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FIRST STEPS IN ZULU 



BEINQ AN 



ELEMENTARY GEAMMAR 



OF THB 



ZULU LANGUAGE, 



BT 



THE RIGHT REV. J. W. CPLENSO, D.D.. D.C.L, 



BISHOP OF NATAL. 



I . 



FOtTBTH BDITION 



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-<A. 



P. DAVIS & SONS, MARITZBUEG AND DURBAN, 

1890. 



PL $%M-z 



The following Zulu Books by the Bishop of Natal may be had from 
Messrs. P. Dayis k Son8> Maritzburg and Durban : 

1. First Beading Book« price 6d. 

2> Second Beading Book (Tales and Stories)^ price 6d. 

8. Third Beading Book (Sentences and Narratives), price Is. 6d. 

4. IriiiXa'i^Qmiisday a Medley of Geography and History, price Is. ^. 

5. First Steps in Zulu, being an Elementary Grammar of the 

Zulu Language, Fourth Edition, Price 5s. 

6. Three Native Accounts of the Bishop of Natal's Journey to 

Zululand, with Translations and Notes referring to the First 
Steps, price 2s. 6d. 

7. Zulu-English Dictionary, Second Edition, price 8s. 6d. 

8. Common Prayer Book, Morning and Evening Prayers, Collects^ 

Communion and Occasional Services, many Psalms and Metrical 
Psalms and Hymns, price Is. 

9. Book of Genesis, with Commentary in Zulu, price 2s. 6d. 

10. Book of Exodus, price 9d. 

11. Two Books of Samuel, Seconii Edition, price Is. 6d. 

12. Zulu New Testament, price 4s. 6d. 

13. VhklMin^a Kwes^homAA. (Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, Part I)> 

price Is. 6d. 

14. First Lessons in Science, Part I (in easy English), price 2s. 

15. First Lessons in Science, Part U, price 2s. 

, 16. Umzimba Ozwayo (The Living Body), First Lessons in Physiolog|r 
price 2a* 



r 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter. 



Page. 



••» 



Intboduotion 
I. — Orthography and Accentuation ... 
IL— Classification and Derivation of Nouns 
III. — Elision and Coalition of Vowels ... 

rV. — Cases of Nouns 

V. — ^Possessive Particles 

VI. — Prepositions 

VII. — Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns 

VIII. — ^Relative Pronouns 

IX.— Adjectives ... ... •«• »f 

X.— ^Numeral Adjectives 

i^x.~~.flLCiverDS i.t ... ••• ••• 

XII. — Forms of Verbs , 

XIII. — ^Moods of Verbs 

XIV. — Conjunction of Verbs 

XV. — ^Negative Verbs 

XVI.— Use of the Particles 8a and So ... 
X'V^I. — Substantive, Vowel, and Passive Verbs 

XVni.— Use of the Verb Ti 

XIX. — Auxiliary Verbs and Particles ... 
XX.— -Peculiarities of Construction .,. 



•• 



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11 

2$ 

25 

2» 

31 

36i 

45 

50 

61 

6S 

85 

92 

104 

108 

112 

117 

12a 

131 

147 



FIRST BOOK IN ZULU-KAFIR r 



AN INTRODUCTION 



TO THE STUDY OF THE 



ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



DIALECTS OP NATAL. 

The Zulu-Kafir Language* is properly the dialect of a 
small tribe, the amaZulu, who, under their famous Chief 
Tshaka (Chaka), and his brothers and successors Bingcme and 
Mpande^ have acquired and maintained, for some sixty years, 
the supremacy over the natives along the S.B. coast of Africa, 
excepting, of course, those who have been living under 
British protection since Natal came under our Government 

* Missionaries sometimes use the words isiXnjilvt, isiXosa, &c., to ex- 
press the language of the amaZvXu, amaXosa, &c. It is convenient^ of 
course^ to employ such words : but they are not used by the 
natives themselves. 

B 



2 INTBODUCTION. 

in 1845. On this acconnt it has a right to be considered the 
standard dialect of this part of Africa ; though other varieties 
of the Elafir Language are spoken by different tribes within, 
and far beyond, the borders of the Cfolony. 

ThnB the langnage of the tribes on the Eastern Frontier of the 
€ape Colony, of the Basuto nation, and of the amaSwazi, is substan- 
tially the same j though the dialects spoken by some of tibese tribes 
are sometimes so different that even mttires livine within the small 
district of Natal can hardly understand each ower, as the vulgar 
dialect of Lincolnshire and Somersetshire vary considerably from eadi 
other, and from the standard language of educated Englishmen. 
Philologists indeed have shown conclusively that Ihere are strong 
affinities between the languages spoken by the tribes living on the 
eastern and those on the western coast of Africa ; and the tendency of 
modem inquiries is towards the conclusion that the whole central |Murt 
of this continent, from the north-west to the south-east, is inhabited 
by tribes, speaking only different varieties of the same common tongue. 
Thus the name for the Deity among the Zulus, at least the nearest 
approach to a name for the Creator, isuNkulunhulu, 'the Qreat-Qreat- 
Chie.' And Dr. W. H. Bleee has informed me, ' This same word is used 
with the same meaning, though in abbreviated forms, all along the 
eastern coast of Africa, e.g, Mulungulu in Inhambane, Mvlungu in 
the Eikamba and Ei-nika languages, Mltmgu at Cape Delgado, 
Mulungo or Mvluko in the Makwa language, Murungu&t Sofala, jSuru- 
ngu or Morongu at Sena and Tete, Mungu in the Suaheli, and Mungo 
in the Pokomo. [No doubt from this is derived the word umlungu, 
commonly used in this colony for 'white-man.'] It would, of course, 
be a bold thing to identify tnis last form Mtmgo with the Zulu uNhu- 
Zun&ttlu,if we could not follow up the gradual abbreviation through so 
many different stages. But, as it is, there is no doubt that from Natal to 
the borders of the Qallas country this very same word has, by most 
different authorities (English, Portuguese, Germans, French, &c.), 
been noted as the nearest representative of our word ' Qod.' And 
oven in Otshiherero (spoken on ihe West Coast, to the north of Great 
Namaqualand^ a cognate word is used, viz., Om-Jewru ; and among the 
Tifnnehs of Sierra Leone (whose language has, by the late Bishop 
Yidal, been recognised as related to uie Jiafir) the name of God is 
Kumh ; ihough the identity of this last word with the South Afri- 
can names cannot yet be considered as an established fact.' ^"^j^ 

At the present time the district of Natal is largely occu- 
pied by a very mixed population of native tribes. The 
majority of them are sprung from the aboriginal inhabitants, 
who either took refuge in the natural fastnesses of the country^ 
when the desolating waves of Tshaka's invasions rolled over 
4be land, and have since emerged into the light of day, or had 



nrrsoDTTCTiov. S 

fled be jond his reacli into tke neigliboaring districts, and re- 
turned to settle in tlieir own abodes, as soon as the Dntcli 
Boers took possession of the land, before the proclamation of 
British^ supremacy. Others have since come in from all 
quarters round, to seek shelter and protection under a civi- 
lized government. Most of these are commonly called Zulus 
from their having been formerly under the Zulu rule and still 
using the Zulu dialect. But there are also large bodies of 
the natives who speak other dialects, differing distinctly from 
the Zulu, though the grammar of the language is essentially 
the same for all. 

The principal varieties of the Kafir tongue, which prevail 
to any extent in this district, are the dialects of the cmiaXosa^ 
the amaTefula, and the amaldola. 

The amaXosa dialect belongs properly to the Kafir nation 
of that name upon the Eastern Frontier of the Gape Colony. 
It prevails among many of the tribes in the S. and S.W. 
parts of Natal. One of its most striking peculiarities is to 
sound continually nd for ng ; and there are many of its words 
and forms of expression which are not used at all by the 
great body of natives in this district. 

The Wesleyan Missionaries have translated the whole Bible and 
most of the Prayer-Book of the Church of England into the amaXosa 
dialect. But it varies so much from the yemacular of these parts 
that these books> though easily understood by an intelligent Zulu« 
are of little use among the great body of Natal natives. 

The omaTefula dialect is spoken by many of the Natal 
Kafirs, especially by the amaQwahe tribe. Its chief peculiarity 
consists in putting y (or rather a sound which resembles that 
of y, but is really a softening of the Z) in the place of Z, and 
changing ny into ft, as shown in the following examples : — 



Zulu 


amaTefula 


la^o, there, when 


yapo 


lezi, these 


yezi 


wnlilo, fire 


umyiyo 


inwyama, meat 


innama 


vimvonL bird 


innoni 



n2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

The amaLala dialect differs mucli from the Zttlix, The 
name (jmiaLala) is given collectively to certain tribes in this 
district (the amaNcolosi and others), who were conquered by 
the Zulus, and of whom" many are said to tekeza in their 
Bpeech, whereas the tribes along the Zulu coast to the N.B» 
of Natal, as far as Delagoa Bay and beyond, generally tefula* 

A few examples of the peculiarities of this dialect are here given. 

Zulu-Kafir amaLala 

inkomo, bullock iyomo 

inkunzi, bull iyudi . ' 

inkomokazi. cow iyomwadi 

inkonyana, calf iyomwane 

upondo, horn yilupondzo 

umuntu, person^ man umunu 

umlomo, mouth unomo 

inkosi, chief iwosi 

innja, dog imbwa 

ahafazi, women abafati 

amanzi, water amadi 

izinkomo, cattle .itioma 

ngihlezi kahle, I am comfortable ndzireti kahle- 
ngiJilabe izolo, I slaughtered yesterday ndzirabe itolo 

isandhla, hand isangra 

From the above instances it appears that the emiaTefula dialect 
differs but little from the ordinary Zulu^ whereas that of the amaLalof 
varies from it considerably. The former is intelligible to any Zulu 
and may be heard at the royal kraal ; indeed, Mpande's great wife,^ 
Monase, now a refugee in this colony, uses it habitually, though her 
son Mhungo does not, but speaks the pure Zulu. The ukutefuLa, in 
fact, is rather a sort of lisping Zulu ; whereas the ukutekeza is quite 
a distinct dialect, and is imderstood with difficulty even by a Zulu, if 
unpractised in it. It is not, however, considered correct- to tefvld^ 
and in legal and other proceedings of importance it would be avoided 
as much as possible. 

The amaLala use very freely the harsh guttural represent 
ted by r in the last of the above instances, which practice is 
called uJcuradttla. Many of the tribes, however, in Natal^ 
which formerly used to tekeza, are Zuluized. 




OBTHOGRAFHT AND ikCCENTUATION. 



CHAPTER I. 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND ACCENTUATION. 



1. The Bonnds of the Zulu-Kafir tongue are usually ex- 
pressed by means of the twenty-six letters of the 1* nglisb» 
alphabet, five being employed for the vowels^ seventeen for 
the consonants^ three for clicks, and one for a harsh guttural. 

2. The five vowels in simple syllables, (those, namely, which* 

end in a vowel, as most syllables do in Zulu), as a general rule^ 

are sounded as follows : — 

a as in the English father 

e as „ „ there 

i as „ „ ravine 

o as ;> ,, pole 

u as „ „ rule 

Sometimes, however, in a simple syllable the vowel has & 

closer sound ; and words of different meaning, which may be 

spelt alike, are distinguished by this difference in the sound! 

of the vowels. 

Ex. kwati qwa (a as ia father), it resounded as a thing struck; 
hwati qwa (a as in. fat), it was perfectly white. 
hala, write (a as in halm), hala, count (a as in banish). 

In compound syllables, the sounds of the vowels, similar ta 
the above, are necessarily closer and shorter. 

4. There are no diphthongs in Zulu. But the sound of the- 
vowels du, when uttered rapidly, approaches to that of the? 
diphthong ou in English. 

Ex. au! oh! (expressing dislike.or astonishment). 

*- 

5. The seventeen consonants are those of the English lan- 
guage, except c, g, X, and r ; and they are pronounced as i 
Englishy except that g is always hard, bli& m 90^ ^\xc« 



Q OBTHOGRAPHT AND ACCENTUATION. 

6. The two English sounds of c are represented in Zulu 
hy h and «, and that of q hy hw; while that of x is not re- 
quired, since the combination hs does not occur in Zulu. 

The English sound of r is also foreign to the Zulu tongue ; 
and the natives, in attempting to pronounce it, will usually 
give it the sound of L Most of them, however, if required 
*o do so, will sound the r without much difficulty. 

£z. uViktolia, Victoria $ iKafula, a Kafir. 

N.B. The natives speak of themselves as dbantu, 'people/ and of a 
«ingle person as umuntu ; they never use iKafula, except disparag- 
ingly s thus lowo'muniu vl'ikc^vla nje, ' that man is merely a Ea^r ' 
—a low, beggarly fellow, ^d this term also would be generally 
nised in Zululand in speaking of Natal natives. 

The word Kafir, however, means in Arabic ' unbeliever,' and in that 
cense is applied to the English by the Mahometan natives of India« 
as it was probably applied to the natives of these parts or their fore- 
fathers by the Mahometan tribes, which they passed in their descent 
along the Eastern coast of Africa. 

7. The letters c, g, », are taken to represent the clicks, which 
fire sounds not heard in any European language, being used 
to denote the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks respectively, so 
oalled from their being uttered by thrusting the tongue 
against the top of Ihe front teeth, the roof of the mouth, and the 
;8ide'teethf and suddenly withdrawing it. 

The ' clicks ' used by the Kafir tribes have apparently increased in 
inumber as the tribes have advanced further towards tiie South — ^per- 
)hap9 from closer contact with the Hottentots (amaLau) and Bushmen 
(iMieufe, amaBusumane), who use a great variety of these sounds; 
whereas the Zulus employ scarcely any clicks, the Natal Kafirs only 
:three or four, the amaXosa Kafirs many more. 

The remaining letter r is taken to represent the guttural* 
'which is sounded like the strong German ch, as heard in 
4iiLoh, nooh. 

But this sound is usually softened down among the Natal 
fiatives to that of h; so that in books intended for their use 
tsuch sounds may be denoted by r or h. 

Ex. Zulu-Kafir Natal-Kafir 

tola, draw hola .\. 

umrau, strong emotion umhani "i ' 

There is another sound occurring in some Zulu words, 
iT^hioh may be pronounced either as a guttural from the 



OBTHOOBAPHY AND ACCENTUATION. 7 

l}Ottom of the tliroat or as a click in a peculiar way. But 
tlie sound must be heard in order to be imitated. We shall 
■denote it by x among Italic, or x among Roman letters ; and 
the proper sound may be got from a native. 

Ex. ixioa a sort of wnkonto or assegai; xega, milk into one's 
douthj ixoha, distant hill-fire ; ixosa, glutton; xweba, scratch. 

9. There is a slight aspiration heard in very ipany words 
(as in Hebrew or Hibernian English) after the letters h, g, d^ 
h, p, t This will account for some roots, which in the dic- 
tionaries appear identical, having a difference of meaning, 
which a native would indicate by difference in enunciation. 

Ex. kona, it ; but kona (pronounced khona), there. 
kwako, its ; but kwako (pron. kwakho), thine. 
hala, count ; but hala (pron. hhala), write. 
tetema, be nice in eating ; tata (pron. thatha), take. 

A nasal aspirate also may be heard, but very rarely. 
Ex. nhinhuia, mumble^ speak low or indistinctly. 

10. The student must carefully distinguish between M and 
dhl, since there are some words, very difEerent in meaning, 
which only differ in sound by the insertion of the d. Com- 
pare in English thigh and thy^ thousand and thou. 

Ex. hl<da, stay ; dhlala, play^ frolic. 

hehlile, they having descended ; hedhlile, they have eaten. 
,' bahlulUe, they have conquered (by might, &g.) 

hadMulile, they have surpassed (in speedy, height, &c). 

K.B. The sound of hi in the above is that of the Welsh II, as in 
Llanelly, and resembles somewhat thl, not shl, with which English 
people are prone to confound it, saying, for instance, Urmhlali for 
UmMali, where Umthlali would be nearer the mark, though not the 
exact representative of the true sound of the aspirate in this case, 
which is uttiCred by touching with the tongue the front of the palate 
(not the root of the front-teeth, as with th), and then withdrawing it. 

11. No consonant can end a syllable in Zulu, except m or 
n ; and these frequently express initial nasal sounds, when it 
might be supposed that they were final. 

Ex, ha-miba, a-ha-ntu, he-ngi-ta-nda, not ham-ha, a-han-tu, he-ngu 
iafi'da ; but i-zim-vu, i-zin-ti, um-ntwa-na. 

The student will easily learn to make these distinctions as 
lie proceeds. 



8 OBTHOGBAPHT AND ACCENTUATIOV. 

12. The accent in Zuln falls always, as a rule, on the ]pefn^ 
ultimate syllable in each word. 

Ex. inMsi, chief ; igdma, name ; ySna, he ; hambdni, go ye ; njdlo, so. 

But some interjections are accented on the ante- 
penultimate. 
lBlx.y4buya! y4lula! 

Hence, from the last syllable of a noun being more faintly 
ntttered, its vowel is often heard indistinctly, or is even 
dropped altogether. This accounts for many slight variations 
in spelling, when words have been taken down from native 
lips, the unaccented vowel having been heard as e or i, o or 
i», or we, U or wa, 

Ex. ubane or ubani, flash of lightning. 

umtulu or umtulwa, sort of wild medlar. 
uxamo, uxamu, or uxam', kind of iguana. 

inkos*, amas*, ahalam*, for inkosi, chief, amasi, sour-milk, ahala^ 
mu, wife's brothers or sisters. 

13. The interrogative particle na (which is equivalent to 
a note of interrogation in English, and need not generally 
be translated in words) takes the accent with emphasis. 

Ex. lo'muntu ung*uban% na ? this man, he is who P 

14. But the particle he, when placed after the word, forms, 
as it were, a part of the word itself, and acts as an encUtte, 
that is to say, it draws the accent forward upon the final 
syllable of the word. 

Ex. yend'lce, he then ; hamhani-ke, go ye then ; njal6-ke, so then. 

15. And the interrogative particles, ni, * what,' pi, * where,' 
placed after the verb, have a similar effect upon the accent of 
the verb. 

Ex. nifimd-ni-na? you seek what? wak^-pi-na? where dost thou 
live ? (literally, -where hast thou built ?) 

16. In like manner, when a noun or verb is closely 

connected with a succeeding monosyllable, or with a 

dissyllable whose initial vowel has been elided so as to 

form, as it were, one word with it, the accent is naturally 

drawn backwards. 

Ex. indhlu, house ; indhWnye, one house s wnnini, owner, umnini-l^ 
its owner. 



OBTHOOBAPHY AND ACCENTUATION. 9 

. 17. Some words, though spelt alike, are distingnished in 
utterance by the voice being depressed on a certain syllable, 
the accent remaining, as usual, on the penxQtimate. 
Ex. beka, put down ; bSka, look ; 

umuzi, hemp or flax in the rough state, umiizi, kraal ; 
innyanga, skilled adept, native doctor, innyangd, moon ; 
^i4xh%le, he has devised, ucibile, he is rich ; 
izindehe, lips ; windihe, calabash-dippers. 

N.B. The difference in sound in the case of heJca may be easily 
heiurd by making a native read the following sentence, in which the 
word occurs twice in each sense : — Wabeka isandhla pezu kwayo, 
wabuza wati, ' Ubona'luto na ? ' Yab'is'ipakamisa ubuso, yabeka 
yati, ' Ngibona abantu abahambayo, bef ana nemiti.' uJesu wabuya 
wabeka isandhla futi pezu kwamehlo ayo, wati ' Beka-ke ! ' 

18. In conjugating verbs it will be seen that the second 
and third persons singular are often alike in form. But a 
stress is thrown upon the jpronoun in the former case and on 
the verb-root in the latter. 

Ex. Hyatanda, thou lovest ; uyatdnda, he loves. 

Mandile, thou hast loved; utandile, he has loved. 

wdtanda, thou lovedst ; watdnda, he loved. 

19. The Kafir Language is very ill adapted for the com- 
position of hymns in rhynie. 

In most attempts of this kind, the same rhymes will recur con- 
tinually, e.g. hetu, wetu, setu, &c., or bako, lako, kwak^ &c., varied, 
perhaps, occasionally by bonke, konke, zonke, &c., which are only 
different forms for our, thy, all, respectively. This arises from the 
fact that hymns, which are generally addresses to the Deity or 
expressions of individual or united worship, must involve a frequent 
use of the personal pronouns, my, thy, our, &c. And the pronouns in 
Zulu are much more prominent and sonorous than in English, and will 
generally fall into their place at the end of each line, instead of being 
expended in the middle of it. 

Again, the regular fall of the accent on the penultimate 
makes the ordinary Long, Common, and Short Metres of 
English Psalmody utterly unsuitable for Zulu hymns. • "" 

These tunes should on no account be used for this piurpose. *rhe 
practice of so doing arises from want of due consideration, or else 
from mere want of taste. Missionaries too often compel the natives 
to offend against all the laws of accentuation, and force the rhythm 
of their own words, not once or twice, but constantly, in singing, in 
order to accommodate our favourite tunes. Let any Encdis^sfikaK^ 
attempt to sing the line ' 0*er the gloomy \i\\\B oi ^xV-aaeS ^» ^^^ 



10 OBTHOGSAPHT AND ACCENTtJATIOir. 

lUif . or CM. tniie^ and he will soon be convinced of the frightfol 
eff^t which the singing of words to such tnnes must have upon the- 
ear %f the natives, until by degrees the taste becomes wh<^7 
pervei>ted. 

But im? prose hymns, suited for dliaiiting, like the Psalms^ 
or for meii^al hymns, without rhymes the ZxQu language is 
very well ai^pted. 

The metre, ^lowever, will require to be iroehaie in its character. 
Any tunes,. for ii^tance, which are used for Sevens, may, by repeating^ 
€he last note of ea^ line, be converted into a tune for Eights, in 
which each line will o^nsist of four trochees, such as ' Hark, what mean 
those holy voices ! * an4 these can be easily supplied with Zulu words* 

The greatest diffioa;ilty, however, in composing metrical 
pieces in Zulu arises from the fact that this language consists 
largely of monosyllables, several of which are often connected 
together to form a single word. 

Thus, from the adjective de, * long,' is formed the adverb kctde, 
' for a long while ' ; and from this and the verb-root ma, ' stand,' and 
one of the noun-inflexes (12), is formed the noun isimakade, plur» 
izimdkade, which is used to express anything of primeval antiquity> 
such as an ancient tree, a rock, &c. The natives would dread some- 
calamity, if they cut off all the branches of such a tree. Hence the^ 
expression inkosi isimahade, ' the King Eternal/ 

From the same root we have the adverbs pakade and napakade, and 
hence the noun unapakade, which appears usually, with other particles 
prefixed, in the form kubeng*unapakade or kuzekvbeng' unapakade, * to 
all eternity/ 



COiASSnriOATIOK AND DBBITATION OI* N0VN8. 11 



CHAPTER 11. 



CLASSIFICATION AND DERIVATION OF NOUKS. 



20. There is no article in Zulu ; but the definiteness or- 
indefiniteness of a noun must be gathered from the context. 

21. Every Zulu noun consists of two parts, the root and the^ 
inflex, the latter being a small particle, which is set before the- 
root, forming with it the complete noun. 

Ex. U'3£p<mde, Panda ; aha-ntUf people ; in-dhlu, house ; imi-tt> 
trees. 

22. We give the name of inflex to this initial particle^ 
because by changes of it certain modifications of the noun are- 
effected, as they are in Latin and Greek by means of terminal 
particles or inflexes set after the root. 

Thus in the Latin word homo, * man/ the root is hom, and the inflex: 
o, which is changed to ines for the plural, and the whole word becomes- 
"homines, ' men *; just as in the Zulu word umwntw, 'person,' the root is; 
ntu, and the inflex umu, which is changed to aba for the plural^ and^ 
the whole word becomes abantu, ' people.' 

23. In the Zulu there are eight singular nominative- 
inflexes, six of which have plural forms ; and thus we shall 
have eight different classes or nouns, of which two have no 
plural. / V 

24. A portion of each inflex, which may be considered itft 
eharacteristic portion, is used as a personal ^toraaws^ ^ ^Cwe* 
third person, to represent any noun. oi^i^"& ^^aa^Va.ojQ^^^da^'^* 



aui 



CLASSIFICATION AND DEBIT ATION O! NOUNS. 




I 



o e 



8 
8 



3 



1 



I 



8 



» 



d '3 

S lis 11 
•3 «> ;s •«» r^ 



o 



§3 






ml 



^ fe 



:§ 






l^tl -S 




I 

4 



s 



•s 






J 



8 



n 

•7-t 

QQ 






I 



1 H-i 






:$ 



IS 



s 



*^ *^ t^ 

•^ a M 



9 



I 



8 



I 






BEXAftSS ON THI TABLX OI* K0VK8. 13 

126. When any inflex, ending in a vowel, is prefixed to a 
root which, begpbis with a vowel, the terminal vowel of the 
inflex 18 dropped, except in the case of uhu^ when it is usnallj 
changed to the semivowel w, 

Ex. iMtid^Za, hand, ukwenza, doings for isi-andhla, uku-enza. 

Before o, however, the final u of uku is often dropped. 
£x. uhuxma or uhona, injury, sin. 

BEMABES ON THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 

27. Nouns of Class I are almost all personal nouns, and 
those of Classes V and VI are generally impersonal. 

But we find wmMoho, friend, plur. imihloho, and some other personal 
nouns, belonging to Class YI. 

28. Names of persons invariably take the inflex u^ plur. o, 
which latter, as well as oft a, is represented by the personal 
pronoun ha, 

Ex. uNlculv/nkulu, uMvelinqangi, names for the Deity; vMjpande, 
MNgoza, uZatshuke, names of chiefs. 

But izihongo, that is, names given to people in praise or 
sport, may be formed with other prefixes. 

Ex. uBisi (or uLvhisi) Iwembongolo, Mule's-milk, plur. oLuhisi, 

29. The plural of proper names of persons is often used (i) 
for a single person, as a pluralis excellentice, (ii) to express a 
person and the people who are with him. 

Ex. oSomiseu ka*8onzica, Somtsen (Sir T. Shepstone) son of Sonzica. 
oZatthuke, the Zatshukes=Zatshuke and his people. 
oTshahaf Ohaka; oDingane, Dingaan; oMjpande, Panda; 
oCetshwayo, Cetshwayo. 
oNgoza hamukiU, the Ngozas (=Ngoza and his party) they 

have departed. 
So ahayeni, the bridegroom (umyeni) and his party. 

30. Certain other nouns, which have the force of proper 
names, take the inflex u, plural o or ao. 

Ex. ubaha, my or onr father, plur. ohdba or aohaha. 

umame, my or our mother, plur. omame or aomame. 
Aiyihloy thy or your father ; unyolco, thy or your mother. 
Myise, his, her, or their father ; unina, his, her, or their mother. 
uditde, sister, ulculu, grandparent, &c. 

In forming compound names, yue and niata are contracUd 
into so and no, 
Ex. uSojiiba, uNozim^isi. 



.14 BXKABKS ON THB TABLE OF KOXrKS. 

N.B. — The foUowir^ are also names of relationsMpr 

uhaha, my or onr father's sister ; 

uhahakazi or uhahehizi my or our father's brother | 

uyihZo, thy or your father's sister; . . 

uyiMokazi, thy or your father's brother; 

uyise, his, her, or their father's sister; 

uyiseJcazi, his, her, or their father's brother ; 

umalume, my or our mother's brother ; 

umamekazi, my or our mother's sister; 

unyokolwme, tiiy or your mother's brother ; 

tmyokokazi, thy or your mother's sister; 

uninahime, his, her, or their mother's brother ; 

unindkazi, his, her, or their mother's sister. 

Instead of uhaba for 'father's sister' may be used the full expres- 
sion, udade wohdba. 

So, too, ukulu- may be used for grandfather or grandmother on 
father's or mother's side, whether my, thy, or his ; but sometimes> 
especially by the amaLala, vbdbamkulu is used for ' my or our grand- 
mother,' &c. 

If the son of one man marries the daughter of another, the two 
fathers wiU call each other umlinganes the husband will call the girl's 
f ather ' father ' (vibaba) or 'father-in-law' (vmkwe), and the girl's 
mother ' mother-in-law ' (vmkwekazi) . A * brother-in-law ' or ' sister- 
in-law' is umlamu, plur. abalamu; a 'wife's brother' is umkwenya, a 
' son-in-law,' umkwenyana. 

The children of one father are called izelamane, which word, though 
generally used of the boys only, may be employed for boys and girls» 
collectively. 

The children of one father and mother are called aba'ndhWnye or 
4iba^ndhlini*nye, i.e., 'children of, or in, one house' ; and the offspring 
of one father and mother, so long as they intermarry with each other, 
are still reckoned as aba*ndhlu'nye. One who marries out of the 
family becomes by that act separated, vmuntu weeizwe, 'a man of 
the tribes' or ^stranger' ; and two persons, who are 'strangers' to 
each other, will not eat the amasi, ' sour-milk,' which comes from each 
other's kraal. 

31. The names of many birds, insects, trees, and plants 
form their singular in u, plur. o. 

Ex. ujojo, long-tailed finch ; umeyane, mosquitor imaliboinbo, name 
ef a plant. 

So also do a few words of foreign origin. 

Ex. umpondwe, a pound ; ushelene, a shilling ; upeni, three-pence ; 
umbaimbai, a cannon ; vmese, a knife ; usaoH, salt ; ugwai, tobacco, 
sauS; ukolweni, wheat. 



BBMABK8 ON THB TABLB 07 NOUNS. 15 

32. Noxuis not of Class I may be formed into Proper iN'ames, 

with inflex u, plnr. o. 

Ex. heka pezvlu ! hu8*emi osiZimela dbadala, Jcus'emi ondosa abadalcf- 
hug'emi ompandM abadaXa, look above ! there still stands the old 
Pleiades (isilvmela), there still stands the old Jnpiter (indosa), there 
still stands the old Angnst (umpandu) . 

33. The full form, umu, in Classes I and Y, may be 
employed or not, at pleasnre, but occurs chiefly before mono- 
syllabic roots. 

Ex. umuntu or wmntu, person ; v/muhla or umhla, day. 

34. N*ames of countries are usually of Class II, like izwe, 
land. 

Ex. iBotwe, Natal ; iEngland, iJudia, 

35. N*ational names are either of Class I, or, more commonly^ 
of Class II. 

N.B. umlimgu, white-man^ plur. ahalungu or ahelungu; but isilungu 
=the whole of the white population. 

Ex. vmfiSutu, plur. dbaSutu or aheSuiu; uMietwa, uMbo. 

iZuhi, iSwazi, iMpondo, iXosa, plur. amaZulu, amaSwazi, 
amaMpondo, amaXosa, 
So iNgisi, an Englishman^ iBunu, a Dutch Boer. 

36. But the singular noun, uZulu, Class I, is used to express, 
collectively, the whole people of the Zulus, the plural form 
amaZuhi denoting only a number of Zulus. 

So umSwazi, Class 1, expresses the people of the amaSwazi, and 
uSutu, Class y, the people of the dbaSutu or Basuto. 

uSutu is also the name of that portion of the Zulu people which 
belongs to Cetshwayo ; but the locative case (65) is, for the former, 
oSutu, for the latter, o8utwini. 

In such cases the people are called collectively by the name 
of a present or former famous chief. 

37. The inflexes. Hi of Class 11 and ulu of Class YI, are 
very frequently contracted into i and u respectively, and th^ 
t or I* is then pronounced long, as if a double i or u, 

Ex. idada, duck; utango, hedge; ihashi, horse; vdaka, mud> 
mortar. 

So zibuho. Class II, a ford or drift; but izihilho. Class IV, windows. 
or a pair of spectacles. 

38. Some few nouns, not of Class II in the singular, form, 
their plurals in ama 




16 bucabkb on thb tablb of hovks. 

Ex. indoda, hosband, amadoda ; indodana, son» amadodama. 
intimu, garden^ amatimm ; inikosi, chief> amahoiu 

Sometimes, however, wlien tHe form in ama would leave 
the meaning doubtful, that in izin is employed, and vice versd. 

Ex. ycunima iuinkoti namakulu, he them called, the chiefs of 
hundreds^ for yawabiza amahosi amahxdu, which might be understood 
to mean, he them called, the great chiefs. 

hlanganisa izinhomo et'ainaduna, collect the cattle which are males, 
for hlanganisa izinhomo ezi'zinduna, where the last word might be 
mistaken for ezezinduna, belonging to the indunas. 

Some nouns of Glass II make the plural in ama or in izin. 

Ex. ikambif plur. amakamhi or izinkamhi, refuse, such as the pith 
of imfe, 

N.B. So usuhua, day. Class VI, makes its plural both izinsuku and 
'amasuku ; and intonibi, girl, makes its plural izintomhi, while ifUom- 
hazana, young girl, makes its plural aman^ombazana. But iso (for 
iliso), eye, makes il» plural- amehlo, as if from another singular. 

39. Some nouns, especially of Class II, are only used in the 

plural. 

Ex. amandhla, power, strength. amanzi, water. 

amasi, 430ur milk. amafiita, fat, butter, ointment. 

amalahle, charcoal. amakaza, cold. 

amatumbu, intestines. amate, spittle. 

amabomu, purpose, intention, amdbibi, weeds, rubbish. 

40. In Class III, im is used- before either a vowel or a 
labial (h,p,rn,f,v), in in all other cases; and so with izim 
and izin. 

Ex. imbuzi, goat ; impisi, hyaena j imfuyo, treasure ; imvu, sheep. 

This rule holds for the plural prefixes in Class VI, except 
that izi is always used before a root beginning with h or I, 
Ex. upape, feather, plur. izimpape ; uzipo, claw, plur. izinzipo, 
uhvdudu, old worn-out blanket, plur. izihudvdu. 
ulimi, or ulwimi, tongue, plur. izUimi, or izUwimi. 

41. The plural inflexes, izim, izin, izi, frequently drop the 
«, and so are contracted to im, m, i, where the i must be pro- 
nounced long, as if ii. 

Ex. ezo*nto, those things, for ezo into, and that for lezo izinto, 
ikati zonke, all times, for izikati. 
igcagogwana, slander, for izigctgogwana. 
ifamona tabantu, spiteful jealousies of people, for izifamona. 
ngaitata ikali zami, I them took, my weapons, for nganitata 

izikali zami, 
inkoma nenkabi, cattle and oxen, for izinkoma nennkaH 



KEKARlTfl ON THE TABLE OI* NOUNS. 17 

anond<mgoyi Idba inwyoH enhulu; kanti bay'aklulwa yUezi 
encinnyane, these drones are lajrge bees ; howeTer^ they are 
mastered by these small ones> for izinnyosi, §zinkulu, egiii'- 
ncinyane, • 

So often in forming proper names. 
T^iL,uNoiWhada, uNomsdba, for uNoziUhada, uNozinsahfk, 

In like manner iai is sometimes contracfced before 8 into L 
Ex. Uando for isisando, name of a plant. 

And vnd in some words is also beard as i. 

Ex. vmhaU, flowers^ for imimbali, Class Y^ which has no singular. 

42. Some nonns of Class TV begin with isi or isa, some 
with isa only. 

' Ex. isingeokolo or isangcoJcolo, grub in mealie stalks. 
isinkuntsTiane or isankuntshane, name of a plant. 
isandMa, hand ; i^ndo, hammer. 

4(3. The same roots may appear with different inflezes and 
a corresponding difference in meaning. 
Ex. umhiwanef fig-tree ; ikiwane, fig. 

izwe (ilizwe), land ; isizwe, tribe, nation. > 

into, thing ; uto, something, anything. 

umwti, tree, herb, medicine ; uti (uluti), stick, rod ; ubuti, poison. 

ibele, female breast, cow's udder ; amokbele, Kafir-corn ; isihele, 

man's nipple ; wnibele, woman's nipple, cow's teat ; ubuhele, 

tenderness. 

WMmtu, person ; ahcmtu, people ; isintu, human race ; ulvmtu, 

outer covering of the bowels j uhvm,tu, human nature. 

But sometimes the same root is found * with different in- 
flexes and the same meaning. 
' Ex. 'wnqulo or lAqulo (uluqulo), stitch in the side. 

idMelo or isidhlelo, snuff-box ; but idhlelo means also cattle-run. 

wnlozi, plur. omlozi or imilozi, familiar spirit. 

intuma, intungwa, indoni, names of trees, but also umtuma, 

umttmgwa, umdoni, 
uqondo or inngqondo, palmetto fibre. 

N.B. In the last example^ the root appears as gqo7ido or 
ngqondo. And so an m or w is often heard before the root in 
other instances. 
Ex. isipo/w, poor man, ubupq/u, poverty, but also ubumpo/u. 
^*t«5a, dove, ubryiiba or ubunjuba, dove-nature, 
imvu, sheep, ubuwvw, sheep-nature j inja, dog, ubunja, dog- 
nature, 
um^oma, witch-doctor, but also ubunyoma. 
nm&un^u^ fcetus of calf, plur. imb^m9u, lot Smxwifeu't^^u V*ifeC^» 



18 RXMABE8 ON THS TABLB OF NOUNS. 

Such words as inwu, inja, mighty in fact> be written immim^ inn a» 
or imvu, inja, with inflex i, plur. izi. 
So from zifisa, pretend to die> is formed wne\/lti, plnr. omg^fisi, 
from zigaxa, intrude one's self> \im»igaxi, plur. onusigoKU 
from kanya, sliine> comes uhunkawyetti, brightness, 
from aonga, wind> insongensonge or properly ittmongemonge, 
winding. 

44. Noims of Glass I are derived from yerbs, by diangizig 
the final a of the verb-root into t^ and prefixing the inflex 
iim ; and such nonns express the agents ot the verb's action. 

Ex. From fwnda, leaxn, is formed unrfimdi, learner, disciple. 
fundisa, make to leam> umfwndisi, teacher. 

The above words, however, and most of the above kind 
which appear in the printed books, are formed bj Miasum- 
aries, not by the Natives, who employ ihese derivatives much 
more sparingly, but may form them at pleasnre, so that they 
cannot be entered in dictionaries as standard Znln words. 
Ex. umondhli (from ondMa) wezinJkedama ndbantu, nourisher of the 
orphans of the people^ an isihongo of Mpande. 
isisu somhamhi (from "hamba) asingahmani, a traveller's 
(stomach =) appetite is not very large. 

But some of these words belong to the language. 
Ex. vmfi, a deceased person^ hence wniaka'vMiifi, child of a deceased 
man^ fatherless orphan. 
umfiki, more properly isifild, a new-comer, fresh arrivaL 

45. Names of trees are mostly of Class V. 

Ex. umkowXte, yellow-wood, umUdwa, wild-medlar, wnhiwane, wild- 
fig, umtvmMi, wild-apple, umdoni, water-boem, uminngvhi^ 
Natal plum, wmtvmdululca, tree bearing a red acid plum, 
the juice of which is used in dyeing. 

Their yrwife are mostly of Class 11 or Class III. 

Ex. itukoa, ihiwane, iiuma (fruit of large umiuma), intwna (fruit 
of small vmtuma), indoni, itimgulu, iiundvZukai but ukova 
(Class YI. no plur.), banana (plant and fruit). 

So indtmiba, species of bean, but umdwnba, whole pod. 

Place? where things grow, or persons in the habit of doing 
what is indicated by the root, are of Class IV. 
Ex. isikoha, forest of yellow-wood ; isikova, banana grove ; iHdTdvhu, 
place for under-ground nuts ; isimbila, mealie ground ; tBiKkua, 
sweet-potato gturden; isidunibi, place where Kafir potatoes 
grow, whence EHdwmhini, name of a district where sudi plants 
abound i iaikoTdwa, forgetful person $ inUwU, habitual Jester. 



SnUBXS OH THX ^tLBLE OV KOITVS. 1^ 

' 46. Nocmfi of Glass VII are derived from notins and adjec- 
tives by prefixing the inflex ubu to the root, and they express 
the abstract idea corresponding to th« meaning of the root. 
Ex. From 4nko9i, chiefs is formed vbukon, chieftamship. 
iulm, great, vhukukt, greatness. 

47. Nonns of Class VIII are nearly all verbal substantives, 
lieing, in fact^ id^niocal in form with the infinUwes of verbs, 
and expressing the action of the correspondinjg verb. 

- Ex. ]nom Jumfek, ahxae, is formed ukukawya, light. 
tanda, love, uhitaiida, lore. 

aei, know, uJewaxi, knowledge. 

ng*€un, not know uhmg'azi, ignorance* 

K.6. vhwindhla, autumn, is not a verbal noun. 

48. A noun is made feminine by the addition of kazi. 
Ex. inkoH, chief, king^ inkonkazi, female chief, queen; 

inhomo, bullock ; inhomohazi or inkomazi, cow. 
N.B. Iiikomo is tiie generic name of a bullock of any kind, while 
ifuJeunzi denotes a ' bull,' inkaibi an ' ox/ inkomazi a * cow/ 

The last three words may also be used to distinguish the 
corresponding kinds of first-class animals, as of a horse. 
Ex. leli'haM Uy*inhm»i, Uy'inkdbi, liy'inkomazi, this horse is a 
stallion, is a gelding, is a mare. 

Or the possessive particle (72) may be used with the 

above words. 

Ex. ihasM ImkwMi or inhunzi yehashi, a stallion, ihasJU Unhdbi, a 
gelding, iJiashi lenkomazi, a mare. 

N.B. The corresponding words for sheept whose generic name is 
iimoUf are iwiqama, ram, wntondolo, wether, inwukazi, ewe, and those 
for goat, whose generic name is imbuzi, are vmpongo, umtondilo, 

49. Some singular nouns are nouns of multitude, that is, 
fire used for one or many, e.g,, the names for small plants 
when plentifxQ, or for paxtdcxilar classes of oxen. 

Ex. ugagams, small mimosa ; vmaasane, another sort of mimosa. 
ukova, banana (plant or plants or fruit). 
wndMunkuVu, girl or girls of the (great house) chief kraal. 
hwatatwavmdMvnkukb wambUi, there were taken two girls of ihe 

chief kraal. 
nawfukungwane hihibiU, there are two winged ants. 
nant'ukwfii, there- is firewood. 

vmqeku wamashwni'moMe, forty oae-year-old heifers. 

c2 



50. Male and female ci persons may be defined bjnsmgilie 
pofisessive particle "with the words isUisa and tsifazana. 

Ex. wmnhrana tpetilisa, a male child ; obaninHMia 5M^aMma» female 
children. 
«ttniic«l:u cendMtt CMesiUta nezesifazauct, senrantB of the honse> 
male and female. 

Male and female of animals are defined by using ihe possessive 

particle with the words induna and insikcud and their phirals. 

Ex. i^ashi Undttna, a male horse; amahashi esuwiixm, female horses. 

induna yennja, yehiti, yenguluhe, yenkuku, or tni^'a yendvna, &c^ 

a male dog> cat> pig> fowl. 

51. Sometimes the termination hazi is added to a nonn, in 
order to magnify or intensify its meaning. It may be added 
to the adjective joined to a nonn, as well as to the nonn itself. 

Ex. umfazikazi omJcvZuhagi, a great, distingaished woman. 

itshekazi, great stone; umutikasi, great shmb; umniumnahasi, 

fine girl. 
inionibikazi endekazi, fine tall (iniombi=) marriageable girL 
niyahona lo*mzikazi omkulukazi, you see this huge town. 
le'nnjakazi yami yensikaxi, this great bitch of mine. 

But Tcazi sometimes is nsed to express dislike. 
Ex. nangu lo*muntukazi eVivUa futi, here is that fellow who is 
idle too. 

Or a nonn is intensified by the repetition of the root. 
Ex. wake lapa imirvyakanyaka, he has lived here many years. 

hakona ha'ndwmdujendwendwe, uzolvhona okuhi, they are there* 

they being a prodigious troop, you will see it a great one— 

from udwendwe (43 N.B.) 

52. Diminutives are formed "bj adding to the nonn or 
adjective the termination ana or anycma, the final vowel of 
the root being elided before the afl^, or, in the case of o or u^ 
being changed to w, 

Ex. umntu, person ; umntwanat child. 

imvu, sheep ; imvana or imvwanat lamb. 

isilo, wild animal; t8{Zt(;ana, small wild animal f mlwanyandy 

insect. 
induku enhlana, a handsome little staff. 
ukudhla, food ; ukudhlana, a little food. 
kusihlwa, evening; kusihlwana, nearly *evening. 
ngezinsukwana, in a few days ; amaxwana, a few words. 

In the diminutive, I is often changed to y before a/na^ 



SBVUXKB OV THB TABLX 07 NOUNS. 2^ 

Ex. wv^fula amkulu^ a, great river; vmfuyana omhuyana, a little* 
brook. 
ihele, a file of men ; iheyana, a small file of men. 
If it is desired to make a distinction of sex, ana is used f or- 
the masculine dimimitive, and a za/na or kazanaior the feminine. 
£z. inkoai, chief ; inJcosana, petty chief ; inkosazana, princess^ yoiing:- 
lady (the Zulus would call the Queen inkosazana.) 
intombi, girl ; intomhazana, young girl. 
innja yensikazana, a puppy bitch. 
aibafa^zazana ahafutsJianyaiMi, little short women. 

