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Full text of "The first six books of Homer's Iliad"

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THE 



FIRST SIX BOOKS 



HOMEK'S ILIAD 



INTRODUCTION, COMMENTARY, AND VOCABULARY 



FOB THE USE OF SCHOOLS 



BY 

THOMAS D. SEYMOUR 

HlLLHOUSB PROFBSSOR OF GREEK IN YaLB COLLEOK 



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UNIVERSITY 

OF 



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BOSTON, U.S.A.: 
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS. 

1898. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1889, by 

THOMAS D. SEYMOUR, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Wastiington<, 



All Rights Reserved. 



Fbbsswork by Ginn 8ί Co., Boston, U.S.A. 



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PREFACE. rt/fiAJ 



The Text of this edition of the First Books of Homer's Iliad 
is that of Homeri Ilias edidit Guilielmus Dindorf: editio quinta 
correctior quam curavit C. Hentze. Leipzig, 1884. 

The Commentary has been adapted to the use of schools from 
that of Homer's Iliad, Books I.-III, edited on the basis of the 
Ameis-Hentze edition by T. D. Seymour, in the College Series of 
Greek Authors. 

The Introduction has been simplified and enlarged, according 
to the needs of the present work, from the Editor's Introduction 
to the Language and Verse of Homer, also in the College Series 
of Greek Authors. 

The Vocabulary has been prepared from the poem itself, but 
with the use of Seber's Index Homericus, Frohwein's Verbum 
Homericum, Ebeling's great Lexicon Homericum, and Seiler- 
Capelle's Worterbuch ilber die Gedichte des Homeros. 

For a somewhat fuller illustration of the Greek text and of 
Homeric forms, the Editor refers to the above-mentioned volumes 
of the College Series of Greek Authors. 

Eeference is made to Books of the Iliad by the capital letters 
of the Greek alphabet, A, B, Γ, κτλ. ; to Books of the Odyssey, by 
the small letters, a, β, y, κτλ. References preceded by the sym- 
bol ["§] are to the Introduction. H. stands for the Greek Gram- 
mar of Hadley-AUen ; G. stands for Goodwin's Greek Grammar. 
Other abbreviations are intended to be self-interpreting. Trans- 
lations are in italics; paraphrases are enclosed in double inverted 
commas ; quotations are enclosed in single inverted commas. 

Yale College, March 28, 1889. 



INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION. 



Adjectives § 38. 

Adverbs § 56. 

Analysis of Iliad § 8. 

Anastrophe § 55 c. 

Anomalous Forms § 37. 

Aorists of ^t-form § 53. 

Apocope § 29. 

Asyndeton § 15. 

Augment § 43. 

Books, division into, § 10. 

Bucolic diaeresis § 58 h. 

Caesural Pauses § 58. 

Change of meanings § 17. 

Chiasmus § 16 a. 

Comparison of Adjectives § 40. 

Comparisons § 14. 

Consonants § 30. 

Contract Verbs § 47. 

Contraction § 24. 

Crasis § 26. 

Dactyls § 57 c. 

Dialect, General Kemarks, § 22. 

Digamma § 32. 

Direct Discourse § 11 e. 

Elision § 28. 

Epanalepsis § 16 6. 

Epexegesis § 12 e. 

Epic Poetry § 1. 

Epithets § 12 a. 

Feminine Caesura § 58 c,/. 

First Aorist § 48. 

First Declension § 34. 

Future § 48. 

Genitive Absolute § 19 d. 

Hexameter § 57. 

Hiatus § 27. 

Hysteron Proteron § 16/. 



Iliudt Story of, § 6. 

Iterative Forms § 54. 

Life in Homer § 5. 

Litotes § 16 c. 

Masculine Caesura § 58/. 

Metathesis § 31. 

/Ui-verbs § 52. 

Middle Voice § 50. 

Numerals § 41. 

Optative mode § 46. 

Order of Words § 11 h. 

Parataxis § 21. 

Parechesis § 13. 

Particles § 20. 

Passive Voice § 51. 

Patronymics § 39. 

Periphrasis § 16 d. 

Perfect Tense § 49. 

Prepositions § 55. 

Pronouns § 42. 

Quantity § 59. 

Reduplication § 43. 

Second Declension § 35. 

Special Case Endings § 38. 

Spondees § 57 c. 

Stereotyped Expressiens § 12 Λ, 

Style § 11. 

Subjunctive Mode § 45. 

Synizesis § 25. 

Synonymous Expressions § 12 d. 

Syntax § 18. 

Third Declension § 36. 

Troy § 4. 

Verb Endings § 44. 

Verse § 57. 

Vowels § 23. 

Zeugma § 16 e. 



f UNIVERSITY 

OF 

INTRODUCTION. 

§ 1. EPIC POETRY. The Homeric Poems are the oldest remains 
of Greek literature, but they were not the earliest poems of the Greeks. 
Lyric poetry naturally precedes epic poetry. Every nation has love songs, 
war songs, and dirges, before it has narrative poems. Those early songs 
of the Greeks are all lost, although traces of them are found in the Iliad 
and Odyssey. Doubtless the Greeks had also many brief songs, narrat- 
ing exploits in war and hair-breadth 'scapes in adventure, before any one 
thought of composing a long epic poem. In the Iliad and Odyssey are 
found indications of poems about the adventures of Heracles, of the 
Argonautic Expedition for the Golden Fleece, and of short songs about 
the expedition against Troy. The earlier and shorter epic poems were 
used freely by Homer (for this name may fairly be given to the man who 
formed the plan of the Iliad, and to whom its unity is due) in the com- 
position of the Iliad, and again, after him, additions were made by other 
bards. The Iliad thus contains Pre-Homeric, Homeric, and Post- 
Homeric elements. Some scholars lay more stress on the one class of 
elements, while other scholars lay more stress on another. But the lover 
of the poem, who reads it attentively again and again, generally feels the 
essential unity and harmony of the work more forcibly than the incon- 
sistencies and discrepancies on which have been based the arguments for 
the different authorship of different parts of the poem. Composed at a 
time when the art of writing was not familiar to the people, when Greece 
had no ' reading public,' the poem was made to be recited and heard, not 
to be read. It would, then, be composed in parts which could be recited 
at one sitting. The poet would not be solicitous to preserve exact har- 
mony of detail between lays which were not likely to be sung in immedi- 
ate succession nor on the same occasion. He would not begin his work 
with the plan of composing a poem of 15,000 verses, but, finding that his 
theme was popular and admitted of indefinite expansion, he would natu- 
rally develop what had been only indicated before. Thus the Books of 
the Iliad doubtless were not composed in the order in which they stand 
in our texts. The first part of the First Book must have been the earliest 
composed, for that is the basis of the rest of the poem ; but Books II.- VI. 



vi INTRODUCTION. § 2. 

(and still more, Books VII.-X.) may have been composed after Book XI., 
in order to fill up the details of the story. 

The beginner need not (and should not) be disturbed by questions as 
to the diverse authorship of different parts of the Iliad. The subject is 
exceedingly complicated, and cannot be studied profitably until the stu- 
dent is perfectly familiar with the entire poem, and with similar literature 
in other languages. The student should strive to enjoy and appreciate 
the Homeric Poems, — not to analyze them.^ 

§ 2. a. Scholars now do not ask where Homer was born, but rather 
where Greek epic poetry had its rise. The Muses were ' Pierian Muses,' 
*Ολΰ/χ7ηα Βώμητ Ιχονσαι, and their earliest home seems to have been on 
the slopes of Mt. Olympus, in Pierian Thessaly. Thence epic poetry was 
carried by the Aeolians to Asia Minor, where it was adopted and per- 
fected by the lonians. The Homeric Poems still contain many Aeolic 
forms in words and phrases for which the lonians had no metrical equiv- 
alent. 

b. Xo one can tell the exact date of the composition of the Homeric 
Poems. Probably they were essentially in their present form as early as 
the Eighth Century B.C. 

§ 3. a. An Epic Poem is a narration in heroic verse of a dignified 
story of considerable length w^hich has a definite beginning, middle, and 
end, and an organic relation of parts. The time of the action should not 
be so long as to make difficult a general view of the story. The poet 
puts as much as possible of his tale into the mouth of his actors, and so 
the Iliad is strongly dramatic. In the First Book, the first 427 verses 
are almost entirely dramatic, the narrative serving simply as 'stage 
directions.' Epic poetry was the mother of the drama. 

1 The famous Homeric Question, as to the composition of the Homeric 
Poems, was first treated in a scientific way by a German scholar, Priedrich 
August Wolf, in his Prolegomena ad Homerum, 1795. He claimed that the 
Iliad and the Odyssey were not the work of one poet, and that the unity of each 
poem Λvas given to it by scholars at the court of Pisistratus in Athens, in the 
Sixth Century e.g. He based his view on external arguments, which have 
grown weaker rather tlian stronger since his day, and are almost entirely neg- 
lected now. About half a century later, in 1837, another German scholar, 
Lachmann, divided the Iliad into sixteen different lays, resting his division on 
internal arguments, i.e., on the inconsistencies of different parts. The discus- 
sion now continues, with the use of internal arguments, but scholars are less 
inclined than a few years ago to suppose that the Iliad is a conglomeration 
of separate lays, a * fortuitous concurrence of atoms,' and are more disposed to 
favor the idea of a natural and organic development, — such as was suggested 
for the Odyssey by Kirchhoff in 1859. 



§4b. EPIC POETRY. vii 

b. The Homeric Poems used to be compared with Vergil's Aeneid, 
Dante's Divina Commedia, and Milton's Paradise Lost. But men have 
come to see a difference between the Natural Epic and the Literary 
Epic. Vergil had no personal (only an artistic) interest in the battles 
and adventures of his hero. He sends Aeneas to Hades simply because 
the Homeric Odysseus had been there ; he makes Aeneas tell the story of 
his wanderings and sufferings to Queen Dido, because Odysseus had told 
a similar story to King Alcinous. Vergil consciously strives to unite the 
characteristics of both Iliad and Odyssey, and begins his poem with 
arma virumque cano, — the arm a being for the Iliad and the 
virum for the Odyssey. Vergil is self-conscious, too, in the use of 
eano, — he remembers that he is the court poet of Augustus, and bor- 
rows the word ' sing,' although his poem was not meant to be sung but to 
be read. But Homer is in earnest when he says, aetSe θεά, Sing, goddess ! 

In the Epics of Vergil, Dante, and Milton, more grace and finish are 
expected, and more studied thought. ' The capital distinction of Homeric 
poetry,' as Professor Jebb has well said, * is that it has all the freshness 
and simplicity of a primitive age, — all the charm which we associate 
with the " childhood of the world " ; while on the other hand it has com- 
pletely surmounted the rudeness of form, the struggle of thought with 
language, the tendency to grotesque or ignoble modes of speech, the 
incapacity for equable maintenance of a high level, which belong to the 
primitive stage of literature.' 

c. A great Natural Epic is possible only in a nation which has a rich 
and varied mythology. Hence, the Romans, being without a mythology 
of their own, could have no great Natural Epic. 

§ 4. a. Homer's story of the Siege of Troy certainly was not intended 
as a history of an actual occurrence. The poet says again and again that 
he is of a later generation. He asks the Muse to tell the story, since she 
alone knows what really happened. Doubtless many such battles were 
fought and many such sieges endured in Asia Minor about 1000 years B.C. 

b. Dr. Heinrich Schliemann was led by his Homeric enthusiasm, a few 
years ago, to excavate the site of Hissarlik (' Ilium Novum ') in the 
Troad, near the Hellespont, and that of Mycenae in Argolis. In both 
places he found indications and remains of ancient wealth and power 
which justified the Homeric epithets of Ilios and Mycenae, and made 
more probable the belief that the story of the expedition against Troy 
was founded on fact. Mycenae may have been the chief city of Pelopon- 
nesus, at one time. An armada may have been led by the King of 
Mycenae against Troy. But certainly most of the incidents and names 
of heroes were invented. 



viii INTRODUCTION. § 5. 

§ 5. a. HOMERIC LIFE. The Homeric Poems give a picture of life 
in Greece which differs in important particulars from that of the clas- 
sical or historical period. The poet knows no one name for Greece as 
opposed to other lands. The Greeks are ' Argives,' ' Achaeans/ or ' Da- 
naans.' The ' Hellenes ' are as yet only the inhabitants of a small dis- 
trict in Thessaly. The names of ' Attica' and ' Peloponnesus ' are unheard. 
Thebes seems to be in ruins. Athens has no special distinction. Mene- 
laus, king of Sparta, and his country are comparatively insignificant, 
although the war was undertaken to avenge the wrong which he had 
suffered from Paris. The brother of Menelaus, Agamemnon, king of 
Mycenae, is the chief monarch of Greece. The Greek colonies and the 
Greek cities of Asia Minor are not mentioned. Monarchy prevails ; de- 
mocracies seem to be unknown. The king is also commander-in-chief of 
the army, judge, and priest. As head of the nation he represents it 
before the gods, but his power is practically limited. Public opinion is 
strong, although Homer has no word for law. 

b. Monarchy prevails among the gods as among men. Zeus ('Jupi- 
ter') is mightier than all the rest together. Athena ('Minerva') and 
Apollo are next to Zeus in j^ower. Athena is the chief divinity of war. 
Ares (' Mars ') is comparatively insignificant. Dionysus (' Bacchus ') is 
not as yet admitted to the circle of gods on Olympus. Asclepius (' Aes- 
culapius *) is still a mortal. Pan and the Satyrs are unknown. The 
gift of prophecy is granted to individual men. The oracle of Delphi is 
hardly mentioned. TelΉples are uncommon. 

c. The Homeric knights do not ride on horseback, but fight from 
chariots. They roast their meat, and do not boil it. They sit at table, 
and do not recline at dinner. They buy their wives by large gifts of 
cattle to the parents. The most useful metal is copper or bronze ; iron 
is little used. Coined money is unknown ; all trade is barter. The occu- 
pations of the rich and poor differ little. Princes tend flocks and build 
houses ; princesses fetch water and wash clothes. The heroes are their 
own butchers and cooks. 

§ 6. THE STORY OF THE ILIAD, a. The action of the Iliad 
itself covers only a few days, but many allusions are made to preceding 
events which complete the story. 

Paris (whose Greek name was Alexander), son of King Priam of Troy 
(or Ilios) on the shore of the Hellespont, on the northwest corner of 
Asia Minor, carries away Helen, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta. The 
Achaeans (Greeks) unite to avenge the wrong, under command of Aga- 
memnon, king of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus. Nestor and Odys- 
seus visit Thessaly and enlist Achilles (son of Peleus and the sea-goddess 



§ 7 a. THE STORY OF THE ILIAD. ix 

Thetis) and his friend Patroclus. The Greeks assemble at Aulis. There 
a portent is seen, which the seer Calchas interprets to mean that they 
shall fight for nine years around Troy, and capture the city in the tenth 
year. On their way to Troy, they stop at the island of Lemnos, where 
they are hospitably entertained, and where they leave one of their chief- 
tains, Philoctetes, who has been bitten by a water-snake. On their 
arrival at Troy, Menelaus and Odysseus go to the city as ambassadors, 
and demand tlie return of Helen, which is refused. Some of the Trojans 
even urge that the ambassadors be put to death, but their host Antenor 
and others secure their safety. The Achaeans begin the siege. The 
Trojans send to their neighbors and gain allies. 

b. The siege is not very close. The Greek camp is at a considerable 
distance from the city, and the Greeks cannot devote all of their time to 
fighting. They are obliged to make expeditions against the neighboring 
towns in order to obtain supplies. In these marauding forays, the men 
of the sacked towns are killed or sent to other countries to be sold as 
slaves ; the women are often brought to the Greek camp before Troy. 
Meanwhile, the wealth of the city of Troy is nearly exhausted. The 
Trojans have been obliged to pay and support their allies, and have been 
shut out from the use of their fields. They are afraid to meet the 
Greeks in open battle. 

c. Of the gods, Hera (' Juno '), Athena, and Poseidon (' Neptune ') favor 
the Achaeans; Aphrodite ('Venus'), Ares, and Apollo favor the Trojans. 

§ 7. a. The Iliad begins in the midst of the tenth year of the war. 
Chryseis, the daughter of a priest of Apollo, had been captured on one of 
the marauding expeditions of the Achaeans, and was given to Agamem- 
non as the 'first-fruit' of the spoils. The captive's aged father comes to 
the Greek camp, bearing the fillets of Apollo as his official insignia, and 
begs to be allowed to ransom his daughter, but Agamemnon sends him 
away, slighting his request. As he leaves the Greek camp, the old priest 
prays for vengeance to his god, Apollo, who hears his prayer and sends 
pestilence upon the Achaeans. For nine days the plague rages in the 
camp, but on the tenth day an assembly is called by Achilles, who 
urges that some seer be questioned of the cause of the god's anger. The 
old seer Calchas tells the truth. Achilles reproaches Agamemnon, and 
the two heroes quarrel. At last Agamemnon sends Chryseis home to her 
father, but takes from Achilles his prize of honor, Briseis. Achilles begs 
his mother, the sea-goddess Thetis, to invoke the aid of Zeus, praying 
that victory may be granted unto the Trojans until the Achaeans learn 
to value and honor her son's might. This prayer is reluctantly granted 
by Zeus, and the First Book closes with a half-ludicrous scene on Olympus. 



χ INTRODUCTION. § 7 b. 

b. At the opening of the Second Book, Zeus sends to Agamemnon a 
delusive dream, bidding him to arm the Achaeans for battle, with all 
haste. After a council of the elders, Agamemnon tries tlie temper of the 
soldiers by proposing to return at once to their homes. To his grief, the 
men accede enthusiastically and begin immediately the preparations for 
the voyage. They are stopped by Odysseus, who acts under the direction 
of Athena. A second assembly is held, the Greeks are shamed and awed 
into remaining, and they prepare for battle. As the Achaean army ad- 
vances against Troy, the poet gives a muster of the forces, — the ' Cata- 
logue of the Ships,' — which is followed by a less elaborate enumeration 
of the Trojans and their allies. 

c. At the beginning of the Third Book, the opposing armies are about 
to meet, when Paris challenges Menelaus to a single combat which shall 
decide the war. The two husbands of Helen, — the wronged Menelaus 
and the offending Paris, — are the fit champions of the two armies. This 
scene would naturally belong to the first year of the war ; but as the poet 
begins his story in the tenth year of the war, the best that he can do is to 
make this combat the beginning of the conflicts which he describes. 
Priam is called from Troy, and a truce is struck. If Menelaus slays 
Paris, the Greeks are to take Helen and peaceably return to their homes. 
If Paris slays Menelaus, the Greeks are to withdraw at once. Menelaus 
disables Paris and has him in his power, when Aphrodite snatches up her 
Trojan favorite, and deposits him safely in his home. 

d. The terms of the truce have not been fulfilled. Neither combatant 
has been slain, but the victory fairly belongs to the Greeks. In order 
that the Trojans may not surrender Helen, and preserve their city, Athena 
(who hates Troy) descends a third time to the field of war, and incites a 
Trojan ally to send an arrow at Menelaus. The Greek hero is wounded, 
and the Greeks, indignant at this treacherous breach of the truce, pre- 
pare at once for the battle, and advance upon the enemy, near the close 
of the Fourth Book. 

e. Most of the Fifth Book is devoted to the brave deeds of Diomed, 
Bon of Tydeus. Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and Ares take part in the 
battle, and the two latter divinities are wounded by Diomed. 

f . In the Sixth Book, the Trojans are hard pressed, and Hector returns 
to the city in order to bid the matrons supplicate Athena's ijaercy. He 
calls Paris to return to the field of battle, and takes a beautiful and 
pathetic farewell of his wife, Andromache. 

g. The day which began at the opening of the f econd Book ends near 
the close of the Seventh Book. The coming on of night puts a stop to a 
single combat between Hector and Telamonian Ajax. The armies strike 



§7 ο. THE STORY OF THE ILIAD. xi 

a truce for one day, for the burial of the dead. The Greeks spend 
another day in building a wall about their camp, — a wall which was not 
needed as long as Achilles was fighting on their side, but which is neces- 
sary now that the Trojans are ready to assume the offensive. 

h. The Eighth Book tells of a brief day of battle, in which the fortunes 
of war are continually changing, and in which Zeus continually interferes. 
At the close of this Book, the Achaeans are driven into their camp, and 
welcome the approach of night which affords them relief from pursuit 
and attack. The Trojans bivouac upon the plain and are confident of 
annihilating their enemies on the morrow. 

i. On the night following the battle of the Eighth Book, the Greek 
leaders send to Achilles an embassy, offering him rich gifts, and begging 
him to return to the battle, but he stoutly refuses. The account of this 
embassy fills the Ninth Book. 

j. The Tenth Book narrates the visit (on that same night) of Odys- 
seus and Diomed to the Trojan camp, where they slay Rhesus, the 
Thracian leader, who had just arrived at the field of action. 

k. With the Eleventh Book begins the third of the four days of 
battle of the Iliad, — a day which does not close until the end of the 
Eighteenth Book. Agamemnon distinguishes himself now more than on 
any other occasion, but retires from the field wounded, and is followed 
by Diomed and Odysseus who are also disabled. The Trojans press 
forward to the Greek wall, and at the close of the Twelfth Book, Hector 
breaks down the great gates, and opens a way for his comrades into the 
Greek camp. 

1. At the opening of the Thirteenth Book, Poseidon comes from the 
sea in order to aid the Greeks. Hera distracts the attention of Zeus 
while Poseidon and the Achaeans put the Trojans to rout. 

m. At the opening of the Fifteenth Book, Zeus notices what is done 
on the Trojan plain, and sends Poseidon back to his home in the sea. 
The Trojans press forward again and reach the Greek ships, and Hector 
calls for fire that he may burn the fleet. 

n. At the opening of the Sixteenth Book, Patroclus begs Achilles to 
allow him to take the Myrmidons and enter the battle. Achilles sees 
the flicker of fire among the ships ; he consents, and gives his friend his 
own armor to wear, but directs him to be satisfied with driving the 
enemy from the camp, and not to attempt the capture of Troy. Patro- 
clus, however, becomes excited by the fray, and follows the Trojans to 
the very gate of the city. There he is slain by Apollo and Hector. 

o. Most of the Seventeenth Book is devoted to the battle around the 
body of Patroclus. Hector strips off the armor, but the Achaeans with 



Xii INTRODUCTION. § 7 p. 

great difficulty secure the corpse and carry it back to the camp, — hard 
pressed by the enemy. 

p. In the Eighteenth Book, Achilles learns with overwhelming grief 
of the death of his comrade. His mother Thetis comes from the sea to 
comfort him. His armor is in the hands of Hector, — stripped from the 
body of Patroclus. He cannot enter the combat, but he appears unarmed 
at the trench, and frightens away the Trojans. His mother goes to 
Olympus to beg for him beautiful armor from Hephaestus (' Vulcan '). 
Here ends the third day of battle, which began with the opening of the 
Eleventh Book. 

q. In the Nineteenth Book, Achilles is reconciled to Agamemnon. 
His hatred for Hector and his desire for vengeance on the slayer of 
Patroclus more than overbalance his more ancient grudge. The fourth 
day of the battles of the Iliad begins. The gods descend to take part in 
the battle, but do not affect its issue. 

r. On the opening of the Twenty-second Book, all the Trojans but 
Hector are either slain or within the walls of the city. But Hector does 
not yield to the entreaties of his father and mother, who, from the wall, 
pray him to return. He awaits Achilles and is slain. His body is 
dragged to the camp, after the chariot of Achilles. 

s. The Twenty-third Book is devoted to the burial of Patroclus, and 
the funeral games in his honor. 

t. In the Twenty-fourth Book, the aged Priam, under the care of the 
gods, goes to the Achaean camp and obtains from Achilles the body of his 
son Hector. The ' iracundus, inexorabilis ' Achilles appears in a gentler 
mood. The corpse is brought back to Troy, and the poem closes with the 
funeral of Hector. 

§ 8. Concise Analysis of the Iliad. 

Introduction. A. Pestilence. Assembly. Quarrel. Rest from bat- 
tle. Thetis goes to Zeus on the 21st day. 

I. B-H 380. First great battle, on the 22d day. Single combats 
between Paris and Menelaus, Hector and Ajax. 

II. Η 381-K. Burial of the dead and building of the wall, on the 23d 
and 24th days. Second great battle, on the 25th day. Embassy to 
Achilles. Odysseus and Diomed enter the Trojan camp. 

III. K-X Third great battle, on the 26th day. Death of Patroclus. 
Hephaestus makes armor for Achilles. 

IV. T-X. Fourth battle, on the 27th day. Achilles kills Hector. 
Conclusion. Φ, Ω. Achilles abuses the body of Hector on days 

27-38. Lament for Hector in Troy on days 38-47. Burial of Hector 
and erection of mound over his body, on the 48th and 49th days. 



§^d. AFTER THE ILIAD. xiii 

This scheme shows that the action of the lUad covers but seven 
weeks. Three of these are occupied by the action of the first book, and 
three by that of the last two books ; only four days are spent in fighting. 

§ 9. The Story after the Action of the Iliad. For part of the last act 
in the siege of Troy, indications exist in the Iliad and Odyssey. Many 
other details were added by later poets. 

a. After the death of Hector, the Amazons come to the help of the 
Trojans. Their queen is slain by Achilles. Memnon, — a cousin of 
Hector, — the beautiful son of Eos (Daum) and Tithonus, comes with his 
Aethiopians. He slays' Nestor's son Antilochus, a dear friend of Achilles, 
but is then himself slain by the mighty son of Thetis. Achilles is over- 
come by Apollo and Paris, as he is about to force an entrance to the city 
through the Scaean Gate. His mother comes from the sea, with her 
sister Nereids, and bewails him. She offers his beautiful armor as a 
prize to the bravest of the Greeks, and it is awarded to Odysseus. Tela- 
monian Ajax goes mad in his disappointment at not receiving the armor, 
and commits suicide. Paris is slain, and Helen becomes the wife of his 
brother Deiphobus. Philoctetes, the bearer of the bow of Heracles, is 
brought from Lemnos where he had been left (§ 6, Β 721 ff.) ; and 
Neoptolemus, the young son of Achilles, is brought from the island of 
Scyrus. Odysseus enters the city of Troy as a spy, in the guise of a 
beggar. Athena suggests to Odysseus the building of the ' wooden 
horse,' in which the bravest of the Achaeans are hidden, while the rest set 
fire to their camp and sail away. The Trojans drag the wooden horse 
within the city, and at night the Greeks return and Troy is sacked. 

b. Agamemnon reaches home in safety, but is treacherously murdered 
by his wife and her paramour, Aegisthus. Menelaus is driven from his 
course by a storm. Most of his ships are wrecked on the coast of Crete. 
He himself, with Helen, is carried by the wind to Aegypt, and wanders 
for eight years before his return to his home at Sparta. 

c. Nestor, Diomed, and Idomeneus reach home safely. Ajax, the son 
of Oileus, is wrecked and drowned. 

d. Odysseus is driven by the storm to the land of the Lotus Eaters, 
thence to the island of Polyphemus (t), thence to the island of Aeolus, 
to the land of the Laestrygonians (where eleven of his twelve ships are 
destroyed)^ and to the island of Circe where he and his companions remain 
during a year (κ) . Then they go to Hades (λ) to consult the old seer 
Teiresias. On their return they pass Scylla and Charybdis, they come to 
the island of the Sun, and (urged by hunger) kill one of his cows. They 
are punished by shipwreck, from which Odysseus alone escapes. He is 
borne to the island of Calypso (/x), where he remains for eight years. Then 



xiv INTRODUCTION. § 1^. 

he returns to his home on Ithaca, enduring many sufferings on the way. 
He finds his faithful wife, Penelope, surrounded by more than a hundred 
young and insolent suitors. These he kills, and regains his kingdom. 

§ 10. The division of the Iliad and Odyssey, each into twenty-four 
books, was not made by the poet himself, nor was it known in the classi- 
cal period. It seems to have been made by the scholars of Alexandria 
about 250 years B.C. The 'books' were lettered not numbered. The 
large letters of the Greek alphabet (A, B, Γ, κτλ.) are used to indi- 
cate the books of the Iliad; the small letters (a, β, γ, κτλ.) are used 
for the books of the Odyssey. 

§ 11. HOMERIC STYLE, a. Matthew Arnold enumerates four es- 
sential characteristios of Homer's poetry : * Homer is rapid in his move- 
ment, Homer is plain in his words and style. Homer is simple in his 
ideas, Homer is noble in his manner. Cowper renders him ill because he 
is slow in his movement and elaborate in his style ; Pope renders him ill 
because he is artificial both in his style and in his words ; Chapman 
renders him ill because he is fantastic in his ideas.' 

If poets and masters have thus failed, clearly it is no easy achievement 
to translate Homer well, to be at the same time rapid, plain, simple, and 
noble, — ου ττως αμχχ -πάντα δυντ/σεαι αΰτο? ελεσ^αι. The beginner can at 
least be simple ; he should aim to attain the other qualities also. 

b. Pope says in his preface : ' That which in my opinion ought to be 
the endeavour of any one who translates Homer, is above all things to 
keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character. In par- 
ticular places, where the sense can bear any doubt, to follow the strongest 
and most poetical, as most agreeing with that character. To copy him 
in all the variations of his style and the different modulations of his 
numbers. To preserve in the more active or more descriptive parts, a 
warmth and elevation ; in the more sedate or narrative, a plainness and 
solemnity ; in the speeches, a fulness and perspicuity ; in the sentences 
[sententiae'], a shortness and gravity. Not to neglect even the little figures 
and turns on the words, nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. 
Neither to omit or confound any rites or customs of antiquity. ... To 
consider him attentively in comparison with Vergil above all the ancients, 
and with Milton above all the moderns.' 

'The story of the Iliad is the Anger of Achilles, the most short and 
single subject that was ever chosen by any poet. Yet this he has supplied 
with a greater number of councils, speeches, battles, and episodes of all 
kinds than are to be found even in those poems, whose schemes are of the 
utmost latitude and irregularity. The action is hurried on with the most 
vehement spirit, and its whole duration occupies not so much as fifty 



§ 11 d. HOMERIC STYLE. XV 

days. Vergil, for want of so warm a genius, aided himself by taking in 
a more extensive subject, as well as a greater length of time, and contract- 
ing the design of both Homer's poems into one which is but a fourth 
part as large as his.' Pope, Translation of Homer. 

c. Cowper says in his preface : * My chief boast is that I have adhered 
closely to the original, convinced that every departure from him would 
be punished with the forfeiture of some grace or beauty for which I could 
offer no substitute. ... It has been my point everywhere to be as little 
verbose as possible. ... In the affair of style, I have endeavoured 
neither to creep nor to bluster, for no author is so likely to betray his 
translator into both these faults as Homer, though himself never guilty 
of either. . . . The passages which will be least noticed . . . are those 
which have cost me abundantly the most labour. It is difficult to kill a 
sheep with dignity in a modern language, to flay and to prepare it for the 
table, detailing every circumstance of the process. Difficult also, with- 
out sinking below the level of poetry, to harness mules to a wagon, par- 
ticularizing QYQvy article of their furniture, straps, rings, staples, and even 
the tying of the knots that kept all together. Homer, who writes always 
to the eye, with all his sublimity and grandeur, has the minuteness of a 
Flemish painter.' Cowper, Translation of the Iliad. 

d. Two passages from the great Gernlan critic, Lessing, are worthy to 
be remembered in this connection : ' The picture of the plague. What 
do we see on the canvas? Dead bodies, the flame of funeral pyres, the 
dying busied with the dead, the angry god upon a cloud discharging his 
arrows. The profuse wealth of the picture becomes poverty in the 
poet. . . . Now let us turn to Homer himself [A 44-53]. The poet 
here is as far beyond the painter as life is better than a picture. Wrath- 
ful, with bow and quiver, Apollo descends from the Olympian towers. 
I not only see him, but hear him. At every step the arrows rattle on the 
shoulders of the angry god. He enters among the host like the night. 
Now he seats himself over against the ships, and with a terrible clang of 
the silver bow sends his first shaft against the mules and dogs. Next he 
turns his poisoned [deadly] darts upon the warriors themselves, and un- 
ceasing blaze on every side the corpse-laden pyres. It is impossible to 
translate into any other language the musical painting heard in the poet's 
words.* Laocoon xiii. (Miss Frothingham's translation.) 

* When Homer wishes to tell us how Agamemnon was dressed, [B 42 ff.] 
he makes the king put on every article of raiment in our presence : the 
soft tunic, the great mantle, the beautiful sandals, and the sword. When 
he is thus fully equipped he grasps his sceptre. We see the clothes while 
the poet is describing the act of dressing. An inferior writer would have 



xvi INTRODUCTION. § 11 e. 

described the clothes down to the minutest fringe, and of the action we 
should have seen nothing. . . . How does he manage when he desires 
to give a more full and minute picture [B 101 ff.] of the sceptre, which 
is here called only ancestral and undecaying, as a similar one in another 
place is only χρνσίοις ηΧοισι ττετταρ/αενον ? Does he paint for us, beside 
the golden nails, the wood, and the carved head? He might have done 
so had he been writing a description for a book of heraldry, from which 
at some later day an exact copy was to be made. Yet I have no doubt 
that many a modern poet would have given such heraldic description in 
the honest belief that he was really making a picture himself, because he 
was giving the painter material for one. But what does Homer care how 
far he outstrips the painter? Instead of a copy, he gives us the history 
of the sceptre. First we see it in the workshop of Yulcan ; then it shines 
in the hands of Jupiter ; now it betokens the dignity of Mercury ; now it 
is the baton of warlike Pelops ; and, again, the shepherd's staff of peace- 
loving Atreus. . . . And so at last I know this sceptre better than if a 
painter should put it before my eyes, or a second Vulcan give it into my 
hands.' Laocoon xvi. 

e. Direct Discourse. Like the writers of Holy Scripture, and as 
in the simple style of ballads and fairy tales and the conversation of chil- 
dren and unedlicated persons, the Homeric poet avoids the use of indirect 
discourse; he has no long passages in oratio obliqua, in the manner of the 
reported speeches in Caesar's Commentaries. He passes quickly from 
indirect to direct discourse. Contrast 6 yap ήλθε θοα<: em vrja^ 'Αχαιών 1 
. . και λίσσετο ττάντας *Αχαίονζ \ . . υμίν μλν θεοί Sotev Όλΰ/χπια δώ/χατ' 
(.χοντε^ ι εκττίρσαι Ίΐρίάμοω πολιν, €v δ' οΐ'καδ' Ικεσθαυ ' \ τταιδα δ' εμοί 
λνσαί τ€ φίλην τά τ αττοινα Βεχεσθαΐ, \ αζόμ,ενοι Διό? νίόν, εκηβόΧον Αττόλ- 
λωνα Α 12 ff. with its paraphrase which uses indirect discourse, ΙΧθων 6 
iepet)? ενχετο Ικύνοί<; μ\ν rovq θεονς δούναι ελόντας την Ύροίαν αυτούς σωθη- 
ναΐ, την δε θυγατέρα οΐ λνσαί Βε^αμενους αττοινα και τον θεον αίΒεσθεντα^ κτλ. 
in Plato Rep. iii. 393 Ε. 

f. Principal Clauses. Similar to this avoidance of indirect discourse 
is the poet's frequent and ready transition from a subordinate to a prin- 
cipal clause, as os με-γα πάντων \ Άργείων κρατεει και ol πείθονται Α;(αιοί 
Α 78 f. who rules with might over all the Argives and him (for ivhom') the 
Achaeans obey, ω ctti ττολλα μό-γησα, δόσαν δε μοι νΐες *Α;!(αιών Α 162. 

g. Thus the poet deserts the participial for a finite construction, as 
ίοΓσιν τε τιτνσκόμενοι λάεσσί τ εβαλλον Γ 80, where τε . . τε mark the 
imperfect as correlative with the participle. 

h. Order of Words. The simplicity of the Homeric order of words is 
most clearly seen by comparing a passage of Homer with a similar pas- 



§ 11 m. HOMERIC STYLE. xvii 

sage of a later Greek poet or of Vergil. Many verses of the Iliad and 
Odyssey can be translated into English, word for word as they stand, as 
ωχόμ^θ^ c's ®ηβην Uprjv ττόλιν 'Hertoovos, | την 8e Βίεπράθομίν re και η-γομεν 
€V^a8e ττάντα. | . . €κ δ' Ιλον Άτρει'δϊ^ Χρυστ/ιδα καλΧίττάρηον κτλ. Α 3GG ff. 
When the order differs essentially from the English, there are generally 
rhetorical or poetical reasons why the order is what it is. No one should 
suppose that the metre compelled the poet to adopt an arrangement of 
words that was not natural and did not please him. The verse gave 
prominence not merely to the first word but often to the word before the 
principal caesural pause (§ 58). 

i. The thought of each Homeric verse is somewhat more independent 
than is the case in later poetry. Other things being equal, a word should 
be construed with words in the same rather than in another verse. Rarely 
does a descriptive adjective at the close of one verse agree directly with a 
noun at the beginning of the next. 

j. A noun at the close of one verse often has an adjective apparently 
in agreement with it at the beginning of the next verse, but this adjective 
may be regarded as in apposition with the noun ; it frequently serves to 
form a closer connection with a following amplifying clause, as μηνιν aetSe 
θ€ά . . I ονλομίνην η μνρΓ ^Αχαίοΐς αλγε' ίθηκεν Α 1 f., where the relative 
clause explains ονλομίνην : the wrath was mortal, deadly, because it brought 
ten thousand woes upon the Achaeans. So a few verses later, νονσον άνα 
στρατον ωρσε κακήν, όλέκοντο δέ λαοί Α 10, the position of the adjective 
κακήν is explained by its connection with the thought of the following 
clause. Cf. vvv αυτέ μίν υΐες 'Α;(αιών | iv τταλάμυς φορίονσι Βίκασττόλοι οΐ 
TC θίμιστα<; \ ττρό? Διό? (Ιρναται Α 237 ff., where δικασττόλοί is explained 
by the following clause, αυτόν thus often contrasts a man with his com- 
panions or possessions, as άττό μ\ν φίλα εΓ/χατα δΰσω | αυτόν δε κλαίοντα 
θοας €7Γΐ v^as αφήσω Β 261 ff. 

k. The subject of the sentence usually precedes its verb. Almost 
every exception to this remark is found either at the close of the verse, 
or (less frequently) before the principal caesura where the same metrical.' 
freedom was allowed as at the end of the Λ^erse, § 59 α 3. 

1. In order to give prominence to an important word, it is sometimes 
placed before the relative word of the clause to which it belongs, as 
σαώτερος ως κ€ νίηαχ A 32. This is especially frequent when the sub- 
ordinate clause precedes the principal sentence, as "Εκτωρ δ' ώς ^καιάς τ€ 
ττυλας . . Γκανεν, | αμή> αρα μιν . . θ^ον κτλ. Ζ 237. 

m. Adnominal genitives, like adjectives, generally precede their noun, 
except at the close of the verse or before a caesural pause, but there are 
many exceptions to the rule in the case of adjectives, principally perhaps 



xviii INTRODUCTION. § 11 η. 

where the adjective and substantive are closely connected. A preposition 
often stands between the adjective and noun, as χρνσ^ω άνα σκήτττρω A 
15, ^oas €πι vrja<s A 12, ημ,^τίρω ivl οίκω A 30, νηας ein γλαφνράζ Γ 119. 
η. The infinitive generally follows the verb on which it depends, 
o. When a noun is modified by two adjectives, it frequently is pre- 
ceded by one and followed by the other, as θσβ τταρα νηί μελαίντ} A 300. 
So in English poetry ' human face divine,' ' purest ray serene,' ' old man 
eloquent.' 

§ 12. Epithets, a. Ornamental epithets frequently have reference to 
the most marked natural characteristics of an object rather than to a 
particular occasion. The ships are swift (βοαί) even when they are drawn 
up on land (A 300 and passim). The heaven is starry even in broad day- 
light, Ζ 108. Homer calls milk λενκόν, — of course, not to distinguish 
white milk from milk of another color, but to bring the object vividly 
before the mind by mentioning a quality of it which all would recognize 
as belonging to the nature of the object. The choice among these stere- 
otyped conventional epithets was often determined by the convenience of 
metre or rhythm (see § 22 Z» f.). 

b. Almost every prominent person in the poems has some special epi- 
thet or epithets. Pope calls these ' a sort of supernumerary pictures of 
the persons or things they are joined to. We see the motion of Hector's 
plumes in the epithet κορνθαίολος.' No one but Athena is γλαυκώπΐξ 
and the adjective becomes virtually a proper name. She bears this 
epithet 90 times, generally in the phrase 9ea γλαυκώττι? *Αθηνη. She is 
Παλλα? ^Αθηνη 41 times. The Achaeans are €νκνημώ€<ζ * Αχαιοί 36 times, 
κάρη κομόωντ€ζ 29 times, in the genitive Αχαιών χαλκοχιτωνων 24 times, 
vies 'Αχαιών 64 times, Aaos 'Αχαιών 22 times, κούροι Ά;)(αιών 9 times. Aga- 
memnon is ανα^ ανδρών 45 times in the Iliad and thrice in the Odyssey, 
while this title is given to only five other chiefs, once to each. Achilles is 
τΓθ8άρκης διος *Αχιλλεν<; 21 times, ττόδας ώκύς ^ΑχιλΧενς 30 times, ττοΒωκεοζ 
Αιακιδαο 10 times, ττοδώκεα Πτ^λειωνα 10 times. Hector is κορνθαίολος 37 

'times, φαιδι/Λος 'Έκτωρ 30 times. C/*. pius Aeneas, fidus Achates. 

c. The situation of the moment seems sometimes to contradict the 
epithet, as τον δέ ίδών ρί-γησ€ βοην άγαμος Αιομη^ψ Ε 596 at sight of him 
Diomed good at the war cry shuddered. 

d. Synonymous Exj^essions. The poet is fond of a cumulation of 
synonymous or nearly synonymous expressions, many of which remind 
the reader of redundant legal expressions, as φωνησας ττροσην^α A 201 
lifted up his voice and addressed her, ctto? t' £φατ €κ τ ονόμαζαν A 3G1 
spoke a word and called upon him, Ιμ^ν ζώντος και Ιττί χθονί δερκο/χενοιο 
Α 88, άττρίάτην άνάττοινον Α 99, των ου τι μετατρίτη) ονδ' aAeyi^ei? Α 160, 



§ 13. HOMERIC STYLE. xix 

πόλεμβί re μάχαι τ€ A 177, πάντων μλν κρατεειν Ιθίλει πάντεσσι δ' άνάσσαν, \ 
ττασι δέ σημχχίν(.ίν Α 288 f., οντ etpo/xat οντε ιχεταλλω Α 553, οφεαυ d κ 
εθίΧτισθα καΧ ά κέν tol τα μεμηΧτ] Δ 353, ηγήτορες ήΒε μεΒοντες Β 79. 
Sometimes the same stem is repeated for emphasis, in a different form, 
as οφιμον οιΙ/ίτελεστον Β 325. 

e. Epexegesis. A clause is often added epexegetically, to explain a 
preceding clause or word, as μηνιν . . ονλομενην η μνρΓ ΆχαιοΖ? αλγε' 
εθηκεν Α 1 f., τα τε δώρ' * Αφροδίτης, \ η τε κόμη τό τε εΐ8ος Γ 54 f . For 
explanatory asyndeton, see § 15 δ. 

f. The species often follows in apposition with the genus, as κύματα 
μακρά θαλάσσης \ πόντου Ίκαρίοίο Β 144 f., βονς \ τανρος Β 480 f. Cf. 
the explanatory use of the infinitive, as ερώι ξννεηκε μάχεσθαί A 8 brought 
together in strife, to contend. 

g. Thus also the part of the mind or body which is employed or 
especially affected is mentioned, as ουκ Άγαμεμονι ηνΒανε θνμω A 24, 
χωόμενος κηρ Α 44, κεχαροίατο θνμω Α 25Θ, εν όφθαλμοΐσίν ορασθαι Γ 306. 

h. Stereotyped Expressions. The same expressions recur under similar 
circumstances. We find a stereotyped description of a feast and of the 
preparations for it, of the breaking of day and of the approach of night, 
of doffing or donning sandals and armor ; there are conventional expres- 
sions for setting out on a journey, for an attack in battle, for the fall 
and death of a warrior, for lying down to rest. Speeches are introduced 
and followed by set verses, as και μυν (or σφεας) φωνησας επεα πτερόεντα 
προσηνΒα Α 201, and in fifty other places ; ο σφιν εν φρονεων άγορησατο 
καΐ μετεειπεν Α 73 and in fourteen other places, while the second hemi- 
stich is found several times in other combinations ; η tol ο y ως εΙπων κατ 
ap εζετο, τοίσι δ' ανέστη Α 68, 101, Β 76. These stereotyped verses 
have been compared with the frequently recurring ' And Job answered 
and said,' ' Then Eliphaz the Teraanite answered and said,' of the book 
of Job, and with the set form in which the reports of the messengers 
were brought to the man of Uz, — each of the four reports ending ' and 
I only am escaped alone to tell thee.' 

§ 13. a. Parechesis, Onomatopoeia, etc. The poet seems to have looked 
with indifference on the similarity of sound in neighboring words. He 
does not appear to have designed the rhyme in Ικεσθαι, Βεχεσθαι A 19 f ., 
δώσ«, άπώσεί A 96 f ., χεονσα, τεκονσα A 413 f ., ερνσσαν, τάννσσαν A 485 f ., 
or between the two hemistichs of a verse, as εσπετε vvv μοί Μοΰσαι Όλυ /w,- 
πια 8ωματ εχονσαί Β 484. 

Most examples of parechesis (παρηχησις) and alliteration are probably 
accidental, as πολλεων εκ πολιών Β 131, ες πόλεμον πωλησεαι Ε 350, πατρί 
τε σω με-γα πημχχ πόληί τε παντί τε 8ημω Γ 50. 



XX INTRODUCTION. § 13 b. 

b. Occasionally an onomatopoetic (όνοματοττούα), imitative expres- 
sion is used, giving a kind of echo in the sound, as τρίχθά re και τετραχθά 
Γ 363, of the breaking of the sword of Menelaus ; έκ δέ ΧρυσηΙζ νηο^ βη 
τΓοντοττόροίο Α 439, where a vivid imagination may perhaps hear the 
measured steps of the damsel as she leaves the ship, with a quick rush at 
the close ; αυτις tirura ττεδονδε KvXivhero λαας άναιδτ/ς λ 598, of the rolling 
back of the stone which Sisyphus in Hades was continually urging to the 
summit of a hill. 

c. The poet plays occasionally on the names of his heroes, as Πρόνοος 
θ(κ>^ ηγεμόνενεν Β 758 (" swift by nature as well as by name "), Τλψτόλί- 
μχ>ν . . τΧημονα θνμον Ιχων Ε 668 ff., "Εκτορ . . φη<ϊ ττον ατερ λαών 
ττόλιν k^ip.ev Ε 472 f ., where ίζεμ,εν seems to be selected with reference to 
the assumed etymology of "Εκτωρ. 

§ 14. a. Comparisons. A notable characteristic of Homeric style is 
the comparison. This is designed to throw into high relief some point 
in the action narrated ; it often 'relieves the monotony of the description 
of a battle. But the poet is not always satisfied to illustrate the partic- 
ular point for which the comparison is introduced ; he often completes 
the picture by adding touches which have nothing to do with the 
narrative. 

b. Illustrations are furnished by all experiences of life, from the 
lightning of Zeus and the conflict of opposing winds, from the snow- 
storm and the mountain torrent, to a child playing with the sand on the 
seashore, and a little girl clinging to her mother's gown ; from lions and 
eagles, to a stubborn ass which refuses to be driven from a cornfield by 
children, and to a greedy fly ; from the evening star, to women wrangling 
in the street. The lion is a special favorite, and appears in comparisons 
thirty times in the Iliad. 

c. Homer, like Milton, could not think of an army in motion without 
thinking of its resemblance to something else. Just before the Cata- 
logue of the Ships, the movements of the Achaean armies are described 
by six detailed comparisons, Β 455-483 : the brightness of their armor is 
compared with the gleam of fire upon the mountains ; their noisy tumult, 
with the clamor of cranes or swans on the Asian plain ; in multitude, 
they are as the innumerable leaves and flowers of spring-time ; they are 
impetuous and bold as the eager flies around the farm buildings ; they are 
marshalled by their leaders as flocks of goats by their herds ; their leader 
(Agamemnon) is like to Zeus, to Ares, to Poseidon, — he is preeminent 
among the heroes as a bull in a herd of cattle. 

d. The Iliad has 182 detailed comparisons, 17 briefer (as ναισίν Ιοικό- 
Tcs ηγοράασθε \ ντ^πΐάχοις oh ου tl μέλει τΓολεμηιχι epya Β 337 f.), and 28 



§ 16. HOMERIC STYLE. xxi 

of the briefest sort. The Odyssey has 39 detailed comparisons, 6 briefer, 
and 13 very brief. The first book of the Iliad has only two compari- 
sons, and those of the briefest, b δ' ψε ννκτΐ €οικώς A 47, ηυτ ομίχλη 
Α 359. 

Θ. Comparisons are introduced by ώς re, ως el, ώς ore, ως ττερ κτλ. 

Praepositive ως is not used in comparisons. In the briefest compari- 
sons, postpositive ως is often used, generally lengthening the preceding 
syllable (§59/). 

f. The aorist indicative (the so-called 'gnomic aorist') is often used 
in comparisons. 

§ 15. a. Asyndeton. In the Homeric period more frequently than in 
later Greek, sentences were left unconnected by conjunctions, i.e. asyn- 
deton (H. 1039) was allowed more freely. Ornamental epithets are 
not connected by και, and sometimes in animated discourse the poet 
uses no conjunction between clauses or words, as άπριάτην άνάποινον 
A 99. 

b. Asyndeton of sentences is most frequent where the second sentence 
explains the first and is in a kind of apposition with it, repeating the 
thought in a different form : άλλα και ως Ιθίλω Βόμεναι πάλιν el τό y 
ά/Α€ΐνον • Ι βονλομ εγώ λαόν σόον c/x/xcvat η άττολίσθω. Α 116 f ., ω πόποι, 
rj μ€-γα πίνθος Ά;)(αΐιδα -γαΐαν ίκάνει • | η κεν γηθησαι ΤΙρίαμος ΐΐρίάμοιό τε 
τταιδες Α 254 f., αλλ' οδ' άνηρ εθελει περί πάντων εμμεναι άλλων, | ττάντων 
μεν κρατεειν εθελει πάντεσσί δ' άνάσσειν Α 287 f. In Β 299, τλητε φίλοι 
και μείνατ επΙ χρόνον gives the sum of the preceding sentence, and the 
asyndeton marks the speaker's warmth of feeling. 

c. An adversative relation (but) is occasionally expressed by an asyn- 
deton, especially with ye μεν in the second clause, as Β 703, Ε 516. 

d. The absence of a conjunction often gives rapidity to the style and 
thus is found often where the second sentence begins with αντίκα or 
αΓι/'α, as εΐ δ* aye μην πείρησαι . . αΐψά τοι αίμα κελαινον ερωησει περί 
8ονρί Α 302 f ., αντίκα κερτομίοισι Αία Κ,ρονίωνα προσηνΒα Α 539, cf. Β 442. 

§ 16. a. Chiasmus.'^ For emphasis, the poet sometimes so arranges 
the words of two clauses that the extremes, as also the means, are cor- 

1 The name is given from the Greek letter X, there being a crossing of 
ideas as ^ 

fiafftXevs ^ ayaSos 
Kparepos > αΙχμτΐ]τ•ί)5 Γ 179. 

It should be noticed that this chiastic arrangement is often the most simple 
and natural, as in the first example above, where σοί at once suggests the 
other person interested, ΦοΊβοε. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. § 1β b. 

relative with or contrasted with each other, as παιδα re σοι άγή^,^ν, 
Φοίβω & Ιερην €κα.τόμ.βην Α 443, where τταιδα and ίκατόμβην, σοι and 
Φοίβω respectively are contrasted. Cf. ώς Ά;(ΐλ^α ] τιμησΎ]<ς oXeay^ Sk 
πολίας A 558 f., δυσ/χενεσιν μίν χάρμα, κατηφύ-ψ δε σοί αντω Γ 51, α/ον', 
€Τ£ρον λενκόν, €Τ€ρην 8k μέλαιναν, \ Ty τε καΐ Ήελίω Γ 103 f., where the 
black lamb was for Γ^ and the white for 'HcAto?, — βασυλενς τ αγαθός 
κρατερός τ αίχμητης Γ 179, where the adjectives are brought together. 
Cf. Milton's ' Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,' Par. Lost 
IV. 641, ' Adam the goodliest man of men since born | His sons, the fairest 
of her daughters Eve,' Par. Lost IV. 323 f . 

b. Epanalepsis.- Sometimes a word (generally a proper name) or a 
clause is repeated in the same sentence at the beginning of a new verse. 
Cf. Milton's Lycidas 37 f. 'But Ο the heavy change, now thou art 
gone, J Now thou art gone and never must return.' The name is repeated 
at the beginning of three successive verses (Ntpevs . . Nt/uev? . . Ntpev?) 
Β 671 ff. Cf. also Β 838, 850, 871, Ζ 154. The name when repeated is 
attracted into the case of the following relative pronoun, in *Αν8ρομάχη, 
θν-γάτηρ με-γαλητορος 'ϊίετίωνος, \ ϋετίων ος εναιεν νττο Πλάκω νληεσστ] 
Ζ 395 f. Andromache, daughter of the great-souled Eetion, Eetion luho dwelt 
at the foot of woody Placus. 

c. Litotes (λίτότης or μείωσις), a simplicity of language, or understate- 
ment of the truth, is common to all languages. Milton's ' unblest feet * is 
stronger than cursed feet. Homeric examples abound, as ουκ *Αγαμέμνονί 
ην^ανε θυμω A 24 it was not pleasing to the soul of Agameinnon, i.e. it luas 
hateful, etc. ; axj/ δ' ες κονΧεον ωσε με-γα ζίφος ουδ' άττίθησεν \ μνθω *Αθη- 
ναίης Α 220 f. hack into the sheath he thrust his great sword nor did he disohey 
the word of Athena, i.e. he obeyed; "Έκτωρ δ' ου τι θέας εττος ήγνοίησεν 
Β 807. 

d. α. Periphrasis. Certain periphrases occur frequently, as αξετε Sk 
Τίρίάμοίο βίψ Γ 105 bring the might of Priam, i.e. the mighty Priam, Ila- 
φλαγόνων δ' ηγείτο Πυλαι /Aeveos λάσιον κηρ Β 851, η εττει ωνησας κραΒίην 
Διός ψ καΐ έργω Α 395. Cf ' First, noble friend, let me embrace thine 
age,' Shakspere Tempest V. i. 

β. δουλιον ημαρ Ζ 463 is simply a poetic expression for slavery, εΧεύ 
θερον "ημο-ρ ior freedom. 

e. Zeugma. Soipetimes two connected subjects or objects are made 
to depend on a verb which is appropriate to but one of them, as η μεν 
έπειτα \ εΙς αλα αλτο . . | Ζευς δε εον προς 8ωμα {sc. εβη) Α 531 £f. she then 
leaped into the sea, but Zeus went to his own house, ηχι εκάστου | ίπποι 
άερσίποΒες και ποικίλα τενχε* εκείτο Γ 326 f. where the high-stepping horses 
of each were standing a7id the bright armor was lying. Cf. Shakspere, 



§18b. HOMERIC SYNTAX. Xxiii 

Sonnet 55, 7 * Nor Mars his sword, nor war's quick fire shall burn [ The 
living record of your memory,* 

f. Hysteron Proteron. Occasionally the more important or obvious 
object or action is mentioned before another which should precede it in 
strict order of time, as α/Λα τράφεν -^Sk yivovro A 251 were bred and horn 
with him. Cf. Shakspere Twelfth Night I. ii. ' For I was bred and born | 
iSTot three hours' travel from this very place * and Vergil's moriamur et in 
media arma ruamus. 

§ 17. Later Change in Words. The student must be watchful to 
apprehend the exact Homeric meaning of words which are used in a 
slightly different sense in later Greek. Thus άγορή and άγων are used in 
Homer of an assembly, gathering^ not of market and contest. *Αί8ης is 
always the name of a person, not of a place, αοιδός, άοώη, are used for 
the Attic τΓΟίητ-ης, νμνος, — Ιττο? is used for λόγος, κοσμεω for τάσσω, 
δειι/ός means terrible, not skilful. SeiTrvov is the principal meal of the 
day, whenever it is taken, «γχος means spear, never sword, ηρως is 
used of all the warriors ; it does not mean a Aero in the English sense. 
κρίνω is select, discriminate, rather than judge, νοεω often has the sense 
of αΙσθάνομαι (which is not Homeric), perceive, ονομχχι is not blame in a 
general way, but think not enough, insufficient, οντάζω is wound with a 
weapon held in the hand, not with a missile, ττ^μττω is escort, attend, as 
well as send ; cf, ττομπη convoy, ττόλε/χος is often battle rather than war. 
•π-ρησσω is carry through rather than do as in Attic. σχεΒόν is 7iear, of 
place, not almost, σώ/χα is used only of a dead body, δβ/χας being used of 
the living form, and αυτός and ττερί χροι taking some of the Attic uses of 
σώμα. τάχα always means quickly, never perhaps as in later Greek. 
τίθημυ is often used like ττούω make, φόβος is not fight but flight; 
φοβεομαι is not /ear hniflee. ως does not mean since. 

§ 18. HOMERIC SYNTAX, a. In syntax as in forms, where the Ho- 
meric dialect differs from the Attic, it may be presumed that the Homeric 
usage is the earlier. The language was less rigid ; custom had not yet 
established certain constructions as normal. There was greater freedom 
in the use of the modes and the cases, of prepositions and conjunctions. 

b. It is impossible to bring the Homeric uses of the modes under the 
categories and rules that prevailed in the Attic period. Intermediate in 
force between the simple future and the potential optative with άν were 

(1) the subjunctive as a less vivid future, as. ov yap πω τοιΌυς ιδον 
άνίρας ουδέ ιδω/χαι Α 262 Ι never yet saw such men nor shall I see them. 
(H. 868; G. 1321.) 

(2) the subjunctive with κίν or αν, as a potential mode, as ct δί kc μη 
δώωσίΓ, «γώ δε κεν αύτος Ιλω/χαι Α 137 but if they shall not give it, I myself 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. § 18 c. 

will then take, etc. ουκ αν tol χραίσμτ) κίθαρις Γ 54 the cithara would not in 
that case avail thee. 

c. The subjunctive is used more freely in Homer than in later Greek. 

d. a. Homer prefers d with the subjunctive to ct kcv (ai kcv) or ei dv 
with the subjunctive, el dv is not used in general conditions. 

β. €L K€v is rarely used with the optative (29 times in all) ; never in 
the expression of a wish, el dv is used with the optative but once, el irep 
av αυτοί \ μ,οΰσαΐ deihoiev Β 597 f . 

γ. The optative in indirect discourse is used for the indicative in 
direct discourse only in questions. 

δ. In six passages the optative with κίν is used in the apodosis, where 
Homeric and Attic usage alike lead us to expect dv with a past tense of 
the indicative, as και νυ Kev evff απόΧοιτο dva$ άντρων Αινείας, | el μη dp* 
ό$υ v6ησe Διο? θυγάτηρ * Αφροδίτη Ε 311 f. "Aeneas would have perished 
if Aphrodite had not perceived," etc. 

§ 19. a. The cases retained more of their original force than in Attic 
and had less need of a preposition to make the construction distinct (it 
was once thought that the poet omitted the preposition for the conve- 
nience of his verse) , as the ablatival genitive in Ιρκος Ά;(αιοΓσιν TrcAcrai 
froXe/xoto κακοΐο A 284 is a huhcark for the Achaeans from (to keep oif) 
evil war, καρτταλίμως άνεδυ ττολίης αλός ήυτ ομίχλη Α 359 swiftly she rose 
as a mist out of the hoary sea. The dative of place is often found without 
a preposition, as τό^* ωμοισιν 6χων A 45 having his bow upon his shoulder. 

b. The prepositions still retained much of their adverbial nature, and 
had not become fixedly attached to the verbs which they modified (§ 55). 
It was once thought that the occasional separation of verb and preposi- 
tion was a poetic license, and (considered as a surgical operation) it was 
called tmesis. 

c. In the Homeric period certain constructions were only beginning 
to appear definitely in use, such as the accusative with the infinitive, and 
the genitive absolute, 

d. a. The genitive absolute is more frequent with the present parti- 
ciple than with the aorist participle. The genitive absolute with omitted 
subject is particularly rare, and is denied by most scholars. The parti- 
ciple sometimes seems to be used with omitted subject when it really 
agrees with the genitive implied in a preceding dative. 

β. It is often impossible to say categorically whether the genitive is 
in the absolute construction or rather depends on some other word, as 
υτΓο Be Τρώες KexaSovro | ανδρός άκοντισσαντος Δ 497 f., where the posi- 
tion of the genitive at the beginning of the verse gives it greater inde- 
pendence, but it was probably influenced by the verb, the Trojans drew 



§20. HOMERIC SYNTAX. xxv 

hack from the man as he hurled his javelin ; cf. ΐκλαγζαν δ' ap* οιστοϊ ctt* 
ωμών χωομίνοίο | αντον κίνηθίντο<ζ A 46 f . 

γ. Sometimes a preposition is used where the genitive absolute would 
be used in Attic prose, as αμφΧ δέ vrje^ \ σμερΒαλίον κονάβησαν άνσάντων 
νττ Άχαίων Β 333 f. 

e. The dative of interest is often used with the verb where the English 
idiom prefers a possessive genitive with a noun, as δεινώ δε ot οσσε φά 
ανθεν A 200 terribly did her (lit. ybr her the) eyes gleam; or is used instead 
of an ablatival genitive with a preposition, as ΔαναοΓσιν άεικεα λοιγον 
άττώσει A 97 ivill ward off ignominious destruction from ( lit. ybr) the Danu'i ; 
or instead of a genitive with verbs of ruling and leading, as ττάντεσσι δ' 
ανάσσαν A 288 to reign over (lit. he the king for) all; or instead of ai) 
adverbial expression, as τοΓσι δ' ανέστη A 68 for them rose (not to be 
taken as a local dative, among them). 

f. νττό is used with the dative in almost the same sense as with the 
genitive in Attic, as εΒάμη νττο χ^ρσί ττοδώκεος ΑΙακίΒαο Β 860 he teas slain 
by the hands of the swift-footed Aeacides, with perhaps more of the original 
local force of the preposition. 

g. Some constructions were used more freely and constantly than in 
later Greek. Certain of these were always looked upon as poetic, as θείτ] 
ttcSlolo Z 507 shall run over the plain, Χονεσθαι ττοταμοΐο Ζ 508. For the 
genitive of the place to which the action belongs, see H. 760; G. 1137. 

h. A neuter noun in the plural is the subject of a plural verb more 
frequently than in Attic. The imperfect is more freely used in narra- 
tive, to describe an action as in progress. The historical present is not 
used, εστί is not always a mere copula, and is occasionally modified by 
an adverb, as a true verb of existence, cf επείνν tol αισα μίνννθά ττερ, ov 
TL μόλα Βην A 416 since thy appointed time of life is brief, etc., and μίνννθα 
δε ot ■γενεθ* ορμή Δ 466 but brief was his onset. 

§ 20. a. Particles, a. The beginner in reading Homer is perplexed by 
a large number of particles that are often diificult to render by English 
words. Their force can often be best given by the order of the words in 
the translation or by the tone of voice in reading. To translate pd as was 
natural (or even you see) or yi at least, often throws upon the particle 
very disproportionate emphasis. The student can mo§t easily and clearly 
appreciate the force of a particle by comparing a number of examples 
which have become familiar to him ; he will then see the importance of 
these particles to the character and tone of a speech or of the narrative. 

β. τε is used far more freely than in Attic prose. A single τε is often 
used to connect single notions, as κννεσσιν \ οίωνοίσί re A 4 f . 

y. οφρα is the usual particle to introduce a final clause. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. § 20 b. 

b. Interrogative Particles, a. The general interrogative particle in 
Homer is η, but in a double question (where the Attic Greek uses ττοτε- 
pov . . 17) ^ or ηζ stands in the first member, η or ηε in the second, cf, 
A 190 ff. 

β. When η introduces a single question, it is rarely used as in Attic, 
as a mere interrogation point. It regularly implies emotion of some kind. 

§ 21. a. Parataxis. The Homeric language is far less distinct than 
the Latin or the English in the expression of logical relations, and gives 
less prominence to the logical forms of syntax ; but it is seldom difficult 
to appreciate the ancient idiom if an attempt is made to find the Homeric 
point of view. 

The Homeric poems contain many survivals of the simplest form of 
sentences. In the earliest stage of the Greek language, clauses were not 
combined with each other as secondary and principal ; they were simply 
added one to the other. To use the technical terms, coordination or 
parataxis (τταράτα^ις) was the rule, — not subordination or hypotaxis (ύττό- 
τα^ις). Originally the relatives were demonstratives, and relative sen- 
tences have been called ' parenthetic demonstrative sentences.' Thus δε 
was used in the apodosis of relative and conditional sentences. This was 
especially frequent when the relative or conditional clause preceded, as 
et Se Ke μ.η δώωσιν, €γώ δε Kev αύτος ελω/Ααι Α 137 hut if they shall not give 
it, (but) I myself shall then take, etc., είος 6 τανθ' wppMve . . ήλθε δ' *Αθηνη 
A 193 f. while he was pondering this . . . (but) Athena came, οΐη irep φνλλων 
Ύ€νεη, τοίη δέ και ανδρών Ζ 146 as is the race of leaves, (hut) such is also the 
race of men. So αντάρ and άλλα are used with stronger emphasis than 
δε, as et δέ συ καρτεράς Ισσι, θεα δε σε -γείνατο μ.Ί}τηρ \ αλλ* οδε φερτερός 
εστίν εττεί ττλεόνεσσιν άνασσει Α 280 f. but if thou art mighty and a goddess 
is thy mother, hut, etc., where the apodosis is really contrasted with the 
protasis, cf. A 81 quoted in the next paragraph. 

b. Compare with the foregoing the use of καί in the conclusion of 
relative sentences, to mark the connection of the clauses. Thus also re 
was freely used in subordinate clauses, as o? κε θεοΐς ετηττείθηται μόλα τ 
εκλνον αντον Α 218 whoever obeys the gods, (and) himself the gods readily 
hear; and τε — τε is found in both protasis and apodosis, marking their 
correlation, as ει ττερ yap τε χόλον . . καταττεψγ), \ αλλά τε καΐ μετόπισθεν 
εχεί κότον Α 81 f . for even if he should restrain his wrath, but even here- 
after etc. 

c. The first part of a paratactic sentence may introduce the cause or 
reason for what follows, as in Andromache's words to Hector, "Εκτορ 
άταρ σν μοι εσσυ ττατηρ και ττοτνια μητηρ, \ ηΒε κασιγνητος, συ δε μοι θα. 
λερός τταρακοίτης ' \ αλλ άγε νυν ελεαιρε καΐ αυτόν tuuv εττΐ ττνρ-γω Ζ 429 ff, 



§22. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxvii 

But iJiou, Hector, art my father etc.f which implies " Hector, since thou 
art my all." 

d. Correlative Constructionn. The Greek language was always fond 
of a parallel or antithetic construction, a contrast, a balance, where the 
English subordinates one thought to the other ; but the adversative rela- 
tion, where the English idiom would use a subordinate clause introduced 
by for, although, ivhen, while, or since, is more frequent in these poems 
than in later Greek, as άλλα ττίθεσθ' • αμφω δέ νεωτερω iarov Ιμάο Α 259, 
φύλλα τα /xeV τ άνεμος )(αμά8ίς χεει, άλλα Se θ" υλη | τηΧίθόωσα φνα, €αρος 
δ' €τη•γίγν€ταί ωρη Ζ 147 f . . . when the season of Spring comes on, ημίν &η 
•ποτ έμεν ττάρος εκλνες ενζαμίνοιο . . yS* en καΐ νυν μοι τόδ' ΙτηκρΎΐηνον 
€€λΒωρ Α 453 ff . as ihou didst hear my former prayer so noto also fulfil this 
my desire. 

e. αντάρ also is used where a causal particle would be used in English, 
as oSvvTjaL ττετταρμενος ' ανταρ όίστος | ωμω ivl στιβαρω ήληλατο Ε 399 f. 
thrilled tvith pains since the arrow loas fixed in his stout shoulder. 

f. In these contrasted clauses, αυ, αυτέ, αντάρ, άτάρ, άλλα, as well as δε, 
may be used in correlation with μίν. 

g. A copulative conjunction is sometimes used where the English uses 
a disjunctive or, as τρί-πλ-β τετραπλγ) re A 128 threefold or (and) fourfold, 
in which prominence is given to the second member. Cf Iva και Svo 
Β 346, χθίζά τ€ καΐ ττρωίζά Β 303, τρίγθά τε καΧ τετραχθά Γ 363, Ο terque 
quaterque heati, Verg. Aen. I. 94. 

h. The Homeric poet sometimes puts into an independent clause the 
incidental thought which in later Greek would be expressed regularly by 
a participle, as Xaot δ' ηρησαντο θεοΐς ιδε χείρας άνεσχον Γ 318 the people 
prayed to the gods with uplifted hands (lit. and lifted their hands) for χείρας 
άνασχόντες, cf. μεγάΧ ενχετο, χείρας άνασχών Α 450 ; (Ζευς μερμηρίζε ως 
Αχιλ^α) τίμήσΎ], όλεσγ] δε ττολεας εττΐ νηνσΐν Ά;;(αιώϊ/ Β 4 was pondering 
how he might honor Achilles by destroying (lit. and destroy) etc.; cf ήλθε 
φέρων, έχων A 12 f . ; άλλ' άκεονσα κάθησο, εμω δ' ετηττείθεο μνθω Α 565 
for εμω ττείθομενη μνθω. See § 11 5^. 

i. Conversely, the participle, as in later Greek, often contains the 
principal idea, as κατενευσεν ] "Ιλιον εκπερσαντ εντείχεον άττονεεσθαι Β 113 
promised that I should sack Ilios, and return, but in the very next verse is 
the English idiom, vvv δε κακήν άττάτην βονλενσατο, και με κελεύει { δυσκλεα 
''Κρ-γος Ικεσθαι Β 114 f. planned an evil deceit and bids me go etc., for άττά- 
την βονλενσας. 

§ 22. THE HOMERIC DIALECT, a. The dialect of the Homeric 
poems is in one sense artificial : it was spoken at no place and at no 
time. But it is not a mosaic composed of words and forms chosen capri- 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. § 22 b. 

ciously from the different Greek dialects ; it is a product of natural 
growth. The poets ^unconsciously excluded all that was not adapted to 
dactylic Verse, but they did no violence to their language ; they did not 
wantonly change quantities or introduce new terminations. 

b. The conservation of old forms together with the introduction of 
new forms was very convenient for the verse ; e.g. for the infinitive of 
the verb to he, Homer could use c/A/xevat as dactyl, _ w vy ; t/xemt as ana- 
paest, \j Kj ; €/x/x€v as trochee, ^^ ; c/xev as pyrrhic, \j \j ; elvai as 

spondee, . Naturally, the choice being offered, metrical conven- 
ience determined which of these forms should be used. Metrical con- 
venience often or generally decided between the use of *Αχαιοι' or 'Apyetoi. 
We must always remember that the Homeric dialect was not a modifica- 
tion of the Attic• dialect, and was not derived from it, but that it repre- 
sents an older stage of the language. Many Attic forms can be derived 
from the Homeric forms. 

c. The same is true 4n the case of synonyms and stock epithets or 
phrases, ανα^ ανδρών 'Αγαμέμνων is used after the feminine caesura 
(§ 58 y) of the third foot, but evpv κρζ,ίων * Αγαμέμνων, * Αγαμέμνονος 
Άτ/ο€ΐδαο, or * Αγαμέμνονα ττοίμενα λαών after the masculine caesura of the 
same foot, ΐΐηλψά^εω *Αχίληος is used after the penthemimeral caesura 
(§ 58 e), ττόδας ωκνς *Αχίλλενς after the hephthemimeral caesura (§ 58 g), 
but ΊΓΟ^ρκης διος A^j^tXAevg, ττοδώκεος Αιακι'δαο or άμνμονος Αιακιδαο, 
ποΒάρκεϊ ΐΐηλείωνί, ποδώκεα ΐΐηλείωνα, ά/χν/χονα ΐΐηλείωνα, or *Α;^ιλλ^α 
τΓτολίπορθον, after the feminine caesura of the third foot, with διος 'Α;^ιλ' 
λενς as a tag when the verse is filled up to the Bucolic diaeresis ( § 58 A) . 

Cf. the epithets of Apollo, εκάτοω A 385 w w v^, εκηβόλον A 14 w w w, 

εκάεργος A 479 w w w? εκατηβόλον A 370 w kj vy v-/» εκατηβελεταο 

A 75 WW \^ \y ^. See § 12 b. 

d. The dialect is essentially Ionic and seems to have originated among 
the lonians of Asia Minor, influenced possibly by the speech and cer- 
tainly far more by the old poems of their Aeolian neighbors. The oldest 
form of Greek Epic songs seems to have been Aeolic, but the lonians 
brought Epic poetry to perfection. Even the Pythian priestess delivered 
the oracles of Apollo in Epic verse and Ionic dialect, and the Dorian 
Spartans sang about their camp-fires the Ionian songs of Tyrtaeus. 

e. Some forms seem to be borrowed from other dialects ; but it must 
be remembered that when the poems were composed, there was less differ- 
ence between the dialects than at the earliest period when we have monu- 
mental evidence concerning them. 

f. Some anomalies of form (as of verse) are as yet unexplained, but 
it may be assumed that all which remain either (1) were justified by the 



§25. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxix 

usage of the people and might be explained by more^poraplete knowledge 
of the history of the language, or (2) followed the malogy of what was 
in use, or (3) are errors which have found their way into the text during 
the course of transmission to the present time. As the poems were 
handed down among the Greeks at first orally, and afterwards still 
uncritically for centuries, errors unavoidably crept in and there was a 
gradual assimilation of what was obsolete to later and more familiar 
forms, when the older forms were unprotected by the metre. 

§ 23. Vowels and Vowel Changes, a. η is regularly used for a, 
as άγορη, ομοίη, except in θ^ά goddess, Xaos people, and some proper 
names (as Atveta?). Occasionally, as Β 370, μ,άν is found instead of the 
less frequent μψ (the strong form of piv). αλτο A 532 (from αλλομαι) 
is another instance of ά, unless it is to be written αλτο. ' (Η. 30 D.) 

b. The final ά of the stem is retained in the genitive endings -ao and 
'άων of the 1st declension, as Άτρειδαο A 203. 

c. άο is often changed to €ω by transfer. ^f quantity: *Ατρεί8αο, 
*Ατρ€ΐδ€ω. Cf. βασιληος with Attic ^βασιλέως. But the frequent λαός 
never has the Attic form λεώ?. 

d. Compensative lengthening is sometimes found where it is not in 
Attic, as ζείνος (^cV/ros), εΐνεκα (Lesbian εννεκα), κονρη (κόρρα), μοννος, 
ovpos {ορρός), Βονρός. 

e. Diphthongs occasionally preserve t w^here it is lost in Attic be- 
fore a vowel : αΐεί, αίετός, ετελείετο (§ 47 g), οίνοβαρείων, ολοιη, πνοίη, 
χρνσειος. 

f . But t is lost before a vowel in ωκεα (ωκεΐα) Ίρις Β 786, in -οο for -oto as 
genitive-ending of the 2d declension (§ 35 b), and in εμ^ο for e^tAeto, etc. ; cf. 
χρνσείοίς A 246 with χρνσεω A 15. As in Attic, the penult is sometimes 
short in νΙός (as A 489, Δ 473). In these cases t has turned into the 
y-sound. Likewise ν is sometimes dropped between two vowels. See § 59 iJ; δ. 

§ 24. Contraction. Concurrent vowels generally remain uncontracted : 
αεκων, αλγεα, ττάις (in nominative and vocative singular), οις {ορις = ovis, 
ewe). Attic ευ is regularly iv before two consonants, and the adjective 
is always ενς or ^υς. Patronymics from nouns in -ενς form -ειΒης, -είων, 
as ΆτρείΒης A 7, ηηλείωνα A 197. (Η. 37 D ; G. 846.) 

§ 25. Synizesis. a. Vowels which do not form a true diphthong may 
be blended in pronunciation into one long sound : *ΑτρειΒε<α .^\j \j ^, 

^eoetSea Γ 27, δή άντε A 340, ττόλιος Β 811, Ίστιαιαν Β 537, in which last 

two examples t must have had very nearly the pronunciation of its cog- 
nate y-sound. The genitives in -εω, -εων are always pronounced with 
synizesis. (H. 42D; G. 47.) 



XXX INTRODUCTION. § 25 b, 

b. Synizesis often served the purpose of the later contraction, ημίων 
did not differ in metrical quantity from ημών. 

§ 26. Crasis is not frequent. Note τοννεκα A 291, ωύτό? Ε 396, 
χημ€Ϊς Β 238 (και ly/xets). (Η. 76 ; G. 42 ff.) 

§ 27. Hiatus (Η. 75 D; G. 34) is allowed. 

a. After the vowels ι and υ, as €γχ€Ϊ o^voem Ε 50. 

b. When the two vowels between which it occurs are separated by a 
caesura (καθηστο ίπι-γνάμ^φασα A 569) or by a diaeresis (§ 58 h) : seldom 
after the first foot (ανταρ 6 Ιγνω A 333), more frequently after the fourth 
foot (Ιγχεα oivoevra Ε 568). Hiatus between the short syllables of the 
third foot is allowed nearly as frequently as in all other places together, 
more than 200 times. This freedom of hiatus emphasizes the prominence 
of this caesura, § 58 d. 

c. When the final vowel of the first word is long and stands in the 
accented part of the foot (§ 57 a), as τω σε κακτ) alarj A 418. See § 59 ke. 

d. When a long vowel or diphthong loses part of its quantity before 
the following vowel (§ 59 k), as την δ' εγώ ov λνσω A 2ϋ, μη νΰ του ου 
χραίσμη Α 28. Here the final and initial vowels may be said to be 
blended. This is called iveak or improper hiatus; it is essentially the 
same as the following. 

e. When the last vowel of the first word is already elided, as μνρί* 
ΑχαίοΙς aXyc ίθηκεν A 2. 

f . Hiatus before words which formerly began with a consonant ( § 32) 
is only apparent. 

g. The poet did not avoid two or more concurrent vowels in the same 
word, § 24. 

§ 28. Elision. (H. 79 ; G. 48.) a. α (in inflectional endings and in 
apa and ρά), e, Ϊ, ο may be elided, at is sometimes elided in the verb 
endings, oi is elided seven times in μοί, three times in rot', once in σοι 
A 170 (unless ovhi σοι οιω or ου σο6 όιω should be read there for ούδε 
σ όιω). 

b. τό, ττρό, αντί, ττερί, τι, and the conjunction ort do not suffer elision; 
OT is for oT€. (either the temporal conjunction or the relative 6 with re 
affixed, § 42 in), τ for re or rot. 

c. t is seldom elided in the dative singular, where it seems originally 
to have been long. 

d. Oxytone prepositions and conjunctions lose their accent jn elision ; 
other oxytones throw the acute accent upon the preceding syllable, as τα 
κάκ \_κακα\ A 107. Elision is not left to the reader as in Latin poetry. 

§ 29. Apocope. (H. 84 D; G. 53.) a. Before a consonant, the short 
final vowel of apa and of the prepositions ανά, κατά, τταρά, may be cut off 



§30j. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxi 

(άτΓοκοπη, άτΓοκόπτω). The accent is then thrown back upon the pre- 
ceding syllable (although it might be more rational to consider it lost as 
it is in elision). 

b. After apocope, the ν of ανά and r of κατά follow the usual rules for 
consonant changes : άμπετταλων Γ 355, κάββαλεν Ε 343 (κατίβαλεν), καδ 
Se (κατά δε) frequently, κάκταϊ /e Ζ 164 (κατεκτανε), κατητεσίτην Ε 5G0, 
καρρεζονσα Ε 424. 

C. ανίρνσαν Α 459 is explained as derived by apocope, assimilation, 
and vocalization of f, from ανά and ρερνω. 

d. Apocope was no mere metrical license ; it was common in the con- 
versational idiom of some "dialects. More striking examples of apocope 
and assimilation than any in Homer are found in prose inscriptions. 

§ 30. Consonants and Consonant Changes, a. Where collateral 
forms appear, one with single and the other with doubled consonants, 
the form with two consonants is generally the older or justified etymo- 
logically, as -ποσσί, ττοσί (from ττοδ-σι) ; νείκεσσε, νείκεσε (νείκο^, νείκεσ-), 
οττπως (οκρως, cf. Latin quis etc.), ottl, κτλ. 

b. Single initial consonants, especially λ, μ, ν, ρ, σ, are often doubled 
(as ρ is in Attic) when by inflexion or composition a short vowel is 
brought before them (see § 59 A), as ελλίσσετο Ζ 45. 

c. But sometimes ρ is not doubled where it would be in Attic, as 
ωκνρόω Ε 598, κατερε^εν A 361. 

d. Palatal and lingual mutes often remain unchanged before μ, as 
ΙΒμεν, κεκορνθ μένος. 

e. Lingual mutes are commonly assimilated to a following σ, as ποσσί 
(τΓοδ-σι). σ is sometimes assimilated to μ ov v: εμμεναι (etvat) for cV- 
μεναί, άρ-γεννός tvhite for άργεσ-νος, as άργεννάων Γ 198, ενννμι for ρεσ- 
ννμι (§ 32 α), ερεβεννη Ε 659 dark, cf. "Ερεβος. 

f . σ is frequently retained before σ, as εσσομαι, ετελεσσε. 

g. Between μ and λ or ρ, β is sometimes developed, as άμβρστος from 
stem μρο or μορ (Latin jnors, morior), while in βροτός mortal, the μ of the 
stem is lost; μεμβλωκε from μλο or μολ (cf. εμολον). 

h. κάμβαλε is found occasionally, in the Mss. as a variant reading, a 
softer pronunciation for κάββαλε (§ 29 b). 

i. A parasitic τ appears in τττόλίς, πτόλεμος for ττόλις, ττόλεμος. Cf. 
8ιχθά, τριχθά with Attic Βίχα, τρίχα. The proper names Neoptolemus (Neo- 
τΓτόΧεμος) and Ptolemy (Τίτολεμυαίος) preserved this τ to a late period. 

j. The rough breathing (li) has no power to prevent elision or weaken 
hiatus. The smooth breathing is found with several words which have 
the rough breathing in Attic, as άμμε (ημάς), ημαρ (ημίρα), αλτο (from 
αΧλομαι), ήελίος (ηλίος), *Αί8ης ("Αιδί/ς), ηώς (εως). 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. § 30 k. 

k. The V movable was written by some ancient critics after the ending 
-ct of the pluperfect, as βεβληκειν Ε 661, ήνωγειν Ζ 170; cf. ησκαν Γ 388 
(rjaKcev). It is freely used before consonants to make a syllable long by 
position (§ 59/). 

1. The final σ of adverbs is omitted more often than in prose. Not 
merely i$ and ck, ούτως and οντω, but also ττώς and ττώ, ττολλακις and 
τΓολλάκί, άμφί<; and άμ,φί (adverbial), are found as collateral forms. 

§ 31. Metathesis of α and ρ is frequent (H. 64; G. 64) : KapUrj Β 452, 
κραΒίη a 353 ; κάρτιστοι A 266, κρό.το<ζ A 509. Cf, τραπείομ,εν Γ 441 from 
τ€/07Γω, τ€ρπίκίραννος from τρέπω. 

For the shifting of quantity from -ao to -€ω, see § 23 c. 

§ 32. The Digamma. (H. 72 D.) a. The following Avords seem to 
have been pronounced by the Homeric poet more or less consistently with 
initial digamma (vau, p, pronounced as English w) : — 

αγνυ/Αΐ break, αλις enough, ίχλώναι am captured, άνα$ king, άνδάνω ^^/ease, 
dpatos thin, άρνός lamb, άστυ city, e, ov, 61 him, etc. with a possessive pro- 
noun OS, η, 6v (e05 κτλ.), cap Spring, έθνος tribe, είκοσι twenty, είκω yield, 
εΐρω say, (future ερέω), εκάς far, έκαστος each, εκνρος father-in-law, εκών 
willing, ελίσσω wind, ελττομχχι hope, ενννμ,ι (ρεσ-ννμΑ.) clothe, εσθης, εϊματα 
clothes, ετΓος word, ερ-γον, ερ6ω work, ερνω, draic, έτος year, ε$ six, ετης com- 
panion, ή^νς sweet, (άνΒάνω please), ήθος haunt, Ιάχω cry aloud, ί8εΐν see, (and 
οΓδα, εΤΒος), ΐκελος, εοίκα am like, 1ς, Ιφι strength, sinew, ίσος equal, ϊτνς felly, 
οίκος house, οίνος wine. 

b. Probably ηρα (επΙ ηρα φέρων Α 572), *Ιλιος, and 'Ipts, and several 
other words, also were pronounced with initial p. 

c. άνδανω, €, εκνρος, εξ, and others seem to have begun originally with 
two consonants, σρ. 

d. The verse alone affords no sufficient test for the former exist- 
ence of ρ in any word ; it only indicates the loss of some consonant. 
This is not conclusive evidence for p, since σ and / (y) were also lost. 
Which consonant originally vwas present has to be learned in each case 
from inscriptions of other Greek dialects, from a few notes of ancient 
grammarians, and from other cognate languages {cf έργον work, οίνος 
wine). 

e. The sound of ρ evidently was going out of use in the Homeric 
period. It is not infrequently neglected in our texts, and sometimes this 
neglect seems to be due to the poet himself, but ρ can be restored in 
many passages by minor changes. For vlbv εκηβόλον A 21 it is possible 
to read via ρεκηβόλον, for ττάντεσσι δ' άνάσσειν A 288 it is easy to read 
ττασιν δέ ρανάσσείν, and χερσί ρεκηβόλον for χερσίν εκηβόλον Α 14. Per- 
haps κτεΐναί μεν ρ' άλεείνε Ζ 167 may have been κτεΐναι μεν ρε κτλ. 



§34c. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxiii 

f . That the sound of ρ was still alive in the Homeric age is shown by 
the accuracy of the poet in its use where comparative philology shows 
that it once existed. 

g. ρ sometimes leaves a trace of its existence in its cognate vowel ν : 
ανίρνσαν A 459 for apipvaav (§ 29 c), ταλανρινον Ε 289 for ταΧά-ρρίνον. 
So doubtless άττουρας A 356 for άττο-ρράς. 

h. Some irregularities of quantity may be explained by this vocaliza- 
tion of p. Thus άτΓοειπώι/ Τ 35 may have been αττορίίπων pronounced 
nearly as άπουειπώι/. ανίαχοι finds its analogy in yivero Ιαχή Δ 456 
(ycVcrovta;^!/). 

i. A neighboring vowel is sometimes lengthened to compensate for the 
loss of ρ (§ 59 c). 

j. An c was sometimes prefixed to a digamraated word and remained 
after the ρ was lost, as ϋλ^ωρ, ieiKoai, iipyei, ee. 

k. Sometimes the rough breathing represents the last remnant of a 
lost consonant (especially in the words which once began with σρ, as 
άι/δάνω κτλ., cf. c above), as €κών, «σττερος. Often the same root varies 
in breathing, as άν8άνω and ηΒυ'ς, but 17805, — (ίνννμι, but €σθής. 

1. For the augment and reduplication of digammated verbs, see § 43 d. 

m. For δ/Γ€ΐδω, 8ρψ, see § 59 λ. 

§ 33. Declension. Special Case Endinffs. (H. 217-, G.2O2ii.) sl. The 
suffix -φί(ν), a remnant of an old instrumental case, added to the stem 
forms a genitive and dative in both singular and plural. 

b. The suffix -Ol is added to the stem to denote place where. 

c. The suffix -Oev is added to the stem to denote place ivhence : "Ι^ηθεν 
from Ida, ονρανόθεν from heaven. It forms a genitive with the pronomi- 
nal stems, as W€v εΐνεκα Γ 128, προ Wev Ε 96. 

d. The enclitic -8e is added to the accusative to denote more distinctly 
the limit of motion: oIkovSc homeward (also oLKaSe, especially of the 
return of the Achaeans to their homes) ονδε Sop^ovSe to his own house, 
αλαδε seaward, κλισιτ/νδε to the tent. 

§ 34. First Declension. (H. 134 fp.; G. 168 ff.) a. η is found for 
final α of the stem with the exceptions mentioned in § 23. 

b. The nominative singular of some masculines ends in -τα for -τψ : 
μητί€τα counsellor. Cf. the Latin poetd, nauta. evpvona far-sounding is 
used also as accusative, e.g. A 498. 

All of these words are adjectival (titular) except Θυεστα Β 107. 

c. The genitive singular of masculines ends in -άο or (by transfer of 
quantity, § 23 c), -€ω. After a vowel this ending may be contracted to 
-ω, as ΑΙνειω Ε 534, Βορέω Ψ 692. The ending -εω is always pronounced 
as one syllable by synizesis (§ 25). 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. § 34 d. 

d. The genitive plural ends in -αων or -εωι/ : θ^άων, βονλίων. -εων is 
regularly pronounced as one syllable. 

e. The dative plural ends in -τ/σι(ν) or rarely in -ys. 

§ 35. Second Declension. (H. 151 ff. ; G. 189 ff.) a. The genitive 
singular has preserved the old ending -to, which affixed to the stem vowel 
makes -oio. 

b. The termination -oo is indicated by the metre in certain places 
where all the Mss. give a corrupt form, as οψίτίλ^στον 6o kX^os ov ttot 
ολΐΐται Β 325. It is to be recognized also in ΙΙετεωο Β 552 for Ilerccioo, 
from IIcTcius for Πετεάος. 

For the loss of ι in the* change from -oio to oo, see § 23/. 
The -oo was afterwards contracted to ov. 

c. The genitive and dative dual end in -ouv : τοαι/, ωμοαν. 

d. The dative plural ends in -οισι(ν) or -οις. As in the first declen- 
sion, the long ending is the rule ; the short ending is very rare before a 
consonant. 

§ 36. Third Declension. (H. 163 ff . ; G. 205 ff.) a. The ending t of 
the dative singular is sometimes long, and sometimes short. It is seldom 
elided. It is often long before a pingle consonant : Δα μητιν ατάλαντος, 
cf. νττερμενίΐ φίλον Β 116. 

b. The dative plural has the Aeolic ending -€σσι(ν) as well as the 
Attic -σι(ν) : ττόδεσσι, ττοσσί (§ 30 e), ποσί, — αν8/0€σσι, ά^δράσι, — κννεσσι, 
κνσί. 

C. Nouns in -is and -υς usually retain ι or υ throughout, but in its 
stead may insert c which is sometimes lengthened. 

d. Nouns in -cvs generally lengthen c to 7/ in compensation (§ 59 c) 
for the V which between two vowels becomes ρ and is lost, as βασιλεύς, 
βασίΧηος. 

§ 37. Anomalous forms, a. As verbs appear in the present system 
with a variety of collateral forms derived from the same root (cf. Γκω, 
ίκάι/ω, ίκνίομχχί, — 7Γ€νθομχιι, ττννθάνομχιΐ, — /Λ€νω, μίμνω, μίμνάζω), so nouns 
of different declensions are sometimes formed from the same root and 
are used without appreciable difference of meaning. 

b. Some nouns have both vowel and consonant stems : αΧκή Γ 45, 
but αλκί Ε 299 ; ίρίηρο<ζ ίταΐρος Δ 266, but cptr/pc? εταίροι Γ 378 ; cf 
7Γθλιι;τας Β 806 with ττολιται. 

C. Of vtos, three stems are found : (I) vl6<s, vlov, vU. The other forms 
of this declension are very rare. (2) vUos, vU'i, vua as if from vtiis. 
(3) νΙος, VLL, via, as from a nominative υις. 

In this word the first syllable is sometimes short (§ 23/), as it often 
is in Attic and in other dialects. 



§ 39 g. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxv 

d. Certain names of cities are found in both singular and plural: 
Μνκηνη Δ' '52, Μνκηνας Β 569 ; ®ηβης Δ 378, ®ηβα^ Ε 804. Instead of 
the later plural Θεστταχι', Πλαταιαι', Homer uses only the singular: ©c- 
σττειαν Β 498, Πλάταίαν Β 504. 

§ 38. Adjectives, a. Some adjectives of three terminations are 
used as if of two terminations, i.e. the masculine form is used also for 
the feminine : Ιφθίμονς ψνχά^ A 3, κλντος ΙτητοΒάμ,αα Β 742, ήίρα νονλνν 
Ε 776, Πυλοιο ημαθΟ€ντος Β 77. 

b. The feminine of adjectives in -rs, ends in -eta (gen. -«τ/ς), -ea 
(§ 23/), or -€η: βάθυνα., βαθείης, — ωκ€α, — βαθέψ, βαθέψ. 

C. πολνς (πουλυς) has in the masculine and neuter both stems ττολυ- 
(τΓουλυ-) and ττολλο- (for ττολυο-, § 37 α), with a nearly complete set of 
forms for each : πολλός and πολλόν, πολίος, ττολίες, ττολίων, πολίεσσι, κτλ. 

§ 39. Patronymics. (Η. 559 ; G. 846 f.) a. Suffixes which origi- 
nally expressed connection or possession were used to form patronymic 
adjectives. The original force of these suffixes is occasionally preserved : 
(^cot) Ονρανίων€ς A 570 is a mere adjective of connection like (^€οισΐι/) 
ίτΓονρανίοισι Ζ 129 ; Homer does not recognize Ουρανός as the ancestor of 
the gods. Όλυ/Λ7ηά8€9 μονσαί Β 491 is equivalent to μονσαι Όλυ'/ατηα 
8ωμχιτ ίχονσαί Β 484. 

b. Patronymics are frequently used as proper names, cf. *Ατρ€ί8η<; 
A 7, MevoLTiaSrj A 307, before the names Agamemnon, Patroclus had been 
mentioned. 

A. c. The patronymic is formed from stems of the 1st declension by 
adding -δα- : Αΰγτ/ιάδαο Β 624, or more frequently by adding -ιαδα- : Aaep- 
TiciV Γ 200. 

d. This analogy, giving an ending in -ιάδϊ/ς, is followed by stems in -lo 
of the 2d declension : Μενοιτιαδτ/ς. So also by stems of the 3d declension : 
Πτ/λτ/ιάδεω A 1 (as well as Πτ^λίΐδτ;? 5 316, Πτ^λείωνα A 197). See^ below. 

e. The suffix -ιδα- is added to stems in o, and the ο is lost as in d 
above : ΚρονίΒης, — also to stems in ev, which lose their υ between two 
vowels (c/. 23/): ^ΑτρείΒης A 7, — also to consonantal stems, as Άγα- 
μίμνονί^ς a 30. ^Ανθεμί^ης Δ 488 is formed as from "Ανθεμος rather 
than from ^Ανθίμίων {^Ανθεμίωνος νΐόν Δ 473). 

f. Patronymics from stems in -ev, after the loss of the υ, do not in 
Homer suffer contraction of the c of the stem with the ι of the suffix. 
The poet says *Ατρ€ΐ8ηζ, Άτρβίωι/, as tetrasyllables not trisyllables. The 
verse ictus never falls on the ct. 

g. Female patronymics are formed by the suffix -ιδ- which loses δ 
before the nominative sign : ΧρνσψΒα (ace. of Χρνσψ<;) A 182, Β/χστ/ιδα 
A 184. *Αχαιι'δ€5 Β 235 corresponds to Kovpot Ά;!(αιών A 473. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. § 39 h. 

B. h. Patronymics are formed also by the suffix -lov- : KpovtW A 528 
(with genitive Κρονΐωνος or Kponovos), Άτρείων, ϋηλειων. In these last 
forms from nouns in -evs the t is always short. 

i. The corresponding female patronymic is found in ^ΑΒρηστίνη 
Ε 412. 

j . Ταλαϊονιδαο Β 566 is irregular ; it seems to be formed by a cumula- 
tion of suffixes from Ύόλαος. So ΑαομώοντιάΒης (ΑαομεΒοντιά^η Γ 250) 
is formed from Λαο/χεδόντιος which itself appears as a patronymic (in the 
form Ααμ€8όνηος) in a Boeotian inscription. 

k. Some adjectives in -tos are used as patronymics, as Ύελαμωνκχ; Atas 
Β 528. 

1. The patronymics in -Βης are far more numerous than those in -lwv. 

m. The patronymic is sometimes derived from the grandfather's 
name : Achilles is called ΑΙακίΒψ Β 860 ; Priam, ΑαρΒανίΒψ Γ 303 ; the 
two grandsons of Actor, *Ακτορίων€ Β 621. Thus in later poetry, Heracles 
is called Alcides (Άλκειδϊ/ς) from Amphitryo's father ΆλκαΓο? or 'Αλκευς. 

§ 40. Comparison of Adjectives, a. Comparatives and superla- 
tives end in -ιων, -ιστό*; more frequently than in Attic. (H. 253 ; G. 72.) 

b. άγαμος has comparatives άρείων (cf. άριστος), βίλτερον, κρεισσων, 
λώιον, φίρτερος. 

§ 41. Numerals. (Η. 288; G. 372 f.) a. m has a collateral form ιω 
Ζ 422 ; cf. the feminine form ta Δ 437. 

b. δυω, δυο is indeclinable. It has the collateral forms δοιώ, Soiot, κτλ. 

§ 42. Pronouns. (H. 261 ff.; G. 389 ff.) a. The oblique cases of 
the 3d personal pronoun when enclitic are ' anaphoric,' like αντον κτλ. in 
Attic ; when accented they have their original reflexive use, like Attic 
εαυτοί), Ιμαντον, σεαυτου, κτλ., which compounds are post-Homeric. 

b. μίν, σφωε, σφωίν, σφι, σφάζ, and σφε are always enclitic. 
• c. For the relation of the form ερ,εΓο to ερ,ε'ο, of σειο to rεΌ, κτλ., see 
§ 23/ 

d. αυτό? regularly retains its intensive force in the oblique cases, even 
when not connected with a noun expressed, often marking a contrast 
which it is difficult to render smoothly in the English idiom. Cf. 

The presumption is always strongly in favor of the original meaning ; 
but all shades of meaning are found from the strict intensive to the 
simple anaphoric use of the Attic dialect. 

e. For αυτως in the sense of ώσαυ'τως, see g below. In this use it has a 
large variety of meanings, as (άφρονα τ') αντως Γ 220 a mere {mnpleton) ; 
without cause A 520, without a prize A 133, absolutely Β 138, vainly Β 342, 
without chariot Ε 255. Most of these meanings are derived from in the 



§43c. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxvii 

same way as he/ore, the connection determining the special sense of each 
passage. 

f. The Attic article 6, η, τό, generally retains its demonstrative force 
in Homer, but like the intensive pronoun in the oblique cases, appears 
occasionally in its Attic signification. 

In their demonstrative use, 6, η, oi, at, are best written o, ψ οι, at. — 
Tot', rat, τώς are used besides oi, at, ως. 

g. Thus the absence of the article does not mark a noun as indefinite; 
cf. μηνιν a€t8e θεά A 1 with arm a virumque cano. Frequently 
αυτως is equivalent to Attic ωσαύτως (ως being the adverb of the article, 
see / above and § 56 c) while ως δ' αυτως Γ 339 is equivalent to Attic 
ovτ^ύ ο ωσαύτως. 

h. The demonstrative article is often followed by a noun in apposi» 
tion with it, as ot δ' εχάρησαν * Αχαιοί re Ύρωές re Γ 111, but these rejoiced, 
both Achaeans and Trojans, avrap 6 βονν upevaev άνα$ άν8ρων * Αγαμέμνων 
Β 402 but he, Agamemnon, king of men, sacrificed an ox. 

i. The forms with initial τ often have a relative force, but refer only 
to a definite antecedent. This is a relic of paratactic construction (§ 21), 
as is particularly clear in άλλα τα μεν πολίων εζεττράθομεν τα δίδασται 
Α 125 but what we took as spoils from the cities, these have been divided. 

j. κεΐνοζ is often found for εκείνος. 

k. Besides the Attic forms of the relative, δ is used for δς, oov (better 
δο, § 35 b) for ου. 

-1. The forms ος and δ have also a demonstrative use, especially δς 
with ονΒέ, μη^έ, και, and yap. 

For the relative use of the article, see i above. 

m. The neuter δ is frequently used as a conjunction, like quod. So 
also oTi and δ τε. 

η. The indefinite and interrogative pronouns have genitive singular 
T€o, τεν. 

ο. In δ Tts for δς Tts (cf. 6 for δς, k above), the first stem often remains 
uninflected. 

§43. Conjugation. Augment and Reduplication. (H. 354 ff.; 
G. 510 ff.) a. The augment was for a time considered unessential : 
whether temporal or syllabic, it may be omitted in the Homeric poems ; 
the accent is then thrown back as far as possible, as τενχε A 4, όλεκοντο 
A 10, άφιει A 25. 

b. When the augment is omitted, monosyllabic forms with long 
vowel take the circumflex accent, as βη for εβη. 

c. Sometimes initial ρ is not doubled after the augment, as ερεζε 
Β 400 ; sometimes initial λ, μ, or σ is doubled after the augment. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. § 43 d. 

d. Stems which originally began with a consonant may take the 
syllabic augment or reduplication, as «ιπον, €ηκ€, — Ιοικα, topya. 

e. The second aorist active and middle, of verbs. whose stem begins 
with a consonant, is often found with a reduplicated stem, as c/cckXcto, 
ά/χπεπαλών, ίτετμΐ, τετνκοντο. 

f. The so-called Attic reduplication is more common in Homer than in 
Attic, and its use extends to the second aorist where the augment also 
may be used (cf. Attic ηγαγον), as rjpape, and the peculiar form ηνίπατΓ€ 
Β 24δ from ίνίτττω in which the final consonant of the theme is redupli- 
cated with α as a connective. 

g. SctSot/ca and SetSia have irregular reduplication ; probably these are 
to be explained as for δεδ/τοικα, ScS/rta. 

h. €μμορα (from μύρομχίχ) and (σσνμαι (from σίύω) double the initial 
consonant and prefix e as if they began with two consonants. 

§ 44. Endings. (H. 375 ff. ; G. δδΐ ff ., 777 ff.) a. The singular endings, 
-μι, -σθα, -σι, occur more frequently than in Attic ; especially -μι and -σ* 
in the subjunctive, as ΙΒωμι, άγάγω/Αΐ, «^«λτ/σι, βάΧτισι. These endings 
are rare in the subjunctive of the contracted /xi-forms, as δώσι A 129. 

b. In the pluperfect, the older endings -ca κτλ. are preserved. The 
third person singular ends in -ce(v) or -civ, as βφηκαν A 221, ^3c€ Β 409. 

c. The second and third persons singular of the first aorist optative ac- 
tive end in -eux?, -etc(v), as /xetVctas, KaAeVetev. The second person in -αις oc- 
curs very rarely. The third person in -at is more common, as γηθ-ησαί A 255. 
The third person plural ends in -ciav, as rtitrctav A 42, aKowrtuxv Β 282. 

d. The third person plural optative active of /i,i-verbs ends in -uv, as 
(lev, Βαμεΐεν, Sdlcv. 

e. The third person plural imperative ends in -των, -σθων (never 
-τωσαν, -σθωσαν). 

f. α. Active infinitives (except in the first aorist) frequently end in 
-/xcvat, which is sometimes shortened after a short vowel to -μεν, as 
(μμεναί, εμμεν, Ιλθίμεν{αί), τίθνάμ€ν(α.ί). 

β. The shortening of -/xevat to -/x,ev occurs generally before a vowel, 
where it may be called elision. 

γ. The ending -vat is found only after a long vowel, as δούναι. 

g. Aorist passive infinitives end in -μεναι or -ναι. 

h. The second person singular of the middle generally remains uncon- 
tracted (§ 24), as όδυρεαι, ιδιρι Γ 130, ^άλλίο A 297. Contracted forms 
are used occasionally, as μετατρέτη) A 160, γνώστη Β 365, κεκληστ) Γ 138. 

i. In the perfect middle, -σαι regularly loses its σ. 

j. -σο retains its σ only in the imperative, as εσσο, ϊστασο. 

k. The first person plural middle often ends in -μεσθα. 



§ 47 e. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xxxix 

1. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect indicative mid- 
dle often, and of the optative middle always, ends in -αται, -ατο for -νται, 
-ντο. Before these endings smooth labial and palatal mutes are aspirated, 
as Ιτητίτράφαται (perfect passive of ίτητρίπω). 

m. The third person plural indicative of the aorist passive generally 
ends in -ev instead of -ήσαν, as η-γερθίν A 57, φάχχνθ^ν A 200, τράφεν A 251 
δΐ£τ/Ααγ€ν A 531. Cf. the active t -λυ-σα-ν, €-λνο-ν. 

η. Similarly, ν is used for the later -σαν in the imperfect and second 
aorist of /Ai-verbs, as ξννιεν A 273, «σταν, σταν, ΐβαν. 

ο. For the optative ending of /u-verbs, in -lev not -ίησαν, see d above. 

§ 45. Subjunctive Mode. a. The variable vowel ('connecting vowel') 
of the subjunctive is generally short in the, first aorist, second aorist of 
jux-forms, second aorist passive, second perfect of primitive formation, as 
βησομεν, ayetpo/xev, ΐομεν, θ^ίομεν, τραττείομεν, 8αμ€ί€Τ€, ctSo/xcv, πεττοίθομεν. 
(Η. 373 D; G. 780.) 

This short vowel is found before the endings -μεν, -τον, -τε, and in 
middle forms. 

b. A few forms of the first aorist have a long vowel following the 
analogy of the present, as Βηλησηται Γ 107. 

c. There are no certain examples of the short mode-vowel in the 
present of verbs in -ω. (For βονλεται άντιάσας A 67, βονλητ άντιάσας 
may be substituted, etc.') 

N.B. The forms of the first aorist subjunctive are easily confused with 
those of the future, with which they are identical in appearance. 

§ 46. Optative Mode. For the optative endings, see 44 c, d. 

§ 47. Contract Verbs. (H. 409 D ; G. 784 ft'.) a. Verbs in -αω exhibit 
unchanged, assimilated, and contracted forms ; the poet's choice between 
contracted and uncontracted forms seems to have been determined largely 
by the rhythm. The vowels are regularly contracted when the second is 
in a short syllable. 

b. Uncontracted forms without assimilation occur rarely, as πεινάων 
Γ 25. (ουτα, Δ 525 and often, is a second aorist, see § 53.) 

c. The vowels of the uncontracted forms are generally assimilated, α 
prevailing over a following e or η but being assimilated to o, ω, or ov. 
These forms are intermediate between the original and the contracted 
stage. 

d. One of the vowels is usually lengthened in the text of the Mss. 
Sometimes this appears to be a conformation to Attic usage (§ 22/). 

e. Verbs in -εω generally remain uncontracted; except εε, which is 
generally contracted in the Mss., but often the uncontracted forms are 



xl INTRODUCTION. § 47 f. 

metrically possible, co is very rarely contracted except in the participle 
ending -ενμενος (where contraction occurs to prevent a too frequent 
recurrence of short syllables, § 59 e). «ω is never contracted but is often 
pronounced as one syllable by synizesis (§ 25). 

f. Sometimes the variable vowel c is contracted with c of the stem 
instead of with the termination. One of these vowels is sometimes 
dropped, as άττοαίρεο A 275. 

g. The older form of these verbs, in -«ω, is sometimes preserved, as 
ireXeteTo A 5, veLKetyai A 579. See § 23 e. 

h. φορέω forms φορίαν Δ 144, φορηναι Β 107. 

,i. Verbs in -οω are generally contracted. Sometimes they have forms 
with the double ο sound, like verbs in -αω, as €στρατόωντο Γ 187 (which 
might be written έστρατόοντο) . 

§48. Tenses. Future and First Aorist, Active and Middle. (H. 420ff. ; 
G. 777.) a. Pure verbs which do not lengthen the stem-vowel in the 
formation of the tenses, often have double σ in the future and first aorist, 
active and middle. 

b. In the future the σ of the before-mentioned verbs often disappears, 
as KoXeovaa Γ 383, oActrat Β 325. 

c. Stems in δ often show double σ in the aorist. 

d. Most of these forms with σσ may be explained as original or assim- 
ilated, as νείκεσσε from the theme νεικεσ (cf. νεΐκος), κομίσσατο for κομι^ 
σατο (cf. κομίΒη). Thus the stem-vowel of these verbs was not final 
originally, and hence is not lengthened in the future and aorist. 

e. Some stems in λ and ρ retain the w of the future and aorist 
(as some do in Attic), as Ιλσαι A 409, κυρσας Γ 23, ωρσε A 10. 

f. The so-called Doric future with tense-sign σε, is found in εσσεΐται 
Β 393. 

g. Some verbs have a future without tense-sign, as εΐμι, κακκείοΡτες to 
lie down, cSo/xai, ττίομαί, ερύω. Most of these verbs are old presents which 
acquired a future signification, εΐμι is not always future in Homer, cf. B. 87. 

h. Some verbs form the first aorist active and middle without σ, as 
εχεεν Ζ 419 (from εχεα for εχενα), εσσενα Ε 208, εκηα Α 40 from καίω. 

ί. The first aorist often has the variable vowel of the second aorist o/^, 
as r^oi/, Βνσετο. So in the imj)erative, as βήσεο Ε 109, ορσεο Γ 250, α^ετε 
Γ 105, οίσετε Γ 103; infinitive, οίσεμεναι Γ 120; participle, επιβησόμενον 
Ε 46. 

j. Verbs in -^ω often have themes in γ, and thus futures and first 
aorists in -|ω and -^a, as εξαλαττά^αι A 129, ιττολεμίζομεν Β 328. 

§ 49. Perfect. (Η. 446 ft'., 490; G. 682 ff.) a. The so-called first per- 
fect in -κα is formed only from 20 vowel-stems. It is almost as rare as 



§52. THE HOMERIC DIALECT. xli 

the first aorist in -κα (Ιδωκα, €ηκα, Ιθηκα). Forms without κ are derived 
even from vowel-stems, especially participial forms, as κ^κμηκας Ζ 262, 
but κεκμηωτί Ζ 261. 

b. The final mute of the stem is not aspirated. 

c. The endings are affixed immediately to the reduplicated verb-stem 
in βεβάασι, γεγαώτας, ΒείΒίθι, Ιίκτην, tS/xev, κεκ/χτ/ώς, έττίτηθμεν, τ€τλαθί. 

ά. Ιρρίγ(ΐσί Γ 353 and όλώλϊ/ Δ 164 have the force of present subjunc- 
tives. 

e. ακαχημ^νο^ and ίσσνμενος are accented irregularly as presents. 

f. The second perfect often has a long vowel in the stem where the 
second aorist has a short vowel, as ορωρεν Β 797, tupopc Β 14G. 

g. In the feminine participle the short form of the stem appears, as 
άρηρως, but apapvta ; hence «κυΓα not άκνία Γ 386 etc. 

§ 50. Voices. Middle, a. The active and middle forms bpav (about 
40 times) and ορασθαι (about 20 times), I8eiv (more than 200 times) and 
Ι^ίσθαι (90 times), are used often without appreciable difference of mean- 
ing. Cf. Ιφατο Β 807, Ιφη A 584. 

b. The first aorist middle is sometimes used without diiference of 
meaning from the second aorist active, as βησετο, Γ 262, εβη A 311 ; iSv- 
σετο Γ 328, ?δυ Γ 36. 

C. The future middle is sometimes used as passive, as τεΧίεσθαι Β 36. 
Cf. 51 e. 

d. The aorist middle is often used as passive» Cf. χολωσαμίνη Γ 413 
with χολωθείς A 98, χάρη Γ 76 with κεχαροίατο A 256, ayepovro Β 94 with 
η-γερθεν A 57, άμφεχντο Β 41, κταμένοιο Γ 375» Cf ελελίχθησαν Ε 497 
theij rallied, θωρηχθηναι Α 226 arm himself 

The passive foi'mation in Greek is comparatively late. 

§51. Passive, a. For the ending of the aorist passive infinitive, see §44^. 

b. For the ending of the third person plural indicative, see § 44 m. 

c. The second aorist subjunctive passive usually remains uncontracted, 
and follows the rule of /xt-verbs (§ 52 c). 

d. In the second aorist subjunctive, the passive suffix is often long 
(and the mode s^owel short in the dual and in the first or second person 
pluial, § 45 a), as 8αμηΎΐ<; Γ 436 (^άμνημι), τραττεωμεν Γ 441 (τέρπω, § 31), 
but μί-γεωσίν Β 475 (μίσ-γω). 

e. Homer has only two futures from passive stems. 

f. Some verbs have both first and second aorists passive, as εμίχθη Ε 
134, εμίγψ Γ 445. 

§ 52. Verbs in -MI. (ΓΙ. 476 ff. ; G. 787 ff.) a. Some verbs in -μι 
have forms in the present and imperfect indicative which follow the 
analogy of contract verbs : ηθεΐ, διδοΓ, διδονσι, Ιεΐσι. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. § 62 b. 

b. For the ending -v for -σαν, see § 44 n. 

c. The second aorist subjunctive active generally remains uncon- 
tracted. The stem vowel often appears in its long form with short 
mode vowel in the dual and in the first and second persons plural (c/. 
§§ 45 a, 51 d), as δώτ^σιν A 324, θ€.ίομ€.ν A 143 (better θηομ,εν, Attic θωμεν)^ 
-γνωωσι A 302, ίρύομεν A 62 (better Ιρηομεν, as from an Ιρημι). 

§ 53. Second Aorists without Variable Vowel. (H. 489; G. 125, 3.) 
Many second aorists, active and middle, are found without variable 
vowel, following the analogy of verbs in -/ai, as αλτο A 532 (αλλο/χαι), 
tyvia A 199, hUro Β 420 {^Ιχομηι), βλητο Δ 518 (βάλλω), κλνθι Α 37, 
kXvtc β 56 (κλυω), οντά Ζ 64, ίσσντο Β 809 (σ€υω). 

§ 54. Iterative Forms. (Η. 493; G. 778.) a. Iterative forms of 
the imperfect and aorist indicate the repetition of a state or action. The 
augment is generally omitted. These forms are characterized by the 
suffix -σκ, and have the inflection of the imperfect of verbs in -ω. They 
are confined to the Ionic dialect. The iterative idea is frequently waning 
and occasionally is lost. 

b. Verbs in -ω add the endings -σκον or -σκομην to the €-form of the 
stem oi the present or second aorist, as €σκ€, είττεσκε, ιδεσκε. 

§ 55. Prepositions, a. Prepositions often retain their original adver- 
bial force (as iv Se but therein, -πάρα 8e and beside him). They may be 
placed after the verbs or nouns with which they are connected. See 
§19 6. (H. 785; G. 1222 fE.) 

b. The preposition is often separated from the verb which it modifies, 
as Trap δέ Κεφαλλϊ;ι/ων άμφΐ στίχες ονκ άλαπαδναι | εστασαν Δ 330 f., 
where ττάρ modifies Ιστασαν. 

C. Anastrophe. (Η. 109 ; G. 116.) α. Disyllabic prepositions, when 
they immediately follow the word with which they are construed, take 
the accent upon the penult, except αμφί, αντί, ανά, δια. ανα Ζ 331 stands 
for άνάστηθί. Ivt is used for eveiat or cvcan, ctti for «ττεση, ficVa for 
μίτεστί. 

β. Elided prepositions suffer anastrophe only when they as adverbs 
modify a verb to be supplied, as επ Γ 45 for «ττεστι, — or by way of 
exception, in order to avoid ambiguity, as c^' A 350, to show that the 
preposition is to be connected with the preceding word. 

d. a. €v has the parallel forms eiv, m. civ stands only in the part of 
the foot which receives the ictus, and its use is nearly confined to certain 
phrases, as elv ayoprj, ctv *Αιδαο δό/χοισιν. 

β. The poet uses both cs and cis, προς, ττροτί, and ττοτι', υπό and 
υτταχ. 

f . αμφί, ανά, and μετά are used also with the dative. 



§57d. HOMERIC VERSE. xliii 

§ 56. Adverbs. (H. 257 ft'.; G. 365 ft.) a. A predicate adjective is 
often used where the English idiom has an adverb or an adverbial 
phrase, as χθίζος Ιβη A 424 went yesterday^ ηεριη A 497 early in the 
morning, ττανημίριοι A 472 all day long, τΓρηνης Ε 58 (promts) on his 
face. 

β. ττρόφρων willing is used only predicatively, where the English idiom 
uses willingly. 

b. Adverbs ending in -a are common : σάφα, τάχα, wkcu These seem 
to have been originally neuter cognate accusatives, and many are such 
still ; cf. ττόλλ* €7Γ€τελλ€, ττολλα ηρατο, μί-γα νητηε, με-γόΧ ενχετο, κτλ. 

C. Adverbs in -ως are not common ; they are most frequent from 
o-stems: όντως (ούτος), ως (ο), αυτως (αυτός), κακώς (κακός). Ισως and 
ομοίως are not found, καλώ? only β 63, φίλως only Δ 347. 

§ 57. HOMERIC VERSE. The Heroic Hexameter. (H. 1064 ff., 1100; 
G. 1668 f.) a. The poems are to be read with careful attention to the 
metrical quantity of each syllable, as well as to the sense of the passage. 
There are six feet (bars or measures) in each verse; hence the name 
hexameter. Emphasis or stress of voice is laid on the first syllable of 
each foot. The part of the foot which has no ictus (the arsis) should 
receive as much time though not so much stress as the ictus-syllable 
(the thesis). The rhythm would be called f time in modern music. The 
English hexameter (found e.g. in Longfellow's Evangeline) is generally 
read as of f time. 

b. The written word-accent is to be disregarded in reading Homeric 
verse. Occasionally the verse-ictus and word-accent may coincide, but the 
word-accent seems to have had no influence on the formation of the verse. 

c. The dactyl ( I ^ ^or w w), with the ictus on the first sylla- 
ble, is the fundamental and prevailing foot of Homeric verse. It is often 
replaced by a spondee^ or heavy dactyl (I I or ). 

Dactyls are about three times as frequent as spondees in the Homeric 
poems. 

d. Verses in which each of the first five feet is a dactyl are far more 
common in Homer than in Vergil : there are 160 in the first book of the 
Iliad alone. Many frequently recurring verses have this rhythm ; as τον 
δ' α7Γαμ€ίβόμ€νος ιτροσίφη ττόδας ωκνς Άχιλλ€ΰς, — ανταρ iirel πόσιος και 
€8ητνος ii tpov Ιντο. Many other verses have but one spondee (generally 
in the first foot) among the first five feet ; as ημος δ' ηίλίος κατίΒυ καΐ im 
κνίφας ηΚθ€ν. 

1 This name was derived from the use of this slow, solemn measure in the 
hymns which accompanied the libation (σποι/δή) to the gods. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. § 57 e. 

e. Spondees are most common in the first two feet ; they are more 
and more avoided in each foot toward the close of the verse. 

f. The first foot allows more freedom than any other. A short vowel 
there more frequently retains its natural quantity before a mute and a 
liquid, and yet is more frequently lengthened in the unaccented part of 
the foot before that combination. At the close of the first foot, hiatus is 
allowed (§ 27 δ). 

g. The Bucolic diaeresis (§ 58 K) is seldom immediately preceded by a 
word of three long syllables. Before this diaeresis, a dactyl ;s strongly 
preferred. 

h. Verses which have a spondee in the fifth foot are called spondaic 
verses {ΐττη στΓονΒείΛκα) . They are more common in Homer than in the 
Latin poets, — about 4: per cent of the verses of the Iliad being spondaic. 

i. These spondaic verses seem especially frequent at the close of 
emphatic sentences or of divisions of the narrative (cf. A 21, 157, 291, 
600) and in descriptions of suffering and toil, but often no rhythmic 
effect is sought ; the convenience of the verse determined the measure. 

j. The last foot in each verse is a spondee, but the final syllable may 
be short; the deficiency in time is then made up by the slight pause 
which follows at the end of the verse (§ 59 a, I). A heavy or consonan- 
tal ending is preferred; hence the jz-movable is often used. 

k. The student need not concern himself about elision as in Latin 
poetry ; that is already done in the text ; but he must be watchful for 
synizesis (§ 25). 

§ 58. Caesural Pauses. (H. 1081; G. 1642.) a. Each verse has one 
or more caesural pauses {caesura = τομή cutting^, — pauses within a foot. 

b. The principal caesura of the verse is always a pause in the sense, 
and is often emphasized by punctuation, but occasionally commas are 
found where no pause is necessary. 

Of course no pause can be made immediately before an enclitic, since 
this is closely connected with the foregoing word. 

c. A caesura is almost always found in the third foot; only 185 verses 
of the Iliad and 71 of the Odyssey have no pause there. It occurs either 
after the ictus-syllable (as μηνιν aciSe θεά A ΐΐηλψά^εω Άχιληος A 1 

_ww l_wv^ |_A_l_ww I — wv^» 1 \),ov between the 

two short syllables (as άνδρα /xot εννεττε Μούσα A ττολντροπον ο? μόλα 

τΓολλά al,_v^w |_ν^ν^ l_v^Aw |_vyw |_ww I I)• These 

two caesuras are about equally frequent; but the second slightly pre- 
dominates and seems to have been preferred. 

d. The importance of the caesura in the third foot is marked not 
only by the freedom with which hiatus is allowed there (§ 27 b), and by 



§58k. HOMERIC VERSE. xlv 

the evident avoidance of elision at that point, but also by the large 
number of tags of verses which are suited to follow it ; as πατήρ avSpiov 
T€ θ€ων T€, βοωπι^ ttOtvm, "ϊ^^ρη, Oea λ^νκωλενος "ίίρη, θεα γλαυκώπις 
Άθήνη, φίλομμεί8η<; * Αφροδίτη, Διό? θυγάτηρ ΆφροΒίτη, ενκνημί^ες * Αχαιοί, 
*Α;(αιώι/ ;;^(χλκο;(ΐτώι/ων, κάρη κομόωντες ^Αγαιοί, άρψφίλο<ί McvcAaos, άναζ 
ανδρών *Α•γαμ.€μνων, βσην άγαθος ΑωμηΒη<ί, Τερηνιο^ Ιττπότα Νεστίορ κτλ. 
— all of which roust be preceded by the feminine caesura (see/) of the 
third foot ; while *Αγα/Λ€/χνονο5 'Ατρειδαο, evpv κρείων *Α•γαμίμνων, "ηγη- 
Topcs η^ /AcSovres, άπαμείβετο φωνησεν re κτλ. nmst be preceded by the 
masculine caesura of the third foot. See § 22 b, c. 

e. The pause after the first syllable of the third foot is called the 
penthemimeral caesura (ttcvtc, r/pj.-, μίρο^) because it comes after the fifth 
half-foot; it divides the verse into 2^ + 3^ feet. The pause between the 
two short syllables of the third foot divides the verse into 2| + 3\ feet. 

f. The pause after an ictus-syllable is called a masculine caesura 
because of the vigorous movement which it gives to the verse. The 
pause between two unaccented syllables is called a, feminine caesura. 

g. Sometimes the principal pause of the verse is the masculine caesura 
of the fourth foot. This is called the hephthemimeral caesura («πτα, ημι-, 
μίρός). It is frequent after a feminine caesura of the third foot. It 
gives an energetic movement after a penthemimeral caesura, when the 
verse is divided into 2.^ -f- 1 -f- 2^ feet. 

h. Sometimes the pause of the verse is at the close of the fourth foot; 
this is called the Bucolic diaeresis (a diaeresis being a pause at the end 
of a word between two feet) or caesura, since it is most evidently aimed 
at in the bucolic or pastoral poetry of Theocritus. Occasionally there is 
a transition at this point to another part of the story, as A 318, 348, 430. 
This Bucolic diaeresis with the penthemimeral caesura divides the verse 
into 2| -h 1^ -f- 2 feet. 

i. The importance of the Bucolic diaeresis is marked by the large 
number of tags of verses which are ready to follow it, as δΤος 'Οδυσσεύς, 
€ρκος 'Αχαιών, ίτητότα Νέστωρ, οβρίμος "Αρης, φαίΒιμος "Εκτωρ, Φοίβος 
'Απόλλων, Παλλάς *A^7;vr;, δια ^εάων, μητύτα Ζευς, iaoOeos φως. See 
§ 22 C. Hiatus is allowed here occasionally. See § 27 b. 

j. A slight pause occurs about as often, after the first short syllable 
of the fifth foot. The poet prefers to close the verse with the rhythm 

\y, \y (where the comma represents the end of a word) rather 

than v^ ,^, ; hence ovtc τελεσσας A 108, not οντ* ετελεσσας, and 

αλγε' ίθηκεν A 2, not αλγεα θηκ€ν. 

k. The principal pause of the verse is seldom found at the close of 
the third foot. This would divide the verse into two equal parts and 



xlvi INTKODUCTION. § 58 1. 

cause monotony. A word ends there not infrequently, but is accom- 
panied by a more prominent caesura in the third or fourth foot ; as €νθα 
ιδον πλείστους Φρύγας άνδρας Γ 185, where the last two words are so 
closely connected that no caesura is felt between them. 

1. Even a slight pause is rare between the two short syllables of the 
fourth foot. In και (ττείθετο μνθύ A 33, the objectionable pause might 
be avoided by omitting the augment, but the conjunction is connected 
with the verb so closely that no caesura is felt. 

m. No sentence ends with the second foot. 

n. The pause in the third foot gives to the rest of the verse an 
anapaestic movement, from which it is often recalled by the Bucolic 
diaeresis. 

o. The varied position of the main caesura, and the minor pauses in 
different parts of the verse, give perfect freedom from monotony without 
detracting from the grace and dignity of the measure. 

§ 59. QuANTiTY.i (II. go fp. ; G. 98 ff., 1622.) a. Metrical con- 
venience or necessity often determined the poet's choice among synony- 
mous words (§ 22 a-c). The poet in general preferred the light dactyls 
to the heavy dactyls or spondees, and retained in the Epic dialect a large 
number of dactylic forms which were afterwards contracted. An amphi- 
macer (_ \j _, αμ,φί, μχικρόν) was avoided often by means of apocope, 
synizesis, or elision. 

Most exceptions to the rules of quantity are only apparent. The poet, 
for example, did not lengthen a short syllable by placing the ictus upon 
it. If an apparently short final syllable stands where a long syllable is 
expected, it is probable either 

(1) that the final syllable was originally long, and later lost part of its 
quantity; or 

i The beginner will find it convenient to remember concerning o, *, u, the 
vowels whose quantity is not clear at the first glance, that 

(1) they are short in the final syllable of any word when the antepenult 
has the acute or if the penult has the circumflex accent ; 

(2) they are regularly short in inflectional endings, as μάχχισι, τ^ρωα^ Tpfvovcri, 
τίθνηκα, — in the final syllables of neuter nouns, as ίώ/«ι, ^/uop, /xeAi, δάκρυ, — 
in suffixes, except where ν has been lost before σ, as φνσ1ί5, δολίηε, Φοίνισσα, — 
in particles, especially in prepositions, as ανά, vepl, vv6, άρα, €τι, — and gener- 
ally in the second aorist stem of verbs ; 

(3) they are long in the final syllable when the penult is long by nature 
and has the acute accent ; 

(4) they are long when they are the result of contraction, as έτίμά from 
έτίμα(, ίρόν, from itpoy, and as the final vowel of the stem of nouns of the first 
declension. 



§59e. HOMERIC VERSE. xlvii 

(2) that the following word has lost an initial consonant which would 
have made the preceding syllable long by position (see j below) ; or 

(3) that the pause (musical rest) of a caesura or diaeresis, fills out the 
time occupied by the foot, allowing the same freedom as at the end of 
the verse (§ 57./). 

b. A considerable number of anomalies, however, remain unexplained. 
Prominent among the unexplained anomalies of quantity is the ϊ of 
certain abstract nouns, which form such a definite class that it may be 
assumed that there was some explanation, perhaps physiological, for 
them all. 

c. Many apparently irregular variations of natural quantity, as well as 
apparent freedom in allowing hiatus, and variations of quantity made by 
position (see / below), are to be explained by the loss of a consonant, 
e.g. -AtSos Γ 322 but J^AtSt A 3, from a-pih (§ 32), /χε/Α^σαν Β 863 but 
μεμαότες Β 818 (μ€μαροτ€<;)' 

d. α. A syllable which contains a long vowel or a diphthong is long 
by nature. Final at and oi are metrically long, although short as regards 
accentuation. 

β. The quantity of some vowels is not fixed, as 'Απόλλωνος A 14, 
ίΑτΓολλων, A 380; 'Apes, "Αρες Ε 31 (if the text is right). 

γ. Most of these vowels with variable quantity were originally long 
and were becoming short, as the Homeric ίσος, καλός, and φάρος, became 
ίσος, καλός, and φάρος in Attic poetry, pevapivo {cf. ωρτ] dapivrj Β 471), 
Attic Ιαρινός, is found on a Boeotian inscription. Evidently every vowel 
which at first was long and afteiivards became short must have had at 
some time a metrical quantity which could be treated either as long or 
short, i.e. its quantity was variable. 

δ. For the length of final ι in the dative singular of the third declen- 
sion, see § 36 a. irpCv in irplv αντ Ζ 81 retains its original length, as a 
contracted comparative. 

c. With this variation of natural quantity may be compared the 
double forms employed in Homer, — one with a single consonant, another 
with two consonants, as Άχιλλεΰς A 54, Ά^ιλενς A 199; Όδυσσ€υ9 A 430, 
Όδυσευς Δ 494 ; Ίρίκκψ Β 729, Ύρίκης Δ 202 ; οππως Α 344, οττώς Α 136; 
μεσσον Γ 266, μέσον Α 481, κτλ., many of which doubled consonants are 
known to be justified etymologically. 

e. Sometimes a naturally short vowel was lengthened (not by the 
poet, but in the speech of the people) in order to avoid the too frequent 
recurrence of short syllables. This is illustrated by the rule for the use 
of ο or ω in the comparison of adjectives (σοφωτερος but κουφότερος), 
and by the words which have a vowel similarly lengthened in the Attic 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. § 59 f. 

dialect (as αθάνατος, προσηγορος, ν-πηρίτης). We fiwdi «ανηρ but αι /epcs, 
Πρια/οιθ5 but Ώ,ρΙαμίΒψ, θνγατηρ but θυγατέρα. 

f. α. In Homeric verse a syllable which contains a short vowel is long 
by position when the vowel is followed by a double consonant (ζ, $, ψ) or 
by two or more consonants, whether these are in the same or in the fol- 
lowing word or are divided between the two words. 

β. This rule holds good also in case of a nmte followed by a liquid. 
This combination rarely fails to make position within a word, and gen- 
erally makes position when it stands at the beginning of a word, espe- 
cially when this word is closely connected with the preceding. 

g. a. Sometimes a vow^l remains short before a mute followed by λ 
or p, as ^ΑφροΒίτη Γ 380, άμφΧβρότης Β 389, άμφΧ^ρνφης Β 700, ττροτρα- 
ττίσθαι Ζ 336, νενσί KpovtW Α 528, ^αλε Πρια/χ,ιδαο Γ 356, γαρ ρα Κλυται- 
μνηστρης Α 113. These words and phrases could not have been brought 
into the verse if the mute and liquid must make length by position, and 
the history of the language shows that this combination of mute and 
liquid was gradually losing its weight. 

β. That a mute and liquid do not always make length by position is 
explained by the ease with which the combination can be pronounced at 
the beginning of a syllable, leaving the preceding vowel short. 

γ. Before four words, two of which begin with the double consonant 
ζ and two with the two consonants σκ (not a mute and a liquid), the 
preceding vowel remains short : ot tc Ζάκννθον Β 634, ot δε ZcXcuxv Β 824, 
ττροχίοντο ^καμάνΒρων Β 465, Ιττειτα σκί,τταρνον c 237. 

h. α. Α single λ, ρ,, ν, ρ, σ, at the beginning of certain words, may 
make position {cf. § 30 δ) : cTrca ηφάδεσσι Γ 222 (c/. άγά-ννιφον A 420 and 
English snow). 

β. So also δ makes position in the stem δ /rt- (δεισαι fea?'), and always 
In Srjv long, as tSciaev δ' 6 γέρων A 33, ου rt μάλά Srjv A 416. 

i. a. Cognate languages and collateral dialectic forms show that most 
words which in the Attic dialect began with p, once began with σρ or pp. 
This explains the doubling of the ρ after the augment and in composi- 
tion, as well as its power to make position in Homeric verse. 

β. Of the instances of lengthening before μ, most are only physiologi- 
cally explained, — the /x-sound being easily continued until it is virtually a 
double consonant. But this lengthening occurs only before certain stems, 
not before μάχεσθαι, μίνειν, μοννος κτλ. 

j. One of the consonants which made position has often been lost, as 
γρηΐ δε p,tv /τεϊκυια Γ 386, βίλος ίχεττευκες Α 51, θεός ως Γ 230 (for θεός 
^ώς), cf. κακόν ως Β 190, όρνιθες ώ? Γ 2, ττε'λεκυς ως Γ 60, οι δ* αρ' ΐσαν ως 
ει τε Β 780. 



§59m. HOMERIC VERSE. xlix 

k. a. A long "final vowel or diphthong in the arsis of the foot is regu- 
larly shortened before a following vowel : Άτρε/δαι re και αλλο6 ivKvrj- 
μώες 'Αχαιοί A 17, τψ δ' €γώ ου λύσω Α 29. The shortening of a long 
vowel is essentially the elision of half the vowel (§ 27 d). 

β. Final at, ot, « are most frequently shortened before an initial vowel. 
Final oi is shortened eight times as often as final rj. 

y. The diphthongs with ν seem to have been more firm in retaining 
their quantity than those with i. 

δ. This shortening of diphthongs seems to indicate a tendency of the 
final t or .υ of the diphthong to go into its cognate y (/) or w (f) sound 
and disappear (cf. § 23/). In Pindar, also, a final diphthong is short- 
ened five times as often as a long final vowel. Of course there was no 
hiatus as long as the J or ρ was spoken. 

c. Final ω and ύ) are shortened before an initial vowel more rarely 
than other diphthongs, ω is seldom shortened except before an c or (less 
frequently) an a. 

1. Before a pause (as before the close of the verse, see § 57 7), a short 
vowel may be used in place of a long vowel : ΙκττΙρσαι ΐίριάμοιο ττόλιν 

A 19 I wwl y^ Kj \ ^ A. Not infrequently thus the short final 

vowel of a vocative takes the place of a long syllable, even ω vlk Πβτεώο Δ 
338 ; in such cases the nominative form frequently could be used. The 
pause in the rhythm occupies the remainder of the time which w^ould be 
spent in pronouncing a long syllable, Nl I = I I. Before a pause, 
also, a long final vowel may preserve its quantity although the following 
word begins with a vowel. 

m. A few verses seem to begin with a short syllable, as os -βΒη τα τ 
iovra A 70 (for os ρείΒη, § 32). 




BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. 

The Homeric Mss. are better and more ancient than those of any other 
secular Greek author. In all, more than one hundred are known and de- 
scribed. The most valuable for the Homeric text, and far the most valu- 
able for the old Greek Commentary (Σχόλια), is known as Venetus A^ 
in the library of San Marco at Venice. It contains the entire lliadf 
with Introduction and Scholia, on 325 leaves of parchment in large folio. 
15x11 inches. It was written not later than the eleventh century of our 
era. 

The earliest printed edition of Homer was that of Demetrius Chalcon- 
dylas, in two large and handsome volumes, Florence, 1488. 

The most important critical editions of the Iliad, are those of Bekker 
(1858), La Roche (1873), Nauck (1877), Christ (1884). 

Convenient text editions are those of Dindorf-Hentze (Leipzig, 1884) 
and Cauer (Leipzig, 1890). 

The most scholarly English edition of the entire Iliad, is as yet that ot 
Leaf, in two volumes, London, 1886, 1888. 

The most convenient small work treating of (a) the general literary 
characteristics of the poems, (5) the Homeric world, (c) Homer in an- 
tiquity, (d) the Homeric question, is Homer; An Introduction to the Iliad 
and the Odyssey by Professor Jehb, Boston, 1887. 

Homer, a ' literature primer,' by Gladstone, New York, 1878, will be sug- 
gestive and helpful to many, although it is not to be compared with Pro- 
fessor Jebb's work. 

The ' Homeric question * is clearly stated in The Origin of the Homeric 
Poems, by Bonitz, translated by Professor Packard, New York, 1880. 

Matthew Arnold's Essay On translating Homer, in Essays in Criticism, 
makes distinct the most prominent characteristics of Homeric style. 

Monro's Grammar of the Homeric Dialect, Oxford, 1891, is by far the 
best work on the subject in the English language. 



ΟΜΗΡΟΤ lAIAAOS Α. 



'Άλψα \iTas Χρυσού, \oiμhv στρατού, €χθθ5 ανάκτων. 
Alpha preces Chrysae, pestis mala, iurgia regum, 

* Alpha the prayer of Chryses sing» : 
The army's plague ; the strife of kings/ 



λοι/Λος. μηρις, 

MyivLP aetSe, Oea, Πτ^λΐ^ΐάδ^ω *Α^ιλ^ο£^ 
ου Κομεν-ην , η μυρ^ Ά;^αίοΓς ak^ji €.Θηκ€ΐ/, 
τΓολλας δ' Ιφθί^ισυ<ζ ψΐλ^^άς AfSi TTpotaxjjeu 
ηρωωΐ', αντονς δείελωρια τ€υχ€ κνν^σσιν 
5 οίωνοίσί Τ€ δαιτα, Δ φ? δ' ijekeiero βουλή, 
i^ ου 8ύ) τα πρώτα Βυαστητην iplaavre 
^Ατρ€ΐ^ης τειαί'αζ άντρων και δϊρ? ^ ΚγιΧΚενς, 

τ is τ dp σφωβ θβών epiSi ζυνέηκΕ μάχ^εσθαι ; 
Αητον^ καΐ Διο9 υΙό%\ 6 γαρ /5ασιλ']7^ χολωθείς • 
10 νουσορ ανά στρατον ωρσ€ κακήν, ολβκοντο δβ λαοί, 
ονν€κα τον lipvarjv Ί ^τίμασεν άρητηρα ,iyiocrtr^^<XcL*^^ 
*Ατρ€υ8ης, 6 γαρ ηλθβ θοάς έπΙ νηας Ά^αί-ωΓ 
λνσό}λ€ν6<; τ€ θύγατρα φέρων τ άπβρείσυ* dnoLva, 
στβμματ ίχων iv )(^ερσΙιΓ€κηβόλον Απόλλωνος .^^i-^xA^joicuj^ 
15 χ^ρυσεω ανά σκηπτρω, καΐ έλίσσβτο πάντας Ά^αιους, 
^^τρ€ΐδαΐ\§€ μάλιστα δυω, κοσμητορβ λαών' 
Αο^^^ειων^ρ-,ε καΧ κλλοί ΙνκνημίΒες ^ Αγαιοί, 
iς δ' €όψ Ύ^Ρ β^ίο-ίλεύς, οτ€ ^ώματ έχοντες 



2 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Α. 

Ικττ4ρσαι ΤΙρ ίάμρ ω πόλιρ, iv S'foiKaS^ Ικίσθ^ι • 

'20 τταιδα δ' ίμοί λυσα ι re φίληρ, τά ταποινα Se^ecr^at, 
αζομ^νοι Διός νΐόν, ΐίκηβόλον Άπόλλωζ^α." ^ 

βνθ* άλλοι /χα' πάντ€ς €π€νφημΎ)σαν Ά^αιοΙ 
aiSeicr^ai ^* L€prja καΐ άγλαά δβ^^αι αττοινα * 
αλλ' ουκ: Άτρβίδτ; Άγα/ιε/χΐ'οζ^ιΤ^δαΐ'β θνμω, 

25 αλλά κακώς ιαφί€ί, κρατ€ρορ δ' €7Γΐ μνθον er^Weu * 
''/XT/ cr€, yepov, κοίΧτισίν ίγω τταρο^νηνσί κιχ^ίω 
'fj.MW ^ηθννοντ η ύστερον αυτΐ9 Ιόντα, 
μη νν του ου 'χ^ραίσμτ) σκηπτρον και στβμμα θεοΐο, 
την δ' βγω ρυ λυσ"ω • π/οιΐ' /xij' και γήρας eneLaiV 

30 ημετερω ενΙΙοΐκω iv "Kpye'i, τηλόθί πατρης, 
ίστον εποί^ομενην καΐ έμον λβ^ος αντι^σαν. 
,^,' αλλ IC71, μη μ epeuiQe, σαωτβρος ως κ€ νεηαι. 

