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FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIAN 



FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIAN 



A BOOK FOR BEGINNERS 

BEING 

A SERIES OF HISTORICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, RELIGIOUS, 

MAGICAL, EPISTOLARY AND OTHER TEXTS PRINTED IN 

CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS WITH INTERLINEAR 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION 

AND 

A SKETCH OF ASSYRIAN GRAMMAR, SIGN-LIST AND 

VOCABULARY 



BY 



L. W. KING, M. A., 



ASSISTANT IX THE DEPT. OP EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES, 

BRITISH MUSEUM 



« - • • • 



* . - , 



LONDON 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TROBNER & CO., Ltd. 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD 

1898. 

(ALL RIGHTS RKSEKVF.n. ] 




236423 



Primed by Adoiphui Hot; 



PREFACE. 



THE aim of the present work is to furnish the beginner with 
all the materials which he will require in his earliest studies of 
the Assyrian language and the cuneiform inscriptions. It con- 
tains a sketch of the most useful facts concerning the cuneiform 

« 

system of writing, and an outline of the principles of Assyrian 
grammar ; a list of the more common signs and ideograms ; a 
series of texts and extracts printed in the Assyrian cuneiform 
character with interlinear transliteration and translation, ranging 
in date from about B. C. 2250 to B. C. 260 ; and a full voca- 
bulary to all the texts printed in the book. To enable the reader 
to apply the knowledge he can obtain by a perusal of the first 
294 pages, and to give him practice in independent decipher- 
ment, a few untransliterated and untranslated texts have been 
added. 

For the convenience of the beginner all the Babylonian texts 
included in this volume have been transcribed into the Assyrian 
character. It is of the greatest importance for him to become 
master of the so-called Ninevite script as soon as possible for 
almost every work found in Ashur-bani-pal's Royal Library at 
Nineveh is written in it. His Babylonian studies should begin 
when he is able to read the ordinary Assyrian character with 
ease. 

The texts here chosen represent all the main divisions of 
Babylonian and Assyrian literature and include examples of histor- 



VI PREFACE. 

ical, mythological, religious, magical, epistolary and other do- 
cuments, and care has been taken in selecting them to include 
those which are of importance from an historical point of view. 
Among these may be specially mentioned the account of the 
siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib in 701 B. C. and of the taking 
of Babylon by Cyrus in 538 B. C. Students of Eastern cosmo- 
gonies will be glad to have in a handy form the Babylonian 
legends of the Creation and the Deluge. The other legends 
here given, viz. the Descent of Ishtar into Hades and the Loves, 
of Ishtar, the Treachery of the god Zu, the story of the Eagle 
and the Serpent, and of Etana's flight to heaven with the Eagle, 
etc. illustrate the stories with which the early dwellers on the 
plains of Mesopotamia amused their leisure in the childhood of 
their race. Recent discoveries- are illustrated by some extracts 
from the now famous correspondence between the kings of Egypt 
and their Babylonian allies and vassals in the fifteenth century 
B. C. as found in the Tell el-Amarna tablets. 

The translations have been made as literal as is consistent 
with the difference which exists between the Assyrian and English 
languages, and usually the meaning of every word will be found 
beneath it. In the few passages in which this is not the case 
reference to the vocabulary will enable the reader to identify 
the words and their meanings. In the full vocabulary which 
follows the texts the words are arranged alphabetically ; words 
. clearly derived from the same root are placed together, but where- 
ever this might cause the beginner difficulty cross references have 
been added. It may be remarked, in passing, that the reader 
who possesses a knowledge of Hebrew will find it most useful 
in his Assyrian studies ; such knowledge, however, on his part, 
has not been assumed anywhere throughout the book. 

The remarks that Dr. Wallis Budge has made in the Preface 
to his first Steps in Egyptian with reference to the scarcity of 
material for study at the disposal of the beginner in Egyptian 



\ 



PREFACE. VII 

are true, mutatis mutandis^ for Assyrian. 1 undertook this work at 
his suggestion and I have carried it out practically on the lines 
adopted in his book. I take this opportunity of thanking him 
for many valuable suggestions and for his friendly advice which 
he has freely placed at my disposal during the course of the 
work. 

L. W. KING. 
London, May 2nd, 1898. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 



PAGE. 





Part I. 






Introduction : — 








Cuneiform inscriptions 


• • • 


XVII 


Cuneiform writing 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


• • • 


XXI 


The Assyrian method of writing ... 


• • • 


XXVI 


Syllabic signs ... 


••• *•• ••• ••• 


■ • • 


XXXII 


Ideograms 


• • • • • • • • • •■• 


• • • 


XXXV 


Determinatives and 


phonetic complements 


• • • 


XXXIX 


Phonetic changes 


•-• ••• • • • ••• 


• • • 


XLV 


Pronouns 


• • • ••• ••• • * • 


• • • 


XLVIII 


Nouns ... 


• • • • • • ••• • • • 


• • • 


LIII 


Adverbs 


• • • • • • ••• • • • 


* • • 


LXI 


Prepositions 


• • • ••• ••• • • • 


• • • 


I. XIV 


Conjunctions ... 


• • • ■•• *•• ••• 


• • • 


LXVI 


Verbs 


••• • • • ••• ••• 


• • • 


LXVIU 


List of Assyrian signs 


• •• • • • ••• ••• 


• * • 


LXXXVIII 


List of numerals 


• •• ••• • • • ■•• 


■ • • 


CXXXIII 


List of determinatives 


•• • • • • ••• • • • 


• • • 


CXXX1V 


List of ideograms for th 


e months 


• • m 


cxxxv 


List of ideograms for th 


e principal deities ... 


• • • 


cxxxvu 


List of ideograms for the principal countries, 


cities 




and rivers 


••■ ••• • • • *•• 


• • • 


CXXXVIII 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Part II. 

Texts with interlinear transliteration and translation: — 

i. Names and titles of early Babylonian and 

ASSYRIAN KINGS i-^ 

2. INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF rjAMMURABI, 

king of Babylon, about 2200 B. C. 

See Strassmaier and Winckler, Zeitschr. fur Assyr., 
**> f* 75 • ••• ••• •*• ••• ••• ••• 5 — 7 

3. TheMemorialTabletofRamman-nirariI, king 
of Assyria, about 1325 B C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.j, 
pi. 3g, and Jastrow, Am. fount, of Sent. Lang, and 
Lit., Vol. XII, pp. 143 If. ... ... ... ... 8 — 17 

4. The hunting-expeditions of Tiglath-pileser I, 
king of Assyria, about uoo B. C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. I, pi. 14 ... 18 — 21 

5. Introduction to the annals of Assur-nasir- 
pal, king of Assyria, 884—860 B. C. 

Sec Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. I, pi. 17 ... 22 — 28 

6. THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE Sl'N-CiOD. 
See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 60 f., 

and Jeremias, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 268 ff. ... 29 — 36 

7. The siege of Damascus by Shalmaneser II and 

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF ISRAEL, 842 B. C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 5, No. 6 37 — 3g 

8. Extracts from the records of Tiglath-pi- 
leser III. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 9, No. 3, 
and pi. 10, No. 2; and Rost, Die Keilschriftiexte 
Tight -Piiesers III, pp. 22 f., 26 f., 78 ff. ... ... 40 — 46 

9. Extracts from the annals of Sargon. 

See Botta, Monument de Ninive, Vol. IV, pll. 145, 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE. 
82 and 65, and Wirtckler, Die Keilschrifttexte Sargons, 

I, pp. 38 If., 100 f., II, pll. 9, 14, 3o f. 47 — 51 

10. Sennacherib's invasion of Palestine and the 
siege of Jerusalem, 701 B. C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. I, pi. 38 f. ... 52 — 66 

n. The murder of Sennacherib, 68i B. C. 

See Abel and Wincklcr, Keilschrifttexte, p. 48; 
Scheil, Rccueil de travaux, Vol. XVIII, p. 17, and 
Messerschmidt , Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Ge- 
seltschaft, 1896, I, pp. 24 f., 73 ... ... ... 67 — 69 

12. The destruction of Sidon by Esarhaddon. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. I, pi. 45 ... 70 — 76 

i3. The sack of Thebes by Ashurbanipal. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 2 ... 77 — 80 

14. The embassy of Gyges, king of Lydia. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 2 ... 81 — 87 

15. The cutting of the canal of Sippar by Nabo- 
polassar, king of Babylon, 625—604 B. C. 

See Strassmaier and Winckler, Zcilschr. fiir Assyr. r . 

II, pp. 69 ff. ... ... ... ... ... ... 88 — 90 

16. The completion of the walls of Babylon by 
Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, 604— 
561 B. C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 34, and 
Winckler, Zcitschr. fur Assy r., II, p. 143 ... ... 91 — 94 

17. The defeat of astyages by Cyrus. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 64; Hagen 
and Delitzsch, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 218 f., 248 95 — 102 

18. The taking of Babylon by Cyrus. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 35 ; Hagen 
and Delitzsch, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 210 ff., 222 f., 

*40 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 \J J x 14 



XII CONTENTS. 



PAGl£. 



19. Inscription of Darius, king of Babylon, 521 
—485 B. C. 

See Schulz, Journal Asiatique, Troisi&me Serie, 
t. IX, pi. VIII, Col. a, and Bezold, Die Achdmeniden- 
inschriften, pp. 36 f., 73, 87 ... ... m ... ... 115 — 116 

20. Inscription of antiochus-Soter, king of Ba- 
bylon, 280—260 B. C. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 66 ... 117 — 121 

21. The Creation of the gods. 

See George Smith, Trans, of the Soc. of BibL Arch., 
Vol. IV, p. 362 f., and Chaldean account of Genesis, 
p. 62 f.; Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp. 
268 ff.; Zimmern in Gunkel's Schopfung und Chaos, 
p. 401 f.; and Delitzsch, Abh. der konigi. Gesellsch. der 
Wissensch., Bd. XVII, pp. 22 f., 92 ... ... ... 122 — 123 

22. The Revolt of Tiamat, the Dragon. 

See S. A. Smith, Miscellaneous Texts, pp. 1 — 5; 
Zimmern, op. cit., pp. 407 ff.; and Delitzsch, op. cit., 
pp. 32 ff., 100 ff. ... ... ... ... ... 124 — 136 

23. The Fight of Marduk and the Dragon. 

See E. A. Wallis Budge, Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. 
Arch., Vol. X, p. 86 (six plates); Delitzsch, Assyrische 
Lesestiicke (3nd ed.), pp. 97 ff.; Jensen, Die Kosmologie 
der Babylonier, pp. 278 ff.; Zimmern in Gunkel's 
Schopfung und Chaos, pp. 410 ff. ; and Delitzsch, 
Abh. der konigi. Gesellsch. der Wissensch., Bd. XVII, 

L/L'. «£^1.,IJ^ ... ... ... ... ... ... I J / ~~~~ 1 *j I 

24. The Creation of the Heavenly Bodies and 
the Seasons. 

See George Smith, Trans, of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch., 
Vol. IV, p. 362 f., pi. 2; Jensen, op. cit., p. 288 f., 
Zimmern, op. cit., p. 414; and Delitzsch, op. cit., 
pp. 46 ff., 108 f. ... ... ... ... ... ... 158 — 160 



CONTENTS. XIII 

PAGE. 

25. The Story of the Deluge. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), pi. 
43 f. ; Haupt, Das babylonische Nimrodepos, pp. 134 ff. ; 
George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, pp. 264 ff. ; 
Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp. 368 ff.; and 
Zimmern in Gunkel's Schopfung und Chaos, pp. 

A mnJ 11. ... ... ... ... .*• ... ... L \J I IOI 

26. The Descent of Ishtar into Hades. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV, pi. 3i ; and 
Jeremias, Die babylonisch-assyrischen Vorstellungen vom 
Leben nach dem Tode, pp. 10 ff. ... ... ... 182 — 185 

27. The Loves of Ishtar. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), 
pi. 41 ; Haupt, Das babylonische Nimrodepos, pp. 42 ff. ; 
and Jeremias, Izdubar-Nimrod, pp. 24 f., 51 f. ... 186 — 191 

28. The Treachery of the god Zu. 

See George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, pp. 
115 ff . ; and E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, 
pp. 409 ff., 467 ff. ... ... ... ... ... 192 — 199 

29. Etana's Journey to Heaven with the Eagle. 

See E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 3 96 ff., 
449, 453 f. ... .'.. ... ... ... ... 200 — 2o3 

30. The Story of the Eagle, the Serpent, and 
the Sun-god. 

See Morris Jastrow, Beitr. zur Assyr., Ill, pp. 363 ff. ; 
George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, p. i3g f . ; 
and E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 392 tf., 

4^9 • ••• ••• ••• •*• *•* *** "*" 204~ ~ 214 

3 1. HOW ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH- 

WIND. 

See Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El-Amarna, 

pp. 166 (a and b); and E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., 

II, pp. 418 ff. ... ... ... ... ... ... 215 — 218 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

32. The Song of Ura, the Plague-god. 

See George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, 
p.i33 f.; E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 432 f., 
495 f. ; and King, Zeitschr. fur Assyr., XI, pp. 53, 56, 61 219 — 222 

33. Legend concerning the Birth and Boyhood 
of king sargon i. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 4, No. 7 223 — 225 

34. Extracts from Penitential Psalms. 

See Haupt, Akkadische und sumerische Keilschrifttexte, 
p. 1 16 f. ; Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), 
pi. 26, No. 8; pi. 27, No. 3; pi. 29**, No. 5; 
pi. 24; Haupt, op. cit., p. 122 f. ; Cun. Inscr. of 
West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), pi. 59, No. 2 ; pi. 54, 
No. 1 ; and Zimmern , Babyhnische Busspsalmen, 
pp. 33 f., 85 f., 1 f., 62 ff., 52, 100 f., 89 f. ... 226 — 240 

35. Hymns and Prayers. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), 
pi. 20, No. 2; Bertin, Revue dt Assyr iologie, Vol. I, 
pp. 157 ff. ; Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd 
ed.), pi. 29, No. 1; King, Babylonian Magic and 
Sorcery, pp. 16 ff., pi. 4 f. ; Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, 
Vol. IV, pi. 20, No. 3 ; and Briinnow, Zeitschr. fur 
Assyr., V, pp. 66 ff., 79 ... ... ... ... 241 — 251 

36. Incantations. 

See Tallqvist, Die assy rise he Beschworungsserie 
Maqlu, I, pp. 48 f., 58 f., 38 f. ; II, p. i3, 19 f., 7 ; 
Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), pi. 51 ; 
and Zimmern, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der babylonischen 
Religion, I, p. 4 f. ... ... ... ... ... 252 — 260 

37. Assyrian Letter-tablets. 

See R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian Letters, 
I, p. 42, III, pp. 276, 327, IV, p. 350; S. A. Smith, 
Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch., X, No. 1, pi. VIII ; 



4 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE, 
and Delitzsch, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 189 ff., 

198 ff., 212 ff., 222 ff. ... ... ... ... 261 — 269 

38. Letters from Tell el-Amarna. 

See Budge and Bezold, The Tell el-Amarna Tablets 
in the British Museum, pp. 6 f., 24 f . ; Bezold, Oriental 
Diplomacy, pp. 3 f., i3; and Schrader, Keilinschriftliche 
Bibliothek, V, pp. 14 ff., 48 f. ... ... 270 — 281 

39. Observatory Reports. 

See Cun. fnscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 51, 
Nos. i, 3, 6, and 7 ... ... ... ... ... 282 — 285 

40. Reports from Assyrian Astrologers. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 51, Nos. I 
and II ; and pi. 58, No. 1 ... ... 286 — 288 

41. Some ancient Babylonian Laws. 

See Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 25 ... 289 — 292 

42. Proverbs and Sayings. 

See Delitzsch, Assyrische Lesestucke (3rd ed.), p. 134; 
Cun Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. II, pi. 16; and Bezold, 
Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik 
Collection, Vol. IV, p. 1742 ... ... ... ... 293 — 294 

Part III. 

Texts to be transliterated and translated ... ... 295—314 

Part IV. 

Vocabulary to texts in Parts II and III 315 — 399 



A LIST OF ASSYRIAN GRAMMARS AND 

DICTIONARIES. 



Jules Oppert. Jtiments de la grammaire assyrienne. First edition 

(Paris, i860). Second edition, Paris, 1868. 

Edward Hincks. Specimen -Chapters of an Assyrian Grammar, 

London, 1866. 

J. Menant. Expose' des iliments de la grammaire assyrienne, 

Paris, 1868. 

Eberhard Schrader. Die assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften, Leip- 
zig, 1872. 

A. H. Sayce. An Assyrian Grammar, London, 1872. 

Do. An Elementary Grammar, London, 1875. 

George Rertin. Abridged Grammars of the Languages of the Cu- 

neiform Inscriptions, London, 1888. 
Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrische Grammatik, Berlin, 1889. English 

translation by R. S. Kennedy (London, 1889). 
Edwin Norris. Assyrian Dictionary. Parts t — III, London, 

1868 — 72 (unfinished). 
J. N. Strassmaier. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss y Leipzig, 1886. 
Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Worterbuch. Parts I — III, Leipzig, 

1887— 1888 (unfinished). 
R. E. Brim now. A classified List of cuneiform ideographs, etc., 

Leyden, 1889; Indices, 1897. 
W. Muss-ArnolL A concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language, 

Berlin, 1894. (In progress.) 
Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Handworterbuch, Leipzig, 1896. 

B. Meissner. Supplement zu den assyrischen Worterbuchern, 

Leyden, 1898. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Assyrian is the name that now indicates the language once The 
spoken by the inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Assyrians and ^T™* 11 
Babylonians alike. It belongs to the northern group of the 
Semitic family of languages and is closely akin to Phoenician 
and Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldee ; these are distinct from Sabaean 
or Himyaritic, Arabic and Ethiopic, which form the southern 
group. The language is made known to us by numerous in- 
scriptions on stone and clay, written in "cuneiform" x or wedge- 
shaped characters ; the greater number of these inscriptions have 
been unearthed from the buried cities of Mesopotamia during 
the present century. 

The decipherment of the Assyrian inscriptions is a natural The deci- 

result of the labours of scholars who have investigated the old P hcrment 

of the in- 
Persian cuneiform inscriptions. The Achaemenian kings who scriptions. 

ruled over Persia from the sixth to the fourth century before 

Christ, after the fashion of other races in Western Asia at that 

period, borrowed from the Babylonians the idea of cuneiform 

writing; 2 they, however, considerably simplified the Babylonian 

1. In German "Keilschrift" ; the Arabs call it ^ ,1 % ir t (mismari) "nail- 
writing". 

2. The Susians, the Elamites, and the people who lived around Lake Van, 
for instance, all used cuneiform characters. The discovery in 1888 of the "Tell 
el-Amarna tablets** at Tell el-Amarna in Upper Egypt showed the wide diffu- 
sion of Babylonian cuneiform throughout Western Asia as early as the XV th 

b 



XVIII INTRODUCTION 

system, employing in their inscriptions not more than thirty- 
nine groups of wedges and each group formed an alphabetic 
character. As their empire was not confined to Persia, but 
Tie tri- embraced the important countries of Susia and Babylonia, to 
ingual the greater number of their inscriptions they appended Susian 

l.c acmc ~ an d Babylonian translations written in the cuneiform characters 

nan in- J 

criptions. employed by these two nations. After the fall of the Achae- 
menian empire the Old Persian cuneiform fell into disuse, and 
the inscriptions in this character, as well as those in the other 
kinds of cuneiform writing, in the course of time ceased to be 
understood. Those records, however, that were engraved upon 
the stone walls of buildings and on the faces of rocks did not 
perish, but remained as permanent though unintelligible monu- 
ments of the kings who set them up. 

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of our era, 
however, travellers in the East began to turn their attention to 
these inscriptions, especially those at Persepolis, and we find in 
the accounts of their journeys many strange views and opinions 
expressed concerning them. 1 It was not until the beginning of 

century B. C At this period not only in Egypt but from the coast of the Medi- 
terranean to Elam, and from Armenia to the Persian Gulf, Babylonian cuneiform 
was the language of official correspondence. It was not unnatural therefore that 
other races should have modified this widely diffused system to meet their own 
needs, but I do not see any sufficient evidence which would lead us to assume 
that the Phoenician alphabet was formed by the modification of certain cunei- 
form characters. 

I. See Pietro della Valle, Viaggi (Rome, 1662; English translation, London, 
1665) ; Chardin, Voyages . . en Perse, et autres lieux de V Orient (Amsterdam, 
171 1) ; de Bruin, Rei^en over Moskovie, door Persie en Indie (Amsterdam, 1714; 
English translation, London, 1737); and Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung nach Ara- 
bien und andern umliegenden Ldndern, Bd. II (Copenhagen, 1778). For de- 
scriptions by travellers at the beginning of the present century, sec Morier, A 
journey through Persia (London, 181 2); Ouseley, Travels in various countries 
of the East (London, 1819—23); R. Ker Porter, Travels in Georgia 1 Persia, 
etc. (London, 1821—32) ; and Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, etc. (London, 1829). 



CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS XIX 

the nineteenth century that the first step was made towards 
deciphering them correctly. 

Of the three kinds of cuneiform writing (i. e., the Persian, 
the Susian, and the Babylonian), in which the Achaemenian „ 

* J n First steps 

kings inscribed their trilingual records, it was most natural that intheded- 

the Persian should first engage the serious attention of scholars, P herment - 
as it is by far the simplest of the three. The credit of having 
first discovered the method by which the Persian column in 
these inscriptions might be deciphered belongs to Grotefend Grotefcnd. 
who in 1802 succeeded in reading the names of Hystaspes, Da- 
rius, and Xerxes. l Other scholars followed on the lines laid 
down by him, and Rask, Saint Martin, Burnouf and Lassen all 
made contributions to the further identification of the characters 
of the Old Persian alphabet. Up to the year 1837, however, 
the decipherers had merely succeeded in reading a few proper 
names, and they had not been able to make accurate and con- 
nected translations even of the short inscriptions they had studied. 

1. Grotefend announced his discovery in the Gdttinger Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften, Sept. 14 th, 1802, and he has left a lengthy description of the 
process by which he arrived at his results in Heeren's Historical Researches 
(English translation, Oxford, 1833), Vol. II, pp. 3i3ff. The process by which 
both he and Sir Henry Rawlinson obtained the clue- to reading the inscriptions 
was the same in each case and may be briefly described. Grotefend took for 
analysis two short inscriptions in which he noticed the characters corresponded 
throughout with the exception of two groups of signs in each. As the rest of 
the inscriptions tallied, it was not unreasonable to suppose that the groups of 
signs in each which differed represented proper names— the name of the man 
who set up the inscription and possibly that of his father. But in these two 
inscriptions the group which occupied the second place in one inscription, and 
which from its position looked as though it represented the name of the father 
of the man who set it up, occurred in the first place in the other inscription. 
As he already imagined that the inscriptions were set up by Persian kings, 
Grotefend now inferred that these three groups of signs gave the names of 
three consecutive generations of the Persian monarchy. On trying the names 
Hystaspes, Darius and Xerxes he found they fitted the various signs exactly. 
At a later period Rawlinson, working independently on two other inscriptions, 
succeeded in reading the same three names by a similar process of reasoning. 

b* 



XX INTRODUCTION 

Rawlinson This achievement was reserved for the late Sir Henry C. Rawlin- 

andtheBe- son> (j.c.B., who in 1835, and whilst stationed at Kirmanshah in 
histun in- 
scription. Persia, first turned his attention to the subject. Unaware of the de- 
tails of Grotefend's discovery, he independently obtained similar 
results by making an analysis of two short inscriptions ; two years 
later he succeeded in climbing the rock at Bahistun (Pers. Bagi- 
stan) and in copying the greater part of the Persian text of the 
Annals of Darius Hystaspes which was engraved upon its face. 
In the winter of 1837 he sent a first instalment of his transla- 
tion of these texts to the Royal Asiatic Society. His complete 
translation of the Behistun inscription was published in 1846 in 
Vol. X of the Journal of that Society, but it was on the original 
translation made in 1837 — 39 that Rawlinson himself based his 
chief claims to originality. Apart from his correct identification 
of the entire Persian alphabet, he was also able, from his know- 
ledge of Zend and Pehlevi, to arrive at the meaning of the 
inscription ; he was thus the first to present to the world a 
literal and correct translation of over two hundred lines of cu- 
neiform writing. 1 
The deci- The decipherment of the Babylonian cuneiform followed that 

phcrmcnt Q f t ^ e p ers i an cuneiform. The writing in the third column of 
of Babylo- 
nian cu- tne g rea * trilingual inscription of Darius Hystaspes had been 

neiform already identified as Babylonian from the fact that some of the 
characters were identical with those on the inscribed bricks and 
slabs that had been found in Assyria and Babylonia. The first 

1 . The fullest description of Rawlinson's own achievements and those of his 
predecessors is given in his memoir The Persian Cuneiform Inscription at Be- 
histun (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. X). His transliterations and 
translations differ in but few details from those of Spiegel in Die altpersischcn 
Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1881). See also Flemming's article Sir Henry Rawlin- 
son und seine Verdienste um die Assyriologie in the Beitrdge %ur Assyriologie, 
Vol. II, pp. 1 ff. ; Nature, Vol. LI, p. 536 f., Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
Vol. 58, pp. XLIV ff., and Prof. G. Rawlinson's Memoir of Sir H. C. Rawlinson 
(London, 1898); a list of the Persian cuneiform inscriptions is given by Weiss- 
bach, Die altpersischen Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1893). 



CUNEIFORM WRITING XXI 

step in the decipherment was made by comparing the proper 
names occurring in the Persian text of the Behistun inscription 
with the corresponding groups of characters which represented 
them in the third or Babylonian column. Starting with this 
point as a base, Rawlinson, Hincks, Norris and Oppert gradually 
worked out the values of the Babylonian and Assyrian signs. 
The principal steps in the work of decipherment are marked 
by the discovery of the polyphony of the Babylonian signs — a 
fact first pointed out by Rawlinson — and by Hincks' proof of 
their syllabic nature. For the determination of the Assyrian syl- 
labary these scholars obtained considerable aid from the ancient 
Assyrian lists of signs which had been recently excavated at 
Kuyunjik and brought to this country, while for help in the 
interpretation of the inscriptions they depended upon the close 
resemblance of roots in Assyrian with those in Arabic, Hebrew, 
Syriac and Chaldee. 1 

The method of writing employed by the Babylonians and Cuneiform 
Assyrians is commonly called "cuneiform" from the Latin cuneus wnt,n 8- 
"a wedge". Each character or sign consists of one or more wedges 
arranged in a variety of ways, while the characters themselves 
are written from left to right. Strangely enough, however, the 
wedge, though its most distinctive characteristic, had originally 
no part in its composition ; its existence is entirely due to the 
material for writing employed by the scribes. There is no doubt 
that the cuneiform system of writing, like all others which have 

I. Sec Rawlinson's paper On the Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia 
(Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc, Vol. XII), and his Memoir on the Babylonian and 
Assyrian Inscriptions (ibid., Vol. XIV), Hincks* numerous papers in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy, and Oppert's Expedition scientifique en 
Mesopotamie, Vol. II (Paris, 1859) ; Norris' principal contribution to Assyriology 
was his great Assyrian Dictionary which he did not live to complete. For the 
decipherment of Susian, the language of the second column of the Achacmenian 
trilingual inscriptions see Norris, Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behi- 
stun Inscription (Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc, Vol. XV) and Weissbach, Die 
Achdmenideninschriften fweiter Art (Leipzig, 1890). 



XXII INTRODUCTION 

Its origin developed naturally, had its origin in picture-writing. 1 All pri- 
in picture- m j t j ve races employ the same rude means when they begin to 
record their names and actions, and they first of all scratch 
rough pictures on any substance that may come to hand. After 
certain pictures have become associated with certain words the 
pictures are used to express the sound of the words without 
their meaning ; in other words, they are used phonetically. The 
forms of the characters themselves, from being written rapidly 
become more and more simplified, until in the resulting signs 
or characters it is hard to recognise the originals from which 
they have descended. This is particularly the case with the 
cuneiform writing of the Babylonians. The primitive inhabitants 
of the country made their records by means of pictures, tracing 
in rough outline the various objects they wished to represent, 
and in course of time employing many of their picture-signs to 
represent sounds merely, apart from ideas. For any permanent 
record stone would naturally suggest itself as most suitable for 
The devc- P reserv i n g an inscription, and we find it was so employed in 
lopment of Babylonia ; but the alluvial nature of the soil was not in favour 
e wc 8e * of its extensive use, as it had generally to be imported from 
some other country. These early Babylonians therefore adapted 
themselves to their surroundings and from the fine clay of their 
soil they fashioned tablets on which they continued to outline 
their picture-characters. But it is possible to write faster on soft 
clay than on stone, and straight lines, when made by a single 
pressure of the stilus, tend to become wedges. The pictures there- 

i. That the Assyrians themselves believed this to be the case is proved by 
two tablets in the British Museum. These tablets are lists of picture characters 
arranged in groups, and opposite each sign or group the scribe has written 
the cuneiform character to which he supposed it corresponded. The tablets are 
numbered K 8520 and 81—7—27, 49 + 50; a photograph of the former is 
published by Houghton in the Trans, of the Soc, of Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, p. 454; 
a copy of the latter is given in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian tablets etc. 
in the British Museum, Part V (1898). 



CUNEIFORM WRITING XXIII 

fore soon lost their original lines and became mere groups of 
wedges. x 

From the archaic forms of some of the characters, however, The picto 

it is still possible to recognise the objects for which they were n ongI1 

intended. The assyrian sign *-►¥-, for instance, which means characters 

"heaven", is the descendant of the archaic sign ^ in which stiu reco fr 

nisable. 
we may possibly see a star with eight points, or a representa- 
tion of heaven as a circle devided into eight equal portions (^. 
The archaic form of the sign for "ox", £:Y£, is jj^, which 
when set vertically, 2 thus ^, certainly suggests the head of an 
ox with horns. The sign for "the sun, day" etc. is ^|, in the earlier 
inscriptions written Z^>i * n which we may see a rough circle O, 
representing the sun's disk. The sign for "corn" is ^; this in 
the earlier inscriptions is written $$%> and ^^^> in which, 
when written vertically, we may perhaps see a representation 
of a blade of corn. Some signs for new ideas were formed by 
a combination of two other signs already in existence. The 
sign V "mountain" placed within rf^> "ox", gave the new 
s *8 n ►$?> ( = mod. Ass. f^A) "a mountain -ox". The sign |^ 
"water" when placed within ►£:THf "mouth" gave the new sign 
*--£jJ|T " to drink"; similarly »-£:TyT "to eat" is formed from 
y y "food", and *-£M[ "mouth". One of the commonest archaic 
forms of *%^^f "month" is X^^> which we may explain as a 
combination of J^* "day" and ^^ "thirty". To trace the pic- 

i. In the characters employed by the later Assyrians and Babylonians the 
signs are formed by various combinations and repetitions of different wedges, 
those of most frequent occurrence being the upright T, the horizontal ►— , 
and the diagonal wedge /, which frequently interchanges with the sloping 
wedge \ , e. g. the syllable di is written as <Tpfc and Tdz> the syllable 

hu as *-T^T and ►-YY, the syllable ri as ►•YkY and ►"[[!• The sloping 

wedges f and y are employed in only a few signs. In writing on clay the 
differences in the shape of the wedges could be produced by slightly shifting 
the position of the stilus in the fingers. 

2. Some archaic inscriptions are written vertically. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

torial origin of the majority of the signs, however, even in 
the most ancient inscriptions, is quite impossible, because we 
cannot identify the objects which they represent ; l while in the 
later periods of Babylonian and Assyrian history the signs be- 
came still less like pictures, for it was but natural that the scribe 
writing quickly on his soft clay tablet should tend to simplify 
the characters. The inscriptions engraved on stone reflected the 
changes which took place in the inscriptions on clay and the 
forms of the characters on the latter were carefully reproduced 
in stone by means of the chisel. 
The in- The subject of the invention of cuneiform writing is one that 

vcntors o ^ gj ven r j se to a considerable amount of controversy, for, while 

cuneiform - 

writing. it is generally agreed that it was due to the early inhabitants of 

Babylonia, the nationality of this people is disputed; some scholars 
still hold that this race were the Semitic Babylonians themselves, 
though the majority now admit that the Semitic Babylonians bor- 
rowed their method of writing from an earlier race of non-Semitic 
origin. The point at issue may be best stated by briefly indicating 
the course of the controversy that has taken place around it. Among 
the literary remains of the Babylonians and Assyrians are many 
compositions that are inscribed in the same cuneiform characters, 
but, to judge from the forms of the words, are clearly not written 
in the Assyrian language. Many of these compositions are 
furnished with interlinear Assyrian translations while the words 

I. A theory has recently been put forward by Dr. Delitzsch, who, while re- 
cognising the pictorial origin of certain signs, attempts to explain the rest as 
formed from them artificially. Instances have been given above of how new 
signs were formed by combinations of signs already in existence, but Dr. De- 
litzsch goes further and asserts that new signs were formed by combinations 
and variations of simple wedges or rather lines. He distinguishes some forty- 
five Urbilder or signs with a "motive" and thinks the majority of the characters 
were developed from them. Of the methods of combination he sets forth the 
most convincing is that in which the meaning of a simple sign was intensified 
by the addition of a number of extra wedges ; this process the Sumerians 
termed gunu. Few people will, however, accept his theory in its present form. 



CUNEIFORM WRITING XXV 

and forms employed are explained in a number of tablets con- 
taining lists of words with Assyrian explanations compiled by 
the Assyrian scribes. Moreover the monumental and documentary 
inscriptions of the early rulers of cities in Babylonia, such as 
Shirpurla or Lagash, Ur, Isin and Larsa, are written in this 
idiom. The first to detect the existence of this language was The Su- 
Sir Henry Rawlinson, who in 1852 concluded that it was the mcnan 

question. 

tongue of the early non-Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia among 
whom the Semitic Babylonians had settled, and from the fact 
that Babylonian kings, in addition to their other titles, styled 
themselves king of Sumer and Akkad, he concluded that the 
primitive inhabitants of the land were Akkadians who spoke 
this language which he styled "Akkadian". Oppert, however, 
while accepting the existence of the language, contended that 
it was the language of the "Sumerians". 1 Others reconciled these 
views by tracing dialectic differences in the inscriptions, which 
they supposed to represent differences of pronunciation exhibited 
by the Akkadians and Sumerians, the primitive inhabitants of 
northern and southern Babylonia respectively ; others again, 
though they recognised the existence of dialects, did not attempt 
to define their geographical distribution. In 1884 the problem 
assumed a new form and the question in debate was modified 
somewhat by Hal£vy who denied the existence of the language 
absolutely. He asserted that what had hitherto been regarded 
as the Sumerian or Akkadian language was merely a traditional 

1. The Assyrian scribes employed both of the names "Akkadian" and "Su- 
merian** in describing the ancient non-Semitic compositions which they edited 
and translated into Assyrian; see the tablets K 1 1856, where "Akkadian** is 
mentioned, K 14013, where both "Akkadian** and "Sumerian*' are referred to, 
and 81 — 7 — 27, i3o, where mention is made of li-§a-an Su-me-ri, "the Sumerian 
language*'; it may be added that on the tablet S 11 90, inscribed with incan- 
tations and prayers, two of these are referred to as // $i-pat Su-[me-]ri, "two 
Sumerian incantations" (cf. Bezold, Catalogue of the Cuneiform tablets in 
the Kouyunjik Collection, pp. 1200, 1354, 1469 and 1805). 



XXVI INTRODUCTION 

cabalistic method of writing invented by the early Semitic Ba- 
bylonian priests. According to Hatevv's assumption therefore 
the Semitic Babylonians were the inventors of the cuneiform 
method of writing. Hal£vy devoted himself vigorously to de- 
veloping his theory and for a time succeeded in making many 
converts. The excavations, however, that have been carried on 
in Babylonia during the last fifteen years, have yielded thousands 
of cuneiform inscriptions written entirely in this ancient tongue 
and proving the existence of a powerful race who betray no 
indications of Semitic origin. To these "Sumerians" it is prob- 
able that the invention of cuneiform writing should be as- 
signed ; from them the Semitic Babylonians received it together 
with much of their early civilisation and culture. 

Vocalic The Assyrian language possesses the vowel sounds a, t, i, u, a, e, 

and conso- -^ - x anc j ^ diphthongs at and ia. It also possesses the consonantal 

nantal 

sounds in sounds b, g, d, z f h, /, k, I, m, n, s, p, s, k, r, ,? and /. These consonants 

Assyrian. f are ^ere arranged in the order of the Hebrew alphabet and they 

correspond to the Hebrew characters D, 2, 1, T, PI (Arabic £), ID, D, 

bj tt, 2 3, D, &, X, p, 1, ttf and n ; as reference will be sometimes 

made to the Hebrew alphabet I here give a list of the Hebrew 

characters with their transliteration: — 



(0 


X 


» 


(7) 


T 


Z 


(2) 


3 


b 


(8) 


n 


h 


(3) 


a 


g 


(9) 


ID 


• 


(4) 


i 


d 


(io) 


* 


y 


(5) 


n 


h 


(») 


a 


k 


(6) 


i 


TV 


(12) 


b 


i 



i. The signs for the syllables which contain the vowel sounds e and i respec- 
tively are frequently interchanged in the inscriptions ; for this reason some 
Assyriologists do not admit the existence of the e sound, and hold that the 
Assyrians only distinguished the vowel sounds a, i, u, a, i, u. 

2. The m in Assyrian sometimes corresponds to 1, e. g. lamu, "to surround", 
Hebr. n£. 



THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING XXVII 



(i3) 


{3 m 


(18) 


at 


f 


(H) 


3 n 


(19) 


P 


m 


(i5) 


D s 


(20) 


"i 


r 


(16) 


V ' 


(21) 





$ 


(*7) 


B / 


(22) 


n 


t 



nan. 



With regard to the pronunciation of consonantal sounds in Pronun- 
Assyrian it may be remarked that the sound represented by the cia lon ° 

J J *■ consonant- 

symbol k is a guttural ch ; t is a harder dental than t; k and a l sounds 

k were both pronounced by the Assyrians as k, but the Baby- In Assv " 
lonians pronounced k as g; s is pronounced as is and $ as sh. 
In the sign 4^h~ the Assyrians possessed a special character 
for marking the breathing, but in use it was generally omitted, 
especially at the beginning of a word. The Assyrian method of 
writing, moreover, was ill-adapted for the expression of peculiar 
Semitic sounds, and we find that the consonants K, H, H (c), V (&)> 
V (t)* ^ ana " V f° r which special characters exist in the other Semitic 
languages, were not distinguished in its syllabary. If a Semitic 
root, for instance, commences with any one of these consonants 
the Assyrian form of the word is without the consonant alto- 
gether and commences with a vowel, e. g. 7DK ^dkhal) 2 "to eat" 
= Assyr. akdlu; 3 ^h^ (hdlak?) "to go" = Assyr. alaku ; tt^n (hdd h aS) 

1. Of these consonants X is employed to indicate the breathing; H is an 
aspirate corresponding to the English h ; H had two sounds distinguished in 
Arabic by the characters £ and £, the former representing a strong h pro- 
nounced with friction, the latter a guttural ch ; V also had two sounds cor- 
responding to the Arabic £ and £, the former a softer guttural sound, the 
latter a guttural g or r; 1 = w, and * = y. 

2. In the transliteration of the Hebrew words here cited the softer pronun- 
ciation of the letters nWlJS, when without the Daghesh lene, is indicated by 
the addition to the letter of a small h printed above the line. It is possible that 
in Assyrian the corresponding consonantal sounds were softened when they 
came between two vowel sounds but in the Assyrian method of writing there 
was no means of marking this difference of pronunciation. 

3. In this list and in the following paragraph the 3 m. s. Perf. of Hebrew 
verbs is cited while the corresponding verbs in Assyrian are given in the Infinitive. 



XXVIII 



INTRODUCTION 



"to be new" = Assyr. edrtu; ""p^ ('db h ar, i. e. y&) "to cross" = 
Assyr. eberu; 3*1JJ ('drab 11 , t\ e. K^ijl) "to enter (of the sun), to 
grow dark" = Assyr. er'ebu; IT {ydlad h t i. e. T?l) "to bear" = 
Assyr. alddu ; pr (ydnak) "to suck" = Assyr. eneku. Similarly when 
one of these consonants occurs as the second or third letter in 
a Semitic root its place is taken in Assyrian by a vowel, e. g. 
DIT} (rdham) "to love" = Assyr. rdmu ; Pfcttf (Sama) "to hear" 
= Assyr. Semu. 

It has been already stated that the Assyrian language belongs 
to the northern group of the Semitic languages. Its affinities 
with Hebrew however are closer than with the other languages 
which make up the group. The following examples of words 
which occur both in Hebrew and Assyrian will suffice to indi- 
cate the close resemblance between the two languages, and will 
further illustrate the inability of Assyrian to represent the Sem- 
itic consonants referred to in the preceding paragraph: — 



Hebrew 
and Assy- 
rian com- 
pared. 



Hebrew 


Assyrian 




Meaning 


D$ y db h 


T?*- 


a-bu 


father 


P« 'eb h en 


«=!*- 


ab-nu 


stone 


JTfc 'dun 


*Hri*- 


uz-nu 


ear 


PI* 'fit 

T 


TMI 


a-?ju 


brother 


THK 'd&az 


Tf ff < ^=TT 


a-fia-zu 


to seize 


b* f H 


*£M 


i-lu 


god 


*{& 'elejt 


*!*- 


al-pu 


ox 


DK 'em 


<TTT* 


um-mu 


mother 


HpK 'dmd 


^-e£T 


am-iu 


handmaid 


^JK % om»i 


w»*im 


a-na-ku 


I 


P3n« >arba 


<MTl^T4HH 


^ ar-ba-'-u 


four 


P« Wcs 


Sh «£TT ^T 


ir-si-fu 


earth 


V* w 


*£W-m 


i-$a-tu 


fire 



Hebrew 
rW« >attd 

1T3 bayfr 

H33 band 

^23 baal 

^19 berek 

p"l3 bdrdk 

19! ze&er 
T\\ zera 
"CO £<ator 

on ^jm 

^t yawn 

JW7 &#>* 



THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING 

Assyrian 

*ET £TTT 







x<s<;*in 

f f < ~T *TTT<= 
«^^T 

*TTT*- 
-tf ~^T JT 



at-ia 

bi-i-tu 

ba-nu-u 

bt-e-lu 

bir-ku 



bir-ku 

9 

gam-ma- lu 

di-i-nu 

dal-tu 

zik-ru 

zi-e-ru 

ib-ru 

e-mu 

fra-du-u 

ba-ia-nu 

ta-a-bu 

m 

i-du 

u-mu 

im-nu 

t-Xa-ru 

kak-ka-bu 

kal-bu 

lib-bu 

la-ba-Su 

la-ma-du 

la-ku-u 

m 

li-ta-a-nu 



XXIX 

Meaning 

thou (jn.) 

house 

to build 

lord 

knee 

lightning 

camel 

judgment 

door 

name 

seed 

friend 

father-in-law 

to rejoice 

son-in-law 

good 

hand, side 

day 

right hand 

righteous 

star 

dog 

heart 

to clothe 

to learn 

to take 

tongue 



Hebrew 
and Assy- 
rian com- 
pared. 



Hebrew 
and Assy- 
rian com- 
pared. 



XXX 

Hebrew 

1?J3 nahar 

#BJ nep h e$ 

ntSj neter 

*]fip sdf}ap h 

SIP t 'azatfi 

pj? Vf 

SIP 'oreS 11 

pins /<z/^ 

1J3 kin 

D# taw 
Jttt^ tarn* 

pjl /*£*«! 



INTRODUCTION 



ETff< 



Assyrian 






<=T? *t- *jn 



T 




5wJT 



ma-ha-$u 

mal-ku 

na-a-ru 

na-pi$-iu 

na-al-ru 

sa-f}a-pu 

e-zi-bu 

e-ti-ru 

i-nu 

c-lu-u 

e-pi-ru 

i-su 

ak-ra-bu 

a-ri-bu 

ir-Su 

pi-iu-u 

sa-al-mu 

ku-u-lu 

kin-nu 

ka-nu-u 

kar-nu 

ka-a$-tu 

ri-e-Su 

ra-ka-bu 

$u-mu 

$a-am-nu 

ti-ib-nu 



Meaning 

to smite 

prince 

river 

life 

eagle 

to overwhelm 

to leave 

to protect 

eye 

to be high 

dust 

wood 

scorpion 

raven 

couch 

to open 

image 

cry 

nest 

reed 

horn 

bow 

head 

to ride 

name 

oil 

straw 



THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING XXXI 

Though the Assyrians possessed the consonantal sounds al- Assyrian 
ready described, their method of writing did not include sepa- 
rate signs for each consonant. They did not employ an alphabet 
but a syllabary ; in other words each cuneiform sign or cha- 
racter, with the exception of the vowel signs, is not a single 
letter but represents in itself a complete syllable. Thus if an As- 
syrian wished to write down the word akshud "I conquered", 
he would employ three signs only ^M ^EJ ^], *'• '. ak-$u-ud t or, 
if he wished to write down abu "father", he would employ only 
two signs J^ ^£ > - a-bu. Each of the signs here employed is what 
is termed a simple syllable, that is to say, in sound it consists simple 
of one vowel and one consonant, or of a vowel by itself. In s y llables - 
the following words each sign represents a simple syllable: — 

]} >~Hf I^J> a ' na - ku > " r ; *=£T SHIT* ai ' ia > " thou " ; ^ >~Hf » '■**> 

"in" ; ]} ^J, *-**,"to" ; ]} £| ^J, a-ma-iu, "word" ; ^ +g[ 
4J$z, ba-Ux-ti y "life" ; £j £Xfi\ ]} i^<jf<, ma-ta-a-ii, "lands" ; ^fcj 
]} ^S-, ba-a-bu, "gate" ; ^^TT ^ <, **-*"'*> "great"; tg[] t£ 
^III, si-t-ru, "exalted" ; JrJJ ^f ^, e-ru-ub, "I entered"; j^UJ 
f^ ^JTTi ta-a-ru, "to return". On p. XXXII f. is a table of simple 
syllables, arranged alphabetically. It will be seen that the tabic 
runs across both pages. The first line gives the signs for the 
vowels by themselves ; x the rest of the table gives the signs for 
the syllables which begin or end w r ith the various consonantal 
sounds in Assyrian ; these are arranged in the order of the He- 
brew alphabet. The left half of the table (on p. XXXII) con- 
tains syllables which begin with the consonants b, g, d, etc. and 
which contain in addition the vowels a, i (and e)^ and u, e. g. 
ba, bi (and be), bu;ga, gt\ gu ; da, di, du. The right half of the 
table on the opposite page contains a similar arrangement of 
the syllables which end with the various consonants, e. g. ab, ib, 
ub > a g> *g* *£ >' <*<?> M, ud. The list may be considerably simpli- 

i. In addition to the signs for the vowels there given the signs for the 
diphthongs should be here noted, Ty li ai and £^Ty "*• 



XXXII 



INTRODUCTION 



List of 
simple syl- 
lables ar- 
ranged al- 
phabetic- 
ally. 



Initial 
consonant 



i 



u 



Sign 



Value 



Sign 



Value 



Sign 



Value 



X 



a, b 



n 



to 



3 



tt 



D 



y 



K 
L 



M 



N 



S 
K 
R 



w 



~£f 



*TTT* 



m 



W 



flf< 



mi 



-fcfcj 



-feT 



ET 



T 



>ff 



tif 



3a 



g<* 



da 



za 



ba 



ta 



ka 
la 



ma 



na 



sa 



-T 



pa 



^TT 



m 



fa 

yfca 



*ff 



, Jl ; *~<, 3* 






£* 






<t^a 




<m 




</* 



0/ 



¥ 



ti 
ki 



li 



^tt, mi ; !►-, m<? 



Hff- 










si 
se 



Sa 



ta 



EI" 



A 



p 



HTU 



tf 



r* 



< 1 



^ 






ii 
it 



*-*-!<> A ';^T>'< 



~T 



^-TT 



TI 



nn 



? 
g u 

du 
zu 

bu 

tu 



m 



m 



ku 



lu 



^ 



*- 



mu 



nu 



**TT 



su 



*-.fir 




51 



/« 



f« 



ku 



ru 



$u 




tu 



SIMPLE SYLLABLES XXXI [I 

I U 

- , - Final 

Sign Value Sign Value Sign Value 













wi 


X 
B, 2 




«=T 


flfi 


hi 


t2 


e£ 


v / 


HS 


"f 


-R* 


>g 


*S*T 


««" 


G, J 




■*T 


<*/ 




id 


*T 


ud 


D, 1 




t?VH" 


m 


it 


*-TI 


us 


z. ' 




AHPPf 




A-W 


$ 


&~M 


"It 


H, n 




*T 


Estf 


if 


*J 


"f 


T, o 




•fif 


at 


►TI* 


ih 


cgv*T 


uk 


K, S 




<*J 


a/ 




a 

el 


<=T* 


ul 


L, S 




£& 


«. 


Afl- 


im 


cm 


um 


M, 




HP 


an 




in 


tTR 


ut 


N, I 
S, D 




tjv» 


as 


fcU 

tT 


is 


*-TI 




w* 


"P 


ip 


e* 


If 


P, B 




c^5T 


as 


if 


*~TI 


"f 


?, X 




-Sf 


a* 


-n* 


i* 


p£*.*T 


«# 


K, p 




CT 


ar 


PS 
-eTT 


tr 


IH I 
CfcTTI 


u! 


R, "1 




*l 


a! 


<« 


■ a 

el 


5tf 




*T 


at 


E&T 


it 


*T 


ul 


t, n 





simile syl- 
lables ar- 
ranged al- 
phabetic- 

.11,. 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION 

fied by observing that the signs for ab, ib, ub are also employed 
for ap, ip and up respectively ; that the signs for ag, ig, ug are 
also employed for ak, ik, uk and ak, ik, uk; that the signs for 
ad, id, ud are also employed for at, if, ut and at, it, ut ; and 
that the signs for az, iz, uz are also employed for as, is, us and 
as, is, us. The student should familiarize himself with the forms 
of the characters until he can write out the list of signs by heart. 
Compound In addition to simple syllables many signs in Assyrian repre- 
syllables. sent wnat h ave b een c Med compound syllables, that is to say, 

sounds consisting of a vowel between two consonants, such as 
//'/, kun, mar. The word X^t ^|^> lud-lul, "let me bow down", 
for instance is written in compound syllables. Both simple and 
compound syllables are employed in the following words: — 

S= Hf A*Hfff> "*'*""' "' a PP ointed " ; E<£>< ET £^T> M-ma-da, 
"let him learn"; fc|>TO ^T ^THI* in-na-bit, "he fled" ; t^]]} »/-, 
dan-nu, "strong" ; ^£|e E^f >^-, /jar-ra-nu, "road" ; ^<( ^J| 
t^y *-f^\, man-da-at-tu, "tribute". 
The length This syllabic method of writing was not well adapted for 

C 1 

o vowe s, accurate iy marking the difference between the long and the short 

and the 

doubling vowels, or for distinguishing between single and doubled con- 

of conso- sonants. In the case of open syllables there are however two 

ways in which it is possible to indicate that the vowel is long: — 

(i) One method is to write after the syllable the sign for the 

vowel which it contains ; thus to indicate the a of the syllable 

na is long (/. e. na, not na) it may be written *~* T J^, na-a, e. g. 

ndru "river" is generally written >~* J J^ ^JTT, na~a~ru. Similarly 

la, "not", can be written *-^ J^, la-a ; belu, "lord", can be 

written ►« ^J^ J^JJ, be-e-lu ; riiru, "yoke", can be written £yy~ 

^E ^HL ni-i-ru ; nunu, "fish", can be written **{- ^Jf^ *^~, 

nu-u-nu. It must not be assumed however that the vowel in a 

simple syllable is short when the corresponding vowel sign is 

not added, for we rind ndru written *~^J ^HL na-ru ; Id written 

*~E| > to » b'to written ►-< ffiPf, bt-iu ; niru written £yy~ ^JTT« ni-ru; 



IDEOGRAMS 



XXXV 



nunu written ^- +£-, nu-nu. (2) The other method of indicating ' 
the length of a vowel is to double the following consonant, 
e. g. ruku "distant" is written ^JTT E ^V^T ►Z^Z^, ru-uk-ku. When 
a consonantal sound is sharpened in pronunciation and should 
be doubled in writing it is generally doubled by the Assyrians, 
e* g. tifakin, "he was placed", is written £^J| ^ J^J][> iX-Xa-km; 
sometimes, however, the doubled consonant is not indicated 
in writing. 

The Assyrians, however, did not always write in syllables, Ideograms, 
but often used one sign by itself to represent a complete word. 
The reason of this will be readily seen when it is remembered 
that each of the signs was originally a picture representing a 
complete idea and that the syllabic values of the characters 
were only subsequently developed. The Assyrians, then, while 
employing their characters as syllables in writing words pho- 
netically, continued to use many of them in their old sense as 
pictures or symbols for a whole idea ; in other words they used 
many of their signs as ideograms. The sign £^J, for instance, 
was used as an ideogram for abu "father" ; the sign || for aplu 
"son" ; the sign ►^f- for ilu "god" ; the sign ►►JJ for alu "city". 
The following list of some of the common ideograms should be 
learnt by heart ; this can best be done by writing out a few of 
them at a time. 



Ideogram Pronun- 
ciation 

►->f- ilu 
fcfc^^f- kakkabu 

» YTTT ruhu 


Meaning 

god 

star 

man 

king 

noble 

lord 


Ideogram 


Pronun- 
ciation 

bellu 

niSu 

abu 

ummu 

aBatu 

aplu 


Meaning 

lady 

people 

father 


?TT*T 


mother 


*1 1 1 


wifip 


-JJ belu 


W llv 

son 

c* 



List of 

common 

ideograms. 





XXXVI 




INTRODUCTION 








Ideogram 


Pronun- 
ciation 


Meaning 


Ideogram 


Pronun- 
ciation 


Meaning 


List of 

:ommon 

deograms 




afru 
ardu 
ziru 
iumu 


brother 

slave 

seed, de- 
scendant 

name 




bltu 

parakku 
babu 
duru 


house, temple 
shrine 
gate 
wall 




**TT 


zumru 


body 


**% 


Itbittu 


brick 




<T- 


inu 


eye 


Bffl 


abnu 


stone 




S:H 


pu 


mouth 


*T 


ifu 


wood 




*m 


Itidnu 


tongue 


•/■ 


falmu 


image 




*h 


uznu 


ear 


m 


subdiu 


garment 




JT 


katu 

m 


hand 


<TW 


duppu 


tablet 




<EE 


Upu 


foot 


^m 


patru 


dagger 




ESE< 


idu 

libbu 

imnu 


side 

heart 

right 




tahdzu 

kablu 

$abu 


battle 

midst ; 
battle 

warrior 




-in 


lumilu 


left 


*TTT< 


sukkallu 


messenger 


• 


z=&r< 


$iru 


flesh 


w^ 


harrdnu 


road 




<zm& 


murfu 


sickness 


~Ii 


karanu 


wine 




-T< 


baldtu 

• 


life 


j3 


likaru 


strong drink 




HTT* 


napiMu 
kiUaiu 
kibratu 


life, soul 

host, the 
world 

region, 
quarter 
of heaven 




ttatu 
r'elu 
palu 
ar&u 


fire 

beginning 

reign, year 
of reign 

month 




4tff 


Saru 


wind 


*r 


umu 


day 




<© 


ir§itu 


earth 


<^ 


muht 


night 




V 


mdtu 


land 


s=T* 


alpu 


ox 




^TT 


alu 


city 


£?T& 


imeru 


ass 







IDEOGRAMS 




XXXV 


Ideogram 


Pronun- 
ciation 


Meaning 


Ideogram 


Pronun- 
ciation 


Meaning 


HTI 


iffuru 


bird 


A 


tabu 

• 


good 


*Hfff< 


firu 


serpent 


<MH 


limnu 


evil 


JH 


nunu 


fish 


«*^ 


nakdsu 


to cut off 


<ff 


ellu 


bright 


<T£ 


Sardpu 


to burn 


*&l 


firu 


exalted 


HTI* 


baXu 


to be 


*m 


dannu 


mighty 


Ik 


t'iu 


to have 


ET- 


rabu 


great 


M 


nadanu 


to give 


z& 


sihru 


small 


~T 


alaku 


to go \ 


<Mf 


damku 

m 


favourable 


V 


lakdnu 


to set 


*r 


nakru 


hostile 


$h 


epttu 


to make 



All the ideograms in the above list consist of one sign only. Ideograms 
Two or more signs however are sometimes employed together com P ose 
as an ideogram for a word. Thus the signs J^ *->j- are em- more 
ployed together as an ideogram for zunnu "rain", J^ {J>~ for SI 8 ns - 
dimtu "weeping", t^\ ^ for ekallu "palace", t£fl} EJ*- for 
abullu "city-gate", ^^ >f- for purussil "decision", ►J^ \tt 
for Xuttu "dream", ►t^f && ^T for suluppu "date", ]} *]]] 
for eklu "field", ^yj X^\ for apsu "abyss", >-*f- >£]]] for 
elu "high", ^Jgf gtyyj for Uplu "low", ^U 4^L for eteru "to 
be straight, right", etc. It is possible to explain some ideograms 
of two or more signs as a combination of simple ideograms, e. g. 
y^ *~>f- "rain" from y^ "water" and *~>{- "heaven", i. e. heaven- 
water = rain ; y^ {J*- "tears, weeping" from y^ "water" and 
<y- "eye" ; t^\J] £]*■ "palace" from £:]]]] "house" and £]>- 
"great" ; t£fl^ Ej^- "city - gate" from ££fl| "gate" and ^^ 
"great". The existence of ideograms in Assyrian composed of 
two or more characters is due to the fact that when the Assyrians, 
or rather the Babylonians, received their signs from the Sumer- 
ians, they retained also the Sumerian way of writing certain 
words; though they wrote the word in Sumerian, however, 



XXXVIII INTRODUCTION 

they pronounced the Assyrian word which corresponded to it in 
meaning; in fact they regarded these Sumerian words as sym-' 
bols for their Assyrian equivalents in meaning. A similar use of 
borrowed words or expressions may be seen in certain sym- 
! bols employed at the present day, when a reader renders "i. e." 
by "that is", or "e. g." by "for example". In each of these 
phrases the Latin original stands in precisely the same relation 
to its English rendering as the Sumerian word used as an ideo- 
gram to its Assyrian equivalent. This fact, though explaining the 
existence of ideograms, does not help the learner to understand 
them ; he must content himself with remembering that certain 
signs, or groups of signs, were regarded by the Assyrians as 
symbols for certain words. 

Perhaps the principal reason that the Assyrian method of 
writing is somewhat complicated is to be sought in the fact 
olyphons. that many signs are polyphons, in other words they have more 
than one syllabic value and are used as ideograms for more 
than one word. Thus YJ, which has the syllabic value a t is used 
as an ideogram for aplu "son" and mu "water" ; the sign T^T 
has the syllabic values ku. dur and tut and is used as an ideo- 
gram for subatu "garment" and aSdbu "to dwell" ; ^T has the 
syllabic values ud, tu, tarn, pir, lah, his and is used as an ideo- 
gram for SamSu "sun", umu "day" and pisu "white". The exi- 
stence of this polyphony may be explained by supposing that the 
same sign might be used as an ideogram for synonymous or 
closely connected words (it being easy to trace, for instance, the 
connection between "sun", "day" and "white"), and subsequently 
for words of similar sound ; while from the meanings so ob- 
tained various syllabic values were developed. To what exent the 
Assyrian signs are polyphonous, the student may judge for himself 
by referring to the List of Signs at the end of the Introduction. 
From the above brief summary of the various methods in 
which the Assyrians employed their characters it will be ob- 



DETERMINATIVES XXXIX 

served that a sign may possibly be used in one of three ways : 
(a) as a syllable in a word written phonetically, or (b) as an 
ideogram representing a whole word, or (c) as one sign in a 
group of two or more signs which together form an ideogram 
for a whole word. It will be obvious that this method of writ- 
ing would often be ambiguous, and that the Assyrians them- 
selves felt it to be so is proved by the means they took to 
simplify it. To many words they attached certain signs, which 
have been called determinatives, to indicate the class of thing Deter- 
to which the word belongs. The majority of these determina- min * tlves> 
tives are placed before the words to which they refer ; they 
are never pronounced but are intended to help the reader to 
understand the word that follows them. In the following list 
of determinatives examples are added illustrating their use: — 
►*f- (the ideogram for ilu "god") is placed before the names Deter- 

of deities, e. g. «f <£3*T, Marduk; ^ *], SamaS ; £JJ tri ^ 
•Hf- <«, Sin; «f- ^yfyj % E-a; «f- ^4f, Ram- cede rtie 
manu; i-iJf- ►jfcj, Nabu; ^- ^, AShtr; ►►f- ^jjjf, mar; word - 

HP EH y^ ST3^, Tal-me-tum; ^f £^[ <J|J 
►-/"T, Dam~ki-na. 
y is placed before male proper names, e. g. T ►^p- ►^ *"^yy 
KJw< y^**- ^"tyy ►^y* Sin-aheP l -er-ba, Sennacherib; 

E- Sar-ra, Tiglathpileser ; j ]}< }} Jgfl ]} tzJJJtz, ffa- 
za-ki~a-u, Hezekiah ; T *-JT t^UJ Hnl ^^» ffu-utn-ri-i, 
Omri ; J fcgjf tfUt % la-u-a, Jehu. 
\>- is placed before female proper names, e. g. •£*- fc VjFF 

t^TTT <MTI fe^TTT 5fr -ft* Hf. A*-ta-ar-ta-«Mfk», 
Stratonice. 
V (the ideogram for ^a/» "country*', and Sadu "mountain") 
is placed before the names of countries and mountains, 
<• # V ^ ^i Mu-sur, Egyp t ; V ^J < ^Jf, Av<-«- 
«, Ethiopia ; V t£= ^y E ^V**" *7, Pa-la-as-tu, Philistia; 



XL 



INTRODUCTION 



Deter- 
minatives 
that pre- 
cede the 
word. 



V JgQf *T <Tt£ Lu-ud-di, Lydia ; V tf\] +*H ^M, 
Lab ~na- na, Lebanon ; ^ ff ^ ^ J *~* J , ffa -ma-na, Mt. 
Amanus. 

KJS ( tne ideogram for am'elu "man") is placed before the 
names of tribes and professions, c. g. KJyy ^ 4J+- t^ y 
KaMi-i, the Kassites ; ££^ f^EI p^tf ^►►f- ]} ►^|<, 
M-ba-'-a-ti, the Nabataeans ; ££^ £[ >-jfcy ^^T ^T 
►^"T TI TI, Ma-ak-ka-du-na-ai, the Macedonians; ^£m 
Tf, M/ii/, "governor"; g^ tJJJ, &**;«, "priest" ; ^^ JJ 
^^jy, tf.fi/, "physician"; ^yyy ^UJ ^^,otj/^i/, "sailor". 

►^TJ (the ideogram for <?/*/ "city") is placed before the names 
of cities, e. g. ^J | ►yf" >J^- | y» Ni-nu-a, Nineveh ; ^tjy 
n^y ^y » ^^= yy 4^*nr *^» Ur-sa-li-im-mu, Jerusalem ; 
►tJT ty ^| ^I<J H3J ^"y, Is-ka-al-lu-na, Askelon; 
^TT V ^TTT^ *^ffl> Gar-ga-mi$, Carchemish. 

y^ J>£j (the ideogram for nam "river") is placed before the 
names of rivers, e. g. f^ ^f ►*- ►>-, Idiklat or Diktat, the 
Tigris; J^ J>*J y^ ►yy>-, Purdtu, the Euphrates; y^ jJpf 

^yyy^ ^y y^ #-&-</, the Euixus. 

ty (the ideogram for isu "wood") is placed before the names 
of trees, woods, and wooden objects, t. g. tf £~2£~|y 
^^yf, burdtu, "pine" ; £] JE^j^ftfi erinu ^ " ced ar"; 

tT Hfl*» '"^ "door"; ty ^TTT^ ^T HffL *»-*«-". 

"beams". 

^yyy^: (the ideogram for lammu "plant") is placed before the 
names of plants, e. g. t^JJ^. ^ESfff *J^~ »TT I' maS/akal, 
the maStakal - plant ; E^E JEJ E^ £-^, ku-un-gu, 
the £iMgw-plant. 
£|y"^f (the ideogram for j^/ik "stone") is placed before the 
names of stones, t.g.^jffi ff V> tiknu 9 "lapis lazu/i"; £pj-<y 
►T ^^ ET^"» parutu, "alabaster". 



DETERMINATIVES XLI 

T^T (the ideogram for $ubdtu "garment") is placed before the Detcr- 
names of stuffs and garments, e. g. JEJ 4^£E J^, fruttu, ™ l! j iy 
a ceremonial garment ; JEJ *J-, &'/«, a kind of cloth ; cede the 
HJ ISDf ***TTT* Hf<» ^-^-^ "garments". word - 



TEJTf (the ideogram for Hpatu "fleece, wool") is placed be- 
fore the names of wools and woollen stuffs, e. g. JEJJ^ 

s£TTT n •^f. ia - kil - tu ' "P ur P le w ° o1 " ; HIIE <WTI 

^"TTT^ KK *^~* ar-ga-man-nu, "crimson wool". 
ErJ^ (the ideogram for karpatu "vessel") is placed before the 
names of vessels, e. g. t^\}£ J} fci^TT *"tT"£"^T» a ~da~gur 9 
a vessel for incense. 
]£► (the ideogram for imiru "ass") is placed before the names 
of some of the larger animals, e. g. £^j>£ V E^IT» Si ' s *' 
"horse" ; £""*¥►»• *S^ ?rfl* gammalu y "camel" ; ^I?T»>- 

a-fi, "dromedaries". 
J^TJ (the ideogram for immeru "lamb, sheep") is placed be- 
fore words for sheep, e. g. J^Jj ^E|T ^Jr 5fH si-e-m\ 
"sheep". 
+~< (the ideogram for Sim "flesh") is sometimes placed be- 
fore parts of the body, e. g. C^^^< Jf^Skj ktiadu, "neck"; 
E^^>~< fc^, iriu, "breast". 
^ (the ideogram for arhu "month") is placed before the 
names of the months, e. g. ►y' j EJ3 Nisannu, Nisan. 
rfcif*-*^- (the ideogram for kakkabu "star") is placed before the 
names of stars and planets, e. g. Ez£z^*-*^- ►— ►-<, Dil- 
bat, Venus ; fczfc:^^- ^jy^: ^5J, Karradu, Mars. 
A few determinatives follow the words to which they refer : Detcr- 

\Jp| (the ideogram for airu "place") is placed after the names m,nat,ves 

.... that fol- 

of many towns and districts, even when preceded by the j ow t y it 

determinatives ^ ("country") or ►►JJ ("city"), c. g. {Hi, word. 
V*TO {&, BshOu, Babylon ; t *K<\ <Jg[, Ninua, 
Nineveh ; *J E<§lT <Jgf, Larsam ; *] J^f i^ffflf <JEJ, 




XLII 



INTRODUCTION 



Deter- 
minatives 
after num- 
bers and 
measures. 



Methods 
of indicat- 
ing the 
plural. 



Phonetic 
comple- 
ments. 



Sippar ; V {t^\ E] {M> &<"»'"> Elam J V "M^W 
^Jgf, Akkadu, Akkad. 

+~\\ (the ideogram for issuru "bird") is placed after the names 
of birds, e. g. g5^J ^JJ, naSru, "eagle"; «-J^ ^,«- 
nuntu, "swallow"; >-^E| »-JJ f summatu, "dove". 

^^ (the ideogram for nunu "fish") is placed after the names 
of fish but is of rare occurrence. 

The signs &£*- and ^^*~< are used as determinatives after 

numbers, while the sign-groups J^ *~Hr~ anc * t^TTT T^ *~HT are 
placed as determinatives after numbers and measures. 

The plural of words is also indicated by means of certain 
signs or determinatives which are placed after the words to 
which they refer. The commonest sign for the plural is !» »►► , 
e. g. >-*f-, ilu, "god", ►►f- |«^-, Hani, "gods" ; V, «a/«, "land", 
V !» »►► ) ma/a/i, "lands". The sign J| is frequently used to mark 
the plural of things which occur regularly in pairs, e. g. ^E|, kdiu, 
"hand", ^Jyy, kdta, "hands"; ^, /««,"eye", ^JJ, ina, "eyes"; 
^^y,/^,"side",^^yyy, ida, "sides". The signs |>-, ►*-, and 
4^|| are also placed after a word to indicate that it is in the 
plural. Another method of indicating the plural of a word ex- 
pressed by an ideogram was to write the ideogram twice, e. g. 
►►f-, ilu, "god", p**f- ►*f- f Hani, "gods"; V, ^«> "land", V V 
matati, "lands". 

Such are the principal determinatives employed by the As- 
syrians and they prove of great assistance to the reader by sim- 
plifying his analysis of the text. Many ideograms, however, are 
not furnished with determinatives and the reading of these would 
often be uncertain or ambiguous were it not for an ingenious 
device of the Assyrian scribes. This consists in adding to the 
ideogram a phonetic sign expressing the final syllable of the 
word which the ideogram is intended to represent ; the syllable 
so added has been conveniently named the ideogram's phonetic 
complement. A few examples will illustrate the use of the 



DETERMINATIVES AND PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS XLIII 

phonetic complement. The sign *-*j~ is used as an ideogram Phonetic 
both for ilu, "god" and Samu (pi. fame), "heaven" ; when the syl- comp e " 
lable £:J^, e, is added to the ideogram (/'. e. ►qp ^|f) it indi- 
cates that *-^f- in that passage is not to be read as ilu, "god", 
but as Xamt, "the heavens". The sign ^JEJ is used as an ideo- 
gram for ////, "with", atru y "place", and ir§itu (with the accusative 
termination, ir$ita) "earth" ; when the syllable ^JIJ, ta, is added 
(*. e. 4^\ ttJIJ) it indicates that ^JEJ in that passage is to be 
read irsita. The sign ^|*~^f is used as an ideogram both for 
the substantive dumku, "favour" and for the adjective damku, "fa- 
vourable" ; when the sign ^J, fu, is added (i. e. \^^i^ *[) it 
indicates that the ideogram is to be read as damikiu, the feminine 
singular of the adjective damku. In the case of a verb expressed by 
an ideogram the particular verbal inflection intended by the writer 
is frequently indicated by means of the phonetic complement. 
We have now seen how words in Assyrian could be either 
written out phonetically in syllables or expressed by ideograms 
and how this rather complicated system of writing was simpli- 
fied by the use of additional signs as determinatives and pho- 
netic complements, — the former indicating the general character 
of words, the latter furnishing clues to their actual readings. Analysis 
We will now take a passage from an Assyrian text and see exlract 

from an 

how the signs are there employed. The following is an extract Assyrian 
from a historical inscription. text 






XLIV 



INTRODUCTION 






>~0-< 



Analysis 
of extract 
from an 
Assyrian 
text. 



The first point the reader will observe is that the signs run 
on and are not clearly divided into words, though a line in the 
inscriptions always ends with a complete word. It is true that 
some scribes, especially in writing religious or poetical composi- 
tions, leave a clear space between each word, and when special 
attention is to be called to the division of two words the sign 
^ is placed between them. As a general rule however the signs 
run on without clear division and the correct division of words 
is one of the first difficulties to be overcome by the beginner. 
We will now break the passage up into words indicating under 
each sign the w r ay it is to be read and its meaning. 



ina Sant(e) gir - ri - ia 
In second my expedition 



a - na mdiu Mu-§ur u 
to Egypt and 



VUKtfl 5ff!T*T<«*MT A£^TT^ 



mJtu Ku-u-si 
Ethiopia 



uS - te - ei - ie - ra 
I directed 



liar - ra - nu 
the way. 



f JH ^TT ET & sff xW T- A4f *!• 



m 



Ur - da - ma - ni - e 
Urdamane 



alu Mf - m 
Memphis 



Pi 



AW HF- h^ EI ff ^T M ^TT *& 



u - mal - Sir - ma 
abandoned and 



(/ - na 
to 



$u - zu 
save 



ub 



SarrdniF 1 



napiitim (Jim) - $u 
his life 



in - na - &'/ 
he fled. 



The kings 



DETERMINATIVES AND PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS XLV 

g^ ^t J^* £~* <Jg[ 3= ff ^ ^t ^t tEflf Analysis 

d>rf/ " AiJaftV' *«*/« K - pa-a- ni ina tarsi - w ? f extract 

. from an 

governors prefects into my presence A SSyr j an 

*7 - h' - ku - u ~ nim - ma u - na - a$ - ti- 

came and kissed 



i <Ee*TT*eTJ 

my feet. 

The translation runs: "In my second expedition I directed 
the way to Egypt and Ethiopia. Urdamane abandoned Mem- 
phis and fled to save his life. The kings, governors and pre- 
fects came into my presence and kissed my feet." 

The determinatives are marked by x , the phonetic comple- 
ments by + , and the ideograms by + ; the rest of the signs are 
simply employed phonetically as syllables. In the transliteration 
it will be observed that the determinatives are printed in smaller 
type above the line, e. g. mdtu t the determinative for lands, alu , the 
determinative for cities, am * iu , the determinative for classes of 
men and m , corresponding to J, which is placed before male 
proper names ; similarly the signs for the plural, p ! and 7/ , are 
printed above the line ; phonetic complements are printed within 
parentheses. This system of transliteration has been employed 
in the texts in the main body of the book. 

Now that the Assyrian method of writing has been described, 
it will be convenient, before passing to the consideration of the 
separate parts of speech, to refer briefly to the principal phonetic 
changes which take place among the consonants in Assyrian. Pnncl P a 

phonetic 

These changes are due to the fact that certain consonantal sounds changes 
in Assyrian when coming together were not easy to pronounce amon g tne 

. . , t 1 • i i i consonants 

or were unpleasant to the ear, the result being that other sounds, . . 
easier to pronounce or pleasanter to the ear, were substituted, rian. 



XLVI 



INTRODUCTION 



Principal 
phonetic 
changes 
among the 
consonants 
in Assy- 
rian. 



The reader need not delay over the list here given, for through- 
out the texts in the main body of the book those phonetic 
changes that might prove puzzling are explained in foot-notes; 
the following list of the principal phonetic changes among the 
consonants x is given for reference only : — 

I. b at the end of a verb followed by the copula ma is fre- 
quently assimilated to the m, e. g. erub, "he entered", 
followed by the copula ma, is often written erumma. 
II. d immediately followed by / or $ is assimilated to the 
/ or $, e. g. kardu y "strong", fern, karittu (for karidtu) ; edehi, 
"to be new", eMu (for ed$u), "new". 

III. m is frequently changed to n before d, /, /, s t $, and k, e. g. 
mundafrse (for mumdafce), "warriors", the Ifteal, Part. plur. 
from mafyapUy "to smite" ; bantu (for fcamfu), "swift" ; nakantu 
(for nakamtu), "treasure" ; unsu (for um§u), "hunger" ; franSu 
(for hamSu), "fifth" ; dunku (for dumku), "favour" ; before 
$ the n that has taken the place of m is sometimes assi- 
milated to the $, e. g. hanlu, "fifth" is sometimes written 
haUu. 

IV. n immediately followed by a consonant is frequently assi- 
milated, e. g. libittu (for libintu), "brick" ; this assimilation 
of n is invariable in the Nifal and Ittafal of the verb, and 
generally takes place throughout verbs of which the first 
radical is n (see below, VERBS). 

$ of the pronominal suffixes (see below, p. XLIX), when 
immediately preceded by a dental or sibilant, 2 becomes s, 
e. g. mat-su (for mat-lu), "his land". A further change ge- 
nerally takes place, for the preceding dental is frequently 
assimilated to the s, and the preceding sibilant is always 



V. 



i. Of the phonetic changes that take place among the vowels in Assyrian 
it may here be noted that after a preceding i or e the a of the feminine ter- 
mination, sing, and plur., tends to become e (see below, p. LVII f.). 

2. The consonants d, f, and t are "dentals", j, s, ?, and i are "sibilants". 



PHONETIC CHANGES XLVI1 

assimilated ; the s, which has taken the place of the dental Principal 

or sibilant, is then dropped, e. g. kdtu, "hand", ka-su (for p t onetlc 
7 r r * v changes 

kds-su = kdf-su = kdi-tu), "his hand" ; dannatu, "foundation", among the 

dan-na-su (for dannas-su = dannat-su = dannaMu\ "its foun- consonants 

in Assv~ 

dation"; lirhis, "may he overwhelm", li-ir-fa'-su (for lirhis-su = r - an 
lirhis-su = lirhis-Su), "may he overwhelm him". 
VI. / in the Ifteal and Iftaal of the verb (see below, VERBS) 
undergoes the following changes : — 

(a) when it follows z, s, or s it is assimilated, e. g. issafrur (for 
istahur), Ifteal, Pret. from saftdru, "to turn" ; ussabbii (for 
ustabbit\ Iftaal, Pret. from sabdiu, "to take". 

(b) when it follows g it becomes d, e. g. igdamar (for igtamar), 
Ifteal, Pret. and Pres., from gamaru "to complete" ; 
ugdaUar (for ugtattar), Iftaal, Pres. from gaSdru, "to 
strengthen". 

(c) when it follows m or n it may become d, e. g. imdafris (for 
imtahif), Ifteal, Pret. from mahdsu, "to smite" ; umdaUir 
(for utntaltir), "he let loose", Iftaal, Pret. from [materu]. 

(d) when it follows k it may become /, e. g. ikterib (for ikterib\ 
Ifteal, Pret. from kardbu, "to approach". 

VII. A sibilant which immediately precedes a dental is frequently 
changed to /, e. g. rapSu, "broad", fern. sing, rapaliu (for 
rapaltti) ; ult'eli (for uXtcli), Ishtafal, Pret. from elu, "to be 
high". Similarly, when two sibilants come together, the 
former frequently becomes /, e. g. ilst (for /'&/), Kal, Pret. 
from fasti, "to speak". The combination U, instead of 
changing to //, sometimes becomes ss or s, e. g. issapar, 
isapra (for iVapar, iltapra), Ifteal, Pret. from lapdru, "to send". 

VIII. In place of doubling a consonant, m or n is sometimes 
added after the preceding vowel, e. g. inamdin for inaddin = 
inddin (see below, VERBS), Kal, Pres. from naddnu, "to give" ; 
ittananmar for ittanammar = ittandmar (see below, VERBS), 
Ittanafal, Pres. from amdru, "to see". 



XLVIII INTRODUCTION 



Pronouns. 



Personal The personal pronouns to express the nominative are: — 

pronouns 

to express Sing. I. anaku Plur. I. antnu, anlni, nlnu, hint 

the nomi- ?| 2 m. atla „ 2 m. attunu 

native. 



>i 



2 f. atti 



„ 3 m. iu „ 3 m. fo/w, fo/i 

' „ 3 f . it „ 3 f. hna 

The following examples illustrate their use: — 

y jgf »-fc£y ^t^T IS! ISf *=flk» ***"** a™*-** /«-««-/«/, 

"may I thy servant live"; ^^f^ JT^^Iii! tt^ EJ, a *' 
bi anaku Sum-ma, "I spoke as follows"; *-^p- "J^Ef IHfT ^^I< 
^pyy ^ t£\ t^yyy, ilu Nin-ib M^ *«*. "O Ninib, a hero 

art thou"; ^y^y<^y ^ry^f^ry^ «f*y|,«/- 

A'-am na-an-na-ra/ $ame(t), "thou art the light of heaven" ; Ef fc^fy^ 
Uf *J ^ 55£J, **-* ip-par-h-id, "as for him, he fled" ; <J>- 

£a um-ma, "she (Ishtar) informs thee thus" ; y^ £yjr *yy~ *yy~ 
^Z^J^yy ►^y ►t J^Ji a-ni-ni ni-il-la-ka, "we are going"; *~^y 
Sffl ^E \|HF »TT~ ^E SfH ' a »/-i-</i m'-i-ni, "we do not under- 
stand" ; tgj ^ ^- «^«f «=Hf- fcgfcj -JI 
^Z^JE, ai-tu-nu kakkabani far- fiu- turn, "ye mighty stars" ; 7 +J- 

t3*/-*i yj E^yy tj<y *^i=yy I •t 6 , *«-»« #-»*-«/ a-m-ai-u 

$u-nu, "as for them, the offspring of Hades are they" ; ^[ ^ yi 
►^jEz ^^ *~i » par-§a-a-tum ti-na, "lies are they". 

Personal The personal pronouns to express the genitive and accusa- 

pronouns tiye are ._ 

to express 

the geni- Sing. i. jafi, taJft Plur. I. nidti, nidfi 

tiVC an . „ 2 m. kdtu, kdiu y ha $a „ 2 m. katunu, kdtunu 

accusative. 

„ 2 f . hah', kdti 

„ 3 m. SdXu „ 3 m. SdSunu, $d$un 

„ 3 f . $a$a 



PRONOUNS XLIX 

The following examples illustrate their use : — 
4J>- {££ fc£ t£\} ]} ►►!<, h-mi-t ia-a-ti, "Hearken (O goddess) 
unto mc" ; ^t^J ]] ^ t=t=| t\J\ ^ttJ, ito-tf-Ai ap-kid-ka, 
"thee I have commanded" ; JJ ►^J ^M TiF ^ I^Df ^TTT^ 
^Inl *^» a ~ na t a - a ~t* l u ' u ful-mu, "unto thee (O queen) may 
there be peace" ; ^T JJ J gjj= JgJ ^J ? $a-a-$u aUu-la, "him I 

carried off" ; ^ |^ V fc?V?L ►«, fo-a-fo af-bat, "her I captured" ; 

^ tg\] i^y<, m-^-//, "us"; <jej ^y ^H yj I >/-, *-** **- 

tf-Ji/-»», "like you" ; V TU fc ffi *& WR 5S 1 ' *a-a-iu-un ub- 
lu-nU "them did they bring". 

The pronominal suffixes attached to nouns are: — Pronom- 

inal suf- 
Sing. I. i, a,ia Plur. i. ni fixes at- 

„ 2 m. ha „ 2 m. *i//i«, *i//i tached to 



i> 



2 f . *l 



nouns. 



„ 3m,-Ai,/ „ 3 m. Sunu (rarely tunuti) 

„ 3 f. fa, $ „ 3 f. h'na, tin 

The following examples illustrate their use: — 

«f- 1^^ i7i-w f "my god" ; ^JJ ^, fc/i-w, "my lord" ; ►- V 
y^, ma mati-a, "in my land" ; £f y^ +-\^\j ma-a-ri> "my son" ; 
^<§1 ^in ^t^T, «*-/*-&, "thy name" ; {\gp $z ^z\] 
►£££[> di-pa-ra-ka, "thy torch" ; +->\- ^1 ^Jg[, an-ni-ki, "thy 
mercy" ; ££ Hffl JeT «f-n-/« f "its place" ; ^] ^g= J, sk- 
»i«r-*«, "his body"; ^ ^ »-^y £^*y, ti-ma-/u-u!, "his destiny" ; 
£J=yy <££ ^y, <fc->»/-fo, "her blood" ; <J>-}} ^, ina-Sa, "her 
eyes"; *~< ^yy" ^yy", be-ili-niy "our lord" ; ^- IVy f^ £yf~y nu-ur-a-m\ 
"our light" ; ^ fc^ ^< JgJ »^- , hi-ta-ti-hu-nu, "your sins" ; 
Ey ^DI HI B=T|f aw-**-**-** "your son" ; ^ ^T JjJ ^ j„. 
Sa-lu~nu, "their property" ; ^^f ^-^\ \ ^\}}j lib-ba-Su-un, "their 

heart" ; »<£J ^^Hf ^ *~T *»-#■*'-»*. "all of them" ; t£ 
yyy>5^y^y, f-/a-tfi, "their boundary". 



INTRODUCTION 



Pronom- 
inal suf- 
fixes at- 
tached to 
verbs. 



Reflexive 
pronoun. 



Demon- 
strative 
pronouns. 



The pronominal suffixes attached to verbs are : — 
Sing. I. anm\ inni, ni Plur. i. anncfti 



„ 2 m. ka, akka 

„ 2 f. kt y akki 

„ 3 m. Xu, $, aUu 

„ 3 f. Jti, i t aHi 






2 m. kunuti 

2 f. kindh 

„ 3 m. Sunu, iunuii 

„ 3 f. hna, h'ndii 



The following examples illustrate their use : — 
*^=TT £3 <2^J ES 1 * U-bi-ban-ni, "may he purify me" ; &]]]& 
W KWl ffiT E^=5tt Cfr* u-Sa-ki-luin-m, "they made me eat" ; 
E3^[ $H ^ Sf 1 * id-dm-u-m, "they gave to me" ; E ^RF Afc 
^ W» <**-t*r-ka, "I have turned to thee" ; JJ ^JJ ^T^ ^ttJ, 
a-da-nak-ka, "I shall give to thee" ; eJ<J ^jf ^Jgf, a/-*/-*/, "I have 
cried to thee" ; fc^E ^] AHF" ^© <I& «•*><*-''<**-*', "I 
have sought thee" ; ^a^| ^T^ 9^" I» id-di-nu-Su, "they gave 
him" ; t\]]t. ^ ^|JJ ^ty £■£, u-U-ri-ba-aS, "he brought him in"; 
^yyj^: ^ ^J>- ^.^J gjj= j, u-$e-h-ba-a!-Su, "he made him sit" ; 
JV-y £j y>- ^, lik-M-me-Si, "let him look upon her" ; £^[ 
^ % uS-mal-m, "1 filled it (f.)" ; eg ^[flf ppff ^J ^<[-, 
t-kar-ra-ban-na-ti, "he blessed us" ; E£y fc^y ^T< JEJ »^- ^-, 
at'ta-dm-ku-nu-ti, "1 have handed you over" ; g^ JEJ * - « y J >j^-, 
aS-ku-na-Su-nu, "I placed upon them"; ^^^ ^££ J >J^- *~<y^» 
ku-mt-Su-nu-/t, "burn them" ; ^ t= S^= ^^fT <J^ ^7 y^ 
►-<y^, la fap-pa-ti-Si-na-a-fi, "do not answer them". 

The reflexive pronoun does not exist in Assyrian but is ex- 
pressed by the substantive ramaftu "self" in combination with 
the pronominal suffixes which are attached to nouns, e. g. 
E^y gy ^ ]}, ra-ma-ni-a, "myself"; &zj\ ^ ^ ^f f m-nw- 
/j«-kJ, "himself" ; E^ff £] ^jf! J >jA, ra-ma-ni-Su-nu, "themselves". 

The demonstrative pronouns are : — 
(a) Suatu "that" 

Sing., m. Suafu, latu 
%% f. iiaii 



PRONOUNS LI 

Plur., m. iuaiunUy Wunu Demon- 

„ f. Sua/ina, latina strative 

pronouns. 

For these the following forms are sometimes used : — 
Sing. m. iu ; f. SI 
Plur. m. iunu t Sunuti; f. tinati, hnatina 

The following examples illustrate their use : — 

*£TT Ml 1} *-^T> alu * u - a '* u > " that cit y" * E£ E^TT W 

JJ i-^J ^jyy^: *|*- ^ J^j, <tf-ra fo-a-/« «-/*-#-ir f "that 
place I strengthened" ; ►- >4^ fj ^J>- J^ ►►!<, *>w Saili-ma 
!t-a-/i, "in that same year" ; ^| ^]]&, *=E ^T T^ *iHT 
ij^-, na-gi-i $u-a-tu-nu, "those districts"; ^^p J****- ^ J^ 
»^£J »/-, SarraniP 1 Sa-a-lu-nu, "those kings"; V V J>***- 
M\ ]} H^ *~T maialipl *u-a-H-na 9 "those lands" ; t^J]] 
f y^ y«^- T^T >^<y< ^y, *&,#*/* ta-li-na, "those palaces" ; 

EJ£j ^T ^TTT^> A*™*** '*-«. "that shrine" ; ^Jjyy £j*- ^^ 
^ fc£, ekallum{lum) ti-i, "that palace"; ^ ^Jf Sfr 
^Ey »5^-, mu-ra-ni $u-nu, "those young lions" ; ^ y » » » J "5^- 
►«y<, /ofc^ iu-nu-ti, "those people" ; ^l| fcjflj ^|>- *~*~\ 
II *~*T^» bab&ni ti-na-a-ti, "those gates" ; £yyy ^y][ *~tft 
ij*- *~*\ *~*\(> *~i» * r ~ r i-ti ti-na-fi-na, "those curses", 
(b) annu, "this" 

Sing., m. annu (Nom.) ; anrii (Gen.); anna (Ace.) 

„ f. annliu (Nom.) ; anniti (Gen.) ; annita (Ace.) 

Plur., m. annuii 
„ f. annati 

The following examples illustrate their use : — 
X*"HF~ *"Hf~ *J~ K* **P iu an - nu ~ u * "this incantation" ; * — ^y 
^££ ^Hf~ Sflh ^E» * na u ' man ' n * m it " a * this time" ; ^E^ ^^y 
*-*^- ^^y y^ ^^ t^ V^ \? ul " tu *n-na-a e-tap-pu-tu, "after 
I had done this" ; £:]% ^yjy *] *-*f- £*£ ^^IT> ^ /r - /w fl «- 
«/'./«, "this letter" ;^^^yy HfA<£t Hf" 5f= Hfc 
*-# Jte//* an-ni-ti, "because of this dream" ; *-+{- *TT~ t^TTT 

d* 



LII INTRODUCTION 

*— ^ T>— ^p, an-ni-ta ina U-mc-ia, "when she heard this" ; 
ij^- J» »»> *~Hf~ *3^~ ^^T^' salmdniv 1 an-nu-ti, "these images" ; 
|^ El T^ ^-<lK *~Hf~ *~^"T I? *~*T^ a-ma-a-ii an-na-a-ti, "these 
things". 

(c) ul/u, "that" 

Sing, ullu (Nom.) ; ulll (Gen.) 

Plur. ulluti 
The following examples illustrate their use : — 

*y ^ <^y^ isi ^yyy^, *<*-*« «/-&-*• "that race" ; yj 4^ 

4p\t ^^yy fc^f, a-lri ul-li-e, "on that side"; fc=I ^tf ^ 

^yyy^ ^y <wk ^u ^tit^ *^y> ^-^-««-«-^ «/-/*-«-/*, 

"those buildings". 

(d) ^o, "this" 

The form a^a is used for all numbers, genders and cases ; 
the following forms also occur: — 

Sing., f. agdia 
Plur., m. agannutu 
„ f. aganeti 

The following examples illustrate their use: — 

^y ^ yj &=yyy* yf u-mu *&*, "this day" ; •— ^ ^^ 

yf^yyy^yf, ina kak-kar a-ga-a, "on this ground"; $fc t^f] 

►^T IT ^yy^ y^ fc^TTT» "•-**-''»* a-ga-a-ia, "this earth" ; 
JgQf ^ yf ^yy^ ^ ^, <*«Wi a-ga-nu-U, "these words" ; 
W j| ^yy^ ST ^Vl *T» maidii a '£ a " nt '" € - tu > "these lands". 

The rela- The relative pronoun is : — 

«I!L ^ "who, which" 

The relative pronoun Sa is always written ^ or gpfy 
and is used for all numbers, genders and cases. When the 
relative $a has the force of a genitive and would be trans- 
lated in English by "whose", the substantive in the relative 
clause takes the corresponding pronominal suffix, e. g. ^ 



noun. 



NOUNS LI 1 1 

ha-ru ka-bal-H, "whose (m.) onslaught is unequalled" ; ^J^ff 

►^J J| ^E| , torn* rabu Sa ilu BH u ilu Nabu ir-a-mu pa-Ia-a-to, 
"a mighty king whose reign Bel and Nabu love" ; *~< 

bc-cl'tum $a par-§u-$a Su~iu-ru, "a lady whose command is 

mighty" ; t^\ ET 5^ JT ^?T ^ ^TTT«= t^TTT 

^Ej J^J ^TTT^ Sf 1 ►» t T *^T *W» um-ma-ni-Su $a la 
u-ta-ad-du-u ni-ba-$u-un, "his troops whose number is not to 
be known". Similarly, when Jta has the force of an accusative 
or dative, the governing verb in the relative clause generally 
takes the pronominal suffix, while a preposition invariably 

does so, , ,. v sT 3= <flf -6lT ~Hf ^ ~nr £TTT 

^Ej, to haitu ellitu{tu) na-ad-na-ta-Su, "to whom is given a 
shining sceptre" ; ^ «f- { <Jg[ ^ *-|J^ ^- e^t, 
to //h-Jk /'///-.fa zin-u-u, "(a man) with whom his god is angry". 

Nouns. 

In Assyrian, as in Hebrew and the other Semitic dialects, roots Roots. 
or stem-words consist of two, three and four consonants ; of. these, 
triliteral roots, or roots of three consonants are by far the most 
common. A root contains in itself a meaning or idea from which 
are formed both the verb and the noun (substantive and ad- 
jective) ; the root in fact may be compared to a skeleton, which 
when clothed with different vowels and sometimes with addi- 
tional consonants gives expression to the various nominal and 
verbal forms of its inherent meaning or idea. The triliteral root 
NMR, for instance, contains the inherent idea of brightness or be- 
ing bright, and forms the skeleton or base of the verb namaru 
"to be bright", of the adjective namru "bright", and of the sub- 
stantives namiriu and namurtu "brightness". 



forms. 



LIV INTRODUCTION 

In examining an Assyrian word, therefore, the student's first 

duty is to identify the root from which it is derived. 1 In the 

case of nouns he will find little difficulty in doing this after he 

Nominal has grasped the principal forms which they assume. These may 

be briefly described under the following five divisions: — 

I. Many nouns are formed merely by the internal addition 
of vowels to the root. As the nouns so formed begin with 
the first letter of the root and do not contain other con- 
sonants, their roots are easily recognised, e. g. 
laknu "governor", from lakanu "to set, appoint". 
zikru "name", „ zakdru "to name". 

Su/mu "peace", „ Saldmu "to be complete, 

prosperous". 
nakaru "hostile", „ nakdru "to be different, 

hostile". 
zdkipu "post", „ zakapu "to set up, erect". 

lubutu "garment", „ labatu "to cloth oneself. 
Many nouns in addition to their internal vowels take 
also the feminine terminations aiu y i/u, or tu (see below, 
p. LVI f.), e. g. 

nisirlu "treasure", from nasdru "to watch, guard". 
puluhtu "fear", „ paldfiu "to fear". 

II. In some nouns the second or the third letter of the root 
is doubled, e. g. 

1 In most Assyrian dictionaries the words are arranged as far as possible 
under their respective roots and not necessarily according to the consonants 
or vowels with which they happen to begin. As Assyrian possesses no alphabet 
•it is impossible to cite in cuneiform a root composed only of consonants. A 
common expedient therefore is to use Hebrew characters in citing Assyrian 
roots, as the Hebrew alphabet contains consonants which correspond to the 
consonantal sounds in Assyrian (see above p. XXVI). As however the consonants 
in themselves are incapable of being pronounced the Infinitive of the verb is 
frequently cited as the root. Thus the root XMR may be cited (i) in Hebrew 
characters as the root 1Q3, or (2) in transliteration as namdru. Here and in 
the Vocabulary the latter plan has been adopted. 



