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Full text of "First steps in Zulu: being an elementary grammar of the Zulu language"

^Jrrscutc^ tn 

'2Il|e ILibraru 

of ihc 

^Iniucrsitu of (lurmitn 

Hu^h S. Robertson . 



IND 

A I III! 



♦ 



I NIMRSm- OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



FIRST STEPS IN ZULU: 



BEING AN 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



ZULU LANGUAGE, 



THE RIGHT REV. J, W. COLENSO, O.D„ D.CL. 



J 



BISHOP OF NATAL. <. 



^ 



THIRD EDITION. 



P. DAVIS & SONS, MARITZBUKG AND DUEBAN. 

1882. 



The follo\vint)j Zulu Books by the Bishop of Natal may be had from 
Messrs. P. Davis & Sons, Maritzbur*? and Durban : 

1. First Reading Book, price 6d. 

2. Second Ecading Book (Tales and Stories), price 6d. 

8. Third Reading Book (Sentences and Narratives), price Is. 6d. 

4. Inhlanganisela, a Medley of Geography and History, price Is. 6d. 

5. First Steps in Zulu, being an Elementary Grammar of the 

Ziilu Language, Third EiUtion, price 5s. 

6. Three Native Accounts of the Bishop of Natal's Journey to 

Zululand, with Translations and Notes referring to the Fii ^t 
Steps, price 28. 6d. 

7. Zulu-English Dictionary, Second Edition, price Ss. 6d. 

8. Common Prayer Book, Morning and Evening Prayers, Collecta, 

Communion and Occiisional Services, many Psalms and Metrical 
Psalms and Hymns, price Is. 

0. Book of Genesis, with Commentary in Zulu, price 2s. 6d. 

10. Book of Exodus, price 9d. 

11. Two Books of Sauutel, Second Edition, price Is. 6d. 

12. Zulu New Testament, price 4s. dd. 

13. Ukuhamba h'wcsihamhi (Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, P.'irt \). 

price Is. 6d. 

14. First Lessons in Science, Part I (in easy English), price 2b. 

If). First Lessons in Science, Part II, price Ss. 

It;. Unizimbn Otwuyo (The Living B<Kly), First Lessons in 
Physiology, i)rice 2s. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



This Geamjiae has been considerably enlarged and 
amended, and in some places has been re-written, for 
the present edition. But the numbering of the articles 
has been adhered to as nearly as possible throughout, in 
order that it may be used in connection with the " Three 
" Native Accounts of the Bishop of NataFs Journey to 
" Zululand/' which has been prepared expressly for 
the use of persons beginning to study the Zulu Language, 
with Translation and Explanatory Notes, in which 
references are made throughout to the Grammar. These 
references correspond generally with the numbers in tlie 
present edition, though occasionally they will be found 
to fall short or exceed by one. 

J. W. NATAL. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter 

Inteoduction 
I.— Orthoj,'niphy and Acoentuiition 
II.— Classification and Derivation of Nouns 
III.— Elision and Coalition of Vowels 
IV-— Cases of Nouns 
V- — Possessive Partidos 
VI. — Preposition^ 

^'^^^•~Pe'"8on'vI and Deuionstrutive Pronouns 
VIII.— Relative Pronouns 
IX. — Adjectives 

X.— Numeral Adjectives 
XI. — Adverbs 
X [ I ._ Komis of Verbs 
XIII .— Mootls of Verbs 
XIV. — Conjujfation of Verbs 
XV. — Negative Verbs 
XVI.— Use of the Particles Su and S,. 
.\V 11. —Substantive, Vnwel. and Pussiv V.,! 
XV III. — Use of the VerbTi 
XIX.— Au.xiliHry Verbs and Tartiele-. 
^^•— Pwuliariti»«« of Construction 



Pasre. 
1 



11 
. 23 
25 
2S 
.11 
34! 
45 
50 
CI 
68 
85 
02 

KH 

108 

112 

117 

I2S 

1.11 

H7 



FIRST BOOK IjN^ ZULU-KAFIR 

AN INTRODUCTION 



TO THE STUDY OF THE 



ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



DIALECTS OF XATAL. 

The Zulu-Kafir Language* is properly the dialect of a 
small tribe, the amaZulu, who, under their famous Chief 
Tshaka (Chaka), and his brothers and successors Dingane and 
Mpande, have acquired and maintained, for some sixty years, 
the supremacy over the natives along the S.E. coast of Africa, 
excepting, of coarse, those who have been living under 
British protection since Natal came under our Government 



* Missionaries sometimes use the words isil^lu, isiXosa, &c., to ex- 
press the language of the araaZulu, amaXosa, &.c. It is convenient, of 
course, to employ such words : but they are not used by the 
natives themaelves. 

-B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

in 1B45. On this account it lias a ris^lit to be considered the- 
standard dialect of this part of Africa ; though other varieties 
of the Kafir Language are spoken by different tribes within^ 
and far beyond, the borders of the Colony. 

Thus the language of the tribes on the Eastern Frontier of the 
Cape Colony, of the Basuto nation, and of the amaSwazi, is substan- 
tially the same ; though the dialects spoken by some of these tribes 
are sometimes so different that even natives living within the small 
district of Natal can hardly understand each other, as the vulgar 
dialect of Lincolnshire and Somersetshire vary considerably from each 
other, and from the standard language of educated Englishmen. 
Philologists indeed have shown conclusively that there are strong 
affinities between the languages spoken by the tribes living on the 
easteim and those on the wes'cj-n coast of Africa ; and the tendency of 
modern inquiries is towards the conclusion that the whole central part 
of this continent, from the north-west to the south-east, is inhabited 
by tribes, speakingonly differentvarietiesof the same common tongue. 
Thus the name for the Deity among the Zulus, at least the nearest 
approach to a name for the Creator, is uNkiilunkulu, 'the Great-Great- 
One.' And Dr. W. II. Bleek has informed me, ' This same word is used 
with the same moaning, though in aljbreviated forms, all along the 
eastern coast of Africa, e.g. Alulungulu in Inhambane, IfuZungu in 
the Kikamba and Ki-nika languages, Mlungu at Cape Delgado, 
Mulungo or Muluko in the Makwa language, ilnrungu at Sofala, Muryi- 
ngu or Morongu at Sena and Teto, ilungxt in the Snaheli, and Hungo 
in the Pokomo. [No doubt from this is derived the word uniiun<;u. 
commonly nsed in this colony for ' white-man. 'J It would, of course, 
be a bold thing to identify this last form Mungo with the Zulu uNku- 
lunkulu.ii wo could not follow up the gradual abbreviation through so 
many different st.igos. But, as it is, there is no doubt that from Natal to 
the Vjonlers I'f tlie Gallas country this very same word has, by most 
different authorities (English, Portugiioso, Germans, French, Ac.), 
been noted as the nearest representative of our word ' God.' And 
even in Otshiherero (spoken on the West Coaii, to the north of Great 
Namaqualand) a cognate word is used, vir., 0»ii-tii»-u ; and among tho 
Timnehn of Sierra Leone (wljose language ha«. by the lato Bishop 
Vidal, been recognised as related to the Kafir) tho name of Uod is 
Kuruh ; though the identity of this last word with tho South Afri- 
can names cannot yet Ix.' considered as an established fact.' 

At tho present time tho district of Nntal is larfjoly occu- 
pied by a very mixed populiitidti of native trilnis. The 
majority of them are sprung from tlio nl)original inhabitants, 
who {•ithertof)k refuge in the natural fastnesses of the nmntry, 
when the drsoliifing waves i>f Tshaku's invasions niIlo<l over 
the land, and have since ciiiurged into the light of day, or had 



INTBODTJCTIOlf. 3 

fled beyond Hs reach into the neighbouring districts, and re- 
turned to settle in their own abodes, as soon as the Dutch 
Boers took possession of the land, before the proclamation of 
British supremacy. Others have since come in from all 
quarters round, to seek shelter and protection binder a civi- 
lized government. Most of these are commonly called Zulus 
from their having been formerly under the Zulu rule and still 
using the Zulu dialect. But there are also large bodies of 
the natives who speak other dialects, differing distinctly from 
the Zulu, though the grammar of the language is essentially 
the same for all. 

The principal varieties of the Kafir tongue, which prevail 

to any extent in this district, are the dialects of the amaXosa, 
the amaTefula, and the amaLala. 

The amaXosa dialect belongs properly to the Kafir nation 
of that name upon the Eastern Frontier of the Cape Colony. 
It prevails among many of the tribes in the S. and S.W. 
parts of Natal. Qne of its most s t r ik in^^^ecujj j^riti e^ J8_ to, 
sound continuallj n^^ for ng ; and tliere are many of its words 
and forms of~'expression 'which are not used at all by the 
great body of natives in this district. 

The Wesleyan Missionaries have translated the whole Bible and 
most of the Prayer-Book of the Church of England into the amaXosa 
dialect. But it varies so much from the vernacular of these parts 
that these books, though easily understood by an intelligent Zulu, 
are of little use among the great body of Natal natives. 

The amaTefula dialect is spoken by many of the Natal 
Kafirs, especially by the amaQwabe tribe. Its chief peculiarity 
consists in putting y (or rather a souud which resembles that 
of y, but is really a softening of the /) in the place of /, and 
changing ny into n, as shown in the following examples : 

Zulu amaTefula \ 



lapo, there, when 




yapo 


lezi, these 




yezi 


umlilo, fire 




umyiyo 


innyama, meat 




innama 


innyoni, bird 


b2 


^.. innoni 




^ 


■;^'^^ 




INTRODUCTION. 



The amaLala dialect differs much from the Zulu, The 
name (amaLala) is given collectively to certain tribes in this 
district (the amaNcolosi and others), who were conquered by 
the Zulus, and of whom many are said to tekeza in their 
speech, whereas the tribes along' the Zulu coast to the N.E. 
of Natal, as far as Delagoa Bay and beyond, generally tefula. 

A few examples of the peculiarities of this dialect are here gfiven. 



^fi\yl/\./yyf. 



Zulu-Kafir 

inifcojHO, LuUock 
/ wkunzi, bull 

^^ inkonyana, calf J -^^Jj/ e 

upondo, horn /ixuy'2-y ■' "^^-^ 
umuntu, person, irfan 
umlomo, mouth 
inkosi, chief 
innja, dog 
aba/axi, women 
amanzi, water 
itinkomo, cattle 

ngihUii kahle, I am comfortable 
ngihlahc liolo, I slaughtered yeatordaj 
isandhla, hand 






amaLala 

iyomo 

xyudi 

iyomwadi 

iyomwane 

■yilupondMO 

uniunu 

wnomo 

xxcosi 

imbvia 

abafati 

anxadi 

xtioma 

ndtireti lahU 

ndsirabe iiolo 

isangra 

J*rom the above instances it appears that the amaTefula dialect 
differs but little from thcordinary Zulu, whereas that of the ama/aila 
varies from it considerably. The former is intelligible to any Zulu 
and may bo heard at the royal kraal; indeed, J/jxiiuio'* great wife, 
iVona«c," now a refugee in this colony, uses it habitually, though her 
Hon Mkungo does not, but speaks the pure Zulu. The ukutt/ula, in 
fact, is rather a sort of lisping Zulu ; wh«Teas the ukutekfza is quit** 
a diatinit dialect, and is underst.xxl with ditTiculty even by a Zulu, if 
unj)ni(ti8ed in it. It is not, however, considered correct to itfuUx, 
and in legal and other proceedings of imi>ortanco it would be avoided 
as much vut possible. 

The amaLala use very freely the harsh guttural reprt'sen- 
fed bv r in the last of the abovo iustances, whicli phvrtico in 
caUcd ukuraduii. Many of the tribes, however, iu Natal, 
which formerly used to tekeza, ai*e Zuluiited. 



ORTHOGKAPHT AND ACCENTUATION. 



CHAPTER I. 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND ACCENTUATION. 



1. The sounds of the Zulu-Kafir tongue are usually ex- 
pressed by means of the twenty-six letters of the English 
alphabet, five being employed for the voivels, seventeen for 
the consonants, three for clicks, and one for a harsh guttural. 

2. The five vowels in simple syllables, (those, namely, which 
end in a vowel, as most syllables do in Zulu), as a general mle, 
are sounded as follows : — 

a as in the English father 
e as „ „ there 

i as „ „ ravine 

as „ ,. pole 

u as „ ,, rule 

Sometimes, however, in a simple syllable the vowel has a 
closer sound ; and words of different meaning, which may be 
spelt alike, are distinguished by this difference in the sound 
of the vowels. 

Ex. kwati qwa (a as in father), it resounded as a thing struck j 
kwati qwa (a as ln/a<), it was perfectly white. 
bala, write (a as in balm), bala, count (a as in banish). 
In compound syllables, the sounds of the vowels, similar to 
the above, are necessarily closer and shorter. 

4. There are no diphthongs in Zulu. But the sound of the 
vowels au, when uttered rapidly, approaches to that of the 
diphthong ou in English. 

Ex. au! oh! (expressing dislike or astonishment). 

5. The seventeen consonants are those of the English lan- 
guage, except c, q, X, and r ; and they arc pronounced as in 
English, except that g is always hard, as in go, give. 



6 OBTHOOEAPHT A.ND ACCENTUATION. 

6. The two English sounds of c are represented in Zulu 
by k and f, and that of q by kic ; while that of x is not re- 
quired, since the combination ks does not occur in Zulu. 

The English sound of /• is also foreign to the Zulu tongue > 
and the natives, in attempting to pronounce it, Avill usually 
give it the sound of I. Most of them, however, if required 
to do so, will sound the r without much difficulty. 

Ex. uViktolia, Victoria; iKa/ula, a Kafir. 

N.B. The natives speak of themselves as abantu, ' people,' and of a 
single person as umun<u ; they never use iKafula, except disparag- 
ingly; thus ?oii"o'tnunht ut'iA;a/uJa nje, ' that man is merely a Kafir' 
— a low, beggarly fellow. And this term also would be generally 
used in Zululand in speaking of Natal natives. 

The word Kafir, however, means in Arabic ' unbeliever,' and in that 
sense is applied to the English by the Mahometan natives of India, 
as it was probably applied to the natives of these parts or their fore- 
fathers by the Mahometan tribes, which they passed in their descent 
along the Eastern coast of Africa. 

7. The letters c, q, x, are taken to represent the dicks, which 
are sounds not heard in any European language, being used 
to denote the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks respectively, so 
called from their being uttered by thrusting the tongue 
against the top of the front teeth, the roof of tlie inouth, and the 
side-teeth, and suddenly withdrawing it. 

The ' clicks ' used by the Kafir tribes have appan?ntly increased in 
number as the tribes have advanced further towards the S.nith — per- 
haps from closer contact with the Hottentots (owaLau) and Uushmen 
{iticwe, ama RusHmnne) , who use a great variety of these sounds; 
wlu-reas the Zulus employ scarcely any clicks, the Natal Kafirs only 
three or four, the amaXosa Kafirs many more. 

The remaining letter r is taken to represent the guttural* 
wliicli is sounded like the strong German ch, aH heard in 
aiich, noch. 

But this sound is usually softened down among the Natal 
natives to that of h; so that in books iutondeji for tUuir uao 
such sounds nuiy be denoted by >• or h. 

Ex. Zulu-Katir Natal-Kafir 

rola, draw hola 

umrau, Htrong emotion uniAaw 

There is another sound occurring in Home Zulu wonlH» 
which may bo pronounced either an a guttural from the 



OBTHOGKAPHT AND ACCEKTUATIOK. 7 

T3ottoin of the throat or as a click in a peculiar way. But 
the sound must be heard in order to be imitated. We shall 
-denote it by x amona: Italic, or x among Roman letters ; and 
the proper sound may be got from a native. 

Ex. xxwa a sort of umkonto or assegai ; xeza, milk into one's 
mouth ; ixoba, distant hill-fire ; ixosa, glutton ; xweba, scratch. 

9. There is a slight aspiration heard in very many words 
(as in Hebrew or Hibernian English) after the letters b, g, d, 
1c, p, t. This will account for some roots, which in the dic- 
tionaries appear identical, having a difference of meaning, 
rwhich a native would indicate by difference in enunciation. 

Ex. liona, it; Lut "kona (pronounced khona), there. 
kwako, its; but kwako (pron. kicakho), thine. 
bala, count ; but bala (pron. bhala), yrrite. 
tetema, be nice in eating ; tata (pron. thatha), take. 

A n(Lsal aspirate also may be heard, but very rarely. 
Ex. nhinhiza, mumble, speak low or indistinctly. 

10. The student must carefully distinguish between Id and 
dJil, since there are some words, very different in meaning, 
which only differ in sound by the insertion of the d. Com- 
pare in English thigh and thy, thousand and thou. 

Ex. Mala, stay ; dhlala, play, froHc. 

behlile, they having descended ; bedhlile, they have eaten. 
bahlulile, they have conquered (by might, &c.) 
badhlulile, they have surpassed (in speed, height, &c). 
N.B. The so\md of hi in the above is that of the AVelsh II, as in 
Llanelly, and resembles somewhat ihl, not shl, with which English 
people are prone to confound it, saying, for instance, Umshlali for 
Umhlali, where Umthlali would be nearer the mark, though not the 
exact representative of the true sound of the aspirate in this case, 
which is uttered by touching with the tongue the front of the palate 
(not the root of the front-teeth, as with th), and then withdrawing it. 

11. Xo consonant can c^ ^ 1111 ' . Z ' it ru or 
n ; and these frequently c . .vhen it 
might be supposed that they were liual. 

Ex. ha-mba, a-ba-ntu, be-ngi-ta-nda, not ham-ba, a-ban-tu, be-ngi- 
tan-da; hnti-£im-vu, i-zin-ti, um-ntwa-na. 

The student will easily learn to make these distinctions as 
he proceeds. 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY AND ACCENTUATION. 

12. The accent in Zulu falls always, as a rule, on the pen- 
uUimaf'' syllable in each word. 

Ex. inkosi, chief ; igdma, name ; yt^na, he ; hambdni, go ye ; njdlo, bo. 

But some interjections are accented on the ante- 
penultimate. 

Kk. y'buya ! yHula! 

Hence, from the last syllable of a noun bein^ more faintly 
utttered, its vowel is often heard indistinctly, or is even 
dropped ultorfether. This accounts for many slight variations 
in spellin!^', when words have been taken down from native 
lips, the unaccented vowel having been heard as « or i, o or 
7f, or %ve, u or wa. 

Ex. u/ia »ie orwbani, flash of lij^litning. 

unxtuhi or umixdwa, sort of wild medlar. 
uxamo, uxamu, or uxam' , kind of iguana. 

inkos', amns', abalam', for iniLo»i, chief, amasi, sour-milk, abalo' 
1UU, wife's brothers or sisters. 

IM ( Tlin iiiter j -Oj|:itive particle ».t ( which is equivalent to 
a note of internxl'iition in MmltIisIi, and need not generally 
Ih) tnmslated in wonls) 'takes the accent with emphasis; 

Ex. lo'munlu rtng'ubani na? this man, he is who? 

14f. Hut the particle ke, when placed after the word, forms, 
as it were, a part of the wonl itself, and acts as an «nc/i7i'c, 
that is to say, it dniws the accent forward upon the final 
syllable of the W(»rd. 

Ex. yend-ke, he then ; hamhani-kt , go yc then; njaU-k«, so then. 

1'.. And the interrogative narticlcs^jii. * what.'. »t'. * whore,* 
placed after the verb, have a similar effect upon the aocont of 
the verb. 

Ex. nif'umi-ni-naf y<ni s«M>k whftt ? trak/-pi-na f whero do«t Uu>u 
live P (literally, where luwl th-ni built?) 

IG. In like manner, when a noun or verb is clonely 
connectrd with a succeeding monosyUable, or with a 
disHyliable whose initial vowel haii been vliiled so as to 
form, a.H it were, one won! with it, the accent is naturally 
drawn ImekwurtlH. 

Ex. ii»<{A/u, house; indAZA'nyo. one houM ; MNinini. owner, ttHMltuMo, 
it« owner. 



OETHOGRAPHT AND ACCENTUATION. 9 

17. (Some words, tliough. spelt alike, are distinguished in 
utterance by the voice being depressed on a certain syllable, 
the accent remaining, as usual, on the penultimate." 
Ex. beka, put down ; k^ka, loflji ; 

umuzi, hemp or flax in the rough state, um iizi, kraal ; 
innyanga, skilled adept, native doctor, innyangd, moon j 
ucebile, he has deviised, ucchile, he is rich ; 
izindebe, lips ; izindebe, calabash-dippers. 
N.B. The difference in soiind in the case of beka may be easily 
heard by making a native read the following sentence, in which the 
word occurs twice in each sense : — Wabeka isandhla pezu kwayo, 
wabuza wati, ' Ubona'luto na ? ' Yab'is'ipakamisa ubuso, yabeka 
yati, ' Ngibona abantu abahambayo, befana nemiti.' uJesu wabuya 
wabeka isandhla futi pezu kwamehlo ayo, wati ' Beka-ke ! ' 

18.{ In conjugating verbs it will be seen that the second 
and third persons singular are often alike in form. But a 
stress is thrown upon the pronowi in the former case and on 
the verh-root in the latter.} 

Ex. uyatanda, thou lovest ; uyatdnda, he loves. 

utandile, thou hast loved; utandile, he has loved. 

wdtanda, thou lovedst ; watdnda, he loved. 

19. The Kafir Language is very ill adapted for the com- 
position of hymns in rhyviie. 

In most attempts of this kind, the same rhymes will recur con- 
tinually, e.g. betu, wetu, setu, &.C., or bako, lako, kwako, &c., varied, 
perhaps, occasionally by bonke, konke, zonke, &.C., which arc only 
different forms for our, thy, all, rcsijcctively. This arises from the 
fact that hymns, which are generally addresses to the Deity or 
expressions of individual or united worship, must involve a frequent 
use of the personal pronouns, my, thy, our, &c. And the pronouns in 
Zulu are much more prominent and sonorous than in English, .and will 
generally fall into their place at the end of each line, instead of being 
expended in the middle of it. 

Again, the regular fall of the accent on the penultimate 
makes the ordinary Long, Common, and Short Metres of 
English Psalmody utterly unsuitable for Zulu hymns. 

These tunes should on no account be used for this purpose. The 
practice of so doing arises from want of duo consideration, or else 
from mere want of taste. Missionaries too often compel the natives 
to offend against all the laws of accentuation, and force the rhj-thm 
of their own words, not once or twice, but constantly, in singing, in 
order to accommodate our favourite tunes. Let any Englishman 
attempt to sing the line * O'er the gloomy hills of darkness,' to any 



10 OBTHOGRAPHT AND ACCENTUATIOK. 

L.M. or CM. tune, and he will soon be convinced of the frightful 
effect which the singing of words to such tunes must have upon the 
ear of the natives, until by degrees the taste becomes wholly 
perverted. 

But for p-rose hymns, suited for chanting, like the Psalms, 
or for metrical liynius, withvut rhyme, the Zulu language is 
very well ad!i})ted. 

The metre, however, will require to be trochaic in its chftract<?r. 
Any tunes, for instance, which are used for ttcvem, may, by repeating 
ihe hist note of each line, be converted into a tunc for Ei-jhtt, in 
which ejy*h line will consist of four trochees, such as ' Hark, what mean 
those holy voices ! ' and these can be easily supplied with Zulu words. 

The greatest ditlieulty, however, in eompo.sing metrieal 
pieces in Zulu arise.s from the fact that this language consists 
largely of monosyllables, sevenil of which are often connected 
together to form a single word. 

Thus, from the adjective de, ' long,' is formed the adverb kadf, 
' for a long while ' ; and i'rom this :.nd the verb-root ma, ' stand, ' and 
one of the noun-infle-xes (12), is formed the noun isimakade, plur. 
itinrnkadc, which is used to express anything of primeval antiquity, 
Buch as an ancient tree, a rock, Ac. The natives would dread some 
cahimity, if they cut off all the branches of such a tree. Hence the 
expressitin inkosi isimakade, ' the King Eternal.' 

From the same root we have the adverb.s pakad* and napakadt, and 
hence the noun unapakade, which ap]>eani usually, with other particle* 
prefixed, in the form kubeng'wiapakade or kuzekubeng'unapakad4, ' to 
;ill it<Tnity.' 



Ct-ASSIMCATION AND DKEIVATION OF NOUNS. H 



CHAPTER II. 



CLASSIFICATION AND DERIVATION OF NOUNS. 



20. There is no^artide in Zulu ; but the definiteness or 
indefiniteness of a noun must be gathered fi'om the context. 

21. Ever-g Zu^u j ao^n cons^st^ o^^^'ff p^rt^^tl^e rpot ^nd_tl^ 
Jj^Q &e, tLe la tter beingasmall pai-ticle, ^&'hichl s[setjefx)r^the 

_ro^^^^^m^^itE^irTE^com^le5gJiQ^n. 

ExT^uvMjpande^Tr'ancla. ; ^ba-ntu, people ; in-dlilu, house ; imi-ti, 
trees. 

22. "We give the name o£ inflex to this initial particle, 
because by changes of it certain modifications of the noun are 
effected, as they are in Latin and Greek by means of terminal 
particles or iti flexes set after the root. 

Thus in the Latin word homo, ' man,' the root is horn, and the inSez 
0, which is changed to ines for the plural, and the whole word becomes 
homines, ' men '; just as in the Zulu word umuntu, ' person,' the root is 
ntu, and the inflex umu, which is changed to aba for the plural, and 
the whole word becomes abantu, 'people.' 

23. In the Zulu there are eight singular nominative 
inflexes, six of which have plural forms,; and thus we shall 
have eight different classes of nouns, of which two have no 
plural. 

24. A portion of each inflex, which may be considered its 
eharacteristic portion, is used as a personal pronoun of the 
third person, to represent any noun of the class in question. 



12 



CLASSmclTION AND DERIVATION OF NOUNS. 



i 


■C ^ p5 = = 

o c O S O 


s 

jj M •« " 


« S. « - 5 




6 

u 

X 

u 


i ie 


;: r, 


*r* M 




a 


o^^ 


•5 


•5 
•- s 




i 

a 
3 

M 


1 1 

a 3 3 •" :S 


•g-. 2 8 


333^3333 


9 




3 ~ 


•c 


J, _3 3 


^ 


M 

a 
.3 

CO 


1 5 


i 5 


.■ - 2 

• i ? 

1 4 i 


3 

•3 


J 


— : ^ — 


X— 




> 



-/ nr 






1 



BEMABKS ON THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 13 

26. When any inflex, ending in a vowel, is prefixed to a 
root which begins with a vowel, the terminal vowel of the 
inflex is dropped, except in the case of uku, when it is usually 
changed to the semivowel xo. 

Ex. isandhla, hand, ukwenza, doing, for isi-andhla, uku-enza. 

Before o, however, the final u of uku is often dropped'. 
Ex. ukwona or uTcona, injury, sin. 

BEMARKS OX THE TABLE OF XOUXS. 

27.'N'ounsof Class I are almost all personal nouns, and 
those of Classes V and VI are generally impersonal. 

But we find umhloho, friend, plur. imihlobo, and some other personal 
nouns, belonging to Class YI. 

28. Names of persons invariably take the inflex u, plur. o, 
which lattei", as well as aba, is represented by the personal 
pronoun ba. 

Ex. uNkulunkulu, uMcelinqangi, names for the Deity ; uMpande, 
uNgoza, uZatshuke, names of chiefs. 

But izibongo, that is, names given to people in praise or 
sport, may be formed with other prefixes. 

Ex. uBisi (or uLubisi) Iwembongolo, Mule's-milk, plur. oLubisi. 

29. ^ho plural of prnprr najges^fjDer sons is often used ( i) 
Jor a .-iu'j'lL' ;> ra lis_e xcellenticB, (ii) to express a 
person uud th' j' ^ > are with Bi?n. 

Ex. oSomtseu ka'Sonzica, iSomtseu (Sir T. Shepstone) son of Sonzica. 
oZatshuke, the Zatshukes=Zatshuke and his people. 
oTahaka, Chaka ; oDingane, Dingaan; oMpande, Panda; 
oCetshwayo, Cotshwayo. 
oNgoza bamukile, the Ngozas (=Ngoza and his party) they 

have departed. 
So abayeni, the bridegroom (umyeni) and his party. 

30. Certain other nouns, which have the force of proper 
names, take the infle.x «, plural o or ao. 

Ex. vhaba, my or our father, plur. obaba or aobaba. 

umamc, my or our mother, plur. omame or aomame. 
uyihlo, thy or your father ; unyoko, thy or your mother. 
I^v-,^*! _ W1/ise,,his, ]^g r. nr t heir fathar : wnt'na,.hifl. her^or. their jUOthgL.^ 
^^^^^u. udade, sister, ukulu, grandparent, &c. 

^^"^ In forming compound names, vise and mna are contracted 
into so and no. 

Ex. uSojuba, uNozimpisi. 



14 REMARKS ON THE TABLE OF N0UK3. 

N.B. — The foUowinf^ are also names of relationship. 

ubaha, my or our father's sister ; 
ubahakazi or iibabekazl my or our father's brother; 
uyihlo, thy or your fatlier's sister; 
uyihlokazi, thy or your father's brother; 
uyise, his, her, or their father's sister ; 
uyisekazi, his, her, or tlieir father's brother ; 
umalume, my or our mother's brother ; 
iimamckazi, my or our mother's sister; 
unyokohune, thy or your mother's brother ; 
rmyokokazi, thy or your mother's sister; 
uninalume, his, her, or their mother's brother; 
unuiakazi, his, her, or their mother's sister. 

Instead of ubaba for ' father's sister ' may be used the full expres- 
sion, udade wobaba. 

So, too, uhulu may be used for grandfather or grandmother on 
father's or mother's side, whether my, thy, or his ; but sometimes, 
especially by the amaLala, uJjabamkulu is used for 'my or our grand- 
mother,' <S:c. 

If the son of one man marries the daughter of another, the two 
fathers will call each other umlingane ; the husband will call the girl's 
father ' father ' (ubaba) or 'father-in-law' (umkwe), and the girl's 
mother ' mother-in-law ' (urnkwekazi) . A ' brother-in-law ' or * sister- 
in-law ' is umlnmu, plur. abalamu ; a ' wife's brother' is nmltcMiya, a 
' son-in-law,' umkwcnyana. 

The cluldren of one father are called itelamane, whicli word, though 
generally used of the boys only, may be employed for boys and giris. 
collectively. tM>-v^ 

The children of one father and mother are called aba' nd )•'••'" ^'- 

aba'ndhlitii'nyc, i.e., 'children of, or in, one liouiu* ' : and t'l 

of one fivthi-r aTid motlier, so long mm they intorniaiTy with . 

are still reckoned as nba'iulhlu' nyi\ One who mnrricM out ot the 

family K'coines by that act sepniated, umuntu ir<rsuu-0. 'a man of 

the tribes ' or • stninger ' ; and two persons, wlio are 'strangers' t<> 

each other, will not eat thf ama»\, ' sour-milk,' which comes from each 

other's knial. 

'A\. Tlio naTnes of many 1 ) i .- ils- ii»,yyt?;. ^rt'na^ ar^j| p|f>"t< 
form tlicii- siii','-ulai' in n, [ijur. <> . 

Ex. ujojo, long-tiiiletl ilncli ; umfyane, miMiquit"- h"!.!/!/*"!"'..' n h ■..• 
of a plant. 

So also do a few wonls of foivi^n oriifin. 

Kx. xiinpondwe, a iM)und ; usheUnf., a shilling ; uptfrn', throo-]>>' 
uiiibaiirt'^i, a cannon ; i^iw*-, i Imf..- uvi.,?. silt- u.himi. t.i 
Hnuff; uKroIioeni, wheat . 



REMARKS ON THE TABLE OF NOUN'S. IS" 

r 

32.-i ISTonns not of Class I may be formed into Proper Kames, 

•with in fles it. pliir. o. - ^ 

/ Ex. heka pezulu ! hus'emi osilimela ahadala, kus'emi ondosa aiadala, \ 

(jcus'emi ompandu ahadala, look above ! there still stands the old 1 

Pleiades CisUimelaj, there still stands the old Jupiter (indosa), there- j 

still stands the old August (umpandu) . '^ 

33.! The full form, umu, in Classes I and Y, may be 
employed or not, at pleasure, but occurs(^chiefly before mono- 
syllabic roots. 

Ex. umuntu or ximntu, person ; umuhla or umhla, day. 

34. Kames of countries are usually of Class II, like izxre^ 
land. 

Ex. iBotwe, Natal; iEngland, iJudia. 

35; iN'ational names are either of Class I, or, more commonly^ 
of Class II. 

N.B. umlungu, white-man, plur. ahalungu ov abelungu ; but isilungu 
=the whole of the white population. 

Ex. umSutu, plur. abaSutu or abeSutu ; uMtetwa, uMbo. 

iZulu, iSwazi, iMpondo, iXosa, plur. amaZulu, amaSwazi, 
amaMpondo, amaXosa. 
So iNgisi, a,n Englishman, iBunu, a Dutch Boer. 

36. But the singular nouu,j vZidu, Class I, is used to express,, 
collectively, the %vh>h' people of the Zulus, the plural form 
aniaZulu denoting only a number of Zulus. 

So umSwazi, Class I, expresses the people of the ainaSwazi, and 
uSutu, Class V, the people of the ahaSutu or Basuto. 

uSutu is also the name of that portion of the Zulu people which 
belongs to Cetshwayo ; but the locative case (65) is, for the former, 
oSutu, for the latter, oSutwini. 

In such cases the people are called collectively by the name 
of a present or former famous chief. _ 

37. The inflexes, Hi of Class II and ula of Class VI, are/ 
very frequently contracted into i and u respectively, and thol 
i or w is the n pronounced loiig, as if a double i or u. } 

Ea. UUlllU, duck; utango, hedge; itiastit, norse; udaka, mud, 
mortar. 

So zibuko. Class II, a ford or drift ; but izibuko. Class IV, windows 
or a pair of spectacles. 

38. Some few nouns, not of Class II in the singular, form, 
their plurals in avia. 



16 REMARKS ON THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 

Ex. indoda, husband, amadoda ; indodana, son, amadodana. J 
insimu, garden, amasiryiu ; inkosi, chief, amakosi. ^^ 

Sometimes, however, when the form in ama would leave 
the meaning' doubtful, that in izin. is employed, and vice versil. 

Ex. yazibiza izinkosi zamakulu, he them called, the chiefs of 
hundreds, for yawabiza ainakosl amakulu, which might be understood 
to mean, he them called, the great chiefs. 

hlanganisa izinkomo ez'ainaduna, collect the cattle which are males, 
for hlanganisa izinkomo ezi'zindnnn, where the last word might be 
mistaken for ezezinduna, belonging to the indunas. 

Some nouns of Class II make the plural in ama or in izin. 

Ex. ikambi, plur. amakambi or izinkambi, refuse, such as the pith 
of imfe. 

N.B. So usukaa day. Class VI, makes its plural both uinsuitu and 
amasuku; and intombi, girl, makes its plural izintombi, while intom- 
bazana, young girl, makes its plural amantombazana. But iso (for 
iliso), eye, makes its plural amehlo, as if from another singular. 

39. Some nouns, especially of Class II, are only used in the 

plural. y 

Ex. amandhla, power, strength. amanzi, water. ^ 

amasi, sour milk. amafuta, fat, butter, ointment. 

amalahle, charcoal. amakaza, cold. 

aviatumbu, intestines. amate, spittle. 

amabomu, purpose, intention, aniabibi, weeds, rubbish. 

40. In Class I IL /<» is used bc foi'o citlter a vowel or a 
labial (h, p, VI, f, v)^ in in a ll ot1icr~cases ; and so with izu u 
and i::in. 

ix. iiii^ici, goat; impisi, hyaena; xmfuyo, treasure; tmi*u, sheep. 

This rule holds for the jjlural prefixes in Cla.s8 VI, except 
that izi is always used before a root beginning with h or /. 
Ex. upape, feather, plur. izimpape ; vzipo, claw, plur. isimipo. 
uhududu, old worn-out bhuiket, plur. t:iAududu. 
uhnit, or ulwinii, tongue, plur. izilimi, or isiitrimt. 

41. The plural inflcxes, izini, iziii,izi, frequently drop the 
r, and so are contracted to im, in, /, where the i must be pro- 
nounced loiKj, as if a. 

Ex. cto'nto, those things, for no into, and that for Ifuo ittnio. 
ikad sonke, all times, for izikad. 
igcafjogwaua, slunder, for izigr igogtrana. 

i/amona :alantu, spiteful jealousies of people, for isi/amona. 
ngaitata ikali tami, I them took, my weapons, for nffaaitata 

izikali tami. 
inkoma nenkabi, cattle and oxen, for ninkoma nttinkaln. 



BEMAEKS OX THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 17 

onondongoyi laba innyosl enkulu; kanti bay'ahlulwa yilezi 
encinnya'iie, these drones are large bees ; however, they are 
mastered by these small ones, for izinnyosi, ezinkulu, ezin- 
ncinyane. 

So often in forming proper names, 
^x. uNoitshada, uNoinsaba, for uNozitshada, uNozinsaha. 
In like manner isl is sometimes contracted before s into i. 
Ex. isando for isisando, name of a plant. 

And imi in some words is also heard as i. 

Ex. imbali, flowers, for imirnhali, Cla^s V, which has no sin^lar. 

42. Some nonns of Class TV begin with isi or isa, some 
with isa only. 

Ex. isingcokolo or isaiigcokolo, grub in mealie stalks. 
isinkuntshane or isankuntshane, name of a plant. 
isandhla, hand ; isando, hammer. 

43. (The same roots may appear with different inflexes and 
a corresponding difference in meaning) 

Ex. umkiv:ane, fig-tree ; ikiwane, fig. 

izwe (ilizive), land : isizive, tribe, nation. . ' 

into, thing ; uto, something, anything. 

umuti, tree, herb, medicine ; uti (uluti), stick, rod ; ubuti, poison. 

ibele, female breast, cow's udder ; amahele, Kafir-corn ; isibele, 

man's nipple ; unibele, woman's nipple, cow's teat ; ububele, 

tenderness. 
umuntu, person ; abantu, people ; isintu, human race ; uluntu, 

outer covering of the bowels ; uhuntu, human nature. 

But sometimes the same root is found with different in- 
flexes and the same meaning. 

Ex. umqulo or uqulo (uluqulo), stitch in the side. 

idhlelo or isidhlelo, snuff-box ; but idhlelo means also cattle-run. 

umlozi, plur. omlozi or imilozi, familiar spirit. 

intuma, intungwa, iiidoni, names of trees, but also uvituma, 

umtungwa, umdoni. 
uqondo or inngqondo, palmetto fibre. 

N.B. In the last example, the root appears as gqondo or 
ngqonclo. And so an ra or n is often heard before the root in 
other instances. 

Ex. isipofu, poor man, ubupo/«, poverty, but also ubumpo/u. 
ijxiba, dove, ubujwfca or nhnnjuba, dove-nature. 
imvu, sheep, ubunivu, sheep-nature ; inja, dog, ubuirya, dog- 
nature. 
uiagoma, witch-doctor, but also uhungoma. 
umbungu, fcetus of calf, plur. imbungu, for imiwibunju (il). 
c 



18 REUARKS OK THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 

Such words as imvu, inja, mi^'ht. in fiict. be written iuuiu-u. inn a, 
or imvu, inja, with inflex i, plur. izi. 

So from zifisa, pretend to die, is formed wnzifis<, ^l\ir. omtifisi. 
from zijaxa, intrude one's self, ivmigaxi, plur. omzigaxx. 
from kaitya. shine, comes ubu/ifcn>ij/ezi, brightness, 
from songa, wind, insongensowje or properly iniwongemon^e, 
winding. 

44. Nouns of Class I are derived from verbs, b^ changins: 
the final a of the verb-root into i, and prefixing the inflex 
nm ; and such 7iouns express the a'/cnts of the verb's action.> 

Ex. From funda. learn, is formed umfundi, learner, disciple. 
/uTidisa, make to learn, itni/undisi, teacher. 

The above words, however, and most of the abcn-e kind 
which appear in the printed books, are formed by }ris.-<ion- 
an'rs, not by the Xatives, who employ these derivatives much 
uiore sparin^dy, but may form them at pleasure, so that they 
cannot lie entered in dictionaries as standard Zulu words. 
Ex. umondhU (from ondJihi) wezinktHlama zahantu, nourisher of the 
orphans of the people, an isihongo of Mpaude. 
isisu, somhamhi (from hamha) asingakanani, a traveller's 
(stomacli = ) appetite is not very large. 
But some of the.se words belong to the language. 
Ex. uvifi, a decease.l person, hence umtaka'mufi, child of a deio.-used 
man, fatherless orphan. 
umfiki, more properly isifiki, a new-comer, fresh amval. 

45.' Names of trers are mostly of Class V. ) 
Ex. umkomhe. vellow-wood, uuitr'tltra. wild-medlar. uiiiAiir.iiK. wild- 
fig, u'mfuvia, wild-apple, umdoni. wator-Kn-m, umtungulu. 
Natal plum, umlunduluka, tret? l>oaring a red acid plum, 
the juice of which is useil in dyeing. 
Thoir frnUf are moHtlv of Class II or ('ln.s8 III. / 
Kx.iiulwn. ikiuanf, xlu'mn (fruit of larg.» wmtiirMrt). intuma (fruit 

of small iim/iMHi). i»iWoni. itungulu, Uunduluka . but • ' • 

(Clafls VI. no plur.), banana (plant and fniit). 
So itidiimha, spt'cies of I'fan. but wnnlumlxi, whole pod. 
Plates where things grow, or jH'rsous in the habit of doing 
what i.H indicated bv the nnit, are of CIukh IV. 