63. If the last consonant of the noun be &, p, or w, it gener^ 
ally undergoes a change before the diminutive termination ;.. 
thus h is changed to j or Uh, p to Uli, m to ny^ mh to ly, mp- 
to ntsh, 

Ex. intaha, hill, mountain^ makes diminutive intatshana 
inguho, blanket^ . ' . . . . ingutshana 

kufupi, near, kufutshane 

inkomo, bullock, ..... inkonyana 

intambo, cord, intanjana 

kwmhlotshana, it is white, but small, from mhlope 

54. The following are other instances of diminutives not 
included under the foregoing rules. 
Ex. isUonda, sore, idlonjana, 
kude, far oft, kujana, 
iqata, slice, iqatshana. 
ningi, many, ningana, rather many. 
izUwa/ne, animals, izilwanyana, small animals, izilwanyakazane,. 

gnats. 
zikona izintatshana ezinncinyane zimhiyana, there are little hills 

there, they are rather bad, from izintaha, zimbi. 
utidi, dust, utulana or utuyana, 
l^.B. ul/utuU or uNtulikazi, is the name of the month when there 
is much wind or dust (April-May), uLutvdhlana, of the month when 
there is little dust (March- April.) 

uto, something, utwana or utshwana, a little something. 
So isixuku'tshwanyana, a very little crowd (isixuku and utsh^ 
wanyana,) 
utokazi Iwerwmambaf a huge thing of an immiamba, 
dmdi or dindikazi, dead, dull, stupid. 
inkomana yake, or wmqolokazana wake, his few cattle, used for 2l^ 

single head, from inkomo, umqolokazi. 
pakatshana kakvZwana, a tolerably good way in^ from pakaHy 

withiUj and kakulu, greatly. 
indwele or indwelemana or vndwelemanakazana, very dever- 
little fellow. 



^3 BBKABSS ON THB TABLE 01* NOTTKB. 

iqolaJcassi, large ox with white on rump, xqolaxcma, small oow 

with white on rump. 
tmihlopekazit large white ox, umhlotshazana, small white oow. 
N.B. The last nouns make the plural imihlopekaxi, imihlotahazama, 
"though the root is nihlope, white : see (43, N.B.) 

55. The particle ndini is added to nonns, and expresses a 
cslieht feeling of pity, as follows. 

Ex. mina, ndodandini ! here, my good man ! 
1170 / mfazindmi ! alas ! good woman ! 

mina, shingandird ! hazakukukolUa, (mind) me, you rascal I they 
will lay it inte you. 

56. The women have a singular practice of avoiding the 

utterance of any word which occurs in the name of the 

principal members of their husband's family, whether male or 

female, and, indeed, in the name of any of the males above the 

age of mere boys. 

Ex. If the names u8<jmdhla, uNkomo, uSomahasM, uNjahazana, should 
happen te occur in the family, the woman would not use the words 
isandhla, inhomo, iJuishi, inja, for 'hand,' 'bullock,' 'horse,' 'dog,' 
respectively, but would adopt, or invent at her own pleasure, some 
other words in place of them ; e.y., she might use isamkelo for 'hand,' 
ininga for ' cow,' imetye, for ' horse,' intshv/m^, for * dog.' 

Further, she must not call the men of her husband's family 
by their 6ir<^-names (i.e., the names given them by their 
parents), but by the names which they have assumed or had 
.given to them by their companions of the same age (intanga)^ 
when they become izmsizwa, * young men.' 
, This causes some perplexity at times, when white people 
are bargaining with native women. 

Ex. Thus a woman may say that ahe has umtamuza in her sack, 
^when she means umbila, 'mealies.' 

In such cases she is said uJeuzita, * to abstain from,' or uhu^ 
iilonipaj *to treat with modesty or reserve,' the word in 
-4question. 



SLX8I0N Ain) COALITION 07 YOWBTiB. 2S 



CHAPTER HL 



1LI8I0N AND GOALITIOK OF TOWELS. 



57. The vowels a, e, i, are often elided at the end of a word, 
when the next word is closely connected with it, and begins 
•with a vowel. 

Ex. Ufihashi, bring the horse^ for leta ; amcmt'ami, my amansi (lit- 
erally water, but used for utshwala) ; amas'dbo, their amasi. 

So, too, a weak final o may be elided. 
Ex. lap'ehletsi kona, where he sits^ for lapo. 

Sometimes, on the other hand, a weak mitial vowel may be 
elided after a stronger final one. 

Ex. abendhlu'nkulu, those of the (great) royal house, for enhjiM. 

So the vowel of a personal prononn is dropped before a 
vowel-verb, that is, before a verb beginning with a vowel. 
Ex. h'etM ahcmtu, the people came, for ha eza, 
*eza amahashi, the horses came, for a eza. 
kag^ote, let him come that he may get dry, for haze 'ote=hage 

aote. 
yeka lo'tnntwana 'onahala (for eonahala) ! oh that child spoiling 
iTseu 1 

But the u of Uf hif hu^ hu, is changed to w, and the vowel- 
prononn t to ^. 

Ex. ngibona intombi yehla (i ehla) eniaheni, I see a girl descending 
from the hill. 

vma hwaJianolaha {Jcu ahanolaka), if there (are) who (are) in a • 

rage. 
uma hwegijiinayo (ku egijimayo) leyo'nja, if it (be one) thatrmis> 

that dog. 
Jewezvnningi Iku ezinningi), it being many=there being many. 
kwizwsizwa {ku izinsizwa) zombili, there being both "^e young 

men. 
inddba kweyakmi, (ku eyakini) a matter it (being that) of your 
people. 




24 ELXSION AND COAIJTION OT YOWSLS. 

Or the w or w? is often dropped altogether in sncli cases. 
Ex. ng'uhona (ngivibona==ngiwuhona)umuzien*'^funayo (enitoufunayo), 
I see it> the kraal which ye seek. 

And in rapid or careless speech the u or w is dropped in 

other instances. 

Ex. alaza Vezwa, (it did not come, it heard=) it did not get to hear» 
for alwaza Iw'ezwa. 

68. When a demonstrative prononn precedes its nonn, its 
final vowel canses the initial vowel of the nonn to be dropped. 
Ex. Idba'hantu, these people, for laba aibantu, 
le'ngtkbo, this coat, for, le ingubo. 

Except a before o. 
Ex. laba onina, these mothers ; but laho'nina, those mothers. 

59. When the preposition hu, to or from, precedes a nonn 
singnlar of Class I, the uiuku expels the initial vowel of the 
nonn's inflex, if it be a or u, bnt is itself changed to w before 
i, and dropped before o. 

Ex. Jcu'hantu (ku ahantu), to or from the people. 
ku'Mpande (ku uMpande), to or from Umpande. 

60. When any one of the Possessive P articles ^ wa, la, ya, &c. 
(73), or the words na, nga, hwa, njengay precedes a nonn, its 
final a coalesces with the initial vowel of the nonn's infieX| 
viz. a and a coalesce into a, a and i into 6, a and o, or a 
and u, into o. 

Ex. inKosikazi yamaNgisi (ya amaNgisi), Qneen of the English. 
riQengoyise (njenga oyise) baho, like their fathers. 
amanzi nemiti notahani (na imiti na uUTuini), water, and trees,, 
and grass. 

Except snch cases as the following, where the contraction 
does not take place. 
Ex. sambamba kamje naoPuianeka, we canght him together with 
Putaneka and his people. 
izingane zonke zami kanye naonina, all my little ones, together 

with their mothers. 
bafa ukulwa nezizwe na ukufa kwalatoo^mazwe, they died through 
fighting with the tribes and through the sickness of those 
liuids. 

61. In aU other cases, if two vowels come together^ they 
mnst be sonnded separately. 
Ex. ugwai, snuff; inkau, a monkey ; vhwila, folly. 



GA8BS OV NOUNS. 



CHAPTER IV. 



GASES OF NOUNS. 



62. Nouns are used in tliree eases ; 

1. The 8imple=Nominatwe or Accusative ; 

2. The Vocative; 

3. The Oblique (or Locative)=Datlve or Ablative. 

We shall see afterwards (Chap. V) how the want of a 
'Possessive or Genitive is remedied. 

63. The Simple Case is the primitive noun, inflex and root. 

64. The Vocative is formed by eliding the ioitial vowel. 
Ex. Mpdnde, O Mpande; bantu, O people; from uMpande, dbantu. 

But plurals of Class I, with inflex o, prefix b. 
Ex. yizwanini hobaba, bomame, bodade, boJojo, hear ye fathers, 
mothers^ sisters, Jojo and his party. 

65. Thd Oblique or Locative Case (so called, because it is 
■often used to denote the place, at, to, or from, which the action 
in any case proceeds), is formed by changing the noun's initial 
vowel into e, and its final vowel, if a, into eni, if e, into in% if 
o, into weni, if u, into icini, except that the w is omitted 
in the last two cases, when the preceding consoLant 
is any one of the labials (&, p, m, /, v). 

Moreover, when the last consonant of the noun is b,p, orm, 
the rules of (53) will come into operation, almost always, if the 
final vowel be o, — frequerUly, if it be u, — more rarely, if it be 
any other vowel. 

Ex. entabeni, from intaba, mountain. 

ezulwini, izuluy heaven. 

emacetsheni, amaccbo, deceits. 

emputsheni, impupu, flour, meal, 

emlonyeni, umlomo, mouth. 

emkunjini, umkunibi, ship. 



26 CA8BS or KOUNS. 

But umzimba, hody, makes emzimbeni, — insimbi, iron, raeM, makes 
ensinibeni, — indhlu, imt, room^ house^ makes ef^hlini, &q. Such excep- 
tions as these will be learnt by practice. 

N.B. The uncontracted forms of the inflez are generally, but not 
invariably^ used with the Locative form.. 

Ex. ezweni or elizweni, from izwe, land ; etsJvufoleni, from utshtoala / 
etahanini or otshanini (66)^ from utshani, gi'ass. 

66. Nouns in u, contracted for ulu, have, besides the above^ 

another form of the Locative, made by changing the u into <?^ 

and altering the termination, as before. 

Ex. eludakeni or odakeni, from udaka, mud^ marsh, mortar. 

okukweni, from uhuho, mat, oNdini, from uNdi (uluNdi), at^ 
Ulundi. 

67. Proper names of places, rivers, &c., nnless they are also 
common nouns (like iteku, bay of the sea, which is used for 
Durban, and makes regularly eTelewmi), form their Locatiyea 
by merely changing their initial vowels to e, 

Ex. eBoiwe, from iBotwe, Natal. 

emOungundhlovu, from umGungundhlovu, M^tzburg. 
emOungundhlovwana, (little Maritzburg=) Greytown. 
emDhloti, (at the Umhloti=) Verulam. 
emHlali, (a,t the IImhlali=) Williamstown. 

But such nouns, with initial u for ulu, change uintoo (66) • 
Ex. oTuhela from uTuhela, name of a river. 

oKahlamba, from uKaMamba, Drakensberg Mountains. 
N.B. o8utu=hu'ba8uiu, among the Basutos, or among the Sutu> 
Cetshwayo's people ; but oSutwini may be used in speaking about the 
latter, and about the (xUtls of the former. 

eSwazini=&m.ong the amaSwazi^ emaMp(ynd/weni=^axa.ong the 
amaMpondo (Pondos). 

Kraals or places of abode, with their neighbourhoods, are 
often named from former residents, by prefixing hwa (92). 
Ex. kwa'Magwaza, hwa'Dukuza, hwa'Zulu, 

68. Several nouns, which denote a particular situation or a 
definite period of time, form also their Locatives by merely 
changing their initial vowels to e. 

Ex. ekaya, at home, from ikaya; plur. emakaya, 
emmini, by day, from immini. 
ebusuku, by night, from ubusuku. 
obala, in the open plain, from ubala, 
emjmmalanga, in or from the East, from impumdUmga. 
entshonalanga, in or from the West, from intihonalangtu 
enMoho ox enhlokioeni, on the head; plur. minhlokQ. 



CASES OT NOXTNS. 2T 

* 69. The Locative takes an 8 before it, whenever it f ollowa 

either of the words na, nja, njenga, or a Personal Pronoun or- 

Possessive Particle, or any part of the verb 6a, to be. 
£z. umhi^a was'empumalanga, custom of the East. 
njengas'ezulwini, like as in heaven. 
us'ehvfeni, he (is) at the point of death (lit. in dying). 
hcbs'ekaya, they (are) at home. 
hwdba i'obala, it was plain (Ht. in the open). 

70. A nonn is placed in the Oblique or Locative Case when: 
it follows a verb of which it is not the direct object ; and it. 
will need to be rendered variously in English (like the Latin 
Dative and Ablative), by means of a preposition, in, to, frorriy. 
at, among, before, <fec., according to the context. 

Ex. vjaya wangena endhlini, he went, he entered into the hut. 
yabona isitunzi emanzini, it savr the shadow in the water. 
iwapuma emlonyeni, it came out of the mouth. 
ulele okukweni, he is' laid on a mat. 
ehuvuJceni Jcwake, at his waking. 

71. Particularly, the name of a place at which any one is; 
residing or acting, or to or from which he is proceeding, ia. 
always put in the Locative form. 

Ex. us'emQtmgundhlovu, he is at Maritzburg. 

havela eTekwini na ? do they come from the Bay P 
haj^wma emDumezulu, they came forth from Umdumezulu» 



:2S F08SX88ITX PABTICLB8 



CHAPTER V. 



POSSESSIYE PARTICLES. 



72. The want of a Possessive or Genitive Case in Zulu is 
supplied by means of a Possessive Particle, which is set before 
iihe governed noun or its representative pronoun. 

Ex. uhuso bentombi (ba-intombi) , the face of a girl; 

wliere ba is the Possessive Particle^ set before the noon intonibi, 

73. This possessive particle, in any case, consistis of the 
personal pronoun, which corresponds to the governing noun, 
followed by the vowel a, before which the vowel of the pro- 
noun is either dropped, or, when u, is changed to w, and, when 
*, to y. But the u of lu is very frequently dropped before o, 
tind the u of hu altogether, thus tc-a, li-a, i-a become wa, la^ 
ya, &c. Thus the different possessive particles, according 
■to the Class of the governing noun, will be — 

Sing, wa, la, i/a^ sa, wa, Iwa or la, bwa or ba, kwa. 
Plur. ba, a, za, za, ya, za, 

74. The possessive particles, when placed before the 
governed noun, will coalesce with the initial vowel, by (60). 

Ex. indhlu yamacala, house of causes^ for ya-amacala, 
uti Iwendoda, rod of the man^ for Iwa-indoda, 
usuhu lohupumula, day of rest, for Iwa-ukupumula, 
ohoko babantu, ancestors of the people^ for ba-abaniu. 
amahashi amakosi, horses of the chiefs^ for O'amakosi. 
atnanzi omfula, water of the river, for a-umfula, 
amaqanda ennyoni, eggs of the bird, for a-innyoni. 
amakanda onina, for a-onina, heads of the mothers. 

76. The a in the possessive particle appears to be .simply a 
connecting vowel; so that the expression uhuso hentombi^= 
uhuso hU'a'intomhi=ia>ce, it of the girl. 

76. But the particle may precede a personal pronoun in the 

possessive form, or a demonstrative pronoun, or an adverb; 

and ifc will then usually appear in its full form, as it will not 

then precede a vowel. 

Ex. indhlv. yako, thy house ; umuntn walapa, a man of here. 
inddba yakuleso'sikati, a story of that time. 
uManja/nja owaU hide, Manjanja of there far away. 



P08SBSSr7B FABTICLES. 29 

77. Singnlar Proper Nameg, however, usually drop the inflex, 
taid prefix ha, preceded by the personal pronoun which cor- 
responds to the governing noun. This pronoun, however, 
may be omitted, if it be a, i, or u, 

£z. uMpande lea' Senzangakona, Panda (son) of Senzangakona. 
izwe UJca'Ngoza, land of Ngoza. 
umxi ha'Mfvblatelwa, kraal of Fulatelwa. 
isitsha sika'Ndiane, plate of TJndiane. 
una ha'Jojo, mother of Jojo (una contracted for unina) . 
wena ha' Jojo I thou (mother) of Jojo, if a man calls to her. 
wena lea' Jojo, thou (son) of Jojo, if a man talks with him. 
umka*Zatshulce, wife of Zatshuke (urn contracted for umfazi). 
vJcutanda huka'Nkulunlculu, Go^'s loving (God's love to us). 
ukutandwa kuka'Nkulunkulu, God's being loved (by us). 
But imizi yaoNgoza, kraals of Ngoza and his people. 

amiagama aka' Vimba, sayings (or songs) of Vimba. 
N.B. Ma, contracted for umta ka=umntwana ka, ' child of,' is used 
frequently in speaking of a man's wife, especially when a husband 
Bpeaks of his own wife, calling her by her father's name. 

Ex. uMa'Jojo, the child of Jojo, uMa*Mpande, the child of Mpande. 
tata le'nibenge uyiyise lapaya kwaMa'Ngosa, take this basket, 
carry it thither to Ngoza's child's (place). 
The natives often repeat a name, sometimes their own, by way of 
isibongo. 

Ex. hazekuta uNyangali, uNyangali ka'Nyangali wako, they have. 
come to settle (the ukulobola) for Nyangali your (daughter) Nyangali. 

78. All other words which form their singnlar in a, plur. o, 

talce the possessive particles in the same way as proper names. 
Ex. ihashi lika*baba, horse of my father. 
ingtbbo ka*nina, blanket of his mother. 
umfunzi ka'gwai, bundle of tobacco. 

79. Proper names of places express the Possessive by pre- 
fixing the possessive particles to the Locative Case with the 
letter s between them. 

Ex. izwe las'eBotwe, land of Natal. 

cibantu ha^emVoti, people of the umVoti. 

umuntu was' eSwazini, man of the amaSwazi. 
Butumtmtu wakwa'Zulu, man of the amaZulu, because was'ezulvnni 
means ' from heaven.' 

80. Certain adverbs of place, which are merely nouns in the 
Locative Case, are treated like proper names of places in 
expressing the Possessive. 

JBx. iewe las^enzansi, land of (down below) the south-east 
teiZo xaa^endhU, wild animals of the veldt. 



80 P08SBB8IVX PABTICLB8. 

imiii yfU^eMaiuteni, trees of the bush. 

81. The possessive particles are often used to express fib%ei» 
or capcbbiliiy for an action. 

Ex. isikati soleusehenza, time for working. 

vkudhla kwokupekioa, food for being cooked. 

amcmzi okukiwa ehiLsuhu, water which shotdd be drawn at night* 

82. The possessive form is also nsed in expressions like the 
following, where the English idiom wonld reqnire an adjectiYe. 

Ex. ihashi lenduna, lensikazi, a male horse* a female horse. 
abantu beailisa, heaifazana, male people* female people. 
inkdbi yesibili, the second oz. * 
itole leshumi, the tenth calf. 
umuntu wejara, a person Vho is a yotmg dandy. 
Ica'muniu wa*luto, he (is) not a person of anytiiing. 
umuntu wendodaicazi, a person who is a daughter. 
uPotolosi weBunu, Pretorins the Boer. 
umta ka*Jojo wentonibi, Jojo's child the girl. 
amatoyana lawa enhfwnzana (ezinhunzana), these little bull-calves. 
soku'mdhlekedhlana nje weze, it is now (a worthless-thing at 

emptiness=) an useless old bullock. 
izinto zokuhle z*enziwe n^ama&omu* things (of being=) which i 

actually done on purpose. 

83. The noun uto or uluto takes the possessive particle 
above, when it is used generally for * a something,' or * any* 
thing,' and not specially for a ' certain thing.' 

Ex. akuso'nto ya'luto, it is no longer a thing of anything (worth 
anything). 
hengena'cala la'luio, they not being in fault for anything. 
akuyVlubuyayo lapo, there is nothing returning from thence. 

• In like manner, ti/muntuia used with a possessive particle 
in the sense of * a person,* or * anyone.' 

Ex. angiteti' cola la*muntu, I do not judge a cause of any man. 

Such expressions generally occur, as above, after a negaMwBm 

84. The noun umnini, owner, is formed into a compound 
V7ord with the noun it governs, as follows : 

Ex. umnini'ndhlu, master of the house. 
ahaninVmiMi, owners of the kraals. 

So also with pronouns. 

Ez. unmini'lo, owner of it (ihashi). 

> ahanini-zo, owners of them (izinkomd). 

So umnini-yena (wena, mind), for which a native would 

probably say uyise^ uyihlo^ uhaha. 



rSEPOSITIONB. 81 



CHAPTER VI. 



PBEPOSITIONS. 



85. Na, 'with,' is used (60) with a noun to express the idea 
of having, possessing^ &c., for which no verbs exist in Zulu. 

In this way also, the lack of adjectives is largely supplied. 
Ex. ulfkulunkuluunobubele, Qod he (is) with mercy=Godis merciful. 

iiikosikazi inomusa, the Queen (is) with grace=is gracious. 

ihashi linamandhla, the horse (is) with strength^is strong. 

wnuntu una'nto'mbili eeibUini sake, a man has two things in his 
person, for unezinto ezimbili, 

86. When na is nsed in the sense of having, &c., in a nega- 
tive or interrogative sense, the noun which follows it loses the 
initial letter of its index, as in the last of the above examples. 

N.B. In'the following examples^ the negative particle takes the form 
of a prefix a, or of an inserted nga or nge, according to rules which 
^11 he given hereafter. 

JEJx. angina'muntu, I have no person, from urminiu, 
ahuna'luto, it is of no consequence, from uJuto, 
Mngdbi na'mona, be not thou envious, from umoTixi, 
mgingena'hashi, I having no horse, from ihashi, 
'ungena*hantioana, thou having no children, from ahantwana, 
•una'hashi lini na ? what horse hast thou ? 
sina'nmaho'muni nawe na ? we have what business with thee ? 
^ang'azi na'lcvbuya mvna, I don't know even about returning= 

whether I shall return at all. 
olcwaJce ahuna'kukuzwa, ahtma'kvhatshazwa, his (affair) is not 
(with hearing it=) to be heard, it is not to be talked 
about=it passes our comprehension altogether. 
tisiqedi na*kubv/ya, we are not certain either about (his) returning^ 

The same thing occnrs in such negative or interrogative ^ 
sentences as the following. 

Ex. ningapangi'muntu, do not ye plunder any man. 
ubona'luto na ? dost thou see anything ? 
ckungekwa'kuzenzisa, which is not of hypocrisy. 
chwigekwa'mteto, which is not of the law. >.^' 



82 PBBPOsmoNS. 

87. Na also expresses and, aho, hothy too, even, &q, 
Ex. emhldbeni nas'emanzini, in the earth and in the water. 

iaJojo wahamha naye, Jojo went also, or Jojo went, he too, 
8e8*e8dba nehunyatela, we now feared even to tread. 
ngingena'sikati nesokudhla, I having not time even, to eat. 
as'azi na'kufa nani, we know not whether it is death or what, 

=whetiier he will die or not. 
zingakapumi nenkomo, and the cattle not having yet gone out 

88. Na may be prefixed either to the noun itself, op to th© 
CQf responding pronoun, with the noun following in apposition^ 

Ex. nezinto zonke, or nazo zonke izinto, and all things. 

And so with the other prepositions ku, nga, njenga, &g. . 

89. Na is also used after verbs in and, and some others, 

which imply a mutual action. 

Ex. salahlekelana nezindhlela zako, we erred from thy ways (lit. we 
and thy ways were lost to each other). 

iquzuke lapa nesondo, it (the wagon) has got struck here (with 
the wheel=) on the wheel. 

ibanga eliya eTekwini nas'emOungundhlovu kude kangakanani, 
usuka emQungundhlovu uya eTekwini na? the distance 
which goes from Durban to Maritzburg (is) how far, tJiOQ 
starting from Maritzburg, thou going to Durban ? 

90. Ku is used to express the force of the Locative in all its 
different shades of meaning, iOy from, at, among, &c. 

• Ex. kuvela kuwe, it comes from thee. 

ngiya ku'malume, I am going to my (maternal) uncle. 
ngiya kwomalume (=ku'0m(ilu'me), I am going to my (two Or 
more) uncles, or to my mother's kraal. 

As proper nouns have no Locative forms, ku will always be 

used with them, to express the sense of the Locative. Or, 

when emphasis is required, ku may be used with the personal 

pronoun, followed by the noun in apposition. 

Ex. indhlela eya ku'Mpande or kuye uMpande, a path which goes to 
Umpande. 

91. Ku is also used with a Plural Personal Pronoun, to 

express my or our people, &c. 
Ex. kuti, hiti, hitina, my or our people (lit. among us) ; 
hwni, kini, kinina, liy or your people. 
hubo, kubona, his or their people. 

dbafazi hahiti, women of ours ; izinkomo zaHni, cattle of yours. 
^ izwe lakubo, land of theirs, that is, of his or their people. 

wye ekaya hubo, he is gone home to his people=to his tribe. 
hambani niye kini, (go ye=} be off to your ladbe. 



PREPOSITIONS. SS 

So also with Plural Proper Names. 
£z. hwoNgoxa for 1cU'ONgoz<i^kvibo Jca'Ngoza, the people of Ngoza. 

Ku or huna is also used in comparisons as follows. 

Ex. wna kutiwa angikete kunoJojo noFaku, aide ngikete uJojo, if it be 

said (that) I should choose between Jojo and Faku, I would 

choose Jojo. 

92. Kwa is used with a Plural Personal Pronoun, to express 

at, to, or from the hut, or kraal, or people of the person 

referred to. 

Ex. uhlezi endKLini kwaho, he is staying in the hut^ at his father's, 
but uhlezi ekaya kuho, he is staying at his owtf'home. 
sdbona kwa'Dukuza, we saw uDukuza (kraal). 
hahlezi endhlini ka'Mfulatelwa kwa*Ngoza, they are stopping at 

Mfulatelwa's hut, among Ngoza's people. 
umuntu wakwa*Zvlu, wakwa* Zungu, &c., a man of the Zulus, the 

Zungus, &c., a complimentary way of naming the man's 

great ancestor uZulu, uZuhgu, &c. 
N.B. The following idiomatic expressions are noticeable. 
Ex. A;i*6o^his or their people, tribe, family, &c. 

kwaho=^}nB or their people's place, kraal, hut, &c. 

kwo'Ngoza or kwa'Ngoza, at Ngoza's. 

inkahi ka'Jojo, Jojo's ox ; inkahi yakuho ka'Jojo or yakwo'Jojo 

or yaho*Jojo, ox of Jojo's people ; inkahi yakwa'Jojo, an ox 

of Jojo or of Jojo's people (if he is their chief). 
umdindimana wakwaho'Tolapi, a little pot of Tolapi's (place). 
abako'nnyanga, the doctor's people, for ahakuho innyanga. 
sasing'dbako'Ngomane, we were Ngomane's people. 
kwelako*Magema^=kwelakwoMagema^==kiJoelahviho*Magema, at (the 

land, izwe) 6i Magema's people. 
kwabo*Venge, at Venge's father's kraal, &c. 
kufupi nje kvho, it is quite near, his (their) people. 
iibantu hako'ntonibi, for hakuho'ntomhi, the girl's people. 
dbantu hakona ko'ntorribi, the people of their, the girl's people. 
wabaleka lapa kubo kwa'Zuhiy he fled from here home to Zululand. 
wayihonga inkosi ydhul)o wayikwelisa ngamazibukwana, he praised 

the chief of his people, he carried Jiim (sang his praise) 

over the drifts=aU the rivers. 
kwelakiti (izwe), eTongwe, kwa'marUngi amagonsi, at our country* 

eTongwe, where the amagonsi abound (lit. at many ama- 
gonsi plants). 
impi yakwa'Sikonyana, the impi of Sikonyana's people. 
N.B. A wife will say kwetu of her husband's father's house ; mta 
kwetu, 'child of ours,* may be said by one boy or girl to another. 

93. Nga is used for through, hy means of, for, by reason of, 
tonceming» on account of^ <&c. 



34 PBEF08ITI0NS. 

Ex. ngamandhla amahulu, through mighty power. 

ngazo zonhHzinto, or ngezinto zonke, on account of all things. 
ak'eme nga'nyawo, let him Btafid by a foot=let him just stop 
a bit. 

94. Diversity of number, time, 'place, &c., is expressed by 
means of ana, and a repetition of the noun. 

Ex. esakuluma imihla ngemihla, he still speaking 'day by day. 

kuhona. izinto ngezinto eziVigugu, there are there tilings upon 

things that are precious. 
namhlanje ngibone imibala ngemibala yezinto zahelungu, to-day X 

have seen all sorts of colours of white-men's things. 
ahle niheke amadoda ngamadoda adhXa ubomi, come and see (men 

upon men) a number of men eating v^omi (meat in an 

incipient state of putrefaction, which, like high game, is 

much approved by natives). 
umuntu ofuyileyo nang<i8*enkomeni, a man who is well off too in. 

respect of cattle. • 

95. Nga is used to express * two and two,' Ac. 

Ex. haya ngdbdbili, ngdbatatu, &c., they went by two's, by three's, Ac* 

96. Nga is used also in tlie sense of about or towards. 

Ex. uvela ngapi, or uvela ngapi na f thou comest from whereabout ? 
but uvela-pi na ? thou comest from where ? ' 

uye ngalapa, he is gone there-about. 
izwe langa8*emVoti, land of about the TJmvoti. 
uye ngakuho, he is gone towards his people. 
izwe langakwa* Ngoza, land about Ngoza's (people). 

So we hBTsrepeziv, above, ngapezv, somewhere above; pansi, 
telow, ngapaiisi^ somewhere below, &c. 

97. Nga is also used for the purpose of (uTmbonga) extolling^ 
or expressing admiration. 

Ex. uNgoza ngehashi lake ! Ngozafor his horse ! = what a fine horse 
has Ngoza ! 
ivo ! ngehandhla lika'Jojo! what a troop of men has Jojo I 

98. From the word nga are compounded many words nsecl 
as adverbs or conjunctions. 

Ex. ngako, therefore, = nga-ko, on account of it. 
f ngokuha, because, = nga ukuba, on account of the being. 

^' 99. From the same root nga are probably formed the pre* 
positions njenga,, like as, nganga, as great or as many as* 
Ex. njengokukanya kwelanga, like as the light of the 8un» 
ungangawe na? is he as large as thou F 



PBXP08ITION8. 8(^ 

100. The direct agent after any Passive (or Neuter) Verb 
or Participle may be denoted by prefixing ng* to the nonn 
which expresses it, if its inflex begins with u or a, or y* if tho 
noon's inflex begins with i, or y\ before a pronoun (111). 

Ex. kutshvuDO ng*uNgoza loko, it is said &v Ngoza^ that. 
vxidhliwa y*inkato, he was chosen (eaten) hy the lot. 
ngiUbele y'imUehenzi, I have been delayed^!/ works. 
ningahohva y'iloho, do not (be satisfied &v =) credit that. 

Or r may be used before nouns in Hi and ulu. 

Ex. utfhaywe Vitshe emhaUni, he has been struck by a stone on the 

shin. 
lo'muntu Vidaka, that man is a sot. 
leyo'nhomo itweVamehlo, il'uITilanvam, that bullock has lifted thd 

eyes> it is mischievous. 
wciba Vuhuni, he was a fire-log, i,e., hard, stiffs unbending. 
imiwyaka eVishumi, years which are ten. 
wdba Vuto Ivloupa, he was something here = he was furious as a 

tiger. 

Or nga may be used with a plural pronoun. 
Ex. wdbonwa ngabo, he was seen by them^ or he was seen hy meant 
o/them. 

101. The above particles, however, are very often omitted 
and the agent stands after the verb without any sign to dis* 
tingnish it. 

Ex*, kutshiwo uNgoza loko ; wadhliwa inkato, 
kunjenje umlilo, it is so through fire. 

102. In point of fact, the particles ng\ y\ in the above, are 
not prepositions, as they seem to be, but are employed as a 
kind of copula in place of the substantive- verb — ^perhaps, 
merely for euphony, to avoid an hiatus. "We shall call them 
the Substantive Particles, 

Ex. lowo'iMintu ung'ubani na f that man he is who ? 

iing'ahantu haka'Ngoza (s'aibantu baka^Ngoza), we are people of 

Ngoza. 
ngiy^iriiodana yako, I am thy son. 
izinkomo ziy'inncozana, the cattle are a few. 
y'iritsTia lesi or 'sitsha lesi, this is a cup. 
ubuhle ohu*hvMe hezinto zonke, the beautiful which is the 

beautiful of all things, for ohu7ig*ubuhle. 

103. Hence it would appear that the real construction of 
such expressions as those in (100) is as follows. 

kutshiwo — uNgova or ng'uNgoza, it is said — it is Ngoza (who 
says it). 

o2 



S6 PBB60NAL AND DBM0N8TSATIYB PKONOXTink 



CHAPTER Vn. 



PERSONAL AND DBMONSTRA.TIVB PRONOUNS. 

104. Personal Pronouns, besides Simple or Primitive forma 
for tlie Nominative and Accusative, Iiave _also Possesssive and 
Prepositional Forms. Thft former are those which they assume 
after the Possessive Particle of a nonn, and in this way is 
supplied the want of Possessive Prononns, for which no sepa- 
rate forms exist in Zulu. The latter are assumed after pre- 
positions, as na, nga^ Jcu, njengay nganga, <fec., and also after the 
Substantive Particles. 

They have also Emphatic Forms, which may be used sepa- 
rately, after a verb or preposition (not before a verb), or in 
apposition to either of the other forms. 

105. Personal Pronouns of the First Person, 

Sing. Plur. 

N. A. ngi, I or me N. A. 8% we or us. 

Poss. mi, as wa/mi^ lami, &c. Poss. itu, as wetu^ letu, &c, (60) 
Prep, mif as nami, Jcumi, &c. Prep, ti, as nati, kuti, <fco. 
Bmph. mina^ I or me. Emph. tina, we or us. 

106. Personal Pronouns of the Second Person, 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. n, thou. Ace. 7cu, thee. N. A. m, ye or you. 
Poss. Jco, as waJco, lako, <&c. Poss. inu, as wenuy lenu^ &o. 
Prep, wcy as nawe, TcvAJoe, <fec. Prep. w% as ruiniy htmi, &c. 
Emph. wena, thou or thee. Emph. nvna, ye or you. 

N.B. Kuti and Jcumi are frequently pronounced Tdti and 
kini, or sometimes kwiii and kmni; so also, kitina, kinina. 

107. Personal Pronouns of the Third Person. 

These, in their Simple Nominative Forms, are merely (24) 
the characteristic portions of the inflezes of the different 
classes of nouns. These serve also as AoeueaUoei, being then 




99 



placed immeduaelj before the Verb-Boot ; except thai tbe 
Vowel-Pronomis a^ i, u^ osaaQy take the semivowel v or y 
before them, as below, when used as AccasaitiTes. 

It win be seen thjrt; the PosessiTe and Prepositi<»tal Xoons axe 
identical, except in the case o€ the Singular of the First (or Persoiial) 
Class of N( nns. 

N.B. The i, which oocnrs in the jHonouns of the Third Person, &t, 
hu, ho, hona, is soft, while that c^ ho, for the Second per&CHi is 



108. Table of Personal Pronouns for the Third Person. 



j 

Inflex. 


I Nom. Aoc. 

i 


i 

! Poss. Prep. 

i 

le ye 


Emph. 


umuj uniy u 


ycna 


m 




li 


lo 


lona 


im, m 


• 


y^ 


yo 


yona 


\Sl 




SI 


so 


sona 


umu, um, u 


U 


tcu 


tco 


tcona 


ulu 




lu 


lo 


lona 


uhu 




hu 


ho 


bona 


uku 




I'll 


I'O 


lona 


aha, 




ha 


ho 


hona 


ama 


a 


wa 


wo 


wona 


izirrif izm, izi 




Zl 


zo 


zona 


tmi 


• 


y^ 


yo 

1 


yona 



I 



J 

The Accusative forms are inserted immediately before the 
Verb-Root in any case. 
Ex. umuntu woJcumpatela intamho, a man for carrying for him tho 
rope = leader of his wagon. 
ng'ezwa uwetu lo engiti-ngqi ngendololwane, I felt this man oi 
ours nudging me with his elbow. 

The Emphatic forms are placed after the verb or before a 
demonstrative pronoun. 

Ex. ukuluma zona izinddba:, you speak the very facts. 

xbuda libiSkwa lingehulume zona izinhlamvu zohufar a careless 

fellow being asked would not tell the very points of the 

disease. 

uyaJcupuluha ngalona leWlanga oyakumniha ngalo lo'muH, he 

will be healed on the very day on which you will give him 

^ this medicine. 



'5?-' 



-*-. - -*.i; t.n Arf.uitat.'^'c T.: help 

«. 4n>'Tiri*mv ACAT II rlaf Sfcde; 

. ^..i ■ .■♦»-* raly -JiikZ fat here. 

> .•? ..'5CU, iu Above g^ven, with 
.^v i.ac 'vr particles changes 

.& ../iiAt F^TfL-n XomincUive — u 
. :'j c, i/d, 4, respectively. 



.^ >..'i4jbfta 



;.j A .aIkiiiji; by the path. 

.-.; »*!ba we come to speak of verbs, 
,0 .0 Qtkie in the pronouns of the 

- « 

. ...«*»*• V 10 ^reat the Personal Pro- 

* . .»-v -. , w. tv V : je substantive particles, 

.. .\ itc iiiic-x e*% as uwe7ia, tcyena, 

xvtyt filing which takes either 

• J I »*«ik*. ^*iti, it is we. 
^ K... I e- ^ou; y'inma, y'twi, it is ye. 
, ,,. ; S' >v. jcona, y*t6o, it is they, 
» . ; 6> :-. ^' itcona, y'iwo, y'izona, 

, ... *, I 'fi^' ''^^ ^'QO killed that man. 
., *«, t^K- •♦^c^ svntradicting. 
\.'^ * ,K; .^c i* he himself. 






. k *5v ^^K.** i>.ia^ = the truth. 

:.>*H ** ^K^iviXiM, he is the man who 

Ci .H.«f^»v.*rt v^^\ tVy are the men who will 
>.>n.Mi« may be twtt«d as a Noun. 



.V • • 



BSMABKS ON THS PRONOUNS. 3^ 

umlohokcusi kayidhli innycmia ycu'evoake, a bride does not eat* 
meat of his (kraal) == her husband's people's place. 
N.6. is'ewake = husband's people's place. 

Wekweni lake or is'ebukweni bake = wife's people^s place. 

112. It 18 not is expressed with the personal pronouns, as; 
follows, the first form being that most used. 

Ex. akuso mina, or akusimi, or asi mina, or asimi, it is not I. 
N.B. In the above expressions a is the negative particle> ku the 
indefinite pronoun^ it, and si or so appears to represent the substan- 
tive verb ; while asi appears to be contracted from akusi, 

akuso mina owahvlala lowo'muntu, it is not I who hurt that man. 
akuso nina dbaktdumayo, it is not ye who speak. 

For the participle, kungeso is used. 
Ex. kungeso yena, it not being he. 

113. In like manner, such expressions as these, ^ I am he^ 
* I am not he,* &c., are rendered into Zulu, as follows. 

Ex. lo*muniuung*uye, this man is' he. 
angisiye uJojo, I am not he, Jojo. 
ungc iyo innyanga, thou not being he^ the physician. 

REMARKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 

114. The direct Subject of a verb is always a Pnmitiv& 
Personal Pronciun, 

Ex. inkosi iyahasiza, the chief, he helps them. 

115. The direct Object of a verb is always a Noun or a. 
Pronoun; and the Pronoun may be either Emphatic or 
Primitive. In the latter case it will be placed innmediaifly 
before the verb-root^ in apposition, frequently, to some Noun or 
Emphatic Pronoun also expressed. 

Ex. hdhona umuniu, they saw a man. 

haishaya uMpengula, they beat Mpengula. 
wawvdhla umuti, he ate it, the medicine. 

116. The noun, to which a Personal Pronoun refers, may bo 
expressed after its possessive also, for the sake of distinctness. 

Ex. ukujika kwake uNgoza, the arrival of him, Ngoza. 

la'mazwi akusiwo awake lo*mfana, these words are not those of 
him that boy. 

117. The emphatic forms may be used with hu, but not 
with any other prepositions. 

Ex. ung'emuki kitina, go not thou avvay itttm -na 



i 



40 BEMABKS ON THE PBONOUNS. 

118. Nouns, when used in apposition with the emphatic 
personal pronouns, lose their initial vowels. 

Ex. tinq*hantu haka'Zatahuke, we people of Zatshuke. 

119. Z7m, short for vmfazi, wife, is used with ha, and the 
Possessive Forms ; as umJcami, umJcako, umkahe^ my, thy, his, 
wife. 

120. The plural form hiti (91) expresses at our kraal, indi- 
cating only the kraal or place wheie the speaker's people live ; 
while kvjetu (92) or endhlini yakwetu, or emzini wakwehc, would 
be used to express at our's, at our hut or at our kraal, where 
the hut or kraal belongs to the family of the speaker, he not 
being himself the master of it. The master (or his wife) 
would say kwami, or endhlini kwami, or emzini wami ; and so 
with kini and kwenu. 

Ex. indodakazi yami, my daughter, indodahazi yakwetu, daughter of 
ours = of the house. 

121. In forming possessive pronouns to agree with nouns 
which ex-pvess paternity, maternity, fraternity, &c.. the plural 
form of the pronoun, which represents the noun whose father, 
mother, &c., is spoken of, is always employed, whether that be 

singular or plural. 

Ex. ubaha wetu my or our father ; unyoko wenu, thy or our mother. 
umfo waho, his or their brother j udade wabo, his or their sister. 
udade waoJojo, Jojo*s sister, for waho ka'Jojo, 

122. Umfo is used for umfana, * boy or son,' and ^lmta for 
vmntwana, * child,' male or female; but tuvfo ivaho means 
^ brother.' 

Ex. uNdiane umfo ka* Zatshuke, TJndiane, son of Zatshuke. 

uMfulatelwa, umfo waho ka'Ngoza, Fulatelwa, brother of Ngoza. 

Also umfo waka is used to point to an illustrious ancestor, 
umfo ka, to the father. 

The natives very frequently omit the n^/me of a person, and 
merely call him the son of the father or ancestor. 

Ex. uydbaceka nje umta ka*MvuJ}u, the son of Mvubu is slandered. 
upi owaka*Majozi ? where is the son (descendant) of Majozi ? 

(where o is the relative = he who is the son, &c.) 
woza lapa wena ka'Jojo, come here son of Jojo. 
N.B. woza lapa ka'Jojo would be addressed to a daughter of Jojo^ or 
to a -son in a, friendly, goodnatiired manner. 



BEMABKS ON THE PBONOUNS. 41 

A wife is commonly called by her father's name, with ma 
(contracted for mta ha) prefixed to it. 
Ex. woza lapa ma'Zatshuke, come here, child of Zatshuke. 

As a child is never spoken of as the child of its mother, it is necessary 
in translating such an expression as ' Joab the son of Zeruiah,' to 
write uJoabe waJc'oha Jese uZeruia, = Joab, son of (her) who is (chUd) 
of Jesse, Zeruiah, where t<7aA;*=i(;afea, and the iJlural would be 6afc*ofea*- 
Jese, these expressions being used in preference to walca'ka'Jesa 
baka'kaJese, 

Again, it is common to call a man by an izwi lohuhonga*' 

that is, * a name of praise,' or some name arbitrarily given. 

to him by his companions as a kind of honourable nickname. 

Ex. eh'imha uMgqiti-oNsibansiba, ehamba ebadazela, ngamtandct 

es'evunule, as Mijqiti-Nsibansiba walked, walking and strutting,, 

I loved him tricked out so fine ; where uMgqitiQ,\x.di oNsibansibi, 

(pluralis excellentice) are both of them names given by way of 

ukuhonga to some person. 

And they have also names of endearment or pleasant, jocular^ 
familiarity (amnzwi okufeJcetisa), between husband and wife or- 
between one friend and another. 



123. The word umnawe, * brother ' is used with a singular- 
pronoun, in speaking either of an older or a younger brother ;. 
so that two brothers can say of each other umfo wetu or- 
umnawe wami. 

But umne can only be used of an elder brother, or of an^r 
older friend or companion, and, like umfo, takes always the^ 
plural pronoun. 

The brother of a female will also properly be spoken of aa. 
umne wetu, wenu, wabo, not umfo tvetu, &c. 

When the form umne is used, some special familiarity or 

mark of respect is implied. 

Ex. uBetyu umne waho ka*Jojo, Betyu, elder brother of Jojo, 
sakubona, mne wetu, Mabuto, good-day ! friend Mabuto. 

124. On the other hand, the plural forms, ahafo, odade, are- 
used with the same singular possessive forms as umfo- 
and udade. 

Ex. ahafo wetu abahili, my or our two brothers. 
odaie wenu ahatatu, thy or your three sisters. 



t|3 BBMABKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 

Tbe above rules are observed in the case of some few other 
nouns of relationship. 

125. Mina is often used to summon a person, and wetu is 
employed as a term of friendship to one of the same age 
{i.. tango) or to a familiar acquainto.nce. 

Ex. mina wetu ! to me here, friend ! 

126. umniwana and abantwana are contracted in familiar 

discourse, when used with a possessive pronoun. 
Ex. wntanami, my child, for umntwana wami. 
ahantaibami, my children, for ahantwana hami. 

So umtanako, urniandlce, ahantahako, abantahdke. 

127. The pronoun Tcu, with the corresponding prepositional 
and emphatic forms, is very often used indefmitely, to 
express any number of nouns or pronouns, taken collectively, 
W'h ether singular or plural, personal or impersonal. 

Ex. Jcutsho vbani na ? there says it who P = who says it P 
kwatsho mina, said I ; kwataho Una, said we. 
hudhluU oNgoza kusasa, there passed the Ngozas this morning. 
hioenze njani lapo na ? (it is done how =) what goes on there ? 
akubanga-ko'muntu, there was not a person present. 
hade sihlala naye konalapa ku*mfanyana we, long Ago, we 

staying with him on this very spot, (it) he being just a 

litUe boy. 

128. Demonstrative Pronouns are formed from the infiezes 
of the different Classes of Nouns, as a general rule, as 
follows :— 

(1) By prefixing la to signify this or these; 

(2) By prefixing la, and changing the final vowel to o, to 
eignify thcU or those ; 

(3) By appending ya (pronounced with an elevation of the 
voice) to the first of the above two forms, to signify this or 
these here, or that or those there, when an object is pointed 
out. 

