf 576. — mvr/|KovTa: Achilles arranged hii 
divisions with five commanders. Each of his ships was m; i 
men, who (like the rest) on their arrival at Troy served as s< 

686. voX<|ftOio Siwt|x^' ^/* fremi tuque sequuntur 
Verg. Aen, ix. 54 f. 

687. o* Tdp JcrX. : for there teas no one, etc. — ^ {rV^jiraiTo : \ 
tive without c[y. § 18 h, 

688. 4v v^iovi: i.e. in the camp. See on A 12. 

689. Ko^pi|9 : causal genitive ; cf A 65. — Bpioi|<8o« : cf i 

690. l(i(X«TO : i.e, received as his yepa? iiaiptrov. See on 

691. Avpvtfrv^v : Brisels tells of its capture and destructii 
See on A 125. 

692. KdS 8' IpaXfv: a change to the finite construction, af 
ciple &airop^ijaus. Cf T 80; see § 11/. — Mvvt|Ta: king 
and (according to the later story) husband of Brisels. 

694. r&,\a: Achilles is reconciled with Agamemnon, 
battle, and kills Hector, on the twenty-seventh day of the 
Iliad, five days after the events narrated in this Second Book 

695-710. The forces of ProtesUaus. 695. n^poo^v: n^ 
wheat (irvpoi) which abounded in the region. — dv0t|ft6cvTa: < 



696. A^T|Tpot Ttf|A«vot: consecrated field of Demeter ; in apposition 
with Uvfxuroy, cf. 506, 592. This afterwards gave to Pyrasus the name 
Aijffii7r/M0K. — fkip^ fji^^v : Mt. Ida is called /irjrtfp Orjptav 47. 

697. AyxfaKiw : this epithet would fit the other cities also. 

698. nptmo-CXoot : Protesilaus was the first to fall in the war. The 
name is significant; cf. 702. High honors were paid to him at Elaeus 
in the Thracian Chersonese down to the time of the Persian wars. His ship 
was the center of the fiercest conflict when Hector forced his way to the ships 
of the Greeks, and it was half consumed by fire before Patroclus appeared 
with the Myrmidons and repulsed the Trojans. 

699. Ixcv icd^ti fcrX. : held down, covered. Cf. T 243. Protesilaus was 
in the realm and power of the dark earth. 

700. d|i^i8pi4A< • women tore their faces in grief. — ^hiXdiq) : local. 

701. 4||UTiX^ : he left home for the war before he could complete his 
house; he had hardly begun life for himself when he was killed. — 
AAp8avot Mip : a Dardanian warrior. According, to the later amplified 
form of the story, this was Hector ; but Homer does not call any Trojan 
Aap8aro9, though the Dardanians were included among the Tpcuc^. 

703. oM |fciv oM fcrX. : as 726. The repetition of the negative gives 
it great weight. The first negative belongs to the whole sentence, the 
second is to be construed closely with oi, — neque vero ne hi quidem. 
— ir69f6v ^f |Uv [/ai/v] : literally, they missed him indeed, equivalent to kbI 
7n$ovvT€i ircp &p\6v. The word before yc /xey is made prominent and 
always forms an « adversative asyndeton ' (see § 15 c). The English idiom 
introduces such a clause by yet, hut, — &PX^^* ^'^' their former leader. 

704. c^lat : monosyllabic. § 25. — IloSdpinis : leader of the Phthians. 

705. ^SXcucCSao: with v, but ^vXaK-g 700; cf. UplafuSri^ ^^^ with H^a- 
fjuw r 146 ; see § 59 e. 707. irpdnpot : cf 7r/xr/cvccrrcpo$ 555. 

708 f. Only another form of 703. — oi84 n : but in nothing. 

711-715. The kingdom of Eumelus. 711 f . ^fp4s, Bo(pi|v kt\. : cities 
on the peninsula of Magnesia and in the southeastern part of Pelasgiotis. 

712. *Icu*\Kdv : famed as the chief seat of the Thessalian Minyae (see 
on 511), the capital of King Pelias, and the native city of Jason, the 
leader of the Argonautic Expedition. 

714. W 'A8|L^^: construe with tocc, cf. 728, 742, 820.— For the 
repetition of the name, cf 636, 655, 691. 

716-728. The forces of Philoctetes. 

718. r6v8<: antecedent of ot 8c 716. When the relative clause 
precedes, the apodosis often has Sc, as here. — t6{mv Bt ctS^s : as 720 



and frequently, the participle of oTSo, amjkilled m, is fc 
genitlTe. 

719. {pfnu: the warriors were the oarsmen. 

720. Ifipiporav: had embarked; cf, 851, 509. The 
repeated from cv iKoxrrg. — t^ |idxicr6ai: sq as to (so that th 
etc. ; infinitive of result. Cf, A 8. 

722. A^i^vy: the Achaeans landed at Lemnos on their v 
and received hospitality from King Eunetls. They sent 
for sale, and received wine thence. — The repetition of 1 
gives to h Ai^fivif some independence from Iv vrjatf, 

723. oXo6^povot vSpov : construe with cXxei, ablatival gei 
cruel water snake. See on 396. The wound not only disab 
but rendered his presence odious to his comrades. 

724. r&xa 8< icrX. : the Catalogue contains several sucl 
events which do not fall within the time of the action of 
690 ff., 699 ff. — A prophet declared that Troy could be U 
the help of the arrows of Heracles which Philoctetes had in 
According to Sophocles in his tragedy Philoctetes^ the her 
from Lemnos to Troy by Odysseus and Neoptolemus (soi 
No other allusion to this story is found in the Homeric poer 
reached home in safety at the close of the war. 

725. *A|>YiCoi vapd vi|va-C: parenthetical, in a kind of £ 
the subject of I/kAXof. — ^hXoicHjTao : construe with fim^ea 

726 = 703. 727. 'OiXijot: father of the lesser 

728. t^L : points back to the preceding verse. Cf, 650, 7 
729-733. Forces of the Asclepiads, 

729. TpCicin|v fcrX. : cities in western Thessaly, in Hi 
Tricca was one of the oldest sanctuaries of Asclepius, an* 
the ki^g. — KXttiMuctftaro-av : Ithome lay on the steep slopes c 

731. 'Ao-icXiiirloi): better written as *Aa-K\rpri6o. See on 

734-737. Forces of Eurypylus. 735. Xcwcd icdfniva : ^ 
literally, vshite heads ; cf, 739. Cf 117. 

738-747. The forces of Poly poetes, 

738 f. 'Afrytovav icrX. : cities of the Lapithae (see on 
western part of what was Perrhaebia in later times. 

739. 'OXooov6va : the most important city in Perrl 
XiVK^v : sc, because of its chalk cliffs. Cf 647. 

742. KXvr6t : as feminine. Cf 77. 743. ^imti rf 

745. oAk otoi: construe with ijye^Kevc 740. — &|mi t 



eonjunction connects this with ovk otoi, since it is in a kind of apposition 
with it (§ 15 h), expressing more fully the thought of the first words of 
the verse (see on ovXofjihnfp^ A 2). 

746. 4irip6«|iOio : in a laudatory sense. — KoivitSao : c/. A 264. 

748-755. Aenianians and Perrhaebians. 750. oUC iOcrro : built their homes, 

751. d|i^C: on the banks of, — SpY*^'* tilled fields, 

753. dpYvpoSCvQ : because of the white waves and eddies of the turbid 
PenSils, where the clear Titaresius empties its stream into it. The swift 
current makes it possible to distinguish for a time the waters of the two 
streams. 

754. dXXd n: c/. A 82. — ti^' IXcuov: refers to the water of the one 
stream flowing above the other. 

755. 5pKov Scivoi) : explained by its appositive Srvyos. — This introduces 
a mythical explanation that gives a miraculous quality to the water. — 
Srvy^f : limits v&xrof . — diroppdlf : branch of the water of the Styx, as the 
Cocytus also was said to be. This mysterious connection with the Styx 
(a stream with a high fall, in Arcadia) was imagined probably because of 
its violent current. 

756-759. The Magnesians. 

758. np69oo« 9odt : the poet puns upon the name. § 13 c. 

760-785. Conclusion of the Catalogue of the Achaean forces. 

760. C/. 487. 

761. TdT &pa: cf A 8. — «x &pMrTo«: cf A 69. — Ivwrt: cf 484. 

762. a*T«v kt\. : cf 466. — &|mi Itovto : cf A 158. 

763. lifya: adverb; see on A 78. — ^pi|Tid£ao: Admetus. Cf 713 ff. 
Or this name may be given to Pheres' grandson Eumelus ; see on 621. In 
the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, these mares of Eumelus would 
have won the race but for an accident. — This statement is subject to 
qualification below, 6<f>p* 'A^iAcvs firjviev 769, 764-767 being parenthetical. 

764. 'E^|Li)Xo«: cf 714. — iroS^Kca«: this and the following epithets are 
attracted to the construction of the relative clause. — JpvtOas : for the 
length of the last syllable, see on kokov i!k 190. 

765. m^kfji {(o-at: like to a plumb line, "straight as an arrow." — 
IvlvArov: over the back (cf 308), i.e, of the same height. 

766. Iv ntipcCj) : probably the region of Pherae, where Apollo served 
Admetus as herdsman. Angry at the death of Asclepius, Apollo had 
killed the Cyclopes of Zeus and as a punishment was sent to serVe a 
mortal. See Euripides* Alcestisy init, Apollo retained his interest in 
these mares. 



767. ^pov fcrX. : the flight of Ares attends them. For 
genitive, see on 396. . 

768. ai& : marks the contrast with hnm fUy 763 ; cf. afrc J 

770. fmroi : these were immortal steeds, sired by Zephyri 
by Poseidon to Peleus. — ^opcioicov : drew. The Homeric he 
ride on horseback. Thus iinroi often stands for hones and ( 
554. 

771. 6 |Uv : contrasted with nnroc 775, as is shown b^i 
vifunn, : cf. 688 f . 

774. alyay^ffixv : dative of means with ierres, 

775. vap* Ap|Mo-iv : i.e. where they had been tied when r 
the yoke ; in contrast with v^' ipfjuuri, where the horses are u 
before the chariot. — iKorrot: appositive, as A 606. 

776. The Homeric horses were fed on Xcorov (clover), crc 
of patsley), icvtretpov (a fragrant marsh plant), and on Kpi 
barley), irvpos (wheat), and okvfxu or {[etoi (spell). 

111. c^ vfWKoa^lva: i.e. away from the dust. — mtTo: s 
Twv: of the masters (construe with apfmra), i.e. Achilles s 
tenants (see on 685). The Aaoc did not fight d<^* hnrwv. 

lis. ol U: i.e. the Aaoc and avatcrei. — «o04omt: cf. 703. 

780. Return to the narrative which was interrupted by t! 
(484). But while, at 476, the leaders are busy in arranging 
here they are represented as already moving forward for the 
M : i.e. the Achaeans. — ^ d n kt\. : as if the earth were de 
ally, pastured off) by fire. The optative is used to express a 
tion of the mind. The comparison relates to the gleam of tl 
weapons ; cf. 455 ft. 

781. << The earth trembled as from an earthquake." — Ad I 
X*i**» groaned as it groans under Zeus, under the power of Zeus 
784 corresponds to this. — AU: for the length of the ultin 
764, and Atf 686. 

782. x**^^ ' *' ^^ ^^^ wrath." An instance of the exhib 
anger follows. — Srf n : with hypothetical subjunctive. — Ap 
mighty giant, symbol of volcanic power. He opposed Zeus, I 
come by the thunderbolt, and was buried under a mountain, 
he belches forth fire. When he attempts to rise, he causes < 
then Zeus smites with his lightning the earth about Typh 
earth which covers him. Pindar, in his first Pythian od< 
the monster as lying under Mt. Etna, and extending to Mt. 



C/. < In bulk as huge | As whom the fables name of monstrous size, | . . . 
Briareos [A 403] or Typhon, whom the den | By ancient Tarsus held,' 
Milton Par, Lost i. 196 ff. 

783. civ 'ApCf&oit : in the land of the Arimij in Cilicia. This belongs to 
the so-called < earthquake belt.* Cf, durumque cubile | Inarime 
lovis imperils iinposta Typhoeo Verg. Aen, ix. 715 f, 

784. Cf, scuta sonant pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus 
Verg. Aen, vii. 722. 

785. in8(oio : on the plain ; local genitive; cf, 801. Only the archaic 
form in -oco is so used in Homer. The accusative is used with no essential 
difference of meaning ; cf, A 483. 

786. voS^^I'^^ • ^^^s ^s deXXo3ro9 storm-footed 409. Cf Tennyson's 
< light-foot Iris.' — wxla [<oKcia] : for the inflection, see § 38 h, 

787. irdp Aids : construe with j^A^c. 

788. d-yopdi d76pcvov: were holding an assembly; cf, woXjifiov voXtfAi^av 
T 435. — hr\ npid|iOio 0i»pDo^v: at the gates of Priamy i,e, before the palace, 
where by oriental custom the king sat in judgment. Cf, < Judges and 
officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates,' DeiU, xvi. 18. 

789. irdmt : i,e, all the nobles. It is limited by the circumstances of 
the case. — No special ^SovXi; (cf. 53) of the Trojans is mentioned. 

790. irpoo^ : sc, fuv (i-eferring to Priam), as 172. Cf, 795. 

791. +0oyrtv : at first only the similarity of voice receives prominence, 
in close connection of thought with irpotri^iri. But here, as in the other 
cases, a transformation of the whole person is to be assumed; hence 
l€umfji€vrf 795 without the addition of ^BorffffV' The contents of the 
speech, however, cause Hector to recognize the goddess (807). 

792. iroS»Kc(t)«^ Kr\. : equivalent to wool Kpanrvouri irejroiOm. For the 
plural, cf irpoOvfiirffTi 588. 

793. r^^fiif kt\. : on the top of the mound, 

794. 8fy|uvot ^tnr6Tf : exspectans dum, generally followed by the 
aorist optative. — vaO^^v: ablatival genitive with a^pp^rfieUv, — This serv- 
ice was to be expected rather at the beginning of the war. Cf, 362 ff. 

795. rf |iiv 4cura|Uvi| : cf, 22. — |l(v: i,e, Priam. Construe with vpwr- 
€<f>Yf. — This verse repeats the sum of 790 f., because of the interposed 
clauses. 

796. aUC Toi: cf A 107, 177, 541 — ^(koi: predicate. Cf, A 107.— 
&Kpfcroi : cf, 246. — Iris blames Priam's untimely unconcern. 

797. ir6Xf|io« 8i kt\, : contrast (paratactic ; § 21 cf) with hr ci^n/s, in 
time of peace. — iXCcurrog: cf, 420. 



798. 84 ' equivalent to i^, — iroXXd : cognate accusative I 
It does not differ greatly from woXXoki^. 7\ 

800. loucdtn: sc, in number. C/. 468.-6/. »I wil 
seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is 
shore/ Genesis zxii. 17. — ^: in a comparison where the p 
choice open. 801. irpoH &o-tv : construe vi 

802. *£icrop: Iris turns to address Hector as the comm i 
on whom above all others depends the weal of the state, 
order of words, cf. A 282. — M 71 : construe with p«£(u. It 
follows. 

803. voXXol fcrX. : explanatory preparation for 805. Fc 
cf, 130 f. 

805. Toicnv: to these; antecedent of the following relal 
junction is used to connect this with what has preceded, sin 
kind of apposition with a»3c ye ptiai. For the dative, < 
Each is to give orders to his countrymen, as usual. This 1 
separation into tribes (accomplished in 815) corresponding 1 
Greeks in 362 f. 

806. Twv 8' IfifytCo^i*: and let him lead these forth; sc. fro 1 
the field of battle. — iroXi^rot : the men of his city. Thi 
intended especially for the great number of Trojan allies. 

807. oil Ti icrX. : hy no means failed to recognize (i.e, he reco^ 
the speech of the goddess; he recognized tlie goddess hers 
* litotes,' see on A 220. 

808. krl n^ca: to fetch their arms. Cf Attic /terarcuxca, 

809. iraa^u viikm. : the whole gate, — i.e. the gate was opene 
Scaean or Dardanian gate, leading from the city to the pi 
does not mention any other gates of the city. 

811. Im 8^ Tif : a favorite epic beginning of a descripti 
antiqua fuit Verg. Aen. i. 12. — irdXios: disyllabic by *8yr 
ultima is long before the caesural pause. 

812. dirdviv^: aside; sc. from the principal road. — in 
free lying, lying in an open place. — Ma icrX. : see on 397. 

814. dOdvaroi icrX. : for the language of the gods, see 
o^La : such a tomb as that of 604. — voXvo-icdpOiftOio : agile ; s 

815. 8Uicpi0fv : cf 805, 475 f. 

816-877. The Trojans and their allies. The force op 
Achaeans is composed of sixteen contingents: I. five con 
Trojan peoples (816-839), and II. eleven contingents of all 



940-877). Of the allies, three divisions come from Europe, and eight 
from Asia. I. Trojans from (a) Ilios, (b) Dardania, under command 
of Aeneas, (c) Zelea, under Pandarus, (</) Adrastea, (e) Percote, etc, 
II. Allies (from Europe), (a) Thracians, imder Rhesus, (b) Ciconians, 
(c) Paeonians; (from Asia), (a) Pelasgians, (b) Paphlagonians, under 
Pylaemenes, (c) Halizonians, (d) Mysians, (e) Phrygians, (/) Maeonians, 
(g) Carians, (A) Lycians, under Sarpedon and Glaucus. See on 844 flF. 

The Catalogue of the Trojans is far less exact, detailed, and symmetr 
rical than that of the Achaeans ; it contains no definite statements of 
number. The total number of Trojans and allies was 50,000, according 
to 562 f . : < A thousand fires were kindled on the plain, and by each sat 
fifty men.' Of these about 10,000 were Trojans, if 123-130 are to be 
interpreted literally. 

816-839. The Trojans, 816. Tp«M-(: in the narrower sense, the 
inhabitants of the city *IAf09. — i^ot '• of stature. The Greeks were 
prone to believe that no man could be physically small while mentally 
great. Cf, 653. — KOp«6a(oXof : a mark of martial activity ; c/!etcristam 
adverso curru quatit aura volantem Verg. Aen. xii. 370. 

817. irXfCo^roi ktX. : t.6. as the flower of the whole army. 

818. |M|&a^Tfs : striving forward with the lance, eager for the fray. . 

819. AapSav(«v: the name is preserved in the modern < Dardanelles.' — 
ttjln: correlative with lUv 816 ; cf. 768. — 'A,y%!jr9iOi Anchises is nowhere 
referred to by Homer as alive at the time of this war. 

820. *A^poS(Ti| : for the short first syllable, see § 59 ^ a. 

821. 4v icvi||ioio-b: i,e, where Anchises had charge of the herds and 
herdsmen. It was one of the patriarchal customs of those times that 
kings and kings' sons tended their flocks on the slopes of the moimtains. 
— Ofd ppoT^: note the < antithesis.* 822. AiMtr^Tt: c/*. 745. 

823. ^xt^ «AvT|s: every kind of battle, — on foot or in the chariot, with 
lance or sword. For the genitive, cf, 718. 

824. 8^: for the short vowel before following {, cf, o before Sicofiay^yNov 
in 465. — ZAiiav: on the frontier of Mysia. — irdSa viCarov: t.e. the 
northern slope. For the accusative, cf, 603. 

825. d^viioC: «c. because of the well-tilled farms. — irCvomt JcrX.: this 
expression was often imitated. Cf, exsul | aut Ararim Parthus 

bibet, aut Germania Tigrim Verg. Eel, i. 62 f |UVav: this epithet 

is applied to springs and rivers, as well as to the sea, when the surface 
is disturbed by breezes in such a way as to prevent a clear reflection of the 
sun's light. 




SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 105 

826. TpAfi: in the broader sense, — the inhabitants of the country. 

827. Koi: cf, A 240 Td{ov icrX.: i.«. Apollo gave him skill with the 

bow; cf. laetus Apollo | augurium citharamque dabat^ celeres- 
que sagittas Verg. Aen, xii. 303 f. The ancients believed that the bow 
of an excellent archer must be the gift of the god of the bow. The mak- 
ing of the bow of Pandarus, from the horns of a wild goat shot by himself, 
is described in A 105-111. 

828. 'ASp^^miair: received its name from Adrestus (830). Like the 
following cities, it lay in what was Mysia in later times. — 6i||Mv : as 547. 

829. Ili'Hicuiv: received its name from the neighboring pine forests; 
as the neighboring Lampsacus was called Uiruoura. — Ti|pc(t|f : a moun- 
tainous region near Cyzicus. 

830. Xivo6d&pv|( : perhaps as an archer. Cf, 520. 

831. vU S6tt: rf A 16. — XXcpKMo-Cov: he seems to have lived formerly 
in Percote (835) ; or Adrastea may have been a colony from Percote. — 
wtfX irdvTwr: cf A 258. 

832. {Sm fcrX. : Homer knows of no professional soothsayers. Calchas 
(A 69), Helenus (Z 76), Ennomus (858), Melampus, Halitherses, — alt 
are introduced as busy in different ways, in war and in peace. — oi84 : for 
the lengthened ultima before the possessive pronoun, see § 32 c, t. — oM 
faovfv : * resistance to pressure ' is implied in the imperfect. He refused 
his consent. 

833. ^6io^vop«: a standing epithet of the battle. 

835. &pa : as 522. — IIcpK^v : Percote, Abydus, and Arisbe were 
towns on the south side of the Hellespont. 

836. Zi)aWv : on the Thracian Chersonese, opposite Abydus. Here 
Xerxes bridged the Hellespont. 

838. 'Aooot : for the repetition of the name, see on 671. 

840-877. llie allies of the Trojans. 

840. IIcXm^v: a part settled in Greece proper, a part must have 
remained in Asia Minor. They gave to many of their towns the name 
Larisa or Larissa (rock-citadel). More than a dozen towns of this name 
are enumerated, beside the citadel of Argos. 

844 ff. The following enumeration of allies has a radial arrangement, 
proceeding from Troy as the center and starting point. Each radius ends 
with a TTfXoOtv (849, 857, 877) or t^Xc (863) for the most distant point 
from Troy. I. European line (844-850). 11. Northeast of Troy, on 
the southern shore of the Euxine Sea (851-857). IH. Southeast of Troy 
(858-863). IV. South of Troy (864-877). 



844. tfpfjucof : JbiUropean iiiracians, a^eiiing between tne MeDrus ana 
the Hellespont. — ^ : for the singular, see on 512. 

845. 'EXX^o^vovrof : the Hellespont in Homer includes also the neigh- 
boring waters. — d7dppoo« : with strong stream. It is called a inrtLfWi. 
No current of the Mediterranean compares with that of the Hellespont. 

846. Kbic6vwv : Odysseus destroyed their city, after leaving Troy. 
They are mentioned by Herodotus among the Thracian nations through 
whose country Xerxes passed. 

850. 'A{ioi): for the repetition, cf, 671. The Axius is one of the chief 
rivers of Macedonia, west of the Strymon. Homer applies to it the epi- 
thets €vpvp€€Opoi, PaAv^ivTfi. — icdXXio^rov : predicate ; " whose water is the 
most beautiful that," etc, Cf, 216. The water of the Axius is now 
muddy. 

851. Here the poet returns to Asia. See on 844 ff. — n«Xai|Alvtot 
kt\, : equivalent to " the shaggy-breasted Pylaemenes." For the periph- 
rasis, cf, 387, r 105; see § 16 (/.— Xdo-tov irf|p : see on A 189. Here 
the epithet is transferred to the heart itself. 

852. IE 'Evrrfiv: out of the midst of the Enetians, where he dwelt. 
Equivalent to "Evcnytos. In later times these "Everoi were called Veneti ; 
they were said to have wandered to the coast of the Adriatic Sea. — &Ypo- 
TipdMv: the comparative ending is sometimes used in Homer with no 
thought of greater or less degree, but simply of contrast. § 40 c. 

856. Cf, 517. 858. MiwAv: south of the Propontis, east of the 

Aesepus, towards Bithynia. 

859. o^K : placed emphatically before ocoivouriv, with reference to the 
preceding oi<i)vurn/«. Cf, gratissimus augur; | sed non augurio 
potuit depellere pestem Verg. Aen. ix. 327 f. — oU»voliriv: by omens^ 
from the flight of birds. 

860. inth X<P^^ • VTTO with the dative is frequently used by Homer where 
the Attic used xnro with the genitive. See § 19 i, — AtoucCSao : for the use 
of the patronymic, cf 621. Cf, Aeacidae telo iacet Hector Verg. 
Aen, i. 99. 

861. Iv iroTop,^ : as 875. The story of the general slaughter by Achilles 
in the bed of the Scamander is told in <& 17 ff., but Ennomus is not named 
there. — &6i irtp : just where, 

862. ^piryof : sc, on the river Sangarius. They were famed for their 
chariots and their vineyards (F 184 ff.). They had commercial relations 
with the Trojans. Vergil calls the Trojans Phrygians, but this is not 
Homeric; cf alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam 




SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD 107 

Verg, Aen. t. 618. — 'Ao^wot : Homer knows of no son of Aeneas. The 
boy Ascanius was invented later as a companion piece to Hector's son 
Astyanax. — For the name we may compare Aghkenez in Gen. x. 3 for 
the inhabitants of Central Asia Minor. 

863. 'Ao'KaWtit : in Bithynia, on a lake of the same name on which 
lay also the later Nicaea. — |U|iorav U : instead of a participle or relative 
clause ; see 21J. — W|lCvi : local dative. Synonymous with fidxi^y TroXcfioc, 

864. M|ioo%v: later called Lydians. They inhabited an attractive 
land and were equipped with chariots; they traded with the Trojans; 
and their women were skilled in purple dyeing. — ^ryvivAo^v : cf, 620. 

865. riry«Ui| X{fkvi| : i.e. the nymph of that lake; cf, vvfi<^ vrfk Z 21. 
All of these nymphs belong to western Asia Minor, which was thought 
to be their favorite abode. 

866. Koi: also, marks the agreement with 864. Cf, 74. 

867. pappapo^Avwir : rough-voiced, refers to the harshness of their dia- 
lect. The word fiappapoi for non-Greek, foreigner, is not found in Homer, 
just as the poet has no one word for * all Greece.' — No one in Homer 
has any difficulty in conversing with another of a different country. 
Greeks, Trojans, and Lycians all seem to speak the same language. 

868. M(Xi|tov : this old Carian city became the largest Ionian city and 
the mother of eighty colonies, but lost much of its importance in the 
insurrection against the Persians, in 494 b.c. 

869. MvicdXt)t : at the foot of this mountain the Persians were defeated, 
in 479 B.C. 

870. &pa: so, as I said, refers back to 867. 

871. Ndm|9 kt\, : repeated from the preceding verse, in the reverse 
order. Cf. 671. 

872. 8t : refers to the principal person, Ncum;? 867. — ttui : marks the 
agreement with &yXaa racva 871 ; cf 866. — XP^^^ 'X*"' • ^^^^ 90^ <>"*«- 
tnents, probably the gold spirals used in fastening bis long hair, ^^vaw 
here cannot refer to gold armor such as that of Glaucus, Nestor, or 
Achilles, since that was an honor and no reproach. Nastes was the 
Trojan Nireus (671 ft.). — r\fin icoir^ : like a vain girl, 

873. Wimot : cf 38. 874 = 860. 
876. 'ZafwjfiAw: second only to Hector; the bravest leader of the 

allies, regarded by the Trojans as Ip/m noXyfOi H 540 prop of the city. 
He was son of Zeus and Laodamia, Bellerophon's daughter (Z 198 f.). 
He led in the attack on the Achaean camp (M 101, 292 ff., 397 fiF.). He 



was siain Dy rati-ocius (U 4ou n.;. At tbe command of Zens, Apollo 
bathed his corpse, anointed it with ambrosia, and gave it to the twin 

brothers. Sleep and Death, to convey to Lycia (11 667 ff.) rXalkoc: 

Glaucus tells of his race in Z 145 ff. He was first cousin of Sarpedon and 
grandson of Bellerophon, descended from Sisyphus of Corinth. He is 
associated with Sarpedon in the battles. He has a famous meeting with 
Diomed (Z 119 flf.). He was wounded by Teucer (M 387 ff.). The honors 
received by the two Lycian heroes at home are enumerated by Sarpedon at 
M 310. — The name * Lycia ' is given by the poet also to the district from 
which Pandarus "*(827) comes; c/. E 105. From those Trojan Lycians 
the southern Lycians of Sarpedon are to be distinguished. 

877. Sdv6ov: mentioned also in E 479, M 313; to be distinguished 
from the Trojan river ov BavOov icaXanxn Oeoij avS/xs S^ l,Kdfwv&poy Y 74. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 

Instead of the general battle which was to be expected from the prepa- 
rations of the Second Book, a duel is fought between Menelaus and Paris. 
This duel is intended by the combatants to put an end to the entire war. 

In the Third Book the poet gives to his hearers a view of the state 
of affairs in Troy, as the preceding Books had taught of the relations 
existing between the Achaeans, both leaders and men, and also gives 
information wi^i regard to events which preceded the action of the poem. 

1. This verse refers to B 476, 815. — Ixoirroi: i.e. the separate divi- 
sions of each army. Cf, B 127. The singular would have been used of 
individuals. C/. A 606. 

2. Tp6c«: ue. the Trojans and their allies. — As B 826, not as B 816. 
— KXa-YYfi kt\, : with clamor and outtry ; one idea, expressed for emphasis 
by two synonymous nouns. Cf. A 492, B 339. — Uraw: advanced, — 
5pvi0ft 6t: </. B 764, and see on B 190. This comparison is made definite 
by a special illustration. — The Achaeans silent in the consciousness of 
their power are contrasted with the noisy Trojans. Elsewhere also the 
Trojans are represented as exercising less self-restraint, as less disciplined 
than the Greeks. When the strife is renewed (A 429 ff.) the Achaeans 
advance in solemn silence, while the Trojans come to meet them with the 
noise of a flock of sheep. 

3. i|^: c/. B 87. — ^ytpd^v; <?/. B 460. — oipav^ vpd: the adverb vpd 




makes ovpav66i more definite. To the observer, the sky seemi 
the cranes in their lofty flight. Cf. B 456. — C/. quales s 
atris I Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethei 
cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo \ 
264 ft, ; < As multitudinous on the ocean line | As cranes uj 
less Thracian wind/ Shelley Hellas; *Loud were their clamc 
as when | The clanging sea-fowl leave the fen/ Scott Marmio 

4. kmX o^v: as A 57. — x'^H^^*^^' <*/• y^povot 8c ^cvyovcrou ; 
TJ 'StKvducQ X^Pd y^y^iuvov, <f>ot.T«ov(n h xuiioxririv {winter qua 
r<nrov9 rourovs (i.e. of the Nile) Hdt. ii. 22, quam mu 
rantur aves, ubi frigidus annus | trans pontum fug; 
immittit apricis Verg. Aen. vi. 311 f. — ^^v: for the j 
in comparisons, cf. 10, 23, 33. 

5. KXaTYfi: contains the real point of the comparison; 6 
simply to complete the picture. See § 14 a. — Ta( 71 : repeat 
oT re 4. See on A 97. — 4irl tcr\. : toward the currents, etc., t.( 
south. See on A 423. 

6. dv8pd(r% : made prominent in contrast with the cranes, 
stands in attributive connection with nouns. See on B 474. — 
these pygmies, Lilliputians (literally, Fistlings), on the southern 
Mediterranean, were attacked yearly by the cranes, according 
mon story. — Cf. *that small infantry | Warr'd on by cranes,* 
Lost i. 575. — ^nSvov #crX. : cf. B 352. 

7. fj^piou : cf A 497. On the day after their arrival in 
KOK^v: destructive, as A 10; sc. to the pygmies. — IpiSa 
(literally, bring fortvard) strife. 

8. ol 8' &pa: i.e. the Achaeans; correlative with Tp<ueg /a 
o\y% : cf ov yap Kpavy^ AXXh. aty^ . . . koll "^ov^rj , . . vpoa^ax, 
i. 8. 11. — fUvia irviCovTH : cf. B 536. — Cf ♦ Thus they | Breal 
force with fixed thought | Moved on in silence,* Milton Par. L 

9. Iv 0v|i^: in heart, though they did not shout ; emj 
B 223. 

10. dhu : generally a temporal particle ; here a comparative i 
as, like ijvre 3. — "As the South wind veils the mountain tops 1 

11. oil Ti ^(\i|v ktX, : sc. since the shepherd on the mot 
thick mist cannot easily watch and guard his flock. — wKrftt 
haps because the sheep were usually shut up in their fold at n 

12. r^Q^v, 8owr : only so far as ; accusative of extent, ^ 
B 616. — W, ri: these mark the correlation of the clauses; 



Distances are thus measured in Homer: as the cast ox a spear, or of a 
discus, or of a shepherd's crook, or a bowshot, or a furrow's length, or 
the reach of the voice. Cf, St. Luke xxii. 41, « And he was withdrawn 
from them about a stone's cast.' 

13. &t &pa icrX. : as B 784. 14 = B 785. 

15. A formula which, in close connection with what has preceded, 
introduces the single combat of two warriors. — crxtS^v i^rav: were near 
each other. For the use of the adverb, see on A 416. — kte dXX^|Xoio%v: 
construed with idvre«. For lirC in hostile sense, cf, A 382. 

16. Tp«to>(v : for the Trojans, — Ofoci^t : this epithet is given to Paris 
because of his personal beauty. Cf 39, 44 ff., 55, 64. 

17. irap8aXli|v: adjective as substantive. See on A 54. As a lightr 
armed warrior (he was eminently a bowman), he wore no armor, and thus 
had a panther's skin on his shoulders. See on B 43. 

18. aMip: on the other hand. This gives prominence to Sovpc, since 
the spears do not belong proj)erly to the archer's equipment, which has 
just been described. — SoOpc 8vo> : for dwo with the dual, cf, A 16. — KfxofniO- 

|ft^va kt\,: for the plural in agreement with the dual, cf A 200 Cf 

bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro Verg. Aen, i. 313, laeva 
duo forte gerebat | praef ixa hastilia ferro ib, xii. 488 f. 

19 ff. For the single combat, cf * And there went out a champion out 
of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was 
six cubits and a span. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, 
and h» was armed with a coat of mail ; and the weight of the coat was 
five thousand shekels of brass. And he had greaves of brass upon his 
legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his 
spear was like a weaver's beam, and his spear's head weighed six hundred 
shekels of iron ; and one bearing a shield went before him. And he 
stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, " Why are 
ye come out to set your battle in array? Am not I a Philistine, and ye 
servants to Saul? Choose you a man for you, and let him come down to 
me. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your 
servants : but if I prevail against him and kill him, then shall ye be our 
servants, and serve us." And the Philistine said, " I defy the armies of 
Israel this day ; give me a man, that we may fight together," ' 1 Sam, xvii. 
4-10; cum trigeminis (sc, Horatii and Curiatii) agunt reges, 
ut pro sua quisque patria dimicent ferro: ibi imperium fore, 
unde victoria fuerit Livy i. 24; <Then said the doughty Douglas | 
Unto the Lord Percy : | " To kill all these guiltless men, | Alas ! it were 




THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD HI 

great pitie. | But, Percy, thou art a lord of land, | I am an earl called 
within my country; | Let all our men upon a parti stand, | And do the 
battle of thee and me,"' Chevy Chase, 

19. vdXXttv: parallel with lyiav 17. — irpoKaXC{rro : by his mien rather 
than by words; cf, 21. ir/xMcaAi^oficvo? would make a smoother con- 
struction here, but the finite verb is used in order to give the thought 
more prominence; cf, I^olXXov 80. Thus l^wv and wdXXiav seem to be 
related to both imperfects. — vdvTos dpCo^rovs : in marked contrast with the 
yielding of Paris before Menelaus, who was not distinguished in battle. — 
Here the period returns to line 16, since this verse explains Trpo/iaxi{ev. — 
Paris and Menelaus are introduced first in the action, since the two are 
the prime cause of the war. Their feud is private as well as public. The 
description of the two foes is made si)ecially effective by the contrast of 
their characters. 

20. dvrCPiov : cf. ivnfitifpf A 278 ; used only of. a hand-to-hand, man- 
against-man conflict. 

21. hi: correlative with /xci/ 16. — cot: for its position, cf, A 32. — 
dfn|C^iXo« : this epithet is generally applied, as here, to Menelaus. The 
epithet and the name form a convenient close to the verse. See on A 7. 

22. irpoirdpobOcv 6|l(\ov : sc, as Trpofmxoi, — |Mucpd ptpdrra : this gives the 
manner of ipxofJLcyov. It is here a sign of courage, for Paris was no coward. 
Cf. longe gradientem Verg. A en, x. 572, * Satan with vast and haughty 
strides advanced,' Milton Par, Lost ti. 109. 

23. &t Ti X4mv kt\, : a comparison instead of the apodosis, which (with 
6<t>6aXfjudia'iv iSuJv as a repetition of m ivorfacv) follows at 27. The gnomic 
aorist ixoprj contains the point of comparison ; but vavdwv also receives 
emphasis from its position and corresponds to itniTo yap runucrOai 28, i,e, 
joy at the promised satisfaction of a passionate desire. — hr\ c^ifcart ic^p- 
oxif : as he happened upon the carcass of a beast just slain in the chase 
(cf 26). aS>fm is used in Homer only of a dead body ; see § 17. In 
A 475 ff. is another instance in a comparison of a lion coming up and eat- 
ing a deer which a hunter had killed. — Cf impastus stabula alta 
leo ceu saepe peragrans, | suadet enini vesana fames; si forte 
fugacem | conspexit capream aut surgentem in cornua cer- 
vum I gaudet Verg. Aen, x. 723 ff. The aorist is gnomic, like cv/xov, 
below, which explains Kvpcra«, and is in apposition with it. 

25. |tdXa KaTf<r6(ci : eagerly devours, — ^dp n kt\, : explains Truvdwv, — 
d irtp &v : cf B 597. — afrrdv : himself in contrast with the goat or deer. 

26. K^vft kt\, : <' hounds and hunters," who had killed the beast. 



27. OfociSIa : with * synizesis ' of the last two vowels, as 237, 450. § 25. 

28. r(otur0cu : for the aorist infinitive after a verb of expecting, cf, 112, 
366 ; see G. 1286. 

29. Paris was on foot ; see 22. — ^ ox^v : equivalent to i$ imrcDv 265. 
31. KartirXi^ : " was filled with dismay " ; not from natural cowardice 

(Z 521 ff.), but his guilty conscience robbed him. of courage at sight of 
Menelaus. * Conscience does make cowards of us all.' — ^p : cf, A 44. 

33. «f 8' &Ti : introduces a comparison, with the gnomic aorist. See 
§ 14 «. — W, W : as 12. For the c remaining short before 8/>, see § 50 g, 
— iroXCvopo'ot dirio^: stepped back again, sc, in terror; in this lies the 
point of the comparison. For the predicate adjective used as an adverb, 
cf, Tiiptai 7, divrvoi A 535. — Cf, improvisum aspris veluti qui sen- 
tibus anguem | pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente 
ref ugit I . . . hand secus Androgens visu tremefactus abibat 
Verg. A en, ii. 379 if., 'False Sextus saw and trembled, | And turned and 
fled away; | As turns, as flies the woodman | In the Calabrian brake | When 
thro* the reeds gleams the round eye | Of that fell speckled snake, | So 
turned, so fled false Sextus | And hid him in the rear,' Macaulay Lays, 
Battle ofRegillus xv. 

34. ine6 : belotOf referring to the weakness of his knees. Construe with 

35. iropciAt : in apposition with fuv, as a * part * with the < whole ' ; cf, 
438, 442. • 

36. Ka0' 6|&iXov : into the throng, — &,y€pAx»v '- also B 654. 

37. 'AX^v€po« : in apposition with the subject of ISu, expressed here 
for the sake of the contrast with 'Arpcog viov, 

39. ctSos &pio^ri: as 124; in contrast with Avaimpi, cf 45. Thus the 
excellence that is granted is made a reproach. 

40. aW* 5^cXts ktX, : closely connected with tlie reproaches of the pre- 
ceding verse. — kyovot, &704iot : unborn, unmarried. — Elsewhere, also. Hector 
uses strong language to Paris and about him. Cf 454, Z 284 f. 

41. Kal Td : even this, referring to the preceding verse. — kc poiiXo(|»|v : 
potential, / should prefer; cf, A 112. — k€v r^: as contrary to fact in 
present time. — voXv: cf A 91, 112. 

42. ij: follows the comparative idea in PovXjolixrfv, as A 117, icou iccv 
iroXv ictX. being parenthetical. 

44. ^rrtt (imperfect participle): they who believed; of an incorrect 
view, as B 37 and frequently. — KoXdv : seldom is an adjective at the close 
of one verse in close connection with a noun at the beginning of the next. 



§ liy. Many apparent exceptions to this rule can be ex] 
156, 283. This arrangement of words may have been 
order to give increased prominence to dSo9» Perhaps koXov 
change places, having been transposed to avoid an < appare 

45. Ivi (for iir&rn, as A 515): attends thee. — dXX' oii 
trast with ^vrc9 calls strictly for a participle denoting 
recognition of the truth. Instead of this, Hector states t 
own standpoint. — ^pio-Cv : local ; r/. A 24. 

46. " Can such a coward have dared to meet the dan 
the rape of Helen?" — toi^Sc : with deictic -&, c/. 157, B 

47. 6Ly%LpQii : subordinate to imnXwms [Attic ciriirXeixra 

48. dXXoSavoiiri : masculine adjective as substantive 
B 819. Cf. on A 54, 539. — dvl^ : didst lead {bring) horn 

49. AvCiis: cf, A 270. — wdv: sister'in4aic of Agam 
implied in the more general dvBpStv ktX. — alxi&t|Td«»v : cf. 
taut for the thought here. For the plural, cf. 106, B 250. 

50. vfj|ia : as a bane. This accusative and the two f 
apposition with the whole of the preceding sentence, mai 
of the action. Cf. B 160 ; see H. 626 ; G. 915. — Wi|i^ : c< 
— For the (probably accidental) alliteration of ir, see § 13 

51. Svo-fuWo^v ktK. : for the ^chiastic ' order of words 
A 443. — KaTi|^(i|v : humiliation, shame. Cf. 6 Kuclpwv €<f>7 
TOK ixOpoiiy aro7(09 3c r<X9 oIkuok irapiypvra Dio Cass, xxxv 

52. o^K &v &^ ktX. : a question in the sense of an energe 
exhortation. Couldst thou not then withstand , etc. f Stand ti 
way for this question has been prepared by 50 f. "If 
courage to bring Helen to Troy, thus bringing war upon 
then have the courage," «rc. 

53. yvolffft Kc : then wouldst thou learn. The conditi 
easily supplied; cf. A 232, B 242.— Ix€w: hast to wife, 

54. o^K &v TOi xpck<a>ii : " will not help thee (A 28).' 
definite than the optative with av, to be expected after 
§ 18 ^. ore /uycti/s is stated as a mere conception of the 
without the article, although the other nouns here have it 
had a cithara (1 189), but he sang not love songs but ic\« 
deeds of men. — rd : these, thy; deictic, like the following i 

55. ^ Tf kt\. : among the gifts of the goddess of lo\ 
prominent. Observe the explanatory apposition. — fuy 
generally the simple dative is used with fuywfu. 



56. 8ci64|tovit: sc. since Paris belonged to the royal family. — ^ ri mv 
the conditional idea (English else) is implied as in 53. 

57. Xdivov ktX. : put on a stone tunic. A grim expression of popular 
speech for death by stoning; the customary method of capital punishment 
in heroic times (as in the laws of Moses). A recent American story has 
the sentence, *You would return in a wooden overcoat,' and from an 
English story is quoted < put on the green waistcoat ' in the sense of < lie 
under the graveyard sod.' Possibly, then, Hector referred to a sarcophsr 
gus ; but the Homeric heroes are burned, not buried in stone coffins. — 
ttrvo: from hnrufu (ccrvv/u). 

59. "^KTop: construe with 64, where the principal thought begins 

kni : follows the vocative, as A 352. This clause has no grammatical con- 
clusion. The virtual conclusion is 67 f . 

60. aUC tm: this thought is resumed in 63 with an accented <roiy 
because of the contrast. — drtipiit : predicate of KpoL&irj, 

61. itriv: goeSf i,e, is driven. It is always used as present in Homeric 

comparisons; cf, B 87. — 8iA Sovp^: through the trunk of a tree wr 

dWpos: driven by a man. For the passive sense in cTo-iv, see H. 820. — 69 
^ Ti #ctX. : hypothetical, "when he hews out" of the felled tree, etc. — 
rt%y^ : with skilL For the dative, cf, K^ayy^ 2, inyy 8. 

62. o^^XXci ktX. : the axe by its weight increases the force of the man's 
blow. 6^€AX£i has the same subject as daiv, which shows the intervening 
clause to be parenthetical. 

63. &Tdppi)Tos: attributive adjective with V009. 

64. |i^ |M»i : < adversative asyndeton.' — irpo^pc : cfB 251. — XP^'^^ • 
equivalent to ^(pva'oifiopov, adorned with gold. Cf. B 872, Venus aurea 
Verg. Aen. x. 16. Similarly, Ares is ;(aAx€09, bec,ause of his bronze armor. 
— "I acknowledge my lack of thine unyielding courage, but do not cast in 
my teeth the gifts of Aphrodite." 

65. « Causal asyndeton,' i.e. if a particle were used here, it would be 
causal. — dWpXi|Ta: abiecta, to he cast off, as B 361. Cf. rrav KTurfm 
(creature) Oeov koXov, koI ovSkv ijropXrjTov 1 Tim. iv. 4. 

66. Soira • • • 8A(riv: for the conditional relative sentence, cf. A 554. 
Explanatory of Scj/m, adding the essential mark of the gods' gifts, i.e. 
that they are of free choice. — airoC: i.e. without act and thus without 
responsibility of the receiver. — k«»v IXoito: this forms an independent 
contrast to the preceding relative clause. 

67. vOv aihn : transition from the preceding general considerations to 
the work before them. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 115 

68. ftXXovf : the others. — Kd6i«>ov : bid to sit down. 

69. aMlp: see on B 768. — h ^Arvtf: between the two armies; cf. 77, 
266, in medium inter duas acies procedunt Liyy i. 25. 1, cyopc «au 
<rnj6i di TO fjLVTOv St. Luke vi. 8. For the neuter adjective as a substantive 
(not very frequent in Homer), cf. A 54, 539. 

70. o^|ipdXtn : cf. ^ci/fcc A 8. The plural is used, since the consent 
of the Achaeans also was necessary for the single combat. — rH))uwi men : 
t.«. those which Paris carried away with Helen from the house of Mene- 
laus ; cf. 282. < Helen and her treasures ' are often united in thought — 
l&dxM^^: as A 8. 

71. vuei^: shall gain the victory ; as future perfect, shall be victorious. 

72. H: seems to strengthen mvra. — d^lo^M: middle, take as his own, 

73. ol 8' &XXot: but you, the rest. Elsewhere, when at the beginning 
of the verse, but they, the others; as 04, 256. ot 8* oAAoi includes both 
Trojans and Achaeans, and a division into ot /acv, ot hi might be expected ; 
but instead of this, the second person (vauxrc) appears in the first mem- 
ber, and roc 8^ vttKrBnw in the second. Cf. 256 ff. — ^iXdnira: * zeugmatic- 
ally' (cf. A 533, § 16 c) connected with rafiovrcf, which is construed 
strictly only with opiaa. — ra|fc6rrtt: see on B 124. 

74. vcUoiTf : may ye continue to dwell. Note the optative between two 
imperatives. This is a mere incident to the proposition. — ipifiAXoKa: 
epithet of Phthia, A 155, and of Larisa, B 841. — toI U: but those, the 
Achaeans. 

75. 'Afyot, 'AxotCSa : i.e. Peloponnesus (as A 30) and Northern Greece, 
i,e. all Hellas. See on B 530. 

76. &K96vwi : gives the cause of ix°^' 

78. fUovov 8avp6t (partitive genitive) : i.e. holding the spear horizon- 
tally with both hands, crowding the Trojans back and showing that he 
did not intend to fight. — 48^v0i)oxiv : were brought to a halt. This gives 
the result of dvccpye, see on B 94. 

79. <inTo(Atoinro : were aiming, imperfect of attempted action. 

80. lp<iXXev: transition from the participial to the finite construction, 
in order not to subordinate this idea to CTrero^o^oi^o, although the rk . . . 
T€ would make jSaXXovrt^ natural here. See §§ 11 //, 21 A. 

82. Xtrx"^^ V^h P^iXXcn: note tlie * asyndeton,' whei*e the second impera- 
tive explains the first ; and the double address, 'Apyciot, kov/xm 'Axaiuiv. 

83. m^ir^: cf. B 597. — lirot : for the long ultima, see § 59 j. 

84. f&dxiis: for the genitive, cf. 112, Avrrj^ B 97. — &vi^ ti kt\.: cf 
B 823. Se. in order to hear Hector's speech. 



85. <ovn)|UvMt: made emphatic by its position imt dfi^oT^ioiriv : 

between both aiinies. 

86. K^icXvn |mO: hear from me. The genitive is ablatival. 

89. KdX': for the accent of the ultima (xoAa) thrown back upon the 
preceding syllable, cf, 192, A 105. § 28 d, — dvoMHku: i.e. they were to 
be mere spectators. — kw\ x^vt: for the dative of rest, cf. A 593. 

90-94 = 69-73, with necessary changes. — airdv: intensive, himself. 
airro9 povkercu would be natural here, but the accusative is used, correlative 
with oAAovs /acf, above. 

92 = 71. — Transition to direct discourse ; see § 11 e. Cf. 89. 

95. Ak^v: equivalent to dKcW A 34. Originally a cognate accusative 
with iy€vwTOy cf. § 56 b. — o%«»irg: dative of manner, equivalent to a-uo- 
7riavT€i. — Cf. dixerat Aeneas, illi obstupuere silentes Verg. 
Aen. xi. 120. 

98. 0v|i6v : accusative of ' limit of motion.* — fyj&v : made emphatic by 
its position before the caesural pause. — ^poi4« kt\. : <* My mind is that 
we now (rfirf) are to separate in peace." <l>poy€w is nearly equivalent to 
&Nca fUK. For the aorist infinitive, cf. 28. 

99. 'A|yyiCovt koI TpAns : has more feeling than vfjMS wu -^fjMi. See on 
A 240. — wk n v^: the speaker returns to the address begun with kckAvtc. 

100. 4|Li^ lpiSo« : my strife with Paris. — ^X^ • ^^^ beginning ; cf 87, 
B 377 f . A mild expression for the guilt of the first breach of the peace. 

101. AmroT^ : the antecedent is the subject of rtdvairf. — Odvarot koI 
fioCpa : cf iftovov k(u K^pa. 6, $avaTov koI woTfjuov B 359. 

102. Tf0va(i| : let him lie dead. — 8uucpiv6cCTf : repeats huiKpw6rifjuQmuL. 

103. otrm : aorist imperative, as o^cre 105, opo-co 250 ; but oUrofuv 104 

is future. See § 48 i &pvi : cf apva/; 117. — XfvK6v, lUXotvav : the white 

male lamb was to be sacrificed to the gleaming Helios, while the dark ewe 
lamb was for Fcua fUXaiva (B 699). The sex of the victim was generally 
that of the divinity; thus a cow is sacrificed to Athena, but a bull to 
Poseidon. — The order of words is * chiastic ' with the following verse. — 
For the divinities to whom this sacrifice is to be offered, see on 276. 

105. npid|Mio pCifv : for the periphrasis, see § 16 d. — Spicia rdiftvg: i.e. 
may conclude the treaty, as 73, 94. The victims are slain by Agamemnon, 
not by Priam. 

106. airdt: in person; the old king being contrasted with his sons. 
The poet forgets the periphrasis and proceeds as if he had said Hpuxfjuoy. 
— ktni: this introduces the first reason; the second follows with cud 3c 
108. — ot : for him, his. — irafSct : especially Paris. For the plural, cf. 49. 



THJED BOOK OF THE ILIAD 117 

107. 11^ Tit jcrA.. : let no one^ etc, Expression of anxiety connected 

immediately with his opinion of the sons of Priam Ai^ ftpma: Zeus 

watches over solemn treaties and punishes whoever breaks them ; cf. 280, 
A 160, 166, oc 0CWV opKoi Xen. An, ii. 5. 7. 

108. i|«plOovTai : are flighty^ unsteady , untrustworthy. For the literal use 
of this verb, see B 448. - 

109. oU : neuter ; c/l A 70. It has no corresponding rok in the apodosis. 

— 6 7^p«iv: ike old man (generic article), in contrast with owXariptnv 108. 

— yunk^gx; for the subjunctive, cf, A 554. — irp4wi» #crX. : cf, A 343. 

110. &v«f : how ; indirect question. — <x' &pi«^ra : cf, A 69. ^^ imt 
df4«npoio%: '*for both sides." 

HI. 'Axcuol kt\, : in apposition with oi. 

112. iraiNroe^u: to free themselves fromy to be freed from, with ablatival 
genitive. For the aorist infinitive after iKirofuyoi, cf. 28. 

113. Koi ta: and «o. — M <rT(x««: <*/ B 687.~Ik8* Ipav llfifimv]: 
sc, from their war chariots. 

114. KaT^ecvTo: sc, 'Axa4iK re T/mjcs re. Cf, dirodurOtu 89. 

115. irXi|0'(ov dXX^iX«iv: refers to ra fiiy. This thought is stated in 
different form by the rest of the verse : little ground was round about each 
suit of armor. 

116. S^m: this numeral is construed with the plural where the two 
persons are not necessarily and closely connected. — k^vkos : the heralds 
were the only official members of the king's household; cf, A 320 ff., 
B 183 f. Thus the service of the heralds at 268 fif. is because of their 
relations to the king's person. 

120. oM|Mva4: cf 103. — &pa: then, so; the immediate result of the 
commission. — oAk &ir<0i|o^ : with a dative of the person. 

121-144. The view from the walls. This episode has been criticised as 
interrupting the progress of the action, but it has been much admired 
also. Cf, the scene in Scott's Ivanhoe where Rebecca describes the leaders 
of the assailing party. — The Achaean army seems to have come nearer 
the city wall than we should expect from the use of his chariot by Priam 
at 259 ff. 

121. Iris, elsewhere the messenger of the gods, here of her own accord 
brings into the action Helen, the cause of the war and the prize of the 
expected single combat The following scene (Taxoo-icojria), which occu- 
pies the time necessary for the preparations for the principal action (see 
on A 318), introduces the hearer to the Trojans and their relations to 
each other. — Xfvic«Xii^ : cf. A 55. 



122. ynXdt^ : husband's sister. Cf. Sa^p 180, Itcvpi 172, dvartpiov Z 378. 

124. Aao8£icT|v : attracted to the case of the relative t^v. Cf. B 764. — 
ctSos 4f Co-Tf|v : literally, most excellent in appearance, most beautiful, Cf, 39. 

125. iviirydp^: cf 142. — (o^tfv: web. Weaving was the most honor- 
able employment of Homeric women ; it occupied queens and goddesses. 
So Hector, on parting from Andromache, says : dAA* ci? oIkw Unkra ra <r 
aur^? €/jyaKo/tt{c (care for), | Urrovr (loom) riXaKarrpfrt (spindle) Z 490 f. 

126. 8(irXaKa : feminine adjective as substantive ; see on A 54. Sc. 
xXoLvav (cf \XMvav ScttX^v), a double cloak (cf < doublet'), so large that it 
could be thrown twice (or double) about the body. — irop^vp^Tjv : of purple, 
while the interwoven scenes were of some other color. This art may have 
been in part dependent on oriental patterns, but evidently had advanced to 
the representation of persons — &^0Xovs : ue. battles, fought on the plain of 
Troy, before the action of the Iliad. Other allusions to these conflicts are 
found ; cf 132 f., A 520 f., B 29 f. But most of the earlier fighting seems 
to have been done at a distance. 

128. lOcv : not enclitic, since it is reflexive, referring to the subject of 
the principal sentence. — W 'Apt|ot ictA..: by the hands of Ares. Cf 61. 

130. 8cV ^- cf pdnrKiOi B8.— eio-KiXa tpya: an indefinite expres- 
sion, exciting Helen's curiosity. 131 = 127. 

132. ot irp(v : who before, i.e. until now. The antecedent of the rela- 
tive follows, ol ^ vvy 134. — M. kt\.: cf 15. — voXvScucpvv: i.e. causing 
many tears. Cf. 165, lacrimabile bellum Verg. Aen. vii. 604. 

133. For the rhyme between the two halves of the verse, cf B 484. 

134. K| vOv: already now. — tara*, 0^7^: with the collateral notion of 
inactivity. Cf B 255. — ir6Xc|Ms ktX. : parenthetical ; cf B 333. 

135. dinrCo-i micXiffclvoi : sc. as they stood ; c/l 231, 326. — irap& : adverb, 
by their side. — leimiyw : i.e. with the auvptarrjp (bronze point of the butt) 
fixed in the ground. Cf. defigunt telluri hastas et scuta recli- 
nant Verg. Aen. xii. 130, stant terra defixae hastae ib. vi. 652. 

138. rf Ki iaicV|o-avri : him who gains the victory. — k4 : construe with 
KticXi^ayj. — +£Xt| : standing epithet. — kckX^jo^ : cf A 293, B 260. 

139. cliroGo-a: coincides in time with €/i)3aAe. — ^Xvkvv tficpov : cf. 446. 

140. wporipoio: Helen was no longer wife of Menelaus; so she says 
of Agamemnon : Birjp (husband's brother) a^Jr* ifw^ «r#cc 180. — &imos: used 
of the native city, as iroXi? 50. — roiHjwv : Tyndareils and Leda were 
thought of as alive. Tyndaretis is called Helen's father, just as Heracles 
is called son of Amphitryo. This is not inconsistent with 199, 418. 

141. A|ryfvvgo% kt\. : cf 419. In accordance with oriental custom. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 119 

women and maidens were veiled when they went on the streets or came 
into the presence of men who were not immediate relations. 

142. 6aXd|iOio : the apartments of the women in the rear part of the 
house. There Helen sits and spins with her maids at Z 321 if. 

143. A|ia T^ y% kt\. : in apposition with ouk oTiy, cf. B 822. — Princely 
ladies in Homer are generally attended by two maids. 

144. At8pt| : Pittheus, king of Troezen, was son of Pelops. His 
daughter Aethra bore Theseus to Aegeus, king of Athens. She, living 
in Athens, had under her care Helen, whom Theseus had carried off from 
Sparta, until Castor and Polydeuces freed their sister Helen and captured 
Aethra. So Aethra was made Helen's slave, first in Sparta and afterwards 
in Ilios, But this seems to be a post-Homeric story. — EXvfjivi) : likewise 
a slave brought with Helen from Sparta ; cf. 386 ff. 

145. 66i : (hither where. — SKotol iriiXat: see on B 809. 

146. ol 8' dfi^V ktX.: see on 148, B 445. — 8v|io(ti|v : only here in 
Homer. Vergil uses the name: primusque Thymoetes | duci (sc. 
wooden horse) intra muros hortatur Aen. ii. 32 f. 

147 = Y 238, where it is said that these three heroes were sons of 
Laomedon, and brothers of Priam. — /{{ov " Api|ofi : cf. B 540. 

148. O^KoXfyMv ktX. : these two receive prominence from the use of 
the nominative. The change from the construction of 146 f. is not bold, 
since ot o/i^t TlpCoLfjuov is essentially equivalent to HpuifjuK koX ol &fiif>L fuv. 
— Ucalegon (ovk AXeytav) is mentioned only here in Homer. Cf iam 
prozimus (sc. to Deiphobus) ardet | Ucalegon Verg. Aen. ii. 311 f. 
— 'AvH\vmp: he is especially prominent in the following scene, 203- 
224, 262. 