Ex. i*>koba. forwt oV yellow-wcHHl : itikovo. tmnnnA gruTo j widAlMfcu. 

pliue for under-ground nutM ; imih' ' ' '• '••'•''!«. 

KWiH't-lM.tnto garden ; i*i<<um/.i. ] ■•'" 

grow, whencf >'*i«iumi.ini, niuuf of - :- '''* 

ikUnind ; itikohlwa, forgetful pereon j \nl«tui\, habitual jr»t«r. 



BEMAEKS ON THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 19 

46. Nouns of Class VII are derived from nouns and adjec- 
tives by prefixing the inflex ubu to the root, and they express 
the abstract idea corresponding to the meaning of the root. 

Ex. From inkosi, chief, is formed iihukosi, chieftainship. 
kulu, great, ubukidu, tjreatness. 

47. Nouns of Class VIII are nearly all verbal substantives^ 
being, in fact, identical in form Tvith the infinitives of verbs^ 
and expressing the action of the corresponding verb. 

Ex. From kanya, shine, is formed ukukanya, light. 

tanda, love, ukutanda, love. 

azi, know, uku:azi, knowledge. 

Hf/'azi, not know ukung'azi, ignorance. 

Jf.B. ukwindhla, autumn, is not a verbal noun. 

48. A noun is made feminine by the addition of Icazi. 
Ex. inkosi, chief, king ; inkosikazi, female chief, queen ; 

inkomo, bullock ; inkomokazi or inkomazi, cow. 
N.B. Inkomo is the generic name of a bullock of any kind, while 
inkunzi denotes a ' bull,' inkabi an ' ox,' inkomazi a ' cow.' 

The last three words may also be us''d to distinguish the 
corresponding kinds of first-class animals, as of a horse. 

Ex. leli'hashi Uy'inkunzi, liy'inkabi, liy' inkomazi, this horse is a 
stallion, is a gelding, is a mare. 

Or the possessive particle (72) may be used with the 
above words. 

Ex. ihashi lenkunzi or inkunzi yehashi, a stallion, ihashi lenkahi, a 
gelding, ihashi lenkomazi, a mare. 

N.B. The corresponding words for sheep, whose generic name is 
imvu, are innqamM, ram, umtondolo, wether, inivukazi, ewe, and those 
for goat, whose generic name is imhuzi, ave impongo, uintondolo, 
imbuzikazi. 

49. Some singular nouns arc nouns of multitude, that is, 
are used for one or many, e.g., the names for small plants 
when plentiful, or for particular classes of oxen. 

Ex. ugagane, small )nimosa ; umsasane, anotlicr sort of mimosa. 
ukova, banana (plant or plants or fruit). 
umdhlunkulu, girl or girls of the (great house) chief knial. 
kwatatwaiimdhlunkulu icambili, there were taken two girls of the 

chief kraal. 
nant' ukungwane lulubili, there are two winged ants. 
nant'ukuni, there is firewood. 

umqekxi wamashumi'mane, forty one-year-old heifers. 
c2 



20 REMARKS ON THE TABLE OF NOtTNS. 

50. Male and female of persons may be deKned by using the 
■possessive particle witli the words inilisa and isifnzana. 

Ex. umntwana wesilisa, a male child ; abanticana 6e<i/acan(i, female 
children. 
iiinnceku zendhlu etesUisa nezesifazana, servants of the house, 
male and female. 
Male and female of animals are defined by using the poffessive 
particle with tlie words litduna and ijisikazi and their plurals. 
Ex. ihashi lenduna, a male horae ; amahashi ezinsikati, female horses. 
induna yennja, yekati, ycngulube, yenkuku, or innja yenduna,itc., 
a male dog, ait, pig, fowl. 

.">1. Sometimes the termination hazi is added to a noun, in 
order to magnify or intensify its meaning. It may bo added 
to the adjective joined to a noun, as well as to the noun itself. 
Ex. umfazikazi omkiilukazi, a groat, distinguished woman. 

itahekazi, great stone; umutikaxi, great shrub; umntwanakati, 

fine girl. 
intomlikazi endekazi, fine tjill (intombi=) marriageable girl. 
niyabona lo'mzikazi omkulukazi, you see this huge town. 
le'nnjahtzi yami yensikaxi, this great bitch of mine. 

But knzi sometimes is used to express dislike. 
Ex. nangu lo'muntukati ol'iinla futi, here is that fellow who is 
idle too. 

Or a noun is inten.sified by the repetition of the root. 
Ex. u-ake lapn iminyakanyaka, he has lived here many ywirs. 

bakona bi'ndwendwendtrendwe , uzoluhona okuUi, they are there, 

they V>eing a prodigious tnxip, you will see it sgraat ond — 

from udiiendwc (KJ N.B.) 

52. 4jjiminuti\-e.'j are formed by' mhling to the noun or 
adjt'ctive the tt>niiination j' (»i<i. the final vowel of 

the root being elided befon . or, In the caao of o or m, 

being changed to ii}\ 

Ex. umntu, person ; umnttcana, child. 

tmt'u, sheep ; I'lnnina or iiiinrnrui, lamb. 

isilo, wild animal; uiZimna. small wildnniuuil; uiiicaNy«ii«, 

inspot. 
ukIuJI'u fuhlana.n hHndtkiiiie little stAfT. 
ukudhla, fiH>d ; uA.'u<{Ai4iii<i, a little fixHl. 
k\uihltca, evening ; kuiihlumui, nearly eTuning. 
ngtzintukieana, in a few diiys ; aintuirtiiia, a few word*. 

In the dimiuutivc, I is often changed to y boforo tma. 



EEJIAEKS OX THE TABLE OF NOUNS. 21 

Ex. umfula omkulu, a great river ; umfuyana amkuyana, a little 
brook. 
ihele, a file of men; iheyana, a small file of men. 
If it is desired to make a distinction of sex, ana is used for 
the masculine diminutive, and azanaor kazana for the feminine^ 
Ex. inkosi, chief ; inkosana, petty chief ; inkosazana, princess, young 
lady (the Zulus would call the Queen inkosazana.) 
intombi, girl ; intoinbazana, young girl. 
innja yensikazana, a puppy bitch. 
aJ)afazazana abafutshanyana, little short women. 

53. If the last consonant of the noun be h, p, or m, it gever- 
ally undergoes a change before the diminutive termination ; 
thus h is changed to j or tsh, p to tsh, m to ny, inb to nj, mp 
to iUsh. 

Ex. intaba, hill, mountain, makes diminutive intatshana 
ingubo, blanket, ..... ingutshana 

kufupi, near, ..... kufutshane 

inkomo, bxillock, ..... inkonyana 
intambo, cord, ..... intanjana 

kumhlotshana, it is white, but small, from mhlope 

54, The folio-wing are other instances of diminutives not 
included under the foregoing rules. 

Ex. isilonda, sore, isilonjana. 
kude, far off, kujana. 
iqata. slice, iqatshana. 
ningi, many, ningana, rather many. 
izilwane, animals, izilwanyana, small animals, izilwanyakazane, 

gnats. 
zikona izintatshana ezinncinyane zimbiyana, there are little hills 

there, they are rather bad, from izintaba, zimbi. 
utuli, dust, utulana or utxiyana. 
N.B. uLvAuli or uNtulikazi, is the name of the month when there 
is much wind or dust (April-May), uZ^fud/iiana, of the month when 
there is little dust (March- April.) 

uto, so mething . utw ana^oTjutshwana„ a little something. 
So isixuku'tshivanyana, a very Uttle crowd (isixuku and utsh- 
wanyana.) 
utokazi Iwemmamba, a huge thing of an immamha. 
dindi or dindikazi, dead, dull, stupid. 
inkomana yake, or umqolokazana wake, his few cattle, used for a 

single head, from inkomo, umqolokazi. 
pakatshana kakulirana, a tolerably good way in, from pakati, 

within, and kakulu, greatly. 
indwele or indwelemana or indwelemanakazana , very flovcr 
little fellow. 



22 REUARKS ON THE TABLE OF NOUNB. 

iqolakazi, large ox with white on rump, iqolatana, small cow 

with white on rump. 
unMopekazi, large white ox, umhlotshatana, small white cow. 
N.B. The last nouns make the plural imihlopekati, imihlotshatana, 
though the root is mhlope, white : see (13, N.B.) 

55. The particle 7idini is added to nouns, and expresses a 
slight feelint^ of pity, as follows. 

Ex. mina, ndodandini ! here, my good man ! 
ICO / mfnzindini ! alas ! good woman ! 

mina, shingandini ! baxakukukolisa, (mind) me, you rascal ! they 
will lay it into you. 

"50. The women have a singular practice of avoiding thei 
[utterance of any word which occurs in the name of the 
principal membei"s of their hu.sband's family, whether male or 
female, and, indeed, in the name of any of the males above the 
I ago of mere hoys. 

Ex. If the names uSandhla, uXkomo,uSomahash\, uNjaJkaid na, should 

Ihappen to riccur in the family, the woman wouM not use the words 

tisandhla, inkomo, ifMshi, inja, for 'hand,' ' bulluck," 'horse,' 'dog,' 

[respectively, but would iuiopt, or invent at her own pleasure, some; 

sther words in place of them ; e.g., she might use isamkelo for ' haud,'J 

linga for ' cow,' xmetye, fur ' horse,' »ft/» ^inU J K' i ^"'' ' ^T T ' 



\irther, slie must not call the men of her husband's family 
by their /'//7/t- names (i.e., the names given them by their 
parents), but by the names which they have assumed or had 
given to them l)y their companions of tlie same age {itUauga), 
when they become iziiisizivti, * young men.* 

This causes some perplexity at times, when white people 
are bargainintr with native w«)nien. 

Kx. Thnn a woman may B4iy that she has nmiamuMa in her sack, 
when she lueaus lUiiltiUk, ' muiJies.' 

In such cases she is said iduzlla, ' to alMtain from,' or uku- 
hlunipit, ' t<) ti-eat with modesty or resen'e,' the wortl iu 

(juestion. 



ELISIOX AND COALITIOK OF TOWELS. 23 



CHAPTER III. 



ELISION AND COALITION OF VOWELS. 

57. (The vowels a, e, », are often elided at the end of a word, 
when the next word is closely connected with it, and begins 
with a vowel. 

Ex. let'ihashi, bring the horse, for leta ; amanz'ami, my amanzi (lit- 
erally •water, but used for utshwala) ; amas'abo, their amasi. 

So, too, a weak final o may be elided. 
Ex. lap'ehlezi kona, where he sits, for lapo. 

Sometimes, on the other hand, a weak initial vowel may be 
elided after a stronger final one. 

Ex. abendhlu'nkulu, those of the (great) royal house, for enlulu. 

So the vowel of a personal pronoun is dropped before a 
vowel-verb, that is, before a verb beginning with a voweL) 
Ex. h'eza abantu, the people came, for ba eza. 
'eza amahashi, the horses came, for a eza. 
kaz'ote^ let him come that he may get dry, for kaze 'ote=:kaze 

aote. 
yeka l»'mntwana 'onakala^{ior eonakala) ! oh that child spoiling 
itself ! 

'iBut the u of u, lu, feu, ku, is changed to w, and the vowel- 
pronoun i to y. 

Ex. ngibona intombi yehZa (i ehla) entabeni, I see a girl descending 
from the hill. 

uma kwabanolaka (ku abanolaka), if there (are) who (are) in a 

i-age. 
uma kwegijimayo (ku egijimayo) leyo'nja, if it (be one) that runs, 

that dog. 
kwezmningi (ku ezinningi) , it being many= there being many. 
kiL'izinsizwa {ku izinsizwa) zombili, there l)eing both the young 

men. 
indaba kweyakini, (ku eyakini) a matter it (being that^ of your 
people. 



f^. 



24 ELISION AND COALITION OF VOWELS. 

Or the 7t or w is often dropped altogether in such cases. 

Ex. ng'ubona (ngiubona^=ngiwubona)umuzien'vfunayo (enivmfunayo), 
I see it, the kraal which ye seek. 

And in nipid or careless speech the u or jc is dropped in 
other in.stances. 

Ex. alaza I'ezwa, (it did not come, it heard=) it did not get to hear, 
for alwasa Iw 'ezwa. ■ — j j 

^ {L ^Vhnn n. ilflinftTistrative p iu^^C^p preced es its noun. iw\ 
final vowel causes the initial voweTTrf the ironn to bo droppSff. 
Ex. laba'hantu, these people, for laba abantu. 
le'ngubo, tliis coat, for, le ingubo. 

Except a before o. 

Ex. laba onina, these mothers ; but laho'nina, those mothers. 

5l>. Whon the preposition Jai, to or from, precedes a noun 
Tntjular of Cla.ss I, the u in /.u expels the initial vowel of the 
noun's inHcx, if it be a or u, but is itself changed to to before 
/, and dropped before o. 

Ex. ku'hantu (An abantu), to or from the po«iple. 
ku'Mpandc {ku uMpande), to or from Umpande. 

60. When any one of the Possessive Partidea, wa, la, ya, &c. 

(73), or the words nn, nga, kwn, njetiga, precedes a noun, its 
final a coalesces with the initial vowel of the noun's inflex, 
viz. a and a coalesce into a, o and i into e, a and o, or a 

and ;<,i»tr> (T. ~ ;| ~-^ 

^\. inkoxiknti JnniaN<v V >> ■- f t he Engli^^ ^ 

atnansi nemiti liotih'ini ( ;ii i-mn na nr^'iam i, water, and treCfli 
and j^nu«K. 
Kxcept such ciuses as the following, where the contrftction 
does not take jilace. 

Ex. aambamha kanye n<ioPutanfka, wo caught him iogviher with 
I'ut^meku a»<l hin jx-ople. 
itingane sonkr inmi kanyc naonina, all luy little oui<«. togother 

witli their motlient. 
hnfd III. ultra nciisur na ukufa kvfolawo'manM, thvy died tixTcngh 
ing with tho tribva and through tho Bc fau M of those 

«il. In all otluM- cases, if two vowels como together, thoy 
must Ih) Hounde«l .s(«panitely. 

Ex. uyxcai, aauff ; itiiltiu, a moukoy ; u^mnI^i, follj. 



CASES OF NOUNS. 25- 

O 



CHAPTER IV. Jlf^ ' 



CASES OF X U X S . V 



62. fNouxs are used in three cases : V ^ ■'"f ^ 

1. The Siiiiple^Nominative ov Accusatice ; v^-^ 

2. The Vocative; ^^O-c "- 

3. The Obliqite (or Locative)=^Datu-e or Ablative's 

We shall see afterwards (Chap. V) how the want of a 
Possessive or Genitive is remedied. 

63. The Simple Case is the primitive noun, intlex and root. 

64. The Vocative is formed by eliding the initial yowel . 
Ex. Mpande, O Mpaade ; bantu, people; trom uilpande, abantu. 

\ But plurals of Class I, with inflex o, prpfi y h. 
Ex. i/iztuani/ii bobaba, bomame, bodade, boJojo, hear ye fathers, 
mothers, sisters, Jojo and his party. 

65. TheyOhlique or Locative Case (so called, because it is *~^ 
often used to denote the place, at, to, or from, which the action j^ 
in any case proceeds), is formed by changing the noun's ini tial ^^ 
vowel into e, and its tinal vowel, if a, into eni, ii' e, inio mi, it _^ 
0, into tt'e/ii, if u, into 7t?m/, except that the iv is omitted 7^ 
^ the last two cases, when the preceding consocant 

Is any one of the labials (b, p, m,f, v). C* J 

Moreover, when the last consonant of the noun is b,p, or »?, / 
the rales of (53) will come into operation, a?7/ios^ aZt<;a//s, if the 
final vowel be o, — frequently, if it be u, — more rarehj, if it be 
any other vowel. 

Ex. entabeni, from intaba, mountain. ^ n 

ezulwini, izulu, heaven. /C\.£X<f^ ^^ VlW^ 

eviacetsheni, amacebo, deceits. \J 

emputsheni, impupu, tiour, meal. 

emlonyeni, umlomo, mouth. 

emkunjini, umkumbi, ship. 



■2G^ CASES OF NOUNS. 

But umziinha, body, makes emzimleni, — insimbi, iron, metal, makes 
■ ensitnbeni, — indhlu, hut, room, house, makes endhlini, Ac. Such excep- 
tions as these will be learnt by practice. 

N.B. l lie uncontraoteJ forms of the in flor afp gRr^'^^^ y- t>ut n ot 
invarLably, used with tlie Locative form . 

Ex. ezwenior eiizwem, from xzwe, land ; etshwaleni, from utshwala ; 
eishanini or otshaniui (UOj, from utshani, gniss. 

GO. Nouns in a, cout:-acte(l for nhi, have, besides the above, 
•^ another form of the Locative, made by changing the u into o, 
^-^ and altering the termination, as before. 
A^ Ex. eludakeni or otiateni, from udaJla, mud, marsh, mortar. 

' ofcuttteui, from ukuko, mat, o^dtni, from uNdi (uluNdi), at 

-- j^/ Ulundi. 

67. 'rroper names of places, rivers, <tc., unless they are also 
■common nouns (like //<?/:», bay of the sea, which is used for 
Durban, antl makes regularly tTckwiuiy, form their Locatives 
by merely changing their initial vowels to c.'j 
Ex. eBotwe, from iButue, Natal. 

einGungundhlovii, from uinGungundhlovu, Maritzbnrf^. 
emGuniiundhlovuiuui, (little Marit/.bur^-) Greytown. 
eviDhloti, (at the Umhloti^) Verulam. 
emHlali, (at the Umhlali- ) VVilliamstown. 

But such nouns, with initial u for iilu, change » intoo (G6). 
Ex. oTukela from uTukvht, name of u river. 

oKahlnmba, from uKuhlnmbit, Drukensberg Mountaioa. 
N.B. oSutu—kubaSutu, amon)i the Basutoa, or amoag the Sutu, 
•Cutshwayo's iK'ople ; but oSuttrini may Ik? useil in speaking about the 
latter, and iil>out the otttU of the former. 

(.'■S'lrdtini among the aiiiaSwazi, emaMpondweni=tJXiOXXg the 
amuMpondo (Pondos). 
Kraals or ])lac<>s of alnide, with their neighbourhoods, aro 
often named from forin«'r residents, by prefixing kwa (92). 
Ex. fcurtM/<i</ira:<i, ku<i'Dukui<i, ktca'Zulu. 

08. Several nouns, which denote a jMirticnlar tUHaiion or a 
definite jieriod of tini'\ form also their Li>catives by merely 
changintf their initial vowels to r. 

Ex. fktiy<i,n\ home, from ikoya; phir. tnutka^a, 
fminin\, by day, fntlii iimimuii. 
rhn»uku, by night, from ii'xifNi-u. 
ohala, in the o]m-u plitiii, fn>m uhnltt. 
empl/iil.1^l,l.^^ in ..r frum rli.- F:»st.fr>'m intfuin.ilnn^i. 



CASES OF NOUNS. 2? 

69. The Locative takes an .9 before it, whenever it follows 
either of the words na, vja, njenga, or a Personal Pronoun or 
Possessive Particle, or npj pa.i-i nf.ikp. vpt-It V /., t,QViP 

Ex. nYiilcuBa ivas' empumalanga , custom >»f the East. •''^■'vC'^'^hs^ 

<ije?igas^egt<Itci')it, likeag^Tfh' GUv t iu. * " " — ^ i 

us'eh ufeni, he (is) at the pomt of death (ht. in dying) . '^K-'-'l'''^^^ 
bas'efca'iflli they (are) at home. y"^ 

kwaba s'obala, it was plain (lit. in the open). J 

70. f A noun is placed in the Oblique or Locative Case when 
it follows a verb of which it is not the direct object ; and it 
will need to be rendered variously in English (like the Latin 
Dative and Ablative), by means of a joreposition, in, to, from, 
at, among, before, &c., aqcording to the context. 

Ex. waya wangena t'Adhlini, he went, he entered into the hut. 
yabona isitumi emanzini, it saw the sliadow in the water. 
kwapuma emlonyeni, it came out of the mouth. 
ulele okukweni, he is laid on a mat. 
ekuvukeni kwake, at his waking. 

71. Particularly, the name of a place at which any one is 
residing or acting, or to or from which he is proceeding, is 
always put in the Locative form. 

Ex. us'emGungundhlovu, he is at Maritzburg. 

bavela eTekwini na ? do they come from the Bay ? 
bapuma eniDumezulu, they came forth from Umdumezulu. 



38 POSSESSIVE PARTICLES. 

CHAPTER V. 

POSSESSIVE PARTICLE.S. 

72. (The Avant of a Possessive or Oeidtivc Case in Zulu is 
supplied by means of o, Pusscssivf Particle, which is set before 
the governed noun or its representative pi-onouiv 

Ex. ubuso bentombi (ba-intombi) , the face of a girl ; ri^'-^ ''-^ 

where ba is the Possessive Particle, set before the nountntomti. 

73a This possessive particle, in any case, consists of the 
personal pronoun, which con-esponds to the governing^ noun, 
followed by the vowel a, bt-fore which the vowel of the pro- 
noun is either dropped, or, when x, is chanced to u\ and, when 
i, to y. j But the u of la is very frequently dropped before o, 
and the u of bu altogether, thus ii-a, li-a, i-a l)ecome wa, la^ 
ya, &c. , Thus the different possessive particles, according 
to the Cl ass of the goy ^T'T^'Ti"' F pun. will be — 
f'"15mg7 wa, la, ya, sa, wa, Iwa or la, bwa or la, ktva. 1 
\ Flur. ba, a, go. zg, ya. za. \ 

74. The possessive particles, when placed before the 
governed noun, will coalesce with the initial vowel, by (60). 

Ex. indhlu yamacaln, house of causes, for ya'amacala. 
uti Iwendoila, rod of tho man, for Ixca-indoda. 
usuku lokupnmula, day of rest, for Iwa-ukup^imula. 
okoko habantu, ancestors of the peojile, for ba-abaniu. 
aviahnshi a\t}nkosi, horses of tho chiefs, for-g-anuiil-on, 
amami oinf\da, water of the river, iorj^^uinfxtla. 
amaqanda ennyoni, ej^jfh of the bird, for ii-innyon». 
amakanda oni na, for a-onina, heails of the mothers. 

75. The a in the possessive jiartide appears to bo simply a 
(connecting vowel; so that the expression ubuso bentombi- 

nwo bii-a- i ntom hi dice, it of tho girl. 

76. But the particle may precede a jx'rsonal pronoutfin the 
possessive form, or a <lenu)n.stnitive ]>i*onouii, or an adverb; 
and it will then usually appear in its full form, as it will not 
then pn'ced«' n vowel. i 

Ex. indhlu i/dil'o, tliy lioiiHe ; uiMUiif u wMnpn, a inan of here. 
intUtba yakuU*o'«ikati, a story of thnt time. 
uManjanja otcaU kudr, Maiijaiija of there far awmy. 




feSITE PARTICLES. 29 

77. Singular Prpj^r ISTames, however, usuallj drop the inflex, 
and prefix /i:ay^ j»feceded by the personal pronoun which cor- 
responds to the o^overning noiau. This pronoun, hoAvever, 
may be omitted, if it be «, ?', or u. 

Ex. uMpande ka' Senzangakona, Panda (son) of Senzangakona. 
iswe lika'Ngoza, land of Ngoza. 
umzi ka'Mfulatelwa, kraal of Fulatehva. 
isitsho, sikti'Ndiane, plate of Undiane. 
una ka'Jojo, mother of Jojo (una contracted for unina). 
wena ka'Jojo ! thou (mother) of Jojo, if a man calls to her. 
tuena ka'Jojo, thou (son) of Jojo, if a man talks with him. 
umka'Zatshuke, wife of Zatshuke {um contracted for umfazi). 
ukutanda kuka'Nkulunkulu, God's loving (God's love to us). 
ukutandwa kuka'Nkulunkulu, God's being loved (by us). 
But imici yaoNgoza, kraals of Ngoza and his people. 

amagama aka'Vimba, sayings (or songs) of Vimba. 
N.B. Ma, contracted for unita ka=^Uinntiuana ka, ' child of,' is used 
frequently in speaking of a man's wife, especially when a husband 
speaks of his own "vvife, calling her by her father's name. 

Ex. uMa'Jojo, the child of Jojo, xiMa' Mpande, the child of Mpande. 
tata le'mbenge uyiyise lapaya kivaMa'Ngosa, take tliis basket, 
carry it thither to Ngoza's child's (place). 
The natives often repeat a name, sometimes their own, by way of 
isibongo. 

Ex. bazekuta uNyangali, uNyangali ka'Nyangali wako, they have 
come to settle (the ukulobola) for Nyangaliyour (daughter) NyangaJi. 

78. All other words which form their singular in a, plur. o, 
take the possessive particles in the same way as proper names. 

Ex. ihashi lika'baba, horse of my father. 
ingubo ka'nina, blanket of his mother. 
uwfunzi ka'gwai, bundle of tobacco. 

79. Proper names of places express the Possessive by pre- 
fixing the possessive particles to the Locative Case with the 
letter s between them. 

Ex. izwe las'eBotwe, land of Natal. 

abantu has'emVoti, people of the umVoti. 

umuntu was'eSuazini, man of the amaSwazi. 
Bntumuntu wahva,'Zulu, man of the amaZulu, because was'ezulwini 
means 'from heaven.' 

80. Certain adverbs of place, whicli are merely nouns in the 
Locative Case, are treated like proper names of places in 
expressing the Possessive. 

Ex. izwe iqs'enzansi, land of (down below) the south-east. 
izilo zaa'endhle, wild animals of the veldt. 



30 POSSESSIVE PARTICLES. 

imiti yas'chlanzetii, trees of the bush. 

81. The pn.ssessive particles are often n.sed to express ^/n&«* 
or capahilihj for an action. 

E.X. isikoti sokusellpnza , time for working. 

ukudhla kwokitpekwa, food for being cooked. 

amanzi okukiwa elusuku, water which should be drawn at night. 

82. The ]X)s.ses.sive form is also used in expressions like the 
follnwin<(, where the Engli.sh idiom would require an adjective. 

Ex. ihashi lenduna, lensikazi, a male hoi"se, a female horse. 
ahantu besilisa, hesifazana, male people, female people. 
inkabi ycsihili, the second ox. 
itoLe leshumi, the tenth calf. 
umuntu wejara, a person who is a young dandy. 
ka'niuiUu wa'luto, he (is) not a pei-son of anything, 
■umuntu wendodakazi, a person who is a daughter. 
uPoiolosi urBunu, Pretorius the Boer. 
vmt'i kn'Jojo wentomli, Jojo's child the girl. 
amatoyaaa laira enkumana (ezinkunzann), these little bull-calves. 
soku'indhlekedhlana nje u'cze, it is now (a worthless -thing of 

emptiness=^) an useless old bullock. 
izinio zokiihle z'enziwe njamd/^omu, things (of beings) which are 

actually done '.n purpose. 

83. The noun nto or idnfo takes the posses.sive jiarticle as 
above, when it is used generally for ' a something,* or ' any- 
thing,' and not specially for a 'certain thing.' 

Ex. akuso'ntn ya'luto, it is no longer a thing of anything ("worth 
anything). 
bengena'cala la'luto, they not being in fault for anything. 
nkinji'lHhuyayo Inpo, there is nothing ivturning from thence. 

In like manner, w»iMH<it is used with a possessive particle 
in thesen.se of 'a person,' or 'anyone.' 

Ex. angitt'ti'cala hi'munlu, I do not judge a cause of any muii. 

Such expre.ssion.s generally occur, as above, aftevunegaiite. 

H4. The noun nmtiitii, owner, is formed into a componnil 
word with the noun it governs, as follows: 
Ex. u»i»n«»ji'n<f^/u, n)a8t4>r of the liousc. 
abnnini'mizi, owners of the kriuiln. 

So also with ]tronouns. 

E«. umni'\i-in, owner of it (ihuahi). 

abanini-to, owners of tbeni (itiiiil'Ot»io). 
So uniulni-itniii (ireiin, iiiiiia), for which a native would 
probably say utjttc, uijihlo, ubabf. 



PREPOSITIONS. ' 31' 



. CHAPTER VI. 



PREPOSITIOXS. 



Sb.iNa, 'with,' is used (GO) with a noun to express the idea 
of having, possessing, &e-, for which no verbs exist in ZuluJ 

In this way also the lack of adjectives is largely supplied. 
Ex. uNkulunlculu unohuheU, God he (is) wif h mercy=God is merciful. 

inkosikazi inonuisa, the Queen (is) ^\-itli grace^is gracious. 

ihashi linamandhla, the horse (is) with strength=is strong. 

umuntu una'nto'mhili esibilini sake, a man has two things in his 
person, for unezinto ezimbili. 

86. \ When na is used in the sense of having, &c., in a nega- 
tive or intefrogative sense, the noun which follows it loses the 
initial letter of its infles, as in the last of the above examples. 
N.B. In the following examples, the negative 'particle takt;s the form 
of a prefix o, or of an inserted nga or nge, according to rules which 
will he given hereafter. 

Ex. angina' muntu, I have no person, from umuntu. 
akuna'luto, it is of no consequence, from uluto. 
ungahi na'mono, he not thou envious, from umona. 
ngingena'hasld, I having no horse, from ihashi. 
ungena'hantvmna , thou having no children, from ahantvmna. 
una'hashi lini na ? what hoi'se hast thou ? 

sina'mnako'muni nawe na ? we have what business with thee ? 
an^'azi na.'kubuya mina, I don't know even about returning^ 

whether I shall retiu-n at all. 
okwake akuna'kukuzwa, akuna'kvhotshazv:a, his (affair) is not 
(with hearing it=:) to be heard, it is not to be talked 
about=it passes our comprehension altogether. 
asiqedi na'kubuya , we are not certain either about (his) retiu-ning. 

The same thing occurs in such negative or interrogative 
sentences as the folloT\ing. 

Ex. ningapangi' muntu, do not ye plunder any man. 
ubowi'luto na ? dost thou see anything ? 
okungekvm'kuzenziia, which is not of hypocrisy. 
okungekwa'mteto, which i.s not of the law. 



-32 PREPOSITIONS. 

87. Nil also expresses an<1, aho, both, fofi^ven, <fec. 
Ex. emhlabeni nas'emanzini, in the earth )i£a in the water. 

uJojo uahaniba naye, Jojo v.ent also, or Jojo went, he too. 
ses'esdha nokunyntela, we now feared even to tread. 
"^^ingiiill'sikati nesokudhla, I having not time even to eat. 
as'azi nu'kii/'i nani, we know not whether it is death or what, 

=^ whether he will die or not. 
zingakapumi nenkomo, and the cattle not having yet gone out. 

88. Na may bo prefixed either to the noun itself, or to the 
corresponding pronoun, with the noun ioWowin^ in appositicn. 

tix. nczinto zonke, or nozo zonke izinto, and all things. 

And so with the other prepositions J:u, iiga, njenga, Ac. 

89. A'a is also used after verbs in ana, and some others, 
■which imply a mutual action. 

Ex. stiUihlekeUina nezindhlela zalco, we erred from thy ways (lit. we 
and thy ways were lost to each other). 
iVyusu/.v lapn neaondo, it (the wagon) has got struck here (with 

the wheel— ) on the wheel. 
ibanga cliya cTekxcini nns'emGiingundhlovu kude kangakanani, 
usuka emGiingnndhlovH uya fTfkwini nat the distance 
which gties fnun Durban t" Maritzbiirg (is) how far, thou 
starting from Maritzlmrg, thou going to Durban? 

90. Kn is used to express the force of the Locative in all its 
different shades of meaning, to, from, at, among, &c. 

E.\. kuvcic kuve, it eonu-s /rom thee. 

ngiyrt kii'tufihime, I am going fo my (maternal) uncle. 
ngiyn ktrouwhime (- -ku-oiiuilunw), I am going to my (two or 
more) uncles, or to my mother's knuil. 

As proper nouns have no liOcative forms, ku will always bo 
used with them, to express the sense of the Locative. Or, 
when eniphasiH is requiivd, ku may bo used with the personal 
pronoun, f<illowed by the noun in apjxwitiim. 

Ex. indhltlt tyii ku'MjMinde or kttyf u^pttndf, n path which goe* to 
— Um|Miidu. — — — - 

91. A'k is also used with a Plurnl Personal Pronoun, to) 
[express iiiij or onr proplf, Ac. 

Ex. kuti. kiti, kit inn, mv or our people (lit. among ua) ; 
Jbiiii, kini, kiniiut, tliv or your people. 
kubo, kuKona, hia or their people. 
„f,r,f---- > •'•'•. ■■:•'••■•• • f . •••• - 



L 



humbanx niye kint, {go J*=) b« ofi to your tribe. 




PBEPOsmoNS. 33 

So also with Plural Proper Names. 
Ex. kwoNgoza for kTi-oNgoza=^kuho ka'Ngoza, the people of Ngoza. 

Ku or huna is also used in comparisons as follows. 
Ex, uma kutiwa angikete kunoJojo noFaku, ahle ngikete uJojo, if it be 
said (that) I should choose between Jo jo and Faku, I would 
- choose Jojo. 

^^ 92. Ktva is used witli a Plural Personal Pronoun, to express 
at, to,- or from the hut, or kraal, or people of the person 
referred to. 

Ex. uhlezi endhlini kwaho, he is staying in the hut, at his father's, 
but uhlezi ekaya kubo, he is staying at his own home. 
sabona kwa'Dukuza, we saw uDukuza (kraal). 
iahlezi endhlini ka'Mfulatelvja kwa'Ngoza, they are stopping at 

Mftdatelwa's hut, among Ngoza' s people. 
umuntu wakiva'Zulu, luakwa'Zungu, &c., a man of the Zulus, the 
Zungus, &c., a complimentary way of naming the man's 
great ancestor uZulu, uZungu, &c. 
N.B. The following idiomatic expressions are noticeable. 
Ex. fcu?)o=his or their people, tribe, family, &c. 

kwabo=^his or their people's place, kraal, hut, &c. 
kwo'Ngoza or kwa' Ngoza, at Ngoza' s. 

inkabi ka'Jojo, Jojo's ox ; inkabi yakubo ka'Jojo or yakwo'Jojo 
or yako'Jojo, ox of Jojo's people ; inkabi yakwa'Jojo, an ox 
of Jojo or of Jojo's people (if he is their chief). 
umdindimana wakwabo'Tolapi, a little pot of Tolapi's (place). 
abako'nnyanga, the doctor's people, for abakubo innyanga. 
sasing'abako' Ngomane, we were Ngomane's people. 
k'welako'Magema=kivelakv:oMagema^kwelakubo'Magema, at (the 

land, izwe) of Magema's people. 
kwabo'Venge, at Venge's father's kraal, &c. 
kufupi nje kubo, it is quite near, his (their) people. 
abantu bako'ntombi, for bakubo'ntombi, the girl's people. 
abantu bakona ko'ntombi, the peojile of their, the girl's people. 
wahaleka lapa kubo kwa'Zulu, he fled from here home to Ziiluland. 
vjayibonga inkosi yakubo wayikwelisangamazibukwana, ho in-aised 
the chief of his people, he carried him (sang his praise) 
over the drifts=all the rivers. 
kioelakiti (izwe), eTongwe, kwa' maningi amag onsi, a,t our country, 
eTongwe, where the amagonsi abound (lit. at many ama- 
gonsi plants). 
imjyi yakwa'Sikonyana, the impi of Sikonyana's people. 
N.B. A wife will say kwetu of her husband's father's house ; mta 
kwetu, ' child of ours,' may be said by one boy or girl to another. 

93. Ngf' is used for thrmigh, hy means of, for, hij reason of, 
coneerning, on account of, &c. 

D 



~ /uyv 




34 PREPOSITIONS. 



MX. ngamandhla aniakulu, through mighty power. 

ngazo zonk'izinto, or ngezinto zonke, on account of all things. 
ak'eme nga'nyawo, let him stand by a foot^let him just stop 
a bit. 

94. Diversity of number, time, place, &c., is expressed by 
moans of ana, and a repetition of the noun. 

Ex. esakuluma imihla ngemihla, he stiU speaking day by day. 

kukona izinto ngezinto ezil'igugu, there are there things upon 

things that are precious. 
namhlanje ngibone imibala ngemibala yezinto zabelungu, to-day I 

have seen all sorts of colours of white-men's things. 
ahle nibeke amadoda ngamadoda adhla ubomi, come and see (men 
upon men) a number of men eating ubomi (meat in an 
incipient state of putrefaction, which, like high game, is 
much approved by natives). 
uinuntu ofuyileyo nangas'enkomeni, a man who is well off too in 
respect of cattle. 

9bii(^JSf'ga is used to express 'two and two,' <fcc. 

Ex. haya ngababili, ngabatatu, &c.,they went by two's, by three's, ^. 

OO. Nga i.s used also in the sense of about or tmcards. 

Ex. uvcla ngapi, or iivcla ngapi na ? thou comest from whereabout ? 

but uvcla-pi na f thou comest from where ? 

tiye ngalapa, he is gone thore-about. 

i:ife langas'emVoti, land of about the Umvoti. 

nye ngakubo, he is pone towards his people. 

izuc Uingakiva'Ngoza, land about Ngoza's (people). 

So wo htive pezu, above, ngapezv, somewhere above; poiwi, 

below, ngajmnsi, somewhere below, «fcc. 

97. Nga is also used for the purpose of (tikubonga) eTioWing 
or expressing admiration. yO^"-*^^ 

Ex. uNgota ngehaihi lake I Ngo mfpr h is norge ! = what a fine horse 
has Ngoza ! 
wo .' ngebandhla lika'Jojo! what a troop of men has Jojo ! 



98. From the word n^a are compounded many words uaed 
as adverbs or conjunctions. 
/ Ex. n</iii-o. therefore, — nga-kn, on account of it, 
/ ngokuhrt, )M*cauae, — nga ukuba, on account of the being. 

'.»'.•. Fnun the same root nga are prolwiblj formed the pre- 
pusitioiiM iijt'tiini, like ns, ugauga^ an irn-at or a.s many ft8. 
Ex. nj(*n^oitu&-iiiiya ktcelangn, like im thi< light of the sun. 
un^rtityatce na f is he as largo as thou F 



T s 



PEEPOSITIONS. 35 



100. The direct agent after any Passive (or Neuter) Verb 
or Participle may be d-eaoted by prefixing ng' to the noun 
■which expresses it, if its infle.^ begins with u or a, or y' if the 
noun's iniiex begins with i, or y'i, before a pronoun (111). 

Ex. kutshiwo ng'uNgoza loko, it is said hy Ngoza, that.' 
wadhliwa y'inkato, he was chosen (eaten) hy the lot. 
ngilibele y'imisebenzi, I have been delayed by works. 
ningakolwa y'iloko, do not (be satisfied by =) credit that. 

<>^ Or Z' may be used before nouns in Hi and ulu': 
Ex. utshaywe I'itshe embaleni, he has been struck by a stone on the 
shin. 
lo'Tnuntu I'idaka, that man is a sot. 
leyo'nkomo itwel'amehlo, U'idhlanyasi, that bullock has lifted the 

eyes, it is mischievous. 
waba I'ukuni, he was a fire-log, i.e., hard, stiff, unbending. 
iminyaka el'ishumi, years which are ten. 

waba I'uto lulapa, he was something here = he was f \u-ious as a 
tiger. 
(Or nga may be used with a plural pronoun. 
Ex. wabonwa ngabo, he was seen by them, or he was seen hy means 
of them. 

101. The above particles, however, are very often omitted, 
and the agent stands after the verb without any sign to dis- 
tinguish it. 

Ex. kutshiwo uNgoza loko ; wadhliwa inkato. 
kunjenje umlilo, it is so through fire. 

102. In point of fact, the particles/ii^', y^^ in the above^ are 
not prepositions, as they seem to be, but are employed as a 

( kind of copula) in place of the substantive-verb — perhaps, 
merely for euphony, to avoid an hiatus. We shall call them 
the Substantive Particles. 

Ex. lowo'muniu ung'ubani na ? that man he is who ? 

sing'abantu baka'Ngoza (s'abantu haka'Ngoza), we are people of 

Ngoza. 
ngiy'indodana yako, I am thy son. 
izinkovio ziy'inncozana, the cattle are a few. 
y'isitsha lesi or 'sitsha lesi, this is a cup. 

ubuhle obu'buhle bezinto zonke, the beautiful which is the 
beautifiil of all things, for obung'ubuhle. 

103. Hence it would appear that the real construction of 
such expressions as those in ( 1 00) is as follows. 

Ex. kutshiv)o — uNgoza or ng'uNgoza, it is said — it is Ngoza (who 
Bays it). 

d2 



36 FEBSONAIi AND DEMONSTBATIVE FRONOtTNS. 



CHAPTER VIL 



PERSOXAL AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

lOi. Personal Pronauns, besides Simple or Primitive forms 
for the Nominative and Accusative, have also Possesssive and 
Prepositional Forms. Tho former are those which they assume 
after the Possessive Pai'ticle of a noun, and in this way is 
supplied the want of Possessive Pronouns, for which no sepa- 
rate forms exist in Zulu. The latter are assumed after pre- 
positions, as va, nga, ku, vjenga, ngamjn. &c., and also after tho 
Substantive Particles. 

