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Full text of "First steps in ampelography: a guide to facilitate the recognition of vines"

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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

RECEIVED BY EXCHANGE 

Class 



m 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



VITICULTtTRAL STATION, UUTHERGLEF, VICTORIA. 



FIEST STEPS IN AMPELOGRAPHY: 



A GUIDE TO FACILITATE THE RECOGNITION OP VINES, 



MAKCEL MAZADE, 

Sub-Director of the Laboratory for Viticultural Research, at the National 
School of Agriculture, Montpellier. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF ^ 

Translated by 
RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris), 

Diplome E. A . M. , Director of the Viticultural Station, Chief Inspector of 
Vineyards for Victoria ; 

AXD 

W. PERCY WILKINSON, 

Private Assistant to the Government Analyst, Consulting Analyst to the 
M. and M. Board of Works. 



3892. 



ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 
1 9OO. 



5 fc 








INTRODUCTION 



NOTES ON THE DETERMINATION OF CEPAGES.* 

A long association with vines enables any one to acquire, 
in a given district, a visual recollection of the most common 
varieties, or " cepages." This visual recollection is prefer- 
able to the best description. It is due to the physiognomy 
of a variety becoming engraved on the memory, and serving 
as a means of comparison. This physiognomy of a vine is 
the general result of the impression caused by the union of 
its separate characters. But, more often than not, these 
particular or separate characters, not having been examined 
individually with sufficient attention, escape from the 
memory. From their assembled characteristics a special 
appearance proper to each cepage results, which in most 
cases is sufficient to serve as a guide. 

This method of determination is the result of unconscious 
discrimination. Vine-growers easily recognise at first sight the 
varieties amongst which they live, such a method of observa- 
tion has a close analogy to that which enables a shepherd to 
recognise individual sheep in his flock. It is recommendable, 
but presents, however, serious difficulties. First, it demands 
a long time to acquire ; and second, can only apply to a 
given district or region. Climate, cultural proceedings, and 
method of training, all tend to modify the appearance of a 
vine, and may even render it unrecognisable. An Aramon 
vine growing in the plains of the He"rault (South of France) 
will differ in appearance from the same vine when cultivated 



* This word is used as it has no true equivalent in the English language. It is usually 
translated as variety ; this, however, does not convey the real meaning, as it may be applied 
to a species, variety, variation, hybrid, or metis. (Trans.) 

A 2 



9.1 2390 



4 MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 

in a cooler region. The various systems of pruning and 
training also accentuate the differences in the aspect of a 
vine. All these changes greatly diminish the advantage of 
a recollection of the general physiognomy. It is therefore 
necessary to seek for more rapid means, permitting the for- 
mation of the visual image Of a variety in the mind to be 
hastened, capable of furnishing a control to the first uncon- 
scious impressions. 

The method which seems indicated at first sight, is the 
study of the lengthy descriptions given in general works on 
ampelography. These works, as is commonly known, enter 
into details with minute exactitude. But they require a 
certain initiation, and the scientific pre-occupation of the 
authors gives an impression of dryness to beginners. 

There is another means in actual use in several Schools of 
Viticulture in Europe, where students are encouraged to visit 
labelled collections of vines every day. Thanks to these 
collections, students can now, in the course of a single sum- 
mer, learn to recognise most varieties. They arrive at this 
result by examining every week, if not every day, the varie- 
ties indicated to them by the teacher, who explains the 
partial characters. In other cases, when the characters are 
not given by the teacher, the students are required to find, 
without assistance, the salient and distinctive features. Once 
possessed of these characters, they very soon learn to recog- 
nise almost all the American stocks, and some of the 
European vines. After this, it is simply a question of fre- 
quency of visits to the collection of vines. 

This method leads to a final result comparable to that 
obtained by the vine-grower after many years' sojourn 
amongst his vines. But the course pursued is quite inverse. 
The vigneron waits till the impression forms in his mind, 
and it is only accidentally that he is able to pass from the 
general characters to details. In the case of the student, 
on the contrary, it is the special points which at first attract 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 5 

his attention, and rapidly contribute to form a general im- 
pression. These special points also enable the student to 
pass, from the first impression, to the determination of 
characters peculiar to each organ of the vine. 

It is indispensable that special characters, whether indi- 
cated by the teacher or gathered by the student from an 
examination of the cepage, should be entered in a note-book. 
This is a valuable aid to the memory, and subsequent visits 
to the vines enable the number of these characters to be 
increased, or to usefully modify those which were first 
written down. 

These partial characters must never be neglected. To 
forget them may lead to grave mistakes. As a matter of 
fact, after having seen a particular cepage several times, one 
is able to recognise it at first sight, for at this moment the 
visual image commences to fix itself on the memory. A 
tendency to think that the cepage will always be recognised, 
because it has been recognised once, commences to assert 
itself. The partial characters become disregarded or for- 
gotten. The certainty of being able to distinguish a cepage 
without any definite control constitutes a risk which may 
lead to gross errors. To identify a cepage without being 
able to give the reason is not sufficient. It is absolutely 
necessary, to act precisely, to be able to state definitely 
how it is recognised. 