NOUNS LV 

kattapu "magician", from [kaidpu] "to bewitch". Nominal 

pilakku "axe", „ [palaku] "to strike, slay". ° rms ' 

III. Some nouns are formed by the addition of prefixes. The 
roots of these nouns are less easy to identify than those 
of the nouns in sections I and II, as they do not begin 
with the first letter of the root. The prefix may take the 
form of 

(a) a vowel, e. g., ikribu "prayer", from karabu "to bless, 
to pay homage to". 

(b) m (or n, when the root contains a labial, i. e. b, m 

maikanu "place", from Sakdnu "to set". 

mdlaku "way", „ aldku "to go". 

mUaru "righteousness", „ \eUru\ "to be straight". 
narkabtu "chariot", „ rakabu "to ride". 

nardmu "love", „ rdmu "to love". 

napbaru "totality", „ pafidru "to collect". 

(c) J, e. g. iahluklu "destruction", from haldku "to be de- 
stroyed"; Surbu "great", from rabu "to be great". 

(d) /, e. g. tamharu "fight", from mahdru "to oppose" ; 
tdriifru "sighing", from [andhu] "to sigh". 

IV. In a few nouns a / is inserted after the first letter of the 
root, e. g. 

gitmdlu "perfect", from gamdlu "to complete". 
ritpdtu "wide", „ rapdiu "to be wide". 

V. Some nouns are provided with special terminations, of 
which the principal are 

(a) the termination dnu, e. g. ktirbdnu "offering", from 
karabu "to pay homage to". 

(b) the termination u, e. g. arku "future", from [arakti] 
"to be behind" ; mahru "former", from mahdru "to 
oppose, to • be opposite". 



LVI 



INTRODUCTION 



Genders. 



(c) the termination u/u t by which abstracts are formed 
from a few concrete nouns, c. g. b'dutu "lordship", 
from b'elu "lord" ; Hutu "divinity", from ilu "god" ; 
tarrutu "royalty", from tarru "king". 

A few nouns, derived from stems the first radical of which is 
weak, 1 have dropped the initial vowel and begin with the second 
radical, c. g. biltu "tribute", from abalu "to bring" ; lidu and littu 
"child", from aladu "to bear" ; simtu "adornment", from asdmu "to 
be adorned"; tubtu "dwelling", from aiabu "to dwell". 

Assyrian possesses two genders masculine and feminine. The 
majority of substantives are either masculine or feminine, but 
some are of common gender. The feminine of adjectives and 
of some masculine substantives is formed by the addition of 
atu or of the shortened form tu to the nominal stem, c. g. 



Formation 
of the 
feminine. 



Xarru 

malku 

ardu 

kalbu 

maru 

bukru 

rubu 

dannu 

nakru 

gamru 

damku 

• 

kabiu 
raptu 
arku 



"king", iarra/u "queen", 

"prince", malkatu "princess", 

"slave", ardatu "handmaid", 

"dog", kalbatu "bitch", 

"son", mdrtu "daughter", 

"first-born" (m.), bukurtu "first-born" 
"great", fern, rubdtu. 

"strong", „ dannatu, 

"hostile", „ nakirtu. 

"whole", „ gamirtu. 

"favourable", „ damiktu. 

"heavy", „ kabittu. 

"broad", „ rapattu. 

"green", „ aruktu. 



(f.). 



i. The stems, from which these nouns are derived, begin in other Semitic 
languages with the consonant 1 ; this consonant is only represented in the cor- 
responding Assyrian words by a vowel (sec above, p. XXVII f.). 



NOUNS • LVII 

tabu "good", fern, fdbtu. 
ruku "distant", „ ruktu. 

After a preceding i or e, the a in the feminine termination 
atu y generally becomes /', e. g. 

ellu "bright", fern, ellitu. 

fihru "small", „ §iliritu and §i(iirtu. 

zinu "angry", „ zinitu. 

riminuj rimnu "merciful", fern, rimnttu. 

elu "high", fern, elitu. 

Some adjectives form their feminine in itu though not pre- 
ceded by i or e, c. g. 

radii "great", fern, rabiiu. 
nadu "fallen", „ nadltu. 
daru "lasting", „ darttu. 

A few adjectives form their feminine in utu, e. g. 

Surbu "great", fern. Xurbutu. 
taku "high", „ Sakutu. 

The plural of nouns in Assyrian is formed by the addition The Plural 
of various terminations to the nominal stem. Substantives in ^° su 

stantives. 

the plural take the following terminations: — 

(a) e, e. g. iamu "heaven", plur. tame. 

mu "water", „ me. 

malku "prince", „ malki. 

niiu "people", „ nile. 
N. B. The interchange of the vowels e and * al- 
ready referred to (see above p. XXVI) is especially fre- 
quent in this form of the plural, e. g. the plural of 
malku may be written ^\\\ ^I^J> mal-M, that of ntiu, 

(b) ant, e. g. ilu "god", plur. Hani. 

hurSu "mountain", „ hurSani. 
ardu "slave", „ ardani. 



LV1II INTRODUCTION 

(c) <j, especially the plural of parts of the body which occur 
in pairs, e. g. 

inu "eye", plur. in J. 



uznu "ear", „ vznd. 



idu "side", „ ida. 
(d) ati, the plural of substantives with the feminine termi- 
nation in the singular; should the preceding syllable 
contain an / or e, the a of the plural termination 
generally becomes e, e. g. 

larratu "queen", plur. larrati. 
kibralu "region", „ kibratu 
tdmtu "sea", „ tdmdii. 

bcltu "lady", „ beliti. 
Some substantives form their plural in ati or Hi 
though in the singular they are without the feminine 
termination, e. g. 

nam "river", plur. ndrdii. 

kanu "reed", „ kandli. 

kudurru "boundary", „ kudurreti. 
Many substantives have more than one form of plural, e. g. 
y ^ft fcz| J, Sa-di-c (i. e. fade), and V ]>++>- ^T, *adani r l (w), 
occur as plurals of Sadu, "mountain"; EtJK ^Jk ^-IT E ir ~ r *- e 
(/'. e. girre), and ^^ ^|JJ ^Jf **H^ gir-ri-e-ti (/. e. girriti) occur 
as plurals of girru, "expedition'*. 
(2.) of ad- The masculine plural of adjectives is formed by means of 
jcctivcH. t j lc termination *///, the feminine plural by the termination afi, 
which generally becomes eti after a preceding / or e, e. g. 
adjective masc. plur. fern. plur. 



damku "favourable", 


damkuti, 


damkdti. 

• 


rabu "great", 


rabuti, 


rabd/i. 


galru "strong", 


gairutU 


galrdti. 


ellu "bright", 


dluti, 


ettiii. 


riiku "distant", 


rukutiy 


rukdti and rukiti. 

• • 



NOUNS LIX 

The adjective generally follows the substantive to which it Position 

of the 
adjective. 



refers, e. g. ^Zfa tjjf *J~, tor» dan-nu, "mighty king"; ofthe 



It 



It 



►i^- y***>- ^J>- J****-, 1Z&11 *' rabuti P l , "the great gods"; 

*T T^" ^DDf r^^ ►►!<» *' ,w ' ™-*"-'', "distant days". When 

special emphasis is to be laid upon the adjective it is placed 

before the substantive, e. g. >^\ ►^^JJ ^* » UJ ►^J 
V >^S^yy, da-li-ih-tu mai-su, "his disordered land". 

Substantives and adjectives in the singular end in one of the Case- 
three vowels «, i and a, which as a general rule may be regarded en ,D85s " 
as marking the nominative, the genitive and the accusative case 
respectively, e. g. ^J *^ \IeJ ^Mi ^^ \HL Sv-mu-ki si-i-ru, 
thy name is exalted" ; ►< 4^~ f^JJJ }}{ *"TT^> ^"^ /a-&a-zt, 

lady of battle" ; t£l$ ►£! ^E ^TII ^" ^ **" /fl '-*«*-*«-*» 
"a £ry they utter". To this rule, however, exceptions con- 
stantly occur, the case endings being often employed indiscrimin- 
ately, e. g. *yyy „ty <jg[ ^^yy ^- ^<, a-h*-u &*»&, 

"may thy heart have rest" ; tf- S^t *JH <tj^ A4f ^T ^JTT, 
nu-u-ru ul im-ma-ru, "the light they do not behold". The ter- 
mination i in substantives in the nominative or accusative is 
frequently not the case-ending but the suffix of the first person 
singular, e. g. 15A *~-J]\ Kj*-" Er^TT^, nu-ri lim-mir, "may my light 
shine" ; <y>- <££ fcjf ]J^ >^^yy ►►!<, tf-mi-* to-/!-//, "hear 
my prayer". 

To substantives and adjectives the particle ma, or its shortened Mimation 
form m, is frequently appended. Whatever may have been the 
original use of this mimation, as it is termed, it has been 
so far weakened that its omission or insertion in no way 
alters the meaning of a word, nor does it affect in any way 
its definite or indefinite signification, e. g. ►< J^IJ, be-lu, and 
►< ^t, bc-lum, both mean "a lord" or "the lord"; *gS: 

tJp V*- ^EEj, Mt* S*r-bu-tu y and *g >Xff *£>- S^I^E, b * ltu 
$ur-bu-/um, both mean "a mighty lady" or "the mighty lady" ; ►- 



LX INTRODUCTION 



instruct 
tate. 



SS ^ETT ►►K />w ^-f'-/'i and ►- $jfi ^EJT ^C^T* "»* tr " 
si-tim, both mean "on earth" or "on the earth". 

rhc When a noun stands by itself, it is said to be in the abso- 

lute state. When a substantive in the genitive is joined to it, 
it is said to be in the construct state. In consequence of the 
close connection of two nouns so joined they are pronounced 
together and there is a tendency to lighten and shorten the 
first of the two. A noun in the construct state, therefore, (i.) ge- 
nerally drops the mimation, and, if it is a singular noun in the 
nominative or accusative, it also generally drops the case end- 
ing (in some words a short vowel of the stem has already 
dropped out before the case-ending and this in the construct 
reappears, e. g. ztkru, "name", in the construct becomes zikir) ; 
(2.) if the noun is in the genitive, however, the 1 of the 
genitive does not disappear ; (3.) in the case of a plural noun 
the plural terminations dm, dti, eti and iiti may become respec- 
tively an, at, it and «/. The following examples will illustrate 
the above rules : fcifc:^ AE^= Ej Tf ***-]t> nap-bar ma-a-ti, "the 
whole of the land" ; tkjj E5^T HP" ^T <H * imit "* & m *K* t ')> 
"sun-rise"; ►jy^ ^f^ V I MHRf> Zi '~* l ' r m ^ l ' m ^ UmUn t " trie name 
of their land" ; ^^ Ar •"HP" ]} ^T> bu ' hur iUl A ~ nim * "the first- 
born of Anu" ; ^V ^E *~£] ]} ►^K *' lat i-t*-*-th "goddess 
of goddesses"; |^[ *~^"| £% <« *~J]\ ^pj \t£ J, a-na zik-ri 
Su-mi-fa, "at the mention of his name" ; E^ *~M ^T IfT **"T^ 
►*f- ]>++>- ^|>- Jw^-, t-na tukulti{ti) ilaniF 1 rabutiP 1 , "with the 
help of the great gods" ; ^JJ *~T\ tz£\ ^ A^Hfflf ^ ia ' 
na-at nu-uh-U, "years of plenty". These rules, however, are oc- 
casionally broken, e. g. -< ^ Jf ^ *-]}\ <HgOf <HRRfl 
£yi~, be-ium a-ba-ri u dun-ni, "lord of power and might". 

When two substantives arc in apposition it is not essential 
that they should agree in number, a substantive in the singular 
frequently standing in apposition to one in the plural, e. g. ►►)! 
J****- ^yyyj ^^►►y<, alam'P 1 bit $arru-li, "cities, royal 



ADVERBS LXI 

• 

dwellings" (/. e. "royal cities"). The same rule applies to parti- 
cipial expressions which may be in the singular though in appo- 
sition to substantives in the plural, e. g. ^E^^TT J* *** ]} JfcJ 
►fEjJ *~]J \ ^ElT* terrdniv 1 a-lik maji-ri-ia, "the kings, who went 
before me" (i. e. "my predecessors"). 

Adverbs. 

The following are the principal adverbs in Assyrian ; the 
examples appended illustrate their use: — 

kVam "so, thus", e. g. ^Jg[ ]} £^ ^4" 1^^ V> ki ' a " Adverbs 
am parse? l -$a, "so are her commands"; ] w^J ►JJJ &£]} of manner. 

ia-muS Xarru ki-a-am i-kab-bt\ "thus saith Darius the king". 
ma \ "thus, as follows", introducing direct speech, e. g. ^ 

umma j fc^f *^ *J *£\ *ffl ^1 ^T Tf» fl'-*'"* ut-te-ru-m 
ma-a, "news they brought me as follows" ; fcz ^JTT *^ 

<v ~f<w *w *kn *jh< i *m*v 

//tt /fr/ar u-$ab-ru-u-$u u-$a-an-na-a ia-a-ti um~ma, "a vision 
of the night IStar caused him to see, (and) he related 
(it) to me as follows". 
adu "now", e. g. ]} ^ fc^f*: *J ^ ^JJ ^JJ ^JJ- Adverbs 

fiy ^E|» *"du-u u-mu-us-su u-sal-la, "now daily do I pray". °* timc * 

«*»* u now", ,. g . ^yyy^ ^T Tf - v ^yy ^ ^< *^y, «-**-« 

/wa/-x« ni-fia-at, "now is his land at rest". 
^/#/>i«fl "now" (opposed to "formerly"), <r. g. t^J} &£] *~*~] 

^yy ^- SX^HT ^y» e-m'n-m /«-<i-//' am<?/ " mdr-Sipri-Su 

$a SuUme ti-pu-ram-ma, "now to me his messenger for 

greeting he sent". 

matima \ "whensoever, at any time"; with negative, "never", 

matima ) e. g. £f ^<J< gj i^_ ifc^JJJ ^ *J Ji^, *,*- 



LXII INTRODUCTION 

ti-ma ina afr-rat u-me y "whensoever in future days" ; *E=yT 

ET*T*im Tt^T *£8?H- ^TT— 
tgy? B8? TJ JUI I -ET ^TT **- E^TT, ** ~ 

tt-e-ma a-na SarraniP 1 abcP l -ia am * iu mdr-$ipri-$u la i$-pu-ra, 
"who had never sent his messenger to the kings, my 
fathers". 

In,er - "*" * «how?», , ,. Tf ^y m EI <tt *ee ^ y T t* 




r °8 a,ive minu } """•»"«• IT li=4^l V- -*- ^ ITS^»~o 

adverbs. _ I a-na-ku-ma mi-i-nu a-kab-bt, "how shall I speak?". 



«„*«««• I "why?-, «.* flf~ry T^*£5*-~ t^TT-ET*-& 

ammeni \ a-na me-i-ni il-la-ak, "why is he going ?" ; t^^ J*— £yf~ 

M^w It^TTT t^y «^y* EHH EI- Tf ITT 

t[[tp ^^[ ^^|y> am-me-ni ta-at-bal agd raba(a) $a 

kakkadi-ia, "why hast thou taken away the mighty crown 

for my head?". 

adi mati "how long ?", <?. g. Jjr ^Jt^ ^J ^J^j *-& ma-ti f "how 

long ?". 

The nega- la \ "not", <. g. T? *£] ^ ^ J flf ^TJ >£! ^ ^Jf 

tive, and u j j ^ / a ik-nu-$u a-na ni-ri-ia, "who had not submitted to my 
particles of awww ▲ »w ^ www w 

prohibi- yoke" ;^JII4^ ^ A*=TTT* T"^* ™-*-< '< 

tlon - tabutiP 1 , "sorceries that are not good"; ^tj^ J} ►<£, 

«/ <z-&//, "I have not eaten". 

/a in prohibitions is followed by the Present, e. g. 

-ET HTTI *3H» /tf '"'-^ " do not &°"; ^ET 

►^yyy tz^yy y^- <y^ ^y y^ ^<y<» & ta^im-me-u-na- 

a-li, "thou shalt not hearken to them". 
ai "not", particle of prohibition, is followed by the Preterite, 

.. « <h <v m Tt t? htc* -tti — i 

h-pat-ki ai ik-ri-ba, "may thy incantation not approach" ; 
^ET--£^TM< THf <W\\^, mu-gal-li-ti 
ai ar-ti, "a foe may I not possess". 
e "not", particle of prohibition, is employed with the 2nd pers. 
sing, of the Preterite, e. g. ] fc^*- ^TT ^1} 



ADVERBS LXIII 

:jyy t^\ ^, ana mar~fi e la-af-$t, "to the sick man 
do not draw near". 
lu "verily", is sometimes placed before verbs (3rd pers. masc. Adverb of 
sing, and plur., and ist pers. sing, and plur., of the cm P hasis J 

prccativc 

Preterite) ; it was no doubt, originally employed to an( j co hor- 
emphasize the verb, but in use it has been so weak- tativc P ar - 

ticlcs. 

ened that its insertion or omission does not affect 
the sense, c. g. £j<J fHf. al-lik, and ]^[J tz]]]^ 
►J^J JtJ> ? u ' u a l-likt both mean simply "I went". When 
the verb begins with the vowel u (as in the Piel, Iftaal, 
e/e.) lu may combine with it to form a single word, 

<• g- ]} fc£H J! ^ M Hf- *" ^III» a-Ur-iu-nu 
lu-mai-U-ru (for lu uma$hru\ "their place they deserted". 

lu as a precative particle is employed with the Pre- 
terite and the Permansive to express a wish (see be- 
low, VERBS). 
/ "come!", cohortative particle, is employed with the ist pers. 
plur. of the Preterite, cgt£ S^I^^! W E^ ET> 
# ni-pu-ul $a-a$-ma, "Come! let us join battle!"; 

al-ka-nim-ma i m'-rid-ma Sir rimi an-ni-c i m'~ku-la ni~nu, 
"come! let us go down, and of the flesh of this wild 
ox let us also eat!". 

cohortative particle, is employed with the 2nd pers. 
of the Imperative, c. g t^]} *jIH ] t] V^ff 
e rid ana krtfi, "Up! go down to the wood!". 
The following adverbs are appended enclitically : — Adverbs 

ma, appended for emphasis to pronouns, nouns, verbs and ad- .. . 

verbs, e. g. t^\ til]]] Ej ^£jj ^Hf~ ^7' ai ' ta ' ma klma all >- 
''« SamaX, "thou art like the Sun-god" ; ►- ^ ^T <T*" 
Vl *"*T^> ina * atti ~ ma Si-<*-ti t "in that same year" ; ^JU^ 



7 J sing, o 



erbial 
nding /£. 



LXIV INTRODUCTION 

ma Warrant P l mdtu ffai-ti, "I gathered together the kings of 
the land of tfatti". 
nt\ appended for emphasis to verbs, especially in relative clauses, 

TI £^ ^i, mi'i-nu $a a-ma-ru-ni Sa a-$am-mu-nt ina pa-an 
Sarri beli-ia a-kab-bi, "as I shall see and hear, before the 
king my lord I will repeat". 
«, appended as an interrogative particle, e. g. ^y*»H- J» >»» ^y 
►gjEj ^V ^^T ^ uznd llpl -* a tu-pat-tu-u, "my ears 
wilt thou open (i. <?. inform me) ?" ; 4^\£ J} *~^~1 

HMTT«= ^-<T< «f * <-T* «=TTT r. «' 

a-na-ku-u mar-ti tlu Bel, "am 1 not the daughter of Bel?" 

'he ad- The adverbial ending Of (or eS) is of very common occurrence, 

e. g. y^ ^:jy^ ^, a-dan~ni$, "exceedingly" ; t^\ K J y t-Iti, "above" ; 

fc^fcJJ % foP'M* "below" ; £] A^Hf" T> **-'-**. "much". This 
adverbial termination is frequently employed for comparison, e. g. 
]} *$>- Eflf<, a-bu-bX, "like a deluge" ; ff £-££ ^TTtfct **«- 
rtf, "like a bird"; £- ►gj ^J< ^Jf, $al-la-ti-iS, "as booty"; 
^yy ^*- ^y^ ^^, da-bu-u-et, "like a hog". Such forms as 

*y <ec ^yyy^ et» «-™-^-™, "daiy, v «y< ^ni* et» &/ - 

/i-fam-ma, "yearly", <y^yj ^ ^TTT^ ar-fa'-tom, "monthly", 
^fZ *-Jl\ ^yy^, da-ri-$am f "for ever", may be explained as ad- 
verbs ending in ft, their terminations being strengthened by ma 
or m. 

Prepositions. 

'reposi- The following are the principal prepositions in Assyrian, to- 

gether with their ideograms and the forms they most commonly 
assume when written phonetically: — 

ina "in". Ideogr. ►— ; written phonetically t£ ^^Ji *~ na i rare ty 
ana "to". Ideogr. y ; written phonetically J^ *~^~y, *-na. 



ions. 



PREPOSITIONS LXV 



tlODS. 



Mm \ "from". Ideogr. f^rUI ; written phonetically ^JJ ►^J, p r4p°si- 
uliu J ii-tu ; ^:J^ *-%k:l> uI ' /u - 

itti "with". Ideogr. ^JEJ ; written phonetically £3^J ►<!<, it-ti. 

*//"on, upon". Ideogr. ^E^J ; written phonetically t^\} ► fc-£^! yj, 
e-Ii; ina or ana di, "upon, concerning, against". 

sir u on, upon, against". Ideogr. ^^^f ; written phonetically 
^EJJ Jj£, fi-tr. 

muhhi in combination with ina or ana, Ideogr. ^Cj^J ; written 
phonetically ^t^J 4^> muh-hi ; ina or ana muf}f}i, "on, 
concerning, to, against". 

adi "up to, to, together with". Ideogr. ►JJ ; written phonetically 

#<*/* "up to, to, together with". Written phonetically ^Jlf^ t^\> 
ga-du. 

arki "after, behind". Ideogr. £^JEj^[ ; written phonetically 

<mti m 

balu ^without". Written phonetically ^r\ J^JJ, ba-lu, ^fcj *&£:, 
ba-lum. 

ki "like, as" Written phonetically ^JEJ E& ^ / " 1 - 

kima "like". Ideogr. <^|7 ; written phonetically ^JEeJ ErJ, ^'-wa. 

attu "concerning, with a view to, because of". Written phone- 
tically g£= J, g|= jEj, *- J, <tf-fo, >- t=6^, flM««i. 

Jwfli "instead of". Written phonetically JEJ tC^Ty* ku-um. 

kirib "in f within". Written phonetically ^J§[ ^jf^ > "*<* ^^» /wtf 
kirbi, "in" ; j/kj &>v#, ana kirbi, "to" ; tf/« kirib, ultu kirib, 
"from, from out of". 

//Win, within". Ideogr. ^Jf; written ^JJJ ^, lib-bi ; ina libbi, 
"in" ; ana libbi, "to"; im libbi, ultu libbi, "from, from out of. 

pani "before". Ideogr. 4^ ; written phonetically ^fz Eyy", pa-ni; 
ina pan, iWu pan, lapdn, "before". 



LXVI INTRODUCTION 

Prcposi- mafiar "before". Written phonetically ^T 4^Ejz, ma-far; ina ma- 

_• * 

liar "before ; ana mahri, adi mahri, "into the presence of. 

kabal "in the midst of. Ideogr. ^<^ <« ^ ; written phonetically >—J 
►►— 1^, ka-bal ; ina kabal, "in the midst of. 

kabalti "in the midst of. Written E<2<<^ HK W^-li, ^T ^J* 
►-<!<, ka-bal-ti; ina kabalti, "in the midst of. 

bint "between". Written £^ ^JTT, bi-rit; ina bint, ina birti, "be- 
tween, within". 
ina bin "between". Written ►— ^^ *"TIZ» tna M~ n > ^E *~i 

j»a /ar// "against". Written J^ *~* J ***r ►^JJi a ~ na f<* r -fi- 
ina tarsi "opposite, into the presence of ; in the time of". Written 
►- >*^- ^^[ | , ina tar-si. 

iitu tarsi "from, since". Written ^Jf ►gJEf i^r ^ETT' iutu 
tar-si. 

put "opposite". Written phonetically ^£>- ^J, pu-ut; ina put, 
"opposite". 

Conjunctions. 

Conjunc- The following are the principal conjunctions in Assyrian: — 
u "and", the copula most frequently used in connecting both 
sentences and nouns ; written ^|»~|[^zTJ and ^. 

ma "and", the copula between two verbs, to the first of which 
it is appended enclitically ; the verb to which it is 
appended, if it is without a suffix, usually takes the 
additional vowel a (see below, p. LXXVI). 

tnuma "when", <. g. fcjf +f- £] ££ *ffl JJ fcTTT* ^TTfc 
\t- M^y %HL c-nu-ma aS-ru iu-u u-$al-ba-ru, "when that 
place shall have grown old"; t^ +^- *^f~ ^""^T 
*\j£ V"*" \> 1mfiU ilu Marduk tk-bu-u, "when Marduk com- 
manded" ; ^Z + ^flf «f <^J ^ <J{^ 
|, i-nu-um ilu Marduk id-di-na, "when Marduk gave". 



ttons. 



tnu 

inum 

inuma 



" ! 

kt to J 



tions. 



titu 
ullu 



CONJUNCTIONS LXVH 

"as, when", e. g. {^\ E£ »-j£j ^S- ^, ti-i ak-bu-u, and Conjunc- 
^JEJ fc£ y K-jfcj ^S- ^, #-/ to ak-bu-u, "as I had 

said";^^ V Tf ^T «f A S3* HI 
^JTTi #-» to «-»« //M ASSur am-ku-ru, "as I to ASSur had 

prayed"; ^tE Sfffl ^T ^ If JUPT *T 
Ej *"TTI» * 1 "' J ' >,,tt wa ™ iu " a " iu tom-ma-ri, "when thou shalt 
see that inscription". 

aki ia "as", e. g. ]} ^ tE W t£ -fcS! AHf" S=T!fc 
<*-&'-i* to i-ii-'-u, "as he wishes". 

«// "while, so long as ; till, until", c. g. ]} ^f= >-*f- <T»-ffiT 

^jej ^ry ^y ^TTT^ a ~ di Sam < u ir * Uu bam * u ~ u > "while 

heaven and earth exist" ; J^ {^Sf- ^JiJ *~^\ I^J» a 'd* 
al-la-ku, "until I go". 

"since", e. g. £r?yy ^y til ^7 ^HP- srt *-* 

ib-na-an-ni, "since he created me" ; ^tf^ ^p^f ^fTf 

^y- tyyjfc ^yy^f= ^^yy my, «/-/« «wk «-***-//- 

/«, "since I completed the palace". 

ark, H "after", , ,. £& <Jg[ ^ J| ~T| ^ J| ^gf 
^JTT, <*/--&' la a-na larri a-lu-ru, "after I became king". 

iumma "if", e. g. fc^ ET flf *T*" ^ <M!I 0[T ^ 
V?"^ IfcJ m -Ani *"E?=T I ' ^ um " ma a-me-lum ar-Ja 
i-gu-ur-ma im-fu-u/, "if a man hires a slave and he dies" ; 

«^ET -EeT sHTT <V s£TTT T? ^TT?*^ 

Sum-ma la ta-pat-ta-a ba-a-bu, "if thou dost not open the 
gate". 

attu to "because", e. g. g|= J ^ y^ V *~*f- 4^ ►Ej 
^y ^-gF %UI> a$-$u to fl-wo/ ilu AUur la is-su-ru, "be- 
cause he had not kept the command of ASSur". Some- 
times aSSu is used without to, e. g. g|= J J^ V 

fc£35 -<y< tfcflf ^y ^y ^ *jn, «"« *-»«" 

iarru-li-ia la ts-fu-ru, "because he had not kept my royal 
command"; rarely to is used by itself in the sense of 



c* 



tions. 



LXVIII INTRODUCTION 

Conjunc- "because", e. g. ^JJ >^\ t] £-£■£= ^JTT. *a la 

i§-$u-rv> "because he had not kept". 

* J V *~i IT» na ~& a ~ ra a-fra-a l u ma-ma $a~na-a> "a bitter 

foe or any other man"; ^|J E^ ^TTI Jgft ^TTT^ 

<HEQ[ *E s£ <M!I -III Ef, ** <-**'-'«-« * 

i-pa-ar-ri-ku, "who shall hinder or display force against". 
u is often combined with lu in the sense of "or", e. g. 

&/-/»* iat-ra i-pa-li-fu u lu na-nWa u-Xa-am-sa-ku, "who- 
ever blots out the record of my name or conceals my 
tablet". 

lu ... lu ... \ "either ... or . . ., whether ... or . . ." ; with 

lu...u... \ a following negative, "neither ... nor . . .", 

lu...ulu... J e.g. Jgfl< t^l HiH< £t£lM,/«-« 

mdru-Su lu-u mdrtu-Su, "either his son or his daughter" ; 

JJ^^y ^yy^ ►>- ►ET £^<> lu ' u ana ram-ni-Su 
ufdru(ru) u ina mimma U-pir limuttim(tim) abnH nard $u-a-tu 
u-fial-/a-Au, "whether he appropriates (a royal gift), or 
through any evil device destroys this monument"; y 

\JEJ ► >y~ *| >jA v>~ pp^j , enuma Sin lu-u umu 
XIV KAN i UmU „ mu XV KA ** itti ilu $am$i la innamir{ir\ 
"when the moon neither on the 14th day nor on the 
15th day has been seen with the sun". 

Verbs. 

Under the heading NOUNS it was remarked that roots in As- 
syrian consist of two, three and four consonants. These roots 



VERBS 



LXIX 



are not in themselves words but are the skeletons of words. 
Each root or skeleton contains some inherent idea which can 
be traced throughout the various words in which it is found, 
the words being formed by clothing the root with vowels and 
sometimes with additional consonants. Examples have already 
been given of the principal ways in which nouns are formed 
from roots. It will now be seen how by the addition of other 
vowels and consonants to the root the various meanings of the 
verb are obtained. The majority of verbs in Assyrian are tri- 
literal, #'. e., they have three consonants in the root. 

The Assyrian verb possesses five tenses: the Preterite, the Tenses of 
Present, the Imperative, the Participle, the Permansive and the the verb ' 
Infinitive. Past action is expressed by the Preterite, present and 
future action by the Present, while the Permansive expresses a 
state or condition. Taking as an example for conjugation the 
root K§D, which conveys the inherent idea of "conquering", the 
forms which these tenses assume in the Kal or simple stem of 
the verb will be seen from the following paradigm. 



Paradigm of the simple stem of the regular verb. 



Person 






I C. 






I C. 



Preterite - 'Pretent 



Impe- 
rative 



Participle ! Permansive 



Sing., 3 m. ikhtd 
3f. , taklud 



2 m. taklud 
2 f. taktudi 



akSud 



Plir., 3 m. ikSudu 
3 f. , ikSudd 



2 m. ' takSudu 
2 f . , iakludd 



niklud 



ikdtad 

takdtad 

i 
takdlad i kuhtd 

i 
takdtadi kuSudi 

i 
akdlad • 

I 

ikdSadu j 
ikdladd , 

takdladu ' kuhtdu 

i 
i 

takdSadd kutudd 
nikdlad ' 



kd$(i)du 



kahd 

katdat 

ka$(i)ddl(a) 

kaSddti 

ka$dak[u) 

kaidu 

kaMd 

kahidtunu 

kalddni 



Infini- 
tive 



katddu 



Paradigm 
of the Kal 
or simple 
stem of the 
regular 
verb. 



LXX INTRODUCTION 

The It will be seen that in the above paradigm the vowel u occurs 

vowels of j n t h e seC ond syllable of the Preterite and in the first and second 

the Prete- . . 

rite Pre- syllables of the Imperative, and the vowel a in the second and 

sent and third syllables of the Present. This is the case with the major- 
mpera- j tv Q f Assyrian verbs ; the rule with its exceptions may be 
stated as follows: — 

(i.) Most verbs have the vowel u in the second syllable of 
the Preterite and in the first and second syllables of the 
Imperative, and the vowel a in the second and third 
syllables of the Present, e. g. Xapdru, "to send", Pret. ttpur, 
Imper. Supur, Pres. ttapar; a few verbs however, with u 
in the second syllable of the Pret., have / or u in the 
third syllable of the Pres , e. g. labdru, "to grow old", 
Pret. ilbur, Pres. ifabir; ba/d/u, "to live", Pret. iblut, Pres. 
tbalut. 
(2.) Some verbs have the vowel * in the second syllable of 
the Preterite, in the first and second syllables of the 
Imperative, and in the third syllable of the Present, e. g. 
pakddu, "to care for, inspect, entrust", Pret. ipkid y Imper. 
ftikid, Pres. ipakid. 
(3.) A few verbs have a in the second syllable of the Pre- 
terite, in the first and second syllables of the Imperative 
and in the second and third syllables of the Present, e. g. 
$abdtu, "to seize", Pret. isbat, Imper. sabot, Pres. isabat. 
Inflection In the above paradigm it will also be observed that the person 

to express j s ex p ressec | by certain additions which are either prefixed or af- 
the person. 

fixed to the stem ; in the Preterite and Present they are prefixed, in 

the Permansive they are affixed. These additions are significant 

parts of the personal pronoun; thus the syllable ta is prefixed 

in the second person singular and plural of the Present and 

Preterite and the syllables ta y ti and tunu are affixed in the 

Permansive; the syllable a is prefixed in the first person singular 

of the Preterite and Present and the syllable ku is affixed in the 



VERBS LXXI 

first person singular of the Permansive; and the syllable ni is 
prefixed in the first person plural of the Present and Preterite 
and is affixed in the first person plural of the Permansive. It 
may further be noted that the second person feminine singular 
of the Preterite, Present and Imperative ends in *; that the 
third person masculine plural of the Preterite, Present and Per- 
mansive and the second person masculine plural of the Pre- 
terite, Present and Imperative end in u; and that the third 
person feminine plural of the Preterite, Present and Permansive 
and the second person feminine plural of the Preterite, Present 
and Imperative end in a. In the paradigm syllables which are 
sometimes added or omitted are placed within parentheses. An 
accent is placed on the second syllable of the Present to indi- 
cate that in pronunciation the tone falls upon this syllable; in 
writing, the accenting of this syllable is frequently indicated by 
the doubling of the following radical, c. g. ikdtad is written 
ikattad. Sometimes the syllable ni and, more rarely, the syllable 
nu are affixed to the third masculine plural of the Preterite and 
Present, while the syllable ni is sometimes affixed to the third 
masculine plural of the Permansive and to the third feminine 
plural of the Preterite and Present. The fern, singular of the 
Participle and its masc. and fern, plural are similar to those of 
the adjective (see above pp. LV1 ff.). 

The verb possesses ten principal stems or voices to which the Stems of 

r 11 • • j the verb, 

following names are assigned: — 

. Kal Ifteal Iftaneal 

Piel Iftaal 

Shafel Ishtafal 

Nifal Ittafal Ittanafal 

The names of the stems have been adopted from those given 

to the verb in other Semitic languages. Thus the simple stem 

is termed Kal from the Hebrew adjective kal (b[?) "light", a 

term which the Jewish grammarians applied to the simple stem 



LXXII INTRODUCTION 

in Hebrew to distinguish it from the stems weighted with for- 
mative additions, which they termed "heavy"; the other nine 
stems take their names from the paradigm of the verb "to do", 
in Arabic fctala (J-ii), in Hebrew paal (Sj?B). 
Significa- The signification and formation of the stems of the verb may 

non and ^ e b r j e fl v described as follows. It should be noted, however, 

formation 

of the th&t while the significations here indicated hold good as a 

stems. general rule, the stems of a verb have sometimes acquired a 
special meaning ; thus lamddu, "to learn", in the Piel signifies 
"to teach"; abatu, "to destroy", in the Nifal signifies "to fly, to 
escape"; naplusu, the Nifal of the verb [pa/dsu] which does not 
occur in the Kal, has not a passive meaning but signifies "to 
look upon, to behold". The significations of the stems, how- 
ever, given below, cover the majority of verbs as the student 
may see for himself by reference to the Vocabulary at the end 
of the book. 

The Kal is the simple form of the verb. Its formation has 
been alreadv described. 

The Piel has an intensive signification and is formed by 
doubling the middle consonant of the root. 

The Shafel has a causative signification and is formed by 
prefixing the consonant S. 

The Nifal has a passive signification and is formed by pre- 
fixing the consonant /i. 

From these four stems are formed four more by the insertion 
of a // they are 

The Ifteal, which generally is not to be distinguished in mean- 
ing from the Kal. 

The Iftaal, which sometimes has the same meaning as the 
Piel, and sometimes serves as its passive. 

The Ishtafal, which sometimes has the same meaning as the 
Shafel and sometimes serves as its passive. 



VERBS LXXIII 

The Ittafal (i. e. Intafat) which like the Nifal has a passive 
signification. 

Bv the further insertion of an n in the Ifteal and Ittafal are 
formed two more stems which are 

The Iftaneal, which has an active signification. 

The Ittanafal (/. e. Intanafal\ which has sometimes a passive, 
sometimes an active signification. 

From the Iftaal and Ishtafal were also formed an Iftanaal 
and an Ishtanafal but these forms are of rare occurrence and 
may here be disregarded. 1 The Ittafal and Ittanafal stand re- 
spectively for Intafal and Intanafal; n however, when immedia- 
tely followed by a consonant, is frequently assimilated, and the 
assimilation of the n to the following / takes place throughout 
these two stems of the verb (see the rule stated above, p. LXVI). 

The following is the scheme of the regular verb. The verb Scheme of 

the Rcgu- 

kaiddu is selected as a convenient model for displaying the forms la y crb 
which the stems of the verb assume. It should be noted however 
that all these forms do not occur in the inscriptions in the case 
of any one verb. In the Preterite, Present, and Permansive the 
3rd pers. masc. sing, is given, in the Imperative the 2nd pers. 
masc. sing. The tenses are inflected in the other stems as in the 
Kal, the initial u in the Pret. and Pres. of the Piel, Shafel, If- 
taal and Ishtafal being retained in those tenses. 

!. In most Assyrian grammars and dictionaries the stems of the verb, for 
the sake of brevity, are cited by means of Roman and Arabic numerals. The 
Kal, the Piel, the Shafel and the Nifal are cited as Ii, II 1, Mi, and IV,, re- 
spectively; the Ifteal, the Iftaal, the Ishtafal and the Ittafal as \ 2 , II?, HI 2 and 
IV 2 respectively ; the Iftaneal, the Iftanaal, the Ishtanafal and the Ittanafal as 
1 3, II 3, III3 and IV J respectively; while the symbols employed for the Piel- 
Shafel and the Piel-Ishtafal (see below) are III Hi and IIIH 2 respectively. This 
system of abbreviation has the advantage of indicating the relations of the 
stems to one another but for the sake of simplicity it has not been adopted 
here or in the Vocabulary at the end of the book/ 



LXXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



O y^ ^ Scheme of the Regular Verb. 



Stem 


Preterite 


Present 


Im- 
perative 


Participle 


Permansive 


Infinitive 


hi 

• 

Piel 

Sfcafel 
Nifal 


ikXud 
( ukaHid 
\ ukttid 
uiakSid 
uUkSid 
ikkaHd 


ikdSad 
ukaHad 

UtakSad 
ikkdtad 


ku$ud 
IkuXtid 
\kaWd 

XukSid 

nakhd 


ka$(i)du 
mukaUidu 

mtrtakhdu 
mukka$(f)du 


katid 
kuUud 

XukXud 
nakSud 


kaiddu 

kuttudu 

• 

iukiudu 
| nakiudu 
\ nakdiudu 


Meal 

Iftaa! 

Isktafal 
HUfil 


| ikidfad 
\ iktihd 
( uktaUid 
\ uktihd 
i ultakHd 
\ uiUkhd 
ittaklad 


iktdSad 

uk/aXXad 

uUakfad 
[tt/akfad] 


[kitUd 
\kitdUd 

lutaklid 


muktal(f)du 

muktaUidu 

muStakhdu 
muttakUdu 


kittud 
ki/dSud 

[kulattud] 
hitakiud 


i kittudu 
\ kitdiudu 

kutaHudu 

iutakludu 

> 

htakiudu 
itakfudu 


Iftaieal 
Ittaiafal 


iktandiad 
ittanak&ad 


ik/andiad 
ittanakSad 




i 

i 

i 

i 
i 







The Piel- 
Shafel and 
the Piel- 
Ishtafal. 



The Per- 
mansive. 



In addition to the ten principal stems of the verb which 
have already been described two others are met with consisting 
of a Shafel and an Ishtafal formed from the Piel, /'. e. the Piel- 
Shafel and the Piel-Ishtafal. These stems are not of common 
occurrence, and the following examples will suffice : £S5T ^TI^ 
^TTEJ, ut-nam-mir, "1 made bright", i s. Pret., Piel-Shafel from 
namaru; J^5J ^tlff ^f- HfTL ut'ta-bar-ri> "he is surfeited", 
3 m. s. Pres., Piel-Ishtafal from baru. 

The Permansive expresses a state or condition that already 
exists whether in the present or the past. In the Kal the Per- 
mansive may have a transitive, an intransitive, or a passive 



VERBS LXXV 



signification, e.g. $z £?\J] y pa-kid, "he inspects"; ^J J^f *T\]t, 

na-!u-u, "they carry" ; ►£{ At£B /a "^ " he is old " ; W <H 
fo-//'m, "he is safe" ; ^f ^J]] fc^J, fab-fa-al, "it (f.) was cap- 
tured"; ^JJJ ^J JEJ, kal-ma-ku, "I am overwhelmed"; 
*|^yy ►JhJ 15^-, fa-ak-nu, "they are placed". • In the Piel, Shafel, 
and Nifal the Permansive has a passive signification, e. g. 
*^~ ^V^T Jpj >4^, nu - uk -ku- mu, "they were heaped up" ; 
T *^T ^HI ►>^T> * a ^ Um ^u-du, "who has been brought down" ; 
*~Hf tJ<J ^VU' na-al-bu-U-ku, "I am clothed". 

The Precative, the tense for expressing a wish, is formed by Thc Prc - 

cutivc. 

means of the particle lu in combination with the Preterite or 
the Permansive. The particle lu always precedes the verb, and, 
when the first syllable of the Preterite begins with a vowel, lu 
unites with it and they form a single word. Thus the u of lu 
(1) uniting with the first vowel of the 1st person sing., gene- 
rally becomes u, e. g. lu unites with ak§ud to form luktud, "may 
I conquer"; (2) uniting with the first vowel of the 3rd pers. 
sing., it generally becomes 1, e. g. lu unites with ikSud to form 
h'khid, "may he conquer", with usahfa'r it unites to form lifafrfa'r, 
"may he lessen"; (3) uniting with the first vowel of the 3rd 
pers. plur., it becomes u or /, e. g. lu unites with ikludu to 
form liktudu, "may they conquer", with upafliru it unites to form 
Upafliru, "may they release", with utabbiru it unites to form luSab- 
biru y "may they break in pieces". 

It has been already remarked that the accenting of the second Effect of 
syllable of the Pres. Kal frequently gives rise to the doubling of accenU 
the second radical, e. g. tkdfad is written ikaUad. In the scheme of 
the Regular Verb syllables that are similarly accented in pronuncia- 
tion (e. g. the syllable ta in the Ifteal and the syllable na in the If- 
taneal) are also marked with an accent; in these verbal forms, as 
in the Present, the second radical is often doubled, e. g. ►JJ^ ►^r 
E^TJ V^> ik-tar-ra-bu. "they blessed", 3 m. pi. Pret. Ifteal from 



LXXVI INTRODUCTION 



tardbu; A^fflf t^TTT ^Mf ^T fcHTTf ib-ta-nab-ba-ta, "he 
plundered", 3 m. s. Pret. Iftaneal from habdtu. 

Additional In the Preterite, Present, and Permansive all forms ending 

final 

in a consonant may take in addition one of the three short 
vowels. J 

vowels u, i, or a. 'In a principal clause a final a is of most 
frequent occurrence, e. g. ►JJ^ ^EJ ^|J, ik-$u-da, "he con- 
quered", 3 m. s. Pret. Kal from katddu ; gj= J^JJ ►^J, aX-fu-la, 
"I carried off", i s. Pret. Kal from Salalu ; ^Jc= ^ }}(, lip- 
$a-/ra t "let him be appeased", 3 m. s. Prec. Kal from patdhu. 
The vowel a is also generally added to the first of two verbs 
which are joined by the copula ma, e. g. ^*|| ^^ £^^ ^T 
if] ►*^ : | t^"TTT> i$-pur-am-ma is-ba-/a, "he sent and grasped", 3 
m. s. Pret. Kal from lapdru. In relative clauses a final vowel 
(generally u) is almost invariably added to the verb, e. g. ^ 
tj *">^! ^J> te is-ba-lu, "who (3 m. s.) had grasped", 3 m. s. 
Pret. Kal. from sabd/u; ^ gj= JEJ >jA, Sa aS-ku-nu, "which I 

had set up", i s. Pret. Kal from Xakdnu; ^ ]} ^£>E< ►t^J *TTT, 
Xa a-zak-ka-ru, "which I speak", i s. Pres. Kal from zakdru ; 

*g=yy 4^Z ^>- J^f, A* M-6u-!u, "who is clothed", 3 m. s. 
Perm. Ifteal from /abdSu. Verbs in subordinate sentences (except 
conditional clauses) also take a final vowel, generally //; see 
the examples to the conjunctions, pp. LXVI ff. 

Agreement As a rule the verb agrees with its subject in number and 

o ver an g enc | er# Th e 3 r d masc. sing., however, is often used loosely 

for the 3rd fern, sing., e. g. ^^^] tjflt: ^T\ ^W W 



yy ^y a» » yyy * ,iu ntar *-*«-«*-^ #-*«« (3 m. s.), "the 

goddess iStar inclined her ear". 

Some little practice is required before the student will re- 
cognise with ease, in the syllabic writing of the Assyrians, the 
various forms of the verb which have hitherto been given in 
transliteration only. In order to familiarize him with verbs as 
they were written by the Assyrians, a number of parsed examples 



VERBS LXXVII 

are here given in cuneiform ; these will be found to illustrate 
the paradigms and rules already given. 

^*|J »~y^^» » jyy , i$-kun, "he set" : 3 m. s. Pret. Kal. from Sakdnu. Examples 

^Hfy ^yyy> #-#^» "he has entrusted": 3 m. s. Pret. Kal. fr. pakddu. h f orms 

tU fc=TTT<» ip'foh "he was afraid": 3 m. s. Pret. Kal. fr. paldhu. of thc Re- 
gular Verb. 
, tak-tum y "thou hast covered": 2 m. s. Pret. Kal 





fr. katamu. 
^V y JE y >/- % tal-ku-nu, "thou didst set": 2 m. s. Pret. Kal fr. 
Sakdnu. 

E^ Hf A» » yy y, «*-*»», "I set" : i s. Pret. Kal fr. Sakdnu. 

►ffi ^iy^> ak-ribi "I drew near": i s. Pret. Kal fr. kardbu. 

£^yy ^S- ^JTT, tf-/«-r«, "they sent" : 3 m. pi. Pret. Kal fr. Sapdru. 

►yj^ ^- J:J, ik-nu-Su, "they submitted": 3 m. pi. Pret. Kal fr. 

kandSu. 
*J\jt JeJ ^[T, **-*«-</*, "they (f.) conquered": 3 f. pi. Pret. Kal 

fr. kaSddu. 
-£|=yy £JJ JgQf *J, /«&-/«-«/, "let him live": 3 m. s. Prec. 

Kal fr. baldtu. 

• • 

^Ty ^5y EV' lu ' uS 'P ur ^ "let me send": i s. Prec. Kal fr. Sapdru. 
y JEy >j^-, /if-ku-nu, "let them set": 3 m. pi. Prec. Kal fr. Sakdnu. 

fc:^ *~^y ^yy^ H£?f» i-na-ga-ag, "he bellows": 3 m. s. Pres. Kal 

fr. nagdgu. 
£:£ *~^y ^Ey *"TTI> ^ na " a H a h "he gazes": 3 m. s. Pres. Kal fr. 

natdlu. 
t^: ^£*E^ ^yy^» i-zak-kar. "he speaks" : 3 m. s. Pres. Kal fr. zakdru. 

t^ yy ^nr *~i *3^~> i-za-an-na-nu, "he sends rain": 3 m. s. Pres. 
Kal fr. zandnu. 

m 

yyy ^P »rr, fa-pa/'far, "thou dost release" : 2 m. s. Pres. Kal 
fr. pa/dru. 

yyy ^ ►^y *"<y^> ia~$a-ba-tt\ "thou dost grasp" : 2 f. s. Pres. 
Kal fr. fabd/u. 



LXXVIII INTRODUCTION 



Examples J^ ►^^ ^ fc ^tJRF , a-mak-fa-a?, "I will smite": i s. Pres. Kal 
illustrating f , _ 

the forms fr " ""^ 





of the Re- t£ *~'"| C^J £tT| »"ET» i-na-at-ta-la, "they (f.) gaze": 3 f. pi. 
gularVerb. p res ^ fr ^^ 

^J ^J, ku-$u-ud, "conquer": 2 m. s. Imp. Kal fr. kaSddu. 
iy ^S- E ^V4T t tu~bu-uk, "pour out": 2 m. s. Imp. Kal fr. tabdku. 
►yy^ ^yy, gi-mil, "spare": 2 m. s. Imp. Kal fr. gamdlu. 
^f ►-<, fa-bat, "grasp": 2 m. s. Imp. Kal fr. fabdtu. 
^yyy ^T*- 15^-, sa-pi-nu, "overcoming" : m. s. Part. Kal fr. sapdnu. 

^p ►yyj Jyyy ^Ef* pa-ri-sa-at, "who (f.) decrees" : constr. st. f. 
s. Part. Kal fr. pardsu. 

^\ At^B la ' bir > 4<it is old " : 3 m - s - Perm - £ al fr « lab *ru. 
^y ^z, tarn-bat, "she is holding" : 3 f. s. Perm. Kal fr. tamahu. 

11^ +— 11^ y^ ►►yyy, lia-a$-$a-a-ta, "thou desirest" : 2 m. s. Perm. 

Kal fr. ftaiaftu. 
W t^A fc»^yy J^y, §a-am-da-ku, "I am yoked" : 1 s. Perm. Kal 

fr. famadu. 

, rab-$u, "they crouch" : 3 m. pi. Perm. Kal fr. rabasu. 

^yy][ J=y, /<*£-.?*, "they are clothed": 3 m. pi. Perm. Kal fr. labaXu. 

£-JJJ ^y, kat-ma, "they (f., 1. <\ lips) are pressed together": 3 f. 

pi. Perm. Kal fr. katdmu. 
^y^ £" <^<<<~, 11-rak-kis, "I made fast": 1 s. Pret. Piel fr. rotfrfr. 

^TTT fc W A^ffl^W* u-sa-afi-hir, "I lessened": 1 s. Pret. 

Piel fr. $ehiru. 
^yyy^: ►*- JJ^J, u-bal-lik, "I destroyed" : 1 s. Pret. Piel fr. baldku. 

X^^E ►V^J ^ <y^ £^1$, u-na-at-li-ku, "they kissed": 3 m. pi. 
Pret. Piel fr. naldku. 

►£^=yy }} &> > yyy ^ Jw, ^^-^ " let him lessen": 3 m. 
s. Prec. Piel fr. $efreru. 

£- \^yy, tu-lal-lam, "thou causest to prosper": 2 m. s. 
Pres. Piel fr. Saldmu. 






VERBS LXXIX 

£■]]]& ^< t^^ ^J ^TT^y. u-ha-am-ma-iu, "they light up" : 3 m. Examples 
pi. Pres. Piel fr. tomato. t^tZt 

fe| 4^Z, bul-lit, "give life to" : 2 m. s. Imp. Piel fr. baldtu. of the Re- 

¥¥¥ ^T T gularVerb. 

^►yyi^ ►^tj, muS-tir, "abandon": 2 m. s. Imp. Piel fr. [maSdrti], 

^- £^yyy E]JT£y, nu-um-mir, "make bright": 2 m. s. Imp. Piel 
fr. namaru. 

^ ^TTI ^E^=TT ^> mu-dal-li-bu, "afflicting": m. s. Part. Piel 
fr. dalabu. 

%ErTT A*HRPF HTC ^ffl' su-uA-/tu-ru, "it is turned": 3 m. s. 
Perm. Piel fr. saharu. 

tz\]]tz "gSyy fc?V§_ ^< S5SiJ> »-*«-**-*'-#. "he caused to take": 

3 m. s. Pret. Shafel fr. sabdtu. 
^yyy^: ^yy^ ^yyy, u-Sam-kit, "I caused to fall", 1. f. "I overthrew": 

1 s. Pret. Shafel fr. makdtu. 

^jy I ^ V" ^yi^ Sff~ ^y» Um t e "t&" ntm * u > "they caused to submit" : 

3 m. pi. Pret. Shafel fr. kandSu. 
^^P ^yy, *«*-///, "make ready": 2 m. s. Imp. Shafel fr. [ka/d/u], 

JeT ^y V^ EOfi 3*-u!-pu-/u, "to abase" : Inf. Shafel fr. Sapd/u. 

UJ ►^ ^<y^ ^yj^» ib-ba-ti-ik, "he was destroyed": 3 m. s. Pret. 
Nifal fr. baidku. 

7 V HIIi HSSa-kin, "let it be set": 3 m. s. Prec. Nifal fr. Sakdnu. 

^Jt^ S^ ^yyyj, Up-pa-tir, "let it be torn away": 3 m. s. Prec. 
Nifal fr. pa/dm. 

£.] }} ►<, ts-sa-bat, "he is held fast" : 3 m. s. Pres. Nifal fr. sabdtu. 

yyy t^E> aX-ta-kan, "I accomplished": 1 s. Pret. Ifteal fr. 
Sakdnu. 

yy VT £< Ew, il-te-bi-ir, "he broke": 3 m. s. Pret. Ifteal fr. 
Sabdru. 

£JJ HHTI ^ET ^L ip-M-la-fa "they feared": 3 m. pi. Pret. 
Ifteal fr. paldhu. 

*~TTT £r£r} JgJ, *//-**-/*, "they are equal": 3 m. pi. Perm. If- 
teal fr. Sakdiu. 




LXXX INTRODUCTION 

Examples t"£p ►^r ^JIJ E^ff* up-tar-ri-ra> "it was broken": 3 m. s. Pret. 
illustrating Iftaal fr r pardru \ 

the forms ^ . _ . v 

of the Re- E^ V^T *| \££ ►], uk- tarn- mi-is, "I was bowed down" : i s. Pret. 

gularVerb. If taa l fr. kamdsu. 

JVJ *J J**- E^yy, lik-tam-me-ra, "let it be made plentiful": 3 m. 

s. Prec. Iftaal fr. [kamdru], 
^y ^r ^JEJ ►*£{, u$-tar-ki-ba, "he slung on" (lit. "caused to 

ride"): 3 m. s. Pret. Ishtafal fr. rakabu. 
£yy*y fc=S^ HfTI ►^y* u^-tak-ri-ba, "he brought near" : 3 m. s. 

Pret. Ishtafal fr. kardbu. 
£f^y t^yyy E ^V^T £l< ^^y» ul-ta-as-bi-tu, "they caused to take" : 

3 m. pi. Pret. Ishtafal fr. sabdtu. 

VHRRK ^^ ^££ H!§f» tnuS-tak-mi-tu, "flaming": m. s. Part. 
Ishtafal fr. hamatu. 

VHff^ £*^ ^^yy ^Ej ^Ey, muS-tak-li-la-at, "who (f.) ful- 
fils": constr. st. f. s. Part. Ishtafal fr. [kaid/u], 

£5g^y fc^yyy ^Ef Hfl» it-ta-at-bak, "it was poured out": 3 m. s. 
Pret. Ittafal fr. tabdku. 
yy ►►yyy t^t^f S^ E*^yy» X-ta-nap-pa-ra, "he sent": 3 m. s. 
Pret. Iftaneal fr. iapdru. 

yy f^yyy ^^y *"^IHf *~HF~» ^'^ a " na '^ a " an y "h e makes": 3 m. 
s. Pres. Iftaneal fr. Sakdnu. 

^ET f^yyy *~*7 ^SE A|?r> at-ta-na-as-har, "I turn": i s. Pres. 
Ittanafal fr. sahdru. 

We have hitherto considered those verbs which contain three 
strong radicals, i. *. verbs in which the three consonants that com- 
pose the root appear in every verbal form. When the beginner 
with the help of the explanations appended has mastered the 
two paradigms on pp. LXIX and LXXIV and has worked through 
the list of examples just given he will be in a position to parse 
correctly a majority of the verbs he will meet with in the texts 
transliterated and translated in the reading book. It would be 
well for him therefore not to trouble himself at first with the 



VERBS LXXXI 

"weak verbs" *'. e. verbs in which certain consonants of the root 
undergo phonetic changes, or in which one or more letters of Weak 
the root are represented by vowels in Assyrian though by con- vcrbs - 
sonants in other Semitic languages. When he has thoroughly 
familiarized himself with the forms of the strong verb he will 
find little difficulty in recognizing the same forms in the various 
classes of weak verbs. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the weak verbs it 
will be necessary to explain, as briefly as possible, the terms 
which are usually employed for their classification. For the sake 
of brevity, when reference is made to "the first letter of the Explana- 
root", "the middle letter of the root" and "the third letter of 

terms. 

the root", the feminines of the Latin adjectives primus "first", 
medius "middle", and tertius "third" are employed, the feminine 
substantive littera "letter" being in each case understood. For 
example, the first letter of the root of the verb nadanu "to give" 
is N (Hebrew i); instead of describing this as "a verb the first 
radical of which is N", it may be more shortly described as a 
verb "primae 3". In the verb ialdlu "to plunder" the consonant 
L occurs as the third as well as the middle letter of the root; 
it may thus be briefly described as a verb "mediae geminatae\ i. e. 
a verb with the middle letter of its root doubled, from the 
Latin geminatus "doubled". 

In many words only two consonants appear in the root in 
Assyrian although in other Semitic languages the same roots 
contain three consonants. This arises from the fact that certain 
consonantal sounds, for which characters exist in other Semitic 
languages, were not represented in the Assyrian syllabary. It 
has already been explained (see above, p. XXVII f.) that the 
Assyrians had no signs for distinguishing the seven sounds 
represented by the Hebrew consonants K, if, H (Arabic e), 
J? (Arabic £ and £), 1 and "»; and a number of examples were 
given in Hebrew and Arabic of roots containing these consonants 



LXXXII INTRODUCTION 

Impor- which in Assyrian were simply represented by vowels. Although 
tance of these consonants do not occur in Assyrian their original existence 

classifying 

weak in many roots has left its traces on the vowels; for these will 

verbs. be found to vary to some extent according to the consonants 
which the root originally contained. Moreover, as Assyrian is the 
least known of the principal Semitic languages, a great deal of 
our knowledge of the meanings of its roots has been obtained 
by comparing them with the corresponding roots in other 
Semitic languages. For these two reasons it will be obvious that 
although Assyrian did not distinguish the seven consonantal 
sounds referred to above, some system for distinguishing roots 
which originally contained them would be of service for purposes 
of comparison. To meet this end the following system has been 
invented on the Continent and is now generally adopted in 
books published there. For the convenience of the student who 
will need to consult fuller works on Assyrian, a brief description 
of it is here appended. 

The Hebrew letter K, which as a consonant simply marks the 
System of breathing, is taken as a general symbol for the seven consonantal 
classifica- sounds ^ ^ n ^ p ^ p ^ 1 and •> ; and these are distin- 

uon. 

guished from one another by a small index figure placed beneath 
the 8. Thus K is cited as K xl n as K 2 , n (c) as K 3 , J? (fc) as K 4 , J? (fc) 
as K 5 , 1 as K 6 , and * as K 7 . The verb akdlu "to eat" (Hebr. Sj$) 
is thus referred to as a verb "primae Kj" ; alaku "to go" (Hebr. 
■jpn) is referred to as a verb "primae K 2 "; edeiu "to be new" 
(Hebr. #1£I) is referred to as a verb "primae K 3 " ; eb'eru "to cross" 
(Hebr. "OJ, Arab. '£*) is referred to as a verb "primae K 4 "; erebu 
"to enter" (Hebr. 3TJJ, Arab. CJ£) is referred to as a verb u pri- 
mae$ s "; aladu "to bear" (Hebr. T?J, i. e. ^fy\) is referred to as 
a verb "primae K 6 "; and eniku "to suck" (Hebr. pj*) is referred 
to as a verb "primae K 7 ". Similarly verbs containing these con- 
sonants as their middle radicals may be referred to as verbs 
"mediae K x ", "mediae K 2 ", etc., and verbs in which the third letter 



VERBS LXXXIII 

of the root is "weak" may be referred to as verbs "tertiae in- 
jirmae . 

Of the weak verbs cited below the first two classes, i. e. verbs 
mediae geminatae and verbs primae 3, contain in the root three con- 
sonants, certain of which undergo phonetic changes ; the re- 
maining classes contain examples of verbs in the roots of which 
the Semitic consonants occur which have been referred to in 
the preceding paragraph: — 

I. Verbs mediae geminatae (verbs in which the second and Examples 
third letters of the root are the same) are in the main w 

verbs. 

conjugated like the regular verb. In a few verbal forms 
a contraction of the second and third letters of the root 
takes place, e. g. ialdlu (root SW) "to plunder", 3. m. s., 
Perm. Kal lal (for folil). 

II. Verbs primae 3 (verbs in which the first letter of the root 
is n) are in the main conjugated like the regular verb. 
In accordance with the rule stated on p. LXVI, the n, 
when immediately followed by a consonant, is frequently 
assimilated ; in the Imper. Kal the n disappears, e. g. na- 
§aru (rt. "1X3) "to protect", Kal Pret. i§$ur (for in§ur\ Im- 
per. u$ur. 

III. Of verbs primae K x (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is K), the following are examples: akalu (rt. Sd^) 
"to eat", Kal Pret. Jkul, Pres. ikkal, Imper. akui, Part, akil, 
Ifteal Pret. itakal\ ahazu (rt. )m T ) "to hold", Kal Pret. 
ihuz, Pres. ifiiaz, Piel Pret. u'afrbiz, u^iz, Pres. uhfraz, Shafel 
Pret. uXd&iz, Pres. uSafraz; amaru (rt. "IE**!) "to see", Kal 
Pret. emur, imur, Pres. immar, Imper. amur, Nifal Pret. inna- 
mir 9 Inf. ndmuru. 

IV. Of verbs primae K 2 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is H) the only one of frequent occurrence is alaku 

(rt. -f?K 2 ) "to go", Kal Pret. illik, Pres. Mak, Ifteal Pret. 

f* 



LXXXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



Examples 
of weak 
verbs. 



and Pres. ittalak, Iftaneal Pret. and Pres. ittanalak, Shafel 
Pret. uiahk. 

V. Verbs primae K 3 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is n, i. e. c) are °f rare occurrence; the follow- 
ing are examples: ediXu (rt. #TK 3 ) "to be new", Kal Pret. 
edi$, Piel Pret. uddrt, Part, muddif, Inf. udduhi ; ataiu (rt. 
#t#K 3 ) "to be sorrowful", Kal Pret. ihi$, Piel Perm. uXhiS. 

VI. Of verbs primae K 4 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is J?, i. e. £) the following are examples: eberu (rt. *OK 4 ) 
"to pass over", Kal Pret. ebir, ibir, Pres. ibbir, Imper. ebir, If- 
teal Pret. etebir, Shafel Pret. uSebir, Pres. uiibar ; ezebu (rt. 
2tK 4 ) "to leave", Kal Pret. ezib, Jzib, Pres. izzib, Shafel 
Pret. uiezib, Imper. Xuzib, Sezib, Inf. Jfuzubu ; emidu (rt. *1DK 4 ) 
"to stand", Kal Pret. emid, Ifteal Pret. /fc/w/tf, Piel Pret. urn- 
mid, Nifal Pret. innimid. 

VII. Of verbs primae K 3 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is J?, /. e. £) that of most frequent occurrence is erebu 
(rt. yiN 3 ) "to enter", Kal Pret. erub, irub, Pres. irrub, If- 
teal Pret. iterub, Shafel Pret. uferib, Imper. Xurib, Ishtafal 
Pret. uMerib. 

VIII. Of verbs primae K 6 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is 1) the following are examples: aXabu (rt. Dt#8 6 ) 
"to dwell", Kal Pret. u!ib, Pres. uttab, Ifteal Pret. ittutib, 
ittdtib, Pres. ittaXab, Shafel Pret. u&hb, Ishtafal Pret. uS/eh'b ; 
aradu (rt. *1"1K 6 ) "to go down", Kal Pret. urid, Pres. urrad, 
Imper. rid, Shafel Pret. u&rid, Perm. Surud ; abdlu (rt. ^DK 6 ) 
"to bring", Kal Pret. ubil, ubla, Pres. ubbal, Imper. bil, If- 
teal Pret. ittubil, Shafel Pret. utebil, uUbil, Imper. Subil, 
Ishtafal Pret. uMabil, ultebil, usibil 

IX. Of verbs primae K 7 (verbs in which the first letter of the 
root is i) the following is of frequent occurrence: [eJfe'ru] 
(rt. 1»K 7 ) "to be straight, right", Sal Pret. Mr, Shafel 



VERBS LXXXV 

Pret. u&tir, Imper. Jfofe'r, Perm. SuXur, Ishtafal Pret. uUehr, Examples 

Inf. SuteSuru. of wcak 

verbs. 
X. Of verbs mediae Kj (verbs in which the middle letter of 

the root is K) the following are examples : ma'adu, madu 
(rt. TKj &) "to be many", Kal Pret. t'm'id, imid, Pres. ima'id; 
ia'dlu (rt. bn t V>) "ask", Pret. tTal, Imper. Sa'al, Ifteal Pret. 
iSta'al, Piel Pres. uSa'aL 
XL Verbs mediae K 2 (verbs in which the middle letter of the 
root is H) are of rare occurrence and may here be dis- 
regarded. 
XII. Of verbs mediae K 3 (verbs in which the middle letter of 
the root is fl, t. e. e) that of most frequent occurrence is 
rdmu (rt. DK 3 *l) "to love", Kal Pret. irdm, irfm, Pres. irdm, 
Imper. rim, Part, rd'imu. 

XIII. Of verbs mediae K 4 (verbs in which the middle letter of 
the root is J?, /'. e. £) the following are examples : belu 
(rt. b* 4 5) "to rule", Kal Pret. ibel, ipil; [reto] (rt. #K 4 n) 
"to rejoice", Pret. irei, iri$, Ifteal Pret. irfiX. 

XIV. Verbs mediae K A (verbs in which the middle letter of the 
root is JJ, i. e. £) are of rare occurrence and may here be 
disregarded. 

XV. Of verbs mediae K 6 (verbs in which the middle letter of 
the root is 1) the following are examples : kdnu (rt. }K 6 3) 
"to stand", Kal Pret. ikun, Pres. ikdn, Imper. kun, Perm. 
kdn, ken, Piel Pret. ukin, Pres. ukdn, Imper. ken, Perm, kun, 
Inf. kunnu, Iftaal Pret. uktin; tdru (rt. 1K 6 n) "to turn", Kal 
Pret. itur, Imper. tur, Piel Pret. ufir, Imper. fir, Part, mutiru, 
Inf. turru, Iftaal Pret. utfir; ddku (rt. "JK^) "to slay", Kal 
Pret. iduk, Pres. iddk, Imper. duk, Perm, dik, Ifteal Pret. 
idduk (for idtiik). 
XVI. Of verbs mediae K 7 (verbs in which the middle letter of 
the root is n ) the following are examples : tabu (rt. SK 7 tO) 
"to be good", I£al Pret. itib, Pres. itdb, itibbi, itib, Perm. 



LXXXVI INTRODUCTION 

Examples tab, Piel Pret. utib, Part, mutibu, Inf. fubbu ; danu (rt. |K 7 *7) 

of weak « to judge", Kal Pret. idin, Pres. ttfSii, tffmia, Imper. din. 

verbs. 

XVII. Verbs tertiae infirmae (verbs in which the third letter of the 

root is weak) are of frequent occurrence. Of verbs tertiae K x 
(verbs in which the third letter of the root is K) the 
following are examples : hatu (rt. KjtOPl) "to sin", Kal 
Pret. ifiti, Pres. ijiatti; malu (rt. K^fi) "to fill, to be full", 
Kal Pret. fmti, Ifteal Pret. imtaii, Piel Pret. umaUu Verbs 
tertiae K 2 are of rare occurrence and may here be dis- 
regarded. Of verbs tertiae K 3 (verbs in which the third 
letter of the root is PI) the following are examples : pitu 
(rt. K 3 nB) "to open", Kal Pret. ipti, ipta, Pres. ipatti, ipeti, 
tpitti, Imper. piti t pita, Part, petu; laku, liku (rt. K 3 p^) "to 
take", KLal Pret. ilki, ilka ; Pres. ilekki, ilikki, Imper. tiki, 
Ifteal Pret. ilteki. Of verbs tertiae K 4 the following are 
examples : iemu (rt. K 4 &ttf) "to hear", Kal Pret. iXmi, Pres. 
fiimi, rtimmi, Imper. $imi\ Ubu (rt. K 4 St&) "to be satisfied 
with", Kal Pret. iibi. Many verbs tertiae infirmae might, by 
comparison with the corresponding roots in Arabic, be 
classified as verbs tertiae K 6 or tertiae K 7 ; these two classes 
of verbs however are usually treated together as it is 
frequently impossible to distinguish between them. In the 
corresponding roots in Hebrew the original 1 and "■ have 
both been changed to PI which merely serves to carry 
the vowel and has no consonantal force : it is customary 
therefore in citing Assyrian roots, which belong to these 
two classes, to employ PI as a symbol for the third letter 
of the root. The following are examples of these two 
classes of verbs tertiae infirmae : banu (rt. J13D) "to build", 
Kal Pret. ibni, Pres. ibani, Imper. bini t Part, bani, banu, Perm. 
bani, Ifteal Pret. ibtani, Nifal Pret. and Pres. ibbani, Ittafal 
Pret. and Pres. ittabni; latu (rt. Pinttf) "to drink", Kal 
Pret. ilti, Pres. Haiti, Imper. iiti; baru (rt. 7VO) "to see", 



■ ii 



VERBS LXXXVII 

Kal Pret. ibri, Pres. ibari, Shafel Pret. uSabri; manu (rt. J13&) 

"to count", Kal Pret. imnu, Pres. imanu, t'mani, Piel Pret. 

umannd ; kamu (rt. HDp) "to burn", KLal Pret. ikmu, Imper. 

kumu, Part. kamu. 

In some verbs two letters of the root are weak ; such verbs Doubly 

are termed "doubly weak" and exhibit the peculiarities of both w 

verbs. 

the classes of weak verbs to which they belong. Thus the verb 
nddu (rt. TR X 3) "to exalt" is a "doubly weak" verb, as it is both 
primae J and mediae K x ; na$u (rt. K x 03) "to raise" is both primae 3 
and terHae K x ; elu (rt. H^K 4 ) "to be high" is both primae K 4 and 
tertiae infirmae ; idu (rt. K 4 *1K 7 ) "to know" is both primae K 7 and 
tertiae K 4 ; ba'u (rt. KjK 6 3) "to come" is both mediae K 6 and 
tertiae H x . 

A few quadri literal verbs (verbs with four letters in the Quadri- 
root) exist in Assyrian, of which the following are of most l c ™ 

. vcros. 

frequent occurrence : [ba/katu, rt. 0373], Shafel Pret. uXbalkit, Pres. 
ufabalkat, "to tear down", Nifal Pret. ibbalkit "to fall upon, invade", 
Ittafal, Pret. ittabalkat "to revolt, to pass over" ; [parXadu, rt. 
TttPTD], Nifal Pret. ipparSid, Inf. naparhidu, "to fly". In some 
quadriliteral verbs the last letter of the root is weak, e. g. 
rt. robfi, Shafel Pret. uSpalki, "to open wide" ; rt. rOIB, Nifal 
Pret. ipparku, Inf. naparku, "to cease, disappear". 



LIST OF SIGNS. 



The following List of cuneiform signs is given for reference, 

and should be used together with the Vocabulary when reading 

the texts in the main body of the book. The principles on 

which the list has been arranged are as follows. It has been 

already stated on pp. XXI ff., that the cuneiform writing had 

its origin in picture-writing, the inventors of the system being 

accustomed to draw rough pictures to represent objects, actions, etc. 

At an early date the pictures lost their exact forms and became 

Character mere groups of wedges, chiefly because soft clay was used as 

and func- tne principal writing material. The original picture-writing, 

tions of 

the signs. moreover » ' n addition to its change in outward form, underwent 

development with regard to the meaning of the characters. For 
most of the picture-signs, or ideograms, were, in course of time, 
used to express the sounds of the names of things which they 
represented, apart from their meanings ; thus arose and came 
into use, side by side with the original picture-writing, a system 
of writing words phonetically by means of syllables. Among 
the Babylonians and Assyrians these two systems also existed 
side by side. A sign could thus be employed as (i) a single 
syllable of a word ; (2) an ideogram which stood for a whole 
word ; (3) a determinative to indicate the general meaning of 
an ideogram ; and (4) part of an ideogram consisting of two or 
more signs. 



LIST OF SIGNS LXXXIX 

In the following list the principal Assyrian signs are given Arrange- 
with their most usual syllabic values and ideographic meanings. ment # of 
The list is divided into three columns. In the first column is the 
sign to be explained ; in the second are its chief phonetic values ; 
and in the third are the complete words which are its meanings 
when it is used as an ideogram or as the first part of an ideo- 
gram. For example, the first sign in the list, ►— , when occurring 
in the inscriptions, may possibly be used phonetically for any 
one of the four syllables a$, rum, dil or ///, e. g. ►- J, af-Xu, "be- 
cause of"; ^Y\*£ ^fcj *"■» zi-ka-rum, "male" ; (££ ►- **f- 
fczflf, mi-dtl Same(e), "the bolt of heaven"; ^irj ►-, ba-fil, "dis- 
continued, in abeyance" ; or it may be used as an ideogram for 
any of the words cited in the third column, e. g. ►- V *— " ^j^T* 
ina mJ/ MHl/r*^ "in Assyria" ; J ►- ^ ►-, m Afbtr - afy - iddina, 
"Esarhaddon" ; or finally it may occur as the first sign in an 
ideogram composed of more than one sign, e. g. ££j *~*[ £| *— 
*~<[^, i-na '* u kusst, "on the throne". And so on throughout. 

The signs in this list are arranged in order according to the Order of 
direction of the wedge or wedges with which they begin, the the s, 8 ns - 
general order being as follows: — (i) the signs beginning with 
horizontal wedges (first those beginning with one horizontal 
wedge ►, then the signs beginning with two wedges £:, then 
those with three wedges £, then those with four wedges ^) ; 
(2) the signs beginning with diagonal wedges (first those be- 
ginning with one diagonal wedge A , then those with two ^, then 
those with three ^, and finally those that begin with the large 
diagonal wedge ^) ; (3) the signs the beginnings of which con- 
tain the upright wedge (those signs beginning with the single 
wedge, J, being followed by those beginning with J, £, and 
last of all by those beginning with two or more upright wedges). 
In each of these main divisions the same order is followed with 
regard to the second and third wedges of each sign. 



xc 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



I. 



2. 



3. 

4- 



»-Hh 






aX ; rum ; dfl, til 



W 



muk, muk 



ba 



zu 



6. 



**TT 



v 



— , (i) Prep, tna, "in". 

„ (2) Abbreviation for 
AHur, the land As- 
syria, written (*£) 

-«HJ)- 

„ (3) In proper names 
employed as ideo- 
gram for the god 
A$$ur\ for naddnu, 
"to give"; and for 
aplu, "son". 



f 



fl 



*T I* 



kussu, 



throne 



»j 



, sometimes employed as 
sign for the plural. 

, bdru, "seer, ma- 
gician". 

y^ j»j ►*- ►►*, /</#&/, />#?/«/, 

the Tigris. 



^fcj, £jte, "to give". 



^y, (1) tdu, "to know". 
„ (2) h'u, "wise". 
^ t=t=y, */*«, "abyss". 



x»; jfotf, kul 



^yy, (1) matku, "skin, 

hide". 
„ (2) ercbu, "to in- 



crease". 







LIST OF SIGNS XCI 


Signs 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








**tt **&. 








[kuSafru \ 

\>*J\ " famine "- 


7- 


*£W 


tin, Sun ; rug, 
ruk, ruk 




8. 


1 

i 

1 

1 
1 

■ 


bal, pal 


*-*-|£, (1) palu, "reign, year 
of reign ; sym- 
bol of royalty, 
ring" (?). 

„ (2) nabalkulu, "to 
cross over". 

„ (3) enu, "to make 
void, to humble". 

„ (4) naku, "to pour 
out (a libation), 
to offer (an offer- 
ing) M . 

„ (5) tepib, Piel-Sha- 
fel of [pelu], "to 




' 




conquer". 

^►^ ►< {j^\ 9 ASSur, the 
city. 


9. 


— m 


ad, at, at ; gir 


«^yyj, patru, "dagger". 

*"■*""! II t 1 ? akrabu, "scor- 
pion". 

«^I)^TI,^^, "light- 




1 


but, put 


ning". 


10. 


■^m* 





INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


,.«*„„,. 


II. 


>*>^ 


tor ; kut, kud, 
kut, kut ; fil ; 


►*^-, (1) nakasu, "to cutoff". 
„ (2) parasu, "to decide". 
„ (3) f«i«, "street". 


12. 


«f 


„, 


*-*y-, (1) *'/»i "god" ; also 
employed as de- 
terminative be- 
fore the names 
of deities. 
„ (2) Samu, plur. Same, 
"heaven". 

w|- *"*"T, WuH "lead". 

fH^ »+-, parztllu, "iron". 

«f t^TTT- * " hi g h - sit- 
uated above". 

*~»X~ \tt, tf/u/«, "eclipse". 
M+- 4^£l, ;<ru, "field, plain". 


13. 


~T< 


see 46. «T< 




14- 


«jp 




(»-*J-) n-»J^, ^Mw, the god. 
*-tf\ »-» J J r . -^-fr"". the city. 
V -Jf (<HJ), -ttfrr. 
Assyria. 


■5- 


tfcl 


in ; sometimes 
employed 
for ka 


»~fcfcj t (1) /«. "mouth". 
„ (2) Unnu, "tooth", 
„ (3) amalu, "word, 
command". 

-CfeJeTTT*. (■)*«; ""> 

speak". 
„ (2) £i$JS*, "com- 
mand". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



XCIII 



Sign 



Svllabic values 



Ideograms 



"date". 

:fcj fc^H» *W "bat- 
talion". 



16. : 



^ FMffT 



: ^^TfT ? «*</«, "to re- 
cite a spell or incan- 
tation". 



17. 



*& 



■£j2fi j'ot/k, "breath, poi- 



son". 



Etfff ^I^T ^TT» foxfopUf 



"sorcerer". 



^^Sl^^T!' **«*/*. 



"sorceress". 



18. 



■*8r 



*£j§Jf /«^«, "battle". 



19. 



-£j£j 



►-tjw> litanu, "tongue, 
I speech". 

(v) -qBf m, &*•*. 

1 Southern Babylonia. 



20. 



^-tjfty j na & nak > na * ^l!?f» ^ " to drink "« 



21. !-q§J 




^ffij* «*«/«f "to eat". 


22. 


-fcTT 


*r 


►t J f , tf/tf, "city" , also em- 
ployed as determinative 
before the names of 
cities. 


23. 


^M 


ukkin 


j pufrru \ "totality, whole ; 
} unkennu, j full strength". 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


24. 


►efrSJJ 




W ►tTtSTT. >*'»™. 




-tM "" 




"dish". 


25- 




A-R- ►tin! M< '«• 








the South-wind; see 229. 








Aflf. 


26. 


ttT 




*"fctl, (1) zikaru, "male". 
„ (2) ardu, "slave". 

Plague-god. 

gal, the god. 


27. 


►C3 




«-^*"*"J, ar£«, "month"; also 
employed as determi- 
native before the names 








of the months. 


28. 


-r=NW 


Ja^, soft, Sift 


*W?tHH> *"$"' " wild 
boar". 


29. 


>*r 


la 




30. 


►H 


»-fcT, ulfu, "foundation". 
FClTT *"£*"T» '***"'■ "8 ar - 








dener". 


Si. 


►HI 


mah *"^tlli I**! "exalted". 






*-^f- »-£E:JJ, the goddess 


1 




litar. 


32. 


►^r 


/» 


>^£], eribu, "to enter". 
*-^t J *-|J) summalu, "dove". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



xcv 



Sign 



33. 




34. I A^- 



35. 



36. 



^ 



^ 




Ideograms 



In 



-mn 



tree". 



dad; pap\ kur 9 
kur 



>» 



A^-, (1) nakaru, "to be hos- 
tile". 

(2) nakru, "hostile"; as 
subs, "enemy", 
sometimes written 

with determ. E>??j- 

(3) nakiru, "enemy"; 
sometimes written 

with determ. 



» 






-HPPF- 

(4) napkar, "total". 

(5) In proper names 
employed as ideo- 
gram for aftu, "bro- 
ther"; nasdruy "to 
protect". 



see 45. p~<£ 



mu 



» 



>» 



»» 



►^, (1) Xumu, "name". 

(2) zakdru, "to name". 

(3) zikru, "name". 

(4) -w, 1 pers. sing. 
Pron. suffix attach- 
ed to nouns. 

(5) In proper names 
employed as ideo- 
gram for naddnu, 
"to give". 



XCVI 




INTRODUCTION 


Sign 


Svlliibic value* 


Ideograms 








^ (^ -v-j), uitu, 








"year". 








^^H. — * "i». 








scription". 


37- 


ka 


p- T, *a, 3 measure. 


3S. 


kad, hat, to* 




3,. 


gil, m 




40. 


-III 


kat, kad 




+ 1 - 


*m 


ru ; tub, tup 


*HI, (1) na^ii, "to cast". 
„ (2) Jw»iA«A((]nf. Sha- 
fel fr. maiatu), 
"conquest". 


V- 


~c 


be; bat, bat, bad', 


*~<, (1) malu, "to die". 




lit; mil, mil, 


[«</« j "corpse"; 
11 ( 2 ) \ ) 

\pagru] sometimes 




tm'd; til; ziz 






written with de- 






term. E?ff- 






„ (3) damu, "blood". 




1 *-^- >-<, Bit, the god. 


43- 


►^ 


"" 


"inscribed tablet of 






stone". 


44- 


-«* 


Sir 


~GsEV~ET<HJ, 

LagaS, the ancient Sir- 
purla. 

the Sun-god. 



LIST OF SIGNS 



Signs 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








Rp^tT-<^EH 








parutu, "alabaster". 


45 


>-<*, "V 


£«/, £#/, £«/; sir 


*-<£; siru, "seed". 


46. 


v-5 


a 


1 late, 1 "to take, re- 
►~<|<(^-ET)i *»'■¥»> "to live". 


47- 


+ 


bar, par ; mal, 


k^-, aiaridu, "chief". 
(*+¥") ►f-, Aftii'4, the god. 






t-*^- t^- >Jf-, Jftiyo/, the 






god. 






TJ0+ -P4.54. 






/4$fa/, aWa/, the Tigris. 


48. 


^ 




„ (2) falmu, "image". 

Effi ^ ST EgfcJ. «"» 

«r.b', "gardener". 
dim-mud, the god Ea. 


49. -TA 




►"[4^, Jitf/a, "revenue, in- 








terest". 








►-J^^ \tt» JWA«, "dream". 


50. 


-TA-fff 


kun, gun 


^TA^^TH' *' 6iatu - "t ai l"- 


5"- 


-T<WI 


b*\ P"g, P"k; 


•"-JT, iiptru, "bird"; also 






bag, bak 


employed as determina- 
tive after the names of 
birds. 



XCVIII 



I INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


52. 




nam, sim 


destiny". 
ipahdtu \ dis- 
" ^[pibdtu j trict". 

ernor". 

"swallow". 


53. 


-UMI* 


ig, ik, ik 


HM^> ***«> "to be". 
0=1) HMf*» ^ //w > "door". 


54- 




mud, mut, mut 




55- 


-TT- 


rad, rat, rat 




56. 


htt* ' 


zi 


i-yy^, /w/tf/w, "life". 

HT^HfT. (0 tmnu > 

"right". 
„ „ (2) kinu, 

"true". 


57- 


-TTA 


HffA> *""*> "reed". 

HTA ^T (0 **«. ^0 

stand". 
„ „ (2) kinu, 

"firm, 
true". 
^HAE^ir* diparu, 
"torch". 


58. 


-to -m 


ri\ dal, tal, tal 





LIST OF SIGNS 





Sign 


Syllabic values 
nun ; eil, sil 


Ideogram! 


59' 


-Tin. -m. 
►ffl 


•— TTTT, ruin, "great; noble, 
prince"; in the latter 
sense sometimes with 
determinative EJJJj. 

■"HIT r*""» a6ial/u > "spokes- 
man, director". 

•"HIT ^1' Eridu > the cit y- 

Igigi, the spirits of hea- 
ven. 


60. 


-n 


«e 5 t. -KT 




61. 


HI* 


sce S 2.-y<|^ 




6a. 


►fl* 


see 5 3. *-y<f* 




63. 


-TIA 


^'54--T<T^. 




64. 


-HI 


*<ii, *a/ 


*"TII. i *" n ' iu ' "icft". 


6j. 


-THI 


^W*, £«^ 




66. 


Hh 


-fw/, <W, #1/ ; 
kum, kum, gum 


(jey) 4-, km, "doth". 


67. 


~£V 


lint, dim 




68. 


•=££> 


mart 


*Xj£>, tabtu, "kindness". 


69. 


►fi 


ag, at, a/t 


*"19> C 1 ) 'P*f u < " to make". 
„ (2) banii, "to build". 

■J-Jr* Nabu, the god. 

-tip 1 


7°- 


HS3 




»-J§r£*5i tahazu. "battle". 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


>rd". 


71- 


-II 


en 


^1, (1) belu, "lc 








„ (2) adi, "up to". 








-U-TTTTKT). - 








I -^ l „ watch „. 








\mas§artu J 








-II *■! •"T *»«*. "com". 








hphk^tti 


•Siw, the 


• 






^TII^TT I 
Hf- -II (*TTT) 


Moon-god. 

Bel, 

> 
the god. 









-II*m<I£J \mpp>«. 

-VTIItTTKIUJ ^ city. 
g$£ -II *<% bazanu (?), 






dar 


"governor". 




72. 


-IIEII 




7 3. 


•^ 


$ur, sur 




74- 


^JT 


sufy 




75- 


•JVT 




**f- iJfy 1 /War, 








-MVT I thc 


goddess. 


76. 


4s 


sa 




ck; bank". 


77- 


>5s! 


1 
kar, kan 




78. 


>*3fc 


tik, tik ; gu 


>Jp!i^, /bJorfa, "ne 








JfQ ET**~ . gugallu, "direc- 








tor". 








-tTT >m ** n m 








Kutu, the city Cuthah. 



LIST OF SIGNS 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


79- 


>P&h 


lur, dur, lur 




80. 


J&m 




«4^£TH' *&*> "tribule; 
burden; talent". 


St. 


•=AI 




►^C^*, di$P u < "honey". 


82. 


r 


gur, kur 


»t", (1) itiru, "to turn, re- 
turn". 
„ (2) a measure. 


83. 




VfJ, karnu, "horn". 
tff<[t^» [Mru], "to be 
straight". 

| iSliimi 1 the North-wind; 
\tlfdnu | see 229, &]$-. 

ftDtTTVT^™."^!". 


84. 


far 


*^:|4lT, ( 1 ) burrumu, "bright- 
ly coloured". 

„ (2) birmu, "brightly 
coloured cloth". 


85. 


*TT* 


fat, hit ; sag; 
ri!, ris 


•pyjC^, tibt, "head". 

"head". 

"chief". 

officer, ruler", 
^T *^yTcf= Mfc, wiMfi/w, 
"bolt". 



INTRODUCTION 



90 


Syllabic voluea 


Ideograms 


86. 


vm 




t] -EH!, '*«, "ship". 

malalju, "sailor". 


87- 


*im 


(Ar, /ir, /ir; 

wa/ (Babyl.) 




88. 


t 


At j , tap ; rfa/ ; 




89. 


e=e= 


/ 


t~t~ 1 arba'u, irbitli (f.), 
"four". 

Arba'ilu, the city Arbela. 


90. 


iA 


tak, tak, tag; ium 


t-t- . lapatu, "to over- 
throw". 


9>- 


w=T 


ab, ap ; e! 




92. 


«=? 


nab, nap 




9'. 


«=Hf 


mui, 


trtif»-*f-, iaiiabu, "star". 


94- 


cfv^f 


ug, ui, uk 




95- 


CjVff" 


as, as, a} 




96. 


SSI 




E^< |. «*, "copper". 


97- 


CM 




i-tf-y, babu, "gate". 

£*£? El*~> a6uilu < " cit y- 

gate". 

seHf-(p=TT)«B), 

Babilu, Babylon. 







LIST OF SIGNS CHI 


Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


98. 


£>4 


u 


-^ U™ } Nineveh - 


99. 


<m 


um 




IOO. 


tCTTTT 

• 


dup 


^CTTIT' (0 du PP u - "tablet". 
„ (2) tabfiku, "to pour 

out". 

tCTTTT HWfc» ***««*». 

"tablet of destiny". 

(S3?) tCTTTT ifiHf. 

dupXarru, "scribe". 



IOI. 



sHTT 



/a 







nd'idu 



"exalted". 



askuppu \ "thresh - 
askuppatu J old". 



t^E» employed as deter- 
minative after numbers. 

HMk*' b*goU*<> "abun- 
dance". 



;, (0 



***** \ "small". 



» 



(2) maru, "son". 

B3. { r: } -••• 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








fc _ k _ >. I mar/u 1 "daugh- 
*~*^ *" ' I biniu | ter". 
(•"TI^?) £&:» morula, "son- 
ship". 


106. 


*r 


ad, at, at 


C=Ey> a*", "father". 


107. 


<=ETT 


t* 




108. 


*m 


,„ 




109. 


tfes 


in 




no. 


*Sp 


rab, rap 




„ 


eSro 




t^ffl. Jte^«. "king". 
»-*^- t^Jw, the god Mar- 
duk. 


112. 




tor, tar; Sir; Air 


frEJ»~|. iataru, "to write". 
f| fctfcj» **™> "plantation, 

garden". 
6±EfcJ dEfcJi tulassuru 

(Iftaal of kaiaru)}, "to 

collect, to rally (to- 

trans.)," 


n3. 


^a 


tEj^y, Juru, "wall". 

"dead". 


■ 14. 


&m 




TdISJ-+^T 

►j^sj, Ubara-Tutu. 



-5.jtgf.Egf 



I fcEf, nadanu, "to give", 
t^? t^tJ' J '* M "' "onion". 



LIST OF SIGN 



Sign 


Syllabic vahies 


Ideograms 


1 1 6. 


fis 


far; raJ, ru 


CVv, harrdntt, "way". 
S^TT' Z"™* "campaign". 
pec ¥^-, space of two 

hours; distance traversed 

in two hours. 


117. 


t» 


luh 


5^6, irlu, "breast". 

t* -TTC Offt «**»• 

"rival**. 


118. 


«**? 


E^*},(|) f OT,"field, plain". 
„ (2)^. "against". 


119. 




w; te\ de; bil, 

pil;kum,kum; 
bi (Babyl.) 

bil, pil 




120. 


£^^, rfmu, "wild ox". 
t^. tfj, /«■». "elephant". 


121. 

122. 

_ 

■ s3. 




t^i»-<, lint, "flesh"; some- 
times employed as de- 
terminative before some 
parts of the body. 

££fT, (0 i»*». "fire". 
„ (2) eiiu, "new". 

«f t^sy -IT A, sm. 

the Fire-god. 
C^^<f) '**«i "new". 


... 


£<t«<" 


zik, zik ; fip 





"s- j c<StT 



►<2SI <H=J> »«*. Erech. 



CVI 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



127, 



128. 



129. 
i3o. 



:<£< 



i3i. 



l32. 



i33. 



134. 



135. 




^Osj 



T! 



JeT 



»-<v 



TT 



^T 




T£ 



gaz, gas, gas\ 
has 



£<^> daku, "to slay". 



ram 




, ramu, "to love". 



see 98. E ^?K j * 



ur 



'jy, jw/w, "loins, thigh". 

*y- jz^iyy, ## ^^", "the 

horizon". 



^Ey, /&/&, "foundation". 



/7 



du\ gup, hup, 
hup;gub,hub, 
hub; kin 



?> 



» 



y, (1) alaku, "to go". 

(2) nazdzu, "to stand". 

(3) &««, "to stand ; 
Piel , hunnu, "to 



set". 



» 



^T 




(4) kinu, "true", 
w \ Ualluku (Ifteal of 
alaku), "to go, 
walk, proceed". 



turn, dum ; 
ib (Babyl.) 



Jh^, (i) /Wrw, "ass". 
(2) imeru, a measure. 

!►► is also employed as 
determinative ; </. the 
following ideograms: — 

Is: V E^yy, sisii, 
"horse". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








^ISIStM" I 








^E<E-ffl^TI 








para, "mule". 








-I£T?w=T^Tl 








^Evs^T 1 








gammalu, "camel". 


i36. 


*ms 




^JE^y, fi) aria, "situar- 
ed behind, fu- 
ture". 
„ (2) arh\ "behind, 
after". 


l3 7 . 


t^ii 




^H , kardnu, "wine". 


138. 


5£T 


«l; atf 


Xrf\y (0 ^ikaru, "male". 
„ (2) SulSu, "sixty". 


■ 3 9 . 


^n 


,,- 


^1 ::•}-*■•■ 


140. 


*-< 

*-< 


bi ; ifarf, g'ai ; 


^~j, Sikaru, "date-wine." 






ias 


^~j ^TTp - , iurunnu, "se- 








same-wine." 


■ 41. 


txii 


Sim; rii, rik,rig 


^ ^ *y|, rikku, a sweet- 
smelling wood. 

rate, "pine-tree". 


142. 


E3f 


kit, kip; kit, kip 




■ 4 3. 


S3 


/at, tai; dak 


Eyf"/^ tfina, "stone" ; also 
employed as determina- 



CVIII 



INTRODUCTION 



144. 



*45 



146. 



H7- 



148. 



149. 



150. 



151 



J 5 2 - 



Sign 



►W- 



HfflF 



PS 



£pT> 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



tive before the names 
of stones. 



kak; kak; da 



^Z y (1) banu, "to build". 

(2) tpiSu, "to make". 

(3) *a/*, "all". 



» 



/*/; sa/, j<i/, sal; 
i; It; ili 



►TT~» Xamnu, "oil". 
Sjfl, plur. J^I J^T, i7ir, 
"god". 