They liave also Emphaiic Forms, which may bo used sepa- 
rately, after a verb or preposition (not heforc a verb), or iu 
apposition to cither of tho other forms. 

105. Personal Pronouns of the First Person. . ^ 

Sins. Plur. ^ ^* 

N. A. ngi, I or mo N. A. -fi, we or us. ^ | ^ 

Poss. mi, as wami, lami, &c. Poss. itu, aswetUfleiu^ AK(60) 
Prep, vii, as nami, kumi, &v. Prcp.-^ti, as 7ja/i', knti, &o. 
Eniph. viina, I or me. Emph. tina, we or us. 

lOG. Personal Protuyuns of the Second Person. 
Sing. Plur. 

Nom. n, thou. Ace. lu, thee. N. A. ni, ye or you. 
l*o8s. ha, i\H vaJco, lako, &c. Pos.s. init, aaioenn,lenu,Ac. 
Prep, toe, as nawc, hnxoc, &c. Prep, xi, as ruini, kuni, Ac. 
Krnph. ivemt, thou or thee. Kinpli. nina, yo or yoQ. 

N.B. Knti and kumi are frc(|uently pront»unccd hiti and - 
hini, or sometimes hwili and kirini ; so also, kitina, kinina. 

107. Personal Prono^tns of the Third Person. 

Tlu'sc, in lh«'ir Simple Nominative I'orms, are mcn^ly (21) 
tlio chanictcristic portions of tho iiitlcxos of (ho diffcmit 
clttuscs of BOiraB. 'i'lase Borvc also ns ylcct«fi/i* 



PERSONAL AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



37 



placed immediately before the Verb-Root ; except that the 
Vowel- Pronouns a, i, u, usually take the semivowel w or y 
before them, as below, when used as Accusatives.) C^-t'v^'f.^-^^ 

It will be seen that the Possessive and Prepositional -Noams are 
identical^ except in the case of the Singular of the First (or Personal) 
Class of Nouns. 

N.B. The k, -wliich occurs in the pronouns of the TWr^ Person, Ice, 
Ten, ko, kona, is soft, while that of ko, for the Second person is aspirated. 

108. Table of Personal Pronov-nsfor the TJdrd Person. 



Inflex. 



umu, um, u 

Hi 

im, in 

isi 

umu, um, u 

ulu 

uhu 

uku 

aba, 

a/ma 

izim, izin, izi 

imi 



Nom. Ace. 



^l, m 

li 
i _ yi 

si 

lu 
bio 
Jcic 
ba 

a tea 

zi 
i 7ji 



Poss. Prep. 



Ice ye 
lo 
yo 
so 
zoo 
lo 
bo 
ko 
bo 
tvo 
zo 
yo 



/ , 



Emph. 



yena 
lona 
yona 
sona 
loona 
lona 
bona 
Jcona 
bona 
loona 
zona 
yona 



d 



■ysr^v"- 



The Accusative form^ are inserted immediately before the 
Verb-Root in any case. 

Ex. umuntu wokumpafela intamho, a man for carrying fur liim the 
rope = leader of his wagon. /' 

ng'ezwa uivetu lo engiti-ngqi ngendololivahe, I felt this man of 
ours nudging me with his elbow. / 

The Emphatic forms are placed aft^ the verb or before a 
demonstrative pronoun. / 

Ex. ukulumajiiijiii^izindaha, you speal> the very facts. 

ibuda libuzwa lingekulume zona izinhlamvu zokufa, a careless 
fellow being asked would not teU the very points of the 
disease. 
uyakupuluka ngalona lelo'langa oyakumnika ngalo lo'muti, he 
will be healed on the very day on which you will give him 
this medicine. 



38 PERSONAL AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

N.B. The form mu is often used for m in the Accusative, to help 
the voice before a monosyllabic verb. 

Ex. mupe lo'mkonto, give him this assegai. 

Some natives, however, will sound m, and not mu, even in this case ; 
while others (especially the amaLala) sound mu in other cases. 

Ex. ngamuepula ekufeni, I delivered him from death. 

The forms, wa, xvu, and yi are often heard as a, u, and t, without 
the semi-vowel ; and i, when uttered mth emphasis, will sometimes 
be sounded as yi, when a nominative. 

Ex. atele (ivatcle) lapa la'mafuta, pour carefully that fat here. 

109. iThe Personal Pronouns are used, as above given, with 
Particles as well as Verbs, except that for particles changes 
are made in the pronouns of the Third Person Nominative — u 
personal, ha, a, being changed to e, be, e, respectively^ 

Ex. ckvmzi loko, he knowing that. 

behamba ngendhlela, they walking by the path. 
amehlo abo ekanya, their eyes being clear. 

110. It ^vill be seen also, Avhen we come to speak of verbs, 
that some other changes are made in the pronouns of the 
Third Person Numinativc. 

111. Wherever it is necessary to treat the Personal Pro- 
nouns as nouns, (as, for instance, after the substantive particles, 
ng\ y',) wcna, and i/cna prefix the inflex u, as uwena, nyena, 
and all the others prefix i, except mina, which takes either 
u or i. 

Ex. y'imina, y'imi, or uviina, it is I ; y'itina, y'iti, it is we. 

iiivena, ng'uxvena, nice, ng'uice, it is thou ; y'inina, y'ini. it is ye. 
■uycna, ug'uycnn, uyc, ng'uyc, it is he; y'^ona, y'ibo, it is thoy. 
y'ilona, y'ilo, iyona, iyo, &c., it is it; y'iicona, y'itco, y'ieofia, 

y'iso, it is they. 
umina ownhulala lowo'munlu, it (is) I. who kilknl that man. 
y'inina abahei>ika, it (is) yi)U, who wore contnuHrting. 
ng'umupi oyrnnyena, whii-h of the two is ho himself. 
umuntu oyenaycna, the very man. 
t'sH'c elonalnna, thi' idcntifnl hvnd. 

okona kny'ikona, whioli is the very thing r^ tho truth. 
ng'uyrna (uyi-nn umunlu) ow'as'indhUla, ho is the miin who 

knowH tho way. 
y'ibonn nbantu ahayakusitihela loko, thoy aro the men who will 

tvU UH that. 

So a PoKscssive Pronoun may be treated as a Nouu. 
Ex. utcetu la, thJM iiinn of num. 

ngiya kwabetu, I am going to my friends, for h/BahakUi. 



/ 



REMAKKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 39 

wmlobolcazi kayidhli innyama yas'ewake, a bride does not eat 
meat of his (kraal) =her husband's people's place. 
N.B. is'ewalce = husband's people's place. 

is'ehwenL lake ov is'ebukiveni bake= wife's people's place. 

112. It is not is expressed with the personal pronouns, as 
follows, the first form being that most used. -.^ 

■ St: akuso mina, or ak\isimi, or asi mina, or asimi, it is not I.»-*«^ 

N.B. In the above expressions a is the negative particle, ku the 
indefinite pi'onoun, it, and si or so appears to represent the substan- 
tive verb ; while asi appears to be contracted from akusi. 

akuso mina owabulala lowo'muntu, it is not I who hurt that man. 
akuso nina abakuluma.yo, it is not ye who speak. 

For the participle, kuugeso is used. 
—-Ex- Jiimgeso yena, it not being- ke. >^_„— — — — 



113. In like manner, such expressions as these, ' I am he,' 
* I am not he,' &c., are rendered into Zulu, as follows. 

Ex. lo'muntu ung'uye, this man is he. 
angisiye uJojo, I am not he, Jojo. 
ungesiyo innyanga, thou not being he, the physician. 

REMARKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 

114. ^The direct Snhject of a verb is always a Primitive 
Personal Pronoicn. 

Ex. inkosi iryahasiza, the chief, he helps them. 

115. The direct Object of a verb is always a IToun or a 
and the Pronoun may be either Emphatic or 

*rimitiv^ In the latter case it will be placed immediately 
lerb-root, in apposition, frequently, to some Noun or 
Emphatic Pronoun also expressed. 
Ex. habona umuntu, they saw a man. 

iatshaya uMpengula, they beat Mpengula. 
wawudhla umuti, he ate it, the medicine. 

116. The noun, to which a Personal Pronounrefers, may be 
expressed after its possessive also, for the sake of distinctnes9-.\ 

Ex. ukufika kivake uNgoza, the arrival of him, Ngoza. 

la'mazwi akusiwo awake lo 'jnfana, these words fa,re)not those of 
him that boy. 

117. The emphatic forms m^ be used with 7cu, but not 
with any other prepositions. 

Ex. ung'emuki kitina, go not tho^ away from-us. 



40 BEMABK8 ON THE FBOKOUN8. 

118. Nouns, when used in apposition with the emphatic 
personal pronouns, lose their initial vowels. 

Ex. ti)ui'bantu, baka'Zatshuke, we people of Zatshuke. 



i for umfazi, "wife, i^ 
I ; as uiiikami, umfca/co, 



Possessive Forms ; as Uhikaml, umicaJco, nmhaJic, my, thy, his, 
wife. 

120. The plural form kiti (01) expresses at our kraal, indi- 
cating' only the kraal or place wheio the speaker's people live ; 
while kwetu (92) or cndhlini yalcwetu, or eniziniwakicctu, wory\d 
be used to express at our's, at our hut or at our kraal, where 
the hut or kraal belongs to ihofamili/ of the speaker, he not 
being liinLself the master of it. The master (or his wife) 
would say hwatni, or endhlini kwami, or cnuini wami ; and so 
with ki)ii and kwenu. 

Ex. indodakazi yanii, my daughter, indodakati yakweiu, daughter of 
ours =-^ of the house. 

121. In forming possessive pronouns to agree with nouns 
which express paternity, viatcrnitij, fraternity, Ac., the plural 
form of the pronoun, which represents the noun whose father, 
mother, Ac, is spoken of, is always employed, whether that bo 
singular or ])lural. 

Ex. ubalia iretii my ay our father; imyoJbo wenu, thy or our mother. 
um/o wabo, liis or their brother; udade xcabo, hiaor their sister. 
vdade waojojo, Jojo's sister, for wabo ka'Jojo. 

122. Um/o is Jisi'd for nmfana, 'boy or son,* and nmta for 
umntwana, 'child,' male or female; but umfo wabo moona 
' brother.* 

Ex. H.V<J'on« ur»i/o kci'Zatthxkke, Undiano, Bon of Zat«hukc. • 

uMj'ulatelwa, um/o wabo ka'Nijnsa, Fulutelwa, brother of Ngoia. 

Also unifo iraki is used to point to an illustrious itneestor, 
mjo ka, to iho father. 

The natives very frequently omit the name of a person, and 
mcrtdy <'all him the son of thr father «)r ancestor. 

Ex. uy.i' ' • Mmta ka' SI - •' n of Mvubu i» nUuidcrod. 

upi t :i/ wliiM I ((|i<iiooii<lunt) of Majo«i P 

[ 1 1 till' r«?4i(. ' iM ())«• it<>u, do.) 

wota Inpa tfOK* ka'Jojo, imiiio I ' Jojo. 

N.H. icoea lapa kn'Jitjo wonUl 1m< u 1 : > a dsugKt0r of Jojo, or 

to A ■jn ID a friendly, <joodnmlur«d luuuuct . 



EEMABKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 41 

A wife is commonly called by her fatL.er's name, ynth ma 
(contracted for mta ha) prefixed to it. 

Ex. xvoza lapa ma'Zatshuke, come here, child of Zatshuke. 

As a child is never spoken of as the child of its mother, it is necessary 
in translating such an expression as ' Joab the son of Zerniah,' to 
write uJoabe wak'oka Jese uZeruia, = Joab, son of (her) who is (child) 
of Jesse, Zeruiah, whevewak' = \vaka, and the plural would be bak'oka'- 
Jese, these expressions being used in preference to waka'ka'Jese 
baka'kaJese. 

Again, it is common to call a man by an iziol lolcuhoiuja, 

tliat is, ' a name of praise,' or some name arbitrarily given 

to him by his companions as a kind of honourable nickname. 

Ex. ehamba uMgqiti-oNsibansiba, ehaniba ebadazela, ngamtanda 

cs'euunuZe, as Mgqiti-Nsibansiba walked, walking and strutting, 

I loved him tricked out so fine ; where uMgqiti and oNsihansiba 

(pluralis excellentiae) are both of them names given by way of 

ukubonga to some person. 

And they have also names of endearment or pleasant, jocular, 
fariiiliarity (aniazivi olcufelcetisa), between husband and wife or 
between one friend and another. 

123. The word ^imnawe, ' brother ' is used with a singular 
pronoun, in speaking either of an older or a younger brother ; 
so that two brothers can say of each other umfo wetu or 
urnjiawe ivami. 

But umne can only be used of an elder brother, or of any 
oZc?e/- friend or companion, and, like umfo, takes always the 
plural pronoun. 

The brother of a female will also properly be spoken of as 
wm?ie wetu, ivenu, loabo, not umfo wetu, &c. 

When the form umne is used, some special familiarity or 
mark of respect is implied. 

Ex. uBetyu umne wabo ka'Jojo, Betyu, elder brother of Jojo. 
sakub(yna, mne wetu, Mabuto, good-day! friend Mabuto. 

124. On the other hand, the plural forms, abafo, odade, are 
used with the same singular possessive forms as umfo 
and udade. 

Ex. abafo wetu ababili, my or our two brothers. 
odade wenu abatOitu, thy or yoiu* three sisters. 



42 REMARKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 

The above rules are observed in the case of some few other 
nouns of relationship. 

125. Mina is often used to summon a person, and loetu is 
employed as a term of friendship to one of the same age 
(intangci) or to a familiar acquaintance. 

Ex. mina wetu ! to me here, friend ! 

126. uriintwana and ahantwana are contracted in familiar 
discourse, when used with a possessive pronoun. 

Ex. umtnnami, my child, for iimntxvana wami. 

abantabami, my children, for abantwana bami. 

So umtanako, umtanake, abantabako, abantabc, 

127. The pronoun /i:((, with the corresponding prepositiona 
and emphatic forms, is verj' often used indefinitehj, to 
express any number of nouns or pronouns, taken collectively, 
whether singular or plural, personal or impersonal. 

Ex. kutsho uhani na ? there says it who? ^ who says it ? 
kwntsho mina, said I ; kwatsho tina, said we. 
kudhlule oNgoza kusasa, there passed the Npozas this morning. 
kwcnzc njani lapo na ? (it is done how ;=) what poi's on there ? 
akubangn-ko'inuntti, there wjis not a person present. 
kadc sihlala nayc konalapa ku'ni/anyana nie, long ago, we 

staying with him on this very spot, (it) he being just a 

little boy. 






li^S. pi'riToyislr(t!n''^I^nDinini ^ nrp formed from the inflexet 
of the^dmcTcntC' lassos ot iSouns, as a general rule, 9B 
follows : — 

(1) By prefixing In to signify thij> or these ; 

(2) Hy prefixing la, and changing the final vowel to o, to 
Bignify tluil or thuxr ; 

(A) Hy apjK'nding v" (pirtnounccd with an elevation of the 
voice) to the first of the above two forms, to signify this or 
iJiaie here, or that or those thrrc, when an object is pointed 
out. 

Tt will bo spon. however, in the following Tnblo, that the 
forms fortius nioiiosylliibic inilexo.s aro slightly exceptional. 

120. Tabic of Denwnstrativo Proncune, 



^EEMAEKS OX THE PEOXOUKS. 



4» 



Inflex. 


This. 


That. 


These here, those there 


u 


?o, lona 


j loivo 


Iowa, lowaya 


Hi 


leU 


1 lelo 


leliya 


I 


le, lena 


leijo 


leya 


ISl 


lesi 


Icso 


lesiya 


u 


lo, lona 


laii'o 


loica, loivaya 


uhc 


lolu 


lolo 


loluya 


ubu 


lohu 


loho 


lohuya 


uhu 


loJao 


lol-o 


lolcuya 


Tnflex. 


These 


Those. 


These here, those there 


aha 


laha 


laho 


lahaya 


a 


la, lawa 


lavm 


laivaya 


izi 


lezi 


lezo 


leziya 


i 


Je, lena 


hyo 


leya | 



N.B. lovjo is often pronounced as lo, with a long o, or as lo'o, and 
laha as la or la'a. Also nouns in isi, izi after the demonstratives, 
lesi, lezi, and novms in uku after loku, may expel the last syllable of 
the pronoun. ^• 

Ex. lo'muntu, that man; la'iantii, these people; Za'6a/an.a, these 
boys ; le'sitsha, this cup ; le'zilonda, these sores-; lo'kufa, this 
sickness. 

So lo' may be heard at times for loku. 

Ex. inja engangalo' engakaya, a dog as big as this, so big. 

- ngalo'kushumayela kttake, through this his talking. 

' The Demonstrative Prc^nouns when treated as nouns 
(111), take all the inflex i. \ 

Ex. y'ilokv, engikwazvyo , it is this, which I it know. 

130. Demonstrative Pronouns are often employed after 
the noun, to indicate things well known, for good or evil, 
multitude, beauty, ugliness, &c. 

The following are instances of the use of such pronouns. 
Ex, vona levo/ ke imizi, those very kraals. 

lowo nalowo, this and that man=one and another, every man. 
ungeyikombe inja le, irtibuzi ngingayipete, you must not point out 



44 EEMAEKS ON THE PRONOUNS. 

this dog (contemptuously for something given), I not 

mentioning a goat (= I will not be content with even a goat). 

uhehmgu, bona bazifana zonke nje izidhlo lezo eximnandi, the 

white men they get all those nice dishes, = all those dainty 

dainty dishes, you know, i.e., without indicating any as present. 

b'esaba ukupuza amanzi odwa laiva, they feared to drink just 

water only (= they feared to drink anything). 

lesi'camelo Icungeloku as'enzwanga umuntu lo ohamba ngetin- 

nyawo, this pillow seemingly was not made by a man just such 

as walks with feet (= by a living man). 

le'nsimu iyikulu ; ifanele ukuba ibe'maxiba'matatu kube izind- 

hlame lezi, this garden is large, it ought to (be with) have three 

watch-huts, that there be stands these (== so many, shown 

upon the fingers). 

hesengilwilc besengiwadelile amabele, I had already fought, I had 

already given up (amabele =) utshwala for ever, (= I had 

resolved to fight \mto the death). 

um/azi xvayena lowo'mlungu, the wife of that same white man. 

kana'luto ngitsho imbuzi yodwa le, he has nothing, even a 

single goat. 

angiyizeki indaba yalesi'/ana sami esilapaya, ngitsho xsitombo l*«, 

I don't tell the story of my little garden over there, (not) I 

say (=even) a single sprout (iu it). 

sokute qa mkuni (izinkuni) lapa, ngitsho olokut shay a inja lodwa 

lolu, the firewood is quite at an end here, (I say =) even 80 

much only as is (enough) for beating a dog. 

kwakwake abantu : sadhla izikiimba lezi, sizitola emahlatini, ta%i~ 

bekwe, abantu, people had lived (there) : we ate skins, you know, 

finding them in the forests, thoy had lx?en put (there) by people. 

ngnfikn ainndodn chalclana kulo'm/uyana, kuy'ileyo itsho okwayo, 

kuy'ilcyo itsho okuayo, I came (where) men were telling each 

otherattheV>rook, the one saying his (story), the other saying his. 

bidani amatshe hunt, ba/ana, niwacasc, niponse ngawo itinnyoni, 

kubey'ilowo acaae awake, gather these stones, boys, «»naAh them, 

pelt with them birds, let e»vch smash his own. 

kway'ileso'sixuku siliamba abaso, kway'ileao sabainha abaio, thero 

was this Ijody (of men) (laying hold of ^ ) fighting with its own 

(enemies), (wliilo) that fought with it.s own. 

kway'ibona baltaleka, kirny'itina tabalandvla njn lo, tliev for tlieir 

part ran away, we for our part followed them continually. 

N.n. loku ' this,' is used as an itici lokuta or 'word of derision' in 
speaking of a person. 

Ex. biza loku, call it, this thing. 

So okn'Joji) (the tiling) whicli is .loio. nciv In- iiM-d in con- 
iempt, but also in coiumondation. 



U^M^*^^'''"'^'"'^ ^ nntapPtAM 



EELATIVE PEONOUNS. 45 



CHAPTER VIII. 



EELATIVE PEOXOCNS. 



131.l_The Relative is expressed in Zulu, for aU persons, 
genders, numbers, cases, by the vowel/ojset at the beginning- 
of the relative clause, but generally in combination with 
another vowel, so as to appear (60) in the form a, e, or o?) 

The use of the Relative is somewhat peculiar in the Kafir 
dialects. But a little attention "vvili enable the student per- 
fectly to master it, by observing the following rules. 

132. (1) If the Relative in the English relative clause be 
the Subject of the verb, (e.g., a man who sees, a horse u'ldclL 
is strong, people xcho are weeping, I who have done it,) then 
the vowel, "svith which the relative-vowel « combines in Zulu, 
is the initial vowel of the inflex which belongs to the antece- 
dent, (man, Itorse, people, I, in the above instances). 

Ex. umuntu^^ona.yo, a man who sees ; where o = a-v., the relative- 

'vwV^t'd teing combined ^vith the u of umu, the inflex of the 

antecedent umuntu. 

ihashi Minaviandhla., a horse which is strong ; where e = a-i, the- 

reterttve- vowel a being combined with the i of Hi, the inflex of 

the antecedent ihashi. 

Sibantu^bakalayo, people who are weeping ; where a =a-a, the 

relative-vowel a being combined with the a of aba, the inflex 

of the antecedent ahantu. 

mina engikwenzileyo, I who have done it, where e = a-i, the 

relative-vowel a being combined with i, which (111) is the inflex 

belonging to the antecedent mina. 

N.B. The syllable j^JU frequently appended, as above, to the verb j 
in a relative clause, apparently for the sake of euphony, and also in 
soma other cases, as where the relative is understood, and not expressed, j 
Ex. hamba uye lapaya ebandhla ; liza'ufike likushumayeze leyo'ndabay ' 
wena usayifunayo ; Una sesiyizwile, go over there to the 
company ; it will manage to tell you that story, you (who) are 
now seeking it ; we have already heard it. 



-46' RELATIVE FRONOCK8. 

A pronoun may be regarded as in apposition with umunin 
or ahanta understood. 

Ex. nirto enxy'itiula or nina ahay'itiula, ye who are fools. 

bamshiyisa etinningi, o'kuceba kw'esabekayo, they made him leave 
behind many (cattle) whose wealth was astounding. 

133. (2) If the Relative in the English relative clause be 
in the Posse ■fs<r« Form (e.7., a man ir}i'jse hands are white = a 
man who-his hands are white,) the same rule holds, and the 
noun, which expresses the tiling possessed, follows after the 
relative, with the loss of its own initial vowel. 

E.T. vmuntu, o'landhla zimhlope, a man whose hands are white. 
ihashi, eli'zindhUbe tinde, a horse whose ears are long. 

Or, to make the sense more clear, a possessive pronoun may 
be inserted after the noun aforesaid. 

Ex. umunfu, o'zandhla zake timhlope, ihashi, eli'tindhUhe talo tind<. 

134. (3) If the Relative in the English relative clause be the 
object of the verb, or tK-cur in any other obli'ine form, (f.y., a 
man vhom I .see, a horse about tr/( I'c/* thou arts jwaking, people 
%oith whom we are living), then the vowel, with which the 
relative-vowel a combines in Zulu, is the initial vowel of the 
inflex which belongs to the Subject of the verb in the English 
relative clause. 

Ex. jimuntu engimbonayo, a man whom I see him ; where e ■= a-t, 
tKo>^i«£ive vowi'l n being oombinod with «. which (111) in the 
influx bflon^fing to n^', I, the subject to the verb in the 
English rchitivo i-luuse. 

ihashi okulxtma ngalo, a horse which thou art speaking about 
it; whero o - rt-ii, the relative- vowel o being combined with 
■u, which (111) U'longf) to u, thou, the sabject to the verb in 
the English relative clause. 

ahantu etihleni naho, p«K>plo, whom wo are living with them ; 
where e a-i, the n>liitivo-vowcl a b<Mng ct»nibiut«d with i, 
which (111) corrcspmdH t<> »i, we, the «ubject to the verb in 
the Knglish relative clause. 

I 13.^. (l) When, however, the nominative to the verb in the 

lEngliHh relative clause is a Personal Noun Singular, or % Pro- 
(noun of the Third I'erfon Singular, tiie ndativ«'-v<»wi«l a alone 
Ktunds as the nominative to llie Zulu verb. 
Ex. umuntu anxbonayo, n miU) whom K« aeee. 

tAojfci, ujojo iikuluma ngalo, a horM about wh^h Jojq apokc. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 47 

136. When the Relative occurs in the form o or e before a 
vowel- verb, the semi- vowel v) or ?/, respectively, is introduced 
before the verb, as owenza, eyenza, for o-enza, e-enza. 

This may be either done to assist the enunciation, or, more probably, 
it results from a repetition of the pronoun u or i, which is combined 
"with the relative a. Thus, oicenza =^o.uenza, eyenza = e-ienza ; and 
it is possible that the same repetition is made in other cases, (as in 
otanda=^ o-utanda, just as elitanda^^ e-litanda), though it may not 
be so distinctly caught by the ear, being absorbed before a consonant 
in the strong sound of the o or e . 

When the Relative occurs in the form a before a vowel- verb, 
it is absorbed in the vowel of the verb. 

Ex. umina (or y'imi) engenze loku or umina owenze loku, it is I who 
have done this. 
ng'uyena'apule loku, it is he that has broken this. 

137. When special empha.sis is laid on a possessive pronoun 
in English, it may be expressed in Zulu by setting before the 
noun possessed the corresponding possessive pronoun, with 
the proper relative prefixed. 

Ex. ezami izinkomo, my own cattle. 
elake izv;i, his own word. 
ngaxvake amehlo, with his own eyes. 

asilo elami izembe ; elika'baba, it is not my axe ; (it is) my 
father's. 
In the third of the above examples, the relative-vowel a is prefixed 
to the possessive form ake, with the semi- vowel w interposed. 

138. By myself, of viy mun accord, &c., is expressed by 
ngokwa, followed by the possessive form of the personal 
pronoun ; as ngolcwami, by myself, = nga-okwami, by (that) 
which is of me. 

Ex. urn/ana us'ehamba ngokwake, the boy now walks alone. 
So ngokwamahloni, with shame, lit. by (that) which is of shame. 
ngokwamandhla etu, by oiir power. 

139. The following are further illustrations of the use of 
the Relative. 

N.B. The Noun or Pronoun, which is printed in Italics in the 
English sentence, is that which determines in any case the vowel with 
which the relative-vowel a is to be combined. ' 

Ex. uMpande oy'inkosi yamaZulu, Mpnadc, who ischief of the Zulus. 
inkosi, onginike loku, the chief, who has given me this. 
utshani obvfulela izindhlu.grasi, which covers huts. 
abantu, nb'eza kimina, the people, who came to me. 
urafazi o'buso bumhlope, the woman, whose face is white. 



48 BBLATITE PBONOUNS. 

tTMtit, e'boya hude, the sheep, whose wool is long^. 

ximvemvane , olu'j»ia6oia azibadu, the butter/ly, whose colours are 

speokled. 

ajnahashi, a'matshoba amnyama, the Worses whose tails are black. 

ttmusi engiwubone kusasa, the kraal, which I it saw this rooming. 

abantu bako, obatrtmayo, thy people, whom thou semlost. 

leto'tinto csiz'enzileyo, those thinjfs, which ire have done. 

amadoda, eniwatshoyo, the men, alwut whom you spieuk. 

umuti, eliya kuwo ihashi, the tree to which the horse is going. 

intabn, owake pansi kwayo vmuti, the hill under which the 

kraal is settled. 

um/ana, vsinolaka nje, sinolaka ngaye isalukati, the boy, about 

whom the old-woman is antfry truly, angry about him. 

xnkosi, likulnma nayo uNgoza, the chief, with whom Ngota spoke. 

um/azi, ii,mapuca isipuku uNongoma, the woman, from whom 

Nongoma took away the blanket. 

indoda, asebcnta kuyo um/azi, the man, for whom the tronuin 

worked. 

ihashi utenga ngalo, the horse which he (exchanged for) bought. 

knkona okufihlileyo, there is (that) which thou hast hid. 

kukona i\,hakujihlil''yo, there is (that) which they liave hid. 

kukona t'sikufihlileyo, there is that which \ce have hid. 

kukona nkujihhleyo, there is that whicli he has hid. 

izwe, nxaknninika lona, the land, which he will give you it. 

iswe, cngitakuninikn lona the land which / will give you it. 

ixwe, elona ngizakuninika lona, the land, which is it, I being 

about to give you it, (where ujisatuniniin is the participle,) 

= the identicil land which I am going to give you. 

itwe, dona ezakuninika lonn, tlie identical land, which he isgoinf^f 

to give yoii, (wliere the j>art\ripial form, e (K>1>), of the pronoun 

noun for the 3rd Pers. Sing, is u.sed in ftaiuniniia). 

\Mwe, idona besakuninika lona, the very land which they arc 

going to give you. 

isilsha, csaninikn sona, the cup which iff gave you. 

isitsha, I'sona nganinika sona, tlie very eup, which I gare you. 

isilsha, nninika sonn, the cup which he gave you. 

isitsha, vsona baninika sona, the very rw|>, which they gave you. 

isikati, abafika ngnso, the time at which thry came. 

isikati, eson<t tra/ika (or eson'a/ika) mgaso, the very tip*4, at 

which he came. 

isikati, i^ka ngaso anuintombasana, U)o timo, at which the 

maidens came. 

isikati, esona bafika ngato, the very time, at whi> h they cam*. 

akt sibone okona kuy'ikona uina y'ikupi na, pleas<> let IM MO 

which of the twii is the very thing. 

Wc give the alxtvo phruiio with other inflexea. 

ake sibone abona kung'abona (or btmf'abona) uwta y'iMH** I 



RELATIVE PRONOUN'S. 49 

ake sibone eyona kuy'iyona (or iyona) itma y'ipi no. ; 

ake sibone awona kung'avjona (or eng'awona) uma amapi no. • 

ake sibone owona kung'uwona uma. umupi na. 

izwi elona ulishumayele kusaso- = izwi olishumayele kv.sasa, the 

word which you spoke this morning. 

uyena aqamba {=owaqamba) le'ndaba., it is he that invented that 

story. 

uyena owayigodusayo impi, yagodusvja ug'uMpande, it is he who 

led home the army, it was led home by UMpande. 

mahle la'mabala lawa, aioona eyihlobisileyo ingubo le, those 

colours are beautiful, which have adox-ned that blanket. 

le'mizi umuntu avela qede, ayibone, eyaoMapita ? those kraals 

which a man sees, as soon as he appears (over the ridge), 

are they Mapita's ? 

sibone ngotnnyama ovjona ubonakalise ukuba lizakuna, we saw by 

the rainbow which showed that it wQl rain. 

ngimtshela okona kubulele ihashi, I am telling him what (it is 

which) has killed the horse. 

labo'bantu okutiiva amaFengu, those people as to whom it is said 

amaFengu = who are called Fingoes. 

angis'azi ekona ngizakivenza, I don't yet know what I shall do. 

iy'iqalaqala yona leyo'ntombi, eli'mehlo as'enhloko, she is a sharp 

one that same girl, whose eyes are in her head. 

ubahekazi wah'ake eLovu, okwati, mhla kubuha ubaba, w'eza'kusi- 

tata, my (our) father's brother lived at the Ilovu, (as to whom 

it came to pass ^) who, when my (our) father died, came to 

take us. 

viasindoy ngalo'nyaka odhlulileyo owona umkuhla7ie wawa ngawo, 

he recovered in that last year, in which the fever was prevalent. 

lowo'mlungu obesilele ekaya lake (or o'kaya lake besilele kulo or 

ebesilele ekaya lake), that whiteman at whose house we slept. 

ngogcina ngo'nnywana zimhlotshana, I will finish off by him 

whose little feet (izinnyivana) are white. 



bO ADJECTIVKS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

ADJECTIVES. 

ItO. There are not niaay proper A'ljectivcs in Zulu, nnd 
most of those whicli exist express either colour or diitu'u.>ti'on. 
Ex. m/iio;>c, white ; mnyama, black; bomvu, red; luhlata, p-een or 
blue; SHudu, brown or bay; mpofu, dun, roan, yellow, pale, 
poor; 7iya?ufi, ^rey ; «<6a<iu, speckled. 

kulu, great ; ncane or ncinyane, small ; hanzi, wide, broad 
futshane short, narrow ; dc, long, high, deep. 
kude, distant ; ningi, much, many ; luk-uni, hard ; te, naked 
mnandi, pleasant ; hie, bitwrrfctfuL g>x»d ; hi, ugly, V>ad ; qoto 
honest ; miii'nc, generous ^Jatu ^ oKJ) tsha, young, fresh ; nstnui 
heavy, troublesome, dark, sad-coloured ; xuitpunyu, projecting 
pi"otuberant. 

141. The want of proper atljcctivcs is larjfely supplied by 
the n.so of (1) partiriples, (2) nouns in the simple fi)rm, (8) 
•I nuns in the pos.sessive form, and (4) nn with n noun. \ 
E.x. (I) umioiht ogulayo, the man who is sick =^ the sick num. 
inhliziyn rtohiUyo, the humble heart. 
okiicu'ebxlayo, that which is clear .= holy. 
(2) ilu'i»«(ilLvitn, it is (coldness) cold ; itu'nt<in>i, it is (water) wot. 
oku'bukali, sharp; oku'huiloda, manly. 

inhliiiyo e'hunfne, t\w heart which is gmciousneM, =: the 
gracious heart. 

umziinba n»'u'buhlungu, my 1>ody is now in pain, 
tailoda e'ligde, the man with retiring forehead, = who haa 
the ring far back. 
N.H. Some of the words given in (110) as adjectiTe«, are r%>ally 
iioun'4 used as above, e.g.. {uA/<i«<t from uMoMa, now graM. iMi-Mni fmm 

■•'■ tirclMg. 

(:{) iKiiiL-u lokufinltt, day of the )M>ginning first day. 

i»\ktiti tokui>fl(x, time of the ending buit time. 
(4) naiiiimdAtti, Htiong ; iiariiiiiij;a, faliU' ; itrjMfcaNr. swift. 
-n^i^oti. bltxxl^' ; nolaka, violent ; nomtindo, noisf. 

li'2. An adjeetive in any nuio (or its fmt)8tituto) will tako 
an influx, corn'S|M)ndinjf to that of the noun to which it rcfeni. 
Thin inflnx, howevt-r, will differ neronliuf^ a« the adjective i.H 
used, (1) an a Ptedicatey (2) oh aj 



ADJECTIVES. 

53 

143. "WTien an adjective is used as a Predicate, and is, con- 
sequently, separated from its noun by some tense of the sub- 
stantive verb, expressed or implied, (as when we say, the man 
is ichite), it takes before it merely the personal pronoun 
cori'esponding to the noun. 

Ex. izulu lihle, libomini, the sky is fair, it is red. 

iso lako Hmhlope, limnyama, thine eye it is white, it is black. 
kuhle, it is well ; kumnandi, it is pleasant ; kulukuni, it is hard. 
lo'muntu umhlope, this man he is white. 
leli'hashi linejubane, this horse it is swift. 
udaka loluya lu'manzi, that mortar is wet. 

144. But note first that, — 

(1) All monosyallabic adjectives, except ze, take niu (orm), 
'Ilia, mi, as the personal pronouns for nouns in umih (urn, ovii), 
ama, imi ; as also do dala, l-uln, niitgi, fatshane, ncinyane, as 
well as the indefinite and interrogative adjectives,";, tile, Qigaha, 
ngtiko, nje, ngaJci, ngapi, &c. 

Ex. lo'mfazi mude, this woman she is tall. 

le'mizi mikulu, these kraals they are large. 

la'matshe 'mafutshane, these stones they are short. 

a u muncinyane or a u mncinyane, thou art not small. 

ese'mudala or ese'nidala, he being now old. 

ngibona umpakati umningi, I see a company (of head-men), it 

being niimerous. 

145. Note, secondly, that, — 

(2). The adjectives ihda, kuln, ningi,fv.tshxne, ncinyane, &c., 
assume also an initial ia or n aftei- the pronouns, i and zi, cor- 
I'esponding to nouns of Class III, or sometimes of Class IV; 
and dala and hulu assume an n also after 2/ of Class VI. 

Ex. lemvxi, or Wnio lezV zimvu or lezVzlnto lezi'zitsha 



indala 


zindala 


zidala 


inkuhc 


zinkulu. 


zikulii. 


inde 


zinde 


zide 


inhle 


zinhle 


zihle 


intsha 


zintsha 


zitshfi. 


imbi 


zimbi 


zibi 


imfutshane 


zimfutshane 


zij'utshane 



But some will say izitsha zindala, tlie plates they (are) old, izitsha 
ezidala, the old plates, izihlupe zayo zinhle or zihle, its featliors are 
beautiful. 

IMj. Note, tliirdly, that, — 

Qi) After every part of the substantive verb, whether 
•expressed or implied, except when it is employed as a simple 

e2 



52 ADJECTIVES, 

copula, as in the examples of (148J, all the above ailjectiveji 
take their own prefixes as above, in addition to any pronoun 
which may express the substantive verb; whereas other ad- 
jectives take no prefixes. 

Ex. ISO lako lihle, libi, thine eye it is sound, it is evil : 

but nma iso lako li lihle, li lihi, if thine eye it be sound, it be evil ; 

and uma iso lako li mhlope, li mnyama, if thine eye it be white, it be 
black. 

So amehlo ako v>ahle, vmbi, thine eyes are sound, are evil. 

but M))ia amehlo ako e mahle, e mabi, if thine eyes be sound, be evil. 

and umaamehloakoenihlope, emnyama,ii thineeyes l>ewhite,be black. 

So vyakuba mnkulu or mknlu, lie sloall be g^reat ; 

but kwoba mnaiidi, it wi ll bo pleasant. 

[47. Wlien an adjective is used as an £p7fhrf~iinAzc 
^quentl}', accompanies its noun (as when we say, the white man), 
lit is usually placed after it in Zulu, -with the noun's inflex 
[before it, with which is combined tlie relative vowel a. 

Ex. umuntu, omubi, for a-umub\, a man who lie is bad, = a bad man. 
ihashi eUnejubane,j \, liors e which is swift, = a swift horse. 

But, if special stress is laid uponTTuT^Adjective in English, 
the Zulu adjective may be set before its noun. 

Ex, ungifuinbc enkuln ingnbo, ho heaped uie up with a large blanket. 
enobuhle intombi leyo ! a beautiful girl that ! 
uMhlangana way'ehlczi neyakc impi, uDingane ehlexi noZulu, 
Mlilangjina was staying witli his own force, Dingane staying 
witli (u/uiu — ) the Zulus. 

ehdu ihojane lovo'muntu ! a groat liar is that man ! . 

N.B. In the last instance e is used for eli, aa also o is often usedj 

for olu and sonu'timos for okti before another k, as okulu for, oIuJl-i4{ii,i 

okona for okukona. ( 

14H. Hnt note, that, — 

(1) All mono.syllabic roots, cxcejit ze, take the full fornw 
ohnt, amii, enii : and so do also the few adjectives referred to 
in (144), except that these latter take ovi instead of omit. 

All other adjectives take only o, o, i\ instead of omii^ oimo, 
cmi. 

Ex. um/aii nmuhU, u In-aatiful woman, nitxadoda amadf, tall men. 
imiti ftnidala, old trees. mni/aua om/utihant, short )>oy. 

amehlo anzi»M, heavy eyes. imilomo ebansi, wide mouths. 

('!) The above-named adjectives take hIho tlie m or n of «m 
ore/4, csiiii or cziii, when used with nouns in ini or in, itivt or 
iiin, respectively ; whereas allothei-s reject it. 



ADJECTIVES. 



53 



Ex. indhlela emli, a bad way. 

izintaha ezinhulu, great mountains. 
izilo ezikulu, large wild animals. 
izinti ezilukuni, hard sticks. 

The followino- Table will illustrate the above remark.s. 



Noun. 


mhlope. 


kulu. 


bi. 


ze. 


ningi. 


umuntu 


omhlope 


omkulu 


omubi 


oze 


omningi 


iso 


elimhlope 


elikulu, 


elibi 


elize 


eliningi 


into 


erahlope 


enkulu 


embi 


eze 


eningi 


isitsha 


esimhlope 


esikulu 


esibi 


esize 


esiningi 


umuzi 


omhlope 


omkulu 


omubi 


oze 


omningi 


uti 


olumhlope 


oluhulu 


olvhi 


oluze 


oluningi 


uhuso 


obumhlope 


obukulu 


obubi 


obuze 


obuningi 


uhudhla 


okumhlope 


okukulu 


okubi 


okuze 


okuningi 


abantu. 


abamhlope 


abakulu 


ababi 


abaze 


abaningi 


amehlo 


amhlope 


a/niakulu 


cunubi 


aze 


amaningi 


izinto 


ezimhlope 


ezinkulu 


ezimbi 


ezize 


ezinningi 


izitsha 


ezimhlope 


ezikulu 


ezibi 


ezize 


eziningi 


imizi 


emhlope 


emikulu 


emibi 


eze 


eminingi 



The follomng are additional instances of the use of 
adjectives. 