It will be seen, however, in the following Table, that the 
forms for the monosyllabic infiexes are slightly exceptional. 

129. Table of Demonstrative Pronoim§, 



BEHABKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 



43 



1 

Inflex. 


This. 


That. 


These here^ those there 


1 
^ 


lo, lona 


lowo 


hwa^ lowaya 


ill 


leli 


lelo 


leliya 


^ 


le, lena 


leyo 


leya 


ISl 


len 


leso 


lesiya 


lb 


lo, lona 


^ lowo 


hioa, lowaya 


ulu 


lolu 


lolo 


loluya 


ubu 


lohu 


loho 


lohuya 


uku 


loku 


loko 


lokuya 


Inflex. 


These 


Those. 


These here, those there 


ah 


laha 


laho 


labaya 


a 


la, lawa 


lawa 


lawaya 


• • 

IZl 


lezi 


lezo 


leziya 


• 


le. lena 


leyo 


leya 



N.B. lowo is often pronounced as lo, with a long o, or as lo*o, and 
laid as la or Wa. Also nouns in isi, izi after the demonstratives, 
if si, lezi, and nouns in uhi after loku, may expel the last syllable of 
tht* pronoun. 

i^x. lo'muntu, that man; la'hantu, these people; la'&a/ana, these 
boys ; le'sitsha, this cup ; le'zUonda, these sores ; (o'kufa, thia . 
sickness. 
f^o lo' may be heard at times for lohu. 
Ex. inja engangalo* engakaya, a dog as big as this, so big. 
r^galo'kushumayela kwake, through this his talking. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns when treated as nouns 
{111), take all the inflex i. 
Ex. y*iloku engikwaziyo, it is this, which I it know. 

J 30. Demonstrative Pronouns are often employed after 
the noun, to indicate things well known, for good or evil, 
jnul itude, beauty, ugliness, &c. 

The following are instances of the use of such pronouns. 

Ex. yona leyo-ke imizi, those very kraals. 

lowo nalowo, this and that man=one and another, every man. 
ungcyikonibe inja le, inibvzi ngingayipete, you must not point out 



44 BEMABKB ON THE PBONOTTN8. 

this dog (contemptuously for something given)^ I not 
mentioning a goat (= I will not be content with even a goat). 
cibelungu bona hazifuna zonhe nje izidhlo lezo ezimnandi, the 
white men they get all those nice dishes^ = all those dainty 
dainty dishes, you know, i.e., without indicating any as present. 
h'esdba ukupuza amanzi odwa lawa, they feared to drink just 
water only (= they feared to drink anything). 
lesVcamelo hungeloku as^enzwanga umuntu lo ohamha ngezin^ 
nyawo, this pillow seemingly was not made by a man just such 
as walks with feet (= by a Hving man). 

Ze'nsipu inJculu : ifanele ukvJ)a ibe'maxiba'matatu Tcvhe izind-^ 
hlame lezi, this garden is large, it ought to (be with) have three- 
watch-huts, that there be stands these (= so many, shown 
upon the fingers). 

hesengilwile besengiwadelile amabele, I had already fought, I had 
already given up {amabele =) utshwala for ever, (= I had 
resolved to fight unto the death). 

umfazi wayena lowo*mlungu, the wife of that same white man. 
Jcana*luto ngitsho irnbuzi yodwa le, he has nothing, even a 
single goat. 

angiyizeH indaba yalesVfana sami esilapaya, ngitsho isitombo lesi^ 
I don't tell the story of my little garden over there, (not) I 
say (=even) a single sprout (in it). 

solcute qa mkuni (izinkuni) lapa, ngitsho olokuishay a inja lodwa^ 
lolu, the firewood is quite at an end here, - (I say =) even so- 
much only as is (enough) for beating a dog. 
hwakwake abantu .* sadhla izikumba lezi, sizUola emahlatini, zazi» 
hekwe, abantu, people had lived (there) : we ate skins, you know, 
finding them in the forests, they had been put (there) by people. 
ngafika amadoda ebalelana kulo'mfuyana, kuyHleyo itsho okwayo, 
Jcuy*ileyo itsho okwayo, I came (where) men were telling each 
other at the brook, the one saying his (story), the other saying his. 
hutani amatshe lawa, bafana, niwacase, niponse ngawo izinnyoniy 
hubey'ilowo acase awake, gather these stones, boys, smash them> 
pelt with them birds, let each smash his own. 
hway'ileso'sixuku sibamJ}a abaso, kwayHleso sabamba abaso, there- 
was this body (of men) (laying hold of=) fighting with its own 
(enemies), (while) that fought with its own. 
hway*ibona babaleka, hway'itina sabalandela njalo, they for their 
part ran away, we for our part followed them continually. 

N.B. loku ^ this,' is used as an izwi lokuta or 'word of derision * in 
speaking of a x)erson. 

Ex. Mza loku, call it, this thing. 

So 6ku*Jojo (the thing) which is Jojo, may be used in con* 
tempt, but also in commendation. 



BBLATJYX PBONOlTKSf 45 



OHAPTEB YIJT. 

EELATIVB PRONOUNS. 

131. The Relative is expressed in Zulu, for all persons, 
genders, numbers, cases, by the vowel a, set at the beginning 
of the relative clause, but generally in combination with 
another vowel, so as to appear (60) in the form a, e, or o. 

The use of the Relative is somewhat peculiar in the Kafir 
dialects. But a little attention will enable the student per- 
fectly to master it, by observing the following rules, 

132. (1) If the Relative in the English relative clause be 
the Subject of the verb, {e.g,, a man who sees, a horse which 
is strong, people who are weeping, I who have done it,) then 
the vowel, with which the relative-vowel a combines in Zulu, 
is the initial vowel of the inflex which belongs to the antecO' 
dent, (rna/n, horse, people, J, in the above instances), 

Ex. umuntu ohonayo, a man who sees ; where o = a-u, the relative- 
vowel a 1»eing combined with the u of umu, the inflex of the 
antecedent umuntu. 

ihashi elinamandhla, a horse which is strong ; where e = a-i, the 
relative-vowel a being combined with the i of ilij the inflex of 
the antecedent ihashi, 

dbantu ahakalayo, people who are weeping ; where a =ct-a^ th« 
relative- vowel a being combined with the a of aha^ the inflex 
f f the antecedent ahantu, 

fnina engikwenzHeyo, I who have done it, where e = a'i, the 
relative- vowel a being combined with i, which (111) is the inflej 
belonging to the antecedent mina, 

N.B. The syllable yo is frequently appended, as above, to the vero 

in a relative clause, apparently for the sake of euphony, and also in 

8ome other cases, as where the relative is understood, and not expressed. 

Ex. hamba wye lapaya ehandhla ; liza'ufiJce likushumayeze leyo'ndaha, 

wena usayifunayo ; tina sesiyizwile, go over there to the 

company ; it will manage to tell yon that story, you (who) are 

now seekhig it ; we have already heard it. 



46 BBLATIVB PRONOUNS. 

A fi»ronoun may be regarded as in apposition with uvt/miUi 
or ahardu understood, 

Ex. nina eniyHziula or nina ahayHziula, ye who are fools. 

hamshiyisa ezinningi, o*kuceha kw*esahekayo, they made him leave 
behind many (cattle) whose wealth was astounding. 

133. (2) If the Relative in the English relative clanse be 
in the Possessive Form {e.g., a man whose hands are white = a 
man who-his hands are white,) the same rule holds, and the 
noun, which expresses the thing possessed, follows after the 
relative, with the loss of its own initial vowel. 

Ex. umuntu, o*zandhla zimhlope, a man whose hands are white. 
ihashi, eli*zindhlebe zinde, a horse whose ears are long. 

Or, to make the sense more clear, a possessive pronoun may 
be inserted after the noun aforesaid. 

Ex. umuntu, o*zandhla zake zimhlope, ihashi, eli* zindhlehe zalo zinde. 

134. (3) If the Relative in the English relative clause be the 
ohject of the verb, or occur in any other oblique form, {e.g., a 
man whom I see, a horse about lohich thou art speaking, people 
with whom we are living), then the vowel, with which the 
relative- vowel a combines in Zulu, is the initial vowel of the 
inflex which belongs to the Subject of the verb in tlie English 

relative clause. 
Ex. umuntu engimhonayo, a man whom I see him ; where e = a-i, 
the relative vowel a being combined with i, which (111) is the 
inflex belonging to ngi, I, the subject to the verb in the 
English relative clause. 

ihashi okuluma ngalo, a horse which thou art speaking about 
it ; where o = a-u, the relative- vowel a being combined with 
u, which (111) belongs to u, thou, the subject to the verb in 
the English relative clause. 

ahantu esihlezi naho, people, whom we are living with them ; 
where e = a-i, the relative-vowel a being combined with i, 
which (111) corresponds to si, we, the subject to the verb in 
the English relative clause. 

135. (4) When, however, the nominative to the verb in the 
English relative clause is a Personal Noun Singular, or a Pro- 
noun of the Third Perso^i Singular, the relative- vowel a alone 

stands as the nominative to the Zulu verb. 
Kx. umuntu ambonayo, a man whom he sees. 

ihashi, uJojo akuluma ngalo, a horse about which Jqjo spoke. 



BELATIYB PBONOUNS, 47 

136. When tlie Relative occurs in the form o or e before a 
vowel- verb, the semi- vowel w or y, respectively, is introduced 
before the verb, as owenza, eyenza, for o-enza^ e-enza. 

This may be either done to assist the eniinciation, or, more probably, 
it results from a repetition of the pronoun u or i, which is combined 
with the relative a. Thus, owenza = o-uenza, eyenza = e-ienza ; and 
it is possible that the same repetition is made in other cases, (as in 
otanda = o^utanda, just as elitanda = e-litanda), though it may not 
be so distinctly caught by the ear, being absorbed before a consonant 
in the strong sound of the o or e. 

When the Relative occurs in the form a before a vowel- verb, 
it is absorbed in the vowel of the verb. 

Ex. umina (or y'imi) engenze loku or umina owenze lohuj it is I who 
have done this. 
ng*uyena*apule loJcu, it is he that has broken this. 

137. When special emphasis is laid on a possessive pronoun 

in English, it may be expressed in Zulu by setting before the 

noun possessed the corresponding possessive pronoun, with 

the proper relative prefixed. 
Ex. ezdmi izinkomo, my own cattle. 
elake izwi, his own word. 
ngawdke amehlo, with his own eyes. 

asilo elami izemhe ; eli1ca*bdba, it is not rn/y axe 5 (it is) my 
father's. 
In the third of the above examples, the relative- vowel a is prefixed 
to the possessive form afee, with the semi-vowel w interposed. 

138. By myself^ of my own accord^ &c., is expressed by 
ngoJcwa, followed by the possessive form of the personal 
pronoun ; as ngokwami, by myself, = ngO'OJcwami, by (that) 
which is of me. 

Ex. umfana us'ehamha ngohwake, the boy now walks alone. 
So ngohwamahloni, with shame, lit. by (that) which is of shame. 
ngokwamandhla etu, by our power. 

139. The following are further illustrations of the use of 

the Relative. 

N.B. The Noun or Pronoun, which is printed in Italics in the 
English sentence, is that which determines in any case the vowel with 
which the relative- vowel a is to be combined. 

Ex. uMpande oyHnkosi yamaZulu, Mpande, who is chief of the Zulus. 
inJcosi, engihikeloTcu, the chief, who has given me this.' 
utshani ohufulela izindhlu, grass, which covers huts. 
ahaniu, Sbb'eza himina, the people, who came to me. 
umfazi o*buso humhlope, the woman, whose face is white. 



48 BXLATIVV PBONOUNS. 

imvu, eloya hude, the sheep, whose wool is long. 

umvenwane^ olu'mdbdla azibadu, the butterfly, whose colours are 

speckled. 

amaliashi, Sk'matshoba amnyama, the horses whose tails are black. 

wnuzi engiioubone husasa, the kraal, which I it saw this morning. 

aibantu hdko, ohatwmayo, thy people, whom thou sendest. 

lezo'zmto esiz'enzileyo, those things, which we have done. 

ariMdoda, eniwatshoyo, the men, about whom you speak. 

wnuti, eliya kuwo ihashi, the tree to which the horse is going. 

intaba, owaJce pansi Icwayo umuzi, the hill under which the 

hrcLol is settled. 

umfana, esinolaJca nje, sinolaha ngaye isalukazi, the boy, about 

whom the old-woman is angry truly, angry about him. 

inlcosi, BUculuvfia nayo uNgoza, fche chief, with whom Ngoza spoke. 

umfazi, Amapuca isipuku uNongoma, the wmnan, from whom 

Nongoma took away the blanket. 

indoda, asebenza Jcuyo umfazi, the man, for whom the wom^n 

worked. 

ihashi adenga ngalo, the horse which he (exchanged for) bought. 

"kukona okufihlileyo, there is (that) which thou hast hid. 

kukona a.bakufiMileyo, there is (that) which they have hid. 

kukona esikufihlileyo, there is that which we have hid. 

kukona a,kufihlileyo, there is that which he has hid. 

iswe, susakuninika lona, the land, which he will give you it. 

izwe, engizakuninika lona, the land which I will give you it. 

izwe, olona ngizakuninika lona, the larvd, which is it, I bsin^ 

about to give you it, (where ngizahwninika is the participle,} 

= the identical land which I am going to give you. 

izwe, elona ezahiminika lona, the identical land, which he is going 

to give you, (where the participial form, e (109), of the pronoun 

noun for the 3rd Pers. Sing, is used in ezakuninika). 

izwe, Qlona bezakuninika lona, the very land which they are 

going to give you. 

isitsha, Qsaninika sona, the cup which we gave you. 

isitsha, esona nganinika sona, the very cup, which I gave you. 

isitsha, ^.ninika sona, the cup which he gave you. 

isitsha, esona baninika sona, the very cup, which they gave you. 

isikati, ahafika ngaso, the time at which they came. 

isikati, esona wafika (or eson'afika) ngaso, the very time, at 

which he came. 

isikati, afika ngaso am^ntombazana, the time, at which the 

maidens came. 

isikati, esona bafika ngaso, the very tims, at which they came. 

ake sibone okona kuyHkona uma y*ikupi na, please let us see 

which of the two is the very thing. 

We give the above phrase with other inflexes. 

ake sibone ahona kung'iibona (or beng'abona) uma ^ibapi na ; 



BEIiATIYB FBONOUNS. 49 

aJce sibone eyona JcwyHyona (or iyona) wna y'ipi na} 

ake sibone awona kung'awona (or eng'awona) uma wmapi na ; 

dke sibone owona kung*uwona uma vimupi na, 

isioi elona uLishumayele Tcusasa = iswi olishumayele husasa, the 

word whioh you spoke this xnorning. 

v,yena aqamha (=owaqa'm^a) le'ndc^a, it is he that invented that 

story. 

wyena owayigodusayo impi, yagoduswa ug'uMpande, it is he who 

led home the army, it was led home by TJMpande. 

mahle la'mdbala lawa, awonju eyihlobisileyo ingubo le, those 

colours are beautiful, which have adorned that blanket. 

le'mizi urrmntu avela qede, ayibone, eyaoMapita 9 those kraals 

which a man sees, as soon as he appears (over the ridge), 

are they Mapita's ? 

sibone ngomnyama owona ubonahalise uhuba Uzakuna, we saw by 

the rainbow which showed that it will rain. 

figimtshela okona kuhulele ihashi, I am telling him what (it is 

which) has killed the horse. 

labo'bantu okutiwa amaFengu, those people as to whom it is said 

amaFengu = who are called Fingoes. 

angis'azi ekona ngizakwenza, I don't yet know what I shall do. 

iy'iqalaqala yona leyo'ntombi, eli'mehlo as*enhloko, she is a sharp 

one tbat same girl, whose eyes are in her head. 

vibabekazi waVake eLovu, okwati, mhla kubtuba ubaba, w*eza*kusi- 

tata, my (our) father's brother lived at the Ilovu, (as to whom 

it came to pass =) who, when my (our) father died, came to 

take us. 

wasinda ngalo*nyaka odhluUleyo owona umkuh^ne wawa ngawo, 

he recovered in that last year, in which the fever was prevalent. 

lowo'mlungu obesileJe ekaya lake (or o'kaya lake besUele kulo or 

ebesilele ekaya lake), thit wh item an at whose house we slept. 

n^ogcina ngo*nnywajxa zimhlotshana, I will finish off by him 

whose little feet (izinnywayia) are white. 



50 ADJECTIYES. 



CHAPTER IX. 

ADJECTIVES. 

140. There are not many prdper Adjectives in Zoln, and 
most of those which exist express either colour or dimension. 

Ex. mhlope, white ; mnyama, black ; &omim, red ; luhlaza, green or 
blue; sundu, brown or bay; mpofu, dun, roan, yellow, pale> 
poor ; nyaluti, grey ; zihadu, speckled. 

Jculu, great; ncane or ncinyane, small; hanzi, wide, broad; 
futshane short, narrow ; de, long, high, deep. 
hude, distant ; ningi, much, many ; lukuni, hard ; «e, naked ; 
mnandi, pleasant ; hU, beautiful, good ; 6i, ugly, bad ; qoto, 
honest ; mnene, generous ; dala, old ; tsha, young, fresh ; nzima, 
heavy, troublesome, dark, sad-coloured ; zimpunyu, projecting, 
protuberant. 

141. The want of proper adjectives is largely supplied by 
the use of (1) participles, (2) nouns in the simple form, (3) 
nouns in the possessive form, and (4) na with a noun. 

Ex. (1) umuntu ogulayo, the man who is sick = the sick man 
inhliziyo etohileyo, the humble heart. 
okucwebilayo, that which is clear = holy. 

(2) ku*makazay it is (coldness^ cold ; ku*manzi, it is (water) wet. 
oku'hukalif sharp ; oku'hudoda, manly. 

inhliziyo e'hunene, the heart which is graciousness, = the 

gracious heart. 

umzimha us'u*huhlungu, my body is now in pain. 

indoda e'sigele, the man with retiring forehead, = who has 

the ring far back. 
N.B. Some of the words given in (140) as adjectives, are really 
nouns used as above, e.g., luhlaza from uhlaza, new grass, lukuniiiom 
ukuni, fire-log. 

(3) usuku lokuqala, day of the beginning = first day. 
isikati sokupela, time of the ending = last time. 

(4) namandhla, strong ; namanga, false ; nejubane, swift. 
negazi, bloody j nolaka, violent ; nomsindo, noisy. 

142. An adjective in any case (or its substitute) will take 
an inflex, corresponding to that of the noun to which it refers. 
This inflex, however, will differ according as the adjective is 
used, (1) as a Fredicate, (2) as an Epithet 



ADJECTIVES. 61 

143. When an adjective is used as a Predicate, and is, con- 
sequently, separated from its noun by some tense of the sub- 
stantive verb, expressed or implied, (as when we say, the man 
is white), it takes before it merely the personal pronoun 
corresponding to the noun. 

Ex. izulu lihle, libomvu, the sky is fair, it is red. 

iso lako limhlope, limnyania, thine eye it is white, it is black. 
huhle, it is vtrell ; kumnandi, it is pleasant ; kulukuni, it is hard. 
Wmuntu umhlope, this man he is white. 
leWhashi Unejuhane, this horse it is swift. 
v4aka lolwya lu'rnanzi, that mortar is wet. 

144. But note first that, — 

(1) All monosyallabic adjectives, except ze, take mu (orm), 
ma, mi, as the personal pronouns for nouns in umu (um oru),- 
amxL, i/mi ; as also do dala^ kulu, ningi, futshane, ncinyane, as 
well as the indefinite and interrogative adjectives, tile^ ngaJca^ 
ngaJco, nje, ngaJci, ngapi, &c. 

Ex. Wmfazi mude, this woman she is tall. 

le'mizi mikulu, these kraals they are large. 

la^matshe mafutshane, these stones they are short. 

a u muncinyane or a u mncinyane, thou art not small. 

ese'mudala or ese'mdala^ he being now old. 

ngihona umpakati um/ningi, I see a company (of head-men)^ it 

being numerous. 

145. Note, secondly, that, — 

(2) The adjectives dala, Jculu, ningi, futshane, ndmjane^ &c., 
assume also an initial m, ov n after the pronouns, i and zi, cor- 
responding to nouns of Class III, or sometimes of Class lY ; 
and dala and hulu assume an n also after zi of Class VI. 

Ex. le*mvu or le'nto lezi'zirrwu or Uzi'zinto lezi'zitsha 
indala zindala xidala 

inkulu zinkulu zikulu 

inde zinde zide 

vnMe zinhle zihle 

intsha zintsha zitsha 

vnibi zimhi z'iJ)i 

imfutshane zimfutshans zifuishane 

But some will say iziisha zindala, the plates they (are) old, izitsTia 

ezidala, the old plates, izihlupe zayo zinhle or zihle^ its feathers are 

beautiftd. 

146. Note, thirdly, that, — 

(S) After every part of the substantive verb, whether 
exDressed or implied, except when it is employed as a simple 

b2 



52 

copula, as in the examples of (143^, all tlie above adjeciives 
take their own prefixes as above, m addition to any pronoun 
which, may express the substantive verb; whereas other ad- 
jectives take no prefixes. 

Ex. iso Idko lihle, libi, thine eye it is sounds it is evil ; 

bat vma iso lako li UMe, li libi, if thine eye it be sounds it be evil ; 

and vma iso lako li mhZope, li nvn/yama, if thine eye it be white^it be 
black. 

So a/mehlo dko mahle, mahi, thine eyes are sounds are evil. 

but uma amehlo dko e mahle, e rmibi, if thine eyes be sound, be eviL 

and uma amehlo ako emhlope, emm,yam^, if thine eyes be white^ be black. 

Sc» uyakuha mukulu or mhilu, he shall be great ; 

but kwoba nmandi, it will be pleasant. 

- 147. When an adjective is used as an Epithet, and, conse« 
quently, accompanies its noun (as when we say, the white mom)^ 
it is usually placed after it in Zulu, with the noun's inflez 
before it, with which is combined the relative vowel a, 

Ex. umuntu omvibi, for a-um/uhi, a man who he is bad, = a bad man • 
ihashi elinejvhane, a horse which is swift, = a swift horse. 

But, if special stress is laid upon the Adjective in Ehiglish, 
the Zulu adjective may be set before its noun. 

Ex, ungifumhe enkulu inguho, he heaped me up with a large blanket. 
enohuhle intombi leyo ! a beautiful girl that ! 
uMhZangana way'ehlezi neyake vm/pi, uDrngarie eKUzi noZulv,, 
Mhlangana was staying with his own force, Dingane staying 
with (uZulu =) the Zulus. 

ekulu ibojane lowo'muntu ! a g^eat liar is that man ! 
N.B. In the last instance e is used for eli, as also o is often used 
for olu and sometimes for oku before another kj as okulu for oIvJgvJm, 
okona for okukona. 

148. But note, that,-— 

(1) All monosyllabic roots, except ze, take the full forms 
cwAi, ama, end : and so do also the few adjectives referred to 
in (144), except that these latter take om instead of onvu. 

All other adjectives take only o, a, e, instead of omu, omiay 

Ex. umfazi omuhle, a beautiful woman, amadoda amade^ tail men. 
vmiti emidala, old trees. umfana omfutshane, short boy. 

amehlo anzim^, heavy eyes. imilomo ebanzi, wide mouths. 

(2) The above-named adjectives take also the m ov n oi em 
or en, ezim or ezin, when used with nouns in im or in, ieim or 
wm, respectively ; whor eas ail others reject it. 



ADJBCTIYBS. 



63 



Ex. indhUln emhi, a bad way. 

ixintcbba exinJculu, great mountains. 
izilo ezihulu, large wild animals 
izinti eziluhuni, hard sticks. 

The following Table will illustrate the above remarks. 



Noun. 


mhlope. 


kulu. 


bi. 


ze. 


ningi. 


umuntu 


omhlope 


omkulu 


omuhi 


oze 


omningi 


tso 


elimhlope 


elikulu 


elibi 


elize 


eliningi 


into 


emhlope 


enhuhi 


emhi 


eze 


eningi 


isitsTia 


esimhlope 


esihulu 


esibi 


esize 


esiningi 


umuzx 


omhlope 


omJculu 


omuhi 


oze 


omningi 


uti 


olumhlope 


oluhdu 


oliibi 


oluze 


oluningi 


uhuso 


obumhlope 


obukulv, 


ohuhi 


ohuze 


ohuningi 


ukudhla 


okumhlope 


okukulu 


okuhi 


okuze 


okuningi 


ahantu 


abamhlope 


tibakulu 


ahahi 


ahaze 


ahaningi 


amehlo 


amhlope 


amakfalu 


amahi 


aze 


amaningi 


izinto 


ezimhlope 


ezinkulu 


ezimhi 


ezize 


ez%nnvng% 


izitsha 


ezimhlope 


ezikulu 


ezihi 


ezize 


ezin'.ngi 


vmizx 


emhlope 


emikulu 


emibi 


eze 


eminingi 



The following are additional instances of the use of 

adjectives. 

Ex. wmuzi omkulu, a large kraal, iJiashi elihle, a beautiful horse, 
wnsinga omude, a deep pool, izintaha ezinde, lofty mountains. 
inkahi enam^andhla, the strong ox ; isitsha esinamanzi the wet 
basket ; umuti onepunga, the fragrant herb ; uti olunemitshwe, 
the s^ped stick; dantu ahanelanga, people with the sun 
=famished people. 

uhuso ohunam>ahloni, the modest face ; umfana onwmanga, the 
lying boy J abantu abanamalimi, double-tongued (d3ceitful) 
people ; wnadoda anesibindi, bold men ; izindhlela ezinengozi, 
dangerous roads; imizie nomsindo, noisy kraals. 
umuntu onolaka okulu (==olukulu)t the man who is with great 
passion r= the very passionate man. 

149. An adjective, when used with a noun denoting the 
female sex, may take4lie feminine affix Jcazi, 
Ex. inkom^zi emhlopekazi, a large white cow (51). 
ihashikazi elinzimazoma, a small dark mare. 

Diminutive adjectives are formed, like diminutive nouns 
by changing the final vowel into cma or anycma, with change 
of consonants (53), if necessary. 



54 AI>JE0TIYB8. 

N^. The diminutiye of hi is hana or hanyana, of de, danyana. 

Ex. ngifuna isitsha esihanzana, I am looking for a small broad difllk 

ngahona ihashi elijbanyana, I saw a wicked little horse. 

Jm'eza intombi endanyanyana, there came a tallish girl. 

Ic'mvmtu mufutshane, that person is rather short. 

lo'mfana mudanyanyana, that boy is tallish. 
N^ Wmfazi umhlotshana, iiiat woman is rather white (=she Is 

^•.,_ poor, has no oil on her person). 

le'nJcomo ibomvwana or ibonwana, this bullock is a little red one. 

imhana le'ngutshana, indayana (== indalana) futi, nansi is*icitc&' 

Idle, isHgugile, this little blanket is bad^ it is old too ; here ! it 

is now in holes, it is now aged. 
So three brothers will be called, in the order of their age, omhult^ 

omkuywana (== omhulwana), omncinyane (omncane). 

Or the root of the adjective may be repeated. 
Ex. Icufihe umfuqulukazi omhdomlculu, there arrived a huge bale. 
N.B. Hence we have uNhilimkulu, the Great-Great-One, the native 
name for the Deity. 

The idea expressed in English by the termination ish may 
also be denoted in Zulu by the use of nje after the adjective. 
Ex. l€*nto ibomvu nje, imnyama njey inihlope nje, this thing is (just 
red), reddish, blackish, whitish. 

Certain particles are used with particular adjectives to 
denote that the noun has the quality in question in excess. 
Ex. humnyama tile or kumnyama Icace, it is very black. 

humhlope mfe or humhlope twa or humhlope qwa, it is very white. 
kuhomvu xuhu, or kubomvu xele, or Jcuhomvu heje, it is very red. 

150. The Comparative of adjectives is expressed by the use 
of the compound preposition huna, placed after the adjective 
and before the thing compared, as follows. 

Ex. sinoJcwazi hundbo, we have knowledge more than they. 

indoda inamandhla hunomfana, a man is stronger than a boy. 

leliHole liJculu Jcunalelo, this calf is larger than that. 

lo'mfazi mude hunodade todbo, this woman is taller than her 

sister. 

ingubo yoke indala Icuneyami, his coat is older than mine. 

kavumang* uJcv^a hamlandele ahanye hunaldbo, he did not allow 

that there should follow him others (more than) besides those. 

Or Jcu may be used instead of huna, 
Ex. umkulu kunaye or kuyena, thou art greater than he. 

Or the verb dhlula, * pass beyond, surpass, exceed, excel,* 
may be employed, the person or thing compared being put 
after it in the accusative, and the quality, with respect to 



k 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIYES. $$- 

whicli the comparison is made, being put in the locativre, or 
governed by nga, 
Ex. Wmali idhlula osheleni dba'sihlanu, this money exceeds five 

sMlliiigs. 

lo'muntu uyamdhlula lowo ngohuhulu, this person exceeds that 

in size. 

indoda idhlula umfana emandhleni, a man surpasses a boy in 

strength. 

151. The Superlative is expressed by strengthening the 
comparative by an adverbial epithet ( as kdkulu, greatly), or 
by using onke, all, with the noun or pronoun concerned, or 
some other equivalent expression. 

Ex. vmfene inkulu kaJculu Tcunenkau, a baboon is much greater than 

a monkey. 

Wmfana muncinyane huho honl^ahanye, this boy is smaller than 

all the others. 

indhlovu i.ikulu Tcuzo zonke izilo, the elephant is the largest of 

all animals. 



Indefinite Adjectives, 

152. Nyey other, another. 

Ex. ngesinye isikati, at another tune^ once upon a time. 
ezinye izinkomo, other oxeu. 
imizi eminye, other kraals. 
hati omunye hwomunye, they said one to another. 

153. Onke, all, is only used as an epithet, but takes as pre- 
fixes the personal pronouns. Thus we have sonke for si-onJc'e, 
we all, all of us, nonke for ni-nonke, all of you ; and for nouns 
and pronouns of the third person, we have — 

Sing, wonke, lonke, yo7ike, sonke, wonke, Iwonke, or (lonke), honke, 

kwonke (konke). 
Plur. honke, onke, zonke, yonke. 
Ex. wadhlula kuye wonke uZulu, he passed through (him^ all the 

Zulu =) all the Zulus. 

honke Whantu hang'dbafokazana, all these persons are needy 

persojis. 
Also, honkana, zonkana, &c., are used for * all together.' 
Ex. indawana zonkana, all places together. 

154. Every is expressed by yHlowo, yHlelo, &c. 

Ex. y'ilowo ulinde okwake ukuba angafi, every one looks after his 
own^ that he may not die. 



•'SB IKDEFIKITB ADJEOTIYES. 

155. Edwa or odwa, alone, only, takes also the personal 
(pronouns as prefixes, as follows : — 

ngedwa, I only ; wedwa, thou only ; sodwa, we only $ nodwi, J8 

only ; and for the third person^ — 
Sing, yedwa, lodwa, yodwa, sodwa, wodwa, lodwa, hodwa, Jcodwa* 
Plnr. hodwa, odwa, zodwa, yodwa. 
Ex. ung'uNkulimhilu wedwa, thou art God^ thon alone. 

udumo ItoaJco lodwa, thy glory^ it alone. 

Tlie following plirases may be noticed. 
JSx. hodwa loJcu, so much as this^ the least bit. 

isitunzi sodwa lest, the least bit of shadow. 

isiboho sendawo sodwa lesi, the least bit of room. 

indawo kodwa handhla, (I want) a place only^ good folk I 

don't want food^ &c. 

kuJcodwa, hungavangwe na'hito, that (is alone=) stands by 

itself, not mixed with anything. 

aJcwasala nelilodwa ibuto ezweni lonke, there did not remain a 

single soldier in the whole land. 

impi yafumana izinkomo zimi zodwa, the impi (army, commando) 

found the cattle (standing alone =) unprotected. 

ausilo uhlobo IwaHti, uhloho Iwakini lulodwa, that is not onr 

kind (of cattle^ &o,,) your kind (is alone =) stands by itself^ 

is quite peculiar. 

hafinyezwa y ilipi izwi ? hafinyela nje hodwa, they were made to 

discontinue by what word ? they discontinued (it) just of them- 
selves = of their own accord. 

156. Tile or Tize, certain, as in tbe phrase, * certain man.' 
Ex. ecela into etile Jcuye, he asking a certain thing of him. 

ahantu ahatile, ahapuma Jciti, certain men^ who went out from us. 

167. Ntasike, nansika^ ntokanji, nadinga, nasinga = let me 
see, or wbat do yon call bim, it, &c., when a person is trying 
i;o remember the name. 

Ex. hw'enziwa — untasihe — uSicongwana, it was done by — ^what do yon 

call him ? — Sicongwana. 

kwafika ontasike — oMazimu, there came — ^let us see, who were 

they ? — Mazimu and his party. 

wafika epete intadke — epete isaka, he came carrying — ^what is it 

called — carrying a sack. 

inkomo zazintasike — zazi Vishwmi, the cattle were — ^how many 

was it ? — they were ten. 

158. Ngdka so great (as this) ; ngaho, so great (as that) ; 

nje, such (as this) ; njalo, snch (as that) ; ngcmga^ so great as. 
Ex. ihashi elingaka, a horse of this size. 
ihashi elingako, a horse of that size. 



INDEFINITE ADJBCTIYBS. 67" 

wnntwana onje, a child such as this. 
amaxa wnjalo, such waves. 
ungangawe, he is as great as thou. 

169. N% who or what, may be used as an adjective. 
£z. wmwatu muni Zona na 9 what man is this ? 

mkomo'ni le na 9 what ox is this P 

ihashi Uni Uli na 9 elenduna, elensikazif what horse is this P a. 

stallion^ a mare. 

amatsTie mani lawaya ? what rocks are those over there P 

imiti mini eyaJco ? what trees are thine P 

os'ajsi uma lo'kufa ukufa Jeimi, we don't know (if this sickness ia^ 

what sickness =) what sickness this is. 

xHga 8vni es*ehle hini na ? innja ikwelepesm hwendhlu, what omen 

(is that) which has lighted on you P a dog has mounted on the 

nut. 

160. In the following instances the prefix i appears to be 
the inflex i taken by m, like other pronouns (111, 129, N.B). 

Ex. ni y'ini na P what are ye P 

y'ini lohu ahwenzileyo 9 what is this which he has done P 
y'ini na ? Jcwenze njani na, mtanami 9 what is it P (it has done 
how =) what has happened^ my child ? 

161. The force of y*ini may often be expressed in English 

"by tbe words, * or not.' 

Ex. ngilinda umfo wetu, y'ini na9 do I watch my brother or not P 
utanda uhuha sigoduJce, si/ye Jdti, y'ini na 9 do you wish that we 
go home^ that we go to our kraal or not P 

162. In the following instances the verb is in the ohjectwe 
form (ending in ela, perf. eZe), and, when followed by m, will 
bave its force expressed in English by * what for/ or * why.' 

Ex. uldbele-ni (or uzele-ni) lajpa na 9 what art thou come for here P 
umhulalele-ni na9 he has killed him for what P 
y'ini na 9 nibalekela-ni na 9 what is it P what do you run away 
for? 

ung* enzela-ni njalo na 9 what dost thou do to me thus for P 
ang'azi uma asatshele-ni 9 I. don't know if he still (T)umsfor 
what =) cares for anything. 

163. Ni may be used also as a nonn. 

Ex. niti-ni na 9 what do you say P ufuna-ni na 9 what dost thou 
seekp 
kati-ni, he (does not say what =) says nothing. 
utsho ngani na 9 for what (= why) do you say it. 
wazi ngani na ? by what (= how) do you know it P 
ang'azi ngiyakuha nani na, I do not know what I shall be with» 
= what is going to happen to me. 



^00 INDEFINITE ADJECTIYIS. 

ang'azi uma hwenze-ni, I don't know what did it. 
inkosi ingincitshile namhlanje; ang*azi uJcvha ngina'sisila sani, the 
chief has stinted me to-day — I don't know (that I have what 
offence) what offence I have. 

uze ngani na ? (= uzele-ni na ? or uhahele-ni na ?) ngize ngenddba, 
what hast thou come for? I have come about a business. 
ufike ngani na ? ngifike ngezinnyawo, by what means didst thou 
arrive ? I arrived (by my feet) walking. 

akuyilcuha nani, it will not be with what, = it will be of no con- 
sequence, or it will be of no avail. • 

ngisweVumuntu. wani na ? wokwalusa izinkomo, I want a man. 
For what ? For herding cattle. 

164. Njani, vrliat sort of, how. 

Ex. ihashi elinjani na ? elibomvu, what sort of a horse ? a bay. 

kunjani namhlanje? ai-ke,nko8i; akunjani manjct how is it to- 
day ? no, sir ; it is not of what sort to-day,. = it is neither one 
thing nor the other, neither better nor worse. 
unjani lo'muntu na ? uyakanyOy what sort of a man is that ? he 
has a bright face (not very black). 

165. Ngakanani, how great, = ngaha nani, so great witli 
•what ? 

Ex. uianda uti olungakanani na ? olungaka, how large a rod dost 
thou wish for ? so large as this. 

sokuyHsikati esingakanani uhlezi lapa na ? it is now how long a 
time that thou art staying here ? 

166. Ngak% how many (=ngapi, about where). 

Ex. mangaki amahashi ? matatu, the horses (are) how many ? three, 
ingaki le*mali na ? y*ine, how many (pieces) is this money ? it 
is four. 

The following idiom is noticeable. 

laJ)o*bantu ohatshoyo dbahangaki, hayHnncozana nje, those people 
of whom thou speakest (are not how many ? =) are not 
worth counting, they are ,-just a few. 

amazwi ale k%mangak% ; uhle wati fahlafahla, wayeka nje, his 
words (were) not many, he said a word or two (and) just left it. 

167. Uhani, plur. ohani, who. 

Ex. uhani lo, who is this person ? ohani laha, who are these ? 
uhani igama lako na, who art thou, thy name ? 
elika*hani leWhasJii, who^e is this horse ? 
uhani ow'emuka way a le, who (was it) departed (and) went away P 

168. TTbani is nsed for ' what d'ye call him ?' 

Ex. izinkomo zika'hani zafela lapaya, the ^cattle of — ^what d'ye call 
him ? — died over there. 

uhahize honke, uNgoza, noMfulafplwa, nohani, nohani, call them 
jbll, Ngoza, and Mulatelwn, ' - "nd so, and so and so. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIYBS. 59 

Uhuti is ased in the s<*me way for * sucli and such a thmg,* 
Ex. wati hambani niye ensimini, n'enze ukuti nokuti nokuti, he Baid» 
go ye into the garden, and do so and so^ and so and so. 

169. Pi, where. 

Ex. upi umuntu na, or vp'umuntu na, where is the man ? 
lipi ihashi na, where is the horse ? 

angibonanga ngibe ngisahlangana nani-pi, I never met with you 
anywhere. 

§ungquza uhone uma hawaheke-pi umutsha wami na ? search (andj 
see where they have put it, my umutsha. 

hizani uVimhi, nihuze kuyena, uma ucabangela-pi yena, call Vimbi, 
ask of him what he thinks. 

ang'azi uma ugculele kupi na, I don't know for what he is stand- 
ing still. 

170. Pi is also used with the possessive particles. 

Ex. uswele umuntu wapi na ? wakulipi izwe na ? was'emSunduze, thou 
wantest aman of where — from what country ? of theUmsunduzo. 

171. Pi is also used to express * which is it ? ' of two or 
more persons or things, in one of the following forms, accord- 
ing to the class of noun referred to : — 

Sing, umupi, yHlipi, iy*ipi, y*isipi, umupi, y'ilupi, y'hupi, y'ikupi. 

Plur. y'ihapi, amapi, y'izipi, imipi, 

Ex. yikupi okuhle kunokuhi, which is better than the bad?= wliich 

is best of the two. 

wati nilipi ? hati s'uSutu, he said, ye are (of) what (land, izwe) ? 

they said, we are XJsutu. 

umupi umuntu oh'umutsho ? Kahle ! uyauvela, us*etshone lapa, 

which is the man you were speaking of? Softly (stop a 

minute^ ! he will (come out) appear ; he is now gone down (out 

of sight) there. 

y'ilipi ihashi okuluma ngalo na ? yHlelo elisunjivana, which is 

the horse you are speaking of? it is that light bay. 

iy*ipi indhlela esizakuhamha ngayo kulezi zombili na ? which path 

are we to go on of these two ? 

y'isipi isalukazi ositshoyo, oti-kesiyateta ? yHlesiya esi'zinyo linye^ 
which is the old woman of whom you speak, of whom yon 

say (that) she scolds ? it (is) that one there, who haf one tooth 

umupi lo'muzi na ? owas*Esokeni, which kraal is that ? Esokeni. 

yHlupi ukezo oti Iwapukile ? y'ilolo Iwami olWmhaxana, wliicli 

calabash-dipper do you say is broken ? that of mine which 

is the little imbaxa (name of a kind of spoon). 

uhupi utshwala bombondo ? y'ilobuya ; obakiti lobu, which is tho 

utshwala of the bride's party ? that there ; ours is this. 

y'ikupi okwami? y'iloku; okwomlobokazi y*ilokuya, which is 

mine? this; the bride's is there. 



60 mUMWIXTSM ADJEOTinS. 

y^ib<^pi dbaniu hat^ebvhweni hako ? ahako lapd ; hcmgat^enhla la» 
paya hwetu, which are thy people of the bride's house ? the/ 
are not here ; they are above there at our kr&al. 
awapi la'mcutegwana f aHw'aasi ; avela ngalapa ngas'en zansi, ayajn&» 
hvla hu* Sidhlcmhtmn, who are these oldish men P we do not 
know them; they come from down there; they are going 
to consult SidhlanTmnzi (name of an isanusi, wizard). 
y'izvpileei? Um^a&ayena« which are these (t2inX;omo^? ITmgaba- 
yena (the oxen being called by the name of the kraaJ to which 
they belong). 

imipi'miti etshatMioeyo I na/nsi \ yona le I %8*ibwnile, which are the 
trees which were planted? there! these same! they are 
already withered. 

Afl the ohject of the verb, in the same sense, nvupij lipi^ vpi^ 

&c.. Are used. 
Ex. utanda sipi na, which (ititsha, plate^ do you like ? 

uketa Hpi na, which do yon choose ? (= ziketele, choose for 
yourself). 



CHAPTER X. 



VXTMERAL ADJEGTITES. 



172. The Zulns connt with their fingers, beginning with 
the little finger of one (generally the leji) hand, and stretching 
out each finger that is connted, leaving the nnconnted ones 
closed. Then the fingers of the other haz:d are connted in 
tiie same way, beginning with the thumb ; and it matters not 
whether the fingers of the first hand are now kept open or not. 
When the number ishumiy ten, is completed, the two palms are 
clapped together, and the counting proceeds again, as before. 

Thus^ if a native wished to mention the number 87^ he might clap 
his hands three times « and hold up the liUU and, next two fingers of the- 
left hand, saying a'matatu (that is, ' they are three/ viz., tens, ama' 
ikumi,) and then the thumb ani. fore-finger of the right-hBH^ (which 
indicates ' seven.') 

Hence 6 is called mtupa, the thumb. 

7 — isikomhisa, the pointing-finger (fore-finger), or 

inkota, 

8 — shiya'ngaWmbili (contr. for ehvya izingalo {vibe) 

zinhili, leave out fingers (that they be) two. 

9 — shiya'galo'lunye (contr. for shiya ugalo (Zttfte) hinye 

leave out a finger (that it be) one. 

Or, instead of the above, many natives will use for Sand 9 toheminwe 
*mbili (tohaminwembUi), lower tivo fingers, ^obemuntuemun^e, lower one 
finger. 

N.B. Notice that (bili like hi) prefiezs m after % and zi (when it 
stands for izim or izvn), and that tatu and hlawu (like kulu) prefix u 
under similar circumstances. 

The same takes place also after na, and the verb ha. 

Also HU, tatu, and hlanu, may follow, or not, the rule in (146). 



€2 



NVMEBICAL ADJECTIVES. 



173. Table of Cardinal Numbers, 




I 

2 

8 

4 

b 

6 

? 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
16 
19 

10 
21 

30 
SI 

60 

80 

99 

100 
101 
137 

189 

185 

iOO 
665 

1,000 
1.86S 

2,000 

10.000 
100 000 



••• 
••• 
••• 



••• 
••• 

••• 
••• 



••• 



nye ... 
biU ... 

tata ... 

06 ... 

hiaDU .. 

'ritapa or inkota .m m. 

isikumbiaa ... ... »• 

•hiyangalombili ... m. 

Bhiyag[alolauye ... ,- 

isbnmi ... ... ... 

ishami-Danye or ishnmi Uoanye 
iBhami-nambili or ifhumi HnambCtt 
iBbnmi-naDtata or ishomi Unantata 
isbnmi-nesitapa or ishaini linentapa 
ishnmi-nasbiyagBloliiBye ... 

amasbnmi'mabili .^ .m 

ama»hami'mabili oanye or amuiye 

amasbiimi'matata .^ ... 

amashami'matata nanye or anaxtye 

amaahomi ay'isitopa 

amashmni ashiyangalombUi 

amashami ashiyagalolimye xuudiiyagalo^ 
iimye or anaahiyagalcdimye 
iKmn ... ... ... M« ... 

iknla nanye or linanye... 

ikoln (li) namashiuni'matafca nenkota ... 

iknla (li) namashnmi ay'isitapa aaahija- 
o^Iolnoye 

ikaln (li) namashnmi ashiyangalombili 
aesihlann 

amakala'mabili ... ... 

bmHknla'mahlana namashami'mahlann 
aanblaan 

inknlongwano ... ... m. ... 

inkalnncrwane natnakala ashiyangalom- 
bili namashomi'mahlaan nashiyangal 
omblli 

izinkoloogwane ezimWH ... 

ir8u8 ... ... ... .M .. 

iaifridi ... ... ... ... 



into inye 
izinto zimbili 
zintata 
sine 

Kinhlann 
ziisitnpa 
xiisikombtsa 
EiBhiyangalombili 
ziphiyagalolanye 
ziishami or zil iahnmi 
siishnmi-nanye 
ziiohnmi'Sambili 
ziiebami-nantata 
xiisbami-nesitnpa 
ziisbnmi- na8him(*lo- 

lonye 
ci'mashomi'mabOi 
zi'mashoxni'mabili 

nanye 
si'ma^nmi'mnata 
sn'masbomi'matato. 

nanye 
si'nushami ay'isitapa 

si'mashnml aflhiyan- 

galombili 
Bi'maehmni, ftc. 

siiknln or sil'ikatai 
sil'iknln nanye 
sirikaia,Ae. 

siriknla,Ae. 