A note-book may be lost, or one may even forget to take 
notes. This little guide only aims at replacing the note- 
book. 

General Aspect. The spreading, bushy, or more or 
less erect habit of a vine is an excellent indication. The 
first point of verification must not be neglected whenever the 
mode of culture permits its observance. Amongst a collec- 
tion of American and European vines, cultivated without 
stakes or trellis, it is easy, by the observation of this 
particular, to effect a preliminary classification. 



6 MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 

For instance, in a vineyard planted with Aramon, Carig- 
nane, and Mataro, it is possible by this means to recognise 
these three varieties. The Aramon is spreading, the Mataro 
very erect, and the Carignane is intermediate in habit 
between the Aramon and Mataro. 

The general colour also furnishes useful indications. 
When looking out of a railway carriage it is easy to distin- 
guish, amongst Aramon or Carignane, blocks of Jacquez or 
Petit-Bouschet (Tinto). The Jacquez forms a sombre green 
patch, while the Petit-Bouschet appears of a violet-green 
colour, as if the vines had been plunged into a bath of dye. 

These characters, as well as others, seen from a distance, 
and resulting from the colour, general dimensions, and state 
of the surface of the leaves (shining or downy), only serve 
to create an impression. 

Wood. The autumn (ripe) wood affords precise 
characters. The Riparia wood is easily distinguished from 
that of Rupestris or Berlandieri. And in a given species 
it is easy to recognise different varieties by an examination 
of the autumn canes. The wood of Riparia Gloire is very 
distinct from that of Riparia Violet. The wood of Grenache 
does not resemble that of Chasselas. But the characters 
observed in the appearance of the wood always present a 
difficulty. The variations have too small an amplitude. 
These characters are useful in the differentiation of one 
species from another, and in a given species to facilitate the 
recognition of varieties in which the appearance of the 
autumn canes differs in regard to one another. But, to 
mention one instance, how can we distinguish the wood of 
Riparia Grand Glabre from that of another Riparia with 
red wood? This reproach may be addressed to ampelography 
in general. But if it is true in the case of leaves and grapes, 
it is even more so in the case of the canes. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 7 

Other inconveniences may be added to this difficulty. 
Winter is not a season for. strolling amongst vines. It is 
often necessary to examine wood that has been cut for 
some time and stratified in sand, and therefore of modified 
colour. The colour of ripened wood varies sensibly accord- 
ing to the nature of the soil the vine is grown in. The wood 
of Biparia Grloire cultivated in fertile alluvial plains, where 
the growth is very strong, has not the same colour as the 
wood of the same Biparia cultivated in clay soils or on poor 
and dry hills. 

To ascertain that the colour is variable is sufficient to be 
on guard against the first impression, and necessitates atten- 
tive regard to other more constant characters than colour, 
before asserting that the wood under observation belongs to 
a particular variety. 

Tendrils. The character drawn from the continuity or 
discontinuity of the tendrils is of remarkable fixity. The 
Vitis Labrusca is the only species with continuous tendrils. 
However, the continuity is not absolute. It is rare, on the 
contrary, not to find a few interruptions on each cane, 
especially in proximity to the point of insertion, where the 
tendrils are invariably absent. 

The disposition of the tendrils of Labrusca hybrids is 
intermediate between those of Vitis Labrusca and those of 
other Vitis. According to the degree of relationship the 
interruptions are rare or frequent. For example, the Vialla 
has tendrils almost as continuous as those of V. Labrusca. 

Buds at the First Start of Growth. The 

appearance of the budding of certain species is very dis- 
tinctive, but differs only slightly between the varieties of a 
given species. The evolution of the young buds is so rapid 
that the modifications are produced at short intervals. The 
distinctive characters at that period of growth are slight 
and very variable. This difficulty lasts until the leaves have 
attained their final dimensions. 



8 MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 

The verification of the precocity of bursting of the buds 
may, in certain circumstances, be a useful indication. 

Leaves. The leaves of different varieties may, in most 
cases, be distinguished from one another. It sometimes 
happens that the leaves of a given cepage present partial 
resemblances, in regard to shape, texture, and pubescence, to 
those of another cepage, but the coincidence of all these 
characters is not frequent. 

At the end of May,* the leaves possess characters which 
are maintained without much modification till autumn. 
They may therefore be studied during the whole summer. 
This contributes, in a great measure, to the possibility of 
distinguishing the cepages. 

Upper Portion of Growing Shoot. This de- 
nomination is applied to the portion of the shoot in a state 
of active growth, comprised between the free extremity and 
the point where the young leaves have attained, more or less, 
one-third of their normal development. The characters 
drawn from this are excellent. They always serve as a 
direct control of the observation made by means of the 
leaves. These characters disappear naturally when the 
active growth ceases. 

Grapes. When eating a Chasselas grape, we do not 
suppose for a moment that it is a Berlandieri grape or the 
product of any of the new hybrids ; we may, therefore, use 
the grape as an excellent ampelographic character. But 
grapes, when they have arrived at maturity, do not remain 
long on the vine, as they are gathered at that moment. 
Again, to speak only of one group, a black spherical berry 
resembles very closely another black spherical berry, and 
they are legion in each group. Slight variations in colour 
and size are difficult to detect. The general shape of the 

* About November in Victoria. (Trans.) 