ως εφατ, e^Laev δ* 6 γέρων και έττείθετο μνθω. 
βη δ' άκέων πάρα ΘΖνα πολνφλοίσβοίο θαλάσίψης, 

35 πολλά δ* εττειτ άπάνευθε κιων ήραθ* 6 γεραιος 
Απόλλων ίρ,νακτί, τον ήνκομος τεκέ Αητώ^Ι r^ 
" κλνθί μεν, άργυρότοξ% ος Χρνσην άμφιβεβηκώζ 
Κιλλαι/ τε ζαθεην, Ύενε^οιό τερίφι -ανάσσεις, 
Χμυνθεν, εϊ ποτέ του γαρίεντ επΙ νηον epei/ia, 

40 η εΐ 8η ποτέ τοι κατά iriova μηρι εκηα 

ταύρων τ^δ' αΙγων, τόδε /χοι κρη^νον έέλ8ωρ ' 
τίσευαν Δαι^αοι εμα Βάκρνα σοίσι βελεσσιν.*' ^ - 

ως εφατ ευχόμενος, τον δ' εκλνε Φοίβος Απόλλων, 
βη δε κατ Ονλνμποιο καρηνων χωόμενος κηρ, ^ 

45 τόζ* ώμοισιν έχων άμφηρεφεα τε φαρετρην • ^ 

εκλαγζαν δ' α/)* oicrroi επ* ώμων -χωομενοίο, 
f αντον κινηθ εντός • ό δ' ηιε ννκτίβρίκώς. / 

^ εί,ετ επειτ απανενυε νέων, μετά ο lov ^^ικ-εν ' 
οεινη δε κλαγγη γενέτ α,ργν ' 



HOMER'S TLTAD, BOOK I. 

60 ονρηας μ€ν πρώτον ίπωγβτο καΧ κύνας άργονς, 
ανταρ eneiT αντοισι ρεΚος €χ^επ€υκ€ς e<ptet9 
/3άλλ' • atet ο€ ττνραΐ νεκνων καίοντο θαμ.€ΐαί, 

Ιννημαρ μ^ν άί^ά στρατον ψχ€το κηλα Oeolo, 
Tjj SeKarr) δ' ayopTJuhe καλεσσατο λαορ ^Αχ^ίλλεύς • 

55 τω γαρ έπΙ φρεσΐ θηκβ θεά, λβνκώλβρος ^ϋρη * 
KijSeTO γαρ Δαϊ^αώι^, on pa Ονησκορτας ορατό, 
οΐ δ' iwelovj/ ηγερθεν ομηγβρεες re γ4νοντο, 
τοΤσι δ' ανιστάμ€νο<ζ μβτεφη πόδας ώκνς ^Αχίλλβνς • 
'' ^Ατρβί^η, ννν αμμ€ τταΚϋΡ πλαγχ^θβρτας οίω 

60 άψ άπονοστησβυν, eu Kev θάνατον ye φνγρυμεν, 
el Srj ομού πόλεμος re δα^α καΐ λοιμός *Λ^αιους. 
αλλ' αγ€ δτ; τίνα μάντιν ερείομεν η leprja 
η καΐ ονβίροπόλον, καΐ γαρ τ οναρ €κ Διός Ιστιν^ 
ρς κ €ΐποι οτι τόσσον έχ^ώσατο Φοϊβος * Απόλλων, 

65 et τ αρ* 6γ/ βύχωλης έπυμεμφεταί ei θ* εκατόμβης, 
αΐ κεν πως άρνών κνίσης αΙγων τε τελείων 
Λ/^ βονλεται^ντίάσας ημϊν άπο λοιγον άμνναυ.*^ 

η TOL ο γ ως ειπών κατ αρ εζετο, τοισι Ο ανέστη 
Καλ;γας %εστορί8ης, οίωνοπόλων ό)^ άρ ιστός , 

70 ος/^ηοη τά τ εόντα τα τ εσσόμενα πρό τ εόντα, 
κα\ νηεσσ ηγησατ ^ Αγαιων)ί\λιον είσω 
pTjv δια μαντοσννην, την pi πόρε Φοίβος ^Απόλλων, 
ο σφιν εν φρονεων άγορησατο καΐ μετεειπεν • 
" ω Α-χ^ιλεν, κελεαι με, Βιιφιλε, /iv^T^cracr^at .f 

75 μηνιν * Απόλλωνος, ίέκατηβελεταοτ&νακτος ' ^ 

τοιγαρ εγωνζίρεω, συ δβ σννθεο, και μοι ομοσσον 
η μεν μοι πρόφρ^ωνί^πεσιν καΐ γερσΧν άοηξειν, 
η γαρ οιομαι ανορα χόλωσεμεν, ος μέγα πάντων 
Αρχείων κρατεει, καίτοι πείθονται ^Αχαιοί. 
ες δ' εβΥ Ύ^Ρ ^αο"ΐλ6υς, οτε χωσεται avSpl χ^ρηΐ' ' 



4 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΑ1ΛΔθ:$ Α. 

€L rrep γαρ τ€ ^όλον ye και αύτημαρ καταπεφτ), 
άλλα Τ€ καΙ μ^τόττισθεν e^ei κότον, οφρα rekeacrrj, 
iv στηθβσσίΡ ^οίσι. συ δβ φράσαυ et με σαώσας.'ν 
TOP δ' άπαμ€ίβ6μ€Ρθ<; προσβφη πό^ας ώκνς ^Αχιλλβν 

85 " θαρσησας μάλα/^Ιπβ Θεοπρόπιον οΤι/χησθα • 
ού μα γαρ Άπολλωι^α ^ίίφίΚον, ω re cru, Κάλ^αι^, 
ευχόμενος Ααναοίσί θεοπροπί,ας άναφαίνείς, 
ου TLS €μ€υ ζωΐ'τος καΐ έπΙ γΘονί ΒβρκομεΐΌίο 
σοι κοιλτ^ς πάρα νηνσΐ βαρείας χείρας εττοίσει 
90 συμπάντων Δαζ^αωι/, ούδ* r)v ^ Αγαμεμνονα^ϊπ-ης, 

.J— j)9 i^w πολλον άριστος Α;)^αιωί^ eu^erat eti/at." 
* και τότε οη υαρσιησε και ηυοα μαντις αμνμων * 

'* οντ άρ' ο γ' ενχ^ωλη<; επυμεμφεται ονθ* εκατόμβης, 
αλλ ενεκ άρητηρος, ον ητίμησ Αγαμέμνων 
95 ούδ* Απέλυσε θύγατρα καΐ ουκ άπε^εζατ άπουνα;^ ♦ ^ 
τούνεκ αρ* αλγε^ εΒωκενβ^^ηρόΧρς^'η^^ ετι δωο^ι.^^ 
ούδ* ο γε π/οΐϊ^ Δαι^αοΓοΊ^' ο^ικεα λοιγον άπώσει, 
πριν y άπο πατρί φίλω 8όμεναίΐελίκώπί8α κούρην 
άπρυάτην άνάπουνον, άγειν θ^ ίερην εκατόμβην 

100 e*9 Χρ^σην τότε κεν μιν ιΚασσάμενοι πεπίθοίμεν^ 
η TOL ο γ ως^εΙπή)ν κατ ayo' εζετο, τοίσι δ' ανέστη 
ηρω<^ Άτρεΐδτ^ς, εύρυ κ ρείων Αγαμέμνων 
αγνυμενος- μενεος δε μέγα φρένες άμφίμελαυναυ . . 
πιμπΚαντ , οσσε όε/οί πυρι Καμπετοωντ^ψκτην. 

105 Κάλ^αι^τα πρώτιστα κάκ οσσόμενος προσψίπεν • 
'* μάντι κακών, ου πώ ποτέ μοι το κρηγυον αττ^ις • 
aiet TOL τα κάκ εστί φίλα φρεσΐ μαντεύεσθαι, 
εσθλον δ' ούτε τι πω^^ας^πος ουτε.τελεσσας. 
καΐ νυν^εν ΑαναοΙσι θεοπροπεων αγορεύεις, 

110 ώς δή του8* ενεκά σφιν^κη βόλος άλγεα τεύχει, 
ουνεκ εγώ κούρης ΧρυσηίΒος άγλα άποινα 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK I. 

ovK iOeXop Ββζασθαί, — iwel ττολν βονλομαί αντην 
foLKOL εγειν. καΐ γαρ pa Κλνταψνηστρτις προβεβουλα, 
κουριοίηζ αλοχ^ον, tirei ovfeuev eari )(€ρ&,ωρ, 

115 ον 8e/xa9 ούδβ φνην, οντ αρ φρερας ovre Tifepya. JL. 
άλλα και ως €υ€Αω οομεναυ τταΚιν, et το y αμ€ίνοι^* 
βονλομ €γω λαον σόον e/x/xei^at 17 άτίο\4σθαί.^ 
ανταρ e/xot γβρας αύτι^ έτουμασατ^ οφρα μη οΐυς 
Αργ€ίων αγέραστος 6ω, επβι ουοε ίψ)ίΚ€ν • 

120 Xeucrcrere yap το ye πάντες, ο ^ot γέρας εργεται αλλτ^." 

_^^ τοι/ δ' ημείβετ έπειτα ποΒαρκης Βίος ^Α)(^ίλλενς • 
"Άτραδτ^ κ:υδιστ€, φιΚοκτεανώτατε πάντων ^ 
πως γαρ tol 8ώσονσυ γέρας μεγάθυμοι Άγαιοι ; 
ούοε TL πονχϊομεν ζννηια κείμενα πολλά, 

125 άλλα τα μεν πολιών εζεπράθομεν, τα δεδασται, 

λαούς δ* ούκΐεΛοίκε παλίλλογα ταντ επαγείρε ιγ . ρ/ ^ 
άλλα σ"ύ /xei^ ^'C^' ττ^ζ^δε ^€ω πρόες, ανταρ * Αραιοί 
τριπλή τετραπλή τ άποτίσομεν, αϊ κε ποθι Ζευς 
Scoai πόλιν Ύροίην ευτείγεον ε^αλαπά^αι." 

130 τον δ' άπαμειβόμενος προσεφη κρείων Αγαμέμνων • 
** μη Srj ούτως, άyα^ός περ εών, θε(χίκελ* Ά^ιλλευ, 
κλέπτε νόω, επεί ου παρελεύσεςίΐ ούδε με πείσεις, 
η εθελεις, οφρ αύτος εχης γέρας, αύτάρ εμ αύτως 
T7cr^at Ζευόμενον, κελεαι δε με την8* άποΒουναι ; 

135 αλλ' ει μεν ^ώσουσι γέρας μεγάθυμοι Ά^αιοι, 
αρσαντες κατά θυμόν, όπως άντάζιον εσται • 
εΐ δε κε μη Βώωσιν, εγω δε' κεν αυτός ελω/ιιαι 
η τεον η Αιαντος ιών γέρας, η *θ8υσηος 
αςω ελών ' 6 8ε κεν κεγολώσεται, ον κεν ϊκωμαι. 

140 άλλ' η τοι μεν ταύτα μεταφρασόμεσθα καΐ αυτις, 
νυν δ' άγε νηα μελαινανγερύσσομεν εις άλα διαι^, 
ες δ' ερετας επίτηδες άγείρομφ, ες δ' εκατόμβην 



6 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Α. 

θβιομζρ, αν δ' αύτηρ 'Κρυ(τηί8α KaWiiraprjOV 
βησομβν. et? δε tls άρχο^ άνηρ βονληφόρος ζ,στω 

145 'i^ Αίας η ^ΐΒομβνβνς η διος ^θ8υσσ€υς 

τμ^σν, Πτ^λβΐδτ;, ττάντων εκπαγλότατ άντρων, 
οφρ* Ύ}μίρ(€κοί1ίργον Ιλάσ<τ€αί ίερα^εζας.** 

TOP ο αρ νποοραΤΙόων προσεφη ττοόας ωκνς Αχ^υΚΚενς 
" ώ μου, OLvaiheiiqv ίπι^ιμένε, κερ^αλβόφρορ, 

150 πως τίς του πpόφpωvf^πeσLV ττβίθηταυ ^Κγαιων 
Tj oSov ΙΧθέμεναι η άν8ροίσυντΙφυ ^oiy€a0a L;j \ 
ον γαρ εγώ Ύρώων ενεκ ηΧυθον αΙχ^μητώίιΑ/ 
Sevpo μαχΎ)σόμ€ΐΌς, επεί ου τι μου αυτυου είσυν • 
ου γαρ ττώ ποτ εμάς βονς rjXaaav, ουΒε μεν ίππους, 

155 ούδε ποτ εν Φθυτη ερυβώλακυ βωτυανείρτ) 

καρπον εΒτ^ψταντ , επεί η μάλα πολλά μεταξύ, 

ουρεά τε σκυόεντα θάΧασσά τ^ηχηεσσα •^ 

4λλά σου, ω μεγ* άί^αιδε'ς, άμ* εσπομεθ* , οφρα συ ^aipr^%^ 

τυμην άρνύμενου Μενελάω σου τε, κυνωπα, 

160 προς Ύρώων. των ου τι μ^τατρεπη ούδ' άλεγυίευς * 
καυ οη μου γέρας ^υτος αφαυρησεσυαυ απευΚευς, ^**•« 
ω επυ πολλά μόγη σα, 8όσαν 8ε μου υΐες *Α;^(αιώι/. 
ου μεν σου ποτ^υσον ε^ω γέρας, οππότ A^atot 
Ύρώων εκπερσωσ ευ ναυόμενον πτοΧυεθρον • 

165 άλλα το μεν πλεϊον πς>λυάυκος πολεμουο 

Χ^υρες εμασ ουεπουσ , αταρ ην ποτέ οασμος υκηταυ, 
σοΙ το γέρας πολύ μείζον, εγώ δ' ολίγον τε φυλον τε 
ερχομέ έχων επΙ νηας, επευ κε κάμω πολεμυζων. 
νυν δ' είμυ Φθυην?^', επεΙ η πολύ φερτερόν εστυν 

llOpuKaS^ υμεν συν νηυσΐ κορωνίσυν, ούδε σ ουω 
ενυαο ατυμος εων αφενός καυ πΚουτον αφυςευν. 

τον δ* ήμευβετ επευταΥαναζ άν8ρών * Αγαμέμνων • 
** φεύγε /χάλ', ευ του θυμος^πεσσυταυ, ούΒε σ Ιγώ γε 



HOMER'S TLIAD, BOOK I. 

γΚίσσομαι βΐρβκ e/xeto ^iveiv • παρ' ^μοί ye καΧ άλλοι, 
175 οΓ κ4. μ€ τιμήσουσί, μάλιστα δβ μητίετα ΖευςΛ- 

ίγθιστο^ he μοί ίσσι Βωτρεφεωρ βασιΚ'^οητ' 

aleX yap tol ζρι^τε φίλη πόλεμοι re μάχ^αι re. 

ct μαΚα καρτ^ος tcrcrt, Ι/εος που σοί το y εοωκεν, 
fOLKaS* Ιωρ συν νηνσί re arj<i καΧ σοΐς ετάροισιν 
180 Μ.υρμί^6νεσσιν άνασσε. σεθεν δ' εγώ ονκ άλεyίζω 

ούδ' όθομαι κρτεοντο<ζ • άπειλτ^σω δβ τοι ω8ε. 

ως e/x* άφαυρειταυ ^ρνση&α Φοΐβος Απόλλων, 

την μεν έγω συν νηί τ εμγ) καΐ εμοΐ<; ετάροισιν 

πεμχίβω, εγώ δε ΐί_α^ω ΒρισηίΒα καλλιπάρτιον 
185 αντος Ιων κλισίην^ε, το σον γέρας, οφρ* ivfUSyj^, 

δσσον φερτερός είμυ σεθεν, στvyεΎ| δε και άλλος 
ricrov εμοί φάσθαι καΐ ομοιωθή^ενμι αντ-ηνΓ/^ 

ώς φάτο ' ΤΙηλεΐωνι δ* ά;(ος yeveT , εν hifol ητορ 

στηθεσσιν λασίοισι διάι^δι^α μερμηριζεν, 
190 η ο γε φάσyavov οξυ^ρνσσάμενος παρά μηρού 

τους μεν άναστησειεν, 6 δ' ^ΑτρεΐΒην εναρίζοι, 

ηε -χ^όλον παυσ-ειει/ ερητύσειε τε θυμόν. 

ειος ο ταυί/ ωρμαινε κατά φρένα και κατά συμον, 

ελκετο δ' εκ κολεοΐο μεya ζιφος, ήλθε δ' ^ΑΌηνη 
195 ουρανο&εν • προ γαρ ^κ:ε θεά, λευκώλενος '^ΐίρη» 

άμφω όμως θυιχω φιλεουσά τε κηΒομενη τε. 



ν» ν 



ΟΎηό^τηΒεν^ζανθης δε κόμης ελεΐΐηλεΐωνα, 
οίω φαινόμενη, των δ* άλλωζ^ ου τις οράτο, < 
θαμβησεν δ* Ά;)(ί,λευς, /α era δ' ετράπετ, αυτίκα δ' εγι^ω 
200 Παλλάδ' ^ Κθηναίην • δειζ^ώ δε/οι οσσε φάανθεν. 
και μιν φωνησαςχεπεα πτερόεντα προσηύ8α • 
** τίπτ αυτ, aiyio^oio Διός τεκος, είληλουθας^; 
η ίνα ϋβριιΙιΒη ^ λέγαμε μν όνος Άτρεϊί'δαο ; . 
αλλ' εκ τοιβρεω, το δε και τελεεσθαι οίω • 



8 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Α. 

20dtfj^ νπ€ροπ\ΐΎ)σί τά^ αν πότ€ θνμον oXeaarj.T 

τον δ' αντ€ προσ^€ίπ€ Θεά, γΧαυκώπυ^ ^Αθηνη • 
" ηλθον έγω παύσονσα το σον /xeVog, αϊ κ€ ττιθηαι, 
ούρανόθεν • προ δε /χ' ηκβ θεά, λευκώλενος "Ήρτ^, 
άμφω 6μω<; θνμω φιΧεονσά τε κηΒομενη τε, 

210 αλλ' άγε ληγ* Ιριδος, μηΒε ζίφος ελκεο χ^ψί' 
αλλ* η τοι^εττεσιν μεν ονεί^ισον, ώς εσεταί ττερ. 
ωδβ yap εψρεω, το δε καΐ τετελεσμενον εσται • 
και ποτέ rot τρΙς τοσσα παρε(ητεταί άγλαά δώρα 
νρριος εινεκα τησοε • συ ο ίσχεό, πειυεο ο ημιν. 

21δ την δ* άπαμευβόμενος προσεφη πόδας ώκνς Ά^ιλλεύς 
" χρη μεν σφωίτερον ye, θεά^επο<ζ είρνσσασθαι, 
καΧ μαΚα περ θνμω κεγοΚωμενον • ως yap αμεινον • 
ος κε θεοΖ% επιπείθηται, μάλα τ εκ}^νον αύτου." ^' 
η και επ" apyvpiiQ κώπΎ) σγεθε χ^Γρα βαρεΐαν, 

220 axjj δ' ες κονλεον ωσε μεya ζίφοζ, ούδ' άπίθησεν 
μνθω ^ Αθηνανη^. η δ' Ονλνμπόν^ε βεβηκειν 
Βώματ ες αίγίόχοω Διός μετά δαίμονας άλλους. ^^ 

Πτ^λειδτ^ς δ* εζαντίς άταρτηροΐςβπεεσσυν 
*Ατρεΐ8ην προσ^ιπε, /τ'αΐ ον πω \.'ηyε γ6\οιο * ^^ 

225 "ιδίνοβαρες, κννος ομματ έχων, κρα^ίην δ' Ika^OLOt 
οντε ποτ ες πόλεμον άμα λαω θωρηχθηναι * 

οντε λόχοϊ^δ' teVat συν άριστο^σιν Άχαιων 
τετληκας θνμω • το δε τοί^ηρΓ^ιΒεταί είναι, 
η πολν λώιόν εστί κατά στρατον ενρνν Άχαιώι/ 

230 δώρ' άποαιρεϊσθαι, ος τις σεθεν άντίονβΐπτ) • 

Βημοβόρος βασιλεύς, επει οντιΒανοΐσινΙάνάσσεις • 

η yap αν, ^ΑτρειΒη, νυν νστατα λωβησαιο. 

αλλ' εκ τοι^ρεω, καΐ επι /χεγαΐ' ορκον ομονμαι. 

ναΧ μα τόδε σκηπτρον * το μεν ον ποτέ φνλλα και οζονς 

235 φύσει, επεί δι^ πρώτα τομην εν ορεσσι λελοιπεν, 



ούδ' άραθηλησ€ΐ • irepl γαρ ράμ χαλκός ίλβφβι/ 
φύλλα Τ€ καΐ φλοιοί^ • νυν avre μιν υΓε? Ά^^αιώΐ' 
€v παλάμΎ)ς φορίουσι δικ:α(Τ7ΓΟλοι, οι τ€ θεμυστας 
προς Δί,ος είρναται • ό 8e rot μέγας εσσεται όρκος • 

240^7 ποτ' Ά^ιλλτ^ο^ πο^τ7 Ιζεται νΧας ^Α,γαιων 

σνμπαΐ'τας • τότ€ δ' ου η δυι^τ^σεαι άχννμβνός περ 
χραισμείν, εντ αν πολλοί νφ' '^Εκτορος αν^ροφόνοιο 
θνησκοντες πίπτωσι • συ δ' ενΒοθί θνμον άμνξεις 

^ χωόμενος, δ τ* άριστον Ά^αιώζ^ ούΒεν ετισας. 

245 ως φάτο ΤΙηλεί^ης, ποτΐ 8ε σκηπτρον βάλε γαίτι 
χρνσείοιςΤηλοισι πεπαρμενον, εζετο δ* αυτός. 
*Ατρ.εί8ης δ' ετερωθεν εμηνιε. τοίσι δε Νέστωρ 
ίτ^διίττής άνόρουσε, λυγύς ΐΐυλίων άγορητης, 
του καΐ άπο γλώσσης μελυτος γλυκίων ρεεν αύοη,^^ 

250 τω δ' ηΒη δνο μεν γενεαΐ μερόπων ανθρώπων 
εφθίαθ\ OLjol πρόσθεν α/χα τράφεν η8ε γενοντο 
εν Πυλω ηγαθετι^ μετά δε τριτάτοισινίηνασσεν, 
jS g'φLv ευ φρονεων άγορησατο καΐ μετψίπεν • 
^? ποπδι, η μέγα πένθος Ά^^αιιδα γαιαι/ Ικάνει • 

255 "η κεν γΎ^θησαι Τίρίαμος ΥΙριάμοιο τε ποίοες, 

άλλοι τε Ύρωες μέγα κενκεναροίατοθυμω, ^^ 

ει σφώιν τά8ε πάντα πυ^οίατο μαρναμενοιιν, 1/ 

οΊ περί μεν βουλην ύ^αναών, περί δ' εστε μάγεσθαι, 
άλλα πίθεσθ* • άμφω δε νεωτερω εστον εμείο^ 

2ΘΟηίδτ7 γάρ ποτ εγω καΐ άρείοσιν ηε περ ύμϊν 

άνΒράσιν ώ μίλησα, καΐ ου ποτέ μ* οι γ* άθεριζον. Υ 
ου γάρ πω τοίους ΐ8ον άνερας, ουΒε ΐοωμαι, 
οίον ΤΙειριθοόν τε Λρύα,ντά τε, ποιμένα λαών, 
Καιι/εα τ ^Εζά8ι6ν τε καΐ άντίθεον ΤΙολύφημον 

265 [Θτ7σ-εα τ* ^Αιγεί^ην, επιείκελον άθανάτοισιν"]. 
κάρτιστοι δτ) κείνοι επιγθονίων τράφεν ανδρών • 



10 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Α. 

κάρτιστοί μ€ν ίσαν καΐ καρτίστοι^ ίμάγοντο, 
φηρσίν 6ρ€σκωοισι, καΐ έκποίγλως άπόλεσσαν. 
και μίν τοίσιν 4γω μ^θομιΚ^ον έκ Πύλου έλθώρ, 

270 τη\6θ€ν Ιζ άπίη<; γαίης • καΚίσαντο γαρ αυτοί • 

^καΐ μαχόμην κατ ίμ αντον eye!) • κ^ίνοισι δ' αν ου τΐζ 
των, 0% νυν βροτοί elauv έπιχθόνωι, μαγεοιτο. 
καΧ μεν μευ βουλεων ξύνυεν πείθοντα re μύθω, 
άλλα πίθεσθε καΐ ΰμμες, επει ττείθεσθαι αμεινον. 

275 μήτε συ τόι^δ', άγαμος ττερ εών, άποαίρεο κούρην, 
αλλ' εα, ως οΐ πρώτα Βόσαν γέρας υΐες Ά^αιώι^ • 
μήτε συ, Ι1η\ε'ί8η, θελ^ εριζεμεναι βασίΧηι 
άντιβίην, επεί ου ποθ* ομοίης εμμορε τιμής 
σκηπτουχος βασιλεύς, ω τε Ζευς κυΒος ε8ωκεν^^^ 

280 ει 8e συ καρτεράς εσσι, θεα δ€ σε γείνατο μητηρ, 
αλλ' 6δ€ φερτερός εστίν, επει πΧεόνεσσινΙανάσσει, 
^Κτρει^Ύ], συ δε παύε τεον μένος • αύτάρ εγώ γε 
Ρ^ίσσομ^ Ά-χ^ιλληι μεθεμεν -χ^όλον, ος μέγα πάσιν 

^^^^ερκοςΆ-χ^αιοΐσιν πελεται πολεμοιο κακοΐο^ 

285 τον δ' άπαμειβόμενος προσεφτ) κρείων ^Αγαμέμνων • 
*' ναΙ 8ύ) ταυτά γε πάντα, γερον, κατά μοΐραν ^πες» 
αλλ' οδ' άνηρ εθεΚει περί πάντων ε/χ/^εϊ^αι άλλων, 
πάντων μεν κρατεειν εθελει, πάντεσσι δ' άνάσσειν, 
πάσι δε σημαίνειν, α τιν ου πείσεσθαι οίω.• 

290 ει δε μιν αίχμητην έθεσαν θεφ αΐεν εον,τες, 

τούνεκάρΐ πAoθεoυoruJQvειoεa /χυ^τ^σασ^αι ; " / 

τον δ άρ^ υποβλ7]8ην\ημείβετο δΓος ^Αχιλλεΰς• / 
'* Ύΐ γάρ κεν δειλός τε και ούτι8αΡος καλεοίμην, 
ει 8η σοι πάν έργον ύπKζoJJiaι, δττι κειχ^ΐπης * ' 

295 αλλοί,σΐϊ^ δτ) ταυτ' επιτελλεο, μη γάρ εμοί γε 

[^σημαιν*. ου γάρ εγώ γ' ετι σοι πείσεσθαι οιω.] 
άλλο 8ε τοι ερεω, συ δ' ενί φρεσΐ βάλλεο σ^σιν. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK I. H 

χ^ροΊ yi'^v ov roL• εγώ ye μαχησομαι εΐρβκα κονρης 
οντε σοΙ οντε τω αλλω, έπεί μ' άφελεσθε γε δόί^τε? • 

300 των δ' άλλων α μου εστί Θού) πάρα νηί μελαίντ), 
των ουκ άν τι φερους άνελων €αεκοντο^ εμεΐο. 
εΐ δ' άγε μην πείρησαυ, ίνα γνώωσυ καΐ οΐ8ε • 
^ήίά TOL αι/Αα κελαινον ερωησει περί δουρι." 
\y^ ως τω γ' άντιβίοισι μα^ησαμενω επεεσσιν 

305 άνστητην, λυσαν δ' άγορην πάρα νηνσΐν Ά^αιώζ/. 
Ώη)^εί8ης μεν επΙ κλίσίας καί νηας είσας 
ηιε συν τε Μενοίτιιί^Ύ) καί οΓς ετάροισιν, 
*Ατρεί8Ύ)<; δ' άρα νηα θοην άλα8ε προερνσσεν, 
ες δ' ερετας εκρινεν εείκοσιν, ες δ' εκατόμβην 

310 βησε Θεω, άι^ά δ^ Χρνσηί8α καλλίπάρηον 

εΐσεν άγων • εν δ' άρ)(ος εβη πολνμητις Ό8νσσενς.^ 

οι μεν επειτ άναβάντες επεπλεον νγρα κελενθα, 
λαούς δ' ΆτρειΒης άπολνμαίνεσθαί άνωγεν. 
ot δ* άπελνμαίνοντο καί εΙς άλα λνματ εβαλλον, 

315 ερ8ον δ' ^Απόλλωνί τεληεσσας εκατόμβας 
ταύρων rjS* αΙγων πάρα θΐν' ^^\^ άτρνγετοιο • 
κνκτΎ) δ' ονρανον ΐκεν ελισσομενη περί. καπνω. 

ως οΐ μεν^τά πενοντο κατά στρατόν • ούδ* ^Αγαμέμνων 
ληγ' έριδος, την πρώτον επηπείλησ 'A^^tXi^t, 

320 αλλ' ο ye Ύαλθύβίόν τε καΐ Έινρνβάτην προσε^ιπεν, 
τω οι εΌ-αν κηρνκε καί οτρηρω υεραποντε • 
* ^ΡΧ'^^θον κλισίην Τίηληιά^εω ^Αγιληος • 
χειρός ελόντ άγεμεν ΒρυσηίΒα καλλυπάρηον, 
εΐ δβ κε μη 8ώτ)σιν, εγώ δε κεν αντος ελωμαι, 

gS5 ελυων συν πλεονεσσι • το ου και ριγιον εσται, 

ως ειπών προιει•. κρατερον δ' είτΐ μνθον εχ^λλεν. 
,τώ δ' άεκοντε βάτην πάρα Θΐν άλος άτρνγετοιο, 
Μυρμιδόνων δ' επί τε κλισίας καΧ νηας Ικίσθην. 



12 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Α. 

' TOP δ* evpov παρά re κΚισίτ} και νηί μ€λόίίνΎ} 

330 ημέρου ' ούδ' άρα τω ye ΙΖων γηθησζρ Άχυλλβνς. 
τω μ€ν ταρβησαρτβ και α18ομ€νω /Sa<riX'^a 
στητηρ, ovSe τι μιρ προσ€φώρ€θρ ούδ' epiovTO • 
αντάρ 6 €γρω Ύ)σιρ ipL φρζ,σι φώρησερ re • 
yaiperey κήρυκες, Διός άγγελοι ήοε και ανορωρ. 

335 ασσορ ιτ • ον τι μοι νμμες επαιτιοι, αλλ Αγαμεμρωρ, 
ο σφωι ττροιει ΒρισηιΒος ειρεκα κονρης. 
αλλ' άγε, Βιογερες ΐΐατρόκλεις, εζαγε κονρηρ 
και σφωιρ δος άγειρ. τω δ' αντω μάρτνροι εστωρ 
προς τε θεώρ μακάρωρ προς τε θρητωρ άρθρώπωρ 

340 /cat προς τον βασιληος άπηρεος, ει ποτέ Srj άντε 
Xpeio) εμειο γερηται άεικεα λοιγορ άμνραι 
τοις άλλοις, 'η γαρ ο γ* oXoirjai φρεσί θνει, 
ούδε TL οΐ8ε ροησαι άμα πρόσσω και οπίσσω, 
οππως οι παρά ρηνσι σόοι μαχεοίατ Κγαιοί.^ 

345 ω9 φάτο, ΐΐάτροκλος 8ε φίλω επεπείθεθ* εταίρω, 
εκ Κ ά-γαγε κλισίης Β/)ιστ7ΐδα καλλιπάρΎ)θΡ, 
8ωκε δ' άγείρ. τω δ' αυτις ΐτηρ παρά ρηας ^Χγαιωρ, 
η δ' άεκβνσ άμα τοίσι γνρη κιερ. αντάρ ^Αχιλλενς 

9 οακρτΚ-ας ^τάρωρ άφαρ εζετο ρόσφι λιασθείς 

350 ΘΪρ* εφ» ά\ος πολίτες, οροωρ επ άπείρορα πορτορ * 
πολλά δ€ μητρι φίλτ) ηρησατο χείρας ορεγρνς • 
" μητερ, επεί μ ετεκες γε μιρνρθά^ιορ περ εορτα, 
τιμηρ περ μοι οφελλερ ^Ολύμπιος ε-γγναΧίξαι, 
Ζενς νχ^ιβρεμ^της • pvp δ' ον^ε με τντθορ ετισερ, 

355 17 Ύ^Ρ l• Άτ/3€Ϊδ?;9, ενρν κρείωρ Άγαμεμρωρ, 
ήτίμησερ • ελώρ yap έχει γέρας, αντος απονρας, 

ως φάτο 8άκρν χ4ωρ, τον δ' εκλνε ποτρια μητηρ, 
ήμερη ξρ βερΘεσσίρ άλος παρά πατρί γερορτι. 
καρπαλίμως δ' άρεΒν ποΧιης άλος ηντ ομίχλη. 



HOMER'S ILTAD, BOOK I. 13 

360 καν pa πάροιθ* αντοΐο καΘ4ζζ.το 8άκρν γίοντο'ζ, 

X^LpL re μίρ Karipe^eVy ίπος τ €φατ ίκ τ ονόμαζαν • 
\"_ Ί£κ νον, τί κλαίβίζ ; τί Se ere φρενας ϊκ€Το ττένΘο^ ; 
€ςαυθα, μη κβυυβ νοω, α^α €ΐοομ€ν αμψω. 



/ 



την Se βαρύ στεναγμών προσβφη πόδας ώκνς Ά^γολλεύς 

365 '* όΐσθα' τι η τοι ταντα ISvijj πάντ άγορβνω ; 
ωχομεθ* ες ^ηβην, leprjv πόλυν ^ΙΙβτίωρος, 
την he ^ιεττράθομέν Τ€ καΐ ηγομεν ίνθάΖε πάντα. 
' καΐ τα μεν ev Βάσσαντο μετά σφίσιν νϊβς Ά;)^αιωι/, 
€Κ δ* βλον ΆτρειΒη Χρυσή ί8α καλλιπάρηον. 

370 Χρνα-ης δ' ανθ^ Ιερεύς εκατηβολον^Απόλλωνος 
ήλθε θοας επΙ νηας ^ Αγαιων γαΧκογιτίονων 
λυσόμενός τε θνγατρα φέρων τ* άπερείσι αποινα, 
στεμματ έχων εν χερσίν εκη βόλου Απόλλωνος 
χρυσεω άνα σκηπτρω, καΐ ελίσσετο πάντας ^Αχαιούς, 

375 Άτρειδα δβ μάλιστα δυω, κοσμητορε λαών. 
ενθ\αλ^ι μεν πάντες επευφήμησαν "ΑχαίοΙ 
αΤοεισυαι θ^ Ιερηα καΐ άγλαά δε^^αι άποινα • 
άΧλ* ούκ/Ατρεΐ^Ύ) ^ Αγαμεμνονι ην^ανε θυμω, 
άλλα κακώς άφίει, κράτερον δ' επι μυθον ετελλεν. 

380 χωόμενος δ' ό γέρων πάλιν ωχετο\ΓοΖο δ' ^Απ6λλο)ν 
ενζαμενου ηκουσεν, επεί μάλα οι φίλος ηεν, 
ηκε δ' €5^' ^Αί^είοισι κακόν βέλος • οΐ δβ νυ λαοί 
θνησκον επασσυτεροι, τα δ' επωχετο κηλα θεοΊο 
πάντη ανά στρατον ευρυν 'Α^αιώϊ^. άμμι 8ε μάντις 

385 ευ εΐ^ώς αγόρευε Θεοπροπίας εκάτοιο. 

αυτίκ εγώ πρώτος κελόμην θεον ιλάσκεσθαι • 
Άτρειωνα δ' έπειτα χόλος λάβεν, aixjja δ' άναστάς 
ηπείλησεν μυθον, ο δή τετελεσμένος εστίν, 
την μεν γαρ συν νηΐ θοη ελικωπες ΆχαιοΙ 

390 ες Χρύσην πεμπουσιν] άγουσι 8ε δώρα άνακτι • 



14 . . ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Α. 

την δέ v€ov κΚισίηθζν ίβαν κήρυκες άγοντες 
κονρην Βρισηος, την μου δόσαζ/ νΐες Ά;γαιωζ/. 
άλλα συ, el δνι^ασαι ye, περίσγεο παιδός ίηος • 
ελθουσ ΟύλυμπόνΒε Δια λιοται, βΐ ττοτε 8η τι 

395 η επει ώνησας κρα^ίην Διός ήε καΐ €ργω. 

πολλάκί γαρ σεο πατρός ενί μεγάροισιν άκουσα 
ευχόμενης, οτ εφησθα κεΚαινεφει Κρονίωνι 
οίη εν αθανάτΏίσιν άεικεα Χοιγον άμυναι, 
οππότε μιν ζυνοησαι ^Ολύμπωί ηθελον άλλοι, 

400 'Ηρη τ η8ε ΤΙοσεώάων καΐ Παλλά? Άθηνη. 

άλλα συ τον γ* ελθουσα, θεά, ύπελυσαο 8εσμών, 
ωχ εκατόγγειρον καλεσασ ες μακρόν 'Όλυμπον, 
ον Βριάρεων καλεουσι θεοί, άνΒρες δε τε πάντες 
Αίγαίων • 6 γαρ αυτέ βίηου πατρός άμείνων 

'405 ος ρα παρά Κρονίωνι καθεζετο κύ^εί γαίων. 
τον καΐ ύπεΒευσαν μάκαρες θεοί ού8ε τ' εΒησαν. 
των νυν μιν /χζ^ϊ^σασα παρεζεο καΐ λαβε γουνών, 
αϊ κεν πως εθελησιν επΙ Ύρώεσσυν άρηξαι, 
τους hk κατά πρύμνας τε καΐ άμφ* άλα ελσαυ Αχαιούς 

410 κτεινομενους, ίνα πάντες επαύρωνται βασιληος, 
γνω 8ε καΐ Άτρεΐ8ης εύρυ κρείων Αγαμέμνων y 
ην άτην, ο τ άριστον Ά^^^αί,ώι^ ου^εν ετισενΡ^ 

τον V ημείβετ έπειτα %ετις κατά Βάκρυ χεουσα • 
*' ω μοι, τεκνον εμόν, τι νύ σ ετρεφον αΐνά τεκουσα ; 

415 αΐθ^ οφελες παρά νηυσιν άΒάκρυτος καΐ άπημων 

^cr^at, επεί νύ τοι αίσα μίνυνθά περ, ου τι μάλα 8ην. 
νυν δ' άμα τ ώκύμορος και οιζυρος περί πάντων 
επλεο • τω σε κακή atcJT^ τεκυν εν μεγαροισιν. 
τούτο δβ τοι ερεουσα έπος Αιί τερπικεραύνω 

420 ει μ* αύτη προς "Ολνμπον άγάννιφον, αϊ κε πίθηται. 
αλ^α συ μεν νυν νηυσΐ παρημενος ώκυπόροισιν 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK I. " 15 

μηι/ί ^ ΑγαιοΤ,σψί πολέμου δ' άποπανεο πάμπαν • 
Zevs γαρ is ^Ω.κβανοί' μετ άμνμονα^ Αίθωπηας 
')(θίζοζ €βη κατά δαιτα, θεοί δ' άμα πάντες εποντο • 

425 ^ω^εκάτΎ} δε τοι αντις εΚενσεται ΟυΧνμπόνΖε, 
καΧ τ6τ εττειτά tol εΙμι Alos ποτι χαλκοβατες δω, 
/καί μιν γοννάσομαι, και μιν πείσεσθαι όιω." 

^^ ω? αρα φωνησασ απερτησετο , τον ο εΚίπ αυτόν 
χωομενον κατά θνμον ενζώνοιο γυναικός, 

430 Trfv pa βίτ) άεκοντος άπηύρων. αυτάρ 'Οδυσσεύ? ^ «^ 
ες Χρνσην Ικανεν άγων Ιερην εκατόμβην. 
οΐ δ' οτε 8ηλίμενρς ττολυβενθεος εγγύς ΐκοντο, 
ιστία μεν στειΚαντο, υεσαν ο ενντιι ueAatim, 
ιστον ο ιστοοοκτ) ττεΚασαν ττροτονοΤ&ιν υφεντες J 

435 καρπαλιμως, την δ' εΙς ορμον προερεσσαν ερετμοΐς, 
εκ δ* εύνάς εβαλον, κατά δε πρύμνη σι εόησαν - 
εκ δε fcat αυτοί βαϊνον επΙ ρηγμίνι θαλάσσης, 
εκ δ' εκατόμβην βησαν εκτηβόλω Άπόλλωνι • . 

€/c 06 Χρυσηις νηος prj ποντοποροιο. «H 

440' τήι^ μεν επειτ επΙ βωιχον άγων ποΧύμητις Ό8υσσεύς 
πατρί φίλω εν χ^ρσι τιθει, καί μιν προσεειπεν • 
" ω Χρΰση, προ μ' επεμ\\{εν άναζ άντρων Αγαμέμνων 
παιδά τε σοι άγεμεν, Φοίβω θ' ιερην εκατόμβην 
ρεζαι υπέρ Δαι^αώι^, όφρ ίλα^ςτήμεα-θα άνακτα, «l»\ amJL 

445 ος νυν ^Αργείοισι ποΧύστονα κη8ε' εφηκεν,^^ 

ως ειπών εν χ^ρσι τίθει, 6 δε δέκατο χαίρων 
παιδα φίλη ν. τοΙ δ' ωκα θεω ιερην εκατόμβην 
εζείης έστησαν εύ8μητον περί βωμόν, 
χερνίφαντο δ* έπειτα και ούλοχύτας άνελοντο. 

450 τοίσιν δε Χρυσής μεγάλ* εΰχετο χείρας άνασχών 
" κλυθί μευ, άργυρότοζ*, ος Χρύσην άμφιβεβηκας 
KtXXal•' τε ζαθεην, Τει^εδοιό τε ϊφι άνάσσεις • 



16 - ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Α. 

ήμ.€ν 8η ποτ ε/χεΰ ποίρος €κ\ν€ς ζ.υζαμ4νοιο, 
τίμησα^ μίν εμβ, μέγα δ' ιψαο λαορ 'Α;γαιώί/• 

455 YjS*' en /cat νυν μοι τόδ' έπυκρηηνον ϋλ^ωρ • 
17877 VVU Ααραοίσυν αεικέα \ονγον άμνρορ.'* 

ως εφατ' ευχόμενος, τον δ' εκλνε Φοίβος Απόλλων, 
αύταρ επεί ρ ενζαντο καΧ ονλογντας προβάΚοντο, 
ανερνσαν μεν πρώτα καΐ έσφαζαν καΐ έγειραν, 

460 μηρούς τ εζεταμον κατά τε Kviarj εκάλνφαν 
Βίπτνχα ΤΓΟ^πσαν τες,^ επ" αυτών δ' ώμοθετησαν, 
καιε ο επι ο-χιζης ο γέρων, επι ο αιυοπα οινον 
λεΐβε • νεοί δε παρ' αυτόν έχον πεμπώβολα χερσίν, 
αύταρ επεΙ κατά μηρα κάη καΐ σπλάγχνα πάσαντο, 

465 μίστνλλόν τ άρα ταλλα καΐ άαφ'όβελοΐσιν επεψαν, 



ώπτησάν τε περιφρα^εως, ερύσαντο τε πάντα, 
αύταρ επεί παύσαντο πόνου τετύκοντό τε δαιτα, 
αινυντ , ουοε τι υνμος εοευετο οαίτος ευσης. 

^ αύταρ επεϊ πόσιος καΐ εδητύος εζ ερον εντοΤ 

470 κούροι jJikv κρητηρας επεστε\\}αντο ποτοΐο, 

νώμησαν δ* άρα πάσιν επαρξάμενοι ^επάεσσιν, 
οΐ δβ πανημεριοι μολπψ θεον Ιλάσκοντο, 
καλόν άεί8οντες πα^ονα, κούροι Αχαιών, 
μεκποντες^εκαεργον • ο οε φρένα τ^ρπετ ακουων, 

475 ημος δ' ηελιος κατεΒυ καΙ επΙ κνεφας ηλθεν, 
8η τότε κοιμησαντο παρά πρυμνησια νηός, 
ημος δ' ήριγενεια φάνη ροΒο8άκτυλος Ήώς, 
καΐ τότ επειτ άνάγοντο μετά στρατον εύρύν Ά^αιωί' 
τοίσιν δ' ΐκμενον ονρον ΐει εκάεργος Απόλλων. 

480 οΐ δ' Ιστον στησαντ , ανά θ* ιστία λευκά πετασσαν • 
εν δ' άνεμος πρησεν μέσον ιστίον, άμφΐ 8ε κΌ/χα 
στείργ} πορφύρεον μεγάλ' ^^Χ^ νηος Ιούσης * 
η &* ieiS^ κατά κύμα. 8ίαπρησσουσα κελευθον. 



HOMER'S TLTAD, BOOK L 17 

αύταρ ineC ρ Χκοντο κατά στρατον evpvv Ά^αιώι/, 
485 νηα μ€ν οι γβ ^ιχελαΐί^αζ^ έπ ηπ€ΐρουο ερνσσαν 

vxjjov inl ^άμαθους, νπο δ' άρματα μακρά τάννσσαν, 
αντοί δ' Ισκι^ναντο κατά κλυσίας Τ€ νέας τε, V 

ανταρ 6 μηνυ€ ιτηυσί τταρημβρος ώκυπόροισιν, 
Βυογβνης ΤΙηληος νΙός, πόδας ώκυς ^Αχ^ίλλευς. 
490 ουτ€ ττοτ εΙς άγορην ττωΧεσκετο κν^ιάνειραν 

ούτε ποτ ες πόλεμον, άλλα φΘινύθεσκε φίλον κηρ 
. αυ^ί, μένων, ποΘεεσκε δ' άντην τε τττόλεμόν Τ6.>^ 
αλλ οτε όη ρ εκ τουο ονωοεκατη'' γενετ η ως, 
καΐ τότε Srj προς'Όλνμττον Ισαν Θεοί αΐεν εόντες 
495 πάντες άμα, Ζενς δ* ηρχε. Θεης δ' ον ληθετ εφετμεων 

παώος ioy, αλλ' η y' άνεδνσετ ο κνμα θαλάσσης, ^^t^u^fcgd fkJ^ 
ήερίη δ' άνεβη μεγαν ονρανον Ονλνμπόν τε. 
ενρεν δ* ενρνοπα ΚρονίΒην άτερ ημενον άλλων 
ακρότατη κορυφή πολνΒειρά^ος Ονλύμπουο, 
500 και ρα πάροιθ* αύτοΐο καθεζετο, καΐ λάβε γουνών 
σκαίη • ^εζίτερη δ* άρ* νπ* άνθερεωνος έλουσα 
λισσομενη προσεειπε Δια Κρονιωνα ανακτά ' 
"^ " Ζευ πάτερ, ει ποτέ 8η σε μετ άθανάτοισιν ονησα » 

η επει η έργω, τόδβ μοι κρηηνον εελΒωρ • %λι»^>^λ ^ «(•* 

505 τίμησον μοι υΐόν, ος ώκυμορώτατος άλλων 
■ επλετ • άτάρ μιν νυν γε άναζ άντρων ^Αγαμέμνων 
ητίμησεν • ελών yap έχει -γέρας, αυτός άπούρας. 
άλλα συ περ μιν τ ΐσον, ^Ολύμπυε μητίετα Ζευ, f Α4%• 
τόφρα δ' επΙ Ύρώεσσι τίθέι κράτος, οφρ αν ^ΑχαιοΧ 
510 υίαν εμον τίσωσιν, οφελλωσίν τε ε ti/xtJ." 
"^ ως φάτο • την δ' ου τι προσεφη νεφεληγερετα Ζευς, 
αλλ' άκεων 8ην τιστο, (^ετις δ' ως ηφατο γουνών, 
ως εχετ εμπεφυυΐα, καΐ εϊρετο δεύτερον αυτις* 
y''' νημερτες μεν 8η μοι ύπόσχεο καΐ κατάνευσον. 



18 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ 1ΛΙΑΔ02 Α. 

Λ 

515 η αποειπ , επει ου tol em θ€θ9, οφρ ev €ΐοω, 

οσσον βγω μετά wacnv ατιμότατη θβός et/jii." 
" την δε μίγ^ ογθησα^ προσβφη γεφεληγβρέτα Ζβνς • 

" η 8η λοίγία εργ , οτε μ εχθοΒοπησαυ εφησευς 

^HpjJ, οτ αν μ ερεθησυν ονέίΒείους επεεσσιν, 
520 η δε και αντως μ αιει εν άθανάτοισι θεοίσιν 

νεικεΐ, kqlI τε με φησι μοίχη Ύρώεσσιν αρηγειν. 

άλλα σν μεν νυν αντι<; άπόστιχε, μη τι νόηση 
^. ^Η/3Τ7 * ^μοι δε κε ταντα μελησεται, οφρα τελεσσω, 

ει δ' αγε τοι κεφαλή κατανενσομαι, οφρα πεποίθη ς * ^MjuT^• 
525 τούτο γαρ εξ εμεσεν γε μετ άθανάτοισι μεγιστον 

τεκμωρ * ον γαρ εμον παλιινάγρετον ούδ' άττατηλον 

ούδ' άτελεύτητον, οτι κεν κεφαλή κατανενσωΓΐ 
η καΐ κυανεησιν επ* οφρύσι νενσε θρονιών • 

άμβρόσιαι δ' άρα γαίται επερρώσαντο. άνακτος 
530 κράτος άπ άθανάτοιο, μεγαν δ' ελελιξεν'Όλνμπον^'^^ - — - 
τω γ' ως βονλενσαντε 8ιετμαγεν • η μεν έπειτα 

εις άλα άλτο /3α^ειαι/ άπ αίγληεντος ^Ολύμπου, 

Ζευς οε εον προς οωμα. υεοι ο α/ια πάντες α^εσταν 

εξ εδεωι/, σφον πατρός εναντίον • ούδε τις ετλη\ 
535 /ΑεΓι^αι επερχόμενον, αλλ' άντίοι εσταν άπαντες. 

ως 6 μεν ένθα καθεζετ επΙ θρόνου • ουδέ /λιϊ^ "^Ηρτ; 

ηγνοίησεν ιδουσ**, οτι οι σνμφράσσατο βούλας 

άργνρόπεζα Θέτις, θυγάτηρ άλίοιο γέροντος. 

αντίκα κερτομίοισι Δια Κρονίωνα προσην^α • 
540 " τις δΐ7 <^ν '^<^''> ^ολομητα, θέων σνμφράσσατο βονλάς ; 

αιει τοι φίλον εστίν, εμεν απονοσφιν εόντα, 

κρνπτά8ια φρονεοντα Βικαζεμεν • ουδέ τι πω μοι 

προφρων τετληκας ειπειι^ έπος οττι νόησης.'* ,μ 
την δ' ημείβετ έπειτα πατήρ άντρων τε θέων τε • 
54:5'*' Ίίρη, μη δτ) πάντας εμονς επιελπεο μνθονς 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK I. 19 

elSyjaetP • χαλεποί tol ίσοντ άλόχω ττβρ iovajj, 
αλλ' δι^ μ€Ρ κ iwLCLKes aKove^ev, ον τις εττβιτα * 

οντβ θβων πρότξρος τ6ν y etcrerat οντ ανθρώπων • 
ον δε κ Ιγων άπάνβνθβ Θέων εθελωμι νοησαι, 

550 μη τι σν ταύτα έκαστα Ζιείρεο μη^ε /χεταλλα." 
^x.Wl•' ^ήμείβετ έπειτα βοώπις ποτνια "Ηρη ' 
" αινοτατ^ Κρονί8η, ποίον τον μνθον εειπες. 
* και λίην σε πάρος y' οΰτ εΐρομαι οντε μεταλλώ, 

άλλα μαΧ ενκηλος τα φράζεαι, ασσ εθελησθα • j^, 

555 νυν δ' αΐνώς 8εί8οικα κατά φρένα, μη σε παρείπτ) 
άργυρόπεζα Θβτις, θνγάτηρ αΚίοιο γέροντος • 
ηερίη γαρ σοι γε παρεζετο καΐ λάβε γοννων, 
ττ) σ* οίω κατανευσαι ετητυμον, ώς Άχιληα 
τιμήσεις, ολεσεις δβ πολεας επΙ ν^υσίν ^Κγαιων*^ 

560 την δ' άπαμειβόμενος προσεφη νεφεληγερετα Ζευς 
" 8αιμονίη, αΐεΐ μεν οίεαι ουδβ σε ληθω, 
πρηζαι δ' εμπης ον τι Βυνησεαι, αλλ' άπο θνμον 
μαΚλον εμοι εσβαι • το οε το ι και ριγιον ^σται. 
€t δ' οντω τοντ εστίν, εμοΙ μέλλει φίλον είναι^^ 

565 αλλ άκεουσα κάΘΎΐσο.Ιμω δ' επιπείθεο μνθω, 

μη νν τοι ον χραισμωσιν όσοι θεοι,είσ εν ^Ολνμπω 
άσσον Ιόνθ\ οτε κεν τοι άάπτονς χεΐρας εφείοιΓ 
^c^*> ως εφατ, εΒεισεν δε βοώπις ττοτζ^ια '^ΐίρη, . 

και ρ άκεονσα καθηστο, επιγναμχρα^ φίλον κηρ • 

570 ώγθησαν δ' άνα δώαα ^ΐος θεοιβνρανίωνες • 



τοΖσιν δ' "Ηφαιστο ^κΑντοτε^^η ς ηρχ άγορενειν, 

μητρι φίλη επΙ ηρα φέρων, λενκωλενω "^ϋρη ' . ί,^β- 

^ η θη λοιγια έργα ταο ecrcreTat, ονο ετ ανεκτά, 

ει οη σφω ένεκα θνητών εριΒαινετον ωδε, 
575 εν δε θεοΐσι κολωον ελαννετον • ούδε' τι δαιτος 

εσθλης εσσεται η8ος, επει τα ,χερείονα νίκα. 



20 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΪΛΙΑΔΟ^ Α. 

μητρί δ' €γω παροίφηιχυ, και ανττ) Trep ροεονση» 
πατρί φίλω έπΙ ηρα φβρβυν Au, οφρα μη αντβ 
veiKeifjai πατήρ, συν δ' ημίν δαΓτα ταράζιτι. 

580 el Trep yap κ εθβλησυν ^Ολυμπυος άστεροπητης 
εξ εΒεων στυφε\ίξαι • 6 γαρ πολύ φερτατος εστίν, 
άλλα συ τον γ επεεσσι καθάπτεσθαυ μαΚακοισιν • 
,. ο.νηκ cireitf ιΚαος Ολυ/χπιος εσσεταυ ημιν. 

ως αρ' εφη, καΐ άναίξας 8επα^ άμφίκύπελλον 

βδβο^τρί φί'^y ^^ Χ^Φ^ τιΟευ, και μιν ττροσεειπεν • 

^^^ τετλαθί, μητερ εμη^ και ανάσγεο κηΖομενη περ, 
μη σε φιΚην περ εουσαν εν οφθαλμοΐσιν ιδω/χαι 
θεινομενην * τότε δ' ου τι Βυνησομαυ άχνυμενός 7^9^^,^ 
γ^ραισμείν • άργαλεος γαρ ^Ολύμπιος άντίψερεσυαΐ, 

590 η^η yap με και άλλοτ αΚεζεμεναι μεμαωτα 
ρίφε ποδθ9 τεταγων άπο βηλου θεσπεσίοιο. 
τταν δ' ημαρ φερόμην, άμα δ' ηελυω κατα8ύντί 
καππεσον εν Αημνω, ολίγος δ' ert θυμός ενηεν • 
^ενθα με ^ιντυες άνΒρες άφαρ κομίσαντο πεσόντα,^* 

595 ως φάτο, μείΒησεν Sk θεά, λευκώλενος ^Ιίρη, 
μευ^ησασα 8ε τταιδος ε8εζατο χ^ι^ρΐ κύπελλον. 
αυτάρ 6 τοΐς άλλοίσυ θεοΐς εν^εξυα πασνν 
οίνογβει γλυκύ νέκταρ, άπο κρητηρος άφύσσων. 
άσβεστος δ' άρ' ενωρτο γελως μακάρεσσι θεοίσιν, 

600 ως tSov '^ϋφαιστον δια δώ/χατα πουπνύοντα. 

ως τότε μεν πρόπαν ημαρ ες ηελιον καταΒύντα 
Βαίνυντ ούδβ tl θυμός εΒεύετο δαιτος είσης, 
ου μεν φόρμιγγος περικαλλεος, ην ε)( Απόλλων, 
Μουσάων θ\ αί άει^ον άμειβόμεναι όπΐ καλή, 

605 αυτάρ επεί κατε^υ λαμπρον φάος ήελίοίο, 
οΐ μεν κακκείοντες εβαν οΙκόνΖε έκαστος, 
ηχί εκάστω δώμα περικλυτος άμφιγυηεις 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK I. 21 

^Ηφαιστος ποίησβν ISvCyaL πραπί?>€σσιν, 
Zeu? Se π/309 ov λβχος ηι ^Ολνμπως άστ€ροπητη<;, 
610 €ρθα ττάρος κοίμαθ\ ore μιν γλυκύς νπνος Ικάνοι • 
€νθα KadevS* άναβάς, πάρα δε χβυσόθρορος ^ϋρψ 



22 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Β. 



ΟΜΗΡΟΤ ΙΛΙΑΔ02: Β. 

Βήτα δ' υναρον <ίχ€ΐ, ayop-fiv, καΐ vijas αριθμ^Ι^ 
Somnia Beta refert, coetum popiilique ratesque, 

* Beta the dream and synod cites ; 
And catalogues the naval knights.' 

ονβυρος, Sidweipa. Βουώτβια η κατάλογος νέων. 

άλλοι μ4^ ρα θεοί τβ καΐ άνερες ΙπττοκορνσταΙ 
ευ^ον πανννγιοι, Δια δ' ουκ εχε ρηΒνμος υπρος, 
αλλ* ο γε μερμηρυζε κατά φρένα, ώς Ά^ιλ'^α 
τυμησηΐ), ολέστ) 8ε πολεας επΙ νηνσΐν ^Αχ^αυωρ, 

5 ηΒε δε οΐ κατά. θυμοί' αρίστη φαίρετο βουλή, 
πεμφαι επ Άτρεΐδτ^ ^Αγαμεμνονυ ουλον ονειρον • 
και μιν φωνησας επεα τττερόεντα προσηύΒα • 
*' βάσκ Wiy ούλε ονειρε, θοάς επΙ νηας Άχαυων • 
ελθων ες κλισιην * Αγαμέμνονος Άτρείδαο 

10 πάντα /χάλ' άτρεκεως άγορευεμεν ώς επιτέλλω» 
θωρηζαι ε κέλευε κάρη κομόωντας Ά^αιονς 
πανσυΒίΎ) • νυν γαρ κεν ελοι ττόλιν ευρυάγυιαν 
Ύρώων ' ου γαρ ετ άμφίς Όλύ/Απια 8ώματ έχοντες ' 
αθάνατοι φράζονται • επεγναμ-φεν γαρ απαντάς 

Ι^'Ύίρη λισ(Ρ»^ι£νη, Ύρώεσσι δε Α^τ^δε' εφηπται. 

ως φάτο, βη δ' άρ* ονειρος, επεί τον μυθον ακουσεν 
καρπαλίμως δ* Ικανε θοάς επΙ νηας Ά;)(αιω^'. 
βη δ' άρ" επ' ^Ατρε'υΒην ^Αγαμέμνονα • τον δε κιγανεν 
ευ^οντ εν κλισίη, περί δ' άμβροσιος κεγυθ^ ύπνος. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK 11. 23 

20 στη δ' άρ' ύπερ κεφαλής Νηληιω νΐι εουκώς 

Νεστορί, τον ρα μαΚιστα γερόντων τΤ Αγαμέμνων, 
τω μιν εεισάμενος προσεφωνεε θειος ονειρος • 
" εν^εις, ^Ατρεος νΙε Βαΐφρονος Ιππο8άμοιο • 
ου γ^ρη πανννγιον ευ^ειν βονληφόρον avSpa, 

25 ω λαοί τ επιτετράφαται καΐ τοσσα μεμηλεν/ 
νυν δ' εμεθεν ζννες ωκα • Αώς δε τοι άγγελος εΙμί, 
ος σευ άνευθεν εων μέγα κή8εται rfS* ελεαίρει. 
θωρηξαι σ εκελενσε κάρη κομόωντας Ά^ι^αιούς 
wavavSCy • νυν γάρ κεν έλους ττόλυν ενρνάγυιαν 

30 Ύρωων • ου γαρ ετ άμφίς Όλυ/χπια 8ώματ έχοντες 
αθάνατοι φράζονται • επεγναμ-φεν γάρ απαντάς 
"^ρη λισσομενη, Ύρώεσσι 8ε κη8ε^ εφηπται 
εκ Αιός. άλλα συ σΎ)σιν εχε φρεσί, μη8ε σε λήθη 
αιρείτω, ευτ άν σε μελίφρων ύπνος άνηη" 

35 ως άρα φωνησας άπεβησετο, τον δε λίττ' αυτού 
τα φρονεοντ άνά θυμον α ρ ου τελεεσθαι εμελλον, 
φη γάρ ο y' αιρησειν Υίριάμου πόλιν ηματι κεινω, 
νηπιος, ουοε τα ηοη, α ρα Δευς μηοετο έργα • 
θησειν γάρ ετ εμελλεν ε'π' άλγεά τε στοναγάς τε 

40 Ύρωσι τε καΐ Δαι^αοισι δια κρατεράς υσ μίνας, 

ν o>j/-«/ /I/O'' 'J' '»/' 

εγρετο ο ες ύπνου, σειη οε μιν αμφεχυτ ομφη. 
εζετο δ' ορθωθείς, μαλακον δ' έντυνε χιτώνα, 
καλόν νηγάτεον, περί δε μέγα βάλλετο φάρος • 
ποσσι δ' ύπο λιπαροΐσιν ε^ησατο καλά πέδιλα, 

45 άμφΐ δ' άρ' ωμοισιν βάλετο ζίφος άργυρόηλον • 
ειλετο δε σκηπτρον πατρώιον, άφθιτον αίεί^^ 
συν τω εβη κατά νηας Ά;)(αιώϊ/ χαλκοχιτώνων. 

Ήώς μεν ρα θεά προσεβησετο μακρόν Ολυμπον^ 
ΖηνΙ φόως ερεουσα και άλλοις άθανάτοισιν • 

50 αυτάρ 6 κηρύκεσσι λιγυφθόγγοισι κελευσεν 



24 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Β. 

KT^pvaaeiv ayopyjpSe κάρη κομόωντας Άχαίονς, 
οΐ μεν Έκηρυσσοτ/, τοί δ' TjyeipovTO /χάλ' ω /ca. 
βονλην δε πρώτον μεγάθυμων Γζβ γερόντων 
^eaToperj πάρα νηί TivXoiyeviof; βασυληος. 

55 τους ο γβ σνγκαλβσας πυκινην ηρτννβτο βονλην 
" κλντε, φίλοί. θείος μου ivvirvLov ηλθεν ονβιρος 
άμβροσίην δια νύκτα, μάλιστα δε Necrropt διω 
είδος τε μέγεθος τε φνην τ άγγιστα εωκειν. 
στη δ' dp' νπερ κεφαλής, και με προς μνθον εειπερ • 

60 ' ευδεις, ^Ατρεος νΙε Βαίφρονος ίππο8άμοίο • 
ου χρη πανννγιον εν^ευν βονληφόρον dvSpa, 
ω λαοί τ επίτετράφαται καΐ τόσσα μεμηλεν. 
νυν δ' εμεθεν ζννες ωκα • Διός δε tol άγγελος εΙμι, 
ος σευ άνενθεν εων μέγα κη8εται η8' ελεαίρεί. 

65 θωρηζαί σ εκελευσε κάρη κομόωντας Ά^αιους 
πανσνΒί,Ύ) • νυν γάρ κεν ελοίς πολύν ενρνάγυιαν 
Ύρωων • ου γάρ ετ άμφίς Όλν/χπί,α Βώματ εχ^οντες 
αθάνατου φράζονταυ • επεγναμφεν γάρ απαντάς 
'^Ηρη λισσομενη, Ύρώεσσι δε κτβε εφηπται 

70 εκ Διός. άλλα σν σησιν εχε φρεσίν.* ως ο μεν εΙπων 
ωγετ άποπτάμενος, εμε δε γλνκνς ϋπνος άνηκεν. 
αλλ' άγετ , αϊ κεν πως θωρηζομεν νΐας ^Αχ^αίών, 
πρώτα δ' εγών επεσιν πειρησομαι, η θέμις εστίν, 
και φενγειν συν νηυσΐ πολνκληισι κελεύσω • 

75 νμείς δ* άλλοθεν άλλος ερητύειν επεεσσιν,^^ 

η ΤΟΙ ο γ ως ειπών κατ αρ εί^ετο, τοισι ο ανέστη 
Νέστωρ, 6ς ρα ΐΐύλοιο άναζ ην ημαθόεντος * 
ο σφιν ευ φρονεων άγορησατο και μετεειπεν • 
" ω φίλοι, ^Αργείων ηγήτορες ηΒε μεδοντες, 

80 ει μεν τις τον ονειρον Ά^^^αιωι^ άλλος ενισπεν, 
ψευδός κεν φαΐμεν καΐ νοσφιζοίμεθα μάλλον • 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 25 

vw δ' ΐ^€Ρ δς μεγ* άριστος Άχαυών βϋχεταί eirat, 
αλλ' ayer', at κεν πως θωρηζομεν νΐας Ά^αιώι/." 
ω? αρα φωνηοτας βουλής βζ ήρχε z^eecr^at, 
86 οι δ* Ιπανέστησαν πειΘοντό τ€ ποιμίνι λαών, 
σκηπτον-χοί βασίληες. Ιπεσσενοντο δε λαοί. 
rjVT€ idvea elcrt μεΚισσάων ά^ίνάων, 
πετρης e/c γλαφυρής alel veov Ιργομενάων • 
βοτρυΒον 0€ πίτονται in άνθεσιν εΙαρινοΖσίν • 
90 at μ4ν τ ένθα άλις πεποτηαται, at δε τ€ εζ^έ^α • 
ως των eOvea πολλά νέων απο /cat κλισιάων 
'ηιονος προπάροίθβ βαθείης Ιστιγόωντο 
ιλαδοζ' εις άγορην • μετά 8ε σφιοτίν οσσα 8ε8ηειν 
οτρύνουσ Ιεναι, Δίθ9 άγγελος * ot δ' άγερορτο, 
95 τετρηγει δ' άγορη, ύπο δε στεναχίζετο γαΓα 
Καων ίί,οντων, ομαοος ο ην. εννέα οε σψεας 
κήρυκες βοόωντες ερητυον, ει ποτ άυτης 
σγοίατ , άκούσειαν δε 8ιοτρεφεων βασυληων, 
σπου^Ύ) δ' εζετο λαός, ερητυθεν δε καθ^ ε^ρας 

100 παυσάμενοί κλαγγης. άνα δε κρείων Αγαμέμνων 
εστη σκηπτρον έχων - το μεν '^Έίφαυσ-τος κάμε τευχών 
'^ΐίφαίστος μεν δωκε Att Κρονιωνυ άνακτι, 
αυτάρ άρα Ζευς Βώκε ^ιακτορω άργεϊφόντΎ) • 
^Έιρμευας δε άναζ 8ωκεν Πελoπt πληζίππω, 

105 αυτάρ 6 αυτέ Πελοψ 8ωκ Άτρευ, ττοιμενι λαών • 
Άτρευς δε θνησκων ελιπεν πολύαρνι %υεστ'ΐ[ΐ, 
αυτάρ ο αυτέ Θυεστ' ^Αγαμεμνονι λεΓπε φορηναι, 
πολλΎ)σίν νησοισι /cat ^Α/)γεϊ τταντι άνάσσειν. 
τω ο γ' ερεισάμενος επε Ά/^yεtotcΓt μετηύ8α • 

110 ** ω φίλου ήρωες Ααναοι, θεράποντες "Αρτιος, 
Ζευς /χε /χεγα ΚρονιΒης άττ) ενεΒησε βαρείτ), 
σχετλιος, δς πρΙν μεν μου ύπεσχετο /cat κατενευσεν 



26 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Β. 

^Ιλιοι^ €κπ4ρσαντ εντείχβοι/ άπονεεσθαυ, 

νυν δε κακήν άπάτην βουλβνσατο, και μ€ Κζλβνεΐ 

115 Βνσκλβα '^Αργοζ Ικεσθαι, έπεί πολυι/ ώλβσα λαοί/, 
[^οΰτω που All /χ,ελλβι vnep^euei φί\ον eivau, 
ος δτ) πολΧάων ΤΓθ\ίων κατέλυσε κάρηνα 
η^' ετί καΐ λΰσα • του γαρ κράτος εστί μεγυστον.^ 
αίσχρον γαρ τό8ε γ' εστί καΐ εσσομενοισι πυθεσθαι^ 

120 μαφ ούτω τοιόνΖε τοσον^ε τε λαον ^Κ.γαιων 
απρηκτον ττόλεμον πολεμίζειν η^ε μάχεσθαι 
άν^ράσι παυροτίρουσι, τΐλος δ' ου πω tl ττεφανται. 
εΐ περ γαρ κ εθίλοιμεν Ά^αιοι τε ΎρώΙς τε, 
ορκια πίστα ταμόντες, άριθμηθημεναι άμφω, 

125 Τρώες μεν Xefacr^ai εφεστιοι οσσοι εασυν, 
ημείς δ' ες ΒεκάΒας Βυακοσμηθεΐμεν Ά^αιοι, 
Ύρώων δ' avSpa έκαστου ελοίμεθα οίνοχοεύειν, 
πολλαί κεν 8εκά8ες ^ευοίατο οίνο-χ^όοιο, 
τοσσον εγω φημυ πλεας εμμεναι υίας Α-χοαων 

130 Ύρώων, οι ναιουσι κατά πτόλυν. αλλ επίκουροι 
πολλεων εκ πολιών εγγεσπαλοι ανΖρες detail•', 
οι με μέγα πλάζουσι καΐ ουκ είωσ εθίλοντα 
Υλιον εκπερσαι, ευ ναιόμενον πτολίεθρον. 
εννέα δτ) /^ε^άασι Αιος μεγάλου ενιαυτοί, 

135 και δτ) δοΰ/)α σεσηπε νέων κα\ σπάρτα λίλυνται • 
αί δ€ που ημετεραι τ' άλογοι και ι^τ/πια τίκνα 
eiar' ενι μεγάροις ποτιΒεγμεναι • άμμι δβ έργον 
αΰτως άκράαντον, ου εϊνεκα 8ευρ' Ικόμεσθα, 
αλλ' αγεθ\ ως αν εγω εϊπω, πειθώμεθα πάντε%* 

140 φεύγωμεν συν νηυσΐ φίλην ες πατρίδα yaiai/ • 
ου γαρ ετι Ύροίην αίρησομεν ευρυάγυιαν» 

ως φάτο, τοΐσι δε θυμον ενΙ στηθεσσιν ορινεν 
πάσ-ι μετά πληθύν, όσοι ου βουλής επάκουσαν. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK 11. 27 

κινηθη δ' άγορη φη κύματα μακρά θαλάσσης, 

145 πόντου Ίκαρίοω • τά μβν τ* Έ^νρός τβ Νότος Τ€ 
ω ρο ρ* έπαΐζας πατρός Αως €Κ νβφβλάων, 
ώς δ' οτε κινηστ} Ζίφνρος βαθύ \ηιον ί\Θών, 
λάβρος ίπαιγίζων, έπί τ' ήμνβι άσταχνεσσίν, 
ως των πασ άγορη Κίρηθη, τοί δ' άλαλτ^τω 

150 I'Tja^ €7Γ icraevopTO, ποΒων δ' νπενερθβ κονί'η 
ΐστατ* άβιρομένη, τοΙ δ' άΧληΧοκτι κέλβνοΊ/ 
απτ^σθαι νηων -^δ' ίΚκέμβν eU άλα δΓαζ/, 
ονρονς τ εζεκάθαιρον • άντη δ' ονρανον ΐκ€Ρ 
OLKa8e Ιβμύρωρ• νπο δ' fjpeov έρματα νηων, 

155 €νθα K€v ^ Kpyeioiaiv νπβρμορα νόστος έτνχθη^ 
€L μη *Αθηνα[ην 'Ήρτ^ προς μνθον ίειπεν • 
** ω πόποι, αίγωχ^οιο Διός τίκος, άτρντώνη, 
οΰτω Srj olKOvSe, φίλην ές πατρίδα yatal•', 
Kpyeioi φβνζονταί επ' evpka νώτα θαλάσσης ; 

160 κ:άδ he Κ€Ρ €νχωλην ΐίρυάμω καΐ ΎρωσΙ λίποιεν 
^Αργείην ^Υ^λενην, ης είνεκα πολλοί Άχαοων 
iv Ύροιη άπόλοντο, φίλης άπο πατρίδος αΐης. 
αλλ' ΐθι νυν κατά λαον Ά^αιωι^ γαλκο^ιτώνων, 
σοΖς άγανοίς ίπεεσσιν βρητνβ φωτά εκαστον, 

1 65 μηοε εα νηας αλαδ' ελκεμεν άμφιελίσσας,^^ 

ως εφατ , ονδ' άπίθησε θεά, γλανκωπυς ^Αθηνη^ 
βη δε /car' Ουλνμποιο καρηνων άι|•ασα, 
καρπαλίμως δ' ΐκανε θοάς επΙ νηας 'Α;)(;αιώι/. 
εΰρεν επειτ Όδυσ'^α Διί μητιν άτάλαντον, 

170 εστεωτ • ούδ' δ γε νηος ενσσελμοιο μελαίνης 
απτετ', επεί μιν άχος κραδίην καΐ θνμον ΐκανεν, 
άγχον δ' Ισταμίνη προσεφη γλαυκωπυς *Αθηνη • 
** δίογενες Ααερτιάδη, πολνμηχαν* 'Οδυσσευ, 
οντω δη οΐκόνδε, φίλην ες πατρίδα yalav^^ 



28 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛίΑΔθ2 Β. 

175 φ€νζ€σθ* iv vrjeaai πολνκλψσι πζσορτες ; 

κα8 8e Keif €ύχω\ην ΐίρυά^λω καΐ ΎρωσΙ XiiroLTe 
^Kpyeirjv ^EXemrju, ης etW/ca πολλοί ^Α^^^αιω^» 
eV TpoLTj άπόλοντο, φίλης άπο πατρίδος αίης, 
αλλ' ΙΘι ννν κατά λαον Άχαιων, μη84 τ ipcoei, 

180 σοΐς δ* άγανοΐς ineecraip ερητνβ φωτά εκαστον, 
μηθ€ ea νηας αλαο ekKejxev αμψιεΚισσας. 

ως φάθ\ 6 Se ζυνίηκζ. θβας οττα φωνησάσης, 
βη δε OeeLV, άπο δε ;5(λαΓζ/αζ/ ^8άλε • τηι^ δε κομισσών 
κηρυζ FJVpvβdτης Ιθακήσιος, ος οΐ οπηΒβι, 

185 αντος δ* Άτρεΐδεω ^Αγαμέμνονος άντίος ίλθων 
δε^ατό οΐ σκηπτρον πατρώυον, αφθιτον aleC' 
σνν τω ββη κατά νηας *Α;)^αιωι^ -χαλκοχιτωνων. 

ον τυνα μεν ^ασιλτ^α καΐ εζοΛζον dvSpa κνχείη, 
τον δ' άγανοίς ίπεεσσιν €ρΎ]τύσασκ€ παραστας • 

190 •* ί>αιμ6νι, ον σε εοικε κακόν ως Ζειοίσσεσθαι, 
αλλ' αυτός τε καθησο καΐ άλλους ίδρυε λαούς, 
ου γαρ πω σάφα οΐσθ* οίος νόος ^Ατρειωνος • 
ννν μεν πξίραταυ, τάγα δ' Γψεται υΓας Ά^αιωί/. 
εν βονλη δ' ου πάντες άκονσαμεν, οίον εειπεν. 

195 /x-tJ Tt γολωσάμενος ρ^ζη κακόν νϊας Ά^αιώι/. 
θνμος δε μέγας εστί Βιοτρεφεος βασιληος, 
ημη δ' ε/ί Διός εστί, ψιλεΓ δε ε μητίετα Ζευς.*' 

01/ δ' αυ Βημον dvSpa ιδοι βοοωντά τ εφενροι, 
τον σκηπτρω ελάσασκεν ομοκλησασκε τε μνθω • 

200 ** Βαιμόνι, άτρεμας ησο καΐ άλλων μνθον ακονε, 
οί σεο φερτεροί είσι, σν δ' άπτόλεμος καΐ αναλκις^ 
οντε ποτ εν πολεμώ εναρίθμιος οντ ενι βονλη. 
ον μεν πως πάντες βασιλενσομεν ivOaS* Άχαυοί, 
ονκ αγαθόν πολνκοιρανίη • εις κοίρανος έστω, 

205 εΓς βασιλεύς, ω ζΒωκε Κρόνον παις άγκνλομητ€ω 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 29 

V 

[^σκηπτρον τ* lySe θβμισταζ» ίνα σφίσί ySacrtXeiii;]•" 
a>9 δ γ€ κοιρανίων διεπε στρατον • οΐ δ' άγορηνΒ^ 
αντίς ίπεσσενοντο νέων απο καΐ κΚισιάων 
νχν> ^^ ^'^^ κνμα .πο\νφλοί(τβουο θαλάσσης 

210 αίγίαλω μεγοίλω βρεμεται, σμαραγεΐ δε re ποζάτος, 
άλλοι /tez/ yo' εζοντο, έρητυθεί' Se καθ^ εΒρας ' . 
®€ρσίτης δ' ert μονρος αμετροεπής εκολωα, 
ος ρ επεα φρεσΧν ησιν άκοσμα τε πολλά τε rj^r]» 
μαχρ, άταρ ον κατά κόσμοι/, εριζεμεναι βασίλευσα/, 

216 αλλ OTL οΐ ευσαίτο γελοαον Κργείοισιν 

εμμεραί. αισχιστος δβ άνηρ νπο ''ΐλίορ ηλθεν • 
φολκος εην, χωλός δ' έτερον πόδα • τω 8ε οΐ ώμω 
κνρτώ, επΙ στήθος σννοχωκότε * αντάρ νπερθεν 
φοζος εην κεφαλήν , ψεδη^ δ' επενηνοθε λάχνη, 

220 εχθιστος δ' ^Κχιληι μάλιστ Tfv τ^δ' 'Οδυστ^ί. ' 
τω γαρ νεικειεσκε. τ6τ αντ Άγαμεμνονι διω 
ogea κεκΚηγως Κεγ ονειοεα ' τω ο αρ Αχαυοί 
εκπάγλως κοτεοντο, νεμεσσηθεν τ ενΧ θνμω. 
αντάρ 6 μακρά βοών Αγαμέμνονα νείκεε μνθω * 

225 ** ^Ατρει8η, τεο hrj αντ επιμεμφεαι ή8ε χατίζείζ ; 
πλεΐαί τοι χαλκον κλισίαι, πολλαΧ δε γνναικες 
εΙσΧν ενί κλισίης εζαίρετου, ας tol ^Αχαιοί 
πρωτίστω ΒίΒομεν, εντ άν τττολίεθ ρον ελωμεν, 
η ετί /cat χρνσον επιδβυεαι, δν κε τις οισει 

230 Ύρώων Ιππο^άμων εζ Ίλιου νΧος άποινα, 
ον κεν εγω Βησας άγάγω η άλλος Ά^αιώί^ • 
ηε γνναΐκα νεην, ίνα /xio^yeat iv φιλότητι, 
ην τ αυτός άπονόσφι κατίσχεαι, ον μεν ζοικεν 
αρχον εόντα κακών εττιβασκεμεν νίας Α^αιωζ/. 

235 ω πεπονες, κάκ έλεγχε', Ά^αιιδες, ονκετ ^Αχαιοί, 
OLKaSi ττερ σνν νηνσΐ νεώμεθα, tovZc δ' εώμεν 



\ 



•;-^ 



30 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Β. 

αύτον ivl TpoLjj yepa πεσαβμει/, οφρα ΐΒηται, 
η ρα τι OL -χτιμείς προσαμ,ννομ^ν rje και ονκι • 
δ? /cat νυν Α^ί-λτ^α, eo μέγ άμζ.ίνονα φώτα, 

240 ητίμησερ * ίΚων γαρ e^et γέρας, αντος άπονρας. 

άλλα /χάλ' ουκ Ά^ιλι^ι ;)(όλθ9 φρεσίν, άλλα μεθημων 
η γαρ άν, ^Ατρ€Ϊ8η, ννν ύστατα λωβησαιο." 

ως φατο νεικειων Αγαμέμνονα, ττοιμενα λαών, 
^J€pσίτης. τω δ' ωκα παρίστατο δΓος Όδυσσευς, 

245 και μιν vnoSpa 18ων γαλεττω ηνίπαπε μνθω ° 
" θερσίτ άκριτόμνθε, λιγνς περ εων άγορητης, 
ΐσχεο, μη8^ εθελ' οίος ερυζεμεναυ βασυλευσίν. 
ου γαρ εγω σεο φημί γερειότερον βροτον άλλον 
εμμεναυ, οσσοι άμ'>Άτρεΐ8Ύ)ς νπο '^Ιλών ηλθον. 

250 τω ουκ αν ySacrtXTja? άνά στόμ έχων άγορενοις, 

και σφιν ονείΒεά τε προφερους, νόστον τε φυλάσσοις. 
ούδε τι ττω σάφα ΐ8μεν όπως εσται τά^ε έργα, 
η ευ ηε κακώς νοστησομεν υΐες Ά;)(αιώζ^. 
[τω νυν ^ΑτρεΐΒγ) ^ Αγαμεμνονι, ποιμενι λαών, 

255 '^crat ονει^ίζων, οτι οι μάλα πολλά 8υ8ουσιν 
ήρωες Ααναοί. συ δε κερτομεων αγορεύεις.'] 
αλλ' εκ TOL ερεω, το δε /cat τετελεσμενον εσται • 
et κ ετι σ άφραίνοντα κιχησομαι ως νύ περ ωδε, 
μηκετ επειτ Όδυσι^ι κάρη ωμοισιν επείη, 

260 /Ατ^δ' ετι Ύηλεμάχοιο πατήρ κεκλημενος εϊην, 
ει μη εγώ σε λαβών άπο μεν φίλα εΐματα Βύσω, 
-χλαΐνάν τ ή8ε χιτώνα, τα τ αιδώ άμφικαλύπτει, . 
αύτον δε κλαίοντα θοάς επι νηας άφησω 
πεπληγως άγορηθεν άεικεσσι πληγησιν,^^ 

265 ως άρ* ^Φ^' (^κηπτρω δε μετάφρενον ήΒε και ώμω 
πληξεν ο δ' Ι^νώθη, θαλερον δε οι έκπεσε 8άκρυ, 
σμω8ιζ δ' αίματόεσσα μεταφρενου εζυπανεστη 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 31 

σκήπτρου νπο γρνσίον, 6 δ' a ρ" βζετο τάρβησίν Τ€, 
αΚγησα^ δ*, αγ^ρείον ιδώζ^, άπομόρξατο 8άκρν. 

270 οΐ δε καΐ άχννμενοί περ έπ αύτω ηΒυ γελασσαΐ' • 
ωδ€ δε τις εΐπεσκεν ίδώι/ is πλησίον άλλον • 
" ω πόποι, η Βη p.vpC 'Οδυσσεύς ίσθλα eopyev 
βούλας τ έζάρχων άγαθάς πόλβμόν re κορνσσων • 
νυν δε τόδε μ4γ άριστον iv ^Κργείοισιν βρζζεν, 

275 OS rot' λωβητηρα βπεσβόλον ίσχ άγοράων, 
ου θην μιν πάλιν αυτις άνησβι θυμός άγηνωρ 
veiKeieiv ^βασιλ^ας ό^ειδειοις ε'τΓεεσσιζ^." 

ως φάσαν η πληθύς, ανά δ' 6 πτολίπορθος Όδνσσεύς 
εσττ; σκηπτρον €γων, παρά δε γλαυκωπις Άθηνη 

280 €ΐ8ομ4νη κηρυκι σιωπάν λαον άνώγβιν, 

ως α/χα ^* οί πρώτοι τε και ύστατοι υΓες Ά^αιώι/ 
μυθον άκούσβιαν και έπιφρασσαιατο βουλην, 
ο σφιι^ ε'ύ φρονεων άγορησατο και μ€Τ€€ΐπ€ν • 
" Άτρεΐδτ;, ζ^5ι/ δ?; σε, αι^α^, βθβλουσιν Άχαιοι 

285 πάσιν έλεγχιστον ^φει/αι μβρόπβσσι βροτοίσιν, 
ούδε το ι έκτελβουσιν ύπόσχεσιν, ην περ υπεσταν 
ivOaS* ίτι στείχοντες απ' ^Αργεος ιπποβότοιο, 
Ιλιον εκπερσαντ ευτείγεον άπονεεσθαι • 
ως τε yap τ^ παίδες νεαροί χηραί τε γυναΤκες 

290 άλληλοισιν οδύρονται οΙκόν8ε ζ/εεσ^αι. 
^ μην και πόνος εστίν άνιηθεντα ι^εεσ^αι. 
και yap τις θ* ενα μήνα μένων άπο ης άλόχοιο 
άσ^αλάα συν νηι πολυζιτγω, ον περ αελλαι 
χειμεριαι είλεωσιν ορινομενη τε θάλασσα* 

295 ημϋν δ' εΓνατός εστί περιτροπεων ενιαυτος 

ενθά^ε μιμνόντεσσι. τω ου νεμεσίζομ Ά^οΙιούς 
άσ)(αλααί/ παρά νηυσι κορωνίσιν • άλλα κα\ εμπης 
αίσχρόν τοι 8ηρόν τε μενειν κενεόν τε νεεσθαι. 



32 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Β. 

τλητβ, φίλοι, καΐ μ^ίνατ έπΙ χρόνον, οφρα δαώ/χε*', 

300 η i.T€ov Κάλχας μαντενεται ηε και ονκί, 

ευ γαρ 8η τό8ε ΐ8μεν ενί φρεσίν, εστε δε πάντες 
μοίρτνρου, ους μη κηρες εβαν θανάτοιο φερονσαι • 
χθιζά τε kclI ττρωίζ, οτ ες Ανλιδα ρηες Ά;)(;αιωζ/ 
ηγερεθοντο, κακά ΐΐρίάμω και Ύρωσυ φερονσαι • 

305 ημείς δ' άμφΐ ττερί κρηνην ίερονς κατά βωμούς 
ερ^ομεν άθανάτοισι τεληεσσας εκατόμβας, 
καλ'^ νπο πλατανίστω, όθεν ρεεν άγλαον ν8ωρ, 
ενθ* εφάνη μέγα σήμα, Βρακών επΙ νώτα 8αφοινός^ 
σμερ8αλεος, τόν ρ αντος 'Ολύμπιος ηκε φόωσ8ε, 

310 βωμοί} ύτταί'^ας προς ρα πλατάνιστον ορονσεν. 
ένθα δ' εσαν στρονθοΐο νεοσσοί, ζ^τ^πια τέκνα, 
οζω €7γ' άκροτάτω, πεταλοις νποπεπτηωτες, 
οκτώ, άταρ μητηρ ενάτη ην, η τεκέ τέκνα, 
ενθ^ δ γε τους ελεεινά κατησθιε τετριγωτας, 

315 μητηρ δ' άμφεποτάτο 68νρομενη φίλα τέκνα • 
την δ' ελελιξάμενος πτερνγος λάβεν άμφιαχυίαν. 
αντάρ επει κατά τεκν έφαγε στρονθοΐο καΐ αντην^ 
τον μεν άρίζηλον θηκεν θεός, δς περ εφηνεν • 
λάαν γάρ μιν εθηκε Κρόνον παις άγκνλομητεω • • 

320 ημείς δ' €στα07€ς θανμάζομεν οΐον ετνχθη. 
ως ονν 8εινά πελωρα θέων είσηλθ* εκατόμβας, 
Κάλ;)(α9 δ' αντίκ Ιττειτα θεοπροπεων άγόρενεν • 
'τίπτ ανεω εγενεσθε, κάρη κομόωντες A;)(aiot ; 
ημΐν μεν τό8* εφηνε τέρας μέγα μητίετα Ζενς, 

325 οφιμον οφιτελεστον, δον κλέος ον ποτ ολείται. 
ώς οντος κατά τεκν* έφαγε στρονθοΐο και αντην, 
οκτώ, άτάρ μητηρ ενάτη ην, η τεκέ τέκνα, 
ως ημείς τοσσαντ ετεα πτολεμίζομεν αυ^ι, 
τω 8εκάτω δβ πόλιν αίρησομεν ενρνάγνιαν» 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 33 

330 κείνος τως αγόρευε • τα Βη νυν πάντα τελείται, 
αλλ' άγε μίμνετε πάντες, ενκνημώες ^Αγαιοί, 
αντον, εΙς ο κεν αστν μέγα Τίριαμοιο ελωμεν. ^ 
ως εφατ, ^Αργεΐου 8ε μεγ ΐαχον, άμφΐ δε νηες 
/σμερΒαλεον κονάβησαν άνσάντων υπ" Ά^^αιώζ/, 

335 μνθον επαινήσαντες ^Ο^υσσηος θείοιο. 

τοίσι δβ καΐ μετεειπε Τερηνιος Ιππότα 'Νέστωρ • 
" ω πόποί, η δτ) παισίν εουκότες άγοράασθε 
νηπίάχοις, οΐς ου τι μέλει πολεμηια έργα, 
π^ Βη συνθεσίαι τε και ορκια βησεται ημΐν ; 

340 iv πυρί 8η βονλαι τε γενοιατο μηΒεά τ άντρων ' ^ y 

σπον^αί τ άκρητοι καΧ δε^ιαι, τις επεπιθμεν • 
αντως γάρ ρ επεεσσ εριδαίνομεν, ούδβ τι μ^ηχος 
εύρεμεναι Βννάμεσθα, πολύν χρόνον ivOaS* εόντες. 
*Ατρει8η, συ δ' εθ^ ώς πριν έχων άστεμφεα βουληρ 

345 άρχευ Άργειοισι κατά κρατερας υσ μίνας ^ 

τούσ^ε δ' ,Ια φθινύθειν, ενα καΐ δυο, τοί κεν Ά^αιώϊ/ 
νόσφιν βουλεύωσ , άνυσις δ' ουκ: εσσεται αυτών, 
πρΙν Αργοσδ' Ιεναι, πριν καΧ Διός αίγιοχοιο 
γί/ώ/χ€^^αί, ει τε ψευδός ύπόσχεσις» ει τε καΐ ούκί. 

350 φημί γαρ ουν κατανευσαι ύπερμενεα Κρονιωνα 
ηματι τω, δτε νηυσιν εν ώκυπόροισιν εβαινον 
*Αργεΐοι Ύρώεσσι φόνον και κηρα φέροντες, 
άστράπτων εττιδε^ι', εΐ'αισι/χα σήματα φαίνων» 
τω μη τις πρΙν επειγεσθω οΙκ6ν8ε νεεσθα^, 

355 πριν τίνα παρ Ύρώων άλόχω κατακοιμηθηναι, 
τίσασθαι δ* ^ΈΧενης ορμηματά τε στοναχάς Τ€. 
εΐ δε τις έκπάγλως εθελει οΙκόν8ε ζ^εεσ^αι, 
απτεσθω ης νηός, ευσσελμοιο μέλαινης, 
οφρα πρόσθ^ άλλων θάνατον καΐ πότμον επίσπτ), 

360 άλλα, άναζ, αυτός τ* ευ μη8εο πείθεό τ αλλω • 






34 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Β. 

ου TOL άπόβλητον ίττος ^σσεται, οττι κ€ν εΐπω • 
κρίν άρ8ρας κατά φνλα, κατά φρητρας, ^Αγάμβμνον, 
ως φρητρη φρητρηφίν άρηγτ), φνλα δε φνλοίς, 
el δε Κ€Ρ ως ερ^τ^ς καί το ι ττάθωνται ^Αγαιοί, 

365 γρώστ) ίπειθ* ος θ* ηγβμόνων κακός, δς τε νυ λαών, 
yS* ος κ έσθλος €Ύ/οη • κατά σφίας γαρ μαγίονται • 
γνώσεαυ δ' η καΐ θεσπβσυΎ) πολύν ουκ άλαττάζεις, 
rj άντρων κακότητί καΐ άφραΒίτ) πολίμοίο.** 

τον δ' άπαμ€ΐβόμ€νος προσίφη κρβιων ^Αγαμέμνων 

370 " η μάν αντ GLyoprj νικάς, γέρον, νΐας Ά^αιώι/. 
αί γοίρ, Ζευ τε πάτερ καΐ Άθηναίη καΐ Απολλον, 
TOLOVTOL δέκ:α μοι σνμφρά8μονες εΐεν Ά^^αυων • 
τω κε τάχ ημνσειε πολις ΤΙριάμοιο άνακτος, 
-χερσίν νφ^ ημετερΎ)σίν άλονσά τε περθομενη τε, 

375 άλλα μοί αίγιογος ΚρονίΒης Ζευς αλγε' ε8ωκεν, 
ος με μετ άπρηκτονς έριδας και νείκεα βάλλει, 
και γαρ εγων Ά^ιλευς τε μαγιησάμεθ* εϊνεκα κονρης 
άντιβίοις επεεσ&ιν, εγω δ' ηρχον χαλεπαινων • 
ει δε ποτ ες γε 'μίαν βονλεύσομεν, ούκετ έπειτα 

380 ΎρωσΙν άνάβλησις κακόν εοτσεται, ούδ' '^^atol•'. 
ννν δ' ερχεσθ^ επΙ Βεΐπνον, Ινα ξννάγωμεν ^Αρηα. 
εν μεν τις δόρυ θηζάσθω, εν δ' ασπίδα θεσθω, 
εν δε τις ΐπποισιν 8εΐπνον δότω ώκνποΒεσσιν, 
εδ δε τις άρματος άμφίς 18ων πολεμοιο μεΒεσθω, 

385 ως κε πανημεριοι στνγερω κρινώμεθ* ^Αρηι, d 

ον γαρ πανσωλη γε μετεσσεται, ούδ' /^ySaioi/, 
€1 μη ννζ ελθονσα 8ιακρινεει μένος άνΒρων, 
ιδρώσει μεν τεν τελαμων άμφΐ στηθεσσιν 
άσπίδος άμφιβροτης, περί δ* εγχεϊ χεφα καμεΐται • 

390 ιδρώσει δε τεν ίππος ενζοον άρμα τιταίνων. 
ον δε κ εγων άπάνενθε μάχης εθελοντα νοήσω 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK IT. 35 

μιμράζβίν πάρα νηνσΐ κορωνίσιν^ ου οΐ βττειτα 
αρκίον ίσσείται φυγείν κνναζ rjh' οιωνούς." 
ως €φατ , Apyeioi oe μεγ la^oVy ως ore κνμα 

395 άκτη e(j> vxjjTjXrj, οτ€ κυνηστ) Νότος έλθών, 

προβλητί σκοπέλω • τον δ* ου ποτέ κύματα λείπει 
παντοίων άνεμων, οτ αν ενθ* η ένθα γενωνταυ. 
άνστάντες δ' ορεοντο κεΒασθεντες κατά νηας, 
κάπνισσάν τε κατά κλισίας, καΐ Βεΐπνον ελοντο. 

400 άλλος δ' άλλω ερβζε θεών αίειγενετάων, 

ευχόμενος θάνατον τε φυγείν καΐ μώλον '^Αρηος, 
αϋτάρ 6 βουν Ιερευσεν άναζ άντρων Αγαμέμνων, 
πίονα πενταετή poVy ]/περμενει Κρονίωνυ, 
κίκλησκεν 8ε γέροντας άριστηας ΤΙαναχαιών, 

405 Νέστορα μεν πρώτιστα /cat ^Ι^ομενηα ανακτά, 
αυτάρ επειτ Αΐαντε 8ύω κ αϊ Τυδβος υ ιόν, 
έκτον δ* αυτ Όδυσι^^, Διι μητιν άτάλαντον, 
αυτόματος 8ε οι ήλθε βοην άγαθος Μενέλαος • 
Ύΐ8εε γάρ κατά θυμον ά8ελφεον ως επονεΐτο. 

410 βουν 8ε περίστησάν τε καΐ ούλοχύτας άνελοντο. 
τοίσιν δ' ευχόμενος μετεφη κρείων Αγαμέμνων • 
** Ζευ κύ8ιστε μέγιστε^ κελαινεφες, αιθερι ναίων, 
μη πριν επ* ήελιον δυι^αι και επΙ κνεφας ελθεΐν, 
πριν με κατά πρηνες ;8αλ€€ΐι^ ΤΙριάμοιο μέλαθρον 

415 αίθαλόβν, πρηααι 8ε πυρός 8ηίοιο θυρετρα, 
Έκτόρεον 8ε χιτώνα περί στηθεσσι δαι^αι 
χαλκω ρωγαλεον • πολεες δ' άμφ' αυτόν εταίροι 
πρηνεες εν κονίησιν 68άζ λαζοίατο γαΓαι^." 

ως εφατ, ούδ' άρα πω οι επεκραίαινε Κρονίων, 

420 αλλ' ο γε 8εκτο μεν ίρά, πόνον δ' άλίαστον όφε}^ν, 
αυτάρ επεί ρ ευξαντο /cat ούλο;^υτας προβάλοντ 
αυερυσαν μεν πρώτα καΧ έσφαζαν καΧ ε8ειραν. 



ντό^ Λ 



36 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Β. 

μηρονς τ έζβταμον κατά re KvLarj iKaXvxjjav, 
8ίπτνχα ττοιησαντες, έπ αντων δ' ώμοθβτησοΛ^, 

425 καΐ τα μ€ν αρ σχίζΎ)σίν άφν\\οισιν κατύκαιον, 

σπλάγχνα δ' αρ' άμπείραντβς νπβίρβχορ Ήφαίστοιο, 
ανταρ inel κατά μηρα καη και σπλαγ-χρα πάσαντο, 
μίστνΚλόν τ αρα τάλλα και αμφ οβξΧοίσιν βπειραρ, 
ωπτησάν re ττβρυφραΒεως, ίρύσαντο re πάντα, 

430 ανταρ eVel πανσαντο πόνου τβτνκοντό τ€ δαΓτα, 
SaivvvT, ovSe tl θνμος iSeveTo 8αίΤος έίσης. 
ανταρ eVet ττόσιος καΧ βΒητύος i^ epov evTO, 
τοΐ<; άρα μνθων ηρχ^ Γβρηνυος ίππότα Νέστωρ • 
" Άτρ€(ί'δτ7 κνΒίστ€, άι^αξ άντρων ^AγάμeμvoVy 

435 μηκίτί νυν ^ηθ* ανθί Χεγώμβθα, μηό€ τι 8ηρον 
άμβαλλώμβθα epyov, ο δι^ ^^^^ έγγυαλίζεί. 
αλλ' aye, κηρνκβς μεν Άχαιων γαΚκογιτώνων 
λαοι^ κηρύσσοντες; άγευρόντων κατά νηας, 
Ύ]μεΐ<; δ' αθρόοι ωδe κατά στρατον εύρνν ^Ατχαιων 

440 ΐομεν, όφρα κε θάσσον εγεΐρομεν όξύν '^Αρηα.^* 

ως εφατ, ούδ' άπίθησεν άναζ άντρων ^Αγαμέμνων 
αντίκα κηρνκεσσι λιγνφθόγγοισι κελενσεν 
κηρνσσειν πολεμόν8ε κάρη κομόωντας ^Αχαιούς, 
οΐ μεν εκηρνο'σον, τοί δ' ηγείροντο /χάλ' ωκα. 

445 οΐ δ' αμφ' Άτρείωνα ^ιοτρεφεες βασιληες 
θννον κρίνοντες, μετά 8ε γλανκωπις Άθηνη, 
αιγιό εχουσ εριτιμον, αγηραον αυανατην Τ€' 
της εκατόν θύσανοι παγχρύσεοι ηερεθονται, 
πάντες ευπλεκεες, εκατόμβοιος 8ε έκαστος • 

450 σνν τη παιφάσσονσα 8ίεσσντο \αον Ά^αιώμ 
ότρύνονσ* Ιεναι ' εν 8ε σθένος ωρσεν εκαστω 
καρ8ίη, άλΧηκτον ποΧεμίζειν η8ε μάχεσθαι. 
τοΐσι δ' άφαρ πόλεμος γλνκίων γενετ ηε i^eecr^ai 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. S7 

iu νηυσΧ γ\αφνρΎ)συ φίλην €ς πατρίδα yalav, 

455 rjvTe ττνρ άίΒτηλορ βπιψλβγει άσπβτον νλην 
ονρβος iv κορυφτι^, εκαθ^ν δε re φαίνεται αύγη, 
ως των Ιργομενων άπο ^α\κον θεσπεσίοιο 
αϊγΧη παμφανόωσα δι' αΙθερος ουρανον ΐκεν. 
των δ', ώς τ ορνίθων πετεηνων eOvea ττολλα, 

460 γτ^νων η γβράνων η κύκνων ^ουΧί^ο^βυρων, 
*Ασίω iv λβιμωνί, Κανστρίον άμφΐ piedpa, 
ένθα καλ ένθα ττοτωνται άγαΧΧόμενα τΓΤβρνγβσσ-ιν, 
κ\αγγη8ον προκαθίζοντων, σμαραγεί δε re Χευμών^ 
ως των ίθνεα ποΧΧα νέων απο καΐ κΧισιάων 

465 ες πεδιοι/ ττρο^Ιοντο 'Ζκαμάν^ριον • ανταρ νττο γθων 
σμβρ^αΧβον κονάβυζε ττο^ων αυτών τε καΐ ίππων, 
ίσταν δ' iv Χειμώνι ^καμαν8ρίω άνθβμόεντι 
μνρίοί, ocrcra τε φνΧΧα καΐ αι^^εα γίγνεται copiQ. 
rjVT€ μρίάων άΒινάων iOvea πολλά, 

470 αϊ τε κατά σταθμον ποίμνηιον 'ηΧάσκονσιν 
ωρτβ iv elapivrfy δτε τε γΧάγος άγγεα δευει, 
τόσσοι iπl Ύρώεσσι κάρη κομόωντες *A^atot 
iv πεδιω ΐσταντο hiappalaai μεμαώτβς. 

τους δ', ως τ' αιπολια ττλατε' αΙγών αΙπόΧου ανΒρες 

475 pela Ζιακρίνωσιν, iπ€L Κ€ νομω μυγεωσιν, ^ - 
ως τους ηγβμόνβς Βίβκόσμβον ίνθα και ένθα 
ύσμίνην8' levaL, μετά δε κρείων 'Αγαμέμνων, 
όμματα και κεφαΧην υκεΧος Au τερπικεραύνω» 
"Άρει δε ζώνην, στερνον δε ΤΙοσεί8άωνυ. 

480 τ^υτε βους άγεΧηφι μεγ* εζοχος επΧετο πάντων 

ταύρος • ό γάρ τε βόεσσι μεταπρεπει άγρομενΎ)σίν • 
τοΐον άρ' ^Ατρευ^ην θηκε Ζευς ηματί κείνω, 
iκπpεπe iv ποΧΧοΐσυ και εζοχον ηρώεσσιν. 



38 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ιλιαδο:ε β. 

CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. 

€σ7Γ€Τ€ uvp μοί, μονσαί, Όλυ^πια 8ώματ e^ovcrat, 
485 υμάς γαρ θεαί βστβ, ττάρεστε re ϊστε re ττάντα^ 
ημείς δε κλέος οίον ακονομεν ovhi τι ι^μεν, 
οϊ τίνες ηγεμόνες Δαι^αω^» καΧ κοίρανοι ήσαν. 
ττΧηθνν δ' ουκ αν εγω μνθησομαυ ούδ' ονομηνω, 
ούδ' ει μου 8εκα μεν γλωσσαι Βεκα δε στόματ εΐεν^ 
490 φωντ) δ' άρρηκτος, γαΚκεον δε μοι ητορ ενειη, 
εΐ μη Όλυ/χπιάδες μονσαυ, Αυος atyto^oto 
θυγατέρες, μνησαίαθ* όσοι νπο Wiov ηλθον, 
άρχους αυ νηών ερεω νηάς τε προπάσας, 

"Βοιωτών μεν ΤΙηνελεως καΐ Κηιτος ηρχον 

495 ^Αρκεσίλαός τε ΐΙροΘοηνωρ τε Κλονίος τε, 
οι θ* ^Ύρυην ενεμοντο καΐ Αυλίδα πετρηεσσαν 
^χοΐνόν τε %κώλόν τε ποΧύκνημόν τ Ετεο)νόν, 
θεσπειαν Τραΐάν τε καΐ εύρύχορον Μυκαλησσόν, 
OL τ άμή) '^Αρμ ενεμοντο καΐ Έΐλεσίον καΐ ^ΈιρύΟρας, 

500 οΓ τ ^ΈΧεων είχον η8^ '^Ύλην και ΤΙετεώνα, 
'Ω^καλεην Μεδεώί^ά τ, ευκτίμενον πτολίεθρον, 
Κώπας Έ^ύτρησίν τε πολυτρηρωνά τε ^ίσβην, 
οΓ τε Κορώνευαν καΐ ττοίηενθ* Άλυαρτον, 
οϊ τε ΤΐΧάταυαν έχον η8* οί ΤΧίσαντα νεμοντο, 

505 οϊ θ* 'Ύποθηβας εΐχον, ευκτίμενον τττολίεθρον, 
Όγχηστόν θ^ Ιερόν, ΐΙοσίΒηυον άγλαον άλσος, 
όΪ τε τΓολυστάφυλον 'Άρνην ^χον, οϊ τε Μιδειαι^ 
ΝΓσάι/ τε ζαθεην ^Ανθη^όνα τ' εσχατόωσαν. 
των μεν πεντήκοντα νέες κίον, εν δε εκάστη 

510 κούροι Βοιωτών εκατόν κα\ είκοσι βαΐνον. 

οΐ δ' ^ Ασπλη^όνα ναΐον ιδ' Όρχομενον Μινύειον, 
των ηρχ ^ Ασκάλαφος και ^Ιάλμενος, υΐες Αρηος, 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 39 

οϋς T€K€v ^Αστυόχη 8όμω Ακτορο<; 'Αζειδαο, 
παρθένος alhoirj, νπερώιον βίσαναβασα, 

δΙδ^Α^τ^ι κρατερω * 6 δβ οί παρβλβζατο λάθργ), 
τοις Se τρνηκοντα γΧαφνραΙ νεβς ίστιχόωντο. 

ανταρ Φωκηων Σχέδιο? καΐ ^Επίστροφος ηρχορ, 
vlee^ Ίφίτον μεγάθυμου Ναυ^ολιδαο, 
οί Κυττάρίσσοι^ Ιγον ΤΙυθωρά τ€ πβτρηεσσαν 

520 ΚρΙσάν τε ζαθεην καΧ Δαυλιδα και Παζ^οπτ^α, 
οΐ τ Άνβμώρείαν καΐ 'Τάμπολίν άμφενεμοντο, 
οι τ' άρα παρ ττοταμον Κ,ηφίσον δΓοι^ εναιον, 
οϊ τε Λιλαιαι/ εγον πηγ^ς επί Κ,^φυσοΐο • 
το'ίς δ' άμα τεσσαρακοστά μελαυραι νηες εποντο• 

525 οΐ μ^ν Φωκηων στίγας ίστασαν άμφιεποντες, 
Βοιωτών δ* εμπληρ επ* αριστερά θωρησσοντο. 

Αοκρων δ' ηγεμόνευεν ^Ουληος ταχύς Αια?, 
μείων, οϋ τι τόσος γε όσος ΎεΧαμώρίος Αίας, 
αλλά πο\υ μείων • ολίγος μεν εην, Χινοθωρηζ, 

530 εγχείΎ) δ' εκεκαστο ΤΙανελληνας καΐ ^Αχαιούς • 
οί Κυνόν τ ενεμοντ Οπό^ντα τε KaWiapov τε 
Έησσάν τε 'Ζκάρφην τε και Avyeta? ερατεινας 
Ύάρφην τε Spoviov τε Βοαγρίου άμφΐ ρεεθρα. 
τω δ' άμα τεσσαρακοστά /χ^λαιζ^αι νηες. εποντο 

535 Αοκρων, οί ναίουσι περην Ιερης ^Έίυβοίης. 

οί δ' ^Έ^ύβοιαν έχον μενεα πνείοντες 'Άβαντες, 
Χαλκίδα τ Έλρετριάν τε πολυστάφυλόν θ* Ίστίαιαν 
Κηρινθόν τ εφαΧον Δίου τ αΐπυ πτοΧίεθρον, 
οϊ τε Κάρυστον έχον rfS* οί ^τύρα ναιετάασκον, 

540 των αυθ* ηγεμόνευ* ^Ελεφηνωρ, όζος Αρηος, 
Χα\κω8οντίά8ης, μεγάθυμων άρχος ^Αβάντων. 
τω δ' α/χ' '^Αβαντες εποντο θοοί, οπυθεν κομόωντες, 
αίχμηταί, μεμαώτες 6ρεκτΎ)σΐΡ μελί^σίΐ/ 



40 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ 1ΛΙΑΔ0:§ Β, 

θώρηκας ρηζβίν 8η[ωρ άμφΐ (ττηθεοτσίΡ. 

545 τω δ* άμα τεσσαρακοστά /χελαΐϊ^αι νηες εττοντο. 

0% δ' αρ' Άθηνας εΐ^οι/, ίυκτίμενον πτολίεθρον, 
Βημον Έ^ε^^τ^ος μεγαΧητορος, ον ποτ ^Αθηνη 
Opexfje, Διός θυγάτηρ, τεκέ δβ ζείΒωρο^ άρονρα, 
κα8 δ' εν *A9rjp7)^ εϊσεν, εω εν ttlovl νηω • 

550 ένθα 8ε μιν τανροισι και άρνείοΐς ίλοίονταυ 
KovpoL ^Αθηναίων περυτελλομενων ενιαντων 
των ανθ* ηγεμόνευ νΙος ΤΙετεωο Μενεσθενς. 
τω δ' ου πω τις ομοΐος επν)(θ6νιο<ζ γενετ άνηρ 
κοσμησαι ϊππονς τε καΐ άνερας άσπιδιώτας • 

555 Νέστωρ οίος ερυζεν • 6 γαρ προγενέστερος ηεν, 
τω δ' άμα πεντήκοντα /χβλαιί'αι νηες εποντο, 

Αίας δ' εκ %α\αμ2νος άγεν 8υοκαίΒεκα νηας. 
[^στησε δ' άγων Ιν ^Αθηναίων ϊσταντο φάλαγγες.'\ 

dt δ' "Αργός τ εΐχον Τίρυνθα τε τειχυόεσσαν, 
560 Έρμίόνην ^ Ασίνην τε, βαθνν κατά κόλπον έχουσας, 
Ύροίζην* Ήίόνας τε καΐ άμπε\6εντ ^Έ^πίΒαυρον, 
οι τ' έχον Αίγιναν Μάσητά τε κούροι Ά^αιώί'. 
των αυθ^ ηγεμόνευε βοην αγαθός ΑυομηΒης 
καΐ ^θενελος, Καπανηος άγακλειτου φίλος υίός. 
565 τοΓσι δ' α/χ' Εύρύαλος τρίτατος κίεν, Ισόθεος φως, 
Μηκίστηος υΙος ΎαλαϊονίΒαο άνακτος. 
συμπάντων δ' ηγεϊτο βοην αγαθός ΑίομηΒης. 
τοϊσί δ' α/χ' 6γ8ώκοντα /χελαΐϊ^αι νηες εποντο, 
ot δε Μυκηνας εΤχον, ευκτίμενον πτολίεθρον, 
570 άφνεων τε Κόρυνθον ευκτιμενας τε ¥Xεωvάςy 
^Ορνειάς τ ενεμοντο ^ Αραιθυρεην τ ερατεινην 
καΐ %ίκυων\ 6Θ* άρ* '^ΑΒρηστος πρωτ εμβασιλευεμ, 
οι θ" 'Ύπερησίην τε καΐ αίπεινην Τονόεσσαν 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK IT. 41 

Τίελληρην τ' €Ϊχον, τ^δ' Αΐγίον άμφζΐ/βμοντο 

575 Αίγιαλόν τ ανά πάντα και άμφ Ελίκην evpeiav, 
των €κατον νηων ηρχ^ κρβυων ^Αγαμέμνων 
'Ατρ€ΐ8ης. άμα τω ye πολύ πλβΐστοί καΐ άριστοι 
λαοί €ποντ * iv δ' αντο<ζ iSvaeTo νώροπα -χ^αλκον 
κνΒιόων, πάσιν he μβτβπρεπβν ηρώβσσιν, 

580 ovveK άριστος βην, πολν δε πλείστους aye λαούς, 
ot δ' είχον κοίλην ΑακβΒαίμονα κητώεσσαν, 
Φάρίν re ^πάρτην re πολντρηρωνά re Μεσσην, 
Έρνσ€ΐας τ βνεμοντο και Avyeta? ίρατεινάς, 
οι τ dp' ^Αμυκλάς εΧγοϊ^ 'Έλος τ, εφολον πτολιεθρον^ 

585 οι re Λάαζ^ €Ϊχον ήΒ' Οΐτνλον άμφενβμοντο, 
των οι άΒβλφεος ηρχ^, βοην αγαθός Μενβλαος, 
ίζηκοντα νεών • άπάτερθε Sk θωρησσοντο. 
iv δ' αντος Kiev tJcti προθνμΐΎ}σι πεποιθώς, 
οτρννων πολβμόνδβ • μάλιστα Se tero θνμω 

590 τίσασθαι Έλζνης ορμηματά re στοναχάς re. 

οι δε IlvXol•' τ ίνίμοντο καΐ ^Αρηνην έρατβινην 
και θρνον, ΑλφβιοΙο πορον, και Ιύκτιτον Αιττν, 
και Κυπαρισσηεντα και Άμφιγβνειαν ivaiov, 
και nreXeoi^ και Ελος και Αώριον, iu0a re μουσαι 

595 άντόμεναι θάμνριν τον @ρηικα παυσαι^ άοιΒης, 
Οίχαλιηθβν Ιόντα παρ" Ενρντου Οιχαλιηος • 
στεντο γαρ ευχόμενος νικησεμεν, ^περ αν_ αύται 
μουσαι άεί^οιεν, κούραι Αιος αίγιόχοιο • 
αι 8ε χολωσάμεναι πηρον θεσαν, αύτάρ άοιΒην 

600 θεσπεσίην άφελοντο καΐ εκλελαθον κιθαριστύν. 
των αυθ* 'ηγεμόνευε Τερήνιος ίππότα Νέστωρ, 
Γω ο ενενηκοντα γλαφυροί νέες εστιχόωντο. 

οΐ δ' έχον *Αρκα8ίην ύπο Κυλλήνης όρος αΐπύ, 
Αίπυτιον παρά τύμβον, ϊν άνερες άγχιμαχηταί, 



42 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ0:§ Β. 

605 οί Φβρεόν Τ ίν4μ.οντο και *Ορχομ€Ρον ποΚνμηΚον 
Ρίπην Τ€ Χτρατίην re και ηρζμόβσσαν Έίρίσπην, 
καΐ ^eyirfv ^γρν καΧ Μ.αντιν4ην ίρατεινην, 
^τνμφηλορ τ είχ^ορ καΐ ϋαρρασίην ένβμορτο, 
των ηρχ Άγκαιοιο ττάις, κρείων ^ Ατγαπηνωρ» 

610 ίζηκοντα νέων ' πολεβς δ' iv νηΐ έκάσττ) 

Ά^/ίάδβς avSpe^ ββαυνον, ίπιστάμενοι ποΧεμίζευν, 
αντος γαρ σφιν iSojKev άναζ άντρων Αγαμέμνων 
νηα<; ενσσελμονς ττεράαν επί οΐνοπα πόντον, 
^ΑτρείΒης, επεί ου σφι θαλάσσια έργα μεμηλευν. 

615 0L δ' άρα Βονπράσίόν τε καΐ ^Ηλιδα hlav εναιον^ 
οσσον εφ Ύρμίνη και MvpaLVOS εσγατόωσα 
πετρη τ ^ΩΧενίη καΐ ^ ΑΧείσιον εντός εεργευ, 
των αυ τέσσαρες άρχοι εσαν, 8εκα δ' avSpl εκάστω 
νηες εποντο θοαυ, ποΧεες δ* εμβαινον Έττβιοι. 

620 των μεν άρ* * Κμφίμαγος και Θάλπιος ηγησάσθην, 
νΐες 6 μεν Κτεάτου 6 δ' άρ' Ένρυτον, Άκτορίωνε • 
των δ' ΆμαρνγκεΐΒης ηρχε, κρατερός δίωρης* 
των δε τετάρτων 'ηρχε ΤΙολνζείνος θεοεώης, 
νίος ^Αγασθενεος ΑύγηιάΒαο άνακτος. 

625 οί δ' εκ Αουλυχίοίο Έχυνάων θ' Ιεράων 

νήσων, αί ναίονσι περην αλός, ^Ηλιδο? άντα, 
των ανθ* 'ηγεμόνευε Mey7^9, ατάλαντος Αρη ι, 
Φνλείδτ^ς, δζ^ τίκτε Ζιίφιλος Ιππότα ΦνΧενς, 
ός ποτέ Δ^ονλίχιόνΒ* άπενάσσατο πατρί χολωθείς, 

630 τω δ' άμα τεσσαράκοντα /Αελαιζ^αι νηες εποντο, 

αντάρ ^Οονσσευς ηγε ΚεφαλΧηνας μεγάθυμους, 
OL ρ ^Ιθάκην είχον καΐ Ι^^ηριτον εΙνοσίφυΧΧον, 
και ΚροκύΧει ενεμοντο καΐ ΑίγίΧιπα τρηχειαν, 
οΐ τε Ζάκυνθον έχον rjS* οΊ Χάμον άμφενεμοντο, 

635 οί τ' ηπειρον έχον '^δ' άντιπεραια νέμοντο. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK 11. 43 

των μ€Ρ *θ8υσσ€νς ηρχ^, Att μητιν άταΚαντο^, 
τω δ' α/χα vrje^; εποντο SvcoSeKa μυλτοπάρΎ)θί. 

Αΐτωλών δ' Ύ)γ€ΐτο Θόας, ^ΑνΒραίμοι/ος υιός, 
οί ΐΐλενρών* Ινεμοντο καΐ ^ίίλβι^οζ^ rjSe ΐΐυληρηρ 
640 Xαλ/cίδα τ' άγ^ίαλον KaXvScovd re π€τρη€σσαρ • 
ου γαρ er Οίνηος μβγαλητορος νί^ες ήσαν, 
ούδ* dp' er* αύτος ετ^ΐ', ^άι /e δε ζανθοζ Μελζαγρος * 
τω δ' επί πάντ ετβταλτο ανασσ4μεν ΑχτωΧοίσιν 
τω δ* oLjuta τεσσαράκοντα p.e\aivaL νηες inovTO, 

645 Κρητων δ' Ίδο/χβι^εύ? Βονρικλντος ηγβμόνευεν, 
οί Κρωσον τ εΐ^ζ^ον Τόρτννα τβ τ€ΐ^ίοεσσαν, 
A.VKTOV Μ-ΐΚιητόν Τ€ και dpyivoevTa Ανκαστον 
Φαιστόν τα 'Fvtlov re, πόλει? iv ναυετοώσας, 
άλλοι ^' οί Κρητην €κατ6μττο\ιν άμφενβμοντο, 

650 τώι/ μ€ν dp' Ιδομενεύς 8ονρυκΧντο<; ηγεμόνευεν 
Μηρυόνης τ', ατάλαντος Ένναλίω ανΒρεϊφόντΎ) • 
τοΓσι δ' αμ' ογ^ώ κοντά /χβλαιι^αι vrjes εποντο. 

Ύληπόλεμοζ δ* ΉρακλέίΒης, ήνς τε μέγας τε, 
εκ *Ρόδου εννέα νηας dγεv 'Ροδιωζ^ αγέρωχων, 

655 οί 'Ροδο^' άμφενεμοντο δια, τ ρίγα κοσμηθεντες, 
AlvSov Ίηλνσόν τε καΐ αργινοεντα Καμευρον. 
των μεν Ύληπόλεμος 8ονρίκλντος ηγεμόνενεν, 
ον τεκεν Άστνόχεία βίτ) Ήρακληείγ), 
την dγετ εζ 'Έίφνρης, ποταμού dno ^ελληεντος, 

660 περσας dστεa πολλά ^υοτρεφεων αίζηων. 

Ύληπόλεμος δ' επεί ονν τραφ' ενί μεγαρω ενπηκτω, 
αντίκα πατρός εοϊο φίλον μητρώα κατεκτα, 
η8η γηρασκοντα, Αικνμνιον, όζον 'Άρηος, 
αιψα θε νηας επηςε, ποΚνν ο ο γε Καον αγειρας 

665 βη φευγων επΙ πόντον ' απείλησαν γαρ οι άλλοι 



44 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Β. 

νίββς νΐωνοί Τ€ βίης Ήρακληείης. 

αύταρ 6 γ' €? 'FoSov Ιξβν άλώμενος akyea πάσχων • 

τριγθα Se ωκηθβν καταφνλα8όν, rjSe φιΚηθζ,ν 

4κ Διός, ο9 τ€ θβοίσί καΐ ανθρώποισιν άνάσσβι, 

670 και σφυν θ€σττ4σιον πλοντον κατ4γ€υζ 'Κρονίων. 

l^Lpev^ αν %νμηθ€ν aye τρεΐς νηας eiVas, 

Ntpeu9, Άγλαιης νΙος Χαρόποω τ ανακτος, 

Ntpeu9, 09 κάλλιστος άνηρ νπο Ιλιον ηλθεί' 

των αλΧων Δαι^αώι/ /xer άμ,νμονα Πτ^λβΙ'ωι^α. 

675 αλλ' άλαπαδι^ός eiqv, πανρο<ζ δε οΐ βΐπετο λαός. 

6l δ' ά/)α ^ίσνρόν τ ^Ιγον Κράπαθόν re Κασο^ re 
και Κών, Ένρνπνλουο ττόΧιν, νήσους re Καλυδϊ^ας, 
των αν Φείδιππός re καΙ '^Αντίφος ηγησάσθην, 
Θεσσαλοί) vTe δυω 'Ηρακλεΐδαο ανακτος. 

680 τοϊς he τριηκοντα γλαφνραΐ vee^ έσηχόωντο, 

ννν αν τονς οσσοι το UeXaayiKov Αργός evaiov ' 
οι τ Αλον οι τ Άλόπην οι re Ύρη^να ve^ovro, 
οι τ exxpv Φθίην rfS* Ελλάδα /cαλλtγu^'αt/cα, 
Μυρ/χιδόζ^€9 δε KaXevvTo καΐ "^Ελλι^ι^ε? καυ Αγαιοί, 

685 των αν πεντήκοντα veoiv ην αργός Ά^^^ιλλευς. 
αλλ' οι y ον 7Γθ\4μοιο 8νσηχ4ος ίμνώοντο • 
ον yap 4ην ος τις σφιν επι στίγας ηγησαιτο. 
Kelro yap iv νηεσσι πο8άρκης δΓος Ά^ιλλευς, 
κονρης γωόμενος Βρισηί8ος ήνκόμοίο, 

690 την 4κ Ανρνησσον e^eikero πολλά μογησας, 
Ανρνησσον Βυαπορθησας καΐ rei^ea θηβης, 
κ:άδ' δε Μννητ eβaλev καΐ ^Επίστροφον 4γγ€.σιμώρονς 
υιεας ΕνηνοΖο Σελτ^πιάδαο ανακτος • 
της ο ye κεΐτ αγβων, τάγα δ' άνστησεσθαι ε^ελλεζ^. 

695 οΐ δ' el)(ov Φνλάκην καΐ ΐΐνρασον άνθεμόεντα, 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK IL 45 

Αημητρος τεμο^ος, Ιτωνά re, μητέρα μηλωι/, 
άγ^ίαλόν τ ^Αντρωνα Ihe llTekeov λεχ^βποίηρ, 
των αν ΐίρωτεσίλαος άρηυος ηγεμονεν^ρ 
ζωος εών * τότε δ' τι^η εχερ κάτα yaiia /xeXati^a. 

700 τοΐ) he καΐ άμφίΒρνφη^ αλοχος Φυλάκτ) ελελειπτο 
και 8όμος ημιτελής • τον δ* εκτανε AdpSavos άνηρ 
ρηος άτΓοθρώσκοντα πο\ν πρώτιστον Ά^αιώι/. 
ούδβ μεν ούδ' οΐ αναργοι εσαν, ττόθεόν γε μεν άργρν • 
άλλα σφεας κόσμησε ΤΙοΒάρκης, όζος '^Αρηος, 

705 ^Ιφικλον νΙος τΓολνμηλου ΦνλακίΒαο, 

αντοκασίγνητος μεγάθυμου ΤΙρωτεσυλαου, 
οπλότερος γενεη * ό δ' άμα πρότερος καΐ άρείων, 
ηρως ΤΙρωτξσίλαος άρηιος • ούδε τι λαοί 
δευοι^^' ηγεμόνος, πόθεόν γε μεν εσθλον εόντα. 

710 τω δ' άμα τεσσαράκοντα μεΚαιναι νηες εποντο. 
οι δε Φεράς ενεμοντο παραΐ ΒοιβηΐΒα λίμνην, 
Βοίβην καΐ Τλαφύρας και ευκτιμενην ^1αω\κόν, 
των ηρχ Άδ/χτ^τοιο φίλος πάυς, εν8εκα νηων, 
Έίϋμηλος, τον υπ Άδ/χτ^τω τεκε δια γυναικών, 

715'Άλκηστις, ΐίελίαο θυγατρων ε18ος αρίστη. 

οι S" άρα Μηθωνην και %αυμακίην ενεμοντ€ 
και Μελίβοιαν έχον και Όλιζωι^α τρηχεϊαν, 
των 8ε Φιλοκτήτης ηργεν, τόζων ευ ειΒώς, 
επτά νέων • ερεται δ' εν εκάστη πεντήκοντα 

720 εμβεβασαν, τόζων ευ εΐ^ότες Τφι μάχεσθαι. 

αλλ ο μεν εν νήσω κείτο κρατερά αλγεα πάσχων, 
Αημνω εν ήγαθεη, οΘι μιν λίπoy υΐες Ά^αιώί^ 
ελκεϊ μοχθίζοντα κακω ολοόφρονος ϋ8ρου, 
ενθ* ο γε κεΐτ άχεων • τάχα δε μνησεσθαι ε μέλλον 

725 Apyeioi παρά νηυσι Φιλοκτηταο ανακτος. 

οΰδε μεν ούδ' οι άναρχοι εσαν, πόθεόν γε μεν άρχόν « 



46 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Β. 

άλλα Μβδωι^ κόσμησβν, Όιλτ^ος νόθος υιός, 
TOP ρ ereKtv 'Ρηνη υπ Όιλ^ι πτολίπόρθω. 

οΐ δ' €ΐχοι/ Ύρίκκην και ^Ιθώμην κλωμακόεσσαν. 
730 οΐ τ €χον Οίχαλίην, πόλυν Εύρυτου Οΐχ^αλυηος, 
' των ανθ' ηγβίσθην ^Ασκληπυον δυο παιδε, 
Ιητηρ άγαθώ, UoSakeLpLo^ rjSe Μα^άωι^. 
7019 δε τρυηκοντα γλαφυροί νβες Ιστιγόωντο. 
οί δ' εγον Όρμενίον, οϊ re κρηνην 'TnepeiaVy 
735 οι τ €χ^ον Κστέριον Ύιτάνοιό re \evKa κοίρηνα, 
των ηρχ Ένρνπνλος, ^Εναιμονος άγλαος υιός, 
τω δ' άμα τβσσαράκοντα ^ε^λαιζ^αι ι^ες Εττοντο, 
οί δ' ^ Κρ-γισσαν ^χον κα\ Τυρτώνην ένεμοντο, 
Ορθην 'Ήλώνην τ€ ττ6\ιν τ ^Ολοοσσόνα Χευκην, 
740 των ανθ* ηγεμόνβνβ μενεπτόλεμος ΐίολυποίτης, 
νΙος rieiyoi^ooio, τον αθάνατος τεκετο Ζενς, 
τον ρ νπο ΐΐείρυθόω τεκετο κλντος Ιπποδάμεια 
ηματυ τω οτε φηρας ετίσατο Χαχνηεντας, 
τους δ' εκ ΐΐηλίον ωσε /cat Κΐθίκεσσι πελασσεν • 
745 ουκ ο 109, α/ια τω γε Αεοντεύς, όζος Αρηος, 
υιός ύπερθύμοιο Κορώνου Καίνεί8αο. 
τοις ο άμα τεσσαράκοντα /χελαιι^αι νΎΐες εποντο, 
Τουνευς δ' εκ Κύφου ηγε δυω και είκοσι νηας • 
τω δ' ^Ενιηνες εποντο μενεπτ6\εμοι τε ΤΙεραιβοι, 
750 οι περί ΑωΒώνην ^υσχείμερον oIkC εθεντο, 
οι τ άμφ^ ίμερτον Ύιταρησων έργα ν(1μοντο, 
ος ρ* ες ΐΐηνειον προϊεί καλλυρροον ϋ8ωρ • 
ούο* ο γε ΤΙηνειω συμμίσγεται άργυροΒιντ), 
άλλα τε μιν καθΰπερθεν επιρρεει Ύ^ύτ ελαιον • 
755 όρκου γαρ 8εινου Χτυγος υδατ09 εστίν άπορρώζ. 
Μαγνητών δ' ηρχε ΤΙρόθοος, Ύεΐ'θρη8όνος υιός, 
οι περί ΤΙηνειον καΐ Πτ^λιοζ^ εΙνοσίφυΧΧον 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK II. 47 

ναιεσκον • των μίν ΤΙρόθοος θοος ηγβμόνενεν, 
τω δ* α/χ,α τ^σσαράκοντα /xeXatrat v-qe^; επορτο, 

760 OVTOL dp* ηγβμόνες Δαι^αώι/ και κοίρανοι ησαρ. 
τις τ αρ των ο^ οίρυστος βην, συ μοι evvene, μούσα, 
αυτών ηΟ υππων, οι αμ ATpeLOTjaiv enovTO, 
ΙπτΓΟί μ€ν μίγ αρισται ecrav ΦηρητίάΒαο, 
Tas ^Ενμηλος iXavve ττοΒώκβας 6ρνιθα<ζ ώ?, 

765 οτριχας οίετεας, σταφυλτ) inl νωτον βίσας • 
τας iv ΤΙηρείτ) Θρ4\\ί* αργνρότοζος Άπόλλωΐ', 
αμφω θηΧείας, φόβον Αρηο<; φορ€ονσας. 
άντρων αν μέγ άριστος €ην Ύβλαμωνυος Αϊας, 
οφρ* Ά^ιλεύς μηνιεν • ό γαρ πολύ φβρτατος ηεν, 

770 Ιπποι θ* , οί φορεβσκον άμνμονα ΐΐηλβΐωνα. 
αλλ' ό μεν iv νηεσσι κορωνίσι ποντοπόροισιν 
κείτ άπομηνίσας Άγαμεμνονι, ποιμενι λαών^ 
'ATpetSTj ' λαοί δβ πάρα ρηγμΐνι θαλάσσης 
8ίσκοισιν τερποντο καΐ αΙγανεΎ]σίν ίεντες 

775 τοζοισίν θ" • ίπποι δέ παρ* άρμασιν οΐσιν έκαστος, 
λωτον ερεπτόμενοι ελεόθρεπτόν τε σελινον, 
εστασαν • άρματα δ' ευ πεπνκασμενα κειτο άνάκτων 
εν κλισιης. οι δ' άρχον άρηίφιλον ποθεοντες 
φοιτών ένθα καΧ ένθα κατά στρατόν, ούδ' εμάγοντο, 

780 οι δ' dp* ϊσαν, ως ει τε πυρί γθων πάσα νεμοιτο • 
γαΓα δ' νπεστενάγιζε Δα ως τερπικεραννω 
\ωομενω, οτε τ άμφι Ύνφωει γαΓαζ^ ι/χασσ?/ 
ειν *Αρίμοις, οθι φασι Ύνφωεος e/x/xei^ai εύνας. 
ως αρα των νπο ποσσι μέγα στεναγιζετο yata 

785 εργρμενων * μάλα δ* ωκα 8ιεπρΎ)σσον πεΒίοιο, 

ΎρωσΙν δ' άγγελος ήλθε ποΒηνεμος ώκεα Ιρις 
παρ Διός αιγιό^οιο συν άγγελίτ) άλεγειντΙ • 



48 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Β. 

οΐ δ' αγοράς άγόρευον inl Ιίριάμοιο θύρτισιν 
πάντ€ς 6μηγ€ρ€€<;, ημεν veoi 7}8e γέροντες. 

790 άγχον δ' Ιστάμενη προσεφη πόδα? ώκεα ^Ιρυς • 
εΐσατο δβ φΘογγην να Τίριάμοίο HoXltjj, 
09 Ύρώων σκοπός ΐζε, ττο8ωκείΎ)σί πεποίθώς, 
τύμβω επ άκροτάτω Αίσυηταο γέροντος, 
λεγμένος οππότε νανφιν άφορμηθεΐεν Ά^αιοι. 

795 τω μιν εεισαμενη προσεφη πόδας ώκεα ^Ιρυς * 
" ώ γερορ, αΐεί τοι μνθοι φίλοί άκριτοι είσΐν, 
ως ποτ επ* εΙρηνης • πόλεμος δ' αΚίαστος όρωρεν, 
η μεν 8η μαΚα πολλά μάγας είσηλνθον ανδρών, 
αλλ' ου πω τοιόνΒε τοσόν8ε τε λαον οπωπα* 

800 λίην γαρ φύλλοισιν εοικότες η χΙίαμάθουσιν 
έρχονται ττεδίοιο μαχησόμενοι προτΐ άστυ. 
"E/cro/o, σοΙ 8ε μάλιστ επιτελλομαι ω8ε γε ρεζαι, 
πολλοί γαρ κατά άστυ μέγα Τίριάμον επίκουροι, 
άλλη δ* άλλων γλώσσα πολνσπερεων ανθρώπων • 

805 τοισιν έκαστος άνηρ σημαινετω, οισί περ άρχει, 
των δ' εζηγείσθω, κοσμησάμενος πολιητας.^* 

ως εφαθ\ 'Έκτωρ δ' ου τι θεάς έπος ηγνοίησεν, 
αΐψα δ* ελυσ άγορην • επ\ τεύχεα δ' εσσενοντο. 
πασαι δ* ώίγνυντο ττύλαι, εκ δ' εσσυτο λαός, 

810 πεζοί θ* ιππηες τε • πολύς δ' ορυμαγδός ορώρειν. 
εστί δε τις προπάροιθε πολιός αίπεΐα κολώνη, 
€V πεδιω άπάνενθε, περίτρομος ένθα και ένθα, 
την η τοι άνδρες Bartetai' κικλησκουσιν, 
αθάνατοι δε τε σήμα πολνσκάρθμοιο Μνρίνης • 

815 ένθα τότε Τρώες τε Βιέκριθεν ή8* επίκουροι. 

ΎρωσΙ μεν ηγεμονενε μέγας κορυθαίολος "^Εκτωρ, 
ΊΙριαμίΒης • άμα τω γε πολν πλείστοι και άριστοι 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK IT. 49 

λαοί θωρησσορτο, μεμαότβς εγχεί^σιν. 

έι^αρΒανίων αντ ηρχ^ν iifs ττάις Άγχίσαο, 

820 Αΐνβίας, τον υπ Άγ^ιστ; τβκβ δΓ ^ Αφροδίτη, 
^ΐδτ^ς eV κνημοίσι Oea βροτω βύνηθβίσα, 
ουκ οίος, α/Αα τω ye δι;ω Αντήνορος vie, 
'Αρχ€λο)(ός τ' Άκάμας re, μά^ζης iv elSore πάσης, 
οΙ δε TiiXeiav evaiov νπαΐ πόδα veCarov ^ΐδτ^ς, 

825 άφνβίοί, πίνονύβς ν8ωρ μβλαν Αίσηποω, 

Ύρωβς, των αντ ηρχε Ανκάονος άγλαος υιός, 
ΐΙάν8αρος, ω και τόζον Άπόλλωι^ αντος βΒωκβν. 

οϊ δ' *Α^ρηστ€ίάν τ εΐχον καΐ ^ημον Άπαισοι;, , 
καυ TliTveiav εγον και Ύηρείης ορός αΐπν, 

830 των ηρχ 'Άχρηστος re και '^Αμφίος \ινοΘώρηζ, 
vie δυω Μεροπος ΤΪΕρκωσίον, ος π€ρΙ πάντων 
jjSee μαντοσννας, ούδε ους παιδας εασκεν 
στβίχευν ες πόλβμον φθισιηνορα. τω δε ot ου η 
παθέσθην • κηρες γαρ άγον μβΧανος θανάτουο. 

835 ot δ' αρα ΙΙβρκώτην καΐ ΐΐράκτων άμφβνβμοντο 
καΙ Χηστον καΐ "^Αβυ^ον έχον καΐ Slav Άρίσβην, 
των ανθ* 'ΎρτακίΒης ηρχ ^Ασιος, ορχαμος άν8ρων, 
Ασως 'ΤρτακίΒης, ον ^Αρίσβηθεν φέρον Ιπποι, 
αΐθωνες μεγάλοι, ποταμού άπο ^ελληεντος. 

840 Ίππόθοος δ' άγε φνΧα ΤΙεΧα(τγων εγχεσιμώρων, 
των ot Αάρισαν εριβώλακα ναιετάασκον • 
των ηρχ 'Ιππόθοός τε Πυλαίος τ, όζος '^Αρηος, 
νιε δυω Αηθοιο Πελασγού Τευτα/ιιδαο. 

αυτάρ θρηικας ηγ* ^Ακάμας και ΤΙείροος ηρως, 

845 οσσους Ελλτ^σποΐ'τος άγάρροος εντός εεργει. 
Ένφημος δ' άρχος Κικόνων ην αιχμητάων, 
νιος Ύροιζηνοιο Βιοτρεφεος Κεάδαο. 

αυτάρ ΐΐνραιχμης άγε Παιοι^ας άγκνλοτόζονς 



50 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Β. 

τηλόθβν ίζ Ά/χυδώι/09, απ ^Κξιου evpv ρέοντος, 
850 ^Αζίον, ου κάλλιστορ ύδωρ έπυκβραταί atau. 

ΐΐαφλαγόνων δ' ηγβΐτο ΤΙνλαίμενβοζ λάσων κηρ 
εξ Έι^ετώί^, οθβν ημιόνων γένος άγροτεράων, 
οι ρα Κντωρον έχον και ^ησαμον άμφενεμοντο 
άμφί τε ΤΙαρθενων ποταμον κλντα δώ/χατ' εναων, 
855 Κρώμνάν τ Αίγυαλόν τε καΐ νχΡηλονς Έρυθινονς. 
αύταρ Άλυζώνων Όδιος /cat Έπίστ ροφός ηρχον 
τηλόθεν εζ Άλνβης, όθεν αργυρού εστί γενεθλη, 

Μυσών 8ε Χρόμυς ηρχ€ καΐ "Εννομος οίωνίστης, 
αλλ' ουκ οίωνοίσιν ερύσσατο κηρα μελαυναν, 
860 αλλ' ε^άμη ύπο X^pcrl πο8ώκεος Αιακιδαο 

εν ποταμω, οθι ττερ Ύρωας κεράίζε καΐ άλλους. 

Φόρκυς αυ Φρύγας ηγε /cat 'Acr/coLi^to? θεοειΒης 
τηλ* εζ ^Ασκανίης * /χε/χασαι^ δ' ύσμίνί μάχεσθαι. 
Μ^τιοσιν αυ Μεσθλης τε /cat Αντίφος ηγησάσθην, 
865 υΐε Ύαλαυμενεος, τω Τυγαίη τεκέ λίμνη, 
οΐ /cat ΜΎ)ονας ηγον ύπο Ύμώλω γεγαωτας. 

Νασττ^ς αυ Καρών ηγησατο βαρβαροφώνων, 
οί Μίλητον έχον Φθιρων τ ορός άκριτόφυλλον 
Μαιάνδρου τε ροας Μυκάλης τ αίπεινά κάρηνα. 
870 των μεν άρ Άμφίμαχος /cat ^άστης ηγησάσθην 
Νάστης Άμφίμαχός τε, Νομίονος άγλαά τέκνα, 
ος /cat χρυσον έχων πολεμόν^' Ιεν ηύτε κούρη, 
νηπίος, ούδε τί οΐ τό γ' επηρκεσε λυγρον ολεθρον, 
αλλ' ε8άμη ύπο χ^ρσί ποΒώκεος Αίακί^αο 
875 iv ΤΓΟταμω, χρυσον δ' Άχιλεύς εκομισσε οαίφρων. 
'ϊ,αρπηΒών δ' ηρχεν Αυκίων /cat Τλαυκος άμύμων 
τηλόθεν εκ Αυκίης, αάνθου άπο Βυνηεντος. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 51 



OMHPOT ΙΑΙΑΔΟ5; Γ. 