Ba*ikaIo,Ae. 

si'maknln'mabili 
zi'maknla, Ac., 

siinknhinfrwane 
ziinkalongwane, te. 



siizinknlangwane eKi< 

mbiU 
sutsbe or sil'itahe 
Btidiridi 



174. The word nye, when used, whether as predicate or 
epithet, numerically ^ in the sense of ' one,' always takes its 
prefixes as a predicate (T.44), as munye, linye, inye, Ac. ; whereas, 
when used disirihutively^ in the sense of * other ' or * another,' it 




NTTHEBICAIi ASJECTIVSS. C8 

takes its prefixes as an epiihetj as omAjmyey elinye^ <fec. The 
other numerals follow the rule of other adjectives. 

Ex. was'efika uGilo eUtshaya elin/yeiBunu, was'ejlka uMtweni elihl^iba 

ngomkonto elinye, now came Gilo striking one Boer, now came 

Mtweni stabbing with an assegai another. 

Jcwakukona elinye ihuto lUuCDingane, there was there one (= a 

certain) regiment of Dingane. 

175. In the following the reference is \o present time. 
£x. munye uNkulunkulu, God is one. 

hinye okwami, okvjako hvihiU, ohwake Jcutaiu, mine is one> jours 

is two, his is three. 

inye eyako inkomo^ ezami zimhUi, one ox is yours, mine are two. 

linye eland ihashi, awako mdbiU, one horse is miue^ yours are two. 

isitsha sinye silapa, one plate is here. 

uti Imvye engi^ke nolo, it is one stick that I have come with. 

176. In the following instances .the reference is to past 
time, all of them being different ways of expressing the 
same English words, * There arrived one man.' 

£x. kwafika umuniu emunye, there arrived a maa he being one. 
umuntu munye owafikayo, (it was) one man who arrived. 
munye umuntu owajikayo, (it is) one man who arrived. 
In the above, the time referred to may be any past time, near or 
distant, the verb being in the Aorist, or Indefinite Past Tense ; and 
the substantive verb is either not expressed at aM, or indicated by the 
participial pronoun e. 

But the substantive verb might also be expressed in the Aorist, or 
indicated by its pronoim, as follows. 

Ex. kwafika umuntu waha iwanye, or wa mvm,ye, 

wangipa izi/nkomo ezme (or zaha zinc, or za zine or zaha ne, or 
za ne), he gave me four beasts. 

haleta am>ahashiaishum4,, (aVishum^, or ahaVishumi), they brought 
ten horses. 

wangipa kv^sasa izinti za'mashv/mi'm^dbUi, he gave me this mom- 
ing twenty rods. 
N.B. When the substantive verb is either expressed, or indicated, 
Attention is drawn more distinctly to the numher in question. 

K, however, it be desired distinctly to express in the above 
instances, a recently-past time, the Perfect Tense would be used. 
Ex. kufihe umuntu emunye, or mv/nye v/mwrUu ofikileyo. 
ungipeizinkomo ezine, or za zine. 

ngibone kule*ndawo imizi e isitupa, I saw in this place six kraals. 
ungipe kusasa izinti zangaki na ? bezi'mashumi'm^ihiliy or 
za'm£Lshumi'm>ahili, how many rods didst thou give me thit 
morning ? they were twenty. 



64 KUMEBIOAIi ADJECTIYB8. 

177. When reference is mside io future time (future eitlier 
in fact or in the sequence of thought), the subjunctive mood 
of the substantive verb, 6a, will be used- 
Ex. tuma umuntu ahe munye, send a man (so tiiat) he be one^ = send 

one man. 

nffipe inkomo ibe'nye, give me one beast. 

ngiydkukupa isinkwa sibe ai/n/ye, I will give thee one loaf, 

ngipe uhe munye umkonto, give me one assagai. 

libone imizi emingahi na ? ib'% isiiupa, ngitsho, how many kraals 

did yon see ? they were six, I (should) say. 

ngipe zi^e'mashumi'mabili izinkomo, give me twenty beasts. 

akube lo atate kube isitupa, ahjU>0 lo atate kube isitupa, let this one 

take six, let this one take six. 

akvibe yHlowo atate kube iiitupa, let each take six. * 

178. Expressions like the following^ are often met with. 
Ex. wabona nga*80, linye, he saw with one eye, instead of n^eso laba 

linye ; 
80 nga'lunyawo, lurvye, nga^sandhla, siwye, nga^ndhlebe'nye, with one 
foot, hand, ear, &c. 
ngd'ndhlebe*mbil%, nga*nnyaw o'ntatu, with two ears, three feet 

179. The following are illustrations of the use of these 
numerals in one or other of the above constructions, with 
difEerent pronouns. 

K.B. For the forms assumed by the verb, reference must be made 
to the chapter on the tenses of verbs. 

The numerals hili and fatu follow the law in (146). 

Ex. wadhlula e munye, wati, he passed by alone, he went off (in 

that direction, shown by pointing). 

i inye inkabi, ingaiiwala le'mipanda na f the ox being only 

one, CHU it carry these earthen-pots ? 

li linye ihashi, kungakwela abantu cubabili, the horse, being one, 

it can cam/ two persons, or there can ride two persons (kwela 

being used with both meanings). 

si sinye isilo, singaziqeda izinkomo ezi/mbili, one single leopard 

c&n make an end of two oxen. 

u munye umuzi, ung*aka lapa, it being one kraal only it can 

build (be settled) here. 

u munye umuzi ka'Mpande, kungahlanganiswa imizi ka'Ngoza ibe 

mine, ipele-ke lowo*muz% munye ka' Mpande, a kraal of Mpande 

being one only, there might be collected kraals of Ngoza (so 

as that) they be four, (in order that) they make up, forsooth, 

that one kraal of Mpande. 

lu lunye nje uti, lungefike lapaya, (a rod being one only = one 

fiinsrle rod cannot reach there. 



NUMSBIGAJi ADJSOTIYXS. 65 

■hu humye ubuauhu, angafika umunttt, the niglit being one oxjXj, a 
man could arrive^ = he could arrive in one night. 
leu hvmye nje, hunge^nze'luto : kungcbkuhle ku hutatu, hu hv/me, it 
being single merely, it cannot do anything j it would be well, 
it (being) three, it (being) four. 

ngambona ehaleka nolo (uti) izolo ; helu Itmye Una, I saw him 
Timning off with it (the rod) yesterday: it was just (Una) 
one only. 

nb'e munye engvmbonUeyo husasa, he was one only, whom I saw 
this morning. 

heU linye ihashi engilibonileyo, Umuka Uti liheka ngas*Emgeni hur 
iangi, it was one horse which I saw, making off towards the 
XJmgeni, the day before yesterday. 
uflke wamunye izolo, he arrived aU alone yesterday. 
ngilibone laha linye (or la linye) ihaahi kusa^a, or ngU)one linye 
ihashi kusasa, I saw one horse this morning. 
kwajika 'omuzi'munye (wa mwn/ye, or waha miunye), thete came 
one kraal. 

umupe ya'nye (or yaha'nye) inkomo kutangi, he gave him the 
day before yesterday one beast. 

ungipe umhonto izolo wamunye, he gave him one assagai yesterday. 
wdb'emunye umuntu, owavela ku'Mpande, it was one man who 
came from Mpande. 

lali linye ihashi lake, uma esahlala Emsunduze ; kodwa ang'axi 
tnanje, uma m^ngaH na, his horse was one only, when he was 
still living at the XJmsunduze ; but I do not know now (if they 
are how many) how many there are. 
xvaleta ihashi lalinye, he brought one horse only. 
yai inye inkomo afika nayo evela EttwoH, it was one single ox 
that he (arrived with) brought, coming from the XJmvoti. 
<ikwane'anga isilulu sisinye; kusweleke esinye, it did not suffice, 
the mealie-basket, being single ; there needed another. 
waumunye umuti wokwenza amatunga, there was only one plant 
(fit) for making wicker-baskets. 

livaJba lunye uti engaluhonayo, it was only one rod which I saw. 
haha hunye uhuzimha there was only one hunting-party. 
JcwaJcu kunye nokwami okwako uku'ntoko, your thing 'was to- 
gether with mine, [where uku'ntoko is a child*s word, thus 
ulcu'ntoko hwami loku, this is my plaything.] 
xv'eza waha munye (or wa munye) evela ku' Mpande, he came alone 
from Mpande. 

mina hengiswele izinkomo ezintatu : kepa yena waleta'nkomo'nye 
(or inkomo ya*nye, or inkomo yaha'nye), I had wanted three 
beasts : but he brought one beast only. 
ng'ezwa lalinye izwi lake, I heard his one word. 
ham,upa ya'nye inkomo^ they gave him one beast. 
wafika naso sasinye (or saha sinye) isilulu, he (came with) 
brought one mealie-basket. 



66 HTTMSBIOAL ADIBOTIYIS. 

wangipa Iwalvnye uH, or uM Hwaba Uun/ffe, he gave me one rod* 
leia amahashi ahe isitupa, bring six horses. 
vjangipa kusaaa izinii za*m€uhwn%*mabili, he gave me this morn- 
ing twenty rods. 

ungipe husasa izinti zangaJn na P hesi'maslmmi'mahiU (or xa'fiut* 
shvmn'mcbbili), how many rods didst thou give me this morning ? 
they were twenty. 

izulu Vomisa iminyaha yaza ya'mitatu, (the heaven parched) 
there was a drought for years, they came they (were) three 
= till three years had passed 

hwdbvlawa umdhlwnkulu wambiU, there were killed two girls of 
the royal kraal. 

ngamupa umqeku wa'mashvmi'mane, I gave him forty head of 
young cattle. 

8ahlang(irmnahelwnguhe^hah%U nezinJcdbi zintatu (= eizintatu),'we 
met with two white men and three oxen. 

sazihlaha ezine sashvya'ntatu (= ezintatu), we killed four, we 
left three. 

180. Both two, all three, &c^ are expressed as follows. 
Ex. dbantu hohahiU, hohatatu, hohane, bobahlanu, &c. 

amazwi omahili, omatatu, omcme, omahlanu, &c. 
izimvu zombili, zontatu, zone,, zonhlanu, &o. 
imiti yomhili, yontatu, yomine, yomihlanu, &c. 
So also tina sobahili sobatatu, &c,, ye two, three, &c. 
nina nobabili, nobataiu, &c., we two, three, &c. 
Beyond five the natives do not carry the above forms, but point 
with their fingers, and say, abarUu bobatile, amazwi omatile, winvuu 
zontile, imiti yomitiU, so many people, words, sheep, trees. In fact> 
they generally count with their fingers while speaking, without 
mentioning the number. 

Ex. amashumi aselapa, the ten are just here= so many shown on 
the fingers. 

One hy one, two and two, three and three, &c., is expressed 
by ngahanye, ngahahili, ngahatatu, &c. 
Ex. babulawa ngabanye, they were killed one by one. 

imbuzikazi yami izala ngamabili amazinyane, my she-goat brings 
forth its young by pairs. 

Two or three (persons) is expressed by hahili hatatu. 
]^x. uma huhlangene babili batatu, if there be gathered two or three. 

181. To express Ordvnal Numhers tmder * tenth ' the roots 
in (173) prefix isi, and so become nonns, which are put in a 
state of possessive construction after the noun to which they 
refer. The word ukuqala, beginning, is, however, used as the 
noun corresponding to the numeral nye. 



inriiiBioAii ADJBOTinB. 67 

Ex. ahanhi holcuqala, the first people* 
into yesibUi, the second thing. 
isiqamu sesitatu, the third piece. 
igama lesishiyangalombili, the eighth name. 

Second, third, fourth, and fifth, may also be expressed by 

means of the nouns ubuhUi, ubutatu, <feo., instead of isibili^ 

isitakb, <&c., only that, after fifths ubtUile will be used in this 

form of expression, and the number shown npon the fingers. 

Ex. vfikomo yohubile, igama lolmta^, into yobv/ne, iainqamu sohuhlam/u, 

uti hvohutile. 

uyahufika ngolohime usuku, he will arrive on the fourth day (of 

the week) = Thursday. 

hafikan0olwesibi% thej came on the second day (day of the 

week) = Tuesday. 
Also we may hear ngoloJnuh4y<MigalornhiU (u8uJcu) on the eighth 
(day) ; and some will say inhomo yentupa, sixth bullock, uti Iwentupa, 
sixth rod. 

N.B. The Natives generally, have acquired the habit of calling 
Monday i^e first day of the week, Tue§d4iy the second, &c. ; so that, u 
the expression were used ngosuha lobutatu,, on the third ds^, a native 
would probably understand by it Wedmsda/y, unless advised bef ore« 
hand upon the subject. This is to be regretted, inasmuch as, so far 
as it goes it destroys altogether the idea of the Sunday, as the 
fy'st day of the week, distinguished from the Jewish Sabbath, or 
seventh day. 

182. For ' tenth,' and upwards, the simple cardinal is nsed^ 
in a state of construction after the noun to which it ref en, 
with the aid of the noun wrwwvo, * that which comes siieTf' 
(the word weshumi being generally omitted in 11th, 12th, Ac.) 
10th weshumi, leshwni, yeshwmi, &c, 
11th womuvo (weshumi), lomuvo, &c. 
12th womuvo wohubiti, lomuvo (wobubiU) wesilnU, Scc» 
13th womuvo wobutaiu, lomuvo wobutaiu, &c. 
16th womuvo wesitupa, lomuvo wesitupa, kc, 
19th womuvo wesishiya^alolunye (wohushigalohmye), Ac 
20th weshumi lohubUi, le»humi lohuhili, Slc, 
2lBt womuvo wamashumi'maJbfiiU, kc 
100th wekulu, Ukuim, yekulu, Ac, 
1000th wenkuimmgwame, lenkuUmgwame, penkulungwane, &c. 
Ex. ieinhdwufwawe etWikvlu elinamashumffmane anane, thomaadf 
which are a Inmdred and forty and four = Ii4/Xi0. 
ismkuUngwime emVikuUs eUmaimashmmi'mane tume, tiiooMiidi 
whidi are a hmidred and forty and four, = Wj/^A. 
ixiMkmluugwame eti^ikmlm namashm mffmane name, thousmds 
which aie * hmidmi and forty and fcmr^ lUi(/^4. 

w2 



Af»TfB*«' 



OHAPTJSa Xf. 

ADVEESa. 

183. Kumeral Adverbs for onoe^ iwice^ thrice^ fte^ ac3 

formed by prefixing ha to the cardinal roots in C\?H^, 
Ex. Icanye kcMLi, katatu, hane, &c., Jcaishwmi, &«. 

In speaking of past time, the following forms may be nsed 
with numerals, where hwa is the pronoun, which is used with 
the substantive verb (ha understood) in the past tense. 

Ex. Tcwa kunyCy kwa kvibUi, kwa kutatu, kwa kwne, hwa hukkmu, kwa 
isitupa, kwa vnkota, &c., kwa ishwmA. 
kwa ishumi-TMalUyagalohinye, it was nineteen times. 
kwa ikulu, kwa inkulwngwane, it was a hundred times, n 
thousand times. 

184. Many other adjectives are converted into adverbs by 
prefixing ka, while some few prefix ku, and others ka or ku, 

Ex. kakulu, greatly ; kaningi, abundantly ; kufupi, near ; kvde, far off. 

kahle or kvhU, pleasantly, prettily, well ; kcubi or hibi, evilly, ill. 

kangaka, so greatly (as this) ; kangako, so greatly (as that). 

kangapi or kangaki, how many times, how often. 

kangakanani, how greatly, how much. 
K.B. kangaka or kangakanana is used, (not to ask a question, but to 
expresss admiration), for 'how greatly.' 

Ex. igamo lako Udumile kangaka (or kangakanana) emhlaheni wonke / 

thy name is how glorious in all the world ! 

185. Any noun may be used adverbially by prefixing the 

preposition nga, 

Ex. ngokuhlakanipa, prudently ; ngokvZunga, righteously. 
ngokwenanva. contentedly ; ngamandhla, mightily. 
ngomusa, graciously ; ngokujabula, joyfully ; ngesiminya, truly. 

In like manner, nouns, adjectives, and verbs in the parti- 
cipal form, may be used adverbially with the preposition nga^ 
and the indefinite relative prefixed, as follows. 
Ex. ngohuy'iziminya by that which is truth, -= truly. 
ngohntsha, newly, ngokungalo, in such a manner. 
ngokwssahekayo na ng'o&itwan-graJisai/o, fearfully and wonderfully. 



ADYSSBS. C9 

186.. A^Jverhs of Urns, 

namhla or namuhla, to-day ; fUMihlamQe, this very day* 

izolo, yesterday. 

itangi or hutangi, day before yesterday. 

iicmgi hwa-itomgi day before the day before yesterday. 

itangi Jcwa^tain^i hworiiaTigi, fourth, day backward. 
After this^ if a native wished to reckon still further back, he might 
repeat the last expression, and add ngaU, nffdli kvoangali, perhaps also 
counting these additional days on his fingers. 

nqomuso or ngoimo, to-morrow ==^nga vmso, 

ngomhVormmye, day after to-morrow, = ngomhla omunye. 

ngomhVomimye hwangornhl'onwMye, third day forward. 

ngomhVomunye Jnbam^omhT'omv/nye kwangomhVomunyef on the 

fourth day forward. 
Ex. wnsebenzi wanamvhla, work of torday. 

<em laizolo, word of yesterday. 

vJeudhla hwangomuso, food of to-morrow. 

tmivubi waitanffi, heavy rain of the'day before yesterday. 
So we have nont/aka, this year ; nyakenye, last year or next year $ 
m/gakomunye, year before last, or year after next; nydhomunye 
hwanydkomunye, third year backwards or forwards. 

187. When reckoning, a native might make use of the 
expression, (usulcu) oiwesibili, olwesitatu, olwesine, &c., or 
better, olohiihili, olohutatu, olohune, &c., for second, tbird, 
fourth, &c., day. 

Ex. ngapuma — ohvohune namhlarje, I started — (it is) the fourth day 
to day, = I started four days ago, or the same might be expressed by 
ngapuma — yHlolu namhlanje, I started, it is this (shown by the fingers) 
to-day. 

N.B. The plural of usulcu day is izinsuhu or amasuhu, e.g. amasuku 
■amane, four days, ngamasuku onke, for all days, ngezinsuku (ngensvJcu) 
aonke, for all time. 

In translating, usuku is generally to be preferred for ' day.' But 
v/m/uMa or ilanga va.d.j also be used for 'day' in the ordinary sense 
of the word, — not, of course, distinctly marking off twenty-four 
hours, but rather the interval of daylight between one night and 
another. 

188. The following adverbial and other expressions for 
•difEerent, parts of the day are noticeable. 

(i) isi jingo, darkness, immediately before the dawn. 
ngovivi, at dawn. 

Mima ku*mpondo za'nkomo, when there are horns (izimpondoi) of 
oxen (izinkomo),= when the horns of cattle are just visible. 
Ayennxxli ybmitini, (time of otters =) when otters suckle their 
young. 



70 

husati nwi, it ip still breaking (the pe^ of day)* 

Jcusati juqu, at break of day. 

sohute juqu, the day has now broken. 

elcvseni kakulu, very early in the monuiig. 

ukuwehla kwezinkuku, coming at the down of chicken* 

ukwpuma lewelanga, (coming forth rf son =) sunrise. 

ekuseni, in the morning. 

husoBa {= hu sa sa, it is still dawmng)^ early in the mozning* 

this morning, 
(ii) immini, noon-tide, loo. emmini, 

ikweVimmini, it is fore-noon. 

is'emmini manje, it is now noon. 

limi {ilanga) lite nqo, it (the snn) stands verticaL 

lis'okakayinit it is on the top of the head. 

is'emmini yantamhama, it is (noon of evening) afternoon, 
(iii) ntamhama, even-tide. 

li'bantu*hahle, it (ilanga) is (when) people (look) pretty,*- time 

shortly before sunset. 

ukutshona kwelanga, sunset. 

kusihlwa, gloaming, this evening ; kusihlwana, (there being a 

little evening =) towards evening. 

selitshonile, it (the sun) has now set. 

sokuhlwile, it is now after sunset. 

sokusweleUt it is now dusk, 
(iv) vibv^uku, night, loc. ehusuku. 

ehusuku or pakati kwohusuku, in the course of the night. 

pakati kwohusuku obukulu, or kwesika*had/ikazi, deep night. 
N.B. kusasa, kusihlwa, ngomuso, &c., are used as nouns, with the* 

prefix i after the substantive particle y*. 
Ex. sohay*ikusasa, it is now morning. 

kwasokuyHkusihlwa, it was by this time gloaming. 
And so with possessive articles. 
Ex. uknidMa kwakuftasa, kwantambama, hwem/imni, the moriiing^ 

afternoon, midday, meal. 

189. Certain adverbs of place take ifcwa- before the nonz^ 
wbich follows them. This hwa is not iihe preposition, but the 
Indefinite Possessive Particle ; and before Proper Names it is- 
accordingly replaced by huka, 

Ex. ngapetsheya kwoTugela, on the other side of the Tugela. 

pambi kuka*Mpande, beside Mpande 

ngapamhili kuka'Cetshwayo, before Cetshwayo. 

nganeno kwomGeni, on this side of the TJmgeni. 

opezu kwako konke, he who is above all. 

enzansi nomHlatuze, south of the TTmhlatuze. 

ningapumi ngapakati kwendhlu, don't you go out from within. 

the hut. 



u 

wahisusa uhidhla ngaptMM hwcJbo, he removed the food teeia 

before them. 

ngalapaya kwokalo, on thftfc side there of the ridge »» beyond the 

ridge. 

waheka ngalapa nohlcmgoii lomuMi, he (looked to ■■) went In the 

direction of (there) that pajrt of the aide of the kMiU. 

ecaZeni kwenu, on one side of you. 

ekupeleni nemiti (or kwemiti), at the end of the treeii 

enhla namaBtmu, north of uie Boem. 

esikaleni esis'ohcUa nahwa* Kangela, at the gap wbieh !• in fllll 

view of the Congella. 
A double Icwa may be heard occaeionallv in Huoh OMefi. 
Ex. emva kwezinsuku ezi/y'in/neoMna kwaloko'KWfinta, after A fdW daye 

after that act. 

190. Certain other adyerbe, bm ed/uze and Im/vfi^ tarnVf m\A 
hide, f&T off, take, in like vtanner, either ku iivita htffttpti th«lr 
nonns : others, as mahmga^ oppomta to, take only na» 

£x. kwakukana hide naho, there whm tharfi Imr frnm %\mn, 
safiia malunga normm, ^e arrired 0}^f(miis tb4» kfHuL 

191. The verb H is ofieii found in comhm^Um wiih a mf* 
tide nsed adverbiallj, as in scrota oi tlw itmiHtuwH in (^1), 

192. Denumsiratwe Adver09 for^hi^rt Im (nh/^f it) i(»/ af# 
formed as follows for the different (thmtm of WfWM* 

Sm%, nangUf nardi^ narm, fumi^ wiuku^ nmdm>^ wmiim^ wfJm 
Pfair. woimpa^ nanka^ tMzi^ tmittm* 
Kx. mamfwmmmtmf het^ Is a itme i 
mtmtikadd, heK k a hom^ I 

iiief sapeJ as^ f oroa^ed frosoa ih^ t .Tm^ar^ ^jy t^im^y ^Mif^ ^^ 



72 

aiy no, 

ai ke or <U UnOj is of tea nsed to lower excitement, expecta- 
tion, displeasnre, <&c., in the person spoken to. 

£x. ubabeU-^ilapaf ai-Jce,nko$' ! ngitengendaUhana, whAthAYeyoa 

come here about P O ! nothing. Sir — ^I have come about a little 

matter of business. 

wvela-pif ai ke! ngiveHa emChtngundKUnm, where do you come 

from ? O ! nowhere particular — I come from Maritzburg. 

ai ke! ngiga konalapa ku'Mntvoana (ifs nothing =) iffl all 

rigbt — I come to thils very place to the prince. 

a* ke ! yenzani njalo, all right ! act in that way. 

ai ke ! uCetshvoayo waimza, well ! so Cetshwayo asked. 

ai Una, haba! kukona imwlat nonsense (father) old fellow ! it's 

raining. 

ai Una! ngakohliea, all right ! I took you in= it was a joke. 

ai Una ! nami ngiyakwaai, all right ! I too know all about it = 

it was all pretence my enquiring. 
N.6. The speaker would begin with yebo, if he had something 
important to communicate. 

(md*uha, and^uma^ ancPukuha, and^uhane, before that, is fol- 
lowed by a subjunctive. 

angiti (lit. don't I say ?) nsed in putting a question confi- 
•dently. 

Ex. angiti bengikntHhelile ukuha ulibope ihashi na ? did I not tell you 
to tio up the horse '< 

angiti niii^g'abantu baka*Jojo ? are you not Jojo's jjcople ?-=of 

course, you know you are. 

amanga (properly a plural noun), No, not so, used often as 

a courteous expression of dissent, though man}- a native has 

been supposed by those ignorant of the language luliave used 

the word in insolence, as it it meant * that's a lie ! ' 

Ex. auianga, nkosiy aku kivahii loko^ no, Sir, that's not mine. 

amanga ! angitshongo njalo, liot so ! 1 did not say so. 

anianga, Ndabezita ! not so (not as you suppose, it's nothing of 

importance, =:ai ke), your Highness ! 

amanga, fina'nsizn-a zika'Ngoza ngembangayiya yetu ! no! lor 

ns youtlis of Nj?oza with oui- plume of tail-feathers != there aro 

no such line fellows as we are. 

' umfo ka'Zatskuke ngebetshu lake leaiyepu !* * amanga, mungane ! 

unqabisile ! ' ' (look at) Zatshoke's son with hfs tail-»neoe of 

goat-skin ! * ' No, my friend ! (=there's eo chance for us) ho 

has done splendidly.' 
N.B. unamanga=yo\i are a liar ! 
atyij no ! nonsense ! (stronger than ai), 
Ex. atyi ho! uzaubuya, stuff ! you will come back (safely). 



ADVBBBS. 73 

helu, an expletive employed to emphasize an expression. 
Ex. yenza kahle helu, nyvyahuya, work away, I am coming back 

presently. 

nkos*, ngiydbuya helu, I am coming back (presently). Sir. 

{mg*azi belu, hodwa ngiyacdbangOt I don't Imow for (certain), but 

I imagine. 

ecaleni, on one side of (loc. from icala), 

Ex. wahamha ecaleni kwendhlela, wctdhlvlanje, he "v^ent on one side- 
of the path, he merely passed. 

eduze, near (loc. from iduze), 
Ex. ikona indawo xs* eduze nati, there is a place which is near ns. 

egee, outside. 

Ex. ukuya egce, to go out (for a necessity of nature), used by females.. 

ehlane, in the veldt or uninhabited country (loc. from ihlane)^ 

ehlatini, in the bush (loc. from ililaU). 

ekohlo, ngas*elcohlOf ngakwesohohloy on the left hand (loc. from? 
ikoJdo.) 

ekunene, ngas*ehuneney ngaJcwesolcunene, on the right hand 
(loc. from uhunene), 

eJcutini or eJcutinitini, such and such a place (loc. from. uJcuii), 

Ex. hamha uye ekutiniiini, go to what d'ye call it? 

aJ)as'ekutini, the people of so-and-so = amadhlozi, the ancestral 
spirits. 

eloJcu, ever since (=8elohii,), 
Ex. eloku kwadahuka amatshe nezintaha, ever since the rocks and 

hills were formed. 

eloku kw'esukela uSenzangakona nanamhlanje kusemi kona loko,. 

ever since Senzangakona (arose). Kved, and to-day (= from that 

time to this), it continues the same. 
N.B. So we have beloku, &c. 

emuva^ emva, or emveni, after, behind (loc. from umuvd), 
emacnlmd, on the sides or borders of (loc. from wmacala), 
endhle, ngas^endhle, pandhle ( =pa'&iidhle) , rigapandhle, out- 
side, in the veldt (loc. from indhle), 
Ex. ukuya endhle, to go out (for a necessity of nature) used by males. 

enhla, iigas^enlila, above, up (a stream), north-west or north. 

N.B. A man is said to go wp {enhla) the country, whenever his left 
hand is opposed to the current of the streams which he crosses, because 
then (his staff being held in his right hand) he bears with his body 
the whole weight of the stream. 

enJilanye (or nlilanye)^ aside, to a place on one sida. 



74 

enzamif ngas'emann, belowy down (a stream), sonth-aatt or 

flOUtfa, 

/una, lest. 

£z, ' beka vmwnwe lapa miMwtni,* ' AtM ! funa n/§iUhe !* ' put tout 

fing^ here in the fire/ 'Not a bit of it ! lest I ham.' 

' woi^ulate umudlUe lo'miuiV *Ai / fiuia ngife !' ' come and talae 

and eat it» this medicine/ ' No ! lest I die/ 

' ngena emantini lapa, mame/ ' ai mtananami ! funa n^iamfta' 

' get into the water here« mother/ ' Xo« my child. I maj 

(ae]>art) be carried away/ 

' linga ulcukwela leli^hashi/ ' ai ! funa lingi wise/ try to mount 

this horse/ ' Ko ! it may throw me/ 

futi, again, often ; futifuii, very often, frequently. 

N.£. frUi is also used in the sense of perpetu%^ asfollows^ the noon 
bein^ formed speoially for this idiom. 

Ex. wa/a (wafela) um/ela wafuti, he died for good and alL 

vjahamba (wahambela) unihambelawafuti,he walked right awaj* 
w*ern/uka {w*emukela) ummukela wafuH, he went off altogether. 
walala (walalela) umlalela wafuti, he lay in a last long sleep. 

impela, completely, entirely. 
imjahey perhaps. 

vn/jajdi, whereas, inasmuch as; ingantinjalo^ whereas, 
actually. 

Kx wfmte ngohuula ; inganii um/yalUe, wati angadhluU kuleyo'ndhl%, 
woflhlula, ho acted foolishly ; whereas he ordered him, and 
said he wfis not to pass beyond that house, he passed (beyond it). 
wati inganii uyafa, wamsehenzisa emvuleni ; manje-ke u^efpda 
kakiUu, whereas he is sick, he worked him in the rain ; now he 
iH v4!ry ill. 

intjanlinjalo uyahona ukviba lizauhaniba lelVhashi, waliyeka 
Icmukfi, whereas you see plainly that this horse will (go) ran 
away, you lot it go and it went off. 

inxa (fiwa), inxalHliana (nxaishana), when. 

Ex. nxa ulnhaya ininmhi, woitsJiaya kakulu, kona soizwa, if you strike 
the boll, (you shall =) must strike it much, then we shall hear* 
nxa nga uiandn ukutshaya vnavmbi, wotmka nenkuku, if maybe 
you wish to strike the )>ell, you must rise with the cocks. 
inxaUfuLna ufika uiweU insirnbi, wongibiza, when you anare 
carrying the iron, you shall call me. 

(nxa zomhilij on l)oth sides. 

kahili or kahili Irafatu, two or three times. 

Ex. chansa lake lizifingqa kahili katatu lHahate, his groyhoimd 
bounds twice or thrice (and) catches (it). 

Tcade, lonp^ ago, 

Ex. kade to*einuka, he went away long ago. 



▲DTBBB8. 75 

Tcakulay greatly. 

Icalhle or huMe, well, excellently, pleasantly. 

JcalokUf now. 

Jcatnhe, however, well, of conrse, yon know. 

Ex. Tigiti kambe, well, I Bnppose. 

uti kambe, he says then. ■ . . 

e ! hamhe utsho ngani na f well, but why do you say it P 

kona kambe, exactly bq, that's what I said, did, &c. 

Jcamnwa^ behind. 

Tccmcane or kandnyane, a little, by little and little. 

hanene or kunene, truly, indeed. 

Ex. watsho kvmene, he spoke truly, he hit it home. 

ngakipa umkonto, ngabula hanene, I out with an assegai and 

struck it home. 

hangaka, so great as (this) ; kangakoj so great as (that) ; 
TcangaJccmani, how great. 

hangahi or kanga/pi, how often. 

kaningi, abundantly. 

kanjaloj of snch a kind, kanjcmi, in such a way. 

kcmye, together, at once, once for all. 

Ex. ukulala kanye, to take a wink of sleep. 

ngapuza kanye, I drank once, or I drank all off at once. 

kwaza kwdba kanye, at last. 

uti kona kanye, you say it all in a word, you say the truth. 

k(mti, and yet, whereat. 

kcmbili, in reality. 

hati, although, in spite of. 

Ex. uti uyiae yoza yendele kuyena, kati ingamtandi, her father says 

she (intombi) shall get married to him, though she does not like 

him. 

katisimhe or kaMsimbe nga, perhaps. 
kepa, yet, however. 

ko or konay there, thence, then ; koncdapd, here ; kotmmanje^ 
now at once ; konamcmhlamje, this very day. 
Ex. kona-pi ? suka pela, tmgitshenise, where exactly P get up and 
show me. 

kodwa, but. 

konje, indeed, so then. 

Ex. konje vfiU uJojo na? go Jojo is dead. 

hudcUay of old time. 
hidey far off. 



T: 



_rjf-t. *-tjT-j " ^i iig g 
•I nt'vLc iJcuufxmevat wanit. 





m * m ■ a V ' 




hur?..:- .^ji'y,. all &l:r^. 

int 2 c-;u*ej: -■;/.-:>. f:reTer and erer. 

hucazakjTihjxJi^^idi. Ions ago. 

hu:yz(!.'-: :' J ^\ :■.'.. 'Iz.ix will t* when^ time wiibcnt md. 

Za', ^'i.ez.. where ■ cci-rracted frM-m l^j. a). 

T^y- la* €h*tzhAfa, wh-Er- he is al-ont tc- die. 

ir^n Lap]>eT^ to eaT hcs^j excessrelT^ ii s:u5s him. 
olala la* inrxjiko'rriunffa iungiho'miiolog ia ihe open where thflTO 
is n'j vrrtU7*.;a i^OT umiclo ^nse. 
lapa, hc-rf?, low. wbei«, wiiti-t, wei^ : i'-j^ij u, yonder, at 

that tirfie; «ci^^>, there, then, where, when. 
Ex. laj/a Miondo, < her>r on the wheel =) on tills part of the wheeL 
anuiitoAr/ix a*tl^i<i, the tens ai>3 now here ^= so 1:211^,88 shown 
oil t'^j<- fine*.-rs.i, 

tca'/aTufo fu^jt/a, he was a thing of here (pointing npwazdi) 
=^ he wa^i up bkj-high, in a toweriDg rage. 



ADVUUM. 77 

y^Uaipa, along of this ; y^Ucupo^ along of fchat ; hence Tmy^ilapa^ 
hekuy'Uapo, &c, 

hmhe Itipo, all that time, or all that place. 
Ze, far ofE, far away. 

Ex. angimcLzeli lapa hodwa, nginuMela emaxweni U, I don't know him 
here only, I know him in (our old) lands far away. 

lOf hku, lokupela, since, forasmuch as, seeing that. 
Ex. lo b'aka iiidhlu ngamatshe, since they built the house with stones. 

loku utsho njalo, since thou sayest 80> or sayest continually =: 

ore positive. 

loku naku ukona, hamha uyosehenza, funa uyihlo az'asole, since 

thou art here, go and work, lest thy father get to scold. 

ycbseitiinkosi, ' Kahulawe ; loku nang* urtQalo eq^ed* ahantu hami,^ 

then said the chief, ' Let him be killed ; since here he is, put-^ 

ing an end to my people.' 

loTcu = y%lolcu = y^ilohuhle = y'ilohlej all along. 
Ex. heloku bexokozela nje, saza s'esuka sahambaf as they were only 

making a row all along, we (came, we got up =) at last got up 

and went away. 

ulohle wanqisola^ you are continually scolding me, lit. all along 

you scolded me. 

mala, a little further on. 

Ex. hamhela mala parnbili, go a little further on. 

mahinga, on one side of, abreast of, in a line with, even with. 
manje, now. 

masinya or mcbdnyane, forthwith, immediately. 
mbala or hala, really, truly, in plain truth, (indicating 
generally surprise, doubt, or displeasure) = nernbala, 

Ex. mbala kunjalo ? is it really so ? 

mhala kusekasa^a wakubona na? was it actually this morning 
that you saw it ? 

mhla or mhlana or mhlaaana, on the day when, at the time 
when. 
Ex. mhla kwomvumbi, on the day of the rain-fall. 
mhla ku*makaza {kwamakaza), mhla kwemvvla, &c. 
mhla Una, lifudumele, Ubalele, &q., the day when it rained, was 
warm, was hot, &c. 

mhla sikwpuka siya Fmtshezi, when we were going up to the 
Bushman's River (TJmtshezi). 
ngamhla sapumayo, on the day we started. 

sengahle isisu sihlabe kona mhlazana loku, usuku lulunye dbe 
seuyafa na '<* actually that his stomach should (stab) pain him 
on the very day of this^ (and) in one single day he should die ! 



■MMIMllf^^ 



78 

mMaunibe or mhUdmbey perhaps (from unMa and the 
obsolete adjective mbe^ another). 

Ex. mhlaumbe uyise nonitut, vMavmbe odade wabo, periiapB his 
father and mother^ (perhaps =) or elae his sisters. 

mJilohunye, the other day. 

nakanye, entirely, exactly, in one word, once for all. 

Ex. naiawye-ke wfotagata, naianye^ke uy'eba, once for all, you. area 

Tillain, onoe for all, yon are a thief. 

nakanye kunge'nzeke loku, abeolntely that cannot he done* 

nakanye ! utshxLo ! exactly ! yon have said it. 

nako'ke nsed to start any action, (as when boys are roiming 
a race), Now then ! here goes ! off with you ! (or to express 
assent). There it is ! that's jnst it ! (or to resume a point in 
the discourse). And so you see, as I was saying. 

Ex. nako-ke siydbuya-ke, well then, as I was saying, we are tot going 
hack. 

fidkona = nakuba, although. 

ndawonye, together in one place ; tndawoeonke, everywhere. 
nembala, really, truly, &c., expressing surprise, =miaia. 
Ex. nembala, hani I kutsho wena f indeed, you sir ! do yon say that? 

nga, perhaps, may-be (=kungati or ingati), 
Ex. noma nga am^ili, nomu nga amatatu, whether they are two 
perhaps, or may-be three. 

ngdko, about that, on that account, therefore. 

ngakona (pronounced ngakhona), about there, in that 

direction. 

Ex. utsho ngakotia, he speaks to the point. 

uyaudhlula ngakona, ng*ezwa ekuXuma ngemtm yoke elilala Ifono, 
he will pass thitherward, I heard him speak about his sheep 
which is staying there. 

ngalwpa or ngakona ngalapa here-away, this way ; ngcblapOy 
there-away ; ngale, that way. 

Ex. ngiya ngalapa ngas'Emvoti, I am going here-away towards the 

TJmvoti. 

VAjaudlilula ngakona ngalapa ngennyofnga eza'utwasa, he will pass 

this way about the next new moon. 

ngalapa nitanda ngakona, in whatever direction you please. 
ngamahomu, purposely, wilfully. 
ngamtOAfiga (~ng*anianga), it is false. 
nganeno, on this side. 

nganhlanye, nxa/nye^ nganxanye^ ngamxaim/waye^ on one side, 
on the other side. 



ADYEBB8. 79 

Ex. size sipele nje, sifa siJcude, sifa nganhlanye, we got just finislied 
off, dying at a distance^ dying on one side (on our side of the 
battle, the enemy not suffering). 

wena loha nganxanye, lo alohe nganxanye, write you on one side 
(of the leaf), said let him write on the other. 
JcapenduVabuke nganxanye, leb him turn and look on the other 
side. 

hamba nxanye nami, go on one side from me, = go away. 
hamba nganxanye nami, go with me on one side, = go in the 
same direction with me. 

figese, ngas^ese, secretly, out of sight of. 

ngesUa, ngas^esita, privately. 

ngemihla, daily. 

ngoha, ngokuba, ukuha, ukuhani, olcoba, oJcohaniy okuba, ohh 
7ciiba, ohwoJcuha, because. 

ngeze^ to no purpose. 

nini, when. 

njalo, so, continually ; njalonjalo, continually. 

njf, merely, simply, just. 

njengahJcu, like as (referring to time present) ; njengaloho^ 
like as (referring to time past or future). 

njengokuba, like as. 

njevje,iji. this way (generally in a bad sense). 
. Ex. kunjenje umlilo ; ubengulwe umoya, it is in this state (through) 
the fire ; it was driven along by the wind. 

noha, nnko, nokuha, nokubani, noma, although, whether. 
Ex. kuhle uTcuba uhambe namadoda, noko e*matatu, noko e'mane, it is 
well that you should go with men, whether three or four. 

nokuti nokuti, et cetera. 
nqwa, face to face, full butt. 
Ex. sahlangana nqwa endhlelenit we met full butt in the path. 

obala, openly (loc. from ubala, open country). 
jpakade, long ago. 
pakati, ngapakati, within. 

^ambi^ ngapambi, near by, whether in front or beside, 
jpambili, ngajpambiU, before, in front of. 
pcmsi, ngapansi, beneath 

Ex. kupansi kwaloko, it is underneath that, = it is less common 
(spoken of a word of the language). 

pela^ used to strengthen an expression, 
Ex. yenza pela, do it at once. 

waUta ihashi linye pela, he brought one horse only. 



I 



80 ADVBBBS 

peisTieija, ngapetsheya, on tke other side. 

pezu, ngapezUy above ; pezu hwoha^ over and above tha^ 
besides that, in spite of. 

fezuhiy high above. 

qa^ qaho, no. 

qedey from qeda^ finish, is used as follows. 

Ex. uma unmntu efile, umhelwa qede, when a man is dead^ he is buried 
at once. 

hamhani niyotoza inkuni, nizavbuya qede nginipe innyamfM, go 
and chop firewood, as soon as you shidl return I will give yoa 
meat. 

yelela unyoko, kona, eyaupeka qede, asipe, winnow for your 
mother, then, as soon as she shall have done cooking, she will 
gplve us (food). 

akufanele ukvba uUme qede, ungahlwayeU imbeu, it is not proper 
that, as soon as you have finished ploughing, you should not 
sow seed. 

akufanele ukuha ufike qede, ulale ungapeki, it is not proper thal^ 
as soon as you have arrived, you shonld lie down and not cook. 
akufanele ukuha vdhle qede ungayikusehenza, it is not proper that^ 
as soon as you have done eating, you shoidd not go to work. 
kayisfM qede ayidhle innyama ; uyisika qede ayinike umntwana, 
she does not finish cutting the meat and then eat it ; as soon 
as she has cut it, she gives it to the child. 

qeduha, as soon as. 

Ex. qedvh*afike wahUda wadhZa wahamba'kef as soon as he arrivect 

he sat and ate and went away. 

qeduha h'emuke, sasala aangena sapuza, as soon as they had gone« 

we just went in and drank (=we had nothing else to do). 

qed'uha akale wapuma wdbashiya, as soon as she (umfazi) cried^ 

she went out and left them. 

sola or sale, from sola, to remain, is used as follows : 
Ex. qed'uba h'emuke, sasala sangena sapuza, as soon as they had gond 
away, we just went in and drank (= we had nothing else to do), 
saVus'ummukisa kahle umuntu wako, send now thy servant a way 
pleasantly (= there is nothing more now to be done). 
sehle, sengahle, sengase, sengaze, songaMe, used in expressing 
astonishment, = actually, really, it can be then, &c. 
£z, sehle nihonakalise ukuH n'abantu ahamnyama uqoho, ahangena* 
sirau ngomunye umuntu, so that you must show that you are true 
black people, who have no compassion for another man ! 
sengase (sengahle) isisu sihlahe kona mhlazana loku, to think 
that his stomach should stab on the very day of this ! 
selo, seloJcu, elohu (or with pronouns heloJcu, ziloku, &c.J, ever 
ciTiee, all this while, all alongf. 



ADVERBS. 81 

Ex, selo Jcwaii-ni (since what said it=) since I don't know wlien^ 
from time immemorial. 

seloku immini yonke le, ever since this whole day, = all day long. 
seloku y'etwasa le'nnyanga ngiyagula, ever since this moon was 
new^ I am sick. 

kuseloku hwaha okwemihla ka'Tshaka, it is ever since (there was 
what was of the days ) the time of Chaka. 

.uha, ube, ukvJba, ukuhani, uJcuheniy uheni, that, so that. 

SiZ. ukona umuntu wokvha 'alttse izimvu, here is a man (for that he 

may tend =) that will do for tending sheep ; 

but kukona umuntu wokwalusa izimvu, there is the man (the 

proper man) for tending sheep. 

angina*sikati sokuha ngize kuwena, I have no time for (that I 

should come) coming to l^ee. 

ukuha is also used in the sense of ntjoha, becanse. 

utsho ukuha ezakufa, he says so because he is about to die. 
hakala ukuha kufe owakubo, they lamented because one of their 
people was dead. 

uha, ube, ukuha, are also used in the sense of uma, when. 
Ex. uha asibute uTshaka, when Tshaka mustered us. 

vbe sibuye empini, when we returned from the fight. 

uha aihuhe una ka* Tshaka, when Tshaka's mother died. 

nyvyauzidhla izinkumhi-ke ukuha hupele izinkomo, I shall eat 

locusts^ because the cattle are finished off. 

fikuba is also used in the sense of y^ingokuha, but that. 