149. &i)|iOY^rrtt : in apposition ; title of the nobles as leaders and 
counselors. See on B 21. This epithet is applied also to Ilus, son of 
Dardanus. — 4irl SKcu^i iHiX'Qoav : i.e. on the tower above the Scaean Gate, 
from which the Trojan elders and women were wont to watch the battles 
on the plain; c/. 153, 384, spectaverant enim e moenibus Pergami 
non viri modo sed feminae etiam Livy xxxvii. 20. 

150. Y^pat: equivalent to &flL ro y^pa?. — y\: already. — irfirav)Uvoi : 
the perfect indicates the continuance of the state brought about by the 
action of the verb. — d^optiraC : cf. A 248. 

151. Trrrl'Yioviv : cicadae. The males sit on sunny bushes and during 
the longest days make, by rubbing their wings, a clear chirping noise 
which the Greeks of all times admired greatly. They are not mentioned 
elsewhere in Homer. — The comparison refers only to the tone of voice. 



122 COMMENTARY TO THE 

182. ibdKOf : blessed, — fioipiryfWi : child of fortune, blest by Mdifn at 
his birth. The opposite is found in A 418. — The ancients called this a 
'rhopalic' verse, — each word being longer by one syllable than the 
preceding. 

183. ^ pii w ktK,: in truth then toere subject to thee. The tense has 
reference to the previous perception of the numerous throng. 

184. Koi: alsOf i,e, as well as to other countries. Cf, 205. 

185. Ma: there, — ^p^YOf dWpot: closely connected; cf, /SourtA^t &v^ 
170. Whenever avipK is added to an ethnic name, the words are not 
separated. For the * diaeresis ' after the third foot, see § 58 I:. — oloXo- 
vd&Xovt: with swift steeds, Cf, iroSas 010X09 imrog T 401. 

186. Otreus and Mygdon were Phrygian kings. According to the later 
story, Otreus was brother of Hecuba. Aphrodite in visiting Anchises 
introduces herself as the daughter of Otreus. Mygdon was father of 
Coroebus (Cassandra's bridegroom), according to Verg. Aen, ii. 341 ff. 

188. Ko( : construe with cywv. — ^X^^ ' ^ *^^ numbered, 

189. 'A|Mt<^vit: these were thought to live on the east of Phrygia. 
They carried on a war for booty against the Phrygians, to whose assist- 
ance Priam went. Cf, B 814. — dvndviipai: cf, bellatrix audetque 
viris concurrere virgo Verg. Aen. i. 493. 

190. dXX' oiS' ol: btU not even these; i,e, the Phrygians of 185. 

191. Sc^npov : neuter accusative as adverb with ipiavt, cf, 225. 

192. cCV: for ciir^ with the accent thrown back after elision; cf 89. 
— rtfvSi : anticipated from the relative clause ; see on B 409. 

193. |m(mv fuv icrX. : more exactly describing 08c. — kc^qXj: as 168. 

194. CS^ofoi : to look upon, 

196. rrCXot &%: cf, B 480. The syllable preceding a»9 is not length- 
ened, as is usual. See on B 190. — ImniXiCTcu rrlx9* - comes up to the 
ranks, in order to review them. According to another figure, Agamemnon 
was iroifi^v Xautv B 85. 

197. df wn^ ktA.. : a detailed explanation of icriXoi ok. 

199. Iryryavia : for cicycyowia. See on iSvirf A 365. 

200. o^Tos 8* a{ : contrasted with ovrcfe yc 178; cf 229. 

201. h &4hi: cf B 547.~icpavaf»t: cf ('lOdjcrf) rptfxu dX)C dyaftj 
KovpoTp6<l}Oi (nurse of men) i 27, scopulos Ithacae, LaSrtia regna 
Verg. Aen, iii. 272, Ithacam illam in asperrimis saxulis tan- 
quam nidulum affixam Cic. de Orat, i, 44. — irtp: as A 352. 

204. ^ |idXa: yes, in truth, 

205. Koi: as 184. — 8cOp^ tror ^Xv0f : sc, before the beginning of open 



THIRD BOOK OP THE ILIAD 128 

hostilities, in order to demand the restitution of Helen and the treasure. 
See § 5 a. Odysseus, as the most ready iii speech and counsel, was sent 
with Menelaus, who had the greatest interest in the decision. 

207. 4£i{no^H&: received hospitably, — ^(Xi)o^: received at my home, 
entertained. In this has been found the beginning of a law of nations by 
which embassies enjoy the rights of guests. 

208. ^v: as A 115. Cf. 210 f.-.|i^a: cf, 212 ff. 

209. dU' &Ti &4: the same beginning of the verse as 212, 216, 221.— 
h d7po|Uvoio^v : among the assembled; cf. 55. This was on the occasion 
when the Trojans discussed the demand made by the embassy. The 
poet does not raise the question why Priam did not then make the 
acquaintance of Odysseus. 

210. 9r hnm ¥ : sc, to address the people ; cf, A 58, 68, etc. The geni- 
tive b partitive, of Menelaus and Odysseus, but is not unlike a genitive 
absolute; see § 19/,^. — ^nCpcx^ [vircp-]: ^< towered above " Odysseus; 
cf, 168. Cf, umeris extantem Verg. Aen, vi. 668. — ^*|iovs: accusa- 
tive of specification; cf, 227. 

211. &|&^ 8' Ho^ym : i.e, as listeners. < Nominative of the whole,' — 
almost a nominative absolute, since only one of the two persons com- 
prised is mentioned in what follows. The sentence begins as if '08uo-(rcv9 
yuiv^ McvcAoos 8c were to follow. — 'ytpap<frT«pot : cf 170. Menelaus had 
a short trunk but long legs, and appeared shorter only when they were 
seated. 

212. irooTiv fi^cuvov: wove for all, set forth before all, 

213. Imrpox^&iv: in contrast with the cautious, slow beginning of 
Odysseus. 

214. iraOpa |Uv : correlative with ov8* d<^afuiprocin7S. dAAa fuxAa Atyccus 
is shown to be parenthetical by Itru ov rrokvfjLvOoi, which explains mvpa, 
"Few words but to the point." "Saying little indeed (although very 
clear, B 246), for he was not a man of many words ; but saying nothing 
which failed to hit the mark." A Spartan king ought to be laconic ! — 
Cf et Homerus brevem quidem cum iucunditate et propriam 
(id enim est non deerrare verbis) et carentem supervacuis 
eloquentiam Menelao dedit, quae sunt virtutes generi' illius 
primi, et ex ore Nestoris dixit dulciorem melle profluere 
sermonem [A 249], qua certe delectatione nihil fingi mains 
potest: sed summam expressurus in Ulixe facundiam, et 
magnitudinem ilU vocis et vim orationis nivibus hibernis 
copia verborum atque impetu parem tribuit. cum hoc igitur 



nemo mortalium contendet, hunc at deum homines intue- 
buntur Quintilian xii. 10. 64 f. 

215. cl KcU: even ify although he was younger than Odysseus. 

216. Avatffuv : for the optative expressing indefinite frequency of pasit 
action, c/. 233. See H. 914 b ; G. 1431. 

217. -friral CSfO'ici : he always looked dQtm ; with the more definite state- 
ment Kara x^vo« itrX., — a sign of meditation. Cf. non protinus est 
erumpendum, sed danda brevis cogitationi mora: mire enim 
auditurum dicturi cura delectat et iudex se ipse componit 
hoc praecipit Homerus Ulixis exemplo, quern stetisse oculis 
in terram defixis immotoque sceptro, priusquam illam elo- 
quentiae procellam effunderet, dicit Quintilian xi. 3. 157 f. 

218. tf- K fjiTT p tov : see on A 234. 

219. Atf^nfft^^t : cf, B 344. — Odysseus made no gesture. 

220. 4^i|f Ki: potential of the past, crederes, as 223; Attic l^yf^ Sv. 
Cf. 392. § 18 <f. ~ Observe the < asyndeton.' — tcucorov icrk. : a stiUen, ill- 
natured kind of a fellow. — &^pova #crX. : a mere simpleton, 

221. M| Ihra : the hiatus is merely apparent. 

222. See Quintilian quoted on 214. — Ima: for the length of the 
ultima, see § 50 A. — n^dSioviv jcrX. : in contrast with 214. 

223. o^K &v ktX. : " no other mortal could have vied." — lirtvra : literally, 
after that, — '08«o^: for the use of the name instead of a pronoun, 
cf A 240. Observe the repetition of the name in the same position in 
the following verse ; cf 430, 432, 434. 

224. T^ : refers to ore 221, made more definite by J8o$ i8ovrc«. — &8c : 
so much as before. They were so moved by his eloquence that they forgot 
his unusual manner. — 'OSuiH|o«: construe with JSos. 

226. rC« r' &pa: as A 8, B 761. 227. Ifoxot : cf B 480. 

229. o&ros: see on 167. — fpicot 'AxoUhr: see on A 284. Cf, oZpos 
*Axac<dv 6 80, of Nestor ; Ipfjta voKrfo^ 11 549 prop of the city, of Sarpedon, 
♦ pillar of state,' Milton Par, Lost ii. 302. 

230. 'I8o|M«i^ : Idomeneus is named by Helen without any question of 
Priam. At sight of him she cannot suppress the memory of a happy past, 
and hence the longing for her brothers. A more mechanical reason for 
the change in the form of question and answer, is that the repetition of 
Priam's inquiry would become monotonous — Mt 6t: equivalent to 
^oet&Ts 16, deocuccAc A 131. 

231. iiY^P^^^*^^^ : c/. B 804. The present serves to paint a picture. 

232. voXXcki : generally in Homer without the final 9, see § 80 /. 



233. ticoiTo : for the optative, c/*. 216, where the iterative 
in the principal clause corresponds to the aorist with rroXXojc 

235. Kiv 7vo(i|v : potential optative. Sc, if you should 
welly clearly. — icaC n : cf. A 521. — oUva^ : sc, the genitive o: 
from ovs. 

238. aiTaKaaxyvifrn : cf. B 706. — r^ fiOi ktK. : develops i 
the first word of the verse; r/*. A 2. — |ioC: 'dative of liken 
"the same who bore me." — l^^FTip: i.e. Leda. According 
story, Clytaemnestra also was Leda's daughter. See on A 

239. 4irW(r6i|v : cf, A 158, B 524. 

241. afri : correlative with fUy, See on B 768, § 21 /. 

242. cUCrxca: insults, — SctScons: sc, that they must 1 
6vi(8ca : reproaches. For the use of two nearly synonymous w 
& |iOfc lo-Tiv : tohich are mine, heaped upon me, 

243. Korcxiv: cf. B 699. A euphemism for death. '' Th 
and buried." — ^vo*C(oo« : life-giving. The epithet seems out 
but is used only in this connection. — According to this sto 
curi (Aio9 koD/xm) were dead. The later form of the story 
mortal, but Polydeuces immortal ; but after the death of 
granted the prayer of Polydeuces that both brothers shoul( 
alternately in heaven and in Hades. In post-Homeric times, 
the patron saints of sailors. 

244. Aaicf8aC|ioia ; for the following hiatus, see §§ 27 a, 
here follows the word that explains it. — The grave of the 
shown at Therapnae, near Sparta. — Iv irarpCSi : observe the 
the preposition in this appositive clause. Cf, B 722. 

245>313. This continues the story interrupted at 121 . 

245. xfipmtin: see 116 f. — dvd furrv: up through Ilios ; cf. . 
%,e, those named in 103 f. — ^pov : sc. in order to take them to 
6pKia »io-rd (cf. 269, B 124) : faithful, trustworthy pledges of the 

246. &pvf ktX. : in apposition with opicia. — olvov ktX. : Cj 
maketh glad the heart of man/ Psalm civ. 15. — Kopir&v Apoipi 
only of grain. 

247. do-K^ ktX. : the usual means of carrying wine on joui 
at home was stored in great jars. 

249. -y^*"*- *-^- Priam, whom they were sent to summor 
|Mvo«: sc, after ascending the tower by the Scaean Gate (149) 

250. 6pa%o: observe the following * asyndeton.* — ftptarot 
as 274. 



252. Td|fti|Tf : sc, thou and the Achaean princes. — See on 105. 
253-255 = 136-138, mutatis mutandis. 

254. ftaxV®^^^^^- ^^ fig^^' This marks simply the future fact. 

255. liroiTo: the imperative is used in the corresponding passages, 72, 
93, 282, because this thought is presented there as a demand or condition. 

256-258 = 73-75, with slight changes. 

257. vfovTcu: future; cf, 137. The future is better suited than the 
imperative to the lips of the herald. 

259. ^(^iiarcv : t.«. Priam feared for his son's life ; cf. 306 ff . — fra(poi9 : 
his attendants. The king was never unattended. 

260. kftciBovro : i,e, they hastened to the palace, harnessed the horses, 
and brought them to the gate. Priam descended from the tower to 
mount the chariot. We miss here the usual epic fullness of detail. 

261. &v [dva]: construe with ^)8iy. — icarA ktX. : as 311. The reins 
were tied to the front rim of the chariot. The king now untied them 
and drew them back toward himself. 

262. irdp 84 ol : literally, at his side for him (vdp being adverb), t.«. so 
as to stand beside him, — SC^pov : accusative of < limit of motion ' ; cf, 407, 
A 254. 

263. SkcuAv: only here as substantive, without mSXau See on A 54. 
— Ixov; held, guided, 264. imd: cf A 222. 

265. I{ tinrMv: i,e.from their chariot; equivalent to ii o^cW 29. 

266. k |Uovov: see on 69. — imxomvro : went, as B 92. 

267. ^virro : arose, hastened to greet the Trojan princes ; cf, opato 250. 
— aMx lirciTa : follows the verb. 

268. &v [dm] : sc, tapwro, — xiipmsn : sc, of both armies ; cf 274. 

270. iiCo^ov: not like Ktpowvro, but mingled the wine of both parties 
to the libation. In solemn sacrifices, the wine was not mixed with water, 
hence cnrov&u oKfnfroi B 341. — poo^Xifhrtv: for the princes of Trojans and 
Achaeans. Observe that no priests are mentioned in this connection. 
King David also acted as priest for his men. — M x<^*<^ • C/^ A 449. 

271. x'^pc"^^ • X^ would be more exact. 

272. vdp KovXfov: along by the sheath, — aUv: as commander and high 
priest of the army, Agamemnon used this knife often at sacrifices. — 
&«if>ro : from dctpoi, cf aap, sword (hanger), dopnip, stoord strap, 

273. Af v6v : as the principal idea, it is placed before KtdtaXitav, which 
it limits. See 103 f. 

274. vft|iav: sc, rpixo^^- They distributed the wool cut from the 
victims' heads as a symbol that all the chiefs present took part in the 




treaty, swearing by the victiitis. He who held a lock of wo 1 
his hand on the victim's head. This sacrifice was with( i 
most frequent in the case of treaties and reconciliations. 

275. C/. A 450. 

276. Agamemnon invokes the divinities of the heavens i 
the regions beneath the earth. Cf, esto nunc Sol te i 
mihi Terra precanti, | . . .et pater omnipotens, el 
coniuz, . . . tuque inclute Mavors, | . . . fontesqui 
voco, quaeque aetheris alti | religio, et quae ci ( 
numiua ponto Verg. Aen, xii. 176 ff. — ^^&i|6cv: Zeus had i 
and an altar on Mt. Ida, and ruled thence as god of the : 
pious soul sought and found the divinity near at hand 
mountain summits. — icvSia^ #crX. : cf, B 412. 

277. i|Aios: nominative as vocative. This construct > 
vdrr l^op^ icrX. : Helios, accomplishing daily his course i i 
is fitted to be a witness to solemn compacts. 

278. iroTa|&o( : the Trojan river gods (Scamander and S i 
at hand, are invoked as witnesses. A priest (Apfrfn^p) of 1 
is mentioned in E 77 f . — koI ot : construe with riwcr^, T : 
with reference to Hades and Persephone. 

279. 6 its: observe the distributive singular, after 
o|Mw^: for the aorist subjunctive, cf, A 554, 

280. i&dpnipoi: as A 338, B 302. 

282. a^T^ ^C'*^ • ^^' ^^^ keep, — rH)|iaTa : cf, 70. 

283. vi^|&f9a: the subjunctive expresses the speaker': 
unlike the ordinary * hortatory' subjunctive. 

284. (aiM: from the color of his hair. Cf, A 197. 

285. TpAoi ktX. : then shaU the Trojans restore^ etc. d?i- 
allel to €xerw, cf, B 413. 

286. Ti|i^: cf, A 159. — ^vrtva: 8C, anxmvifjucy, 

287. Koi: also; construe with ia-a-ofuvouriv. — iiAtitcu: i 

is strictly a final clause This exemplary penalty was to se 

dent in later times and war)^ men against committing such • 

288. npCa|&o< kt\, : as A 255. 

289. <HiK 49^\flMrfcv: the negative and verb form but one ii 
ing, refuse, Cf ov xp'^f-Xi ^ 28. — 'AXifdvSpoio : probably 
lute, although it could be construed with rifiijv. See § 19 ^ 

290. aM^ : on the other hand ; introduces the apodosi 
si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea seque 



128 COMMENTARY TO THE 

291. riko% voX^io: i,e, the victory. See on B 122. — iciX<(«: cf. A 26. 

292. ^: see on A 210. — vTO|&dx«vt: object of diro roftc — X"^^* 
equivalent to yAxmpav 271. 

294. •«|&o{i : life, as A 503. — ScvofUvont : gives the reason for Axnralpov 
Ttts iiivot : force ; cf fUym. 8. 

295. d^iiov6|Mvoi : drawing (dipping) for themselves. The act of dip- 
ping and pouring continued until each had poured his libation. Else- 
where drawing wine was part of the herald's office. See on A 471. 

296. iKXiov : 9C. out of their cups, upon the ground. 

297. cy:B27i. 

299. vpdnpoi: comparative, since only two parties are in question; 
cf 351. — Aiwp 6pKia : " contrary to the compacts." Cf A 67, 236, 271. — 
«i||i^jviiav : intransitive. *< Commit an act of hostility." The optative is 
used in the subordinate clause, with the optative of wishing in the prin- 
cipal clause, to express a mere conception of the mind. 

300. ihi ir^fc ktX. : thus may for them, etc. The personal pronoun is 
used instead of the demonstrative, since the protasis has hypothetical 
force. Cf B 303. — c^ 68f otvos : symbolical actions were customary in 
curses and conjurations. . Cf (fetialis) <si prior defexit publico 
consilio dolo malo, turn illo die,' luppiter, populum Roma- 
num sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum hie hodie feriam.' . . . 
id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit Livy i. 24; (Han- 
nibal) eaque ut rata scirent fore agnuni laeva manu dextera 
silicem retinens, si falleret, lovem ceterosque precatus deos, 
ita se mactarent, quern ad modum ipse agnum mactasset, 
secundum precationem caput pecudis saxo elisit, ib. xxi. 45; 
* As sinks that blood stream in the earth, | So may his heart's blood 
drench his hearth,* Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 1. 

301. airAv taoX rutimv: the genitive depends on cyicc^aAof, although 
o-^i (not o-^ccjv) has preceded. This clause forms an extension of the 
original thought. — fiXXourt 8a|uC<v: <*may they be made the slaves of 
others." — This prayer contains four verses, like the prayers of 320 fF., 
351 ff., 365 ff. See on 161. 302. Cf B 410. 

303. rcXax: construe with /icra cairev, cf 06. — Aaf8av(8t|«: Priam was 
in the fifth generation from Dardanus (Y 215 ff.). 304 = 86. 

305. tivtifc^Mvav : the epithet is well deserved according to Dr. Schlie- 
mann, who in his excavations at Ilissarlik was much disturbed by the 
constant winds, which drove the dust into the eyes of the workmen. He 
thought that such continual windst-orms were known nowhere else on 



earth. Virchow wrote : » Tlie winds blew about us with sucl 

often felt as if our whole settlement might be hurled down 

306. &^ : construe with c7fu. — oia vm: in no way. For 

§ 30 /. — tX^O|&cu : cf. rerXrjKa^ A 228. — 4v o4»eaX|M>Ca-iv : 

Priam fears his son's death, as in 259 Vergil imitates in 

aspicere hanc oculis, non foedera possum Aen, xii 

308. Zivs ktX. : " Zeus doubtless knows, but I do not." 

309. Oavdroio tAos : << fatal end," a periphrasis for Odv 
fiivQv icrrCv : equivalent to warpiarai, cf. rcrcXccr/txcvo? iarCv A ; 

310. &pvat Mto : sc, in order to take back with him tl 
tered lambs which he had brought. The flesh of the victii 
confirmation of an oath was not eaten, since a curse reste- 
was buried. Probably the Achaeans cast their victim into 
unable to bury it in their own land. Herodotus (ii. 39) 
Egyptians would not eat the flesh of a victim over whic 
been spoken, but were ready to sell it to the Greeks. If 
were at hand to buy it, they threw it into the Nile. 

311 f . = 261 f. — Spoivi : for the imperfect, cf. &4>Ul A 2; 
313. &^oppoi: cf. 7raA(Vop(ro9 33. — diroWovro: cf. B 113. 

315. Su|jiirpcov : thet/ measured off the ground for the co 
distance at which they were to hurl their spears ; cf. 344. 
ad certamen magnae sub moenibus urbis | din 
lique viri Teucrique parabant Verg. Aen, xii. 116 f. 

316. icXYjpovs irAXXov: "they arranged the casting of 1 
expressed more definitely in 324. The ncX^/ooc were bits of '^ 
marked with some sign so as to be recognized. The pray* 
^ile the lots were shaken. 

317. irpArtiv: before, first. Cf 346, B 359, wporepo^ 
optative in indirect discourse, representing the subjunctive c 
in direct discourse. Cf. A 191. — In the single combat o 
Book, Hector resents Ajax's offer to allow him to hurl his sj 

318. xi!ipoia dvio^ov: equivalent to )(€ipa^ avacrxovTc^, sec 
the attitude, cf A 450. See Vocabulary s.v, ^tlp. 

319 = 297. 

321. rdSc Ifrya : these troubles here, i.e. this war. — ^k 
A 2. — Both armies seem united in wishing the death of Pa 

322. 80s: for 8ds with the infinitive in prayers, cf. 351. 
SihNu : equivalent to aTTo^^urftu k(u 81W1. For the fullness 
cf A 88. 



325. &^ 6po«v: fcith averted face, in order to escape the suspicion of 
favoring his brother. — 4k jpovo^cv : the lot was not drawn, but cast, thrown 
out, 

326. ol |ifv : i.e, Trojans and Achaeans, who had stood during the 
sacrifice. Perhaps they had not been seated before (cf, 78, 84, 113 f., 231, 
250, 267), although they long ago had dismounted from their chariots and 
laid their armor upon the ground. — icard nixan : according to ranks, in 
ranks, 

327. licciTo : grammatically and in sense construed only with rcv^eo, 
although KOfjuu often is the passive of riOrjfu, For the * zeugma,* cf, ir/aos 
SS)/jui A 533. 

328. dfL^*' •if'^ouriv : standing expression in the case of the principal 

parts of the warrior's equipment, sword (as 334) and shield 4S«oYro : 

Paris had entered the conflict as a light-armed warrior ; cf 17. 

330. The poet presents a picture of the preparations for battle. The 
complete armament of the Homeric warrior consisted in the six pieces 
here enumerated, which are always ^lentioned in the same order before an 
important conflict, with the occasional exception of the cuirass. 

331. KoXdt : for the order of words, see § 11 j. 

333. do Koaxyvifroio : sc, since he himself had appeared without a 
cuirass. — AvkAovos : Lycaon had been captured by Achilles and sold as a 
slave to the king of Lemnos. Being ransomed thence, he returned to 
Troy a week before the events narrated in this book ; but twelve days 
after his return, he met Achilles again and was slain by him (^ 34 if.). — 
{(piiooif 8' a^ip: but he ftt&l it to himself; he changed the length of the 
straps, buckling it to suit his own form. 334 = B 45. 

335. x^i^*®*' ' prominence is given to an epithet of the whole sword, 
after the decoration of the hilt has been mentioned in dpyvporfkov, — 
ordKos : the strap which aided the arm in supporting the heavy shield was 
thrown over the left shoulder. Thus the shield was taken up before the 
plumed helmet was donned. 

336. KvWTpr : originally a head covering of dogskin, then helmet, 

337. finrovpiv : c/l imrofiao-oiTS 369, aere caput fulgens, cristaque 
hirsutus equina Verg. Aen, x. 869. — 8civ6v: cognate accusative, adverb 
with ^vcvcv, cf, 342. 

339. Mt 8* alirMt : and thus in like manner, § 42 it. — McWXoms : Mene- 
laus came forth to battle equipped with armor (29), but put it off as the 
rest did at 114. — dp^tos: a short form of o/oitc^cAos. Cf, 21. — Ivrfa : 
equivalent to to^co, chiefly of defensive armor. 



ow. cicaTfpvfv o|fciA<ni: on euner stae oj me inrmig, uoiu irojans ana 
Greeks. Each combatant was in the rear of his own force. 

341 = 266. 344. Stoficrpirr ip : t/. 315. 

345. KoWovTf : subordinate to o-cton-c. 346. irp6v6f : as 317. 

347. Cf, 356 vdvTo^' kln\v : a standing formula at the close of the 

verse. Probably it does not imply that the shield was actually circular, in 
which case it must have been small, — but rather that it was symmetrical, 
well balanced, 

348. oi8^ : hut not, — lpfn|(cv: broke through the shield x*^*^ • '^^ 

bronze point of the lance ; cf, yaXK^, below. — ol : refers to yaXKo^, 

349. ^wTo xwi^', arose with his lance, << raised himself to hurl his 
lance." Cf, dvaxrxofuvoi 362, altior exurgens Verg. A en, xi. 697, 
corpore toto { alte sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem. 
... at perfidus ensis | frangitur ib, xii. 728 ff. 

350. lirfv(d|icvos : '* uttering a prayer as he did so." 

351 . Zii) &va : the vocative form ofva is found in Homer only in this 
phrase ; elsewhere, dvai, as B 284, 434. — S^ rtraa^tu S kt\, : equivalent 
to 8ds fUM. TLOxurOai tovtov os kt\. The relative clause o fu ktX, represents 
a noun as the object of ruTQxrBai, — irpdrtpos : cf 299. 

352. Stov : a standing epithet, denoting nobility of descent and beauty. 
It is here used without any special reference to the circumstances of the case. 
Cf A 7. These < ornamental epithets' are sometimes put into the 
mouth of a foe. — 'AX^£av6pov: is the object of ruraxrOajL, This makes the 
preceding relative clause more parenthetical than if this proper name had 
been attracted to the construction of the relative clause, as AaoSucqv 124. 
— ical . . . S«4&f|vai : a more definite expression of the thought of tioxutBoa, 

353. tW : many a one; cf B 271. — kcU: as 287. 

354. S Kcv icrX, : explains (avoBoKOV. — +iX*TT|Ta : hospitality : cf, 207. 

355. d|iimroX^: i,e, drawing back for the throw. Cf adducto con- 
tortum hastile lacerto | immittit Verg. Aen, xi. 561 f. 

356. C/. 347. 

357. M, : with long i at the beginning of the verse. — ^acivf)s : the 
outer layer of the shield was a plate of bronze. 

359. dvrucf>^ : construe closely with what follows. 

360. Paris here seems to have had no breastplate. 

362. dvadrx<^|JKvos : sc. in order to give a heavier blow; cf 349. — df^l 
aih^: construe with Scar/ov^ci^, about itself i,e, about the ^o[Ao9. 

363. TpixOd Tf Kttl kt\,: imitative; see § 13 b — Tt kcU: cf A 128, 
B 346. — Svarpv+^v: cf Verg. Aen, xii. 730, quoted on 349. 



i 



132 COMMENTARY TO THE 

365. ofto oXo^^npos : Zeus ^c&Vios, the guardian of hospitality, had not 
avenged the privileges that Paris had abused. — Such reproaches of the 
divinity are uttered only in outbreaks of vexation. Cf, B 111. 

366. l^d|iT)v #ctA. : <?/*. B 37. — Kouconp^ : for the wrong which he did me ; 
causal genitive. 

367. v^ 8f : see on A 354. — &y*I • ^^'^m dytnjfu 4k : with ^ix^* 

- 368. Irriio^ov: predicate nominative. — oiSk Sdfiaova: marks the result 
of both preceding clauses. 

369. K^pvOos : for the genitive, cf, cavov 385, yovkoiv A 500. 

370. IXm #ctX. : " he seized Paris by the helmet, turned him about, and 
strove to draw him into the midst of the Achaean s." Of course the 
helmet-strap (i/ias) under the chin of Paris choked the wearer. 

372. This verse explains vtto ^cifn/v W' dv0ipt6vo«: as A 501. — 

oxcis : as holder ; predicate with os. 

375. f\ : in the rapid narration, the relative construction is used here, 
where a new sentence would be expected. Or this tf may be called demon- 
strative, with no conjunction to connect it with the preceding verse. — 
t^i KToiUvoio : such leather would be stronger than that from a diseased 
animal. For the aorist middle used as passive, see § 50 (f. 

376. Tfn4dXiia: the following hiatus is justified, as falling at the 
feminine caesura of the third foot; see § 27 &. — 1^' linrfTo #crX. : i.e, it 
remained in his hand. 

378. ^t^' IviSiW^o^it : i.e, he swung the helmet before he threw it. Cf 
Tennyson's Morte d* Arthur, *clutch'd the sword, | And strongly wheel'd 
and threw it.* — k^|uo^v : cf B 875 ; sc. as spoil of the victory. 

379. 6 &4r : for the hiatus, cf A 333. 

380. ifx^^ ktX. : emphatic at the beginning of the verse and the close 

of the sentence ; cf pdkX£ A 52. Construe with ^opoucre iffyfnnfy : the 

poet recognizes no chance rescue ; cf A 8. 

381. ^ta xrA. : « easily, as only a god can." — lKdXtn|ff 8^: <<and made 
him invisible." 

382. Kd8 clot : cf koButov 68. — k¥ 9ok&^ : in his chamber ; cf 391. 

383. KoX^oiNra: future participle, expressing purpose. 

384. Tp«»a( : i.e. women who had come to view the combat, as 420 ; see 
on 149. 

386. |&(v : construe with Trpoo-cairev, cf 389. For the quantity, before 
a lost consonant, see § 59 y. — iraXoi'yfWi : the adjective strengthens the 
noun. — irpoo^iircv: always used of words that follow immediately, or 
separated from them only by a parenthetical clause. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 133 

387. ctpoKo'ii^ : explained by the following clause. 

388. ii<rKCiv : contracted from rj<rK€cv, — i&dXto^ra xrX. : the relative con- 
struction is abandoned ; <;/*. A 70, 162. — This shows why Aphrodite took 
the form of this old woman. — ^iXcwkcv : sc. 'EXcn;. 

389. ri |uv Kr\. : c/. B 22, 795. 390. 8iV tti : cf, 130. 

391. Kcivof : used much like a demonstrative adverb, there, — 6 y« : »» *c- 

392. oihi m ^aCTjs : nor would you think. Not as 220. 

393. dv8pl itaxtjo-oiuvov : equivalent to ix i^xfi* — X"^^ '• ^^ ^^^^ close 
of the verse in contrast with fmxrjo'dfjuevov, 

394. Ipx<^^ ' '^ ready to go to the dance," so beautiful and vigorous 
is he. — vfov ktX. : i.e. he is in as merry a humor as if he had just enjoyed 
a dance. The participle has the principal thought. 

395. Cf. B 142. — 0v|i&v 5pivtv : aroused her anger by the suggestion. 
396 f . Kaiita: and so. This pd is resumed by the apa of the apodosis 

(398). — 8iipT|v vHfiHk kt\.: these parts were unchanged by the transfor- 
mation (386-389) ; the divinities retained their characteristics even under 
a disguise, except when they desired to make themselves entirely unrecog- 
nizable by mortals. — All but Helen saw in Aphrodite only the old 
woman. 

398. 0(£)&pi|o^v: cf. A 199. Wonder mingled with dread came over 
Helen, fearing some new device of Aphrodite, who had already led her far 
from her Spartan home. She does not believe that Paris has been carried 
home in safety. — liro« ktX.. : as A 361. 

399. 8cu|iovCT) : cruel divinity. Cf. B 190. — ra^ra : cognate accusative 
with rfirepoTTtvaVf which takes fi€ as direct object. " To trick me with these 
deceits." Cf. tovto vfia9 iiairar^axu Xen. An. v. 7. 6. 

400. Ti : surely; with mocking irony. — irporcpw : still farther from Lace- 
daemon. — iroXUiv : construe with in/, — " into any one of these cities," — 
or in a loose local sense. See H. 757; G. 168, n. 3. 

401. *pwY(t|« : construe with iroAxW. 

402. Kal KctOi : there also. Just as Paris in Ilios. 

403. ovvtKa &T| vihf : this introduces sarcastically the reason for the con- 
jecture of 400 f . " Since now, as it seems, I cannot remain longer with 
your favorite Paris." 404. vrvyip^v: see on 173. 

405. Toirvfica Si) xrX. : again a sarcastic tone. For the repetition of the 
causal particle, cf. A 110. This clause is closely connected with the causal 
relative sentence, as is shown by the repetition of the particles 8^ vvv. 
Thus the thought returns to 399. — SoXo^poWovora : i,e, in pretending that 
Paris sununons her (390), 



134 COMMENTARY TO THE 

406. wop* €lAt6v : by himself; contrasted with Scvpo 405. *♦ Leave nie 
alone." The * asyndeton 'marks Helen's excitement. — AfAv jtrX. : abandon 
the path of the gods, " give up thine immortality." The expression is sug- 
gested by the following verse, which was already before her mind. 

407. 'OXvf&trov : the * limit of motion.' 

408. wpl KCivov : about him, at his side, — ^({vt : endure woe, *< bear all 
the troubles of human life." — i ^^iXawi: toatch him; sc. that he does not 
escape thee or prove unfaithful to thee. 

409. voi^cTOi : aorist subjunctive with ci9 o k€, cfB 332. — tyt: cf, 
A 97, For its position in the second member of the sentence, as B 664, c/*. 
iroXAa S' o y €v iroin-y wd$tv ^yea a 4, nunc dextra ingeminans 
ictus, nunc ille sinistra Verg. Aen, v. 457. 

410. vi|iio-oi|rov #crX. : parenthetical. — v^mowitov: cf, 156, B 223. 

411. KfCvov : indicates contempt or abhorrence. — hi : the clause is 
causal in effect. 

412. |M»|i^io^mu: sc, if I giv& myself to this frivolous coward after 
the decision by the duel. The future is used (more definite than the 
potential optative) although the supposition at the basis of this expecta- 
tion is negatived (oIk ttfu 410). — lx» xrX. : "and yet I have already," etc, 

413. xsikma^i^v^ : falling into a rage: cf 6^(Briawi A 517. The middle 
does not differ greatly from the passive. Cf xpXnoOus A 9 ; see § 50 tif. 

414. 07(trX(i| : disyllabic ; § 25 a. — imOiU* : for the subjunctive, cf, A 28. 

415. vfhr: till now, opposed to the future. — kira^yXa: cf, aivm 158. 

— ^{Xi|ora: came to love you, " bestowed my love upon you." 

416. dfk^oT^pwv : explained by Tpwav kxu Aarawv. — |iii|T(cro|tai : aorist 
subjunctive, still dependent on fuj, — ^Btn Xirypd: grievous hates, which 
would be destructive to Helen. — Cf ilia (i,e, Helen) sibi infegtoa 
eversa ob Pergama Teucros | et poenas Danaum, et deserti 
coniugis iras, | praemetuens Verg. Aen, ii. 571 ff. 

417. o^ 8) . . . ^f|ai : an independent addition, as is shown by iccv, 
in order to explain the effect of l^m, Xvypd, For the subjunctive with 
K€v, cf, A 137. — oItov: cognate accusative. 

418. tBniTw : c/*. A 33. Helen yields only after the sternest threat. 

420. TpcHbi: see on 384. — Xd0tv: sc, Paara, as she departed with her 
two maids (cf 143, 422). — Helen, in her shame, veiled herself silently, 
and followed the goddess without attracting attention. — j)px< ' as A 495. 

— 8a(|M*v: nowhere else in Homer of a definite divinity. 

421. S^iaov: on the citadel, near the dwellings of Priam and Hector. 

422. df4^oX<H : i,€, the two who had accompanied her (143). 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD 135 

423. icd : sc, following Aphrodite ; cf. 420. 

424. tJ : for her. — IXoiio-a : prior in time to Kar^Bipct tf^tpovaa. Observe 
the distinction between the aorist and present participles. 

425. drK' 'AXifdvSpoio : according to 391, Alexander was on the bed, 
but this is disregarded in the following narration ; cf, &p)(€ Xc;(ocr8e Kuav 
447. — M: this is added to give prominence to her condescension in per- 
forming a maid's duties. — ^^'pouora : for the participle, see on wv A 138. 

426. Koipii Aios : generally of Athena. Cf. Kovpr/y Bpunjoi A 392. 

427. vdXiv: backy away from Paris, here as a sign of displeasure. 
Cf. talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur Verg. Aen. iv. 362. 

428. i^Xv^it : an exclamation. She reproaches him for his return; cf 
B23. 

429. 8«4u(f : with dative of the agent, as 301 — vpdnpot: cf 140. 

430. -^ |Mv S9| xrX. : truly thou wast wont to boast ; with mocking disdain. 

431. o{ : added with emphasis, as B 164. 

432. dXX* Oi ir9r : an ironical exhortation. The following < asyndeton ' 
is usual. — irpo«aXfova& : cheUlengey call forth to meet thee; middle, as in 19. — 
UfWXoov: observe the emphatic repetition of the name with the same 
epithet, in the same position in the verse as in 430. Cf. 223. 

433. dXXd xrX. : Helen now speaks in earnest. — fyA <yt: cf. A 173. 
" But / advise you." 

434. vat^co^oi: cease forever. Present infinitives are used also to 
explain this injunction. — {c^v^y: cf 284. 

435. dvrCPioif : for the construction, c/*. B 121, 452. — ir^Xf|Mv : for the 
cognate accusative, cf. B 788. 

436. li^ iTMs TBxa : lest in some way^ soon. — W airoft 8ovp( : by the spear 
of this very man. For the dative with vtroy cf B 860. 

437. |fci9oio%v: construe with wpociuirey. 

438. 0v|i^v : in partitive apposition with /t^ « my heart.'* Cf 35, 442, 
A 362. 

• 439. |i^ "yap : always in this order ; never yaf> /acf. — vv¥ 'A^^vq > by 
the aid of Athena. This diminishes the personal credit of Menelaus for his 
success. 

440. afnt: as A 140. — fyA: sc. vucja-w. — -vapd iM: more frequent 
in this sense is Tra/HorvurAu. — V^v: i.e. with Paris and his countrymen. 

441. tvvi|0^vTf : in the English idiom this would be in the same con- 
struction as r/9airciOfKV. C/. B 113; see § 21 t. 

442. &8i: so completely, sc. as now (446). Cf. B 802.— Ipos ^p^vot 
d|4cicaXv4mr: c/. A 103. 



136 COMMENTARY TO THE 

443. o^* ftn : iwt even then when. 

444. IvXfov Iv Wfovi : " was on the voyage." 

445. Kpavog : perhaps this name was invented for the situation ; cf, 
201 ; at least the ancients were completely at a loss concerning it. Strabo 
thought that this was the small island Helena which lies between Attica 
and Ceos; others thought it to be Cythera (the modern Cerigo), south 
of Sparta, from which Aphrodite received her epithet Cytherean, In the 
second century of our era, with reference to this passage, the name Kpavdrf 
was given to a small island in the' Laconian gulf. 

446. «t : refers to && 442. 

447. &px< : made the beginning, began ; with a supplementary participle, 
Kwtv, as B 378. — cfvrrQ : the fear of Aphrodite's anger had its effect, in 
spite of 428 ff. — The whole scene, from 382, characterizes the sensual 
frivolity of Paris. 

448. TM |Uv &pa : so these two. 

449. The story returns to the point where Aphrodite interposed (380) . — 
dv S|uXov : sc. Tpiatov. — Oi|pl fotic^ : like to a wild beast in fury. 

450. it irov l<ra0f>^jo^i€v : if he hut might catch sight of him somewhere. 
For the optative, see H. 907 ; G. 1420. — BtM^JUa : for the * synizesis,' 
cf 27. 

451. o1» nt S^varo SiCfcu: the logical proof of this statement is given 
below. " They would have pointed him out, if they could." 

452. rdn : i.e. when he sought him. 

453. " They did not conceal him through love (cf 321 ff.), nor would 
they have concealed him if any one had seen him." 

454. Ki\pi : dative of likeness with Zcrov, which is a cognate accusative 
far on its way to become an adverb. For the comparison, cf A 228. 
— IMXaCvQ : cf morti atrae Hor. Carm. i. 28. 13, post equitem sedet 
atra cura ib. iii. 1. 40. 

455. KaC: also; a standing expression, referring to previous speakers. 

456. Cf 86. 

457. S^ : as you see, surely. — ^aXwrrcu : belongs evidently. 

458. 'ApYf(T)v: as B 161. Cf ornatus Argivae Helenae Verg. 
A en. i. 650. 

459. Ti|iV '(tX. : cf 286. 
460 = 287. 

461. Iirl fviov: cf. hrcwfujfirjmiv A 22 The poet does not tell how 

Hector and the other Trojans received this demand, but implies that they 
allowed it to be just. — For the conclusion of the episode, see § 6 </. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 137 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 

The Fourth Book opens with a Council of the Gods in the great hall of 
Zeus on Olympus. These have watched what has been done on the Trojan 
plain, and recognize the fact that Menelaus has won the victory. Zeus 
proposes that the provisions of the treaty be carried into effect, — that the 
Achaeans withdraw to their homes, taking with them Helen and her 
treasures. But Hera and Athena cannot consent to any peace which 
would leave unsacked the hated city of Troy, and they instigate a Lycian 
archer, a Trojan ally, to break the truce by wounding Menelaus. Then 
the strife begins anew. Curiously enough, the promise which was made to 
Thetis on the preceding evening is not mentioned. 

I. 6foC : in apposition with oc. — iryop««vro : sc, during the events nar- 
rated in r. 2. %jpva4tf : see on A 426. 3. l^pvox<^i : see on A 598. 

5. a^Ua: sc. after T 456-460. — ^«Oit^v: sc, by the proposal of 18 f. 
6 f . Zeus teasingly compares Aphrodite's constant care of Paris with 
the neglect of Menelaus by Hera and Athena. 

7. |Uv : correlative with a^c 10. 9. vdo'^i : sc, McvcXaov. 

II. afroO: ablatival; § 19 a. 

12. KoX vih: cf. A 109. — oU^utvov: i,e, expecting, 

14. SiTMt ktX. : cf, B 252. — Zeus knows what answer to expect. 

15 f. «oXf|iov fcrX. : § 12 d, — dpo^Piuv : aorist subjunctive. 

18 if. oUAhto: cf, T 74. Potential optative without av. § 18 i.— 
fryoiTo : cf, r 72, 404. — M|fcu(av : sc, at his words. 

21 f . irXiicicu : sc, to each other. — ^ roi : correlative with 8c 24. 

23 f. x^o« f^^' '" parenthetical; § 21 d. — x^^* see on A 81. — 13.^ : 
§ 19 A. 25 = A 552. 26. 'v^vov: explained by the following verses. 

27. 6v : § 59 j ica|Aln)v kt\, : parenthetical. 

28 f. Xo^v : soldiery, — Koucd : on ir^fm T 50. — Ip8c : on fiaXXje A 52. 

30 = A 517. 31. oi KOKd MowTiv: H. 725; G. 1073. >> np£a|io« 
ktX. : rf A 255. 32. » n : as A 244. 33. Cf A 129, B 133. 

35. m^v : " alive." Cf Psalm xxvii. 2, ,Iob xxxi. 31, Xen. An. iv. 8. 14. 

37 f. * Asyndeton '; § 15. — o^l koI fyjoi: emphatic ^/uv. 39 = A 297. 

41 f. T^v: in apposition with iroXtv. See § 11 j. — t6v: c/. A 185. 

43 f . ScMca : of an act just preceding. — of : its antecedent is rawv 46. 

49. XoiPi^ kt\,: explains Sairoi, — t6: attracted to the number of 
y4pa^, 50 = A 551. 



188 COMMENTARY TO THE 

51. Tpctt: explained by 52. — |Uv: correlative with dAAa 57. 

53. Sioar^po-oi : infinitive as imperative. 

54 ff. vpovO* tvToiuu: cf, A 37. — ftwp: with subjunctive; q/*. A 81. 

— o^ : c/. r 289. — &v^ : probably future. — ^4fmpo« : cf. A 281, 545 ff. 
57. l|iov: made emphatic by the following pause; § 11 A, — v^vov: cf, 

26 ff. 58. Cf et mi genus ab love sum mo Verg. Atn, vi. 123. 
They had the same lineage. 

60 f. d|4<»Tipov: cf r 179. — C/. Verg. i4<?n. i. 46 f . — icAcXi||uu : cf 
r 138. 62. |Uv: correlative with 8c 64. — ^vo<C£o|Mif : aorist subjunctive. 

63 f. 0^1 |Mv fcrX. : < chiasmus'; § 16 a. — *AOi|vaC||: see on irpo ^icc 
A 195. 67. irpdTipoi ktX. : cf V 299. 

68 f. oi8' &v<0i|o^ : see on B 807. — ««vr9|p fcrX. : c/. A 503. — aMica: as 
A 539. 70. |MTd icrX. : cf A 222. This explains hi trrparw. 

73. Mt cKvAv : << by these words,*' saying this, 

74 = B 167. Athena's third descent during the action of the Iliad, 

75. olov : predicate with acrrtpa. *< Like the star which Zeus sends." — 
iurripa: i,e, a meteorite. — ^m: gnomic aorist; § 14/. 

76. Wpoit : predicate, as a portent, 77. XofiTpdv : see on ovXofUirrp^ A 2. 
78 f. Tip: i,€, curr^ cf 75.— 1« |Uiivov: cf, T 69.— MfiPot icrX. : c/. 

r 342 f. 81 = B 271. 82. Cf 15 f. 83. rl^inv: cf l^iccv A 2. 
84. &v0p^a»v : limits rofur/i iraX^uxo. 

87. AooSdKip: in apposition ¥dth dv£yK 86. — alxfinrj: in apposition 
with AaaSoKif, 

88. ft mv : cf T 450. — Athena searches like any mortal for the man. 

— Cf Pandare, qui quondam iussus confundere foedus | in 
medios telum torsisti primus Achivos Verg. Aen, v. 496 f. 

89 ff. Cf B 169 f. For evpc without conjunction, cf 327, E 169, 355. 

— df4(: sc, laramLv, — XaAv: in apposition with (Htm-urratov. — Pandarus 
alone saw the goddess in human form ; see on T 396 f . 

93. An independent introduction. Verse 94 repeats the thought clearly. 

95. Tp^ Uy yi : for the dative, see on B 285. (Or, it may be the agent.) 

97 ff. Tofi : construe with irdpa. § 55 c fi, — al #ctX. : equivalent to 
lav MevcAooc fitku Sfirj^, A picturesque paraphrase for death. — o>f 
pflUi xrX. : is parenthetical ; SfiriOom precedes the action of iinPavra, 

100 f. McviXdov: for the genitive, see H. 739; G. 1099. — 'AmOkXim : 
patron god of Lycia, and god of the bow. 

102. irptfTOTdvMv : cf Deut. xv. 19. 

103. otKoSc : explained by the second * hemistich.' — fiirrv : see on B 824. 
104 f. Tip: § 10 h. — a^Ua: cf 5. — MXa: sc, from its case. 



FOURTH BOOK OP THE H-IAD 139 

106. &YpCov : on Xamv 91. — ftv : object of ^c^i^ica. 107 is parenthetical. 

108. Wnot: predicate. 109. to9: construe with Kt^jkiX^, — «i^ 
Nfiv : had growrij were, 

110 f . ijpofM : sc, dUXi/Aouv. — mv : t.tf . ro^v, c/*. ro /acf, below. 

112 f. votI 'ycUh*. c/*. a 245. — vp4cr0cv #crX. : sc. in order that the act 
of Pandartls might be unnoticed. — 8^ : *< while." 

115. pX4|ir6cu : as passiye. See § 50 (f . 

116. Cf, dixit et aurata volucrem sagittam | deprompsit 
pharetra cornuque tetendit Yerg. Aen. xi. 858 f. 

123 f. Mark the < chiasmus ' ; § 16 a. — The archer often knelt or 
crouched to shoot. — When the bowstring is drawn back to the breast, 
the iron arrow point is brought near to the bow. Cy. et duxit longe, 
donee curvata coirent | inter se capita et manibus iam tan- 
g^eret aequis, | laeva aciem ferri, dextra nervoque papillam. | 
extemplo teli stridorem Verg. Aen, xi. 860 ff. — Only one other 
instance of the use of iron for arms is found in Homer ; that is an iron 
mace (H 141). — mncXonpIs: predicate. 

125. Double < chiasmus.' Pm and vcv/n;, laxev and 3\to receive 
prominence from the order. — Xt^fi: cf, A 49. The verse is thought to 
echo the sound of the bow. Cf, 504. — oXro : see on A 53. 

127. Apostrophe to Menelaus. § 16 ^. — vHkv : construe with XcAo^orro. 

129. irp6v6f : cf. 54. — ot&ou : taking her stand. — p^Xos : cf, A 51. 

130 ff. t6o-ov: explained by 132 f., %.e, a little. — Mt &n: as F 33. 

With subjunctive, as 141, B 147. See H. 914 b b; 6. 1438 vaifi6«: 

from her child. — XlftTOi: aorist subjunctive; cf A 80 ; sc, vms. — 60i: 
cf r 145. 

135 f. Cf r 357 f. 

137. IpKos &Kdm*v : see on A 284. 

139. ^wr&t: avrov. 140 f. Cf Indum sanguineo veluti viola- 
verit ostro | si quis ebur Verg. Aen. xii. 67. Cf. * Here lay Duncan : 
His silver skin lac'd with his golden blood,* Shakspere, Macbeth ii. 3. 118; 
< Sohrab loos'd | His belt, and near the shoulder bar*d his arm, | And shewed 
- a sign in faint vermilion points | Prick'd : as a cunning workman, in Pekin, | 
Pricks with vermilion some clear porcelain vase, | An emperor's gift — at 
early mom he paints | And all day long, and when night comes the lamp | 
Lights up his studious forehead and thin hands : — | So delicately prick'd 
the sign appeared | On Sohrab's arm,' Matthew Arnold Sohrab and Rustum. 

142. irapf^Xov: Attic if^aXapa. — fnttv: equivalent to Imreuw, 

145. dfi^drfpov : cf T 179. — ^ Chiasmus ' here again. 



140 COMMENTARY TO THE 

147. ^«ivtp0fv: contrasts cr^vpa with Kvijfjuu, The wound must have 
been in front, not on the side, since both thighs are stained. 

148. ^irrfTW : cf, F 259. 

151 f. vffipov: the thong which bound the arrow point to the shaft. — 
4icT^: 9C, d»rciA$$. — &i|roppov: cf. T 313, but here adverbial. 

153. Tott : ».e. Menelaus and those about him. — Pa^ : see on /ncya A 78. 

154 ff. x<H^ • on A 323 icao-(Yvi|Ti : for the length of the ultima, 

see § 59 /. — Odvarov : predicate ; cf, Koxd 28. " The truce was death to thee." 

— IrofLvov : see on B 124. — olov : agrees with o-c, object of vpoarTy<ras. 
157 f . icard 8i vdnfcav : Attic KarairariToxiKre?. — mo-rd : a standing 

epithet of opKia, even when broken. — &Xu>v: predicate. 159 = B 341. 

160 f. o^k: cf. ovK eio) 55. — fo: construe with rcXo. — 8^: see on 
A 58. — hn^: "in the future." — o^iitydXip: explained by the following. 

— AirMo^v: gnomic. "The breach of faith will surely be punished.". 
*The mills of the gods grind slowly.' 

163 f . = Z 447 f. — To8t: refers to the following sentence. — oXd&Xn : 
§ 18 6 /3. 

165 = 47. 166. a^i : for the dative after hri, cf McvcAoip 94. 

167. kw%ov%ljjfl%v : for the mode, cf t&tafjuu A 262 uXyCSa : on B 447. 

168 f. dvdniff : see on cyxcoX^s A 65 &xos v4lkv : grief for thee. 

170. For the fullness of expression, see on A 88. 171. Cf B 115. 

173 f. Cf B 160. — X(iroi|uv 'EXIvi|v : this really gives the cause for 
^Xey^UTTOS bcoifirfv 171. 

177 f. kmlfyAa-Kuv: sc. in mockery x^^^ ktX. : c/*. 24. 

179 f. AXiov : cf 158. — koI Wj : cf A 161. — oU<Jv8c : see on 103. 

181 f. o^ Kfivgtriv xrX. : i.e. without Helen and the spoils of war, and 
with heavy loss. Cf B 298. — At : cf wSe 176. — x^^^ • *•«• swallow me. 
Cf mihi tellus prius ima dehiscat Verg. Aen, iv. 24. 

184 f. vA [irak] : at all, as F 306. — irdpobOfv : local. 

189. Note the spondees. 

191. wa^aia^ : sc. o-c. — oSvvAmv : cf B 97, 595. 

192. tj : he spoke. See on A 21 9. — 0c£ov : see on A 334. 

196. ourrt^ot : nearly equivalent to oicrr^. — t6(mv : cf B 718. 

197. AvkUv: i.e. the principal Trojan allies. — t^: sc. paXovn. 
199. p4| tcrk. : cf B 47. — Kard Xa6v : cf. 126, 209, Kara arparw A 318. 
201-203. C/. 90-92. 204. Cf T 2b0. 205-207 = 195-197. 
208. Cf B 142, F 395. 209. dvd ktX. : cf A 484. 
210 f. txavov ktX. : cf T 145. — " Where was the woutided Menelaus." 
212. 6: i.^. Machaon. — hi: cf 161. — vapUrraro: cf Trap&rrrj, 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 141 

215 f. C/ 186 f. 

217 ff. 2|fcino^ : cf. 134. — hti : adverb with ttocto-c. — tVSAt : «* skilfully." 
— ol : ethical. — ^(kd kt\, : see on A 73. 

221 ff . lirC : construe with ^kvOovy cf, A 475. — ol : sc. 'Axcuoc. — xaid : 
construe with ISuv. — i^Wjo-avTO : i.e. they were eager (8oi«: cf, T 220. 

226 f. fnovs |Uv: correlative with avrap 6 231. — tovs |Uv : repeats the 
fi€v from 226. — ^va^6wm^9 : snorting in their impatience. 

229. voXXA : cf, A 35. — iropiox^Mv = *<?• mtttous iou ipfmra. The chariot 
was used for transportation from one part of the field to another, — not for 
actual fighting. 

231 f. ivfvttXctTo #crX. : c/. F 196. — |Uv : correlative with a^ 240. — o*irt^ 
SovTon : made emphatic by the verse-pause. — (Sot : for optative, cf B 188. 

234. vA: as 184 — dXici^t: ablatival genitive of separation. 

236. Cf, 67. 237. " Their bodies will lie unburied." Cf, A 4. 

238. ^iiutt : contrasted with yvircs 237, as dAd^ovs is with avra>v. 

239. &(o|uv : sc, as captives. See on A 13. 

240. C/. 232. 242. IXryx^ : <?/ B 235. 

243. t(+0* : TLTTOTt, — tm(n : as this stands, it is perfect. Ibnyrc? 

244. qX Tf #ctX. : c/. r 4. — iroXios : 6road. — mSCoto : see on B 785. 

247. Sarcastic. — Iv6a icrX. : the clause is here equivalent to vifiv, 

248. dhrpv|iivoi : the sterns were more prominent in the camp than the 
prows. 251-421. Five divisions of the Achaean army are enumerated. 

256-271. I. Idomeneus. 

252. ol 8' dfL^C: cf, B 445. — 6»pijovovro : sc, when he reached them. 

253. 'I8o|Mvii^ : sc. was busy. — onit : for the comparison, see B 480. 
255 f. ylfiifmv : cf A 330. — |UiXix^M%v : see on A 539. 

257. AavoAv : for the genitive after irc^i rto), cf A 258. 
258 f . " Both in action and in council." — 8«utI : see § 28 c, 
260 f. K^pMVTOi : for the mode, see on A 80. — ct wp: cf A 81. 
262 f. W : as 161 — irXctov : full. — irUi4v : for infinitive, cf fjidx€<rOaL A 8. 
264. otos : i.e, as brave as. — irdpos : with present. Cf, A 553. — ti^fcu 
ctvoi : see on A 91. 

266 f . ipCiipos : c/. r 47. — Ti irpdrov : on A 6. — ^it^ottiv ktX. : cf. A 514. 

269. o^v: construe with c^cvav. — yi : emphasizes the whole clause. 

270. TfMMt : for position, cf lpSe2S, 271. Cf 236. 
272-291. n. The Ajaxes. 272. ici|p:onA44. 273. Cf, 251, 
274 f. v(^: this suggests the following comparison. Cf, * cloud of 

witnesses.* — &t5Ti: cf 130, T 33, B 209. — alirtXos: the goatherd is not 
needed for the comparison, but he and his flocks enliven the scene. § 14 a. 



142 COMMENTARY TO THE 

278. ^vcr : t^ycrou, § 28 a. 

280. Totcu : refers to a>¥ 275 ; predicate. " So dark and threatening." 

282. vf^piicvCai: cf, < Bristled with upright beams innumerable | Of 
rigid spears, and helmets thronged, and shields,' Milton Par, Lost yL 
82 f.; < horrent arms,' ib. ii. 513. 

284. <n^: monosyllable; § 25 ; cf. B 704. 

286. 0*^4^ : object of orpw^^cv. 287. uiMn of yourselves. 

288-291. Cf, B 371-374. 

289. v&oav: masculine, not neuter; c/*. rw 104. 

292-325. III. Nestor. 293. IvOa : particle of transition. 

299. lpKos:(/. A 284. 

301 f . Umiloav |Uv : . has no correlative irildv: Sc ^4>^ '- check, 

303. Transition to < direct discourse,' without the usual introduction. 

304. irp6a4* &XX«v: i,e, as TrpofMXpi, The warriors while on their 
chariots could not safely hurl their spears, lest they could not recover 
them. 

305. " Remain together." — &XcMraSvdTfpoi : scil you fail to obey. 

306. dv6 ox^v: nearly equivalent to ok oxixmnv. Contrasted with 
Trpwrff aXXiiiv, 

310. iro^Mv : genitive, as ro£a)v 196 . 311. Cf, 255, 283. 312 = B 7. 

314. ' Toivara : the seat of bodily vigor. These weaken in time of fear. 

315. 6^tkt¥ : cf. A 415. 316. Ix<iv : sc, y^pa^ as object. 

319. At: modifies l/uv [cTivu] ; equivalent to toUk, See on /uvwOa 
A 416.— 'EpfveaXUmi: the story is told at full length in H 132 ft. 

320 f. vdvra : sc, dyaJSa, — il : see on A 280. — v9¥ aZn : see on A 237. 
— 6ird{^ : virtually equivalent to reijpci, above. — Non omnia possumus 
omnes. 

322. KolAt: << although old." 323. r6: cf, 49. 

324. of tnp : nearly equivalent to since they. 

326-363. IV. Menestheus and Odysseus. 

327 f . Cf, 89 f . 329. 'OSvovi^ : in apposition with 6. 

330 f. vdf : construe ¥dth carcumv. — o-^(v: for the dative, see § 19 A. 

332. vtfov: as A 391. 334. ^n&n: cf. B 794. 