Γάμμα 5* &p* αμφ* 'EAeVr/s οίοιν μόθθ5 iarL• ακοίταιν. 
Gamm'a — suo pugnat pro coniuge uterqiie marituSr 

' Gamma the single fight doth sing 
'Twixt Paris and the Spartan king/ 

opKOL. τ€ί^οσκοπία. Πάριδος /cat Mei^ekdov μονομαγία, 

ανταρ inel κόσμηθβν αμ 'ηγεμόνεσσιν e/cacrrot, 
Ύρωβς μ€.ν κλαγγΎ) τ iponrj τ Ισαν ορνιθβς ως, 
ήντβ πβρ κλαγγη γερανών wekeu ονρανόθι ττρό, 
at τ inel ουν χειμώνα φύγον καΙ άθβσφατορ ομβρον, 
5 Kkayyrj toll ye πβτονται in ^Ω^κεανοΐο ροάων, 
άν^ράσί ΎΙνγμαίοισι φόνον καί κηρα φερουσαι • 
ηερίάί δ' άρα, ταί ye κακήν Ιριδα προφέρονται " 
οΐ ο άρ* tcral•» συγ^μεν^α πνείοντες 'A^atot, 
εν Θνμω μεμαωτες αΚεζεμεν αΚΧ-ηΧοισιν. 

10 ευτ ορεος κορνφΎ)συ Νότος κατε^νεν ομίχλην^ 
ποιμεσιν ον τι φυλην, κλεπτΎ) οε τε νυκτός αμεινω • 
τόσσον τις τ επΙ λεύσσεί, όσον τ επι λααΐ' ϊησιν • 
ως αρα των νπο ποσσι κονισαλος ωρι>ντ αελλγις 
ερχομένων • μαΚα ο ωκα οιεπρησσον πεοωυο. 

15 οι δ' οτε 8η σχεοον ήσαν επ άλληλοίσίν Ιόντες, 
ΤρωσΙν μεν προμάχιζεν Άλεζαν^ρος θέοειΒης, 
παρΒαλεην ωμοισιν έχων και Ηβμπνλα τοζα 
καΐ ζίφος, ανταρ Βονρε 8νω κεκο^ϋθμενα χαΧκω 
πάλλων ^Αργείων προκαλίζετο πάντας άρυστονς 



52 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΛ05 Γ. 

20 αντίβιον μαχεσασθαν lu alvfj Βηωτητί, 
TOP, δ' ώς ουρ βΡοησβραβηΐψίΚοςΜβρβλαος 
έρχόμβρορ ττροπάροίθβρ ομίλου μακρά βιβάρτα, 
ως τ€ Χβωρ ίγάριη μεγάλω έπΙ σώματι κνρσας, '*^^^*Ν 
€υρων Τ) ζλαφορ κβραορ η aypiop αίγα, 

25 πειραωρ • μαΚα γαρ re κατεσυιει, ei πβρ αρ αντον 
σενωρταί ταγεες re κνρες θαλεροί τ αίζηοί * 
ως ixoipyj Μερελαος ^Αλεζαρ8ρορ θερει^.εα 
οφθαλμοίσιρ ΐΖώρ ^ φάτο γαρ τίσασθαι άλείτηρ, 
αντίκα δ' εζ ογεω^ σνρ τενχεσιρ αλτο ^^(α/χαζβ. 

30 TOP δ' ως ονρ ερόττοτερ-ΆλεξαρΒρος θεοει^ης 
ερ προμαγοισι φαρερτα^Λατεττληγη φίλορ rJTop, 
άψ δ' ετάρωρ εΙς εθρος εγάζετο κηρ* άλεειρωρ, 
ως δ* οτε τίςτεΒράκορτα 18ωρ παλίρορσος άπεστη 
ονρεος ερ ρησσΎ)ς, νπο τε τρόμος ΙεΚΚαρε γνυα, 

35 αψ δ' άρεγωρησερ, ωχρός τε μιρ εΐλε παρειάς^ 
ως αντις καθ* ομιλορ ε8υ Ύρώωρ αγερώγωρ 
δεισας ^Ατρεος νΐορ ^Αλεξαρ^ρος θεοεώης.^^ 
TOP δ' '^Έικτωρ ρείκεσσερ Ι^ωρ αίσχροΐς επεεσσιρ • 
"Δυσπαρι, εΐ^ος άριστε, γνραιμαρες, ήπεροπεντά, 

40 αϊθ* οφελες αγορός τ εμεραι άγαμος τ άπολεσθαι • 
και κε το βονλοίμηρ, και κεν ττολν κερ8ίθρ ηερ, 
Τ) οντω λώβηρ τ' εμεραι και vnoxpiop αλλωρ. 
η πον καγγαλόωσι κάρη κομόωρτες Αχαιοί, 
φαρτες άριστηα πρόμορ εμμεραι, ονρεκα καλορ 

45 είδος επ, αλλ' ουκ εστί β[η φρεσιρ ού8ε τις άλκη, 
'η τοιόσΒε εωρ ερ ττορτοπόροισι ρεεσσιρ 
πόντορ-Λτη^Γλώσας, ετάρους ερίηρας άγείρας, 
μυηθείς άλλοδαποΓσι γυραΐκ ευει8ε* άρηγες 
εζ άττί'ης γαίης, ρυορ άρ8ρωρ αιχμητάωρ, 

50 πατρί τε σω μέγα πημα πόληί τε παρτί τε ^ήμψ^ 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 63 

Ζνσμ^νίσιν μβν χάρμα, κατηφ^ην Se σοι αντψ ; 
ουκ αν 8η μ€ίν€ία<; άρηίφυΧορ MePeXaop ; 
γροίης ^', οΐοη φωτός ίχ€ίς θαλερην παράκοιτιν. 
ουκ αν TOL χραίσμτ) κίθαρις τά Τ€ Ζωρ" ^Αφρο^ίτης^ 

55 yj τ€ κόμη τό τε^εΙΒος, οτ eV κονίτ^σι μίγειης. 
αλλά μάλα Ύρωβς Βευ^ημονες * η re Κ€ν rjST) 
λάίνον eacfo χιτώνα κακών ενβχ, οσσα eopya?." 
τον δ' aSre προσββυπεν Άλε^αι/δρος θεοευΒης' 
""^E/crop, inei μ€ κατ αίσαι^ ενείκεσας ούδ' νπερ αΐσαν, 

60 αΐεί TOL κρα^ίιη πελε-κυς ώς εστίν άτειρης, 

ος τ είσυν Sua δουρος υπ' άνερος, 6ς ρά τε τεχνΎΐ 
VYjiov εκτάμιητ)σίν, οφελλευ δ' άνΒρος ερωην • 
ως σοΙ ενί στηθεσσιν άτάρβητος νοος εστίν 
μη μοί δώρ' ερατά πρόφερε χρνσεης *Αφρο8ίτηζ • 

65 ου TOL άπόβλητ εστί θεών ipLKvSia δώρα, 

οσσα κεν αυτοί Βώσιν, εκών δ' ουκ αν τις ελοίτο» 
νυν αδτ', εΙ μ" εθελευς ττοΧεμίζείν η^ε μάχεσθαι, 
άλλους μεν κάθισον Τρώας καΐ πάντας Ά^αιους, 
αυταρ εμ εν μεσσω καΐ αρηίφιΧον Μ,ενεΧαον 

70 συμβάλετ άμφ* ΈΧενη καΐ κτημασι ττασι μάχεσθαα 
οππότερος 8ε κε νικηση κρείσσων τε γενηται, 
κτημαθ* εΧών ευ πάντα γυναΐκά τε οΓκαδ* άγεσθω • 
οΐ δ' άλλοι φιΧότητα KaLppKLa πιστά ταμόντες 
ναίοίτε Ύροίην εριβωΧακα, τοί δε νεεσθων 

75 Κρ-γος ες ίππόβοτον καΐ *Α^αιιδα καλλιγυι/αι/ία." 

ως εφασ , ν^κτωρ ο αυτ εχαρη μέγα μυσον άκουσας, 
και ρ ες μεσσον Ιών Ύρώων άνεεργε φάΧαγγας, 
μεσσου Βουρος εΧών • rot δ' 18ρύνθησαν άπαντες»^.^^ 
τω δ' επετοζάζοντο κάρη κομόωντες ^Αχαιοί, 

80 Ιοίσίν τε Τίτυσκόμενοι Χάεσσί τ εβαΧΧον, 

αύτάρ 6 μακρόν άυσεν άναζ άνΒρών ^Αγαμέμνων • 



54 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Γ. 

** Ισγ€.σθ\ ΆργέΓοι, μτ) βάλλετε, κούροι Ά^αιώι^ • 
στενταυ γαρ τι ίπος ipieiv κορνθαίολος ''ΈίΚτωρ" 
ως εφαθ*^ οΐ δ' εσγρντο μά^ης ανεω τε yivovTo 

85 εσσνμενως. '^Έκτωρ δβ μετ άμφοτεροίσυν εειττεν* 
" κεκλντε μεν, Ύρωες και ενκνημι^ες Ά^αιοι, 
μνθον ^Αλεζάν8ροίο, τον εϊνεκα νεΐκος ορωρεν. 
άλλους μεν κελεται Τρώας και ττάντας 'Αραιούς 
τενχεα κάλ' άποθεσθαι εττΐ 'χθονί πονλνβοτείρτ), 

90 αντον δ* εν μεσσω καΐ άρηίφίλον Μενελαον 
οΐονς άμφ" Έλενγ) καΐ κτημασι πασί μάχεσθαι. 
οπττότερος Si κε νίκηστ) κρείσσων τε γενηται, 
κτιημαθ^ ελών εν πάντα γννοΧκά τε OLKaS* άγεσθω, 
οΐ δ' άλλοι φιλότητα καΐ ορκια ττιστά τάμωμεν.^^ 

95 ως εφαθ*, οΐ δ' άρα πάντες άκην εγενοντο σίωπΎ). 
τοΐσι 8ε καΐ μετεειπε βοην αγαθός Μενέλαος • 
" κεκλντε ννν καΐ εμεΐο • μάλιστα γαρ άλγος Ικάνει 
θνμον εμόν • φρονεω 8ε 8ιακρινθημεναι η8η 
^Αργειονς καΐ Τρώας, επεί κακά πολλά πεποσθε 
100 είνεκ εμης ερι8ος καΐ ^ Αλεζάν8ρον ενεκ άρχ7]ς, 
ημεων δ' οπποτερω θάνατος καΧ μ.οΊρα τετνκται, 
τεθναΐΎ) * άλλοι δβ Βιακρινθεϊτε τάγιστα» 
οίσετε δ' άρν", έτερον λενκον ετερην 8ε /χε^λαιι^αι/, 
γγ) τε καΐ 'ηελίω • Διι δ' ημείς οϊσομεν άλλον. 
105 άζετε δε Ώριάμοιο βιην, οφρ* ορκια τάμντ) 
αυτός, επει οι παίδες -υπερφίαλοι και άπιστοι, 
μη τις νπερβασίτ) Διός ορκια 8ηλησηται. 
αιεί δ' οπλοτερων άν8ρών φρένες ήερεθονται • 
οΓς δ' 6 γέρων μετεησιν, άμα πρόσσω και οπίσσω 
110 λενσσει, όπως οχ άριστα μετ άμφοτεροισι γενηται.^ 
ως εφαθ\ οΐ δ' εχάρησαν ^Αχαιοί τε Τρώες τε, 
ελπόμενοι τταυσασ^αι οιζνρον πολεμοιο. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 55 

/cat ρ ίππους μ^ν βρυξαν eVt στιχ^ας, e/c δ' ίβαι/ αντοί 
τβύχεά τ έζε^νορτο, τα μεν κατέθεντ επί jcllyj 

115 πλησίορ αλλήλων, ολίγη δ' ην άμφίς άρονρα • 
'Έκτωρ δε προτΐ αστν 8νω κήρυκας επεμπεν, 
καρπαλίμως αρνας τε φερειν ΙΙρίαμον τε καλεσσαι,» 
αυταρ 6 Ύαλθύβιον προιει κρείων ^ Ατγαμεμνων 
νηας επι γλαφυρας Ιεναι, τ^δ' αρνα κελευεν 

120 οίσεμεναι • 6 δ' αρ' ουκ άπίθησ ^ Κγαμεμνονι διω^ 
^Ιρις δ' αυθ^ Έλεντ) λευκωλενω άγγελος ηλθεν, 
ε18ομερη γαλόω, * ΑντηνορίΖαο Βάμαρτί^ 
την *Αντηνορί8ης είχε κρείων Ελυκάων, 
Ααο^ίκην, ΧΙριάμοιο θυγατρων ειδρς άρίστην, 

125 την ο ευρ εν μεγαρω • η οε μεγαν ιστον υφαυνεν^ 
οιπΚακα πορφυρεΎ/ν, πολεας ο ενεπασσεν αευλους 
Ύρωων θ* Ιππο8άμων καΐ 'Α^αιώί' γαλκογιτώνων, 
ους εθεν είνεκ επα(τγον ΰττ' "Αρηος παλαμάων, 
αγ^ου ο ιστάμενη προσεφη προας ωκεα ιρυς^ • 

130 ** δευ/ί' Wit νύμφα φίλη, ίνα υεσκελα έργα Γδτ^αι 
Ύρωων θ" Ιππο8άμων καΐ *Α^αιώϊ/ χαλκοχιτώνων* 
ot πρΙν επ' άλληλουσυ φερον πολύ8ακρυν "Αρηα 
εν πε8ίω, ολοοΐο λίλαυόμενοι πολεμοιο, 
οι δή νυν εαταυ (Τίγη, πόλεμος δε πεπαυται, 

135 άσπίσι κεκλιμένοι, πάρα δ' εγχεα μακρά πεπηγεν. 
αυταρ ΆλεζανΒρος και άρηιφιλος Μενέλαος 
μακρης εγγείησι μαχησονται περί σείο • 
τω 8ε κε νικησαντι φίλη κεκληση άκοιτις.^* 
"*' ω? ειπούσα θεα γλυκυν ΐμερον εμβαλε θυμω 

140 άνΒρός τε προτεροιο καΐ άστεος ή8ε τοκηων, 
αυτίκα δ' άργεννησι καλυφαμενη οθόνησιν 
ωρματ εκ θαλάμοιο τερεν κατά Βοίκρυ γεουσα, 
ουκ οΐη, άμα τύ) γε και άμφίπολοι δυ* εποντο. 




56 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Γ. 

Αϊθρη^ IlLT0rjos θνγάτηρ, Κλνμενη Τ€ βοωπίζ, 
145 αΐψα δ' ίπ€ΐΘ^ ικανον οθι ^καιαΐ πύλαι ήσαν. 

οΐ δ' άμφΐ ΤΙρίαμον και ΐΐάνθοον -ήδέ θνμοίτην 
Αάμπον re Κλντίον θ^ Ίκετάονά τ, όζον '^Αρηος, 
ΟυκαΚίνων Τ€ και Αρττηνωρ, ττ^πννμένω ααώω, 
etaro οημογβροντες επί ζκαίΎ)σί irvhrjaiVt 
\^ J<L50 γηραϊ δή ττοΚίμοιο πεπαυμβνοί, αλλ' άγορηταΐ^ 
J»r ^συΚοί, τεττιγεσσυν εουκοτες, οι re καυ vKrfv 

SevBpecu ίφεζόβ^ενοι οπα Χειριόεσσαν Ιείσιν • 
TOtofc αρα Ύρώων ηγήτορες ηντ επι πνργω, 
οΐ δ' ώς OVP €iSop0^ 'ΈΧενην επί πνργορ Ιουσαν, 
165 ηκα προς άλλτ^λους επεα πτεροεντ άγόρενορ • 
" ου νεμεσις Ύρωας καΐ ενκνημι^ας Αραιούς 
Toi-Q^^^ άμφΐ γνρρακί πο\νν ,γρονον αΧγεα πάσγειν 
»^ αΐνως άθανάτΎ)σί θεΎ}ς εΙς ωπα εοικεν, 
άλλα κοΧ ως, τοίη περ εονσ , εν νηνσΐ νεεατβω, 
160 /χτ^δ' ημίν τεκεεσσί τ οπίσσω πημα λίποιτο^ 

ως dp" εφαν/ΐΐρίαμος δ' 'Έίλενην εκαλεσσατο φωντ) * 
'* 8ενρο πάροιθ* εΧθονσα, φιλον τεκος, ΐζεν εμεΐο, 
οφρα Ihrj πρότερόν τε πόσυν πηούς τε φίλους τε. 
ου τι μοί αΐτίη εσσί • Θεοί νν μου αΐτιοί είσιν, 
165 οι μοι εφώρμησαν πόλεμον πολνΒακρυν ^Κγαίων • 

ως μοι κοΧ τόζ^δ* dvSpa πεΚώριον εζονομηνης, λλ^ ^^^uuii 
ος τις οδ' εστίν * Αραιός άνηρ ηνς τε μέγας τε, 
η τοι μεν κεφαλή και μείζονες άλλοι eacrtl•', 
καλόν δ' οντω εγων ου πω ϊ8ον οφθαλμοΐσιν, 
170 ούδ' οΰτω γεραρόν • /^ασιλΊ^ι γαρ άνΒρι εοικεν.^* 

τον δ* 'Έίλενη μύθοισιν άμείβετο, δια γυναικών • 
αιοοιος τε μοι εσσι, φιλβ εκυρε, οεινος τε • 
ως οφελεν θάνατος μοι ά^εΐν κακός, οππότε Βεΐίρο 
υιεϊ σω επόμην, θάλαμον γνωτους τε λιπουσα 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 67 

176 πaLSaτ€TJ]λυγeτηu καΐ ομηλικίηρ ipaT€.ivrjv, 

άλλα τα y ovi^iiyevovTo • το κοΓκΑαΙουσα τ€τηκα, 
τοντο δβ TOL• 4ρζω, 6 μ* άνβίρεαυ rjSe μβταλλας. 
ovTOS γ* Άτρ€ΐ8ης evpv κρείων ^Αγαμβμρωι/, * 

άμφότ€ροΐ', βασίλευα τ αγαθός κρατερός τ αίχμητης • 

180 οαηρ αντ €μος ecTAce κννωπιοο^, et ποτ €ην ye. 

ως φάτο, τον δ' ό γερωγ ήγασσατο φώντΊσεν re • 
** ω μάκαρ Άτρειδτ^, μοιρηγενες, όλ^ιοδαφ,οι^,^ 
^ yt5a ι^υ rot πολλοί δ βδ/χτ ^ατο κονροι ^Κγαιων. \^\L* ^''***^ 
^^δτ^ /cat Φρυγυην είσηλνθορ άμπεΚοεσσαν '^ 

185 €ΐ/^α ιδοι^ πλείστους Φρνγας άνβρας, αίολοπώλονς, 
λαονς ^Οτρηος καΙ Μυγ^όνος άντιθεοιο, 

oyC /ας Ζα' 



ot £>α τοτ εστρατοωντο παρ οχσας Ααγγαριοιο 



και γαρ ίγων επίκουρος ίων μετά τοίσιν ελεχθην 
ηματι τω οτε τ ηλθον ^Αμαζόνες άντιάνειραι • 
190 αλλ' ούδ' οι τόσοι -ήσαν, όσοι ελικωπες 'A^atot." 
δεύτερον αντ' ΌΒνσηα ιδώι^ ερεειν 6 γεραιός • 
€ΐπ αγε μοι και τονοε, ψιΚον τεκος, ος τις οο εστίν, 
μειων μεν κεφαλτ) Αγαμέμνονος ^ΑτρειΒαο, | 

ευρύτερος δ' ωμοισιν 18ε στεανο ισιν ιδεσ^αι. "**!•<*» 
195 Tcu^ea μεν οι κείται επΙ χσονι πονΧυβοτειρτ], 
αυτο9 οε κτιΑος ως επιπωΚειται στιγας ανορων* 



άρνειω μιν εγώ γε εισκω πηγεσιμαλλω, 



ν > » 



ος τ οίων μέγα πωυ ^ιεργεται αργεννάωνΓ 
τον ν ημείβετ επειθ' Έλενη, Αιος εκγεγαυΐα 
200 *' ούτος 8'αυΑαερτιάΒη ς, πολυμητις 'Οδυσσεύς, 
ος τράφη εν 8ημω Ίθάκτις κραναης περ εοΰσης, 
εΙΒώς παντοίους τε 8όλους και μη8εα πυκνα^ 

την δ' αδτ' Άντηνωρ πεπνυμενος αντίον τ^ΰδα ' 
" ω γυι/αι, η μάλα τοντο έπος νημερτες εειπες • 
205 η8η γαρ και Βευρό ποτ ηλυθε δΓος ΌΒυσσενς, 



58 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Γ. 

(Γ€υ ίν€Κ άγγβλίης, crw άρηίφίλω MeveXaco * 
τους δ* βγω ίζείνισσα και ev μβγάροισυ φίλησα, 
άμφοτ€ρωρ δέ φνηρ έΒάην καΐ μηδβα πυκνά, -. 
αλλ' ore δτ) Ύρώεσσυν ev άγρομ4νοισιν εμιχθεν, 

210 στάντων μεν Μενέλαος νπείρεχεν ενρεας ωμούς, 
άμφω δ* εζομενω, γεραρώτερος ηεν *θ8νσσενς. 
αλλ' οτε Stj μύθους καΐ μιη^εα ττασιν υφαινον, 
rj TOL μεν Μενέλαος εττιτρογάΖην άγόρευεν, ^ 
παυρα μεν, αλλά μάλα λυγεως, εττεί ου ττολύμυθος^ 

215 ούδ' άφαμαρτοεπης, εΐ καΐ γένει ύστερος ηεν, 
αλλ' δτε 8η πολύμητις άι/αΐ^€ΐ€ΐ^ 'Οδυσσεύς, 
στάσκεν, υτταί 8ε 18εσκε κατά χθονος όμματα πηζα%, 



σκηπτρον δ' οΰτ οπίσω ούτε προπρηνες ενώμα, 
αλλ' άστεμφες εχεσκεν, άί8ρεϊ φωτΐ εοικώς • 
"'^^Ο φαίης κέ ζάκοτόν τε τιν εμμει/αι άφρονα τ αΰτως, 
αλλ' οτε 8η οπα τε μεγάλην εκ στηθεος εΐη 
και επεα νιφά8εσσιν εοικότα -χειμερίησιν, 
ουκ αν επειτ Όδνστ^ι γ' ερίσσειε βροτος άλλος • 
ου τότε γ' ωδ' ^θ8υσηος άγασσάμεθ* είδος ιδόι/τες." 

225 το τρίτον αυτ Αιαντα ιδώΐ' ερεειν 6 γεραιός • 

τις τ αρ οο άλλος Α)(αιος ανηρ ηυς τε μέγας τε, 
εζοχος ^Αργείων κεφαλήν τε και εύρεας ωμούς ; " 

τον δ' Έλενη τανυπεπλος άμείβετο, δια γυναικών 
*' οΰτος δ' ΑΓας εστί πελώριος, ερκος Ά^αιώι/. 

230 ^ΐ8ομενευς 8' ετερωθεν ενι Κρητεσσι θεός ως 
εστηκ , άμφΐ 8ε μιν Κρητών άγοί ηγερεθονται. 
ΤΓολλάκι μιν ζείνίσσεν άρη'ίφιλος Μενέλαος 
οίκω εν ημετερω, οπότε Κρητηθεν ΐκοιτο» 
νυν δ' άλλους μεν πάντας ορω ελικωπας Α)(αιούς, 

235 ους κεν ευ γνοίηΡ και τ ουνομα μυθησαίμην • 
8οιω δ' ου δυΐ'α/χαι Ι8εειν κοσμητορε λαών. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. . 59 

Κάστορα θ* Ιππύ^αμοι/ και πνζ αγαθόν UoXvhevKea, 
αυτοκασι-γνήτω, τώ μοι μία yeivaro μητηρ, 
η ονχ εσπεσυην Αακε^αίμονος ef βρατβυνης, 

240 η Ββνρω μεν ίποντο veeaa evi ττοντοττόροισιν, 

νυν αντ ουκ έθάλονσυ μάχην κατα8νμ€ναί άντρων, 
aLa\ea οβώίοτες και oveioea ττοΚΚ , α μοι eanv, 

ως φατο, τους δ' η8η κάτεχαν φνσίζοος αία 
iv ΑακεΒαίμονί ανθί, φί^Ί) iv πατρίΖι yalnJt' 
^ 245 κηρνκ€ς δ* άρα άστυ θέων φβρον ορκια τηστά, 
apve δυω καΐ οίνορ ένφρονα, καρπον άρονρης, 
άσκω iu αίγβίω • φ€ρ€ δε κρητ'ηρα φαεινον 
κηρνζ *ΐδαΓο9 ySe χ^ρυσευα KvweWa • 
ώτρννεν Se γέροντα τταριστάμενοζ έττεεσσιν * 

250 ** ορσεο, Ααομε^οντίάδη f καλεοναιν άριστοι 

Ύρώων.θ' ιππο8άμων καΐ Ά^αιωΣ^ γ^αλκοχιτώνων 
ες πεδίον καταβηναι, ϊν ορκια πιστά τάμητε, 
αντάρ Αλέξανδρος και άρηίφιλος Μενέλαος 
μακρτις εγγείτ^σι μαγιησοντ άμφΐ γυναικί* 

255 τω δε κε νικησαντι γυνή καΐ κτημαθ^ εποιτο •' 
οι δ' άλλοι φιλότητα και ορκια πιστά ταμοντες 
ναίοιμεν Ύροίην εριβώλακα, τοί δε νεονται 
^ Αργός ες ιππόβοτον /cat *Α;)(αιιδα καλΧιγύναικα/* 
ως φατο, ριγησεν δ' 6 γέρων, εκελευσε δ' εταίροι^ 

260 Ιππους ζευγνύμεναι • τοΙ δ' οτραλεως επίθοντο, 

αν Ο αρ ερτ) Ιίριαμος, κατά ο ηνια'τεινεν οπισσω] 
\πάρ θ€ οι ^Αντηνωρ περικαλλεα βησετο 8ίφρον• 
τω θ€ οιά ^καιων πεδιοζ^δ* εγον ώκεας ίππους, 
αλλ' οτε δτ7 ρ ΐκοντο μετά Ύρωας και ^Αχαιούς, 

265 €ξ ίππων άποβάντες ίπι χθόνα πουλυβοτειραν 
ες μεσσον Ύρωων καΐ *Α)(αιωι/ εστιχόωντο, 
ωρνυτο δ' αυτίκ έπειτα ηναξ άντρων * Αγαμεμνίαν, 



6 



60 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Γ. 

αν δ' 'Οδυσεύς ποΧυμηη^ • άταρ κήρυκας άγαυοΐ 
ορκια πίστα θ^ων σύναγον, κ ρητή ρ l Se οΧνον 

270 piayov, άταρ βασιΚευσιν ν8ωρ έπΙ )(€Ϊρας εχ€.ναν. 
^Ατρ€ί8ης 8e €ρυσσάμ€ΐ/ος γ€.1ρ€σσι μάχαιψαν, 
η οΐ παρ ξίφ€ος μέγα KOvXeou alev αωρΤο; 
άρνων €Κ κεφαΚίων τάμνε τρίχας • αντάρ έπειτα 
κήρυκες Ύρώων και Ά;)^αιώι^ νεΐμ& άρίστοις, 

275 τοίσιν δ' '^Ι^είδτ^ς μεγάλ* ενχετο, χεΐρας άνασχών ' 
** Ζεν πάτερ, "Ί^ηθει/ με^εωι/, κυΒιστε μέγιστε, 
ηελιός θ*, ος πάντ εφορας καΐ πάντ επακονεις, 
καΐ ποταμοί καΐ yata, και ot νπενερθε καμόντας 
ανθρώπους τίνυσθον, οτις κ επίορκον ομοσστι, 

280 νμεϊς μάρτυροι εστε, φυλάσσετε δ' δρκια πιστά, 
εΐ μεν κεν Μενελαον *Αλεζαν8ρος καταπεφντ)» 
αυτός επειθ' Έλενην εχετω και κτήματα πάντα, 
ημείς δ' εν νηεσσι νεώμεθα ποντοπόρο ισιν • 
€1 8ε κ *Α\εζαν8ρον κτείνη ζανθος Μενέλαος, 

285 Ύρωας επειθ* ^Ελενην και κτήματα πάντ άποδό^α^, 
τιμήν δ' *Αργείοις άποτινεμεν, ην τιν εοικεν, 
η τε και εσσομενοισι μετ άνθρώποισι πεληται. 
€1 δ' αν εμοι τιμήν Τίρίαμος ΐίριάμοιό τε παίδες 
τίνειν ουκ εθελωσιν *Α\εζάν8ροιο πεσόντος, 

290 αύτάρ εγω και έπειτα μαχησομαι εΐνεκα ποινής 
aS^t μένων, εΐως κε τέλος πόλεμο ιο κιχείω. /^ 

^ και άτΓο στομάχους άρνων τάμε νηλει -χαλκω, 
και τους μεν κατεθηκεν επΙ χθονος άσπαιροντας, 
θυμού 8ευομενους • άπο γαρ μένος είλετο χαλκός ' 

295 οΐνον 8* εκ κρητηρος άφυσσόμενοι 8επάεσσιν 
εκχεον, η8* ευχοντο θεοΐς αίειγενετησιν, 
ω8ε 8ε τις εΐπεσί^ν *Α^αιώι/ τε Ύρώων τε' 
"' Ζευ κύ8ιστε μέγιστε, καΐ αθάνατοι θεοί άλλοι, 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 61 

■ > _ - , ^ . S' 

6ππότ€ροι πρότεροι νπίρ ορκια πημηνειαΐ', 

300 ctiSe σ-φ* βγκίψαλος χαμά8ΐζ plot ώς οδβ οίνος, 
αντων και τβκβων, άλοχοι δ' άλλοισι δα/χειεί'." 

ως εφαι/, ούδ' αρα πω σφιν Ιπ€κραίαιν€ Κρονίων. 
τοίσι δέ Ααρ8ανι8ης Υϊρίάμος μετά αν θ ον eeiTrev* 
'* κβκΧντί pev, Τρώες καΐ ευκΡΎ^ρώες * Αχαιοί • 

305 η τοι Ιγων elpi π port Wiov ηνβμόεσσαν 

αψ, €7Γ€ΐ ον ττω τΚ^σομ* iv οφθαΚμοΙσιν ορασθαι 
μαρναμ€νον φιλον vlou άρηιφιλω Μενελάω • 
Ζευς /ΙΙί' που τό ye οΐδε /cat αθάνατοι θεοί άλλοι, 
ίπττοτίρω θανάτοιο τέλος τίβπραηιβρον eoriV." 

310 η ρα καΐ is 8ιφρορ άρρας Θέτο ισόθεος ψως, 

αϊ/ ο αρ epaiv αυτός, κατά ο τ^^''^^ Tew/ei^ οπισσ(θ' 
παρ θ€ οΐΆντηνωρ πβρικαλλβα βησετο Ζίφρον. 
τω /i€i' αρ* αφορροι προτΐ *1λιο^ απονίο^^το • 
'Έκτω/) Se ΤΙριαμοιο παις καΐ δΓος Όδυσσ-εύς 

315 γωρον μίν πρώτον 8ΐ€μ€τρ€ον, ανταρ επβιτα 
κλήρους iu κυνίτι χαλκηρβΧ πάλλον Ιλοντες, 
^οππ6τ€ρος Βη πρόσθβρ άφβιη γάλκεον εγχος. 
λαοί Κ^ηρ-ησαντο θβοΐς ISe )(€ΐρας ανίσγρν • 
ωδε δε τις ειπεσκεν Ά^αιώϊ/ re Ύρωων τ€ • 

δ'-ίΟ " Zed πάτερ, '^ΐΒηθεν μεΒεων, κυΒιστβ μέγιστα, 
οππότερος τάδε έργα μετ άμφοτεροισιν εθηκεν, 
ΤΟΙ/ οος αποψυιμενον ουναι οομον Αιοος εισω, 
Ύΐμίν δ* αδ φιλότητα καΐ ορκια πίστα γενέσθαι.** 
ως αρ εφαν, πάλλεν δε μΙγας κορυθαίολος '^Εκτωρ 

325 άψ ορόων • ΐΐάριος δέ θοως εκ κλήρος δρουσεν, 

' ^t μεν επειυ ιζοντο κατά στιγας, ηχι έκαστου 
ίπποι άερσιπό^ες καΐ ποικίλα τευχε εκεπ^ο ' 
ανταρ ο γ' άμφ* ωμοισιν ε^ύσετο τενχεα καλά 
οΓος *Αλεζαν8ρος, 'Κλενης πόσις ηνκόμοιο. 



62 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Γ. 

330 κρημιΒας μ€ν πρώτα nepl κνήμ-ησυν €θηκ€ν, 
καΚαζ, apyvpeoiaiv ^Ήΐσψυριοι^ζ apapvLas* 
Semepov αν θώρηκα nepl στηθ^σσιν eSvpei/ 
ΟΙΟ κασιγνητοιο Ανκαονος, ηρμσ&β ο αυτω, 
αμφι δ' αρ* ωμοισιν βάλβτο ξίφος άργνρόηλον, 

335 ^άλκεον, ανταρ eneira σάκος μέγα τ€ στφαρον τ€,§ 
κρατί δ* Ιπ Ιφθίμω κννέιην ivTVKTOv βθηκει/, 
ΐππονρίΡ • SeLPOP δε λόφος καθνπ€ρθ€Ρ ipevep. . 
€Ϊλ€Τθ δ* αΚκιμορ ^γχος, 6 οΐ παλάμηφυρ apyjpup, 
ως δ* αντως Μ€Ρ€λαος άρηυος €ΡΤ€ eSvpep. 

340 οΐ δ' inel ovp βκάτβρθβρ ομίλου θωρη)(^θησαρ, 
ές μέσσορ Ύρώωρ καΐ ^ ^γαιωρ ^στιχοωρτο 
heiPOP ^^ρκόμίνοι • θάμβος δ' ίγβρ ζΐσορόωρτας 
Ύρώάς θ* Ιππο^άμονς και €νκρημί8ας Άχ^αωύς, 



/ ί» > 



και ο €yyv9 στητηρ 8ίαμ€τρητω ipl χωρώ 

345 σ^ίορτ Ιγγείας, άλληλοισιρ κοτ€ΟΡΤ€, 

πρόσθζ δ* Άλβζαρ^ρος Trpotei ^ολνχόσκιορ ζγχος, 
καΐ βάλ€Ρ 'ArpetSao κατ ασπίδα πάρτοσ Ιίσηρ • 
ούδ* €ρρηζ€Ρ χαλκός, άρεγραμφθη §e οι αίχμη 
άσπι8υ ip KpaTeprj. 6 Se Βεντβρος ώρρυτο χαλκω 

350 ΆτρβυΒης Μ^ρελαος, €π€ν<^άμ€Ρος Αά πατρί • 

'* Zev άρα, Βος τίσασθαι ο μβ πρότερος κάκ iopyep, 
Slop Άλεζαρ^ρορ, καΐ €μΎ)ς νπο χ^ρσί Βαμηραι, 
όφρα τις eppiyrjai και οφιγόρωρ άρθρώπωρ 
ξειρο^όκορ κακά ρεξαι, ο κερ φιλότητα παράσχτ). 

355 η ρα καΐ άμπεπαλώρ προΐει 8ολιχόσκιορ εγχος, 
καΐ βάλε ΐΙριαμιΒαο κατ ασπίδα πάρτοσ εισηρ, 
δια μερ άσπιλος ήλθε φαειρης όβριμορ ίγχος, 
καΐ δια θώρηκος πολυδαιδάλου ηρηρειστο • 
άρτικρνς δε παραί λαπάρηρ 8ιάμησε χιτώνα 

360 εγχος • 6 δ' εκλίνθη kcu άλενατο κηρα μελαιραρ. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK III. 63 

Άτρ€ί8ης 8e έρυσσάμα^ο^ ζίφο^ άργνρόηλον 
πληζερ άνασχόμ^ι^ο^ κόρυθος φάλον • άμφΐ δ' αρ' αντω 
τριγθά τε καΐ τετραγθα Βιατρυφεν έκπεσε ^^et/ads. 
*Ατρεΐ8ης δ' ωμωζεν Ι8ωρ εΙς ονρανον ευρνν • 

365 " Ζεν πάτερ y ου τις σείο θέων οΚοωτερος άλλος • 
η τ εφάμην τίσασθαυ ^ΚΧεζαν^ρον κακότητος • 
vvu 8ε μoL εν ^ειρεασίν αγη ζίφος, εκ^εμοι εγχος 
ν^Χ"ν τταΚαμη(^ίν ετωσιον, ονοε οαμαχτσα. 
η καΐ επαι^ας κόρυθος λάβεν ΙπποΒασείης, 

370 €λκε δ' επιστρε\\ίας μετ ενκνημίΒας Άχαυονς • *" 
οίγχε δε /λιϊ' πολνκεστος Ιμας απιιΚην νπο δειρην, 
09 οι ύτΓ* άνθερεώνο<; οχενς τετατο τρνφαΚείιης. ^ 
και νύ κεν είρυσσεν τε και άσπετον rjpBfo κυδος, 
€1 μη αρ* οζν νόησε Διός θνγάτηρ ^ Αφροδίτη, 

375 η οΐ ρηζεν Ιμάντα βοος Χφυ κταμενοιο • 

κείνη δε τρνφάλεια άμ' εσπετο χειρί παχείτι, 
την μεν επειθ" ηρως μετ ενκνημυΒας ^Αχαιούς 
pLxjj^ επώινησας, κόμισαν δ* ερίηρε<; εταίροι • 
αύτάρ 6 άψ επόρονσε κατακτάμεναι μενεαίνων 

380 εγχεϊ χαλκείω. τον δ' εξηρπαξ' Αφροδίτη 

ρεία μάλ^ ώς τε θεός, εκάλνχΐιε δ' άρ* ηερι πολΧη, 
κά8 δ* εΐσ* εν θαλάμω ενώ8εϊ κηώενζι^ 
αύτη δ* αυ^' Έλενην καλεονσ' ΐε. την 8ε κίχανεν 
πύργω εφ' ύψτ/λω, περί Βε ΎρωαΙ αλις ήσαν. 

385 χειρί 8ε νεκταρεον εανον ετίναζε λαβονσα, 
γρηι δε μιν εικνΐα τταλαιγει^εί, προσεειπεν, 
ειροκόμω, η οι ΑακεΒαίμονι ναιετοώση 
ησκειν εΐρια καλά, /μάλιστα δε' μιν φιλεεσκεν • 
τη μιν εεισαμενη προσεφώνεε δΓ Αφροδίτη • 

390 •* 8ενρ* ΐθ\ ΆλεζανΕρός σε καλεΐ οικόν8ε νεεσθαι. 
κεϊνος ο y' εν θαλάμω και οινωτοΐσι λεχεσσιν^ 



64 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Γ. 

KoKKd Τ€ στίλβων καί ^Ιμασιν • ούδε κ€ φαιής 
άρ8ρΙ μαχησάΐλ€Ρ0Ρ τον γ ikOelyy άλλα ^opoi^Se 
€ρ'χ€σθ*, rje 'χοροίο viqy λήγοντα καθίζείν." ri 

395 ως φάτο, rfj δ' άρα θνμον ivl στιηθεσσιν opivev 
καί ρ ως συν ivoiqhre θβας nepLKaXkea Seup-qv 
στηθβά θ* Ιμ€ρΟ€ντα καί όμματα μαρμαίροντα, 
υαμρησεν τ αρ έπειτα, €πος τ €ψατ €κ τ ονομαΐ^εν 
** δαιμονιτ), τί με Λιυτα λιλαί€αι ηπεροπενειρ ; 

400 η πη με προτερω ποΧυων εν ναιομεναων 
άζετς η Φρνγίης η Μτιορίης ερατεινής, 
ει τις TOL και κεΖθι φίλος μερόπων ανθρώπων, 
οννεκα δτ) νυν hiov ^AXi^avSpov Μενέλαος 
\νικησας εθελει στνγερην εμε oΓ/cαδ' ayecr^?at • 

405 τοννεκα Srj νυν Βενρο ^ολοφρονεονσα παρέστης, 
ησο παρ αυτόν ιουσα, θέων δ' άποεικε κελενθου, 
μη^ΐ* ετι σοίσι πο^εσσιν νποστ ρε\\ίειας "Όλυμπον, 
αλλ' atet περί κείνον οιζνε και ε φύλασσε, 
εις δ κε σ* Ύ) άλο)(ον ποιησεται rj δ γε Βουλην. 

410 κεΐσε δ' εγων ουκ εΐμι, νεμεσσητον δε κεν ειη, 
κείνου πορσυνεουσα λεχ^ος • Τ^ωαί δε μ* οπίσσω 
πασαι μωμησονται, εγω δ' άγε άκριτα θυμω,^^ 

την δε -χολωσαμενη προσεφώνεε δΓ Αφροδίτη • 
" μη μ* ερεθε, σχετλίη, μη γωσαμενη σε μεθείω, 

415 τως δε σ άπεγθηρω ως νυν εκπαγλα φίλησα, 
μεσσω δ' αμφοτέρων μητίσομαι εχθεα λνγρα, 
Ύρώων καΐ ΔαΓαώι^, συ δε κεν κακόν οιτον δληαι, 

ως εφατ, εΖεισεν δ' *Ελενΐ7, Διός εκγεγαυΐα, 
βη δε κατασχομενη εανω άργητι φαεινω, 

420 σιγή, πάσας δε Ύρωας λάθεν • ηρχ€. δε δαίμων, 

αί δ' δτ ^Αλεξάν^ροιο 8όμον περικαλλε^ ίκοντυ. 
άμφίπολοι μεν έπειτα θοως επΙ έργα τράποντο. 



HOMER'S ILIAD, BOOK HI. (j5 

7) 8' €is νφόροφον θάΧαμον kU δια γυναικών, 

Tjj δ' dpa 8ίφρον έλουσα φίλομμ€ί8ης Άφρο8ίτη 

425 άντΓ ^AXe^dvSpoLO θβα κατβθηκβ φέρουσα • 
€νθα καθΐζ "ΈΧένη, κοΰρη Αώς αίγωχοιο, 
οσσβ πάλιν κλίνασα, ττόσυν δ' ήνίπαπ€ μΰθω^ . 
" ηλυθβς €Κ πολέμου • ώς ωφβλβς αυτοθ* 6λ4σθαι, 
avSpl ^αμείς κρατερω, ος εμος πρότερος πόσις ηεν, 

430 η μεν δή πριν y' εΰ^γε' άρηιφίλου Μενελάου 
arj τε βιτ) καΐ χ^ρσί καΐ ίγχ^ί φερτερος είναι • 
αλλ' ΐθι νυν π ροκάλεσ σαι άρηίφιλον Μενελαον 
εζαυης /la^ecracr^at εναντίον, άλλα σ' εγώ γε 
Travecr^ac κελομαι, μη^ε ξανθω Μενελαω 

435 αντίβιον πολεμον πολεμίζειν Tjhk μοίχεσθαι 

άφραΒεως, μη πως τά^ υπ* αυτού 8ουρΙ 8αμηΎ)ς.** 
την 8ε Τΐάρίς μύθοισιν αμειβόμενος προσεειπεν * 
" μη με, ywat, χαλεποΐσιν 6νεί8εσι θυμον ενιπτε» 
νυν μεν γαρ Μενέλαος ενίκησεν συν ^Αθηνη, 

440 κεΐνον δ' αυτις εγώ * πάρα γαρ θεοί είσι καΐ ημΐν, 
αλλ* αγε 8η φιλοτητι τραπείομεν ευνηθεντε • 
ου γαρ ττώ ποτέ μ ω8ε γ* ερος φρενας άμφεκαλυφ,εν, 
ούδ' οτε σε πρώτον ΑακεΒαίμονος εζ ερατεινής 
έπλεαν άρπάζας εν ποντοπόροισι νεεσσιν, 

445 νήσω δ' εν Kpavajj εμίγην φιλοτητι καΧ ευν^, 
ώς σεο νυν εραμαι και με γλυκύς ίμερος αιρεί. 
η ρα καΧ άρχε λεχοσΒε κιών • άμα δ' είπετ άκοιτις. 

τω μεν άρ εν τρητοϊσι κατεύνασθεν λεχεεσσιν, 
*Ατρεΐ8ης δ' άνίχομιλον εφοίτα θηρι εοικώς, 

450 ει που εσαθρησειεν ^ΑλεζανΒρον θεοειΖεα, 

αλλ' ου τις δυνατό Ύρώων κλει;Γών τ επίκουρων 
δ€Γ^αι ^ Αλεζαν8 ρον τότ άρηιφίλω Μενελάω, 
ον μεν γαρ φιλοτητι y' εκεύθανον, ει τις Γδοιτο • 



66 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Γ. 

Τσορ γαρ σφιν πασυν άττηχθετο κηρΐ μελαινΎ/, 
455 roicri 8e καί μετεειπεν οίναζ ανΖρων ^Αγαμέμνων ' 
" κ€κ\ντ€ μεν, Τρώες καΐ AdpSavoL yjS' επίκουρου, 
νίκΎΐ μεν 817 φαιι^ετ' άρηίφίΧον Μενελάου • 
υμεις ο Αργειην ^Κερην και κτημασ αμ αυττ) 
εκΒοτε, καΐ τυμην άττοτινεμεν^ ην τιν εοίκεν, 
460 η τε καΐ εσσομενοισι μετ άνθρώποισι πεληται, 
ως εφατ ^ΑτρειΒης, επί δ' ^νεον άλλοι Ά;^αί,οι. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 67 



OMHPOT ΙΛΙΑΔΟ2; Δ, 



Af\Ta ' OeSiv ayop^, 'όρκων χνσΐ5, "Άρβοί αρχή. 
Delta Deum fora, laesa fides, primordia pugna. 

' In Delta is the God's assize ; 
Tlie truce is broke; wars freshly rise.' 

ορκίων συγχυσυς. ^Αγαμέμνονος επιπώλτ^σι?- 

οΐ Se θβοί παρ ΖηνΙ καθήμενοι ηγορόωντο 
γ^ρυσέω iv δαπεδω, μβτά δβ σφυσι ττάτνια "HyS?^ 
νέκταρ ίωνογόει • το\ δε -χρνσεοίς SenaeaaLv 
'^^i^' δειδε^ατ' αλλήλους, Ύρώων ττολιν είσορόωντες. 
!^ 5 αυτίκ έπειρατο ΚρονίΒης έρβθυζεμβν '^Ηρην 

κβρτομιοίς eVeecrcrc, παραβληΒην αγορεύων 
" δοιαι μεν Μενελάω άρηγόνες είσΐ θεάων, 
ΐΙρΎ] τ Κργενη και ^ ΑλαλκομενηΙς ^Αθηνη. 
αλλ' η TOL ταΐ νόσφυ καθημεναι είσοροωσαι 

10 τερπεσθον • τω δ' άντε φίλομμείΒης * Αφροδίτη 
αΐεΐ παρμεμβλωκε καΐ αντον κηρας άμυνευ^ 
καί νυν εζεσάωσεν οιόμενον θανεεσθαι. 
αλλ' ^ τον νίκη μεν άρηυφίλον Μενελάου* 
ημείς οε φραζωμεσ , όπως εσται ταοε έργα, 

15 η ρ* αυτις πόλεμόν τε κακόν καΐ φύλοπίΡ αΐνην 
ορσομεν, η φιλότητα μετ άμφοτεροισι βάλωμεν. 
εΐ δ' αδ πως τόδε πασι φίλον καΐ τβυ γένοιτο^ 
η τοι μεν οίκεοιτο πολις ΤΙριάμοιο άνακτος. 



68 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Δ. 

αντίς δ' Άργειηρ '^ΈΧενην Μει^ελαος αγοιτο." 

20 ως ίφαθ\ αΐ δ' Ιττίμνζαν ΆΘηναίη re καΙ '^ΙΙρη • 
ττΚιησίαι αϊ y ησθην, κακά Se Ύρώβσσυ μ^^4σΘην. 
rj TOL ^ΚΘηναίιη ακ4ων ην ούδε τι elneu, 
σκνζο^Ανη Δα πατρίς χόλος δε μιν άγριος fipeiv • 
'Ή/3Τ7 δ* OU/C ε^^αδε στηθο<; -χόλορ, άλλα προσηνΒα• 

25 " αΐνότατε Κρορβη, ποιον τον μυθον εειπες. 
πώς ε^ελεις άλιον ββΐναι πόνον ή8' άτ4λζ.στον^ 
Ιορω θ*^ ον ίδρωσα μόγω^ καμετην δε μοί Ιπποι 
λαον αγβιρονσΎ)^ ΤΙριαμω κακά τοΐό τε τταισιζ^. 
ερδ' • άτάρ ου τοι παίκτες επαινεομεν θεοί άλλοι." 

30 την δε μεγ' οχ^θησας προσεφη νεφεληγερετα Ζει/ς• 
" ηαιμονιη^ τι νν σε ΐίριαμος ΐίριαμοιό τε τταΓδες 
τοσσα κακά ρεζονσιν, ο τ άσπερχες μενεαίνεις 
'^Ιλων ε^αλαπά^αι, ενκτίμενον πτολίεθρον ; 
εΐ δε συ y είσελθουσα πύλας καΐ τείχεα μακρά 

35 ώμον βεβρώθοις ΤΙρίαμον ΙΙριάμοιό τε παιδας •'*^ 

άλλους τε Τρώας, τότε κεν χόλον εξακεσαιο. ^^ 

ερζον, όπως εθελεις • μη τουτό yε νεϊκος οπίσσω 
σοι και εμοι μεγ ερισμα μετ άμφοτεροισι yεvητaι, 
άλλο δε τοι ερεω, συ δ' ενι φρεσΐ βάλλεο σΎ)σίΡ' 

40 οπποτε κεν καΐ εγώ μεμαως πόλιν ε^αλαπά^αι 
την εθελω, o^t rot φίλοι άνερες εyyεyάaσιv, Η '• 
μη τι Βιατρίβειν τον εμον χόλον, άλλα μ* εάσαΐ' ' 
καΧ yap iyco σοι δώ /ca εκ•ώι^ άεκοντί yε θυμω. 
at yap υπ' ηελίω τ ε καΐ ου ράνω άστερόεντι 

45 ναιετάουσι πόληες επιχθονίων ανθρώπων, , L• w^ -γ 

ταων μοι περί κηρι τιεσκετο Ιλιος ιρη 
καΧ ΤΙρίαμος και λαός ευμμελίω ΐΙριάμοιο- ' 
ου yap μοί ποτέ βωμός ε^εύετο δαιτος είσης, 
λοιβης τε κνίσης τε' το yap λάχομεν yεpaς ημεΐς.^^ 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 69 

50 TOP δ' ήμείββτ έπειτα βοωπις πότνια "Ιίρη ' 
" η TOL εμοί τρεϊς μεν πολν φίλταταί ευσυ ττόληες^ 
"AyayS? re Σπάρτη τε και ευρνάγνυα Μ-υκηνη • 
, ^, τας οιαπερσαι, οτ αν τοι αττεγυωνται περί κηρΐ' νί?Η 

τάων ου τοι εγω πρόσθ* Ισταμαι ούδε μεγαίρω. 
65 [et περ γαρ φθονεω τε καΐ ουκ εΐω διαπερσαι, .>vy.iiN>j «^^ 
Jl^**^ ' ουκ άννω φθονεονσ\ επεί η πολύ φερτερός ecrcrt.] 

άλλα -χ^ρη καΐ εμον Θεμεναι πόνον ουκ άτελεστον • — 

και γαρ εγω υεος ειμί, γένος οε μοι ενυεν^ οσεν σοι, 
και με πρεσβυτάτην τεκετο Κρόνος άγκνλόμητης, 
60 άμφότερον, γενετ) τε καΐ οννεκα ση παράκοιτις 
ιΐυ^:^ κεκλημαι, σν οε πασυ μετ αζίανατοισιν ανασσεις. »^ 

ί^ αλλ' η τοι μεν τανθ* ύποείζομεν άΧληλοισιν^ ^ '^' ^^^Jm 

σοι μεν εγω, σν ο εμοι • επι ο εψονται υεοι άλλοι 
αθάνατοι, σν 8ε θασσον ^Kerjvairj επιτεϊλαι mtv .^^ • ^'^'^ '''^ 
65 ελθεΐν ες Ύρώων καΐ ^ Κγαιων φνλοπιν αΐνην^^"^^ ' 

πειραν δ*, ώς κε Ύρωες νπερκύΒαντας 'Αραιούς γ•^"^ 
αρζωσι πρότεροι νπερ ορκια Βηλησασθαι.^^ 
^r{[-T^\M^- ως εφατ, ούδ' άπίθησε πατήρ άντρων τε θέων τε' 
αντίκ ^ Αθηναίην επεα πτερόεντα προσηνΒα • 
70 "αΓψα /χάλ' ες στρατον ελθε μετά Ύρωας καΐ ^Αχαιονς^ 
πειραν δ*, ώς κε Ύρωες νπερκνΒαντας Αραιούς 
άρξωσι πρότεροι νπερ ορκια Βηλησασθαι.^^ .. ί^,-/*^ 

ΛίΤΑ'^^ ως ειπών ωτρννε πάρος /χε/χαυΓαι/ ^Αθηνην^ ο^ οτ^^ν»^ • ' 

βη δε κατ Ονλνμποιο καρηνων άι^ασα. ^"^ ^^^''^ 

75 οίον δ' αστέρα ηκε Κρόνον παις άγκυλομητεω^ 
η ναντησι τέρας ήε στρατω ενρει \αων^ 
λαμπρόν • τον δε τε πολλοί από σπινθήρες ΐενται • 
τω εικνΤ ηιζεν επι γθόνα Παλλάς ^Αθηνη^ — 

. j^ κ-άδ δ' εθορ* ες μεσσον ' θάμβος S* εχεν εισορόωντας 

80 Τρώας <9' ιπποΒάμονς και ενκνημι^ας * Αχαιούς • 



crr.i^oj στι'κβ «nr'x^^j (mV*s . <S>l»w«* &».»«>« f»^»^ wri /βχ^ <j1;_ i^ n^ 
'J ; diwj, -w iir«f*ves .y-piC, Wt.^'i' '7,•*"*-^; ''«Τ.»>< :«.ί^e-.JC. «V,?.», ©d.6,i• 

70 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Δ. 



ωδ€ 8e τις eineaKe:^ IScop e9 πλησίον οίλλορ • 
'^η pi* αδης πολβ/χος re κακο<ζ καΐ φνλοπυς αΐνη 
€σσ€ται, η φιλότητα μ€Τ άμφοτεροισι τίθησυν 
. Ζευς, ος τ' ανθρώπων ταμίης ποΧβμοίο Teri>/crat."|»^Wy*j 

85 ως αρα τις einecTKev Α-χ^οαων re Ύρώων re. ^^ 

τ^ δ' άι^δ^οΐ Ικελη Ύρώων κατε^ύσεθ* ομΤλον^ 
Λαοδό/ίω ΆντηνορίΒΎ)^ κρατερω αίχμητ-η^ 
TidvSapov αντίθεον ^ίζημενη, ει ττου εφενροι. 6»ιη*ο^γιτ^*6^ι 
ενρε Ανκάονος νΐον άμνμονά τε κρατερόν τε 

90 εστεώτ • αμφΐ Βε μυν κρατεροί στίχες ασπιστάων Λ^~γ, . 
\αών^ οι 0L εποντο αττ Αίσηποίο ροαων. ffu^*y. i^f^e^.^n, 
άγχον δ' Ιστάμενη επεα πτερόεντα ττροσην^α • 
"'5 ρα νύ μοί τι ττίθοιο^ Ανκάονος νΙε Βαίφρον ; 
τλαίης κεν Μενελάω επυπροεμεν ταχνν Ιόν, 
95 πασυ δβ κε Ύρώεσσι γαριν καΐ κυδος αροιο, 
εκ πάντων 8ε μάλιστα ^Αλεζάν^ρω βασίληυ. 
τον κεν δτ7 πάμπρωτα παρ* άγλαά δώρα φεροω^ 
-— ^° αΓ κεν lSt) Μενελαον άρηιον *Ατρεος νΐον 

σω βελεϊ Βμηθεντα πνρης επιβάντ άλεγε^ιή]^. 

100 αλλ' ay' οίστενσον ΉΙενεΧάον /ίυδαλι/χοιο, 
εν^εο δ' Άπόλλωι^ι λνκηγενεΧ κλντοτόζω 
r άρνών πρωτογόνων ρεξειν κλείτην εκατόμβην 

οϊκαΒε νοστησας Ιερης εΙς άστυ Ζελείης.^^ 

ως φάτ ^Αθηναίη, τω δε φρενας άφρονι πεΐθεν ' 

105 αντίκ εσνλα τόζον ευζοον Ιζαλον αίγος 

αγρίου, ον ρά ποτ αντος νπο στερνοιο τν^ιησα'ζ 
πετρης εκβαίνοντα, 8ε8εγμενος εν προΒοκΎ)σίν, 
βεβληκεί προς στήθος • 6 δ' νπτίος εμπεσε πετρτ). 
τον κέρα εκ κεφαλής εκκαιΒεκά^ωρα πεφνκειν • 

110 καΐ τα μεν άσκησας κεραοζόος ηραρε τεκτων, 
Λ παν δ' ev λείηνας γ^ρυσεην επεθηκε κορώνην. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 71 

-,,v /cat TO /xei^ ev κατ€θηκ€ ταννσσάμ^νο^;^ ποτί γαίτ] 

^^ άγκλίνας • ιτρόσθβί/ 8e σάκεα σγβθον 4σθλοΙ Ιταίροι^ 

•^ ^ μτ) πριν avat^eiav άρηωί υΓβς Ά^αιωι/, 

)ΐ(^ 115 π plu βλησθαί MeveXaov άρηιον Άτρ€ος υ16ν. μ^Λ- 

\<i~%,. αύταρ 6 σν\α πώμα φαρ€τρη<;, 6Κ δ' eXer' lou 
άβλητα πτ^ρόεντα^ μ^Καινέων ερμ^ 68νι^άωρ • 
αΐψα δ' έπΙ vevprj κατεκόσμεε πικρον οιστόν^ 
evyero δ' Άττόλλωζ/ι Χυκηγβνβί κλντοτόζω 
120 άρνών πρωτογόνων pi^eiv κλειτην εκατόμβην 
OLKaSe νοστησας Ιερης βίς άστυ Ζελείης. 
€λκ€ δ* ομον γλυφίδας re λαβών καΐ vevpa βόβυα • 
,51 V vevpTjv μεν μαζω πελασεν, τ6ζω δβ σίΒηρον. 

αύταρ επεί δτ) κνκλοτερες μέγα τόζον ετεινεν, 
125 λίγζε βίός^ νενρη 8ε μεγ* ΐα)(εν, αλτο δ' οιστος 

οζυβελης, καθ* ομυλον επιπτεσθαι μενεαίνων. «> -^, 2 

ούδε σεθεν^ Mei^eXae, θεοί μάκαρες λελάθοντο "^^^ -^^ -■ 
αθάνατο Ly πρώτη 8ε Διός θυγάτηρ άγελείη^ 
η TOL προσθε στασα βελός εχεπενκες άμννεν, 
130 Ύ] δε τόσον μεν εεργεν άπο χροός, ως δτε μητηρ 
ος ^^ργχΐ μνιαν, ου ηοει Κεςεται νπνω • 
αιττ) Ο αντ ιυυνεν^ out ζωστηρος οχηες 
χρυσειοί σννεχον καΐ δί,πλόος ηντετο θώρηξ. 
εν δ' έπεσε ζωστηρι αριηροτι πικρός 6 ιστός • 
135 δια μεν αρ ζωστηρος ελτ}λατο 8αι8αΧεοιο, 
" καΐ δια. θώρηκος ττολυδαιδάλου ηρηρειστο 
μιτρης, θ\ ην εφόρειν ερυμα χροός, ερκος άκόντωι^, 
η οι πλείστον ερντο •. διαπ/οο δε εΐσατο και της. 
άκρότατον δ' άρ' οισττος επεγραψε χρόα φωτός • 
= 140 αντίκα δ' ερρεεν αΓ/ια κελαινεφες εζ ώτειλης. 

ώς δ' οτε τις τ' ελέφαντα γννη φοινίκι μιηνγ! 1 «^^^^^ 
Μτ^οΐ'ΐς -^ε Κάειρα, παρηιον εμ/^εϊ/αι ίππων • 



72 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Δ. 

= κείται δ' iv ΘαΚάμω^ πολεβ? re μιν ηρησαντο 
Ιππη€ς φορ€€ίΐ/, βασίληυ δε κείται αγαλ/χα, 

145 άμφότερον, κόσμος θ^ Ιτητω έλατηρί τε κν8ος • 
Totot rot, Μει^ελαβ, μυάρθην αίματι μηροί 
^ εύψυεες κνημαί τε ιδε σφνρα κάλ' vnepepOep. % 

' ' /3ιγΊ7<τει^ ο αρ έπειτα αι/ας ανορων Αγαμέμνων^ 

ώς εΐδεί' μβλαρ αΓ/χα καταρρέον έζ ώτευλης • 

150 ρίγησβν δε και αύτος άρηίφιλος Μενέλαος, 
ώς δε Γδει/ νενρόν τε και όγκους έκτος εόντας, 
axpoppou οΐ θυμός ενί στηθεσσιν άγερθη. 
τοις δε βαρύ στενάγων μετεφη κρείων * Αγαμέμνων, 
^ευρος εγων ΉΙενεΧαον * επεστενά^οντο δ' εταΐρου • 

155 " φίλε κασίγνητε, θάνατον νύ τοι ορκι εταμνον, ^, 
οίοζ/ προστησας προ Ά;)(αιώϊ^ ΤρωσΙ μά)(^εσθαί • 
ώς σ' εβαλον Τρώες, κατά δ' ορκια τηστα πάτησαν, 
ου μεν πως άΧυον πελευ ορκιον αίμα τε άρνών 
σπον^αί τ άκρητοι καΐ δε^ιαι, ης επεπιθμεν, 

160 ε? περ γάρ τε και αυτίκ ^Ολύμπιος ουκ ετελεσσεν, 
εκ δε και όψε τέλει, συν τε μεγάλω άπετισαν, 
συν σφησιν κεφαλησί γυναιξί τε και τεκεεσσιν. 
ευ γάρ εγώ τό^ε οιδα κατά φρένα και κατά θυμόν • 
εσσεται ημαρ, οτ αν ποτ ολώΧη Ιλιος ιρη 

165 και ΐίριαμος και λαός ευμμελιω ΤΙριαμοίΟ, 
^ Ζευς δε σφι Κρονί^ης ύφίζυγος, αίθερι ναίων^ 

* ^ αυτός επισσείησιν ερεμνην αιγιοα πασιν 

ττ^σ-δ' απάτης κοτεων. τά /χει^ εσσεται ουκ άτελεστα• 
αλλά μοι αΐνον α^ος σεθεν εσσεται, ω Μει^ε'λαε, 

170 αι κε θάνης και πότμον άναπλησης βιότοιο. 
και κεν ελεγχ^ιστος πολυ^ίφιον '^ Αργός Ικοίμην • 
αυτίκα γάρ μνησονται Ά^αιοι πατρίδος αΐης • 
κάδ δε"^ κε?/ εύ^ωλην ΐίριάμω και ΎρωσΙ λιποιμεν 



•S 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE H^IAD. 73, 

;?>^ "^ 
*Αργ€υην Έλενην creo δ* όστεα πνσ€ί αρονρα — 

Vlh κ€ΐμ4νου Ιν Ύροίτ) άτελευτητω έπΙ έργω. ~^- ■ , — 

/cat κί Τ69 ωδ' epea Ύρώων υττερηνο ρεόντων^ \>λμ^ 

τύμβω Ιττιθρώσκων M.eve\aov κνΒαλίμοίο ' 

' αΐθ* ουτωζ inl πάσι χόλον TeXeaet Άγαμεμυων, — 

ώς και νυν αΧιον στρατον ηγαγεν ivOdS* Άχ^αίών^ 
180 καΙ 8η €βη OLKovSe φίλην e? πατρίδα γαια^ ^ - 

συν Keivrjaiv νηυσί, λιπών αγαθόν MeveXaov.^ J 

ως ποτ€ τις epeet* τοτβ μου γανοι ευρεία χυων, Ρ^ ^*— 

Μ^ ' Ν τοι/ δ' επιθαρσύνων προσεφη ξανθός Μενέλαος • 

" θάρσει^ μηΒε τι ττω ΒειΒίσσεο λαον ^Κγαιων. " \ 

185 ουκ εν καιρίω οξυ ποίγη βελος^ άλλα πάροιθεν — 

είρύσατο ζωστηρ τε παναίολος η8* ύπενερθεν 

ζώμά τε καΐ μίτρη^ την -χ^αλκηες κάμον άν^ρες^ 
τον δ' άπαμειβόμενος προσεφη κρείων * Αγαμέμνων 

" αί γαρ δτ) οϋτως εϊτ]^ φίλος ω Mei^eXae • 
190 έλκος δ' Ιητηρ εττιμάσσεται τ^δ* εττιθήσει ~^ 

φάρμα^^ α κεν παύσησί μελαινάων ο^υνάων.^^ 
•y;. η καΐ Ύαλθύβιον θείον κήρυκα προσηύ8α • 

" Ύαλθύβί*^ OTTL τάγιστα Μαγαονα 8ευρο καλεσσον^ 

φωτ ^Ασκληπιού υΐον άμύμονος Ιητηρος^ 
195 οφρα lStj Μενελαον άρηιον Άτρεος υίόν, 

δν τίς οιστεύσας εβαλεν τόξων ευ εΙΒώς, 

Ύρώων η Αυκίων^ τω μεν κλέος, άμμι δε ττενθος.^^ 
ως εφατ, ούδ' αρα οΐ κήρυξ άπίθησεν άκουσας, 

βη δ* Ιεναι κατά λαον Ά-χ^αιων χαλκοχιτώνων 
200 παπταίνων ήρωα Μαχάονα. τον δε νόησεν 

εστεωτ • άμφΐ 8ε μιν κρατεροί στίγες άσπιστάων 

λαών, οι οΐ εποντο Ύρικης εξ Ιπποβότοίο. 

άγχου δ' Ιστάμενος επεα πτερόεντα προσηύΒα • 

^^ορσ*, ^Ασκληπιά^η, καλεευ κρείων ^Αγαμέμνων, 



74 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Δ. 

205 οφρα lSjj MeveXaop άρψον άργον Ά;^αιώ^', 
ον Tis OLorrevaa^ efiaXep τόζων έύ elSos, 
Ύρώων η Ανκίων^ τω μεν /cXeo9, α /A/xt 8e πετ^ος." λ 

ως φάτο^ τω δ* αρα θνμον iu\ στηθΕσσιν opivev • 
βαν δ' livcLi καθ* ομιΚον αν α στρατού evpvv ^Αχ^αιων. 

210 αλλ' οτ€ Srj ρ ϊκανον, οθι ζανθος Μενέλαος -^^ 

βλημενος ην, πβρί δ* αντον άγηγ€ραθ\ οσσοι άριστοι^ 
/cυ/cλόcΓ', 6 δ* iv μεσσοισί παρίστατο Ισόθεος φως, 
αντίκα δ* €Κ ζωστηρος άρηρότος iXKCv οιστόν • 
του δ* έζελκομενοίο παλυν αγβν οζεβς όγκοι. 

215 \νσε δβ οι ζωστήρα παναίολον ^δ* vnevepOev — 

ζωμά Τ€ καΐ μίτρην, την ^(^αλκηες κάμον άνδρες, 
αντάρ eVel ISev έλκος, 6Θ' εμπεσε πικρός οιστός, 
αίμ! εκμνζησας €7γ' άρ* ήπια φάρμακα εΙΒώς 
πασσε, τα οι ποτέ πατρι φίλα φρονεων πόρε Ιίείρων. 

220 οφρα τοί άμφεπενοντο βοην αγαθόν Μενελαον, 
τόφρα δ' επΙ Ύρώων στίγες ηλνθον άσπιστάων • 
οι δ' αυτις κατά τενχε iSvv, μνησαντο δε γαρμης. '^ 

ενθ^ ουκ αν βρίζοντα ιδοί,ς ^Αγαμέμνονα hlov 
ούδε καταπτώσσοντ ούδ' ουκ εθελοντα μάχεσθαι, 

225 αλλά μάλα σπεύΒοντα μάχτην ες κυ^ιάνειραν. 

Ιππους μεν γαρ εασε και άρματα ποικίλα γαλκω • 
και τους μεν θεράπων άπάνευθ^ εγε φυσιόωντας 
Έίύρυμε8ων υίος ΤΙτολεμαίου YleipaiSao, 
τω /χαλά πόλλ επετελλε παρισγεμεν, οππότε κεν μιν 

230 γυΐα λάβη κάματος πολεας δια κοιρανεοντα * 
αυτάρ 6 πεζός εων επεπωλείτο στίγας άντρων, 
καί ρ ους μεν σπεύδοντας iSoi Δαϊ/αώζ/ ταχυπώλων, 
τους μάλα θαρσύνεσκε παριστάμενος επεεσσιν • ,^^ 

" 'A/3y€tot, μη πω τι μεθίετε θονριΒος άλκης • ' 

235 ου γαρ επι φευΒεσσι πατήρ Ζευς εσσετ αρωγός, 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE Π.ΙΑΌ. . 75 

- αλλ' οϊ Trep πρότεροι ύπερ ορκυα ^ηλησαρτο^ 
των η TOL αυτών τερενα χρόα γνπε^; εΒονταί^ 
ηfxεϊs oiVT άλογους τε φιλάς καΐ νήπια τέκνα 
άζομεν εν νήεσσιν^ επην πτολίεθρον ελωμεν.^^ 

240 ους τινας αυ μεθιεντας Γδοι στυΎερου πολεμοιο^ 
[*^^^ - τους μάλα νεικείεσκε χολωτοΐσιν επεεσσιν • 
"'Apyetoi Ιομωροι^ ελεγχεες^ ου νυ σεβεσθε; 
■^ τίφΘ^ ούτως εστητε τεθηπότες ήύτε νεβροί^ 
αΐ τ επεί ουν εκαμον πολεος πε^ίουο θεουσαι^ 

245 εστασ^ ούδ' αρα τις σφι μετά φρεσι γιγνεται άλκη' 
ως ύμείς εστητε τεθηπότες ού8ε μάγεσθε. 
η μένετε Ύρωας σχεδόν εΚθεμεν^ ένθα τε νηες 
V/^v»*^^ ei /ουατ' εΰπρυμνοι πολιης επΙ θινί θαλάσσης^ 

^ , οφρα Γδτ^τ', αΓ κ ΰμμιν υπερσχτ} χείρα Κρονιων;^^ 

250 ως ο γε κοιρανεων επεπωλεϊτο στίχας άντρων, 
ήλθε δ* επΙ Κρητεσσι κιων άνα ούλαμον άνΒρων • 
= οι δ' άμφ" Ί8ομενηα 8αιφρονα θωριησσοντο • 
Ί8ομενευς μεν ενί προμάχοις, συϊ εΐκελος aXKijvy 
Μηριόνης δ* αρα οι πυμάτας ώτρυνε φάλαγγας. 

255 τους 8ε ίδώι/ γηθησεν άναζ άν8ρών Αγαμέμνων, 
αυτίκα δ' ^Ι^ομενηα προσηύΒα μειλι^^οισιν • 
" ^ΐ8ομενευ, περί μεν σε τίω Δαι/αώζ^ Ταχυπώλων 
ημεν ενΙ πτολεμω η8' άλλοίω επί έργω 
τ^δ' εν 8αίθ\ οτε περ τε γερούσιον αϊθοπα οίνον 

260 Άργείων οι άριστοι ενΙ κρητηρι κερωνται • 

ει περ γάρ τ άλλοι γε κάρη κομόωντες Ά^αιοΙ 
Βαιτρον πίνωσιν^ σον δβ πλ^Γοι^ δεπας αΐ€ΐ 
εστηχ, ως περ e/xot, πιββιι^, οτε θυμός άνώγγ). 
αλλ' ορσευ πολεμόν8', οΐος πάρος eu^eat elj/at." 

265 τον δ' αυτ"' ^ΐ8ομενευς Κρητων άγος άντίον ηϋ8α• 
" *Ατρει8η, μάλα μεν το ι εγων εριηρος εταΐρος 



76 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Δ. 

€σσομαι^ ως το πρώτον νπίστην καΧ κατ4ν^νσα • 
αλλ' άλλους oTpvve κάρη κομόωρτας Ά^αιους, 
οφρα τάχιστα μαχώμβθ^ iwel σνν y ορκι i^evav 

270 Tpcoes ' τοίσιν δ' αν θάνατος καΐ κηΒβ οπίσσω 
^v/trcrer', €7Γ€ι πρότεροι νπβρ ορκια δτ^λτ^σαι/το." j 

ως €φατ^ Άτρ€ι8ης Se παρωγετο γηθόσννος κηρ. 
ήλθε δ' €π' Αχάντεσσι κιων ανά ονλαμον άντρων • 
τω δε κορυσσεσθην, άμα δε νέφος εΐπετο πεζών. 

275 ως δ' δτ^ άπο σκοπιης εΐ8εν νέφος αΐπόλος άνηρ 
^ρχομενον κατά πόντον υπο Ζεφύροιο Ιωης • 
τω 8ε τ άνενθεν εόντι μελάντερον ηντε πίσσα 
φαίνετ Ιον κατά πόντον^ άγει δε τε λαίλαπα πολλην 
ρίγησεν τε 18ών υπό τε σπεος ηλασε μήλα• 

280 τοιαι άμ Αΐάντεσσι Βυοτρεφεων αίζηών 

StJlov ες πόλεμον πυκίναί κίνυντο φάλαγγες 
κνάν^αί^ σάκεσίν τε κα\ εγχεσι πεφρικνίαι. 
κα\ τους μεν γηθησεν 18ών κρείων ^ Αγαμέμνων^ 
και σφεας φωνησας επεα πτερόεντα προσην8α • 

285 " Αΐαντ^ Άργείων ηγητορε γαλκογιτώνων^ 

σφώι μεν ου γάρ εοικ οτρννεμεν^ ου τι κελεύω • 
αύτώ γάρ /χαλά λαον άνώγετον Τφί μάγεσθαι, 
at γαρ^ Ζευ τε πάτερ και ^ΚΟιηναίτι κα\ Απολλον, 
τοΊος πάσιν θυμός ενί στηθεσσυ γένοιτο - 

290 τω κε τάχ ημύσειε πόλις ΤΙριάμοιο ανακτος 

γερσίν υφ^ ημετερ-ησιν άλουσά τε περθομενη τε." 

ως εΙπών τους μεν λίπεν αύτου, βη δε μετ άλλους 
ενθ* δ γε ^εστορ^ ετετμε, λιγυν ΤΙυλίων άγορητ'ην, 
ους ετάρους στελλοντα καΐ οτρύνοντα )ΐιά;^€σ^αι 

295 άμφί μεγαν ΐίελάγοντα Άλάστορά τε Χ,ρομιον τε 
Αιμονά τε κρείοντα Έίαντά τε ποιμένα λαών. 
ιπττηας μεν πρώτα συν ιπποισιν και ογεσφιν, 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 77 

πεζούς δ* έξόπίθε στησβρ πολεας τ€ και Ισθλούς, 
ερκος βμβρ ττο\4μοιο • κακούς δ* ές μέσσον ελασσεν^ 

300 οφρα καΧ ουκ ίθεΧων τις άναγκαΐΎ} πολβμίζοί. 
Ιπττευσιν μεν ττρωτ επβτελλβτο • τους γαρ άνώγειν 
σφονς Ιππους ε^εμεν μη8ε κλονεεσθαι ομίλω • 
"/Ατ/δε 719 Ιπποσυντ) τε καΐ ήρορεηφί πεποιθως 
οίος πρόσθ* άλλων μεμάτω Ύρώεσσι μάγεσθαι^ 

305 μη^^ άναγωρείτω • άλαπα^νότεροι yap εσεσθε. 
ος θ€ κ ανηρ απο ων ογεων ετερ αρμαυ ικηταυ^ 
εγγει ορεζάσθω^ επεί η πολύ φερτερον όντως. 
ωδε /cat οι πρότεροι πολιάς και τείγ^ επόρθεον^ 
τόνΒε νόον καΐ Θνμον ενι στηθεσσιν εγοντες^ 

310 ως ο γέρων ωτρυνε πάλαι πολέμων εύ ειδώς. 
και τον μεν γηθησεν ι8ών κρείων ^ Αγαμέμνων^ 
και μιν φωνηαας επεα πτερόεντα προσηνΒα • 
" ώ γερον, είθ*^ ως θυμός ενι στιηθεσσι φίλοισιν 
ως τοι γούναθ^ εποιτο, βίη δε' rot ε/χπεδος είτ]. 

315 άλλα σε γήρας τειρει ομοίιον • ως οφελεν τις 

avSpcov άλλος εχειν^ σύ δε κουροτεροισι μετεΙναιΓ 
J τον δ* ήμείβετ έπειτα ΤερηίΊος Ιππότα Νέστωρ • 

"Άτ/3είδ7;, μάλα μεν κεν εγων εθελοιμι και αύτος 
ως εμεν^ ως οτε hlov Έρευθαλιωνα κατεκταν, 

320 άλλ' ου πως άμα πάντα θεοί Soaav άνθρωπο ισιν • 
ει τότε κούρος εα, νυν αϋτε με γήρας οπαζει. 
άλλα καΐ ως ίππεΟοΊ μετεασομαι τ^δε κελευσ-ω 
βονλτ) καΐ μύθοισι • το γαρ γέρας εστί γερόντων. 
αί;^/οιάς δ* αίχμάσσουσι νεώτεροι^ οι περ εμείο 

325 οπλότεροι γεγάασι πεποίθασίν τε βίηφιν.^^ 

ως εφατ\ ΆτρειΒης δε παρωγετο γηθόσυνος κηρ. 
ευ ρ υΐον Πετεώο Μενεσθηα πληξιππον 
εστεωτ • άμφι δ' ^ ΚθηναΖοι^ μηστωρες άυτης • 



78 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Δ. 

ανταρ 6 π\η(τίορ έστηκευ ποΧνμητι^ 'Οδυσσεύς, 

330 παρ δε Κεφαλληι^ωρ άμφΐ στίχε^; ουκ άλαπα^ροί 
εστασαρ • ου γαρ πώ σφιν ακούετο λαός άυτ%, 
άλλα veov συνορίνόμεναι κίνυντο φάλαγγες 
Ύρώωρ ίπποΒάμωρ καΐ Ά^αιώϊ/, οΐ δε μένοντες 
εοΓτασαν^ οππότε πύργος Α^αιώί/ άλλος επελθών 

335 Ύρωων ορμησειε καΐ αρ^ειαν πο\εμοιο. 

τους δε 18ων νείκεσσεν άι^α^ άντρων ^ Αγαμέμνων^ 
και σφεας φωρησας επεα πτερόεντα προσηύ^α • 
" ω υΙε ΐίετεωο 8υοτρεφεος βασυληος 
καΐ συ κακοίσι δολοισι κεκασμενε, κερ8αλε6φρον, 

340 τίπτε καταπτώσσοντες άφεστατε^ μίμνετε δ' άλλους ; 
σφώίν μεν τ επεοικε μετά πρώτοισιν εόντας 
εστάμεν τ^δε μάχης καυστείρης άντίβολησαί' 
πρώτω γαρ καΐ δαιτος άκουάζεσθον εμεΐο, 
οππότε δαΓτα γερουσιν εφοπλίζωμερ Ά^γαιοι. 

345 ένθα φίλ^ οπταλεα κρεα ε8μεναί ή^ε κύπελλα 
οϊνου πινεμεναυ μελυηΒεος^ όφρ* εθελητον 
νυν δε φίλως χ ορόωτε^ καΐ εΐ 8εκα πύργοι \\)(αίων 
υμείων προπάροιθε μαγοίατο νηλει ^αλκω." 
τον δ* άρ' ύπό^ρα Ι8ων προσεφη πολύμητις ^OSυσ^σεύς • 

350 " ^ΑτρεΐΒη, ποίον σε έπος φύγεν ερκος οδόντων, 
πώς 8ύ) φης πολεμοιο μεθιεμεν ; οπποτ 'Λ^αιοι 
ΎρωσΧν εφ' Ιππο^άμοισιν εγειρομεν οζυν "Αρτ^α, 
οψεαι, Ύ^ν εθελτισθα και αϊ κεν του τα μεμηλγ), 
Ύηλεμάχοίο φιλον πάτερα προμάγοισι μιγεντα 

355 Ύρώων Ιππο^άμων • συ δε ταυτ^ άνεμωλια βάζεις^ 
τον δ' επιμευ^ησας προσεφη κρείων Αγαμέμνων, 
ώς γνώ γωομενοιο • πάλιν δ' ο γε λάζετο μυθον • 
"διογει^ες Ααερτιά^η, πολυμηχαν Όδυσ-σ-ευ, 
ούτε σε νεικείω περιώσιον ούτε κελεύω * 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 79 

360 οίδα ydp•, ω? τοί θυμός ivl στηθεσσι φίΧοισιν 
ήπια hiji'ea oI8e • τα γαρ φρον4ζ.ι<ζ, α τ εγώ irep. 
αλλ' Ιθι^ ταύτα δ' όπισθεν άρβσσόμβθ^ el τι κακόν νυν 
εΐρηται^ τα δε πάντα θεοί μεταμώνια θβΐεν^ 

ως εΙπων τους μεν λίπεν αυτοί), βη δε μετ άλλους. 

365 edpe δε Τυδεος υΐον υπερθυμον Διο/^τ^δεα 

ίστεωτ iv θ* Ιπποισι καΧ άρμασι κολλητοίσιν • 
παρ δε οι ίστηκει Χθενβλος Καπανηιος υιός. 
καΐ τον μεν νείκεσσεν Ι^ων κρείων ^Αγαμεμνων^ 
και μιν φωνήσας επεα πτερόεντα προσηύΒα* 

370 " ώ μοι, Τυδεος υίε Βαΐφρονος ιππο8άμοιο, 

TL πτώσσεις^ τι δ' όπιπευεις πόλεμο ιο γέφυρας; 
ου μεν Τυδει γ' ωδε φίλον πτωσκαζεμεν ηεν^ 
άλλα πολύ προ φίλων ετάρων 8ηίοισι μά^εσθαι. 
ως φάσαν, οι μιν ιΒοντο πονεύμενον • ου γαρ εγώ γε 

375 ηντησ* ούδε ΐ8ον • περί δ' άλλων φασί γενέσθαι, 
η τοι μεν γαρ άτερ πολέμου εισήλθε Μ.υκηνας 
ζεϊνος άμ άντιθεω Ιίολυνείκεϊ^ λαον άγείρων, 
οι ρα τότ εστρατόωνθ* ιερά προς τείγεα θηβης. 
και ρα μάλα λίσσοντο 8όμεν κλειτους επικούρους • 

380 οΐ δ' εθελον δό/χεί^αι καΐ επΎ}νεον, ως εκελευον ' 
αλλά Ζευς έτρεφε παρ αίσια σήματα φαίνων. 
οι δ' ε'πει ουν ωγοντο ιδε προ όδου εγενοντο, 
^Ασωπον δ' ΐκοντο βαθύσγοινον λεγεποίην^ 
ενθ* αυτ άγγελυην επι Ύυ^η στεΐλαν ^Αγαιοί. 

385 αυτάρ 6 βη, πολεας δε κιγιησατο Καδ/Αεΐωι^ας 
Βαινυ μένους κατά 8ώμα βίης 'Έτεοκληείης. 
ενθ* ούδε ^εΓ^^ος περ εών ιππηλάτα ΎυΒευς 
τάρβει, μουνος εών πολεσιν μετά ΚαΒμείοισιν, 
αλλ' ο γ* άεθλεύειν προκαλίζετο, πάντα δ' ενίκα 

390 ρηι^ίως • τοίη ot επίρροθος ηεν ^Αθηνη. 



80 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Δ. 

οΐ δε -χοΧωσάιχβΐΌΐ Ka8ju,etoc, κ€ΡΤορες Ιππωρ^ 
άψ αρ' αν€ργομ4νω πνκινον \6γον εΐσαν άγοντβς, 
κούρους ττεντηκοντα • δυω δ* ηγήτορες ήσαν, 
Μαιωι^ Αίμορβης eViet/ceXo? αθανάτοισιν 

395 υιός τ Αντοφονοιο μερβπτόλβμος ΐίολνφόντης. 
Τυδεύς μεν καί τοίσιν άεικεα ττότμον βφηκερ • 
πάρτας €πεφν\ ενα δ' οΧον ϊει οΐκόν^ε νεεσθαι • 
Matoi'* αρα προεηκε, θέων τεράεσσι πυθησας. 
τοΐος εην Τυδεύς Αΐτώλως • άλλα τον νΐον 

400 γεινατο εΐο χερηα μοίχτ], ^J^pfl ^^ ''"* οίμείνω.^^ 

ως φάτο, τον δ' ον τι ττροσεφη κρατερός Αιομη^ης^ 
αΙΒεσθεΙς βασυληος ενιττην αιδοιοιο. 
τον δ* νιος Καπανηος αμεί\\ιατο κυΒαλίμοιο • 
"Άτρειδτ;, μη ψευδέ' επισταμένος σάφα εΙπεΐν. 

405 ημείς τοι πάτερων μεγ* άμείνονες ευγόμεθ^ είναι • 
ημείς κα\ Θηβης ε8ος εΐλομεν επταπύλοίο, 
πανρότερον λαοζ^ άγαγόνθ^ ύπο τεΙ)(^ος αρειον, 
πειθόμενοι τεράεσσι θέων καΧ Ζτ^ι^ος άρωγη • 
κείνοι δε σφετερησιν άτασθα\ίησιν ολοντο. 

410 τω μη μοι πατέρας ποθ* ομοίη ενθεο τι/χτ^." 

τον δ' άρ' νποδρα Ihcov προσεφη κρατερός Αιομη8ης • 
" τεΥτα, σιωπή ηοΌ^ εμω δ' επιπείθεο μνθω. 
ου γαρ εγω νεμεσω Άγαμεμνονι ποιμενι λαών 
οτρύνοντι μά)(^εσθαι ευκνημώας ^Αχαιούς' 

415 τούτω μεν γαρ κυΒος άμ εψεται, ει κεν Ά^αίοι 
Τρώας ^ηώσωσιν ελωσι τε '^Ιλιον Ιρην, 
τούτω δ' αυ μέγα πένθος Ά;)(αιώι/ 8ηωθεντων. 
αλλ* αγε 8η καΐ νωι μεΒώμεθα θούρι8ος όΧκης.^^ 
η ρα καΐ εζ ο^εων συν τεύχ^εσιν άλτο ^αρ,αζε • 

420 δειι^όι^ δ' εβραγε χαλκός επί στηθεσσιν άνακτος 
ορνυμενου • υπό κεν ταλασίφρονά περ δέος εϊλεν. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 81 

ώς δ' 6τ* iv αίγυαλω ποΧυη^€ΐ κνμα θαλάσσης 
ορνυτ έπασσντβρον Ζέφυρου ϋπο κυνησαντος • 
πόντω μεν re πρώτα κορύσσβταυ^ αυταρ έπειτα 

425 γέρσω ρηγνύμ^ενον μβγάλα βρ€μ€ί, άμφΐ δε τ άκρας 
κυρτον Ιον κορυφουταί, άποτττύεί δ' αλός άχνηρ • 
ως τότ έπασσύτβραυ Δαι/αώζ^ κινυντο φάλαγγες 
νωλβμεως πολε/χόί/δε. κέλευε δε οΐσιρ έκαστος 
'ηγεμόνων ' οι δ' άλλοι άκην ισαν, ούδε κε φαί-ης 

430 τόσσον λαον επεσθαυ εχοντ εν στηθεσυν αύ^ην^ 
σ-ιγτ}, δειδιότες σημάντορας • άμφΐ δε ττάσιν 
τεύγεα ποικιλ' έλαμπε^ τα είμενοι εστιγρωντο. 
Ύρωες δ', ως τ οίες πολυπάμονος άνΒρος εν αύλγι 
μυρίαί εστηκασιν άμελγόμεναι γάλα λευκον 

435 άζτ^^ες μεμακυΐαυ, άκούουσαυ οπα άρνων^ 

ως Ύρώων άλαλητος ανά στρατον ευρυν ορώρειν • 
ου γαρ πάντων ηεν ομος θρόος ούδ* Γα γηρυς, 
άλλα γλωσσ εμεμυκτο, πολύκλητοί δ' εσαι^ α^^δρες. 
ωρσε δε τους μεν 'Άρης, τους δε γλαυ/ίώττις Άθηνη 

440 Δει/χός τ τ^δε Φο;8ος καΐ ^Ερις άμοτον μεμαυία, 
'Άρεος άνΒροφόνοίο κασιγνητη ετάρη τε, 
Ύ) τ ολιγη μεν ττρώτα κορύσσεταυ, αυταρ έπειτα 
ου ράνω εστηριζε κάρη και επΙ χθονι ^βαίνει. 
Ύ) σφιν και τότε νείκος ομοίιον εμβαλε μεσσω 

445 ερχόμενη καθ* ομιλον, όφελλουσα στόνον άνΒρωρ, 
οι δ' οτε 8η ρ' ες γωρον ενα ζυνιόντες ικοντο, 
συν /$' εβαλον ρινούς, συν δ' εγγεα καΐ μένε' άνΒρών 
^αλκεοθωρηκων • άτάρ άσπιλες όμφαλόεσσαι 
επληντ άλληλησι, πολύς δ' ορυμαγδός ορώρειν. 

450 εϊ^^α δ' άμ* οιμωγή τε και εύ^^ωλη πελεν άν8ρων 
ολλύντων τε καΐ ολλυμενων, ρεε δ* αϊματι γαία» 
ως δ' οτε χείμαρροι ποταμοί κατ όρεσφι ρέοντες 



S2 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Δ. 

C9 ^LcrydyKeLav ζυμβάλλετον οβριμον ν8ωρ 
κρουνών €Κ μεγάλων κουλής ερτοσθε χ^αράΒρης • 

455 τώι/ δε Τ€ τηλ6σ€ Sovnov Ιν ουρεσιν ίκλυβ ττουμηρ • 
ως των μυσγομενων yivero ιαχή re ττονος re. 

πρώτος δ' ^ Αντίλογος Ύρώων ikev dvSpa κορνστην 
έσθλον ivl προμάγοιαι^ (ΒαλνοΊα^ην ^Εχ^ζπωλον • 
τόν ρ" εβαλβ πρώτος κόρυθος φάλον Ιπποδασβίης, 

460 iv δε μετώπω πηζβ, π4ρησ€ δ' ά/ο' οστέον εΓσω 
οίίχμη χαλκβίη * τον δε σκότος οσσε κάλνφεν, 
ηριπβ δ', ώς δτβ πύργος^ ivl κρατερτ) υσμίνγ}. 
τον δε πεσόντα πο8ών έλαβε κρείων Έλεφηνωρ 
Χαλκω8οντυά8ης^ μεγάθυμων άρχος ^Αβάντων^ 

465 έλκε δ' ύπεκ βελεων λελυημενος, όφρα τάχιστα 
τεύχεα συλησειε • μίνυνθα δε οΐ γενεθ^ ^PH'V ' 
νεκρον yap ρ ερύοντα Ι8ών μεγάθυμος *Αγηνωρ 
πλευράς τά οί κύφαντυ παρ* άσπίΒος εζεφαάνθη^ 
ουτησε ξυστώ χαλκηρεϊ^ λύσε δε γυΐα, 

470 ως τον μεν λίπε θυμος^ εττ' αύτω δ' έργον ετύχθη 
άργαλεον Ύρώων καΐ Ά^αιώϊ/ • οΐ δε λύκου ως 
αλλήλους επόρουσαν^ άνηρ δ' avSp' εΒνοπάλυζεν. 
ενθ* εβαλ' ^ Ανθεμίωνος υΐον Ύελαμώνυος Αίας, 
ηίθεον θαλερον %υμοείσυον, 6ν ποτέ μητηρ 

^7δ'^ΐ8ηθεν κατιούσα παρ 6χθΎ)συν %υμόεντος 

γείνατ^ επεί ρα τοκευσιν άμ εσπετο μήλα ΙΖεσθαι • 
τούνεκά μιν κάλεον ^ιμοείσιον • ούδε τοκευσιν 
θρεπτρα φίλους άττεδωκε, μυνυνθά^υος δε ου αυών 
επλεθ' υπ* Αυαντος μεγάθυμου 8ουρΙ Βαμεντυ. 

480 πρώτον γάρ μυν Ιόντα βάλε στήθος παρά μαζον 
Βεζυόν, άντυκρυς δε δι' ώμου χάλκεον εγχος 
ηλθεν • ό δ' εζ^ κονυϊ]συ χαμαΐ πεσεν αίγειρος ώς, 
Ύ) ρά τ εν εΐαμεντ) έλεος μεγάλουο πεφυκΎ) 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 83 

XeiT/, άτάρ re ol όζοι 4π άκροτάττ) πεφυασιρ • 

485 την μ€ν θ" άρματοπηγος άρηρ αίθωνι σιΒηρω 
efera/x', οφρα ιτνν κάμ^τ) περυκαΧλευ Βίφρω • 
η μέν τ αζομενη κείται ποταμοίο τταρ ο^θας, 
τοίον άρ^ ^ Ανθεμ&ην ^ιμοείσιον εξενάριζεν 
Αίας ^ιο-γενη'ζ. τον δ' 'Άντιφο^ αίολοθώρηζ 

^ΟΟΐΙριαμιΒης καθ* ομιΚον άκόντισεν 6ζ4ι SovpC' 

τον μεν αμαρθ\ 6 δε Κενκον Όδυσσεος εσθλον εταΐρον 
βεβληκει βονβωνα νεκνν ετερωσ ερνοντα • 
ηρυπε δ' άμφ^ αύτω, νεκρός δε οί έκπεσε χειρός. 
τον δ' Όδυσεύς μάλα θνμον άποκταμενοιο γ^οΧώθη, 

495 βη δε δια ττρομάγων κεκορνθμενος αίθοπι γαΧκω^ 
στη δε /χάλ* εγγνς Ιών, καΙ ακόντισε Sovpl φαεινω 
άμφΐ ε παπτηνας. νπο δε Τρώες κεκά8οντο 
άνΒρος άκοντίσσαντος. 6 δ' ονχ^ αλιον βέλος ηκεν, 
αλλ νιον ΐίριάμοιο νόθον βάλε Αημοκόωντα, 

500 6ς οι ΆβνΒόθεν ήλθε, παρ* ίππων ώκειάων ' 

τον ρ ΌΒνσενς εταροιο γολωσάμενος βάλε Sovpi 
κόρσην Ύ) δ' ετεροιο δια κροτάφοιο περησεν 
αΙχμη χ^αλκείη • τον δε σκότος όσσε κάλνφεν, 
οονπησεν δε πεσών, άράβησε δε τευ^ε* εττ' αντω. 

505 χώρησαν δ' νπό τε πρόμαχοι και φαιΒιμος "ΈίΚτωρ • 
Άργειοι δε μέγα ϊαχον, ερνσαντο δε νεκρούς, 
Γ^υ<ται/ δε πολν προτερω. νεμεσησε δ' ^Απόλλων 
ΐίεργάμον εκκατιΒών, Ύρώεσσι δε κεκλετ άνσας • 
^^όρννσθ\ ιππόΒαμοι Ύρώες, /χτ^δ' εικτετε χάρμης 

510 ^Αργείοις, επεί ου σφι λίθος χρως ούδε σίδηρος 
χαλκον άι/ασ-;ΐ(;εσ^αι, ταμεσίχροα βαλλομενοισιν. 
ον μάν ούδ' Ά^^ιλεύς Θέτιδος παις ηνκόμοιο 
μάρναται, αλλ' ε'ττι νηυσΐ χόλον ^ί7/;ΐαλγεα πεσσει." 
ως φάτ' άπο πτολιος δείί^ος ^εός • αυτάρ Άχαιοΐίς 



84 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Δ. 

515 ωρσε Διός θυγάτηρ κυλιστή TptroyeVcta, 
ίρ^ομέντ) καθ^ ομίλορ^ οθΐ μεθίβντας Γδοιτο. 

€ρΘ* ΆμαρυγκείΒηρ Διώρεα μοίρα π^ησ€Ρ • 
γζ,ρμα^ίω γαρ βλητο πάρα σφνρον οκριόεντι 
κρημην ^εξιτερηρ • βάΚε δε €>ρΎ]κωρ άγος άρ^ρωρ^ 

520 ΤΙείροος *1μβρασί8ηζ^ ος αρ* Αίροθερ είληλονθείρ • 
άμφοτερω δε τεροντε καΧ οστεα λαας αραι^Ύ]<; 
αχρις άπηλοίησερ • 6 δ' νπτίος ερ KOPirjaLP 
κάππεσερ, άμφω χεΓρε φίλοις ετάροισι πετάσσας, 
υυμορ αποπρειωρ, ο ο επεοραμερ, ο<ζ ρ εραΚερ περ, 

525 Πεφοος, ουτα δε Sovpl παρ* ομφαλόρ • εκ δ' άρα πασαι 
^(VPTO γ^αμαΐ ^ολάδες, τοι/ δε (ΤΑίότος θ(τσ*ε κάλυψε^, 
τοϊ/ δε Θόας Αιτωλός άπεσσύμενορ βάλε Sovpl 
στερρορ νπερ μαζοΐο, παγη δ' ερ ττρεύμορι ^αλ/οός. 
ά•γγίμο\ορ δε ot τ^λ^ε Θόας, εκ δ' οβριμορ εγχ^ος 

530 εσπάσατο στερροιο, ερνσσατο δε ζίφος of ύ, 

τω ο γε γαστέρα τνφε μεσηρ^ εκ δ' αΐρυτο θυμόρ. 
τεΰ^εα δ' ού /c άπε'δυσ'ε • περίστησαρ γαρ εταίροι 
%ρηίκες άκρόκομοί δολι^* ^ΎΧ^^ χερσίρ εχ^ορτες, 
οι ε μεγαρ περ εόρτα καΐ ΐφθίμορ και άγανορ 

535 ωσαρ άπο ^φειωρ • 6 δε )(ασσάμερος ττε\εμίγθη. 
ως τω γ' εζ^ Kopirjai παρ* άλληλοισι τετάσθηρ^ 
η τοι 6 μερ SpjjKiOP^ 6 δ' ΈτΓειώι^ γαΚκογιτώρωρ 
ηγεμορες • πολλοί δε περικτειρορτο και άλλοι, 
ερθα κερ ουκετι εργορ άρηρ ορόσαιτο μετελθώρ^ 

540 ος τις ετ' άβλητος και άνοντατος όζει χαλκω 
8ΐρενοι κατά μεσσορ^ άγοι Si ε Παλλάς *Αθηρη 
χειρός έλουσα, άταρ ββλεωρ άπερνκοι ερωηρ • 
πολλοί γαρ Ύρώωρ και *Αχαιώρ ηματι κειρφ 
πρηρεες ερ κορίτσι παρ" άλλτ^λοισι τέταρτο. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 85 



OMHPOT ΙΑΙΑΔΟ2: E, 



EZ • βά\λ€ΐ KvOfpeiav "Aprjct re TvSeoy vlos. 

El Venerem et Martem Diomedis tela cruentant. 

' In Epsilon, Heaven's blood is shed 
By sacred rage of Diomed.' 

ΑίομηΒονς αριστεία. 



evO^ αν Τυδεΐδτ^ AtojiiT^Set Παλλάς ^Αθηνη 
8(ύΚ€ /χείλος καΐ θάρσος, Ιν έκδηλος μετά ττασιν 
^ KpyetoLai yeuoiTo ιδε κλέος εσθλον αροιτο. 
δαΓε οΐ εκ κόρνθός τε /cat άσπιδος άκάματον πυρ^ 
5 αστερ οπωρινω εναλίγκιον^ ος τε μαΚιστα 
λαμπροί' τταμφαιμΎΐσυ λελονμεΐΌς 'il/ceaiOto • 
τοΐορ οΐ πυρ Βαΐερ από κράτος τε καΐ ωμων^ 
ωρ(τε οε μιν κατά μεσσον^ οθι πλείστοι κλονεοντο. 
Tjv δε τις εν Ύρώεσσι Αάρης άφνειος αμνμων, 

10 [ρενς Ήφαίστοίο • δυω δε"^ οί νίεες ηστην^ 
Φηγενς ΊδαΓος τε, μάχης εν εΐ^ότε πάσης • 
τώ οί άποκρινθεντε εναντιω ορμηθητην • 
τω μεν άή) ϊπποιιν^ q δ' από γθονος ωρνντο πεζός, 
οΐ ο οτε ^η σχεδόν τ^σαν επ* άλληλοισιν Ιόντες^ 

15 Φηγενς ρα πρότερος προΐει Βολιχόσκιον εγχος • 
Τυδεΐδεω δ* νπερ ωμον άριστερον ηλνθ* άκωκη 
εγχεος^ όύδ' εβαλ* αντόν. 6 δ' νστερος ωρνντο χαλκω 
ΎνΒείΒης • τον δ' ονχ άλιον βέλος εκφνγε χειρός^ 
αλλ έβαλε στήθος μεταμάζυον^ ωσε δ* άφ* Ιππων, 



86 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Ε. 

20 ΊδαΓο9 δ' άπόρουσβ \ητωι> πe/^t/cαλλ€α ^ίφρον^ 
ούδ' ir\rj περιβηναι άΒβλφαον κταμβροίο • 
ovSe γαρ ούδε κβν αύτος ύπ€κφνγ€ κηρα /ζελαιι^αΐ' 
αλλ' 'Ήφαιστος epvro, σάωσβ δε ι/νκτϊ κάλυψα?, 
ως 8η οί μ,η πάγχν γέρων ακαγΎ)μ.€νος εΐη. 

25 ίππους δ* έζβλάσας μεγάθυμου Τυδεος υΙος 
οώκερ εταίροισιν κατάγειν κούλας επΙ νηας. 
Ύρωες δε μεγάθυμου επεί ISov υΐε Αάρητος 
TOP μεν άλευάμενον^ τον δε κτάμενον παρ οχεσφυν, 
πασίν ορίνθη θυμός ' άταρ γΧαυκώπις ^Αθηνη 

30 χευρος ελουσ' επεεσσι προσηύΒα θουρον '^Αρηα • 
"*Αρε9, Αρες βροτολοιγε^ μιαιφόνε, τειχεσυπλητα^ 
ουκ αν 8ύ) Ύρωας μεν εάσαυμεν καΐ Αραιούς 
μάρνασθ\ οπποτεροισι πατήρ Ζευς κυΒος ορεζιτ} ; 
νωι δε γαζώμεσθα^ Διός δ' άλεώμεθα μηνυν.^^ 

35 ως εΙπουσα μάγιης εζηγαγε θουρον '^Αρηα, 
τον μίν έπειτα καθεΐσεν ε'π' ηιόεντι %καμάν8ρω^ 
Ύρωας δ' έκλιναν Ααναοί' ελε δ' avSpa έκαστος 
ηγεμόνων, πρώτος δε άναξ άνΒρων Αγαμέμνων 
άργον ^ ΑΧιζώνων, Όδιοι^ μεγαν, εκβαΧε δίφρου • 

40 πρωτω γαρ στρεφθενη μεταφρενω εν 8όρυ πηζεν 
ωμών μεσσηγύς^ δια δε στηθεσφιν ελασσεν. 
[βούπησεν δε πεσών^ άράβησε δε τεύχε εττ' αύτω.] 
Ίδο/χεζ^ευς δ' α^α Φαϊστον ενηρατο, Μγιονος υΐον 
Βώρου, ος εκ Ύαρνης εριβώλακος είληλούθειν 

45 τον μεν άρ* ^Ι^ομενευς 8ουρίκλυτος εγγεί μακρω 
νύς Ιππων επιβησόμενον κατά 8εζίον ωμον ' 
η ρίπε δ' ε^ όγεων^ στυγερός δ' άρα μιν σκότος εΐΚεν. 

τον μεν άρ ^ΐΒομενηος εσύλευον θεράποντες • 
υΐον δε Χτροφωιο ^καμάν^ριον^ αΐμονα ΟιηρΎΐς^ 

50 ^ΑτρεΐΒης Μενέλαος eX εγχεϊ οζυόεντι^ 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 87 

€σθλον θη ρητή pa • SiSa^e γαρ '^Αρτ€μυς αύτη 
βοίλλείρ άγρυα πάντα^ τα τ€ τρέφει ούρεσιν νλη. 
αλλ' ου οΐ τότε γε γ^ραΐσμ "Αρτεμις Ιογεαιρα^ 
ούδ€ εκηβολίαυ^ ^ί^ΐϊ^ το ττρίν γε κεκαστο • 

55 άλλα μιν Άτρεί8ης Βονρικλειτος Μενέλαος 

πρόσθεν εθεν φενγοντα μετάφρενον οΰτασε Sovpl 
[ώ/χωι^ μεσσηγνς, δια δε στηθεσφιν ε\ασσεν.~\ 
ηρΐΊτε δε ττρηνη% άράβησε δε τενγε επ αντω. 
Μ.ηρίόΐ'ηζ δε ΦερεκΚον ενηρατο^ Ύεκτορος νίοι^ 

60 Άρμοΐ'βεω, δς γερσίν επίστατο δαιδαλα πάντα 
τενγειν • εζογα γαρ μιν εφίλατο Παλλάς ^Αθηνη • 
ος καΐ ΆλεζανΒρω τεκτηνατο νηας είσας 
άρχεκακονς^ αί πάσι κακόν Ύρώεσσι γενοντο 
01 Τ αυτω, εττει ου τι σεων εκ σεσφατα ηοη, 

65 τον μεν Μηριόνη^;, οτε 8η κατεμαρπτε 8ίώκων^ 
βεβληκει γΧοντον κοίτα Βεζίόν • η δε διαττρο 
άντίκρνς κατά κνστιν νττ οστεον η\νθ* άκωκη. 
γννζ δ' εριπ οΐμώζας, θάνατος δε μιν άμφεκάΚ.ν\\ίεν^ 
Jlrjhaiov δ' α/)' επεφνε Μεγης^ Αντήνορος νΐόν, 

70 ος ρα νόθος μεν εην, πνκα δ* έτρεφε δΓα Θεαί'ώ, 
ίσα φι\οισι τεκεσσι^ γαριζομενη ποσεϊ ω 
τον μεν Φνλε'ίΒης 8ον ρικλντος εγγνθεν εΚθων 
βεβληκει κεφαλής κατά Ινίον οζευ Sovpi- 
άντίκρνς δ' αν οΒόντας νπο γλωσσαν τάμε γαλκός. 

75 ηριττε δ* ει^ KovCjjy xjfv^^pov δ' έ'λε ^αλκον οΒονσυν. 

Ενρύπυλος δ' ^ΚυαιμονίΒης 'Txjjyjvopa διοζ/, 

νΐον υπερθύμου Δολοπιοι^ος, 6ς ρα ^καμάν^ρον 

άρητηρ ετετυκτο, θεός δ' ως τίετο δτ^/χω, 

τον μ^ν άρ Έύρνπνλος ^Έ^ναίμονος άγλαος νΙος 

80 πρόσθεν εθεν φενγοντα μετα^ρομάΒην ελασ* ωμον 
φασγάνω άίζας, άπο δ' έζεσε χείρα βαρεΐαν. 



88 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

αίματόεσσα δε χ^Ιρ πεδιω π€σ€ • τον Se κατ' 6σσ€ 
€λλαβ€ ΤΓορφνρβος θάνατος καΐ μοίρα κραταιή, 
ως οΐ p.kv ττονέοντο κατά κρατερην υσμίνην • 
85 Τυδεΐδτ^ί/ δ* ουκ αν γνοίης, ττοτ4ροισι μετ€[η, 
ηβ μ€τα Ύρώεσσυν ό/χιλβοι η μ€Τ Αχαιοΐς, 
θννε γαρ αμ neSCov ττοταμω πληθοντι εοικως 
γειμάρρω^ ος τ ωκα ρέων eKeSaaae γέφυρας• 
τον δ' οντ άρ τε γεφνραυ εερμεναι Ισγανοωσιν^ 
90 ουτ αρα ερκεα υσχει άΧωάων ερυθηλεων 
ελθόντ εζαττίνης, οτ επίβρίστ) Αίος ομβρος- 
ΤΓολλα δ' νπ αντου έργα κατή ρίπε κάλ* αιζηων, 
ως νπο Τυδβΐδτ/ πνκυναί κλονεοντο φάλαγγες 
Ύρωων^ ούδ' άρα μιν μίμνον πολεες περ εόντες. 
95 τον δ' ως ουν ενοησε Αυκάονος άγλαος νίος 
θννοντ αμ πεδίον ττρο ίθεν κΧονεοντα φάλαγγας^ 
αΐψ' επΙ Τυδείδτ^ ετιταίνετο καμπύλα τόζα, 
καΐ /3αλ' επα'ίσσοντα, τυχών κατά Βεζίον ωμον, 
θώρηκος γύαλον ' δί,ά δ' επτατο πικρός οιστός^ 

100 άντικρυς δε Βιεσχε^ παλάσσετο δ' αΐματι θώρηζ, 
τω δ' επΙ μακρόν άυσε Αυκάονος άγΧαος υιός • 
" ορνυσθε, Ύρωες μεγάθυμοι^ κευτορες Ιππων • 
βεβληται γαρ άριστος Ά^^^αί,ωι^, ούδε € φημι 
StJO' άνσχησεσθαι κρατερον βέλος, ει ετεόν με 

105 ωρσεν άναζ Αιος υίος άπορνύμενον Αυκί'ηΘενΓ 

ως εψατ ευχόμενος • τον ο ου ρεΚος ωκυ οαμασσεν^ 
αλλ' άναχωρησας πρόσθ' ΐπποιιν καΐ^οχεσφιν 
εστη^ και Χθενελον προσεφη Καπανηιον υΐόν • 
^^ορσο, πεπον Καπαι^τ^ιάδτ;, καταβησεο Βίφρου, 

110 οφρα μοι εζ ωμοιο ερύσσΎ)ς πικρον otcrroi^." 

ως dp' εφη, ^θενελος δε καθ' Ιππων άλτο χαμάζε^ 
παρ δε στάς βέλος ώκύ 8ιαμπερες εζερυσ ωμού • 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE H^TAD. 89 

αΓ/χα δ' άνηκόι/τίζε δια στρβπτοϊο γιτωνο^, 
hrj τότ eneiT ήρατο βοηΊ/ άγαθο<; Αίομη^ηζ • 

115 " κΚνθί μευ^βΧγιόγοιο Διός τβκος, άτρντώνη^ 

el ποτ€ μοι καΐ ττατρί φίλα φρονεονσα ττ αρεστής 
^ηίω εν πολε/ιω, νυν avr e/x€ φϊλαι^^ ^Αθηνη • 
δός δε Τ€ μ* άι/8ρα eketp και e? ορμην εγχ^εο^ ελθείν, 
ο9 μ* έβαλε φΘάμενος καΐ επευγεται^ ούδε με φησιν 

120 8ηρον ετ 6\\ίεσθαί λαμπρον φάο^ '^eXtoto." 

ως εφατ' ενγομενος^ τον δ' εκλνε Παλλάς Άθηνη^ 
γνία δ* εθηκεν ελαφρά, πόδας καΐ χεΐρας νττερθεν • 
ay^ov δ* Ιστάμενη^ εττεα τττεροεντα προσην^α • 
^^θαρσων ννν, Διο/Λτ^δες, επί Ύρώεσσι μάχεσθαί' 

125 eV γαρ tol στηθεσσι μένος πατρώιον ηκα v^'<,uC 

άτρομον, οϊον εχεσκε σακεσπαλος Ιππότα Τυδεΰς • 
ά)(λνν δ* αν TOL απ οφθαλμών ελον, η πρΙν επηεν, 
οφρ εν γιγνωσκΎΐς ήμεν θεον τ^δε και dvSpa. 
τω ννν, αϊ κε θεός πευρωμενος ενθά8* ΐκηται, 

130 μη τι σν y άθανάτοισι θεοϊς άντικρν μάγεσθαι 
τοις άλλοις • άταρ ει κε Διός θνγάτηρ * Αφροδίτη 
ελθησ ες πόλεμον, την y* οντάμεν όζει γαλκω^ 

η μεν άρ* ως είπονσ άπεβη γλανκώπις ^ Αθηνη, 
ΎνΒει^ης δ' εζαντις Ιών προμάγοισιν εμίχθη • 

135 και πρυν περ θνμω μεμαώς Ύρώεσσι μάγεσθαι, 
δή τότε μιν τρΙς τόσσον ελεν μένος, ως τε λέοντα 
ον ρα τε ποιμην άγρω επ ειροπόκοις οίεσσιν 
γρανση μεν τ ανλης νπεράλμενον, ούδε 8αμάσση • 
τον μεν τε σθένος ώρσεν, έπειτα δε τ ον προσαμννει 

140 άλλα κατά σταθμονς 8ννεται, τα δ' έρημα φοβείται - 
αι μεν τ άγγιστΐναι επ" άλληλησι κεχννται, 
αντάρ 6 εμμεμαώς βαθεης εξάλλεται ανλης - 
ως μεμαώς Ύρώεσσι μίγη κρατερός Αιομη8ης. 



90 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔθ5 Ε. 

^νθ* e\eu ΆστΌΡοορ και Ύπ^ιρονα πουμερα λαωι/, 

145 τον μερ virkp μαζοΊο βαλωρ γαλκηρεί δουρι, 
τον δ' erepov ζίφε'ί μεγάλω κληΐ8α παρ' ωμον 
πΚης , απο ο αυχ€νο<; ωμον eepyaUev ηο απο νώτου, 
τους μ€ν €ασ\ 6 δ' '^Αβαντα μ€τωχ^ετο καΙ ΐίολνώον^ 
vleas Ενρνδάμαντοζ ονευροπόλοίο γέροντος, 

150 7019 ουκ €ργομ4νοί<ζ ο γέρων εκρίνατ oveCpovs, 
άλλα σφεας κρατερός Αυομη8ης εξενάριξεν. 
βη δ€ μετά αάνθον τε %6ωνά τε Φαίνοπος νΐε, 
άμφω τηλνγετω, 6 δ' ετείρετο γηραϊ λνγρω, 
νΐον δ* ου τεκετ άλλον επΙ κτεάτεσσι λιττεσθαι. 

155 ενθ* ο γε τους ενάριζε, φίλον δ' εζαίνυτο Θυμον 
άμφοτερω, ττατερι δε γόον καΐ κηΒεα λυγρά 
λεΙπ\ επεί ου ζώοντε μαχΎ]ς εκνοστησαντε 
δέκατο • ^Ύ^ρωσταΧ hk δια κτησυν ^ατεοντο. 
ενθ' υΐας Τίριάμοίο δυω λάβε AapSaviSao 

160 είν ενί 8ίφρω εόντας, Έχεμμονα τε Ύ^ρομίον τε, 
ως δε λέων εν βουσΐ θορων εζ αύχεί/α άζτ) 
πόρτίος ηε βοός, ζύλογον κάτα βοσκομενάων, 
ως τους αμφότερους εζ Ιππων Ύυ^εος υΙος 
βησε κακώς άεκοντας, έπειτα δε τεύχε' εσύλα • 

165 Ιππους δ' οΐς ετάροισι διδου μετά νηας ελαύνειν. 
τον δ' ιδεί' λίνείας άλαπάζοντα στίγας άντρων, 
βη δ' ϊμεν άν τε μά^ν κοί ανά κλόνον εγχειάων 
TlavSapov άντίθεον Βυζη μένος, ει που εφεύροι. 
εύρε Αυκάονος υΐον άμύμονα τε κρατερον τε, 

170 στη δε προσθ* αυτοΐο έπος τε μιν άντίον ηυΖα • 
" Jlάvhapε, που τοι τόζον ιδε πτερόεντες οιστοί 
καΐ κλέος; ω ου τις τοι ερίζεται ενθάΒε γ' άνηρ, 
ούδε Τις εν Αυκίη σεο γ' ευγεται είναι άμείνων. 
αλλ' άγε τωδ' εφες άν^ρΐ βέλος, Δα χείρας άνασχων^ 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 91 

175 09 Tts o8e κρατ€€ί και Srj κακά πολλά iopyei/ 

Τρώας, eVel πολλώρ re καΐ ίσθλών γούνατ ίλυσ^ν • 
ei μη τις ^ed? ecrri κοτβσσάμζνος Ύρώεσσιν, 
Ιρών ιχηρίσα'ζ* -χ^αλεπη 8e θεον im /x^t^t?." 

τοι^ δ' αντ€ 7Γροσ€€ΐπ€ Ανκάονος άγλαος νίός • 

180 "Atreta, Ύρώων βονληφόρβ γαλκογιτώνων, 
Tvhahrj μιν Ιγώ ye Βαΐφρονι πάντα €ισ/cω, 
άσπιδι γιγνώσκων αύλώπιδι re τρνφαλεΐΎ}, 
ιπτΓους τ εισοροων • σαφα ο ου /c oto , €ΐ c/eos ζ.στιν. 
el δ' ο y' άνηρ, ον φημι, ^α'ίφρων Τυδβος υίός, 

185 ου;^ ο y' avevOe 0eov raSe /xati^erat, αλλά τις otyX'- 
earrfK αθανάτων veφeλΎ) elλvμevoς ώ/χους, 
09 τούτου βeλoς ώκύ KLXij^evov eTpanev άλλτ). 
η8η yap οΐ έφηκα ^βελος, και μυν βάλον ωμον 
Se^LOVy άντυκρυς δια θώρηκος yυάλoιo, 

190 και μιν eyco y έφάμην ^Αί^ωνηί πpoLά\\^eiv, 

^μπης δ' ουκ εδά/χασσα • 0eos νν τις εστί KOTtjeL^. 
ίπποι δ' ου παρίασι και άρματα, των κ 4πίβαίην • 
αλλά που eV μeyάpoLσL Ανκάονος evSeKa 8ίφροι 
καλοί πpωτoπayeΐς veoTev)(ee^, άμφΐ δε π4πλοι 

195 π4πτανται • παρά δε σφιν ίκάστω διζυγες ίπποι 
ίστάσι κρΖ λevκov epeπτoμevoL και ολνρας. 
η μ€ν μοί /χαλά πολλά yepωv αΐχ^μητά Ανκάων 
Ιργομά^ω επετελλε δό/χοις εζ^ι ποιητοίσιν • 
ιπποισιν μ eκeλeυe και αρμασιν eμβeβaώτa 

200 apyeveiv Τρώεσοτι κατά κρατεράς νσμίνας • 

αλλ' εyώ ου πιθόμην, rj τ άν πολύ KepSiov yjevy 
Ιππων φειδό/χει/ος, /χτ; /χοι δευοιατο φορβής 
άντρων eiλoμevωv, elωθότeς εδ/χει^αι άΒην. 
ως λίπον, αντάρ πeζoς ες Ιλιοζ/ elληλovθa, 

205 τόζοισιν πίσυνος • τά δε /tx* ού /c άρ' eμeλ\ov ovTJaeLv. 



92 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

[ηίδτ^ yap hoiolaiv άρυστηβσσυρ έφηκα^ 
Τυδείδτ; Τ€ καΐ 'Ar/aetSry, €κ δ' άμφοτ^ροαν 
άτρ€Κ€ς αίμ ioraeva βαΚών^ ηγβιρα δε /χαλλοι^.] 
τω ρα κακΎ) αίστ} από πασσάλου αγκύλα τόζα 

210 ηματυ τω ελόμην^ ore "ίλιοί' εΙς έρατευνηρ 
ηγεόμην Ύρώεσσι, φβρων γαριν "Έικτορι διω. 
el δε Ke ροστησω και ecrdi/fo/xat οφθαλμοίσιν 
πατριδ' i^7)v άλο^όν τ€ καΐ υψβ^οεψες /xeya δω/χα, 
αυτίκ eneuT απ i^elo κάρη τάμοι αλλότριος ψώ?, 

215 €t μη βγω τάδε rofa φαεινω ev πυρί θενην 
j^ χ^ρσί Βιακλάσσας • άνεμώλυα γαρ μου όπτ^δει." 

τον δ* αυτ' Αΐϊ^ειας Ύρώων άγος άντίον ην8α • 
"jtxr) δι^ ο^ΐ"ω9 αγόρευε* πάρος δ' ou/c εσσεται άλλως, 
π/οα/ y' επί τω τωδ' άι/δρΐ atfv Ιπποισιν καΐ όγεσφιν 

220 άντιβί-ην έλθόντβ συν εντεσι πειρηθηναι. 
αλλ' αγ' ε/χώι/ 6γ4ων επιβησεο^ όφρα Γδτ^αι, 
οΓοι Τρώιοι ίπποι, επισταμένοι πεΒίοιο 
κραιπνά μάλ' ένθα καΐ ένθα 8ιωκ€μεν η8ε φεβεσθαι• 
τω καΐ νωι πόλινΒε σαώσετον, ει περ αν άντε 

225 Ζευς επΙ Τυδειδτ/ Αιομη^εϊ κν8ος όρεζτ]. 
αλλ αγε νυν μάστιγα και ηνία σιγαλόεντα 
δε^αι, εγώ δ* ίππων επιβησομαι^ όφρα /χά^ω/χαι • 
ιηε συ τονοε οεοεςο^ μεΚησουσιν ο εμοι ίπποι, 
τον δ' αυτέ προσεειπε Αυκάονος άγλαος υιός • 

230"Αίΐ'εία, σ*ύ μεν αυτός ε^' ηνία καΐ τεω ΐππω - 
μάλλον ύφ' ηνιόγω ειωθότι καμπύλον άρμα 
οισετον^ ει περ αν αυτέ φεβώμεθα Τυδεος υίόν • 
μη τω μεν 8είσαντε ματησετον^ ούδ' εθελητον 
εκφερεμεν πολεμοιο, τεον φθόγγον ποθεοντε^ 

235 νωι δ' ε'παΐ^ας μεγάθυμου Τυδεος υιός 

αύτώ τε κτεινί) και ελάσση μωνυχας^ ίππους» 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 93 

άλλα συ y' αντος iXavve Τ€ άρματα καΐ τ€ω Γττπω, 
τόι^δε δ' έγών Ιττιοντα δεδε^ο/χαι οζ^ι SovpL" 
ως άρα φωι/ησαντβς €9 άρματα ποίκίλα βάντες 

240 έμμ€μαωτ' iwl Τνδεΐδτ; ^χον ώκεας ίππους, 
τους δε Γδε Χθει/ελος Καπανηυος άγλαος νίός, 
αίψα δε ΎνΒβΐΒην επεα πτερόεντα προσην8α • 
"Τυδεΐδτ^ ^ιόμη8ες, εμω κεγαρισμένε θνμω^ 
άι/δρ' ορόω κρατερω επί σοΙ μεμαωτε μάγεσθαι^ 

245 1ν άπελεθρορ έχοντας • 6 μεν τόζων εν ειδώς, 
Γΐάζ/δα/009, υίος δ' άντε Ανκάονος εύχεται είναυ • 
Att'eta? δ' υιός μεγαλητορος ^ Χγχίσαο 
ενχεται εκγεγάμεν, H'V'^VP ^^ ^'^ ^^'^' * Αφροδίτη. 
αλλ αγε οη χαί^ωμευ εφ ιππων^ μηοε μοί όντως 

250 θυνε δια προμάχων^ μη πως φίΧον ητορ ολεσσης.^' 
τον δ* άρ' νπό8ρα ιδώι/ προσεφη κρατερός Αυομη^ης- 
^^ μη TL φόβονΒ^ άγορεν^ επεί ονΒε σε πεισεμεν οίω- 
ον yap μοί γενναΐον άλνσκάζοντυ μάχεσθαι 
ούδε καταπτώσσειν • ετι μοι μένος εμπε8όν εστίν • 

265 οκνείω δ' Ιππων επίβαινεμεν, άλλα καΐ αντως 

άντίον ειμ αντων ' τρεΐν μ* ονκ εα Παλλάς ^Αθηνη. 
τούτω δ' ον πάΧυν αντις άποίσετον ώκεες ίππου 
αμφω αφ ημειων^ ευ γ' ονν έτερος γε φνγησυν. 
άλλο δβ TOL ερεω, σν δ' ενί φρεσΐ βάλΧεο σησιν • 

260 αΓ κεν μου πολνβονλος ^Αθηνη κνΒος όρεξη 

άμφοτερω κτεΐναυ, συ δε τονσ^ε μεν ώκεας υππονς 
αντον ερνκακεευν^ εζ άντνγος ηνία τευνας, 
Αιι^ειαο δ' επαϊζαυ μεμνημενος υππων, 
εκ δ' ελάσ-αι Ύρώων μετ ενκνημυΒας ^Αχαυονς, 

265 της γαρ του γενεης^ ης Ύρωυ περ ενρνοπα Ζενς 
8ώχ νιος πουνην Ταννμη8εος, οννεκ άριστου 
Ιππων y οσσοι eacrti' νπ ηω τ ηελυόν τε ' 



94 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

TTJs γβι^ετ/ς eKXe^ep άναξ άντρων ^ Κ'γ)(ίση^^ 
λάθρΎ) Ααομ€8οντος νποσχωρ θηλβας Ιππους • 

270 τωρ οΐ βζ lyivovTo ivl μ^γάροισι yevidXiq * 

τους μίν Τ€σσαρας αντος €χ^ω^ άτιταλλ' €πΙ φάτρτ^^ 
τω Se Sv Alveia Βώκει^, μηστωρι φόβουο. 
el τούτω Κ€ Χάβοιμ^ν^ άροίμεθά Κ€ κλβος έσθλόν." 
ως οί μ^ν τοιαύτα προς αλλήλους άγόρευορ, 

275 τω δε τά^' lyy\)dev ηλθον ίλαύνοντ ώκβας ίππους, 
τον πρότ€ρος προσ€ζίπ€ Αυκαορος άγλαος υίός • 
" καρτβρόθυμβ Βαΐφρον, άyaυoυ Τυδεος ute, 
η μάλα σ* ου β€λος ώκυ 8αμάσσατο, πικρός ουστός ' 
νυν αυτ iy^eirj π^ιρησομαι^ at /ce τυ^ω /it." 

280 Tj pa και άμπβπαλων προ'ΐ€.ι ^ολιγόσκιον €γγος^ 
καΧ βάλ€ Τυδεΐδαο κατ άσττιδα • της δε διαπ/οο 
αΐχ^μη γαλκ^ίη πταμένη Θώρηκι πελασθη. 
τω δ* επί μακρόν άυσβ Αυκάονος άyλaoς υίός • 
" βεβληαι κενεωνα Βυαμπερες, ούδε σ* οίω 

285 hrjpov ετ άνσχησεσθαυ • εμοί δε μεy^ ευχος εδω«:α9." 
τον δ' ου ταρβησας προσεφη κρατερός Αωμη8ης • 
" ημβροτες, ούδ' έτυχες • άταρ ου μεν σφωί y οίω 
πριν y άποπαύσεσθαι, πριν y η έτερον yε πεσόντα 
αίματος άσαι Αρηα ταλαύρινον πολεμιστην.^ 

290 ως φάμενος προεηκε' βέλος δ' ϊθυνεν Άθηνη 
ρίνα παρ* όφθαλμον^ λευκούς δ' επερησεν οδόντας, 
τοΐ) δ' άπο μεν yλωσσav πρυμνην τάμε χαλκός άτειρης^ 
αι^/χτ) δ* εζεσύθη πάρα νείατον άνθερεωνα. 
ηριπε ο ες οχεων, αραρησε οε τευχε επ αυτω 

295 αιολα παμφανόωντα, παρετρεσσαν hi οι Ιπποι 
ώκύπο8ες • του δ' αυ^ί, λύθη φυχη τε μένος τε. 

Αΐί^ειας δ' απορούσε συν άσπβι ^ουρί τε μακρω, 
δεισ-ας, μη πώς οΐ ερυσαίατο νεκρον ^Αχαιοί. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 95 

άμφΐ δ' dp* αντω βαίνε XeW o)s άλκΐ ττεποίθώς^ 

300 πρόσθζ. Se οι δόρυ τ €σχ€ καΐ ασπίδα πάντοσ Ιίσην, 
τον κτάμεναι /χ^/χαώς, θ9 τις τον y avrCos i\0oL, 
afxepSaXea Ιάγων, ό δε χερμάΒυον λάββ χ^ιρί 
Τυδειδτ^ς, μ€γα βργον, ο ου δυο γ* dvSpe φepoL€Vy 
οϊοί νυν βροτοί ela • ό δε μυν pea πάλλε καΐ οΐος • 

305 τω βαΚεν Alveiao κατ Ισγίον^ ένθα re μηρός 
Ισγίω ένστρβφβταυ, κοτνλην δε τε /χιι/ καΧεονσιν • 
θλάσσ€ δε ot κοτνλην, προς δ* άμφω ρηζε τένοντα • 
ωσε ο απο pti^oj/ τρηχνς Κισος. ανταρ ο γ ηρως 
€στη γννξ ίριττων καΐ ερείσατο χειρι τταγ^ίη 

310 γαίης • άμφΐ δε όσ-<τε κελαυνη ννξ έκάλνφεν. 
και νν K€v €νθ* απόλοιτο αζ /af άνΒρών Alveias, 
el μη dp* οζν νόησε Διός θνγάτηρ * Αφροδίτη, 
μητηρ, η μιν νττ * Αγγίση τε/ίε βονκο\4οντι • 
αμφΧ δ' εόι/ φίλον νΐον ίγεύατο πηχεε λευκώ, 

315 πρόσθε δε ot πεπλουο φαευνον πτνγμα κάλνφεν, 
ερ/ίθ9 ερ,ει/ βε\4ων, μη τι? Δαι^αώΐ' ταχυπώλωί/ 
χαλκ-οϊ' εϊ^ι στηθεσσι βαΧων 4κ Θνμον ίλουτο. 
η μεν eov φίλον νΐον νπεζεφερεν ποΧεμοίο • 
ούδ' υιός Καπαι^Ί^^ς εληθετο σννθεσιάων 

320 τάων, ας επετελλε βοην αγαθός Αίομη^ης, 

αλλ ο γε τους /χει/ εους ηρνκακε μώννγας ίττπονς 
νόσφιν απο φλοίσβον, εζ dvTvyo^ ηνία τείνας, 
Αινείαο δ' ετταυζας καΧλίτρυχας Ιππους 
εζεΧασε Ύρώων μετ ενκνημι^ας 'Αχαιούς, 

325 8ωκε δε Δι^ιπυλω ετάρω φίΧω, ον περί πάσης 
τΐεν ομηΧικίης, οτι οΐ φρεσίν άρτια ηΒη, 
νηνσιν επι γΧαφνρησυν εΧαννεμεν. ανταρ ο y' ΐ7ρως 
ών ίππων επυβάς εΧαβ* ηνία σιγαλόεντα, 
αίψα δε Τυδεΐδτ^ϊ' μεθεπε κρατερώννγας ίππους 



96 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

330 έμμεμαώς. 6 δε Κνπριν βπωχ^ετο νηλά ^αλκω^ 
γυγι/ώσκων^ ο τ' άρολκις εηρ θβός, ούδε θ^άων 
τάων, αϊ τ άντρων πόλβμον κάτα κοιραν4ονσιν^ 
οΰτ dp' Άθηναίη οντε πτολιπορθος Έι/υώ. 
αλλ* οτ€ 8η ρ* ίκίγανζ. tto\vv καθ' ομιΧον οπαζωι^, 

335 ενθ* Ιπορεζάμενο^ζ μεγάθυμου Τυδε'ο? υιός 
άκρην ουτασε χ^Γρα μετάλμβρος οζά ΒουρΙ 
άβληχρηρ ' eWap δε 8όρυ χροος άντετόρησεν 
άμβροσίου δια πέπλου, 6ν οΐ χάρυτες κάμον αύται, 
ττρυμνον υπέρ θ4ναρο<;. pee δ' αμβροτον αίμα Oeolo, 

340 ιχώρ, οΓός πε/ο τε peei μaκάpeσσι deolaiv • 

ου γαρ σίτον εδουσ*', ου ττίνουσ αϊθοπα οίνον • 

τoύveκ άναίμονί^ ειοτι καΧ αθάνατοι κα\4ονται. 

η δε /xeya Ιάχουσα άπο εο κάμβαλεν υΐον • 

και τον μεν μετά χερσίν ερύσσατο Φοίβος ^Απόλλων 

345 κυανετ) ι/εφελτ/, μ'ή τις Δαι^αώζ^ ταχυπώΧων 

χαΧκον ivl στ-ηθεσσι βαλων εκ: θυμον eXoLTo • 
Τ17 δ' ε'πΐ μακρόν άιχτε /^οήι^ αγαθός Αίομη^ης • 
" είκ-ε, Διός θύγατερ, πολέμου καΐ ^ηιοτητος • 
-^ ούχ αλις, οττι γυναίκας άνάλκί^ας ηπεροπεύεις ; 

360 ει δε συ γ* ες πόλεμον πωλησεαι, η τε cr' οιω 
ριγιησειν πόλεμόν γε, καΐ ει χ' ετερωθι πύ^τ^αι." 
ως εφαθ*, η δ' άλυουσ* άπεβησετο, τείρετο δ' αΐνώς. 
την μεν άρ '^Ιρις έλουσα ττοΒηνεμος εζαγ' ομίλου 
άγθομενην ο^ύνησυ, μελαίνετο δε χροα καλόν. 

355 ευρεν έπειτα μάχης ε'π' αριστερά θουρον Αρηα 
ημενον, ή4ρι δ' εγχος εκεκλιτο και ταχε ϊππω • 
η δε yz^vf έριπουσα κασιγνητοιο φίλοιο 
πολλά λισσομενη χρυσάμπυκας ητεεν ίππους • 
"ψιλέ κασίγνητε, κόμισαί τε με, δος δε μοι Ιππους- 

360 οψρ' ες "Ολυμπον ϊκωμαι, ϊν αθανάτων εδος εστίν. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 97 

Xirjv άχθομαυ έλκος, ο μ€ βροτος οντασεν ανηρ^ 
• TuSciSt^s, δς ννν ye καΙ αν Δα πατρί μάγοιτο^ 

ως φάτο, τη δ' άρ' ^Αρης 8ώκ€ γ^ρνσάμπνκας Ιπττονς. 
η δ' 4ς ^ίφρορ εβαίνεν άκηγεμενη φίλον ητορ, 

365 παρ δε οί ^Ιρις εβαίρε καΐ ηνία λάζετο γερσίν, 
μάστιζεν δ' ελάαι^, τω δ* ονκ άεκοντε πετεσθην. 
αίψα δ' επειθ^ ΐκοντο θέων εδος, αίπνν '^Ολνμπον • 
ενθ^ ΐττπονς έστησε ττο8ηνεμος ώκεα ^Ιρυς 
λνσασ' εζ οχεων, πάρα δ' άμβρόσιον βάλεν είδαρ • 

370 η δ' εν γοννασί πίπτε Αίώνης' δΓ ^ ΑφροΒίτη^ 
μητρός εης ' η δ' άγκας ελάζετο θυγατέρα ην, 
X^LpL τε μυν κατερεζεν, έπος τ εφατ εκ τ' ονόμαζεν 
"τις νν σε TOLaS* ερεξε, φίλον τεκος, Ονρανιώνων 
μαφί^ίως, ως εϊ τι κακόν ρεζονσαν ενωπη ; " 

375 την δ' ημείβετ έπειτα φιΚομμει^ης ^ Αφροδίτη • 
" οντά με Τυδεος υιός νπερθνμος Αιομη8ης, 
ουνεκ εγω φίλον νΐον υπεζεφερον πολεμοιο 
Αΐνειαν, ος εμοι πάντων πολν φίλτατός εστίν, 
ου γαρ ετι Ύρώων καΐ Ά^αιώι/ φύλοπις αΐνη, 

380 αλλ' 17^''? Δαι^αοι γε καί άθανάτοισι /χά^οι^ται." 
την δ' ημείβετ έπειτα Αίώνη δια θεάων • 
"τετλα^ι, τεκνον εμόν, καΐ άνάσχεο κηΒομενη περ • 
πολλοί γαρ 8η τλημεν Όλύ/χπια δώ/χατ' έχοντες 
εζ άνΒρων, χαλεπ* άλγε' επ' άλλτ^λοισΊ τιθεντες, 

385 τλη μεν '^Αρης, οτε μιν '^ίϊτος κρατερός τ ^Εφιάλτης, 
παίδες Άλωτ^ος, 8ησαν κρατερω ενί 8εσμω • 
χαλκεω δ' iv κεράμω 8ε8ετο τρισκαί^εκα μήνας, 
καί νυ κεν ενθ* άπόλοιτο "^ Αρης ατός πολεμοιο, 
εΐ μη μητρυιη περικαλλης ^Ή,ερίβοια 

390 Έρμεα εξηγγειλεν • ό δ' εξεκλεφεν "Αρηα 
η^η τειρόμενον, χαλεπός δε ε 8εσμος ε^άμνα. 



98 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

τλη δ' ^Ηρτ^, δτ€ μ,ιν κρατερός παις Άμφίτρύωνος 
8e^LT€poj^ κατά μαζον οιστω τριγΧώγινι 
βεβληκβί ' τότ€ και μιν άνηκεστορ λάβεν άλγος. 

395 τ\ύ) δ' Άιδτ^ς iv τοίσι ττελώριος ωκνν οιστόν^ 
evTe μιν ωντος άνηρ, νΙος Διό? αίγωχοίο^ 
€Ρ πνλω iv νεκνεσσυ βαλών 68νΡΎ)σίΡ ε^ωκεν. 
αντάρ 6 βη προς δώ/χα Διός και μακρόν 'Όλνμπον 
κηρ άγεων^ ohvvrjai πεπαρμερος, ανταρ ό ιστός 

400 ω/χω ερί στιβαρω ήληλατο, κη8ε 8ε θνμορ. 

τω δ' επ\ ΐΐαίηωρ 68υρηφατα φάρμακα ττάσσωρ 
ηκεσατ* • ου μεν yap τι καταθνητός γε τετνκτο. 
σχετλίος^ οβρυμοεργός, ος ουκ οθετ αϊσνΚα ρεζων^ 
ος τόξοισιν εκη8ε θεούς, οι 'Όλνμπον εχουσυν. 

405 σοΙ δ' επί τούτον άνηκε θεά, γλαυκωπις ^Αθηνη * 
νηττιος, ον8ε το ο18ε κατά φρένα Ύν8εος νΙός 
OTTL /χάλ* ον Βηναίός, ος άθανάτοισι μάχηται, 
ovSe τί μιν παίδες ποτι γούνασι παππάζονσιρ 
ελθόντ εκ πολβ/χοιο /cat αΐνης Βηίοτητος. 

410 τω νυν Τυδεί'δτ^ς, εΐ καΐ μάλα καρτεράς εστίν, 
φραζεσθω, μη τις οΐ άμείνων σείο μάχηται, 
μη 8ην Αιγιαλεία περίφρων Ά8ρηστίνη 
εξ νπνον γοοωσα φίλους οίκηας εγείρη, 
κουρί8ίον ποθεουσα ττοσιν, τον άριστον ^Αχαιωρ, 

415 Ιφθίμη άλοχος ΑιομηΒεος ιπποδά/χοιο." 

1^ ρα και άμφοτερησιρ απ ι^ώ χειρός ομόργνν • 
άλθετο χειρ, 68ύναι δε κατηπιόωντο βαρείαι. 
αί δ* αυτ είσορόωσαι Άθηναίη τε και ^Hp>y 
κερτομίοις επεεσσι Δια Κρονί8ην ερεθιζον. 

420 τοίσι δε μύθων ηρχε θεά, γλαυκώπις ^Αθηνη • 

"Ζεύ πάτερ, η ρά τί /χοι κεχολώσεαι, οττι κεν ειπώ; 
η μάλα 8η τίνα Κύπρις Ά^αιιαδωΐ' άϊ^ιεισα 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 99 

ΎρωσΙν άμα σπβσθαυ^ τους ννν βκπαγλα φίλησβι^^ 
των TLva καρρίζουσα *Α^αιιάδωί/ Ινττ4ττ\ων 

425 προς χρνσ€Ύ) πβρόρτ) καταμύξατο χ^Γρα αραιήνΓ 

ως φάτο^ μύΖησ^ν δε πατήρ άντρων re θέων re, 
και ρα καλεσσάμβνοζ προσεφη χρνσεηρ ^Αφρο8ίτην 
"ου TOL, τ4κνον ίμόν^ δβ^οται πολβμηία €ργα, 
άλλα συ γ* Ιμερόβντα μ€τ^ρχ€ο ίργα γάμοω, 

430 ταντα δ' '^Αρηι θοω καΐ ^ΑθηρΎ) πάντα μβλησβι.^^ 
ως οΐ μ€ν τουαντα προς αλλήλους άγόρβνον, 
Klveia δ* έπόρονσβ βοηρ άγαθος Αίομη8ης, 
γιγνώσκων^ ο οΐ αντος νπβίρβχε χείρας Απόλλων» • 
αλλ Ο γ αρ ονοε υεον μεγαν αςετο, ιετο ο atet 

435 Αΐνείαν κτεΐναι κα\ άπο κλντά τεύχεα δυσαι. 
τρ\ς μεν επειτ επόρουσε κατακτάμεναι μενεαίνων^ 
τρις δε οι εστυφελιζε φαείνην άσ*πιδ' 'Αττόλλω^». 
αλλ' δτε δτ) το τέταρτον επεσσυτο Βαίμονυ Ισος, 
δείί'ά δ' ομοκλησας προσεφη εκάεργος Απόλλων 

44θ"ψ/3ά{εο, Τυδεί'δτ;, καΐ χάζεο, μη8ε θεοΐσίν 
Χσ εθελε φρονεειν^ επεί ου ποτέ φνλον oμo'ίqv 
αθανάτων τε θέων χαμαΐ ερχομένων τ' ανθρώπων. ^^ 
ως φάτο, Ύν8ευ8ης δ' άνεχάζετο τντθον οπίσσω^ 
μηνυν άλενάμενος εκατηβόλου ^Απόλλωνος. 