Ex. umuzi omkulu, a large kraal, ihashi elihle, a beautiful horse, 
umsinga omude, a deep pool, izintaba ezinde, lofty mountains. 
inkabi enamandhla, the strong ox ; isitsha esinamanzi the wet 
basket; wnrnfi onepu/iga, the fragrant herb; uti olunemitshwe, 
the shriped stick ; abantu abanelanga, people with the sun 
=famished people. 

ubuso obunamahloni, the modest face ; umfana onamanga, the 
lying boy; abantri abanamalimi, double-tongued (deceitful) 
people ; amadoda anesibindi, bold men ; izindhlela ezinengozi, 
dangerous roads; imizie nomsindo, noisy kraals. 
umuntu onolaka okulu (=olukulu), the man who is with great 
passion = the very passionate man. 

149. An adjective, when used with a noun denoting the 
female sex, niaij take the feminine affix l-azi. 
Ex. inkomazi emhlopekazi, a lai'ge white cow (51). 
iha^hikazi elinzimazana, a small dark mare. 

// Dimmutive adjectives are formed, like diminutive nouns, 

'Vi}' flifdiglnc: the fiiia] vm\\i-1 int') ■■ . w lEE" cl tahge 

f oi coii^uuaui>. (•"•Jj: 11 nccc^Miry. 



51 ADJECTIVES. 

N.B. The diminutive of hi is bana or hanyana. of de, danyana. 

Ex. ngifvna isitsha esihanzana, I am looking for a small broad dish. 

ngabona ihashi elibanyana, I saw a wicked little horse. 

kw'eza intombi endanyanyana, there came a tallish girl. 

lo'muntu viufutshane, that person is rather short. 

lo'm/ana mudanyanyana, that boy is tallish. 

lo'mfazi umhlotshana, that woman is rather whit« (= she is 

poor, has uo oil on her person). 

le'nkomo ibomvicana or ihoinvana, this bullock is a little red one. 

imbana le'ngutshana, indayana (= indalana) futi, nansi is'icuce- 

kile, is'igugile, this little blanket is bad, it is old too ; here ! it 

is now in holes, it is now aged. 
So three brothei-s wUl be called, in the order of their age, omkulu, 

omkuywana (^= omkulwana) , omncinyane (omncane). 

Or the root of the adjective may be repeated. 
Ex. kufikc um/uqulukazi omkulomkulu, there arrived a huge bale. 
N.B. Hence we have uNkulunknlu, the Great-Great-One. the native 
name for the Deity. 

The idea expressed in English by the termination ish may 
also V>c denoted in Zuhi by the use of 7ije after the adjective. 
Ex. le'nto ibomvu nje, imnyama nje,xmhlope nje, this thing is (just 
red), reddish, blackish, whitish. 

Certain particles are used -with particular adjectives to 
denote that the noun has the quality in question in excess. 
Ex. kumnynma tile r>r kumnynma kace, it is very bbick. 

kumhlopr mj'e or kwnhlnpe tna or kvmhlopc qua, it is very white. 
kubomvu xubu, or kubomvn xele, or hibomvH beje, it is very red. 

150. The Go))iparaiive of adjectives is expressed by the use 
of the compound preposition lima, placed jvfter the adjective 
and before the thing compared, as follows. 

Ex. sinokwnzi kuunbo, wo hnvo knowK'dgf more than they. 

indoda inanuindhla kumom/nna.o. man is 8tri>nger thwi a boy. 

leli'lole likulu kunalelo, this calf i« larger than that. 

lo'mfazi mudt kunodade tcabo, this woman is taller than her 

sister. 

ingubo yake indala kuneyami, his coat is older than mine. 

kavunuing' ukuhn bamlandrU abanye kunalabo, he did not allow 

that there should follow him othem (mon> than) K'sidos those. 

Or kn may hv used instead of humi. 

Ex. umkulu kunnye or kuyrnn, thou art greater than he. 

Or the wrh illilnia, ' pass iH-yonil, Kurpn^s, exceed, excel,* 
may Ik; employed, the jHTSon or thing coni|>jinHl l)eing put 
after it in the accusative, nud the quality, with respect to 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 55 

which the comparison is made, being pnt in the locative, or 
goveimed by nga. 

Ex. le'mali idhhila osheleni aba'sihlanu, this money exceeds five 

shillings. 

lo'muntu uyamdhlula lowo ngobuhulu, this person exceeds that 

in size. 

indoda idhlula umfana emandhleni, a man surpasses a boy in 

strength. 

151. The Superlative is expressed by strengthening the 
comparative by an adverbial epithet ( as IcaJcnlu, greatly), or 
by using onhe, all, with the nonn or pronoun concerned, or 
some other equivalent expression, 

Ex. imfene inkulu kakuht, kunenkau, a haboon is much greater than 

a monkey. 

lo'mfana muncinyane kubo bonk'abanye, this boj' is smaller than 

all the others. 

indhlovu inkxdu kuzo zonke izilo, the elephant is the largest of 

all animals. 



Indefinite Adjectives. 

152. Ntje, other, another. 

Ex. ngesinye isikati, at another time, once upon a time. 
ezinye izinkomo, other oxen. 
imizi eminye, other kraals. 
bati omunye kwomunye, they said one to another. 

153. OnJce, all, is only used as an epithet, but takes as pre- 
fixes the personal pronouns. Thus we have sonke for si-onkp, 
we all, all of us, nonJce for ni-nonl-e, all of you ; and for nouns 
and pronouns of the third person, we have — 

Sing, wonke, lonke, yonke, sonke, wonke, Iwonke, or (lonke), bonke, 

kivonke (konke). 
Plur. bonke, onke, zonke, yonke. 
Ex. wadhlula kuye wonke uZulu, he passed through (him, all the 

Zulu =) all the Zulus. 

bonke la'bantu bang'dbafokazana, all these persons are needy 

persons. 
Also, hmlcana, zonlco.na, &c., are used for 'all together.' 
Ex. ii\dawana zonkana, all places together. 

154. Eve)'ij is expressed by y'ilowo, ifilelo, &c. 

Ex. y'ilovoo ulinde okwake ukuba angafi, every one looks after his 
own, that he may not die. 



56 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 

155. Edtca or odwa, alone, only, takes also the personal 
pronouns as prefixes, as follows : — 

ngedwa, I only; xvedwa, thou only; sodwa, we only; nodwa, ye 

only ; and for the third person, — 
Sing, yedwa, lodwa, yodwa, sodwa, viodwa, lodwa, bodwa, kodwa. 
Plur. bodwa, odwa, zodwa, yodwa. 
Ex. ung'uNkulunkidu wedwa, thou art God, thou alone. 

udumo lioako lodwa, thy glory, it alone. 

The following phi-ases may be noticed. 
Ex. kodwa loku, so much as this, the least bit. 

isitunzi sodwa lesi, the least bit of shadow. 

isibobo sendaxi-o sodwa lesi, the least bit of room. 

indawo kodwa bandhla, (I want) a place only, good folk I 

don't want food, &c. 

kukodwa, kunKjai'angwc na'luto, that (is alone^ stands by 

itself, not mixed with anything. 

akwasala nelilodwa ibuto etiveni lonke, there did not remain a 

single soldier in the whole land. 

impi yafuinana izinkomo zimi zodiva, thetmpi (army, commando) 

found the cattle (standing alone =) unprotected. 

ausilo uhlobo Iwakiti, uhlobo Iwakini lulodwa, that is not our 

kind (of cattle, &c.,) your kind (is alone =) stands by itself, 

is quite peculiar. 

bafinyciwa y ilipi izwi ? hafinyela vje bodwa, thoy were made to 

discontinue by what word? they discontinued (it) just of them- 
selves = of their own accord. 

15G. Tile or TIze, certain, as in the phrase, 'certain man.' 
Ex. ecela %nt»etilekuye, ho asking a certain thing of him. 

abantii abiAile, abapuniakxti, certain men, who went out from us. 

157. Ntasike, nansiha, ntohanji, nadhtga, iiasiuga = \ct me 
see, or what do you call him, it, Ac, when a j>er80n is trying 
to remember the name. 

Ex. kw'enxiwa — uutasike — uSieongwana, it was done by — what do you 
call him ? — .Sicongwana. 

kwafika ontasike—oMazimu, there came — let us see, who were 
they? — Mftzimu and his party. 

wajika tptie inlasike — epett itaka, ho came carrying — what is it 
called — cjirrying a sack. 

ttiikomo tazxixtaiikc — tati V\sh\im\, the cattle were — how many 
was it? — they were ten. 

158. Ngitlii so j^Tcat (as tliis) ; nijtiUo, so g^rcat (astliat); 
nji\ Kurli (ii.s this) ; ujnlo, such (as that) ; nymiju, so great as. 

Ex. iha»hi elingnkn, n horse <>f tliin sizt-. 
xhaihi tliiiifako, a horse of thut Hiz<>. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 57 

umntwana onje, a child such as this. 
apiaza anjalo, such waves. 
xfigangaipe, he is as great as thou. 

159. Ni, who or what, maj* be used as au adjective. 
Ex. umuntu muni lona na ? what man is this ? 

inkomo'ni le na ? what ox is this ? 

ihashi lini leli na ? elenduna, elensikazi, what horse is this? a 

stallion, a mare. 

araatshe mani laicaya ? what rocks are those over there ? 

imiti mini eyako ? what trees are thine ? 

as'azi iima lo'kufa ukufa kuni, we don't know (if this sickness is 

what sickness =) what sickness this is. 

isiga sini es'ehle kini na ? innja ikwele pezu kwendhlu, wliat omen 

(is that) which has lighted on you ? a dog has mounted on the 

hut. 

160. In the following instances the prefix i appears to be 
the inflex I taken by 7ii, like other pronouns (111, 129, N.B). 

Ex. ni y'ini na ? what are ye ? 

y'ini lokit akwenzileyo ? what is this which he has done ? 

y'ini na ? kwenze njani na, mtanami ? what is it ? (it has done 

how :=) what has happened, my child ? 

161. The force of i/inim9tj often be expressed in English 
by the words, ' or not.' 

Ex. ngilinda umfo wetu, y'ini na ? do I watch my brother or not? 
utanda ukuba sigoduke, siye kiti, y'ini na ? do you wish that we 
go home, that we go to our kraal or not ? 

162. Tn t,hp> follnyjjyg ingtanopg jhejy^erb is in the objectiv e 
4finv (endinLT i n ela, perf. eZe)7and» when followed, bv ni. will 

have its force expressed in Enghsk by ' what for,' or ' why.' 
Ex. ubabele-ni (or uzele-ni) lapa na ? what art thou come for here ? 
umbulalele-ni na ? he has killed him for what ? 
y'ini na ? nibalekela-ni na ? what is it ? what do you run away 
for? 

ung' enzela-ni njalo na ? what dost thou do to me thus for ? 
ang'azi uma asatshele-ni ? I don't know if he still fburns for 
what ^) cares for anything. 

163. Ni may be used also as a noun. 

Ex. niti-ni na ? what do you say ? ufuna-ni na ? what dost thou 
seek? 
kati-ni, he (does not say what =) says nothing. 
utsho ngani na ? for what (= why) do you say it. 
icazi ngani na ? by what (= how) do you know it ? 
ang'azi ngiyakxiba nani na, I do not know what I shall be with, 
= what is going to happen to me. 



58 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 

ang'azi uvm kwenze-ni, I don't know what did it. 
inkosi injincitshile namhlanje ; ang'azi ukuba ngina' sisila sani, the 
chief has stinted me to-cUiy — I don't know (that I have what 
offence) what offence I have. 

uze nganina ? (= uzele-ni naf or ubahele-ni na ?) ngize ngendaba, 
what hast thou come for ? I have come about a business. 
ufike ngani na ? ngifike ngezinnyawo, by what means didst thou 
arrive ? I arrived (by my feet) walking. 

akuyikuba nani, it will not be with what, = it will be of no con- 
sequence, or it will be of no avail. 

ngiswel'umuntu. wani na ? wokwalusa izinkomo, I want a man. 
For what ? For herding cattle. 

1G4. Njani, what sort of, how. 

Ex. ihashi elinjani na ? elibomvu, what sort of a horse ? a bay. 

kunjani namhlanje ? ai-ke, nkosi ; akunjani manje, how is it to- 
day ? no, sir : it is not of what sort to-day, := it is neither one 
thing nor the other, neither better nor worse. 
unjani lo'muntu na ? uyakanya, what sort of a man is that ? he 
has a bright face (not very black). 

165. Ngahanani, how gi'eat, = ngaka nani, so great with 
what ? 

Ex. utanda uti olungakanani na ? olungaka, how large a rod dost 
thou wish for ? so large as this. 

sokuy'isikati csingakanani uhlezi lapa na? it is now how long a 
time that thou art staying here ? . 

166. Ngaki, how many (= nga pi, about where).7Ti i '~ ^/^^ 
Ex. mangaki amahashi? matatu, the horses (are) how many ? three. 

ingaki le'mali na ? y'ine, how many (pieces) is this money? it 
is four. 
Tho fnllowincr idiom is noticeable. 

laho'bantu ohatshoyo nhahangaki, bay'inncotana nje, those people 
of whom thou speakest (are not how many P =) are not 
worth counting, they are just a few. 

nmazu'i ake kamangaki ; vhle watt fahla/ahla, irayeia nje, his 
wortls (wore) not nmny, ho said a word or two (and) just left it. 

1 6 7 '"^/"Itl'i Iflll'' "hllliit "' ^^ <^ • 
Ex. itii^jiiln, wlio is til ls po rHim ? ofxmt lab^ , w^^p ar<» tV^gap ? 

nbani igntiio. lako nn, wuo arf thou, thy name ? 

elika'bani Irli'hnshi, who.^o is this hors*' ? 

ubani ow'emuka u'aya U, who (was it) depart4'd (and) went away ? 

168. Ubnni i.s luscil for ' what d'yo call him ?' 
Ex. tnnJloiiio tika'bani zafela lapaya, the 'cftttio of — what d'ye i"all 
him ? — died over there. 

ubahite bonkr, uSijota, noM/ulat^ltra, nobani, nt>bani, call thcui 
all, Ngoza. and Mulatolwa, and ho nnd so, and so and so. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 50 

TTkuti is used in the Saine -way for ' such and such a thing J 
Ex. wati hamhani niye ensimini, n'enze ulcuti nokvAi nokuti, he said, 
go ye into the garden, and do so and so, and so and so. 

169. Pi, where. 

Ex. upi umuntu na, or up'umunhi, na, -where is the man ? • 
lipi ihashi na, where is the horse ? 

angibonango. ngile ngisahlangana na.ni-pi, I never met with you 
anywhere. 

gungquza ubone uma bav:abeke-pi umutsho^ v:ami na ? search (and^ 
see where they have put it, my umutsha.. 

bizani uVimbi, nibuzekuyena, uma, vxabangela-pi yena, call Vimbi,. 
ask of him what he thinks. 

ang'azi uma ugculele kupi no, I don't know for what he is stand- 
ing still. 

170. Pi is also used with the possessive particles. 

Ex. usvjele umuntu v:api na ? v:akulipiizwe lUi ? v:as'emSunduse, thoxi 
wantest aman of where — from what country ? of the Umsunduze, 

171. Pi is also used to express 'which is it?' of two or 
more persons or things, in one of the following forms, accord- 
ing to the class of noun referred to : — 

Sing, umupi, y'ilipi, iy'ipi, y'isipi, umupi, y'iUi.pi, y'bupi, y'ikupi. 

Plur. y'ibapi, amapi, y'izipi, imipi. 

Ex. yikupi okuhle kunokubi, which is better than the bad? = which 

is best of the two. 

wati nilipi ? bati s'uSutu, he said, ye are (of) what (land, izwe) ? 

they said, we are Usutu. 

umupi umuntu ob'umutsho? Kahle ! uyauvela, us'etshone lapo,. 

which is the man you were speaking of ? Softly (stop a 

minutej ! he will (come out) appear ; he is now gone down (out 

of sight) there. 

y'ilipi ihashi okuluma ngalo no ? y'ilelo elisunju'ana, which 13 

the horse you are speaking of ? it is that light bay. 

iy'ipi indhlela esizakuhamba ngayo kulezi zombilina ? which path 

are we to go on of these two ? 

y'isipi isalukazi ositshoyo, oti-ke siyateta ? y'ilesiya esi'zinyo linye, 
which is the old woman of whom you speak, of whom you 

say (that) she scolds ? it (is) that one there, who haf one tooth. 

umupi lo'muzi na ? ov:as'Esokeni, which kraal is that ? Esokeni. 

y'ilupi ukezo oti Ivjapukile? y'ilolo Ivjami olu'mbaxana, which 

calabash-dipper do you say is broken ? that of mine which 

is the little ivibaxa (name of a kind of spoon). 

ubupi utshwala bombondo ? y'ilobuya ; obakiti lobu, which is the 

utshwala of the bride's party ? that there ; ours is this. 

y'ikupi oku-ami ? y'iloku ; okwomlobokazi y'ilokuya, which is- 

mine ? this ; the bride's is there. 



<60 INDKFINITE ADJECTrVEB. 

y'ihapi abaniu bas'ehulnceni bako? abaJco lajxi ; hntxgai'enhla la- 
paya kwetu, which aio thy people of the bride's house? they 
are not here ; they are a1x)ve there at our kraal. 
awapi la ttiaxegwana fasiic'azi ; aveln ngalapa ngas'enxanti.ayaku- 
hula ku'Sulhlankunti, who are these oldish men ? we do not 
*know th. m; they come from down there; they are going 
to consult Sidhlankunzi (name of an i*anusi, wizard). 
y'iilpi lezi? Umgabayena, whichare these (iiiniomo) ? Unigaba- 
yena (the oxen being called by the name of the kraal to which 
they belong). 

■imipimitielshalitreyo ! tiansil yonale ! w iJmnif*, which are the 
trees which were planted? there! these same! they are 
already withered. 
As the ohject of the verb, in the same sense, mupi, lipi, »>'. 

■Ac are used. 

Ex. utanda sipi ua, which {isitsha, platej do you like? 

uketa lipi na, which do you choose? (^ tiktUle , chooee tor 
yourself). 



NUMERICAL ADJECTIVES. 61 



CHAPTP]R X. 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 



172. The Zulus count with then' fingers, beginning with 
the I'dt'le finger of one (generally the ?e/if) hand, and stretching- 
out each finger that is counted, leaving the uncounted ones 
closed. Then the fingers of the other hand are counted in 
the same way, beginning with the thumb ; and it matters not 
whether the fingers of the first hand are now kept open or not. 
When the number ishumi, ten, is completed, the two palms are 
clapped together, and the counting proceeds again, as before. 

Thus, if a native \*ished to mention the number 37, he mij^ht clap 
his hands three times, and hold up the little aiid next tivo fingers of the 
left hand, saying a'matatu (that is, ' they are three,' viz., tens, ama- 
shumi,) and then the thumb and fore-finger of the rig/i<-hand (which 
indicates ' seven.') 

Hence 6 is called isitupa, the thumb. 

7 — isikombisa, the pointing-finger (fore-finger), or 
' '" inkota. 

8 — shiya'ngalo'mbili (contr. for shiya izingalo (zibe) 

zimbili, leave out fingers (that they be) two. 

9 — shiya'galo'lunye (contr. for shiya ^igalo (lube) lunye 

leave out a finger (that it be) one. 

Or, instead of the above, many natives will useforSand 9 tobeminxre 
'mbili (tobaminwert^nli) , lower two fingers, fofcemwnwemuni/e, lower one 
finger. 

N.B. Notice that (bili like bi) prefiexs m after i and zi (when it 
stands for izim or izin), and that tat ii and hlanxi (like kulu) prefi.v v. 
under similar circumHtances. 

The same takes place also after na, and the verb ba. 

Also bili, tatu, and hlanu, may follow, or not, the rule in (HO). 



02 NCMERICAl. ADJECTIVES. 

1 73. Table of Cardinal Numbers. 



No. 



Root. 



SO 
>] 

m 

31 
60 
BO 

100 
101 

13; 

ItQ 

lu 

JOO 
Ub 

1/XXi 
l.tiCs 

s,«oo 



Ua 11 PuotciTis. 



nye ... 

bill 

taia ... 

ne 

hlasu ... 

isicupa or inkotA 

iBikombisa 

ehiynnt^Hloinbili 

Bbi^apiloluiiye 

isbumi 

isbumi-nanye or iBbuini linanj-e 

isbami-nambili or inbumi biiambili 

isbami-nantAtu or inbnmi hnantatu 

irhaiDi-neeiiupa or isbumi bncsitupi 

iabumi-nnsliiyatfttlohuij'e 

amashumi'miibili 
amavbumi'mabili nanye or aoanye 

amnaUumi'iiiatatu 
amuBbumi'mataiu nanye or auanye 

amaabaiBi ay'isitup* 

amashiuni asbif aiignlombili 

amaBburrii a»biya«rn1olunye nashiyngalo- 
lunye or auaobiyagaloluuye 
ilciiln ... 

tkula nanye or linanye... 
Ikula (li) nautasbami'inuuito neukoia .. 

Ikula (li) nama-'humi ay'lbilupH naabiya 
<alolarye 

Ikulu (11) namasbuml aabiyaiiKalombUi 
ncaiblann 

amukulii'mabill 

•.mMtvulu'iuablauu namaahnml'mablano 

lantilniiu 

mku'.uiitrwan« ... 

liiktttunirwano namakuiu aabtyantraloni- 
bl 1 namasbumi'mablanu iiaablyaii|{al 
offibltl 

liinkulooiprBiM citmblU 



irto inye 
isinto timbili 
Eintaia 
xioo 

z.nblann 
ziisitupa 
zu»ikombisa 
eiBbiyaiigalombili 
zu>b I yagalolu D ve 
aiialuimi or (il Ubami 
«il^bu•ni•Ilanye 
siiihunu-naiubili 
siiiitiumi-nantatu 
ciiBlmmi-nMitopa 
ziiBiiu(ni> naibijrmgalo- 

lanye 
zi'maahumi'mabiU 
zi'masbunn'mabih 

nanye 
zi'miabomi'maiatu 
ii'maabuau'maiaic 

nanye 
st'maabumi ay'isiUipa 

si'mavbiuni aabiyaa 

ItalombiU 
z.'inasbumi, Ar. 

ziikula or tilMkula 
ail'ikulu nanye 
atrtkutn. *c. 

zil'iknla, <c. 

xirOralu, Ac 

li'makula'roabtU 
u'makuln, Ac., 

;'unjt»WM 

laffwaiM, tc 



r. : •.ulungwaiM wi 

Biiutie or itritilM 
i«li>l«i<ii 



17 k Tilt' wort! niff, wlien useil, whothcr ns prtnliciito or 
(pithut, ni'incrii'itHij, in the huiihc of *«»uu,' nlway»» takt* it» 
prctixuH HM li /neilictUe ^144), hm munije, /iiiyf, iniff, ice. ; wht'rva>, 
when U8C(i dUlribi'tivelij, in the Hcu»e of * other ' or * another,' it 



NUMERICAL ADJECTIVES. 63 

takes its pre6xes as an ej/iUiet, as oniunye, eliiiye, &c. The 
other numerals follo^v the rule of other adjectives. 

Ex. was'efifca uG-ilo elitshaya elinye iBunu, was'efika uMtweni elihlaha 

ngomkonto elinye, now came Gilo striking one Boei-, now came 

Mtweni st<ibbing with an assegai another. 

hwakukona elinye ihuto lika'Dingane, there was there one (= a 

certain) regiment of Dingane. 

175. In the follovring the reference is to present time. 
Ex. munye uNkulunkulu, God is one. 

kunye okwami, okwako kubili, okwake kutatu, mine is one, yours 

is two, his is three. 

inye eyako inkomo, ezami zimbili, one ox is youi's, mine are two. 

linye elami ihashi, awako niabili, one horse is mine, yours are two. 

isitsha sinye silapa, one plate is here. 

uti lunye engifike nalo, it is one stick that I have come with. 

176. In the following instances the reference is to past 
time, all of them being different Avays of expressing the 
same English Trords, ' There arrived one man.' 

Ex. kwafika umuntu emunye, there arrived a man he being one. 
umuntu munye o^'irftkQAfo, (it was) one man who arrived. 
munye U7nuntu otvafikaytTf-Qt is) one man who arrived. 
In the above, the time referred ^E<>~-«iiiy 1-*^ ^'^^V past time, near or 
distant, the verb being in the Aorist, or Indefinite Past Tense ; and 
the substantive verb is either not expressed niT^M. nr^n,i^r(jtpri v.y \\^a 
partic ipial pronoun e.; 

littt the substantive verb might also be expressed in the Aoi'ist, or 
indicated by its pronoun, as follows. 

Ex. kwafika umuntu waba munye, or ica munye. 

wangipa izinkomo ezine (or zaba zine, or za zine or zaba ne, or 
za ne), he gave me four beasts. 

baleta amahashiaishumi, (al'ishumi or ahal'ishumi), they brought 
ten horses. 

waiigipa kxisasa izinti za'mashumi'mabili, he gave me this morn- 
ing twenty rods. 
N.B. When the substantive verb is either expi-essed, or indicated, 
attention is drawn more distinctly to the number in question. 

If, however, it be desired distinctly to express in the above 
instances, a recently-past time, the Perfect Tense would be used. 
Ex. kufike umuntu emunye, ovnuinye umuntu ofikileyo. 
ungipe izinkomo ezine, or za zine. 

ngibone kule'ndaivi iinizi c isilupa, I saw in this place six kraals. 
%ingipe kusasa izinti zangaki nn ? , bezi'mashumi'mabili, or 
za'mashumi'mabili, how many rods didst thou give me this 
morning ? they were twenty. 



G4 NUMERICAL ADJECTIVES. 

177. When reference is made to /'/^;</-e time (future either 
in fact or in the .sequence of thought), the subjunctive mood 
of the substantive verb, ba, -will be used. 

Ex. tuma ximuntu abe munye, send a man (so that) he be one, = send 
one man. 

ngipe inkomo ibt'nye, give me one beast. 
ngiyakukupa isinknm sibe sinye, I will give thee one loaf. 
■ngipe ube mvnye vmkonio, give me one assagai. 
ubone imizi e'iningaki na Y ib'i isitvpa, ngitsho, how many kraals 
did you see ? they were si.x, I (should) say. 
ngipe zibc'mashumi'mabili izinkomo, give me twenty beasts. 
akube lo atate knbe isitupa, akube lo atate kube iaitupa, let this one 
take six, let this one take six. 
akube y'iloivo atate kube isitupa, let each take six. 

178. Expressions like the foUowiug, are often met vrith. 
Ex. ivabona nga'so, linye, he saw with one eye, instead of ngeso laba 

linyc ; 
so nga'hniyawo, lunye, nga'sandhla, sinye, nga'ndhlcbe'nye, with one 
foot, hand, ear, ic. 
nga'ndhlebe'mbili, nga'nnyaxv o'litatu, with two ears, three feet. 

179. The following are ilhistrations of the use of these 
numerals in one f)r other of the above constructions, with 
difFei'cnt pronouns. 

N.B. For the forms assumed by the verb, reference must be made 
to the chapter on the tenses of verbs. 

The numerals bili and t<itu follow tlic law in (14G). 

Ex. wadhlula e munye, wati, he pas.sod by alone, he went off (in 

that direction, shown by pointing). 

i inye inkabi, ingaitwala Ic'mipanda na ? the ox being only 

one, can it carry these earthen-pots ? 

li linye ihashi, knngakicela abantu ababili, the horse, l>eing one, 

it can rarrt/ two persons, or tliere win ride two persons (kicela 

being used with both meanings). 

si sinye isilo, singaziqcda izinkomo eiimbili, one single leopard 

can make an rnd of twD oxen. 

u inunye vmuzi. ung'nkn lapa, it being one kninl only it can 

build (be .settled) lu're. 

u viunye umuzi ka'SIpande, kitngnhlanganiswa imiei ka'Ngotci ihe 

mine, ipelc-kr Inivn'mtizi viunyc ka'Mpande, a kraal of Mpaude 

being oik- only, there uught be collected kriuils of Ngoia (s<> 

as that) they be four, (in order that) they nmke up, forsooth, 

that one kraal of MpamU'. 

lu lunye nje uli, htmjejikc lopaya, (a ro<.l being OHe only ^ OUO 

single rod cannot reach there. 



NTJMKRICAL ADJECTIVES. 65 

bu bunye ubusuhu, angafika umuntu, the night heiug one only, a 
man could arrivs, =^ he could arrive in one night. 
ku kunye nje, kungeme'luto: kungakvhle ku kutatxt, ku A-wne, it 
being single merely, it cannot do anything ; it would be well, 
it (being) three, it (being) four. 

ngambona ebaleka nalo (uti) izolo ; belu lunye Una, I saw him 
running off with it (the rod) yesterday : it was just (Una) 
one only. 

ub'e mu7iye engimbonileyo kusasa, he was one only, whom I saw 
this morning. 

beli linye iliashi engilibonileyo, limuko Uti libeka ngas'Emgeni ku- 
tangi, it was one horse which I saw, making off towards the 
Umgeni, the day before yesterday. 
ufike wamunye izolo, he arrived all alone yesterday. 
ngilihone laba linye (or la linye) ihoshi kusa.sa, or ngibone linye 
ihashi kusasa, I saw one horse this morning. 
kwafika 'omuzi'munye (iva munye, or ivaha 7)ninye), there came 
one kx"aal. 

umiipe yanye (or yaba'nye) inkoino kutavgi, he gave him the 
day before yesterday one beast. 

ungipe umkonto izolo wamunye, he gave him one assagai yesterday. 
wab'emunye umuntu, owavela ku'Mpande, it was one man who 
came from Mpande. 

lali linye ihashi lake, uma esahlala Emsunduze ; kodAva, ang'azi 
manje, uma mangaki na, his horse was one only, when he was 
still living at the Umsunduze ; but I do not know now (if they 
are how many) how many there are. 
waleta ihashi lalinye, he brought one horse only. 
yai inye inkomo afika nayo evela Emvoti, it was one single ox 
that he (arrived with) brought, coming from the Umvoti. 
akwanelanga isilulu sisinye ; kusweleke esinye, it did not suffice, 
the mealie-basket, being single ; there needed another. 
ivaumunye umuti ivokwenza, amatunga, there was only one jilant 
(fit) for making wicker-baskets. 

Iwaba lunye uti engalubonayo, it was only one rod which I saw. 
baba bunye ubuzimba there was only one huntiiag- party. 
kwaku kunye nokwami okwako vku'ntoko, yoiu- tiling was to- 
gether with mine, [where uku'ntoko is a child's word, thus 
uku'ntoko kwami loku, this is my plaything. ] 
vj'eza waba munye (or iva munye) evela ku' Mpande, he came alone 
from Mpande. 

mina bengiswele izinkomo ezintatv : kepa yena waleta' nkomo'nye 
(or inkomo ya'nye, or inkomo yaba/nye), I had wanted three 
beaats : but he brought one beast only. 
ng'ezwa lalinye izivi lake, I heard his one word. 
bamupa ya'nye inkomo, they gave him one boast. 
viafika naso sasinye (or saba siniie) isiluln, he (came with) 
brought one mealie-basket. 



00 NUMERICAL ADJECTIVES. 

wangipa livalunye uti, or uti Itcala lunye, he gave me one rotl. 
leta amahashiabe iiitujxi, bring six hoi*8e8. 

uangipa kusa'ia izinti za' inashumi' inabili, he gave me this morn- 
ing twenty rods. 

ungipe kusasa izinti zangaki na? bczi'inaahumi' mabili (or t<i'iji<i- 
shumi'mabili), how many rods didst thou give me this morning ? 
they were twenty. 

iaiilu Voviisa iiniiiyaka yaza ya'mitatu, (the heaven j)arched) 
there was a drought for years, they came they (were) three 
=- till three years had passed 

kicabulawa uindhlunkulu uambili, there were killed two girls of 
the royal knuil. 

ngamupa uinqeku ica' inashumi' inaM , I gave him forty head of 
young cattle. 

gah'.atigatui nabelungu be' habili nesinkabi sintatu (— aix\niatu),\re 
me' with two white men and three oxen. 

fuzihlaba ezine sasMya'ntatu (— czintatu), we killed four, we 
left three. 

180. ButJi two, 111! three, &.c., are expressed as follows. 
Ex. abanlu. hobubili, bobatatu, bobane, bobahtanu, &c. 
anuitwi oitiabili, omatalu, om<ine, oiuahlanu, &.c. 
iziinvu zomMU, tontatu, zone,, zonhlanu, &.\:. 
itnili yombili, yontalu, yomine, yomihlanu, Si.c. 
So alio Una sobiibiU sobatatu, A;c., ye two, thriH*, Ac. 
nuKt .lobnbili, nobtitalu, iVc, we two, three, \c. 
Keyoud five the natives do not carry the al>ove forms, luit iwint 
with their tingers, and say, abantu bobatile,atnaiiri owa'iU, iximru 
zontiU, iniiti j/onn'/i/f. so many people, words, sheep, tr*nia. In fact, 
th'-y geuer.illy count with their fingers while spetiking, without 
mentioning the number. 

Ex. aiittuhumi asclapa, the ten are just here — so many shown on 
the fingers. 

Oiie 1)1/ line, tiro anil two, thrrf aiut three, Ao., is oxprcssetl 
l>v Hijalmiiije, ntjalnttiHl, lujatmtntu, \v. 

Ex. /.»i/»ufrtir<i ngabanyt, they were killed one by one. 

iinbutikasi j/diiii iznla nganuxbUi amatimyane, my she-gOAt brio^ 

forth its young by ]mirM. 
Two or three (jiersons) is oxpre.sstHl hy hahili baialn. 
Ex. uina kuhUngent babili batalu, if theit* Ih> giithortwl two or three. 

iHl. '\\* v\\>n'HH Orili'nal Xnniher't uiuler 'tenth' the iiiotN 
in (173) pretix Ml, iind so btvoiue lumuH, which are put in a 
Rtat4? «»f p«»s.sc«isive ronstruotinn ufter the noun to which they 
refer. Tliu word nkin/itlti, iH'giiiniu};, is, however, ujkmI Hstbo 
noun corrt*s|M)nding to the nunieml riyc. 



N'tMEEICAL ADJECTIVES. 67 

Ex. abantn bokuqala, the first people. 
into yesibili, the second thing. 
isiqaitm sesitatu, the third piece. 
igama lesishiyangaloiiibili, the eighth name. 

Second, third, fourth, and fifth, may also be expressed by 

means of the nouns uhuhiti. I'butatit, &c., instead of isihili, 

isitati', etc., only that, after Jtftl', I'lmtiln will be used iu this 

form of expi'ession, and the number shown upon the fingers. 

Ex. inkomo yobubile, igama lohutaiu,intoyobune,isinqamu sobuhlanu, 

uti licobutile. 

uyakujika ngolobune usuku, he will arrive on the fourth day (of 

the week) = Thursday. 

bafika ngoht-esibi i, they came on the second day (day of the 

week) =: Tuesday. 
Also we may hear iigolokushiyangalombili (usvkii) on the eighth 
(day) ; and some will say inkomo yentvpa, sixth bullock, uti liventupa, 
sixth rod. 

X.B. The Natives generally, have acquired the habit of calling 
Monday the.^/"s< day of the week, Tuesday the second, &c. ; so that, if 
the expression were used ngosuku lobutalu,, on the third day, a native 
would probably understand by it Wednesday, unless advised before- 
hand upon the subject. This is to be regretted, inasmuch as, so far 
as it goes it destroys altogether the idea of the Sunday, as the 
first day of the week, distinguished from the Jewish Sabbath, or 
seventh day. 

182. For ' tenth,' and upwards, the simple cardinal is used, 
in a state of construction after the uonn to "which it refei-s, 
with the aid of the noun '«////' fo, 'that which comes after,' 
(the word veshnml being generally omitted in 11th, 12th, A'c.) 
10th weshxani, leshuitti, yeshumi, &.c. 
11th tfomuvo {iceshunii), lomuvo, &.C. 
12th v:omuvo wobubili, loniuvo {wobubili) ircsibili, &.C. 
13th xvoinuvo wobutatu, lomuvo icobuiatu, &.c. 
IGth womuvo wesitupa, lomuvo wesitupa, &.c. 
19th womuvo wesishiya^alolunye (iiokushigalolunyc), &.C. 
20th weshumi lobubili, lethumi lobubili, &c. 
2l8t womvvo wauiashumi'mabili, &c. 
100th wekulv, lekulu, yekulu, &.c. 
HKXJth wenkuhiiigwane, lenkulungirane, ifenkulungwane, &o. 
Ex. izinkulungu-'aaeezil'ikulu elinauiashuiai'mane anane, thousands 
which are a hundred and forty and four ~- 1 11^,000. 
izinkulungirane ezil'ikuln elinaiiiashumi'mane none, thousands 
which are a hundred and forty and foiu-, — 14(t,(K)l. 
izinkulungwane ezil'ikulu nainoshu mi'iunnc nunc, thousands 
which are a hundred and forty and four, KXt.oj |. 
f2 



OS ADVERBS. 



ClfAPTKlt XI. 

ADVEKBS. 

18:1 ' Numeral Adverbs for oure, twio', thrice, Ac., are 
formed by pi-eti.vint; In to tlie canb'iial roots in (173). 

Ex. knmje knbili, kiifatu, kaue, &.C., kaishtimi, Sic. 
In speakiiii^ of jmst time, the followinuf forms may be used 
with numerai.s, where Icwa is the pronoun, which isu.sed with 
the substantive verl) (bn understood) in the pastten.se. 

K.x. kira kvnyc, kwn knhili, kwn kutntu, kwa kune, kwa kuhlanu, kva 
isitupri, kirn inknfa, itc, kirn ishuuii. 
kwa ishnmi-uaxhiyagalolunye, it was ninctoon tinu-s. 
kwa ikiihi, kwa inkulinigwanc, it was a hundrod times, a 
thousand times. 

\Hi. Mauv ntlier adjeetives areconvertj'd iijto a^lyerbs bj- 
. pxeli.xiiiir /.', uliilr sDine few preHx l:i(, nnd othei-s l,ii or l'". 
K.\. knkiiTT^ •^vi:i\ \y ; knniii'ji. al>un<lantly ; kuj'upi, near ; il-«<i«', furoff. 

kahlr (,r^kiihle, plca.santly. prettily, w.>ll ; <,<W>i or iii/»i. t-villy, ill. 

knttgiik'i, so j^reatly (as this) ; kaugnkn. .ho ^jrently (a« that). 

knngapi or kangaki, how many timua, how often. 

knngiikiinani, how jfri-ntly, how much. 
N.B. kaiigakn or Jl-<Mif7ait(iiiaiia is ustMl, (not to lisk n question, but to 
O-xpresHH admiration), for 'how jjri'utly.* 

Kx. ignmo lako lidumilf kangnkit (or )l<in;;nJlaiinii<i) enMabeni yaynkt ! 

thy name is how f^loriousin all the world ! 

[H'l. ;\nv noun mav W used adverbiully bv p^•^»fiTjM^r fho 
lireiirisifiiin mid. > 
^^TH^^^njfflWITWf^^pd, prudently ; iigokulungit, rijjht4.\»U8ly. 
)\gt>kir,-iin^iin. foiitfutedly ; ngnmnndhln, mightily. 
n<;ciiMw.H</. >fni<iouMly ; ii.;i>]Iiij.W»m/<i, ji>yf»dly ; nj/MiiHinyn. tndy. 

In like manner, nouns, ndjective.s. and verlw in tho pnrti- 
lipal forrw. may In- used adverbially with the proponition hj/n, 
und I 111- iiidefiuito rtdntive pndixed, as fullows. 
1 V ,/ , ' wi/"i:iiiiiiij/(i l.y that which in truth. - tndy. 
/ f iit»hn, ni'wiy. ii];oJtHii(;a/o, iu Nuoh a manner. 
/ nifoktctiobtkayo na njoJlMmrtHj^rtiiiaj^o, fearfully and wonderfully. 



^ i^OJU^ 



ADVERBS. tW 

186. Adi'erhn <if time. 

namhla or naitmhla, to-day ; namhlanje, this very day. 

izolo, yesterday. 

itangi or katangi, day before yesterday. 

Itangi kwa-itangi day before the day before yesterday. 

itangi kwa-itangi kwa-itangi, fourth day backward. 
After this, if a native wished to reckon still further back, he might 
repeat the last expression, and add agali, ngoli knangali, perhaps also 
oovmting these additional days on his fingers. 

ngomuso or ngomso, to-morrow = ')iga uniso. 

ngoinhV omunye, day after to-morrow, = iigomhla oinunye. 

ngomhl'omunye kusangomhl' omunye, third day forward. 

ngonihV omunye kicangomhV omunye kwangomhl'omunye, on the 

fourth day forward. 
Ex. umsebenzi wanamuhla, work of to-day. 

izwi laizolo, word of yesterday. 

ukudhla kwangomuso, food of to-morrow. 

umvubi u-aitangi, heavy rain of the day before yesterday. 
So we have nonyaka, this year ; nyakenye, last year or next year ; 
nyakomunye, year before last, or year after next ; nyakomunye 
kwanyakomunt/e, third year backwards or forwards. 