E£ffj EjfT S^> /** "opener 
(of a gate), porter." 



/r 



f»tf/ 



►jy^f, (1) rapdXu, "to be 
broad". 

(2) rapfa, "broad". 

(3) rupiu % "breadth". 

(4) ummu, "mother". 






HPf- 



tT 



^ffitf 



Crf^T* (1) &w//«, "plat- 
form". 
„ (2) iamnu, "oil". 

"beam". 






» TT ^ f * **''''**'> "counsel". 



</<*t, dak ; /<z/i ; 



53. I t£ 



pa; bat, fat j t| K^, faffu, "sceptre". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CIX 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



t^^T^Tl* ittakku, "ru- 
ler". 

►*f- ^f=, (i) Nabu, the god. 
„ „ (2) elat Same, "the 
zenith". 



154. j sMf- 

1 . .-.. . . 


Rjp^^p-, parsu, "command, 


1 




ordinance". 


'55- , t^Idl 

1 


Sab, $ap\ sap 


• 


150. 
157. 


#m 




«f- t^I^y, Nusku, the god. 


&im 


sib, sip 


(K?w) $^m, *'»> "^cp- 


1 
1 




herd". 


158- 


$ 


iz, is, is; gi$ 


H> (0 tsu > "wood"; also 
employed as de- 
terminative before 
the names of trees, 
woods, and wooden 
objects. 






m 


„ (2) In proper names 
interchanging with 




1 

1 


•pIT <Wf=. for *- 








teSuru "to direct", 


1 




Ishtafal of [e$eru\. 


1 


t] Ek (0 kakku > "weapon". 








„ „ (2) tukultu, "help", 








see JEJ. 








t] 4fc|£, «Wrtu, 








I (1) "boundary, end". 
\ (2) "sculpture, relief". 









INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic vilucs 


Ideograms 








t| ^tt, /'//«i "shadow". 

"bolt", see 85. 

J lukumtu "oppo- 

t| | { lukuntu sition, 

1 iukmalu battle". 

| (1) Gibit, the Fire-god. 
\ (2) lia/u, "fire". 


"59- 


sT* 




tfc-, "//>«, "ox". 


1 60. 


tWf 


a/ 




161. 


*&■ 


«i, «>/ <jr 


t^, kibratu, "quarter of 
heaven". 


162. 


«=TF 





mo/ abarrt, the Western- 
land. 

theWest-wind ; see 229. 


163. 




Ion. 


164. 


duk; lud, lul, lut 


t||i-, karpatu, "pot, vessel" ; 
also employed as de- 
terminative before the 
names of vessels. 


■ 65. j clji- 




fcjf*-, »»*". "fruit". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXI 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


1 66. 


*m 


un 


Ejflf, niSu, "people". 

"women of the palace". 


167. 


*TTT 


kid, kit; kid, kit] 
git; safi, sib; 
HI 




168. 


i 

1 


rid, rit; Sid, Sit; 
lak, lak; mis, 
mis, miX; kit 


SjHy, minutu, "number". 
(Kw)^IH,to^ Viest". 
EB^f 9Ef» kunukku, "seal". 
^HP ^HfT? Marduk, the god. 


169. 


*w 


u; Sam 
8 a 


^yyy^z, (1) rite, "fodder". 

„ (2) ammatu, an ell. 

„ (3) fammu, "plant" ; 
also employed 
as determinative 
before the names 
of plants". 


170. 


\*m 


^yyy^, *&**, "miik". 


171. 






^TTT^U^f- "***> " to raise "- 


172. 


lak, H^, toh't n i 


^yy<, sukkallu, "minister". 


173. 


*ro 


kal; rib; lab, lap; 
lib, Up; dan, 
tan, tan 


fcjyi, (1) <fo«/i«, "mighty". 
„ (2) dannft, "exceed- 
ingly". 
*->\- ^y^? lamassu, "sacred 
colossal bull". 

►T ^TT^> *****' a p rec i° us 

wood. 



CXII 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



(B?S) fcffi, idlu, "man, 
lord". 



174. 



*THf 



►*^- ^U^<^ Xcdu, "sacred 

colossal bull". 
^f^yy^,^r^tt, u camp". 



175 



180. 



«=TTTT 



bit, bit; pit; e 



^TTTT' t" lu ' " nouse > temple". 

fcjfTTHh *""#*' "p riest "- 
c=7TTT ET*"» ekallu ' "p ala cc"- 

tjlji V. ekurru, "temple". 

t=TTTT *&£%> '* aru ' " wal1 "- 



176. 


Hfffi 


»/'r 




177- 


MT* 


& 


^TT^(TI),'^"toturn, 








return". 


178. 


E^TT 


ra 




179. 


K?ff 




^yyy T anulu, "man"; also 
employed as determina- 
tive before the names 
of tribes and professions. 

E55 >-s=TttT M> amil »< 






man . 



B??a 



hi, Si's] si's, sis' 



+*+-< 



&W<> (0 a * u ' "brother". 
„ (2) nasaru, "to pro- 



tect". 



Nannaru I . x . . 

> the Moon-god. 

the city Ur. 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXII1 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



181. ; EEE<, *£E< 



zak, zak 



n 



, (i) imnu, "right". 
(2) patu, "boundary, 
limit; all". 



182. 
i83. 
184. 

185. 






see 112. 





: see 1 1 



s-*m 





,86. ; t<$X 



187. 




188. 



£TT 




189. 



191 



£V 



kar; gar 
id, if, it 



HI 



da, ta 



dS 



ma 



gal, kal 




, idu, "hand; side". 
Ei3i! ^\\i m*™* "eagle". 
^^j ►JI** ''"*> "strong". 



£<3<<Lf tablu, "midst ; 
battle". 



^TT »<TT» ddr *> " la sting, 
everlasting". 

Et?[T ^E, <&«««, "mighty". 



^1 Ej*^ adannti, "exceed- 

ingly". 
^ *~^ 5 manu y "maneh". 

^y>^, rabiiy "great". 

Ej^" **^TTT^» uSumgallu, 
"monster-viper". 

rab-kisir, "captain". 
EvTTT ^\+~- ^, an officer. 



CXIV 



I INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








ductor of musicians. 
//, "chief". 

K&EMJ^TT. "■*- 

<wi/, "chief- astrologer". 


192. 


^f 


bar 


EHf P<*™kku, "shrine". 


ig3. 


m 


bi$, piS ; kir, gir 




194. 


*m . 


mir 


EDI!=J, (0 <«* "crown". 
„ (2) t'zzu, "angry, 
terrible". 



i95« 



*m 



196. EV 



197. 




198. 



199. 



200. 




^TT 



201. 



IT 



(Km) EjTTg^, «^«, 

"leader, commander". 



3f/r, /i/r 




, *. '. ^!!| ^ J , see 1 3 3 

5* 



;, £Zfe, "lady". 



</«£, /i// 



fa 



ite; &*/; kat 



jEj, £*/«, "hand". 

J§| *P| |, ubanu, "ringer". 

it -+ ^t «m ) , 

Bdbilu, Babylon. 

IT OCJ» see 28 s- OCT- 



LIST OF SIGNS 



!■»= 



mm 



Syllnbic values 



ess Ji *t *rr*. *■* 

iaku, "officer". 



tul; lib, lip; lup; E^ff J^=' ™ mmtru < " male 
Pah; nar 

V*- ETt^, zammertu, "female 
musician". 



j,lf/CSi4 



favourable". 

"date-palm". 



"to be 



206. 
207. 






V^Vv«IgJ), Akkadu, 

Akkad. 
Jet^R Urartu, Armenia. 

■ gam, kam; gur ' 

kur; mat, mad; j Vi (0 ««/", "land, country "; 
iW, &/, fa/; ' also employed as de- 

/«/; mi/, oarf; j terminative before 

kin 1 names of countries. 

„ {i)iadu, "mountain"; 
also employed as de- 
terminative before 
names of mountains. 
„ (3) kaiadu, "to conquer". 
„ (4) napahu, "to shine 
forth, to rise (of the 
sunY*. 



CXVI 



INTRODUCTION 



215. 



m 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








4^ff ve^TT* *«*» the 

East-wind; see 229. ,^*ff-. 


208. 


* 


U 


^, leu, "grain". 

^ (^TTT^)» ™g*™> "to 
render obedience to, 

to gratify, to be pro- 
pitious". 
^ til ^yy", SamaHammu, 
"sesame-seed". 


209. 


*- 


6u,pu;sir;git,M 


^M^TT). «*». " lon g"- 


2IO. 


*-T<T 


uz, us, us 


1 




211. 


*Hfff 


Xud, fat; sir 


*Hfff. 
*HPff< 

"cole 
gon" 


ruku, "distant". 

siru, "serpent". 

<^X£Ei sirruUu, 
issal serpent, dra- 

• 

z }}}}> *iM u > "wood, 

t". 


212. 


*-ffi< 


mu$; sir 


2l3. 


^NRfW 


tir 


CD * c 

foresl 


214. 


*T 


te 


< 

.1 (») ■ 


'emenu, "foundation- 
jtone". 

' Kobe near". 
tebu J 

gallii, "devil". 



kar 



*£]]}, (1) karu, "wall, 

stronghold". 
„ (2) eteru, "to pro- 
tect, spare". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXVII 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



2 1 6. 



217. 



1 a. 1 



T 



218. 



T 



li$, lis 



sign sometimes employ- 
ed for marking the di- 
vision of words. 



ud, ufj ut\ u; 
tu ; tarn ; bir ; 
par, pir ; lah, 
lih ; hi$ t his 



u 



• 



1/' 



7> 



*J, (1) «/w«, "day". 

(2) umu, "storm". 

(3) $am$u, "sun"; gen- 
erally written with 
determ. ►■►j-. 

„ (4) situ, "exit, that 

which comes forth". 
„ (5) Pm, "white". 

►►y~ ^1, Santas', the Sun- 
god. 

^ I^y, *f«, "to go forth". 

►"HP ^y ^y £^y, & iam&, 



"sun-rise". 



*f- ^ J y^ , erib Xamtt, 
"sun-set". 



"copper". 



*T £<3<iy, Larsam, the 
city. 

*T tJf -TTTT <HJ, ^-r. 

the city. 

Purdtu, the Euphrates; 
properly the short ca- 



CXVIII 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



nal between Sippar and 
the Euphrates. 

*TEfcTT» urru > "W- 



219. 



220. 



221. 



222. 



223. 



224. 
225. 



^TTT 



//'; ma, me 



7xM 



*?A 



^ 

A 



226. ! ^-iJf- 



lib 



/ 



^T*- , uznu, "ear", 
^jyy, libbu, "heart". 

"descendant". 

KIT) *TTT -fi=TT. **»> 

the city. 



uh 



TM 



ru'tu \ u 
rutu J 



breath". 



sab, sap ; sa£ ; 
bir, pir; lah, 



(Km) *f ****• "warrior". 
^ (4^y^)» ummanu, "host". 
*} ^, niraru, "helper". 

^f^, pir'u, "offspring, des- 
cendant". 



zib, zip ; sip 
hi, ti\ far 



^, JtiHatu, "host, the 
world". 

^ (e=yyyn /»*«, "good-. 

; *-«4-^, AHur, the god. 

Assyria. 

►^yy A , Eridu, the city. 

^►*y~ is the sign for mark- 
ing the breathing. 



c 



LIST OF SIGNS 



Sign 


Syllabic vilues 


Ideograms 


227. 




ah, ih, uk 






228. 


ktim ; ham 


^_»-< is employed a 
terminative after 
bers. 


de- 



A4f 



2 3o. 1 4k.t^ 



4^,4t' Sara ' " w ' n d". 

Afl-tTnTIBI."*. 

the South-wind. 

{ \ the North-wind. 

I iltanu J 

A'tT- t TT^ -^T> aha,rit - 

the West-wind, 

^^VE^IT. *•*- the 

East- wind. 

Afrf <MH' ,miu ""' 
"evil wind". 

•-JL ^JT-, Rammanu, the 
god Ramman. 

Afl-tm?, 

I ,>7 "" 1 "clouds". 
I urpalu\ 

Afl-Ifc. 

( »«'('(/« I 

J "exulted . 

l._. _ 
4l.£fH, sapahu, "to bring 
to naught". 



cxx 



INTRODUCTION 



233. 



A]} 



234. 



< 



23 5- 



236. 



<^H 



<-TT 



237. 



<^TAT 



238. 



<: 



23g. 



240. 




<« 



241 



<s 



242, 



«£T 



243. 1 <:r^ 



Sign - 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


23l. 


&m 


Aar, far, frur; 
mur\ kin 




232. 


&<& 


fru$\ ruX 





sun 



Aft(0 



ma 'ddu 



u 



>J 



many . 

(2) employed as a 
sign for the plur- 
al. 



u 



(*"*y~) ^> Rammdnu, the god 
Ramman. 



wtf# 



^►tJ^J , */*', "over, upon". 



*f- ^TL ^g^ the « od - 



HP- <^TAT> (0 /tor ' the 

goddess. 
(2) titar, god- 
dess". 



» 



»> 



&/, ///, /*/; rim 



Mr 



foil, kis\ ktlt 




<« , ki'Ha/u, "host, the 
world". 



am 



{££, (1) matfw, "night". 
„ (2) salmu, "dark". 



gut, kul, kul* 
sun I 



^J ^£^3^, irfo, "couch 



»* 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXXI 





Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


244. 


<^T 


nim, num 


Elam. 


245. 


<SST 


turn 




246. 


lam ; Urn (?) 





247. 



<! 



248. 



249. 



250. j <^jy 

251. |<tfi 



252. 



<^ 



1 



zur, sur 




ban, pan 



►►f- ^Z^J, Marduk, the 
god. 

j (]^II)<^,»^ "offering". 



&>», ^ww ; dim 1 O^jT, £7m<z, "like, as". 
ul 



^£E, #/«, "foot". 
lakkanakku 



{ 



"governor", 



253. 1 <E^ 




-54- | <^JA 


w; b'k 


255- 


<T- 


//; lim 



lakkanaku 

"bones". 
►►y-^fcE, §eruy "field, plain". 

the god. 
KEEK *^'«> "heavy". 




, marsu, "sick". 



<!-, (1) Inn, "eye". 

(2) pdnu, "face". 

(3) mabru, "front". 

(4) amdru, "to see", 
^y*— j , amdru, "to see". 



>» 



>» 



»> 



CXXII 



INTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








4^- ^J^-, abtktu, "defeat". 
-►f <I-^I, (1) Ninib, 

the god. 
» » » {7)Nergai 9 

the god. 


256. 


<WTI 

<ram 


ar 




257- 


<KTTTT» (0 ****** 

"help". 
„ (2) itlu, "sign, 








portent". 


258. 


<HHf 




^J*~-/^, (1) damdku, "to be 

favourable". 
„ (2) damku, "favour- 
% able". 
, x ( dumku 1 "fa- 
( </«/*&/ J vour, 
good fortune". 

"mercy, favour". 


259- 
260. 




u (late Babyl- 
onian) 

hul 


tree. 

^T»-TT»-T. limnu, "evil, wick- 
ed". 

(£-)<HH limuttu < 

"evil, misfortune". 



»6«-,<T^I* 



di, ti 



^|tf=, (1) ialamu, "to be 
complete". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXXHI 



Sign 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



262. ^g[, <fjE=T /«/, til 



263. 



<m 



ki 



j ^[S^fr, (2) Sulmu, "prosper- 
ity, greeting". 
! f\£p ►^r, daianu, "judge". 

' <Tt^ ^^satiukku, "reg- 
I ular offering". 

\\ tp J|, Sandnu, "to equal, 
to rival". 

«w, the god Sulman. 
^^J, titu, "mound". 

j^JIJiOO"^ "earth". 

„ (2) a/ri/, "place" ; also 
employed as de- 
terminative after 
names of places. 

„ (3) ////, "with". 

^Jgf^yy^, Jannalu, "dis- 



tress". 



<Mttyyy, (o^*. " un - 

der part". 
„ „ (2) Xaplu," low, 

lower". 

<m tfe (or -II) 

►-[T^^, Sumir, Southern 
Babylonia. 

^H? HJ, *«**. "dwelling". 

<Jg[ J^,iuiul/u (?)," weight". 



CXXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



271 



« 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


264. 


0ETTT 




^TETTT , sign of repetition, 
"ditto". 


265. 


<K 


din, tin 


<K balatu, "to live". 
Babylon. 


266. 


<TI 


see 323. JT 




267. 


<Mfflf 


dun; $ul, sul 




268. 


<R 




^flf, <>//*, "bright". 

<if ^TT^i b ura S u > "8° ldM - 
^jnf *j, (1) ^ "silver". 

,> » (2) farpu, "silver". 


269. 


<V 


pad, pat, pa/; 
Xuk, $uk 


^fJ, kurummatu, "food". 

^^ ^^T^J, wWota, "of- 
fering". 


270. 


<W 




^ muiii, "right". 

^4- ^Wi (0 7 ^ r » the s° d - 

dess. 
„ „ (2) /War, "god- 
dess". 



272, 



<« 



ma», niS 



«, (1) farm, "king". 
„ (2) SamaS, the sun. 



rf; ji« 



(►*f-) K^» ^ /w > tne moon ; 
the Moon-god. 

^^ >^- y purussu, " deci- 



sion". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



cxxv 



273. 



274. 



275 



279 



Sign 



280. 



$ 



T 



r 



78- 1 st 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



276. 


a 


277. 


& 



dtf, filf ; tis t /is ; 
ana 



lal; la 



(HPO % BeU the 8° d ' 

y, (1) *»*, "to". 

„ (2) Determinative before 
male proper names. 

„ (3) iUen, "one"; with 
phonetic compl. ►JJ 
frequently written 

„ (4) enuma, "when". 

f", (1) Sakdlu, "to weigh". 
„ (2) simittu, "yoke"; some- 
times written with 
determ. £|. 
„ (3) kasil (?), "to bind". 



kil, kil, gil; nm t 
rin;fab,bap; 
kir 



for J^ ffi, see 3 18. Jf. 




fiy £<|, narkabtu, "chariot". 
T? ISSJ' '^*' "bitumen". 

"bitumen". 



zar, sar 



281. 


a/ 


w 


"sheep". 


282. 


fir 


/«; /«/ 


J<J, burn, "spring, well". 



CXXVI 



I NTRODUCTION 



Sign 



283. 



284. 1 fly 
2 8 5 . tt! 



286. ! wm 




287. 



T' 



288. y 



289. 1 tJj 



290. 



m 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



bul, pul 



zuk, zuk\ suk 




me ; h'b, Sip ; sip 



meS, mis' 



\ (1) puhhuru (Picl of 
palfdru\ "to col- 
lect; to streng- 
then". 
„ (2) napharu* "whole, 
total". 
^ ££j, napharu, "total". 

R<<7wT, puldnu (?), "so and 
so". 

y*— is sometimes used in 
place of y> »>> as a sign 
for the plural. 

J*— ^y, simiu, "ornament". 

^ »» , sign for the plural. 



id, ip 



ku\ dur\ tul 




» 



\ (1) tukultu, "help". 

(2) subatu, "garment"; 
also employed as 
determinative be- 
fore names of stuffs 
and garments". 

(3) aUbu y "to dwell". 

HeJ Hill£> ulinnu, a gar- 
ment. 



» 



LIST OK SIGNS 



CXXVII 



Sign 



291. M 



292. 



mi 



293. jitlE 



Syllabic values 



Ideograms 



/«; 



ki; kin, kin 



Sik 



>94- HU^fflf 
2 95- ; I 



Jte 



£:T JET, urkarinnu, a precious 
wood. 

i^ynji-Hf-i w ^" club ( ? )" 

//#, ///>, //# ! JgJ, (1) j^tf/«, "to take". 

„ (2) senu 9 "sheep" ; 
also employed as 
determinative be- 
fore names for 
sheep. 
J^JJ ►fc^J, immeru, "lamb, 
sheep". 

J|EJJ, (1) Sipru, "letter, 

message". 
„ (2) mu'uru, "to 

send, to rule" 
(Piel of mdru, 
"to send"). 

, (1) Updtu, "wool"; 
also employed 
as determina- 
tive before 
names of wools 
and woolen 
stuffs. 
(2) ttrtu, "hair". 




tj ISOMfy, trinu, "ce- 
dar". 

J, (1) kiSUtu, "host, the 
world". 



CXXVIII 



INTRODUCTION 



298. 



299. 
3oo. 



3o3. 



304. 



305. 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 








J, (2) $u, or Unitu, "times". 
^►^- J, Marduk t the god. 


296. 


Hf- 




^►^-, ft//**, "incantation". 


297. 




see 261. ^|6^« 






IeEH 



301 . 1 X^TT 

3o2. 



£ 




«T 



iHET 



see 135. £"*>*>- 



jEj;, forJ/«, "to burn". 



^T I^HHSf' nlru, "yoke". 
X^y, bidutu, "joy". 



fa/, jj / ; rag, 
rak\ mim 



^ J sinnil, I "female, 
I sinniltu J wife"; also 
employed as determina- 
tive before female pro- 
per names. 

"^fc- d^-, nukurtu, "hostility". 

^-<y^ ? see2 5 8.<y^. 

£- <T^IM? //ww// ^ "evil". 
\*-£|, mimma, "anything". 



su; rik 



nin 



£^J, beliu, "lady". 

Hf-£^T*=TTT> B *®> the 

goddess. 

~f £*T <M EH ^ 

/<?/«, the goddess of the 
Lower World. 



dam, tarn 



£~fcEj, a**etof "wife". 









LIST OF SIGNS LAA1A 




Sign 


Syl 
g u 


labic values 


Ideograms 


3o6. 


fr* 






£-£ ^ 1^, guzalu, "messen- 




£< 








ger, minister". 
^f- £-*>£j, Ba 9 *, the 
goddess. 


307. 


I naggaru \ a tradesman, 
\ nangaru J "carpenter (?)". 


3o8. 


£* 


amat (in 


the 


£~V, amtu, "maid". 








name 


Ti- 








nik, 


amat) 
nik 






309. 


|«H 




3io. 




el 

/urn 

1 








3n. 


; bum\ 


kus 




3l2. 






„ (2) lipittu, "enclo- 






1 
1 

1 

1 
1 






sure". 


3i3. 


$* 


K^\ (1) ^«, u to disturb, 

to confuse". 






f 






„ (2) daldhu, "to dis- 
order" ; e. g. 
Idru ddlihu, 
"whirlwind". 


314. 


IT 


JJ is frequently used as a 
sign for the plural of 












things that occur regu- 






! 
1 






larly in pairs. 



cxxx 



I NTRODUCTION 



Sign 


Svllabic values 




Ideograms 


3l 5- 


It 


tuk, tuk 

ur\ liky Uk\ ta$, 
ias\ das', das; 
ti$, tiz, tis 


JJ*> (1) tiu, "to have, to 
be". 
„ (2) in proper names 
employed for SubSu 
"to cause to be, 
to create", Shafel 
of ba$u "to be". 


3i6. 


IH 

• 


IH HP- E^TL harharu > 

"leopard" or "jackal". 

IH *TT*k 

[kardu \ 

{ ' J "strong, valiant* . 

1 karradu | 

XTHT HU. **&*> " d °g» 

hound". 
Er J ^ hdimmuQ), "raging 
hound". 


317. 


TT<« 




]]({(, Sumelu, "left". 


3i8. 


Tf 


a 


y^, (1) mu, "water". 
„ (2) aplu, "son". 
„ (3) manly "son". 

Jy ►^y", zandnu, "to rain". 
11 *-*^- 1 determina- 

t^TTT J} ^HF~ f t,ves after 

numbers and measures. 

TJ «=T «tT- 

[ tidmatu | 

| /<z/w/a J "sea". 

1 tdmdu 1 



LIST OF SIGNS 



Ideograms 



319- 



TH? 



]} f Jff, mllu, "flood". 
|| t5^i fP***! "land, re- 
gion". 

Tl *TTT> '*'"' " ficld i estate "- 

|| ^T*— , (t)iaiu, "to weep". 

„ „ (2) bikllu, "weeping, 
tears". 

T? IS*? ndru, "river"; also 
employed as determin- 
ative before names of 
rivers. 

Euphrates. 

fflESJ. sec 279. £<JJ. 

If 1ST *T Z3 Tf. •» 

2 79- I ^-^T - 
physician". 
"irrigator", 
"messenger". 



»-»^- y| [I, Ai, a goddess, 
the spouse of SamaS the 
Sungod. 



5£{| If V, «*««. "ty* &- 



CXXXII 



I NTRODUCTION 



326. 



TTT« 



327. 



W 



Sign 


Syllabic values 

• 


Ideograms 








u lapis lazuli". 


321. 


flf< 


ba 


Iflf^y nunuy "fish"; also em- 
ployed as determinative 
after names of fish. 

}}(]}> balaku, "to be de- 
stroyed". 


322. 


$^£1 


h'ky h'k; sik; zik\ 
pik y pik 




323. 


11 m 


1 
1 

1 


324. 


Uh 


TTT^\ hammamu, "quarter of 
heaven". 


3 25. 


vm" 


tu 

• 


JTTEJ, hilu, "shekel". 



yyy«, *a™, "king-. 



ia, gar 



^P, (1) lakanu, "to set". 
„ (2) h'knu, "image; con- 



struction". 



„ (3) akalu, "food". 

^P ^jyy^, makkuru, "prop- 
erty, possessions". 

^P ►►?!» kudurruy "service, 
vassalage". 

T »F| I bulUy "property, 
TIT T J possessions". 



LIST OF SIGNS 



CXXXIII 



Sign 


Syllabic values 


Ideograms 


" 1 






V Jfc, meSru, "wealth, 
possessions". 

(Km) V> *<**»> "& over - 

nor". 
t] ^ t?=i **//*> "sceptre". 


328. 


W 


ia 


*"HF~ W TT> j sw | ' the s P irits 

of heaven. 


329. 


\m 


at 





List of Numerals. 



3. ITT 



5-W 
8 W I 

WW I 

9.^ 



Men, fern. t'Mem'f, "one" ; edu, fern. ///«, "one" ; ma(tru 9 

fern. mahritUy "first". 

toha, fern, &'//<*, "two" ; ianu, fem. Sanutu, "second". 

[&/ato], fem. lalaUu y lalaltu, Maltu, "three" ; Xattu, 
fem. Salultu, "third". 

arba'u, irba', fem. trbi/fi, irbitta> "four"; ribu, "fourth". 

\fiam$u\ fem. framiliu, "five"; han$u y frattu, "fifth". 
[siXSu], fem. sfttff, "six"; sfilXu, "sixth". 

siba, sibi, fem. sibittu, "seven"; situ, "seventh". 



[samdnu], "eight"; samnu, samanu, "eighth". 



[Ate], fem. AM, "nine" ; tiSu, "ninth". 



CXXXIV 



I INTRODUCTION 



o-< 



II 

12 



•<T 



20 



40. ^ 



60. y 
so. T« 






100. y*- 
1000. ^y*- 

Fractions : 



\eiru\ fern. *fcr/« (constr. st. eteril\ "ten"; dru, 

"tenth". 

[/?#/* eXru], fem. i3Zmi *Jn'/, "eleven". 



"twelve", 
"fourteen", 
"sixteen", 
"eighteen". 
e$rd, "twenty". 

arbdy irba'd, irbd y 
"forty". 
luttu, "sixty". 



3. <TTT 

9- <$ 



"thirteen", 
"fifteen", 
"seventeen", 
"nineteen". 

3o. 4JA, Safoto* Maid, 
"thirty". 
tania, "fifty". 



50. t? 



"seventy". 



200. 



"ninety". 

"two hundred". 



70. y< 
9°. T<« 

2000. yj {J>- "two thousand". 

*y~, /wtf/a, "half; TT_, SuHdnu, SuHdn/u, "third"; 
JjT, SinipUy "two thirds" ; J^[, /am/, "five sixths". 



"eighty". 

"hundred", 
"thousand". 



List of Determinatives. 



Hh 


determinative 


before 


names of deities. 1 


T. 


» 


» 


male proper names. 


*h 


n 


n 


female proper names. 


v, 






f (1) names of countries. 


»> 


n 


| (2) names of mountains. 




>» 


n 


names of tribes and professions. 


•<TT. 


>> 


m 


names of cities. 


Tf&, 


91 


n 


names of rivers. 



1. For examples illustrating the use of the determinatives, see above, 
pp. XXXIX ff. 



LISTS OF DETERMINATIVES AND IDEOGRAMS CXXXV 

t| , determinative before names of trees, woods, and 

wooden objects. 

names of plants. 

names of stones. 

names of stuffs and garments. 

names of wools and woolen 
stuffs. 

names of vessels, 
names of some of the larger ani- 
mals, 
words for sheep, 
words for some parts of the 

body, 
names of the months. 

names of stars and planets. 

after names of places. V 

names of birds. 

names of fish. 





»> 


» 


5P& 


n 


>» 


m. 


» 


>> 


mit, 


m 


n 


*Tfa 


» 


» 


Z3*E, 


»> 


» 


M> 


« 


>» 


£&r<, 


n 


» 


-» 


» 


»> 


«=HK 


m 


n 


m 


» 


aft( 


HTC. 


» 


»> 


IK 


» 


>» 



. , determinatives after numbers. 



determinatives after numbers, and measures. 



TJHF- 

£TTT THf- 

y^*^? IT? T*~"> **^ AT?» si s ns for thc p lural - 



List of Ideograms for the Months. 



„ -I Eto 1 

I L h T~\ . ,_ \ Nisannu, Nisan. 



CXXXVI 



INTRODUCTION 



/ i 



' r 

1 . 



►*►►- 



\ I 



III. 



IV. 



V. 



VI. 



VII. 



►►► 



VIII. 



IX. 



X. 



XI. 



XII. 



JJeT 

JUII 

Jw=T 



xiH. ^ ^tj * mi 



T 



i 
i 
} 

} 



T / 



Simdnu, Si van. 



Bu'uzu, Duzu, Tammu 



Abu, Ab. 



Ululu, Elul. 



Ti'Sn/Uf Tisri. 



Arahsamna, Marcheswai 



KislimUy Kislev. 



Tcbetu, Tebet. 



Sabatu, Sebat. 



Addartiy Adar. 

ar[iu mafiru $a Addari (aL 
termed arfru magrii hi A 
dan) and Addaru arku\ tl 
second Adar or intercala: 
month. 



LISTS OF IDEOGRAMS 



CXXXV11 



List of Ideograms for the principal Deities. 



Anu y 



Bel y 



Eily 



Sin, 



Samd$ t 

Rammanu, 

Marduk, 

Nabu y 

Ninib, 



Nergaly 

Gibil, 

Nusku y 

Ura y 

AMur, 

Mar, 



Belil, 



the god of heaven, usually written *-*?- JI /£~^T 

ilu A-num. l 

the god of the earth and of mankind, ►^f- ►^ ^JfJ 

(frequently written ^'►JJJ ^TII) > ^Hf~ *~* m 

the god of the abyss and of hidden wisdom, written 

►*f- ^yyjl yf ''"^-a. Another name of Ea is ►►f- ^~ 

<£3T ^IA» ilu Nu-dim-mud. 

the Moon-god, *-*y- ►JJ ^-^jy (frequently written 

*~*pyjj ^^yy); ^^f-^^- Another name of Sin is 

Nannaru, *-»f- gtffi <J|J. 

the Sun-god, *~>\- ^J. 

the Storm-god, ►^- ^»^. ; (-^) ^. 

Merodach, the god of Babylon, ►*¥-^£^T; ►*?- 

QD;HF-I- 

Nebo, the god of Borsippa, ►^p- *~J»J (frequently 
written ^Jj^J) ; ►frf- £?=• 

a god of solar character, *~*^- ^Ef till' ilu N* n -*b J 
(*-*f-) ^f~« Another name of Ninib is Utgallu, >-*^- 

*T ^Ttt! (or .*n) & 

the god of battle, »-*^- ^]]- 

the Fire-god, «f ^tj -JTA, HP" ^T 4- 

a form of the Fire-god, ►►^- ^JEj. 

the Plague-god, ►►^- ►►tf E^yf- 

the national god of Assyria, (►^f~) ►►^P ; *"*hp 4^« 

the goddess (i) of love, {2) of battle, ►^ ^Pf 

(frequently written •""►JVT)» ^Hp" ^^JAT' 

the spouse of Bel, ►^f- £~Ey fc=YyY- 



I. A few names that are written phonetically are here included. 



t_ . 



CXXXVIII INTRODUCTION 

Damkina, the spouse of Ea, written *-*j- x?"SE| ^Jsf *~^"T> 

tUi Dam-ki-na. 
At, the spouse of SamaS, written ►>qp J^ J^, //a ^/. 

jftz'i/, the spouse of Ninib, *-^f- , £-^ ^Ej» 

AllatUy the goddess of the Under-world, ►^f- ^Ej ^^J Ej^- 
^7£/', the spirits of heaven, *~*f~ H^TT Ej*"" J» »*» , 

HP- W TT- 

Anunnaki, the spirits of earth, written ►^p- J^ ^"TTTT *~^~T ^l^T' 
ilu A-nun-na-ki. 



List of Ideograms for the principal Countries, 

Cities and Rivers. 

Akkadu, Northern Babylonia, *|§Vt^ ^I^J. 

Arba'ilu, Arbela, XX- ^Hf~ (XHJ), ^IT ►& ►Hh 

*Jtor, Assyria, V mJ^ «Jg^ ( V ) >{ffi) 9 * «f A 

/l««r, the city ASSur, ^JJ ^» J F, »-£-J* »-< <I^J, (^TT) 

*yyy^yy- 

£&»»/«, Elam, (V) <C^T Ej <HJ. 

Eridu, Eridu, -tTT A, -JTTT <Ef- 

the Tigris, |J & — w~, JJ £j 4- J^ ^. 

»». ur, ^ £<siy <J|f. 

flra*, Erech, C=<^<<<"7 {^]. 

Urartu, Armenia, E=YU7. 

Babilu, Babylon. -^ -4 (^fl) «J|J), £J «f ^ 

/?/£/<?/ see Idiklat. 

*•*/«, cuthah, -tyy >£^ ^ yj <jgy. 



■ 



LISTS OF IDEOGRAMS CXXX1X 

I^agaiy the ancient Sirpurla, ►^^ E V >^\ ^I^J- 
Ijarsam, Larsam, ^J £X^ <« | ^E|. 
Ninua y \ ^ *, v y**~w 

« | Nincveh ' *33f <& 

Nippur, Nippur, ^ ^ <HJ, ^ fc^ <Jg[. 

&>/ tf r, sippar, *y £$ — TTTT <M- 

Puralu, Euphrates, ^ ^f.|^ *"TT*~* 

Sunur, Southern Babylonia, ^JEJ fcJjiJffli (or *~\\) *~]]&, 



• • 



• • 



NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABY- 
LONIAN AND ASSYRIAN KINGS. 



I. Sargon of Agade, about 3 800 B. C. 

Sar - ga - ni - tar - ait tar 

Sargani - Sar-ali, king 



A - #z- 
of Aga- 




de *' 
de. 



i '••-■ 



II. Naram-Sin, about $750 B. C. 

^T E*=TT ^ HF- -II ^TT *I3S <Ef Hf E^TI 

Afc - ra - am - tlu Sin Sar ki - ib - ra- 

Naram - Sin, king of the four 

-£V <MTI^TA4 

Am ar - ba - im 

quarters. 

III. Hammurabi, king of Babylon, about 2200 B. C. 

#a - <w» - iw« - ra - £# fa/n* dannu 

^ammurabi, the mighty king, 

of Babylon. 




tar 
king 



NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS 



amSi-Rammanj.of'Assyrta} about 1820 B. C. 

.•'Aa/«.^Jf/ - ,/w Ramman iUakku AUur mar 

; * # \ :.\ • * SamSi-Ramman, ruler of ASSur, son 






1$ -me- ilu Da - £»/* ttfaykto ,7tt A - J i/r 

of I§me-Dagan, ruler of ASSur. 

V. Pudi-ilu, king of Assyria, about 1350 B. C. 

T*-*HP- « v-V TJ ^TII **** « 

m Pu - di - tfe tor »*"* ^4H«r a/f? ,/M ^/ - whin Jfaf 
Pudi-ilu, king of Assyria, son of Bel-nirari, king 

mtf/ « -dttfor 0/1/ AUur-uballit far ***** Attur 

of Assyria, son of ASSur-uballit, king of Assyria. 

VI. Ramman-nirari I, king of Assyria, about 1325 B. C. 

m Ramman-nirari far mdtu AUur apil Pu - di - ilu Xar 
Ramman-nirari, king of Assyria, son of Pudi-ilu, king 

mdtu Attur 
of Assyria. 

VII. Shalmaneser I, king of Assyria, about i3oo B. C. 

THf-I3=ETHF- « <SI TJ <*\& 

m ilu Sulmdnu-aSaridu far k&fati apil Ramman-nirari 
Shalmaneser, king of the world, son of Ramman-nirari. 



« <SI 

far ktifati 
king of the world. 



NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS 3 

VIII. Merodach-Baladan I, king of Babylonia, about 1200 B. C. 

,/tt Afarduk - 0/1/ - iddina(na) far kis's'ali far 
Merodach-Baladan, king of the world, king 

Sumiri KI Akkadi mar Me - // - h - 

of Sumer (and) Akkad, son of Meli - Si - 

hu $ar Bdbili KI Uplipi 

5u, king of Babylon, descendant 

Wi -TTI ET- ^TT *£$ -ET ^IT ^T HP- 

Ku - n - £tf/ - sk larri la $a - na - an 

of Kurigalzu, a king without equal. 

IX. Nebuchadnezzar I, king of Babylonia, about 1150 B. C. 

,7a Nabu-ku-dur - ri - usur rubu na - a - du na- 
Nebuchadnezzar, the prince, exalted (and) 

*SSE ^ ^TT ^T 2< **ffl <Hf <=TJ -< 

as - ku si - /'/ Bdbili KI e-lil 

magnificent, offspring of Babylon, the lord 

Sarrdni P l iUakku Aar-du Sakkanakku 

m 

of kings, the courageous ruler, governor 

of Eridu, the sun of his land. 
X. Tiglath-Pileser I, king of Assyria, about 1100 B. C. 

i hm< ri tmr^^TT « v "■ T * 

Tukulti(ti) - apil - E - far - ra Ur n*'" Attur apil 

Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, son 



m 



NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS 

T^^TTs^^ « v - If T*S53f 

m AUur - re$ - i - A' far ""H* ^flter *//'/ m J/i/ - /<?*- 
of ASSur-reS-iSi king of Assyria, son of Mutak- 

D Hf-*nr « v - 

kil - //tt Afcjyfo for "**" Aihtr 
kil - Nusku, king of Assyria. 



INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF HAMMU- 
RABI, KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT ^aaaesB. C. 



[Brit. Mus., No. 12215.] 



{fa -am - mu - ra - 0i Sarru dannu tar 

Hammurabi, the mighty king, king 

Babili KI lar ki - ib - ra - tim 

of Babylon, king of the four 

ar - fo - //w 3tf-«i ma-tim Sarru $a 

' quarters, the founder of the land, the king whose 



ip - $a - tu - $u a - na Si - *r ,/u SatnaS u 

deeds unto the heart 1 of SamaS and 



,/w Marduk ta - ba a - na - ku duru la 

m 

Marduk are well-pleasing, am I. The wall of 

*T «f Hffflf <HJ *fe *TI *T- -TU <Ef ET sm 

Sippar KI in e - /i* - r/ £f-jna sa- 

Sippar with earth like a 

1. Literally "flesh". 



6 INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF HAMMURABI 

-m A4f «5. ^TT 3 A4f -HI <T- JT M <MSJ 

lu - im l ra - bi - im ri - h' - hi lu - «- 

great mountain its summit I 



ul - //' ap - pa - ra - jot lu - u$ ~ ta - at - fri- 

raised. With a swamp I surrounded 



m mi *°. im*i tsHffflf n-nf ^«fHffff<m 

ir - $u * «<""« a - na Sippar KI 

it. The canal to Sippar 



/« - j$ - ri - a - am - ma* kar hi - ul - mi - im 
I dug out and a wall of safety 

coi. H, ,. j@j <H£ij -:yyy <*- ^ff flf< t^ •* e^=TT 

lu - & - um - mi - su l ffa - am - mu - ra- 
I erected for it. rjammura- 



bi ba - »i wfl - tim Sarru Xa ip - Jfa - lu - Jte 

bi, the founder of the land, the king whose deeds 



5. yf ~nr <!^ m «f *T <MSJ HP- «*T £TT 

a - na h' - /r l/tt SamaS u tlu Marduk la- 

unto the heart of SamaS and Marduk are well- 



^1 TJ ^T HI *T 3J Hffl <HJ <H£H ^ HP- 

3a a - na - ku Sippar KI u Babi- 

pleasing, am I. Sippar and Baby- 

1. sa-tu-im = sadim, i. e. sadi with the mimation. 

2. Ill 2. fr. saharu. 

3. I I, fr. Ajn/. 

4. lu-u-um-mi-su = lummid-su Hi, fr. emedu. 



THE STRENGTHENING OF SIPPAR 7 

&n<m - ji -*t ^t ^i aha ~sv n ^i 

li KI $u - ba - at ne - ih - /i/w <* - na 

Ion in a peaceful habitation 

^[T-eTTff-tfV iaj<HSI*<I-HI flf<^^ 

dard~a-tim lu - u - $e - $i - ib ffa - am - mu- 

continuously I caused to dwell. yammu- 



ra - bi mi - gi - /r ,/tt SamaX na - ra - am 

rabi, the darling of SamaS the beloved 



«f «*T If -Hf © ^11 J^II ^1 *T <TTT ^11 

ilu Marduk a - na - ku $a i$ - tu u - urn si- 

of Marduk am I. That which from days of 

If -£*r t&fc fcfe ^35 J! (?) «>. -El HI 

a - //>« forrw />* torn* - Su la ib- 

old no king for his king had 



& <HSJ If ~nr -+ *T - & ^If E^II tX ^11 

«# - ii a - na ilu Samat be - /// - /<z ra - £i - tf 

built, for SamaS my lord gloriously 



m mtc *- ^i jt <m 

/« - e - pu - u$ - $u - w/7i 
have I accomplished. 



THE . 
MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-N1RARI 1, 
KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 1325 B.C. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 1211 1.] 

m tIu Ramman-nirari rubu el - lu si - mat Hi 

Ramman-nirari, the illustrious prince, adorned by god, 



2 . t® -T< iMTT HIT W H=fcj -4- <HJ «f !■ 

c - ti - el - lu Sa - ka - an - £i" Hani? 1 

the ruler, the viceroy of the gods, 

mu - ki - i« ma - ha - » »** - ir dap-nu - /*' 

the founder of cities, the destroyer of the 

um - ma - an KaS - ft* - * Ajk - /*" - i Lu - /«- 

mighty hosts of the KaSSi, the Kuti, the Lulu- 

T- ** 5. <HUT JT ^T -TTI ** ** A fcH <<:T 

me - i u $u - ba - ri - i /w« - Ai - /j£ £»/- 

ml, and the Subari, annihilator of 



^T ^! 6. ~ry <nf -TTX *TJ A T <MUT 3Wf *T 



/a - at 


na 


- *i - 


ri 


e - m 


u 


Sap - US 


all 




foes 




above 


and 


below, l 



1. That is, around the Upper and the Lower Sea, i. e., Lake Van and Lake 
Ummiyah. 



THE TITLES OF THE KING 9 

da - i$ matati - $u - nu fit - lu Lu - up - <// 

trampling down their lands from Lupdu 

<HUT v e^TT *T- tx s- If <T^ ^ m }H *& 

u mdtu Ra - pi - ku a - </i E - lu - ha - at 

and Rapiku up to Eluljat, 



w - hi - // &' - Sat ni - A' mu - ra - /tf 

fwho has takcni hosts of men, who has enlarged 

\ possession of I 



T-£T-ffI<H£TTM^WTI -^ W JTtJ 

ai* - if - ri u ku - du ~ ri farru fa naphar 

boundary and frontier, the king for whom all 



et mm <vm Hfff t— »■ hf- tj*- -f -v 

ma - a/ - */ u rube P l ilu A - nu ilu AS far 

rulers and princes Anu, ASSur, 



HF- *T -4- A# ». <HUT HF- -TTX TJ ^T * 

l/k Samai tIu Ramman u ilu /Star a - na $e- 

SamaS, Ramman and I Star at his 

*T- J! «=!!!«= * HFI* sr [ JT1 '3. W HF- ^ «=TTT«= 

//' - fo u - $e - ik - ni - Su fa - an - gu ~ u 

feet have forced into submission, the exalted 

si - ru fa liu Bel mar Pu - di - i/« Jfo- 

priest of Bel, the son of Pudi-ilu, go- 



-& :*: HF- -II «=TTT «s. ^TT V -Sf <M Hf- -V 

^ - ni ilu Bel a - fa - ak - ki ilu ASSur 

vernor of Bel, ruler of ASSur, 



IO THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI I 

ka - Si - id ■*"* Tu - ru - ki - i u 

the conqueror of TurukI and 



md/l1 Ni - £WM -A' tf - di pa - a/ £i)» - ri - fo 

Nigimti to its entire extent, 

-TTA T- tm i8 - ET «*KH v *e <H£U A£ 

£7* - mi - /'r ma - a/ - £/' Sadi(i) u ftur- 

all of (its) rulers, (its) mountains and high- 

V sg: 19.^= tET ^ ~T< *E E^TT ^T* ^T< 

fo - ni pa - d/ Aw - ti - 1 ra - /a/ - /* 

lands, the boundary of the wide-spreading Kuti, 

^« - nu Ah - la - me - i u Su - /1 - 1 

the district (?) of the Aljlaml and Suti, 

.,. *Efl *flT* HTC <h@j eT £TTT ~T< Ml *- 

la - u - ri u ma - ta - ti - ,?« - »« 

the Iauri and their lands, 



... ^E^TTEJJ< FsTHTC <HSJ IEJ^WTI 

/w« - r<z - />/'/ w^ - is - r* « ku ~ du - ri 

who enlarged boundary and frontier, 

.3. s£ ss; V Hf- -II *TTT ^ ^ ><■ fc JH HP- 

war mart' Sa tlu Bel - nirari Sangu tlu 

grandson of Bel-nirari, priest of 



-V ET W tCTTT EI «f ^ <!- ^ .5. tE -Hf *jn ET 

ASSur-ma Sa um - ma - 0/1 A^^ - Si - 1 i - na - ru - ma 

ASsur, who the hosts of the KaSSI destroyed 



THE KING'S GENEALOGY 1 1 



u na - ga - ab za ~ t - ri - $u ka - su 1 

and the whole of his enemies his hand 



ik " $u - du mu - ra - //£ 01* - if - ri u 

conquered, who enlarged boundary and 



ku - du - r* /i - ip - li - /i" fa ,/u AMur- 

frontier, the great-grandson of ASSur- 

uballit larri dan - «i £a $a - an - gu - su* 

uballit, the mighty king, whose priesthood 



*£ ^y «=TTTT v e^TT -£*- 3a jy ^y -IT- <HSJ 

i - na e - £«r - ra - /r/n to - to - rat u 

in the temples was glorious and 



to - /«/« J^arrw - // - to a - na ru - ka - li ki - ma 

whose royal prosperity unto distant (lands) like 

v (* m ^- s 2 . ^ ^yy ^ ^^yy ^yyy ^y 

Xadl(i) ku - nu mu - « - // - /J el - /a- 

a mountain was established, who broke up the 

*ET 33. v jy ^tf — TTI s=E E*=TT ^V *A< 3 4- ^ 

a t mdtu Su - ba - r* -i ra - /a/ - /*' *&«- 

forces of the wide-spreading Subarl, who 



yy m y- ^y -tti <vm m ^ htu 3 *- ^ y- ey 

ra - /tf /»*- if - ri u ku - du - ri e - nu-ma 

enlarged boundary and frontier. When 

I. ka-su = kat-su. — 2. Sa-an-gu-su = iangHt-su. 



12 THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI I 

^HTT< -ET -^f ^TT ^TTTT HF- HP -II ^TJ 36 - V 

f/ir - la - la fa bit ilu AS far belt - ia fa 

the sir-la-la of the temple of ASSur my lord, which 



K ^TT] -*T ttj & <« H- ET -<T< s 7 . <H@y 

tar - si ba - ab ni - ei Hi ma - ti u 

is opposite the gate {^^ t ^[j c } of the god of the land'' and 



^fttT HP- 1^ — T— 38.v^^r T ^^r T 

3;/ - tf£ i/i daiane P l fa i - na pa - na 

the gate (called) "the god of judges", which in former days 



HJJT *ff ~nr ^Hfff ET 39. AHTCf A sT <HgBf 

ip - fa e - na - ah - ma ih - fii- is u 

/had bccn\ had fallen into decay, had subsided, and 

I built, f • ' ' 

sey-sff 40. ^^yy vti-^t *TTT<=*T-A 

i - nu - u$ at - ra fa - a - tu u - /i - $i- 

was in ruins, that place I strengthen- 

55 4i. tyfl ~nr ^TT -fif JT *T 4- ^T ~T< 

ir dan - na - su 1 ak - fa - ud it - ti 

ed, its base I reached, with 

*- -EST <H@J HI -m V h=tt «=TTT«= ^T^TT tj| 

/« - //' u ip - r/ ifa a/M £f - ba - si - e 

stone and earth from Ubase 



43. t Tf^^<T TJ^T --TTIJT *TTT<=*T5» 

e - pu - u$ a - na a$ - ri - fa u - te - ir 

I built (it), to its place I restored (it) 



44.<HBI ^T-TTI^TJ -I^tfflf 45. T^^T 

u na - ri - ia a$ - ku - un a - na 

and my tablet I set up. In 

X. dan-na-su = dannat-su. 



THE RESTORATION OF THE TEMPLE OF ASSUR 1 3 



<MU * *T T~~- Hfff <T— TTX m *TTT<= 46. *ff + $ 

ar - kat time P l rubu ar - ku - u e - nu-ma 

future days let a future prince, when 

a$ - ru $u - u u - Sal - ba - ru - ma e- 

that place shall have grown old and fallen 



T HTC 48. -f Hfl **TT IBDf <W= ^TT ^T -TTI ^ 

na - fan an - fyu - su l lu - </i" - /£ na - ri - & 

into decay, its ruins repair, my tablet, 



^y r- v 6k=tt 49. tj ^r - -m ^r i@j ~t< ss 

lu - me Sat - ra a - na a$ - ri - lu lu - /1 - ir 

the record of my name, into its place let him restore, 

Hf- ~V 50. HR* -HI ^ JT *E * F V 

,7 * Allur ik - ri - be - lu 1 - & - me la 

so that ASSur to his prayers may hearken. But whosoever 

jr v v mi 5«. he ^ <i- mr et jt jcttt ^t 

lu - me tat - ra i - fta - li - /« - ma lu - k/h - fo 

the record of my name blots out and his own name 



hev^tpjh s*.<n>mm ^wti^tj m* 

i - la - ta - ru u lu na - ri - ia u- 

inscribes, or my tablet 



la - am - sa - ku a - na la - afr - lu ~ uk - ti 

conceals, (or) to destruction 



i - ma-nu - u a - na mi - Urn 1 ~ na - du - u 

consigns (it), (or) into the stream casts (it), 

1. an-hu-su = an-hut-su. 



14 THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMXN-NIRARI I 



*s ^T ^PT 55. *e ^T jm *TTT«= TJ ^T TF T- 

i - na tldti i - ka - lu - u a - na mi P l 

(or) in the fire burns (it), (or) into the water 



«=ee^T^MTT* 56. et^i MfiF*T--TU *TTT* 

j - na - du - u i - na e - pi - ri u- 

throws (it), (or) with earth cov- 



ka - ta - mu a - na bit ikliti (?) a - far 

ers (it) up, (or) into a dark chamber where 

-eeT fi ST -TR 58- tmt * -TTX *- ET ^ V -*H *- 

Za a-ma - ri u - U - ri - bu-ma i - ta - ka - nu 

it cannot be seen brings and places (it), 



59. <MgJ HH - ^ 55 -TTI ~T< <T- ^T ~T< ~Hf 

k lu a$ - fo/w /'r - « - /1 &' - na - A' - na 

or if (anyone) because of those curses l 



60. ~ry .*fcj ^yy yj jj< yj ^ yj ^y <y_ ~ry 

na - ka - ra a - ha -a ia - a - ba Urn - /*<i 

a bitter foe, an evil enemy, 



6,. ^yy v ~HT ^T <M tt £TTT M eeT t] 

li ~ $a - na na - £1 - ir - /a lu ma -ma 

a hostile tongue, 3 or any 



6 2 .v^yyj *ttt* en? *jn £T tmtvw^n 

$a ~ na - a u - ma- a - ru-ma u - $a - ha - zu 

other man sends and causes ^him) to seize (it), 



1. That is, the curses that follow those acts. 

2. /. ?., "a man of hostile tongue, a slanderer." 



CURSES ON THE SACRELIGIOUS 15 



u lu mi - im - ma i - )}a - sa ~ sa ~ ma 

or if any plan he conceives and 

t=TJ^JT 64.«f~V Hf- ^TT^m TKMdJ 

* - pu - $u tlu AXXur ilu ft - ru a - Ji - r$ 

carries out, may ASSur the exalted god who dwelleth 

*TTTT A£ ^TT3= w MT 65. Hf- Tl *- -4- -II <=TTT 

J? - ftar - jdgr - kur-kur - ra l/tt A- nu ilu Bel 

in Efoarsagkurkura, Anu, Bel, 



Hf-*TTTTTJ <HE0f HF-HI«-Hf-T— EH 

Ea and iStar, the great gods, 



*f *£ -IT A £* W Hf- <=TJ 67. HP ff HRPf ^T Ef 

'/« I - gi ~ gu $a $amc{e) ttu A - »«/» - na - ku 

the Igigu of heaven, the Anunnaku 



V ss *ETT H< *E ^T JT a J! y- 68 - -MT* 

$a ir - ft - ti 1 - »a naphar - hi - nu iz - si- 

of earth, all of them, in 



TT -^TT <HJ 1MTT ^ £T E! 69. ss -TTX £TTT 

*J /# - &" - */ - mu - Xu-ma ir - n* - /a 

anger look upon him and with an 



eeT *jn ^T &TTT -B -TTA ^TT 70. ^fT *jn *ffl 

ma - ru - 11$ - ta ag - ^1 - tf /* - ra - r«- 

evil curse in wrath may they curse 

Jf ^ JT ^J! ^m^T^T! 7.. <H£fl 

i« Sumi - f « 2^/7* - iu el - la - su l u 

him ; his name, bis seed, his relatives and 

1. el-la-su = ellat-su. 



1 6 THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMXN-NIRARI I 



kt - im - ta - $u i - na matt lu - fral - li - ku 
his family in the land may they destroy; 



na - a$ - pu - «# mati-Su ha - la - a£ i|i - &« 

may the ruin of his land, the destruction of his 



M 73. <h@j IU ^T -Til M ^ ^T *T- £T *- 

Jfa « ku - du - ri - $u i - na pi - lu - nu 

people and of his border at their weighty 



«- 74-IEjy R t^ ET Hf- A4f *£ ^T HTTX A tT 

&z£/*' lu - sa - am- ma tiu Ramman i - na ri - £i - if 

command be decreed ; may Ramman with an evil 

li - mu - // // - ir - &i - su l a - bu - bu 

downpour overwhelm him, may flood, 

7 6. 4tff <HH sm AHfflf ET - -s£T *T J! *TTT<= 

.fan* ///7///w sa - ah ~ ma -at - /« /* - £« - « 

destructive wind, rebellion, hurricane (and) 

<z - Sam - $u - tu su - un - ku bu - bu - lu 

m 

tempest, want (and) famine, 



78. fl *jn IH ^T HI ^T! HI *£ ^T v JT HIT 

a - ru - ur - /# ftu - $a - $u i - /ia mati-Su lu 

drought (and) hunger in his land be 



ka - /id - tf// mat - su a - bu ~ bi - ii lu - uX- 

continuous ; on his land like a flood may he 2 

I. li-ir-hi-su = lirhis-su — 2. /. e., Ramman, the storm-god. 



CURSES ON THE SACRELIGIOUS 17 



^y tEE 79 .ff~Hf <m <HUT ^TTfT- HIT 

da - i a - na tili u kar - me hi- 

plunge down, into mounds and ruins may 



Hf< 5* Hf- &%- *E ^T ~ -TTI HTC* -e^TT ^ ~T< 

/* - /'r //tt Ramman i - na be - r/' - /# // - mu - // 

Ramman convert (it), with a destructive bolt 

v ^TT -Ei=TT HI -TTI HTI* so. ^f * HTI W 

mat - j« li - id - r/* - ik arah mu - hu - wr 

his land may he blast. The month of homage (?) 



-Hf- T— *T « A-t .^yy ^ y <y^ eT *- 

i/a«i * 7 umu XX KASi li - mu m Sulmdnu- 

to the gods, 20th day, eponymy of Sulmanu- 

Karradu 
Karradu. 



THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TIGLATH 
PILESER I, KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 

i ioo B. C. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 12176.] 



1. T sT m ~T< tS»T «=TTTT A E^TT *m ^ ^T 

m Tukulti(ii) - apil - E - Mr - ra idlu kar - du 
Tiglath-pileser, the valiant hero, 



ta - me - /'// '*" ^tf/A* la - a $a - na - an mu- 

who holds a sceptre without equal, who 

M- *jn ►* 4Hf- IH «*TT -TTI 4- Hf- £tf HI 

gam -me - rw w« - ' - ur si - n ilu Nin - t£ 

exercises lordship over the field. Ninib 



« //« Nergal kakke P*-$u-nu iz - zu - te 

and Nergal their terrible weapons 



w ''" &?.fa/ - $u - nu si ~ ir - /a a - «a 

and their exalted bow to 



*ee <r^ -11 ht< «*ti ^11 tin m 7. ^ -nf 

f - di bilu - //" - ia i$ - ru - ku i - na 

my lordly power have presented. At 



PURSUIT OF WILD OXEN 19 

si - &r ,/tt Aft* - ib ra'imi - ia IV bu - hal 

the bidding of Ninib, who loveth me, four male 




rimdni P 1 dan - nu - tc $u - iu - ru ~ fe i - na 

wild oxen, strong (and) mighty, in 



HTC MTFF *T ^^!v <^ £TTT TJ ^ - <H£U 

hu - n£ - /* 1 - na mdtu Mi ~ ia - a - ni u 

the desert in the land of Mitani and 



tgE^T -eTTff E^IT HT* £11 W #= ~f 

1 - »<* < l/tt -^ - ra - si - ki $a pa - <?« 

in Araziki, which is before 



1,14/11 ffa-at - /* 1 - na '>* &z/// - ia </a/i - //a - /* 

the land of the yatti, with my strong bow, 



».JTHr*T Hf-HF- <MHT B=MHf-w=HF- 

i« - ku - «</ parzilli u mul - /wk/- 

my spear of iron and my 



li - w 2tf£ - fu - ie na - /*£ - /a - .fo - hi* 
sharp darts I 

« - $ik - ti malke & - £« - «n ^/^ ^ 7 - 

slew. 1 Their hides, their 



$u - nu a - na ali - & l/tt ^ - for «£ - /a 

horns to my city ASSur I brought. 

1. Literally, "their life I brought to an end." 



2* 



20 THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TIGLATH-PILESER I 



X pirani P l bu - ha - It dan - nu - /* 

Ten elephants, males, mighty ones, 



1 - na matu tfarrani(?ii) u Si - di ndru ffa- 

in yarran and the district oftheya- 



bur lu - u a - </ȣ /J 7 pirani F l 

bur did I slay ; four elephants 



bal - lu - te lu - u - sa- bi - ta maSke P l 

alive I caught ; their 



JI ^ *». ^H I— J! *- ^T ~T< ^ ^TT T 

,?« - nu Sinnali F l - jfo - nu it - ti pirani F l 

hides (and) tusks together with the live 



3a/ - lu - le 

m 


a - «<z 


ali - z'a 


ilu A - for 


elephants 


to 


my city 


ASSur 



s£ ^T «• -E ^T ^!T ^ff< -HP ^ET HI 

ub - /</ / - na si - /v'r ,v " Nin - *2 

I brought. At the bidding of Ninib, 



e^TT A«f <^ ^ *3. yy jy <y^ jh ^n y 

ra - ' - mi - /'</ // Ut - ft' »*& ^ 

who loveth me, one hundred and twenty lions 



tE ^y *yyy 3 *etj -ti* <[*■• **■ ** ^r 

/' - na lib - bi - ia ik - <// 1 - na 

with my courageous heart by 



SLAUGHTER OF ELEPHANTS AND LIONS 21 



c=TTT *ffl ^ <tt ^T EfT Hf< *£TJ -5. eg ^ 

&'/ - ru - ub mi - it - lu - ii - *Vz 1 - /*a 

the attack of my power on 




foot did I slay, and eight 



C «^" ^ / - na ,?u narkabti-ia 

hundred lions in my chariot 

1 - na pat - /w - te u h'm - kit 

with I brought low. 



as. ^ <tf* «f <£= -IT A EW £TTT <HUT -U 

£« - «/ j^n' £** - w/'r - /a « issur 

All beasts of the field and birds 



$ami{e) 


mut 


- /#/ - r/ ■ 


■ Sa 


e - i'm 


ni- sig- 


of the heaven 




that fly 




among 


my 



-HA T— t*ft 30. njy t yyy t ^y s^TTT *£T <I^ x 

gi P l - w lu - u at - la - ad - di 

spoils (?) I cast. 

1. Col. VI, II. 55— 84. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR- 
NASIR-PAL, KING OF ASSYRIA, 884—860 B. C. 

[From the stele No. 847 and paper squeezes in the British Museum.] 

ana tiu Nin - ib gil - ri dan - dan - ni firi 

To Ninib, the powerful, the strong, the exalted, 



fltMTfl ~fT— IH^TT^ *£fcJHTC 

aiarid Hani P l kardu Sar - fiu 

the chief of the gods, valiant, mighty, 



git - «a - lu $a ina tahazi la il - $a - na - nu 

perfect,^ whose onslaught in battle cannot be 

/1 - bu- lu aplu Hi tu - 1/ &j - .fa/ 

equalled, the son of highest rank, destroyer of 



turn - ku - fw</ - /* ' bu - £*/r //tt iV« - <///» - aim/ 

opposition, first-born of Nudimmud, 



IH^TT^ «f WTT &*WI* ETIH Hf-T- 

karrad tIu Igigi ti'u ma - lik Hani P l 

hero of the Igigi, the mighty, prince of the gods, 

1. The form tukma-te occurs as a variant reading. 



THE PRAISE OF THE GOD NINIB 23 

i - lit - H E - for «« - £/7 war - &w $*amc(e) 

offspring of Ekur, who holds the bolt of heaven 

u irsilim(tim) pi - tu - u nak - be 

and earth, who opens the depths, 

&j - 3i - j/ irsitim(tim) rapalti{tt) ilu $a ina 
who treads the broad earth, the god without 



■AWA <«HF-T— Hf-*ff <Ef-^r V- 

&z - lu - if/ purusse P l $ame{e) irsitim(tim) la 

whom the decisions of heaven (and) earth are not 



ipparasu(su) mu - /Mr - £« j% - du Sa la - a 

decided, the destroyer, the strong, the com- 



*R*< <I£MTTT ^fcJI ^MT? sfcT« 

e - nu-u ki - bit pi - $u aSarid kibrati P l 

mand of whose mouth is not void, chief of the four quarters, 



na - <#« '*" fratti u purussi ana nap - fiar kal 

giver of sceptre and decision unto the whole of all 

a lam gu - gal - /« Jtefli - ru Sa la - a 

cities, the ruler, the violent, the com- 

ut - tak - ka - ru si - &'r .fa/ - // - fo /i'j7 

mand of whose lips is not altered, the mighty, 



24 INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL 



rap - fo abkal Hani P l mu - tal - lu ilu Ut- 

the great, spokesman of the gods, the exalted, Ut- 



£a//ff &7 btle(e) $a kip - /a/ $ami(e) 

gallu, ! lord of lords, whose hand the ends of heaven 



*.<m~&: ^IUJWI~T « ^T lf< -TTX 

irsitim(tim) hi - tuS - Su pak - du .far tarn - ha - r/' 

(and) earth controls, king of the battle, 

a - // - /« jfri /«/« - ku - ma - tu 2 i - //' - /« 3 

strong one, who opposition has conquered, 

jr<fcT*©Tmr *-ethltt -h -&©-< < 

.fa - til - lu - /// #// - ff/tf - /« fo/ Htf£ - fo 1/ 

triumphant, perfect, lord of the depths and 



TJ w=T ^T I— 7. tf ^!! -ET s^MTT* V 

tamati F l iz - s« /# /a - </*/ - u $a 

the oceans, terrible, unspa/ing, whose 



// - 3« - i« a - bu - ^« w - />w wtf/ nakire P l 

onslaught is the deluge, who overwhelms the land of enemies, 

mu - u ~ him - kit tar - #7 - £7 #/« for - #« 

who overthrows the wicked, a powerful god, 



1. A name or title of the god Ninib. 

2. tuk-matu occurs as a variant reading. 

3. 1 i, Pret. fr. belu. 



THE PRAISE OF THE GOD NINIB 25 



$a la e - nu - u mil - lik - $u nu - ur $ami(e) 

whose counsel is not void, the light of heaven 

<m ~&r ^w Hf- -r <m *m --tt »=t 

irsitim {tini) muS - /<zr - </« &' - r/3 apst 

(and) earth, who gives light to the depth of the abyss, 

^ tt y t yny <t- y- hk •* •^ « -et 

mu - ab - bit Urn - nu - /j" mu - $ak - »/$ la 

who annihilates the wicked, who brings to subjection the 



ET-TTA-TTI *-IH flf*ETHMTI V - 

ma - ^1 - n" mu - //<// - //'£ za - ia - a - n &z ina 

disobedient, who destroys foes, whose name in 



[.*W] -Hf- W 9-^1 HP- ET K4 ET -ET 

puhur Hani P l Sum-Su ilu ma - am - *»# la 

the assembly of the gods no god can 

■^T**m* -T-TT -<T<-ET -HF- dM*TTT* 

/«« (u) ka - # balati ilu rim - nu - u 

humble, the giver of life, a merciful god 

V ^TT*-I A^TTT* TIT- -£TMTJA -II 

/a « - ftu - $u tabu a - Sib alu Kal - fii belt 

to whom to pray is good, who dwells in Calah, a 

EF *fi -II TJ T -V *- TJ « MTOf V- 

rabe(e) belt' -a m AHur - na§ir-aplu Sarru dan - /*« 

great lord, my lord, [I] AS5ur-nas>-pal [do pray], the mighty king, 



-« I « -ET V-^T-HP- « <^:Tv 

far kiUati $ar la $a - na - an far kul - lat 
king of the world, a king without equal, king of the whole 



26 INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL 



I3WT' 



kib - rat arba*i(i) 
of the four quarters, 



4- *W JT 

the Sun of 



5<1 V 

the hosts 



sgzyn HF-~ < HF- + 



dear to 



ilu Bel u ilu Ninib 

Bel and Ninib, 



of men, 



na - ra - am 
darling of 



HMJ« »• < Hf-^fT^ ^HJT^T 



ilu A - nim 
Anu 



u 
and 



il * Da - gan 
Dagan, 



ka - $u - u$ 
beloved of 



Hf-y— EM— -E3fflRf-*[ ^T^TT^ 



Hani & rabuti P 1 

the great gods, 



Sak - tu 
submissive, 



na - ra - a/w 
the darling of 



*m^H HFff*TTT<= F^< HF- ■* V 



thy heart, 



rubu(u) me - gir tlu Bel $a 

the prince, the favourite of Bel, whose 



*jn**TT «H »• HF- Hf< -s=fcJ ET- ~T< 

Bangui - jtt */* f'/w - fi - ka rabiti (ft) 

priesthood unto thy great godhead 



**■ A v- ET -*£[ ^H <T- ^T 



i - /* - bu - ma 

m 

is good so that 



/« - for - &" - du 
thou hast established 



his reign, 




HIT S5*^T V 



:TM^T< ~W 



id - /« kar - </« fa f>uz tukulti (//') AX$ur 

the valiant hero, who with the help of ASSur 



belt' - iu 
his lord 



ittalaku (ku) - 
proceeds 



ma ina mal - ki P l 

and among the princes 



i3. Tf 

Sa 
of 



THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KING 27 



M - ra/ irbitta (to) Sa - nin - Su la i$u(u) 

the four quarters a rival has not, 

*ett *=t*n ti*t ^i w<!&w sir 

r*'£ tab - ra - a - le la a - </* - rw tukmati 

the shepherd of marvellous treasures, who fears not opposition, 



e - du - u gab-$u Sa ma - fti - ra la - a 

the mighty flood who an opponent does not 

It *TTT* « ^ *TW= x* <« ^T TJ 

i$u(u) iarru mu - $ak - ni - e$ la - a 

possess, the king who has brought to subjection those that 



&w* - Jte - /*- Jte fa nap - #ar Atf - Sat niU P l 

I were not subject! who the whole of the hosts of men 
\ to him, / 



1 - /1 - /« zikaru dan - «« jhi* - &*£ - bi - is kildd 

rules, the strong man, who tramples on jtheknecki 

\ of / 



at - bi-Xu da - 1? kul-lat nakire F l mu - pa - ri - ru 

his foe, j who treads 1 all enemies, who shatters 

\ under foot J 

£/ - if - ri mul - /tor - fri Sa ina tukulti (//) 

mighty battalions, who with the help of 



i7<mm ^ r^i///' J 7 &£ J 7 - to ittalaku{ku)-ma 

the great gods, his lords, proceeds and 



28 INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL 



matati P l kali - Si - «a £a/ - su ikSud(ud) hur - Sa - w' 
all lands with his hand / has i the highlands 

(conquered,/ 

<V <£!WTII^ *fc*T-Mm ^v^TT*- 

/d/ £7/» - ri-Su-nu i - pi - lu - ma bi-lai - su - nu 
in all their extent has subdued and their tribute 



f'm - fiu - ru 


fa - bit 


// - i - // 

• 


Sa - £/» 


has received, 


the taker of 


hostages, 


who has 




// - i - te eli kali - Si - //# matati ? l 

triumphed over all lands. 



THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE 

SUN-GOD. 

From the Tablet of Sippar inscribed in the reign of Nabu- 
apil-iddina, king of Babylon, about 879 — 853 B. C. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 121 37.] 

«.~f*T -II ET-eTTT* TIT- ^TTTT^T^TT 

,Iu Somas' belu rabu(u) a - Sib E-babbar-ra 

SamaS, the great lord, whodwelleth in Ebabbara, 

V <M«=TTJ V*\<m V - *T¥VTW< 

Sa ki - rib Sip-par KI Sa ina e - Sa- a - ti 

which is in Sippar, which during the troubles 

5. <H£TT -TTI }}< TJ -<T< V v IPVv <^y 

u dal - ha - a - ti Sa mdtu Akkadi Kl 

and disturbances in Akkad 

B55 ^TT -tlT «=TTT* E ^^ ^^ "=TTT«TTT 

amtiu Su - tu - u * m * 1 * nakiru Urn - nu u - ^- 

the Sutu, the evil foe, had des- 



-TI *TTT* *TTT* - l^TT XXX ^T Afe T 

hu - u u - #<?/ - //' - £// usurati F 1 

troyed (and) had cast down the sculptures, 

*T £t£ I &K El JT ET 10. <^ jgn j < 

/</r - su - Su im - ma - Su - ma Si - yfr/)i - & a 

— his statutes were forgotten and his image and 



3o THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD 



t-*tt— i *e ~nr jttt fcfl *t *3n er ^r 

simaii P l -lu i - na kale ll ip - par - lid -ma la 

his ornaments had disappeared and none 




I- .ET-nfEET ^TT 4i4f HP- <T- -TI 

na - til ma - na - ma Si - im - mal - It - hu lar 

beheld them. SimmaSSiJiu king 



Babili likin-lu il - ta - a/ - wa /a - ni - Jte /* 

of Babylon his statue sought for, but his countenance he 1 did not 



id - <//'« - lu sa - /tfw - i^«^ & simaii F l - lu la 

show 8 him, his image and his ornaments he did not 

*£&&£] ^HUJ< V3=Hf- Hf-*T *TTT*v 

i - mur - wrt »i - id - $a to pa - a/i /7|< Samal u - Jta/- 
find. An enclosure (?) before Samal he 

HTTI V z& £1 *>. <T^ ^H I <=TTT* MI El 

ri - f a - aw - aw sallukhi-lu u - £/>i - zw<z 

erected and regular offerings for him he appointed, and 



m E-kur-lum-u$adli($i) langu Sippar Kf 

EkurSumuSabSi the priest of Sippar, 



b^m. t yyy t ^ <gr t yyyy _ <m t |n < 

jw^/i* ^j r ^ u - Sa - as - £/'/ />r<7 dannali u 

the seer, he settled (there). During the distress and 

HTC >^^m A -s. V ~f 3 1 ^TTT^ ^ BStf 

hu - .foA - ^i la ,lu Kal-lu - « - /f<u//)i - ahi 

famine at the time of KaSSu-nadin-ahi, 

l. /. e, t §ama£. — 2. Literally, "grant." 



SUSPENSION OF THE TEMPLE SERVICES 3 1 



Harri sai/ukku Su - a - turn ip - pa - ri - is- ma 

the king, that regular offering was stopped and 

^t- ^fmi^ - *mr <tf* + v * 

3a - HI sur - # - nu ina E - ul - bar-Sakin-Jfum 

the drink-offering ceased. Under Eulbar-Sakin-Sum, 



^ so. y ^TTTT v ^ Ik <h «=TTTT HF- K*T<M 

torn' m iF - kur-htm-uSabii(Si) iangu Sip-par KI 

the king, Ekur-Sum-uSabSi, the priest of Sippar, 



B8?«- ^ -III <WA£eeT -TTASs^^TI 

mw " ,< 3arw forr/' beli-Xu im - ^«r - wa ^/' - ni - e 

the seer, before the king his lord went, and /"the appointed 1 

\ offerings for I 



//m $ama$ ba - //'/ i% - bi - ma I ka akali & 

• • • 

SamaS have ceased" he said. i ^ of food 



I ka kurunnu kurmai ametu $ a £ . m * $ a 

■ 

I ka of sesame-wine, the support of the director of 

*mr*Tra=a - ^ttt -tta^^ ^tii 

E - sag - gil ina libbi gi - ni - e iltt Bel 

Esagil according to the appointed offerings of Bel, 



fl~nr ~f*T «=TTT"=EIET T «=M v ^ Ik <[- 

a - na llu SamaS u - &>j - wa m E - kur-$um-us'abs'i(jfi) 

for SamaS he 1 ordained and to Ekur-Sum-uSabSi, 



fo/r^K « lu Sip -par amittt baru i - rim Men (en) 

the priest of Sippar, the seer, he granted (it). One 

I. /. e. t Eulbar-Sakin-Sum. 



32 THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD 

'>" kiru irsit (it) Alu - eitu KI Xa 

garden in the district of Alu-eSSu 1 , which is 



<m *m $< *m. <m ^ tj ~nr hp- *t 

ki - rib Babili KI a - na ilu Santas' 

in Babylon, to SamaS 

*mti <v i «=iTiT v ^ ik <i- *m y*i<m 

iddin-ma pan m E-kur-Sum-uSabtiQH) Sangu Sip-par &I 

he gave and to Ekur-Sum-usabSi, the priest of Sippar, 



ameiu ia ru u _ $ a d- gil ar - ka - nu liu Nabu-apil- 

the seer, he entrusted (it). Afterwards Nabu-apil- 



if -Hf so. *£??? «*?:? Hf- E*TT <M ^«=TTTT 

iddina (na) $ar Babili K! ni - bit 

iddina, king of Babylon, the elect of 



Hf-«*T ^]t<m5. Hf-ff«T < Hf-t? 

,/M Marduk na - ram ^ llu A - nim u tlu Ea 

Marduk, the darling of Anu and Ea, 

^ m *TTT 3 HF- II t**f -TT* H(I* *jn 

/wtf - //# //# - bi ilu Zarpanitu zi - ik - ru 

who rejoices the heart of Zarpanitu, the valiant 





T 55. W T fc^wH< s?S!l^ ~Hf 

kar - du Sa ana hirru - ti as - mu na - as* 

hero, who for kingship is adorned, who bears 

mB£S5: £WT*-£V J5?:3J Kw*r <V*~ 

pit - pa - ni iz - zi - tim sa - kip ****lu na kiru Hm - nu 

a terrible bow, who overthrew the evil foe, 

I. Alu-ettu = "The New City." 



ACCESSION OF NAB0-APIL-1DDINA 



33 



£$ %£tt -m *w w *v *- < a wi jt *m 

amilu Su - tu - u $a $ur - bu - u fit - /« - $u - un 

the Sutu, whose sin was great, 

so. V T ^TIH-TTA^TT v %^ <HT 



whom to 



tu - ar ^/ 

avenge 



mil 



matu Akkadi KI 
Akkad, 



M*jn ET W -TT^ ~HT <&£*!? e&t 



£« - J*^ ma - ha - si 

to make cities habitable, 



»a - di - e 
to found 



parakke P l 
shrines, 



i/.r - j*/r usurati F l Sul - /w/w /to™* ^ 

• • • x • 

to fashion sculptures, to preserve statutes 



65. < S3fc:T UTT » eff -TAHffBf: vEt<M 



u bil - lu - «// - <? 

and ordinances, 



kun - ni sat- tuk - ki 
to establish regular offerings, 



jp*jnAHfff <?^Mf 



■II ET-*TTT* 



Xur - ru - «A 
to increase 



nindabi F l belu rabu{u) 

free-will offerings the great lord 



*f«*T ^ ^ ^H c^TTT 70. -Ill 4HP- *T 



ilu Marduk '>« >kj//a 1 - far - /a 
Marduk with a right sceptre, 



the rule of 



^ T— ^ *T- <T- *TTT* ^TTTJ IS! «=!!!«= 

/;/aV /' e - /1 - &' « - «tf/ - lu - 

the peoples to undertake, had 



2/ 



-TUT I 

ka - tuS-tu 
invested. 



~MT -II ET- V 

tiu SamaS belu rabu fa 
— SamaS, the great lord, who 



TTT 

for 



TT 

tune P l 
many 



34 THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD 



ma - ' - du - ti it - ti "M* Akkadi KI 

days with Akkad 

Htt*MSJ 75-tT^^TT <Mv^TT - 

iX ( - me - lu is - bu - j« XV - Sad - j« tVi/i 

had been angry (and) had averted his neck, in 



/#// llu Nabu - <7//7 - iddina(?id) $ar Babi- 

thc reign of Nabu-apil-iddina, king of Baby- 

/* Kl sa - // - ma ir - Ji - ma u - j#A- 

Ion, had mercy (and) turn- 



$/ - ra /a - ni- /« « - jwr - // jj/ - «i - $u 

ed his countenance. His image, 



j/r - /« Sa ha - </.v - bi likin~lu u si - ma - ti-Su 
of , his statue and his ornaments 

- tff A^ -<!< TJ& **- -IT- -<!< 8 S . V 



i'lta 


<? - bir - //' 


nam p u m rat . {i 


fa 


on 


the opposite side of 


the Euphrates 


on 



bal - r/ erib-SamH in - ;i<i - /w/'r - ma 

the western bank were found and 



m ilu Nabu-nadin - £///w Jto/i^w alu Sip-par amdu barn ina 

Nabu-nadin-Sum, the priest of Sippar, the seer, of 



RECOVERY OF THE SUN-GOD'S IMAGE 35 

^ I tTTTT v ^ lb <h 90. ^TTTT HF- ^IIK*I 

zir m E-kur-$um'U$ab$i($i) Sangu alu Sip-par 

the seed of Ekur-Sum-uSabSi, the priest of Sippar, 



amelu faru usurti sal - mi hi - a - turn ilu Nabu- 

the seer, that image to Nabu- 



*Ktf M^\ ^ -III *TTT**TTW-£T 

apt'/ - iddina(tid) Sarri beli- $u u - kal - Urn - ma 

apil-iddina, the king, his lord, showed and 



Nabu-apil-iddina(tid) Sar Bdbili KI $a 

Nabu-apil-iddina, king of Babylon, who 



<« ^ <tt i u tm -i *- «*^ eet 

epii{es^) sal - mi $u-a - turn ka - bu - Sum - ma 

the preparation of such an image had commanded him and 




JT *T £* I£H ««>• *£ *<- 5tf I 5*=^ Iff 

Su - ud - gu - lu pa - nu - ui-Su sal - mu Su - a - turn 

entrusted to him, that image 

tEAfcET 3^1 5*-<I<I «f *T -*HTT t-T 

/' - *»«r - ma pa- nu-$u ir - ti - $u i - te - //* - is 
beheld and his countenance was glad (and) joyful was 



-III £111 S **TT T 5: <« & < 

yfo£ - ta - tfj - «r« l tf/ftf epeS{ei) sal - »ij 

his spirit. To the restoration of that 



I ff tm *W ^TI Mfflf I HI <I- EI .05. - 

lu-a - /wot « - zu - un-Su ib - Jfi - /w« /«a 

image his attention he turned and with 

1. kab-ta-as-su = kabtat-su. 



3» 



36 THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD 

ni - me - *i Sa ilu E - <i ina h - /«> //a Nin- 

the wisdom of Ea, with the craft of Nin- 

<T- £< *- Hf- <W -TTA ^ m HP- «T 

igi-nangar-bu tlu GuSkin - banda * /a Afoi- 

igi-nangar-bu, GuSkin-banda, Nin- 



v ^TT HP- «T •* - <tf -TT^ *jn ^T <!- ^ 

kur - ra ,7 " A r /« - zadim ina hurasi ru - uS - fi - i 

w ■ 

kurra (and) Nin-zadim with sumptuous gold (and) 



»o.:s3R* HI 3 ff«T Hf-*T -II £h 

bright lapis lazuli the image of SamaS, the great lord, 

<HJ« «=TTTt^!4?= - *T £<£<-<!< W 

ki - ntt u - kan - »i /'«j le - /// - // $a 

he carefully prepared. With the purification of 

,Y « ^ - a u ilu Marduk ma - har 

Ea and Marduk before 



tln Samai ina E - Ear- Za-gin - na Sa kited 

SamaS in E-Kar-Zaginna on the bank of 

the Euphrates his mouth he washed and he took up 

iu - bat - su 
his dwelling (there). 



THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMAN- 
ESER II AND THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF 

ISRAEL, 842 B. C. 

[From paper squeezes in the British Museum, Nos. 114 a and 114 b.] 



ma XVIII pa/eFl-ia XVlSanitu nJru Purdtu 

In the 18th year of my reign jforthei time the Euphrates 



e - bir m ffa-za - ' - ilu la mJtu Dimalki 

I crossed. Hazael of Damascus 



a - na gi - bt'S ummanati F l -$u it - /a - kil- 

in the multitude of his troops trusted 



ET *J ATI I— I 5. TJ ^T EI AHF- T 

ma ummanati ? l -$u a - na ma - ' - A'Jf 

and his troops in great numbers 

/i/ - ka - a iada Sa - ni - ru uban $ade(e) Sa 

he assembled. Saniru, the summit / of the \ which 

\ mountains, J 



pu - ut iad * Lab - na - na a - na dan - nu - ti - ,?» 

/ is at the \ Lebanon, as his fortress 

{entrance to/ 



38 THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS 

i? - hurt it - //' - iu am - dab ' ¥ ' if 

he made. With him I fought; 

aM/a - Su a$ - *«/i AT/ . iW j<S& *' 

his defeat I brought about; 16000 of his 



//' - du - ki - $u ina kakke P l u - foj» - £tf 

warriors with weapons I overcame ; 



/. Af, I C, XXI >'** narkabdti p's u IV. C, LXX 

1 121 of his chariots, 470 



bit - faal - lu - hi it - //' u$ - ma - jf/'-ft/ * - £//» - i« 

of his horses together with his camp I took from him. 



<? - ;/rt Su - zu - ///& napSati ? l -hi e - //' 

To save his life he made off ; 

<j/vfr/ - Jw ar - te - di ina illu Di - mai - &' 

after him I went ; in Damascus 



<i/i ^rr« - ti - $u e - j/r - $u ** u kire P l - i u 

his royal city I besieged him ; his plantations 



ak - kis a - c/# Sade(e) mJfu I/a - u - ra - m" 

I cut down. To the mountains of Ha'urani 



JFHITS TRIBUTE 3g 



TJ W -*=TT T— sr «»• TJ ^T -EI ET ^ 

a - lik aldni P l (ni) a - na la ma - »i 

I went ; cities without number 



a - bul a - £i*r />/<* iSdti P l alrup(uf) 

I destroyed, I laid waste, with fire I burnt ; 



to/ - la - su - nu l a - na la ma - »/' ait - lu - la 

their spoils without number I carried off. 

a - di Ude(e) * ad *\Ba - ' - // - ra - ' - si 
To the mountain of Ba'li-ra'si, 

fa f tf /a /w - <// a - lik sa - /aw Sarru -ti - a 

which is at the head of the sea, I went; my royal image 



ina lib - bi aS - kup * ina u - me-$u-ma ma - da - lu 
there I set up. At that time the tribute 



Sa mMu Sur - r<z - ai mMu Si - du - na - ai Sa 

of the Tyrians, the Sidonians (and) of 

r ten tTTTt n «6. *£ -ti j::ttt -m «^ ^ a^ 

m la - u - a mar ffu - urn - ri - ; am - A»r 

Jehu, the son of Omri, I received. 

1. &al-la-$u~nu -= &allat-sunu.\ 

2. 1 1, Pret. fr. \akapu. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF 
TIGLATH-PILESER III. 

I. The reduction of Hamath and the cities tributary to 

Uzziah of Judah, about 740 B. C. 

[From paper squeezes in the British Museum, Nos. 1 1 5 a — 115 c.] 



XIX na - gi - e $a alu ffa - am - /«</ - at - ti 

Nineteen districts of the city of Hamath 



a - di atani F l («/') fo ji - #/r - // - $u - «w 

together with the cities round about them, 



$a a - hi tarn - tim Sa $ulmu(mu) tlu Sam$i($i) 

iwhich\ i on the \ the sea of the setting of the sun, 

\ (are) \ \ shore of/ 

Sa i - na hi - it - //' u kul - lul - te 

which in sin and iniquity 



a - na m Az - ri - ia - a - u e - ki - i - mu 

to Azariah (i. e., Uzziah) they had detached, 



a - na mi - f*r mJ/M AUur utir - ra - a 

to the territory of Assyria I brought back. 



OVERTHROW OF UZZIAH'S CONFEDERACY 41 



B$ JT *T ^TT^ !— «£flf Bfc -II HTI* T 

My officers as governors 

<x W I *- fc Hf AHfff <« <T- m T- ^ T 

*// - $u - «i/ <tf - kun XXX. M, III. C m'Si P l 

over them I appointed ; 3o,3oo people 

as - j« - ha - </w - ma uiiu ki - r/# 

I carried away from 



a/a/i/' ^ - ,?« - //« - ma pihdt alu Ku- 

their cities and in the district of Ku . 



, '/*.'., 's, ./, ../+,•** 



u - $a - as - 3// 
I settled. 



II. The tribute of Menahem of Samaria and of other princes 

of Syria and Asia Minor, 738 B. C. 

[From paper squeezes in the British Museum, Nos. 115 a- 115 c] 



ma - da - at - tu Sa m Ku - us* - ta - a$ - pi 

The tribute of KuStaSpi 

*TT K <TTT * m TJ TJ I ^TT AN + 

alu Ku - um - mi/ - £a - ai m ifa - /if/i - »« 

of Kummuji, Rezin 

1. LI. 9—12. 



4* EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIG LATH-PI LESER 01 



" u/ * Dimalki m Me - a/ - A* - rat - m* 

of Damascus, Menahem 

al * Sa - me - ri - na - ai m Ifi - ru - urn - mu 

of Samaria, Hiram 



alu fur - ra - ai m Si - 3/ - it - // - bi - ' - // 
of Tyre, Sibittibi'li 

-tTT £* *fc -ET TJ TJ T *TTT* HTTI -TI* <H! 

tf/ * Gu - ub - la - ai m U - ri - ik - ki 

of Gebal, Urikki 

mJtu Ku - u - ai m Pi - si - ri - is a,u Gar - ga- 

of KuL Pisiris of Carche- 

mil - ai m E - «i - ilu alu Ha - am - ma - fa - ai 

mish, Eni-ilu of Haraath, 



m /*« - na - am - mu-u alu Sa -am - ' - la - <// 

Panammu of Sam'al 

m Tar - hu - la - r</ m4,/M Gur-gu -ma - #/' m Su - lu - ma - a I 
Tarjiulara of Gurgum, Sulumal 

of Melid, Dadilu of Kas 



TRIBUTE OF MENAIIEM AND OTHER PRINCES 4 3 



ka - at m U as - stir - /w* OTj/M 7k - £<i/ - « 

ka, Uassurme of Tabal, 



m Ul - hi - it - //' matu Tu - na - ai m Ur - fo/- 

USbitti of Atun, Urbal- 



la - a mJtu Tu - /w - »tf - ai m Tu - //a - am - me 
la of Tiihana, Tubamme 



^TT ^TT »m *M ^TI If TJ T «=TTT«= -HI *# T- me 

aiu 1$ - tu - un - da - ai m U - ri - i/w - /w* - 1 
of IStunda, Urimme 



fl/ " #j/ - Sim - «<7 - <j/ f Za - hi - bi - ^ far - rat 

of HuSimna, Zabibe the queen of 



n»J/« A - ri - bi hurasu kaspu anaku parzillu 

Arabia, gold, silver, lead, iron, 



ma$ak piri Hnni piri lu - but - //' bir - m* 

elephants' hide, ivory, garments of variegated stuffs, 

****** Mm ">*'« ta - *// - /;/ W" ar - ga - w<?/i-/n/ 

cloth, purple wool, crimson wool, 

sT*m .-tut «r -&*jn ^^Hfff<-T< 

'** wi» '*" urkarinnu mimma ak - r« »/ - ^/r - //' 

feto-wood, \urkar'mnu-\ every valuable thing, treasures 

\ wood I 



44 EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER III 



iarru - u - //' 
of royalty, 1 



immere P l pal - ku - ft 

fat sheep, 



^T! HUE W I -^ <MTI *TTT* « *- 



whose 



fleeces 



ar - £« - w</« - nu 
with crimson 




ftfr - paf is - s wr Same(e) muf - fap - r/' - $u - ft 

are dyed, birds of the heaven that fly, 



W n***M*<- TJ^T ^TTTtm 




Jfin tf - £»/ - //' - $u-nu a - ;/tf 
whose wings ' with 



fa - kil - fe 
purple 



sar - pu 
are dyed, 



t^E v ^TT T— ME <^ Hfff -Hf T' 



imiru 



stse 



Ft 



horses, 



fcT* ^T T 



mules, 

<M£3J ^TT^Sf: MET* 



oxen 

T -*T T 

els (and) 



and 



St 



e - //* 



tmeru 



sheep, 



gam- 
cam- 



/ a - na - &a - a - fe a - di 

m 

female camels with 



imeru ba - ak - ka - ri - tf 

their foals 

i. /. e. y royal treasures. 
2. LI. 29—36. 



I 





2 



- na 



am - $«r 
I received. 



CONQUEST OF THE CITIES OF PHOENICIA 45 



III. The death of Pekah and the accession of Hoshea to 

the throne of Israel, 734 B. C. 

[From paper squeezes in the British Museum, Nos. 116 a, 1 16 b, 122, 124 a, 

124 b, 125 a and 125 b.] 

^TT *fflk *J 4Hf- Rf ( ? ) »m TJ 3 

aiu Ga - at - ' - za alu A - bi- 

The cities of GaFza (and) Abi- 

// - ak - ka hi pat tmitu Bit -Ifu- urn - ri - a 

lakka, which {J rc ? llt,1L :l Israel 1 , 

' l border otf » 



mm ^«rfn t^ j yj ^ry ^yy ^^y ^y< r\ 



■J..;ZM S== 1 1 fc^i 

.... - // rap - £« <* - na si - #/r - //' - $u 

. . . . li the wide-spreading, in its whole extent 



<z - na mi - «> mJtu AiSur u - //r - ra 

m 

to the territory of Assyria I restored. 



[fcft JT *T ^1TO !— t*R g$ -II HTC* I 

jmi,/tt i«-i/(/ - &z& ^ - ia •»«"« b'd - pahdti F' 

My officers as governors 

•//' - $u-nu a$ - £«// m Ifa-a-nu - u - nu 

over them I appointed. Hanno 

^TT t t J< *m. }} *ET If TJ M 3= Hf- 

j/a #ii - </s - za - t// - ai la - pa - an 

of Gaza before 

1. Literally "Land of the House of Omri". 



46 EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER III 



s=Tl m T— **R HI *T <T- Wf £1 U ^T 

kakki F i - ia ip - par - Si - du - ma a - /i<z 

my arms fled and to 

****HTC-m ,£?*«=**! ^Hlf<® 

Egypt escaped. Ga- 

^TT >m [v *T W *TTT* I] V IH 

s« - tu akSud(ud) makkura - Su buSd - ,?« 

za I conquered, his property, his possessions, 



Hani ? l (ni)-Su aS - lu - la ... mdtu Bit - ffu - «w- 

his gods I carried off. . . . The land of Is- 



ri - a ... /// - hur niSe F l - Su a - */i 

rael . . . the whole of his people together with 



mar - ,?/' - //' - Su-nu a - na nUtu A$Sur u - ra - a 

their possessions to Assyria I carried. 

y $: ^y m ^^ I ^ t] [<m x- ET 

m Pa - ka - ha Sarra - Su - nu is - ki - pu - ma 

Pekah their king they overthrew and 



m A - u - J/' ' tf - na Sarru - ti a - /id 

Hoshea to the kingship over 

eli - Su-nu aS - kun 
them I appointed. 

i. LI. 6—18. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON. 

I. The Fall of Samaria, 722 B. C. 

[From Botta, Monument de Ninive, vol. IV, pi. 145.] 



i,/tt Sa - me - ri - /id a/ - »** ak - JW 

The city of Samaria I besieged, I took. 



«f <V IT T- T<« *ffl !— TJ T- *TTT I 

XXVII. M, II C, XC nitt Pi a - Sib libbi - lu 

27,290 of the people that dwelt therein 



a$ - lu - la L '* u narkabati F l ina libbi' $u - «w 

I carried away ; 50 chariots from them 



j£ - sur-ma u si - // - /« - //' i - nu-Su-nu 

I took and the others their share 

u - $a - hi - iz *meiu $ u . Ui i . ^/ . td cV y m $ u „ nu 

I caused to take. My officer over them 



aS - kun - ma bilat larri mah - ri - e 

I appointed and the tribute of the former king 

e - «i</ - su - nu - //' 
I laid upon them. 