335. Tpd&Mv: for genitive, cf McrcXoov 100. — &p(iiav: for plural, cf 
B278. 

336. Cf. 241, 255. 337 = 284. 338. vU: for the ultima, cf 155. 
339. For the < alliteration ' of k, see § 13 a. — mpSoXid^ipov : cf, A 149. 
340 f. d^lvraTi : sc. fMxrp. — |Uv r Moun : contrasted ¥dth vvv 347. — 

IdvTon: for the accusative, in spite of o-^cv, see on A 541. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 148 

343. << You are always ready to listen to an invitation to a feast." 

345. ^(ka : predicate. See on A 107. — ovroXIa : c/. A 465 f . 

347. vfhr 8^ : opposed to 341 f. — cl «cr\. : object of opw^re. 

349. C/. A 148. . 

350-355. Speech of Odysseus, in six lines like that of Agameninon in 
358-363. 350. * Rhetorical question.' C/. A 552. 

351 f . iroX^io |ic6U|uv : sc, ^fia$. Cf. 234. — M : against, upon. — 
fyftfMfMv kt\. : cf, B 440. — fyf(po|Mv: for the subjunctive, cf. A 164. 

353 ff. " I shall fight bravely."— T»|Xi|iAxoio ktA. : cf. B 260. — ^yhna : 
< inceptive ' aorist. — dm fi^ta : predicate. 

357. x9»o^voi,Q : supplementary participle. For the genitive, cf. B 348. 

358 = B 173. 

362. " We will make all this right hereafter." Cf. Z adfn. 

363. 'rd 8^ : sc. harsh words. 364-418. V. Diomed and Sthenelus. 
364 = 292. 365 f. Cf. 89 f., 327 f. 

366. fviroio^ xrA. : form one thought. 

367. irdp: sc. as charioteer. 368. Cf. 336. — t6v: i.e. Diomed. 
370. Cf. B 23. 

372. ^CKov T|cv : equivalent to rjv&ivcv. irrwrKoiiyuEv is subject. 

374. (Sovro : for the voice, see § 50 a. — vovdi|Acvov : i.e. in battle. 

375. iKpC : construe with ycvco-^. 

376. &Tfp iroXi|iov : explained by ^civo?. 

377. (ftvos : as a friend. — dYf(p«v : c/. 28 ; sc. for the expedition against 
Thebes. 

378. ot: i.e. Tydeus and Polynices. — iaTpardttvro : cf. T 187. 

379. i&dXa: for length of ultima, cf A 394. 

380. ol : i.e. Mycenaeans. 

381. Irpci^c : i.e. dissuaded. — irapaCcrta xrX. : cf. B 353. 

382. ol : a return to oi of 378. — irp6 : adverb. — 68o{) : local genitive. 
383 f . For the story, cf. E 802 ff. — The invaders halted at the river 

and sent an embassy to the town. — dYyiX(t|v: predicate, a^ ambassador; 
cf. r 206. —W : construe with crrciAav, i.e. to Thebes. — TwSij : Tu8ea. 

387 f . £ttvo« ktX. : stranger though he was. — Ka8|MCoio%v : equivalent to 
Ka8/AC£0)va9 385. Cf. ^ap8dyiM and AapSaviiavt^. 

389. 6 Y« • resumes 6 385. — irpoKaXC(rro : cf. T 19. — vdvra : neuter, 
«* in all contests," i.e. * events,' wrestling, etc. Cf. B 643. — Mca : was victor. 

391. x^^*'^'^^^'^^ ' ^^* because of his success. 

393. Kovpovs: in apposition with Xoxov. — The leaders have bloody 



144 COMMENTARY TO THE 

396. Kol Toioav: i.e. he overcame these, too. — i^l^icfv : cf. e^^rot B 32. 

397. Iva : sc. to bear the tidings. 

398. &pa : resumes Iva 8c #crX. The omens directed that Maeon should 
be spared. 

399. AirAXiot : Tydeus was grandson of Oeneus (B 641). — tov : this. 

400. lidxTi : local; cf. A 521. — d^ort icrX. : "although better," etc. 

401. C/. A511. 

402. IviiHiv: accusative after tuUaOw, see H. 712 ; G. 1049. 

404 f . i^M€ : ^cvSeo. — v6^ : i.e. true. ^- Note the following < asyn- 
deton* and the repetition of ^/idc — |**y»: on A 78. 

406 f . The former (in which Tydeus and Capaneus, fathers of Diomed 
and Sthenelus, had part) expedition against Thebes failed ; the second, of 
the Epigoni, destroyed the city. — vavpdrtpov : sc. than the fathers. — d^a- 
YovTc: dual, for Diomed and Sthenelus. — inr6 nCXot: cf. B 216. 

409. KfCvot: i.e. the first assailants. 

410. T^: therefore. — ^|mC|| : sc. rnuv. " We deserve higher honor." 
412 ff. Seven verses in reply to seven. See on 350. 412. Cf. A 565. 
415. Toirry |Uv: correlative with rovn^ 3e 417 ; and icvSos is contrasted 

with irtvOoiy in the same place in the verse, before the pause. 

417. *AxaiAv : genitive of cause or possibly genitive absolute ; § 19 </. 

419. Cf. V 29. 420. Bctvo'v: c/. T 337. 421. Wo': cf. V 34.— 
For the supposed spectator, cf. 539. 

422-456. This scene might follow immediately on B 483 or B 785. 

423. iiroovvTcpov : the point of comparison ; cf iTnuravrcfxu 427. 

425. x^P^V • local. 427. AavoAv : construe with ^oAayycs. 

428 f. K^vf tcrk. : cf B 805. — •^|iovwv: at the head of the verse, in 
contrast with oi 8' aXXoi. — ol 8c ktX. : cf VS.— ^alifs: on T 220. 

430. IxovraicrX. : contains the principal idea. 431. SciSvons: causal. 

433. TpAcs : the comparison is continued until the subject is forgotten 
and resumed in Tpcuoiv aXaXqro^ 436. Cf. B 459. 

434. XcvKov : for the epithet, see § 12 a. 435. Two « apparent hiatus.' 

436. Tpmmv: see on 433. — dvd (rrpar^v: cf. A 10. 

437. la : cf fuaV 238. — -yiipws : cf. B 804. 
439. Tovs |Uv : i.e. Trojans. 

442 f. Vergil imitates this passage in his description of Fama: parva 
metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras | ingrediturque solo et 
caput inter nubila condit Aen. iv. 176 f. Cf. *Satan alarmed] 
Collecting all his might dilated stood: | . . . His stature reached the 
sky, and on his crest | Sat horror phimed/ Milton Par. Lost iv. 985 f. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 145 

442. C/. 424. 

443. oipav^: for the dative, see on Z 136. — lo^pi(i: gnomic aorist, 
parallel to jScuVci. — koX hr\ icrX. : << while still it walks/' etc. 

447. o^v: together. Construe with €)3aAoi/. — jUvia : </. B 387, 536. 

449. iroXvs ktX. : cf. B 810. — Cf, ^Oi shout and scream the mingled 
din I And weapon-clash and maddening cry | Of those who kill and those 
who die,' Scott Rokehy v. 31 ; * Sweat, writhings, anguish, labouring of 
the lungs | In that close mist, and cryings for the light, { Moans of the 
dying, and voices of the dead,' Tennyson Passing of Arthur. 

450 f . Note the * chiasmus,' — tv^mXiq belonging to oAAvrrcDV, and 
cMfui>y)/ to 6AXvfici/(oi/. 452. jpco-^t: genitive. 

453. {v|iPdXX«Tov : cf. <Met as torrents from the hight | In highland 
dales their streams unite,' Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 24. 

455. Soihrov: the point of comparison. — iroi|jiyjv: cf. 275. Cf 
rapidus montano flumine torrens . . . stupet inscius alto | 
accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor Verg. Aen. ii. 305 ff., 
and also ih. xii. 523 f . ; < Then like the billow in his course, | That far to 
seaward finds his source, | And flings to shore his muster'd force, | Burst 
with loud roar their murmur hoarse,* Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 9. 

456. T&v: construe with laxfl' ^f- ^ ^^' — "Wv**™- see § 32 i. 

457. Tpd&«»v : construe with avSpa. 
459-461 = Z 9-11. 

459. iL : marks the clause as a repetition of 457. C/. E 79. 

460. iriy|i : sc. hopv or I7X09 as object. — oo-rfov cCo-m : cf A 71. 

461 f. 6a-v*: in apposition with tov, cf 350 wvptyat: sc. rfpart. 

Cf B 394. 463. iroSAv: cf xapos 154. 464 = B 541. 

465. tKttM : mark the change to the imperfect. — j^pa #crX. : = avk^aax. 

466. liCwvOa: cf A 416. 

470. t6v |Uv : i.e. Elephenor. — aW^: ue. his body. Cf A 4. 

472 f. dv^p &v8pa: equivalent to dXAi/Xovs. Cf legit virum vir 
Verg. Aen. xi. 632.— vl6v: for the short penult, see § 23/. 

477. k6Xmqv : sc. rofc^cc 478. " He did not repay his parents* care," 

479. im6 : construe with Bovpi Cf T 436. 

481 f . drriKp^s : cf T 359. — xofial : for x^fJLoit. Cf {nf/ov A 486. 

483 f . m^vKn : for the subjunctive, cf. T 61 f . — drdp ti : cf dXXa tc 
A 82. 

485. oir^ : see on B 474. 

486. i£frafM : * gnomic,' hence subjunctive, Kafjol/rj. 

488. ToSov: refers to fuytipoi io^ 482. Cf T 153. — 'Avec|i(Sv|v: § 39 e. 



146 COMMENTARY TO THE 

489. TO«: i.e. Ajax. Cf. McveAoou 100. 490. ica0' SfuXov: cf. 199. 

491. 6U: for the repetition of the subject, see on A 191. 

493. a^^: i.e. his booty, the dead Simoisius. — ol: dative of interest. 

494. ToO : causal. Cf, 168 f . — onroicrai&^io : passive. See § 50 d. 
496. lyy^ '• ^C' ^ ^^^ body of his friend. 

498. dvSpos: ablatival genitive; see § 19 </ )3. — AXtov: cf, 26, 179. 

500. irap* tinrwv : clearly Priam had a stock farm at Abydus. 

501. Mpoio: for the genitive, cf. tov 494. 

502. i\: refers to Bovpi, but cu^/*^ (which is added in apposition) is 
already in the poet's mind. 

504. A frequently recurring formula. The verse is thought to echo 
the thud of the warrior's fall and the ring of his arms. 

505. W6 : construe with )(6prf(rav, — W : for its position, cf. A 417. 

506. fifya : for the length of the ultima, cf 456. 

508. ncfryd|iov : i.e. from his temple. See E 446. — ohntoc : cf, ^n^cms. 
509 f . X^W^ • ablatival. — XCOos : " of stone." — XP^ • subject. 
512. o« imLv oM : cf, B 703. 513. x^ov «^<»^ •' ff- A 81. 

514. trrdXMt : i.e. dxp07r6Xc<DS. 516. |u0UvTa« #crX. : cf, 240. 

519. KWi|fci|v: one of the two accusatives in the active construction 
(c/3aAc Aia>p€a Kvi^fjirp^) is retained in the passive construction. 

521. oyoiS^s : pitiless. 523. Mpow\ : sc, appealing to them for aid. 

526. For the < alliteration * of ;(, (/. 339. — r6v: i.e. Diores. 

527. t6v : i.e. Pirotts. 

530. Ipvo-o-aro : drew hut sword ; middle. 

531. T^: demonstrative, with this. — 6 yt: see on A 97. 

532. dirlSiNrf : cf B 261. — mpUm^av: second aorist, intransitive. 

533. dxp^KOfiOi : possibly like American Indians, with a scalp lock. 
See on B 11. 

537. 6 |Uv : i.e. Piroils (519 f.). — * «: i.e. Diores (517, B 622). 

538. ircp(: r/. B 417. 539. ovdo-ouro: for the optative, c/. t&xs 223. 

541. &-yot 84 : see on kcu oi A 79 No one would dare as an observer 

to enter such a field, unless under the specia> protection of the mighty 
goddess of war. 

542. xnpoi : by the hand. — ^ofio-a : hiatus justified by pause; § 27 b. 

543. ydp : refers to ov^oturo. 544. vpiivlts : cf 522, B 418. 
The last verses of the Fourth Book form a fitting conclusion to the 

story of the battle up to this point, and a preparation for the more 
important contest which follows ; but the last two verses * may have been 
a rhapsodist's " tag," meant to wind up a recitation.* 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 147 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 

The subject of the Fifth Book is at once announced : The Bravery of 
Diomedf who had abready been somewhat prominent, before the battle 
(A 419 ff.)- 

1-453. The Achaeans press forvoard victoriously. 1-94. Diomed comes 
forward. 

I. Ma: as A 293. — 'AO^vn '• not only the goddess of war, but also the 
special patroness of Diomed, as she had been of his father (A 390). 

4. ' Appositive asyndeton.' — Cf. Verg. Aen. x. 270 ff . 

5. &jrtipk : t.e. Sirius, the dog star, as appears from X 26 f. — Cf 
• Satan stood | Unterrified ; and like a comet burn*d | That fires the 
length of Ophiuchus huge | In th' Arctic sky, and from his horrid hair | 
Shakes pestilence and war,' Milton Par. Lost ii. 707 ; * And as the fiery 
Sirius alters hue | . . . Their morions, wash'd with morning, as they came,' 
Tennyson Princess v. 

6 f. 'fimavoto : for genitive, cf. B 415, Z 508 ; see § 19 y. — Kpards : cor- 
responds to Kopyidoi 4, and o>/ia>v to dcnrtSos. 

9 f . t|v 84 Ti«: c/l B 811. — Ipi^: there were no priests in the Greek 
camp. — 'H^oXoTOio: the Trojans honored the same divinities as the 
Achaeans. 

II. fKdxns ktX : cf. B 823. 12. ol : t .e. Diomed. — hnanim : predicate. 
13. «ft6t : cf A 419, where Diomed dismounts. 14 = F 15. 
15. vpdrtfMf : cf vartpoi 17. 17. Apwro icrX. : cf. T 349. 

18. AXiov: as A 498. 

19. fUTOik^itiov : c/*. A 480. For the compound, see on B 56. — mvt : sc. 
by the cast of his spear. — tinnnr : " chariot." 

21. mfiPfkvM : cf 299, d/K^/Sc/Si^icas A 37. — dSiX^ioO (better d8cX<^€oo, 
§ 35 b) ktK. : " his slain brother." • 22. o«8c #cr\. : cf B 703. 

23. dXXd : = ci fA^. 24. At: final, —ol : ethical. 

28. T^v |Alr : i.e. Idaeus. 29. 6p(i4i| : sc. to fear and flight. 

31. *Apn, "Afft : § 59 d fi. — For the epithets without conjunction, see 
§ 15 a. 32. o^ &v: cf. T 52. — iaIt : correlative with vSn Sc 34. 

33. fftApvcM^oi : " fight and see." 

34. Ai^ kt\. : this is only a pretext. 

35. Ares is not long inactive ; see 461. Athena departs (to Olympus?) 
at 133. 37. licXivav: after Ares' withdrawal. 

38. •^|ft6vwv : construe with imurroi. 



148 COMMENTARY TO THE 

40. trpdirv : dative of interest; « in his back first, as he turned to flee." 
— rr^ti^Bhm: construe with irpvyr^. Note the caesura. — imto^p^v^: 
local, with Iv ir^^cv. 

41. IXoovtv : sc. hopv as object. 42 = A 504. 
43. &pa: c/. B 522. 44. U : ue, ^aSurw. 

46. tvmtv: construe with cirt/Si/croficvov. Phaestus had been fighting 
on foot. Now he started to mount his chariot in order to flee. 

47. o-K^Tot clXfv : c/. 68, 82, 310, 659, 696, A 461. 

50. Menelaus is able to fight, in spite of his wound (A 139 f.). 

51. 8(8o(i: r/. A 72, B 827. 52. odfMcriv: local. 
53. XfM^fM : cf, A 28. 54. faiiPoXOu : for plural, see on A 205. 
56. Of course this implies that Menelaus drove him. 

57 f. = 41 f. 59. The names indicate the craft of the family. 

60. U : t.e. 4>^xjcAos. Cf. ck 44 ; see on B 872. 

62. 8t : i.€. Phereclus again. 63. dpx^Kdicovt : see on auKofUyrfy A 2. 

64. Phereclus pays the penalty for his work Ik : construe with ^ccov. 

— Mr^ra : sc. that misfortune would befall Troy if Paris should bring 
home a Greek wife. 65. Sn icrX : parenthetical. 

66. pcpXVJKft : as A 492. o^ 4| : cf. A 502. 

67. dic«Md) : in apposition with i^. 

70. |i4v, U : contrasted. Nearly equivalent to ov vodoy mp iivra #crX. 
73 f. Kf^oX^ : partitive genitive, with ivcov. — wrus!^: cf, V 359. 
75. i|rvxP^v xA^Kov: <<cold steel." Cf iaculum ore momordit 
Ovid Met. v. 143. 77. 8t : i.e. Dolopion. 

78. dfn^T^p: cf A 11. 79. &pa: marks this as a repetition of 76. 
81. x<^ • ^^^ y ^f- ^Z^*' ^^- 82- «i8Cy : to the plain. 

85. -y^Cns: cf t&xc A 223. 86. Explanatory of wor^poun kt\. 

88 ff. Cf A 452 ff . — iK^Scum : ' gnomic' 

91. M6vra: construe with rov 89. — At^ ^Ppos^ see on B 146, 396. 
93. At : refers to iouctlk 87. , 

95. AvKdovot icrX. : i.e. Pandarus. See A 88 f. 97. M: cf A 94. 
98. Tvx^v: cf. Tvxrjaui A 106. 101. M: construe with ry. 

102. ^wirec: c/. A 509. Forward! On! 
104. iiva-xffTw^aik : cf. A 511. 106. f^x^l^vot: exulting. 

108. KavaWjiov : see on B 20 ; cf. Tpcliux 222. 

109. 5po-o : cf A 204 . Hasten ! — Sthenelus was waiting and watch- 
ing for him, with his chariot. See A 229. 

111. Ka0' tinrMv: cf. KaraPrfaea 109. Opposed to dm/StuVo) F 261, as 
c{ oxcW A 419 to iapoLvta 837, and a<^* Imrtav 19 to hnPalvia 255. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 149 

115. icXOOi : r/. A 37. 

116. ft wn: ('/. A 453. — |M)1 #crX. : cf, ol ktX. A 219. — irapArrt|f : 
see A 390. 117. vOv ; opposed to ttotc, as ifii to wut/m. 

118. Kttl is ktX. : parenthetical. In time, this action would precede 
that of lAcTv. — iXOiCv: sc. av^pa as subject. 

120. Cf, A 88. 122. iroSot #crX. : in apposition with yvia. 

123 = A 92. 124. M: c/. F 15. — |idxtoreau: § 18 e, 

126. Explains irarpoHov 125. 

127-132. These verses prepare the way for 330 fif. 

127. dxX^v : cf, Verg. ^en. ii. 604 ff. ; *but to nobler sights | Michael 
from Adam*s eyes the film removed,' Milton Par. Lo»t xi. 411 f . ; <and the 
Lord opened the eyes of the young man, and he saw : and behold the 
mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha,' 
2 Kings vi. 17. 

129. Of6s : of course in human form. 

131. Athena makes a limitation of her command, as a new thought 
occurs to her. 134. Ifaihrt : see Ava)(topniaa^ 107. 

135. Kol |U|aa^« : the form of the sentence is changed, and this is left 
in the air. See on A 433, Z 510. 136. rpCs : see on A 213. 

140. S^PCTcu: 8C. woifii^, — rd84: sc. firjXa, — ^PitTtu: are driven. 

141. ol |Alr: «c. occs. — d'yx*^^^^'** ' <l/"- imuravrtpai A 427. — The lion 
forgets his hunger in his anger. 

142. airdp 6 : c/. A 333. 143. ^iyii : resumes c/ux^ 134. 
145 f. " Diomed hit one and struck the other.*' 

149. ovtipoirdXoio : cf. A 63. 

150. " Their father did not interpret their dreams for them as they 
came to Troy," or they would not have come. Cf. B 859. — Ipxofi^voio^ : 
cf. 198. 154. hrl : over, " as heir to." 

155 f . 0v|ft6v, d|i^oWpM : two accusatives after a < verb of depriving.' 
See H. 724 ; G. 1069. 

157. Here, as in 150, the participle bears the important thought. 

160. c(v M ktX. : sc. as spearman and as charioteer. 

161. I{ : construe with of);. The hiatus before ctfi; is < apparent.' 

162. Poo^o|iivd«*v : attracted from the case of Pova-C to that of irop- 
ru>9 ktX. 163. Tovs #crX. : both these. — 1( : see on 111. 

167. &v lidxnv •' over the battlefield. 168 f . = A 88 f. 

170. dvrCov i|i»Sa : is equivalent to vpotrrjv&i, and hence is followed by 
two accusatives, ciros (cognate) and /uV (direct object). Cf. B7. 

171. iroO: cf. B 339. 172. f : iVi which. 



150 COMMENTARY TO THE 

174. S<^s: cf, A 91. — dviurxi&v: see on A 450; cf. A 101. 

175. SSc : here; cf, k^vos T 391. 

176. Tp«o«: for accusative, see on A 31. 

178. IpAv : causal. See on A 65. — %w\\ cf, A 615. 

181. vdvra: neuter. C/*. A 389. 184. vlos : in apposition with din^/^. 

185. &viv0c OfoO: cf. non sine numine Verg. Aen. ii. 777. — rdSc : 

cognate accusative with fuuvirai, cf T 399. Nearly equivalent to ovrta. 

187. Tofrov : ablatival genitive of separation. Cf A 131. 

188. 4fii\ : see 97 ff. 191. Ms #crX. : an inference. 
193. AvidMvot : t.e. rnirp^. C/. A 240, F 223. 

195. irfirrovrai: cf B 777. — kdo^y : in apposition with o-^iv. C/. 
A 606. 196. For the fodder of horses, see on B 776. 

197. voXXd: construe with lirercUc 198. Cf A 229, A 35. 

198. IpxoH^: " as I left home for Troy." 199. Cf A 366. 

200. dpx<vciv #crX. : cf B 345. For the dative of interest, cf 
Tpclicotri 211. — TpdlM^n.: used here in a wide sense. Cf B 826. — 
Pandarus, vexed at his ill success with the bow, wishes that he had come 
as a spearman. 

201. ^ Tot #crX. : sc. if I had been persuaded. 

204. XCirov : sc. Imrovi teal apfiara. 205^ &pa : << as I see now." 

207. 'ArpcCSvi : see A 94 ff. 

209. rf fKki sOy you see, — Koicj ato^ : cf A 418. 

214. Cf B 259 f. " I hope I may die, if I don't." 

215. Iv tevpi : cf B 340. 216. iin^Maa: cf A 355. 

217. C/:A265. 

218. |tl| ktX.: see on A 131. — vApos, irpCv : cf A 98, 288 f. 

219. M : construe with dv^pC, — <rvv: see on A 389. 

222. ©lot : explained by the second half-verse. — Tp^tot : equivalent to 
Tp<i>o5, cf 'SrfXrjitf B 20. — mSCoio : for the genitive, cf yiaxTp 11. (Or, is 
it local?) 

223. Explanatory of iirurrdfjLtyoi. 225. M : construe with opcfi;. 
226 f . " You may drive, or wield the spear ; just as you please." — 

Aeneas came on foot (167), but his charioteer drove up later. 
231 f. fulXXov : better, — cCinp ktX,. : if we must flee from, 
234. U^€pfyM¥ : sc, ^/lac as object. 

236. tt*T^ : repeats vwi. — iX4ov^ : sc, to the ships. Cf, A 154. 
239. For the rhyme, ^covToavrcc, pdvTfSy see § 13 a. 
244. Iirl o-ol lidxtoreou : cf, 124. 
246. Parenthetical. 247. A(vf(a« : correlative with 6 ficv 245. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 151 

248w li^^p 84: the form of the sentence is changed. .A genitive is 
expected, correlative with 'Ayxfanao. 251 = A 411. 

255. adntt: Le, on foot. 256. if: monosyUable ; §25. 

257. «AXiv : r/. A 59. 259 = A 39. 

260 f. " If / slay the men, do you look out for the horses." 

261. To^8c: t.e. those of Diomed. 262. I{ &mryot icrX. : cf. T 261. 

263. AlvfCoo : limits Imriay. 265. ^ : ablatival, of which breed. 

266. v[of : see on Kovpvp A 111. — vo»H\v: recompense. — oCvfKa: Zeus 
gave these because they were the best. 268. jtvt^ : sc. hnrovq. 

270 ff. T*v : genitive of source. — y^*^^^ ' ^ apposition with the subject 
of iyofcrro. — tow« |mv ktX,. : four of these. — rm 8i ktX, : btU the other two. 

273. Evidently the horses could not be captured without overcoming 
the masters. This victory would bring glory. ^- ft m ktX. : cf A 60, 
B 123, 597. 

276. r6v: i.e. Diomed. 278. o« fikm icrX. : cf. 106. 

279. aC m tcrX. : on the chance that, etc. 280 = F 355. 283 = 101. 

284 f. tBtnmwtn: for accusative, see on A 519. — ovo x h'^^^^ * C/* ^^^• 

287. " You missed me, but I will not let you try again." 

288 f. vpCv, irpCv : cf rrapoi 218. — aX^ro% : with * verb of fullness.' • 

291. ^va: * limit of motion.' — Mfttf/T w : sc. /3c\o9t as subject. 

292. Toi) : i.e. Pandarus. Construe with yXoKrcmi^. 

293. Perhaps Pandarus bent his head down. 

294. Cf 57, 58. 297. diropovvi : « leaped down from his chariot." 

298. 8c((rat: r/. A 349. 

299. df4l Potvf : cf. 21, A 37. 301. to« : i.e. vtKpov. 

302. «r|Mp8oXla : cf A 456, 506. 

303. ^^uv : potential optative. § 18 6 8. 

304. oloi ktX. : cf qualia nunc hominum producit corpora 
tellus Verg. A en. xii. 900. The men of the former generation were far 
mightier! Cf A 272. 

306 f . icoTvXi|v fcrX. : parenthetical. — kot^Xiiv : cf * How do you suppose 
your lower limbs are held to your body? They are sucked up by two 
cupping vessels ("cotyloid" — cup-like — cavities),' Holmes Autocrat of 
the Breakfast Table. — irp<>t : besides. — Wvovn : A 521. 

309. waxiCti : cf T 376. 

310. yviiyfs: local df&^l icrX. : see on 47. Here not of death but of 

a swoon. 311. diroXoiro : s(% on A 232. 

312 = r 374. 313. <»r6 : cf B 714. — (f B 820 f. 

316 f . IpKOfi piXiMv : on A 284 fioXutv : * means.' — Ik : with cAoiro. 



152 



COMMENTARY TO THE 



318. <nr^ : r/. A 465. 320. Parenthetical. — t^v : c/. 332, A 46. 
321-324. C/. 261-264. 

328. &v : his own, 329. Tv8ctSf|v : after ^tcra. — tinrovt : direct object. 
331 f. 6 Ti: cf. A 244. — oM: and not, — dv6p6v: construe with 
4raXc/AOv. 

334. iKtxavi : sc. Kvir/MV. — koB* SfuXov : cf. A 199. 







GREAT JARS FOUND AT TROY 

340. ^t : 8c, in the veins. — Cf. * From the gash | A stream of nec- 
tarous humour issuing flowed | Sanguine, such as celestial spirits may 
bleed/ Milton Par. Lost vi. 331 ff., of Satan. 

342. KoXlovTOi : cf. A 293. 

343. ^O, awo : cf A 456 ; § 32 h. 

344 f. furd x*^iv : in his arms. — rtt AavoAv : cf 316. 346 = 317. 
347. Cf. 101. 348. (/. T 406, A 509. 

349. ^ o^K : as one syllable ; § 25. — TpnpomiMif : cf T 39, 399. 
352. TfCprro 84 : for she was distressed. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 158 

353. fi^90«: sc. XBLpo9. Cf. A 542. — Iris acts on her own aocount, 
as at r 121. 

354. luXcUvfTo: sc: 'A<^po8(n7, f^^i^ oufuiTt. Cf. A 140. --XP^: 
8c, of her hand. 355. apcoripd: sc, of the Greek line. Cf, 36. 

356. tvmt : see on r 327. 357. KooriYW^roio : construe with Mnrous. 

358. voXXd: cf, 197. For the long ultima, cf. Aia A 394. 

359. ^(kt : cf. A 155. — r6|uo^u : cf A 594. 361. 6 : cognate accu- 
sative. 365. vdp Krk. : cf, T 262. 366. A formula. 

371. 9v^wr4ptL : see on fUya 343. 372 = A 361. 

374. KOK^v ictX. : an open offender. 

377. Answer to 374. 379. ydp : refers to Tv8o)s vios 376. 

382. (f. A 586. — Dione comforts her daughter by recounting the 
examples of three gods who had suffered worse than she. 

384. I{ dvSpAv : construe with rX^fuv. — liK : construe with rtBhrres. 

387. mpAiay: i.e. such a large jar as those found by Schliemann at 
Hissarlik, and assumed in the story of < Ali Baba and the Forty ThieTCs,' 
which served as cisterns and as places of storage for grain. Cf the < tub ' 
of Diogenes. See the cut on the opposite page. — 8l8rro: lay bound. — 
TpioicaCSiKa icrX. : i.e. a full (lunar) year. 

388. dv^MTO : cf 311. 390. I^IkXi^ : brought out by stealth. 

391. hi: as in 352. § 21 i/. 

392. Nothing is known of this story, unless Hera came to the defense 
of Neleus at Pylus, against Heracles. — vdit *A|i^Tp«i»vot : cf. vlos Auk 
396. See on roicvo>v F 140. 

395. h Toto-i : i.e. among the gods who suffered harm from mortals. 

397. lA6v\fnv : construe with IScaxcy. Perhaps when Heracles was sent 
for Cerberus, and Hades refused to let the dog go. 

399. aMLp: §21 e. 

401 f. Parenthetical. — r^: i.e. wfjui^. — vdovatv : cf A 218 f. — ^t^t u i c to : 
sc. *AtSvfs. 

403. oT^MUo* : sc. Heracles. See on B 38 ; cf vrjirus 406. 

405 f. 4ir( : construe with <rot. C/. P 15. — r6: Mw; introduces 407 ff. 

407. CfZl 30 i. — 9i ^vtuAt : = a>#cvfU)po9, short-lived. 

408 f, " His children do not rejoice in his return from the war," i.e. he 
does not return, r/. 150. 410. t^: therefore. 

411. rVt : sc. 0co9. 413. I{ vwov : construe with lytipjj. 

415. In apposition with AlytaXua 412. 

416. dii^oWpiioav : sc. x^p^^* ^^ ^'^ t§ BeKorg A 54. — &m6: construe 
with ofjLopyw. — x<^P^ • ablatival. 



164 COMMENTARY TO THE 

419 f. iMpro|i(eif tcrX. : cf. ^ 6 f. The joke is on the side of the 
goddesses now. They return the jest. — roHax: c/. A 58. 

421 = 762. Athena does not ask for information. « Don't be vexed 
with me." 

422 £• The reference to Aphrodite's relation to Helen is obvious. — 
2icira<yXa icrk. : cf, T 415. 424. 'AxauA8«iv : added to explain tu>v. 

425. Apoi^v : c/. &pk7fXf^ 337. 427. xpwrit^ : see on T 64. 

428. «oXt|iVjia : equivalent to troKifwv, and opposed to ya/juMO 429. 
430. raika: ue. the former. — Note that often Ai^s and Athena are 
presented as the two chief divinities of war. But Apollo, too, is a warrior. 
431=274. 
433. Ti^yvd&tficMv : concessive 6 : ori, cf, A 120. — {nrcCpcxt : cf, A 249. 

435. &m6 : construe with Swmu 

436. rpd : cf 136. — fvum : refers to 432. 

438. T& Tfraprov : see on B 329. — 8aC|M»vi icrX : sc. in might 

439. 6|MNcXVa«:r/. £v(m9A508. 440. <|»pdt<o : c/. <^pacnu A 83. 
441 f. lira 4»poi4Hv: cf A 187.— laAi: cf A 277, B 247.— o« won 

6|Mtov: cf A 278. — x^H*^ f^^' equivalent to hnxBoyiwy. 

446 f. IlifrydiiY : cf A 508. — Leto and her children are often united. 

449 f. cfSiiXov: such a < wraith' is not mentioned elsewhere in Homer 
and has no importance in the story here. Cf Verg. Aen. x. 636. — afr^: 
"the real Aeneas." 453. In apposition with fioeuK 452. 

455 = 31. 456. oiic &v ktX. : cf 32. 457 = 362. 459. Cf 438. 

461 f. Tp^fos : adjective, often printed Tp^^, — Ares himself was a 
Thracian, according to N 301. 

465 f . is tC : how long t — 'AxcuoCt : dative of agent with KTttvttrdau — ^ : 
as A 247. It unites with the following diphthong in pronunciation ; § 25. 

468. Cf 248. 469. ir«Aro|i€»: 'hortatory.' 470. C/. A 73. 

471. Sarpedon has not been mentioned before except in the Catalogue 
(B 876). 

472 f. nijcrX. : cf B 339.— 4E^: a play on Hector's name? § 13 c. 

475. vOir: "but." — Sarpedon had noticed Paris* absence. 

476 f. irfvts At: see On B 190. — " We, who are only allies." — fwHuv : 
c/. B131. ScivvoXu. 479. Cy*. B 877.— -niJloO: see on /uVwAi A 416. 

481. icdS: as if Karduvov had preceded. Cf av T 268.— tA Tt ictA. : 
nearly equivalent to yafMvra. — Ivtficvijf : sc, y, Cf, A 547. Equivalent 

to CTTtScV^DCU. 

482. Kol At : even thus ; i.e. though I should enjoy life at home ; and 
though I have no wrongs to avenge on the Trojans, nor any fear of them. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 156 

464. ^^poicv #crX. : cf, the familiar ^k^v koi ayav. 

485 f. r^ [(Tv] #crX: contrasted with 475 ff. — Aptoviv: dative of 
interest. 

487. |ii| icrX. : cf, A 566. — &X6vn : dual referring to Hector and his 
people. 488. a»p: cf, A 4. 490. t^LSc : t.€. 487-489. 

492. vMXi|ftl«s ictX. : itand firm — dvoMo^cu : construe with ypfi 490. 

494 = r 29. 495. vdXX«v icrX. : c/. F 18 f.— onpar^v : «c. T/9<oaiv. 

497. ol: I.e. Trojans, contained in orparov 494. — IvavrCot: predicate; 
cf. A 335, B 185. — 'Axcudv: genitive after the adjective of place. See 
H. 754 f.; G. 1146. 

500 f. {av44 : very likely with reference to the color of the ripened 
grain; cf, flava Ceres Verg. Georg, i, 96, rubicunda Ceres ih, i. 297. 
— The winnowing and threshing were done in the open air. 

505. ^m^ fo-Tpt^ov: 8c, hnrms, — -livioxfits: sc, Tptoiov. 

506. |Uvos xnLpAv : cf A 447. — df4C : construe with ^icaXv^c. 

507. lidxTi ktX. : cf A 521. 

508. I^|id« : cf 455 ff . 510. tSc [cTSe] : sc. Apollo. 
511 f . otxo|Uvi|v : when? — a^r^ : i.e. Apollo. — vCovos : cf B 549. 
514 f . luOUrraro : cf irapibraro A 212. — t«dv icrX. : ' safe and sound.' 

516. |acTAXXt|<rav : sc. how he was rescued. — |i4v : see on B 703. 

517. fiXXot : in apposition with irdros. — dpfYvpdroEos : see on A .37. 

518. C/. A439f. 519. To«t : made definite by Aamovs 520. 
520. airoi : i.e. without special exhortation. 522. ElpovUv : on B 146. 

524. Cf. < As when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds | Ascending 
while the north wind sleeps* Milton Par. Lost ii. 488 f. 

525. o-Kufevra: r/. A 157. 

527. l|i«f8ov : the point of comparison. Cf arpifm^ 524. 

528. Cf r 449.— -roXXd: cf 197. 

532. ^ciry6vrwv : from those who flee. Construe with opvuroi. — Cf. F 45, 

A 245. 533 f. v(k^im>v : cf. V 44 AImU : see § 34 c. 

536. |UTd ktX. : explains tfoos. 538. Cf. A 138. 

539. SXcuronv : 5C. 'Ayafi^ivcov. 540 = 42. 541. IvOa : c/. A 293. 

544. pufroio: after a <word of fullness.' — -ylvos : accusative of speci- 
fication. 

546. &v6pioviv : dative of interest with ^kucto, as often with ^i/ouro-ca. 

549. lidxns ktX : cf B 823. 551 f. Cf A 158 f. 

554. ottt ktX. : unusual order, for these two like young lions. 

557. Cf 136 ff. 

559. W6 : construe with )(€ip€<ra'w. Cf A 479. 



156 COMMENTARY TO THE 

560. Ko mMwh t i P I the point of comparison ; cf. Karocrafffv 558. — IXdrn- 
axv ktX. : a new comparison is added, — << stretched out like pine trees." 
562 = A 495. 563. to9 : t.e. Aeneas. Construe with /ao^ds. 

564. T& : introductory to lya ktX. 566. wt^ : exceedingly. 

567. For the thought, cf. A 170 ff. 

568. r^ : t.e. Menelaus and Aeneas. — x^^P^ i^^- ' ^f- ^^- 

573. ol : t.e. Menehius and Antilochus. — Mxpo^ : i.e. sons of Diocles, 
541 ff., who are called ro» SclXm 574. 575. a^r^ : i.e. 6i 573. 

576. JlvkM^uhtm : for the ultima treated as long, see § 59 /. — One of 
the most noted inconsistencies in the Homeric poems is the verse which 
makes Pylaemenes follow his son's corpse from the field (N 658), although 
he himself had been slain here. 

579. irrtmra : sc. on or near his chariot. — Iyx<<^ : instrumental. 

581. The charioteer desired to turn his horses to flight, since Pylae- 
menes had fallen and he had no further duty in the battle. 

582. dYicAva: in partitive apposition with Mu&ovou — rvx^v: cf. A 106. 

583. fiU^vTi : cf A 141 f. 587. afiA0oio : partitive genitive. 

590. Toit : i.e. Menelaus and Antilochus. — a^rro^ : opposed to orparoc. 

591. KficXirv^ : cf. B 222. 592. '^mA : cf. 333. 

593. oMuSIa : cf A 521. 

594. 4wi|Mi : a participle is expected, to correspond to -^ /acv e^ovoa 593 ; 
see § 11 ^. 595. ^^tol: sc. 'Aprp. 

596 f. oyoOdt: for the epithet, see § 12 c — viSCoio: cf B 78.5. 

598. mcvp^ : cf. 88. — ihAv : gives the cause of on^i/. — &vd ISpa|M : 
contains the point of comparison ; cf B 147, T 33 ff. 

601. olov: neuter, cognate accusative. — 9av|Ad{o|uv: imperfect. 

603 f. irApa: irdp&m, § 55 c — ical vGv: cf A 109, A 12. — mCvot: 
there. Cf. T 391, oSe 175. 

605. << Retreat, but keep your face towards the foe." 

606. luvMu^uv : as imperative. 

607. nir&v : i.e. *A)(amv. 608. X^f^n^ ' ^/' /^X^ ^^* 
' 609. c(v Wi ktX. : cf 160. 610. Cf 561. 611 = A 496. 

612. Mv: for the short penult, cf A 473. 

613. iroXvicT^|ttwr kt\. : for lack of conjunction, cf 194, A 99. 

614. ^: "drove." C/. B 834. 616. v€ial^ kt\. : cf 539. 

620. XA{ jctA.. : " setting his foot upon him." 

621. Cf A 530, 532. — &XXa : besides. See H. 705 ; G. 966, 2. Cf. 517. 
623. t^: cf A 97. — dH>(pa«nv : sc. vtKpov. 625 f. = A 534 f. 
627 = 84. 628. Cf B 653. 629. |M>tpa ktX. : cf 83. 630 = T 15. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 167 

632. Cf, 276. — t6v: t.e. Sarpedon. — kcU: see on A 249. — irp6«: con- 
strue with cciircv. 

633 f . " Why should you come here to play the coward ? " 

636. Iirc( : refers to ^cvSo/acvoc. 

637. Au>f : construe with c^, c/. F 199. -— vpor^v : cf, A 308. 

638. Exclamation. << But what sort of a man was Heracles I " 

639. 6v|&oXlovTa : Coettr de Lion. 

640 ff. Laomedon promised these horses as a reward for the rescue of 
his daughter Hesione from a sea monster. Heracles slew the monster, 
and, when the promise of Laomedon was not fulfilled, sacked Troy. 
Cf. Y 145 ff. 

641. vv¥ n^oarX kt\. : c/. A 179, 389. — vavporlpoM-t : sc. than Laomedon. 

642. x^P**^^- ^/- ^^T^ multis viduasset civibus urbem Verg. 
Aen. viii. 571. 

643. o-oC : contrasted with Heracles. — kok^ : cowardly, — oUro^Oivvtfovoa 
jctX. : sc. through' thy cowardice. 

645. c( |i^a kt\. : cf A 178. 646. Cf T 322. 647. Cf 217. 

649. "Laomedon's fault and folly gave the victory to Heracles." — 
dWpot : the man ; explained by dyavoO AooficSovrof. — a^pa8C||oav : for the 
use of the plural, cf Z 74. 

650. cpfavra : concessive. 651. cmtcSmkc : did he give as was due. 
652 ff. Observe the repetition and prominence of eyoi, ifjJBey, ifju^ c/toc. 

See on 810.— 4irA SovpC: cf T 436. — SoiUvra: sc. tri. 

655. MffxtTo: r/. F 362. 659. See on 47. 661. ptpx^mtv: § 30 ib. 

662. irar^p : i.e. Zeus; see Z 198 f. — In: hints at Sarpedon's death, of 
which the poet tells at H 500. 663. |i4v : correlative with hi 668. 

665. tA |ilr: explained by ciepixrtu 666. Cf. rd 564. See on B 6. 

667. o^irevSdvrwv: partitive genitive with ov ri? 665. — w6vov: toil of 
conflict.— o^Umirm: cf B 525. 671. Cf. A 189, 193. 

672 f. irpoT^pc: cf. F 400. Construe with 8iw»c<x.— 8 ^: cf 623.— 
r&v vWvwv (genitive with avb cXotro) : contrasted with the leader ; cf. the 
later oi iroXXm. 

674. 0*8* *08v(r<H|t: sc. but to Patroclua; cf U 477 ff. 

676. r^pa: " and so," with reference to the two preceding verses. 

677. These Lycians have Greek names. 678 = Verg. Aen. ix. 766. 
680. Cf T 374. 681 = A 495. 682. ol vpoo-u^vn : at his approach. 

685. Sarpedon is ready even to die, if it but be among friends. 

686. o^K &pa ktX. : I was not fated, as it seems. Sarpedon believes that 
his wound is mortal. 



168 COMMENTARY TO THE 

687. Cf. B 158. — oMvSf : explained by the second 'hemistich'; cf. 
A 70. 688. Cf, 480. 689. Cf. A 511. 690. &^ ktX. : cf A 465. 

691. 4»a-aiT0 : equivalent to diroKnuro, cf 626. 

693. ^Y^: this must be the oak or chestnut which is mentioned fre- 
quently as a familiar landmark, not far from the Scaean Gate. Cf, Z 237. 

696. See on 47. 698. ImwiCovo-a : cf, ertkutro A 5. 

699. ^wh kt\, : under the might of etc. As if were driven was to be the 
verb of the sentence. 

700 f. M : towards, as T 5. — arr4^vro: sc, Tpw€a<ru Cf A 589. 

702. kn i Borro : sc. from Diomed, who had the gift to discern. See 604. 

703. Adapted by Vergil, Aen, xi. 664. — irpArov: masculine. 

704. xiXtuQt : see on F 64. 705. M : adverbial, << after him." 
711. Toift : i.e. Hector and Ares. 

712 f . 'ApycCovt : object accusative. — a^Cxa : cf A 69. 714 = B 157. 
715. KX&ov : predicate ; cf. A 26, 498. — This promise is not mentioned 
elsewhere in Homer. 716 = B 113, 288. 718 = A 418. 

719 = B 166. 721. vplofa: cf, A 59. 

722. 'Hpn : she serves also in 905 and A 2. — Each act of preparation 
is enumerated. — The Homeric chariot was very light. Nowhere else is 
mention made of taking it to pieces when not in use. 

723. d^ta : on both sides. 724. C46iTo«: cf B 46. 

725. 9aD|aa kt\. : a wonder to behold, 

726. c(o-(: for the tense, see on B 448. 729. I{: construe with rov. 
730 f. Sf^: sc, ''HPtj, — 4v : adverb with llfiaXe. — xp^^^ '• >-^' adorned 

with thin plates of gold. 732. IptSot kt\. : cf A' 177, 492. 

733. aMLp: correlative with fjuey 720. 

734. v^Xov: i.e. her own robe. 738. Cf T 334. 

740. ahHi, Und) : defense, attack, — two forms of </k9, strife, 

741. The Gorgon's head probably covered the middle of the shield. — 
vfXdipov : in apposition with Topyov^ implied in Topyurf. Cf B 54. 

744. Hyperbole. " Large enough for," etc. Or, " adorned with repre- 
sentations of," etc. — kaTov : a round number ; cf B 448 f . 

745 f. ^X^yMi § 59 /. — iroo-l ictX. : § 12 g, — fipM kt\, : § 15 a. Cf. 
* ponderous shield . . . massy, large and round,' Milton Par. Lost i. 284 f . 

749. nM^nu (< automata ') : cf. * till at the gate | Of Heaven arrived, 
the gate self-opened wide,' Milton Par, Lost v. 253 f. — itiiicov : the gates 
are clouds (cf 751), but yet they creak. — The goddesses leave the celestial 
Olympus for the terrestial. Cf 18 ff. 750. yAya% ktK, : rf A 497. 

751. Explains iirirerfxun'ai. 752. rj : explained by St* avrdwv. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 169 

753 f. Cf, A 498 f. 755. C/ 368. 756. Kpov(Si|v: see on A 502. 

758. Exclamation.. — ^o^riov : c/*. B 120. 

759. i^d^r #ctX. : cf, B 214. — &xo«: c/. ir^/ia T 50. 

761. •rofrrov: contemptuously. 762. C/*. 421. 764 ;= A 560. 

765. ol : after ciri^ cj\ MtvcAifty A 94. — Athena as goddess of war is a 
sort of rival of Ares. 

766. iWiTjcn #ctX. : cf. 397. 767. Cf. 719. 768. Cf 366. 
769. Cf terras inter caelumque yolabat Verg. Aen. ir. 256. 

771. «-K(Mri{|: cf. A 275. — Xiiotrw #ctX : cf A 350. 

772. -rtatrwlwi: %o far. Cf V 12. 

774. Explains vorofua 773. — 4ix*- cf. A 607. — arv|ipdXXrroir : observe 
the position of the verb between its two subjects. 

775 f . Cf 368. — tnfX kt\. : sc. in order to hide them. — tj^ : cf 356. 
— vovXiir: adjective of two endings; § 38 a. 

777. dffcppoorCi|ir : only here as fodder ; but cf 369. 

778. tA : i.e. Hera and Athena. — The short steps of the goddesses are 
contrasted with the strides of the heroes (cf T 22). 

779. dvSpA<riv: cf T 6. J780. Cf T 145. 
781. P(i|v#ctX.: c/. T 105. 

783. 4: see on B 800.— -owl icrX. : § 12/. 

785 f . IMrropi : Stentor is mentioned only here, but he has given an 
adjective to the English language. — x^^km®^^^ - ^. B 490. — « As loud 
as fifty ordinary men." 

787. KAicd IX^ia : cf. B 235. — ctSot #crX. : cf. T 39. 

788. intXIiricrro : cf. A 490. — Achilles himself boasts (I 352) that while 
he took part in the conflict, Hector dared to come only to the gates of the 
city, and once barely escaped when he met Achilles: o<^/9a S* cyw fier* 
*A)(au6iaiv iroA^uu^ov, | ovk IBtKuTKi fJM,)(rfy dirb ru-xw opvvfUv'^^KTtop, | dAA* 
wrov (only) 1% ISmuas re ir6Xa% koI ^tfyov Itcavtv ' | iv$a iror otoy ifUfivet /A0yi9 
Sc /Acv iK<f>vy€y opfJLyy. Hector also in the Eighteenth Book (1, 286 if.) 
refers to the Trojans as acting on the defensive, — cooped up in the city 
during all the years of the war. The way is prepared here for the wall 
which the Greeks build around their camp in the Seventh Book, — a wall 
which was not needed while Achilles fought for the Greeks. The hero is 
already honored by the Achaeans, since they recognize their need of him. 

792. Cf 470. 

793. Iirtfpovrc : hastened to ; without idea of hostility, as in 432. 
795. dmiKxovra : explained by 798. —t* : cf. o 361. 

796 f. Cf B 388 f The salt sweat irritated his wound. 



160 COMMENTARY TO THE 

798. &v : construe with Sfr^ow. 

800. " The son of Tydeus is not like the father." Cf, A 370 ff. — 
oXCyov: adverb with loumra. ol: accented, since it is reflexive. § 42 e. 

801 f. |uicp^ #ctX. : see on a 115, B 816. — koU: evtn, — St«: the prin- 
cipal clause is omitted. — rfooicov : cf, B 832. ' 

803 f. Imnu^doviiir : cf. B 450.. — v4o^v 'AxcuAv : equivalent to /xovkk 
^oiv A 388 &ry«Xot : c/. A 384 fF |i«rd ktX. : c/. 687, A 423. 

805. 8a(vvr0ai: in emphatic contrast with fiaxccrAu 810. — «I bade 
him feast in quiet, but he challenged the Thebans to a contest; I bid thee 
fight, but thou art weary or faint-hearted." 

806. afrdp : adversative to Sofwfw 805. 

807. vpoNoXCtfTo icrX. : cf, A 389 f. 

809. 9^ : contrasted with Tydeus. — vapd frroiuu : cf 116. 

810. K^XofMu : opposed to oufc mturKOv 802. — Mark the repetition of the 
pronoun, crot, cc, crcv, o*^ trv, etc. See on 652. 

811. cnO : is placed before ^, as if it belonged to both clauses, but its 
place in the second clause is filled by cc. 

812. Ivtira : <* to judge from your actions." 

817 f. 84ot: c/.%12. — Acvot: reply to 811.— ^rr|U«*v: c/. 120 ff. 
819-821. Cf 130-132. 821. o«tA|mv: «c. ciccXcves from 819. 

822 ff. Cf 604 ff. 824. ^xr^ &vd: cf 167. 826 = 243. 

827. "A^ifa : with long ultima, — not as 824. Cf <^Xoyea 745 t6 y* • 

in this. 

828. Cy*. 808. 829. 'K^in^i first of all. 830. r^M't^. sc. TrXrfYn^. 
832. vp4i|v: cf B 303. — v«ii«rro : c/. B 597, F 83. 

834 f . tAv : i.e. his promises to aid the Achaeans. — A^* Cinr«if : see on 
111. 836. Av^owriir: cf 20. 838. h^yvi: adverbial 

839. 8tiW|v fcrX.: < chiasmus'; cf A 123, 125, 145. 

841. C/. 829.— aWicm: c/. A539. 

842. Nowhere does a god slay a mortal with his own hands. 

844. |iir : a repetition of /acf 842, in opposition to airdp. 

845. The <cap of Hades,' which made the wearer invisible even to 
the gods, is not mentioned elsewhere in Homer. German mythology has a 
similar < Tamkappe.' The poet does not think it necessary to tell how 
Athena came to have this with her. The name seems to play distinctly 
upon the derivation of the word*Ai8os {unseen). 

846. Ot : e!8e. 847. a«T«0i : explained by ^i ktX. 848. 
849. m% : construe with A10/117&09. See H. 757 ; G. 1148. 

850 = 630. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 161 

851. vp6a4cv: see on T 317. Correlative with 8evrcpo9 855. — MplgaTo : 
</. A 307. — tinn»ir: sc, of Diomed. Ares is on foot. 

852. dir& #ctX. : cf, T 294. 

854. krAawp : cf. V 368. « So that it was hurled in vain." 

857. |i(rpi|v : l^mnroaKtro is a « verb of clothing.* H. 724 a. 

858. 8id : construe with ^^a^ffv. 

860. lirCaxov: gnomic ScicdxiXoi: fivpUK. 

861 f. IpiSo "Apuot: equivalent to woXx/wy. Cf. B 381. — *«4 dksv: 
cf, A 421. 

866. Totos: i.e. so gloomy; c/. A 47. 868. Cf. 360, 867, B 17. 

870. d^ffwrw ktX. : cf. 339. 872. Cy. 767. 

873. Cf. 383 f . — ^lywra : adverbial. — TirXi|6Ti« #ctX. : TcrAa/icv. 

874. AXXi|X«nr: equivalent to JXAos oAAov. — xV*" trX. : c/. 211.— 
&v6pio^a : PpoToUri. 875. fiax^iMv^ : c/. A 8. 

876. |ii|&i|Xfv : r/. 430. 

878. vol Tt: for the position of t^ see on B 136. — 8f8|tVj|M96a : cf 
r 183. Note the change of person in the verb. — iKovTOt : see on A 606. 

880. " Since she is your own daughter." — fyiCvoo : cf A 400. 

881. vihr: introduces a special case under aliv 876. 

883 f. = 458 f. 885. ^ W m : c/. F 56. 

886. abro^ : explained by the second hemistich. See on B 237. 

887. t^: concessive. 

889 f. Reply to 872-874.— -dXXoir|HhraXXi: cf 831. 
890. C/A176. 

891 = A 177. It is better suited to this place. 

892 fF. Reply to 875 ff. "You have inherited your mother's spirit." — 
*T[pi|t: in apposition with fiip-p09. !Por its position, see on pdXXx. A 52. — 
•ri|v |iir : cf. to ftey A 234. — (nrovSg: cf. B 99. 

894 f. rf: therefore, so, — Ixovra: supplementary participle. 
896. yhnn: cf yhw 544, Z 180. 

898. O^pavU&vMv: here alone in Homer of the Titans, children of 
Uranus. These were hurled by Zeus into Tartanis, a gloomy cavern 
beneath the earth ; as far beneath the earth (says Hesiod) as heaven is 
high above the earth. 

899. noiVjom : cf 401 . 901 f. = 401 f . 
902. ^tm. cfV 33. 

904. KapiroX(|i«f : the point of the comparison ; cf. StKa 903. 

905. *T[pi| : Hebe prepares the bath, just as she had served the gods as 
cupbearer (A 2), and had aided Hera in preparing the chariot (722). ~~^ 



162 COMMENTARY TO THE 

The gods (like mortals) were wearied in battle, and even sweat (A 27), 
and thuH were glad of the bath. — lovtv : ttc. fuv. 

906. Cf. A 406. 906 = A 8. 

909. "Apiiv : this is the reading of most manuscripts, but probably *Apif 
or "Api; is better. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 

The connection between this Book and the preceding is close. The 
first four verses of Z cannot be separated easily from the last three of £. 
In fact, though E is the longest of the forty-eight books of the Homeric 
poems, it is not long enough to contain all of the Atofii^&ws apurrm, which 
certainly extended over the first half of Z. No one should forget that the 
division into > Books' was not original. See § 10 h, 

1. oU9i|: ifwyw$rf. Sc. by the gods. 

2. ToXU: adverbial. --inSCoio: r/. B 785. 

3. AXX^^v : genitive after a verb of aiming ; cf. McvcXoov A 100. — 
t0wo|UvMir: limits fu£;^ 2. 

4. 2i|&6cvros: construe with fjuuratffk' Note the caesura. 

5. irpArot : sc. after the gods* departure. — Ipicot xrX. : see on A 284. 
7 f. paXi&v : by hitting, — ifitv kt\. : cf. B 653. 9-11 = A 459-461. 
14. A^vti^ ktX. : cf E 544 ; attracted to the construction of the rela- 
tive sentence. 15. ^iXito-iciv: cf T 207. — 68f #ctX. : explains ^nXUxTKOf, 

16. Cf E 53. — rmv yc : >-<^* those to whom he had shown hospitality. 
— ^picfo^ ktX. : cf B 873. 

17. irp6<r9cv: before him, for his defense. — WavrUurot: sc, ^to/xi^^ — 
£|&^, 0v|&6v: two accusatives after a <verb of depriving.' — dmi^pa: sc. 
Aio/Ai/Si/s. 

21. |MTd : after y as in Attic — v^yu^ : cf B 865. — Such episodes served 
to relieve the monotony of long lists of warriors. 

23 f. Parenthetical. 

24 f. Y<**V ' "* "ff^- ^/- ^ ^' — oTcdnov: masculine. Cf furtim 
Verg. Aen. ix. 546. — hr Stavi: cf E 137. — ^lyr\: xc. BovkoXuov vv/a^i;. 
Cf r 445. 26 f . viroKvo-aiUini : conceived and, — kioX yJh : cf k 269. 

34. irop* ^eos : cf F 187. 38. Itrwrn ol : <' his horses.*' — inS(oio : cf. 2. 
39. 4;^ . . . livpucCvy : parenthetical. — pXa^^im : i.^. entangled, — 
dyiciiXov: equivalent to icofjiTrvXiov £ 231. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 163 

40 f . <v vp^V ^"^l^ ' ^ ^^^ ^^P ^f ^^ P^* — ^^^ ^^ * correlative with 
avros 3c 42. — ol JlXXot : those others. 

45. 4XX(oviTo : sc, McVcAooi/. — •yo^hw*' = c/ A 407. 

47. iv irarpo9 : sc, Sw/iari. C/. 378 f. 

49 f. rwv: from these, of these. — airoiva : cf. A 13. — l»6v : predicate. 
" That I was alive." — «iiHi0oiTo : with accusative, as E 702 — M vi|vo-lv 
ktX. : i.e. in the Greek camp. 

51. Cf. A 208. — imiOcv : was persuading. 

52. rdx* 2|iiXXc : was just about. 

53 f. KaTa{f luv : Karayayuv. — &rrCot: predicate; cf E 497. — M»v: 
see on iiav A 138. — 6|ioicX^^ : cf 66, E 439, <lHDv^a9 A 201. 

55 f. ovmt: t.e. as in sparing the life of Adrestus. — ov(: emphatic. 

— fifio^ra : subject of mwoirfrai. Cf the prose c5 iroccoi. 

57. tAv: demonstrative. — "Let every male perish, — even the child 
yet unborn." 

59. Ko9po¥: simply marks the sex. — ^Ipot: for the optative, cf. T 299. 

— 6f : demonstrative ; cf. A 405, — the antecedent of ov rwa 58. 

60 f. 'IXCov : genitive after i( in composition. — dfdjStorroi : predicate ; 
see § 56 a. — &t clir^: rf A 73. 

62. iroftiir^v: for the length of the first syllable (irap/rairc!iv), see § 59 j. 
^6U: i.e. Menelaus. — &ir& fOcv : c/ A 456 ; see § 32 t. 

64. 'Arp«tSi|s : t.e. Agamemnon. 

65. Xa{ kt\. : cf. E 620. 66. &wra« : cf A 508. 67 = B 110. 
68 ff. ** Make sure of the victory, and follow it up before you think of 

taking spoils." Cf. 1 Maccabees iv. 17, where Judas Maccabaeus says : 
IL7I hrtBvyLJffrrfTt rwv o-icvXoiv, ori irdXcfi09 c^ ivavruK '^fuav . . . dXXa <rrrJT€ vvy 
hfovrtov Tiav ixOpStv ^fJuSiv kxu iroAc/iTcrarc avrous, tool fiera ravra Xafierc 
o-icvAa KBLL fjLtra irapfnfria^y * be not greedy for the spoils . . . but stand ye 
now against our enemies ... ye shall take the spoils afterward with 
safety.* 

69. idv: in a final clause; see H. 885 c; 6. 1367. — irXcCo^ra: "more 
than any one else." 70. koI rd: "the booty too." 