187. Wlien reckoning, a native might make u.se of the 
expression, (usulcii) ohcesihili, ohvesitatu, olwesiue, &c., or 
better, olvhuhlU, olobutatu, olobune, &c., for second, thii'd, 
fourth, &c., da}-. 

Ex. ngapuma — olwobunenamhlatije, I started — (it is) the fourth day 
to day, = I started four days ago, or the same might be expressed by 
ngapuma — y'ilolu namhlanje, I started, it is this (shown by the fingers) 
to-day. 

N.B. The plural of usukii day is izinsuku or amasuku, e.g. amasuku 
aniane, four days, ngamasuku onke, for all days, ngezinsuku (ngensuku) 
zonke, for all time. 

In translating, usuku is genei*ally to be preferred for ' day.' But 
umuhla or Hang a uia. J also be used for 'diiy' in the ordinary sense 
of the word, — not, of course, distinctly marking off twenty-four 
hours, but rather the interval of daylight between one night and 
another. 

188. The following adverbial and other expres.sions for 
different part.s of the day are noticeable. 

(i) isifingo, darkness, immediately before the dawn. 
ngovifi, at dawn. 

u)na ku'mpondo za'nkomo, when there are horns (izimpondo) of 
oxen (izinkomo), =^ when the horns of cattle are just visible. 
ngenkaii yemitini, (time of otters =;) when otters suckle their 
young. 



70 ADVERBS. 

kusoti iiio", it is still hreakintf (the peep '<f (\:\y). 

kusati ju'iu, lit ])reiik of daj'. 

sohite juqu, the day has now broken. 

ekuseni kakulu, very early in the niomin>f. 

ukuwehln knezinkuku, cominjjf at the down of chicken. 

vkxtjmma kwelnnga, (coniintf forth cf gun ^) sunrise. 

ekuseni, in the niornin<jf. 

kusnsa (-= ku sa sa, it is still dawning), early in the niomin?, 

this luorninj;. 
(ii) iminini, noon-tide, loo. emmim. 

ikwel'inimini, it is fore-noon. 

is'etnniini nianjc, it is now noon. 

limi {ilangn) lite nqo, it (the sua) stands vertical. 

lis'oknkayini, it is on the top of the head. 

is'emmini yantambama, it is (noon of evening) afternoon, 
(iii) ntanOxima, even-tide. 

li'haiitu'hnhlr, it {Unnjn) is (when) people (look) pretty,— time 

shortly befon- snnset. 

uhttshnna kivefnnga, snnset. 

Jh«i/»?i«'rt, gloaming, this evening: kusihhrana, (there beinjf a 

little evening -) towards evening. 

aclitahnniU', it (the sun) has now set. 

sokuhlwile, it is now after sunset. 

sokustrflflc, it is now dusk, 
(iv) ubusuku, night, loc. ehusnku. 

chusuku or paknti kwohnsuku, in the cours*^ of the night. 

paknti kii'ohiisukn ohukulu, or Jl-ir«'»(A.vi'J«i<irtik<ij», deep night. 
N.B. kiisastt, kusihhi'a, uijomitto, Ac, are used as noun-;, uifh tbi- 

prefi.x i after the substantive particle y'. 
Ex. sokuy'tkiisnitii, it is now morning. 

kvdsokuy'ikusihlwa. it wa^ by this time gloaming. 
And so with possessive articles. 
Ex. ukudhlii kwakusaHn, ktpantambmna , kicemmini, the raoming, 

afternoon, mid<Uiy, meal. 

18l\ Cortnin lulvorbH of pinco take lira before the noun, 
whicli follows tlu'in. Thi.s /."•a is not t\\o pr»po»itton, but tho 
Indt'finiti' Posst'.sxivr Particle; and lx«forv Pro|H»r Nnini*s it is 
ftcconlingly n'plafi'd by hnhn. 

Ex. ngi>itel»h>ru'i kimTufiflii. <»n the other side of the TugoU. 

por,:' • • w ' . iHMJd)' Mpande 

i«3" ihwiiyn, tx-fore Cetiihwnyo. 

ngi' . on tliis i»i'l" ••( '•"• fnn'.ni 

op- li«> who i- 

en: I . . muith of ' 

nin^itpuutt ugaiKtktili kietmlhlu, duu't yv>u ^fo out front within 

the hut. 



ADVERBS. 71 

wahisusa ukudkla ngapo.mbi kivabo, he removed the food from 

before them. 

ngalapaya kwokalo, on that side there of the ridge = beyond the 

ridge. 

wabeka ngalapa nohlangoti lomuzi, he (looked to =) went in the 

direction of (there) that part of the side of the kraal. 

ecaleni kwemi, on one side of yovi. 

ekupeleni nemiti (or kwemiti), at the end of the trees. 

enhla namaBunu, north of the Boers. 

esikoleni esis'obala nakwa' Kangela, at the gap which is in full 

view of the Congella. 
A. cloul)le hva may be lieai'd occasionally iu such cases. 
Ex. emva kwezinsuku eziy'inncozana kwaloko'kivenzo,, aiiev & few days 

after that act. 

190. Certain other adverbs, as ediize and loifitpi, near, and 
hnde, far off, take, in like manner, either kit orva before their 
nouns : others, as malunga, opposite to, take onl}- na. 

Ex. kwakukona kude nabo, there was there far from them. 
safika malunga nomuzi, we arrived opposite the kraal. 

191. The verb ti is often fotind in combination with a par- 
ticle used adverbially, as in some of the instances in (181). 

192. Demonstrative Adcerls for ' here he (she, it) is,' are 
formed as follows for the different classes of nouns. 

Sing, naitgu, nantl, nansi, misi, naiihVf nantu, namjyu, naJcu. 
Plur. nampa, nanka, nazi, ncmsi. 
Ex. nang'umuntu , here is a man ! 

nant'ihashi, here is a horse ! 

nank'umlomu us'unuka, here is the mouth still smelling ! 

193. Bemonstrntlve Adverhs for 'there he (she, it) is,' 'there 
they are,' are formed from the former, by simply adding ya 
(which is strongly accentuated). But the preceding vowel, 
together with the ya, may be contracted to o. 

Ex. nantuya unyazi lunyazima, there is the lightning a-flashing ! 
iiakuya kuza, there it is a-coming ! 

nampo (or nampaya betwele), there they are a-carryiug ! 
nansiya imiti, there are trees ! 

194. The following is a Hst of some noticeable adverbs and 
adverbial expressions. 

N.B. Many of these are merely locative forms of nouns still in use 
or obsolete : some arc formed by prefixing nga ■= ' in the direction of ' 
to such locatives, and others are compounded of the particle pa and a 
noun, as pezulu --^ pa-izulu. 



72 ADVKRB8. 

a/, no, 

ai he or ai. tinn, is often used to lower exeitement. expecta- 
tion, (lis])leasure, A'c., in the person spoken to. 

Ex. uhnbele-nilapo 'f ai-ki\nkoi>' ! ngize ngendatshana,yfYitithiiYt' yoi\ 
come here jibout ? O ! nothing. Sir — I have come about a little 
matter of linsiness. 

uvelo-piY ai ke ! ngivela eniGungundhlovu, where do you come 
from ? O ! nowhere particular — I come from Maritzburg. 
ai ke .' ngiza koiwlapa ku'Mntwana (it's nothings) it's all 
right — I come to this very place to the prince. 
at ke ! yeu:ani njalo, all right ! Jict in that way. 
ai ke ! uCttshwaijo wabuza, well ! so Cetshwayo tisked. 
ai tina, baba ! kukona imvula, nonsense (father) oldfellow ! it's 
raining. 

ai tina! ngakohlisa, all right ! I took you in= it was a joke. 
ai titui ! naml ngiyaktmzi, all right! 1 too know all about it =: 
it was all pretence my enquiring. 
N.B. The speaker would begin with yebo, if he had something 
important to comnmnicaite. 

and^nbn, anirnmn, aiuTi<J;i>ha, and' iibanc, before that, is fol- 
lowed by a subjunctive. 

iiugi'ti (lit. don't I say ?) used in putting a question couti- 
dently. 

Ex. angiti bengikutshelile ukuba ul\bope ihashina ? did I n<>t tell you 

to tie up the horse Y 

angiti ning'ahantu baka'Jojo ? are you not Jojo's i>eople?~of 

course, yt>u know you are. 
nmainin (])ro]»erly a ]>lural noiin). No, not .so, u.sed often as 
a courteous expression of dissent, tluju^li nuiny n native has 
lieen supp<i.sed by tho.se iffnonint of the lantj-naife to have used 
the word in in.solence, as if it nu-ant ' tliats a lie I ' 
Ex. amanga, nko»i, nku ktinmi loko, no. Sir, that's not mine. 

amnngti .' angitihougo njalo, not so ! I did not sny ho. 

aiiMnga, NdabetUa ! not so (not ns you suppOBC, it's nothing of 

iuip<»rtjince, ai ke), your Highness ! 

amanga, tina'n»is\ra iika 'Ngnsn ngemhangnyiya yetM .' no I for 

UH youths of Ngn7.a with our plume tif tnil-feathers ! theri'aro 

no sucti tine fellows iu< w<- are. 

' 1(1(1/(1 kii'Zntskukc niii-lietsfm litke letiyepu !' 'amanga, mMtii;<iH< .' 

unqahitxlr ." '(look at) ZatMhuke's son witli his t*il-picc« of 

[;oat-Nkin I" ' No, my friend ! (- there's no chani^ for iw) ho 
las doni' splen«lidly.' 
N.B. unamaitga you are ft liar! 

ntifi, no ! non.sense I (stmnger than ai). 

Ex. atyt bo! usaulniya, stuff! you will ooine back (aafoly). 



ADVERBS. 73 

beln, an expletive employed, to emphasize an expression. 
Ex. yenza hahle helu, ngiyabuya, work away, I am coming back 

presently. 

nkos\ ngiyabuya belu, I am coming back (presently). Sir. 

aiig'azi belu, kodwa ngiyacabanga, I don't know for (certain), but 

I imagine. 

ecaleni, on one side of (loc. from Icala). 

Ex. wahamba ecaleni kwendhlela, wadhlula nje, he went on one side 
of the path, he meivly passed. 

eduze, near (loc. from kluze). 
Ex. ikona indawo is'eduze nati, there is a place which is near tis. 

er/ee, outside. 
Ex. ukmja egce, to go out (for a necessity of nature), used by females. 

ehlane, in the veldt or uninhabited, country (loc. from ihl"iie). 

ehlatini, in the bush (loc, from ildatl). 

ekohlo, ngas'eholdo, Ji^^'Awreso/.o/^Zo, on the left hand (loc. from 
iJcoldo.') 

elcunene, ngus^ehuiiene, ngah'-esolunene, on the right hand 
(loc. from ulnnene). 

ehatini or elctduotini, such and. such a place (loc. h'oinuhut'i). 

Ex. hamba uye ekutinitini, go to what d'ye call itP 

abas'ekutini, the people of so-and-so =amadhlozi, the ancestral 
spirits. 

elolcu, ever since ( — selokii). 

Ex. eloku kicadabuka amatshe nezintaba, ever since the rocks and 

hills were formed. 

elokxi kiv'esukela uSenzan^akona nana»ihlanje kusemi kona loko, 

ever since Senzangakona (arose), Uved, andto-diiy (— from that 

time to this), it continues the same. 
N.B. So we have beloku, &c. 

emnva, emva, or einveui, after, behind (loc. from umiiv(i). 
emacaleiil, on the sides or borders of (loc. from amacala). 
eudlde, nrjos'iiudhle, piuidlde { — ita-endlde), ngopttndhle, out- 
side, in the veldt (loc. from ladlde). 

Ex. ukuya endhle, to go out (for a necessity of nature) used by males. 

eiilda, iigas''eiiJda, above, up (a stream), north-west or noi-tli. 

N.B. A man is said to go up {enhla) the coimtvy, whenever his left 
hand is opposed to the current of the streams which he crosses, because 
then (his staff being held in his right hand) he bears with his body 
the whole weight of the stream. 

enhhniyr (or nldamjc), aside, to •■*. place on one side. 



74 ADVERBS. 

enzansi, mjasV^uzmis!, below, down (a stream), south-east or 
south. 

fiiiia, lest. 

E.x. ' beka umunwelapa emlilweni.' ' Atshi ! funa ngitshe '.' ' put your 

finger here in the fire.' ' Not a hit of it ! lest I bui-n.' 

' woz'utate umudhlclo'muti.' ' Ai ! funangife '.' ' come and take 

and eat it, this medicine.' ' No ! lest I die.' 

' ngoia cmanzini lapo, mame.' ' ai mtananami ! funn ngimvke.' 

' get into the water here, mother.' ' No, my child. I may 

(depart) be carried away.' 

' Unga ukukwela leli'hashi.' ' ai'. funa lingi icise,' try to mount 

this horse.' ' No ! it may throw me.' 

fiiti, again, often ; fiitifiifi, very often, fretiuentlv. 
N.B. futi is also used in the sense of perpetuity, as follows, the noun 
hjing formed speciallj' for this idiom. 

Ex. wafa (ica/ela) umfela wafuli, he died for good and all. 

wahamba (wahambela) umhambelawafuti.he walked right away. 
w'emuka (w'ewukela) umwukela -ivo/uti, he went ofiF altogether. 
u'alala (walalela) uinlalela icafuti, he lay in a last long sleep. 
impeht, completely, entirely. 
iiiijahe, pcrliajis. 

iiK/miti, whereas, inasmuch as ; iiigaiituijcxlo, whci*eas, 
actually. 

Ex wemc ngobmila ; inganti umyalile, n-aii angadhlnli kuleyo'ndhln, 
wadhlula, he acted foolishly ; whoreivs he ordered him. and 
said he was not to pass beyond that lumse, he passed (beyond it). 
wnii inganti uijafa, ivamsebemisa e>»ii*M/e>ii ; mnnje-ke vs'egula 
kakuhi, whereas he is sick, he worked him in the n\in ; now he 
is very ill. 

ingantinjalo uyabona ukuba litauhamha leli'hashi, \caliyeka 
I'emukn, whereas you spo plainly that this hors».> will (go) run 
away, you let it go and it went off. 

//jj(f ()i.rii), 1'n.inlsliaua {ii.iiitKlionii), when. 

Ex. nxa ntshaya iusimbi,xooi(shaija kakulu, kona soisira, if you Strike 
the bell, (you shall ) must strike it much, then we shall hear. 
Tiara nga utanda ukutshaffn insimbi, teovuka ncnkuku, if maybe 
you wish to strike the bell, you must rise with the eivks. 
inxatfhan.i ujika uttffle insimhi, wongibixa, when you arrive 
carrying the iron, you shall call me. 

hua zoniliili, on lM)th sides. 

kahili or kahili katntn, two or tlii^ec tinu's. 

Ex. ebania lake litifingiia kabili katatu lHabatt, bin greyhound 
bounils twice or thrice (and) catches (it). 

Laili', lonj^ "K'*' 

Ex. kade w'emuka, he went away long ago. 



ADVERBS. 75 

Icahdu, greatly. 

Jc'ahle or Jn'Mc, Avell, excellently, pleasantly. 

Jcalokn, now. 

kaiiibe, however, well, of course, you kno"\A'. 

Ex. ngiti kambc, fl-ell, I suppose. 

uti kamhe, he says then. 

e .' kambe utsho ngani na ? well, but why do you say it ? 

kona kambe, exactly so, that's what I said, did, ic. 

Jcanniva, behind. 

Icancane or kancint/ane, a little, by little and little. 

Icanene or J:unenc, truly, indeed. 

Ex. toatsho ku7iene, he spoke truly, he hit it home. 

ngakipa umkonto, ngabula kunene, I out with an assegai and 

struck it home. 

Jcanijaha, so great as (this) ; l-angaJco, so great as (that) ;. 
kangalrmani, how great. 

lcanrjal:l or Irrnyapi, how often. 

Icari incji, abundantly . 

Icanjalo, of such a kind, Icanjnni, in such a way. 

licmye, together, at once, once for all. 

Ex. ukulala kanye, to take a wink of sleep. 

ngapuza kanye, I dx-ank once, or I drauk all off at once. 

kwaza kwaba kanye, at last. 

uti kona kanye, you say it all in a word, you say the truth. 

Jcanti, and yet, whereas. 

JcasiJiili, in reality. 

hati, although, in spite of. 

Ex. utiuyise yoza, yendele kuyena,ka,tiingamtandi, her father says 

she (intombi) shall get married to liim, though she does not like 

him. 

Icatisivibe or Jintisiuihe nga, perhaps. 
hejya, yet, however. 

ho or J>:o)U(, there, thence, then ; Jioiirdapa, here ; Jconamanje,. 
now at once ; l-onavamJthrnje, this very day. 

Ex. kona-pi ? suka pela, ungitshenise, where exactly ? get up and 
show me. 

Jcodiva, but. 

Jcoruj e. indeed, so then. 

Ex. konje v.file uJojo na ? so Jojo is dead. 

Tcudala, of old time. 

Icucle, far oif . 



76 ARVKRBS. 

kiiclebiiihize, ^ircsontly, immediately. 

Ex. lo'iHuatu ukudebuduze a/c, that man will j)resently die. 

lo'mhila ukiidehudiize uhole, these uiealifs will rot. 

la'mami uhadebuduze atshe, that water will very soon dry up. 

kiifvpt near; Jiiifiitshaiie, ratlior near. 

lulo . . . huhi, whetlier . . . or. 

Ex. yitsho-ke kuloko kuko ngiqatnb'amauga kuko ngiqinigile,y'in'i na, 

eay to that whether I have spoken falsely or have spoken the 

ti-uth. 
/.nmbe, perliiips. 

Iiinujahn. (lit. it may be), perhaps. 
Liniijahl (= nlinignbi) let it not l)e, lest. 
kiinga, Lnagalohu or Luiigeldhn. I.inignti or hiingntiti, sengati, 
iscniiattti, soiigatiti, srhitngntiti, .>Jo/.v'//</a//7/, seeminirly, ])rohalMy. 
Ex. kungaloku inujafikn asinikc izinto zeiu, he may pi-obably arrive 

and fove lis our thicffs. 

kungaloku zingabuya sizibonc fuii, perliaps they may return and 

we may see tliem aj^^ain. 

iikosi, lujizauhinnbit ; kiinguloku ungangipa izingubo tibe mbili, 

I am <jointf, Sir; perhaps you would }?ive me two blankets. 

kungeloku in/cmuka uma b'ezwa etsho ujalo, it would seeui that 

he is for }j;oin<^ away if they hear him saj-inj; so. 

kungatili (or bengatiti) beng'abantu ahaVikulu, bein^ about a 

hundred men. 

utsho ngokuiigali uynbinqo, he speaks as if he were jokinjf. 
Jiioigciso, e.xeept. 
Icinijahiiijiilo, all alonff. 

Iciipela, or nhn^ieln, exeejtt, only, tliat s all. 
li-uzehi'bi'jiiil.itilc, forever and ever. 
hirn:al,i>'iihiijiiil,-,nh; \on<; aifo. 

l.iroziiLnbviiiiii, (lit. it will hv when) time without end. 
7«', when, whciv (eontnieted f'loiii bipn). 
Ex. Id' e»i'taku/(i, when he is abtiut to die. 

umuiitu la' eti etidhla ngaiuondhla isinnyoti, tin^Jcelt, when a 

man happeiis to eat honey exeessively, it stuflTs him. 

obala la' kungfko'iunnya kuitgcko'intolo, in the o|K'n where tlicro 

is no uinuuya nor timlolit tree. 
htji'i, here, now, when, when', while ; htpnijn, yonder, nt 
tlmt time; iifo, there, then, wlu're, when. 

Ex. lapa netnndo, (here on tl»e wheel ) on this juvrt of the wheel. 

amaihuxti a»fUn>n, the tens are now hur« ( - bo DUiliy. *• thown 

<>n tlie fin>;ers). 

it'niMi I'ulo lulapa, he was a thinjf of here (pointinj; upwards) 

- he wax lip sky-hi^h, in a towering rn^fe. 



ADVERBS. 77 

y*ilapit, along of this; i/iJajio, along of that : hencv^ l-i'i/'ihipa, 
helcmfilitpo, &c. 

lcoi(l:e hipo, all that time, or all that place. 
le, far oft", far aA\ay. 

Ex. ongimozeli lapa koduja, nguuazela emaziveni le, I don't know him 
here only, I know him in (our old) lands far away. 

Jo, loin, lol'upela, since, forasmuch as, seeing that. 

Ex. lo b'aka indhlu ngamatshe, since they built the house with stones. 

loku utsho njalo, since thou say est so, or sayest continually = 

are positive. 

loku naku ukono, hamha vyosebenzo, funa vyihlo az'asole, since 

thou art here, go and work, lest thy father get to scold. 

yaseitiinkosi, 'Kabulau-e; loku nang'unjalo eqed' aba ntu bami,' 

then said the chief, ' Let him bu killed ; since here he is, put- 

ing an end to my people.' 

lol-u ^ ifilol.ii. ^= y'iJiil-ithle —- i/ilohle, all along. 

Ex. belokv bcxokozela nje, soza s'esuka sahamba, as they were only 

making a row all along, we (came, we got uj) =r) at last got iip 

and went away. 

ulohle wangisola, you ai'e continually scolding me, lit. all along 

you scolded me. 

mala, a little fui^ther on. 
Ex. hambela mala pambili, go a little further on. 

hialunga, on one side of^ abreast of, in a line with, even witli. 
manje, now. 

masinya or masiinjane, forthwith, immediately. 
rahala or hala, really, truly, in plain truth, (indicating 
generally surprise, doubt, or displeasure)= nemhula. 
Ex. mbala kunjalo ? is it really so ? 

mbala, kusekusa*a wakubona na? was it actually this morning 

that you saw it ? 

mldaov mhlann or tnldazann, on the day wlien, at the time 
when. 

Ex. -inhla kwomvumhi, on the day of the rain-fall. 

mhla ku' makaza, (kwamakaza), mhhh kiveutvvlci, &c. 

mhla Una, lifudumele, libalele. Sec, the day when it rained, was 

warm, was hot, &c. 

mhla sikupuka siya Fmtshezi, when we were going up to the 

Bushman's River (Umtshezi). 

ngamhla sajnimayo, on tlie (Lay we stai"ted. 

sengahle isisu sihlube kona mhlazaaa loku, usuku lulunyc obe 

seuyafa na ? actually that liis stomach should (stab) pain him 

on the very day of this, (and) in one single day he should die ! 



mlilanmhe or mhlaiuthe, perliaps (from rimlda anil the 
obsolete adjective rnhe, another). 

Ex. mhlaumbe uyise nonina, inhlavmhc odade waho, perhaps his 

father au'l mother, (perhaps =) or else his sisters. 
iiihlulunijt', the other da}'. 

ual-iini/e, entirely, exactly, in one word, once for all. 
E.x. lUikaaijc-he uijatagata, nakunyc-he uy'tba, once tor all, you area 

villain, once for all, you are a thief. 

nakanye kuage' nzekc lokii, ahsolutely that cannot be done. 

nakanye .' utshUo ! e.vactly ! you liave sjiid it. 

naho-lr^ used to utart any action, (as when boy.s are running' 
a race t, Now then I here goes I off with you I (or to express 
assent), There it is I that's just it ! (or to resume a point in 
the discourse). And so you see, as I was saying. 

Ex. noko-ke sit/abuya-ke, well then, as I wjvs sajnng, we are for goinj? 
back. 

nakona = nahi'la, although. 

ntharoiiye, together in one j)lace : imlnirozonhe, everywhere. 
iiernbalu, really, truly, &r., expressing surpri.sc, = (/<6<j/(7. 
Ex. nembala, bani ! hutsho ivena ? indeed, you sir ! do you say that ? 
itijd, perhaps, may-be (= ki'mjut! ov liujati). 

Ex. noma nga (U)ipbili, noma nga amatatu, whether they are twt> 
perhaps, or niay-Vjc three. 

iiijaku, about that, on that account, thercfoiv. 

lujuhouii (pronounced iii/"Lhonii), about there, in that 
direction. 

Ex. utshn ngakona, he sjx'aks to the point. 

uyaudhlula ugakotui, Hij'estvn ckuluuta ngemru yoke ehlahi kotut, 
he wilj pass thitherward, I heard hiiu speak aV>out liis slieep 
which is staying there. 

idjalajiii or njal um iKjdlupa hcre-away, this way ; nijcUapo, 
there-awiiy ; mfttle, that way. 

Ex. ngiija ugnhtjia ngas'Eiuroti, I am going here-away towaitls the 

Umvoti. 

ugiiiidhlula ngakoiui ngnlojHj ngcnntjnngn cta'ufirasn, he will posi) 

this way about the next new mo<.)U. 

agnlapa nittuidti njakomi, in wliatever direction you please. 
iKiomabdiiiii, purposely, wilfully. 
uijainamja (= iiij'mnainja), it is false. 
iigHHCiui, on this side. 

iifiatihlaiii/e, vjitnye, titjatu-atnji; n'jaiuaiiiHni/i',on one side, 
on the olhcr side. 



ADVERBS. 79 

Ex. size sipclc nje, sifa sikude, si/a aganhlanye, we got just finished 
off, dying at a distance, dying on one side (on our side of the 
battle, tlie enemy not suffering). 

tveiia loba nganxanye, lo alohe nganxanye, "WTite you on one side 
(of the leaf), and let him write on the other. 
kapcndul'abuke ngaiucanye, let him turn and look on the other 
side. 

hamba nxanye nami, go on one side from me, = go away. 
hamba nganxanye nnmi, go with me on one side, = go in the 
same dii-eetion with me. 

ngesc, ngas'ese, secretly, out of siglit of. 

nijesitii, nr/fus^Hsita, privately. 

nrjetnihla. daily. 

nrjoha, nyokabir. ul'iiha, tilntbani, ol'ohrt, olcobo/nl, olaiba, ol'o- 
Jaiba, oJacokuha, because. 

ngezi', to uo pui'pose. 

niai, Avhen. 

vjalo, so, continually ; njalonjalo, continually. 

rdf. merely, simply, just. 

njengalolcn, like as (referring to time present) ; njengoloho, 
like as (referring to time past or future;. 

njenijohnha, like as. 

i}jcnje,in this way (generally in a bad sen.se). 

Ex. kunjenje ximlilo ; ubenguhce vmoya, it is in tlais state (through) 
the fire ; it wcs driven along by the wind. 

iioba, itol-o, iiohiiha, n<il:iiljanl, noma, altliougli. whether. 
Ex. kuhle v.kuha uhamhe namadoda, noko e'inotatu, aoko c'mane, it is 
well that you should go with men, whether three or four. 

avl'tdi noli'fi, et cetera. 
iKpva, face to face, full butt. 
Ex. sahlangana nqiva endhleleni, we niet full butt in the path. 

ohala, openly (loc. from ubala, open country). 
puliide, long ago. 
palcatt, ng(qiakati\ within. 

jiamb!, ngnpambi, near by, whether in front or beside. 
pomhili, iigajHimbiJi, l)eforc, in front of. 
pii.Ksi, ugajjciiisi, beneath 

Ex. kuyansi kivaloko, it is underneath that, = it is less common 
(spoken of a word of the hinguage). 

pela, used to strengthen an expression. 
Ex. yenza pela, do it at once. 

u-aleta ihashl linye pela, he brought one horse only. 



80 ADVERBS 

pctsJicya, iigapetsheijn, on the other side, 
pp-w, tifjapczn, above ; iieza htroba, over and above that, 
besides that, in spite of. 
■pc:iih(, hisrh above. 
ija, qaho, no. 

tjcde, from ijeda, finish, is used as foHows. 
Ex. uma uitumtti efile, umbelwa qede, when a man is dead, he is buried 

at once. 

hambani niyotoza inkuni, nizaubuya qede nginipe innyama, go 

and chop firewood, as soon as you slmll return I will give you 

meat. 

tjelehi unyoko, kona. eyaupekn qede, asipe, winnow for your 

mother, then, as soon as she shall have done cooking, she will 

give us (food). 

akufauele ukuba uUme qede, ungahhrayeli imbeii, it is not prop>er 

that, as soon as you have finished ploughing, you should not 

sow seed. 

nkvfanele «fcu6a ujike qede, ulale ungapeki, it is not proper that, 

as soon as you have arrived, you should lie down and not c<X)k. 

akii/iii\elc ukubii udhh' qede \ingnyiknsebenzrt, it is not projwr that. 

as soon as you have done eating, you should not go to work. 

knyisiki qede ayidhle innyanm ; uyisika qede ayinike nmntirann , 

she does not finish cutting the meat and then eat it ; as soon 

as she has cut it, she gives it to the child. 
(jrihiba, a.s soon as. 
E.x. qedub'iijike vahlulo icndhln wahamba-ke, as soon as he arrived. 

he sat and ate and went away. 

qednbii b'cmuke, snsnia saugena sojuuf, as soon !VS they had gone, 

we just went in an<l dnink ( we had nothing else to do). 

qed'uba nknle irapuina u-abnshiy>i , ;vs six>n iis slie (»4i)i/<isi) cried. 

she went out and left them. 

sala or ftnle, from sain, to reniain, is used as follows : 

Ex. qed'ubn b'emuke, sasola sungeiiii .<»i;*ii:(i. as 8<x>n as they hail gfone 
away, wc just wt-nt in antl dnmk ( we had nothing else to do). 
stiVus'tuiiDtukisii k(thli' uiiiuiilu iriiki>, send now thy servant away 
plejisantly ( there is nothing more now to l>e done). 

xelile, nciigalile, semjiiMc, HtiKjnzf, sumjnhU', used in expressinif 
nstonisluni-nt, aetually, really, it ean be then, «ie. 

Kx. si'hlr iiiboniikalisc ukuti n'lilxintn abninnynuin uqobo, abangenu' 
airau ngoniunye umuiitii, so that you must show that you are true 
black ]*eoph-, wlio liave no comjiaMsion for another man ! 
»ei\gn»r (arngnhle) isiau sthlabe komi rnhhtnimi toku, to think 
that his stomadi should stal> on the vory day of this ! 

ifclo, Helokn, viol, a (oi- with pitinouns tc/o/.M, r«7o/,-i/, &c.),vvvx' 
since, all this while, all along. 



ADTEBBS. 81 

Ex. selo kwati-ni (since wliat said it =) since I don't know when, 
from time immemorial. 

seloku immini yonke le, ever since this whole day. = all day long. 
seloku y'etv:asa le'nnyanga ngiyagulo., ever since this moon was 
new, I am sick. 

kuseloku kv:aha okv:emiMa, ka'Tshaka, it is ever since (there was 
what was of the days =) the time of Chaku. 

uba, ube, vkuha, ul-nbani, uhubeni, uhenl. tiiat, so that. 

Ex. ukona umuntu v:okula 'aluse izimvu, here i.? a man (for that he 

may tend ^) that will do for tending sheep ; 

but kukona umuntu vjokwaliisa izimvu, there is the man (the 

proper man) for tending sheep. 

angina' sikati sokvMa ngize kuweno, I have no time for (that I 

should come) coming to thee. 

ukuha is aLso used in the sense of lUjoba, because. 

utsho ukuha ezakufa, he says so because he is about to die. 
bakala ukuha kufe ou-akubo, they lamented because one of theii" 
people was dead. 

uha, vbe, v.hiba, are also used in the sense of nraa, when. 
Ex. uba asibute uTshaka, when Tshaka mustered ■(TT. ' 

ube sibuye empini, when we returned from the fight. 

uba abube una ka'Tshaka, when Tshaka'.^ mother died. 

nyiyauzidhla ,izinkumbi-ke ukuha kupele izinkomo, I shall eat 

locusts, because the cattle are finished off. 

uhiba is also used in the sense of y'lngohnha, but that. 

Ex. ngaihamukile imiti, ukuha utshani bebu bnfiitshane, the trees 
would have been scorched but that the gras<^ was short (^ the 
reason why they were not scorched was that, &c). 

ickuti, to-wit. 

iikiLyu, I'kuye, vl:uzc, that. 

Ex. izintaha abafisa ukuye hafike kuzona, the'hills which they desired 
to reach. 

v.raa, if, Avhen, that. 

Ex. ngitanda urna ngibuze ngokuza kwaho lapa, I wish if (that) I may 

ask about thy coming here. 

unw. kungenjalo, if not, otherwise (lit. if it be not so). 

umal-uzi or ubakazi, I wonder. 

Ex. ubakazi iy auzala'nkomo'ni na, I wonder what sort of a bullock 
it will produce (male or female). 

yebo, yes ; yebo Una, yes, indeed. 
y'ilo, yHlohle, y'Uolrj, y'iloJaf, y'ilokuhlc, all alon<^'. 
. yHngokuba, it is becau.se that, but that, but for that. 



S2 ADVERBS. 

195. The particles ho, lie, arc iised at the end of a word, 
with tlie meanings indicated in tlie followinij example.s. 

bo is a rather rough or strong interjection of entreaty or authority. 

Ex. tula bo, do he quiet ! miiui bo, I say (lit. to me) ! suka bo, get 
up I say ! 

Ac is a more courteous interjection of tlie same kind. 

Ex. tula-ke, please to be quiet ; kepa-ke, still, however. 

In narrating the natives will often throw in a ke or kwaba njalo-ke, 
' so it was,' or e .' or aike ! to help out their story or get time to 
recollect themselves. Or they may say sesinazinga-ke, = sesintasika-ke, 
' then we did — what d'ye call it ?' - ' let me see — where was I r' 

N.B. The salute of one person on meeting another is sakubona, lit. 
' we saw ( — knew) thee ! ' or, on meeting more than one, aanibona, ' we 
saw you!' But this expression may be used to a perfect stranger, 
who has never been seen before by the speaker. 

On parting from him (or them) staying behind, he might say sala 
(salayii) kahle, or mla njalo,ov hlala kahle or njalo : while to him (or 
them), going away, might be said hamba (hambani) kahle, or hambani 
njalo. 

A salute on parting, to the people of a kraal, might be, yakani 
kahle-ke, muzi uakuetu, dwell happily, kraal of ours! 

minn, mina-ni, is used to bummon a person, -^ to me ! I say ! this 
way ! here, take this ! look here ! 

r.'O. Tlie followiufi: arc sonic of the principal interjectious : 

111 nfia, exjiressive of admiration (07) 

ulshi, disgust or disapprobation. 

nu wonder. 

cupe, threatening. 

chC: asuent. 

ha astonishment. 

hnu displeasure. 

kahlf, gently, not bo fast. 

mnnic, kioxio, . wonder. 

iiKiye, grief. 

tiniaa disMitisfaction. 

nxcpe nxepcpa, / soothing. 

nxese pejui, ) " . 

iidu u'lt wonder. 

X, ..... . contenjpt or angor. 

wo, contempt, auger, admiration. 

yeti, yelini, salutation, r.;;., to tliuso who come to loioUi. 

N.B. yeti, or yetini, may aUo bo Haid by a man after gQcvzing. iu 
which caao it is a corruption of ngiUte-ni, ' wimt niuat I brinfT,' that 
in, an an offering to tJie mtuiton'jo (aneeiitra) spiritu). 

yeinhih . . . triumph, there's into you, it aerTM jroa right. 

yet»hr . . II hunting-word. 



ADVERBS. 83 

Ex. nxepepa Jculelo'zwi (ngalelo'zivi) engilitshiloyo, excuse that word 
which I have spoken. 

An interjection may be personified. 
Ex. uyetshila, Mr. Bravo ! 

The following are words of praise, addressed to a great chief, some 
<}i which are of uncertain derivation and meaning. 

Ex. hayete, wena ivapakati, ndabezita, gumede, mana, ndhlondhlo, 

ndhlangamandhla, tvena waiula belibele, &c. 

hayete, a royal salutation. 

wena wapakati, = thou of the inner circle (of councillors) . 

ndabezita evidently contains the word izUa, enemies, and 

px'obably dabula, break. 

gumede, implying majesty. 

mana, stand, continue. 

i'ndhlondhlo, a crested poisonous snake, said to be master of all 

others. 

udhla ngamandhla, thou eatest up (thy enemies) mightily. 

wena wakula belibele, thou didst grow, while they (all others) 

loitered. 

The following is part of a song of praise in honour of Dingaue. 
Tole lak'oka'Donda, elakab'umuntu ! 
eb'eti uyageza esizibeni, watshona, 
waza watshona na ngesigcogco. 
induku emnyama ka'Punga noMageba ! 
eyatshay'amanzi, kwavel udaka, 
emva kwodaka kwavel'izinkomo : 
intaka'nsini zihlangeno pezulu, 
angiqedi nezokwapuka upiko. 

nyoni ka'maube umashulubezi ! 
mbuzi ka'Dambuza ! 
bajibambe nga'ndhleVje, yabekezela. 

mSutu owadhla'nnyosi, z'emukela, 
abanye bezidhla zizalela. 
Calf (belonging) to (lak' for lake) her who (was cliild) of Donda 
[Dondawas father of Dingane's mother], which kicked a man [allud- 
ing to his victories] ! he (the man), thinking he is bathing in a pool 
[thinking of enjoying himself at his ease], he sunk, ay ! to the very 
head-ring [metaphorical for the effect of Dingane's blows.] 

Black staff of Punga and Mageba [names of Dingane's father and 
grandfather] ! which smote the waters : there came (first) mud 
[confusion], after the mud there came cattle [booty] : the king-finches 
[perhaps Dingane and Mpande] have engaged (in fight) up on 
high ; I don't conclude (say for certain) eitlier whicli will be wing- 
broken (beaten). Maube of the rushing wing ! [lit. Bird of Maube, 
the rushing one ! uMaube, the name of a Kafir bird ; umashulubezi, 
name apphed to any person or animal rushing with force :] Goat of 
Dambuza ! [the goat spnbolises a gentle animal, and he is called the 



84 ADVERBS. 

jjoat of Dambiizii, as having listened to the advice of Dambuza, one 
of Tshaka's councillors :j they took him by the ear as a man might 
take a goat, and as a native might take his friend ;] it was gentle and 
mild. 

Sutu [Dingane was not one of the Basuto race, but is praised as 
being a Sutu in respect of strength of arm, &c.j who ate up [pillaged] 
the bees [spoiled the tribes], tliey went off [disappeared;] others eat- 
ing them up, they generate [are not altogether destroyed]. 

Anothi'r specimen of izibongn (names of praise) is supplied by the 
following, applied to a young man (uJojo) by a companion, a refugee 
blind man, who appears to possess the proper faculty for inventing 
such langiuige. 

Ex. uNgnlo'zimhombo zinga y'ihxibcsi, si namamfem/e emikonto, ihlo- 
kohloko eU'mehlo azimpunyu, xijojo lozofa ktisasa abanye befa 
ntambana, innyoni edhlala ngokudhla kivamadoda, ngoba yona 
aikudhli it/akurakacakaza , thick arms like a lion, full of assegai 
wounds [implying bravery], sparrow with projecting eyes, finch 
[playing on his name] that will die early in the day, while 
others die in the afternoon, [meaning that he will engage with 
the enemy manfully at day-V)reak, and not be sparing of his 
life, and so die lute in the day as others], birtl that plays with 
the food of man, because it does not eat, it pecks and 
scattei-s it. 



FORMS OF VERBS. 85 



CHAPTER XIL 



FORMS OF VERBS. 



197. Verbs are of various forms, all derived from the simple 
root, some of them existing both in the simple and derived 
forms, others only in some of the latter.") 

198. The sim ple form is usual l y._a._^vo £d..i3£-^i;^YQ_^§Jllaj2les 
endiogLJ ii ^j and ma j^be ilBj^r^teijsiti vg_ pi\_in.t^ e . 

Ex. bona, see; tanda, love; TJa^nba, hold ; hamba, go ; buya, retui-n. 

199. But some few verbs are monosyllabic, and others 
polysyllabic, in their simple forms. 

Bx.ba, be ; dhla, eat ; fa, die ; pa, give ; wa, fall ; ya, go. 
andula, be fii-st ; babaza, extol ; sebenza, work. 

200. There are only very few verbs, which do not end 
/in a, in their simple forms. 

' Ex. azi, know ; ti, say ; tsho, speak. 

201. There are certain verbs which prefix an e to the root 
in all their forms, whether simple or derived, whenever in 
the process of conjugation it would otherwise be preceded by 
an a, which latter vowel is then elided. 

Ex. ng'emha, I dug. for nga emba ; b'eza, they came, for ba eza. 

b'ezwile, they have heard, for ba ezxvile ; 

w'emuka, he weot away, for wa emuka ; 
but ngimbile, I have dug;; sizmle, we have heard; umukile, he has 

departed. 
N.B. Sometimes the verb is used in this form when a would not 
precede. 
Ex. ezindhlini lapa kwegcivele (kugcwele), in the huts here it was fxill. 

I 202. The p ri mitiye root is often reduplicated, b ^ which its 
i [original meaniiig iseil'Ber mlei'isijiea or reduced in force,~lhe 
I kiction being done qaichl^/ or a little.; 

I J Ex. zama, strive; zamazama, shake, quiver (as with effort of striving.) j 
' / hamba, walk ; hambahamba, walk about, or by fits and starts. 

cita, scatter ; citacita, destroy utterly, or waste a little. 