Ex. ngaihamukile imiti, ukuha utshani hehu hufutshane, the trees 
would have been scorched but that the grass was short (= the 
reason why they were not scorched was that, &c). 

ukuti, to- wit 

ukuya, uJcuye, ukuze, that. 

Ex. izintaha ahajisa ukuye hafike kuzona, the hills which they desired 
to reach. 

f*ma, if, when, that. 

Ex. ngitanda uma ngibuze ngokuza kwako lapa, I wish if (that) I may 

ask about thy coming here. 

wma kungenjalo, if not, otherwise (lit. if it be not so). 

umakazi or ubakazi, I wonder. 

Ex. uhakazi iyauzala'nkomo'ni na, I wonder what sort of a bullock 
it will produce (male or female). 

yebo, yes ; yebo Una, yes, indeed. 

y^ilo, yHlohle, y'iloko, y\loku, y'ilokuTile, all along. 

yHng^kuba, it is because that, but that, but for that. 



^3 1DTBBB8. 

195. Tlie particles ho, he, are used at the end of a word, 
with the meanings indicated in the following examples. 

5o is a rather rough or strong interjection of entreaty or authority. 
Ex. tula bo, do be quiet ! mina bo, I say (lit. to me) ! siika ho, ^et 

up I say ! 
he is a, more courteous interjection of the same kind. 
Ex. tula-ke, please to be quiet ; kepa-he, still, however. 
In narrating the natives will often throw in a X^e or kwaba njalo4s9s 

* so it was,' or e ! or aike ! to help out their story or get time to 
recollect themselves. Or they may say sesinazinga-ke, = sesintasikO'le, 

* then we did — ^what d'ye call it ?' = ' let me see — where was I P 

N.B. The salute of one person on meeting another is sakubona, lit. 

* we saw (= knew) thee ! * or, on meeting more than one, sanibona, * we 
saw you V But this expression may be used to a perfect stranger, 
who has never been seen before by the speaker. 

On parting from him (or them) staying behind, he might say scUa 
(salani) kahle, or sola njalo, or Mala kahZe or njalo : while to him (or 
them), going away, might be said hamba (hambani) kahle, or hambani 
njalo, 

A salute on parting, to the people of a kraal, might be, ydkani 
Jeahle-ke, muzi wakwetu, dwell happily, kraal of ours ! 

mina, mina-ni, is used to summon a person, =to me ! I say I this 
way ! here, take this ! look here ! 

196. The following are some of the principal interjectioixfl : 
ai nga, expressive of admiration (97) 

atshi, disgust or diisapprobatioxi* 

au, wonder. 

cupe, threatening. 

ehet assent. 

ha, • . . . . astonishment. 

hau, displeasure. 

kahle, gently, not so fast. 

mamie, mamo, • . wonder. 

maye, grief. 

musa dissatisfaction. 

nxepe nxepepa, ") g^thing. 

nxesepepa, ) ° 

wau wu, .... wonder. 

a;, ..... • contempt or anger. 

wo, contempt, anger, admiration. 

yeti, yetini, . . salutation, e.g., to those who come to Mola, 

N.B. yeti, or yetini, may also be said by a man after sneezing, in 
which case it is a corruption of ngilete-ni, * what must I bring,* that 
isj as an offering to the amatongo (ancestral spirits). 

yetshila • . , tritimph, = there's into you, it serves you 

yetsTie • • • a hunting-word. 



▲DYBBBS. 83 

"Ex. nxepepa huleXo'xvji (ngdUlo'zwi) engiUtshiloyo, excuse that word 
which I have spoken. 

An interjection may be personified. 
Ex. wystshUa, Mr. Bravo ! 

The followyig are words of praise, addressed to a g^eat chief, some 
of which are of micertain derivation and meaning. 

£x. hayete, wena wapdkati, ndabezita, gumede, mana, ndhlondMo, 

ndhlangamandhla, wena waikula helibele, &c. 

hayete, a royal salutation. 

wena wapdkati, = thou of the inner circle (of councillors). 

ndahezita evidently contains the word ixUa, enemies, aBd 

probably ddbula, break. 

gumede, implying majesty. 

manaj stand, continue. 

indhlondhlo, a crested poisonous snake, said to be master of all 

others. 

udhla ngamrmndhla, thou eatest up (thy enemies) mightily. 

wena waJcula belibele, thou didst grow, while they (all others) 

loitered. 

The following is part of a song of praise in honour of Dingane* 
Tole lak'oka'DoTida, elakab'umuntu I 
eVeti uyageza esizibeni, watshona, 
waza watshona na ngesigcogco. 
indukn emnyama ka'Puuga noMageba ! 
eyatshay'amanzi, kwavel udaka, 
emva kwodaka kwavel' izinkomo : 
intaka'nsini zihlangene pezulu, 
angiqedi nezokwapuka upiko. 

nyoni ka*maube umashulubezi ! 
mbuzi ka'Dambuza ! 
bayibambe nga'ndhlebe, yabekezela. 

mSutu owadhla'nnyosi, z'emukela, 
abanye bezidhia zizalela. 
Calf (belonging) to (laTc' for lalce) her who (was child) of Donda 
[Dondawas father of Dingane's mother], which kicked a man fallnd- 
ing to his victories] ! he (the man), thinking he is bathing in a pool 
[thinking of enjoying himself at his ease], he simk, ay I to the very 
head-ring [metaphorical for the effect of Dingane's blows.] 

Black staff of Punga and Mageba [names of Dingane's father and 
grandfather] ! which smote the waters : there came (first) mud 
[confusion], after the mud there came cattle [booty] : the king-finches 
Q>erhaps Dingane and Mpande] have engaged (in fight) up on 
high ; I don't conclude (say for certain) either which will be wing- 
broken (beaten). Maube of the rushing wing ! [lit. Bird of Maube, 
the rushing one ! uMauhe, the name of a Kafir bird ; umashuluhtzi, 
name applied to any person or animal rushing with force :] Goat of 
Dmabuza ! [the goat symbolises a gentle animal, and he is called t)ie 

g2 



6« AJ>TBB1>t« 

goat of Dambaza> as liaying listened ^o the advice of Dambuza* mie 
of Tshaka's councillors :] they took him by the ear [as a man might 
take a goat« and as a native might take his friend ;] it was gentle and 
mild. 

Sutu [Dingane was not one of the Basuto race, but is praised as 
being a Sutu in respect of strength of arm, &c.] who ate up [pilll^B^d] 
the bees [spoiled the tribes], they went off [disappeared;] others eat- 
ing them up, they generate [are not altogether destroyed]. 

Another specimen of izihongo (names of praise) is supplied Iiy the 

following, applied to a young man (tiJojo) by a companion, a refugee 

bb'nd man, who appears to possess Ijie proper faculty for inventing 

Ruch language. 

£z. uNgalo'zimbombo zinga y*ihvbesi, %% namamfemfe emikonio^ UdO" 

hohloko eWmeMo azimpunyu, ujojo lozofa kusasa aban/ye befa 

ntamhana, innyoni edhlala ngoktidhla hwamadoda, ngoha yofia 

aikudhli iyakucakacakaza, thick arms like a lion, full of assegai 

wounds [implying bravery], sparrow with projecting eyes, finch 

[playing on his name] that will die early in the day, while 

others die in the afternoon, [meaning that he will engage with 

the enemy manfully at day. break, and not be sparing of his 

life, and so die late in the d«y as others], bird that plays with 

the food of man« because it does not eat, it pecks and 

loattem it. 



IrOKMS OF V£1tiif«. 85 



CHAPTER* XIL 

FORMS OF VERBS. 

197. Verbs are of varions forms, all derived from tlie simple 
root, some of them existing both in the simple and derived 
forms, others only in some of the latter. 

198. The simple form is usually a word of two syllables 
«nding in a, and may be either transitive or intransitive. 

Ex. bona, see ; tanda, love ; hamba, hold ; hamha, go ; buy a, retam. 

199. But some few verbs are monosyllabic, and others 

polysyllabic, in their simple forms. 

Ex. ha, be ; dhla, eat ; fa, die ; pa, give ; wa, fall ; ya, go. 
andula, be first ; habaza, extol ; sebenza, work. 

200. There are only very few verbs, which do not end 
in a, in their simple forms. 

Ex. azi, know ; ti, say ; tsho, speak. 

201. There are certain verbs which prefix an e to the root 
in all their forms, whether simple or derived, whenever in 
the process of conjugation it would otherwise be preceded by 
an a, which latter vowel is then elided. 

Ex. ng*emba, 1 dug, for 7iga emba; Veza, they came^ for 6a eza, 

Vezwile, they have heard, for ba ezwiU ; 

w'emuha, he went away, for wa emuka ; 
hut ngimbile, I have dug ; sizwile, we have heard ; urmikile, he has 

departed. 
N.B. Sometimes the verb is used in this form when a would not 
precede. 

Ex. ezindhlini lapa hwegcwele (higcwele), in the huts here it was full 

202. The primitive root is often reduplicated, by which its 
original meaning is either irdensified or reduced in force, the 
action being done quickly or a little, 

Ex. Kama, strive; zamazama, shake, quiver (aa witli effort of striving.) 
hamba, walk ; hambahamba, walk about, or by fits and starts. 
dta, scatter j Htacita, destroy utterly, or waste a little. 



86 »>BK8 or TKBB8. 

guqula, turn ; guquguqula, turn directly, or a little. 
rapufta, do a little of domethiag quickly, e.g., cut 
rapuna, cut on, or cut fast. 
huluma, speak ; kulukuluma, chatter away or speak a few wocdft 
qopa, notch ; qopaqopa, notch numerously, mill, as the edge d! 
a I'oin, or notch slijjhtly. 
N.B. The re-luplicated form of dhla, eat, is dhlaidkla. 

203. Intrtvisitice or neutei'-passive verbs are formed from 
trausitives, some by adding tlie termination hcda to the simple 
form, others by chanLi^inL^ its jfinal vowel to tha. 

N.B. These are distinguised from passive verbs (for which there are 
proper forms) by the fact that passive verbs refer to au action to 
which a person or thing is subjec!;ed, while neuter-passive verbs Kfer 
to a state or con-iition in which a parson or thing exists, so that the 
action is at any moment possible. 
£z. dona, see; honwaf be seen ; bonakaZay be visible, appear. 

faaiia, love ; tandwa, be loved ; tandeka, be fit to be loved. 

zway hear, feel, perceive ; zwiwa, be heard ; zwakala, be audible. 

saba, fear; satshwa, be feared; saheka, be formidable. 

ona, injure ; oniioa, be injured ; onakala, be in an injured states 

be cormpfc, depraved, &c. 

tuma, send; tunywa, be sent; tumeka, be sendable, ready, 

willing, fib to be sent. 

5o n 7a, praise ; bon^wa, be praised; bon^eka, be worthy to be 

praised. 

kataza, vex, annoy ; katazwa, be vexed ; katazeka, be in a state 

of annoyance. 

umuti owapuliweyo,& tree which has been broken (b y some one); 

umii^i owapukileyo, a tree which is broken, is in a broken state. 
N.B, There are, however, simple transitive verbs ending in e&a, as 
haoeka, to besmear, and the^e m^y take the neuter-passive forms, as 
hao^k^ka, to got besmeared, as mortar on a wall. 

204. Simple transitives in ula form their nenters by chang- 
ing ulii into uJca» 
£x. apna, break; apufca, be broken; guqul-a, turn (tr.), gnquka, 
tuni (intr.) ; pendula, turn, petidulwa, be turned; penduka, be 
in a at^ito of tui-ning, repent. 

iilKN. i\tHifit(ioe verbs are formed by inserting is before the 
Unnl ti of tlio simple forms. 
Kx. Ml m 'mi. go; /ia»i6t5a, make to go. 
«(t. iHuuo ; zha, make to come, bi'ng. 
«t</»f 117(1. work ; scbe.izlsa, make to work. 
■«xi, hoar, feel; zwxsa, cause to hear or feel, excite, animate. 
N.B. azl, know, makes azisa, make to know, inform; twala, bear^ 
makes twaU^a or iwesa, make to bear; amhata, put on clothes^ clothe 



VOBMS OF YEBBS. 8T 

one's self, makes ambatisa or ambesa, make to put on clothes, clothe 
another ; ku1cu7nala, swell, makes kukumalisa or hikumeza^ make to 
swell; fudvAnala, be warm, makes fadumalisa or fudumeza, make- 
warm ; but the forms anibesa, leuJeumeza, fudumeza, are most commonly 
used. 

206. Simple verbs in la, form their cansatives nsnally by 
changing la into za, which appears to be a contraction of lisa. 

Ex. vela, come forth ; velisa or veza, bring forth. 
katala, be weary ; katazat weary, vex, tease. 
limala, be hurt ; limaza, hurt. 
Teuinbulaf remember ; Jcunibuza, remind. 
sondela, come near ; sondeza, bring near. 

Some few verbs in ka form their cansatives by changing ka 
to sa, 

Ex. 8uka, get away ; susa, take away. 

goduka, go home ; godusa, take home or send home. 

207. Verbs of the causative form may imply to make a. 
person do a thing by helping him. 

Ex. ningisengise kusasa, help me to milk this morning. 

*h*emukalapa kitihati; bayaufika bavunise babulise, they went 
away hence from us in that direction (expressed by bafi, the 
direction being shown by the hand, &c.) j they will arrive and 
help to gather in and thresh. 

208. The causative form is also used to express the imitation 
or equalling of any thing (ace.) in doing of an action. 

Ex. kahambisi okwabanye abantu, he does not proceed in his gait 
like other people. 

angibonanga ngizibona izinnyosi zinonise okwaleziya, I have never 
seen bees so (fat = ) rich in honey as those there. 
inkabi isHhle inqandise okwempofu ! that an ox should spread its 
horns like an eland (i.e. no more than an eland) ! 
usazing* ezibinyisa nje okwennyoka (= ezibinya nje okwennyoka or 
njengennyoka), he continually wriggles himself like a snake. 
bakitikisa okwotshani busikwa, they imitated the falliog of grass, 
it being cut = they fell like grass when cut. 
uZulu amaBunu ami shay isa okwezinnyosi ziViqulo, as to the 
Zulus, the Boers smote them like bees, they being a cluster. 
oTugela le sasesihlalise ubugctvelegcwele (or okwobugcwelegcwele), 
away at the Tugela we had now lived roughly. 
ukujpata kwako, upatisa okwetane, as to your carrying, you carry 
like a reckless person. 

209. The causative form is also used to express energy in. 
doing a thing, to do a thing thoroughly. 



68 TOBKS or TSBBS. 

Ex. Jdan»a, cleanse, hlanzisa, cleanse tlioroiiglily> hlanxiieka, f^ 
thoroughly cleansed. 

umntwanaw'anya (w*anyi8a) Ibi'ntna, the child sucked its mother* 
umntwanaw^anyisisa (w'anyiaa kaJculu) ku'nina, the child sacked 
its mother heartily : 

but unina wamanyisa umntwana, the mother made the child 
suck, = gave it suck, suckled it. 

210. A verb is sometimes reduplicated by changing 
its fioal a to isisaj and then implies special energy or jpurpose 
in the act, either of the simple or causative. 

Ex. huza, inquire ; huzisisa, inquire diligently. 

limaza, hurt ; limazisisa, hurt much or designedly. 

oma, be dry ; omisa, dry j omisisa, be thoroughly dry, help to 

dry, or dry thoroughly. 

211. Objective verbs, so called, because they express that the 
action of the verb is done with a purpose, or is for or towards 
fiome special object, expressed or implied, are formed by 
inserting el before the final a of the Simple form. 

Ex. hlala, sit ; hlalela, sit for, await. 

lala, lie down ; lalela, lie down for, listen. * 

sdba, fear ; sdbela, fear for, answer the call of a master. 

linga, try (about a difficult thing), lingela, try for (a thing, not 

caring much to succeed about it). 

ngiyakuhuhanibela loko, I will lay hold on that for you = I take 

note and will serve you out for it. 

induna imhambele, the induna has laid hold of (an ox) for him, 

= given him an ox out of the booty. 

N.B. tyo, speak, makes tyolot speak for, in this form. 

212. The Objective form is frequently used when the verb 
precedes adverbs of place, or nouns and pronouns in the 
locative, or governed by hu, 

Ex. hafela lapo, ngapandhle, endhlini, emfuLeni,pahati kwomuzi,ih.ey 
died there, without, in the hut, at the river, within the kraal. 
wahambeVizandMa enhloke, she clasped her hands over her head, 
yat'iyapuma yafeVemnyango, as it (inhomo) was going out, it 
died at the entrance. 

ngizakuhanibela hulowo*muzif I am going to walk to that kraal 
(on a visit). 

ngizauhamha ngiye kulowo'muzi, I am going to that kraal (with- 
out any special object). 

ahlanganiselwa pakati amahashi, the horses were collected inside. 
inkahi lezi zilahlekele pakati kwamasimu dbantu, these oxen have 
got lost among the people's gardens. 



IPOBMS OV VKBBS. 89* 

WfiQa inmgenise emgodini uboishohana, yamhanibela paJcaH, this 

dog made the teasel go into a hole, it seized him within. 

hwya ngoha Thgidhle innyama ipoliUj hwabafutingidhlela epangwC' 

ni, it is. because I have eaten meat cold« it was also I eating 

in ravenous hunger. 
So indawo yokubulalela dbantu, a place for killing men in. 

isitsha sokudhla or sokudhlela, a vessel for eatmg out of. 

iiunga, isitsha sokusengela vMsi, an itunga is a vessel for milking 

milk into. 

'aitsha lesi Hyadhlela, this vessel is for eating, 
but umgqengqe wokutela ubuhende, an umgqengqe (carved wooden 

dish witti cover) for pouring blood into. 

213. The Simple form, however, will be used of any verb,, 
expressing motion from a place, and the Objective form if it 
express motion to a place. 

Ex. vhuyele ekaya namhlanje, he has returned to his kraal to-day ; 
but nhuyile ekaya namhlanje, he has returned /rom his kraal to-day.. 

wabuya eTekwini, he returned from the Bay ; 
but wdbuyela eTekwini^ he returned to the Bay, 

ngatata uti pansi, I (took) pulled up a rod from beneath. 

214. Reciprocal neuter verbs are formed by inserting an 
before the final a of the simple form. 

Ex. tandaf love ; tandana, be in love with each other. 
Ivngaf strive ; lingana, vie with one another, be equal. 
tiya, trap ; tiyana, be entangled with each other. 
fiimba, stop up, close ; vimbana, close up, be closed, as a wound. 
vanga, mingle ; vangana, be mingled with each other. 
xuba, mix ; xubana, be mixed with each other. 

The above form may be used either with a singular or 
plural noun or pronoun. 
Ex. ngUingana nawe, or siyalingana tina, I and thou are of a match.. 
siyasizana tina nawe, you and I are helping each other. 

Other forms also besides tbe Simple may be thus modified. 
Ex. s'azelana nas'emazweni le eniuva, we were acquainted with each 

other also in the lands far away backward {azelana from azela^ 

Obj. form of azi, know). 

uyaucebelana nalowo'muntu icebo, he will make up with that man 

an accusation {cebelana from cebela). 

216. The termination ezela is used to intensify the meaning^ 
of the form in ela. 

Ex. sondela, approach ; sondezela, approach close. 

mmbela, stop for, = turn back an animal; vimhezela, stop 

violently for. 

jwayelaj be accustomed ; jway ezela, be accustomed with an effort^ 



*90 V0BM8 Ol- TVmBS. 

as when a person is trying to learn to smoke. 

bamMla, hold on ; hambezela, hold on rigorously. 

svndela, weigh upon ; sindezelaj weigh Jieavily upon, « 

N.B. huyelela means to go and return on the same day. 

216. Reflective verbs are formed by prefixing zi to the form 
whose meaning is to be reflected. 

Ex. tsho^ speak ; zitsho, speak of one's-self . 

dhla, eat ; zidhla, eat one's 8elf> = be proud. 

smda, safe ; sindisa, make safe ; zisindisa, save one's-self • 

kala, cry ; kalela, cry foi ; zihalelu, bemoan one's-self. 

azi, know ; azisa, make to know , zasisa, make une's self to know, 

be self -conceited. 

enza, do ; enzisa, make to do ; zenzisa, make one'u belt to do, 

pretend, feign. 

kuzahuz*omela loko, that will dry of itself. 

ngamnyenyela, I slipped away (for him =) from him. 

nganyenyela ngakuyena, I slipped away towards him. 

217. The Simple, Causative, and Objective forms have each 
«b Passive Voice, for which they are modified by inserting w 
before their final vowel. 

Ex. tanda, love ; tandwa^ be loved. 

tandisa, make to love ; tandiswa, be made to love. 
tandela, love for j tandelwa, be loved for. 
kola, satisfy ; kolwa, be satisfied, believe. 

N.B. From the last example it will be obvious how imperfectly the 
word kolwa expresses the act of Christian Faith. It denotes, in fact, 
merely the being satisfied with the evidence in any case, and there- 
fore, when applied to matters of religion, expresses only assent to the 
doctrines taught, not a living faith. 

ngihlaMemelwe imali namhlanje, I have been lucky with money 

to-day. 

wafeliselwa (wahulalelwa) uTshdka, she was made a widow by 

Tshaka, yrh.Qve feliselwa is pass, of felisela, to make a person die 

for (another). 

218. If the consonant in any but the first syllable of the 
simple form be h, p, or m, then, in addition to the insertion of 
the w, the same changes are made in it for the formation of 
the passive as for the formation of the locative ; that is to say,— 

h will be changed to j or tsh 
p • • • .to tsh 

m . . . . to 712/ 

mh • • • . to ry 



FOBMS OF TEBBS. 91 

Er. huhisa, destroy hvjiswa, humbula, remember 7:unjulwa, 
tahata, take tatshatwa, limaza, hurt linyazwa. 

klupa, vex hlutshwa, haniba, go Jianjwa, 

dumisa, worship dunyiswa, hambisa, make to go hanjiswa, 
bamba, hold, banjwa. elapa, apply medicine elatshwa 

So qopaqopa, mill, as the edge of a coin, pass, qotshaqotshwa. 

But the above rules are not always observed. 

Ex. MMkumexa, trouble, bother, pass, hlukumexioa or hlukunyezwc^ 

219. Some Reciprocal verbs form their passives in the same 
manner. 

£x. tandanwa, xotshyanwa, Mangawwa, Matshanwa, banjanwa, 
from tandana, xotshanaj hlangana, hlatshana, bambana. 

Others form passives by changing the termination of the 
passive of the simple form into cma, 

Ex. bowwana, bulawana, dhliwana, ntshintshwana, from bonvoa, 
hul€uva*dhliwa, ntshintshwa. 

Similarly with causative forms, 
Ex. bangiswana, from bangiftjoa. 

Reciprocal passives are used chiefly in the impersonal form. 
Ex. uma kucUshtoanayo, when they were scattered one by the other. 
natiizihindi ziyanikwana; uma enes-Unndi sokuqinisela, uma 
etanda, ukubulala, nati usinika izibindi nati; nati asiyikum- 
ncenga, as to us too, courage is reciprocated ; if he has courage 
to persevere, if he wishes to kill, us too, he gives us courage, 
us too ; we too will not (beseech him=) submit to him. 
hati abantwana, uma bedhlaWisicelankobe lesi-ke, kutiw a isicela' 
nkobe nje, ngoba sihonakala kusihlwa ngesikati sokudhliwa 
* hvezvnkobe, soJeucelwana kwezinkobe, children say, when they 

play, as to the evening-star here, it is just called isicelankobe, 
because it appears at evening at the time of the eating of 
boiled-mealies, eo there is a being-asked-together of boil ed- 
mealies. 

220. Monosyllabic verbs insert iw before the final a, to form 

the passive^ 

Ex. piwat ishiwo, from pa, give, tsho, speak. 

Dissyllabic vowel- verbs observe the same rule. 
Ex. akiwa, ebiwa, enziwa (or enzwa)f from aka, build, eba, steal, enza, 

do make. 
So also, aziwa, liwa, tvwa, yiwa, from azi, know, Iwa, fight, ti, say, 
think* do, ta, pou£, iii^tiQt, ya, go. 



92 voons ov vvBPV* 



CHAPTER XIIL 

MOODS OF TEUBS. 

221. The verb is nsed in six Moods — Imperative, Infinitiye^ 
Indicative, Potential, Optative, Snbjnnctive ; and it is aJao 
nsed as a Participle. 

222. Imperative Mood. The Imperative Second FerBtm 
Siiigular (as in Hebrew) exhibits the root of the verb in its- 
most simple form, to which the prononn ni is appended in 
order to form the second pprson plnral. 

Ex. tandat love thou ; tandani, love ye. 

wokani nihlomele ngesikati sohusukUg he sharp (and) watch in th& 
tune of night. 

The ni may be rednplicated for special emphasis. 
Ex. hekanini'ke handhla, look you^ good folk ! 
yokanini isihlanti lesif stir up this torch ! 
N.B. Uti'ke manje imali yami, bring now my money, {leH=: Uiu)^ 

The other persons of the Imperative are snppiied by means 
of the particle ma or a and the Subjunctive. 
Ex. mangitande or angitande, let me love. 
asitande, let ns love. 
asiye*kugeza, let us go to bathe. 

Bnt the Future Indicative is often nsed authoritatively fur 

the Imperative. 
Ex. woza lapa, come here ; plur. wozani lapa, come ye here. 

wonginikHmali yami, you shall give me my money, = you give 
me my money, will you ? 

wongihekela imali yami, lay by my money for me, for which thi» 
plural might be anongibekela or anongihekelani. 

223. Monosyllabic verbs prefix yi to the imperative, 
Ex. Sing, yiba, be ; yima, stand; yiti, say; yitsho, speak. 

Plur. yihani, yim>ani, yitini, yitahoni. 

Or they take the following forms. 
Ex. zana, plur. zanini, from za, come, as zanini lapa, come her^ 

yana. plur. yanini, from ya, go, as yanini lapaya, go there* 

zwana = yizwa, plur. zwanini, from zwa, hear. 

kana=i yika, plur. kanini, from ka take out (water, porridge 

&c.), as kan'udhle, take out and eat; kanini amanzi, draw wator* 



XOODS 07 VXBBS* 9S 

225. VoweUyerhs (that is, verbs which begin with a vowel) 
En like manner prefix y to the imperative. 
Ex. yenza, do ; yaka, bnild ; yalvsa, herd ; yenzani, yiikani, yalu8am,\ 

225. The verbs in (201), which take e before the root after 
the vowel a, vary in their practice, some prefixing yi to th<^ 
nnangmented root, others, like the vowel- verbs, prefixing y to 
the root with e, and others not doing either. 

Ex. yizwa, hear ; yesdba, fear ; mvJca, depart. 

226. Infinitive Moon. The infinitive is f onnd only in one 
tense, the Present, and consists of the verb-root preceded by 
\iJcu, With very few exceptions, the Infinitive always ends in a. 

Ex. uhutanda, to love ; uhitandwa, to be loved. 

uhwazi, to know ; ukuti, to say, think, &c. ; uhutaho, to speak. 

227. The initial u of the prefix uhu is dropped after tenses 
of the anxiliary verb ya or za, 

Ex. ngiydkutanda or ngiya'utanda, I shall or will love ; lit. I go to. 
love. 

ngizakutanda or ngiza'utanda, I am coming to love. 
vyekuzingela, he has gone to hunt. 
sizekusiza, we have come to help. 

And so after some other verbs, as vela. 
Ex. ngivela'kuwatenga amafuta, I come from selling (it> the fat =^ 

my fat. 

isHvela'kulwa neka'Mpande, it (impi) now coming from fighting- 

with that of Mpande. 

228. Indicative Mood. The Indicative contains three 
Simple Tenses. Other Componnd Tenses are formed by 
using the Participial forms of these in combination with the 
auxiliaries, ha, he, ya, go, za, come. 

229. The following are the Simple Tenses of the regular 
verb, ta/nda, love, in the Indicative Mood. 

1. Fbesent^ I love... ... ... ngitanda. 

2. Peepect, I loved (lately) or have loved ngitandile^ 

3. Past or Aorist, I loved ngatanda^ 

230. The pronouns are prefixed in their simple forms to tlie^ 
Present and Perfect tenses, varying, of course, according to tie 
subject or nominative to the verL. 

Sing. 1st Pers. ngi, 2nd Pers. u. 

3rd Pers. u, li, i, si, u, lu, hu, hi. 
Plur. 1st Pers. si. 2nd Pers. ni. 

3rd Pers. ha, a, ei, %, 



94 XOOBB OF TBBS8. 

231. In tbe Past tense the Prononns are all prefixed iviih a 
for their final vowel, u and t being clianged before it to wacd 
y, respectirfely. 

Sing. Ist Fers. nj^o. 2nd Fers. too. 

3rd Fere, wa, Za» ya, $a, lv>a, hwa or ha, hwa, 
Flnr. Ist Fers. sa. 2nd Fers. tm. 

3rd Fers. &a« a, ua, ya, 

232. Participles may be formed for all tbe Tenses, and their 
pronouns are the same as those for the Tenses, except iliat « 
personal, ha, and a, are in all Participles, except the Past, 
changed to e, be, and e. 

' 233. Another form of the Present, appears to be formed 

from the auxiliary ya, go, followed by tihe yerb-root, or, as 

some explain it, by the Present Participle, with its pronoun 

dropped. 

Ex. fiffiyatanda (= ngiya ngitanda, I go I loving)^ I am loving, or 

do love. 

This tense is used when the action is a continuing one, (not 
sudden or momentary,) or when the idea in the verb is to be 
brought out 8tro)ujly, or as a kind of historical present, when 
the verb is used in narrating a matter. 

Ex. utanda ukudhla naf do you wish for food P ngiyatanda, I do. 
lezi'zinhlamvu ziyadhliwa na f axe these berries eaten (habita- 
ally) ? i.e. are they wholesome, not poisonous P 
uyawati hhiagaJila, so she finishes them (amahsle) off. 

It may often be expressed also by the English idiom * be 
/(w- ' doing the action implied in the verb. 

Ex. wotawi pela I siyahamba Una, come along ! we are for going. 

234. The Past Tense or Aorist is used of any time past 

whatever, or in speaking of actions repeated at past times. 

Ex. ubugagu hake lohu hamona; y'ilohle wahwela imihvba yohun^fons 

nje, this forwardness of hers did her harm (repeatedly) ; all 

along she played (from time to time) just the tricks of 

chil<Biood. 

The Perfect is used of an action completed in Past time, bu* 
80 as to have a special reference to the Present. 

(i) When it is spoken of as completed, at the present momenL 
Ex. nidhlUe na ? have you eaten P that is, have yom done eating' 
litshonile ilanga, the sun has set. 

(ii) When it is spoken of as completed in tcliat may he called 
present time, varying according to the nature of the action, e.g. 



jdOODff or TVBB8. 95 

Teiy lately. Just now, to-day, yesterday, the day before yesi/er- 
<day, &c., the action noi havi/ng been repeated smee, 

Ex. kudhluliU kuiangi oNgoza, there has $|^one by, the day. before 

yesterday, Ngoza and his people. 
Here it is implied that they have not retumed, so far, at least, as 
•i;he speaker knows. If, however, he knew tbat they had rettinied, he 
would say, hwadhlvla, &c., there went by, &c., in the Fast Tense. 

vfena ut^funda innfiwadi ey'enziwa'hvdala; Una sesifunda 
eyenviwe 'butsha, you are still reedinjs^ a book which was made 
of old ; we are now reading (one) that was made newly. 

(iii) When the act is spoken of as past, but nhiding in its 
-effects at the present time. 

Ex. uMpainde wenaile into enhilu. Panda has done a great thing. 

236. Hence neuter verbs or neuter-passives (203) are used 
in the Perfect Tense, to express the permanent state, dwracter^ 
jyropertyy or quality, of an object. 

Ek. vZeU, he is lying (237) ; bahlezi, they are sitting (238). 
hilungile, it is right ; kufanele, it is proper. 
vmiti edepUeyo or edepayo, tall trees. 
lo*n\fana uauhile, this boy has started np, = is talL 
lolu'daka lubacehekUe hahU this mortar is laid on welL 

And so transitive verbs are used (in the Perfect, when 
employed to express Tiahit, pra^ctice, or wont, 

Ex. vmamandhla umfo waka*Tusi ehazUe, the son of Tusi is (power- 
ful) clever (having carved =) in earving. 
unamandhla lo'muntu etande umkontOf that man is clever in 
binding an assegai. 

hanamandhla hevihe izindMku, laba'fana, they are good at (ward- 
ing off sticks =) fencing, those boys. 
tmohaniba ngokwohikidwmelana ; ixitandana z'enze njalo, do you 

§0 along with mutual talk ; lovers are wont to do so (= have 
one so up to the present time). 
uza'utwasa uNdasa, nokuncitshayo kakuneitsihe namuhla, Undasa 
(month beginning about the middle of January, when mealies 
are plentifully ripe in some districts) will begin (as a new 
moon), and that which stints (has not stinted =) is not wont 
to stint to-day. 

sibe*ktbcupa kulo'mfula, kubajwe amiacakide avinibela izinnyamo' 
zane, we having been to set traps at that river, there (have been 
caught =) are regularly caught weasels, they kept out thd 
game. 

236. The syllable U is frequently omitted in the Perfect, 
more especially if the verb-root be polysyllabic. In that case 
the iinal e is pronounced strongly, as a double voweL 



96 MOODS OF TBBBS. 

Ex. ngitande, hutUe, ulondolose, for ngitandile, husiiile, uUmdoldtlk^ 
K.B. Thus he, ye, m, are used as the perfects of ha, ya, na, 

237. Verbs in ala, amcby eloy oma^ asa^ cUa, make oommQn]^ 
their Perfects in ele, erne, eZe, ene, ese, ete. 

Ex. lele, engeme, qapele, hlangene, twese, pete, from UHa, lie down* 
engama, impend^ as a diff^ qapela, attend to, hlcmffona, aleet 
together, twctsa, appear, as the new moon, pata, carry in hand. 

N.B. ^a, kindle afire, makes &a9i2«; tahata,iiSie,tahete or tahaMUt 
tata, take, tate or tatiU. 

And 80 lala makes laliU with a different shade of meaning*. 

Ex. ulalile elangeni, he has lain (been lying) in the snn ; 
ulele elangeni, he is lying in the sun. 

238. Some few Perfects are formed irregularly. 

Ex. hlezi, hhiti, esuti, mi or mile, miti, tshilo, from Mala^ sit, KXuia, 
strip (a tree), esnta^ be full, mat stand, mita, bepreg^nant, Uih», 
speak. 

alimile (or alimi) lelo* zvn, th&t word does not stand, sis not 
correct. 

239. Tbe syllable yo or ko is frequently appended to any 
Tense or Participle of a verb, apparently for the purpose of 
resting the speaker's voice for a moment, when there is a pause, 
either in the sense, or in bis own mind. This usually occurs 
after a relative or an adverb. 

Ex. njengaloko owahuUhoyo, according to that which thou saidst. 
mhla sifikayo, on the day (when we were) arriving =when we 
arrived. 

lapo kusinwayo, where it was danced. 
kwakuy*ilapa kusayo, it was here (that) morning dawned. 
sukani nina nifikayOt get away yon that are arriving. 
kwati nxa kusayo safika, it came to pass when it dawned (that) we 
arrived. 

ngiyaudhlula ngakona mhla ngibuyayo, I shall pass in that 
direction the day I return. 

lowo'msindo niwuzwa nje, ni/na nibuzayo niti kwenze njam f that 
sound, do you hear it, ye (who) ask, saying, what's the matter? 
ake niyeke lo, kuze kufike uJojo anitshele yena 'aziyo, I wish you 
would let Um alone until Jojo comes and tells you, he who 
knows. 

240. The Future is expressed by combining the present of 
ya, go, with the infinitive of tbe verb, as ngiyaJctUanda (lit. I 
go to love =) I shall or will love. 

241. An Immediate or JEmpJiatic Future is formed by com- 
bining the present of ^a, come, witb the infinitive of the verb, aa 



MOODS OF YEBBS. 97 

ngvsdkuianda (lit. I come to love, =) I shall or will love, where 
is implied a tendency, desire, impulse, <&c., to love, as well as 
the miere futurity of the act of loving. Hence this form of 
future with za is nsed to express that the action wH] speedUy 
OP certainly take place. 

N.B. The Future will very frequently be heard with the h oi hvk 
omitted 2iAng%yautanda, uyautanda, &g,, or ngizautanda, uzcmtanda, &c. ; 
and the former may be contracted to ngotcmda, wotcmda, &Q,, without 
apparently any change of meaning. 

So the negative form cmgiyikutanda is contracted to angiyutanda, 

Notice also these expressions, formed with the perfect and subjunc- 
tive of ya and za: — 

uyelcuzingela, contr. uyozingela, he is gone to hunt ; 
hazekusiza, coatr. hazosiza, they have come to help ; 
oHyehupuza, contr. asiyopuza or asopuza, let ns go to drink ; 
aniyehugeza, contr. aniyogeza or anogeza, go ye and bathe. 

Ex. sengoza ngife, now I shall come (that I =) to die. 

wab'engasoz^eba = wah'engasayihuza 'eha, he would never have 

come (stealing =) to steal. 

yafa leyo^rmyanga ebesiyohlasela (ehetiyehuhlasela) ngwyo, that 

moon came to an end pn which we had gone to war. 

sobona abofika (= dbayahufika) huqala, we shall see who will 

arrive first. 

mhla Icuyoketwa (= kuyakuketwa) iketo lakeuZuladuma, the day 

there (shall be = should be) was to be danced the dance of him 

Zuladuma = when we went to dance at Zuladuma's place. 

bengizofakamelwa (bengizakufukamelwa) abantu bale, I (had come 

to be) had got worried by the people of there-away. 

angiytibe (angiyuba = angiyikuba) ngisayihlaba innya/mazane, I 

shall never strike a buck. 

qeduba bazopuma (bazekupuma) honke, as soon as they had all 

(got) managed to come out. 

N.B. Sometimes the e in ye or ze is lengthened to o before ku of the 
Infinitive. 

Ex. bati uma bazokuwela (hazekuwela) bonke, when they had all 
(come) got to cross. 

sebeti uba bazokuti (bazekuti) qata ezibukweni, when they had 
arrived at the drift. 

oeti abe ezokuxuba (ezakuxuba) amashaahinamaBunu, they saying 
that he was to get to confuse the horses and the Boers. 
atukutela kakulu ub*azokubona (azakubona) ukuti kwasa, they 
were very angry when they came to see that it was daybreak. 
ngen*tibone uma auz*ukuyibona (auzikuyibona or auzi-ukuyiJ>ond) 
induku yami lapa na, go in and see whether you will not see my 
Btafi' here. 

H 



98 UOODS OF TSBB8. 

242. Otlier compound tenses are formed by combining tibe 
Perfect and Past tenses of hOy (namely ngibe, ngdba) with the 
participles of the verb. 

Thus ngibe produces : — 

Impsjafeot^ ngibe ngitanda, I was loving^ or I loved (laiely). 

Plupesfsct^ ngibe ngitandiU, (I was having loved =) I had been 

loving, or I had loved (lately). 
So ngdba produces : — 

Past-Impebpect, ngdba ngitanda,! was loving, or I loved. 
Past-Plupehfect, ngaha ngitandile, I had been loving, or I had 

loved. 
Past-Ineffective, ngdba ngiyahutanda, I should have been loving,. 

or I should have loved. 

243. It will be seen in the above, thdt the particle in each 
ease is put in that tense, which wonld be proper for the action 
as contemplated from the point of time in question. 

Ex. ngaha ngitanda, I was I-loving. 

ngdba ngitandile, I was I-having-loved. 
n^aba ngiyahutanda, I was I-about-to-love. 

244. In conjugating the above tenses, the natives usually 
employ an abridged or contracted form. 

Thus for ngibe ngitanda they use bengitanda, 
vbe utanda 'ub'utanda. 

ube etanda vh'etanda. 

&c. &c. 

the rule being obviously, to omit the initial pronoun, if it begin with 
a consonant, but otherwise to contract the auxiliary be with the pro* 
noun of the participle. 

So, too, for ngdba ngitanda they use ngangitam.da. 
waba utanda wautanda, 

waba etanda waVetanda, 

&c. &c. 

N.B. In the 3rd Pers. Sing. Plur., it is more common to hear 
w(vy*etanda, ay*etanda, the auxiliary ya being used, (apparently for 
ease of utterance), instead of ba in this case. 

Nevertheless, the full form may often be heard from the 

mouth of a native, when the shade of meaning maybe usually 

expressed in English by using the participle of the principal 

verb. 
Ex. ngangitanda uJcuba ngihupu'ke ; hw*ala ibandJila, I wished (r.i 
that time) to go up ; the folk forbad (my going). 
ngabe (ngaba) ngitanda nami uhuba ngikupuJce; kw'ala ibandhUig 
I too was wishing (at that time) to go up, the folk forbad it. 
ababebesele ezinnqoleni who were remaining in the wagons. 



UOODS OF YBBBS* 99 

naho'he svyabtiyt^JBe, nbe nkwenge konke lo JM>, and so you see we 
are on our way back, we having done all that. 

We may hear also snch phrases as the following. 

£z. Iwas'uDhlanibedhhi luti watela loayeka, the Udhlambedhlu 
(regiment) now (did watela wa/yeka =) made a msh^ for Iwaseluti 
where the participle luti is separated £rom the Iwa or Iwaba. 

245. The Ineffective tenses are mostly used to express that 
the act in question would have come to pass, but for some 
reason has not been carried into effect ; as in such sentences as 
these, * I should have gone to Maritzburg — but for the rain/ 
* I should have been killed — ^but for his coming,' &c. 

246. The Ineffective tenses may he made emphatic by using 
»a instead of ya. 

£z. hengixdkutan^ ukwenza loko, 1 should h&ve particularly liked 
to do that. 

The contractions noticed in (241) may be used with the 
Ineffective forms. 
Ex. bengiyotanda ukwenza loko, I should have wished to do this. 
hengizohizwa (= bengizakubizwa) izolo, I should have been called 
yesterday. 

kwakoza ( = kwakuyikuza) kuze kuse, it would have come to dawn. 
laloza ( = laUzakuza) litshone esina, y'ingoha kwavela uMcipiia 
vjati auhlakazeke untjadu, it (Uanga) would have come to set tiiey 
(amantombazana) dancings but that there came forward Mapita 
and said let the dance disperse. 

247. Poi ENTiAL Mood. The tenses of this mood are formed 

by inserting ngu immediately before the verb-root in certain 

tenses of the indicative. 
PsBSBNT, ngingata/nda, I am willing to love> = I may, can, might, 

could, would, should, love. 
Impbrvbct, bengingaianda, I was willing to love (lately), = I might, 

could, would, should, have loved (lately). 
Past-Imperfect, ngcmgaianda, I was willing to love, = I might, 

could, would, should, have loved. 

248. The potential tenses take the pronouns just as the 
indicative tenses do, except that, a is used for u personal in 
the 3rd Pers. Sing, of the potential present. 

Ex. am^atanda, he would love. 

249. In the above tenses, nga is always used witti a svbjeC" 
five reference . to something in th wind of the speaker — to the 
possibiltty of an event happening, as far as his judgment or will 

h2 



100 MOODS OF TBSB8. 

is coiicemecl. Hence the potential forms are used to imply 

wUlmgness or consent (not a wish) for an act, or to express the 

probabilit J of an occurrence in the appreihension of ths speaker, 

Ex. ngingdhamba, vma utsho n^alo, I (may) woiild go if you insist. 

innqola ingawa namhlomje, ku'btUsTulezi, the wagon (may) is 

likely to fall (be upset) to-day> it is slippery. 

hengingavuma, wna ub*utsho nanihlanQe, I should have been 

willing, if thou hadst said to-day. 

sasingatcLndaf uma wah'esibiza, we should ha^e liked, if he had 

called us. 

250. The potential present serves also for a future action. 
Ex. ngingaya kona ngomuso, uma utsho njalo, I may (can, might, 

could, would, should) go there to-morrow, if you say so. 

251. Optative Mood. The tenses of this mood are formed 

bj prefixing nga to the partidplea of certain tenses of the 

indicative. 
Present, nga ngitanda, I ^ould, would, must, ought to, love. 
Pejifect, nga ngitandile, I should, would, must, ought to, have 

loved (lately). 
Past, nga ngatanda, I should, would, must, ought to, have loved. 
Imperfect, nga ngibengitanda, I should, would, must, ought to, have 

been loving (lately) [at the thne referred to]. 
Pluperfect, nga ngibengitandile, I should, would, must, ought to;, 

have loved (lately) [at that time]. 
Past-Imperfect, ngangangitanda, I should, would, must, ought to» 

have been loving [at that lime]. 
Past-Pluperfect, nga ngangitandile, I should, would, must* ought 

to, have loved [at that time]. 

252. In the above tenses nga has the same subjective refer- 
ence to something in the mind of the speaker as before. But, 
whereas the potential tenses express to sense of the possihilHy 
or probahility of an event happening, in the expectation of 
the speaker, the optative tenses express the expediency or 
propriety of its happening, in his judgment. 

Ex. Pot. ngingayihulala leyo*nnja uma eyami, I could (or would be 
willing to) kill that dog, if it were mine. 