71. vficpovt TiOirnfiTa* : " corpses of the slain." — oniXijovrt : a * permis- 
sive ' future Observe that Nestor uses the first person in Kruimiuvt but 

the second person in (rvXiycrcTc. 

72 = E 470, 792. 73. W 'AxoUhf : cf. xm dvtpoi T 61 ; see H. 820. 

74. &vaXict(i|ori : cf. 6.i^f)a&Lrg(riv E 649, irpo$vfuri<n B 588, 792. 

75. AlvfCf : Aeneas, as commander of the Dardanians (B 819), was 
next in rank to Hector in the Trojan army. 



164 COMMENTARY TO THE 

76. oimvwHXmv «crA. : r/. A 69, B 858. 

77. irdvos : i.e. the battle, and care and responsibility for it. 

78. Tp^v kt\. : partitive. 

79. iftdxio-^ kt\. : cf. A 258. 80. a^rrov : right here. 

81. x<P^^ - firms; cf. A 441. 

82. ^c^vrm : refers to Xaov 80. — Cf. B 175. — xAp|ia : (f. T 51. 

84. -iiiuSt i&^v : correlative with ^#crop, drop av 86. — Aavao€o% : in the 
same position before the verse pause as n-oAiv&E 86. 85. Parenthetical. 

86. 'EicTop : for the position of the vocative, see on A 282. 

87 f. ^: i.e. Hecuba. Subject of Sdvai 92, which is equivalent to Oerto. 
— y%pny6i9: the feminine of yipovra^ — yt^vi 'limit of motion.* Cf. 297, 
A 254. 89. Upoto ktK : equivalent to vrgtw. 

90. For the offering of a robe, cf. that which was borne to the Acropolis 
for Athena in the Panathenaic festival. — 5 : 09, § 42 c. 

92 f. Octvcu : see on 1) 87. — M ^oivvuriv : on the, lap. This is the only 
direct evidence in Homer for the existence of a statue of a god. This 
figure of Athena clearly was in a sitting posture. — innrj^M^ • ^^^- 

94. t|K^<rTtti : equivalent to &K€VTrfnns. If the cattle had been used for 
menial service, they would be unfit to be offered in sacrifice to the gods. 
Cf. * All the firstling males that come of thy herd and of thy flock thou 
shalt sanctify unto the Lord thy God : thou shalt do no work with the 
firstling of thy bullock. . . . And if there be any blemish therein, as if it 
be lame, or blind, or have any ill blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto 
the Lord thy God,' Deuteronomy xv. 19, 21 ; *a red heifer without spot, 
wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke,* Numbers xix. 2 ; 
< take two milch kine, on which there hath come no yoke,' 1 Sam. vi. 7 — 
aC m : cf.cu. Kty irois A 66. 

96. aC mv kt\. : explains oT #ce, above. — TM09 wWv : the subject of the 
story is still AcofM^fiovs dpurrticL. 

97. |i^|VTwpa : cf. A 328. 98. jvftv^tu : *< has shown himself." 

99. oW : not even. — &8f : r/. F 442. 

100. Sv mp ktX. : << although he is the son of a goddess." — ^curC : 
* they say'; cf. B 783, E 638. — Mn ktX. : cf. E 637. 

101. Uro4»ap(tciv: cf. A 589. 102. d{ n ifwdh^irw : cf A 220. 
103-106 = E 494-497. 107. ^voio : genitive of separation. 
108 f. Tiv &0avdr«»v: sc. as Ares had done; cf. E 604. — dflrrfpoirroc : 

the Homeric heavens are * starry* even in broad daylight. § 12 a. — «t: 
i.e. as if some god had come to their aid. 
112. Cf. E 529, A 234, 418. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 165 

114. PavXfirqJcn : c/. F 149 f . Nothing further is said of them in this 
matter. — Hector is less definite than Helenas had been. 

117. Af4( : explained by a^^vpa mu ayxcya, "above and below." — 
Very likely Hector drew his shield about so as to hang on his back by the 
strap. 

118. 4J : attracted to the gender of avruf, which may be the predicate 
in unusual position, — "which ran as the outermost rim." 

119-236. This episode occupies the gap in the story, while Hector is 
on his way to Troy. See on A 318, 430, V 121. 

119. According to Herodotus (i. 147) the later kings of Lycia claimed 
descent from this Glaucus. 

120. it |Uo^v : cf, r 77. — d|i^OTlp«ir : sc, TpoMav kxu *A)(ajuoy. 

121 = r 15. 

123. rigU: cf. A 540. — The conjecture that the Lycians had hot been 
long on the plain of Troy is likely enough ; just as the Amazons and the 
Aethiopians came to the help of the city af ter^he action of the Iliady and 
as the Thracians under Rhesus came during the very action of the Iliad 
(cf. K 434 f., Verg. Aen. i. 469 ff.). Glaucus knows Diomed (145), but 
that is natural after the latter's exploits on this day. 

124 f. jvwira : sc, cc. — t& vpCv : strongly contrasted with vvv. 

126. ft Tf : in thai, Cf, A 244. 

127. " Unhappy are the parents whose sons meet my might," t.e. the 
sons are slain, and the parents will have to mourn their death. Observe 
the prominence of dnf<rrqyiav- 

128. Evidently Diomed has lost his power of distinguishing gods from 
men; cf. E 127 f. — AOavdTiMf y« • niade prominent by the verse pause. 
This may be suggested by the beautiful golden armor of Glaucus 
(cf 236), in connection with the fact that his face was not familiar ; or it 
may be a commonplace remark, suggested by KaraBvrfrtav 123. 

129. lirovpav(oia% : contrasted with €in)fiwuiiy as epithet of men. 

130. o«8i #ctX. : cf B 703, E 22. — vU« : with short penult ; § 23/ 

131. ^v : ^rfvaioi E 407. For an adverb with ^v, cf A 416. -- Ss : the 
relative clause is causal, as it is frequently. Cf 165, 235. 

132 ft. In this story is an evident trace of resistance in Thrace to the 
establishment of the worship of Dionysus. In the story of Pentheus, as 
represented in the Bacchantes of Euripides, is a trace of resistance offered 
to this worship in Thebes. Dionysus is not one of the greater gods in 
Homer. — |»aivo|Uvoio : cf the name < maenads,' fjmvaBtSf for the Bac- 
chantes, who were the renvoi. 



166 COMMENTARY TO THE 

133 f. tryAOfov: cf. A 252. — 0«o^Xa : Ihyni^ wands surmounted by a 
pine cone. — xaWxcvav : dropped^ let fall, as E 734. 

135 f. ^opi|6c(« : taking to flight. — icdXiry : to her bosom. For the dative, 
cf. 9K&V E 82, krdpouTi A 523, ovpavvp A 443 — Thetis gave similar refuge 
to Hephaestus ; c/. 2 398 if. 

137 f. 8<i8i^Ta : for its position, see on ouXoyAcnp A 2 r^: for the 

'dative of association,' c/. deauriy 129, 131 ^Ca icrX. : cf, 'that new 

world of light and bliss, among | The gods who dwell at ease,* Milton Par. 
Lost ii. 867 f., — contrasted with hard-working men. 

139. n^Xtfy : predicate. — I0i)m : c/. A 2. — Irl S^v : see § 59 A )3. 

141. Diomed returns to the thoughts of 129. — « Therefore / would." 

142 f. Cf 123. — ot #ctX. : cf, E 341. Cf, quicumque terrae 
munere vescimur Horace, OdesM, 14. 10. — Movov : cf B 440. 

145. Cf 123. — Glaucus recognizes Diomed. 

146 if. Cf, * As of the green leaves on a tree, some fall and some grow ; 
so is the generation of fleskand blood, one cometh to an end and another 
is bom,' Wisdom of the Son of Sirach xiv. 18 ; * As for man his days are as 
grass ; as a flower of the fleld, so he flourisheth. For the wind passeth 
over it, and it is gone ; and the place thereof shall know it no more,' 
Psalm ciii. 15; < Ye children of man I whose life is a span, | Protracted 
with sorrow from day to day ; | Kaked and featherless, feeble and queru- 
lous, I Sickly, calamitous, creatures of clay ! ' Aristophanes Birds 685 ff., 
as translated by Frere. — & 8c ro KaXXjurrov Xuk cawci' Avi^p • (" This is the 
best thing Homer ever said ") oti; ir€p ktX. Simouides, Frag. 69. " This 
is the state of man : to-day he puts forth | The tender leaves of hopes ; 
to-morrow blossoms, | And bears his blushing honors thick upon him ; | 
The third day comes a frost, a killing frost,* Shakspere, Henry the Eighth, 
iii. 2. 352. 

146. U: for 8c in the <apodosis,' cf, A 137.— -koC: o^o. — &v6pAv: 
equivalent here to AvSpwriay, cf, A 544, E 874. 

147. ^iikkoL : the whole, of which rh ftiy and 3XXa 8c are parts. — For 
the comparison, cf B 468. — W, W : see § 21 6. 

148. lapot hi : for the < coordinate ' construction, see § 21 d. 

149. ^^ : intransitive, grows up. 150. koI ra9ra : this, too. 

151. voXXol #ctX. : " the family is not inglorious." 

152. IrTi #ctX. : a favorite epic beginning; r/. B 811, E 9. 

153 f. IvOa lo-Ncv : there lived. — 2(o7i^o« : this name seems to be formed 
by reduplication (cf Si-iu>fu) from aw^, and KtpSurroiy most cunning, 
craflg, refers to this. — Homer alludes to this hero's suffering in Hades 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 167 

(rolling a stone up a hill) only at X 593 if., and Plato in the Apology (41 c) 
makes Socrates name Sisyphus with Odysseus as one whom it would be a 
pleasure to meet in Hades. — 5 . . . AU>X(Sv|s : parenthetical. — 5 : 09, r/. 
90. — ZConf^os : for the repetition, see § 16 b, 

157. npotros : king of Tiryns, to whom Bellerophon had fled for some 
reason, according to the later story. According to one account, Bellero- 
phon had committed murder in his own home, which was a frequent cause 
of exile in the heroic age. — Kwcd #crX. : %,e. sent him to Lycia, as is 
explained below, on the charge stated in 164 f. 

158. Ivfl fcrX. : gives not the reason for the banishment, but the 
explanation why it was possible. — The thought of the first half- verse is 
repeated more definitely in 168. 

159. 'ApTiUiv : construe with ^/aov 158. — i8&|uiov«ir: sc, *Apy€uns. 

160. rf : refers of course to BcXXe/oo^oFn^ 155. The intervening 
verses have been half-parenthetical. — hi : the English idiom would have a 
causal conjunction. — Sia : a merely formal, standing epithet. See on T 352. 

161. |uy4|mvcu : makes hrtfi-qvaro more definite. Cf. AS. 

162. d^oAd : cognate accusative with KJ^povtoinu, Nowhere else in 
Homer, perhaps, does ayaSo^ seem to have so much moral quality. 

163. 4'*^Nra|UvT| icrX. : contrived a falsehood and; cf. 26. 

164 f. Ti0va(i|f ktX. : die or — , " May you lie dead if you do not." — ^ 
ictX.: with causal force, as 131. — |m( : for the elision of oc, see § 28 a. 

166 f. otov &Kovo^ : " at what he heard." See H. 1001. — imtvcu : sc. 
BcXXcpo^ovTiTF. (Perhaps an original p (/re, c, § 32 a) has been replaced 
by p\) — (TfPdo^raTO icrX. : Proetus shrank from killing one who had been 
his guest, but he had no compunctions about asking his father-in-law to 
do the deed. So the father-in-law, too, after feasting Bellerophon, would 
not kill him, but sent him into conflicts in which he expected him to be 
slain. See 178 fF. 

169. 7pdi|rat icrX. : this verse has been the subject of nfUch contention. 
Nowhere else does Homer refer to the art of writing. This art was 
known in Greece in Homer's time, but this expression is somewhat ambigu- 
ous; ypaKJaa is a general word, and may mean scratch or paint. irivaKi 
nrvKTi^f folded tablet, rather than ypdu/ug, indicates the form of an 
epistle ; clearly, if it had not been folded, it would have been intelligible 
to others. Scholars have thought that this letter might have been in 
* picture-writing ' resembling that of the ancient Mexicans, but the Cretan 
and Mycenaean script was older than the Homeric age, and we do not need 
to assume here the very rudest elements of the art. 



168 COMMENTARY TO THE 

170. vfveipf : tm/e'M father; while hcvpoq {T 172) is husfxind^s father, 

172. Cf E 773, B 877. 

174. Explains irpo^povltoi rUv 173. — Iwi^iMip : a round nunil)er ; cf. 
A 53. — The king made a great feast each day. 

176. Kol T^ : §21 h. — The Homeric host never asked his guest's 
errand until he had shown him hospitality. 

178 f. KAKOv : destructive ; cf \vypd 168. — |iir : correlative with av 181. 
— lidXcvoYv : see on 167. 

180. Octov : equivalent to SeSiv, and contrasted with AvSpwinav. See on 
B 20. ^yiwii cf E 544, 896. 

Idl. This verse is translated prima leo, postrema draco, media 
ipsa Chimaera by Lucretius (v. 905), preserving the exact order of 
words, and making the last clause more distinct even than it is in the 
Greek. — Here alone in Homer is found a mention of a mixed monster. 

182. 8tiv6ir : adverbial, cognate accusative; cf 470. — AvowvCovva : 
construe with i) 180, the intervening verse being half -parenthetical. — The 
second half-verse is in apposition with Savov. 

183. |iir : repetition of fjL€y 179. — OiAv kt\. : cf A 398. 

185. <* This was the hardest battle he ever fought." — KOfrCo^v : 
predicate ; cf B 216. — &v€p6v : limits fiaxi/F. 

186. This, too, by the Lycian king's command. — No mention is made 
here of the winged horse Pegasus, which aided Bellerophon on this expe- 
dition, according to the common story. — dvruivfCpai : cf T 189. 

187. T*: t.«. Bellerophon.— «+aiw: cf T 212. 5c. dvai AvKirp,— 
Cf A 392. . 

188. For the < asyndeton,' cf 152, 174. 189. ctvt «crX. : cf A 392. 

191. ylyvmm : " came to know," sc. from his achievements. Sc, avaiy 
190 being parenthetical. — 9toi) : indefinite. Some god must be the 
father; no ordinary mortal (still less a wicked man) could do such deeds. 
In Pindar this hero is the son of Poseidon. 

192. 8(So« : offered, — euYarlpa : for the long ultima, cf 62, E 71. 
194 f . |iir : the metrical quantity shows oi to be the personal pronoun ; 

see §§ 59 /, 32 a. — icaXdv : construe with r^icvos. See § 11 j, 

196. ^ : t.6. the Ovydrrfp of 192. 

200. Kol Kctvof : even he^ i,€. even Bellerophon, who had received such 
signal proofs of the gods' care. — dv^Otro m-X. : cf 140. 

201 f. Cf < Lest ... as once Bellerophon ... on th* Aleian field I 
fall, I Erroneous there to wander and forlorn,' Milton Par, Lost vii. 17 ff. ; 
qui miser in campis maerens errabat Aleis, | ipse suum cor 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 169 

edens hominum vestigia vitans Cic. TtucAii. 26,63. C/*. Nebuchad- 
nezzar in Daniel iv, and * I will not eat my heart alone,' of Tennyson's In 
Alemoriam, 

203 f . I.e, Isander fell in battle with the Solymi. 

205. rfivM: i.e. Laodamia. — x^^^'^^'H^^ • ^^* because of her connec- 
tion with Zeus. — "Aprcfut licra : i.e, Laodamia died suddenly and quietly. 
Cf. 428. Artemis sends sudden death to women. 

207. voXXd4«inXX«v : cf, A 229. 

208. A famous and noble verse, which is found also at A 784 as the 
parting injunction of Peleus to his son Achilles.' It was the favorite of 
Cicero (ad Quint, frat. iii. 5). — dpio^n^iv : apurrov cTvoi. 

209. ^iyvi : see on A 78. 

210. I.e. as well the early generations, Sisyphus and Glaucus, at 
Corinth, as the later generations in Lycia, who were descended from Bellero- 
phon. Herodotus says that the Lycian kings of his time claimed descent 
from Glaucus. 

211. ToC : << since you ask the question"; with reference to 123. 

Glaucus ends as he began TivHtt : ablatival genitive, of source. Cf. 

E 265. 212. yifiifrw : cf A 330. 

213. |iir : correlative with avrdp 214. — Diomed abandoned at once all 
thoughts of a contest. Guest-friends must not fight with each other. 

214. |uiXix(oio% : see on A 54. 

217. M |LryApoio%ir : sc. in Calydon ; cf. B 640 f. — M : i is here treated 
as long. Cf B 661. — ip^ps : coincident in time with (€Lvura'€. 

219. For the * asyndeton,' cf 174. — +o(»iici : cf A 141. 

220 £. Uwwi #cr\. : cf A 584. — icaC |uv #crX. : parenthetical. For the 
desertion of the relative construction, cf A 79, 162. — "I have it still." — 
liU : i.e. Sciras. — Uv : sc. h Tpoirfv. Cf E 198. 

222 f . << I was but a child when my father went to Thebes, and I have 
no recollection of him." These two verses are not needed here, but 
were suggested, very likely, by the mention of the cup which Diomed 
received directly from his grandfather, — not through his father. — Tv8la : 
probably not an accusative of specification, although the accusative is 
unusual with /xc/Ai^/^i^- — <v B^Pgo'tv : i.e. in the country about Thebes. 
The first expedition was repulsed and did not enter the city. 

224. T^ : t.e. on the ground of this friendship of their ancestors. — 
liCvof : host. " My house shall be your home." 225. tAv : i.e. Avkuhv. 

226. AXX^Mv: equivalent to aXAo9 &Xkov. — St 6|i(Xov: contrasted with 
single combat. 



•hl: 



rA^z cam- 






j^ '. 3 - 









^L VBIBI^ « 



fc- 1 1-t 1 ::r=-j»''" 



^ :r*iiL mkm. 






SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 171 

as a sort of afterthought, and 6viia'mi is not (like fnrwrip) under the 
influence of o>f. — aM% : thyself, tooy — in contrast with Au irarpt 259. 

261. ti : the English idiom would use for. — miqit|Ari : observe that 
its position in the verse is the same as of K€Kftrf§caq 262. — &^i : avfei. 

262. «t : as, referring to KtKfirfiri. 

264. &iifc: i.e. offer. — iiiXC^pova: cf. cu^pova F 246. — Hector replies 
first to 260-262. 

265. Hector, on the contrary, fears that the wine w^ill weaken him. 
266 ff. Reply to 259. — dirdrroio^v : cf. xcpv^vro A 449 ; < When they 

go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, 
that they die not ; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to 
burn offering made by fire unto the Lord,' Exodus xxx. 20. — Hector's 
haste is manifest in the whole interview. 
267. IrTi : 2fccm. " I may not." 

269. vv ^v : correlative with ^ Sc 280. 

270. AMiUnran: cf. iwdyovaa 87. 271-278 = 90-97. 
279. A repetition of 269, for the sake of closer connection with 280. 

Cf. 183 (with fjjy) as resuming 179, and E 134 and 143. 

281. aX tn: cf 94. — cUrtfrrot ktX. : give ear to my call. 

282. •yafia x^voi: cf A 182. — «Va: cf v^fui T 50. 

283. Toto: c/. A28. 

284. (8oi|u K«nX6oirra: picturesque, for icarcX^ot, as ^i/v iKXifXaBMai 
for iKXMXoBoiTo. Cf. A 97 ff . — "AiSot : sc. So^iov. 

285. A strong expression for a brother to use, but cf. F 39 ff., 454. 
288. KifAtmk : cf T 382. Probably because of cedar chests. 

290. SiSovUiv : the Phoenicians were famed for aU sorts of merchandise. ' 

291. On his way home from Greece Paris was driven out of his course 
by storms ImirX^ : cf T 47. 

292. t^v ilS6v kt\. : on that very voyage on tohichf etc. — &v4y*^Y** • ^/* ^ ^^• 

293. 8Apov: as a gift. 294. w^tcOi^aaxv: c/. F 126, E 735. 
295 f . ImiTo fcrX. : i.e. it was most cherished and least used. — iXkmv : 

see on cLXAoiv A 505. — |itnovfiorro : from fiera-ira'tvofuu, cf aewa, 
297. h iniXii icrX. : cf 257. 

300. l9v|Kav : the priestess, then, was chosen or elected by the people, 
and her official duties did not interfere with her family relations. 

301. oXoXvyg: these pious shrieks were intended as * responses ' in the 
liturgical service; just as x^*/^^ ^vccr^oK corresponded to the modern pos- 
ture of devotion, kneeling. 

302. Perhaps Theano alone entered the ^iSnrrcv (E 512). 



172 COMMENTARY TO THE 

303. C/. 92, 273. 

305. fmvhrrokjL: cf. *A&rp^ HoXios [toAiooxos] and iroXiovxo? 'A^va, 
at Athens and at Sparta. This epithet was Athena's as goddess of war, 
not as special patroness of Troy. — Mmv: cf. E 381; partitive genitive 
after the superlative idea in Swl, 

307. irpi)Wa : predicate ; cf, irfnjvei B 414. 

308-310. Cf 93-95, 274-276. Cf armipotens, prAeses belli, 
Tritonia virgo | frange manu telum Phrygii praedonis et 
ipsum I pronum sterne solo Verg. Aen, xi. 483 ft, 

311. 4Wvfui : see on A 514. — This is known by the result. — Cf 
interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant, | crinibus 
Iliades passis, peplumque ferebant, | suppliciter tristes et 
tunsae pectora palmis; | diva solo fixos oculos aversa tene- 
bat, Verg. Aen. i. 479 ff. 

312. A transition ; cf E 84. « While these were offering prayers.*' 
314 ff. Added, as verses are frequently, as a sort of afterthought. — 

afr6t: in those primitive times the prince's occupations differed little 
from those of the peasant. 

316. ol: these, 

317. W: for its position, cf, B 136, E 878. — npid|Mio: genitive with 
hffoOi, See H. 757; G. 1149. Or, it may be, with htayAriav to be sup- 
plied. 318. IvOa : local, Mertf. This resumes 313. 

319. Ix' • ^X^' — ^^ iv6fKdin|xv : a long spear ! But really no longer 
than the Macedonian pikes ((ra^No-cnu), which were from fourteen to 
eighteen feet long. The lance of the Prussian Uhlan is about ten feet in 
length. — 8otip6t : construe with irdpoiBt, at the head of the spear, — This 
description of Paris does much to bring the whole scene before the mind's 
eye of the hearer or reader. 

320. tnpl: adverbial. 

321. wfpucoXXila ktX. : just as a hunter enjoys busying himself about his 
gun, for which he has a personal affection. 

322. Explanatory of v^pumXKta kt\, 321. 

323. 'EX4vf| : apparently in the same room as Alexander, — the fieyapov. 

324. Ipya : ue. weaving, spinning, and perhaps embroidery. 

325 = r 38. 

326 ff. Hector assumes anger at the Trojans as the cause of his 
brother's absence from the field of battle. Of course he knew nothing 
of Aphrodite's interference (T 374 ff.) and supposed that Paris had with- 
drawn in vexation at the manifest disapproval of his countrymen. Cf 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 173 

r 319 ff. — 8<u|i*w«: cf. B 190, 200. — |iir: fwjv. — koU; predicate, 
adyerbial. 

327 fF. «* While the people are fighting and dying for your sake, you 
sit idle at home." — Xao(: contrasted with crv 8c 329; but the form of 
expression is changed. — iripl: local. 

328. o^'o fcrX. : parenthetical. — curri) ttrk. : c/. A 492. 

329. &|i^i8ISf|c: c/. B 93. — "You should be ashamed of withdrawing. 
You would be angry at any one else who should act thus." — ^yJurojM : cf, 
E 875, A 8. 330. Cf, A 240. 

331. &va: avaon^t. See § 55 c— irwp6«: cf. B 415. 

332 f. = r 58 f. 334. Cf A 76. 

335. Tp^v x^V* ^f€cawie of anger at the Trojans; a reply to 326. — 
vf|Uro-i [vcfLco-a] : c/". E 757. 

336. ^t\v: cf B 255. — SOiXov irrX. : the real reason, according to Paris, 
for his absence from the field of battle, — instead of a clause with oa-w 
corresponding to roa-aoif, 337. irofturotexi : cf trapuinav 62. 

339. vUtr\ ktX. : Paris had consoled himself thus before. Cf T 439 f. 

340. Sv«» (distinguished from the numeral by the quantity of the 
penult) : subjunctive, cf i&ii/acu A 262 ; § 18 6. The poet might have said 
o^pa 8vQ), " while I put on," or " that I may put on " ; but no one should 
say that a final or temporal particle is omitted here. 

341. a4 : < limit of motion.' 

342 = E 689. — Hector is too angry to make any reply to his brother. 

344. Cf r 172 ff. See on B 356, T 173. 

345. 54mXc: cf A 415, A 315.— 4i|ian kt\.: cf B 351. — irpArov: cf 
A 6. "As soon as I was born." 

346. otxcoBoi fcrX. : see on A 391. 

348. dirdcpo^ : " would have swept me away." A part of the unfulfilled 
wish, av would be expected in prose. Both tense and mode are under 

the influence of the main verb. Cf 351 irdpos icrX. : before all thuty etc., 

<<and then all this would not have happened." — rdSclfyya: a general 
expression for all the battles and sorrows of which Helen had been the 
cause. 

351. 6f : see on o9 A 70. — tJ8t|: i.e, appreciated, had a sense for. — 
o«crx€a ktX. : cf 524, T 242. 352. IfiireSoi: cf T 108. 

353. T«p: therefore. — Iiravp^ca6ai : c/. A 410. 

354. 8(4^(Mp: cf P 424. 

355. irdvof : cf 77. — ^p^va«: in apposition with <rc. — "Rests upon 
thee." 



174 COMMENTARY TO THE 

356. &n|s: c/. T 100. 357. M: construe with i^^icc. C/. A 509. 

358. •nXi&iitea: for the mode, cf. A 158. — C/ T 287. 

359 = 263. 360. ^iXlowd mp : though thou art hospitable. Cf. T 207. 

361. 0v|i^ icrA. : cf. A 173. — 64ip' Ivofiihw : imfivvaL. Cf. A 465. 

362. |ftfya : modifies iro^v Ixmxny, which is equivalent to tro^couo-tv and 
is followed by the genitive ifUio [c/ioO]. 

364. KarofkApihi : equivalent to Kixna^iadai 341. CfE 65. 

366. olicf^ : cf £ 413. It is explained by the rest of the verse. 

367. ^, ^ : see § 20 b. — Wdrpoiros : predicate ; cf cmvrti; 251. 
369-502. One of the most charming episodes of the Iliad. 

369 = 116. 370 = 497. 

373. wvpY^: i.e. that at the Scaean Gate. See F 149. — Andromache 
had set out for the Tower, apparently, after Hector reached the city and 
while he was at the home of Priam or of Paris. So she had missed meet- 
ing her husband. But she learned at the Tower that Hector was in the 
city and hastened home to meet him. 

374. lv6ov : toilhin, at home, in the main hall. — t<t|uv : equivalent to cvpcF. 

378. yoX6m¥ : sc. Stafmra. Cf cv Trarpoi 47. The English has the 
same idiom. 

379. is 'A6i|vaCi)t : sc. vqov. Cf&d Mi ner vae. —Ma ictA. : cf 286 ff. 
382. l«fC : cf r 59. 383 f. = 378 f. 
387. << The Achaeans have the mastery." 

389. |uuvo|Uv|| ictA. : in apposition with irruyofuvrf 388. — n^ni : cf 
dfJLif>LiroXoi 399. 

390 f. ^1 : see on A 219. — ti|v avH|v : construe with Kmamrro. Equiva- 
lent to Attic Tavrqv rrfv avrqv, the Homeric article being demonstrative. 
Cf TOY Xpwnfv All. 

393. SkoUIs : for its position, see on ovXofuvrjv A 2. 

396. 'HctUv : for the repetition and the change of case, see § 16 b. 

397. 64Pq : cf A 366. Local. — KiXUccnrt : these Cilicians dwelt far 
from the historical nation of that name, which lived at the northeast 
comer of the Mediterranean Sea. — £v8pforortv : dative of interest. 

398. IxtTo : cf dx€ T 123. — "^Kropi : dative of agent. 

399. ^ : demonstrative. — airg : herself as contrasted with the maid. 
See on A 47. 

400. a{iT»s : cf. V 220 ; see § 42 t. 

401. AXC^Kiov ktX. : cf sidere pulchrior Horace Car. iii. 9. 21. 
" Like a fair angel." Cf. « In shining draperies, headed like a star, | Her 
maiden babe, a double April old,* Tennyson The Princess. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 176 

402 f . The father named his son from the chief river of the land (c/. 
Simolsius, A 474, named from the Simols, and Idaeus, F 248, named from 
Mt. Ida), but the people gave to the son the name which was appropriate 
to the father. So the son of Odysseus is called Telemachus (B 260, r^Xe, 
/laxo/ioi), not because the boy fought far away from home, but because 
the father was fighting at Troy while the boy was a child ; Achilles' son 
is called Neoptolemus on the father's account. Other examples are found 
in Homer and in the Old Testament. — qI £XXoi : cf, B 665. — 'Ao^rvdvoicTa : 
om^ seems to be strictly protecting lord (cf, A 38), and the idea of < pro- 
tector,* is often more prominent in this word than that of * ruler.' Hector 
was never king or ruler of Troy. Thus 'AoTvamxra at the beginning of 
the verse is explained by cpvero, defended. " He was the only defender." 

406 = 253. 

407. 8<u|i6vu : cf 326, and note the difference in the speaker's tone. — 
T^o-^vfUvof : cf A 207. 

408. &miopov : equivalent to Swrftopov. Contrast with F 182. 

409. <nv: genitive of separation, with xipV ^^ofjuu. Cf o-cv 411. 
411. x^^ S^iuvoi : cf 19. 

413. dXX' &xfa : hut only griefs. 

414. VoV: ^fi€T€poy. Cf ^fjuertpif A 30. 415 f. Parenthetical. 
417. oi8i icrX. : but he did not, etc. CflQ7. — r6y€: i.e. i(€vapi$aju 

419. krl : over him ; adverbial with ^x^cv. — inpt : adverbial. 

420. opcflTTidScs : cf the < Naiad,' vv/i^i; vr^^ of 22. The < Dryads ' and 
< Hamadryads' are not mentioned in Homer. 

421. ot : relative, referring to oc ficy 422 as its antecedent. Cf F 132. 

422. If : cvt; § 41 a; equivalent to rep auroi. Cf. lua V 238. —"AtSos 
fCr«i : cf. 284. 

424. ktr fCXiir68«nri icrX. : cf 25, E 137, and E 313.— Apyrngt: cf 
F 141, 198. 

425 f. pao'CXfiMv: was queen. — 'Hjv: demonstrative, Afr. — ScOpo : i.e. to 
Troy. — &XXouri : the captive queen may have been counted as part of tlie 
Kn^fwra, but a good Greek construction would allow this to be taken as 
"with her treasures, too." Cf E 621, B 191. 

427. Xop^v: sc. from her father. Cf A 13. 

428. irarp^ : i.e. Andromache's grandfather's. — "ApTfiut : cf. 205. This 
is contrasted with 6 yt. " He released her, but Artemis slew her." 

429 f. These verses sum up the thought of 413 ff. « Thou art my all." 
This prepares the way for the request that Hector should remain within 
the walls. — dfup: cf 86. 



176 COMMENTARY TO THE 

431. vOv : contrasted with what is implied in 407. — IXioipt : cf, 407. — 
a^koi) : explained by liri trogrf^. See on B 237. 

432. < Chiasmus ' ; § 16 a. — op^vucdv : predicate. — •yuvoEka : more 
pathetic here than l/xc. See on A 240. 

433 ff. This advice is not out of place in the mouth of the general's 
wife, who doubtless had taken more interest than most in the plans for 
the defense of the city. — Homer makes no other reference to a part of 
the Trojan wall as particularly vulnerable or accessible. But Pindar says 
that Aeacus, father of Peleus and grandfather of Achilles, aided the gods 
Apollo and Poseidon in building the wall, and that an omen indicated 
that the mortal's work should be overthrown, while the gods' work stood 
firm, — n^fvyafiOf dfi^i rcoS;, ^pcos, }(t(W ipfyaxriaxi dAMrKcrot OL viii. 42 
Perganws is taken where thy hands have wrought. 

433. IfHVidv: a noted landmark. C/. A 167, X 145. 

435. M6Ym : see on l^v A 138. 

436. &t4' ACavn : cf, B 445, F 146. 

438 f. 0fovpoirUir icrX. : for the genitive, see on B 718. See on 433 fiF 

airAv: their own, as opposed to oracles and omens. — Cf, sive dolo, sen 
iam Troiae sic fata ferebant Verg. Aen, ii. 34. 

441. rdSt vdvra : all this, — especially 432. 

442. TpAa« : for the accusative, see H. 712 ; G. 1049. 

443. A reply to the request to direct from the Tower the oi>erations of 
the army. — AXwicAt« : cf £ 253. 

444. Mk &vMYcv: t.e. forbids. Cf ov£e hurKt B 832.— S|i|uvai lo^X^: 
equivalent to Apurrtvav 208. 

446. dpv6|uvos: cf A 159. — a^roO: intensive, agreeing with liiav 
implied in cfiov. Cf 490, E 741, B 54. — The dative might have been 
used instead of the jrarpoi and l/nov. 

447-449 = A 163-165, where the verses are less impressive. Appian 
(Pun. 132) says that Scipio quoted them with reference to Rome. — II le 
dies veniet quo Pergama sacra peribunt. 

450 ff. A reply to 429-432. 

450. Tpd&Mv: objective genitive. «I do not grieve so much for the 
Trojans." Contrasted with oreO 454 — Observe that Tpwav, 'ExajSiT?, 
Koxriyvrfrtav all come just before the verse-pause. 

452. In prose the arrangement might be ovrc rtav iro^Xmv re koi MXSiv 
KtunyrrfTtav m icrX. 453. W dv6pAa% : cf B 374, T 436. 

455. &7i|Tai (as future) : sc, ai, into captivity. — IXi^iffpov ktX. : cf 
463 ; see § 16 r/ y. The word €\cv$ipui is not found in Homer. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 177 

456. trp^ &XXi|t : at the bidding of another woman ; i.e. as slave. Cf. 
A 239. 

457. iiSctp : < fetching water * is an important duty ot women in oriental 
countries. — Mfovi|C$of (sc, Kfnjvrys) : ablatival genitive, from Mettnels. 
— A spring by this name is mentioned near Sparta, and one called 
Hyperea in Thessaly (B 734). Perhaps the poet thus indicates the 
possibilities that Andromache may be given as a prize to Menelaus or 
Achilles. The later tradition made her the prize of Achilles' son Neop- 
tolemus. At any rate this verse makes cv "Apyu more definite. 

458. voXXd ktA. : much against thy will. Explained by the following 
* hemistich.' 

459. ctiq|o-iv : nearly equivalent to the future indicative, as is shown by 
the repetition of this thought in Sk ipea 462. Cf. 340. 

460. '^KTOpos: note the position. 461. d|&^i|idxovro : Bc.*KyaiOL. 

462. #s Ip4i : for this repetition of dirjfnv (both standing before the 
verse-pause), cf, A 182 with A 176. 

463. x4^<^ * causal. — roioilSi : sc. as I. — Afiirvwv : for the infinitive, see 
H. 952 ; G. 1526. — So^Xiov ktX. : cf. 455. hovikaarvvni is not a Homeric word. 

464. |u TiOvi|aTa : " my body." " May I be dead and buried." 

465. irp(v : construe with jtvBejOax. Natural in English as in Greek, 
« before I hear," instead of " before the time when I should hear." — (H|9 
po4|s : nearly equivalent to cnn) fiownfi. 

466. ircu86f : genitive after a < verb of aiming ' ; cf MiVfXaov A 100. 
468. varp^ icrX. : parenthetical, giving the cause of IkXIv^ Idxuiv. It 

is explained by the following verse, which is further explained by 470. 
470. Sfivtfv : cognate accusative with vewyra. Cf. 182, F 337. 
472. a«rUa kt\. : * asyndeton.' Cf. A 539. 473. Cf T 293. 

474. kOvm: kissing is mentioned in but two other passages of the 
Iliadf and those both refer to the acts of suppliants. 

475. 4inv{d|Mvot: cf t^vvcms A 201, 

476. For this prayer, cf that of Ajax for his boy, o> -mu, ycvoco varpc^ 
€VTVX<urT€fXKt I ra 8* aXX ofwun * koI yivoC &v ov jcoxos Soph. Ajax 550 f . ; 
and Burns' Lament of Mary Queen of Scots, * My son ! my son 1 may kinder 
stars I Upon thy fortune shine ; | And may those pleasures gild thy reign | 
That ne'er wad blink on mine.' 

477. KcdfyA: for the mt, correlative with xa/ 476, see H. 1042. The 
English idiom omits it — dpurpiiria kt\. : cf. B 483. 

478. ri: for its position, cf 317. — dvdovnv: in the same construction 
as y€y&r$ai 476. C/. A 38. Observe the reference to the name Astyanax. 



178 COMMENTARY TO THE 

479. tU: many a one; cf. B 271. — «oXX4v: see on A 78. 

480. dvidirm: for the accusative after a * verb of saying/ see H. 725 a; 
6. 1073. The clause nar^ icrX. is the other object of the verb.— "May 
many a one say of him as he returns from the war." 

481. x<^^^ '"'^ • ^s closely connected in thought with the first half of 
the verse. The mother is to rejoice in the bloody spoils with which her 
son returns, as a proof of his bravery. As Hector thinks of his son, he 
forgets his ill-bodings. 

482. &XtfxMo : this is a delicate touch of the poet, — that Hector does 
not return the child to the uurse (from whom he took him, 466 ff.), but 
gives him into the arms of his wife, — intrusting him to her care. — 
X<po'W m-Xt : cf, A 441. 

483. Kii^i : cf, 288. — KdXvy : to her bosom. For the dative, cf 136. 

484. 8aicfni6fv : " through her tears." 485 = A 361, £ S72. 
487 S. " I shall not be killed unless this is fated ; and if death is 

appointed for me now, I cannot escape it." — ^v^ alrav: ef B 155. — 

"AiSi ictX.: cf A 3.— wf+vYiOvov I^mu: irc<^cvycKu. Cf T 309, E 873 

dv6p6v : construe with ov rtva. 489. rd irpAra : c/I A 6. 

490. aik% : in agreement with the aov implied in ad. Cf avrm 446. 

491. toT&v icrX. : in apposition with Ipya 400. Contrasted with iroXcfu^. 
Andromache is to do her duty at home ; the men will do theirs in battle. 

493. tqI "IXUf icrX. : added after the caesura, making xourtv definite. 

494. ffXfTo: cf 472. 

495. tmrouptv : the ultima is treated as long before a pause ; § 59 /. 

496. OaXip^ icrX.: cf T 142. 497 = 370. 
499. dfi^^vdXovt: it is better to say that this is in apposition with 

iroXXos, than that troXXas agrees with this. § 11 y. — Ir&p yi w: cf Mpro 
A 599. 500. Y^ov : lamented. 501. vwdrpoirov : predicate ; cf Avtuk 54. 

502. |Uvos ktX. : cf fuv<K x^v E 506. "The mighty arms." § 16 d. 
503-529. This scene forms a sharp contrast with the preceding. 

Paris goes out to battle without Hector's premonitions of disaster, and 
with no fears for the safety of his family. So also the scene in the house 
of Paris (321 ff.) is a foil to that in Hector's (498 ff.). 

503. oM: nor. 

505. dvd doTTv : clearly not of ascent, since his home was near Hector's, 
and the latter rushed icar* ayvtds 391. — irtvoie^ : cf B 792, E 299. 

506 ff. Cf (Turnus) fulgebatque alta decurrens aureus arce | 
exultatque animis . . . qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia 
vinclis I tandem liber equus campoque potitus aperto { aut 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD 179 

ille in pastus armentaqne tendit eqnarum | aut adsuetus 
aquae perfundi flumine noto | emicat arrectisque fremit 
cervicibus alte | luxurians Induntque iubae per colla, per 
arm 08 Verg. Aen. xi. 490 ff.; < Contention, like a horse | Full of high 
feeding, madly hath broke loose/ Shakspere 2 Henry Fourth i. 1. 9 f. ; < But 
like a proud steed reined, went haughty on, | Champing his iron curb,' 
Milton Par. Lost iv. 858 f. — Paris is a well-fed, comfortable creature, 
without cares, and with a very good opinion of himself. 

507. OtCn : Serf, cf, irtXaero A 5. — ««8Coto : cf. 2, 38. 

508. iroTa|u>Co : for the genitive, c/*. E 6. 

509. icv8i6«»v : cf. icvSci ycuW A 405, loaLyxaXdwv 514. 

510. A|Mi« : c/. A 45. — 6 S^ : the construction is changed, and this is 
left without a verb. For the « anacoluthon,' cf. B 353, E 135 f. ; * The eye 
that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens 
of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it,' 
Proverbs xxx. 17. 

514. Paris clearly is in good humor. 

515. Itvt|mv: cf. 374. — t$T &pa icrX.: was just about; cf. 52. 

518 f . Ironical. Paris plumes himself on overtaking Hector, as he had 
said that he would do in 341. — lva(o-i|iov: iv oSutq, « at the right time." 
Cf. Mmnw B 56. ^^ MXtm : sc, 361 ff. 

521. lvaCori|Mf : « in his right mind," with reference to the same word 
in 519, though in a different sense. 

522 f . IpYov i&Ax^ • action in battle. — |uOictt : sc. dAic$9. Cf 330i — t& 
ictX.: c/. 407. 

524. h 0v|tf : c/. r 9. — oXorxca : cf 351. — dxo^ : subjunctive ; cf A 80. 

525. irp6s Tpdl«v : from the Trojans. Cf wpo9 aXXry: 456. 

526. to|uv : ioi/acv. — rd S^ : i.e. any offense in my words. — dfco-o^iuOa : 
cf A 362. — ol k4 iroOi : cf. A 128. — " If the gods will grant that we may 
drive out the Achaeans, and in gratitude offer (set up) a bowl in celebra- 
tion of freedom." 527. Oiois m-X. : cf B 400. 

528. IX<^6cpov: explained by the following verse. 

529. IX&o-airrcK : agrees with ^fjuas implied as the subject of (tr^awrSai. 
For the accusative, cf. lovra A 541. 

The Sixth Book of the //iarf, after the first hundred verses, has pre- 
sented a succession of peaceful scenes. The progress of the story seems 
to be interrupted for a few moments by the episode of Diomed and 
Glaucus (119-236), but this episode serves to occupy the time during 
which the poet's hearer thought of Hector as traversing the plain, on his 



180 COMMENTARY 

way to the city. The three scenes of Hector's visit to Troy — his inter- 
view with his mother, his call at the house of Paris and Helen, his parting 
with Andromache — form a contrast with the conflicts which have been 
described, and make prominent the domestic life of the brave warrior. 
The hearer's interest in his subsequent fate is greatly heightened. The 
intense pathos of the last Books of the Iliad centers in the death of 
Hector and the grief of the Trojans. This Book prepares the way for 
our sympathy with Hecuba as she implores her son to enter the gates and 
not withstand Achilles (X 79-89) ; and with Andromache, when grief comes 
over her as she sees Hector's body drawn to the Greek camp after the 
chariot of AchUles (X 437-515) ; and with the dirges of Andromache, 
Hecuba, and Helen when the body of Hector is brought back to the city 
(O 718-770). If Andromache had not been introduced here, she would 
have been but a name, and her grief would not have been nearly so 
pathetic at the close of the poem. The hearer is here brought into the 
family circle of Priam, and is never after this without a heart for the 
Trojan misfortunes. 

The Seventh Book opens with the welcomed return of Hector and 
Paris to the hard-pressed Trojans. After several Greeks have been slain, 
Athena and Apollo arrange for a single combat between Hector and Ajax, 
— but night comes on and interrupts the duel, in which Ajax has the 
advantage. See § 6 ^. 



VOCABULARY 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



Elements of compound words are indicated, so far as may be, by hyphens* 

Forms between marks of parenthesis are for etymological comparison. 

Attic forms are occasionally added in brackets. 

The g:ender of feminine nouns in -os is indicated by/, or fern. 

The gender of masculine nouns in -os is not marked. 

The gender of neuter nouns in -os is indicated by the genitive ending. 



ft-airros: unapproachable, invincible, 

&d(rxrros (cxw) : irresistible, unman- 
ageable. 

&aTos (satis) : insatiate, 

"AParrfs, pi. : early inhabitants of 
Euboea. B 536. 

*Apappap^: a fountain nymph. 
Z22. 

"Apat, -avro«: a Trojan, slain by 
Diomed. E 148. 

"ApXtipot: a Trojan, slain by Nes- 
tor's son Antilochus. Z 32. 

&-pX^, ^ro9 (paWw) : un-shot, new 
(of an arrow). A 117. 

&-pXirros (fidXXw): unrhit, not 
wounded' by a missile, A 540. 

&-pXT|Xp6t 3 : delicate, weak, tender. 

'ApcS^ecv : from Abydus, A 500. 

"A^sSot : A bydus, in the Troad, on 
the south side of the Hellespont, 
opposite Sestus. B 836. 



A-yo- {Syav, cf, ingens), strength- 
ening prefix : very, exceedingly, 
§40rf. 

&YaYt : aor. of ayta, lead. 

d'YoOdf 3 : good, noble, useful, esp. 
useful in war, brave. Rarely used 
of moral quality, fiovfv AyajSo^: 
good at the war cry, brave in war. 

d'Yo-icXfiTds 3 and d-yaicXvT6« (icXcios) : 
renowned, famed, highly praised. 

dydXXoiuu (dyAoos) : delight, exult. 

&<yoXfM^ -aroii delight, treasure, 

&7a|iai, aor. i/yao-cmro, ayaxradfu^: 
admire, wonder at, 

'AYOfUiiVMir, -ovo$ : Agamemnon, son 
of Atreus, grandson of Pelops 
(B 104 ff.), king at Mycenae 
(B 569 ft,). As the leader of the 
expedition against Troy, he is 
prominent through the whole of 
the Iliad. The first part of the 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Eleventh Book is devoted to a 
recital of his brave deeds. At 
the close of the war, on his ai^ 
rival at home, he was slain by his 
false wife Clytaemnestra and her 
paramour (Agamemn<fti*s cousin) 
Aegisthus (a 35 ff., 8 512-537, 
X 409 if.). 

&-Ya|Mt : unmarried, T 40. 

A.-YA-irvi^ot (nive, snow): very snowy , 
snow clad. Epithet of Olympus. 
A 420. 

dYavdt 3 : kindly, winning, B 164. 

'AY«H)vwp) -opoii Arcadian leader. 
B 609. 

6yawi\fr6t (^ayamui) : beloved. Z401. 

&yA-ppoos (pcoi) : with strong stream, 

'Ayoa^viIS, -cos (of mighty strength) : 
son of Augeas. B 624. 

&Yaovd|u9a : aor. of &yafMai, wonder. 

d'yav6t : atlmirable, excellent, noble. 

&YYfXCi| : message, news. B 787. 

dyyiXCiit and d^yiXot : messenger. 

dyyAXw : announce, bear a message. 

J^TT^ "^o* • ^'^*«c/, bowl, pan. B 471 . 

d'yf, d-ytw : strictly imv. of iyoi, 
bring, but generally used as inter- 
jection, up, come ! aye even with 
pL, as B 331. Cf, Sypa. 

dytCpti, aor. mid. aytpoirro and ^ypo- 
pjevouriv, plpf . SiyrfY^paro, aor. pass. 
&y€pBri and 7fpp$€v {.Tf^P^V^'^ 
(grex) : collect, bring together, 
assemble. 

dyi-XiCi| : giver of booty. Epithet of 
Athena as war goddess. Z 269. 

«y4\i|-4i: locat., in Me Am/. § 33 a. 

dY^|uvinf.,&Yfv inipf . : of £yci>, lead, 

dytv [cayi^cmv] : aor. pass, of Siywpi. 



without gift of honor 
(y^s). A 119. 

d<Y4pOi|, 6,y4povTo : aor. of dyei/M>. 

dyiptvx^* proud, mighty, impetuous. 

tyf\ : aor. pass, of aywpi, break. 

d-yipf^TQ : plpf. pi. of dyupvi. 

'A^^Mftp, -opoi : brave Trojan leader, 
son of Antenor. A 467, A 59. 

csf^fymp, -opoi (&inip) : manly, proud. 

d^rtpoot (yfjpa^) : ever young, imper- 
ishable. B 447. 

d^fi|r6t (ayofuu) : admirable, splendid. 

'AymoSos : an Argonaut. B 609. 

d'YKdt, adv. : in his arms, £ 371. 

d'YuXtrot: aor. partic. of avoKXatia, 
lean upon. A 113. 

d-ymiXo-ift^^niff (fA^ris) : crooked minded^ 
crafty. Epithet of Cronus. 

«fK(lko9 (angle) : curved. Z 39. 

dYKuXid-Tofot : with curved bow, 

ikftAv, -iavoi (angle, ankle) : elbow. 
E 582. 

'A-yXoitil : mother of Nireus. B 672. 

d^Xotii, locat. as dat. dyAoci;^ : splen^ 
dor, beauty. Cf. dyoAXofuu. 

iiykeuAt : clear, splendid, glorious. 

Af^pfoUm, aor. TyKoci/crcv (yiywoo-jtw) : 
ftiil to notice. A 537. 

&Yi^i|u, aor. subjv. o^, aor. partic. 
Siiavrt, aor. pass, ayi; and aycv 
[layi^crav] (fay-, § 32) : break, 
break in pieces. 

d^vot (ycyos) : urdtom. T 40. 

dYOpdo|hat, impf. i^yopocDvro, aor. 
dyopi^ro (ayopif) : hold an assem- 
bly, deliberate, address an assembly, 

d<YOprti»: speak, say, tell; hold an 
assembly. ^)3ov8* diyd/xvc: advise 
to flee (flight). 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



3 



iifopii (dyctfKu) : assembly, speech to 
an assembly, place of assembly,' 

dYOpf^-dcv, adv. : from the assembly, 

dYop^-S«, adv.: to the assembly, 
A 54. 

dyopip^ [p^o>p] ' speaker, orator. 

6,y69 (ayo)) : leader. A 265. 

&7pci, interjection: up, come! 
(Strictly imv. of dypcco [a^coi], 
take hold,) Cf, iyc. E 765. 

&7piot (dypoc) : wHd (of animals), 
savage, A 23, 106. 

dYpofUvgortv : aor. partic. of dye^DO). 

d'Yptft (ager, acre) : field, country 
(opp. to city), ayp^: in the field, 

d^pdnpos 3 : toild (of animals) . 
§40c. 

dTVid (fltycii) : street, way. Z 301. 

&YXh adv. : near, with genitive. 

'Ayx^c^ot : a Greek, slain by Hec- 
tor. E 609. 

dyx^-o^ot (aXs) : near the sea. Epi- 
thet of coast cities. B 640. 

dYX^-|Mixt|T^ : hand-to-hand fighter, 
who fights with sword and spear, 
in contrast with javelin throwers. 

d^x^-F^ov, adv. : near, A 529. 

'Ayx^o^: Anchvtes, king of the 
Dardanians, father of Aeneas by 
Aphrodite. B 819, E 247, Y 239. 

dyx^o^A (ayxO» adv. : most nearly, 

&,yXio^vo9 : near, in thick succession, 

dYXo«, adv. : near, B 172, T 129. 

^yx^ (an go. Germ, eng): choke, 
r371. 

&7c», impf. ^ycv or aycv, fut. Sita, 
aor. ^yaye or ayaye, aor. imv. 
ofcTC : lead, bring, fetch, lead 
away (the connection indicating 



from what and to what the mo- 
tion tends). 
d-Sa^fiMV, -ovoi (^SourfCQ)) : unskilled 

in, inexperienced, with genitive. 
d-Sdxplrrot : without tears, tearless, 
dSitv : aor. inf. of dv&ivci), please, 
d8cXi^6s or dSiX^cuSs : brother, (diSeX- 
^os is not Homeric. Kaxriyvrjro^ 
is more than twice as freq. as 
a^ekf^oq.) 
dSi|v, adv. : an plenty, to satiety, 
dSivdt 3 : thick, crowded, huddled, 
"ASfiirros : Admetus, Thessalian 
king, husband of Alcestis, father 
of Eumelus. B 713 f. 
*A8|r4rTi^ : Mysian town. B 828. 
*Atpif\irttvf{ : daughter of Adrastus, 
Aegialea. E 412. Both wife and 
maternal aunt of Diomed . § 39 t. 
"ASpviVTot : Adrastus, (1) Argive 
king who gave his daughters in 
marriage to Tydeus and Polynlces. 
B 572. (2) Leader of Trojan 
allies. B 830. (3) A Trojan. 
Z 37. 
&-8vTOv (8v(o) : (place not-to-be- 
entered), sanctuary, E 448, 512. 
dfOXf^: contend in games. A 389. 
dfOXot [o^Xos] : struggle, conflict. 
dcCStt, impf. aciSoK [^i8(o] : sing, 
d-ciid^ -€5, unseemly, shameful, pitiful, 
dc(p«, aor. partic. AapofUini, plpf. 
actfpro [alpta] : raise, take up ; plpf. 
pass, was hanging. 
dcica(6|uvos 3 (d-f cic-) : against his tcill, 

Z458. 
d-4ic«iv, -orwra [dxcuv, § 24] 3 : un- 
willing, against (his) tcill, A 327, 
E164. 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



. (ai/fu): violent wind, storm. 

&<XX^ -cs : with icoyiicraAos, cloud, of 
dust, r 13. 

&!£«• (r/. augeo, wax) : increase. 

dcpo-C-irot (dci^Mi), irovs), pL dcfMrtiroSes : 
high-stepping (of horses). 

'At<tSi|s: Actor. B 513. 

&-ti|Xi8, neut. adv. : incessantly, un- 
ceasingly. A 435. 

^offtcu : dry, season. A 487. 

Ato|Mu : reverence, feel pious fear. 

£i||u, pres. partic. dcvrcs: blow (of 
the wind). E 526. 

d^, dat. 17^ (aura), f . : air (as 
opp. to the clear al$rfp), mist. 
£ 864. 

di^oiiXof : wicked, dreadful, equiv. to 
altrvXoi- E 876. 

&-0dvoro9 3 : undying, immortal, im- 
perishable. AOdiwroi : immortals. 

Mtpflm : disregard, slight. A 261. 

d-Mr-^TOt : unspeakable, ineffably 
great. V 4. 

•AOi^voi, pi. (§ 37 rf) : v4 thens. B 546. 

*A6i|votot: Athenian. A 328. 

'AO^vii and 'A6i|va(i): the goddess 
Athena, Minerva. She appears 
often in Homer as war goddess, as 
she is represented in later works 
of art ; hence she is called HaX- 
Aas, spear-branduthing, yXavKSnrK, 
gleaming-eyed, dycXeii/, giver of 
booty, Xaoa-aofK, rouser of the 
people. (*A$7jvairf is to 'A^n; as 
avayKCurf to avdyicrf, and yauL to y$.) 

dOpdoi, pi. : assembled, all together, 
united. B 439. 

at [c(] : if al icc: idv. at yap 
often introduces a wish. 



ata : earth, equiv. to yauuL, yij. 

AlatdS/tfi : son of Aeacfis. Of Achil- 
les, ^rawrfson o/*yleariM. B 860. 

AQLt, -avT09 : AJax, (1) Son of Telar 
mon, king of Salamis, the might- 
iest of all the Achaeans, next to 
Achilles. A 138, B 557, 768 f., 
r 226 ff. Telamonian Ajax is 
always meant when no distin- 
guishing epithet is used. (2) Son 
of Oileus, swift-footed leader of 
the Locrians. B 527 if. He was 
shipwrecked and drowned on the 
voyage home from Troy. — 
Throughout the battles of the 
Iliad, the two Auxvrc stand near 
one to the other, and are often 
.mentioned together. 

Al<yaC«v, hovos : Aegaeon, a hundred- 
armed giant of the sea, son of 
Poseidon ; called BpiapeuK by the 
gods. A 404. 

olTaWii (a£f) : javelin, used chiefly 
for hunting or in games. B 774. 

AlYitSi|s : son of Aegeus, Theseus. 
A 265. 

atY<u>t (a£f), adj. : of goatskin. 

atY*^P^ ^* • black poplar. A 482. 

AlYidXfia : daughter of Adrastus 
(E 412), wife of Diomed. 

AlYioXds : (1) the north coast of 
Peloponnesus, on the Corinthian 
Gulf, from Corinth to the Elean 

- frontier; the later Achaea. B 575. 
(2) A town in Paplilagonia. 
B 855. 

atYiaX6« : coast, shore. B 210. 

At^CXt^r, Hiros, f . : a district (?) under 
the rule of Odysseus. B 633. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



At^iva: Aeglna, island in the Sa- 
ronic Gulf. B 562. 

At^tov : city in Achaea. B 574. 

alY(-oxot (?X**) • aegis-hearingy freq. 
epithet of Zeus, esp. in the gen. 
Aios oi'ytoxoio. A 202, 222. 

at^Cf, -iho^i aegis; the shield of 
Zeus, wrought by Hephaestus ; 
prob. an eidblem of the thunder- 
storm. Described E 738 if. ; cf. 
B 447 f . Athena also holds it (or 
one) in B 447, E 738 ff. See Fig. 




AEGIS 

aCYXt| : gleam, brightness. B 458. 

a(7\^-€i« : gleaming^ bright-shining, 

at8fo|uu and oCSoiicu, aor. pass, 
partic. oiBcaOeK (cu&us) : feel honr 
orable shame or self-respectj reo- 
erence^ am abashed before, 

&-£Si)Xot (d-fi8-) : (making unseen) , 
destructive^ destroying, E 897. 

'A-CSi|t, gen. 'Ai&ca and ^Ai&x, dat. 
*At8i, *Ai&i>v^i (f tS-) : Hades, god 
of the unseen lower world. His 
realm is the home of the dead, 
and in the Iliad it is beneath the 
earth (c/. 16, I 568 £f., Y 61, 
X 482), while in the Odyssey 
Odysseus sails to it, across 



Oceanus {k 508 ff.), and finds in 
it a faint, ghostly imitation of life 
on earth. Freq. are the elliptical 
expressions cis *Ai&u> (sc. Bofiots), 
*Ai£os ucrwy to the realms of Hades. 

oUSotos (cu&tfs) 3 : revered, honored, 
modest, B 514, Z 250. 

at8o|uu : see alSiofuu. 

dUiSptt, -€(i>s (oT&i) : witless. T 219. 

'AiSwvf^ : parallel form of 'AlSvp. 

al8^, ace. cu3u> or alSoa : shame, sense 
of honor ; often in a good sense 
for which a word is lacking in 
English. Also shame, disgrace. 
Nakedness, genitalia. B 262. 

aUC, aUv [dci] (aevum, ever): al- 
ways. 

alii-Ytvfn|f : ever-existing, immortal, 
eternal, Cf, aiky i6yT€S A 290. 

aUv 46m«: ever-iiving, equiv. to 
the preceding. 

d((i)Xot : utiseen, in some editions for 
dpiirj\oq, B318. 

at(i|6f, adj. as subst. : vigorous youth. 

a(0aX4-cifi, -co-era : smoky, sooty. 
Epithet of the fUXaSpov. The 
Homeric house had no chimneys. 
B415. 

al0i : introduces a wish, as A 415. 

al04p, -dpoi, f . : the pure upper aether 
above the clouds, in contrast with 
the lower &rfp. aiSipi vauov : dwell- 
ing in the aether, i.e. in the sky. 