THC 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 9 

bunch and the colour of the stalk are not in most cases very 
distinctive characters. There is also the taste peculiar to 
each grape, but how describe it ? When we say that the 
Cabernet grape has a special taste, it is not giving precisely 
a rigorous description. However, it is well to draw atten- 
tion to the taste of grapes, as it contributes to the recog- 
nition of the cepage producing them. 

The difficulties indicated above of distinguishing cepages 
by means of ripe grapes is still greater if they are studied 
while green. Finally, all cepages are not fructiferous. 

Vines Cultivated in Nurseries. The shoots 
growing from cuttings, or grafted cuttings, the first year of 
planting in nurseries have not exactly the same characters 
they attain later on. Independently of the diminution in 
the dimensions of the leaves, there are often other modifi- 
cations. We will mention as an example the leaves of 
Carignane. These leaves, when the Carignane is grafted on 
American stock, retain their normal shape, but are very 
smooth, and only become wrinkly or uneven very slowly. 

Influence of the Fertility of Soil. The soil, 
accordingly as it is arid or fertile, dry or moist, modifies the 
general habit of a vine ; but the alterations only affect the 
relative dimensions of the organs and their colour. Severe 
drought often causes the leaves to become shrivelled. 

Good Advice. Before going into a vineyard, inquire 
as to the cepages cultivated. Generally, even if extensive 
vineyards, they only contain a small number of varieties. 
Under these conditions we have in advance an idea as to the 
nature of the cepages cultivated, and their determination 
will be very greatly simplified. The difficulty does not con- 
sist in distinguishing Aramon from Carignane or Petit-* 
Bouschet, when we know that a vineyard is composed of 
these three cepages, but in distinguishing these three cepages 
in a vineyard where their presence is not expected. 



10 



MAZADB : FIEST STEPS 



Method of Proceeding to Verify the 
Authenticity of a Cepage. Examine, in the follow- 
ing order, the characters drawn from the principal organs 
of the vine : 

General aspect. 

Tendrils. 

Wood. 

Leaves. 

Upper portion of growing shoot. 

Grapes. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 



11 



BOTANICAL FEATURES OF A VINE-LEAF. 




1. Left superior lateral lobe. 

2. Left superior lateral sinus. 

3. Tooth. 

4. Indentation. 

5. Limb. 

6. Left inferior lateral sinus. 

7. Left inferior lateral lobe. 

8. Inferior lobe, or terminal lobe. 

9. Petiole or peduncle. 



10. Right superior lateral lobe. 

11. Petiolar sinus. 

12. Right superior lateral sinus. 

13. Secondary vein or sub-rib. 

14. Mid -rib or principal vein. 

1 5. Margin. 

16. Right inferior lateral sinus. 

17. Right inferior lateral lobe. 



12 



MAZADB : FIRST STEPS 



^STIVALIS (Vitis) 




The dotted line indicates the most frequent indentation. The drawing 
represented by simple ribs indicates that the leaves are plane, or only 
slightly wrinkled. The figures are generally reduced to half size. 



IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 13 



^stivalis (Vitis). 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Upper face, dull, rugose, slightly wrinkly and 
uneven. 

Under face, more or less covered with short 
rust-coloured down, but never forming a 
dense felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Carmine 
colour. At the start of growth, before the 
shoots exceed 20 c.m. (8 in.) in length, the 
whole herbaceous part is of a carmine 
colour. 

GRAPES. Taste resembling that of Y. Vinifera. 

WOOD. Deep red colour when lignified. General aspect 
resembling V. Yinifera. 

The Y. ^Estivalis is widely cultivated in France. It has 
given rise to a number of natural and artificial hybrids, 
such as Jacquez, Herbemont, Cynthiana, Rupestris x 
valis, Azema, &c. 



14 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



ALICANTE-BOUSCHET. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 15 



Alicante-Bouschet 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Entire or irregularly indented, rounded, purple- 
red colour in autumn, partially purple tinted 
at the end of summer, margins strongly 
curled underneath. 

Upper face, smooth and glossy. 

Under face, covered with 'a very light white 
felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT 
Apex whitish. 
Young leaves bronzed, very glossy. 

GRAPES. Deep red juice. 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



ARAMON. 




The dotted line indicates the most frequent indentations. The petiolar 
sinus is often more open than that which is represented in the above 
figure. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 17 



Aramon. 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 
HABIT. Spreading. 

LEAVES. Entire or trilobed, light-green, slightly uneven, 
rather thin and supple. 

Under face, covered with a loose down of very 
variable intensity, but more often than not 
rather light. 

Petiolar sinus, open V and regularly formed. 
BUNCH. Very large, elongated. 

Peduncle very brittle, remaining herbaceous 
until the grape reaches maturity. 

Berries loose before turning, very large, 
spherical. 



3892. 



18 



MAZADE : FIBST STEPS 



ASPIRAN. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 19 



Aspiran. 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Deeply indented, regular, slightly undu- 
lating. 

Teeth sharp, neatly cut. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Very 
bronzed. 