Opt. nga ngiyibvlala leyo*nnja, uma eyami, I would, (should, 
ought to), kill that dog, if it were mine. 
Pot. angdbotshwa amahashi, the horses might be tied up. 
Opt. nga ehotshwa amahashi, the horses ought to be tied up. 
Pot. ung'enza loko, um>a unesikala, thou wouldst do thi , if thou 
hast opportunity. 

Opt. nga wenza lolcu, usizwa ng'wye, thou shauldst do ^his, being 
helped by him. 



HOODS OF ▼BBB8. 101 

253. Hence these tenses kt^ used io express a toish or pray er^ 
from whence is derived their name of ojptcUwe tenses. 
Ex. nga etcmda, he oug^t to lovej &= would that he could love. 

254t. In the above tenses, nga, which in reality is the root 

of a verb, may take its pronoun like any other present, except 

that for the 3rd Fers. Sing. Personal a is used instead of u, as 

in the present potential. And the pronoun before nga is not 

nnfrequontly expressed by the natives, particularly when, it 

happens to be a vowel. 
Ex. tmga utanda^ thou oughtest-to love. 
€mga etandUe, he ought to have loved. 
angcbb'ebotshwa amahashi, the horses ought to be tied up. 
<mga eyibulala leyo'nnja, wna eyaJce, he ought to kill that dog, if 
it is his. 

nga heyibulala leyo'nnja, uina eyaho, they ought to kill that dog« 
if it is theirs. 

angah* eyibulala leyo'rmja, uma eya/wo, they {amadodcL) ought to 
kill that dog, if it is theirs. 

ngingangivuma, unia utsho njalo, I should (ought to) oonsentj if 
you say so. 

ngasivumile izolo, uma ub'utsho njalo, we should have consented 
yesterday, if you had said so. 

wngawavuma kuleso'sikati, uma watsho njalo, thou shouldsthave 
consented at that time, if he said so. 

nga/ub'uwma, wna etsho njalo, thou must have been consenting 
(at that time), if he says so. 

UTna v/Dwma lawo'mazioi, nnga ub'utanda nawe, if you admit those 
words, you must have been wishing it, you too. 
•uma evwna lawo'mczwi anga vh*eta/nda naye, if he admits those 
words, he must have been wishing it> he too. 
ngdbenivumile, v/ma beku yHnina, you would have consented (at 
that time), if it had been you. 

ngababevuma, uma etsho njalo, they must have been consenting 
(at that time), if he said so. 

um/a uvum>a lawo'mazwi, ngawautanda nawe, if you admit those 
words, you must have been wishing it, you too. 
vma evuma lawo'mazwi, angawab*eta/nda naye, if he admits those 
words, he must nave been wishing it, he too. 
anga wab'evtvmile, loJcu etsho njalo, he would have consented (at 
that time), since he says so. 

255. The optative present serves also for a future action. 
Ex. nga/iikwenza ngomuio, um>a utsho njalo, thou shouldst do it to- 
morrow, if thou sayest so. 

256. Hence, when nga is found before a future or meffectwe 
tense, it is not the mark of an optative tense, but is usedcn^ 



lOy MOODS OF TBBB8. 

to express, perhaps^ U may he, dm., being, in ^Etct, an abbreyia* 
tion, as will be seen Hereafter. 
£x. ng€L ngiyahuhceneangomuM wna ^ttho njalOf perhaps I shall do 

it to-morrow^ if he aajs so. 

ngingahamba, uma nga uyakwu^gimka iimali, I may gOy if may-be 

thou wilt ^ve me money. 

257. Subjunctive Mood. This mood has only one tense, 
which takes the same prononns as the Present Indicativey 
except that the 3rd Pers. Sing. Personal takes a instead of u. 

Ex. ngitande, (that) I may love ; atande, (that) he may love. 

The snbjunctive is often nsed for the English imperative, 
when it expresses pei suasion or entreaty, not command; and 
the pronoan may then be placed after the verb-root. 

Ex. yibongeni inkoti, thank ye the chief. 

It is nsed also in asking a question, as follows. 

Ex. ngihambe ? (is it) that I must go = am I to ^o ? 

ng'en»e-ni ? (do you say) that I must do what = what am I to do f 

258. The following are examples of the nse of participles. 
Ex. ngingahala, ngiti-ni'ke, vJcwenta hwalo'nvmUu f I can reckon^ I 

sayinsf what, the doing of that man ? 

iyatwasa leye exotwata aiyagoduka, that (new moon) appearing 

which is about to appear, we go home. 

niyci*uH niJiJca isinlwmo beitiwaqedile amasimu, you arriying, the 

cattle will have finished off the mealie-grounds, (lit. you will bO' 

you arriving, the cattle had finished, &c. = it will be, you 

arriving, that the cattle had finished, &c.) 

iiyafiha nj^ nas'enhosmi seaiyishumayesa amaqvnito, (we being 

for arriving =) as soon as we arrive at the chief, we now inform 

him of the truth. 

iyaqina luyangena udwendwe, as soon as it (new moon) is plain, 

the wedding-party (is for entering =) will enter. 

%iotqa amamgqetshe yena angahuhona, thou jumping leaps he 

might see you. 

e<i^8a iaikumha lesi, siya'wvuka vngasigcina ngalohu, smear this 

■kin well, it will stiffen (you may-be feoishing it =) whenever 

you finish it with this. 

imiMa yonke ngibe Tigisaye kwa'Ngoga, every day (I having now 

gone =) whenever I had gone to Ngoza's. 

kungakutaauke isidumo sohuti kubizwe tina (there may-be having 

now started =) whenever there has started a rumour of (to- 

wit we are summoned =) our being summoned. 

wnhlana wengwenya ulukuni ; sasisatshaye kwati qwa, the back 

of the crocodile is hard ; (we having now struck =) whenever 

we had struck (it), it zeeomidtBd. - 



SOODS OF YBBBS. lOS 

siyahlupeJca Una aingafika kulelVzwe, ngoha kuha y'UoTctiMe sapuza 
umtata, we are troubled truly (we may be coming =) whenever 
we come to this country^ because it being all along we drank 
braddsh water. 

The particle si is often introduced in a participle before a 
monosyllabic root. 

Ex. bashtmiayela besiti, they spoke (they) saying^. 



im COVJUOATSOV OV 



CHAPTER xnr. 

COSJUGATIOS or TKKBS, 

Conjngation of the Regalar Verb, tasdi, lore. 

Ikfesatiyx Mood. 
Sing, ianda, love, Pliir. tajutamty lore jbw 

iNFijiiTivjK Mood. 
ukutaYida, to love. 

Indicatiys Mood. 

1. Frkssitt: love. 

Sing, ngitmida, utandck, 

utanda, litcmdat itanda, titanda, 
utandc., hitcmda, htUemda, kutcmdOm 

Flur. iitanda, nitamda. 

batanda, atcmda, zitanda, itanda, 

Farticiple : loying. 

Sing, ngitcmda, utcmda, 

etamda, litcmda, &c 

Flur. sitanda nitcmda, 

betanda, etanda, &c. 

N.B. The Participle may be formed^ as above, for any Tense by tlie 
Bnle in (232). 

Emjphaiic Present : am loving, or do love. 

Sing, ngiyatcmda, uyatanda 

v/yatanda, Uyatanda, iyata/nda, siy atcmda. 
wyatanda, luyatanda, buyatanda, kuyatandai 

Flur. tvyatanda, nvyatamda, 

ba/yatam,daf ayatanda, ziyata/nda, vyata/nda^ 

2. Fbrfbot : loved (lately), or have loved 

Sing, ngitandile, uiomdile. 

utamdile, litamfHle, itandiUf sitandUe, 
uta/ndi^c, hitandile, butandile, kut<ind%le* 



CONJUGATION OF YEBBS. tQ5 

Plur. ntcmdile, nitcnuRle. 

hatandile, atandile, zitandiles itandite* 

3. Past : loved. 

Sing* ngatanda. watanda. 

watanda, latanda, yatanda, satanda, 
watanda, Ivoatanda, hwatanda, hwatamda* 

Plur. satanda, natanda, 

hatanda, atanda, zatanda, yatanda, 

<u Future : sliall, or will, love. 

Sing. TigiyaJeutanda, uyahutanda. * 

uyakutam>da, Ivyahutanda, iyahutanda, aiyakutanda, 
uyakutanda, luyakutanda, huyakutaiida, Jcuyakutandeu 

Plur. siyahutanda, niyaJcutanda. 

bayahutanda, ayakuta^nda, ziyahutanda, iyakutanda. 

Contracted Future, 

Sing, ngotanda. wotanda, 

wotanda, lotanda, yotanda, sotanda^ 
vH>tanda, Iwotanda, hotanda, kwotanda, 

Plur. 8otanda, notanda* 

botanda, otanda, zotanda, yoianda, 

5. Imfebfeot : was, or have been, loving (Lately), 

Sing, bengitanda, ub'uta^da. 

tbb*etanda, belitanda, ib'itanda, besitanda, 
ub'utamdAi, belutanda, bebutatida, bekutanda* 

Plur. besitanda, benitanda. 

bebetanda, aVetatida, bezitanda, ib'itanda, 

6. Pluperfect : had loved (lately). 

Sing, bengiiandile, vib'utandile, 

vh'etandile, &c. 

7. Ineffective : should have loved (lately). 

Sing, bengiyakutanda, tbb*u^yakutanda. 

ub'eyahutanda, &c. 

8. Past-Impekfect : was, or have been, loving. 

Sing, ngatanda, wauta/nda, 

wab'etandat lalitaitda, i^aitanda, sasitanda, 
wautanda, Iwaluta-iidat bwabutanda, kwakutanda» 

Plur. satsitajida, nanitamda, 

babetanda, ab'etanda, zazitanda, yaitanda, 

9. Fast-Plupeefeot : had loved. 

Sing, ibyangitandile, wautandile, 

waVetattdile, &c. 



106 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

10. Past-Ineffectits : should liave loved. 

Sin'g. ngangiyakutanda. wauyaJeutanda* 

wdb'eyalcutanda, &o. 

Potential Mood. 

1. Pbesbnt : may^ can, might, could, should, would, love, or be loving* 

Sing, ngingataada. ungatanda, 

angataxida, Ungatanda, &6, 

2. Imperfect : might, could, &c., have loved,, or been loving (lately). 

Sing, hengingatanda, ub'ungatanda. 

vb*engatanda, belingatanda, &c. 

3. Past-Imperfect : might, could, &c., have loved, or been loving* 

Sing, ngangingatanda. waungatanda, 

wab* engatanda, lalingatanda, &c. 

Optative Mood. 

1. Present: would, should, must, ought, to love. 

Sing, ngangit^inda, ngautanda, 

ngaeianda, ngalitanda, &c. 

2. Perfect : would, should, must, ought to, have loved (loleZy). 

Sing. ngangitandUe. ngautandile, 

nga^toMdile, ngalitandile, &c, 

3. Past : would, should* must, ought to, have loved. 

Sing, ngamgatanda, ngawatanda. 

ngawaianda, ngalatanda, &c. 

4. Imperfect : would, should, must, ought to, have been lovlni^ 

^tely). 

Sing, ngangibengitanda, ngaub'utanda, 

ngaeb'etanda, ngalibelitanda, &c. 

5. Pluperfect : would, should, must, ought to, have loved (lately)^ 

Sing, ngangibengitandile, ngavh^utandile, 

ngasb*etandile, ngali^elitandilef &c. 

6. Past-Imperfect : would, should, must, ought to, have been loving^ 

Sing, ngangangitanda, ngawautanda, 

ngawa^* etanda, ngalalitanda, &c. 

7. Past-Pluperfect : would, should, must, ought to, have love<l. 

Sing, ngangangitandile . ngawautartdile, 

ngawaVtiandihit ngalalitandile, &u. 



CONJUGATION OV YEBBS. <i(07 

SiTBJXTNCTIVS MoOD. 

ythat I) may, nfight, should, &c., love. 

Sing, ngitande. utanAe. 

ata/nde, litande, Uaiide, sitande, 
utande, lutande,,bvi(mde, hutande. 

PluT, sitande. . nt^an^e. 

Subjunctive, used as Imperitive : let me love, &c. 
Sing, angitande, utande, 

hatande or atcmde, aZitande, &c, 
PluT. usitande. anitcmde, 

ahatande, katcmde or atande, &c. 

Contracted Future, used as Im^peraMve : let me love, Ac - 

Sing, angotanda. wotanda or awottmio, 

hotanda, aHata^nda, a^oiaatda, dkotamda. 
awotanda, alwotanda, ahoianda, aJeotanda, 

flur. asotanda, oMotanda. 

abotoMda, katanda, OBotanda, wjfotaaida* 



lOS sneoATiVE tbbbs. 



CHAPTER Xy. 

NEGATIVE VERBS. 

259. The Imperatvoe and Injhiitwe Moods are made negatw^ 
by inserting nga immediately before the verb- root, and change 
ing the final a of the latter to t, except in the case of tsho and 
ewd and all passive forms, which do not change their final 
vowels in this case. 

260. The above form of Imperative is rather dissuasive and 
dehoriaiory. But the Imperatives w7*«a and musani are used, 
as below, with the Infinitive, to forbid an action. 

Ex. musa ukutanda, do not love ; vnusa uhwcnza njalo, do not do so* 
musani ukuya hona, don't go there ; musani ukukuluma, don't talk. 

N.B. musa may be a contraction for mukisa, 'send away, dismiss/ 
The passive form muswa is used in the sense ' be sent away.' 

261. The three simple tenses of the Indicative are made 
negative by prefixing Tea or a to the pronoun, and changing 
the a of the present into % and annexing nga to the a of the 
past. 

Ex. angitandi or kangitandi, I do not love ; autandi or k'utandi, thoo 
dost not love. 

angitandile, I loved not, or have not loved (lately) ; autandUe, &c» 
angitandanga, I loved not, or have not loved ; autandanga, &c» 

The tenses are conjugated throughout as above, except that ha is 
always used in the negative forms corresponding to w, 3rd Pers. Sing. 
Personal, and to a, 3rd Pers. Plural, as katandi, kaiandile, katandanga, 

N.B. ka is often employed to throw emphasis on the negative. 
Ex. kasafumana'muntUf we found not a person. 

k'umuhle ("or awnuhle) wena, unmbi, thou art not handsome, thou 

art ugly. 

262. The two expressions angitandile, angitandanga, mght 
be used about the same object. But the former would 
express the settled feeling, state, &c., the latter only the 
momentary action. 



KEGATIYB YEBBS. 10^ 

Ex. ngihlezi ngokutUe angitokozile IcaMe, I oontinne for a certain 
reason not in a happy state. 
cmgitokozanga ngaleso'sUcati, I did not rejoice at that time. 

263. The negative Participles, corresponding to the above 
iliree tenses, are formed, like the negative Imperative. 

Ex. ngingatandi, I not loving^ ungatandi, engatandi, &c. 

ngingatandile, I having not loved (lately), ungatandUe, enga" 
tandUe, &c. 

ngingatandcmga, I not having loved, imgatandanga, eTigatanda^ 
nga, &c. 

264. The compound tenses of the Indicative follow one or 
other of the above rules, according to their composition. 

Thus the future takes the negative in the present of ya or za. 
Ex. cmgiyikutanda or Jcangiyikutanda, t shall or will not love; Part* 

ngingayikutanda. 

auyihutanda or J^uyihutanda, thon shalt or will not love. 

hayikutanda, he or she shall or will not love. 

angizikubala (angiz'ukubdla, angizokubala) , I shall not (come 

to =) be able to reckon. 

And the Irn/perfects, Pluperfects, and Ineffectives^ take the 
negative in fche Pariidple of the principal verb. 
Ex. bengingatandi, I was not loving (lately), 

hengin^atandile or hengvngatandanga, I had not loved {lately), 
hengingayikutanda, I should not have loved (lately) » 
ngangingatandi, I was not loving. 

&c. &c. 

265. After a Belati/oe, the Simple Tenses take the negative 
in the same way as Participles, avoiding thus the collision of 
the relative vowel with the negative vowel a. 

Ex*, yena ongalaliyo (= a-ungalaliyo), he, who does not sleep. 
abangayikutanda, they who will not love. 

266. The negative forms for fche Potential are as follows. 
Ex. ngingetande, I may or might, &c., not love. 

hengingetande, I might, &c., not have loved (lately), 
ngangxngetandet I might, &e., not have loved. 
singeze safihla nokufihZa, we could not have thoroughly con- 
cealed it. 

267. Those for the Optative are formed by prefixing wrjra (or 
ngvnga, utvga, &c.) to the negative forms of the corresponding 
indicative participles. 



no MBGATIYB TBBBS. 

Ex. nga ngingai-andi, I shotdd, &c., oxight, not to love. 

nga ngingatandile, I should, &c., ought, not to have loved (JUMb^ 
vm>g'ungalewen*i lokot thou Bhouldst, &c,, not do this. 

268. The S'ubjtmctiveiBkesioT its iiega,tiYe iarnif ngmgttttmii 
(ttat) I may or miglit not love. 

269. The following are examples of the conjugation of {he 
principal tenses of the verb, taken negatively, by means of 
which, as models, all the others may be conjugated. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing, ungaiandi, do not thou love. Plur. ningatandi, love ye no^ 

Indicative Moon. 

PsBSBNT : love not, or am not loving. 

Sing, angitandi. autandi, 

katandi, alitandi, aitandi, cbsitandif 
autandi, alutandi, a^tdandi, akutandi, 

Plur. asitandi. anitoMdi, 

abatandi, katandi or awatandi, atUa/ndi, aitandim 

Participle: not loving. 

Sing, ngingatandi. ungatandi* 

engatandi, liTigatandi, &c. 

Plur. singatandi ningatandi, 

hengatandi, engaiandi, &c. 

laiPERPECT : was, or have been, not loving (lately,) 

Sing, hengingatandi. v^'ungatandi, 

ub*&n,gatandx, helingatandi, ib'ingatandi, hesingaiandi, 
uh*u%igatandi, helwngatandi, hehungatandi, bekungataindL 

Plur. hesingaiandi. heningatandi. 

h^engatandi, ah* engatandi, hezingatandi, ib'im^atandim 

Past-Imperpect : was, or have been, not loving. 

Sing, ngangingatandi, waungatandi, 

wah'engaiandi, lalingatandi, yaingatandi, saavngatcmdi, 
waungatandi, Iwalungatandi, btoahwngatandi, kwakv/ngata/ndiL 

Plur. sasingatandi. naningatandu 

bahengatandi, ctb' engatandi, zazingatandi, yaingatandi* 

Potential Moox>. 
Pbbsent : may, can, &c., not love. 

Sing, ngingeiande, wigetande, 

angetande, &c. 



NEGATITE VERBS. Ill 

XMPEJttjfjfiOT : mighty could« &c., not have loved or been loving (laUlyy 

Sing, ngangingetamde, vh'ungetande, 

vh'engetcmde, &c, 

Past-Im PSBFECT : mighty could, &c., not have loved or been loving. 

Sing, ngangingetmnde, waungetande. 

wdb'engetande, &0, 

Optative Mood. 

Present : -should, would, must, ought, not to love. 

Sing, ngangingatandi. ngaungatandi, 

ngaengatandi, &c. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

(that I) may, or might not love. 
:Sing. ngwgatandi, ungoiandi, 

cmgatamdA, &o. 

Suhjunctive, used as Imperaiive : let me not love* . 

Sing. angingatandA. awngaiwndi, 

I i.iyaiaoidA, alingatavM, &c» 



118 VSn OV THB PABTICLEB SA. AND llie. 



CHAPTER XVL 



USE OF THE PABTIGLES 8A AND SE. 

270. The particle sa (probably a fragmentary Present from 
tbe verb sola) is inserted as below, in the Present or Perfect 
Tense or Participle, (including, therefore, the Future forms, 
and others compounded with a Participle,) to express the 
continuance or progression of an action. It may be represented 
in English according to the context by now, still, yet, then, &cf. 

Ex. ngisatanda, I am still loving. 
ngisalele^I am still lying down. 

271. This particle sa, when used with a negative verb, may 
be generally expressed by any more, any longer, at all, &c. 

Ex. anisatandi, ye do not any longer love. Fart, ningasatandu 
kaaayiJcutanda, he will no more love. 
angis'ez'uhuJeulvmia, I will not yet come to talk any more. 
akuhihis'elatshwa nga'luto, it is no longer cured by anything. 
nanamhla lohu usahal)iza, and to-day he is still calling thenk 
(= he has not yet called them). 

272. Instead of sa, se is used in the same sense before a 
noun, adjective, adverb, or adverbial expression. 

Ex. sisela'pa, we are still here ; usekona, he is still (here =) alive. 
uma hisenjalo, if it (is) still so. 
indawo isekude, the place is still far off. 

Sometimes sele, itself, is used for se, 
"^ix. asel'eqomene (as'eqomene) worCamahuto lawo, those soldiers had 

by this time challenged each other. 

umuzi Jca*8enzangakona usele ewonile (usewonile), the family of 

Senzans^akona he has now ruined it. 



'o 



273. The participle ha is used like sa with a negative verb 
to express * not yet.' 

Ex. asiJcatandi, we do not yet love ; Part, singakatandi, 
kakaboni, he does not yet see ; Part, engakahoni, 
uVengakafiki, he had not yet arrived. 



USE OF THE PABTICLXS SA AND SB. 113 

t^Jce hengaJcafihi bona, we are come (they not yet arriving) 

before them. 

akafiki (Jcakafiki) f is he not yet come. 

aul^cLzi, thou dost not yet ^ow ; ahaJcavumi, they do not yet 

consent. 

^74. The particle se (probably a fragmentary Perfect from 

^ala) is prefixed to a Partict]ple with the force of now^ just 

now, = by this time, or, then, just then, = hy that time, — 

marking the exact commenc&ment, or completion, of an action. 

Ex. sengitwnda, by this time I love = I beg^ now to love. 

t^etanda, by this time he is loving. 

seutandile, by this time thou hast loved=thou hast done loving. 

seniyakutanda, now ye will love, = ye will begin now to love. 

sesizauke (or sisezauke stj9umu2e),we will now get that we re6t,= 

get a bit of rest, where ke stands colloquially for ka. 

aharvtu hasebemqapele endhldeni, the people had by this time 

noticed him in the path. 

275. In point of fact, the pronoun of se is omitted in the 
above expressions, just as that of he is in the imperfect ; and 
the whole tense, sengitandamaiy be conjugated like bengitanda* 
Sing, sengitanda, tu^utanda, 

iLs'etanda, selitanda, isHtanda, sesilanda, 
us'utanda, sdutamda, iebutcmda, sekutanda, 
Flur. sesitanda, senita/nda, 

sebetanda, as'etcmda, gemtandafig'itanda. 

And the same forms serve for the Participle, except that, for 
us*etanda and as'etanda, the Participial form will be es'etanda. 
Frequently, however, seetanda (s'etanda), seitanda, seutanda^ 
are used for v^s^etcmda, is^itanda, us'utanda, ** 

Whenever se comes before the sound of u in the next 
syllable, it may be strengthened to so. 
Ex. sokwanele, it is enough ; sowafa, he was already dead. 
sohujlhile, utswala, the tshwaZa has already arrived. 
soki^'isikati sokvdhla, it is now the time tor eating. 

N.B. Instead otsowafa, in the preceding set of examples, it is more 
common, where a person is spoken of, to hear u^afa=ttsewafa. 

So us'afika, he was already come ; us^ahvXawa, he was already killed 
us'emuka, he was already gone ; us'agoduka, he was already gone home 
us'ahola, he has already drawn (his pay) ; but usdhola, he is now 
drawing his pay. 

The plural of the above would be sebafa, sebafika, &c. 

Ex. usafa yena us*efehamba rije, he is dead already, he is now aead 
(though) walking, plur, sebafa, bona, sebefe (sehefele) behamba nje 



114 USE OF TUB PARTICLES SA AKD 81. 

ku8'aqule (plur. kmebaqule) huleyo'ndawo, he is fixed to thatgpofc. 

kwasokuniuka-ke inipi lea'Dingane, thereupon DlngaDe's itnpi 

departed. 

kwasokuhulewe yena yedwa, there had now been killed lie alone. 

s'eti uMkabayi, ' Akuhulawe uMhlaTigcma ! ' teebulaworke tiJIflUo* 

ngana, then says IJmkabayi, ' Let Umhlangana be killed ! ' ao 

Umhlangana is killed. 

In like manner we have contractions like the following. 

E£. kaz'ahona'luto (kazaioahona), he did not g^t to see anything, 
plur. abaze (ahaza) hcbbonaluto, 

kwQ,* Sonyoni wnuntu angez'atolvm {angeze watolwa), at Sonyoni's 
a man would not be (i.e. would not wish to be) adopted. 
anges^aioapuza {angeze toawapuaa) la*wanzi, he oould not have 
drunk this water. 

lesi^guhusibobokile; umuntu angez'awaka (aigeze wawaka, 'plux, 
bangeza hatuaka) amanzi ngaso, this calabash has got a hole in 
it; a person (coidd not have drawn =) cannot draw water 
with it. 

276. From the following examples, the stndent will flee 
how to conjugate the other tenses with se. 
Imperfect. 

Sing, hesengitanda. uh*U8*utanda, 

uh* es* etanda, beseUianda, ib'is'itanda, besesitanda. 
ub'us*utanda, beselutanda, be»ebutanda, besetcutandc^ 
Plur. besesitanda. wav>s*utanda. 

besebeta/nda, ah'ea'etanda, beaezitanda, kwasekutanda» 
Plur. sasesitanda. nasenitanda. 

basebetanda, aib'es'etanda, sa^ezitanda, yaisHtanda. 

Potential Present : may^ can, Ac., by this time love. 

Sing, sengingatanda. tis'ungatanda. 

vs'engatanda, selingatanda, isHngatanda, sesingatanda, 
us'ungatanda, selungatanda, sebungatanday sekungatanda. 

Plur. sesingatanda. seningatanda. 

sebengatanda, as'engatanda, sezingatanda, is'ingatanda. 

Optative Past-Plupebpect : should, &c, by that time haVe loved. 
Sing, ngangasengitandile, ngavuaus'utandile. 

Tigawah'es'etandUe, ngalaselitandUe, ngayais'itandUe, nga* 
sasesita/ndile, ngakwasekutandiU. 
Plur. ngasasesitandile ngana^emta/ndile. 

ngaiba^ebetandile, nga^'es'etandile, ngazaibezitandile, ngO' 
yais*itandile. 

In the Past, Imperfect, and Pluperfect Tenses, a contraction is 
often made as follows. 



U8K OV THE PABTICLBS 8A AND SSU 115 

Bz. vfcu^engiiandiU {=:wdb*es^§n^a7idUe), lie had by this time 
loved me. 

was'eziwisa (= wah'es'ezivnsm) pansi vgamdbomuy he was by tbis 
time throwing himself down on purpose. 

uDingane waaeVehlangcmisa (= wayes^ehlanganisa) impi yake, 
plur. hiLsele hehlanganisa {=has^ehlangani8a), Dingane was 
by this time collecting his impi. 

ang'es'eKtvUe (€.ngah*e8*ezwile) wckbamha, he would have already 
heard and understood. 

N.B. Mark the idiom in the last example^ when a Pluperfect (or 
Fwfeef) is followed by a Fast Tense. 

277. The relative vowel is set before se. 

Ex. lowo'muntu osowafa or (osafa), hwakung*owa1c<i' Zaishukef that 
man who died was one of Zatshuke's, plur. laho*bantu asebafa, 
hwaku ng'cibantu haka'Ngoza. 

278. The following are illustrations of the use of sa and se. 
, Ex. hesahambiUf they having now (all this time) gone. 

sehehamhile, they having now (by this time) gone. 
ngingabengis'azi, (that) I should not at all know. 
angaVesafa amakaza, (that) he should not be already dying 
with cold. 

useuyahona, thou art now seeing ; so hasehcvyahona (or seibaya* 
bona), ase ayabona, &c. 

umzimba rise'buhlungu, my body is still in pain. 
umzimba us'u'buhlungUf my body is now in pain.\ 
sasala saba (sasesiba) isitupa nje (we remained we were =) we 
were now only six. 

akusez*ukuba*muntu wa'luto, he will never more become a man 
(of) worth anything. 

le*nguboindalaf akuse'nto ya'luto (akuse'luto la*luto), this blanket 
is old, it is (not still) no longer (a thing of something) worth 
anything. 

kungase'mdhlaya kuyena, it being no longer a joke with him. 
uyihlo usahlezi na (usekona no) ? is your father still alive ? 
kasatandi ukuvuka, he no longer wishes to rise. 
ausayikukwenza loko, thou wilt no more do it, that. 
asisayikwpinda s'enze nje, we will no more repeat (that we do it) 
to do it. 

mhlaumbe nga usaVazi Uli'gama, ingabe usakohlwa, perhaps, may 
be, thou still knowest this song, it may be thou at this time 
forgettest. 

uTsJiaka aseko : sewabulawa abantwana benkosi, Tshaka is no 
longer here (alive) : he has been already killed by the children 
of the king. 

ikanda lake libij selaba Ubi, his head is bad, it was already bad. 
ungalingis'okwabanye abafana laibo asebatata imikuba emibi, 

i2 



116 VBia OF THB PASTICLB8 8A AND BE. 

don't you imitate the (doing) of these other boys who half 
already got evil habits. 

Tfdti ningasenidhlile nje n'esuta nisase Tigdbantu ? do yoUj when 
you may have now eaten and were filled, exult over people ? 
ngangisayiponse ngeishe insele, ycthvJca nje, I had at this time 
struck the honey-bear with a stone, it just looked (at me). 
JcwabekusafikeoMlozikazanahetibazahumelapa; qa! b'ahluleka, 
there was come by this time the isanusi (plur. excelUnticB) think- 
ing (that) they will heal him ; no ! they were beaten. 
vjctb^esamdvduzele, kas^atula (= Jcaza watula) she (was stOl 
having hushed him =) kept hushing him, he never got quiet. 
isayahitfa le*nkdbi, loku uhle uyigqule ngamandhla ngoti, this ox 
will now die (= after a while), since you are continually poking 
it violently with a rod. 

ia'iyahufa (seiyakufa) le*nkabi, loku uyigqulUe ngomkonto, this 
ox will now die (= as the result of an act), since you have 
poked it with an assegai. 

seloku uJefo wati uyaungipa umkonto, eminaloko usangipa, ever 
since Jojo said he will give me an assegai, up to this time he is 
still giving (it) to me. (= he has not yet givc^n it to me). 
Ungasane ukufa kwennyanga, it having still not rained at the 
end of the month (from some time spoken of). 
lingakani ukufa kwennyanga, it not having yet rained at the end 
of the month. 

hevigakahlanganis^oa, they not being yet assembled. 
siy*ezwa, kepa asikaqondi kahle Una, we hear, but we do not yet 
well understand. 

asikakwazi loko, we do not yet know that. 

oeningakadhli na ? ai I akukahiko ukvdhUt, have you not yet oeen 
eating ? no ! there is not yet food here. 

wah*engakadhli na ? ai ! kwakungakabiko ukudhla, had he not 
yet been eating ? no ! there was not yet food there. 
kakawaleii amahashi ; kak^emuki; kakahambi, they (amadoda) do 
not yet bring the horses 5 they are not got off j they do not 
yet go. 



SVBSTANTrrE^ TOWEL> AND PASSIYB TEBBf. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

substantive, vowel, and passive verbs. 

'279. Substantive Yeeb 

The following are the regular tenses of the verb, 6a, to be. 

Impbsatiys. 
Positive. Negative. 

yiba, yiitcmi ungabi, ningabi, 

Inhkitive. 
ukvba. uktmgabi, 

Indicativb. 

Present ngiba, ngiyaha. Part, vigiba. angihi. Part. ngingM, 

Perfect ngibe. angibanga. 

Past ngaha. angaba. 

Futnre ngiyakuba, contr. ngoba. angiyihuba 

Ineffective hengiyakuba, bengingayikuoa, 

Past-Ineffective ngangiyakuba, ngangtiigayikibba, 

POTBNTIAli. 

Present ngingdba, ngingebe. 

Imperfect berigingaba, bengingebe, 

Past-Imperfect ngangmgaba. ngangmgebe, 

Oftattvb. 

Present ngangiba. ngangingdbi 

Perfect ngangibe, ngangingabcmga, 

SUBJTJNCnVB. 

ngibe, ngingabi, 

Ex. aibanga isaba ria'kwala, he (indoda) hadnomorepower to refuse. 
kabanga esaba namandhla ohikulv/ma, he had no more power 
to sx)eak. 

vha uya us'efikile-ke kimvna, here he comes, he has arrived, you 
see (ke), to me. 

uyaba (or uba uya) ufikile-ke nomsindo, here he is, he has come 
with (his) noise. 
i^nke izinnqola ztba ngako na? &11 the wagons were how many ?• 



t20 SUBSTANTIYBj PASSIVE^ AND VOWEL VEIIBS. 

tMMue (kdUBOMi or oMOMa) tatanda, they (ifsmtombi) did not get to 
love. 

sdhaniba sesiwugugvda, we went on now crunching it (utnhila). 
huoaqale {hwcLqaia) hwahXwn/gamsa elika*Nzoho, there first 
engaged the (soldiers, ibuto) of Nzobo. 

inhlieiyo angabe (angaha) ngisayixwa (my) heart I was not feel- 
ing it any longer^ = I acted wildly, without restraint. 
ausoze ausoza toovuta umltlo lo, this fire will never get to have 
blazed. 

nalce naka nay a ezmnyangeni ? did you go at all to the doctors ? 
kangaze (kangaza) ng*azi ukuha uti-ni, I did not come to know 
what he (says) said. 

kangaze ngawuib na wnhumbi, I never saw the ship. 
angiseze angisoze ngayizeka inddba, I will never have told the 
story. 

kwabe (kwaba) fuU ngidblela epangweni Vmakaza, there was I 
also eating in a hurry it (innyama) being cold. 
ungaqaZe ungaqaXa uti naziya izvnkomo ! karUi y'izona izinnyati, 
you might begin by saying there are cattle over there ! where- 
as there they are buffaloes. 

wapinde wapinda wati asimupefuti, he (repeated he said) said 
again (that) we should give him ag^ain. 

gvdhlana no Mziwoka lo, yena eyautshetsJie ayijihise indaha yaJco 
le, step aside with TJmziwoka (Mr. Walker) here, him who will 
quickly bring forward this your matter. 

kwatitoa ke, niyauhamhe nidhla zona, it was said, ye will go on 
eating these (izinkomo). 

wngdbe (angaha) ngisayibona induku yami, I (was not any longer 
seeing) no longer saw my staff. 
So sizakwenze njani, we diiall do how ? 

285. Vowel Verbs. 

In conjugating VoweUVerhs, some very natnral elisions, &c., 
take place, which do not require any particular notice. 
Ex. nvy'ika (ni ya aka), ye are building ; nis*esdba (nisaesaha), ye 

still fear. 

siyakwazi (siyahiazi,) we shall know ; sovjohlulUe (souaMulUe), 

thou hast now overcome. 

vig'ala nga'aZa = nga^ala), he should refuse j uhewonUe (uheu' 

oniU), he had injured. 

ibeyeqa (iheieqa), it (innja) was leaping ; so ub'eqa, ah'eqa, ube- 

weqa. 

yaseydhlulehile (yaseidhlvlekile), it (impi) was now overcome. 

an^ez'ota (angezew*ota), he cannot get to dry himself. 
So. niy* ezwanini ? do you hear ? 

286. The Relative, as we have seen, always appears in oiie 
or other of the forms, a, e,*o. When the relative comes 



STJBSTANTITB, PASSITE^ AND VOWEL VEBBS. 121 

before a vowel- verb, the soxmd of lo is (ahnost of necessity )> 
inserted after a or o, and that of y after e. 
Ex. umvii owembelwayo, a tree that was dug up. 

inhomo eyapuJcileyo, a broken ox, i,e, with leg, &c.^ broken. 

286. Passive Verbs. 

In conjugating Passive Verbs, it mnst be noted that the 
Perfect drops the I of its termination He before the w, which is 
the sign of the passive voice. 

Ex. Tigitandiwe, for ngUandihve, I have been loved (lately), 

287. Otherwise, the different tenses are formed and conju- 
gated for the passive voice, just as for the active, with corres- 
ponding variations of meaning. 

Ex. ngitandwa, ngiyatandwa, ngitandiwe, ngatandwa, &C, 
vigiydkutandwa, &(f.> bengitandwa, &c., ngangitandwa, lVc. 

So, also, negatively, 

angitandwa, angitandiwe, angitandwanga, &c. 
Part, ngingatandwa, ngingatandiwe, ngmgaiandwanga, &c. 

288. The Perfect is often abridged as in the active voice. 
Ex. tandwe, londolozwe, lungiselwe, &c, 

for tandiwe, londoloziwe, lungiseliwe, &c. 

N.B. The verb tsho, say, makes its perfect thus : Active, tshilo* 
Passive, tshiwo, with the corresponding negatives, tshongo and tshi' 
wongo. 

The present form, tsho, remains the same, whether taken positively 
or negatively ; and it is also used for the potential present negative^ 
and for the subjunctive mood, positive and negative. 

Ex. ngitsho, angitsho, ngingetsho, (ukuba) ngingatsho, 

289. Compound Tenses are formed in all the moods, by 
using the proper tense of the auxiliary ha, belonging to tho 
m.ood in question, combined with some Participle of the 

principal verb. 

Imp. yiba wenza loJcu, be doing this. 

yibani nihaniba, be going. 

uma uyaba'kuklala, if thou art for staying. 
Ind. ngiydkuba ngitanda, I shall be a-loving. 

ngiyakuha ngi/yata* da, I shall be for loving. 

ngiyahiba ngitarutile, I shall be having loved (lately), 

ngiyakuha ngatanda, I shall be having loved. 

ngiyakuba ngiyakutarida, I shall be being about to love. 

bengiyakuha ngitanda, I should have been a-loving (lately) 

ngangiyakuba ngitanda, I should have been a-loving. 
&c. &c. 



I2n •UBBTANTIYB^ FA88IYB> AND TOWBL TBBBa» 

Pot. ngingiiba ngitcmda, I may, &q,, be a-loving. 

ngingaha ngiyatanda, I may, &c,, be for loving. 

ngingaha ngitandile, I may, &c., be having loved (laUilff)m 
Opt. (ngi) ngangiba ngiyatanda, I should, &c., oe a-loving. 

ngangiba ngitandUet I shotQd &c., be having loved (2at«ly). 

So also with the particle sa or se, 
Ex. ngingaha ngisatanda, I may still be a-loving. 

ngingebe ngisatanda, I can not be any longer a-loving« 

angeb'esatanda, he could not be any longer a-loving. 

hengingebe ngisatanda, I could not have been any longer a-loriofi 

angeh'esavuma, he would be not at all consenting. 

iiikomo zingaba zisaya ngahona, (that) the cattle should not gft 

any longer in that direction. 

hangdx'ahlula n^aloko, they can master them throngh tluit* 

nawe ungdsoubona, you too would now seei 



vex OT THE TXBB TX. 123 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

USE OF THE VERB TI. 

290. Tlie verb, ii, is often ased as below, wlwn the iense is 
mispended, either for giving emphasis, or drawing particular 
attention to what is said, or by the occurrence of a parenthesis. 
In such a case ti is placed in the proper tense, at the point 
where the break occurs, and with the pronoun of the principal 
verb, or with the indefinite pronoun A^. It is almost impos- 
sible ajb times to represent the idiom in English ; though it 
may be often expressed by means of a simple pronoun, or by 
using the verb * find,' or ike phrase ' come to pass,' ' happen/ 
Ac,, as below. 

Ex. bati ukufiha hwaho, hamhcbmba, hamtshaya, they« at their arriTal^ 
seized blm, and beat him. 

lowo'muntu owdti^ uma afike loipa, wati ^ngitolani (ngitoleni),' 
that man who, when he came here, said * adopt me.' 
siyauti, sidunduhala lapaya emmangweni, lihe lifudumala, we 
shall (find), we getting-high there upon the hill, that it (ilanga) 
is hot. 

ngesikati okwati ng<i80 uTshaka wapwtneM, vmpi, at the time, at 
which it happened (that) Tshaka sent out an vmpi. 
ngesikati ati uDingane, uma angene ebukownA qtd'vba kufe umfo 
wckbo, wawabulala onke mmaduna amakvZu nahafo waJ>o, at the 
time at which Dingane, when he entered upon the chiefta^. 
ship, after that his brother had died^ killed all the grea^ 
captains and his brothers. 

angimtandi lowo'mfcmi owati, mlda hufaiewe, wangikahUla panH 
kanye negingane Kami, I don't like that woman who, on the day 
when the land (died) was parched, trod me under together 
with my little ones. 

*agi ukuiba looti, eselapa, ahet^azi vkuha aebe pakati, he knowing 
that he, when he shall be now here« will now know that they are 
now within (his kraal). 

lubalekile ngeyas'ekaya, okute, uba kubvlawa uPiii, ya/ga kona, it 
(the regiment Udhlambedihiu) ran because of it (impi, the 
enemy) at home^ which, when Piet (Betief) was killed, went 
tHere. 



I 

i 



124 TTBE OT THS YEBB TI. 

uneManhla lowo, ot'esamila (Plur. abate besamila), aisheitiht 

agxile, ahekele kuhle, that man is prosperous^ who> while still 

growing, quiokly sends down (his roots) and looks welL 

loJco ukwenzela uhuha kuze kuti, mhla ejikayo, amhange, that h& 

does in order that it may get to come to pass (that), when he 

arrives, he may thank Imn. 

kwaii ehuya envuka, sases'akile lapaya, it happened (that), whea 

he went away ag^ain, we were by that time settled oyer there. 

kute mhla lidttma kakulu. lapa, y*imhla'ke epumayo lapa ehttya, 

eya'krdala koNkaitahana, it happened, when it thundered much 

here, it was when he went hence from hom^, going to sleep at 

Kaitshana's. 

afum'ezakwngena midMmi ka'Mpande, anypate ngezihongo, as he 

was about to enter the hut of Mpande, he treated him with 

praises. 

to'enza-niuhifehZezipaJeati kfwahaniu, ah'ehlezi ngezingviba f what 

does he that, when sitting among people, he should be sitting 

with disobliging manners P 

Sometimes the voice is rested, as it were, on tbis verb, at 
the beginning* of a sentence. 

Ex. kuti odelelwayo kanii uyenayena, h^ who is despised, why he is 
the very man. 

uti angaxahana nomv/rvye, hamhlokomele bonke, if he happens to 
quarrel with another, they will all make a noise at him. 
Jniti, ngoba utiwe capa amafuta, ub^us^wyatukutela ngakonaloho, 
and so, because you are sprinkled with fat, you are now for 
being angry on that account. 

kuti enmwiti bahlale kona, kuti ehusuku bangene emkuvjim, by day 
they stay there, by night they enter the boat. 
bat'aJ)aVishv/mi baba^ika ngoniese, the twelve, they cut them 
with knives. 

291. The potential tenses of U are used to express * it may 
l)e,' * probably,' * very likely,' *I should think,' * I should say,' 
&c., that is, always with subjective reference to what is pass- 
ing in the thought of the speaker. 
Ex. kungati bangafika eTekwini probably (I should say) they may 

reach the Bay. 

UzVzmto kimgati zihlakanipile, these things very likely are 

clever. 

himgati ngi^ona indhlu, it may be (that) I see a house, = 

imagine that I do, as in a dream, or in fancy. 

kwangati ngihamba entabeni, it might have been (that) I was 

walking on a mountain, = I fancied in my dream that I 

was, &c. 

kwangati singabulawa yiyo, it seemed as if we might be killed 

bjr it 



USB OF THE YEBB TI. 125 

lo*muntu hwasongati ujojiwe, that man, it seemed^ had beeu 
impaled. 

292. The expressions JcungatiH (=kungatiiti)j or sehumgatiti 
(contr. sengatiti) or sokungatiiiyBre used with like meaning. 
£x. kimgatiti amasi, it seems to be amasi. 

sokungatiti uyena uNgoza, it looks like him, Ngoza. 

sekungatUi ngingalala, I may lie down, its seems. 

sengatiti lizakuna kusihlwa, it looks as if it will rain this evening. 

sengatiti kungavela umuntu angix.6 vmuii, very likely a man may 

torn Tip and give me medicine, i 

So in other tenses. 
Ex. ng'ezwa kwangatiti dbantu hedhla utshwala, I heard, seemingly, 

people eating tshwaka. 

kuyaungatiti loka wenzele ukviba umkohlise, it will seem as if 

you had done that in ordier to deceive him. 

hekungatiti umuntu ehesikubona lapaya kusasa, it was probably a 

man that we saw over there this morning. 

kwa'icungatiti indhlovu ; siktJ^one koU>lu kalo ; naku I hoMieka, 

it was very likely an elephant ; we saw it on this ridge ; there 1 

it moves along. 

The above expressions are often contracted to hunga, sengay 
'ewoMga^ konga, hekuvga, kwakunga, &c. 
Ex. kwnga, umuntu, it is probably a person. 

kunga hay*eha, very likely they are for stealing. 
himina kunga akufanele, to me it seems improper. 
kunga wenze lezo*zinto, it looks as if you had done those things. 
yekani okunga kuhi, leave off what has the appearance of evil. 
kunga uy'emuka, it seems you are for going away. 
kwanga w'etemha ijvhane lalo elikulu, very likely you trusted to 
its great speed. 

kwange utemha ukuHka kwdke izolo, it seems that you w»-re 
expecting his arrival yesterday. 

senga seniz*enzele ngalapa nita/nda ngakona, it seems as if you 
should just do for yourselves in what direction you please. 
tulani sizwe ! uzwa-ni ? any'azi, ku/nge (kunga) indhlovu, hush, 
that we may hear ! what do you hear ? I don't know, pix*- 
bably an elephant. 

kiunge angemyise lo ; kunge angayisa le, it seems that lie would 
not bring this one j it seems he would bring this one. 
konga uyamkohlisa, you will seem to be for cheating him. 
hekunga wyalaula, it seemed that you were for joking. 
kwakvm^a kasayikubuya, it seemed as if he (will) would ao 
more return. 
And uga may be used in a similar sense with other 
pronouns. 