AlBlKts, pi. : a people in Thessaly, on 
the slopes of Mt. Pindus. B 744. 

AlOCovts, pi., ace. AlOunnja^ : Aethio- 
pians, living in two nations, at 
the extreme east and west, on 
the borders of Oceanus. They 



6 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



are pious men, loved and visited 
by the gods, a 23, A 423. 

a(06|uvo9 (a e s t u s) : burning, blazing. 

ofSovra (aedes): portico, corridor. 
The pi. is used of the two, one 
(alBavcra avkrii) an outer corridor, 
through which a passage led from 
without into the court ; the other 
(aldawm 3o>/Aaro«), through which 
a passage led from the court into 
the house. 

otSot^, ace. alOoira: bright, gleaming, 
esp. of bronze and wine. A 462. 

AIOpi|: ^^Mra, daughter of Pittheus, 
wife of Aegeus, mother of The- 
seus. She accompanied Helen to 
Troy as slave. V 144. 

atOctv, -<i>ro$ : bright (of iron, A 485), 
brown, tawny, bag, 

aX km: equiv. to ti dv, lav, if, with 
the subjunctive. A 128, 207. 

al|ia, -aros : blood, race, descent, 

al|MiT6-ci«: bloody, bleeding, B 267. 

Al|u>v{^s : Maeon. A 304. 

At|M*v, -ovoi : a Pylian leader. A 296. 

aX|u*v, -ovos : skilled, with gen. E 49. 

AlvfCat, gen. Aivcuxo, Aivtim (§ 34 c) : 
Aeneas, the hero of the Aeneid, son 
of Anchises and Aphrodite, the 
bravest of the Trojans, next to 
his third cousin Hector. £ 468. 
He was severely wounded by 
Diomed, but was rescued by his 
mother, and healed by Apollo in 
his temple; he led one of the 
battalions against the Achaean 
wall ; he met AchiUes, and would 
have been slain by him but for 
the intervention of Poseidon. 



He was of the royal family of 
Troy, and the gods had decreed 
that he and his descendants 
should rule over the Trojan race. 
Y 215 if., 307 f. 

alWw (atvoi) : praise, commend. 

AMBw: from Aenus. A 520. 

olvdt 3 : dread, dreadftd, terrible, hor- 
rible, aivd: cognate ace, adv. 
with rcicoixra. A 414. 

atvdrarof: most dread, esp. with 
KpovC^. A 552, A 25. 

atvv|Mu: take. A 531. 

atvMs : dreadfully, terribly, mightily. 

at|, aiyoq : goat, T 24, A 105. 

iiioji : aor. partic. of durara>, rush. 

AtoXCSi|t: son of Aeolus, Sisyphus. 
Z154. 

atoXo-6^fn|( : with bright, shining cui- 
rass. A 489. 

aloXo-|iCTpi|« : with bright, shining belt 
ofmail(fUTfnf). E 707. 

aloXd^iroXot : with (quick-moving) fast 
horses, r 185. 

aldXos: (quick-amoving), bright. E295. 

adrtivdt (ocirvs) 3 : lofty, high4ying. 

olwdXiov : herd of goats, herd. B 474. 

olirdXos (at£, ircA-) : (goat-tender)^ 
goatherd, herdsman. A 275. 

AtiH»: town under Nestor's rule. 
B592. 

aJiirbt, cuireia: lofiy, towering, steep, 
sheer, ahrvy oXtOpov : utter destruc- 
tion, B 538, Z 57. 

Atv^TiOs, adj.: of Aepytus, an old 
Arcadian hero. B 604. 

alplw, fut. aiprja-Q/Jufv, aor. cIXe or 
cXc: take, grasp, seize, gain, cap- 
ture, overcome; mid. choose. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



oto-a (alwfMm*i) : share j lot, allotted 
portion, term of life, Kara oZcmv : 
as is (my) due, equiy. to aurifta. 

ACnprot: Aesepus. (1) A river in 
Trojan Lycia, emptying into the 
Propontis near Cyzicus. B 825. 
(2) Son of Bucolion, slain by 
Euryalus. Z 21. 

atiri|u>f (aZtm) : Jilting, suitable, due, 

iilavm [^orci>], aor. i^ilfa, atlfias, aor. 
pass, as mid. "qixOrj: rush, hasten. 
KJiff imriav dtifavrc: leaping doivn 
from the chariot, ^cutoi ^Jaxroimu: 
the (hair) mane floats, Z 510. 

AUr^Htnft: an old Trojan. B 793. 

abniXot : dreadful, horrible, E 403. 

oXorxiVTOt: ugliest, B 216. 

atoxot, -cos ' shame, disgrace, reproach, 
insult, r 242, Z 351. 

edorxpds : disgraceful, reproachful. 

9ia%iim : disgrace, bring shame upon. 

oItIm: ask, beg, request, Z 176. 

aCnot 3 : accountable, guilty, to blame. 

AlrAXiot and AKr^X^t: an Aetdian. 
AlriaXoi: Aetolians. B 638, A 527. 

alxft4**> ^ut. alxpajarfrova-i: voield the 
lance (alxfirj), brandish. A 324. 

alxi&4 '• lance point, point, lance, Ispear. 

^WV:^ (also oixfJLrp-a, E 197): 
spearman, warrior, equiv. to dyxf-' 
paxrjTTJii with an implication of 
bravery. Cf. ^onraAos. 

oZifrai: straightway, quickly. A 303. 

al6v, Htfvos (del) : duration of life, life. 

'Aicd|Mi«, -nvTOi (Kopyio) : Acamas. 
(1) Thracian, slain by Ajax. 
B 844, E 462, Z 8. (2) Son of 
Antenor, leader of Dardanians. 
B 823. 



&-Md|ft»rot (xdfivctf) : unwearied, un- 

wearying. Epithet of fire. E 4. 
iMAxOim, perf. partic. oKax^/Aevos 

and &Krfxy*^'' mid. grieve, am 

troubled. Cf &x^' ^ ^S^- 
dK4o|iai, aor. -^KiauTo^aiaK, panacea): 

heal, cure. E 448. 
didwv : silent, quiet. Generally inde- 
clinable, but also fern. oKonxra. 

Cf &Kriv. A 34, 565. 
&-iHj8f9Toc (jcrfioyMi) : uncared for, 

unburied (of a corpse). Z 60. 
&K^, adv. ace. : quietly, still, hushed. 

Cf dK€wv. r 95, A 429. 
&-iHjpio«: heartless, cowardly. E 812. 
Ain|x<i>^ ' perf. partic. of ajsaxiioi. 
&-KMT»t (KoCrrf, KUfuu) fem. : (bed 

mate), wife, spouse. Cf dAoxos, 

impdKoiTti. r 447, Z 350. 
AimvrOi», aor. dxcWurc and Slkovtut- 

travToq: hurl the javelin (okwv), 

hurl. A 498. 
&-ico<r|u>f: unordered, disorderly, un- 

JUting. B 213. 
dKoorAit (dicoony, barley) : am well 

fed (of a horse). Z 506. 
dKO«dt«»: hear, irpwrta hairhn dicoud- 

(eirtfov: <*you two are the first 

invited to a feast." A 343. 
Ako^, aor. iqKowra or dicouaa (hear) : 

hear, give ear, obey, learn, 

" answer." 
d^icpokarrot (KptuaJwiA) : unfulfilled, 

unaccomplished. B 138. 
&icpi| (strictly fem. of cuc/oos) (acus, 

edge) : summit, cape, promontory. 
&^ic|n|To« (iccpdvKUfu) : unmixed, pure. 

cnroF&u SxpvfToi : libations where no 

toater was mixed with the wine. 



8 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



AicpiT6-|ili9ot : endless prattler, of 
Thersites. B 246. 

&-icpiTOt {Kpiina) : {xinaeparaled)^ am- 
fused, immoderate, unreasonable, 
unnumbered, endless. B 796, T 412. 

AicpiTd-^iiXXot : with countless leaves^ 
leafy, B 868. 

dKp4-K0|Mt {KOfirf) : with hair upon the 
crown of the head, i.e. with hair 
bound in a knot on top of the 
head (or with a scalp-lock). 
A 533. 

dxpo-'v^Xot : high-towering, lofty. 

&icpot (acer) 3, superl. oxporarof: 
uttermost, highest. Only of place. 
dxpftf ToXis: equiv. to SjcpotrokK. 
axfnfyxeipa'. the end of the arm, the 
hand, hr ajcptff pvfA/f : on the tip of 
the pole, dxpordrtf Kopts ' very top 
of (he helmet. A 499, Z 470. 

dicr^ '' headland, promontory, shore. 

'AicTop(i*v: descendant of Actor, of 
his grandsons. B 621. 

"Attrmp, -opoi : son of Azeus. B 513. 

dKMc4 (&K-) : point, tip. * E 16, 67. 

&Ktiv, -OKTOS : javelin. A 137. 

ftXa-Sc (aXs) : to the sea. A 308. 

&XaXi|T6f (aXaXd = hurrah) : a loud 
shout, war cry. 

'AXaXico|ifvi|ti (dXaXxio, ward off): 
epithet of Athena, as the De- 
fender, Protector. A 8, E 908. 

AXAofuu: wander. Z 201. • 

dXairoSvdt 3, comp. dAairaSvorcpos : 
weak, potoerless, unwarlike. 

dXaird|;«», fut. dXairaias: sack, de- 
stroy. E 166. 

'AX4o^rMp, -opos: (1) a Pylian. 
A 295. (2) A Lycian. E 677. 



dXyiw, aor. partic. aXy^aas: suffer 
pain, ache. B 269. 

&X*)fot, -cog : grief, pain, trouble, woe. 

AXrynvdt 3 : painful, grievous. 

dXryCt^ (cf oXcyw, negligo): re- 
gard, heed. 

AXmCvm : avoid, shun. Z 167. 

'AXf(ov>v: place in Elis. B 617. . 

&Xi(n|t : sinner, evil doer. T 28. 

'AXifavSpot (dXcfai, ain^p, warder-off 
of men) : Alexander, perhaps the 
Greek translation of Paris (and 
used four times as freq.). Son 
of Priam, husband of Helen, and 
thus the author of the Trojan 
War. His single combat with 
Menelaus, the earlier husband of 
Helen, is described in F 16 ff. 
For his home, see Z 313 ff. Only 
in one (late) passage (O 29 f.) 
does Homer mention the < Judg- 
ment of Paris.' 

dXifM, fut. partic. dXc^i/aovm (oXm;, 
Alexander) : ward off, hence (with 
dat. of interest) defend. Z 109. 

AXio|uu or dXt^ofioi, aor. dAcuaro 
(§ 48 h), aor. subjv. dXcco/ic^: 
escape, avoid. aXevdfuvoy : inflight. 
E 28, 444. 

AXi|04t, -cs: true. dXtfin: truly, the 
truth. Z 382. 

'AX^v vfStov: the Alian plain in 
Asia Minor, where Bellerophou 
wandered. Z 201. 

dX^Hiivoi: gather, aor. pass. inf. of 
ciX(o, crowd together. E 823. 

&XOo|iai : am healed. E 417. 

'AXCoprot : Haliartus, in Boeotia, on 
Lake Copals. B 503. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OP THE ILIAD 



9 



AACoo^rot: (unheruUng), mighlyy vio- 
lent, B 797. 

AX^Yiciot : resembling f like. Z 401. 

'AXi(Mvit, pi. : a people who dwelt in 
Bithynia on the Euxine. B 856. 

"AXiot : a Lycian, slain by Odysseus. 
E678. 

&Xiot : Jruiiless, ineffectual, in vain. 

&Xiot (aXs): of the sea, dwelling in the 
sea. A 538. 

&Xif (foXjLs), adv. : in throngs, enough. 

&X(<rKO|Mu, aor. partic. oAoixm and 
dAovrc (paXr) : am captured, taken. 
E 487, B 374, A 291. 

"AXxavSpot: a Lycian, slain by 
Odysseus. £ 678. 

fiXxop : defense, protection. E 644. 

AXk^, dat. dXicc : defense, help, strength 
for defense, courage, bravery, 

'AXmionf: Alcestis, daughter of 
Pelias, who died for her hus- 
band Admetus. B 715. Her de- 
votion to her husband became 
proverbial, and her death is the 
theme of a play of Euripides. 

&XKi|iOf (oAxi/) : brape, courageous, 
mighty, strong in dffense. 

dXXd: but, yet, on the other hand. 
Sometimes correlative with pAv. 
Sometimes in apod., as A 82, 
281. 

aXX^, adv., strictly dat. of oAAoc: 
elsewhere, i.e. away (from me). 

&-XXi|icTov (Xxfyia), adv. : unceasingly. 

dXX^Xttv, dXX^urv, AXX^Xovt (oAXof 
aXXpv) : each other. 

dXXo-Sttir^ : foreign. dAAoSairoc : men 
of other lands, T 48. 

&XXo-Ofv: from another side, aXXo- 



Oty SXXk : one on one side, another 
on another, B 75. 

AXXotot (aXXoi): of other quality. 
dXXoios ns : a differetit sort of man. 

AXXo|iai, aor. aXro (salio): leap. 

&XXo-vp6a'-aXXos : (changing frmn one 
side to another), changeable, fickle. 
£ 831. 

fiXXot (alius) 3 : other, another, ra 
pAv . . . oAAa Sc : some . . . others, 
oi oAXqc : those others, Freq. a noun 
is added in appos. Cf SXXri, 
aXXtai, aXXjoT€, aXXioOtv, dWoSatroi, 
aXXairpoaaXkos, dXXoioi, dAAar/N09. 

&XX0T1: at another time, once upon a 
time. aAAorCyoXXore: at one time, 
at another time. A 590, £ 595. 

dXXdrpiot 3 : belonging to another 
(oAAos, alienus). dAAor/N09^a>$: 
(foreigner), alien, enemy. E 214. 

&XXMt: otheneise, i.e. better. E 218. 

SX6rrf, AXo^ora: aor. partic. of oAt- 
(TKopai, am captured. B 374. 

'AXdvi| and 'AXot : towns under 
Achilles' rule. B 682. 

'^^X^ (MXP^)'" (P^^ mate), wife. 
Cf. ojoxTts. B 136, r 301, Z 114. 

&Xs, 0X09 (s a 1 u m, salt), f em. : the sea ; 
esp. the sea near the shore, as dis- 
tinguished from both the high 
seas and the land. A 358. 

&Xiros, -C05 : grove, esp. a grove con- 
secrated to a divinity; hence a 
sacred field, even without trees, — 
equiv. to t^ackoc B 696. Temples 
were not frequent in the Homeric 
time; the god's sanctuary was 
generally only a grove or inclo- 
sure, with an altar. B 506. 



10 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



oXto : aor. of oAAo/Aot. §§ 53, 23 a. 

*AXvPi| : Alyhe^ a country near Troy 
from which silver came. B 857. 

&XwrKAt» : fleey shdk, Z 4^3. 

iXbm (aXdofJuu) : am frantic, am beside 
myself, rave. E 352. 

'AX^v6t : (1) Alpheiis, river in Arca- 
dia and Elis (flowing past Olym- 
pia). B 592. (2) The god of the 
Alpheus. E 545. 

'AXm6t (Thresher, dXwj) : father of 
Otus and Ephialtes. E 386. 

dXiW| : threshing foor, field (planted 
with vines or trees?). E 90. 

dXd^Mvos: partic. of dAoofuu, wander, 

&!&: up, along, for dvo, by 'apocope' 
and < assimilation ' before ir, P, <^, 
as V irc&bv. E 87. § 29 b, 

&|ui (ofiov, 8 i m u I), adv. : ai the same 
time, together, with. It is some- 
times found with r^ . . . koi, and 
iir€u0ajL, and accompanies a < dative 
of association.' 

'AiufdMf, pL: Amazons. These war- 
like women fought against the 
Phrygians. T 189. They were 
slain by Bellerophon. Z 186. 

&|Aa6o« (sand) : sand. E 587. 

dfiAi|iAicrros 3 : raging, impetuous. 

&|AafTdvw, aor. apaprt and ijfiPpoT€^ : 
mhs, fail to hit. A 491. 

&|fc-c4»TJ (o/io, op-) : at the same time, 
at once, together. E 656. 

'A|&afnryici(8i|s : son of Amarynceus, 
Diores. B 622. 

&|i-pdXXM [dm)3aAA<i>]: (throw up, 
hold back), put off, postpone. 

d|ft-pa-T6f (dm, Paivin) : to li^ ascended, 
scaled. Z 434. 



&-|iPp09>(i| : ambrosia, food of the 
gods and even of their horses. 

&-|App6oaos 3 (Pparoi) : ambrosial, 
divine ; used like ofippornK, vcicrd- 
p€oq, and Ouk of everything at- 
tractive and refreshing that comes 
from the gods. 

&.|&ppoTot: immortal, divine. 

6ir^kfa/p-r9% (fuyalpto) : (unenviable), 
dreadful. B 420. 

d|if(p«i, aor. dfi€u/«aro: change, ex- 
change; mid. anstcer, reply. 

d|if (vwv, -ov : better, preferable, braver, 
mightier, comp. of ayaBc^;. 

dfiATw (m u I g e o, milk) : milk. dficX- 
yofuyai: a-milking, being milked. 
A 434. 

&-|un|v6f : powerless, wecLk, faint. 

&-|itTpo-ciHjt, -C9 (hroi): of unmeasured 
speech, endless talker. B 212. 

&|i|u, Aeolic for ^pA% : us. § 42 a. 

&fk|u, Aeolic for 17/uv : us. § 42 a. 

&-|i|fcopot (pjopoi, pMpa) : (without por- 
tion), ill fated, unhappy. Z 408. 

Sffc^, for i7/Acrepo9: our. § 42 b. 
Z414. 

&-I&0TOV, adv. : ceaselessly, eagerly, 
violently. A 440, E 518. 

dfi^vcCpc*, aor. dfiirci/oavre? : put upon 
spits, spit. B 426. 

AfiiraX6-€i«, -co-Old (ofjLirfXoi) : rich in 
vines, vine^lad. B 561, V 184. 

dfi^imroXi&v, aor. partic. of dKiirdXXo) : 
brandish, swing, draw back for a 
throw, r 365. 

Afi-irvirv6i| : aor. pass, of dm?rp«o, re- 
rire, " come to." E 697. 

'A|jiv8Av, -a>i/o9 : town in Paeonia, on 
the Azius. B 849. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



11 



'A|ft4icXai, pL: an old Achaean city in 
the valley of the Eurotas, about a 
league south of Sparta. Seat of 
TyndareUs and his sons. B 584. 

&-|ft^|U0v, -01^09 : blameless, honorable. 

6^ihm, aor. ofivvcv : ward off, keep off, 
protect, defend, with dat. of inter- 
est or ablatival genitive. A 67. 

6^^var», fut. SifjLv(iii : (tear), gnaw, 

iL^j^^xyro : aor. as pass, of d/ui^-x^) 
pour about, B 41. 

d|i^pi^ijf, -€? (^/K^) : covered 
(closed) both above and below, 
A 45. 

d|ft^( (ofjLffHo), adv. and prep.: (on 
both sides), (above and below), about, 
around, on the banks of (a river), 
for the sake of Often equiv. to 
irepi, but TTtpi freq. is used of what 
surrounds in a circle. afi<l> o^c- 
Xiclunv lw€ipav: they pierced with spits 
so that the spit appeared at either 
side. rjpnr€ 8' ofi^' avr<p : but he fell 
over him, cl dfi^ Hpuipjov : Priam 
and his attendants, &fi<fi ''EX.tirg 
fui)(€(rOai: fight for Helen, Cf 

d|ft^-iaxvtav, perf. partic. as pres. : 
shrieking about, B 316. 

di&^poUvw, perf. dfjLi^iPiPrfKa: go 
about; perf. has come upon, stand 
over (lit. upon both sides of), be- 
stride, protect, A 37, 451. 

d|4(.pao\« ( fiaiviii) : defense. E 623. 

d|ft^C-pporos 3: man-protecting, only 
of the shield (dairk)* Cf o^i^. 

'Afi^'ylvf ia : town under Nestor's 
rule. B 593. 

dii^-Tvi^-^it (yutiov) (ambi-dexter): 



strong-armed. Epithet of He- 
phaestus; sometimes as a sub- 
stantive. A 607. 

d|i^i-8aU», perf. d/ii^t^&;c : bum about, 
blaze round about, Z 329. 

d|i^i-Spv^^ -C9 (SpvnTO)): (torn on 
both sides), loith both cheeks torn 
(in grief). B 700. 

d|l4i-^^M^ox^ fern, adj.: curved at both 
ends (or on both sides), shapely. 
Epithet of ships, esp. of those 
drawn up on shore; only at the 
close of the Terse. B 165, 181. 




d|i4i-^ir«* : am busy about, &fjLif>iiirov 
T€s: busUy. B 525, E 667. 

d|i^i-icaX^vTi», aor. SLfxifKKaXy^t : con- 
ceal round about, cover, envelop. 

d|i4i-K^nrfXXov S^irat : two-handled cup. 
A 584, Z 220. 

d|i^i-|&dxo|iai : fight about, with ace. 

'A|&^(|iaxo« : (1) leader of the 
Eleans. B 620. (2) A Canan 
leader. B 870 «P. 

d)i^-|AiXa«, -aiva : black round about, 
darkened on all sides (of a mind 
dark with passion). A 103. 

d|i4i-W|'^|MU : dwell round altout, 
inhabit, B 521, 574. 

"Aii+iot: (1) Trojan leader. B 830. 



12 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



(2) Son of Selsgus, slain by Ajax. 
E612. 

d|ft^i-vivo|uu : am busy about, 

6j^(^^woko% (?rc\<i>), fein. : maid^ female 
attendant, corresponding to the 
male dcpairw. F 143, 422. 

d|ft^i-iroTdo|uu (TTcrofAcu) : fly round 
about, B 315. 

d|ft^Cs : on both sides, separately, in two 
uxiys. &fjL<l>U <l>paiovrai : are divided 
in mind, are at variance, aiovi 
ofi^is : on the axle, Cf. afJL<^i 
B 13, 30. 

*A|i4iT|>vMv, -a>vo$: Amphitryo, huB- 
band of Alcmena, putative father 
of Heracles. E 392. 

An^C-^oXot : with double horn, Cf, 
^dVos. Epithet of a helmet. 
E 743. Cf, Kopvs. 

d|i4i-x^> ^^^' ^^^' ^ V^ss, Sifi<l>€xvTo: 
pour about, B 41. 

d|L46Tipot (ofLi^ia) 3 : both. In sing, 
only neut., always at the begin- 
ning of the verse, sometimes intro- 
ducing a following re . . . koi, 
r 179. afi<f>OT€prfa'ty («c. )(€p<riv) : 
with both hands, E 416. 

d|ft^oWp«i^v: {from both sides), on 
both sides, E 726. 

af&4^ (am bo, both) : both, only nom. 
and ace. dual, but freq. const, 
with the plural. A 196, 209. 

dv : by < apocope ' (§ 29) for dm, up, 

&¥ : modal adv., indicating a condi- 
tion. « There b no adequate trans- 
lation for av taken by itself.' Its 
use is not so strictly defined as in 
Attic ; the subjv. with av is used 
nearly like the fut. ind. or the 



potential opt.; the potential opt. 
is sometimes found without av 
where the Attic rule would require 
it; and its equivalent k€ is used 
even with the fut. ind. § 18 6. 

In use, av is essentially equiv. 
to k4, which is more frequent. 

< In simple sentences and in the 
apodosis of complex sentences, av 
and K€v express limitation by cir- 
cumstances or condition.' 

< In final clauses which refer to 
the future, the use of av or k€v 
prevails.' 

<In conditional clauses the 
subjv. and opt. generally take av 
or K€v when the governing verb is 
a future or in a mode which im- 
plies a future occasion.' 

t6t€ k€v pjLv wtiridoLfiJEy: then tve 
may persuade him. kuvovti 3* hv 
ovTvs fjLOLXBOiTo: but wUh those no one 
would contend, oT icc tto^c Zcvs &Mrt : 
if Zeus ever grants. Ta\ av irorc 
$vfwv oXitrayj : he may at some near 
time lose Itis life, cvr* av iroAXoi 
irivTuxn : when many shall fall, 
dvd, &f (§ 29), £|i (before labials, 
§ 29 b) (on), adv. and prep. : «/), 
thereon, upon, along, dva l&pa^: 
started back, dva arparov: (up) 
through the camp, dv ofuAov: 
through the throng, dv t€ pAxr^v: 
along through the conflict. ^povccDv 
dva $vp6v: considering in mind, 
dva GTopa: on (your) lips, dva 
arparov and Kara ot/ootov, dva aarrv 
and #caTo darv are used with slight 
difference of meaning; in such 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



18 



expressions, metrical convenience 
seems to have determined the 
choice between dm and naTo. 

&a: fordva<m^i,me. Z331. §55c. 

£ya: vocative of avaij king. F 351. 

dv»-pa(vw, aor. &v€firf and ayafias : go 
up, ascend, mount, embark, 

dvd-p\i|oi«, -C09 : delay, postponement. 
Cf. $L^^6XXiD. B380. 

dva7KaCi| and a»d7ia|: necessity, comr 
pulsion, ris toc Avayicq : what com- 
pels thee f AiwyKOLLif: of necessity, 

dv»-7vd|iirTM, aor. pass. av€Yvdfi4>0ri i 
bend hack, turn. F 348. 

dv-dTw, aor. dKifyayey : lead up, bring 
back; mid. put to sea (opp. to 
KardyccrAu). A 478, Z 292. 

dva-8^o|Mu, aor. dveocfaro: faike up, 
receive. E 619. 

dva-S6M, aor. Avtdwrcro and &y&v : 
rftw u/j, appear from below, rise. 

dva-6T|X^, fut. dva&rfX.'j^io: bloom 
again, put forth new leaves. A 286. 

diMu8fiT| (alStoq) : shamelessness, inso- 
lence. A 149. 

dv-cu^s, *cs : shameless, pitiless. 

dv-a(|Miv, -ovos (alfuz) : bloodless (of 
the gods). E 342. 

dv-oip^, aor. partic. Sa^tav, aor. mid. 
avikovTO : take up. A 449. 

dv-stffVM, aor. opt. dmifctcv, aor. 
partic. dratfas: start up, spring 
up, rise. A 584, F 216, A 114. 

dv»-icXivw, aor. inf. dm-KATvou, aor. 
partic. ayicXtvas : /cfl» upon, lean 
back, bend up. AvojcXxvax vc^o?: 
roll back (i.e . open) the cloud. E 751 . 

dv-OKorrClM (dica>v) : dart up, shoot up, 
spurt up (of blood). E 113. 



dv-aXictCi| (dAxi;) : weakness, coto- 
ardice. dmAxeu/crc Sofici^cs : ouer^ 
come by their cowardice. Z 74. 

&v-aXKi«, -t8o9 : powerless, ufecUc, cow- 
ardly. B 201, E 331, 349. 

dv»-viv«»: (nod up), refuse, deny (a 
request); opp. to Kafawov^ indi- 
cate and confirm assent by a nod. 

&va{, gen. dvoucros, voc. dm (/rdm^) : 
(protecting lord), king, lord, master. 
Epithet of gods and princes, avai 
&v&p(ov: king of men. Epithet esp. 
of Agamemnon. A 7. 

dva-vdXXM, aor. partic. dfnreiroAwv : 
brandish. T 355, E 280. 

dvci^B'(|Jk'rXi||u, aor. subjv. dvairXrfa^ : 
fill up, fulfill, complete. A 170. 

dva^in4», aor. pass, dfiitvw&ij: take 
breath, revive. E 697. 

dv-diroivot (dirocva) : unransomed, 
freely, without price. A 99. 

&v-ofx^ (onarchy) : without leader, 
uncammanded. B 703, 726. 

dvdovt» (/rdwif) : rule over, reign, am 
defender, master, lord of. Freq. 
with dat. of interest. Mv/>/u8d- 
vto'aiv avatrct: (reign for the Myr- 
midons),'reign over the Myrmidons. 

dvo-vrdt : standing up ; aor. partic. 
of dvurrryuy set up. A 387. 

dvoHrH^uv : 1st aor. opt. of 
dvurrrffu, cause to stand up, rouse 
from their seats. A 191. 

dva-(rxtSv, dvdo^co, dvoflrx^ir6ai, dvo- 
ox^|Mvos, dvoflrx^ : aor. of dvc^co, 
hold up; mid. endure, dvqxrxofjuam: 
dratcing back, " hauling off." 

dvo^r^XXtt, aor. dvcroAc: send up, 
cause to grow. E 777. 



14 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



dvo-Tp^vM, aor. dvcrpaTTcro : turn 

over: &or, fell back. Z 64. 
dva-^«Uvt* : (show up), reveal. A 87. 
dva-x^t^F^^ • ^^^ ^^^1 ^oithdrawj 

yield. E 443, 600. 
dv»-X**P^> ^^^* AvoLxtapn^mKi draw 

back, yield, retreat. E 107. 
dv».^« : cool, refresh. E 795. 
dvSdvw, impf. iJrSoyc or avfiave, aor. 

inf. d&iv (fayfioyw, ^Sus, suadeo, 

suavis, sweet, foB-): please, am 

acceptable. A 24. 
* Av8pa{|u*v, -cvoi : ^4 ndraemon, father 

of Thoas. B 638. 
dv8pfi-^vn|t (^oros) : man-slaying, 

of 'EwaXios. B 651. 
dv8po-icTao'(i| (KTovdv) : slaughter of 

men. E 900. 
* Av6po|ftdxi| : Andromache, wife of 

Hector, daughter of Eetion (king 

ofTheba). Z 394 ff. Her father 

and brothers were slain by Achil- 
les. Z414£F. 
dv6po-^vot : man-slaying. Epithet 

esp. of Hector and Ares. A 441. 
dv-^ : aor. of Avafiatyia, go up, 

rise. 
dv-ryvd|&^Oi| : aor. of Avayva^ima, 

bend back. T 348. 
dv-€8^T0 : aor. of di«a8cp(0fuu, receive. 

E619. 
dv48i} and dvuMovro : aor. of dva- 

8vai, dive up to, appear from. 
dv-<^fryM : check, hold back. T 77. 
dv-^Kiv : aor. of dviiffu, urge on. 
&v-<i|u, pres. partic. diWra (cT/u) : 

come back, return. Z 480. 
dv-cCpot&oi (Ipopm) : ask, inquire. 
dv-€ic^Tdt (dv^oi) : endurable. A 573. 



dv-4\ovTo, dviX^: aor. of di«up«u, 

tcJce up. A 449, 301, B 410. 
&M|iOf , -oco (animus): wind. Homer 

knows but four winds : Eiipos, 

East wind, Bopci;$, North wind, 

Zc^v/9os, West wind, Noroc, South 

wind. 
dv||i4Xiot (avc/AOs) : (windy), empty, 

useless, idle, in vain, to no purpose, 

A 355, E 216. 
*Avi|ft4ptia : town in Phocis. B 521. 
dv-lMw : impf. of &my€vm (nod up, 

Le. shake the head), refuse. Z 311. 
dv-lrm : aor. partic. of dvirffu, urge on. 
dy-4o|Mu: fut. of dvixopaif suffer, 

allow. E 895. 
aWptt, iv^ps iWpttt : from din^, man. 
dv^XO|Mu : return. A 392, Z 187. 
d1^4o*Tav [dyctm^oov], dWraj.: «tood 

up, rose, aor. of dvumjjfu, set up. 
d » 4 u x <^^ > dWirxov : aor. of drc^a), 

hM up, raise. F 318, E 655. 
dv4niKtf : aor. of dmrcXAiD, send up. 
dy^r pd wro ; aor. of dwirpciro>, /urn 

orcr; hor. fell back. Z 64. 
&iifiAi(v), adv. : far, away from, 

without. &v€v$€ 0coD : wilhoul divine 

help. 
dv-fx4>^f impf. of dFaxa£<¥<^ 

draw back. E 443, 600. 
dv-^«i, fut. dvc^oyiot and aKcr^i^ 

(TcoAu, aor. di^ctrxw: Ao'^ «/>» 

lift, raise ; mid. Ao/</ up under, am 

patient, endure, suffer, allow ; draw 

up. 
dv-fx^^p<|v«v : aor. of hm^pw, draw 

back. T 35. 
&vi^ : speechless, dumb, mute. (Prob. 

an old adj. in nom. pi.) B 323. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



15 



dv-^^'yfv aor., dvi^ iinpf.: of dm- 
y«i>, Innng back, Z 292. 

dr-ijxi [dvg, § 62 f] aor. subjv., 
dvi|m aor. ind. : of avirifUy lei yo^ 
urge on, 

dvW^NioTot (oicos) : incurabley uneiV' 
durable. £ 304. 

diM|icdvn{c : impf . of 6vaKovTitia, dart 
upf shoot up, spurt up. £ 113. 

^^^ fi»®^« dvSyMk or dv^pos, dat. 
dv€pif nom. pi. dv^DCf, dat. pi. 
dvSpacri or dvSpc(r(rc : mofiy vir, 
in contrast with boy, woman, or 
divinity, dv^s ccrrc : be (brave) 
men! In military use, eijuiv. to 
f^XT^> trarrtor. In irur^p dvS|pci>v 
T€ ^ewv Tc, father of both men and 
gods (of 2^us), avSp€s is used of 
the human race (like avOfaairoi,). 
dvrjp is sometimes added to eth- 
nic names, as Sivrics ai^9, Adp- 
Savoi ^p, or to the name of a 
class ; see on B 474. 

dv-^^t: fut. of aoMripiy urge on. 

* Av^|i(Si|s : son of A nthemio, Si- 
molsius. A 488. 

'Avef|iUtv, -iavts : a Trojan. A 473. 

dv^|ad-€it, -CFTOS (avSo^) : flowery, 
abfjunding in flowers. B 467. 

dvAipfdv, -wvoi : chin. A 501, F 372. 

*Av0i|8dv, -<»vo9: town on the Euri- 
pus, about seven miles from 
Chalcis. B 508. 

dveot, pi. avOm : flower. B 468. 

dvOpMirot : man, human being, homo. 

dvldM, aor. partic. dvlfi$€vTa (onus) : 
grieve, vex, wear out. B 291. 

dv-Ci||M, 2d pers. ind. dvuis, fern, 
partic. dwuaa, fut. dv^o-ce, aor. 



dv^Kc or avetfK€y, aor. subjv. amljjf, 
aor. partic. dvcKrcs: (send up), 
let go, free, urge on. 

dv-idm : partic. of aycifu, come back, 
return. Z 480. 

&>ia«Tot (vMrro)) : unw€uhed. Z 266. 

dv-CaTi||u, pres. mid. partic. Ayurror 
/icvos, fut. inf. dKOTiTcreo^Qu, 1st 
aor. opt. dwumTcrcicv, 2d aor. ind. 
dvctm^ dvanfn/v, dKCcrroy [dye 
an^aav], aor. partic. aviurrast 
avfrrdyTfn : set up, raise, cause to 
rise, in pres. and 1st aor. act. ; 
stand up, rise, in 2d aor. and mid. 
Often with dat. of interest, rdun 
S* dyecm/, he rose for them, sc, to 
address them. 

dv-opo^, aor. dyv^xiucre: start up, 
rise. A 248. 

dv-ofroTOs (ovrdfuvai) : unw^nded 
by a weapon held in the hand, 
opp. to aPXrfros, unhit by a 
missile. A 540. 

dv-o-r d rr n aor. partic, dvoH^onio^cu 
fut., dvo*H|Ti|v aor. ind.: of dvi- 
arrifUy raise up, rise. B 398. 

dv-ox V^M^Oi : fut. of Av^xp/uu, en- 
dure, allow. £ 104, 285. 

dvra: opposite, over against. Cf. 
avrqv. B 626. 

drr-d{iot: of like worth, of equal 
value, equivalent. A 136. 

dirrdM, aor. rprrqcra : meet. Z 399. 

'Arrfia: vdfe of Proetus. Z 160. 
(Stheneboea in the tragic poets.) 

drr-cTdpi|«nv : aor. of dvriropcco, pierce. 
£337. 

dmiv: equiv. to avro, opposite, to 
(my) face, openly. A 187. 



16 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



' AyTi|vop(Si|t \ Mnof A rUenor, F 123 . 

'AvWjvwp, -opoi (cf. avnayupa) : 
Anterior^ one of the wisest Trojan 
princes (the Trojan Nestor) who 
always favored peace and the re- 
turn of Helen. He was the father 
of many doughty sons, seven of 
whom were slain in the battles 
of the Iliad, He received Mene- 
laus and Odysseus at his house, 
when they came to Troy as am- 
bassadors, r 205 ff . He accom- 
panied Priam to the field, to 
strike a truce. V 262. 

&vr(a, adv. : opposite, Cf, dvrcos. 

dvTv^vtipa {avrip) : matched with men 
in battle, like to men, of the 
Amazons. F 189, Z 186. 

dvrUM, subjv. di^ioaxriv, fem. partic. 
dvnooKmv (§ 47 c), aor. partic. 
dvroums (ovna) : meet, approach, 
partake of, share, receive, Cf, 
avTopoL. A 31. 

dvTi-p(i|v, adv. : mth opposing might ; 
originally cognate ace. ; sc. cpc&i. 

drrC-PiOf (fi^rf): opposing, hostile, 
avrCPuiv /mxtxraa^oi : fight against 
in hand-to-hand conflict. F 20. 

dvTi-poXlM, aor. inf. dvri^SoX^am 
()8a\X«D) : go to meet, take part in. 

dvii-^cos 3: god-like, with no esp. 
reference to moral qualities. 

dvTucp^ adv. : (opposite, against), 
straight fonoard, straight through, 

'Avrikoxin: Antilttchus, eldest son of 
Nestor, a distinguished warrior, 
and friend of Achilles. See 
ayaBoi, P 652 ff., * 556. 

drr(o« 3 : meeting, to meet, in friendly 



or hostile sense, dyriov is used ad- 
verbially, dvrtbv tltrov: opposed, &v 
rvov tlfu : go against, with genitive. 

dnv^r^Kua (ir^s), neut. pi. as 
subst. : the opposite fields, the oppo- 
site coast, B 635. 

dm^roplM, aor. avTcroprfO'ey : pierce, 

drr%-4^: bear against; mid. bear 
myself against, oppose. A 589. 

'Am^ot: (1) Greek ally from the 
Sporades. B 678. (2) Leader 
of the Maeonians. B 864. 
(3) Son of Priam. A 489. 

£rro|uu (ofi/ra): meet, Cf, dyriaxo, 

'AvrpAv, -wvoi : town under the rule 
of ProtesilaUs. B 697. 

&mi(, -vyo5, fem. : rim, of shield 
or chariot. E 262, Z 118. 

£w^it, -«os: accomplishment, fulfill- 
ment, avixns B* ovK Iccrrnu: 
"they will not attain what they 
desire and plan." B 347. 

dviM* : accomplish, gain anything. 

dvtrya (perf. as pres.), impf. avuryov, 
plpf. as impf. Tvcoya or &yt!»yuv 
(§ 30 k) : command, order, bid. 
A 313. 

Bfam : aor. partic. of aywfu, break, 

dlgfi fut., ££rri aor. imv. : of ayo), 
lead, bring, T 105. 

'A{i4t: Axius, river in Macedonia, 
emptying into the Thermaean 
Gulf. B 849. 

££iOt (ayui) : (of equal weight), of 
equal value, suitable (pi a ransom). 

ojov: aor. imv. of Sywfu, break, 

'AJuXot : Axylus, Trojan from Arisbe, 
slain by Diomed. Z 12. 

SfyK¥ (axis): axle of chariot. £ 838. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



17 



&0164 [iiSvf] (&d&o) : song, gift ofsfmg. 

doCSiiftot: sung of, subject of song. 
Z358. 

doXX^, -C9 (ctXco) : all together, with 
closed ranks, E 498. 

doXX({«, aor. aoXXiauv: collect, bring 
together. Z 270, 287. 

'Avourtft (Uouros, £ 612) : town of 
Mysia. B 828. 

&-vdXa|jivot (vaXoLfirji): (toithotU de- 
vice), helpless. E 597. 

dir-aXoid«», aor. amj^rja-ey: crush. 
A 522. 

&iitiX4« 3 : tender, delicate, soft. 

dy-ttm(pO|iai : reply, answer. Freq. 
in the formula rov h* aimfuipo- 
fuvoq irpoa-vfyq, where the ace. -is 
const, with irpofrii^n}. A 84. 

dv-dMv-0f, adv. : away, apart, aside, 
sometimes with ablatival gen., 
away from. A 48, 549, B 391. 

&ir5«, &vBo^ &irav (strengthened 
was) : all, all together. A 535. 

dv-dTfp-9i(v) (aT€p), adv. : separately, 
apart, with gen. E 445. 

dirdrn: deceit, trick. A 168. 

diran|X6« : deceptive, deceitful. A 526. 

dir-4Pv| and dirfp^jorro: aor. of diro- 
fiaivm, depart. B 35, Z 116. 

dir-c8^To : aor. of d7ro8r^o/ia<, accept. 
A 95. 

dv-Avov : aor. of airo&wo, strip off. 

dir-A«»Ki : aor. of (i7ro8iSo>/u, gice back, 
pay, render. A 478. 

dirfiXIfl*, fut. (iirciAi7<rci), aor. ^irct- 
Ai^crcv and AwaXyjaav (AttciAi;) : 
threaten. rpruX-qo'fv fivBov: (he 
threatened a word), he uttered a 
threat. A 181, 388. 



2v-€i|u, partic. dircoKros {dfu): am 

away. Z 362. 
d^vtCpwv, -oros: boundless, limitless. 
dtr-^inuH : aor. of dwoicruvto, slay. 
d^iriXfOpot (ircXc^pov): immeasurable, 

infinite. E 245. 
dtr-cvdovcvro : aor. of Airovatofiai, emi- 
grate. B 629. 
dv-cdrrot : partic. of dimfu, am away. 
d^vipcC^iot (^^) 3 • boundless, 

countless. A 13, Z 49, 427. 
dv-cp^KM : itce/) o/f*, ward off, avert. 
dv-cvo-viMvov perf. partic, Amirruro 

pipf . : of diroaro-cvo/ioi, hasten away. 
dv-icmi: stepped back, aor. of d^i- 

arrffu, set back. T 33. 
dv^ri^av : aor. of dirorcW, ;>a^. 
Afw^xBai^, aor. subjv. dircx^fMo 

(^X^os) : Aa/c violently. T 415. 
dv-^x^^^^Of^*'^) ^^''- din/x^cro: am 

Aa/^rf. r 454, Z 140, 200. 
dv-^XMf aor. subjv. dTrdoxi; •* hold off, 

keep far away. Z 96, 277. 
dv-i)Xo(i|<rcv : aor. of d-moXoidca, cmsh. 
d-iHj|u*v (ir^fui) : unharmed. A 415. 
dv-T|^f, -w : (urikind), harsh, cruel. 
dv-i|^pa, dirt|vp«»v: took away. See 

diroijpas. A 430, Z 17. 
dir-^Orro : aor. of dTrtyBdvofjiajL. 
d-iri6lo*, aor. ArriOrja-t (irttBia) : rfw- 

ohey. A 220. 
£tru>f (diro) 3 : distant, remote. 

ryjKoBtv i( amri^ yao/s : from far 

away — a remote land. A 270. 
dUmoTOt: faithless, untrustworthy. 
dir6 (ab, off), adv. and prep. : away, 

off, from, back. The adv. is freq. 

attended by an ablatival gen. 

d^' Imrwv aXro: leaped from his 



18 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



chariot, diro x^okos &pvvTo: on the' 

ffraund he set out, fU^wv airo rj^ dAo- 

XOio : remaining away from his wife. 

diro trar/N8os alri^: absent from his 

fatherland, airo &vfuw : far from 

(my) heart, 
dvo-cuploiiOi and A^oiplofMi, fut. 

d^oi/nTcrcoAu, aor. d^cAovro : take 

awayy deprive for my own interest, 
d«o-Pa(vt», aor. AmPiifrero or dir^i; : 

go off, distnount, £ 133, A 428. 
dird.p\i|TOf (pdXXito): to he cast off, 

to be rejected, despicable, T 65. 
dwo-YVidtf, aor. subjy. diroyuMMri/s 

(ywa): (lame utterly), weaken. 

Z265. 
diro-8<xo|Mu, aor. dircScfaro: accept, 
diro-8(8«i|u, aor. dircSoMcc, aor. inf. 

dTTO&nW : give back, render, pay, 
diro-S6«, aor. dircSOcrc : s^np off, 
diro-cCK«: withdraw from, abandon, 

with gen. T 406. 
dn^-ciiit: imy. of afrwfnffu, deny, 

refuse, T 406. 
dir^-cpo^ (aor.): carried off, swept 

away, Cf, Avovpas, Z 348. 
diro-4lr6ai: aor. inf. of dmri&rffAi, 

put off. T 89, £ 402. 
diro-6pdkrK« : leap off, B 702. 
diroivo, neut. pi. (irotvi;): (recom- 
pense), ransom, A 20, Z 46. 
dir-o(ffvrov: fut. of dTro^^oi, &ear 

away. £ 257. 
diro-Kpivw, aor. pass, partic. diro- 

KpwBivrtx separate. SuroKpu^hrrt : 

apart from their friends. E 12. 
dvo-KTiCvt*, aor. ind. dTrocTave, aor. 

inf. dTTOfcrd/Licv : slay, kill. £ 675. 
dvoAdiLVM : shine, gleam, Z 295. 



dir-oXlofcu aor. inf., dvtfXMvav aor. 
ind. : of AwoXXufu, destroy, T 40. 

6itco^ipfm : cease, die away, die. 

dv-4XX9|M, aor. act diroiXcxrc and 
diroAcotmv [^imoktaxxy], aor. mid. 
dircoXcro and diraAorro: destroy; 
mid. perish, die, fall (in battle). 

'A«6XX«fir, Huvoc : Apollo, son of Zeus 
and Lieto, twin brother of Arte- 
mis. God of the sun and light 
(hence $di)3os, gleaming), of song 
(A 603), of herds (B 766), of the 
bow (ItcffPoXoi, apyvporoioi), of 
health and disease. He is one 
of the mightiest gods, f req. asso- 
ciated with Zeus and Athena. 
He favors the Trojans against 
the Greeks. A 36 ff., 451 fF., 
E 344 fF., 508 ff. 

d«o-\9|uUvo|iai : purify myself 

diro.XiN*, aor. direXikrc: release, set 
free. A 95, Z 427. 

dvo-|fci|yU», aor. partic. dirofu^i^oas : 
give vent to wrath far away. B 772. 

dir-o|ft6fryr9|u, aor. SjrofJMp^aTo: wipe 
away. B 269. 

diro-vaCi», aor. dircmotmro: emigrate, 
remove. B 629. 

diro-i4o|uu : return. B 113, T 313. 

dvo-vMrWM, fut. dirovoomTirciv (voo'- 
ros) : return, go home. A 60. 

diro-v6o'^(v), adv.: apart, away from, 
B233. 

dvcHraiN*, fut. mid. diroiraucrccrAu : 
stop from ; mid. keep myself away 
from, cease from, stop. E 288. 

diro-irfrofiai, aor. mid. partic. dvo- 
vrdfu^oi : Jly away. B 71. 

diro<^irvfU» (irvcttf): breathe forth. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



19 



&«o-^rT#« : spU forth, belch forth. 
dir-6fnrv|uu : set out from. £ 105. 
Av-opoiM*, aor. dirapoucrc: leap off, 

hasten away. E 20, 836. 
Airo-ppf^YvOfu, aor. partic. ampprfi^^ : 

break off, break.- Z 507. 
dvo-pp^ (^riyyvfu): (what is broken 

ojf), branch (of a river). B 755. 
diro-9v«^»o|uu, plpf. ArritravTo as aor., 

)>er£. partic. as pres. dTrco-crv/Acvov : 

rush away, hasten away. A 527, 

Z390. 
diro-oTvCxM, aor. dirdaTcx< * 90 away, 

depart. A 522. 
diro-o>^dXX«*, aor. opt. dirocr^i/Xcic : 

drive far away from. &iro(T<^riXuA 

irovoio : << make vain their labor." 
dird-oxn * aor. of aTrc^co, hold off, 

keep far atoay from. Z 96, 277. 
diro^(0T||u, aor. inf. amBkrOax: put 

off, doff. T 89, E 492. 
dvo-rfvw, f ut. dmrtirofJLfy, aor. dire 

Ttoav : pay, recompense. A 128. 
dvo^pos, aor. partic. : taking away. 

(Prob. for Avo-ppas. Of this, 

dirrfvpa (or arrtvpoL) would be the 

ind., while dmivpfjiv seems to be 

formed from an Amvpaxo.) A 356. 

Cf. &jrofpa€. 
diro-^^, fut. ind. ATrourerov: bear 

away. E 257. 
dvo-^ir^iO« : waste away, perish. 
dvo-^OivM, aor. partic. dtro^i/icvov : 

perish, die. T 322. 
&-vpT|icTot (TTfr/ja-o'ta) : (unaccom- 
plished), ineffectual, fruitless. 
d-irpULTiiv (jrpiaLfiai), adv.: unbought, 

without money, without ransom. 

A 99. 



Vrr6X«|iof (woktpoi) : unwarlike. 
B 201. 

&vro|Mu, aor. rj^lfaro : /ay Ao/cf o/, 
touch. A 512, E 799. 

6nr-mU», fut. ainiKra: />ti«A o/f, keep 
off, remove. A 97. 

dv-^&Xivf, dv^lXcTo : aor. of AwoXXypji, 
destroy. E 648, Z 223. 

dpa, ^ (enclit.), ^, f : «o, Men, a« 
you know, you know, it seems. Very 
often it marks an action as nat- 
ural, or as well-known, or reminds 
of something recently said. It 
also marks transitions. Freq. it 
cannot be translated into Eng. 
for lack of an equivalent particle, 
but its force must be rendered by 
a suitable arrangement of words, 
or inflection of voice. It never 
stands at the beginning of a 
clause. 

A^afUm, aor. dpdfiriart (apapos, Eng. 
rap) : ring, of the armor of fall- 
ing warriors. A504, E42, 58. 

*Apai0vp<i) : thought to be the later 
Phlius near Corinth. B 571. 

dpoi^t 3 : (thin), delicate, slender, of 
Aphrodite's hand. E 425. 

dpAo|Mu, impf. rfparo, aor. rjpi^auTO 
(dpd, prayer) : prat/. Z 304. 

dpopCo'icM, aor. partic. apaavrts, aor. 
ind. T^pape, perf. partic. dprfptSit^ 
and ipapvwL (§ 49 g), plpf. dp^pav 
(§ 30 k) (6p,ATS, arm): join, Jit, 
suit ; perf. and plpf. are intrans., 
am fitted, suited. (/uMrnip apvfpiik : 
a well-fitting girdle, o 6L iraAd- 
prfiav dpifpuv : which was suited to 
his hands. 



20 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



dfryo^^' fft^et'oiufj tnTible, difficult. 

'ApYfiOf ("Apyoi) 3 : Argive. *Hpiy 
*Apyeii; (A 8) fiince Hera was 
the patron goddess of Argos, 
*Apyurf *EAcn; since Helen's true 
home was in Peloponnesus. As 
subst.| 'ApyeuM, the ArgiveSf men of 
Argos in the broader sense ; used 
like *A)(cuoL and AavoM, of all the 
Greeks. Metrical convenience 
often determined the choice be- 
tween these three words. § 22 c. 
Homer had no one word for 
Greeks as distinct from barba- 
rians, as he had none for barbar 
rians as distinct from Greeks. 

* A|ryti^vn|t : Argeiphontes, A freq. 
epithet of Hermes, of uncertain 
derivation. It is best rendered 
as a proper name. B 103. 

d|»YCvvi6f {apy6^) 3 : lustrous^ with 
white sheen, white. T 141, Z 424. 

dfY^*) "VfOi • ophite, glistening, 

&pYiv6-cis, -<vro9 .' chalky. B 647. 

'ApYuro-a: Thessalian town. B738. 

'Afryof , -€09 : Argos. (1) Capital of 
Argolis, seat of Diomed. B 559. 
(2) Peloponnesus (*A/yyos 'A;(ai- 
iKov I 141). A 30. (3) Thessaly 
(n€Aa(ry«cov''Apyos). B 681. In 
Z 456, "ApytK seems to be used 
for all Greece, just as 'Apyctbc is 
used for Greeks. 

'Afryoo'.Sc : to Argos. B 348. 

dfry^s: (1) stDtfl, (2) white. 

dfry^piot (apyupo?) 3 : of silver, silcer. 
r 331, E 727. 

&fryvpo-8ivi|s : with silcer eddies, silver- 
eddying. B 753. 



&fryvp6-i|Xof : silver-studded, studded 
with silver nails, of a sword hilt. 

&fryvp6-«ita : (silver feet), silver footed, 
i.e. with beautiful white feet. 
Standing epithet of Thetis. Cf 
* Thetis' tinsel-slipper'd feet,' Mil- 
ton Comus 877. A 538. 

£pyvpof (argentum) : «t/(;€n £726. 

df»Yvp6-Tofof : silver-bowed, bearer of 
the silver how. Epithet of Apollo. 

&pcUiv, dp€iov : comp. of dya66s, good, 
strong, mighty. Cf. apcoros. 

&plirK», fut. apfXTVOfuBa {apapurKta) : 
atone for, satisfy, make right. 
A 362. 

'Apffrdttv, -OV09: Trojan slain by 
Teucer. Z 31. 

dfWfY«*, fut. dpT^av, aor. afirj(ai : aid, 
defend. Cf. apwyoi. A 521. 

dfnpf^v, -dvo9, f . : helper, defender. 

clfWjiot : {pertaining to A res), of war, 
warlike, martial, brave. A 98. 

dpi|(-4^^- ^^^^ ^o Ares. P 21. 

'AfW|W| : town under Nestor's rule. 
B591. 

Af^pciv plpf. (§ 30 k), &fn|pdTo< perf. 
partic. : of apapUrKta, ft, suit. 
r338. 

"Apffs, gen. "Apaoi, dat. *Apei or 
"ApvfL, ace. "ApnifL, voc. "Apt^ or 
* A/xs : Ares, Mars, son of Zeus 
and Hera. God of war, but not 
one of the most powerful divin- 
ities. *E/M9 (Strife) is his sister ; 
Aci/109 (TVrror) and 4>d/3o9 (Flight) 
are his attendants. A 440 f. His 
home is in Thrace. He is on 
the side of the Trojans in the 
action of the Iliad. His name 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



21 



is freq. used for batUe, war, fury 

of war. 
fi|n)T^p, -vjpoi (apdofjuu) : (one who 

prays), priest, A 94. 
&pC-|;i|Xof : very clear, distinct, § 40 d. 

B 318. 
dpiO^iiu, aor. pass. inf. dpi$p.rfirjfA£V€a 

(dpiOfioi) : count, enumerate, num- 

her. B 124. 
"AptfiOi : a people in Cilicia, where 

Typhoeus lay bound beneath the 

earth. B 783. 
&pi-vpcv^ -€<K' distinguished^ ftn 

eminent. § 40 </. Z 477. 
*Ap(a'Pv| : town in the Troad, 

not far from Abydus. 

B 836. 
'ApCo-pii-Ofv : from Arishe, 

B838. 
dpump6s : left (hand) . hr apver 

T€pai: to the left, on the left 

E 355. 
dpurrc^, ^os (apMrros) : chief prince. 
ApiOTcvM, iterative irapf. apur- 

rtvfXTKt : am chief am first, am 

brace in battle. Z 208, 460. 
opiOTos 3 : superl. of ayaOoi, good, 

strong, mighty, brave. Cf apeuav- 
*ApKa8Ci|: Arcadia, in the middle of 

Peloponnesus. B 603. 
*ApKd«, -a^: Arcadian. B 611. 
'ApKio-C-Xaos (Defender of the peo- 
ple) : Boeotian leader. B 495. 

Slain by Hector. O 329. 
iipK4», aor. rjpK€a'€ (arceo) : protect, 

ward off. ZIQ. ^ 
£pKiof : appointed, fated, sure. B 393. 
""Apiio, -iiTos : Boeotian town near 

My calessus . B 4 99 . 



&p|ia, -aros: chariot, esp. chariot of 
war. It was low and light, en- 
tered from behind, with a curved 
rim (avTvi) in front and on the 
sides, with standing room for 
two persons, the driver and the 
fighter; it was drawn generally 
by two horses, sometimes by 
three, and was used not so much 
for fighting as a ready means of 
transportation from one part of 




the field to another. The pi. is 
freq. used like the sing. Cf. 
Stirpes, oxoi, oxeoL. 

dp|Miro-in|Y6s (irqyvvfu) : chariot- 
maker. A 485. 

&pi&6(o», aor. rjpfW(r€ (apapia-KOi) : fit, 
suit to. rippjoort avrw : he fitted it 
to himself. T 333. 

*Appx>v(Sif|s, -€o> : son of Harmon 
(Joiner), Tecton (Carpenter), a 
skillful Trojan artisan who built 
the ships that carried Paris to 
Greece. E 60 flf. 

&pva (ace. sing.), dual apvt, gen. pi. 
Apviav (fopv-, § 32 a) : lamb. T 103, 
273, A 435. 

&pvtids (apva) : ram. F 197. 

'Apwi : Boeotian town. B 507. 



22 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



jpvv|uu, aor. opt. apoto : strive to win^ 
gain, A 95, E 553, Z 446. 

^tpovpa (df>o(t>, aro, aryum, Eng. 
ear) : plowed field, cornfield, landj 
earth, 

dfMrdti*, aor. partic. dpira^s 
(rapio) : seize, carry off, V 444. 

S-ppi|icTot (p7yw/u) : . (wnfrroifcen), 
unwearied, untiring, B 490. 

dpo- tt rr n : aor. partic. of dpapuTKia, 
fit, suit. A 136. 

dpt«|i^ -cs : sound, unharmed. 

'A^niut, -t8o9 : Artemis, Diana, 
daughter of Zeus and Leto, and 
twin sister of Apollo. Like her 
brother, she is on the side of the 
Trojans. Like him she bears a 
bow, and she is his counterpart 
in seyeral respects, sending quiet 
death to women, as he does to 
men. E 51, 447, Z 428. 

tt^nm: well fitting, harmonious, aprui 
jfSiy: "was of one mind." 

dpT^vw, impf . rjfyrvvero (ofiopurKO}) : 
prepare, form, B 55. 

dpX^-Kcucot: beginning calamity, which 
began the trouble. E 63. 

'Apxi'Xox^ (Leader of cohort^ : a 
Trojan, son of Antenor. B 823. 
Slain by Ajax. B 463 ft. 

dpxc^: lead, command, Cf, apx^ 
and i7yc/iOKcijQ>. E 200. 

Apx4 : beginning. T 100. 

ApX^ : leader, chief. A 144, B 234. 

£pX**r &or. subjy. ap$wn, aor. opt. 
ap(aav: lead the way, command, 
rule, begin. Freq. with gen. ; 
sometimes with dat. of interest. 

AfMry^ (^afniyui) : help, protection. 



dpirydt : helper (Iwi ^cvSctrcri, to liars). 
A 235. 

fl^otu : aor. inf. of ana, sate. E 289. 

fiHTpfo^rof (o-^nw/u) 3: (unquench- 
able), ceaseless, A 599. 

dv^ffccUvt* (Sof/Uf oKrOfw.) : breathe 
hard, gasp. E 585. 

'Ao-(vi| : town in Argolis. B 560. 