1. LI. 11— 13. 



48 EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON 



II. Sargon's campaign against Ashdod, 711 B. C. 

[From Botta, Monument de Ninive, vol. IV, pi. 82 and vol. Ill, pi. 65.] 



m A - zu - ri tor alu As - (/« - <tf 

Azuri, king of Ashdod, 



a - na la na - Se - e bil - /* /1? - bu - Jto 

to no longer bring tribute in his heart 



/# - pu - ud-ma a - na Warrant ? l (ni) li - me- 

planned and to the kings in his neigh- 

// - fo 01 - r<* - a - //" WJ '« AUur Kl 

bourhood (proposals of) hatred against Assyria 

X3\ £W ET £ JT <HH ^T *ff *- JT 

il? - /wr - ma #.? - $u limutlu(tti) e - pu - $u 

sent. Because of the evil he had done, 

^//' ./*/& ^ md/i'Su be - lu - su l u - /*#£- 

over the people of his land his rule I chang- 



\WI & Iff A <^ HT< TJ -II ^m <T- I 

Xvr - ma m A - hi - ;///' - // d - hu ia - lim-Su 

ed and AJjimiti, his twin-brother, 



a - na larru - //' 


eli - £w - nu 


j^ - kun 


to the kingship 


over them 


I appointed. 


J. be-lu-su = belli t-su. 







REVOLT OF ASHDOD 49 

B5 3= ~cy< *£ ^TT ^ HI ff Jit Hf< 

The yatti, planning iniquity, 



be - lu ~ su i ~ zi - ru - ma m la - at - na 

his rule hated, and Iatna 1 



-El -< 1MII tT £* tif ^11 <£JI V If 3T *- ET 

/a be - */ '*" £#xr7 $a kima $a- a - $u - nu- ma 

with no claim to the throne, who like them 



pa - lah be - lu - //'/ra la i - du - u u - ra 3- 

reverence for authority did not know, they rais- 



bu - u e - It - Su - un i - «<z ar^ - g a t 

ed over them. In theangerof 



lib - £/* - /rt /'/ - //' ** u narkabat lepe n -ia u 

my heart with the chariot of my feet and 



/m^rii bii-hal-lum - ia &? a - for sa - al - me 
my horses, which during 



m\ If I? -ET Inn *T HI *TTT* ^ -nf 

i - da - at la ip - par - ku - u a - na 

from my side do not depart, to 

l. Variant reading: T £^|T ET ?TT"" r la-ma-ni. 



56 EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON 



tyy^^yi^ MT &&*!<& A^T^T] 

aiu As - du - di alt Sarru - ti - hi hi - it - rim-its' 

Ashdod, his royal city, in haste 



al - /i* - /7W alu As - <afo - </n tf/ « GY - fin - tu 

I went, and Ashdod, Gimtu (and) 



alu As - du - <# - */w - witt a/ - jw* ak$ud(ud) 

Asdudimmu I besieged, I conquered. 



Hf-T— TW-*-*T *TTT «.£[«=!& V!fH 

//J;;/ f' a - &' - bu - ut lib ~ bi ~ $u - un la - a - Su 

The gods that dwelt therein, himself 

a - */i /«'& J 7 ' maii-Su hurasu kaspu 

together with the people of his land, gold, silver, 



makkiir ekalli-Su a - na Sal - la - ti 

the possessions of his palace, as booty 



S3fc*-I ^ITT— IV-HK TJ^T<«JM< 

a/w - nu~$u alani F l Su-nu - li a - /w e$ - Xu - // 

I counted. Those cities anew 

s 

<w - £a/ /i/& ^ matdti ki - £// - //' kate ll - & 

I took. People (from (various)i the prisoners of my hands, 

\ lands, / 

*e~Hr*m:3 ^yyy^^y- k?& jj *t *TTS: «*ff 

i - na lib - bi u - $e - Sib Jmeiu f u . ua > . jt tf ^ _ ^ 

therein I settled ; my officer 



taking of ashdod 5* 

am*/ii ^/ pahati eli - Jte - nu aX - £«;* - ma 

as ruler over them I set and 

»M< *fflfT~~ v-^f<HJ s^^ 1 

1/ - // ntU P l mdtu AUur KI am - nu 

with the people of Assyria I reckoned (them). 

I. IV, 82, 11. 2— 13 and III, 65, 1. I f. 



SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE, 
AND THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 12174.] 



1 - na Sal - $i gir - ri - ia a - na matu fja-at-ti 

In my third expedition to the land of the yatti 

lu al - lik m Lu "-//- 1 
I went. Lull, 



Sar 




"'« $/. 


king 




of Si- 


>~< 


wa 


~T< ttfl 



</// - «// - ni pul - $i me - A/ai - w^ be - lu - /i - ia 

don, fear of the splendour of my dominion 



ti -ii *- Ji et ]} ^t *jii *ee: <m t<m 

is - hu - pu - to - ;//tf a - //# r« - uk - Xi' &/3tf/ 

overwhelmed and afar off /into thei 

\ midst / 



tam-tim in - na - bit- ma mala-lu e - mid aiu Si- 

m 

of the sea he fled and his land 1 subdued. Si- 



du - un - ;/*/ rabu(ti) illu Si - </« - un - nu siftru 

don the great, Sidon the less, 



SUBMISSION OF SIDON 53 

:TT *ym -TT* ^! *T -eTT ff HTTI HI *T 

a'" Bit - *# - // - te aiu Sa - ri - ip - tu 

Bit-zitte, Zarephath, 



41/11 J/a - &*/ - // - ba alu U - $u - u 

Majjalliba, USu, 



" /tt ^' - zi - bi alu Ak - ku - k a/tf/n' P* - fo 

Akzlb (and) Akko, his strong ci- 



<afo« - nu - ti bit durdni P l (ni) a - far 

ties, fortresses, the places 

-TTI ^ -<!< <M£tf + <Ef -<T< «=TTTT It -ET -<!< I 

n' - i - //' » //ij/ - &' - // 3// /w£ - ta - ti - £« 

for pasture and watering, the stations for his troops, 

ra - Sub - &// XvzM/ ,/tt AHur belt - /'a 

the might of the arms of Ashur, my lord, 

tWI *- 3T ^ H< ET -TI^^-^T **-*TTT*ff 

is - (tu - pu - $u - nu - ti - ma ik - nu - Su $e - pu - u - a 
overwhelmed them, and they submitted at my feet. 



m Tu - ba - ' - iu i - na '** kussi larru - // 

Tuba'al on the throne of the kingdom 

«*H I *Tfl ^TTT«= * T- ET JpSfcW « ^!! ■*! -*£T 

*// - jfu-un u - se- Sib-ma biltu man -da - at - tu 

over them 1 seated, and taxes and tribute 



54 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 

be - lu - /*' - /'a Sat - // - fo/w la ba - at - lu 

m 

to my dominion, yearly, unceasing, 



1/ - kin si - ru - u$ - <tu $a m Mi - in- 

I fixed upon him. Of Me- 



^i - im " mu alu Sam - si - jw« - ru - na - j/ 

nahem of Samsimuruna, 



I -m ^T 4Hf- EOT -«=TT ^T! ~! ^ ~HT TJ Vi 

m Tu - ba - ' - lu alu Si - du - un - na - ai 

Tuba'al of Sidon, 

y «=y <i& ^r ^Hf- -<T< -«=TT TJ *jn £T! TJ TJ 

m Ab - *Y - // - ' - //' alu A - ru - da - ai 

Abdili'ti of Arvad, 



T *TTT* *ffl ^T! <m ^TTC^^^TIHI T< 

m U - r* - mil - £/' *'« Gu - ub - la - a* m J// 

Urumilki of Gebal, Mi- 



// - w - //' a/w At - du - da - <?/' m Pu - du - ilu 

tinti of Ashdod, Pudu'il 



md/M 2?// - m Am - ma - na - #/' m Kam - mu - su - na - ad - bi 

of Beth-Ammon, Kammusunadbi 

m * tu Ma - ' - 3a - a/ m ilu Malik - raw - mu 

of Moab, Malikrammu 



THE TRIBUTE OF NEIGHBOURING PRINCES 55 



v *=TTT«= 


~T sCTTT t] T¥ TJ 


feEHPff 1^^ HPF- 


matu (J . 


du - it/H - ma - ai 


Sarrdni P l (ni) 




of Edom, 


kings 



w,J/ » Aharri KI ka - /1 - Su - un Si - di - e 

of the Western country, all of them, districts 



*IgM< £TTT*TT-e£mi*- ^H^yyyy^y 

Sad - lu - ti ta - mar - /a - Su-nu ka - bit - /« 

of broad extent, their rich presents 



a - </Y £f/£/ a - na mah - ri - ia iS - Su - nim - »w 

itogetheri property before me they carried and 

\ with j 



^TT <y- s« <EeTTmetj <y-igj y ^yy mi ^y yj 

iS - ft' - ku Sepe ll - *d u m Si - id - ka - a 

kissed my feet. But §idka, 




^yy t y ^y ^ j@j ^y ^yy ^! 

Sar alu Is - ka - ai - /« - «a /a /a 

king of Ashkelon,. who had 



ik - nu-Su a - na ni - r/ - /Vz 1/0 ai" p 1 bit 

not submitted to my yoke, the gods fofthel 

\housej 



tun wm c-m^Ti ^r— i ^^r— i 

abi-Su Sa - a-Su aSSat - j« mareP l -Su mardti P l -Su 

of his father, himself, his wife, his sons, his daughters, 



<z^* P l - fo s*r £// abi-Su as - su - faa - am - ma 

his brothers, the seed fofthet rof hisi I carried away, and 

I house! \ father, I 



56 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 



a - na matu ASSur KI u - ra - aS-Xu m Sarru - /«- 

to Assyria I brought him. Sarrulu- 

Jterrtt - Xu- nu 
their former 

*»<?# - ru - u eli ni$i P l alu Is - ka - al- 

king, over the people of Ashke- 



^-m 


*£ 


T *m ^ ^i< 


tfa - r* 


mar 


m Ru - A# - /* 


dari, 


son 


of Rukibtu, 



/« - /ia aS - kun - ma na - dan bilii 

Ion I appointed, and the delivery of taxes 

-III-TTI^ -<J@fMT<*sff ^m^tteeT 

kat - ri - e be - lu - ti - /a * - mid - su - ma 

(and) presents to my dominion I laid on him, that 



i - $a - a/ ap - $a - a - ni i - /*a w^ - /i - /£ 

he might bear my yoke. In the course 



EW-TII^IJ ^TT *TTTT £TT ^ ^T ^TT^IJ 

^/'r - n - ia alu Bit - da - gan - »<z alu Ia- 

of my expedition Beth-dagon, Jop- 



«=y ^ *TTT* ^TT --T ~HT THJ + -T 

ap - pu - « tl/u Ba - na - 0/ - &/r - fo 

pa, Bene-berak, 



ai » A - zu - ru alani ? l (ni) Xa m Si - id- 

Azuru, cities of Sid- 



RECOVERY OF ASHKELON 57 



-I T? W TJ ^T <tE!I **ff ^ *y 

ka - a $a a - na Sepe JI - /a ar - #1$ 

kl y which to my feet quickly 

/a i£ - ;/« - Su al - *w* ak$ud(ud) a$ - lu - /«a 

had not submitted, I besieged, I captured, I carried off 



fo/ - /a - sun am * lu hikkanakkc P l am * lu rube P l 

their spoil. The governors, princes, 



u niSe P l alu Am - kar - ru - na Sa 

and people of Ekron, who 

ys£<y^^ ^1^ -II TI<f^«=TI <M£H 

m Pa - di - / larra-hi-nu be I a - di - e u 

Padi, their king, / ^fJ^hTui* \ r ^ e comman ^ s anc * 

* to ' 

ey~ ^T! v-V<Ef 3-TTI^T Hf-Hf- 

ma-mit $a matu AHur KI bi - r* - /« parzilli 

compact of Assyria, into fetters of iron 



Eatf ^T ee! yj ^T T ff< ft mi «*fl «=TTT*= 

/'</ - du - ma a - mz m #a - s# - £/ - ia u 

had cast and to Hezekiah 



v tfcfi *yyy* pr yj ^ ^y <y^ + \ **$$ ^y^ 

ww/tt fa - u - da - ai id - di - nu-$u nak - r/? 

of Judah had given him — as a foe 



if ^T HP- Hffl -sSi ^ *- 1 hi «=yyy< 

a - na an sil li e - j/'r - fo ?/ - lah 

in a dungeon he imprisoned him, — afraid was 



58 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 



lib - ba - $u- un Warrant P l (ni) indtu Mu - su - ri 

their heart. The kings of Egypt, 



amelu sabi P l '>* kaSii *« narkabati ? l im * TU sisi P l 

the archers, chariots (and) horses 

fo for md/, « J/<? - luh - fri e - mu - ki la 

of the king of Ethiopia, forces without 



»* - hi 


ft - 


le - ru - nim - 


ma 


il - tf - ku 


number, 


they summoned, 


and 


they came 


-m ** *htc 


^TMff ^-Hf 


s£TTT EM HT< 


r* - j« • 


- us - 


su - un t 


- na 


/a - »wr - A' 


to 1 


their help. 


In 


the neighbourhood 


alu Ai 


£TTT 

- ta - 


ku - u 

• 


el - 


la - »!« - u - a 


of Eltekeh 


over against me 


ji - id - ru 


/// - ku - nu 


«=TTT«= 

« - 


fa - ' - lu 


(their) line of battle 


was drawn up ; 




they cried for 


kakke P l 
their 


-I 

- Su-un 
arms. 


With 


7HW< «f~V 

lukulti(ti) ilu Attur 
i the help of ASSur 


-II *Efl 

#// - ia 


BAT ~T< I *fflf 

/'/ - // - Su - un 


ssfc ^TT * tT ET 

a/w - ^/<z - &' - is - wa 


my lord 




with them 




I fought and 



DEFEAT OF THE EGYPTIANS AT ELTEKEH 59 



g^iii^ <mm*w bs-u fieri 

a$ - ta - kan abikta - hi - un amelu bet ** u narkabati P l 

I accomplished their defeat. The commander of the chariots 

<h@j tsi— fc^m ***m£mim 

# /war* A 7 ' far md/w -fl/tf - su - ra - ai 

and the sons of the king of Egypt 



I? <re= k?s -II 1 1 Sf I— "BIT 

</ - </i amilu bel *** narkabati P l Xa $ar 

with the commander of the chariots of the king 



v i- *m< ^ — i* m >&[ *m «* ~nr 

mdtu fife - /«A - hi bal - tu - su - un i - »a 

of Ethiopia alive in 

&m *r jj< -hi -n* ji ^ii jttt n if 

&z£a/ /jot - (ia - ri ik - Su - da kata ll - <z* 

the midst of the battle my hands captured. 



^11 m &m s» < **ii ^m ^ ~nr if 

« /M >4/ - /a - ku - u aiu Ta - am - na - a 

Eltekeh (and) Timnah 

*fi- v *r £ iei -Ei ^ -Ei <CT 

<z/ - /«* ak$ud(ud) a$ - lu - A* &z/ - la - x«» 

I besieged, I captured, I carried off their spoil. 



if ~nr -tn s=a » *jn ~Hf -b *iu ei 

a - na alu Am - &zr - ru - na ak - rib - ma 

• m 

To Ekron I drew near and 



B$ <EE ^1 I— £& Hffflf I— 'gTT 

am*/* takkanakke P l *»*l* rube P l ia 

the governors (and) princes who 



60 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 

^i -i/-/« 1/ &z£ - $u - u a - duk - aw 

sin had committed I slew and 



I - »a di - ma-a - ti si - /«'r - // alt a - /«/ 

on poles around the city I hung up 



pag - r/ - Su " un mare f l ali e - piS an - ni 

their corpses ; the townsfolk / who had \ wickedness 

\ com mined ( 



1/ &'/ - la - ti a - «a /a/ - la - ti am - #& 

and offence as spoil I counted ; 

ji - // - iu - te - $u - nu la da - »* 

the rest of them, who had not committed 



^i - //' - /* u kul - /«/ - ti $a 

sin and wickedness, who 



a - ra - an-$u-nu la id - $u - u u$ - Sur-Su-un 

in their iniquity were not found, their pardon 



-Eft* Tt£<M:tEE tBfcl*- <tfk-*!T 

</£ - £i m Pa - di - i $arra- Su-rtu ul - /« 

I proclaimed. PadI their king from 

fo* - rib iliu Ur - sa - //' - liw - mu 

the midst of Jerusalem 



THE PUNISHMENT OF EKRON 61 



u - $e - sa - am - ma i - na '** £&«/ be - lu - /* 

I brought out and on the throne of dominion 

eli - Su - un u - Se - &$ - tf*d ftuzjy - da - at - tu 

over them I seated and tribute 

be - lu - /# - /la « - kin si - ru - u$ - fa u 

to my dominion I fixed upon him. And 

m ffa-za - ki - a - u mJiu la - u - da - ai fa 

of Hezekiah of Judah, who 



/a /it - nu-su a - »<i »* - n" - /a XL VI 

had not submitted to my yoke, 46 



alani P l - fa dan - nu - ti bit durani F l u 

of his strong cities, fortresses, and 



-till— ^T— ^TT ^T!FHT<I^ 

<//J;«' J 7 ' sihruti F l fa li - me - /1 - fa- nu 

small cities which were around them, 



fa ni - &/ la i - $u - u i - na 

which were without number, with 

&<>& - bu - us a - rj/w - jw* « £/'/ - ru - ub 

the battering of rams and the assault 



62 



SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 



of engines, the attack 



of foot-soldiers, 



^PT <T- 1HH MTT < *m <£J ^T *T 



pil - JFi 
of mines, 



nik - «' 
breaches, 



and 



kal - 3a« - na - ft 



<z/ - *w* ak$ud{ud) II C. Af, I C, L niii P l fifiru 

I besieged, I captured. 200,150 people, small 



ET- M <H£H & M£ v MT T 



nz£« zikaru 
r(and)i male 

Igreat,/ 

s=^ J«=HF- 1 

imiru p ari pl 

mules, 



u 
and 



sinnt'Slu 
female, 

inure P l 
asses. 



imiru s ; S g pl 

horses, 

imeru g amma ii P* 
camels, 



£W 



<vm **TT *!*:*: ^IT -*T &Z1 



alpe P l 
oxen 



u 
and 



§1 - e - nt 
sheep 



Jta & ni - £1 

without number 



« - U - §a - am - ma 
I brought out and 



«/ - tu 
from 



kir - &'- Su - «/* 
their midst 



Sal - la -liS am - nu Sa - a-$u hi ma i§§ur ku - /// - //* 
as spoil 1 counted. Him like a caged bird 



within 



J/M Ur - sa - /1 
Jerusalem 



ffll - jw« 



his 



THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM 63 



torn* - //' - $u e - j/'r- fo a/ " $alsani P l 

royal city I enclosed. Entrenchments 

*// - £« « - rak - &r - aw a - si - * abulli 

against him I cast up, and, whosoever came forth from the gate 

alt - $u u tir - ra ik - ki - bu - u$ 

of his city, I punished his sin. 




aldni F l - fo .fa a$ - lu - /a «/ - tu 

His cities, which I had taken, from 



yfr/ - n$ mati-s'u ab - tuk-ma a - na m Mi - /li- 
the midst of his land 1 separated and to Mit- 



in - /* Air * /tt As - du - di m Pa - <fi - i 

inti king of Ashdod, Padi 



^^ xTT s* a *JE ~Hf <H£H TtT<Kr-H 

jf tfr ti/u Am . £ tfr . ru - na u m Silli - &/ 

king of Ekron and Sillibel 



for d/tt #* - zi - // 


ad - din - 010 


u - ja- 


king of Gaza 


I gave and 


I di- 


VHTf ^H v ^TT 


tfl-fc^TT 


&&W 


<z$ - #;*r ;wtf/ - su 


<r - li 


bilti 


minished his land. 


Beside 


the 



64 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 



mah ri - //' na - dan lat - /i - lu - a/i 

former taxes, their yearly gift, 

man -da - at - tu kat - r* - * &-/«-//- ia 

tribute (and) presents to my dominion 



*TTT* HT- <M= *T ^TTT«= ELI t£TT *JM 5?T I *TR 

« - ra</ - di - ma u - kin si - ru - ul - lu-un 

I added and fixed upon them. 



lu - u m ffa-za - ki - a - u put - $i /»* - /tf/w - /w* 

As for him, Hezekiah, fear of the majesty 



be - lu - // - ia is - hu - pu - lu- ma amslu i/ r m fo 

of my dominion overwhelmed him and the Urbi 



u amelu sabe F l - lu damkuti P l la a - na 

and his trusty warriors, whom to 

<HW *- *fflf ^TT IH ^ -EST A4f ^ 

r/tt// - nu - «// ^ /tt Ur - sa - //' - mi - mu 

strengthen Jerusalem 

a//' ^/r/-« - //' - lu u - le - ri - bu - ma ir - lu - u 

his royal city he had brought in, desert- 



-< -ET TJ -<T< 


^! HK 


«< 


>&&m 


£#/ - Ai - a - ti 

• 


»/ - //• 


XXX 


bilat 


ed. 


With 


3o 


talents of 



HEZEKIAH'S TRIBUTE 



65 



<ff-TT^ my jp&m <R*T s^IM< 



hurdsi 
gold, 



VIII. C 
800 



bilat kaspi ni - sik - //' 

talents of silver, precious stones, 



£* A— Iff 

stibium, 




//* 



ss3f 



■HF-ffoETfT— EFT 

rabutiP 1 

great -stones, 



dak - &w 

dakkassUy 

couches 



=TT 



« 



W ^T ** ft T 



h'nni 
of ivory, 



'>" ibtf^ ^ 



ni - me - di 



Wf 



seats 



Sinni 
of ivory, 



maSak piri tinni piri ** u u$u '** urkarinnu 

elephant-hide, ivory, I w^w- j \urkannnu-l 

(wood,) j wood, j 

C-ET »M SrvHfWT -sfcJ*TTTT*T <HSJ 

mimma Sum-Su ni - sir - /// Xvz - bit - /« « 

diverse objects, a heavy treasure, and 



warJ//' F 1 - to zikretir* ekalli - to dmtf/tt zammere P l 

his daughters, the women of his palace, male musicians, 



^JeM— ff~Hf <©*Tff 


<S3<H[ -*=TT 


f zammeriii F l a - //a &" - rib 


Ninua KI ali 


female musicians, into 


Nineveh the city 


~l@M<*Efi ME3fM=ff *TTT**:3«m 


be - lu - /*' - /'rt arki - t a 


u - U-bi - lam - ma 


of my dominion after me 


he despatched and 
5 



66 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE 



Tf^T ~nr*|fl «0T*SM< <HEQ[ *UtfK 



a - na na - <&/* 


man -da -at - ti u 


e - /tf 


to give 


tribute and 


to make 


^T *TTT* ~T< 


~TT*-E^TT &^v 




ardu - u - fi 


1$ - pu - ra r#£ - bu-$u 




submission 


he sent his messenger. 





I. Col. II, 1. 34. — Col. Ill, I. 41. 



THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB, 68 1 B.C. 



I. Prom the Babylonian Chronicle. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 84 — 2 — 11, 356.] 



IT 



arhu Tcbitu umu XX KAN ilu Sin - ahe P l - erba 

On the 20th day of Tebet Sennacherib, 



U$S *~V s&l 



- ^11 & w^[J «TTT1 

tor mJt " AShtr maru-hi ina si - hi iduk - Su XXIII 

king of Assyria, his son in a rebellion slew him. For 23 



tondti r* 
years 



-4- <« KS?a I 

Sennacherib 



£TT fci^T 



<r&/ 



the kingdom 



WJ/M ,4itff/r ipu$(ui) - w<? w/w« XX KAN to 

of Assyria ruled. From the 20th day of 



Tebet 



a - di umill KAN to arhu Adam si - /// ina mJtu AShtr 

to the 2nd day of Adar the rebellion in Assyria 



sa - dir 
continued. 



►*►►' 



' ,r//tt jima/fff ///«* XVIII KAN 
On the 18th day of Sivan 



maru-Su ina mdiu AUur 
his son in Assyria 



via 
on 



kussi 
the throne 



l7 « AUur - al} - iddin 
Esarhaddon 



T 1 




i//atob(ab) 



sat. 



1. Col. Ill, 11. 34—38. 



5* 



68 



THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB 



II. Prom the stele of Nabonidus. 

[Scheil, Recueil de travaux, XVIII.] 



u ~nf 2< ****** [<m\ mm *ttt<= ~nr ^ <~ 

a - na Babili KI _. ,. ''""', .. v u - na - am - iwi" 

[hc(/ e. Sennacherib) 

Against Babylon went]. He destroyed 



*? - ri - * - it - tf 
its temples, 



u - sa - afr - fri 
he threw down 



*TTT* ** ^TT TJ ~T< s^T M <T^ *T? 



« 



su - ra - a - fj 
the reliefs, 



*TTT* ^TT <=I<! *F Sstf 

- Jfa - ai - pi - // 
he cast down. 



// 



■HP «*T 

,v " Marduk 
Marduk 



if - fo - at - ma 
he siezed and 



3/7 - lu ~ di - e 
the shrines 

*TTT* -T< HffflF 

^a - it' 1 n/£* 

The hand of the prince 

^ * -m Hf 

u - $e - ri - ib 
brought (him) 



ki - rib AHur KI ki - ma uz - si 

into ASSur. According to the anger 



i// -wa i - fa - pu - ftf ;wtf/tf «/ ip - $u - ur 

of the god he dealt with the land. He did not subdue 

<IET^TT^TTTJT Hffflf «f «*T «! ^T— 

*/ - mi? - ta - to nrifi iVm Marduk XXI Sandii F ! 

his wrath, the prince Marduk; for 21 years 



ki - n# 



in 
1. ga-ti — kati. 



~p[* ~t< ^ <m 

AHur 
ASSur 



£TTH' 



/'r - A/ - »w 
did he set 



MARDUK'S ANGER AGAINST BABYLON 69 

JT ~ ^TT LA-ftfl] M «=TTT«= *T T— 

.?« - bat - jtt />w - lu - u time P l 

his dwelling-place. Fulfilled were the days, 



/% - lu - da a - dan - //« 1 - //« - «// - ma 

there came the appointed time, and appeased was 

*HTCOT W *£$ -HF-Hf-' -II -III- 

1*3 - s<z - lu la lar Hani be I bile P l 

his anger, which the king of the gods, the lord of lords, 

^TTTT ^1W m*m <H£fl ^J ~f g^TT <M 

E - sag - Ha u Bdbili KI 

against Esagila and Babylon 



/# su - us lu- bat be - tu - /* - lu lar 

had conceived, the dwelling of his lordship. The king 



Allur KI la i - na uz - za ilu Marduk 

of Assyria, who during the anger of Marduk 



£TT rltf fir *T -£V v ^TTHJ^ ^ 

la - #/ - /« - ut - /i>» wa// tf - &* - «« /Kurt* 

the destruction of the land had brought about, a son, 




ji* - it lib - £1 - lu i - na kakki 

the offspring of his bowels, with a weapon 

t=TTT^ ^^TT <^ ^TT t=H I ' 

u - ra - as - si - *8-Jte 
slew. 

1. Col. I, L 7—41. 



THE 
DESTRUCTION OF SIDON BY ESARHADDON. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 12170.] 



Co..i,,[T~ipEE3^^7 « EJ- « *m*- 

m AHur - ah - iddin(na) Sarru rabu Sarru dan - nu 
Esarhaddon, the great king, the mighty king, 

« I « > »v <m *■ <& ^T 

lar kmati Sar mdtu Attur Kl lakkanakku 

the king I of thei the king of Assyria, ruler 

I world, I 

Babili Kl Sar mdtu Sumiri u Akkadi KI 

of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, 

3- m m <«m— **tt « th « *ttm 

m £ r m tlu §j n „ a fe pi . er i a i arru rabu farm dan - nu 
son of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, 

« v ~V <Ef 4. [t£ T « t^y « ^ 

jc tfr mdtu A$$ ur Kr m ^ r m $arru-ukin Sarru rabu 

the king of Assyria, son of Sargon, the great king, 

« eTfl^] « *~V<II! 5. L^TT - 

Sarru dan - nu Sar matu ASSur KI Xa ina 

the mighty king, the king of Assyria, who with 



THE KING'S TITLES AND GENEALOGY 71 

THr-HH HF--V1 ~f<« Hf-^T «• HF— ^F 

tukulti(ti) ilu Attur ilu Sin ilu SamaS Uu Nabu 

the help of ASSur, Sin, SamaS, Nabu, 



ilu Marduk llu filar la Ninua KI ilu lUar 

Marduk, IStar of Nineveh, I Star 



•gfl »=«f <Ef ~H— EFT— -III— I 

fa ^4r^(/ - ilu Ki Hani P l rabuti P l belt P l - Xu 

of Arbela, the great gods, his lords, 

8.<tf**y »*rTaT HF-*M- M3= *fi«=TTI 

1// - /« si - 1/ ,/tt SamSi(ji) a - di e - r*# 

from the rising of the sun to the setting 

tlu SamSi(Si) it - tal - lak - u ~ ma ma -fa' - ra 

of the sun proceeds and • an opponent 

la i - $u- u ka - Sid alu §i - du - is/// - »i 

does not possess, the conqueror of Sidon 

&z *>/# &*&;/ /tfjw - tim sa - /1 - nu 

which is in the midst of the sea, who overcame 

-TT^EHW ^y^yyyy-j .,©1 <H@r 

£7 - /w/r da - </</ - me-Su dura - Xu u 

the whole of its habitation; its wall and 

jy~^yy ^m^^iti **-<m*m *!-£*- 

Xu-bal - su as - jk# - /wa & - r# /aw - tim 

its place of dwelling I tore out and into the sea 



72 THE DESTRUCTION OF S1DON BY ESARHADDON 

ad - di - i - ma a - far waif - &?/* - i" - Jte 

I cast and the place where it stood 



«=TTT«= - Kf -5. T w=T <T3= ^TT HT *T ~T< 

i/ - &i/ - /i% w Ab - <# - /»/'/ - ku - u/ - ti 

I destroyed. Abdimilkutti 



farra - £# fa la - pa - an kakke P l - ia 

its king, who before my arms 

/>*<* &*3tf/ /<z/w - tim in - «#£ - tu ki - ma 



into the midst of the sea had fled, like 

^TTHs: <tfk*T <HMTJ *K*r '9-TTHF-^fET 

nu - u - ni ul - tu ki - rib tarn -tim a-bar-$u-ma 

a fish out of the sea I caught and 

ak - ki - . jtf &/£ - &7 - su x nak - mtt 

• • • 

I cut off his head. His hoarded 



makkuru - /« hurasu kaspu abnu P l a - kar - /» 

possessions, g°ld, silver, precious stones, 



maiak piri linni piri ** u uSu '* u urkarinnu 

elephant-hide, ivory, I «*«- I iwricar/wwii-i 

\ wood, j \ wood, i 

f ubatu i u . £ w / . f t - birmi u kiii mimma Sum - Su 

raiment of r gaily -coloured i and cloth of every kind, 

I. kak-ka-su = kakkad-su. 



DEPORTATION OF THE INHABITANTS 



73 



23. 55: ^fflf< ~y< b=TTTT ET- I ^ II 

«/ - sir - ti ekalli - $u a - na 

the store of his palace, in 



T 



' - di - e a$ - lu - /<i ///& ^ - fo 



jnk - 



abundance 



I captured; 



his people, 



raps' ati pl $a 

from far and wide, 



/// - 3rt A* i - $a - a 

without number, 



26. ^ Jw^ 


<H£U 


ten ^ ^ 


^""*T»»- T»»»» 


alpe? 1 


» 


j/ - * - //1 


/w^r* *"' 


oxen 


and 


sheep, 


(and) asses 



a - bu - ka a - na ki - r# wd ' 11 ittfcr /w/ 

I carried away into Assyria. 



28 . tyyyc ^ g£y E y 

u - pa - hir - Md 
Moreover I collected 



terrain F l 
the kings 



of the land of the {jatti 



«9.<HEQf TJA *T~£V ^H^TTI^ 



» </ - /// tarn - //>/ 

and of the coast of the sea, 



ka - It - $u-nu 
all of them; 



3o.[- g^TTU V<^TET -tTT *TTT<=*Eff<ET 

*>/<* a $ - ri $a - nim - /wa a la u - $c- pis' - ma 

in another place a city I erected and 



3 <• WT *Tflf ! -*?] BStf *£J ~Hf ^T sHTT 3 



alm Kar - m ;4Jtff/r - all - iddina(na) 
Kar-ASSur-a{)-iddina l 



at - ta - bi 
I called 



1. /. e. "The Wall of Esarhaddon. 



»» 



74 



THE DESTRUCTION OF SIDON BY ESARHADDON 



& ^TTTT -ȣIT 3 2 . ^ y 



ni - bit - j« 
its name; 



nitt P l 
the peoples, 



bu - bu - ut 
the captives 



'f u kaUi - ia $a $adi(i) u tarn - tim 

of my bow, from the mountains as well as from the sea 



*£IT ssatf 

of the rising 



Hf- *T <T- 

titt $am$i($i) 
of the sun 



34. 



TIT 



ina lib - bi 

therein 



*TTT* * <T- HI 35. k& M *\ *TM= **W 

u - $e ~ $i - ib amelu Su - ud - Saki - #<i 

1 made to dwell; my officer 



-II* <^fcj I *- £ -T^-rTf 




as governor 



eli - $u - nu 
over them 



I set. 



36. <h@! y 4** -HF- ^1 <MII -III 3 7- fc^ 



But 



m Sa - an - du - <ir 
Sandu'arri, 



ri 



far 
king 



:TT -TAHffr <I^ 



-IT ^n --II <=TTI^ 



alu 



Kun 
of Kundi 



<//' 



alu 



Si - stf 
(and) Sizu, 



u 



38. &££ -^ H& £* 
an obstinate foe, 



► ►►► 



39. >m -hf- i 

Sa Hani F l 

whom the gods 



^y 3= t y!i< ~ j@j ^!< ^ 

/a /a - /*# be - lu - // - & 
who feared not my dominion, 

. *TTT* HF- «£ W «=TTT>= EI 

u - ma/ - ft'r u - ma 

had forsaken, 



SUBJECTION OF THE NEIGHBOURING CITIES 



75 



4o.H-nf v«* *TT-£*Hf< ^T^TTTCT 



a - na 
in 



$adi(f) mar - §u - /i 

the difficult mountains 



it - ta - kit 
trusted, 



4.. < I «=T <T^ -IT m *T ~T< t&ft 



and 



m 



^ 



</i - mil - ku - ul - ii 
Abdimilkutti, 



iar 
king 



-tjT tETT -T & 4«. Tl ~Hf HTTI £g= ~T< I 

* /tt *SV - (ltd - ni 

m 

of Sidon, 

4T -T AHfff ET 



a - na 
to 



ri - $u - ti - Jto 
his help 



tf 



came 



ma 
and 



43. >^ «Hf- T«~ ET- T 

foal jftzai ^ r<i6ft// ^ 

on the name of the great gods 



Tl ~n Tl }}< T~~ 

a - na a - ha - me$ 
together 



£T v < ET 44- TI ~Hf 

iz - kur -u -ma 
they called, and 



a - na 



tTI^HIIJMII rSatfsAH 45-TI^THJ 



* - /WH - &' - $u - un 
their own might 



// - tak - /« 
put their trust. 



a - na - ku 
I 



a ' na 
in 



A$$ur 
ASSur 



bill - ia 
my lord 



II ^T ~V -II ^ tET £TTT D ET 

at - ta - kil - ma 
trusted and 

&' - rib Xadi(i) 
the midst ( of » h ? 1 

I mountains I 



46.<HI^T £T**HTI 



like 



t$ - su - r/ 
a bird 



«/ - tu 
from 



47. TI HF- JeTeeT -©<Ef^ s^T^TT 48. £ I 



a-bar- lu -ma 
I caught him and 



ak - &i - sa 
I cut off 



&zi- ka - su 

» » • 

his head. 



a$-hi 
In order 



76 THE DESTRUCTION OF SI DON BY ESARHADDON 



da - na - an tlu Attur beli - ia niU P l 

the power of ASSur my lord unto the peoples 



kul - /«/w - mi - I'm - wa kakkadt P l 

• • * 

to display, the heads 



T Jm HF- -I <MTI -m 5-. <H£& 

m Sa - an - du - ar - ri u 

of Sandu'arri and 



m -<43 - </* - 01* - 1/ - ku - ut - ti ina ki - la - <# 

Abdimilkutti to the necks 



55 eeT- T~~ I *fflf TJ JT* ET 53. ^T ~T< 

«»■«« rata// * l - Su-un a - /1// - ma // - A* 

of their nobles I hung and with 



EE3SJM— < sT^<£- 54-- -TTI ^TTTT 

amelu zammere F l u ina ri - bit 

musicians and melody (?) into the square 

Ninua Kl e - te - it - // - ik 

of Nineveh I went. 



THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBAN1PAL. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 12168.] 



ina $ane(e) gir - ri - ia a - na mdtu Mu - s ur 

In my second expedition to Egypt 



u matu Ku -u - si uS - U - ei - U - ra har - ra - nu 

and Ethiopia I directed the way. 

«. t ih rar et ^ *ti if yn ■ ^< -m *sr 

m Ur - da - ma - ni - e a - &£ #iir - r* - ia 

Urdamane of the coming of my expedition 



i.f - mc-ma ia ak - bu - su mi - «r 

heard, ) to the 1 I had trodden the boundary 

\ effect that! 

of Egypt. Memphis he abandoned, and 



4- Tf-Hf 3[^TT*fc -TT*~£VI ^^MTTT 

a - na $u - zu - ub napis'tim(tim)-$u in - na - 3// 
to save his life he fled 



a - »« */ - rib <"* Ni - ' iarraniP 1 

into Thebes. The kings, 



80 THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL 

ul - tu man-za - al - //' - hi-nu as - suh - ma 

from their place I removed and 



al - ka - a a - na ^^ ilu AHur KI Sal - la - /« 

took to Assyria. Spoils, 

&z - bit - /« fiM la me - hi a$ - lu - la 

heavy, without number, I carried off 

ul - tu ki - rib « tu Ni - ' * - // 

from Thebes. Over 



mdtu Mu-sur u mdtu Ku - u - si kakke P l - ia 

Egypt and Ethiopia my arms 

u - him - ri - ir- ma aS - la - kan li i - /// 

1 caused to rage and I established might. 

/'/ - //' ka - //' /»d - //" - // Sal - meS 

m 

With full hands safe and sound 



a - tu ~ ra a - w<i Ninua KI ali 

I returned to Nineveh the city 

&/» - // - lis 
of my dominion. 

i. Col. II. 11. 28—48. 



THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 12,168.] 



m Gu - ug - gu Sar mJ/M Lu - ud - di 

Gyges, king of Lydia, 



na - gu - u $a ni - bir - // 

a district which is across 



tdmti 
the sea, 



*• £ OT 



*III < X^X 



a$ - ru ru - u - ku 

a distant place, 



of which 



"ETT ^ T 



Sarrdm F l 
the kings 



*ETT— *Eff -6T Jrfl>**m* -TT*E|f<**I 



tffo ^ - id 

my fathers 



Ai /J - mu - 1/ 

had not heard 



zi - &'r $umi-$u 
mention of the name, 



3. ^ t=TTTT ►* t^f 



/// 



my name 



in a dream 



1/ - &i£ - ri - $u-ma tiu ASSur ilu ba - nu-u-a 

did ASSur, the god, my creator, reveal to him, 

6 



82 THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA 



4- ZW £1 <tETT T «f A sp fl « 

urn - ma $epa 11 m tlu A$$ur-ban-apli far 

thus : "The feet of Ashurbanipal, king of 

v HP- A <m }}*tl * - -TT* m >* I 

mdtu Uu a$ far KI §a- bat-ma ina zi - kt'r Sumi-Su 

Assyria, grasp and through his name 



ku - $u - ud amgIu nakir'e P l - ka u - mu 

conquer thy foes." The day 



Suttu an - ni - tu e - mu - r« am^/« ra £ -bu-Su 

this dream he saw, his messenger 



i$ - pu - ru a - na fa - ' - a/ 

he sent to greet 



£«/ - me - ia sutiu an - /*/" - tu fa 

me. This dream, which 

*tf •* *jn s. ^- jy TT kb? tj mi i 

* - mu - rw /'/ia kdta 11 amelu mar-hpri-lu 

he had seen, by the hands of his envoy 



TTEVfcfcfcT tflT* V HP- ^T T? tffTJTW< 

i«f - pur - tf/w - ma u - fa - an - na - a ia - a - ti 

he sent and repeated to me. 

9 . <tf* *T ^TTT 53 *T F V s=T ~*T *T 

«/ - tu lib - bi u - me fa if - ba - tu 

From the very day on which he grasped 



HIS SUCCESS AGAINST THE CIMMERIANS 83 

Vepa 11 Urru - // - ia amSlu Gi - mir - ra - at 

my royal feer, the Cimmerians, 



mu - </W - //" - pu nrte F l mati-Su fo 

who afflicted the people of his land, who 



la ip - /ti/ - la - $« tffo ^ - fa « 

did not fear my fathers, and 

at - tu - u-a la is ~ ba - tu Sipd 11 Sarru - // - m 

as for me had not grasped my royal feet, 

# - fo - *</ />/<7 tukulti(lt) ilu AHur u ilu Mar 

he conquered. With the help of ASSur and IStar, 



HP- T— -II W ^ £TTT *TTT 

i/wii*' #£*' - ia ullu lib - 3* 

the gods, my lords, from 

ame/tt hazanati r l fa amelu Gi - mir - ra - at 

the governors of the Cimmerians, 



fo i* - $u - du II amelu hazanati F l ina 

whom he had conquered, two governors in 



** u si - is - «' tf - ka - //' parzilli bi - ri - ti 

bonds, chains of iron, fetters 

6* 



84 THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA 



H- Hf- *TTT* *T F AHPPf ET *• js*y h< 

parzilli u - /#/» - /»* - /# - ma it - //* 

of iron, he bound and together with 



ta - mar - //' - Su ka bit - tu u - $e - bi - la 

a heavy gift from him he sent 

a - 0Y mah - r/ - w amelu ra % . bu- $u Sa 

into my presence. His messenger, whom 



TJ~ry VAHP-3<J <{ t ^y-^ ^HTUJ-f 

a - na ia - ' - at $ul - me - ia ka - at - a« 

to greet me continually 



IT £TTT «Mf ^ MT ««. *TTT* *SJ V TJ 

/'.? - la - nap - pa - ra u sar - $a - a 

he had sent, he dis- 

&j - //* - il - /« aS - $u $a a - ma/ *'" AHur 

continued. Since the command of ASSur 



Hf- ^ men «9. -eej ty ££ *jn yj ^T 

f/tf &j/i/' - ia la is - su - ru a - //a 

the god, my creator, he did not keep, in 

*fi ^ mt « tt i ^y t^TTT a ey 

* - /««£ ra - wa;/ - i - $u it la - £// - /wa 

his own power he trusted and 



-TI**-5tf 'TTT*- - t y^ <ig[ t yn yj^y 

ig - bu - u$ lib - bu e - mu - ki - e- $u a - na 

[his] heart was proud, [and] his forces for 



HIS SUBSEQUENT CHANGE OF POLICY 85 

kit - ri m Tu - fo - /«/ - 1/ - &' for «*» J/*w - sur 

alliance with Psammetichus king of Egypt, 

-^TT eTI£II*TTT* FINEST -II-<T<^TJ 

$a is - lu - u '* w mr bclu - //' - ia 

who had cast off the yoke of my dominion, 



TT EW t] W ^T M £ T- *fi ET 

iS - pur - ma a - na - ku a$ - me - e - ma 

he sent. Then I heard and 

// - W - // tIu AUur u tiu iStar um - ma 

I prayed to ASSur and iStar, thus: 



b£HF- BfcM s£VI ^TT^T<te=ET 

/to - #/* ameiu nakiri-Su pa-gar-Su li na - di - ma x 

"Before his foe may his corpse be cast and 



JiS - Su - u - ni F l - $u ki - i $a 

may they carry off his bones." Even as 



TJ ^T ~f A ^ -II *JM ^TT <T- t] 

a - na ,lu ASSur am - $u - ru iS - //>« - ma 

to ASSur I had prayed, it came to pass. 



/to - an amelu na kiri-Su pa-gar-Su in - na - di - ma 

Before his foe his corpse was cast down and 



TT I < ^ <EE <W ^T T— I 

iS - Su - u - ni P l - Su 

they carried off his bones. 

I. A variant reading gives li-in~na-di-ma. 



86 THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA 

ameiu Qj . mtr . at - $ a Jna n { . faj $umi - ia 
The Cimmerians, whom through my name 



Sa - /a/ - $u ik - bu - su it - bu - jimi - /w<z 

beneath him he had trodden, drew near and 



w - pu - nu gi - w/r mdti-Su arki - £« 

subdued the whole of his land. After him 

3*= I *TTM- - sTS*¥H a 7 .HJtjn 

mdri-Su u - hb ina '* w kussi - fo # " ^ 

his son sat on his throne. Of the 



limuttim{tini) Sa ina ni - fit kate 11 - ia 

evil fate, which at the raising of my hands 



Hani P* tik - // - ia ina pa - /?» 

the gods, my helpers, upon 

abi bani-Su u - ,w/ - ri - ku ina kata ll 

I the \ his begetter, had brought, by / the \ 

\ father,/ | hands of/ 



amilu mar-hpri-lu iS - pur - am - ma i§ - ba - ia 

his envoy he sent [me news] and grasped 

<EETT ^mT^eeIJ scnTET ^ v ^ 

$ipd u Sarru - ti - ia urn - wtf Sarru $a ilu 

my royal feet, thus: "A king, of whom god 



HIS SON'S SUBMISSION TO ASHURBANIPAL 87 



t E^T<i tETj£m 3o.^t<ii ^m^jniH^ 

i - du - u-hi at - /<z abu - u-a ta - ru - ur - ma 

ihath takeni art thou. My father thou didst curse, and 

(knowledge,/ 

limuttu ii ~ $a - km ina pa - ni~lu /a - a - /1 

evil was done unto him. As for me, 

ardu pa-lih - &z kur-ban - /*/' - 1 - ma la - $u - fa 

the slave that feareth thee, bless me and let me bear 



ap - $a - an - ka 
thy yoke." 

1. Col. II, 11. 95—125. 



THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OF SIPPAR 
BY NABOPOLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON, 

625 — 604 B. C. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 82—7 — 14,979.] 



. HF- ^T 3 sCTTT «itf *TTT* **£ Z231 

ilu Na - hi - um - apil - u - su - ur 

Nabopolassar, 



far Bdbili KI li - ri - 1/ 

king of Babylon, the de- 



ga - at 1 ilu Na - £1' - it/n w ilu Marduk 

sire of 2 Nabu and Marduk, 



TJ^THJ s-^y- Hf-<W*T -II ET-*TTT* 

a - na - ku i - //it //m Marduk belu rabu{u) 

am I. When Marduk, the great lord, 



MJ^T R^HF- ETtiK-TT* 7-*T^TJT 

a - na za - na - an ma -na - 0/' «*v/ - </« - ,?« 

to provide for the cities, to renew 

<«-TTI*TM< 8.^rTT^TTT^I ^H3^M< 

eS - ri - e - // ur - ta - lu ka - bi - // - // 

the shrines, his weighty command 

1. ga-at = kat. 

2. Literally, "the stretching forth of the hand of", i. e. the object for which 
the hand is stretched forth in desire. 



ALTERATION IN THE BED OF THE EUPHRATES 89 

« - wa - ' - 1 - ra - 0/1 - »i 

enjoined upon me, 

1 - «« - 01* - $u - am Sippar KI 

at that time Sippar, 



ma -ha - si 2/ - /' - r/ 1 »a - ra - aw 

the august city, beloved of 

-HF- *T < «f TJ TJ «4- TJ& *T «f Hffflf 

SamaS and Ai, the Euphrates 

is - si - $u - ma ... me - e i - n* - e - £it 

had receded from it and ... the waters were distant 



I7 . ~f ^T S3 :CTTT 3££T *W ££ ttl 

ilu Na - bi - ttw - apil - u - su ur 

Nabopolassar, 



a - a$ - ri $a - #$ - /wi /a - /#* - ih 

the meek, the humble, the worshipper 



55:55: teffTM< -• TJ & *T 3J HfflJ MJ^T 

/# w - a - //' naru Puratu a - na 

of the gods, even I, the Euphrates unto 



T «f Hffflf <M «• EOT *TTT<= ^ A-fflf MT ^ ET 

Sippar KI lu - u - la -ah - ra - am- ma 

Sippar caused to be dug out, and 



• • 



1. fi-i-ri = sin. 



90 THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OF SIPPAR BY NABOPOLASSAR 



aM-tfi y-*T£<M- <£&M~frr MM 



me - e nu - ufi - // 

waters of abundance, 



HP- *T 

ilu SamaS 
SamaS 

6. <^[ 



&//" - ia 
my lord 



HPPF 
&' - bi - *'r 

The bank 



dam - ku - tim 
health-giving, 



a - na 
for 



25. m mtt* <m »^w 

lu - u - ki - in 
I established. 



TJ& JT TJ ~T< »7. ^ ^T 



nari $u - a - //' 

of that canal 



/ - na 
with 



U a*J *T ^T TT <H0I TJ ^TT HTCI 



kupri 
bitumen 



and 



a - ^/r - rt 
brickwork 



a8 . jgj tTTT«= ^T <MTI <!- ^T ET ■» TJ ~HT 



lu - u 



la ar Si - *i/ - ma 

I strengthened, and 



a - na 
for 



•Hh*T -II ^ 30. ^TTf JK^<^A4f 



,7tt SamaS beli - /iz 
SamaS my lord 



kar 
a wall 



hi - ul - mi - />w 
of safety 



lu - u - urn - mi - /# 
I erected. 



THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF 

BABYLON BY NEBUCHADNEZZAR II, KING 

OF BABYLON, 604—561 B. C. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 68 — 7 — 9, 1.] 



Coi. i, i. *->[- *~^y 



!hihm# 




TT 



tiu tfa - hi - um - ku-dur - ri - u 

Nebuchadnezzar, 



SU 



ur 




far 
king 



Ba - bi - lam KI ru - ba - a - am 

of Babylon, the prince 



na - a ~ dam 
exalted, 



<k: HfTA -&TT HF- «*T 



mi ~ gi - *r 
the darling of 



' 7 « Marduk 
Marduk, 



3.^mT-£fH! ^n^-m ^T^TTs^ 



tl - $a - ak - ku si - i - ri 

the august ruler, 



na - ra - am 
the beloved of 



*f ^T 



cm 4. ^t -& -fcH ~nr hj 



Nabu, 



$a - ak - ka - na - ku 
the governor 



Hff-fcEHPFF 



*TTTT ^TT^ ^TTT^IH^r 



la a - ne - fya za-ni - in E - sag - ila 

who is not wearied, the patron of Esagil 



92 THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON 

<HSI *TTTT -TT* £TT *■ ^T TJ ^T 

u E - zi - da $a a - na 

and Ezida, who to 



/7tt Afc - bi - a/» a /7 « Marduk 

Nabii and Marduk 



fo£ ^ - Xu ki - /*/ - nu - $u - ma ip - /« - /« 

his lords is subject, and who performs 



■m ^ jt ^tt *m «• ^r tj t»m 

ri - e - $u - su - un l na - a - dam 

their service, the exalted one, 



aplu a - $a - r/ - </tf $a tlu Nadu - a/i/ - 

the son of highest rank of Nabopol- 

u - §u - ur $ar Ba - £/' - Aim *'* 

assar, king of Babylon, 

H^!i »•:»:*- £TTT HP- «*T 

a - na - ku i - ww - «/w ' 7 " Marduk 

am I. When Marduk 



-II ee^TT s^T <M£fl <m & ^TT 

fo/tt m bi u ki - /*/ - ii 

the great lord legitimately 



/# - na - <//* - ni - /wa ma/a lu - tt - $u ~ ru 

created me and the land to rule, 



i. ri-e-$u-su-un = re$ut-sun. 



NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S ZEAL FOR MARDUK g3 



ill - Sim ri - e - a - am za - na - an 

the people to shepherd, to care for 



ma - ha - zi ud - du - Su e-eS-ri-e- tim 

the towns, to renew the shrines 



rtz - hi - iS u - ma - * - ir - an - «/' 

majestically commissioned me, 



a - na - ku a - na tlu Marduk belt' - w 

I unto Marduk my lord 



pa - a/ - hi -iS u - ta - ku Ba - bi - lam KI 

with fear was obedient. Babylon 

ET m ff JT ^TT «* H7I ^TT <HJ 

ma - faa - za ~ Su si /' r/' tf// 

his august city, the place 



/a - //# - da - a - tu - Su Im - gu - wr - ,/w ifr/ 

of his honour, Imgur-Bel, 



55: <^ ^T ~T< «f -II r=TTT '*• t^B t££y £T 

Ni - am - /'/ - // - tlu Bel durani - Su 

Nimitti-Bel, its 



tyty *m* ^tt -Ef -^TT t^TT <9-TJ^T 



rabuti 


a 


Sa - ak - li 


// 


a - mi 


great walls, 




I completed; 




on 



94 THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON 

se - ip - //' abulle-iu rtmdn 

the thresholds of its gates mighty 



*r/ e - ik - du - u - tim u 

oxen of copper and 

§irru$U $c - zu - zu - u - /r>n 

colossal serpents reared on end 



I set up. 



THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS. 



I. From a cylinder of Nabonidus, king of Babylon, 555—538 B. C. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 82 — 7—14, 1025.] 



a - na - ku ilu Na - bi - um - na - ' - id 

I, Nabonidus, 

Zarru ra - bu - u Sarru dan - nu Sar 

the great king, the mighty king, the king 




Si V — T< 

kii - $a - a 
of the world, 

S3* ^TT If Hf< 

&# - ra - a - ft 
the four 




a< **w <m tm 



-hJCZX 

-^T 1 I 

$ar Babili 

king of Babylon, 



KI 



sar 
king of 




^w *=yyyy «-y< 3. ^ ^z ^^^ 

/'r - £/'/ - // za - «/ - in 

quarters, the patron 



«=tttt ^tt^ m*m <H£U *m ht* m 



E 



sag - /7a 
of Esagil 



u 
and 



2? - zi - </a 
Ezida, 



4. ^TT ^TII^TT <H£H ~f**m- «^^T 



3ta 

1 whose \ 
I destiny/ 



il * Sin 
Sin 



u 
and 



ilu Nin - gal 
Ningal 



1 - na 
in 



g6 THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS 



*TTT tCTTT <^r I 5-TJ^T <T- t] *£T £& *W* >m 

libbi um - mi-Su a - na Si -ma -at Sarru - u - tu 
{womb of} k* s mother for a royal destiny 

ee <T- >* <T- ET t^f -^TT 6- t& 

i - Si - mu Si - ma - at - su mar 

determined, / the i 

\son of/ 
»i //h Nabu-balat - su - /£ - £/' rubu e - im - £** 

• • • 

Nabu-balatsu-ikbi, the wise prince, 




* ^TT AHTF «f ^ *h 7-- TJ ~Hf 

^# - // - ih Hani rabuti a - na - ku 

the worshipper of the great gods, am I. 



s- *M mi mi ^TTTT «s=TII --TT ^TT 

E - bul - bul bit ilu Sin Sa 

E - \}\Ji\ - hul, ihc temple of Sin which (is) 



ki - rib alu ffar - ra - nu Sa ul - tu 

in rjarran wherein from 

u - mu sa-a - ti ilu Sin belu ra - bu - u 

eternity Sin the great lord 

Su - ba - at tu - ub lib - 3/ - 3te 

(as in) the dwelling-place of the delight of his heart 

Ee^TT ^ *W <m -TTI Id! I «i. *ff ^TT 

n/ - /wk - « ki - ri - ib - Su e ti 

dwells, with 



THE SCYTHIAN INVASION 97 

^TT <M£fl ^TTTT W TJ JT *TTT *- 5?T 



dli u 


biti $a - a ~ 


$u lib - bu - u$ 


the citv and 


that temple 


his heart 


*Ee ^TT *-TI 


ET 


£5 *J « £TT 


/ - zu - uz - 


ma 


awtV« Umman-man - </<* 


was wroth 


and 


the Scythians 



tflT* v «ty ^ et MTTTT JT TJ -^V 

« - Sat - ba - tfw - ma £/// $u - a - tim 

he brought and that temple 

*fcEE5*m < 3 -*TTT^TTIHJT *W**m 

ub - bi - /'/ - Mtf u - $a - lik - Jte &/r - mu - /« 

he destroyed and he caused it to fall in ruins. 



*E~nf 3=^tmjtj <iu^<^t «4.^m 

/ - na pa - //' - e - a ki - / - /i//w ,/w ifa/ 

In my legitimate reign Bel 



-II EF ^TTT«= *s ^T ^T E^TT s=fc 

bilu rabu(u) i - na na - ra - am 

the great lord through love 




35 tTTT* -T< MEflf .5. I? ^T -^TT <H£U 

Sarru - u - ii - ia a - «<z a//' « 

for my kingdom unto the city and 

«=TTTT V TJ JT ^T -s^TT ^ Sm JT *TTT* 

biti ia - a - Su is - // - mu ir - $u - u 

that temple was gracious (and) had 



TTT Tiff HTTI ' 6 - «* ^T -TTI <« 

/a - ai - r/ i - na ri - *tf 

mercy. In the beginning of 



7 



9» 



THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS 



^rr« « - it ia ddriii(it) 

my everlasting reign 



Sab - ru - in - ni Su - ui - ti 

they caused me to behold a dream : 



u 



' Vtt Marduk 
Marduk, 



-II EF 

the great lord, 



<\>m 



u 
and 



"« Si)i 
Sin, 



THF-^-m Hf-*ff <M£fl <HT^r 



na - an - na - n 



the light 



$ame(e) 
of heaven 



i/ 



and 



ir$iiim{tim) 
earth, 



. 9 . ty -n* «£TT <ur^!4 Hf-«*T 

& - 2/ - zu hi - ial - la - an ilu Marduk 

stood on either side; Marduk 

"Nabonidus, 



i - ia - ma- a 
spake 



/'/ - // - ia 
to me : 



Sar Babili KI 

king of Babylon, 



with 



*ih m 



»-< 



w 



21 



• tE <T- 



ru - ku - bi - /a 
of thy chariot 



ti 



bring 



the horses 

libnaii P l 
bricks, 



^mTraimr ^^^tet ^tii^h 



E - fiuj - but 
E-bul-bul 



e - pu - u$ - wa 
build and 



ilu Sin 
Sin 



THE DREAM OE NABONIDUS 99 



&/« rabu(u) i - «a &' - ir - bi - $u 

the great lord therein 

1« - ur - ma - a hi - ba - at - su pa - al - fri - tf 

cause to inhabit his dwelling-place." With fear 



a - fa - ma - a a - na tlu Bel Hani P l 

I spake unto the lord of the gods, 

tlu Marduk bitu $u - a - /ww la 

Marduk : "That temple which 



lak - bu - u e - /1 - fo ii«*/* Umman-man - aa 

thou commandest to build, the Scythian 

4S A Zm t&R El *- «5S £* 1ST 

jtf - #/' - /'r - fw/w - ma pu - ug - gu - lu 

infests it and mighty is 

e - mu - ga - a-$u l ,iu Marduk - ma i - /a - ma- a 

his strength." But Marduk spake 

E5&W<tefif B5S*J«£JT V »^*-*TTT"= 

// - // - /i/ am * lu Umman-man-da Sa tak - bu - u 

unto me : ''The Scythian of whom thou speakest, 



«?. ^rr H Ml * £T <MSJ t£$ T 

ia - a - $u maii-Su u larrdni ? l 

he, his land, and the kings, 

1. /. e., pu-uk-ku-lu e-mu-ka-a-&u. 



7* 



IOO THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS 

a - /i& i - di - fo i*/ 

his allies, 

■err a <Mk- ht< ■* -HF- ^i «^ ^n 

la - lu - ul - // 
the third 



i - ba - al • 


• A' 


i - na 


e no more". 




In 


^ «f - 


H 


tE ^ 


latti 




i - na 


year 




on 



&z - la - du u - lai - bu - nil - Jta/w - ma 

an expedition * they caused him to advance and 



m AIk - ra - al lar mdtu An - za - an arad - ,w 

Cyrus, king of Anzan, his 



fa - <z/j - n' / - na um - ma - ni - lu 

petty vassal, with his troops 



t£^£^T B5&*?«£fT ^VTf-T< 

/' - su - /« amelu Umman-man~da rap - la - a - // 

that were few the wide-spreading Scythians 



u - sap - pi - ih m /I - lu - m* - ^w 

scattered. Astyages, 

jc ar amilu Umman-man-da is -bat-ma ka - mu-ut - su 

king of the Scythians, he captured and as a prisoner 



a - na mati-lu it - ki a -mat tlu Bel 

to his land he took him. / (It was) 1 the 

I the word of/ 

1. Or "as it approached". 



THE CAPTURE OF ASTYAGES IOI 

r^tt(tt) /7a Marduk u tlu Sin 

great lord Marduk and of Sin, 



na - an - na - n' $ame(e) u irsitim(tim) 

the light of heaven and earth, 

35. w <m a Bay ^tt *- -er t&m «r ^ <=ttt*= 

&i &" - £* - /'/ - su - jit* /a ;)# - ///>* - nu - u 
whose command was not annulled. 



II. From the Nabonidus-Cyrus Chronicle. 

[Brit. Mus., Sp. II, 964.] 

i.[*ui ttm y <^t3 im&* t&m 

ummani-iu upahhir-ma ana eli m Ku - rai iar 

His forces {"^i^'-^ff '} against Cyrus, king of 

An - $11 - an ami ka Sa - */* // - lik - /»# 

AnSan, to conquer (him) went 

... m f$ - fu - me - gu ummani-hi ibbalkit - su - ma 

. . . But against Astyages his forces revolted and 

/>irt kdta 1! sa-bit a - na m Ku-ra$ id - di - //K-fo 

in captivity to Cyrus they delivered him. 



3. y m ^ ]} -ry v TJ v £TH y- ^TT 

m Alw - ra$ a - na matu A- gam -fa - nu ali 

Cyrus (went) to Ekbatana the 



« • 



102 



• • • • • 
' • •• 



• • 



TtfE ; t7EFKATCTF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS 



• • 



*g& MTV -m <tf *T <flf HTT A V Ml 

• • • • \ •• 

• • | . *.)jpW"& - u - iu kaspu hurdsu bu$u 

royal city. Silver, gold, possessions, 



. ••• • • • 

► • •• • 

* • 



V*TTT* 

makkuru 
property 






• • • 



• • • 



4- W v!{\ cETTT *- 

^ mj/a A -gam - ta - »n 

of Ekbatana 



^n m* *m* et tj -nf * hf- v «f 



tf - lul - u - ma 
he carried off and 



a - na 
to 



mJ/a An - Sa - an 
AnSan 



►«V 



TT<ir 



1/ - # 

he took. 



i. Col. II, 11. 1—4. 



THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS. 

I. From the Cylinder of Cyrus. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 12049.} 

t'S - te - ' - e - ma ma - al - ki i - to - ru 

He (i.e. Marduk) sought out a righteous prince, 



hi - £/'/ Z# - bi to it - fa - ma - aft 

after his own heart, whom he might take 



&* - /« - ma x - ita m Att - ra - a$ tor 

m 

by the hand ; Cyrus, king of 

iliu An - to - an it - ta - £/ »/' - £1 - // - su 
AnSan, he called by his name, 



<z - »rf ma - //' - >t« - tim kul - la - ta 

for empire over the whole 



**#/ - /wr ?*2 - sa>& - ra Su - 1*0* - fo 

world he proclaimed his title. 



104 



THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 



i3.*:3=M<eE -TIA^mi ^T!T««^ri 



matu Ku - ti - i 
The land of Kutu, 



gi - mir 
the whole 



um - man-man - da 
of the tribal hordes 



*TTT^H-f Sfi^TT TJ-nh^T-JT MTOfT 



u - ka - an - ni - $a 
he forced into submission 



a - na Se - //' - £« 
at his feet, 



* & P l 
the 



^ v ^n^ ^r ^tt turt ^n -& <v ^\ 



sal - jwa / kakkadi $a 

men [lit. the black-headed], whom 



u 



$a - ak - ft' - </// 



he had delivered 



Ttemffi «4.^-nf <m^i-^ <hsj 



ka - ta - a-$u 

m 

into his hands, 



with 



£* - if - /iiw 
justice 



and 



<^ V OT ^TT *T & &r+ 1|| <T- ^T TJ H*r 



il? - te - «/ - ' 
he cared for 



$i - na - a - tim 
them. 



mi - la - ru 
righteousness 



,ln Marduk be/u rabu ia - ru - u ntie F l - Su 

Marduk the great lord, the protector of his people, 



<H£U 



ip - $e - e - // - la l dam - ka - a - Az 

his good deeds 



*TTT ~*T JT *ee ^H E^TT JJ< <T^ ^TT 



u 
and 



lib - ba - jfw /' - ft/ 

his righteous heart 



ra 



ha - di - 
with joy 



tf 



Id! * -s^TT [ty] «5. Tf ^T ^TT JT 

ip - pa - // -is a - «# <?// - ft/ 

beheld. To his city 

i. In ip-Se-e-ti'Sa and tu-kul-tiia (1. 19) &x is employed for the pron. suff. in. 



HIS ELECTION BY THE GOD MARDUK 105 



Babili KI a - Az - <z£ - fo z# - 3/ 

of Babylon that he should go he commanded, 



MOT* ^TT *ESl 3 Esstf ^TT ET A£ ^T! *- 

« - &z - as - £1 - it - su - ma har - ra - nu 

he caused him to take the road 

Babili KI ki - ma t'6 - ri u 

to Babylon, like a friend and 

/Vz/ - /z - * /'/ - /<// - /<! - /•# 1 - da - a - $u 

helper he went at his side. 

um - /w<z - «/ - $u rap - fa - a - iim fa 

His wide-spreading troops, of which 



ki - W(/ w^ - e nari la u - ia - ad - du - « 

like the waters of a stream not to be known is 



^^TJT^m STMT— JT^ ffHP-^TET 

»*' - ba - $u - un kakkc P l - /zz - //« sa - an - </« - wi<z 

the number, with their weapons girt 



i - &z - ad - di - //<z 1 - da - a - Su ba - lu 

advance at his side. Without 

kab - //' u ia - fra - 2/ zz - $e - ri - ba - a$ 

contest and battle he made him enter 



io6 THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 



<m*m M~t-~n<m ^t\m ^hp-i— <m 



ki - rib Babili KI 


ali - to Babili KI 


into Babylon 


his city; Babylon 


£ <J$z 55 t&E 


~HT ^Idl ^T! <H 


«... • 
t - ti - tr t - 

m 


»<z fa/ - to - &' 


he spared from tribulation. 



OT ,/M Nabu - /*<z7</ torn* /a pa - /i - #* - to 

Nabonidus, the king that did not fear him, 



u - ma - a/ - /a - a ka - iu - «£ - to m'Se P l 

m 

he delivered into his hand. The people of 

Babili KI ka - //* - to - nu nap - #ar 

Babylon all of them, the whole of 

mJ/M .S'w - me - ri u Akkadi * 7 ru - bi - e u 

Sumer and Akkad, princes and 



*ro?= s£ -car -tfcj ^tt— t*jt -n*<~^ 

Sak - kan - nak - ka to - pal - to i£ - mi - jtf 

governors, beneath him bowed down, 



u - na - a$ - $i - ku U - pu - «.? - to 

they kissed his feet, 



ih du - u a - na hirru - « - //' - to 

they rejoiced in his kingdom, 



THE SUBMISSION OF THE CITY 107 

im - mi - ru pa - nu - u$ - /« - «« fo - /w Sa 

bright was their countenance. To the lord, who 



*ee^T ^W~T<^TT *ttt* ~^t* -tannr 

1 - /ra /« - kul - // - &J 1/ - bal - /1 - /« 

through his strength raises to life 



<£: -*£T £TTT ~f ** ^T *- £TTT £» 

fli/' - /« Az - rz/j / - /*tf bu - ta - ku 

the dead, (and) from destruction 



u pa - hi - e ig - 011 - /« £1*/ - la - ia - an 

and misery (?) had spared all, 



£TT a ^TT -II* £TTT <MTI MI *- £T 

/a - bi - /£ life - ia - ar - ra - bu - Su 

joyfully they paid homage, 



it *t ti *m -it* <mtm£i -• if ~Hf m 

i$ - iam-ma - ru zi - ki - ir - $u a - na - >fo 

they reverenced his name. I am 

m A"w - r<z - #£ .frzr kti - &z/ &zrr*/ r^w Sarru 

Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the 

dan - «« &zr Bdbili KI Sar mdtu Su-me - ri 

mighty king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer 



<M£U -£^H<M^ *£$ :3fE*=TTTM< 

u Ak - ka di - i $ar kib - ra - a - /# 

and Akkad, king of the quarters 



io8 THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 



ir - bi - it - tim mar m Ka - am - bu - zi - ia 

four, son of Cambyses, 

i£$ ET- ^ -£TT HP- •gTT -4- ^ ££ 

farr/' rtffo far " /tt An - fa - <z/i war wan 

the great king, king of Ansan, grandson of 

THJE^TT£ ^3S flh ^ ^TTHP-^TT-f 

w Ku - ra - a$ tarri rabi $ar alu An - fa - tf/* 

Cyrus, the great king, king of Ansan, 



liptipi m Si - iS - pi - t'S Sarri rabi 

descendant of Teispes, the great king, 

far J/ " ^4/* - fa - #» z*r# da - ru - u 

king of AnSan, eternal seed 

fa farrw - u - hi fa ,/tt Bel u ilu Nabu 

of royalty, of whom Bel and Nabu 



/'r - a - »?tt pa - la - a - $u a - ;/** /« - «£ 

love the reign, [and] for the delight 

*TTT:3I*- AHfff<Mfc k£fc]*T**TT 

lib - £/' - $u - //« /A - ft' - /w farrw - ut - su 

of their heart desired his kingdom. 



,e - nu - ma a - na ki - r/# Babili Kl 

When into Babylon 



HIS INSTALLATION IN THE ROYAL PALACE log 



«=tj *jn ^ & *mu <tt ^tt *- ^ ^t 

e - ru - bu sa li - mi - if / - na 

I entered favourably, (and) with 



ul - ,?/' « ri - $a - a - lim i - »a 

exultation and shouts of joy in 

*TTTm- ET ^I<J <I^r <MTIEH? J! - 

ekalli ma - al - /•/ ar - ma - a $u ~ bat 

the palace of the princes I took up a 

be - lu - /i>« /7m Marduk b'elu rabu lib - £*' 

lordly dwelling, Marduk the great lord the 



-TTIE^T^JT •gTT ^ [F~ (?)] £L< >&m m 

ri - // - pa - $u Sa mare F l Babili Kl 

great heart of the Babylonians 



« - - an - ni - ma u - mi - Sam 

[inclined (?)] to me and daily 



a - U - ' - a pa - la - ah - $u um - na - »i - ia 
do I care for his worship. My wide- 

^^ttw^ **>*\mm oi'&mm 

rap - $a - a - lim i - *i<z ki - r/# Babili KI 

spreading troops into Babylon 



i - $a - ad - di - fya Su - ul - ma-m'S nap - #ar 

advance in peace. The whole of 



HO THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 

mdtu Su - me - ri u Akkadi KI zeru rabu 

Sumer and Akkad, the great race, 

- tim ul u - Sar - h' dannat 

no rtrouble(?)l I caused to have. / For the \ 

L V JJ \affliction of/ 

^J HP- E^TT <IU <M£fl ~«* efH<-TT*Jr 

Babili Kl u kul-lat ma-fra - zi - $u 

Babylon and all its cities 



*£^T "iff -t^TT Afl-£V £*TAHf-*ff 

/ - na Xa li - im - tim aS - ie - ' - e 

thoroughly did I care. 

... 33.<Hgj «fT— v^fF-m <vm 

. . . 1/ i/dnt'F 1 mdtu $u-me - r/' u 

. . . And the gods of Sumer and 



Akkadi KI $a m ilu Nadu - rid 'id a - na 

Akkad, which Nabonidus to 



"# " £ a " ^* w ^' Hani? 1 u - $e - ri - ^i 

the anger of the lord of the gods had brought 



# - //«z &' - rid Babili KI i - na 

into Babylon, at 



<HJ tX ~T< Hf- «*T -II &r ^ ~HT 

&' - bi - /# ,/w Marduk beli rabi i - »a 

the word of Marduk the great lord in 



HIS RKSTORATION OF LOCAL DEIT1KS l l I 



•gTT-^TT &fc~C*r 34-tEE^T Hf-sHTT^^T^ 

ia - li - im - fim i - na ma$ - fa - ki - $u- nu 

(their) entirety in their own shrines 



*TTT**<MdJ JI^T^T 1^ ^TTT 

u - Se - £/ - i# $u - ba - at fu - */£ Z# - £/ 

did I cause to take up the habitation of (their) hearts' delight. 



m*^£TTT ~H— ^TT *m**-TTI 

kul - la - ia Hani? 1 $a u - U - ri - hi 

May all the gods whom I have brought 



a - na ki - /r - £/ ma - ha - si - $u - un 

into their own cities 

3 5 .^T<^^TTt^ eeTA£ ^TII <M@J 

u - mi - 3a - am ma - Aar ,/fl ^/ « 

daily before Bel and 



-MS ^TT TJ E^TT IIT *T T— **R 

ilu Nabtt Sa a - r« - £w time P l - /a 

Nabii for the lengthening of my days 



-mil £TTT ^ *TTT* C: IH -&Kf OT flf ET TJ £TTT 

// - fa - mu - u lit - /aJf - ka - rw a-ma-a - fa 

pray, let them speak the word 



E2T *TR <Ef *efl <hM TJ^T HM^T 



</* - 


un - it/ 


- ia 


u 


a - ) 


na 


il " Marduk 


for i 


my good 


fortune 


and 


unto 


Marduk 


-II 


**R 


-E^TT 


HTI* 


*- 


*TTT* 


•err 


&// 


- M 


// - 


■ ik - 

• 


bu 


u 


&* 


my 


lord 




let them 


say 


• 
* 



112 THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 

m Ku - ra - aS larru pa - //' - fai - ka u 

"May Cyrus the king that feareth thee and 

m Ka - am - bu - zi - ia mdri-Su da - 

Cambyses his son [have prosperity (?)]!" 




II. From the Nabonidus-Cyrus Chronicle. 

[Brit. Mus., Sp. II, 964.] 




//*# ar # tt Duzi m Ku - r# ,? sal - /«/w />ia 

In the month Tammuz Cyrus a battle in 

Up'e KI ina muh - hi naru Zal - zal - /a/ 

Upe on the banks of the Zalzallat 

I *m *fs v :^v m <m ^-l 

ana libbi ummani{ni) matu Akkadi KI ki epu$u($u) 

against the forces of Akkad when jhe had\ 

Swaged,! 



niU pl matu Akkadi KI ufyilQ) ki 

the people of Akkad he conquered ; when 



uktassir (?) /*/& ^' /i/6£ ///«« JtAF 

they rallied (?), the people he slew. On the 14th day 



Sippar KI ba - /a £#/ - /«/w j<j - bit 

Sippar without fighting was taken. 



HIS PACIFIC POLICY Il3 

m ilu Nabu-na'id ihlik umu XVI m Ug - ba - ru 

Nabonidus fled. Onthci6thday Ugbaru 



amelu p a fa t mdtu Q u m // . um u ?d fo pi m J£ u . ra j 

the governor of Gutium and the soldiers of Cyrus 




fo - la sal - /«m tf//<z Babili KI irubu arki 

without fighting in Babylon entered. Afterwards 

w ilu Nabu-na'id ki . . . (w) />/</ Babili Kl sa - £/'/ 

Nabonidus, when . . ., into Babylon (wastakeni 

l captive, i 

... .9... JTte= I ^!T VMI TKA- 

... . . fo - /«/w a//a <z//' .to - £/>* m Ku - raJ 

. . . . . Peace for the city was established; Cyrus 



Su - lum ana Babili KI gab-bi-Su ki - bi 

peace to Babylon, the whole of it, proclaimed. 



T**~£T*JD BSiHTC*! B$fcHTC*T- 

"' 6'« - ba - r« am<v " pahati-Su amelu pafidii ina 

Gubaru, his governor, as governor in 



^m trU ^T «=TTT »•< £TTT -Z$t\ 

Babili KI ip - te - */</ « *#« * r *« Au/imi 

Babylon he appointed, and from the month Kislev 



-II -E3* Hf-T~* V v^Vv<Hf V 

<7<//' ar & u Adari Hani* 1 Sa mdtu Akkadi Kl U 

to the month Adar the gods of Akkad, which 



8 



114 THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS 

m iiu Nabu-na'id ana Bab Hi KI u - Se - ri - du 

Nabonidus to Babylon had brought down, 



a - na ma - ha - zi - $u-nu ituru P i 

to their own cities returned. 

1. Col. Ill, 11. 12—22.. 



INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS, KING OF BABYLON, 

521—485 B. C. 

[From Schulz, Journal Asia ti que, Troisiemc Scrie, t. IX, pi. VIII, col. a.] 

ilu rabu(u) llu A - fyu - ru - ma - az - da 

A great god (is) A^urumazda, 

fa kak -ka - ru a - ga - a id - oY/i - »« fa 

who this soil did create, who 

«f t yj 4 . «f *■ -^T E**T 2< ^ 5. V 

$amt(e) an - //« - /« 

these heavens 

g$ ^ I— E**T 2< ^ 

mankind did create, 



id - <///# - nu 


fa 


did create, 


who 


6- V 


t^ J3 


fa 


gab - bi 


who 


all 



nu - uh - Su a - «a Jm ^ /u fdbe P 1 id - din-nu 

abundance unto mankind has granted, 



8-V TJ^T I ^TT TMTI ^TUJ v^TTK » e£$ 

fa a - na m Da - a - ri - ia - a - w«f Jam* 

who Darius the king 

8» 



n6 



INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS 



HJ^TTT* HF-II — *&&T 



II *jh -m 



ib - nu - u iMen(en) ina Warrant? 1 mah - ru - /u 

did make one among kings that were before, 



i$ten(cri) ina mu - ie - ' - i - me P l 
one among rulers 



mafr - ru j tu 
that were before. 



TJ^THJ l3 j£nTH!I^TUJ*HTf< h-^ 



a - na - /•« 
I am 



m Da ~ a - ri - ia - a - w«^ 

Darius 



Sarru 
the 



rabu(u) 
great king, 



£>►► 

$ar 
king of 



Sarrdni P l 
kings, 



far matdti P l 

king of lands, 



fa «a/ - &zr // - $a - na - a - ia gab - £/' 

of the whole of all tongues, 



&/X* - ka - ru a - ga - a - ta 

this soil, 



*7- fcE^ff 


V 


Sarru 


fa 


king 


of 


18. E^ff 


►-< 


r<i 


bi 
great 


19- £{£ 




mar 




son of 





■ • 




turn 



I 



M 



*m 



feV*Y 




ru - uk - /«/« 
(and) extensive, 






yyy e33l 

Hystaspes, 



</j 



pa 



». I TJ tf< SI HH ^ ^TT <1- A«f 



m 



.d - $<z - m<z - an - ni - 1$ - &' 
the Achaemenian. 



INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER, 
KING OF BABYLON, 280—260 B. C. 

[From a cylinder in the British Museum, No. 80 — 6—17, I.] 



• T HP- ~T< 4HP- m *HTC 

m An - ti - ' ~ ku - us 

Antiochus, 




rabu(u ) 
great king, 

Babili KI 
Babylon, 



Sarru dan - /«* 

the mighty king, 




A 



farm 
the 



fc^W 



■win 

$ar kiUati Sar 
king of the world, king of 




Sar 
king of 



v v 

matati 
lands, 



3. }\ 



Hff- 




20 - /*/ 



/» 



patron of 



«=mi ^TT3= *TTMffif <H£U ^TTTT -TT* ^TT 



E 



sag 
Esagil 



ila 



u 
and 



E - zi - da 
Ezida, 



aplu alaridu $a m Si - lu - uk - ku 

the princely son of Seleucus, 



►►>► 




T TI Vt 



5. ess eeJ -& --H -T 

for am*/* j/- <7 - ak - ka - du - na - ai 

king of the Macedonians, 



far 
king of 



u8 



INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER 



Babili KI a - na - ku ... ina ar & u Adari umi 

Babylon, am I. ... In the month Adar, on 



« A-c 


14. ^ <m &t ^r ^it 


XX KM 


&/// XLIII u$ - fo fo 


the 20th day, 


in the 43rd year, the foundation of 


<=TTTT -IT* 


£TT '5. ^TTTT <m *£ & 


E - zi - 


da biti ki - / - ni 


Ezida, 


the true temple, 



*TTTT «f-fif V <m«=TTI + /<M 



bit tlu Nabu $a 

the temple of Nabu which is 



ki - rib Bar - zip KI 

in Borsippa, 



.6. tE y <T^ *Tf 5tf <y- JT 



a*/ - di - e 
I laid 



its foundation 



3 4 . «f ^f 
O Nabu, 



s£5tf *Wf *W *TTWIW 



apil 
son 



£• 



jj^ - ila 
of Esagil, 



35- *- *c 

bu - kur 

the first-born 



~f^T<vMTI *Tte= -t£f *m* 36. tEE CM< 



ilu Marduk 

of Marduk, 



riS - iu - u 
of highest rank, 



1 - /// - // 
offspring of 



HF- TJ ***J *TTT* TJ ^H -II- 37. 1? ^T 



ilu 



Eru 
Erua 



u - a 



far - r#/ 
the queen, 



a - na 
into 



*M -TT* £TT *TTTT <M ^ ^ 38. fc yyyy 



Ezida, 



biti ki - i - «/' 
the true temple,, 



bit 
the temple of 



HIS RESTORATION OF THE TEMPLE EZIDA 119 

t!u A - nu - // - ka $u - fo/ /w - ȣ //# - bi - ka 

thy divinity, ihe dwelling of thy heart's desire, 



/' - na hi - da - a - iu u ri - Sa - a - tu 

with joy and shouting 



40. me ~ry t yj .yyj 3 ^ ^ ^y 

i - na e ri - £/' - ka i - »a 

when thou enterest, at 

£/' - £/ - //" - ka kit - //' $a 

thy righteous command which 



la us - tarn - j<i - X*« // ri - ku u - mi - /ii 

is not hindered, long be my days, 



♦*. ^Egyy <tt ^TT ^ Hf- ^T ~T< W 

// - w/ - </</ Sandti{ii) - fin 

many be my years, 

43. ^TT HTAHfff fcT ** H ^ TJ 

established be my throne, 

^yy^yy^:?* 44. ^ EJ tmt Tl *E^T 

//' - U - bi - ir pa - lu - u - a i - na 

old may my reign become. By 

£-- ^TT -tH *fcTT *£ HTTI 45. >* Mi 

^<// - /<? - ka si - 1 - r/ ww - >&/>z 

«* • • • 

thy exalted sceptre, that holds fast 



120 



INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER 



■T* H *SS: E HF- ^Tl< <K -0V 46.^^1 



pal - lu - uk - ku 
the circuit 



$amc(e) u irsitim(tim) 
of heaven and earth, 



i - na 
at 



*T-^^H ^TTT^TT A T«^^H^ 

/i - i ~ ka el It li'S - /<*£ - ka - nu 



thy bright mouth 

47..4«=fflf<HJW v*T 

du - un - kt - /a mala ft ? l 

my good fortune. The lands 



may they establish 

TIT ^TT£&T 

tf/« si - il 

from the rising of 



«f*H- 48. T^f <Tj^ *TJHTIHJ Hh*M- 

il * Samh{Si) a - di e - ri - ib tlu SamSt{Si) 

the Sun to the setting of the Sun 



IHJT^T 49.JTTTTJTJ «£TT^W<<T-^ 

Uk - $u - du kdtd IJ - at man -da - al - //' - ft' - »« 

may my hands conquer; their tribute 



M *HI ^ JUI £1 50. T^^T <VISJI£U 



/« - us - /m - X'/ - ma 
may I hold fast and 



a - na 
for 



ft/£ - /« - /« 
the completion of 



^TTTT ^TT^ *mW s«.<H@I t=TTTT -TT* ^TT 



E 



sag 
Esagil 



ila 



u 
and 



E - zi - da 
Ezida 



M^^TT Hf--& 5-^M ^TTsMTT? 

/« - hi - i7 //m Ak3w aplu alaridu 

may I bring (it). O Nabu, princely son, 



53. tTTTT <UtE^ 

biti ki - i - ni 

the true temple, 



[J^T 


*TTTT -TT* £TT 


a - na 


E - s* - da 


into 


Ezida, 



HIS PRAYER TO NABO 



121 



/ - na 
when 



*U -III 3 ^H 

e - ri - bi - ka 
thou enterest, 



54- <Mf ^OV 

damiktim(tim) 

good fortune for 



An - ti - J - ku - us 

Antiochus 

55. i -s=tt m ^k m 

m Si - lu - uk - *« 

Seleucus 



far 
king 



V V 
mdtdti 
of the lands, 



ti^ff "% I 



Aim" 



the king, 



mart' $u 
his son, 



5 6. £- ^ s^m <MTI s£TTT s* Htt* Ef 



A 



/a 



Stratonice 



«/ - 



ik 



ku 



57. A -TT- **TT 

hi - r^/ - su 
his spouse, 



t£H MT ^T 

for - ra - at 
the queen, 



5 8. »tt <^ -II* Hf< I ^ 59. -e^TT ^TT V JHI 

f/tf - »»# - /# - ti - $u-nu li - 8 - $a - kin 

may their good fortune be established 



tEE^T *T-«*^fcJ 



at 



// - i - ka 
thy mouth ! 



THE CREATION OF THE GODS. 



[K 5419 c and 82-7—14,402.] 



■•*!**- EI *ff A T ^T 



* - nu - 010 
When 



above 



na - bu - a 
named was 



heaven (and) below 



la 
not 



am - ma - /«/w fo - wa 

earth a name 



SETE&-TT- 3.^yyw=TET *TM: -t£T *TTTt= 



la zak - rat 
did not bear, 1 



Apsu - ma 
and Ocean, 



the primeval, 



flf *JH JT (=Tff 4 . ^ tCTTT ►* ^T< ^v 



za - ru - $u - wi 
who begat them, 



(and) confusion, 



Ti - fl«tf/ 
Tiamat, 



^ m -mr\ &ii *er <^n -m i *m 



/w« - #/ 



- // - da 
who bore 



#1/ 



gim - r/ - .?« - un 
them both, — 



•TIT— I*- ^TT*T« *EA 



>~0-< 



*TTT* ET 



their waters 



/'jf - te - nis 
together 



/ - ///' - ku - u - /Wtf 
mingled and 



6. HKA & E^TT ^ <m tT £* E^TT 



#* - pa - ra 
no field 

1. /. e , did not exist. 



la 



ki - is - su ra 

was formed, 



THE BIRTH OF THE GODS FROM CHAOS 123 



su - §a-a la $e - ' e - nu-ma Hani? 1 

no marsh was to be seen, when yet of the gods 



/a $u - pu - u ma - na - ma Su - ma la 

there had not been called into being an y» (and) no name 

zuk - ku - ru Si - ma - fu la la - a - wi« 

did they bear, (and) no destinies were determined, 

ib ~ ba - nu - u - ma Hani gi - w/r. - ite - un 

then were created the gods, all of them, 



tlu Ixiff - mu tlu La - ha- mu uS - /a • pu - u 
La^mu (and) Lajiamu were called into being 



\ ...cv.:j "• !tlR= kw **- rTf fck^g^ 

a - di ir - bu - u 

Ages increased , 

^// - tor ' lH Ki - Sar ib - ba - nu - u 

AnSar (and) KiSar were created 

ur " ri - ku ume^ 1 ''" A-nu 

Long were the days , Anu 

T^ HEl 15.HF-A ~fff<MT I'ZIS 

a - #/ -<4« - ifar tlu A - «/'/w 

the father AnSar (and) Anu 



THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON. 

[K 3473 -f- 79 — 7— 8» 296 + R 615, K 8524, K 8575 and 88—4—19, 1 3 with 

restorations from K 4832 and 81 — 7 — 27,80.] 



An - $ar pa - a - $u i - pu - Sam -ma a - na 

AnSar his mouth opened and to 

-HF- «=TTT^ ^TTT^ *TTT<]JT T^T^I «*££=< *m 

ilu Ga - ga sukkalli-Su a -ma - tu i - zak - kar 

Gaga his minister the word he addressed : 

a - lik ilu Ga - ^a suk - X'tf/ - /k/» mu - //# 

"Go Gaga, (thou) minister that rejoiccst 



&z - />// - // - ia a - «tf ,/tt Z<zA - ww 

my spirit, to Lafrmu 



tlu La - ha- mu ka - a - A; iu - u$ - pur - An 

(and) Lajjamu thee will I send. 



f/ciffi ;/j - £*;# - $u - «;/ 

the gods, all of them, 



ANSHAR'S SUMMONS TO THE GODS 



125 



// - to - nu li$ - ku - nu ina 

the tongue let them prepare, at 



*T *- 


9-[£ 


^T H 


m - bu 


a$ 


- «# - an 


let them sit, 




bread 



&' - ri - e - ti 
the banquet 

//' - ku - /* 
let them eat, 



/// - // - £« ku - ru - na a - na tlu Marduk 

let them mix sesame-wine, for Marduk, 



^ **m -TTA ^11 ^TT(?)] JT y- -&ST <T- ^ 



/;/// - //r 



^/ - mil - // 
their avenger, 



lu - hi/ // - Si - mu 

let them decree 



JV'/w - ta 
the lot. 

£«</ - me - $u - nu 
before them 



1 1. 



al - &j ,Vl1 Ga - £tf 

Go Gaga, 



ET 



stand and 



12. 



[«r v 



mimma 



all 



fa 
that 



TJ e*e< ^HJ tffl -tH JT MR* ^T TJ I 



« - Sd£ - &/ - ru - ka 
I tell thee 



Xu - un - na - a ana 
repeat unto 



$a ~ a - $u - un 
them. 



[LI. 1 3— 66, containing AnSar's message to Laj)mu and 

Lajiamu, correspond word for word with the message 

as delivered by Gaga in 11. 71 —124; see pp. 126 ff.] 



67. e£TT Kf -HF- «=TIT* <=TTT* 

Gaga went, 



IH lf<I 

ur - fia-iu 
his way 



126 



THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON 



*TTT*s£WI*er <*-E^lM= ~f*TTT<>* < 



u - Sar - di - ma 
he took and 



a$ - rii 
humbly 



ilu Lah - mu u 
before Lafcmu and 



-Hf-ETJW- «H- ^TT— I 69.^1 MI El 

tlu La - ha- me Hani r l abe P l - $u uS ~ kin - ma 

Laframu the gods, his fathers, J he made \ 

\ obeisance andf 

-nil ^^y^yy w^-M^W 7o.*Et£H 

i$ - Sik kak - ka - ra $a - pa I - $u - un ' ' i - iter 

• • • • A 

he kissed the ground beneath their feet, 



t] x El tE E^< *1TJ I «=fflf 

/'s - 2/2 - ma i - z<j£ - kar - i« - «« 

he stood up and spake unto them : 



/he humbled I 
\ himself, 1 

71. «f ^ 

An - for 
"AnSar 



z«a - ru - ku - nu 
your son 



*TTT* El A~f *E Ml «f ft: 

' - i - ra - an - ni 
hath sent me, 



u - ma 



7 a.*T*JH '11131 *Tff* V <S 3 e^THF- :«: 



/^ - r// //# - £/-£« 

of the design of his heart 



u - $a - as - £1' - ra - an - ni 
he informed 



*ETITM< 73.t:iHEl ~K^v fl 




111 



ia - a - ti 
me 



tt/w - ma 
thus : 



7/' - amat 
'Tiamat 



HPF- 
a - lit - /<* - /*/ 

our mother 



tE ^ pcyy -HF- ~Hf <1- 74. *- ^Hfff Hn 



/' - s/r - ra - </// - na - $i 
hath conceived a hatred for us, 



with 



ru 



*m m ^1 tEi ei -a ti 



£/'/ - ku na at - ma 

all her might * 



ag - giX 
angrily 



lad - bat 
she rages. 



1. Literally, "using (her) full strength**. 



THE ADVANCE OK THE REBEL FORCES 127 

75. cMI ^ E«T ET -+Hf- -TTAEdfl^ 

is - hu - ru - Sim - ma Hani gi - mir - $u-un 

They have turned to her, the gods, all of them, 



76.TKW: W &l-m*- e^flf «*£fTV 

a - <//' Jfrf a/ - tu - /*« /a£ - na - a i - da - $a 

with those whom ye created, at her side 



sfcJ-eltf 77. 4tff ET <££ *jn<Mm ^^T^T 

<// - X*a iVw - ma - as - rw - jij/k - iwci i - du • u$ l 

do they go. They are banded together and at the side of 



7V - ama/ te - bu - « - «/' /is - zu kap - </« 

Tiamat they advance, they are furious, they plan 

A? ja - &' - /« wk - Jfo a i/w - ma 

without resting night and day, 



79. ^r jt *m* *t }H -m ^im*-*- 

na - $u - 1/ iam-fta - ri na - s#r - bu - bu 

they make ready for battle, fuming (and) 



lab - £« unkenna(rtd) Hi - ku - nu-ma i - &ui - »« - « 

raging, with united forces they make 



j« - fa - a - turn Um - 01 » - ffu - ^«r /a - ti - £a/ 

war. Ummu-JJubur, * who formed 

^H -6T ET 8a. ^ HTT- <T^ tT J£f T 

X'tf - la - ma u$ - /W - *// kakke P l 

all things, has added weapons 

1. i-du-u§ fr. iduSSu (= ana Mi) "at the side of*'. 

2. A title of the monster Tiamat. 



128 THE REVOLT OF T1AMAT, THE DRAGON 



-ee! -SI -TTI SStf £TTT > *-fflK -£H ^ 

/a jk<i£ - r/' it - /a - /a</ j/r - mat} - i 

invincible, she has spawned monster-serpents, 



s</£ - tu - ma hn - «/' /n pa - du - u 

sharp of tooth, unsparing 



tfcT £TTT 4Hf- *E »4- A# s£TTT <£JT 

at - ta - ' - i' i>» - /« £//«# 

of fang(?), with poison like 



da - a - mi zu - jwi/r - .fa - «« u$ - ma - al - Zr' 

blood their body has she filled. 

8 5 . ET- — TTT^ F~ ^T *ET *JH < Hf< ®f }}< W ~T< 

uXumgalli P l na - ad - ru - u - ti pul -fax -a - ti 

Monster-vipers, fierce ones, with terror 



u - ial - bi$ - ma me - /t/w - me ul - </t/ J - $a - a 

has she clothed and with brightness endowed, 

* - Ztf i/w - da$ - ,fa</ a - mir - £«-/*« &/r - ba - &z 

on high j she has caused \ / Whosoever \ dread (?) 