8G FORMS OF VERBS. 

guqula, tiiru ; guquguqula, tui'n directly, or a little. 
rapvna, do a little of something quickly, e.g., cut giuss; rapu- 
rapuna, est ou, or cut fast. 

kuluma, speak ; kulukuluma, chatter away or speak a few words. 
qopa, notch ; qopaqojm, notch numerously, mill, as the edge of 
a coin, or notch slightly. 
N.B. The reduplicated form of dhla, eat, is dhlaidhla. 

203. 'Jiitriinsitt're or ueiifer-passicc verb.s .are formed from 
transitives, somo by adding the termination Laht to the simple 
form, others by changing its final vowel to eka. \ 

N.B. These are distinguised from passive verbs (for which there are 
proper forms) by the fact that passive verbs refer to an action to 
which a person or thiug is subjected, while neuter-passive verbs refer 
to a state or condition in which a person or thing exists, so that the 
action is at any moment possible. 

Ex. bona, see ; bonwa, be seen ; bonakala, be visible, appear. 

tanda, love ; tandnn, be loved ; tandeka, be fit to be loved. 

zwa, hear, feel, perceive ; zu-iwa, be heard ; z^vakala, be audible. 

sabn, fear; satshwa, be feared; sabeka, be formidable. 

ona, injure ; oniwa, be injured ; onakala, be in au injured state, 

be corrupt, depraved, &c. 

iumo, send; tunywa, be sent; tumeka, be sondable, ready. 

willing, fit to be sent. 

?)0)i3n, praise ; to;i_yii'o, be praised ; bonffeka, be worthy to Ije 

praised. 

kataza, vex, annoy ; katazun, be vexed ; ^atazeAra, be in, a state 

of annoyance. 

uninli oivnpuliu'cyo , atrot' which has been broken (by sonu' one) ; 

nmuti owopukilcyo, a tree which is Viroken, is in a broken state. 
N.]}. Tht're are, however, simple transitive verbs ending in eka, as 
bareka, to ]>e8mear, and these may take the neutor-pa-ssive fonns, a« 
bacekeka, to get l)e8meared, jus mortar on a wall. 

204. Simnle transitives in nln form their ne uter?; ly clnuig- 
in c r iil(( i nto vl.ir. 

tix. apnla, iifeak ; (ij)iiJl«(, bo broken; guqula, turn (tr.), guquka. 
turn (intr.) ; pendnla, turn, penduhra, W tiu^ned ; pen«?Mi"a, bo 
in u, state <>f turning, repent. 

20'). Cmisdlirti veri)s are ti)nn(>d by in.sertiiig is before the 
final (tnlM*i ^iifll^l/' TfifliT?>. • - — ^..^ 

zn, comr ; ti.sn, uuikc In come, bring. 
srbenza, work ; sehrnzisa, make to work. 

zwn, hear, fc*'l ; tin'ji»i. cuuue to hear or feel, excito, animate. 
N.H. azi, know, maken nsiia, make tb know, infonn : Urola, ••oar, 
tfiaki'H t\ri.tl\%a or <ifr»«. make to U'ar ; amhata, put on clothet*. clothe 



V(*tAe^lC-J*A ^^"^ '^^ t' 



I'ORMS OF VERBS, 87 

one's self, makes ambatisa or ambesa, make to put on clothes, clothe 
another ; kukumala, swell, makes kukumalisa or kukiimeza, make to 
swell; fudumala, be wai-m, makes /uduma?isa or fudumeza, make 
warm ; but the forms ambesa, kukumeza, fudumeza, are most commonly 
used. 

206. Simple vei'bs in la, form their causatives usually by 
changing Za into ~a, "which appears to be a contraction oilisa. 

Ex. vela, come forth : v eliaa, or ve-.n, brin g forth . 
-^atala, be weary; kataza, weary, vex, tease?]? 
limala, be hart ; limaza, liiu-t. ' 

kumbula, remember ; kumbuza, remind. 
sondela, come near ; sondeza, bring near. 

Some few verbs in Ixi form their cansatives by changing /.a 
to sa. 

Ex. suka, get away ; susa, take away. 

goduka, go home ; god^isa, take home or send home. 

207. Verbs of the causative form may imply to make a 
person do a thing by helping liim. 

Ex. ningisengise kusasa, heli> me to milk this morning. 

b'emukalapa kiti bati ; bayaufika bavunise babulise, they went 
away hence from us in that direction (expressed by bati, the 
direction being shown by the hand, &c.) ; they will arrive and 
help to gather in and thresh. 

2Q8^„Xilie causative form is also used to express the inritittion 
or eqiialling^oi^e^^^img (ace.) in dniiiL;- nf nn aftiou. '■, ~ 

Ex. kahambisl okwabanye abo.nt II .\\>] ilu.'s nut iiroci'cl iii his gait 
like other people. 

angibonanga ngizibona izinnyosi zinonise okwoleziya, I have never 
seen bees so (fat=j rich in honey as those there. 
inkabi is'ihle inqandise okwempofu ! that an ox shoidd sjjread its 
horns like an eland {i.e. no more than an eland) ! 
usazinff' ezibinyisa nje okwennyoka (= ezibinya nje okicennyoka or 
njengennyoka), he continually wriggles himself like a snake. 
bakitikisa okivotshani busikwa, they imitated the falling of grass, 
it being cut = they fell like grass when cut. 
uZulu amaBunu amtshayisa okwezinnyosi zil'iqulo, as to the 
Zulus, the Boers smote them like bees, they being a cluster. 
oTugela le sasesihlalise nbugcwelegcwcle (ov okwobugcivelegcivele) , 
away at the Tugela we had now lived roughly. 
ukwpata kwako, upatisa okwetane, as to your carrying, you carry 
like a reckless person. 

209. TViP ^^^ictitiVt^ fr^y m is also nserl to express enevQy in 
doinpr n, tl^^pyr^ to Aq a. thinp- t horoughly . ^ 



88 KORM8 OF VERBS. 

Ex. hlaii:n, cleanse, hlauzisa, cleanse thoi'oughly, hlanziseka, get 
thoroughly cleansed. 

umntwanaw'anya (w'anyisa) itu'ntna, the child sucked its mother. 
umntwanaw'aiiyisisa (iv'anyisa kakulu) jlru'nina, the child sucked 
its mother heartily : 

but unina wanianyisa unintwana, the mother made the child 
suck, = gave it suck, suckled it. 

210. A verb is sometimes reduplicated by changing 
its fiaal a to Isixa, and then implies special vnergj or jturpose 
in the act, cither of the simple or causative. 

^^'ti»VEx. fcuza, inquire; tuzisisa, inquire diligently. 

limaza, hurt; limazisisa, hurt much or designedly. 

oma, be dry ; omisa, dry ; omisisa, be thoroughly dry, help to 

dry, or drv thoroughly. 

211. nitJtr.Urji' verbs, so called, because they express that the 
aiction of the verb is done with a purpose, or is for or towards 
gome special object, expressed or implied, are formed by 
insertinji^'^e^jeforc the final a of the Simple form." 

Ejf. hlnia, sit ; hlalcla, sit for, await. 

lalti, lie down ; Inlela, lie down for. listen. 

saba, fear ; sabebi, fear for, answer the call of a master. 

linga, try (about a difficult thing), lingela, try for (a thing, not 

caring much to succeed about it). 

ngiyukukuhnmbcla loko, I will lay hold on that for you= I take 

note and will serve you out for it. 

induna imbnmbele, the induna has laid hold of (an Ox) for him, 

= given him an ox out of the bcKity. 
N.B. tyo, speak, makes tyolo, speak for, fn tliis form. 

212.^ The Objective form is frequently u.scd when the verb 
precedes ndvcrlw of place, or nouns and pi-ououns in the 
locative, or povcmcd by /.«. 

Ex. bn/ela lapo, ngapandfUe, endhlini, emfulfixi.pakatikvcomusi.thej 

died ther«>, without, in the hut, at the river, within the knuU. 

u-iibambel'itandhla enhloko, shv clasptnl hei hands over horhemd, 

yat'iyapiivia ya/d'emnyango, na it (t'nAromo) was going out, it 

died at the entrant'o. 

ngitakuhambela kulowo'muti, I am going to walk to that kraal 

(on a viHit). 

ngisauhambn ngiye kuloico' muni, I am going to that kraal (with* 

»mt any ^jMsiul obje<'t). 

nhUingitniiirlxnt pakati amaha*K\. tho horscfl were OoUeoied iuaidtf. 

inkabi Itti tilahUktU pakati hcamti*\muah<imiu,thme OXOl hare 

tfnt hrnt aninng the pvoplo's gardens. 



FORMS OF VEKB6. 89 

le'nja iniiigenise enigodini ubotshobana, yarubainbela pakaii, this 

dog made the weasel go into a hole, it seized him within. 

kuya ngoba ngidhle Innyama ipolile, kwaba futi ngidhlela epangire- 

ni, it is because I have eaten meat cold, it was also I eating 

in ravenous hunger. 
So in,daii:o yokubulalela abantu, a place for killing men in. 

isitsho. sokudhla or sokudhlela, a vessel for eating out of. 

itunga, isitsha sokusengela ubisi, an itunga is a vessel for milking 

milk into. 

'sitsha lesi siyadhlela, this vessel is for eating, 
but umgqengqe wokutela ububende, an umgqengqe (carved wooden 

dish with cover) for pouring blood into. 

2 1^. The Simple form, ho^vever, will be n spfl of Mn^- x^rh. 
expressing motion //•o»t a place, and, tlie Obiective form if it 
P-gprpss yyiotion to a place. ; [ 

Ex. ubuyele ekaya namtilanje, he has retui'ned to his kraal to-day ; 
but ubuyile ekaya namhlanje, he has returned /i-om his kraal to-day. 

wubuya eTekwini, he returned from the Bay ; 
but wabuyela eTekwini, he returned to the Bay, 

ngatata uti pansi, I (took) pulled up a rod from beneath. 

214.( Eec(jyrocal neuter verbs are formed by inser t ing ^ 
before the final a of the simple form^^ii-— — - 

Ex. tanda, love ; taiid ana ^ Jje-kr"fove with each other. 

linga, strive ; lingana, vie with one another, be equal. 

tiya, trap ; txyana, be entangled with each other. 

rimba, stop up, close ; vimbana, close up, be closed, as a wound. 

vanga, mingle ; vangana, be mingled with each other. 

xuba, mix ; xubana, be mixed with each other. 

The above form may be used either with a singular or 
plural noun or pi-onoun. 

Ex. ngilingana nawe, or siyalingana tina, I and thou are of a match. 
siyasizana tina nawe, you and I are helping each other. 

Other forms also besides the Simple may be thus modified, 
Ex. s'azelana nas'emazweni le eniuva, we were acquainted with each 

other also in the lands far away backward (azelana from azela, 

Obj. form of azi, know). 

uyaucebelaiia nalowo'muntu icebo, he will make up with that man 

an accusation (cebelana from cebela). 

215. The teraiination ezela is used to intensify the meaning 
of the form in ela. 

Ex. sondeia, approach ; soncZezeia, a]iproach close. 

timbela, stop for, — turn back an animal ; vimbczela, stop 

violently for, 

jwayela, be accustomed ; jwayezela, be accustomed with an effort. 



i)0 FORMS OF VERBS. 

as when a person is trying to learn to smoke. 
bambela, hold on ; bamhezela, hold on vigorously. 
sindela, weigh upon; sindezela, weigh heavily upon. 
N.B. ImyeLela n^oans to go and return on the same day. 

216. Mejlective verb.s are formed by prefixing^:; lo the form 
whose meanincr is to be reflected, j 
Ex. fsho, speak ; zitsho, speak of one's-self. 

dhla, eat ; zidhla, eat one's self, == be proud. 

sinda, safe ; sindisa, make safe ; zisindisa, save one's-self. 

kala, cry ; kaJela , cry for ; zikalela, bemoan one's-self. 

a*i, know ; a: isa, make to know ; zasisa, make one's self to know, 

be self -conceited. 

enza, do ; enzisa, make to do ; zentisa, make one's self to do, 

pretend, feign. 

kuzakiit'omela loko, that wiU dry of itself. 

ngamnyenyela, I slipped away (for him =) from him. 

ngamyenyela ngakuyenct, I slipped away towards him. 

217 J The Simple, Catisailve, and Objective forms have each 
a P(W«ive Voice, for which they are modified by inserting v 
before their final vowel. 

Ex. tanda, love ; tandwa, be loved. 

tandisn, make to love ; tnndisica, be made to love. 

tandela, love for ; tandehca, be loved for. 

kola, satisfy ; kolva, be satisfied, believe. 
N.B. From the last example it will In? obvious how imiH'rfectly the 
word knlirii ('xprosses the act of Christian Faith. It denotes, in fact, 
merely the b.-ing satistit'd with tlie evidence in any case, and there- 
fore, when applied to matters of religion, expresses only aM*«*tothe 
doctrines taught, nut a living faith. 

ngihUihlemehce imali namhlanje, I have been lucky with money 

to-day. 

^rafelisehiit (irahulaUlwa) uTthaka, she was made n widow by 

'I'Hhaku, vf \nTv frlitel Wit i.s pass, of j'rlitela, to make* person die 

for (another). 

218( If the consonant in any Imt the first syllable of the 
»mj;</»' form W l>, /-, or vi, then, in addition to the in.sortion of 
the w, the same chanj.(es are niatle in it for the formation of 
the passive as for tlie fornmtion «>f the locative; that i« to soy,— 

h will be changed to_; or /*/• 

;> .to /«/< 

m . . to uy 

nib . . to »»; 



J 



FORMS OF VERBS. 91 

Ex. bubisa, destroy hujiswa. Jiumbula, remember kunjulwa. 

tabata, take tatshaAiva. limaza, hurt linyazvm. 

hlupa, vex hlutshwa. hamba, go hanjwa. 

(Zumisa, worship dunyisiva. hambisa, make to go hanjiswa. 

bamba, hold, banjv:a. elapa, apply medicine elatshwa 

So qopaqopa, mill, as the edge of a coin, pass, qotshaqotshwa. 
But the above rules are not always observed. 
Ex. hlukumeza, trouble, bother, pass, hlukumezwa or hlukunyezwa. 

219. \ Some Reciprocal verbs form tlieir passives in the same 
manner. 

Ex. tandanwa, xotshyanwa, hlanganwa, hlatshamca, banjamva, 
from tandana, xotshana, hlangana , hlatshana, bambana. 

Others form passives by changing the termination of the 
passive of the simple form into and, 

Ex, bonwana, bulawana, dhliwana, nishiiitshivana, from bonwa,- 
bulawa' dhliv:a , ntshintshica. 

Similarly with causative forms. 
Ex. bangiswana, from bangisu-a. 

Reciprocal passives are used chiefly in the impersonal form. 

Ex. uma kucitshwanayo, when they were scattered one by the other. 
natiizibindi ziyanikwana ; uvia enesibindi sokuqinisela , lona 
etanda, ukubulala, nati usinika izibindi nati ; nati asiylkum- 
ncenga, as to us too, courage is reciprocated ; if he has courage 
to persevere, if he wishes to kill, us too, he gives us courage, 
us too ; we too will not (beseech him = ) submit to him. 
bati abantwana, uma. bedhlala'isicelankobe lesi-ke, kutiv; a isicela- 
nkobe nje, ngoba sibonakala kusihlv:a ngesikati sokudhliica 
' kwezinkobe, sokucelwana kwezinkobe, children say, when they 
play, as to the evening-star here, it is just called isicelankobe, 
because it appears at evening at the time of the eating of 
boiled-mealies, so there is a being-asked-together of boiled- 
mealies. 

220. Monosj llabic verbs insert no before the final a, to form 
the passive. 

Ex. piwa, tshivw, from pa, give, tsho, speak. 

Dissyllabic vowel-verbs observe the same rule. 
Ex. akiwa, ehiwa, enziwa (or enzica), from aka, build, eba, steal, en^a, 

do make. 
So also, aziwajliwa, tiwa, yiwa, from azi, know. Inn, fight, ti, say, 
think, do, ta, pour, inject, ya, go. 



92 MOODS OK VERBS. 



CHAPTKR XIII. 



MOODS OK VEUBS. 

221. The verb i.s u.se(l in six blonds — Tinpci*ative, Intinitive, 
Indicative, Potential, Optative, Subjunctive ; and it is also 
used as a Participle. 

222. I.Mi'i:i{\rivK Mood. Tiic Inijiertifici' Se c oHil Pers on 
Sijufuhir (as in Hebrew ) exliibit.s the root of the verb jiLJis 
most .simple form, TO which the ])ronouu »t is appended in 



^rder to form the .second p r.son p pn-J 
Ex. taiuta, love thou ; taiulani, love yo. 

icokani nihloinele njesikati sol>u$uku^ be sharp (and) watch in the 
timo of iii>,fht. 

The nt may be reduplicated forsp<'cial emphasis. 
Ex. bekanini-ke bandhla, look j'ou, pooil folk ! 
yokaniiii isihlanti lesi, atir up this torch ! 
N.B. leti-ke mauje imnli yaini, briujjj now uiy money, (Uti := leta). 

The other persons of the Imperative are supplied by means 
of the partich^ ni'i or a and the Suhjuuctice. 
Ex. )nan<jitandi- or a ngilande, let me love. 
asitande, let us love. 
aiiye'kugcza, let us go to bathe. 

But the Future Ind'uatlve is often used aulhoritaiivcly for 
the Imperative. 

Kx. wozii lapa, coino hero ; plur. Motaiii /<ijki, come ye here. 

nomjinik'imali yami, you shiill give nie my money, = you give 
me uiy monoy, will you ? 

trongibekeln imali yami, lay by my money for me. for which the 
plural uu){lit bo anoivjihrkrla or anongibfkdani. 

223. MoiuiHyllabic verbs uieli x. »/' to the imperative. 
Kx. Sjn^;. yitu.lje; yima, Htiin<l ; yiii, nay ; wiS/... -i«iik. 
riur. yibani, yimani, yiltni, yitthoni. 

Or (hey take the followinj; forms. 

Kx. tana, plur. tanini, from ta, come, lui laiiini lapa, < i . . 

ydici, plur. yanini, from ya, go, lui ydnini la^ntya, ^" '.;<',', 
sirana yittra, plur. cuaiiirii. from iir<i, )u<ar. 
kana ■ yii'd, ))lur. Idnini, from ka itkkv out (wat^r, pornd|{e> 
Ac), u kan'ndhU, take out and eat ; laiiiMi am<iiu<, draw water. 



MOODS OF VERBS. OJi. 

225. VoweUverhs (that is, verbs which l)Cgin with a vowel) 
in hke manner prefix y to the imperative. 

Ex. yenza, do ; yaia, build; yalusa.hevd; 7jenzani,ya}:ani,]ialusani. 

225. The verb.s in (201), which take e before the root after 
the vowel ri, vary in their practice, some prefixing yi to the 
unaugmented root, others, like the vowel- verbs, prefixing y ta 
the root with e, and others not doing either. 

Ex. yizwa, hear ; yesaba, fear ; muka, depart. 

226. Infinitive Mood. The infinitive is found only in one 
tense, the Present, and consists of the verb-root preceded by. 
vl-u. With very few exceptions, the Infinitive always ends in a./ 

Ex. ukutanda, to love ; ukutandica , to be loved. 

ukwazi, to know ; ukuti, to say, think, &c. ; ukutsho, to speak. 

227. The initial n of the prefix uhi. is dropped after tense.s 
of the auxiliary verb ya or za. 

Ex. ngiyakutanda or ngiya'utanda, I shall or will love ; lit. I go to 
love. 

ngizakutanda or ngiza'utanda, I am coming to love. 
uyekuzingela , he bas gone to hunt. 
sizekusiza, we have come to help. 

And so after some other verbs, as vela. 
Ex. ngivelo'kuwatenga amafuta, I come from selling (it, the fat ^^) 

my fat. 

is'ivela'kulwa neka'Mpande, it {impi) now coming from fighting 

with that of Mpande. 

228. IxDiCATiVi: Mood. ^he Indicative contains three 
'Simple Tenses. Other Compound Tenses are foi-med bo- 
using the Participial forms of tliese in combination with thej 

^aaxiU aries, ha, be, ya, g o, za, come. 

229. The following are the Simple Tenses of the regular 
verb, tanda, love, in the Indicative Mood. 

1. Present, I love • ngitandn. 

2. Peefect, I loved (la^eli/) or have loved ... ... ngitandile. 

3. Pa^t or AoEiST, I loved ngatanda. 

230*4The pronouns are prefixed in their simple forms to the 
Present Tind Perfect ten.ses. varying, of coHi'se, according to tht^ 
subject or nominative to the verb.. 

Sing. 1st Pers. ng^-. .^ - 2nd Pers. w. 

3rd Pers. v, li^^^^jtrrfutbu, tw. ^^ 

Plur. 1st Pers. si. " ^\^ 2nd Pers. ni 

3rd Pers. ba, a, zi, i. 



•94 MOODS OF VERBS. 

231^In_the^PiIiii^ tense tl»e Pronouns ai'c all prefixed with a 
for their final vowel, n and / liriniy fflhiuifij^oti l bef ore it tojr^jid 
J/, respect ively.^ 

Sinj?. 1st Vcrs.'ngo. 2nd Pers. ira. 

3i'd Pers. tea, la, ya, sa, Ura, bna or la, hca. 
Pliir. 1st Pers. sa. lind Pers. na. 

3rd Pers. ba, a, za, ya. 

'2'.\'2. Participles may be formed for all the Tenses, and their 
prououn.s are the same as those for the Tenses, except that n 
personal, ha, and ", are in all Participles, except the Past, 
chan a^ed to e, be, and e. 

'I'SA. Another t\)rm of the Present, appears to be formed 
from the auxiliary yd, go, followed by the verb-root, or, as 
.some explain it. by the Pre.sent Participle, with its pronoun 
dropped.^ 

Ex. ngi]fafaii(Ja ( ngiyn ngitatidu, I <?o I loving), I ain loving, or 

do love. 
This tense is used when the action is a coiiiinniiKj one, (not 
sudden or momentary,) or when the idea in the verb is to be 
broujj^lit out .<iro)iijIii, or as a kind of historical present, when 
the verb is used in narrating' a matter. 

Ex. utaiido vhiulhlo na'f do you wish for fo )d ? ngixfatanda , I do. 
letx'iinhlainvu iiijadhliwa ml ? nre these berries eaten (ha!>iiii- 
allj) ? i.e. are thoy wholesome, not poisonous ? 
iiyaxcnfi lilaagahla, S4) she finishes them {amahile) off. 

It may often Ik* expressed also by the English idiom 
fill' ' doing the action iiuplied in the verb. 
__^Ex^ uomni prhi .' siyahamba tina, come along ! we are for going 

2:J4. The I'dil Tense or Aon'st is used of any time past 

whatever, or in speaking of actions rej)oated at past times. 

Ex. ubugngu bake lobu bamona ; y'ilohlr wnktcfla iiiiikubn yohnngnne 

nje. this forwiirdncss »>f hors diil lier harm (ropeatetlly) ; all 

ulong she pluyed (fiMin time to time) just the tricks of 

childhiKxI. 

The Perfect is u.sed of an action eompletod in P(i«< time, but 
«o as to have a sjKtcial ivfeivnce to the iVr/eii/.j 

(i) When it is sjtoken of as i'omi>lrle(i, ntihe prtrn^ tnonietU. 
Ex. nidhhU un ? hiu'e yoii oiitiu ? that is, have jrou done cftting ? 
lit$hon\l9 ihtngo, tlie sun luut Met. 

(ii) When it is spoken of an i-omplchd in ichat maifbf ettJM 
present time, varying according to the nature of the action^ eg. 



<■ J 



MOODS OF VEKES. 05 

vciy lately, just now, to-day, yesterday, the day before yester- 
day, &c.. the action not having been repeated since. 

Ex. kudhlulile kutangi oNgoza, there has gone by, the day before 

yesterday, N.qfoza and his people. 
Here it is implied that they have not returned, so far, at least, as 
the speaker knows. If, however, he knew that they had returned, he 
would saj, kuadhlula, &c., there went by, &c., in the Fast Tense. 

toena usafunda inncwadi ey' enziwa'budala ; tina sesifunda 
eyenziite 'tufs/ia, you are stUl reading a book which was made 
of old ; we are now reading (one) that was made newly. 

(iii) Wlien the act is spoken of as past, but /'hiding in its 
effecU at the present time. 
Ex. uMpande wenzile into enk-ulu, Panda has done a great thing. 

233. Hence neuter verbs or neutei'-passives (203) are used 
in the Perfect Tense, to express the permanent state, charade); 
propertij, or qaalitt/, of an object.^ 

Ex. ulele, he is lying (237) ; bahlezi, they are sitting (238). 
kulungile, it is right : kufaneU, it is proper. 
imiti edepileyo or edepayo, tall trees. 
lo'm/ana usukile, this boy has started up, = is tall. 
lolu'daka hibacekekile kahle this mortar is laid on well. 

And so transitive verbs are used in the Perfect, when 
employed to express habit, practice, or icont. 

Ex. mux'inandhla umfo waka'Tusi ebazile, the son of Tusi is (jxtwer- 
ful) clever (having carved =^) in carving. 

unamandhla lo'muntu etande umkonto, that man is clever in 
binding an assegai. 

batuinuiadhla bevike izinduku laba'fana, they are good at (ward- 
ing off sticks =) fencing, those boys. 

anohamba ngokwokukulumelana ; izitandana z'enze njalo, do you 
go along with mutual talk ; levers are wont to do so (=^ have 
done so up to the present time). 

uza'utwasa uNdasa, nokuncitshayo kakuncitshe 'luxmuhla, Undasa 
(month beginning about the middle of January, when mealies 
are plentifully ripe iu some districts) wiD begin (as a new 
moon), and that which stints (has not stinted =^) is not wont 
to stint to-day. 

sibe'kucupa kulo'mfula, kubajue attiacakide avimbela izinnyama- 
zane, we having been to set traps at that river, there (have been 
caught =) are regularly caught weasels, they kept out the 

236. The syllable il is frequently omitted in the Perfect, 
more especially if the verb-root be polysyllabic. In that ca.se 
the final '• is pronounced strongly, as a double vowel. 



96 BIOODS OF VERBS. 

Ex. ngitnnde, kiisite, ulondolnz', for ngitandile, kusitile, ulondolotile . 
N.B. Thus be, y?, ze, are lued as the perfects of 6a, ya, ;:i. 

237. Verbs in nhi, inwj, ela, mi i, ami, ittn, make commonly 
their Perfects in cle, em fit, ele, eae, e^c, I'te. 

Ex. lelc, enge»ie, qapele, hlangcae, twese, pete, from lala, lie down, 
eiigama, impend, as a cliff, qapeJn, attend to, hlangnna, meet 
together, tivasn, appear, as the new moon, pota, carry in hand. 

X.B. basa, kindle afire, makes basile; tabata, tnke, tabete or tabatile ; 
tata, take, tatc or tatile. 

And so lala makes lalile with a dififerent shade of meaning. 

Ex. uJalile elangcni, he has lain (been lying) in the sun; 
xclele elangeni, he is lying in the sun. 

238. Some few Perfects are formed irre<»^iilnrly. 

Ex. hlezi, hluti, esuti, mi or mile, miti, tshilo, from hlala. sit, hluta, 
strip (a tree), csxita, he full, ma, stand, mita, beprej^ant, tsho, 
speak. 

aliinile (or alimi) lehy'ziri, that word does not stand,- is not 
correct . 

231*. The .syHn'iIe i/o or ho is frequently appended to any 
Tense or Participle of a verb, apparently fi»r the purpose of 
restint;' the speaker's voice for a moment, when there is a pause, 
cither in the sen.se. or in his own mind. This usually occurs 
after a relative or an adverb. 

Ex. njengaloko owakutrhoyn, according to that which thou saidst. 

mhia sifikayo, on the day (when we were) arriving =^when we 

arrived. 

ln]>n kusinirayo, when- it was danced. 

kuiikuij'ilnpa kusayo, it was liere (that) morning dawned. 

aukani nina nijiknyo, get away you that are arriving. 

kwati nxa kugayo sajika, it came to pass when it dnwne<i (that) we 

arrivt'il. 

ngiynudhhila wjnkona mhla ngibuyayo, I shall pafu« in that 

direction the day I return. 

lowo'iimindo niiruzwn nje, nina uihtnaijo iiiti kwi'nte M^titit ? that 

sound, do you hear it, ye (who) ask. mtying, what's the matter':' 

nke iiiyekf lo, kuze kujik'' uJojn anitshfte yrun 'nttyo. I wish you 

would let him alone until Jojo c<mtt>« and tolls you, he wh>> 

knows. — — ^ 

/ 24'>. The F«/"rc' is i'.xpre.ssed by combiniinf tho present of I 
I ijn, go, with the infinitive of the verb, us ngiifakutatula (lit. I I 
Vgo to love ) I shnll or will love. ^ _f 

241. An linmt'diiitt* or Eiiiph'ilic Future i.n formetl by com- 
bining; the present t»f la.comc, with the infinitive of the verb, an 



MOODS OF VERBS. 07 

ngizal^utawl a ](\ii. I come to love, — ) I shall or ■will love, Avliere 
is implied a tendency, dei^ire, impulse, &c., to love, as well as 
the mere futurity of the act of loving. Hence this form of 
future with za is used to express that the action will speedily 
or certainly take place, j 

N.B. The Future will very frequently be heard with the h of kw 
omitted as ngiyautanda, vt/outanda, &c., or ngizautaiida, uzautanda, &c. : 
and the former may be contracted to ngotanda, tcotanda, &c., without 
apparently any change of meaning. 

So the negative form angiyikutanda is contracted to angiyutanda. 

Notice also these expressions, formed with the perfect and subjunc- 
tive of ya and za : — 

uyekuzingela, contr. uyozingela, he is gone to hunt ; 

bazekusiza, contr. bazosiza, they have come to help ; 

asiyekupuza, contr. asiyopuza or asopuza, let us go to drink ; 

aniyekugeza, contr. aniyogeza or anogeza, go ye and bathe. 
Ex. seagoza ngife, now I shall come (that I =;) to die. 

icab'engasoz'eba-= wab'engasayikuza 'eba,\ie would never have 

come (stealing =) to steal. 

yafa leyo'nnynnga ebesiyohlasela (ebeslyekuhlasela) ngayo, that 

moon came to an end on which we had gone to wai'. 

sobono abojika ( = abayakujika ) kuqala, we shall see who will 

arrive first. 

mlila kuyokehva (=kuyakuketwa) iketo lakeuZuladuma, the day 

there (shall be =^ should be) was to be danced the dance of him 

Zuladuma =^ when we went to dance at Zuladuma's place. 

bcnglzofukameliva (bengizakiifukamelwaj abantubale, I (had come 

to be) had got worried by the people of there-away. 

nngiyube (angiyubo, r=. angiyikuba) vgisayihlaba innyamazane, I 

shall never strike a buck. 

qeduba bazopuma (bazekupumn) bonke, as soon as they had all 

(got) managed to come; out. 
N.B. Sometimes the e in ye or ze is lengthened to o before ku of the 
Infinitive. 
Ex. bati uma bazokuwela. (bazekuxvela) bonke, wlien they had all 

(come) got to cross. 

sebeti uba bazokuti fbazekuti) qata ezibukiveni, wlien they had 

arrived at the drift. 

iicti abe ezokuxuba (ezakaxuba ) amashashi namaButiu , they saying 

that he was to get to confuse the horses and the Boers. 

atukutela kakulu nb'dzokubona (azakubona) ukuti kwasa, they 

were very angry when they came to see that it wsis daybreiik. 

ngen'ubone uma avz'ukuyibnna (auzikvyiloaa or auzi-ukuyibona) 

induku yami lapa na, go in and see wliether you will not see my 

stafE here. 

H 



98 MOODS OF VKKBS. 

242. Otliei" compound tenses are foiTned by combining the 
f^erfeet and Past tenses of ba, (namely mjibe, iigaba) with the 
participles of the verb. 

Thus ngibc provinces : — 

Imperfect, ngihe ugitaudn, I was loving, or I lovefl (hiiely). 

Pluperfect, ngihe ngitandile, (I was having loved ) 1 ha<l been 

loving, or I had loved (laiehj). 
So ngnba jiroduees : — 

Past-Ijipkrficct, ngnbn iigitnnda, I was loving, or I loved. 
Past-Pluperfect, ngaba ngitandile, I had been loving, or I ha<l 

loved. 
Past-Ineffective, ngaba ngiyakutanda, I should have been loving, 

or I shoiUd have loved. 

243. It will be seen in the above, that the })article in eacli 
case is put in that ten.se, which would be proper for the action 
iiR conteiuplnted froh) thu point of time hi questiux. 

Ex. ngnha tigitnnda, I was I-loving. 

ngaba ngitandile, I was I-having-loved. 
ngaba ngiyakutanda, I was I-about-to-lovc. 

244. In conjug'atini^ the above tenses, the natives usually 
employ an ahr'nhjrd or coutnwtcd form. 

Thus for ngihe ngitnnda they use bengitanda, 
uhc utanda uh'utanda. 

iibe eianda uh'elnnda. 

&c. \c. 

the rule being obviously, to ouiit the initial pronoun, if it )>egiu witli 
a consonant, hut otlierwise to contract the auxiliary be with the pro- 
noun of the participle. 

So, too, for ngaba ngitnnda they use ngangitanda. 
icaba utanda irautanda . 

waba rtiinda ti'ah'etnnil" 

Ac. Ac. 

N.B. In the 3rd Pera. Sing. IMur., it ia niori- rouniii'ii t<> iif«r 
uay'ntandn, ay'rtitndo. the nuxiliiiry ya K'ing used, (apjiarently fi»r 
eaHe of utterance), instead of fm in this case. 

Nevorthele.ss. the full form may often Ik* heard fnmi tlie 
mouth of a native, when the shade of meaning niay IxMi.sually 
oxpres.sj'd in Knglish i)y usinj,' the jmrticiplc of the priiu'ijml 
verb. 

Ex. nganijtiiiuda ukuba ngikupuke ; kw'aUi ihandhht, I wished (at 
that time) t«> go up ; the folk fortitttl (my going). 
ngnhf (ngaba) ngitamitt nami ukuba ngtkupuk0 ; ktr'aUt ibandhlo. 
1 too WAM winhing (at that timi>) to go up. the ftdk forh^d it. 
ababehe$«l« esinnqolrni who wt>n' n>muiuing io the wagons. 



MOODS OF VERBS. Ofr 

nako-ke siyabuya-ke, sibe sikwenze konke loko, and so vou see we 
are on our way back, we having done all ihat. 

We may hear also such phrases as the folhnvirio-. 

Ex. livas'uDhlambedhlu luti icatela wayeka, the IJdhlanibedhlu 

(regiment) now (did tvatela wayeka =) made a rush, fovlu-aselut!. 

where the participle luti is separated from the bca or Iwaba. 

245. The Ineffective tenses are mostly used to express that 
the act in question would have come to pass, but for some 
reason has not been carried into effect ; as in such sentences as 
these, ' I should have goue to Maritzburg — but for the rain,' 
' I should have been killed — but for his coming,' &c. 

246. The Ineffective tenses may be made emphatic by usino- 
za instead of ya. 

Ex. bengizakutanda vkivenza loko, I should have particularly liked 
to do that. 

The contractions noticed in (241) may be used with the 
Ineffective forms. 

Ex. bengiyotanda ukicenza loko, I should have wi-shed to do this. 

bengizobizwa (= bengizakubiziva) izolo, I should have been called 

yesterday. 

kwakoza ( = kwak^iyikuza) kuze kuse, it would have come to dawn. 

laloza ( ^^ lalizakuza) litshone esina., y'ingoba kwavtla xdlapita 

wati auhlakazeke umjadu, it (ilanga) would have come to set they 

(amantombazana) dancing, but that there came forward Mapita 

and said let the dance disperse. 

247.' Potential Mood. The tenses of this mood areformed 
by inserting nga immediately before the verb-root in certain 
ten.ses of the indicative. 

Present, ngingatanda, I am willing to love, =1 may, can, might, 

could, would, should, love. 
Imperfect, bengingatanda, I was willing to love (lately), ~— I might, 

could, would, should, have loved (lately). 
Past-Impe»j'ect, ngangntanda, I was willing to love, = I might, 
could, would, should, have loved. 

248. The potential ten.ses take the pronouns just as the 
indicative ten.ses do, except that, a is used for n personal in 
the 3rd Pers. Sing, of the potential present. ) 

Ex. angatando, he would love. 

249. In the above tenses, ngn is always used with a subjec- 
tive reference to something in the wind of the sjjeaker — to the 
possihility of an event happening, as far as his judgment or will 

h2 



1(30 MOODS OK VERBS. 

is concerned. Hence the potential foi-nis iiro used to imply 

iviUiitgiir.ss or consent (not a wish) for an act, or to express the 

probability of an occurrence i/i the iim>ii:1icnslon of the s}ie<tl:er. 

Ex. ngingahamba, UDia utsho njalo, I (may) would i;o if you insist. 

innqola iagawa namhlanje, ku'liutsJielezi, tlie wagon (may) is 

likely to fall (be upset) to-day, it is slippery. 

liewjingavuma, v.ma uh'utsho ntimhhtnje, I should have been 

v.illing. if thou hadst said to-day. 

sfisliigatanda, uma wab'esibizn, we ahouldhsi^K^ liked, if he had 

called us. 

•2o(). The potential ])resent serves also for a future action. 
K\. iigliignya kona ngornuso, uma %itsho njalo, I may (can, unght, 
could, would, should) go there to-morrow, if you say so. 

2")1. Oi'TATiVK Moon. The tenses of this mood are formed 
by prcH.Kiiig ixja to the ^>aj'//c//y/e.s of certain tenses of the 
iiulicative. ] 
1'resknt, nga ngitanda, I shouM. would, uuist, ought to, love. 
i'erfect. »i<7« ngifandile, I should, would, must, ought to, have 

lovel (latehj). 
Past, nga ngola.nlit, I .should, wnuld. uuisc, ought to, have loved. 
I MrerirECT, n;/'/ ngibt.igitond'i, I should, would, uiusf, ought to, have 

been loving {la(ehj) '^at the time referred ti-]. 
rL,v)'Ki:rKOT, ngi n'jibengitanditc, I should, wouM, must, ought to, 

have loved (lately) [at that time". 
rAM-lMPEKFECT, ngft ugangitanda, I should, would, must, ought to, 

have been loving [at tiiat lime^. 
I'aht-Pluperfect, nga ngangUnndile, I should, would, must, ought 

to, have loved [at that tiuu- . 

'2't2. ill tbo abiivc tenses nga lias the same snhjeclivo refer- 
nu'c to soiiu'tiiiiiy: in the mind of tlic speaker as before. But, 
wliorejis the potenlial tenses expi'c.ss /*('••■ sense of the fntssihUitij 
itv iifiiljiiliiliii/ of an event hupi)enintj, in tlie expectation «)f 
the speaker, the ojitativc tenses exjire.ss the cxpedienci/ or 
jniijirii'tif «)f its hapiH.'nin(f. in his judirmcnt. 

Kx. VitX. ugingutjibiilaln Icyo'nujit uma tyaini, I eould (or would 1m» 

willing to) kill that dog. if it were mine. 

Opt. ,i<7" ngiyibulala I ryo'n )>'<•, n.nn eyaini, I would. (Hhould, 

ought to), kill th'it dog. if it wen' mine. 

Pol. II ngabotfhwa umahnahi, the hcrws might be Ued «ip. 

Opt. ngit ebotihiva amalunhi, the h()iVi*8 ought t<> )h> tie<l up. 

Pot. xtng'en:" loko, uma uncsiLala, thou wii\ddHt do tluH, if thou 

ii%st opportunity. 

Opt. ii</<i loiis'i lohi, i(<iiti''(i iig'nyf, thou j^""'-'--^ »|o thin, Jx'ing 

helped by hiui. 



MOODS OF VERBS. 101 

253. Hence these tenses are used to expi'ess a I'-ish ov prayer, 
from whence is derived their name of optative tenses. 

Ex. nga eianda, he ought to love, = would that he cou.ld love. 

254. In the above tenses, nga, which in reality is the root 
of a verb, may take its pronoun like any other present, except 
that for the 3rd Pers. Sing. Personal '/ is used instead of u, as 
in the present potential. And the pronoun before nga is not 
unfi-eqtiently expressed by the natives, particularly when it 
happens to be a vowel. 

Ex. unga utanda. thou ouf^'hteRt to love. 
anga etandile, he ought to have loved. 
angab'ebotsMva amaha'hi, the horses ought to be tied up. 
anga eyibulala leyo'niija, lana eijake, he ought to kill that dog, if 
it is his. 

nga heyibulala leyo'nnja, uma eyabo, they ought to kill that dog, 
if it is theirs. 

angah' eyibulala leyo'nnja, wdio. eyawo, they (amadoda) ought to 
kill that dog, if it is theirs. 

ngingangivuma, uma utsho njalo, I should (ought to) consent , if 
you say so. 

ngasivumile izolo, uma ub'utsho njalo, we should have consented 
yesterday, if you had said so. 

tingawavuma kulcso'sikati, uma watsho njalo, thou shoiddsthave 
consented at that time, if he said so. 

ngaub'uvuma, uyna etsho njalo, thou must have been consenting 
(at that time), if he says so. 

uma uvuma laivo'mazwi, unga. ub'utanda nawe,ii you admit those 
words, yovi must have been Avishing it. you too. 
wma evuma lawo'mazwi anga ub'efanda naye, if he admits those 
Avords, he must have been wishing it, he too. 
ngabenivumile; uma beku y'inina, you woidd have consented (at 
that time), if it had been you. 

ngababevuma, uma etsho njalo, they miist have been consenting- 
(at that time), if he said so. 

uma uvuma laivo'mazwi, ngawautanda nawe, if you admit those 
words, you must have been wishing it, you too. 
uma evuma lawo'mazivi, anga wah'etnnda naye, if he admits those 
words, lie must have been wishing it, he too. 
anga wab'evumile, lokri etsho njalo, he would have consented (at 
that lime), since he says so. 