"Aooot : prominent leader of Trojan 
allies. B 837. 

'Ariot, adj. : Asian, B 461 . 

'AncdXo^o* : leader of Orchomeni- 
ans, son of Ares. B 512. 

'A0^avCi|: district in Bithynia. 
B863. 

'Ao-icdviot : leader of Trojan allies 
from Ascania. B 862. 

AitkU, impf. i^KUv, aor. partic. 
oMTKifiras : prepcHre^ A 110. 

' AflncXi|vi48i|s : son of Asclepius, 
Machaon, a skilled surgeon. 
A 204. 

*Ao-icXi|in6« : A sclepius, Aescula- 
pius. B 731. Homer does not 
know him as a divinity, but as a 
hero skilled in surgery and the 
use of herbs. 

&oic6ff : leathern bottle for wine. 

Aimlpm: gasp, twitch. T 293. 

iunnpx4% adv. : vudendy, eagerly. 

&-4rvfTOt : unspeakable, indescribably 
great, vast. B 455, V 373. 

&o^in8U&Ti|« : shield bearing, equiv. to 
cunrion}?. B 554. 

AnrCs, -i8o$, feni. : shield; the general 
word for ^both the large oval 
shield (&ful>iPp6Trf B 389) and 
a smaller round shield (cvkuicXos 
E 797). It was made of several 



FiSST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



23 




layers of oxhide, with generaUy 
an outer layer of bronze. It was 
supported by a strap which passed 
oyer the shoulder, and was guided 
by the left 
hand. Cf, 

] tt imwi ^ i : shield- 
bearing man, 
fcarriar. Cf, 
aixfirrn^' A 
90, 201. 

Orchomenian 
dffirls town. B511. 

Epic for S, rivo, from o$ res. 

cLwrov, adv.: nearer, comp. of ffyxc- 
Sa-aov tlfu : approach. A 567. 

^Uo^raxvt, ^vos : ear of grain, B 148. 

&.4m|44i (staff), adv. : stUL T 210. 

&-«Ti|i^^ -€? : unshaken, firm, B 344. 

*A0^r^v: Thessalian town. B735. 

Ao-Tfp4-ci«, -cvros (acm^p): starry. 

AgrnpovirHjt (ooTpawTui) : Atir/cr o/* 
Me lightning, god of the lightning. 
Epithet of Zeus. A 580, 609. 

&r<Wjp, -^909 (star) : star, darrip 
^irci)/NF09: Sirius, the dog star, 
Z295. 

&o-rpd«Tt» : lighten, send lightning. 

&m», -cos (fdoTv): city, tocUled toum 
(as made up of dwellings); while 
iroXis is the city as the < county 
seat,' the central point of the ter- 
ritory. B 801, r 116. 

'AvrteXot: a Trojan. Z 29. 

'Arru-dvaf, -ojcrog (Defender of the 
city): Astyanax, name given by 
the Trojans to Hector's son, be- 



cause of Hector's protection of the 
city. Z 403, X 506. 

'A9T«voo«: a Trojan. E 144. 

'AoTvdxiMi (^x") ' mo^h^i' o^ Tlepole- 
mus by Heracles. B 658. 

'AoTvdxii : mother of Ascalaphus by 
Ares. B 513. 

ijr%pXAm, pres. inf. ixrxaKaav (§ 47 c): 
am impatient, vexed. B 293, 297. 

'A0-Mir6t : Boeotian river. A 383. 

ArTiXaKTOf : like, equal. B 169, E 576. 

droXd-^pitv, -cwo$ (^pi/F): merry 
hearted. Z 400. 

Ardp (avrap) : but, yet, while. It 
always stands at the beginning 
of its clause (often correlative with 
fUv), and often marks a distinct 
contrast with the preceding situ- 
ation. Freq., however, the con- 
trast is slight, when drop means 
and or and then, rather than but. 
It is somewhat more emphatic 
than St, since it has a more prom- 
inent position. A 166, 506. 

A-rdp^ifTot (rapPiiiji): fearless, un^ 
daunted. T 63. 

4-TOfTi|p6t: harsh, angry. A 223. 

&TO04oXii| (arrf), always pL: blind 
infatuation, wickedness. A 409. 

A-mp^t, -€? (rc^Ktf): unwearied, un- 
yieliing, firm. T 60, E 292. 

A^^rAttTTOf (rcAoc) : unaccomplished, 
unfulfilled, Jruitless. A 26, 168. 

A^riXdrn|To« (rcXcuraio) : unaccom- 
plished. A 527, A 175. 

Anp, adv. with gen.: without, apart 
from. A 498, A 376, E 473. 

£^npvot (rcpiro)) : cheerless. Ms. 
reading in Z 285. 



24 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



irr\ (dpartfi dam) : blind infatuation, 
blindnessy ruin, Z 356. 

d^i|idli», aor. ffttfUMXTiVj and flUrl|Ad«, 
aor. riTtfirfa'tv (rifirj) : hold in low 
esteem, slight. A 11, 356. 

£-ri|fto«, superl. arl/ioran; : unhanored, 
slighted. A 516. 

driTdXX«: cherish, rear, feed (of 
horses). £ 271. 

arot (contracted from cuxtos): in- 
satiate, with gen. E 388. 

' Arp^tSfis and ' Arpcta*v, -tavoi : son of 
Atreus. § 39/. Epithet of Aga- 
memnon and Menelaufl (*Ar/)ci&u). 
When witliout special qualifica- 
tion, it generally refers to Aga- 
memnon. 

6rpmh, adv.: tridg, really. £ 208. 

drpcK^, adv. : truly, exactly. B 10. 

d-Tp^liAg (rpifjun), adv.: still, motion- 
less. B 200, E 524. 

'ArptOi, -€09: Atreus, son of Pelops, 
father of Agamemnon and Mene- 
laus. B 105 f. 

&-Tpo|Ms (rpifua) : (without trembling), 
fearless. E 126. 

drpiryrro«: restless. Epithet of the 
sea and the aether. (Of uncer- 
tain derivation and meaning; 
some editors take it as barren.) 

drpih^vi): unwearied, invincible. Epi- 
thet of Athena. B 157, E 115. 

dr^(o|Mu, aor. partic. drvyOtt^: am 
confused, am frightened. Z 468. 

' Arv|&vid&i|« : son ofAtymnius, Mydon. 
E581. 

aZ, conj.: again, anew, on the other 
hand, but now (forming a transi- 
tion), (f. drop, avTop, avrc. 



Avynai, pi.: (1) Lacedaemonian 
town. B583. (2) Locrian town. 
B532. 

avy^ : gleam, brightness. B 456. 

AvYi|id&i|s: son of Augeas, Agasthe- 
nes. B 624. 

av8d«», 3d pers. impf . rj/vSa^ iterative 
aor. av^/oacricc (avSi^) : speak, to- 
axfy avSi^ooo-Kc : shouted so loud (of 
Stentor). E 786. 

avS^ • voice, speech. A 249. 

avi|>^y aor. avtpvaav (dvd, ptpwa, dy 
p€fiwa,dpp€f(\m)i draw up. § 29 c. 

aS9i, adv. : right there, there, here. 

avki\ : courtyard, court (situated before 
the house; the irp66vpo¥ and 
alBowm lead from it into the 
house) ; farmyard. E 138, Z 247. 

AvXCs, -iSo$: Aulut, a. Boeotian har- 
bor on the Euripus (opposite 
Chalcis in Euboea), where the 
Achaean forces gathered in order 
to set sail together for Troy. 
B 303 ff., 496. 

avX-«hrit, H&>9 (avXo$t &*!/): with high 
reed. Epithet of a helmet, with 
high reedlike standard for the 
crest. (Or, with holes in the visor 
for the eyes.) E 182. See Kop^s. 

avrdp (avrc ap): on the other hand, 
but, yet. Equiv. to drop. 

oZ-rt, conj.: again, anew, but; in gen- 
eral equiv. to av. A 202. 

&Xirt{ (avto) : shout, battle cry. 

avr-4)|iap : the same day, that very day. 

avrixa (avrd?), adv. : at once, straight- 
way, A 199, 386, 539. 

aSns (av), adv. : again, a second time, 
afterwards, back again. A 27. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



25 



airdOi (ain-os) [ain-oS], adv.: right 
there, Cf. aWi. T 428. 

a^To-KartYvilTOt : oton brother, 

a^kd-iiorot (au/oma/ofi) : o/* (his) own 
accord. B 408. 

airdt, avn;, avro, intensive pron. : 
self, generally of the 3d pers., him- 
Keif J herself; rarely used of things. 
It is intensive not merely in the 
nom. and when associated with a 
noun or pers. pron., as in Attic, 
but also when standing alone 
in the oblique cases; sometimes, 
however, the intensive idea (of 
contrast) is not easily expressed 
in English, alroi contrasts 
the man with his associates, his 
adversaries, his horses, his cloth- 
ing, his weapons, his soul (A 4), 
etc. It allows of a large variety 
of translations; e,g, in person^ 
alone (by himself), of free will, 
T^v avrtfv 686v is equiv. to Attic 
Tttvnyv TTjv avrrjv 686v, wvtos is 
equiv. to ovto« 6 avros. In the 
gen. it is sometimes in agreement 
with the gen. implied in a posses- 
sive pron., e.g, ifioy avrciv #cXeo9 
(since ifwv is equiv. to ifuw)j ra tr 
aMj% tpiya (since <ra is equiv. to 

<TW), 

airoO (strictly local gen. of avros), 
adv. : in the same place, right there, 
right her^, Cf avOt, avroOi, A 428. 

Avro46vos: a Theban. A 395. 

oikMt (avros)f adv. : in the same way. 
The connection alone decides the 
exact meaning. A large variety 
of translations is required; e.g. 



as I am, without occasion, wholly, 

vainly, mere, § 42 i, k. A 133. 
avxV' *^i^ '• »^c^' S ^^7, 161. 
a&*, aor. i^wre and avcrcv : shout. 
al^-aipfo|uu: see diro-aip«ofuu, take 

away. 
d^^Hcyrdiw, aor. partic. d^MLftap- 

Tovayi lose, am bereft. Z 411. 
<l^«C4mf n o-t M^t , -es (ftro?): erring 

in speech, uttering idle words. 

r215. 
A-^vTo« ({jxuvio) : unseen, out of 

sight, destroyed. Z 60. 
d^ap, adv. : straightway. A 349. 
&4d«, pres. partic. d^octfvra (§ 47 c) 

(awTopm, &4^) : handle. Z 322. 
d4^(i|, aor. opt. of diJHrfpuisend off) : 

hurl, r 317. 
o^^XovTo: aor. of Airoatpwpiu, take 

away. B 600. 
d^cvof, -€09 : plenty, wealth. A 171. 
cl^-ArraTi: stand aloof, perf. of A^^i- 

orrffAi, set at a distance. A 340. 
a/^^m : fut. of affnrffu, send away. 
Sf^%vnt (jffACvm) '. imperishable, inde- 
structible. B 46. 
d^diiu, impf. d^ta, fut. d^iTcru, aor. 

opt. d<^'i; : dismiss, send off, hurl. 

A 25. 
d^-ucdvw: come; as perf. am come. 
ai^-Co^|ii, aor. dTrcon;, perf. d^e- 

(rrart: set at a distance , aor. and 

perf. intrans. stand at a distance, 

stand aloof, A 340. 
cu^vnAi (d^cyos) : rich, wealthy, 

abounding (with gen. of fullness). 
ol^-op|&do|Mu, aor. opt. pass. &<l>opfirj- 

Otky: set out. B 794. 
iu^dmrra : partic. of d^dc^, handle. 



26 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



1 1 thoughtlessly, inconsider- 
ately, r 436. 

ap^po8(i| : thaughtlessnesSf folly, igno- 
rance. B 368, E 649. 

dr4pcUv«* (jit>pffiv) : am a fool. hf>paJi- 
volax^ playing the fool. B 258. 

'A^poStni : Aphrodite, Venus, daugh- 
ter of Zeus and Dione (E 348, 
370 f.), wife of Hephaestus, god- 
dess of beauty and love. She 
led Helen to follow Paris to Troy, 
and she favored the Trojans in 
their conflicts. F 380 ff., ^ 416 ff. 

o4p6t(o/A)3po«,imber):/(Kim. E599. 

£-^pi»v, -oi>os (^fnp) : simpleton. 

H»vXXo« (f^i^XAoy) : leafless. B 425. 

o^^fovM, fut. d^i)ifav: draw (water 
or wine), collect, heap up (wealth). 

'AxcuiASts, -c&uav, pi. adj. as subst. : 
Achaean women. § 39 ^. E 422. 

*Axai(t, -iSo? (sc. yvj): Achaean, 
A chaea. 'AxouScs (§ 39 ^) : i4 chaean 
women (contemptuously used of 
the men). B 235. 

'Axoi^t: Achaean; pi. Achivi, the 
Achaeans. The most powerful 
race of the Greeks at the time of 
the Trojan War. Phthiotis (in 
Thessaly) was one of their prin- 
cipal seats. Homer uses this 
name more freq. than any other 
for all the Greeks (§ 22 e). 
Their epithets are ivtcm/jfuBt^, 
well greaved, Koprj KOfAMtvT€^, long 
haired, ;(aA#coxtr(i>ve$, bronze clad. 

aq^tCm or dx^ (^X^) * 9^^^^y sorrow, 
am troubled (Svfjuov, in heart). 

i,x9o^Mi (a;(0o9): am burdened, dis- 
tressed. E 354, 361. 



'AxiXXf^ or *AxiX«^ -^o$ : Achilles, 
son of Peleus and Thetis, leader 
of the Myrmidons and Hellenes 
in Thessaly, the mightiest warrior 
before Troy, the principal hero of 
the Iliad. During the siege he 
had captured twelve Trojan cities 
on the coast and eleven in the 
interior. 1 328 ff. Among his 
prizes was the youthful Brisels, 
whom Agamemnon unjustly takes 
from him. This act of the king 
leads to the fjojvts of Achilles, 
who withdraws from the conflict 
and does not return to it until 
the death of his comrade Patro- 
clus (in H). In the Nineteenth 
Book of the Iliad, Achilles is 
reconciled to Agamemnon and 
prepares for battle with the Tro- 
jans. He slays Hector in the 
Twenty-second Book and ill- 
treats the corpse, but finally 
gives Hector's body back to the 
aged Priam (in O). 

axk6%, -vo$ : mist, darkness. E 696. 

&Xyy\ ' foam (of the sea), chaff (of 
grain). A 426, E 499. 

£x«^|Mu (^X*'*)' ff^^^'^t <^^ troubled. 
Cf dxaxfi^f d)(€wa. A 103. 

&XOii, -<05: grief, sadness. A 188. 

cUxpitov, neut. adv. : aimless, a^^paov 
i&iiv: looking silly, casting a foolish 
look. B 269. 

£xiMt, adv. : completely, wholly. 

axvpfu^ (^axypoy): place where the 
chaff falls as it is winnoived; 
loosely, heap of chaff. E 502. 

&|r, adv. : back, back again, backward. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



27 



<&^ 48os (&rr») : mesh. E 487. 
&|^-oppot (6p¥Vfu)j adj. : returning, 

back. Sxjfoppw, adv. : 6acj;. 
Sif, aor. i/rai (satis): gate. E 289. 
&iipTO : hung, plpf . of Sapt^ lift. 



B 



P4i» : speak, say, utter. A 355. 

poOH /SoAcia, )3a^ fern. gen. paShif 
or PaOurfiX deep, deep hayed, ex- 
tended, high (of standing grain). 

poM-crxoivos : re«</y, bearing tall 
reeds. Epithet of the Asdpus. 
A 383. 

falvm, int. Prf(roiuuj Ist aor. trans. 
pffo^ subjv. fifffroiiw [)3i^oi|iCF], 
aor. mid. firnrtf, 2d aor. intrans. 
^firpf^ perf . 3d pers. pi. fitfiauun, 
plpf. (^/3€j8ijKa(v) : go, come, 
walk; Ist aor. act. cause to go; 
2d aor. act., inceptive, set out. 
PtPaaxTi CKiavroc : years have passed, 
iPav ifUpowrai : (set out carrying), 
carried away; cf. oi^exrOai irpot^ 
povau. ( Cf. pda-Kio, PCfirffJU, PifXjK, 
)3(ufuk.) 

pdXX«, aor. (i)paXoy, aor. mid. as 
pass. pXrJTO, perf. fiipXrfrax, plpf. 
PtfiXrJKUv (§ 30 k): throw, hurl, 
shoot, hit with a missile. paXe- 
rr/y Iv XH^^^' ^^^ *^ '^^ arms. 
PaXe. KikAa: placed the wheels. 
(^iXoTrfra pdXiafuy : shall we make 
firiendship. IvL ff>peai /SoAAco: re- 
ceive in thy mind, take to heart. 
Cf. pAoi. 

pdv: for Upav [^jSiyottv, § 44 n], set 
out; aor. of /SouW, go. A 209. 



Pappap6-^vot (^«nn^: rough-voiced, 

with reference to the harshness 

of the Carian dialect. The word 

PdpPapois for non-Greek, fi)reigner, 

is not found in Homer, just as 

the poet has no one word for all 

Greece. B 867. 
pc4>#vt» (fiofivi) : weigh down, oppress. 

E664. 
fa^ Pap€ui,Pafw (gravis): heathy, 

mighty, violent, grievous. Papv art- 

vaxiay : groaning heavily. A 364. 
f6% : aor. partic. of /SouVoo, go. 
faaiXtit, ^09: king, prince. This 

title is applied more freely than 

Svai. ri79. 
poo^Xt^, fut. Paaikewrofuy: am 

king (^queen), reign. Z 425. 
poeiXi|ti, -cSo9t fern. : pertaining to the 

king, royal. Z 193. 
pdoici»(j3(uv«D) : yo, coiii«. Cf. f^axTK^ 

yrfpwo-Kio. 
Pdn|v [^jSifriTv] : aor. dual of jSouW, 

go. A 327, E 778. 
BarCfia (Pdixk): ThomhUl, a hill 

near Troy, before the Scaean 

Gate. B 813. 
PfpAOm perf., PtP^miv (§§ 301:, 44 6) 

plpf. : of PoLVia, go. B 134, A 221. 
P^pXiicu, p^ipm: perf. pass, of 

pdXka>, hU. E 103, 284. 
P t PpA^M (PiPpwrKta) : eat, devour. 

A 35. 
PfUi ipio, § 52 c]:aor. subjv. of 

paivia, go. 
BfXXipo^vTi|9 : Bellerophon, son of 

Glaucus, grandson of Sisyphus. 

His story is rehearsed at length. 

Z 153-201. 



28 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



P^Xot, -€09 ()8aAA.(o) : missile, arrow. 
P^vOot, -€09 ()3a^) : depth. A 358. 

o-o|uv [j9i^(uficv], P4«t or PfUi [fiSa, 
§ 52 c] : aor. of )8tuW, ^o. The 
Ist aor. is transitive. 

PnXdt (/3cuv(i>) : threshold. A 591. 

Bijonora : Locrian town. B 532. 

Pl^a : glen, ravine. B 532, V 34. 

B(a«, -avros : a lieutenant of Nestor. 
A 296. 

p(Pi||u {Paivoi) : ^0. fuucpa PiftavTa: 
with long strides. T 22. 

p(t|: mt^A^, strength, for attack; pi. 
c/c6</« o/" violence, violence. Freq. 
in periphrasis (cf. /ackos, odiyiK, 
KTJp). § 16 </. Ilpia/ioco j9ii;: Me 
might of Priam, the mighty Priam, 
piff 'HpascXrjcirf : the mighty Her- 
acles. 

P(i|-^iv, old locat. : in might. A 325. 

fk&9 : bow. A k>5. 

pioTot ()3tb$): /i/e, fweafw o/* ///c, 
wealth. E 544, Z 14. 

p\dirTM, aor. pass, partic. jSAa^cvrc: 
weaken, hinder, hold hack. Z 39. 

pX^jluvof, pXiH^ pXf|To: aor. mid. 
as pass, of jSoAAco, hk. § 50 </. 

pX^Kit, aor. partic. jjuoXjowra: go. 
§30^. 

Bod^piot: a stream in eastern Lo- 
cris, emptying into the sea oppo- 
site the northwest corner of 
Euboea. B 533. 

(Mm, pres. partic. jSoocuvres (§ 47 c) 
(pwf) : shout, cry aloud. B 97. 

poc(T| (fi(ns) : oxhide (sc, Bopa, see on 
A 54), shield of oxhide (.sc. aairi^). 
E 452. 



p6ciOf (ficwi) : of cattle, vojpa fioiUA : 

ox sinews, bowstring. A 122. 
Po^ : shout, outcry. fimfv aya$6i : 

good at the war cry, valiant in war 

(esp. of Menelaus and Diomed). 

This was an important quality in 

battle when trumpets were not 

used. 
Bo(pi|: Boebe in Thessaly, not far 

from Pherae, on the lake to which 

it gives its name. B 712. 
BotPi|(t, -i&k: of Boebe. BotPrfis 

XjLfjLvrfi Boebean lake. B711. 
BpMrrol: the Boeotians. B 494, 510, 

E710. 
fio6wvm : partic. of fioaiia, shout. 
Bo^hfi, gen. Bopcoo : Boreas, North 

wind. (See avcfios.) E 524. 
P6o>Ki» (fiov^, botany) : pasture, feed. 

E162. 
pOTpcS^v (j8ar/»v5), adv.: in clusters 

like grapes, of swarms of bees. 

B89. 
povp^v, -ittvoi : groin. A 492. 
povKoXItt (fiavKoXoi) : tend cattle. 
BovKoXUiv, -CDV09 (bucolic) : eldest son 

of Laomedon. Z 22. 
povXfvT^: councilor, member of the 

povXri. Z114. 
povXtv«», fut. Povkewro/jLev, aor. fiov- 

Xmvouto (povXij) : advise, counsel : 

mid. deliberate, plan. B 347. 
PovXV): advice, counsel, plan, will, 

purpose; council, composed of 

y€povrt^, elders, A 5, B 53. 
po«XT|-^pos: counsel-giver, councilor. 

Epithet of princes. E 180. 
PoiXo|uu (/SouAi;, volo): wish, W//, 

prefer. Because of its comparative 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



29 



idea, it is sometimes followed by 
ij, like povXofuu /toAAov. A 117. 

Pou-vX^, -^yos (irAiJo'a'o)) : ox-go€uif 
tchijK Z 135. 

Bowpdooov: ancient town in north- 
ern Elis. B 615. 

Povt, gen. Pooij nom. pi. jSocs, dat. 
pi. Potxrtn or fiowrif ace. pi. )3oa5 
or /Sous (bos, cow): ox, cow; pi. 
ca/^/c. 

po-Amt, -tSos (/3cws, «^) : (ox-eyed)^ 
calm eyed J soft eyed, ue, with deep, 
majestically quiet eyes. Epithet 
esp. of Hera, poSnrK woma, *H^. 
Cf, AcvKCtfXcvos. 

ppdx«* : roar, grate loudly, E 859. 

ppl|M», mid. fipywfAai: roar, fuydXa 
Pp€fiu: roars loudly, heats with a 
roar. B 210, A 425. 

PpfX|b6« : forehead. E 586. 

BpidfM«*t: a hundred-armed giant, 
called Briareiis by the gods, but 
Aiyauov by men. A 403. 

ppC(i» (^PpiOvi) : am sluggish, inactive, 
A 223. 

pp48oo-ivi| : weight, burden, load, 

Ppi96s, -€ui, -v: A^ary. E 746. 

Bplnvs, -70s : Brises, father of Briseis. 
A 392. 

BpiniCt, h8os : daughter of Brises, a 
beloved captive of Achilles, from 
whom she was t^ken unjustly by 
Agamemnon. She was returned 
to Achilles after the reconcilia- 
tion, in the Nineteenth Book of 
the Iliad, Only her * patronymic' 
is used by Homer (§ 39 g), 
and perhaps this means only 
maiden from Brisa (or Bresa) on 



Lesbos. In the sack of Lyrnessus 
by Achilles her husband and her 
three brothers had been slain. 
A 184, 336, B 689, T 245 f., 
282 ff. 

ppoT6-€is, -cvros (fipoTtk): bloody, 
gory, Z 480. 

PpoTO-Xoi^ (/3/9oros) : man-destroy- 
ing. Epithet of Ares. E 518, 
846. * 

ppordf (^pros, /iporoq, mors) : mor- 
tal, both as adj. and subst. § 30 g, 

BfrtkrficU, pi. : a Lacedaemonian 
town. B 583. 

P«|i6« (/ScuVo)) : (base), altar, A 440. 

Bdpos: a Trojan ally. E 44. 

piiTi-dMipa : men- (hero-) nourishing. 
Epithet of Fhthia. A 155. 



^oEa: earth, land, ground. Opposed 
sometimes to the heaven^, some- 
times to water. Equivalent to 
77, oZot. A 254, B 95. 

yaiu (gaudeo) : rejoice^ exult, Cf, 
yrfiiia, A 405. 

•ydXo, gen. yoAoicros (laC): milk, 

^foX6«it, dat. yoXotp (glos) : hus- 
band*s sister, (The Greeks were 
not restricted to such a clumsy 
and indefinite expression as sister- 
in-law,) r 122, Z 378. 

<YafkPp6t (yofios) : connection by mar- 
riage, daughter's husband, sister* s 
husband, E 474, Z 177. 

•ydfiof : marriage. E 429. 

Taw^ifitfli, -cos (Glad-hearted) (yof- 
80s) : Ganymed, son of Xros 



80 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



(founder and king of Troy), 
grandson of Dardanus; because 
of his beauty, carried away by 
the gods to be the cupbearer of 
Zeus. E 266, Y 232. 

^ (yc^ apa)j causal particle : for. 
It often introduces the reason or 
explanation of something that is 
merely implied. Sometimes it 
seems to retain the force of the 
two particles of which it is com- 
posed, and cannot be translated 
hy for, but * marks a statement as 
certain and incontestable.* 

ywrHi^ -^pos, f. (gastric): belly , 
stomachy wcmh, 

yk : an enclitic particle, which gives 
prominence to the foregoing word 
or to its whole clause. Some- 
times it can be translated at least, 
but this phrase is much heavier 
and clumsier than yc. Generally 
its force must be given by inflec- 
tion of voice or by arrangement 
of words. In several cases y* 
was wrongly inserted by the 
copyists, after some other conso- 
nant had been lost. 

yry^M0%, are^ 3d pi., yryaftrm partic. : 
perf. of yiyvofuuy am horn. B 866. 

Yi(vo|ftai, aor. iytivao (yiyvofuu) : am 
bom; aor. begot, bore. A 280. 

^fXdtt, aor. lyiXaxrat, aor. partic. 
yeXocraaa (ycXo?) : laugh ; wyr.fell 
to laughing, burst into a laugh. 

^•XoUot: laughable, tchat would raise 
a laugh. B 215. 

yiktat (or ye\os, § 37 6) : laughter. 

Y«^ (yw^^) and yiWOXti : race, gen- 



eration, breed, stock (of horses), 
ycyc^: in age. ycFC^Xi; ofiyiyiou: 
fatherland o/sUver. B 857. 

yivMflu, yhtro : aor. of ytyvofuu, be- 
come, am horn. T 323. 

•ftmmlot (y€¥Oi) : suited to (my) birth, 
in (my) nature. E 253. 

Y^vot, -cos (genus): race, familg, 
birth, descent, yivu Zurepos : later 
by birth, in age, younger, F 215. 

Ytpcu^ (yrfpai) 3 : old, full of years ; 
subst. M man, aged man, ytipoial : 
matrons, fem. of y^poyrc?. Z 296. 

yipavos (g r u s, crane) : crane, B 460. 

•yifMfdt (y?f»s): stattly. V 170. 

yipofA Ti po t : more stately. F 211. 

yfpot, pi. y^: prize of homtr. 
Booty taken on marauding expe- 
ditions was the common prop- 
erty of the army only after the 
several prizes of honor had been 
distributed to the chiefs. These 
prizes were sometimes selected 
by the leaders themselves, but 
are often spoken of as gifts of 
the people. Doubtless they were 
distributed by the general, with 
the approval of the army. 

Fcp^vMt: Gerenian. Epithet of 
Nestor, prob. from a Messenian 
town or district. B 336. 

YipoirviOf: of the elders (ytporrcs). 
Epithet of special wine broached 
at the < aldermanic ' dinners. 

Y^pMV, -oKTog, voc. ytfiov (yvffw) '- olil, 
aged man, greybeard. It is strictly 
an adj., with Saifuay implied, in 
A 538. 01 y^poyrc?: elders of the 
people, the nobles, who without 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



31 



regard to age formed a fiovikri or 
council ; c/. the Spartan ycpovcrca, 
senatus, aldermen, 

yk^f^pax^ pi.: emhanhnentSy dikes. 
Figur. iroX^bUNO yc^vpcu, dikes of 
woTy %.€, the lanes between the 
two opposing lines of combatants. 
(Often called bridges of war, but 
Homer does not use yi^vpa. as 
Jtridge,) (Or, according to others, 
the open spaces between the dif- 
ferent divisions of the same 
army.) A 371, E 88. 

r4^: contracted from ytud (yea), 
Earth. ri04. 

Xffi^y aor. yrj^qa-cv (ga u deo, yai<o) : 
rejoice^ am glad. 

Yffiivwfn 3 : glad. A 272. 

yi^pa*, -oos: old age. Cf. ytptay. 

yr\p6aicm (y^pas) : groto old. B 663. 

yi^pvt, fem. : voice, cry. A 437. 

^C^yvoiiai, aor. (c)'yeK>vro, perf. yt- 
ydaxTL (ycro9): cotne into existence, 
am Itorn, become, arise, vpo o&nJ 
eyiyovro : came foncard (vpo) on 
their march. A 382. 

yxyvAaicm, f ut. yvwrtai, aor. eyvcu or 
yvw (no SCO, know): recognize, 
perceive, learn, know. E 182. 

-yU^ot, -€0« (yeUa) : milk. B 471. 

rXaOKos: Glaucus. (1) Son of 
Sisyphus, father of Bellerophon. 
(2) Qrandson of Bellerophon, 
brave leader of the Lycians. 
B 876, Z 150 fF. See on B 876. 

"yXavK-^mt, -t&>9 QyXavm, £^): 
bright-eyed, gleaming-eyed. Epi- 
thet of Athena, as the fierce-eyed 
goddess of war; cf. A 200. — 



« Bright eyes." (Homer does not 
mention the yXavi, owl.) 

rXo^ipoi : Thessalian town. B 712. 

YXa<|»vp^ 3 : hollow. B 516, T 119. 

rXitt-o^, -avTOi : Boeotian town, near 
Thebes. B 504. 

•yXovrdt (clot) : buUock. E 66. 

"yXvidpt, -uoL, -v, comp. yXyictW: 
sweet. 

yXv^it, -iSoi : notch in the arrow ; 
one notch for the string, others 
(around the arrow) to secure a 
firmer hold for the fingers. 
A 122. 

ykmava: tongue; language. A 249. 

^yvodpr : aor. opt. of yiyvwrKta, know. 

yv^ (yoyv) : on the knee. yvv$ c/xirc : 
fell upon his knee. Cf. Xai, irvi. 

y¥& aor. ind., ^vf and yvmmox [yiwi] 
aor. subjv., yvm^gvok aor. inf. 
[yvdvai], ywiv§M fut. ind. : of 
yiyvwTKto, know, learn, recognize. 
A 411, B 349. 

yv9ir&9 (yiyvofuu) 3 : brother. F 174. 

yoiM, pres. partic. fem. yoowra 
«(§ 47 c), aor. ydov f yoos) : groan, 
lament with groans. E 413, Z 500. 

Fovdcinra: Achaean town near Pel- 
lene. B 573. 

y6¥99 (yiyvofuu) : offspring, son. 

y&w, nom. or ace. pi. youvara and 
yotW, gen. pi. youKQiv, dat. pi. 
yowaxn (yovp-, genu, knee) : knee. 
The knees were to the ancients 
the seat of bodily strength (knees 
tremble in time of fear), hence 
yowar iXwev, loaded his knees, 
took away his strength, i.e. disabled 
him. In entreaties, the suppliant 



82 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



clasped the knees of him from 
whom he sougiit the favor. Xafiiw 
iXXura-ero yowmv : clapped his knees 
and besought Jam. A 500. 

y&ov : aor. of yod<a, lament* Z 500. 

y&o9: groan, lamentation. Z 499. 

Ti^^iot 3 : of the Gorgon, Gorgon^s. 

r6pT^ -vvos: Gortys or Gortyfia, an 
important town in Crete. B 646. 

^irva or Y^varOj ace. pi., y96jma% 
dat. pi. : of yow, knee. Z 511. 

70vvd(o|ftai, fat. yawda-Ofim (ydvu): 
supplicate, entreat* See yow. 

Fowf^, -rjoii leader of the Enians 
before Troy. B 748. 

rpaSa : Graea, a Boeotian town near 
Oropus from which the later 
name TpaiKoC (Greeks) is thought 
to be derived. B 498. 

•ypd^ aor. partic. ypo^s (carve): 
scratch, cut. ypa^9 ^v mVoxi: 
cuUing on a tablet. Possibly this 
was not icriting with an alphabet, 
but a pictorial representation of 
what had been done or was to be 
done. Z 169. 

Ypi|{^ dat. ypftfi: old woman. r386. 

T^aXov: curved, curved plate of the 
armor. E 99. 

r^YcUTi (Xi/iny): the Gygaean lake 
in Lydia near Sardis, and the 
nymph of that lake. B 865. 

Yvtov: (joint), limb, member (of 
knees, feet, arms, hands), rpopoi 
tXXafit yvui: trembling seized his 
limbs. yvuL 8* lOrfKfv iXaif^pd: 
made Itis limbs light. T 34. 

Yvvai-)MiWj«, -€09 (pmviti) : woman-mad, 
of Paris. F 39. 



7w^, dat. ywaiKi, ace. yvKUJca, voc. 

yvvai (queen): vcoman, wife. 

A 348. 
FvpT^vii: town of the Lapithae, in 

Pelasgiotis. B 738. 
7^, yuirds : vulture. A 237. 



Sa^iiuvcu (aor. inf.), aor. subjv. hoMk- 
pjtv: learn; used as pass, of &&£- 
<ricci>, teach. B 299, Z 150. 

8sV)p, -ipoi: husband's brother. 
ri80. 

SoiSdXfos 3 : cunningly icrought, richly 
ornamented. Z 418. 

8cU8aXov (cf. Daedalus) : cunning 
work. 

8atti», aor. inf. Soffoi : rend, cleave. 

Soifidviot (8aipxav) 3 : (one under the 
influence of a divinity), strange 
goddess, sir! iaipuovu : my poor wife 
(or husband), Madam ! The con- 
nection must determine the exact 
force. 

8a£|u*v, -OV09: divinity; much like 
0€d9, but esp. of the gods in rela- 
tion with men. (Never demon.) 

ScUwifcOi : feast. Cf. Sariopm. 

8aCs, gen. &uros (^wpai) : feast. 

hoxrpdv : measured portion. A 262. 

8at-^pi»v, -0V09 : fiery-hearted, valiant. 

8aU», plpf. ScSi^av (§ 44 b) : kimUe ; 
plpf. had blazed forth, was blazing. 

Sdicvff, aor. 8axe : bite, figur. sting. 

8dic|ni (lacruiha, te€w) : tear, 

8aKpv6-cis, -€<rou: tearful, shedding 
tt'ars, bringing tears, Z 455. 

Sdxfivov : equiv. to &uc/9V, tear. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



33 



SoKp^, aor. SaKpxxra^: tceepj shed 
tears: aor. fell lo weeping. A 349. 

Sdfjiap, •ofXTOfi : wife, .yyouse, T 122. 

8d|jivi||u, impf. iSdfiva, fut. So/a^ and 
8a/Luxixnv, aor. (€)Safuio'(ra, aor. 
pass. iSdfMfj aor. subjv. pass. 
&i/Ai/i;9y perf. pass. &8fii7/ji€<r^ 
plpf. pass. 8c8fH/aro, aor. partic. 
SfiTjOevra (doma're, tame): bring 
into subjection, subdue, overcome, 
conquer, master. 

AavooC: the Danadns ; strictly de- 
scendants or subjects of King 
Danatts of Argos. Used for the 
Greeks before Troy like ^Axpum 
and 'ApytuH (§ 22 e). They are 
called raxyjnoXoi (with swifl steeds), 

SdireSov : floor, pavement. A 2. 

8dirr», aor. c&i^ev : devour, tear. 

Aap8av£Si)s: son of Dardanus. Epi- 
thet esp. of his descendant 
Priam. 

AopSdvios 3 and AdpSavos: Darda- 
nian : pi. the Dardanians, inhabit- 
ants of the country around Troy, 
led by Aeneas. B 819. They re- 
ceived their name from Dardanus 
(son of Zeus), who was the grand- 
father of Tros (who gave his 
name to T/kmi;, the Troad) and 
the great-grandfather of Uus 
(who gave his name to *IAios 
and was father of Laomedon and 
grandfather of Priam). Y 215 ff. 

Adfn|s, -^oi' Dares, priest of He- 
phaestus, in Troy. E 9 ff . 

Soo-i&ds (&ua>, Sariofuu) : distrUiutitm, 
division, of the spoils. A 166. 

SaWofiOi, aor. Sdo-oavro, perf. pass. 



8cSaoTcu: divide among themselves, 
distribute. Cf. ScuVv/acu, 8(urp6v. 

AavXCs> -t8o9 : Daidis, Phocian town, 
on a height east of Delphi. 
B 520. 

8a.<^iv6s : all blood-red. § 40 d. 

8<U»|uv: learn, aor. subjv. pass, of 
&&acrK(tf, teach. B 29.9. 

8^ conj. : but, and. Freq. 8c is used 
in the apodosis of a conditional 
or relative clause, — a transition 
to the demonstrative construction 
or a survival of the older and 
simpler * paratactic ' or * coordi- 
nate ' construction. Freq. a 
clause with 3c is used where a 
subordinate clause (of cause, con- 
cession, time, etc.) might have 
been used; hence Si may often 
be translated y?;r, though, while. 

-U : inseparable enclitic particle ; 
e.g. dyopi^vSt, to the agora ; olkovBc, 
to the house, homeward. § 33 e. 

8fy|uvos: waiting; aor. of Sixpfuu, 
receive, expect. B 794. 

S^Socrrou : perf. of &ircofiai, divide. 

8<8ry|Uvos : waiting, on the watch, 
perf. partic. of 8cp(o/uuu. A 107. 

848i(o: receive (in hostile sense), 
perf. imv. of Scxppiu. E 228. 

S^ScTO : plpf. pass, of 8ca>, bind. 

Sc^civ: was blazing; plpf. of &uo>, 
kindle. § 44 6. B 93. 

8c8|&^ro (§ 44 /) plpf., 8c8|&^|u<rea 
perf. : were (are) subject ; pasH. of 
Sdfivrffu, subflue. T 183, E 878. 

Sc8|iT||jivoi : perf. pass, of 8^o), build. 

S^Sorat : perf. pass, of SiSiafu, give. 

8ci8^aro : were pledging ; plpf. mid. 



34 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



of Seiicvu/Acu, (extend the hand), 

ijreetj honor, A 4. 
8iiS4|M»v, -ijvoi (Stt&ii) : fearfuiy coto- 

ardly, V 56. 
8ci8Cvvo|uu (Sei&ii) : frighten ; am 

frightened. A 184. 
ScCSm, aor. (2)&ureF, perf. Sctfiouca, 

perf. imv. heihSiy perf. partic. 

8ei&ore9, plpf* cSei&fiev (8f ctSoi, 

Sm) : fear, am afraid. Since 

the stem originally began with 

two consonants, a short vowel is 

often < long by position ' before it. 
8c(icvv|ftai, plpf . as aor. SoS^ro : 

pledge, greet. A 4. 
8c(icvQ|u, aor. 8c£fcv : point oxd^ show. 

E870. 
8ciX6t (8«os) 3: cowardly, worthless, 

muterable. A 293. 
8cf|&a, -aros (Scbs) : fright, terror. 
Aci|&6s: Terror, attendant of Ares. 

See''Api;9. A 440. 
8iiv6s (8«os) 3 : terrible, fearful, dread. 

Sttvov cvevev : nodded terribly. 

T 337. 
8itirvov: dinner; the chief meal of 

the day whenever it was taken, 

whether early or late; generally 

eaten about noon. Cf ^purrov, 

breakfast : Bofyirov, supper. B 381. 
8cip4 : neck. T 371. 
8it<rf : aor. of 8c(8oi,/ear. E 623. 
Uxa (decern, ten) : indecl. ten. 

As a round number. B489, 

A 347. 
8iK^ -a8o9, f. : decade, squad often. 
S^Karot 3: tenth. Sacdrg: on the 

tenth day ; sc. ritjAprj. See on A 54. 
SiK^-x^^^ ' l^ thousand. E 860. 



8^CTQ : aor. of hixpyuai, accept, 
tfyjoilt : build, stature, fonn. A 115. 
8<|u», perf. pass. Se&firffuvot, : buHd. 
8<v6ptov : tree. (8ev&piif is disyllabic.) 
Ufjoui, Ufflff^m,: aor. of Sc;(Ofuu, re- 
ceive. A 112, E 227, Z 46. 
Ztff,i{ : (sc. x^yOf ^9^ hand, pledge. 
Sifitft 3 and 8^Tip6t (dexter) 3 : 

right, on the right. Stiirepij : right 

hand. 
Uo% -cos (8f cos) ''fear, dread. A 515. 
8^ira«, dat. pi. &irac(r<riy: goblet, 

beaker, cup. Cf. KtawiXXay. A 471. 
8^o|uu : look, see, have sight. A 88. 
8^|Mk, -aros : hide, leather (of a 

shield). Z 117. 
Upm, aor. ISigpav : flay. A 459. 
8fo>6f (Scd)) : bond, haUer (of a 

horse). Z 507. 
8cio|iai, opt. Sevocaro [Scuoccv, Siouv, 

§ 44 /] : lack, am in want. 
8c«po, 8i^ (r 240), adv. : hUher. 

Sometimes as an interjection, 

come hUher ! A 153, B 138. 
ScvTipov, adv. : second, next. A 513. 
Scirripot : second, next. V 349. 
UAm : moisten, wet. B 471. 
8^o|Mu, aor. (l)hiiaro, aor. inf. 

hixBoji^ perf. imv. hihfio, fut. perf. 

as fut. 8c8cfo/uuu : receive, take, 

accept, welcome ; await, receive (in 

hostile sense). A 23. 
8^ aor. (c)S7aav, plpf. Sc'Scro : bind, 

fetter. Cf. &<rfufe. A 406. 
6^ temporal and determinative 

particle: now, already, at length; 

clearly, just. No Engl i sh particles 

correspond to many of its uses. 

Freq. with imv. and opt., and 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



36 



with other particles, and strength- 
ening the superlative^ It stands 
at the beginning of the clause in 
the phrases 8^ totc, 8^ yap. It 
forms one syllable (by 'synize- 
sis/ § 25) with the first syllable 
of airrc, aS, and of cvria^, and sev- 
eral other words, — in these cases 
being originally perhaps a <weak 
form ' 8c which was related to 817, 
as fU¥ is to fjL'qv. 

Si|M (817V), adv.: fon^, for a long 
time. B 435, E 587. 

Si|66v« : delay f tarry. Z 519. 

Ai|iK6«iv, Havrni : a Trojan killed by 
Agamemnon. E 5^4. 

Sijiot (8aMi>) : blazing, devouring, de- 
stroying, hostile ; pi. enemies, 

Si|iOT^, -^oii (8710$) : strife, conflict, 
r 20, E 348. 

Si|i6«*, impf. hQ€fV¥, aor. subjv. 8i;<i»- 
troNriy, aor. pass, partic. h/ffwdi^ 
rctfv : slay, cut down, destroy, 

Ai|(irvXot: comrade of Sthenelus. 
E325. 

Si|Xio|Mu, aor. (€)8i^i7aaFro : harm, 
wrong, lay waste, V 107. 

At||i^jn|p, gen. A-qfitfrpoi: Demeter, 
Ceres. She is not one of the more 
important gods. B 696, E 500. 

Si|l&o-P6pot (8i;/uuo9, PippwrKta) : de- 
vouring the goods of the peojde, 
A 231. 

Si||io-74p«»v, -irvTiK : elder of the people, 
in Troy. T 149, A 372. 

Ai||iok6«v, -(tfvrof : son of Priam, slain 
by Odysseus. A 499. 

Sfjfiot : country, land ; people, S/f^/wv 
av&pa : man of the people, common 



man, contrasted with the nobles. 
B 198, r 50, Z 158. 

S^ (8f i/v)» adv-. : long, for a long tiine, 
long-lived, Cf&qOd. A 512. 

Si|Mu6t (817V) : long4ived. E 407. 

8l|vot, -C09, pi. : thoughts, A 361. 

&gtf« : see 8i/too>, slay, destroy, 

SitfMSv, adv. : long, Cf, AqBd. 8iJf. 

Sfko^v: aor. of 8€oi, bind. E 386. 

hfflMrrmv aor. pass, partic, S||«io-a». 
o-iv aor. subjv. : of hvjioia, slay. 

ACa: ace. of Zcvs. A 394. 

8ta, fem. of Suk : magnificent, divine, 

8id (8110, dis, twain), adv. and prep, 
with gen. and ace.: between, 
through, in different directions, (1) 
Adv. iuL Kiifatv Sariovro : divided 
(parted) among them the proj)erty ; 
8(a T/Hxa KwriMj/divre^: divided in 
three tribes. (2) With gen. 8ca 
d(nri8o$: through the shield, (3) 
With ace. 8(a wfuvas : through (by 
means of) the conflicts: 81a vvxra'. 
during the night: Sia fMavroavnjv: 
(on account of), by means of his gift 
of prophecy. 

In composition with verbs, 8ta 
indicates motion through some- 
thing, completion, separation, re- 
ciprocal relation. 

8ia-6p6irrM, aor. pass, partic. Suvrpv- 
if>€u : break in pieces, T 363. 

8ia-icXdti», aor. partic. SuufXaoxm^: 
break in pieces, E 216. 

8ia-Koo>lit, aor. opt. pass. SwLKoa-fMf- 
0€iu»(Kwrpjo^): divide and arrange, 
Cf. dispone. B 126. 

Sio-Kpiiw, fut. 8iax/Mvca, aor. pass. 
hUnpStv [huKpiBrfmv], aor. inf. 



36 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



pa«8. SuLKpivdrjfijevai : ^^jmraie, part, 
arrange in diruiont. B 475. 

8«A«ropot : messenger, guide. Epithet 
of Hermes, generally connected 
with &fyy€M4>oimfi. B 103. 

Si^ofi^, aor. hta^rf(T€ : (mow through), 
cut through. V 359. 

S itt | M Tp ^ (fugrpoy): measure off 
ground for a combat T 315. 

Si*-|UTpip6t : measured off. T 344. 

8i-«4i-«fp^ adv. : through and through, 
completely through, right through. 

Si^v-6ix<S ^^'' ' *^ ^^^ ways. A 1 89. 

8uMr^6ity aor. inf. Sunr^KTcu, aor. 
BuwpaBofuy : sack, lay waste. 

SuMropMi*, aor. partic. Suarop&i^fnK : 
sack, destroy. B 691. 

Sio^r|Wi<rvi» (ircpcuo) : accomplish, 
tracerge (go, pass through) ; 
intrans. advance. With gen. ttc- 
Stou>: on the plain. B 785. 

8ia-irp6, adv. : foncard and through, 
right through. A 138, E 66. 

SiOr p paUt, aor. inf. ^uippaLurai : tear 
in pieces, rend. B 473. 

Suuo-KiSviiiii : send in different direc- 
tions, scatter. E 526. 

8ui-ovf^, pipf. &&r(rvroa8 aor. : rush 
through. B 450, E 661. 

SiaHrH|Tt|v: (stood apart), separated; 
aor. of Suarrjfu, separate. A 6. 

Sia-T|i^«», aor. pass. &er^yev [SicT/uui- 
yjfO'av] : (cut through), separate. 

Sio-TpipM : (er ear away), hinder, at- 
tempt to check, A 42. 

Sio-rpv^y : aor. pass partic. of &a- 
dpvirrta, break in pieces. F 363. 

hCUjTKm, aor. 8i8a{c, aor. pass. 
^Sai/v, aor. subjv. pass. Saco/icv 



(disco, doceo): teach, instruct, 

E51. 
Mifirfiiy, -<iro5 (&'Su/AOs, /iro) : twin, 
h(Sm^ 3d pL pros. ^SoMHir (§ 52 a), 

impf . SiBov, fut. &Mra», aor. (c)&»- 

jcc(y) and Soooy, 3d sing. aor. 

subjv. Swyn or Swn, 3d pi. aor. 

subjv. 8w<ny or S»aKny, aor. iniv. 

&>$, aor. inf. SdficKu, SiV'tr' ^^ Sovrai, 

perf . pass. SeSoTot (d o) : gire, grant. 
hU: impf. of iua,/ear, E 566. 
Si-<lpo|un : ask, inquire. A 550. 
Si-cHdofuov : impf. of Suutoa/icu, ar- 
range in order. B 476. 
8i^4Kpc0fv [&CKpii9)7auv] : aor. pass, of 
. Buucpivia, separate into tribes. 
S t ^ n pi , inf. Buiip€vajL: go forth 

through (the gates). Z 393. 
8i-cvp4lo|Mv: aor. of SunripOio, sack. 
8i4vt»: perform, accomplish; stride 

through. A 166, B 207. 
Si-^o|Mu : pass through. Z 392. 
Si4vwrQ : plpf . as aor. of BuMMraewa, 

rush through. B 450. 
8i-lT|&aYfv [Sur/my7i<ray] : aor. pass. 

of SuxTfu/yutf, separate, A 531. 
8i4x«*i aor. hUsr)(t : hold through, reach 

through, pass through. E 100. 
8C(t||uu: seek, look for. A 88. 
8^M> -1705 ({cvywfu) : two-yoked, 

horses yoked two and two. E 195. 
Sv-C(m||u, aor. intrans. Suumfnjv: 

separate, stand apart. A 6. 
Stf-^iXos : dear to Zeus, esp. of Achil- 
les and Hector. A 74, Z 318. 
Siicdti* (SUrf): jtidge, decide, rule. 

(Cf. the Hehreyv Judges, i.e. rulers.) 
SiKCMT-irdXot (irtX-) : minister of justice, 

judge. A 238. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OP THE ILIAD 



87 



8ivdM» (Stvrf) : stroll, wander, A 541. 

Siv^-cis, -cvros : eddying. B 877. 

hlvnr&9 (&vdci>) 3: skilfully turned, 
well wrought, or adorned with spiral 
ornaments, F 391. 

8io-YtW^ -€os (yew?) : sprung from 
Zeus, descended from Zeus, of 
kings and princes, who were under 
the special care of the king of 
the gods. See on A 176. 

AioicXfyt, -^os: son of Orsilochus of 
Pherae in Messenia. E 542 ff. 

AiO|iV)8T|s, -€0$ : Diomed, son of Tydeus 
(who fell in the first expedition 
against Thebes), king of Argos, 
one of the bravest and mightiest 
of the Achaeans before Troy. 
Only Agamemnon and Nestor led 
a larger fleet on the expedition. 
The Fifth Book of the Iliad is 
mainly devoted to his exploits, in 
the course of which he wounds 
Aphrodite and (aided by Athena) 
even Ares. He has a famous 
meeting with Glaucus (Z 119 ff.). 
He visits the Trojan camp with 
Odysseus, and slays the Thracian 
Rhesus (K 219 ff.). He returned 
in safety to Argos at the close of 
the war. He is called fiorjv Ayado^ 
and Kpartpo^, 

Atov : £uboean town, south of Oretls. 
B 538. 

8io«, &a, Stov: glorious, dimne, god- 
like, noble, without reference to 
moral quality. Freq. epithet of 
Achilles and of Odysseus, having 
convenient metrical adaptation to 
the names of those heroes, allow- 



ing the bucolic diaeresis (at the 
close of the fourth foot). § 58 t. 

8io-Tpt^^ -eo9 (rpiffxoy, Zeus-nour- 
ished, Zeus-cherished, of kings, 
who enjoyed the special favor of 
Zeus. Cf StoycKiys. A 176. 

8(-irXat, -0x09: doubled, sc, ^XaivcL, a 
cloak so large that it was worn 
double; opp. to dirXofe. T 126. 

Si^Xdos: twofold, double, A 133. 

8(-irrv£, -v)(09 : double. A 461. 

8(o'Ko« (disk) : discus, quoit. The 
game was more like « putting the 
shot ' than the modern < pitching 
quoits,' — the effort being to hurl 
the discus as far as possible. 

8(^pot : (1) footboard of chariot, 
chariot box, chariot; low, open 
behind, with a rounded rim 
(ojTuf) around the front and 
sides. See ap/io. (2) Stool, low 
seat without a back. T 310, 424. 

8(m : fear. Cf aei&ii. 

8UlKi» : pursue. E 672. 

AvAvy\ : Dione, mother of Aphrodite. 
E370. 

AUlvvo-ot : Dionysus, Bacchus. Son 
of Zeus and Semele, reared by 
nymphs in Thrace. The Thra- 
cian king Lycurgus attacked the 
nymphs, and Dionysus fled into 
the sea, to Thetis. Z 132 ff. 
Dionysus is mentioned only inci- 
dentally in Homer, and clearly 
has not gained a position among 
the gods of Olympus. (Cf. Ares, 
Demeter, Asclepius.) 

AUlf»T|f, -€09: £p@an commander. 
B622. 



38 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



S|it|6<rra: aor. pass, partic. of Sofi- 
vrf/Uf overcome, subdue, A 99. 

8|M»4 (Sdfivfjfu) : female dave, maid, 

8vovaXC(i» : (shake)^ slay. A 472. 

8otiv : aor. opt. of KiSco/u, give, grant, 

8oioC, 8omU, 8oid, dual SoUi : two. 

8oic<fl» : seem, appear. Z 90. 

SoXix^t 3 : long, A 533. 

SoXix^-o-Kiot : long-shadowy, caMxng 
long shadows, long. Epithet of the 
laiice. r 346, E 15, Z 126. 

8o\o-|i^^ (jojtk) : only voc. SoAo- 
pifTa, crafty. A 540. 

AoXovittv, -OF09: priest (opi/n/p) of 
the Scamander. £ 77. 

84Xot (dolus): trick, deceit. T 202. 

8«Xo-^poWouo^ partic. (ff>pniv) : de- 
vising a trick, with crafty mind. 

84|uv, 86|imu [Souvai, § 44 /] : 
aor. inf. of SC^fu, give. A 116, 
A 379. 

84|aot (j^ipta, domus) : dwelling, 
home. 

84vn9 : aor. partic. of SiStapi, give. 

86fni, gen. Sovpoi, dat. 8ov/m, dual 
SoDpc, pi. ^ovpara or fiovpa : timber, 
beam, spear. See ffx^' ^* '* 
called bright, fftaeivov, because of 
its bronze point. A 303. 

84s imv., ^6auv [HSoauv or IScuioav] 
ind.) 86ti imv. : aor. of ficSto/u, 
giiye. A 162, Z 476. 

8o^Xi|: female slave; equiv. to S/ion;. 

SovXiov ^|iap: day of slavery, i.e. 
slavery itself. § 16 d. 

AovXCxtov: Dulichium, island in the 
Ionian Sea, southeast of Ithaca, 
inhabited by Epeans. B 625. 

AovXiXi4v-8c : to Dulichium. B629. 



necked, of s-wans. B 460. 
8ow<M, aor. havrnrfrei^; cause a dull 

noise, havtnfrty vtawv : fell with 

a thud. A 504. 
8oOvot: heavy noise. Cf ipiyScnnroii. 
8o0pa, SoipoTO, SoOpc, 8ovp6t: forms 

of Sopv, spear, timber, § 23 d. 
8ovpi-icXfiT6c and Sovpt^nXvrAt : re- 

nowned with the spear. B 645. 
SpdKtnr, -wroi (SipKopai) : serpent, 

snake. (Not < dragon,' though this 

word is derived from it.) 
Api)o^: a Trojan, slain by Eurya- 

lus. Z 20. 
Apiat, -avTOi: Dryas. (1) One of 

theLapithae. A 263. (2) Father 

of the Thracian king Lycurgus. 

Z130. 
86|uvai, 80vai : aor. inf. of Suoi, enter, 

set (pi the sun). B 413, Z 411. 
86va|&ai, subjv. hvirtpi [Si^ § 44 h"], 

f ut. dwi^crofuu, aor. Svn^oaro {hwor 

/U9, dynamite) : can, am able, 
hbvm : put on. Cf. Sw. 
8^ and 8it* (two) : indecl. tieo. 
SvoKoOcKa [&tf8cica] : indecl. twelve. 
8vo-- : inseparable particle indicating 

misfortune and pain. 
8vo--a^, -m (oirfpi) : harsh-blowing. 
8€o-ai (with diro, put off), t^vwn, 

aor. of Sv(u : sanik. E 435. 
Svo'-i|X4*) ~^ ($X^) ' harsh-sounding, 

ill-sounding, horrisonus. 
8vo'-KXti^ ace. SvatcXm (#cXm) : in- 
glorious, B 115. 
8vo--|uWi«, -€o« (/ACK09) : evU-minded, 

hostile ; pi. enemies. Z 453. 
A^-irofit : unhappy Paris, hated 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



39 



Paris, A < determinative com- 
pound'; H. 590; G. 886. 

SiiaTi|vos : unhappy. Z 127. 

&u(r-x<<|Mpot (x^ifu^ h i e m 8) : wintry, 
stormy, Fpithet of Dodona. 
B750. 

hiw-AwyiOi (thofut): (^iU^named), 
cursed, Z 255. 

Sttt, fut. Svo-Q), aor. inf. Svom, aor. 
mid. (^)Svo-cro, aor. ISv, perf. Sc- 
Svjccv: enter, go into, put on; fut. 
and Ist aor. act. trans, diro fiuontu, 
put off. irpiv ^c\iov SvMU : before 
the sun set. yaSav iSvrrp^: (their 
souls) entered the earth. Z 19. 

SiMi : collateral form of Svo, two. 

Sikb-Siica [&d&xa] : twelve, B 637. 

Sv«-8^KaTo« : twelfth. A 493. 

8A: indecl. short form of hUfm, 
house, home. Cf, Sifuo, So/to?. 

8^8iica : twelve : cf, SvotocuSaca. 

8«»»icaT0« 8 : twelfth. A 425. 

AmMvi): Dodona, in Epirus, at the 
foot of Mt. Tomaros ; seat of the 
oldest oracle of the Greeks, ^here 
ascetic priests interpreted the 
rustling of the sacred oak. B 750, 
n 233 ff. 

8d^(oav) subjy., SAica ind.: aor. of 
8i&i>fu, give, Z 527. 

SAfiOj -aros (Soi, SofWf, SifAOi) : home, 
house, palace ; room, esp. the large 
hall of the men. 

A^piov: town under Nestor's rule. 
B594. 

86pov (St&u/u) : gift. 

8^i [&^ § 44 a-], ^AtMnv [SSMriv, 
§ 52 c] : aor. subjv. of 8i&i>fu, give, 
A 129. 



I (f c), enclitic 3d pers. pron., ace. : 
him, her ; seldom (A 236 ?) neuter. 
It is equiv. to Attic axrrw, avn/v, 
which is intensive in Homer. 

la [^] (erat): was; 3d sing. impf. 
of dfu, am. A 321. 

Is : contracted for &c (1) imv.; (2) 
impf. of loM, allow. A 276, B 1 65. 

lBv6< : pliant, supple, sofl, enveloping, 

iav6< : robe (an aristocratic garment) ; 
generally equiv. to ircirAo?, the 
principal female garment ; but in 
r 419 it seems to be used of 
Helen's veil. Frob. made of linen, 
as is indicated by the epithets. 

toi^ gen. £ipo9 (fioLp, ver) : spring, 
Cf dapivoi, vernal. 