\ them to I \ beholds them J 



k j &&= [<tt Affl 88. ^u tm 1 *- 

//? - /jar - /w/ - //» zu - /w/r - Su - nu 

overpowers him, their body 



7 **/ A £^T ET -ET *E ^ 4HF- < 

//J - /## - #1 - dam - jw*j /* 1 -«/-'- « 

rears up, and none can stop 



T1AMATS BROOD OF MONSTERS 



129 



-TT- -^TT *W 8 9- ^T -< ^T - ^ 

i - rat - su - 1/// w/ - s/'s * ba - a$ ~ mu 

their breast. She has set up a viper, 

u - gal - lum 
a hurricane, 



sir 



ruX - Su u 



ilu 



a dragon 



and 



Iai - ha - mi 
Lahamty 



IH- < — ITT e= £5 ^Ttt! EOT 9«..*TT- 

lidimmu (?) a akrab-amilu f y time P l 

tempests 



la raging! and 
\ hound f 

ttTT t=«=T tin ~T< 

</# - ab - ru - //' 
that are mighty, 

m J5* ^tt <m 

rams (?), 



a scorpion-man, 



nun- a me lu 
a fish-man 



< 



u 

and 



92. 




T 

na - <zJf 
bearing 



tTEfT 

kakkiP 1 
weapons 



^eT^<T*MEe ^TTKT^Hn £TTHf<-TT* 



la pa - di - / 
without mercy, 



la a - <// - rw 
without fear of 



93. & y *T — TTX *t£T V 



^/^ - $a 
Mighty 



te - ri - /« - $a 
are her commands, 



fa - fia ~ zi 
the fight. 

-ET EeT && 

la ma - #ar 
unopposed 



<T- ^T TJ ET 94. ttT *- *fflf -^ ET ^TT 2< 



/1 - na - a -ma 
are they, and 



0/ - pu - un - na - ma 
of huge stature 



the 




«< -TTI 

eS - ri - /tt/w 
eleven * 

1. Ill 1, Pret. fr. >i£{J{i/. 



<£JT M TJ *T ^It <T- 



kima $u - a - fu 
in this manner 



itf - tab - ft' 
has she made. 



2. /. £., the monsters described in 11. 82 — 92. 

9 



l3o THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON 

< 

bu - uk ri - Sa 

her first-born, 

*- AHfff -m 

pu - uh - ri 
support, 

96. a\> w m <m -Hf-nu^ - a -mi**- 

& - Sa ~ aS - ki llu Kin - #« ina bi - r* - S u-nu 

she has exalted Kingu, in their midst 



95. 


«* -Hf 




~f HF- 




1 - »<z 




ildni 




Among 




the gods 


JT 


*T : 


^TT 


HTAHfff <T> 


Su • 


- «/ 


a 


£«/* - Si 


since 


he 


had given her 



&z -a-Su uS - ra£ - £1 - iS a - // - ku - ut 

him she has raised to power. The going 

/»## - r* /a - #» um - ma - ni mu - /'r - ru - ut 

in front before the forces, the leadership 



^T-fT 98.^1^ tl^K HT<*T*-*T 

pufrri na - tf£ &*£& ^ // - /j - bu - tu 

ofihehost, the raising of weapons _ to begin, 



ii - bu - u a - na - an - ju Su - *#/ /aw- #a - n 

to advance to the attack, generalship in battle, 

s^yy «=y <ti ^h ^y ~y< ioo . HI t-TTT EeT 

ra - d£ 3M - ka - /« - // ip - £/'</ - jwa 

prowess in the tight, she entrusted 

-IHJI *TTT* * <T- ~^T £ I - vm-TTI 

yfca - /w.? - .?« u - Se - Si - ba - aS - Su ina kar - r/ 

to his hand, she made him sit in costly raiment. 



HER APPOINTMENT OF KINGU AS CAPTAIN 



l3l 



.oi.tET<TB£ £TTTTJ^H 



^M Hf-«f 



ad - di ta - a - ka ina puhur Hani 

"I have recited thy spell, in the assembly of the gods 



*TTT^W3^H «o..eT-i 



u - far - 3/ - ta 
1 have raised thee to power, 




~f ~f 



/w# - //' - £«/ /7a/// 

with the rule of the gods, 



gim - rat - su - nu ka - /#£ - ka u$ - ma - al - //' 

all of them, thy hand have I filled. 

io3. m< ^ «tT £ttt et r< ah 1 «* -m 

ha • ' - i - r/' 
thou, my 

tTJ^TTT* MT£TTT ">4- -s^TT 5s e= *- tTTT* 

e - du ~ u at - ta li - /'r - tab-bu - u 

chosen spouse, let them magnify 



lu - u $ur - ba - ta - ma 

Be thou great, 



zik - ru - ka eli kat . . 7 . . - uk - &' 
thy name over all ". 



105. ^ <i< «^ et 

id - din - Sum - /wtf 
She gave him 

eg MT W ^TT 

/ - r</ a/ j« 

on his breast 



torn -n* r— 

dupUmati F l 
the tablets of destiny, 

MOT* v F AHfffl 

u - fa/ - me - ih 
she put : 



«o6. ^H £TTT ^fcj *TTT* 

ka - /a kibit-ka 

"May thy command 



^M ^T 



la 
not 



9" 



132 



THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON 




rs^T-HTff h^TWAHfff «*TT^T 



in - ntn - na - a 
be annulled, 



// - kun 
established be 



si 



it 



*T- «* «<H1 I0 7- fcfe ^T *- 



// - / - &z 
thy mouth! 



/« - na - nu 



Now 



f that which \ 
I cometh forth from! 

«f mi ** 

ilu Kin - gu 
Kingu, 



$u - u$ - ku - u li - ku - u llu A-nu - ti 

(thus) exalted, having received the power of An u, 



o8. «j_ .4- .4- ^ r _ v <y. ^ >£TTT 

1/J//1 war* P l - /a Ji" - ma - /# 

for the gods, her sons, the lot 

determined : 



ip - fo // - ku - /*« //tt Gibil 

>ur word the Fire-god 



- su pi - A'*/ - 

"Let your word 




// 



«i - /A - ^a 

w W 

overpower ! 



rro. &ft It — 

Whoever is exalted in 



*ttt * *jh et -& v -m 



excellence, 



ma - ag - $a - n 



might 



li$ - ra£ - bi - ib 
let him display!" l 



a$- pur-ma ttu A-nu - urn ul i - li - 

I sent to Anu, he cannot (go) 



jwtf - /;#r - Xa ihl Nu - dim - ww</ 

against her, Nudimmud 

1. Literally, "make mighty". 



<?• - dur - tfitf 
was afraid and 



MARDUK CONSENTS TO DO BATTLE FOR THE GODS 1 33 

d^Te^TI £&<m i.3.4Hf-55 Hf-C3*T 

/ - tu - ra ar - kil ' - ir iiu Marduk 

turned back. Marduk has set out, 

«=T «=TTJf m HF- HP- ET *JH Ef *TOf 

#£ - &j/ - /« /7a/*/' ma - ru - ku - «/* 

the director of the gods, your son, 

;//« - //</ - riS Ti - a»itf/ //# - ba - Su a - ra 

against Tiamat his heart to set out 



k£ - la ip - 3fo /i - i - $u i - ta - ma-a 

/has prompted! His word he addressed 

\ (him). i 



a - »/i /a - a - // fo/w - ma-ma a - na - ku 

unto me : "If I, 



mu - //r ^/' - mil - //' - X*w - un 

your avenger, 

</ - him - /«* 7/' - amat - //w « - bal - lot 

will conquer Tiamat and give life to 



ka - $u - un $uk - na - a-ma pu - u)j, - r« 

you, appoint an assembly, 



JM<E^TT ^«s=TTI S33TH« »9.^-nf 

.?« - //' - n/ i - 6a - a Sim - // i - //</ 

make preeminent (and) proclaim my lot. In 



1 34 THE REVOLT OF T1AMAT, THE DRAGON 



t& JT •*!*! ^y <m 


*< h< ^tts£ 


JM 


Up - Su - ukkin - na - &' 


mit -£a - riS 


ha-dii 


UpSukkinnaku 


together 


joyfully 



ih^tet "o-hj^i 't-*etj <iejet 

/i? - 5a - ma ip - -fa //' - /'<n &" - wa 

seat yourselves. With my mouth in place of 

■*fcj -*f V- ET <T- ET *T H XX^[ *T 

ka - tu - nu - ma Si - ma~ tu lu - J/'w - aw 

you the lot will I decree. 

/a «/ - tak - &ir mim-mu - u a - ban - ;/« - u 

Let it not be altered, whatever I 



Tj-nrnr —th? *e^ aw ^^et^ttj 

a - na - ku ai /'- /«r a/' 1/1 - nin - na - a 

do, /may it neverl /may itl be annulled, 

\ be changed, / \ never ( 

se - &zr hip - //' - ia hu - «/» - Ai - nim - m<i 

the word of my lips." Hasten and 

<T-vHJ^ -£*T <T-ETI i«4. E<£<IH 

$i - mat - ku - nu ar - hil $i • ma-Su hi - i/k 

your destiny swiftly decree for him, that he may go 



///» - //« - r<7 «j - &/r - ku - «« </</« - «« 

(and) fight your strong enemy I'" 



125. ^TT •* ET «*- «=TTT< I"**] -Hf -ET J?< ^ 

/£ - Wtt - aw ,/tt IaiIi - wi/ ,/w /^/ - ha - w« 

They heard, Lahmu (and) Lahamu, 



THE GATHERING OF THE GODS 



i35 




tZ 



1.6. ~f w IT «=¥ ^ I y- 

The Igigi, all of them, 



«£ y- 



>-o-< 



tJT- ^TT [trffl »7. <xt 



Tff 



i - nu - £w 
wailed 



grievously : 



mi - na - a 
"What 



-qSTMT ti<t* ^jf«=mt mmMM 

nak - ra a - <//' 

has been altered, until 



/r - $u - a 



f< - 



? 



128. ^J S»:*E<T£: SffrfcESS: ^!! -<T<^v 

/a hi - i - <//' ni - i - w fa TV - dmat 

We do not understand of Tiamat 



*w m ~t< v] "9. -n* v m <^r & 



e - . piS - // - Sa 
the deed!" 

^TT *JH [MITT* 5*= 

;7 - lak ~ u - ni 
they go, 



(?)•] 



/# - $a - $u - nim - wa 
They collected (?) and 

3o . «|_ ^f ^ ^ 

f/J/ii rabuti 

the great gods 



■tltf ^TT I V- ^ 3^TT [>* 

£a - // - Xu-nu mu - Ji)» - /«# 

all of them, who decree 



TT ~T<] 

Sim - // 
the lot ; 



«3«. tt *m v- et -tia ~t< j^tt Hf- a 



i - ru • bu - ma 
they entered in 



before 



-<4« - Sar 
Ansar, 



A#M< mil i3..t&s«t« TWI 

im - lu - u in - niS - ku a - fiu 

they filled (the chamber?) they pressed on(?) one 



i36 



THE REVOLT OF T1AMAT, THE DRAGON 



u a - fyi ina puhri 
another in the assembly 



■////Azy/,'////? 






l33 . >^yy v ^ 

li - $a - nu 
The tongue 



they prepared, 



ina 
at 



it/ - ri - e - // 
the banquet 



I they seated) 
\ themselves;/ 



i3 4 . £ ~nf hf- 

a$ - na - #/* 
bread 



tfe m m Hf -r< t» 






sesame-wine ; 



i - X*« - /« 
they ate, 

J/ - r/ - J</ 
the sweet drink, 



ip - li - ku 
they mixed 



>~»-< 



mat - £« 
the mead, 



u - sa - an - ni - $u - un Si - i£ - r« 

distorted their ; ihey were drunk (?) 

- v *t ^ h< ^r s* --tt scm rcnn 

ina hi - te - e 
with drinking, 



ha - /xz - §it zu - «*w - rw 

their bodies were filled (?) ; 



137. ey 4Hf- T *ff £* *TTT* Mtf - £TTT] 1 1 tTH 



ma - ' - <Ztf e - gu - u 
they were exceeding slack, 



/■</ - £/'/ - A/ - Su - un 
their spirit 



*m*MTT[-ET] < 38 -TJ^T HP-«*T ***lfflf 



i - le - */ - A/ 
was exalted ; 



a - na ,lu Marduk mu - tir 

for Marduk their 



CT* 



Sim - mu 



#/ - w/7 - //' - lu-nu i 

avenger they decreed 

i. So the traces of characters on K 3473 etc. read. 



IT b£TTT] 

Jf//// - /</ 
the lot. 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON. 



[K 3437 -f- R 6 4 ! » K 54 2 oc, R 2. 83, 79—7—8, 251 and 82 — 9—18, 3737.] 



I. 




~y «^ eeT * ^ *JH *- 




/</ - </w - jfo/w - ma 
They set for him 



pa - rȣ ru - bu - turn 

a lordly chamber, 



ma - ha - ri - iS 
surpassing 



ma 



U - ku - turn 
counsellor 



w=T 3 ^ JT TJ ^T 



ab - bi - e - $u 
his fathers 



a - na 
as 



ET ^T mtm 55 T' 



3. ^T £TTT eeT 



/r - we 
he took his place. 



at - la - ma 
'Thou art 



-Til £TTT £TTT *e~nr Hf-Hf- E*=TT*- 




preeminent 



among 



Hani ra ~ bu - turn 

the great gods, 



4-<T-v^H -ET ^TT-HTH 1 *£J»^fcJ 



h'-mal - &z 
thy lot 



la $a - na - an 

is without equal, 



se - &ir - ka 

m 

thy word is 



Hf- TJ <^T 5. Hf- «*T -III £TTT t^TTT 



,iu A - «/>7l 

Anu. 



tlu Marduk 
O Marduk, 



&z£ - la la 

thou art preeminent 



1 38 THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



i - «a i/a/ii ra - £« - turn ti-mai - &i 

among the great gods, thy lot 



/a $a - na - an se - &?r - &z ' 7tt ^4 - nim 

is without equal, thy word is Anu. 



iS - lu u - mi - im - ma la in - »/» - na - a 

Henceforth unannulled will he 



hi - &'/ - ka $u - u$ - ku - u u 

thy command, to exalt and 

lu - u$ - pu ~ lu h - # lu - u ga - at ~ ka l 
to abase shall be (in) thy hand. 



9. Jglj *TTT*= <m ^T ^T «*TT ^T 

lu - u ki - «</ - at si - ;'/ 

Established be /that which comcthi 

j forth from / 



// - i - &j la sa - r<i - ar se - &jr - ka 

thy mouth, irresistible be thy word, 



ma - fl/w - ma -an i - //<z i'/wi * i' - /«/• - ka 

let no one among the gods thy boundary 



la it - ti - ik za - na - nu - /«;» /r - £<*/ 

transgress. May abundance, the desire of 

I. ga-at-ka — kat-ka; the Babylonian pronunciation of k as g occurs also in l.i 5. 



THE GODS CONFER POWER ON MARDUK 



i3g 



^ ~f~f ET -Tf^H ^-TT^JT^ 



pa-rak 


Hani - ma 


a - Sar 


sa - gi - Su - nu 


the shrines 


of the gods, 


while 


they are in want, 



lu - u ku - un 

be established 



at - ru - w£ - &j 
in thy sanctuary. 



.3. ~f «*T «*T £TTT et * **jw *jn 



ilu Marduk 
Marduk, 



at - la - *»tf 
thou art 



mu - //r 
our 



rw 



-tta ^tt -s^tt 



^ 



0«7 - // 
avenger ; 



ni 



4- ^ ^r s< ^H 

- li/ - e///* - ka 



m 



we give thee 




&£ - /a/ &?/ £7J7i - ri - t - // 

over the whole world. 



Sar - ru - turn 
the kingdom 



x 5 .Hr<*m*Er ^~h *-<^ m*w 



ti - Sam - zwtf 
Sit down 



t - na 
in 



pu - hur 
might, 



lu - u 
be 



W *TTT* £TTT TJ v xfcj < 6 - & <SM xfcj 



.fa - ga - ta 
exalted 



a -mat - ka 
(in) thy word, 



kak - Xv' - £<i 
may thy weapon 



flfflf IdJ~^k^MTfc -iST&^fT^^TT 



never 



// - pal - tu - u 
be defeated, 



/i 



ra - t - su 



may it crush 



thy foe. 



fo - /«/« &Z Aj£ - lu - Xvz 
O lord, whoso trusteth in thee, 



I. ti'iam-ma — iisab-ma. 



140 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



TEEff<£TTT3T HTA^Tm **-<hM HF- 



na - pii - ta - $u 
his life 



gi - jkj7 - ma 
spare, 



u 



but / as for 1 
1,1 



V <y.^^^ T< tE^^tyy . 



la Urn - »i - * - /1 
who the evil 



1 - hu - s« 
began, 



ilu 

for 
Uhegod, 

tu - £« - «£ 

pour out 




I v **TT '9- ^ HTC* «tTT *J ^ ^T 



his life!" 



«i - Si' - ZU - flirt 

Then set they 



1 - na 
in 



^HTTIJT^ M>A& ~TT2< MJ^T 



3/ - ri - fo - //« 
their midst 



a garment, 



a - na 

(and) to 



' /M Marduk bu - uk - r* - $u - nu $u - »« 

Marduk, their first-born thev 

iz - z</£ - n/ 
spake : 



U - 01*1/ - ka be - /n/w 

"May thy lot, O lord, 



lu - u 
have 



II ee^T «*T -Hf- ~f ET «• !t t «tT 




/»</^ - r<2 - (7/ 

preeminence 



/'/J/;/' - ma 
among the gods, 



a - ba - turn 
to destroy 



<H£U ^T^tTTT* <^TE -E^TWI^E^ 



u 
and 



ba - nu - i/ &' - £1 // - ik - /« - «« 

to create — give the word and it shall be accomplished. 



//> - $a pi - 1 - ka h - - t/ - £/'/ 

Open thy mouth (and) may there disappear 



MARDUK TESTS HIS POWER 141 



im — t jt 


»4- ^ IH <HJ 


3 «^ET 


lu - ba - £ « 


/*/ - */r &' - 


£/' - ,fa;w - ma 


the garment, 


again commani 


d it and 


m ~*t m 


-mn ^tt <y «. 


-TI* tt ET 


lu - ba - ite 


// - *Y - //' w 


• 


let the garment 


be whole!" 


He spake 


«^^T *T- 


&& A"fff*TTTT 


m ~*t ji 


1 - na pi 


- i - $u ' - a - bit 


lu - ba - fo 


with his 


mouth, away went 


the garment ; 



/"-/«- «r /# - £/' - fo;w - 010 lu - ba - $u 

again he commanded it and the garment 




c=B*: *7.<I£JEeT *£TTEStf *h*£& 

if - lab - »/* &' - ma si - 1/ // - i - $u 

was restored. So soon as | that which j his mouth 

I came forth fromj 

tt ^ *m HP- ~f «=T 3 «=n ^y 

1 - /»« - rw Hani ab - bi - e - $u 

they saw, the gods his fathers, 



i# - du - u ik - ru - bu tiu Marduk - wa 

they rejoiced, they paid homage (saying): "Marduk 

^H^JD *). t yyy t ^yi tsyy *- £T tf V *= 

Jf</r - ru u - us - si - pu - $u '*" ##//<* 

is king!" They added to him the sceptre, 

'** X'tftttf & pala(a) id - <//' - nu ~ $u 

the throne and the ring(?), they gave him 



142 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 




■ET ETA-fflfE^TT £rT4Hf-*E* 



kak - ku la ma - afc - ra 


da - ' - i - bu 


a weapon invincible, 


overwhelming 


JHUWTI 3"-!IIHET 


W HT< £-* 


za - at - ri a - //% - aw 


fa 71" - <*/«<?/ 


the foe. "Now go and 


of Tiamat 


w=f ^TT -^f ^T ^ 


■ *m 4Hf- ET 


MH/ - fa - ftl - U$ pU 


- ru - * - ma 


the life 


cut off, and 


3.. IeTT tj *jh ^TT <kt 


^TT TJ ^T 


$a - a - ru da - mi 


- $a a - na 


may the wind her blood into 



**■ *HTI MI ^ -^TT ^^T in fi? 

pu - uz - m - /«w 
concealment 



// 



M 



lu - »i 



carry away 



1 - Ji - mu-ma la llu Bel ti-ma - lu - itf //£«/' 

They decreed for the lord his lot, did the gods 



ab - bi - e - $u u - ru - uh hi - w/ - ww 

his fathers, on a way of prosperity 



uS - la - as - /;/' - lu - u$ 
they caused him to take 

35. HI ZZ31 ET tT <£I 



1/ /jj. - me - e 


and success 


A£ E^TT *- 


//<zr - ra - nu 


the road. 



ib - J/'jm - mil 
He prepared 



'*» taila 
the bow, 



MARDUK'S PREPARATIONS FOR BATTLE 



143 



s^fcJJ! *!TT«£r» 36. «=HF- «MHf- fe 



kak • ka - $u 
his weapon 



u - ad - di 
he fixed, 



mul - ;««/ - lum 
a spear 



1 ^ <m „st *m»= mi jt ^ *& *- 



HRF-I 
«.? - /</r - &' - da 

he slung on, 



i/ - kin - £« 
he arranged it 



da - <// - nu 



37. ^U <T- EI 

# - &' - ma 
he raised 



=T ©HP- 

'>" ot/'/Az 
the club(?), 



A4f 



t ^y 

i>« - na - $u 
in his right hand 



tTTT^TAtT 38.ty<^J < ^TT^TT^^ 



u - $a - fri- iz 
he grasped (it), 



'>" &tf/a 



» 



maiku 



tlf - pa - turn 



the bow and 



the quiver 



**; ^T ^T JT «* I@J 4£\t 39. 






i - du - u$ - J« 
at his side 



i - lu - «/ 
he hung. 



,~< HPPF >->— < 
£i* - *'r - ku 

the lightning 



eg ~H ^ ^ jy 

1 - /ia /a - «i - Su 
in front of him, 



^HFFK t*/ <kt M 



«r«^ - tah - ;/// 
that burnt, 



tu 



He set 

40. «rj Jgf 

nab - /« 
with flame, 

-IT <fc£ Ml 

zu - mur - J« 
his body 



sOTT^ms^J^T 41-^v-^TET ^^^TT 



ttw - ta - al - la 
he filled. 



i - pu - «.? - ma sa - pa - r» 
He made a net 



<JtfiW*< ^<^< M<^v 4*.ss*TmH« 



£«/ - mu-u kir - £/£ l 7V - awa/ 

to enclose the bowels of Tiamat, 



ir - 4* - // 
four 



r. kirbii here and in 1. 48 is probably not an adverb but a contraction of 
kirbi ia; cf. 1. 65. 



144 1HE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



fa -a - ri uS - ie - /> - &" - /a # na la a - ft - e 

winds he posted that there might not escape 



mim - mi - la idru tutu iaru illanu 

anything of her, the South-wind, the North-wind, 



the East-wind, the West-wind ; at his side 

J?* 3= mt m «^ -m --r <m ^tt ht< 

sa - pa - ra w£ - /#£ - ri - &z &' - tf - // 

the net he brought near, the gift 



*ETI -HF-TKMT 45. HI 5?: <Mf<HH-ET 

abi-Su iltt A - ////» ifl - ni im - //«/ - la 

of his father Anu. He created the imhullu 



iartf Urn - «<z w* - ha - a a - Sam - $u ~ turn 

an evil wind, the storm, the hurricane, 

/Jrtf arba\ba) Sara siba Sara daliha 

the four-fold (?) wind, the seven-fold (?) wind, 1 the whirlwind, 

&&■ + <T^ TJ 47. tm«= ^!UE! 

Ja/YZ /£ Sanan u - jV - j</ - <//w - w<; 

the wind without equal ; he caused to go forth 

fare F l Sa ib - nu - u si - bit - //' - Su - //// 

the winds which he had created, the seven of them, 

i. Literally, the wind "four", the wind "seven". 



MARDUK SETS OUT IN HIS CHARIOT 



H5 



48. Eflf< ER< 

the bowels 

T< *- (=TTTs= 

/* - bu - u 
to advance 



of Tiamat 



lu - ud - lu - #« 
to destroy, 



tf r// - £# tf - Si -ma be - /«/« 

after him. Then raised the lord 



ff*-«fc! tlUfl EMI 

a - bu - ba kakka - /« raba(a) 

the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon, 



50. £j £<y <y- v 

si - ^i/f 



'*" narkabta 



the chariot, / a con- \ 
\ st ruction/ 



-ET 



31 -TTI *TTT* <: 



TIT 



►OT 



-Til 



la 
without 



mafr - r/ 
equal, 



ga - /// - ta 
terrible, 



ir - kab 
he mounted; 



5.. t y ^ Htt* ET 

/j - ;»/</ - sim - 01a 
he harnessed it and 



5* ^TTTT ^T *m. ET <T^ 

/'r - bit na - as - ma - di 

m 

a yoke of four horses 



tE^I^fV *eeJT^ 5«. HTA EM I *- (?)] 



/ - du - «,? - Sa 
to it 



/ - lul 
he bound, 



£7 - mir - Jf« - «« 
all of them 



-ET ^ ^T ^TTT^ E^TT A *M£ ^ **= *T W 



la pa - du - u 
unsparing, 



ra - fji - j« 
overwhelming, 



mu - «/ - par-Sa 
flying along, 



5 3 - [El -ET TJ *JH AHf- ( ? )J Hf< 

ma - la - a ru - ' - // 

full of slaver 



^TttT ^T I *- 

Sin - na- Su-nu 
their teeth, 



7 v Ti a# ^ttt 54. [-et js et «=e ^i( ? )] tm«= 

/*<z - .fa - « i>» - /a la - sa - ma i - du - » 

flecked with foam, in galloping skilled, 



10 



146 THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 

^ 3= ~nr . «t Ktf 59. m *t ~$£ eet 

sa - pa - na lam - du ul - te - &'r - »itf 

to trample down trained, he directed 

[** W (?) M ff< I *TTT«= ^H <T^ ET 

fyarran-Sa ur - #a - $u u $ar - <// - ma 

its way, his road he took and 

6o.e£^TTs£ M<£-* H£f( ? M ^f^ll 

fli - riS Ti - £/»<;/ d^ - gat pa - nu - u$ - .?« 

against Tiamat, the furious, his face 

jrOTHTAHFff 63.^^y *T<^£T 

iJ - kun i - na u - mi - $u 

he set. Then 

1 - /«/ - lu - Su Hani i - /«/ - lu - Su Hani 

m m 

they beheld him, the gods beheld him, the gods, 

<i& - i« 1 - tul - /« - /« /Af/fi / - /«/ - lu-$u 

his fathers, beheld him, the gods beheld him. 

65-^TAE! Mfcs ^IgJM •*!< *T- *T- Hf< 

// - #/- ma fo - lum kab - /« - u$ l Ti - a - s/iti - // 
And the lord drew near, on the midst of Tiamat 

1 - bar - r* ia tlu Kin - ^« ha - * - ri - hi 

he gazed, of Kingu, her spouse, 

**:*4Hf-ff F<IUI <*. *e ~»7 *ET -TTI ET 

1 - $t - ' - d me - ki - jto 1 - na - <// - tal - w«i 

he surveyed his As he gazed, 

1. kablui is probably a contraction of kablu $a. 



MARDUK CHALLENGES THE DRAGON 147 

* - Si ma - /a£ - Su sa - /1 - /# /* - ma -iu-ma 

troubled was his going, ! loosened was his mind and 



si - faa - ti ip - Sit - su u Hani 

stopped was his action. And the gods 

-m £* ^T TI -t^TT HI ^ <M= I 70. tt >* *jn 

r/ - su - Su a - ii - ku i - di - Su i - m« - rw 

his helpers, who went at his side, saw 



i^EETT TJV-TTI^T SF-Iefflf ^<T- 

.... - da a - Sa - ri - du ni - tit-Su - un i - Si 

the of the leader, their sight was troubled. 



75. [~TT <H ET ~ fe # TI *- «&T 

# - £1 - ma &? - /jmi a - bu - ba 

Then raised the lord the thunderbolt, 



^THTI EMI ^HlhM^ V 

£a£&i - fo raba\a) 7V - am<z/ Sa 

his mighty weapon, [against] Tiamat, who 



-TI*<^I£H <HJTJ^ ^TTEV<T- . 

ik - mi - iu ki - a - am iS - pur - Jfj' 

was furious, thus he sent (the word) : ". 



«5. Dai }}] «f ^TT ^T CTTT * <m 

Iu sa - an - da - at* urn - ma/ - ki 

Equipped be thy host, 

M *jn © -^TT JeT V- tT HJ F~ <HJ 

lu rit - ku - su Su - /«/ £a£& ^ 7 - X-/ 

let them be set in order, thy weapons. 

1. That is, as Marduk gazed, Kingu was troubled. 2. sa-an-da-at = samdat. 

10* 



148 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



se. ^IKM: A4f EeT TI^TIIJ < -efcl TJ <T 



en - di - im -ma 1 a - na - ku u 
Stand ! I and 



ka - a - f / 
thou, 



I 

let 



*- ^T V E£ ET 8 7- HT< ^v 



Hff- 
»i - pu - uS 

us join 



$a - at - ma 
battle!" 



Ti - fl«w/ 
Tiamat 



HP^^TTT «=E^T *<~V 88.^II-TIIH 



an - ni - Az 
this 



*T£t 



when 



U - w/' - la 
she heard, 



»/</// - hu - /<!$ 
like one possessed 



«=m«= v hi- bf j^t -11 v 



1 - te - j»j 
was she, 



1/ - Xa - an - ni te 

« 

she lost her senses, 



en - fo 2 



89. si ^TT ET 

is - « - ma 5 
she cried, 

«=TI 1ST s£TTT 

e - li - ta 
(and) loud, 



-T< ^v yiT ^ *AW 



Ti - ama/ 
did Tiamat, 



lit - Ait* - rt'S 
furiously 



90. J? BStf ET m EI *T 

.tor - Sis' ma - a/ - ma - Us 

from the roots asunder 



^T *JH E^TT C^TT ^TT TJ IV] *<• 1* « ^ 



it - ru - ra 
trembled 



H - da - a - $a 
her foundation. 4 



F £TTT ^T £TTT -TI* <T^ 



lip - A/ 
an incantation, 



it - /a - nam - di 
she uttered 



/ - man - ni 
She recited 

-TTT TI [V] 

fa - a - $a 
her spell, 



1. en-di-im-ma = emJima. 

2. te-en-fa = tem-ia. 

3. 15-41 = llSI. 

4. /. e., the ground she stood upon. 



DETAILS OF THE BATTLE 1 49 

9MH£IJ ~FHf- W -SSF «=TTT«= W 4HF- EOT 

« //<*/*/ .fa tahdzi u - Sa - ' - /« 

and the gods of the battle, cried 



lu - nu kakke P l - $u - nu in - /*/>* - du-ma l 

they for their weapons. Then advanced 



T<£-v HffflfF ~M~~ ~f«*T 

71' - amat abkal Hani r l ilu Marduk 

Tiamat (and) the arbiter of the gods, Marduk; 



94 . v £ T— »T HI *- *TTT *m *- 

Sa - tfi - meS it - //# - bu kit - ru - bu 

to the fight they come on, they draw near 



ta - fia - zi - iS uS - pa - ri - ir - ma be '- lum 

for battle. The lord spread 



& & E^yu ^ £- <kt <[- 96. && [<MHJ HI 

sa - pa - ra - $u u - Sat - am" - £/ />w - $w/ - /« 

his net to catch her, the evil wind 

tf ^TIII <MII -efcj -T< *^WI 

ja - £// #r - £<r ti pa - nu - uS - £« 

that was behind in her face 



«w - </</£ - Sir ip - te - ma pi - i - $a Ti - amat 

he let loose. She opened her mouth did Tiamat 



a - na la - ' - a - ti ~ $u im - ^«/ - /a 

to its full extent (?), the evil wind 

r. in-nin-du = innimdu, IV I fr. emidtt 



15° 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



^T ^T HfTI ~*T 1} ^T ^T 



«r *y 



uS - le - n - &i 
he made to enter 



a - na la ka - /001 

while yet she had not shut 



sftdj HK A 99. tT «fcTT Hf< A4T- T 



fo/ - /1 - Sa 
her lips. 



10 - zu - /1 
The terrible 



winds 



*Tfl ^TT W *EE flf ^ El 100. ^ ^ 



&*r - Sa - &/ 
her belly 



1 - sa -nu- ma 
filled and 



f)# - fit - //tf2 

taken was 



*TTT «&T V ET 3= Tl W ^T — 1* <m 



lib - da - Sa - ma 
her courage and 



pa - a - Sa 
her mouth 



«Jf - pal - &" 
she opened wide. 



IX - x«£ 

He grasped 

ka - ras - xtf ! 
her belly, 

*TTT* £- C 

u - Sal - lit 
he pierced 



mul - oti// - la ih - te - // 

the spear, he shattered 



102 



kir - />/ - Sa 
her bowels 



t yyy t m h« -J 

he severed, 



*yyy ^y , o3 . ^u <^ <h & 



lib - ba 
(her) heart. 



ik - mi - Si - ma 
He overcame her and 



«=JVIH *m*^T*-s^TT 104 .v<~yyv 



nap - Sa - laS 
her life 



u - &// - //" 
he cut off, 



Sa - lam - x*</ 
her bodv 



s^y^yy* hhv *mh? ^.^^y 



id - */</ - d 

he cast down, 



eli - Sa 
upon her 



/ - Zil-Zd 

he stood. 



/// - lu 
Atter 



1. ka-ras-sa — karai-ia. 



THE DEATH OF THE DRAGON 151 



71' - affid/ a - //# pa - »i i - na - ru 

Tiamat, the leader, he had slain, 

ki - if - r* -to up - for - n - m /a - #«r - fo 

her might was broken, her strength 

£T3--HJfif< <°7.<M£H Hf-HF- HTC[£*V 

w - sap - //# « Hani ri - su - to 

was scattered, and the gods her helpers, 

tj -*m m tti&w «*. ^y ^ *m 

a - li - ku i - <// - to it - tar - ru 1 

who went at her side, trembled, 



hj-eemi *ttt* *ttt a *jn <mti -hi ^tt *m 

ip - la - /;« « - jtf// - hi - ru ar hat - su - un 

were afraid (and) turned back ; 

« - $e - su - ma nap - to - tuS e - // - ru 

they took themselves off their life to save. 



»-fc]^m -eet^ttt* ^ptjtt -et 

ni - ia la - mi* - « //a - par - £«- <//? /a 

In an enclosure were they caught, to escape not 

l&T VHF- *U "'• HJJ *- I * HH El 

li ~ ' - e e - j*ir - fo-nu - // - w<z 

able were they. He took them captive, 



sTIUT—I^ *TTT^IdJA:£E -.^s^TT^ 

/fo£& P l - Su-nu u - ftj£ - Sir sa - pa - rtf 

their weapons he broke, in the net 

1. it-tar-ru for ittararu, I 2, Pret. fr. Tin. 



1 52 THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



na - du- ma ka - ma - riS uS - bu - du 

were they cast and in the snare they sat. The 



tub - ka - a - // ma - lu - u du - ma - mu 

m 

of the quarters of heaven they filled with howling, 



Se - rit - su na - hi - u ka - /// - u 

his punishment they bore, they were held 



<m<w <3« "5. <H@J ^TT <L< <« OT 

£1 - ,r«£ - kiS u iS - //"« eS - r// 

in confinement. And on the eleven 

»<x£ - ni - //' £« - ut pul - ha - ti i - sa - nu 

creatures, which | with the power of( she had filled, 

I striking terror i 

mi - il - la gal li - e a - li - £« 

the troop (?) of devils that went 



-tfcj ■■■& ^ V "7- &*t ^w <T^- 

&/ - - ni - Sa il - la - di 

at her , he brought 

*HW HTCI *flf -T< *£ <M= JT ^ 



sir ri - e - ti i - *// - Su - nu 



affliction, their strength 



ga - du luk - ma - ti - Su - ;/« .?</ - /<// - Su 

together with their opposition beneath him 



THE CONQUEST OF THE REBEL FORCES 153 

HI* *H *HI »9- <HgJ Hf- HI &* 

ik - bu - us u ilu Kin - gu 

he trampled. Moreover Kingu, 

w&m^<mmmMt*w »°- tm^jtet 

$a ir - ta - bu -u -$u - un ik - mi - $u- ma 

who had become great , he conquered and 

ssuhk «fia£r*TTT* *fi*W)U mm 

it - ti iln - ga e - la - a 

with ga 

Afl-'^-^T '".^^JTJT^f ^TTTT -TI^ T— 

im - ni - Su i - kirn - Su -ma dupUmati P l 

he counted him; he took from him the tablets of destiny 

Az «" - »ra - // - £« i - »a £/ - hb - bi 

that were not his by right, with a seal 

-TI* ^ « ET 5* -^T ^T ^T * *T£<T 

life - nu ~ ham - /wa /r - /u - u$ it - m« - h# 

he sealed (them) and in his breast he held (them). 

»3. ~TT ^Ef <T- & JT -II* ►* tTTT*= 

/2 - /« /ijh - »*" - $u ik - »i« - // 

After his enemies he had conquered 

*ejs£T »4.ffff*- -TI A £TTT *Hf- ^T 

/' - jtf - </« j/" - bu mut - ta - ' - du 

(and) destroyed, (and) the arrogant foe 

*TTT* rar *- MTT* JT HTTI *TTT* »s.s^l-T< 

u - $a - pu - u $u - ri - Sam ir - «/'/ - //' 

had made , and the triumph 



154 THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THK DRAGON 



An - far e - li na - ki - ru ka - // - tlf 

of Ansar over the enemy had completely 

:£MT*--H "6- 55:8:1* ~f^<£JMIA 

uX - zi - zu ni - is - /«tf/ l/w Afo - dim - mud 

established, (and) the purpose of Nudimmud 



f% - $u - du tlu Marduk kar - du e - // 

had attained, the valiant Marduk over 




Hani? 1 ka - /»« - turn si - £// - ia - $u 

the gods that were captive his durance 



u - </a/i - nin - /w<z j/ - ri - if 7/' - amat 

strengthened and to Tiamat 

W Hnk**flT* ^^!M! <MTI<HJ~TT 

fj ik - »i« - « i - tu - r<j tfr - £/ - tf 

whom he had captured he turned back. 

/£ - bu - us - ma be - /ink ft/ 7/ - <i - ma - /i//w 

Then trod the lord upon Tiamat's 



**msm «3o.tt-nf <^i^jy -et*»«* 

i - hd - sa i - /!</ «/ - // - £« /</ /<j - *//' - /' 

hinder part, with his club(?) that had no mercy, 



1/ - nat - //' oti/ - uh - ha u - /ar - r/ - - m«i 

he smashed the skull, he cut 



MARDUKS TRIUMPHANT RETURN 1 55 



5ff -et ttl mi <~ ^TT '3*. ^yy w *m 

uX - la - at da - mi - Sa $a - a - ru 

the channels of her blood, the wind, 



// ~ /a - nu a - na pu - uz - rat 

the north-wind into concealment 



«.? - ta - bil i - mu - ru - ma ab - bu - Su 

he made carry (it). His fathers beheld, 

AHfff ~T <=TTT* *£ -111 SI «3 4 . <T- ifr tfi 

ih du - u i - ri - $u Si - di - e 

they rejoiced, they were glad, presents 



£»/ - ma-nu u - $a - bi - lu $u - nu a - na 

(and) gifts they brought unto 

^TT ff J! '3 5 . eg ^ *TxM ET -< ^ 

$a - a - $u i - nu - uk - ma be - lum 

him. Then rested the lord; 



&i - /<?;» - lu - u$ i * for - rr' J/r £k - /// 

on her corpse he gazes, the flesh of the body (?) 



u - za-a - zu i - fo/i - na - a nik - la - a - ti 

he divides, he forms cunning plans. 

.37. AHflFF *T- <T- ET <^m t^ + M=*TI 

i# - pi - Ji - «rt ki -ma nu-nu mat - di - e 

He split her like a fish 



156 



THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON 



TJ ^T IT Ml 



a - na 
into 



Una - Su 
two halves, 



38. <& ~TT m Zfl ^TT 

mi - iS - lu - uS - Sa 
one half of her 



TTHrHtt*eT ^TTET^ *TTT<= R t^f Hp< 

iS - /to - /i<j/h - ;w<j &i - ma-ma u - sa - al - /// 

he set in place and as heaven he spread out. 

.39. ~yy ~T *T HF- m ET <s*t R *IH 



if - du - ud 
He drew 



/<jr - ku 
a bolt, 




*TTT«= ^TT *5S 

- Sa - as - bi - // 
he stationed, 



*/ 



£T H TJ JT ^ HK 



ma - 0* - j<7 - ru 
a watchman 

,40. ]- *u ^TT -eeT 

me - e - Sa la 

her waters not 

CTTT £TTT 4Hf- 5w 



Su - $a - a 
to let out 



Su - nu - /# 
upon them 



f/m - ta - ' 
he enjoined. 



tr 



►--< 




141. -*f- fc TI *E »~< *w 

Sami(e) i - £/ - /> 

Heaven he passed through, 



*E^££TET '4 2 .^T^TA^ <^AHfff-TT- 



- E^TT 

<if - ra turn 

the places 



/' - hi - /tfjw - ma 
he surveyed, and 

the abyss 



uS - /d/» - //*' - ir 
he placed 



mi - /# - ral 
over against 



HT 



Hf- ^ <£JT HTIA 



f « - bat 
the dwelling 



,7m Nu - *//>// - wi/// 
of Nudimmud. 



h3. ^Jf jy *TxM ET -< ^ V --IT 

im - Su - uh - ma be - /*//// i</ <j/ji7 

And the lord measured of the abyss 



T 



MARDUK FORMS HEAVEN FROM THE DRAGON'S BODY 157 



*- -*£T 5tf JT '44.«=TET-^T *T<T— ET^T 



bi - nu - lu - u$ - $u 
its structure, 



e$ - £«/ - /tf tarn -$i - la - $u 
a mansion like unto it 



*ffl* <I^I Efe «=M A E*fi • -45- «=t ^ -ET 



1/ 



*i 



//; 



he founded, 



E - tor - rtf 
Esara. 



eS - ^w/ - la 
The mansion 



.£* - for - ra Sa ib - nu - « $a - ma- mu 

Esara, which he had created as heaven, 



*f TJ <~T 


~*UX ^TTT 


< 


~f =TTTT U 


|/M ^ - /i«/w 


«■'» ^/ 


K 


«'« .£" - a 


Anu 


Bel 


and 


Ea 



ma -ha - ** - $u - un u$ - raw - /wa 

in their districts 1 he caused to inhabit. 



1. Literally * 'cities". 



THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES 

AND THE SEASONS. 

[K 3567 + K 8588 and K 8526.] 

u - ba - al - J/iw man-za-za an Hani 

He (/'. *. Marduk) formed a place for the gods, 

rabuti kakkabdni F l iam-til - $u - nu fa - ma - $i 

the great ones; the stars their images, the /ifmaii-stars, 



itf - zi - iz u - ad - di htiia 

he fixed. He ordained the year, 



mi - /> - ra - /a u - ma - as - sir XII 

into sections he divided (it), tor the twelve 



-— U— w^Hf-T— TTTd^TTTTI-HF M-TT^tT 

ar/te F l kakkabdni r 1 III l{ - A - - ,v uS - zi - iz 

months three stars he fixed. 



iS - tu u - jh/' Jto &///« //.r - si 

From the day when the year comes forth 



MARDUK CONTINUES THE WORK OF CREATION 159 

-IK?)] *m* ** e*=tt ht< 6-*m*sgw ,c jn 

adi u - su - ra - it u lar - Ud 

until the end he founded 



man~za - az tlu Ni - bi - ri ana ud - du - u 

the station of Nibir to determine 



rik - si " - Su-un a - na la e - pis' an - ni 

their bounds; that none might err, 



ia e - gu - # ma - na - ma man-za - #5 

nor go astray the station of 

^TIMTT < «f*fflff *TTT*IHI S5*M<I 

iiu Bel u ilu E - a u - Am /'/ - //- to 

Bel and Ea he set with him. 

ip - te - 010 #£#/& f 7 ' iVia J* - //' 

He opened great gates in the sides, 



ki - lal -la - an Si - ga - ru ud - </ajf - ni - na 

both (sides), the bolt he made strong 



ITT— ET < A^^T "•- ^H-^KVET 

$u - mt - la u im - zra iVra £a - bit - /1 - $a-ma 

on left and right. In the midst (?) thereof 



TT^TTT^ *T?-ETTM< «■ HF- B5?a <M *JE 

i$ - ia - kan e - la - a - ti tIu Nannar - ru 

he fixed the zenith. The Moon-god 



160 THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES 



«Jf - le - pa - a 


flitf - fo 


/£ - //' - pa 


he caused to appear, 


the night 


he entrusted (to him). 



is. t|yy t t$y <y^ b=^ et JT «Es: * ►* <V 

u - ad - di - Sum - wa Su - uk - nai mu - J/ 

He appointed him, a being of the night, 



a - na ud - du - u u - mi ar - ///' - Sam 

to determine the days, monthly 



/a «a - /ar - &z - a ina a - gi - t 

without ceasing with the crown 



« - fir /' - na reS arfii - ma 
"At the beginning of the month, 



na - pa - lit . ... - la - a - ti kar - «/ 

at the shining of the , the horns 



7~sTTJ£TTT ! *T:tf*m* til PTK^' 

na - da - a - /a ana ud - du - u VI u - mi 

shalt thou command to determine six davs, 



i - /*</ «/»/ VII /i - ,v <i - ga - a Sum - Su - A/ 

(and) on the seventh day the crown to divide/' 



I. K 8526 reads llbsssT *4^» 



THE STORY OF THE DELUGE. 

The account given by Sit-napishtim to the hero Gilgamesh. 

[K 2252 + K 2602 + K 3321 + K 4486 + S 1881, K 3375, K 7752 -f 
81—2—4, 245 + 81—2—4, 296 -|- 81—2—4, 4 6 o> K 8517 efc] 

m Sit - naptftim(tim) ana $a - $u - ma izakara(ra) 

Sit-napiStim to him spake, 

a - na ilu Gilgamet lu - up - ie - £a 

to GilgameS : "I will reveal to thee, 



1/11 GilgameS a- mat nt - fir - // « 

O GilgameS, the hidden word, and 



*T- ^TT^ £TTT W HP- T— ><H TC V 

/* - ris - /a $a tldntP 1 ka - a - fa 

the decision of the gods to thee 

JBf^a^iar »• ^TT i=T -TTX Id! -TI >*TT 

lu - uk - bi - &i a/tt *?« - ri - # - /a£ a/w 

will I declare. Surippak, a city, 



$a ti - du -$u at - /a timi &' - fa*/ 

which thou knowest, (which) on the bank 

11 



162 THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 

ndru p u m ra i . // fa£ . ww ^/ w iu - U 

of the Euphrates lies, that city 



-eTA^eeT HF-T— Etf<*-I H-TJ^T 

& - 3/r - ma Hani? 1 kir - bu-Su a - na 

was old and the gods within it — to 

fa - &zn a - bu - bi ub - la lib - ba - $u - nu 

send a deluge their hearts prompted 



Hani? 1 rabutif 1 i - &* - Jto abi-$u-nu 

the great gods. There was their father 

Hf- T? *- tCTTT «6- ET XH I *- E» MT ~T 

' /w A-nu - um ma - lik - $u-nu ku - ra - du 

Anu, their counsellor the warrior 

~f -II tTTT «7. £* R T I *- -HP- ^T HI 

''» jfftf £Wft?/£ - &-** ,/M Nin - /£ 

Bel, their messenger Ninib, 

a >m ET- -ST I *- HF- -II ^ -TTA 

^/ - £»/ - la - .fa - nu ,lu En - nu - gi 

their director Ennugi. 



i* Hf- «[ <[- <R -*f<=TTTHJ E^T-KI^ 

/7m iW« - igi-azag tlu E - a it - // - lu-nu 

The lord of wisdom, Ea, with them 



*m T- ET ». t? v ^TT *- *TTT* V H -Hf Tl 

/</ - Sib -ma a -ma/ - su - nu u - jfa - <//* - na - a 

sat and their word he repeated 



SlT-NAPISHTIM IS WARNED BY THE GOD EA 1 63 

a - na ki - ik - ki - $u ki - ik - ki$ 

to the house of reeds 1 : 'Reed-house, 

it/ - ik - £/? / - gar / - ^ar £/ - ik - £/ - Su 

reed-house! Wall, wall! O reed-house, 

Si - me - ma i - ga - ru /ii - is - sa - as 

hear! O wall, understand! 

*3. k& jt -m hi ^ m *m* ^ 

am^/tt $u - ri - ip - pa - ku - a war 

Thou man of Surippak, son of 



T MM] ~f -*£T -s£T »4- tTTT«= ^TT ^1 

m #fora - l7tt Tu - iu u - for £//<* 

Ubara-Tutu, pull down (thy) house, 

bi - »/ '* tt elippa muS - h'r mehe{e) 

build a ship, leave ( tn y) possessions, 



& - ' - / napSdiiP 1 na - ak - ku - ra 

take heed for ( tnv ) life, ( tn y) property 



-TT* 5* eeT ~HT Ee|J< £TTT M CZ 

zi - ir -ma na - //? - /a £«/ - /// 

abandon and ( tnv ) M* save, 8 



i. Ea probably addresses Sit-napi3tim in a dream, while the latter is sleep- 
ing in a house of reeds; see 1. 196. 
2. Literally, "cause to live". 

11* 



164 THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



hi - li - via zer nap - Sa - a - it ka - la - ma 

and bring up living seed of every kind 



TT >~t~l £YYY ►-< ►¥ ^YTT [ Ll - 28—80, concerning the building 

IT I III ►-< M ►Ill of the Mpf are much brokcn# Aftcr 

a -na ltd - *i '** elippi fi n j s hing the ship, STt-napiStim pro- 

into the ship.' cceds to fill it.] 

mimma i - $u - u e - si - en - h mimma 

With all that Y had I filled it; with all 



see JeT *TTT«= 


*TJ ^TT -II <T- 


<H*T 


83. £ET 


1 - Jfo - « 


e - fi - en - ft' 


kaspu 


mimma 


that I had 


I filled it, ' 


of silver; 


with all 


^ JT *TTT<= 


*TJ ^TT -II <T- 


<ff-TTA 


84. £~Ej 


1 - $u - 1/ 


e - J/' - en - h' 


hurdsu 


mimma 


that I had 


I filled it, 


of gold; 


with all 



^JTMTT* «=flf «*TT -III <f- -* -TT*T 

i - $u - u e - si - en - $i zer napiati? 1 

that I had I filled it, of living seed 



-tfcj -ET ET 8 5 . ^y *y ^fy ft ktj *yyr 

ka - la - ma u$ - le - li a - /*</ //#/>/ 

of every kind; I brought up into 

''" elippi ka - /</ yfc/'/w - //' - ia u sa - lal - ia 

the ship all ray family and household; 

86. *>- <£[* $$*} e=TTTt ET ^4 t**f 

bu - «/ frn 1/ - ma - am seri 

the cattle of the field, the beasts of the field, 



SIT-NAPISHT1M PREPARES THE ARK 165 

ma/? P' um - ma - a - ni ka - //' - Xu - nu 

craftsmen, all of them 



*TTT* * -^T! 


87. tj m ^t 


Hf- *T 


u - h It 


a - dan - na 


,/tt &/w<tf 


I brought in. 


A fixed time 


SamaS 



fit - ku - nam - ma /w« - ir ku - uk - ki ina 

had appointed ^saying) : 'The ruler of the darkness at 



//' - la - a - ti u - $a - az - na - an - nu 

eventide will send l 



w^-m <m «tT tj ht< 89. *w *jn ^ 

fo - w« - /« ki - ba - a - ti c - ru - ub 

a heavy rain; (then) go 

T [*TTT] 3 ' -I ^TTT t] *\- A && ^H 

rt//a //# - fo' '** ; /rj0^i - /w« // - fit babi - ka 

into the ship and shut thy door/ 



a - dan - nu Su - u ik - ri - da mu - ir 

That appointed time arrived ; the ruler of 

ku - uk - &' *)i<z /* - la - a - li 

the darkness at eventide 



i - za - an - ;w - /i« fo - w« - lu ki - ba - a * ti 

sent a heavy rain. 

1. Literally, "will cause to rain". 



1 66 



THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



9 .. V *T <~ «*T fcETTT -TTI v- ^T M 



Sa 
Of 



u - mi 
the storm 



at - la - tal 
I saw 



bu - na - .fa 
its beginning; 



93. ^T^ TJ~HT *ee^I£IJ^TT v^ «=TTT< t^TTT 



u - w« 
the storm 



a - na 
to 



i - /#/ - /« - 
gaze upon 



si 



pu - luh - ia 
fear 



tfc<r- 94.^pjn^ Tf^T^m^ ^t ^ttt et 



i - Si 
I had, 



c - ru - ub 
I entered 



a - na lib - £* '*" dippi-ma 
into the ship and 



tztzy^T^ «tTTI« 95-Tf^T *T-Ame v 



ap - le - hi 
shut 



ba - a - bi 
the door. 



a - na 
To 



//' - # - i 
the pilot 



to 
of 



sT^TTT TJ^T *-^TTIH HF- * *T- 



*« elippi 
the ship, 



a - na 
to 



Pu - zu - ur - tlu 

Puzur-Bel 



Bel 



bs^tttsj 96.tmT^ «^T^m<r^i^w 



amelu malahi 
the sailor, 



ekalla 
the ark l 



al - ta - di - i)j 
1 handed over 



!?<T^ *-**TU 97. £- * *TTTe **TJ-TTI 



a - di bu - $e ~ e - $u 

together with its contents. 



T ET -m 98. t E <^!T ET 

j/itf /10 - /«** - ri i - //>// - via 

appeared, there came up 



mim-.mu - u $e - e - r/ 

When the early dawn 



i Jf - tu 
from 



i* *m «*- *w jh * -i^ ?i <f- 




# - ftir/ s*ami(e) 

the horizon 



wr - pa - lum sa - Urn - /«w 

a black cloud. 



I. Literally, "great house, palace'*. 



THE BEGINNING OF THE FLOOD 



167 



99- -Hf- <Mf 



*TTT3V 5w*m:=fcET 



tlu Ramman ina lib - bi - Sa ir - lam - ma - am - ma 

Ramman in the midst thereof thunders and 



100. 



ilu Nabu 
Nabu 



< 



u 
and 



ilu Marduk 
Marduk 




il - la - ku 
go 



ei-m '--^tt-etm c^rr 



j»<z ma^ - ri 

before, 



1/ - & - ku 
they go 



guzale P l 
as messengers 




102. 




Sadu(u) u 

over mountain and 



ma - a - turn 
country ; 



/#r - gul - // 
the anchor 



-4- ^r E^yy ^ eg ~ry *£& t=TTT »o3. J^yy *JII 

'/« Ur - ra - gal i - na - aj - sab 'M - ^ 

Uragal tears away; there goes 



tiu Nin - ib mi t'b - ra u Sar - di 

Ninib, the Storm he makes discharge itself. 



-4- «f flf Hffff ^T <M 



l/tt <<4 - nun - /itf 
The Anunnaki 



Id 



if - Xu - 
carried 



K 



<y^s^yyyj-y< »*•- -TI* HTC 55 HfTU *- 



di - pa - ra - a - // 
(their) torches, 



ina nam - ri - ir - ri - $u-nu 
with their brightness 



*TTT* R< Efc ET DM ^yyj 




they light up 



the land. 



106. v ~f A4f 

fe "" Ramman 
Of Ramman 



1 68 



THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



Mi 4^ MT ^ 

iu - mur - ra - as 
his whirlwind 



jtt l i - ba - ' - u 

reached 



*f«=TI «*KrleT HTC**jn T <=TJM-T< 



Same{e) 
the heavens, 



mtmma 
all 



nam - rw a/w 
light into 



* - tu - // 
darkness 



*T**HH*jn ••• »*-<tf* ^*W- TMI 



«/ - //r - ru 
was turned. 



«/ jVw - mar a - /*« 

No man beholds 



a - bu-Su ul u - /a - ad - da - a niU ? l 

his fellow, no more were men recognised 



HP- *=TJ "♦• 



ina Sami(e) 

in heaven. 



-HP T 

ilaniP 1 
The gods 



HI -EI -TI 

if - fa - hu 
were afraid of 



T? *- ^T fcfc £\ »s. ^T *T AHPff ^TT 



a - bu - ba - am - ma 
the deluge, 



// - it - ih - su 
they retreated, 



me *T H3J tTTT"= T Hf-*TJ V «fflf<MT 



i - ft - fu - w 0/10 $ami\t) $a 

they went up into the heaven of 



116. ►^f- y» »»» 

i7ani W 
The gods 



<£JT IHHJ 

kima kalbi 

like a hound 



,lu A - num 
Anu. 

^«;i - «« - nu 
crouched down, 



wra >&/ - ma -a - ti rab - su i - //> - si 

in the enclosure (of heaven) they sat cowering. She cried aloud 

I. iu-mur-ra-as-su = Sumurrat-su. 



THE DESTRUCTION OF MANKIND 



169 



hp^tt— <mti TJd-T< ii8.tmt-n^«tT 



ilu IS - tar 
did [Star 

Hf-~<C: 

il * Be - lit 
the Lady 



ki -ma a - lit - li 
like a woman in travail, 



u - nam - ba 
lamented 



ildniP 1 
of the gods 



TTET 



/a - bat rig - aw 

with a loud voice : 



»**T* <MkJ@JMfTT* TJ^T <M^T<T^ 



ud-mu ul - lu - u 

'That (former) race 

lu - u i - tur-ma 

has been changed, 

/« - $wr ildniP 1 

the assembly of the gods 



a - na 
into 



A' 



// 



A' 



clay 



a$-$u a - na - ku 
since I 



Mia 
in* 



■©^•=m^ £-<hh 



ak - bu - # 
commanded 



limullu 
evil. 



■fif-c 



121. <Jgf t^ -^q- _< 

When I commanded 



»m /« - hur ildniP 1 

in the assembly of the gods 



limullu ana hut - lu - uk ni$t P l - ia 

evil, for the destruction of my people 



** ^t -b 3 et "3. yf ^r in cm et 



kab - Az 
a storm 



ak - £1 - ma 
1 commanded. 



a - na - ku - um - ma 
That which I 



«/ - la - da - ni 

brought forth 



Jfu - u 



at - ma 



— where (is it) ? 



ki - 1 
Like 



17° THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 

mare P l nune P l u-ma~ai-Ia-a 

the spawn of fish it fills 



tarn - ta - am - ma Hani? 1 $u - «/ 

the sea!' The gods of 



1/11 ^ - ««« - na - ki ba - ku - a // - // - Jfa 

the Anunnaki wept with her, 



i/frfi ^ at - ru a$ - £/' # - «a £/' - &' - // 

the gods (were bo wed i they sat in tears, 

\ down, / 

kat - ma Sap - ta - $u-nu VI 

pressed together were their lips For six 



IHHTTI <H@0f >*VffHr< ^.^yytffl 

ur - ra u mu - ta - a - //' /'/ - /</X- 

days and nights blew 

$a- a - ri a - bu - bu me - //« - w / - j<// - /<*« 

the wind, the deluge, the tempest overwhelmed 



v i3o. ^yy *>- tHTt *y ^ *e -n 

Wfl/j si - bu - u u - ma / - //(/ 

the land. The seventh dav when 



*h v yj <y^ ^y t^yyy £- f -ti =-ttt^ 

&* - $a - a - di it - /u - ra£ me - hu - & 

it drew near, there ceased the tempest, 



THE ABATEMENT OF THE FLOOD 171 

a - bu - bu kab - la la im - dah - f« 

the deluge, the storm, which had fought 



£* - ma ha - <zi - al - it i • nu - «# 

like a host. Then rested 

lamlu ul - fia - n - /r- aw mi - #«/ - lu 

the sea, it subsided, and the hurricane, 

a - bu - bu ik - lu ap - pa - al - sa 

the deluge ceased. I looked upon 



TIT ET s^TTT wmi mim «+ <H£U 

la - ma - /a fa - &'# ku - lu u 

m 

the sea while I caused (my) voice to resound, but 



kul - lal te - ni - $e ~ e - It i - lu - ra a - na 

all mankind was turned into 

<T^S3tf<T3= «s.<m# *TTT*-m ^HTCHT- 

//' - /'/ - /* ki - ma u - ri mil -hu - ra/ 

• • • w 

clay. In place of fields there lay before (me) 



MOT* £- M i36. «=y ^y< «=j 3= xp ^ ET 

u - jtf/ - /« a/ - //' nap - pa -la - am - ma 

a swamp. I opened the air-hole and 



«m/ mi - la - kul eli dur 

the light fell upon the wall 



172 



THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



ap - pi - ia 
of my face ; * 



1 3 7 . sgjr *y <tt ty ^y 

«£ - A?/;/ - /»/' - IS - /M<J 

I was bowed down, 



*tf ^ttt ^h y* -n <hj .38. <^h 



at - ta - tab 
I sat down, 



a - 3tf£ - ki 
I wept; 



<r/i 
over 



my cheek 



>~<V 



yy^y^H <t^etwti 



tl - la - ka 
flowed 



di - ma - a/ 
my tears. 



1 3g. 



y^^yy-y ~jE^yyyjHT< ^-^T 



ap - pa - //' - /j £/# - ra - a ~ ti 

I looked upon the world 



yj tt y ^y - 4 o. yj ~ry 



tdmtu 
sea. 



a - na 
After 



pa - tu* 
— all was 



<ry £m tj Hf- 

XII TA - A AS 

twelve (days?) 



^ *T ^y Vi 

i - te - la - a 
emerged 



na - gu - 2/ 
the land. 



4«. w ^y 



a - na 
1 o 



v ss: *>-yjy< tg *y ~ ty ^yyy u*. v ^yyyt 



the land of Nisir the ship took its course. 



Sad 14(14) 
The mountain 



v:5-*Hjy< ^MTT ^t-et yj^y ^yyj<y- 



m <* tu Ni - .«r '*« elippa is -hat-ma 

of the land of Nisir held the ship fast and 



a - na na - a - Jfi 

to slip 



<tt* ^Tii< '43.T-H *y^ yyy? *t* 

«/ i</ - din iitin(en) u - mu Sand(a) u - mu 

did not allow (it). The first day, the second day 

1. /. e. t "upon my check". 2. pa-tu probably - pdtu. 



THE SENDING FORTH OF THE BIRDS 173 



v MOT* & *-ffi< 


^m 


«44- £- V 


*!►* 


$adu(u) Ni - sir 


do. 


fa/ - $a 


u - flltf 


the mountain Nisir 


do. 


The third 


day, 



-HI^TTJ *T* v^TTTt ^^vffl< inn 

ri - 6a - a u - /w« Sadu(u) Ni - fir do. 

the fourth day the mountain Nisir do. 

han$u($u) siHaQta) $adu(u) Ni -sir do. 

The fifth, the sixth the mountain Nisir do. 

siba(a) u - ma i - na ka - $a - a - di 

The seventh day when it drew near, 

X47. tflT* * ^TT ET ig -II *TTT* + iS3 

i* - $e - si - ma summatu u - »w^ - ft'r 

I sent forth a dove (and) let (her) go. 

■48. ^tt IH -m -II *£ -m MT £& £1 

/'/ - lik summatu i - tu - ra - am - ma 

The dove flew to and fro 1 but 

149. « ^ ^T! <tf* «* ^ £ «=A ET tT *TTT ^TT 

man-za - 3i* k/ i - pa - a$ - Sum -ma 2 is - xa^ - ra 

a resting-place there was not and she returned. 

.5* *nr* * "SOT tf HPfrHTC *m*-f*IH 

a - $e - si - ma sinuntu u - wiaf - Sir 

Then sent I forth a swallow (and) let (her) go. 

«5«. :^TT IH HTI* -II *£ i£T ^TT k* ET 

i7 - /rife sinuntu i - tu - ra - am - ma 

The swallow flew to and fro but 

i. Lit. "went and returned". 2. I i, Pres. fr. baSu. 



174 THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 

«5..«H~sTT <^ tS3=g=w^ET tT »=TTT E*=TT 

. man-za - zu ul i - pa - al - Sum - ma is - sah - r» 

a resting-place there was not and it returned. 

153. *m* * *EJf *T TI-m^T ^Hf-tiW 

u - U - si - ma a - ri - ba . u - mas' - h'r 

Then sent I forth a raven (and) let (it) go. 



'54.^TTIH TMTI3ET -PJH^TT V 

il - //it a - ri - 6i - ma ka - ru - ra $a 

m 

The raven flew and the abatement of 



TIT— *EA£ET '55.Htt*tTfi «*VAHfffA 

me P l i - /w#r - ma ik - n£ ! /' - Sa - afr - hi 

the waters beheld and it came near wading 

^~--TTI <tf* -T«=TTT^TT ^TTT^^Tm 

1 - tar - ri ul is - sat} - ra u - $e ~ si - ma 

(and) croaking, (but) did not return. Then I brought (all) out 



TJ^T VMK ^T£TTT<I£J 5^-TTJ 

a - na IV tare F l at - ta - hi ni - ka - a 

m 

unto the four winds, I offered an offering 

157. SeHTAHTCF -VUliy- - <^H 

aX - &/« sur - £* - «« ina cli 

I made a libation on 



£<M- -IT -IT- V sE 158. f < $ 

*/* - **r - ra/ ta/i(i) VII u VII 

the peak of the mountain ; in sevens 



*J1* Tf £TT -eft^T ^ £_< -59. tt ^T 

karpatu a - da - #i/r k£ - tin i - /id 

the vessels I set out, un- 

l. Perhaps read ik-kal y "it fed". 



THE SACRIFICE ON THE MOUNTAIN 



175 



Jta/ - // - Su-nu at - ta - bak kanu **" irijftf 
der them I heaped up reed, cedar-wood 



< tX3\ --TTT 



u 
and 



160. *~*^- Ji 
ilaniP 1 
The gods 



smelt 



-TUV «6«.-+T 



te^TTy- «=M!IT 



i - ri - $a 
the savour, 



Hani? 1 
the gods 



/ - §1 - nu 
smelt 



* - r* - Sa 
the savour 



snftn^T] «6a.«f t— <m$ ^tt jcttt 3 *tj 



fa - a - fo 
that was sweet, 



ilaniP 1 ki- ma 

the gods like 



zu - urn - bi ~ e 
flies 



<^H -11 «<£: H^/nn «63.^t*^t 



eli 
over 



the sacrificer 



ip - /<*# - ru 
collected. 



ul - tu 
When 



<tf* ^T *- :OTT ET HP- -HI - ■* W V <T3= I 

«/ - la - nu - urn - ma ' /w Bilit Hani ina ka - $a - di - Su 
now the Lady of the gods drew near 

i6 4 . ~yy <T- <^T I— £h T— V HP- flf *■ tCTTT 

tf -A" *' rabutiP 1 $a ilu A-nu - */» 

she raised the great jewels (?), which Anu 



/' - pu - fo 
had made 



&' - *' jk - hi - 3fc 

according to her wish, (crying) : 



ilaniP 1 
'(What) gods 



an - nu - ti lu - u abnu ukrii kiSadi - ia 1 

these (are) ! By the (jewels of) lapis lazuli upon my neck, 

1 . For **»» uknT kifadi-ia it is possible to read <*bnu sipri-ia, i. e. "By my 
(jewels of) lapis lazuli". 



176 THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



THJ ^<T- .«. *n— Hf-V--T< 

at am - A" time? 1 an - nu - ti 

I will not forget! These days 

^HPPF^TT^^^T T £TT*TT* THJ 

afa " su - sa - am - ma ana da - riS at 

have I set in my memory, never will I 



^ <y_ l67 . „f y^ e<£< -E^TT I£J 5^ 

001 - Si ilant'P 1 Hi - //' - ku - ;//" 

forget (them) ! Let the gods come 



TI ~HT -V Ml & '«• -pHI t yyy yj yj 

a - na sur - £* - hi ,/w /fc/ <?i 

to the offering, (j> ut ) I et not Bel 



^TT -E^TT -^H TI ^T ^ EI 5r 

#7 - ii - ka a - na sur - &' - »/ 

come to the offering, 

x6 9 . £1 -ET A4-TTIHJET ^TTIIT^ 

aS-Su la im - /#/ - ku - /w</ /J - ku - nu 

since he took not counsel and sent 

TJ*-*- «7o.<f-JBI *fflfT—*fcff A4T-^*TTT* 

a - bu - bu u niSe F l - /i/ #)» - nu - // 

the deluge and my people he surrendered 

T ^H^TT<T- «7..<tf*-6iT <tf* -ET *- sCTTT ET 

<//!</ ka - r<* - J/' ul - /« w/ - la - nu - urn - w<; 

to destruction.' When now 

~*T!I*TTT *~ ^HV#I «ra.^^ft 

''* /?<7 ina ka - Jte - tli - Jw / - mur 

Bel drew near, he saw 



BEL'S ANGER AT THE ESCAPE OF THE ARK 177 



tT^TTTET ***T~ ^TIMTT '73. j|t ^y ^y< 

'>« elippa-ma i - tc - ziz ilu Bel lib - ba - ti 

the ship ; then wroth was Bel, with anger 



^4fs£TTT-^TT W HF- HF- -HP- W TT 

im ta It $a Hani ilu Igigi 

was he filled against the gods of the Igigi : 



'74. ff TJ K-m £1 *TTT*= ^TT ^T Eff< Hf< 

at - urn - ma u si na - pis' - ti 

"Who then has escaped with life? 

"75- TI IT IdMJ* BBS - ^H^llf 

at ib - lut amelu ina ha - ra - A" 

No man must live in the destruction ! " 

<76.~f^TldJ sMU S^T xWMTTT* 

' 7tt Afoi - i)5 /a - a-fo epui-ma ikabbi 

Then Ninib his mouth opened and spake 

izakaryar) ana ku - ra di ilu Bel 

(and) said to the warrior Bel : 

'78.«,^::ttTefT v^y Hf-tynTT? TmHT< 

man-nu - urn -ma la la ilu E - a a -ma - ti 

"Who but Ea (this) thing 

me ^T -HF- *■ '79. <H£U HF- *WT ff 

i - ba - an - nu u ilu E - a 

could do? And Ea 

*s<ra=*Tm ^fcj^f T--TTI xso.^HF-^TTTTT? 

i - di - e - ma ka - la Up - n* ilu E - a 

knoweth every matter!" Then Ea 

12 



i7» 



THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



3= TU ^ ET 

pa - a-$u epuS-ma 
his mouth opened and 



i EMT <W 

ku - ra di 

the warrior 



ikabbi 
spake 

Mil *TTT 

Bel : 



181. ^ tt^ T 

izakar{ar) ana 
(and) said unto 



«»»■ *ST £TTT 

a/ - /<j 
"Thou 



tW t> 

abkal 
director 



HP- T- 

of the gods! 



i83. <m ^ <j^ ^ 

jt/ - i - ki - i 
So 



EMT -T 



< 
< 

£« - ra du 

m 

O warrior! 

-ET *T tSTTT IH ET 

ill-advised wert thou that 



T¥*-«tT IH-!A-tTt ^--iMTT A<T^ 



a - bu - fo 
a deluge 



/W - Aim 
thou didst send! 



be - «7 /// - // 

(On the) sinner 



*ff~ A0TTU *s.-<*MTT CT-ET-K 



* - jw/</ /;/ - ta - <*-.?« 

lav his sin! 



be - el kil - la - ti 

(On the) transgressor 



*T¥~ Dv^TT »M.*jnsCmF Tfff 



* - mid kil - /<// - su 

lay his transgression! 



ru - KJ« - ;//<r at 

Forbear, let not 



IdJ ^T HT< -TI* £T ^T *T TI TJ ^: 

ib - &/ - // - ik Su - r/« - ud ai ir- 

(all) be destroyed! Have patience (?), let not (all) be . . . . ! 

.8 7 .^eeTI!TIH!!T^ TJ*-~*T ^.jh^II 



am - ma - ku taS - ku - nu a - bu - ba 
Instead of sending a deluge, 



tusti 

let a lion 



EA'S PROTEST AGAINST A RECURRENCE OF THE DELUGE 179 

lit - ba - am - ma ///& P l li - $a - a# - fri - /r 

come and mankind let him lessen ! 

.89. £& et nr mif^ tj *- ~^t 

aw - ma - ku ta$ - ku - nu a - bu - 3a 

Instead of sending a deluge, 

x 9 o. m 4- ^n C: «*T ^ ET *m H~ 

barbaru lit - ba - am - wia /*/& F l 

let a leopard come and mankind 

li - xa - ah - #/ - ;*r am - #/a - £1* 

let him lessen! Instead of 

/W - ku - nu a - bu - ba fiu Safa - $i* 

sending a deluge, let a famine 

lit - $a - kin - ma mala US- am - ma - ku 

take place and the land . . . . ! Instead 

ih m + tj *- ~*t «94. hf- ^y ^n 

Aw - ku - nu a - bu - ba ilu Ur - ra 

of sending a deluge, let the Plague-god 



//'/ - ba - am - ma niU F l li$-gi$ a - na - ku 

come and mankind let him slay ! I 



*// ap - la - a pi - r/> - /1 Hani? 1 

did not divulge the decision of the 



I2» 



180 THE STORY OF THE DELUGE 



^ y_ I96 . ^y g^yy jj< g^ jy ~ry ^yyy 

rabuti? 1 At - ra - faa - sis $u - na - A* 

great gods! Atra-^asis a dream 



k - fa£ - ri - Jta/» - ma /i - m - //' Hani P 1 

I caused to see and (thus) the decision of the gods 



is* - me e - nin - »a - ma mi" - //# - £« m/7 - ku 

he heard!" Thereupon came he to a decision, 



i98.Mi<M!m HF-~ flf~Hf *TTT3 sT^TTT 

1 - ft» - ma ,/tt 2fc/ a - «<* //# - bi '>« <r%>/ 

and Bel went up into the ship ; 

199. tT ~ ^T M< t^TI ET <-T* *T *ET HF- 5r 

if - bai ka - ti - lii - /wa ul - te - la - an - ni 

he took my hand and forth he brought 



/a - a - Jfi u$ - te - //' itf - /</£ - mi - /j 

me ; he brought forth, he caused to bow down 



<««-!< - *E<TC:NETI -x.^yy^^y 

sin - niS - ti ina i - di - ia il - pu - «/ 

my wife at my side, he turned us 



pu - ut - ni - /»</ /'s - za - as />/</ bi - r/ - />/ - ni 

to one another, 1 he stood between us, 



*e *m e?ptt <£j -nr <r- - 2 . tE ^y ^~nr 

/' - itjr - ra - &//* - «</ - // / - na pa - /ra 

he blessed us : "Formerly 

1. Literally, **he turned our front". 



THE DEIFICATION OF SlT-NAPISHTIM 



181 



t*t-tt* tj t- ra oar et 

m §tl-napi$tim a- me - lu - turn - ma 
Slt-napiStim (was) of mankind, but 



m 



e - mn - na - ma 
now 



T*MT* < frl M< *TJ^TTT* <HJ^ 



OT Sit-naptitim u sinni$li-lu lu - u e - w« - « 
let Sn-napiStim and his wife be like 



ki - i 
unto 



~fT 



KT-E! ao4. et «=TTT*= TH-ET 



i/oW J 7 ' »0 - Jf* - ma 

the gods, even us, and 



lu - u a - £/# - ma 

let dwell 



m Sit-napi&tim ina 
Sit-napiStim 



*jn *m* <m 



*T- «* 



ru - u 
afar off 



*7 



at the mouth 



ndrdli F l 
of the rivers!" 

- ki 



205. j^yy ^r< 



few ^ ET 



// £« /'« - »i - ma 

Then took they me and 



ma 
afar 



r« 



off, 



ma 
at 



the mouth of 



m t 



ndrdli ? l 
the rivers 



^5J *J<[- *- tfe 5S= 

u$ - le - Si - bu - in - «i 
they made me to dwell. 



THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES. 

The arrival of the goddess at the gates of the Lower World. 

[K 162.] 



a - na mat Id tart kak - ka - ri 

• • • 

To the land whence none return, the place 

[** 13= sfl] - -*W ^ £- ~f <« 

1 - // - e ilu War mdrat ilu Sin 

m 

of darkness, iStar the daughter of Sin 



ft - Ztf - ff/i - &J l/ - £ft/J 

her ear inclined ; * 

3. ^T! -T^Hfff ET ^ ^ Hf- <« 

t'S - £«» - ma mdrat ilu Sin 

then inclined the daughter of Sin 



u - zu - «;/ - j</ tf - ;/</ />// e - ti - < 

her ear to the house of darkness, 



M~ HF-SwNTOf^T] MJ^T ^TTTT TIT 

ii/ - bat ilH Ir - kal - ta a - //</ //// $a 

the seat of the god Irkalla, to the house J fr°m y 

(which/ 

1. /. e., "directed her attention**. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DEAD l83 



*TJHfU*-I ^T TI^MTM MJ^T 



e - ri - bu - $u 


la 




a - su - 1 


u 


a - ra 


he that enters 




comes not forth, 




to 


4tf£ EE^fT ^ 




gTT 


tf^jn 


£m v 


-ET 


&7r - ra - »/' 




fo 


a - /<z£ - 


• /a - A* 


la 


the road 






whose path 


does not 


^m tuj wh] 


7- 


flf ^T 


^TTTT 


^TT 


ta - #/ - rat 


i 




j - ## 


bit 


to 


return, 






to 


the house 


whose 


MRf-m*-i > 


•^TT 


tew >* *m* 


V- MTT* 


= ^TT1 


* - n' - bu-Su 


22/ • 


• urn 


- WW - u 


//a - « 


- ra 


visitor 


is 


excluded from 


the li] 


ght, 


«• TJ s£H t 


3T AT* 


^ ^s~ ^.yj ^yy ^ 


- tor 


epire 


pi 


£« - £« 


- us - su - ;/« f 


to the place where 


dust 


is 


their bread 





t^ihjt^ <r^^T[®] 9.*-*m**jn 

a - kal - $u - nu ti - it tu nu - u - ru 

• • • 

(and) their food is mud. The light 

«/ im - jw<z - r// ina e - tu - ti a$ - ba 

m 

they behold not, in darkness they dwell, 



Az^ - Su - ma kima is - su - r/ ?tt - bat 

and are clothed like birds in a garment 

t*[*H "-<^H s=W<k < fcT*TT3=~* 



gap - /1 


eli 


'*» </<?/// 


w 


t$u 


sikktlri 


of feathers; 


over 


door 


and 




bolt 



1. bubu-us-su-nu = bubut-su-nu. 



184 



THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES 



V^AHfff H^DDf »-^=M flf-HT s*f* 



fa 


- pu - *£ /> 
is scattered the 


- ru 
dust. 


ilu Ii-tar a 
iStar, 


- //a 
to 


the 


bdb 

: gate 




la tari 


ina 


ka - to - <//' - to 


i3. 




• na 



of the 1 whence none return 



lofthel 
\ land / 



at her approach, 



to 





amiiu pi fa ba - a - bi a-ma - turn 

the porter at the gate the word 



/'s - &*£ - kar 
addresses : 



14. Km s?F t^ T- s=TJ 

/*/» - me - e x 
Ho! Porter! 



amilu 



*T- £TTT If 

// - fa - a 
Open 



thy gate! 



•5-*T-£TTTTI ^T«=T^H*T ISTJU^T 



// - la - a 
Open 



ba - ab - ka -ma lu - ru - /a/ 

thy gate, that I may enter, 



ff-HTUr i6 -«^EeT ^t ^ttt<v^tttt? 



a - na - ku 
even I ! 



If 



la la - /<// - ta - </ 

thou openest not 



/«/ /'r - r« - ba a - //</ - ku 

so that I enter not, 



ba - a - bu 
the gate, 



17. if *HJ }}< <se 

</ - ///</// - ha - fw 
I will smite 

a - &/£ - bir 
will I shatter, 



dal - ////;/ 
the door, 



sik - /•« - /•// 
the bolt 



18. tj -BFii m t^f 

■ oti/// - ha - a$ 
I will smite 



a 



1. mi 7 is here probably to be taken as an enclitic particle. 



THE GODDESS AND THE PORTER 185 

si - ip - pu- ma u - $a - bal - kat '* u daldti F l 

the threshold and tear down the doors, 



u-Se-el-la-a mi - tu - ti akilutiP 1 

I will raise up the dead, that they may eat 

3d/ - tu - ti eli bal - tu - ti 

• • 

(and) live, (and) over the living 



i-ma-'-du mi - /a - //' " m * /a /* /« 

will swarm the dead. The porter 



/a - a-$u i - pu - u$ - ma i - kab - 3i 10 - zak - ka - ra 

his mouth opened and spake; he addresses 



a - na rabiti(tt) ilu II - tar i - zi - « 

the princess IStar : "Stay, 



be - el - ti la la - na - da - a$ - Jfi 

O lady, thou shalt not throw it down ! 



lu - ul - lik iumu - &' tu - ia - an - »i a - na 

Let me go (and) thy name declare to 

tar - ra - // ,7m ^//fl/« 

the queen Allatu." 



THE LOVES OF ISHTAR. 

The repulse of the goddess by the hero Gilgamesh. 

[K 23i, K 4579 a + K 8018, S 2112 and R 578.] 



a - na du - un - ki Sa tlu Gilgamrt 

On the comeliness of GilgameS 



1 - «j // - /« - it ru - bu - ut ilu IUar 

(her) eyes she cast, did the mighty IStar : 

j/ - &/;» - zw<z ,/tt Gilgamci hi - w 

"Come, Gilgamesh, be 



## - ' - /r <7/ - A/ />/ - /// - ka 

thou (my) spouse! Thy strength 

/</ - </ - ft' Ai* - a-Su ki - Sam - ma at - /</ 

on me as a gift bestow and thou 



m*W **Hf<ET TI^TUT EI tTTT«= 

/// - u mu - // - ma a - »</ - ku lu - « 

shalt be my husband and I will be 



ISTAR'S PASSION FOR GILGAMESH 1 87 

fev^f^Hf ««». i@f ^ try m ^H ^rer 

aX - Xa - at - ka lu - Xe - is -2/2 - &* ^"narkabti 

thy wife ! I will set thee in a chariot 

** WM ukm u frurdsi Xa ma-Xa - ru - Xa 

of lapis lazuli and gold whose wheels 

<FfHTA^ET iMTK^I ^^THW 

fiurasa - am- ma el - mi-Xu kar - na - a - Xa 

are of gold and of diamond (?) its horns ! 

a - na biti - ni i - na e - r/ - 3/' - &z 

Into our house when thou enterest, 

a - rat - tu - u li - na - aX - Xi - ku 

the mighty shall kiss 

<EE F~ ^H «e. GDH <-] i£TT 

#/* P / - fo //it - mi - jw 

thy feet, there shall bow down 

-sftdl^TT^H ^T— -III— < 

ina Xap - // - ka Xarrani ? l belt P l u 

beneath thee kings, rulers and 

HffflfW '7-HH [«]^TT^T v^ < 

rwfo P l man -da -at Xadi(t) u 

princes the tax of mountain and 

ma-a - tu lu - u na - Xu - nik - &z 3// - /« 

land shall they bring thee as tribute!" 



1 88 THE LOVES OF ISHTAR 

... ... [~f ty nw +] *in ^^^tet 

. . . iiu Gilgamd pa-a-tu i - pu - u$ - ma 

. . . GilgameS bis mouth opened and 

*ee t* 3 «3. [^ E& -tHf ^TTJ H -Hf 

i - &j£ - £* / - zak - ka - ra a - na 

spake, he addressed 

«ffl *- *T HF- ^TT ^ 

ru - bu - ut ilu IS-tar 

the mighty I§tar : " 

46. flf ^T HF- ^ -TT^ J?< <^ -m 

a - na ilu Diizi ha - w* - ri 

On Tammuz, the spouse 

su - uh - ri - /*" - £1 -fa/ - (a a - «a 

of thy youth, from year to 

Sat - //' />/ - tak - ka - a ial - // - me$ - Jte 

year affliction didst thou lay upon him. 

48- m r -et *m *jn et ^ttt e^tt <^ et 

<?/ - A// - Iii bit - ru - ma la - ra - /»/' - ma 

The brightly-coloured ^//<///i/-bird hast thou loved but 

lam - ## - si - $u - ma kap - pa - ifa A*/ - te - bir 

thou smotest him and his wing thou didst break ; 

is - z<? - tf s /'«tf ki - &* - //'/» / - Sis - « 

he stands in the woods, he cries : 

I. LI. 24 — 45, in which Gilgamcsh refuses Ishtar's offer, arc much broken. 



THE FATES OF THOSE SHE HAS FAVOURED 189 



-Til *T- 51. £W E^TT <^ EI ih -mi 

kap - //' /a - ra - mi - wa w*fa 

"O my wing!" Thou hast also loved a lion, 



tffT* <KI ^ tfi >* <IEJ sa. f < $ 

£0 - jw* - ir e - /»« - £1 j/^fl « jffta 

perfect in strength; seven by seven 



tu - uh - /ar ~ ri - i$ - $u Xu - ut - la - a - ti 

didst thou dig for him the snares. 



53. £TH e^TK^ ET ^ve^TT ~HT4HF-Satf 

ta - ra - mi - ma sisd na - ' 11/ 

Thou hast also loved a horse, exalted 



c* -SST 54. ^IT ^/ ]]< t<M ^T< < 

kab - li rt - dab - b& && - ti u 

in the battle, bridle (?) spur and 



dir - ra - ta tat - //' - me$ - Jw «fa 

whip (?) didst thou lay upon him, for seven stages 

^t ** et -m -t< t— i 56. enr ^t htc 



la - sa - 


/wa lal - //' - *«*? - iu 


da - /a - #» 


to gallop 


> didst thou lay upon him, 


trouble 


<THBT 


V^TTTTJ -TTW<T~~ 


■I 57- TT — r l 


& 


Sa - ta - a /<// - // - *«*?- 


■ Su a - na 


and 


sweat (?) didst thou lay upon 


him, on 


Sir*! I 


//tt Si" - li - // to' 


- /#£ - ka - a 


^11 \ < 

ummi-Su 


his mother 


Silili 


affliction 



i go 



THE LOVES OF ISHTAR 



HTCl -!< <tt 58. j^TTT E^TT <tt t] 

tal - //' - mi 
didst thou bring. 



ta - ra - mi - ma 
Thou hast also loved 



ameiu reu 
a shepherd 



t£HT *- -ET 59. ^H 



ta - £« - /a 
of the flock, 

-*£T ttm -TTX 

/« - «/« - ri 
the sacrificial flame (?) 



la 
who 



&I (II - /Itf/W - ZWtZ 

continually 
poured out for thee 



& - /<j - ba - ha - ak - ki 
slaughtered for thee 



6o. *y <& t nr«= et 

u - mi - lam - ma 
and daily 



*TJTt ^ <HJ ~T< 6«. *y m tETT JT El If ^T 

i/ - /// - ki - a 

kids; 

£<rr£ara 
a leopard 



tam-fra - $i - $u-ma a - /j<i 

but thou smotest him and into 

-m *t **m -m jit 

/«-!// - //r - r/ - £// 
didst thou change him, 



- /a - ar - r</ - du - £// 
there hunted him 



a 



ka - /</r - ru 
the sheep-boy 



V s^ & & ". < IHUK £T 



Sa ram - /*/' - Su 

who was his own ! 



u 
and 



xw/* n - 

his hounds 



to 



*TTT* ^T £ V K 



tiHdDf -m 



w 



fo£ 



;/<j - aS - $a - ku 

tore him in pieces. 2 

I. Ac, his own shecp-boy. 2. Liu, "tore his wounds". 



n 



to 



THE FATES OF THOSE SHE HAS FAVOURED igi 

64- j£TTT E^TT <tz ET & JT W* ^T y- 

ta - ra - mi -ma I - Su - ul - la - nu 

Thou hast also loved ISuIlanu, 

E^ *- tT ^H <=eeT <m 6 5 . ^1 

0/0*/ urki abi - £/ Jfa 

the gardener of thy father, who 

^fcJTHMI*eT JT^MTTJ ^MT3=<IS[ 

ka - ai - nam - ma Su - gu - ra - a 1 na - sak - Xv 
continually costly gifts would bring thee, 

66. *| <~ *w ET *TTT* HTC* EI *m 

# - mi - fo/w - ma u nam - ma - ru 

and daily made bright 

&&J¥<m 76. *r Ff< ^TT JT TJ^T 

pa- a$ - fur - ki tarn - ha - §i - Xu a - »tf 

thy dish; thou smotest him, into 

-Tii -Ei ^tt ~m *t [*m -m jti 

</«/ - la - li iu - ui - //r - r/ - fo 

a cripple didst thou change him, 

77. ^r * <T- 3 JT EI - ^T — T* 

/it - $e - Si - 3/' - fo - wtz />/<z &z - fo/ 

thou madest him to sit in the midst of 

ET ^T [ AHfff Hf< ( ? )] 79. < ttfWfr 

ma - na - ah - ti u ia - a - Si 

a couch „ and as for me 

£TTT«^a«5?:ET <&& VM+ »*£[■■ 

/</ - ram - man-ni-ma Ai - 1 $a- $u-nu tu- 

thou wouldest love me and like them /wouldcst thout 

\ [ me]!" f 

1. Su-gu-ra-a = fu-ku-ra-a. 



THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU. 

[K 3 4 54 + K 3 9 35-] 

«. Id! *JH ~*m *TTT ^TTT«= s£TTT 

ip - hi ilu Bel - u - ta 

On the insignia of Bel's dominion 



i - na - at - fa - la i - na - $u a - gi - e 

gaze his eyes; the crown 



be - lu - /*' - fo na - al - &a - a$ ilu - //' - Su 

of his dominion, the robe of his godhead, 



3. :CTTJJ HTC* I— -4- Hf< I Hf- ft T? 

duphmati F l ilu - //' - $u tlu Za - a 

the destiny-tablets of his godhead Zu 



// - la - na - lal - zw«i // - ta - na - A// - zw<z 

looks upon, and he looks upon 



a - bi ildnt'F 1 Hi Dur - an - &' 

the father of the gods, the god of Duranki 



Zt"S AMBITION ig3 



»£ - j« ,/w ife/ - u - ti /'j - ;a - fo/ 

— a longing for Bel's dominion is held fast 



T *!TT 3 1 * «f «*TT *TTT<= 

i - «a Z# - 3* - $u tlu Zu - u 

in bis heart. Zu 




/*/ - ta - at - /a / - wrt a - 3i /7tf «/ P l Hi 

looks upon the father of the gods, the god of 

Zter - an - ki uk - j« |/M ite/ - u - ti 

Duranki — a longing for Bel's dominion 



tHf^ tfe-^T 'TIT 3 I *-&tz<Mtl 

is - sa- bat i - na lib - 3/' - hi lul - &' - ma 

is held fast in his heart. U I will take 



£ITTMI*T"~ Hf-T— \\^\m 9.<MST 

dupSimati P l Hani F l a - na - ku u 

the destiny-tablets of the gods, even I, and 

ie - ri - e - ti Sa Hani? 1 ka - // - ,?«-«*/ 

the oracles of all the gods 

lu - uh - w« - ///// lu - uk - kin - #&* 

will I direct. I will establish 

'?" ^i/jj7 - a lu - be - lu par -si lu- ma - f - ir 

my throne and dispense commands. I will rule 

i3 



194 THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU 

kul • Lit ka - li - hi -an tltl I - gi - gi 

every one of the Spirits of Heaven!'' 

ik - pu- ud- ma lib - /></ - ,?// /// - kit - //// - fa 

And his heart pondered on battle, 

«3. sffr tTTT <I£J^TT V ^T eHTT «^T ^TT M 

ni - r/# ki - i> - .«" Sa if - /<* - of - A/ - /« 

• • • • 

/ at the \ the hall, where he beheld, 

I entrance off 



■=TTT* -T V, V, 


-m <t- ' 


*T<£: 


H- 


*=TJ + ET 


u - ka - a - a 

• 


r/' - aV 


// - ////' 




*• - ;/// - ma 


as he waited, 


the dawn of 


the day. 




Now when 


~s=TU*m ^ 


^TT^HJ 


TH— 




<H W 


//« ;?,/ ,- . 


■ ra - /wi/ - ku 


mi Fi 




t n ft a Ft 


Bel was pouring out 


the 


clear water, 



,?<//* - /// - ma i - na '* u kitssi a - git - sit 

and taken off upon the throne his diadem 

^113= ^- ,6. t^TTTT -TI* I— -!!* & £*! 

Sak - nu dups'imati F l ik - sit - da 

lay, the destiny-tablets he seized 

ka-tutrSu tlH Bel - tt - //* // - /< - //' 

with his hand, the dominion of Bel he took, 

^T :^T *TTT* \*\ *ETT1 ■»• «f - TT *!!!* 

na - du - u par - si '•" Ait - « 

the dispensation of commands. Zii 



HIS THEFT OF THE TABLETS OF DESTINY 195 

Id! * *» ET v *-TI ^TT HI* ^IT] 

ip - pa - rtf - aw iW« - » j - su ik - j« 

fled and in his mountain hid himself. 



it - ia - at - bak Sa - bar - ra - /«»i fo - £ui 
Poured forth was grief, resounding 



ku - lu a - bu ma - lik - Su - nu 

were the cries; the father, ^ their arbiter, 



1=1 *T<«BBH —Til «=TTT "• [<MI *T H 

3?« - - ur ilu Bel hi - is - j<z 

was Bel, through the hall 



iS - ta - pa - ak na - jwwr - r»/ - su 

he poured out his rage. 

23 - Hf- TH ^ -:TTT * Tl J! *£ [v- V] ET 

,/a A - nu - um pa - a - Su i - pu - Sa - ma 

Anu his mouth opened and 



tE c^ ^ 2 4- [e£ E&] ^H E^TT Tl -H 

/ - &/£ - bi i - zak ka - ra a - na 

spake, he addressed 



Hani? 1 mare r l - fo a/* - « tlu Za-a 

the gods, his sons: "Who will 



^TUTtrEEj a 6 .[<^y ty^i— *yy?j 

//' - nar - w«i eli niSe F 1 kal 

vanquish Zu and over the peoples of all 

i3* 



ig6 



THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZO 



£TT — TT! T- 

da - ad - me 
dwellings 





//' - Sar - hi 
make great 



Sum - hi 
his name f " 



«7. M- A# *^ EM ty ^TT tTTTt s£ 



ilu Rammdnu 
On Ramman, 



gugallu 
the ruler, 



/j - j« - // l mar 

they cried, the son of 



■Hf-fl<Mf »«.[«f TKMfJ ^PTET. TJ^T 



f7 « ^4 - »«/w 
Anu; 



tlu A - www te - *»<* <* - mi 

m 

Anu the command to 



V M ET m e£e< *|ff I a* [«f A^J 



Xa - $u - ma 
him 



i - zak - X'jr - hi 
addressed. 