Apex slightly whitish. 
BERRIES. Ovoid. 



B 2 



20 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 

BERLANDIERI (Varieties), 

No. 2. 




No. 4. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 21 

Berlandieri (Vitis). 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Entire, emarginate,* thick, stiff, hard, 
relatively glossy on both faces, deep green. 
Woolly down, patchy or disseminated on the 
whole surface of the limb, and forming tufts 
at the point of division of the veins on the 
upper face. Stiff hair on veins and sub- 
veins of under face. 

Teeth very short or blunt. 
BUDS. Grey-ashy-violet. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. -Bronzed 
or golden colour. 

WOOD. Hazel-grey or reddish-grey, with prominent 
ribs, except on large canes ; disseminated 
fluffy hair. . * 

BUNCH. Rather large, elongated. 

Peduncle, very strong, ligneous, deep red. 
Berries, very small. 

Period of florescence, very late, three weeks to 
one month later than most other species. 

* Emarginate, when speaking of leaves, means that in entire leaves the 
limb becomes narrow suddenly below the two teeth forming the two lateral 
lobes. (See figures of the Berlandieri group No. 1 and No. 3.) 



22 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 

BERLANDTER1 (Varieties). 

No. 3. 




No. 1. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 23 

Berlandieri (Varieties). 

VITIS .BERLANDIERI. AMERICA. 

Group No. 1. 

LEAVES. Bright green, large, elongated, the lateral 
margins often parallel, often folded along 
the mid-rib, smooth and relatively thin. 
Tomentum slightly abundant. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 

Young leaves, golden -yellow, gradually pass- 
ing to the definitive colour. 

Apex ashy, light carmine. 

WOOD. Hazel colour. 

Group No. 2. 

LEAVES. Deep shining green, as if varnished on the 
upper face, rounded, thick, margins largely 
undulating, often folded conically. To- 
menturn more abundant than in Group No. 1. 
Teeth very blunt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 

Young leaves, bronze- violet-ashy, becoming 
strongly bronzed, and passing suddenly 
to the definitive colour. 

Apex whitish, light carmine. 

WOOD. Reddish-grey, strongly striated. 

Group No. 3. 
LEAVES. Large, rough, wrinkly along the principal 

veins. Veins vinous red, especially near 

the point of insertion on the under face. 

Teeth very blunt. Petiolar sinus almost 

closed. 

Group No. 4. 
LEAVES. Folded along the mid-rib, margins strongly 

revolute underneath, very glossy. 



24 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



CABERNET-SAUYIGNON. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 25 



Cabernet-Sauvignon. 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Five-lobed, sinuses rounded, sides of the 

sinuses almost always overlapping, the 

leaf appearing as if pierced with five 
holes. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bronzed. 
GRAPES. Very special taste, known as Cabernet taste. 



26 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CALITOR. 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 27 



Calitor. 

VITIS VINIFER A. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Large, strongly undulating, often wrinkly, 
deeply indented. 

Under face, white felt. 

Petiolar sinus, sides often bent at a right 
angle. 

Teeth sharp. 

BUNCH. Peduncle sharply bent at two or three centi- 
metres from the point of insertion; 

tendrils generally abortive, forming a spur 
on the bend of the peduncle ; a callosity at 
the external angle of the peduncle. 

Berries ovoid. 



28 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



CANDICANS (Vitis). 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 29 



Candicans (Vitis). 



AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Entire or lobed, limb convex on the upper 
face. 

A very white thick felt covers the apex of 
the growing shoots and the under face of 
the leaves. This felt remains on the ripened 
wood, without, however, covering the whole 
surface. 



30 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CARIGNANE. 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 31 



Carignane. 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

HABIT, Erect, 

LEAVES. Large, deeply indented, very strongly honey- 
combed in structure and wrinkly in the 
centre, deep green. 

Under face, light felt. 

WOOD. Very hard, nodes very close at the hase of the 
cane. 



32 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CHASSELAS. 




The terminal lobe is often more developed than represented in the figure. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 33 



Ghasselas. 

VITIS VINIFER A. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Irregular, terminal lobe much developed^ 
glabrous on both faces, margins generally 
curled underneath, leaden colour, dull, 
mottled yellow in autumn, never purple. 

Teeth blunt. 

Petiolar sinus, sides rejoining and almost 
parallel. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bronzed, 
very glossy, apex without tomentum. 
Young leaves passing from a very bright 
bronze colour to yellow, often mottled before 
assuming the definitive colour. 

BERRIES. Always spherical. 

t 

The Chasselas are numerous ; they are essentially 
characterized by the leaden colour of the leaves, the absence 
of tomentum, and the bronze colour of the growing apex. 
The varieties with white, golden, or feebly-coloured berries, 
such as pink Chasselas of Po, for example, have leaves with 
whitish-green veins, slightly v or not violet-coloured. The 
varieties with violet berries, on the contrary, have leaves 
with strongly violet-coloured veins. 



3892. 



34 



MAZADE : FIEST STEPS 



CINEREA (Vitis). 




IN AMPELOGKAP.HY. 35 



Cinerea (Vitis). 



AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Cordiform-emarginate, flabby, dull, limb finely 
wrinkled (like crepe) between the sub- 
veins. 