UuTw [eimV] : 3d pi. pres. of ci/u, am. 

laroi lijynu] : 3d pi. pres. of ^fuu, sit. 

k6m, 3d pi. pres. ind. dlacrt, impf. ad 
or &, iterative impf. daa-Kov or 
&o-#coK (§ 54), fut. i&arofuy, aor. 
Icure : allow, permit, leave alone, give 
free hand, ovk &irice : forbade, 

ipav [cjSiyaav], 4P4ti|v : set out: aor. of 
/Souvftf, go, A 391. 

hf^ytyfiMaxy [fyyryowuTiv] : live in ; 
perf. of lyyiyvopai, arise in. Z 493. 

I^YvaXCtM, aor. inf. cyyuaAiJfai (yviov) : 
give into (our^ hands, grant. A 353. 

lYYv4fv, adv.: (from near at hand), 
near. E 72, 275. 

lYYv-6i, hiy^, adv.: near, with geni- 
tive. Z 317. 

fyiCpM, aor. i^ytipa and tyupa, mid. 
aor. iypero: rouse, wake, B 440. 

Iy-kIiH^ (Ke<H^^): brain, T 300. 



40 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Iy-kX<v«, perf. iyKocXiToi: lean on, 
rest upon. Z 78. 

lyvw: learned f recognized; aor. of 
yiyvwrKta, know. A 199. 

fypcTo : aor. of lyeipw, wake. B 41. 

*7X«'^ (^yx^) • ^^^^^f spear. B 530. 

kYX/wi-yM^oi : ifpear-wielding. B 692. 

ItX^-^to^ (iroAXci)) : spear-brandush- 
ing. Cf, cuxfirp^. B 131. 

}YX<'9t -€os: lancCf *pear ; generally 
of ash wood, with a bronze point, 
which was held in place by a ferule 
(vopictp). It had also a spike of 
metal at the butt (fravpvnrip), by 
which the spear was fixed in the 
ground (Z 213). Cf. eyxeti;, hopv, 

k^'XpL^ftr^, aor. pass, partic. as mid. 

€y)(pifi<f>$tura : draw near. E 662. 
IyA(v), gen. ifuTo, (c)/bicv, or ip^tv, 

dat. {€)pjoC, ace. (^)/xc, Ist pers. 

pron. : /. § 42 a. 
ISdt|v: learned, came to know ; aor. pass. 

of &&uTic<i), teach. § 51 N.B. r208. 
I8d|uurflra aor. act., ISdfiti aor. pass., 

i8d|iva irapf . : of hdpvyjpx, overcome, 

subdue. E 191, 391. 
SScipav : aor. of 8cp<i), Jlay. A 459. 
cSciorf V : aor. of &i8ci)^/ear. The first 

syllable is long, since the verb-stem 

originally began with two conso- 
nants (8/rt-). § 59 h. 
ISirrvs, -iw (llS<i}): eatingyfood. 
ISfuvoi : inf. of ^Sco, eat. A 345. 
ISvotrdXi^cv : impf . of 3vo3r(xA/{a>, slay. 
l8os, -€os (sedes, seat): place for a 

seat, seat, home. A 534. 
ISpofiOv : aor. of r/oc^o), run. E 599. 
Kpi) : seat, rote of seats, B 99. 



SB, ISw [cSuoav, § 44 n], tt«rqv: 

aor. of Sixi), enter, put an. Z 19. 
iSthxcv : impf. of Svym, put on, 
18m, fut. eSo/Aot (edo, eai) : eat. C/. 

l8«MCfv : aor. of SiScofu, give. 
If (icoo%v : see ciKiKri, twenty. 
Ifivft, Sain : see cTirov, .^auf. 
Ino^^uvot, aor. partic. of oSod : taking 

the fornix with dat. of likeness. 
I^XSfltp (IX&i/iai) : rris^, </««>«. 
llfryaOfv: impf. of ipyoBia, separate. 
Kfryfi : pres. of c^ryu), separate, cftos 

^^r/tt : incloses. B 617. 
Ifpialvoi : perf. of upua, join. E 89. 
lto|Mu, aor. clire (I&k) : n> ; aor. seated. 
h\fU¥ : aor. of n^^u, x^nc^. § 43 d. 
h\v or Sfv [^] : impf. of dpi, am. 
lfjo< : gen. of cw, valiant. A 393. 
jfjff: gen. fem. of co^, /its. E 371. 
Inp-i [^ : 3d sing. Bubjv. of dpi, am. 
lOffv : impf. of Bina, run. A 483. 
IMXm, subjy. iSiXiopi, i&eXfjoBa 

(§ 44 a), impf. ^cXw or ^^cXov : 

wish, am willing. prj^ c^eAc 

(noli): do not desire, do not try. 

€n)K iSfXiov ' (equiv. to aoccov) : 

against hi^ will. B 247. 
f0tv [ov], gen. of 3d pers. pron. : 

o/7<i7/i, of her. §§ 33 c, 42 a. 
I0ivro, Mforav, l9i|Kav: aor. of rt- 

OrjpA, set, place. B 750. 
I0vof, -€os : nation, tribe, host, Jlock 

(of birds), stvarm (of bees). 
SOm, perf. as pres. eUoOe : am accus- 
tomed, am wont. E 766. 
ft, at, conditional particle : if 

whether (in indir. questions). It 

often introduces a wish. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE lUAD 



41 



In ft S' &*yt, ei seems to be an inter- 
jection, conie / 

<C vow or flC v^ with subjv . or opt. 
freq. can be rendered by on the 
chance that, in the hope that, 

ilofMir^ : low land, A 483. 

ctapiv6< (&p, V e r n u s) 3 : of the spring- 
time , spring, vernal, B 89, 471. 

tCit, iterative cCooicov : impl^. of lao>, 
permit. E 819. 

tCanu (§ 44 /) : 3d pi. of rjfmij sit. 

cCaro l^vTo'] : impf. of ^pm. T 149. 

cl 8' &Y : but up, come ! Z 376. 

ttSop, -aroi (I8(i>) : food. E 369. 

dSQt subjv., tlS^o^iv [ciWrAu] fut 
inf. : of oTSo, know. 

[clS«*], cZSofuu, aor. cMmro^ aor. par- 
tic. (c)cM7a/Acvo9 : appear, appear 
like, take the form of. B 22. 

tl8o|Mv [ci8ci»fuv, § 45] : subjv. of 
oiSa, ibnoir. A 363. 

ctSov or tSov (aor. ind.), aor. subjv. 
i&^C iterative aor. SSco-icc, aor. 
ind. mid. aZwro, aor. subjv. 
i8(tf|iai (f C&-, video) : saw, see. Cf 
opdut. 

ctSof, -«os (/ri&-) : appearance. B 58. 

cISmXov (f C&-, ieZo/) : shape, phantom. 

clSi&f, iSvia : partic. of oTSo, il*/)0f<7. 

ctfv [eii^cTav], cCi|v : opt. of fifu, am. 

Map, adv. : straightway. Cf. I6ils» 

ctOc : would that, O that ! introduces 
a wish. 

fCinXof (eijcoiy) : like, resembling. 

itKoo-i (^eocoo-c, viginti), indecl. : 
twenty. B 510. 

<(m)v (§ 49 c) plpf. as impf., lucvta 
(§ 49 g) fem. partic. : of jbuca, am 
like, resemble. 



itictf (fcoc-, Germ, weichen, weaken) : 
yield, draw back. A 509. 

EUUo-iov : Boeotian town. B 499. 

ctXIw : restrain, keep back. See iiXoi. 

ilX^XovOa liXiiXvda^ : perf . of ^px^ 
fjuu, come. A 202, Z 254. 

flX(-iro«, -oSo?, dat. pi. dXxin^trcri : 
(leg4wisting), crooked-gaited, trail- 
ingfooted. Epithet of cattle, in 
contrast with acpcrtiroSes iinroi. 

fl\ov : aor. of aipiia, take, seize. 

dMm, perf. partic. cUv/umko? (f<iA-, 
volvo): wrap. E 186. 

c(\m, aor. inf. cXooi, aor. pass. inf. 
dXijfUvai (f ctXctf) : croeuJ together. 

fl|fca, -aro9 (fccr-, Iffv/ac, vestis) : 
garment, rolte. £ 905. 

%i^ [tapiv] : 1st pi. of dpi, am, 

cl|i<voi: perf. partic. of hwfu, 
clothe. 

€i |i^ : if not, unless. B 156. 

ctfi(, 2d sing, ^(ra^ 3d sing. iari(y), 
1st pi. dp€v, 2d pi. cWc, 3d pi. 
Ci<ri(v) or kun(v)t Ist sing, subjv. 
c(i>, 3d sing, subjv. Ii^c, opt. cii^v, 
3d pi. opt. cZcv, 3d sing. iniv. lorw, 
2d pi. imv. tare, 3d pL imv. coto)f, 
inf. elvau or c/ui(/a)cv((u), partic. 
ca»v, covcm, coF, 1st sing. impf. 
7a or &, 2d sing. impf. fyrda, 3d 
sing. impf. ^Jv, ^, ley, or ciyv, 3d 
dual impf. ilfarqVf 3d pi. impf. ^av 
or loav, iterative impf. co-fC€(F), 
fut. lcr(&)ofAai, 3d sing. fut. €o-(o-)c- 
TQu, ^<r<rcrTou, or iarai (sum, esse, 
am, is) : am, exist, live, ov ^v 
rjv : he did not live long, loal i(r<ro- 
pivouTi : even for men about to be, 
for future generatiofis. — The c of 



42 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



the root is preserved in most 
forms. 

tt|u, 3d sing. cZcri, subjv. loftey, irav. 
ti^i, inf. ifjuev or icyot, partic. liavy 
imkroj iov, 3d sing. impf. rfu or 
t€(v) [jfa], dual impf. T-np', 3d pi. 
impf. Mmv, aor. cmjuto (eo) : go, 
depart, came, (The connection 
decides whence and whither the 
action proceeds.) The pres. ind. 
is freq. used as fut. (as regularly 
in Attic), whUe the impf. ind. 
and the other moods are used as 
aorists. 

tlv : for ^v, tn. § 55 J. B 783. 

flvaWpit, pi.: husband's brothers* wives, 

cCvarot (iwm) : ninth. B 295. 

ftviica : see cveica, on account of. 

tivooi-^^kot (Ivocris, itSita, f^vXXov) : 
leaf-shaking, leafy. B 632. 

clo [ov], gen. of 3d pers. pron. : him- 
self § 42 a. A 400. 

•lot, ftiit \]tm] : while, until. (^o$ is 
prob. the better form.) T 291. 

cC «ip: if really, if indeed. A 81. 

d-nro : impf. of hrofioi, follow. 

ctvov or Ifiirov and ctvat (aor. ind.), 
3d sing, subjv. dtrg^a-iv), partic. 
tiTTiav, dwwm, iterative aor. ttire<r- 
Kcy (/rcjTOs) : said, told, spoke, tk 
dvijty: thus speaking, with these 
words. Cf ^nffii, upio. 

cCvoTt: if ever, d mrrt trxprnroi if 
ever they would stop. B 97. 

cC vow, cC vMt : ]/ perchance, in the 
hope that. T 450, A 88. 

Etpfrpta: Eretria, in Euboea. B 537. 

clfWjvil : peace, hr tipifyq^ : in time 
of peace. B 797. 



OpMviwool. r388. 

fipo-ic6|fto« : wool-carder. T 387. 

iKpo|uu, subjv. iptiofuv [^/MtffKfti], 
impf. ipiovTo: ask, inquire about. 
Cf dfHo. A 62. 

cipo-ir6KOf : woolly-fleeced, woolly, 

ftpianu pres. mid., dpwrmurOai aor. 
mid.: of ipvofioi, guard. A 239. 

ctp^Tiu: perf. pass, of ipw, draw up. 

[itp«], fut. ipiiD, perf. pass, dfnfnu 
(ftfy-, verbum, word): say, tell, 
announce. Cf ^nffu, dw€¥. 

itp«, perf. pass, partic. Upyuevai 
(sero) : join, unite well. E 89. 

fit, It, adv. and prep, with ace. : 
into, to, until. It sometimes is 
followed by a gen., which has 
been explained by an ellipsis, e.g. 
h *A$vpfairp : to Athena's temple ; 
cs yoXfW : to the homes of her hus- 
band's sisters. Z 378 f. It rarely 
follows its noun. 

•It, pjuL, CF, gen. Mi, piasj im : one. 
Cfloi. 

iloHi: seated, aor. of liopai, sit. 
A 311. 

droiTo, aor. of ctSoi : seemed. B 215. 

clo'-ava-paUvw, aor. dfravipiymyi go 
up into. Z 74. 

dbraro, aor. of ctSco : took the form of. 

itraro : aor. of Zcfuu, press forward 
eagerly. A 138. 

cla'-lf»x®tM^ ^u^« ccrcXeutnYAoi, aor. 
daifXvdov or da^XBw, aor. imv. 
datXOt : come in, enter. Z 354. 

cComu : fut. of oTSo, know. A 548. 

KoTi (/TMTOs) : equal, well-balanced, 
shapely (of ships) ; fair (of a 
feast where each has a portion 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



43 



suited to his rank), iravrwr iurtfi 
equal on every side, prob. symmet- 
rical, well-balanced, of a shield 
(ixrirU). A 468. 

tlo'^Oov or clo-^Xv6ov : aor. of daifi- 
XOfJuUf come in, B 321, 798. 

ICo-Ktf (ftfUTKtOf fiK-) : think (him) 
like, r 197, E 181. 

its ft Kf (v) : until. (For ds ravro h 
^ K€.) r 409. 

flo'-opdM, pres. partic. ciot)poa>v, f ut. 
iaa^jfofixu : look at, look on. 

cCo-M (ci$), adv. : within, into. Freq. 
with a preceding ace. (< limit of 
motion '), as *IAiov euna : to Troy ; 
wrrm curoi : in to the hone ; *Ai8o$ 
euro) (sc. hoiuw) : into the home of 
Hades. 

cC Ti, cC Ti : whether, or. 

itxov : impf . of cxco, have, hold. 

M, Mq%: pres. ind. of cooi, allow. 

cCmOi : perf. of c^o>, am wont. 

Om [coic] : for clog, untU. T 291. 

Ik, I( (before vowels), adv. and 
prep, with gen. : out, forth, from. 
Ik TtSb: from that time, i^ ov: 
since. €<^i\yfifv Ik Aios : received 
the love of Zeus, were loved by 
Zeus. l( avrvyo^i (hound) from 
the rim, i.e. to the rim. In com- 
position CK denotes separation or 
completion (utterly). 

'Eicdpi| : Hecuba, wife of King Priam 
of Troy. Z 251 ff. 

iicd-fpYos (fc#ca$, fipyov): far-worker 
(or defender). Epithet of Apollo. 
A 479, E 439. Cf cioy/JoXos, 
^KarrfpfXerrii, CKan;/8oXos, cjcaros. 

Iko^v (cfcas) : from afar, afar. 



iKoXlovaro : aor. of icoXcoi, call. 

Iicofiov: aor. of fcofivw, become weary. 

Mus (jr€Ka-),&dv.:far; with genitive. 

Ikoo-tos 3 (f€K-) : each. It is freq. 
added in apposition with the sub- 
ject of the principal verb, — in the 
sing, when the individual is to 
be made prominent, in the pi. 
when separate divisions or squads 
are in mind. Cf.Tl. 

M/np9i¥, adv. with gen.: on either 
side, r 340. 

JKani-piX^nit, -ao (A 75) and JKaTi)- 
pdXot (f€Jcas, /SoAXw): far-darter, 
far-shooter. Epithet of Apollo as 
(the sun god) the god of the 
bow. Cf. iKoxfyyos, Im/jSoXos. 

biiwr6y-xti^09 (x^) • hundred-armed. 
Epithet of Briareos. A 402. 

iKa,r6^fh\ (pcv^) : hecatontb ; strictly 
a sacrifice of a hundred cattle, but 
the poet is not exact as to num- 
ber or class of the victims, hence 
sacrifice. (A « hecatomb ' of 
twelve heifers is mentioned in 
Z 93, and one of rams in A 102.) 

lKaT6|fc-Poios (pcm) : worth a hundred 
cattle. B 449, Z 236. 

cicttT6|i-iroXi« : having a hundred cities, 
hundred-citied, of Crete. B 649. 

fKaTdv (centum): indecl. one 
hundred. 

Iicarot (^cicas): short form of cica- 
rrfPfXerrii, far-darter. A 385. 

lic-paUvw: go forth, come forth. 

Ik-P^XXm, aor. cic)3aA.e : cast out, throw 
out. E 39. 

U-^lyifo^jtui, aor. iieytvovro, perf. 
inf. ixyiydfuy, perf. partic. fem. 



44 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



^icyeyoivca [^rycyoKuSo, § 49 ^] : am 
bomfronij perf. am sprung from, 

Iic-Yovof : desrendantj offspring. 

2K-Sv|Xof (SSfkoy) : conspicuous. E 2. 

lic-Si8M|u, aor. imv. IkBot€: give up, 
r459. 

4ic4«« : put off, doff, r 114. 

Iicffidffvf: aor. of ((r)icc8avia7/xi, 
shatter. E 88. 

4ic^icaffT0 : plpf . of Kowvfuuj excel. 

4ic4icXtTo: aor. of k4Xo/uu, call, order, 

4ic^KXiTo: plpf. of icXtvco, lean, rest, 

ha^ (§ 48 h) : aor. of KaJuny bum. 

<in)-p^ii| (fcjcas, PaXXio): distant 
shooting, i,e. skill in archery. 

licv|-pdXof : far-shooter. See iKO/tpyoq, 

lin)Xot (/^CK-): quiet, peaceful, undis- 
turbed, at ease. E 805. 

lic-ica0cUp«* : clean out, 6 153. 

iic-Ko0-opdM, aor. partic. cK#carc8a>v: 
look {out) down from, A 508. 

2K-icai-8ticd-8«pof : sixteen handbreadths 
in length, A 109. 

lic-Kar-iMv : aor. of iKKoBopdta, 

Ik-kXIittw, aor. iiixkol/cy: steal away. 

lic-icvXiv8«t, aor. pass. i^tKvXurBrf (cyl- 
inder) : roll out. Z 42. 

<K-Xav0dv«, aor. trans. iick€\aJSov, 
perf. iKXiXa$€(rOaL: raid, forget: 
trans, aor. caused to forget. 
B600. 

IkXvov : impf . of icXvui, hear, give ear, 

hn-^vXfiM, aor. partic. iKfiv^rfoa^; 
squeeze or suck out (poisoned 
blood or extraneous matter). 
A 218. 

hn-ynrrim, aor. partic. cKvoon/ouKTC 
(vocTTOs) : return from . E 1 57 . 

iKoX^a : impf. of Koki^dm, brawl. 



4ic6|iunrf : aor. of KOfuf^ta, carry off. 

IkitoyXos: terrible. Superl. ixwayXo- 
TttTos. Adv. itcwdyXwi or ciarayAa : 
terribly, mightily, furiously, A 146. 

lK-^tu^6a^rm : (shine forth), am promi- 
nent, E 803. 

iic-irip6M, fut. itcirifHrcwri, aor. snbjv. 
isciripa-WTi, aor. i^cjrpaBofJLtv : sack 
utterly, destroy, to voXmv iieirpd- 
Oofuv: what we sacked out of the 
cities. I.e. took from the cities, A 125. 

4ic-ir(irTw, aor. ^jorco-c: fall from. 

4ic-irptiH^ -«09 (irpcirco) : distinguished. 
6 483. 

iicpa(aivtv : impf. of Kpauuvat, fulfill. 

4ic-au6«, aor. i^tauwrev: save, rescue, 

iic-«iftlM», aor. pass, iitav^vf: send 
forth ; pass. rtwA forth. E 293. 

lK-<nrd», aor. ^cmnurc: draw forth. 

Ikto, lirravi : aor. of jcrcivo), it'//. 

4K-rd|iv«, aor. i(irapjov : cut out, cut, 
hew out. A 460. 

iK-T<Xiw (rcXos) : accomplish, perf ttrm. 
B286. 

'Eirrdpcof : of Hector ^ Hectares. 

'EKTop(Si|f : j^on of Hector, Z 401. 

lieTot(lf): jru:/A. B 407. 

4ict6« (^k), adv. : outside, A 151. 

"EtcrMp, -opos (r/. the English verb 
to hector) : Hector, the mightiest 
and dearest-beloved of Priam's 
fifty sons. O, 495 ft. In Z is 
an account of an affectionate 
meeting of Hector and his wife 
Andromache ; in H, Hector fights 
in single combat with Telamo- 
nian Ajax; he breaks his way 
through the gates of the Greek 
camp (M 445 ff.) ; he is grievously 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



45 



wounded by Ajax (B 402 ff.), but 
Apollo restores his strength, and 
he returns to the conflict (0246 ff .), 
and advances to the very ships 
of the Achaeans (11 414 ff.) ; he 
slays Patroclus, the friend of 
Achilles (H 818 ff.) ; he is himself 
slain by Achilles (X 3:30). The 
Twenty-fourth Book of the Iliad 
tells the story of Priam's visit 
to the Achaean camp to ransom 
Hector's body. The last verse 
of the Iliad is tk oiy* o/i^uirov 
ra^oy I^KTopo^ cinro&tfUNO. He 
is called Kopv$auo\oi, with waving 
plumey fio^v ayaSoi, good at the 
war cry, valiant, fuyd^fJUK, great- 
hearted, ^HuhiftjfK, gloriotia, dv&po- 
<f>6v<K, man-slaying, 

4Kvp6f (fcic-, socer): husband*a 
father, V 172. 

Ik-^cUvw, aor. pass. i^tiJMdvOrj: show 
forth ; pass, appear, A 468. 

4ic-^4p«*: carry forth, bear out of 

U-^^c^, aor. €K<t>vy€ : escape, 

U'Xitu pour out, T 296. 

icAv, -oyroi (fc#c): willing, of (his) 
own will, at plea,<ure, T 66. 

IXdav [cAav]: pres. inf. of cAaco, 
drive. E 366. 

2\aPf : aor. of Aa/A/Savcj, take, seize. 

IXd^tTo : impf. of Xaiopai, take. 

tkaiLov (oleum, oil) : olive oil. B 754. 

IXdo-oo-Kf : iterative aor. of iXawm, 

iXAri) : pine tree. E 560. 

IXa'Hjp, -^poq (iXofo) : driver, A 145. 

"EXarot : Trojan ally, slain by Aga- 
memnon. Z 33. 

IXa^hw or fkSm, pres. inf. cAoav [cAav, 



§ 47 c], aor. €Afl<r(o-)c(v) or i^Xaxr€, 
iterative aor. ^Aooao-iccv, plpf . ^X^- 
AflTO or cAi^Aaro: drive, strike, 
Kokfifov iXavyut: carry on a brawl. 
A 575. 

ika4o9 : deer, V 24. 

I 3 : light, E 122. 

i (wUl) : desire, long for. E 481. 

Qitalpm (cAco«) : pity. B 27. 

iXryx^f) -m : shameful. A 242. 

IX^iVTOt: disgraced, B 285. 

2Xryxot> -<09 : shame, pi. (shameful 
things), caitiffs, B 235. 

(ikmv&9 (lX€iK) : pitiable. B 314. 

iktim, aor. cAci^c (cXcos) : pity, take 
pity. Z 484. 

iXtXq;«, aor. ikiXti^y, aor. pass. 
IkOd-xBtfrav or IXikL-xOfv; (turn), 
act. shake; mid. coil; pass, turn 
about, rally, A 530, B 316, Z 109. 

IXi(v) [ctXe] : aor. of cupcco, toike, «toy. 

'EXIvi|: Helen, daughter of Zeus, 
sister of Castor and Polydeuces, 
wife of Menelaus, mother of Her- 
mione. Famed for her beauty. 
Carried off by Paris, son of Priam, 
to Troy, and thus the occasion of 
the Trojan War. After the cap- 
ture of Ilios she returned to 
Sparta with Menelaus. F 121 ff., 
Z 323 ff., 8 121 ff. 

'EXcvot : Helenus. (l)Son of Priam ; a 
seer. Z 76. (2) A Greek. E 707. 

IXf60ptirros (cXo9, rpc^ai) : marsh- 
nourished, grown on moist meadows. 
B776. 

IXfo^, IXin)v: aor. of alpiw, take, 

IXdi^cpot (liber): free. IXevffepoy 
^pap (§ 16 </) : day of freedom. 



46 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



freedom, Kpvfnip eXcvtfepos: bowl 
of freedom, i.e. in celebration of 
freedom. Z 455, 528. 

IXi4o*o|uu : f ut. of €p)(Ofiai, come. 

IXi^Os, -avTOi : ivory. A 141. The 
elephant himself is not men- 
tioned by Homer. 

'EXi^vtfp, -optK : leader of Abantes. 
B 540, A 463. 

SU^ : aor. of Xcn-ai, strip off. A 236. 

'EXid&v, -a>Kos : Boeotian town . B 500. 

^^^jXaro : plpf . of cAavFiu, drive. 

Mi imv., Mtlv or iXM|Mv(ai) inf., 
IXO^o-i subjv., 2\9oi opt., MAv 
partic. : aor. of Ip^ofttUj come. 
A 70, 247. 

'EXiicdiM^, -W05: Helicaon, son of 
Antenor, and son-in-law of Priam. 
ri23. 

'E\(ici|: principal town in the dis- 
trict on the north coast of Pelo- 
ponnesus. Poseidon received spe- 
cial honor there. B 575. 

IXucAint, -iStK, and IX(K-t*i|r, -omros 
(ffXiij SaI/): quick-eyed, bright- 
eyed. A 98, 389, r 190. 

IXiirov: aor. of Xenrco, leace. £ 480. 

SkUnrm (f cXif) : curl. A 317. 

IXict<r(-imrXof : trith trailing robe. 
Epithet of Trojan matrons. 

iXiti)0|i6t (cXko)) : dragging, seizure. 

IXicof , -cos (ulcus): wound, sore. 

tkKm: draw, drag. A 194. 

IXXoPf [cXajSc, § 30 6] : aor. of Xofjir 
pdvia, take. E 83. 

'EXXds, -0809: Hellas, the country 
under the rule of Peleus, in 
Thessaly. B 683. Thence the 
name was extended to all Greece. 



'EXXiivft: Hellenes, the inhabitants 
of Hellas, which did not yet 
include all Greece. B 684. 

'EXX^-vovrot: {sea of Helle), the 
Hellespont. B 845. The Homeric 
use includes the neighboring 
waters. 

fXXUnrtro : impf . of kurtrofim. § 30 A. 

IXoi, IXov [clXcw], iXtfvTK, IXovro 
[ctXovTo] : aor. of alpcta, take, 
seize, slay. B 29, 399. 

"^^of, -€os: Helos. (1) Lacedaemo- 
nian town. B 584. Cf. Helot. 
(2) Town near Elis. B 594. 

IXof, -€os (f cX-) : marsh, meadow. 

IXiro|uu (fcXir-, voluptas, will): 
hojie. r 112. 

fXo^u: aor. inf. of cTXw, crowd to- 
gether. A 409. 
. IXmp and iX^piov (fcX-, cXcTv) : booty, 
prey. A 4, E 488. 

cifc-pcUvw, perf. partic. ifipefiaiStTa, 
plpf. ifipi/Saauv: come into, em- 
bark; perf. stand in. £ 199. 

{|i-PdXX«», aor. ififiaXt : throw in, put 
into. T 139, A 444. 

f |i-Poo^XdM» : rule among, B 572. 

€|ii ace, fyMtv, Ifuto gen.: of cyoi, /. 

l|Mivni: aor. of /xcvo), await. Z 126. 

c|ft/^icTo : plpf. of fuoyw, mix. 

l|uvoi [cTmt] : inf. of dfu, am. 

fyM^ [ifujv'i : gen. of iyat, I. § 42 a. 

€|i(7f|v, fy»x9€¥ [liuyBtfrav], and 
i|iCx^ : aor. pass, of yuurfv^ unite^ 
mix. T 209, 445, E 134. 

c|&)iairlMt, adv. : quickly, at once. 

c|i|M}ukk, -via : eager, impetuously. 

Imuvoi [clvoi] : inf. of dfii, am. 
§30e. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



47 



l|&|Mpa: perf. of fuipo/juaif receive as 
my portion. § 43 A. A 278. 

f |fcv4ovTo [ifjufivi^KovTo'] I impf. of 
fivauofuu, am mindful. B 686. 

t|i6t 3: my. Strengthened by the 
gen. of avros in ifibv avrov icXeo9| 
since ifiov is equiy. to ifwv* 

€|i-«dorarM, impf. -iyhnurcrt : (sprinkle 
m), weave in. T 126. 

8|fc-«fSov, adv.: immovable. £ 527. 

l|i-in8os: ^rm, urwAailen. Z 352. 

iffc-'irfo^ : aor. of ifjurama, fcUl in. 

c|i-«f^vvki: closely clinging to^ perf. 
of ifjLtffw, grow into, A 513. 

I|h-in|«: in spite of all, nevertheless, 
like ofUDSy which is found but 
once in Homer. A 562. 

8|ivXi|v, local adv. : next. B 526. 

f |h-^^, perf. partic. ifurif^vma, : grow 
into; perf. cling closely to. A 513. 

cv, ilv, or cW, adv. and prep.: in, 
therein, among, ovpfxriv iv Kopwfty^ : 
on the mountain summits, iv 6<fi$aX- 
fjuounv opaarSai : see be/ore Xmy) 
eyes. iraTpi Iv X^^ rlBui put in 
her father's arms, cv with the dat. 
is freq. used with verbs of motion, 
because of the state of rest that 
follows the motion; as Kdmrfxrov 
iv Ai^fivif : I fell down on Lemnos. 
iv sometimes seems to be con- 
strued with a gen., and an ellipsis 
has been assumed, as cv axftvuav 
mrpoi (sc. StafioTi) : in the house 
of my wealthy father. Cf cis. 

Xva: ace. masc. of els, one. B 292. 

fvaCfM*, aor. hn^paro (IvofM): slay. 
Cf ivofiiito. 

iv-oLn^joiv, adv. : at fitting time. 



f v-a(oa|M« (oZoa) : favorable, rea- 
sonable; the contrary of irapajurta. 

Iv-aXC^Kios : like, resembling. £ 5. 

lv-avT(ov, adv.: against, to meet. 

Iv-avrCot 3 : opposite, to meet. Z 106. 

Xvopo, pi. : spoils, armor taken from 
a slain foe. Z 480. 

IvopCttf (IvofM) : strip of (his) armor, 
slay, since this precedes the spoil- 
ing. £ 151. Cf. ivaifHo. 

lv-ap(0|uot (apiBpjo^) : counted, of ac- 
count. B 202. 

Svarot (cwu) : ninth. B 313. 

IvScKo, indecl. : eleven. B 713. 

4v6cicd-vi|XvS) -V : eleven cubits long. 

Iv-6l|ia, adv. : from left to right. 

Iv-8fo, aor. iv&r/a'€ : bind in, entangle. 

Ii>6o-0iy, lv8o-6i, XvSov (cv Sofi^), adv. : 
within, at home. A 243, Z 247, 374. 

Iv-Slhw and Iv-S^, aor. partic. iv 
Swm : (slip into), put on, E 736. 

Ivfdcfo^is: aor. of vtuciw, upbraid, 
rebuke. T 59. 

kviUtm [MyKta] : aor. subjv. of f^ipot. 

iv-ci|u, Ist pi. Hvtifuv, opt. ivurf, 
impf. ivifev and rvecTav (dpi), am 
within. £ 477. 

IvfKO, ivficcv, or ctviica (Ikvuv), prep, 
with gen. : on account of, for the 
sake of, because of A 94, T 57. 

Ivfy^KovTo, indecl. : ninety. B 602. 

hhim/ratw : impf. of ipirdxrirni. 

iWpnpot : lower, beneath. £ 898. 

Iv-corav : impf. of cvcifu, am within. 

'EvflToC, pi. : y e n e t i, in Paphlagonia. 
B852. 

cv-i|tv : impf. of htipi, am within. 

cWiparo : aor. of ivaipm, slay. £ 43. 

Ma: there, here, where, then. €v6a 



48 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



KOi HvSa: in this direction and in 

that, B 462, E 223. 
4vedUSt : thithevy there. A 367. 
IvOcv : thence, from that source. 
2v-6co [ivtOov] : aor. of ivriOrffu. 
ivl : see cy, in. The accent is drawn 

back upon the first syllable when 

the prep, follows its noon. § 55 c. 
M : dat. of cIs, one. 
ivtavrds: year, anniversary. Cf. 

€TOi. B134. 
'Evii^vH : a Thessalian tribe. B 749. 
«viiHj (ivitmo) : rebuke, blame. 
fvCvTw, aor. ri^iravt (§ 43/) : rebuke, 

reproach. B 245, V 427. 
IvMm : aor. of iwartai tell, say, 
*Ev(o"in| : Arcadian town. B 606. 
iwia (no Tern, nine), indecl. : nine. 
«vviA-Poios (fiovi) : toorth nine cattle. 
f vnd-xlXoi : nine thousand. 
cvWiTM, aor. Ivunrt (ivotr^, inseco): 

telly say. 
cvrfo-Cii (^ivitffu): suggestion, advice. 
fw-4||fcap, adv. : for nine days. 
1Evvo|&of : a Mysian seer. B 858. 
Iwv|u, aor. corcrc, perf. partic. pass. 

ctficvoi, plpf. €0-0-0 (fivvvfu, /rc<r-, 

vestis) : clothe, put on. ra ufjue- 

voc : clad in which. Xmvov Icoo xi- 

rSiva : put on a stone tunic, i.e. be 

stoned. F 57. 
ivdrio-f : aor. of voim, perceive. T 21. 
cvoiHj (cW«rci)) ; outcry, cry. T 2, 
cv-^pvv|fci, aor. act. iviapo-ev,^ aor. mid. 

ivQiffTo : arouse among ; mid- arise 

among. A 599, Z 499. 
cv-oTpl^O|uu : turn vnthin. £ 306. 
IvTca, dat. (vreri, pi.: weapons, 

armor. T 339. 



f v-tiCv«, perf . mid. ivrerarai : stretch 

within, string. E 728. 
iv-^r(0i||Li, aor. lv$€o : place in, sei in. 
IvTO : aor. mid. of Irnu, send, cast. 
ivr6%, 8vrov<k(v) (cf), adv.: within; 

with genitive. A 432. Cf. 

iicroi. 
{v-TpovoX({o|Mu : tU9n around often, 
cyHrai: make ready. {Cf Ivrea.*^) 
"Ei^AXmo% (*Ewa)) : Enyalius, strictly 

an epithet of Ares, god of war; 

but used as his name, esp. in the 

verse-close *EvuiXup dvipuf^oyrif, 

where y and d are pronounced 

together, by *8ynizesis' (§ 25). 

B651. 
cv-^rmoov, adv. : in (my) sleep, B 56. 
'Evii6: Ehgo, Be Hon a, goddess of 

war, companion of Ares. E 333, 

592. 
fv4|ia: impf. of vta/juoM, move. 

T21S. 
iv-^nri (uMJ/), adv. : openly. E 374. 
cv-6p(nv, ivApro: aor. of ivopwfu, 

arouse in ; mid. ca^ise in. A 599. 
c( : see ^, out of. 

H (f^i 86 ^1 ^)t indecl.: six. 
«(-aYy^^^} ^'^^» cfi^yyciAcv: bring 

news out, tell a secret. E 390. 
If-dyM, aor. i^rjyayt : lead forth. 
'E(d8iOf: Exadius, a Lapith. 

A 264. 
c(-a(vv|u: t<ike away; with two 

accusatives. E 155. 
c(-a£prro9 (aipcm) : selected. B 227. 
cf-otplM, aor. lidktTo or c^cXcro : take 

out of, take from. B 690. 
If-oKfofiAi, aor. opt. t^oKftTojuo 

(dfcos): cure, appease. A 36. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE. ILIAD 



49 



l(-aXavdtM, aor. e^oAaira^c: sack, 

tUterly destroy. E 642- 
^-AXXoiuu : leap forth. E 142. 
,l(-av(in|t [eiuii4>vrp], adv. : suddenly. 
l(-Siro-8(o|uu : drice away out. of. 

E763. 
4{-air-dXXV|u^ aor. opt. i(a,in\ouiTo: 

mid. perish utterly from. Z 60. 
c{-a^vAt», <^r. iiripnrait: match 

away. V 380. 
•{"^X** • l*^ff^^y propose first. B 273. 
c(^v8A» (av&7) : sqteak out. A 363. 
•{^irnt : again, anew. A 223, F 433. 
^(t|t [€^s]: ii order, one after the 

<Uher. A 448, Z 241. 
c(-c(XfTo : aor. of iiaipito, take out of 
l(-4i|u, inf. €i€fLfjxvajL (ccfu) : <xm 

sprung from, am the son of. 

ZIOO. 
•{fCvuro^ : aor. of jcivtj^bi, receive as 

guest. T 207. 
ii^lpo^uwi: question, ask. £756. 
[c(-c(fM»], f ut. i^tpim : jf^^ait oti/, speak 

plainly. A 212. 
c(-<ic4Baipov: impf . of ItasaAaxpia, clean 

out. B 153. 
cHKXii|pfv: aor. of ^locXcirras steal 

away. E 390. 
f {•4infX(r6T| : aor. pass, of cjc/cvAiy&ki, 

roll out, throw out. Z 42. 
c(-cXdM, aor. c^cAoo'c: f/rit;^ out of, 

drive away. E 25, 324. 
c(-^XtTo : aor. of i^tupiia, take away. 
c{4Xic»: draw out. A 214. 
a(<|uv.[c£eiv]: fut. inf. of ^cu, hold, 

keep, protect, defend. E 473. 
c{-^|ifui«i : inf. of liapi, am the son of. 
l£-cvap({M, aor. ^^€vapc^c(v) (hmpa) : 

despoil, strip of armor, slay* Z 20. 



c{-<vpA0O|Uv : aor. of itarytOia, sack. 

iir4pim : fut. of iiuptu, speak out, 

l£-cpi«», aor. i^iptwrt : draw out* 

Igfo^ : aor. of t^, hew, cut. E 81. 

t{4naoni: aor. of eic<nra«t>, draw forth. 

i{-«ri0v| : rushed forth; aor. pass, as 
mid. of ^KorevcD. E 293. 

f{-<ra|iov: aor. of iicrafAyfa, ctU otit, 
hew. A 460, B 423. 

c(-<^cidv6i): appeared; aor. pass, of 
cjc^oiva), show forth. A 468! 

t{Wfya*yt: aor. of lidym, lead forth. 

c^W^YytiXi : aor. of c jayycAAa», /<•// Me 
secret. E 390. 

c{-i|Y<o|uu : lead forth. B 806. 

JE-^vra (c^, indecl. : sixty. 

c{Wip«tt{f : aor. of i^apwalto, snatch 
away. T 380. 

f{-i^X<v' impf. of i(dpx<u>f begin. 
E270. 

tf-oCx^fk*^ ' ^^ gone. Z 379. 

€(-ovofMUv«, aor. subjv. €{ovo^i/vi;s : 
ca// &y name, name. T 166. 

c{-6vtiOi: behind, in the rear. A 298. 

tE-oX<x (^'^*X**) • prominent, preemi- 
nent, chief lioxth ^^' ' chiefly. 

t{-vir-av-(an||M, aor. c^viravom; : rose 
(dvetmy), ou< of the back (i^), 
under (yiro) the blow. B 267. 

to [ov] : gen. of 3d pers. pron., him- 
self, herself, him, her. § 42 a. 
B239. 

louca, fern, partic. ^cicvui (§ 49 g), 
plpf. iiOKav, plpf. dual iucnjv 
(fipoucoL, fuc'), perf. as pres.: am 
like, resemble ; impers. it is fitting, 
suitable. A 47, 104, 119. 

cdvTft : partic. of ttpl, am. A 290. 

lofrytt : perf. of If&^j do, work. F 57. 



50 



VOCABULAKY TO THE 



I6t (ov, snus, his) 3, poflseaBiTe 

pron. : own. Jus oicn, her awn, his, 

her. {42 6. 
iw^mjOpm : collect. A 126. 
fv-4UYlti» : <2atA tipon. B 148. 
«v-cui4it, aor. portic. ci aw jo ttr r ft 

(oZkos) : praise, commend. B 335. 
<v-Stww, aor. inf. e«ai|£iBi: mA 

upon, hasten to. B 146, T 369. 
fv-ttinot : nameworthy, to hlame, 
lv-«Ke6i», aor. IwoKo w ravi hear. 
if aiiffpninii, aor. aabjV. €wafid^o§iew : 

act. exchange ; mid. cAon^. vua| 

cvofM^Scrm aKSyns: victory comes 

now to one, now to another, 
tw-ufkvm, aor. imv. iwa/ivvw : ftrin^ 

auf to, protect, defend. E 685. 
iv-«v-(m||u, 2d aor. ciray w Tiy u tty ; 

aor. rose thereupon. B 85. 
fv-cMRiXii*, aor. iwrpruXrfrt : threaten. 
fv-opniif, aor. /in^/MCcov: (avail), 

ward off; with ace. and dat. of 

interest B 873. 
fv-dfx«*) i^i** partic. ivapidfLKifoi : 

begin. yiafiij(ray €imp(afi£voi, eqmy. 

to ^p^KTO eVtr^uiyres : 6e^an if i»- 

tributing. A 471. 
fv-oovirfpof (cff-^ dvo, crevu) 3: in 

close succession, one soon after the 

other. 
{v-a»p(oKM, fut. inf. hmvpu^ur^ai, 

aor. subjy. inavpwvTm : enjoy, reap 

the fruits of. Freq. ironical. 
lir-iYva|fci|MV : aor. of hrtyvafitrroi, 

bend, bring over, B 14, 31, 68. 
€v48pa|u: 30T. of imrpix^, run upon. 
i'w4ta^(y) liwecriv, § 36 b^ : dat. pi. 

of ciros, toord. 
iv-^Oi|iM : aor. of hnrtSrffu, place upon. 



mC, temporal and causal conj. : when, 
since, for. It generally stands at 
the head of its clause, bat some- 
times follows one or more words, 
as Z 474. 

m<Y**' ^fry* w^/ inid. hasten, in 
haste, eagerly. B 354. 

Ml S^ : since once, since, when. 

ml ^ : nnce m truth; always causal. 

Iv-«fu, opt. iwwai, impf . Iv^ (<^) ^ 
am upon, am over. 

ht-mfk, 3d sing, crao-ir, partic. I«»- 
mrroL (dfu): com« on; pres. ind. 
shaU come on. £ 238. 

"Ewnoi: Epeans, early inhabitants 
of northern Elis. B 619. 

Ivnpcur : aor. of «i{p«i, pierce, spit. 

t«iip&T» impf., ^ iwy ^g a r i o aor. : of 
wopaofMOA, try, attempt. 

Ur-mnxw : 3d sing, of hrofu, come on. 

fv-«Ta, adv.: then, after that, next, 
hereafter. Freq. in apodosis, giv- 
ing it independence and promi- 
nence. 

i w MAw: aor. partic. of iwipxpfioA, 
come on. A 334. 

fv-i|i4^T» : aor. of iwipaivopai, rare 
for, desire madly. Z 160. 

fv-4|ui|av: aor. of iwifivlti, mutter over. 
A 20. 

iv-w f \90% *, 3d sing, of an old perf ., 
as (pres. or) impf. : grew on it. 

fv4oMn, impers.: it is fitting. 

cv-nri(0tro: im^f, of hmnlBopai, obey, 
yield obedience. 

IwhnBpew [lircirocScificv, § 49 c] : 
trusted; plpf . of wuBia, persuade. 

cWirXiryov: aor. of irkiprvm, strike, 
§43e. 



FIKST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILLA.D 



51 



<T-<piC8ti, aor. hripturti (rest upon), 

push. 
<tr < pngiy : aor. of inpoMy pass through, 
€v-€ppd&oxivTo : aor. of larippwyiot, 

roll doum at (the nod). A 529. 
tv-4pxo|Mu, aor. partic. iwtkB^: 

come on, advance, attack, 
€«iO'.p6Xot (liro9, fiaXXm): (word- 
bandying), babbling, blatant^ 
fwMTC : aor. of virma, fall, 
fv4aw|Mu : rush upon, am eager; perf . 
^ of liruro-cvd), urge upon, 
€v-€o-nvdxot<n^ im^ of c*icrrera;(<i>, 

groan at, A 154. 
ty- €in <<|> tt i> i o; aor. of hrurri^io, 

croton, A 470. 
cv-^iX«t : aor. of ^ircXXoi, enjoin, 
cv-cv^|iit*, aor. hr€wfnffiij(mv : (speak 

well at), approve, Cf, imuviia. 

hrtv^lMfrav is equiv. to ciccXcvcrav 

iw€v<lnffJuavvT€is, bade with pious 

reverence, A 22. 
iw'tixo^Mh <^^* partic. ^ircu^oficvos : 

pray, boast over, exult, 
Ivt^vov, inf. v€<fiv€fuv (^ko9, 4>€y-), 

aor. : slew, xc^ftxu is perf. 

passive. 
cv-f^pAroTo: aor. of iwiil^paio/iat, 

notice, think of, 
cv-%v : impf . of lirafu, am upon. 
riH^: Mi av, when, with sub- 
junctive. 
cv-|)vfov : impf. of iinuvw, commend, 

approve. 
Itniti : aor. of infyyvfu, build. 
f v-ffiif (Xi|o^ : aor. of iTtavaXiw, 

threaten. A 310. 
firWjpwMrf : aor. of impKiia, ward off. 
iwi, adv. and prep.: upon, on, to, 



over, at, against, after; with dat., 
acc.y and genitive. 

(1) Adv. m icvc(^s ^X0€ : dark- 
ness came on; hrl otvoy ikufit: 
poured a libation of wine over (the 
offering) ; ciri fivdoy &cXXcv : laid 
upon him his command. 

(2) With dat. x^* ^ ttoffw^ : 
arm at the wrist ; hr avr^ ycAocroai^ : 
laughed (over) at him; hrl -xSwl- 
upon the earth, upon the ground ; hrX 

' irvfTfif : on the tower ; hri muXf/aw : 
by (at) the gate ; 6&p hn'.onthe road, 
by the wayside : Hav^ Im : on the 
banks of the Xanthus ; hn vt/va-iv : 
at (near) the ships ; voifalv hr 6Ua-- 
atv: shepherd keeping watch over 
his sheep ; Buvat hrl yovvaaw : place 
upon the knees; hr aXXijXourt^ io^ 
TCf : going upon (against) each other; 
^K€ S' hr 'Apyuoun : sent against 
the Ar gives ; yjKOt h* hfi Kptfreaai : 
came to the Cretans. 

(3) With ace. hrl xOova: to the 
ground ;i(€Kv\ur$rfhnar6fui: was 
thrown (rolled) out upon his face ; 
v8a>p hn "x^apoL^ l)(px>.vi poured water 
over the handsj hrlpiofiovaytav : lead- 
ing to the altar ; hn irvpyoy iawray : 
coming to the tower; KordyeLV hii 
vvjois : lead back (down) to the camp 
(ships) ; cVl OTixas i^ycofuu : lead 
into ranks, so as to form ranks; pq 
itr ^ArpuSvfy : went to the son of 
Atreus; cirt vwu OaXMrayp: over 
the back of the sea ; /uivar im ^po- 
vcv : wait for a while. 

(4) With gen. eV* Afuuv : on the 
shoulders ; ciri j($oifOi : on the ground ; 



52 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



KaBi(/ir tin Bpovov: sat upon a 
throne; vrja cV rjmipoio Uptvaauv: 
drew the ship upon the shore ; iv 
tipifvtji : in time of peace ; iirl wpo- 
riptov &vdpunriov: in the time of 
former generations, 

im draws its accent back upon 
the first syllable when it follows its 
noun, unless either some word in- 
tervenes or the final vowel of the 
preposition is elided. § 55 c. 

Im : equiv. to lircort, «< is thine." 

fv-Ulx»: shout {jhrCy in the fight), 

cin-paUv«*, aor. imv. impt^ato, aor. 
opt. imPairfv, aor. partic. imfids : 
go upim, mount. 

cirv-pdXXtf : mid. lay hands upon^ 
strive for, 

cvt-pdcKM {paivio) : bring to (upon), 
KoucSiv €7npaxrKip€y : bring into 
(evils) misfortune. B 234. 

jm-p4vfo imv., linPi)o^|ifvov partic : 
aor. of i-mpoLvio, mount. E 46. 

m-pptOM, aor. subjv. iTnPpiiry : press 
heavily, fall heavily ^ of rain. 

«vi^(Yvo|uu : come on, come. Z 148. 

cm-Yv^irrw, aor. CTT^yvafi^cv : bend, 
curb, win over to one's side. 

^m-Yfi^M, aor. iiriypaxl/t : scratch. 

'Eir(8avpos: Epidaurus, town in 
Argolis on the Saronic Gulf. 
B561. 

cm-8l{uh adv. ace: on the right, 
toward the right. Cf. iv^ta. 

cirv-8«v^, -€5 : in want, lacking. 

firi-8c^0|uu : am in want, am inferior; 
with genitive. 

cirv-SlWw, aor. ivtSimjau^: swing, 
whirl. V 378. 



€'ni-Spo|iot (hfKipuv) : approachable, to 

be scaled. Z 434. 
citv^CmXot: like, 
m-cuc^ -CB : fitting, suitable* 
cuv^urrdt (dxm) : yielding. 
Jin4Xvotiai: hope (for), 
tirv4iryv)u, perf . partic. pass, cmcifie- 

vos: clothe; pass, clad in; with 

accusative. 
ivC^pa: see ^po. 
f w-Oapvivtt : cheer, encourage, 
cm-AfCvoi aor. inf., frtS^t fut.: of 

hnrlBriiu, lay upon, put to (i.e. 

close). 
(vOovTo: obeyed; aor. of vuBw, per- 
suade. 
tw4pdba>ica» : leap upon, leap forward. 

E772. 
cv£-icii|uu, fut. hruceuropai : lie upon, 

rest upon, 
iw^KMm, fut. cvucoxroi: cover up, 

conceal, hide ; with negative. 
f1n-K(8vb|Ml^ mid. : spread over. 
im-Kovp^, fut. cmicovpiTcro) ; help, 

serve as ally. 
fiK-Kovpos : helper, ally, Esp. in pi. 

of the allies of the Trojans. 
fvi-icpaui(v«i, aor. imv. hrtxptppfw: 

fulfill^ accomplish, grant, 
«iri-Xfwro-» : see before me, see. T 12. 
t«i-|uiCvo|iai, aor. €irtp,rfvaTo : rave for, 

desire madly. 
€irv-yLtt(o|itti , fut. CTTifAocro'CTat : (feel), 

examine or probe a wound, strike 

(hnrms pAariyi). 
ciri-|Mi8d«*, aor. partic. iwifUt&ijaxK 

(smile) : smile (at). 
cirt-|*i y 4onat : blame; with gen. of 

cause. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



53 



cvi-|Uiw, aor. imv. lirtfuivov: waii^ 

await. 
f iri-|fc((ryt» : mingle, hff hrifuoyofJLe- 

vctfv (sc. Tpdnay) : joined battle 

again with the Achaeans. 
ciri-|fcvtc», aor. hriiMx^v : mutter at. 
f v-i^vra : partic. of IwafUf come on, 
cirC-opKov : false oath. V 279. 
ciri-«i(6o|uu : am obedient, render 

obedience. 
cin-ir^|iAi, aor. inf. hnrrrwdaix 

fly forward (upon), of an arrow. 
cm-irXi» and «mvX^, aor. partic. 

CTTiirXaxras and hntrXtik : sail over. 
fiTi-wtU* (irvita) : breathe (blow) 

upon. 
ciri-irpo-Ci)|u, aor. inf. hnvpoipxy : 

send forth against. A 94. 
ciri-v«X^o|uu : come up to the ranks, 

in order to review them. 
iin^ppim : floio over. 6 754. 
cirC-ppoOos : helper, only as feminine. 
cm-ppd&o|uu, aor. CTrc/Dpcixmvro : roll 

down at (the nod). 
fv(-o^qi : aor. of l^hrmt, meet. 
f vx-ovcCm : shake at, brandish at. 
fin.-o*(rfiiM, plp^' ^s Aor. cireotrvro, 

perf. ^iroroimu : mid. hasten on, 

rush upon, 
cvC-aro'c*rpov : tire of a wheel. 
tirUrroiMu : am skilled, understand. 
m-nty^xo^Mi : groan meanwhile. 

A 154. 
ciriHTT^w, aor. hnxTTGffavro : crown, 

fill to the brim, A 470. 
m-o^p^M, aor. partic. hnarpinlfa^: 

turn about, T 370. 
'EirivTpo^os : (1) Phocian leader. 

B 517. (2) Slain by Achilles at 



the sack of L3rmessus. B 692. 

(3) I.,eader of Trojan allies. B 856. 
ciriHr^vpia (a<f>vpcv), pi. : protections 

for the ankle, ankle-guards. 
•m-TdppoOos : helper, defense. E 808. 
tvixrAXc*, aor. inf. iinTdXai : enjoin 

upon, command. 
Jm-rlrpairTai, pi. imrcrpdilHiTai : perf. 

pass, of iiriTpeiTia, intrust. 
Ifivnfih, adv. : sufficiently, as are 

needed. A 142. 
tm-riOriiu, fut. hrSfffrtt, aor. ivf$rfK€,. 

aor. inf. iiriOHvai: place upon, set 

upon, put to (i.e. close). 
fvi-To{d|;o|uu : bend the bow at, shoot 

at; with dat. T 79. 
ciTwrplirM, perf. pass. hnrirpaTrrai, 

perf. pass. pi. hnrtTpaL^Tai [lmr€- 

Tpafifievoi axriv} : commit, intrust to. 
Jm-Tp^v, aor. €wiBfXifi€(v) : run up, 

run upon. 
•in-TpaxA-Si|v (rpexco) : trippingly, 

fluently. T 213. 
cin-^4p«*, fut. ivoura : bear upon. 

;(CfJpa$ inxntrei : shcUl lay hands on. 
cm-^XfyM: blaze upon, burn, consume. 
4irv-^pAlo|iAi, aor. €ir€<f>paauTO, aor. 

opt. eTn<f>paa'au£aTO : consider, 

think. 
iin^x96v%09 (x^") * ^P<*^ l^^ earth, 

earthly. Epithet of men, — con- 
trasted with €TrovpdvuK. A 272. 
IvXfo, lirXflTo: thou art, is; aor. of 

wikit), move, become. 
ItXiivto: aor. of TreXo^co, approach, 

meet. A 449. 
cir-o(o^i : lay upon ; f nt. of iin<f>€p4a, 

bear upon. 
fir-o(xo|fcat, impf . €ina)(€.To : go to. 



54 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



attack, follow, ^prfw irmixecrAu: 
go to work. Urrov etroixofUinipf : 
going to and fro before the Loom, 
plying the loom, hroixofiiinff : bus- 
Uy, going to work. 

fvofiOi, impf . ciirorro or ciroKro, fut. 
hlferaif aor. Icnrero (sequor) : 
follow, accompany, attend. Cf. 
circD. 

cT-op^, aor. iiroptiapjivoi : reach 
out after (in attack), lunge at. 

cT-^pvQfu, aor. imy. Ivopaov: arouse 
upon, send against, 

cv-opo^M, aor. hropovat: hasten to, 
rush upon (generally in hostile 
sense). T 379. 

Ivos, -€0¥, dat. pi. ^9re(o')o'iv or hre- 
€avi(y) (fcirof, S^, vox): ward, 
speech, Cf. fivOoi. 

hr-^rpbym, aor. subjv. iw&rpvvr/rofv : 
rouse, urge on, impel, 

iir-ovpdviot (ovpavosi) : of heaven, 
heavenly. Epithet of the gods. 

4vTd (septem, seven), indecL: seven. 

lirTd^vuXof (vvXyf) : seven-gated. Epi- 
thet of Boeotian Thebes. A 406. 

ciHiOovTO : aor. of irwOdvofjuai, learn, 

Uem : am busy with. 

iv-^Xino : impf. of iiroixofmt, attack. 

IjpaiiOi (^p<Ds) : love, am enamored. 

cpaTfivdt 3 and cpardt (Ipojiai) : 
lovely, charming. 

ipni6B», impf. €€pya$€v (f^py-) • 
separate. Cf. Ipyia. 

Spyov (jrifyyov, work) : work, labor, 
deed, matter, thing; esp. of war, 
conflict. €fr/a AvSpStv: labors of 
men, tilled flelds, hence cfyya alone 
farm, flelds. 



Ipyw or i^pYM (/rcy>y-) : separate, keep 
off. ivTo^ ^^PY^ • incloses, shuts in. 

lp8M, aor. subjy. ^i^tjp, aor. imv. 
€p^, perf . lofjyt (fepy-) ' do, work, 
freq. with two aces. tpSoptv 
hooLTOfifiai : we were offering (heca- 
tombs) sacriflces. Cf. pcCoi. 

•piPfwtfs (cpc/3o$) 3 : dark, gloomy. 

ipulvt^ (dpofim) : ask, question, in- 
quire. Z 145. 

•ptOCtM and ipiBm : excite, vex, tease. 

cpf(8#, aor. Ipturara, plpf • rfpt^p€un'o : 
thrust, press; aor. mid. lean, rest; 
plpf. was thrust. T 358. 

{p€(o|iiv : aor. subjv. of dpofiai, ask. 

cpctvti, aor. Tjpure or cpcire : tear 
down ; aor. fall. A 462. 

cpc|&vdt (Ipcpoi, ipcParyoi) 3 : gloomy. 

Ipi£c(v) : wrought ; aor. of pii<a, do, 

cplovro : impf. of upofjuu, question, 

cp<irro|uu : champ, munch, of horses. 

ipitqi (ipia'am) : oarsman, sailor* 

cptT|a6v (remus, oar) : oar. 

*£pcvOoX£«»v, -cDvos: an Arcadian 
champion, slain by Nestor. A 319. 

cp4^, apr. Ipc^: roof, iirl ipolmi 
roofed over, built. A 39. 

'EpcX^t^, -rjoii Erechtheus, an old 
hero of Athens, of whose cult 
Athena herself is made the 
founder, in B 547. Under his 
rule (according to Hdt viii. 44) 
the people were first called Athe- 
nians. Svjfi4K 'E/xp(^09: land of 
Erechtheus, i.e. Attica. 

cp^ : fut. of a/9Q), say, tell. 

ipiJIMf (hermit) 3 : left alone, deserted. 

fpt|T6«», aor. opt. tprjTva-ue, iterative 
aor. ipnfrvirauj-Kt, aor. pass, ipufrv- 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



66 



Ot¥ [iifnfr M yfitrav] : restrain^ cheeky 
control, keep in order, 

,4pi- : strengthening prefix ; cf. apt-. 

lpi-PA\a(, -ojcos: large-clodded, rich- 
soiled. A 155. 

cpC-Y8owot : loud-sounding, heavy- 
thundering. Epithet of 2ieus. 

fpiScUvi* and cpC^M, aor. opt. kpur- 
<rcic, aor. partic. Ipuravre (^9) : 
contend, strive, vie, am a match 
for. Cf.if^il^. 

cp(i)pot, pi. ipC'qpfi', faithful, trusty, 
§ 37 h. Epithet of htupoi. 

lpi-0i|Xijt, -cs (0aXXo>) : luxuriant, 
fresh-green. 

•pi-K^'^t) -C5 (icvSoc) : glorious. 

cpividt: wild Jig tree, 

{pim: ^/; aor. of ipuirm, tear 
down. 