445 Αΐνείαν δ' άπάτερθεν ομίλου θηκεν ^Απόλλων 
ΐίεργάμω είν Upy, οθι οΐ νηος γε τετυκτο. 
η TOL τον Αητώ τε καΐ 'Άρτεμις Ιοχεαιρα 
εν μεγάλω άΒύτω άκεοντό τε κύ8αυνόν τε • 
αντάρ 6 ευ^ωλον τευζ^ άργυρότοξος Απόλλων 

450 αύτω τ Αινεία Ικελον κοΧ τεύχεσι τοΐον • 
άμφι δ' αρ' ειδώλω Τρώες καΐ Sioi ^Αχαιοί 
8Ύ)ουν αλλήλων άμφΐ στηθεσσι βοείας , 
άστΓίδας ερκυκλους λαιστ^ιά τε πτερόεντα. 



100 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

Srj τότ€ Θονρον 'Άρηα προσην^α Φοίβος Άπόλλωΐ/• 

455 " * Ape?, ^Αρ€9 βροτολοίγ€^ μυαιφορβ^ τευχ^εσίπλητα, 
ουκ αν δτ^ T^vh^ avhpa μοίχης Ιρνσαιο μετβλθώι^^ 
Τυδβΐδτ;^, 09 ρνν ye καΧ αν Διι πατρί μά^οιτο ; 
KvnpiSa μεν πρώτα σχεδόν ουτασε χεΐρ^ επΙ καρπω. 
ανταρ επευτ αντω μου επεσσντο Ζαίμονι Ισος." 

460 ως εΙπων αντος μεν εφεζετο ΐίεργάμω άκργ), 
Τρώας δε στίγας ονΚος '^Αρης ωτρννε μετελθων 
εΙΒόμενος ^ Κκάμαντι θοω^ ηγητορυ θρΎ)κων. 
νΐάσί δε Πριά/χοιο ^ίοτρεφεεσσι κεΧενεν • 
" ω νΐεΐς ΤΙρίάμοιο ^υοτρεφεος βασίληος, 

465 €ς τι €τι κτείνεσθαι εάσετε λαοζ^ Ά^αιοΓς ; 
η εΙς 6 κεν άμφΐ πυλτ^ς ενποίητΎ)σί μάγωνται ; 
κείται άνήρ^ 6ν τ Ισον ετίομεν "Έικτορι Slo), 
Αιι^ειας υιός μεγαλητορος Άγ^ισαο • 
αλλ αγετ εκ φλοίσβουο σαώσομεν εσθλον εταίροι^." 

470 ως εΙπων ωτρννε μένος καΐ θυμον εκάστου, 
ενθ* αν SapnTjScuv μάλα νείκεσεν "^Εκτορα hlov ' 
" 'Efcrop, πτ^ hrj tol μένος ot^erat, δ πρΙν εχεσκες ; 
φης που ατερ λαών πόλιν εζεμεν τ^δ' επίκουρων 
οίος, συν γαμβροΖσί κασυγνητουσί τε σοΐσυν • 

475 των νυν ου τιν εγω Ι^εειν ^ύναμ ούδε νοησαι, 
άλλα καταπτώσσουσυ, κΰνες ως άμφΐ λέοντα • 
ημείς δ' αυ μαγ6μεσθ\ οΐ περ τ επίκουροι ενειμεν. 
και yap iycov επίκουρος εων μάλα τηλοθεν ηκω • 
τηλου γαρ Αυκίη^ αάνθω επι Βινηεντι • 

480 ενθ^ άλογόν τε φίλην ελιπον καΐ νηπιον υΐόν^ 

κάο οε κτήματα πολλά, τά τ ελ8εται, δς /c' επι8ευης' 
άλλα και ως Αυκίους οτρύνω και μεμον αυτός 
άνορι /χα^τ^σασ^αι • άτάρ ου τί μοι ενθά^ε το'ιον^ 
οίον κ ηε φεροιεν Ά^αιοι rj κεν άγοιεν. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 101 

486 τνι/η δ* εστΊ^/ίας, άταρ ούδ* αλλοισι /ceXcvet? 
λαοΐσίν μ€ν€μ€ν και άμνν€μ€ναί ωρβσσιν • 
μΊη ττως, ως άψΓίτι λιι/ου άλόι^τε παναγρον^ 
άν^ράσι 8νσμ€Ρ€€σσίν βλωρ καΐ κνρμα γ€ϊ/ησθ€ • 
OL δε τά)^ €κπ€ρσονσ έυ ναιομένην ttoKlv ύμην. 

490 σοΙ δε ^ρη τάδε πάντα μ4\€ΐν ρνκτας τε και ημαρ^ 
άρτους \ισσομζνω τηΧεκλευτων επικούρων 
ρωλεμεως εγεμεν^ κρατερην δ' άποθεσθαι ενιπην.^^ 

ως φάτο ^αρττη^ών^ 8άκε δε φρενας '^Εκτορι μνθος. 
αντίκα δ' ε^ ογεων συν τεν^ζεσιν αλτο ^α/ιαζε, 

495 πάλλων δ' οξέα δουρε /caret στρατον ψχετο πάντΎ) 
οτρννων ^α;)^εσ-ασ-^αι, έγειρε δε φνλοπιν αΐνην. 
οι δ' ελελίγθησαν καΧ ενάντιοι εσταν Ά^αιω^ • 
ΆργεΓοι δ' νπεμειναν άολλεες ούδε φόβηθεν. 
ως δ' άνεμος άχνας φορεει ιεράς κατ άλωάς 

500 άντρων λικμώντων^ οτε τε ζανθη Αημητηρ 

KpivYj επειγομενων άνεμων καρπόν τε και α^ι^ας • 
at δ' νπολενκαίνονται άχυρμιαί' ως τοτ ^Κγαιοι 
λενκοΧ νπερθε γενοντο κονισάλω^ ον ρα δt' αντων 
ονρανον ες πολνγαλκον επεπληγον πό8ες ϊππων^ 

505 αψ επιμισγομενων • νπο δ* εστρεφον ηνιοχηες • 
οι δε μένος χειρών ιθυς φερον. άμφΐ δε νύκτα 
θουρος "Αρης ε'/ίάλνψε μάχτ) Ύρώεσσιν άρηγων^ 
πάντοσ εποιχόμενος^ τον δ' εκραίαινεν εφετμάς 
Φοίβον Απόλλωνος χρνσαορον^ ος μιν άνωγειν 

510 ΎρωσΙν θνμον εγείραι^ επεί Γδε Παλλάδ* ^Αθηνην 
οιχομενην • rj γαρ ρα πελεν Ααναοϊσιν άρηγών. 
αυτός ο AtI^εtαI/ /χαλά πιονος ες αουτοιο 
ηκε, και εν στηθεσσι μένος βάλε ποιμενι λαών. 
Αΐνειας δ' ετάροισι μεθίστατο • Tot δε χάρησαν^ 

515 ως ε18ον ζωόν τε και άρτεμεα προσιόντα 



102 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

/cat μένος ΙσθΧον έχοντα • μετάλλησάν γε μεν ου τι • 
ου yap εα πόνος άλλο?, ον άργνρότοζος εγευρεν 
'^Αρης τε βροτολουγος '^Ερις τ αμοτον /ιβ/χαυια. 
τους δ' ΑΪαντε 8νω καΐ *θΒνσσενς καΐ Αωμη8ης - 

520 ωτρννον Ααναονς πολεμιζεμεν ' οΐ 8έ και αντοί 
οντε βίας Ύρώων νπε8εί8ίσαν οντε Ιωκάς^ 
αλλ' εμενον νεφεΚι^σιν εοικότες^ ας τε θρονιών 
νηνεμίης εστησεν επ ακροποΚοισιν ορεσσιν 
άτρεμας, οφρ" βυδι^σι μένος Βορεαο καΐ άλλων 

525 ζαχρευών άνεμων, οι τε νεφεα σκιόεντα 
TTvoiTjaiv λνγυρτισί ^ιασκι^νάσιν άεντες ' 
ως ΑαναοΙ Ύρωας μενον εμπεΒον ον8ε φεβοντο. 
*Ατρευ8ης δ' αν δμιλον εφοίτα πολλά κελεύων • 
" ώ φίλοι, άνερες εστε και αλκιμον ητορ ελεσθε, 

530 άλλτ^λους τ αΐ^εΐσθε κατά κρατεράς νσμίνας. 
αΙΒομενων άντρων πλεονες σόοι ήε πεφανται, 
φενγόντων δ' οντ άρ κλέος ορνυται οντε τις άλκτ^." 
η καΐ ακόντισε 8ονρΙ θοως, βάλε δε πρόμον avSpa, 
ΑίΓβιω εταρον μεγάθυμου, Αηικόωντα 

535 ΤΙεργασί^ην, ον Ύρωες ομώς ΤΙριάμοιο τεκεσσιν 
των, επει θοος εσκε μετά πρώτοισι μάγεσθαι. 
τον ρα κατ ασπίδα δου /Qt ^8άλ€ κρείων ^Αγαμέμνων • 
Ύ) δ' ουκ εγχος ερντο, 8ιαπρο 8ε εΐσατο χαλκός, 
νειαίρΎ) δ* εν γαστρι δια ζωστηρος ελασσεν. 

540 8ούπησεν 8ε πεσών, άράβησε 8ε τενχε επ αυτω. 
ενθ* αυτ Αιι^είας Δαι^αώι/ ελεν άν8ρας άριστους, 
νιε Αιοκληος Κρηθωνά τε ^Ορσίλοχόν τε, 
των ρα ττατηρ μεν ίναιει^ ευκτιμεντ} ενί Φηργι 
άφνειος βιότοιο, γένος δ' ην εκ ττοταμοΐο 

545 'Αλφειού, 6ς τ εύρν ρέει ΤΙνλίων δια γαίης, 

ος τεκετ Όρσίλοχον ττολεεσσ άν8ρεσσιν ανακτά* 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 103 

Όρσίλοχος δ' άρ' ίτίκτ€ Αυοκληα μεγάθυμον, 
€κ δε Αίοκληος διδυ/χάοϊ^ε παιδε γενεσθηι^, 
Κρηθωρ ^Ορσ[λο)(ός re, μοίχης iij elSore πάσης. 

550 τω μεν αρ ηβησαντε μεΚαινάων επί νηων 
'^Ιλίον εΙς εύπωλορ αμ ^Αργείοισιν επεσθην, 
τιμήν ΆτρείΒης ^Αγαμεμνονι καΐ Μενελάω 
άρνυμενω ' τω δ* αυθυ τέλος θανάτοιο κάλυψε^». 
οίω τω γε λεοντε 8νω ορεος κορνφτισιν 

555 ετραφετην νπο μητρί βαθείης τάρφεσυν νλης * 
τω μεν αρ' άρπάζοντε βόας και Ιφια μήλα 
σταθμούς ανθρώπων κεραιζετον^ όφρα κα\ αντω 
άνΒρών εν παλάμΎισι κατεκταθεν όζει γαλκω • 
τοίω τω -χείρεσσυν υπ' Αΐνείαο 8αμεντε 

560 καππεσετην ελάτησιν εοίκότες ύφηλησυν. 
τω 8ε πεσόντ ελεησεν άρηίφίλος Μενέλαος^ 
βη 8ε δια προμάχων κεκορνθμενος αίθοπι γαλκω, 
σείων εγχείην • τον δ' ωτρυνεν μένος 'Άρης, 
τα φρονεων, ίνα γερσΧν ΰττ' Αΐνείαο 8αμείη. 

565 τον δ' ΐ8εν Άντίλοχος μεγάθυμου Ί<ίεστορος υΙός, 
βη 8ε δια προμάχων • περί γαρ διε ποιμενι λαών, 
μη τυ πάθοι, μέγα 8ε σφας άποσφηλειε πόνουο. 
τω μεν 8η χείρας τε καΐ έγχεα οξυοεντα 
άντιον αλλήλων εχετην μεμαωτε μάχεσθαι, 

570 Άντίλοχος 8ε μάλ' άγχι παρίστατο ποιμενι λαών, 
Αΐνείας δ' ου μεΐνε^ θοος περ εών πολεμιστής, 
ως ε18εν δυο φωτε παρ* άλληλοισι μενοντε. 
οι δ' επεί ουν νεκρούς ερυσαν μετά λαον ^Ατχαιων 
τω μεν άρα δειλώ βαλετην εν χερσίν εταίρων, 

575 αύτω 8ε στρεφθέντε μετά πρώτοισι μαχέσθην, 
ένθα ΐΐυλαιμενεα ελέτην άτάλαντον 'Άρηι, 
άρχον ΤΙαφλαγόνων μεγάθυμων άσπιστάων 



104 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Ε. 

TOP μεν αρ Άτρεί^ης δουρικλβιτος Μενέλαος 
εστεωτ εγχεϊ ννζε, κατά κληίΒα τυχτίσας • 

580 Άι/τιλο^ος δε Μυδωϊ^α βάλ^ ηνίοχον θεράποντα, 

εσθλον Άτνμνίά8ην, 6 δ' νπεστρεφε μώννχας Γπττους, 
χερμα^ίω αγκώνα τυχών μέσον • εκ δ' άρα χειρών 
ηνία λεν κ ελεφαντι χαμαΐ πεσόν εν κονίησίν. 
^Αντίλοχος δ' άρ* βπαΐ^ας ζίφει ηλασε κόρσην, 

585 αντάρ ο γ' ασθμαίνων ενεργεος έκπεσε 8[φρου 
κύμβαχος εν κονιγ/σίν επΙ βρεχμόν τε και ωμούς. 
8ηθά μάλ^ εστηκει, '^^Χ^ Ύ^Ρ Ρ* άμάθοιο βαθείης^ 
οφρ* ΐππω πληζαντε ^α^αί βάλον εν κονίησυν, 
τους Ιμασ ^Αντίλοχος, μετά δε στρατον ηλασ* Ά^αιωι^. 

590 τονς δ' '^Εκτωρ ενόησε κατά στίχας, ώρτο δ' επ' αυτούς 
κεκληγώς • άμα δε Ύρώων είποντο φάλαγγες 
καρτεραΐ' ηρχε δ' άρα σφιν 'Άρης καΧ πότνι Έι^υώ, 
η μεν έχουσα κυ8οιμον άί^αιδεα Βηιοτητος, 
''Αρης δ' εν παλάμησυ πελώριον εγχος ενώμα, 

595 φοίτα δ' άλλοτε μεν πρόσθ^ '^Εκτορσς, άλλοτ όπισθεν, 
τον δε 18ών ρίγησε βοην αγαθός Αίομη8ης. 
ως δ' or' άνηρ άπάλαμνος, Ιών πολεος ττεδιοιο, 
στηη επ* ώκυρόω ποταμω αλαδε προρεοντι, 
άφρω μορμύροντα 18ών, άνά τ εδρα/χ' οπίσσω^ 

600 ως τότε Ύυ^ε&ης άνεχάζετο^ είπε τε λαω • 
"ω φίλοι, οίον δτ) θαυμάζομεν '^Κκτορα οίον 
αίχμητην τ εμεναι καΐ θαρσαλεον πολεμιστην• 
τω δ' αΐει πάρα εΙς γε θεών, ος λοιγον άμύνει • 
καΧ νυν οΐ πάρα κείνος 'Άρης βροτω avSpl εοικώς. 

605 άλλα προς Τρώας τετραμμενοι αΐεν οπίσσω 
είκετε, μη8ε θεοΐς μενεαινεμεν Ιφι μάχεσθαι.^^ 

ως άρ εφη, Τρώες δε μάλα σχεΒον ηλυθον αυτών, 
ενθ* "Εκτωρ δυο φώτε κατεκτανεν ειδότε χάρμης^ 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 105 

elp €vl 8ίφρφ iopTE^ Μβρεσθην * Ay^iaKov re. 

610 τω 8e πζ,σόντ έλβησε μβγας Ύβλαμώνιος Ata? • 

στη 8e μάλ^ έγγίίς Ιων καΐ άκόντίσε Sovpl ψαβιι^ω, 
και βάλεν Κμφιον Xekayov νΐου^ ο? ρ evi Εαισω 
ναί€ πολυκτημων ττολυλτ^ιος, άλλα e μοίρα 
rjy 4πικονρησοΡτα μ€τα ΤΙρίαμόν re καΐ νιας. 

615 TOP pa κατά ζωστήρα βάλβρ Ύβλαμώριος ΑΓα9, 
P€LaLprj δ' ip γαστρί πάγη Βολίχόσκίο^ ^Ύχο^, 
Βούπησβρ δε πεσώρ. 6 δ' Ιπβ^ραμε φαίΒυμος ΑΓας 
τενχεα σνλησωρ • Ύρώβς δ' 'eVl SovpaT εγεναρ 
οξέα παμφορόωρτα • σάκος δ* άρε^εζατο πολλά. 

620 ανταρ 6 λαξ προσβάς εκ ρεκρον γαΚκεορ εγχος 
εσττάσατ • ούδ' άρ' er' άλλα 8υρησατο τενχεα καλά 
ωμοιιρ άφελεσθαι • επείγετο yap βελεεσσίΡ. 
Βεΐσε δ' ο γ' άμφίβασυρ κρατερηρ Ύρώωρ άγερώχωρ^ 
ot πολλοί τε καΐ εσθλοί εφεστασαρ εγχ^ε" εχορτες, 

625 οϊ ε μεγαρ ττερ εορτα καΐ ΐφθυμορ καΐ άγανορ 
ωσαρ άπο σφείωρ • 6 δε χασσάμενος πελεμίχ^θη. 

ως οΐ μερ πορεορτο κατά κρατερηρ νσμίρηρ • 
Ύληπόλεμορ δ* ^Υίρακλεί^ηρ ηνν τε μεγαρ τε 
ωρσερ επ άντιθεω %αρττη86ρι μοίρα κραταιή. 

630 οι δ' οτε οη σχε8ορ ησαρ επ άλληλοισίΡ Ιορτες^ 
νΙός θ* νίωρος τε Διός ρεφεληγερεταο^ 
TOP καΐ Ύληπόλεμος πρότερος προς μνθορ εειπερ • 
" ^αρπη^ορ^ Ανκίωρ βονληφόρε, τις τοι άράγκη 
πτώσσειρ ipOaS* εορτι μάχης ά8αημορι φωτί ; 

635 φενΒόμεροί δε σε φασι Διός jopop αίγιόγοιο 
εΐι/αι, εττεί πολλορ κείνωρ επιδευεαι άρΒρωρ, 
ot Αιος εζεγερορτο επΙ προτερωρ άρθρώπωρ • 
αλλ οίορ τίΡα φασι βίηρ Υίρακληείηρ 
εΐζ/αι, εμορ πάτερα θρασνμεμρορα θυμολεορτα^ 



106 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Ε. 

640 09 nore Sevp^ έλθωρ eVe^' ϊππων Ααομ48οντος 
ίζ oirjs συν νηνσΐ καΐ avhpaai πανροτίροισιν 
^Ιλίου έξαλάπαξε ποΚιν, χηρωσε δ' αγυιάς • 
σοΙ δε κακοζ μεν θνμός^ άποφθυνύθουσί δε λαού 
ούδε TL (Τ€ Ύρώεσσιν οίομαυ αλκαρ εσεσθαι 

645 εΚθοντ €κ Ανκίης^ ούδ' el μάλα καρτεράς ecrcrt, 
αλλ' υπ εμοί ^μηθεντα πύλας Άιδαο περησευν." 

τον δ' αυ Χαρπη^ών Κνκίων άγος άντίον τ^υδα • 
" Ύληπόλεμ'^ η tol κεΐνος άττώΧεσεν Vkiov Ιρην 
άνερος άφρα8ίΎ)σίΡ άγανου ΑαομεΒοντος^ 

650 09 ρά μιν εν ερζαντα κακω ήνίπαπε μνθω, 
ούδ' άπεΒωχ ίππους, ων εϊνεκα τηλόθεν ηλθεν. 
σοΙ δ' εγώ ενθά8ε φημί φόνον καΐ κηρα /Λελαιι/αι/ 
εζ εμεθεν τεύζεσθαι, εμω δ' νπο Sovpl Βαμεντα 
ευχος εμοΙ δώσειι^, ^νχΎ)ΐ^ δ' ^Αιδι /ίλυτοπώλω." 

655 ως φάτο %αρπη8ών, 6 δ' ανεσχετο μείλυνον εγχοζ 
Ύληπόλεμος ' καΐ των μεν άμαρτΎ} 8ονρατα μακρά 
εκ χειρών ηυξαν * ό μεν βάλεν ανχιενα μεσσον 
ΧαρπΎ}8ών, αΙχμη δε 8υαμπερες ηλθ* άλεγευνη, 
τον δε κατ οφθαλμών ερεβεννη ννζ εκαλνφεν ' 

660 Ύληπόλεμος δ' αρα μηρον αριστερον εγχεϊ μακρω 
βεβληκειν, αΙχμη δε Βιεσσντό μαιμώωσα, 
οστεω εγχρυμφθεΐσα, πατήρ δ' ετι λοιγον αμννεν, 

οΐ μεν dp' άντίθεον %αρπη8όνα δΓοι εταίροι 
εζεφερον πολεμοιο- βάρυνε δε μιν δόρυ μακρόν 

665 ελκόμενον ' το μεν ου τις επεφράσατ οΰδε νόησεν, 
μηρού εξερύσαι δόρυ μείλινον, οφρ επιβαυη, 
σπευ^οντων • τοΓοζ^ γαρ έχον πονον άμφιεποντες. 
Ύληπόλεμον δ' ετερωθεν ευκνημί8ες ^Αχαιοί 
εζεφερον πολεμοιο • νόησε δε δΓος 'Οδυσοτεύς 

670 τλημονα Θνμον έχων, μαίμησε δε οι φίλον ητορ • 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 107 

μβρμηριζβ δ' ίττεντα κατά φρ^να καΐ κατά. θυμόν^ 
η προτ4ρω Διό? υιοί' ipiyhovnoio διώκοι, 
rj ο y€ των π\ζ.6νων Ανκίων άπο θυμον ελοίτο. 
ούδ' αρ' 'Οδυσσ-^ι μεγαλητορι μόρσιμον rjev 

675 Ιφθιμον Διός νΐον άποκτάμεν 6ζ4ι γαΚκω- 

τω ρα κατά πΚηθνν Ανκίων τραπε θυμον ^Κθηνη. 
ενθ* ο ye Κοίρανον βΐλεν ^Αλάστορά τβ Χρομίον re 
'^ΑλκανΒρόν θ* '' hXi6v re Ύ^ο-ημονά Τ€ ϋρντανίν τ€. 
και νύ κ €TL πλεονας Ανκίων κτάνβ διος 'Οδυσσεύς, 

680 ei μη dp* οζν νόησε μέγας κορνθαίολος '^Εκτωρ. 
βη δε δια προμάγων κεκορνθμενος αίθοπι γαΧκω 
δει/χα φέρων Δα^αοισι • χ(ίρη δ' αρα οΐ προσιόντι 
%αρπη8ων Διός υιός, έπος δ' ολοφνΒνον εειττεν • 
" Ι1ριαμί8η, μη 8η με ελωρ Ααναοΐσυν εάσης 

685 κείσθαι^ αλλ* επάμννον • έπειτα με καΐ λιττοι αιώ^ 
εν πόλει νμετερη, επει ονκ dp" εμελλον εγώ γε 
νοστησας οΙκόν8ε φίλην ες πατρίδα yaiai/ 
ενφρανεευν αλο)(όν τε φίλην και νηπυον νΐόν.^^ 

ως φάτο, τον δ' ον τι προσεφη κορνθαίολος '^Εκτωρ^ 

690 άλλα παρηιζεν λελιημένος, όφρα τάχιστα 

ώσαιτ Άργείους, πόλεων δ' από θνμον ελοιτο. 
οι μεν dp' αντίθεον ^αρπη8όνα διοι εταίροι 
εΐσαν νπ αιγιογοιο Διός περικαλΧει φηγω' 
εκ δ* dpa οι μηρον δόρυ μείλινον ωσε θύραζε 

695 ϊφθιμος ΤΙελάγων, ος οί φίλος ηεν εταίρος • 

τον δ' ελιπε ^νχη^ κατά δ' οφθαλμών κεχντ ά^λυς. 
αυτις δ* άμπνννθη, περί δε πνοιη Βορεαο 
ζώγρει επιπν^ίονσα κακώς κεκαφηότα θνμόν. 

Άργεΐοι δ' ΰπ' 'Άρηι καΐ '^Εκτορι χαλκοκορνστη 

700 οντε ποτέ προτρεποντο /χελαιι^αωι^ επι νηών 

οντε ποτ' άντεφεροντο μάχη, αλλ' αιει/ οπίσσω 



108 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ε. 

γάζονθ^^ ως έπνθοι/το μετά Ύρώεσσιν '^Αρηα. 
€ΐ/θα Twa πρώτον^ τίνα δ' νστατον ίζενάριζαν 
"Έικτωρ Τ€ TlpLoifjLOLO ττάις καΐ χάλκβο^ "Άρης ; 

705 άντίθεον Ύενθραντ^ Ιπ\ δε πληζίππον ^Ορ4στην^ 
Ύρηγρν τ αΐχ^μητηρ ΑΐτωΚιον Οΐνόμαόν re, 
θΙι/οπί8ην θ* '^EXevov καΐ ^Ορεσβιον αίολομιτρην^ 
09 /ό' iv ^Τ\ύ) ναίεσκβ μέγα πλοντοιο μεμηλώς, 
λίμνη κεκλιμένος ΚηφισίΒί • παρ δε οι άλλοι 

710 ναΐον Βοιωτοί, μάλα πίονα 8ημον έχοντες. 

τους δ' ώς ονν ενόηαε θεά, λενκώλενος "Ηρτ^, 
^Αργείονς ολεκοντας ενί κρατερτ) νσμίντ), 
αύτίκ ^Αθηναίην εττεα πτερόεντα προσηνΒα • 
" ώ πότΓΟί, atyto^oto Διός τεκος, άτρντώνη, 

715 ^ ρ* άλιον τον μνθον υπέστη μεν Μει^ελοιω, 
"ίλιοι^ εκπερσαντ εντείγεον άπονεεσθαι, 
εΐ οντω μαίνεσθαι εάσομεν ονλον Αρηα, 
αλλ' άγε Srj καΐ νωι μεΒώμεθα θούρί8ος άλκης.^^ 
ως εφατ\ ούδ' άπίθησε θεά, γλανκωπις Άθηνη, 

720 η μεν εποιχομενη χρνσάμπνκας εντνεν ίππους 
'^ϋρη πρεσβα θεά, θυγάτηρ μεγάλοιο Κρόνο lo • 
'^ΙΙβ'η δ' άμφ* οχεεσσι θοως βάλε καμπύλα κύκλα, 
χάλκεα οκτάκνημα, σι^ηρεω άζονι άμφίς. 
των η του χρυσεη Ιτυς άφθιτος, αυταρ ϋπερθεν 

725 χάλκε^ επίσσωτρα προσαρηρότα, ^αυ/Αα ΙΒεσθαι • 
πλημναί δ* αργύρου είσΐ περίτρομοι άμφοτερωθεν. 
δίφρος δε χρυσεοισι καΧ άργυρεοισιν Ιμασιν 
εντεταται, δοιαΐ δε περίτρομοι άντυγες είσιν. 
του δ' ε^ άργύρεος ρυμος πελεν • αυταρ εττ' άκρω 

730 δτίετε χρύσειον καλόν ζυγόν, εν δε λε'παδί^α 

κάλ^ έβαλε χρύσει • υπο δε ζυγον ηγαγεν 'ϋρη 
Ιππους ώκύπο8ας, μεμαυι έριδος και άυτης. 



FIFTH BOOK OF TilE ILIAD. 109 

avTOLp ^Αθηναίη κονρη Διο9 αίγωχοιο 
πεπλον μ€Ρ κατέγευεν ίανον πατρός in ovSei 

735 ποικίλορ, 01/ ρ αντη πουησατο καΐ κοίμ€ χ€ρσιν* 
η he γιτων ivSvaa Διός νβφεληγβρεταο 
τενχεσιν ες πόλβμορ θωρ-ησσετο Βακρνόεντα, 
άμφΐ δ' αρ' ωμοισιν βάλβτ αΙγι8α θνσανος,σσαν 
SeiPTjp, ην ττέρι μ^ρ παρττ) φόβος έστβφάρωταυ^ 

740 ip δ' Ιρις, ey δ' άλκη, ip δε κρνόεσσα Ιωκη^ 
€Ρ δε τ€ Γοργείη κεφαλή Seipolo πβλώρον 
SeiPT] τ€ σμερ^ρη τ€, Διός τέρας αίγίόχοίο. 
κρατί δ' έπ άμφίφαΚορ κυρεηρ θετό τετραφάληρορ 
χρνσείηρ, εκατόν ττολυωρ ττρυλεεσσ άραρνίαν. 

745 ες δ' ο^^α φλόγεα ποσΐ βησετο, λάζετο δ* ετγγος 
βριθν μέγα στιβαρόρ^ τω Ζάμνησι στίχας apSpcop 
ηρώωρ^ τοίσιρ τε κοτεσσετ αι οβριμοπάτρη, 
^^apy] δε μάστίγί θοώς επεμαίετ αρ* Ιππους • 
αντόμαται δε πΰλαι μνκορ ουρανού, ας εγρρ ^ίΐ/^αι, 

750 της επιτετραπται μέγας ουραρος Οϋλυμπός τε, 
ήμερ άρακλΐναι πυκινον νέφος "^δ* επίθεΐναι. 
τη ρα δι' αυτάων κεντρηνεκεας έχον ϊππους. 
ευρον δε Κρονίωνα θέων ατερ ημενον άλλωρ 
ακρότατη κορυφή πολυ8ειρά8ος Ούλύμπουο • 

755 ερθ^ ίππους στησασα θεά, λευκώλερος ^Ηρτ;, 
Ζηρ* ΰπατορ ΚρονΙΒηρ εζείρετο κοΧ προσεειπερ • 
" Ζευ πάτερ, ου ρεμεσίζη 'Άρει τάδε καρτερά έργα ; 
οσσατιορ τε και οίορ απώλεσε λαορ Άχαυωρ 
/χάψ, άταρ ου κατά κόσμορ, εμοί δ' άχος, οΐ δε εκηλοι 

760 τερπορται Κνπρις τε καΧ άργυρότοζος Απόλλων 
άφρορα τουτορ άρερτες, ος ου τιρα οΧ^ε θεμιστα. 
Ζευ πάτερ, η ρα τι μου κεχολώσεαι, αι κερ Αρηα 
λυγρως πεπληγυΐα μάχης εζαπο^ίωμαι ; " 



110 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ:^ Ε. 

τηΐ' δ' άπαμ€ίβ6ΐΜ€Ρος προσ^φη νβφεληγερ^τα Ζευς 

765 ** άγ/)€6 μοίν οί βπορσοι/ * Κθηναίην άγέΚύην^ 
Ύΐ € μαΚιστ εΐωθβ κάκτος oBvprjaL πελάζειι^." 

ως €φατ\ ούδ* άπίθησε θβά^ λενκώλενος '^ϊίρη^ 
μάστιζεν δ' ίππους• τω δ' ονκ α4κοντ€ πετεσθην 
μεσσ'ηγνς γαιης τ€ καυ ονρανον αστepoe^τoς. 

770 οσσον δ* T^epoei^tk^; ανηρ Hev οφθαΚμοίσιν 
ήμερος εν σκοπυτ) \ενσσων επί οίνοττα πόντον^ 
τόσσον επιθρώσκονσι θέων ύψτ^χβες Ιπποι* 
αλλ' οτε Βη Ύροίην ϊζον ποταμώ τε ρεοντε, 
ηχί ροας 'ϊ^υμόευς σνμβάλλετον ήΒε ^κάμαν^ρος, 

775 ενθ^ ίππους έστησε θεά, λενκώλενος ^Ηρτ^, 

λυσασ' εζ ογεων, περί δ* ηερα πουλί) ν εγευεν • 
τοΊ,σιν δ' άμβροσίην ^ψοευς ανέτειλε νεμεσθαι. 
τω 8ε βάτην τρηρωσι πελειάσιν ΐθμαθ^ ό/ΛοΓαι, 
άν^ράσιν ^Αργειοισιν άΧεζεμεναι /Λβ/χαυιαι. 

780 αλλ' οτε δτ^ ρ ΐκανον, οθι πλείστοι καΧ άριστοι 
εστασαν, άμφΐ βίην Αιομη8εος ιππο8άμοιο 
εΐλόμενοι, λειουσιν εοικότες ώμοφαγοισιν 
η συσι κάπροισιν, των τε σθένος ουκ άλαπα^νόν, 
ένθα στάσ* ηυσε θεά, λευκώλενος 'Uprj, 

785 %τεντορι eiaa/xeVry μεγαλητορι γαλκεοφώνω, 
ος τόσον αϋ8ησασχ, όσον άλλοι πεντήκοντα* 
" αιδώς, ^Αργεΐοι, κάκ ελεγχεα, είδος άγητοί • 
οφρα μεν ες πόλεμον πωλεσκετο δΓος Ά^ιλλευς, 
ούδε ποτέ Τρώες προ πυλάων Ααρ8ανιάων 

790 οΐχνεσκον • κείνου γαρ ε^εί^ισαν οβριμον εγχος • 
νυν δε εκάς πόλιος κοίλης επί νηυσΐ μάχονται^ 

ως ειπουσ' ωτρυνε μένος και θυμον εκάστου. 
Τυδειδτ^ δ' επόρουσε θεά, γλαυκωπις Άθηνη • 
εύρε δε τον γε ανακτά παρ* ΐπποισιν και οχεσφιν 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. Ill 

795 eXfco? άναχρύχορτα, τό ^xiv βάλβ ΤΐάνΒαρος Ιω. 
18ρω<; γοίρ y^^v ereipev νπο πΧατεος τ€λαμωνοζ 
άσπίΒος βύκνκλον - τω τβίρετο^ καμένε δε χείρα^ 
αν δ' ϊσχωρ τεΚαμωνα κελαίνεφες αίμ άττομοργνν, 
Ιππείον δε θεά ζνγον rjxjjaTO φώνησεν τ ε • 

800 " η ολίγον οΐ παιδα εοίκότα γείνατο Τυδευ?• 

Τυδευς τοι μικροί μεν εην δφ,ας, άλλα μ(ΐ-χ7]της • 
και ρ οτε περ μιν εγω ττοΧεμίζευν ουκ εΐασκον 
ούδ' εκτταιφάσσειν^ — οτε τ ηλυθε νόσφιν *Α^αιώϊ/ 
άγγελο? ες (&ηβας ττολεας μετά Καδ/Λεΐωζ/α9, 

805 ^αίννσθαί μιν ανωγον ενί μεγάροισιν εκηλον^ 

αντάρ 6 θνμον εγων ον καρτερον^ ώς το ττάρο'ζ περ, 
κονρονς Καδ/χειωζ/ προκαλίζετο^ πάντα δ' ενίκα 
[^ρηι8ίω<; • τοίη οΐ εγών επυτάρροθος ηα~\. 
σοΙ δ' η TOL μεν εγω παρά θ* Ισταμαι η^ε φυλάσσω, 

810 και σε προφρονεως κελομαι Ύρώεσσι μάχ^εσθαι • 
αλλά σευ η κάματος πολνάιζ γνΐα 8ε8νκεν, 
η νύ σε που δεο9 Ισ)(ει άκηριον • ου συ γ' έπειτα 
Τυδεος εκγονός εσσι Βαίφρονος Οι^εΐδαο." 

την δ' άπαμειβόμενος προσεφη κρατερός Αίομη8ης • 

815 " γιγνώσκω σε, θεά, θύγατερ Αώς αιγιό^οιο • 
τω τοι προφρονεως ερεω έπος ούδ' επικεύσω. 
ούτε τί με 8εος ΐσχει άκηριον οΰτε τις οκνος, 
άλλ' ετι σεων /χε/Λΐ^τ^/ιαι εφετμεων, ας επετειλας* 
ου μ* εΐας μακάρεσσι θεοΐς αντίκρυ μάχ^εσθαι 

820 τοις άλλοις • άτάρ ει κε Αιος θυγάτηρ ^ Αφροδίτη 
ελθησ ες πόλεμον, την γ' ουτάμεν όζει χ^αλκω, 
τούνεκα νυν αυτός τ άναχάζομαι ή8ε καΐ άλλους 
^Αργείους εκελευσα άλτ^/χει^αι ενθάΒε πάντας • 
γιγνώσκω γάρ 'Άρηα μάχιην άνά κοιρανεοντα." 

825 τον δ' ημείβετ έπειτα θεά, γλαυκωπις ^Αθηνη • 



112 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Ε. 

*' Τνδβιδτ; Διο/χτ^δβς, €μφ κ^γαρισμένε θνμω, 
μητ€ συ y' '^Αρηα τ6 γβ δείδι^ι μήτε τιν* άλλον 
αθανάτων • τοίη τοι έγων έπυτάρροθός ζίμι, 
αλλ' ay βπ '^Αρηυ πρώτω e^e μώνυχα<ζ ίππους^ 

830 Tvxjjov δέ σχε^ίην μη^^ άζεο θονρον "Κρηα 

τοντον μαινόμ€νον^ τνκτον κακόν, άλλοπροσαλλον, 
ος πρώην μ€ν έμοί re /cat ΐ^ρη (ττεντ αγορεύων 
ΎρωσΙ μαχησεσθαί, άτάρ Άργβίοισίν άρηξβίν, 
νυν δε μετά Ύρώεσσιν ομιλείς των δε λελασται." 

835 ως φαμενη %θενελον μεν άφί* ίππων ωσε γαμάζε^ 
χ^ιρί πάλιν ερνσασ* ' 6 δ* dp' εμμαπεωζ άπόρουσεν. 
7) S* ες 8ίφρον έβαινε παραΐ Αωμη8εα 8ΐον 
εμμεμανΐα θεά' μέγα δ' εβραχε φηγυνος άξων 
βριθοσνντι • δειι^ι^^ γαρ άγεν θεον άνΖρα τ άριστον, 

840 λαζετο δε μάστιγα κα\ ηνία Παλλάς ^Αθηνη • 
αντίκ επ' "Άρηι πρώτω εχε μώννχας ίππους, 
η τοι 6 μεν ΐίερίφαντα πελώριον εζενάριζεν^ 
Αιτωλών οχ άριστον, ^Οχησίου άγλαον υΐόν • 
τον μεν 'Άρης ενάριζε μιαιφόνος • αυτάρ Άθηνη 

845 δυΐ'* ^Αιδος κυνεην, μη μιν iSoi οβριμος ^Αρης, 
ώς δε Γδε βροτολοιγος 'Άρης ΑιομηΒεα 8ων, 
η τοι 6 μεν ΐίερίφαντα πελώριον αυτόθ* εασεν 
κεΐσθαι, οθι πρώτον κτείνων εζαίνυτο θυμόν, 
αυτάρ 6 βη ρ* Ιθυς Αιομη^εος ίππο8άμοιο. 

850 οι δ' δτε 8η σχεΒον ήσαν επ* άλληλοισιν ιοντες, 
πρόσθεν ^Αρης ώρεξαθ' υπέρ ζυγον ηνία θ' ίππων 
εγχεϊ χαλκείω, μεμαώς άπο θυμον έλεσ^αι • 
κοΧ τό γε χειρί λαβουσα θεά, γλαυκώπις Άθηνη, 
ωσεν ύπεκ Βίφροιο ετώσιον at^^'^t'ai. 

855 Βεύτερος αυθ^ ώρμάτο βοην άγαθος ΑιομηΒης 
εγχεϊ χαλκείω • επερεισε δε Παλλάς Άθηνη 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 113 

veiarov ες κβρβωνα^ οθι ζωννύσκετο μίτρην • 

rrj ρά μιν οντά τνγων^ δια Se XpooL καλόν eSaxjfep^ 

έκ Se Sopv σττάσ^ν ανης. 6 δ' ^βραγε ^aX/ceo? ^Αρτ/?, 

860 οσσον τ έρνεαχιλοι ίττίαγον η Βεκοί-χ^ίλοί 
άνερες εν πολεμώ, εριΒα ζννάγοντες '^Αρηος. 
τους δ' αρ' ΰπο τρόμος εΐλεν ^Αχαυονς τε Τρώας Τ€ 
^είσαντας • τόσον εβρο)^ '^Αρης ατός πολεμοίο. 
οΐη δ' εκ νεφεων ερεβεννη φαίνεται άηρ 

865 καύματος εζ άνεμοιο Βνσαεος ορνυμενοιο, 
τοίος Τυδείδτ; Διο/χτ^δεί* γαλκεος 'Άρης 
φαίνεθ^ ομον νεφεεσσιν Ιων εΙς ονρανον ενρνν. 
καρπαλίμως δ' Ικανε Θέων εδος, αίπνν "Όλνμττον^ 
παρ δε Διι Κρονίωνί καθεζετο θυμον αγενών, 

870 δεΓ^εζ^ δ' αμβροτον αίμα καταρρεον εζ ώτείλης, 
και ρ* ολοφνρόμενος επεα πτερόεντα προσηνΒα • 
" Ζευ πάτερ, ον νεμεσίζτ) ορών τάδε καρτερά έργα ; 
αΐεί του ρί-γιστα θεοί τετληότες είμεν 
αλλήλων Ιότητι, χάριν άνΖρεσσι φέροντες. 

875 σοι πάντες μαχόμεσθα• σν γαρ τεκές άφρονα κονρην^ 
ονλομενην, y τ αΐεν άησνλα έργα μεμηλεν. 
άλλου μεν γαρ πάντες, όσοι θεοί είσ* εν Όλυ/ϋίττω, 
σοί τ' επιπείθονται και ^ε8μημεσθα έκαστος • 
ταντην δ' οντ^ επε'ί προτιβάλλεαι οντε τι έργω, 

880 αλλ' άνιείς, επει αντος εγείναο τταΓδ' άί^ηλον * 
η ννν Τυδεος νίον νπερφίαλον Αιομη8εα 
μαργαίνειν άνεηκεν επ* άθανάτοισι θεοΤ,σιν. 
Κυττριδα μεν πρώτον σχεδόν οντασε χ^Γρ' επΙ καρπω^ 
αντάρ επειτ αντω μοι επεσσντο Ζαίμονι Ισος• 

885 άλλα μ νπηνεικαν ταχεες ττόδες ' η τε κε 8ηρον 
αντον πηματ* επασχον εν αΐνησίν νεκά^εσσιν, 
η κε ζως άμενηνος εα χαλκοΐο τνπησιν" 



114 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Ε. 

τον δ* α^' VTTohpa Ι^ων προσέφη νεφεληγερετα Ζευς 
"/χ,Τ7 τι μοί, αλλοπρόσαλλε, παρεζόμεΐΌς μυννρυζε. 

890 εγθίστο<; Si μοί εσσι θέων, οί "Ολνμπον εγονσιν • 
αίει yap τοι e/3t9 τε φίλη πόλεμοι τε μά^αι τε. 
μητρός τοι μένος εστίν άάσγετον, ονκ επιεικτόν, 
'Ήρης ' την μεν εγω σπονΒη ^αμνημ' επεεσσιν • 
τω σ όίω κείνης τάδε πάσγειν εννεσίησιν. 

895 αλλ' ον μάν σ ετι ^ηρον άνεζομαυ αλγε' εγοντα • 
εκ yap εμεί) yεvoς εσσί, εμοί δε σε yείvaτo μητηρ» 
εΐ δε τεν εζ άλλον yε Θέων yεvευ ωδ' άίΒηλος, 
καί κεν Βη πάλαι ησθα ενερτερος Ονρανιώνων^ 
ώς φάτο, κα\ ΤΙαιηον άvώyεL•v Ιησασθαι. 

900 τω δ' επΙ ΐίαιηων οΒννηφατα φάρμακα πάσσεν, 
[^ηκεσατ • ου μεν yap τ υ καταθνητός yε τετυκτο.'\ 
ως δ' οτ όπος γάλα λευκον επεLyόμεvoς σννεπηζεν 
vypov εόν, μάλα δ' ωκα περιτρεφεται κνκόωντι, 
ως αρα καρπαλίμως Ιησατο θονρον "Άρηα. 

905 τον δ' '^Ιΐβη λονσεν, γαρίεντα δε εΓ/χατα εσσεν • 
παρ δε Διι Κρονίωνυ καθεζετο κν^εϊ yaίωv, 

αΐ δ' αντις προς δώ/χ,α Διός μεyaλoιo νεοντο, 
ΐίρη τ Apyείη καΐ ^ΑλαλκομενηΙς ^Αθηνη, 
τταυσαίται βpoτoλoLyov "Αρην άνΒροκτασιοίων, 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 115 



OMHPOT lAIAAOS Z. 



Zijra δ' άρ^ ^Αν5ρομάχ•η5 κάϊ "Εκτορόε 4στ' οαριστύΐ. 
Colloquium Hectoreum narrat cum coniuge Zeta. 

* In Zeta, Hector prophesies ; 
Prays for his son ; wills sacrifice.* 

*E/fTopo? κα\ 'AvS po μάγ^ης ομι\ία. 

Ύρώων δ' οΐώθη και Ά^αιώζ/ φύλοπυς αΐνη ' 
ΤΓολλά δ' αρ* evOa και €ρΘ* ΐθνσβ μοίχΎ) ττεδιοιο, 
άλλτ^λωΐ' Ιθυνομ4νων -χ^αλκηρεα δουρα, 
μ€σσηγυς ^ψόεντος ISe Βιοίι^θοίο ροάων. 

5 Αίας δέ πρώτος Ύελαμώνως, βρκος Ά^αιώί^, 
Ύρώων prj^€ φάλαγγα, φ6ως δ' ίτάροισιν εθηκεν, 
dvSpa βαλών, ος άριστος ivX %ρΎΐκεσσι τβτνκτο, 
νΐον ^Έινσσώρον ^Ακάμαρτ ηνν Τ€ μβγαν τ€. 
τ6ρ ρ' ββαλβ πρώτος κόρνθος φά\ον ΙπποΖασείης, 

L0 eV δε μβτώπω πήζε, περησβ δ' άρ' οστέον βϊσω 
αίγ^μη γαΚκείη • τον δε σκότος όσσε κάλυφεν. 

"Αξυλον δ' άρ' επβφνβ βοην αγαθός ΑιομηΒης 
ΎευθρανίΒην, ος ίναιεν ευκτιμεντ) εν Άρίσβγ) 
άφνεώς βιότοιο, φίλος δ' ην άνθρώποισιν • 

15 πάντας γαρ φιλεεσκεν όδώ επι οικία ναίων. 

άλλα οι ου τις των γε τοτ ηρκεσε λχτγρον ολεθρον 
πρόσθεν ύπαντιάσας, αλλ' άμφω Θυμον άπηνρα, 
αυτόν και θεράποντα Καλησιον, ος ρα τόθ^ ίππων 
εσκεν νφηνίοχος • τω δ' άμφω yatal•' ε8ύτην. 



110 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ζ. 

20 Αρησορ δ' Έίύρναλος καΐ ^ΟφίΧτιον ίξενάριζεν • 
βη Se /xer' Αισηπον καΐ Πτ^δασ-οζ^, ους ττοτε νύμφη 
νηΐς Άβαρβαρ€η τβκ άμνμονι ΒουκολίωΡί. 
Βονκολίων δ' ηι/ νΙος άγανον ΑαομβΒοντος 
ττρεσβντατος yeperj^ σκοηον δε e γβίνατο μητηρ • 

25 Ίτοιμαίνων δ* ίττ οεσσι μ^γη φίΚότητί καΐ evvrj^ 
η δ' νποκνσαμενη διδυ/χάοϊ^ε γείνατο τταιδε. 
καΐ μεν των νπελνσε μένος καΐ φαίΒυμα γνΐα 
ΜηκίστηίάΒης καΙ απ ώμων τεν^ε εσνΧα. 
^Αστναλον δ* αρ* επεφνε μενεπτόλεμος Πολνττοίτηζ * 

30 Ι1ί8ντην δ' Όδυσεύς ΤΙερκώσίον εζενάριξεν 
εγχεϊ γαΚκείω, Τεύκρος δ' ^Αρετάονα hlov. 
^Αντίλογος δ' "ΑβΧηρον ενηρατο Sovpl φαευνω 
'ΝεστορίΒης^ '^Ελατον 8ε αναζ άντρων ^Αγαμέμνων • 
ναίε δε ^ατνιόεντος ενρρείταο τταρ οχθας 

35 ΤίηΒασον αίπεινην. Φύ\ακον δ' ελε Αηιτος ηρως 
φενγοντ ' Εύρνπνλος δε Μελάνθυον εξενάριξεν. 

'Ά^ρηστον δ' αρ έπειτα βοην αγαθός Μενέλαος 
ζωον ελ' • ΐππω yap οΐ άτνζομενω πεδίο to 
οζω ενι βλαφθεντε μνρικίνω, άγκνλον άρμα 

40 αςαντ εν πρώτω ρνμω αυτω μεν εβητην 

προς πόλίν^ y περ οΐ άλλοι ατνζόμενοι φοβεοντο, 
αντος δ' εκ 8ίφροιο πάρα τρογον εζεκυλίσθη 
πρηνης εν Koviyaiv επΙ στόμα, παρ δε οι εστη 
^ΑτρειΒης Μενέλαος έχων Βολιχόσκιον εγχος- 

45 "^ΑΒρηστος δ' dp* έπειτα λαβών ελλίσσετο γουνών • 
" ζώγρει^ ^Ατρεος νΙε, συ δ' afta δε^αι άποινα. 
πολλά δ' εν άφνειου πατρός κειμήλια κείται, 
χαλκός τε χρυσός τε πολύκμητός τε σιΒηρος • 
των K€v τοι χαρίσαιτο πατήρ άπερείσι αποινα^ 

50 εΓ κεν εμε ζωον πεπύθοιτ επΙ νηυσίν ^Αχαιώρ. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 117 

ως φοίτο., τω δ' αρα θυμον ivl στ-ηθεσσιν επείθεν, 
καΙ δτ7 /i'ti' τά)^ έμελλε θοας επΙ νηας ^Κγαιων 
Ζώσειν ω θεράποντι καταζεμεν • αλλ' ^ Κγαμεμνων 
άντίο<ζ ήλθε θέων, και ομοκλησας έπος ην8α • 

55 " ω πεπον, ω Μ,ενελαε, τί rj 8e σ"ύ κη8εαί όντως 
άντρων ; rj σοι άριστα πεποιηται κατά οίκοι/ 
προς Ύρώων; των μη τις νπεκφυγοι αίπυρ ολεθρον 
■χείρας θ* ημετέρας, μη^ΐ* ον τίνα γαστερι μητηρ 
κονρον εοντα φεροι, μη8^ ος φύγοι, αλλ' άμα πάντες 

60 Ίλιου εζαπολοίατ άκηΒεστοι καΐ άφαντοι." 

ως ειπών παρεπεισεν ά8ελφειον φρενας ηρως^ 
αΓσ"ΐ/χα παρειπών • 6 δ' άπο εθεν ώσατο χ^ιρι 
ηρω^ '^ΑΒρηστον, τον δε κρείων Αγαμέμνων 
ουτα κατά λαπάρην • 6 δ' άνετράπετ, Άτρεί8ης δέ 

65 λά^ εν στηθεσι βάς εξεσπασε μείλινον εγχος. 

Νέστωρ δ' *Αργειοισιν εκεκλετο μακρόν άύσας • 
" ω φίλοι ήρωες Δαζ^αοι, θεράποντες '^Αρηος, 
μη τις νυν ενάρων επιβαλλόμενος μετόπισθεν 
μιμνετω, ως κεν πλείστα φέρων επι νηας ΐκηται, 

70 αλλ' άν8ρας κτείνωμεν • έπειτα δε καΐ τα εκηλοί 
νεκρούς άμ πε8ιον συλήσετε τεθνηωτας," 

ως ειπών ωτρυνε μένος και θυμον εκάστου, 
ένθα κεν άντε Τρώες άρηιφίλων υπ* Ά^αιώΐ' 
Ιλιοζ^ είσανεβησαν άναλκείησι Βαμεντες, 

75 ει μη αρ Aiz/eta τε και '^Έκτορι είπε παραστας 
ΤΙριαμίΒης '^Ελενος, οίωνοπόλων οχ άριστος • 
" Atj^eta τε κα\ "Έ^κτορ, επει πόνος υμμι μάλιστα 
Ύρώων καΐ Αυκίων εγκεκλιται, ουνεκ άριστοι 
πάσαν επ" ιθύν εστε μάχεσθαί τε φρονεειν re, 

80 στητ αύτου, καΐ λαον ερυκάκετε προ πυλάων 
παντΎ) Ιποιγόμενοι, πρΙν αυτ εν χερσί γυναικών 



118 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ιλιαδο:ε ζ. 

φβνγοντας ireaieiv, ^ηίοισι he γαρμα γβνβσθαι, 
αντάρ iirei κ€ φάλαγγας ίττοτρννητον άπάοτα?, 
ημείς μεν ^αναοίσι μαγτ^σόμεθ* άνθι μένοντες^ 
85 καΐ μαΚα τειρόμενοί περ • άναγκαίτ] γαρ επείγει * 
'^FtKTopy άταρ συ πόλυρΒε μετερχ^εο^ είπε δ' έπειτα 
μητερί στ) καΐ εμτ) • η δε ξννάγονσα γεραιας 
νηον ^Αθηναίης γλανκώπί8ος εν πόλεί άκρη^ 
οΐζασα κΚηΙ^ι θύρας Ιεροιο 86μοίθ^ 
90 πεπλον^ ο οΐ Βοκεει γαριεστατος η^ε μέγιστος 
είναι ενι μεγαρω και οι ποΧν φίλτατος αύτη^ 
^eti^at ^Αθηναίης επι γοννασιν ηνκόμοιο^ 
και οι νποσγεσθαι 8υοκαί8εκα βονς ενΙ νηω 
ηνις ήκεστας Ιερενσεμεν, αϊ κ ελεηστ) 
95 άστυ τε και Ύρώων άλόχους καΐ ζ^τ^πια τεκνα^ 
αϊ κεν Ύυ8εος υΐον άπόσχτ) *Ιλιου Ιρης^ 
άγριον αιχμητην^ κρατερον μηστωρα φοβοιο, 
ον 8η εγω κάρτιστον 'Α;)(αιωι^ φημι γενέσθαι. 
ούδ' Άχ^ιλ-ηά ποθ* ωδε γ' ε8εί8ιμεν^ οργαμον άν8ρων, 

100 ον περ φασι θεάς εζεμμεναι • αλλ' 68ε λϊην 

μαίνεται^ οΰδε τις οι δύναται μένος Ισοφαριζειν.^^ 

ως εφαθ\ '^Κκτωρ δ' ου τι κασιγνητω άπίθησεν. 
αυτίκα δ' εζ ογεων συν τεύγεσιν άλτο γαμάζε^ 
πάλλων δ' οζεα Βουρε κατά στρατον ωγετο πάνττ] 

105 οτρύνων juta^ecracr^ai,, έγειρε δε φύλοπιν αΐνην. 
οι δ* ελελίγθιησαν και iuavTioi εσταν Ά^αιώι/* 
ΆργεΓοι δ' υπεγωριησαν^ λήξαν δε φόνοιο, 
φαν δε τιν* αθανάτων εζ ουρανού άστερόεντος 
Ύρωσιν άλεξησοντα κατελθεμεν • ως ελελι^θεν, 

ΙΙο'^Εκτωρ δε Ύρώεσσιν εκεκλετο μακρόν άύσας• 
" Τρώες ύπερθυμοι τηλεκλειτοί τ επίκουροι^ 
άνερες εστε, ψιλοί, μνησασθε δε θούρώος άλκης^ 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 119 

οφρ* αν έγώ βηω προτΐ '^IXlov rjSe yipovaiv 
βΐπω βουλ€ντΎ)σί και ή/^ετφτ^ς aXo^oLcrLv 

115 ^αίμοσιν άρησασθαι^ νποσγβσθαι δ' ύκατόμβας" 
ως αρα φωνησας άπ4βη κορνθαίολος '^ΈίΚτωρ • 
άμφΐ δε μιν σφνρα τνπτ€ καΐ αύ^βζ^α δερ/χα κελαυνόν^ 
Ι αντνζ η ττνμάτη Oeev άσπιΒος ομφαλοβσσης, 
Τλανκος δ' Ίππολόχοίο παις καΐ Τυδεος νΙος 

120 ες μέσον αμφοτέρων συνίτην μβμαώτβ μάχβσθαι, 
οι Ο οτ€ ΟΎ) σγ€.οον "ήσαν επ αΚΚ'ηΚοισιν ίοντβς, 
τον 7Γρότ€ρος προσεειπε βοην αγαθός Αωμη^ης • 
"τις δε συ εσσι, (^φιστε, καταθνητων ανθρώπων ; 
ον μ€ν γαρ ττοτ οπωπα μάχτ) ivL Kvhiaveiprj 

125 το πριν • αταρ μ€ν ννν γ€ πολν προβεβηκας απάντων 
σω θάρσβί, ο τ εμον ^οΚιγόσκιον εγ^ος εμευνας^ 
Βυστηνων δε τε παΓδες εμω μένει άντιόωσιν. 
ει δε' τις αθανάτων γε κατ ονρανον εΙΧηλονθας^ 
ουκ αν εγώ γε θεοΐσιν επονρανίοισι μαχοίμην. 

130 ούδε γαρ ούδε ί^ρύαντος νιος κρατερός Ανκόοργος 
Srjv rjvf ος pa ^εοΓσιι/ έπονρανίοισιν έριζεν^ 
ος ποτέ μαινομένοιο Αιωννσοιο τιθηνας 
σενε κατ ηγάθεον Ννσηιον • αί δ' άμα πασαι 
θύσθΧα γαμαΧ κατέ^ευαν^ νπ* αν8ροφόνοιο Ανκονργον 

135 θεινομεναι βονπΧηγι ' Αιώννσος δε φοβηθείς 

^νσεθ* ά\ος κατά κνμα^ %έτις δ' νπεΒέζατο κόλπω 
δεί,διοτα • κρατερός γαρ εχε τρόμος ανΒρος ομοκλγ). 
τω μεν έπειτ ο^ύσαντο θεοί ρεΐα ζώοντες, 
και μιν τνφλον έθηκε Κρόνου παις • ούδ' άρ* έτι Stjv 

140 ην, επεί άθανάτοισιν απηχθετο πάσι θεοΐσιν. 
ουο' αν εγω μακάρεσσι θεοΐς εθελοιμι μάχεσθαι, 
ει δε τις εσσι βροτων, οι άρούρης καρπον εΒουσιν^ 
ασ^τον t^', ως κεν θάσσον ολέθρου πείραθ* ϊκηαι,^* 



120 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ05 Ζ. 

• — τον δ' ανθ^ ΊπτΓολο^^οιο προσην^α φαίΒιμος νΙός • 

145 " Τυδβιδτ^ μεγάθυμε, τί η yeveqv epeeivei^ ; 
οΐη πβρ φύλλων γβνβη^ τοίη δε καΐ άντρων, 
φνλλα τα μίν τ άνεμος χ^αμάΒυς χεει, άλλα δε θ^ νλη 
τηλβθόωσα φνβυ, έαρος δ' έπίγίγνβται ωρη. 
ως άντρων γενεη rj μεν φνβι, Ύ) ο απολήγει. 

150 ει δ' εθελευς και ταύτα 8αημεναυ, οφρ' ευ ειδτ^ς, 
"^ ημετερην γενεην • πολλοί δε μιν άνΒρες Ισασιν • 
εστί πόλις 'Έιφύρη μυγω '^Αργεος Ιπποβότοιο, 
ένθα δε Σίσυφος εσκεν, ο κερ"^ ιστός γενετ άντρων, 
Σίσυφος Αΐολί8ης • 6 δ' άρα Τλαυκον τεκεθ* υΐόν, 

155 αυτάρ Τλαυκος ετικτεν άμύμονα Βελλεροφόντην. 
τω δε θεοί κάλλος τε καΐ ήνορεην ερατεινην 
ώπασαι^ • αυτάρ οι ΤίροΊτος κακά μησατο θυμω, 
δς ρ' εκ Βημου ελασσεν, επεί πολύ φίρτερος ηεν, 
Άργειων * Ζευς γάρ οι ύπο σκηπτρω ε^άμασσεν. 

160 τω δε γυντ) ΥΙροίτου επεμηνατο, δΓ Αι^τεια, 
κρυπτα^ΐΎΐ φιλότητι /χ,ιγτ^/χει^αι • αλλά τον ου τι 
\^ πείθ* άγαέ^ά φρονεοντα, 8αιφρονα Βελλεροφόντην. 
η δε \|Jευσaμεvη ΐΐροΐτον ^ασιλτ^α προσηύ8α • 
'τεθναίης, ω ΤΙροΐτ, η κάκτανε Βελλεροφόντην, 

165 θ9 μ* εθελεν φιλότητι /χιγτ^/χε^'αι ουκ εθελούση.^ 

ως φάτο, τον δε άνακτα χόλος λάβεν, οίον άκουσεν 
κτεΐναι μεν ρ άλεεινε, σεβάσσατο γάρ τό γε θυμω, 
πέμπε δε μιν Αυκίην8ε, πόρεν δ' ο γε σήματα λυγρά, 
γράφας εν πινάκι πτυκτω θυμοφθόρα πολλά, 

170 δει^αι δ' ήνώγει ω πενθερω, όφρ" άπόλοιτο. 
y αυτάρ 6 βη ΑυκίηνΒε θέων υπ" άμύμονι πομπή. 
αλλ* δτε ?>η Αυκίην ΐζε 'Βάνθον τε ρέοντα, 
προφρονεως μιν τΐεν άναζ Αυκίης ευρείης • 
εννημαρ ζείνισσε καΐ εννέα βους Ιερευσεν. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 121 

175 αλλ' ore St) δεκάτη έφάι/η ρο8ο8άκτυλος Ήώς, 
και τότε μιν ipeeive και jjree σήμα Iheadai, 
OTTL ρά οι γαμβροίο ττάρα Τίροίτοιο φίροιτο. 
αύτάρ inel Βη σήμα κακόν παρε^βξατο γαμβρού, 
πρώτον μίν ρα 'Κίμαυραν άμαιμακίτην έκίλενσεν 

ISO πεφνέμεν. η δ' αρ' βην θείον γένος ονδ' ανθρώπων, 
πρόσθε λέων, οπιθεν δβ Βρακών^ μεσστ] δε χίμαιρα, 
Βευνον άττοπνείονσα πνρος μένος αίθομένοιο. 
κα\ την μεν κατεπεφνε θέων τεράεσσι πυθησας • 
δεύτερον αν ^ολνμοίσυ μαχτ^σατο κν8α\ιμοισιν • 

185 καρτίστην 8ύ) την γε μάχην φάτο 8νμεναυ άντρων, 
το τρίτον αύ κατέπεφνεν Α/χαζόι/α9 αντιανειρας. 
τω δ' αρ' άνεργομένω ttvklvov SoXov άλλον νφαινεν 
κρίνας εκ Ανκίης ενρείης φωτάς αρίστους 
εΧσε λόγον • το\ δ' ου τι πάλιν οΐκόν^ε νεοντο • 

190 πάντας γαρ κατέπεφνεν άμνμων Βελλεροφόντης. 
αλλ' οτε δτ) γίγνωσκε θεού γόνον ηνν εόντα, 
αντον μιν κατίρυκε, διδου δ' ο γε θυγατέρα ην, 
δώ /ce δε οΐ τιμής βασιληί8ος ήμισυ πάσης • 
καΐ μεν οι Αύκιοι τέμενος τάμον εζογον άλλων, 

195 καλόν φυταλιης καΐ άρούρης, οφρα νεμοιτο. 
η δ' ετεκε τρία τέκνα Βαιφρονι Βελλεροφόντη, 
'^ΙσανΒρόν τε και Ίππόλοχον καΐ ΑαοΒάμειαν • 
Ααο8αμείη μεν παρελέζατο μητίετα Ζευς, 
η δ' ετεκ άντίθεον ^αρπη^όνα γαλκοκορυστην. 

200 αλλ' οτε 8η καΐ κείνος άπηγθετο πάσι θεοΐσιν, 
η τοι 6 κάπ πε8ίον το Άληιον οίος άλάτο 
ον θυμον κατε8ων, πάτον ανθρώπων άλεείνων, 
*Ισαν8ρον δε οΐ υΐον '^Αρης ατός πολεμοιο 
μαρνάμενον %ολνμοισι κατεκτανε κυ8αλίμοισιν, 

205 την δε γρλωσαμενη γρυσηνιος '^Αρτεμις έκτα. 



122 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ζ. 

*Ιππολο^θ9 δ' Ι/α' ίηκτε, καΐ έκ του φημί yevcaOai • 
7Γ€/Λ7Γ€ δε μ* is Ύροίιην, καί μοι /χάλα ττολλ* iner^Wev 
aiev dpiaTeveiv και νπ^ιρογον e/x/xei/at αλλωι^, 
/ιτ/δβ γένος πάτερων αίσγννεμεν, οί μετ/ άριστοι 

210 ei' τ' Έφυρτ) εγενοντο καΧ εν Αυκίτ) ενρειτ}. 

ταύτης τοι γενεης τε και αίματος ενγρμαι εα/αι." 

ως φάτο^ γηθησεν δβ βοην αγαθός ΑιομηΒης, 
εγχος μεν κατεπηζεν ενί χθονί πονλνβοτείρτ), 
ανταρ 6 μειΚιγίοισι προσηνΒα ποιμένα Χαών • 

215 " η ρά νν μοι ζεΐνος πατρώιός εσσι πα\αι6ς • 
Οίνενς γαρ ποτέ διος άμνμονα Βελλεροφοντην 
ζείνισ ενι μεγάροισιν εείκοσιν ηματ ερνξας. 
οι 8ε καΐ άλληλοισι πόρον feti'if^^ καλά • 
Οίνενς μεν ζωστήρα διδου φοινίκι φαεινόν, 

220 Βελλεροφόντης δε γ^ρνσεον Βεπας αμφικνπελλον, 
καί μιν εγω κατελειπον Ιων εν δώ /xacr* εμοΐσιν. 
ΎυΒεα δ' ου μεμνημαι, επεί μ* ετι τντθον εόντα 
κάλλιφ\ 6τ εν θηβ-ησιν άπώΧετο λαός *Α;(αιώί^. 
τω νυν σοΙ μεν εγω ζεΐνος φίλος " Κργεί μεσσω 

22b ειμί, συ δ' εν Αυκίτ), οτε κεν των 8'ημον ΐκωμαι. 
εγχεα δ' αλλήλων άλεώμεθα καΐ δι' ομίλου • 
πολλοί μεν γαρ εμοί Τρώες κλειτοί τ επίκουροι 
κτεινειν^ ον κε θεός γε πόρτ) και ποσσι κιχείω^ 
πολλοί δ' αυ σοι ΆχαιοΙ εναιρεμεν^ ον κε δυϊ^τ^αι. 

230 τευ^εα δ' άλλήλοις επαμείχ^ομεν^ οφρα καΐ οΓδε 
γνώσιν, δτι ζεΐνοι πατρώιοι εύχόμεθ* εΐι^αι." 

ως άρα φωνησαντε καθ* Ιππων άίζαντε 
χείρας τ αλλήλων λαβετην καί πιστώσαντο. 
ενθ* αυτέ Τλαύκω ΚρονίΒης φρενας εζελετο Ζευς, 

235 ος προς Ύυ8ει8ην ΑιομηΒεα τεύχε άμειβεν 
χρύσεα χαλκείων, εκατόμβοι εννεαβοίων. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 123 



"Έκτωρ δ' 0)9 2/caias re πνλας καΐ φηγον ΐκανβν^ 
άμ.ή> α pa μιν Ύρώων άλοχοί θ4ον τβξ. θνγατρ€<ζ 
€ΐρ6μ€ναί παΓδάς Τ€ κασίγνητονς τ€ era? re 

240 και ττόσιας • 6 δ' ίπβίτα θεο'ίς €υ^ζ.σθαι dvayuv 
πάσας ίζείης * πολλ^σι δέ κη^β έφητττο. 

αλλ' ore δή ΤΙριάμοιο h6p.ov irepiKaWe ΐκαρερ, 
ζ€στΎ)ς αΙθούσΎ]συ τβτυγιχό^ον^ αυταρ ev αντω 
ττζντιηκοντ eveaav θαλάμου ζεστοΊο \ίθοιο, 

245 πλησίοι αλλήλων δeδ/x^7/x,eVot • ίνθα δε παίδες 
κοιμωντο ϋριάμοιο πάρα μνηστές άλογοισιν 
κουράων δ' έτβρωθεν Ιναντίοι h/hoOev αυλής 
8ώ8€κ eaav reyeot θαλάμου ζ^στοΐο λίθοιο^ 
πλησίοι αλλήλων δβΒμημβνοί • €ρθα δέ γαμβροί 

250 κοιμωντο Τίριάμοιο παρ* αιδοιτ^ς αλό'^ζΟίσίν. 
€.νθα οΐ ήπίό8ωρος έναντίη ηλυθβ μητηρ 
Ααο8ίκην εσάγουσα, θνγατρών €Ϊ8ος άρίστην • 
ίν τ άρα οΐ φυ xetpt, ίπος τ ίφατ ίκ r' ονόμαζεν • 
" reKvoVy τίπτζ. λιπών πόλεμον θρασνν βίληλουθας ; 

255 η μάλα 8η τείρονσι 8νσώνυμοι νΐες Άχαιώζ/ 

μαρνάμενοι περί άστυ, σ€ δ' Ινθά^ε θυμός άνηκεν 
Ιλθοντ εζ άκρης πολιός ΔιΙ γείρας άνασγείν. 
άλλα μέν^ οφρα κ€ τοι μ€λΐΎ]8€α οΧνον ενείκω, 
ως σπείστις ΔιΙ πατρι καΐ άλλοις άθανάτοισιν 

260 πρώτον^ έπειτα δε καυτός ονησεαι, αϊ κε πίτρ-θα, 
dv8pi δε κεκμηώτι μένος μέγα οίνος ctefet, 
ως τύντ) κεκμηκας αμυνών σοίσιν ετησιν. 

την δ* ημειβετ έπειτα μέγας κορυθαίολος 'Έκτωρ • 
^^ μη μοι όΐνον άειρε μελίφρονα, πότνια μητερ^ 

265 μη μ* άπογυιώσης^ μένεος δ' αλκής τε λάθωμαυ • 
X^pcrl δ' άνίπτοισιν Δα λείβειν αϊθοπα οΧνον 
άζομαι • ού8ε πη εστί κελαινεφει Κρονίο^νι, 



\ 

\ 



124 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Ζ. 

αΐματί και λνθρω πεπαλαγμ€ΐ/ορ εύχετάασθαί. 
αλλά συ μ€ρ προς νηον Άθηναίης αγελείης 

270 €ρχ€ο σνν θν€€σσίρ^ άολλίσσασα yepaids ' 

π^πΚον δ', ος τις τοι χαρί€στατος ήΒβ μέγιστος 
εστίν iul μβγάρω καί τοι πολν φίλτατος OLvrrj, 
τον θες Άθηναίης έπΙ γοννασυν ηυκόμοίο, 
καί οΐ νποσ\4σθαι ΒνοκαίΒεκα βονς ivl νηω 

275 ηνις ηκεστας Ιερευσεμβν, αϊ κ ελεηστ} 

άστυ τε καΐ Ύρωων αλόχονς καΐ νηπυα τέκνα, 
αϊ κεν Ύν8έος νΐον άπόσχΎ} Ίλιου Ιρης, 
aypiov αίχμητην^ Κρατερον μηστωρα φοβοιο. 
αλλά συ μεν προς νηον ^Αθηναίης άγελείης 

280 έρχεν^ εγω 8ε ΐΐάριν μετεΧενσομαι^ οφρα καλέσσω, 
αϊ κ έθέ\τισ είπόντος ακονέμεν ' ως κέ οΐ αυθυ 
γαία χάνοι • μέγα yap μιν ^Ολύμπιος έτρεφε πημα 
Ύρωσί τε καΐ ΐίριαμω μεγαλητορι τοΤο τε παισίί'. 
ει κείνον ye ΐ8οιμι κατεΧθόντ '^Αιοος εΐσω^ 

285 φαίην κεν φιΚον ητορ οιζνος έκλελαθέσθαι"^ 

ως έφαθ\ η 8ε μολονσα ποτΐ μέγαρα α'μφιπόλοισιν 
κέκλετο. ται δ' dp* άόλλισσαν κατά άστυ γεραιας. 
αύτη δ' ες θάλαμον κατεβησετο κηώεγτα^ 
ένθ* έσαν οι πέπλοι παμποίκιΚοι^ ^PJP^ γυναικών 

290 ^ι8ονίων^ τάς αυτός ^Αλέζαν^ρος θεοειΒης 
ηγαγε 'ϊ^ι8ονίΎ)θεν^ επιπλως ευρέα πόντον, 
την όδοι/, ην Έλένην περ άνηγαγεν εύπατέρειαν. 
των εν άειραμένη Εκάβη φέρε 8ωρον Άθηντ], 
09 κάλλιστος έην ποικίλμασιν η8ε μέγιστος^ 

295 άστηρ δ' ως άπέλαμπεν • εκείτο δε νειαφς άλλων, 
βη δ' teWt, πολλαι δε μετεσσεύοντο γεραιαι. 

at δ' οτε νη}>ν ϊκανον ^Αθηνης εν πόλει ακρη^ 
τησι θύρας ωιζε Θεανώ κάλλιπάρηο^ 




SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 125 

Κίσσηί^, αλοχος 'Αντήνορος InnoSdfxoLO • 
300 Trju γαρ Ύρώες εθηκαν ^Αθηναιης lepeiav. 

αί δ' ολολυγΎ) πάσαι Άθηι^Ύ/ ^^ΐρας άν^σγον 
η δ' άρα πβπλον έλουσα Θεανώ καλλίπαρτ^ος 
θηκ€Ρ Άθηναίηζ επι γοννασιν ηνκόμοιο, 
ευγομ,ενη δ' ηρατο Αιος κονρτ} μεγαλοίο • 
3Q[^' TTOTVL Άθηναίη^ ρνσίπτολί, δια θεάων^ 
^Ι^ξον hy) ^γχοζ Διο/χτ/δεο?, ή^β καΐ αυτόν 

πρηνεα δός πεσεειν Χκαυών ττροττάροίθε πυλαίων^ 
οφρα TOL αύτίκα νυν ΒυοκαίΒεκα /5ου9 ειΊ νηω 
ηνυς ήκεστας Ιερεύσομεν^ αι κ ελέησες 
310 άστυ τε και Ύρώων αλόχους καΐ ι^τ^πια τεκναΓ 
ως εφατ ευχόμενη, άνενευε hi Π αλλά? Άθηνη. 
ως αΐ μεν ρ ευχοντο Διός κούρτ) μεγοίλοιο, 
'^Έικτωρ δβ προς δώ/ιατ' ^ΑλεζανΒροίο βεβηκειν 
κα\α, τα ρ αύτος ετευζε συν άν^ράσιν, οί τ6τ άριστοι 
15 ήσαν ενι Ύροίτ) εριβώλακι τεκτονες άν8ρες • 
06 οι εποίησαν θάλαμον καΐ δώ/χα καΐ αυλην 
εγγύθι τε ΤΙριάμοιο καΐ "Έκτορος εν πόλει άκρη, 
ενθ^ '^Εκτωρ εισήλθε 8ιίφιλος, εν δ' άρα χειρι 
εγχος εχ ενΒεκάπηχυ • πάροιθε δε λάμπετο 8ουρος 
320 αΙχμη χαλκείη, περί δβ χρΰσεος θεε πόρκης. 

τον δ' εΰρ' εν Θαλάμω περικαλλεα τεύχε* εποντα, 
ασπίδα καΐ θώρηκα, καΐ αγκύλα τοζ' αφόωντα • 
^Αργείη δ' '^Ελενη μετ άρα Βμωησι γυι^αι^ιι/ 
ηστο και άμφιπόλοισι περικλυτά έργα κελευεν. 
325 τον δ' '^Έ^κτωρ νείκεσσεν ι^ων αίσχροΐς επεεσσιν • 
" δαι/ιόι/ι', ου μεν καλά χόλον t6vS* ενθεο θυμω. 
λαοί μεν φθινύθουσι περί τττολιι^ αΐπύ τε τείχος 
μαρνάμενοι • σεο δ' εϊνεκ αυτή τε πτόλεμός τε 
άστυ τοδ* αμφι8ε8ηε • συ δ* αν μαχεσαιο και αλλω, 



126 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔ02 Ζ. 

330 6V τινά πον μ€θι4ντα Γδοις στυγερού πολβμοίο. 
αλλ' αι^α, μη τάγα άστυ ττυρος Βηίοίο θερητα^^ 
τον δ' αυτ€ προσέειττεν Αλέξανδρος θεοευ^ης • 
""^E/CTop, επει με κατ αίσαν ενείκεσας ούδ* υττερ αίσαν, 
τούνεκά τοι ερεω • συ 8ε σύνθεο και μευ άκουσον. 

335 ου τοι εγω Ύρωων τόσσον χολω ούδε νεμέσσι 
τ/μην εν θαΧάμω^ εθελον δ' άχεϊ Ίτροτραττεσθ αι. 
νυν δε με τταρευπουσ άλοχος μαλακοΐς επεεσσιν ^^ 
ωρμησ' ες πόΧεμον, δοκεευ 8ε μου ωδε /cat αύτω 
Χώίον εσσεσθαι. νίκιη δ' επαμείβεται άνδρας. 

340 αλλ' aye νυν επίμεινον^ άρηια τεύγεα δυω • 
Ύ) LU , εγω όε μετειμι^ κιχ-ησεσυαι οε σ οιω. 

ως φάτο, τον δ' ου τι προσεφη κορυθαίολος 'Έκτωρ • 
τον δ' ^Ελενη μύθοισι προσηύ8α μειΚιγίοισιν * . 
" δαε/) εμειο^ κυνος κακομηχάνου οκρυοέσσης^ 

345 ως μ* οφελ' ηματι τω, οτε με πρώτον τεκέ μητηρ, 
οίγεσθαι προφερουσα κακή άνεμοιο θύελλα 
εΙς ορός η εις κύμα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης, 
ένθα με κυμ άποερσε ττάρος τάδε έργα γενέσθαι, 
αϋτάρ επει τάδε γ' ωδε θεοί κακά τεκμηραντο, 

350 άνΒρυς επειτ ωφελλον άμείνονος εΐζ^αι άκοιτις, 
ος η8η νεμεσίν τε καΐ αισ^εα πόλλ' ανθρώπων, 
τούτω δ' οΰτ^ άρ νυν φρένες εμπε8οι ούτ άρ* οπίσσω 
εσσονται • τω και μιν επαυρησεσθαι οιω. 
αλλ' άγε νυν εϊσελθε καΐ εζεο τωδ' επί Βιφρω, 

355 δαερ, ε'πει σε μάλιστα πόνος φρενας άμφιβεβηκεν 
εϊνεκ εμείο κυνος καΧ ΆλεζάνΒρου ενεκ άτης^ 
οϊσιν επί Ζευς θηκε κακόν μόρον, ως και οπίσσω 
άνθρώποισι πελώμεθ^ άοβιμοι εσσομενοισιν." 

"την δ' ημείβετ έπειτα μέγας κορυθαίολος '^Εκτωρ • 

360 " μη με κάθιζ\ Έλενη, φιλεουσά περ ' ούδε με πείσεις • 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 127 

η^η yap μόι θυμός έπέσσνται, οφρ ίπαμννω 
Ύρώ€σσ\ οί μ€γ* έμβιο ττοθην αττβόντος βγονσιν. 
άλλα σν y ορννθι τοντον^ iπ€Lyeσθω Se και αυτός, 
ώς Kev ίμ ίντοσθεν πόλιο9• καταμάρλ^ίΎ} έοντα, 

3j55 καΧ yap iyojv olkovS* έσβλβνσομαυ, οφρα ιδω^ί^αι, 
οίκηας αΚογόν Τ€ φίλην καΙ νηπιον υΐόν 
ου yap τ οΐδ', ί) ert σφιν υπότροπος Ιζομαι αυτις, 
τ) 7^07^ μ υπο γβρσι tfeoi οαμοωσιν Α^αιωϊ^. 
ως άρα φωνησας άπββη κορυθαίολος 'Έκτωρ. 

370 αΓψα δ' ίπειθ^ ΐκαν€ 8όμους έύ ναΐζτάοντας^ 

ούδ' eS/)' ΆνΒρομάχην λευκώλενορ iv μζ.yάpoισιVy 
αλλ' η y€ ζυν τταιδί καΧ άμφυπόλω έυπεπλω 
TTTjpycu έφβστηκει yoόωσά τ€ μυρομίνη re. 
*Έ/cτωp δ' ως ουκ €pSop άμύμονα τ4τμεν ακοιτιν 

375 ίστΎ) €π' ούΒον Ιώρ, μ€τα δε 8μωΎ)σιν ίευπεν • 

" el δ' aye μου, δ/χωαι, νημερτεα μυθησασθε ' <rj»VA>- 
πτ] ίβΐ) Άν8ρομάχΎ) λευκώλενος e/c μεΎαροίο ; 
rje πτ) 4ς ya\όωv η είνατέρων έυπεπλων^ 
η ές ^Κθιηναύης ίζοίχεται, ίνθα περ άλλαι 

380 Τρωαί ευπλόκααοί 8εψην θεον ΐΚάσκονται ; *' ^ 

τον δ' αυτ οτρηρΎΐ ταμίη προς μυθον εβίπεν 
"''Efcro/), έπεί μάλ^ άι/ωγας άληθεα μυθησασθαι^ 
ούτε πΐ[) Ις ya\όωv ουτ είνατέρων ΙυπέπΧων 
ουτ €9 ^Αθηναίης efot^erat, evOa περ άλλαι 

385 ΤρωαΙ ευπΧόκαμοι SeLvrjv Oeov ιΚάσκονται^ 

αλλ Ιπι πύpyov ίβη μeyav Ίλιου, ουνεκ άκουσεν 
Telpeadai Ύρωας, μeya δε κράτος elvai ^Κγαιων, 
η μεν οη προς τείχος επευγομενη αφικανει 
μαινομεντι εικυία- φέρει δ' άαα τταΓδα τιθηνη" 

390 η ρα yυvΎ| ταμίη^ 6 δ' απεσσυτο δώματος "^Εκτωρ jfUW' 
την αυτήν bhov αυτις ευκτιμενας κατ άyυιάς, 



ρ 



128 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Ζ. 

evre ττνλας ΐκανε 8ί€ρχόμ.€νος μέγα άστυ, fei/**' 

' iuO* άλοχ^ος πολνΒωρο'ζ ίναντίη ήλθε θ4ονσα 
395 ^Αν8ρομάχη^ θυγάτηρ 'μ€γαλητορο<; Ήετίωνος^ 
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^yjfiyj ύποπλακίττ}, Κυλυκεσσ' αν^ρεσσιν άνάσσων • 
τον π€ρ 8η θυγάτηρ εχβθ* '^Εκτορυ γαΧίΐοκορυσττι. 
τ) οι €π€ΐτ ηρτησ , α/χα ο α/χ<ριπολο9 /ctej/ αυττ; 
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τον ρ "Έικτωρ καλεεσκε ^καμάνΖριον, αντάρ οΐ άλλοι 



Άστυάρακτ • οΓος 'γάρ ipvero ^Ιλίοι^ '^Εκτωρ. 
η του ο μεν μειοησεν ιοων es παιοα σιωπτ) • 



ιειοησ 

405 *Αν8ρομάχΎ} 8ε οΐ οίγχι παρίστατο 8άκρν ρέουσα, 
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> ^ αλλ* άχε ' ούδβ μοί εστί πατήρ καΐ πότνια μητηρ. 
\ Μ^ η τοι γάρ πατέρα άμον άπεκτανε διος 'Ανιλλει;?, 

ΰ 415 εκ οε πολιν περσεν Κυλίκων εν ναιετοωσαν, 

Θηβην νφίπνλον * κατά δ' εκτανεν Ήετίωνα, 
ovSi μιν εξενάριξε^ σεβάσσατο γάρ το γε θνμω^ 
αλλ' αρα μιν κατεκηε σνν εντεσι οαιοαλεοισιν 
-^δ' επΙ σημ^ ^Χ^^^ * '^^Ρ^ ^^ πτελεας εφντενσαν 
420 ννμφαί 6ρεστίά8ες^ κονραι Διός οίγιόχοιο. 

οί δε μοι επτά κασίγνητοι εσαν εν μεγαροισιν^ 
οΐ μεν πάντες Ιω κίον ηματυ ^Αιδος εΐσω • 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 129 

ττάντα^ γαρ κατεπβφρβ πο8άρκης δΓος ' Α.χίλλ€νς 
βουσίν ίπ elkLiroheaai καλ αργ€νΡΎ}<; οίεσσιν. 

425 μητ€ρα δ', η βασιλενεν νπο ΤΙλάκω νληεσσΎ)^ 
την iwel αρ Sevp^ ηγαγ* οίμ* αλλοισι κτεάτεσσυν, 
αψ ο γε την απέλυσε Χαβων αττερείσι αποινα^ 
πατρός δ' εν μεγάροισι βαλ^ Αρτεμις Ιογεαιρα. 
^^EKTopy άταρ συ μοί εσσι πατήρ καΧ πότνια μητηρ 

430 ή^ε κασίγνητος^ συ δε μοι θαλερός παρακοίτης/^ 
αλλ' αγε νυν ελεαυρε καΐ αϋτου μιμν επΙ πύργω^ 
μη παιδ' ορφανυκον θνιης χηρην τε γυναίκα* 
[λαον δε στησον παρ* ερυνεόν^ ένθα μάλιστα 
άμβατός εστί πόλις καΐ επίΖρομον επλετο τεΐχος • 

435 τρΙς γαρ τη γ* ελθόντες επειρησανθ^ οι άριστοι 
αμφ* Αϊαντε δυω καΐ άγακλυτον ΊΒομενηα 
rjS* αμφ* ^Ατρει8ας καΐ Τνδεος άλκιμον υιόν 
η πού τις σφιν ενισπε θεοπροπίων ευ ειδώς, 
η νυ καΐ αυτών θυμός εποτρύνει και άνώγει^'\ 

440 την δ' αυτέ προσεειπε μέγας κορυθαίολος '^Εκτωρ' 
" η καΐ εμοί τάδε πάντα μελει^ ywat • άλλα μά}^ αΐνώς 
αιδεο^αι Τρώας καΐ Τρωάδας ελκεσΊπεττλους, 
αί κε κακός ως νόσφιν αλυσκάζω πολεμοιο • 
ούδε με θυμός άνωγεν, επεί μάθον ε/Α/χει^αι εσθλος 

445 αιεί καΐ πρώτοισι μετά Ύρώεσσι μάγεσθαι, 

άρνύμενος πατρός τε μέγα κλέος -ήδ' εμον αυτού, 
ευ γαρ εγω τόδε οΤδα κατά φρένα κα\ κατά θυμόν 
εσσεται ημαρ, οτ αν ποτ ολώλη Ιλιος Ιρη 
και ΙΙρίαμος και λαός ευμμελίω Τίριάμοιο. 

450 αλλ ου μοι Ύρώων τόσσον μέλει άλγος όπισσω, 
ουτ* αύτης Εκάβης οϋτε Τίριάμοιο άνακτος 
ούτε κασιγνητων, οι κεν πολεες τε καΐ εσθλοί 
εν κονίησι πεσοιεν υπ* ανΒράσι 8υσμενεεσσιν, 



130 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Ζ. 

οσσον σ€υ, ore kg/ τΐ9 Ά;γαιώι/ ^οΧκογιτώνων 

455 8ακρυ06σσαρ άγτ^ται, Ikevdepov ημαρ άπονρας. 

και K€v iv Kpyei έονσα π ροζ αλλτ^ς iarw ΰφαοΌΐς, 
και κβϊ' υδω^ φορβους ΜεσσηίΒος η 'Τπερείης 
πόλλ' ά€κaζoμ€l'ηy κρατερή δ' inLKeCaer ανάγκη • 
και TTore τις βΐπησυν IScov κατά 8οίκρν -χ^εουσαν • 

460 ^'^Εκτορος rjSe γννη, ος άριστενεσκε /χά^€<τ^αι 
Ύρώωρ ίπποδά^ϋΐωι/, ore ^Ιλιο^ άμφεμαγοντο.^ 
ως TTore τις eyoeei, crot δ' αν viov ίσσεται άλγος 
χητ€Ϊ τοιοΰδ' άν8ρός^ άμύνειν δουλιοι/ ημαρ. 
άλλα /!€ τεθνηώτα χυτή κατά γαία καλυπτοι, 

465 πρίν γί TL σης Τ€ βοής σον θ* εΚκηθμοίο πνθβσθα^^ 
ως είπωρ ον παιδος ορεξάτο φαίΒιμος '^Εκτωρ • 
άψ δ' 6 ττάις προς κοΚπον ίνζώνοιο τιθηνης 
εκλίνθη Ιάχων, πατρός φίλον oxJjlv άτνχθεις, 
ταρβησας -χ^αλκόν τε 18ε λόφον ίππιοχαίτην^ 

470 ^εινον απ* ακρότατης κόρνθος νενοντα νοησας. 

εκ δ' εγελασσε πατήρ τε φίλος και ττότι^ια μητηρ, 
αντίκ άπο κράτος κόρνθ* βιλετο φαί8υμος "Έκτωρ^ 
και την μεν κατεθηκεν επΙ γθονί πaμφavόωσaVy 
αντάρ ο γ' ον φίλον νΐον επεί κνσε πηλέ τε γερσίν^ 

475 ειπεν επενζάμενος Διι τ άλλοισίν τε θεοΖσιν 
/ " Ζβΰ άλλοι τε θεοί, δότβ δτ7 '^^^ τόι^δβ γενέσθαι. 
τταιδ' εμόν, ώς και εγώ περ, άριπρεπεα Ύρώεσσιν, 
ωδβ βίην τ αγαθόν και Ίλιου Ιφι άνάσσειν • 
και ποτέ τις ειποι ^πατρός γ' οδβ ποΧλον άμείνων^ 

480 εκ πολεμον ανιόντα • φεροί δ' εναρα βροτοεντα 
κτείνας hrjiov αι/δρα, -χαρείη δβ φρένα μητηρ^ 

ως εΙπών αλόνοιο φίλης εν χερσίν εθηκίεν 
παιο^ eoj* • ή ο o-pci /xii^ κηωοευ όεςατο κοΚπφ 
Βακρνόεν γελάσασα • ττοίτις δ' ελέησε νοησας, 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 131 

485 χ€ΐρι re μυν Karepe^ev^ ίπος τ εφατ e/c τ ονόμαζβν * 
" ΒαυμοΡίη, μη μοί τι \νην άκαγίζεο θνμω • 
ον γαρ τίς μ νπερ αίσαν άνηρ ^Αιδι προϊάψει • 
μοίραν δ* ον τινά φημυ πεφνγμενον βμμεναι άνΐ>ρων, 
ον κακόν, ονοε μεν εσθλον, επην τα πρώτα γενηται- 

490 αλλ €19 οίκον, tQUcra τα σ αντης έργα κόμιζε^ 
ίστόν τ ήλακατην Τ€, κ α' άμφιττοΚοισι κελενε 
ipyqv εττοίγερ-θαι* πόλεμος δ' άν^ρεσσι μελησευ 
πασιν, εμοί δε μάλιστα, τοί Ίλίω εΎγεγάασι ν.^^ _, 
ως άρα φωνησας κόρνθ* είλετο φαι^ιμος '^Εκτωρ 

495 ϊππονριν • άλοχος 8ε φίλη οΐκόν^ε βεβηκειν 
εντροπαλιζομενη θαλερον κατά ^άκρν χεονσα. 
aixjja ο επειθ^ ΐκφνε 8όμονς ^εν ναιετάοντας "^**^ 

'^Έίκτορος άνΒροφόνοιο, κιχησατο δ' εν8οθι πολλάς 
άμφιπόλονς, τησιν δε γόο^ πάσησιν ενωρμεν. 

500 at μεν ετι ζωον yqQv "Έικτορα ω ενί οίκω \ 
ον yap μιν ετ εφαντο νπότροπον εκ πολεμοιο 
Ιςεσθαι προφνγόντα μένος και χεΐρας Ά^αΐφϊ/. 

ούδε Πάρις Βηθννεν εν νφηλοίσι 86μοισιν, 
αλλ' 6 γ' επει κατεΒν κλντά τενχεα ποικίλα χαλκω, 

505 σενατ επειτ αζ^α άστυ, ποσι κραιπνοισι πεποισωςΤΊ 
ώς δ' ore τις στατος ίππος, άκοστησας επΙ φάτνη., 
Βεσμς^ν άπορρηξας θειη πεΒιοιο κροαίνων, 
εΙωθω% λονεσθαί ενρρεΐος ποταμοΐο, 
κνΒιόων • νφον δε κάρη εχει,άαφί δε χαΐται 

510 ωμοις άίσσονται • ό δ* αγΚαΙη^ πεποιθώς, 

ρίμφα ε yovva φέρει μετά τ ηυεακαΐ νομον Ιππων 
ως νιος ΐίριάμοιο Τΐάρις κατά ΐίεργάμον άκρης, 
τενχεσι παμφαίνων ως τ ήλεκτωρ, εβεβηκειν 
καγχαλόων, ταχεες δε πόδες φερον. αΤψα δ' έπειτα 

515'Έκτορα Siov ετετμεν άΒελφεον, ευτ' άρ* εμελλεν 



132 ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΟ^ Ζ. 

στρεφβσθ' έκ χωρτ^ς, οθυ fj οάριζ^ γυναικί. 
τον πρότερος προσέειττεν ΆλεζανΒρος θεοευδης • 
^^ηθεΐ\ η μάλα 8η σε ιςαΙΑσσνμενον κατερνκω 
8ηθννων, ονδ' ηλθον ei^atcrt/ibi/, ώς εκελενες.^^ 

520 τον δ' άπαμειβόμενος ττροσεφη κορνθαίολος'Έκτωρ' 
"δαι/χοϊ/ι*, ουκ αν τις τοι οίνηρ, ος εναίσιμος εϊη^ 
έργον ατιμιησειε μάχης, επεί άλκυμός εσσι ' 
άλλα εκών μευιεις τε και ονκ ευεΚευς • το ο εμον κηρ 
άχνυται εν θνμω^ 6Θ* ύπερ σεθεν αίσγε άκονω 

525 προς TpaxaVy ot εγονσι ποΧνν πόνον εινεκα σειο. 
αλλ' ΐομεν- τα δ' όπισθεν άρεσσόμεθ* , αϊ κε ποθί Ζευς 
δώτ; επονρανίοισι θεοίς αίειγενετησιν 
κρητηρα στησασθαι ελεύθερον εν μεγάροισιν^ 
εκ Ύροίης ελάσαντας ενκνημώας Αχαιούς." 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY ji 



COMMENTARY. 

FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

1-7. Prooemium : The wrath of Achilles, from its very beginning, and the 
destructive consequences ivhich followed in accordance with the will of Zeus. 
This is the principal theme of the Iliad. The First Book serves as an 
introduction to the whole poem. It narrates the story of the strife between 
Achilles and Agamemnon, and the decree of Zeus, which is made on the 
intercession of Thetis. — The events narrated in A occupy 21 days. See 
§7 a. 

1. μήνιν: wrath, lasting anger, the memo rem iram of Verg. A en. 
i. 4. Cf. 81, 247, 488. This receives prominence as being most impor- 
tant for the subject of the poem. — The definite article is ^ot needed in 
early Greek. The connection decides, as it does in Latin, whether it 
should be used in translation. See § 42 g. — θίά: i.e. the Muse. Homer 
does not assign special names and offices to different muses. See on Β 
484. Cf. άνδρα μοι ewcTre μονσα αϊ. — For the following caesural pause, 
see § 58 a,f. — Πηληιάδ€ω [ΐΙηλψάΒον or Πι/λειδου] : for the genitive-end- 
ing, see § 34 c. This adjective is called a ' patronymic,' and is often used 
as a proper name. See § 39. — Άχιλήοε [*Α;(ΐλλ€ως] : for the ending, see 
§ 23 c. Homer often drops one of two doubled consonants. See § 59 </^ 

2. ούλομένην : destructive, deadly, cf. Milton Par. Lost i. 2, 'forbidden 
fruit . . . whose mortal taste | Brought death into the world.* This is put 
in a kind of apposition with μηνιν, as if it were an afterthought. The 
idea is amplified in the following relative clause, cf. 10, Β 227 ; see § 12 e. 
— μυρία : countless ; not a numeral in Homer. — For the ' elision ' of a, 
see § 28 a. — For the * hiatus,' allowed when the final vowel has been 
elided, see § 27 e. — 'Αχαιοί? : often used for all the Greeks, see § 5 a. — 
άλγ€α [αλγί/] : i.e. the defeats caused by the absence of Achilles from the 
conflict. — For the uncontracted form, see § 24. — €θηκ€ν : caused (as Γ 
321, see § 17), nearly equiv. to τενχε below, or to the Attic Ιττοίησίν. 

3. ΐΓολλάς : the second clause of the relative sentence is closely con- 
nected witli the first, since ττολλάς repeats the idea of μνρία, while the 
third olause is added in the form of a contrast, αυτούς Sk κτλ. — Ιψθίμου« 
[Attic κρατερά?] : the feminine form Ιφθίμας is used by Homer only of 
persons. See § 38 a. — "Αϊδι ΐΓροΐαψ€ν : sent off to Hades, a vigorous expres- 



2 COMMENTARY. 

sion for a violent death, as Ε 190, Ζ 487. Cf. miiltos Danaum de- 
mit t i ni u s Oreo Verg. A en. ii. 398. For the use of προ, cf. προ ηκ€ 195. 
— "A'iSi ["Αιδϊ/] : a * metaplastic ' form of 'AcSiys, which in Homer is 
always the name of a person, the niler of the nether world. 

4. ηρώων : brave warriors. The word had not acquired the meaning ol 
heroes in the English sense (§ 17). — αυτού?: themselves, i.e. their bodies 
as contrasted with their souls. They would have cared less about the 
rites of burial, if they had not considered the body to be the man himself. 

— €λώρια [Attic αρτταγτ/ν] '.booty, c/.canibus data praeda Latinis j 
alitibusque Verg. Aen.YK. 485 f. For the preceding hiatus, see § 27 δ. 

— Τ€νχ€ Kvv6<rcriv : since the bodies often had to lie unburied, cf. Β 393. 
Dogs are the scavengers of the East. Cf. ' Him that dieth of Ahab in 
the city the dogs shall eat ; and him that dieth in the field shall the fowls 
of the air eat ' 1 Kings xxi. 24, ' And the Philistine said to David, "Come 
to me and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts 
of the field " ' 1 Sarn. xvii. 44. To be left unburied was a dreaded fate : 
so Hector at the point of death besought Achilles not to allow the dogs 
to devour him, X 339. — τ€ΰχ€ [ίτευχε] ι for the omission of the augment, 
see § 43 a. — κύν€<Γσιν [κυσιν] : for the ending, see § 36 b. 

5. οίωνοΐσ-ι [οΐωνοις] : the long form of the dative is more frequent in 
Homer than the dative in -οις. See § 35 i/. — 8αιτα [Attic kopr-qv] : here 
of the food of brutes ; cf. Β 383. — Aio« . . . βουλή : instead of Διός /χεγαλου 
δια βονλάς. This is joined parenthetically (§ 21) to the preceding rela- 
tive clause. The will of Zeus was accomplished in the consequences oi 
the wrath of Achilles. Cf. ' Such was the will of heaven,' Milton Par. Lost 
ii. 1025. — €TcXei£To [ετελειτο] : for the form, cf. vuKCLOiv Β 243, irvuovTC'i 
Β 536 ; see § 47 (7. — βουλή : willj cf. βούλομαι. This corresponds to the 
θέλημα (θ^λω) of tlie New Testament (-γενηθήτω rb θίλημά σον) and to 
the Ίτροαφεσις of Aristotle. 

6. ίξ ου κτλ. : since first, since once ; the starting-point for μηνιν ονλο- 
μίνην. This expression takes the place in Homer of the prose tira άπαξ, 
€πεΙ τάχιστα, cf. 235. πρώτον and πρώτα are used adv. with little differ- 
ence of meaning, cf 276, 319. — τά : for the short vowel lengthened before 
the following consonants, see § 59/. — διασ-τήτην [^Βίεστήτην] €ρίσαντ€ : con- 
tending separated, i.e. contended and separated, parted in strife (ερις). 

7. Άτρβΐδη? : of four syllables, see § 39/. For the use of the patro- 
nymic, see § 39 b. For the genealogy of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, see 
p. ix. of the Vocabulary. He is described by Helen as ' a good king and 
a brave warrior' (Γ 179). — άναξ άν$ρών : elsewhere precedes a proper 
name ; only here is it found after a patronymic. It is generally applied 
to Agamemnon. — For the 'apparent hiatus,' see §§ 27/, 32. — Stos: god- 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAB. 3 

like, glorious (evyci/ij?), a standing epithet of Aehilles and of Odysseus. 
No special excellence of character is implied. Observe the metrical 
adaptation to the names of these two heroes, allowing the ' bucolic diaere- 
sis,' after the fourth foot, see § 58 { ; cf. Φοΐβο<ζ * Απόλλων, Παλλάς *Αθηνη. 
^ος ^Αχίλλεύ^ closes the verse in Homer more than 50 times. 

8-52. The injured Chryses. The avenging Apollo. The scene opens 
in the tenth year of the war before Troy (B 295). 

For the situation at the opening of the war, see § 6. 

8. tCs t* όίρ : and who then ? A question from the standpoint of the hearer, 
suggested by 6. Cf, 'Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? — 
Th' infernal serpent,' Milton Par. Lost i. 33. Some god must have decreed 
the calamity; the Homeric theology recognized no blind chance. — cpiSi 
ξυν^ηκ€ : brought together in strife. — ξυν€ηκ€ [^σννηκε'] : for the augment, 
see § 43 d. — μάχ€<Γθαι : to contend, sc. ίπίεσσιν, cf. 304, Β 377 f. For the 
explanatory inf., cf. μχχντ^νεσθαι 107, ayciv 338, αι/άσσ«ν Β 108, ΙρίζΙμ,εναι 
Β 214. $ee § 13/; Η. 951 ; G. 1533. 

9. Λητοΰβ : cf 36. — For the inflection, see H. 197 ; G. 55. Αητω 
seems to be a short form of L at ο η a, but the latter does not appear in 
Greek. Apollo was the mediate cause of the trouble, since the pestilence 
occasioned the quarrel. — ο {^ovrcy;']: for the demonstrative use of the 
article, see § 42/. — βασιλήι: i.e. Agamemnon, ανα^ ανδρών. — For the 

'dative of association,' see H. 772; G. 1177. For the form, cf. Άχιλ^ος 
1. — χολωθ€($: see on 81. 

10. νοΰσ-ον : Attic νοσον, § 23 d. It is called Χοιμ.6<: 61. — ανά στρατόν: 
up through the camp (cf κατά. στρατόν 318), as the plague spread from tent 
to tent. Cf 53. — iSp<r€ : for the retention of σ after p, see § 48 e. — κακήν : 
the adjective is explained by the following clause, the first word of which 
takes up the thought of the adjective. For the order of words, connect- 
ing κακήν with what follows, see § 11/. — XaoC [λεω] : soldiery, cf. Γ 186 
and Agamemnon's epithet ττοιμψ λαών, Β 243, shepherd of the people. 
Attic άτΓ€θντ)σκον ot στρατιωται. 

11. τον [τούτον τον"] Χρύσην : that Chryses, well known to the hearers 
from stories or other songs. Nowhere else in Homer is the article used 
with a proper name. — ήτ£μασ€ν: slighted. — άρητήρα: receives prominence 
from its rhythm and position, almost equiv. to "though he was" etc. He 
is called tcpevs (the Attic word) below. — This verse has a * spondee * in the 
fifth foot, and hence is called * spondaic* See § 57 h, 

12. θοάδ : cf. νηνσΧ ωκυπόροισιν 421. A standing epithet of the ships 
even when they were on shore, § 12 a. — lirl νήαδ [ναΰς] : i.e. to the camp, 
where the ships were drawn up on land, cf. Β 688. — For the position of 
the preposition between the adjective and noun, cf. 15, 26; see § 11 m. 



4 COMMENTARY. 

13. λυσόμ,€νος : to release for himself, to ransom. The active is used of 
him who receives the ransom, 20, 29. — θύγατρα [OvyaTipa] : for the form, 
see H. 188, D; Good. 276. — Homer knows her only by her patronymio 
Ιίρνσψς (111, see § 39 g) daughter of Chryses. — ψ€ρων : bringing with 
him, probably on a wagon. — a-jnpda-C άττοινα: bullion, (either of gold, 
silver, or copper,) or vessels of precious metal, or clothing. 

14. <ΓΤ€μματ *Α•ΐΓΟλλωνο8 : cf Apollinis infula, Verg. Aen. ii. 430. 
This ribbon, or chaplet, of white wool, marked the priest's official char- 
acter. He came under the god's protection, but as a suppliant carried 
the fillet, instead of wearing it. Cf. laurumque manu vittasque 
ferentem | Chrysen, Ovid Ars Am. ii. 401. — €κηβόλου: he was the 
Archer Apollo. For similar epithets, see § 22 c. — For the loss of quan- 
tity in the final diphthong before an initial vowel, cf. 17 ; see § 59 k. 
— Άττόλλωνοβ: for the length of the first syllable, as 21, 36, etc., see 
§ 59 i/. 

15. χρυ<Γ€ω [χρυσω] : it was adorned with golden studs or nails. See 
on 219, Β 45 ; cf. 246. So the soul of the seer Teiresias had a χρύσ€ον 
σκητΓτρον in Hades. — χρνσΐωΐΒ pronounced as of two syllables, (cf. 1, and 
see § 25), and is thus metrically like the Attic form. — άνά <ΓκήΐΓτρω : on 
a staff. Construe with στίμμητ €χων. Equiv. to Attic €πΙ σκήπτρου. 
For the dative, cf. § 55/; H.792, 1; G. 1196. — Princes, judges, priests, 
and heralds carried σκήπτρα as symbols of authority. A σκηπτρον was 
placed in the hands of him who was about to address the assembly, as a 
sign that he *had the floor,* cf. 245, Γ 218, στη δέ μίσγι ayop-g ' σκηπτρον 
8e ot €μβαλ€ χειρί \ κηρν^ β 37 f. The judge in an Athenian court had 
a βακτηρία. The Spartans also carried stout staffs, and Athenian gentle- 
men carried canes. — iravTas: the bard's hearers easily made for them- 
selves the necessary limitations for such general expressions. The priest's 
errand was to the army and its leaders. 

16. Άτρ€Ϊ8α δύω [δυο] : for δυω with the dual, cf. Αίαντε Βνω Β 406, 
Γ 18, λίοντε δΰω, Ε 554. This dual form is infrequent. — Menelaus, king 
of Sparta (B 586), as husband of Helen, is associated with his brother 
Agamemnon ; cf Β 408. See § 6 a. — κοσμήτορί : κοσμίω is used in the 
sense of the later τάσσω, cf. Β 554, Γ 1 ; see § 17. 

17. The usual introduction to a speech (§ 12 A) is omitted. — For the 
use of the speaker's very words, instead of indirect discourse, see § 11 e. 
— €υκνήμιδ€ς: a standing epithet of the Achaeans (§ 12 h). In historical 
times, Herodotus mentions greaves as worn by the Lycians in the army 
of Xerxes. 

18. 06oC: monosyllable by «synizesis,* see § 25. ~Cf. di tibi dent 
capta classem deducere Troia, Horace Sat. ii. 3. 191. 



riKST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 5 

19. Πριάμοιο [Πριά/Αου] : for the form, see § 35 a. — ιτόλιν : for the 

length of the last syllable, see § 59 I. — ol'KaSe: homeward, always of the 
return to Greece, not like οΙκόνΒε into the house. See § 33 d, 

20. παΐδα Se: made prominent because of his love for his daughter ; 
instead of the c/xot δε which is expected in contrast with νμΐν μ^ν 18. — 
λνσ-αι: corresponds to Sotcv. Cf, 13. — "As I pray that you may be 
victorious and have a safe return, so may ye restore to me " elc, Cf. the 
prayer of Priam for Achilles, συ δέ τώνδ' άπόναω, και eXOoLs | σην es ττατρι'δα 
yaTav Ω 556 f. May^st thou enjoy these gifts and in safety reach thy native 
land, where the return of Hector's body is the condition implied for the 
prayer. The infinitive is here used for the imperative, but in an optative 
sense (like αειδε 1), not as a command ; cf. the infinitive and imperative 
in parallel clauses, 322 f ., Γ 459. — τά τ άττοινα : the priest points to the 
gifts which he brought with him. 

21. άξόμ6νοι [Attic σφόμενοι] κτλ. : a prime motive for granting the 
request. The Achaeans were to honor the god in the person of his priest. 

— The spondee in the fifth foot (see § 57 A) gives an emphatic close to 
the sentence, cf. 11, 157, 291, 600. 

22. Ιπευψήμησ-αν : for the usual βτττ/ι/τ/σαν, because of the religious fear 
which was required by the priest. It is followed by the infinitive as 
being equiv. to «κέλευσαν Ιπευφημονντί^ they hade with pious reverence; 
cf. Β 290. 

23. αΐδεΐσθαι: repeats αζόμ^νοι. — Ιερήα [ίερεα] : equivalent to άρητηρα 
11. — άγλαά: an important epithet, introducing a motive for the action. 

— δε'χθαι [Attic δε'^ασ^αι] : 2d aor. inf. from δέχομαι, see § 53. 

24. άλλ* ουκ κτλ. : a sharp contrast to άλλοι μίν, giving prominence to 
the negative. But not to the son of Atreus. — Άτρείδη: receives further 
emphasis from its position immediately before the pause of the verse. 
See § 11 h. Thus in the preceding verse ίερ^α is contrasted with αττοΐι/α, 
as θνγατρα 13, and the λΰσαι tc 20 with ζζχεσθαι. — θυμω: local, iti heart. 
See § 12 (7. — This verse in prose would be αλλ' *Ατρειδϊ/5 ονχ ησθηΤ^ ^ 

25. κακώ? : harshly. Cf. the use of κακήν 10. — άφίει : for the form, as 
from a verb in -ε'ω, see § 52 α ; for the omission of the augment, see § 43 a. 

— Homer is fond of using the imperfect to describe an action as in prog- 
ress (see § 19 A), cf. τευχε 4. — κρατερόν : strong, stern. — lirl αΰθον ετελλεν : 
laid upon him his command. — εττί : construe with ετελλεν, see § 55 «, h. — 
μΰθον : had not yet received the idea of fiction which is contained in the 
English myth. It and εττο? (216) are often used for the Attic λόγος which 
is found but twice in Homer. 

26-32. Agamemnon first rejects the admonition to fear the god and then 
refuses the request itself. 



6 COMMENTARY. 

26. μη κτλ. : see to it that I do not, let me not, etc. This prohibitive 
use of μη with the 1st pers. sing, is rare. — κοίλησ-ιν [κοιλαις] : for the 
form, cf. οιωνοΓσι 5; see § 34 e. — νηυσ•£ [νανσί] : for the form, see § 23 a. 

— κιχ€ίω \_κίχω'] : 2d aorist subjunctive from κίχάνω, § 51 d. 

27. avTis Ιόντα : returning, of. τταλιν πλαγχθίντας 59, δό /xcvat πάλιν 116. 

28. μή νύ τοι κτλ. : lest perhaps etc., adds to the preceding command 
the result that was to be feared if the command were disregarded. 

— ού χραίσ-μη : ου is used, not μη, since the negative and the verb 
form but one idea, he useless, of no avail; cf. 566, Γ 289 . ^— σκήιττρον 
κτλ. : " thy priestly dignity." 

29. irptv: sooner, adv. with Ιττίίσιν, with strengthening Kat eyen ; almost 
much rather. — For the animated ' adversative asyndeton,' see § 15 c. — 
μίν [αυττ^ν] : her. — circicriv: shall come upon. 

30. ημ€τ^ρω: the familiar our of the household. — «ν'Άργίϊ: i.e. in 
Peloponnesus (which name is not found in Homer), "Αργός Άχαακόν, not 
Π£λασγικόν "Αργός (Thessaly, Β 681), nor the city "Αργός where Diomed 
ruled (B 559). — This clause is in apposition with the first clause of the 
line, and it is repeated again by τηλόθι ττάτρης [μακράν άττο της ττατρίΒος']. 
The pause is very distinct after οίκω, although it is not marked by punc- 
tuation. See on Άτρ^'δτ; 24. 

31. Ιστόν €ΐΓθΐχομ^νην : going to and fro before the loom, plying the loom. 
The Greek women stood as they wove at their upright looms. Weaving 
was the principal occupation of the female slaves. — λ^χο? : ace. of 'limit 
of motion,' only here with άντίάω, approach, share the couch. See on 254. 

— άντιόωσαν [άι/τιώσαν] : for the form, see § 47 c. 

32. ϊθι, βρ^θιξί : for the ' explanatory asyndeton,' see § 15 b. — σ•αώτ£ρο5 : 
more safely, sc. than if thou shouldst refuse to go. This independent use 
of the comparative is frequent in Homer. — «s : in order that, here follows 
the emphatic word (§ 11 I) ; so on, o, δφρα, and ίνα may have the second 
place in the clause. Cf. Β 125. — For κί with the subjunctive, see II. 882 ; 
Goodwin 1367. — νίηαι [very]: for the uncontracted form, see §44 h. 
veo/xat is equivalent to Ιρχομαι. 

33. Cf. 568, Γ 418. — €86i<r€v: "fear came upon him." For the 
'inceptive aorist,' cf. βη 34, βχωσατο 64, θάρσησε 92, ταρβησαντε 331, 
8ακρνσας 349; see Η. 841; Goodwin 1260. Observe the change to the 
imperfect. For the quantity of the first syllable, cf. 406, 568, Γ 418 ; yee 
§ 59 A. — ό γ^ρων : 6 γεραίός 35. 

34. βή ΐφη'] : set out, cf Β 183. For the accent, cf φη Β 37 ; see 
§ 43 δ. — άκ^ων : sc. in terror at the harsh words. 

35. ΐΓολλά : earnestly, cognate ace. used as adv. with ηρατο. See § 56 b^ 
and on 78. — dirdvcvOc κιών: i.e. as he left the Achaean ciimp. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 7 

36. τόν [oi/] : relative pronoun, see § 42 i. 

37. κλΰθι : for the forms of this verb, see H. 489 D 30. — ^cO \_μον] : 
for this contraction, from /xco, see H. 37 D g. — άρ-γυρότοξ€ : the use of the 
epithet instead of the name gives a touch of intimacy to the address. Odys- 
seus thus addresses Athena as γλαυκώττι, and Athena addresses Apollo as 
c/caepye. See § 12 δ. The gods' instruments are of precious metal even 
where the metal is not best adapted to the work, cf. Ε 724, 731, and see 
on 611. — Χρύσην, Κίλλαν: Mysian cities, seats of the worship of Apollo, 
on the gulf of Adramyttium. They disappeared before the classical 
period. Chrysa was the home of the priest, who received his name from 
it. — άμψιβ€βηκας: "dost guard." The figure is taken from a beast 
standing over {hestriding) its young in order to protect it, cf. Ε 299. 
Cf. Gradivumque patrem Geticis qui praesidet arvis Verg. 
Aen. iii. 35. 

38. TevcSoio : cf. est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima 
fama j insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant 
Verg. Aen. ii. 21 f. — The genitive probably depends on the noun am^ 
which is contained in άνάσσ«9• — ίφι : for the old ending -φι, see § 33 a. — 
άνάσσ•€ΐ5 : in its original meaning, art protecting lord, βασιλεύω is not 
used of the gods in Homer. 

39. Σμινθ€ί» : 2/>ttv^cvs is a short, familiar form for "^μινθοφθόρος, 
epithet of Apollo as the averter of the plague of field mice. — €Ϊ ttotc : 
if ever, a form of adjuration. — χαρίίντα: 'proleptic,' to thy pleasure, lit. as 
a pleasing one. — «ττ^ρίψα: roofed over, i.e. completed, built. The early 
temples were of simple construction. The first temple of Apollo at 
Delphi was built of laurel boughs, according to the ancients. — The sup- 
pliant believes that he has made the god his debtor by his services, and 
he claims favors in return ; cf. 503 f . .The gods themselves recognized 
this obligation. — νηόν [νεών] : Homer follows the so-called Attic second 
declension in but a few words. Cf. λαοί 10. 

40. δή : nearly equivalent to η^η. — κατά : construe with €κηα. — 
«ιτίονα : as covered with fat, cf. 460. — μηρία : these and the synonymous 
μηρα are the thigh pieces, with more or less flesh, as cut from the μηροί 
(460) thighs of the victims, and sacrificed to the gods as burnt offerings. 
For the details of a sacrifice, see 458 ff., Β 421 ff. — €κηα [«καυσα] : § 48 h. 

41. τόδ€ μοι κτλ. : a formula, after which ' this desire ' is expressed by 
the opt. as here ; by the iinv., as 456, 505, or by <os with the optatiA^e. 

42. rCo-ciav: the verb is placed first, as containing the sum of his 
desire. — AavaoC: used only of the Greek army in the Trojan war. But 
in the Iliad the poet uses * Αχαιοί (the most frequently recurring designa- 
tion of the Greeks), ^ApyeioL or Δαναοί, to suit the convenience of his 



β COMMENTARY. 

verse•, see on 79, § 22 b. — β^λ€σ•(Γΐν [/SeXeatv] : the stem of the noun is 
βίλΐσ, and the ending σι, so the two sigmas are justified. See § 30/. 

44. βή . . . καρήνων : as Β 167, Δ 74. — βή : set out. The motion is 
continued in 6 δ' rjte 47. — Ούλύμιτοιο : Olympus in Homer is always the 
Thessalian mountain as home of the gods (not heaven itself) as is indi- 
cated by its epithets, άγάννίφος 420 snoiv-capped, νιφόεις, μχικρός 402, ττολυ- 
δ«ράς 499, τΓολντΓτνχος. See on 195. But see άττίβη γλαυκώττι? *Αθηνη \ 
ΟνλνμπόνΒ* δθί φασί θέων cSos ασφαλές alel \ (.μμ.€ναι. οντ ανίμ,οισι τινάσ- 
σεται . . . οϋτε χιών ίπίττίλναται κτλ. ζ 41 ff. Athena departed to Olympus, 
where (men say) is the ever-firm seat of the gods. It is not shaken by windsy 
nor does snow come nigh it. — καρήνων : construe with κατά. For its use 
for the summits of mountains,• r/. Β 167, 869. Cf. κάρα head; see H. 
216 D 8; G. 291, 16. — κήρ: accusative of specification, as ητορ, θνμόν, 
φρίνα, all frequent with verbs of emotion (§ 12 g). — For this description 
of the plague, see Lessing as quoted in § 11 d. 

45. ώμοια-ιν: dative of place, see § 19 a, equiv. to Attic inl των ωμών. 

— άμφηρ€ψ^α: i.e. closed both above and below as it hung on the shoul- 
der, see on Β 389. The explanation of the lengthened ultima is uncer- 
tain. — Apollo as god of the bow always carries bow and quiver, cf. his 
words σννηθ€<ζ άά ταντα βαστάζων €/M,ot Eur. Ale. 40, it is my custom ever 
to bear this bow. So he is often represented in works of art. 

46. c κλαγξαν : seems to represent to the ear the sound of arrows in the 
quiver, cf. Aiy^c βιός Δ 125. Cf. tela sonant humeris Verg. Aen. iv. 149. 

47. αύτοΰ κινηθ^ντοβ : αυτοί) contrasts the god with his arrows (§§ 11 /, 
42 d) . For the genitive absolute, see § 19 c, d. — ήΐ€ : Attic rju. — νυκτΐ : 
a time of dread. Cf Ισθορ€. φαί^ιμος "Εκτωρ | ννκτΐ 9orj ατάλαντος νττώτηα 
Μ 462 f.. Hector rushed in, like in countenance to swift night. ' He on his 
impious foes right onward drove, | Gloomy as night,' Milton Par. Lost vi. 
831 f. Comparisons are a notable characteristic of Homer's style. They 
are less frequent in this First Book of the Iliad than elsewhere in Homer. 
Cf 359, Β 87 fe., 147 ff., 337 fe., 394 ff., 455-483. See § 14. — έοικώς 
[ciK(us] : for the inflection, see H. 492 ; G. 537, 2. 

48. jicra: into the midst oi the camp. — Ιόν: an arrow. — έ'ηκβν: Attic 
^K€v, from ΐημι. See § 43 d. 

49. δ€ΐνή : attrib. with κλα-γγη. Cf. horrendum stridens sa- 
gitta Verg. Aen. ix. 632. — yivtro: arose, was heard. — βιοΐο: from the 
bow, ablatival genitive (§ 19 a). 

50. ούρήα$ καΐ Kvvas : mules and dogs in the baggage train of the army. 

— Ιιτωχίτο: attacked with his deadly missiles. — αργού? : swif, cf. των 
αρχαίων apyov το ταχν ττροσαγορενόντων Diod. iv. 41. — The Attic might 
be ττρωτον μχν τοις ημιόνοις iTre^rjei και τοις ταχίσι κνσίν. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 9 

51. αύτάρ : stronger than δε, correlative with μίν 50. See on av Β 768, 
§ 21 /. — αύτοίσ-ι : the Greeks themselves, contrasted with their domestic 
animals. More emphatic than ^ροτοισι or the Attic άνθρωποι^• — βί'λο?: 
for the quantity of the ultima, see 59 /. — cxeircuKc's : biting, sharp, cf. 
TTiKpbv οιστόν Δ 118. — €φΐ€(8 : iterative in meaning, like βάλλε fol- 
lowing. 

52. βάλλ€ : shot, with emphatic position at the close of a sentence and 
beginning of a verse; cf. 143 L, 241, 296, 501, 506, 523, 526. —aUC: det. 
— TTvpaC: plural since a new pyre w^as built each day. — νβκύων : so-called 
' genitive of material.' — This is a poetic form of the statement that mul- 
titudes perished from the pestilence. — θαμ€ΐαί : predicate adjective, where 
an adverb might have been used. See § 56 a. 

53-100. Assembly of the Greeks. Speeches of Achilles and Calchas. 

53. Ιννήμαρ : iwia is a round number in Homer. Cf ' Xine times the 
space that measures day and night | To mortal men,' Milton Par. Lost 
i. 50. — ωχ€το : the arrows are personified, cf αλτο δ' oiaros \ 6$νβ€λη<ζ, 
καθ' ομίλον Ιτητττίσθαι μ^νεαίνων Δ 125 f., eager to fly into the throng. 

54. τη 8€κάτη : dative of time. The article calls attention to this as 
the decisive day. — The adjective agrees with ημψΎ) or ηοΐ implied in 
εννημαρ. Cf. the omission of χαρί 501, βονλψ Β 379, Sopav Γ 17, χλαΐ- 
ναν Γ 126, ττνλίων Γ 263 ; and the use of neuter adjectives as substan- 
tives (see on 539). — 84: may stand after the second word in the clause 
since the first two words are so closely connected. — άγορήνδί : for the 
ending -δε, see § 33 d. The agora of the Achaeans was at the centre of 
their camp, a little removed from the sea, by the ships of Odysseus. The 
ayoprj in Homer was not yet degraded to be a market place, see § 17 ; it 
corresponds to the meeting place of the Athenian εκκλησία. — καλ€'<Γσ-ατο : 
caused to be summoned, cf. Β 50. Other princes than the commander-in- 
chief had authority to call an assembly of the people. — This expresses 
picturesquely the prosaic Ικκλησίαν εττοίησε. — For the σσ, see § 48 a. 

55. τω : equivalent to Attic αΰτω, — literally, for him. — eirl φρ€σΙ θήκ€ : 
put into (lit. upon) his heart. The Homeric Greeks did not think of the 
head as the seat of the intellect. — λ€υκώλ€νο8 : frequent epithet of Hera 
(§ 12 &), not often of women, as Γ 121; cf βοωπίς 551. — "Ηρη : why 
Hera hates Troy is not stated by the poet (except, possibly, Ω 25 ff.), but 
Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae were her favorite cities. 

56. Δαναών: genitive after a 'verb of mental action,' H. 742; G. 

1102 ρά : you see, with reference to the scene depicted in 51 f. — 

όρατο : the active and middle forms, ορω and δρωμαυ, ειδον and Ι^όμην, ιδω 
and ιδω/Ααι, are used in Homer without appreciable difference of meaning 
(§ 50 a) ; cf. 203, 262, 587, Β 237, Γ 163. 



10 COMMENTARY. 

57. ήγ€ρθ6ν κτλ. : the two verbs are thought to express the beginning 
and the completion of the act ; but we may compare the ' assemble and 
meet together ' of the Prayer Book. For the fulness of expression, see 
§12 d. — ηγ€ρθ€ν Ιηγφθησαν'] : aorist passive from άγύρω. For the end- 
ing, see § 44 m. 

58. τοίσ-ι [αύτοΓς] : 'dative of advantage.' Cf. 68, 247, 450, 571.— 
δ^: for its use in the ' apodosis,' see § 21 a; cf. 137, 194, 281, Γ 290.— 
άνι<Γτάμ€νο8 : the members of the assembly are seated (B 99), the 
speaker stands in their midst holding a staff (see on 15). — iroSas acvs 
κτλ. : as 84, 148, 215, etc. Cf. ττοΒάρκψ δΓος Άχιλλεΰ? 121. See § 12 b. 

59. *Ατρ€Ϊ8η : he addresses Agamemnon as chief in command. — νΰν : 
i.e. as things now are. — άμμί : Aeolic form for ■ημα<:. — ττάλιν ιτλαγχθίνταβ : 
driven back, i.e. unsuccessful, without having taken Ilios. Cf Β 132. 

60. €Ϊ K€v φύγοιμ€ν : the opt. is used instead of the subjunctive, because 
escape is thought of only vaguely. — θάνατον ψ : contrasted with αττονοσ- 
τησειν. "If indeed we may expect to return, and are not rather to die 
here." 

61. el 8ή : if now, as seems likely. — δαμ^ : future, see § 48 b. 

62. άγ6 : has become a mere interjection, and is used with the plural, 
as Β 331, but ayere also is used, as Β 72, 83. — μάντιν : a soothsayer, 
augur, who foretold the future chiefly from the flight of birds. — 
έ'ρ€ΐομ€ν [epcu/ACv, Attic €ρώμ€θα]: let us ask; present subjunctive, as if 
from €ρημί (§ 52 c). — Upfja : a priest of a definite divinity and sanctuary 
who predicted from the observation of sacrifices. Here some Trojan priest 
seems to be meant, since a priest could not desert the sanctuary of which 
he had charge, and so there were no priests in the Greek camp before 
Troy. The kings performed the sacrifices and offered prayers for the 
army. Cf Β 411 ff., Γ 275 ff. 

63. ovcipoiroXov : dream-seer. A dream-oracle is described by Vergil, 
Λ en. vii. 86-91. — καΐ γαρ κτλ. : for a dream also, as well as other signs. — 
γάρ T€ : closely connected, like η am que. — οναρ: equiv. to Attic 6v€ipo<s. 
— €K Aios: Zeus sends to Agamemnon (B 6) a dream that calls itself 
Διός άγγελο?. Athena also sends a dream to Penelope. 

64. OS κ €Ϊ•π•οι : potential optative in final sense, since the end aimed 
at is considered as a possible result of the principal action (tpeto/iev). — 
ο τι : wherefore. — τόσ-σ-ον «χώσατο : conceived such heavy anger. Inceptive 
aorist, cf. Ιδασεν 33. — τόσ-σ-ον: cognate accusatiA^e, used as an adverb. — 
For the doubled σ, see § 59 d e. — Άττόλλων : Achilles assumes that the 
pestilence was sent by the god of health and disease. 

65. €Ϊ Tc ο . . €Ϊ τ6 : indirect questions explaining the previous verse, cf. 
Β 349. — ο γ* : for the repetition of the subject, see on 97. — «ύχωλήβ, 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 11 

(κατόμβης : because of an unfulfilled vow or a hecatomb which has not been 
offered, cf. Ιρων μψίσας Ε 178 angry on account of the omission of sacrifices, 
— For the genitive of cause, cf 429, Β 225, 689, 694, τ^σδ' άπάττ/ς κοτίω^' 
Δ 168. — Homer does not hold strictly to the original meaning o:' 
'hecatomb,' cf 315; a 'hecatomb' of 12 heifers is mentioned Ζ 93, 115 
and one of rams in Δ 102. 

66. αϊ K€v [εάν] κτλ. : if perchance (in the hope that^ he may please. Se< 
II. 907.— KvtoT]s: partitive genitive with άντιάσαζ. — For the inflection» 
see H. 216, 2; G. 291, 4. — τ6λ€ίων : construe with both nouns. Onl}» 
unblemished victims were well pleasing to the gods. Thus the heifers 
offered to Athena were ' sleek, untouched by the goad, upon whose necks 
the yoke had never rested,' Ζ 94. 

67. βούλεται [βονληταί] : for the short mode-vowel in the subjunctive, 
see § 45. — άντιάσ-αβ κτλ. : to partake of the sacrifices and ward off from us 
(lit. /or us, see § 19 e). — άττο : construe with άμνναί. 

68. For such stereotyped verses,' c/. 73, 201. See § 12 h.— Cf the 
prose equivalent in Xen. Hell. II. 3. 35, ο μ€ν ταντ είττων ίκαθίζ^το' Θτ/ρα- 
μίνηζ δ' άι/αστας κτλ. — άρα : here refers to the participle, like eira in 
prose, as Β 310. — τοΐσι : for them, see on 58. 

69. οίωνοττόλων : soothsayers, in a general sense, as οιωνός is used for 
omen. This expression is used of Priam's son Helenus, Ζ 76, and Calchas 
is θεοττρότΓος οίωνίστψ Ν 70. He was a warrior as well as a seer. See 
on Β 832. — οχα : used only as a strengthening prefix with forms of 
άριστος. 

70. OS : is long by position, since -β^η once began with vau, cf Β 38.4- 
See § 59 w. — ηδη : used as imperfect, from οΓδα. — Ιο-σόμ,ίνα [Ισόμενα] : 
in this form the original ia of the stem is retained. — ιτρό τ Ιόντα : and 
which were before (i.e. past). — Ιόντα: forms of ειμί in Homer regularly 
retain the e of the stem. — This verse describes the seer's power in its full 
extent, cf novit namque omnia vates | quae sint, quae fuerint, 
quae mox ventura trahantur Verg. Georg. iv. 392 f. See Γ 109. 

71. νή€σσι [ναυσί"] : ' dative of interest ' with the verb. — For the inflec- 
tion, see § 36 &; H. 206 D; G. 270. — ηγήσατο : he led the way, guided. 
Here metaphorically of the seer who interpreted the portents relating to 
the voyage; cf. Β 322 f. So on the Argonautic expedition, the seer 
Mopsus gave the word for setting out. No expedition was complete 
without a soothsayer, even in the time of the Persian war, cf Hdt. ix. 37. 
But Xenophon and Clearchus inspected the sacrifices and observed the 
omens, in person. — "Ιλιον: here like Ύροίη, of the kingdom of Priam, not 
the city itself. — €Ϊσω: only Mith verbs of motion; much like cts. ' It 
follows its accusative. 



12 COMMENTARY. 

72. ην: possessive pronoun, where the Attic prose would use the 
article τ-ψ. This must not be confounded Avith the relative pronoun. 
Freq. the two can be distinguished by the verse, since the possessive origi- 
nally began with p. See § 32 a. — διά: hy the help of. Attic δια r^s 
μαντικής. For the thought, see on Β 832.-^Ά•π•όλλων : the sun god, the 
god of physical and intellectual light, — the prophet of Zeus and the 
patron of prophecy. 

73. (τφίν : construe Avith άγορησατο. — Iv φρον^ων : cf. φίλα φρονίων 
Δ 219, Attic evvovs. — άγορήσ-ατο : addressed them. — ^erUitriv [/xerctTrev] : 
for the form, see § 43 d; 11. 539 D 8. 

74. K^XcaC μ€ : Calchas as μάντκ; felt himself called t^t^speak by the 
words of Achilles, 62. — διίφιλ€ : cf. αρψφιΧος Γ 21 ; for the length of the 
antepenult, see § 36 a. — μυθήσ-ασ-θαι : interpret. 

75. €κατηβ€λ6ταο : for the form, see §§ 22 c, 34 c ; H. 148 D 1 ; G. 188, 3. 

76. kpi(u ktX. : / will speak, etc. A solemn form of introduction. Cf. 
* Behold now I have opened my mouth, my tongue hath spoken in my 
mouth,' Job xxxiii. 2. — ομοσσ-ον : see § 48 a. 

77. η μ^ν [μην'] : surely and truly. — ιτρόφρων : construe with άρη$€ίν. 
It is always used predicatively, where the English idiom would prefer an 
adverb, see § 56 α β. — eirc^iv καΐ χ€ρσ-ίν : equiv. to the prose λόγω και 
Ιργω by word and deed. Cf. 395. — άρήξειν : observe the future infinitive 
after words of promising or hoping. 

78. άνδρα: object οί χολωσέμεν shall enrar/e. — χολωσ€μ«ν [χολώσαν]: 
for the ending, see § 44/. — μ^'γα: used adverbially with KparecL, cf. 103, 
τΓολλόν 91, τΓολυ 112, evpv 102. It strengthens all three degrees of com- 
parison in Homer, cf Β 274, 239, 480. See § 56 δ. 

79. καί ol [αντω] : for και ω. The relative construction is abandoned 
as often in later Greek. Cf. 162, 506. See § 11/; H. 1005 ; G. 1040. This 
was especially natural after the pause in the verse. — The last half of the 
verse repeats the same thought in reverse order. — 'Αχαιοί: used here 
without distinction of meaning from *Apy€tW at the beginning of the 
verse, see on 42. Cf. Γ 226 f . 'Apyeiot is never used at the close of a 
verse, while 'Αχαιών could not begin the verse. 

80. γαρ : introduces a further explanation of his special need (cf ττρό- 
φρων 77) of protection. — οτ€ χώσ-€ται [όταν χώσηται] : whenever his wrath 
is roused. For the short mode vowel, see § 45 a. For the hypothetical 
relative sentence without αν or κε, cf. 230, 543, 554 ; see H. 914 a; G. 1437. 
— χίρη»- : a subject, man of low degree. 

81. 6Ϊ ircp kt\. : for even if, with the subjunctive. See § 18 iZ ; H. 894 b ; 
G. 1390. — χόλον : a burst of anger, y/hile kotos is the lasting grudge 
which plans for revenge, and the μηνις of Achilles led him simply to with- 



FIRST BOOK or THE ILIAD. 13 

draw from the fight (see on 1). χόλον is emphasized in contrast with 
κότον by ye and by its ' chiastic ' position (§ 16 a). The Attic οργή is not 
found in Homer. — καταττ^ψη : digest, suppress. Cf. ^Αχιλενς . . . iwi 
νηνσΐ χόλον θνμηΧγΙα πίσσίΐ Δ δ12 f . 

82. αλλά: after ctTrep, as Latin at after si, yet. The apodosis is really 
contrasted with the protasis (§ 21 a). — The reciprocal relation of the 
thoughts is marked by the re . . . re (§ 21 h), cf. 218, Γ 12, 33 f. — €χ€ΐ : 
holds fast, cherishes. — οψρα : temporal, until. — τίλ^σση [reXccny] : sc. 
κότον, accomplishes his wrath, i.e. does what he plans in his wrath. 

83. Iv <Γτήθ6σ<Γΐν : not capriciously, nor for the sake of the metre, sepa- 
lated from ίχει κότον, but added with greater emphasis than it could have 
at the close of the verse. — σ-τήθίσσιν : for the form, cf. βίλεσσιν 42. — 
€οίσι: possessive pronoun, cf. suus. The Attic might be satisfied with 
the article, cf. 72 . — φράσ-αι : aorist middle imperative, make clear to thy- 
self consider, φράζω in Homer does not mean tell. — €l : whether. — 
(Γαώσ -eis : Attic σώσ«9. 

84. The first 'hemistich' (with τψ occasionally for τόν) is used in 
Homer more than 100 times. — τον : construe with ττροσίφη. — άΐΓαμ6ΐβό- 
μ€νο5 κτλ. : with Epic fulness and dignity instead of the prosaic αττεκρί- 
νατο. 

85. θαρσήσα$ : cf. 92. — For the aorist, cf eSemev 33. — μόλα : construe 
with the imperative, as 173. — Qioirpoiriov : equiv. to Attic μχιντάον. 

86. ού μά : no, in truth, μά is a particle of swearing with the accusa- 
tive, which probably depends upon a verb implied. In affirmative assev- 
erations vat μά is used, as 234. The negative is repeated in 88 for greater 
earnestness. — Βιίφιλον : only here as an epithet of a divinity. — ω re 
€ύχόμ€νο5 : Calchas prayed to Apollo as his patron, the god of prophecy 
who revealed to him what he declared to the Greeks. — Κάλχαν : voca- 
tive. See H. 170 D. 

87. ecoirpoirCas : a collateral form to θεοττρόπίον 85, see § 37. — άναψαί- 
vics : art ivont to reveal. 

88. €μ€ΰ ζώντο5 : ivhile I live ; in a threatening tone. — €irl χθονί κτλ. : 
a poetic expression for ζώντος, cf vivus viden^que in Terence. For 
the fulness of expression, see § 12 rf; cf. 57, 99, 160, 177, 288 f., 553, Γ 71, 
' as sure as I live and breathe.' 

89. βαρίία? : heavy, i.e. violent. — xctpas €iroi<r€i : cf χείρας Ιφύω 567. 

90. οΰδ' ην : not even if, generally as here after a negative. " This 
promise will hold even if." — 'Αγαμέμνονα: Calchas had indicated him 
clearly in 78 f. 

91. Ίτολλόν: for its inflection, see § 38 c; for its adverbial use, cf. μέγα 
78, 103, τΓολυ 112. — αρισ-τος: mightiest, as commander-in-chief of the 



14 COMMENTARY. 

army. Cf. Β 82, 580 ; see on Β 108. — The Homeric heroes were always 
frank of speech. Achilles calls himself άριστος Ά;(αιών 244, 412; Odys- 
seus says that his fame reaches to the heavens ; Hector challenges the 
bravest of the Achaeans to fight "Έκτορι διω Η 7δ. Cf. sum pius 
Aeneas fama super aethera η otus T'erg. ^en. i. 378 f. But the 
formula εϋχομχΐί ctmt often contains no idea of boasting, and may mean 
only claim to be, affirm oneself to he. 

92. καΐ τότ€ δή : and so then (temporal). — θάρσ-ησ€ : took courage. — 
άμύμ,ων : refers generally to nobility of birth, or to beauty or strength of 
person, — not to moral quality. 

93 = 65, with the change of ovtc for ctrc. 

94. evcK άρητήροδ : construe with ίπιμέμφεταί. The preposition is 
used here, perhaps, because of the remoteness of the noun from the verb, 
but the poet was free to use the preposition or not, just as he chose. 

95. ούδ' cLiriKva-i κτλ. : a more definite statement of ήτίμησε, abandon- 
ing the relative construction, cf. 79. — In later Greek, participles would 
be expected, instead of the indicative. — καΐ ουκ : is used, not ουδέ, since 
the negative is construed closely with the verb. See on 28. 

96. TovviK άρα : on this account then {as I said) . This repeats emphati- 
cally 94, and adds a prediction of the results of the god's anger. — For 
the ' crasis,' see § 26. 

97. ο yt : emphatic repetition of the subject, cf. 65, 496, ττολλα δ' ο γ' 
€v πόντω ττάθεν αλγ€α α 4 which Vergil copied in multum ille et 
terris iactatus et alto ^ en. i. 3. — Δαναοίσιν κτλ.: cf. 67. — άττώ- 
<rci : metaphorically, of a heavy burden. 

98. TTptv : is found elsewhere as here in both principal and subordinate 
clauses, cf. Β 348, 354 f. — άιτο δόμεναι: cf δό /xemt τταλιν 116. The sub- 
ject of the verb is easily supplied from Δαι/αοΓσιν. — δόμεναι [δούναι] : for 
the ending, see § 44/ — ίλικώττιδα: quick-eyed. 

99. άιτριάτην άνάιτοινον : for the ' asyndeton,' see § 15, cf. Β 325. — 
Ιίρήν : standing epithet of the hecatomb, as 431, 443. 

100. Ιλασ•σ•όμ€νοι : for the manner of propitiation, cf. στρετττοί Se re 
και θεοί avTOL ... και μίν τονς θνΐεσσι και €.νχωλΎ)ς άγαν^σίν \ λοίβγ} τε 
KVLCTY} τ€ τταρατρωττωσ άνθρωποι \ λισσόμενοι Ι 497 1ΐ. the gods themselves 
may be bent, and men move their hearts by supplicating them with offerings 
and goodly vows and the savor of burnt sacrifices. — ΐΓ€ΐΓίθοιμ€ν : for the 
reduplication of the 2d aorist, see § 43 e. 