126 USB OF THl YSBB TI. 

Ex. wanga angawela, it seemed as if he would cross. 

imga uhamha ngendJUela, he seemed to be walking by the road. 

muzizima onga amaiunzi ezintaba, looming mass who seefmestto 

be shadows of mountains, (from one of the wt^on^o of Dingane), 

u*ngalo zimhonibo zinga Vibubesi, thou (with) arms larg^, like a 

lion. 

anga ayatula ngaloJco, they (amadoda) seemed (to be for being 

quiet) as if they would be quiet through that. 

waza wanga ungahaniba, at last you seem as if you would go»cr 

you seemed actually as if you would go = you must not think 

of going. 

waza wanga ungadhla ungaJeagezi, it seemed actually as if yoa 

would eat without washing. 

baza banga bangakala ebakwele, they seemed actually (or 'at 

last they seemed') as if they woiQd cry^ he being hard upon 

them. 

293. KungaloTcu, kungehhu, Jcwangalolcu, Icongaldku, &c.y are 
used in the same way as kungatiti, &c. 

Ex. sengatiti ngingake {ngingalca) ngikwele ehashini, hungaloku ngdke 
(clipped for ngingake) ngikwele ennqoleni-ke, ngihamhaha/mba 
inncozana, very likely I may get to ride on a horse^ probably I 
^^^7 get to ride in a wagon^ walking a little. 
usingenise, kwangaloku silungile kuyena, he took us into (biff 
house), probably because we are right (to him) in his eyes. 
wapuma lapa kiti, kwangaloku v^emuka uqobo, ukuba engctsayi' 
kvhuya, he went out from us here, it seemed as if he was now 
going away quite, that he will no more return. 

294. The above expressions, in their different forms, may 

be used to express a wish. 

Ex. kunga (knngati, kungatiti, kungaloku) ngingat<. Aa, me-seems I 
might be loving, = would that I loved ! 
kunga ning*azi, would that ye knew ! 

kunga ngabemukile, it seems to me they ought to have gone* - 
would that they had gone ! 

kwanga kungehe njalo impela, I trust it may not have been so 
entirely. 

kungaloku kung*enzeke loko okunjalo, would that such « thing 
might not be done ! 

kungaloku ngakung*enzekanga loko, me-seems that ought not to 
have been done, = would that it had not been done ! 
sekungaliti (sengati) nga ngahlala kona kangasuka, woul<^ that 
perhaps T had stopped there and not gone away ! 
sokungatiti sing a sis'ekaya, how I wish that we were at hcTie! 
sokungatili ngangihamhe izolo, Tpo-seems I ought to h- .o goue 
yesterday, = would that I had gone yesterday ! 



VBB OF THE YEBB TI« l27 

295. The following expressions with timsbj also be noticed. 
£x. sasisate {siisiyate) siyatoupakamisa lo'mpongolo was'ahlula, (we 

had thought we are for lifting this box=) we made sure to lift 
this box^ it beat us. 

yaisate iyavuJca innyamaaana, Jcwasa Jcwalile, the buck tried to 
rise^ it was all in vain. 

ngangisate ngipala lapo, I tried to curry there (upon that skin). 
sasisate (sibesiyate), we tried (to do something shown bj 
the speaker). 

hdbeyate ahawwraqe unvuzi, they tried to surroimd liie kraal. 
laUyaie iBunu liyatshaya ngentonga yesibamu, the Boer tried to 
strike with the butt-end of the gun. 

haheyate hdbuyela ngemuva ngeTidhlela yabo, they tried to return 
back on their path. 

vJojo wakute (=: way'esakute or wab'esahute) uyahdmha, Jojo 
(had thought he is for going) tried to go. 

sakute siyangena satshona, we tried to enter (the stream), we sank. 
sebebakute bayalutshaya uDhlanibedhZu, they had thought to 
smite the TJdhlambedhlu (regiment). 
N.B. ngima kuscete = ngibe ngisate ; so Vema kusate = babe besate. 

296. The verb ti appears primarily to mean, to * think ' or 

say within the heart. 

Ex. niti-ni nina na ? what do you think ? 

bengiti nazalwa nako, I thought you were bom with it. 
w'enza lokv, eti ngiyauceba, he did this thinking I shall get rich. 
kwazis*uba izwe elamatafa, Hgijima ematafeni n^e, lapa kuhlonga 
esihi lesi noqunga, siti singafunyanisa vdongana singene hul^, it 
was because the country was one of flats, we running in fact on 
the flats, where there was wanting the scrub (this =) you know, 
and tambootie grass, we (saying) thinking (that) we might 
find a little ravine and enter into it. 

But it is also used to express to * speak/ or say with the 

mouth, as perhaps in the last instance. 

Ex. wati yena, ngiza*ubuya masinyane, said he, I will return 
, presently. 
bail dbafundisi isibane, beti bati okubanekayo, missionaries say 
isibane (for candle), thinking (that) they say, that which gives 
hght. 

ngiti ufele emanzini, lokunaku beti bcibone izikali ezibukweni, I 
think (say) he is dead in the water, since here they say they 
saw weapons in the drift. 

297. DTcuti may often be rendered to-wit, that is to say, &c, 
Ex. ebona ukuti, amuko'muntu lapa, he seeing, to-wit, there is no one 

here. 

umuntu okutiwa uJojo, obizwa ngokuti innyanga, a man of whom 

it is said (he is) Jojo, who is called to-wit a doctor. 



128 TT8B OF THE YVBB TI» 

298. The verb ti ia often found in combination with a 
particle, (oftentimes a fragment of a verb), nsed adverbially. 
The verb in such cases is regularly conjugated ; and, when 
its meaning is transitive, the pronoun which refers to the 
object is inserted, as usual, immediately before the verb- 
root. 
Ex. ngaziH ahwangalazi lezo'zinto zonke, I swept all those things away. 

uti xafuxafu, he eats like a dog. 

aulcatv ncimijiy it (unyaka, year) is not yet completed. 

lite namanama husasa, it {izulu) rained very gently this morning. 

kutule kuti du, there's an end of it, that's all, there's nothing 

else. 

wavu8*umsindo, kwatula kvjati du, he raised a noise, there was 

nothing else (but noise). 

wavus'umsindo kwatula kvjati kwitshi, he raised a noise, it was in 

full action, = it was all noise. 

sabvlawa satiwa du, we were killed, we were made an end of. 

yiti hobo lelVplanke, bore a hole in this plank. 

hatula bati du, they were silent, they had done. 

sadhla sati du, we ate, and had done = finished (our meal). 

intambo iti nwi, the string is stretched. 

wambulala wamuti du (or nya), he killed and made an end 

of him. 

yima uti tun, stand upright. 

100*1 siki, move a little bit = make a little room. 

iulani niti du, akuti nya, be silent, have done, let there be an 

end (of noise). 

wati gigigi entatshaneni, wawelela ngapetsheya, he ran down the 

slope, and crossed to the other side. 

satana (reciprocal form of ti) nqwa naye, we and he met each 

other full butt. 

kaseko ugwai, sokute geqe, there is no more snuff, it is all finished. 

auseko umuti, sokute nkwe, there is no more medicine, it is all 

at an end. 

singak'azi ukuti ufile wati nya, we not yet knowing that he is 

dead completely. 

riJojo wasa wati ci, kwaciieka v ^uula, Jojo dawned out clear, folly 

was dispersed (by his wisdom). 

liselite ci, it (izulu) is now clear. 

angibonanga ngiti nka, I never f a word. 

yafiti aiti nka, he (indoda) was th nking that he might say a 

word = was wishing to put in a vvord (so plur. bati beti abati 

nka, &c.) 

Uti uma Uti tetete, wayikipa impi, when it (ilanga) was low down, 

he drew out the impi. 

satana nqwa emfuleni, we met full butt at the river. 

ngite ngisati xabe, I then gave a glance. 



USE OF THE YEBB TI* 129 

ngalt^eeexa uti Iwami angilutshongo ukuluti poqo, I bent my rod« 
I did not (say) mean to snap it. 

The adverb and ti may be separated in snch a case. 

£x. ukaniba luJca'yihlo luhlepukile ; lufihe Iwati emlonyeni hepu, 
your father's pot is broken ; it has got chipped upon the edge. 
uma lo*muntu ute ukufika nje nahla nanUandisa kahle, kusey'ikona 
kuqala amazwi enu aha ohala, nati ukushumayela kwenu pahla" 
paJUa, angah'es'ezwUe wahamba, if, when that man came, yon 
had informed him properly, and all along from the first your 
words had been plain, and you had done your speaking without 
reserve, he would have by this time heard and understood. 

Or the adverb may be used without the ti. 
Ex. am^gina'luto, ngihlezi (ngite) hleke nje, I have nothing, I am just 
sitting with my legs spread = like a fool. 

N.B. Many of these adverbs are fragments of verbs still in use ; 
and indeed aJmost every trisyllabic verb ending in la, ka, or za has a 
corresponding adverbial form with U, e.g., ukuti bobo = boboza, pierce, 
or hohoka, get pierced, ukuti hlepu = hlepula, break off, or hlepuka, get 
broken off, ukuti mfitimfiti (=fitiza), prevaricate, &c. : others are pro- 
bably imitations of the sound referred to. 

299. Ti is also used, without an adverb, to indicate a 
direction in which a person goes, or an action which he does, 
or a rmrnher which he indicates, &c., that which is meant 
being shown in each case, while the word is used, by the hand, 
a motion of the head, &c. 
Ex. Tigite ngisati, I happened to be then doing this (indicated). 

hadhlula bati b^euka baqonda ehlanzeni, they pass by (that way) 

going down straight for the bush. 

wati uma aqede loko, wadhlula wati, when he had finished that^ 

he went on (that way). 

ngamuti ngamehlo, ngendololwane, &c., I did (so) to him with 

the eyes, elbow, &c., = I winked at him, nudged him, &c. 

uvele ngesihaya utile, he came into sight by the cattle-kraal, so 

much of him (shown by the hand). 

sokudamuka-ke umkumbi us'uti, then the ship is broken up, it 

does so (shown). 

hati b'enza, ngibengibekezele nje mina, ngoba pela ngitoliwe, they 

just did (what they liked), I merely endured it, because, you 

know, I have been adopted. 

ngati ngiyamtshaya»ke ngati bu enngutsheni, 7 made a blow at 

him, and came thump upon his blanket. 

wcU'emyeka wab'evuka, just as he left him, he was getting up. 

aati sifika s*ezwa isalukazi sikala, just as we arrived we heard an 

old woman crying. 



180 USE OF THE WOBD TI. 

ngaii ngivela hiti ngipete azikali zami, just as I came from home 

carrying my weapons. 

waU v/y*eqa wawa, just as he was for leaping he fell. 

8671^^ ngimtuma angah'esavunia, now when I am just sending 

him he won't any longer consent. 

ngati ngiyamxotsha nyakeleketela esigodini, as I was chasing him 

I tumbled into a hoUow place. 

300. Or the thing implied by theuse of ti maybe indicated 
in words, in which case the force of H may be often expressed 
in English hjjust. 

Ex. ziti zidhlxda izinsuku zetu ; sibesiti tina zinde emuva, they just 
pass away, our days ; we were thinking (that) they are long 
after this. 



▲UXILIABY YEBBS AND PASTICL23. 131 



CHAPTER XIX. 

AUXILIARY TERES AND PARTICLES. 

301. a or ka is nsed as an expletive and prefixed to a Torb. 
Ex. angifike (kangifike) ku'Jqjo pela, cls* engii>anU)a {kas'engihambe)' 

ngendaha why, you known, I came to Jojo (and), so lie detained 
me about a matter. 
So angi^ke hubonapela, haseheng^ambe, ^e. 
dbafike (kabafike), &c. 

302. Ahle knbe is used in the sense * perhaps.* 

Ex. ahle kube wab'eye ekaya, it may have been that he had gone 
home. 

aMe ktibe voavsukUe wmuzi, it may have been that the kraal 
(people of the kraal) had started. 

Ahle or ngahle, is nsed with the subjunctive to express a 
conviction of certainty, 

Ex. ahle ngilweqe lolu'dongana, I could certainly leap this little 
ravine. 

ahle ngivmdahvXe v/mSunAuze ugcwde, I could ford the um5tm- 
duze, if full. 
konje ahle hakudhle nje na ? did they really eat it ? 

303. Ake is nsed with a subjunctive verb, to express a 
polite request or suggestion. 

Ex. ake vMale lapa, or ak'uhlale lapa, please stop here. 

ake ngidhlule-ke, Fuze, be so good as to let me pass. Fuze (call- 
ing the man by the name of his ancestor or some other family 
name). 

ake urninze* eze lapa, please call him to come here. 
ake nisuke kule*ndawo, be so good as to move from this place. 
ake ngipume-ke, baba, please let me go out, father (may be said 
by a woman to a man). 

ake wenze kahle {kuhle) inncozana = inncozana, please wait a 
little. 

induna ake ibuzele lo*muntu, the induna should ask, if he would, 
on behalf of that man. 

Venzele ukuti ake yenze kahle iwpi, they have done it in order 
that the imjii, if it pleased, might wait a little. " 

J2 



132 AUXILIABT TEBBS.AND FABTICLE8. 

trait dke hatovalelisa hdhamhe, he said it would be woll if they 
ebciild say good-bye and go. 

ihlufenf U'nsimu, vmniniyo aJce ayipe, this mealie-fiold is too 
thick. I should advise its owner to thin it out. 

Ke or e is used in the same -way, but implies rather the 
action of the speaker of his own accord. 
Ex. kengihone-ke, mgane, let me see> friend. 

engikudhlise, mtanami, let me get you some food, my child. 

N.6. In such ca^es as the following, the k-e doe? not Rtand for ake, 
but is the subjunctive of ka, with the pronoun omitted. 

Ex. asihambe, haTidhla, siyogaula izagUa lapaya, k^siponse (sihe ai^ 
ponse), Hncintisane, let us go, boys, and cut down knob-k ernes 
there, and let us have a bit of flinging and be-ating one another. 
angis(ibina*8ikala sokuha kengihamhele (ngikengihambele) kuwena, 
I have no more any opportunity for paying you a bit of a visit. 
iginnyoni lexi sez'elatshwe innyanga ; zizaumuka xiye kwelinye 
tstce, kesihlaZe (sike sihlale) sipumu^e, these birds have now been 
treated by the doctor; they will now go away and go to 
another land, and we get a bit of rest. 

304, Andula, ' be before,' contracted to and', is inserted with 
its pronoun before an infinitive, to express that the action of 
the verb has, or had, only just taken place. This particle 
always takes se before, and so appears in the form 8'and\ 
Ex. sasis' and'ukufika, we had but just arrived. 

v/mntwana es'and'ukuzalwa, a new-born child. 

es'and'uhushumayela, just as he had spoken. 

wahatshela loko konke es'and'uku^ka, he told them all that as 

soon as he arrived. 

uyakuhatshela leyo'nddba e8*and*ukufika, he will tell them that 

story as soon as he arrives. 

s'esuka lis*and'ukupuma Uanga, we started just after sun-rise. 

hengis'and'vJcufika kwavela lo'mteto, I had but just before arrived 

when that law came forth, 

us* and*ukumuka konakaloku ; us*ub*uyahuya nini na? you just 

now went away ; you were for returning when ? (=how quickly 

you have returned !) 

mhlokunye uNgoza wati es'and'ukujika, kwafika uRulumente fuH, 

the other day, when Ngoza had arrived just before, tiiere 

arrived the Governor also. 

izolo uSomseu ub'es'and'ukufika (ute es* and* ukufika) wab'es'ehuy^ 

ahambay yesterday Mr. Shepstone had only arrived just before 

when he was gone again. 

AndubOf anduma, (= and\(mia) or andume, anduknha, andtt' 
3///^/', IS used before a subjunctive, to e^^^xe^^ ' \\xsX. "Vi^issc^ 



▲UZTLIABY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 133 

.^liat ' ; or it may often be rendered in English by * and then/ 
* and after/ &c. 

ICx. o! yeho'he, havuihla; ake ngiye lapo anduha ngihuyet O yea, 

good folk ! please let me go there, and return afterwards. 

ake uye kwoSizana, andunie ubuye uze lapa, be so good a3 to ge 

to Sizana's people, and then return here. 

The above anxiliary may also be used with a prononn. 
Ex. hamha uyohlakula wandukuba uhuy'udhle, go and weed, and then 
return and eat. 

305. Aviela * do nothing bat/ * do no more than/ * be content 
^th,' (nsed with an infinitive) ; it may be often expressed 
\}j merely or just : see hla, sirnza. 

. £x. w'anela ukulengeza; kabonanga efika lapa pambi kwami, he 
merely shouted from a distance ; he never came here before me. 
wamsle ukubuka rije, wadhlula, he just merely looked and went on. 
w*anela ukufika, kodwa waseuyapeivduka, he merely arrived, but 
he was at once for returning. 

h'anela ukmnbona kodwa, basebesuka babaleka, they merely saw 
him only, they started off at once and ran away. 
yHloku s'anele ukupunia lapa ekaya, ever since we just came on^ 
from here from home. 
hibe kwanela ukukala inkuku, as soon as the cock crowed. 

Sometimes anela may be rendered by * to no purpose.' 
!£z. y'anela ukuzala kodwa, yafa inkonyane yayo, it (just only bare) 
= to no purpose, its calf died. 

ng'anele ukwosa nje, I did nothing but merely roast, = I got no- 
thing for my trouble, I roasted to no purpose, I had to be content 
with roasting, I got nothing to eat. 
ng'anele ukusebenza, I have worked to no purpose. 

306. Bona, see, is used negatively with a participle, to 
<6zpress the coming or happening to do anything : see ka, za. 

Ex. a/ngibonanga ngiyibona mkunzi ihlaba kangakaya, I have not come 
to see (= I have never seen) a bull pushing in that fashion. 
hengingabonanga ngiyibona into enje, I had never seen such a 
thing. 

habengakabonanga befika kiti seloku (yHloku) bawela, they had 
never come to our place ever since they crossed (the river). 
eloku epurne (plur. beloku bepume) kusasa wmntwana engabonanga 
edhla, umlomo us'unuka, us'uluhlaza y'indhlala, ever since this 
child went out this morning, having never eaten, his mouth now 
smells, he is quite blue with hunger. 

yHloku afikayo uyagula, kabonanga evuka pansi, ever since he 
arrived he is sick, he has never risen from, the ground 
(=his mat). 



Ti 



lai AUZILIABT YEBB8 AKB PABTICLB8. 

aukdbonanga umbona na? qa! an^onanga ngimboiyi, did yoQ 

never once see him ? no ! I never once saw him. 

angibonange (angtbonange) ngibona tmwmtu onjala, I have neyer 

seen such a man. 

ahantu engingahonange ngibahowi, people whom I never saw. 

N.B. hone is sometimes used for he, 

Ex. angahle aku^paze nje, vbone us'ugkwfigqa (ub'us^ugqvmgqa) nje viba 

mnyama, he might daze you (that) you EJionld now be changjing- 

and becoming £urk. 

307. Buya is used to indicate that something is done after 
something else, and may often be expressed by /^e^i or after thaL 
Ez. vhuy*suhlangane ndbo, do thou after that join with them. 

hona siza'ubuye (buya) sihamhe, then we will be on our way again. 

sagoduJca-ke sabuye (saimya) sabv^a-ke, we went home and then 

we were mustered. 

wenza-ni ukubuy^anezele (vmazwi, what does (means) he by adding- 

again words. 

hasebebwye hebuya, they had again returned. 

ngasibambnye ngiyauze ngibuye ngijike, I am now busy« but 

afterwards I will come. 
N.B. The verb in such a case usually comes next ofter buytk. 
Ex. wabuya wati uTshaka, then Ohaka said. 

wdbuya uTshaka wati, Ohaka returned and said 

But this rule is not always observed. 

Ex. wdbuya uMbopa wahuiawa naye uJHngane, afterwards Mbopa 
he also was killed by Dingane. 

308. City a (perf. citye), * be on the point of * doing some- 
thing unintentionally; seeponsa, 

Ex. ngidtshe ukuwa, I was on the point of falling. 

wacitsha ukukuLumay he was on the point of speaking. 
bacitshe ukvminza, they were on the point of sinking. 
zacitsha z'emuka nomfulu ikinkomo zika'Ntenteni, the cattle of 
Ntenteni nearly went down with the stream (in the flood). 
innja yamquza yadtsh'ukumluma, the dog flew at him and 
nearly bit him. 

309. Bamene or de, * continually, repeatedly,* do a thing : 
see zinge. 

Ex. bedamene bebaleka beyaku'Cetshwayo, they running off continu- 
ally to Cetshwayo. 

ahelungu sebede begiha omese, the white-men were now continu- 
ally drawing their swords. 

vxid'eshwinayela ize, he was continually talking nonsense. 
bade beti bekomba ngeziceme zaibo, they were continually taking 
aim by their ranks. 



▼BBSS AND PABTICLE8. 185 

310. Riea (perf, fike)f is used as an expletive, as follows. 
]^ ufiVuH, angihambe ; y^nd'uti, Jmya, you get to say let me go 

(=^ I was to go) ; again you say^ come back. 
abelungu, uhwalca hwoibo izmdhhi, hafike habangqe izmti pexulu, 
white-men^ in their building houses^ get to join together 
beams above. 

ngafiha ngadhla nawo (amadoda), I got to eat with them^ = they 
allowed me to eat witji them. 
into eHk^is'ahlule, a thing which got to master us. 
ukusinda hwami m/ina, ngifike ngaba owas'emaXoseni, as to my 
• being saved, (I got to be=) they found that I was one of 
the amaXosa. 

wafike-ke uDingane, &c., Dingane under those circumstances, &c. 
inkosi Wiyaufike, &c., the chief, under those circumstances^ 
will, &c. 

was^efika uQilo elitshaye elw/ge iBunUtWas'eflkauMtwenieUhlaba 
ngomkonto elinye, now Gilo got to hit one Boer, now Mtweni 
got to stab aaother with his assegai. 

311. Ihtna, to be * on the point of doing * a thing onpurposey 
or as if on purpose : see tanda, 

Ex. irfuna ukuwa, he means to fall. 

ufuna ukulimala, he intends to be hurt. 

312. Hamhe or havjwe, is used to express, having been 
' continually, all along, constantly,' doing something, &c. : sea 
hleze, lihele, zinge. 

Ex. vharnbe eti, hazinge hemtshaya lowo'mfana, he has been all along 
saying, they are continually beating that boy. 
uhamSe utshaya l^ntombazana, you have been continually beat- 
ing this girl. 

hihanjwe kuhanjwa nje kubulawa, men were continually being 
caught and killed. 

nvyauhaniba nihamhe-ke nizidhle izinkumhi-ke, ukiiba kupele 
ieinkomo, you will (go) live continually eating [locusts, when 
the cattle have come to an end. 

213. Hla (perf. hie) is used, as below, in the sense of se, 
Ex. kuhle (perf.) kwati or kwahie (past) kwati, so it came to pass. 

kuhle wati, or uhle wati, so he said. 

kwahie {Jcwahla) kw'esukela, so it came to pass = once upon 

a time. 

hahJe hasiyenge hasiyenge, hangdbe hesaya, so they kept enticing 

us, (and aJfter that) they were no more going (themselves). 

n^hle ngvmtshele ; ahVajpind*ati (plur. bahle hapinde hati) cmjim* 

tshelang^, so I told him ; and then he says, I have not told him. 

hetiMe sahlala nje, we had just sat down. 



t86 ATTXILIARY VBBBB AND PABTICLEB. 

leuMe kwati, nxa ihUevyo, ngcuengtcibibshda inwyoiU, it came to 

pass^ when it was perched^ I then shot (with an arrow) a bird. 

kuhle kwati siaapumia endalvni, toaya kuye wambamba wamkahela, 

so it was that^ as we were coming ont of the hnt, he went to 

him and seized him and kicked him. 

uhVtitvle (v^utvZe) nje Jcamba wena, kafvhizwa unvwKtu omkulu ! 

that yon shonld (be quiet) not move^ when you are called by a 

(g^eat man) mah in authority ! 

sokuhle Jcvibe wmtwalo ongakaya ! that there should actually be a 

burden so great as that! 

avAfikvflJoatola amaJbele kvZeli, wma v/ngaMe waccuba, you will not 

get amdbele on this (land^ izwe), if you shall not have first 

cleared it. 

uhle ufike (us^vfike) qede, uUxle tmgapeki, that you should as soon 

you arrive, lie down without cooking ! 

uhle vdhle (us'vdhZe) ugede, that you should actually eat and 

finish off (without waiting for others) ! 

vmiv/rdvr-ke uhVahaukele wnimtu amtoU umpizekele, ati anUalasele ! 

that a man should actually pity a person and adopt him and 

care for him, and that he should be impudent to him ? 

wahla wdbeka nje wadhvlvZa, he just looked and went on. 

uhle wdbeka nje wadhlula, he just looked {lately) and went on. 

wahla waHka kodwa, waseuya^nduka, he only just arrived and 

was at once for returning. 

uhVdbeke nje adhlvXe (plur. hahle haheke nje badhlule), he just 

looks and goes on (=it is wont to do so). 

^.B. Observe the above idiom, where the subjunctive mood is used. 

uhVangenje (ufike a/ngene) vndaba ngesihlutu, he makes a point of 

entering into a matter headlong (lit. with long hair like Zulu 

soldiers). 

uhVahe umlisa isibili-ke lapo, he must be a fine young fellow 

indeed (there) in that case. 

h'enza-ni ukuhle hasidaUisele singe* zingam>e ? what do they mean 

that they actually expose themselves indecently to us we being 

not children. 

uhVale, itamho selihlangene nejwabu, alikupulule, he would act 

in a masterly way, (so as that) if the bone were actually joined 

with the membrane, he would lift it up. 

uma engahle wati abahanibe lohu, bafe masinyan^, if he should 

have actually said that they should hold this, they would die 

at once. 

IhViti-ke inkosi, ' Qubani kona loko ! ' AhVati-ke uJemlana, ' Mina 

n^izauxoxa eyas'emTshezi yodwa.' Ahle-ke (ihle-ke or ngihle-ke) 

ngiti mina * Yonke.' Ahle-ke uJendana, ahl*afunge-ke. Ngihle- 

ke mina ngibonge ubaba ngezibongo zake; ngihle ngiH, ' Angisez- 

'ukukidv/ma.' Ihl*iti-ke inkosi, ihVvye kvJemlana, ihVigijim^, 

ihVifike inibambe. So says the King, * Out with that (story) ! 



▲UXILIAST T1BB8 AND PABTICLBS. 18 i 

So says Jemlana> ' For my part I will tell only (the stoi-y of) 
the iwpi of the Bushman's River/ So say I, ' (Tell) all of it.' 
So Jemlana he swears. So I for my part praise my father by 
his ieibongo ; then say I, ' I won't say any more.' So the 
^iBong^ you see> he goes to Jemlana^ he runs, he gets to 
seize hun. 

N.B The following idiom also is worthy of notice. 

Ex. ngaloko'he sanW^ nizibeke pansi, on that account you ought to 
submit yourselves. 

So with different pronouns, asengihle, sauhle, asesihle, scmihle, 
osedoMe, salihle, 8aihle,&G. 

314. EJeze, continnally, constantly : hambey libele, zmge. 
£x. uhleze umtshaya lowo'mfana, you are continually beating 

that boy. 

leyo'wnyoni engihleze ngiyibona, that bird, which I constantly see. 

ngiMeze ngifika lapa ; uti ungiqdbuka namhlanje 9 I am continu-^ 

ally coming here; do you suppose you see me for the first 

time to-day ? 

ngiMeze ngimtshela ngiti uhiti okutile ahuyikulunga, uma humi 

ngaloko, ati-ke yena, ' tula awazi !/ I am continually telling 

him, saying (to-wit) that such a thing will not be right if it 

(stands) is done in that way, and says he, ' hold your tongue,. 

you don't know ! ' 

iayikuhlez*etukuteldnjalonjalo,hewiX[notcon^nrie angry always. 

Jcungatiti ngingdhleze ngikwenwaya, it seems as if I could be 

always scratching it. 

ayakudhla nje amahashi aJdez'epuz'amangi, the horses just eat it, 

and then they always drink water. 

315. Ka, iterally to ctdl (flowers) or dip (water), is used 
to express to * just reach, effect, compass,' a thing, to manage 
to do it, do it a hit, &c. : see bona, za, 

Ex. uke wamhona na ? did you ever see him ? 

kok'eze, = koka 'eze he shall (= let him) manage to come. 

wyakuka ahlale na ? will he just stop a bit ? 

waka way a y'ini kwa'Zulu na ? did you ever or not go to Zuln- 

land? 

uma ngike ngamhona, if I ever saw him. 

us'eza'uke dbone, now he will see it a bit. 

uh*u8'uke wayizwa leyo'ndaha y'mi na? did you ever hear 

that story, eh ? 

aMkanga size siye kwoMvdhliwengcuha, y'Uohu kwanela ukuca/ngu • 

ziswa, we have never managed anymore to go to Mudhliwe- 

ngcuba's people ever since the marriage-dance (sufficed) 

broke-up. 

vjokani (wokanini) nihlomeU ngesikati tohwuhu, continue to 

watch at night time. 



I 



188 AITXILIABT TBSB8 ANB PABTICLM 

'wok^une ubuyise konke loko owakudhlayo and^uba uhambe, yon 
sliall manage to get to return all that you have plundered 
before you go. 

\Ddka wdbvhona wena utsTiani ohutsha ongabonanga vhvbonaf 
akona amatshe ongabonanga uwdbona 9 ungek*ukutole, did you 
ever see new grass which you never saw (before) ? are there 
stones which you never saw ? you can't manage to find it (any 
such thing). 

516. KadCy long ago. 

IBz. kade 'vmika, he went away long ago. 

kade sikufuna, we have been long seeking you. 

kade uhlalele-ni kangaka? why have you stayed so long? 

kade hengikuhlupa, I have been long vexing you. 

kade sikwele inncwadi le, we have been long about this book. 

cansisa lawo'mazioi okade uwoAhumayela, explain those words 

which you were saying long ago. 

ngasikade (singasikade) sifikile laya, we ought long ag^ to have 

arrived here. 

Jtade ite inkosi hamba wyekuiata amahashi, long ago the chief 

said go and bring the horses 

kMo'esaheka loko pakati kwdbantu bekade betule, it was (fearful) 

surprising that (noise) among the people who had been 

long silent. 

317. Kolisa is used for * generally, usually, commonly.' 
Ex. ldbo*bantu bakolisile kakulu uhizaZa amawele, those people have 

very commonly produced twins. 

azivami ukuhlala kade izinkau zas'ekaya, zikolis'ukufa, (kraal- 
monkeys =) albinos do not usually live long, they com- 
monly die. 

318. Libele continually, constantly : see hamba, Jdeze, zinge, 
Ex. uliheVusola, you are constantly scolding. 

uUhele utshaya lowo*mfana, you are continually beating that boy. 

umntwana ulibeVekala ebusuku, the child is continually crying 

in the night. 

ngizakwenza umgogo lapa ; ngilibele ngiwucupa ngakusihlwa, 

I will make a trap (small enclosure) here, I regularly set it 

at evening. 

oMtikazana laba balibele bebadaza nje, Mtikazana and his 

people here are continually behind-hand (in this step). 

Lolile is used in the same sense with a past tense. 
Ex. ulohle wangisola, you are continually scolding me (lit. all along 
you scolded me). 

319. Ma/ne is used to express strong entreaty, = * O do. 
Ex. siza, mgane, mane ungipuzise, do oblige me^ friend^ by giving me 
a drink. 



AUXILIAST yXBBS AND PABTICLBS. 139 

tnoMe vhambe, mgane, siza, do go, friend^ oblige (me). 

tixam, hangane, ekaleni, mane ningishiyele, oblige me, friends^ 

(with snuff) for the nostril ; do leave (some) for me. 

820. Nee is used to express * presently, bye-and-bye.' 

£z. wice v/ye lapaya kwoKdbinala, go over there bye-and-bye 

to KabinaJa's people. 

wcmee wati, kiisayikuhwiixka iwnja, after a while he said, he will 

no longer give you the dog. 

figiza'wiice ngihanibe ; naku hingatiti Uyahloma, I will go presently ; 

since it seems it (izuhi) is arming, = there will be a storm. 

hdbence hati cLbasayikujmyelela kwoMehlwana, hetsho-he bebona 

ind/u, presently they said, they will never reach Mehlwana's 

people, saying so seeing the sky. 

engikudhlise, kona uza/titshetsha ttqede, unce uhanibe, let me give 

you some food, then you will be quick and finish, and 

presently be off. 

221, Pinda is used to express the r&petition of an action. 

Ex. uipiad'uhlangane naho, join with them again. 

wvma ukupinda wenze injalo futi, do not repeat to do so a^ain. 
wapinda w*enza as'ekuzwUe, he repeated and did (tha^ about 
which he had already heard (had been scolded). 
siza'upinda siye kona {siza'upindela kona), lapa saka say a kona, 
we will go thither, whither we went once upon a time. 
wapinda w*emuka-ke, he went away again. 

jpind*uyekuka futi, kona kuzaugcwala le'nibiza, go and draw 
(water) again, then this pitcher will be full. 
upinde waya kona lapo eh* eye kona izolo, he went again thither 
i/hibher he had gone yesterday. 

•umtsheVapinde ayekukafuti, tell her to go and draw (water) 
again. 

ngizaupinde ngibwye, I will return again. 

[hikonaloku ukuti 'ukupinda/ n^oba esuke epindile ukwenza; 
^kepa likona lelVzwi elihleziyo, lokuti 'ukupinda,' eliaiza uku- 
. shumayela liti ukupinda ; njengomuntu ati 'pinda uye kona,' 
engakanga waya {engdbonanga eya) kona kuqala, kepa umuntu 
ati-ke ' pinda wye kona,* etsho ngoba efikile, there is this (phrase), 
namely ukupinda, because a person has happened to repeat an 
actioti ; still there is this word in constant use, to-vnt ukupinda, 
which helps speech by saying ukupinda; as if a man should 
Sd-y pinda uye kona, though he has never gone there before ; 
yet a man may say pinda uye kona, saying it because he has 
come [t.e. the repetition in this ease is in the act of going 
merely, not in going to the particular place]. 

322. Ponsa or jposa, * be on the point of ' doing something 
anintentionaJIy : see dtsha. 



140 AUXIIilABT YEBBS AND PABTICLX8. 

Ex. ngipqnae uJcuwa, I was on the point of falling (lately). 
ngaponsa ukuminaa, I was on the point of sinking. 

323. Qede is used in the sense * as soon as.' 

Ex. kute uba basi^ulale qede, bahamha, as soon as they had killed 118> 
they went off. 

inkosi yaiqed*ukufika, the chief had no sooner arrived = had. 
just arrived (yais'and'ukufika), 

kona eycmpeka qede, asipe, then she will cook and end it and. 
give us = as soon as she has cooked, she will give us. 
izaupv/ma qede innyoka, Hume omunyey hadele, as soon as the 
snake comes out, it will bite one (of them), and they will 
leave off. 

hafike qede, kwatshaywa insimbi just after they arrived, the bell 
was struck. 

hafika qede, kutshaywe insimbi, the bell was struck as soon aa 
they arrived (= on their account). 

uma enje, fun*atiwe qede, abe Vuganga, if it (snuff, ugwai) is in 
this state, (I am afraid) lest, as soon as it is poured (into the 
snuff-case), it will be dry. 

kutiwa dbantu bafa qede, baguquka izinnyoka, it is said that 
people, as soon as they have died, have been turned into 
snakes. 

sengizaukufaMela icansi lako, ngikufahlele qede, uz'alukele wena, 
now I will set yoiir mat (= begin it) for you, and, as soon as I 
have set it for you, you shall weave (it) for yourself. 
ungificela ngezinkomo zake qede uti angiyosebenza kuyena, as soon 
as he loads me with his oxen (i. e. with the care of them), he 
says that I am to go and work for him. 

Usayakubaswa qede leli'bunga kupum>e innyoka, as soon as this 
decayed log is kindled, there will come out a snake. 
funisa lo'mfana induku yoke, ayiiole qede aye enkomen^help that 
boy to find his stick, and, as soon as he has found it, let him 
go to the cattle. 

imbiza U yiboboze qede, uyiiunge yona, ngoba iyavuza, this pot 
bore it, and then after that stitch it, because it leaks. 

324. Sa (perf. se), is used very much a>sfika and Ida. 

Ex. kwasa {kwahla) kw'esukela, it came to pass = once upon a time. 
use (uhle) w*enza nje engapizekele, eti, okwami, y'ijd? he did it, 
not having taken care, saying, is it mine, or not ? 
wasa (wahla) watshaya wapepeta kuleli'tafana ; ulutshaye 
walulahla ngomhaha lolu'kamha luka* Mbulungeni olude, ugijhnis 
w'oma {ugijime kw*oma, or ugijime wafa), he cut along might 
and main, and whisked along this table-land ; he struck and 
destroyed with his impulse this tall pot of Mbulimgeni, he 
ran himself dry (or to death). 

N.B. Kwas'alile —kwasa waUle, it altogether refused, it was all of no 
iiseif ^o. J nohtvasa yalile, b*alile, &c. 



AXJXILIABT YEBBS AND PABTICLES. 141 

t!iZ. saHsate mahlaya mahlaya, hwasa humlile ! we had said (it's) a 

trifle, a trifle — not a bit of it ! 
In the following expressions, with reference to something Uft 
miifvMshed, sa is the verb ' to dawn/ 
Ex. wati usakula hwatshetshe hwasa, while he was still growing, the 

day broke all of a hurry, = he stopped growing too soon. 

lo'muntu waU esayitunga le*mbenge, hwatshetshe hwasa, while 

that man was still stitching this basket^ the day broke in a 

hurry, = he never flnishedit. 

235. Sola, sale, or asale, (like aMe, dke, &c.), is used in the 
tense, * it remains that,' &c., ' there is nothing to be don© 
but, <fec. 
£x. ngisale sengiyeha, I must now leave it. 

CMoZe siye eTehwini, we must go to Durban. 

usal'us'uhlala, you had to stop. 

ha^ale sebebv/ya, they had to return. 

wasal'us'ugoduha, you had to go home, 

uya'iisaVus'udhlay you will have then to eat. 

hesale seheya hona, they were obliged to go there. 

basale sehehlala, they could not help stopping. 

usales'ehuya, hwahamba mina, he had to return, I went. 

hengiyarisale sengiyeha, I should have had then to leave it. 

fvyaiMol'eal'egoduha, he would have had then to go home. 

v/yausaVus'ugoduha, you would have had then to go home. 

hebeyausale seb*ehla,i}iej would have had then to come down. 

ngangvyausale sengigoduha, I should then have had to go home. 

ivawyausale souhamha, you would have had then to go. 

wah'eya'ttsaVes'esehenza, he would have had then to work. 

salani senihamba, you must now be going. 

s<il'vs*ubuya wena, you have only now to return. 

hasaTes^ehamba, angisahambi mina, he must now be going, I am 

not going at all. '' 

hasal'es'ebuya, sohuzauhamba mina, he must now be returning, 

now I will go. 

hasale sebeti us'uyahudhla hwenu, they would only then suppose 

that you (will) would eat at your kraal. 

habengasale sebehamba, uina bahebona uhuha hasafiki, they could 

have done nothing else but go, if they saw that he comes no 

more. 

ngisale sengiqedela ; usaVus'ungincitshela'ni na? I have had to 

finish it (snuff) off ; why must you (=what made you) treat 

me (so) stingily ? 

husa^a ngiyitshelile leyo*niombazana ngati aisaViqandula itshe 

nanti, this morning I told that girl that she was to peck thsbt 

stone there. 

w'epuza uhuzahuyitabata innja, wasaVes'etenga ngayo, you 

delayed to cowie to take the dog, "he ^aa o\>\i^e.il \^ %^^S5^. 



I 



143 AUZILIABT YESB8 AND PASTICLE8. 

lasale selibonwu izwe'zinkumhi, the ground was nothing else than 

red with locusts. 9 

vsaZ'us'u'situta nje pakati kvoahantu, yon are just nothing else 

than a simpleton among the people. 

wati VAfihlo kasal'es'eya^ugqiUhwa, your father said he must be 

buried. 
N.B. Sometimes a is used for osole. 
Ez. osesiye^ {amU Mivyeka) vJcvZwa, we must now leave war. 

326. Sola is also used to express that one event has followed 
another in sequence of time, when there is no reference (as 
when buya and pinda are used) to the agent being the same 
in each case. 

Ex. asale asisala sinibulale-ke, then we shall afterwards kill him. 
but cLsale simhulale-ke, we must kill him = akusafaneU Hhuba 

svmyeka, it is not proper that we should let him he. 

kwasala kwafa inkosi, after that the chief died. 

sasdde s'eqa, then we ran away. 

ngite ngisekwa'Kibana, sasaZa sadhla isUo omunye umfana nento- 

nibazana, while I was at Kibana's, a leopard ate afterwards 

another boy and a girl. 

asaV amaSwazi afike elmsuku, afterwards the amaSwazi came by 

night. 

kuH tiba hasU>vlale-ke qede, hahamha, sasale sazvukorke, so, as 

soon as they had killed us, they went off, afterwards we arose. 

sokuti'ke kusasa-ke kanti lowo'rnlimgu uscde wafika; vxUshcvyarhe 

uMesisivjake,waH ub'eTigasipi ngani izinkomo tU>eni sihlcibe, well, 

and so in the morning why that whiteman afterwards arrived; 

he beat his Missus, and said why did she not g^ve us cattle 

that we might kill ? 

327. Svmza^ or dmuza, is used like^^fea, Ma, sa. 

Ex. usimze wdbeka nje wadhlvZa, he looked merely and went on. 

simz'utate (=tata or uhVutate) rije konke, v/yokutela ema/Mnni, 
take it all, and go and pour it in the water. 
usemz'akvlume (or uhVakvlme) aje engaqondUe, he talks con- 
tinually without having considered. 

wasimza wafika kodwa ; wasewyapendvJca, he just only arrived ; 
he was at once for returning. 

simze (simza) wyifunisele ngetshe nje, just make a shy tor it with 
a stone. 

wnuntu (ywdbelayo yena, engahehi usimz'aeimele nje, a liberal per- 
son he, not looking (to whom he shall give), he constantly 
shuts his eyes. 

U8imz*angene inddba ngesihlutu, he continually gets into a matter 
with violence (lit. with long hair as Zulu soldiers). 
hesiyausimze simhleke nje-ke tina, we should have just laughed at 
him ourselves. 



AUXILIABT YBBB8 AND PASTICLB8. 148 

akg%8imzengacita(ngihlengacita) Ti^e; henging'azi, ukuha kukona-ni 
pakati kwamcmni, I jnst threw it away ; I did not know what 
there (is) was amidst the water. 

Msimze satiila nje; wdb*esasihuze, sattUa nje; siyausimga sitifZe 
nje; woh'esate, situle nje, we just keep silence ; he had asked ns^ 
we just kept silence ; we shall just keep silence ; (suppose) he 
shail still have spoken, we shall keep silence. 
wasinwa (%vahla) wdshiya zonke into zake; an^azi uma wcib'eti 
ziyaidvjalwa uhanina,lie just left all his things; I don't know 
by whom he thought they (will) would be carried. 
328. Suka (perf. suke), to * start forth,' is used as below ; 

98uke (plnr. dbasuke) may generally be rendered ' whosoever ' 

=who happens. 

fix. usuk* etainda, (plur. basuke betanda), by reason of his loving. 
ngisuke ngingeko, through my not being present. 
usuk'ukona, seeing that you were present. 
CLsuk* emukUe, through their (amadoda) having departed. 
isvJe^igiQvma, by reason of its running. 
ngisuke nging'azi, because I did not know. 
owab'esuJ^za kumi, whosoever came to me. 
osuk'ehlakanipile, whoever is clever. 

isuk'isHkatele leyo'nkabi, through that ox being just now tired. 
08uk'e8*endhlini yako, whoever is in thy hut. 
vma kusuke kusey'ikusasa nje, whenever it is morning. 
wna isuke innyanga is'iselioa lapa pezulu isuke is'indala, when- 
ever the moon is here on high (drunk up) f aded^ it is through 
its being now old. 

nvngamhekilo, wma nisuke nishumayele indaba, don't mind him, 
whenever you talk over a matter. 

nisuke niti ahantu laba Vesase boke njengani ? do you mean to say^ 
venture to say, that all these people exult as you do ? 
tuuke ekona, noko umlilo tidtshe nje, ehlezi engavmkwezeli, he sits 
there^ although the fire is gone out, not keeping it in for (us)> 
where suke expresses the hcMt of doing so. 

basuke bejpanga v/mdake linile; mhla ufvdv/mali-we ilanga 
las'ehlobo, kutshetshe kv/mile inibev, ngoka vmklaba usuk'ufudu- 
mde, they are always eager after the moist ground (= they 
want to hoe and sow it), it having rained ; on the day when it 
is warmed by the summer sun, the seed quickly grows, 
because the earth is always warm. 

angisena*kutsho'luto,iLgoba kusuWekwenza amakosi a/mi, I bave not 
a word more to say, because my masters are constantly doing 
it. 

ukufanele ukuha indx^Ui imtshayele ekaya vmfana, v/ma esuke 
eyishiyile endhle^ it is not right that a man should beat a boy 
at home, whenever he has left bim (= outrun the man) 
outside. 