255. The optative present serves also for a future action. 
Ex. ngaukwtnza ngomuto, uma utsho njalo, thou shouldst do it to- 
morrow, it thou sayeat so. 

256. Hence, when nga is found before a fntnre or inefcctive 
tense, it is not the mark of an optative tense, but is used only 



102 MOODS OF VERBS. 

to express, perhaps, it maij he, &c , beiug, in fact, an abbrevia- 
tion, as will be seen hereafter. 

Ex. iiga ngiyakukwenzn agomuso uma ttsho njalo, perhaps I shall do 

it to-anorrow, if he says so. 

ngingahambn, uma nga uyakunginika imali, I may go, if may-be 

thou wilt give me money. 

257/ vSuBJL'xcTivi: Mood. This mood has only one tense, 
Avhich takes the same pi'onouns as the Present Indicative, 
except that the 8rd Pers. Sing. Personal takes a instead of »A 

Ex. ngitande, (tliat) I may love; atande, (that) he may love. 

The subjunctive is often used for the English Imperative, 
when it exj)resses petsuasion or entrerity, not command; and 
the pronoun may then be placed after the verb-root. 

Ex. yibongeni inkosi, thank ye the chief. 

It is used also in asking a question, as follows. 

Ex. ngihambe? (is it) that I must go — am I to '^o ? 

ng'enze-ni ? (do you say) that I must do what = what am I to do ? 

258. The following are examples of the u.se of participles. 
Ex. ngingabala, ngiti-ni-ke, ukwema kualo' muntu ? I c^iu reckon, I 

saying wliat, the doing of that man ? 

iyatwasa Icyn ezotwamt siyagoduka, that (new moun) appeiring 

which is about to appear, we go liome. 

niya'uti nijika izinkomo bcziwuiiedile ainasimu, you juriving, the 

cattle will liave hnislu'd off the mealie-grounds, ^lit. you will be 

you arriving, the cattle hud finished. Ac. — it will be, you 

arriving, that the cattle ha<l finished, A;c.) 

siyajika jijV luis'enkosini sesiyishumayeza amaqinito, (we being 

for arriving — ) as soon as we arrive at the chief, we now inform 

him of tlie truth. 

iynifina luymigenn wlwendwc, sls soon as it (new moon) is plain, 

tile weddiug-party (is for entering - ) will enter. 

i*'c<ya anianyietshc ycna angukubona, thou jumping leaps he 

nught Bee you. 

caiiinn isikumhn h'si, siya'uvuka ungnaigrina n^aZoini, smear this 

skin well, it will stiffen lyou may-be tiuishing it -) whenever 

you fiiiiHli it witli this. 

imihla yonke ivjibe ngisnyc kwa' ygosn , every day (I having now 

gone ) will-never I liad gone to Ngozii's. 

knugaku»o»ukf iiidumo $okuti kubiuwe (I'na (there inay-lH> having 

now Htjij-tcd ) whenev««r there has started a nunour i>f (to- 

wit we ivrc HuiiiiiKmt'd ) our being sununoned. 

uiiihlann wfiujwenyn ulukuui ; iasiantshayir kinili i/irn, the back 

«>f lite cro<N)dil»' in har<l ! (wt- having now struck —) whenever 

we huf\ Ntruok (it), it reHoundeil. 



MOODS or VERBS. 103 

siyaMupeka Una singajika kuleli'zwe, ngoba kuba y'ilokxMe sapuza 
umtata, we are troubled truly (we may be comiug =) whenever 
we come to this country, because it being all along we di-ank 
brackish water. 

The particle si is often introduced in a participle before a 
monosyllabic root. 

Ex. hashumayela besiti, they spoke (they) sajdug. 



lot CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CONJUGATION OF VKRBS. 

Conjusration of the Resrular Verb, tanda, love. 

Imperative Mood. 
Slug. tanda,love. . Plur. tandan>,love ye. 

Infinitive Mood. 
itkutanda. to love. 

Indicative Mood. 

1. Present : love. 

Sing, nrfdlanda, utanda. 

utaiida, liianda, itanda, sitanda, 

utanda, lutonda, bidanda, kutanda. 
Plur. sitanda. nitanda. 

bntanda, atanda, zifanda, itanda. 

Particijilc : loving. 

Sing, ngitanda. uiandu, 

etanda, Utanda, &.C. 
Plur. sitanda nitanda. 

betandii, tttanda, &c. 

N.B. The Participle may be formed, as alxrve, for any Teuso by thc- 
Tlidc in (232). 

Emphatic Present : am loving, or <lo love. 

Sing. Hfiiyntanda. tttyatanda 

uyutnudn, li/yfttauda, iyatanda, siyatandtj. 

uyntiindn, htyntamla, bxtyatnndit, kuyatandn. 
Plur. siyatnnda. niyatunda. 

bayatanda, ayatanda, tiyntanda, iyatanda. 

2. Pkkkeit : loved (lately), or have loved. 

Sing, ngitnudilc. utandile. 

utandilf, lilandile, itnndile, ititiindile, 
utandile, lutandile. butundile, kuiandiU. 



CONJUGATIOX OF VEEBS. lOcf 

Plur. sitandile. nitandile. 

batandile, atandile, zitondiU, itaadile. 

3. Past : loved. 

Sing, ngatanda. vsaianda. 

watanda, laianda, ydia.nda, satando. 

vjatanda, Iwatanda, bicaianda, Inraioadfi. 
Plur. smtanda. natanda. 

batanda, atanda, zajta.ndo, yatanda. 

4. FtTTTJEE : shall, or Tvill, love. 

Sing, ngyyakivtanda. vyakidanda. ^\tJul^AJL^ 

uyakutanda, Uyakutanda, iyakutanda, »iyaJ:utanda , •'] 
uyakutanda, luyahutanda, buyakuto.nda , kuyokutanda.- 

Plur. siyakutanda. niyakutanda. 

bayakutanda, ayakutanda, ziyakutaiido , iyakutanda. 

Contracted Future. 

Sing, ngotanda. wotaiida. 

wptanda, lotanda, yotanda , sotanda, ^\ 

wotanda, hco^tanda, botanda, kwotanda. 
Plur. sotanda. notanda. 

botanda, otanda, zotanda, yotanda. 

5. IsiPEEFECT : was. Or have been, loving {lately). 

Sing, baigitanda. uVidanda. i^^d.1^ '*i>£ ** 

nt'etanda, belitanda, ib'itanda, besitanda. ^T^r' 

ub'utanda, belutanda, bebutand,a, bekutanda. 
Plur. besitanda. benitanda. 

bebetanda, o.b'etanda, bezitanda, ib'itanda. 
Plupeefect : had. loved (lately). 
Sing, bf/ngiitandile. ub'utandile. 

Mbjetamlile, &.< 

7. Ineffective : should have luvt-d {lately). 

Sing. be\igHyakitltand.a. ub'uyakutando . 

ub'eyakutanda, &c. 

8. Past-Impeefect : -was, or have been, lo^^.ug. 

'.sitand.j, ^J^'S/*' f**"^ 
wautanda, Iwaluianda, bwabutanda, ku-akutanda.^'^- ''tf;\^^ 

Plui". sasitanda. nanitanda. ■ i ^ 

babetanda, ab'etanda,, zazitandM, yaitanda. ' ' ' ' 

9. Past-Pldpeefect : had loved. 

Sing, ngaingitandile. uautandile. 

u'ao'etandile, &c. 




Sing, ngatanda. wautanda . 'J\- 

wab'etanda, lalitanda, yaitanda, sasl' '' 



InO CONJUGATION OK VEKBS. 

10. Past-Is'EFKEltive : should have loved. 

Sinjf. nganyiyaku/tanda. tcauyaknli'nil'U 

wab'eijaiutanda, &.£. 

Potential Mood. 

I. Frksent: may, can, oii^ht.coulil, should, wuuld, love, or be loving. 

Sing. ngingnAanda. ungatanda. 

angatanda, lingataiula, Jkc. 

'1. l.Mi'KRFECT : might, could, kc, have loved, or been loving (lately). 

Sing. \>ingii\galanda . \lV ungatanda . 

Mb'engatanda, belingatanda, &c. 

;>. Past-Imperfect : might, could, ic, have loved, or been loving. 

Sing, ngdngl/ngajtanda. icaungatanda . 

vnb'i'ujatitnda, lalingatanda, Ac. 

Optative Mood. 

1. Present : would, should, must, ought, to love. 
Sing, nga-'gilanda. ngunliu'dn, 

ngaetanda, ngalitanda, &c. 

"_'. 1'krfect : wuuld, should, must, ougin i>\ haw iuvtd {Uuini). 
Sing, ngahigitandile. ngautandile. 

ugactnudile, ngalitandile, &e. 

:{. Pa.st : would, should, must, ought to, have loved. 
Sing, ngangatanda. ngatcatanda. 

ligau-iitanla, ngalatando , kc. 

4. Impekfect: would, should, must, ought to, have been loving 
nately). 

Sing. ugtingHieiigitanda. ngaub'utando. 

iigavb'etanda, ugnlibelitand)!, &v. 

.'. Plupekfe<t : would, should, must, ought to. have loved ( la(tly). 
Sing. ngrmgihangiJandile. ugaub'utandiU. 

itgneb'etiiiidilf, ngtilibelitiindiU, &c. 

)i. PART-lHPKRrKCT : wouM, should, must, ought to, luiTeboeo loving. 
Sing, ugttngtmgi/ionda. ngatrautm;' ■ 

itgauitb'ftanda, ngalalilanda, &.C. 

7. Pakt-!*(.i would, should, must, ought, to. liavo loved. 

Sing. ' iiiWi/c ngawnutandiU. 

,ijdu..ili:t^iitd\U, ngalalUaHdiU, &c. 



conjugation or verbs. 107 

Subjunctive Mood. 
(that I) may, might, should, &.C., love. 

Sing, ngitande. uta.nde. ~. f\ --- 

atande, litande, itande, sitande, 

xitande, lutande, butande, kutande. 
Plxir. sitande. nitande. 

Subjunctive, used as Imperative : let me love, &.c. 
Sing, ongitande. utande. 

katande or atande, alitande. Sec. 

Plur. asitande. anitande. 

abatande, katande or atande, &c. 

Contracted Future, used as Imperative : let me love, «S:c. 

Sing, angotanda. ivotanda or awotanda. 

kotanda, alotanda, ayotanda, asotanda, 
awotanda, alwotanda, abotanda, akotanda. 

Plur. asotanda. anotanda. 

abotanda, kotanda, azotanda, ayotanda. 



108 NEGATIVE VERBS. 



CHAPTER XV. 



NKiiATlVr VEBliS. 



259/ The Iniperatire and Infinitive Moods are made uegufiir 
h}' inserting: ngn iiiiniediatcly before the verb- root, and chang- 
ing the final " of the hitter to i, except in the case of tshoniid 
zira and all pussire forms, wliich do not change their final 
vowels in this case. 

2G0. The above form of Imperative is rather digsuasive and 
clehortdtorij. But the Imperatives musn and miuaxni are used, 
as below, with the Infinitive, to forhlil an action. 

Ex. musa ukutanda, do not love ; musa ukwenza iija/o, do not dos«'. 
musanfujh/yajtofirt, don't gotht're; mnsnni ututii/un»«, don't talk. 

N.B. musa may be a contraction for mukita, ' send away, dismiss.' 
The passive form musua is used in the sense ' be sent away.* 

201. The throe simple tenses of the Indicative are made 
, negative by prefi.xing /.a or " to the pron(nin, and changing 
\ the " of the present into /, IvIVl annexing ntjn to the <t of the 
Apast . \ oc /i-'U'^c*."^ 

Ex. ^igitandi or kangilandi, I do not loyc ; auiandi or lr*u<(indi,'thoti 
dost not love. 

nngitandili', I loved not, or have not lovod (Uittly) : autandiU, 4c. 
nngilandiingn , I loved not, or have not loved ; autandanga, Ac. 

The tenses ure conju^^ited thr.ni;ihout iix iibove, except that kn is 
always used in the negutive forms correspondinjf ton, 3nl Pers. Sing. 
Personal, and to a, ;jrd Pers. Phiml, lus kattindi.katandHe. hUmulanga. 
N.n. ka is often employe<l t<> throw emphiwis on the netfativo. 
Ex. il'asit/i()ii(in<i'iMtni(ii, we found not a person. 

k'umuhlc (oraumuhle) wena, umuf>\, thou art not handflonio, thou 
art xifjly. 

2t)2. The two expressions «Mj<7i7a»«/»7t'. antjiiaiuhnga, might 
be used al)ont the *siime object. lint the former wouKl 
exprc.s.s the settled feeline >>t itiv .l<- thi> latter only the 
momentartj action. 



NEGATIVE VERBS. lUU 

Ex. ngihlezi iigokatile aiigitokozile kahle, I continue for a certain 
reason not in a happy state. 
angitokozanga ngaleso'sikati, I did not rejoice at that time. 

263. The negative Pai'ticiples. corresponding to the above 
three ten.ses, are formed, like the negative Imperative. ) 
Ex. njingatandi, I not loving, ungatandi, engatan'di, &.c. 

ngingatandile, I having not loved (lately), ungatandile, enga- 
tandile, &c. 

ngiagatandanga . I not having loved, ungatandanga, engatanda- 
nga, &.C. 

26-i. The compound tenses of the Indicative follow one or 
other of the above rules, according to their composition. 

Thus the future takes the negativeinthe^:>/"e5C/(-^of ?/a or ri?. 
Ex. angiyikutonda or kaagiyikutanda, I shall or will not love ; Part. 

ngingayikuianda . 

nuyikutanda or k'uyikutanda,th.oxi shalt or will not love. 

kayikutanda, he or she shall or will not love. 

angiziktibala t^angiz'ukubala, angizokubalaj , I shall not (come 

to =) be able to reckon. 

And the Imperfecl.^, Pluperfects, and luefedives, take the 
negative in the Participle of the principal verb. 
Ex. bengii(i£ata.ndi, I was not loving (lately). 

bengingatandilc or benginyatandanga, I had not loved (lately), 
bengingayikutanda, I should not have loved (lately). 
ngangingatandi, I was not loving. 

&c. etc. 

2Go. After a Pelative, the Simple Tenses take the negative 
in the .same way as Participles, avoiding thus the collision of 
the relative vowel with the ner/nfice A'owel 't. 

Ex. yena ongaluliyo (^ a-v.ngalaliyo) , he, who does not sleep. 
abangayikutanda, they who will not love. 

206. The negative forms for the Potential are as follows. 

Ex. ngingetande, I may or might, &c., not love. 

bengingetande, I might, &c., not have loved (lately), 
ngangingefande, I might, &c., not have loved. 
singeze .lafihla nokufihla, we could not have thoroughly con- 
cealed it. 

267. Those for tlie Optative avo formed bj ])reh5:ing ,nja (or 
ngincja, luiga, &c.) to the negative forms of the correspondiuo- 
indicative participles. 



11(» NEGATIVE VERE«;. 

Ex. nga ngingatamli, I shorild, &c., ought, not to lov. 

nga ngingatandilc, I should,\c., ought, not to have lov(.d {lately), 
ung'ungakaenzi loko, thou shouWst, &c., not do this. 

2G8. The Sithjnncfire takes for its negative form, ugingatandi 
(that) I may or might iKjt h)vc. 

269. Tlie following are examples of the eonjugatiou of the 
prineipal tenses of tlie verb, taken negatively, hy means of 
vrhieh, as models, all the others may be conjugated. 

Impeeative Mood. 
Sing, nngatandi, do not thou love. Plur. ningutaudi, lovi- yo not. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present : luve not, or am not loving. 

Sing. iifng{tand\. a^t\ai\di. 

kaiandi, alitandi. aitandi, asitandi. 

iiutandi, ahi(andi,iibutand\, akutandi. 
Plur. asitandi. anitandi. 

ahatandi, kata)idi or anitandi, <i:i7tiii(fi, aitandi. 

Participle : not loving. 

Sing, ngingatandi. vngatandi. 

engatandi, Ungalandi, &c. 
Plur. singatandi ningatandi. 

bengatandi, engatandi, &.c. 

Impekfe<'T: was, orhftve been, nut loving (lately.) 

Sing, hengingntnndi. uh'ungatandi. 

ub'engalandi, brliitgatandi, ih'ingatandi, bi'simjaiandi, 
uh'uug'itandi, bdu nga laud i, bebungatandi, bekungatandi. 

Plur. betingntandi. beningatandi. 

bebengatandi, ab'engatandi, betingatandi, i6'iH<)<if<nidt. 

Part-Imperfkct : was, or hiive been, not loving. 
Sing, ngangingatandi. «•<'• ' 

irab'etigatiindi, lalingntandi, ' . <«i<tMj;n(iiN</i. 

traungatnndi,lirnlungntitndi,i ,...M)t<2i, iirrtiiiHjnfiiMWi 

Plur. ia$ingatandi. naningalandi. 

babrngalandi, ab'engatandi, aaaingataHdi, yaiHgniandi. 

PoTKNTlAI. MoOP. 

Pbkhknt : may. can, A.c.. not \>ty^^ 

Sin((. »ij7wi<;i"<finrf<'. uujflir..! 

amietande, Ao 



NEGATIVE VERBS. Ill 

Imperfect : might, covild, &.c., not have loved or Leen loving (i!afeZj/). 
Sing, ngangingetande. iib'ungetande. 

ub'engetande, &c. 

Past-Impeefect : might, could, &c., not have loved or been loving. 
Sing, ngangingetande. xcaungetand,:. 

ivah'engetande, kc. 

Optative Mood. 
Present : should, would, must, ought, not to love. 
Sing, ngangingatandt. ngaungatandi. 

■' ngaevgatandi, &c. 

SrBJUNCTivE Mood. 

(that I) may, or might not love. 
Sing, ngingalandi. ungaiandi. 

angatandi, &c. 

■Subjunctive, used as Imperative : let me not lovo. 
Sing, angingatandi. aungatandi. 

kangatandi, alingatandl, &c. 



112 rse OF the paeticles sa and se. 



(■lIAI'Ti:K XVI. 



usi: OF iui: i-aimk.i.ks sa and si:. 

'170. Tlie p.ii'tii-le x»6 (pi-ohably :i fraj^iiu'ntiiry Prcseut f rom 
iho vcrl) aiilit) is inserted as below, in the Present or Perfeet 
Tense «)r Pnrtieiple, {including, therefore, the Future forms, 
and others cumpounded witli ji Pai;ticiple,) to express the 
inntlnHinice or iiroifi>.s>iii>ii of ati actiony It may be represented 
in Enjiflisli according to the context by notr, still, j/<7, //«;h, Ac. 

Ex. iigisitiiindo, I am still loving. 
ngisalclc, I am still lying clown. 

"J~l. This particle ><•'. when used with a, negative verb, may 
bo geneially c.xpre.ssi'd by nnij 711010, am/ htuijur, at aiKjSic 
Ex. niiisattutdi, ye ilo not any longer love. Part, ningasatatuti, 
knsaijikvtandu, he will no more love. 

iiiigis'ii'ukukuhimr, I will not yet come to talk any more. 
okuhikus'iliitshu'o uija'hito, it is no longer cured V»y an\-thing. 
itanainhla loku tistthahii>t, and to-day he is still oallindf tlieiii 
( — he has not yet cuUed them). 

27'2. Instead of .s-.r, sh is used in the same sense before a 
noun, adjective, adverb, or adverbial expression. 

Ex. niselapa, we are still here : iLs-f/oiur, he is still (hen? ) olive. 
nniakusenjalo, if it (is) still so. 
imlawo isekude, the place is still far off. 

Sometimes uW'-, itself, is used for sr. 

V.x. <u«(7*»'</oi»ir»u' (<is'f<iomfnf) Mitn'amabuto lairo, those soliliers had 

liy this time ehallenged eaeli other. 

uniHti kii'Sr»toi>>i<iki>iiti ti$fli' i-irotiitc (unriroiii/r), the family of 

Sen/aiig'.ikoua he lias now niined it. 

'27'.\. The participh; ha is used like «>« with u neg.itJve verl» 
to express ' not yet.' 

Ex. <i»ikatnndi, we ilo not yet h'Ve : I'art. liui/akaiaHdi . 
I.nknboixi, he diK'H n<>t yet kee : I'art. fn^iiinboni. 
uti'rntjokojiki. In- had not vet nrrivwl. 



USE OF THE PARTICLES SA AND SE. 113 

sifike bengakafiki bono, we are come (thev not vet arriving) 

before them. 

akafiki (ko.kofiki) ? is he not yet come. 

aufc'aai, thou dost not yet know ; ahakavami, they do not yet 

consent. 

274. The particle se (pi-obublj a fragmentary Pei'fect from 
sala) is prefixed to a Participle with the force of noiv, just 
now, = bi/ this time, or, then, jufi then, ^= h;/ that time,- — 
marking the exact roiiimcncemenf, or comphiiov. of an action. 

Ex. sengitanda, by this time I love = I begin nov.- to love. 
s'etanda, by this time he is loving. 

seutandile, by this time thou hast loved =^ thou hast done loving. 
seniyakutanda, aow ye will love, = ye will begin now to love. 
sesisauke (or sisezauke) sipumule, we will now get that we rest, =- 
get a bit of rest, where ke stands colloquially for ka. 
abantu basebemqapele e)idhleleni, the people had by this time 
noticed him in the path. 

275. In point of fact, the pronoun of sc is omitted in the 
above expressions, just as that of ie is in the imperfect ; and 
the whole tense se.ujitawJa may be conjugated like ho/^ifando.. 

Sing, sengitanda. us'utanda. 

us'eta7ida, selltanda, is'itanda, sesitanda, 
us'xiianda, selutanda, sebutanda, sekutanda . 

Plur. sesitanda. senitanda. 

sebetanda,, as'etanda, s'ziianda, is'itanda. 

And the same forms serve for the Participle, ext-ept that, for 
tis^etanda and iis'etaiida, the Participial form will be es'etaiida. 
Frequently, hovrever, see'anda (s'etanda), t<e'da)ula, seutanda, 
are used for as'etandii, is'itanda, matanda. 

Whenever se comes before the sound of u in the next 
syllable, it may be strengthened to so. 

Ex. sokwanele, it is enough ; soivofa, he was ah'eady dead. 
sobufikile ii(shifal'i , the tshwala has alreidy arrived. 
sokuy' isikati sokndhla, it is now the time for eating. 

N.B. Instead of soivafa, in the preceding set of examples, it is more 
common, where a x>erson is spoken of, to hear its'a/a, = useivafa. 

So us'afika, be v/as already come ; us'abulawa, he was already killed ; 
us'ermika, he was ah'cady gone ; us'agodv.ka, he was already gone home ; 
us'a/ioJa, he has already drawn (his pay) : but uso.hoht, ho is now 
drawing his pay. 

The plural of the above would be sebafa, sebafika, &c. 

Ex. usafa yena us'ef'ehamba nje, he is dead already, lie is now dead 
(though) walking, -plnr. sebafa bono, sebe/e (sebefele) behambanje. 



114. i;.SK OK THK PAKTIiLKS SA AND SK. 

kus'aqule (\Auv. kusebaqule) kuleyo'mlaivo, hoia fixed to that spot. 

kirasolumvk'i-l-e impi Ico'Dingave, thereupon Dingane's impi 

departed. 

kwasoku^'vleiri' yena ■j/cc/iro. tliere had now l>een killed he alone. 

tf'eti uMkiibuyi, ' Akuhulnirr nUhhutgaua ! ' .teehuhiwn-ke xtMhla- 

ngana, then says Uuikabayi, ' Let Umhlanijaua be killed I ' so 

Dinhlaugaiia is killed. 

In like manner we have contraeliinis like tlii' follnuiii(»'. 
Ex. kaz'abona'luto {kazawabonu). he did not <;et to see anything, 

plur. abazc (abnza) buboiia'lutn. 

krva' Sonyoni vmuntu angex'atolun (migeze watohca), at 8onyoni'8 

a man would not be (i.e. would not wish to be) adoi)tod. 

angez'nvapttzti (ungeze irau-apuzn) la'imimi, he eoiild not have 

dnink this water. 

lesi'gubn sUiobokih; ; umuufu angez'aicakn (nngi^ze wawaka, plur. 

bavgeza htnvnka) amnnzi ngasn, this ealabash has <^ot a hole in 

it; a person (eonld not have <lrawii i . nm.it .liiu u:it<'r 

with it. 

'276. From the following ccamples. the .siiuleut wilL^^eehow 
to conjugate the othei- tenses with -sc. 

iMPERFF.eT. 

Sing, besciuiilaitdii. ui'iis'uttiiula. 

tib'es'elanda, bi'stUlaiid<i, ib'is'itundn, beni'-^iiiitnUi , 

nb'us'utauda, bcschilandu, heaebutaudn, besekutamUi. 
Plur. bcsesHatida. watts' utanda. 

hesebetanda, ab'es'elmida, besesitanda, kwasekiitunda. 
Plur. snsesilanda. iinseuitanda. 

basebetitiida, nb')'s'cl<iudn, sasezitnudn, yais'iliindit. 

Potential Prksknt : may, ean, \c., by this time love. 

Sing, sengiutiiifanda. us'nitgiitnnda . 

us'engatiiiHln, selingntaHdn, is'ingtttandii, fningnlanda, 
Ha'ungntiinda, nclnngulnudn, nehuiigatiiiidii, sekunynlandn. 

Plur. aesingutanda. fi'niiujatanda. 

sehengatiindt, a»'cngatandii, .it'iingalnnda, ijt'tHffa'nnda. 

OrTATiVK PA8T-Pi-urERKKeT : stumld, Jte., by that time have loved. 
Sing. )ign)i'iii»i'tigilnuditi\ »i_7(iiri»»f.»"t»'''.-;rft'c. 

njdii'iib'i'a'vlandile, ngaliiM'lilundilf, ■ 

snni'sHnndile, ugawout'utaiidilf. »;/ 

/<i(')i >■>■//)/ /fi.ii{i7(>, ugakwaffkiitdudilf. 
I'liir. ,1 ;m i« .l^^l(^7>• npanasenitaitdiU. 

„j:i'iiist'iitinidil4\ ugaab'et'ttandile, ngasubttitandUt, nga- 

ynis'itnndile. 

In tiu- l'a«t. Imperfect, and IMuiHrfwl Ten»c«, n rontmction i.n 
• 'ftcn made ar* f»>n<'Ws. 



USE OF THE PAiJTICLES SA AXD ,SE. 115 

iJx. icas'eagilandile (=wab'es'engitandile), he ha.] bv this time 
loved me. 

u-as'eziwisa (= ivab'es'eziwisa^ pansi i>gamobomv, he was by this 
time throwing himself down on purpose. 

uDingane u-aseVehlanganisa (= uab'es'ehl<tnganisa) ivipi yake, 
plur. bosele bchlanganiso. (=basebehla,iganisa), Din<Tane was 
by this time collecting his impi. '^ 

ang'es'ezuile (angab'es'ezwUe) iiabamha, he would have ali-eadv 
heard and undei-stood. 

N.B Mark the idiom in the last example, when a Phtperfert for 
Perfeci) is followed by a Past Tense. * 

111. The relative vowel is set before se. 

Ex. lou-o'ynuntuosowafc. or (osofa), kv.akuag-owaka'Zatshuhe, that 
man who died was one of Zatshuke's, plui-. labo'bantu asebafa 
kwakv. ng abantii haka'Ngoza. ' 

2/8. The following are illustrations of the use of sa and $e 
Ex. besahambile, they having now (all this time) gone. 
sebehamhile. they having now (by this time) gone. 
■iigingabengis'azi, (that) I should not at all know. 
angaVesafa amakaza, (that) he should not be already dvino- 
with cold. J J -, 

useuyabona, thou art now seeing; so basebayahoim (or sohaya. 
bona), use ayabona, kc. 

umzimba use'buhlungu, my body is still in pain. 
tunzimba us'ii'buhlungu, my body is now in pain. 
sasala saba (sasesiba) isitupa nje (we remained we were =) we 
were now only six. 

akusez-ukuba'rnuntu tra'luto, he wiU never more become a man 
(of) woi-th anything. 

h'nguboindala, akuse'nto yalulo (akuse'luto ia'Zufo), this blanket 
is old. It IS (not still) no longer (a thing of somethino') worth 
anything. °' 

kungase'niahlaya kuyena, it being no longer a joko with liim. 
uyihlo usahlezi na (usekona na) ? is your father still alive ? 
kasatandi ukuvuka, he no longer wishes to rise. 
<ius(iyikukn-enza Joko, thou wilt no more do it, that. 
asisnyikupinda s'enze nje, we will no more repeat (that we do it) 
to do it. ^ 

mhlaumbenga usal'azi leli'gama, ingabe usakohlwa, perhaps, may 
be, thou still knowest this song, it may be thou at this time 
forgettest. 

uTshaka aseko -. sewabulawa abantuana benkosi, Tshaka is no 
longer here (aUve) : he has been already kiUed by the children 
■oi the king. 

ikanda lakelibi, selaba Uhi, his head is bad, it was already bad 
uiigalingis'okirabanye abofana labo asebatata imikuba emibi 
i2 



JIC I m: 1.1 I UK I'AKTTCLES SA AXU SK. 

dou't yi'U iuiitato the (doing) of these other boys who have 
iih-ei'.dy j^ot evil habits. 

niii iiiiiriasenidhlile nje it'esuta nisase ngabmit u ? do you, when 
you may have now eaten and were filled, exult over people? 
nganriisayipongc vfjctshc inscle, yahuka nje, I had at this time 
struck the honey -bear with a Rtone, it just looked (at me). 
kicahc kusajike oMlozikazana beti bazakumclapa ; qa '. h'ahluleka, 
thei'e was come by this time the isanvsi (plur. exrellcntice) think- 
ing (that) they will lual him ; no ! they were beaten. 
wah'esrniitluduzclc, kaz'atula (-- kaza watula) she (was still 
having liushed him — -) kept hushing him, he never got quiet. 
isayiik'ifii Ic'nkahi, loku uhle vyigqnle ngaiiiandhla ugoti, this ox 
will now die ( - after a while), since you are continually poking 
it violently with a rod. 

is'iyakul'a {sriyaktifit) Ic'nkabi, loku uyigquUlc ngomkonto, this 
ox will now die (-^ as the result of an act), since you have 
poked it witli an assegai. 

scloku uJof'o initi iiijauugipa timkonto, eminaloko usangipa, ever 
since Joju ."said he will give me an assegai, up to this time he is 
still giving (it) to me. ( - he has not yet given it to me). 
Ihuiastiue nkufn knennyaugn, it having still not rained at the 
end of tlie month (from some time spoken of). 
lingakaiii ukiifu kvrnuyaugn, it not having yetrainedat the end 
of the inontli. 

hetigiikdhl'nxjnnisva, they not being yet assembled. 
.si'i/Viirrt, kryut nsikaqondi kahle tina, we hear, but we do not yet 
well understand. 

iisiknkiviizi loko, we do not yet know that. 

honingakndhli mi ? ni .' akitknhiko'uku(ihla,]\\i\ye you not yet been 
eating? n<> ! there is not yet fo«>d here. 

Vfib'vngakadhli tia Y at '. kirakungnkahikn itkudhla, had he not 
yet been eating ? no ! there was not yet food there. 
kakawah'ti atuahashi ; kak'eviuki; kakahanibi, \hoy (a inadoda) do 
not yet bring the horses ; they are not got off ; they do not 
yet g... 



SUBSTAXTIVE, VOWEL, AXD PASSIVE VERBS. 117 



CHAPTER XVII. 

substantive, vowkl, and passivi: verbb. 

279. Substantive Vekh. 

The follovring are the regular tenses of the verb, ha, to be. 

Imperative. 
Positive. Negative. 

yiba,yihani migohi. vinnobi. 

Infinitive. 

Nt^M/jifr. ulcunyahi. 
Indicative. 
Present ngiba, ngiyaba. Fart, ngiba. angibi. Fart, ngingabi. 

Perfect ngibe. angibanga. 

Past ngaba. angaba. 

Future ngiyakuba, contr. ngoha. angiyikuba. 

Ineffective bengiyalcuba. bengingayiJcuba. 

Past-Ineffective nganqiyakuba. yigangingayikuba. 

Potential. 
Present ngingaba. ngingebe. 

Imperfect bengingaba. bengingebe. 

Past-Impei"fect ngangivgaba. ngangingebe. 

Optative. 
Present ngangihu. ngangingabi 

Perfect ngavgibc. ngangingabanga. 

Subjunctive. 
■ngihc. ngingabi. 

Ex. albanga isaba na'kwala, he (indodu) had no more power to refuse. 
kabangct esaba namandhla okukuluma, he had no more power 
to speak. 

nba uya us'ejikile-ke kiviina, here he comes, he has arrived, you 
see (ke), to me. 

uyaba (or ubauya) ufikilc-ke nomsindo, liere he is, he has come 
with (his) noise. 
zonke izinnqola ziba mjnko nn ? all the wagons were how many ? 



118 SUBSTANTIVK. VOWKL, ANI> PASSIVE VKKBS«. 

280. The Potential Innigaha, it may be, (or ingabe, for 
ingnha (284), whore i refers to into understood,) is often 
abridged to ngn. it may be, perhaps, &,c. 

Ex. ang''azi unia uCoIoIo, nga iiyise, nga udade wabo, y'ini na, 1 

don't know whether Cololo is, perhaps, his father, perhaps. 

his sister. 

iv'es'iba uti fiuia nga (ingaba or ingabe [284]) indhlu yake 

iyakucitiva, he feared he thinks lest may-be his house would 

be destroyed. 

Vina wenza njalo, nga wema kahle ang'azi kodwa mina, if you do 

so, i)erhaps you do well, but I do not know for my part. 

nga (kungaba or ingaba) uhamba ngendhlela njalo. may-be he is 

goinj^r on by the path continually ; 
but ngaehamha (Opt. Pros.) ngendhlela njalo, he should, must, 

ought to, bo going on by the patli continually. 

N.B. In the above instances, nga expresses only a supposition, 
implying tho possibility of the thing stated, not a conjecture, implying 
its probability in the speaker's judgment, which latter will not be 
I'xpressed by kiingaha {nga) but by kungati. kungatiti, kungaloku. &C.. 
(kunga). 

281. In Zulu, the root of the substantive verb is not 
generally expressed in the present tense of its participle, and 
frequently not in the positive past, the pronoun being used 
directly before nouns, adjeetives. adverbs. &c 

Ex. ngikona, I am here or 1 was there; us'mAoiki (souA-oiia), thou art 
here or wast tliere ; knko [kakona,) he is not there. 
ngilapii. 1 (am) hen- ; kukona. it (is) here or there: akukona, it 
is not liore or tliere ; kna njalo-ke, it was so. 
heku kuhle. it (was) well ; kiraku kubi, it (was) ill : 113a kuhle, it 
woubl (he) well ; ku-a ukupcla, it (was) the end. 
(leii i^:^ hesiba) habili, we (were) two; heni ng'ahanttrana, ye 
(wore) children : kwn y'imina xresitatu, there (was) I the third. 
amadoda atnhlaba ngeinikonto yambili, tho men stnbbetl him 
with assegais, there were two. 
kira'sik'iti nmnji', it (was) the timi' now. 

itinQungun<thlnru irabomru ignsi labelungu, Umgtmguudhlovii 
(was) red with tho bl..ud of white men. 

i('<i ulUuganr *'»'fhckf u Muniji^si ngapaiubili. Din^^nne (was) 
having already put Manyosi in front, had already put, 4c. 
{~~ viili'es'ebeke). 

ba ngangoishiini kanqaka, they (were) Ijke gnxss bo mnny. 
wa a'emuka I irali'es'emuka ) njr. he (wtu<^ he uow just goes nwny 
- he wan now just going away, plur. baaebemuka. 
untiyahnli-kit'kr, we (were\ we aiv for running ftwny *- we 
were for running away. 



SUBSTANTIVE, VOWEL^ AND PASSIVE VERBS. 119 

wasouyigangada ngeiiduku, lie (was) he now poiinds it (inkabi) 
with a stick, := he was pounding it with a stick. 

282. Hence we can con jugate whole tenses with kona (oi' 
some other adverb) in place of a verb-root. 

Sing, bengikona. ub'ukona. 

ub'ekona, (Part. pb'ekona),belikona, ib'ikona, besikona, 

ub'ukona, belukona, beb\tkona> bekukona. 
Plur. besikona. henikono. 

bebekona, aVekona, (Part, eb'ekona), bezikona, ib'ikona. 
Sing, ngangikona. xvaukona, 

wab'ekona, lalikoao. waikoaa, sasikona, 

waukona, Iwalukono , bwabnkona or babukona, kivakukona. 
Plur. sasikona. nanikona. 

babekoyia, ah'ekono, zazikona, yaikona. 
Ex. kwakukona abanye about u abatile, thei'e wero other persons 
present so many (counted on fingers). 
belikona ihashi clihle, there was a boantiful horse there. 

y 

So, also, with se, we hare. 

Sing, sengikona. us'ukona ov soukona. 

us'ekona, (Part, es'ekono), selikona, is'ikona or seikona. 
Plur. sesikona. 

&c. <ic. 

Ex. wapunia sebekona, he went out, they being by this time there ; 
but ivapuma besekona, he went out, they being still there. 
So bafikn es'ekona, they arrived, he being now there : 
but bafiko, esekona, they arrived, he being still there. 

283. In the negative participle nge is used before a nouu, 
adjective, ailverb. etc., instead of nga. just as se (272) is used 
instead of ."o. 

Ex. ngingeko, I not being present; kungeko, it not being there. 
kwakungeko'cala, there was no fault. 
bengeko, they not being present. 
sebengeko, they being by this time not present. 
bengaseko, they being no longer present. 

284. The terminal vowel a of ha, ya. ;■«, or auij verb, used 
to help out the raeanintr of another verb, is frequently changed 
in utterance to c, ap|)areiitly in the effort to make the whole 
expression more distinctly one. by getting rid of the intciTupt- 
ing vowel sound of a. 

Ex. iigabe (ngaba) ng'esaba, I was fearing. 

niyakube (niyakuba) nitanda, ye will Im- loving. 

niyakuze nife, ye will come to die. 

anisoze (anisayikuza) n'enze loku, you will never come to do this. 

kona sizaxibuyc sihmabe, then we will go again. 



120 SUBSTANTIVE, I'ASSIVK. AND VOWKI, VERBS. 

kazaze {kazaza or azaza) zatanda, they (izintomhi) did not get 
to love. 

sahambe sesiwuguguda, we went on now crunching it {umbila). 
kivaqale (knaqala) kuuhlanganisa elika'Nzobo. there first 
engaged the (soldiers, ibiifo) oi Nzobo. 

inhliziyo atigabc (angaba) ngisayiziva (my) heart I was not feel- 
ing it any longer, -- I acteil wildly, without restraint. 
ausoze (ausoza ) wavuta umlilo lo, this fire will never get to have 
blazed. 

nake (naka) naya ezinnyangeni? did you go at all to the doctors? 
kangaze {kangaza) n'/'azi vhtba vti-ni, I did not come to know 
what he (says) said. 

kangaze ngawvb na umkumbi, I never saw the ship. 
angisezc (angisozc) ngayizeka indaha, I will never have told the 
story. 

kicnbc (kwabn) futi ngid'ilela epangufui i'makma, there was I 
also eating in a hurry it (i»ini/a»i<i ) being cold. 
nngaqale (ungaqala) nti naziya izinkomo ! kanti y'izonaizinnyati. 
you migh'i Ijegin l>y saying there are cattle over there! where- 
as there they are bufifaloes. 

wapinde (wapi.ula) uati asiviupejuti, he (repeated he said) said 
again (that ) we should give him again. 

gudhlanii no Mziiiokn /o, ytiia cynutahetshc ayijikisf indaba yako 
le, step aside with Umziwoka (Mr. Walker) here, him who will 
quickly bring forwaixl this your matter. 

ktraihra he, niyauhanihc iiidhla zona, it was said, ye will go on 
eating these (ixinkouw). 

angabe (angaba) ngismjibona iaduku ymui, I (was not any longer 
seeing) no longer saw my staff. 
So sizakifcnze vjani, we .-^liall <li> how 'f 

2H5. Vo\vi;i, Vkhiis. 

Fn conjnj^atini;; Von'rJ.Vt'ihs. .somo very n:itural uH.sions, Ac, 
laki! plac', Avhii'li tlo imt require iiny |Kirticulrtr notice. 