101-187. Quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles. 
101 = 68. 

102. €vpv κρίίων : standing epithet of the king, as 355, 411, Γ 178. See 
§§ 12 b, 22 c. Cf Β 108. — For the adverbial use of ενρν, see on /χεγα 78. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 15 

103. μ€ν€08: tvilh rage. Gen. of fulness. — άμφιμίλαιναι : darkened on 
all sides. The mind is dark with passion, which is thought of as a cloud 
enveloping the φρίν€<;. Cf. Γ 442, θάρσενς ττΧησε φρίνας άμφιμελαίνας Ρ 
573 βlled his dark heart toith courage. 

104. οι : dat^ with the verb, instead of a limiting gen. with οσσε. See 
§ 19 e. — λαμ•π•€τόωντι [Χαμπετωντι] : in contrast with άμφίμίλαιναί. — 
€ίκτην: pluperfect as imperfect. Cf.eoLKa. See § 49 c; H.492D7. Cf. 200. 

105. For the lack of a conjunction, see § 15. — ιτρώτιστα: this is a 
superlative, formed regularly from ττρωτος, which is already superlative 
in meaning. Cf. the English chiefest. — κάκ όσ-σ-όμδνοβ : looking evil, i.e. 
with look that boded ill. — For the accent of κάκ (for κακά) see § 28 d. 

106. μάντι κακών : prophet of ill, ill-boding seer. Some of the ancients 
thought this referred to the seer's words at Aulis, where he showed that 
Artemis demanded the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia in 
return for an insolent word of the king (Soph. El. 56G ff.). — Cf 'But I 
hate him ; for he doth not prophesy good concerning me, but evil,' 1 Kings 
xxii. 8. — TO κρήγυον : equiv. to εσθλόν 108, in contrast with κακών. For 
the * generic ' use of the article, cf τα κακά 107, and see on τα χερείονα 57G. 

— «Was [εΓπ€9] : has the 'variable vowel' of the 1st aorist. 

107. aU£ : Agamemnon exaggerates in his anger. — τα κακά : subject 
of the verb of which φίλα is predicate. — μαντ€ύ€σ-θαι : explanatory inf., 
cf ένθα φίλ* οπταλεα κρία Ιδ /xevat κτΧ. Δ 345. — " Always dost thou delight 
to prophesy calamity." 

108. T€'X€o-o-as : brought to pass. — " Nothing good in word or deed 
comes from thee." 

109. καΐνΰν: a special instance under aiu 107. — €v : in the presence 
of before. — θίΟΊτροιτ^ων άΎορ€υ€ΐς : as Β 322. 

110. 8ή : ironical, like the later SrjOev, scilicet; construe with rovB^ 
ένεκα, evidently on this account. — €κηβόλο5 : for the epithet used as a 
proper name, cf 37. — τ€ύχ€ΐ : see on εθηκεν 2. 

111. εγώ: Agamemnon speaks only of the rejection of the ransom, 
not of the slight oifered to the priest; but gives prominence to the odious 
charge that lie, their king, was the cause of the sufferings of the Danai. 

— κουρης Χρυσή i8os : gen. of price, cf. δώκ' υΓο? ττοινην (as a price for his 
son) Ταννμη^εος Ε 266. For the ' patronymic,' see on 13. It is used here 
exactly like the gen. Χρνσηος. 

112. firti : introduces the explanation of ουκ εθελον ivas not inclined. 
Cf 156, — βουλομαι : contains the idea of ' choice,' ' preference ' {sc. η 
αποινα 8εχεσθαί), which is here strengthened by the adv. ττολΰ (ace. of ex- 
tejit). Cf. 117. — αντήν : the maiden herself contrasted with the ransom. 

— To his accusation of Calchas, the king adds at once his own defence. 



16 COMMENTARY. 

113. οϊκοι 6χ€ΐν : i.e. to retain in my possession. — κα£ : eve7i. Construe 
with Κλνταίμνηστρης. — γάρ ρα : /or, you see. — Κλυταιμνήσ-τρη? : accord- 
ing to the later story, she was daughter of Tyndareiis and Leda, and thus 
half-sister of Helen. The ancient Greek on hearing these lines remem- 
bered Avell that Clytaemnestra proved unfaithful to Agamemnon, and 
slew him on his return to his home. She was herself slain by her son 
Orestes. The deaths of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra formed the 
theme of famous tragedies by the three greatest tragic poets of Greece, — • 
the Agarnemnon and Choephoroe of Aeschylus, the Electra of Sophocles, 
and the Electra of Euripides. — •π•ροβ€βουλα : with present signification. — ■ 
For the form, see H. 510 D 4. 

114. ου €0€v : for the hiatus, see § 27/. The negative receives empha- 
sis from its position. — €0€v: for the form, see § 33 c. — χίρίίων [χεψων] : 

115. οΰ δ€μα5 : not in build. This probably refers to her stature, since 
the Greeks always associated height and beauty, cf. Γ 167. — ού8€ φυήν: 
has reference to her fair proportions. — With these two qualities of her 
person are contrasted by ' asyndeton ' two mental characteristics, neither in 
mind nor in accomplishments. 

116. καΐ u)s : even thus, " although Chryseis is so beautiful and accom- 
plished." Cf. Γ 159. — δόμ6ναι ιτάλιν : restore, cf. αττο 8owat 98, 134. — τό 
γ* άμ€ΐνον : the ' copula ' is here omitted in a condition, as Γ 402, Ε 184. 

117. For the lack of a conjunction, see § 15. — βούλομαι η : see on 112. 

— έ'μμίναι [elvat] : by assimilation, from €σ-μεναί. 

118. αντίχ €τοιμάσ•ατ6 : the unreasonable demand provokes the quarrel 
with Achilles and elicits the epithet φίλοκτ€ανώτατ€ 122. — γ^ραε κτλ.: 
this is made more definite later, cf. 138, 182 ff. 

119. ίω [ω] : for the form, see on iovra 70. — ουδέ toiKcv : it is not even 
seemly, to say nothing of its unfairness. 

120. ο : like quod, equiv. to on that. Cf. γιγνώσκων ο ot αΰτο? νττίίρ- 
εχε χείρας 'Απόλλων Ε 433. — Ι'ρχ6ται άλλη : i.e. leaves me. The present 
έρχεται is used of the immediate future. 

122. κύδιοΓΤ€ : a standing epithet of Agamemnon, cf. Β 434. The 
following epithet is contrasted bitterly with this. 

123. irws κτλ. : the question implies the absurdity of the proposition. 

— γαρ : introduces the explanation of some gesture of surprise or vexation. 
Its force may often be given by the exclamation ' what ! ' 

124. ϊδμ€ν [ΐσμεν'] : for the 8, see § 30^. — ξυνήια [κοινά] κτλ.: undis- 
turbed treasures lying in abundance, from which the king could be recom- 
pensed easily for the loss of his x)rize. This again refers to Agamemnon's 
αντίκα 118. — Booty taken on their marauding expeditions was the com- 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 17 

mon property of the army after the several prizes of honor (yepa, 185) 
had been selected for the chiefs, cf. 368 f ., ck ττόλιος δ' άλόχονς και κτήματα 
ΤΓολλα λαβόντες | Βασσάμίθ" ως μη rts μοί άτ€μβόμ€νο<: klol ϊσης t 41 f., 
taking from the city the wives and many treasures we divided them, that no 
one m,ight lack his fair share. — These prizes were sometimes selected by 
the leaders themselves, but are often spoken of as the gift of the people, 
276, 369, 392. Doubtless they Avere distributed by the general, with the 
approval of the army. Thus I 367, Agamemnon is said by Achilles to 
have given Briseis to him. 

125. τά, τά: strictly both are demonstratives (§§ 21 a, 42 i), (the sec- 
ond repeating the first), although the first may be translated as a relative. 

— Ttt μ€ν : the thought contrasted with this, is implied in 127 ff . — ττολίων 
[τΓολεων] : i.e. cities near Troy, of which Achilles had sacked 12 with his 
fleet and 11 with a land force, see I 328 f . Homer mentions the sack of 
Lesbos, of Lyrnessus, of Pedasus, of Scyrus, of Tenedos, of Theba. Cf 
Nestor's words, $vv νηνσΐν iir rjepoeiSea ττόντον \ ττΧαζόμενοι κατά λψΒ*, otttj 
ap^etev Ά^^ιλλευ? γ 105 f . . . . tcandering for booty loherever Achilles led. 
See § 6 Z>. — The genitive depends upon the following preposition in 
composition. — €ξ€'π•ράθομ€ν : equiv. to ζζείλομεν ττερσαντες. — 8€δα<Γται : 
the tense marks that the matter has been settled and is not to be 
reconsidered. 

126. Xaovs: receives emphasis from its position, while the contrast 
lies in δεδασται and τταλίλλογα Inayeipuv collect again what has been dis- 
tributed. — ιταλίλλογα: 'proleptic,' "so as to be together." 

127. θ6ω : m honor of the god, for the god's sake. Dative of interest. — 
αΰτάρ : correlative with μίν. See § 21 /. 

128. τρητλη TCTpairXfj τ€ : for the copulative conjunction, see § 21 g. 

— airoTio-o^cv : will recompense. 

129. 8(p<ri [δω] : for the ending, see § 44 a. — ιτόλιν ΤροΙην: the Trojan 
city, the city of Troy. — 6υτ€ΐχ€ον : Poseidon built the walls (Φ 446). 

131. μη 8ή : with imv., as Ε 218; with subjv. used as imv., Ε 684. — 
δη ουτω5: for the 'synizesis,' cf 340, 540; see § 25. — αγαθός: no moral 
quality is implied. Cf άμνμων 92. 

132. κλ^ΊΓΤδ νόω : have secret thoughts in mind, be deceitful, — an accusa- 
tion most hateful to the outspoken Achilles. Cf English steal and stealth. 

— irape\£V(r€ai : for the uncontracted form, cf νίψα 32. — με: construe 
with both verbs. 

133. η eOcXcis κτλ. : dost thou wish indeed that thou thyself shouldst have 
a prize of honor (referi'ing to 126) ichile (lit. but) I etc. Agamemnon 
replies to the charge of covetousness (122) by the assertion that Achilles 
has a selfish end in view in urging him to give up Chryseis. — η: is 



18 COMMENTARY. 

never used in Homer as a simple interrogation point. It always expresses 
emotion. Cf. 203, 365; see § 20 h. — οφρ* 6χη5 : instead of the customary 
inf. or an object clause with on, cf. θνμοζ €7Γ€σσυται οφρ' ζτταμννω Ζ 3G1. 
— αύτάρ: for the use of the 'adversative' conjunction, see § 21 d. — 
αΰτω8: explained by δευό/χενον, see § 11 y. 

134. ησ-θαι : with a participle marks the continuance of a state, esp. 
where a person is given up to sadness or misfortune, cf. Β 255. 

136. ap<ravTcs κτλ. : suiting it to my mind, i.e. choosing one which will 
be satisfactory. — κατά θυμόν : nearly equiv. to θνμ.ω. — άντάξιον : sc. Xpv- 
σηί^ος. — The conclusion of the sentence is omitted (' aposiopesis '). It 
would be perhaps ευ €χ€ί, καλώς αν €χοι. When two mutually exclusive 
conditional sentences stand side by side, the conclusion of the first may 
be omitted. See H. 904 a. 

137. δώωσιν [δώσιν] : for the form, see § 52 c. — «γώ Si: for Sc in 
apod., see on 58. — έ'λωμαι: for the subjunctive used almost like a future, 
see § 18 δ; cf 184, 324, Γ 417. 

138. τ€Ον : sc. yipa^. — Al'avros: son of Telamon, from Salamis (B 557), 
the mightiest of all the Greeks except Achilles (B 708). He is not 
to be confounded with the swift-footed leader of the Locrians, Ajax, 
son of Oileus (B 527). Telamonian Ajax is always meant when no dis- 
tinguishing epithet is used. He committed suicide because the arms of 
Achilles, after that hero's death, were given to Odysseus rather than to 
him (§ 9 a). — Ιών : cf. Ιών κλίσίψΒε 185. Homer is fond of a participle 
which completes the picture but is not strictly necessary to the sense, as 
αγωι/ 311, ΙΧθών 401, ελώι/ 139, ΐδών 537, ιών, λαβών Β 261, τταραστάς Β 189, 
φψονσα Γ 425, άμφύττοντίς Β 525, ευχόμενος Β 597. These participles 
are commonly intransitive in this use. — Ό8υσ-ήο$ [Όδυσσεω?] : the hero 
of the Odyssey, the wise Ithacan prince (B 636) by whose device of the 
wooden horse Ilios was captured (§ 9 a). He is sent in charge of the 
expedition to restore Chryseis to her father, 311. He restrains the Achae- 
ans from following a mad impulse to set out for home, Β 169 ft. He 
chastises Thersites, Β 244 ff. His personal appearance as an orator is 
described, Γ 191 ff. He is sent as an envoy to Achilles in the Kinth 
Book. He enters the Trojan camp as a spy, with Diomed, in the Tenth 
Book. He is the special favorite of Athena, see on Β 169. — For the 
single σ, cf ^Αχιληος 1. — Agamemnon expresses his sovereignty in an 
arbitrary way, declaring his absolute authority over the three mightiest 
princes of the army. 

139. άξω «λών : shall seize and lead aivay. The return to the principal 
thought (ελωμαί) betrays the king's passionate excitement, — k€v κ€χολώ- 
<Γ€ται : he will be angry, I think. The tone is sarcastic. — ov : accusative 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 19 

of 'limit of motion,' to whom. See on 254. — ϊκωμαι: for the hypothetical 
relative sentence, see H. 916 ; G. 1434. 

140. ταΰτα: i.e. what is to be the recompense. — μ€ταψρασ-όμ€(τθα : 
/χετά afterwards is repeated more definitely in και αντις. — For the end- 
ing, see § 44 A:. — Here the speaker adopts a more quiet tone (interrupted 
only by an echo of his anger, in 146) and enters into the details of the 
ship's equipment. 

141. μέλαιναν: for the color of the ships, see on Β 637. — Ιρύσ-οτομίν 
[ΐρνσωμεν'] : 'hortatory subjunctive.' 

142. €s 8e : adv., as 309, see § 55 a. Proleptic, "so that they shall be 
therein." 

143. Qiio[Liv [^co/u,ev] : cf. Ιρύομεν 62. — αν [dm] : up, on hoard. Adv. 
with βησομεν. — For the loss of the final a, see § 29. — αύτην: herself, as 
the person principally concerned. — Χρυσηίδα: in apposition with αντην. 

144. βησομίν : 1st aorist from βαίνω, transitive. See H. 500. — άρχος : 
predicate, as commander. — άνηρ βουληψόρος : in apposition with «Γς τις. 

145. *Ι8ομ€ν€ύ5: leader of the Cretans (B 645). 

147. ημίν : dative of interest. — «κάεργον: for similar epithets of 
Apollo, see 14, 75, 370, 385; § 22 c. — Ιλάσ-σίαι : agrees in person with 
the nearest subject. 

148. viroSpa Ιδών : Vergil's torva tuentem ^erz. vi. 467. 

149. ΙτΓΐίΐμβνε : clothed with. Of the two aces, which the verb governs 
in the active, one is retained in the passive. See H. 724 a; G. 1239. 
Cf. Αιαντες θονριν (impetuous^ eTrtet/xeVoi άΧκην (valor) Η 164. — κερδα- 
λεόψρον: cunning minded , referring to 146. — Achilles thinks that the 
king wishes to send him to Chrysa in order to rob him in his absence of 
what he would lack the courage to take in his presence. 

150. Toi, ?-π•€σιν: datives of the 'whole and part.' Cf 362, Β 171, Γ 
35, 438, 442. See § 12/; Η. 625 c; G. 917. — ιτρόφρων : see on 77. 

— ΊΓείθηται: deliberative subjunctive in the 3d person. — For the allitera- 
tion of 7Γ, cf. 165; see § 13 a. 

151. οδόν: cognate ace. See H. 715 b; G. 1052. Journey, of an em- 
bassy like that suggested for him in 146. — Ιλθέμεναι : Ιλθαν. See § 44/. 

152. γάρ: the reasons for the preceding question (which is equiv. to a 
negative assertion) continue through 162. — " Thou dost repay with base 
ingratitude us who are fighting not for our own cause but only for thee." 

— 4γώ: sudden transition from the indef. τις of 150, — ήλυθον [ξλ^ον] : 
for the V of the penult, cf the penult of ΙληΧνθα. 

153. δεΰρο : construe with τ^λυ^ον. — μαχησ-όμενος : for the length of 
the last syllable, cf 226 ; see § 59 Z. — αϊτιοί «Ισιν : are to blame for me. 
have done me wrong. 



20 COMMENTARY. 

154. Povs: fem., of the herds. — ή'λασαν: drove off. — ουδέ μ€ν: nor 
in truth, cf. G03. — This verse and the next indicate the common causes of 
war in the heroic period, as between the English and the Scotch in the 
time of the border troubles. 

155. Φθίη: the later Phthiotis (B 683), not the city, as is shown by 
the epithet ΙριβωΧακι. — βωτιαν€ίρτ| : cf. κονροτρόφος as epitliet of Ithaca. 

156. πολλά μ€ταξύ : much lies between. This is explained by the fol- 
lowing verse. 

157. oi'pca κτλ. : in apposition with ττολλά above. — σ-κιΟ€ντα : full of 
shadows. — ηχη€σ-σα: only here as epithet of the sea. Cf. ττολνφλοίσβοιο 
34, Β 209. 

158. μ^γα : see on 78. — χαίρηβ : subjv. in a final sentence after the 
aorist, as Β 206, Ζ 357 f. See § 18 J γ. 

159. τιμήν : retribution^ satisfaction, esp. the return of Helen and the 
treasures carried away by Paris. Cf. Γ 286, Ε 552. — άρνύμ6νοι: striving 
to gain. — κυνώττα : the dog was to the oriental the personification of 
shamelessness, cf. 225. Helen in self-reproach applies to herself the 
epithet κννωττις, Γ 180 ; cf Saep i^elo (addressing Hector), κννος κακομ-ψ 
χάνου οκρνοεσσης Ζ 344. The highest impudence was indicated by κννά- 
μνυχ dog-ffy. In the Odyssey, however, the dog seems to be in better 
favor. Argus, the old hunting dog of Odysseus, remembers his master 
during the twenty years of his absence, and alone recognizes him on his 
return, dying as he welcomes him to his home. 

160. των : neuter, referring to the various details included in the pre- 
ceding thought, 158 f. 

161. καΐ δη : and now, nearly equiv. to /cat 17817, as in Attic. Cf. Β 135, 
και δ^ Ιβη οικόνδε Δ 180. — μοί : dative of disadvantage with άφαιρησεσθαι, 
cf. ημΐν 67, Γλαΰκω Κρονιδϊ^ς φρίνας i^eXero Zevs Ζ 234. — γ^ρα9 : see on 
124. — αυτό?: of thine own will, arbitrarily, 2i& 137. Construe with the 
subject of άφαίρησεσθαί. 

162. ω €ΐΓΐ : for which. For the ' anastrophe ' of the accent, see § 55 c. 
— δόσ-αν hi: the relative const, is abandoned, as 79. — vUs : for the form, 
see § 37 c. 

163. ου μ€ν [μην"] κτλ. : yet never have I. A present expression of past 
experience. This thought increases the unfairness of Agamemnon's pres- 
ent course. — <roC : i.e. like to thine, equiv. to τω σω yipal, the person 
instead of the attribute being compared. See Η 773 b ; G. 1178. 

164. Τρώων ΊΓΓολύθρον : a city of the Trojans, as Β 228. See on 125. 

165. TO μεν: the principal thought follows, 167. The English idiom 
prefers the subordinate construction, " although my hands . . . yet." See 
§ 21 d. — TO Ίτλείον: the greater part. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 21 

167. TO γεν^•^ • th€! article is used almost as in Attic, the usual gift of 
honor. — ολίγον τ€ κτ\. : the thought is 'adversative,' though the conjunc- 
tions are 'copulative,' cf. δόσι? όλίγη re φίλη re ζ 208. See § 21 d. Cf. 
'an ill-favored thing, but mine own,' Shakspere As You Like It v. 4. 60. 

168. έρχομαι έ'χων : go off to my tent with^ more picturesquely descrip- 
tive than Ιχω 163 ; cf. Β 71. — iirX νήα? : cf 12. — eircC Κ6 κτλ. : when 1 have 
fought myself loeary. This gives renewed prominence to the thought of 
insufficiently recompensed effort. 

169. νυν hi κτλ. : contrast with his previous activity in battle. 

170. %€v [itVat] : for the form, see § 44/. — ov8e oroi: construe with 
άφν^αν. For the elision, see § 28 a. — όίω : think, intend, as 296. 

171. άψυξειν : heap up. 

173. φδΰγε : odious expression for the return to his home which 
Achilles had announced, 169. — μόλα : by all means, cf. 85. 

174. €μ€ΐο [€μον] : for the form, (with the ending of the 2d decL, § 35 a), 
see H. 261 D; G. 393. — «μοί Ύ« • with self-assertion. — όίλλοι: sc. άσίν. 

175. με τιμησουσ-ι : will gain me /ionor, referring to 159. — μητίβτα: a 
standing epithet of Zeus, cf Δα μητιν άταλαντον Β 169. — For the ending, 
see § 34 δ. — In this confidence is seen the poet's irony, when the later 
course of Zeus is remembered, which brought defeat and humiliation to 
Agamemnon. 

176. €χθιοΓτο8: most hateful. Formed from Ιχ^ος. — Ισ-σ-ί [et] : in this 
form are preserved both the original stem, Ισ, and the original ending -σι. 

— διοτρίφί'ων : the royal power had its source in Zeus, the patron god of 
princes. Cf. Bioyevis 337, Β 173. Kings are called θίράττοντες Διός, as 
warriors are θεράποντες "A ρηος (Β 110). 

177. φίλη : the predicate adjective regularly agrees with the preceding 
noun, and the rest of the verse is in a sort of apposition with l/ais. — 
Ίτόλεμοί Tc κτλ. : in his anger, the king counts these the result of mere 
ipts. 

178. The ' asyndeton * here and below shows the speaker's excitement. 

— €l μόλα κτλ. : cf. 280, 290. — καρτ€ρ05 : refers to 165. — Otos irov [Βηττον] 
κτλ. : " it is not thy merit." 

179. σ-υν νηυσ-Ι κτλ. : Agamemnon returns to the thought of 173. The 
circumstantial fulness of the expression, as of 183, marks the complete 
separation of the two forces. 

180. Μυρμιδόν€σ•σ-ιν : cf Β 684. Dative of advantage, see § 19 e. 
This word is made prominent since the thought is before the speaker's 
mind that Achilles, in the consciousness of his strength, desires to rule 
all the Achaeans, cf. 287 ff. — o-cOtv kotc'ovtos : "thy anger," cf 160.— 
σε'θίν [σου] : for this form of the genitive, cf Wtv 114. 



22 COMMENTARY. 

182. cos : just as. The corresponding thought of the apodosis is found 
in £γώ κτλ. 184. The interposed clause, την μ\ν κτλ., has properly only 
the value of a subordinate clause, though with the form of a principal 
sentence. Cf. 165; see § 21 d. — άφαιρ€ίται : here followed by two aces., 
as 275. Cf. 161. 

183. την : either ταντην or αντην could have been used in Attic. — <rvv 
νηί r 6μη : with a ship of mine. 

184. Βρισ-ηίδα : only her patronymic is used by Homer, see on 13. In 
the sack of Lyrnessus by Achilles, her husband and her three brothers 
had been slain. Cf Β 690 ίϊ. — Agamemnon now acts in ace ordance with 
his threat of 137. 

185. TO <rdv ^€pas : emphatic αοτήτα^ϊ, that prize of thine. In apposi- 
tion Avith ΈρίσηίΒα. 

186. ocrcrov : hoiv much. Accusative of extent where the Attic might 
have used οσω, dative of degree of difference. See on 78. — ψ£ρτ£ρο$ : sc. 
as commander of the entire army and powerful king, cf 281, Β 108. — 
άλλο$ : i.e. every other. 

187. t<rov : niasc, with c/xot φάσθαι, assert himself my equal. — ψάσ-θαι : 
follows aTvyerj. — (}μ.οιωθημ€ναι \_6μοίωθηναχ] άντην : liken himself to me, to 
my face. 

188-222. Intervention of Athena. 

188. tSs φάτο : Attic ούτως ίφη. — Πηλίΐωνι : for the formation of the 
patronymic, see § 30 Λ. — άχο5 γ6ν£το : grief arose for, i.e. grief came upon 
him. — Iv hi: within, adv., defined more exactly by the local στηθ^σσιν. 
See § 55 a. — οι: dative of interest. 

189. λασ-ίοισι : a shaggy breast was thought to indicate manliness and 
courage. Cf. Β 743, 851. 

190. η : for η . . . rj€ (192) in a double indirect question, see § 20 h. 

191. Tovs μ€ V : i.e. the other princes, who were seated (see on 58) 
between him and Agamemnon (cf 247). — άνα<Γτησ-€ΐ€ : should rouse from 
their seats, and drive away, as he sprung at the king. — o* hi: repeats the 
last subject; it is almost equiv. to αΰτο? δε. Cf. εγώ δε 184. This either 
makes prominent the identity of subject in a contrast of actions, or marks 
the progress of tlie action by calling renewed attention to the doer of the 
deed. — Ιναρίξοι : the optative represents the 'deliberative subjunctive' 
of direct discourse, cf. Γ 317. 

193. κατά ψρενα κτ\. : in mind and heart. 

194. έ'λκετο : he was draiving ; the act was interrupted (cf. 220).— 
ήλθε hi : for Si in the apodosis, see on 58. 

195. ούρανόθβν : but she returns Ουλυ/Λττόι/δε 221. The peaks of Olym- 
pus tower above the clouds into heaven, see on 44. — irpo ηκβ : sent forth, 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 23 

i.e. sent hither, cf. 442. Athena often acts as subordinate to Hera. Cf. 
Β 156, Ε 713. — Hera is patron goddess of the Atridae. 

196. άμφω : object of φιλεουσα, to which κη^ομίνη is added in a freer 
relation. — θυμω : see on 24. 

197. σ-τή δ' οττιθίν : she stepped up behind. — ξανθήβ : epithet of Mene• 
laus, as Γ 284 ; of Meleager, Β 642 ; of Rhadamanthys ; of Demeter, Ε 
500. — κόμη8 : genitive of the part touched. See H. 738 ; G. 1100. 

198. οϊω : Homeric divinities appeared only to single persons ; not to 
companies of men, except when disguised in human form. Only to the 
people of the fairy-land Phaeacia were the gods wont to appear visibly. — 
τών δ* άλλων κτλ. : the thought of the first word of the verse is repeated 
in negative form. 

199. θάμβησ -cv : sc. at being thus seized. — μ6τά δ* €τρά7Γ€το : since 
Athena stood behind him. Literally, not as 160. 

200. δ€ΐνώ : predicate. They were the eyes of γλανκωτης ^Αθηνη (206). 

— δ€ : for the use of the adversative instead of a causal conjunction, cf. 
228, 259 ; see § 21 d. — οι : for the dative of interest, see § 19 e. — ψάανθ€ν : 
for the ending, see § 44 m. — οσσε as a neuter dual may have a verb in the 
plural as here, or in the singular, or in the dual. 

201. An often (not less than fifty times) repeated verse, see 12 h. — 

— μίν : object of ττροσηνΒα. — φωνήσ -as : lifted up his voice, cf. § 12c?; not 
equivalent to είττών, which in Homer is used only of what has just been 
related. — •π•τ€ρΟ€ντα : for the final vowel here short though before U\o 
consonants, see § 59 g. 

202. τίτΓτ αΰτ6 : " What now ! why art thou come ? " avre is here not 
equiv. to αντις, and does not imply that she had been there before, but is 
uttered in a tone of vexation. — τί•π•τ€ «Ιληλουθα? [ελτ/λυ^ας] : for this 
greeting, cf τίκνον, tltttc λιττών τΓόΧίμ,ον θρασνν είληλονθας ; Ζ 254. — 
αίγιοχοιο . . . tckos : ten times repeated in Homer, cf § 12 b. 

203. This verse contains several metrical peculiarities. For the hiatus 
after the first foot, see § 27 δ ; for that after ISrj, see § 27 c. — η ϊνα κτλ. : 
he answers the question himself by a conjecture, cf Ζ 255. — ϊδη : for the 
voice, cf. ορατό 198 ; see on 56. 

204. €k: construe with €/3€ω. Cf. 212. — κα(; a/so, construe with rcXec- 
σθαί (future). " This will not be a mere prediction." 

205. ΰ'π•€ρο'ΐΓλίησ-ι : for the long penult, see § 59 b. For the plural (esp. 
in the dative), cf. προθνμίυσί Β 588, ττοδωκειτ^σι Β 792, αναλκύτ^σί Ζ 74. — 
τάχα κτλ.', a covert hint at his murderous thoughts. — αν: const, with 
6λ€σσΎ] (§ 18 b). 

206. γλαυκώ•ιη5 : gleaming-eyed, cf. 8etva> κτλ. 200. The Homeric 
Athena is the fierce-eyed, courageous goddess of war. Cf. ταύτα (sc. ττολε- 



24 * COMMENTARY. 

/AT/ta epya) 8' "Αρηι θοω και *ΑθηνΎ] πάντα μελησει Ε 430. Her epithet 
Παλλάς belongs to her as \vielding the lance. She became ^Κθηνα ^ίκη 
and ^Αθηνοί ΐΐρόμαχος at Athens. 

207. ηλθον : not equwalent to the perf. άληλονθα, but presenting the 
same act from a different point of view. — -ιταύσ-ουσ-α : ίο cease, to allay, 
cf. 192. — TO σον ^evos : this thy rage, this rage of thine. Cf. φθίσα σε το 
σον /X6VOS Ζ 407. — αϊ κ€ κτλ. : see on 66. 

210. cpiSos : i.e. the contest of force to which he is inclined. — έ'λκεο : 
present imperative, continue to draw, cf. 194. 

211. άλλ' η τοι : after a negative idea, this emphasizes the affirmative 
thought. — c5s €σ-€ται [Ισται] : " as oj)portunity shall oifer." 

212. A set verse, often accompanied by a sharp threat. — rcreXco-picvov 
4'σται : will he a thing accomjylished, i.e. shall surely be done. 

213. KttC «iroTc κτλ. : affords the motive for 210, and recalls Achilles 
from his decision to return to his home. " Thou hast no need to wreak 
bloody vengeance on him, for thou shalt at some time receive " etc. — καΐ 
Tpis: ei^en threefold, proverbial; cf. τρΙς τόσσον cAcv μένος Ε 136. — 
irapc'cracTai : the gifts offered to Achilles as an atonement for the \vrong 
are enumerated in I 121 ff. (seven tripods, ten talents of gold, twenty 
basins, twelve racehorses, seven slaves, etc.), in a passage closing ταντα 
μ€ν αντίκα ττάντα τταρίσσεται Ι 135. These treasures were delivered in Τ 
243 ff. 

214. vPpios [y βρίοίς'] : for the form, cf. πολιών 125. — t<rx€o : check thyself 

216. μβ'ν: indeed. — σ-ψωέτ€ρον : of you two, Athena and Hera. The 
emphasis given by yc marks the reverence felt for these goddesses. — 
€iros : word, command. — «Ιρύσ-σ-ασ-θαι : protect, observe, by obedience. 

217. καΐ κτλ. : " however much enraged." 

218. OS K€ κτλ. : i.e. if any one. "Whoever obeys the gods is himself 
heard by them." Cf. lav τις θεοσεβης y και το θίλημα αντον ποι-β, τούτον 
aKovei (sc. 6 θίός) St. John ix. 31. — μάλα: surely, readily. — tc : for its 
use in marking the reciprocity of the two clauses, see on 82; § 21 b. 
— €κλυον: gnomic aorist. See § 14/; H. 840; G. 1292. — αύτοΰ: himself 
The prominence given to the object of the verb which is also the subject 
of the previous clause, makes prominent the identity of the two, and con- 
trasts the man with θίοΐς. 

219. ^ καί : he spake and, as 528, Γ 292, 310, 355, 369, 447. This is 
always used after a speech which is reported, where the same grammati- 
cal subject is continued. — η : for this verb, see H. 485. — άργυρ£τ| : adorned 
with silver nails or studs, see on Β 45. — a-\4Qt : kept, held, as Δ 113. 

220. ούδ' άττίθησ-εν : ' litotes,' — in form saying less than is really meant, 
~ see § 16 c. Cf. 24, 536 f., Β 166, 807. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 25 

221. Άθηναίηβ : Άθηναίη is to *Αθήνη as άναγκαίη and γαία to ανάγκη 
and γη. — β€βηκ€ΐν: had set out, was gone; plpf. to mark her immediate 
departure. For the ν of the ending, see §§ 30 k, 44 l•. 

222. μετά: into the midst oJ\ among, as 423, Γ 264. — δα(μονα$ άλλουβ: 
these assembled daily in the palace of Zeus as nobles in the hall of their 
feudal lord. Cf. ot δέ θίοί παρ ΖηνΙ καθημενοί ηγορόωντο \ γρνσ^ω iv δαττεδω 
Δ 1 f . All were members of his family although they had separate man- 
sions (607). — Homer does not clearly distinguish between Βαίμονί^ and 
OeoL, but see on Γ 420. 

223-305. Renewal of the quarrel. Nestor endeavors to calm the angry 
princes. 

223-246. Speech of Achilles. 

223. ίξαΰτΐδ : anew, after the interruption by Athena which no one 
had noticed. — ού λήγ€ χόλοιο : the goddess had not forbidden the anger, 
but only a certain expression of it. 

225. οΙνοβαρ65 : this was a grievous reproach in the eyes of the tem- 
perate Greeks. — kwos όμματα: see on 159. — Ιλάφοιο : the deer was the 
personification of cowardice ; cf. Δ 243. The poet shows in his story that 
these epithets were undeserved by Agamemnon. — Observe the 'chiasmus,' 
i.e. that κυνό? and ΐΚάφοιο are separated, while όμματα and κραΒίην are 
brought together. See on 255. 

226. €s ΊΓολδμον : for (lit. into) battle. For the lengthened ultima 
before the caesura, as 491, see on 153. — The last three feet of the verse 
are spondees, cf. Β 190. 

227. λοχον8€ : cf. is λόχον ίνθα μάλιστ άρετη SiaeiSeraL ανδρών Ν 277 
to ambush, where especially the valor of men is discerned. The knights of 
the Middle Ages were the first to count ambush dishonorable. — άρισ-τη- 
io-a-iv [aptarcvaLv] : mark the contrast Λvith λαω. 

228. τ€τληκα5 : hast had the courage. Cf. 543. — κηρ : cf. Γ 454, ' 'Tis 
death to me to be at enmity,' Shakspere Rich. III. ii. i. 60. — The accent 
distinguishes κηρ death from κηρ heart. 

229. η : in truth, yes. The speaker pretends to recognize his opponent's 
motives. 

230. άτΓοαιρίίσθαι : present inf. in iterative sense ; the following clause 
supplies its object. For the hiatus between the preposition and the verb, 
see on 333. — c-iQiv: gen. after the adverb. — άντίον εϊ-ιτη : oppose. 

231. 8ημοβορος κτλ.: emphatic exclamation of vexation. — eirel κτλ.: 
this does not give the reason for the exclamation, but shows why Aga- 
memnon's course is possible. See on 112. — ούτιδανοισ-ιν : interpreted by 
Achilles, 293 f. He holds the Greeks in part responsible since they did 
not oppose and restrain the king. 



26 COMMENTARY. 

232. η γαρ κτλ. : for else, surely. With aor. opt. as potential of the past, 
where in Attic we should expect a past tense of the ind. with av. Cf. Β 
81 ; see § 18 d δ; Η. 896 ; G. 1399. 

233. €τγΙ όμοΰμαι: sicear thereto, take an oath upon it. 

234. τοδ€ σ-κήτΓτρον : hy this scepti^e here, which he had just received 
from a herald ; see on 15. For oaths by this symbol of power, see ws 
είττών TO σκητττρον άνεσχεθε ττασι θίοίσιν Η 412 with these words he lifted 
the sceptre to all the gods, 6 δ' iv χερσι σκητττρον λάβε και οΐ ομοσσεν Κ 328. 
So King Richard swears ' Xow, by my sceptre's awe, I make a vow,' 
Shakspere Rich. 11. i. i. 118. — το μ€ ν : demonstrative. — " As surely as 
this staff shall never put forth leaves, so surely shall the Achaeans miss 
me sorely." — This is imitated by \^ergil (A en. xii. 206 if.), ut sceptrum 
hoc . . . nunquam fronde levi fundet virgulta nee umbras, | 
cum semel in silvis, imo de stirpe recisum, | matre caret, 
posuitque comas et bracchia ferro; | . . • patribusque dedit 
ge stare Latinis. 

235. €ΤΓ€1 δή ιτρώτα: see on 6. 

236. γαρ ρα : see on 113. — I': the living shoot, while μίν below is the 
σκητττρον made from it. — χαλκ08 : i.e. the tool of bronze ; cf. the English 
poetic use of steel for sword. See on Β 417. 

237. φύλλα κτλ.: ελεφεν as a 'verb of depriving' is followed by an 
ace. of the thing taken away. — νυν αυτ€ : noiv on the other hand, but now. 
άντε in this use diifers little from αντάρ. Cf. Δ 321 ; see on Β 768. 

238. δικασιτόλοι : appositiA^e, as guardians of justice. — θ€'μιστα8 : for 
the inflection, see II. 216 D 7 ; G. 291, 14, For its position, see § 11 y, 
cf 10. 

239. προς Διός : under the direction of Zeus, in the name of Zeus. Cf ττρος 
αλλψ Ιστον νφαίνοίς Ζ 456. — €ΐρύαται : defend, cf 216. — For the ending, 
see § 44 L — 6 ht : attracted to the gender of ορκοζ, cf. Β 5, 73. See H. 631. 

240. η: repeats the W of 234. See on 86. — Άχιλλήος: instead of 
εμον, with feeling. Cf Β 259, Γ 99, and Hector's challenge to the bravest 
Greek to fight "Εκτορι δί'ω Η 75. Edmund says ' Yet Edmund was be- 
loved,' Shakspere King Lear v. 3. 239 ; Antonio says ' Tell her the pro- 
cess of Antonio's end,' id. Merchant of Venice iv. i. 274. 

241. σ-ύμτταντας : for the prominence of its position, see on 52. 

242. χραισ•μ€ίν: avail, help; without oblique case, as 589. — 'ϋφ"Έκτο- 
ρος θνήσ•κοντ£ς : νττό is used since the verb is passive in sense, and active 
only in form, cf Γ 61, 128. See II. 820. — For the epithet of Hector, cf 
h ο m i c i d a m Η e c t ο r e m Ilor . Epod. xvii. 12. 

243. ΊτίίΓΓωσ-ι: for the subjunctive, c/! Ικωμα,ί 139. — 4' νδοθι : "in thy 
breast." 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 27 

244. χωομ€νο5 : full of rage (sc. at thyself). — ο τ€ : on re, that ; cf. ο 120, 
412. — οΰδί'ν: ace. of specification (strictly, cognate ace.) instead of the 
simple ov. — άριστον : this was strictly true, see 283, Β 769. See on διος 7. 

245. τΓοτΙ . . . γαίη [γτ^ ] : here a sign of anger. — ττοτί : adv. with β(ίΧ€. 
It is followed by the dative because of the state of rest that follows the 
action. See on Β 175. — In this act, Achilles says plainly that he will 
not discuss the matter further. 

246. •π•6•7Γαρμ€νον : studded, as decoration. 

247-284, Speech of Nestor, who endeavors to reconcile the heroes. 

247. €Τ€ρωθ€ν : see on 191. — €μήνΐ€ : was raging, continued his rage. See 
on 1. — τοϊσ-ι : for the dative, see on 68. — Ν€σ•τωρ : the oldest and wisest 
of the Achaeans before Troy. He often gives good advice, as Β 76 ff., 
336 if., Ζ 66 ff. He was the most skilled of the Greeks in marshalling 
the army for battle, cf. Β 555, Δ 297 ff. He is fond of relating his 
exploits, as his defeat of Ereuthalion Δ 318 ff. He tells a long story of 
his first battle against the Eleans, A 670 ff. The Third Book of the 
Odyssey is devoted to the visit of Telemachus, Odysseus's son, to Nestor, 
at his home in Pylus. — For his interposition here, cf Nestor con- 
ponere lites | inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden:| 
hunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. | quid- 
quid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi, Hor iJpui. i. 2. 11 ff. 

248. Πυλίων : see on Β 591. — άγορητή? : equiv. to Attic ρήτωρ. 
ayoprj in Homer is used only of an assembly and its place of meeting 
(§ 17) ; it is never a ' market.' 

249. του : relative, limiting γλώσσης. — KaC : also, belongs to the 
whole sentence, referring to ηΒνεττη'ζ which is explained by the compari- 
son; c/. 406, Β 827, 866, 872. Cicero translates, e X eius lingua melle 
dulcior fluebat oratio deSen.lO; cf Homeric! senis mella 
tibi profluere Pliny JEja. iv. 3, γ\νκ€ρη ol από στόματος pect αΰδτ; 
lies. Theog. 97. 

250. τω : for the dative of interest with ΐφθιατο, cf. Β 295 ; see § 19 e. 
— -yevcaC : generations, reckoned as of about 30 years each. Since Nestor 
was now in the middle of the third generation, he is to be thought of as 
about * three score and ten ' years old. Cf. ter aevo functus senex, 
Hor. Carm. ii. 9. In γ 245, ten years after this scene, he is said to have 
reigned rpls ycVe' άνΒρων. 

251. Ιφθίατο : e^^tytxcVai ήσαν, § 44 ί. — οι : construction according to 
sense, referring to ανθρώπων rather than to ytvtai — ol: dat. of accom- 
paniment with α/χα. — τράφ€ν \_^τράφησαν'] κτλ.: for the ' hysteron prote- 
ron,' see § 16/. The more important or obvious element is mentioned 
first. For the form, cf ξύν^ν 273 ; see § 44 m. 



28 COMMENTARY. 

252. τριτάτοισ-ιν : i.e. in the third generation. 
253 = 73. 

254. ω ΊτόίΓοι : can this be! — Άχαιίδα γαίαν: i.e. the Achaeans. For 
the ace. of limit of motion, see H. 722 ; G. 1065. This construction is 
freq. with Γκω, ίκάνω, ΙκνΙομα, but rare with βαίνω, εΤμι, ίρχομχχι. Cf. 31, 
322. 

255. The thought of the preceding verse is repeated in difEerent form ; 
hence the lack of connective, see 15 5. — γηθήσ-αι : sing, to agree with 
the nearest subject ; contrasted with ττίνθος Ικάνεί. The aorist is incep- 
tive ; cf. 33 ; see H. 811 ; Good. 1260. For the form, see § 44 c. — For 
the ' chiastic ' arrangement of verbs and their subjects, cf. 225 ; see § 16 a. 

— Πρίαμος . . . iratScs: as Γ 288, Δ 31, ώμον (raw) βίβρώθοις (sc. Hera) 
Ή-ρίαμον ΤΙρίάμοίό re τταιδας Δ 35. 

256. κ€χαροίατο : for the reduplication, see § 43 e ; for the ending, see 
§44Z. 

257. σ-φώιν μαρναμί'νοιιν : de vobis rixantibus, genitive after 
ττνθοίατο. The participle is supplementary. — toSc : direct object of the 
verb. 

258. ΊΓίρΙ μί'ν, irepl Be: construe with earc, stipmor^/o. With the gen., 
as 287. — βουλήν : as to counsel, in council. — μάχ€σ-θαι : in battle, like μάχην. 

— For the thought, cf. Γ 179, Τυδειδτ;, ττερί μ^ν ττολίμω ivi Kaprcpo^ ίσσι, \ 
και βουλτ] . . . βττλευ άριστος Ι 53 f. " First in war and first in peace," 
490 f., b'202, 273. 

259. Se : see on 200. — Cf ' Love and be friends, as two such men 
should be ; | For I have seen more years, I'm sure than ye.' Shakespere 
Jul. Caes. iv. 3. 131 f. 

260. η€ ατίρ ύμίν : i.e. ηί ττερ νμ€Ϊς iare. The pronoun is attracted to 
the case of dpetWti/, cf. olov κτλ. 263 for οίος ΐΐεφίθοος ην. — Nestor here 
reckons himself with the former generations, in praising the past in con- 
trast with the present. 

261. καΐ ου τγ•τ€ : the contrast might have been marked by αλλά, but 
is only implied by the context. — 01 γ€: emphasized with reference to 
apeioaLv. 

262. γαρ: refers to αρύοσιν 260. — ϊδωμαι : for the subjunctive as 
future, cf. Β 488; see § 18 δ; Η. 868; G. 1321. 

263 f. Π€ΐρ(θοον . . . Πολύφημον : Lapithae, a Thessalian mountain- 
folk famed for its conflict with the centaurs. This strife began at the 
wedding-feast of Peirithous (a friend of Theseus) because of the inso- 
lence of the intoxicated centaurs; cf. Β 741 ff. The battle furnished 
subjects for the sculptures in the west pediment of the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia, for the metopes on the south side of the Parthenon at Athens, 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 29 

for the decoration of the shield of Athena Proraachus on the Acropolis, 
and for the ornaments of the shoes of the chryselephantine statue of 
Athena in the Parthenon, for the frieze of the temple of Apollo at 
Phigalia, and for the frieze of the tomb of Mausolus (the ' Mausoleum ') 
at Halicarnassus, as well as for vases and other works of art. 

265. Theseus, king of Athens, was the most famous ally of the Lapi- 
thae. — cirieiKcXov ; the hiatus between the prep, and the adj. is only 
apparent, see ΐκελος § 32 α. 

266. κάρτισ-τοι : pred., " these were the mightiest ever born on earth," 
cf. Β 216, 673. — For the repetition of κάρηστοι, cf. that of ττείθεσθαι, 273 f . ; 
see § 16 h. — δη: doubtless, strengthens the superlative, as it often does. 

267. μί'ν: without corresponding 8e, as 269 and freq. In such cases, 
it is equiv. to μ,-ην. — ecrav [ξσαν] : without an augment. 

268. φηρσ-ίν : cf. φηρας Β 743. φηρ is the Thessalian form of θηρ 
(cf. f era). It is used by Homer only of the centaurs, whose homes were 
in Thessaly. The centaurs are not described by Homer, but their dual 
nature (half man, half horse) seems to have been not yet developed in 
the story. — airoXco-o-av : απώλεσαν. 

269. καί : even. Construe with τοΐσίν. The new thought is introduced 
by Kttt also 271, 273, with increasing emphasis. — The thought returns to 
261. — Toi<rtv: i.e. the Lapithae. The dative is governed by μετά in com- 
position. See on ττολίων 125. 

270. e| άπ-ίη? γαίη? : ^om a distant land, explains τηλόθεν. — καλί'σ-αντο : 
called to their aid. — Nestor is fond of relating achievements of his youth 
and strength. See on 247. 

271. κατ έ'μ' αύτον : by myself alone, i.e. as a single champion. Cf. 
κατά σφεας Β 366. — κ(£νοισιν : i.e. the centaurs. • 

272. 0Ϊ vvv κτλ.: who now live as mortals upon the earth. — «ττιχθονιοι : 
equiv. to C7rt γθονί οντε';. See Η. 588. — μαχεοιτο : pres. opt. from μηγεο- 
fxat, a collateral form of ρΑχομΜ, cf. αίΒεΐσθαί 23 with αΙΒομενω 331. 

273. βουλί'ων [/ίουλών] : for the form, see § 34 d. — ξύνΐ€ν [^wtWav] : 
cf. τράφεν 251 ; see § 44 n. — Note the parallelism of the two halves of 
the verse, cf. 79. 

275. άγαθο8 irep ctov : as 131. — oiroaCpco [άφαιρου] : ' syncopated ' from 
άτΓοαιρέεο. It is followed by two accusatives, as 182. 

276. ^a : sc. κονρην. — ws ιτρώτα : as once, cf. 6. — SoVav [Ιδοσαν] : see 
on 124. 

277. μητ€ θ€λ€ : noli, cf. Β 247. — βασ-ιλήι : used esp. of Agamemnon, 
as 9. 

278. άντιβίην : originally cognate ace, sc. e /οιδα, cf Γ 435. The adv. 
receives emphasis from its position. — oil ττοθ* όμοίη$ : i.e. a greater. The 



30 COMMENTARY. 

Greek idiom leaves to the connection the determination of the exact 
meaning. Cf. post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis 
Verg. Aen. i. 136. — €μμορ€: lias share of, has received. This is followed 
by a * genitive of the whole.' 

279. σ-κηΐΓτοΰχο? : see on 15. — ω τ€ Zcvs κτλ. : see on 176. 

280. cl : not conditional in thought here but refers to a matter of fact. 
Cf. ei τότε κονρος ea, vvv αντί με γήρας οττάζει Δ 321. — Kaprepos : as 178. 

— θίά 8e κτλ. : second clause of the protasis, explaining the first; "being 
son of a goddess." — θ€ά : i.e. Thetis, cf. 351 ff. 

281. άλλα: for its use in the apodosis, see on 82. — ψ€ρτ€ρος : more 
poioerful. — 'ΐΓλ€ον€σ-σιν [ττλειΌσΐν] : see Β 108, 576 ff. 

282. *Ατρ€Ϊδη, σ-ύ Se : the vocative often precedes the pronoun; it has 
no construction in the sentence and thus cannot be followed immediately 
by 8e. Cf. Β 344, "Εκτορ, αταρ σν μοί εσσι ττατηρ καΐ ττότνια μητηρ Ζ 429. 

— iraCc : cf 192, 207. — αύτάρ Ιγώ γ€ : " And Ι also on my part beg thee." 

283. λ(σ-(Γομαι: sc. σε. — Άχιλλήι : dative of opposition. The name 
is used with special emphasis, cf 240, instead of the pronoun (275, 281). 

— μεθ€μ€ν [μεθεΐναί] : cf μεθημων Β 241. — os μέγα κτλ. : gives the motive 
for the request. 

284. I'pKos ΊΓολί μοιο : as Δ 299, cf. ερκος ακόντων Δ 137, ερκος βελεων 
Ε 316. For the ablatival genitive, see § 19 a. With another use of the 
genitive, Ajax is called ερκος Ά;;(αιώι/ Γ 229 bulwark of the Achaeans. 

286. τΓοίντα: is not to be urged in meaning. It refers esp. to 284. 
" All this is true, but — ." Agamemnon admits no fault on his part, but 
throws all the blame on Achilles, cf. άλλα below. 

287. ircpl ττάντων : see on 258. 

288. For the asyndeton, see § 15 h. This verse repeats the thought 
of the foregoing, in a diiferent form. The speaker's passion is shown by 
the accumulation of synonymous expressions, § 12 d. 

289. ά : in which, ace. of specification. — τινά : some one, esp. Agamem- 
non himself. — ircCacaOai : from πείθω. 

290. αίχμητην : pregnant, for κρατερός αίχμητης Γ 179. — έ'θεσαν : 
equiv. to Attic εποίησαν, see on εθηκεν 2. — aUv tovrcs: cf θέων αίειγενε- 
τάων Β 400. 

291. ττροθίΌυσιν: i.e. commission him, allow him. The word seems 
chosen here with reference to έθεσαν. 

292. υτΓοβλη'δην: interrupting. 

293. η γαρ : Achilles gives at once the reason for his course. — καλεοί- 
μην : should be called, i.e. should be. Cf. Β 260, Γ 138. 

294. From Agamemnon's complaint, 287 ff., Achilles infers that he is 
expected to obey in everything (παν έργον). — tl δη: "in case that I 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 31 

actually." — 'υΐΓ€ί|ομαι: the form of the condition is changed, and the fut. 
indicative is used in the protasis instead of the optative. 

295. 8η : construe with the imperative, as 131. — ταΰτα: i.e. παν epyov 
νττύκεσθαί. — μ,η γαρ ίγ.οί : in contrast with άλλοισιν. 

296. οΰ : construe with In, as in prose they are united, ovKeri. — όίω : 
with the fut. inf., as 170. — This verse is parallel with 289. 

297. This verse is used when the speaker changes the subject in the 
middle of his speech. It is followed by the new thought, without a con- 
junction. — Cf. accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite 
dicta Yerg. ^en. iii. 250. 

298. μ€ν : correlative with Be 300. The contrast is changed from that 
between action and heart, to one between κονρης and των άλλων. — κονρη$ : 
would have the article in prose. 

299. άφ€λ€(Γθ€ : the aorist assumes that Agamemnon's threat has been 
executed, and the 2d person holds the Achaeans responsible because of 
their acquiescence (cf. 231). — Sovtcs : ye who gave. Cf. Achilles's words, 
ycpas δ€ μοι os Trcp €Βωκεν \ avTos εφνβρίζων eXero κρύων Αγαμέμνων, I 
367 f. 

300. θοη: for such standing epithets, see § 12 b. — τταρά νηί : i.e. in 
my tent, cf. 329. — For the position of the adjective, see § 11 n. 

301. των : repeats των άλλων. — ουκ αν τι ψΕροις : the opt. with αν and 
a negative often expresses a confident expectation, and sometimes 
approaches a threat, as here. — φ€'ροΐ8 wt\wv : cf. α$ω ελών 139. 

302. el: retains its original force as an interjection. "Up then, 
come." — άγ€: see on 62. — γνωωσ-ι : shall recognize it, perceive it, referring 
to the following verse. Cf 185, 333. — For the form, cf δώωσιν 137. 

303. The preceding ττείρησαι represents a protasis to which this would 
be the apodosis ; cf 583. " If he tries, he and the rest will find out." 

304. μαχησαμί'νω : cf μάχεσθαί 8. — eireWo-iv [€7Γ€σιν] : for the form, 
see § 36 b. 

305. άνστητην: stood up, rose from their seats. — λΰσ-αν: the dual and 
plural are seen to be used in this verse without special distinction. Cf 
321; see H. 634; G. 155. The speeches of 285-303 were uttered infor- 
mally, while sitting, cf. 246. 

306-347. Purification of the camp. Chryseis is returned to her father. 
Briseis is led from the tent of Achilles. 

307. Μβνοιτιάδη : Patroclus was so well known to the hearers of Homer, 
from old stories and songs, that he needed no more exact designation 
here. Cf. the use of ^ΑτρείΒψ 7. See § 39 b. When a boy in Opus, 
Patroclus killed a comrade in a fit of anger and was taken by his father 
to Phthia where Peleus received him kindly (Ψ 84 ff.), and brought him 



32 COMMENTARY. 

up with Achilles. He attended Achilles on this Trojan expedition as his 
warmest and most faithful friend and squire (θίράπων). The narrative 
of his exploits fills a large part of the Sixteenth Book of the Iliad. He 
was slain by Hector (Π 818 ff.). To avenge his death, Achilles ends his 
quarrel with Agamemnon. Most of the Twenty-Third Book is occupied 
with an account of the funeral games in his honor. 

308. *Ατρ€Ϊδη5 κτλ. : sc. as he had planned (apa), 141 ff. — irpocpvaacv: 
caused to he drawn down from its position on shore, cf. 486, Β 152 f . 

309. €s δί : as 142. All four adverbs (e?, h, ανά, kv) refer to νηα, sup- 
plied from 308. — cs hi : into it, adv. with βησε. — €€£κοσιν : ships for other 
purposes than war generally have twenty oarsmen in Homer. 

310. βήσ€ : for the causative use of this tense of βαίνω, cf. βήσομεν 
144. — ανά: adv. with elaev (aor. from Γ^ω). 

311. άγων : see on ιών 138. — άρχος : cf. 144. — O8v<r^€t)s : as ττολυ/χτ/τις, 
τΓολνμηχανος, he was often sent on embassies, cf Γ 205. See § 6 a. 

312. The story which is here broken off, of the voyage to Chrysa, is 
resumed at 430. 

313. άπολυμαίν€σθαι : they were to purify themselves symbolically 
from the sin of Agamenmon which had brought upon them the pesti- 
lence. Cf. the action of the children of Israel, after their idolatry : ' And 
they gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and poured it out 
before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned 
against the Lord,' 1 Sam. vii. 6. They trusted that the pollution would 
depart from them into the sea, where they washed themselves. 

314. Ύΐλψσ-σ-α^ : see on 66. 

316. Ίταρά θίνα : as 34. The line of people was stretched out along 
the strand. 

317. ircpl καπνφ : around, in the smoke. See § 55 a. , 

318. Transition to another scene, which fills the blank during the 
journey of the embassy to Chrysa. — κατά στρατον : {down) through the 
camp, cf. άνα στρατόν 10, 53, κατά νηα<ζ Β 47, κατά. βωμονς Β 305. — For 
the transition, at the 'Bucolic diaeresis,' see § 58 h. 

319. epiSos : as 210. — «irpcSrov : once, see on 6. — €'ΐηΐ|•ΐΓ£(λησ€ : see 
181 ff. 

320. Ταλθύβιον : the principal herald of Agamemnon. According to 
Herodotus (vii. 134), he had a sanctuary at Sparta, and his family lived 
there long as heralds. — Εύρυβάτην: only here as herald of Agamemnon. 
He is to be distinguished from Odysseus's herald of the same name, see 
on Β 184. — irpoorc'ciircv : is regularly followed by the direct address in the 
next verse, but occasionally some incidental remark intervenes by way 
of parenthesis. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 33 

321 θεράίΓοντε : companions, squires, Patroclus is θεράπων of Achilles, 
brave warriors are called θεράποντες "A ρηος (Β 110), and kings are θερά- 
ποντες Αως. 

322. €ρχ€σθον : here followed by the ace. of limit of motion, without 
a prep.; see on 254. — Agamemnon does not go in person (αντός 185) 
since Achilles had declared (298) that he would make no resistance. 

323. xeipos : gen. of the part touched, with ελόντε, cf. κόμης 197, ττοδός 
591. — άγ€μ€ν : inf. for the imv., parallel with ερχεσθον. See on λΰσαι 20. 
— This contains an explanation of the preceding imperative and hence 
is not connected with it by a conjunction (§ 15 b), cf. 363. 

324 = 137, with δώτ^σιν for δώωσιν. 

325. KttC : strengthens ρίγιοϊ/. 

326. Ϊ€ΐ . . . €Τ6λλ€ν : as 25. — μΰθον : i.e. the preceding command. 

327. ά£κοντ€ : because of their dread and reverence for Achilles, cf. 
331. For the form, see § 24. — βάτην [εβητην']: dual forms generally 
have no aug. in Homer. — ιταρά θίνα: cf 347. The quarters of Achilles 
were at the extreme right of the camp, cf επ* Αϊαντος κΧισίας . . . ^δ* επ* 
^ΚχιλΧηος, τοί ρ έσχατα νηας είσας \ εΐρνσαν, ηνορεΎ] πίσννοί καΐ κάρτεΐ 
χειρών Α7 H. to the tents of A J αχ and to tJiose of Achilles, who drew up their 
ships at the extremities of the line, trusting to their bravery and the strength of 
their arms. 

329. τον : refers back to 322, viz. Achilles. 

330. οΰδ' άρα: but naturally not. — γηθησ€ν : " did joy enter his heart." 
Inceptive aorist, cf. 33, 92, 255. 

331. ταρβη(Γαντ€ : seized bij fear (the opposite of θαρσησας 85), while 
the present αΙΒομενω expresses the continued attitude of their minds. 

333. ο 6γνω: for the hiatus, cf. 532, Β 105; see § 27 b. — εyvωι sc. 
their errand. Cf. 302. 

334. χαΙρ6Τ€ : the customary greeting. — Aios άγγ€λοι κτλ. : they are 
inviolable servants of Βίοτρεφεων βασιληων (on 176). Hermes is not yet 
the patron god of heralds in Homer. 

335. cirairioi : sc. εστε, to blame. Cf 153. — Άγαμβμνων : sc. επαίτίός εστί. 

336. ο: 05. — κουρη?: κονρος and κονρη are used esp. of young men 
and women of noble families. But κονροί *Αχαιών (473) does not differ 
materially except in metrical form from νΐες ^Κχαιων (162). 

338. άγ€ΐν: final inf., cf μάχεσθαί 8, άγεμεν 443, Β 477, Γ 117. — τώ δ* 
αυτώ: these two themselves. The very men who executed the unjust ordeT 
are to be witnesses of its injustice and of Achilles's justification in with- 
drawing from active service. 

339. irpos : in the sight of before. For the repetition of the preposition, 
cf. that of εκ 436 if. — θίών, άνθραήτων : for a strong " all persons." 



34 COMMENTARY. 

340. KttC : after re . . . re, gives special prominence to this clause. — 
irpos του βασιλήος ain]v6os : hefore that king^ the cruel king, equiv. to irpos 
rovrov τον βασιλέως τον άττψονς. For the order of words, cf. 11, τον 
λωβητηρα Ιττ^σβόλον Β 275. Since the article is still a dem. in Homer, 
the foregomg are merely apparent exceptions to the rule that the attribu- 
tive adj. stands between the article and its noun. — δη αυτ€ : for the 
*synizesis,' cf. 131. — αυτ*: not again, marking a repetition; but indicat- 
ing a situation opposed to the present, cf. 237. 

341. χρ€ΐώ •γ€νηται: this happens in the Ninth Book, see § 7 i. — The 
object before the speaker's mind is Agamemnon. Hence at the close of 
the sentence, τοΓ? άλλοις is used instead of the general word ^ΚχαιοΧ<ς. 

342. Tots άλλοις: dative of interest with a/Awat, cf. 67. — γαρ: length- 
ened, as Β 39, for an unknown reason. 

343. ovScTi: and not at all. — νοήσαι κτλ.: proverbial expression for 
prudence, cf Γ 109. — The infinitive follows οΓδε knows how. 

344. ΟΪ : ethical dative with σόοί μαχεοίατο. — μαχίοίατο : that they 
should fight. The present of the principal sentence is followed by the 
optative, since the purpose is presented as a mere conception of the 
speaker's mind. For the ending, see § 44 I. 

347. άγβιν : as 338. 

34&-430. Achilles tells his grief to his mother. She promises to secure 
satisfaction for him from Zeus. 

348. clcKovo-a : this indicates that she was more than a mere yipa<s to 
Achilles, and that his anger arose not simply from the insult offered to 
his dignity but also from wounded love. In Τ 287 ff., she mourns bitterly 
for the dead Patroclus on her return to the tent of Achilles. — γυνή : ex- 
planatory appositive with η. — The scene ends at the bucolic diaeresis 
(§ 58 Λ), cf. 318, 430. — αύτάρ Άχιλλίυε κτλ. : a simple description of the 
effect which the loss of Briseis had upon the hero, without depicting his 
feelings in modern fashion. 

349. SaKpva-as : fell to weeping. Burst into tears is perhaps too strong 
a translation, but gives the force of the aorist. — €τάρων : construe with 
νόσφι λιασθείς. — αψαρ : const, with λιασθείς, cf 594. 

350. θίν' €φ* άλο'ε: i.e. επι θΐνα κτλ. Const, with εζετο. — 4'φ' is 
accented, in spite of the elision, in order to prevent us from construing 
it with αλός (55 c β). — άλο'β : αλς and θάλασσα are the general words 
for sea ; πόντος is the high, deep sea (often with reference to a particular 
tract, cf. Β 145) ; 7Γ€λ«,γος, the open sea. 

351. ΐΓολλά : as 35. — <)ρ€γνύ$ : not άνασχών (χείρας άνασχων 450), since 
while invoking the sea-divinity he stretched out his hands toward tlie 
deep. Cf. I 568, where Althaea beats upon the ground as she calls upon 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 35 

the nether gods; palmas ponto tendens utrasque . . . Di, quibus 
imperium est pelagi Verg. Aen. v. 233 ff. 

352. €T€K€'s γε: the prominence given by ye emphasizes the fact as 
responsible for the inference which is drawn from it. " Since you gave 
me birth, you ought to see that I am made happy. Zeus ought to give 
me honor." — μινυνθάδιον : equiv. to ωκνμορος 417. — trip: in its original 
use, very. 

353. τιμήν τκρ : honor at least, placed first with emphasis. ' Chiastic * 
with μίνννθάΒων (§ 16 a). — οψ€λλ€ν : the past tense of verbs of obligation 
is used to imply that the obligation was not complied with. — Όλύμτηοξ : 
is used in the singular only of Zeus, as 589, Β 309 ; in the plural, of all 
the gods, as 399. 

354. τ5ψιβρ€μ€τη5 : cf. Betvov δε βρόντησε ττατηρ άνΒρων re θέων re \ 
vif/oOev {thundered terribly from on high) Υ 56. — νυν Se : but as it is, mark- 
ing a return to the reality from a merely hypothetical case, cf. 417, Β 82. 
— ουδέ τυτθον : not even a little. 

356. ελών έχει : differs from elXe chiefly in giving prominence to the 
possession as still continued. Cf. (of the same act) εΓλετ' έχει δ' αλοχον 
I 336. — άτΓούρα? : partic. of άττηνρων 430 ; explanatory of ελών. For the 
strengthening by αυτός, cf 137, 161, 185, 324. 

357. COS φάτο κτλ. : cf sic f atur lacrimans Verg. Aen. vi. 1. 

358. ΊτατρΙ γε'ροντι : i.e. Nereus, who is not named by Homer but only 
designated as άλως -γίρων (538). His home is in the Aegean sea. With 
him is Thetis, who has deserted her aged husband Peleus. 

359. dXos: ablatival gen., from the sea. See § 19 a. — ηύτ ομίχλη: 
the comparison is esp. fitting for a sea-goddess. Like a mist, which rises 
easily and quietly from the water. Cf * As evening mist | Risen from a 
river o'er the marish glides,' Milton Par. Lost xii. 629 f. — For the 
Homeric comparison, cf. 47; see § 14. 

360. ττάροιθ* αυτοίο : before him(self). The intensive pronoun contrasts 
Achilles himself with his voice which his mother had just heard, cf. 47. 
See § 4:2 d. — δάκρυ \4ovros : the repetition of these words from 357 is 
characteristic of the fulness of Epic style. — The Homeric heroes were 
never ashamed to express emotion. They wept copiously. 

361. κατε'ρεξε: for the single ρ after the augment, see § 30 c. — For 
the Epic fulness, cf 57, 88 ; see § 12 d. 

362. σ-ε', φρε'νας : accusatives of the whole and part, see on 150. 

363. εξαυ'δα κτλ. : the second imv. repeats the thought of the first, 
hence the asyndeton, cf. 323; see § 15 b. — νοω: as in 132. — εΐδομεν 
[είδω/Αεν] : for the short mode-vowel, cf. 141 ff. ; see § 45. 

364. βαρύ' : cf. €vpv 355, and see on μίγα 78. 



36 COMMENT AK Υ. 

365. οΐσ-θα: cf. 35δ f. — η : is not a simple sign of a question in Homer 
(see on 133), and hence can be joined with rt. — Ιδυίη [ειδυία] : for the 
short form of the stem, see § 49 g. Intransitive. — Though his mother 
knows all, Achilles tells the story. A man in suffering finds relief in 
rehearsing his ills, and this recital was followed by the sympathy of the 
poet's hearers. The repetition is more natural because the consequences 
of these events continue through the whole poem. — άγορ€ΰω : 'subjunc- 
tive of deliberation.' — For the verbal repetition, cf. Β 10-15, 23-34, 
60-70. 

366. Observe that this story is introduced without a conjunction. — 
(όχομίθα : sc. on his marauding expeditions in the neighborhood of Troy. 
See on 125. — Θη'βην : a city of the Cilicians, in Mysia, at the foot of 
Mt. Placus, an eastern spur of Mt. Ida. Eetion, father of Hector's wife, 
Andromache, reigned there, Ζ 394 ff. — The connection of Chryseis with 
Theba is not made plain. Was she there on a visit? Or were Theba 
and Chrysa sacked on the same expedition ? — Ιίρη'ν : since the gods were 
worshipped there. — For the simple order of words, see § 11 Λ. 

367. ήγομ6ν evGciSc : Andromache tells of the sack of the city, of her 
father's death and her mother's captivity, in Ζ 414 1ϊ. 

368. €v : properly, so that each received his due share. — δάσ-σ-αντο : cf. 
δεδασται 125, δασ/αός 166. 

369. 6 κ δ' έ'λον: as yipaq (i^aLperov, cf Β 227), besides his share of 
the spoils. See on 124. — The capture of Chrysa (37) on the same expe- 
dition is assumed here. Β 690 ff. shows that Lyrnessus was sacked, and 
Briseis taken captive, on the same voyage. 

371-379 =r 12-16, 22-25. 

380. Ίτάλιν: back; cf τταλιν πλαγχθίντας 59, δό/χ,εναι τταλιν 116. 
* 381. φίλοξ η€ν : SC. δ -γίρων. This was shown by the event. 

382. 6ir' Άργ€ίοισ-ι : ctti with a dative of the person, in Homer often 
implies hostility, like cTrt with the ace. in prose; cf. 51. — κακόν: cf 10. 
— pe'Xos : as 51. 

383. cirao-^vTcpoi : in quick succession, cf. 52. 

384. άμμι [rjpHv^ : for us. 

385. Gcoirpoirias : as 87. — €κάτοιο : of the Far Darter, άκατος is a short, 
' pet ' form of ίκατηβόλος (as Εκάτη was a name of the moon goddess) , 
Cf. '^μινθεν 39. For similar epithets of Apollo, see § 22 c. 

386. αΰτίκα: for the lack of a conjunction, see § 15 d. — κ€λομην: cf 
62 ff., and see on 74. 

387. Άτρεΐωνα κτλ. : equiv. to Άτρείων Ιχολώθη {cf χολωθείς 9). 

388. ■η•π•€ίλη<Γ€ν μυθον : the English idiom reverses the construction, he 
uttered the threat. — ο : ος, as 336. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 37 

389. την |i€v : contrasted with την δε 391. — <rvv νηί : with a ship, almost 
equiv. to hy ship. This expression seems more instrumental than where 
the comrades also are mentioned, cf. 179, 183. 

390. τΓβμ,ΊΓουσιν : escort (§ 17). The pres. is used since the act is not 
completed. The 'historical present ' is not Homeric. — άγουσι 8e : a sub- 
ordinate member of the sent., with ' chiastic ' relation to ττίμπτουσίν (§ 16) . 

— άνακτι : Apollo, cf. 36, 444. 

391. την δ€ κτλ. : contrasted with 389. — v€Ov : adv. with Ιβαν άγοντες. 

— εβαν \^ξ.βησαν\ άγοντ€5 : cf. ίβαν φίρονσαΐ Β 302, y8^ φενγων Β 60ϋ. 
οίχομαί is more freq. thus used with a partic, cf Β 71, οίχεσθαι ττροφί- 
ρονσα θνελλα Ζ 346. See on Ιών 138, 168. 

392. δο'σ-αν κτλ. : as 162, see on 124. 

393. irai8os ctjos : thy valiant son. It seems part of the poet's naiyeie 
that the heroes apply such epithets to themselves ; but the phrase is part 
of the poet's stock, and he hardly thinks whether he is applying the epi- 
thet himself or is putting it in the hero's mouth. 

394. Δ£ά : for the length of the ultima before λίσαι, see § 59 Λ. — et 
•iroT€ : cf 39, 503 ff. 

395. cirei, έ'ργω : emphatically placed in contrast, at the beginning and 
the close of the verse. — κραδίην Aio's : for the 'periphrasis,' see § 16 c?. — 
ψ καί : or also. 

396. ΊΓολλάκι : for the omission of final s, see § 30 Z. — a-io : gen. of 
source with άκουσα. — iraTpo's : i.e. of Peleus, in Thessaly, where Thetis 
seems to have remained after her marriage until the outbreak of the 
Trojan war ; cf. Π 221 if. (where mention is made of the chest of 
Achilles that Thetis had packed for him as he set out for Troy). See 
on 358. 

397. ευχόμενη? : supplementary participle with σεο, cf. 257. — οτε κτλ. : 
explains ενχομενη'ζ, see § 11 J. 

398. άεικε'α κτλ. : as 341, cf. 67. 

399. οΊΓΊΓοτε: when once upon a time. — Thetis makes no use of this 
suggestion in her interview with Zeus. 

401. ελθοΰσα : see on Ιών 138. — θεά: marks her power to accomplish. 

— ύττελυοταο 8εσ-}λών : didst loose from under the chains, didst free from the 
pressure of the chains. — Transition to direct discourse from the infinitive 
construction of 398, cf. Β 12, 126 ; see § 11 e. 

402. ε'κατογχειρον : cf. centimanus Gyas Hor. Carm. ii. 17. 14, 
belua centiceps ih. ii. 13-34. — καλε'σ-ασα: hy calling, coincident in 
time with ύττελΰσαο. 

403. Βριοίρεων : by transfer of quantity for Έριάρηον, § 23 c. The 
name {Heavy-handed, cf. βρίαρό<ϊ) marks his strength and character. 



38 COMMENTARY. 

He is called Αιγαίων (Stormy, cf. aiyts, Puyai, Αίγινα) in the popular 
speech, as a sea-divinity. He is the personified might and roar of the 
sea. Hesiod makes him aid Zeus against the Titans. — Homer attributes 
to the language of the gods names which are going out of use (but which 
may seem clearer in meaning than the others), cf. Β 813 f. 

404. αυτ€ : on his part. — ου irarpo's: i.e. Poseidon, the mighty god of 
the sea. All of Poseidon's sons are represented as violent and strong. 

— ου : see on ην 72. 

405. OS pa: so he; for the demonstrative use of the relative, see § 42 l. 

— κυ'δίϊ γαίων : delighting in the fulness of his might. 

406. καί: also, marks the effect corresponding to κυδβϊ -γαίων. See on 
249. — ύΐΓίδίκταν : for the length of the antepenult, see on 33. νττό with 
verbs of fearing, fleeing, yielding, marks the superiority on the side of 
the person who is the efficient cause. — re : indicates the close connection 
of the two clauses, cf. 82, 218, Β 179. 

407. των : see on 160. — μίν : const, with /χντ^σασα, — ^-Trapc^co would 
govern the dative. — γου'νων : for the genitive, cf. χ€ίρό<ζ 323. — This was 
the attitude of a suppliant, cf 500 ff. 

408. αϊ Kc'v ττω? : cf. 66. — c-irl άρήξαι : come to the aid of. Cf the force 
of €πί in 345. 

409. κατά -π-ρύμνα? : the ships were drawn up with their sterns toward 
the land. — άμφ' άλα : about the sea, i.e. on the shore between the promon- 
tories Sigeum and Rhoeteum. Until now the battles had been fought on 
the plain, far from the ships and near the city. Cf. Achilles's words, οφρα 
δ' €γώ μ€τ *ΑχαιοΙσίν ττολίμιζον, \ ονκ ΐθίλεσκί μάχην από τείχεος όρννμεν 
"Εκτωρ Ι 352 f . As long as I was fghting among the Achaeans, Hector was 
not willing to rouse the battle away from the wall (of the city). — Άχαιου'β: 
in apposition with τον<ζ. 

410. ίτταυ'ρωνται : may come to enjoy ; ironical. C/. quid quid deli- 
rant reges, plectuntur Achivi Icior. Epist. Ί. 2. \4l. 

411. καί: also, i.e. as well as the other Greeks. 

412. ην άτην : his blind infatuation, his blindness . This is made more 
definite by ο re κτλ. (i.e. on re), as 244. Cf Β 111. 

413-427. The answer of Thetis. 

413. κατά: construe with ;;^€ουσα. 

414. tC νυ : why now, to lohat end. Ace. of specification. — alvoC: cog- 
nate ace. with τεκοΰσα, dreadfully, to sorrow. Cf. κακτ] alar] 418. Thetis 
calls herself δυσα/οιστοτόκ«α 2 54 mother of an unhappy hero. 

415. αϊθ* οφ£λ€5 : for this form of expression for an unattainable wish, 
see H. 871 a; Good. 1512. — άδάκρυτοβ κτλ.: i.e. full of joy and happi- 
ness. This thought receives the emphasis. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 39 

416. αΐσα: sc. Ιστί. Here like αιών ierm ο/ Z//e. — μίνυνθα: adv. modi- 
fying the eVrt to be suj^plied, Avhich is sometimes modified by an adv. in 
Homer (§ 19 Λ). Cf. άκην iyivovro σιωττ^ Γ 05, ουδ' ap* €tl 8ην \ ην Ζ 139 f . 
**nor did he live long." — ού τι μοίλα δην: the preceding thought is 
repeated in negative form. — For the length of the ultima of μόλα, see 
§ 59 h β. 

417. νίϊν δ€ : as 354. — τ€ : its position is free, cf. Β 281. 

418. έ'ιτλίο : tJiou art, lit. thou becamest by decree of fate ordered at thy 
birth. — Tto: therefore. She infers from the foregoing, not the fact but 
the justification of the expressions aim τεκουσα, κακγ) αιστ;. — Kaicg αϊα -rji ι 
to an evil lot. 

419. τοΰτο cTTos : i.e. 407 ff. — toC : dat. of interest, cf. tol 425 f . — 
epeovo-a : f ut, partic, expressing purpose. — For the two ' hiatus ' in this 
verse, see §§ 27/, 32. 

420. "ΟλυμίΓον άγάννιφον : see on 44, 195, 497. — at Κ6 ττίθηται : see 207. 

421. σ-ύ μ€ν : correlative with 426. The interposed explanation makes 
it natural to change the form of the apodosis from εγώ δε. — vvv : i.e. until 
her visit to Zeus. — τταρημίνοε : as 488. Inactivity is implied, cf Β 688, 
694. — Thetis does not encourage her son to carry out his threat of 169, 
to return to Phthia. 

422. μηνΐ€ : pres. imv., continue to rage, see on 210. See on μψιν 1. 

423. Zevs γαρ κτλ. : gives the reason for the preceding direction, esp. 
for vvv, showing why his request cannot be granted at once. — c's Ώκ€ανον : 
to the abode of Oceanus, near which was the home of the Aethiopians. 
The Aethiopians lived in the southeast and southwest of the Homeric 
world. They are represented as a god-fearing people, enjoying the per- 
sonal intercourse of the divinities. — μ€τά : as 222. — ΑΙΘιοττηα? [Αιθίοπας] : 
for the form, see § 37 a. 

424. χθιζοε : pred. adj. instead of adv., as 472, 497, Β 2, Γ 7. See § 56 a. 
— κατά [/χ€τά] δαΐτα : cf. κατά ττρηζιν for trade, ττΧαζόμίνοι κατά λψΒα wan- 
dering for plunder. — άμα iravrts : cf 495. — «ττοντο : apparent contradiction 
of 195, 221 f., where Athena and Hera are thought of as on Olympus. 

425. δωδ€κάτη : cf. 54. This is reckoned from the day on which 
Thetis is speaking. 12 is sometimes a round number, in Homer as well 
as in the Bible. — IXevVcTai : Attic εΐσι. 

426. χαλκοβατ€5: with bronze threshold, 2in epithet applied four times 
to the home of Zeus, once to that of Hephaestus, and once to the palace 
of Alcinous. The threshold of wood was probably covered with a plate 
of bronze. The floor of the hall of Zeus was covered with gold, Δ 2. 
Cf. ' and the floor of the house he overlaid with gold, within and without,' 
1 Kings vi. 30, of Solomon's temple. 



40 COMMENTARY. 

427. KaC μιν, κα£ μιν : for the animated repetition, cf. κο.ί μιν βάλον 
ωμον . . . και μιν εγώ γ ζφάμην 'AiSajvyji τΓροϊάψαν Ε 188, 100 and Ι hU him 
in the shoulder, and I said that I should send him to Hades. — γουνοίσ-ομαι : 
cf. Χαβ\ yovvdiv 407. 

428. άΐΓ€βη(Γ€το : only in this place in the verse, before the bucolic 
diaeresis (§ 58 Λ) ; elsewhere, άττέβη is used, see § 50 h. — αύτου: inten- 
8ίΛ''θ when adverbial (not very freq.) in Iloiner, as well as when a strict 
pronoun. 

429. YwaiKos : gen. of cause, with χωόμ€νον. See on ενχωλης 65. 

430. βίη κτλ.: hy force, against his will. — ockovtos : sc. Wcv, gen. of 
separation. 

430-487. Chryseis is conducted to her home. The scene in Chrysa 
naturally intervenes between the promise of Thetis and its fulfilment, 
and thus seems to fill up in part the 12 days' delay. See on Γ 121. 

430. αύτάρ Όδυσ-σεύε κτλ. : cf 311 fP. — For the beginning of the narra- 
tive, cf. the transition at ανταρ Άχιλλευς 348. 

431. iKavev άγων : cf. ί,ργομ ίχων 108, ηκε Ύίσσαφψνης €χων την eavTOv 
δυνα/χιν Xen. J.7i. ii. 4• 8. άγων with is used because the hecatomb was 
composed of live animals. 

433. Ιστία (ττείλαντο : they took in their sails. The middle takes the 
place of a possessive pronoun. Cf 480. 

434. Ίτροτόνοισ-ιν: forestays, the ropes leading from the prow to the 
top of the mast ; Ι-πίτονοι, backstays, were stretched from the stern. Both 
together served to hold the mast in place. — υφ6ντ68 : lowering. 

435. •π•ρο€ρ€σ•σ•αν : when near their haven, they furled their sails, and 
rowed the boat to land. 

436. CK Si : for the ' anaphora,' cf. 339 f ., Β 671 ff . — tvvas : these were 
large stones which served as anchors. These were cast from the prow, 
while the ττρνμνησια (470) held the stern. When the boat was to remain 
long, it was drawn up on land. 

437. βαΐνον: for the descriptive imperfect, see on αφια 25. — iiri: for 
the length of the ultima, see § 59 /. 

438. βήσαν : 1st aorist, transitive. Cf 144, 310, έστησαν 448. 

439. The rhythm has been thought to imitate the maiden's measured 
steps, § 13 b. — €k: adv. as above, but more exactly defined by νηός. — 
δ€ : for the short vowel lengthened before two consonants, see § 59/. — 
irovToiropoio : cf Γ 283. 

440. lirl βωμον : the god is thus made a witness of the return. Thus 
in a Boeotian inscription a man emancipates his slave Ιναντίον^ ΚσκΧηπίον 
in the presence of Asclepius. The priest dwelt in the sacred enclosure 
(^τίμενος, άλσος) of the god. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 41 

441. €v χίρσ-Ι τίθ€ΐ : placed in the arms. For -^ύρ as arm, cf, Ζ 81, 482. 

— τίθ€ΐ : for the form, see on άφια 25. 

442. irpo έ''ΐΓ€μψ€ν : cf. προ ηκ€ 195. 

443. For the chiasmus, see § 16 a. — άγ€μ€ν : for the inf., cf. ayctv 338. 

— €κατομβην pc'^at : cf. Icpa ρίζας 147. 

444. virc ρ Δαναών : in behalf of the DanaX. This figurative use of νττερ, 
freq. in later Greek, liardly appears elsewhere in Homer. 

446. Chryseis here disappears from the story. 

448. €ξ€£η9 : in order, since ίκατόμβην is collective. — 4'σ-τησ-αν : 1st 
aorist, transitive, cf. βησαν 438, άναστησειεν 191. 

449. χερνίψαντο : they could not pray to the gods with unwashen hands. 
Cf. Γ 270, χερσι δ' άνίπτοισίν Ad λύβξ,ιν αίθοττα οΐνον \ αζομχιι (dread) Ζ 
266. — ούλοχυτα? : unground barley corns {ovXaL κριθαί) which, roasted 
and mixed with salt (cf. * with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt,' 
Levit. ii. 13), were scattered between the horns of the victim (προβάΧοντο 
458) as an initiatory sacrifice, whence they were proleptically called οΰλό- 
γνται poured out barley corns. — avcXovro : took up, sc. from the basket 
standing on the ground. 

450. τοίκτιν: for them, as 68, 247. — μ€γοίλα: loudly, cf. ττολλά 35. — 
Xcipas άνασχών : the palms were extended towards the gods, the usual 
attitude in prayer, as is shown by works of art. Cf. 351, Γ 318. So also 
among the Hebrews. Cf. ' And it came to pass, when Moses held up his 
hand, that Israel prevailed ; and Avhen he let down his hand, Amalek pre- 
vailed,' Exodus xvii. 11. See Vocabulary s.v. χ^ίρ. 

451 f. = 37 f . With the same formula Avith which he began his prayer 
for vengeance, he now prays that the punishment may be averted. 

453. η|ΐ.€ν, ηδ€ : paratactic construction, where the Eng. idiom uses " as 
. . . so," see § 21 d. — δη ttotc : once already, correl. with ert 455 once more. 

454. Explanatory ' appositive asyndeton.' — τίρ,ησ-α? κτλ. : sc. by send- 
ing the pestilence Avhich avenged the slight oifered to the priest. 

455. καΐ νυν : contrasted with ττάρος above. — toSc κτλ. : as 41. 

456. ήδη νυν: now at once. — Δαναοϊσ-ιν κτλ. : cf 97. 
457 = 43. 

458. In the sacrifice described γ 440 ff., the victim's forelock is cut 
olf and thrown into the fire, before the barley corns are scattered. — 
αντάρ eirei : this is repeated in this narrative 464, 467, 469, 484. 

459. avtpv<rav: they dreiv up (back) the head of the Anctim, in order 
to tighten the muscles of the neck. For the form, see § 29 c. — έ'σ-φαξαν ; 
i.e. opened the large artery of the neck, to let the blood. 

460. ρ,ηρούβ €ξ€ταμον : instead of the more definite Ik μηρία τάμνον, see 
on 40. — κνίσ-η: dative of means. Two layers of fat were placed over the 



42 COMMENTARY. 

thigh pieces ; and upon the fat, bits of raw meat from all parts of the 
body (πάντων μέλλων), symbolizing a sacrifice of the whole animal. 
These were burned, and thus the gods, according to the Homeric belief, 
took part in the sacrificial feast. Cf. 317. 

461. ΒίΐΓτυχα: sc. κνίσην, equiv. to δίττλακι Βημ,ω. 

462. καί€ : sc. the /xT^pta with the fat and bits of flesh. — σ-χίζτ]? : cf. 
Β 425. 

463. vc'oi: i.e. the companions of Odysseus, in contrast with ό γέρων, 
the old priest. Cf. Β 789. — irap* αΰτον : by the priest himself who is 
thus marked as the principal, directing person at the sacrifice. — ττίμιτώ- 
βολα: these bronze forks prob. had bent tines, like some antique Etrus- 
can bronzes that have been found, not unlike a hand with fingers bent in 
readiness to grasp some object. See the Vocabulary s.v. 

464. κατά κάη : these pieces were intended for the gods and therefore 
were entirely (κατά) consumed by tlie fire, cf 6 δ' iv irvpl βάλλ€ θνηλάς 
I 220 he threw the sacrificial pieces into the fire. — ττάσ-αντο : sc. in order to 
have a share in the sacrifice. This was no part of, but only an introduc- 
tion to, the meal which followed. 

465. μίστυλλον κτλ. : cf pars in frusta secant, verubusque 
trementia figunt A^erg. Aen. i. 212. 

466. τΓ€ριφραδ€ω5 : sc. to keep it from burning. — €pv<ravTo : drew it off 
from the spits, after it was roasted. 

467. ΊΓατίοταντο : the aorist ind. is often used in relative clauses (with 
cTTct) where the English uses the pluperfect. See II. 837. 

468. €ί(Γη5: equal, i.e. of which each had a fair share. The feast was 
common to all, but the leaders had the better portions. 

469. A set verse to mark the end of a feast, see § 12 h. Vergil imi- 
tates in postquam exempta fames et amor compress us 
edendi Aen. viii. 184. — €ξ: const, with Ιντο. — epov [Ιρωτα] : for the 
form, see § 37 δ. — The previous pouring out of the wine is not mentioned, 
as might be expected. 

470. κούροι μ€ν κτΧ. : sc. for a solemn libation of the whole company, 
since only Chryseis poured a libation before, 462. — ιτοτοϊο : genitive after 
the idea of 'fuhiess ' in the verb. — This verse seems to have been misun- 
derstood by Vergil (or did he think to improve the description?), cf. cra- 
teras magnos statuunt et vina coronant Aen. i. 724, mag- 
num cratera corona | induit, implevitque mero Aen. iii. 525f. 

471. νώμ,ησ-αν : (sc. ττοτόν), a frequentative of ve /χω. The οινοχόος 
dipped (άφνσσων 598) the wine from tlie large bowl (κρητηρ) into a 
pitcher (ττρόχοοζ). The KovpoL proceeded from left to right (ivht^ux 597) 
through the company, distributing to the guests (ττασιν to all), i.e. filling 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 43 

tjheir cups for the libation and the banquet. — Ιτταρξάμίνοι : thus heginning 
the religious ceremony, equiv. to άρ^ά /xevot €7ηνίμοντ€ς. Const, with 
δεττάεσσιν. 

472. •π•ανημ.€ριοι : through the whole dag which remained, uninterruptedly 
till sunset. For the predicate adj. used where the English idiom uses an 
adv., see on 424. — μολ-π-η : song. 

473. καλόν : cognate ace. with detSovre?, instead of καλώς, cf. 35, 78. 

— Ίταιήονα [τταΐανα] : here a song of praise to Apollo as thek preserver. — 
The verse explains μολττΎ) above. 

474. ^eXirovres κτλ. : cf. 'Hymning th' eternal Father' Milton Par. 
Lost ύΊ. 96, 'singing their great Creator' ib. iv. 684. — For the quantity 
of the ultima of /Α€λ7Γοντ€9, see §§ 32 a, 59 J. — φρί'να : see on κηρ 44. — 
τ^ρΐΓ€τ άκούων : delighted in hearing. The god hears the song (as he had 
heard the prayer), although he was far away, among the Ethiopians. 

475. Iirl ηλθ€ν : came on. 

476. κοιμήσ-αντο : observe the force of the aorist, laid themselves to rest. 

— ιταρά Ίτρυμνήσια: along by the stern hawsers (see on 436), i.e. on the sea- 
shore. Their boat was not drawn up on land. 

477. poSoSaKTuXos : a notable epithet. The ancients had observed 
the diverging rays of rosy light before sunrise. Cf. 'Ηώς κροκόττεπλος 
(saffron-robed^ Θ 1. 

478. καΐ τότ6 : τημος is expected after ημος, but the relative is not 
always followed by the corresponding demonstrative. For και in the 
apodosis, see § 21 b. — άνάγοντο : (were putting out), put out upon the high 
sea, cf. κατάγοντο came to land. 

479. ϊκμενον ουρον κτλ. : Aeolus was master of the winds, but each 
god could send a favorable breeze. 

480. σ-τήσ-αντο : for the middle, see on 433. — Ισ-τία: strictly an adj. 
which has become a substantive, what pertains to the Ιστός. The Homeric 
boat seems to have had but one sail. 

481. άμφί : adv. 

482. trop^tvpiov : foaming. — μεγάλα: const, with ΐαχε. — νηό? : in the 
transitional stage from limiting gen. with στύρΎΐ to the gen. absolute; 
see § 19 6? yS. 

484. ρά : refers to the preceding verse. — κατά στρατόν : opposite {off) 
the camp, i.e. to the landing-place. — The verse closes like 478. 

485. νήα μ€ν : correl. with αντοί Se. — lir' ηιτίίροιο : up on land. 

486. νψοΰ κτΧ. : i.e. so as to rest high on the sands, where it was 
before, cf. 308. — υττό hi: adv., beneath, i.e. under the ship. — έρματα: as 
Β 154, props (sometimes stones), which were put along the keel on either 
side in order to hold the boat steady. 



44 COMMENTARY. 

488-530. Zeus grants to Thetis the fulfilment of her desire. 

488. αύτάρ 6 μη vie : sc. as his mother had directed, 421 f . ; cf 428 f. — 
Achilles withdraws from the action for the present. In the Mnth Book, 
an embassy is sent to him, begging him to give up his wrath and take 
part in the war (I 119 ff.). In the Eleventh Book, he is roused from his 
apathy on seeing the rout of the Achaeans (A 599 ff.). In the Sixteenth 
Book, when Hector reaches the Greek ships and throws fire into one 
of them, Achilles sends Patroclus and the Myrmidons into the conflict 
(Π 1 ff.). He receives the news of the death of Patroclus in the Eigh- 
teenth Book (5 1 ff.), and is reconciled to Agamemnon in the Nineteenth 
Book and arms himself for battle (T 40 ff., 364 ff'.). He takes part in 
the fourth (and last) great battle of the Iliad, on the 27th day of the 
action of the Iliad. See, further, § 9. 

489. vios : for the short penult, where ι has been virtually lost between 
two vowels, see § 23/. — iroSas cokvs κτλ. : cf 58, see § 12 b. 

490. For the 'asyndeton,' cf 117, 255, 288, 363. — ττωλί'σκίτο : for the 
' iterative * formation, see § 54. — κυδιάνίΐραν : elsewhere epithet of μάχην. 

— The poet does not say whether assemblies were held, and battles fought 
during these days, but perhaps he implies it. 

491. iroXc^ov : for the long final syllable, see on 153. — κήρ: object 
of φθίννθζσκε. 

492. αυθι : 7'ight there, in the same place, i.e. in his tent. — iroQUa-Kt hi: 
the partic. ποθίων might have been used in the same sense. See § 21 h. 

— αυτήν: battle cry. Always a trisyllable, and thus never to be con- 
founded with αντην herself. 

493. Ik Toio: the hearer easily recalled the words of Thetis (which 
form the starting-point of the μηνις), 421 f., and the definite statement of 
time, 425, and referred Ik toIo to that interview between mother and son. 

494. ϊσ-αν [τ^σαν or ^εσαν] : the stem of ct/xt is here preserved, Avithout 
augment. 

495. ηρχ€ : led the way, as the highest in rank. Cf Γ 420. 

496. η γ€ : resumes the subject, see on 97. — άν€δύσ•€το κΰμα : i.e. as 
she sprang up she left the wave. Cf. 359. 

497. ή€ρίη : cf 557, Γ 7. With emphasis in this position in the verse. 
*' While it was yet early morning." — ούρανον Ονλυμιτόν τ€ : see on 44, 
195. 

498. cvpvoira: far sounding, far thundering. For the form, j)erhaps a 
stereotyped nominatiA'^e, see § 34 b. 

499. ακρότατη κορυφή : from which he looks out upon the world again, 
after his long absence. Cf summo sedet alt us Olympo Verg. 
Aen. xi. 726. — τΓολυ8€ΐράδο8 : epithets appropriate to men are often 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 45 

applied to natural objects. Cf. κα/οτ^νων 44, 'foothills,' 'shoulder of the 
mountain,' ' arm of the sea,' * mouth of the river.' 

500. -irapoiOe καθδ'ζετο : cf. Γ 162. — γουνών : see on 407. 

501. (Γκαι-η, 8e|iT€pT) : for the adjectives used as substantives, see on 54. 
— i5ir' av0€peWos: under the chin, as Γ 372. 

502. Δία Κρονίωνα : closely connected, cf. Β 375. 

503. Zcv iraTcp : tliis address, put into the mouths of gods and men , 
marks his patriarchal, royal dignity; cf. 534, 544, hominum sator 
atque deorum Verg. Aen. xi. 725, divum pater atque homi- 
num rex ih.i.Qo. — ct ttotc : c/. 394. 

505. τίμησ-ον: by its position is strongly contrasted with ήτίμησεν, 
507, cf. 353, 356. — ώκυμορώτατο? : into this is condensed the thought of 
415 ff. — άλλων : of all, lit. in comparison with the rest. Ablatival gen., as 
with the comparative (where it marks the starting-point of the compari- 
son). — This construction with άλλων is specifically Homeric. Cf Β 
674, Ζ 295, hi ceterorum Britannorum fugacissimi Ύάο. Agric. 
34, solusque omnium ante se principum [Vespasianus] in 
melius mutatus est Tac. Hist. i. 50, 'Adam the goodliest man of 
men since born | His sons, the fairest of her daughters, Eve,' Milton 
Par. Lost iv. 323 f . — Cf this construction with μετά ττασίν ατιμότατη 
516. 

506. έ'ιτλίτο : see on 418. — άτάρ κτλ. : for the transition from the 
relative to the demonstrative construction, see on 79. 

507 = 356. 

508. σ-ύ ircp : in contrast with Agamemnon. Cf. the force of ττερ in 
353. — ΌλύμΐΓ^ κτλ. : as she renews her request, she renews impressively 
her appeal to the might and wisdom of Zeus. 

509. Iirl τίθ€ΐ: put upon, grant to; cf Β 39. 

510. όφί'λλωσ-ιν κτλ. : only here construed with a person. — Thetis as 
a suppliant presents her request in general terms, while Achilles had 
spoken more definitely, 409-412. Cf. "Έ,κτορι γάρ ol (Zeus) θνμος εβον- 
λετο κνΒος ορεζαι \ ΐΙρίαμί^Ύ], ίνα νηνσΐ κορωνίσι θεστηΒαες ττνρ \ εμβάλοι 
άκάματον, ®ετί8ος δ' ε^αίσων άρην \ ττασαν ετηκρηνειε Ο 596 ff., the heart of 
Zeus wished to give glory to Hector, son of Priam, that he might throw fre 
into the ships, and accomplish all the dreadful prayer of Thetis. 

511. την δε κτλ: the reason of this silence appears from 518ff. 

513. cSs: dem. corresponding to the rel. ως above. — Ιμιτεφυυία : lit. 
grown into, closely clinging to, cf. the formula εν τ αρα 61 φν χειρί Ζ 253. 
Construe with εχετο, as τω προσφνς εχόμην ως ννκτερίς μ 433, clinging to 
this, I held on like a hat. Cf. et genua amplexus, ge nib usque 
volutans | haerebat Verg. A en. iii. 607 f . For the form of εμπεφννΐα. 



46 COMMENTARY. 

see § 49 a. — eupcro: asked, as she demanded a 'yes' or 'no.' — Scvrepov 
avTis : again, a second time. Cf. πάλιν ανης Β 276. 

514. νημ€ρτ€ς : adv. — viroor^co και κατάν€υ<Γον : set expression, only at 
the end of the verse, cf. Β 112, νπίστψ και κατίνενσα Δ 267. Karavcvw is 
the contrary of άνανενω nod up (Z 311). Thus even now in Greece, nega- 
tion is indicated by an upward motion of the head, and affirmation by a 
downward nod (with an inclination toward the left). 

515. airoeiire : speak out plainly; refuse is implied in the context. — 
€iri: i.e. £7Γ€ση, § 55 c. — "Thou hast nothing to fear." — οφρ* kv είδώ: 
cf 185. 

517. όχθήσ -as : inceptive,, see on 33 ; but not so violent as " falling into 
a passion," or "bursting into a rage." Cf δάκρυσα? 349. 

518. λοίγια €ργα : sc. Ισται, as 573. There will he dreadful trouble. — 
oT€ : when, not ci, if since Zeus sees the inevitable consequences and 
already has the situation before his mind's eye. 

519. "Ηρη : emphatic, since Hera desires the most speedy destruction 
of Troy (Δ 31 ff.). 

520. καΐ αΰτω8: even as it is, without special occasion. See § 42 e. — 
aUC : exaggerated, cf 541, 561. 

521. KaC ri \ιί φησ-ι : and says too that J. και marks the agreement of 
this specification with the preceding general remark, cf Γ 235. — μάχη : 
in battle. 

522. νοήσ-τ) : sc. that Thetis had been with him. 

523. "Ηρη: emphatic as 519; here so placed in contrast with Ιμ,οί. 

— ΙμοΙ μ€λήσ•€ται: shall be my care. For the subjv. with kc, cf 139; see 
§ 18Z». — ίίφρα: cf. 82. 

524. cl 8 άγ€ : see on 302. — καταν€υ(Γομαι : shall nod with my head. 
Only here in the middle, see on 433. 

525. τοΰτο κτΧ. : this answers νημ€ρτ€ς κτλ. 514. 

526. τ^κμωρ : surety, pledge. — Ιμόν : neuter adj. as subst. (see on 539), 
lit. anything from me, i.e. a promise or purpose. This is explained by on 
κτλ. — iraXivaYpcTov : revocable, from άγρεω [αίρεω] take. 

527. κατανδύσ-ω : aorist subjunctive. 

.528. η: he spoke, see on 219. — lirl νεΰσε : nodded thereto, ΐΐηη nit. — 
όφρύσ-ι : with his brows. Zeus was represented in works of sculpture with 
heavy, projecting brows. — For the dative, cf κεφαλτ) 524. 

529 . άμβρόσ-ιαι χαίται : c/. ambrosiaeque comae Λ^erg.^e^^. i. 403. 

— ΙΐΓ€ρρώσαντο : rolled down at the nod, fell down on both sides of his 
head. These locks are conceived as long and flowing. See on Β 11. 

530. κρατός: distinguished from κράτος 509 by the accent and the 
length of the first syllable. — Cf. adnuit et totum nutu tremefecit 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 47 

Olympum Verg. Aen. ix. 100, x. 115. — Phidias embodied in his colossal 
chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, the expression of exalted 
peace and power which lies in 528-530. — Zeus's dread of Hera's re- 
proaches is in marked (and almost ludicrous) contrast to this majestic 
demeanor. 

531-611. Scene on Olympus. Quarrel between Zeus and Hera. 

531. δΐ€τμ,αγ€ν [βίετμάγησαν^ : for the form, cf. ηγερθεν 57, άνεσταν 533. 

532. αλα αλτο : for the hiatus, see on 333. — άλτο : 2d aorist without 
variable vowel, from αλλο/χαι, § 53. For a, see § 23 a. 

533. irpos 8ώμα: sc. εβη, a general word of motion, implied in αλτο. 
Cf. Γ 327; see § 16 e. — The home of Zeus on the summit of Olympus 
was not far from the peak on which he had been visited by Thetis. — 
άν^σ-ταν : άνεστησαν. 

534. €| €δ4ων : from their seats. Each god had his separate dwelling 
on Olympus, see 607 f ., and his special seat in the hall in which they 
gathered. Ιδος is strictly not 'seat' (Ιδρ•»;), but place where the seat 
stands. — σφου κτλ. : proleptic, with ανεσταν, they rose and went to meet 
their father. Motion is implied in the connection, as below. — This mark 
of respect is noted both negatively and affirmatively. 

535. άντίοι : predicate nom. after εσταν, cf. Β 185. 

536. €irl θρόνου : makes ένθα more definite. Cf. νψον επΙ ψαμάθοίς 486, 
in apposition with έττ ήττείροιο. — ούδε κτλ. : i.e. nor did she fail to see. — 
μ.ίν: 'proleptic' object, cf Β 409. See H. 878. — The poet has to inform 
his hearers whether the gods were acquainted with the βονλη of Zeus, 
and what their feelings were concerning it. 

537. Ιδουσ-α : on seeing him, ichen she saio him. See on Ιων 138, 

538. apYvpoireta : standing epithet of Thetis. The compound adjec- 
tive contains a comparison, " with feet white as silver." — άλίοιο γφοντο? : 
see on 358. 

539. αντίκα : straightway. Without δε, as 386 ; see § 15 d. — κ€ρτομίοΐ(Γΐ : 
neuter adj. as subst., cf. εμόν 526, /χαλιχιΌισι Δ 256. See on 54. 

540. tCs δή αυ θίών : what one of the gods now, this time. This is uttered 
in a vexed tone ; cf 202. 

541. aUC : contrasted with ον8ε τι ττω, cf 106 f. — Ιόντα: naturally 
would agree with tol preceding, but is attracted to the usual case of the 
subject of the inf., the poet having the inf. construction already in mind. 

542. κρυτΓτάδια . . . δικαζε'μίν : consider and decide upon secret plans. 
Cf. the words of Hera, κεΓνο? (Zeus) δέ τά α φρονέων ενί θνμω \ Ύρωσίτε 
καΐ Δαναοισι Βίκαζετω, ως επιεικές Θ 130 f. let him, considering these his oivn 
avoirs in his mind, decide between the Trojans and the Danai, as is seemly. 

543. ιτρόψρων : see on 77. — τ€τληκα5 : hast had the heart. 



48 COMMENTARY. 

544. Ίτατηρ κτλ. : see on 503. 

545. μη δή : see on 131. — μύθου? : i.e. thoughts, plans, as the content 
of speech. 

546. €ΐ8ή<Γ€ΐν: parallel form of εΐσεσθαι. — χαλίττοί κτλ.: sc. etSeVai. 
The personal const, is used as 589, ρψτεροι πολεμ,ίζαν ήσαν Άχαωί 5 258 
the Achaeans were easier to fight with. See H. 944. 

547. ο V : sc. μ,νθον. — eirieiKCs : sc. y. — άκου6μ€ν : with indefinite sub- 
ject, TLva. — Ι'τΓίΐτα: then, since the relative protasis is hypothetical. 

550. Zeus, in his excitement, passes at once to apply his principle to 
the present situation, instead of giving to the apodosis a general form 
corresponding to the protasis. — ταΰτα: refers to Hera's question, 540. — 
Ι'καστα : i.e. the details, exaggerated in his anger. — SuCpco κτλ. : for the 
use of two verbs, see § 12 i/. 

551. βοώΐΓΐδ : ox-eyed ; i.e. with deep, dark, majestically quiet eyes. This 
epithet, like λευκώλενος 55, is almost peculiar to Hera. 

552. ποίον : predicate. Equiv. to ttoios ο μνθός Ιστιν ov ccittcs. 
See H. 618, 1012 a. — This is a mere exclamation, and expects no 
answer. 

553. irapos : else, at other times ; with the present tense. " I have not 
been wont." — ουτ€ κτλ. : emphatic repetition. The idea is negatived in 
every form, cf. 550. 

554. άο-(Γ* έθελησ-θα : for the conditional rel. sent., cf. 218, 230, 543.— 
άσ-σα : α TLva. — έθέλησθα : for the ending, see § 44 a. 

555 ff. After the rather harsh reply of Zeus, Hera shows that she 
knew not only the person concerning whom she had asked (540) but also 
what Thetis had requested, and what Zeus had promised. 

555. irapeiirr) : should persuade, i.e. lest it prove true that she has per- 
suaded. Anxiety about a fact of the past, for which the aor. ind. might 
be used. 

556 = 538. — This is not spoken out of special animosity to Thetis, 
for whom in fact Hera had special affection. Hera claims Thetis as a 
sort of foster-child, rjv εγώ αντη \ θρεφα re και άτίτηλα και avSpl πόροι/ 
παράκοίτιν Ω 59 f. whom I myself bred and cherished and gave as wife etc. 
According to a myth found in Pindar and Aeschylus, both Zeus and 
Poseidon strove together as rivals for the love of Thetis, but bestowed 
her upon Peleus on learning from Themis that this goddess of the sea was 
destined to bear a son mightier than the father. 

557. ηερίη : as 497. — σ-οί ye : emphasized in reference to ai 555. 

558. ' Asyndeton,' since the following is only a more distinct state- 
ment of the preceding, 555 f . — Ιτήτυμον : cf. 514, 526. — <os τιμήσ-€ΐ8 : that 
thou wilt honor. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 49 

559. τιμήσίΐδ, <)λέσ€ΐ$ : coincident actions, in chiastic position. For the 
* chiasmus,' see § 16 a; for the 'parataxis,' see § 21 h. Achilles was to 
be honored by the suffering of the Achaeans, M^ho were to see how neces- 
sary he was to their success. — iroX^as [ττολλοΰς] : see § 38 c. — 'Αχαιών: 
construe with νηνσίν (not πολεας), as is indicated by the order of words, 
and by the freq. repetition of the phrase Ι-πί νηαζ ^Κ-χαι^ν, 12, Β 8, 17, 168. 

561. aUl κτ\. : ahoays art thou thinHng. An echo of the οίω of 558, 
showing vexation ; cf. aiei 107. — ούδ^ <rt λήθω : "thou art always watch- 
ing me." 

562. έ'μτΓηξ : in spite of all, nevertheless ; like ο/χως, which is found but 
once in Homer. — άττο θυμοΰ : far from my heart, affection. For this use of 
άττό, cf Β 162, 292, φίλων αττο ττηματα ττάσχει α 49 suffers woes away from 
his friends. 

563. TO . . . 4'σ-ται : as 325. — καΐ pC-yiov : sc. than what now causes her 
ill humor. 

564. cl 8' ούτω κτλ. : the reply to -555 f. Sic volo, sic jubeo. — 
μ^λλ€ΐ: impersonal, cf. Β 116. 

565. άλλα κτλ. : the English idiom, " sit quiet and obey," instead of 
the more usual Greek idiom κάθησο ττίίθομ.ίνη, see § 21 Λ. — άκ€ουσα : 
ttKcW is generally indeclinable. 

566. μή : threatening, as 28. — ού : closely connected with the verb. 
— χραίσ-μωσ-ιν : ward off. 

567. άσ-σον Ιόντα: him who comes near, implying injury or attack. The 
ace. follows χραίσμωσιν on the analogy of ^(ραίσμέω τινί τι. — οτ« . . . k^tiat 
[ίφώ, cf. ζρύομίν 62] : this explains ασσον Ιόντα. — For the thought, cf. 
588 ff . — xiipas ίφίίω : cf. χεΐρας Ιττοίσα 89. 

568. Cf 33. 

569. έΐΓίγνάμψασ-α : cf Β 14. For the hiatus before it, justified by the 
caesural pause, see § 27 h. 

570. ανά δώμα : cf. ava. στρατόν 10, 53. — Ούραν(ων€$ : like i-rrovpavLOi, 
inhahitants of heaven. See on Β 491 ; § 39 a. 

571-600. Hephaestus reconciles his parents. 

571. τοίσ-ιν : as 68. — The amusing figure of Hephaestus as butler is 
introduced in order to give a more cheerful character to the assembly of 
the gods, after the quarrel. 

572. Iirl φίρων : generally with a notion of hostility, as 89; but here 
with ηρα. 

573. τάδί : here. See H. 695 a. — άν€κτά : predicate ; from άνίχω, cf 
άνάσχεο 586. 

574. €t δή : if in truth now, as 61. — I' vcKa θνητών : contemptuously 
spoken. 



50 COMMENTARY. 

575. κολωον €λαύν€τον: carry on a brawl, by wrangling. Cf. Β 212. 
— SaiTOs : here first do we learn that the gods were feasting at this 
time. 

576. τα xepeCova κτλ. : in such contrasts, the demonstrative and ad- 
jective have the force of a relative clause, cf. 106. The article strengthens 
the contrast. 

577. καΐ αύτη ircp : with Homeric refinement, the speaker intimates 
that his counsel is not needed. 

578. αυτ€ : i.e. as often before. 

579. (τύν : const, with ταράζτ} . — ημΐν : dative of disadvantage. 

580. 6Ϊ ΊΓβρ: if only. — Ιθ^λησ-ιν : the verb for emphasis here precedes 
its subject, see § 11 ^:; or Όλΰ/χπιος κτλ. can be taken as in apposition 
with the subject of ΙθίΧτισίν. — Όλΰμ•7Γΐο5 κτλ. : this indicates his exalted 
power, although in 609 this expression is used without special reference 
to the circumstances of the case. — άστ€ροΐΓητή5 : for Zeus as god of the 
lightning and storm, see on Β 146. 

581. Ιξ έΖίων : see on 534. — The conclusion of the sentence is omitted 
(άτΓοσίώττησίς) . " It will be the worse for us," or " he can, /or," etc. See 
on 136. 

582. KaQairrta-Qai : always metaphorical, as here. Infinitive for the 
imperative, as 323. 

583. The preceding infinitive represents a condition, hence no con- 
junction is needed to connect the verses. Cf. 303. — iXaos : cf. ίλασσάμενοί 
100, 147. 

585. Iv χίΐρΐ tC0ci : placed in her hand ; generally used of presenting a 
cup of wine. Iv χ^ρσί τίθημι is used of gifts or prizes, cf 441. 

586. άνά(Γχ€ο : lit. hold thyself up, endure, be patient. 

587. μή : see on 28. — φ(λην τηρ Ιουσαν : very dear as thou art. ττψ 
strengthens, as 352 and freq. — Iv όφθαλμοίσιν : before my eyes, as Γ 306. 
Cy. Γ 169; see § 12^. 

589. χραισ-μίΐν : as 242. — apyakios κτλ. : personal const, as 546, άργα- 
λ€ος yap τ €στΙ θεός βροτω άνδρι δα/χ^ναι δ 397 " it is hard for a god to be 
overcome by a mortal man." 

591. iroSos : for the genitive, see on 323. — τίταγών : reduplicated 2d 
aor., see § 43 e. — αϊτό βηλοΰ κτλ. : from the mighty threshold of Olympus. 

592. Ίτάν δ* ημαρ : cf. ττανημίρίοί 472, 601. — ψ€ρόμην, κά'ΤΓ'ΐΓ€σον [κατ€- 
ττεσον] : the impf. is used of the continuance of the motion, the aor. marks 
the conclusion of it, cf Β 94. — φ€ρόμην: is freq. used of shijDS driven by 
the wind, and marks the motion as. involuntary. — καταδύντι : the aor. 
partic. is here used (without reference to time as past, present, or future) 
of an act coincident with κάτητεσον. 



FIRST BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 51 

593. cv Λήμνω : for the dative of rest after a verb of motion, cf. Γ 89 ; 
see H. 788; G. 1225, 2, — Hephaestus had his workshop on Olympus, 
but Lemnos was considered his island — a belief to which the volcanic 
mountain Mosychlus gave rise. — θυμόβ : anima. — At another time, 
apparently when an infant, Hephaestus was cast out of heaven by his 
mother, and saved by Thetis (IS 395 ff.). — Cf. ' Nor was his name 
unheard or unador'd | In ancient Greece ; and in Ausonian land | Men 
call'd him Mulciber ; and how he fell | From heaven they fabled, thrown 
by angry Jove | Sheer o'er the crystal battlements ; from morn | To noon 
he fell, from noon to dewy eve, | A summer's day ; and with the setting 
sun I Dropt from the zenith like a falling star | On Lemnos, the Aegean 
isle.' Milton Par. Lost i. 738 ff . 

594. 2£vTi€s avSpcs : the earliest population of the island. To judge 
from their name they were marauding {σίνομαυ) Pelasgians who had 
emigrated from Thrace. — αψαρ : construe with -πεσόντα, cf. 349. — κομί- 
σαντο : took me up and cared for me. Cf Β 183, Γ 378. 

596. μ€ΐδήσα(Γα : inceptive, smiling, repeats the preceding μύ^σεν. — 
παι8ός: ablatival gen.,/rom her son, depending on εδε^ατο. Cf. κνπελλον 
ihe^aTo η^ άλοχοω Ω 305 received the cup from his ivife. — χ€ΐρί : dat. of 
instrument with eSeiaro, cf. λάζετο χερσίν Ε 365 took in his hands. 

597. Ινδεξια : from left to right, through the company, according to 
established custom. To pass to the left would be an act of ill omen. 
See on 471. 

598. οίνοχόει νέκταρ : cf ("ϋβη) νέκταρ εωνοχόει Δ 3. The meaning 
of the first part of the compound w'as overlooked ; cf. Γττττοι βονκολίοντο 
Υ 221, οΐκοΒομείν τείχος, aedificare naves, Hin box,' 'weekly journal.' 
— κρητηρος : the red nectar of the gods, like the wine of men, was mixed 
with water before it was drunk. — άφΰσ-σ-ων : see on 471. 

599. άσ•β€0Γτο5 : hence the proverbial * Homeric laughter.' 

600. δώματα : palace, hall. — The laughter arose because of the 
striking contrast between the puffing, hobbling Hephaestus as cup- 
bearer, and the graceful Hebe or Ganymed who usually performed the 
duties of that office. 

601. ημαρ: acc. of duration of time. 
602 = 468. 

603. ού μ^ν [/xiyv] : as 154, 163. — ψόρμι-γγος : cf μολττη τ όρχηστνς τ€ • 
τα γαρ τ αναθήματα δαιτός α 152, song and dance, for these are the acconu 
paniments of the feast. 

604. άμειβόμεναι : The Muses sing alternately, one relieving the other, 
as the rhapsodes at the festivals. Cf. incipe, Damoeta, tu deinde 
sequere, Menalca, | alternis dicetis; amant alterna Ca- 



52 COMMENTARY. 

menae Verg. Ed. iii. 59, 'Divinely warbled voice | Answering the 
stringed noise,' Milton Christmas Hymn 9G f. 

605, αύτάρ : correlative with μ,ίν 601. 

606. κακκ6ίοντ£5 : for the form as fut. of κατάκίΐμΜ, see § 48 g. — 
βκαστος: in partitive apposition with ol, giving prominence to the indi- 
vidual, after the collective expression. Cf. Β 775 and Γ 1 (where the 
plural is used). 

610. κοιματο : was wont to lie. — ore κτ\.'. whenever etc. The cond. 
rel. sentence expresses indefinite frequency of past action. This iterative 
oi3t. is more freq. after the rel. pron. than with the conjunction. 

611. καθ6ΰδ6 : slept. — άναβά$ : of ascending a couch, only here and 
ομον λέχος είσαναβαίνοι Θ 291. No special height of couch is to be 
inferred. — τταράδέ: adv., beside him. — χρυοτόθρονο? : in Homer, Apollo 
has a golden sword, Hera has golden sandals, Iris has golden wings, 
Hermes has a golden wand. See on 37. The throne was covered with 
thin plates of gold. 

' No book of Homer is so full of dramatic groups and situations as 
this : Apollo striding with his bow and ringing quiver ; Thetis caressing 
the grieving and angry Achilles ; Thetis before Zeus, clasping his knees 
and extending her right hand toward his chin ; Zeus with his dark brows 
and ambrosial locks nodding a confirmation to his promise ; Chryses with 
his filleted sceptre and his gifts, before the two sons of Atreus ; Odysseus 
at the altar of Apollo with the maiden whom he is restoring to her aged 
father, — with his companions and the hecatomb ; Achilles in his rage 
drawing his sword from its sheath, calmed by Athena, who takes him by 
his long locks, — with Agamemnon before him and the other chiefs 
around him ; the heralds of Agamemnon at the tent of Achilles, as 
Patroclus leads forth the fair Briseis ; Zeus and Hera on Olympus, with 
Hephaestus playing the part of Hebe ; the assembly of the gods, Apollo 
playing the lyre, and the singing Muses.' 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

Zeus prepares to fulfil his promise to Thetis (A 509 f., 523) by sending 
a dream to Agamemnon. The intended battle, which is to be disastrous 
to the Achaeans, is delayed by a test of the disposition of the army ; the 
Greek and Trojan forces do not advance to meet each other until the close 
of the book (780, 809 f.). — The events narrated in Β occupy the first 
part of the 22d day of the action of the Iliad. See §§ 7 δ, 8. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 53 

1-86. The dream of Agamemnon (1-41) and the council of the chiefs. 

1. ρά: so, refers to A 606-611. — 0€ol κτλ. : appositive with άλλοι. 

2. Ίταννύχιοι : see on A 424. — ούχ €χ€ [είχε] κτλ. : i.e. he did not sleep ; 
cf ουδέ Ποσαδάωτ/α γελως Ιχε θ 344 " but Poseidon did not laugh." 

3. φρένα los : hiatus allowed at the ' bucolic diaeresis,' see § 27 l•. — ces : 
how, sc. in accordance with his promise to Thetis. 

4. τιμήση κτλ.', see on A 559. 'Deliberative subjunctive' after a 
secondary tense in the principal clause. The direct question would be 
ττώ? τιμήσω. — For the 'chiasmus,' see § 16 a. 

5. ηδ6: this. The subject is attracted to the gender of βονλη, the 
predicate, cf 73, A 239. 

6 χέμψαι κτλ. '. in apposition with η^ε, cf το /xev ουδέ νόησεν \ μηρον 
ii^pvaai δόρυ Ε 665 f. hut he did not think of this — to draw the spear out of 
his thigh. — ουλον ovcipov : a baneful dream; a deceptive, illusory vision, 
instead of a kindly dream of warning. Cf (Zei?s) ε^αττατα τον Άγα/λ€/Λ- 
νονα oveipov τίνα ψίνΒη ετηττέμψα';, ώ? ττολλοι των 'Αχαιών άττοθάνοιεν Lucian 
Jup. trag. 40. On the deceitful measures of Zeus, cf Δ 64 ίϊ., where Zeus 
sends Athena to the Trojan army in order to incite an archer to wound 
Menelaus, and break a truce. — Homer elsewhere knows of no dream 
gods but only individual dreams ; cf A 63. Not all dreams were thought 
to be significant. 

7= A 201. — For the two aces., one of the person (direct object) and 
the other of the thing (cognate ace), cf 22, 59, 156, A 201. 

8. βάσκ ϊθι : up and go, a formula used by Zeus in addressing his 
messengers. Cf vade age, nate, voca Zephyros Verg. Aen. iv. 223. 
For the asyndeton, cf A 99, 363. — ουλ€ : sc. for the Achaeans. 

10. μάλα : construe with ττάντα. — άγορ€υέμ,€ν : as imperative, cf. A 582. 

IXTk^Xcvc : note the lack of connectives. — κάρη κομόωνταε : a frequent 
epithet of the Achaeans. Among them to cut the hair was a sign of 
mourning. Achilles's hair which he cuts off at the funeral pile of Patro- 
clus is called τηλεθόωσαΨ 14:2 , luxuriant, and Athena attracts his attention 
by laying hold of his locks, A 197. Paris is proud of his hair, Γ 55. Apollo 
is άκερσεκόμης Υ 39 (Milton's 'unshorn Apollo'). On archaic works of 
art the men are always represented with long hair. See on 872. The 
Euboean Abantes are οττίθίν κομόωντες 542 ; i.e. their back hair only 
was long, their front hair was 'banged' (of course, no Chinese 'cue* 
is to be thought of in their case). The Thracians are ακρόκομοι 
Δ 533, with their hair bound in a knot on top of the head; cf apud 
Suevos, usque ad canitiem, horrentem capillum retro se- 
quuntur, ac saepe in ipso solo vertice religant Tac. Germ. 38 
Thucydides (i. 6) says it was not long since the ' gentlemen of the old 



54 COMMENTARY. 

school ' had given up wearing their hair in a knot fastened by a golden 
cicada. The Spartans retained to a late period the custom of wearing 
long hair. Before the battle of Thermopylae, the Persian scout saw 
the Spartans combing their hair (Hdt. vii. 208), preparing for glorious 
victory or honorable death. Among the Hebrews, the long hair of Absa- 
lom is familiar to us. In the later classical period, fashions changed. 
•Only dandies wore long hair at Athens in the time of Aristophanes ; and 
in the post-classical period St. Paul could write to the Corinthians : ovSk 
η φνσις αντη διδάσκει νμα<; on άνηρ μίν iav κομα, άημία αντω Ιστίν 1 Cor. 
xi. 14. 

12. νυν κτΧ. : transition to the direct construction. See on A 401. — 
Ίτόλιν Τρώων : not as A 164. 

13. ά|χψΙ$ φράζονται : think two ways, i.e. are divided in mind, sc. about 
the destruction of Troy. For the σ of άμφί<:, see § 30 I. — Όλύμιτια κτλ. : 
cf. 484, A 18. 

14. έΊΓ€-γναμψ€ν : cf. A 569. This statement is intended only for Aga- 
memnon, not for the Dream. 

15. έφήτΓται : are fastened upon ; impend. 

16. άρα; so, i.e. as he had been directed. 

17. Cf. A 12. 

19. άμ,βρόσιος : used like αμβροτος, vcKrapeo<s, and θείος, of everything 
attractive and refreshing that comes from the gods. Only here, of sleep. 
— κί'χυτο: had poured itself out, like an enveloping cloud, cf. 41. 

20. virep κ£φαλή5 : eA'^ery Homeric dream appears above the head and 
takes a familiar form. Cf. (Iris) devolat, et supra caput astitit 
Verg. Aen. iv. 702. — Νηληίω υϊι : to the son of Neleus. The adj. is equiv. 
to a genitive, cf 54, 416, 465, 528, 604, Γ 180. — The Dream took this 
form in order not to terrify the king, and to persuade him most readily. 

21. τον pa: whom, you know. — γ€ρόντων : the nobles without regard 
to age formed a βονλη (see 53). Cf. the Spartan γερουσία, sen at us, 
aldermen. . So * the elders of Moab ' (Numbers xxii. 7) are identical 
with 'the princes of Moab' (Numbers xxii. 8, 21). Cf δημογέροντες 
Γ 149. 

22. For the order of words, cf. Γ 386. — μ,ίν. const, with ττροσεφώνεε, 
cf 795, Γ 389. 

23. €v8cts κτλ. : a reproach, for which the reason is given by a com- 
monplace remark, 24. Cf. nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere 
s ο m η ο s ? Verg. A en . iv. 560. — δαΐφρονοδ : fiery-hearted. — Ιτητοδάμοιο • 
lit. master of horses, i.e. knight. Horse-tamer gives a false tone in English. 

26. |vv€s: give ear, from ξννίημι. The change from the character of 
Nestor to that of a messenger from Zeus, is suited to the nature of a 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 55 

dream. — Aios Be: ' paratactic,' instead of a causal clause, cf. A 200. — 
ToC : for thee, "you may know." Ethical dative. 

27. <rtv : depends on αν€νθ€ν, while the object of the verbs is easily 
supplied. Cf. A 196. — The care and sympathy of Zeus are motives to 
prompt Agamemnon to a speedy execution of the command. 

28-32 = 11-15, with slight change. 

33. CK Διόδ : with the passive, in the sense of νπο Διός, indicating Zeus 
as the source of the M^oe. Cf φίληθίν Ικ Διό? 668 f. they were loved by Zeus. 

— €χ€ : hold it fast, followed by a negative form of the same command, cf. 
A 363. 

34. άνήτ) : cf 2, and Moore's * When slumber's chain hath bound me.' 

— For the form, see § 52 c. 

35. C/. A428. 

36. άνά θυμόν : through his heart, κατά θνμόν is more freq., as A 136, 
193; cf. dm στρατόν and κατά στρατόν. See on A 10. — ρά : "as you 
know." — ού έ'μ^λλον : ivere not about to be, were not fated to be. The plural 
verb is often used in Homer with a neuter subject, cf. 135, 465 ; see § 19 h. 

37. φή : i.e. thought, imagined, cf Γ 28. For tlie accent, cf. βη A 34. 

— ο γ€: emphasized in contrast with Zcvs 38. — ή'ματι κίίνφ : emphatic, 
on that very day. 

38. νήτΓΐο? : blind fool, infatuated, an appositive exclamation. A stand- 
ing predicate of those who thoughtlessly and fearleswsly enter on a course 
which ends in their ruin. Cf. 873. It is explained by the following 
clause, c/. 112; see § 11/. Cf. l^ergil's demens! qui nimbos et 
non imitabile fulmen . . . simularet Aen. vi. 590 f. — «ργα,: at- 
tracted into the relative clause. 

39. θήσ -tiv €iri : see on A 509. — γαρ : for the quantity, see on A 342. — 
6Ti : i.e. before the capture of Troy. 

40. TpworC T6 κτλ. : emphasizes the consequences of the βονλη Διός, 
disastrous alike to both armies. — δια ύσμίναε : through the conflicts, " in 
the course of the battles." 

41. άμφ^χυτο : surrounded him, " rang in his ears," i.e. he remembered 
it well. Cf 19. ά/χφι seems to be used with reference to both ears. — 
όμφή : the voice of the Dream. 

42. €ζ€το : the heroes seem to have put on their tunics while sitting on 
the couch. — 4'νδυν6 κτλ.: the Homeric heroes had no special night gear, 
but slept naked (or at least without their outer garments), like the 
Eskimos and lower-class Italians of to-day, and like the English of the 
Middle Ages. — Epic simplicity describes the most trifling acts ; see § 11 c. 

43. καλόν κτΧ. : where a noun is accompanied by three or more 
epithets, often two stand at the beginning of the verse, as here. — φάρος : 



56 COMMENTARY. 

this upper garment was put on when no armor was worn. The skin of 
some wild beast was sometimes worn in its stead, cf. Γ 17. The Homeric 
hero generally carried a lance, even on a peaceful journey, but Agamem- 
non here takes his sword since he could not carry conveniently both lance 
and σκητΓτρον. The sword was little used in combat, but often worn. — 
For this description of Agamemnon's dress, see § 11 d. 

44. ΐΓοσ-σ-ί : for the form, see § 30 a,f. 

45. άμφΐ βάλ(το : the sword hung not from a belt, but from a strap 
which passed over one shoulder. — άρα : further, cf. 546, 615. — άργυρόηλον : 
the hilt is studded with silver nails, as a decoration, cf A 219, 246. 

46. άφθιτον aUi : ever imperishable, as the work of Hephaestus, and as 
ever in the possession of the same family, cf 101 ff. It was a symbol of 
their unending rule. 

47. κατά νήα5: cf κατά λαόν 179, κατά, στρατόν Α 318, τταρά νηας Α 
347. I.e. to the άγορη which was at the middle of the camp, see on 
A 54. — 'Αχαιών χαλκοχιτών»ν : used as genitive of ΙνκνημυΒες * Αχαιοί 
331. 

48- 'ίΓροσ€βή<Γετο κτλ. : i.e. illuminated the mountain of the gods on 
whose summit the first beams of light fell. Cf. 'Ηώς δ' ck Ae^eW τταρ' 
άγαυου Ύίθωνοΐο \ ωρνυθ\ ΐν αθανάτοισι φόως φίροι η^\ βροτοίσνν Α 1 f. 
Dawn arose from her couch, from the side of the illustrious Tithonus, in order 
to bring light to immortals and to mortals. 

49. φόω? [φάθ5, φώ?] : for the form, ί?/. φο'ωσδε 309. — έρπουσα: to 
herald ; cf. αστήρ . . . δς τε μάλιστα ίρχΐται άγγέλΧων φάος ηονς ν 93 f, 
the star which comes as the herald of the morning light. 

50. ό : i.e. Agamemnon. 
53-86. The Council. 

53. βουλην γίρόντων: council of the chiefs ('elders,' see on 21) who 
discussed important questions before presenting them to the popular 
assembly. Allusions to this council are found in 143, 194. Who consti- 
tuted it, is not clear ; probably not many, perhaps only six besides the 
Atridae, cf. 404 if. — μ,€γαθύμων : in pi. elsewhere only as an epithet of 
peoples, as A 123. — Ιζ€ : caused to hold a session, called a council. 

54. βασ-ιλήος: in appos. with NcVto/oos, which is implied in 'Νεστορί-τ]. 
See on 20. 

55. Ίτυκινην κτλ. : prepared (formed) the prudent j)lan, which he after- 
wards unfolds. 

56. cvvirviov; cognate ace, adverbial. It is equiv. to iv νττνω. Cf. 
Ιφεστιοί 125, εναρίθμιος 202, ετηχθόνωι A 272. See Η. 588. 

57. άμβροσίην : see on 19. A standing epithet of night as a gift of 
the gods for the refreshment of man's nature, with special reference to 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 57 

sleep. Cf. mx νττνου δώροι/ ελοντο Η 482 took the gift of sleep. — μάλιστα : 
strengthens αγχιστα, cf 220. 

58. ilhos κτλ.: see on A 115. — άγχισ-τα: nearest, i.e. most exactly, 
marks the degree of resemblance. — έω'κ€ΐν : for the final v, see on 
A 221. 

59. Cf 20. — |jic, μΰθον : for the two accusatives, see on 7. 

60-70 = 23-33. Epic poetry prefers these verbal repetitions to the use 
of 'indirect discom^se/ see § 11 e. 

71. ωχ6τ ά'ΐΓοτΓτάμ€νο5 : few aicay. See on A 391. — άνηκ£ν : as 34. Cf 
nox Aeneam somnusque reliquit Verg. J.en. viii. 67. 

72. άλλ' άγ€Τ€ : see on A 62. — αϊ kcv κτλ. : see on A 66. 

73. ΊΓίΐρήσομαι : will put them to the test. Agamemnon wished to be 
assured that the army was still ready for the fray. It had become demor- 
alized by the length of the war, by the pestilence, and by the quarrel and 
the withdrawal from service of Achilles. — η θί'μιβ «στίν: i.e. as the gen- 
eral has the right, θέμις is properly what has been laid down, right sanc- 
tioned by custom and the law of nature. It is often used in Homer like 
^ίκη, κατά μοΐραν. The relative is attracted to the gender of the predi- 
cate, as 5. 

74. KaC : introduces a more definite statement of τταρησομαι, cf 114, 
132, 251. — φ€ύγ€ΐν κτλ. : this proposition is intended to touch their sense 
of honor and rouse anew their martial zeal. νΙας 'Α;;^α6ών is supplied 
from 72 as the subject of φενγαν and the object of the following Ιρητνειν 

— σ-ύν νηυσί : cf A 170, 179. 

75. oXXoOcv aXXos : aliunde ά\\\\.^, from different sides, each from his 
own place. — €ρητύ€ΐν : seek to restraint from flight. 

76 = A 68. — Agamemnon had risen to speak at 55, though this act is 
not mentioned as usual. 

77. ημαθΟ€ντο5 : here as an adj. of two endings, cf. 503 and note, 570, 
695, 742 ; see § 38 a. This use of adjs. in -ας, as of two endings, is con- 
fined to geographical names ; and the gender may have been diiferent in 
the poet's age and dialect. 

78. See on A 73. 

79. Conventional form of address to the princes. The corresponding 
address to the warriors is cS φίλοι ήρωες Δαναοί, θεράποντες "Αρηος 110. 

— μ€δοντ€5 : rulers, cf "ΐ^ηθεν με^εων Γ 320 and the proper name Μέδουσα 
{Medusa), equiv. to Κρείονσα (Creusa). 

81. ψ€υδ08 K€v φαϊμ€ν : sc. εΤναι, ice might say (potential) that it (i.e. what 
the Dream promised) teas a deceit, cf 349. — καΐ νοσ-φιζοίμίθα : and might 
turn away, i.e. be on our guard against• the Dream's questionable counsel 
to try a decisive battle at this time when the mightiest of tlie Achaeans 



58 . COMMENTARY. 

held aloof from the fight. — μάλλον : all the more, sc. since they could put 
no real confidence in the Dream's message. 

82. vvv U: see on A 354. — άρισ-το? κτλ. : as A 91 ; cf. 197. 

83 = 72. — The answer of the generally loquacious Nestor is remarka- 
bly brief. lie gives courteous assent in the very words of the king, with- 
out saying a word about the proposition. 

85. έτταν^στησ-αν : thereupon (i.e. likewise) rose. — irciGovTo: i.e. they 
made no objection, but prepared to go to the popular assembly. — ττοιμ^νι 
λαών : Agamenmon, as 243. 

86. σκητΓτοΰχοι : see on A 15. 

87-154. Assembly of the people. Agamemnon's speech and its effect. 

87. ηύτ€ : introduces a detailed comparison, as 455, Γ 3. See § 14. — 
60v€a : swarms. The following hiatus is prob. * weak,' § 27 d. — clori : 
retains its force as a present, esp. in comparisons, cf. Γ 61. See § 48 g. 
— μελισ-σ-άων : i.e. wild bees which live in hollow trees and in holes in the 
rock. — For the comparison of bees cf. ac veluti in pratis ubi apes 
aestate serena I floribus insidunt varus, et Candida cir- 
cum I lilia funduntur ; strepit omnis murmure campus 
Yerg•. Aen. vi. 707 ff. ; 'as bees | In spring-time when the sun with 
Taurus rides, | Pour forth their populous youth about the hive | In clus- 
ters ; they among fresh dews and flowers j Fly to and fro . . . So thick 
the airy crowd swarm'd,' Milton Par. Lost i. 768 ff. 

88. aUl νέον: ever anew. Cf. illae (bees) continuo saltus 
silvasque peragrant Verg. Georg. iv. 53. 

89. βοτρυ8όν: in clusters, like bunches of grapes. Cf lentis' uvam 
demittere ramis Yerg. Georg. iv. 558. — lir* av0€o-iv : to the flowers. 

90. 4'νθα άλι?: for the hiatus, see §§ 27/, 32 a. — ΐΓίίΓοτήαται : from 
ττί.τομχχ.ι, have taken to flight, are inflight. 

91. COS : the point of comparison lies in the coming forth and approach 
in separate crowds (swarms). βοτρνΒόν 89 and ΐλαδόν 93 have the same 
position in the verse. 

92. Ίτροττάροιθί : before, i.e. along. — βαθ€ίη$ : deep bayed, extended. For 
the form, see § 38 b. 

93. οσ-σ-α : rumor, whose source is unknown, and which is therefore 
ascribed to the gods (Διός άγγελος). — δεδήίΐν: had blazed forth as a fire. 

94. ότρύνουσ•' U'vai : they conjectured that Agamemnon would propose 
some important measure. — ayipovro : they came together. The aorist after 
the descriptive imperfects marks the conclusion of the movement. Cf. 
99, A 592, Γ 78. 

95. τ€τρήχ€ΐ : moved in confusion, was in commotion. — v-iro : adv., 
beneath. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 59 

96. λαών Ιζόντων : gen. abs., although it may be affected by νττό. See 

97. €ρήτυον: impf. of 'attempted action»' "They were trying to 
restrain them." — €l iron κτλ.: a wish, on the part of the heralds. "If 
ever they would stop their clamor." — άυτήε : ablatival genitive with 
(τχοίατο, cf. 275. 

98. σ-χοίατο : might cease from, as Γ 84, cf. 275. — διοτρεψ^ων : as A 176. 
99 „ (TirovSfj : with difficulty, scarcely. — «ρήτυθίν: for the aorist, see on 

94 ; for the plural with the collectiA^e Xaos, cf. 278. — καθ* eSpas : along 
the rows of seats, on the seats, as 211. For the use of κατά, cf. 47, Γ 326. 

100. άνά: adverbial with Ιστ•»;. Cf. άνοστη 76. 

101. TO μ^ν : this, as A 234. — κάμ€ τεύχων : wrought with toil. The prin- 
cipal idea is in the participle, as A 168 and freq. See § 21 i. 

102 ff . δώκ6 : for the repetition, see on A 436. 

104. 'Epficias κτλ. : Hermes, the messenger of the gods, bore the 
σκητΓτρον from Zeus to Pelops, as a symbol of empire. The kingdom 
descended with the sceptre. 

105. αΰτ6 : for the hiatus, see on A 333. — ΠΑ,οψ : in apposition with 
o, see § 42 Λ. 

106. θνήσ-κων cXiiriv : cf. moriens dat habere nepoti Verg. Aen. 
ix. 302. 

107. Θυ4σ•τα : ®νΙστψ, for the form, see § 34 h. Thyestes was brother 
of Atreus. Homer evidently does not know the (later) story of the 
mutual hatred of the brothers that was the subject of tragedies by Sopho- 
cles and Euripides. The feud became proverbial as a chapter of unri- 
valled horrors. — Xcttrc φορήναι : for the inf., cf. άνάσσ«ν below. — 
φορήναι : for the form, see § 47 Λ. 

108. ΊΓολλησ-ι, τταντί : according to the poet's view of the situation at 
the time of the Trojan war, cf. A 78 f., the Pelopidae seem to have had 
the hegemony in Peloponnesus. Agamemnon ruled over Achaea, Corinth, 
Sicyon, and part of Argolis, see 569 ff. — "Αργεϊ: local, cf iv^Apye'C A 30. 
— άνάσ•<Γ€ΐν : to rule over them. For the inf., cf. μάχζσθαι A 8, ayeiv A 338. 

109. τω: local, cf. ωμοίσίν A 45. — (ρ€ΐ(Γάμενο$ : not an attributive 
partic. with ο ye, but a predicate partic. of manner. Cf κοιρανίων 207. 

110. See on 79. — eepairovTcs "Αρηο? : see on A 176. Cf. όζος "Αρηος 
540. 

For this feigned exhortation, cf. the speeches of Clearchus and his 
€γκ€λ€υστοι, Xen. An. i. 3. 9 f. Agamemnon does not desire his argu- 
ments to be convincing. He reminds his men covertly of the promise 
of Zeus that they should capture Troy, and that nine years of the ten 
are already past ; he calls that man δυσκλ€α who returns to Argos with 



60 COMMENTARY. 

his end unattained, esp. since they had already remained so long be- 
fore Ilios; he exaggerates the disparity of numbers of Achaeans and 
Trojans. 

111. μ^γα 6ν^δησ€ : fast entangled. Agamemnon in testing the temper 
of his army complains of his infatuation only as a pretence; in 114 he 
utters unconsciously the unpleasant truth, while in the Ninth Book he 
uses the same words in bitter earnest. 

112. σχίτλιοβ: terrible, cruel god. See on 38. — ύττίσ-χίτο κτλ.', see 
on A 514. 

113. ΙκΊτφσ-αντα: for the ace, cf. A 541. The participle here contains 
the leading thought ; they were to sack Troy before their return. Cf. 
101. — άπον^€σθαι : always stands at the close of the verse, with length- 
ened initial syllable (§ 59 e). 

114. νυν κτλ.: "but now I see that he planned" etc. — άττάτην: the 
poet's hearer thought esp. of the deceitful Dream, but this was not in 
Agamemnon's mind here. — καί : introduces a specification of the general 
statement, as 74. — KeXcvtt : the speaker infers this direction from their 
lack of success. 

115. 8υοΓκλϊα: emphatic position. The hiatus may be explained as 
'weak' (§ 27 d), a losing half its quantity. — ττολύν κτλ. ι sc. in battle 
and in the plague. 

116„ μ^λλ€ΐ : is about to be, doubtless is, cf. A 564. 

117. 8ή : ηΒη, as 134 f. — κατί'λυσί κάρηνα : overthrew the heads, i.e. the 
citadels. Cf. καρηνων A 44. 