Teeth very blunt. 
BUDS. Grey-ashy-violet. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bent, 
white ashy colour, tinted with carmine. 

WOOD. Prominent ribs, large canes excepted, greenish- 
grey with violet stripes before lignification, 
afterwards grey. 



C 2 



36 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CINSAUT. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 37 



Cinsaut. 

VITIS VIN1FERA. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Perfectly regular; this is the "classical" 
leaf. 

BERRIES. Ovoid, pointed before turning. 



38 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CLAIRETTE. 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 39 



Clairette. 

VITIS VINIFERA.- EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Upper face, very deep green, dull. 

Under face, white, rather compact felt. 

Petiolar sinus, completely closed, sides of the 
two lobes largely overlapping. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 

Apex white. 

Young lea res, yellowish on the upper face, 
covered with a dense white felt on the under 
face. 

BERRIES. Small, ovoid. 

The Clairette is the most tomeutose of the cepages belong- 
ing to Y. Vinifera. 



40 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CLINTON. 




With vigorously growing shoots, the apex is more bent than that repre- 
sented in the above figure. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 41 



Clinton. 

HYBRID OF V. RIPARIA, V. RUPESTRIS, AND V. LABRUSCA. 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Entire, relatively small, always more or less 
folded along the mid-rib, or conically, 

margins largely undulating. 

Under face, stiff hair on veins. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 
Apex bent. 

Very young leaves, slightly whitish, folded 
along the mid-rib, but never completely 
enveloping the terminal bud. When the 
shoot is very vigorous the outer edge of very 
young leaves is bordered with a light pink 
strip. 

Scales, before drying, slightly pink. 

WOOD. Numerous secondary ramifications, of bushy 
aspect. 



42 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



COIGNETLE (Vitis). 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 43 



Coignetiae (Vitis). 

FAR EAST. 

LEAVES. Very large, rounded, deep green, dull 
rugose, limb wrinkled between the secon- 
dary veins. 

Under face, light tissue of loose down, rust 
coloured, veins carmine for the first third 
of their length. 

Teeth very short, and bent underneath when 
adult. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Rusty, 

whitish. 

Apex slightly carmine. 
WOOD. Rusty down covering herbaceous canes. 



44 



MAZADE I FIRST STEPS 



CONCORD. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 45 



Concord. 

VITIS LABRUSCA.- AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Very large, flabby, irregular, entire or largely 
trilobed, limb hanging on the edges and 
depressed between the principal veins.* 

Upper face, deep green, dull. 
Under face, russet felt, thick. 
Petiolar sinus, very open. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 

Apex brown-red, outer edge carmine. 

Young leaves yellowish bronze, dull on the 
upper face, dense nacreous white felt on 
the under face. , 

TENDRILS. Continuous.! 



* This character is only apparent on leaves borne during the most active 
period of growth, or, what comes to the same thing, on leaves having the 
greatest development. 

t When nothing is mentioned about tendrils in the ce'pages described it 
means that they are discontinuous. 



46 



MAZADK : FIRST STEPS 



CORDIFOLIA (Vitis), 




The leaves of Cordifolia are not always as regularly cordiform as repre- 
sented in the above figure. They are sometimes emarginate. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 47 



Cordifolia (Vitis). 

i 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Cordiform, very glabrous, very smooth, 
shiny on both faces, sometimes the margins 
are curled underneath. 

Teeth short. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Glabrous, 
bent. 

Young leaves, very shiny, golden green or 
bronzed, opening out flat almost from the 
start, and showing the terminal bud com- 
pletely uncovered. 

WOOD. Smooth, shiny, brown punctuations disseminated 
on the herbaceous shoots. 

This species may be considered as one of the most gla- 
brous. However, occasional woolly hairs may sometimes be 
found on the apex of the growing shoot. There are also 
occasionally a few stiff hairs on the lateral sides of the veins, 
in proximity to their point of division, on the under face. 



48 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



CORIACEA (Vitis), 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 49 



Coriacea (Vitis). 



AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Cordiform, short, emarginate, plane, thick. 

Under face, white felt on the limb, rusty 
felt on the veins. 

Petiole covered with rusty felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 

Rusty white, spots of carmine on the extreme 
apex of the tendrils. 

WOOD. Regularly cylindrical and even. 



3892. 



50 



MAZADE ! FIRST STEPS 



CUNNINGHAM. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 51 



Cunningham. 



HYBRID OF V. VINIFERA, V. ^ESTIVALIS, AND V. CINEREA. 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Very large, entire, emarginate, deep green. 
Under face, light white felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 

Bent in form of a crook, white, with slight 
carmine border, interrupted around leaves 
and apex. 



D 2 



52 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



DAVIDI (Vitis). 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 53 



DaYidi (Vitis). 

FAR EAST. 

LEAVES. Cordiform, very thick, varnished. 
Petiole thorny. 

WOOD. Thorny, like a blackberry. 



54 



MAZADE : FIEST STEPS 



ESPAR (Mataro). 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 55 



Espar (Mataro). 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

HABIT. Very erect. 

LEAVES. Entire, sometimes trilobed, almost plane. 