JEA ty t y ^n t yyy t 



gugallu 
the ruler 



w - J« 



w 



wjr 



they cried, the son of 



ilu Rammanu 
On Ramman 



tlu A - num 
Anu; 



30. HP- Tt t <^ 



atf E! Tt t ^T W JT ET 



//a yl - /////« /V - ;//(/ (/ - mi 

Anu the command to 



Sit - .?// - WtJ 

him 



^fe<ymi 3i.|tMf-tH ETi*in -f^- 



z" - £<//• - kiir-ht 
addressed : 



al - /•</ 

"Up! 



son 



t!u Rammanu 
Ramman, 



fc*n*W- Uff tESrA-Hf -T--V--M 



da - // - «// at i - /// - 

mighty one. unvanquished be 



ka - /W - Xc/ 
thine assault ! 






32 - iSr t?Hi 

ni - ir 
Conquer 



*J Vj Vj tt ^T -T TEJ ^T 



''« Za - a 
Zu 



with 



kakki - ka 
thv weapon, 



I. i\-.«iMi /*.««, 1 i, Prct. fr. .v.iAji 



ANU'S APPEAL TO RAMMAN 1 97 




33. [^^H -t^TOrsE ^^7 *- 

Sumu - ka li - ir - bi i - na pu - frur 

that thy name may be great in the assembly of 



4. y^ ^ y_ 3 4 . [ tEE ^y 3 rjono 

ilaniP 1 rabuli pl i - «rt 3/ - r/'/ 

the great gods, among 



i/d/i * ^ tf ^* ^' - ka ma - hi - ra e 

the gods thy brethren a rival thou 

^ <y- 3 5 . [jysr ^y t]] J|fe= ^T + *T!T«= 

A/r - Si lib - $u - ma lib - ba - nu - u 

wilt not possess ! Let there exist, let there be built 



E] £y_ 36.[ t E^T S3JHH Bm «=TTTT «-T< 

parakkani* 1 i - na kib - rj/ ir - bit - ti 

shrines, in the four quarters (of the world) 



<y^ «^ ^h ^y eT JH -TT* ^H 

Si - /#£ - ka - na ma - ha - zi - &i 

establish thy cities, 

37. [EI ff< «fcTT] ^H -6^17 tffl *- TJ ~HT 

ma - ha - zu - ka li - ru - bu a - na 

w 

let thy city enter into 



«=imv 38. [^jn ^yy A-fflj «*-nf -eeimti 

£ T - £//r .?/'/ - ra - afy i - na mah - ri 

ithe Mountain i Show thyself strong before 

lof the World!/ J 



■4- y— ET &*JJ1 m < * -efcJ 

ilaniP 1 - ma ^tff - rw lu - u Sumi - &i 

the gods and mighty be thy name!'' 



\ 

198 THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU 



tiu Rammanu i - pu - /a &' - hi - ta a - »a 

Ramman answered the command, to 



"* ^4 - ;iK/» <i3* - .fa a -ma - /w/b 1 - &i£ - for 

Anu his father the word he addressed : 



a - bi a - na hi - ad la ' - a - ri 

"My father, to the mountain that is inaccessible 




/* - //tf mtf/i - //1/ d /' « ka - am 

who can go! Who is like unto 



//a Z/' -# / - na Hani F l mart ? l - ka 

Zli among the gods thy sons? 



43. scwr -ti* t— -n* it ^n -t m & 

duphmati F l ik - ii/ - </«/ &/ - ///.? - .\i/ 

The destinv-tablets has he seized with his hand. 



''" Bti - // - /«/ /'/ - U - ki 

The dominion of Bel has he taken, 



T :$ tiff* *T tEn 45. i«? ^H *TTT*] 

//</ - </« - // par - .vi ,/rt Zu - u 

the dispensation of commands. Zu 

til 3- ^TT4- ET V -! *HTI ^ T T -!!* ^ T T 

ip - pa - r/i - zwj Ai - du - us - ji/ /£ - J" 

has fled and in his mountain has hidden himself." 



RAMMAN'S EXCUSES 1 99 

//tt Rammanu la a - la - ku 

Ramman not to go 



ik - bi 
decided. 2 

1. Col. II, 11. 5 — 49, and Col. Ill, 1. 6. 

2. Eventually Shamash, the Sun-god, caught Zo in his net and recovered 
Bel's insignia; see below, The Story of the Eagle, the Serpent, and the Sun- 
god, B. Obv., 1. 1 3. 



ET ANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE 

EAGLE. 

[K 8563 and R 2, 454 + 79—7—8, 180.] 



14. 


S5&WI 


• 


t?^t v 


JTET 


If 


^r 




nafru 




a - «<* &j ■ 


- iu ■ 


- wa 


a ■ 


■ «<i 




The Eagle 




to 


him 






to 


"f 


^ £TTT > 


-nr 


\t\ e*f< *ffl] 


] 


'5-hti 


-TT! 


ilu 


i? - /a - 


na 


is - 2tf£ - for 




n 


- r/" 




Etana 




spake : 






"My friend, 


M tt ]} . 


■.'//■ 

s. 






16. ! 


m - 


-H 


$u - 


/« - a 
bright 


[thy 








ai - 

Com 


ta 


make 


countenance (? )] ! 


e! 


m 


^T <!- - 


tfcj ET !t t ^T 




~f 


«=!? 


[V 


lu ■ 


■ u$ - Si - 


*«I - 


- ma a - na 




Xamt(c') 


.Fj 


let 


me carrv tl 


iee up to 


the h< 


eaven 


of 



//m y4 - ;/i/w />/a eli irti - ia Su - kun 

Anu! Upon my breast lay 



[^ -tfcJJ is. 



<^W 



lira/ - &i 
thy breast, 



ina 



eli 



upon 



the wing- feathers of 



THE START 201 



-Til *T- ^TJ £T HTAHfff HII 'T- ^M 

my pinions lay thy hands, 



«9- - «*H ^<T^EeTJ JMAHfff 

10a eli i - <# - ia $u - £i/« 

upon my side lay 

[*£ * ^fcfl ao. - <^H ** JT 

i - </i - ka ina eli irti - $u 

thy side!" Upon his breast 

TT £TTT ^ fc* ^TT] «• - «<H 

if - /a - £011 lira/ - j« ina *//' 

he laid his breast, upon 



T ^m -111 *T- JT ^TT £TTT ^ -Til [*T- i=T] 

«<* - tf ; <r kap - /i - f« i$ - ta - kan kap - pi - f« 

i the wing- \ his pinions he laid his hands, 
(feathers off 

«■- <^H ■fWtJT ^TT£TTT*tE 

ina eli i - <// - $u iS - ta - kan 

upon his side he laid 



f I3=[jn * 3 - *TTT* «=TTK-ET £l 5»£TTT 

i - di - $u u - dan - nin - wa ir - ta - bi 

his side. 1 He made fast (his hold) and great was 



v^TT MI £&*- *TTT<= W <HJ [ JT] 

bi - lat - su iSlen(en) u - $a - ki - $u 

his weight. For one / space of \ he carried him up. 

\two hours/ 

«4. mj HTC TJ ^T V JT £l TF ^T 

wafrt* a - na 3fa - $u - ma a - na 

The Eagle to him, to 

i . Etana evidently did not ride on the back of the Eagle but clung to his breast. 



202 ETANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE EAGLE 



tlu E - ta - na iz - zak - kar du - gul 

Etana, spake : "Look, 

IdWTI EHJ^T <m*£ *E«*T£MH 

ib - ri ma- a - fu hi - j / - ba - <;/ - ft' 

my friend, at the land, how it is; 



ji/ - ub - 3/ /d/n - turn i - da - te - $a 

behold the sea, around it is l 



bit ni - me - ki ma -a - turn - me - e* li - mid -da 

the abyss; the land perceive 



Sadd(a) tarn - /«//* i - /// - r<f t/ - //t/ me - e 

/ as a I the sea has turned into I [a little]! 

I mountain, f \ water." / 

—71 28 .yyyj £. *. t yyy t v <JET f£T ETI 

.vt///c/(i/) u - mi - ki - .v« - ///</ 

For a second / space of | he carried him up and 

|t\vo hours/ 

«9- ^T -II Tr T ^T V JT ET It ^T 

tldfru d - //if .v«J - ,f« - ///</ </ - //t/ 

the Eagle to him, to 



,/tt /,' - ta - «t/ /b - ct/X* - X*(//' f/// - gul 

Etana spake : 'Look, 



Id! -TTI ' ET If ^ <Ef tE tE «*! ft- <!- 

/# - /*/ nid - d - turn ki - / / - /></ - </.v - w" 

my friend, at the land, how it is ; 

l* Literally, (at) its sides, 2, ma-a-tum-me-e = mafu with the enclitic particle »u\ 



THE APPEARANCE OF THE EARTH AS THEY ASCEND 2o3 



Yna-a - turn - me - e Sib - bu Sal-Sa 

for the land a girdle [is the sea]." For a third 



u - Sa - ki - Su-ma naSru a - na 

t space of i he carried him up and the Eagle to 

l two hours/ 



$a - $u-ma a - na llu E - ta - na iz - sai - &ir 

him, to Etana, spake : 



3*. £T<*Hf IdWTI eHJ^T <^f«^ 

</« - gul ib - ri ma - a - tu ki - /' 

"Look, my friend, at the land how 



i - ba - a$ - Si tarn - /imk i - lu - ra a - na 

it is; the sea has turned into 



# - ki Sa am * lu rt - tu 

i the water- 1 of a gardener." After 

\ channel J 



e - lu - u a 


- na Saml{e) 


Sa ilu A - num 


going up 


to the heaven 


of Anu, 


5- ►" ZSh} 


«f If <^T 


^ra «=nr 


ina bab 


,/m ^4 - #«//« 


ilu Bel 


into the gate of 


Anu, 


Bel an 



< 



u 



l/tt £a i - 6a - ' - u 

Ea they came. 



THE STORY OF THE EAGLE, THE SERPENT, 

AND THE SUN-GOD. 

[A : A tablet in the possession of Dr. D. W. Marsh; B : K 1547 and K 2527.] 

a, obv., 1. 3. £5*y ^ *TTT«*T,iT [tfc-ETO] 

naSru lib - ba - $u ub - la 

The Eagle his heart prompted 

ik - pu - ud - ma lib - ba - $u 

he considered and his heart 




ub - la a - na ad - jw/ .fa 

prompted (him) , the young of 

*jn jet/ Tt t I U ^H - 

ru - ' - a - $u a - ka - // 

his companion to eat 




nafru pa - .fa /' - pu - //.? - ma i - c</£ - kar 

The Eagle his mouth opened and he spake 

[I t& I— JT] 7. tg; !— *H?fl< <^c 

<//w man F l - ^« wJr«- r l siri - mi l 

unto his young : "The young of the Serpent 

I. mi is a rare form of the enclitic particle ma. 



THE EAGLE'S DESIGNS ON THE YOUNG OF THE SERPENT 205 

leuuM im 8. t fl^TTET 

lu - ku - lu ana-ku e - //' - ma 

will I eat I will ascend and 



j - na fa -ma - mi its' - «r - rad 

into heaven will I [mount]. iIwillswoop\ 

l down / 

/' - na ap - pi is - si - ma a - &z/ iVi - ba 

upon the top of a tree and I will eat the fruit 1 ." 

<zd - am/ j/ - ih - ru a- tar ha - jj - j# 

One of the young birds, abounding in wisdom, 

a - na nalri abi - Xu amdta izakar{ar) 

to the eagle his father the word addressed : 



la fa - /fa/ a - bi U - e - tu $a 

"Do not eat, O my father, (for) the net of 

«f*T <=E^Tb^T(?)] «a.fT*T*in ET-< 

tlu SamaX i - ba - nu-ma gU-par-ru ma-mil 

SamaS is laid (?). The trap, the ban 

~f *t hi ^ <m -m •*« et 

,/M &flf<7£ ib - fo/ - &* tu - &7 - Wtf 

of SamaS will fall on thee and 

/ - &/r -ru - &z - wrt &z i - ta - a sa tiu SamaS 

will catch thee. Whoso the law of SamaS 

1. That is, the fruit of the Serpent. 



2o6 THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT 



;'/ - //' - ku tlu SamaS lim-ni$ ina ka - at 

• m 

transgresses, will SamaS terribly .... 






ul iS - me - lu - nu - // - ma ul iS - ma -a 

He did not hearken to them and gave not ear 

zi - kir man - $u u - ri - *&/ w - ota 

to the word of his young one. He swooped down and 



*%\ 


£TTT *TTJ 


^ [T— 


ten -m <-( ? )] 


e - 


/a - &z/ 


mare P 1 


f/ - r/' - w/' 




ate 


the young 


of the Serpent. 



B, Obv., 1. a. iHff< ^^T ra T <!^ I! 

siru i - na ka - .fa - <// - $u 

m 

The Serpent when he drew near 



TJ~HT «f*T TWtim tE^^J 3.tET t yn 

<7 - tia ilu SamaS a - ma - turn i - kab - £/" </</ - dan 

to SamaS the word spake : 4 1 will give 



Ar - mu a - na riaSri 

an account To the Eagle 



* - nin - //a £/>/ - /// - ia 

Now mv nest 



THE SERPENTS COMPLAINT TO THE SUN-GOD 207 

kin - ni - ia u tu i - na is - //' 

My nest he espied, in the tree 




sa - ap - /tu ad - ww/ ~ u - a 

Scattered are my young, 

«w - u - ri - dam -ma e - ta - kal 

He swooped down and did eat 




9. fe *■ V *E *- V «f- Sr 

/tt/w - »tt &Z i - pu - la - an - »i* 

(my young ones). The evil which he hath done me, 

%lu Samal a - /»#£ - &z ,/tt SamaS 

O Samas", (behold !) Help, O Samas" ! 

* ^T -sjtf ^ *ETT [-t£Tl S#4 »m 

$e - 1/ - ka ir - f* - tu rapa$tu(tu) 

Thy net (is like) the broad earth, 

»• tT *T *jn ^H «f «=TTTt [*Hfff -TO 

gi$'par - ru - ka $amu(u) rukuii(ji) 

thy trap (is like) the distant heaven! 

». *ee ^! * M< ^H Tl II «=TTT«= 

/ - na $e - // - ka ai - u 

FYom thv net who 

*TTT* [*ETT ETJ 13. tTf Etf< <HH £V 

« - // - /«</ * - pi$ limuttim(tim) 

hath escaped? (Even) the worker of evil, 



208 



THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT 



limutti(ji) 
evil, 



«f^TT«4TT«= ^a H!I<« <HH-KI 

ilu Zu - u mu - kil ri - ei 

Zu, the raiser oftheheadof 

882 i4. t ws*=S?= V *HTT< [^^T 

un - ni - ni Sa siri i - na 

(did not escape)!" The prayer of the Serpent when 



*<^JT] I5 -H^T ^HJT *E*-Vfc&ET 

Jfe - /»/ - fo ,7m Samal pa - 3to i - />« - la - <//» - /»</ 

he heard, SamaS his mouth opened and 



to 



sin 
the Serpent 



spake : 



wr - //a 
the road, 



e - ti - /£ 
go into 



17. E ^V£T 



uk - ta as si - &/ 

Make thy hiding-place 



"Take 



&j - da - a 
the mountain. 

-Ill [>* 

r/ - mu 
a wild ox 



<£: me »m\ - «• *T- *T *U ET *TTT ~*T £T 



iw/ - i - /u 
that is dead. 



/>/ ~ te - e - ma 
Open 



lib - &/ - to 
its bowels, 



[■^Itf^TTCaL^TT JTU^T 'Q.jfltfc^TTT 



ka - ra - <7J 
its belly 



su 



lu - /// - ut 
tear, 



// - ub - /«j 
a dwelling 



£-^T<M- [*E~Hf 

id - /// /' - fill 

make in 



*m<M »°- £- -* *TTT*] 



kar - .?/ - a« 
its bellv. 



;////// - mu - u 
All 



1. ka-ra-as-su •- karas~ht. 



THE SUN-GOD'S ADVICE 



209 



tT ** -IT- W ET <~ [IH E*TT ^TT <s^T ET 

ur - ra - da - nim - ma 
will come down and 



w - su - rj/ 
the birds 



Sa - mj - mi 
of heaven 



2I - 22 - ^J] HTC 

naSru 

the Eagle 



• • • • • 



it - it - h' - »a 
with them 



[j^TT ^t ^H s=fc ET »3- - 0] 



il 



la - £0 
will come 



am - ma 
and 



without 



i - du - u 
knowing 




ma - a - 



24. ff[^ 

nu - ru - ub 
a piece of 




^TT *T Sr 4Hf- tE Ss ( ? ) £TT TJ M< 



hri 
flesh 



f$ - ie - ni - ' 
will he seek, 



/r 



ta - a - ti 
swiftly 



Es*T tern ~rr SB! *5m ^t^t m^T^m 



it - /<* - na - at - lak 
will he go, 



a - na ku - tu - urn 

to the hidden part 



/# - hi 
his attention 



^5y £TTT ET s=fc ET (?) ae. ti ^y 



/// - Ja - ma - am - ma 
will he turn. 



//& - bi 
the midst 

tif - **TT 

$a -bat - j« 
seize him 



*E 



T ^ -TTX « J! *ET 



/ - na 
when 



1 - na 



by 



e - ri - bi - $u 
he has entered, 



a - na 
Into 

£TTT 

at - ta 
do thou 



T HPtt*M 

kap - pi-$u 
his wing, 



27- ^ fc?V*L <3^ 
nu - uk - &> 
tear off 
14 



2IO THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT 



kap - pi - hi ab - ri -lu u s u - up - ra - $u 

his wings, his pinions and his claws, 

bu - ku - un - $u - ma l i - di - $u ana 

pull him in pieces and cast him into 

J!*T£TTM< MSB. 2 *-^! *-*-Hf< 

$u - ut - to. - // mu -u/ bu - bu - //' 

a pit , a death from hunger 



<M@r ^^t:m<tt ^tt^^ttt 3°-Tf~nr 



« 


f« 


- urn - 


mi 


li - mu - /<z 


<7 - /*</ 


and 




thirst 




let him die." 


At 



*/ - &'r ,/w SamaS ku - ra - di siru il - lik 

the word of SamaS the hero, the Serpent departed, 



/ - //' - /it .?</ - </<? - a ik - Su-ud-ma siru 

■ • 

[and] went into the mountain. And the Serpent came 



a - tid si - ir ri - mi //>-//•- «■ - ma 

upon a wild ox and he opened 

% ^! J -tjtf M! <SH ^TT ^TT ra *T 

//# - ba - Jfw &/ - ra - «m - su i$ - /« - ut 

its bow r els, its bellv he tore, 



fu - ub - /<j /</ - di i - //</ &/r - $i-$u 

a dwelling he made in its belly. 

I. buku-un-iu-ma — bukum-iu-ma. 



THE SERPENTS RUSE 



211 



3 4 . £- * tint tf ^Efe HTT- 



All 



w - su - rj/ 
the birds 



V eeT T- 

fa - /wa - /»* 
of heaven 



*TTM-m]£im -Ti^^H^r <t-*smt 



u - ri - da - ma 
came down and 



ik - ka - la 
ate 



h - i - ra 
of the flesh. 



35. ^t -ii m ^ *w 1 ** kt ( ? )] tj et 

«fl/rtt /« - tnu - un - $u i - da - a - ma 

[But] the Eagle his evil purpose (at first) suspected and 



36. ^y ^y< t£ y 



:T^*-TTI <^ 



it - //' mare P l is - su - 


ri ul 


with the flock of birds 


did not 


H* tyyj <y^ *e ^yy s 7 . ^y nri 


tf=ffJ! 


/it - &?/ ii - i - ra nafru 


pa- a - $u 


eat of the flesh. The Eagle 


his mouth 


t^V^ ET "« E£< -tH l*=TT T 


/ - pu - fa - tf/w - /wa j - zak - ka - 


ra tftftf 


opened and spake 


unto 



^T— I 38. [-i<y] ^h <^y ^y *e signer 

war* P 1 - $u al - ka - nim - ma i ni - rid - ma 

his young : "Come! let us go down, and 



Sir 

\ of the 1 
t flesh J 



rimt an - m - * 
of this wild ox 



j »i - ku - /a «j - «i/ 

let us also eat ! " 



3 9 -[^y]^ ^yy ^yyy *m yj^ JK^TT^ 



ad - mu si ifr - ru a- tar fra - si - Jtf 

One of the young birds, abounding in wisdom, 

14* 



212 THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT 

40. [T] sg>TT- TIE «<T^IHI TJET^ 

ana tur - rat a - bi min - di - a -ma - ////w 

to turn away the father the word 

i - Stfjfc - kar a - 3/ // - //' hr 

spake : "Father, in the flesh of 

rlmi an - ni - * siru ra - bi - is 

this wild ox the Serpent lurks!" 

A, Rev., l. 9 4&* £3T T- [ JTJ ^ Hf< ET <^k 

«/ /? - me - .fa - ;;« - /#' - w# uJ 

He did not hearken to them and gave 



/? - /w - <z s/' - kir mari-hi u - ri - </<//« - ///</ 

not ear to the word of 1 his young 1 He swooped down and 

I one. / 

;'/ - /(fi - zis ina eJi ri - vie nalru 

stood upon the wild ox. The Eagle 

F- HI *TTT ^- ^TT *T ^ A«T • ^ 

. . . inspected the rlesh, he looked carefully 

fo /to - ni-Su u ar - ki ~ hi il - /// - 

in front of him and behind him. He again 

tfl *TTT :=£-< ^TT *T S? 4HF- *E V 

// - /vir/ i/ni /'/ - A" - ni i hi 

inspected the flesh, he looked care full v in 



THE CAPTURE OF THE EAGLE 2l3 



pa - ni-Su u ar - hi - $u ir - /a - a - to 

front of him and behind him. Swiftly 



[Estf] £TTT ^T sWf gn i| ^y jgj [j^g 

*'/ - to - na - «/ - /#£ a - na ku - turn 

he went, to the hidden part 



*yyy3 M :HTm t^ T?(?) H-H-ry *yyy 

lib - bi u$ - to - ma - am - a a - na lib - bi 

his attention he turned. Into the midst 

- *TJ -TTI ^ I *Hffl< tT flf - ^TT - 

ina e - ri - bi ~ Su siru is - sa - 3^/ - j« ina 

when he had entered, the Serpent seized him by 

-TH*M '5- i6 -^WI TO I! 

kap - pi-Su natru pa - ifo 

his wing The Eagle his mouth 



i - pu - $a - am - ma a - na siri i - zak - &ir - Jta 

opened and to the Serpent spake : 



7 . [«=i ^y (?)] ~f ^ Ey <^jy *ff htti <t* 

«#/ - /« - a« - »/ - ma kima e - ri - Si 

' k Have mercy upon me and according to (thy) pleasure 



«« - </«/* - na - a lut - /*>» - &* s v/rtt 

with a gift will I present thee." The Serpent 



/a - to i - pu - $a - am -ma a - »<j «rf/n' 

his mouth opened and to the Eagle 



214 



THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT 



*Eee£e<*TTU «* tin* HP- t£W ^H El «f*T 



i - Stf £ - kar - £« 
spake : 



u - wdtf - lar - ka - ma tlu Somas' 
"If 1 release thee SamaS 



e - // - »« £i - i 

against us(?) . . . 



(7/ - U ~ fit - ka 

. . . ., thy punishment 



^TTWIMT IJ^I <^W^EIJ «-V 



i - jtfA - Jju - ra 
will return 



rt - Htf 



/»i/^ - //i - ia 
to me, 



la 
which 



a - fa£ - ka - nu - ka a - «</ - &* &• - *'r - /# 

(now) I execute on thee as a punishment." 



«■ *=m* -qa <pr st -in *t- i 



t -in i 



« - 
He 


hj£ - ki - 
tore off 


is kap - //' - lu 
his wings, 


ab - r/ - fo 
his pinions 


^ ^ .^yy j 

/in - bal - /*' - ite 
(and) his talons, 


*3. [hi e«i *m ji ei 

/# - £it - //// - hi - ma x 

• 

he pulled him in pieces and 


^t r<ra= i t 

id - di - lu ana 


JT *T £111 - 

$u - /// - ta 


ti 


cast him 


into 


a pit 




24 . [■*> ^TJ 

mi/ - ut 
A death 


^ ^ ^y< [<y^gy 

//w - bu - ti u 

from hunger and 


.vi/ - um - ////' 

« 

thirst 


tE ^ *TJ 

i - jww - ut 
he died. 









I. ib-ku-un-iuma = ibkum-su-ma 



HOW ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE 

SOUTH-WIND. 

[V. A. Th. 348.] 

obv., 1. a jy tint ^f [tE -jt* tin* ££ ET 

$u - u ~ /u i - g* - ^w -am- ma l 

The South-wind blew and 



fa - a -$u ut - ti - ib - ba - a$ - $u a - na bi - /' - tu 

ducked him under, to the dwelling of 



nu - ni 
the fishes 



■I *TTT* •gfl 83* «^TT ^T! [ JT] 

- la - am - §i - /'/ - $u 
she made him sink. 



u 



4. j[ *m* -^! 

$u - u - /« 
"O South-wind 




- m - /*/ 

[thou hast played] me 



AHfff A *ff <© ET^T ■* [~*T £ 3T *TTM 



k$ - hi - e - ki 
thy tricks (?) 



/«# - la 
all that 



ka - a - ap - f>a - &' 
Thy wing 



/ - ba - a$ - $u - 1/ 
there are! 

lu - u - ie - bi - ir 
will I break!" 



i. i-fi-ga-am-ma = ijikamma; the Babylonian pronunciation of k as g 
occurs also in 11. 7, 9, 14 and 16. 



2l6 HOW ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-WIND 



m & 


*s~nr 


E *£ J! 


htc* v- 


ki - ma 


/ - na 


£/' - i - fo * 


• 


As 


with 


his mouth 


he had said, 



6. •gfl [JT *TTM ~T< <H w=T & ^T 

fa $u - u - ti ka - ap - pa - la 

(so) of the South-wind the wing 



// - tc - e$ ~ hi - ir F77 « - *»/ 

was broken. For seven days 

lu - i/ - tu a - na ma- a - //' u - ul 

the South-wind over the land did not 

^ -IT* -TI* «=TTT* Hf- If *- *• Nf ~Hf] 

i - zi - ig - g& tlu A - nu a - »d 

blow. Anu to 

JT^^^TTJeT «f*«T»=TE*TT*ET 

$u - uk - ka - //' - $u ilu I - la - ab - r<z - <i/ 

his minister Ila-abrat 

*E T^TT ^ ^TT 9 .ffc4l<^5f: JT*TTT*-6£T 

i - to - £W - si am - /;// - /// $u - u - tu 

spake : "Why has the South-wind 

^TT^T f tiTTt^t TJ^T eeTTW< 

/? - tu VII u - mi a - na ma -a - //' 

for seven days over the land 

m 

la i - s/ - ga hi - //£ - ka - /</ - .?#/ 

not blown!" His minister 

I. bi-i-su = pl-iu. 



HIS SUMMONS BEFORE ANU 217 




I - la - ab - ra 
Ila-abrat 


- at i - pa - 0/ - fo £/ - //' 

answered him : "My lord, 


m A - da - pa 
Adapa, 


ma - ar ilu E - a fo 
the son of Ea, of 


fo - u - /l 

the South- wind 


=h «=t * "irr »■ ^rr ^t « ^ * 

ka - ap - pa - fo if - te - bi - ir 
the wing has broken." 


Rev., 1. xo. y yj ^yy ^ yj-ry t^ Hf-T^ss: 

m A - da - pa a - na pa - »i ,/M ^4 - «i 
When Adapa before Anu 


for - r/ 
the king 


»• *s ^T <HJ -m 3 £T 

1 - /ra ki ~ ri - bi - fo 

drew near, 



me * IH J! ey -HF- TJ V- ^TT ^TT ET 

/* - mu - ur - $u - ma tIu A - nu il - si - ma 

Anu saw him and said : 



«• £l<J -fcH Iff £TT * £& <~ ^ 

al - &/ m A - da - pa am - mi - /*/' 

"Come, Adapa, why 



£TT 


JT «=TTTt Hf< 


^H w=T £ ' 


^1 


ia 


£ u - 2/ /i 


ka - ap - pa - 


fo 


of 


the South-wind 


the wing 





1 . About 34 11., which describe how Adapa, on being summoned before Anu, 
reached heaven, are here omitted. 



2l8 HOW ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-WIND 

*• *T »=tif «< S3 55 TTJ^TT^ Hf-TJ~H[ 

te - e - el - bi • ir m A - da - pa ilu A - na 

didst thou break?" Adapa to Anu 

ip - pa - al be - i/i a - na bi - *'/ 

made answer : "My lord, for the house 

fo - Hi - ia i - na ga - ab - la - at 

of my father in the midst 

eHTTfcfcHK ***** TJ^NMTI 

ta - am - //' nu - ni a - ba - ar 

of the sea fish I was catching 

$u - u - tu i - si - ga - am - ma ia - a - W 

(when) the South-wind blew and me 

*T <M= Hf ~tf «f ^ '7- [If] ^T « ^T 

ut - /* - ib - ba - an - ni a - na bi - i/ 

did she duck under, to the dwelling 

+ & <tT* t£TTT ^ ^TT ^TT 

«« - /if ul - ta - am - ji - // 

of the fishes she made me sink!" 



THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD. 

[K 1282 and Bu. 91—5—9, 186.] 



$a - na - #/ /a »i - £« /a - 711/ - H 

For years without number may the glory of 

&/i ra&(<r) ,7 « fa ilu Ur - ra 

the great lord [Ura endure !] For Ura 



i - gu - gu - ma ana sa - pan matdtiP 1 

was angry and to overwhelm the lands, 



KW -^TT <T- -HJ 3. ~yy jej y. 

£a - /*" - h - na ii - ku - /*« 

all of them, he turned 

[ t yyy t ^yy t y?j jy] 4 . ~f eg «^ ET IH I 

u - zu - un - itu ilu I - Jfa/w m<z - lik - fo 

his mind; but I§um, his counsellor 



t yyy t ^ -yuy Ey *E-TT*idj 

u - ni - fru - $u-ma i - zi - id 

pacified him and he abandoned [his wrath] 



220 THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD 

»■ [<MBJ <m\ If ^ -TI* £TTT 

« ki - a - am ik ta - £/ 

And thus spake 



£3s^TT~T Hf-^TMT «3.[v Rj^jn 

£a - ra - </« ,/tt 6^r - rw /a 2d - ma - ru 

the hero Ura : "Whosoever that song 



W TH tt ~HT ~T - fl ^H Hf< I 

Xa - a -Xu x i - /*</ - </« />;<7 <z - JF/r - // - Xu 

m 

shall praise, in his shrine 

IH*TT-E^TT s£>TI* •••• »s-[Vl JTF 

lik -tam-me - ra hegallu .... Jta Xu - mc 

plentiful be made abundance .... Whosoever my name 

tm*t£H*-*m* ^^TT^PT I3^TTTM< 

u - Xar - 6u - u //' - bit kib - ra - a - ti 

shall magnify, may he rule /thefourquatersofthei 

\ world ! / 

x6. W bSTTT 5tf Hf< » E*TT ^T Hf< ^1 

fo /a - //// - //' &/r - ra - </« - ti - *</ 

Whosoever the glory of my valour 

sElBI*-**- 17-^TAE^TT ATI Sw<T- 

/' - dib - bu - bu ma - /// - ra ai ir - h 

proclaims, an opponent shall he not possess! 

is. E35 *£!«= VTT «* gr Ee^tt „yy <^ 

jmWii zammeru Sa i - .c«/r - ra - /;« «/ 

The singer who chants it will not 

xttl^K - T-<M- '9.<-sW ^ < 

i - ma - ti ina Xib - // «'// Xarri u 

die in the pestilence, unto king and 

i. ia-a-iu here and in 11. 23 and 26 is used for sat it. 



ITS MAGICAL PROPERTIES 221 



r«37 /* - fib a/ - mu- $u amSlu dup - far 

noble well-pleasing shall be his speech! The scribe 



fo /A - ha - zu i - & - //' fjia »<*£ - n 

who learns it will escape from (his) enemy 



j 



wra a - A'r - /* um * ma - ni 

in the shrine of the peoples, 



rt - .far £a - #/' - an $u -me i - jaw£ - ka - ru 

where continually my name he cries aloud, 



// - jsk - un -$u a - pi - // - //' ?# <z #*// 

his ear will I open! in the house 

TJ ^H sCTTTT *- VIII *TT3= *- 

rt - for </»/ - pu Xa - a - $u $ak - nu 

where that tablet is set, 

~f ^TMT M TJi^^eeT 'OHfTAJT 

liu Ur - ra lu a - gu - ug - ma //? - gi - $u 

should I, Ura, be angry and destruction should 

HF-f3 *5— TH T-<W= <^ ^<T^I 

tlu Imina-bi pafar tib - ft' ul i - ft - fci-fu 

Imina-bi cause, the dagger of pestilence shall not approach it, 



$a - h'm - tu Sak - na - as - su 1 % za-ma - rw 

immunity shall rest upon it! May that song 



% 

1. sak-na-as-su = saknat-su. 



222 THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD 



fa - a-$u a - na ma - // - jwa Ztf - fa - kin - m a 

always be established, 



/i - yfof/i ^b - du ul la 

may it stand firm for ever! 



* 7 . ET £TTJ TJ Hf< t=Mf A£ <T- -Hf V T ET EeT 

ma - la - a - li nap - $#r - J/' - /10 liS-ma-ma 

May all lands give ear and 




/* - na - du kur - <// - ia niU P l 

glorify my valour, may the peoples 

5= ^TT — TTT F ^TT * E^TT ET 

&?/ da ad - /w* //' - w» - ra - ma 

of all dwellings behold and 

//' - far - da - a $u - /«*• 
magnify my name!*' 



LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH AND 
BOYHOOD OF KING SARGON I. 

[K 3401 -f- S2ii8 and K 4470.] 



«. tgft -tta ~nr 


*£$ «=m + t&fc 


Sarru - uktn 


Sarru dan - nu Sar 


Sargon, 


the mighty king, king 


n ciiu ^t <m 


ff ^T HI «■ tOfTT <~ 


A - ga - de Kl 


a - na - ku um - »ii 


of Agade, 


am I. My mother 



e ~ ni - turn a - to" «/ 1 - <//' tf# 

was lowly, my father I knew not, 1 while the! 

\ brother / 



a3« - /'<£7 i - ra - - mi $a - da - a a - /* 

of my father inhabits the mountain. My city 



" /B A - zu - pi - ra - a • ni Sa i - na a - £1 

is Azupiranu, which on the bank 

ff£f *T 3f Hffflf <E *TM=9<- 5. *e b*=TT Hf- 5?: 

nAru Puratti Sak - nu i - ra - an - ni 

of the Euphrates lies. She conceived me, 



224 



LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH OF SARGON 



um - mu e - ni - turn 

[my] lowly mother, 

tTTT«= C: -4- ^ 

« - lid - an - ni 
she brought me forth. 



M *£ 



T *-*-T!-TTI 

i - //a pu - uz - ri 

in secret 



6. vfl -TAHPPf Hf- 5?= 



if 



£«// - tf« - //#* 
She set me 



tEE^T -FT- V JeWTI ^^T HIST 



/ - na 
in 



kup - /I 
a basket 



la $u - ri 
of rushes, 



/ - na 
with 



iddi 
bitumen 



txtfttft U A 7. Estf *m «f 5F ' Tl-Hf 



my door she closed ; 



id - dan - an - «/' 
she gave me 



</ - na 
to 



im& V -ET ^-e^TMUJ «-^TTV~f :* 



the river which (rose) not over me. 



tS - la - an - ni 
Then bore me 



im tj^k^h i-&<m KSfTi--u 



»<Jrn a - na 
the river, to 



<■// 



Akki, 



the irrigator, 



*TTT* satf «H5*:] 9- T -B <m RKTJ--T* 

u - />// - an - ;//' m ^4* - ki ,,mWl1 nak-mt 

it carried me. Akki, the irrigator, 



■* ~H( a hi . Err -ettt :;;h isj 

i - na ///-//-... 

in 



1. So K 4470; K 3joi reads id-dan-ni "she cast mc". 

2. K 4470 reads ■ , T^. 



HIS RESCUE FROM THE RIVER 225 

u - U - la - an - ni m Ak - ki amiiu n ak.rne 

lifted me up, Akki, the irrigator, 



a - na ma - ru - li - $u u - rab - ban - ni 

as his own son reared me, 



m Ak - ki am * lu nak-me a - na 

Akki, the irrigator, as 



aw ^ /w -ti-$u lu - u i$ - £k/i - a/i - /*/* 

his gardener appointed me. 



»• [H e$ ^ ty ^H Hf< W HP- ~H 

^ am*/tt . /,' . i a ilu f$ . /ar 

While I was gardener did IStar 



lu - u i - ra - man - ni - ma .... IV Sanali P 1 

love me and for . . .-four years 



iarru - u - ta lu - u e - pu - uS 

the kingdom I ruled. 



15 



EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS. 

i. A lamentation. 

[K 493i.] 



ba - na - at Hani? 1 mu$ - tak - /i - la - at 

O mother of the gods, who fulfils 

'T^TTIM a.***flfsST JH<HJ*T ~<C: 

/#r - /i - $u - nu mu -$e-fa - at ur - &' - /* fo - /// 

their commands, who makes the green herb to spring up, O lady of 



le - ni - fo - c - ti ba - na - at ka - la - me 

mankind who created all things, 



/«*/.? - le - Sir - rw/ ^/ - w/r nab - »i - /w 

who guides the whole of creation. 



urn - mu ilu IS - la ri - /«/w $a 

O mother IStar, whose 

id - da - a - ia it man-ma la i - //' - hu - u 

side no god can approach, 



A LAMENTATION 227 



be - el - turn itur - bu - turn $a par - pi - sa 

O exalted lady, whose command 



iu - iu - ru te - el - // - /1/w 1 lu - uk - bi 

is mighty ! A prayer will I utter ; 



fo 1 - // - Jfa fa - a - bu li - pu - $a - an - ni 

that which to her (appears) good may she do unto me ! 



7 . m !MTT Hf< 


<^ -m 


*T tOfTT 


be - el - // 


ul - /« 


K - «0I 


my lady, 


from 


the day 



f 1 - ifr - ri - ku ma - ' - tfY? fa/ - /« - /i' 

when I was young much to misfortune 

$a - am - da - ku a - &z/ «/ a - >b// 

have 1 been yoked! Food have I not eaten, 



3/ - &' - /wot kur-ma - /* me - e ul aX - /1 

weeping was my nourishment! Water have I not drunk, 

-£V *T HF- M< HT< »o. [*TTT 3 <Mf* 

<//>» - /« aw£ - it - //' /*$ - bi ul 

tears were my drink! My heart never 



ih - di ka - bit - li ul im - mi - lir 

rejoiced, my mind was never bright! 

1. te-eS-li-tim = testltim. 2. Obv., 11. 6—24. 

15* 



228 



EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



The priest : 

ina 
In 



2. A confession of sin. 

[K 4899 and K 4934.] 



£TT! & A *T- <h Id! «• 



ta - ni - (ft 
sorrow 



a - Si - ib 
there he sits! 



via 
With 



i sfc a ^ *TT- £g= Hf< --IT *ffl ^ 



>h* - ub - bi - e 

m 

cries 



mar - $u - ti 
of affliction, 



zu - ru - ub 
(in) trouble of 



lib - $1 
heart, 



3. 



ina 
with 



£* - ki - //' Kmutii(ti) 

bitter weeping, 



/»« 



in 



s^HT^^ <T-^ 4 .<nm ^!! t:i!l El h!< 



ta - hi - $1 Km - »i 
bitter sorrow, 



ki - jha 
like 



j« - urn - ma - ti 
the doves 



see tf^T ^ :OTT J| tfr M ^H ^ <T- 



doth he moan 



Su - up - Su - «£ 
grievously 



mu - £/' 
night 



< IH-TTI 5-T ~fl -TTKfct^^ <teteeT 



k i/r - n' 


ana iK-Su ri - /;// - ///' - 


/' &' - ma 


and day ! 


Unto his merciful god 


like 


C=HT< 


c£ -H c=TTT^ -Ef 6 - tRTT S?-- JH 


lit - ti 


i - /m - ga - </# 


ta - ni - //n 


a wild cow 


he cries! 


Sighing 


*TT- ft ^ 


^TT t^TTT -Hf ^H ~f 


7- TI ^T 


war - fa - jm 


iS - Ai - na - ka - an 


a - na 


that is grievous 


doth he make! 


Before 



A CONFESSION OF SIN 229 

1/1 - Su ina un - ni - »i ap - pa - lu 

his god in supplication his countenance 



tEE -ET «=T 3 ^w 8. eg *-fl <Jg[ 

1 - la - a£ - £1 - in i - fo£ - ki 

doth fie cast down ! He weeps 

it - hu - u ul i - kal - la 

that he may approach, that nothing may hold (him) back! 

The suppliant : 

t - //? - //' lu - i/£ - fo' * - //£ - // 

My deed will I declare (to thee), my deed 

«/ Sa ka - bi - e a -ma - /1 lu - $a - an - »j 

which cannot be declared ! My words will I repeat (to thee), 

a- ma - //' «/ &i $u - un - ni - e i - /* 

my words which cannot be repeated! My god, 

*T¥EHf<~T< li'&H *TfEJ¥<H« <^ V 

e - />/? - // lu ~ uk - hi i - pi$ - /*' «// Jfo 

my deed will I declare (to thee), my deed which cannot 

-! 3 *U l 

ka - bi - * 
be declared! 

1. K 4934, 11. 3— 1 3 and K 4899, Obv., 11. 10 — 18. 



23o 



EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



3. A prayer for forgiveness. 

[K 101.] 

The suppliant : 

'•UMI ^T<m JT9MI ffV^*TT<B[ 

ana-ku arad - ki $u - nu - )iu a-$a - as - si - ki 
I, thy servant, full of sighs cry unto thee! 

Sa an - nu i - $u - u U - //# - ki - e 

Whoever sin possesses, thou acceptest 



te - me - ik - 3te 
his fervent prayer! 



a - me - Urn tap - pa - la - x# 

The man thou lookest on in pity, 



bal - lut 
lives, 



(7/ 



O ruler 



a- me - lu Xu -u 
that man 

&z - la - /wtf 
of all things, 



~< C 

lady 



/t' - ;// - Se - t' - // 
of mankind, 



5- <: 



*w- 



TE 



r/Vw - ;//' - /mm 
O merciful one, 



W 



$a 



whose 



//</ 



as - /f«r - $a 
turning 



s^TTJ*- -fe^TTJT ^^Sr 

la - a - bu li - &;/ //// - ni - ///' 

* • 

is propitious, who accepteth supplication ! 



The priest : 



ilu-lu ilu ft - tar-lu 

(Since) his god (and) his goddess 



-TT* *- < E3tf ~T< I 

zi - nu -i£ it - // - fo 
are angry with him, 



A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS 



23l 



*EeV^^TT<HJ ^HTKT- 7. [<liT v <Igf 



i - Sa - as - su - &' ka - a - U 

he crieth unto thee! 



£/' - JW - ki 
Thy neck 



£TT A Sm (?)] tA ET £TTTflf~£M< JJ^TT 

ji* - #/' - ir - .fa/w - *»# ta - sa - ba - ti kat - su 

turn to him and take his hand! 



The suppliant : 

£a - a - /i' i - Urn 

thyself a deity 



e - la 
Beside 



Wftf - te - U - ru 
that guideth right 



there is not! 



<tfk «=E <T- 9. <HJ « w=f 7 ^ Sf ET 

«#/> - lis - in - «i - jw# 
look on me in pity and 

- tj -ti *ro *et? 

a - fyu - lap - w 
My forgiveness 



-e^tt <m *w 



ki - ;*# 
Truly 



// - ki 
accept 



un - nt - ni 
my supplication! 



<M 3 ET -efcj - £TTT <Ef Jts= V JH 



ki - 3* - ma 
declare and 



ka - bit - la - &' 
let thy spirit 



/// - $a - fra 
be appeased! 



"■TJ<T*EM< ~<*MTM< ^TT AHfff HTC *jn 



a - <// /«# - // 
When, 



be - el - // 
my lady, 



& + <m »• <M et 



thy countenance? 



ki - wtf 
Like 



su - ufi - fyu - ru 
will be turned 

^TT JCTTT ET V! 

su - am - ma - te 
the doves 



TK^T^:TTT £TTT^-TI ^T s£TTT HP- HTTI] 



do I moan, 



ta - ni - #« 
in sighs 



u$ - la - bar - ri 
do I abound! 



232 EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 

The priest : 

*3- M *TTT* ff < TJ IT SI *■ & 

ina u - a u a - a iu - nu - £<i/ 

In pain and grief full of sighs 



ka - bit - ta - $u bi - ki - turn i - bak - kt 

is his spirit ! Tears doth he shed, 



ku - bi - e i - &z £ - bi 

• m 

cries doth he utter! 



4. A prayer for forgiveness of sin committed unwittingly. 

[K 281 1.] 

a - kal el - fu ul a - &// mi - <• 

Food that is pure have I not eaten ! Water 



bir - /« «/ */£ - //' ik - &# Hi - /'</ 

that is clear have I not drunk! A fault against my god 

- -ET [me <Ttf . t tf] TJ ~* 4- «f Hffi 

#>w /<z / - '// - * a - /•«/ (//; - nun 

unwittingly have I committed.- In a transgression 

ilu iS - ta ri - ia ina la i - di - *• 

against my goddess unwittingly 

1. Obv. t 1.4 — Rev., 1. 14. 

2. Lit. "eaten". 



A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS 



233 



*W* -III tt tT. 


5- ^ t£t 


~f *- < fl 


« - kab - £/' - is 


fo - /«/» 


an - nu- u - a 


have I trodden. 


O Lord, 


my sins 



ET AHf- £TT MT «tT II A ^TT -e£T < T? 

' - <fo ra - 6a - a fri - fa - lu - u - a 



ma - 



are many, 



great are 



my iniquities! 



#» - ni c - pu - iu ul i - di 

The sin which I have committed I know not! 



7-A^T A*Hff-t£T< K^ ^<T^] 



bi - it 
The iniquity 

lit - &# 

The fault 



i# - tu - u 
I have done 

a - ku - lum 
I have committed, 



ul i - <# 

I know not! 

the transgression 



*W -Til 



;TT [^ *ee <m «o. m fe 



K - &z£ - £/' - su 

I have trodden, 



«/ i - <//' 
I know not! 



be - /«»i 
The lord 



ma 
in 



^ " g a t Mb " bi-$u 

the anger of his heart 



-TI* D « Hf- ^ 

lit - kil - man(an) - »i 
hath looked upon me! 



ii 



• t£ <y- 

i - lim 
The god 



*-TI -IT* *TTT 3 I 



in 



uz - 21 
the wrath of 



lib - bi- $u 
his heart 



*W *W A MT «f ft? »■ Hf- ^TT 



« - Sam - £i" - ra - a/i - ni 
hath visited me! 



ilu tf - tar 
The goddess 



234 EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 

*fl ^TT ttfi t] *- *-n ET tTT- tETT ^T! 

e - li - ia is - bu - us - ma mar - jj" - i? 

with me was angry and to tribulation 



tTTT* * « HF- 5£ «3- [^fe tE^K -ET 

u ~ U - man(an) - «i i - /tf/w i - du - u la 

hath reduced me! The god, known (and) un- 



i - du - u u - zar - r# - an - ni ilu is* - for 

known, hath afflicted me! The goddess, 



*£ ^T < -ET *E ^T *TTT*] ff JT M *T 

i - du - u la i - du - u a - $u - u$ - /« 

known (and) unknown, trouble 



^TT m ~n «s. £ £TTT ^ 4Hf- «=T| ET 

if - ku - na a$ - A/ -///'- ' - * - ma 

hath brought! I sought (for help) but 

«er«f «=m^ -<t< <^ejj~ i6.«=t<htet 

man-ma - d« #a - //' ! «/ / - sa-bat ab - /•/ - ma 

no one taketh me by the hand! 1 wept but 

*E£TTT*T*Eff <ti* E3*MI< ^.t^^^Vi 

i - ta - te - ia id it - hu - « &/ - ///' - e 

to my side none drew near! Cries 



Vi t* « « ET -4- <tf* tE <V « -4- Rfi 

a - A<i£ - £/' man -ma - </// w/ /' - £/" - man{an) - /;/' 

I uttered (but) no one listened to me! 



is. ^y jy w m -in et m <-u 

us* - $u - Ai - £// &// - m</ - ku ttl 

I am afflicted, I am overwhelmed, 1 do not 

I. ga-ti = kati. 



A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS 235 

a - na - fa - al ana Hi - ia rim - ni - i 

m 

look up! Unto my merciful god 



a/ - fa - na - as - bar un - »* - ni a - &j£ - 3i 
I turn, my petition I utter! 



fo - turn arad - ka la fa - sa - &j£ //*# 

O Lord thy servant cast not down! In 



me - e $u6 - /#>& - /i na - di ka - as - su sa-baf 

• • • 

the waters of the flood thrown, take thou his hand ! 



hi - /'/ - fi ih - fu - u ana da - me - *>£ - /*' 

The sin I have sinned to mercy 



/* - ir a// - na e - pu - u$ Sa -a - ru lif - fo/ 

turn ! The iniquity I have committed let the wind carry away ! 

kil - la - fu - u-a ma - ' - da - a - fi ki - /«# 

My manifold transgressions like 

zu - ba - //' fo - frit - if/ 

a garment tear off! 

i. ka-as-su = kcit-su. 

2. ^u-ba-ti = subati. 

3. Obv. 11. 29-37 (= 11. 1—5), Obv. 1. 43— Rev. 1. 6 (= 11. 6—19), and Rev, 
11. 36—44 (= 11. 20—24). 



236 



EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



♦ 

5. A prayer for mercy and favour. 

[K4623 + 79-7-8,24.] 



be - el - turn 
O lady 




ina 



in 



ru - ub lib - 3* 

my heart 



s« 



the grief of 



rig - w* s#r - bit ad - di - ki a - hu - /<// - /iz. 

cries in trouble have I raised to thee! My forgiveness 



T ^\m ET^TT 



aw - si 

f "It is 1 
(enough!"/ 

M 

ana 
Unto 



£t - £* be - el - /«/« 

declare! O lady, 



unto thy servant 



£1 - bi-Su libba - &" 

say unto him ! Let thy heart 



/1 - //« - ufr 
be appeased ! 




<z fW - &" &z /w<z - ru - tt/ - ////« // - £« 

thy servant, who hath experienced sorrow, 

-TIKI- J! 4.<HTv<m ^TTA^er^ET 



rt - c - mu 
mercv 



ri - ft' - Su 
extend to him! 



/•/ - Sad - ki 
Thv neck 



jw - ///' - ir - £«/// - //z<z 
turn to him and 



// - ki - e ttt - ///>/. - jf« <7//(Z i/fW - ki $a 

receive his supplication ! Thv servant, / with \ 

) whom J 

^TTT^-TTA ^TT^TTT- BfcTHKI* 

la - gu - #/' ji - // - me it - // - hi 

thou hast been angry, deal favourably with him! 



1. Obv. 11. 18—26. 



PRAYERS FOR MERCY AND FOR PURIFICATION 237 

6. A prayer for purification. 

[K 254.] 



ilu iUari - ia nap - li - «' - i>i - «i - ma 

O my goddess, look with pity on me and 

like(e) un - ni - ni - w Zrjp- - pat - rv 

accept my supplication ! Torn away be 

ar - nu - u - a lim-ma-la-a hi - ta - tu - u - a 
my sin, forgotten be my transgressions! 

3. 4Hf- Hf- -<T< JT^^TW ^H^TW< 

' - /7 - //' Up - pa - fir ka - si - //" 

Let the ban be torn away, let the bonds 




// - ir ~ mu ta - »/ - $/' - <Vi /// - ba - lu 

be loosened! My sighing let carry away 



the seven winds! I will rend away J my \ 

\ wickedness, / 

issuru ana $anu(t) li - & - /i i - e#r - ti 

{ le bird e } to the heavens bear it! My misery 



nunu lit - bal li - bil nam 

let the fish carry off, let the river sweep (it) away! 



238 EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 

Urn - pur - an - ni nam - mas' -$u - u $a sin 

May there take (it) from me the beast of the field, 



li - mis - su - tiff - /«' /wr P l ndri dlikuti P l 

may there wash me clean the flowing waters of the river! 

7. A prayer for a favourable dream. 

[K 254.] 

i. s^y -<y< &z ss: jy -<y< ^ HP- ^- ^y 

// - ti lum - »* $u - fi - ka - an - »/* - ma 

m 

From my wickedness make me depart and 

let me be saved by thee! 



Sup - ra - an - «/' - 010 Suttu damiktu(tu) 

Send thou to me and a favourable dream 



eflk& 3.^A<^ Il^I^IIIgJ JSJ< 



/«/ - tul 

• • 


Suttu 


a - na - la - /// 

• 


lu - K 


let mc behold ! 


Mav the dream 


I behold 


be 


damkai(ai) 
favourable ! 


4- -TA <^ 

May the dream 


I? ^T E^T IS! 

a - na - Az - /« 

• 

I behold 


ISM 

lu - u 
be 


kinatiat) 
true! 


.?*///« a - mi - A; - /// ana 
The dream 1 behold to 


1. Rev. U. 10- 


-16. 







A PRAYER FOR A FAVOURABLE DREAM 239 



damikti{ti) tir - ra ilu ilu 

favour turn ! May the god , the god 



la Sunati P l ina reii - ia lu 

of dreams, at my head 



T «f 7. jy -T!I «eT Hf- S?: ET I? ^T 

kan(an) lu - r* - 6a - an - ni - ma a - /*# 

stand! M^ke me to enter into 

tTTTi ^tt^ *ttmm *mrn- Hf-Hf- m 

E - jd^ - ila ekal Hani bit 

Esagil the temple of the gods, the house 



&z/J// a - na ilu Marduk ri - me - ni - i 

of life! To Marduk, the merciful, 



a - na damiktim{tim) a - na kata IJ damkati P l 

for favour into (his) favourable hands 

<TI cffl & 9- sff* Jit: tflfflf £ ^H 

/# - (&» - ni lud - /*// nir - bi - ka 

commend me! So will I bow myself before thy greatness, 

/«/ - /a - ' - id ilu - ut - ka niie P l 

will I glorify thy divinity, and the people 

alt - ia li - $e- pa -a kur - di - &z 

of my city will praise thy power ! 

i. Rev. 11. 20 — 28. 



240 



EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS 



8. A prayer for restoration to divine favour. 



The priest : 

pi - te 
Open 

ma - ak - «' - Su 
his fetter, 

4 

/1 - £/</ - su 
commend him 



[K 3i58.] 



>— <V1 



il - lu - ur - la - Su pu - /«r 
his bond, remove 



pa - »/' - JF« 
his countenance, 



3 -MC: 

Give life to 



nu - um - ;wj'r 
make bright 



1 - /tf 
to his god 



ba - »# - Su 
his creator! 



-tfcT^H [COTM^I ^iki^^H 



arad - &j 
thy servant, 



lit - ta - ' - id 
that he may praise 



kur - di - &i 
thy might, 



4. jji 



-tH -^TT Ife^T m -Ell *TTJ 



«dr - bi - £</ 
that before thy greatness 

£TT --TIT T- 

da ad - /w^ 

dwellings ! 



//* - id - lu - /<z 
he may bow down 



in all 



5. ^ 




Receive 



-III E^TT I 

his gift, 



^TT <IU *T- <T^ ^ JT 6. 




// - ki 
accept 



pi - di - * - lu 
his purchase-money, 



//id &/£ - kar 

• • • 

that in the land of 



<HfflfF -EeII&MT^H <^: -TTI fc JU ^ 



Su/ - ff*Y 



peace 



w<//* - ra - &/ 
before thee 



//'/ - tdl - lak 
he may walk ! 



1. Obv. 11. 36—41. 



I 






r 



HYMNS AND PRAYERS. 

i. Hymn to the Rising Sun. 

[K 3343.] 

tlu SamaS ina i - Sid Same(e) Zap -pu - fra - am - ma 

O Sun-god, on the foundation of heaven l thou hast flamed forth! 

■<hW Hf-*TI <ffT~~ t=-<T< 3 -£TT* 

f 1 - gar Same(e) elluti P l tap - ti da - lat 

The bolt of the bright heavens thou hast opened, the doors 



Same(e) Zap - fa - a ilu SamaS a - na ma - a - /i 

of heaven thou hast opened! O Sun-god over the land 

n - Si - £<z /a.? ~ Sa-a ilu SamaS me - /ajw - me 

I thy head thou hast raised ! O Sun-god, with the brightness 



HF-*ff ET£TTTTM< «^<KT' 

Same(e) ma - ta - a - ti tak - /«/» 

of heaven the lands thou hast covered! 



1. I. e., the horizon. 

2. Obv. 11. 2 — 10. 

16 



242 



HYMNS AND PRAYERS 



2. Hymn to the Setting Sun. 

[Sp. Ill, 586 and R. Ill, 1.] 



- HF- *T1 T 

ilu SatnaS ana 

O Sun-god, into 



ki - rib 
the midst 



Sa - me - e ina 

of heaven when 



MRf -TU 3 Mtfl »• <T- a * ^TT I- *U 



e - r/ - bi - &z 
thou enterest, 



Si - ^w 
may the bolt 



Sa - me - e 
of heaven 



*MTT EDf ^ <HWf ET IH *• 




el - lu - turn 
that is bright 



3ta/ - m<i lik ~ bu - ku 

give thee greeting, 



3. ct ^T ^T V F ^ IH *jn «tT TJ :» 



da - la - at 
may the doors 

4 . <k: ^tt - 

*»/' - Sa - r«/w 
May the righteousness 

T e*=TT Efc - 

- ra - am 
thy beloved 



fo - me - e 
of heaven 



su 



lik - ru - ba - a - ku 
bless thee! 

of the minister 



na 



ka 



*T 

US 



< 



- te - Jttr - ku 
direct thee! 



5- ! *TTTT *T MT Ml ^ ~ 1ST ~T< ^H 



In Ebabara, 



Su - fo/ 
the seat of 



be - lu - ti - £<i 
thy power, 



*eett *jm *t ^a mi *ttt* *t- *■ «f ti ti 

si - ru - ui - ka Su - a - /*' ,/M .4/ 

thy supremacy is glorious! May Ai, 

1. Here and in 11. 3 f. ^~^~"S is employed for TpT, a form of the 2. m. s. 
pron. suffix. 



HYMN TO THE SETTING SUN 243 



& Zm tm ^T E*=TT ^ £ffl ^H 

(it - jar - turn na - ra - am - ta - >&a 

thy beloved spouse, 



with joy come before thee, 



lib - 6a - ka ne - ify - turn 

to thy heart rest 




J ^ AHfff 8- «r| £TTT «f 

// - ni - i# nap ta -an 

may she give, may the feast 



1 - /« - /1 - &z /tf - Jfa - Aiji - &* &zr - m - du 

of thy godhead be spread for thee ! O valiant 



mite ~MT ^TT ^T s£TTT ** ^T ^H 

id - /w»i |/M $ama$ li - it - ta - i - du - ka 

hero*, SamaS, let them glorify thee! 



&r - el E-babar-ra a - lik pa - dan - &z 

O lord of Ebabara, in thy going may thy path 



■^TT H^ »• HP- *T] A£ MT Hf- xfcJ 

//" - ft'r ' 7tt 8ama$ fiar - ra - an - ka 

be straight ! O Sun-god thy road 



JeH^ IHtik <HMI* I ^TOT^T<T-tH 

Su - A*r ur - #a &" - nam ana du - rw - u$ - JV - &i 

direct, on the road that is sure for thy foundation 



16* 



244 HYMNS AND PRAYERS 

tifWf »-HP-*fl W eTTM< £!TffffHF- 

a - lik ilu SamaS Sa ma -a - ti da - at - an 

go! O Sun of the land, judge 

.fa pu - ru - us - si - e - $a muS - te - Sir - fa 

of its decisions, its director 

at - /a 
art thou! 

3. Hymn to Marduk. 

[K 2962 + K 3 1 20.] 

«• HID <^ V- »=TTT* - ~f T 

n - mi - nu - u ina ildm'P 1 

O merciful one among the gods! 



r/ - mi - nu - */ &7 w/* - ta bul - lu - ta 

Merciful one, who the dead to raise to life 



*' - ram - mu llu Marduk Sar - ru Sami(e) 

loveth ! O Marduk, king of heaven 



u irsi/im(jim) Sar Ba - hi- Urn he - el 

and earth, king of Babylon, lord of 



E - sag - ila Sar E - zi - da 

Esagil, king of Ezida, 



HYMN TO MARDUK 245 

be - el E - via)} - ti - la $ame(e) u 

lord of Emafrtila! Heaven and 



irsiiim(iim) ku - um - mu e - ma $ame{e) u 

earth are thine! The space of heaven and 

<HJ-£V mcw^ 8-<MV ^^iim 

ir$itim{tim) ku - kjw - mu $i - pat ba - la - tu 

earth is thine! The incantation of life 




£k - um - w« i-mal ba - la - tu ku - kjw - jwk 

is thine! The spittle of life is thine! 



10. 



a - me - lu - /kjw «i* - JV fal-mat 

Mankind, the race black- 



kakkadi tik - na - at na - //£ - // ma- la 

headed, living creatures as many as 



jte - /w<z na - ba - a ina matt ba - $a - a 

a name bear (and) in the land exist, 



&# - rat ir - £*/ - ti ma - la ba - $a - a 

the four quarters of the world, all that there are, 

'4-Hf-WTT V <2«* HP- *fl < [<HJ-£V| 

,v " -^'i? 7 ^ ^ " ^ $ame(e) u irsilim(tim) 

the Igigi of the hosts of heaven and earth, 



246 HYMNS AND PRAYERS 



«5.tf^T ^UWm MJ^T xfcJVTm 

ma- la da - $a - a a - na ka - $a- a- ma 

all that there are, unto thee 



uz - na - f 1 - na ba - $a - a 

are their ears inclined! 



4. Address to the god Ninib. 

[K 2487 and K 8122.] 

ap - /« ^u? - ru bu - kur tlu Bel 

O mighty son, first-born of Bel, 



>W^< *-^&m *EdHT< *TTTTA[E^TT] 

hir - bu - u git-ma - lu 1 - //'/ - //" 2? - for - ra 

powerful, perfect, offspring of Esara, 

$a pu - lufi - lu lit - bu - lu ma - lu - u 

who with terror art clothed, who art full of 

^£ ^ [J] 4. Hf- *T ^TttT EJ [V 

#*r - £0 - lu ilu Ut - #1/ . lu i a 

fury! O Utgallu, whose 

A* / in - flw# - f)d - ru ka - bal - lu lu - pu - u 

onslaught is unequalled, bright 

«fflHJ - HM-~ EM— e-- 

m<i/* - za - za ina Hani F l rabuti F l ina 

is (thy) place among the great gods ! In 

1. Obv. 11. 16—45. 



ADDRESS TO NINIB 247 

*TTTT* *TTTT £TTT MH ^ TJ-T< V-TTJ 

^ - for £7/ ta - ti - la - a - li $a - ka- a 

Ekur, the house of festal joys, exalted 

ri - $a~ a - ka id - dfii - ka - ma tiu Bel 

is thy head, for he hath granted thee, hath Bel 



abu - ka te - n/ fo/ - /a/ ildnt pl 

thy father, that the law of all the gods 



ka-tuk - &z tarn -hat ta - <fo/i A" - 1)1 

thy hand should hold! Thou judgest the judgment of 



le - ni - $e - e - /*' /w£ - /* - Jttr fo $u - $u - ru 

mankind, thou leadest him that is without a leader, 



eEE^HTf *fliUHr< ■■'•c^TT^Tm JT 

i - ka - a e ~ ku - ti ta - §ab-bat kat 

the man that is in need! Thou holdest {, th , e r l 

I hand of J 

en - Si la li - ' - tu - $a- a* - ka 

the weak, the man that is not strong thou dost exalt! 



&* a - na a - ra - al - // - e $u - ru - du 

{°who m } to ^ e Lower World /has been broughtl 

\ down / 

pa-gar-Xu lutira(ra) Xa ar - nu i - hi - u 

his body thou dost restore ! From him who sin possesses 



248 



HYMNS AND PRAYERS 



£TTT<V 



sfc*<- h-V Hf-I <^I 



/a - pat - for <?r - nu 

thou dost remove the sin ! 

-TT* ^ HOT* 

si - nu - u 
is angry 




The man with whom his god 



J £- <^TT fcfc *T 



/« - fo/ - lam ar - £*3 

thou restorest to favour speedily! 



«5. «f «T HI If V ^jn 



ilu Nin - ib 
O Ninib, 



a - $a - rid 
prince 



^^^TT^T *ET£TTT 



ku - ra - e/w 
a hero 



<?/ - /a 
art thou! 



Hf- T 



Hani* 1 
of the gods, 



O lord, 



5. Address to Nabu. 

[K 3i3o.] 



'• m ^ e**t -<t< *tj ^ <u r-efcj 



with 



* - m« - &' - ka 
thy might 



Mfl * E« <t]* 



* - mu - >t« 

no might 



/// 



TT V -Hf- ^T «f 

/'/ - .fa - an - //</ - an 
can compare! 



*■ FHF-] -B B*T -<T< *TJ •* <m -*fcj 



,Y " AW/7 

O Nabu, 

* - w« - >fcw 

no might 



it - ti 
with 

ul 



thy might 



TT W -Hf- ^T -4- 

/If - .?</ - an - mj - d/i 
can compare! 



1. Obv. 1. 1 1 — Rev. 1. 2. 



ADDRESS TO NABU 249 

it - /1 biti - ka E - zi - da 

With thy temple, Ezida, 



tltm W* S3T V Hf- -Hf Hf- 4.^TmT< 

bi - /»/w «/ # - $a - an - na - an it - // 

no temple can compare! With 

-s=tt --H m $m <m ^n <wr* 

ali - ka Bar - sip KI alu ul 

thy city Borsippa, no city 

TTVHF-~HfHP- »W< H^^TT^H 

i$ - $a - an - na - an it - ti ik - li - ka 

can compare! With thy domain, 



2fa - £1" - lira ik - lu ul it - $a - an - na -an 

Babylon, no domain can compare! 

6. Prayer to Ishtar of Nineveh. 

[81—2—4, 188.] 



a - na far - ra/ */a«i* ^ fa par - /i 

To the queen of the gods, ('»•»*"} Ut„d,} 



i/5/ii ^ rabuti P l $u - ut - /« - /»« &x - luX -fa* 

of the great gods are entrusted, 



a - na be - /// a/tt AftfiM / 

to the lady of Nineveh, the .... 

1 . Obv. 11. 6 — 1 4. 2. ka-tui-Sa is translated in the previous line after the relative. 



250 



HYMNS AND PRAYERS 



» »►► 



HF-JT' 

Hani F l 
of the gods, 



w tn*i s. t? -nf ^ ^ 



to - £a - /« 
the exalted one, 



a - na 
to 



mdrat 
the daughter of 



~f<« ^ttt^tt* Hf-*m*<r- rem 

' 7tt &» /j - // - mat ilu Sam - A' la 

the Moon-god, the twin-sister of the Sun-god, who 



~«* *BfcHr< s£TTT~iMTT 4.fl~HT 



kul - lat 


larru - //" 


ta - be - el 


a - na 


all 


kingdoms 


rules, 


to 



s^TTI^^T <«HF- ~f*£T «=TTJ <£JTHfTI 

pa • ri - sa - at purussd ilat(at) kal gim - n 

her who determines decrees, the goddess of the universe 



a - na be - lit lame(e) u irsitim(tim) 

to the lady of heaven and earth, 



ETA-TV IH^TTHK MJ^T *ET^T 



ma - #/ - w/ 
who accepts 



las - //' - It 
supplication, 



a - na 
to 



le-ma - a/ 

I her who 1 
I hearkens unto/ 



H^TTI^ -E^TT^T^T ^^5*: 7-Tf^T 

ik - r* - bi li - &i - a/ «// - »/ - ni a - na 

pleading, who receives prayer, to 



4- -£V C: ^ 

iltim(tim) rim - «/' - 

the merciful goddess 



T< 



// 



V 

& 



who 



*E E^TT fi^ ►* s. «f ~TT 



t - ra - am - mu 
loves (I pray)! 



' 7tt /? - tar 
(To) IStar, 



T- W EMT 

me - la - ra 
righteousness 

mimma la 

(for) whatever 



PRAYER TO ISHTAR OF NINEVEH 251 

but - lu - lu 1 - «' - zk - $a da - al - fta- a - tt 

is confounded distresses (?) her! The afflictions 



mal a- lam-ma - ru mah - ra - ki a - &i£ - &* 

which I behold, before thee I bewail. 



a - na at - /«» -u -a $u - nu - fii lib - /a - 

To my words full of sighing directed be 



[*m*i «fcTT *fflf <nr "-ff-nr u-m^f 

u - zu - un - ki a - na zik - ri - *a 

thine ear! To my speech 

Sum - ru - ft ka - bit - ta - yfo" /*£ - /a - Jttr 

that is afflicted let thy mind be opened! 

am - r* - in - »/' &//« ki - 1 

Look upon me, O lady, that through 

j« - uh - hu - ra - ki libbi ardi - ki 
thy turning towards (me) the heart of thy servant 

Urn - ra - # j 
may be strong! 

1. Obv. 11. 4—15. 



INCANTATIONS. 

i. Incantation to the Fire-god. 

[K 2455 + K 3936.] 

Siptu itu Gibil $ar - {?u bu - kur 

Incantation. O Fire-god, mighty, first-born of 



-HP- TJ <MT 


*• *E Cl -<!< 


<}} -£V 


ilu A - nim 


1 - /#/ - // 


ellitim(Hm) 


Anu, 


offspring, 


bright (and) 


vtzizm 


-HP- "iTT -ET - 


3- e£H -n 


fa - ku - turn 

• 


l7 « Ai - la - <zf 

» 


&/r - [iu 


exalted, 


of SalaS, 


mighty, 


S^T <T3= JT 


«=TTT«= -<3« -III 


■Hf- T"^ 


id - di - $u 


- u zik - ri 


*7<z/f /' ^ 


newly-shining 


j, name 


of the gods 


^H TJ TJ + 


4- ^T <L< £-£] 0T S3 ^ 


ka - tfi - nu 


«a - <//» ///« 


- da - bi - e 


that is enduring, 


who gives 


offerings 



T ~H~~ Hf-WTT 5-VIHI -nfEflirHK 

j/i(/ Hani? 1 llu Igigi $& - M» na - wi/'r - //' 

to the gods, the Igigi, who makes light 



INCANTATION TO THE FIRE-GOD 253 

a - na ilu A - nun - na - &' Hani? 1 

for the Anunnaki, the gods 

EeH~~ 6-fcT^TT Hf-^THf- VHffKAftE^ 

rabuti P l iz - sw ' /u GV&7 0i»Jf - ##r - 01 tf 

that are great. O terrible Fire-god, destroyer of 

Vi^mam ^h^t* *i ^t ra *m* 

a - pi - ilu Gibil al - la - lu - « 

O Fire-god, powerful one, 

mu - ab - bit *" w *i/ - pi P l 

annihilator of the and wicked, 

ka- mu - a //>» - »« - /* s/r <*"»*/« ka&api 

who burns the evil, the seed of sorcerer 

« f kaUapti mu-hal - lik rag - gi zer 

and sorceress, who blots out the bad, / the i 

I seed off 

<im*/« fotfa// u f kaUapti ina 

sorcerer and sorceress. At 

« - mi an - »/ - i ina di - ni - w 

this time in my cause 

tEEMfifs^EET »• I^JJPT <T-^ 

1 - ziz-za - am - ma ku - hi- ud Urn - nu 

take thy stand and overcome the evil one. 



254 



INCANTATIONS 



»• <£JT 

kima 
As 



sM— Hf- *<• -<!< *£ HTI jm 



falmdni'P 1 an - nu - A' 
these images 1 



tt ^TT *- < 



i - zu - bu 
melt 



u 
and 



1 3. Kffi -sjST -^TT 

kaXfapu 
may the sorcerer 



amilu 



/# - fiu - lu 
quiver, 



lit - ta - at - tu - ku 
dissolve. 





2 




it 



u 
and 



li 



i - (iu - /« 
quiver, 



ta - at - ta - ku 
dissolve, 



< £- ^er ^n 



/ kaUaptu 

sorceress 




~*TT *- 



zu 
melt 



bu 



< 



u 
and 



2. Incantation against an unknown sorceress. 

[K 2728.] 

• hp- w ht< « y-] £- -tar «tn 



liptu 
Incantation. 



Who art thou, 



/ 



kaUaptu 
O sorceress, 



Xa 

{ 



-TI* *TTT* 

b&5u{u) 



»• m v] <MH -^ * 



in whosel 
heart I 



IS 



tf - ma/ 

the word 



/j 



!imutti(jini) 
of my misfortune, 



1. The burning of little images made of bronze, honey, clay, bitumen, wood, 
etc. accompanied incantations of this class; hence the title of the scries, Maklu, 
"Burning". 

2. Statin II, 11. I23—I35. 



INCANTATION AGAINST A SORCERESS 



255 



ina 



*TTT W W 

lid - bi - ia l 



3. tE >~qf 



1 - na Itidni - fa 

by whose tongue 



Hf ^T *- tmt *jn -II tmt tj 4. 



T 



i$ - ba - nu - u 
are made 



ru - fiu - 1/ - <* 
my spells, 



1 - na 
at 



«d!H<]V HJ^T^TTT* ^in -^H ^TTT«= If 



Sap - //' - Sa ib - ba - nu - u 
whose lips are formed 



ru - su - u - a 
my poisons, 



£/' - bi - & /<*£ - bu - su 

whose foot-steps 2 

■^ kaUaptu 

O sorceress, 



1 - »a 
in 

mu - u turn 

death ? 




*Hf <M 3SE -< --© <M 



thy mouth, 



as - fo/ 
I exorcise 



Itiana - £1' 
thy tongue, 



/«<* u - ki na - ti - la - a - ti 

m 

thy glancing eyes, 

Xipd n - ki at - la - ka - a - ti 

thy active feet, 



£*' - ki e - bi - ri - * - ti 

thy striding knees, 




tor 



izzaz(az) 
stands 



as - fo/ 
I exorcise 



7- fc^VSL ►< 
tff - bat 
1 exorcise 



8. ^Vg_ M 
I exorcise 



9- E= VPf M 
I exorcise 



10. fczypf M 
I exorcise 



1. ina Ub-bi-§a is translated in 1. 1 after the relative. 

2. Lit. "in the footstep she has trodden**. 



256 INCANTATIONS 

ida ll - ii mut - tab-bi - la - a - ti ak - ta - si 

thy labouring hands, I bind 



1 - <//' - &' a - »a #r - it - ki tiu Sin 

thy hands beneath thee! May Sin 



el - lam - mi - e li - iat - fa - a pa -gar - ii 

in front destroy thy body, 



,3. Tf^T <^= «=TTT AT— < ^Pl 

tf - na mi - iit me F l u iidli 

into a chasm of water and fire 

lid - di - £1 - ma f kattaptu ii - ma si - A/'r 

may he cast thee! O sorceress, like the stone 



"*"" iunuiii an - ni - c li su - du 

of this seal may there glow 

^IeTWTI!33 b£ y- tiffs <HT 

//' - r/' - ku pa - nu - u - ii 

(and) turn pale thy countenance! 

3. Incantation against spells and witchcraft. 

[K 43 -f K 142 + K 2601.] 

&//« //tt Nusiu Sur - £// - « / - /// - //' 

Incantation. O Nusku, mighty one, offspring of 

1. Maklu III, 11. 89—103. 



INCANTATION AGAINST WITCHCRAFT 



257 



ilu A - nim 
Anu, 



2 . ^y«^ t^T u^^r 

/am -til abi bu-kur 

image of the father, first-born 



-in *m 

ilu Bel 

of Bel, 



3 .^ t yyyy ^yyt^y 3^*y ~f-II~f<IU 



/a r - £// j/j* 3i - nu-ut 

child of the ocean, creation 



of Ea! 



4- £ <y* 

at - Ji 



-yy^s^yr *yyy* HTC* twi ><w 



{ 



I have raised l 
on high I 

to thee! 

Si *T- 

kit - /*' 

f with the 1 
\ enchantment, J 



dipdra 
the torch, 

amilu 



u - /wj/w - /wr - ka 
I have given light 



kattapu 
The enchanter 



-TI* T- HP- 



HPh 



HK* y- HF- s*= 

t% - tip - an - ni 
hath enchanted me; 

<m y- 1 



ik - Sip - an - ni ki - tip - .?« 

(with which) he enchanted me, enchant thou him! 



6. £- ^gf ^yy 

/ kattaptu 

The enchantress 




/#£ - £1/ - an - ni 
hath enchanted me; 




2*L *J- 

kit - pi 

l with the 1 
\ enchantment, 1 



fcA T- Hf- ^ <M T- <T- 7. sff *T- jy 



/#£ - ^ - an - /**' &' - Jffjfr - £1 

(with which) she enchanted me, enchant thou her! 



e - pi - fo 
The wizard 



*E *- V HP- 5? HI I *£ *- V -HP Sff: 



i - pu - ta - an - »i 
hath bewitched me; 



r with the 1 
\ witchcraft,/ 



i - pu - ta - an - »i 
(with which) he bewitched me, 



«=fl*-**TT s. t y|^<^y *y*-V~f5r 



C - pu - JK * 

bewitch thou him! 
1. e-pu-su = eput'tu. 



e - //? - tu 
The witch 



tc - pu - ta - an - /** 
hath bewitched me; 

17 



25» 



INCANTATIONS 



HI *T *- W HF- ^ 



ip - Su 

( with the 1 
\ witchcraft,/ 



te - pu - $a - an - «i 
(with which) she bewitched me, 



*fi *- ^TT 

e - pu - st 1 
bewitch thou her! 



9. ^Hfff< *T ^ -fc£T *T *- W HF- 5*= 



The sorceress 



/e - pu - $a - an - ni 
hath bewitched me; 



Id! I *T*-VHF-5f *fi*-*TT *°V 

ip - ,?« te - pu - $a - an - ni e - pu - si ia 

1 with the 1 (with which) she bewitched me, bewitch thou her! I Those \ 
I witchcraft,/ I who i 

salmani? 1 ana pi - /' salmaniP 1 - ia ib - nu - u 

images after the fashion of my images have made, 



*W HF- <F m 

u - mas' - A" - /« 
have imitated, 



*- *W ^T HF- Br *efl 

5u - un - na - an - ni - ia 



who my form 



who mv breath 
have plucked, 



~^TT E» *m* HUE >* 

1/ £« - « tor//' - f<i 

have caught, 



who mv hair 



ulinni - ia ib - /« - ku 

who my garment have rent, 



eflHKEW ^TT^TJ <tETT^ ^TT*-I 



who in going through 

13. -HF- -T HF- 

may the Fire-god, 
1. e-pu-si = epui-ii. 



eprati F l 
dust 



fr/r ^ - ia 
my feet 



/'/ - bu~ Su 
have hindered. 




T 



kar - </« 
the mighty, 



fipat - su - nu 
their incantation 



INCANTATION AGAINST WITCHCRAFT 



259 




It 



3= £ s£H 



pa - a$ - $ir 
dissolve ! 



►-Y* 




idi 



hpta 



Recite the incantation ! 



4. Some reasons for a curse falling upon a man. 

[K 150 and K 8868.] 



a - na bit tap - pi - e - Xu i - te - ru - ub 

Into the house of his neighbour has he entered? 



a - na aXXat tap - //' - e - Xu it - tc - fit' 2 

To the wife of his neighbour has he drawn, nigh? 



3. ►*< !» ►►► 

dame P l 
The blood of 




tap - pi - e - Xu 
his neighbour 



j« - £0/ /#/ - />/' - e - Xu 

The garment of his neighbour 



^T «£TTT HTC 

// - ta - bak 
has he shed? 

£TTT — T* 

it - /a - bal* 
has he stolen? 




5.<^MT^^TI mjm ^T *TTT* + <Mffl 



»m' - rtf - «« - uX-Xu id - lu la u - ma/ - /# - r» 

From his power (?) a man has he not let go free? 



6. Estf m ££T ^T 


*— 


<£jy ht<i 


*tf - lu dam - &z 

• 


ina 


kim - ti - /» 


A good man 


from 


his family 



1. Maklu I, 11. 122—134. 

2. I 2, fr. tejui; K 8868 gives the variant reading itti-hi. 

3. K 8868 reads : it-ta-al-ba-aX, "has he put on?". 



17* 



260 



INCANTATIONS 



*TTT<= * M *m* 7 - Ett ^T ^ ^ s^TTT 



u - $e - lu - tt 
has he driven away? 



MOT* *H *T- Htt MJ^T 

1/ - az/ - pt - hu a - «<* 

has he broken up? Against 



&>* - na pu - #ar - /a 

A united household 



la - bu - ut - ti - i 
one in authority 



iz - za - az - 01/ 
has he set himself? 



9- *T- t£ I 

In his mouth 



is he honest, 



*TTT^TI >$<m**& "•*!-■* I HF-^T 



/# - ba-Xu 
(but) in his heart 



la ki - i - /*/' 
false ! 



/«' - t~$u an - na 
With his mouth (says he) yea. 



*TTT «cT I <tf * -ET ' 



/# - ba - $u 
(but) in his heart 



ul - /a 
nay? 



i. Col. I, 11. 37—46. 



ASSYRIAN LETTER- TAB LETS. 



x. Letter to the king asking for a doctor to see a sick lady. 



i. 





[82—5-22, 174.] 




a - na 
To 


^ -II tffi 

Sarrt belt - ia 
the king my lord, 


thy servant 



y «f t] h^ t^B «=TTT* Hf< -ET 3 -ISJ< <Te£^ 

m ,/M $ama$ - ot/Ai - uballit lu - u htlmu{mu) 

SamaS-mlta-uballit. Greeting 



TJ^T £2% -II ^TJ 4-Hf-* <H£U 



a - na 


iarri 


te/i - ia 


,7 « Nabu 


1/ 


unto 


the king, 


my lord. 


May Nabu 


and 



//m Marduk a - na tarri beli - ia a - daw - as? 

Marduk unto the king my lord be exceedingly, 



a - dj« - ni$ 
exceedingly 



lik - ru - bu 
propitious. 



u - ma- a 



amat 



Now f the hand- 1 

I maid / 



Jfa torn' / ilu Ba - a - ga - me - lat 

of the king, Ba'u-gamilat, 



262 



ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS 



10. *fc ft tgy flf t yyj « ^T HJ js *y- 

iwflr - §a - al a - <fa/i - »tf /a ku - sa - pi 
is grievously sick, she cannot 



it! *m 

la - A<r/ 
eat ; 



11. MOT* EI TJ &* 



a - ma - a 
now 



.torn' 3* - iZr' 

let the king my lord 



«..k^T<^ "WAHfff » 3 -K«TI«tTT MI 



instructions 



US - ^f/« 
give, 



amilu 



dsu iSlcn{en) 



that a physician 



'4. HP< -^n --H » 5. ^TT 4£ <[- 

//'/ - // - ka li - mur - £1" 

may come (and) see her. 

2. Letter to the king introducing a messenger who has 

news for the king's private ear. 

[K 498.] 



«• IT ^T 






a - na 
To 



Sarri 
the king, 



be - Hi - ia 
my lord, 



thv servant 



/« Jm/ - mu a - na Sarri 

Greeting unto the king, 

/wJr Baltili KI Su - u 

That Babylonian [/. c. of whom the king already knows] 



m tlu Ramman-ilmi 
Ramman-ibni. 

be - /// - ia 
my lord. 



<-efcJA*Efl 7-^MTI^H ETflf 



//id 



to me 



/'/ - tal - A<f *»</ - a 

came. (He said): 



LETTER OF INTRODUCTION 263 

di - bi ina pi - id ma -a ina ekalli 

"My message with my own mouth I (must be \ into the palace 

\delivered),j 

lu - bi - lu - u - ni u - ma- a an - nu - £jjr 

let them bring me." Even now 

n. *~- s£ ->f ^Sm ^ 5*= ^ 

wia pa - #/* fam fo - Hi - *a 

into the presence of the king my lord 

« - ji - bi - la - $u Sarru be - Hi 

I have caused them to bring him. Let the king my lord 

Ttfcjjr 14. t-*- -err <t^»ks?= «s.*t 



Ztf - al - $u 


*w* - nu $a di - bi- $u-u - »i 


umu 


ask him 


what is in his message. 


On 


«W^ 


£TTT *TTT ««- -e=TT W «*f <fs?= 


17. >— 


XXVIII KAN 


tf/« ftMt " /u $a-ad - A' 


ina 


the 28 th day 


from Saddu 

• 


into 



pa - a/i fam' fo - Hi - ia u - « - &' - la - $u 

the presence of the king mv lord I caused them to take him. 



3. Letter from Apia to the queen -mother reassuring her 

during the king's absence. 

[K 523.] 



..ff~nr Zflaf *£$ ^W *-^T^H 

a - na ummi Xarri belli- ia arad - y&a 

To the mother of the king, my lady, thy servant 



264 ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS 



t^mtj 3.-^1 < «pt& tj^t 




m 



Apia - a ilu Bel u tlu Nadu a - na ummi 

Apia. May Bel and Nabu unto J the \ 

I mother of/ 




4. ^ W IH UJL *- 5. flf ^T «=TTT«= 

Sam' belli -ia lik - ru - bu a - du - u 

the king, my lady, be propitious. Now 



a - iw« - us - su tlu Nabu u tlu Na - na - a 

daily unto Nabu and Nana 



7- If ^T 


~st ^r m 


8. 


«=* W TJ HT< 


a - na 


ba - la - /<i 

• 




»<// - $a - a - li 


for 




life 




9- <H@J 


TJ ee^TT ^H 


*T^ 


*°-W fc^ 


u 


a - ra - &z 


u - mu 


ite for 


and 


length 


of days 


for the king of 


malali belt - i<z « 


?tHT 


Sarri belli -ia 


^1 1 1 

ummi 


the lands, my lord and 


\ for the 
\ mother ol 


\ the king, my lady, 


12. tyyyt 


Bf: -El l3 - iff4 


t&m ^ II 


« - 


sal - /<! ummi 


Sarri belli - a 


do 


I pray. Let the mother of 


the king, my lady, 



'4. in t=TTT«= ff<£W< 15. &E3MH— TTI V 

lu - u ha -ma - li amdu m ar-hp - r/ Sa 

be of good cheer (?). A messenger of 

^t *m t« i6 - v ~*ra < ^m 

du - un - ku ia ilu Bel u tlu Nabu 

favour from Bel and Nabu 



LETTER TO THE QUEEN-MOTHER 



265 



17- 



it - ii 
with 



far matati 

the king of the lands 



18. x ^ 1R 

fo - i/r' - f <i 
my lord 



19. 



it - ta - lak 
goeth. 



4. Letter to the king from Kudurru explaining why he has 
been prevented from coming to thank the king personally 

for a favour he has received. 



• TJ ^T 



a - na 
To 



[K 81.] 

V V 

far matati 

the king of the lands, 




be - Hi - ia 
my lord, 



arad - &z 
thy servant 



m Kudurru 
Kudurru. 



May Erech 



<H@J 



i/ 



and 



a - na 
unto 



-£" - an - «<z 
E-ana 

IH nn **- 

/rife - ru - bu 
be propitious. 



.far matati be - /'/*' - & 

the king of the lands my lord 



4- *T >* *-TI -^TT 

« - mu - us - su 
Daily 



,/M /tor 
to IStar of 



:<§IT<IU <H£U Hh^T^TTJ MJ^T . 



*7rw/fe *' 
Erech 

£< ^yy^ y^ 

fo/a/ napfati P l 

the life of 



u 
and 



'V11 Na - na - a 
Nana 



a - na 
for 




-II ^TJ *TTT*5fI@J 

&m beli - ia u - w/ - /a 

the king, my lord, I pray. 



266 



ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS 



m Iki$a{$a)-aplu amSlu asu $a tarri be - ili - a 

lkiSa-aplu, the physician, whom the king my lord 



7- tj ~nr 

a - na 
to 



M <T^ **R 



but - ti 



la 



save my life 



i$ - pu - ra 
sent. 



«£ - tal - lit - an - «i 
has kept me alive. 



9 . v Hf-tii <vm <m~&r if^r 



Hani** 1 rabutiP 1 

May the great gods 



of 



$ame(e) 
heaven 



and 



irsitim(titri) 
earth 



a - na 
unto 



&//' - /</ //it - tar - ra - bu u 

the king, my lord, be propitious, and 



Xarri 



'* tt kussi hirri belt - ia lib - bu - u 

the throne of the king my lord in the midst of 



Hf-*fl TJ^T £TMTs£ IS! IHI*- »-V 



heaven 



for 



</</ - r/if 
ever 



/« - kin - «« 
establish. 



For 



<Er t &E^T TJ^TUT <hM *£$ -II TI 



/;//' - /' - /// 
dead 



(7 - 7/<7 - X'tt 

was I 



u 
and 



torn/ beli - </ 

the king my lord 



,3. tjiTt «*T* <- -Hf- ^ t^TT «=T £TTT TJ HT< 



f/ - bat - /// - a// - /// 
hath caused me to live; 



ta - ab - ta - a - ti 
the benefits 



I. bulti-ia is contracted from bullufi-ia. 



LETTER FROM KUDURRU 267 



$a Sarri be - Hi - ia i - na mufy - hi - ia 

of the king my lord towards me 



ma - ' - da a - na a-ma - ru ia Sarri 

are many. To see the king 

fo - *7i - /'a at - /a/ - £<z um - ma a/ - /<a£ - 01a 

my lord I went, (saying) : "I will go and 



/a - «i fa fa/r/' &// - ia am - war - ma 

1 the 1 of the king my lord I will behold, and 

I countenance 1 



u - rad - di - e - ma a - bal - //// ameiu ra } ) . 

I will go down and live." The . . . .-officer 



<^V ^T 


^<TT 


ao. tj ~nr 


*<m<m 


ul - iu 


faarrani IJ 


a - na 


Uruk KI 


from 


the road 


to 


Erech 



ut - Ziir - ra - an - ni um - ma amdlu ra ^ 

turned me back (saying) : "A cap- 

• • • 

tain from the palace a sealed letter 



a - na muf} - ft - &z ;'/ - ia - fo - ' 

to thee has brought; 



268 



ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS 



25. ^y ^y< fc^if 



it - //' - ia 
with me 



if — nr 

a - na 
to 



la - »jj» - fit - is - ma 
thou must go." 



Erech 

te - * - mi* 
The instructions 



1 - «fa£ - kan - ga a - «tf £7n*>& ^ 

he carried out and to Erech 



ul - tir - ra - an - ni 
he brought me back. 

lu - u i - <// 

know! 



-9- ^ -II T| 

Let the king my lord 



5. Letter to the king from Akkulanu asking for an answer 

to a previous letter. 

[K 604.] 



• TJ^T t&m -II ^TJ ..-tty-tH 



a - na 
To 



hirri 
the king 



bili - ia 
my lord, 



<;rd</ - ka 
thy servant 



T-I& -*-£!*- *-M< <Hffi^ TJ^T 



m ^>t - kul - A/ - //// 
Akkulanu. 



lu - // $ul - wtt 

Greeting 



t/ - na 
unto 



Sarri 
the king 



-II W 

my lord. 



4. «f -& 

May Nabii 



< 



and 



//w Marduk 
Marduk 



1. i~&ak-kan-ga = Uakkamma (Uakkan-ma). 



LETTER FROM AKKULANU 



269 



5- TJ ^T 

a - na 
unto 



fcEHFFF 
Sarri 

the king 



-II W 

bili - ia 
my lord 



e. jh *m *- 

lik - ru - bu 
be propitious. 



7-<HWJ>* ^TT ^3S -II w *.imt& 

JM - w« ia Sarri belt - & tu - «£ 

Prosperity to the king my lord, joy 

*TTTttF~ I 9.<H@J flMtfc e^T— I 

libbe ll P l - $u u tu - ub Sire P l - to 

for his heart and health for his body! 



10. 



t*HTI*ff »-^TT *TJ — TTM<*Eff 



In 



gab - ri - c 
answer 



Sa 
to 



e - £7'r - //' - ia 
my letter 



12. jj^ 



forrw be - ///' 

may the king my lord 



3. \} ~HT B$ -p=T I 

a - na amilu ardi-ht 

unto his servant 



i 4 . *T **- MT 

Ztf -pu - nz 
send. 



LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA. 

i. Letter from Burraburiash, king of Karduniash, 
to Amenophis IV, king of Egypt, begging for larger presents 
V and for his co-operation against the Assyrians. 

\fc^«H~/ [Bu. 88-io-i3,8i.] 

I57JT- U5S ki- 

i. Tl ^T ^ HI Htt IH -m -m ^Tl 

a - na Ni - ip - hu - ur - ri - n - *<z 

To Nipburiria, 




king of Egypt, speaks 

w/w - *«# Z?//r - ra - bu - ri - ia - a$ $ar 

thus BurraburiaS, king 



1,14/11 ATci - ra - du - ni - *'a - #,? ahu - ka - »iti 

of KarduniaS, thy brother. 



a - //<j /'a - a ■ Si $u - ul - ww </ - na 

With me it is well; with 



ka - a - ia biti - ka aUati? 1 - £<i 

thee, thy house, thy wives, 



GREETINGS TO THE KING AND HIS HOUSEHOLD 



271 



s^fHHH^fcj Y-JrH 6-K^^K -SfcJ 



/war* ^ - ka 
thy sons, 



jko/j - ka 
thy land, 



thy horses, 



=fcJ 



am*/« rabuti* 1 - *a 
thy nobles, 

'>" narkabdti? 1 - /to 
thy chariots 



^t-h^mt mmw*** 



da - an - ni - fif 
exceedingly 

ul - lu 
Since 



lu $U - ul - ffttf 

well may it be. 



ab - bu - u - fli 
my father 



<M£U 



and 



ab - bu - ka 
thy father 




T< TJ flf< <tt [-IT] 

/*/ -A" a - fra - mi - tf 

with one another 



s. ^TT*-sHTT ^T^^- 9. JK^EI^T 



ta - bu - ta 

m 

friendly relations 



id - bu - bu 
established 



$u - ul - ma - na 
rich 



ba - na - a 
presents 



if ^n 

a - na 
to 



<tT* *T 3 <=ee Igfl .o.<h@j T> 

ul - te - bi - i - lu u 

they sent and 



a - fra - mi - tf 
one another 

- HTTI 1MTT t^TTT 

;w* - ri - el - ta 
any desired object, 



^r ^ ^m if ~nr if }}< & ^tt 



ba - /«' - fa 
though precious, 



a - na 
to 



a - fta - mi - if 
one another 



272 LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA 



<tf* -TI* IM] «=!!!«= . »■ ^ -Hf Hf- ~HT 

«/ ik - lu - u i - na - an - na 

they did not refuse. Now 



a - fru - u - ai II ma- na fiura^i a - na 

my brother 2 manehs of gold as 

JeT <tf * EET 5*: t^f <^ *T tk «f ^T 

Jte - ul - ma - ni - i<z «/ - /* - &' - 1 - la 

a present for me has sent; 



i.. eg ~ry Hf- ~H EeT <|jf -TTA ET If ^T 

1 - na - an - na - w<z frurdsa ma - a -ad 

now much gold, 



ma - /<z fa a£ - bi - ka $u - £1 - /a 

as much as thy father, send; 



« Sum - /wtf /«/' - 1 - if wi - £1 - */ fa 

and, if it is less, half that of 



j£ - bi - ka fa - £/" • i - la am - wi - »i" 

thy father, send. Why 



TT ET^I 


<JJ -TTA -#T * 53 *TJ ^T 


7/ ffid - na 


liurdsi tu - U - bi - e - /<i 


(only) 2 manehs 


of gold hast thou sent? 