118. €Tt καί: hereafter also, cf. A 96. — τοΰ κτλ.: cf. rerum cui, 
prima potestas \^erg, Aen^ x. 100. 

119. γάρ : refers to δυσκλ€α 115. — τόδί γ€ : " if anything is a disgrace, 
this is." — καΐ κτλ. : even for future generations to learn. 

120o ToiovSc Too-ovSc : so brave and so many as we here, cf. 799, qualis 
quantusque Verg. Aen. iii. 641o 

121 „ άιτρηκτον: predicate. lAt. uyiaccomplished, without result, fruitless, 
cf. 452. — ιτόλίμον: cognate accusative. 

122. ιταυροτ^ροισ-ι : cf Τρώες δ' ανθ* ίτίρωθεν άνα τττόλιν ώπλίζοντο \ 
Ίτανρότεροι, /χε/χασαν δε καί ώ? νσρίίνί μάχεσθαΐ | χραοΐ άνα-γκαίτ], ττρό τε 
ιταίΒων καΐ ττρό γυναικών Θ 55 ff., but the IVoJans armed themselves through- 
out the city ; fewer in number, but even thus they ivere eager to fight, of stern 
necessity, for their children and their wives. — tcXos κτλ. : no end has yet 
appeared. A fuller expression for άιτρηκτον, instead of " without attain- 
ing our end," " without gaining decisive victory." 

123. ct TTcp γαρ κτλ. : in case we should unsh. A concessive clause with 
potential optative and κε', of what is conditionally conceivable. — The 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 61 

thought is completed in 127, " if we should take only one Trojan as cup- 
bearer for a squad of Achaeans." — γαρ : refers to τΓανροτίροίσι. 

124. ορκια ταμόντί? : όρκων is strictly what belongs to the όρκος (cf. 
Ιστία A 480), thus the victim slain to confirm a solemn oath. The victim's 
throat was cut (Γ 292), hence ορκια. ταμεΐν was to make a solemn treats/, 
like foedus icere, ferire foedus. Cf. Γ 73, 94, 105, Δ 155. — αμψω: 
dual with reference to the two nations. 

125. Tpwcs μ,ίν: sc. κ iOiXoLcv• — λί'ξασ-θαι : collect themselves. — Ιφ6- 
σ-τιοι κτλ. : equiv. to ot ναωνσί κατά τττόλιν 130. — οσσ-οι : the relative 
pronoun follows the emphatic word, as A 32. 

126. διακοσ-μηθ€ΐ|ΐ6ν : should he divided and arranged, cf. disponere. 
For the transition to the finite construction, see on A 401. For κοσμίω 
of marshalling troops, instead of the Attic τάσσω (§ 17), cf. 476, 554, Γ 1. 

127. άνδρα: cf 198. — έ'κασ-τοι: i.e. each squad of ten; in apposition 
with *Αχαίοί. The plural is used because of the number in each com- 
pany, cfVl. 

128. δ€υοίατο : Attic δεοιντο (8cWv), see § 44 /. 

129. τόσ-σον «rrX^as : according to Θ 562 f., there were 50,000 Trojans 
and allies. For the numbers of the Achaeans, see on 494 if. 

130. επίκουροι : pred., as allies. Observe the strong contrast with 
Ύρωων. 

131. ΊΓολλ^ων Ik ιτολίων : construe with ανΒρες. For the similarity of 
sound of the two words ('parechesis '), see § 13 a. — 4'v€io-iv: are therein, 
cf 803. 

132. μ^γα ιτλάζουσι : drive me far away, i.e. hinder my attaining my 
end. Cf A 59. For the adverbial use of />teya, see on A 78. — ουκ €ΐώ<Γΐ : 
do not allow, i.e. prevent. — IQiXovra: concessive, in spite of my desire. 

134. δήβ£βάασ-ι: already have past. — Aios Ινιαυτοί : see on Διός 146. 

135. δοΰρα : timbers. For the form, see § 23 c?. — σ-ττάρτα : ropes, cables, 
of reeds or rushes. The ship's ropes were of oxhide ; a ship's cable at 
the home of Odysseus, was made of papyrus. — λί'λυνται : plural verb with 
neuter subject, as 36, although hovpa σ^σηττε has preceded. 

136. at δ^: but those others, explained byaXo;(ot κτΧ. — ri: correlative 
with και, in free position, since ήμ^τεραί αλοχοι are closely connected in 
thought with νητηα τέκνα. 

137. €Ϊαται [ηνταί] ττοτιδίγμίναι : see on A 134. For the form eiarai, 
see § 44 I. — 7Γοτιδ€γμ€ναι : fem. to agree with αλοχοι, who were more 
prominent before their minds than τίκνα. 

138. αυτω5 : Attic ωσαύτως, in the same loay as before, i.e. simply, wholly 
(with άκράαντον). See § 42 e. — άκράαντον : verbal adjective. Cf. κρηηνον 
A 41, €7Γ€κραίαίν€ 419. 



62 COMMENTARY. 

139. €ΐ•τΓω ; for the subjunctive, see A 137. 

140. φίύγωμβν : cf. 74. 

141. ου €Ti : belongs to the idea of expectation implied in the future, 
" We can no longer hope," " to capture Troy is no longer a possibility." — 
ίύρυάγυιαν : nine times an epithet of Troy. 

142. τοισι: dative of interest, see § 19 e. — This undesired impulse 
was called forth by the longing for home awakened by 134 ff. ' 

143. ττάσ-ι μ6τά ττληθύν : in apposition with τοΓσι, in contrast with the 
γέροντες who had been present at the council. The dative with μετά 
would be regular. — ιτληθύν: "the rank and file of the army," cf. 278, 
488. 

144. κινήθτι : cf. 95. — φή : as, an obsolescent particle, distinguished 
by its accent from φη [«φι;]- — κύματα μακρά : long-stretching billows, cf. 
longi fluctus Verg. Georg. iii. 200. 

145. Ίτόντου Ίκαρίοιο : in apposition with θαλάσσης, as the part with 
the whole, cf. σκοττέλω 396 ; see § 12/. The πόντος is a particular tract 
of the θάλασσα (see on A 350). The Icarian high sea received its name 
from Icaria, a small island off Samos ; it was notorious for its frequent 
storms. — τά μ€ν: cf 101, A 234. — Ευρό? τ€ Notos t€ : thought of as 
united, as is shown by ετταί^ας. "A southeast wind." A single wind 
never raises a storm in Homer. Cf. ώς δ' άνεμοι Svo ττόντον ορίνετον 
Ιχθνόεντα | Έορρης καΐ Ζέφυρος, τω τε ®ρ^κηθεν αητον Ι 4 f . as two winds 
rouse the fiihy sea, Boreas and Zephyrus, which blow from Thrace. 

146. ώρορ€ : gnomic aorist, freq. in comparisons, § 14 f . For the form, 
see § 43/; distinguished from ορωρεν 797 (§ 49/). — lirat^as: rushing 
uponit. Cf. (venti) incubuere mari . . . una Eurusque IS^otus- 
que ruunt Verg. Aen. i. 84. — Aios : he is νεφεληγερέτα A 511. Zeus 
sends rain, thunder and lightning, Λvind and storm, snow, hail, meteors, 
and the rainbow. Cf Atos ενιαντοί 134. 

147. Ζ€ψυρο$ : this was a cold and stormy wind to the people of Aeolis 
and Ionia, for it came over the mountains of Thrace. It is called Βυσαης 
fierce-blowing, and κελαΒεινός loud-roaring. It is never a gentle * zephyr ' 
in Homer, unless perhaps in the fairy-land Phaeacia and in Elysium. — 
βαθύ : lit. deep, i.e. high. — Ιλθών: see on Ιων A 138. 

148. λάβρο$ Ιτταιγίζων : violently dashing upon it. λάβρος is pred., see 
§ 56 a. — lirC T6 : ajid thereupon, i.e. as Zephyrus descends. — ήμύίΐ: sc. 
λψον, an independent addition to the picture, without direct relation to 
the comparison, cf. 210; see § 14 a. The construction of the dependent 
sentence is abandoned. — Cf. * With ported spears, as thick as when a 
field I Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends | Her bearded grove of 
ears, which way the wind | Sways them.' Milton Par. Lost iv. 980 ff. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 63 

149. irour' άγορη κινήθη : a return to 144. — Both comparisons are 
meant to depict the whole scene. The first (144-146) describes the sud- 
den confusion witli which the assembly dispersed; the second (147-149), 
the uninterrupted rush in one direction, toward the ships. — άλαλητω : 
dative of manner, in which sense a participle is often used. 

150. νήα5 €ir : i.e . €πι v^ag, § δδ c β. — €or<r€tiovTo, ϊσ-τατο, kcXcvov κτλ. : 
descriptive imperfects, much like the historical present (which is not 
Homeric) . — ιτοδών δ* liirc'vcpec : from under their feet. 

151. ϊσ-τατ ά£ΐρομ€νη : lit. was placing itself as it arose. 

152. €λκ€μ€ν KtX. : cf Ιρνσσομ,εν κτλ. A 141. 

153. ovpotis : the trenches, the later ολκοί, by which the ships -w^ere 
drawn from the sea upon the land, and from the land into the sea, cf. A 
308. — φκάθαιρον: some had not been used for a long time and had 
become filled with sand. 

154. ίβμ^νων : subjective genitive with άντή, not genitive absolute. See 
§ 19 d. — viro δ' ηρίον : they took out from under. This is the opposite of 
A 486. 

155-210. Interference of Athena. Odysseus brings the people back to the 
agora. 

155. The leaders were so dazed by the sudden and disorderly break- 
ing up of the assembly and by the rush to the boats of the shouting mass 
of men, that they were unable to follow the plan of Agamemnon. The 
intervention of a friendly god became necessary in order to cut the knot 
of difficulty. 

156 f . Cf. A 19δ. 

158. ού'τω δη κτλ. : thus as it seems, etc. An expression of vexation or 
surprise, in interrogative form. 

159. *Αργ€ϊοι: emphatic. — kir evpc'a νώτα κτλ.: over the broad back of 
the sea. AVhen the waves are at rest the monstrous mass seems to be the 
top of an arch. — tipia: evpvv. 

160. κάδ δ€ κτλ. : virtually a conclusion to the cond. implied in 1δ8 f . 
" If they should thus flee, then they would " etc. — κάδ : for the ' apocope,' 
see § 29 a, b. — €ύ;^ωλήν : predicate with Έλίνην, as a triumph, a boast. 
For the construction, cf Γ δΟ. 

161. Άργίίην : standing epithet of Helen. The word here has consid- 
erable emphasis, placed at the head of the verse like 'Apyeiot above. 

162. Τροίη (sc. γβ) : the Troad, as 237, Γ 74. — άττο: far from, cf A 
δ62. 

164. <rots άγανοίβ κτλ. : with thy ivinning words. For the short form of 
the dative, see § 3δ d. — For the asyndeton, cf 10. — €ρήτυ€ : cf Ίο. 

165. ea : sc. 'Αχαιούς, from the preceding verses. 



64 COMMENTARY. 

166. ού8' άιτίθησ-ε : cf. A 220. 

167. Cf. A 44. — άίξασ-α: starting up, "with a rush." 
168 .= 17. 

169. έ'ΐΓίΐτα: thereupon. — Όδυσήα : Odysseus was the special favorite 
of Athena whose care alone secured his return to his home after his long 
wanderings. 

170. €(ΓΤ€ώτα [έστώτα] : Odysseus was not carried along by the rout, 
and the agora was nearest his own ships (see on A 54). — μ€λαίνη5 : cf. A 
300. The ships of Odysseus are called /Αίλτοττά/οϊ^οι {vermilion-cheeked) 
G37. 

171. Odysseus with this feeling was the right man for Athena's work. 
— μ£ν : * limit of motion,' with Ικανεν. — κραδίην : accusative of the part, 
in apposition with μ,ίν, cf. A 362. 

172. προσ-^ψη : sc. μιν. 

173. This verse is found 7 times in the Iliad, 15 times in the Odyssey. 
It is the only conventional verse in which no caesura occurs in the 3d 
foot (§ 58 c). — 8io7€V€s: Arceisias, father of Laertes and grandfather of 
Odysseus, was son of Zeus, ace. to a later myth. But this epithet is 
applied in a general way to princes. See on A 176. 

174-181. Cf. 158-165. 

175. Iv νή€<Γσ•ι ireo-ovTcs : marking the disorderly flight. This is a 
standing combination of expressions for motion and rest, cf. (μβάΧλω, 
Ιντίθημι. Cf 244, A 245, 593, Γ 89. 

179. μη84 τ €ρώ6ΐ : and draw not hack, do not rest. 

181. νηαδ : for the length of the last syllable, see § 59 i. 

182. oira: object of ζννίηκε, while 6ea<s is a limiting genitive. 

183. βη 8c 0€€iv : he set out to run, cf. A 34. — άιτο κτλ.: sc. in his 
haste, since it hindered him in running. 

184. Εύρυβάτηδ : described (τ 244-248) as slightly older than Odys- 
seus himself, with round shoulders, dark complexion, and curly hair. 
Agamemnon has a herald of the same name, A 320. — The herald here, as 
usual, serves as the prince's personal attendant. 

185. άντίοδ : for the construction, cf. A 535. 

186 f. Cf. 45 f. — 8€'ξατό ot: lit. took for him, received from him, as a 
sign that he acted in the name and with the authority of Agamemnon. — • 
ττατρώιον : see 103 ff. 

188. ov τίνα μ€ν : correlative with ov δ' αυ 198. — βασ-ιλήα κτλ. : prince 
or noble who had not been present at the council of the ' Gerontes.' — 
κιχ€ίη : iterative optative, with ov rtva, see on 215. 

189. τον δε κτλ. : apodosis to the hypothetical ov τίνα. For Be in apod- 
osis, cf. 322 ; see § 21 a. — άγανοίε : cf 164, 180. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 65 

190. $αιμόνΐ€ : the connection decides whether this is used in a respect- 
ful, a pitying, or a reproving tone, cf. 200. — κακόν ώ? : for the length of 
the ultima of κακοί/, cf. όρνιθας ως 764, Γ 2, 60, 230. See § 14 e. When 
this ως follows the Avord to which it belongs, it is accented. Cf. 209, 
289,326. — κακόν: coivard. κακός and αγαθός have no moral quality in 
Homer. They are useless and useful, according to the circumstances of 
the case ; here, κακόν is useless in war. 

191. άλλου? λαού? : λαούς is virtually in appos. with άλλους, see § 12/. 
The others, namely the soldiers. 

192. For the ' sigmatism,' cf. A 179 f . — σ-άψα : Attic σαφώς which is 
not found in Homer. Similarly the adv. of ώκνς is always ωκα, τάχα is 
freq., ταχίως only Ψ 365. See § 56 δ, c. — voos : mind, purpose. 

193. ΊΓίΐράται : cf 73. — ϊψεται : cf A 454. 

194. €v βουλή : construe with olov «iTrei/. — ού ττάντί? άκούσ-αμίν : the 
speaker politely includes himself with the persons addressed, as 342. 
The 1st person is used in a different tone in 203. 

195. μή τι: beware lest perchance, cf. A 26. — χολω<Γάμ€νο5 : see on 
A 387, Γ 413. — κακόν υΐα? : for the two accusatives after piiy, cf. Γ 351, 
354. 

196. θυμό? δ€ μίγαδ : terrible is the anger. 

197. τιμή κτλ. : " he is king dei gratia ; the rest must obey." Cf. 205 ; 
see on A 176. 

198. 8ήμου άν8ρα•: the common people are contrasted with the nobles 
of 188. The ultima of ^μον remains long, see § 59 k. 

199. σ-κήτΓτρω: Odysseus uses the staff in a similar way 265 f. — 
€λάσασ•κ€ : iterative aor. from ΐλαννω, ελάω. 

200. άκου€ : give ear. Present as a general injunction, "be obedient." 

201. (reo: not enclitic since there is a contrast in the comparison. — 
ψ4ρτ€ροι: cf. A 281. — σ-ύ δ€ : closely connected with the rel. clause since 
συ repeats σεο. The English idiom prefers the subordinate construction, 
"while thou art." €σσι is to be supplied. 

202. έναρίθμιοδ : counted, not a mere cipher. Cf in numero nullo 
Cic. de Or. iii. 56. 213. — βουλή : as A 258 ; not in its technical meaning 
of council. Here again appears the freq. contrast of strength of body and 
of mind. See on A 258. 

203. ού μ^ν Ίτωβ κτλ. : a drastic form of expression, suited to the com- 
mon soldiery. " Agamemnon alone commands here, the rest of us must 
obey." 

204. For the asyndeton, cf. A 117. — ουκ αγαθόν: as a predicate sub- 
stantive (not a good thing). Cf. triste lupus stabulis Verg. Eel. iii. 
80. — «is κτλ. : asyndeton of contrast. See § 15 c. 



66 COMMENTARY. 

205. (δωκ€ : granted, sc. βασίλεν€ίν, implied in βασιλεύς (unless 206 is 
read). 

206. (Γψ((Γΐ : for them. Άχαωί from 203 is before the mind. 

207. SCcirc : strode through. 

208. Cf. 86, 91. 

209. ηχη cos : for the hiatus justified by the caesura, cf. 211 ; see § 27 δ; 
for the hiatus allowed after the first foot, see on A 333. Cf. θάλασσα 
ηχψσσα A 157. — The second ' hemistich ' as A 34. 

210. αΐ-γιαλω βρ4μ.€ται : roars on the shore. — σ-μ.αρα-γ6Ϊ κτλ. : ' chiastic ' 
with the previous clause (§ 16 a) ; ' paratactically ' (§ 21 a) expressing 
result. *' So that the high sea resounds from the noise of the breakers." 

211-277. The insolent Thersites and his chastisement. 

211. e'tovTo €ρήτυθ€ν: for the hiatus, cf. 216, 315; see § 27 δ. — καθ* 
cSpas : as 99. 

212. Θ€ρσ(τη5: from θίρσο<ζ, the Aeolic form of θάρσος daring, rash- 
ness. Observe that the poet does not say from what country of Greece 
Thersites came, and thus offends no one by the episode. — Thersites 
makes his cause odious by his advocacy of it. The vulgar demagogue 
was intended by the poet to awaken antipathy, and thus is represented to 
be just as disagreeable and deformed in body as in character. The Greeks 
always associated a beautiful soul with a beautiful person. — μοΰνο$ : 
made emphatic by its position before the caesura. For the form, see § 23 J. 
— άμ.£τρο»Γή$ : predicate. — έκολωα: equiv. to κολωον ηλαννε, cf A 575. 

213. OS pa κτλ. : a more explicit statement of αμετροεπής. — άκοσμα 
η8η : lit. knew disorderly things, had a disorderly mind. 

214. Ιριζ^μ€ναι : the result of άκοσμχι κτλ., cf μΛχεσθαι A 8. 

215. άλλ' ΟΤΙ κτλ. : contrasted with κατά κόσμον, while εριζεμεναι sup- 
plies the idea of saying. He was an insolent clown. — «ϊσ-αιτο : equiv. to 
So^eic. For the opt. in a cond. relative sentence, cf. 188, 198, A 610. 
See H. 914 Β ; G. 1431. 

216. αίσ-χισ-το? : predicate. " He was the ugliest man who came " etc., 
cf 673, A 266. — ύιτο "Ιλιον: up under llios, i.e. under the ivalls of llios. 
cf. 249, 492, 673. 

217. ψολκό$ : handy-legged, c/. f a 1 x, f a 1 c ο η e s. — τώ δ€ ol ώμω : " those 
two shoulders of his." 

218. κυρτώ, συνοχωκότ£ : in contrast with a broad-shouldered, heroic 
form. — σ•υνοχωκότ€ • αύτάρ : the hiatus is justified by the bucolic diaeresis, 
§§ 27 h, 58 h. — t»ir€pe€v : as contrasted with φολκος κτλ. 

219. ψ€8νη κτλ. : i.e. his misshapen, sugarloaf head was not concealed 
by the thick locks of the κάρη κομόωντες * Αχαιοί, but was covered only 
by sparse hair. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 67 

220. €χθΜΓΤ05: cf. A 176. — Άχιλήι Όδυσ-ήι : Achilles and Odysseus 
represented the two cardinal virtues of the heroes, bravery and prudence, 
in which qualities Thersites was lacking. — μάλιο-τα : potissimuni. 
Const, with €χθίστος, cf. 57. 

221. vciKctca-Kc : was wont to upbraid, contrasted with τότ αυτέ. For 
the form (from νακΐίω the old form of νεικεω), cf. v€lkclwv 243, πνείοντες 
536, ireXeLCTo A 5, veiKCLrjaL A 579 ; see § 47 i/. — *Αγαμ€'μνονι : against 
Agamemnon. Dative of interest. 

222. o|ea κ€κληγώ5 : with discordant cry. — \iy' oveiSca: rehearsed (enu- 
merated) reproaches. Xiyuv in Homer is never strictly equiv. to άπείν. 
Thersites accused the king of covetousness, sensuality, cowardice, injus- 
tice. — τ<λ: i.e. Agamemnon, at whom the Achaeans were then angry, 
so that Thersites felt sure of the applause of his audience. 

223. KOTCovTo: imperfect to express a continued state of feeling, 
while νεμίσσηθεν refers to the occasion which caused their anger. Cf. 
A 331. 

225-242. Speech of Thersites. This assumes a knowledge of Aga- 
memnon's real intention to continue the war. Such knowledge might 
have been gained from the words of Odysseus. 

225. *Ατρ€Ϊδη : Thersites gives him no title of honor, but this was not 
necessary,, see 284, A 17. — τίο [rtVos] : for what. For the genitive, see on 
A 65. — 8η αυτ6: cf. A 340. — Instead of inquiring the purpose of Aga- 
memnon, Thersites attributes to the king the most selfish motives (iinply- 
ing that he continues the war only for his own private advantage), and 
alludes maliciously to the quarrel with Achilles. — " What dost thou lack ? 
Hast thou not enough ? " 

227. Ivl κλισ-ίη?: in your quarters. — εξαίρετοι: explained by the fol- 
lowing relative clause. Cf. ονλομένψ A 2, κακήν A 10. 

228. Ίτρωτίσ-τω : superlative formed regularly from ττρωτος, which is 
already superlative in meaning. Cf. Eng. chiefest. — $ίδομ£ν : are wont to 
give, with a cond. rel. sentence, cf. A 554. For the thought, see on A 124, 
163. — Thersites reckons himself among the brave warriors. — τττολίίθρον: 
as A 164. 

229. η €Ti κτΧ. : surely etc. He answers ironically the question whicli 
he himself had put. Cf. A 203. — en καΐ χρυσ-οΰ : gold also as well ΐί8 
copper and slaves. Gold was rare in Greece before the Persian wars, but 
was abundant in Asia Minor. Schliemann, however, has found treasures 
of gold ornaments not only at Hissarlik (which many think to be the site 
of the ancient Ilios) but also at Mycenae. — kc oto-ci : for κί with the fut. 
ind., cf A 139, 175. 

230. αίΓοινα : as ransom, in apposition with ov. 



68 COMMENTARY. 

231. ο ν κτλ. : whom I shall take captive and lead etc. Empty boasting, 
as 238. 

232. γυναίκα ν^ην : i.e. such as Chryseis or Briseis. The accusative 
seems to be caused by attraction to the construction of the preceding rel- 
ative clause ; or ττο^ε^ς may be in the speaker's mind, a thought carried 
on from επιδευεαι. 

233. ην τ€ κατίσ-χδαι: relative clause with the subjunctive in final 
sense, cf. Γ 287. — avros άιτόνοσ-φι : for thyself alone. 

234. άρχον «όντα κτλ. : that one who is a leader etc., i.e. that thou loho 
art their leader. — κακών €ΐΓΐβασ•κέμ€ν : bring into misfortune. Thersites here 
refers to the pestilence and the alienation of Achilles. 

235. ir^irovis : " my good fellows." This word is generally used by an 
elder or superior, either in an affectionate tone, or (seldom) in a tone of 
contemptuous superiority as here. — κάκ Ιλ^γχ^α : in concrete personal 
sense, coward caitiffs . — * Αχαιίδ€8 κτλ. : cf. ο vere Phrygiae, neque 
enim Phryges Verg. Aen. ix. 617. For the 'patronymic,' see § 39 g. 

236. οΐκαδέ ircp : homeward, at all events. — συν νηυσ•( : as A 179. — 
τόνδ€ : cf οδ' ανηρ A 287. 

237. αύτοΰ : right here, explained as usual by the following words. It 
often stands as here at the beginning of a verse, cf. 332. — γ€ρα •π•€(Γ<Γ€μ€ν : 
digest {enjoy) his gifts of honor, i.e. learn and suffer the consequences of 
his greed. 

23δ. η καΐ ημ€Ϊ5 κτλ. : whether loe too (the rank and file of the Achae- 
ans) are of use to him or not. As if Agamemnon in his pride trusted to 
his own might and to that of the other leaders, despising the rest, bereft 
of whose help he can do nothing. — For the ' crasis,' see § 26. — η6 καΐ 
ovkC : cf. 300, 349. The speaker presents the alternatives as open, but 
still implies a choice between them. 

239. os: exclamatory, he who. — καΐ νυν: see on A 109. This intro- 
duces an example of Agamemnon's failure to recognize others' services. 
— €0 [ου] : cf. aeo for σου, 248. For the length of the last syllable before 
μ, see § 59 h. 

240 = A 356, 507. — Thersites who was wont to speak injuriously of 
Achilles (221), now plays the part of his advocate (and uses his very 
words) in order to attack Agamemnon in a sensitive spot ; but he intro- 
duces a fling at Achilles into the next verse. 

241. μάλ* ούχ χόλο?: sc. Ιστί, no anger at all. — μ€θήμων: predicate 
with Achilles as subject. Cf. μεθέμεν χόλον A 283. 

242 = A 232. 

244. Θίρα-ίτΊ\ς : strongly contrasted with 'Οδυσσεύς by its position. — 
τφ : for the dative of rest with παρίστατο, see on 175. 



SECOND BOOK OF THP: ILIAD. 69 

245. υττόδρα : as A 148. — xaXciry μ,ύθω : the opposite of άγανοις cttc- 
εσσιι/ 164. — ηνΙΐΓαΐΓ€ : for the form, see § 43/, 

246-264. Odysseus rebukes Thersites. 

246. άκριτόμυθί : tliou endless babbler, cf. 212, 796. For the opposite, 
cf. Γ 214. — λιγύδ uep Ιών : cf. A 248. Recognition of his ability, but sar- 
castic. 

247. Ϊσ-χ60 : as A 214. — μηδ' cOcXe : cf. A 277. 

248. ου : construe with φημί. — xcpciorepov : for another form of this 
comparative, cf. A 114. 

249. οσ-σ-οι: i.e. of all who. The relative clause represents a genitive. 

250. τω ουκ αν κτλ. : therefore'XuncQ thou art the basest of all) shall 
(shouldst) thou not. See on A 301. The speaker returns to the admoni- 
tion of 247. — βαοΓΐλήα$ : for the plural, cf Γ 49. — άνά σ-τόμα : i.e. on your 
lips. 

251. καί: see on 74. — σ-φίν: for the dative, cf. Άγαμ^μνοη 221. — 
νόσ-τον φυλάσ-σοΐ8 : guard the return, which now threatened (as it were) to 
escape them. 

252. ούδί τί Ίτω κτλ. : but not at all clearly yet. — οττωβ κτλ. : how these 
matters here (of which they are speaking) shall end. This verse is ex- 
plained by the following. — «ργα: cf. A 518. 

253. νοαΓτήσ•ομ€ν : ive shall return. A brief expression for " shall enter 
upon our return, \vith good or evil fortune." 

254. τψ: as 250. 

255. ησ-αι : ησθαι with a participle often has no thought of contrast 
of position (as sitting to standing), but denotes self-satisfied continuance 
in the action of the participle, cf. A 134. The verb is the more note- 
worthy here since Thersites is not sitting {cf 268). — διδοΰιτιν : as if from 
διδόω, cf. άφία A 25, τίθα A 441. 

256. ηρω€5 : observe the contrast with συ. — κίρτομ^ων : cf. A 539. 

257. Cf. A 204, 212. Formula to introduce a sharp threat. 

258. €Ti : again. — cos νύ ircp ί5δ€ : as I did just now. — - Construe ττίρ 
with ως. 

259. μηκδ'τι κτλ.: apodosis in the form of an imprecation. "May 
destruction come upon me and my house." — Όδυσήι: more impressive 
than the personal pronoun €μοί. Cf. A 240. 

260. Τηλ6μάχοιο : the only child of Odysseus and Penelope. He was 
an infant when his father embarked for Troy. In the Iliad he is men- 
tioned only here and Δ 354. — κίκλημ^νοβ €Ϊην: being is^ included in being 
called, see on A 293. Thus this prayer includes the^ruin of Telemachus. 

261. €l μή κτλ. : this sentence contains two clauses, connected by μεν 
. . . δε, preceded by ae λαβών, which is common to both clauses and which 



70 COMMENTARY. 

gives to αυτόν 263 its personal reference. — λαβών : see on Ιών A 138.— 
άττό 8ύ<Γω : strip off, followed by two accasatives. 

262. τά T€ : combines the objects. Whatsoever covers thy nakedness. — 
This would be the most bitter disgrace. 

263. αυτόν : thyself; the man in contrast with his clothing, cf. A 47. 
See§liy. 

264. ΊΓίίΓληγώδ κτλ. : flogging thee away from the place of assembly. 
π€πληγώς like κεκλτ^γώς 222, τ€τριγώτα9 314, does not imply past time. 
See II. 849. — aciKiVo-i : a standing epithet of blows. 

265. σκήτΓτρω . . . 'π•λή|6ν : i.e. he gave him a heavy blow over the 
back from one shoulder to the other, as a foretaste of the harder beating 
which would follow if he continued his insolence. 

266. €κτΓ€<Γ6 : escaped him, against his will. 

267. σ-μώ8ιξ κτλ. : a weal rose (άνίστη) out of the back (e^), under (ύττό) 
the blow of the staff. 

268. σ-κήΐΓτρου tiiro : repeats ύττό of ^^νττανίστη. — έ'ζβτο : evidently he 
was not seated at 2δδ, cf. 211 f . 

269. άλγήσ -as : seized by pain, cf. τάρβησεν 268, γ€λασσαν 270 ; see on 
Ιδ^σεν A 38. — άχρ€ΐον: cognate ace. with ίδών, casting a silly look, look- 
ing foolish. 

270. καΐ άχνύμίνοί ircp : they still sympathized with Thersites; they 
had not entirely recovered from their homesickness. — η8ύ γί'λασ-σ-αν: 
burst into a merry laugh. This laughter quiets their excitement, cf. 
A 599. 

271. Tis: represents public opinion. — Ιδών: not of an action prior to 
that of the principal verb, but coincident with it. Casting a glance. — 
ιτλησ-ίον: as substantive. — όίλλον: as 191. 

272. ώ iroiroi : the interjection which expressed sorrow A 254, here 
expresses pleased surprise. — η δή : verily before now, contrasted with vvv 
Se 274. For the 'paratactic' form of expression, cf. 798; see % 21 d. — 
eop-y€v : the perfect marks the character of Odysseus as shown in the past, 
while ipeiev 274 refers to the single act ; just as in English, "he has done 
etc., but he never did a better thing." 

273. «ξάρχων : f7'st suggesting, proposing. 

274. μί'γ* άριστον : predicate to τόδε the object. " This is far the best 
thing that" etc., cf 216. The difference between this and οχ άριστον, cf 
A 69, is simply metrical; see § 22 b. — c p€|cv : for the single ρ after the 
augment, see § 43 c. 

275. OS κτλ. : relative clause with causal force, since he. — τον λωβητήρα 
€ΐΓ€σ•βόλον: for the order of words, see on A 340. — €<Γχ€ : checked, equiv. 
to €πανσ€ν. Coincident with epe^ev 274 ; cf. the explanation of τάδε epya 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. • 71 

252 by the following verse. — άγοράων: speeches before the people, cf. 788. 
For the genitive, cf. αντη<ζ 97. 

276. If a conjunction had been used here, it would have had the force 
o£ so, therefore. — ού θην : hardly, I think, θην is ironical here, like Attic 
8ηπον. — Ίτάλιν avris : lit. hack again, again, anew, τταλίΐ/ marks a return 
to the same point, cf. A 116. Cf. Bevrepov αΰτις A 513. 

278-335. Speech of Odysseus before the assembly of the people. He 
urges the continuance of the war in accordance with the omens sent by Zeus. 

278. η Ίτληθύ? : the crowd there ; with plural as collective. See on 99. — 
άνά €<Γτη : shows that Odysseus resumed his seat after chastising Thersites. 
See on 7G. — -π-τολίττορθοβ : a general title of honor. The same epithet is 
applied to Achilles. In the Odyssey, it is given only to Odysseus. 

279. ιταρά : adv., by his side. 

280. άνώγ6ΐν : Attic yjv*uyeL, plpf . as imperfect. See § 30 ii; for the final v. 

281. όίμα τ€ : the position of re is free, cf. A 417. It seems to be 
intended here to unite the two verbs, and properly has its place after the 
first of the ideas which it connects. It is the more remarkable here since 
a combination with tc και follows. — οΙ,τΓρώτοι κτλ.: i.e. the most remote 
as well as the nearest. 

283. See on A 73. 

284. Άτρ6Ϊδη : Odysseus turns first to the king whose authority has 
been challenged. He now defends the king's purpose directly, as he had 
defended it indirectly in his address to Thersites. He then opposes the 
motives for return which had been advanced. 

285. ira<riv βροτοισι,ν: lit. for all mortals, in the eyes of all men. — 
€λ€'γχι<Γτον : most disgraced. For its formation from cAcy;^©?, cf Ιχθιστο^ 
A 170. — θ€'μ€ναι : make. Cf. 319 ; see on Ιθηκ^ν A 2. 

286. ούδ€ Toi ktX. : ** since they do not." — ην irep υΐΓ^<Γταν: which they 
■urely promised, see 339; or the very promise that they made, see on 318. 

287. €νθάδ€ κτλ. : as they were still coming, " as they were on their way 
to Troy." — "Αργίο?: i.e. Peloponnesus, see on A 30. For the epithet, cf. 
aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas Hor. Carm. i. 7. 9. 

288= 113. — ΙκΊτέρσαντα : ae is subject, supplied from tol above. — 
άτΓονεεσ-θαι : in apposition with νττόσχ^σίν' 

289. ^-, in truth, as 229, 242, 272. 

290. άλλήλοισιν : with each other, to each other. — οδύρονται : with preg- 
nant force, followed by the infinitive, mournfully they long. See on A 22. 

291. η μην καΐ κτλ. : concessive and excusing. " Our trouble has been 
enough to make a man return to his home." The other side of the 
picture is introduced 297 by άλλα καχ ζμττης. As a wise orator, Odysseus 
concedes that their longing for home is natural (many a man is home- 



72 * COMMENTARY. 

sick after a single month away from his family), but he emphasizes the 
motives for continuing the struggle. — άνιηθί'ντα : agrees with τινά implied 
as the subject of the infinitive. — ν^βσ-θαι: inf. of result, see on μάχεσθαι 
A 8. 

292. καΐέ'να: even a single. This introduces an inference a minori 
ad mains. — ris τ€ : many a one. — άττό : cf. 162, A 562. 

293. ov irep : refers to rts re. 

294. €ΐλ^ω<Γΐν: for the mode, see on A 554. — όρινομίνη : when it is 
excited. 

295. ημίν μιμνόντίσσ-ι Ιμίμνονσι] : for us remaining here. " We have 
been here nearly nine years." For the dative, cf. A 250. — 'ΐΓ6ριτροΐΓ€ων : 
rolling, cf. 551, volventibus annis Verg. Aen. i. 234, volvendis 
mensibus ib. 269. 

297. άσ-χαλάαν [άσχαλαν] : for the form, see § 47 c. — έμιτη? : as A 
562. — But even in spite of all that, it is a shame to remain long and yet return 
unsuccessful. 

298. δηρον κτλ. : equiv. to Βηρον μείναντα Keveov veea^at. — k€V€Ov : 
empty, i.e. empty-handed, without the booty gained from sacked Troy. 
Cf the words of Agamemnon, when after Menelaus has been wounded 
he supposes some Trojan to say και δή ίβη οΙκόνΒε φίλψ c? πατρίδα γαιαν j 
σνν κανβσιν (empty) νηνσί Δ 180 f . 

299. For the ' asyndeton,' cf. 276. — c-irl χρόνον : for a time. 

300. η €τ€Ον: whether in truth. For η . . . ηε, see § 20 b. 

301. ToSc : refers to 303 ff., and thus to 308 if. 

302. μή : as hypothetical. This is the only instance in Homer of 
μη with the indicative in a conditional relative clause. Cf 143. — έ'βαν 
φέρουσαι : see on A 391. 

303. χθιζά T6 καΐ ττρωιζά: proverbial of an event still well remembered. 
For τε και, see § 21 g. — Αυλίδα: a Boeotian harbor on the Euripus, oppo- 
site Chalcis in Euboea, where the Achaean forces gathered, in order to 
set sail together for Troy. See § 6 a. This place and the muster of the 
troops there received greater prominence in the later stories of this 
Trojan expedition. 

304. ηγ£ρ€'θοντο : descriptive imperfect. Cf A 25. 

305. ημ£ΐ9 U: independent sentence, explaining οτε κτλ. 303. — άμφΐ 
ircpi : on both sides around, round about. Such a spring is still shown at 
Aulis. — κατά βωμου9 : see on A 318. The numerous altars of the differ- 
ent tribes occupied considerable space. Evidently the Greeks had no 
temple there, or it would have been mentioned. As in the earliest times 
of their religion, the woods were their temples. 

306. τίλη^σ-σ -as : as A 315. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 73 

307. ΐΓλαταν(στω: plane tree, highly valued by the orientals, which 
often shades springs and streams. A fragment of this tree was shown 
as a holy relic in the temple of Artemis, in the time of Hadrian. 

308. «νθα: then, repeats the idea of χθίζά re κτλ. 303. — 8ράκων: 
* appositive asyndeton.' — $αψοινό$ : all blood red. 

309. ΌλύμίΓίοε : see on A 353, cf. 324. 

310. βωμοί» viratgas: darting from under the altar. — ρά : points back 
to €v γαρ 8ύ] ToBe ιδ/χεν. 

311. νήτΓία τίκνα: tender children {fledglings), cf. μητηρ 313 of the 
mother-bird. The words of human relationship are used of birds and beasts. 

312. ύτΓοτΓ^ΐΓτηώτίδ : crouched under. 

313. οκτώ : part of the wonder, since sparrows generally lay only four 
or five eggs. The numbers receive prominence since the interpretation 
of the omen rests only on the equal number of sparrows and years of war. 
Cf. Pharaoh's dream with its seven fat kine for seven years of plenty, 
and seven lean kine for seven years of famine, Gen. xli. . — μήτηΡ» η '^''•<«• 
for the * epexegesis,' see § 12 e. 

314. IXcciva: cognate accusative, adverbial with τετριγώτας. — Τ6τριγώ• 
Ttts : for the tense, see on 264. 

315. άμψ€ποτατο όδυρομ^νη : for the hiatus, see on 211. — τ^κνα : object 
of the finite verb. 

316. €λ€λιξάμ€νος : coiling itself, in order thus to strike the bird with 
greater force. — irTcpvyos : for the gen., cf. γοννων A 407. — άμψιαχυΐαν : 
repeats concisely the verb and participle of 315. 

317. κατά, €ψαΎ€ : κατά is used as in κατησθιε 314, κατακαίω. 

318. άρ^ζηλον : neuter adj. as substantive. Cf 204. Pred. after 
θηκ€ν. Made this to be something very clear, i.e. a sign from the gods. — 
OS TTcp : the same god who. — €φην€ν: equiv. to rJKC φόωσδ€ 309. 

319. λααν γάρ μιν έ'θηκί : made it a stone, turned it to stone . Cf. fit 
lapis et superat serpentis imagine saxum Ovid il/e<. xii. 23. 

320. οίον ίτυχθη : what had happened. Exclamation giving the con- 
tents and reason of θανμάζομεν. 

321. Scivct τΓ^λωρα : dire portents, i.e. the serpent with its deeds and its 
petrifaction. — €ΐσήλθ6 : here followed by an accusative. 

322. Cf. A 109. 

323. άν€ω kyivttrQi : became mute. 

324. ημίν: emphatic. — μί'ν : μην. — ToSe : object, with τίρας μέγα as 
predicate. 

325. οψιμον όψιτΛ,ίστον : for the repetition of oij/e, see § 12 rf ; for the 
asyndeton, cf. A 99, § 15. — οου kX^os : because of the fulfilment of the 
prophecy. For the form οου, see on 518, § 35 b. 



74 COMMENTARY. 

327 = 313. — This verse is repeated since the numeral adjectives are 
most important for the interpretation of the omen. 

328. τΓτολίμίξομίν [τΓολε/χιου/χεν] : . as from a γ -stem ; see § 48 j. — άνθι : 
i.e. before Ilios, like αντον 237. 

329. τω δίκάτω : the article calls attention to this as the decisive year. 
On that tenth, " then, in the tenth year." Cf. ΐνθα μλν ctVaere? ττολίμ.ίζομίν 
vies 'Αχαιών, | τω δεκάτω δέ ττόλιν ΤΙρίάμον πίρσαντες Ιβημ^ν \ οικαδε συν 
νψσσι $ 240 f. therefor nine years we sons of the Achaeans fought, but on the 
tenth we sacked the city of Priam, and set out for home with our ships. 

330. τώ? : thus, as Γ 415. It is related to the more usual ώ?, as the 
Homeric τοί to the article ot. 

331. άγ€ : as ii^terjection, with the plural, see on A 62. 

332. άσ-τυ: i.e. the ttoXlv of 329. The poet's choice between the two 
words is often determined by the convenience of his verse, § 22 h, c. 

333. άμφΐ Be κτλ. : 'paratactic' clause to express result, see § 21. So 
that the ships resounded etc. Parenthetical as A 10, Γ 134, 410. Ιτταινη- 
σαντ€.ς 335 refers not to Άχαιώ? 334 but to *Apyeiot 333. 

334. άυσάντων κτλ. : Jrom the shout etc. For the genitive see § 19 i/ γ. 

335. €•7Γαινήσαντ65 : adds the reason for the shout. — *08υσσήο5 θ€ίοιο ; 
standing verse-close, see § 12 δ. 

336-393. Nestor's speech and Agamemnon's reply. 

336. κα£: also, with, reference to the preceding speakers. — Γ€ρήνιο$: 
so called from the Messenian town where Nestor was bred and which was 
his place of refuge when Heracles sacked Pylos. — Ιτητότα: Ιτητότψ, 
LTTTrevs, knight. But he was not mounted on horseback like the later 

337. άγοράασθ€ : with lengthened initial vowel, see § 59 e. — This re- 
proach, though addressed to all the Greeks, is directed only against those 
who sympathize with Thersites in his longing to return. Nestor speaks 
more vehemently than Odysseus, who had prepared the way with argu- 
ments. — For the brief comparison, see § 14 d. 

338. 'ΤΓολ€μήια έ'ργα : * periphrasis ' for ttoAc/xos, see § 16 d. 

339. irfl δη βήσ€ται : a rhetoiical question. " What will become of 
compacts if no one thinks of keeping them ? " — <rvv0€oriai re καΐ ορκια : 
i.e. compacts sworn at sacrifices, here referring to the solemn sacrifice at 
Aulis. Hence Dido says non ego cum Danais Troianam ex- 
scindere gentem | Aulide iuravi Verg. ^en. iv. 425 f. Odysseus 
called it only an νττόσχεσις, 286. — ημίν : ethical dative. " Our agree- 
ments." 

340. €v ΊτυρΙ κτλ.: ironical wish in his indignation. "Let all be 
thrown into the flames, as worthless." — Iv irvpt : cf. Ε 215, where the 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 75 

archer Pandarus, in vexation, vows to break his bow and throw it into 
the fire, as useless. 

341. οΓΊΓονδαΙ ακρητοι : libations to the gods with unmixed wine, see on Γ 
270 ; although no wine was drunk unmixed with water. — SegiaC : see on 
ΒεκάτΎΐ A 54. I.e. pledges given by the right hand. — Ιττ^ττιθμίν : pluperfect 
without variable vowel, for Ιττίττοίθαμ^ν, see § 49 c. 

342. αυτω?: ivithout change, vainly, cf. 138. It is explained by what 
follows. — μήχο$ : ivay of relief , sc. from this contest of words to come to 
deeds and the conquest of Troy. 

344. Άτρ6ΐδη, σ-ύ 84 : as A 282. — en : construe with αρχενε. " In the 
^future as in the past." — έχων κτλ.: holding firmly to thy determination, 
sc. to capture Troy. Here begins the direct exhortation to Agamemnon 
to seize again with decision the reins of his authority. 

346. 4'a φθινύθ€ΐν: let them perish ! — έ'να καΐ 8ύο : for the idiomatic use 
of και, cf 303, A 128, Γ 363. He intentionally depreciates the number 
of the renegades, and mentions no names. — Αχαιών: partitive genitive 
with Toi 

347. νόσ-φιν βουλ^ύωσι : "plan apart from us, separating their cause 
from ours, like Thersites." — άνυσι$ . . . αυτών: parenthetical, connected 
with the preceding by the contrast between βονλενωσυ and ανυσις. — 
αυτών : neuter, of the plans (βουλεύματα) implied in βονλενωσι. 

348. irpiv Uvai : depends on βονλενωσι. For ττρίν, ττρίν, see on A 98. 
— Aios : by ' prolepsis ' (cf άΒελφεόν 409) connected with γνώμεναι, and 
supplied in thought for υττόσχεσίς. 

349. €Ϊ τ6, €Ϊ τ€ : indirect questions, as A 65. — καΐ οΰκί : cf 238. 

350. φημί : maintain, assert. — ουν : at all events. This particle is not 
frequent in Homer. It occurs about 60 times in Iliad and Odyssey. — 
καταν€ΰσ•αι: intransitive, gave a promise. See on A 514. 

351. ή'ματι τω οτ6 : closely connected, as a standing formula, as 743. — 
νηυσίν €v 4'βαινον : φ 510, 619, es Ύροίην dvaySiy/xevat α 210 embark and set 
sail /or Troy. 

352. Άργίίοι: for the position, see § 11 ;*. — φ4ροντ€5: cf. 304. 

353. άστράτΓτων : as if otl κατενενσε Κρονίων had preceded. This 
change of construction is caused by the intervening 351 f. A more 
violent ' anacoluthon * is Γ 211. — Ιιτιδφα: on our right, i.e. on the propi- 
tious side. — φα(νων : interpretation of άστράπτων. For the * chiastic ' 
order of w^ords, cf. A 443, 558 f . 

355. irplv κτλ. : i.e. before the capture of Troy. The women and 
children of a captured city were treated as slaves, the men were killed. 
See § 6 δ. — τινά, : in a collective sense, referring to each individual, as is 
also Τρωών άλοχω. 



76 COMMENTARY. 

356. τίσ-ασθαι : * chiastic ' with κατακοίμηθηναι, with which it is coin- 
cident. The Trojans shall be repaid, like for like. — *Ελ€νη8 όρμήμ'ατο 
κτλ. : the longings and sighs of Helen, i.e. those which she felt and uttered. 
The poet attributes to Nestor a knowledge of Helen's repentance (see on 
Γ 173) and earnest longing to return to Greece (see Γ 139 f.). Paris is 
everywhere in Homer held chiefly responsible for Helen's fault, although 
she followed him willingly. She is always attractive in Homer. Vergi] 
(Aen. vi. 511 ff.) represents her in a much more unpleasant light. 

357. έκΊτάγλωδ: as 223. 

358. άΐΓτεσθω tjs νηόβ : cf. 171. In a threatening tone. " Only let him 
prepare to depart ! Instead of returning as he wishes, before the rest, 
he will find death here, before the rest." For the imperative, cf. A 302. 

— €υσ•σ•6'λμοιο κτλ. : as 170. 

359. οψρα: in order that. This was the natural consequence to be 
expected. — θάνατον: i.e. the punishment of death. — ιτότμον: cf. μεθ" 
"Έικτορα TTOT/xos ίτοΐμος ^S 96 after thou hast killed Hector, death is read?/ 
for thee. 

360. άναξ: Xestor turns to Agamemnon. — tniQio r αλλφ: this is the 
leading thought, as is shown by what follows, while ev μη^^ο recapitulates 
344 f . " As thou must plan wisely thyself, so also follow another's advice." 

361. άιτόβλητον: for the final syllable, long by position before a lost 
consonant, see § 59/. 

362. Kptvc : separate, i.e. place in position separately, as 440. — κατά 
φΰλα : distributive, by tribes, the principal division of each Greek people, 
cf. 668. — κατά φρήτρα? : by clans, to which the separate families belonged. 

— Cf. 'According to your tribes, . . . according to the families thereof; 
and the family which the Lord shall take shall come by households,' 
Joshua vii. 14. — This verse suggests such a catalogue as follows, 484 if. — 
This separation of the army into divisions might have been expected 
early in the war. But this time is the beginning of the war, so far as 
the hearer is concerned. 

363. ώδ φρήτρη κτλ. : equiv. to άλληλοις. 

365. OS T€ λαών: sc. trjai. The clause is relative, not interrogative. 

366. κατά σφ^α? : by themselves separately. Cf. A 271. 

367. η καΐ Qta-TTta-LiQ : whether thou hast failed not simply because of 
the inefficiency of the army, but also by decree of the gods. This refers to 
111 if. — aXairalcis : future since the success of this measure will not 
appear until in the future. 

368. η: or only, as the English idiom requires, to correspond to καί 
above. 

369-393. Agamemnon's speech. He calls them to battle. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 77 

370. η μάν: strong asseveration, in very truth. — αυτ€ : again, "as 
often before." Agamemnon's praise is bestowed upon Nestor's whole 
speech. 

371. This appeal to the three chief divinities is made in the case of 
ardent wishes. Generally, as here, fulfilment of the wish is not expected. 

372. σ-υμφράΒμονίδ : equivalent to σύμβουλοι. Cf. φράσαι A 83. 

'^ 374. x€pcrlv υίΓο : for vrro with the dative, in its transition from local 
to instrumental sense, see § 19 /. — άλοΰσ-α : aorist, to mark the cap- 
ture of the city as the decisive moment, while ττερθομίνη refers to the 
duration of the work of destruction, cf. A 331. 

375. ΚρονίΒηε Zeis: closely connected, cf. A 502. — The verses which 
immediately follow seem inconsistent with the confident expectation ex- 
pressed 412 ff. — For the complaint, cf 111. 

376. OS : as 275. — μ€τά : into the midst of cf. A 222, 423. — άιτρήκτουε : 
cf. 121. — βάλλει : casts, is wont to entangle in. 

377. μαχησάμ€θα : cf. epiSi $νν€ηκε μάχεσθαί A 8, — e'ivcKa κονρη$ : here 
marks the insignificant occasion of the quarrel. 

378. ηρχον : construe with the participle. — χαλίτταίνων : i.e. the 
quarrel. 

379. €s yi μίαν κτλ. : sc. βονλην, cf. 8€^iat'341. Agree in coimsel, the 
opposite of άμφίς φράζεσθαι, cf. 14. 

380. ούδ* ηβαιόν : not in the least. 

381. 8€iirvov : the principal meal of the day, no matter when it is 
taken. See § 17. The warriors would have no more food until night. 
A considerable part of the day had passed during the events narrated 
since 48. — ξυνάγωμ€ν "Αρηα : i.e. begin the sharp contest, see on 426. Cf. 
440, A 8, Γ 70, c ο m m i 1 1 e r e ρ r ο e 1 i u ni . 

382. tCs : collective. — tv : the repetition is rhetorical, cf cac A 436 ff. 
— Cf ' Arm, warriors, arm for fight ! ... let each | His adamantine coat 
gird icell, and each | Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed shield,' Milton 
Par. Lost vi. 537 ff . 

384. άρματο8 άμφίβ : construe with ιδών, looking cai-efully about his 
chariot, to see that all was in good condition. The principal idea is in 
the participle, not in the finite verb. See § 21 i. 

385. ιίανημφιοι : as A 472. — cos κρινώμ€θα : that we may measure our 
strength. — (ττυγερω "Αρηι : dative of interest, i.e. in dread battle. 

386. μ€Τ€ΌΓ<Γ€ται : shall be between, sc. the conflicts. 

387. μ,ένοζ ανδρών : for the periphrasis, cf 851, Γ 105. See § 16 i/. 

388. nv [τινός] : many a one's. The strap of the shield ran over the 
left shoulder and under the right arm. The shield was so heavy that it 
needed support from the body as well as from the arm. 



78 COMMENTARY. 

389. άμψιβρότης : man-protecting, άμφί is connected with άμφω on both 
sides. — χίϊρα : arm. Ace. of specification. — καμ€ΐται : sc. tU from rev. 

391. Cf. A 549. — tQiXovra: inclined, ready. — νο-ί\<Γω: perceive. See 
§ 17. 

392. μιμνάζίΐν: object of ^θέλοντα. A collateral form of μένω, μίμνω, 
see § 37 α. — οΰ : by no means, emphatic at the head of the clause, to con- 
trast the following thought with the coward's expectation. — ol : personal 
pronoun instead of a demonstrative after the cond. rel. sentence, cf. A 
218. 

393. άρκιον : appointed, fated. — ia-a-tirai [€σται] : for the form, see H. 
426 ; G. 777, 6. — κύνα? κτλ. : see on A 4. — " Nothing shall save him 
from death." 

394-440. Breaking up of the assembly. The sacrifice. 

394. «s oT€ : introduces a comparison, see § 14 e. Sc. Ιάχγ]. — Cf. 
'He scarce had finished when such murmur filled | Th' assembly, as 
when hollow rocks retain | The sound of blust'ring winds, which all night 
long I Had roused the sea,' etc. Milton Par. Lost ii. 284 ff. ' He ended, 
and the heavenly audience loud | Sung Hallelujah as the sound of seas,' 
ib. X. 641 f., ' He said, and as the sound of waters deep, ] Hoarse murmur 
echoed to his words applause,' ib. v. 872 f. 

395. κινήση : for the subjunctive, cf. A 80. Sc. κνμα as object. 

396. σ-κοΊΓί'λω : locative, in partitive apposition wdth άκτΎ). See on 145. 
— κύματα άνί\ιων : i.e. waves roused by the winds. Cf. βλκά' vSpov 723, 
φόβον'Άρηος 767, νονσον Διός t 411 disease sent by Zeus. 

397. OT αν γ€'νωνται : sc. άνεμοι. This explains τταντοίων, but the w^hole 
sentence is a picturesque decoration of the comparison. See § 14 a. — 
e νθ' η € νθα : in this direction or in that, cf 90, 462, 476, 812. 

398. opcovTo : they hastened away. — κατά νήα? : cf 47. 

400. €ρ€ζ€ : for the imperfect, see on άφία A 25. — θίών κτλ. : cf. A 290. 
Each of the tribes offered sacrifices to its national god. 

402. Up€v(r6v: sc. as he prepared a feast for the 'Gerontes.' Kings 
generally sacrificed to Zeus, as their patron. See on A 176. — 'Αγαμέμ- 
νων : in appos. with 6, see § 42 h. 

403. ΐΓ€ντα€τηρον : i.e. full grown. This age was thought to be the 
best for beef and pork. — KpovCwvt: dative of interest, in Jiis honor, with 
Upevaev. 

404. γί'ροντας: see on γερόντων 21. The following seem to be the 
members of the βονλη of 53. 

405. ΊτρώτκΓτα : Nestor has the first place in the regard of Agamem- 
non. See 20, 371 ff. Idomeneus has a high place, cf. A 145. Idomeneus 
is also a great friend of Menelaus, cf. Γ 232. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 79 

406. AtavT€ : see on A 138. — TvSc'os υΐόν: i.e. Diomed, king of Argos. 
See on 567. 

408. αυτόματος : of his own accord. He needed no invitation. He 
holds a sjiecial relation. — βοήν αγαθός: an important element of influ- 
ence in battle when trumpets were not used. This epithet is applied to 
Menelaus 25 times. See § 12 δ. 

409. άδ6λψ£0ν: the subject of the subordinate clause is taken by 
anticipation (II. 878) as the object of the principal clause, cf. 348, Ί 
know thee who thou art,' St. Luke iv. 34. — The form αδελφός is not 
Homeric ; κασί-γνητος is found in Homer about twice as freq. as άδελφεός. 
— ώς lirovciTo : hotv busy he was in preparing for the feast and the battle. 

410. •π•€ρίστη<Γαν : 2d aorist, cf. A 448. — ούλοχύτας κτλ. : as A 449. 

412. Ziv κτλ.: equiv. to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. — The 
different attributes are given without conjunctions, see 15 a. — The elated 
tone of the prayer results from the king's infatuation by the dream, cf. 
37 ff. — κ€λαιν€ψ€ς: since the god appears in the dark thunder-cloud. — 
αίθδ'ρι : cf. A 44, 195. 

413. eiri : const, with Swat, sc. upon the battle. — cirl κνί'φας tkQtiv : cf. 
A 475. — The infinitives depend on δός implied in the invocation. The 
optative follows in 418. — The wish reminds of Joshua's words: 'Sun, 
stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. 
And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had 
avenged themselves upon their enemies,' Joshua x. 12 f . 

414. Ίτρην^ς : proleptic predicate after κατά βαλίαν, cf. ρωγαλεον 417, 
άλίαστον 420. 

415. αίθαλόεν : the ceiling-timbers were blackened by the smoke from 
the fires and torches for which no adequate outlet was provided. — 
Ίτρήσ-αι: const, with the genitive. — θύρετρα: i.e. the double door which 
witli its decorations formed a principal ornament of the palace. 

416. Έκτόρεον : equivalent to "Έκτορος. See on 20. 

417. χαλκφ : bronze, i.e. sword ; see on A 236. So χαλκός is sometimes 
used for armor, as 578. — ττολ^ες: ττολλοί, see § 38 c. — άμφ' αυτόν: about 
himself, as the chief personage. 

418. όεάξ κτλ. : bite the dust, in the last convulsive agony of death, cf 
humum semel ore momordit Verg. yl^n. xi. 418. — οΒάξ: equiv. to 
τοις oSovaLv, cf. ττν^ Γ 237 with thefst, λα| Ζ 65 toith the foot. 

419. Ιττεκραίαινε : cf. A 455. Coincident in time with Ιφατο. 

420. δεκτό : 2d aor., cf. Βίχθαΐ A 23. Zeus gave no sign of displeasure, 
hence it was inferred that he accepted the sacrifice. — οφελλεν: i.e. he 
gave them greater labor of war instead of giving them peace, cf, 39 f. 

421-424 = A 458-461. 425. Cf. A 462, 



80 COMMENTARY. 

426. ΉφαCσ■τoto : i.e. blazing fire. The god is put for his element. 
Cf. "Αρψ for 7ΓΟλ€/Λ09 381 ; * Αμφιτρίτη for θάλασσα μ 97 ; *Αφρο8ίτη for 
€ρως χ 444; Vulcanuni spargere tectis Verg. Aen. vii. 77. 

427-432 =r A 464-469. 433. rots : see on A 58. 

435. μηκ^τι κτλ. : no longer ηοΐϋ let us talk here for a long time. Nestor 
wished to prevent the conversation that generally followed a feast. He 
agrees with Agamemnon, 381 ff., in calling for action. 

436. άμβαλλώμίθα : cf. άνάβλησις 380. — 8ή : now. — Btos : i.e. Zeus. — 
6γγυαλΙζ€ΐ : gives into our hands, sc. in so far as the Dream directed the 
immediate preparation for battle. 

437. αψ: here only in Homer with 3d pers. imperative, but this is 
equiv. to "bid the heralds " etc. — κήρυκας : i.e. Agamemnon's, as 50, 442. 
— 'Αχαιών: construe with λαόν, as 163. 

439. ημ6ί8 : i.e. the princes who are named 405 ft'. — αθρόοι c38c : assem- 
bled as we are. 

440. θάσ-σον: the quicker. — €'γ€(ρομ€ν κτλ. : cf. 381. 
441-483. The army goes forth to fight. 
442-444. Cf 50-52. 

442. αντίκα: 'asyndetic,' see § 15 c. 

445. ol δ* άμφ* *Ατρ6Ϊωνα: " The son of Atreus and the other princes." 
See H. 791, 3 ; G. 1202, 3. 

446. Kp£vovT€s : following Nestor's advice, 362. — μ€τά 8^ : hut among 
them, as 477. — She is unseen. So Apollo leads the Trojans forward, 
et/Aevos ωμοιιν νεφζλην Ο 308 with a cloud wrapped about his shoulders. 
See on A 198. — *Αθήνη : sc. θννε, which is taken up by διεσσυτο 450. 

447. αΙγίδα : as goddess of war (on A 206), Athena wears the Aegis 
of Zeus to inspire terror. The Aegis was a symbol of the thunder cloud, 
just as the Gorgon's head upon it represented the thunder storm. This 
is worn by Athena regularly in works of art. — άγήραον κτλ: explanatory 
of Ιρίτιμον. ά-γηραος is always associated by Homer with αθάνατος, and 
elsewhere in the poems is used only of persons, excepting the gold and 
silver dogs that guard the palace of the king of the Phaeacians. 

448. τή5 : f-ojn which. Construe with -ηερίθονται. — The present is 
used of a divine and unchanging quality. 

449. IvirXiKc'is: evidently the art of drawing gold into thin threads 
was known in the Homeric period. — Ικατόμβοιος: loorth a hundred oxen. 
Cf. 649 for the round number. Cattle formed the standard of value in 
those times. Coined money was unknown. See § 5 c. 

451. Iv : const, with ωρσει/. 

452. καρδίη : in partitive apposition with ζκάστω. See § 12 g. καρ8ιη 
is found in Homei- only in tliis verse, elsewhere κραΒίη, as 171 ; see § 31. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 81 

455-483. Six splendid comparisons, each of which progressively gives 
yrominence to a new point; (1) the gleam of their armor, 455-458; (2) their 
noisy tumult, 459-466 ; (o) their multitude, 467 f. ; (4) their eagerness for 
thefray,4:Q9-473', (5) their mai'shalling leaders, 4:74^79 ; (6) Agamemnon 
as commander-in-chief, 480-483. See § 14 c. 

455. ηύτ€ : as 87. — άίδηλον : destructive. — άσιτετον : sc. in extent. 
This is essential for the comparison since the extent of the fire is a condi- 
tion of its brightness as seen at a distance. 

456. έ'καθίν : from afar, where the poet chooses his station with the 
men who are looking on. 

457. των : of these, limits χαλκοί). — Ιρχομίνων : as they were going forth 

— eco-irc^ioio : sc. because of the throng. 

458. δι' αΙθέρο$ : i.e. reaches through the aether to the home of the 
gods. See on A 195. 

459. των : prepares the way for the leading clause. It is taken up by 
TOiv 464, as τον<ζ 474 is taken up by rovs 476. — €0v€a : cf. 87. 

460. χηνών : the specializing of ορνίθων forms a concrete picture, of 
which the definite local designation forms a part. — κύκνων: cf. ceu 
quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni Verg. ^en. vii. 699. 

461. *A<rC<u : for the use of the adjective, cf. iv λει/χώη 2κα/>ιανδριω 
467, Asia prata Yerg. Geor^. i. 383, quale s sub nubibus atris| 
Strymoniae dant signa grues id. Aen. :s..264:i. — From this plain 
of Lydia south of Mt. Tmolus, the name of Asia spread to the Persian 
Empire and finally over the whole continent ; just as ' Europe ' at first was 
only the Boeotian plain. 

462. €v0a κτλ. : to this side or to that, cf. 397. — άγαλλόμβνα κτλ. : lit. 
delighting with their wings, i.e. with joyous play of their wings. 

463. κλα-γ-γηδον ιτροκαθιζόντων : settling (forward) ivith loud cries, refer- 
ring to ορνίθων 459. The flocks with incessant noise fly on again and 
again to settle in another spot, and the last birds to reach the ground take 
their places in front of the rest. — σ-μαρα-γεΐ Zi : for the * parataxis,' see on 
210. 464 = 91. 

465. ireSCov : i.e. the plain between the camp and the city. — ιτροχεοντο : 
cf. 'Saw what numbers numberless | The city gates outpour'd, light- 
arm'd troops ' etc. Milton Par. Regained iii. 310 f. — viro : adv., explained 
by the following ablatival genitive ποδών. 

466. αυτών κτλ. : of both themselves and their horses, cf. 762. This 
limits ποδών. 

467 f. The third comparison is closely connected with the preceding. 

— €σταν: halted, stopped, as they came to the field of battle. For the 
aorist, see on 94. 



82 COMMENTARY. 

468. ωρη : in the season, i.e. in spring. 

469. ηντ6 κτλ. : protasis to τοσσοι κτλ. 472. The verb is here omitted 
in the first member of a comparison. — μυιάων : the fly has elsewhere also 
the character of an impudent, eager insect. — άΒινάων €θν€α : cf. 87. 

470. ηλάσκουσ-ιν: always hover ahout. 

471. oT€ κτλ.: explains ωρτ) iv dapLvrj. — τ^: marks the close connec- 
tion of the clauses. See § 21 6. 

472. ktrX Τρώ€σ-(Γΐ : to battle against the Trojans. Ιττί is here used with 
the dative, implying hostility, see on A 382. 

473. ϊ<Γταντο : were taking their positions. — 8ιαρραισαι : so. Τρώας. 

474. •ΐΓλατ€α : standing epithet, broad, wide-feeding, i.e. scattered as 
they feed; in contrast with 'huddling' sheep. — αΐιτόλοι avSpcs : c/. ySa- 
σίληι avSpL Γ 170, avSpes στρατηγοί, avSpes στρατιώται, άνδρες αδελφοί 
Acts xxiii. 1. 

475. διακρίνωσ-ιν : separate. Subjunctive of a general supposition, cf. 
A 554. — νομω : dative of place. — μιγί'ωσ-ιν : sc. αιπόλια αιγών as subject. 

476. δΐ€κό(Γμ£ον : cf. Βίακοσμηθεΐμεν 126, δια τρίχα κοσμηθΊντα 655. 

477. U'vai : for the infinitive, cf μάχεσθαι A 8. — μ€τά : adverb, as 446. 

478. ΔιΙ κτλ. : Agamemnon combines the majesty of Zeus with the 
grace of Ares. These characteristics of the gods seem known to the 
hearers from works of art. Cf. Γ 167 ff. Homeric comparisons of men 
with gods are generally indefinite, not specifying a particular feature. — 
Cf. ' See what a grace was seated on this brow ; | Hyperion's curls ; the 
front of Jove himself ; | An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ; | 
A station like the herald Mercury | . . . A combination and a form in- 
deed, I Where every god did seem to set his seal,' Shakspere Hamlet iii. 
4. 55 if. 

479. For the ' chiasmus,' cf. A 443, 558 f . See § 16 a. — ζώνην : waist. 

480. βοΰβ : made more definite by its appositive ταύρος. See § 12/. — 
ά-γέληψι : in the herd. For the ending, see § 33 a. — μί'γα : far^ see on 
A 78. — eirXcTO : gnomic aorist, freq. in comparisons ; cf. A 418. 

481. "γάρ T€ : always connected, like η am que. 

482. Totov : such a one, sums up the characteristics which have been 
mentioned. In spite of 419, Zeus sustains the royal honor which he him- 
self had granted (on A 176). 

483. €κπρ€ΐΓέα: in appos. with τοΓον. — έ'ξοχον: elsewhere followed by 
the genitive. 

The Catalogue of the Ships. 

484-785. The forces of the Achaeans. 
484-493. Prooemium: Invocation of the Muses. 



#^ SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 83 

484. Solemn invocation of the muses where a faithful memory is 
needed for telling the story, or where the theme taxes the poet's powers. 
Cf. aeiSe ^eci A 1, άνδρα μοι tweirf. μονσα, α 1, pan dite nunc Hel icon a, 
deae, cantusque movete, | . . . et meministis enim, divae, 
et memorare potestis ; | ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabi- 
tur aura, Verg. Aen. vii. 641, 645 f. — For the repetition of the invo- 
cation, cf. 'Descend from Heaven, Urania,' Milton Par. Lost vii. 1. 

νΰν : now, closely connecting what follows with the advance of the 
Achaeans that has been described, 455-483. — μ,οΰσ-αι: pi. as 594. Homer 
does not know the name of any muse, and has their number as nine only 
ω 60. The earlier number seems to have been three, — the same as of 
the Fates, Graces, Hours, etc. The muses could not be assigned to differ- 
ent arts and sciences before the arts and sciences existed. — For the 
rhyme between the words before the caesura and the close of the verse, 
see § 13 a. — For this Catalogue of forces, cf. Joshua xv.-xix., Numbers 
xxvi., Hesiod's Theogony, Vergil's Aeneid vii. 641-817, and Milton's list 
of fallen angels {Paradise Lost i. 392-521). 

485. Trap€<rT€ : sc. ττασιν from πάντα. — This verse and the next fol- 
lowing are parenthetical. — Cf. ' Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from 
thy view, | Nor the deep tract of Hell * etc. Milton Par. Lost i. 27. 

486. ημ€ί8 : we singers. — kXcos : report, " what people say," in contrast 
with ΙΒμεν. — άκοΰομ€ν : we hear. Equiv. to we have heard, as in the 
English idiom. 

487. Cf. 760. 

488. Ίτληθύν: as 143. — άν μυθήσ-ομαι: for the subjunctive with av, 
cf A 137, 139 ; see § 18 b. 

489. ού8* el: not even if. — Cf. non ego cuncta meis amplecti 
versibus opto, j non, milii si linguae centum sint, oraque 
centum, | ferrea vox Verg. Georg. ii. 42 f., Aen. vi. 625, si vox in- 
fragilis, pectus mihi firmius aere, | pluraque cum Unguis 
pluribus ora forent Ovid Trist. i. 5. 53 f. . 

490. χάλκ€ον: epithet of strength and firmness. — ητορ: i.e. lungs. 
491 f. This thought is hard to reconcile with the preceding, which 

notes the physical impossibility of rehearsing the names of so great a 
multitude. — ΌλυμιτιάΒίε: not a patronymic here, but a mere adjective of 
connection, cf. Ούραηωι/ες A 570. The muses are Όλΰ/χπια Βωμχιτ ^χον- 
σαι 484. See § 39 a. — Aios κτλ. : cf. 598, θ^α [μονσά] θνγατ€ρ Αίός α 10. 
The mother, according to the later myth, was Mnemosyne (Memory). 

492. ύτΓο "Ιλιον : see on 216. 

493. This verse promises something different from 487. — &ρχον« αν: 
in contrast with ηληθυν 488. — προττάσαβ: all together; as the poet adds 



84 COMMENTARY. 

a statement of the number of the ships to the names of the leaders of 
each people. 

494 ίϊ. 'J'iie Catalogue seems to have been prepared for an account of 
the mustering of the Greeks at Aulis and the embarkation thence (c/ 
509 f.), and to have been inserted liere with divers alterations. We 
expect here an account of the forces, not of the ships. 

The nations, their leaders, and the number of their ships are enu- 
merated in a definite geographical order, in three principal divisions: 
I. (a) The main land of (xreece south of Thermopylae ; (b) middle and 
southern Greece with the islands immediately adjoining. 16 contingents. 
(494-644.) II. Insular Greece, from Crete to Calydnae. 4 contingents. 
(645-680.) III. Thessalian Greece, from Mts. Oeta and Othrys on 
the south, to Olympus on the north. 9 contingents. (681-759.) See 
p. vii. of the Vocabulary. 

The Achaean ships number in all 1186. The number of men on each 
ship is stated for only two contingents : each Boeotian ship carried 120 
men (510) ; each of the ships of Philoctetes brought 50 men (719) . The 
ships of Achilles also brought each 50 men (Π 170) . From the average 
of the two numbers given for the Boeotians and the ships of Philoctetes, 
the ancients reckoned the whole number of Achaeans before Troy as about 
100,000. Others reckoned the ships roundly as 1200, assigned 100 men 
to each ship, and thus estimated the whole number of Achaeans as 
120,000. 

The Greeks valued this list highly, because of its geographical and 
statistical information. They looked upon it as a part of history, a 
versified geography and gazetteer. They appealed to it to settle disputed 
questions, and the charge of interpolating verses in it w^as like a charge 
of falsifying public records. 

The poet evidently desires to represent this expedition as a great 
national undertaking. He enumerates even those nations which from 
their inland position were not likely to have had anything to do with 
such a war, e.g. the Arcadians (603-614), who are not mentioned in the 
rest of the Iliad as taking part in the battles on the plain of Troy. The 
poet does not seem to exalt one nation at the expense of another, either 
here or in the other parts of the Iliad. A bard wandering from country 
to country would acquire a wealth of geographical information, but would 
form no strong local attachments. 

Ελλάς and the "Ελλι/νε? in this Catalogue are restricted to a part of 
Thessaly, 683 f. The Dorians and lonians are not mentioned. No Greek 
colonies are known, whether in Asia Minor, in Sicily and the West, or 
elsewhere. The names Peloponnesus, Attica, Eleusis, Megara, Delphi, 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 85 

Olympia, and Pisa, do not appear. Thus this Catalogue seems to have 
been composed before the Dorian migration into Peloponnesus, and the 
sending forth of colonies to Asia Minor and the West. 

494-644. I. Greece south of Thermopylae, with the adjoining islands. 

494-558. Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Euboea, Athens, Salamis. The enu- 
meration proceeds from Boeotia in a northerly direction, then to the east, 
then southward, and so to the west, around Boeotia. Seven contingents ; 
262 ships. See p. viii. of the Vocabulary. 

The poet begins with Boeotia, prob. because the fleet collected at Aulis 
(303). Because of this beginning, the ancients gave the name Βοιωτία 
or BoLoiTua to the Catalogue of the ships. 

494-510. Boeotia. This document presents a distribution of the 
Greeks such as existed after the Trojan war. Ace. to Thuc. i. 12, the 
Boeotians lived in Thessaly until sixty years after the fall of Troy. See 
on 507. More towns are mentioned in Boeotia than elsewhere. This 
last fact may indicate not a Boeotian poet, but the extent of the culture 
and history of the country. The Thebans are not prominent in the 
action of the Iliad. Thebes is not mentioned ; see on 505. 

494 f. μ^ν: correl. with Se 511. — The five leaders are all mentioned 
elsewhere. 

496. o'i T€ : refers to Βοιωτών, resumed in των 509. — Ύρίην: not far 
from Tanagra and Aulis.^ — Αυλίδα : where the Achaean forces gathered 
before setting sail for Troy; see on 339. 

498. ©conrciav [Θεσττιάς] : without a conjunction to connect it with the 
preceding, in order to mark the beginning of a new series, as 501 f., 
560 f., 647, 739. — For the sing., see § 37 of. — Thespiae and Platea were 
the only Boeotian cities to refuse * earth and water ' to Xerxes. — €ύρύ- 
χορον: generally of cities (^with hroad squares for the choral dance), as here. 
Even now in Greece the villagers assemble on the public square for their 
dances. — Freq. in Homer are three substantives so placed in averse that 
but one has an adjective, and this adjective with its noun fills the second 
half of the verse. Cf. 497, 502, 532, 551, 582, 606, 647, 739, etc. — Μνκα- 
λη<Γ<ΓΟν: on the road from Thebes to Chalcis. 

499. άμ,φΐ €V€>ovTo : dwelt about, inhabited. Cf. 521, 574, 585, 634, etc. 
— "Αρμα: here Amphiaraus (the chief hero of the expedition against 
Seven-gated Thebes) and his chariot sank into the earth. 

502. ΚώΐΓα8: this town gave its name to the lake on which it 
lay. — Θίσ-βην: Shakspere's 'Thisbe' was named for the nymph of this 
place. 

503. «ΐΓοιήβντα: here femhiine, an adjective of two endings. Cf. 
ημηθόεντος 77 and note, άμπ€λΟ€ντα 561. 



86 COMMENTARY. 

504. Γλίσ-αντα: at the foot of Mt. Hypatus. The decisive battle 
between the Epigoni and Thebans was said to have been fought 
there. 

505. ΎτΓοθήβα? : Lower Thebes, which lay on the plain ; in distinction 
from Seven-gated Thebes with the Cadinean citadel which was destroyed 
in the second Argive invasion by Dionied and his associates, and does 
not seein to have been rebuilt in the Homeric time. 

506. oXo-osi sacred grove. In appos. with Όγχ?;στόι/, cj. 592, 696. 
The name was often applied to a sacred precinct even when no grove of 
trees existed. 

507. "Αρνην: to be distinguished from the Thessalian town of the 
same name, which was the old home of the Boeotians and gave to this 
town its name. 

508. «σ-χατόωσ-αν : at the extremity of the land, cf. 616. 

509. v^€s kCov : cf. νη6<; Ιονσης A 482. — Iv Sc €κά<Γτη βαΐνον : in each 
were sailing, sc. from Aulis. See on 494 ff., p. 84. 

510. βαΐνον: cf 351, 611, 619. — «κατον κτλ. : prob. an unusually 
large number. 

511-516. Orchomenus. 

511. Όρχομ€νόν : the rich capital of the famous empire of the Minyae ; 
called Mlvvclov in distinction from the Arcadian city (605). It was 
renowned for its worship of the Graces, who were said to have been first 
worshipped there. Both Orchomenus and Aspledon (a small town) lay 
near Lake Copa'is, on the left bank of the Boeotian Cephisus (see on 522), 
on the fertile plain of Boeotia. The realm of the Minyae did not become 
Boeotian until later. 

512. ηρχ6 : singular, although two personal subjects follow. Cf 563, 
650, 830, 842, 844, 858, 862, 876. See H. 607. The second subject in 
many cases seems to be added as an afterthought. 

513. δόμω: local, in the house. — "AKTopos : i.e. Astyoche's father. 

514. ΰττερώιον : this served as the sleeping-chamber for the women. 

515. "Αρηι: she bore to Ares. For the dative, cf. 658. Ares was the 
national god of the warlike Minyae. For the long first syllable of "Αρψ, 
cf 767, 'Απόλλωνος A 14. 

516. Tois : const, with the verb, των might have been used with vees, 
see § 19 e. 

517-526. The Phocians. These also may be supposed to have fitted 
out their fleet on the Euripus. 

518. Ίφίτου: for this traditional form, the metre indicates the truer 
form to be Ίφίτοο, with the last syllable lengthened before the μ (§ 59 h). 
Cf 6ov (6o) 325, Άσκληττιοΐ) (^Άσκλψηόο) 731. See § 35 b. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 87 

519. Πύθωνα : ' metaplastic ' ace. of Πυ^ώ. — This was the later Delphi 
(Δελφοί), seat of the Pythian oracle. The epithet π^τρψσσαν is well 
deserved. 

520. Κρϊσ-αν : on the plain, near the gulf of the same name. It seems 
in early times to have controlled the Pythian sanctuary. — Δαυλίδα: east 
of Delphi, on a hill; cf. Daulis quia in tumulo excel so sita est, 
nee sealis nee operibus capi poterat {sc. by the Romans) Livy 
xxxii. i8. — ΠανοΊτήα: burnt by the Persians under Xerxes, as was also 
Daulis. 

522. άρα: further; uniting the following to form a series with the 
preceding. — Κηψισόν : the Cephisus takes its rise near Lilaea, on the 
north slope of Mt. Parnassus. It flows with many windings through 
Phocis into Boeotia, and empties into Lake Copais. 

524. άμα eirovTO : accompanied. 

525. οίτμ^ν: the two leaders mentioned 517. — άμφι^'τοντ65: busily. 
For the use of the participle, see on Ιων A 138. 

526. Βοιωτών δ' 'ΐγ.ΊτΚ'ψ'' next the Boeotians. — kir dpio-rcpd: to the left 
of the Boeotians, in the line of the ships and in the line of battle. Cf 
CTTiSe^ta 353. 

527-535. TheLocrians. 

527. Όιλήοδ: gen. of connection, with Atas. See H. 729 a, 730 a; 
G. 1085, 1. Cf Ύελαμωνίοζ Atas, where the adj. is equiv. to a genitive. — 
ταχύδ : cf. celerem sequi Aiacem Hor. Carm. i. 15. 18. In the 
funeral games in honor of Patroclus, this Ajax runs a race with Odysseus 
and would have won the prize, but Athena caused him to slip. — He was 
shipwrecked and drowned on the voyage home from Troy. See § 9 c. 

528. Τ€λαμώνιο5 Al'as : cf. 557, 768, A 138. Throughout the battles 
of the Iliad the two Atavre stand near each other and are often men- 
tioned together. 

529. ολίγος: small, WkQ Kitic /Αίκρός which is rare in Homer. — λινο- 
θώρηξ : with linen doublet, i.e. in a closely woven, thick linen jacket which 
came down only to the hips; while the ^ιτων in the common epithet 
χα\κο\ίτων€'; was cuirass and apron in one piece. The linen armor 
became more common in later times (see Xen. An. iv. 7. 16 of the 
Chalybes, τον \lvovv θώρακα ος €τηχώριος ην αΰτοις id. Cyr. vi. 4• 2). Such 
a cuirass of cocoanut fibre was the usual armor of some of the South Sea 
Islanders, and would repel a ball from a revolver or a cut from a sabre. 

530. Πανί'λληνα?: the Pan-Hellenes {cf Παναχαιών 404), only here. 
This unites under one name the peoples of Northern Greece, as *Λ;)(αιους 
is used of the peoples of Peloponnesus and the adjacent islands. Cf. κα& 
'Ελλάδα καΧ μΙσον "Apyo^ a 344 through Hellas and the midst of Argos, as 



88 COMMENTARY. 

including all Greece. Cf. 'from Dan to Beersheba ' Judges xx. 1, 'from 
John O'Groat's to Land's End.' 
531. 01 : refers to Αοκρων 527. 

535. Δοκρών: for its position at the beginning of the verse, see on 
ονλομίνην A 2. — ιτ^ρην : opposite. — Upfjs : as A 366. The cult of Apollo 
and Artemis was especially prominent there. 

536-545. The Euhoeans. 

536. μ€ν€α irv€iovT€s: breathing courage, i.e. inspired with courage and 
fury. — μ€ν€α : pi. because of the number of men ; cf. Shakspeie's 
'Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves,' Caesar iii. 2. 241. — 
irvcCovTcs [TTveovTCs] : cf. ereXeieTo A 5. — "Αβαντ65 : pre-Hellenic Thracians 
who from the Phocian town Abae migrated to Euboea, and gave to the 
island its earlier name. 

537. Χαλκ£8α : the chief town of Euboea, on the strait of Euripus at 
its very narrowest part. It is separated from Boeotia by a channel so 
narrow that plans are making to blast aw^ay the rocks, in order to open 
the way for steamers of ordinary size. In the early times of Greek 
history, Chalcis exhausted its own strength by sending out colonies, — 
founding the first Greek settlement in the West (Cumae in Campania), 
and the first in Sicily (Naxos, about 735 B.C.), and sending so many 
colonies to the southern shore of Thrace as to give its name to the great 
promontory of Chalcidice. — ΕΙρίτρίαν : the later Eretria. The short 
quantity of e before τρ is unusual in Homer; see § 59 g. — Ίσ-τίαιαν: 
trisyllabic by synizesis ; see § 25 a. 

540. otos "Αρηο?: only metaphorical in Homer. Scion of Ares, 
denoting bravery. Cf. θεράποντες "Αρηος llCh 

542. oTTiQtv κομόωντίβ: see on 11. — Mark the new thoughts added in 
this sentence by the adjectives without conjunctions. 

544. This verse is composed apparently of six spondees. — δη ίων : 
const, with στηθεσσιν. l is here pronounced as y. See on 566. 

546-558. The Athenians and Salaminians. 

546. *Αθήνα5 : the city here represents Attica. The promontory of 
Sunium and Marathon are mentioned in the Odyssey. — In the line of 
battle, the Athenians had the Pylians on their left and the Cephallenians 
on their right. They were not prominent in the conflicts. — €υκτ£μ€νον : 
cf ' Where on the Aegean shore a city stands | Built nobly, pure the air, 
and light the soil; I Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts and elo- 
quence,' Milton Par. Regained iv. 238 ff. 

547. δήμον : the country.^ — *Ερ£χθήο8 : originally identical with Erich- 
thonius. An old hero of Athens, of whose cult Athena herself is here 
made to be the founder. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 89 

548. T^K€ Be κτλ. : parenthetical clause. Erechtheus is called -γηγ^νψ 
by Herodotus and others. The Athenians boasted that they were chil- 
dren of the soil {αυτόχθονες). 

549. κάδ [κατά]: const, with είσεν, cf. άνα claev A 310 f. — iriovi : 
fat, i.e. rich; with reference to the votive offerings and other treasures 
stored there. — νηω: recent excavations indicate that before the Persian 
invasion, the temple of Athena on the Acropolis stood to the north of 
the Parthenon (dedicated at the great Panathenaic festival 438 B.C.), 
with foundations extending under the Hall of the Caryatides of the 
Erechtheuni (completed about 407 B.C.). Colunnis and other architec- 
tural fragments of the pre-Persian Parthenon are found built into the 
wall of the Acropolis. 

550. μ,ίν: I.e. Erechtheus, who was worshipped with Athena, since the 
two were considered the founders of the civilization of the country. 

551. 'π•€ριτ€λλομ€νων : see on 295. — This then was an annual festival. 

552. Π€Τ€ώο : for Hereaoo, see § 35 b. The family of Peteos claimed 
descent from Erechtheus. 

553 f. τω 8' ου Ίτω κτλ. : acc. to Herodotus, an ambassador of the Athe- 
nians in the time of the second Persian war referred to these verses with 
pride before Gelo, tyrant of Syracuse. But the Iliad does not elsewhere 
mention or show this skill of Menestheus. 

554. κοσμήσ-αι : equiv. to the Attic τά^αι ; see § 17. Cf. κοσμήτορα 
λαών A 16, as an epithet of the generals. The inf. is used here as an acc. 
of specification. — iinrovs: i.e. men on chariots, horses and all that went 
with them. 

555. Ν^<Γτωρ: see on A 247. 

557. Αϊα?: son of Telamon. See on A 138. — Σαλαμίνος: Salamis 
forms a sort of stepping-stone in the enumeration, as the poet passes from 
Central Greece to Peloponnesus. Telamon had removed to Salamis from 
Aegina (the home of his father Aeacus), because of the murder of his 
brother. 

558. άγων : for the use of the participle, cf. άμφύποντες 525. Ajax 
here is brought into such close connection with Athens that he appears 
as a national hero of Attica. This was in accord with the later Athenian 
tradition. One of the ten tribes (φνλαι) of Attica was named ΑΙαντίς, 
after him. 

559-644.' Peloponnesus, Westei-n Islands, Aetolia. 
559-624. Peloponnesus. 559-568. Argos. 

559. "Αργός : the city, not the country. See on A 30. — τ€ΐχι06<Γσαν : 
well walled, lit. rich in walls, since Tiryns was famous for its walls, — the 
best known and oldest example of the so-called Cyclopean architecture. 



90 COMMENTARY. 

These walls are thought to have been 50 or 60 feet in height, and in 
places are 20 or 25 feet thick. In the time of Antoninus Pius, they were 
declared to be as great a wonder as the Aegyptian pyramids. Excava- 
tions were conducted there by Dr. Schliemann in 1884-85, laying bare 
the plan of an extensive and elaborate structure. 

560. κατά ίχούσ -as : which occupy. 

561. Τροιζήνα : famous for the worship of Poseidon, and as the early 
home of Theseus. — άμΐΓ€λΟ€ντα: for the form, see on -ποί-ηεντα 503. — 
Έιτίδαυρον : famed for its temple of Asclepius. The theatre (built under 
the direction of the famous sculptor Polycletus, with seats and orchestra 
still well preserved), and other ruins there, were excavated during 1881 
and the following years. 

562. Αϊγιναν : this island in very early times was conquered by 
Epidaurus.— In the eighth century B.C., it was ruled by Pheidon of 
Argos. — Kovpoi 'Αχαιών : does not differ materially from vies *Α;^αιώι/ 
281. 

563. βοην d'yaOos : see on 408. — Διομιή8η« : son of Tydeus. Tydeus 
was son of Oeneus of Calydon, and brother of Meleager (642) ; having 
slain some relative, he fled to Argos, where he married a daughter of King 
Adrastus (see on 572). He fell in the first Argive expedition against 
Thebes. Diomed took part in the second expedition (that of the Έττι- 
γονοι) against Thebes. He was one of the bravest and mightiest of the 
Achaeans before Troy. The Fifth Book is devoted to his exploits, in the 
course of which he wounds Aphrodite and (aided by Athena) even Ares. 
He has a famous meeting with Glaucus (Z 119 ff.). He visits the Trojan 
camp in company with Odysseus, and slays the Thracian Rhesus (K 
219 ff.). He reached Argos in safety at the close of the war. Diomed 
belonged to the old race of rulers in Peloponnesus (the race of Danaus 
and Perseus) who preceded Pelops and his line. 

564. SOcvcXos : often mentioned in Homer as θ€ράπων and charioteer 
of Diomed. The name is a short form of ^θ€νίλαος, and tlius corresponds 
to Αημοσθίνης. — Καιτανήοε : the most insolent of the 'Seven against 
Thebes.' He boasted that he would capture the city of Thebes, even 
though opposed by the thunderbolt of Zeus. 

566. Μηκισ-τηο5 : brother of Adrastus, and thus great-uncle of Diomed. 

— vios : the first syllable is here short, the ι being pronounced much like 
a y, rather than forming part of a diphthong. Cf. 544, A 489 and note. 

— Ταλαϊονΐδαο : this seems to be formed by a cumulation of suffixes from 

τάλαο?. cy:§39y. 

568. ο-γδώκοντα : Ionic for oySorJKovTa. 
569-580. The realm of Agamemnon. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 91 

569. Μυκήνα?: the residence of Agamemnon, whose realm lay in 
Northern Peloponnesus (tlie latter Achaea), extending to Elis. Above 
the gate of the citadel remains the. sculptured representation of two lions, 
probably the earliest extant specimen of Greek sculpture on Greek soil. 
Near the citadel are great subterranean structures, of which the finest 
and largest is the so-called ' treasure house of Atreus.' Mycenae (the sing, 
form also is used, see § 37 d) is called by Homer cvpvdyvia and ττολυχρυ- 
σος. The latter epithet was shown to be justified by the discoveries in 
the excavations by Dr. Schliemann in 1876-77. See § 4 δ. 

570. άφν€ΐόν Κόρινθον : Corinth was made wealthy in early times by 
its trade, lying as it did between two seas. The old name was Ephyra, 
and the poet does not put the name Corinth into the mouth of his charac- 
ters. 

572. "Αδρηστοβ: king of Argos, grandfather of Diomed (see on 563). 
He was driven out of Argos by Amphiaraus, and fled to Sicyon, to his 
mother's father, whom he succeeded on the throne. He was the leader of 
the ' Seven against Thebes,' and the only one of the seven who returned 
home alive. — -ιτρώτα : at first, with reference to his return to Argos. 

574. Π€λλήνην : in Achaea, about six miles from the sea. — At-yiov : 
later the capital of the 12 Achaean cities. Near it was a sanctuary of 
Zeus *Ομαγνρίος where Agamemnon was said to have planned the expedi- 
tion against Troy, with the most honored of the Greeks. 

575. άνά: cf. am δώ/χα A 570, ανά στρατόν A 10. — evpciav: a freq. 
epithet of a country (as of Crete and the Troad) ; rarely applied as here 
to a city. 

576. των [τοντωι']: i.e. the inhabitants of the cities mentioned just 
before. The gen. depends upon νηων, the ships of these, their ships. Cf. 
509, 685, while in 587, 610, 713, 719, veutv is in apposition with των. 

577. ΊΓολύ irXcio-Toi : since his kingdom was most extensive. Thus he 
had the largest force of ships himself, and could beside these lend 60 
ships to the Arcadians 610-614). The rule of Agamemnon ♦ over many 
islands,' implying naval power, is mentioned 108. 

578. ev δ^: but among them, cf. 588. See on A 142. — χαλκόν: see on 
417. 

580. ουν€κα : because, referring to κνΒωων. — apwrros : sc. in kingly 
dignity and power, as is shown by the next verse. See A 91 and note. 

581-590. The realm of Menelaus. 

581. κητώίσ-σαν: the sharply cut ravines of the mountains are one of 
the most striking characteristics of the Spartan landscape. 

584. Άμύκλαβ : this was one of the most important Laconian cities 
before the Dorian conquest, and long maintained its independence, by 



92 ' COMMENTARY. 

the side of Sparta. — "EXos: a city on the coast from which the name 
helot was said to be derived, since its inhabitants were enslaved by the 
Spartans. 

585. Δάαν : for the name, cf. ' *Stoneham,' * Stonington.' 

586. ol : for Jiim, his. 

587. ν€ών : in appos. with των, see on 576. — airaTcpGc : sc. from the 
troops of Agamenmon. This marks the political independence of Mene- 
laus. 

588. Iv 8^: as 578. — ιτροθυμίησι 'π•€'ΐΓοιθώ$ : for the long penult of 
προθνμίησί, see § 59 b. The pi. is used because of the many occasions 
on which his zeal had prompted him to act. 

589. 'ΐΓολ€μόν8€ : to the battle, ττόλεμ,ος is often used in Homer as 
synonymous with μάχη- — θυμω : local, as A 24. 

590 = 356. 

591-602. The forces of Nestor. 

591. Πύλον : Messenian Pylus, on a harbor that is well protected by 
the island Sphacteria. During the Peloponnesian war (425 B.C.) the 
Athenians established themselves here and held the position for 15 years. 
In this harbor (then called Navarino), Oct. 20, 1827, the Turkish fleet 
was nearly annihilated, and the Greek war for independence was virtually 
decided. — The realm of Nestor was founded by his father Neleus (son 
of Poseidon), who had been driven from lolcos in Thessaly by his brother 
Pelias (cf 715). 

592. iropov : ford. In apposition with Θρυον, cf άλσος 506. 

594. μοΰσαι : for the plural, see on 484. 

595. τον Θρήικα: that Thracian. For the use of the article, cf. A 11. 
The Thracian bards, Orpheus, Musaeus, Euraolpus, etc., who were called 
the fathers of Greek poetry, did not live in historic Thrace but in Pieria, 
in Southern Macedonia, on the east slope of Olympus. Thence the wor- 
ship of the Muses was brought to Helicon and Parnassus. — Thamyris is 
here thought of as wandering after the manner of the later bards (άοί8οί) 
and visiting the courts of the princes. 

597. (TTcvTo κτλ. : he asserted boastfully that he tvould be the victor. — 
6ύχόμ€νο8 : for the partic. of manner, see on ίων A 138. — el' irep αν : even 
granted that, supposing that. Here alone is αν found, instead of kcv, with 
el and the opt., cf. A 60; see ^ IS d β. The form in direct discourse 
would be νικησαιμι αν, et irep αν αυταΙ μχΛσαι aetSotev. 

598. κοΰραι κτλ. : cf. 491 f . 

599. Ίτηρόν: maimed, here prob. mute (cf. 595), though a later tradi- 
tion represented him as blind. — αύτάρ κτλ. : this states the result of tlieir 
action, although elsewhere αντάρ is used to introduce something new. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 93 

600. (κλέλαθον : sc. μίν. Reduplicated aorist, used transitively. Only 
here construed like a verb of depriving, with two accusatives. 

603-614. The Arcadians. The Arcadians are not mentioned as taking 
part in any of the conflicts before Troy. They may be thought of as 
closely connected with (or included among) the forces of Agamemnon. 

603. €χον : cf. Όλνμτηα δώ/χατ' €χοντ€ς A 18. — ύττό opos : up under 
the mountain. 

604. ΑΙιτύτιον : of Aepytus. For the use of the adj., see on ^ηληίω 20. 
Aepytus, son of Elatus, was an old Arcadian hero whose descendants 
reigned long in Arcadia. His mound, which in the time of the early 
Roman emperors still rested on its circle of stones, reminds scholars of 
the German graves of the Huns. — ϊνα : sc. είσίν. For the omission of 
the copula in a rel. clause, cf. A 547. 

605. *Ορχομ,6νόν : to be distinguished from Minyan Orchomenus 511. 

608. Στύμφηλον : famous for its lake (which has a subterranean chan- 
nel that comes to the surface and empties into the sea near Argos), and 
for the labor of Heracles in killing the birds here. 

610 f . ^v νηΐ κτλ. : cf. 509. 

614. θαλάσ-σ-ια έ'ργα : cf. ττοΧεμηυα. €ργα 338. — Arcadia, alone of the 
countries of Peloponnesus, touched the sea at no point. Cf. praetor 
Achaeorum [Philopoemen] . . , rudis in re navali erat, Areas, 
mediterraneus homo, Livy xxxv. 26. 

615-624. The Eleans. 

615. Βουιτράσ-ιον : the 'whole and part' are often thus united, cf. 632, 
* Peter and the Apostles,' Acts v. 29. 

616. ό'σ-σον Ιφ* : i.e. εφ' οσσον. Const, with εντός eepyei encloses, 
bounds. Lit. to as far, i.e. as far as. Cf. Γ 12. 

620. ηγησ-άσ-θην : took the lead. Aor. as 678, 864, 867, 870. Cf. ηρχε 
was leader. 

621. 6 \kiv : i.e. Amphimachus. — Εύρύτου : not to be confounded with 
Eurytus of 596. — Άκτορίων€ : here of the grandsons of Actor. See § 39 m. 

624. ΑΰγηιάΒαο : Augeas was the king of Elis whose stables have 
become proverbial. See on 660. 

625-644. The Western Islands and Aetolia. 625-630. Dulichium. 

625. ot 84 : sc. ήσαν. — The poet places Dulichium and the other Echi- 
nades (which lie off the mouth of the Acheloiis) far to the south of their 
real position, off the coast of Elis. — '«ράων : the position of the adj. indi- 
cates that it is to be construed with Έ;^ινάων, with which νήσων is in 
apposition. 

626. ναίουσ-ι: lie,\\i. dicell. — ττερην ciXos : i.e. separated froni Elis by 
the sea. 



94 COMMENTARY. 

629. os: i.e. Phyleus. — Ίτατρί : i.e. King Augeas. 
631-637. The forces of Odysseus. 

631. Κ€φαλλήνα8 : the common name for the subjects of Odysseus. 

632. ρά : namely, to wit. The relative sentences are virtually in appos. 
with Κεφαλλ^νας. — Ίθάκην καΐ Νήριτον : see on Βουττράσιοι/ 615. — clvoo-C^ 
φυλλον : lit. leaf-shaking, as if the mountain caused what it suffered. 

635. Tjircipov : refers to Leucadia and Acarnania, which were conquered 
by Laertes. — άντητέραια: neut. adj. as substantive. The opposite coast in 
Elis where the Ithacans had herds. Odysseus himself had on the main- 
land twelve herds of cattle, as many flocks of sheep and of goats, and as 
many droves of swine. 

636. Όδυσ•σ':ν5 : see on A 138. — ΔιΙ κτλ. : Odysseus is freq. called 
ΊΓολνμητίς and 7Γθλυ/>ΐ'>/;)(ανο5. 

637. δυώδ6κα: a small number in comparison with the 40 ships of 
Dulichium, 630, or the 80 ships of Diomed, 568. The same number of 
Odysseus's ships is mentioned in the Odyssey. See § 9 c?. — μιλτοττάρηοι : 
red-cheeked. Their bows {cheeks) were painted with vermilion. On the 
other hand, cf. 170 and ι 482, where the ship of Odysseus is called 
κυανοττρωρος dark-prowed. — The forces of Odysseus are the fifteenth in 
the enumeration of the 29 contingents. Corresponding to this position, 
these ships are said to be at the middle of the line. 

638-644. The Aetolians. 

640. Καλυδώνα: on a shoulder of Mt. Aracynthus. It was famed for 
the Calydonian Hunt of the boar that was killed at last by Meleager. 

641. γάρ: introduces the explanation why Thoas was in command, 
and not Oeneus or one of his distinguished sons, Tydeus (see on 563) or 
Meleager. — ησ-αν : were living. 

642. αυτό? : i.e. Oeneus. — ξανθ05 : see on Γ 284. — MeXe'a^pos : the most 
distinguished of the sons of Oeneus. 

643. Tip : i.e. Thoas. — lirC : construe with «τεταλτο. — ττάντα : everything, 
explained by άνασσε/χεν in apposition with it ; i.e. the whole command. — 
ΑΙτωλοί<Γΐν : dative of interest, cf. A 180, 231. 

645-680. II. The islands in the southern part of the Aegean sea. 
645-652. The Cretans. 

645. Κρητών : this includes all the mixed population of the extensive 
island. — The cities here mentioned all lay in the interior of the island, 
at the foot of Mt. Ida.— *Ko|i€V€is: see on 405. 

646. Κνωσ-όν : the principal city of the island. — Γόρτυνα : the Cretan 
city next to Cnosus in importance. Here in 1884 was discovered a long 
inscription (probably of the fifth century B.C.) containing a code of laws. 
— Τ€ΐχιΟ£σσ-αν : cf. 559. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 95 

647. Μίλητον : this city gave colonists and name to the Ionian Mile- 
tus. — άργινό6ντα : cretosum, chalky, as 656. The town was situated on 
chalk cliffs. 

648. Φαιστόν: southwest of Gortyna; birthplace of the poet and 
prophet Epimenides. There half of the ships of Menelaus were wrecked. 

649. άλλοι : made prominent before the rel. clause. — €κατόμΐΓολιν : a 
round number, cf. 449. Cf. centum urbes habitant magnas, 
uberrima regna Verg. Aen. iii. 106. 

650. άρα : recurs to 645. 
653-670. The Rhodians, 

653. ηύδ Tc μ€γα$ τ€ : two essential qualities of a hero ; see on /xcyas 
816. 

655. 8ιά : const, with κοσμηθίντες, divided in three parts. The Rho- 
dians dwelt ace. to tribes (καταφυλαδόι/, 668), in their three cities. Pin- 
dar tells in greater detail the story of the settlement of the island, and 
calls it τριτΓολι? νασος. 

656. AivSov : famed for its worship of Athena and Heracles. From 
this name came that of Lincoln (Lindum colonia). 

658. This episode is intended for the glorification of the Rhodians. — 
βίη Ήρακληίίχι : periphrasis for all cases of *Ή.ρακλ€ης, which was not 
suited to the verse. For the periphrasis, cf. 851, Γ 105 ; see § 16 d. 

659. 'Έφνρη$ : the seat of King Augeas (see on 624). 

660. ircporas : sc. when he made his expedition against Augeas to 
avenge the wrong done him in withholding the reward for cleansing the 
stables. 

661. τράψ€ : intransitive, grew up. Construe with irret, when he had 
grown up. — €vl μβ-γάρφ : i.e. in his father's house at Tiryns. — lv( : for the 
length of the final ι before the following μ, see § 59 A. 

662. αντίκα : refers to the preceding i-rrel κτλ. — ψ(λον : evidently only 
as a standing epithet here. — μήτρωα: brother of Alcmena, son of Alec- 
try on. — KarcKTa: *in a burst of anger,' says Pindar; by accident, ace. 
to another tradition. 

663. οξον'Άρηο$: see on 540. 

664. ο γ€ : for its position in the second member of the sentence, see 
on Γ 409. 

665. βη φ€υγων : set out inflight, cf. 71 ; see on A 391. The participle 
indicates the manner of his going ; — as a fugitive, since he feared the 
vengeance of the relatives. * A life for a life,' was the old Greek law ; 
but sometimes a fine was paid. Flight from the country was fre- 
quent, as in the case of Tydeus (see on 563), and of Patroclus (see on 
A 307). 



96 COMMENTARY. 

667. €s PoSov ΐξ6ν: this is an anacl iron ism. Even the Dorian migra- 
tion into Peloponnesus followed the fall of Troy by 80 years.— αλγ€α 
ττάσ-χων: with sorrow. Const, with άλώ/Αενος. 

668. τριχθά : cf. τρίχα 665 ; see § 30 i. — καταφυλαδόν : equiy. to κατά 
φνλα. 362. See on 655. 

669. €K Aios: see on 33. 

670. καί σ-φιν κτλ. : an independent sentence illustrating φίληθεν. — 
κατ€χ€υ€: poured down upon them. This indicates the abundance of 
their wealth. This expression seems to have given rise to the later myth 
that Zeus literally rained gold upon the island. 

671-675. The forces of Nireus. The smallest contingent of all. 

671. Nipcis : mentioned only here in Homer. He is celebrated as a 
pattern of beauty. Lucian invents a dialogue between him and Thersites. 
— For the repetition of his name ('epanalepsis'), cf 838, 850, 871 ; see 
§ 16 h. Such repetitions served to chain the attention of the hearer. — 
Σύμηθ€ν : a small island, off the Carian coast, north of Rhodes. A Dorian 
colony like the islands of 676 ff. 

672. The names of Nireus's parents are significant. 

673. κάλλιστο8 : predicate. See on 216. 

674. άλλων : see on A 505. 

675. aXairaSvos : the opposite of κρατερό?. 
676-680. The Sporades. 

676. Κράιταθον : Κάρτταθον, cf καρΒίη and κρα8ίη. See § 31. Carpathus 
is an island between Rhodes and Crete which gave its name to the Carpa- 
thian sea. 

677. Κών: elsewhere Κόως in Homer. An island off Cnidus and 
Halicarnassus. — Εΰρυιτνλοιο : king of Cos. He was slain by Heracles on 
the latter 's return from Troy. His daughter Chalciope bore to Heracles 
a son Thessalus, 079. — Καλύδνα$ : small islands near Cos. 

678. Φ€ίδηΓΐΓ08, ''Αντιφο9 : not mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad. 
680 = 516. 

681-759. III. Northern Greece. See on 494 ff., p. 84. 

681-694. The forces of Achilles. 

681. νυν αΰ: but now; a transition to the forces of Northern (Thessa- 
lian) Greece. This verse forms a general prelude and announcement 
for what follows. — rovs : ipiw hovers before the mind, cf 493. — τό : 
dem., that. — Πίλασγικον "Αργο5 : i.e. Thessaly. See on A 30. Thes- 
saly is represented as being more important in Homeric than it was 
in historical times. 

683. Φθίην : home of Peleus and Achilles, cf. A 169. In the valley of 
the Spercheiis. — καλλιγυναικα : this epithet appears only in the accusa- 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 97 

tive. The inflection of the adjective seems to be attracted to that of the 
noun yvvrj. 

684. Μυρμιδόν65 : cf. A 180, 328. 

685. των: see on 576. — •π•€ντή κοντά : Achilles arranged his men in 
five divisions with five commanders. Each of his ships was manned 
by 50 men, who (like all the rest) on their arrival at Troy served as 
soldiers. 

686. iroXcVoio δυ<Γηχ€Ό5 : cf. fremituque sequuntur | horri- 
s ο η ο Verg. Aen. ix. 54 f. 

687. οΰ γαρ κτλ. : /or there ivas no one, etc. — lirl σ-τίχα? : into ranks, so 
as to form ranks. — ηγησαιτο : potential opt. without αν, after ου yap κτλ. 

688. €v νήδσσι : i.e. in the camp. See on A 12. 

689. κούρη?: causal genitive, c/. 694; see on A 65. — Βριση(δο$: see 
on A 184, 348. 

690. €ξ€ίλ6το : i.e. received as his yepa? c^atpcrov. See on A 124. 

691. Λυρνησ-σ-όν : Briseis tells of its capture and destruction, Τ 290 ff. 
See on A 125. — Θήβη? : see on A 366. 

692. κάδ δ' 4'βαλ6ν : a change to the finite const., after the participle 
δ«χ7Γορ^ϊ;σα5. Cf Γ 80; see § 11/. — Μύνητα: king of Lyrnessus, and 
(ace. to the later story) husband of Briseis. 

694. τάχα : Achilles is reconciled with Agamemnon, goes forth to 
battle, and kills Hector, on the 27th day of the action of the Iliad, five 
days after the events narrated in this Second Book. See § 7 ^. 

695-710. The forces of Protesilaus. 

695. Πύρασ-ον: named from the wheat (ττνρός) which abounded in 
the region. — άνθ€μΟ€ντα : see on 503. 

696. Δήμητρος τ^μ6νο5 : consecrated field of Demeter. In apposition 
with Πυρασον, cf 506, 592. This afterw^ards gave to Pyrasus the name 
Αημητρων. — μητέρα μήλων : Mt. Ida is called μητηρ θηρών, Θ 47. 

697. άγχίαλον : this epithet would fit the other cities also. — λίχίΐτοίην : 
grass-bedded, r/rassT/. 

698. Πρα)τ€<Γ(λαος : he was the first to fall in the war. The name is 
significant, cf. 702. High honors were paid to him at Elaeus in the 
Thracian Chersonese, down to the time of the Persian wars. His ship 
was the centre of the fiercest conflict when Hector forced his way to the 
ships of the Greeks, and it was half consumed by fire before Patroclus 
appeared with the Myrmidons, and repulsed the Trojans. See § 7 m, n. 

699. €X€v κάτα κτλ. : held down, covered. He was in the realm and 
power of the dark earth. 

700. άμψιδρυψή$: women tore their faces in mourning. — Φυλάκη: dat. 
of place. 

V^ OF THE "" 



i UNIVERSITY 



98 COMMENTARY. 

701. ημιτ€λή5 : half -finished. He left home for the war before he could 
complete his house. He had hardly begun life for himself when he was 
killed. — Δάρ8ανο$ άνήρ : a Dai'danian warrior. Ace. to the later ampli- 
fied form of the story, this was Hector ; but Homer does not call any 
Trojan Δάρδανο?, though the Dardanians were included among the 
Tp(ue?. 

703. ούδ€ μ6ν ούδβ κτλ. : as 726. The repetition of the negative gives 
it great weight. The first negative belongs to the whole sentence, the 
second is to be construed closely with ot, — neque vero ne hi quidem. 
— ιτόθίόν γ€ μδ'ν \_μην'] : lit. they missed him indeed, equiv. to καΧ ττοθονντίς 
περ άρχόν. The word before ye μίν is made prominent and always forms 
an 'adversative asyndeton' (see § 15 c). The English idiom introduces 
such a clause by yet, hut. — άρχόν : i.e. their former leader. 

704. (Γψ4α$ : monosyllabic, see § 25. — Ποδάρκη? : leader of the Phthi- 
ans. 

705. Φϋλακίδαο: with v, but Φίλάκι; 700; cf. τίρίαμί^ς 817 with 
τίριαμον Γ 146 ; see § 59 e. 

707. irpOTcpos : cf. ττρο-γενέστερος 555. 

708 f . Only another form of 703. — ούδ4 τι : but in nothing. 

711-715. The kingdom of Eumelus. 

711 f . φ£ρά$, Βο(βην κτλ. : cities on the peninsula of Magnesia and in 
the southeastern part of Pelasgiotis. — ιταραί : for the locative ending, cf. 
ντταί 824. 

712. Ίαωλκόν : famed as the chief seat of the Thessalian Minyae (see 
on 511), the capital of King Pelias, and the native city of Jason, the 
leader of the Argonautic expedition. 

714. -ύιτ* Άδμήτω : const, with τίκε, cf 728, 742, 820. — For the repe- 
tition of the name, cf 636, 655, 691. 

715. "Αλκησ-τι?: her devotion to her husband, which led her to die 
for him, became proverbial. This death is the theme of the Alcestis of 
Euripides. 

716-728. The forces of Philoctetes. 

718. των U: antecedent of ot δβ 716. When the relative clause pre- 
cedes, the apodosis often has Se, as here. — τόξων iv €ΐδώ5 : as 720 and 
freq., οΓδα am skilled in is followed by the genitive. 

719. IpcTai : the warriors were the oarsmen. 

720. €μβ€βααΓαν : had embarked; see on 351, .509. The preposition is re- 
peated in Iv ίκάστΎ). — ΐφι μάχ€σθαι: infinitive of result, so as to (so that 
they could) fight, etc. See on A 8. 

722. Αήμνφ : the Achaeanii^ landed at Lemnos on their voyage to Troy 
and received hospitality from King Euneiis. They sent slaves thither 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 99 

for sale, and received wine thence. — The repetition of the preposition 
gives to iv Αημνω some independence from iv νήσω. 

723. (>λοόψρονο$ ύ'δρου: construe with Ιλκεϊ, ablatival genitive, /rom 
the cruel water-S7iake. See on 396. The wound not only disabled Philoc- 
tetes but rendered his presence odious to his comrades. 

724. τάχα 8c κτλ. : the Catalogue contains several such references to 
events which do not fall within the time of the action of the Iliad, cf. 
690 ff., 699 fE. — A prophet declared that Troy could be taken only with 
the help of the arrows of Heracles that Philoctetes had in his possession. 
Ace. to Sophocles in his tragedy Philoctetes, the hero was brought from 
Lemnos to Troy by Odysseus and Neoptolemus (son of Achilles). No 
other allusion to this story is found in the Homeric poems. Philoctetes 
reached home in safety at the close of the war. See § 9 a. 

725. Άργ€ΐοι Ίταρά νηυσί : parenthetical, in a kind of apposition with 
the subject of c/tAcAAov. — Φιλοκτήταο : construe with μνήσεσθαι. 

726 = 703. 

727. Όιληο? : father of the lesser Ajax, 527. 

728. pd : points back to the preceding verse, cf. 650, 742. 
729-733. Forces of the Asclepiads. 

729. Τρίκκην κτλ. : cities in Western Thessaly, in Hestiaeotis. At 
Tricca was one of the oldest sanctuaries of Asclepius, and the home of 
the king. — κλωμακόίσσ-αν : it lay on the steep slopes of Mt. Pindus. 

731. Άσ-κληΐΓϊοΰ : better written as Άσκλί/ττιόο. See on 518. 

734-737. Forces of Eurypylus. 

735. XevKd κάρηνα: gleaming heights, lit. white heads; cf 739. See on 
117. 

738-747. The forces of Polypoetes. 

738 f . "Αργισσ-αν κτλ. : cities of the Lapithae (see on A 263), in the 
western part of what was Perrhaebia in later times. 

739. Όλοο<Γ<ΓΟνα : the most important city in Perrhaebia. — ιτόλιν 
λ€υκήν : sc. because of its chalk cliffs. 

741. Πίίριθόοιο : see on A 263. 

742. kXvtos : as feminine. See on 77. 

743. ηματι τω οτ£ : see on 351. — ψηρας : see on A 268. 

744. Πηλίου: Mt. Pelion, south of Mt. Ossa, was celebrated in 
mythology as the home of the centaurs, esp. of Cheiron (δικαιότατος 
Κενταύρων) who trained the youthful Achilles. 

745. ουκ otos: construe with lyye/AOvcve 740. — αμα τω γ€ κτλ.', no 
conj. connects this with ονκ οίος, since it is in a kind of apposition with 
it (see § 15 δ), expressing more fully the thought of the first words of 
the verse (see on ονλομ,ίνην A 2). 



1 00 COMMENTAKY. 

746. ύΐΓίρθύμοιο : in a laudatory sense. — KaivclSao : cf. A 264. 
748-755. Aenianians and Perrhaehians. 

750. οίκί* έ'θίντο : built their homes. 

751. άμφί: on the hanks of , — «ργα: tilled fields. 

753. άργυροδίνη : silver-eddying , because of the white waves and eddies 
of the turbid Peneiis, where the clear Titaresius empties its stream into 
it. The swift current makes it possible to distinguish for a time the 
waters of the two streams. 

754. άλλα T€: see on A 82. — ήύτ €λαιον: refers to the water of the 
one stream flowing above the other. 

755. όρκου δεινού : explained by its appos. 2τυγός. — This introduces 
a mythical explanation that gives a miraculous quality to the water. — 
Στυγ05 : limits ύδατος. — άττορρώξ : branch of the water of the Styx, as the 
Cocytus also is said to be. This mysterious connection with the Styx 
(a stream with a high fall, in Arcadia) was imagined prob. because of its 
violent current. 

756-759. The Magnesians. 

757. Πηνδίόν: the most important river of Thessaly. It flows into 
the sea through the beautiful vale of Tempe, between Mts. Olympus and 
Ossa. 

758. npoOoos Ooos : the poet puns upon the name, see § 13 c. 
760-785. Conclusion of the Catalogue of the Achaean forces. 

760. Cf 487. 

761. tCs τ αρα : cf A 8. — οχ' άριστοβ : see on A 69. — c vvcwe : see on 
484. 

762. αύτ(;»' κτλ. : cf. 466. — αίμα eirovro : cf A 158. 

763. μέγα: adv., see on A 78. — Φηρητιάδαο : Admetus. Cf 713 ff. 
Or this name may be given to Pheres's grandson Eumelus, see on 621. In 
the funeral games in honor of Patroclus, these mares of Eumelus would 
have won the race but for an accident. — This statement is subject to 
qualification below, οφρ' Άχιλεύ? μψιεν 769, 764-767 being parenthetical. 

764. Έύμηλο? : see 714. — ττοδώκεαε: this and the following epithets 
are attracted to the construction of the relative clause. — όρνιθας : for the 
length of the last syllable, see on κακόν ως 190. 

765. σ-ταφύλη Ιίσ -as : like to a plumb line, "straight as an arrow." — 
cttI νώτον : along, over the back, cf 308. 

766. €v Πηρείη : prob. the region of Pherae where Apollo served 
Admetus- as herdsman. Angry at the death of Asclepius, Apollo had 
killed the Cyclopes of Zeus, and as a punishment was sent to serve a 
mortal. See Euripides's Alcestis, ad init. Apollo retained his interest 
in these mares. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 101 

767. ψόβον κτλ. : the flight of Ares attends them. For the ablatival 
genitive, see on 396. φόβος in Homer does not mean mere fright, see 
§17. 

768. αυ: marking the contrast with Γττττοι μίν 763; cf avrc A 237, 
αντάρ A 51, 127, 333. 

770. ΪΊΠΓοι : these were immortal steeds, sired by Zephyrus, and given by 
Poseidon to Peleus. — ψορ€€σ-κον : drew; the Homeric heroes did not ride 
on horseback. Thus Γπττοι often stands for horses and chariots. Cf. 554. 

771. €v νή€<Γ<Γΐ : cf. 688 f. This noun receives the epithets of ships, 
although it means camp here. 

772. άίΓομηνίσ-αε : giving vent to his wrat}i away (από) from the battle- 
field. Equiv. to ά7Γ€ώι/ μηνίσας. 

773. λαοί : in contrast with b μίν 771, their leader. 

774. δίσ-κοισιν : this contest was not unlike the modern ' putting the 
shot.' The prize was given to him who hurled the discus furthest. — 
αΙγαν6χ|<Γΐν : dat. of means with ΙΙντες. 

775. Ίταρ' όίρμασιν : i.e. where they had been tied when released from 
the yoke; in contrast with v<j> αρμασι, where the horses are under the 
yoke before the chariot. — έ'κασ-το? : appositive, as A 606. 

776. €λ€Οθρ€-ΐΓτον : grown on moist meadows. — The Homeric horses were 
fed on λωτόν (clover^, σίΧινον (a kind of parsley), κντταροι/ (a fragrant 
marsh plant), and on κρΓ Χενκόν ^(white barley), ττνρός (wheat), and ολνραι 
or ζ€ίαί (spelt). 

777. €υ ΊΓΜτυκασμίνα : well covered, away from the dust. — kcito : lay. 
AVhen chariots were out of use, their wheels were sometimes removed. 
But κ€Ϊμαί is often perf . pass, of τίθημι. — άνάκτων : of the masters (const, 
with άρματα). — I.e. Achilles and his lieutenants (see on 685). The λαοί 
did not fight άφ' ΐτητων. 

778. οι S4: i.e. the Xaot and ανακτες. — ττοθί'οντββ : cf. 703. 

779. φοίτων [^ίφοίταον, ίφοίτων] κτλ. : ivandered to and fro. 

780. Ileturn to the narrative which was interrupted by the Cata- 
logue (484). But while, at 476, the leaders are busy in arranging their 
troops, here they are represented as already moving forward for the 
attack. — ot Se: i.e. the Achaeans. — <os «Ϊ tc κτλ.: as if the earth were 
devoured (lit. pastured off) by fire. The opt. is used to express a mere 
conception of the mind. The comparison relates to the gleam of the 
armor and weapons, cf. 455 ff. 

781. " The earth trembled as from an earthquake." — ΔιΙ «3s: sc. orc- 
ναχίζα, groaned as it groans under Zeus, under the power of Zeus, νπο 
ττοσσί 784 corresponds to this. — ΔιΙ : for the length of the ultima, see on 
opvt^as 764, and cf. Δα 636. 



102 COMMENTARY. 

782. χωομβνω : " in his wrath." An instance of the exhibition of this 
anger follows. — on re : with hypothetical subjunctive. — άμφΐ ΤυφωεΊ : a 
mighty giant, symbol of volcanic power. He opposed Zeus, but was 
overcome by the thunderbolt, and was buried under a mountain. From 
this he belches forth tire. When he attempts to rise, he causes earth- 
quakes ; then Zeus smites with his lightning the earth about Typhoeus, i.e. 
the earth, that which covers him. Pindar, in his first Pythian ode, rep- 
resents the monster as lying under Mt. Etna, and extending to Mt. Vesu- 
vius. — Cf. * In bulk as huge | As whom the fables name of monstrous 
size, I . . . Briareos [A 403] or Typhon, whom the den | By ancient Tar- 
sus held,' Milton Par. Lost i. 196 ff. 

783. civ *Αρίμοΐ8 : in the land of the Arimi, in Cilicia. This belongs to 
the so-called 'earthquake belt.' Cf. durumque cubile | Inarime 
lovis imperiis imposta Typhoeo Verg. ^en. ix. 715 f. — cvvois: 
couch. 

784. Cf. scuta sonant pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus 
Verg. Aen. vii. 722. 

785. 8ΐ€πρη(Γ(Γον : intrans., advanced. — ire8(oio : local gen., on the 
plain; cf. 801. The ace. is used with no essential difference of meaning, 
A 483. 

786-877. The forces of the Trojans. 

786. ΐΓο8ήν€μο5 : Iris is deXAwos storm-footed. — wKca [ώκεΐα] : for the 
inflection, see § 38 δ. 

787. ιτάρ Διόδ : const, with ήλθε. 

788. άγορά$ ayopivov : were holding an assembly, cf. ττόλεμον πολεμί- 
ζίΐν Γ 435. — ΙττΙ Πριάμοιο θύρηοην : at the gates of Priam; i.e. before 
the palace, where ace. to oriental custom the king sat in judgment. 
Cf. 'Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates,' Deut. 
xvi. 18. 

789. iravTis: i.e. all the nobles. It is limited by the circumstances of 
the case. — No special βονλη (cf. 53) of the Trojans is mentioned. 

790. «ιτροοτίφη : sc. μ,ίν (referring to Priam), as 172. Cf. 795. 

791. φθογγήν : at first only the similarity of voice receives prominence, 
in close connection of thought with προσέφη. But here, as in the other 
cases, a transformation of the whole person is to be assumed; hence 
€είσαμ€νη 795 without the addition of φθογγην. The contents of the 
speech, however, cause Hector to recognize the goddess, 807. 

792. <π•οδωκ6ίτι<Γΐ κτλ. : equiv. to ττοσι κραιπνοίσι ττεποιθώς. For the 
plural, cf. ττροθνμΐΎίσι 588. 

793. τύμβω κτλ. : on the top of the mound. This mound of Aesyetes 
was at the extremity of the ridge south of Ilium Novum. 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 103 

794 . S^Yptcvos oiriroTc : exspectans dum, generally followed by the 
aorist optative. — ναΰφιν : ablatival genitive with αφορμηθάίν. For the 
form, see § 33 a. 

795. τω μιν €€ΐσάμ€νη : cf. 22. — μ£ν : i.e. Priam. Construe with ττροσ- 
c<^r;. — This verse repeats the sum of 790 f., because of the interposed 
clauses. 

796. aUi Toi: cf. A 107, 177, 541. —φίλοι : predicate. — άκριτοι : cj. 
246. — Iris blames Priam's untimely unconcern. 

797. •π•όλ€μο5 δ€ κτ\. : contrast (paratactic, § 21 d) with ctt άρηνη% in 
time of peace. — άλίαστο? : cf. 420. 

798. δή : equiv. to η^η. — ττολλά : cognate accusative with άσηλνβον. 
It does not differ greatly from πολλάκις. 

799. Cf 120. 

800. €oiKOT€s: sc. in number. Cf. 468. — Cf. *I will multiply thy 
seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea- 
shore,' Genesis xxii. 17. — η : in a comparison where the poet leaves the 
choice open. 

801. ΊτροτΙ άστυ : const, with €ρχονται. 

802. "Εκτορ: Iris turns to address Hector as the commander-in-chief, 
on whom above all others depends the weal of the state. — S4 : for the 
order of words, see on A 282. — ώΖέ γ€ : const, with pi^ai. It refers to 
what follows. 

803. ΊΓολλοΙ κτλ. : explanatory preparation for 805. For the thought, 
cf. 130 f . 

805. τοισιν: to these. Antec. of the following relative. No con j. is 
used to connect this with what has preceded, since this is in a kind of 
appos. with ώδε yc pe^at. For the dative, cf Τρωσι 810. Each is to give 
orders to his countrymen, as usual. This indicates the separation into 
tribes (accomplished 815) corresponding to that of the Greeks, 362 f. 

806. των δ* έξηγβίσ-θω : and let him lead these forth, sc. from the city 
to the field of battle. — ττολιήταβ: his fellow-citizens ; equiv. to οίσι Trcp 
dpx€L. This measure is intended esp. for the great number of Trojan 
allies. 

807. ου τι κτλ. : hy no means failed to recognize (i.e. he recognized 
clearly^ the speech of the goddess, he recognized the goddess herself. For 
the ' litotes,' see on A 220, § 16 c. 

808. «irl τίύχία: to fetch their arms; like Attic μίτα. τευχεα. 

809. Ίτάσ-αι ιτυλαι : the whole gate, — the Scaean or Dardanian gates, 
leading from the city to the plain. Homer does not mention any other 
gates of the city. — πΰλαι is always plural in Homer, of one gate with 
two wings or doors. 



104 COMMENTARY. 

811. eo-Ti Si ns : a favorite Epic beginning of a description, cf. urbs 
antiqua fuit Verg. Aen. i. 12. — iroXios: disyllabic bysynizesis; see 
§ 25. The ultima is long before the caesural pause ; see § 59 /. 

812. ά•ΐΓάν€νθ€ : aside, sc. from the principal road. — ττερίδρομοβ : i.e. 
free-lying, lying in an open place. — Ινθα κτλ. : see on 397. 

814. αθάνατοι κτλ.: for the language of the gods, see on A 403. — 
(Γη|χα : such a tomb as that of 604. — ιτολυσ-κάρθμοιο : agile, sc. in battle. 

— Μυρίνη$ : perhaps one of the Amazons mentioned Γ 189. 

815. 8ΐ€κριθ6ν: see on 8(35; cf. 475 f. 

816-877. The Trojans and their Allies. The force opposed to the 
Achaeans is composed of sixteen contingents : I. five contingents from 
Trojan peoples (816-839), and II. eleven contingents of allies {Ιττίκονροι, 
840-877). Of the allies, three divisions come from Europe, and eight 
from Asia. I. Trojans from (a) Ilios, (h) Dardania, (c) Zelea, (rf) 
Adrastea, (e) Percote etc. ; II. Allies (from Europe), (a) Thracians, 
(δ) Ciconians, (c) Paeonians; (from Asia), (a) Pelasgians, (δ) Paphla- 
gonians, (c) Halizonidns, (d) Mysians, (e) Phrygians, (/) Maeonians, 
(^) Carians, (h) Lydians. 

The catalogue of the Trojans is far less exact and detailed than that 
of the Achaeans ; it contains no definite statements of number. The 
total number of Trojans and allies was 50,000, ace. to Θ 562 f . : Ά thou- 
sand fires were kindled on the plain, and by each sat fifty men.' Of 
these about 12,000 were Trojans, if 123-130 are to be interpreted liter- 
ally. 

816-839. The Trojans. 

816. Τρωσ -C : in the narrower sense, the inhabitants of the city *IAtos. 

— μέγα$ : of stature. The Greeks were prone to belieΛ'e that no man 
could be physically small, while mentally great. Cf. 053. — κορυθαίολο$ : 
helmet-waving, a mark of martial activity, cf. et cristam adverso 
curru quatit aura volantem Verg. ^en. xii. 370. 

817. irXeio-Tot κτλ : i.e. as the flower of the whole army. 

818. μ€μάότ€8 : striving forward with the lance, i.e. eager for the 
fray. 

819. Δαρδαν(ων: adj. as subst. ; "inhabitants of the district Dar- 
dania." Dardanus was grandfather of Tros, who gave his name to the 
district Ύροίη (162, Γ 74) ; while Tros in turn was the father of Ilus, 
who gave Ids name to the city "Ίλιος and w^as father of Laomedon and 
grandfather of Priam. See p. x. of the Vocabulary. The Dardanians 
are second in rank to the Trojans. Elsewhere they are called Δάρδανοι. 
They are also called Δαρδανιωι /es, and the women are called Δαρδαηδες. 
The name is preserved in the modern ' Dardanelles.' — αΰτ6 : correl. with 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 105 

μ.€ν 816, see on 768. — Άγχίσ-αο: Anchises is nowhere referred to by 
Homer as alive at the time of this war. 

820. Alviias : the hero of the Aeneid. He is a third cousin of Hector. 
He was severely wounded by Diomed, but was rescued by his mother 
Aphrodite, and healed by Apollo in his temple ; he led one of the bat- 
talions against the wall of the Achaeans; he met Achilles, and would 
have been slain by him, but for the intei-vention of Poseidon, who saved 
him^ that the race of Dardanus might not be entirely destroyed. See p. x. 
of the Vocabulary. — 'Αφροδίτη : for the short first syllable, see § 59 ^ a. 

821. €v κνημ,οΐσ-ι: i.e. where Anchises had charge of the herds and 
herdsmen. It was one of the patriarchal customs of those times that 
kings and kings' sons tended their flocks on the slopes of the mountains. 

— θεά βροτω : note the ' antithesis.' 

822. άμα τω γ€ : cf. 745. 

823. μάχη9 'π•άσ•η8 : everi/ kind of battle, — on foot or in the chariot, 
with lance or sword. For the gen., see on 718. 

824. δ€: for the short vowel before following ζ, cf. ο before '^,καμάν- 
SpLov in 465. — ZcXciav: on the frontier of Mysia. — iJiraC : cf. τταραί 711. 

— ττόδα vcCttTov ; i.e. the northern slope. For the ace, cf. 603. 

825. άφν€ΐο£ : sc. because of the Avell-tilled farms. — trlvovrts κτλ. : this 
expression was often imitated. Cf. exsul | aut Ararim Par thus 
bibet, aut Germania Tigrim Verg. Eel. i. 62 f. — μΑ,αν: this 
epithet is applied to springs and rivers, as well as to the sea, when the 
surface is disturbed by breezes in such a way as to prevent a clear reflec- 
tion of the sun's light. 

826. TptScs : in the broader sense, — the inhabitants of the country. 

827. Πάνδαρο9 : he broke the truce of the Third Book, by shooting an 
arrow at Menelaus, Δ 89 fE. ; he was slain by Diomed, Ε 290 ίϊ. — καί : 
see on A 249. — τόξον κτλ. : i.e. Apollo gave him skill with the bow; cf. 
laetus Apollo | augurium citharamque dabat, celeresque 
sagittas Verg. Aen. xii. 393 f. The ancients believed that the bow of 
an excellent archer must be the gift of the god of the bow. The making 
of the bow of Pandarus, from the horns of a wild goat shot by himself, 
is described Δ 105-111. 

828. *Αδρήστ€ΐαν: received its name from Adrestus, 830. Like the 
following cities, it lay in what was Mysia in later times. — δήμον: the 
country, as 547. 

829. IltTvciav : received its name from the neighboring pine forests ; 
as the neighboring Lampsacus was called Τίιτνονσα. — Τηρ€£η$ : a moun- 
tainous region near Cyzicus. 

830. λινοθώρηΙ : perhaps as an archer. See on 529, 



106 COMMENTARY. 

831. me 8ύω : see on A 16. — Πίρκωσ-ίου: he seems to have lived for- 
merly in Percote (835) ; or Adrastea may have been a colony from Per- 
cote. — ircpl Ίτάντων : see on A 258. 

832. ηδ£€ κτλ. : Homer knows of no professional soothsayers. Calchas 
(A 69), Helenus (Z 76), Ennomus (858), Melampus, Halitherses, — all 
are introduced as busy in different ways, in war and in peace. — ούδ€ : for 
the lengthened ultima before the possessive pron., see § 32 c, h. — ovhi 
eao-Kcv: 'resistance to pressure' is implied in the imperfect. He con- 
tinually refused his consent. 

833. ψθισήνορα: a standing epithet of the battle. 

835. άρα: as 522. — Π€ρκώτην: Percote, Abydus, and Arisbe were 
cities on the south side of the Hellespont. 

836. Σηστόν: on the Thracian Chersonese, opposite Abydus. Here 
Xerxes bridged the Hellespont. 

838, "Ao-ios : for the repetition of the name, see on 671. 

840-877. The Allies of the Trojans. 

840. Π€λα<Γγών: a part settled in Greece proper, a part must have 
remained in Asia Minor. They gave to many of their towns the name 
Larisa (rock-citadel). Ten towns of this name are enumerated, beside 
the citadel Larissa of Argos. 

844 ff . The following enumeration of allies has a radial arrangement, 
proceeding from Troy as the centre and starting-point. Each radius ends 
with a τηλόθεν (849, 857, 877) or rrjXe (863) for the most distant point 
from Troy. I. European line (844-850). II. Northeast of Troy, on 
the southern shore of the Euxine sea (851-857). III. Southeast of Troy 
(858-863). IV. South of Troy (864-877). 

844. Θρήικαε: European Thracians, dwelling between the Hebrus 
and the Hellespont. — ηγ€ : for the sing., see on 512. 

845. Έλλήσ-τΓοντο? : the Hellespont in Homer includes also the neigh- 
boring waters. — άγάρροος: with strong stream. It is called a ττοταμός. 
No current of the Mediterranean compares with that of the Hellespont. 
— kvTosiipyn: as 617. 

846. Κικόνων: Odysseus destroyed their city, after leaving Troy. 
They are mentioned among the Thracian nations through whose country 
Xerxes passed. 

850. *Αξιοΰ: for the repetition, see on 671. The Axius is one of the 
chief rivers of Macedonia, west of the Strymon. Homer applies to it 
the epithets ^νρνρεεθρος,βαθνΒίνηζ. — κάλλισ-τον: pred. "Whose water is 
the most beautiful that " etc. The water of the Axius is now muddy. 

851. Here the poet returns to Asia. See on 816-877. — Πυλαιμίν£θ$ 
κτλ. : equiv. to " the shaggy-breasted Pylaemenes." For the periphrasis, 



SECOND BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 107 

cf. 387, Γ 105. — λάσ-ιον κήρ : see on A 189. Here the epithet is trans- 
ferred to the heart itself. 

852. \% *Εν6τών : out of the midst of the Enetians, where he dwelt. 
Equiv. to 'Ever>}ios. In later times these Έι/ετοι were called Veneti; 
they were said to have wandered to the coast of the Adriatic sea. — 
άγροτ€ράων : the comparative ending is sometimes used in Homer with 
no thought of greater or less degree, but simply of contrast. 

854. κλυτά : magnifcent ; a standing epithet. 

856. 0/517. 

858. Μυσ-ών : south of the Propontis, east of the Aesepus, towards 
Bithynia. 

859. ουκ : placed emphatically before οίωνοίσιν, with reference to the 
preceding οιωνιστ?;?. C/*. gratissimus augur; | sed non augurio 
potuit depellere pestem Verg. A en. ix. 327 f . — οίωνοϊσ-ιν : hy 
omens, from the flight of birds. See on A 69. 

860. υτΓο χ€ρβ-ί : νττό with the dat. is freq. used by Homer where the 
Attic used νττό with the genitive. See § 19 /. — ΑΙακίδαο : for the use of 
the patronymic, see on 621. 

861. €v ΊΓοταμφ : as 875. The story of the general slaughter by 
Achilles in the bed of the Scamander is told in Φ 17 ff. — οθι ircp : just 
where. 

862. Φρύγα8 : sc. on the river Sangarius. They were famed for their 
chariots and their vineyards, Γ 184 ff. They had commercial relations 
with the Trojans. Vergil calls the Trojans Phrygians, but this is not 
Homeric, c/. alma Venus Phrygii Simoentis ad undam Verg. 
Aen. i. 618. — Ά<Γκάνιο5 : Homer knows of no son of Aeneas. The boy 
Ascanius was invented later as a companion-piece to Hector's son Asty- 
anax. 

863. *Α<Γκαν(η5 : in Bithynia, on a lake of the same name on which 
lay also the later Nicaea. — μ^μασαν hi : instead of a partic. or rel. clause, 
see 21 (i. — ύσ-μίνι : local dative. Synonymous with μάχη, rroAe/Aos, 8ηιοτής. 

864. Μηοσ-ιν: later called Lydians. They inhabited an attractive 
land, and were equipped with chariots ; they traded with the Trojans ; 
and their women were skilled in purple dyeing. — ηγησ-άσθην : see on 620. 

865. Γυγαίη λίμνη : i.e. the nymph of that lake, cf. ννμφη νηί<ζ Ζ 21. 
All of these nymphs belong to Western Asia Minor, which was thought 
to be their favorite abode. 

866. κα£ : also, marks the agreement with 864. See on 74. 

867. βαρβαροψώνων : rough-voiced, refers to the harshness of their dia- 
lect. The word βάρβαροι for non-Greek, foreigner, is not found in Homer, 
just as the poet has no one word for ' all Greece.' — No one in Homer 



108 COMMENTARY. 

has any difficulty in conversing with another of a different country. 
Greeks, Trojans, and Lycians all seem to speak the same language. 

868. Μ(λητον : this old Carian city became the largest Ionian city and 
the mother of 80 colonies, but lost much of its importance in the insur- 
rection against the Persians, 494 b.c. 

869. Μυκάληβ : at the foot of this mountain the Persians were de- 
feated, 479 B.C. 

870. αρα : so, as I said, refers back to 867. 

871. Νάσ-τη8 κτλ. : repeated from the preceding verse, in the reverse 
order. See on 671. 

872. OS : refers to the principal person, Νάστ?;? 867. — κα£ : marks the 
agreement with άγλαά. τίκνα 871, «f. 866. — χρυσ-όν 4'χων : with gold orna- 
ments, prob. the gold spirals used in fastening his long hair, χρνσόν here 
cannot refer to gold armor such as that of Glaucus, Nestor, or Achilles, 
since that was an honor and no reproach. Nastes was the Trojan Nireus 
(671 ff.). — ηύτ€ κοΰρη : like a vain girl. 

873. νήτΓίοβ : see on 38. 
874 = 860. 

876. Σαριτηδών: second only to Hector; the bravest leader of the 
allies, regarded by the Trojans as e/a/m ττόληος Π 549 prop of the city. 
He was son of Zeus and Laodamia, Bellerophon's daughter, Ζ 198 f. See 
p. X. of the Vocabulary. He led in the attack on the Achaean camp, Μ 
101, 292 ff., 397 ff. He was slain by Patroclus, Π 480 ff. At the com- 
mand of Zeus, Apollo bathed his corpse, anointed it with ambrosia, and 
gave it to the twin brothers. Sleep and Death, to convey to Lycia, Π 
667 ff. — rXaiJKos : Glaucus tells of his race, Ζ 145 ff. He was first 
cousin of Sarpedon and grandson of Bellerophon, descended from Sisy- 
phus of Corinth. He is associated with Sarpedon in the battles. He has 
a famous meeting with Diomed, Ζ 119 ff. He was wounded by Teucer, 
Μ 387 ff. The honors received by the two Lycian heroes at home, are 
enumerated by Sarpedon, Μ 310. — The name 'Lycia 'is given by the 
poet also to the district from which Pandarus (827) comes, cf. Ε 105. 
From those Trojan Lycians, the Southern Lycians of Sarpedon are to be 
distinguished. 

877. βάνθου : mentioned also Ε 479, Μ 313 ; to be distinguished from 
the Trojan river oV αάνθον καλίουσυ θεοί, ανδ /oes δέ '^κάμχιν^ρον Υ 74. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 109 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

Instead of the general battle which was to be expected from the prepa- 
rations of the Second Book, a duel is fought between Menelaus and Paris. 
This duel is intended by the combatants to put an end to the entire war. 

In the Third Book, the poet gives to his hearers a view of the state of 
affairs in Troy, as the preceding Books had taught of the relations exist- 
ing between the Achaeans, both leaders and men. 

1-75. The advance of both armies . Paris and Menelaus meet. Hector's 
rebuke and the answer of Paris. 

1-14. A transition to the scene of the approaching confict. 

1. This verse refers to Β 476, 815. — e kcwtoi : i.e. the separate divis- 
ions of each army. The singular would have been used of individuals. 
See on A 606. 

2. Tp<5€s: i.e. Trojans and their allies. — As Β 826, not as Β 816.— 
κλαγγή κτ\. : with clamor and outcry. One idea, expressed for emphasis 
by two synonymous nouns. Cf A 492, Β 339. See § 12 d. — opvidcs «s: 
cf Β 764, and see on Β 190. This comparison is made definite by a 
special illustration. — The Achaeans silent in the consciousness of their 
power are contrasted with the noisy Trojans. Elsewhere also the Tro- 
jans are represented as exercising less self-restraint, as less disciplined 
than the Greeks. When the strife is renewed, Δ 429 ff., the Achaeans 
advance in solemn silence, while the Trojans come to meet them with the 
noise of a flock of sheep. 