Under face, numerous tufts of white, loose 
hair. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 
Yellowish white. 

Young leaves, slightly bronzed on the upper 
face, dense whitfe felt on the under face. 



56 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



GRENACHE. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 57 



Grenache. 

VITIS VINIFERA. -EUROPE. 

HABIT. Erect. 

LEAVES. Shiny, extremely glabrous on both faces, 

sub- veins sunk into the limb, parchment like, 
texture similar to Rupestris, generally tri- 
lobed, strongly and largely undulating, 
veins yellowish-green, never violet-coloured. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 
Green-yellowish, very shiny. 

WOOD. Yellow after lignification. 
BERRIES. Ovoid. 



58 



MAZADE : FIEST STEPS 



HERBEMONT. 




The Herbemont leaves are often five-lobed ; the dotted lines indicate 
the most frequent indentations. 



" 

Of THE 

UNtVERSlT 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 



59 



Herbemont. 



HYBRID OF V. VINIFERA, V. ^ESTIVALIS, AND V. CINEREA. 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Stiff, thick, sometimes depressed in the centre, 
limb slightly wrinkled between the sub-veins, 
inferior sinuses largely open, brightly green. 

Under face, stiff very numerous hairs on 
veins, rusty-coloured loose hair slightly 
abundant on limb. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 

Bent in hook shape, apex bordered with 
carmine. 

Young leaves, golden yellow, slightly bronzed. 

WOOD. Bluish bloom before lignification, principally 
near the nodes. 

The Herbemont resembles Jacqtiez ; most of the characters 
mentioned are distinctive characters between the two 
cepages. 



60 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



JACQUEZ. 




IN AMPELOGBAPHY. 61 



Jacquez. 



HYBRID OF V. VINIFERA, V. ^ESTIVALIS, AND V. CINEREA. 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Deep green, flabby, margins pendant. Ex- 
tremities of the three inferior lobes often 
wither away towards the end of summer 
giving the Jacquez leaf the appearance of 
a fig leaf, on account of the rounding of the 
lobes due to the disappearance of a number 
of teeth. 

Under face, veins without stiff hair, excepting the leaves 
at the base of the cane, and even in this case 
the hairs are always scarce ; tufts of white 
loose hair disseminated on the limb. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT.- 

Bent in the form of a crook; very young 
leaves carmine around the margin, and often 
on the greater part of the upper face ; young 
leaves never bronzed, slightly yellowish, 
passing rapidly to light-green before assuming 
the definitive colour. 

WOOD. Deep red after lignification. 



62 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



LINCECUMII (Vitis) 




The dotted lines indicate the indentations of certain leaves. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 63 



Lincecumii (Vitis). 



AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Margins slightly curled backwards. 
Under face, glaucous. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. 
Apex whitish, more or less carmine. 

BERRIES. Discoid. 



64 



MAZADE I FIRST STEPS 



MONTICOLA (Vitis). 





IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 65 



Monticola (Vitis) 



AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Small, thick, parchment like, very shiny on 
both faces, margins always undulating, 
and often curled upwards. 

Teeth neatly cut (sharp), divergent, wide, 
short without being rounded. 

Petiole covered with hair, lying flat. 

WOOD. Before lignification covered with hair, lying 
flat; after lignification reddish-brown, often 
finely cracked ; secondary ramifications 
numerous. 

The diverse forms of this species are distinguished by the 
dimension, thickness, and colour of their leaves, the more or 
less abundant hair, lying flat, on the herbaceous shoots, and 
by the colour of the ripened wood, which varies from red to 
brown-greyish. Certain varieties have slightly uneven 
leaves ; others have leaves with margins very strongly 
curled upwards. 



3892. 



66 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



MUSCAT. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 67 



Muscat. 

VITIS VINIFERA. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Regular, bright green, glabrous, teeth sharp, 
clean cut; small teeth distributed around 
the teeth situated at the prolongation of 
the veins. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bronzed, 

shiny. 

Apex slightly whitish. 

The Muscats constitute a rather homogeneous group, 
characterized essentially by the taste of the grapes. Inde- 
pendently of the grapes, the dentation of the leaves and the 
bronze colour of the growing apex enables them to be dis- 
tinguished. The slight pubescence of the leaves* gives them 
a certain resemblance to Chasselas. Bat the Chasselas 
leaves are of a leaden colour, the teeth more rounded, and 
the growing apex is never whitish. 

* The Muscat of Hamburg is less glabrous than other Muscats. 



E 2 



68 



MAZADE I FIRST STEPS 



OTHELLO. 




IN AM PELO GRAPH Y. 69 



Othello. 

HYBRID OF V. VINIFERA, V. LABRUSCA, AND V. RIPARIA. 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Entire, emarginate, sometimes trilobed, largely 
undulating, petiolar sinus completely closed, 
sides of the two lobes largely overlapping. 
Dark-green, often mottled with yellow before 
assuming the definitive colour. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Yellowish. 

Very young leaves, upper face yellow, under 
face white. 



70 



MAZADE : FIEST STEPS 



PAGNUCCI (Vitis) 







IN AMPELOGBAPHY. 71 



Pagnucci (Yitis) 



FAR EAST. 