■Jl 



144 avziliabt tebbs and particles 

ngieanulwe y*ilo'muntu osuke uhudMa wahwenga iaicawuicanu, I 
have been surfeited by that person who happens in respect 
of the food to have made it Inscions =who has gone and made 
it^ &c, 

honhe ahasuke hevela emDhloti hvMe ukuha uhatshele hangakctmM 
ngeyenhangala indhlela, memmamha ^mqini, whoever are 
coming from the TJmdhloti, (it would be) well that yon should 
tell them (that) they should not go by the path of the table- 
\ land> it has an vmmamha with its tail cut off (and therefore 

very savage). 

habeauke hevela eNonoti, hehamha-he hengal'azVzwe; haya (osi- 
faha ohuhwini oJculu Iwesihlamho, they happened to be coming 
from the Nonoti, going along not observing the country ; 
they went and put themselves into a great bog of the low 
meadow-land. 

329. Tcmga, negative of ti^ may be used as follows. 

Ex. angitanga uhwenza ngashiya inncwadi, eyona yaiyaJcungikomhisa 
lapa ngiya Jcona ? why, did I not as to my doing leave (behind) 
the note, which would have shown me where I was going to P 

330. Tanda and zingela are used like funa, to express, by 
"way of ridicule, a person's seeming to do a thing on purpose. 

Ex. utand^ulcuwa lowo'mtmtu, or uzingeVukuwa lowo'muntu, that 
man means to have a fall. 

331. Tshaya, to do a thing violently, might and main, &c. 
Ex. utshaye watshantshula, he went off at full speed. 

utshaye wdbedula wahamha, he walked away with might and 

main. 

izimbuzi ziyitshaye zayibebeta imitombo lapa, tiie goats have 

nibbled clean away the malt here. 

332. Varna or vanywa expresses the frequency of an action. 
Ex. kuvama ukubola osuke kutshalwe lapa kwezilimo, it is wont to 

rot, whatever happens to have been planted here among the 

vegetables. 

uvame ukuhlala; ngako-ke izindimi zake kazilingene zonke, he 

was given to sitting down j and so his furrows are not even all 

of them. 

wavama ukulima; w'epuza ukuhlwayela, he did plenty of 

ploughing ; he loitered in sowing. 

bayobkuvama ukulihala, loku bebodwa nje abafana laha, they will 

have plenty of loitering, since these lads here are alone. 

insimu yakwetu lapaya y*aJa, yavanywa ukutshiswa ilanga, our 

garden over there (refused) did not bear, it was. frequently 

scorched with the sun. 

333. Za (never in the form eza) is used, in connection with. 
jmother verb, to express a progressive * becoming,' or * coming \ 



AUSILIA&T YEBBS AKD PlBTIOCIf* 145 

to do,' what that other verb indicates. Its force may be 
often expressed by * at length ' or until.' 

£x. iminyaka ycua ydba*ma8humi*Tnatatu, the years came to be 
thirty. 

woea uqede nini na ? when at length will you finish ? 
us'u^ede leyo'ndaiba, make an end at length of that story. 
fiffoza ngifihe kona, I shall get there some time or other. 
. wyahuz'afe ngaloho'hufa, he will get to die of that disease. 
uy akux'enMe-ni ? what will he come to do ? 
um'ungitshele loko, come now, tell me that. 
woz'imgitshele loko, you shall come and tell me that. 
^aza wanga angahaniba, he would actually, it seems, have 
gone. 

Saza baTiga hangakala ehakwele, they would have actually cried, 
it seems, he being down upon them. 

ngisaharnbezele ngiyauze ngibuye ngifike, I am now busy, I shall 
manage to come afterwards. 

izulu Vomisa, iminyaka yaza ydba'mitatu (ya'mitaiuS, 1;^« »ky 
4ried-up (the ground), the years ran on to be three. 
wahlala kona-he vmza wafa uDingane, he stayed there till 
Dingane died. 

waza wanga ungadhla ungakagezi na? would yon actually have 
eaten, it seems, without washing ? 

af^'ang'etuki ngomtwalo nje, that he may not get to be frightened 
with the load. 

halala uhdongo kwaza kwasa, they lay asleep till it dawned. 
imihala engingaze (engingazange) ngingayibona, colours which I 
never got (that I may be) to be able to see. 
ngingeze ngatsho ukuti nokuti, I cannot say to-wit, (it is) this 
or hhat. 

honisisa kahle pela, kungaze kuti (kuze kungati), uma amakosi 
ea'^kuxaba, ukaU ngami, look carefully, that it may not come 
to pass that, when the gentlemen are cross with you, you 
complain of me. 

wah*enza nje eii ahaze hangati (ahangaze hati) hesihamhcie ku' 
muntu onge'muntu, he was doing (it) thinking that they should 
not oome to say we came to visit a man who is not a man. 
nnnkviaka indlilxi, eqinileyo nize ningafi (ningaze nife) amakaza, 
bill Id ye a stout hut that ye may not get to die of oold. 
wowaheka aniahashi aze angahuyeti (angaz*ahuyele) ew.uva look 
to the horses, that they may not manage to go back. 
waza wanga ungahamba unganginiki imali yami ; selo (seloku) 
ufihile ngikuncenga, ngiti nginika imali yami, so you would have 
gone, it seems, without giving me ray money ; ever since you 
arrived, T entreat you, saying, give me my money. 
ngaleso* sikati am^iBunu kaz*ababona abantu abamnyamaj at that 
time the Boers had (not got to see) never seen black people 

K 



146 AUJULIAKT YBBBS AND rART1CI<BR. 

dbana hakalalaho-bantwana, those children never vu-td, 
angaza ngapenduWluto, I never answered anyf hiug. 
Uyo'mpi uyaze yafumana'nkomo, that imj^i never found a beast 
a^aze hazUola izinkomo, they never found the cattle. 

The following idiom deserves especial notice, where fcho 
Pati Tense of the Indicative is nsed after the Snbjunctive 
indicating a Present or Future time. 

uheka uJcamha pezu Icwosungulo lungaze Iwawa, he places a pofe 

upon a needle that it may not get to fall. 

le'nnyama aikavutwa, ingeze y'epulwa ngdWnkalij this meat is 

not yet cooked, it cannot he taten off at this moment. 

uhVabasele imhiza ingaze yahila, she is always kindling for this 

pot, it cannot get to hoil. 

angez* awapuza la^manzi, hangeze bawapuza, he cannot get to 

drink this water, they cannot get to drink it. 
N.B. The following idiom is also noticeable. 
Ex. uhoza (= vhe owokuza or uz*uze) nawo umpongolo, come on with 

the box. 
So uhovmyeha (= uhe owohiteuyeka or uz^uvmyeha), leave it then. 

sibomtshela (= sihe dbokumtshela or size simtshele) na ? are we 

to tell him ? 

dbomnika (= dbe owokunwika) na? is he to give him. 
A^so uTshaka oze (auze) wafa, Tshaka (at the time) at which he 

came to die. 
plnr. haze (abaze) bofa ; for which might be written, — 

uTshaka eze wafa (plur. beze bafa) or aze wafa (plur. abate 

bafa), 
K.B. vela is sometimes used as an expletive in place of «a. 

Ex. bengivele ngayibona (impi) ebusuku, I got to see it (the 

impi) at night. 

334. ^m^e is used to express 'repeatedly,' * continn.aI5y/ 
•habitually,' &c. : see hamhe, hlezi, Uhele. 
Ex. uzing'uloha, you are continually writing. 

uzinge esukasuka, he is continually getting up. 

bazinge hebuza, they are for ever asting questions. 

zizi'dge zrhatnba {xzmkomo), they are accustomod to go. 

uzinge uzautata amaqanda enfeuXiugomiwnyu, yon will continually 

tftke the eggs of the whitcman's fowls. 



PECULIARITIES OF OONSTRUJTION. 117 



CHAPTER XX- 

PECULURITIES OP CONSTEUCTT05. 

335. An oath is expressed by fche vocative of the person op 
thing sworn by (anless fche verb funga is introduced) ; and 
the natives are aociistoined to swear by their chief, if a g^rjat 
one, (as Mpaude), or his wife, if they are under her, or, if 
their chief is uofc famous, then by fcheir oldest sister. 

Ex. 'ogimpate uMpanddt I carry (the name of) Mpande = by 
Mpaude ! 

U7/i^ kunge^bjalo, Tshaka! Ufyakubulawa, if it be not so, by 
l^shaka ! you shall be killed. 

unuib unyaseyiletatiga aamhlanje induku yami, nyifung'odade 
wetUt ayakunyib&na nyamafitot if you shall not have brought my 
staff fchia very day, [ swear by my sister, you shall see me with 
youi* eyes. 

beku, m/auu,! wotshela uyihlo nonyoko ukuha ulahle unikonio 
iuumi; kepa uma tvgingasawvlioni ngomuso kusasa, Bantwana 
ku'buba I (oi* Bantwana !) uyakungihona, look you, boy ! tell 
your father and mother that you have lost my assegai ; but if 
1 do Qot eiee it tx)-morrow morning, by Bantwana (daughter) 
of my father ! you shall see me. 

Matoniela'Tshtsu, — Matomela ka*Tshisa, by Matomela daughter 
ot Tshisa! 

336. lb is v^ery common to confirm an assertion by a kind 
of oath \vhich implies that the person could be or has been 
guilty of some outrageous act of indecency, or that something 
impossible has happened if he is not speaking the truth. The 
following are some of the forms used in such cases. 

Ex. dade wetu ! -= may I lie (I have lain) with my sister ! 

mezala ! (used by women) = , , , . my husband's father ! 
omezala (used by women) •=.,.. my husband's father 
and his brothers ! 

hakwekazi = may I lie (I have lain) with my wife's mother and 
her sisters ! 

nginyene, ngingene enkosini, ngingene esigodhlweni ! may I enter, 
enter to the king, enter the royal harem ! 

k2 



lAH PXCXJLIA&ITIES OF CON8TBTJCTIONU 

vgodhln I uUmele wena ! by ttie kin^s harem ! you 
(hurt) = I will be the death of you I 

ngiyipantUi mkoiiikwa* Ihihtsa ! I have disinterred the khiffi 
Dukuza (Tshaka's kraal) ! ^ 

ngiqeU kua*Monn8e ! I have rnade-myself-at-hoxae at Mc 
(M paade's chief wife) ! 

nqaf^tnga nqambululu okuda'/iy I swore I dug" up an oild (oozpee|i1 
hnngahU kuvuke uDingane ahamba ngezinnyawo, Dinmne midt] 
rise and walk. 

When such words are used by Tnen, they are words dj 
ulmfnnga ; but, if used by vmm&a^ they are words of uhuhviiB^ 
as in the following instances. 

Ex. angiwazi Wmafuta ; selo ngawabonn, nje ngamehlo, angihonamfi 
ngiwapata ngezika'baba Uzi izandhla, omezala ! I know nothing 
about that fat ; ever since I sa^ it with my eyes, I haTe never 
touched it with these (hands of my father =) hands of min^ 
I swear. 

angiy*azi ngoha'haha lo umlomo ; ai'Jce! ngamakalayanginukela; 
ahle kube omezala ngaka ngayifaka, I know nothing^ of it 
{inny(Mna) with this mouth of (my father =) mine ; no ! with 
my nostrils its savour reached me ; it would be omezala (if) 
I put it in (my mouth) at all. 

In the mouth of males ukubina is to say something offen- 
sive, either to annoy a man (ulcumqalekisa, ukumtuka), or to 
forbid a thing being done. 

Ex. umnqumise kdbili endhleleni 'eqiwe izinnja, he cut him in two in 
the path, having been jumped over by dogs. 
ungalubeki unyawo lapa; inxa ubeka ungawo uyakuba unyatela 
aonyokozala, don't you put your foot here ; if you do, yon 
will be treading on your father-in-law and his brothers (in their 
graves). 

So certain phrases are used to confirm an assertion (^*^wpt7ba). 
Ex. inkomo ingazaVumuntu, a cow would bring forth a man (if that 
is not true). 

337. The Infinitive Tense is often used as an Interjection. 
JEx. ultushinga kwake ! his rascality ! 

ukuha*nhle kwaleyo'nkahi, handhla! the beauty of that ox, good 

people ! 

wo! musa ! ukwenza kwalo kuleso'sikati! ah! don't speak of 

it ! your action at that time ! 

The subjunctive mood is often used as an ejaculation. 
Ex. ukula kuhviuleke kanga^ca nje izinnyawo ezlnnlngi lezi! that it 

(the gra^g) should fca trodden down so much with these many 

feet ! = how is it that, &c. 



PBCULIABITTES OP CONSTRUCTION. 149 

y,n»untu uhle asimze ay%burr^uliLze nje inJcomo cibala ! that a person 

should actually come upon an ox in the wilderness ! 

edhle tymunye umuntu I that a man should eat ! = how some 

men will eat ! 

omunye umntwana womuntu ice lake Uhle l%be lihalvb ! that (one 

child of man's =) some person's luck should Le great ! 

wfiomgolo lo'mfana; ut*edhla cbb'ekala imMa yonke! that boy is 

greedy ; while eatings (to think) that he should be crying 

every diy ! 

338. It is the practice in Znln, as in English, to assert a 
hingvery decidedly, (ironically, ukuhinqa), by denying it. 

£x. kana'lulaka yena ! he is not passionate, he ! = he is very 
passionate. 

kana'nmsa yena nakade ! he has no kindness ever ! 
yaingahlaibi leyo*nkunzi! yai ukufa; angibonanga ngiyibona 
inhinzi ihlaha kangakaya, that bull did not push ! it was death! 
I never saw a bull push like that. 

kakutiyena ! uyahongozela nje, he doesn't grow^ he is just 
shooting up. 

aikulwpele leyo^nkomo ! iy'escibeka, that beast is not fat ! it's 
tremendous ! 

aku*hashi leli ! ukufa ! this is no horse ! it is death ! — words 
of strong commendation^ meaning, perhaps, that it is death to 
vie with it or to try to mount it. 

asiyo nendhlala kiti lapa! inkulu, there is not a famine either 
here with us ! it is great — ^may be said when there is no food 
at all, or none at hand, no utshwala ready, &c. 
uFodo aku*manga kwyena ? kuy'esaheka, Fodo — ^there are no lies 
with him ! it's tremendous. 

339. Frequently a noun, and especially an infinitive verbal 
lonn, with a possessive pronoun, is used in apposition to the 
)rononn or noun which marks the subject or object of the 
>rincipal verb, in order to develope more fully the meaning 
d the said pronoun. 

Ex. wamJbopa amanxeba ngendwangu, he bound him his wounds with 
a cloth. 

wangikweza uqoho nabantabami, he preserved me, my person an^ 
my children (including wives, and, indeed, all the persons of a 
kraal, if the head-man is speaking). 

shumayela-ke vbaizwe leli inkosi yalo kuyauzekube ng'uba'naT 
(speak) say (as to) this land, its chief, it will come to be who ? 
sebezikalela-ke lapo amaBunu, thereupon they lament them- 
f selves (do) the Boers. 

ngihle ngafika zibutisile umhlamb'opakati ngapezulu Zapoi/a, I just 
arrived (when) they had come together, our (herd within =) 
fine herd up above there. 



130 FECTTLlABITISft OV COMSTBUOTIOK. 

amaBunu amntshaya uZuhi amaeala {emctcaleni) omaiaiu, the 
Boers hit him^ the Zulu (= the Zulus), (on) three sides. 
wamgqubuza inhloko etshmi, he smashed him, the head, upon 
a stone. 

N.B. The verh in the last case is nggubuza, so that with ha we 
should have wdbangquhuza ; but the n cannot be sounded after m. 

340. A noun or infinitive may be repeated with na or ngay 
in order to increase the intensity of the expression. 

Ex. uhwenza kwcibo kunamandhla ngamandhla, their doing is most 
violent. . 

ahantu hezizwe ngezizwe, people of different tribes. 
yeha Whafana betand'innyama ! hadhla lohi hwngesonamazinyane 
namazinyane, ku'htbcubu nje, how these boys love flesh ! they 
are eating this being not young birds, but only chicks. 
mina ngiyeke ukuyitenga nje, ng&xmUe ukuti akuse^nkonKy 
na'nkomot sokvmdhlekedhlana nje weze, I for my part have given 
up buying it, I saw it was no real ox, only a Uttle old buUock* 
himmgi engizwaJeuUwa;amakonpa! ang'aziuma kubusela-pi na ; 
okunye akuna'gama na*gama; izinto nje, there are many as to 
whom I hear it said (they are) chiefs truly ! I don't know 
where they reign; somewhat (of them) has no name whatever; 
(they are) things merely. 
uzakufa nokufa, you will certainly die. 

yeka la*hantu hegangile ! hacofozela amaqanda endhlini ; ahasav/ 
esuli nokuw'esvZa, how naughty these people are ! they smash 
eggs in the hut ; they do not wipe them up at aU. 
amadoda avumelana ngezvri ngingaliboni na'kuli^ona, the men 
agreed about a (word) matter (I not seeing it at all =) which I 
know nothing about. 

kayihlonzi na'kuyihlonza leyo'ndaha, he did not particularly caxe 
about that matter. 

kungafele na'kufela, it not being quite enoguh, wher( akufele = 
akwanele, it is not enough (meaning, perhaps, tie heart's 
desire has not died away). 

hanezinhliziyo nokuhanenhliziyo j£Lba*hantu, they have hearts 
indeed those people = they are very anxious (said either in 
praise or blame). 

kiti lapa asisahlezi ngokuhlala, here at our place we don't live 
with (proper) living = we live uncomfortably. 
sihe singekutole nokukutola ngoha silanibe kangaka, we could not 
find it (ukudhla) effectually, because we were so hungry = if 
we had not been so hungry, we should have been more 
fortunate. 

yeka loku kungeso yami nokuba yami ! alas for this thing it 
not being really mine {into) ! 
yaquleka nokuquleka, she (intombi) fainted right away. 



PXC¥LIABITIBS OV CONSTBUCTIOM. 151 

Mfengelibone (ihaM) nohUihona, they could not have seen the 
liorse distinctly. 

N.B. In such a case^ if a pronoun is used as the object of the firwi 
verb^ it must be repeated (as above) with the second. 

341. The following are instances of what may be called a 

nominative absolute. 
Ex. bati ukucabanga, they said (to think) with this thought. 

bayakuhlala kung'ukutula, they will lire (it being peace) lo 

peace. 

nangomuso mina ngiyakutuhitela umuntu engiqala, and (to 

morrow) another day I for my part shall be angry when a man< 

(^begins at) attacks me. 

Or the infinitive may be nsed without a preposition. 
Ex. wenzile ukwenza, you have done your best. 

ngibulaleni uJcungibuUUa, kill me outright. 

uti uyise uyabona ukuba ukwala wy'ala, says his father you tsee 

that he positively refuses. 

And so the repetition of a verb implies intensity of action. 
Ex. us'edhle wadhla, he ate away might and main. 

342. When two nouns in the possessive form are dependent 

on the same antecedent noun, the proper relative is prefixed 

to the second noun, if it is desired expressly to draw attention 

to it as distinct from the first. 

Ex. inkosikazi yetu, eyamaNgisi namaBuhu ndbantu, our Queen^ whc 

is (Queen) of the English and Dutch and Natives, 
but inkosikazi yamaNgisi, neyama Bunu, neyabantu futi. Queen of th€ 

English, and of the Dutch, and of the Natives too. 

ukwenza kwenu noMpande, the doing of you and Mpande. 

kanikwe elinye izwe libe elake nezizukulwana zake, let him b€ 

given a piece of land to be his own and his descendants'. 

abehlanga ubutongo ngokukala kwezinkabina umsindo "Ajonvakaiii 

sleep came not down because of the lowing of the cattle and 

the noise of the people. 

N.B. Observe na umsindo (and not nomsindo) in the above. 

When one possessive refers to two or more antecedents it 
is used in the form proper for the nearest of them. 
Ex. izinkomo namaha^hi enkosi, cows and horses of the chief. 
amahashi nezinkomo zenkosi, horses and cows of the chiefs 

343. When two or more adjectives refer to the same nouti, 
the copulative, by whicb they are connected in English, if 
omitted in Zulu. 

Ex. w*aka indhhu enkulu enhle, he built a large and beautiful housa 



152 PBCULIABITIES OF GONSTBUCTION. 

344. When a verb has two or more nominatives of the 
.£ame class of nouns, it may take the corresponding plural 
pronoun. 

Ex. uyihlo nonyoJco bahlezi kahle, your father and mother, they 
are well. 

leU'hctshi na leliya ayahihamba, this horse and that there, 
they will go. 

When a verb has two or more nominatives not of the same 
■class of nouns, they may be treated (if possible) as persons, 
and be represented by the pronoun ha ; otherwise the imper- 
sonal form may be used. 

Ex. leyo'ndoda nomkayo habotshwaf that man and his wife were 
hound. 
lo*mfanana le'nnja okwaJoe, this boy and this dog are his. 

345. When two or more verbs have the same accusative, 
the accusative pronoun, if inserted in one, must be inserted 
in each of them. 

Ex. bambamba, bamtshaya, bavnibopa ngentambo, they caught him, 
beat him, and bound him with a rope. 

346. The verbs ya and ga, go and come, are regularly 
inserted after verbs, expresf^ing the particular kind or cause 
•of motion in any case, to complete the sense where one verb 
would suffice in English. 

Ex. wakupuka waya kwomhulu, he went up to the chiefs place. 
ngitunywe ukuza'kukidshelaj I have been sent to toll you. 
w'ehla waya emapandhleni, he went down to the country. 

So, too, vela, come from, is similarly used. 
Ex. sebejfikile bevela emQungundhlovUy they are now ariivcd, coming 
from Maritzburg. 

347. Neuter or passive verbs are often followed by a noun 
in the simple form, which, though the same in form as the 
nominative case, we may regard as somewhat a: uilogous to an 
accusative absolute. 

Ex. walala tjibutongo, he lay in sleep. 

yaigcwele amanzi, it (inibiza, pot) was full of water. 
basebekatele ukuhamba, they were now tired with walldng. 
icweba lokung&tw, imikumbi, a lagoon for entering with ships. 
izindhlela zokuhamhaizinnqola, roads for going with wagons. 
amakanda okuhlala amahuto, military kraals for living in by 
soldiers. 

as*enuka udaka Wmanzi, this water is now slinking with mud. 
ubutongo Una ngibvlalile, I have had a good sleep truly. 



PECULIARITIES OF CONSTBUCTIOW. 15^* 

ngibulawa izindhUhe, zipuma uhovu, I am plagued with my ears,, 
they (come out with =) exude matter. 

waKamba (wahambela) umhambela wafuti, he went ofP with a. 
perpetual going = for good and all. 
walala umlalela wafuti, he slept with a perpetual sleep. 
cobela ngehau unganeti izinto zdko lezi, screen (your head) with 
the travelling-shield that you may not get wet with these 
things of yours. 

twaVtmintwana lo fun'atshe izinnyawo, carry this child, lest he- 
get scorched in his feet. 

ngihamba izinncwadi, I am going with the letters = I am carry- 
ing the post. 

348. Nouns expressing length of time or distance are used 
in the accusative.- 

Ex. wahlaZa nati iibibsulcu honke, he stayed with us the whole night ;, 

but baza'ufika ehusuJcu, they will arrive at night. 

bc^ka izwe lonke, they arrived throughout the whole land. 
wyauhamba ubala, you will go through the wild-country. • 
ulipete namhlanje; balihlezi emuva, balihlezipambili; v/yalihamba 
uyalibuquza pakati, he has it (izwe) in hand to-day (= he- 
travels fast over it) ; they are sitting all along it behind, they 
are sitting all along it before $ he is going over it and shuffling, 
it (the dust) up between. 

watshona'lukalo, yatahona'lukalo, he went down along the ridge^ 
it {inkomo} went down along the ridge. 

The nse of the noun with its inflex elided, as in the last 
example, is very common in such cases as the following. 
Ex. uvyiyisa hjoaba'nkomo*ningi, he takes her to those with many 
cattle. 

intanga yaleyo'ntonibi is'ibantwana ngababili kaloku, the con- 
temporaries of that girl are now by this time (are with) have 
children by twos. 

sasiyozingela ehlanzeni, kweli^kubalela'kubi kwelVmagcuke^mcbbi, 
we went to hunt in the bush, to that which has bad heat, to 
that which has bad yellow-ants = where the heat is great and 
the ants troublesome. 

K.B. ihiishi lakwa'hasM leli, = these horses are very numerous, for 
which might be said ihashi lika'Nomuntu leli, where uNomuntu is used 
to express a large number. 

349. Verbs implying 'giving* or 'taking away/ and 
objective verbs, take a double accusative. 

Ex. wapa uNgoza inncwadi, he gave Ngoza a letter. 

bas'amukile ukudhla kwetu^ they took away our food from us, 
bamambula izingubo, they stripped off him his clothes. 
wazikipa amehlo izinhloli, he put out the eyes of the spies. 



<"• 



I 



154 FXCUI.IASmB8 OF OOHSTBUCnOH. 

wabapa innhoa neziMkcbe nennyamOf he gave them bread and 
(cooked) mealies and meat. 

wigmike amatanga amataiu itolo, he gave me Hiree ptonpkins 
yesterday. 

VHunUla ikoMibi eniuubeni, he poured on him the ikambi on the 
wound. 

wtig'abele isindaha take, he has (distributed) charged on me 
his story. 

vxibulala imbulu, wayl*ebiUa isikumba, he killed an igoana, and 
took off it the skin. 

kenmgomboloqe itvngonogono ennd^le^ens let ns extract for him 
the wax from his ears. 

ikudwnasiU innja ukvdKUi kwelu ; ikufake ikala elVmakaza, the 
dog has spoiled onr food ; it has put into it his cold nose. 
N.B. Nika may also take a dative of the donee.. 

Some verbs, as honga, huza^ temha, konza^ may be nsed 
either with the accusaiive or dative of the person thanked, &c., 
the accnsative being used when the act is done directly, Ynth 
reference to dciual personal commn nication with the person 
acted on. 
Ex. wabuzauSomtseu, he asked Somtseu. 

wahuza ku' Somtseu, he asked of Somtsen (perhaps by a mes- 
senger). 

hahonga uTshaka, they thanked Tshaka (in person). 
hahonga ku* Tshaka, they sent thanks to TshfJca. 

350. Verbs expressing motion to or from a place, are 
generally nsed with the locative. 

Ex. way a wangena endhlini, he went and entered into the hnt. 
wadahula emasimini, he went through tiie gardens. 
w*emuka kubo qed'ula ahatshele, he departed from them as soon 
as he had told them. 

wayixotsha innja ey'ebayo ekaya, he drove away from the kraal 
the dog that was stealing. 

N.B. The following are peculiar expressions. 

ngihamba amacala = ngihamba indhlela yanuieala, I am going 
to the law-court. 

wakuluma kahle, wangena lowo'muntu, you spoke well« yon went 
into that man. 

351. Reciprocal verbs (in and), and some others, as dhluld, 
duka, hingay Ac., are regularly used with na. 

Ex. uduke nexwe, waya wafiha kwa'Ngosa, he went astray over the 
country, and went on and got to Ngoza's. 
w'ala nezinkomOt he refused the cows. 
dh/ulani ndbo, do you pass by thenu 



PBCULIAJBITIES OP CONSTBUCTION. 155 

7>aciteJca (hahlaJcazeha) nezwe lonke, they were scattered over the 

whole land. 

lunga nezwi lami; hona uyaungena kahle Icu'Manqondo, (keep 

straight with my word =) do as I tell you, then you will get in 

well to ManqQndo (in argument). 

h'emuka nendhlela eya hwa*NodwengUy they went off with the 

road which goes to Nodwengu = they thought I meant that 

road. 

h'emuka namavxi hengasizwa'mtmtu, they (went away with the 

water =) were carried down the stream^ not being helped by 

anyone. 

The foUo^wing peculiarity in the use of Reciprocal Verba 
deserves special notice, being different from the English 
idiom. 

Ex. sahonana nomgani wami, we saw each other, (I) and my friend. 
bahelingana noDingane, they were of the same size, (he) and 
Dingane. 

sasitandana kakulu naye, we were very fond of each other, (I) 
and he. 
sadukelana naye, we strayed from each other, (I) and he* 

So sintanga'nye naye, we are of the same age, (I) and he. 
ba*ntanga*nye naye, the two ace of the same age. 
umtshele uti ngiyaufika ngomhlomunye njengaloJco sasihilume 
njalo naye, do you tell him (and) say (that)I will arrive to-morrow 
as we said, (I) and he. 

The Zulu often inverts the English idiom in such cases. 
Ex. unayo impahlaj he is with it, goods, = he has goods with him. 

omunye umfana esasihamha naye, another boy with whom we 

were going, = who was going with us. 

352. Passive verbs, formed from active trans ifives, are used 
with an accusative. This is somewhat in accordance with the 
English idiom ; but in Zulu the construction is very remark- 
able in the case of verbs of the objective form. 

Ex. ngiyipiwe umlungu Wnnja, I have been given th^s dog by a 

white man. 

balaliswe umfula wonke, they were made to lie along the 

whole river. 

unikwe imali yoke, he has been given his money. 

hahaselwa umlilo, they were kindled for with a fire, = a fire was 

kindled for them. 

s'eldelwa ukufa, we were com 3 down upon by sickness. 

bawelwa innqoJcbi they were fallen upon by a wagon. 

abantwana abafelwa oyise^ children whose fathers are dead. 

leyo'nnja aikotiswe isibiba, let that dog be made to lick an 

antidote. 



\ 



166 PSCULIABITIES OF CONSTSUCTION. 

amanzcma engangiw'enMelwe umame, the (drop of water =) smalts 

supply of utshwala which (I have been made for with it) ha» 

been made for me by my mother. 

batshelwa lezo'ndaha, tHej were told that story. 

uyahwanvuhwa leyo'nkomo, he will be deprived of that cow. 

hakohlwa uhupata isitsha, they forgot to take a cup (lit. they 

were slipped in memory by the taking of a cup). 

lo'mntwana us'ezaukumuka (vinasmyo, us'ezakumUa amatsha, this 

boy is about to (become loose in =) shed his teeth, he will now 

grow (with) new ones. 

ngibilelwa uhufa, I am b '.led OTer by sickness =s sickness has- 

overwhelmed me. 

wnilwe y*into lapa etnlenzeni, h^ has been stuck by something 

here in the leg^= something has struck him in his leg. 

bapelelwa amandhla oJcuhamba, they were come to an end for oy 

strength to walk = strength came to an end for them. 

aiho nerriboxwana 'eneelwe yona ? is there not a drop (of tshwald) 

(that he has been made for with it =) that has been made- 

for him? 

leyo'nkomo ikulelwe, that cow has been increased for = a f setus 

has increased for it, it is in calf. 

ngikulelwe ulcufa Jcu'hantwana hanvi, (I have been increased for by 

sickness =) sickness has been rife for me among my children. 

ufehve vmvntwana, (she has been died for by her child =) her 

dbdld has died or she has miscarried 

wafisa ukufelwa urmmtu na ? did you wish (to be died for by a 

man =) that a man should die, be killed, on your account ? 

igama lami engaliqanjwa ubaha nomame ng'uMfoJcazana, my name 

which (I was struck out with it) was struck out for me by my 

father and mother is Mfokazana. 

umlomo ngiwvqatshuliswe uJojo kusasa ngesijingi, my mouth I 

was helped to refresh it by Jojo this morning with isnjingi = 

Jojo helped me to refresh it, he gave me some idjingi, 

vjonginiha le'nkomo efelweyo, you shall give me this cow which. 

hiB lost its calf. 

uMonasi us'efelwe izwe, Monasi (refugee wife of XJmpande) has 

now her land dead to her = she is now in exile. 

wdb'engafunelwa yini na ? wayelwa wacelelwa ezinnyangeni ? was 

ho not asked-medicine for ? was he not gone-for, besought-for> 

to the doctors ? 

ngangihamha-ke ngitshonelwe ilanga, why, I was on my way, but 

(I was set t. . by the sun) the sun set for me. 

w'enqatsheluf indoda yake, she has been refused for by her 

husband. 

353. The passive form is often used in Zulu, where in 
English the active would be employed, and, in sncli a case, 
the impersonal form is frequently used. 



ttCVtiAJUTJEB OP CONSTSlJCTlrt!^. 1^7 

SiX. hwyiwa ennyangeni yohilumeka, it lis gone to the cuppings-doctor. 
Jeuyiwe esililweni, they are gone to the wake. 
Jcwaza Jcwahanjwa ngezinnyawo, it came to be walked on foot. 
hwalalwa Jcwa'Ngoza, it was slept (they slept) at Ngoza's. 
akusahanjwa namhZa, there is no more going to-day. 
kwayiwa'kuzwa dbantu dbafayo, it was gone to (listen) consult 
(on account of) sick people. 

huhleziwe kahU kona ? is it liv^ (do they live) pleasantly there ? 
kwakuhlalwa kahle kona ; kusayakupindelwa kona, it was lived 
there pleasantly (formerly) j (it will be still returned =) we 
shall still return thither. 

kuke kwahlalwa, kutiwa uza'v,tshetsh*ujike, (it was stopped =) 
we stopped a bit, it being said that you would quickly come. 

354. As noticed already, tenses, which express presenit or 
future time, will often be used with reference to time, which 
is actually past, but was present or future at the time 
referred to in the narrative. This makes it often impossible 
to translate Zulu expressions, word for word, by corresponding 
English ones. 

Ex. Vazi ukuba ukuluma ngahoj they knew that he (is) was speaking 
about them. 

wab*eng*az% uma uza^uti-ni na, he did not know what he (shall) 
should say. 

yati innyanga ingeze yamnuka kung'eziwe emhldhlweni, tl^e doctor 
said he (can) could not get to smell him out (it not having been 
gone to a consultation =) without going through the regular 
process of enquiry. 

angi*kuze (angvyikuza) ngakohlwa yHnina, ningibulalela abanta 
hami, I will not get (I forgot) to forget you, you killing for me 
my children. 

ng'azi ukuti iyauti ikwela immim, bengiUhorux, elakona izwe, I 
knowing that it will be high day, (I was seeing =) when I shall 
have been in sight of the &>nd of that (country). 

355. When two verbs are connected in English by either of 
the words, *and, nor, neither,* the conjunction is usually 
omitted in Zulu, and the second verb put in the s^ibjunctive 
mood — more particularly, if the action expressed by the 
second verb is consequent in time, or dependent in any way, 
on that of the first. 

Ex. yalusa izmkomo, uzibekisisef zingadhli amasvm/a, herd the cattle, 
and look well after them, that they eat not the mealie* 
grounds. 

gaula tfi&pru2a, wake isatnaa, cut down poles, and construct an 
%8<mda (place for keeping grain). 



Itft PACtTLiABITtEd Of' COlTSTBVCtlOl^. 

huhmoa innya/nga, huyohi%oa (hwyehikiwa) ikambi, abeBtmyapvao., 
then (is) will be called the doctor, and then will be gathered 
medicine^ and he will then be for drinking (it). 
entumsi le hwa'Nyawo sasimha amagebe, stw'enibe-he swo'enze 
ifBvnhla, ohttwye lube ngcmeno, olunye lube ngapambili, down there 
atKyawo's we dug pits, we dug them and made rows (of them), 
one to be on this side, one to be further on. 
abafa/na babcmba ucimbitwa ; hayalusinisa bati, * Ntete, ntete, 
yene'amagwm'ahini ! * Iw/o'enze qede, baikayeke lundize, the boys 
caught a large green locust; they make it dance, and say, 
* Locust ! Locuffb ! make the songs of your people,' and so, as 
soon as it had made them, tliey let it go and it flew away. 
Hii Una. uma umuntu ebone ihilM, omunye t^atohoza, ati ngizahuba 
n^nhlanhla, hatisinibe ngizausuta, omunye adabuke, ati ingdbe 
ngizautshaywa, with us (290), if a man has seen an ibika (ant 
with white spots on the abdomen) one rejoices and says,! ^all 
have good fortune, perhaps shall get a belly-full, and another 
is sad and says, perhaps I shall be beaten. 
umdkoti ugana qede^ mhlaunibe hudMule izinnycmga zibe mbili, aye 
hvibo ayotata amabele, awagaye, *enze utshwala; lobo'tshwala 
amahlanze, as soon as a bride marries, perhaps there pass two 
months, and she goes to her father's, and goes and takes amabele, 
and grinds them, and makes utshwala ; that utshwala (is =) is 
called am^ahlanze. 

wo ! musa, mgane ! inlcomo imbiwa ematsheni Jcu'belungu; ahun- 
jenga hwa*Zulu ; kona izinkomo bezifuywa ngempi ; esUvmgwini 
lapa umuntu uhlalahlalahlale ku'mlungu ayizuze, es'eke waginga 
immyaka ngeminyaka, oh ! don't (talk of it), friend ! a beast is 
dug out of the rocks among the whitemen ; it is not like (what 
it is) in Zululand; there cattle were obtained by an impi; 
among the white folk here a man stays and stays and stays 
with a whiteman and obtains it, having now managed to 
swallow whole years and yea:s. 

a8*ezikalela-ke lapa amaBunu ukuti, 'Hamba mukatihi warm I 
* ngafelakwa'Zulu!* Sakvpela-ke njalo ; sokute xibilili nje sebeldhle 

n^zibamu; sokukufa kwabo-ke njalo laho ababenqamukile ; 
sebepume-ke isixukutshwanyana singaka, singasengakanani, sebe* 
bancane, sebekwele ngababiWhashini'linye, osuke sokukatele elake, 
amiats ambeke kwelake, then they were lamenting themselves, 
were the Boers, to wit, * Go, my horse ! I have died among the 
Zulus ! ' And so there was an end, there was now uttef 
confusion; now they throw away even their muskets; now 
there is the death of them continuaUy, those who had been cut 
off ; now there escapes a little group, so many, not worth 
naming, they being now few, mounted two on one horse, 
whoBoever's horse was tired, (one) took him and put him on 
his own. [N.6. muhashi wami a whiteman's bad Zulu for 
hashi lami."] 



PBOULUBITIIS OW OONSTBUCTION. 160 

356. But, if the first verb in such a case is in the perfeoi or 
past tense, the second verb is put in the past tense. 

Ex. simfune samfuna uKati, we sought and sought for Kati. 

izifUangu ezinetileyo Matamha, nezibamu eeinetileyo zaha'mangit 

nezikali ezapukUeyo, lezo'zinto zonke z'ahlulekile, shields which 

have been wetted and got soft, and guns which hare been 

wetted and have got moists and weapons which have been 

broken, aU these things are done /or. 

ngiduleU T^cidulela ning'ezwa, I called and called^ you not 

hearing. 

ngike ngamhona kusasa, I just saw him this morning. 

inkosi ize yavuma yamnika, the chief got to consent and g^re (it) 

to him. 

kumnandi ukudhla kugayiwe kwaeoliswa, it is nice to eat when 

it has been ground and made fine. 

umntwana ukale wakala waza waha nebsilingozi ; wdb'eaanidundU' 

zeU, kazatula ; nokub*eze walala, ukuba *eze weuninywa vhutongo 

walala, the child cried and cried till he got a fit of sobbiug ; 

she was now soothing it, it did not get still ; and that it got to 

sleep, (it was) that it got to be surprised by sleep and slept. 

ite ihka nje indhlala, ngasengiye ngaienga efuKoittazi le iigahehdda, 

when the famine was coming, I went and bought at the 

Umkomanzi far-away and stored. 

kuyahUkwa, kube xngidigidA^'Seihlatshwe yahli'Mivmi it is laugliable 

it is absurd, it being already killed and skinned. 

uma le'nduku iwile aydbe {ayaba) ^8afmka^ iviyukiiDaui uhabd 

sengifile, if this staff (has) shall have fallen (it never rose 

again ==) and never rise again, ye will knowT that now X aiii 

dead. 

357. TJhiba is often omitted before a subjauetive vevb, 
where * that * would be expressed in English. 

£}x. sonlunge sipume hasasa, it is now right (that) we t^hunld bet out 
to-morrow morning. 

betshaya impt leya engapets/ieya, b'enzeteiki kuwele wnUnno 
opambili, they hitting the impi there on the other side, d<mig 
it (that) the (mouth in front) men in advance may cross. 
watiababutane bonke,he said (that) they were all to assembln. 
11^6 unvrUwana kasizomcelela umese, the boy said (that) we were 
come and ask for a knife for him. 

ttzekuti-ke yena uDingane azekvhuza ebuza koMzuzu, ai%»ke, 
' Yipose (iponse) kulipi iJbandhla na V bazehiti-ke, * Iponse em" 
Vokweni;' azehiti, ' Yenze njani ukuponsa kwayo na P bazekuti' 
ke bona, 'Nkosi, Una asinako ukukutshela ukuponsa hwayo; 
bakona oyihlo, bay'eza, izinduna, zokutsTiela ukuba iposile yenze 
njani,* ati-ke yena, * Bengivele ngayibona ebusukv, inva ngUeU ; 
ngayibona ukuti impi ixotshiwe, kcpa-ke nayo ifposile, 90 he. 



100 irMCUIAAMmMB OW COXSTBITCTIOX* 

Dingaae^ gets U> &sk, asking of Mznzn and his party, so sajs 
be, ' It (impi) struck which troop ? ' So say they, ' It struck 
the ImTokwe (regiment) ;' so says he, ' How did it do (it), its 
striking y So say they, ' Sire, we are not able to tell abont its 
striking; there are yonrfathers, they are coming, the miuluiui^ 
to tell aboat how it strock ;' so says he, I hadoome (352, N.B.) 
to see it at night when I was asleep ; I saw that the impi was 
routed, bnt it too had strock/ 

358. In relating a narrative the natives often nse wbat may 
be called the historical subjunctive. 

Ex* vMohosela imUa ennyameni yeso, ivuvuke, ah'es'eyxbona umuntu, 
i^eii (as'eti) lo*muntu unenhlokosela, a stye g^ws on the fleshy 
part of the eye, it swells, and then some one sees it, and so he 
says that person has a stye. 

^efuba (as*et*uba) ww*ake umhumbi, 'erne ngapaioH noDingane, 
then when they (amahuio) had made a circle, Dingane also 
stands within. 

hepa-Jce hahuze-he indhlela hati * Ungasihambisa ngendkUla elungi- 
leyo f avume-ke, ukttba-ke es'azi uhuJba impi seipahwe, yalala 
huyo yonke imifuyana le azav/oela ngayo ; cthambe-ke ngayo 
indhlela le, bnt they ask about the way, tiiey say 'Can you lead 
us by the right path ? ' he assents, because not knowing that 
the impi was now posted and lay at all the streams by which 
he (wlU) would cross ; so he goes by that path. 

359. The to of the pronoun of the 3rd Pers. Sing, of the 
Indicative Past is often omitted in rapid enunciation, 

especially after an adverb. 
Ex. lap'avela kona, or la'vela kona, = Inpo wavela kona, whence he 
came. 

seloku azaVwa yena, ever since he was born. 
kwaini afika ? when did he arrive ? 

kaz*dbona'hito, for kaza wabona'hito, he did not see anything. 
waii nva ahalekayo, he said when he fled. 

kad* afika lapa, sasesiti useVdhamba (= usewahamha or soiro- 
haniba), long ago he arrived here, we had thought he (is) 
was now gone. 

kaz'ezwa (for kaza w'ezwa), he did not get to hear. 
omtmye us*aza (usewaza) wdba isiguU, another now got to be an 
invalid. 

cmgez'akeiwa (angeze wakeiwa), he would not be chosen. 
yfas'epumisa impirke, a8*eti (was'eti) aihanibe noDambuza, he was 
now sending forth the impi, he was now saying (let it go) that 
it should go with Dambuza. 

was'esaU uMpande emuka, as^eza (was'eza) htmaBunu, Mpande 
now (remaineddeparting) had to depart, he now came to the Boers. 



PECITLIABITIES OF CONSTRUCTION. 161 

360. The natives also sometimes clip their words by 
leaving ont the pronouns, where the senses plain from the 
context. 

Ex. soJcdtele (sokuhatele) elake ihashi, it being now tired^ his horse. 
sehamhe (sehehamhe) henqamula nje ngamahashi, they having now 
gone cuttihg off (the impi) by horses. 
aso (akuso) wmkuhlane na ? it is not a feverish cold ? 
seze (seheze) hatiwe swaca ukubulawa, they having now got to be 
seized and dashed down (in) the killing. 

ht^ke (hesifike) singene enMini lapa yomvmtu engeko^ we 
had come and entered the hut here of a man he not being 
there. 

361. Adverbs such as uma, lapo, lohu, kona, mhltty &c., and 

adverbial expressions, are followed by a participle. 
Ex. wma hehamha, ngiya*uhamba ndbo, if they go, I will go with 
them. 

lapo exa konat sokwetshwanyiwe, where he goes the ukwetshwama 
has been performed = new mealies have been already eaten. 
kond wrmtntu eyauaibixizela nabantu ngornvso odakeni, then a 
man will tramp himself and his people (to-morrow)^ some time 
or other in the mud. 

mhla svye kwaMatshana, when we had gone to Matshana's. 
wasibulala ngoha eti, &c., he killed ns because he said, &c. 
y'Uoku ehle wahuhula njalo, all the while he sighed continually. ^ 
So lo'muti v/yatshetsha ukuhda; auna'nsukv, wmuntu ewunqvmiile, 
this tree hastens to grow ; it has no days (since) a man cut i 
down. 

naisuku lohuhlanu efikUe, on the fifth day (it was that) he 
arrived. 

362. In the following instances, where reference is made 
to past time, the verb is in the snbjnnctive. 

Ex. wafvibaaimbe una ka'Tshaka, when Tshaka's mother died. 
sati uhasihuye envpini, when we returned from the vm^, 
utevwma avuke kvsiisa, when he arose this morning. 
wafwn'avuke, when he arose (some time ago). 
sativibe sifike qede, as soon as we arrived. 
sebet'uba bahange-ke, so when they had their family quarrel. 



THE END, 



Pr^*^ by P, I)AVI6 & ISONIS; Pi«tennarit«burg. 




I 



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