3. ηύτ6 : see on Β 87. — ούρανόθι ιτρό : the adv. -προ makes ονρανόθι 
more definite. To the observer, the sky seems to be behind the cranes in 
their lofty flight. See on Β 456. — C/! quale s sub nubibus atris | 
Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant | cum 
sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo Verg, Aen. x. 
264 ff ., ' As multitudinous on the ocean line ] As cranes upon the cloud- 
less Thracian wind,' Shelley Hellas. 

4. eircl ουν : as A 57. — χ€ΐμώνα : cf γερανοί δέ φevyovσca γίίμ,ωνα τον 
iv τύ} '^κνθίκ'β χ(ί)ρΎ) "γίνόμενον, φοιτίονσι £ς χαμασίψ (lointer quarters) ες 
τους τόπους τοντονς (i.e. of the Nile) Hdt. ii. 22, quam multae glome- 
rantur aves, ubi frigidus annus | trans portum fugat, et 
terris immittit apricis Verg. Aen. vi. 311 f. — φύγον: for the 
gnomic aor. in comparisons, cf 10, 23, 33; see § 14/. 

5. κλα-γγη : contains the real point of the comparison ; 6 f . are added 
simply to complete the picture. See § 14 a. — ταί γε : repeats the subject, 



no COMMENTARY. 

at Tc 4. See on A 97. — cirl κτλ. : toward the currents etc., i.e. toward the 
South. See on A 423. 

6. άνδρά(Γΐ: made prominent in contrast with the cranes. άνι;ρ often 
stands in attributive connection with nouns, cf. ανΒρες στρατιώται, avSpcs 
αδελφοί', κτλ. See on Β 474. — Πυγμαίοκτι : these Liliputians (lit. Fist- 
lings) on the southern shore of the Mediterranean, were attacked yearly 
by the cranes, ace. to the common story. — Cf. * that small inf antiy | 
Warr'd on by cranes,' Milton Par. Lost i. 575. — ψόνον κτλ. : cf. Β 352. 

7. η^ριαι : see on A 497. I.e. on the day after their arrival in the land. 
— κακήν : destructive, as A 10. — Sc. to the Pygmies. — cpiSa κτλ. : offer 
(lit. bring forward) strife. 

8. ol δ' άρα: correlative with Τρώες μίν 2. — IVav <Γΐγη : cf. ov γαρ 
κρανγβ αλλά οΊγβ . . . και ηο'νχβ . . . τΓροσΎ)σαν Χβη. An. i. 8. 11. — μένία 
irveCovTcs : see on Β 536. — Cf. ' Thus they | Breathing united force with 
fixed thought ] Moved on in silence,' Milton Par. Lost i. 559 if. 

9. cv θυμψ: emphatic. In heart, though they did not shout. Cf Β 
223. 

10. (vTt : generally a temporal particle ; here a comparative conj., as, 
like ηντε 3. — " As the South wind veils the mountain tops with mist." 

11. ου τι ψίλην κτλ. : sc. since the shepherd on the mountains in a 
thick mist cannot easily watch and guard his flock. — vvktos άμ€(νω : 
perhaps because the sheep were usually shut up in their fold at night. 

12. τό<Γ<Γθν, όσον: ace. of extent, with ini, cf. Β 616. — tc, t^: these 
mark the correlation of the clauses ; see on A 82. — Distances are thus 
measured in Homer : as the cast of a spear, or of a discus, or of a shep- 
herd's crook, or a bow-shot, or a furrow's length, or the reach of the voice. 

13. cSs άρα κτλ. : as Β 784. 
14 = Β 785. 

15. A formula which, in close connection with what has preceded, 
introduces the single combat of two warriors. — σ-χ6δον ησ-αν : tvere near 
each other. For the use of the adverb, see on A 416. — lu άλλήλοισ-ιν: 
const, with Ιόντες. For cTrt in. hostile sense, cf. 132 ; see on A 382. 

16. Τρωσ-ίν: for the Trojans. — 'Αλέξανδρος: the Greek name of Paris, 
and used four times as f req. as the other. — θεοειδή? : this epithet is given 
him because of his personal beauty. Cf 39, 44 ff., 55, 64. 

17. παρδαλε'ην: adj. as substantive. See on A 54. As a light-armed 
warrior (he was eminently a bowman), he wore no armor, and thus has a 
panther's skin on his shoulders. See on Β 43. 

18. αύτάρ : on the other hand. This gives prominence to Bovpe, since 
the spears do not belong properly to the archer's equipment, which has 
just been described. — δοΰρε δύω: i.e. one in either hand. Cf 338. For 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. Ill 

δυο) with the dual, see on A 16. — κ€κορυθμ4να κτλ. : helmeted with bronze, 
i.e. bronze pointed. For the pi. in agreement with the dual, cf. A 200. — Cf. 
bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro Verg. ylen. i. 313, laeva 
duo forte gerebat | praefixa hastilia ferro ib. xii. 488 f. 

19 ff. For the single combat, cf. * And there went out a champion out 
of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was 
six cubits and a span. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, 
and he was armed with a coat of mail j and the weight of the coat was 
five thousand shekels of brass. And he had greaves of brass upon his 
legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his 
spear was like a weaver's beam, and his spear's head weighed six hundred 
shekels of iron ; and one bearing a shield went before him. And he 
stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, " Why 
are ye come out to set your battle in array ? Am not I a Philistine, and 
ye servants to Saul ? Choose you a man for you, and let him come down 
to me. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be 
your servants : but if I prevail against him and kill him, then shall ye 
be our servants, and serve us." And the Philistine said, " I defy the 
armies of Israel this day ; give me a man, that we may fight together," ' 
1 Sam. xvii. 4-10; cum trigeminis (sc. Horatii and Curiatii) agunt 
reges, ut pro sua quisque patria dimicent ferro : ibi 
imperium fore, unde victoria f uerit, Livy i. 24; 'Then said the 
doughty Douglas | Unto the Lord Percy: | " To kill all these guiltless 
men, | Alas ! it were great pitie. | But, Percy, thou art a lord of land, | I 
am an earl called within my country ; | Let all our men upon a parti 
stand, I And do the battle of thee and me," ' Chevy Chase. 

19. Ίτάλλων: parallel with ^χων 17. — Ίτροκίχλίζίτο : challenged; by 
his mien rather than by words, cf. 21. προκαλιζόμενος would make a 
smoother const, here, but the finite verb is used in order to give the 
thought more prominence ; cf. ^βαΧλον 80. Thus €χων and πάλλων seem 
to be related to both imperfects. — iravras apCo-rovs: in marked contrast 
with the yielding of Paris before Menelaus, who was not distinguished in 
battle. — Here the period returns to IG, since this verse explains προμά- 
χίζεν. — Paris and Menelaus are introduced first in the action, since the 
two are the prime cause of the war. Their feud is private as well as pub- 
lic. The description of the two foes is made specially effective by the 
contrast of their characters. 

20. άvτCβιov : cf. αντιβίψ A 278 ; used only of the hand to hand con- 
flict. — μαχ€<Γα(Γθάι : inceptive aorist. 

21. U: correl. with /xcV IG. — «9: for its position, see on A 32.— 
άρηίψιλος : this epithet is generally applied as here to Menelaus. The 



112 COMMENTARY. 

epithet and the name form a convenient close to the verse. See on A 7, 
§ 58 d. 

22. irpoirdpoi6ev ομίλου: sc. as ττρόμαχο'ς. — μακρά βιβάντα: ivith long 
strides. This gives the manner of €ρχόμ€νον. It is here a sign of cour- 
age, for Paris was no coward. Cf. 1 ο η g e g r a d i e η t e m Verg. A en. x. 
572, ' Satan with vast and haughty strides advanced,' Milton Paj\ Lost, 
vi. 109. ' 

23. c5s T€ λ€'ων κτλ. : a comparison instead of the apod., which (with 
όφθαλμοΐσίν ιδών as a repetition of ως €νόησ€ν) follows at 27. The gnomic 
aor. ^χάρη contains the point of comparison ; but ττεινάων also receives 
emphasis from its position and corresponds to φάτο yap τίσασθαι 28, i.e. 
joy at the promised satisfaction of a passionate desire. — eirl σ-ώματι κύρ- 
σ -as : as he happened upon the carcass of a beast just slain in the chase 
(cf. 26). σώ/χα is used in Homer only of a dead body, see § 17. — Cf. 
impastus stabula alta leo ceu saepe peragrans, | suadet 
enim vesana fames; si forte fugacem | conspexit capream 
aut surgentem in cornua cervum | gaudet Verg. Aen. x. 723 ff. 
The aor. is gnomic, like evptav below. 

24. €υρών : as he found. This explains κνρσαζ, and is in appos. with it. 

25. μάλα KarttrQUi : eagerly devours. — γάρ tc ktX. : explains ττανάων. — 
€Ϊ •π•€ρ αν: see on Β 597. — αυτόν: himself, in contrast with the goat or 
deer. 

26. κύν€5 κτλ. : "hounds and hunters." 

27. OeoeiSca : with synizesis of the last two vowels of the verse, as 237, 
450; see §25. 

28. τίσ-ασ-θαι : for the aor. inf. after a verb of expecting, cf 112, 366 ; 
see G. 203 n. 2. 

29. Paris was on foot, see 22. — 1| όχί'ων : equiv. to i$ ΐτητων 265. 

31. κατίΊτλήγη : " was filled with dismay " ; not from natural coward- 
ice, but his guilty conscience robbed him of courage, at sight of Menelaus. 
' Conscience does make cowards of us all.' — ητορ : see on A 44. 

33. COS δ* oT€ : introduces a comparison, with the gnomic aorist. See 
§ 14 e. — TC, τί: as 12. For the e remaining short before 8p, see § 59 g. 
— iraXCvopaos άΐΓ€'σ•τη : stepped back again, sc. in terror ; in this lies the 
point of the comparison. For the pred. adj. used as an adverb, cf. yepLoL 
7, avrtot A 535. — Cf. improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus 
anguem pressit | humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit 
|...haud secus Androgens visu tremef actus abibat Verg. 
Aen. ii. 379 ff., ' False Sextus saw and trembled, | And turned and fled 
away ; | As turns, as flies the woodman | In the Calabrian brake | When 
thro' the reeds gleams the round eye | Of that fell speckled snake, | So 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 113 

turned, so fled false Sextus | And hid him in the rear,' Macaulay Lays, 
Battle of Regillus xv. 

34. viro : helow, referring to the weakness of his knees. Const, with 
Ιλλαβε. 

35. irapeias : in appos. with μ,ίν, as a * part ' with the ' whole ' ; cf. 438, 
442. 

36. καθ' ό'μιλον : into the throng. — ά-γ^ρώχων : also Β 654. 

37. Άλ€ξανδρο5 : in apposition with the subject of Ιδυ, expressed here 
for the sake of the contrast with Άτ/Ο€ος νΐόν. 

38. altrxpots : i.e. reproachful, cf ovetSetW Β 277. 

39. Δύσιταρι : ' a determinative compound ' (H. 590; G. 886), stronger 
than " Unhappy Paris." — etSos άρκττί : as 124 ; in contrast with Δνσπαρι, 
cf 45. Thus the excellence that is granted is made a reproach. — liircpo- 
ΐΓ€υτά: cf. 399. 

40. αϊθ' οφ€λ£9 κτλ. : closely connected with the reproaches of the pre- 
ceding verse. — άγονο9, άγαμο? : childless, unmarried ; two ideas that are 
proverbially connected in this passionate wish, although Paris is not 
known to have had children. Elsewhere, also, Hector uses strong lan- 
guage to Paris and about him. See on 454. 

41. καΐ TO : even this, referring to the preceding verse. — kc βουλοίμην : 
potential. 1 should prefer, cf. A 112. — k€v tfev: as contrary to fact in 
present time. — ττολύ : cf. A 91, 112, and notes. 

42. η: follows the comparative idea in βονλοίμψ, as A 117, kul k€v 
τΓολν κτλ. being parenthetical. 

43. κάρη κομόωντίδ : see on Β 11. 

44. φάντ€5: imperfect participle, they who believed. Of an incorrect 
view, as Β 37 and frequently. — καλόν : seldom is an adj. at the close o^ 
one verse in close connection with a noun at the beginning of the next, 
§ 11 y. Many apparent exceptions to this rule can be explained, as A 78, 
156, 283. This arrangement of words may have been chosen here in 
order to give increased prominence to είδος. Perhaps καλόν and είδος should 
change places, having been transposed to avoid an ' apparent hiatus.' 

45. eiri : for «πεστι, as A 515; attends thee. — άλλ* ονκ κτλ.: the con- 
trast with φάντες calls strictly for a participle denoting the Acliaeans' 
recognition of the truth. Instead of this, Hector states the fact from his 
own standpoint. — β(η : might, for attack. — ψρ€σ(ν : local, see on A 24. — 
αλκή : strength, for defence. 

46. " Can such a coward have dared to meet the dangers involved in 
the rape of Helen ?" — τοιόσ-8€ : with deictic -δε, cf. 157, Β 120. 

47. έρΟηρας: for the (metaplastic) form, see § 37 b. — dYcCpas: subor- 
dinate to ετΓίτΓλώσα? [Attic επιπλενσας]. 



114 COMMENTARY. 

48. aXXoSairot^i : masc. adj. as substantive, cf. Δαρδανιων Β 819. See 
on A 54, 539. — άνήγ€8 : didst lead {bring) home to Troy. 

49. άττίη?: cf. A 270. — νυόν: sister-in-law of Agamemnon, who is 
implied in the more general άι/δρών κτλ. — αίχμητάων : cf. A 290. Impor- 
tant for the thought here. For the plural, cf 106, Β 250. 

50. πήμα: as a bane. This ace. and the two following are in apposi- 
tion with the whole of the preceding sentence, marking the result of the 
action. Cf Β 160; see H. 626; Good. 915. — 8ήμω: country, as Β 547. 
— For the (prob. accidental) alliteration of ττ, see § 13 a. 

51. 8υσμ€ν^σιν κτλ.: for the *chiastic* order of words, cf 103 f., 179, 
A 443, 558 f . ; see § 16 a. — κατηφ€ίην : humiliation, shame. Cf 6 Κικέρων 
ίφη . . . γέλωτα μ€ν τοις Ιχθροϊς, αΓσχο? δέ τοΐς οικείοι? τταρ^χοντα ΌΊο 
Cass, xxxviii. 23. 1• 

52. ουκ αν δη κτλ. : a question in the sense of an energetic but sar- 
castic exhortation. Couldst thou not then withstand etc. ? Stand to meet 
etc. The way for this question has been prepared by 50 f. "If thou 
hadst the courage to bring Helen to Troy, if thou didst bring war upon 
thy native land, then have the courage " etc. 

53. γνοίης κ€ : then ivouldst thou be made aware. The cond. el /xeiveias, 
is easily supplied, cf A 232, Β 242. — «xcis: hast to wife, as 123. 

54. ουκ αν τοι χραίσ-μη ; "will not help thee (A 28)." This is more 
definite than the opt. with αν, to be expected after -γνοίης κε. See § 18 b. 
oTe μιγαης is stated as a mere conception of the mind. — κίθαρι? : without 
the article, although the other nouns here have it. Achilles, also, had a 
cithara. He sang, however, not love-songs but κλεα ανδρών. — τά : these, 
thy; deictic like the following η and to. 

55. η T€ κτλ. : among the gifts of the goddess of love, two are made 
prominent. Observe the explanatory apposition. — μιγείη? εν: cf 209; 
generally the simple dative is used with μίγννμι. 

56. μάλα: altogether, cf. Β 241. — δ6ΐδήμον€8: sc. since Paris belonged 
to the royal family. — η τε' κεν εσσο: the cond. idea (English else) is 
implied as in 53. 

57. λάινον κτλ.: put on a stone tunic. A grim expression of popular 
speech for death by stoning, the customary method of capital punish- 
ment in heroic times (as in the laws of Moses). — εσσ-ο : from εννυ/χι 
(εσνυ/Αΐ) . 

59. "Εκτορ : construe with 64, where the principal thought begins 

Ιττεί : follows the voc. as A 352. This clause has no grammatical con- 
clusion. The virtual conclusion is 67 f. 

60. aiil Toi : this thought is resumed in 63 with an accented σο^ 
because of the contrast. — άτειρής : unwearied. Predicate of κραΒίη. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 115 

61 €ίσιν : goes. It is always used as pres. in Homeric comparisons, 
cf. Β 87. — 8ιά Sovpds : through the trunk of a tree. — vir* άνέρος : driven hy 
a man. For the passive sense in εΓσιν, see H. 820. — os ρά tc κτλ. : hypo- 
thetical, " when he hews out " of the felled tree etc. — τίχνχ^ : with skill. 
For the dative, cf. κλαγγβ 2, σιγιβ 8. 

62. <>ψΑ.λ€ΐ κτλ. ι the axe by its weight increases the force of the man's 
blow. οφίΧλει has the same subject as εισιν, which shows the intervening 
clause to be parenthetical. 

63. άτάρβητος : attributive adjective with voos. 

64. μ,ή μοι: 'adversative asyndeton,* see § 15 c. — ΐΓρ6ψ6ρ€ : cf. Β 251. 
— χρυσ-^η?: equiv. to χρυσοφόρου, adorned loith gold. Cf. Β 872, Venus 
aurea Verg. Aen. x. 16. Similarly, Ares is χάλκ€ος, because of his 
bronze armor. — "I acknowledge my lack of thine unyielding courage, 
but do not cast in my teeth the gifts of Aphrodite." 

65. ' Causal asyndeton,* i.e. if a particle were used here, it would be 
causal. — άττόβλητα: abiecta, to be cast off, as Β 361. Cf. παν κτίσμα 
{creature) θεον καλόν, και ovSkv άττόβλητον 1 Tim. iv. 4. 

66. οσσ-α . . . 8ώ<Γΐν : for the cond. rel. sentence, see on A 554. 
Explanatory of δώρα, adding the essential mark of the gods* gifts, i.e. 
that they are of free choice. — αυτοί: i.e. without act and thus without 
responsibility of the receiiv^er. — 6κών έ'λοιτο : this forms an independent 
contrast to the preceding relative clause. — €κών : at pleasure, hy his own 
powers. 

67. v€v αΰτ€ : transition from the preceding general considerations to 
the work before them. 

68. oiXXovs : the others. — κάθκτον : hid to sit down. 

69. αύτάρ : see on Β 768. — Iv μί'σ-σ-φ : between the two armies, cf. 77, 
in medium inter duas acies procedunt Livy i. 25. 1, lycipe καχ 
στήθι eU TO μΙσον St. Luke vi. 8. For the neuter adj. as a substantive 
(not very freq. in Homer), see on A 539. 

70. <Γυμβάλ6Τ6: bring together, cf. ^vvi-qKC A 8. The plural is used, 
since the consent of the Achaeans also was necessary for the single 
combat. — κτημασ-ι ττοσ-ι : i.e. those which Paris carried away with Helen 
from the house of Menelaus; cf. 282. 'Helen and her treasures* are 
often united in thought. — μάχ6<Γθαι : as A 8. 

71. νικήση : shall gain the victory. As future perfect, shall be victorious. 

72. €v: seems to strengthen πάντα. — άγ^σθω: middle, take as his own. 

73. ol δ* άλλοι : but you, the rest. Elsewhere, when at the beginning 
of the verse, but they, the others; as 94, 256. ot 8' άλλοι includes both 
Trojans and Achaeans, and a division into ol μίν, oi Sc might be expected ; 
but instead of this, the 2d person (mtoiTc) appears in the first member, 



116 COMMENTARY. 

and Tol 8e νείσθων in the second. Cf. 256 ff. — φιλότητα : 'zeugmati- 
cally ' {cf. Zeus A 533, § 16 e) connected with ταμόντε^ which is construed 
strictly only with ορκαχ. — ταμόντί8 : see on Β 124. 

74. να£οιτ€ : may ye continue to dwell. Note the optative between two 
imperatives. This is a mere incident to the proposition. — έριβώλακα: 
epithet of Phthia, A 155, and of Larisa, Β 841. — τοί U: hut those, the 
Achaeans. 

75. "Αργοδ, ΆχαιΙδα : i.e. Peloponnesus (as A 30) and Northern 
Greece, i.e. all Hellas. See on Β 530. — καλλιγύναικα : see on Β 683. 

76-120. Hector and Menelaus. Preparations for the truce and single 
combat. 

76. άκούσ-α? : gives the cause of ^χάρη. 

78. μέσ-σ-ον δουρός : partitive genitive. I.e. holding the spear horizon- 
tally with both hands, crowding the Trojans back. — Ιδρύνθησ-αν : were 
brought to a halt. This gives the result of aveepye, see on Β 94. 

79. €•ΐΓ€το|άζοντο : imperfect of attempted action. They were bending 
their bows at him. 

80. έ'βαλλον : transition from the participial to the finite construction, 
in order not to subordinate this idea to έττετο^άζοντο, although the re . . . 
T€ would make βάλλοντες natural here. See §§ 11 ^r, 21 Λ. 

82. ϊ<Γχ€σθ€, μή βάλλ€Τ€ : note the 'asyndeton' (§ 15) where the sec- 
ond imv. explains the first; and the double address, 'ApyeioL, κονροι 
Άχαιων. 

83. στ€υται: cf. Β 597. — €iros : for the length of the ultima, see §§ 
32 a, 59 j. — κορυθαίολο3 : see on Β 816. 

84. μάχη9: for the genitive, cf. 112, άντηςΒ 97. — άν€ω tc κτλ.: cf 
Β 323. Sc. in order to hear Hector's speech. 

85. Ισ-σ-υμίνωδ : made emphatic by its position. Adv. formed from 
the adjectival εσσνμενος. — μίτ άμφοτ^ροισ-ιν : between both armies. 

86. κ€κλυτ€ μεΰ : hear from me. The genitive is ablatival. 

87. μνθον : proposition, plan. 

89. κάλ' : for the accent of the ultima (καλά) thrown back upon the 
preceding syllable, cf. 192, A 105; see § 28 d. — airo0€'<r0ai : i.e. they were 
to be mere spectators. — lirl χθονί : for the dative of rest, cf. A 593. 

90-94=69-73, with necessary changes. — αυτόν: intensive, himself 
αυτός βονλεταί would be natural here, but the ace. is used, correlative 
with άλλους /xeV above. 

92 = 71. — Transition to direct discourse, see § 11 e. C/ 89. 

95. άκήν : equiv. to άκεων A 34. Originally a cognate ace. with 
iyivovTO, cf § 56 Z>. — σ-ιωττη : dat. of manner, equiv. to σιωπωντες. — Cf 
dixerat Aeneas, illi obstupuere silentes Verg. Aen. xi. 120. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 117 

98. θυμόν: ace. of 'limit of motion.' — «μόν: made emphatic by its 
position before the caesural pause. — ψρονεω κτλ. : "My mind is that we 
now (η8η) are to separate in peace." φρονέω is nearly equiv. to Bokcl μοι. 
For the aorist infinitive, cf. 28. 

99. 'ApytLovs καΐ Τρώα? : has more feeling than νμας καΙ ημα^. See on 
A 240. — ir^iroo-ec [ττεπόν^ατε] : the speaker returns to the address begun 
with κ€κλντ€. 

100. €μή8 €pi8os : my strife with Paris. — άρχήβ : the beginning, cf. 87, 
β 377 f. Λ mild expression for the guilt of the first breach of the peace. 

101. οττίΓοτέρω : the anteced. is the subject of τίθναίη. — θάνατος καΐ 
μοίρα: cf φόνον και κηρα 6, θάνατον και ττότμον Β 359. — τίτυκται : is pre- 
pared, appointed. 

102. τ6θνα(η : let him be dead, let Mm lie among the dead. — SiaKpivOctrc : 
repeats Βιακρίνθημεναι. 

103. ο1ίσ6Τ€ : aor. imperative, as a^ere 105, opaeo 250 ; but οίσομ^ν 104 
is future. See § 48 i. — apve : cf apvas 117. — λίυκόν, μέλαιναν : the white 
male lamb was to be sacrificed to the gleaming Helios, while the dark 
ewe lamb was for ΓαΓα μίλαινα (Β 699). The sex of the victim was gen- 
erally that of the divinity ; thus a cow is sacrificed to Athena, but a bull 
to Poseidon. — The order of words is *■ chiastic ' with the following verse. 
For the divinities to whom this sacrifice is to be oifered, see on 276. 

105. Πριάμοιο βίην : for the periphrasis, cf Β 387, 658, 851 ; see § 16 d. 
' — ορκια τάμνη : may conclude the treaty, as 73, 94. The victims are slain 
by Agamemnon, not by Priam. 

106. aUTOs : in person ; the old king being contrasted with his sons. 
The poet forgets the periphrasis and proceeds as if he had said Ιίρίαμον. 
— lircC : this introduces the first reason ; the second follows with αΐά 8e 
108. — 0Ϊ : for him, his. See § 19 e. — iratSes : this refers primarily to 
Paris. For the pi. cf. 49. 

107. μή Tis κτλ. : let no one etc. Expression of anxiety connected 
immediately with his opinion of the sons of Priam. — Aios ορκια : Zeus 
watches over solemn treaties and punishes whoever breaks them ; cf. 280, 
288, Δ 160, 166, οι θίων όρκοι Xen. An. ii. 5. 7. 

108. η€ρ€θονται : are flighty, unsteady, untrustworthy. For the literal use 
of this verb, see Β 448. 

109. ois : personal. It has no corresponding τοις in the apodosis. — 
d γέρων : the old man (generic article), in contrast with όττλοτερων 108. — 
μ6τ€•ησ•ι [/Λ€τ^, from /AiVct/xt] : for the subjunctive, cf A 554. — irpo<ro-« 
κτλ. : cf A 343. 

110. οΊτωδ: how. Indirect question. — οχ* άρισ-τα: cf A 69. — μ6τ 
άμφοτέροισι : " for both sides." 



118 COMMENTARY. 

111. * Αχαιοί κτλ. : in apposition with ol. 

112. τταύσ-ασ-θαι : for the aorist infinitive after ίλπόμενοι, see on 28 
To free themselves from, to be freed from, with ablatival genitive. 

113. κα£ pa: and so. — cirl στίχαβ : cf Β 687. — €κ 8' 4'βαν [ίβησανί'. 
sc. from their war chariots. 

114. κατ^θ€ντο: sc. * Αχαιοί re Ύρωές re. Cf άποθεσθαΐ 89. 

115. Ίτλησίον αλλήλων : refers to τα μίν. This thought is stated in 
different form by the rest of the verse : little ground was round about each 
suit of armor. 

116. δύω : this numeral is construed with the plural where the two 
persons are not necessarily and closely connected. — κήρυκα? : the heralds 
were the only official members of the king's household ; cf. A 320 if., Β 
183 f. Thus the service of the heralds, 268 ff., is because of their rela- 
tions to the king's person. 

118. Ταλθύβιον : see on A 320. 

120. οίσ-^μίναι: aor. inf., cf. 103. — άρα: then, so; the immediate 
result of the commission. — ουκ ά'7Γ£θησ€ : followed by a dative of the 
person. 

121-244. The view from the walls. Helen, questioned by Priam, tells 
him about some of the Achaean heroes. This episode has been criticised as 
interrupting the progress of the action, but it has been much admired 
also. Cf. the scene in Tvanhoe where Rebecca describes the leaders of 
the assailing party. 

121. Iris, elsewhere the messenger of the gods, here of her own accord 
brings into the action Helen, the cause of the war and the prize of the 
expected single combat. The following scene (Ύζίχοσκοπία) which occu- 
pies the time necessary for the preparations for the principal action (see 
on A 318), introduces the hearer to the Trojans and their relations to 
each other. — λίυκωλ^νφ : see on A 55. 

122. γαλόω : husband's sister. The Greeks were not restricted to such 
a clumsy and indefinite expression as sister-in-law. Cf. Βαηρ 180, cKvpe 
172. 

124. Ααο8ίκην ; attracted to the case of the relative την, see on Β 764. 
— €Ϊδο5 άρίσ-την: lit. most excellent in appearance, most beautiful. Cf. 39. 

125. €v μ€γάρω : in her chamber, cf. 142. — Ιστόν : web. AVeaving was 
the most honorable employment of Homeric women ; it occupied queens 
and goddesses. So Hector, on parting from Andromache, says αλλ' εις 
οίκον Ιονσα τα. σ αντης ^pya. κόμιζε {care for), | ιστόν τ {loom) ηλακάτην 
τ€ (spindle) Ζ 490 f. 

126. δίιτλακα: fern. adj. as substantive, see on A 54. Sc. ;!(λαΓϊ/αν, cf 
Ρ(λαινα»' Βητλψ. A double cloak (cf. * doublet ') ; so large that it could be 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 119 

thrown twice (or double) about the body. — ιτορφυρ^ην : of purple^ while 
the interwoven scenes were of some other color. This art was prob. still 
dependent on oriental patterns, but evidently had advanced to the repre 
sentation of persons. — iroXeas : as A 559. — Iv^ira<r<r6v : tvove in. — ά^θλους : 
battles, fought on the plain of Troy, before the action of the Iliad. Other 
allusions to these conflicts are found, cf. 132 f., A 520 f., Β 29 f. But 
most of the earlier fighting seems to have been done at a distance. 

128. 4'06v : not enclitic, since it is reflexive, referring to the subject of 
the principal sentence. — ΰΐΓ"Άρηο8 κτλ. : by the hands of Ares. 

129. See on Β 790. 

130. δίΰρ* ϊθι : cf. βάσκ Wl Β 8. — θέ(ΓΚ6λα 4'ργα : an indefinite expres- 
sion, exciting Helen's curiosity. 

131 = 127. • 

132. ot irpiv : who before^ i.e. until now. The antec. of the rel. follows, 
ot hi] vvv 134. — «irl κτ\.: see on 15. — ττολύΒακρυν : i.e. causing many 
tears. Cf. 165, lacriraabile bellum Verg. Aen. vii. 604. 

133. For the rhyme between the two halves of the verse, cf. Β 484. 

134. 8η νυν : already now. — Ι'αται [ι^νται] σ-ιγη : with the collateral 
notion of inactivity. See on Β 255. — iroXc^os κτλ.', parenthetical; see 
on Β 333. 

135. άσ-ττίσ-ι κεκλιμένοι: leaning on their shields, as they stood; cf. 231, 
326. — Ίταρά : adv., by their side. — ΐΓ^ττηγεν ; i.e. with the σανρωτηρ (bronze 
point of the butt) fixed in the gTound. Cf. defigunt telluri hastas 
et scuta reclinant Verg. Aen. xii. 130, stant terra defixae 
h a s t a e ib. vi. 652. 

138. T(p Kc νικήσαντι : him who gains the victory. — κ^ : const, with 
νίκησαντι, as is shown by its position and by οππότερος Si κ€ νικηστ] 71. 
So 255. No other example of this construction is found in Homer. — 
φίλη : standing epithet. See § 12 a. — κίκλήσ-η : thou shall be called. See 
on A 293, Β 260. 

139. clirovora : coincides in time with εμβαλε. — γλυκύν t^cpov : cf. 446. 

140. irpoWpoio : Helen was no longer wife of Menelaus ; so she says 
of Agamemnon, 8αηρ (husband's brother) avr ipx><i ίσκε 180. — oo-tcos : 
used of the native city, as ττόλις, 50. — τοκήων : Tyndareiis and Leda were 
thought of as alive. Tyndareus is called Helen's father, just as Heracles 
is called son of Amphitryo. This is not inconsistent with 199, 418. 

141. ap-ycvvfjo-i κτλ. : cf. 419. In accordance with oriental custom, 
women and maidens were veiled when they went on the streets or canie 
into the presence of men who were not immediate relations. 

142. θαλάμοιο : the apartments of the women in the rear part of the 
bouse, There Helen sits and spins with her maids, Ζ 321 fE. 



120 COMMENTARY. 

143. άμα Tfi γ6 κτλ. : in apposition with ουκ οίη, cf. Β 822. — Princely 
ladies in Homer are generally attended by two maids. 

144. Αϊθρη: Pittheus, king of Troezene, was son of Pelops. His 
daughter Aethra bore Theseus to Aegeus, king of Athens. She, living 
in Athens, had under her care Helen whom Theseus had carried off from 
Sparta, until Castor and Polydeuces freed their sister Helen and captured 
Aethra at or near Athens. So Aethra was made Helen's slave, first in 
Sparta and afterwards in Ilios. But this seems to be a post-Homeric 
story. — Κλυμένη : likewise a slave brought with Helen from Sparta, cf. 
386 ff. — βοώΐΓΐδ : see on A 551. 

145. οθι : thither where. — ΣκαιαΙ ττύλαι : see on Β 809. 

146. ot δ' άμφΐ κτλ. : see on 148, Β 445. — Θυμοίτην : only here in 
Homer. Vergil uses the nanft : primusque Thymoetes | duci {sc. 
wooden horse) intra muros hortatur Aen. ii. 32 f. 

147 = Υ 238, where it is said that these three heroes were sons of 
Laomedon, and brothers of Priam. — οζον'Άρηο? : see on Β 540. 

148. Ούκαλ^γων κτλ. : these two receive prominence from the use of 
the nom. The change from the construction of 146 f . is not bold since 
ot άμφΐ ΐΐρίαμον is essentially equiv. to ΐΐρίαμος καΐ,οί αμφί μ-ΐν. — Ucale- 
gon (ουκ άλεγων) is mentioned only here in Homer. Cf. jam proxi- 
mus (sc. to Deiphobus) ardet | Ucalegon Verg. Aen. ii. 311 f. — 
Άντήνωρ : he is esp. prominent in the following scene, 203-224, 262. 

149. €Ϊατο : ηντο, see § 44 I. — δημογ^ροντίβ : in apposition, as elders 
of the people. Title of the nobles as leaders and counsellors. See on Β 21. 
This epithet is applied also to Ilus, son of Dardanus. — lirl Σκαιήσ-ι ττύλτι- 
σ-ιν: i.e. on the tower above the Scaean Gate, from which the Trojan 
elders and women were wont to watch the battles on the plain ; cf 153, 
384, spectaverant enim e moenibus Pergami non viri modo 
sed feminae etiam Livy xxxvii. 20. 

150. γήραϊ: equiv. to δια το γηρα<ζ. — δή : already. — 7Γ€'ΐΓαυμ€νοι : the 
perfect indicates the continuance of the state brought about by the action 
of the verb. — άγορηταί : cf A 248. 

151. τ€ττίγ€σ•σ-ιν : cicadae. The males sit on sunny bushes and during 
the longest days make, by rubbing their wings, a clear chirping noise 
which the Greeks of all times admired greatly. They are not mentioned 
elsewhere in Homer. — The comparison refers only to the tone of voice. 

152. δ€νδρ€'ω: a 'trochee.' For the 'synizesis,' cf A 15, Β 651; see 
§ 25. — \€ipiO€o-<rav : from λύριον, lily-like, i.e. tender and delicate like the 
color of the lily. — Uitriv: from ΙηρΛ, see § 52 a. 

153. Toioi : such, predicate with ηντο. " Such were they who sat " etc. 
See on A 266. — άρα: recapitulates the comparison, cf 161. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 121 

155. ηκα : for the short ultima, not lengthened before πρ, see § 59 ^ a. 

156. ού ν€'μ€<Γΐ5 κτλ. : " we cannot blame " etc. — The beauty of Helen 
could not be praised more delicately or effectively than by this exclama- 
tion that she drew from the aged counsellors of Troy. Cf. η on put ant 
indignum Troiani principes, Graios Troianosque propter 
Helenae speciem tot mala tanto temporis spatio sustinere : 
quaenam igitur ilia forma credenda est ? non enim hoc 
dicit Paris, qui rapuit, non aliquis iuvenis aut unus e 
vulgo, sed senes et prudentissimi et Priam ο adsidentes 
Quintilian viii. 4. 21, * Homer himself who so persistently refrains from 
all descriptions of physical beauty that we barely learn from a passing 
mention that Helen had white arms and beautiful hair, even he manages 
nevertheless to give us an idea of her beauty which far surpasses any- 
thing that art could do. Kecall the passage w^here Helen enters the 
assembly of the Trojan elders. The venerable men see her coming, and 
one says to the others : ov νε/χεσι? κτλ. What can give a more vivid idea 
of her beauty than that cold-blooded age should deem it well worth 
the Avar which had cost so much blood and so many tears?* Lessing, 
Laocodn xxi. 

157. τοιηδε : such a one as that, as she stood before their eyes, with 
deictic -δε, cf. 46. This is explained by the following verse. — άμψ£ : for 
the sake of, as 70, 91. 

158. α1νώ$: marvellously, mightily. — els tSira : lit. into the face, when 
one looks in the face, in countenance. 

159. This is a general remark, and assumes no knowledge of the 
proposition of Paris. 

160. οττίσ-ατω : for t he f titure. — ττήμα : see on 50. — λίττοιτο : as passive, 
see § 50 d. 

• 161. Ικαλ^σσ-ατο : called to him. — φωνή : is used much like φωνησας. 
It is contrasted with ηκα 155. — The three following speeches are of nine 
verses each. Cf. the symmetry in the prayers (on 301). 

162. Sevpo: cf. 130. — Ιμδίο : construe with πάροιθε, cf A 360. 

164. ου τί μοι κτλ. : Priam, as well as the poet, recognized the war as 
appointed and caused by the gods. He desired to remove the feeling of 
dread with which Helen, conscious of guilt, approached him. She appre- 
ciated his kindness, saying that Priam 'was always kind as a father,' 
Ω 770. — μο( : in my eyes. This is expressed in both clauses. — θ€οί vv 
μοι : for the asyndeton, cf. A 107. — vv : I think: — Cf. the words of 
Venus: non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaenae I culpa- 
tusve Paris ; divum inclementia, divum, | has evertit opes, 
sternitque a culmine Troiam Verg. Aen. ii. 601 ff. 



122 COMMENTARY. 

165. ol: demonstrative. — ττολύΒακρυν: c/. 132. 

166. cos κτλ. : a second final clause depending on 162. — καΐ : belongs 
to the whole clause, and indicates that another final sentence preceded. 

167. OS Tis: predicate. — oSc: observe the regular interchange of the 
prons. οδε and ovtos in question and answer, here and 178, 192 and 200, 
226 and 229 ; both pronouns are deictic, but oSc indicates simply what 
is before the eyes, while οντος has reference to the question. — ην5 τ€ : cf. 
Β 653. 

168. η τοι μεν: correl. with δε 169. It is true indeed. — κΐψαλη: in 
stature ; cf. 193. — κα( : still. 

169. ϊδον όψθαλμοΐσιν : cf. Launcelot's * running with thy heels,' Shak- 
spere Merchant of Venice ii. 2. 10. See on A 587. 

170. γεραρόν: stately, cf. 211. See Β 478, and note.-- βαοτιληι avSpC: 
cf βονληφόρον άνδρα Β 24, and see on 6, Β 474. 

171. γυναικών : the gen. is partitive with the superlative idea in δια. 
172-176. Reply to 162-165. — α18οΐό$ re δεινό? τε : revered and dreaded. 

— φίλε, ε'κυρ^: for the two 'ultimas' lengthened by position, see § 32 c. 

173. ws : introduces a wish. Cf αϊθ' οφελες κτλ. A 415. — οψελεν : 
see on A 353. — κακός : the standing epithet of death. It is contrasted 
with άδειν. " Would that I had chosen death rather." Helen rarely 
misses an opportunity to express penitent consciousness of her guilt, cf. 
404, 412. See on Β 356. Her penitence always wins indulgence and 
sympathy. 

174. θάλαμον : marriage-chamber ; hence no special mention of her hus- 
band is needed. — γνωτού5 : brothers. See 236 ff. 

175. τταίδα : i.e. ilermione, who afterward married Neoptolemus, son 
of Achilles. — ομηλικίην : abstract expression for ομηλικας, companions. 

176. TO : therefore. Adverbial ace. with τίτηκα. — καί : also, marks 
κλαίουσα τίτηκα (melt away in tears') as the expected effect. 

177. άνείρίαι : followed by two accusatives, cf A 550. 

178. Άτρίίδηβ : see on A 7. 

179. The favorite verse of Alexander the Great, according to Plutarch, 
de fortuna Alex. 331 c. — For the thought, see A 258 and note. — άμφότε- 
pov : both ; with the two parts added in apposition. — Observe the ' chi- 
asmus.' 

180. αυτέ : on the other hand. — κυνώττιδοβ : see on A 159, cf 404. The 
gen. is in apposition with ε/χου implied in ε'/χός. See on Β 20. — εϊ ττοτ 
εην γε : if ever he was, "if it was not all a dream." Helen speaks with 
mournful recollection of the happier past. 

182. μάκαρ : blessed. — μοιρηγενε'ς : child of fortune, blest by Μοίρα at 
his birth. The opposite is found in A 418. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 123 

183. η ρά νυ κτλ. : in truth then were subject to thee. The plpf. (= impf.) 
is used with reference to the previous perception of the numerous 
throng. 

184. κα£ : also, i.e. as well as to other countries. Cf. 205. — Φρνγίην: 
on Β 862. 

185. €νθα : there. — Φρνγα? άνέρα? : closely connected, cf. βασιλψ avSpl 
170. IVhenever avBpes is added to an ethnic name, the words are not 
separated. For the ' diaeresis ' after the third foot, see § 58 A:. — αίολο- 
ιτώλους : with swift steeds. 

186. Otreus and Mygdon were Phrygian kings. Ace. to the later 
story, Otreus was brother of Hecaba. Aphrodite in visiting Anchises 
introduces herself as the daughter of Otreus. Mygdon was father of 
Coroebus (Cassandra's bridegroom), ace. to Verg. Aen. ii. 341 ff. 

188. καί : const, with €γών. — «λ^χθην : / was numbered. 

189. Άμαζόν€5 : these were thought to live on the east of Phrygia. 
They carried on a war for booty against the Phrygians to whose assist- 
ance Priam went. Cy. Β 814. — dvTidvcipai: cf. bellatrix audetque 
viris concurrere virgo Verg. ^en. i. 493. 

190. άλλ' ούδ* ol : but not even these ; i.e. the Phrygians of 185. 

191. δ€ύτ€ρον: neuter accusative as adverb with cpeetve, cf. 225. 

192. etir* : for άττί, with the accent thrown back after elision, cf. 89. — 
τόνδί : anticipated from the rel. clause, see on Β 409. 

193. μ.€ίων μεν κτλ. : more exactly describing o8c. — Κ6φαλη : as 168. 

194. IScVOai : to look upon. 

196. KTiXos ois : cf. Β 480. The syllable preceding cSs is not length- 
ened as is usual. See on Β 190. — €ΐΓΐτΓωλ€ίται <Γτ£χα8 : comes up to the 
ranks, in order to review them. Ace. to another figure, Agamemnon was 
ΤΓΟίμ,ην λαών. 

197. άρνίΐφ κτλ. t a detailed explanation of κτίλος ως. 

199. έκγεγαυία : for €κγ€γοννΐα. See on lSvly) A 365. 

200. ovTos δ'αυ: contrasted with οντός ye 178; c/. 229. — Όδυσσ -evs: 
see on A 138. 

201. 6v δήμ,φ : cf Β 547. — κραναή$ : cf. (^Ιθάκη) τρηχαΐ άλλ* άγα^ 
κουροτρόφος (nwrse ο/ wen) ι 27, scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna 
Verg. Aen. iii. 272, Ithacam illam in asperrimis saxulis tan• 
q'uam nidulum affixam Cic. de Orat. i. 44. — ir^p: as A 352. 

204. η μάλα : yes, in truth. 

205. KttC : as 184. — δ€υρό ιτοτ ήλυθί : sc. before the beginnmg of open 
hostilities, in order to demand the restitution of Helen and the treasure. 
See § 6 a* Odysseus as the most ready in speech and counsel was sent 
with Menelaus who had the greatest interest in the decision. 



124 COMMENTARY. 

207. 4ξ6Ϊνΐ(Γσα: received hospitably. — φίλησα: received at my home, 
entertained. This shows the beginning of a law of nations by which 
embassies enjoy the rights of guests. 

208. φυήν : as A 115. Cf. 210 f. — Ιδάην : 1 learned to know. — μήδεα : 
cf. 212 ff. 

209. άλλ' oT€ δή : the same beginning of the verse as 212, 216, 221. — 
kv άγρομ^νοισιν : among the assembled, cf. 55. This was on the occasion 
when the Trojans discussed the demand made by the embassy. The 
poet does not raise the question why Priam did not then make the 
acquaintance of Odysseus. 

210. σ-τάντων : sc. to address the people, cf. A 58, 68, etc. The geni- 
tive is partitive, of Menelaus and Odysseus, but is not unlike a genitive 
absolute, see § 19 c, d. — vircipexcv [ύττερ-] : " towered above " Odysseus, 
cf 168. Cf umeris extantem Verg. Aen. vi. 668. — ωμου$: ace. of 
specification, cf 227. 

211. άμφω δ' «ζομ^νω : i.e. as listeners. * Nominative of the whole,' 
almost a nominative absolute, since only one of the two persons com- 
prised is mentioned in what follows. The sentence begins as if Όδυσ- 
σευς μ,ίν, Μενίλαος δε were to follow. — γ€ραρώτ€ρο$ : cf 170. Menelaus 
had a short trunk but long legs, and appeared shorter only when they 
were seated. 

212. Ίτάσιν ύ'φαινον : ivove for all, set forth before all. 

213. ετΓίτροχάδην : in contrast with the cautious, slow beginning of 
Odysseus. 

214. παΰρα μέν : correlative with οΰδ' άψαμαρτοεττης. άλλα μόλα λιγεως 
is shown to be parenthetical by επεί ov πολνμνθος which explains πανρα. 
" Few words but to the point." " Saying little indeed (although very 
clear, Β 246), for he was not a man of many words ; but saying nothing 
which failed to hit the mark." A Spartan king ought to be laconic ! — 
Cf. et Homerus brevem quidem cum iucunditate et pro- 
priam (id enim est non deerrare verbis) et carentem super- 
vacuis eloquentiam Menelao dedit, quae sunt virtutes ge- 
neris illius primi, et ex ore Nestoris dixit dulciorem melle 
profluere sermonem [A 249], qua certe delectatione nihil 
fingi maius potest: sed summam expressurus in Ulixe 
facundiam, et magnitudinem illi vocis et vim orationis 
nivibus hibernis copia verborum atque impetu parem tri- 
buit. cum hoc igitur nemo mortalium contendet, hunc 
ut deum homines intuebuntur Quintilian xii. lo. 64 f. 

215. cl καί : even if although he was younger than Odysseus. — yivti : 
in birth, in age. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 125 

216. άναΐξ€ΐ6ν : for the optative expressing indefinite frequency of past 
action, cf. 233. See H. 914 β ; G. 1431. 

217. -υιταΐ ΐδ€σκ€ : he always looked down ; with the more definite state- 
ment κατά x^ovos κτλ., — a sign of meditation. Cf. non protinus est 
erumpendum, sed danda brevis cogitationi mora: mire 
enim auditurum dictnri cura delectat et index se ipse 
componit. hoc praecipit Homerus Ulixis exempio, quem 
stetisse oculis in terram defixis immotoque sceptre, prius- 
quam illam eloquentiae procellam effunderet, dicit Quin- 
tilian xi. 3. 157 f . 

218. σκήτΓτρον : see on A 58, 234. 

219. άστίμφ^δ : cf. Β 344. — Odysseus made no gesture. 

220. φαίη5 K€: potential of the past, crederes, as 223; Attic «φ?;? 
αν. Cf. 392. — Observe the asyndeton. — ζάκοτον κτλ.: a sullen, ill- 
natured kind of a fellow. — άφρονα κτλ. : a mere simpleton. For αυτως, see 
on A 133. 

221. δη οττα: the hiatus is merely apparent, since 6\p is from the same 
root as the Lat. vox. Cf. €πο?, and see § 32 a. 

222. See Quintilian quoted on 214. — eirca: for the length of the 
ultima, see § 59 Ίι. — νιφάδ^σσ-ιν κτλ. : in contrast with 214. 

223. ούκ αν κτλ.: "no other mortal could have vied." — circira: lit. 
after that. — Όδυσ-ήι: for the use of the name instead of a pronoun, see 
on A 240. Observe the repetition of the name in the same position in 
the following verse, cf 430, 432, 434. 

224. TOT6: refers to δτε 221, made more definite by ciSos ίδόντες.— 
ώδ€ : so much as before. They were so moved by his eloquence that they 
forgot his unusual manner. — Όδυσ-ήοβ: const, with etSos. 

225. Αϊαντα: Telamonian Ajax. See on A 138. 

226. ris τ άρα : as A 8, Β 761. 

227. e|oxos: cf. Β 480. — Άργβίων: differs mainly in metrical form 
from 'Αχαιό? above. See on A 79. 

229. ovTos: see on 167. — cpKos 'Αχαιών: see on A 284. Cf. ονρος 
Αχαιών Θ 80, of Nestor ; ep /χα πόληος Π 549 prop of the city, of Sarpedon ; 

' pillar of state,' Milton Par. Lost ii. 302. 

230. Ίδομ€ν€ύ5 : see on Β 645. Idomeneus is named by Helen with- 
out any question of Priam. At sight of him she cannot suppress the 
memory of a happy past, and hence the longing for her brothers. A 
more mechanical reason for the change in the form of question and 
answer, is that the repetition of Priam's inquiry would become monoto- 
Bfous. — Ocos <Ss : equiv. to θ€0€ί8ης 16, θ€0€ίκ€λ€ A 131. 

231. η7€ρ4θονται : cf Β 304. The present serves to paint a picture. 



126 COMMENTAKY. 

232. ΊΓολλάκι: generally appears in Homer without the final ?, see 

233. ΐκοιτο : for the optative, cf. 216 where the iterative aorist στάσκεν 
in the principal clause corresponds to the aorist with ττολλάκι in 232. 

235. K€v γνοίην: potential optative. Sc. if you should ask me. — Ιύ: 
well, clearly. — καί re: cf. A 521. — ουνομα: sc. the gen. of the pronoun 
from ους. 

236. 8οιώ : for this form of the numeral, see § 41 δ. — κο(Γμήτορ€ : cf. 
1, A 16. 

237. Castor and Polydeuces are mentioned only in this verse in 
Homer. — ττύξ: with the^st, i.e. in boxing. See on Β 418. 

238. αύτοκασιγνήτω : cf. Β 706. — τώ μοι κτλ.: develops the thought 
of the first word of the verse, cf A 2. — μοί : ' dative of likeness ' with 
μια, " the same who bore me." — μήτηρ : i.e. Leda. Ace. to the later story, 
Clytaemnestra also was Leda's daughter. See on A 113. 

239. λπΓδ'σ-θην : cf A 158, Β 524. 

241. αυτ€ : correl. with /xeV, see on Β 768, § 21/. 

242. αϊ<Γχ6α: insults. — SciSiorcs : sc. that they must hear them. — 
ovcCSea: reproaches. For the use of two nearly synonymous words, see 
on 2. — ά μοι €σ-τιν: which are mine, heaped upon me. 

243. κάτ€χ€ν: see on Β 699. A euphemism for death. " They were 
dead and buried." — φυσ-ίζοοβ : life-giving. The epithet seems out of place 
here, but is used only in this connection. — Ace. to this story, both Dios- 
curi (Διός Kovpoi) were dead. The later form of the story made Castor 
mortal, but Polydeuces immortal; but after the death of Castor, Zeus 
granted the prayer of Polydeuces that both brothers should be together 
alternately in heaven and in Hades. In post-Homeric times, they became 
the patron saints of sailors. 

244. Αακ€8αίμονι: for the following hiatus, see §§ 27 a, 36 a. — αυθι: 
here follows the word that explains it. — The grave of the Dioscuri was 
shown at Therapnae, near Sparta. — Iv irarpCSi : observe the repetition of 
the preposition in this appositive clause. Cf. Β 722. 

245-313. Priam drives to the field, concludes the treaty with Agamemnon, 
and returns to the city. — This continues the story interrupted at 121. 

245. κήρυκ€5: see 116 f. — άνά ασ-τυ: up through llios, cf. A 10. — 
θίών : i.e. those named 103 f . — φίρον : sc. in order to take them to the 
plain. — ό'ρκια ττισ-τά: cf. 269, Β 124. Faithful, trustworthy pledges of the 
oath. 

246. apv€ ktX. : in apposition with ορκυα. — οΐνον κτλ. : equiv. to ενφραί- 
νοντα κτλ. Cf *wine that maketh glad the heart of man,' Psalms 
civ. 15. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 127 

247. άσ-κω κτλ. : the usual means of carrying wine on journeys. 
Wine was stored at home in great jars. — καρπον άρούρης : elsewhere only 
of grain. 

248. 'ISaios: the most honored of Priam's heralds and his personal 
attendant. For the quantity of the ultima, see § 59 /. 

249. -γέροντα : i.e. Priam, whom they were sent to summon. — ιταρισ-τά- 
μ£νο$: sc. after ascending the tower by the Scaean gate (149). 

250. ορσ-6ο: see on 103 ; arise. Observe the following 'asyndeton.' — 
Ααομ€δοντιάδη : for the formation of the patronymic, see § 39 J. — άριστοι : 
the princes, as 274. 

252. τάμητ€ : sc. thou and the Achaean princes. — See on 105. 
253-255 = 136-138, mutatis mutandis. 

254. μα\•(\σ•ονται : will ^ght. This marks simply the future fact. 

255. έ'τΓοιτο : the optative here, as 74, expresses a wish. The impera- 
tive is used in the corresponding passages, 72, 93, 282, because this 
thought is presented there as a demand or condition. 

256-258 = 73-75, with slight changes. 

257. νέονται: future, cf. 137. The future is better suited than the 
imperative to the lips of the herald. 

259. ρίγησ-€ν : i.e. he feared for his son's life, cf. 306 E. — craCpois: his 
attendants. The king was never unattended. 

260. lirCOovTo : i.e. they hastened to the palace, harnessed the horses, 
^nd brought them to the Gate. Priam descended from the tower to 
•nount the chariot. We miss here the usual epic fulness of detail. 

261. άν [ανά] : const, with €βη. — κατά κτλ. : as 311. The reins were 
tied to the front rim of the chariot. The king now untied them and 
drew them back toward himself. 

262. irdp 84 oi: lit. at his side for him, ττάρ being adv. I.e. so as to 
stand heside him. — δίψρον : ace. of ' limit of motion,' cf 407, see on A 254. 

263. Σκαιών : only here as substantive, without ττυλαι. See on A 54. 

— «χον: held, guided. 

264. μ€τά : see on A 222. 

265. I| ϊτητων : from their chariot ; equiv. to t^ 6χ€ων 29. 

266. Is μέσ-σ-ον: see on 69. — 4<Γτιχόωντο : went, as Β 92. 

267. ώρνυτο : arose, hastened to greet the Trojan princes, cf. opaeo 250. 

— αύτίκ 6ΐΓ€ΐτα : follows the verb. 

268. άν [ανά] : sc. ωρνντο. — κήρυκ65 : sc. of both armies, cf 274. 

269. opKitt : see on 245. 

270. μίσ-γον : not like κερόωντο, but mingled the wine of both parties 
to the libation. In solemn sacrifices, the wine was not mixed with water, 
hence (τττονδαΐ αίκρψοι Β 341. — βα<Γΐλ€ν<Γΐν : /or the princes of Trojans and 



128 COMMENTARY. 

Achaeans. Observe that no priests are mentioned in this connection. — 
lirl x€ipas : see on A 449. 

271. χ6£ρ€(Γ<Γΐ : χείρί would be more exact. 

272. irdp κουλεόν : along by the sheath. — aUv : as commander and high- 
priest of the army, Agamemnon used this knife often at sacrifices. — 
αωρτο : from άίίρω, cf. aop sword, άορτηρ sword-strap. 

273. άρνών : as the principal idea, it is placed before κεφαλβ'ων which 
it limits. See 103 f . 

274. νίΐμαν: sc. τρίχας. They distributed the wool cut from the 
victims' heads as a symbol that all the chiefs present took part in the 
treaty, swearing by the victim. This sacrifice was without fire, as was 
most freq. in the case of treaties and reconciliations. 

275. Cf. A 450. 

276. Agamemnon invokes the divinities of the heavens, the earth, and 
the regions beneath the earth. Cf. esto nunc Sol testis, et haec 
mihi Terra precanti, | . . . et pater omnipotens, et tu Satur- 
nia coniux, . . . tuque inclute Mavors, | . • . fontesque 
fluviosque, voco, quaeque aetheris alti | religio, et quae 
caeruleo sunt numina ponto Verg. Ae7i. xii. 176 ίί. — "Ιδηβίν: 
Zeus had a sacred grove and an altar on Mt. Ida, and ruled thence as 
god of the country. The pious soul sought and found the divinity near 
at hand, esp. on mountain summits. — kvSkttc κτλ.: cf. lupiter opti- 
mus maximus. See on Β 412. 

277. η«λιο$: nominative as vocative. This construction is rare. — 
Ίτάντ Ιφορ^;? κτλ. : Helios, accomplishing daily his course in the heavens, 
is fitted to be a witness to solemn compacts. 

278. ΊΓοταμοί : the Trojan river-gods (Scamander and Simois), as near 
at hand, are invoked as witnesses. A priest (άρητηρ) of the Scamander 
is mentioned (E 7-7 f.). — καΐ οϊ: const, with τίννσθον. "the dual is used 
with reference to Hades and Persephone. 

279. ο Tis: observe the distributive singular, after the plural. For 
the form, see § 42 o. — όμόοτσ-χι : for the aorist subjunctive, cf. A 554. 

280. μάρτυροι : as A 338, Β 302. 

282. αύτο8€χ€τω: let him keep. — κτήματα: see on 70. 

283. ν€ώμ€θα: the subjunctive expresses the speaker's resolve, not 
unlike the ordinary ' hortatory ' subjunctive. 

284. ξανθό? : from the color of his hair. See on A 197. 

285. Τρώα§ κτλ. : then shall the Trojans restore etc. άποΒονναι is par- 
allel to εχετω, cf Β 413. 

286. τιμήν: equiv. to ττοινην recompense. Cf. A 159. — ή'ν τίνα: sc. 
aTTOTivipLtv. 

\ 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 129 

287. καί: also. Const, with εσσο/χενοισιν. — ττ^ηται: shall he. This 
is strictly a final clause. — This exemplary penalty was to serve as a 
precedent in later times and warn men against committing such deeds. 

288. ΠρΙαμοδ κτλ. : as A 255. 

289. ουκ «θίλωσιν : ουκ is used, not μη, though in a conditional clause, 
since the negative and verb form but one idea, are unwilling, refuse. Cf. 
ov χραίσμ,Ύ] A 28. — Άλ€ξάνδροιο : prob. gen. abs. ; although it could be 
construed with τιμήν. See ^ 19 d β. 

290. αντάρ : on the other hand, introduces the adversative apodosis, cf. 
A 133, si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea sequere 
Livy i. 41. See § 21 a. 

291. Tc'Xos ΐΓολ^μ.010 : i.e. the victory. See on Β 122. — κιχ€(ω: see on 
A 26. Or it may be pres. subjv. of κίχημι. 

292. η: see on A 219. — σ-τομάχου?: obj. of άττό τά /xc. — χαλκφ : equiv. 
to μάχαιραν 271. 

294. θυμοΰ : life, as A 593. — 8€υομένου$ : gives the reason for άσπαίρον 
Ta<s. — μ^νο5 : force, cf . /xevea 8. 

295. άψυσ-(ΓΟμ€νοι : drawing (dipping) for themselves. The act of dip- 
ping and pouring continued until each had poured his libation. Else- 
where drawing wine was part of the herald's gifice. See on A 471. 

296. 4'κχ€ον : sc. out of their cups, upon the ground. — aUiyivinina-iv : 
cf θίοΧ αΐϊν €0ντ€9 A 290. 

297. C/. B271. 

299. irpoTcpoi: comp., since only two parties are in question, cf. 351. 
— vtrcp ορκια: "contrary to the compacts." Cf. Δ 67, 236, 271. — ττημή- 
V€iav : intransitive. " Commit an act of hostility." The optative is used 
in the subordinate clause, with the optative of wishing in the principal 
clause, to express a mere conception of the mind. 

300. ώδ4 σφι κτλ. : thus may for them etc. The personal pronoun is 
used instead of the deraonstratiA'-e, since the protasis has hypothetical 
force. Cf. Β 393. — «s oSe otvos : symbolical actions were customary in 
curses and conjurations. Cf (fetialis) 'si prior defexit publico 
consilio dolo malo, tum illo die, luppiter, populum Roma- 
num sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum hie hodie feriam.' . . . 
id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit, Livy i. 24; (Han- 
nibal) eaque ut rata scirent fore agnum laeva manu dextera 
silice.m retinens, si falleret, lovem ceterosque precatus 
deos, ita se mactarent, quem ad modum ipse agnum mac- 
tasset, secundum precationem caput pecudis saxo elisit, 
ih. xxi. 45 ; 'As sinks that blood stream in the earth, | So may his heart's 
blood drench his hearth,* Scott Lady of the Lake iii. 1. 



130 COMMENTARY. 



301. αυτών καΐ τ€Κ€ων : the genitive depends on εγκέφαλος, although 
σφί (not σφζων) has preceded. This clause forms an extension of the 
original thought. — άλλοισι δαμείεν: "may they be made the slaves of 
others." — This prayer contains four verses, like the prayers of 320 ff., 
351 ff., 36o ff. See on 161. 

302. Cf. Β 419. 

303. τοί<Γΐ : const, with μετά Ulttcv, cf. 96. — Δαρδαν(8ης : Priam was 
in the fifth generation from Dardanus, Υ 215 ff. See p. x. of the Vocab- 
ulary. — For the use of the patronymic, see § 39 m. 

304 = 86. 

305. ηνεμό^σσαν : the epithet is well deserved ace. to Dr. Schliemann, 
who in his excavations at Hissarlik was much disturbed by the constant 
winds which drove the dust into the eyes of the workmen. He thinks 
that such continual wind-storms are known nowhere else on earth. ' The 
winds blew about us with such force that we often felt as if our whole 
settlement might be hurled down the precipice.' 

306. άψ: const, with εΐμι. — ου ττω : in no way. For πώ as ττώς, see 
§ 30 Z. — τλήσ-ομαι : cf. τίτληκας A 228. — Iv όφθαλμοίσ-ιν : see on A 587. 
— Priam fears the death of his son, as 259. — \^ergil imitates: η on 
pugnam aspicere hanc oculis, non foedera, possum Aen. 
xii. 151. 

308. ZeOs κτλ. : " Zeus doubtless knows, but I do not." 

309. θανάτοιο t4Xos: a 'periphrasis' for θάνατος. — ττεπρωμενον €<Γτίν : 
equiv. to ττεττρωται, cf. τετελεσμένος εστίν A 388. 

310. apvas θετό : sc. in order to take back with him the two slaugh- 
tered lambs which he had brought. The flesh of the victim sacrificed to 
confirm an oath was not eaten, since a curse rested upon it, but was 
buried. Prob. the Achaeans cast their victim into the sea, being unable 
to bury it in their own land. 

311 f . = 261 f . — έβαινε : for the imperfect, see on άφίει A 25. 
313. αψορροι : cf. τταλίνορσος 33. — άττονεΌντο : see on Β 113. 
314-382. The duel. Pans is rescued from death by Aphrodite, and 
earned to his home. 

315. 8ιεμετρεον : they measured off the ground for the combat, and the 
distance at which they were to hurl their spears, cf 344. Cf. campum 
ad certamen magnae sub moenibus urbis | dimensi Rutu- 
lique viri Teucrique parabant Verg. ^en. xii. 116 f. 

316. κλήρου$ πάλλον: •* they arranged the casting of lots." This is 
expressed more definitely in 324. The κλήροι were bits of wood or stone, 
marked with some sign so as to be recognized. The prayer was oifered 
while the lots were shaken. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 131 

317. ΐΓρό<Γθ€ν: hef ore, first. Cf. 346, Β 359, Trporcpos 351. — άφ€ίη: 
optative in indirect discourse, representing the subjunctive of deliberation 
in direct discourse. Cf. A 191. 

318. xitpas άν^σ-χον : equiv. to χείρας άνασχόντες, see § 21 Λ. For the 
attitude, cf. A 450. See Vocabulary s. v. χύρ. 

319 = 297. 320 = 276. 

321. τάδδ έ'ργα: these troubles here, i.e. this war. — €θηκ(ν: caused, sls 
A 2. — Both armies seem to unite in wishing the death of Paris. 

322. SOS : for δός with the inf. in prayers, cf. 351. — άΐΓοφθίμ6νον 8ΰναι : 
equiv. to αττοφθίσθαι και δυναι. For the epic fulness of expression, see 
on A 88. — "A'iSos : see on A 3. 

324. κορυθαίολοδ : see on Β 816. 

325. άψ όρόων : with averted face, in order to escape the suspicion of 
favoring his brother. — Ilapios : see on 16. — ck ορουσεν : the lot was not 
drawn, but cast, thrown out. 

326. ot μ4ν : i.e. Trojans and Achaeans, who had stood during the sacri- 
fice. Perhaps they had not been seated before {cf 78, 84, 1131, 231, 
250, 267), although they long ago had dismounted from their chariots 
and laid their armor upon the ground. — κατά στίχαβ : according to ranks, 
in ranks. 

327. 6KCIT0 : grammatically and in sense, construed only with τενχεα, 
although Kctpxit often is the passive of τίθημι. For the ' zeugma,' see on 
7rpo9 δω/Αα A 533. 

328. άμφ* ώμοισ-ιν : standing expression in tlie case of the principal 
parts of the warrior's equipment : breastplate, sword (as 334), and shield. — 
ίδύσ -cTo : Paris had entered the conflict as a light-armed warrior, see on 17. 

330. The poet presents a picture of the preparations for battle. The 
complete armament of the Homeric warrior consisted in the six pieces 
here enumerated, which are always mentioned in the same order before 
an important conflict. — κνημϊδαδ : see on A 17. 

331. KoXas: for the order of words, see § 11 j". 

333. olo κασ-ιγνήτοιο : sc. since he himself had appeared without a 
cuirass. — Αυκάονοβ : Lycaon had been captured by Achilles and sold as 
a slave to the king of Lemnos. Being ransomed thence, he returned to 
Troy a week before the events narrated in this book ; but twelve days 
after his return, he met Achilles again and was slain by him, Φ 34 ff. — 
ηρμοσ-€ 8* αύτφ : hut he fitted it to himself; he changed the length of the 
straps, buckling it to suit his own form. 

334 = Β 45. 

335. χάλκ€ον : prominence is given to an epithet of the whole sword, 
after the decoration of the hilt has been mentioned in άργνρσηλον. — 



132 COMMENTARY. 

σάκος : the strap which aided the arm in supporting the heavy shield was 
thrown over the shoulder, see on Β 388. Thus the shield was taken up 
before the plumed helmet was donned. 

336. κυν^ην : originally a head-covering of dogskin, then helmet. 

337. iirirovpiv: cf. Ιττπο^ασείης 369, aere caput fulgens, crista- 
que hirsutus equina Yerg. ^en. x. 869. — Scivov: cognate ace, adv. 
with €vev€v, cf, 342. 

338. Ίταλάμηφιν : here dative ; it is in the genitive 368. See § 33 a. — 
άρήρ€ΐν: for the v-movable, cf ησκαν 388. See § 30 L• 

339. COS 8* αυτωδ : and thus in like manner. See § 4:2 g. — Mcv^Xaos : 
Menelaus came forth to battle equipped with armor (29), but put it off 
as the rest did, 114. — άρήιος : a short form of άρψφίλος. See on 21. — 
6VT€a : equiv. to τενχεα, chiefly of defensive armor, 

340. cKaTcpOev ομίλου : on either side of the throng. 
341 = 266. 344. διαμ€τρητφ : see on 315. 

345. KoWovTc : subord. to σείοντε. 346. trpoa-Qt : as 317. 

347. Cf. 356. — τΓάντοσ-' Ιίσ-ην : a standing formula, at the close of the 
verse. Strictly used of the smaller circular shields (ασπίδας ενκνκλονς Ε 
453), in distinction from the large oval σάκος. But the shield of Paris is 
called σάκος 335, and άσπις 356. 

348. ούδ€: hut not. — € ρρηξ€ν : broke through the shield. — χαλκόβ : the 
bronze point of the lance, cf χαλκω below. — ol ; refers to χαλκός. 

349. ώρνυτο χαλκω : arose with his lance, " raised himself to hurl his 
lance." Cf. άνασχό/χενος 362, altior exurgens Verg. Aen. xi. 697, 
corpore toto | alte sublatum consurgit Turnus in ensem. 
. . . at perfidus ensis \ frangitur ίδ. xii. 728 ff. 

350. €•π•€υ|άμ€νο5 : " uttering a prayer as he did so." 

351. Zcv άνα : the vocative form ανα is found in Homer only in this 
phrase ; elsewhere, ανα^, as Β 284, 434. — Sos τ£σασ-θαι ο κτλ. : equiv. to 
δός μοι τίσασθαι τοντον ος κτΧ. The rel. clause ο μ,ε κτλ. represents a 
noun as the object of τίσασθαι. — irporepos : cf 299. 

352. διον : a standing epithet, denoting nobility of descent and beauty. 
It is here used without any special reference to the circumstances of the 
case. See on A 7. These * ornamental epithets * are sometimes put into 
the mouth of a foe. — Άλεξανδρον : is the object of τισασ^αι. This makes 
the preceding rel. clause more parenthetical than if this proper name had 
been attracted to the construction of the rel. clause, as ΑαοΒίκψ 124. — 
καΐ . . . δαμήναι : a more definite expression of the thought of τίσασθαι. 

353. tIs : many a one, cf. Β 271. — καί : as 287. 

354. ο K€v κτλ. : explanatory of ξεινοΒόκον. — φιλότητα : hospitality, cf. 
207. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 133 

355. (χμΐΓ6')Γαλών : reduplicated aor. (§43e) from άναπαλλω. Swinging 
back, i.e. drawing back for the throw. Cf. adducto contortum 
hastile lacerto | immittit Verg. Aen. xi. 561 f. 

356. Cf. 347. 

357. δια: with long t at the beginning of the verse. — ψαχνής: 
the outer layer of the shield was a plate of bronze. — οβριμον : weighty, 
mighty. 

358. ηρήρίΐστο : was thrust, by the force of the throw. Plpf. from 
€ρεί8ω, used almost like an aorist. 

359. avTiKpvs : construe closely with what follows. 

360. €κλ£νθη • he bent aside. — ηλ€ύατο : for the 1st aorist without 
tense-sign, see § 48 h. 

362. άνα(Γχόμ€νο8 : drawing up his arm, in order to give a heavier blow; 
cf. 349. — ψάλον: the metal ridge in which the horsehair was arranged 
like a mane. — άμφ\ αύτ<ρ: const, with Βιατρνφέν, about itself, i.e. about 
the φάλος. 

363. τριχθά τ€ καΐ κτλ. : a descriptive expression, see § 13 b. — η κα£: 
cf. A 128, Β 346 and notes. — Βιατρυφίν: cf Verg. Aen. xii. 730, quoted 
on 349. 

365. σ€ίο όλοώτ6ρο5: Zeus ^eiVtos, the guardian of hospitality, had not 
avenged the privileges that Paris had abused. — Such reproaches of the 
divinity are uttered only in outbreaks of momentary vexation. Cf 
Bill. 

366. Ιφάμην κτλ.: see on Β 37. — κακότητοδ : causal genitive. For the 
wrong which he did me. 

367. νυν δ€: see on A 354. — άγη: from αγνυμι. — €κ : const, with 
ήίχθη. 

368. €τώσ•ιον : predicate nominative. — ovSe δάμασ-σα : marks the result 
of both preceding clauses. 

369. κόρυθοβ : for the genitive, cf. iavov 385, γοννων A 500. 

370. €λκ6 κτλ. : " he seized Paris by the helmet, turned him about, 
and strove to draw him into the midst of the Achaeans." Of course the 
helmet-strap (Ιμάς) under the chin of Paris, choked the wearer. 

371. aroXvKcaros : richly embroidered. 

372. This verse explains xmo Βείρψ. — vir άνθ€ρ€ώνο$ : as A 501. — 
oxcvs : as holder. Predicate with os. 

375. η: in the rapid narration, the rel. const, is used here, where a 
new sentence would be expected. Or this η may be called demonstrative, 
with no conjunction to connect it with the preceding verse. — Ιφ* κταμ^- 
voio : such leather would be stronger than that from a diseased animal. 
For the aorist middle used as passive, see § 50 d. 



134 COMMENTARY. 

376. τρυψάλεια: the following hiatus is justified, as falling at the 
fem. caesura of the third foot, see § 27 h. — άμ «^itcto κτλ. : i.e. it re- 
mained in his hand. — ττο,χαί•^ : thick. 

378. ρίψ* ΙτΓίδινήσαε : i.e. he swung the helmet before he threw it. — 
κόμισαν : c/. Β 875. 

379. ο άψ: for the hiatus, see on A 333. 

380. €γχ€ΐ κτλ. : emphatic at the beginning of the verse, and the close 
of the sentence, cf. βάλλε A 52. Const, with «ττόρουσε. — Ι|ήρΐΓα|6 : the 
poet recognizes no chance rescue ; see on A 8. 

381. p€ia κτλ. : "easily, as only a god can." — έκάλυψ€ δε : "and made 
him invisible." 

382. κάδ d(r€ : cf. κάθισαν 68. — €v θαλάμω : in his chamber, cf. 391. 
383-420. Aphrodite conducts Helen from the Scaean Gate to her home. 

383. καλ€Όυσ-α: future participle, expressing purpose. 

384. Τρωα(: i.e. women who had come to view the combat, as 420; 
see on 149. 

385. vcKxapeou : used like άμβρόσιος as divine, heavenly, of charming 
grace and beauty. — Ιτίνοξί : plucked. 

386. μίν : const, with προσ^ίττεν, cf. 389. For the quantity, before 
a lost consonant, see § 59 J . — irakaiytvii : the adj. strengthens the noun. 
— irpoai'enriv : always used of words that follow immediately, or sepa- 
rated only by a parenthetical clause. 

387. ίΐροκόμω : explained by the following clause. 

388. ησκ€ΐν : contracted from ^σ /ceev. — μάλισ-τα κτλ. : the rel. const, 
is abandoned, cf. A 79, 162. — This shows why Aphrodite took the form 
of this old woman. — ψιλ€€σκ€ν : sc. 'EXeny. 

389. τη μιν κτλ. : cf Β 22, 795. 

390. δ£υρ ϊθι : see on 130. 

391. κ€Ϊνο5 : used much like a dem. adv., there. — ο ye : is he. 

392. οΰδ€ K€ φαΟη5 : potential^ 7ior loould you think. Not as 220. 

393. άνδρΐ μαχησ-άμίνον : equiv. to €κ μάχης. — χορόνδδ : at the close 
of the verse in contrast with μαχησάμενον. 

394. Ι'ρχίσθαι: "ready to go to the dance," so beautiful and vigorous 
is he. — viov κτλ. : i.e. he is in as merry a humor as if he had just enjoyed 
a dance. The participle has the principal thought. 

395. Cf. Β 142. — θυμόν opivcv : aroused her anger, by the unworthy 
suggestion. 

396 f . KaC pa : and so. This pa is resumed by the άρα of the 
apodosis, 398. — δ€ΐρην στήθία κτλ. : these parts were unchanged by the 
transformation (386-389) ; the divinities retained their characteristics 
even under a disguise, except when they desired to make themselves 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 135 

entirely unrecognizable by mortals. — All but Helen saw only the old 
woman. 

398. θάμβη(Γ€ν: cf. A 199. Wonder mingled with dread came over 
her, fearing some new device of Aphrodite who had already led her far 
from her Spartan home. — eiros κτ\. : as A 361. 

399. δαιμονίη : cruel dwimty. See on Β 190. — ταΰτα: cognate ace. 
with ^TrepoTrevetv which takes />i€ as direct object. " To trick me with 
these deceits." Cf. τοντο υ/χας ε^αττατ^σαι Xen. An. v. η. 6. 

400. η: surely ; with mocking irony. — π(ίΌτ£ρω - still farther from Lace- 
daemon. — ΊΓολίων: const, with τπ/, "into any one of these cities." See 
•H. 757; G. 168, n. 3. 

401. Φρυγίη? : construe with πολιών. 

402. καΐ κ€ΐθι : there also. Just as Alexander in Ilios. — μ,^ρόττων: as 
A 250. 

403. ουν€κα 8ή νυν : this introduces sarcastically the reason for the 
conjecture of 400 f. " Since now, as it seems, I cannot remain longer 
with your favorite Paris." 

404. οΓτυγ€ρήν : see on 173. 

405. τούν€κα δή κτλ. : again a sarcastic tone. This is closely connected 
with the causal rel. sentence, as is shown by the repetition of the particles 
6η νυν. Thus the thought returns to 399. — δολοψρον^ουσα : i.e. in pre- 
tending that Paris summons her, 390. 

406. Trap' αυτόν : by himself; contrasted with Bevpo 405. " Leave me 
alone." The 'asyndeton' marks her excitement. — 0cwv κτλ.: abandon 
the path of the gods, "give up thine immortality." The expression is 
suggested doubtless by the following verse which was already before her 
Inind. 

407. "ΟλυμίΓον : the * limit of motion.' 

408. TTipl κίϊνον : about him, at his side. — όίζυί : endure woe, "bear all 
the troubles of human life." — c ψυλασ-σ^ : watch him, sc. that he does not 
escape thee or prove unfaithful to thee. 

409. 'ΠΌΐήσ•€ται : aor. subjv. with els 6 κ€, cf. Β 332. — ο γ« : see on A 
97. For its position in the second member of the sentence, as Β 664, cf. 
τΓολλα δ' ο Ϋ iv πόντω πάθεν αλγεα α 4, nunc dextra ingeminans 
ictus, nunc ille sinistra Verg. Jen. v. 457. 

410. ν€μ€σσητον κτλ. : parenthetical. — ν6μ€σ<Γητόν : c/. 156, Β 223. 

411. κίίνου : indicates contempt or abhorrence. — ιτορσ-υν^ουσα : to pre- 
pare, to share. — 84 : the clause is causal in effect. — ό'IΓCσσω : hereafter. 

412. μωμήσονται : sc. if I give myself to this frivolous coward after 
the decision by the duel. The fut. is used (more definite than the poten- 
tial opt.) although the supposition at the basis of this expectation is 



136 COMMENTARY. 

negatived (ονκ εΐμι 410). — €χω κτλ.: "and yet I have already" etc. — 
άκριτα: c/ Β 246, 796. 

413. χολωσαμ^νη : falling into a rage, cf. οχθησας A 517. The middle 
does not differ greatly from the passive. Cf. χολωθείς A 9 ; see § 50 d. 

414. σχ€τλίη : disyllabic, with synizesis of υη. See on Ίστίαίαν Β 537. 

— μ€θ€£ω [μ,εθω] : for the subjv., cf. A 28. For the form, cf. κίχείω A 20. 

415. rSt<i•. see on Β 330. — ά•τΓ€χθήρω: aor. subjv. Conceive violent 
hatred. — νΰν: opposed to the future, till now. — cKiraYXa: furiously; cf 
αινώ? 158. — φίλησα: came to love you, "bestowed my love upon you." 

416. αμφοτέρων: explained by Ύρώων και Δαναών. — μητίσ-ομαι : aor. 
subjv., still dependent on μη. — €χθ€α λυγρά : grievous hates, Λvhich would' 
be destructive to Helen. — Cf. ilia (i.e. Helen) sibi infestos eversa 
ob Pergama Teucros | et poenas Danaum, et deserti coniu-• 
gis Iras, | praemetuens Verg. Aen. ii. 571 ff. 

417. συ 8e . . . οληαι : an independent addition, as is shown by κεν, 
in order to explain the effect of Ιγθεα λνγρά. For the subjunctive with 
K€v, see on A 137. — οϊτον : cognate accusative. 

418. eSci^cv : see on A 33. Helen does not yield until after the stern- 
est threat. 

419. κατασχομ«νη : wrapping herself, cf. καΧνψαμενη 141. 

420. Τρωάβ: see on 384. — λάθεν: sc. ^ασα, as she departed with her 
two maids (cf 143, 422). — Helen, in her shame, veiled herself silently, 
and followed the goddess without attracting attention. — ηρχ* : as A 495. 

— 8αίμων : nowhere else in Homer of a definite divinity. 
421-447. Helen and Paris. 

421. Βόμον : on the citadel of Ilios, near the dwellings of Priam and 
Hector. 

422. άμφίίΓολοι: i.e. the two who had accompanied her, 143, 

423. k£€ : i.e. following Aphrodite, cf 420. 

424. TTJ : for her. — 8£φρον : a low seat without a back. — «λούσα : prior 
in time to κατίθηκε φέρουσα. Observe the distinction between the aor. 
and present participles. 

425. cLvrC Άλ£ξοίν8ροιο : ace. to 391, Alexander was on the bed, but 
this is disregarded in the following narration, cf. άρχε λεχοσΒε klwv 447. 

— θεοί: this is added to give prominence to her condescension in perform- 
ing a maid's duties. — φφουσα: for the use of the participle, see on ίων 
A 138. 

426. κούρη Διό? : generally of Athena. Cf. κονρψ Βρισηος A 392. 

427. «ιτάλιν : back, away from Paris, here as a sign of her displeasure, 
Cf. talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur Verg. Aen, iv. 
362. — ηνίτταττε : for the form, cf Β 245. 



THIRD BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 137 

428. ηλνθ€5: an exclamation. She reproaches him for his return, c/. Β 23. 

429. δαμίίδ : with dat. of the agent, as 301. — irporcpos: see on 140. 

430. η μ€ν 8η κτλ. I with disdainful mockery. Trulij thou wast wont to 
boast. 

431. crfi : added with emphasis, as Β 164. 

432. άλλ* ϊθι νυν: an ironical exhortation. The following 'asynde- 
ton' is usual. — ΐΓροκάλ€σ-(Γαι : challenge, call forth to meet thee. Middle, af 
19. — MiviKaov : observe the emphatic repetition of the name with the 
same epithet, in the same position in the verse as 430. See on 223. 

433. άλλα κτλ. : Helen now speaks in earnest. — Ιγώ ψ : cf. A 173. — 
" But / advise you." 

434. Ίταύίσ-θαι: cease for ever. Present infinitives are used also to 
explain this injunction. — ξανθω : cf. 284. 

435. άντίβιον: for the construction, cf. Β 121, 452. — ττόλεμον : for the 
cognate accusative, see on Β 788. 

436. μή TTws τάχα : lest in some way, soon. — ύττ αΰτοΰ SovpC : by the spear 
of this very man. For the dative with υπό, cf. Β 860 and note. 

437. μύθοισ-ιν : construe with ττροσεειπεν. 

438. θυμόν: in partitive appos. with με. Cf. 35, 442; see on A 362. 

439. μεν γαρ : always in this order ; never γαρ μεν. — συν Άθήνχι : by 
the aid of Athena. This diminishes the personal credit of Menelaus for 
his success. 

440. αΰτΐδ: another time, as A 140. — Ιγώ : sc. νικήσω. — τταρά €l<rt: 
more freq. in this sense is τταρίστασθαι. — ημίν: i.e. with Paris and his 
countrymen. 

441. τραττείομίν : aor. pass, subjv. from τερττω, see §§ 31, 51c?. — 
€ΰνηθ€'ντ€ : in the English idiom, this would be in the same const, as rpa- 
ττείομεν. Cf. Β 113 ; see § 21 i. 

442. tiSSc: so completely, sc. as now (446). Cf. Β 802: — tpos φρ^νας 
άμφεκάλνψεν : see on A 103. 

443. ούδ* OT6 : not even then lohen. 

444. €•ΐΓλ€ον Iv νή€(Γσι : "was on the voyage." 

445. Κρανάη : perhaps this name was invented for the situation, cf. 
201 ; at least the ancients were completely at a loss concerning it. In the 
second century of our era, with reference to this passage, the name 
Κρανάη was given to a small island in the Laconian gulf. 

446. ώζ : refers to ώδε 442. 

447. άρχ€ : made the beginning, began ; with a supplementary partic, 
κιών, as Β 378. — €Ϊ'ιγ€το: the fear of Aphrodite's anger had its effect, in 
spite of 428 ff. — The whole scene, from 382, characterizes the sensual 
frivolity of Paris. 



138 COMMENTARY. 

448-461. Menelaus seeks Paris in vain. Agamemnon claims the victory 
and demands the restitution of Helen. 

448. τώ μέν άρα : so these two. 

449. The story returns to the point where Aphrodite interposed, 380. 

— άν* ομιλον: sc. Ύρώων. — θηρΐ «οικώβ : like to a wild beast in fury and 
power. 

450. ctirov Ισ-αθρήσ6ΐ€ν : for the opt., see H. 907; Good. 1420. If he 
but might catch sight of him somewhere. — θίοίΐδί'α : for the ' synizesis,' cf. 27. 

451. ού Tis Βύνατο δ€ί|αι : the logical proof of tliis statement is given 
below. " They would have pointed him out, if they could." 

452. τότ€ : i.e. when he sought him. 

453. " They did not conceal him through love (cf. 321 ff.), nor would 
they have concealed him if any one had seen him." 

454. κηρί : dat. of likeness with ίσον. For the comparison, cf. A 228. 

— μελαίνχι : cf. morti atrae Hor. Carm. i. 28. 13, post equitem 
sedet atra cura ib. iii. i.40. 

455. KaC : also. A standing expression, generally referring to previous 
speakers. 

456. Cf. 86. — Δάρδανοι : see on Β 819. 

457. δή : as you see, surely. — ψα(ν€ται : belongs evidently. 

458. 'Apydi\v: as Β 161. Cf. ornatus Argivae Helenas Verg. 
Aen. i. 650. 

459. τιμήν κτλ. : cf. 286. 
460 = 287. 

461. Iirl ην€ον : cf. Ιττευφημησαν Κ22. — The poet does not tell how 
Hector and the other Trojans received this demand, but implies that they 
allowed it to be just. — For the conclusion of the episode, see § 7 t?. 

The Fourth Book opens with a Council of the Gods in the great hall 
of Zeus on Olympus. They have watched what has been done on the 
Trojan plain, and recognize the fact that Menelaus has won the victory. 
Zeus proposes that the provisions of the treaty be carried into effect, — 
that the Achaeans withdraw to their homes, taking with them Helen and 
her treasures. But Hera and Athena cannot consent to any peace which 
would leave unsacked the hated city of Troy, and they instigate a Lycian 
archer, a Trojan ally, to break the truce by wounding Menelaus. Then 
the strife begins anew- 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 139 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

1-219. The wounds ofMenelaus. 1-84. Assembly of the gods. Prep- 
arations for a breach of the truce. 

1. θίοί : in appos. with ot. — ηγορόωντο : sCy, during the events narrated 
in Γ. 2. χρυσ-€'ω : see on A 426. 3, €ωνοχ06ΐ : see on A 598. 

5. αντίκα: sc. after Γ 456-460. — Ιρίθιζέμεν : sc. by the proposal of 18 f. 

6 f . Zeus teasingly compares Aphrodite's constant care of Paris with 
the neglect of Menelaus by Hera and Athena. — μ^ν : correl. with avre 10. 

9= νόσ-ψι : sc. Μενελάου. 11. αύτοΰ : ablatival, § 19 α. 

12. καΐ νΰν: see on A 109. 

14. 6tra>% κτλ. : cf. Β 252. — Zeus knows what answer to expect. 

15 f. η ... η? § 206. — 'π•όλ€μον κτλ. : §12rf. — ορσ-ομεν: aorist subjv. 

18 ff. οίκ^οιτο: cf Γ 74. — άγοιτο: cf. Γ 72, 404. — «ττέμυξαν : sc. at his 
words. 21 f. Ίτλησίαι : sc. each other. — η τοι : correlative with δε 24. 

23 f. χόλοδ κτλ. : parenthetical, § 21 d. — χόλο? : see on A 81. — Ήρη : 
§ 19 e. 25 = A 552. 26. ττόνον : explained by the following verses. 

27. 18ρώ (ISpoa) : ίδρωτα. — ο ν : § 59 J. — καμε'την κτλ. : parenthetical. 

28 f . λαόν : soldiery. — κακά : on ττημα Γ 50. — «ρδε : on βάλλε Α 52. 

30 = Α 517. 

31. σε, κακά ρ^ζουσιν : Η. 725; G. 1073.- Πρίαμο? κτλ.: Α 255. 

32. 6 τ6 : on Α 244. 33. Cf Α 129, Β 133. 

35. ώμόν : " alive." Cf Psalms xxvii. 2, Job xxxi. 31, Xen. An. iv. 8. 14. 

37 f . ' Asyndeton,' § 15. — σοΙ καΐ εμοί : emphatic ημΐν. 39 = A 297. 

41 f. τήν : in apposition with ττόλιν. See § 11 y. — τόν: see on A 185. 

43 f. 8ώκα: of an act just preceding. — αϊ: its antecedent is τάων 46. 

49. λοιβής κτλ. : explains δαιτός. — τό : attracted to the number of y€pas. 

50 = A 551. 51. τρεΐδ : explained by 52. — μ^ν : correl. with αλλά 57. 

52 f. Μυκήνη : see on Β 569. — διαπ^ρσαι.: inf. as imperative. 

54 ff. Ίτρόσθ* ϊσ-ταμαι: cf. A 37. — εϊ ττερ: with subjv., cf A 81. — 
ουκ: on Γ 289. — άνύω : prob. future. — ψ^ρτερο? : cf A 281, 545 ff. 

57. Ιμόν: made emphatic by the following pause, § 11 Λ. — irovov: cf 
26 ff. 58. C/, et mi gen us ab lo ve summo Verg. ^en. vi. 123. 

60 f. άμφότερον : cf. Γ 179. — Cf Verg. A en. i. 46 f. — κ^κλημαι : cf 
Γ 138. 62. μίν : correl. with δε' 64. — ύττοείξομεν : aor. subjunctive. 

63 f. σ-οΐ μεν κτλ. : * chiasmus,' § 16 a. — ^Αθηναίη : see on ττρό ηκ€ A 195. 

66 f. νιτερκύδαντα? : exultiiu/. — ιτρότεροι κτλ. : see on Γ 299. 

68 f. ούδ' άττίθησ-ε: on Β M)7. — ιτατηρ κτλ.: on A 503. — αντίκα: on 
A 539. 70. μετά κτλ. : cf A 222. This explains ε? στρατόν. 

73, «s είττών : " by these words," saying this. 



140 COMMENTARY. 

74 =B 167. This was Athena's thh'd descent during the action of the 
Iliad. 

75. οίον : pred with άστβρα. " Like the star which Zeus sends." — 
αστέρα: i.e. a meteorite. — ηκ€ : gnomic aorist, § 14/. 

76. T^pas: pred., as a portent. 77. λαμιτρόν: see on ονΧομ,ίνην A 2. 
78 f. τφ: i.e. αστέρι, cf. 75. — Is μεσσον : c/. Γ 69. — θάμβοδ κτλ.: cf. 

Γ 342 f . 81 =Γ Β 271. 

82 f. Cf. 15 f. — τίθησιν : cf. έ'θηκεν A 2. 

85-147. Athena persuades the Lycian archer Pandarus to shoot an arrow 
at Me7ielaus, hut she herself keeps the son of Atreus from serious hurt. 

87. Λαο$όκω : in appos. with άνδ /ot 86. — αίχμητή : in appos. with 
Λαοδοκω. 

88. €Ϊ ΊΓου : on Γ 450. — Athena searches like any mortal for the man. 
— Cy. Pandare, iussus confundere foedus Verg. ^en. v. 496. 

89 ff. Cf. Β 169 f. — άμφί : sc. Ιστασαν. — λαών : in appos. with 
αστηστάων. 

93. An independent introduction. Verse 94 repeats the thought clearly. 

95. Τρώ^ατσι : for the dative, see on Β 285. Or, it may be the agent. 

97 fE. του: const, with ττάρα, § 55 c ^. — at κτλ.', equiv. to lav Meve- 
λαο9 βίλει Βμηθτ}. A picturesque paraphrase for death. — σ-ω β^λ€ΐ κτλ. 
is parenthetical ; Βμηθέντα precedes the action of Ιτηβάντα. 

100 ff. Μίνελάου: for the gen., see li. 739; G. 1099. — * Αττόλλωνι : 
patron god of Lycia, and god of the bow. — άρνών «κατόμβην : see on A 65. 

103. οϊκα8€: explained by the second 'hemistich.' — όίοττυ : on Β 824. 

104 f . τω : § 19 e. — αύτίκα : cf. 5. — Ισύλα : sc. from its o*se. 

106. αγρίου : on λαών 91. — ο ν : obj. of βφληκίί. 107 is parenthetical. 

108 f. i'lTTios : predicate. — π6ψύκ€ΐν: had grown, were. 

110 f. ηραρ6 : sc. άΧληλοαν. — ιτάν : i.e. τόζον, cf το μ^ν below. 

112 f. ΊΓοτΙ γα(τ| : see on ttotl A 245. — •π•ρόσ-θ€ν κτλ.: sc. in order that 
the act of Pandarus might be unnoticed. — 8e : " while." See § 21 d. 

114 f . irplv . . ο irpiv : see on A 98. — βλήσθαι : as passive. See § 50 d. 

116. Cf. dixit et aurata volucrem sagittam | deprompsit 
pharetra cornuque tetendit Verg. Aen. xi. 858 f. 

123 f. Mark the 'chiasmus,' § 16 a. — When the bow-string is drawn 
back to the breast, the iron arrow-point is brought near to the bow. 
Cf. et duxit longe, donee curvata coirent j inter se capita 
et manibus iam tangeret aequis, | laeva aciem ferre, dextra 
nervoque papillam. | extemplo teli stridorem Verg. Aen. xi. 
860 ff. — κυκλοτ€ρ^5 : predicate. 

125. Double 'chiasmus.* βώς and vevprj, ta^ev and αλτο, receive 
prominence from the order. — λίγξ€ : c/. A 49. — άλτο : on A 53. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 141 

127. Apostrophe to Menelaus. — <r€06v : const, with λελάθοντο. 

129. Ίτρόσ-θβ : cf. 54. — σ-τάσ-α : taking her stand. — βί'λο? : on A 51. 

130 ff. τόβ-ον: explained by 132f. — ώ? ore: on Γ 33. With subjv., 
as 141, Β 147. See H. 914 β b; G. 1438. — iraiSos : from her child.— 
λφται : aor. subjv., cf. A 80. Sc. τταΓς. — οθι : cf. Γ 145. 

135 f. Cf Γ 357 f. 137. Ι'ρκο? ακόντων : on A 284. 

139. φωτός: αντον. 

140 f. Cf. Indum sanguineo veluti violaverit ostro Verg. 
Λ en. xii. 67. — Ιλ^φαντα : iaorij. The ' elephant ' is not mentioned in Homer. 

142. τταρήϊον: Attic φάλαρα. — ϊτητων : equiv. to tTTTrctov. 

144 f . φορ€£ΐν : § 47 Λ. — άμφότβρον : cf. Γ 179. — ' Chiasmus ' here again. 

146. μιάνθην : €μίάνθησαν. Cf. ηγζρθεν A 57. 

147. vir€v€p0€v : contrasting σφνρά with κνημαι. 

148-219. Agamemnon's distress at the hurt of Menelaus. The surgeon 
Machaon is summoned. 148. ρίγη(Γ€ν : cf Γ 259. 

151 f . vevpov : i.e. the thong which bound the arrow-point to the shaft. 

— Iktos : sc. ωτείλης. — άψορρον : cf. Γ 313, but this is adverbial. — θυμός : 
courage. 

153. Tois : i.e. Menelaus and those about him. — βαρύ : on /Acya A 78. 

154 if. χ€ΐρ09 : on A 323. — κασ-ίγνητ€ : for the length of the * ultima,' 
see § 59 /. — θάνατον : pred., cf κακά 28. " The truce was death to thee." 
4'ταμνον : see on Β 124. — οίον : agrees with σ€, obj. of προστησας. 

157 f. κατά Sc ττάτησαν : Attic καταττατησαντες, § 21 Λ. — ττισ-τά- a 
standing epithet of opKui, even when broken. — αλιον : predicate. 

159 = Β 341. 

160 f. ουκ : cf. ovK εΐω 55. — Ικ : const, with reXet. — 8^ : see on A 58. 

— σ-υν μ€γάλω : explained by the following. — άπέτισ-αν : gnomic. " The 
breach of faith will surely be punished." 

163 f. τόδ€ : refers to the following sentence. — όλώλη : § 18 δ. 

165 = 47. 166. σφί : for the dative after iiri, cf MeveAao) 94. 

167. €ΐΓΐσ«•€ίησιν : for the mode, cf ΙΒωμω. A 262. — αίγίδα: on Β 447. 

168 f . άιτάτης : see on ενχωλης A 65. — αχός o-iBiv : grief for thee. 

170. For the fulness of expression, see on A 88. 

173 f. Cf. Β 160. — λ(ΐΓοιμ€ν Έλ^νην: this really gives the cause for 
ελίγχίστος Ικοίμην 171. 

177 f. ΙτΓίθρώσ-κων : sc. in mockery. — χόλον κτλ.: see on A 81. 

179 f. όίλιον : cf. 158. — καΐ 8ή : cf A 161. — οΙκόνδ€ : see on 103. 

181 f . συν κ€ΐνήσ•ιν κτλ. : i.e. without Helen and the spoils of war, and 
with heavy loss. See on Β 298. — ώς : cf. «Sc 176. — χάνοι: i.e. swallow 
me. Cf.mihi tellus prius ima dehiscat Verg. ^en. iv. 24. 

184 f. Ίτώ : at all, as Γ 306. — ττάροιθίν : local. 



142 COMMENTARY. 

189. Note the spondees. 

191. ΐΓαύσησ-ι : sc. σε. — <>8υνάων : cf. Β 07, 595. 

192. η : he spoke. See on A 219. — θ€ίον : see on A 334. 

196. oio-Tcvcras : nearly equiv. to οιστώ. — τόξων : see on Β 718. 

197. Λυκίων : i.e. the principal Trojan allies. — τω : sc. βαλόντι. 

199. βή κτλ. : cf. Β 47. — κατά λαόν : cf. 126, 209, κατά στρατόν Α 318. 

201-203. Cf 90-92. 204. Cf Γ 250. — opcro : 2d aorist, § 53. 

205-207 = 195-197. 208. Cf. Β 142, Γ 395. 

209. άνά κτλ. : cf Α 484. 

210 f. ϊκανον κτλ. : cf Γ 145. — " Where was the wounded Menelaus." 

212. 6: i.e. Machaon. — δ€: on 161. — ιταρίσ-τατο : cf παρέστη. 

215 f . Cf 186 f. 

217 ff. 4'μΐΓ€σ€ : cf 134.— lirC : adv. with ττάσσε. — ύΒώ^ : "skilfully." — 
ol: ethical. — φίλα κτλ.: see on A 73. 

220-250. Agamemnon orders the advance of the armrj. 

221 ff. ktri : const, with ηλνθον, cf A 475. — ol : sc. 'Αχαιοί'. — κατά : 
const, with Ιδυν [Ιδνσαν]. — μνήσαντο : i.e. they were eager. — tSois: on 
Γ 220. 

226 f. iirirovs μ4ν : correl. with ανταρ 6 231. — rovs μίν: repeats the 
μ€ν from 226. — φυσιόωνταβ : snorting in their impatience. 

229. ΊΓολλά : see on A 35. — τταρισ-γέμ^ν : sc. ΐτητονς καΐ άρματα. 

231 f. €•π•€'ΐΓωλ6ίτο κτλ. : cf. Γ 196. — μ^ν : correl. with αυ 240. — σίΓίύ- 
δονταδ : made emphatic by the verse pause. — ϊδοι : cf Β 188. 

234. ττώ: as 184. — αλκής: ablatival genitive of separation. 

236. Cf 67. 237. " Their bodies will lie unburied." Cf A 4. 

238. ημ€ί8 : contrasted with ywcs 237, as άΧόχονς is with αυτών. 

240. Cf. 232. 242. έλεγχα? : cf Β 235. 

243. τίφθ': τίτΓοτε. — έ'<Γτητ6 : as this stands, it is perfect. (.στ-ητ^Ί 

244. αϊ τ€ κτλ. : cf. Γ 4. — ττολ^ος : broad. — ircSCoio : see on Β 785. 
247. Sarcastic. — 4'νθα κτλ. : the clause is here equiv. to νηων. 
251-421. Agamemnon visits the different divisions of his army. Five 

divisions are enumerated. 256-271. I. Idomeneus. 

252. ol δ' άμφί: on Β 445. — θωρήσσοντο : sc. when he reached them. 

253. Ίδομ€ν€ύ9 : sc. was busy. — σ-υΐ : for the comparison, see Β 480. 
255 f. γήθη(Γ€ν : see on A 330. — μίίλιχίοκτιν : see on A 539. 

257. Δαναών : for the genitive after Trepi τιω, see on A 258. 
258 f. " Both in action and in council." — δαιτί: see § 28 c. 
260 f. κ^ρωνται : for the mode, see on A 80. — €Ϊ -ircp : see on A 81. — 
'Αχαιοί : equiv. in meaning to ΑργεΓων 260 or Δαναών 257. See § 22 h. 
262 f. δέ: as 161. — ιτλεΐον: ττλε'ων. — irie'civ : for inf., cf μΑχεσθαι A 8. 
264. Trdpos: with present. See on A 553. — cv'xcai etvai: see on A 91. 



FOURTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 143 

266 f . €ρίηρο$ : cf. Γ 47. — το ιτρώτον : on A 6. — ύττίσ-την κτ\. : on 
A 514. 269. σ-ύν : const, with €;^evav. — γί : emphasizes the whole clause. 

270. Τρώ€5: see on IpSe 28. 271. Cf. 236. 

272-291. II. The Ajaxes. 272. κήρ:οηΑ44. 273. C/. 251. 

274 f . ν^φος : this suggests the following comparison. Cf. ' cloud of 
witnesses.' — <os ore: cf. 130, Γ 33, Β 209. — aliroXos: the goatherd is not 
needed for the comparison, but he and his flocks enliven the scene. § 14 a. 

211 f . μ€λάντ€ρον κτ\. : this seems a combination of two expressions, 

— μελάντερον η and μίλαν ήύτ€. — φα£ν€τ : φαίνεται, § 28 α. 

280. τοίαι : refers to ως 275. Predicate. " So dark and threatening." 

282. ΊΓίφρικυίαι : cf 'Bristled with upright beams innumerable | Of 
rigid spears, and helmets thronged, and shields,' Milton Par. Lost, vi. 
82 f. ; 'horrent arms,' ib. ii. 513. 

284. σφί'α? : monosyllable, § 25. 287. αντά : of yourselves . 

288-291. Cf. Β 371-374. 289. ird<riv : masc. not neuter, cf τω 104. 

292-325. III. Nestor. 293. €v0a : particle of transition . 

297. Nestor was a skilled tactician, see Β 362 ff., 553 ff. He brought 
to Troy a larger force than any other prince but Agamemnon. 

299 f . epKos : cf. A 284. — άνα-γκαίη : of necessity. 

301 f. itriTivtriv μ€ν : has no correl. ττε^οι? Si. — l\i\Ltv: check. 

303. Transition to 'direct discourse,' without the usual introduction. 
See on A 17. — ΙτηΓοσ-ύνη : "skill in fighting on chariots." 

305. " Remain together." — aXairaSvorcpoi : sc. if you fail to obey. 

306. άίΓο όχ^ων : nearly equiv. to οίς οχέεσσιν. Contrasted with πρόσθ* 
άλλων. 310. τΓολψων: gen. as τόξων 196. 311. Cf 255, 283. 312 = Β 7. 

314. γούνατα : the seat of bodily vigor. These weaken in time of fear. 

315. οφ€λ£ν : cf A 415. 316. 6χ6ΐν : sc. γήρας. 

319. (OS : modifies c/xcv [ctmtj ; equiv. to τοΓος. See on μίνυνθα A 416. 

— Έρευθαλίωνα : the story is told at full length in Η 132 if. 

320 f . Ίτάντα : sc. αγαθά. — el : on A 280. — νΰν αντ€ : on A 237. 

322. καΐ «is: "although old." 323. τό : c/. 49. 

324 f . ΟΪ ircp : nearly equiv. to since they. — γβγάασι : are. 

326-363. IV. Menestheus and Odysseus. 

327 f. Cf 89 f . 329. O8v<r<r€vs : in appos. with o. 

330 f. ιτάρ: const, with Ιστασαι/. ^ σ-φίν : for the dative, see § 19 e. 

332. v^ov: as A 391. 334. oinrOTc: c/. Β 794. — ιτνργοί : column. 

335. Τρώων : for gen., cf Μενελάου 100. — άρξειαν : for plur., cf. Β 278. 

336. Cf 241, 255. 337 = 284. 338. vU : for the ultima, cf 155. 
339. 'Alliteration' of κ, § 13 a. — κερδαλεόφρον : cf. A 149. 

340 f . άφ4(Γτατ€ : sc. μάχης. — |Uv τ cit^oikc : contrasted with νυν 347. — 
lovras : for the ace, in spite of σφωιν, see on A 541. 



144 COMMENTARY. 

343. " You are always ready to listen to an invitation to a feast." 

345. φίλα: predicate. See on A 107. — όττταΚία: cf. A 465 f. 

347. νυν Be: opposed to 341 f. — φίλωβ : § 56 c. — ct κτλ.: obj. of 
o/ooWe. 349. Cf. A 148. 

350-355. Speech of Odysseus, in six lines like that of Agamemnon, 
358-363. 350. Rhetorical question. Cf. A 552. 

351 f . πολ€μοιο μ€θΐ6μ6ν : sc. ημ,αζ. Cf. 234. — liri : against, upon. — 
Ιγίίρομεν κτλ. : cf. Β 440. — Ιγ€ίρομ€ν : for subjv., cf A 164. 

353 fe. " I shall fight bravely." — Τηλίμάχοιο κτλ. : cf. Β 260. — μιγίντα : 
* inceptive ' aorist. — άνεμώλια : predicate. 

357. χωομ€νοιο : supplementary^ participle. For the gen., cf Β 348. 

358 = Β 173. 362. " We will make all this right hereafter." 

363. τα Se: sc. harsh words. 364-418. V. Diomed and Sthenelus. 

364 = 292. 365 f . Cf 89 f ., 327 f. 

366. ϊτπΓοισι κτλ. : form one thought. 

367. Trap: sc. as charioteer. 368. C/. 336 — τόν : i.e. Diomed. 
370. Cf Β 23. 

372. φίλον η€ν: equiv.to τ^νδανεν. * 7Γτωσ/<α^6/χ€ν is subject. 

374. ϊ8οντο : for the voice, see § 50 a. — ττονίύμίνον : i.e. in battle. 

375. irtpi : const, with γενίσθαι. 

377. litvos : as a friend. — άγ€ίρων : c/. 28. 

378. ΟΪ: i.e. Tydeus and Polynices. — έσ-τρατόωντο : cf. Γ 187. 

379. μόλα : for length of ultima, see on A 394. 

380. ol : i.e. Mycenaeans. 

381. έ'τρίψδ : i.e. dissuaded. — τταραίσια κτλ. : cf. Β 353. 

382. οί : a return to ot of 378. — ττρό : adv. — <>8οΰ : local genitive. 
383 f . The invaders halted at the river and sent an embassy to the 

town. — άγγ€λίην: pred., as ainhassador , cf. Γ 206. — liri: const, with 
στάλαν, i.e. to Thebes. — Τυ8ή : Τυδεα. 

387. |civos κτλ.: stranger though he loas. — Καδμβίοισ-ιν : equiv. to 
Καδ/Λειωνας 385. Cf AapSavLOL and ΑαρΒανίωνες. See on Β 819. 

389. ο -ye: resumes δ 385. — -π-ροκαλίζίτο : cf. Γ 19. — ττάντα : neuter, 
"in all contests." Cf Β 643. — Ινίκα: ivas victor. 

391. χολω(Γάμ€νοι : sc. because of his success. 

393. Kovpovs: in appos. with λόχον. — The leaders have bloody names. 

396. καΐ τοισιν : i.e. he overcame these too. — €φήκ€ν : cf Ιφηττται Β 32. 

397. 6va : sc. to bear the tidings. 

398. άρα : resumes Iva δε κτλ. 

399. ΑΙτώλιο9: Tydeus was grandson of Oeneus, Β 641. — τόν: this. 

400. μάχη: local, cf A 521. — άγορ-η κτλ.: "although better," eic. 

401. Cf. A 511. — ένιττήν : ace. after αιδεσ^ει?, see H. 712; G. 1049. 



FOURTH* BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 145 

404 f. ψ€ύδ€*: ij/evBeo. — σάφα : i.e. true. — Note the following 'asyn- 
deton ' and the repetition of ημεΐς. — μ^γα : on A 78. 

406 f. Θήβηβ: see ou Β 505. — ΐΓαυρότ€ρον : sc. than the fathers. — 
άγαγόντ€ : dual, for Dionied and Sthenelus. — viro rci^os : cf. Β 216. 

409. K€ivoi : i.e. the first assailants. See on Β 564. 

410. τω : therefore. — ομοίη : sc. ήμϊν. " We deserve higher honor." 
412 ff. Seven verses in reply to seven. See on 350. 412. Cf. A 565. 
415. τούτω μδ'ν : correl, with τούτω δε 417 ; and κΰδος is contrasted 

with ττίνθοζ, in the same place in the verse, before the pause. 

417. 'Αχαιών: gen. of cause ; or, possibly, genitive absolute, § 19 d. 

419. Cf. Γ 29. 420. δ€ΐνόν : see on Γ 337. 421. ύιτό : see on Γ 34. 

422-456. Both armies advance and the battle begins. This scene could 
follow^ immediately on Β 483 or Β 785. 

423. €Tra<rcrvT€pov : the point of comparison, cf εττασσΰτεραι 427. 

425. χ€ρ<Γφ : local. 427. Δαναών : const, with φαλαγγ€$. 

428 f . κ€λ€υ€ κτλ. : cf. Β 805. — ήγ€μόνων : at the head of the verse in 
contrast with ot δ' άλλοι. — οι Sc κτλ. : see on Γ 2, 8. — φαίη? : on Γ 220. 

430. έχοντα κτλ.: co'ntains the principal idea. 431. SciSiotcs: causal. 

433. Τρώίδ : the comparison is continued until the subject is forgotten 
and resumed in Ύρωων άλαλητός 436. Cf Β 459. 

434. λευκόν: for the epithet, see § 12 a. 435. Two 'apparent hiatus.' 

436. Τρώων : see on 432. — άνά στρατό ν : cf. A 10. 

437. ϊα : cf. μία Γ 238. — γήρυ? : cf. Β 804. 
439. του? μεν: i.e. Trojans. 

442 f. Vergil imitates in his description of Fama, parva metu 
primo, mox sese attollit in auras | ingrediturque solo et 
caput inter nubila condit Aen. iv. 176 f. Cf. 'Satan alarmed | 
Collecting all his might dilated stood : | . . . His stature reached the 
sky, and on his crest | Sat horror plumed,' Milton Par. Lost. iv. 985 f . 

442. Cf 424. 

443. ovpavtp : for the dative, see on Ζ 136. — Ισ-τήρφ : gnomic aorist, 
parallel to βαίνα. — καΐ lirl κτλ.', "while still it walks " etc. 

446-456. Beginning of the general conflict. 

447. συν : together. Const, with Ιβαλον. — μενεα : cf. Β 387, 536. 

449. ΊΓολύ? κτλ. : cf. Β 810. — Cf. ' Of shout and scream the mingled 
din I And weapon-clash and maddening cry | Of those who kill and those 
who die,' Scott Rokeby v. 31. 

450 f. Note the 'chiasmus,' — ενχωλ-η belonging to ολΧύντων, and 
οΙμωγη to ολλνμίνων. 452. ορεσψι : genitive. 

455. δοΰπον: the point of comparison. — ττοιμήν: cf. 275. Cf. 
rapidus montano flumine torrens . . . stupet inscius alto | 



146 COMMENTARY. * 

accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor Verg. ^en. ii. 305 ff., 
and also ih. xii. 523 f. 

456. των : const, with Ιαχη. Cf. A 49. — γ6ν€το : see § 32 Ji. 

457-544. Single combats. The Achaeans prevail until the Trojans are 
roused hy Apollo. 457. Τρώων : const, with άνδρα. 

459. ρά: marks the clause as a repetition of 457. Cf. Ε 79. 

460. ΐΓήξ€ : sc. δόρυ or εγχος as object. — otrriov €Ϊσω : cf. A 71. 

461 f. ο<Γσ€ : in appos. with τόν, cf 350. — ττύργο?: sc. ηρητε. Cf Β 394. 
463. ΊΓοδών : cf χειρός 154. 464 = Β 541. 

465, 6λκ€ : mark the change to the imperfect. — οψρα κτΧ. : = συλ^σαι. 

466. μίνυνθα: see on A 416. 470. τόν ^c'v: i.e. Elephenor. 
472 f. άνηρ άνΒρα: equiv. to aXkrj\ov<i. C/. legit virum vir Verg. 

Aen. xi. 632. — υΐόν : for the short penult, see § 23/. 

477. κάλεον : sc. τοκ-ηε^ζ. 

478. θρ^ΐΓτρα : τροφεία. " He did not repay his parents' care." 

479. iJiro : const, with 8ovpt. Cf Γ 436. 

481 f. avTiKpvs : cf Γ 359. — χαμαί : for χα/χα^ε. Cf vij/ov A 486. 
483 f . ΐΓ€φύκχι : for the subjv., cf Γ 61 f. — άτάρ τ€ : cf. άλλα re A 82. 
485. άνήρ: see on Β 474. 486. €ξ4ταμ€: gnomic, hence subjv. κάρ,ι/^ι;. 

488. Totov: refers to αίγειρος ως 482. Cf Γ 153. — *Ανθίμί8ην: § 39 'e. 

489. τον : i.e. Ajax. Cf. Μενελάου 100. 490. καθ' ό'μιλον : on 199. 
491. ό he: for the repetition of the subj., see on A 191. 

493. αΰτω : i.e. his booty, the dead Simoisius. — οι: dat. of interest. 

494. του: causal. Cf. 168 f. — άιτοκταμίνοιο : passive. See § 50 d. 
498. άνδρόδ : ablatival gen., see § 19 d β. — άλιον : cf. 26, 179. 

500. irap* ΐΊτιτων : clearly Priam had a stock farm at Abydus. 

501. eVapoio : for the gen., cf. τον 494. 

502. η : refers to δουρι, but αΙχμη (which is added in apposition) is 
already in the poet's mind. 504. A frequently recurring formula. 

505. υπό : const, with χωρησαν. — re : for its position, cf. A 417. 

506, μ€'γα : for the length of the ultima, see on 456. 

508. Π€ρ-γάμου : i.e. from his temple. See Ε 446. — άύσα5 : cf. φωνι/σας. 
509 f . χάρμηδ : ablatival. — XCGos : " of stone." — xp«s : subject. 
512, ου μαν ούδ^ : cf Β 703, 513. χόλον irta-a-ei: cf A 81. 

514. ΊΓτόλιοδ : i.e. άί<ροπόλεως. 516. μεθι^ντα? κτλ. : ς/! 240. 

519. κνήμην : one of the two aces, in the active const, (ε/^αλε Διώρεα 
κνημην) is retained in the passive construction. 

521. αναιδής : pitiless. 523. ε'τάροισι : sc. appealing to them for aid. 

526. For the 'alliteration' of χ, cf. 339. — τόν: i.e. Diores. 

527. τόν: i.e. Piroiis. 

531. T(f : demonstrative, with this. — ο γ6. See on A 97. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 147 

532. άΐΓ^$υσ-€: c/. Β 261. — ΐΓ€ρ((Γτησαν : 2d aorist, intransitive. 

533. άκρόκομοι: possibly like American Indians. See on Β 11. 

537. ο μίν: i.e. Pirous, 519 f. — ο U: i.e. Diores, 517, Β 622. 

538. ircpi : cf. Β 417. 539. όνόσ-αιτο : for the opt., cf. 18οίς 223. 

541. άγοι Βέ : see on και oi A 79. — No one would dare as an observer 
to enter such a field, unless under the special protection of the mighty 
goddess of war. 

542. xeipos: hy the hand. — «λοΰσ-α : hiatus justified by pause, § 27 b. 

543. γάρ : refers to ονόσαιτο. 544. ΐΓρην€€$ : cf. 522, Β 418. 
The last verses of the Fourth Book form a fitting conclusion to the 

story of the battle up to this point, and a preparation for the more 
important contest which follows. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

The subject of the Fifth Book is at once announced : The Bravery of 
Diomed, who had already been somewhat prominent, before the battle, 

Δ 419 fe. 

1-453. The A chaeans press fonvard victoriously. 1-94. Diomed comes 
forward. 

I. €v0a: as Δ 293. — Άθήνη : not only the goddess of war, but also 
the special patroness of Diomed, as she had been of his father, Δ 390. 

4. Cf Verg. Aen. x. 270 ff. 

6 f. Ώκίανοίο: for gen., cf Β 415; see § 19 g. — κρατό? : corresponds 
to κόρνθος 4, and ωμών to άσπιΒος. 

9 f . ην 8^ Tis: see on Β 811. — lp€vs : there were no priests in the 
Greek camp. See on A 62. — Ήφαίσ-τοιο : the Trojans honored the same 
divinities as the Greeks. 

II. μάχηδ κτλ.: cf Β 823. 12. ol: i.e. Diomed. — evαvτCω : pred. 
13. ΊΓίξό? : cf Δ 419, where Diomed dismounts. 14 = Γ 15. 

15. irpOTcpos : cf νστερος 17. 17. ώρνυτο κτλ. : cf Γ 349. 

18. άλιον : as Δ 498. 

19. μ€ταμάζιον : cf Δ 480. See on Β 56. — c5<r€ : sc. by the cast of his 
spear. — ϊ-π-ιτων: "chariot." 

21. ΊΓίριβήναι: cf 299, άμ.φίβ€βηκας A 37. — ά8ίλφ€ΐοΰ κτλ.: "his 
slain brother." Cf. Δ 211. 22. oiU κτλ.: cf Β 703. 

24. ώβ: final. — ol: ethical. 28. τον \Uv: i.e. Idaeus. 

29. όρίνθη : sc. to fear and flight. 

31. 'Ap€s "Apts : § 59 f/ β. —^FoY the epithets without conjunction, see 
§ 15 a. 32. ουκ αν : cf. Γ 52. — μ^ν : correlative with νωι Bi 34. 



148 COMMENTARY. 

34. Aios κτλ. : this is only a pretext. 

35. Ares is not long inactive, see 461. Athena departs (to Olympus?) 
at 133. 

37-83. Six Greek leaders slay each a man. 

37. €κλιναν : sc. after Ares's withdrawal. 

38. ηγ£μόνων : const. with έκαστος. 

40. ιτρώτω : dat. of interest with ττηζεν. § 19 e. — στρίφθί'ντι : const, 
with ττρώτω. Note the verse pause. — μ£ταφρ€'νω : local, with iv Trrj^ev. 

41. 6λασσ€ν: sc. δόρυ as object. 42 = Δ 504. 
43. άρα: on Β 522. 44. os: i.e. Φαιστός. 

46. ΐττ-πων : const, with ίπφησόμενον. Phaestus had been fighting on 
foot. Now he started to mount his chariot in order to flee. 

47. o-KOTos d\tv : cf. 68, 82, 310, 659, 696, Δ 461. 

50. Menelaus is able to fight, in spite of his wound, Δ 139 f . 

51. δί8αξ€ : c/. A 72, Β 827. 52. οΰρ^σ-ιν : local. 
53. χραΐσ-μί : cf. A 28. — (κηβολίαι : for plur., see on A 205. 

57 f . = 41 f. 60. OS : i.e. Φερεκλος. Cf. 5s 44; see on Β 872. 

62. ο s : i.e. Phereclus, again. — άρχ€κάκου8 : see on ονλομένψ A 2. 

64. Phereclus pays the penalty for his work. — Ik: const, with θ€ων. 
— θέσ-ψατα : sc. that misfortune would befall Troy, if Paris should bring 
home a Greek wife. 65. ore κτλ.: parenthetical. 

66. βίβλήκίΐ : as Δ 492. —η : see on Δ 502. 

67. άκωκή : in apposition with η. 

70. μέν, Si : contrasted. Nearly equiv. to ο ν νόθον rrep Ιόντα κτλ. 

73 f . κ€φαλή$ : partitive gen., with Ινίον. — avriKpis : cf. V 359. 

75. ψυχρον χαλκόν : "cold steel." 77. ο s : i.e. Dolopion. 

78. άρητήρ: cf A 11. 79. άρα: marks this as a repetition of 76. 

81. χείρα : arm, cf. ωμον 80. 82. ircSCip : to the plain. 

84-94. Introduction to the strict άριστΐΜ of Diomed. 

85. γνοίηδ: c/. ιδοις Δ 223. 86. Explanatory of ττοτίροισι κτλ. 

88 ft•. Cf Δ 452 ft. — 4κ€δασ•σ•6 : ' gnomic' 

91. Ιλθόντα: const, with τον 89. — Aios ομβρο8 : on Β 146, 396. 

93. ωδ : refers to €οίκώς 87. 

95-165. Diomed is wounded, but is strengthened hy Athena. 

95. AvKaovos κτλ. : i.e. Pandarus. See Δ 88 f . 97. lirC : cf. Δ 94. 

98. τυχών: cf. τυχησας A 106 . 101. ciri : const, with τω. 

102. ορνυσ-θ€: c/. Δ 509. 104. άνσ-χήσ-ίο-θαι : c/. Δ 511. 

105. Αυκίηθίν: see on Β 876. 106. 6ύχόμ€νο5 : exulting. 

108. ΚατΓανήιον : see on Β 20. 

109. ορσ-ο : cf. Δ 204. — Sthenelus was waiting and watching for him, 
with his chariot. See Δ 229. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 149 

111. καθ* ϊιτπων: cf, καταβήσεο 109. Opposed to άι/α)8αίΊ/ω Γ 261, as 
e^ όχίων Δ 419 to €σβαίν(ά 837, and αφ* ίππων 19 to επιβαίνω 255. 

115. κλΰθι : cf. A 37. 

116. €Ϊ iroTc: cf. A 453. — μοί κτλ.: cf. οΓ κτλ. Δ 219. — ιταρ^στη? : 
see Δ 390. 117. νυν : opposed to ποτί, as c/xe to πατρί. 

118. καΐ Is κτλ. : parenthetical. In time, this action would precede 
that of eXeii/. — IXGctv : sc. aivSpa as subject. 

120. See on A 88. 122. iroSas κτλ. : in apposition with γνΐα. 

123 = Δ 92. 124. Ιπί : cf. Γ 15. 

126. Explains πατρώων 125. 

127-132. These verses prepare the way for 330 ff. 

127. άχλύν: cf Verg. Aen. ii. 604 ff. ; 'but to nobler sights [ Michael 
from Adam's eyes the film removed,' Milton Par. Lost ii. 411 f. 

129. θ€05 : of course in human form. 

131. Athena makes a limitation of her command, as a new thought 
occurs to her. 134. Igavris : see άναχωρησας 107. 

135. καΐ |λ6μαώβ: the form of the sent, is changed, and this is left in 
the air. See on Δ 433, Ζ 510. 136. rpCs : on A 213. 

140. δύ€ται : sc. ποιμην. — τα δ^ : sc. μήλα. — φοβ6ίται : are driven. 

141. αΐ μί'ν : sc. οίες. — άγχιστίναι : c/. εττασσΰτεραΐ Δ 427. 

142. αύτάρ ο : cf Α 333. 143. μ(γη : resumes ^μίχθη 134. 
145 f. " Diomed hit one and struck the other." 

149. όν€ΐροΐΓΟλοιο : cf A 63. 

150. " These never returned ; their father never again interpreted 
their dreams." C/ Β 859. 154. έιτί : ot'er, " as heir to." 

155 f. θυμόν, άμφοτφω : two accs. after a ' verb of depriving.' H. 724 ; 
G. 1069. 157. Here, as in 150, the participle bears the important thought. 

160. elv €vl κτλ. : sc. as spearman and as charioteer., 

161. €ξ: const, with α^τ;. The hiatus before a|j^ is ' apparent.' 

162. βοσκομίνάων : attracted from the case of βονσί to that of πόντιος 
κτλ. 163. Tovs κτλ. : both these. — Ιξ : on 111. 

166-273. Aeneas and Pandarus against Diomed and Sthenelus. 
168 f . = Δ 88 f . 

170. άντίον ηυδα : is equiv. to προσην8α^ and hence is followed by two 
accs., €πο? (cognate) and μίν (direct object). Cf. Β 7. 

171. τΓοΰ : cf. Β 339. 172. iJ : in which. 

174. 6φ€8: cf Δ 94. — άνασχών: on A 450. 

175. οδ€: here; cf. κεΐνοζ Γ 391. 

176. Τρώαβ : for ace, see on Δ 30. — γούνατα : on Δ 314. 
178. Ιρών: causal. On A 65. — cm: see on A 515. 

181. Ίτάντα: neuter. Cf Δ 389. 184. vlos : in appos. with άνηρ. 



150 COMMENTARY. 

185. av€v0€ θ€οΰ: cf. η on sine numine Verg. ^en. ii. 777. — τάδ€ : 
cognate ace. with /xatverat, cf. Γ 399. Nearly equiv. to ovriu. 

187. τούτου: ablatival gen. of separation. Cf. Δ 131. 

188. ηδη : see 97 ff. 

190. Άιδωνήι κτ\.\ see on A 3. 191. Oeos κτ\.'. an inference. 

193. Λυκάονοδ: i.e. πατρός. See on A 240, Γ 223. 
195. ΊΓίΊΓτανται : see on Β 777. — «κάσ-τφ: in apposition with σφίν. 
Cf. A 606. 196. For the fodder of horses, see on Β 776. 

197. ΊΓολλά : const, with eTreVcAAe 198. Cf. Δ 229, A 35. 

198. έρχομ^νω : " as I left home for Troy." 199. Cf Δ 366. 

200. άρχίύδΐν κτλ. : cf Β 345. For the dative of interest, cf 
Ύρώίσσι 211. — Τρώ€(Γσ•ι : used here in a wide sense. On Β 816, 826. — 
Pandarus, vexed at his ill success, wishes that he had come as a spearman. 

201. η Toi κτλ. : sc. if 1 had been persuaded. 

204. λίτΓον : sc. ΐτητονζ καΐ αρμχχτα. 205. όίρα : " as I see now." 

207. *Ατρ€ίδη : see Δ 94 ff. 

209. τω pa: so, you see. — κακτ) αϊσ-η : cf. A 418. 

214. Cf Β 259 f . " I hope I may die, if I don't." 

215. 6v Ίτυρί: cf. Β 340. 216. άν€μώλια: cf Δ 355. 

217. Cf. A 265. 

218. μη κτλ. : see on A 131. — irapos, irpiv : on πρίν A 98. 

219. kirL: const, with άνδρι. — σ-ύν : on A 389. 

222. οίοι: explained by the 2d 'hemistich.' — Τρώιοι : see on Ντ/λϊ^ιω 
Β 20. — 'π•€δίοιο : for the gen., cf μάχης 11. Or, is it local? 

223. Explanatory of ίτηστάμενου. 

226 f. "You may drive, or wield the spear; just as you please." 
— Aeneas came on foot (167), but his charioteer drove up later. 

231 f. μόίλλον : better. — 6Ϊ ircp κτλ.: if we must fee from. 

234. €κφ€ρ€μ€ν: sc. η μ^ς SiS object. 235. νώι : object of KTeiV)^. 

^36. αύτώ : repeats ι/ώι. — Ιλάσση : sc. away. Cf. A 154. 

239. For the rhyme, φωνησαντες βάντες, see § 13 α. 

241-273. Sthenelus advises retreat to the line, hut Diomed advances upon 
Aeneas. 244. Iirl o-ol μάχίο-θαι : cf 124. 

246. ParentheLical. 247. AlveCas : correl. with ό /acV 245. 

248. μήτηρ Si : the form of the sentence is changed. A genitive is 
expected, correl. with *Αγχίσαο. 251 = Δ 411. 

255. αυτωβ: i.e. on foot. § 42 e. 256. Iij : monosyllable. See § 25. 

257. Ίτάλιν : cf. A 59. 259 ^ Δ 39. 

260 f . " If I slay the men, do you look out for the horses." 

261. τούσ-δε : i.e. those of Diomed. 262. «ξ άντυγοβ κτλ.: on Γ 261. 

263. A(v€(cu> : limits Γππων. 265. -qs : ablatival, of lohich breed. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 151 

266. vlos : see on κουρη<; A 111. — ττοινήν : recompense. — ουν€κα : Zeus 
gave these because they were the best. 268. γ€ν€ή8 : sc. ΐτητονς. 

270 ff. των: gen. of source. — γ£ν€θλη : in appos. with the subject of 
iyivovTO. — Tovs μεν κτλ. : four of these. — τω Bt κτλ. : but the other two. 

273. Evidently the horses could not be captured without overcoming 
the masters. This victory would bring glory. — €Ϊ κ€ κτλ.: of. A 60, 
Β 123, 597. 

274-333. Death of Pandarus. Aeneas is wounded, but is saved by 
Aphrodite. The horses are captured by Sthenelus. 

276. τόν: i.e. Diomed. 278. ού pc'Xos κτλ.: cf. 106. 

279. αϊ K6 κτλ. : on the chance that, etc. 280 = Γ 355. 

284 f . κίνίώνα : for ace, see on Δ 519. — άν<Γχή(Γ£σθαι : cf. 104. 

287. "You missed me, but I will not let you try again." 

288 f. irpiv, irpiv : cf. ττάροζ 218. — αϊματοβ : with 'verb of fulness.' 

291. ρίνα: 'limit of motion.' — Ιττίρησίν : «c. ββ'λο?, as subject. 

292. του : i.e. Pandarus. Construe with γλώσσαν. 

294. Cf. 57, 58. 297. άττόρονσ-^ : " leaped down from his chariot." 

299. άμφΐ paivc: cf. 21, A 37. 301. του: i.e. ν€κρον. 

302. σμ€ρδαλ^ά: cf Δ 456, 506. 

304. οίοι κτλ.: cf qualia nunc hominum producit corpora 
tellus Verg. Aen. xii. 900. The men of the former generation were far 
mightier! C/. A 272. 

306 f . κοτύλην κτλ. : parenthetical. — irpos : besides. — Wvovtc : Δ 521. 

309. Ίταχίίη : cf. Γ 376. 

310. γαίη?: local. — άμφΐ κτλ.: see on 47. Here not of death but of 
a swoon. 311. άττόλοιτο : see on A 232. 

312 = Γ 374. 313. υ'ττό : on Β 714. — Cf. Β 820 f. 

316 f. epKos β£λ^ων: on A 284. — βαλών : 'means.' — Ik: with Ιλοιτο. 

318. νττίξ : cf. Δ 465. 320. Parenthetical. — τάων : cf τψ Δ 46. 

321-324. Cf. 261-264. 326. ομηλικίηβ : cf Γ 175. 

328. ων: his own. 329. Τυδ€ί8ην : after /actoi. — I'irirovs: dir. obj. 

331 f . ο T6 : see on A 244. — ανδρών : const, with ττόλ^μΌν. 

334-453. Aphrodite is wounded by Diomed, and taken to Olympus by 
Ares. Aeneas is carried to the Pergamus by Apollo. 

334. €κίχαν6 : .sc. Κιίττρίι/. — καθ' ομιλον : see on Δ 199. 

338. άμβροσ-ίου : cf Γ 385. 

340. p€€i : sc. in the veins. — Cf. ' From the gash | A stream of nec- 
tarous humour issuing flowed | Sanguine, such as celestial spirits may 
bleed,' Milton Par. Lost vi. 331 ff., of Satan. 

342, καλέονται : on A 293. 

343. μίγά, άίΓο ; on Δ 456 ; § 32 Λ. — κάββαλ€ν : see § 29 h. 



152 COMMENTARY. 

344 f . μ€τά χίρσίν : in his arms. — tis Δαναών : cf. 316. 346 = 317. 

347. Cf. 101. 348. Cf. Γ 406, Δ 509. 

349. η ουκ: as one syllable, § 25. — ηΐΓ€ροιτ€ύ€ΐ8 : cf. Γ 39, 399. 

351. ττύθηαι : ττνθτ), § 44 h. 352. τ€ίρ€το 84 : for she was distressed. 

353. iXova-a : sc. χειρό?. Cf Δ 542. — Iris acts on her own account, 
as Γ 121. 

354. μ6λα£ν€το : sc. ΆφροΒίτη, μίλανί αΓ/χατι. Cf. Δ 140. — χρόα : 
sc. of her hand. 355. άριστίρά : sc. of the Greek line. Cf. 36. 

356. ϊ-ΐΓίτω : see on Γ 327. 357. κασ-ιγνήτοιο : const. Avith Γππου?. 

358. ΐΓολλά: cf 197. For the long ultima, cf Δια A 394. 

359. φίλ€: cf. Δ 155. — κόμισ-αι : cf. A 594. 361. o: cognate ace. 
365. -π-άρ κτλ.: cf Γ 262. 366. A formula. — Ιλάαν : βλαν, § 47 c. 
371. λάζ€το : clasped. — θυγατφά: on μίγα 343. 372 = A 361. 
373. Ούρανιώνων : § 39 α. 374. κακόν κτλ. : an open offender. 
377. Answer to 373. 379. γάρ : refers to Τυδεο? νΙός 376. 
382. Cf. A 586. — Dione comforts her daughter by recounting the 

examples of three gods who had suffered worse than she. 

384. Ιξ ανδρών: const, with τλημΕν. — eirC : const, with τιθέντες. 

387. κ€ράμω : i.e. such a large jar as those found by Schliemann at 
Hissarlik, and assumed in the story of ' Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.' 

— δ^δ€το : lay bound. — τρισκα(δ€κα κτλ.: i.e. a full year. 

388. άττόλοιτο: c/. 311. 390. €ξ^κλ€ψ6ν: brought out by stealth. 

391. Zi: as in 352. See ξ 21 d. 

392. Nothing is known of this story, unless Hera came to the defence 
oi Neleus at Pylus, against Heracles. — irais Άμφιτρ{)ωνο5 : cf. vlos Διό? 
396. See on τοκηων Γ 140. 

395. €v τοί(Γΐ : i.e. among the gods who were harmed by mortals. 

396. ωυτ09 : 6 αυτός, § 26. — όδύνησ-ιν : const, with Ιδωκεν. 
399. αύτάρ : § 21 e. 

401 f. Parenthetical. — τω : i.e. ωμω. — ττάσσ-ων: cf Δ 218. — Itc'tvkto : 
sc. Άιδϊ/ς. 403. σ-χ^τλιο? : sc. Heracles. See on Β 38 ; cf νητηος 406. 

405 f. lirC : const, with σοι. Cf Γ 15. — τό : this, introduces 407 if. 

407. Cf Ζ 130 f. 

408 f. " His children do not rejoice in his return from the war," i.e. he 
does not return. Cf 150. 410. τφ : therefore . 

411 f. tIs : sc. θ€Ος. — Άδρηοττίνη : § 39 i. She seems to have been the 
maternal aunt of Diomed as well as his wife. 

413. Ιξ υττνου: const, with iyeipr}. — οΐκήα? : household. 

415. In appos. with Αιγιαλεία 412. 

416. άμψοτ€ρτ)σιν : see on τ-ρ Βεκάτγ} A 54. — άττό: const, with δμόργνυ, 

— χίΐρό?: ablatival. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 153 

419 f . κ€ρτομ(οις κτλ. : c/. Δ 6 f . The joke is on the side of the 
goddesses now. They return the jest. — τοίσ-ι : see on A 58. 

421. Athena does not ask for information. "Don't be vexed with me." 

422 f. The reference to Aphrodite's relation to Helen is obvious. — 
δΚΊταγλα κτλ.: c/. Γ 415. 424. Άχαιιάδων : added to explain των. 

425. άραιήν: cf. άβληχρψ 337. 427. χρυ<Γ€ην : see on Γ 64. 

428. ΐΓολεμήια: equiv. to πολέμου, and opposed to γάμοίο 429. 

430. ταΰτα: i.e. the former. — Note how constantly Ares and Athena 
are presented as the two divinities of war. 431 = 274. 

433. ο : see on A 120. — vircipexc : cf. Δ 249. 

435. άττό : const, with Βνσαυ. 

436. Tp£s : cf. 136. — 'dirura : refers to 432. 

438. TO τέταρτον: see on Β 329. — δαίμονι κτλ.: sc. in might. 

439. όμοκλήσ -as : cf. άνσας Δ 508. 440. φράζ€ο : cf. φράσαι A 83. 
441 f. ΐσ-α φρονέίΐν : cf. A 187. — €0€X6: cf. A 277, Β 247. — ου ttotc 

ο'μοιον: cf A 278. — χαμαΐ κτλ.: equiv. to ΐτηχθονίων. 

446 f. Πίργάμω : cf. Δ 508. — Leto and her children are often united. 

449 f. €Ϊδωλον: such a 'wraith' is not mentioned elsewhere in Homer 
and has no importance in the story here. Cf Yerg. Aen. x. 636. — αΰτ<ρ : 
" the real Aeneas." 

454-710. The Trojans press forward, aided by Ares. Aeneas returns. 

455=31. 456. ουκ αν κτλ.: c/. 32. 457=^362. 459. C/. 438. 

461 f . Tptp'as : adj., often printed Τρώας. — Ares himself was a Thracian, 
ace. to Ν 301. 

465 f. €s τί : hotv long. — 'Αχαιοί? : dat. of agent with κτανεσθαι. — η : 
as Δ 247. It unites with the following diphthong in pronunciation, § 25. 

468. Cf. 248. 469. σαώσομ€ν : ' hortatory.' 470. Cf A 73. 

472 f. irfj κτλ.: cf. Β 339. — 6ξ€μ6ν: a play on Hector's name? § 13 c. 

475. νυν ; " but." — Sarpedon had noticed Paris's absence. 

476 f. κύν68 «3s : see on Β 190. — " We, who are only allies." — €ν€ΐμ€ν: 
cf Β 131. 479. Cf Β 877. — τηλοΰ : on μίνννθα A 416. 

481. κάδ : as if κατίλιττον had preceded. Cf. av Γ 268. — τά τ€ κτλ. : 
nearly equiv. to χαρύντα. — Ιιτιδίυή? : sc. rj. Equiv. to ΙπίΒεύηται. 

482. καΐ ωs: even thus. I.e. though I should enjoy life at home; and 
though I have no wrongs to avenge on the Trojans, nor any fear of them. 

484. ψ^ροκν κτλ. : cf the familiar φίραν καΐ ayeiv. 
485 f . τύνη [σι5] κτλ. : contrasted with 475 ίϊ. — ώρ€σσιν : dat. of interest. 
487. μή κτλ.: cf A 566. — <ίλόντ6 : dual referring to Hector and his 
people. 488. ^ωρ : c/. A 4. 490. τάδ€ : i.e. 487-489. 

492, νωλ€μ^ω5 κτλ. : stand firm. — άποθ^σ-θαι : const, with χρη 490. 
494 = Γ 29. 495. ττάλλων κτλ. : ς/". Γ 18 f. — σ-τρατόν : sc. Ύρώων. 



154 COMMENTARY. 

497. οι: I.e. Trojans, contained in στρατοί/ 494. — IvavrCoi : predicate, 
cf. A 335, Β 185. — 'Αχαιών: gen. after the adjective of place. See H. 
754 f; G. 1146. 

500 f. ξανθή : very likely with reference to the color of the ripened 
grain, cf. flava Ceres Verg. Georg. i. 96, rubicunda Ceres ih. i. 
297. — The winnowing and threshing were done in the open air. 

504. Ιττί-ιτληγον : 2d aor. of πλι^σσω, § 43 e. 

505. ύίΓο «στρίφον : sc. ΓτΓττους. — ηνιοχήίβ : 8C. Ύρώων. 

506. μ€'νο5 χ€ΐρών: cf. Δ 447. — άμφί: const, with Ικάλυφ^. 

507. μάχη κτλ. : cf. Α 521. 

508. έφ£τμά8 : cf 455 if. 510. Ϊδ6 [είδε] : sc. Apollo. 
511 f . οίχομί'νην : when ? — avros : i.e. Apollo. — iriovos : on Β 549. 
514 f. μίθίστατο : cf. παρίστατο Δ 212. — ξωον κτλ. : 'safe and sound.' 

516. μ€τάλλησαν : sc. how he was rescued. — μέν : on Β 703. 

517. aXkos : in appos. with πόνος. — άργυρότοξο$ : see on A 37. 

518. Cf. Δ 439 f. 519. rovs : made definite by Δαναούς 520. 
520. αυτοί : i.e. without special exhortation. 522. Κρονίων : on Β 146. 

523. νην€μίη8 : temporal. 

524. Cf ' As when from mountain-tops the dusty clouds | Ascending 
while the north wind sleeps,' Milton Par. Lost, ii. 488 f. 

525. σκι06ντα : cf A 157. 

527. ΙμιτίΒον: the point of comparison. Cf άτρ€μχΐζ 524. 