LEAVES. Composite, resembling the leaves of Ampelop- 
sis. There are two, three, or five divisions. 
They are sometimes entire at the base of the 
shoots. 



72 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



PETIT-BOUSCHET (Tinto). 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 73 



Petit-Bouschet (Tinto). 

VITIS VINIFER A. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Dull, violet-green. 

Upper face, veins more or less pnrple-colonred 
over all their length. 

Under face, light white felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bronzed. 
Apex whitish. 

WOOD. Often marbled with violet inside, pith somewhat 
violet. 

Seen from a distance a Petit-Bouschet vine is glaringly 
conspicuous from surrounding cepages by its violet colour ; 
in summer it appears as if it had been plunged in a 
bath of dye. \ 

In autumn, the leaves of Petit-Bouschet become purple 
like the leaves of all European cepages bearing grapes 
with red-coloured juice. This purple colour partially appears 
on the leaves of cepages of this group during the course of 
the summer. 



74 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



PORTUGATS BLEU. 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 75 



Portugais Bleu. 

VITIS VINIFER A. EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Largely undulating, shiny, bright green, 
glabrous. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Light- 
green, very shiny. 

.- At first bright green, turning later on clearly 
yellow before assuming the definitive colour ; 
bright carmine ring at the base of the buds 
on herbaceous shoots. 



76 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



RIPARIA GLOIRE. 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 77 



Riparia Gloire. 

VITIS RIPARIA.* AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Very large, rounded, flabby, relatively dull ; 
parenchyma generally curved up between 
the principal veins. This latter character 
is especially noticeable in leaves developed at 
the moment when growth is in full activity. 

WOOD. Flat near the nodes ; bark very thin and very 
smooth, hazel colour ; buds very large ; 
secondary ramifications not very numerous. 

* The Vitis Riparia present the following descriptive characters : 

LEAVES. Flat, thin, supple, cordiform-emarginate ; lobes indicated by 
more prominent teeth, no woolly hair, stiff hair on the veins 
of the under face ; teeth sharp. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bent as shown in the 
figure, terminal bud completely enveloped by the young 
leaves. 

Young leaves, folded along the mid-rib. 

WOOD. Cylindrical, very smooth, extremely long, growing rapidly in 
length. Canes of almost even diameter for the whole 
of their length. By simply examining the canes at their 
point of insertion one would not suspect the vegetation of 
the stump, for the canes are small in number, and their 
diameter is relatively small at the base ; very few secondary 
ramifications, nodes only slightly prominent, internodes long, 
bark exfoliating very easily in fine strips like hemp. The 
wood in its herbaceous state is so smooth and glossy (except 
for Tomentose Riparias), and seems so supple, that it 
appears made of drawn or stretched iiidiarubber. 

GRAPES. Florescence very early, flowers generally male. 



78 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



RIPARIA GRAND GLABRE 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 79 



Riparia Grand Glabre. 

VITIS RIPARIA. AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Rather small, elongated, thin, but not flabby, 
very smooth, often shiny, lateral margins 
almost parallel. 

WOOD. Red ; secondary ramifications relatively numerous. 

Grouping of Varieties of Vitis Riparia. 

a. Leaves very large, flabby, rounded. 
Bark thin, little coloured. Ex. 
Riparia Gloire. 

Group No. 1. 

Glabrous Riparias. b. Leaves very large, rounded. Bark 

Herbaceous shoots, very thick, strongly Coloured. Ex. 

smooth, without stiff hair. Riparia violet. 

c. Leaves relatively small, elongated, 
smooth, relatively hard although 
thin, shiny. Wood very red, 
secondary ramifications rela- 
tively numerous. Ex. Riparia 
Grand Glabre. 

Group No. 2. 

Tomentose Riparias. Wood (non-lignified), covered with 

stiff" short hair. Ex. Riparia 
tomentose of las Sorres. 



80 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



ROMANETI (Vitis). 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 81 



Romaneti (Vitis). 



FAR EAST. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT and 
PETIOLE covered with hair similar to 
that of the moss rose. 



3892. 



82 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



ROTUNDIFOLIA (Vitis). 




The dotted line indicates the shape of the petiolar sinus in certain leaves. 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 83 



Rotundifolia (Vitis). 

AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Small, cordiform, very smooth, shiny, parch- 
ment-like. 

Petiole, extremely long. 

BUNCH. Very small, consisting of two or three large 
spherical berries, often of only a single berry. 

WOOD. Resembling that of the quince, bark never ex- 
foliating as among other Vitis ; numerous 
lenticels impart to the lignified wood a 
greyish tint ; without diaphragms. 

Tendrils, simple. 



F 2 



84 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



RUPESTRIS DU LOT, 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 85 

Rupestris du Lot. 

VITIS RUPESTRIS.* AMERICA. 

HABIT. Very erect, the principal ramifications only 
spreading on the ground. 

LEAVES. Very slightly folded along the mid-rib, 

margins undulating, shiny, light metallic 
reflection, relatively thin, the square shape, 
as it were, is broken by the tooth forming the 
terminal lobe. 

Petiolar sinus, bracket shaped. 
WOOD. Hazel colour, knotty, much ramified. 