15. e=E ^T -4- 


^T ~T <^ ^TT «f ~H 


i - na - an - 


na du - ul - //' 1 - »<i 


Now 


the work in 



REQUEST FOR MORE GOLD 273 



bit Hi ma - a - ad 


u adannit 


the temple is great 


and with vigour 


'«• flf «=T £TTT © *TTT«= £1 


Id!*- Stf 



§a - ab - ta - ku - u - *»tf ip - pu - u$ 

have I undertaken (it) and am carrying (it) out; 

<?WTA ETTJ^TT Jf^^T <7- <H£fl 

hurasa ma - a - da $u - £/' - /a w 

much gold (therefore) send. And 



^/ - Az *»/' - im - ma $a fya-a$- ha- a - /</ 

do thou for whatsoever thou desirest 



/' - na matt - /'tf $u - up - ra - am - ma 

in my land send 

li - el - ku - ni - /% - ku 

m 

that they may take (it) thee. 



19. *e ^T ^ -Til EI- ~sfT TJ S3 ^ 

1 - //tf Ajw - n' - ^tf/ - 3K a - bi - ia 

In the time of Kurigalzu my father 




T flf< TJ TJ «=TTTfe= *m* w=T 3 JT *■ 

Aw - na - fra - ai - u ga - ab - bi - $u - nu 

the Canaanites with one accord 



a - na mu - ulj - fri -$u el - /tf - tf/ - rw - »i 

to him sent 

18 



274 



LETTERS FROM TEIX EL-AMARNA 



cm ti tj 


ti ^r 


-r - 


"Hf" tw 1 


V 


um - ma - a 


a - na 


• 


a« - «i* 


mdii 


as follows : 


"Against 


the border of 


the land 


«. W- IH] £TT t* £l *£ 


S^ ~fcT -I<J <M 


nu - ur - </cz - 


am - ma / 


«j 


f - ba - 


al - ki - 


let us go down and 


let 


us make 


an 


£TTT K4 E! 


22. [^y 


-!<] 


^H 


s£ 


/a - <w» - ma 


it - 


/i 


&7 


/' 


invasion and 


> 


yith th 


ee 


let 


^•gTKKt&m 


fl*-*TTT* 


TUJ 


23. ^>f! 


^m 


»/' - Jta - £/ - /« 


a - bu - » - 


«i 


j/i - 


/*/' - /a 


us form an alliance." 


My father 


• 


this 


(reply) 


1MTT sHTT w=T MT J! *- ► 


Hf< 


24. £*"" 


m Ei tj 



*/ 



sent to them, 



2/m - ma -a 
as follows : 



25. ^ ^y ^ ^ 

///« - u$ - $e - ir 
"Cease (seeking) 

;#rt - rtf - ku - u - /*/' 
form an alliance. 




!< t^f ff ^T 



/'/ - //' - ia 
with mc 

26. fezS^: ^y 

Sum - #/</ 
If 



<i - na 
to 




£►►► 

hirri 
the king 



of 



Mi - /'v - r/ - 1 
Egypt 



// - // 
against 

II A ten 

my brother 



£TTT *ET £TTT ^T -Sf ^TT ET 2 7- ^y Hf< 



ta - «/ - td - na - uk - r<; - w</ 
ye arc hostile and 



it - // 
with 



KURIGALZU'S FIDELITY TO EGYPT 275 



gfT & A4 ey s£TTT ^T t£!TT - -fcfcj ^T 

$a - ni - im " ma ta - at - ta - a$ - ka - na 

another ally yourselves; 



a - na - ku ul at - la - ka - am - ma ul 

as for me shall I not come and shall I not 

fi flf< «£T **T IU -^ <T- «=E *9- <HJ tE 

a - ha - ba - at - ku - nu - $i - i hi - 1 

plunder you? For 



1/ - /* - /iz «<z - a$ - ku - nu a - bu - u - at 

with me is he allied." My father 



a.? - 3to/» # - bi - £<z «/ iS - «m' - $11 - nu - // 

for the sake of thy father did not hearken to them. 



3.. eg ^y «f ~nr ^ ^ g^yy yjyj *m* 

/' - //a - an - //<* AS - $u - ra - «i - « 

Now as to the Assyrians 




^yy nry^ ^yy ^ ^ ^yj 3.. yj ^y 

r/<z - gi - «7 /w - ni - ia a - na - ku 

my subjects have I 



«/ a$ - pu - r# - a£ - £a &' - 1 

not . sent to thee concerning 



<y^ <k: jy ^ 33. yj ^y v ^H 

/1 - mi - $u - nu a - »<z 010ft* - &j 

them? To thy land 



i8» 



276 



LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA 



am - mi - ni 
why 

3 4 . «^v t] 
ium - ma 
If 



MTT 1ST m *TTT* 



el 



li ku - u 

are they come? 



m 



ta - ra - af} - ma - an - ni 
thou lovest me 



<T- ET TJ HK 

&' - ma - a - //' *»/' 

any business 

hi *- *m* j^t 

ip - pu - a - fo 
carry out, 



<tt ^4 ET 



im - «a 



35. -ET 

la 
let them not 



-TTI E« -T< JT *- 



r/ ku It - $u - nu 

their failure (in their enterprise) 




ku - u$ - $i - da - $u - nu - ti 

secure. 



36.ff^T JK^ET^^H TTT ET^T 



a - //rf 


to - «/ - 


■ ma - ///' - 


ka 


111 


WtZ - /*</ 


As 


a present for th 


cc 


3 


manehs 


s^fl flf v 


V 


37- < 


W 


r 


TTT 


a*" 11 «/7// 


$adi 


// 


V 


simillu 


.to 


of /#/>/> lazuli 


j of the \ 
\ mountain/ 


and 


5 


yoke 


of 


t^!B v E^TT T*^ 


TTT 


TTT 
TT 


£TB 


^TT— 


J/J«- '' 7 




hi 


r 


'>" mirkubal-isi rt 

• 


horses 




for 


5 


wooden 


chariots 



38. 4&* VT S3 -ET -j& Ef 

ul - U - hi - Ai - ak - ku 
have I sent thee. 



LETTER FROM TUSHRATTA 277 

2. Letter from Tushratta, king of Mitani, to Amenophis III, 
king of Egypt, sent with an image of the goddess Ishtar 

into Egypt. 

[Bu. 88—10—13, 78.] 

a - na m Ni - im - mu - ri - ta 

To Nimmuria, 




Air m *' M Mi - 1/ - n" - i afii - ra 

king of Egypt, my brother, 



fra - /a - ni - a Sa a - ra - * - a - mu 

my son-in-law, whom I love 



3. <\-w W ^ MI 4HF- TJ ET «f ^ 

« Az i - ra - ' - a - ma - an - ni 

and who loves me, 



<HT s=a?f eT 


4. ecttt et t -i m -it- tsnnr 


£1 - £/' - ma 


um - ma m Du - itf - ra/ - /a 


speaks 


thus DuSratta, 




tE ttTH Hf- 5*= 5. ^TI 


.far J// 


- /" - ta - an - »/ .fa 


king 


of Mitani, who 



*se e^TT 4HF- TJ * -*fcJ «=H * --H ET 

i - ra - ' - a - mu - ka e - mu - ka - ma 

loves thee, thy father-in-law. 



6. Tf ~ry ^ <V <WW ^ ft ~q 



a - na 


ia - Si 


W - ;w« 


a - na 


With 


me 


it is well; 


with 



278 



LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AM ARNA 



ka - a - Sa 
thee 



lu - u 
may 



Sui - mu 
it be well, 



awm m*w- <&m* 7-tj^t 

a - na 
with 

Tatumbipa 



*TTTT ^H TJ ^T £- £TTT TJ 




£*// - ka 
thy house, 



a - na 
with 



/ 



t& £- t$fi s. yj ^y ^^y ^H *gTT 



my daughter, 



a - na 
with 



cjj&z// - ka 
thy wife 



whom 



ITT MT 4Hf- TJ •* m *W <NRRRf ^ 

ta - ra - ' - a - /wh lu - u lul - jwi/ 

thou lovest may it be well ; 



9.yj^T tHEyy—^fcJ yj^y ^y— ^h 

a - na assa/i ? l - k a a - na mare P l - ka 

with thy wives, with thy sons, 



a - «rf 
with 



EQ5 I— Eh 

ameluti F l rabuti 

thy nobles, 






o. fi ^y 



with 



cyary— rH yj^y t^v^yyy 



W 



'>" narkabati* 1 - *u 
thv chariots, 



<7 - «</ 

with 



thy horses, 



k,i 



with 



^ T 



thl TJ ^T v -fcfcj 



thy troops, 



</ - na 
with 



mati - ka 
thy land 



<hW ff ^T 



12 



and 



</ - na 
with 



/h//w - wtt - £</ (fannis(is) 

all that is thine exceedingly 



ISHTAR'S DESIRE TO GO TO EGYPT 279 

dannis(is) dannis(is) lu - u Xul - mu 

exceedingly exceedingly well may it be. 



«/ra - ma ,/M Mar $a alu Ni - i - na - a 

Thus (spake) iStar of Nineveh, 



$ey vv h-TII 3 ^ <T- ^T E! ff-Hf 



&//'/ malati gab - 


3i - i - $i - na - ma a - na 


the lady - of all 


lands : "Unto 

• 


V <S: t] -HI t£ 


'5. *ee ~HT ^ •en 


maiu Jlf,- . £ . „• . ,• 


1 - 7*0 w<j// Jta 


Egypt 


into the land which 


I? E^T! A~f TJ •* 


m <^ ih m i- 


a - ra - ' - a - *»« 


lu - ul - lik - ku - me 


I love 


1 will go, 



/// - us - sa - $/' - ir - me a - nu - um - ma 



I will depart (?)." 


Verily 


*e -Hf Hf- ^T 


.7. <^ *T *flf ^^! £l 


/' - na - an - na 


ul - le - e - bil - ma 


now 


have I sent (her) and 


^T -Til ^H 




/'/ - /a/ - ka 




she is gone. 




■»■ ff *- sCTTT ET 


** -Hf *Hffflf **TT 


a - nu - ww - ma 


1 - 7*0 /rr - si 


Indeed 


in the time of 



280 LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA 



ff Eiffel '9-Hf-" 4 ^ *zm «*~H 



a - bi - /ii - 0*0 


,7w /f/</r biitum(tum) i - »<* 


my father 


iStar, the lady, into 


v f?TT If <!- 


£&T HTTI --H -• <M£1 


Wfl/i ia - a - is 


/'/ - tal - ka u 


that land 


went and 



ki - i - me - e i - na pa - na - a- nu - um - ma 

just as formerly 



«. S^T s£TTT 3=HJ ET ^ *T Hf S3 -I <V 

/'/ - /a 3fa£ - ma «/t - ie - # - £*" - du - ii l 

she dwelt (there) and they honoured her 



«• MHBJ] <=ee ~HT Hf- ^T KBtf «=TI 

a i - na - an - na afyi - ia 

so now may my brother 



TJ^T <JT »3.<^fcj ^y tfr^TTJ^ 

</ - «d A' - jtu fli ia pa - n a -a- nu 

ten times more than formerly 

-e£?TT -TTA HI 3 tT ^TT **■ BBtf M=TJ 

// - #/' - /# - hi - m - J/'* ahi - /i/ 

honour her. May my brother 



-m\\ HTT A HI a ^T ^TT ^^T flf<<T3^TJ 

// - £7 - ib - £/- /j - su' i - ;/</ ha - di - ^ 

honour her, with joy 

«5. ^TT yiT «^H JT ET -^TT :J < E^TT 

// - mii - iir - iu - mi/ // - du - u - n? s 

may he allow her to return. 

i. II 2 Pret. from kabatu with pron. suffix. 

2. II i Prec. from kabatu with pron. suffix. 3. 1 1 Prec. from taru. 



INJUNCTIONS FOR ISHTAR'S SAFE RETURN 28 1 



rf-Hf-^ C-ET ^TH-«=TJ BBtf*sfl 



"" /Jtor &/// 


&j - me - e ahi - ia 


May iStar, the lady < 


)f heaven, my brother 


<MSJ *£!¥ <y 27. 


. ^TT sf « HF- ^T <f- 


u ia - Si 


//' - ij - f«r - an - na - J/' 


and me 


protect 


T F ^TT 4tff 


►* F~- 2 8. <Hgg 


/ . C li - im 


Sandii P l u 


for 100,000 


years and 



hi - du ~ /a ra - £*' - /<z &//'/ 1&I// 

great joy may the lady of fire 



a - na ki - fo - a - a/ //' - /*/ 

unto both of us 



-EST ^T m HP- ^KT- ET 3o.<^iaj <jgj*e 

/*' - id - <//>/ - #« - na - Si -ma u ki - i 

give and thus 



muz? ** st^m* 

/a - a - bi /' ni - pu - uS 

good shall we do. 



1. ta-a-bi = fjfri. 

2. The last two lines of the letter, the meaning of which is uncertain, are 
here omitted. 



OBSERVATORY REPORTS. 

i. Reporting the date of the Vernal Equinox. 

[K 15.] 

umu VI KAN Sa ar b u Nisdnu u - mu 

On the 6th day of Nisan, the day 

u mu - Si Sit - ku - lu VI 

and the night were equal. Of 6 periods 1 

*y ^ 5 - W t&v ^ ^ <I- e. ^ +.& 

u - mu VI mu - Si llu Nabu 

was the day, of 6 periods was the night. May Nabu 



,/m Marduk a - //# .farr/ //*• - /' - // 

(and) Marduk unto the king, my lord, 

lik - ru - bu 
be propitious. 

I. The {2xv ^£ > ~ is proved by this and similar passages to have been a space 
of two hours. 



THE VERNAL EQUINOX AND LUNAR OBSERVATIONS 283 



2. Reporting a successful observation of the moon. 

[K 716.] 



1. 



£1 





r 



HFf- 





ma - sar - tu 
A watch 



m - 



ITT 

it ~ ta - sar 
we kept. 



£tt« JM7X KAN 

On the 29th day 



Hf- «< 3 - 

' lu Sin 
the moon 



^ £TTT <=TT- 4. «f -& < 

/*/' - la - mar t,u Nadu u 

we saw. May Nabu and 



HP *jn 5. Tf ~HT *£$ -II <^Tf 



' /M Marduk 
Marduk 



a - na 
unto 



Sarri 
the king, 



belt - ia 
my lord, 



6.jH*jn*- 7.*gTT T~Hr*-<ff ^TT 



lik - ru - bu 
be propitious. 

^TT *TTT ^TT 

alu ASSur 

the city of ASSur. 



Sa 
From 



m Na - bu - u - a 
Nabua 



Sa 
of 



3. Reporting an unsuccessful observation of the moon. 

[K 297.] 



m 



■ TJ ^T *£$ 


-II ^Tf 


*• -t*J ^H 


a - na Sarri 


&/* - ia 


ffnzt/ - £<z 


To the king, 


my lord, 


thy servant 


>f <w m tj 3. 


B8? Eh < - 


-T< 4. ^TT 


ilu iStar-iddin-apla 


<"»* l « rab - eSreti(ti) Sa 


Star-iddin-apla 


the chief 


of 



284 OBSERVATORY REPORTS 



TI ~*T W 




5- ^! 


^TT k: HP- 


.... P { 




$a 


« /a ^r^' - //« 


the astronomers 




of 


Arbela. 


e. ign< <r^ ^ 


7- TI ^T 


■fes -11 ^ti 


lu - u $ulmu(i 


mu) 


a - na 


fflm &//' - i<z 


Greeting 




to 


the king, my lord. 


8. «f ^ 


~f «*t 


9- HF- <W ^TT 


,7 « i\fo£« 


//« 


Marduk 


ilu htar la 


May Nabu, 


Marduk 


(and) iStar of 


-s=TT - Hf- 


10. 


TI^T 


&& -II *ETf 


* /M ^f*fl' - ilu 




j - «j 


Aim" fo/r* - ta 


Arbela 




unto 


the king, my lord, 





lik - ru - bu ina umi XXIX KAS ma - sar - tu 

be propitious. On the 29th day a watch 

'4. ss: £TTT W <KTTI ^X2&& £TTT*TT- HT< 



ni - ta - sa - #r 

• 


hi - /'/ 


ta - mar - //' 


we kept. 


At the house of observation 


.6. A4f ^TTTI 


« 7. Hf- <« 


-ET ^ 4£ 


irpitu 


' /tt Si/j 


/</ ni - mi/r 


(there were) clouds. 


The moon 


we did not see. 


18. ^ g= 


*T T t& 


i 9 . <y **$ 


" r *« &&l/« 


umu I ^A\ 


Urn - mu 


The month Sebat, 


the 1st day, 


the eponymv 



T -II £-- v < TI 

m fii-f-/iarran-$dtfu(u)-a 
of Bel-()arran-sadua. 



LUNAR OBSERVATIONS 285 

4. Reporting a lunar eclipse. 

[K 88.] 



a - «a <jm*/i< ikkaru belt - ia arad - ka 

To the chief gardener, my lord, thy servant 



y «f * •* - 3. e^ ET- < *T 4- ^T 

m ilu Nabu-Sum-iddina amglu rob - efrete(te) Sa 

Nabu-Sum-iddina, the chief (of the astronomers) of 



Afciai ^ 7 ' 7 « Nabu ilu Marduk a - na 

Nineveh. May Nabu (and) Marduk unto 

ee^EeT 7-11^ IH^m^ *•*! <Vt^ 

< lwt ' /tt /fehrnt fctf - ia lik - ru - bu umu XIV KAN 

the chief gardener, my lord, be propitious. C On the 14 th day 




■HHfff-^T 9-^T! «f<« 10.55: £m 

masartu hi tlu Sin ni - ta - ,wr 

a watch of the moon we kept. 



1 1 - HP- «< Hf- <-£ I2 - tT JS t^ 

llu Sin a/aid is - sa - &i/i 

The moon was eclipsed. 



REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS. 

i. From Nabu-ahe-erba. 

[K 692.] 



enuma Sin ina ar *l u Kislimu umu XXX KA ^ 

When ihc moon in the month Kislev, on the 3oth day, 

in nam mar $ar Afar - /« *' jjuz kakki 

is seen, the king of the Western land with (his) arms 



Sumku/u(/u) hi m iiu Nabu - a[ic F l - erba 

/(shall achieve) ( From Nabu-abe-erba. 

\ a conquest. / 

2. From the chief astrologer. 

[K fc«)3.] 

'• T <<< - <r- r I <£fT *T T y 

enuma Sin ina namuri-lu kima umu I K -*S 

When the moon in its appearance as ontheistday, 

umu XXVIII K ,N innammar limuliim(tim) Mar - tu Kl 

(so) on the 28 th day is seen, (there will be) evil fortune for the Western land. 



REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS 287 

3-T <« *T «m*& <T- 4. <M 

cnuma Sin umu XXVIII KAN innammar dumku 

When the moon on the 28 th day is seen, i -there wiiiboj 

J 'l prosperity I 

v3Vv<U <HH v *TT- -tIT <HT 5. W 

mdtu Akkacli KI limuttu mdtu Mar - tu Kl ta 

for Akkad, evil fortune for the Western land. From 

ESS th ]} ^TT 

amelu ra fi m fcu 

the chief astrologer. 

3. From Akkulanu. 

[K 694.] 

cnuma umu XVI KAW Sin u Samas itti a - ha - miS 
When on the 16th day the moon and the sun with one another 

<M~~ ■■*£$?? T *£55 fr\ MI^ 

innamru f l Sarru ana Sarri nukurta umaar(ar) 

are seen, king against king hostility will direct, 



3.1SS - *TTTTEM TJ^T <Kr~HT^T 

Sarru ina ekalli - $u a - na mi - na - at 

the king in his palace for the space of 



<WTCA 4. *TTT* £m £H <£TT \ 

ar - hi u ta sar Upa ll nakiri 

a month will be besieged, the feet {°[ c t l Jj c .} 



a - na mali~$u ameiu nakiru ina mati-Su Sal - ta - ni$ 

into / his land 1 the enemy in his land triumphantly 
\(will come),/ 



288 



REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS 



^H 



*• 1 <« 



*« jt m < 



ittallaku P l 
will march. 



enuma Sin ina ar b u Duzi In - u 

When the moon in the month Tammuz either 



umu XIV K ™ lu - u 



on the 14th day 



or 



umu XV KAS 
on the 15 th day 



' /M Samti id innamir{ir) Xarru ina 

the sun has not been seen, the king in 



an 

with 

ekalli - ht 
his palace 



*TTT* £TTT ^H 

« ta sar 

will be besieged. 

l (there will be) 1 
I prosperity I 



w/ww A" J 7 / ^ /1V innammar-ma 

On the 1 6 th day should it be seen, 



matu Akkadi K1 
for Akkad 

y -& -* -? i ^ 

'" Ak - *»/ - la - /// 
Akkulanu. 



zH ***J <m 


xo. <hh 


Subarii KI 


limuttu 


for Subartu, 


evil fortune 


< v ^TT- -^! 


"•^TT 


« "»•»'« 3A?r - /a 


hi 


and the Western land. 


From 



SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS. 



[K 25 1.] 



I. 



«^ET %W TJ^T TIKI] 



Sum - ma 
If 



ma - ru 
a son 



a - na 
to 



a - bi-$u 
his father 



«/ a - 3i a/ - ta 

"Thou art not my father" 



ik - ta - hi 
says, 



1/ - ga - la - ab - Xu 
they shall brand him, 



ab - bti - ut - turn 
in fetters 



*E W -& ^T I <M@! TJ ^T <ff *T 



i - $a - <z£ - £<zji - Jf« 
place him 



and 



a - na 
for 



kaspi 
silver 



*EHTC*fl<I *w^*T EMU TJ^T 



i" - /*a/» - din-iu 
sell him (as a slave). 



,?«;» - ma 
If 



ma - rt 
a son 



a - na 
to 



TTKsrI <^ jr:iIT <tt **f Hf< -TI^^TIT^ 



«/« - mi-Su ul um - »i a/ - ti 

his mother "Thou art not my mother" 



ik - ta 
says, 
19 



hi 



290 SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS 



* *t ssrn *m ^v *m* er- *- et 

mu - ut - la - as - su u - £«/ - bu - ma 

his face they shall brand and 



a - la - am u - sa - afr - fta - ru - hi u 

the city they shall forbid him and 



*E ^T «=TTTT *TTT* * £-£ J! 3. «^ eeT 

i - na biti u - h - su - Su him - ma 

from the house they shall drive him. If 

n*-. i er-mjr <^ ei -m *& ^ttt 

a - bu ana ma - ri - Su ul ma - n <2/ - /a 

a father to his son 'Thou art not my son" 



ik - ta - bi ina 

says, from house 

i - te - el - la 
he must depart. 

EeT -TTI J! \tV ET If -III *ET £TTT 

ma - ri - Su ul ma - a - r/" a/ - /</ 

her son "Thou art not my son" 



M/f u 

lse and 


wall 


rum 


If 


um - mu 
a mother 


! 

to 



1% - ta - £/' i'«a £1// 1/ u - ?ia - a - ti 

says, from house and household stuff 



i - te - */ Jfo/w - otj a$ - $a - ta 

he must depart. If a wife 

I. mu-ut-ta-as-su = mutt at -su. 



LEGAL RELATIONS OF HUSBAND AND WIFE 291 

mu - us - su i\ - si - ir - ma «/ *»« - ti 

her husband hates and "Not my husband 



at - ta ik - ia - bi a - na na - a - ru 

m 

art thou" says, into the river 



i - na - ad - du - Su Sum - »ifl »i« - /« a - na 

let them throw her. If a husband to 



aS - Sa - ti - Su ul aS - Sa - ti at - /a 

his wife "Thou art not my wife" 



# - /a - 3/' */ 2 »ra - »a &w/>* i - 3fa£ - £a/ 

says, */ 2 maneh of silver he shall pay. 



Sum -ma a - me - lum ar - da 

If a man a slave 



i - gu - ur - ma im - tu - ut iff - ta - lik 

hires and he dies, (or) gets lost, 



*'/ - ia - &a - ta it - ta - pa - ar - &j 

(or) runs away, (or) disappears, 



« f'm - ta - ra - su i - <# - ^ 3fa 

or falls sick, as his hire for 

1. mu-uS'Su = mut-su. 

l 9 » 



292 SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS 



u - ma - Ami 


1/ 7V4. A ^JV. 


Jfe - am 


one day 


x / 2 (a measure of) 


corn 



i- ma - an - da - # </ 
he shall measure out. 

i. Rev., Col. Ill, 1. 23 — Col. IV, 1. 22. 



PROVERBS AND SAYINGS. 



«. ff m -mi tj mw <m ~nr »m -i< 

§a - at - tu a - for fa' - na - tu - /i 

Hostility is among (one's) servants, 

&7r - f /' a - ka - /i a - for /a - Jfi - Su - /i' 

slander where with oil 



# - /« - <rf - A* w-&/r - rw t'fla «/i fo - mm - ma 

one is anointed. A servant in another city 



ri - e -$u id - ru - /«/» fo u-ma - ag - tan 

is a high officer. Friendship is for a day, 



<m ~nr *m »m w ^tt e^tt u -t< $ 4. y 

&* - na - /« - tu fo da - ra - a - ti ana 

service is for ever. With 



ka - la da - 011 - j% « u - la - pa 

every one is he friendly and into an alliance 

1. Sm. 61, 11. 12—15. 2 « IMd» !• l6 ^ 3 « ^'^«» U-9— !!• 



»• 



294 PROVERBS AND SAYINGS 



la - bi - il alpu na - ha - r* -fafli - me 

enters. The ox of an enemy weeds 



i% - &*/ a#« ra - ma - ni - fo £/' - ri - tf 

doth eat, one's own ox in a fat pasture 



ni - 1/ ina na - n /«£ - ba - A" - ma 

lies. By a stream thou art, but 



**eH £TT ttf £TT *JH «=T*—H(£T - 

/»« - &i da - ad - da - ru ap - pu - na-ma ina 

thy water stinketh 8 exceedingly; in 

hi - ri - i tab - ft' - ma su - fu - up - pa - ha 

a plantation thou hast been, but thy date 




fcTT-E3r 7. ^T^I!^ V ***** 

/war - /«/« /*# - da - /in /a torn' 

(was) gall. To give is the king's (privilege), 



fu - ub - bu la la - hi - i' na - da - nu 

to make joyful is (the privilege) of the ruler. To give 



.fa larri dum - mu - hu la a - &z - rj£ - £i/ 

f is the king*s\ to show favour is I (the privilege) \ 

I (privilege), ( \of the governor./ 

i. K 4347, Obv., Col. Ill, 1. 6 f. 2. 80—7—19, i3o, 11.6—8. 3. Literally, 
"(is) a stink". 4. K 4347, Rev., 11. 19 — 24. 5. tu-ubbu — tubbu. 6. Sm. 61, 
1. 5 f. 7. Ibid., 1. 7 f. 



TEXTS 



TO BE TRANSLITERATED AND TRANSLATED 



Inscription of Tiglathpileser I. 

Engraved on the rock, near the source of the Tigris. 

- H7I £* *T W ~V 

ei- w -ii f~ ti 

I Hf I IU mJ< n t nTT A E^II 
s« v- If T-V*TM=*M- 

« v - EI ^H OT £TTT 



-ii *r<r*: v v-nftE-m 



10 



mi i v^i^-iii ^i 



Inscription of Assur-nasir-pal. 

From his statue in the British Museum. 

'T~V*-TJ « EI- « tW+ « I 

« v- -ii w+ « Ei- « MnnFv- 



298 INSCRIPTION OF ASHURBANIPAL 

« I « V- *]] <*}& « £h « 



v tTTI ~HT ~Hf 6 TJ **=T «^T ET- Hf< 



wK sM^-Hf '^fT-^T «=ETT^^T 



»TJ^T <^TTI *TTT* HOE 5* V 



Hunting-inscriptions of Ashurbanipal. 

i. From a relief in the British Museum, representing the king pouring a 

libation over four dead lions. 






*ETT E^TT TJ -T< * tTTTt v -e^TT >* ^T 



4 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI III 299 

2. From a relief in the Louvre, representing the king seizing a lion by 

the ear and slaying it. 

« Ti ^r m hf- a ^ ti « 1 « 

YHNk<M - «^HF- £TTT AH- ~T< *EeTJ 



- <EETT ^TJ IH -mi sT ~*TT • V 






Inscription of Ramman-nirari III. 

From a stone slab in the British Museum. 

[51-9—2, 35.] 

■« I « v- « W - sEI -V 

3 « HP- WIT *T ^T 1^1 fir W • « -E! 



V^T-f- «=TTT^ ^! M *TTT* '-THJI t^TTT 
TJ <Ts£ *T -£*• 7 ^ ~T< W <T3= >* 



3oo 



INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI III 



<£JT-TTI TJ T-HF-*T<T-< -« £h « 



«=THy- « I « v 



« « ^T 



V^Hf- TJ T-f <T^ET^HF- -« 
~WT- »-<!< V ^v ffA-HF-^HfTU 



4t^tgf V T-^*cTJ 

5 ^ ^yy &Eff< £TT —TIT < 



T 




^T 



*I4HF- 



7 «f A4 < -HF- «*T -TTI ^& ^TT 



20 



21 



« 



v J! t- -m < 




v v <m 



£T^JT^ V T ->f <Ts£ ET •/- HF- « *TTI*- 



« ^ *TT^ <T^ E£ff *TTTT <*£ ^!T^ * v E*=TT 
mV^T ET£TTTTM< JT^-eST3 *<V 



T -Hf- - -Til -^H *T- « 3= 



►W- 



«5 



TJIH 



ill -ITI 



: < *y ^ « ~y< 



26 



w 



~V tn*-< ^!TE!I 



SENNACHERIB'S FOURTH CAMPAIGN 3oi 

The subjugation of Babylonia by Sennacherib in 

his fourth campaign. 

From a cylinder in the British Museum. 

[No. 1 2174.] 

coi. in, 1. 4» tE -ry W *fi ^H -ITI ■*!? 

«f ^p ^ ^ t yyy t ^ £j «j_ ^ E y 



« tCTTT EI ~H[ *T *6ft **Vflf*T ^T<Bf^f 



ij^i vtyyni^i^r «i?-^tit -j&a 



^^1 t-hkhtc* ew-iii^tj «*gn 

TJ&TJvi- -tfc-nr ^TT 3 ^I -e£T *TTT* -t£T 
fc£IIl!£E <MM «Jf*TTT* A£^TI 
£111 tf< -II* ^ <--W I A«tt - El 

tin hi*i*iiieei *«=t^ ^^teem 



50 yj ^y v m y ^ ^y *m H ~< 



as=e*=tw- *jmii«= M-^^^^-Hf 



^IT ^ ^1 T? *W » tfH -III ^TJ -£II -III *ff 



1. I.e., ™&t* Bit -m la-kin. 

2. I. c, amilu Kal-da-ai, the Chaldean. 



1 



302 



SENNACHERIB'S FOURTH CAMPAIGN 



■ i 



Ml 



I.t 



J; 



<h <M £ m + ET » *TTT* *T HTTI *J 



tMT* *!¥»«&: £f »«fT 



ET£- v 



cE^T <HJHJI*- ^!<ME! <HW 



:T -s=TTT I 



56 ^ mw «f et ti 



*T -£V sT ££ ^!T^ hH s£ ^TT* 



Kw< T 



I * fcfTTT i^y I 5« ^ 



*TIT* ET * OT TJ A *T -£V TJ <T^ 



^T! ^T ~T< ^ I 



v I 59 <ty* ^ 



ktT 3= E^TT *T - «=TTT«= v JJ s^ ET £- -ET 
s^^ tT!Tc=v^T T ET -sTTT— I h=t g 



*H&^TT *m**T- *WT- <-sfcM 
Jft *iST T- I 6 * E^S v <^T ET<H 



63 



T &£e E^TT ^te t^T *- <HI 



m TJ II <W!I -!< *sfl I «f -V ^T 2< ^ 



set ^M^T^TTT* *^*Tm ^stE<I£J^ 



ASHURBANIPAL'S CONQUEST OF ELAM 3o3 



«%&zm v-tjaur < svv<ir 



^v-JHa s^MI 



The conquest of Elam by Ashurbanipal. 

From a cylinder in the British Museum. 

[No. 1 2168.] 

coi. v, 1.90^- ny^y< «f a < «f<^ 

<MTI <T^ *TJ ET *J IH * ***¥ 
T tTTTT « tBJ HfT -^n « *<^TeeT<HJ »*mi 



93 



F ^T< Hfl* Eff< HTTI ^ 



- -tTT tBQT T «=|W HT Tl "s=TT ^TT t^^-KI 
v *T « ^ ATI «=ETf rc& £AT ^T «=H 
TJ£*< *TTT**jn *Mfl**jn HJ-eeWI 



TJ^T ^^t<M!I^T «Hf-<W TJ<T-~ 



-tTT t=fc= -4- — v ►*• <T- 98 yj ^y 
^ ATI ^ -TA <tt tjTTt t£hfl -m ET 



99 



<M TJ fcfc HPk 3 I *- ~T< ™ sCTTT ET 



H^THf *j*ni - B1&& T~f^TJ 



3o4 ASHURBANIPAL-S CONQUEST OF ELAM 

-TA<tt -+s:-T< *?ATJ«*T? Ss-TIiS^ 

■« Tfls es*t ear *tj ^ « *m im— 

»>T?<Te£ *tflT~- 3tT~~ f 5r*«= 
►fT «*JT< -<T-EI <TT ^T-TTA«=Tf ^ 
<IB «=m v <^l ET <IH xfcj -eE=TT [I ■& 

-s«¥ -t?^ <jg < *tt?t>- tm>=¥tw 

.«- -ty T-ep TMk t«Evn<T*«=Tf: 

■-- etiett— *tt>bt- <£>**/ <*n«=T?: 

►HI T— ■■' T <m « tfcl ETT *TT << 
v <^T ET <IEJ ••' <tt evTT y- :£T : 

tlBs ^T e=TTTT ET d ~* T £TTT * <=TTT« 
..3-eTT^T^^ T?<T3- ^MTAeT? ? 
tTT tETTT An <MU Etyr ■■< tfcr -ET «* 
-& £\ *T " « T? ~f -cTT T— - 
-T-TTAeT? TTT tTT -H «=TH Hfffi -► 
<xfcj T- sT -m "gTT "tTT A En HI 



THE SACK OF SUSA 



3o5 



H&JT*T » 7 ^H^T<T-^ <HSJ -s=TTT 



IeTT -t^TTFHKI w=T®T -S-TT » 8 ^TT 



TU- *TTT3I*ffl ^H*TM*- 



*Tff T 



SM^-ffi «* *TTT* *HI 4« ~H— I*TR 



II-II «HF-T— I -MWT— I VJTI 



V*TTT*I «tTHT 



t^ < ET- £iej^T. 



*TTT«= ET AHf- *T? tin tfe ^ ' » 5 <HJ *TTJ 
v <^T ET <M *ff *jn rfc eeT *tf -TTI *jn 



1M 



126 



TTI TJ TJ <MTI ~T< *STJ W 



*f A < ~f <W «> *TTT* V -TT* ~*TT *te 



s**f e=TTT^ -TTI ten - >*TT JT V ~f 



ETtf<^TT eMTIT* **3=Hf ~H— I*W 
- TJ ^H *T- ^TT£= ~T< I *W -J& £T *T 



130 



Tfv -fA. < ~f<w <E^m 



*TTTTEM~~ I >**TIWsfc *TTM' 



mT T 



& «rj *y ^ eT 



*TTTT 



20 



3o6 INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON 



-fcfflf *-< ff Hf<I *■ ™ ITT <R *T I 






coi. vi, i. x ^yy ^ y— v <^y et <Ef 



TJ <r^ *m a *t T- Hf- ^ *ff 



* *ttt* 3ife= a *jn ^it^j^ <^tt k^^ 
v-u*er mtj^tt *eethh- *jttt^tt 
-et *m*wiai - *yyy:3 • *ttt* * h &* et 



Inscription of Esarhaddon recording the restora- 
tion of Eanna, the temple of the goddess Ishtar. 

From a cylinder in the British Museum. 
[81—6—7, 209.] 



yj ~ry -HF- C^TT — V- ^^ Hf< 



*w~a -Hf-*!* < <m~&r ^t*jim< 



«f T— v *jii A-yyy ~y< . ^m z<m <^y 
*jn «st T? -i< *httt< -y< -&ryy ^-y yj hk 
**= E^yy <se HP- ti «r *w«= -^T 3 v 



DEDICATION TO ISHTAR 



3o7 



•TTI <S< 



*T -TTI *fl Hf< m z& v 



^ <k: HTC* -TTI W <M « Id! ~^T* -ET -^TT 
'— T*I *TTT* £- ~Mf *JH ^^H^TTMM 



^TT ^T V- 



<M£H 



-S^TT *£ HT< 



«VHffflF-t:H«*T ^TTT~HTTM< V*2=M< 



Hf-T— W<[-m *TTTMff MI* ~f ~HT >V 



<ET^m *TTTT~f~HT hC ^<ST<HT *E 




ET-HT< IeI » T Hf- ^ B8?i *£J ^Hf 



ET-^TTT* ^ *fff *- t^m I *£$ 



<HT »Hf<-m^T JTtt Hf-A 




«* -s£T *T HTAHffF *TTT 3 



Til *TTT 



S^TTTT HF-«*T <~Eff< Hf-SmSrs*: 



■ V <tf* -^T «^TT A -TTI I TJ ^T 

■+A ~fff«r ^tii«=ttt Hhtmrn 



-HP- <-TT < Hf- <W 



12 



HF- T- ET- T' 



20* 



3o8 INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON 

-II F I mj ^ M ET & t] v ^ 



£TT ~Hf Hf- 1 *fflf * TJ -Hf V- ^Hfflf -I 



^TTT^ HF- HOT* HT< I *- < y-^v-s? 
Hf-A -vTII ^ ^TII < ~f<W HF-T- 






^ *T I *TTTT ^ ^ ,8 ^ ^^ *&* 



tM •pit* tTTT^mr tmiEM ^^tm« 



TITLES AND GENEALOGY OF THE KING 3og 



^-miV- MOT* *Nfffi I *■ -<T< 6T «=TTT«=HII 













^m<M &t£l*JlL~&r fc^tTTT^^! 



<©*nM< jum< »***-£[ *TmHF-~nr 



*M Hf- TJ <C±T *TTT* -s£T ~HT & 




~f <W "i«*fl V *£$ ETA£ *E*-JT 



3lO INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON 



b=TTTT te% I— 1 33 £ e^TT -<T< I S= *T AHf- *tif 
ET *TTT £TTT I ^ >V JT *T I- -II I 
*TTT* MI 3] ET 1 <E ET ^TT ET -<T< I 

<MTI/ sflT* *m= njx <m ET * *e 
-TTI^THM <^-^TT « Hf- <W *E 
-V *- Hf< <T- *T JT TJ -e£T R< T 
JT^^TET ff* £<Mf*eff TVIEK 
WUV *<-*fcI* ^v ~Hf<H^TTI 



AHffMT- *TT— Hffflf t^^mt 



v _ *yy_ ^j <y.*y jyyj^y 

»*&w~rWlET ET «=TTT «T< *E s&: JT «=TTT* 
fc^TTHf<I *T*TAHf-«=tif ET «=TTT &TTT I 

IH*EH »**££fcJ*TTT* <WW ^<=ETJ 
I5PLT JT^JT^T H!«<E -^T*<B - 



&HTII *W*Hfff «-TI*-TTi:3I Hf-T 



I. Reading uncertain; u-si-bi ma, if correct, = uitipi-ma. 



INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 3li 



^TTTtfc^^^^ <£JTH< 4.V ^^H^TTT* 
■=TTT* -qfif >*H «H 4a Hf- ^TT — ^ 



Inscription of Nabonidus commemorating the re- 
storation of the temple of the Moon-god at Ur. 

On four cylinders in the British Museum. 
[K 1689, K 1690, K 1 69 1 and K 1692.] 

^im-TT^^IT ♦*^f HPT— ET-T 



tITTt -pIT* -^TT M *f - T Hf- <WR -n^ 



3 12 INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS 

3EI »<T-*TI tm«= *m HP< -^-n 

sO: ^TT -n- J! TJ Hf< * T H HF- a 
*E*-jyEy --ET ^^3= -E^TT M Mf 



.« tTTTt ^yys£ e<$>< * *e ~ry HF- 5* 
^ ^!! -IT- J! TJ *T - -EJ ^ -TTI ^TT 






-ET 3 -TTI 4tfT- ET - *£ ^T m rt* HFTI 
<METJ TJ ^TT -III -7 ~eT £TTT -S I 
<5«><ET -TI-^T «f<« -II ~H 



~H— W HF-T— 30 t^ <T- tJj ~f*fl 



EM— -II tyryTtTH^ET- »V <m*m 



HIS PRAYER TO THE MOON-GOD 3l3 

coi. ii, i. . :£T <y>- ~yy Ey • *=yj *- zfl 



'fl-Hf ^TTTT JHJH< • R< <W= ^fT 



^tttt *tts= *ttmw - «=tttt -yy* ^yy 

^M^W^T- »*TTTTT— Hf-*TTT* Hr<xfcJ 

* <m@j *- «=yyy< h< Hf- *m* h< >*H 

*eM< *TTT3 *fflfW I «jy^ymiEy 



-eT ^ ^ IM tint - H ^T HF- *m* H< -*H 

th-<i< >7<mti Hf-*ff ^yy^yyjy^- 

- -EST © *- * tfeTf TJ H< T ~^T& ^ 




H-«=TTT*-<T<^H *EW< JT/HP-^ET 

<y- t£31 h< ^^h *» <h@j v 
y ~*TH *£$ 55* « s£ ^TT^ -*£[ *TTT* 



3 14 INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDL'S 

^4- *yyy* mJ< -tH ev ~< T < * **!! *s~ ^5T 



*-ET-E^TT*TJ fl< *T3 



VOCABULARY 



I 



\i 



ill 



VOCABULARY. 



ai 

ai 

aiu 

aibu 

abu 

abubu 

abQbiS 
ababaniS 

abbuttu 

abaku 
abiktu 

abkallu 

abSlu 



interj. : "alas!"; employed as subs. : "grief, pain", 
particle of prohibition : "not". Cf. Hebr. **K. 
interrogative particle : "where ?". Hebr. **£. 
interrogative pronoun : "who, which ?". Cf. Hebr/K. 
"enemy" ; sometimes written ia-a-bu. Hebr. 2$k. 
"father". Ideogr. fc^J. Hebr. 2$. 
"flood, deluge"; Marduk's weapon, "thunder- 
bolt (?)". 

adv. : "like a deluge". 

"fetter". Hebr. nbj^. 

Pret. ebuk, i sing, abuk : "to carry off (as spoil)". 

"defeat". Ideogr. <J>- <J^. 

constr. st. abkal : "spokesman, director". Ideogr. 

HffflfT-. 

Pret. ubil, tibia ; Prec. lubil, libil : "to bring, carry, 
conduct; to dispense (commands); to prompt, 
urge (with libbu "the heart" as subject); to lay 
(the hand upon)". Cf. Hebr. ^3ln, Hif. of bT 

(t. e. ban). 

Ifteal, Part, muttabbilu : "to bring, carry". 
Shafel, Pret. uSabil, uVebil\ Imper. Subil : "to bring, 
cause to bring, send". 



3l8 VOCABULARY 

Ishtafal, Pret. uttabil, ultebil, usibil : "to cause to bring, 
to send". 
biltu constr. st. bilat : "tribute, taxes ; burden, weight ; ta- 
lent". Ideogr. ^f^fcflff 
abullu "great gate, city-gate". Ideogr. t^-} E|*~- 
abnu constr. st. oban : "stone". Ideogr. Ejf^f Hebr. pK 

abru "wing, pinion". Hebr. *|JJK. 

abarakku "governor". 

abSiu Prec. Ifabi/; Pres. fabat, ibbai : "to destroy; to be 

destroyed, disappear". Hebr. 13HL 
Piel, Pret. u'abbit, ubbit\ Part, mu'abbit : "to destroy, 

annihilate". 
Nifal, Pret. innabit : "to fly, escape". 
Ittafal, Pres. ittabat : "to fly, run away". 
aga fern. sing, agdta, demonstrative pronoun : "this"; the 

form aga is also used for all numbers genders and 
cases. 
agU "crown, tiara, diadem". 

agQ "stream, river". 

agagu Pret. igug : "to be angry". 

aggxi fern. sing, aggatu : "angry, furious". 
aggiS adv. "angrily, in wrath". 
uggatu "anger". 
agammvL "swamp" ; written with determ. Jy^f. Hebr. DJ& 
agappu "wing of a bird". 
agaru Pret. igur : "to hire". 
agurru see igaru. 

adi "up to, to, until ; together with" ; adi mati "how 

long?". Ideogr. *-^J. Hebr. 1J?. 

■ 

adQ adv. "now". 
adG "age, long period of time". 
adQ "to fix, ordain". 



VOCABULARY 



3ig 



ada 
adaguru 
admu 

udmu 
adannu 
adannii 
Adarxx 
adarxx 
adattu 
ahu 

w 

ahamiS 

w 

ahu 

w 

aha 

w 

ahazu 



ahulapi 

[aharu] 
aharrvt 

ahrQ 

w 

akalu 



akalu 
alu 



Piel, Pret. tartA/i ; Inf. «</</« .: "to fix in place ; to or- 
dain, appoint; to determine", 
plur. ade : "ordinance, command", 
"vessel for incense", 
"the young (of birds, serpents etc.)". 
"generation, race", 
"a fixed time". 

adv. "exceedingly, vigorously". Ideogr. £j E|^« 
the month Adar. Ideogr. *-£^% ^- Hebr. *n$. 
Pret. edur : "to fear", 
(i. e. adantu), plur. adndti : "dwelling", 
"brother" ; a&u a&u "the one the other". 

Ideogr. E5ff& Hebr - H$- 
adv. "together"; ana aJiamtt "together, to one another"; 

itti ahamti "with one another", 
"side; bank of a river; shore of the sea", 
fem. afritu : "hostile". 
Pret. Tftuz; Pres. t'ifiaz : "to hold, seize; to learn; 

to begin". Hebr. NIK. 
Shafel, Pret. u$ahiz\ Pres. utahaz : "to cause to take". 
Nifal, Pres. innafyaz : "to be taken", 
adv. "how long?"; ahulapi kibu "to proclaim forgive- 
ness (to some one)", 
"to be behind". Hebr. nn$. 
"the West-wind". Ideogr. ^f|L tjy*. *^J. Cf. 

Hebr. Tln$. 
fem. plur. ahrdiu : "future"; ina a^rai ume "in the 

future". Cf. Hebr. JDETK, mtj*- 
Pret. ikul\ Pres. ikkal, 2 sing. takal\ Part. dh'I, masc. 

plur. akiluti : "to eat". Ideogr. ^t^f. Hebr. b^tji. 
Ifteal, Pret. itakal : "to eat", 
"food". Ideogr. Xf. 
plur. alani : "city". Ideogr. >-^TT. 



320 VOCABULARY 

aladu Pret. utid; Pres. ullad : "to bear, bring forth"; fem. 

part, alittu (for dlidtu) "woman in travail, mother". 
Hebr. lb\ 
Ifteal, Pret. ittalad : "to spawn". 
Piel, fem. part, mtiallidatu : "to bear". 
ilittu "child, offspring". 
alSku Pret. illik, 2 masc. sing, tallik, 1 sing. <z-/#; Prec. 1 sing. 

lullik; Pres. illak, 1 sing. aUak\ Imper. a-tik f al-ha 
Part, alik ; Perm. 3 plur. al-ka : "to go, to come" 
alaku ri§ut (or ana ri$ut) "to go to the help of" 
alik idi "ally"; alik pant "leader; predecessor". 
Ideogr. £^|. Hebr. *!J^n. 
Ifteal, Pret. and Pres. ittalak "to go, walk, proceed". 

Ideogr. £^J £j^J. 
Iftaneal, Pret. and Pres. ittanalak "to go along or 

round". 
Shafel, Pret. ufflik : "to cause to go" ; karmuta Wuku 
"to cause to fall in ruins". 
alaktu "path". 
alikutu "going, advance". 
allaku "active, quickly-moving". 
malaku "going, course". 
alalu Pret. ///// : "to bind, to hang, to hang up". 

alalu "to be void, to be nothing". 

ul negative : "not". 

ullu "denial, nay". 
[alalu] "to be strong". 
alilu "strong". 
allalu "strong, powerful". 
ellatu "might, forces; family relatives". 
allallu a brightly-coloured bird. 
alpu "ox". Ideogr. £.]£. Hebr. P]bK. 

amU "to speak". 



VOCABULARY 



321 



Ishtafal, Pret. and Pres. uStamt : with libbu "to think, 
direct the attention to". 
amatu constr. st. amdt : "word, command ; thing". Ideogr. 

"word, speech", 
"ban, curse; oath, compact", 
plur. amiluii : "man"; for amel urki see aralfu. 
Ideogr. ££&. 



attnVL 

mamitu 
amelu 
amllu 



\ 



amelutu "mankind". 
aznmaku "instead of". 



aznmini 

ammatu 

amaru 



"why ?". 

"earth". 

Pret. emur, Imur; Pres. immar; Imper. amur, fem. 
amrl : "to see ; to find ; to read (in an inscrip- 
tion)". Ideogr. <J>-, <J*- J*". 

Ifteal, Pret. itamar : "to see". 

Nifal, Pret. innamir; Pres. irmammar; Inf. namuru : 
"to be seen; to be found". 
tamartu "observation" ; bit tdmarti "observatory". 

interj.: "help!"(?). 

constr. st. amat : "maid, handmaid". Ideogr. £-V. 
Hebr. H$£. 

prep. "to". Ideogr. T. 

constr. st. an: "receptacle, place"; an $illi "dungeon". 

the god of heaven. 



amaSSa 
amtu 



ana 
anu 
Anu 
AnQtu 






>"divinity". 
AnumQtu) 



[anahu] 
tanlhu 

w 

SQnuhu 

[anahu] 

anhutu 



"to sigh, lament". Hebr. nj$. 
"sighing, sorrow", 
"full of sighs". 

Pret. enafr; Pres. innafr : "to grow weary; to de- 
cay"; la dnifru "unwearied". 



"ruin". 



21 



322 



VOCABULARY 



anSku 
anaku 
anumma 

[ananu] 



annu 
unninu 
[ananu] 
anantu 
annu 
annGnu 



amnu 

anini 

ninu 

nini 

annQ 



I 



annQ&im 
anakati 
5sQ 
asamu 

asmu 

simtu 



asmaru 

[apu] 



personal pronoun : "I". Hebr. "^J^. 

"lead". Ideogr. >->Jf- *~TJ. Hebr. ^J$. 

"verily, indeed". 

"to be gracious". Hebr. JJH. 

Ifteal, Inf. uinennu : "to weep, pray, supplicate"; 

inf. used as subs, "prayer, supplication". Cf. 

Hebr. jJOnff. 
"mercy, grace; consent, yea", 
"prayer, supplication", 
"to be hostile", 
"opposition, fight, attack", 
"sin, error, wickedness", 
"sin, fault, transgression". 

personal pronoun : "we". Hebr. ^HJ, ttHJIjt. 

anni (gen.), anna (ace); fem. annitu, anriiii (gen.), 
anmta (ace); masc. plur. annuti y annutu\ fem. anndti, 
demonstrative pronoun "this". 

adv. "now". 

(fem. plur.) "she-camels". 

"physician". Ideogr. E ^fr ]} ^JJ. 

"to be adorned". 

"adorned". 

constr. st. simaf; plur. simati : "ornament, adornment, 
honour"; la simati "property or position unlaw- 
fully held". Ideogr. J>- ^J. 

"lance" ; written with determ. £:| , e. g. *'* u as-mar-t. 

"to shine forth". Cf. Hebr. HB\ 

T T 

Shafel, Pret. utapti, ufrpi; Imper. hipa\ Perm. Supu : 
"to cause to come forth, call into being, create, 
make; to make bright; to praise, glorify". 



VOCABULARY 



323 



Sapu 
apSlu 
aplu 
apsu 
appu 

appunnama 

apparu 
ap&anu 
asu 



situ 



si'atu 
satu 
assaru 

• • 

[aJJru] 

afcsu 
afrSru 



Ishtafal,Pret.«3to2//, us'tepa i \u-si-bi-ma=us'tepi-maQ)~\ : 

"to cause to appear ; to make bright, to adorn ; 

to be called into being, to be created", 
"bright, brilliant, glorious". 
Pret. ipul\ Pres. ippal : "to answer", 
constr. st. apil : "son". Ideogr. |^, t^^5|- 
"ocean, abyss". Ideogr. »-^|| ^-^-J* 
(i. e. anpu) : "countenance ; top (of a tree)". Cf. 

Hebr. rjg, D?§K. 
adv. : "mightily, exceedingly; on a huge scale, of 

huge stature", 
plur. appare, appardti : "reed-bed, swamp", 
"yoke". 
Pret. usi\ Pres. ussi; Part, asu : "to come or go forth, 

to escape ; to come forth (from the mouth), to be 

decreed". Hebr. KJ£\ 

T T 

Shafel, Pret. ulfest; Part. muUsu, fem. mu-to-sa-at ; 
Inf. Susu : "to cause to come or go forth, 
to send forth, to bring out; to allow to es- 
cape, to let go; to drive out; to take one- 
self off". 

"exit; that which comes forth; offspring"; si-it 
lib-bi-ia "my offspring" ; sit pi "that which comes 
forth from the mouth, speech, word"; sit SamSi 
"the rising of the sun, the east". 

"eternity"; urn strati "days of old"; u-mu sa-a-ti 
"eternity". 

substantive of uncertain meaning : kima as-sa-ri 
edti ippariid "like an assaru alone he fled". 

"to fear, to reverence". Cf. Hebr. TtfiiF. 

Iftaal, Pret. utakku : "to be obedient". 

"obstinate, rebellious". 

"to be precious". Hebr. "ljJV 

21» 



324 



VOCABULARY 



alfru 
SGkuru 

afrrabu 

akrab-amelu 



'aru, aru 



urtu 

mu'irrUtu 

tBrtu 

aru 
arba'u 

ribQ 
Sribu 
argamannu 

aradu 



ardu 

ardQtu 
arhu 

arhi&am 
arhiS 
araku 



fem. akartu : "precious, costly". 

masc. plur. tukuruti : "costly" ; ht-ku-ru-tim Xarru- 

u-tu "treasure of the kingdom", 
"scorpion". Ideogr. ^-^ — TTT ^-' Hebr. 2^pp. 
"scorpion - man". Ideogr. ^— ^ — TTT ^ = F»yyr 

Pret. 'lr : "to set out" ; $a-ad la '-a-ri "an in- 
accessible mountain". 

Piel : "to send ; to rule" ; Part, mu'irru "ruler". 

"command". 

"leadership". 

plur. tirett : "law, command; divine oracle; 
will, design". 

Pret. ura : "to bring, carry, carry away". 

fem. irbitti, irbitta : "four". Ideogr. t~~t~~ 7 ^. 
Hebr. J^n*. 

"fourth". Ideogr. Xff. 

"raven". Hebr. Dljp. 

"red purple, crimson"; written with determ. 
I^IlE : "crimson wool". Hebr. J^riK. 

Pret. urid\ Pres. urrad : "to go down; to swoop 
down". Hebr. TV. 

~T 

Shafel, Pret. ufrrid; Perm, Surud : "to bring 

down", 
constr. st. arad; plur. arddni : "slave, servant". 

Ideogr. ►►^y. 
"servitude, submission, vassalage", 
constr. st. arah : "month". Ideogr. »-^*"*^. 

Hebr. m\ 
adv. : "monthly", 
"quickly, speedily". 
Pret. irik : "to be long". Hebr. rplK. 
Piel, Pret. urn/:; Pres. urrak : "to lengthen; 



VOCABULARY 



325 



[aralru] 
arki 
arku 



arkiS 
ark&nu 

arallQ 

arammu 

arnu 

arafru 

urlfu 

urlfltu 
arSru 

irritu 
araru 

arurtu 
arattQ 
aSabu 



to be very long"; urrak ume "he will have a 
long life" (cf. Hebr. D^ T^tf?)- 

"to be behind". 

"behind, beneath, after". Ideogr. £Z^ JE^ . 

"situated behind ; future" ; fem. plur. arkatu, employ- 
ed as subs, "the back, the rear; the future". 
Ideogr. £Z?JE^f. 

"backwards, back". 

"afterwards". 

"the lower world, Hades". 

"battering-ram". 

constr. st. aran : "sin". 

Prec. lirik : "to be green; to be or become pale". 
Hebr. plj. 

am'el urki : "gardener". Ideogr. ££m ^- tT g^THf. 

"green herb". 

Pret. trur : "to curse". Hebr. *n$. 



"curse". 




mGSabu 
Subtu 

aSamSutu 



"to be hot, to burn". Hebr. Tin. 

"drought". 

"mighty". 

Pret. uh'6; Pres. ulfSad; Part. d$(i)bu\ Perm, ahb, 3 plur. 

a$-5i, aS-ba : "to sit; to dwell". Ideogr. 

Hebr. 3tf\ 

- T 

Ifteal, Pres. ittd$ab\ Imper. tiSab, plur. kK-ba; Perm. 

tahb : "to sit down; to dwell". 
Shafel, Pret. uSeh'b : "to make to sit, to seat; to 

cause to inhabit, to settle (trans.)". 
Ishtafal, Pret. uUelib "to cause to dwell", 
"dwelling". Cf. Hebr. 3^1&. 
constr. st. lubat : "dwelling". Ideogr. ^J^eJ ^J- Cf. 

Hebr. nplp. 
"tempest, hurricane". 



326 



VOCABULARY 



aSnSn 
aSaru 

aSru 
aSirtu 
eSr&ti 
aSaru 

aSru 

aSriS 
aSru 

aSar 

aSriS 
aSaridu 

aSSSu 

uSSu 
aSSSu 

a&uStu 
aSSu, aSSum 



"bread". 

"to be gracious, to favour". Cf. Hebr. *N#K, H#£. 

Piel, Inf. uUuru employed as subs, "pardon". 

"shrine, sanctuary". 

plur. airaH : "shrine". 

(plur.) "shrines, temples". 

Pret. iUr\ Perm. 3 plur. diru : "to bow down, 

humble oneself", 
"meek, submissive", 
"humbly". 

constr. st. a$ar\ plur. d$raii\ "place". Cf. Hebr.*|tt^K. 
"in; where; during", 
"against", 
"first in rank ; chief, leader, prince" ; aplu alaridu 

"son of highest rank". Ideogr.^jy^: ^Jf^, *^-. 
"to found". Cf. Hebr. #■$*. 
Piel, Pret. u!hf : "to found", 
"foundation", 
"to be sorrowful". 

Piel : "to afflict" ; Perm. uMu! "afflicted", 
"trouble, sorrow", 
"in order to; because of; since"; sometimes 

in combination with the relative : a$$u $a 



"since . 



aSSatu 
atu 



itQtu 
atalU 
atmU 
atSru 



"wife". Ideogr. £-£Ej. Hebr. H#K. 
"to see". 

Piel, Pret. uttu (written uf-/u, //-///) : "to perceive; 

to choose, elect", 
"the chosen, elect", 
"eclipse". Ideogr. >->f- ^t£:. 
see amU. 

"to exceed, to abound". Hebr. 1JT, -|fl1l 
Shafel, Imper. lutir : "to make preeminent". 



VOCABULARY 



327 



atru 
Saturn 
atta 

atta'u 
attu 



e 
ebSru 



ebirtu 
ebirtan 
nlbartu 
nibirtu 

egU 

egU 

egirtu 

edu 
ediS 

edu 

edu 

edeSu 



iddiSQ 
iddiS&Q 
esSu 
eSSGtu 
ezebu 



constr. st. atar\ fem. atartu "abounding in". 

"mighty, glorious". 

fem. atti\ masc. plur. attunu\ personal pronoun : 

"thou, you". Hebr. flfi**, Ijlfc, DJJK. 
"fang(?)'\ 
in phrase at-tu-u-a "as for me". 

E 

particle of prohibition : "not". Cf. Hebr. "V. 

Pret. ebir, tbir : "to pass over, cross, traverse, pass 

through" ; bir-ki-ki e-bi-ri-e-ii (Part. fem. plur.) "thy 

striding knees". Hebr. "13J?- 
"further bank, opposite side (of a river)", 
"on the other side, beyond", 
"crossing (over a river)", 
"opposite side (of a sea or river)", 
"to sin, go astray". 
Pret. egi : "to delay, be slack", 
"letter". Hebr. TT$*. 
"one, alone". Hebr. "Il^t 
adv. "alone", 
"flood". Cf. Hebr. IK. 
see idU. 

"to be new". Hebr. #1$. 
Piel, Pret. uddiH; Part. muddtX; Inf. udduSu : "to re- 



new". 



"newly-shining". 

(/. e. edfu) "new". Ideogr. t^p^f. 
"newness"; ana ettiiti "anew". 
Pret. ezib, Iztb : "to leave, abandon". Hebr. 31JJ. 
Shafel, Inf. Suzubu "to save"; Suzubu ina "to pre- 
serve from". 



328 



VOCABULARY 



ezezu 



1ZZU 

izziS 

VLZZX1 

efa 

efatu 
efSru 



ekQ, ikU 
ekatu 
ekallu 

ek$mu 

ekurru 
elu 



eli 



elu 



Pret. ezuz, Jzuz; Perm. 3 plur. iz-zu : "to be angry, 

furious". Cf. Hebr. tBJ. 
Ifteal, Pret. iteziz : "to be angry", 
fem. izzitu ; "angry, terrible", 
"angrily, in wrath", 
"anger, wrath", 
"to be dark"; bit c-ti-c (Inf.) "house of darkness". 

Cf. Hebr. rflpj?. 
"darkness". 
Pret. etir, itir : "to protect, save, spare" ; with prep. 

ina "to spare from". Hebr. "UPJJ. 
Nifal, Pret. inni/ir; Prec. i sing, lunnifir : "to be saved", 
"starving, in want", 
"want, need", 
plur. ekallali : "palace". Ideogr. ^JUI ^T*~* Hebr. 

Pret. ekim, ikim (3 sing, i-kim ; 3 plur. e-ki-i-mu) : "to 

capture, take away from, detach", 
plur. ekurri, ekurrati : "temple". 
Pret. eli, Hi; Pres. ellr: "to be high; to go or come 

up, to ascend ; to depart, make off". Hebr. nSjJ. 
Ifteal, Pret. iteli, i/eld; Part, mut-tal-lu : "to be exalted; 

to go up; to emerge; to depart". 
Piel, Pret. ulli : "to raise". 
Shafel, Pret. u&li, utela; Prec. lihli; Imper. Suli : "to 

raise, to lift up ; to bring in ; to carry up ; to 

drive away". 
Ishtafal, Prtt.-uMfli, ult'eli : "to bring up or out", 
"over, upon; against; beside, in addition to; unto"; 

ana eli, ina eli "to" ; also written e-la "beside, with 

the exception of". Ideogr. ^►►^J. Cf. Hebr. 7J?. 
fem. eli/u; plur. eluti, fem. eldti : "high ; shrill, loud"; 

eldli "the zenith". 



VOCABULARY 

V 



329 



eliS 
ullQ 

ullanu 
ellu 

teliltu 
ellamu 

ellamU 
ellatu 

elmlSu 

> 

elippu 
elesu 

• 

ulsu 

• 

emu 
emu 

ema 
emQ 



emSdu 



nlmedu 
emeku 
emlf 
enfru 



:} 



"above". 

"distant (of time)"; gddu ulld "for ever"; ultu ulld 

"from of old", 
"distance"; ultu ulldnumma "when, as soon as", 
fem. ellitu ; plur. elluti, fem. elleti : "bright, pure". 

Ideogr. ^^. 
"purification", 
"front"; ellamu'a "over against me". Cf. Hebr. DTW, 

adj. "in front, before". 

see [alalu], 

a brightly-shining precious stone, "diamond (?)". Cf. 

Heb. tf^n. 
"ship". Ideogr. t| *zjfl- 
"to rejoice". Hebr. fay. 
Ifteal, Pret. iUM$ : "to rejoice", 
"joy, exultation", 
"father-in-law". Hebr. DFT. 

T 

"place, space". 

"in, among"; also written e-tm. 

Pret. emi; Perm, emi : "to be like". Cf. Hebr. H?pp. 

Ifteal, Pret. iiemi : "to become like". 

Shafel, Pret. uSimi: "to make like, reduce to a state of". 

Pret. imid; Imper. 2 fem. sing, en-di-tm-ma = emdi-ma : 

"to stand; to lay upon; to cast down, subdue". 

Hebr. IfcJJ. 
Ifteal, Pret. itemid : "to take a course (of a ship)". 
Piel, Pret. ummtd : "to set up, erect". 
Nifal, Pret. innimid : "to advance", 
"dwelling"; kussu nlmedi "seat", 
"to be deep". Hebr. p©J£. 



"wise". 



33o 



VOCABULARY 



emulfu "might, power"; plur. emuke, emuka "forces". 
nimelfu "wisdom"; bit nimeki "the Abyss". 
temelfu "fervent prayer". 
enu, inu "time"; as conj. "when". 
enuzna 
inuma 



> "when". Ideogr. |. 



enO 



enQ 
eninna 
eneSu 

enSu 
[es&ku ?] 
esGru 



epiru \ 
epru J 

epeSu 



epi&tu 



ep€£u 



ipSu 



Pret. eni : "to make void, make of no effect ; to van- 
quish, overcome, humble". Ideogr. ^►-J^. Cf. 
Hebr. njp. 

Nifal, Pret. in-nin-na-a, in-nin-nu-u : "to be annulled". 

fern, enltu : "lowly". Cf. Hebr. 1JJ, *jy. 

"now; thereupon". 

"to be weak, to decay". Cf. Hebr. #JK. 

"weak". 

"to distress (?)"; i-si-ik-$a. 

Pret. isir : "to enclose, imprison, besiege; to take 
captive". Hebr. -©$. 

Iftaal, Pres. utasar : "to be enclosed, besieged". 

constr. st. epir; plur. eftiri, eprdfi: "dust". Ideogr. £~^TT. 
Hebr. n^JJ. 

Pret. tpuS; Pres. ippul; Imper. cpu$, ip-hi\ Part, cpilu : 
"to do, make"; pa cprtu "to open the mouth, to 
speak"; larruta eprtu "to rule a kingdom, exercise 
sovereignty". Ideogr. *y~. 

Iftaal, Pret. itapul, iteput : "to make; to deal with". 

Shafel, Pret. uhpiS : "to cause to make or build". 

plur. epteti, ip-$a-iu : "deed, action; insignia (of do- 
minion); occurrence"; ip-ht limutti "evil fate". 

Pret. lput y 3 fern. sing. tipul\ lmper. fpui; "to be- 
witch"; Part, epilu, fern, ipiltu "wizard, witch". 

Ishta/aly Part. fern. muWpiUu "witch, sorceress". 

"witchcraft". 



VOCABULARY 



33l 



esenu 
esepu 

eseru 

usurtu 
eseru 

usurtu 

elflu 

era 

em 
erebu 



erSb SamSi 

niribu 
erebu 
erinu 
ereSu 

eriStu 

meriStu 

meriltu 
erSSu 
ir&Su 



Pret. e$in 9 l$in : "to smell . 

"to add to, increase". 

Piel, Pret. ussip : "to add to". 

"to bind, to enclose". Cf. Hebr. *[%%. 

Piel : ? u-fir. 

plur. u$urati : "boundary, end". 

"to form". Hebr. -|Jf\ 

Piel, Inf.* u$$uru : "to make, fashion", 
plur. usurdti: "sculpture, relief; usurii §almi "image, 

statue". Ideogr. HT ^d^=. 
const, st. ekel y ekil : "field, estate, territory". Ideogr. 

tpttt- 

Pret. in) iri : "to be pregnant, to conceive". Hebr. 

T T 

"copper". Ideogr. £*<~|» 

Pret. irub, Irub; Pres. irrub\ Imper. erub; Part, iribu: 

"to enter ; to set (of the sun)". Ideogr. >-g£:J. 

Cf. Hebr. 3n$. 
Ifteal, Pret. iterub : "to enter". 
Shafel, Pret. uSirib; Imper. Xurib : "to make enter, 

to bring in". 
Ishtafal, Pret. uSierib : "to make enter", 
"the setting of the sun, the west". Ideogr. 

Hf- *T I If Cf - Hebr - au, ai?e. 

"entrance". 

Pret. iriba, er-ba : "to increase". Ideogr. ►^TT. 

"cedar". Ideogr. f| Jg^J^pf. Cf. Hebr. p£. 

"to desire, wish for". 

constr. st. irfat "desire". Hebr. fltj^^. 

"wish, desire; desired object", 
"smell, sweet savour". 



332 



VOCABULARY 



eSa 
eSltu 

te£a 

eSgallu 

[eSBru] 



"to trouble, disturb"; Perm. eh\ Hi "troubled", 
plur. effii : "trouble, disturbance", 
"ruin; hurricane". 



"mansion". 



iSaru 
tnB&aru 
mlSaru 
eSertu 

eSreti 
eSSu 1 
e£&Qtu J 
etellu 
etillu 
efeJJru 



} 



metilfu 



Pret. ih'r : "to be straight". Hebr. -|#\ 

Shafel, Imper. SuSir : "to direct"; Perm. Xuiur 

"led". 
Ishtafal, Pret. uMetir; Prec. hVetir; Part. multeiiru\ 

Inf. tutiluru : "to direct, lead", 
fern, tlfartu, iHrtu : "right, righteous". Hebr. *1^ # 

"righteousness". Hebr. "NJ^SJ. 

constr. st. eierit : "ten"; for tVen titrit see i£t€n. 

Ideogr. ^. Hebr. 1^?J7. 
see aSaru. 

see ed&Su. 

"lord"; fem. etillitu "lady, queen". 

Pret. etik y itik\ Pres. ittik\ Imper. etik : "to go, march, 
advance; to traverse; to go through or into, to 
transgress". Hebr. pfi^. 

Ifteal, Pret. t'Mik, etetik : "to go, march". 

Shafel, Imper. $utik\ with prep, itti : "to cause to 
depart from, to remove from". 

"course". 



1 

ibbu 
ibru 
ibrQtu 



I 

precative particle : "come! 

"bright". 

"friend". Hebr. 1311. 

"friendship". 



»* 



VOCABULARY 



333 



igaru 

agurru 
idu 



plur. igaru, igarc, igardti: "wall". Ideogr. ^|y|T ^w<- 
Cf. Hebr. njn. 

"brickwork". 

plur. idd, iddii : "hand; side; might, strength; pos- 
session; hire, price for hire"; idi, idd "at the side 
of". Ideogr. ^&$fl. Hebr. T. 
idu, edQ Pret. idi; Perm. idi\ Part. *</« : "to know, take 

knowledge of, understand; to see, choose, elect"; 
ina la idi "without knowing, unwittingly". Hebr. JH\ 

Iftaal, Pret. utaddi : "to be known, to be recognised", 
pitch, bitumen". Ideogr. J^ jEl^T- 



iddU 

iddi&Q 

iddiS&Q 

idlu 

idirtu 

izzu \ 

izziS J 

iku 

iku 

ikdu 

ikkibu 

ikkaru 

iklitu 

ikribu 
ilu 

iltu 
Hutu 

illurtu 

ilittu 

'iltu 

ilt ami 



> 



see edeiu. 

"man, lord, hero". Ideogr. t^J]^. 
"grief, misery". 

see ezSzu. 

"small water-channel", 
see eku. 

"strong, mighty, courageous", 
"sin, fault". 

"gardener". Ideogr. Kpfj *~£E|« 
"darkness", tjflj ^f **f- = bit ikliti (?) "dark 
chamber". Cf. Hebr. S3H. 

- T 

see karabu. 

plur. Hani, He : "god". Ideogr. *-*^-; rarely written 

£ff_, plur. £ff_ Jr— Hebr. 7H. 
constr. st. ilat\ plur. ildti : "goddess", 
"godhead, divinity", 
"bond, fetter", 
see alSdu. 
"bann, curse", 
see i&tSnu. 



334 



VOCABULARY 



imhullu 

imznu 

immeru 

imnu 

imeru 

imtu 

ina 

inu 
Inu 

inbu 
inuma 



"evil wind, hurricane". 

"day". 

"lamb, sheep". Ideogr. Jgf >$Z^\. Hebr. IStf. 

"right hand, right". Hebr. p£\ 

"ass". Ideogr. £^TS:. Hebr. met]. 

const, st. imat : "breath, spittle, foam, poison". Cf. 
Hebr. HfiH. 

prep, "in, by, through, during, in the time of"; some- 
times written in. Ideogr. *— . 

see enu. 

plur. ina, in'e : "eye; part, share". Ideogr. ^T*~; in plur. 
frequently written tfJ$-. Hebr. |?g. 

constr. st. Mb : "fruit; manly strength, virility". 

see enu. 




"now". 



issuru 

issuriS 
irfati 
irnittu 
irpitu 

urpatu 
irsitu 

• 

irritu 
ir€$u 
irSu 
irtu 
iaii, iSti 



see iSlfu. 

see epe&u. 

"wood, tree". Hebr. pj,\ 

"scanty, few". Cf. Hebr. pp[. 

plur. issurdti : "bird". Ideogr. ►TT. 

adv. "like a bird". 

plur. subs, used adverbially : "swiftly". 

"triumph, victory". 

"cloud, clouds". 

plur. urpdti : "cloud". 

"earth ; district". Ideogr. ^][E|. Hebr. JHK. 

see araru. 

see ereSu. 

"couch". Ideogr. £] ^$E^. Hebr. ttr$. 

constr. st. irat : "breast". Ideogr. p^£\ 

personal pronoun : "me". 



VOCABULARY 



335 



iSdu 

i&dahhu 

iipatu 

i£ku, islfu 

islfatu 

iSaru 

iS&akku 

iSatu 



iitu 

iStSnu 
iltanu 
i&ten 



\ 



i&ten eSrit 
iStBniS 
i&tar 

iati 
itu 

itpe&u 
itutu 
ittu 
itti 



u 



Q'a 



Pret. (with meaning of Pres. also) Jh : "to have, 

possess ; to be", ldeogr. JJ^\ Cf. Hebr. &\ 
constr. st. ihd : "foundation ; lower or hinder part"; 

ilfid Same "the horizon", 
"bridle (?)". 
"quiver". Hebr. PIB#K. 
"portion, possession, property", 
"chain, fetter". Cf. Hebr. pttty. 
see [eSBTu], 

"ruler". ldeogr. tfz *£] *>fl> 
"fire". ldeogr. £^p|> *"HF~ ^T HP~> ^ e ideogr. 

for Gibil the Fire-god, is also employed for 

i$alu "fire". Hebr. tfK. 
prep, "from"; adv. "after"; i$tu Ubbi "from, out of". 

ideogr. t^yyy. 

"north, north-wind". Ideogr. AJt >pTT /Tffc. 

"one". Ideogr. J, which with phon. compl. ►J^ is 
frequently written *¥-TT. Cf. Hebr. fittfj?, ^'pV. 
"eleven". Cf. Hebr. rnfcj? "O^g. 
adv. "together", 
"goddess". Ideogr. *J(- <t|^|, **f- <^. Cf. 

Hebr. mntrfc, nintztf . 

see iSSi. 

"boundary; ordinance, law". 

"prudent". 

see ata. 

plur. itati : "side". Cf. Hebr. HK. 

prep. "with", ldeogr. /JET. 

u 

copula : "and"; written ^, <|^JgDf. Cf. Hebr. \ 1. 
interj. : "alas"; employed as subs, "grief, pain". 



336 



VOCABULARY 



ubSnu 

ubSru 

uggatu 

ugallu 

udrnu 

uzzu 

uznu 



"finger; peak, summit". Ideogr. H[ *£:YY. 



.»> 



uhhu 

uknU 

uksu 

ul 

ullu 

ullQ 

ullU. 

ullanu 

ulinnu 

ulapu 

ulsu 

• 

ultu 
uma 
umu 
Uznu 



I 



umiSam | 
umussu J 
Qmatan \ 
Umagtan J 

urnSrnu 

umma 

ummu 



"servant". 

see agSgu. 

"storm, hurricane". 

see admu. 

see ezSzu. 

constr. st. uzun : "ear; mind, attention" (cf. bdiu y 
Sakdnu). Ideogr. ^|^, in plur. frequently writ- 
ten ^|4f . Hebr. JJfc. 

plur. uM* : "trick (?)". 

"lapis lazuli". Ideogr. *ft'<§ ^ ^. 

"longing". 

see alalu. 

demonstrative pronoun : "that". 

see elu. 

a garment. Ideogr. JEJ JEJJ^- 

"bond, alliance". Cf. Hebr. r^K, rp^fc. 

see elesu. 

prep, "from"; adv. "after, since". Ideogr. ►£ : |y|. 

adv. "now". 

"storm". Ideogr. ^J. 

plur. time : "day"; ina umftu, ina umiSuma, inu umiht, 
inumilum "then, at that time"; iUu umimma 
"henceforth". Ideogr. ^J. Hebr. 0t\ 

adv. "daily". 

adv. "for a day". 

"beast". 

adv. "thus"; introduces direct speech. 

"mother". Ideogr. £tt»**T- Hebr. QX. 



VOCABULARY 



337 



ummanu 
ummanu 

umman - 
ummatu 

unlku 

unkenna 



unninu 
unfcu 
unutu 
usurtu 

• 

uru 

urhu 

urkarinnu 

urpatu 

urJfu 

urJfltu 

urru 

urtu 

uSu 

uSultu 



} 



uSumgallu 
uSmanu 
uSSu 



"craftsman"; also mar ummanu Hebr. JftK. 

plur. ummane, ummanati : "tribe, people; host, forces, 

troops". Ideogr. ^f, ^f ^fcjf 
manda "tribal hordes", 
"host". 

plur. untkett: "kid", 
"the whole; full strength"; see SakSnu. Ideogr. 

see [an&nu]. 

"signet-ring; sealed letter". 

plur. undti: "furniture, household stuff". 

see e§&ru. 

"enclosure, field". Cf. Hebr. imK. 

T Tl\ 

constr. st. urufri "road". Hebr. PHfc. 
a precious wood. Ideogr. HT YET. 
see irpitu. 

see araJfu. 

"light, day". Ideogr. *J ^JJ. Hebr. Tilt 

see 'Sru. 

a precious wood. Ideogr. £| t^J^* 

plur. uJfloti: "blood-vessel, channel for the blood, 

artery", 
"monster-viper". Ideogr. ^\*- ^^UJ^. 
"camp". Cf. Hebr. PDbWj. 
see a£&£u. 



ba'u 



babu 



Pret. and Pres. iba : "to come, reach, go". Hebr. MS. 
Piel-Shafel, Pret. uXba't: "to storm against, plunge 

down upon", 
plur. babdti, babani: "gate". Ideogr. £>^f. 



22 



338 



VOCABULARY 



biblu 

bubatu 
bufyalu 
bafSlu 
baflu 

bafiltu 
bakQ 



bikitu 
bakru 

bukru 
balQ 

bala 
balu 
beiu 
belu 



beitu 

bSlGtu 
BelQtu 



x4>: u 



bel-pahati 
bUlu 
billudQ 



constr. st. bibil : "inclination, desire"; bibil libbi 

"prompting, desire of the heart", 
"hunger, famine; food, bread", 
"male beast", 
"to cease". Hebr. biff}. 
fem. bafiltu : "discontinued, at an end"; la baflu 

"unceasing". 
plur. baflati: "discontinuance, discharge"; see ra$G. 
Pret. Mi ; Pres. ibaki ; Perm. bakt\ 3 plur. baku : 

"to weep". Hebr. ,-Q5>. 
Iftaal, Inf. bitakku "affliction", 
"weeping". 

"young of the camel", 
constr. st. bukur: "first-born". Hebr. TD3. 
"not to be, fade, go to ruin". Hebr. n^3. 
Piel, Pret. uballi: "to destroy, bring to an end, cut off". 

Prep, "without". 

Pret. ibil, ipil\ "to conquer, subdue, rule". 

plur. bile : "lord"; bel adc "one who is faithful 
to commands"; bcl mamtti "one who is faithful 
to an oath" ; bil salimi "ally, confederate" ; la 
bil kussi "one with no claim to the throne" ; 
bel narkabdti "commander of the chariots", writ- 
ten E£w ^n t] £<J T"^' ldeo B r - ^11- 
Hebr. b$?3. 

constr. st. be' HI : "lady". Ideogr. ^, £"E|? *~<« 

"lordship, rule, authority, dominion". 

the power or dominion of the god Bel ; written 

governor". Ideogr. ££££ >-JJ ►JI^- 
"four-footed beast ; cattle", 
"divine command". 



VOCABULARY 



33 9 



balafu 



balafu 

balfu 

balfutu 

[balkatu] 



[balalu] 

balm 

biltu 

band 



binutu 

bUnu 

bunnannQ 

nabnitu 
banu 
bakamu 
ba'aru, baru 
baru 

baru 
biru 



Pret. iblut\ Pres. ibalut: "to live". Ideogr. £K. 
Piel, Pret. uballit ; Pres. uballat ; Imper. bullit ; Inf. 

bullutu ; "to cause to live, give life to, quicken, 

raise to life". 
Iftaal, Pret. ubtallit\ "to keep alive", 
"life". Ideogr. ►<{< +£]. 
masc. plur. bal/u/i: "living, alive", 
"state of being alive"; bal-fu-su-un ik-$u-da kata 11 - 

ai "my hands captured (them) alive". 
Shafel, Pres. ufabalkat : "to tear down". 
Nifal, Pret. ibbalkit : "to fall upon ; invade ; revolt 

against". Ideogr. ►>-[£. 
"to pour out". Hebr. SSa. 
Piel, Inf. bullulu : "to smelt ; to confound", 
"side, bank", 
see abSlu. 
Pret. ibni\ Pres. ibani\ Imper. bmt; Part, bdni, 

banu ; Perm, bant, fern, banat : "to build, make, 

form, create, beget". Ideogr. ^Z. Hebr. nj^« 
Nifal, Pret. and Pres. ibbani: "to be built, formed, 

created ; to be laid (of a net)". 
Ittafal, Pret. tttabni: "to be created, restored", 
"creation, product ; building, structure", 
"formation, origin, beginning", 
"form". 

"creation, creature", 
"bright, beautiful ; rich, precious". 
Pret. ibkum ; Imper. bukum : "to tear in pieces". 
Pret. ibar ; Pres. 3 plur. ibarru : "to catch". 
Pret. t'bri; Pres. ibari\ "to see, gaze upon". 
Shafel, Pret. ufabri: "to cause to see", 
"seer". Ideogr. EJ$ff **"• 
"glance ; midst" ; ina blri "between, in the midst". 

22* 



340 



VOCABULARY 



birtu 



tabritu 
baru 



biriS 
barbaru 
birku 

[barSmu] 
birznu 

bitrumu 
barSku 

bir^u 
birltu 
basu 



buSG 
baSSmu 

baSmu 
bltu 



constr. st. birit : "glance ; midst ; clearness (?)" ; ina 
birit "between, among" ; me birtu "water of clear- 
ness (?)", 1. t. water that is clear. 

"sight, wonder"; plur. iabrdti: "marvellous treasures". 

"to be superabundant". Cf. Hebr. K*19> K*"12L 

Piel-Ishtafal, Pres. uitabarri: "to be sated, to abound 
with". 

adv. "in luxuriant pasturage". 

"leopard" or "jackal". Ideogr. JJ^J >$- ^pyj. 

plur. birkd, birke : "knee" ; tar-bit bir-ki-ia : "my off- 
spring". Hebr. ^9 

Piel : "to weave coloured threads". 

"brightly-coloured cloth, variegated stuff". Ideogr. 

tf^y. Hebr. Dttp. 
"brightly-coloured". 

Pret. ibrik : "to flash (of lightning), to blast", 
"lightning". Hebr. p^S. 
"fetters". 
Pret. ibU ; Pres. ibatt (rarely written ipaii) ; Part. 

bd$u, bd$i; Perm, bah'; "to be; to be inclined, 

directed". Ideogr. ^T^. 
Shafel, Pret. uSabti : "to cause to be, to create" 

(Ideogr. JJ^-, in proper names); fatta Subfa "to 

commit sin". 
Ishtafal, Pret. tdtabSi: "to make, create", 
"property, possessions". Ideogr. ^P H^ ^ T. 
Pret. ibhm : "to build, form, prepare". 
Piel, Pret. ubaUim : "to form". 

LI ** 

"viper . 

"house ; temple" ; bit Hi "temple" ; bit durdni in op- 
position to aldm ': "walled or fortified cities"; bit 
nakamti "treasure-house" ; bit tukldti "stations for 
troops". Ideogr. t^ffy. Hebr. JVJ. 



VOCABULARY 



341 



bithallu 



batnu 
batalfu 



"saddle-horse"; sometimes written with determ. 

word of uncertain meaning. 

Pret. ibiuk : "to rend, tear ; to cut off, separate". 

Piel, Pret. ubattik : "to cut through, sever". Cf. 

Hebr. p£©. 
Nifal, Pret. ibbatik : "to be destroyed", 
"cleft, fissure, breach"; batka sabatu "to close a 

breach, restore", 
"destruction". 
Subtalftu "flood"; written $ub-lak-li, which can also be read 

ru-$um~fi. 
bitrumu see [barSmu]. 



batlfu 



butalfu 



gabbu 

gabrVL 

gabaSu 
gabSu 
gibSu 

gugallu 

gadu 

guzalu 

guhlu 

[galabu] 

gallG 

galtu 

gamalu 



gimillu 



gitmalu 



"all, the whole". 

"answer, reply". 

Pret. igbuX: "to be firm, hard, proud". 

"mighty". 

constr. st. gibiS : "multitude". 

"ruler, director". Ideogr. >^^ ^1*^- 

prep, "up to ; together with". 

"messenger, servant, minister". Ideogr. "£►£ ^f J*\ 

"stibium". 

Piel, Pres. ugallab : "to brand". 

"evil demon, devil". 

fem. galittu : "terrible". 

Pret. igmil ; Imper. gimil : "to complete ; to spare 

(the life of)"; with ina "to spare from". Cf. 

Hebr. b&\. 
"mercy, sparing of life"; gimillu lurru "to requite, 

take vengeance", see t&ru. 
"perfect". 



342 



VOCABULARY 



gamSru 



gamru 
gimru 



gammalu "camel". Ideogr. fc^TE£ ^ ££| ^^J, ^jT£^ \^ 

E^zJ. Hebr. b$%. 
Pret. igmur : "to complete, bring to an end". Cf. 

Hebr. n£$. 
Ifteal, Inf. gitmuru employed as subs, "perfection, 

excellence". 
Piel, Part, mugammiru : "to carry out, achieve", 
constr. st. gamir: "perfect", 
constr. st. gimir : "entirety, the whole" ; kal gimri 

"everything ; the world". 
gimirtu constr. st. gimrat ; plur. gimreti : "entirety, the whole"; 

kiUat kal gimreti "the whole of the world", 
"appointed offering", 
"district (?)". 
"wing, feather", 
"piece of land, field". 

plur. gdre : "enemy, opponent". Cf. Hebr. 7T§, iTU|. 
"way ; campaign, expedition", 
"snare, trap". 

"to strengthen, fortify". Cf. Hebr. *Utf£. 
"mighty". 

fern. giHrtu : "strong, powerful". 
magSaru "might, strength". 
gitmalu see gamalu. 



ginQ 

gunu 

gappu 

gipSru 

gam 

girru 

giSparru 

gaSaru 
gaSru 
gi&ru 



D 



[da'abu] 
dabSbu 



dibbu 



Part, daibu: "to overwhelm (?)". 

Pret. idbub ; Pres. idabub, idibub : "to speak, converse, 
proclaim ; to plan, intrigue"; Mi. . . . tdbuti dababu 
"to establish friendly relations with". Cf. Hebr. 

22% 33TT. 
"speech, message". Cf. Hebr. H2H. 



VOCABULARY 



3 4 3 



dabru 
dagalu 



daddaru 

dadmu 

Du'uzu 

DQzu 

daku 

tiduku 
diku 

dakkassu 
dalabu 

dalibtu 
dalahu 



dalihtu 

w 

dalalu 

dallalu 
dullu 
daltu 

damu 
ditnu 

dimtu 
damamu 

dumSmu 



masc. plur. dabruti: "mighty". 

Pret. idgul; Imper. dugul: "to look at, behold"; 

dagil pant "subject of, tributary to". 
Shafel, Pret. u$adgil\ Perm. Sudgul: with panu "to 

entrust to", 
"stink". 

plur. dadmi : "dwelling, habitation", 
the month Tammuz. Ideogr. »%**^ ^E|. Hebr. 

nao. 

Pret. iduk : "to slay". Ideogr. £<^. Cf. Hebr. ^p[. 

Ifteal, Pret. tdduk: "to slay". 

"battle". 

Pret. t'dki: "to summon, assemble". 

word of uncertain meaning. 

"to be in trouble". 

Piel, Part, mudallibu : "to afflict, oppress". 

plur. dalbati, da-al-pa-a-le : "affliction". 

"to confuse, to disorder" ; Inf. daldfru employed as 

subs, "trouble"; 4fc*ff Iv^\ *&* d * l % u "dis- 
turbing wind, whirlwind". Hebr. Plb^. 
Shafel, Inf. Sudluhu : "to confound, destroy". 

plur. daljidti: "disturbance". 

Pret. idlul: "to bow down, humble oneself, wor- 
ship". Cf. Hebr. b^j. 

"cripple". 

"service, work, task". 

constr. st. dalat\ plur. daldii: "door". Ideogr. £:[ 
►■H*. Hebr. nH 

"blood". Ideogr. ►<. Hebr. tfj. 

plur. dimd : "tear". Cf. Hebr. JJOT. 

"tears, weeping". Hebr. njjfi* 5 !- 

Pres. idammum : "to lament, moan". 

"howling, lamentation". 



344 



VOCABULARY 



dimmu 
dam&Ifu 



damlfu 



damiJftu 

dumlfu 
dunlfu 

dimtu 

dimtu 

dSnu 
dinu 
daianu 

dan&nu 



I 



dananu 
dannu 

danniS 

dannatu 

dannutu 

dandannu 
dun If u 
dapnu 

dapinu 



"column, obelisk". 

"to be friendly, favourable, propitious". Ideogr. 

<Mf. mm- 

Piel, Inf. dummukw. "to make favourable; show 

favour", 
fern, damikiu ; plur. damkuti, fern, dawikaii : "friendly, 

good, favourable ; health -giving (of water-supply); 

trusty (of warriors)". Ideogr. ^J*-^. 
"mercy, favour"; plur. damkaii "good deeds". 

Ideogr. <Mf, £- <Mf. 
"favour, good fortune; comeliness". Ideogr. 

plur. dimati: "pole, post". 

see dimu. 

Pret. idin ; Pres. iddn : "to judge". 

"judgment". Hebr. pr. 

"judge". Ideogr. <Jtfz »*?. Cf. Hebr. |*I. 

"to be strong". 

Piel, Pret. udannin ; Inf. dunnunu : "to strengthen, 

make fast", 
"might, power", 
fern, dannatu ; plur. dannuti\ (em.danna/i: "strong, 

mighty". Ideogr. £]]}, ^JJ ^. 
adv. "very much, exceedingly"; also written with 

phonetic complement is, /'. e. dannis, Ideogr. tTTJ. 
"foundation, base; distress, affliction (ideogr. 

<m eh'- 

"strength, strong point, fortress"; ali dannuti "for- 
tress, stronghold", 
"strong, all-powerful", 
see damSku. 
"strong, mighty", 
"strong". 



VOCABULARY 



345 



duppu 
dipSru 
dupMmtu 

dupSarru 

darn 



daris 
dUru 



dirratu 

duruSSu 

daSu 

[da&Q] 



"tablet". Ideogr. t£\lT\. 

plur. dipdrdti: "torch". Ideogr. ►Jf^ £Z^p| J*". 

plur. dupUmdti : "destiny - tablet". Ideogr. t^Uyj 

"scribe" ; usually written E*?ff ►CITTT E^IrT* '" e ' 
ameiu dup-Ur. 

fem.daritu; plur. ddru/i, fern, ddrati: "lasting, conti- 
nual, everlasting"; ana ddrati "for ever, continu- 
ously" ; parak ddrati "an everlasting shrine". Ideogr. 

^yy ^yy. cf. Hebr. -m 

adj. "eternal"; ana ddriS "for ever", 
plur. durdni: "wall"; dur appi lit. "the wall of the 
face", 1. e. "the cheek"; see also bitu. Ideogr. 

& 

"whip (?)". 

"foundation". 

Part. daiS : "to tread under foot, crush, destroy". 

Cf. Hebr. tin. 
"to abound, be luxuriant". Hebr. tify% 
Piel-Shafel, Pret. uX-daX-$a-a : "to cause to have in 

abundance, to endow with". 




[zabu] 
zazu 

zahalu 
zakaru 



Pret. izub : "to melt, dissolve". Hebr. 3N. 

"to divide". 

Piel, Pres. uzdz : "to divide". 

a bright stone or metal. 

Pret. izkur; Pres. izakar: "to name, call upon, pro- 
claim, speak, tell" ; Suma zakaru "to name a name", 
1. e. "to bear a name, to exist". Cf. Hebr. IJT* 

Piel, Perm, zukkur: "to name"; Xu-ma la zuk-ku-ru 
"they were not named, did not exist". 



346 



VOCABULARY 



zikru 

zikaru 

zikru 

zikritu 

zalpu 

zaliptu 
zamG 

zumbu 

zamSru 
zatnaru 
zammeru 

zammertu 

zumru 
zinu 

zinQ 
zananu 

zananu 

zanSnutu 
zifru 
zuku 

zakapu 

zifrkuratu 
[zafratu] 

zalftu 

zifrtu 



constr. st. zikt'r: "name, speech, word, mention, 

renown". Hebr. IpJ. 
"male ; man" ; zikru kardu "valiant hero". Ideogr. 

5£J, >&\. Hebr. -PJ. 
plur. zikreti: "women of the palace". Ideogr. 