"Epit, h3os : £m, goddess of strife, 
a companion of Ares. A .440. 

Ipit, -t8oi : strife, contention, conflict. 

Ipto-avTi partic, lp(oviii opt. : aor. 
of ipliin, contend, vie. 

Ipio^o, -aroi (IpK) : matter of strife, 
cause of contention. 

Ip(-Ti|i0f: highly honored, august. 
§40(f. 

IpKOf, -€0¥: hedge, wall, defense. Iptcoi 
oKcvroty : defense against darts. Ip- 
#co$ voXtpjoto : bulwark of protection 
against the war. IpKOi *Axauav : bul- 
wark of the Achaeans. UpKOi 0801^ 
Twv: wall of teeth, i.e. wall formed 
by teeth. Cf < sputtering thro' the 
hedge of splinter'd teeth,' Tenny- 
son Last Tournament, 

Ipi&a, -aros: prop, shore, support. 
These were used in order to keep 



the ships upright when drawn 
up on shore. 

IppT oSwdMv: chain of pains, string 
(series) of sufferings, 

'Ep|u(B« or 'EpiUBt: Hermes, Mer- 
cur i us, son of Zeus, and messen- 
ger of the gods, in matters of 
peace. B 104, E 390. Cf. Iris. 

"Epfudvii : town in Argolis. B 560. 

IptavTO, ^ptot, f pfov : aor. of ip&a, do, 
work. 

Ipot [<pQ>$] (erotic) : love, desire. 

(fppMv: impf. of pw,Jlow. 

(fppi|Civ : aor. of pi^yyvpi, break, rend. 

Ipptygoa : perf. subjv. of piyiia, shud- 
der, dread. Used as present. 

*Epv6Cvos pi.: Paphlagonian town, 
with two red cliffs (ipvSpoi, ruddy). 
B855. 

'Ep60pai, pi. : Boeotian town. B 499. 

lp6KM, aor. ipviav, ^pvioucc or ipiv- 
MQucc : check, detain, hold, keep. 

lpv|iA, -aros : protection, defense. 

^^ofaoi, iCpipoiMu, lpv|iai, or ctp«|uu, 
impf. ipvTo, aor. cZpuouro and 
ipvavaro, aor. inf. dpwnnur$ai 
(f€pnh) : protect, preserve, save, 
defend, observe, ward off. See 
ipwa. 

lpvo>C-«ToXi« : see /SixrnrroAig. 

IpiM*, aor. dpva-o'cy or Ipvatv, perf. 
dpvaTQi (p€pr) : draw, drag ; mid. 
keep off, save, draw. See ipvopm. 

lpXO|Mu, fut. iXtwropoL or tlpi, aor. 
^X0ov or TfXvdav, aor. subjv. IMga^i, 
aor. imv. iX$€, aor. inf. iX$€p£v(ai) 
or iXOdy, perf. ciXi;Xoii^: come, 
go. The direction of the motion 
is made distinct by the connection. 



66 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



ipmim, fut. ipio^a (Germ. Ruhe f) : 
flow, draw hack. firj8i r ifHou: 
draw not back, do not rest. 

ipm(\ : /orcey throng. 

h : see cis, into. 

Iv-dYM : lead in. 

lo'-adp^, aor. opt iira$pnja-aa^ : catch 
night of. 

lo^v [rjfrav] impf., U^iox [^07;], l«- 
o^oi, and IcriTcu [Icrrtu] fut. : of 
a/tt^ am. 

Iv-fXtiivviuu : fut. of dcripypftoL, come 
in, enter. 

lo^Ui, aor. f^yt : eat. 

MSkA% 3 : noble, excellent, good. 

Inu: inipf. of ufd, am. Cf. ^dtrKu). 

IvKlSvavTo: impf. of cricc&wifuu, /rca/- 
ter, disperse. 

lo'-^ofuu : fut. of fUropdta, behold, 

lo^irdo-aTO : aor. of mroia, f/rarr. 

i miuOn v, irrr&^u^: aor. of cirofuu, 
follow, accompany. 

loTtn, aor. irav.: /W/. C/. ^cira». 

I0v«(v), lovo: aor. of cvwfii, clothe. 
Construed with two accusatives. 

lovftTOi [Icmu], lovofuu fut., lo-oa 
[€?], 2d sing, pres.: of dpi, atu. 
G.777, C; H. 426. 

lo-ffwa aor., lovii^vTO impf., Iw-v- 
|uvov perf. partic, lov^rro plpf . as 
aor.: ot cewa, drive ; mid. ha.^en. 

krojt^vn, adv. : quickly, eagerly, adv. 
from the adjectival ecrcrvfcevos. 

io^rdfftfv perf. inf. s/ane/, 2d aor. irrav 
[l<m;(juv], «/oorf up, rose, perf. par- 
tic, lu itti^ m , standing, plpf. forro- 
rav, were standing : of con/zuu, w/. 

IotI pi., 4ffT6v dual, 8vtm and 8vt«»v 
imv. : of dpi, am. 



standing, perf. partic. of 

urrrfpi, set. 
i|ict perf. stands; Ist aor. 8o^ti|4n, 

trnirav, stationed; tm^n [^<m/- 

KttTc] (A 246) perf. stand: of 

urrrfpLy set. 
Imxdmrro (§ 47 c) : impf. of orixa- 

ofuu, go in line, go. B 92, T 266. 
lo^Xa: impf. of (rvXdio, strip off. 
lo^otav: aor. of o-^o^ai, cu/ the 

throat. A 459, B 422. 
krxiBifr6»ou: at the extremity (itrxor 

TOi) of the land, on the frontier. 
fax* {took), held, IrxovTO, held them- 

selres (refrained) from: aor. of 

?X«, A«/'/. B 275, r 84. 
iraCpos: comrade, companion. 
lrdf»T|, fern.: comjmnion. A 441. 
irapot: comrade, companion, 
iTiKi(v): aor. of rurro», 'hear, bring 

fvrth., B728. 
^TtXfCrro [^rcXciro, § 47 flr] inapf., 

IWXtfoviv aor. : of rcXctco^ 6rtn^ to 

;>a«^, accomplish. 
'EnoicX^iiot, adj. : o/* Eteocles. ftof 

'ErcojcXiTcn/: Me mighty Eteocles. 

See )9o7, § 16 </. A 386. 
hi6v, adv.: m /rti/A. B 300, E 104. 
Inpos 3 : other, the other of two, one 

or other. x^Xof Irtpw tto&i : lame 

in one f (tot. if. aAAo9. B 217. 
ItIp«»-Ocv, adv. : on the other side. 
krip^J^, adv. : elsewhere. E 351 . 
Mp»-v^,ii(\v.'. to the other side. §33rf. 
(c)TfT|M(v), aor. : found, fill in with, 
ItItv k to : was ; plpf. of T€v\ia, make. 
'E<Tf«vdt: Boeotian town. B 497. 
Iths (pirrfi) : connection, friend. 
It^Jtviiov (Jrvpoi), adv. ace. : truly. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



67 



In, adv.: gtUl, yety again, ovk Irt: 

no longer. A 96, 296. 
frCvoti: plucked; aor. of rivaoxro>, 

shake. T 386. 
Itioiuv impf ., Irloifv aor. : of roo, 

honor. A 412, E 467. 
Iritraro : aor. of Ttvco, punish, B 743. 
IrXi). aor.: /ooib courage, took heart, 

dared. See rXi^aofuu. A 534, 
lTOifid(«*, aor. imv. eroifjudxraTt (crot- 

^i09): maitc ready, A 118. 
Jres, -€09 (feros, vet us): year, 
Irpavfv: aor. of rpeircD, turn, E 187. 
frpo^^v: grew up; in trans, aor. of 

rpc<^(i>, nourish, bring up. 
Irpc4'i: aor. of rpeina, turn. A 381. 
irvxcs: aor. of rvyxdvfa, hit, E 287. 
Mx(^: SLOT. pass, of rcuxcu, bring to 

pass. B155, 320, A 470. 
Mivioi (fct-): in vain. T 368. 
H or i^, adv. : well, happily, carefully, 

fv Ipiavra: (one who did well), 

a welldoer, benefactor, iv irarra: 

all together, 
'Evai|iov(ST|s : son ofEuaemon, Eiuypy- 

lus. E 76. 
'Eva(|i«iv, -ovo^: Euaemon, B 736. 
'Ei^poia: Euboea. B 536. 
M-8|iiiTos (8^a>) : well-built. A 448. 
cvSo [#ca^ev&o] : sleep, B 24. 
iv-ci^s, -€09 : beautiful, comely. V 48. 
Iv-cpY^Vf '^ (^Py^)* well-wrought, 

well-made, E 585. 
M-t«*vof ({«i>i^)* well-girdled, well- 
girt. 
E^vdt : a Lymessian. B 693. 
ciiiri|Xof: in quiet, undisturbed, Cf. 

hcTfXoi. A 554. 
liMcv^i&ls, -i^i well-greaved. Epi- 



thet of 'A;(aioi nom. or ace. pi. 

See Kvripjk, A 17, B 331, V 156. 
lv-icr£|uvos 3 and ii»icTvTos (fcri2[a>): 

well-buUt, B 501, 592. 
ciiHcvicXos : well-rimmed, of shields. 
£l»l&i|Xos : Eumelus, son of Admetus 

and Alcestis. B 714. 
lv-tA|uX(i)s, gen. ivfjLfifXua (§ 34 c) : 

tct/A good ashen spear, A 165, 

Z449. 
civdtt, aor. pass, partic. tvvriShrrt 

and cvi^cia-a (cuvj^): pass, lying 

on the couch. B 821, T 441. 
€*v^: 6cr/, couch, ifuyrjv ^cXoti;t4 

Koi cw^ : " enjoyed (her) love and 

couch." r 445, Z 26. 
civa£, pi. : anchor stones, A 436. 
c<»Earro : aor. of cv;(Ofuu, ^ray. 
I^^oot (iiio) : well-polished, B 390. 
d^-vaWpita (Tranjp): daughter of a 

noble father, = Ato9 ^/cycyavia. 
cv-inirXos : well-robed, Z 372. 
iv-vi|KTOs (tnjywfu) : well-buUt, 
cv-vXfic^, -C09 : toell-plaited, B 449. 
f u-vX^Kfti&ot (TrXeKctf) : fair-tressed, with 

beautiful tresses. Z 380. 
lv-iro(T|Tos (TToUui) : well-made. 
dKirpv|ivof (irpvpyrf): with beautiful 

stems, of the Greek ships. A 248. 
lv-irMXo9 : with good (or many) horses. 
cipla : from cvpv?. 
cupCo-KM, aor. cv/dov and tvp^fjuevai 

[ev/xty] : /nrf. A 329, B 343. 
E^pot: Eur us, Ea.^t wind. B 146. 
Iv-ppc^ and lvppc(n|s, gen. (con- 
tracted from ivpp€^) Ivppeioi 

[cvp/KOvs] (pita): strong-flowing, 
d^pv-d^via: with broad streets, broad- 

streeted. Nine times of Troy. 



58 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



BV^aXof : an Argire. B 565, Z 20. 
EV«PAti|«: Eurybates. (1) Herald 

of Agamemnon, only in A 320. 

(2) Herald of Odysseus. B 184. 
£ip«Sd|dlt, -avros: an old Trojan 

seer. £ 149. 
d^ icpt£«»v: wiile ruling, late rex. 

Epithet of Agamemnon. 
Mpn^/Rmp: squire of Agamemnon. 

A 228. 
i^-oira (nom. and ace.) (o^) : far- 

sounding, /ar^hundering. Epithet 

of Zeus. A 498, £ 265. 
EipihrvXof : Eurypylua. (1) Son of 

Euaemon. B 736. (2) Ancient 

king of Cos. B 677. 
•ipv-piwv : hroad'flomng. B 849. 
•ip^, cvpcut, cvpv, ace. masc. cvpw, 

cvpeti, neut. pi. ace. cvpa: broad, 

fpide, spacious, Conip. cvpvrepos: 

hrimder, 
£{}pvTot: (1) a famous bowman. 

B596. (2) Son of Actor. B621. 
•^6-XOpos: {xcith broad squares for 

the choral dance), s}mcious. Epi that 

of districts and of cities. B 498. 
kii%, iv, and f(6t, gen. i^oq: noble, 

mliant, good, Cf, iv. A 393. 
H.«vfX|fco«: well-decked. B 613. 
'E^wvMpot: a Thracian. Z 8. 
f^Ti, conj. : when : as, in T 10. See 

^iJrc. A 242, B 34, 228. 
ku^lXMt: welUwalled. A 129. 
Elrrpv)(ri9 : Boeotian town. B 502. 
M-TVKTOf (j€C\ta) : well-made, 
E^^l&ot: leader of the Cicones. 

B846. 
dU^pcUvM, fut. inf. tv^pavUiv (<l>prjv) : 

cheer, delight, E 688. 



H ^p«v4i»v : well disposed, with Hndly 
heart. A 73, 253, B 78. 

H ♦ptnr, -woi : kindly, heart-cheering. 

•44v4t, -C5 (^utt)): shapely, well- 
formed. A 147. 

c^rrdofMU, inf. ey;(eraa<rAu (cvx^ 
fim) : pray. Z 268. 

t0XO|uu, aor. ci)£iavro: profess, boa,^t, 
exult, row, pray. cyp(Oficvo$: in 
prayer. 

c^ot, -€os : gfffry. E 654. 

c^tiX^: exultation, boast, triumph, 
shout of triumph, vow. A 65, 
B160. 

iv ASn», -€? (odor): fragrant, per- 
fumed, r 382. 

l^-oXo« (aXs): on the sea. Epithet 
of coast towns. Cf. dyxvaXjoi. 

impf. of <l>rifii, say, speak. F 161. 
i^yi\ : appeared ; aor. pass, of ^otvo), 

show. B 308, Z 175. 
t^-diTTM, perf . pass, c^tttoi : /i^/^n 

upon ; pass, impend, hang over. 
l^4lo|uu : «iV «/?<>n. V 152. 
I^Ui [€<^, § 52 c] subjv., ^cs imT. : 

of i<l>Lrifu, lay upon, ,^hoot at. A 567. 
i^4irtt, aor. subjv. iirunrg: meet. 

iroTpov ivurtrtlv: meet (his) fate 

(death), fulfil hh destiny. B 359. 
l^-lrraoxiv, stood opposite, 4^io^icfi, 

stood upon: plpf. of it^urrqfu, set 

upon. £624, Z 373. 
l^4o^no« (corral), adj.: (on his own 

hearth), at home, natiee. B 125. 
i^-ffT|iit (i<f>-irjfu) : behest, command, 

injunction. A 495. 
l^-cvp(oic«*, aor. opt. c^vpoc: fnd, 

catch sight of B 198. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



69 



l^-ijKf (v) : aor. of i<l>i7ffu, send upon, 

shoot at. A 445, A 396. 
f^vfv: aor. of tf^yf^t show, B 318. 
i^-iHrroi : impend^ hang over ; perf . of 

€^7rr<a, fasten upon. B 15. 
l^-^^if : f ut. of i<lHrffUy urge on. 
I4>i)ar0a [1^] : impf . of i^rffu, say. 
i^iaro [ii^ifuwi ri<rav, § 44 /], 

plpf . of ^iVa> : toasted away, passed 

away, A 251. 
*E4i^Ti|f : a giant. E 385. 
I^-Ci||u, fut. i<fnia'€Ki aor. i<fnJKaj aor. 

subJY. ifjmta [c<^, § 52 c], aor. 

imy. ^<^s: send upon. A 567, 

E174. 
l^tXttTo and l^(Xt|oii : aor. of ^cXcu, 

love. E 61, r 415. 
4^(ffTT)|u, plpf. iiJKanjKa and iffte- 

OToauv : place upon ; plpf. stood 

upon. E 624, Z 373. 
i^fnfiw [if^pi^Bijmiv}: aor. pass. 

of <l>opaOf put to flight. E 498. 
^oCrtt : impf. of ^otrao), go to and 

fro. E528. 
l^-oirXCtM : make ready , prepare. 
^-op4« : look upon, behold. 
I^pciv : impf. of ^oy»eu, ujear, 
l^-op|&A«», aor. i<^pikyfTav, aor. pass. 

partic. iifiopixjfihrrtai urge upon; 

pass, rush upon, attack. Z 410. 
'E^pv|: Ephyra. (1) Old name of 

Corinth. Z 152, 210. (2) Home 

of King AugSas, in Elis. B 659. 
Ix<^ '» Aor. of ;(av8avo>, contain. 
1x^4^1 ' aof - pass, of yoipvty rejoice. 
t\tK¥ : aor. of \€m, pour, heap. 
'ExW**v> -ovo$: son of t^riam. 

E160. 
Ix<-*niid|s, -cs : biting, sharp. A 51. 



"Ex^vMXot : a Trojan. A 458. 

fXivav and Ix^^''^ (§ ^^ ^)* ^^^• 
of x«w> pour, throw around. <rvv 
ixpxLv: confused, broke. T 270, 
E 314. 

Ix^urrot {i)($oi), superl. : most hateful. 

kxd^-Sofrim, aor. inf. exOtAnrijam: 
act in hostility. A 518. 

IxOot, -eoq : hatred, hate. T 416. 

'Ex^voi, pi. : the later Echinades, a 
group of small islands in the 
Ionian Sea, near the mouth of 
the Achelods. B 625. 

fx«) iterative impf. I;(c<ricc(v), fut. 
inf. c^^uicv, aor. c<rxc, aor. opt. 
cxocaro, aor. ax^v: hace, hold, 
inhabit, guide, drive, keep, protect, 
check. T^v *AimjivopiSvji cr^c: 
whom the son of Antenor had to 
wife. vwX€pjiiai i^ipjfv'. stand 
firm. iirxpvTO fMxrp' they ceased 
fighting. 

It^flTVu: fut. of hrofuu, follow. 

^Kfiv : plpf. of perf. liouea, am like. 

4A|Mv : pres. subjv. of ^ooi, allow. 

lAv l&v] : partic. of dfu, am. 

ifvox^ ' loipf . of O(vo;(0€o>, pour out 
wine, pour out. (Better, mvoxoa.) 

[Uni see clog, while, until. A 193.] 



Z 



la- (&a?), inseparable particle: very, 
exceedingly. § 40 d. 

l4-0fos 3 : very sacred, holy. § 40 </. 

ld-KOTO< (icaro9) : suUen. T 220. 

ZdicwOof, fem. : Zacynthus (Zante), 
island in the Ionian Sea, under 
the rule of Odysseus. (A short 



60 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



open final syllable retains its 
quantity before Z in this word 
as before Zc\cia. B 634, 824. 

ta-xp<i^) -€c (xpavo>) : fierce-hlowing, 
furious. £ 525. 

tcC-8«»pot ({oat) : grain-gwing^ fruit- 
ful, B 548. 

Z^Xiia: town in northern Lycia, 
home of Pandarus. B 824, A 103, 
121. (A short open final syllable 
is not lengthened before this 
word. Cf Zoicwflos. § 59 ^f y.) 

Cfiyvviu ((vyov, i ugum, yoke) : yoke. 

Zt6%y gen. Aids or Zi/vd? : Zeus, 
Jupiter, son of Cronus (Kpovi- 
hji), and both husband and 
brother of Hera. The wisest and 
mightiest of the gods, father of 
both men and gods (mrrjp &i^pSiv 
T€ BtSiv re). He is enthroned on 
high {vipO^vyo^ alOipi wlwv) and 
controls the elements, sending 
lightning (rc/Diruc^wog, currcfio- 
irrfTTJ^y inl/iPp€fiiT7jsi) and gather- 
ing the clouds (vct^cXiTyepera). 

Zi^vpof (id(^09): Zephyrus, West 
wind, one of the four chief winds 
mentioned by Homer. It is not 
a * zephyr,' but a cold, blustering 
wind, blowing from Thrace. 
BUT. 

Ivy6v (iugum, yoke) : yoke. 

t«ryp^ ({o)d?, dy/MO)') : take alive. 

t«ryp^ (^l^onjj iyupui) : revive, give life. 
E698. 

tA|&a ({(ovwfu) : loin cloth. A 187. 

(m) (zone) : woman's girdle ; toaist. 
B479. 



l&v^^ iterative impf. fcDwixriccTO : 

gird. E 857. 
lu&9 or 1^9 (^uHo) : cUive, living, 
l^vrffp, -^poi (fw*^) ' man's girdle, 
, belt : prob. made of leather. 
l/&», partic. IfivToq and ^wovrt^ : live. 



Ij or T|4: particle, (1) .disjunctive, 

either, or; (2) interrogative, 

whether; or (3) comparative, than. 

In a double question ^ (17c) . . . 

^ (^ = ^ ^c [ve] ) is used for 

Attic TTorrtpav . . . ^. 
Ij: fem. of demonstrative, relative, 

or possessive pronoun. 
\ : tr\dy, surely, indeed. This often 

introduces a direct question, but 

always expresses feeling, and 

never is a mere interrogation 

point, as it often is in Attic. 
4| : (he) spake, quoth (which, like ^, 

is now familiar only in one form) ; 

impf. of rffjLi, say. 
ft adv. : where, whither. Z 41. 
^a (eram) [r/v] : impf. of dju, am. 
4fi^v, adv.: little. ovS* rffiaiw: not 

even in the least. B 380. 
t|Pd», aor. partic. i})9i7<ravrc (ijPrf) : 

am a youth ; aor. came to manhood. 
*HPi|: Hebe, daughter of Zeus and 

Hera, cupbearer of the gods. A 2, 

E 722, 905. 
{{•yaYfCv) : aor. of cfycu, lead. Z 291. 
irydOfos 3 : very sacred. A 252. 
THfAo-o^To : aor. of otyofuu, admire. 
j|Yt: impf. of aya>, lead. B 631. 
Ij'Yfipa : aor. of fyetpo), rouse. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



61 



ifjffCporro : impf . of Ayetpta, assemble, 
4|Yf|iovfv«» (i^ycfMiiv) : am leader. 
4|Yi|Ubvy -wos : leader^ chief. B 487. 
4fylo|uu, aor. iffqfraro (ayw) : lead^ 

guide. A 71, B 731. 
i|YiplOo|uu (ayupui) : assemble^ collect 

(themselves). B 304, T 231. 
ii^ffp^cv [^^ft^orav, § 44 m]: aor. 

pass, of ayapQ}, assemble. A 57. 
4pf^«^ -oyjos (^cofuu) : leader. 
i|Yvo(i|9«v : aor. of dyyocco), /ai/ /o 

knoiDy fail to perceive. A 537. 
ifyop6«rro (§ 47 c): impf. of dyo- 

paofiox, am in assembly, A 1. 
fjS^: and. Sometimes correl. with 

^/io^. A 41, 96, 251, 316, 334. 
{(Sm or y^, impf. of olSa : know. 
^m, temporal adv. : nmo^ already, 

before now. vw rfSrf : now at once. 
ffio9j -€05 (i/Son/, i}Sv5) : pleasure. 
4|Sv-«iHj«, -cs : sweet-voiced. A 248. 
4iSv|M9: .<U7ee/. (B2?) 
f|Si»t, -€(a, -v(dv&£va>, suavis, sweet): 

sweety pleasing, pleasant. 1781; 

ycAoo-o-ay : 6urjr^ into a merry 

laugh. B 270. 
xf^^: see^. 
'HiXiot [lIAios]: Heliuit, sun god. 

r277. 
ti^Xiot [^Xuw] : tJiesun. A 475, T 104. 
tjiv [^v] : impf. of ufu, am. A 381. 
tjcplOo|uu (deijpoi) : Aan//, wave, flutter. 
T|^i : dat. of arfp, air, mist. T 381. 
'Htptpoia: Eriboea. £389. 
ij^piot 3, adj.: early in the morning. 

Always pred., as adv. § 56 a. 
ijipo-ci^t, -€S : misty, oaaov 8' V^po- 

ci3c9 i8cv : as far as he sees into the 

misty distance. E 770. 



'Hcrimr, -<dvos: Eetion, king of Hy- 
poplacian Theba near Troy, father 
of Hector's wife Andromache; 
slain by Achilles on the capture 
of Theba. A 366, Z 396, 416 ff. 

ifi%lo9 : honored, dear. Applied by a 
younger to an elder brother. 

ifioi, pi. TjOeoL (suesco) : home, haunt 
(of horses). Z 511. 

iju [jfa] : impf. of dfu, go, A 47. 

f|(Ofos: youth, young man not yet 
married. A 474. 

Iji£iv, ijCxOi| : aor. of durcra), dart, rush, 

ijt^-cif, -cvros : high-banked, E 36. 

'Hi4m, pi . : town in Argolis. B 56 1 . 

t|U&v, -OK09, f . : beach, seashore. B 92. 

^jca (soft), adv. : soflly, gently. T 155. 

^ica: aor. of irffu, send, cast. E 125. 

ilKh-aro : aor. of oKtofuu, heal, cure. 

{jicfo^rot (#ccKrc(i>) 3: ungoaded, of 
cattle not broken for service. 
Z94. 

ijictf : am come. E 478. 

T|XcucdTt|: spindle. Z 491. 

r^jaa%v : aor. of iXavyio, drive. 

it^do-KM (dXaofuu) : hover. B 470. 

ij^iUrmp, -ofXK : the beaming sun. 

ij^ji6aro: aor. of dXco/ioi, a(;au/. 
§48 A. 

i|X^aTo : plpf . pass, of cAaiW, dri'je. 

f|XOov : aor. of lp)(pfuu, come. 

*HXi«, -i8o9 : Elis, the western coun- 
try of Peloponnesus. B 615, 626. 
Northern Elis belonged to the 
Epeans, southern Elis to Nestor. 

^of : nail, stud, used as an ornament 
for staff, hilt of sword, or goblet. 
A 246. 

{(XvOov [^X0ov] : aor. of tpxopm, come. 



62 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



'HX^vi|: Thessalian town. B 739. 

i||&ae6-<if (ofuxBiK;) : sandij, B 77. 

4|Mu, 2d sing, ^am, 3d pi. cSaTtu or 
carai [^ktvu], imv. ^o, inf. rjarOai, 
partic. ^/bicvos, impf. ^firp^j 3d pi. 
impf . cSaro : sit. This verb with 
a partic. often marks the con- 
tinuance of a state, esp. where a 
person is given up to grief or 
misfortune. 

^ffcop, -aros (i}/i^pa) : day. fiouXior 
ifuip: day of slavery, slavery 
(§ 16 d). vvicTtxs re icoi ^fbop : by 
(through) night and day. A 592, 
Z448. 

iil&PpoTfs [^/uuxpres, § 30 ^] : aor. of 
afuifrrdvtoy miss. £ 287. 

T||u(pcTo: impf. ot dfiaPofiajL, answer. 

4||uSt) gen. "^fjAwv or '^fjununvf dat. i)/ixv 
or ^/ifu, ace. o/i/ic: ««, im; pi. of 
iyw. § 42 a. 

i||i^» particle, generally correlative 
With^': both . . . and. Cf.fiiv 
. . . 8c. 

4||UTipos (^fuis) 3 : our. § 42 b. 

•j||iC, impf. ^ : say, speak. ^ mu is 
used after a speech that is re- 
ported, where the same subject is 
continued for the following verb. 

lj|iC-ovof (ovos) : (half-ass), mule. 

^ffxwtf -cui, -v: half, ^fiurv rif&^s: 
half of the honor. Z 193. 

4|)u-TfX^ -€s (tc\o5) : half-finished, 
uncompleted. B 701. 

4|ios : when. A 475, 477. 

i)|i^, aor. opt. i^fLvcrcic: (froop its 
head, bow. B 373, A 290. 

ijv: ci av, if, with subjv. (Perhaps 
oi or ct should be read.) 



iivSavi : impf. of a^aa^, please, (av- 
Save is a better reading.) A 24. 

t|vi|i6-ci«, -ccrotx, -cv (c[ve/ios) : windy, 
wind -swept. Epithet of high- 
situated towns, esp. of Ilios. This 
is accepted by Tennyson, in 
'windy Troy.' 

{vfov: impf. of cuveo), praise, com- 
mand, r 461. 

4|vCc^ pi. : reins, of the chariot horses ; 
freq. adorned with thin plates of 
ivory or metal. V 261, 311. 

^X«) : charioteer. E 505, 580. 
i|v(irain : aor. of hnjma, rebuke. § 43/ 
^wt, -C09} ace. pi. ^m : sleek, shining 

(of cattle). Z 94, 275, 309. 
i|vop^, locat. as dat. rivopefjtfH, (§ 33 a) 

(Avi^p, AvSp€ui) : manliness, bravery. 

A 303, Z 156. 
fymro : impf. of avrofuu, meet, 
^m^ : aor. of avroio, meet. Z 399. 
liw^i : impf. of avwya^ bid. Z 170. 
^of : see clbs, while, until. 
ffintktfrtv : aor. of dirtiktso, threaten, 
^ipot, f . : mainland, land. A 485; 
fjmpovfvHjt : deceiver. T 39. 
jpripoiw O tt : deceive, trick. T 399. 
T|iri4-8c»pot : kindly-giving, kindly, gen-- 

erous. Z 251. 
ipnof : kindly, soothing. A 218. 
^pa (pjpa), ace. : pleasure ; always 

obj. of <l>€pav. prfTpi im. ^pa 

^^pa>v: doing service of love to 

his mother. Equivalent to x^^' 

A 572. 
'HpcucXftSiis : son of Heracles. B 653, 

679. 
'HpoicX^Lot 3: of Heracles, piri 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



63 



UpaxXriurf : the might of Heracles^ 
the mighty Heracles. § 16 rf. 

jlpapf : aor. of opapurKUi, Jit, join, 

ijparo : aor. of apwfuu, gain. 

TJp&To : impf . of ApdofuUf pray, 

{pciv : impf. of aipita, seize, A 23. 

*'Hpv|: Hera, Juno, daughter of 
Cronus, both wife and sister of 
Zeus. Argos, Mycenae, and Sparta 
are her favorite cities. She hates 
the Trojans and strongly favors 
the Greeks. She is called large- 
eyed (fioSnrK), revered (irorvia), 
white-armed (AcviccaXcvos). She is 
*Afiyuri, since her earliest great 
temple was near Argos. A 52. 

fjpVjpcurro: plpf. pass., used much 
like an aorist of ^/xiSoi, thrust. 

ilp^aro : aor. of apdofjuajL, pray. 

i)pi-^^ta: early-bom, child of the 
morning. Epithet of 'Hoif, Dawn. 

iipim : fell ; aor. of ipdina, tear down. 

f^pmn : aor. of dpKim, avail, voard off. 

lipfMo^ : aor. of apfjuo^ta, Jit. T 333. 

TJ^KOMf: aoT, of ipvKia, check. §43/. 

JipMS, -coos, dat. pi. ^p<dco'<riv: war-' 
rior, hero. Not yet in the specific 
modern sense of hero. § 17. 

^tu 2d sing., j^vOcu inf., ^r^¥ dual, 
4^o imv. : of rj/mt, sit. B 255. 

jjo-Kfiv : impf. of do-icco), prepare. 

tio-Ti|v : dual impf. of dfu, am. £ IjO. 

{tm : impf. of alrcco, ask. Z 176. 

rfii^MTW : aor. of drc/ia^o), slight. 

i|T<|it|oii(v) : aor. of SiTifiatt), slight. 

r{ TOi, asseverative particle: believe 
me, in truth, indeed. A 68, 101, 

TITop, -opo9: heart, as part of the 
human body, and the seat of 



life, joy, grief, etc., mind; lungs. 
B490. 

i|ii8a : impf. of avSato, speak. A 92. 

t|^-KO|iOf : fair-haired. A 36. 

T|^ f|6 : see hk, noble, valiant. T 167. 

ijlSn : aor. of av<i>, shout. E 784. 

i}fin : as, than. fuXavrtpov ijvrc irtotra 
4>aLyfrai : appears blacker than pitch. 
A 277. 

'H^oio^rot : Hephaestus, Vu 1 c a n u s, 
son of Zeus and Hera, god of fire 
and of metal work (done by the 
aid of fire), — the Tubal Cain of 
the Greeks. His home was on 
Olympus. He favored the Greeks 
against the Trojans. His name 
is used for his element, fire (B426). 
A 571 if., B 101 f., 426. 

V|x^ (echo) : roar, great din. B 209. 

TJx^^^ -ecroa : resounding, roaring. 

^-X* [5]> locat. adv. : where. A 607. 

^p|raro: aor. of airropai, touch, lay 
hM of, clasp. A 512, E 799. 

"HA9, gen. 'H009: Eos, Dawn, Au- 
rora, goddess of the morning. 
She is called early bom (yipiyiwa), 
rosy fingered (po8o8dKTvk(K), and 
saffronHrobed^KpOKOftmrXoi). A 477, 
B48. 

i|^ gen. ^009 or ^01)9, ace. ^oa or yfii, 
fem. : morning, dawn. A 493. 



e 



OdXafMs : women*8 apartment, chamber 
(esp. of married people), store- 
room (A 143, Z 288). 

edXoflxra : sea. A 157, B 294. 

9aX4o^oi4>«: of the sea. B 614. 



64 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



OaXfp6s (OdXXta) 3 : bloomingj vigorous^ 

swelling. B 266, Z 496. 
eaXTiOff : Epean leader. B 620. 
9aXir«f>4 : comfort , joy. Z 412. 
9okvv\j&Xft^\ sonofThalysius. A 458. 
0a|ipiM, aor. Oafiprfcrcv (ra^) : aor. 

tiHmder came over (hhn). A 109. 
OdfiPos, -cos : wonder^ amazement, 
OofuiaC or Oa|uCai, fern. pi. (Oofjuai), 

adj. : thicky close, A 52. 
M|fcvpit: TAamym, a mythical Thra- 

cian bard. B 595. 
Hvav99 (ftofcrica)) : death, A 60, T 101 . 
0dvi aor., Oavica^cu fut. inf. : of 

Ov^Koi, die. B 642, A 12. 
Oav- : see rcftprorcS} dazed, A 243. 
Oopo-oXi^ (Bapaos) 3 : bold, coura- 
geous, £ 602. 
Bactrim, aor. Odparyrt {dare) : am hold, 

dare ; aor. took courage, A 85. 
Odpcrof, -€09 : courage, daring. E 2. 
Oopo^vw, iterative impf. dofxrvyco'icc : 

cheer, encourage, A 233. 
Oao-rov, adv., comp. of Ta^^*- the 

quicker, the sooner, at once. B 440. 
OaOjiA, -aros : a wonder, marvel. 
Oav|id(«* : wonder, admire, B 320. 
6av|UMc(i| : a Magnesian town under 

the rule of Philoctetes. B 716. 
OicL: goddess. A 1. 
9cSv6 : Theano, wife of Antenor, and 

priestess of Athena in Ilios. E 70, 

Z 298 ff., A 223 f. 
eicv, Wov: impf. of ^cw, run. Z 118. 
Otlvcu inf., OiCo|uv [^co/acv, § 45 a] 

Bubjv. : aor. of riOrffu, place. A 143. 
OtCvofuu : am struck. A 588. 
Oitos or O^ios (^cos) : of the gods, di- 
vine, sacred, god-like, B 22, 



Bt(M : see Stta, run. Z 507. 

9^«* : toisA, desire. See c^cXcu. 

9<|uvai [^avoi]: aor. inf. of r^fu, 
place, make, B 285. 

9<|ut, -tOTos, pi. $iftjurr€s (riOrffu) : 
(what is laid down)', natural law, 
what is filing, right sanctioned hy 
custom (often used in Homer like 
Sua/, Kara luHpav) » pi. laws, decrees. 
rjOifu^ifTTi: as is right, as is lawful, 

-Ocv: inseparable suffix, forming an 
ablatival gen. § 33 c, 

Uvap, -apoq : hollow of the hand, E 330. 

9co-€i^«, -cs (cfSos) and Oio-cCicfXos : 
god-like. Of beauty of person, 
without reference to moral quali- 
ties. Cf tVo^w. r 16, 30, 37. 

0co-«poir4t»v (p r e c o r) , par tic. : prophe- 
sying, declaring the dimne will. 

0fo-trpoir(i) and Oioirpdviov : oracle, 
prophecy, will of the gods, A 85. 

Of6s : god, divinity, Cf, haliiMv. 

Oipdirwv, -iJ¥TO^ : attendant, squire, 
comrade. A servant, but free and 
doing voluntary service. A 227. 
• 6tp(rin|s (fiapa-oi) : ThersUes, the 
ugliest and most insolent of the 
Greeks. B 212-271. 

94^ : warm, with gen. Z 331. 

9h imv., Mo-av [l^ccmv] ind. : aor. of 
TiOrffUj place, make, A 433. 

McncfXos : wondrous, strange, 

Mnrctp [®€<nruu, § 37 c/] : Thespiae, 
in Boeotia, at the foot of Mt. 
Helicon. B 498. 

Gfoiriorios 3 : divine, marvelous, beau- 
tifid. OfXTTrta-ir} : hy decree of the 
gods, A 591, B 367, 457. 

QfovaX6$ : a son of Heracles. B 679 , 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



65 



SwTop(&tfi : aon of Thestor, Calchas. 
A 69. 

Mo'-^aTov : oracle. £ 64. 

0<Tv«, -i8os: Thetisy a sea goddess, 
wife of Peleus, and mother of 
Achilles. A 351 ff., 496 ff., 
2 35 fif., 369 ff., O 74 ff, She is 
called gUver-fooled (d/>yupo-irc£a) 
and Bvydrrfp aXuno ytpovroi. 

e^: aor. of Ttfty/o, place. T 310. 

94m or Oida : run. A 244, Z 507. 

Si^pcu or 64pi| : ThebeSy the principal 
town of Boeotia. It had been 
destroyed by the *Epigoni' and 
does not seem to have been in- 
habited at the time of the Trojan 
War ; cf. YiroOfiPai B 505. It was 
seren-(/atetl (cTrrairuXof). A 406. 

Bifit\: Thebn, a Cilician town in the 
Troad (at the foot of Mt. Placus, 
an eastern spur of Mt. Ida), under 
the rule of Andromache's father 
E^tion ; it was sacked by Achilles. 
A 366, B 691, Z 397, 416. 

0^JY«, aor. imv. drfiaxrOia (dagger): 
sharpen, whet. B 382. 

•^ [^9] : aor. subjv. of riOrjpi. 

O^Kf (v) : aor. of Ti&rffUy place y make. 

Ol^vs, ^Xeia: female. ^Xvs also is 
used as feminine^ E 269. 

O^v, enclitic particle: doubtless, dv 
Orfv: "I don't think." B 276. 

0i^, gen. Brffw: wild beast. T 449. 

Biiprt\ {Orjp) : hunting , chase. E 49. 

9i|pT|T^p; -^poi: hunter. E 51. 

6i|ortv$, -§05 : These wtj mythical king 
of Athens and national hero of 
Attica, most noted ally of the 
Lapithae. A 265. 



-9i: inseparable local suffix. § 33 b. 
0i9, dat. $ivi: beach, strand. A 34. 
Birfh\: Thisbe^ between Mt. Helicon 
and the Corinthian Gulf, not far 
from the coast. B 502. 
$X4m, aor. 0Aao-o-c: crush. E 307. 
Mf(rK», f ut. $avu.<r&cu, aor. $dv€, perf . 
opt. TtSvairfj perf. partic. rtOvrfira 
(OdyaToq) : die ; perf. am dead. 
evi|T4s 3: mortal. A 339, 574. 
6608, -nvTo^ : Thoas, Aetolian leader. 

B 638, N 216 ff., O 281 ff. 
9o6s (Oiut) 3: swift, rapid, quick. 
9ofNiy: aor. partic. of OpwrKfo, leap. 
9o{lpos, fem. SovpK, -1809: impetuous, 
raging. Epithet of "Afnfi and of 
aXici}. A 234, E 30. 
B6mv, -cuvos: a Trojan. E 152. 
Oo«« (^009), adv. : quickly, swiflly. 
9pa«-v-|U|&vi*v, -oyo$: brare-hearted, of 

Heracles. E 639. 
OpcuHfS, -ua, -^ (Odpaoii) : bold. 
Op^irrpa, pi. (rpc<^(i>): gifls in return 
for nurture, ovSk TOKokri dprnpa. 
dircScDKC : he did not return his par- 
ents* care. (Attic rpo^cSoi.) 
9pli|rf : aor. of rpit^ui, nourish, rear. 
epfjif, -UC09, or OpfiE : Thracian. The 
Thracians were allies of the 
Trojans. Z 7. 

•p£|, gen. Tpixoi,Um.: 
hair, wool (of lambs). 
r273. 

6p6viov: Locrian 

town. B 533. 

Op6vof {throne): 

seat, chair, esp. 

a high armchair, with back and 

footstool, throne. A 536. 




Opbvoi 



66 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Opdos: shout, cry. A 437. 

6p6ov: a Pylian town, on the banks 
of the Alpheito, near the frontier 
ofElis. B592. 

0p«oicM, aor. Idopt : leap, rush. 

OuYdnip, ace. Svyarpa or S^yaripa. 
(daughter) : daughter, A 538, 
r 124. 

eWMHTiv (§ 36 b) : dat. pi. of Mb$. 

O^ifXXa: blast. Z 346. 

8v<m|« or Svirra: Thyestes, grand- 
son of Tantalus, son of Pelops, 
brother of Atreus, father of Aegis- 
thus (Clytaemnestra's paramour). 
B106f. §34 6. 

9^^MiXyi^ -iii heart-grieving, A 513. 

6v|fco(TT|s: an aged Trojan. F 146. 

Oii|io-XlMv, -ovTOfi\ lion-hearted. E 639. 

Oii|i^ (fumus): heart, soul, spirit, as 
the seat of life, and of the desires, 
passions, reason, and wiU, courage. 
Ovfjuf: in heart, tdthin. 6piyia 
Bvpjov: touch the heart; move to 
fear, anger, or pity. Cf. KOf&iq 
and ic^p. 

0O|io-4Mpot (ji^6upvii)i life-destroying. 

06vw, impf. 6vy€ ($wa): rush madly, 
surge, dash, hasten. 

•irot, -€os: burnt offering; prob. 
not always animal sacrifices, but 
some kind of incense. Z 270. 

96f»atm adv.: (out of the door), out. 

Oirpcrpo, pi. : door, of Priam's palace. 

6irpv| (fores, doer)', door, ivl Upta- 
fUMo Ovprjaiv: "before Priam's pal- 
ace." B 788. 

Ov<rav6-<i«, -co-oa: tasseled, fringed. 

Bva-avot: tu/i, tassel, fringe. B 448. 

O^io^Xa, pi. ($wa) : thyrsi, wands used 



in the worship of Dionysus, with 
a pine cone at one end and wound 
about with ivy. Z 134. 
Oik*: rage. Cf. $wm. A 342, 
9Mpi|(, -TfKoq: armor, breastplate, cui- 
rass. Armor for the protection 
of the upper part of the body. 
This is not described by the poet, 
and the Homeric warriors seldom 
seem to wear the cuirass of later 





times. Perhaps plates of metal 
were attached to a garment of 
linen or leather, but the chief 
arm of defense was the shield. 
9mpi1ira-m, aor. subjv. ^piffo/icv, aor. 
pass. 0<iipfijxOij(mv: arm, equip with 
cuirass. B 72. 



ta IfJMi] : fem. of tos [cIs], one. 
'IAX|Mvo«: Boeotian leader. B 512. 
tdofioi, aor. h^puTo: heal, cure. 
laxf\ (fuiX") ' **»^*» ^^>^^ cry. 
tdx«* (p^X"^ ' shout, shriek, yell. 
'Io«»Xk6s ['loiXxds]: lolcus, on the 
Pagasaean Gulf. B 712. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



67 



'I8a£os: Idaeus, (1) The most hon- 
ored of Priam's heralds and his 
personal attendant. T 248. (2) 
A Trojan warrior. E 11 fE. 

(», conj.: and. Cf. rfii, T 194. 

t8lciv inf., t8f(v) ind., lSi|ai [?&;] 
subjv. mid., (fi&-) aor.: see dSov, 
sato. 

1Sv| : Iday a lofty mountain chain in 
the Troad, stretching from north- 
west to southeast., with many pro- 
jecting shoulders. Its highest 
peak is more than 5000 feet above 
the sea. B 821. 

«I8f|«iv : from Ml, Ida. V 276. 

t8|Mv [ur/Acv, § 30 rZ] : Ist pi. of (S&l. 

I8v6«*, pass. dep. tSywOrf : bend over. 

tSoifu : opt of cISov, saw. Z 284. 

-ISofioi^ -rjog : Idomeneus, leader of 
the Cretans (B 645), son of Deu- 
calion, grandson of Minos, and 
great-grandson of Zeus and Euro- 
pa (N 449 fF.); highly esteemed 
by Agamemnon (A 145, B 405, 
A 257 ft.), and by Menelaus (F 
230 ff.). He was one of the older 
leaders ; cf. fuamiroXMi N 361 
grizzled. He reached home in 
safety after the war (y 191). 

(8ov : epic for cTSoi/, saw. A 262. 

I8p6«, fut. i&pwrtif aor. tSpwra: 
sweat. 

I8p^, aor. pass. lSpvvOTj(rav (iSoi): 
seat, cause to sit down. T 78. 

I8pcis, -<i>ro9, ace. i&pla [iSploTa'] 
(sudor, sweat) : sweat. 

ISvCa : fem. partic. of o?&i. § 49 g. 

(8«*|uu : subjv. mid. of dSov, saw. 

tfi impf., Uto^v 3d pi. : of hffUj send. 



icfMu, aor. curaro (fiifjuu): desire, 
press on, strive. 

Cf(v) impf., Uvoi inf. : of c2/u, go. 

Urns : partic. of Ztffu, hurl. B 774. 

Upiia : priestess. Z 300. 

Upc^ or Ipc^ -rjoi : priest. He was 
attached to a definite divinity 
and sanctuary ; hence no priests 
are mentioned in the Achaean 
army. 

UpciM», fut. inf. tepcvo-^icv, aor. i^9cv- 
o"cv: sacrifice, offer in sacrifice; 
slaughter, since most of the flesh 
of the victims was eaten, and on 
the other hand no flesh was eaten 
until a part had been sacrificed 
to the gods. B 402, Z 94, 174. 

ifp6v and pi. ipd: offering, sacrifice, 
victim for sacrifice. A 147, B 420. 

Up6s 3 : holy, sacred. B 305, Z 89. 

%», imv. mid. ll^€v, impf. mid. c^ovro 
(eSos) : seat, sit, rest. T 326. 

'It|XlNr6s: lalysus, one of the chief 
cities of Rhodes. B 656. 

tf||u, 3d pi. uun, partic. tcvrc^, impf. 
To, pass. Sevtcu, impf. mid. tero, 
aor. rfKa or hfKa (§ 43 d), aor. opt. 
cfi;, aor. mid. Ivro: send, hurl, cast, 
shoot, throw, drop, put. 

i^froff^oik : inf. of Idofjm, heal. E 899. 

li|T^ -rjpoi (larpioi, Idofuu) : healer, 
surgeon. B 732, A 190. 

'lOdmi: Ithaca, a small rocky and 
mountainous island of the Ionian 
Sea; the home of Odysseus. 
B 632, r 201. 

'lOoidiOTOs: Ithacan. B 184. 

V9i : go, be off; imv. of cffu, come, go. 
Also as inlerjection ; cf. aye. 



68 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



{0|ia, -aro9 (d/tu) : walk, gaity step, 

E 778. 
'Mv»y impf. i^vtv (i^): send 

straight at, direct, guide. A 132. 
Mi [evOik], adv., with gen. : straight, 

straight at, E 506. 
i9^, 'VfK, f . : enterprise, undertaking, 

Z79. 
lO^, aor. iBvat (lOik) : press forward, 

charge, Cf, c^w. B 729. 
'IOfli|iki| : Ithome, in western Thessaly, 

on the slopes of Mt. Pindus. 

B729. 
bcavw: come, reach, freq. with ace. 

of * limit of motion.' Cf, bcviofuu, 

1X0). 

'licdpiot : Icarian, The Icarian Sea 
was part of the Aegean Sea, near 
the southwest part of Asia Minor. 
B145. 

CkcXos (flic-) 3 ; like, resembling. 

*lKCTd«»v, -Qvoii', son of Laomedon 
and so brother of Priam. F 147. 

tKfuvof (ifcd)) : favoring, favorable, 
secundus; const, with dvpo/^. 

IkWo|uu and Ikm, fut. tjfo/uuu, aor. 
iicrro and Ifc(v), aor. subjv. aco)- 
Itm and ifo/cu: co;7i6, amVe a/, 
reach; freq. with ace. of * limit 
of motion.' Cf, Uava>. 

iXa86v (tXiy), adv. : in <roo/)5, in hat- 
talions. B 93. 

iXdo|&ai : propitiate, worship. B 550. 

iXfios : propitious, kind, gentle, 

iXAo-KOi&cu, aor. subjv. lAoq-o-eai 
[lAacn/] and lAoo-oficcr^ [tAao-(o- 
fi€^] : propitiate, appease. A 147, 
444. 

-IXlos (fiA-), fem., not neuter as in 



Latin : Ilios, capital of the Troad, 
named from its founder Ilus, son 
of Tros and grandfather of Priam 
(Y 231 fif.). It is called wind- 
swept (^vc/Aoeotra) and prosperous 
(iv vaiofjuevov irroKLeBpov). "IXios 
is used for the Troad in A 71 . 

l|i<E8, -avro9 : leather strap, T 375. 

l|&Aro-«*, aor. ifuurc, aor. subjv. cfuur- 
fTQ : lash, heat. B 782, E 589. 

'I|fcppao>(ST|s : son of Imbrasus, Pei- 
rods, a Thracian leader. A 520. 

I|i€v [icmi] : inf. of cT/u, go. § 44/. 

C|up6-<if, -£(r(ra : lovely, charming. 

i^upos : longing, desire. T 446. 

I|upTd9: lovely, beautiful, B 751. 

tvcs adv. : where, Conj. : m orr/<?r 
thcU, that, with subjv. or optative. 

tva : ace. of U, strength, might, E 245. 

CvCov : nape of the neck, neck sinew, 

t|aXos : bounding, leaping, A 105. 

l(f(v), l(ov : aor. of iK<a, come. 

Xfju^QA : fut. of ucviofWJL, come. 

io|uv subjv., I6ms partic. : of c2/u, 
go, 

l6-|M»po« (f 10-) : shrieker, boaster, 

[At : arrow, Cf, ourros. A 48. 

tof, lo, dat. i^ : one, Cf. cis. 

(dn|t, -17T09: M?i//. oAXi^Xov lon^ri: 
«each because of the other." 
E874. 

to-x^a4>A (}o^i X*") • (*^* ^^^ shofo- 
ers arrows'), the archer goddess. 
Epithet of Artemis. E 53, Z 428. 

tinmot : of the horses. E 799. 

liTiTEvs, -rjo^ : horseman, knighl. (The 
Homeric heroes, however, did not 
ride, but drove in chariots.) Cf. 
bnr&ra, iTHn^Xdra. See appa. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OP THE ILIAD 



69 



tn-^ilXdra (cAavvw) : Aeolic for Unnf 
Xarrii (horse-driver), knighU § 34 h, 

lvirto-xaln|f {xp^rrj) : of horse-hair. 
Z 469. 

tviri-PoTot {Pia-Kui) : horse-feeding. 
£pithet of Argos, as suited to the 
rearing of horses. B 287, T 75. 

'InoSdfuia : Hippodamia, wife of 
the Lapith PirithoOs. B 742. 

Iviri-SofMs (Safjuiiti) : (horse-tamer 
gives a false tone), master of 
horses, knight. B 230. 

linro-8drf la (&urvi) : toith thick crest 
of horse-hair. T 369, A 459, Z 9. 

linr^aoos : Pelasgian leader. B 840 ff . 

Imro - Kopiw^Hjt : horse-equipped, 
equipped with chariots. B 1. 

'Iinr6Xoxos : son of Bellerophon and 
father of Glaucus. Z 119, 197. 

tinros (equus): horse; freq. fern, 
even when no attention is called 
to the sex. Horses drew by the 
yoke, without traces. Dual and 
pi., horses, horses and chariot, chariot 
(cf. the New England use of 
* team ' for « wagon '), eyen men on 
chariots (B 554). The Homeric 
heroes did not ride on horseback. 
KaO hnrtav aiiavrt : leaping hastily 
from their chariots. 

linroavvf|: horsemanship, skill in the 
use of the chariot in battle. 

lirirdra [tTnroTT/s] : horseman, knight, 
but not mounted. Cf. imrtusy 
bnrqXara. § 34 b. 

tinr-oiipif (ovpd, tail) : with horse-hair 
crest, crested. T 337, Z 495. 

CirTO|uu, fut. t^erm, aor. t^oo : press 
hard, afflict, punish. A 454, B 193. 



ipd : see Upw, sacrifice. B 420. 

ipcvs : see upcv's, priest. E 10. 

Ipw: Iris, the messenger of the 
gods in all matters pertaining to 
war. B 786, T 121. 

iptfs 3 : see tcpds, sacred. A 46. 

it, ace. Iva (fis, vis), f . : strength, 
might. 

Icrav [jyauv] : impf. of J/u, go. A 494. 

'lo-avSpos : son of Bellerophon. Z 197. 

irEaxv: 3d pi. of ol8a, know. Z 151. 

w^-Ofos: equal to the gods, god-like. 
Cf. dcoeaceXos, Stoa^. T 310. 

lo-ot [mto?] (fur-) 3 : equal. Taoy and 
Tcra, cognate ace., adv. : equally. 

uro-^op^ttt (4*yxi}) : equal, vie with. 
ZlOl. 

Ijm : 2d pi. of otSa, know. B 485. 

tm||u, aor. (€)aTrj<Ta, 2d aor. (€)irTrf . 
and arav [taTTjauv], 2d aor. 
subjv. <m;i7 [trr^, aor. partic. 
oray, iterative aor. frrdxTKev, i>erf. 
Icrn^icas, pi. perf. ian^kdaiv or 
ktrraxTi^ perf. inf. ktrrdpjfy, perf. 
partic. cordora or co-rccuTo, plpf. 
i(rrqK€i and cortumi/ (sto, stand) : 
pres. and 1st aor. act. transitive, 
cause to stand, station, set, stop; 
other tenses and mid. intransi- 
tive, take (my) position, stand, stop. 
Urrov anjauvTo: hoisted the mast. 
Kpfrjfrrjpa an^araa-$ai : (set up), offer 
a bowl, dvrtbi Harav: they stood 
(rose) to meet him. dva tanfi 
stood up, rose. <tt^ oirtBty: came 
up behind. 

'ItrrCoia : on the northwest coast of 
Euboea. B 537. (Trisyllabic 
by * synizesis * ; § 25.) 



70 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Irriov, pi. as sing. Urrui (Urro^) : sail. 
A 433. 




LOOM 
. to^ro-86ict| (&€xo/juu) : masi-receiverf a 
rest for the mast when the latter 
was lowered. A 434. 



weave.) (3) ITcft.— The Homeric 
loom was upright, not horizontal, 
and consisted of two perpendicu- 
lar posts, imited at the top by a 
crossbar. From this crossbar the 
threads of the warp were attached 
by weights (see cut). For con- 
venience in handling these threads 
they were attached, alternately by 
means of loops, to two rods (#cav6- 
v€s)y — the even threads to one 
rod, the odd threads to the other. 
The thread for the woof was 
wrapped aroimd a spool, which 
may have been held at the end of 
a slender stick. The weaver first 
grasped one of the rods and drew 
it toward her breast, thus separat- 
ing the odd from the even threads 
of the warp. Through the open- 
ing thus made, she drew the spool 




loTdt (urrrifu): (1) mast (held in 
place by forestays, — ir/jorovoc). 
(2) Loom, iarov iiroixtaOcu, : go 
to and fro he/ore the loom, ply the 
loom, (The women stood to 



with the thread of the woof, with 
her other hand. After pushing 
the woof thread (thus interwoven) 
snugly to its place, she next 
grasped the other rod, drawing 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD 



71 



toward her the other set of 

threads, and so sent the spool 

back. (Perrin on e 62, Clapp on 

*761.) 
lo^avdM (urxto) : hold, check. £ 89. 
irxio¥\ hip joint, £305. 
Crx* (*X^) • hold, check, Itr^to', check 

thyself, restrain thyself, halt ! hold ! 
Cti imr., tTi|v impf. : of c7/u, go, 
Itw«, -V05 (^iT-, withe), iem,: felloe of 

a wheel. 
1t«v, -<uvo5 : in Phthiotis. B 696. 
t^9i^a9S: strong, mighty. A3, E 415. 
t-^i (j:i4>h ^s)) adv.: with might, 

strongly. § 33 a. A 38, 151. 
'I^iicXos: father of Protesilatis. 

B 705. 
i^iot (f t^) : strong, gooflly (of 

sheep). E 556. 
'I^iTOs: Phocian Argonaut. B 518. 
iX^p, ace. t;(0) : ichor, which served 

the gods as blood. E 340, 416. 
t^roo : aor. of iirrofuu, afflict. A 454. 
U^ (ai^/tt) : breath, blast. A 276. 
U»ic^ (&o)ic<i>?) : attack, rout, confusion 

of battle, 
i&v: partic. of e^ go. A 138, 179. 



Kd^.paXc : aor. of KarafiaXXto. § 29 b. 

Kayx9^^' Ifi^gh (doudf in exulta- 
tion or in mockery. T 43, Z 514. 

Kd8 : for Kara, down, by * apocope ' and 
* assimilation ' before S. § 29 b. 

Ka8|MCof and Ka8|M(»v, -iavon Cad- 
m^an, of Cadmus ; pi. Thebans. 

KAiipa, fern. : Carian woman. A 142. 

Kdi| [€Kari] * ^^^* P^^^* ^^ ^*^y bum. 



L : address, approach* 
ica94to|iAi, aor. KoB-ture^: sit down, 

sit ; aor. act. seated. Cf. KaBHio. 
K«^-c68ii: sleep. A 611. 
icd9^|MS imv. KoBrfVo : sii, am seated. 
KaO-(l*> aor. imv. koButwi cause to 

sit down, seat ; intrans. sit. V 68. 
Ka0-^«ip9i, adv.: down from, above, 

above. B 754, T 337. 
KcU, copulative conj. : and, also, too, 

even, mu cI : even if. kol is freq. 

joined with other particles, and is 

freq. correlative with t^ both . . . 

and. It sometimes marks the 

agreement of a specification with 

a foregoing general remark. It 

may be used where the Eng. idiom 

has or, as ei^ #cai hvo : one or two ; 

rpixOd T€ fcoi T€Tpa)($d : in three or 

four pieces. It is used freq. in 

the apodosis of conditional and 

temporal sentences. 
Kcuvft6i|t : son of Caeneus. B 746. 
Kcuvrirs, -^09: Caeneus, king of the 

Lapithae. A 264. 
KaCvu|uu, perf. partic. xexourfim, plpf . 

as impf. (i)K€Kaaro : excel. A 339. 
KaCpiov (fcof/ios) : (right spot), fatal, 

deadly, vital spot. A 185. 
icaU*, aor. iicrjj. (§ 48 h) ; aor. pass. 

icaiy (cau.stic) : bum, consume by 

fire. Cf Kavpa. 
KOK-mCovris : fut. partic. of Kara- 

Kupxu, lie down. § 48 ^. A 606. 
KOKO-ii^avos (firfxavq) : contricing- 

evil, pernicious. 2t 344. 
KOM^v and pi. Koicd : ill, harm, calamity. 
KOKdf 3 : bad, evil, worthless, miserable, 

cowardly, destructive. Opp.to dyatfog. 



72 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Kaic6Ti|t, 'TjTOi : worihlessnessj coward- 
ice, wickedness. B 368. 

Kd-muM [KaroKTuye, § 29 (] : aor. 
imv. of KaTOJcretV