The Rupestris du Lot has only male flowers. This 
character enables it to be distinguished from certain Ru- 
pestris which have leaves of almost the same shape, but 
which are fertile. It never has phylloxera galls on the 
leaves. This is the only American vine, like the European 
vines, which completely resists the formation of galls re- 
sulting from the puncture, by phylloxera, of the herbaceous 
organs. The leaves on extreme ramifications are greatly 
reduced in size. Under the influence of excessive drought, 
the leaves of Rupestris du Lot become strongly folded 
along the mid-rib, and lose their metallic lustre. 

* The Vitis Rupestris present the following descriptive characters : 
HABIT. Bushy, secondary ramifications short and very numerous. 

LEAVES. Generally small, often wider than long, folded along the mid- 
rib, parchment -like, shiny, very glabrous, never with stiff 
hair on the ridge of veins of the under face, sub-veins trans- 
parent, sunk in the limb. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Terminal bud scarcely 
completely enveloped by the young leaves. Young leaves 
very shiny and transparent. 

BUDDING. Carmine. Young grapes protruding from young leaves, deep 
carmine. 

WOOD. Knotty, iuternodes short. 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



RUPESTRIS MARTIN. 




Leaf natural size. The above is a large leaf. 
1 



IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 87 



Rupestris Martin. 

VITIS RUPESTRIS. AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Cordiform, thick, deep green, wrinkly at the 
centre,* irregularly folded along the mid- 
rib ; margins of the leaf largely undulating 
and curled up. 

Petiolar sinus Y shape. 

Teeth very large and much rounded. 

WOOD. Very sinuous. 

Grouping of Varieties of Vitis Rupestris. 

Group No. 1. 

Margins of leaves very slightly undulating, regularly 
folded along the mid-rib, generally small. General colour 
yellowish-green. Habit very bushy. Ex. Rupestris Ganzin. 

Group No. 2. 

Leaves slightly folded along the mid-rib, margins undu- 
lating ; petiolar sinus bracket shaped. Ex. Eupestris du 
Lot. 

Group No. 3. 

Leaves with dark metallic reflection, rather large. Habit 
rather spreading. Ex. Rupestris Martin. 

* This character is particularly noticeable in leaves of the principal 
ramifications, and which are consequently of large size. 



88 



MAZADE : FIRST STEPS 



SOLONIS. 




IN AMPELOGEAPHY. 89 



Solonis. 

HYBRID OF V. VINIFERA, V. CANDICANS, AND V. RUPESTRIS. 

AMERICA. 

GENERAL ASPECT. Green, greyish, shiny. 

LEAVES. Rather shiny, slightly folded along the mid- 
rib ; the mid-rib describes a rather regular 
curve. Woolly hair, scarce and patchy. 

Teeth very long, sharp, recurving, diver- 
gent, the tooth forming the terminal lobe 
and the two teeth forming the lateral inferior 
lobes curling underneath and generally con- 
verging towards the same point. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Young 
leaves completely enveloping the terminal 
bud. White woolly hair forming a loose felt 
on the apex and giving it a greyish colour. 

WOOD. After lignifi cation blackish, with patches of woolly 
hair. 



90 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



SYRAH (Shiraz). 




IN AMPELOGKAPHY. 91 



Syrah (Shiraz). 

VITIS VINIFERA.-EUROPE. 

LEAVES. Generally a little wider than long, slightly 
undulating, thin, inferior sinuses wide and 
deep. 

Upper face, tufts of loose hair. 
Under face, very white light felt. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Covered 
with white woolly felt. 

BERRIES. Ovoid. 



92 



MAZADE : FIKST STEPS 



TAYLOR. 




The dotted line shows the indentation of certain leaves. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 93 



Taylor. 

HYBRID OF V. RIPARIA AND V. LABRUSCA. AMERICA. 

LEAVES. Stiff, hard, generally wrinkled between the 
veins, folded conically, sometimes folded 
along the mid-rib. 

Under face, ridge of veins perfectly glabrous ; 
the two main superior veins always violet- 
coloured, between their point of insertion and 
their first division. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Slightly 
bent, light-green, very glabrous, without a 
trace of pink or violet colouration. Very 
young leaves folded along the mid-rib, but 
only slightly enclosing the terminal bud. 



94 



MAZADE : FIEST STEPS 



VIALLA. 




IN AMPELOGRAPHY. 95 



Vialla. 

HYBRID OF V. RIPARIA AND V. LABRUSCA.* 

LEAVES. Very large, entire, rounded, emarginate, dark- 
green, rather plane. 

UPPER PORTION OF GROWING SHOOT. Bent. 

Very young leaves folded along the mid-rib, 
but never quite completely enveloping the 
terminal bud. 

Under face, uniformly white carmine with 
green veins. 

TENDRILS. Frequently continuous. 

* The Vialla was obtained in France. This ce"page originated from a 
Clinton seed. 




By Authority: ROBT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne. 



By the same Translators. 



WINE-IAKIM IN HOT CLIMATES, 



BY 



L,. ROOS 

(Director of the CEnological Station of the Herauli). 



273 Pages. Price 2s. 



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