"wicked". 

constr. st. zalpat : "wickedness, iniquity". 

Piel "to exclude from" ; Perm, zummu "excluded 

from". 
(1. e. zubbu): "fly". Hebr. 3«|. 
"to sing". Hebr. *1BJ. 



u 



song . 
plur. zammcre : "singer, musician". Ideogr. E3?5 

■If* 

plur. zammerefi: "female musician". Ideogr. -{+- 

constr. st. zumur, rarely zutntr: "body". 

"to be angry". 

"angry". 



"to rain". 



Shafel, Prcs. uiaznan : "to cause to rain", 
"to provide for, care for, support", 
"provision, abundance". 
Pret. izlk : "to blow, storm, rage", 
constr. st. zuk : "foot-soldiers"; zuk lipe "foot- 
soldiers, infantry". 
Pret. izkup, tikup : "to place, set up, erect". Hebr. 

"peak of a mountain ; temple-tower", 
"to be sharp, pointed", 
"sharp, pointed". 

LI »» 

"spur . 



VOCABULARY 



347 



zSru 



zirutu 
[zarQ] 

zeru 
zarabu 

zarbiS 

zurbu 

[zarbabu] 



Pret. iztr; Pres. t'zirri: "to hate, conceive a hatred 
for"; Part, za'iru "enemy". Hebr. TIT. 

Piel, Imper. ztr: "to abandon". 

plur. zirati: "hatred". 

Part, zaru: "to beget". Cf. Hebr. JTI]. 

"seed, descendants". Ideogr. ►<£, ^. Hebr. JHJ. 

"to be oppressed". 

Piel, Pret. uzarrib : "to oppress, afflict". 

adv. "in trouble". 

constr. st. zurub : "trouble, affliction". 

Nifal, Perm. 3 plur. nazarbubu : "to fume, to be 
furious". 



habasu 

habatu 
hubtu 

w 

hegallu 
hadG 



hadiS 

w 

hidutu 
hazanu 

w 

hafti 
hafti 

him 
hitu 

hifitu 

haftu 

\halu] 



H 

3 plur. Perm. (?) ha-ba~§u\ "to be filled, swelled 

out (?)". 
Pret. ifrbut; Pres. ifyabai : "to plunder", 
constr. st. fyubut : "booty ; captives", 
"abundance". Ideogr. ££*E *"TI^' 
Pret. ihdi\ "to rejoice"; with prep, ana "to rejoice 

in or at"; Inf. fradu employed as subs. "joy". 

Hebr. H^PI. 
adv. "joyfully". 

plur. hiddti\ "joy". Ideogr. ^^JJ. 
plur. hazdndli: "ruler, governor". Ideogr. 

-II ^TT (?)• 

Pret. ihit\ "to see, survey". 

Pret. ihti\ Pres. faffi: "to sin". Hebr. KipPl. 

"sin" ; bel fati "sinner". 

plur. hitati: "sin, iniquity". 

"sceptre". Ideogr. £j f£i, £] ^ t£:. 

Pret. Hul\ "to tremble, quiver". Cf. Hebr. bTl. 



348 



VOCABULARY 



haialtu 
halsu 



w • 



halaJfu 



Sahlu^tu 

[hamu] 

hamafu 

hitmufiS 
hamafu 



hamamu 

w 

hSmiru 

hanSu 

hasasu 



haslsu 
hipu 



hasbu 

halfu 

hard 



ha'iru 
hamiru 



"array, host". Cf. Hebr. b?PN 

plur. ^j/^, balsam : "fort, entrenchment"; written 

*<TT ^ £"££• Cf - Hebr - r^o- 

Pret. #/# : "to be destroyed ; to flee". Ideogr. 

JJ< If 

Ifteal, Pret. tfrfah'k: "to be lost". 

Piel, Pret. uhallik ; Prec. lihallik ; Part. muhalUku ; Fnf. 

kulluku : "to destroy, cast down", 
"destruction". 
Perm. 2 fern. sing, fiamati: "to be of good cheer, 

be comforted (?)". 
Pret. ihmut\ Imper. frumut: "to hasten", 
adv. "swiftly, in haste". 
Pret. t&muf: "to burn". 

Piel, Pres. uhammaf: "to make glow, to light up". 
Ishtafal, Part. muUahmifu : "to flame, burn". 
Pret. ihmum : "to rule, direct", 
see hS'iru. 

"fifth". Ideogr. ^. Hebr. MftJtJ. 
Pret. ihsus : "to think, conceive, plan, invent ; to 

recollect, to set in the memory". 
Ifteal, Imper. htssas (for lii/sas) : "to understand", 
"wisdom, understanding". 
Pret. i/ipi: "to shatter, destroy; to split". 
Ifteal, Pret. ihtepi : "to shatter". 
Piel, Part, muhippi, muhip : "to shatter, destroy", 
subs, of uncertain meaning. 
Pret. ihik: "to mingle together (intrans.)". 
Pret. ifyn ': "to dig". 
Iftaal, Pret. ulitarri : "to dig". 
Shafel, Pret. uSahri "to cause to dig out". 

"spouse, husband". 



VOCABULARY 



349 



hirtu I 

Mratu J " Sp ° USe ' Wife "- 
huribtu "desert". Hebr. nyjfl. 

harbaSu "power of striking terror, fury". 
[harmafu] "to destroy". 

Shafel, Part. mu$barmitu : "to destroy". 
[harmamu] Shafel, Prec. Itibarmim : "to overpower, destroy". 
hurSsu "gold". Ideogr. ^f ►JJ^. Hebr. jmp. 

"way, road". Ideogr. {5^:. 

plur. hurtoni\ "mountain, wooded highland". Cf. 
Hebr. B^n. 



harranu 
hurSu 



\ 



hirtu 
hiratu 

w 

ha£5hu 

w w 

huSShu 

w w 

huSahh 
haSalu 

w 

hitmufiS 
hatanu 



see ha'iru. 

Pret. *##: "to hasten, set out, go". Hebr. Eftn. 
Pret. #&£, #&# : "to long for, desire". 



WW / 



hunger, famine". 

"destroyer", 
see hamafu. 
"son-in-law". Hebr. jrilj. 



tabu 



tabu 

fabiS 
tabtu 
fibu 



Pret. itib ; Pres. itdb, itib : "to be good, well-pleas- 
ing". Hebr. 31B. 

Piel, Part, mufibw. "to make joyful"; Inf. fubbu 
(constr. st. tub) "joy". 

fern, tabtu : "good, pleasant ; loud (of the voice)". 

ideogr. ^ tryyy*. 

"joyfully, cheerfully". 

plur. tdbtdti (?) : "benefit". 

"to sink". Hebr. J73Jp. 

Iftaal, Pret. uttibbi: "to make sink, duck under". 



350 



VOCABULARY 



fabahu "to slaughter". Hebr. PISjp. 

Piel, Pres. utabbah : "to slaughter". 
\ahu y tehu Pret. ithi\ Pres. ifehi, itibhi : "to draw near, ap- 
proach". 
fifu, tfttu "clay, mud, earth". 

femu "understanding, mind; account, instructions, com- 

mand". Hebr. Dfffc. 
farSdu "to drive away, hunt". Cf. Hebr. T^p. 

Piel, Pres. uiarrad: "to hunt". 



ki 

ki'am 
kizna 

kitne 
kabasu 



kibsu 
kibru 
kibratu 

kabatu 



kabtu 

kabittu 

kibatu 



K 

conj. "as, when, after, since, for". Hebr. '•J. 

prep, "like, according to". 

adv. "thus". 

prep, "like, as, according to ; corresponding to, in 

place of"; adv. "as soon as". Ideogr. <^|J. 
"just as". 
Pret. ikbus : "to tread". Cf. Hebr. D33. 

Piel, Pret. ukabbis ; Part, mukabbisu : "to tread down, 

trample on". 
Shafel, Inf. Sukbusu : "to cause to tread down, to 

batter (of siege-engines)", 
constr. st. kibis : "footstep, tread", 
constr. st. kibir : "bank (of a river)", 
plur. kibrati: "region; quarter of heaven". Ideogr. 

^. Hebr. TJW- 
"to be heavy, weighty". Hebr. *T39- 

Piel, Pret. ukabbit, ukebit : "to honour". 

Iftaal, Pret. uktebit : "to honour", 
fern, kabittu : "heavy, weighty, pre-eminent, 
with pron. suffixes kabtat'. "spirit, mind; midst (:f. 
"abundance, great quantity". 



VOCA3ULARY 



351 



kudurru 

kuduru 

kiki 

kakku 

kukku 

kakkabu 



} 



:f-*J-. Hebr. 



kikkiSu 
kalu 

kalu 



kalu 



kalu 



"boundary, frontier". Cf. Hebr. T13, ^3- 

adv. "so, to such an extent". 

"arm, weapon". Ideogr. £j JEJ. 

"darkness". 

plur. kakkabdni : "star". Ideogr. 

"reed-house", 
"to hold". Hebr. b». 

Piel, Part, mukilu : "to hold ; to hold high, raise". 

Pret. iklu, ikla ; Pres. ikallu, ikalla : "to hold back, 

restrain, prevent ; to withhold, refuse". Hebr. 

T T 

Pret. ikla ; Pres. ikalla : "to cease, come to an end". 

Hebr. nb?. 
constr. st. kal: "all, the whole". Ideogr. £jlI. 
kalamu "all, everything ; of every kind". 
kaliS "altogether, completely". 

constr. st. kalab : "dog, hound". Ideogr. ^J^-J JEJ. 
Hebr. nSs. 
kalbannati (plur.) siege-engines. 
[kalalu] "to be complete". Cf. Hebr. b 1 ??. 

Shafel, Pret. ufaklil; Part, muSaklilu; Inf. Suklulu : 

"to complete". 
Ishtafal, Part. muUaklilu, fern. muX-lak-li-la-al : "to 
carry out, fulfil". 
kullatu "totality, all, the whole"; also written kul~la-ta-an. 

kilallan \ 

• .. ••* r "both ; on both sides". 
kilallS J 

kalamu see kalQ. 

[kalamu] Piel, Pret. ukallim ; Inf. kullumu : "to cause to see, 

show to, display". 

[kalmQ] Nifal, Pret. ikkilmi: "to look upon". 



kalbu 



352 



VOCABULARY 



kaliS 
kamQ 



kamu 
kamutu 




kamaru 

kamaru 
kamariS 
[kamaru] 



kamatu 
kamutu 
kimtu 

[kanu] 

kanu 



\ 



see kalQ. 

Pret. ikmi, t'kmu ; Pres. ikammi : "to conquer, over- 
come, take captive". 

plur. kamuti: "bound, captive". 

"captivity, condition of imprisonment"; kamutsu tiki 
"as a prisoner he took him". 

"enclosure". 

see ki. 

"family". 

"family". 

Pret. ikmil: "to be angry". 

"anger, wrath". 

"thy, thine". 

Pret. ikmis : "to bow oneself, to bow down". 

Iftaal, Pret. ukiammis : "to be bowed down, over- 
whelmed". 

Ishtafal, Pret. ultakmis : "to cause to bow down". 

"to strike down"; Inf. used as subs., e. g. ka-mar- 
Su-nu a$-kun "I struck them down". 

"net". 

adv. "in a net or snare". 

Piel, Inf. kummuru : "to make plentiful". 

Iftaal, Prec. lik-tam-mc-ra : "to be made plentiful". 

see kamQ. 

see klmu. 

Piel-Shafel, Pret. uSkm : "to humble oneself, make 

obeisance \ 
Pret. ikun ; Pres. ikan ; Perm, kdn, kin : "to stand, 

be established, be firm, endure". Ideogr. ^J, 

Hnw^H- Hebr - P 3 - 



VOCABULARY 



3 5 3 



kaianu 

kaian 

kaiana 



Piel, Pret. ukin ; Part, mukinnu ; Perm, kun ; Inf. 
kunnu, constr. st. kun : "to set, fix, make firm, 
hold fast, found, establish, appoint, arrange"; 
kun libbi "truth, constancy". 

Iftaal, Pret. uktin : "to set, fix, arrange". 

"continuous, enduring, imperishable". 



kmi£ 
kittu 

[kanu] 



adv. "continuously". 
kaianamma 

kinu "firm, sure, established, true". Ideogr. ►TJ^ *~^~T- 

Hebr. fj. 
adv. "truly, legitimately, carefully", 
"right, justice". 

Piel, Pret. ukanni: "to prepare carefully". 
klnatatu "service ; servants". 
kanaku Pret. iknuk: "to seal". 

kunukku "seal". Ideogr. Cf|~^r *~JTT. 
kananu "to crouch down". 

Piel : "to press down" ; Perm, kunnun "bowed, 

crouching". 
Pret. iknuS : "to bow down, submit". 
Ifteal, Perm, kitnuhi "subject". 
Piel, Pret. ukannti : "to force into submission". 
Shafel, Pret. ufaknrt, utikmlt ; Part. muSakntiu : "to 

cause to submit, bring into subjection", 
adj., plur. kanSufi: "subject", 
"to bind, take captive". 
Ifteal, Pret. iktasi: "to bind, fetter". 
Iftaal, Pret. uktassa'. "to be bound"; ideogr. J*"(?), 

€. g. J pjyyy = uktdSSCL (?). 

"fetter, bonds". 

Pret. iksu : "to cover, to hide oneself". Hebr. Hp9« 

Iftaal, Pres. uktassi\ "to serve as a hiding-place for". 



kanSSu 



kanSu 
kasu 



kasltu 
kasu 



23 



354 



VOCABULARY 



kisukkiS 
Kislimu 

kussU 
kaspu 

kusapu 
kusarikku 
kapadu 
kappu 
kippSti 

kappu 

kaparru 

kupru 

kissu 

• « 

karu 

[karO] 

kiretu 
kiru 
karabu 



ikribu 

karamu 
karmu 
karmiS 
karmQtu 

karmatu 

karSnu 



adv. "in confinement". 

the month Kislev. Ideogr. *%_y tjiE* Hebr. 

"throne" ; kissu nimedi "seat". Ideogr. £| £-£ ^y. 

i- ^J. Cf. Hebr. KB3- 
constr. st. kasap : "silver, money". Ideogr. 4$ ^\ 

Hebr. rp$. 
subs, of uncertain meaning, 
"ram (?)" ; plur. written ku-sa-rik-ti. 
Pret. ikpud : "to plan, think, consider, ponder on". 
(/'. e. kanpu) "wing". Hebr. P|33. 
(plur.) "the ends (of heaven and earth)". Cf. Hebr. 

rw map. 

"hand". Hebr. rp. 

"sheep-boy". 

"bitumen". Ideogr. ]} £E<*J *] t£] Tf Cf * Hebr - 

"dwelling, hall". 

"wall". Ideogr. *£]]}. 

"to fetch, bring". 

Ifteal, Pret. ikteri : "to summon". 

"banquet". Cf. Hebr. 7T$. 

"plantation, garden". Ideogr. £j ^EjTHT 

Pret. ikrub\ Pres. ikarrab : "to be propitious, bless, 
pay homage to". 

Ifteal, Pret. iktarab : "to be propitious, to pay ho- 
mage to". 

"prayer". 

"to cast down, overthrow". 



"rum . 



adv. "like a ruin". 

"ruin" ; for karmuta Hduku see alSku. 
"food, sustenance, support", 
"wine". Ideogr. £l!K . 



VOCABULARY 



355 



kurunnu 

karru 

karSu 

karaSu 

karaSu 

kisibbu 

kaSadu 



ki&ittu 
kiSadu 

[kaSapu] 

ki&pu 
kaSSapu 

ka&Saptu 
[kaSaru] 
kaSaSu 

kiSSatu 
kaSusu 
ki&ittu 
kiStu 
katu | 
ka&u t 
ka$a I 

kitu 



"sesame-wine". Ideogr. ^ ^jy^r. 
"costly raiment". 

"belly". Cf. Hebr. feTO. 

"destruction". 

"seal". 

Pret. ik$ud\ Pres. ikaiad\ Imper. kufad : "to reach, 
come up to, draw near, approach, come; to 
seize, take, attain to; to conquer, overcome". 
Ideogr. V- 

Piel, Imper. kuttid : "to attain to, secure". 

Shafel, Pret. uSakh'd : "to cause to attain ; to cause 
to conquer"; with katu "to cause the hand to 
conquer, to deliver into the hand". 

"booty; possession; prisoners". 

"neck; bank of a river". Ideogr. 

Pret. iktip ; Imper. fuh'p : "to enchant, cast a spell 
upon". Hebr. P]#5- 

"enchantment, sorcery". Hebr. r^S. 

"sorcerer". Ideogr. Kj!jj *"£|p < f ►^TT* Hebr. 

"sorceress". Ideogr. ^t- ^mT ► ►^Jf- 

Pret. iktir : "to repair, set up again". 

Pret. ikSai : "to assemble, collect (?)". 

"host, totality, the world". Ideogr. <*<« , J, ^. 

"darling, beloved". 

see kaSadu. 

plur. kiWu "wood, forest". 

fern, kdti, kdh'y plur. katunu, kalunu, personal pro- 
noun : "thee, you". 




"cloth". Ideogr. Jg[ *|-, i^-. 



n* 



3 5 6 



VOCABULARY 



kat&mu Pret. iktum : "to cover; to close (the lips); 

overwhelm". 
Piel, Inf. kuttumu : "to cover completely". 
kuttumu "covered, hidden". 
kitru "alliance". 

katrQ "gift, present". 



to 



IS 

WQ 

litu 
la'atu 

multa'Qtu 
la 

la 

la 

littu 
[labSbu] 

libbatu 
libbu 



liblibbu 
lubultu 
labSnu 
libittu 



negative particle : "not". Hebr. tfb. 
Pres. Mi : "to be able". 

fern, constr.st. It' a/: "strong, mighty, powerful"; laWu 
"impotent, weak, unable", Ideogr. ^j ^J *"TI^- 
"strength, might; triumph, victory", 
"full extent (?)". 
"to wish". 

"will, pleasure, determination", 
precative particle; particle of emphasis used with 

3 and i pers. sing, and plur. Hebr. V?- 
conj. "or" ; lii . . . lu . . ., lu . . . u . . ., lu . . . u 

///... "either . . . or . . .". 
"wild ox", 
"wild cow". 
Perm. 3 fern. sing, labbat, 3 masc. plur. labbu : "to 

be angry, to rage", 
"anger", 
"heart; womb, bowels, courage"; ina libbi, libbi, 

libbu "in, in the midst of"; ana libbi "against". 

Ideogr. ^Jjy. Hebr. 3^, MS. 
"offspring, descendant", 
see laba&u. 
"to lav or cast flat". 
plur. libndli : "brick". Ideogr. -&£%. Cf. Hebr. 



VOCABULARY 



357 



labaru 



labariS 
labiru 

labasu 



lubaSu 
lubuStu 
lubultu 
nalbaSu 

labuttG . 

libittu 

lifu 

lalQ 

111 at u 
lamu 



limu 
lim 
limetu 
limltu 
lamadu 



lim&nu 



Pret. ilbur, ilbir : "to grow old". 

Shafel, Pret. ufalbir; Pres. utolbar : "to cause to 

become old, to prolong; to grow old", 
adv. "into old age" ; labaril alaku "to become old", 
fern, labiriu ; plur. masc. labiruU\ fern, labirati : "old, 

former"; H-ma la-bi-ri-im-ma "as of old". 
Perm, labtt, 3 plur. Iab-$u : "to clothe oneself, be 

clothed" ; uldpa labaSu "to enter into an alliance". 

Hebr. tf 3^. 

- T 

Ifteal, Perm, titbui : "to be clothed". 
Shafel, Pret. uialbX : "to clothe", 
"garment". 

"garment". 

"robe, garment". 

"ruler, governor". 

see labanu. 

"hostage". 

"fulness, abundance"; la-li-c balati "the fulness of 

life", 
"evening". Hebr. n^S. 
Pret. tlmi, ilnu\ Perm. Iamt\ 3 masc. plur. lamu : "to 

surround, catch, besiege". 
Shafel, Pres. uSalmi\ Inf. iulmu : "to enclose, catch", 
"period; eponymy". 
"thousand". 

"neighbourhood". 

Pret. ilmad\ Imper. timad, h'-mid-da : "to learn, to 
perceive" ; lam-du (Perm. 3 plur.) "trained". Hebr. 

Piel, Pret. ulammid : "to teach". Hebr. *!©*?. 
"to be evil". 



358 



VOCABULARY 



liznnu 

limniS 

limuttu 

luznnu 

lumSSu 

lasamu 

llpllpi 

lapatu 



SalpQtu 
/afcff, li^Q 



li&Snu 

la'Stu \ 

lltu 

littu 



fern. limuttu\ plur. masc. limnulij fern, limniii : "evil, 

wicked, hostile". Ideogr. <J»-JJ»-|» 
adv. "evilly, terribly". 

"evil, misfortune". Ideogr. <^JfcJ, £- <MM* 
constr. st. lumun : "evil, wickedness, evil purpose", 
plur. lu~ma-ti : certain stars, 
"to gallop". 

"descendant". Ideogr. ^Jjy wfc-J* >^y^. 
Pret. iiput : "to turn, overturn, destroy". Hebr. 

neb. 

Shafel, Pret. uMpit : "to destroy". 

"destruction ; misfortune". 

Pret. ilki, ilka ; Prec. lilki\ Pres. iieiii) Hikki\ Imper. 

Iiki\ Part, likii, fem. li-ka-at, li-kat : "to take, catch, 

receive". Ideogr. *~<y^. Hebr. H[?^. 
Ifteal, Pret. ilteki : "to take possession of". 
plur. Itianati : "tongue, speech, nation". Ideogr. 

-JiTt^J. Hebr. J1^. 

see [ie'u]. 
see lu. 



ma 

ma 
ma 
mu 
mag am 

migru 
magsaru 



M 

enclitic particle of emphasis : the forms mc, nu, mi 

and mu also occur, 
enclitic particle : "and". 

adv. "thus, as follows"; introduces direct speech, 
plur. me : "water". Ideogr. Jjr. Cf. Hebr. 10, *£, D*£. 
Pret. imgur : "to render obedience to, to gratifv" ; 

Part, magiru y plur. mdgire "obedient", 
constr. st. migir : "darling, favourite", 
see gasaru. 



VOCABULARY 



359 



ma'adu 

madu 
ma'adu 
madu 
ma'adiS 



l 



I 



mu'du 
madadu 
madatu 
madattu 
mehQ 
mahazu 
mahhu 

mahhataS 
muhhu 

muhhu 
mahSsu 



maharu 



Pret. //k'a/, i»w</; Pres. Mia'stf : "to be numerous, 
many, much, to swarm". Cf. Hebr. TittJ. 

fern, ma'alfu, mattu ; plur. ma'aduti, fern, ma* add ft : 
"many, much". 

adv. "greatly, exceedingly, much" ; a/ra ma'adrt "in 
great numbers". 

plur. ww'<# : "abundance". 

Pret. itndud\ Pres. imandad: "to mtasurt". Hebr.TlO. 

see nadanu. 

"storm, tempest". 

"city, town". Cf. Hebr. Wl, 11110. 

fern, mahhutu : "prophet, prophetess". 

adv. "like one possessed". 

ina muhhi, ana mu/tfri ' : "on, upon; concerning; to, 

towards; against", 
"skull". 

Pret. tm&af, Pres. imah^as : "to smite". Hebr. pfl£. 
Ifteal, Pret. imdafa's, imda^his : "to fight"; Part. 

plur. mundahhise, mundafrse "warriors" ; Inf. mithusu 

employed as subs, "battle, attack". 
Pret. imfrur) Imper. mufrur : "to correspond to, 

rival; to oppose, fight; to go or come before; 

to pray to ; to take from ; to receive favourably ; 

to be first, to have preeminence" ; Part, mahiru 

"opponent, rival"; la ma^ar (Inf.), la maftra, la 

mafiri "invincible". 
Ifteal, Perm, mitfrur : "to correspond to, to lie over 

against". 
Piel, Pret. umafchir, umahir\ Prec. limaftbir : "to come 

before; to bring before, offer"; Inf. mubfiuru 

employed as subs, "offering", c. g. mub-fru-ru u- 

ma-bir "I offered an offering (libation)". 



36o 



VOCABULARY 



mahariS 
mahru 



mahrQ 
mihru 

w 

mihirtu 

%0 

muhru 

mithariS 

tamharu 

miftu 
meku 

maksu 

makkuru 

namkuru \ 
nakkuru J 
znalQ 



Shafel, Pret. ulamhir : "to seek out, visit, punish". 
Ishtafal, Pret. uMamfa'r : "to set, place". 
Nifal, Pres. immahar : "to be equalled", 
"against; in greater degree than, surpassing", 
constr. st. mafyar : "front" ; maftri, mahar, ana matin, 

ina mabri "in front of, before, against" ; adi mahri 

"into the presence of ; disk mafyri "predecessor" ; 

iarru $u-ut mafi-ri, lar ma-fiar "a former king". 

Ideogr. ^J*-. 
fern. mahntu\ plur. masc. mafyruii, mabrutu : "first, 

former", 
"battle, storm", 
"front" ; constr. st. mihrit, mihrat employed as prep. 

"before, over against", 
constr. st. mufyur : "homage", 
adv. "together", 
"battle". 

"club (?)". Ideogr. t] HJ ►HP- 
word of uncertain meaning, 
"bond, fetter", 
"property, possessions". Ideogr. ^ ^Jjy^. Cf. 

Hebr. 130. 

V V 

"property". 

Pret. imli : "to till ; to be full, to be full of, to 
be fulfilled". Hebr. «S&. 

- T 

Ifteal, Pret. imtali : "to be filled with". 

Piel, Pret. and Pres. umalli, u-mal-lu-u, u-ma-al-la-a : 
"to fill up" ; with katu "to fill the hands with, 
deliver into the hands of, invest with". 

Iftaal, Pret. um-ta-al-la : "to fill with". 

Picl-Shafel, Pret. uimalli : "to fill". 



VOCABULARY 



36 1 



malQ 

mala 
milu 
malahu 
malaku 



I 



maliku 
malku 

malikutu 

malkQtu 

milku 

malaku 

millu 

melammu 

malmaliS 

rnulmullu 

malasu 

multa'utu 



mama 
mima 
mimma 
mimmvL 

mamman 
mummu 
mamitu 
manvL 



I 



constr. st. mal : "fulness" ; mai, mala, mala $a "as 
many as, as much as". Hebr. fcOfcJ. 

fern, mantu : "full". Hebr. k!?B. 

"flood, stream". 

"sailor". Ideogr. g^ft ^:JJJ |^f Hebr. n^tt. 

Pret. imlik : "to counsel, take counsel"; malaku 
milku "to come to a decision", e. g. mi-Iik-$u 
mil-ku (Perm.) "he came to a decision". Cf. 
Hebr. ^SftJ. 

Ifteal, Pret. imtalik : "to take counsel with one- 
self; with negative "not to take counsel with 
oneself, to be ill-advised". 

constr. st. malik : "prince; arbiter, counsellor". 
Hebr. ^. 

"rule, empire ; position of counsellor", 
"lordship, dominion", 
constr. st. milik : "counsel". 

see alSku. 

"troop, gang (?)". 

plur. melamme : "brightness, splendour, majesty". 

adv. "into two parts, asunder". 

"dart, spear, javelin". 

Pret. imlus : "to pluck out". 

see [l&'u]. 

see manma. 

see minma. 

see minmQ. 

see manman. 

"uproar, confusion". 

see amQ. 

Pret. imnu ; Pres. imanu, imam: "to count, reckon, 



362 



VOCABULARY 



mBnu 
minGtu 

tnanQ 

minQ 

mandattu 

manzazu 

manzaltu 

manShtu 

manSma 



manma 

mama 

minma 

mimma 

mima 



\ 



minmQ \ 
mimmu J 

manman \ 
mamman | 
mannu 
minQtu 
misQ 

[masaku] 



allot; to recite fan incantation t ; 

(Inf.) "without number". Hebr. 7 
"number"* 

plur. mindJi: "number; space, period", 
"maneh" ; generally written ^J *~T- Hebr. H^. 
gen. mini, mini ; ace. mimd r interrogative pronoun : 

"what ?". 
see nadanu. 

see naz&zu. 

see nahu. 

indefinite pronoun : "anyone"; with negative "no 

one". 

indefinite pronoun : "anyone, any". 

indefinite pronoun : "anything, everything, what- 
ever"; mimma $um$u "everything that bears a 
name, i. e. that exists ; everything, various ob- 
jects, of every kind". 

indefinite pronoun : "anything, whatever, all of"; 
also "something of, a little of", e. g. mimmu Seri 
"early dawn". 

indefinite pronoun: "anyone"; with negative "no 
one . 

interrogative pronoun : "who ? whom ?". 

see manu. 

Pret. imsi ': "to wash". 

Piel, Prec. limissi ': "to wash clean, purify". 

Shafel, Pres. uSamsak : "to withhold, keep back, 
conceal". 

Ishtafal, Pres. uitamsak: "to be kept back, hindered". 



musarQ | 
muSarQ \ 



u; 



?» 



inscription . 



VOCABULARY 



363 



[masu] 
masu 

• 

[masaru] 

[masaru] 

misru 

9 

massaru 

• • 

massartu 

• • 

masartu 
malfatu 



malfittu 
milftu 
maru 



Perm. mts : "to be little, to be less (?)". 
Perm, mast: "to be wide ; to be enough, sufficient". 
Piel, Pret. umassir : "to divide". 
Nifal, Pret. immasir : "to be banded together (?)". 
constr. st. misir ; plur. misra/u, misreti : "boundary ; 
section ; territory". 

see nasaru. 

Pret. imkut: "to fall, fall upon". 

Ifteal, Pret. imtokut\ "to fall". 

Shafel, Pret. utemkit, utimki/ ; Part, mufamkiiu : "to 

overthrow"; Inf. iumkutu (ideogr. ^JTT) employed 

as subs, "conquest". 



"ruins". 



tamartu 
maru 

mSrtu 

marUtu 
mSr-Sipri 

m&riltu 
mirSnu 
marasu 
znarsu 



constr. st. mikit : "chasm, abyss". 

"to send". ' 

Piel, Pret. uma'ir ; Pres. uma'ar, umar : "to send ; 
to rule ; to command, to commission" ; Inf. mu*uru 
employed as subs, "rule, lordship". Ideogr. JEJJ. 

Iftaal, Pret. umtaUr : "to command, enjoin upon". 

"present, gift". 

plur. mare : "son" ; mar mart "grandson" ; mare alt 
"townsfolk". Ideogr. f^, £j£ t^\- 

constr. st. marat\ plur. marati'. "daughter". Ideogr. 

"sonship". Ideogr. ►J^V' £§E, £§E. 
"messenger, envoy" ; written ^^ Jf Jg[J, ^^ 

see erSSu. 

"power (?)". 

Pret. tmras : "to be steep, difficult ; to be strong". 

masc. plur. marstiti: "steep; difficult, grievous". 



364 



VOCABULARY 



marasu 



marsu 
marsis 



znararu 



znartu 

naxnurratu 
mu'irrutu 
marSu 

meriStu 

znartu 

ma&u 

mu&u 

muSltu 
musabu 
masadu 

masdu 
masahu 
masku 
masalu 



Perm, man's : "to be sick". 

Ifteal, Pres. imtara$\ "to be or fall sick". 

Shafel : "to make sick" ; Perm. Sumrus "sick, af- 
flicted". 

"sick, woeful, afflicted". 

adv. "afflicted, in tribulation". 

"to be bitter". Hebr. Tip. 

Shafel, Pret. uXamrir; "to make bitter, to cause 
to rage (of weapons)". 

"gall". Cf. Hebr. TTrfi, ,TT)&. 

constr. st. namurrat: "anger, rage". 



see 'aru. 



mislu 
tamsllu 
tna&lu 



fern. maruUu : "evil" ; the fem. maruitu is also 

employed as subs, "sorrow", 
see ereSu, 
see mararu. 
Pret. imSi : "to forget". 
Nifal, Pret. immati : "to be forgotten", 
"night". 

plur. muSdfi : "night", 
see asabu. 
"to overcome". 

Iftaal, um-da$-$ad : meaning uncertain, 
word of uncertain meaning. 
Pret. imSuh : "to measure", 
constr. st. maSak : "skin, hide". Ideogr. »r| 
"to be like". Cf. Hebr. b#&J. 
Piel, Pret. umuHil : "to make like, to imitate". 
Shafel, Inf. htmhdlu : "to make like, to divide 

into equal parts", 
constr. st. mih'l : "half", 
"likeness, image", 
constr. st. ma$al : "whole". 



TT- 



} 



see [eSSru]. 



VOCABULARY 365 

[maSaru] Piel, Pret. umaHir; Prec. h'meSir; Pres. umaUar\ Imper. 

muttir : "to leave, forsake, abandon ; to loose, to 
let go free; to permit, allow; to cease". 
Iftaal, Pret. umdaXHr : "to let loose". 
m&Saru 
mi&aru 
znuSarQ • see musarQ. 
xnuSitu see mu§u. 
znati "when?"; adi mati "how long? when?". Hebr. "flft. 

xnatima "whensoever"; ana tnatima "for ever, always". 
matu plur. mdtoii : "land". Ideogr. *£, £| fctTT' 

matu Pret. imui\ Pres. imot : "to die". Hebr. rflft. 

Ifteal, Pres. imtut : "to die". 

mitu plur. mttuti, mi-iu-ta-an : "dead". 

matu "death". 
mutu "man, husband". Cf. Hebr. n&. 

mithariS see maharu. 
mitlutu "might, power". 
rnatima see matf. 

matlfu "sweet drink, mead". Cf. Hebr. prift. 
mettifu see efSku. 
muttu "front". 

/rnittiS "before". 

muttatu "countenance, face". 



N 

ni enclitic particle, appended to verbs especially in 

relative sentences, 
[rre'u] Pret. inV : "to stop, restrain, hinder". Hebr. Ktt. 

nltu "enclosure". 

nabu Pret. Mi; Pres. inambi; Imper. ibi\ Perm, nabi : "to 

call, name; to command; to appoint, proclaim"; 



366 



VOCABULARY 



nibu 
nibittu 

nibbu 
nabSJu 

nuballu 
nablu 
nabnitu 
nibariu 
nibittu 
nibittu 
nagQ 
nagbu 
nagSgu 
nSdu 



nS'idu 
nSdu \ 
tanattu 
tanittu 
nadQ 



iuma maim "to be named, bear a name, exist**. 

Cf. Hebr. f^ 
Ifteal, Pret. iitabi : "to name, call by name". 
Piel, Pret. umamii y umamha : **to cry aloud, lament'*, 
"number", 
constr. at, mint : "name ; chosen one, elect"* ; nihil lumi 

"mention of the name, name**, 
"enclosure (?;**. 

Pret. Mu/, Oul : "to destroy**. 

Ifteal, Pret. and Pres. ittabali "to destroy; to steal (? ". 
"talon, claw (of an eagle)'", 
"flame". 
see banQ. 

see eb&ru. 

see nabG. 

plur. nage : "region, district, land". 

constr. st. nagab : "the whole". 

Pres. inagag : "to cry, to bellow". 

Prec. 3 plur. li-na-du\ Pres. ina'ad, i-na-du : "to exalt, 
praise". 

Ifteal, Pret. ittaid : "to exalt, glorify; to exalt one- 
sell"; Part, mutta'idu "arrogant". 

"exalted". Ideogr. ^*IT- JV, ^ 

plur. tanaddtu : "glory, honour". 

"glory, honour". 

Pret. iddi\ Pres. inadi\ Imper. idi\ Perm, nadi : "to 
throw, cast, cast down ; to lay (a foundation), to 
set or place (a dwelling), to found (a shrine); 
to dispense (commands); to raise (a cry), to re- 
cite a spell or incantation (ideogr. ►►V^^=TTj). 

Ifteal, Pret. ittadi : "to lay, bring upon". 



VOCABULARY 



367 



nad^nu 



nudunnQ 
mandattu 
madattu 
madatu 

nadru 

nazazu 



manzazu 



manzaltu 
Sezuzu 
nahu 



nihu 
nihtu 
manahtu 
nihesu 



\ 
i 



nuhSu 



Iftaneal, Pret. ittanamdi : "to utter (a spell)". 

Nifal, Pret. innadi : "to be cast". 

Pret. iddin\ Pres. inaddin, inamdm, iddan \ "to 
give, deliver, grant, allow; to sell; to make, 
create" ; nadan (Inf.) Satti "yearly gift". Ideogr. 
fcj^f Cf. Hebr. JJU 

lfteal, Pret. iitadin : "to hand over". 

"gift". 

"tax, tribute". 

plur. masc. nadruti : "fierce". 

Pret. izztz'y Pres. izzaz; Imper. iziz\ "to stand, 

stand up, take one's stand". Ideogr. t^T. 
lfteal, Pret. ittaziz : "to stand, take one's stand". 
Shafel, Pret. uteziz, uSeziz, uSziz : "to set, set up, 

fix, establish", 
"place, station, resting-place" ; man-za-az bdb 

e-kur "that stood before the gate of the 

temple". 
(*. e. manzaztu) : ^place, position", 
masc. plur. lizuzuti : "erect, reared on end". 
Pret. inufy : "to rest; to be appeased". Hebr. ITU. 
Piel, Pret. uni/i; Prec. tinth; Inf. nuhhu : "to bring 

to rest, compose, pacify; to overpower, con- 
quer", 
fern, riihtu : "quiet, peaceful", 
"rest", 
"couch". 
Pret. ihhis\ Pres. inafihis, inamfyis \ "to subside; 

to go, depart", 
lfteal, Pret. ittehis : "to retreat", 
"abundance". 



368 



VOCABULARY 



natalu 



niflu 
nakkuru 
nikiltu 

[nakamu] 



nakmu 
nakamtu 

naka.su 



niksu 
nakaru 



nakaru 

nakiru 

nakru 

nakriS 
nukurtu 

[nSlu] 
nalbaSu 

[namu] 



Pret. ittul\ Pres. inatal, ma/tat : "to look, behold, 

gaze, look up, glance". 
Ifteal, Pres. and Pret. Hiatal \ "to look upon, see". 
Iftaneal, Pres. ittanatal : "to gaze", 
constr. st. nitil : "look, sight", 
see makkUru. 
plur. nikldti : "cunning; cunning plan, device". Cf. 

Hebr. bpj. 
"to heap up". 
Piel : "to heap up, hoard"; Perm, nukkum "stored, 

heaped up", 
"heaped up, hoarded", 
plur. nakamdti : "treasure" ; bit tuxkamti, plur. bit na- 

kamdti, "treasure-house". 
Pret. ikkis : "to cut off, to cut down". 
Piel, Pret. unakki$\ Imper. nukkis : "to cut off, tear 

off", 
constr. st. nikis : "cutting off; breach", 
"to be altered ; to be hostile". Cf. Hebr. *p}, "IpJ, 

• : t 

Iftaneal, Pres. ittanakar : "to be hostile". 

Piel, Pret. unakkir ; Pres. unakkar : "to alter, change 

(trans.)". 
lftaal, Pres. uttakkar : "to be altered", 
"hostile; foe". 

plur. nakiri- : "enemy, foe". Ideogr. >i^-. ^►Tyr At- 
fern, nakirtu : "hostile"; as subs, "enemy". Ideogr. 

adv. "as a foe, with hostile intent". 

"hostility". Ideogr. £- >i^-. 

Perm, nit: "to lie, lie down". Cf. Hebr. ^HJ, SSnj. 

see labaSu. 

Piel, Pret. unammi : "to destroy". 



VOCABULARY 



36g 



nimedu 
namkuru 
nimedu 
namaru 



Inu J 



namru 

namirtu 

namrirru 

nammaiSu 

nini 

ninu 

nUnu 

nQn-amSlu 

nindabu 

nannaru 
nisQ 
nisiggu 
nasahu 

nasaku 

nismatu 

nasaJfu 

nasJfu 

nisiJftu 

napahu 



napharu 
napaSu 



see emedu. 
see znakkUru. 

see emg^ru. 

Pret. immir : "to shine, be bright". 

Piel, Pret. unammir ; Pres. unammar ; Imper. num- 

mtr : "to make bright, to give light to", 
fern, namirtu : "bright", 
"brightness, light", 
"brightness", 
"beast". 

see aninu. 

"fish". Ideogr. ^f<. 

"fish-man". Ideogr. ff< £$£ *£\tf[ JgJ. 

"offering, free-will offering". Ideogr. {^ *~*z^x$. 

Cf. Hebr. nyfl. 
"light". 

Pret. isst : "to retreat, recede from". Hebr. ppj. 
"spoil from hunting (?)". 
Pret. issub\ Pres. inossafr : "to tear away or out, 

to carry off, remove". Hebr. npj. 
Pret. t'ssuk : "to set in position, to grasp (a weapon)", 
"will, purpose", 
"to glorify, extol", 
"lordly, magnificent", 
"splendour, costliness"; nisikti, abni nisikti, nisikti 

abn'e "precious stones". 
Pret. ippufy : "to flame or shine forth"; ideogr. 

^, e. g. napafya(Jia) ilu SamSi\it) "sun-rise, the 

east". Cf. Hebr. prfip. 
see pahSru. 

"to breathe, breathe freely". Cf. Hebr. ©jg). 
Piel, Inf. nuppuSu : "to let breathe, to give ease to". 



24 



370 



VOCABULARY 



napiitu 



nappaSu 
naptanu 
nasu 

• 

[nasalii] 



nasmadu 
nasaru 



nisirtu 



massaru 

• • 

massartu 

• m 

masartu 



nalfu 
nalfQ 



nilfu 



nalf-me 
naffbu 
nasaru 



with pron. suffixes nap$at\ plur. napldti : "life; 
living creature, person". Ideogr. ^JIV*- Hebr. 

"air-hole, window". 

see patSnu. 

constr. st. nas : "portion of an eagle's wing, wing- 
feathers". 

"to sink (?)". 

Shafel, Pret. uSamsil : "to cause to sink". 

Ishtafal, Pret. ultam§il : "to cause to sink". 

see saznSdu. 

Pret. i$sur ; Imper. usur : "to watch, keep, pro- 
tect". Ideogr. E5ff& Hebr. *)¥}. 

Ifteal, Pret. ttta§ar\ with massartu as object : "to 
keep a watch". 

"watching, guarding; store, treasure"; bit nifirti 
"treasure-house"; amat nisirti "hidden word, 
secret". 

"watchman". 

J "watch". Ideogr. *-JI ^fflf, -fl ^fffl -TJ. 

Pret. inuk : "to lament, wail". 

Pret. ikki : "to pour out (a libation), to offer (an 

offering)". Ideogr. ►AJ^. Cf. Hebr. rvpjtp. 
Ifteal. Pret. ittaki \ "to offer", 
plur. nihe : "libation; offering, sacrifice"; btl niki 

"sacrificer". Ideogr. <5^^, sometimes written 

with determ. J^fJ. 

"irrigator". Ideogr. £££ ]} *-£-]*. 
"depth". Cf. Hebr. apj. 

Pret. ikkur, ikur ; lmper. ukur : "to destrov, pull 
down". Cf. Hebr. If?}. 



VOCABULARY 



371 



> 



nam 

nam 
nem 

nlru 
narU 
nlru 
nQm 
narSbu 

nurbu 
narbQ 
nirbu 
niribu 
narkabtu 
naramu 
naramtu 
niraru 

niSSi 1 
niSti J 
nSSu 
naiQ 



nlSu 

niSittu 
neSu 
niSu 



plur. ndrdti : "stream, river". Ideogr. JffiT. Hebr. 

Pret. indr, intr; Imper. nlr : "to slay, destroy, van- 
quish", 
"destroyer". 

"inscribed tablet of stone", 
"yoke". Ideogr. grj IeJTTH- 
"light". 

Piel, Part, mu-nir-bu "destroyer", 
constr. st. nurub : "fragment, piece". 

see rabQ. 

see erebu. 
see rak&bu. 

see ramu. 

"helper"; occurs in a number of proper names, 
e. g. Ramman-nirari. 

personal pronoun : "us". 

Pret. inuS : "to totter, be in ruins; to slip". 

Pret. 1H1; Imper. tit; Part, now, constr. st. nai ; Perm. 

nah' : "to raise, bear up ; to bear, carry, bring ; 

to carry off, capture"; with tamfraru "to make 

ready for battle". Hebr. K^J. 
Ifteal, Pret. itta$i\ "to raise, bring; to raise, cast 

(the eyes)", 
"raising, invocation"; nii kati "raising of the hand, 

invocation, prayer", 
constr. st. niiit : "darling", 
"lion". Ideogr. Jg[ *£EII- 
"people" ; plur. niii : "peoples ; men, mankind". 

Ideogr. ^y^f. 

24* 



372 
na£&ku 

naSaJfu 



nairu 
niSittu 
niati 
natVL 

nitu 
nataku 



VOCABULARY 

"to bite". Hebr. "5|#J. 

Piel, Pres. unaUak : "to bite, tear". 

Pret. iSh'k : "to kiss". Hebf. p#J. 

Piel, Pret. unattik : "to kiss". 

Nifal, Pret. 3 plur. in-mlf-ku : "to press on, jostle 

one another (?)". 
"eagle". Ideogr. £5^| ►JJ. Hebr. n#J. 
see na£G. 
see niSSi. 
"to strike". 

Piel, Pret. unatti : "to smash, shatter", 
see n&'u. 
Jfteal, Pret. ittatak; Prec. littatuk : "to dissolve, melt, 

disappear". Cf. Hebr. Wl). 



iba \ rrr wn? 

\ fern. «&///* : "seven". Ideogr. tjj. yjy. Hebr. J?3£. 



siba 
sibi 

sibu 
sabasu 
sagu 
sadu 
sadaru 

sidru 

[sahQ] 



sihu 

w 

sahalu 

sahmaStu 

sahapu 



"seventh". Ideogr. ^« 

see Sabasu. 

"to starve, be in want". 

Pret. *><*</ : "to destroy". 

Perm, sadir : "to set oneself in battle array; to 

carry on (a rebellion)", 
"line of battle". Cf. Hebr. T7Q. 
Perm, si'/ii, 3 fern. sing. si-)ja-ti '. "to disappear, cease; 

to revolt". 
Piel, Pret. usahhi : "to destroy, blot out, overthrow", 
"revolt, rebellion", 
Pret. ishul : "to pierce", 
"rebellion". 
Pret. ishup : "to overwhelm". Hebr. c-jnp. 



VOCABULARY 



373 



saharu 



sihru 
sihirtu 

w 

sukkallu 

sikkdru 

sakapu 

[salQ] 
[salQ] 

taslitu I 
teslitu J 
salamu 

salimu 
salimiS 
salmu 

suluppu 
salatu 
sum mat u 



Pret. isfrur : "to turn, turn towards; to surround, 
harass, infest". Cf. Hebr. *1PID. 

' - T 

Ifteal, Pret. issahur, issafrra; Pres. i-sab-fru-ra : "to 



return". 



Piel, Pret. usafyfyir\ Imper. sufrfrir; Perm. suJ}f}ur\ Inf. 
subburu : "to turn, to turn towards". 

Ishtafal, Pret. uMasbir, uMd$bir : "to cause to sur- 
round, to surround with". 

Nifal, Inf. nasfruru : "to be turned, to turn oneself 
(from anger)". 

Ittanafal, Pres. ittanashar : "to turn oneself towards". 

constr. st. sifrir : a precious stone. 

"enclosing wall ; neighbourhood ; full extent, whole" ; 

ana sifrirtrtu "in its full extent", 
"minister, servant". Ideogr. ^JU^- 
"bolt". Ideogr. f | ^JJ^ >~<*. Cf. Hebr. T3pJ. 
Pret. iskip\ Pres. isakip : "to cast down, overthrow; 

to cast oneself down, to rest". 
Pret. is-lu-u : "to cast off (a yoke)". Cf. Hebr. fl^p. 
Piel, Pret. usaili; Pres. u-sal-Ia, u~sal-lu; Inf. sullu : 

"to pray". 

"prayer, supplication". 

Pret. t'sh'm; Imper. silim : "to deal favourably with, 
be gracious". 

"mercy; alliance, confederacy", 
"favourably, mercifully". 

subs, of uncertain meaning, occurring in phrase 
a-$ar sa-al-me. 

"date". Ideogr. ^t^\ fe E|- 

"household". 

plur. summati : "dove". Ideogr. >-e£:T ^-JT. 



374 



VOCABULARY 



sizntu 
sinuntu 
sinniS 
sinniitu 
sanS&u 
sunJfu 
sisQ 

sipQ 
sapahu 



sapanu 

sippu 
saparu 

sapariS 
saparu 

selfru \ 
surfflnu 
sararu 
serSi \ 
iirls | 
siSSu 
situ | 
sittu J 
sattukku 



see asSznu. 

"swallow". Ideogr. ^|^ ^jj. 

"female, wife". Ideogr. £-. 

Pret. isnik : "to oppress ; to hold fast". 

"want, hunger". 

plur. sue : "horse". Ideogr. £^E V ^TT« Cf - 

Hebr. DID. 
"to pray", 
"to loose, scatter, bring to naught"; Perm, sapih 

"loosened". 
Piel, Pret. usappifi; Part, musappifr, mu-st-pi-ifi : "to 

scatter, break up, shatter". Cf. Hebr. H6Q. 
Nifal, Pret. issapify : "to be scattered". 
Pret. ispun ; Pres. isapan : "to cover, overwhelm, cast 

down, overcome, subdue". Cf. Hebr. JBQ. 
plur. sippe : "threshold", 
"net", 
"in a net". 

Pret. iskur, iSkur : "to speak, to command". 
Ittafal, Pret. ittalkar : "to speak". 

constr. st sikir, sekar : "word, command". 

"drink-offering, libation". 

"to oppose, resist". Hebr. Tip. 

"sweet drink, mead". 

"sixth". Ideogr. ffi. Hebr. V&0. 

masc. plur. sittuti : "the others, the rest". 

"regular offering". Ideogr. ^Jt^ *-£^J- 



VOCABULARY 375 



pu "mouth ; word, command". Ideogr. ^t^f. Hebr. Pl$. 

pagru constr. st. pagar : "body, corpse". Hebr. ^Jfi. 

padQ Part, pddu : "to loose, to free" ; Id pddu "unsparing, 

without mercy". Hebr. ,T^. 
pidQ "purchase-money". 

padanu "way, path". 

puzru constr. st.puzur; plur. puzrdti : "secret, concealment". 

pihQ Pret. iphi ; Imper. ptfti : "to close, shut". 

Ifteal, Pret. iptefc : "to shut". 
pihQ "to steer"; Part. pefiu "steersman, pilot". 

J "district, province, territory"; bel pafidti "governor". 
pahStu I Ideogr. ^|J^. 

I "governor". Ideogr. ££^ HH^- Cf - Hebr - n 09- 
pihatu "district, province". Ideogr. ^|J^. 
paharu "to collect (intrans.)". 

Ifteal, Pret. iptabar : "to collect (intrans.)". 
Piel, Pret. upa^hir, u-pi-hi-tr : "to collect (trans.); 
to strengthen". Ideogr. J^J^J. 
puhru constr. st. puftur: "whole; assemblage; might, strength, 

support; host, forces". Ideogr. ►£^_|. 
puhuru f. pufyurtu : "united". 
napharu "entirety, the whole". Ideogr. ^E| £j. 
pafu "boundary, border, limit ; all" ; pdt gimri "entirety, 

the whole, the entire extent". Ideogr. ^E^. 
pataru Pret. iptur\ Pres. ipattar : "to tear away, remove". 

Hebr. *)©$. 
Nifal, Pret. ippatir : "to be torn away". 
pafru constr. st. pa/ar : "dagger". Ideogr. ►^Ifl. 
paku "misery (?)". 

palU "reign, year of reign ; symbol of royalty, ring (?)". 

Ideogr. ►►-|^. 



376 



VOCABULARY 



[peiu] 

pulu 
palahu 

palhiS 
pulhu 
puluhtu 
[palkQ] 

palkQ 
pallukku 

[palasu] 



pHSu 
[paltvf] 

panu 



pananu 
pa^Sdu 



[paffalu] 
paru 

[paru] 



Piel-Shafel, Pret. ufyel : "to conquer, overcome . 
Ideogr. ►►~|^\ 

"stone, stone-block". 

Pret. iplah : "to fear, be afraid ; to reverence". 

Ifteal, Pret. iptalab : "to fear". 

adv. "with fear". 

"fear". 

constr. st. pulfrat; plur. pufyati : "fear, terror". 

"to be wide". 

Shafel, Pret. u$-pal-ki : "to open wide". 

masc. plur. palkuti : "wide ; fat". 

"circuit, boundary". Cf. Hebr. "JjSfi. 

Nifal, Pret. ippatis; Pres. ippalas; Imper. naplis\ Inf. 
naplusu : "to look upon, behold ; to look upon in 
pity". 

lttafal, Inf. itaplusu "to gaze upon". 

"mine (in siege-operations)". 

Nifal, Pret. ippalti, 3 plur. ip-pal-tuu : "to be de- 
feated". 

constr. st. pan : "face, countenance, front" ; pan, ina 
pan, ana pant "before" ; ina pdna "formerly" ; far 
pa-ni "a former king"; lapan (Hebr. *}§f?) "before". 
Ideogr. <y»-. Hebr. D*JB. 

adv. "formerly" ; i-na pa-na-a-nu-um-ma "formerly". 

Pret. ipkid; Imper. pikid : "to inspect; to control; 
to entrust or commend to (for safe -keeping)". 
Hebr. 1j2$. 

Ifteal, Pret. iptekid : "to appoint". 

Piel : "to make mighty"; Perm, pukkul "mighty". 

plur. pari : "mule". Ideogr. ^*TE£ Jtt^^f~? £^J?E 

Imper. purti : "to cut off". 

Piel, Pret. uparri' : "to cut otf, sever". 



VOCABULARY 



377 



pir'u 
piru 

[pardQ] 
parzillu 

[paraku] 



parku 

[parkQ] 



parakku 



parasu 



purussu 
. piristu 
parsu 

[parSru] 



[paraSu] 



[parSadu] 



paSahu 



paSfSLfu 



"offspring, descendant". Ideogr. ^^. 

plur. pirdni, pirdti : "elephant". Ideogr. £5^ ^IT" 

Shafel, Part, mul-par-du : "to make bright". 

"iron". Ideogr. ►►f- >f-. Hebr. b^ft. 

Shafel, Pret. uSaprik, with ina pan : "to bring upon 
with violence, cause to happen to; to display 
force towards". 

"bolt (of a door)". 

Nifal, Pret. ipparku; Inf. naparku : "to cease; to dis- 
appear, depart". 

Ittafal, Pret. ittaparka : "to disappear". 

plur. parakke, parakkani : "shrine, room, chamber".. 
Ideogr. E^f- 

Pret. iprus : "to divide ; to determine, decide". Ideogr. 
►*r. Cf. Hebr. D^fc. 

T 

Nifal, Pret. ipparis; Pres. ipparas : "to be decided; 
to stop, cease". 

"decision". Ideogr. ^(^ ^-. 

"decision". 

constr. st. para$ : "command, statute, ordinance". 
Ideogr. ^fz >~^-. 

Piel, Pret. uparrir\. Part, muparriru : "to break in 
pieces, shatter". Cf. Hebr. T1.1B. 

Iftaal, Pret. uptarrir : "to be broken, to be shattered". 

Nifal, Pret. ippan'S; Part, muppariu : "to fly, to fly 
along". , 

Ittafal, Part. muttapriSu : "to fly". 

Nifal, Pret. ipparSid; Inf. napariudu : "to fly, to es- 
cape, to disappear"; ina kati naparSudu "to dis- 
appear". 

Pret. ipXaft : "to be appeased, to be satisfied". 

Shafel, Pret. uiaphf} : "to appease, to satisfy". 

Pret. ipSi/'y Pres. ipalit : "to blot out, deface, destroy". 



378 VOCABULARY 

[pa££jru] "to be strong; to be grievous". 
Sap&a&u "tribulation, affliction". 
Sup&u&u "troubled, afflicted". 
paSaru Pret. tphir: "to loosen; to subdue (wrath)". 

Piel, Prec. Upaihr : "to loosen, dissolve". 
Nifal, Prec. UppdHr : "to be loosened, to be laid 
open". 
paiaSu Pret. iphiS : "to anoint". 

Nifal, Pres. ip-pa-al~h : "to be anointed". 
pSSiSQtu "anointing with oil, trade of anointing". 
paSSaru "dish". Ideogr. £{ ^|c3^TT- 
pitu Pret. ipti y iptd ; Pres. ipatti, iptfi, ipiiti ; \mper. piti, pita\ 

Part, pitu : "to open ; to declare, divulge, reveal 
to". Hebr. nnfi. 
petu "opener (of a gate), porter". Ideogr. Kfft »TT~ ^^. 

pUtu "face, front". 

patSnu "to eat". 

naptanu "feast". 
pitpanu "bow"; sometimes written with determ. £j. 
patSffu Pret. iptik : "to make, create ; to make or mix (wine)". 

pit If u constr. st. pitik : "structure". 
pattu plur. pat'iu-te : word of uncertain meaning. 



sabu plur. sdbe : "warrior" ; in plur. "people, mankind" ; 

sdbe kaUi "archers" ; sdbe tiduki "warriors". Ideogr. 

*J,Rw*f Cf. Hebr. X?X. 
[sabQ] Piel, Imper. subbi : "to look at, behold". 

sabaru Shafel, Pret. uhisbir : "to inform, to acquaint with". 

sabStu Pret. isbat\ Pres. isabat, isabbat; lmper. sabat; Part. 

sdbif : "to hold, grasp, hold fast, take, capture; 

to undertake (work); to exorcise"; harrdna sabdtu 



VOCABULARY 



379 



sibittu 
subStu 
sSdu 

• 

sQhu 

• %0 

sehSru 



\ 



sahru 
sihru 

a W 

suhritu (?) 
silu 
sj7u 

saltu 

sulatu 
[sa/a/u] 



"to take the road, set out"; with todu as object 
"to take to the mountains" ; ina katd §abit (Perm.) 
"taken in the hands", /'. e. "in captivity" ; fa-bif 
ar-ka-ti "that was behind". 

Ifteal, Pret. ifsabat; Inf. H$but (for sitbut) : "to take; 
to begin"; with harranu as object "to set out". 

Piel, Pret. usabbit : "to take, capture". 

Shafel, Pret. u$a$bit : "to cause to take (a road), 

to despatch ; to cause to take (a habitation), 

to station, to settle". 
Ishtafal, Pret. u$la$bit : "to cause to take (a road); 

to cause to take (a position), to post". 
Nifal, Pres. i^abat : "to be held fast", 
"captivity, durance", 
"garment". Ideogr. JEJ. 
Pret. tfud : "to glow", 
"wish, desire (?)". 

Perm. 1 sing. $i-ift-ri-ku : "to be small, young". 
Piel, Pret. usabfrir\ Pres. usafthar : "to diminish, to 

lessen; to deprive of, exclude from". 
Iftaal, Pret. ussafyhir : "to depart (?)". 
masc. plur. $%bruti : "small, petty, young". Ideogr. 



"youth". 

plur. file : "rib ; side". Hebr. p^, yb%. 

"to fight". 

"hostility, battle". 

"battle". 

"to overshadow". Hebr. SS^. 

Piel, Pret. usallil : "to set as a covering, to spread 



out". 



sillu "shade, shadow, shelter". Ideogr. £| ^^« Hebr. Sjf . 



38o 



VOCABULARY 



salmu 



salmu 



saltu 
salStu 
sumu 
satnadu 



simittu 
nasmadu 

m 

senu 

m 

[senu] 

sipru 

supru 

susQ 

• • 

sissu 

• • • 

sSru 
siru 

m 

slrutu 
sir 



siru 
sarahu 
sirlalu (?) 
sirmahu 
sarapu 

sirpu 
sirritu 



constr. st. salam ; plur. salmdnu, salmdni : "image". 

Ideogr. 3I/<£S^» V"- Hebr - n !?¥- 
fem. fatimfu; fem. plur. ?almati: "dark, black" ; salmat 

kakkadi "the black-headed", i. e. "mankind". Cf. 
Hebr. ma 1 ?*. 

see silQ. 

"thirst". Hebr. K$$. 

Pret. ismid : "to yoke, harness, equip, gird on" ; 

Perm. 3 fem. sing. Sandal, 3 masc. plur. sandu 

"girt, equipped". Cf. Hebr. n©¥. 

plur. simdati : "yoke". Ideogr. J*~. Hebr. *!&¥• 

"yoke". 

plur. ^«<r : "sheep". Cf. Hebr. Jrt¥. 

Pret. isan, isin : "to fill with". 

"lapis lazuli". Ideogr. J^Z^f ^ V ►f^- 

"claw". Cf. Hebr. pfitf. 

"marsh, marshland". 

"bond, fetter" ; sometimes written with determ. tT 

"field, plain, desert". Ideogr. ^^- ^£E« t^£^}. 

fem. sirtu : "high, exalted, august". Ideogr. ►£EjJ. 

"supremacy, majesty". 

Prep, "on, upon, over; against"; ana sir "to, upon"; 

siris* "to" ; si-ru-uS-Su "upon him", si-ru-us'-s'u-un 

"upon them". Ideogr. fc^^r- 
"serpent". Ideogr. ^> yj| <. 

Pres. isarrah : "to cry aloud, chant". Hebr. rH^. 
written sir-la-la : portion of a temple, "facade (?V\ 
"monster-serpent". 
Pret. isrup : "to dye with"; Perm. 3 fem. sing. 

sarpal f 3 masc. plur. sarpu "dyed with", 
word of uncertain meaning, 
plur. sirriti : "affliction". Cf. Hebr. "HJ^. 



VOCABULARY 



38i 




"colossal serpent, dragon". Ideogr. y» JIJ ^ ^^jE. 



see siru. 



see asQ. 



[*ff'u] 

Jfabu 

IfibQ 



Jfibitu 
kubbQ \ 
Jfubu J 
Jfablu 

kablu 
Jfudmu 

kaia 

JfQlu 

JfalSlu 
killatu 
kullultu 

kamQ 

IfanQ 

kannu 

Ifinnu 

Ifapu 



K 

a measure. 

Piel, Pres. ukd : u to wait". Hebr. HJj?. 
Pret. Mi; Pres. ikabbi; Imper. fobi\ Part. tabu; Perm. 
kadi) kibi : "to speak, proclaim, command". Ideogr. 

Ifteal, Pret. and Pres. iktabi : "to speak, say", 
"word, command". Ideogr. ^t^J ^TTT^* 

plur. kubbi, kube : "cry". 

constr. st. kabal : "midst; battle, assault, storm". 

Ideogr. Effittf Cf. Hebr. b^p. 
adj., fem. kablitu; fem. plur. kablati : "in the midst"; 

ina kablat "in the midst of", 
"front"; as prep, "before", kud-mc-lu-nu "before 

them". Cf. Hebr. D^. 
Pres. ikallu : "to burn". Hebr. nSp. 

t It 

"cry". Hebr. *7lp. 

Piel : "to abuse, disgrace". Cf. Hebr. b*?p r - 

plur. killati : "sin, transgression, offence". 

"iniquity . 

Pret. ikmu\ Part, kamu : "to burn". 

"reed". Ideogr. ^J|^, Hebr. HJfJ. 

"frontier (?)". 

"nest; family, household". Hebr. |j?. 

Pret. ikup : "to fall in, become ruined". 



382 



VOCABULARY 



&5pu 

&uppu 
kasaru 



kisru 
kakkadu 
l^alflfaru 
Ifarabu 
IfirBbu 



kirbu 

[fraradu] 
kardu 



Pret. ikip : "to entrust to". 

Ifteal, Pret. iklipa : "to entrust to". 

plur. kipani : "governor, prefect"; written with 

determ. ^JS*. 
"chest, basket ; cage" ; i$$ur kuppi "a caged bird". 
Pret. iksur : "to bind ; to seize, take". 
Ifteal, Perm, kissur (i. t. kitfur) - "to form". 
Iftaal, Pret. ukia^ir : "to collect, to rally (intrans.)". 

Ideogr. fcgfcj pgyf (?). 
constr. st. ki$ir : "might ; battalion" ; cf. rab-kifir. 
"head". Ideogr. ^Jt^: J^J. Cf. Hebr. Tp^j3. 
"ground,* soil; land". 

Pret. ikrib : "to approach, draw near". Hebr. DHE. 



Ifteal, Perm, kitrub : "to draw near for battle, to 

attack"; Inf. kitrubu employed as subs, "attack, 

assault". 
Ishtafal, Pret. ultakrib : "to bring near", 
constr. st. kind : "midst, interior; bowels"; ktrib y 

ina kirib "within". Hebr. 2*D. 
"to be strong", 
fern, karittu : "strong, valiant, heroic, courageous". 

Ideogr. jy ^Jt^. 
karradu "strong, brave, valiant". Ideogr. JJ*~\ ^yjt^. 
karradutu "strength, valour". 
1^ urdu "might, power". 

plur. kurddi : "strong, valiant; hero, warrior". 

Pret. ikrid : u to come, arrive". 

"horn"; part of a chariot. Ideogr. ^JJ. Hebr. 

"to break off, to bite off". Hebr. |Hj2. 
"slander" ; karsi akalu "to slander", 
"drying up, abatement". 



fruradu 
fraradu 
karnu 



karasu 
karsu 
Ifaruru 



VOCABULARY 



383 



IfaSu 

f^aStu 

fpatu 

£atu 



Pret. iklS; Imper. kii; Part, kdtt : "to give, present, 

bestow" ; Inf. kd$u employed as subs. "gift", 
"gift". 

plur. kaUti : "bow". Ideogr. £j <^tf. Hebr. n^fj. 
plur. kdte, kdtd : "hand". Ideogr. ET- 
Pret. ikti : "to come to an end ; to be accomplished". 
Piel, Prec. likattd : "to bring to an end, destroy". 
Shafel, Pret. uSikii : "to bring to an end". 



r&u 
re'Qtu 
rltu 
ru'a 

[rabu] 

rebitu 
rabu 



rabQ 
rabiu 

rabiS 
rubu 



R 

"to pasture ; to rule". Hebr. HJ^. 

"shepherd". Ideogr. S^JgJ, E^ J^JgJ. 

"shepherding, rule". 

"pasture, pasturage". 

"companion, neighbour". Hebr. g*j. 

"to be wide, broad". Hebr. DIT1. 

"wide space or square (in a city)". Cf. Hebr. DlTI. 

Pret. trbi : "to be great; to increase". Hebr. J%n* 

Ifteal, Pret. irtabi : "to be or become great". 

Piel, Pret. urabbi \ "to make great, raise to authority; 
to rear, bring up". 

Iftaal, Pret. irtabbi : "to praise, magnify". 

Shafel, Pret. and Pres. uSarbi : "to make great, mag- 
nify; to raise to power". 

Piel-Shafel, Pret. uSrabbi : "to make great, to raise to 
power". 

fem. rabitu ; plur. rabuti, fem. rabdti : "great", ideogr. 
^J*-; employed as subs, "high officer, noble", 
ideogr. ^pp^J^; for rab Hkkatutu see Sikkatu. 

"greatly, gloriously, majestically". 

fem. rubdtu : "great, exalted"; employed as subs, 
"noble, prince". Ideogr. ►^fflf> Kff¥ * J||J . 



384 



VOCABULARY 



rubutu 

narbu 

nirbU 

SurbU 

tarbitu 

rab-SsU 

rab-e&rBti 

rab-lfisir 
tab". . . . 



ribu 
[rabSbu] 

rabasu 

• 

[ragSgu] 
raggu 
targigu 

rigmu 

[radu] - 



[radQ] 

rubu 

rabasu 

\j . 

rabasu 
ribsu 



"greatness, loftiness, might"; rubut litar "the mighty 
IStar". 

"greatness". 

fem. lurbutu : "great". 

"child, offspring". 

"chief astrologer". Ideogr. K^j ^J*- ]} ►^TJ. 

"chief" (lit. "chief of ten"). Ideogr. gSff £j^ 

"captain". Ideogr. ^ ^ r-H J^H' 

an officer. Ideogr. Kpfj ^J*~ *4^. 

see arba'u. 

Piel-Shafel, Prec. hlrabbib : "to make great or mighty". 
Cf. Hebr. syj. 

Perm, ro£z?, 3 plur. r^f« : "to lie in wait, lurk ; 
to cower down". Hebr. yy\* 

"to be wicked". 

"wicked". 

"sinner, wicked man". 

constr. st. rigim ; plur. rigm'c : "cry, lamentation ; 
din, clash (of arms)". 

Pret. irdi : "to go, march". 

Ifteal, Pret. irtedi : "to go". 

Shafel, Pret. and Pres. utardi : "to cause to go ; 
to cause to flow, to make discharge itself" ; 
urha Surdu "to take the road". 

Piel, Pret. uraddi : "to add". 

Piel-Shafel, Pret. uSraddi : "to add". 

"spell, sorcery". 

Pret. irhus : "to trust to, to put hope in" ; em- 
ployed with prep. eli. 

Pret. ir/iis; Part. rdhi$u : "to overwhelm". 

constr. st. rihis : "downpour". 



VOCABULARY 385 

rakabu Pret. irkob : "to ride; to mount a chariot". Hebr. 

Shafel, Pret. utarkib : "to cause to embark (on 

a ship)". 
Ishtafal, Pret. uUarkib : "to sling on (a weapon)". 
rakbu "messenger". 
rukUbu "riding, chariot". 

narkabtu plur. narkabdti : "chariot". Ideogr. t| lp<|. Cf. 

Hebr. TO^Tp. 
rakasu "to bind". Hebr. D5^. 

Ifteal, Perm, ritkus : "to bind fast, set in order". 
Piel, Pret. urakkis : "to fix, to cast up (entrench- 
ments)". 
riksu constr. st. rikis : "band, bond ; barrier, bounds". 

markasu "bolt (of a door)". 
ramu Pret. irdm, irim; Pres. tram, in relative clause tram- 

mu, in letters from Tell el-Amarna ira'am, iraham ; 
Part, ra'tmu : "to love" ; with double ace. "to 
grant to". Ideogr. £ X^AHf . Hebr. DPH. 
reznu "mercy". 

rlminU \ 

) fern, rimriitu : "merciful . 
rimnu J 

* 
narSmu "love, affection ; darling". 

naramtu "darling". 

ramu Pret. trmt, irmd; Pres. trami; Part, ramu : "to cast, 

to cast down ; to set or take up one's dwelling, 

to inhabit". Cf. Hebr. !"»> 
Ifteal, Pret. irtame, with Xubtu as object : "to set one's 

dwelling". 
Shafel, Imper. Surma, with Subtu as object: "to cause 

to inhabit". 
Piel-Shafel, Pret. u$-ram-ma : "to cause to dwell 

or inhabit". 

25 



386 



VOCABULARY 



ramQ 

rimvL 
rVLtnxi 
ramaku 
ramamu 

ramanu 

ramnu 

r$su 

rusU 

rasSbu 

rapSSu 



» 



rapSu 

ritpaSu 
rlsu 
risGtu 

m 

rasapu 

[refcu] 
rujru 



riku 



raSU 



Pret. irmu : "to be loosened". 

Piel, Imper. ru~um-me : -"to loose ; to forbear". 

plur. rtmdni : "wild ox". Ideogr. ^^. Hebr. DK*j. 

fem. rumtu : "high, exalted". 

Pret. irmuk; Pres. irammuk : "to pour out". 

Pret. irmum : "to thunder". 

Ifteal, Pret. and Pres. iriamam : "to thunder". 

"self". 

"to crush". 

Piel, Prec. lira 9 is : "to crush, shatter, destroy". 

"poison". 

Piel, Pret. urassib : "to slay". 

"to be broad". 

Piel, Pret. urappiX; Pres. urappal; Part, murappthi : "to 

broaden, to increase", 
fem. rapaUu, rapaltu : "broad, great, wide-spreading". 

Ideogr. 2£3J. 
"broad, great", 
"helper", 
"help". 

Pret. irsip : "to fit together, to build". Hebr. ^IST^. 
Pret. ir'ek : "to be distant". Hebr. piT}. 
fem. ruktu; plur. masc. rukuti, fem. rukdti, rukiti\ "dis- 
tant (of time and place); broad, extensive"; ina 

ruki "afar off". Ideogr. ^Hftf 
masc. plur. rikuti : "empty"; rikutis'unu ku$$ida$unuti 

"their failure secure". Hebr. |T"). 
Pret. irSi\ Pres. irah'; Imper. riSi : "to have, possess"; 

rema, or salima, or taidra, ralu "to have mercy" ; 

batilta rasu "to take one's discharge, to desert". 
Shafel, Pret. u$ar$i, u$ar$d : "to cause to have" ; batilta 

lurlu "to cause to cease, to discontinue". 



VOCABULARY 387 

marSitu "possession". 
[r$$u] Pret. irl$ : "to rejoice, to be glad". 

Ifteal, Pret. trfiS : "to rejoice, to be glad". 
riSatu (pur.) "exultation, shouts of joy". 
rBSu "head, summit ; beginning, dawn (of the day) ; chief, 

high officer". Ideogr. ^y|t^z. Hebr. ttftf*l. 
reStU "chief, principal, of highest rank; primeval". 
rBSUtu "slavery, service". 
raSubbatu "might". 
[raSSdu] Shafel, Pret. vfartid : "to found, establish, make 

firm, strengthen". 
ruSSU "lordly, sumptuous". 



see r$'u. 



B'atu \ 
itu J 

> "spittle, slaver; breath". Ideogr. ^^J. 



ritu 

rG 

ratu 

ritpaSu see rapaSu. 



£a relative pronoun "who, which"; genitive particle; 

employed as conj. "for, since". 
[SS'u] Pret. <tf7; Pres. i$e % i\ Imper. &7; Perm. U'i: "to see, 

survey ; to seek, to take heed for". Hebr. HJJtp. 
Ifteal, Pret. tWe'i : "to seek, to seek out, to care 

for". 
Iftaneal, Pret. titani'i, Afienj't; Pres. iMeni't : "to seek, 

to look carefully; to look after, to care for". 
Seu "corn, grain". Ideogr. ^. 

SU fern. Si; plur. masc. Sunu, Sun, fern. Sina; personal 

pronoun : "he, she, they". 
SG fem. 51; plur. masc. Xunu, Sunuti, fern, Hnaii, tinatina\ 

"that". 
SebG Pret. iSbi: "to be satisfied with". Hebr. J?5tt7. 

2 S * 



388 



VOCABULARY 



Sibbu 

Sibfu 

Sabasu 

sabasu 

Sabaru 



Sabru 
SabaSu 
Subtu 
Subtafptu 
Sigaru 
SagaSu 
Sadu 

Sadu 

SadU 

[SudU] 

Sud-Saku 
[SidG] 
Sadadu 

Siddu 
Sidu 
• Sadahu 
[SadSlu] 

Sadlu 

Sidimmu (?) 
SSzuzu 



"girdle". 

"rod, sceptre ; pestilence". Hebr. tMTtf. 

Pret. isbus : "to be angry" ; with k&ddu "to avert 

the neck (in anger)". 
Pret. tSbir; Pres. iSabir : "to break, to shatter*. 

Hebr. 13p. 
Ifteal, Pret. ittebir, iltebir : "to break". 
Piel, Pret. uSabbir, uSebir : "to break". 
Ittafal, Pret. itteSbir : "to be broken", 
"wound". Hebr. -\yp. 
Pret. iSbui : "to hinder", 
see aSabu. 
see batalfu. 
"bolt (of a door)". 
Pret. iSgtS : "to slay, destroy", 
"to be high; to rise". 

plur. fade, Saddni : "mountain". Ideogr. ^. 
the East, the East-wind. Ideogr. 4^ff V E^JT- 
constr. st. Sud : "highness, supremacy" ; Sud tamhari 

"generalship in battle", 
"officer" ; written E^fc ^E| *\ ^J]^ 
plur. Side : "gift, present". 
Pret. ifdud, i/dud; Imper. Sudud : "to drag, to draw ; 

to have patience (?)". 

plur. Side : "district". 

Pres. iSaddih : "to advance". 

"to be wide". 

Piel, Part. muSamdilu : "to widen, to increase". 

fern. Sadiltu\ masc. plur. Sadluti \ "wide, of broad 

extent", 
"raging hound". Ideogr. JJ^J ►< 
see nazazu. 



VOCABULARY 



389 



[Sahu] 

[SahSdu] 

SahSfu 



Sahlulptu 
Suharruru 

Saharratu 
Sahtu 

w 

SSfu 

SafSfu 
SafSru 
Safru 

Sifru 

SukUdu 
Sakkanakku 
Sakkanaku 
sikkatu 



Pres. iiaft/fi : "to wade (in slime)". 
Ifteal, Pret. iUafrid : "to prance, to rear". 
Pret. fif&uf; Imper. Suhuf : "to tear off"; Perm. 
Hh-tu "taken off (of a diadem)". Cf. Hebr. 

see halS&u. 

Pret. uXftarir : "to be or become narrow, to sub- 
side". 

"grief. 

"humble, submissive". 

Pret. i$uf\ Prec. 1 sing. Ia$ut\ Pres. Hat : "to drag, 
to draw, to bear (a yoke)". Cf. Hebr. tMTtf. 

Pret. #/«/; Imper. futut : "to tear". 

Pret. titur, ilfur : "to write, inscribe". 

"written, inscribed" ; Sumu Sa/ru "inscribed name, 
record of name". 

constr. st. Mir : "writing, inscription" ; Mir Sumi 
"record of name". 



} 



"spear". 

"governor , viceroy" ; 



also written $a-ka-an-ki. 



Ideogr. <^ i^tf, £%% <^ ^T 



*H' 



SakSnu 



"conquest, triumph"; rab hkkati "conqueror", 
whence the abstract noun rab sikkatuti "migh- 
tiness in battle, prowess in the fight". 

Pret. iikun ; Pres. tiakkan ; Imper. Sukun, 2 masc. 
plur. $uk-na-a : "to set, place, set up, set in 
position, establish, appoint; to make (a li- 
bation or offering); to send (a deluge); to 
raise (the voice) ; to execute (a punishment)" ; 
with double ace. "to place something on 
someone"; abikia Sakanu "to defeat"; tita $a- 
kdnu "to triumph, prove victorious"; uzna 



390 



VOCABULARY 



Saknu 

Siknu 

Sikittu 

Suknat 

Sukuttu 

maSkanu 

Sakaru 

Sa'alu 



Sakdnu "to direct the attention"; lilana lakdnu 
"to prepare for a feast" 5 pufyra lakanu "to give 
support to" ; ana rifufi .... lakanu "to come 
to the help of"; Perm, fah'n, $ak-nu "situated, 
placed". Ideogr. 1 ^. Cf. Hebr. ptp. 

Ifteal, Pret. iMakan, t'sakan; Imper. $itakan\ Inf. Sit- 
kunu : "to place, lay; to establish, fix, set up, 
found"; abikta Sitkunu "to defeat"; atala h'tkunu 
"to be eclipsed"; pufyra or unkenna Sitkunu "to 
exert one's full strength" ; Perm, titkun "drawn 
up (of line of battle)". 

Iftaneal, Pret. iUanakan "to make". 

Shafel, Imper. SuSkm : "to cause to be established, 
to set, to place". 

Nifal, Pret. tltfakin; Inf. naSkunu : "to be established; 
to be done, to be accomplished ; to take place" ; 
with prep, itti "to be allied with". 

Ittafal, Pres. i/taSkan, with prep. /'///' : "to be allied 
with". 

"governor, director". 

constr. st. iikin : "image ; construction". Ideogr.^p. 

plur. tiknati : "creature". 

(constr. st.) : "creature, being". 

"equipment, pomp". 

"place, site" ; afar ma$kani$u "the place where it 
stood". 

"to be drunk"; 3 masc. plur. Perm. (?) h'-ik-ru. 
Hebr. -QXf. 

Pret. tVal : "to ask"; with Sulmu "to greet". Hebr. 

Ifteal, Pret. i$~ta-al : "to ask; to seek for". 
Piel, Pres. u$a J al : "to cry or clamour for, to de- 
mand". 



VOCABULARY 



391 



taSiltu 
Suluhhu 

[SalStu] 

SalfiS \ 
SalfSniS J 
Sullufu 

[SalSfu] 

SalSlu 
Sallatu 
SallatiS 

SalSmu 



Salmu 

Salamtu 

Salimtu 

SalmeS \ 
SalmiS J 
Sulznu 

SulmSnu 
SulmaniS 

SalpUtu 

SalSu 

SSmu 



plur. taUldti : "joy, festal joy". 

"command, decree". 

"to have power". Hebr. tD?t^. 

"triumphantly". 

"triumphant". 

Piel, Pret. ufallif : "to pierce". 
Pret. iUul : "to carry off, to plunder". Hebr. byl$. 
"spoil, booty", 
adv. "as spoil, as prisoners". 
Pret. iUim : "to be complete, intact; to be com- 
pleted, to come to pass; to prosper". Hebr. 

Piel, Pres. uSallam ; Inf. Sullumu : "to keep intact, 
to preserve; to cause to prosper, to restore the 
fortunes of". 

constr. st. tolam : "dead body, corpse". 

"corpse". 

"completeness, entirety; prosperity, immunity from 
disaster"; ina Xatimti "thoroughly". 

adv. "safe and sound". 

constr. st. lulum : "prosperity, safety, peace; greeting; 

the setting (of the sun), the west". Ideogr. ^ft^. 
"present, gift". Cf. Hebr. jbbtt. 
adv. "in peace", 
see lapatu. 

fem. Ulultu : "third". Hebr. Vfi^p. 
Pret. iSim ; Imper. Sim ; Perm. $dm : "to establish ; 

to determine, decree". Hebr. D'ltP. 
Ifteal, Pret. ttfim, ilfim : "to determine, decree; to 

lay upon". 
Piel, Part, mutimmu : "to determine, decree". 



3$2 



VOCABULARY 



Simtu 
SamQ 

SamSmu 
SemU 

SSmU 

taSmU 
Sumu 
Suznelu 
Sammu 
Summa 
Samnu 

[SamSru] 

[Samaru] 
Samru 
iumurratu 
SitmuriS 

SamSu 

Samutu 

Simtu 

[Sana] 



plur. Simdti : "destiny, lot; affair, business", 
plur. Same : "heaven". Ideogr. *-^f-. Cf. Hebr. 

BUS?- 
"heaven". 

Pret. tSmi; Pres. iSimi, iSimmz; Imper. Stmt; Perm. 

Semi, 3 fern. sing. Semat : "to hear". Hebr. Pfittf. 

"obedient; favourable, propitious". 

"prosperity, success". 



"name" 



U 



Ideogr. *£I f J, ^YT^T- 



Ideogr. >^. Hebr. D#. 
left". Hebr. Sfcfc. 

'.'plant, herb, weed". 

conj. "when, if". 

constr. st. Soman : "oil". 
Hebr. ]$$. 

Ifteal, Pret. iStammar : "to keep, preserve ; to re- 
verence". Hebr. *l&ttf. 

"to be violent". 

"violent; rapid, turbulent (of a river)". 

"whirlwind". 

adv. "furiously". 

"the sun". Ideogr. ►^p- ^|. Hebr. Cttttf. 



"rain". 



Sanu 
Sin a 

&amtu 

[Sana] 



see Samu. 

Pret. tint, iS-ni- : "to repeat, to do a second time" : 

iS-ni- 9 ip-kid "he again inspected". Hebr. H3tf. 
Picl, Pret. uSanni, tdannd; lmper. Sunni, Sunna\ 

Inf. lunnu : "to repeat, to relate", 
fern. Sanutu : "second". Ideogr. TT. Hebr. *J#. 
"two"; ina SindSu "into halves". Ideogr. TT. Hebr. 

"repetition ; time, times". Ideogr. J. 
"to be otherwise, different". Hebr. nj\p. 



VOCABULARY 3g3 

Piel, Pret. uSanni : "to alter, distort" ; Sunnu /emu 

"to lose one's senses", 
Iftaal, Pret. usanni (i. e. uUannt) : "to alter, distort". 
SanU fem. fariiiu "other, another", 
SangU "priest". Ideogr. tJJJ, &]]]] >f-. 

SangQtu "priesthood". Ideogr. tgJTT. 
SUnuhu see anahu. 

SanSnu Pres. tiannan : "to equal, to rival"; Part. Saninu 

"rival". Ideogr. ^t£: Jf 
Nifal, Pres. fitfanan : "to be equalled". 
Sinnu plur. tinnd, tinndti : "tooth, tusk; ivory"; hnni piri 

"ivory". Ideogr. ^t^. Hebr. pp. 
Sanunkatu "queen". 
Sanitu see [Sand]. 

&as& Pret. #.«', i/w; Pres. iiassi, t'hsst : "to cry, to speak". 

SGpu plur. J*/*, Upa : "foot". Ideogr. ^£E« 

SupQ a siege-engine. 

&&pa see [apQ], 

[SapShu] "to scatter"; Perm. fapu& "scattered". 

Nifal, Inf. natpuhu : "to be scattered, ruined". 
SapSku Pret. iSpuk : "to pour out". Hebr. *?j6tp. 

Ifteal, Pret. iStapok : "to pour out". 
SapSlu "to be low". Hebr. ^Wp. 

Shafel, Inf. SuSpulu : "to abase". 
Saplu constr. st. fo/j/ : "under part" ; fapaf, ina Sapli "beneath, 

under". 
Saplu fem. Sapiltu : "low, lower". 
SapliS adv. "below". 
SapSru Pret. tf/«r : "to send, to send to". 

Ifteal, Pret. iltapra : "to send". 
Iftaneal, Pret. iManapar : "to send". 
Sipru constr. st. tipir : "message ; work, craft ; concern, 

matter" ; for mSr-Sipri see mSru. Ideogr. J^J. 



3 94 



VOCABULARY 



Suparruru 
SapSafru 
SupSuffu 
Saptu 

SipStu 

Siptu 

Sa^a 



&akQ 
Sa&U 



ma&lfitu 
Salfalu 



sukultu 
Sukuru 
Saru 
[Saru] 

masaru 
[saru] 

me&ru 
SSru 
Siru 
Sum 
Surbu 
Sarbabu 
[SarShu] 



Pret. uiparir : "to spread (a net)". 

see [pa&ajru]. 

constr. st. lapat : "lip". Hebr. HB^. 

"fleece, wool". Ideogr. TETT^:. 

constr. st. hpat : "incantation". Ideogr. T^-^f-- 

"to be high". 

Piel, Pret. ulahki : "to make high, to raise, to 

carry up". 
Shafel, Pret. and Pres. uSaSki; Inf. htiku : "to exalt". 
fem. Sakutu : "high, lofty" ; employed as subs, "ruler", 
"high, exalted", 
"to drink". 
Shafel, Inf. iuJfku : "to cause to drink". Hebr. 

"drinking ; watering (of cattle)". Cf. Hebr. njJTpO. 
Pret. iikul; Pres. iiakkal : "to weigh, to pay". HebF. 

Ifteal, Perm. Xitkul : "to balance, to be equal". 

"weight". Ideogr. <Jg[ J*"(?). 

see a^aru. 

"wind". Ideogr. 4^ff . Hebr. ngfc. 

"to go, to pass, to pass over". Hebr. *ffl&. 

"wheel". 

"to grow, to increase". 

"wealth, possessions". 

"morning, dawn". Hebr. "IHttf. 

"flesh, body". Ideogr. £^>~<. Hebr. n«#. 

"reed, rush". 

see rabQ. 

"dread (?)". 

"to be mighty". 



VOCABULARY 3g5 

Ifteal, Imper. litrab : "to show oneself strong"; Part. 

muttarfru, multar^u "mighty". 
Piel, Inf. Surrufru : "to make mighty ; to increase, to 
augment". 
Sarhu "strong, mighty". 
Saruhu fem. Sarufrtu : "mighty". 
Sirls see sBrSS. 

Sarapu Pret. tirup : "to burn". Ideogr. JEJe. Hebr. *fl^. 
&ar££u Pret. iSruk; Pres. tHarrak; Imper. iuruk, : "to present, 

bestow upon". 
Sirilftu "gift, present". 
Sarru constr. st. far; plur. Sarrdrn': "king". Ideogr. fcj^plj, ^. 

Sarratu "queen". 

SarrUtu "kingdom, kingship, royalty". 
SuriSu word of uncertain meaning. 
SurSu "root". Hebr. tfltf. 
SurSiS adv. "from the roots". 
SSrtu "hair". Ideogr. JE£[£. Hebr. njjfc. 

Sertu constr. st. iirit : "sin ; punishment". 

&a£u fem. SdXa ; plur. SdSunu, $d$un ; 3 pers. sing, and plur. 

of the independent personal pronoun (in the gen. 
and ace): "him, her, they"; rarely used for Suatu, latu. 
SuSu "sixty". 

SaSmu "fight, battle". 
SaSmeS "to the fight". 
£u£l?Q see Saku. 
Satu Pret. Mi : "to drink". Hebr. TVtf. 

maStltu "drink". Hebr. nijtfftj. 
Satu "to sweat (?)"; Inf. employed as subs. "sweat-(P)". 

[SStu] Pres. (Set : "to escape". 

S&tu "net, snare". 
Suatu | fem. Haft; plur. masc. Xuafunu, Wunu, fem. Suatina, 



\ 



SStu J Wina ; demonstrative pronoun : "that". 



3g6 



VOCABULARY 



%atu, Sat 
Satu 

SitmuriS 

Saturn 

Sattu 

Sattu 

SattiSam 
Suttu 

Suttatu 



genitive particle; relative pronoun "who, which"; 
employed as conjunction "since". 

the South-wind, ldeogr. 4^ff ^TTTT ffiT- 

see [SamSru]. 

see atSru. 

constr. st. 3fo/ : "duration ; eternity" ; ina iat "during", 

e. g. ina Sat muti "during the night". 
(i. e. iantu\ pur. Sandti : "year". ldeogr. >^S, *^S 

«f- >~T]. Hebr. 71X0. 
adv. "yearly", 
plur. htndlu : "dream". ldeogr. ^-J^ ^f ►• ^f. 

Hebr. |tfj, nptf. 
"hole, pit; snare (for lions)". 



ta 

tiba 



tiba 

tabaku 



tabalu 

tabalu 

tubuktu 

tabrltu 

tidaku 

tizkaru 

tabazu 

w 

tahaziS 

w 

takSlu 



"spell, incantation". 

Pret. itbi; Pres. itabbi, itibbi\ Perm, tebi : "to come 

on, to advance, to draw near (for attack)". 
Shafel, Pret. uUtbi : "to cause to advance, to bring", 
constr. st. tib : "approach, attack, onslaught". 
Pret. itbuk; Imper. tubuk : "to pour out, to shed". 
Ifteal, Pret. ittabak : "to pour out, to heap up". 
Ittafal, Pret. ittatbak : "to be poured out". 
Pret. itbal : "to carrv awav". 
"flock, herd". 

plur. tubkati : "side, quarter of heaven", 
see bara. 
see daku. 
"high, exalted". 

"fight, battle", ldeogr. *-£$%, »- fel»-H f. 
"for battle". 
Perm, tokil : "to trust in". 



VOCABULARY 3gj 

Piel, Pret. u/akkt'I; Part, mutakkilu : "to strengthen, 
give encouragement to". 

Nifal, Pret. ittakil : "to trust in". 
tiklu plur. Hkle : "helper". 
tukultu "might, strength; help"; plur. tukldti "troops". Ideogr. 

takiltu "purple"; with determ. JEJjE "purple wool". Hebr. 

tilu "mound". Ideogr. ^f^J- 

tSliltu see ellu. 

tallmu fern, talimtu (constr. st. talimat) : "twin"; ahu talimu 

"twin brother". 
[tal&mu] Pret. itlim : "to present to". 

Shafel, Pret. utatlim : "to entrust to"; Perm, iutlum 

"entrusted". 
[ta'Smu] Piel: "to command, rule"; Part, mufa'tmu, muteimu 

"ruler". 
tamQ Pret. ifmu, itmd; Pres. itamu, itamd, itammd : "to speak, 

to address; to pray"; iamu itti "to speak to, to 

address". 
tSmdu see t&mtu. 

tamahu Pret. itmuh : "to take, hold, grasp". 
Ifteal, Pres. ittamah : "to take, hold". 
Piel, Pret. utdmmih : "to hold fast, to bind as a 

captive". 
Shafel, Pret. uUtmih : "to cause to take" ; with kdtu 

or irtu "to place in the hand" or "on the breast". 
tamharu see znahSru. 

temenu "foundation-inscription ; foundation". 
temelfu see emBfcu. 
tuznru "sacrificial flame (?)". 
t&tnartu see amaru. 
tamartu see mSru. 



3 9 8 



VOCABULARY 



"neighbourhood", 
see maSalu. 

plur. tdmdii : "sea". Ideogr. |^ 

see [anahu]. 
"men, mankind". 

see nadu. 



| ^ifcj. Hebr. 



taiaru 

taiartu 
turratu (?) 



see [salti]. 
"neighbour; helper". 

plur. tukmate, tukumdte, tumkumdte, tumkumdtu : "oppo- 
sition, battle". Ideogr. fij |*"*. 

Pret. itur\ Imper. tur : "to turn, turn back, return; 
to be turned to, to be changed, to become"; in 
combination with another verb "to repeat, to do 
a second time". Ideogr. ^JJ, ^JJ^ Jf Hebr. 

Piel, Pret. utir; Imper. fir; Part. mu/Jru; Inf. turru 
"to turn, change, convert; to turn back (trans.) 
to bring back, restore ; to requite, to punish (sin)" 
with gimillu "to avenge", mutir gimilli "avenger" 
pan niri turru (sometimes shortened to turru) "to 
turn the front of the yoke", /'. e. "to turn back 
(on a journey or expedition)". 

Iftaal, Pret. uttlr : "to turn, change, convert; to be 
turned, converted". 

adj. "returning, going back". 

subs, "mercy", see ra£Q. 

"return". 

"turning aside". 



VOCABULARY 



399 



taru 

[tarU] 

tarbltu 

targigu 

targullu 

tarSku 

tarSsu 

tarsu 

» 

tarsu 

m 

tirsu 



tarSru 



"protector". 

Pres. itarri : "to croak (?)". 

see raba. 

see [ragSgu]. 

"anchor (?)". 

Pret. itruk : "to fail (of the heart), to lose courage". 

Nifal, Pres. ittarak : "to fail, to cease". 

Pret. itru$ : "to stretch, to stretch out". 

Shafel, Pret. ufatris : "to lay, set up, erect". 

occurring as prep. tarsi "opposite" ; ana tar$i "against" ; 

ina tarsi "before, into the presence of". Ideogr. £^£\ 
"upright, honest", 
constr. st. tin's : "stretching out ; direction" ; ina tirsi 

"in the time of"; tin's kati "stretching out of the 

hand", 1. e. "desire, object of desire". 
Pret. tintr : "to shake, tremble". 
Ifteal, Pret. titarar : "to tremble". 



tertu 


see 


'aru. 


te&a 


see 


e£a. 


ta&iltu 


see 


Sa'Slu. 


ta&rnQ 


see 


SeznG. 



I 

4 
t 



\w 



I 



%. 



t . 



!, 



\ 



% 

\ 



* * 






i 



f 



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