528. Cf. Γ 449. — ττολλά : cf 197. 

532. φδυγόντων : from those ivho fee. Const, with ορννται. — Cf. Γ 45, 

Δ 245. 533 f. -π-ρόμον : cf Γ 44. — ΑΙνίίω : see § 34 c. 

536. μ€τα κτλ. : explains θοός. 538. Cf Δ 138. 

539. 4'λασ<Γ€ν : sc. Άγα/χε/χνων. 540 = 42. 541. Μα : cf Δ 293. 

543. Φηρη : the modern ' Kalamata,' at the head of the Messenian Gulf. 

544. βιότοιο : after a ' word of fulness.' — γ€νο5 : ace. of ' specification.' 
546. άνδρ€σ•σιν : dat. of interest with ανακτά, as often with άνάσσω. 
549. μάχη? κτλ. : cf Β 823. 551 f . Cf A 158 f . 

554. οϊω κτλ. : unusual order, for these two like young lions. 

557. Cf 136 ff. 559. iJiro : const, with χείρεσσυν. Cf Δ 479. 

560. καΐΓΊΓίσ^την : the point of comparison, cf. κατίκταθεν 558. — Ιλάτη- 
<Γΐν κτλ. : a new comparison is added, — "stretched out like pine trees." 

562 = Δ 495. 563. τον: i.e. Aeneas. Const, with /xevos. 

564. τά: introductory to Γνα κτλ. 566. irepi : exceedingly. 

568. τώ: i.e. Menelaus and Aeneas. — xetpas κτλ.: cf. 506. 

573. ol : i.e. Menelaus and Antilochus. — vcKpovs : i.e. sons of Diodes, 
541 ff, who are called τώ δειλώ 574. 575. αύτώ : i.e. ol 573. 

576. Πυλαιμ^νία: for the ultima treated as long, see § 59 i. — One of 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 155 

the most noted inconsistencies in the Homeric poems is the verse which 
makes Pylaemenes follow his son's corpse from the field, Ν 658. 
579. 6στ€ώτα : sc. on or near his chariot. — «γχίΐ : instrumental. 

582. αγκώνα: in part, appos. with Μυδωνα. — τνχών: cf. Δ 106. 

583. €λ(ψαντι : cf. Δ 141 f . 587. άμάθοιο : partitive genitive. 
590-626. Hector and Ares approach. Diomed withdraws. Ajax. 

590. Tovs : i.e. Menelaus and Antiloclms. — avrovs : opp. to στρατός. 

591. κ€κληγώ5: c/. Β 222. 592. Ένυώ : c/. 333. 

593. άναι8€α : cf. Δ 521. 

594. Ινώμα: a participle is expected, to correspond to η μχν ίχονσα 
593, see § 11 g. 595. φοίτα: sc.^Ap^. 

596 f . άγαθόδ : for the epithet, see § 12 c. — ueSioto : cf. Β 785. 

598. στήχι : § 52 <?. — ώκυρόφ : cf. 88. — Ιδών : gives the cause of στητ}. 
— άνά €δραμ€ : contains the point of comparison, cf. Β 147, Γ 33 fp. 

601. οίον : neuter, cognate ace. — θαυμάξομ€ν : imperfect. 

603 f. πάρα: ττάρεστι, § 55 c. — καΐ νυν: see on A 109, Δ 11. — 
K€tvos: cf o8e 175; see on Γ 391. 

605. " Retreat, but keep your face towards the foe." 

606. μ€ν€αινέμ€ν : as imperative. 

607. αυτών : sc. Ά;^αιών. 608. χάρμη$ : cf μΛχης 549. 
609. €lv €vl κτλ.: cf. 160. 610. Cf. 561. 611 = Δ 496. 

612. υίόν : for the short penult, cf. Δ 473. 

613. ΊΓολυκτήμων κτλ. : for lack of conjunction, cf 194, A 99. 

614. η>: "drove." (7/ Β 834. 616. νίΐαίρχι κτλ.: 0/539. 

620. λά| κτλ. : " setting his foot upon him." 

621. Cf. Δ 530, 532. — άλλα: besides. Η. 705; G. 966, 2. Cf. 517. 
623. ο γ€ : on A 97. — άμφίβασιν : sc. veKpov. 625 f . = Δ 534 f. 
627 =r 84. 

627-678. Tlepolemus slain by Sarpedon. Odysseus kills seven Lycians. 
628. Cf. Β 653. 629. μοίρα κτλ. : cf. 83. 630 =: Γ 15. 

632. Cf. 276. — τον: i.e. Sarpedon. — καί: see on A 249. — irpos; 
const, with Ulttcv. 

633 f . " Why should you come here to play the coward ? " 

636. lircC : refers to φ^υΒόμενοι. 

637. Διόβ : const, with €$, cf. Τ 199. — -π-ροτ^ρων : cf. Δ 308. 

638. Exclamation. " But what sort of a man was Heracles ! " 

639. θυμολ^οντα: Coeur de Lion. 

640 if. Laomedon promised these horses as a reward for the rescue of 
his daughter Hesione from a sea-monster. Heracles slew the monster, 
and, when the promise of Laomedon was not fulfilled, sacked Troy. 
Cf Υ 145 ff . 



156 COMMENTARY. 

641. οϊχΐ?: only. — a-vv νηυσΐ κτλ.: cf. A 179, 389. — τταυροτ^ροισι : 5C. 
than Laomedon. 

642. χήρωσε: cf. tarn multis viduasset civibus urbem Verg. 
Aen. viii. 571. 

643. <ro( : contrasted with Heracles. — κακ05 : cowardly. — άιτοφθινύθουο-ι 
κτλ.: sc. through thy cowardice. 645. el μάλα κτλ. : cf. A 178. 

646. Cf Γ 322. 647. Cf 217. 

649. "Laomedon's fault and folly gave the victory to Heracles." — 
dv^pos: the man. Explained by άγαυοΰ ΑαομίΒοντος. . — άφραδίησιν : for 
the use of the plural, see on Ζ 74. 

650. «ρξαντα: concessive. 651. άΐΓ^8ωκ€ : did he give as was due. 
652 ff. Observe the repetition and prominence of iyw, k^Wev, €μω, 

€μοί. See on 810. — iJiro SovpC : see on Γ 436. — δαμί'ντα: sc. σί. 
655. άνέ<Γ\ίτο : cf Γ 362. 659. See on 47. 

661. β€βλήκ€ΐν: §30 A:. 

662. ττατήρ : i.e. Zeus, see Ζ 198 f. 663. μ^ν : correl. with Si 668. 
665. TO μ€ν : explained by Ι^ερνσαι 666. Cf. τά 564. See on Β 6. 
667. σ-ΐΓ€υδόντων : partitive gen. with ου τις 665. — ττόνον : toil of conflict. 

— άμφΐ€ΊΓοντ€5 : cf Β 525. 671. Cf. A 189, 198. 

672 f. Ίτροτίρω: cf. Γ 400. — ο γδ : cf 623. — των ττλδόνων : contrasted 
with the leader. Cf the later ol πολλοί. Gen. with άπο eAotro. 

674. ούδ* Όδυσ-σήι : sc. but to Patroclus, cf. Π 477 ff. 

676. τω pa: "and so," with reference to the two preceding verses. 

677. These Lycians have Greek names. 678= Verg. ^ en. ix. 767. 
679-710. The Achaeans yield before Hector and Ares. 

680. Cf Γ 374. 681 = Δ 495. 682. ol ιτροσιόντι : at his approach. 

685. Sarpedon is ready even to die, if it but be among friends. 

686. ούκ όίρα κτλ. : I was not fated ^ as it seems. Sarpedon believes 
that his wound is mortal. 

687. Cf. Β 158. — οΙκόνδ€ : explained by the second ' hemistich,' cf Δ 70. 

688. Cf 480. 689. Cf A 511. 690. όίφρα κτλ. : on Δ 465. 
691. ώσαιτο : equiv. to άπώσαιτο, cf 626. 

693. φηγω : this must be the oak or chestnut which is mentioned fre- 
quently as a familiar landmark, not far from the Scaean Gate. Cf. Ζ 237. 

696. See on 47. 698. kirnrvdova-a : see on ίτελείετο A 5. 

699. tJ-jto κτλ. : under the mighft of etc. As if were driven was to be 
the verb of the sentence. 

700 f. Iiri: toicards, as Γ 5. — άντ€φ£ροντο : sc. Τρώεσσι. Cf. A 589. 

702. έττύθοντο : sc. from Diomed, who had the gift to discern. See 604. 

703. Adapted by Vergil, Aen. xi. 664. — ιτρώτον: masculine. 
704 f. χάλκ€08 : see on Γ 64. — itri : adverbial, " after him." 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 157 

711-909. Hera and Athena descend to the field of battle, in order to aid 
the Greeks. Ares is wounded. All the gods return to Olympus. 

711-791. The descent of Hera and Athena. 

711. τούί : i.e. Hector and Ares. 

712 f. Άργίίου? : object ace. — αύτίκα : cf Δ 69. 714 = Β 157. 

715. ά'λιον : pred., cf Δ 26, 498. 716 = Β 113, 288. 718 = Δ 418. 

719 = Β 166. 721. ττρ^σβα : cf Δ 59. 

722. "Ηβη : she serves also 905 and Δ 2. — Each act of preparation is 
enumerated. — The Homeric chariot was very light. Nowhere else is 
mention made of its taking to pieces when not in use. 

724. άφθιτο8 : cf Β 46. 725. θαΰμα κτλ. : a wonder to behold. 

726. €l<r£ : for the tense, see on Β 448. 729. «ξ : const, with τον. 

730 f . 8ήσ€ : sc. "ϊίβη. — Iv : adv., with ίβαλε. — χρύ<Γ€ΐα : i.e. adorned 
with thin plates of gold. 7321 cpiSos κτλ. : cf. A 177, 492. 

733. αύτάρ : correl. with μεν 720. 

734. ΊΓ^ιτλον: i.e. her own robe. 

736. χιτώνα: i.e. θωρηκα, cf Β 416. 738. Cf Γ 334. 

740. αλκή, Ιωκή : defence, attack, — two forms of €ρις, strife. 

741. The Gorgon's head prob. filled the middle of the shield. — 
π€λώρου: in appos. with Τοργονς implied in Τορ-γείη. See on Β 54. 

744. Hyperbole. "Large enough for," etc. Or, "adorned with 
representations ®f ," etc. — «κατόν : a round number, cf. Β 448 f . 
745 f . φλόγ€α : § 59 Ζ. — ιτοσΐ κτλ. : § 12 ^. — βριθύ κτλ. : § 15 α. 
747. κοτ€ίΓσ€ται : κοτίσηταχ, § 30 α. 

749. αύτόμαται (' automata ') : cf 'till at the gate | Of Heaven arrived, 
the gate self-opened wide,' Milton Par. Lost, v. 253 f . — μύκον : the gates 
are clouds (cf. 751), but yet they creak. 

750. μ^γα? κτλ. : cf. A 497. 751. Explains «πιτετ/οαττται. 
752. τη : explained by 8i αντάων. 753 f . Cf. A 498 f . 
755. Cf 368. 756. Κρονίδην : on A 502. 

758. Exclamation. — οσ-σάτιον : cf. Β 120. 

759. μάψ κτλ. : cf. Β 214. — άχοδ : see on ττημχι Γ 50. 

761. τούτον : contemptuously. 762. Cf 421. 764 = A 560. 

765. ol : after €πι, cf Μενελάω Δ 94. — Athena as goddess of war is a 
sort of rival of Ares. 766. όδύνησι κτλ. : cf. 397. 

767. Cf 719. 768. Cf. 366. 

769. Cf terras inter caelumque volabat Verg. Aen. iv. 256. 

771. σκοίΓΐη : cf. Δ 275. — λ€ύσσ•ων κτλ. : cf A 350. 

772. τόσ-σ-ον ciri : so far. 

774. Explains ποτα/χώ 773. — ηχι : cf. A 607. — σ•υμβάλλ€τον : observe 
the position of the verb between its two subjects. 



158 COMMENTARY. 

775 f. Cf. 368. — iripl κτΧ. : sc. in order to hide them. — η^ρα : cf. 356. 
— ΐΓουλύν: adj. of two endings, § 38 a. 

777. άμβροο-ίην: only here as fodder, but cf. 369. 

778. τώ : i.e. Hera and Athena. 779. άνδράσιν : cf. Γ 6. 
780. Cf Γ 145. 781. βίην κτλ.: cf. Γ 105. 

783. η : on Β 800. — σ-υσΐ κτλ. : § 12/ 

785 f . Στ€'ντορι : Stentor is mentioned only here, but he has given an 
adjective to the English language. — χαλκ€οφώνω : cf. Β 490. — " As loud 
as fifty ordinary men." 

787. κακά IXiyxta: cf. Β 235. — ctSos κτλ.: cf Γ 39. 

788. 'ΐΓωλ€'<ΓΚ€το : cf. A 490. — Achilles himself boasts, I 352, that while 
he took part in the conflict, Hector dared to come only to the gates of the 
city, and once barely escaped when he met Achilles : οφρα δ' βγω /xer 
Ά;(αιοΓσιν πολίμιζον, \ ουκ €^€λ€σκ€ μάχην άττο τείχεος όρννμεν "Εκτωρ, | 
αλλ' όσον (only') es ^καιάς Τ€ ττΰλας καχ φηγον ικανών ' \ tvOa ττοτ οίον 
ίμίμν€, μό•γι<ς δε μεν εκφνγεν ορμην. Hector also in the Eighteenth Book 
(2 286 1Ϊ.) refers to the Trojans as acting on the defensive, — cooped up 
in the city during all the years of the war. See § 6 δ. The way is pre- 
pared here for the wall which the Greeks build around their camp in the 
Seventh Book, — a wall which was not needed while Achilles fought for 
the Greeks. The hero is already honored by the Achaeans, since they 
recognize their need of him. 

789. ΔαρΒανιάων : see on Β 809. 

792-863. Athena rebukes and encourages Diomed. The two wound Ares. 

792. C/. 470. 

793. ΙΐΓΟρουσ£ : hastened to ; without idea of hostility, as in 432. 
795. άναψύχοντα : explained by 798. — τό : see on δ 361. 

796 f . Cf Β 388 f . 

798. αν : const, with Ισχων. 

800. " The son of Tydeus is not like the father." Cf Δ 370 fP. — 
ολίγον : adv. with εοικότα. — οι : accented, since it is reflexive. § 42 a. 

801 f. μικρ09 κτλ.: see on A 115, Β 816. — καί: even. — οτε: the 
principal clause is omitted. — 6Ϊασ•κον : on Β 832. 

803 f. €κτΓαιφά<Γσ£ΐν : cf Β 450. — νόσ-φιν 'Αχαιών : equiv. to μοννοζ εών 
Δ 388. — άγγελο? : cf Δ 384 &. — μετά κτλ. : cf 687, Α 423. 

805. 8αίνυσ-θαι : in emphatic contrast with μάχεσθαι 810. — " I bade 
him feast in quiet, but he challenged the Thebans to a contest ; I bid thee 
fight, but thou art weary or faint-hearted." 

806. αύτάρ: adversative to ανωγον 805. 

807. ττροκαλίζετο κτλ. : cf. Δ 389 f . 

809. <Γθί: contrasted with Tydeus. — irapd ϊσ-ταμοα: cf 116. 



FIFTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 159 

810. κί'λομαι : opposed to ουκ £ΐασκον 802. — Mark the repetition of the 
pronoun, σοι, σε, σεΰ, σ€, συ etc. See on 652. 

811. <Γ€ΰ : is placed before η, as if it belonged to both clauses, but its 
place in the second clause is filled by σί. 

812. eiTiiTa: "to judge from your actions." 

817 f. Uo%\ cf. 812. — oKvos: reply to 811. — Ιφίτμί'ων: cf. 129 fE. 
819-821. C/. 130-132. 821. ούτάμ6ν: sc. c/ceXcves from 819. 

822 ft•. C/. 604 ft. 824. μάχην άνα: c/. 167. 826 = 243. 

827. "Αρηα : with long ultima, as 824. Cf. φλογεα 745. — τό ψ : in this. 

828. C/. 808. 829. ιτρώτω : frst of all. 830. <r\tSLr\v: sc. πληγψ. 
832. Ίτρώην: cf. Β 303. — σ-τ€ΰτο: cf. Β 597, Γ 83. 

834 f . των : i.e. his promises to aid the Achaeans. — άφ* ϊΐΓίτων : see 
on 111. 836. άιτόρουσ-εν: cf. 20. 838. μ4γα: adverbial. 

839. 8ίΐνήν κτλ.: 'chiasmus,' cf Δ 123, 125, 145. See § 16 a. 
841. Cf. 829. — αύτίκα: see on A 539. 
842-863. Ares wounded by Athena and Diomed. 

844. μεν : a repetition of μίν 842, in opposition to αντάρ. 

845. The ' cap of Hades ' made the wearer invisible. This cap is not 
mentioned elsewhere in Homer. German mythology has a similar 
' Tarnkappe.' The poet does not think it necessary to tell how Athena 
came to have this with her. The name seems to play distinctly upon the 
derivation of the word *Ai8os {unseen) . 

846. Ϊ86: ctSe. 847. αυτόθι: explained by οθι κτλ. 848. 
849. Wis: const, with ΑιομηΒεος. See H. 757 ; G. 182, 2. 850 = 630. 

851. ιτρόσ-θεν: on Γ 317. Correl. with Βεντερος 855. — ώρ^ξατο: cf 
Δ 307. — ΐττνων: sc. of Diomed. Ares is on foot. 

852. a"ir<J κτλ. : cf. Γ 294. 

854. έτώσ-ιον: cf Γ 368. " So that it was hurled in vain." 

857. μ(τρην: ζωνννσκ€το is a 'verb of clothing.' H. 724 a. 

858. διά : const, with Ιδαι/^εν. 

860. εττίαχον: gnomic. — δίκάχιλοι: μύριοι. 

861 f, 4'ριδα •Άρηο8: equiv. ίο'Άρηα Β 381.— ύιτο είλεν: cf Δ 421. 
864-909. The wounded Ares hastens to Olympus and complains to Zeus. 
866. Toios: i.e. so dark, cf A 47. 868. Cf 360, 367 Β 17. 

870. άμβροτον κτλ. : cf 339. 872. Cf 757. 

873. Cf. 383 f . — ρίγιστα : adverbial. — τβτληότε? κτλ. : τίτλαμεν. 

874. αλλήλων: equiv. to άλλος άλλον. — χάριν κτλ.: cf 211. — 
ανδρεσσι : βροτοΐσι. 875. μαχόμεσθα: cf Α 8. 876. μ^μηλεν : c/. 430. 

878. σο£ τε: for the position of τ€ see on Β 136. — δεδμήμεσ-θα: cf 
Γ 183. Note the change of person in the verb. — εκαστοβ: see on A 606. 
880. " Since she is your own daughter." — Ιγείναο: cf. Δ 399. 



160 COMMENTARY. 

881. νυν : introduces a special case under aUv 876. 
883 f. = 458 f. 885. η τέ kc: see on Γ 56. 

886. αύτοΰ : explained by the second ' hemistich.' See on Β 237. 

887. ζώδ: concessive. 

889 f. Reply to 872-874. — άλλοττρόσ-αλλί : cf. 831. 890. Cf. A 176. 

891 = A 177. It is better suited to this place. 

892 ff. Reply to 875 ff. — "Ηρη?: in appos. with μητρός. For its posi- 
tion, see on β(χλλ€ A 52. — τήν \i.iv : cf. το μίν A 234. — σ-ττουΒή : cf. Β 99. 

894 f. Tip: therefore, so. — έχοντα: supplementary participle. 
896. "yevos: cf. yivos 544. 

898. Οΰρανιώνων: here alone in Homer of the Titans, children of 
Uranus. These were hurled by Zeus into Tartarus, a gloomy cavern 
beneath the earth; as far beneath the earth (says Hesiod) as heaven 
is high above the earth. 

899. Παιήονα: cf. 401. — άνώγ€ΐν: § 44 b. 901 f. = 401 f. 
902. <os oT€ : cf. Γ 33. — oiros : used instead of rennet. 

904. καριταλίμωδ : the point of the comparison, cf ωκα 903. 

905. "Ηβη: Hebe prepares the bath, just as she had served the gods as 
cup-bearer, Δ 2, and had aided Hera in preparing the chariot, 722. — 
k'a-a-iv: sc. μίν. 906. C/. A 405. 908^ Δ 8. 

909. "Αρην: this is the reading of most Mss., but probably "Αρη or 
"Αρη is better. 

SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 

The connection between this Book and the preceding is close. The 
first four verses of Ζ cannot be separated easily from the last three of 
E. In fact, though Ε is the longest of the forty-eight books of the 
Homeric poems, it is not long enough to contain all of the ΑωμηΒονς 
αριστεία, which certainly extended over the first half of Z. JSTo one 
should forget that the division into 'books ' was not original. See § 10. 

1-71. After the departure of the goddesses, the A chaeans prevail. 

1 f . οΐώθη : έμονώθη. Sc. by the gods. — ττολλά : adverbial. — «ircSCoio : 
cf Β 785. 

3. αλλήλων : gen. after a verb of aiming, 'cf Μενελάου Δ 100. — Ιθυνο- 
μ,ίνων : limits μάχη 2. 

4. Σιμ.Ο€ντο5: const, with /χεσσι^γυς. Note the caesura. 

5. Ίτρώτοδ: sc. after the gods' departure. — έ'ρκο? κτλ. : -on Γ 229. 

7 f. βαλών : % hitting. — ηύν κτλ. : cf. Β 653. 9-11 = Δ 459-461. 
14. άφν€ΐ09 κτλ.: cf Ε 544. Attracted to the const, of the rel. 
sentence. 15. φιλ€€(ΓΚ€ν: see on Γ 207. — όδω κτλ.: explains φιλε'εσκεν. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 161 

16. Cf. Ε 53. — των γ6 : i.e. those to whom he had shown hospitality. 

— ηρκ€(Γ€ κτ\. : cf. Β 873. 

17. ι;τΓαντιάσα9 : sc. ΑωμηΒεϊ. — άμφω, θυμόν : two accs. after a 'verb 
of depriving.' — άττηύρα: sc. Αιομ-ηΒης. 

21. μ6τά : after, as in Attic. — νύμφη : see on Β 865. — Such episodes 
served to relieve the monotony of long lists of warriors. 

23 f. Parenthetical. 

24 f. Ύ€ν6η : in age. C/. Δ 60. — σ-κότιον: masc. Cf. f urtim Verg. 
Aen. ix. 546. — cir ο6σσι: cf. Ε 137. — μ^ΎΉ • ^^• Βουκολιων νυμφτ). Cf. 
Γ 445. 27 f. ύίΓΟκυσαμ^νη : conceived and. — καΐ μ^ν : cf A 269. 

34. τταρ οχθαβ : cf Γ 187. 38. ircSioio : cf. 2. 

39. οξω . . . μνρικίνφ : parenthetical. — βλαφθ€ντ€ : hindered, i.e. en- 
tangled. 

40 f. αύτώ μίν: correl. with αυτο9 δ€ 42. — ol άλλοι: those others. 

45. Ιλλίσ-σίτο : from Χίσσομχιι, see § 30 h. Sc. Mei/e'Aaov. — γουνών : cf. 
A 407. 47. 4v ττατρόδ: sc. Βωμχιτι. Cf. 378 f. 

49 f . των : from these, of these. — Ιωόν : pred. " That I was alive." — 
ΐΓίττύθοιτο : with ace, as Ε 702. — lirl νηυσ-Ιν κτλ. : i.e. in the Greek camp. 

51 = Δ 208. — opiv€v : " touched." 

52. τάχ' £μ€λλ6 : was Just about. 

53 f . καταξ^μεν : καταγαγειν. — AvtCos : pred., cf. Ε 497. — θί'ων : see on 
ίων A 138. — όμοκλήσ -as : cf 66, Ε 439, φωνησας A 201. 

55 f. οντωζ: i.e. as in sparing the life of Adrestus. — σοί : emphatic. 

— αρισ-τα : subject of πεποίηται. Cf. the prose ev 7Γθΐ€ω. 

57. των: demonstrative. — "Let every male perish, — even the child 
yet unborn." 

59. Kovpov : simply marks the sex. — φίροι : for the optative, cf Γ 299. 

— OS : demonstrative, cf. A 405. 

60 f . άκήδ€σ•τοι : predicate, see § 56 a. — cSs 6ΐπών : cf Δ 73. 
62. ΐΓαρ€ηΓών: for the length of the first syllable (τταρρειπων), see 
§ 59/. — 0: i.e. Menelaus. — άπο €0€v: cf. Δ 456; see § 32 Λ. 

64. Άτρ€Ϊ8η$ : i.e. Agamemnon. 65. λά| κτλ. : cf Ε 620. 

67 r= Β 110. 

68 ff. " Make sure of the victory, and follow it up before you think of 
taking spoils." 

69. K^v: in a final clause, see H. 885 c; Good. 1367. — ιτλίϊστα: 
" more than any one else." 70. καΐ τά : "the booty too." 

72-118. On the advice of Helenus, Hector goes to the city, in order to lid 
the Trojan matrons supplicate Athena's mercy. 

72 = Ε 470, 792. 73. W 'Αχαιών : cf. vw άνίρος Γ 61 ; see Η. 820. 

74. άναλκ€(χ|σ-ι : cf. αφρα^ί^σιν Ε 649, ΊΓροθνμ.ν^σι Β 588, 792.• 



162 COMMENTARY. 

75. Alv€£<j: Aeneas, as commander of the Dardanians (B 819), was 
next in rank to Hector in the Trojan army. 

76. οίωνοιτόλων κτλ. : cf. A 69, Β 858. 

77. irovos : i.e. the battle, and care and responsibility for it. 

78. Τρώων κτλ.: partitive. 

79. μάχ6σθαι κτλ. : see on A 258. 80. αύτοΰ : right here. 

81. χ€ρσί : arms, cf. A 441. 82. Cf. Β 175. — χάρμα: cf. Γ 51. 

84. ημ6ΐ9 μ^ν : correl. with "Εκτορ, άταρ συ 86. — Δαναοίσι : in the 
same position before the verse pause as ττόλινΒε 86. 85. Parenthetical. 

86. "Εκτορ : the vocative, for emphasis, in Greek poetry is freq. placed 
before the clause with which it is connected. Of course, it has no syn- 
tactical construction. Cf. 429. 

87 f. η : i.e. Hecaba. Subject of θεΐναί 92, which is equiv. to θίτω. — 
-ycpaias: the fern, of -γέροντας. — νηόν: 'limit of motion.' Cf 297; see 
on A 254. 89. Upoto κτλ. : equiv. to νηον. 90. ο : ο?, § 42 k. 

92 f. θεΐναι: see on ή 87. — cirl γούνασιν : on the lap. This is the only 
direct evidence in Homer for the existence of a statue of a god. This 
figure clearly was in a sitting posture. — ΰττοσ-χ^σ-θαι : vow. 

94. -qKcVras: equiv. to άκεντητονς. If the cattle had been used for 
menial service, they would be unfit to be offered in sacrifice to the gods. 
Cf. ' All the firstling males that come of thy herd and of thy flock, 
thou shalt sanctify unto the Lord thy God : thou shalt do no work with 
the firstling of thy bullock. . . . And if there be any blemish therein, as 
if it be lame or blind, or have any ill blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it 
unto the Lord thy God,' Deuteronomy xv. 19, 21 ; 'a red heifer without 
spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke,' Numbers 
xix. 2; 'take two milch kine, on which there hath come no yoke,' 1 Sam. 
vi. 7. — αϊ K€ : see on at κίν ττως A 66. 

96. αϊ K6V κτλ. : explains at κ€ above. — TvSc'os υΐόν : the subject of 
the story is still ΑιομηΒονς αριστεία. 

97. μήσ-τωρα: c/. Δ 328. 98. ytvi<rQai: "has shown himself." 

99. ovhi : not even. — ώδ€ : see on Γ 442. 

100. ov irep κτλ.: "although he is the son of a goddess." — ψασ£: 
'they say; cf Β 783, Ε 638. — Oeas κτλ. : cf Ε 637. 

101. Ισοφαρίζ€ΐν : cf. A 589. 102. ov τι άιτίθησ-δν : cf. A 220. 
103-106 = Ε 494-497. 107. φόνοιο : genitive of separation. 
108 f. φαν: Ιφασαν. — τιν αθανάτων: sc. as Ares had done, cf Ε 604. 

— άστ€ρό£ντο$ : the Homeric heavens are 'starry' even in broad daylight. 
See § 12 a. — <os : i.e. as if some god had come to their aid. 

112. Cf Ε 529, Δ 234, 418. 

113. ρήω: ^ώ. See § 52 c. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 163 

114. βουλ€υτησι : cf. Γ 149 f. Nothing further is said of them in this 
matter. — Hector is less definite than Helenus had been. 

117. άμψ( : explained by σφνρα καΐ ανχίνα, " above and below." 

118. άντυξ: attracted to the case of the rel. ; cf. urbem quam 
statuo, vestra est Verg. Aen. i. 573. Or, this may be the pred., in 
unusual position, " which ran as the outermost rim." 

119-236. Episode of Diomed and Glaucus. They recognize the tie of 
guest-friendship, and exchange arms. This episode occupies the gap in the 
story, while Hector is on his way to Troy. See on A 318, 430, Γ 121. 

119. Ace. to Herodotus, i. 147, the later kings of Lycia claimed 
descent from this Glaucus. For his genealogy, see Vocabulary, p. x. 

120. Is μί<Γον: cf. Τ 77. — αμφοτέρων: sc. Ύρωων και Ά;(αιώι/. 
121 = Γ 15. 

123. tCs Si : cf. A 540. — The conjecture that the Lycians had not been 
long on the plain of Troy, is likely enough ; just as the Amazons and the 
Aethiopians came to the help of the city after the action of the Iliad, 
and as the Thracians under Rhesus came during the very action of the 
Iliad (cf Κ 434 f., Verg. Aen. i. 469 ff.). Glaucus knows Diomed, 145, 
but that is natural after the latter's exploits on this day. 

124 f . οΊτωπα : sc. ae. — το irp£v : strongly contrasted with vvv. 

126. ο T6: in that. See on A 244. 

127. " Unhappy are the parents whose sons meet my might," i.e. the 
sons are slain, and the parents will have to mourn their death. Observe 
the prominence of Βνστψων. 

128. Evidently Diomed has lost his power of distinguishing gods 
from men ; cf. Ε 127 f . — αθανάτων ye : made prominent by the verse 
pause. This may be suggested by the beautiful golden armor of Glaucus 
(cf 236), in connection with the fact that his face was not familiar; or 
it may be a common-place remark, suggested by καταθνητων 123. 

129. ΙίΓουρανίοισι : contrasted with Ιτηγβόνιοί, as epithet of men. 

130. ούδ6 κτλ. : cf. Β 703, Ε 22. — υΙό?: with short penult, § 23/. 

131. δήν: δϊ^ναιό? Ε 407. For an adverb with -ην, see on A 416. — os : 
the relative clause is causal, as it is frequently. Cf. 165, 235. 

132 ff. In this story is an evident trace of resistance in Thrace to the 
establishment of the worship of Dionysus. In the story of Pentheus, as 
represented in the Bacchantes of Euripides, is a trace of resistance offered 
to this worship in Thebes. Dionysus is not one of the Great Gods in 
Homer. — μαινομ^νοιο: cf. the name * maenads,' /χαινάδε?, for the 
Bacchantes. 

133 f. ηγάθίον: cf. A 252. — θύσ-θλα: thyrsi, wands surmounted by a 
pine cone. — KaWxevav; dropped, let fall, as Ε 734. 



164 COMMENTARY. 

135 f . φοβηθ6ί5 : taking to flight. — κόλιτω : to her bosom. For the dat., 
cf. πεδιω Ε 82, ίτάροισί Δ 523, ονρανω Δ 443. — Thetis gave similar refuge 
to Hephaestus, cf. US 398 ff. 

137 f. 8(ΐδιότα: for its position, see on ουλομίνην A 2. — τφ: for the 
'dat. of association,' cf. θεοίσιν 129, 131. — pcta κτλ. : cf 'that new world 
of light and bliss, among | The gods who dwell at ease,' Milton Par. Lost 
ii. 867 f. 

139. τυφλόν: predicate. — €θηκ€ : cf A2. — €τϊ δήν: see ξ 69 h β. 

141. Diomed returns to the thoughts of 129. — " Therefore / would." 

142 f . Cf 123. — 0Ϊ κτλ. : cf. Ε 341. — θάσσ-ον : cf Β 440. 

145. Cf 123. 

146 ff. Cf ' As of the green leaves on a tree, some fall and some 
grow ; so is the generation of flesh and blood, one cometh to an end and 
another is born,' Wisdom of the Son of Sirach xiv. 18; ev Be το καλλιστον 
Χίος hnrev avrjp ' (" This is the best thing Homer ever said ") οΐη trtp 
κτλ. Simonides, Frag. 85. 

146. 8^: for hi in the ' apodosis,' cf A 137. — καΐ: aZso. — ανδρών : 
equiv. here to άνθρώττων, cf A 544. 

147. φύλλα: the whole, of which τα μίν and άλλα δε are parts. — For 
the comparison, cf. Β 468. — τέ, τί: see § 21 b. 

148. 4'apos δέ: for the ' coordinate' construction, see § 21 d. 

149. φύ€ΐ: mtr^jis., grotvs up. 150. καΐ ταΰτα: this too. 

151. ΊΓολλοΙ κτλ. : "the family is not inglorious." 

152. io-Ti κτλ.: a favorite Epic beginning of a story. See on Β 811 ; 
cf. Ε 9. — Έφύρη: see on Β 570. 

153 f . € νθα 6<rK€v : there lived. — Σίσυφο$ : this name seems to be 
formed by ' reduplication ' (cf δι-δω/χι) f lom σοφός, and κέρΒίστος (most 
cunning, crafty) refers to this. — Homer alludes to this hero's suifering in 
Hades (rolling a stone up a hill) only λ 593 ff. — ο . . . ΑΙολίδη? : paren- 
thetical. — ο: ος, cf. 90. — Σίοτυφοε: for the repetition, see § 16 b. 

157. HpotTos: king of Tiryns, to whom Bellerophon had fled for some 
reason, ace. to the later story. Perhaps Bellerophon had committed 
murder in his own home, since this was a frequent cause of exile in the 
heroic age. — κακά κτλ. : i.e. sent him to Lycia, as is explained below. 

158. Iirel κτλ.: gives not the reason for the banishment, but the 
explanation why it was possible. 

159. Άργείων: const, with Βημον 158. — €δάμασσ€ν: sc. ^Αργείονς. 

160. τφ: refers of course to Βελλεροφόντψ 155. The intervening 
verses have been half parenthetical. — δία: a merely formal, standing 
epithet. See on Γ 352. 

161. μιγήμ€ναι: makes ίπεμψατο more definite. Cf A 8. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 165 

162. αγαθά: cognate ace. with φρονίοντα. Nowhere else in Homer, 
perhaps, does ά-γαθός seem to have so much moral quality. 

163. ψ€υσαμ€νη κτλ.: contrived a falsehood and, cf. 26. 

164 f . τ€θναίη8 κτ\. : die or, " May you lie dead if you do not." — κάκταν(: 
[κατακτάνε] : for the form, see § 29 &. — os κτλ. : with causal force, as 131. 

— μο( : for the elision of oi, see § 28 a. 

166 f. οίον άκουα-€ν: " at what he heard." See II. 1001. — κτ€ίναι: sc. 
Βελλεροφόντψ. Perhaps an original ρ (/re, I, § 32 a) has been replaced 
by p'. — σίβάσσ-ατο κτλ. : Proetus shrank from killing one who had been 
his guest, but he had no compunctions about asking his father-in-law to 
do the deed. So the father-in-law, too, after feasting Bellerophon, would 
not kill him, but sent him into conflicts in which he expected him to be 
slain. See 178 ff. 168. σ-ήματα: i.e. a tessera hospitalis. 

169. γράψα? κτλ. : this verse has been the subject of much contention. 
Nowhere else does Homer come so near to a reference to the art of 
writing. This art was very likely known in Greece in Homer's time, but 
this expression is ambiguous ; -γράφω is a general word, and may mean 
' scratch ' or ' paint.' ττίνακι, rather than -γράφας, indicates the form of an 
epistle. Perhaps this letter was in 'picture-writing' resembling that of 
the ancient Mexicans. Note that the poet does not say that the receiver 
read it, cf. 178. 

170. •π•€νθ€ρω: tvife's father ; while ίκυρός, Γ 172, is husband's father. 
See on 378, Γ 122. 172. Cf Ε 773, Β 877. 

174. Explains ττροφρονίως τΐεν 173. For the * asyndeton,' see § 15 b. 

— Ιννήμαρ : a round number, cf A 53. — He made a great feast each day. 
176. καΐ TOTc : § 21 δ. — The Homeric host never asked his guest's 

errand until he had shown him hospitality. 

178 f. κακόν: destructive, cf λνγρά 168. — μ^ν: correl. with αυ 184. — 
Χίμαιραν: see Vocabulary. — ck^Xcuo-cv: see on 167. 

180. θ€ίον : equiv. to θ€ων. See on Β 20. 

181. This verse is translated : ante leo, postrema draco, media 
ipsaChimaeraby Lucretius, v. 905, preserving the exact order of words, 
and making the last clause more distinct even than it is in the Greek. 

182. Scivov: adverbial, as usual. — airoirvciovo-a : const, with η 180, the 
intervening verse being half parenthetical. 

183. μ^ν: repetition of /LteV 179. — θ6ών κτλ.: c/. Δ 398. 

185. "This was the hardest battle he ever fought." — κορτίσ-την: 
predicate, see on Β 216. — ανδρών: limits μάχην. 

186. This, too, by the Lycian king's command. — No mention is made 
here of the winged horse Pegasus, which aided Bellerophon on tliis ex- 
pedition, ace. to the conmion story. — avriavtCpas: cf Γ 189. 



166 COMMENTARY. 

187. τφ: i.e. Bellerophon. — νφαιν6ν: cf. Γ 212. Sc. ανα^ Ανκίης. 

188. For the 'asyndeton/ cf. 152, 174. 189. 6Ϊσ€ κτλ.: cf A 392. 

191. γίγνωσκί: "came to know," sc. from his achievements. Sc. άνα$, 
190 being parenthetical. — Oeov : indefinite. Some god must be the father. 
In Pindar, this hero is the son of Poseidon. 

192. θυγατέρα: for the long ultima, cf 62, Ε 71. 

194 f. μ^ν: the metrical quantity shows ol to be the personal pron., 
see §§ 59 y, 32 a. — καλόν: const, with τέμενος. See § 11 j. 

196. η: i.e. the θνγάτηρ of 192. — For the Family Tree, see Vocabu- 
lary, p. X. 

200. καΐ Kcivos: even he, i.e. even Bellerophon, who had received such 
signal proofs of the gods' care. — άττήχθίτο κτλ. : cf 140. 

201 f . Cf. ' Lest ... as once Bellerophon ^. . . on th* Aleian field I 
fall, I Erroneous there to wander and forlorn,' Milton Par. Lost vii. 17 ff. ; 
qui miser in campis maerens errabat Aleis, | ipse suum 
cor edens hominum vestigia vitans Cic. Tusc. iii. 26, 63. 

203 f. I.e. Isander fell in battle with the Solymi. 

205. την Si: i.e. Laodamia. — χολωσ-αμ^νη: sc. because of her connec- 
tion with Zeus. — "Αρτίμι? €κτα: i.e. Laodamia died suddenly and quietly. 
Cf 428. Artemis sends sudden death to women. 

207. τΓολλά liriTtWtv : cf Δ 229. 

208. A famous and noble verse, which is found also Λ 784 as the part- 
ing injunction of Peleus to his son Achilles. — άριστιύβιν : άριστον ctvat. 

209. μ^γα : see on A 78. 

210. I.e. as well the early generations, Sisyphus and Glaucus, at 
Corinth, as the later generations in Lycia, who were descended from 
Bellerophon. 

211. ToC: "since you ask the question"; with reference to 123. 
Glaucus ends as he began. — γ€ν£ή5: ablatival gen., of source. Cf Ε 265. 

212. γήθησίν: cf. A 330. 

213. μ^ν: correl. with αντάρ 214. — Diomed abandoned at once all 
thoughts of a contest. Guest-friends must not fight with each other. 

214. μ€ΐλιχίοΐ(Γΐ : see on A 539. 

216. Olvevs : i.e. father of Tydeus, and grandfather of Diomed. 

217. €vl μ€γάροΐ(Γΐν : sc. in Calydon, cf. Β 640 f. — IvC : t is here treated 
as long. See § 59 h. — «ρύξας: coincident in time with ^ίίνίσσε. 

219. For the 'asyndeton,' cf. 174. — φο(νικι : cf Δ 141. 

220 f. ScVas κτλ.: c/ A 584. — KaC μιν κτλ.: parenthetical. For the 
desertion of the rel. construction, cf. A 79, 162. — "I have it still." — 
μίν: i.e. SeVas. — Ιών: sc. cs Ύροίψ. Cf Ε 198. 

222 f . " I was but a child when my father went to Thebes, and I tave 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 167 

no recollection of him." These two verses are not needed here, but were 
suggested, very likely, by the mention of the cup which Diomed received 
directly from his grandfather, — not through his father. — TvSca: prob. 
not an ace. of specification, although the ace. is unusual with μψνημαι. — 
κάλλίΊΓί : KareAtTTC, § 29 b. — €v Θήβησιν: i.e. in the country about Thebes. 
The first expedition was repulsed and did not enter the city. 

224. τω: I.e. on the ground of this friendship of their ancestors. — 
|€ivos : host. " My house shall be your home." 225. των : i.e. Ανκίων. 

226. αλλήλων: equiv. to άλλος άλλου. — 8t* όμ.Cλoυ: contrasted with 
single combat. 

228. KT€iv€iv: explanatory. Cf. μίγημεναί 161. — ov κ€ κτλ.: corre- 
sponds to ov K€ Βννηαί 229. — κιχίίω : κιχω. Cf. Γ 291. 

229. €ναιρ€μ€ν : cf. ktclvclv 228. — δύνηαι : Swiy, § 44 h. 

230. οϊδ6 : i.e. the bystanders. It would be prosaic to ask what these 
had been doing since 122, — whether they had continued the battle, or 
had stopped fighting and listened ! 

234. Γλαύκω: dat. of disadvantage; see on A 161. 

235. OS κτλ. : here, also, the relative has a causal tone. Cf. 131. 

236. χαλκείων: gen. of price. See on A 111. — εκατόμβοια: cf. Β 449. 
— These are round numbers. Gold was worth more than eleven times 
as much as bronze. 

237-311. Hector and Hecuba. The Trojan matrons offer prayers and 
vows to Athena for mercy. 

237. tos : for the position, after "Εκτωρ (the emphatic word in making 
the transition in the story), see on ως A 32.— φηγόν: see on Ε 693. 
Doubtless Hector reached the tree before he came to the Gate, but the 
latter is named first as more prominent and important, by a sort of 
'hysteron proteron,' see § 16/. 

238 f . The women had come to the tower at the Scaean Gate, in order 
to watch the conflict. Cf. 386 ff., Γ 145 ff., 420. — εΐρόμεναι κτλ.: i.e. 
inquiring of the fate of their friends on the field of battle. 

240. iTOaias: § 59 /. — άνώγειν: § 30 k. 241. ίφήτττο : cf. Β 15. 

242. άλλ' οτ€: correl. with €v9a 251. 

243. €v αύτω : in itself, in contrast with the corridors. 

244. ΐΓ€ντήκοντα: Priam, like other oriental princes, had several wives 
and many sons. All (with two or three exceptions) lived together in 
patriarchal fashion. 

245. αλλήλων : for the gen., cf. 'Αχαιών 106. — δεδμημ^νοι : from Β^μω. 
251. Ιναντίη : pred., cf. άντίος 54. 252. Cf Γ 124. 

254. Cf A 202. — λιττών : is the emphatic word of the verse. 

256. Only roughly can it be said that €νθά^ is to be construed with 



168 COMMENTARY. 

Ιλθόντα. The order of words is significant : Thee, hither, thy soul urged, 
and this is explained by 257. 

257. €ξ άκρηε iroXios : const, with χείρας άνασχεΐν. Cf. 88. — xctpas 
κτλ. : equiv. to ενχεσθαί. Cf. A 450, Ε 174. 

258. μ.4ν:,μζν€. — 6ν€ίκω : (νέγκω. 

260. Ίτρώτον : the position of this word shows that this verse is added 
as a sort of after-thought, and όνησεαυ is not (like σπειστ;?) under the 
influence of cJs. — avros : in contrast with Ail ττατρί 259. — at kc ττίτισ-θα : 
iav πίΎ)ς. 

261. 8^ : the English idiom would use for. — Κ6κμηώτι : for the form, 
see § 49 a. — άφι : av^u. 262. ώς : as, referring to κεκμηωτι. 

264. a€ip€ : i.e. bring. — μίλίφρονα : cf. Ινφρονα Γ 246. — Hector replies 
first to 260-262. 

265. Hector fears that the wine will aft'ect him too much. 

266 if. Reply to 259. — άνίπτοισ-ιν : cf χερνίφαντο A 449 ; ' When they 
go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, 
that they die not ; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to 
burn offering made by fire unto the Lord,' Exodus xxx. 20. 

267. eo-Ti : e^ean. 269. συ μ€ν : correl. with εγώ δε 280. 

270. άολλίσσασα : cf ξννάγονσα 87. 271-278 = 90-97. 

279. A repetition of 269. Cf 183 (with μίν) as resuming 179, and 
Ε 134 and 143. 281. αϊ κ€ : cf. 94. — cIitovtos κτλ. : give ear to my call. 

282. γαία χάνοι : cf Δ 182. — ιτήμα: see on ττημχχ Γ 50. 

284. ϊδοιμι κατελθόντα: picturesque, for κατίλθοι, as φαίψ εκλελαθί- 
σθαί for εκλελάθοιτο. Cf Δ 97 ff. — "AiSos : sc. δό/χον. 

285. A strong expression for a brother to use, but cf. Γ 39 if., 454. 
288. κηώεντα : cf. Γ 382, Prob. because of cedar chests. 

290. Σιδονίων : the Phoenicians were famed for all sorts of merchan- 
dise. 

291. On his way home from Greece, Paris was driven out of his 
course by storms. — eirwrXws : cf. Γ 47. 

292. την oSov κτλ. : on that very voyage on which, etc. 

293. 8ώρον : as a gift. 294. ττοικίλμασ-ιν : cf. Γ 126, Ε 735. 
295 f. ^KciTo κτλ. : i.e. it was most cherished and least used. — άλλων: 

see on άλλων A 505. — μ€Τ£σσ€νοντο : from μετα-σσενομαί, cf. σενω. 
297. €v Ίτόλίΐ κτλ. : cf 257. 298. Θεανώ : cf Ε 70. 

299. Κισ-σ•ηί8 : for the ' patronymic,' see § 39 ^. 

300. Ιθηκαν : the priestess, then, was chosen or elected by the people. 

301. όλολυγη : these pious shrieks were intended as ' responses ' in the 
liturgical service ; just as χεΐρας άνεσχον corresponded to the modern pos- 
ture of devotion, kneeling. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 169 

302. Perhaps Theano alone entered the άδυτοι/ (Ε 512) . 

303. Cf. 92, 273. 

305. ^υσ(ΐΓτολι : cf. * ΚΒψα UoXtas [πολιάο;)(ος] and -κοΚιονγρ^ 'Α^άνα, 
at Athens and at Sparta. — θ€άων: cf. Ε 381. Partitive gen. after the 
superlative idea in δια. 

307. Ίτρηνία: pred., cf ττρψί^ Β 414. 

308-310. C/. 93-95, 274-276. — C/. armipotens, praeses belli, 
Tritonia virgo | frange manu telum Phrygii praedonis et 
ipsum I pronum sterne solo Verg. Aen. xi. 483 ff. 

311. av^veve : see on A 514. — This is known by the result. 
312-368. Hector at the home of Paris and Helen. 

312. A transition, cf. Ε 84. " While these were offering prayers." 
314 ff. Added, as verses are frequently, as a sort of after-thought. — 

avTOs : in those primitive times, the prince's occupations differed little 
from those of the peasant. See § 5 c. 

317. Tc: for its position, cf. Β 136, Ε 878. — Πριάμοιο : gen. with 
iyyvOi. See H. 757; G. •1149. Or, it may be, with δω/χάτων to be sup- 
plied. 318. ev0a: locaX, there. This resumes 313. 

319. €χ' : είχε. — «γχοβ «νδίκάττηχυ : a long spear ! But really no 
longer than the Macedonian pikes (σάρισσαι), which were 14-18 feet 
long. The lance of the Prussian Uhlan is about ten feet in length. — 
Sovpos : const, with ττάροιθε, at the head of the spear. — This description 
does much to bring the scene before the mind's eye of the hearer or 
reader. 320. ircpC : adverbial. 

321. π£ρικαλλΙα κτλ. : just as a hunter enjoys busying himself about 
his gun, for which he has a personal affection. 

322. Explanatory of περικαλλία κτλ. 321. 

323. Έλ^νη : apparently in the same room as Alexander. 

324. 6ργα : i.e. weaving, spinning, and perhaps embroidery. 

325 = Γ 38. 

326 ff. Hector assumes anger at the Trojans as the cause of his 
brother's absence from the field of battle. Of course he knew nothing 
of Aphrodite's interference, Γ 374 ff., and supposed that Paris had with- 
drawn in vexation at the manifest disapproval of his countrymen. Cf. 
Γ 319 ff. — δαιμόνΐ€ : cf. Β 190, 200 ; see on Β 190. — μ^ν : μψ. — καλά : 
predicate, adverbial. — (vQto : ivWov. 

327 ff . " While the people are fighting and dying for your sake, you 
sit idle at home." — Xewi : contrasted with συ δ€ 329 ; but the form of 
expression is changed. 

328. σ^ο [σου] κτλ.: parenthetical. — άυτη κτλ.: cf. A 492. 

329. άμψιδέδη€ : cf Β 93. — " You should be ashamed of withdrawing. 



170 COMMENTARY. 

You would be angry at any one else who should act thus." — μαχ^σ-αιο: 
cf. Ε 875, A 8. 330. Cf. Δ 240. 

331. άνα: άνάστηθι. See § 55 c. — irvpos: cf. Β 415. 

332 1 -Γ 58 1 334. C/. A 76. 

335. Τρώων χόλω : because of anger at the Trojans. A reply to 326. — 
νψέατσ-ι [i/e/xeVet] : cf. Ε 757. 

336. ή'μην : cf Β 255. — 4'θίλον κτλ. : the real reason, ace. to Paris, for 
his absence from the field of battle. 

337. irapeiirovora : cf τταραπών 62. 

339. νίκη κτλ. : Paris had consoled himself thus, before. Cf. Γ 439 1 

340. δύω: distinguished from the numeral by the quantity of the 
penult. Subjunctive, cf ιδω/Ααι A 262 ; see § 18 b. The poet might have 
said οφρα δυω, "while I put on," or "that I may put on"; but no one 
should say that a final or temporal particle is omitted here. 

341. σ^: 'limit of motion.' 

342 = Ε 689. — Hector is too angry to make any reply to his brother. 

344. Cf. ri72fE. See on Β 356, Γ173. • 

345. οφ6λ€: see on A 415; cf Δ 315. — ηματι κτλ.: cf. Β 351.— 
Ίτρώτον : cf A 6. " As soon as I was born." 

346. οϊχίσ-θαι κτλ. : on A 391. 

348. άπΟ€ρσ€ : " would have swept me away." A part of the unful- 
filled wish, av would be expected in prose. — τάδ€ 4'ργα : a general 
expression for all the battles and sorrows of which Helen had been the 
cause. 

351. o's: see on 6s A 70. — ηδη : i.e. appreciated. — αϊσ•χ€α κτλ.: cf 
Γ 242. 352. 6>π€δοι : cf Γ 108. 

353. τ(§: therefore. — έτταυρήσίσθαι, : c/. A 410. 

354. δίφρφ: c/. Γ424. 

355. -irovos: cf 77. — φρ^ναδ : in appos. with σί. 

356. (Ττηβ: cf Γ 100. 357. ΙπΙ: const, with θηκί. Cf A 509. 
358. 'π•€λώμ€θα : for the mode, see on A 158. — Cf V 287. 

359 = 263. 360. φιλ^ουσ-ά irep : though thou art hospitable. 

361. θυμόδ κτλ. : cf. A 173. — οφρ' έτταμύνω : «ττα/χυναι. Cf Δ 465. 

362. μ^γα: modifies ττοβψ Ιχονσιν, which is equiv. to ττοθεονσιν and 
is followed by the gen. c/acio [c/xoi)]. 

364. καταμάρψη : equiv. to κίχήσεσθαι 341. Cf. Ε 65. 

366. οΐκήαδ : cf Ε 413. It is explained by the rest of the verse. 

367. η, η: see § 20 b. — virOTpoiros : pred., cf. havTcq 251. 
369-502. Parting scene between Hector and Andromache. One of the 

most charming episodes of the Iliad. 369 = 116. 

373. ττύργφ: i.e. that at the Scaean Gate. See Γ 149. — Andromache 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 171 

had set out for the Tower, apparently, after Hector reached the city, and 
while he was at the home of Priam or of Paris. So she had missed 
meeting her husband. But she learned at the Tower that Hector was 
in the city, and hastened home to meet him. 

374. 6v8ov: within, at home. — τίτμ€ν : equiv. to cvpev. 

378. γαλόων: sc. δώ/χατα. Cf. iv ττατ/οό? 47. The English has the 
same idiom. — Note that the Homeric Greeks were not reduced to a 
general term, ' sisters-in-law.' See on Γ 122. 

379. 4s *Αθηνα(η8 : c/. ad Minervae. — 6νθα κτλ. : cf. 286 ff. 
382. Iirci : cf. Γ 59. 383 f . = 378 f. 

389. μαινόμενη κτλ. : in appos. with ίπει-γομίνη 388. — τιθήνη : cf. 
άμφίπολος 399. 

390 f . η : see on A 219. — τήν αυτήν : equiv. to Attic ταντψ την αντψ, 
the Homeric article being demonstrative. Cf. τον Χρνσψ A 11. 

393. Σκαιάδ : for its position, see on ονλομένψ A 2. 

396. 'HctCwv : for the repetition and the change of case, see § 16 b. 

397. Θήβη : c/. A 366. Local. — Κιλίκ6<Γ<Γΐ : these Cilicians dwelt far 
from the historical nation of that name, which lived at the northeast 
corner of the Mediterranean Sea. — άνδρ€(Γσιν: dat. of interest. 

398. €X€To : cf. είχε Γ 123. 

399. η: demonstrative. — αυτή: herself as contrasted with the maid. 
See on A 47. 400. αύ'τω? : cf. Γ 220; see § 42 e. 

401. dXC-yKiov κτλ.: cf. sidere pulchrior Horace Car. iii. 9. 21. 
" Like a fair angel." 

402 f . The father named his son from the chief river of the land (cf 
Simoisius, Δ 474, named from the Simois, and Idaeus, Γ 248, named 
from Mt. Ida), but the people gave to the son the name which was 
appropriate to the father. So the son of Odysseus is called Telemachus 
(B 260, τηλε, μάχομαι); — not because the boy fought far away from 
home, but because the father was fighting at Troy while the boy was a 
child. Other examples are found in Homer and in the Old Testament. 
— ol άλλοι : cf Β 665. — Αστυάνακτα : ανα^ seems to be strictly protecting 
lord (see on A 38), and the idea of ' protector ' is often more prominent 
in this word than that of ' ruling.' Hector was never king or ruler of 
Troy. Thus Αστυάνακτα at the beginning of the verse is explained by 
€pv€To defended. " He was the only defender." 406 = 253. 

407-439. Andromache requests that Hector shall remain within the walls. 
He can direct from the Tower the defence of the city. 

407. 8αιμόνΐ6 : cf. 326, and note the difference in meaning marked by 
the speaker's tone. — το σον μ^νο? : cf. A 207. 

408. άμμορον : equiv. to 8ύσμορον. Contrast with Γ 182. 



172 . COMMENTARY. 

409. a-tv : gen. of separation, with χήρη Ισομχιι. Cf. σεν 411. 

411. χθόνα8ύμ6ναι: c/. 19. 413. αΚ\' a\ia: but only griefs. 

414. άμόν : ημ,ίτίρον. Cf. ημετέρω A 30. 415 f. Parenthetical. 

417. οΰδ€ κτλ. : but he did not, etc. — τόγ€ : i.e. €$εναρί$αί. 

419. €irC : over him ; adv. with Ιχεεν. — ircpi : adverbial. 

420. <)ρ€στιάδ€9: cf. the 'Naiad,' ννμ,φη νηίς of 22. The 'Dryads' 
and ' Hamadryads ' are not mentioned in Homer. 

421. 01 : relative, referring to oi μίν 422 as its antecedent. Cf. Γ 132. 

422. lii: m, § 41 a. Cf. μία Γ 238. 

424. Iir* €ΐλι•ΐΓΟδ€<Γ<Γΐ κτλ.: cf 25, Ε 137, and Ε 313. — άργ6ννη5 : cf 
Γ 141, 198. 

425 f . βασ(λ€υ(ν : tvas queen. -^ τήν : demonstrative, her. — όίλλοισ-ι : 
the captive queen may have been counted as part of the κτήματα, but a 
good Greek const, would allow this to be taken as " with her treasures, 
too." Cf Ε 621 ; see on Β 191. 427. λαβών : sc. from her father. 

428. iraTpos: i.e. Andromache's grandfather's. — "Αρτβμιβ: see on 205. 
This is contrasted with ο ye. "He released her, but Artemis slew her." 

429 f. These verses sum up the thought of 413 if. ' Thou art my 
all." This prepares the way for the request that Hector should remain 
within the walls. — άτάρ : cf. 86. 

431. vOv : contrasted with what is implied in 407. — αύτοΰ : explained 
by €πΙ ττυρ-γω. See on Β 237. 

432. ' Chiasmus,' § 16 a. — όρφανικόν : predicate. — Θήτΐ5 : θ-βς, see § 52 c. 
— γνναικα : more pathetic here than εμί. See on A 240. 

433 ff. This advice is not out of place in the mouth of the general's 
wife, who had doubtless taken more interest than most in the plans for 
the defence of the city. — Homer makes no other reference to a part οϊ^ 
the Trojan wall as particularly vulnerable or accessible. But Pindar says 
that Aeacus, father of Peleus, and grandfather of Achilles, aided the gods 
Apollo and Poseidon in building the wall, and that an omen indicated 
that the mortal's work should be overthrown, while the gods' work stood 
firm. Περγα/λος άμφΐ reais, ηρως, χερος εργασίαις άλίσκεταΐ 01. viii. 42. 

435. €\00vT€s: see on Ιων A 138. 436. άμφ* Atavrc: cf Β 445, Γ 146. 

438. θίΟΊτροΊτίων κτλ.', for the gen., see on Β 718. See on 433 ff. — 
αυτών: their oivn, as opposed to oracles and omens. 

440-465. Hector's reply. "/ am not unmindful of thee, but I cannot 
play the coward and remain behind the walls." 

441. τάδ€ ττάντα: all this, — especially 432. 

442. Τρώαβ: for the ace, see H. 712 a ; G. 1049. 

443. A reply to the request to direct from the Tower the operations 
of the array. — άλνσκάζω: cf. Ε 253. 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 173 

444. €μμ€ναι Ισ-θλό? : equiv. to αρίστευαν 208. 

446. άρνύμ€νο$: cf. A 159. — αΰτοΰ: intensive, agreeing with c /χοΰ im- 
plied in €μόν. Cf. 490, Ε 741 ; see on Β 54. — The dative might have 
been used instead of the ττατρό? and εμόν. 

447-449 = Δ 163-165. The verses are more impressive here than in 
Δ. Ille dies veniet quo Pergama sacra peribunt. 

450 ff. A reply to 429-432. 

450. Τρώων: objective genitive. "I do not grieve so much for the 
Trojans." Contrasted with acv 454. — Observe that Τρώων, 'Έ,κάβψ, 
κασί-γνήτων, all come just before the verse pause. 

453. i5ir' άν8ρά<Γΐ: cf. Β 374, Γ 436. 

455. άγηται: sc. σε, into captivity. — cXcvOcpov κτλ.: cf. 463; see § 
IQ d β. The word ΐλενθερία is not found in Homer. 

456. «irpos άλλης: at the bidding of another woman, /.e. as slave. 

457. ύδωρ : ' fetching water ' is an important duty of women in orien- 
tal countries. — Μ€σ•σ-ηίδο5: sc. κρήνης. Ablatival genitive, /rom A/essm. 
— A spring by this name is mentioned near Sparta, and one called 
Hyperea in Thessaly (B 734). Perhaps the poet thus indicates the 
possibilities that Andromache may be given as a prize to Menelaus or 
Achilles. The later tradition made her the prize of Achilles's son Neop- 
tolemus. At any rate this verse makes ev "Apyei more definite. 

458. ΊΓολλά κτλ. : much against thy will. Explained by the following 
'hemistich.' 

459. €ΪΐΓησιΐ' : nearly equiv. to the f ut. ind., as is shown by the repeti- 
tion of this thought in ως cpeet 462. See § 18 5. 

460. "EnTopos : note the position. 

461. άμψΕμάχοντο: sc. * Αχαιοί. 

462. cos Ip^cL: for this repetition of εϊτη)σίν (both before the verse 
pause), cf Δ 182 with Δ 176. 

463. ToiovSc: sc. as I. — άμνν»ν: for the inf., see H. 952; G. 261, 1, 
N. 1. — δούλιον κτλ. : see on 455. Βονλοσννη is not a Homeric word. 

464. "May I be dead and buried." 

465. Ίτρίν: const, with ττνθίσθαί. Natural in English as in Greek, 
"before I hear" instead of "before the time when I should hear." — 
σ•ή5 pofjs : nearly equiv. to σον βοώσης. 

466. Ίταιδόδ : gen. after a 'verb of aiming,' cf. Μενελάου Δ 100. 

468. irarpos κτλ. : parenthetical, giving the cause of Ικλίνθη ίαχων. 
It is explained by the following verse, which is further explained by 470. 
470. 8civov: cognate ace. with νευοντα. Cf. Γ 337. 

472. αύτίκα κτλ. : ' asyndeton.' Cf. A 539 ; see § 15 d. 

473. Cf. Γ 293. 



174 COMMENTARY. 

474. κΰ<Γ€: kissing is mentioned but in two other passages of the 
Iliad, and those both refer to the acts of suppliants. 

475. €ΐΓ€υξάμ€νος : cf. φωνησας A 201. 

476. For this prayer, cf. that of Ajax, ω τταΐ, yivoio πατρός εντνχί- 
στ€ρος, I τα δ* αλλ ομοίος • καϊ yivoC αν ου κακός Soph. Ajax 550 f . ; 
and Burns's Lament of Mary Queen of Scots, ' My son ! my son ! may 
kinder stars | Upon thy fortune shine; | And may those pleasures gild 
thy reign | That ne'er wad blink on mine.' 

477. καΐ Ιγώ: for the και, correl. with καί 476, see H. 1042. The 
English idiom omits it. — api-trpftria κτλ. : cf. Β 483. 

478. t4 : for its position, see on 317. — ava<r<r€iv : in the same const, 
as γενίσθαι 476. Cf A 38. 

479. rls : ynany a one, cf Β 271. — ττολλόν : see on A 78. 

480. ανιόντα: for the ace. after a 'verb of saying,' see H. 725 a; 
G. 1073. The clause πατρός κτλ. is the other object of the verb. — " May 
many a one say of him as he returns from the war." 

481. χαρ€(η κτλ. : is closely connected in thought with the first half of 
the verse. The mother is to rejoice in the bloody spoils with which her 
son returns, as a proof of his bravery. 

482. άλ<ίχοιο : this is a delicate touch of the poet, — that Hector does 
not return the child to the nurse (from whom he took him, 466 if.), but 
gives him into the arms of his wife, — entrusting him to her care. — 
χβρσίν κτλ. : cf. A 441. 

483. κηώ8€ϊ: cf 288.— κόλπω: for the dat., cf 136. \ 

484. δακρυόίν : " through her tears." 485 = A 361, Ε 372r 
487 ff. "I shall not be killed unless this is fated; and if death is 

appointed for me now, I cannot escape it." — νττίρ αΐσαν: cf Β 155. — 
"Αιδι κτλ.: cf A3. — π€ψυ-γμ^νον €μμ€ναι : ττεφενγίναι. See οη Γ 309. — 
ανδρών: const, with ου τίνα. 489. τα πρώτα: see on A 6. 

490. avTfjs : in agreement with the σον implied in σά. Cf αντον 446. 

491. Ιστάν κτλ. : in appos. with Ιργα 490. Contrasted with πόλε/χος. 
493. Tol Ίλίω κτλ. : added after the verse pause, making πασιν more 

definite. — Ιγγίγάασ-ιν [yeyovaaiv] : for cv, see Ε 477. 

495. ϊππουριν : the ' ultima ' is treated as long before a pause, § 59 l. 
' 496. θαλίρον κτλ. : cf Γ 142. 

499. άμψιπόλου8 : it is better to say that this is in appos. with πολλά? , 
than that πολλά? agrees with this. See § 11 y. — kv&po-tv : cf. «νώρτο A 599. 

500. γόον : lamented. 501. υπότροπον : predicate, cf. άντίος 54. 
502. μ^νοδ κτλ. : cf μίνος χειρών Ε 506, Δ 447. 

503-529. Paris joins Hector, and both return to the field of battle. This 
scene forms a sharp contrast with the preceding. Paris goes out to battle 



SIXTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. 175 

without Hector's premonitions of disaster, and with no fears for the safety 
of his family. 

503. ovSi: nor. 

505. άνά ά(Γτυ : clearly not of ascent, since his home was near Hector's, 
and the latter rushed κατ αγυιάς 391. — ττίττοιθώδ : cf. Β 792, Ε 299. 

506 ff. Cf. (Turnus) fulgebatque alta decurrens aureus arce 
I exultatque animis . . . qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia 
vinclis | tandem liber equus campoque potitus aperto | aut 
ille in pastus armentaque tendit equarum | aut adsuetus 
aquae perfundi flumine noto | emicat arrectisque fremit 
cervicibus alte | luxurians luduntque iubae per colla, per 
armos Verg. Aen. xi. 490 ff . ; 'Contention, like a horse | Full of high 
feeding, madly hath broke loose,' Shakspere 2 Henry IV. i. i 9 f. ; 'But 
like a proud steed reined, went haughty on, | Champing his iron curb,' 
Milton Par. Lost iv. 858 f . — Paris is a well-fed, comfortable creature, 
without cares, and with a very good opinion of himself. 

507. θ€ίχ| : 6er], cf. ireXeUro A* 5, τίτείοντες Γ 8 ; see § 47 <7. — π£8(οιο : 
cf. 2, 38. 508. Ivppcios : ivppeovg. — ποταμοΐο : for the gen., cf Ε 6. 

509. κυδιόων : cf κνΒεΐ γαιών A 405. 

510. ώμοΐδ : cf. A 45. — ό Si: the construction is changed, and this is 
left without a verb. For the ' anacoluthon,' cf. Β 353, Ε 135 f . ; ' The 
eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the 
ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it,' 
Proverbs xxx. 17. 

514. Paris clearly is in good humor. 

515. €Τ€τμ€ν : cf. 374. — €υτ άρα κτλ. : was Just ahoutj^cf 52. 

518 f. Ironical. Paris plumes himself on overtaking Hector, as he 
had said that he would do, 341. — «ναίσ-ιμον: iv αίστ), " at the right time." 
Cf. ivvTTVLov Β 56. — «s tKikivts : sc. 361 If. 

521. €ναί<Γΐμο5 : " in his right mind," with reference to the same word, 
519, though in a different sense. 

522 f. «ργον μάχη$: action in battle. — μ€θΐ€ί5 : sc. άλκης. Cf. 330. — 
to' κτλ. : cf 407. 

524. €v θυμφ : cf. Γ 9. — αϊσχία: cf 351. — άκουω: subjunctive, cf. A 80. 

525. irpos Τρώων: from the Trojans. Cf προς άλλης 456. 

526. ϊομ6ν : ιω/χεν. — τα 8^ : i.e. any offence in my words. — άρ€σ(Γ6μ€θα : 
cf. Δ 362. —αϊ κ^ ττοθι: cf A 128. — " If the gods will grant that we may 
drive out the Achaeans, and in gratitude offer (set up) a bowl in celebra- 
tion of freedom." " 527. 0€ois κτλ. : cf. Β 400. 

529. Ιλά(Γαντα$: agrees with ή μας implied as the subject of στησασθαι. 
See on Ιόντα A 541. 



176 COMMENTARY. 

The Sixth Book of the Iliad, after the first hundred verses, has 
presented a succession of peaceful scenes. The progress of the story 
seems to be interrupted for a few moments by the episode of Diomed 
and Glaucus (119-236), but this episode serves to occupy the time during 
which the poet's hearer thought of Hector as traversing the plain, on his 
way to the city. The three scenes of Hector's visit to Troy — his inter- 
view with his mother, his call at the house of Paris and Helen, his parting 
with Andromache — form a contrast with the conflicts which have been 
described, and make prominent the domestic life of the brave warrior. 
The hearer's interest in his subsequent fate is greatly heightened. The 
intense pathos of the last books of the Iliad centres in the death of 
Hector and the grief of the Trojans. This book prepares the way for 
our sympathy with Hecaba as she implores her son to enter the gates and 
not withstand Achilles, X 79-89, and with Andromache, when grief 
comes over her as she sees Hector's body drawn to the Greek camp after 
the chariot of Achilles, X 437-515 ; and with the dirges of Andromache, 
Hecaba, and Helen, when the body of Hector is brought back to the city, 
Ω 718-776. If Andromache had not been introduced here, she would 
have been but a name, and her grief would not have-^been nearly so 
pathetic at the close of the poem. The hearer is here brought into the 
family circle of Priam, and is never after this without a heart for the 
Trojan misfortunes. 

The Seventh Book opens with the welcomed return of Hector and 
Paris to the hard pressed Trojans. After several Greeks have been slain, 
Athena and Apollo arrange for a single combat between Hector and 
Ajax, — but night comes on and interrupts the duel, in which Ajax has 
the advantage. See § 7 ^. 




YOCABULARY. 



PEEFACE. 

This vocabulary has not been compiled from other dictionaries, 
bnt has been made from the Iliad itself. The maker has endeav- 
ored to be Qoncise, — to give nothing but what is important for 
the accurate and appreciative reading of the poem, — and yet 
to show the original and derived meanings of the words, and to 
suggest translations which should be both simple and dignified. 
Much space has been saved by omitting the words and forms 
which are not found in the first six books of the Iliad. 

A concise special vocabulary to the Homeric Poems, or to parts 
of them, is open to far fewer objections than a similar vocabulary 
to any other work of Greek literature, since the words are found 
more nearly in their original significations and constructions. No 
attempt has been made in this work to tell the history of each 
word in pre-Hellenic and post-Homeric times. Even the most 
complete Homeric dictionary cannot entirely supersede the large 
general lexicons, but a confident hope is felt that the concise 
form of this vocabulary will save much time for the beginner in 
Homer. The beginner meets many unusual words. Whether he 
uses a large or a small dictionary, he will be satisfied, in most 
cases, with learning the meaning and construction of the new 
word ; and generally this is enough for him. The teachers who 
insist on the use of the unabridged lexicon of Liddell and Scott 
by elementary classes in Homer forget the word of Hesiod, ούδ' 
Ισασιν οσω πλίον ημίσν παντός, while this vocabulary will give fuller 
and better information about Homeric words and forms than the 
abridged edition of Liddell and Scott's lexicon. A student who 



iv PBEFACE. 

is beginning Homer does not absolutely need to know the later 
history of each word, although the student of Plato does need to 
remember the Homeric usage. 

In making this vocabulary, Seber's Index Homericus, Froh- 
wein's Verbum Ilomericum, Ebeling's great Leodcon Homericum^ 
and Seiler-Capelle's Worterbuch ilber die Gedichte des Ilomeros 
were very useful. Mr. W. Irving Hunt, tutor in Greek in Yale 
College, rendered important assistance, and kindly took upon 
himself the verification of the completeness of the work. 

Cognate or illustrative forms are placed in parentheses. Corre- 
sponding Attic forms are placed in square brackets. 

Eeferences have been added to proper names, in order to serve 
as an index ; also to other important words, especially to those 
which occur but once in the Homeric Poems (αττα^ είρημίνα), 

Yalb College, Jan. 21, 1889. 



ERSITY 

OF 




CONTENTS OF THE ILIAD IN GREEK HEXAMETERS* 

1. "Αλφα • λίτά? uipvaov, Χοιμον στρατού, έχ^ο? ανάκτων. 

2. Βήτα δ' oveipov €χ^6ί, ajoprjv, καί νήας άρίθμβΐ. 

3. Τάμμα δ* άρ' άμφ* Έλει^τ;? οϊοίν μόθο^ έστϊν άκοίταιν. 

4. Αελτα • θέων ayopij, όρκων 'χύσίς, "Αρβος αργτ]. 

5. ΕΖ • βαΚΧβί Κ.νθ6ρ€ίαν "Αρηά Τ€ ΎνΒβος νΙός. 

β. Ζήτα δ' άρ* ^ΑνΒρομά'χ^ης καν'ΈίΚτορός €στ οαριστυς. 

7. *Ητα δ' • Αϊας ΤΓοΧεμιζβ μόνω μόνος '^Έικτορι Βίω. 

8. SrJTa • θβών ayopi], Ύρώων κράτος, "Έ^κτορος βυγος. 

9. ^Έιξεσίη δ' Άχίλήο? άττβίθέος €στΙν ^Ιώτα. 

10. ΚάτΓττα δε • 'Ρ?;σου τ^ι^ κβφαΧην eXe ΎυΒβος υιός. 

11. ΑάμβΒα δ'• άρίστήας Ααναών βαλον'^ΈίΚτορϋς ανΒρβς. 

12. ΜΟ • Ύρώων ΊταΧάμ^σι κατηριττβ τβΐχ^ος *Αχ^αιών, 

13. NO δε* ΠοσβΛδαωΐ' Ααναοΐς κράτος ώττασβ Χάθρτ). 

14. He? • ΚρονίΒην Χβ'χββσσί καΐ ΰττνω ητταφβν ^'ΐίρη. 

15. Οΰ• ΚρονίΒης κβχ^όΧωτο ΤΙοσβίΒάωνί KaV^HpTj. 

16. Ilet • ΐΙάτροκΧον βττεφνβν ^ Αρηιον^Έ^κτορος αΐχ^μη. 

17. 'Ρώ • ΑαναοΙ Ύρωίς τβ νβκυν irepL χείρας βμίσ^γον. 

18. 'ϊίΐ^γμα• ©ert? ^ΑχιΧήν τταρ 'ϊίφαίστον φερεν οττΧα, 

19. ΤαΟ δ' • αττελτ/γε χόΧοίο καΐ βκθορβ Βίος ^Αχι,ΧΧβνς. 

20. ^Τ • μακάρων βρίς ώρτο, φερβί δ' eVt κάρτος Άχαιοΐς. 

21. Φεΐ • μό^γος ΑΙακιΒαο τταρ' ηίονας ττοταμοΐο. 

22. ΧεΖ δ' • άρα τρΙς irepl τείχος ά^γων κτάνεν "Έικτορ' 

^ΑχίΧΧεύς. 

23. "Ψεΐ ' Ααναοΐσιν aya>va ΒιΒούς ετεΧεσσεν ^ΑχιΧΧεύς. 

24. Ώ • ΤΙρίαμος νεκνν via Χαβών yipa Βώκεν ^ΑχιΧΧεΙ. 

♦ Ascribed to Stephanus Grammaticus in the Palatine Anthology, ix. 385. 



THE ILIAD. 

The action of the Iliad covers only about seven weeks, or forty-nine 
days, which may be divided as follows : — 

Daye. 

1. Visit of Chryses to the Greek Camp, A 12. 

1-9. Pestilence, A 53. 

10. Assembly of the Achaeans, A 54. 

10-21. Visit of the gods to the Aethiopians, A 423. 

21. Return of the gods to Olympus, A 493 f. Visit of Thetis to Zeus. 

22. The Achaeans prepare for battle. Single combat between Mene- 

laus and Paris. The battle begins. Brave deeds of Diomed. 
Hector's meeting with Andromache. Β 1-H 380. 

23. Burial of the dead, Η 381-432. 

24. Building of a wall for the Achaean Camp, Η 433-482. 

25. Second day of battle, Θ. 
Embassy to Achilles, I. 

Odysseus and Diomed enter the Trojan Camp, K. 

26. Third day of battle. The Trojans break down the Greek wall. 

Death of Patroclus. A 1-2 617. 

27. Reconciliation of Achilles and Agamemnon. Fourth great day of 

battle. Death of Hector. Τ 1-Ψ 61. 

28. Burial of Patroclus, Φ 62-225. 

29. Funeral games in honor of Patroclus, Φ 226-897. 

27-38. Achilles drags the body of Hector around the bier or tomb of 
Patroclus, Ω 1-31. 

38. Priam visits the tent of Achilles and ransoms Hector's body, 

Ω 31-676. 

39. Priam brings Hector's body to Troy, Ω 677-775. 
39-47. Lament for Hector in Troy, Ω 784. 

48. Burial of Hector, Ω 785-787. 

49. Erection of a mound over Hector's ashes, Ω 788-804. 



THE GREEK FORCES. Β 494 ff. 



▼U 



Mainland of Greece. 



Order of 






No. of 


mention. Nations and Commandere. 




ehips. 


1. 


Boeotians 


(Peneleus) 


Β 494-510. 


50 


2. 


Orchomenians 


(Ascalaphus) 


Β 511-516. 


30 


3. 


Phocians 


(Schedius) 


Β 517^526. 


40 


4. 


Locrians 


(Ajax, son of Oileus) Β 527-535. 


40 


5. 


Euboeans 


(Elephenor) 


Β 536-545. 


40 


6. 


Athenians 


(Menestheus) 


Β 546-556. 


50 


7. 


Salaminians 


(Telamonian Ajax) 


Β 557, 558. 


12 


8. 


Argives 


(Diomed) 


Β 559-568. 


80 


9. 


Myceneans 


(Agamemnon) 


Β 569-580. 


100 


10. 


Spartans 


(Menelaus) 


Β 581-590. 


60 


11. 


Pylians 


(Nestor) 


Β 591-602. 


90 


12. 


Arcadians 


(Agapenor) 


Β 603-614. 


60 


13. 


Epeans 


( Amphimachus) 


Β 615-624. 


40 


14. 


Dulichians 


(Meges) 


Β 625-630. 


40 


15. 


Cephallenians 


(Odysseus) 


Β 631-637. 


12 


16. 


Aetolians 


(Thoas) 
Insular Greece. 


Β 638-644. 


40 


17. 


Cretans 


(Idomeneus) 


Β 645-652. 


80 


18. 


Rhodians 


(Tlepolemus) 


Β 653-670. 


9 


19. 


From Syme 


(Nireus) 


Β 671-675. 


3 


20. 


From the Sporades (Phidippus) 


Β 676-680. 


30 






Thessalian Greece. 






21. 


Myrmidons 


(Achilles) 


Β 681-694. 


50 


22. 


From Phylace 


(Podarces) 


Β 695-710. 


40 


23. 


Pheraeans 


(Eumelus) 


Β 711-715. 


11 


24. 


Methonians 


(Philoctetes) 


Β 716-728. 


7 


25. 


Oechalians 


(Podalirius) 


Β 729-733. 


30 


26. 


From Ormenium (Eurypylus) 


Β 734-737. 


40 


27. 


From Argissa 


(Polypoetes) 


Β 738-747. 


40 


28. 


Aenianians 


(Guneus) 


Β 748-755. 


22 


29. 


Magnesians 


(ProthoUs) 


Β 756-759, 


40 




Homeric Greece 



FAMILY TREES. 



(1) 



THE PELOPIDS. 
Tantalus 



PeLOPS = HiPPODAMIA 



\ 
Atreus 



PiTTHEUS 



Agamemnon 

(m. ClytaemneBtra) 



Menelaus 

(m. Helen) 



Orestes 



Electra 



Iphigenia 



NiOBB 



I 
Thyestes 

Aegisthus 



Hermione 



(2) 



THE AEACIDS, 

Zeus 

Aeacus (of Aegina) 



Peleus = Thetis 



Telamon 



Achilles 
Neoptolemus 



Ajax 
(Eurysaces) 



Teucer 



(3) 



THE OENEIDS. 



Oeneus 



Tydeus = Deipyle 

(d. of Adrastus 
of Argoe) 

Diomed = Aegialea 



Meleager 



FAMILY TREES. 



(4) 



KOYAL FAMILY OF TROY. Υ 215 if. 

Zeus 

Dardanus 

Erichthonius 

I 

Tros 

(founder of Troy) 



Ilus 

(Founder of Ilioe) 

Laomedon 

I 



Ganymed 

(Cupbearer of Zeue) 



Priam = Hecaba 

I 



Hector = Andromache 

I 

Astyanax 



TiTIIONUS 
(Husband of Dawn) 

Memnon 



assaracus 

Capys 
Auchises 



Aeneas 

(ASCANIUS) 



(5) 



ISANDROS 



LYCIANS, Ζ 153 ff . 

Aeolus 

Sisyphus 

Glaucus 

Bellerophon 



HiPPOLOCHUS 

Glaucus 



I 
Laodamia 

I 

Sarpedon 



VOCABULAEY 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



α-απτο5 : unapproachable, invincible. 

αάσ)(€.το<ζ (Ιχω) : irresistible, unman- 
ageable. 

aaros : insatiate. 

"Αβαντες pi. : early inhabitants of 
Euboea, Β 536. 

Αβαρβαρ€η: a fountain-nymph, 
Ζ 22. 

*A)8as, -avros: a Trojan, slain by 
Diomed, Ε 148. 

"AjSXrypos : a Trojan, slain by Nes- 
tor's son Antilochus, Ζ 32. 

ά-βλης, -ητος (βάλλω) : un-shot, 
neio (of an arrow), Δ 117. 

ά-βλητος (βάλλω) : un-hit, not 
wounded by a missile, Δ 540. 

ά-βληχρός 3 : delicate, taeak. 

"Α/?ϋδο5 : Abydus, in the Troad, on 
the south side of the Hellespont, 
opposite Sestus, Β 836. 

Άβν8όθ€ν: from Abydus, Δ 500. 

άγα-: strengthening prefix, very, 
exceedingly. 

αγαγ€ : aor. of αγω, lead. 

αγαθός 3 : good, noble, useful, esp. 
useful in war, brave. It is rarely 
used of moral quality, βοην αγα- 
θός, good at the war-cry, brave in 
tear. 

aya- κλατός 3 and άγακλυτός (κλέος): 
renowned, famed, highly praised. 



άγάλλομΜΐ delight, exult. 

άγαλμ/χ, -ατός : delight, treasure. 

ayafWLi, aor. ήγάσσατο, άγασσάμεθα '. 
admire, wonder at. 

Αγαμίμ^νων, -όνος : Agamemnon, son 
of Atreus, grandson of Pelops 
(B 104 ff.), king at Mycenae 
(B 569 ff.). As the leader of the 
expedition against Troy, he is 
prominent through the whole of 
the Iliad. The first part of the 
Eleventh Book is devoted to a 
recital of his brave deeds. At 
the close of the war, on his ar- 
rival at home, he was slain by 
his false wife Clytaemnestra and 
her paramour (Agamemnon's 
cousin) Aegisthus, α 35 ff., S 512- 
537, λ 409 fe. 

α-γαμος : unmarried, Γ 40. 

άγά-ννίφος: very snowy, snow-clad. 
Epith. of Olympus, A 420. 

άγανός 3 : kindly, winning. 

Άγαπηνωρ, -οράς : Arcadian leader, 
Β 609. 

άγαττητος ( αγαπάω) : beloved. 

aya -ρροος : with strong stream. 

* Αγασθίνης, -cos : son of Aug€as, 
Ε 624. 

άγασσάμεθα : aor. of άγαμαι, wonder, 

άγανός, admirable, excellent, noble. 



2 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



άγγ€λίη : message, news. 

άγγελιτ/ς and άγγελος : messenger. 

άγγίλλω : annowice, bear a message. 

ayyos, -eos : vessel, bowl, pan. 

αγ€, αγ€τε: strictly imv. of αγω, 
bring, but generally used as in- 
terjection, up, come! Cf. αγρ«. 

άγειρω, aor. mid. ayipovro and aypo• 
μίνοισιν, plpf . ayyyiparo, aor. pass. 
ατ^^ρθη and ηyepθev \Ύjyipθησav\ : 
collect, bring together, assemble. 

άyc-λ€Lη : giver of booty, Epith. of 
Athena as war-goddess. 

άyίλη-φL '. old locat., in the herd. 

αγ€/χεν inf., αγεν impf. of αγω, lead. 

αγεν \^iάyησav] : aor. pass, of αγνυ/χι, 

ά-y€paστoς : without gift of honor 

(γέρας), A 119. 
άτ/^ρθη, ayipovTO'. aor. of άγείρω, 

αγίρωχος : proud, mighty, impetuous. 
άyη : aor. pass, of άyvvμί, break. 
άγτ/γερατο: plpf. pi. of άγειρω, as- 

*Αγι}ι/ωρ, -opos: brave Trojan leader, 
son of An tenor, Δ 467, Λ 59. 

άγ-ι/νωρ, -opos {άνηρ) : manly, proud. 

a-yrjpaos (γ^ρας) : ever-young, im- 
perishable. 

άyητός: admirable, splendid. 

*Αγκαιος: Ancceus, an Argonaut, 
Β 609. 

άγκάς : adv. in Ms arms. 

άγκλίι/ας : aor. partic. of άνακλίνω, 
lean upon. * 

άyκvλo-μητης (μητι,ς): crooked' 
minded, crafty, Epith. of Cronus, 

αγκύλος : curved. 

άγκυλό-το^ος : with curved bow. 

ατόκων, -ώϊ/ος : elbow. 

AyλaLη : mother of Nireus, Β 672. 

άγλαίτ;, loc. as dat. άτ/λαίηφι : splen- 
dor, beauty. 

άγλαός : clear, splendid^ glorious. 



άγνοιεω, aor. ηγι^Οίησεν: fail to no- 
tice. 

ayvv^L, aor. subjv. a^, aor. par- 
tic. a$avT€, aor. pass, αγ?; and 
αγεν [εάγϊ;σαν] (/ταγ-) : break, 
break in pieces. 

α-γονος : without offspring, childless^ 
Γ 40. (Perhaps unborn.) 

άγοράο/χαι, impf. -rjyopowvTo, aor. 
ay ορησατο : am in assembly, delib- 
erate, address an assembly. 

αγορεύω: speak, say, tell, φόβον^ 
αγόρευε, advise to ffee {fight). 

ay ορη (άγειρω) : assembly, speech to 
an assembly, place of assembly. 

ayoprj'9ev r adv. from the assembly. 

ay oprjv-Sc : adv. to the assembly. 

ay ορητήζ : speaker, orator. 

άγος (άγω): leader. 

άγρει: interjection, up, come! 
(Strictly imv. of άγρε'ω [αιρε'ω], 
take hold.) Cf. άγε. 

άγριος (αγρός)! wild (of animals), 
savage. 

ατ/ρομίν^σιν : aor. partic. of άγειρω, 
assemble. 

ay pos : feld, country (opp. to city). 

ay ρότερος 3: wild (of animals). 

αγυιά: street. 

άγχι : adv. 7iear, with gen. 

'Αγχίαλος : a Greek, slain by Hector, 
Ε 609. 

άγχι-αλος (άλς) : 7iear the sea. 
Epith. of coast-cities. 

ay XL- μαχητής : hand-to-hand fighter f 
who fights Avith sword and spear, 
in contrast with javelin- throwers. 

άτ/χί-μοΧον. adv. near. 

*Αγχίσ7;ς: Anchises, king of the 
Dardanians, father of Aeneas by 
Aphrodite, Β 819, Ε 247, Υ 239. 

άγχιστα : adv. most nearly, 

άγχιστΓνος : near, in thick succession. 

άγχου: adv. near, 

άγχω: choke, Γ 371. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



3 



αγω, impf. η-γεν or aycv, fut. α$ω, 
aor. rjyaye or dyaye, aor. iniv. 
a^cre : lead, bring, fetch, lead 
away (the connection indicating 
from what and to what the mo- 
tion tends) . 

ά-8αημων, -όνος : unskilled in, inex- 
perienced, with gen. 

ά-οάκρντος : without tears, tearless. 

dSuv: aor. inf. of άνδάνω, please. 

άΒελφεός or άδελφ^ός : brother. 

αΒψ : adv. in plenty, to satiety. 

άδινός 3 : thick, crowded, huddled. 

"Ατμητος: , Admetus, Thessalian 
king, husband of Alcestis, father 
of Eumelus, Β 713 f . 

Άδρτ/στεια : Mysian town, Β 828. 

ΆΒρηστίνη: daughter of Adrastus, 
Aegialea, Ε 412. 

"Αχρηστος: (1) Argive king who 
gave his daughters in marriage 
to Tydeus and Polynices, Β 572. 

(2) Leader of Trojan allies, Β 830. 

(3) A Trojan, Ζ 37. 

α-δυτον: (place not-to-be-entered), 

sanctuary. 
οΛθλεύω : contend in games. 
α€^λος : struggle, conflict. 
άύ8ω, impf. αειδον: sing. 
ά-ίίκης, -€9, unseemly, shameful, pitiful. 
aupoi, aor. partic. ά^ραμένη, plpf- 

αωρτο : raise, take up ; plpf. pass. 

UHis hanging. 
ά€καζόμ€νος 3 (a-/rcK-) : against his 

will. 
ά-Ικων, -ούσα 3: unwilling, against 

(his) loill. 
αίλλα (αημι) : violent wind, storm. 
αίΧλης : with κοησαλος, cloud of 

dust, Γ 13. 
άε^ω ( cf wax ) : increase, 
άψσί-πος {οΑίρω, ττονς), pi. aepai- 

τΓοδες : high-stepping (of horses). 
ΆζείΒ-ης : son of Azeus, Actor, 

Β 513. 



ά-ζηχίς : neut. adv. incessantly, un- 
ceasingly. 

αζομαι : dry, season, Δ 487. 

αζομαί : reverence, feel pious fear. 

αημί, pres. partic. άει/τες: blow (of 
the wind) . 

arjp, dat. ήίρι : air (as opposed to 
the clear αιθηρ), mist. 

άησνλος : ivicked, dreadful, equiv. to 
αισυλος, Ε 876. 

α-θάνατος 3 : undying, immortal, im- 
perishable, αθάνατοι immortals. 

ά-θερίζω : disregard, slight. 

ά-θίσφατος : unspeakable, ineffably 
great. 

'A^mt pi. : Athens, Β 546. 

^Αθηναίος: Athenian. 

^Αθήνη and ^Αθψαίη: the goddess 
A thena, Minerva. She appears 
often in Homer as war-goddess, as 
she is represented in later works 
of art ; hence she is called Παλ- 
λάς (spear-brandishing), γλαυκ- 
ώτΓίς {gleaming-eyed), άγελεό; 
{giver of booty), λαοσσοος {rouser 
of the people) .. 

αθρόος : assembled y all together, 
united. 

al {d): if. αϊκε: iav. at yap 
often introduces a wish. 

αΓα : earth, equiv. to γαία, yrj. 

ΑΙακί^ης: sonof Aeacus. Of Achil- 
les, grandson of Aeacus, Β 860. 

Αίας,-αντος: Ajax. (1) Son of Tela 
mon, king of Salamis, the might- 
iest of the Achaeans, next to 
Achilles, Β 768 f., Γ 226 ff. 
(2) Son of Oileus, swift-footed 
leader of the Locrians, Β 527 ft'. 

Αιγαίων: a hundred-armed giant 
of the sea, son of Poseidon; 
called Βριάρεως by the gods, 
A 404. 

αίγαι/ε'τ;: javelin, used chiefly for 
hunting, or in games. 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



Α1γ€ί8ψ: son of Aegeiis, Theseus, 
A2G5. 

αιγαος (cui) : adj. of goat-skin. 

αίγειρος : Mack poplar. 

AiyLOXeia: daughter of Adrastus, 
Ε 412. 

Αιγιαλό? : (1) the north coast of 
Peloponnesus, on the Corinthian 
gulf, from Corinth to the Elean 
frontier ; the later Achaea, Β 575. 
(2) A town in Paphlagonia, 
Β 855. 

αιγιαλός : coast, shore. 

Αί-γίλιφ: a district (?) under the 
rule of Odysseus, Β 633. 

Αίγινα: Aeglna, island in the Sa- 
ronic Gulf, Β 562. 

Αιγιοι/ : city in Achaea, Β 574. 

αΐ-γί-οχος (ίχω) : aegis-bearing, freq. 
epith. of Zeus, esp. in the gen. 
Διός αΐγιό^οιο. 

αΐγις : aegis ; the shield of Zeus, 
wrought by Hephaestus ; prob. 
an emblem of the thunder-storm. 
Described Ε 738 it., cf. Β 447 f. 
Athena also holds it, Β 447, Ε 
738 ff. 

αΐγλ-η : gleam, brightness. 

αίγλη-εις : gleaming, bright-shining. 

αΐδεο/Ααι and αϊΒομαι, aor. pass, 
partic. αΙΒεσθείς (αιδώ?) : feel 
honorable shame, or self-respect, 
reverence, am abashed before. 

ά-ΙΒηλος (ά -f ιδ-) : {making unseen), 
destructive, destroying. 

Ά-ί8ψ, gen. Άιδ€ω and'Άtδog, dat. 
Άϊδων^ι (f ιδ-) : Hades, god of the 
unseen lower world. His realm 
is the home of the dead, and in 
the Iliad it is beneath the earth, 
cf Θ 16, I 568 ff., Υ 61, X 482 ; 
while in the Odyssey, Odysseus 
sails to it, across Oceanus, κ 508 ff., 
and finds in it a faint, ghostly 
imitation of life on earth. Freq. 



are the elliptical expressions eU 
Άιδαο {sc. Βόμονς), "Αϊδος είσω, 
to the realms of Hades. 

αΐδοΓος (αιδώ?) 3 : revered, honored, 
modest. 

α-ιδ/3ΐ9 : witless, Γ 219. 

ΆϊΒωνενς : parallel form of Άιδ?;ς. 

αιδώς, ace. αιδώ or αΐδόα: shame, 
sense of honor ; often in a good 
sense for which a word is lacking 
in Eng. Also shame, disgrace. 
Nakedness, genitalia, Β 262. 

aiei, aliv (aei') : always, alev covre? : 
ever-living, equiv. to the following. 

αί«-γ€ν€Τϊ;9 : ever-existing, immortal, 
eternal. 

άίζηλος: unseen, in some editions 
for άρίζηλος, Β 318. 

αΐ^τ^ός : adj. as subst., vigorous youth. 

αίθαλό-ΐίς, -εσσα : smoky, sooty. 
Epith. of the μέλαθρον. The 
Homeric house had no chimneys. 
Β 415. 

ai^e : introduces a wish, as A 415. 

αίθηρ, -ερος : the pure upper aether 
above the clouds, in contrast with 
the lower άηρ. αίθερί ναίων dwell- 
ing in the aether, i.e. in the sky. 

Αϊθϊκες pi. : a people in Thessaly, on 
the slopes of Mt. Pindus, Β 744. 

Αιθίοπες pi., ace. ΑΙΘίοττηας : Aethio- 
pians, living in two nations, at 
the extreme east and west, on 
the borders of Oceanus. They 
are pious men, loved and visited 
by the gods, α 22, A 42-3. 

αίθόμενος : burning, blazing. 

αίθουσα : portico, corridor. The pi. 
is used of the two, one (αίθουσα 
αΰλ^ς) an outer corridor, through 
which a passage led from with- 
out into the court ; the other 
(αίθουσα δώ/χατος), through which 
a passage led from the court into 
the house. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



αΐθοψ, ace. αχθοπα : bright, gleaming, 
esp. of bronze and wine. 

Αϊθρη: Aethra, daughter of Pit- 
theus, wife of Aegeus, mother 
of Theseus. She accompanied 
Helen to Troy as slave, Γ 144. 

αχθών, -ωι/ος : bright (of iron, Δ 485), 
brown, taivng, bay. 

ai K€: equiv. to ei αν, iav, if, witli 
subjv. 

αΐμο., -ατός : blood, race, descent. 

αΙμΛτό-€ίς : blood g, bleeding. 

Αΐμονί8ης: son of Haemofi, M.a,eon, 
Δ 394. 

ΑΓ/χωι/, -όνος : a Pylian leader, Δ 296. 

αΐμων, -όνος : skilled, with gen., Ε 49. 

Αινείας: Aeneas, son of Anchises 
and Aphrodite, the bravest of 
the Trojans, next to Hector, 
Ε 467. He was of the royal 
family of Troy, and the gods 
had decreed that he and his de- 
scendants should rule over the 
Trojan race, Υ 215 ff., 307 f. 

αιν€ω (atvog) : praise, commend. 

AlvoOev : from Aenus, Δ 520. 

αίνος 3 : dread, dreadful, terrible, 
horrible, αΐνά cognate ace, adv. 
with τεκονσα, A 414. 

αινότατος : most dread, esp. with 
Κρονιδτ/. 

αΐννμΜ : take. 

αινώς : dreadfully, terribly. 

oui, aιyός : goat. 

ά.ιζας : aor. partic. of άίσσω, rush. 

ΑΙολί^ης: son of Aeolus, Sisyphus, 
Ζ 154. 

αίολο-θώρηζ : with bright shining cui- 
rass, Δ 489. 

αίολο-μίτρης : with bright, shining 
belt of mail (μίτρη). 

αίολό-ττωλος : with (^quick-moving) 
fast horses, Γ 185. 

αιόλος : (quick-moving), bright, Ε 295. 

αίττανός 3 : lofty, high-lying. 



αίττόλίον: herd of goats, herd, Β 474. 

αίτΓολος (α1$, TreX-) : (goat-tender), 
goat-herd, herdsman. 

Αιττΰ : town under Nestor's rule, 
Β 592. 

αΐιτνς, ahreuj. : lofty, towering, steep, 
sheer, alirvv ολεθρον utter destruc- 
tion. 

Αΐττυτιος: adj. of Aepytus, an old 
Arcadian hero, Β 604. 

αΧρΙω, fut. αίρησομεν, aor. elXe or 
eXe : take, grasp, seize, gain, cap- 
ture, overcome ; mid. choose. 

αΓσα : share, lot, allotted portion, 
term of life. κατά αΓσαν, as is 
(my) due, equiv. to αϊσιμα. 

Αΐσηπος : (1) a river in Trojan 
Lycia, emptying into the Propon- 
tis near Cyzicus, Β 825. (2) Son 
of Bucolion, slain by Euryalus, 
Ζ 21. 

αίσιμος (αΓσα) : fitting, suitable, due. 

άίσσω, aor. ηίζα, αί^ας, aor. pass, as 
mid. "ηίχθη'. rush, hasten, καθ* 
ίππων άίζαντε leaping down from 
the chariot, χαΐται άίσσονται the 
(hair) mane floats. 

ΑΙσνητης : an old Trojan, Β 793. 

αισυλος : dreadful, horrible, Ε 403. 

αϊσχιστος : ugliest. 

αίσχος, -€ος : shame, disgrace, re- 
proach. 

αισχρός : shameful, disgraceful. 

αίσχύνω: disgrace, bring shame upon. 

αΐτίω : ask, beg, request. 

αίτιος 3 : accountable, guilty, to blame. 

ΑΙτωλιος and Αιτωλός : an A etolian. 
Αιτωλοί Aetolians. 

αίχμάζω, fut. αιχμάσσονσι : wield the 
lance (αίχ/Ατ}), brandish, Δ 324. 

αΙχμη : lance-point, point, lance, spear. 

αιχμητης (also αιχμητά, Ε 197) : 
spearman, warrior, equiv. to άγχι- 
μαχητης, with an implication of 
bravery. 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



αίφα: straightway, quickhj. 
αιών, -ώϊ /os : duration of life, life. 
^Ακάμας (κάμνω) : (1) Thraciaii, 

slain by Ajax, Β 844, Ε 462, Ζ 8. 

(2) Son of Antenor, leader of 

Dardanians, Β 823. 
α-κάματος : unwearied, unwearying. 

Epith. of fire, Ε 4. 
άκαχίζω, perf. partic. άκαχημ£νο<; 

and άκηχ€μ€νη: grieve, am troubled. 

Cf άχίω. 
άκ€ομαί, aor. ηκίσατο {άκος) : heal, 

cure. 
ttAceW: siletit, quiet. Generally in- 
declinable, but also fern. άκ€Όυσα. 

Cf. άκην. 
ά-κη8εστος ( κηΒομχχι) : uncaredfor, 

unburied (of a corpse). 
άκην : adv. quietly, still, hushed. 
ά-κηρίος : heartless, cowardly, Ε 812. 
άκηχεμίνη: perf. partic. of άκαχίζω. 
ά-κοίτίς (κοίτη, κείμχιι) : fern, (bed- 

7nate), wife, spouse. Cf. άλοχος, 

παράκοιης. 
ακογΤίζω, aor. ακόντισε and άκοντίσ- 

σαντος : hurl the javelin (άκων}, 

hurl. 
ά-κοσμος : un-ordered, disorderly, un- 
fitting. 
άκοστάω (άκοστη barley) : am well 

fed (of ahorse). 
άκονάζω : hear, ττρώτω δαιτός άκονά- 

ζεσθον " you two are the first 

invited to a feast." 
άκονω, aor. ηκονσα or άκουσα: hear, 

give ear, obey, learn. 
ά-κράαντος (κραίαίνω) : unfulfilled, 

unaccomplished, 
άκρη (strictly fern, of άκρος) : sum- 
mit, cape, promontory. 
ά-κρητοζ (κεράνννμι) : unmixed, pure. 

σπονδαι άκρητοι libations where no 

water was mixed with the wine, 
άκρίτό-μνθοζ : endless prattler, of 

Thersites, Β 246. 



a-KpLTo<s (κρίνω) : (unseparated), con- 
fused, hmnoderate, unreasonable, 
endless. 

άκριτό-φνΧλος : with countless leaves, 
leafy, Β 868. 

άκρό-κομος (κόμη) : with hair upon 
the crown of the head, i.e. with 
hair bound in a knot on top of 
the head, Δ 533. 

άκρο-7ΓΟλθ5 : high-towering, lofty. 

άκρος 3, sup. ακρότατος : uttermost, 
highest. Only of place. άκρη 
τΓολις equiv. to ακρόπολις, άκρην 
χείρα the end of the arm, the hand, 
iir άκρω ρνμω on the tip of the 
pole, ακρότατη κόρνς very top of 
the helmet. 

ακτή : headland,' promontory, shore. 

^Ακτορίων: descendant of Actor, of 
his grandsons, Β 621. 

"Ακτωρ-. son of Azeus, Β 513. 

άκωκή (άκ-) : point, tip. 

άκων, -οντος : javelin. 

αλα-δ€ (αλς) : to the sea. 

άλαίΚητός : a loud shout, war-cry. 

^ Αλαλκομενηίς ( άλαλκω, waivl off) : 
epith. of Athena, as the Defender, 
Protector. 

aXaopuai : wander. 

άλατταδνός 3 : weak, powerless, un- 
warlike ; comp. άλατταδνότερος. 

αΧαττάζω, f ut. άλαπα^εις : sack, de- 
stroy. 

*ΑΧάστωρ•. (1) a Pylian, Δ 295. 
(2) A Lycian, Ε 677. 

άλγ€ω, aor. partic. άλγτ;σας : suffer 
pain, ache. 

άλγος, -εος : grief pain, trouble, woe. 

αλεγεινός 3 : painful, grievous. 

άΧε-γίζω : regard, heed. 

άΧεείνω : avoid, shun. 

Άλείσίον : place in Elis, Β 617. 

άλείτης : sinner, evil-doer, Γ 28! 

Άλ€^ανδρος (άλ€^ω, άνηρ, warder-off 
of men) : Alexander, perhaps the 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



Greek translation of Paris (and 
used four times a» f req.) . Son 
of Priam, husband of Helen, and 
thus the author of the Trojan 
war. His single combat with 
Menelaus-j the earlier husband of 
Helen, is described in Γ 16 ff. 
For his home, see Ζ 313 ff. Only 
in one (late) passage (Ω 29 f.) 
does Homer mention the 'Judg- 
ment of Paris.* 

άλε^ω, f ut. partic. αΧεξήσαντα : ward 
off, hence (with dat. of interest) 
defend. 

αλεΰο/χΛΐ, aor. aXevaro, aor. subjv. 
αλεώ/Λε^α: escape, avoid, άλευά- 
μενον in flight . 

αληθής, -ες: true. άληθεα truly, 
the truth. 

*Αλψον TreSiOv: the Alean plain in 
Asia Minor, where Bellerophon 
wandered, Ζ 201. 

άλτ^/χεναι : gather, aor. pass. inf. of 
εί'λω crowd together, 

αΧθομχχι : am healed. 

* Αλίαρτος : Haliartus, in Boeotia, 
on Lake Copais, Β 503. 

α-Χίαχττος : (unbending), mighty y 
violent. 

άΧίγκίος ' resembling, like. 

*Αλιζων€ς pi.: a people who dwelt 
in Bithynia on the Euxine, 
Β 856. 

Άλως : a Lycian, slain by Odysseus, 
Ε 678. 

αλιος : fruitless, ineffectual, in vain. 

αΧιος (ttXs) : of the sea, dwelling in 
the sea. 

αΧις (/roXts) : adv. in throngs, enough. 

άλίσκομαι, aor. pass, partic. άλουσα 
and άλόντε (/ταλ-) : am captured, 
taken. 

"ΑλκάνΒρος : a Lycian, slain by 
Odysseus, Ε 678. 

άλκαρ : defence, protectionj Ε 644. 



άλκη, dat. αλκί : defence, help, 

strength, courage, bravery. 
"Αλκηστίς : daughter of Pelias ; who 

died for her husband Admetus, 

Β 715. 
όλκιμος : brave, courageous, mighty. 
αλλά: but, yet, on the other hand. 

Sometimes correlative with piv. 

Sometimes in apod., as A 82, 281. 
αλλϊ^ : adv., strictly dat. of άλλος, 

elsewhere, i.e. away (from me). 
α-λΧηκτον (λη-γω) : adv. unceasingly. 
άλλΊ7λων, άλλι^λοισι, άλλι/λους : each 

other. 
αλλο-δαττός : foreign. άλλοδατΓΟί'/ίΐβ/ι 

of other lands. 
αλλο-θεν : from another side, άλλο• 

Oev άλλος one on one side, another 

on another. 
άλλοΓος (άλλος) : of other qualify. 

άλλοΓός ης a different sort of man. 
αλλομαι, aor. αλτο (salio) : leap. 
αλλο-πρόσ-αλλος : (changing from 

one to another), changeable, fickle, 

Ε 831. 
άλλος 3 (alius)*: other, another, ra 

μίν . . . άλλα δε, so?ne . . . others. 

ot άλλοι, those others. Freq. a 

noun is added in appos. C/. 

άλλϊ;, άλλως, άλλοτε, άλλοθεν, 

αλλοδαπός, άλλοττρόσαλλος, άλ- 

λοΐος, αλλότριος. 
άλλοτε : at another time, once upon a 

time, άλλοτε, άλλοτε at one time, 

at another time. 
ίίλλοτριος 3: belonging to another 

( άλλος , alien us). αλλότριος 

φως (foreigner), enemy, Ε 214. 
άλλως : otherwise, Ε 218. 
δλόντε, άλουσα: aor. partic. of άλι- 

σκομαι am captured. 
*Αλόπη: town under Achilles's rule, 

Β 682. 
"Αλός : town under Achilles's rule, 

Β 682. 



8 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



α-λοχο9 {λίχοζ) : (hed-mate), wife. 

Cf. aKOLTLS. 

αλς, αλός (salum): iem. the sea; 
esp. the sea near the shore, as dis- 
tinguished from both the high 
seas and the land. 

άλσος, -εος : grove, esp. a grove 
consecrated to a divinity; hence, 
a sacred field, equiv. to τίμενος 
Β 606. Temples were not fre- 
quent in the Homeric time ; the 
god's sanctuary was generally 
only a grove or enclosui'e, with 
an altar. 

αλτο : aor. of αλλομχΐί. 

*Αλνβη : a country near Troy from 
which silver came, Β 857. 

άλυσκά^ω : fiee, skulk. 

άλνω : am frantic, am beside myself, 
rave. 

* Αλφειός : (1) Alpheiis, river in 
Arcadia and Elis (flowing past 
Olympia), Β 592. (2) The god 
of the Alpheiis, Ε 545. 

Άλωεΰς (άλω?;, thresher) : father of 
Otus and Ephialtes, Ε 386. 

άΧαη'• threshing-floor, field (planted 
with vines or trees?). 

άλωμενος : partic. of άΧάομαί ivander. 

a/A : up, along, for ανά, by ' apocope ' 
and ' assimilation * before ir, β, φ, 
as α/χ ττεΒίον. 

3.μα : adv. at the same time, together, 
with. It is sometimes found with 
T€ . . . και, and εττεσθαι, and ac- 
companies a 'dative of associa- 
tion.' 

^Αμχιζόνες'ρΙ.: Amazons. These war- 
like women fought against the 
Phrygians, Γ 189 ; they were slain 
by Bellerophon, Ζ 186. 

άμαθος : sand, Ε 587. 

άμαιμάκετος 3 : raging, impetuous. 

αμαρτάνω, aor. αμαρτε and ημβρο- 
τες : miss, fail to hit. 



αμ-αρτ-β (α/χα, ap-') ' at the same 
time, at once, together. 

*Αμαρνγκεί8ης : son of Amarynceus, 
Diores, Β 622. 

άμ-βάλλω (αναβάλλω) : (throw up, 
hold back), put off, postpone. 

άμ-βα-τός (ανά, βαίνω) : to be as- 
cended, scaled. 

ά-μβροσίη : ambrosia, food of the 
gods, and even of their horses. 

ά-μβρόσιος 3 (βροτός) : ambrosial, 
divine. 

α-μβροτος : immortal, divine. 

α-με-γαρ-τος (μεγαίρω) : (unenvi- 
able), dreadful. 

αμείβω, aor. άμείψατο: change, ex- 
change; mid. answer, reply. 

άμείνων, -ov: bette?', preferable, braver, 
mightier, comp. of άγαμος. 

ά/χελγο) : milk. άμελ-γόμεναι a- 
milking, being milked. 

α-μενηνός : powerless, weak, faint. 

ά-μετρο-εττης, -ες (εττος) : of un-meas- 
ured speech, endless talker, Β 212. 

α /x/xe : Aeolic for ημάς, us. 

a/x/xt : Aeolic for ήμΐν, us. 

α-μμόρος (μόρος, μοίρα) : (without 
portion), ill fated, unhappy. 

αμός : for ημέτερος, our, Ζ 414. 

α-μοτον : adv. ceaselessly, eagerly, 
violently. 

αμ-ττείρω, aor. άμττείραντες : put upon 
spits, spit. 

άμττελό-εις, -εσσα : rich in vines, vine^ 
clad. 

άμ-ττετταλων : aor. partic. of άνα- 
ττάλλω brandish. 

άμ-ττνννθη : aor. pass, of άναττνεω 
revive, Ε 697. 

Ά/χυδώι/, -ωνος: town in Paeonia, 
on the Axius, Β 849. 

"Άμυκλαι pi. : an old Achaean city in 
the valley of the Eurotas, about 
a league south of Sparta. Seat 
of Tyndareiis and his sons. Β 584. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



9 



ά.-μΰμων, -όνος '. blameless, honorable. 

άμννω, aor. αμννεν: ward off, keep 
off, protect, defend, with dat. of 
interest, or ablatival gen. 

αμνσσω, f ut. άμν^ο) : (tear), gnaw. 

άμφ-έχυτο: aor. of αμφί-χίο), pour 
about. 

άμφ-ηρεφης, -ίς (βρεφω) : covered 
(^closed) both above "and below, 
A 45. 

άμφί (αμφω) : adv. and prep, (on 
both sides), (above and beloiv), 
about, around. Often equiv. to 
Ίτερί, but Trept freq. is used of 
what surrounds in a circle. αμή> 
οβεΧοίσιν t-Kupav they jnerced ivith 
spits so that the spit appeared at 
either side, ηριττε δ' άμφ* αντω 
but he fell over him, ol άμφΐ 
ΐΐρίαμον Priam and his attend- 
ants. Cf αμφύ;. 

άμφ-ίαχνΐαν : perf. partic, as pres., 
shrieking about, Β 316. (αμρερα- 
γνΊαν, from ηχεω, has been con- 
jectured.) 

άμφί-βαινω, perf. αμφιβίβηκα, go 
about ; perf. has come upon, stands 
over (lit. upon both sides of), pro- 
tects (fig., from the beasts who 
stand over and protect their 
young). 

άμφί-βασις (βαίνω) : defence, Ε 623. 

άμφί-βροτος 3 : man-protecting, only 
of the shield (άσπι?)• 

Αμφίγενεια: town under Nestor's 
rule, Β 593. 

αμφι-•γνη-€ί<ί (γυΐον) (ambi-dex- 
ter) : strong-armed. Epith. of 
Hephaestus ; sometimes as a 
subst. 

άμφί-8ούω, perf. αμφιΒε^ηε : burn 
about, blaze round about, 7t 329» 

άμφί-8ρνφης, -€ς (δρντττω) : {torn on 
both sides), with both cheeks torn 
(in grief), Β 700. 



άμφι-ελίσσα : fern, adj., curved at hath 
ends (or on both sides), shapely. 
Epith. of ships, esp. of those 
drawn up on shore ; only at the 
close of the verse. 




άμφί-ίττω : am busy about, άμφί- 

«Γοντες busily. 
άμφί-καλντΓτω, aor. άμφεκόΧνφε : 

conceal round about, cover, envelop, 
άμφί-κυπελλον SeVa? : two-handled 

cup. 
άμφί-μάχομαι: fight about, with ace. 
'Αμφίμαχος : (1) leader of the 

Eleans, Β 620. (2) Ά Carian 

leader, Β 870 ff. 
άμφί-μελας : black round about, dark- 
ened on all sides (of a mind dark 

with passion). 
αμφι-νίμομχιι : dwell round about, 

inhabit. 
"Κμφ-κνζ : (1) Trojan leader, Β 830. 

(2) Son of Selagus, slain by A jax, 

Ε 612. 
άμφί-ττίνομχη : am busy about. 
άμφί-τΓολος (ττίλω) : fern., maid, 

female attendant, corresponding 

to the male θεράπων. 
αμφί-ττοτάομΜ : fly round about, Β 3 1 5. 
άμφί^ : on both sides, separately, in 

two ways. άμφι<ζ φράζονται are 

divided in mind, are at variance. 

Cfάμφi 

*Αμφιτρνων, -ωνος : husband of Ale- 
men a, putative father of Heracles, 
Ε 392. 



10 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



άμφί-φοιΧο<; : with double ridge (for 
έΐιβ crest). Epith. of a helmet. 

άμφί-χ<ί(ο, aor. mid. as pass. άμφ€- 
χντο : pour about. 

άμφότερος (αμφω) 3: both. In 
sing, only neut., always at the 
beginning of the verse, sometimes 
introducing a following τ•. . . καί. 
άμφοτ€ρΎ]σίν (sc. -χερσίν) with both 
hands. 

άμφοτίρωθεν : (from both sides), on 
both sides. 

αμφω (ambo) : both, only nom. and 
ace. dual, but freq. const, with 
the pi. 

αν : by ' apocope ' for άνά, up. 

αν: modal adv., indicating a con- 
dition. ' There is no adequate 
translation for αν taken by itself.' 
Its use is not so strictly defined 
as in Attic; the subjv. with αν 
is used nearly like the fut. ind., 
or the potential opt. ; the poten- 
tial opt. is sometimes found with- 
out αν, where the Attic rule would 
require it ; and κ€ is used even 
with the fut. ind. 
In use, αν is essentially equiv. to 
K€, which is more freq. 
' In simple sentences and in the 
apodosis of complex sentences, 
αν and kcv express limitation by 
circumstances or condition.' 
'lu final clauses which refer to 
the future, the use of αν or κίν 
prevails.' 

' In conditional clauses the subjv. 
and opt. generally take αν or kcv 
when the governing verb is a 
future or in a mode which im- 
plies a future occasion.' 
Tore K€v μιν ττεττίθοιμεν then ice may 
persuade him, κύνοισί Κ αν ovTLq 
μαχίοιτο but ivith those no one 
would contend, ai kc Tro^t Ζευς 



δωσί if Zeus ever grants, τάχ αν 
TTore θνμον okeaajf he may at some 
near time lose his life, εντ αν ττολ- 
λοί τΓίπτωσί tohen many shall fall. 

άνά, αν, άμ (before labials) : adv. 
and prep., up, thereon, upon, along. 
άνα cSpa/xe started back, άνά στρα- 
τον (up) through the camj), άν ομι- 
λον through the throng, άν re μάχην 
along through the confiict, φρονίων 
άνά θνμόν considering in mind, άνά 
στόμα on (your) lips, άνά στρατόν 
and κατά στρατόν, ανά άστυ and 
κατά άστυ are used Λvith slight 
difference of meaning; in such 
expressions, metrical convenience 
seems to have determined the 
choice between άνά and κατά. 

άνα: for άνάστηθι rise, Ζ 331. 

άνα: vocative of'ava^ king, Γ 351. 

άνα- βαίνω, aor. άνίβη and άναβά<: : 
go up, ascend, mount, ernbark. 

άνά-βλησις, -ιος : delay, postpone- 
ment. Cf άμβάλλω. 

άναγκαίη and ανάγκη : necessity, com- 
pulsion. TLS TOL ανάγκη what com- 
pels thee ? 

άνα-γνάμπτω, aor. pass, άνεγνάμ- 
φθη : bend back, turn. 

άν-άγω, aor. άνηγαγεν : lead up, bring 
back; mid. put to sea (opp. to 
κατάγεσθαί). 

άνα-^εχομαί, aor. άνεΒεζατο : take up, 
receive. 

άνα-δυω, aor. άνεδϋσετο and άνβδϋ: 
dive up, appear from below, rise. 

άνα-θηλεω, fut. άναθηΧήσω : bloom 
agaiti, put forth neto leaves, A 23G. 

άν-αίΒείη (αιδώ?) : shamelessness, in- 
solence. 

αν-αίΒης, -c? : shameless, pitiless. 

άν-αίμων, -ovo^ (αίμα) : bloodless (of 
the gods), Ε 342. 

άν-αιρεω, aor. partic. άνελών, aor. 
mid. άνελοντο: take up. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



11 



άν-αισσω, aor. opt. dvatieiev, aor. 
partic. άνάί^α?: start up, spring 
up, rise. 

άνα-κλίνω, aor. inf. αΐ'α-κλΓναι, aor. 
partic. α-γκλίνας : lean upon, lean 
back, οίνακλΐναί νίφος roll back 
(i.e. open) the cloud. 

άν-ακοντίζω : shoot up, spirt up (of 
blood), Ε 113. 

αν-αλκαη (αίλκη) : tveakness, cow- 
ardice, αναλκεί^σι δα/Α€ΐ/τες over- 
come by their cowardice. 

av-a\KL<s, -i8os : powerless, weak, cow- 
ardly. 

ανα-νενω: (nod up), refuse, deny (a 
request); opp. to κατανενω indi- 
cate and confirm assent by a nod. 

άνα^', gen. ανακτος, voc. ανα (ράναζ) : 
(protecting lord), king, lord, mas- 
ter, epith. of gods and princes. 
ανα^ ανδρών king of men, epith. 
esp. of Agamemnon. 

ανα-ττάλλω, aor. partic. αμπετταλων: 
brandish. 

ανα-πιμττλημί, aor. subjv. αναπλη- 
<rrjs : βΙΙ up, fulfil, complete. 

ανα-ττνεω, aor. pass, αμπνννθη : take 
breath, revive. 

αν-άποινος ( αττοινα) : unransomed, 
freely, A 99. 

άν-αρχος : without leader, uncom- 
manded. 

ανάσσω (ράναζ) : rule over, reign, be 
master, lord of. Freq. with dat. of 
interest. Μυρ/λίδόνεσσιν ανασσε 
(reign for the Myrmidons), reign 
over the Myrmidons. 

ανά-στας : standing up ; aor. partic. 
of ανίστημι set up. 

ανα-στησειεν : aor. opt. of ανίστημι 
cause to stand up, rouse from their 
seats. 

ανα-σχεΐν, αναχτχεο, ανασ;(€σ^αι, ανα- 
σ\6μενο<», άνασχων' aor. of αίνεχω 
hold up, endure. 



άνα-Τ€λλω, aor. aveVciXe: send up, 

cause to grow, Ε 777. 
αίνα-τρεττω, aor. ανετράπετο : turn 

over, 
άνα-φαινω: (show up), reveal, 
άνα-χάζομαί : draw back, withdraw, 

yield. 
άνα-χωρ^ω, aor. αναχώρησα^ '. draw 

back, yield, retreat. 
άνα-{{η}χω : cool, refresh. 
άνδάνω, impf. ην^ανε or ανδανε, aor. 

inf. άΒεΐν (/τανδάνω, /ταδ-) : please, 

am acceptable. 
Άνδραί/χων, -ovo<i '. father of Thoas, 

Β 638. 
άν8ρεϊ-φόντη<ζ (φόνος) : man-slaying, 

of Ένυαλιος, Β 651. 
άνΒρο-κτ.ασίη (κτανεΐν) : slaughter of 

men. 
*Αν8ρομάχη: Andromache, wife of 

Hector, daughter of Eetion (king 

of Theba), Ζ 394 ff. Her father 

and brothers were slain by Achil- 
les, Ζ 414 fe. 
αν8ρο-φόνος : man-slaying, epith. 

esp. of Hector and Ares. 
άν-εβη : aor. of άνα^^αίνω go up, rise, 
άν-ε-γνάμφθη : aor. of άναγνάμπτω 

bend back. 
άν-ε8ε$ατο : aor. of άναΒεχομαι re' 

ceive. 
άν-εδΰ, and αν€δϊ5σ€το: aor. of ανα- 
δύω dive up to, appear from, 
άν-εεργω : check, hold back, 
άν-εηκεν: aor. of άνίημι urge on. 
αν-είμί, pres. partic. ανιόντα (εΤμι): 

come back, return, Ζ 480. 
αν-είρομαι (ερομαι) : ask, inquire. 
αν-εκ-τ6<ζ (άνεχω) : endurable, A 573. 
αν-ε\οντο, άνελών: aor. of άναίρεω 

take up. 
άνεμος, -ovo : wind. Homer knows 

but four winds : Εύρος East wind, 

Βορίης North wind. Ζέφυρος West 

wind, Νότος South wind. 



12 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



άνεμωλίος (ave/xo?) : (windy), empty, 
useless, idle, in vain. 

Αν€μώραα : town in Phocis, Β 521. 

av-ivcvc : impf . of άνανενω (nod up, 
i.e. shake the head), refuse. 

av-ein-es : aor. partic. of άνίημι urge on. 

άν-έ^ομαι: fut. of ανέχομαι suffer, 
allow. 

dvepes, dvlpL, άνερας : from άνηρ man. 

αν-ψχομαί : return. 

άν-ίσταν \_άν€στησαν], ανέστη : stood 
up, rose, aor. of άνίστημι set up. 

αν-εσχετο, άνεσχον. aor. of ανεχω 
hold uj), raise. 

αν-έτειλε : aor. of ανατέλλω send up. 

άν-ετράπετο: aor. of ανατρέπω turn 
over. 

ανενθε(ν) : adv. far, away from, ivith- 
out. ανενθε θεοΰ without divine help. 

αν-εχάζετο: impf. of άναχάζομαι 
draw back. 

αν-εχω, fut. ανέχομαι and ανσ-χτ}- 
σεσθαί, aor. ανεσχον : hold up, 
lift, raise; mid. hold up under, 
endure, suffer, allow. 

άν-εχωρησεν : aor. of αναχωρέω draw 
back. 

ανεω: speechless, dumb, mute. (Prob. 
an old adj. in nom. pi.) 

αν-ηγαγέν aor., αίνηγες impf. : of ανά- 
γω brijig back. 

αν-ηγ) aor. subjv., οίνηκε aor. ind. : 
of avt?7/x-t let go, urge on. 

ανήκεστος (άκος) : incurable, unen- 
durable, Ε 394. 

άν-ηκ6ντίζε : impf. of άνακοντίζω 
shoot w/>, Ε 113. 

άνήρ, gen. ανδρός or ανερος, dat. 
άνερι, nom. pi. άνερες, dat. pi. 
άνδ/οάσι or αν^ρεσσι : man, ν i r, 
in contrast with boy, woman, or 
divinity, ανερες εστε be (brave) 
me7i ! In military use, equiv. to 
μαχητής warrior. In ττατήρ dv- 
8ρων re θέων τε, father of both men 



and gods (of Zeus), άνδρες is used 
of the human race (like άνθρωποι), 
άνηρ is sometimes added to eth- 
nic names, as ^tvTteg άνδρες, Δάρ- 
δανος άνήρ, or to the name of a 
class, as αΐπόλοι άνδρες, βασιΧήι 
avhpi, βονληφόρον άνδρα. 

άν-ήσει : fut. of άν-ίημι urge on. 

^ΑνθεμίΒης: son of Anthemio, Si- 
moisius, Δ 488. 

^Ανθεμίων, -ωνος : a Trojan, Δ 473. 

αν^€ρ-ό-«ς, -εντός (άνθος) : flowery, 
abounding in flowers. 

άνθερεών, -ωνος : chin. 

* Ανθηρών, -όνος : town on the Euri- 
pus, about seven miles from 
Chalcis, Β 508. 

αν^ος, pi. av^ea : flower. 

άνθρωπος : man, human being, 
homo. 

ανίάω, aor. partic. άνϊηθεντα : grieve, 
vex, wear out. 

άν-ίημι, 2d pers. ind. ανιεις, fern, 
partic. ανιεισα, fut. άνήσει, aor. 
αν^κε or άνεηκεν, aor. subjv. ανήη, 
aor. partic. ανεντες : (send uj)), 
let go, free, urge on. 

άν-ιόντα : partic. of ανει/χι come back, 
return. 

ά-νιπτος (νίπτω) : unwashed, 7i 266. 

άν-ίστημι, pres. mid. partic. άνιστά- 
μενος, fut. inf. ανσττ^σεσ^αι, 1st 
aor. opt. ανασττ^σειεν, 2d aor. ind. 
άνεστη, άνστήτην, άνεσταν [ανε- 
σττ/σαν], aor. partic. αναστάς, 
ανστάντες : set up, raise, cause to 
rise, in pres. and 1st aor. act. ; 
stand up, rise, in 2d aor. and mid. 
Often with dat. of interest, τοισι 
δ' άνεστη he rose for them, sc. to 
address them. 

άν-ορονω, aor. άνόρονσε: start up, 
rise, A 248. 

αν-ουτατος (οντάμεναι) : unwounded 
by a weapon held in the hand, 



FIKST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



13 



opposed to αβλητο^ unJiit by a 
missile, Δ 540. 

ο.ν-στάντί'ί aor. partic, ανστησεσθαι 
fut., ανστήτην aor. ind. : of dvi- 
στημχ raise up, rise. 

οίν-σχησεσθαί : fut. of άνεχομχΐί en- 
dure j allow. 

avra : opposite, over against. Cf. 
αντην. 

dvr-a$Lo<s : of like worth, of equal 
value, equivalent. 

αντάω, aor. ηντησα : meet, Ζ 399. 

"AvreuLi wife of Proetus, Ζ 160. 
(Stheneboea in the tragic poets.) 

άντ-ετόρ-ησΐν : aor. of άντιτορίω 
pierce, Ε 337. 

αντψ: equiv. to αντα, opposite, to 
{my) face, openly. 

*Αντηνορί8ης: son of Antenor. 

Αντηνωρ, -opo<s (cf. αντιάναρα) : 
Antenor, one of the wisest Trojan 
princes (the Trojan Nestor) who 
always favored peace and the re- 
turn of Helen. He was the father 
of many doughty sons, seven of 
whom were slain in the battles 
of the Iliad. He received Mene- 
laus and Odysseus at his house, 
when they came to Troy as am- 
bassadors, Γ 205 if. ; he accom- 
panied Priam to the field, to 
strike a truce, Γ 262. 

αντία: adv. opposite. Cf άντίος. 

dvTL-dveLpa (dvrjp) : matched tvith 
men in battle, like to men, of the 
Amazons, Γ 189, Ζ 186. 

άντιάω, subjv. dmooxnv, fem. partic. 
αντιόωσαν, aor. partic. α^τίάσας : 
meet, approach, partake of, share, 
receive. 

αντι-βίψ: adv. with opposing might; 
originally cognate ace, sc. cptSa. 

αντί-βιοζ (βιη) '• opposing, hostile. 
άντίβίον /ιια;(€'σασ^αι fght against 
in hand to hand conflict. 



άντί-βολίω, aor. inf. άντίβολησαι 
(βάλλω) : go to meet, take part in. 

άντί-θεος 3: god-like, with no esp. 
reference to moral qualities. 

άντίκρύς : adv. (opposite, against), 
straight forward, straight through. 

'Aj/TtXo;(09: Antilochus, eldest son 
of Nestor, a distinguished war- 
rior, and friend of Achilles, 
Ρ 652 ff., Ψ 556. 

avTtos 3 : adj. meeting, to meet, in 
friendly or hostile sense, άντίον 
is used adv. avr lov dirov opposed, 
dvTLOv ειμί go against. 

άντί-ττεραια (περα^) : neut. pi. as 
subst., the opposite fields, the oppo- 
site coast, Β 635. 

avTL -τορέω, aor. άντετόρησεν: pierce. 

άντι-ψερω : bear against ; mid. bear 
myself against, oppose. 

"Αντίφος : (1) Greek ally from the 
Sporades, Β 678. (2) Leader of 
the Maeonians, Β 864. (3) Son 
of Priam, Δ 489. 

dvTopxiL : meet. 

* Αντρών, -ωνος : town under the rule 
of Protesilaus, Β 697. 

dvTv$, -vyos : rim, of shield or 
chariot. 

ανυσι?, -tos : accomplishment, fulfil- 
ment, οίννσίς δ' ουκ εσσεταυ " they 
will not attain what they desire 
and plan." 

άννω : accomplish, gain anything. 

ανωγα (perf . as pres.), impf. dvwyov, 
plpf. as impf. ι^μώγει or ανώ-γεινι 
commajid, order, bid. 

αξαντε : aor. partic. of άγννμχ break. 

a^et fut., αίρετε aor. imv. : of αγω 
lead, bring. 

*Α$ως : river in Macedonia, empty- 
ing into the Thermaean Gulf, 
Β 849. 

αζίος : (of equal weight), of equal 
value, suitable (of a ransom). 



14 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



a$ov : aor. imv. of αγι/υ /xt break. 

"Αξϋλοζ : Trojan from Arisbe, slain 
by Diomed, Ζ 12. 

άξων : axle of chariot. 

άοιδτ; (ά€ΐδω) : son^r, gift of song. 

αοιδι/Λος : smw^ of, subject of song, 
Ζ 358. 

άολλης, -is : all together, with closed 
ranks. 

αοΧΚίζω, aor. άόλλισαν : collect, bring 
together. 

Άτταισος (Παισό?, Ε 612) : town of 
Mysia, Β 828. 

ά-παλα /Avos (παλάμη) : (without de- 
vice), unskilled, helpless, Ε 597. 

άπ-αλοιάω, aor. άπηλοίησεν: crush, 
Δ 522. 

ατταλος 3 : tender, delicate, soft. 

άττ-αμείβομαί : reply, answer. Freq. 
in the formula τον δ' άπαμειβό- 
μενος ττροσίφ-η, where the ace. 
is const, with ιτροσίφη. 

άπ-άνενθε: adv. aivag, apart, some- 
times with ablatival gen., away 
from. 

αττάς, αττασα, άτταν (strengthened 
ττας) : all, all together. 

άπ-άτ€ρθε(ν) (άτερ): adv. separately, 
apart, with gen. 

απάτη : deceit, trick. 

απατηλός: deceptive, deceitful, A 526. 

άπ-ζβη and άπφησετο : aor. of απο- 
βαίνω dep)art. 

άπ-εδε^ατο: aor. of άποΒίχομαι ac- 
cept. 

άτΓ-εδϋσε : aor. of άττοδΰω stj'ip off. 

άτΓ-εδωκε : aor. of άποδιδω/χ,ι give 
back, pay, render. 

άπειλεω, fut. άπείλ,ησω, aor. ηπεί- 
λησεν and απείλησαν (απειλή) : 
threaten. ηπείλησεν μνθον (he 
threatened a word), he uttered a 
threat. 

απ-ειμι, partic. άπεόντοζ (εΙμί) : am 
away. 



ά-πείρων, -όνος : boundless, limitless. 

άπ-εκτανε : aor. of άποκτείνω slay. 

ά-πελεθρο<ζ (πελεθρον) : immeasura- 
ble, infinite. 

άπ-ενάσσατο : aor. of άποναίομαι 
emigrate. 

άπ-εόντος : partic. of άπειμι am aivny 

ά-περείσιος (πέρα) 3 : boundlesSj 
countless. 

άπ-ερνκω : keep off, ivard off, avert. 

άπ-εσσνμενον perf . partic, άπεσσντο 
plpf . : of άποσσενομαι hasten away. 

άπ-εστη: stepped back, aor. of άφί- 
στημυ set back. 

άπ-ετίσαν : aor. of άποτίνο) pay. 

άπ-εχθαίρο), aor. subjv. άπεχβηρω 
(εχθος) : hate violently. 

άπ-εχθάνομαί, aor. άπήχθετο : am 
hated. 

άπ-εχω, aor. subjv. άπόσχη: hold 
off', keep far away. 

άπ-ηλοιησεν : aor. of άτταλοιάω crush. 

ά-πημων (πημα) : unharmed . 

άπ-ηνη<ζ, -εος : (unkind), harsh, cruel, 
A 310. 

άπ-ηνρα, άπηνρων: took away. See 
άπονρας. 

άπ-ηχθετο : aor. of απεχθάνομαι am 
hated. 

ά-πιθεω, aor. άπίθησε (πείθω) : dis- 
obey. 

απιος 3 : distant, remote, τηλόθεν 
ii άπίης γαίης from far away — 
a remote land. 

ά-πιστος : faithless, untrustworthy. 

από: adv. and prep., atvay, off, 
from, back. The adv. is freq . 
attended by an ablatival gen. 
αφ' ίππων άλτο leaped from his 
chariot, από γθονος ωρνντο on the 
ground he set out, μένων από r/s 6X6- 
χοίο remaining away from his wife. 

άπο-αίρεομαι and άφαίρεομαι, fut. 
άφαίρησεσθαι, aor. άφελοντο : take 
away, deprive for my own interest. 



FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ILIAD. 



15 



ατΓΟ-βαινω, aor. άπ^βησετο or άττί- 
βη ; go off, dismount. 

αττό-βλητος (βάλλω) : to be cast off, 
to be rejected, despicable. 

άτΓΟ-γνιόω, aor. subjv. anoyvLwarjs : 
(lame utterly), weaken, Ζ 265. 

άπο-8ζχομαι, aor. άπεδε^ατο: accept, 
A 95. 

άτΓΟ-διδω/Λΐ, aor. άττεδωκε, aor. inf. 
άτΓοδοΰναι : give back, render, pay. 

άτΓΟ-δϋω, aor. άττεδϋσε : strip off. 

άττά-ειττε : imv. of άττόφημι, deny, 
re/use. 

άπο-είκω : withdraw from, abandon, 
wifch gen., Γ 406. 

άτΓο-ερσε (aor.) : canned off, swept 
away. Cf. άττουρας. 

άπο-θέσθαί : aor. inf. of άττοτίθημι 
put off. 

άτΓΟ-θρώσκω: leap off. 

ατΓοινα. neut. pT. (πουνη) : (recom- 
pense), ransom. 

άπ-οίσετον: fut. of άποφίρω bear 
away, Ε 257. 

άτΓΟ-κρίνω, aor. pass, partic. άττοκρίν- 
θίντε : separate. αττοκρίνθίντε 
apart from their friends, Ε 12. 

ατΓΟ-κτείνο), aor. ind. άττεκτανε, aor. 
inf. άτΓοκτάμεν : slay, kill. 

άτΓΟ-λά/χττω : shine, gleam. 

άτΓ-ολ^σθαι aor. inf., άττολεσσαν aor. 
ind. : of άττόλλνμί destroy. 

άτΓΟ-ληγω : cease, die away, die. 

άτΓ-όλΧΰμί, aor. act. άττώλεσε and 
άττόλεσσαν, aor. mid. άττώλετο and 
άττόλοντο: destroy; mid. perish, die, 
fall (in battle). 

Άττόλλων, -ωνο5 : Apollo, son of 
Zeus and Leto, twin brother of 
Artemis. God of the sun and 
light (hence Φοΐβος gleaming), of 
the bow (Ικηβολος, άργυροτο^οζ), 
of health and disease. He is one 
of the mightiest gods, freq. asso- 
ciated with Zeus and Athena. 



He favors the Trojans against 

the Greeks. 
άπο-λν μαίνομαι : purify myself. 
απολύω, aor. άττελϋσε : release, set 

free. 
άπο-μηνίω, aor. partic. άτΓομηιΛσα<; : 

give ve?it to wrath far away. 
άτΓ-ομορ'/ννμί, aor. άττομόρ^ατο : wipe 

away. 
άτΓΟ-ναίω, aor. άπενάσσατο : emigrate, 
ατιο-νίομαί : return. 
άτΓΟ-νοστε'ω, fut. άττονοστησείν (ι/οσ- 

Tos) : return, go home. 
ά7Γ0-ν6σφί(ν) : adv. apart, aioay 

from. 
άτΓΟ-τταυω, fut. mid. αιτ&κανσεσθαΐ: 

cease from ; mid. keep myself 

away from, stop. 
ατΓΟ-ττΙτομαι, aor. mid. partic. άπο- 

ΤΓτάμενα : fly aivay. 
άτΓΟ-ττνειω (ττνε'ω) : breathe forth. 
αττο-ΤΓτνω: spit forth, belch forth. 
άτΓΟ-ρηγννμι, aor. partic. awopprjias l 

break off, break. 
άτΓ-όρνυμαί : set out from, Ε 105. 
άτΓ-ορουω, aor. άττο/οουσε: leap off 

(from his chariot). 
απο-ρρωζ (ρηγνυμί) : (what is broken 

off), branch (of a river). 
άτΓΟ-σσευομαι, plpf. άττεσσυτο, perf. 

partic. as pres. άττεσσυμενον : rush 

away, hasten aioay. 
ατΓΟ-στείχω, aor. aTT6aTL-}(€. : go away, 

depart. 
άπο-σφάλλω, aor. opt. άττοσφηλειε: 

drive far atcay from, άττοσφηλαε 

irovoto " make vain their lalbor." 
άττόσχΎ] : aor. of άττίχω ; hold off, 

keep far aioay from, 
απο^ίθημι, aor. inf. άττοθίσθαι : put 

off, doff. 
άτΓΟ-τίι/ω, fut. άτΓΟτίσο/Αεν, aor. άττε- 

τΐσαν' pay. 
άτΓονρας aor. partic. : taking away. 

(Prob. for arro-fpaS' Of this, άτηρ• 



16 



VOCABULARY TO THE 



pa (or ajrevpa) would be the ind., 
while αττηνρων seems to be formed 
from an άπβνράω.) 

άπο-φίρω, int. ind. άττοίσΐτον. bear 
away. 

αττο-φθιννθω : waste aioay, perish. 

χτΓοφθίνω, aor. partic. αποφθίμ,ενον: 
jierish, die. 

1-πρηκτος (πρησσω) : (unaccom- 
plished), ivithout result, fruitless. 

ά-ττρίάτψ (πρίαμχΐί): adv. unhought, 
without ransom. 

ά-7Γτόλ€/Λθ5 : umvarlike. 

άτΓτομΜ, aor. ηψατο : lay hold of, 
touch. 

άτΓ-ώλεσε, άπώλετο : aor. of αττολ- 
λνμί destroy. 

άτΓ-ω^εω, f^^t. άττώσα: push off, keep 
off, remove. 

άρα, pa (enclit.), ap, p' : so, then. 
Very often it marks an action as 
natural, or as well-known, or re- 
minds of something recently said. 
It also marks transitions. Freq. 
it cannot be translated into Eng. 
for lack of an equivalent particle, 
but its force must be rendered by 
a suitable arrangement of words, 
or inflection of voice. It never 
stands at the beginning of a 
clause. 

Ιραβζω, aor. άράβησε (άραβοζ) : 
ring, of the armor of falling war- 
riors. 

Άραιθνρεη: thought to be the later 

rhlius near Corinth, Β 571. 
άραως 8 : (thin), delicate, tender, of 

Aphrodite's hand. 
άράομαί, impf. ηρατο, aor. ηρησατο 

{αρά praijer) : pray, 
αραρίσκω, aor. partic. αρσαντε?, aor. 
ind. yjpape, perf. partic. άρηρως 
and άραρνΐα, plpf. άρηραν', join, 
ft, suit; perf. and plpf. are -in- 
trans., am ftted, suited, ζωστηρ 



άρηρως a toell-ftting gi