Kx. n'u/iika {ni yn aka), yo are building ; nii'vfnba (itiaaetaba), ye 

still fear. 

aiynkwazi {siyakuati,) wo shall know ; sowahlulilt ($ouahluliU), 

thou hast now overconu?. 

ag'itln (nga'ala ugnmlti), he should refuse; iib«traAiI« (wieM- 

o»n7.'), he had injured. 

ihryeqa (ibeieqa), it {innja) was leaping; BO ub'eqa, ab'eqa, ubc- 

Ui'qil. 

yascyithhilfkile {yaniiiiihiU'kili-), it (iiaj't) w»u» Uu* uvercoiue. 

niiget'ota {anyctcw'ota), hi' cannot got to i\v\ Viiusi'lf. 
So iiiy'ctwanini? do you hear ? 

2H»). Tin* Ki'lativc, u.s wo have seen. nhw^. .-^ .ij.j.. ...... .u .<..» 

• other id" the forms, «», r, o. Wlien the ivlntive comes 



SUBSTANTIVE, PASSIVE, AND VOWEL VERBS. 121 

before a vowel- verb, the sound of vj is (almost of necessity) 
inserted after a or o, and that of // after e. 
Ex. umuti owembehcayo, a tree that was dug up. 

inkoino eyapukileyo, a broken ox, i.e. with leg, &c., broken. 

/286. Passive Verbs. 

In conjugating Passive Verbs, it must be noted that the 
Perfect drops the I of its termination He before the w;, which is 
the sign of the passive voice.) 

Ex. ngitandiwe, for ngitandilwe, I have been loved {laiely). 

287. Otherwise, the different tenses are formed and conju- 
gated for the passive voice, just as for the active, with corres- 
ponding variations of meaning. 

Ex. ngita7id%va, ngiyatoAidwa, ngitandiive, ngaiandwa, &c. 

iiglyakutandiva, &c., hengitandvja, &c., ngav gitandica , &c. 

So, also, negatively, 

angitandwa, angitandiv:e, angiiandivanga, &c. 
Part, ngingatandwa, ngingatandiwe, 'iigingatandivanga, A.c. 

288. The Perfect is often abridged as in the active voice. 
Ex. tandwe, londolozwe, hingiselive, &c. 

for tandiwe, londoloziwe, lungiscliwe, &c. 

N.B. The verb tsho, say, makes its perfect thus : Active, tshilo. 
Passive, tshuvo, with the corresponding negatives, tshongo and tshi- 
luongo. 

The present form, tsho, remains the same, whether taken positively 
or negatively ; and it is also used for the potential present negative, 
and for the suljjunctive mood, positive and negative. 

Ex. ngitsho, angitsho, ngingetsho, (^ukxiba) ngingatsho . 

289. Compound Tenses are formed in all the moods, by 
using the jiroper tense of the auxiliary ba, belonging to the 
mood in question, combined with some Participle of the 
principal verb. 

Imp. yiba wenza loku, be doing this. 
. yihani nihamha, be going. 

unia uyaba'kuhlala, if thou art for staying. 
Ind. ngiyakwba ngitanda, I sliall be a-loving. 

ngiyakuba nglyatn^da, I shall l)e for loving. 

ngiyakuba ngitandUe, I shall be having loved {lately). 

ngiyakuba ngatanda, I shall be having loved. 

ngiyakuba nglyakulanda, I shall be being about to love. 

hengiyakuba ngitanda, I should have been a-loving (lately). 

ngangiyakuba, ngitanda, I should have been a-loving. 
&C. \r. 



122 SUBSTANTIVE, PASSIVE, AND VOWEL VERBS. 

Pot. ngingaba ngitanda, I may, &c., be a-loving. 

ngingaba ngiyatanda, I raaj', &c., be for loving. 

ngingaba ngita-idile, I may, &c., be having loved (lately). 
Opt. {ngi) ngangiba ngiyatan Ui, I shouM, <tc., be a-loving. 

ngangiba iigifandile, I should &c., be having loved (lately). 

So also with the particle xa or .<<c. 
E.<c. jijiuyaSa nj'.sat 'tiia, I may still be a-loviug. 

ngingebe ngisatanda, I can not he any longer a-loving. 

anjeb'esaf'inda, he could not be any lunger a-loving. 

benginjebe njisat ndi, I could not have been any longer a-loving. 

angeb'esavuma, he would be not at all consenting. 

inkomo zhigaba zisaya ngakona, (that) the cattle should not go 

any longer in that direction. 

bang iz'ahlula mjilnko, they can master them through that. 

nawe ungasonbona, yi)u too would now see. 



rSE OI' THE VERB TI. 12S 



CHAPTEE XVIII. 



USE OF THE VEBB TT. 



290. The verb, ii, a.s often used as below, ^t■hni the sense is 
sitspended, either for giving emphasis, or drawing particular 
attention to what is said, or by the occurrence of a parenthe.sis. 
In such a case ii is placed in the proper tense, at the point 
where the break occurs, and with the proncun of the principal 
verb, or with the indefinite pronoun hi. It is alruost impos- 
sible at times to represent the idiom in English ; though it 
may be often expressed by means of a simple pronoun, or by 
using the verb ' find,' or the phrase 'come to pass,' 'happen,' 
&c., as helow. 

Ex. bati ukufika kv:abo, bambamba, bamtshaya, they, at their arrival> 
seized him, and beat him. 

lowo'muntu ov:ati. uoio afike lapa, uati ' ngitolani (ngitoleni) ,' 
that man who, when he came here, said ' adopt me.' 
siyauti, sidundubala lapaya emmangweni, libe li/udvmala, we 
shall (find), we getting-high there upon the hill, that it (ilanga) 
is hot. 

ngesikati '■■kuati ngaso uTshaka wapumesa impi, at the time,, at 
which it happened (that) Tshaka sent out an impi. 
ngesikati atl uDingane, uma angene ebukosini qed'nba kufe umfo 
xcabo, v:av:abuJala onkc atiiaduna amakuln nabafo icabo, at the 
time at which Dingano, when he entered upon the chieftain- 
ship, after that his brother had died, killed all the gi-eat 
captains and his brothers. 

angimtandi lowo'mfazi oicti, mhla kufaixwe,wangikahlelapansi 
kanye nczingane zami. I don't like that woman who, on the day 
when the land (died) was parched, trod me under together 
with my little ones. 

'azi ukubawotl, eselapa, abes'azi ukuba sebe pakati, he knowing 
that he, when he shall be now here, will now know that they are 
now within (his kraal). 

lubalekile ngeyas'ekaya, okuie, uba kubulawa uPiti, yaya kona, it 
(the regiment Udhlamhcdhlu) ran because of it (impi, the 
enemy) at home, wliich. when Piet (Tlotief) was killed, went 
there. 



124 USE OF THK VERB TI. 

anehlanhla lowo, ot'esamila (Plur. abate besamila), atshetshc 
agxih, abekele kuhle, that man is prosperous, who, while still 
<TOwing, quickly sends down (his roots) and looks well. 
loko ukivcnzcla nkuba kuze kuti, mhla efikayo, amhonge, that he 
does in order that it may get to come to pass (that), when he 
arrives, he may thank him. 

kxvati ebuya emuka, sases'akile lai)aya, it happened (that), when 
he went away again, we were by that time settled over there. 
kute mhla liduma kakulu lapa, y'imhla-ke epvmayo lapa ckaya, 
eya'kulala koNkaitshana, it happened, when it thundered much 
here, it was when he went hence from hoiue, gomg to sleep at 
Kaitshana's. 

at'um'ezakungena endhlini kn'Mpande, ampate nyetibnngo, as he 
was about to enter the hut of Mpande, he treated him with 
praises. 

w'ensa-niuknt'ehlczipakatikivahantn,ab'fhlesi tiyezingiihn / what 
docs he that, when sitting among people, he should be sitting 
with disobliging manners? 
Sometimes tlie voleo is rested, as it were, mi this verb, at 
tlie beginiiiuy ot" a seutence. 

Ex. kuti ndeh'lu'ayo kanti uyenayena, he wlio is despised, why he is 
the very man. 

uti angarabona uomimye, hamhlokomelc bonke, if he happens to 
quarrel with another, they will all make a noise at liim. 
kuti, vgoba uiivi' cnpa aiun/uta, ub'its'uyatukulela tigakonaloko, 
and so, beeaui=;i' you are sprinkled witli fat, you are now for 
being angry on that account. 

kutiemmiui bahlale koita, kuti ebusuku bangcue emkunjini.hy day 
they stay there, by night they enter the boat. 
hat'ahaVishumi bobasika tigowese, the twelve, they cut them 
witli knives. 

201. The j)()teiitia1 tenses of // nre iiseil to e.xpress ' it mav 
1)C,' ' probibly.' • very likely,' '1 should think,' ' I sliouM s»y.* 
&c., tlint is, always witli subjoetive refereneo ti» what is jiass- 
inji; in the thought i>f the .speaker. 

Ex. kungnti hnvgnfikn cTekwiiii probably (I sliould say) they may 

reach the lli'v. 

hxi':.iiitu kuii'gati iildaka.iipile, these thinga very likely are 

clever. 

kungaii ngibonn iudliht. it may W (that) I hoc a house, - 

imagine that I do. as in a dream, or in fancy. 

kwaugati vglhomhn rntab-'ui, it might have bei<n (that) I wn« 

walking on a mountjiin, I fancied in my drwiui that I 

was, Ac. 

kwangnti aingnbulatra yiyo, it seemed a» if we might be killed 

by it'. 



USE OF THE VERB TI. 125 

lo'viuntu kwasongati ujojiive. that man, it seemed, had been 
impaled. 

292. The expressions Icuitrjaiifl (^= Jcioujafi iti ), or scktcngatiti, 
(contr. sengatiti) or sohungatiti , are used with like meaninsr. 
Ex. kungatiti amasi, it seems to be amasi. 

sokungatiti uyena uNgoza, it looks like him, Ngoza. 
sekungatiti ngingalala. I may lie down, it seems. 
sengatiti Uzakuna kusihlwa, it looks as if it will rain this evening. 
sengatiti kxingavela umuntu angipe muuti, very likely a man may 
turn up and give me medicine. 

So in other tenses. 

Ex. ng'ezvua hwangatitv ahayitu bedhla idshwala. I heard, seemingly, 
people eating tshwala. 

kuyaungatiti loko luenzele ukuba umkohlise, it •will seem as if you 
had done that in order to deceive him. 

bekvAigatiti uimintu ehesikubona lapa'ja kiisasa, it was probably 
a man that we saw over there this morning. 

kwakungatiti indhlovu; sikubone kidolu'kalo ; naku ' kusisiteka, 
it was very likelj'^ an elephant ; we saw it on this ridge ; there ! 
it moves along. 

The above expressions are often contracted to kuiiga, seiiga, 
ktvanga, Jconga, bclmnga, k"al-uuga, &c. 
Ex. kunga umuntu, it is pi'obably a person. 

kunga, bay'eba, very likely they are for stealing. 

kimina kunga akufanele, to me it seems impro])er. 

kunga wenze lezo'zinto, it looks as if you had done those things. 

yckani okunga kubi, leave off what has the appearance of evil. 

kunga v.y'emuka, it seems you are for goiug away. 

kwanga w'etemba ijubane lalo elikuht, very likel}" you trusted to 

its great speed. 

kivanga utemba 'ukufika kwakc izolo, it seems that you were 

exijccting his arrival yesterday. 

senga seniz'enzele ngalapa nitanda ngakoaa, it seems as if yoxi 

should just do for yourselves in what direction you please. 

tulani sizwe ! %izv)a-ni ? ang'azi, kunge {kunga) indhlovu, hush, 

that we may hear ! what do you hear ? I don't know, probably 

an elephant. 

kunge angemyise lo ; kunge angayisa lo, it seems that he would 

not bring this one ; it sf^ems he would bring this one. 

knnga uyamkohlisa, you will seem to be for cheating him. 

bekunga uyalaula, it seemed that you were for joking. 

kviakxmga kasayikubuya, it seemed as if he (will) would no 

more return. 

And ngan^ay be used in a similar sense Avitli othcrpcrsonal 
pronouns. 



120 USK i>K THK VKKH Tl. 

Ex. wanga aiigowela, it sfemed as it' he ■would cross. 

iinga nhamba ngendhlela, he seemed to be walkini^ l>y the road. 

muzizima onga amatunzl ezintaha, looiuui'^ iiuss who seeniestto 

be shadows of mountains, (from one of the is i/^oni/o of Dingane). 

a'ngalo ziinbomho zinga I'ibuhesi, thou (with) arms large, like a 

liou. 

anga agatvla ngaloko, they (auiniioda) seemed (to be for being 

quiet) as if they would be quiet througli that. 

waza ivanga ^nigahaniba. at last you seem as if you wouhl go, or 

you seemed actually as if you would go -you must not think 

of going. 

waza wanga ungadlda ungdkngezi, it seemed actually as if you 

would eat without washing. 

bnzabanga bangakala ebiil-H'cle, they seemed actually (or 'at 

last they seemed ') as if they would cry, he being hard upon 

them. 

293. KunynJtih-ii, /.iiiif/chjliii, hivanijahihii, Icouijalohn, etc.. are 
used in the .same way as kintijafiti, &v. 

VjX. scngatiti ngingiike (vginjiika) ugikweh' I'hashiiii, kimgaloku ugake 
(clipi)ed for iigingaki') ngikicch' ctiiujolcui-ke, ngihambahamba 
inncoeana, very likely I uuiy get to ride on a horse, probably I 
may get to ride in a wagon, walking a little. 
usingeuisi', ktcaiignloku silungiU kuyena, lie tot">k us into (his 
house), probably because we are right (to him) in his eyes. 
wapnma lapa kiti.kwaugalokuvs'einnku Hqobo, ukuba engasayi- 
kubvya, he went out from us here, it seemed as if he was now 
going away ({uite, that he will no more return. 

■jyi. The above exjirossious. in tlieir difYerent I'orms, luay 
l)e used to oxjiress u wisli. 

VjX. ku-ga (kungnii, kungalifi, kiiiigntoku) )igiiignta»d.' , luc-geetus I 

might be loving, would that I loved ! 

kuugii iintg'asi, wouhl tluit ye knew ! 

kutujii vgdlirtiiukiJf, it peems to me they riught to have gone. — 

would that they hiid gone ! 

kifougn kuiigrbr iijufo hupcln, 1 trust it may not have been so 

entirely. 

kuttgnlnku k\tug'rntekc loko nkuitjulo, would that «uc!> a thing 

might no; be done ! 

knugatokn ngitkuiig'ciiirk'tiiga loko, mi>.si>i>mH that ought not to 

have bei-n done, would that if lia<l not been done ! 

itckungnlili (sengati) iign ngdhhtln kono kmtgnsukn, would that 

perliajiH I had Htt)j»p<'d there and not gone away I 

sokuiigatiti niiiga ginvkaga, how I wish that we wore ftt home! 

Kokungaliti ng<i ngihambr isolo, nio-scouiH 1 ought to have gono 

Vfsterday, would that I had gone yestor\lav I 



USE OF THE VERB TI. 127 

295. The following expressions with iiran,j also be noticed. 
Ex. sasisatc (sasiyate) siyawupalcamlsa lo'mpongolo was'ahlula, (we 

had thought we are for lifting this box=) we made sure to lift 

this box, it beat us. 

yalsateiyavukainnyamazana,kwasakwardc,t\ie buck tried to 

rise, it was all iu vain. 

ngangisate ngipala Icq^o, I tried to ciu'ry there (upon that skin). 

sibesisate (sibesiyaie), we tried (to do something shown by 

the speaker). 

babeyate abaw uraqe umuzl , they tried to surround the kraal. 

laliyate iBunn liyatshaya ngentonga yesibamu, the Boer tried to 

strike with the butt-end of the gun. 

babeyate babuyela ngemuva ngendhlela yabo, they tried to return 

back on their path. 

uJojo ivalcute (= ivay'esahute or ivab' esakute) uyahamba, Jojo 

(had th( ught he is for going) tried to go. 

sakute siyaagena satshona, we tried to enter (the stream), we sank. 

sebebakute bayalatshaya uDklambedhlu, they had thought to 

smite the Udblambedhlu (regiment). 
N.B. ngima kusatc = ngibe ngisate ; so b'enia ktisate r= babe besate. 

296. The v ei'b ij appears jirimarily to mean, to ' think ' or 
saj within the heart. 

Ex. niti-ninina na? Vi'lnt do you think ? 

bengiti, nazalwa vako, I thought you were born with it. 
vj'enza loku eti ngiyauceba, he did this thinking I shall get rich. 
kwazis'uba izive elaniatafa, xigijima ematafenl nje, lapa kuhlonga 
esibi lesi noqunga, siti singafunyanisa udongana siiigene kulo, it 
was becaiTse the country was one of flats, we running in fact on 
the flats, where there was wanting the scrub (this =) you know, 
and tambootie grass, we (saying) thinking (that) we might 
find a little ravine and enter into it. 

But it is also used to express to ' sjDeat,' or say with the 
mouth, as perhaps in the last instance. 

Ex. ivati yena, ngiza'ubuya mas'myane, said he, I will return 
presently. 

hafi ahafnndlsi isibane, bcL'i bati okubanekayo, missionaries say 
isibano (for candle), thinking (that) tliey say, that which gives 
light. 

iiglti ufele emanz'ini, lokunahu beti babonc izikali czibukiveni, I 
think (say) he is dead in the water, since here they say they 
saw weapons iu the drift. 

297. Ukuti may often he I'endered lo-irit, fhat is to sai/, &c. 
Ex. ebonauhuii, amuko'.iiuvtii lapa, he seeing, to-wit, tlierc is noone 

here. 

iiniuntu okutiwa uJojo, ohlzwa ngokuti innyanga, a man of whom 

it is said (he is) Jojo, who is called to-wit a doctor. 



128 USE OK THE VERB TI. 

298. The verb // is often found in combination with a 
particle, (oftentimes a fragment of a verb\ used adverbially. 
The vcrl) in such cases is regularly conjugated ; and. when 
its meaning is transitive, the pronoun "which refei'S to the 
object is inserted, as usual, immediately before the verb- 
root. 

Ex. nrjaziti shwugalazi Jejo'zinfo ronfce, I swept all those things away. 

uti xafuxafu, he eats like a dog. 

aukati ncimiji, it (uiiyaka, year) is not yet completed. 

lite nama"ama kusasa, it (izulu) rained very gently this morning. 

kut-ile kuti du, there's an end of it, that's all, there's nothing 

e"se. 

wavus'umsindo, kwafula kuati du, lie raised a noise, there was 

nothing els • (but noise). 

travus'umsindo kicaluln kn-ati kivitshi, he raised a noise, it was in 

full action, -=^ it was all noise. 

sabvlawa satura dn, we were killed, we were made an end of. 

yi'i bobo leli'planke, bore a hole in this plank. 

ba'ul'i betti du, they were silt-nt, they had done. 

sadhla snti du, we ate, and had done ^^ finished (our meal). 

inltiiuho iti iiwi, the string is stretched. 

v:ainbu1aln tratmiti du (or nya), he killed and made an end 

of him. 

yima uti iwi, stand upright. 

woli siki, move a little bit - make a little room. 

tulani nUi du, akuti tiya, bt> silent, have done, let there be an 

end (of noise). 

wati gifjigi cntalshaneui, wawdcla ngapetsheya, he ran down the 

slope, and cro.ssed to the other side. 

.•Jrt/an^ (reciprooul fonn of ti) nqnn naye, we and he met each 

oth.T full butt. 

kaseko ufiuai, soi utc geqr, thorc is no more snuff, it is all finished. 

auseko uinuti, sokute nkue, there is no more meilicine, it is all 

at an end. 

sinijnk'azi ukuti ujih' wati nya, we not yet knowing that he is 

dead compli'telj'. 

uJojo vasa uaii ci, kwnritekn Hbuula,Jojo (hiwned out clear, folly 

was diHjKTScd (by his wisdom). 

liselitc ci, it (itulu) is now elear. 

(tngihonniiija nijiii nkn, I noviT said a wonl. 

yat iti aiti nkn, he {iudoda) was thinking tliat he might say a 

word - was wi.shing to put in a wonl (ko plur. bntt beti obati 

nka, &L\) 

Uti lima Uti tftcit, wnyikipa impi, when it (ilarma) was low down. 

lie drew ont the xmyi. 

tttiana luyira tnifulrni, we met fnll butt at the riror. 

»«</»<« ngitnti xabt, I then gave a ghinee. 



USE OF THE VERB TT. 129 

ngalufeceza utilwami angilutshongo ukxi.hi.ti poqo, I bent my rod, 
I did not (say) mean to snap it. 

The adverb and tl may be separated in such a case. 
Ex. uhamha luha'yihlo luhlepuJcile ; lufiJce licati emlonyeni kepu, 
your father's pot is broken ; It has got chipped upon the edge. 
uma lo' muntu ute ukufika nje nahla namlandisa kahle, kusey'ikona 
kuqala amazwi enu aha obala, nati ukushwinayela kwenu pahla- 
pahla, angab'es'ezwile wahamba, if, when that man came, you 
had informed him properly, and all along from the j&i'st your 
words had been plain, and yoii had done yoiu- speaking withoiit 
reserve, he would have by tliis time heard and understood. 

Or the adver^D may be used without the ti. 
Ex. angina'hdo, ngihlezi (ngite) hleke nje, I have nothing, I am just 
sitting -rt^ith my legs spread ^ like a fool. 

N.B. Many of these adverbs are fragments of vei'bs still in use ; 
and indeed almost every trisyllabic verb ending inla, ka, or sa has a 
corresponding adverbial foi"m with fi, e.g., ukuti bobo = boboza, pierce, 
or boboka, get pierced, ukuti hlep^t = hlepula, break off, or hlepuka, get 
broken oif, ukuti mfitinifiti (^=fitiza), prevaricate, &e. : others are pro- 
bably imitations of the sound referred to. 

290. Ti is also used, without an adverb, to indicate a 

direction in which a person goes, or an action which he does, 

■"^ or a mimher which he indicates, &c., that which is meant 

being shown in each case, while the word is used, by the hand, 

a motion of the head, &c. 

Ex. ngite ngisati, I happened to be then doing this (indicated). 

badhlula bati Veuko baqonda ehlanzeni, they pass by (that way) 

going down straight for the bush. 

wati u'ina aqede loko, wadhlula ^vati, when he had finished that, 

he went on (that way). 

ngamuti ngamehlo, ngcndolohcane , &c., I i.lid (so) to him ^vith 

the eyes, elbow, &c., = I winked at him, nudged him. Sec. 

uvele nrjesibaya utile, he came into sight by the cattle-kraal, so 

much of him (shown by the hand). 

sokudanmka-ke umkumbi iis'iiti, then the ship is broken up, it 

does so (shown). 

bati b'enza, ngibengibekezele nje mina, ugoba pela ngitoliwe, they 

just did (what they liked). I merely endured it, liecause, you 

know, I have been adopted. 

ngati ngiyamtshaya-ke ngati bu eiingutsheni, I made a blow at 

him, and cnme thump upon liis blanket. 

wat'emyeka viah'cvuka, just as he left him, he was getting up. 

sati sifika s'ezwa isalukazi sikala, just a.s we amved we heard an 

old woman crying. 



130 C8E OK THK VERB TI. 

tigati ngivela kiti ngipetc izikali zami, just as I came from home 

carrying my weapons. 

wati uy'eqa wawa, just as he was for leaping he fell. 

sengiti ngimtuma angab' esavunia, now when I am just sending 

him he won't any longer consent. 

ngati ngiyamxoisha ngakeleketela esigodini, as I was chasing 

him I tumbled into a hollow place. 

300. Or the thing implied by the use of /«' may be indicated 
in words, in which case the force of ti may be often expressed 
in English by juxf. 

Ex. ziti zidhlula izinsxiku zetu ; siltesiti tina zinde emuva, they just 
pass away, our days ; we were thinlcing (tliat) they are long 
after this. 



AUXILIAET VEKBS AXD PAETICLES 131 



CHAPTER XIX. 



AUXILURY TLKBS AND PARTICLES. 

301. a or ka is used as au expletive and prefixed to a verb. 
Ex. angifike (kangijike) ku'Jojo pela, as' engibambe (kas'engibambe) 

ngendabu why, yoii know, I came to Jojo, (and) so he detained 

me about a matter. 
So angifike kubona pela, basebengibambe, &c. 

abafike {kabafike), kc. 

802. 'Ahle lube is used in the sense " perhaps.' 

Ex. ahle kube irab'eye ekaya, it may have been that he had gone 

home. 

ahle kube v:av.sukile umuzi, it may have been tliat the kraal 

(people of the kraal) hail started. 

^Ahle or nrj'alile. is used with the subjunctive to expre.s.s a 
conviction of certainty. 

Ex. ahle ngilweqe lolu'dongana, I could certainly leap tliis little 
ravine. 

ahle ngiwudabule umSumluzc ngcvjele, I could ford the M(»iSj(- 
?idu2e, if full. 
konjc ahle bakudhle nje na ? did they really eat it ? 

303. Ake is used -witli a subjunctive verb, to express a polite 
request or suggestion. 

Ex. ake uhlole lapa, or ak'uhlale lapf, please stop here. 

ake ngidhhde-ke. Fuze, be so good a.s to let me pass. Fuze (call- 
ing the man by the name of his ancestor or some other family 
name). 

ake uiiibize' eze lapa, please call him Uj come here. 
ake nUuke kule'udauo, be so good as to move from this i)lace. 
ake ngipume-ke, bain, please let me go out, fatlier (may be said 
by a woman to a man). 

ake ivenze kahle (kuhle) inncozana --- inncozana, please wait a 
little. 

induna ake ibuzele lo'muntu, the induna should ask, if he would, 
on behalf of that man. 

b'enzele v.kuti ake yenze kahle iatpi, they have dune it in order 
that the impi, if it jtleased, might wait a little. 
J 2 



132 AIXILIART VEUBS AND PARTICLES. 

waii ake haznvaleUsa hahambe, he said it would be well if they 
should say good-bye and go. 

thlusene le'nsimu, nmniniyo akc ayipe, this mealie-field is tc>o 
thick, I should advise its owner to thin it out. 

Ke or e is used in the same way, l)ut implies rather the 
action of the spealcer of liis o\A'n accord. 
E.X. kengibone ke, mgane, let me see, friend. 

engikitdhlise, mtanami, let me get you some food, my child. 
N.B. In such cases as the following, the kc does not stand for ake, 
but is the subjunctive of kn, with the pronoun omitted. 

Ex. asihamfic, handhla, siijogawln izagila lapaya, kesiponae {sike si- 
■ponse), sincintisane, let us go, boys, and cut down knob-kerries 
there, and let us have a bit of flinging and boating one another. 
nngisabi na'siknla sokubn kcngihnmbcle {upikr nnihnmbele) kuwena, 
I have no niore any opportunity for paying you a bit of a visit. 
izinnyoni lezi sez'elatshwc innyanga ; zizavmuka siye kwelinye 
izwe, kesihlale (sike sihlale) sipumu e, these birds have now been 
treated by the doctor ; they will uow go away and go to 
another laud, and we get a bit of rest. 

304. (Aiifhila, ' l),e beforo,' contracted to ami', is inserted with 
its pronftun before an intinitive, to express that the action of 
the verb has, or bad, only jtu<t faLen place. This particle 
always takes .<?.: before, and so appears in the form i<\iii>V?) 
Ex. saais' nn<Vnkufik(i , we had but just arrived. 

umnhcana es'and'ukutaltca, a new-born child. 

es' and' vktt ghximaycla , just as he liad spoken. 

wahnfuhclu loko konke es'ond'uku*\ka, ho told them all that n.** 

soon as he arrived. 

uyakiifintahidn Iryn'ndahn fa'and'til-vjikn, he will tell them that 

story as soon :is he arnvos. 

it'esiika Us'tinil'ukiipun.n ilango, we 8turte<l just after Bun-rise. 
' brngiit'ond'ukujikn knavela lo'nUelo, I had but just K>forearrive<l 

when that law came forth. 

ua'and'uk^imukn kniinknloku ; iis'uh'uyabuyn nini nn f yo>i just 

now went away ; you were for ret timing when f { = how «|uic>kly 

you have returned !) 

mhhtknn'it' u'Sgozt irdfi cn'iitxd'ukufikn, kwafikn uRulutneHtf /uli. 

the other ilay, wlieii N'gwza had arrivcnl ju«t Wfore, then^ 

arrived the (iovi>rnor also. 

icolo uSotnaru uli'i-s'und'ukujikit (utr fi'iiitd' ukujikn) trab'i-i'rbuy' 

a/»«mtrt. yesterday Mr. Shipstoin- liad onh ;mi\icl iu.-t K-fon* 

when he was p^ne a^faiii. 

Anrhtha^ aiiiluDin, ( : aiurmii" ) lu •m. <'-€/«. . (./i^t -i...*. .<..«/«- 
/<«»«/, is used befori" n subjuttctivc, to expri>s.s * ju-sf iH'foro 



AUXILIARY VERBS AND rAETICLES. 133 

that ' ; or it may often be rendered in Englisli by 'aud then,' 
' and after,' &c. 

Ex. o! yebo-ke, banclhla ; alee ngiye Japo anduba ngibuye, O yes, 

good folk ! please let rue go there, and retui-n afterwards. 

ake uye kwoSizana, andume ubuye uze lapa, be so good as to go 

to Sizana's people, and then return here. 

The above anxiliary may also be used with a pronoun. 
Ex. hamba uyohlakula ivandukiiba ubuy'udhle, go and weed, and then 
return and eat. 

305. Anela ' do nothing- but,' ' do no more than,' ' be content 
with/ (used witli an infinitive) ; it may be often expressed 
by merelij ov just : see Ida, slmzu. 

Ex. ^v' anela ukulengeza ; kahonanga efika lapa ^Mmbi kivami, he 
merely shouted from a distance ; he never came here before me. 
ivanele ukubuka nje, wadhlula, he just merely looked and went on. 
w' anela ukxifika, kodwa tvaseuyapenduka, he merely arrived, but 
he was at once for returning. 

b'anela ukiimbona kodwa, basebestika babaleka, they merely saw 
liim only, they started off at once and ran away. 
y'iloku a'anele ukupmna lapa ckaya, ever since we just came out 
from here from home. 
kube kivanela ukukala inkuku, as soon as the cock crowed. 

Sometimes anela may be rendei'ed by ' to no purpose.' 
Ex. y'anela ukuzala kodwa, yafa inkonyane yayo, it (just only bare) 
'-= to no pxirpose, its calf died. 

ng'anele ukwosa nje, I did nothing but merely roast, = I got no- 
thing for my trouble, I roasted to no purpose, I hatl to be content 
with roasting, I got nothing to eat. 
ng'anele ukusebenza, I have worked to no purpose. 

306. Bona, see, is used negatively with a participle, io 
express the coming or happening to do anything : see ha, za. 

Ex. angibonanga ngbjihona Inkunzi Uilobahangakaya , Ihavenotcome 
to see (- - T have never seen) a bull pushing m that fashion. 
bengingabi)nanga ngiyibona into enjc, I had never seen such a 
thing. 

babciigakahonanga bcfika klti :idokvb (ij'iloku) bawela, they had 
never come to our place ever since they crossed (the river). 
cloku epume (plur. belokubepume) kasasa unmlwana engabonanga 
edhla, umlomo us'unuka, us'uluhlaza y'indhlala, ever since this 
child went out this morning, having iievei- eaten, his uiouth now 
smells, he is quite blue ^^•ith hunger. 

y'ilohu afikayo ityaguUi, kabonaaga evuka pansi, ever since ho 
arrived he is sick, he has never risen from the ground 
(=his mat). 



13'1- AUXILIARY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 

aitkabonanga vmboiia na? qri ! angiboiianga ngimbona, did yon 

never once see him y no ! I never once saw him. 

angihonange (angibonangn) ngibona vnmniu onjalo, I have never 

seen such a man. 

abantu engingabonange 7i3i6a?*o;iff, people whom I never saw. 
N.B, bone is sometimes used for be. 
E.\. angahle akufipaze nje, vbone vs' ugqungqa (ub'us'ugqungqa) njeuba 

mnyama, he mi<:fht daze you (that) you .should now be changing 

and becoming dark. 

807. Bntia is iLSod to indicate that something is done afler 
something' else, and may often be e.xpressed by tltcn or afiei' that. 
E.\. ubuij'uhlangatie iiabo. do thou after that join with them. 

koaa siza'iibnye (bv_t/a) sihambe, then we will be on our way again. 

sagoduka-ke sabuye (sabuya) sabutwa-ke, we went home and then 

we were mustered. 

u-pnza-ni vkubuy'anezele amazwi, what does (means) he by adding 

again words. 

basebcbuye bebuyn, they had .again returned. 

ngisabambezcle, ngiyauze ngibuye ngijike, I am now busy, but 

afterwards I will come. 
N.B. The verb in such a cjise usually comes next after fcuya. 
E.X. n-abuya waii uTshaka, then Chaka said. 

vahuya uTshaka uafi, Chaka returned, tindsaid 

But tliis rule is not always ob.servcd. 

Ex. icabuya uMlmpa irabulnua naye xiDingane, afterwards M1x>pa 
he also was killed by Dingane. 

308. Citi/'i (perF. cifi/e), 'be on tlie point of' doing some- 
thing unintentionally : see pniisa. 

E.v. ugiritshr ukiiwa, I was on the pf)int of falling. 

utK-Uxha ukukuhima, ho was on the point of speaking. 

barilsbi' ukumhizd, they wore ou tlie j>i>int of sinking. 

snritsha z'ciiiukti unm/ula izinkiona zika' S'tiuilcni, the cattle of 

Ntenteni nearly went down with the stivam (in the flootl). 

iiuija yamnuzn yaritsh'ukuuihtma. tlu- dog Hew ait him .'ind 

nearly bit l»im. 

r 

800. iJatiH'uc or tl>\ 'eonlinually, reju-atetlly.' do a thing : 
see shitji-. ^ 

Ex. ht'tlnmrne hrbalrkti bryn ku' Ci-lxhwayo.t^ii'y runningoff continually 
to {'ctshwayo. 

abrhingii scbiul,' hi'ijiha oiiu'iic, the white-inon wen* now continu- 
ally drawing their swonls. 

wnirenhintiiiyrtti I'lf, he waM continually talking nonHcnae. 
hmir brii brkoiuba ngrxict'tur tabo, tln'V w»mv iH.>ntiniUi.lly taking 
aim by their rankM. 



AUXILIARY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 135 

310. Fika (peri.fike), is used as an expletive, as follows. 
Ex. ufilc'uti, angihambe ; upind'uti, buya, you get to say let me go 

(= I was to go) ; again you say, come back. 

abelungu, ukwaka kivabo izindhlu, bafike babangqe izinti pezvJv, 

white-men, in their building houses, get to join together 

beams above. 

ngafika ngadhla nawo (amadoda), I got to eat with them, = they 

allowed me to eat with them. 

into efik'is'ahlule, a thing which got to master us. 

ukusinda kicami mina, ngifike ngaba oivas' emaXoseni, as to my 

being saved, (I got to be=) they found that I was one of 

the amaXosa. 

wafike-ke uDingane, &c., Dingane under those circumstances, &c. 

inkosi is'^yaiifike, &c., the chief, under those circumstances, 

will, &c. 

was'efika uG^ilo elitshaye elinye iBunu.was'efikauMtivenielililaba 

ngomkonto elinye, now Gilo got to hit one Boer, now Mtweni 

got to stab another with his assegai. 

311. Fiona, to be ' on the point of doing- ' a thing on purpose, 
or as if on purpose : see tavda. 

Ex. ufuna ukuwa, he means to fall. 

ufuna %i,kulimala, he intends to be hiu't. 

312. Hamhe or hew jive, is used to express, having' been 
' continually, all along, constantly,' doing something, &c. : see 
hleze, libele, zinge. 

Ex. uhambe eti, bazinge bemtshaya lowo'mfana, he has been all along 
saying, they are continually beatiug that boy. 
uhambe utshaya le'ntombazana, you have been continually beat- 
ing this girl. 

kuhanjiue kubanjwa nje kvhulawa, men were continually being 
caught and killed. 

niyauhamba nihambe-ke nizidhlc iziitkumbi-ke, ukuba kupele 
izinkomo, you will (go) live continually eating locusts, when 
the cattle have come to an end. 

213. nia (perf. hh) is used, as below, in the sense of sc. 
Ex. kuhle (perf.) kwati or kwahle (past) kivati, so it came to pass. 

kuhle wati, or uhle watl, so he said. 

kwahle {kxvahla) kw'esukela, so it came to pass r= once upon 

a time. 

bahle basiyenge basiyengc, hangahe besaya, so they kept enticing 

us, (and after that) they were no more going (themselves). 

ngihle ngimtshele ; nhVapind'ati (i)lur. bahle bapinde ball) angim- 

tshelanga, so I told hiin ; and then he says, I have not told him. 

besihle sahlala nje, we had just sat down. 



136 AUXILIAKY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 

kuhle kwati, nxaihlezlyo, ngascngxcibiishela innyoni, it came to 

pass, wheu it was peichetl, I then shot (with an arrow) a bird. 

kuhlc kwati sisapuma endhlini, naya kuyc ivamhamba wamkahlela, 

.so it was that, as we were coming out of the hut, he went to 

him and seized him and kicked him. 

uhl'utulc (us'utule) nje kambe nena, kat'ubizua umuntu omkulu! 

that you should (be quiet) not move, wlien you are called by a 

(gi-eat m;in) man in authority ! 

sokuhlc k"be amtiralo ongakaya ! that there should actually be a 

burden so great as that ! 

auyikuwatola (Diiabcle kuleli, uma ungahlc wacaba, you will not 

get amabele on this (land, izwe), if you shall not have first 

cleared it. 

uhle ufike (us'ufikc) qede, ulale ungapekl, that you should as soon 

you arrive, lie down without cooking ! 

uhle udhle (us'udhle) uqeilc, that you should actually oat and 

finish oil (without waiting for others) ! 

niuuntu-kevhVahaukcle umuntu amtole au.pizekelc, atiamtalagele! 

that a man should actually pity a person and adopt him and 

care for him, and that he should be impudent to him ! 

wahla Vfiheka nje utidhlnla, he just k)oke(l and went (U. 

uhlc n-nbeka nje umdhlula, he just looked {lately) and went on. 

wahln vafika kodiva, wascuyupiuduka, he only just arriveil and 

was a! once for returning. 

uhl'abckc nje adhlulc (plur. balile babckc nje badhluU), he just 

looks and goes on (=^ it is liis wi.ut to do so). 

N.B. Observe the above idiom, wliore the i^uhjunctivc mood is used. 

nhl'auijenc (ujikc angcnc) indabii ngt'sihlutu. he makes a point of 

• •ntering into a patter headlong (Ht. with long liair like Zulu 

soldi.'rs). 

iihl'abf utnlisit isihiti-kc lapn, lie must be a fine young fellow 

inileed (there) in that ca-se. 

b'i'nz<i-)ii ukuhle bnsidalanclv siiigc'zingpne ? what do thoy mean 

tlial they actually exi>Of(e themselves indecently to us we being 

not children. 

iilil'nl,-, itnmbo sclihlangene Hejwnhu, alikupuluU, he would act 

ill a miistorly way, (so as that) if the Ixme wore actually joined 

willi till' an-inbranf. hi- would liff it up. 

Kinrt cngnlile uuili abnbamln' toku, ba/c masinyane. if he should 

have actually said that they should hold this, they would die 

at once. 

llil'ili.kc iukosi, • Qiibani koiw lokol' Ahl'ati-kf uJemlana,' sViun 

ngitauxoiu eyu»'i'mT»hfsi yndira.' Ahle-kf {\htr-k,- or i.jiTif. If) 

ngili minn ' Yinikf.' Ahle-ki' vJcmlnmt, <•■ N 

ke mina ngibotuje uhabn ngezibonyo take ; / 

'itkukulunut.' Ihl'iti-ke iiiilo«i. ihl'iyc inJciii/. ;i.i. i/iT. 

ihCjikc iiiiboiiibv. So wiyn the King, * Otit «ith that ^^tt• 



AUXILIARY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 13 

So says Jemlana, ' For iny part I will tell only (the story of) 
the intjpi of the Bushman's River.' So say I, ' (Tell) all of it.' 
So Jemlana he swears. So I for my part praise my father by 
his izibongo ; then say I, • I won't say any more.' So the 
King, you see, he goes to Jemlana, he rims, he gets to 
seize him. 

N.B The following idiom also is worthy of notice. 

Ex. ngaloko-ke sanihle nizibehe pansi, on that account you ought to 
submit yourselves. 

So with f.lifferent pronouns, asengihle, sauhle, asesihle, sanihle, 
asebahle, salihle. saihle,&.c. 

314. Hlcze, continiiallr, coustantly : havihe, libele, zlage. 
Ex. uhleze umtshaya Lowo'mfana, you are continually beating 

that boy. 

leyo'nnyoni eiigihleze ngiyilona, that bird, which I constantly see. 
ngihleze ngifiha lana ; idi ungiqabuka namhlanje ? I am continu- 
ally coming here ; do you suppose you see me for the first 
time to-day ? 

ngi'deze ngimtshela ngitl ukiiti okutile o.kvyikulunga, uma knmi 
ngaloko, ati-ke yena, 'tula aicazi.',' I am contimuiUy telling 
him, saying (to-wit) that such a thing Avill not be right if it 
(stands) is done in that way, and says he, ' hold your tongue, 
you don't know ! ' 

kayikulilez'etukutela njaZonjaJo, hewilluotcontinue angry always. 
kungatiti ngingahleze ngikiventvaya, it seems as if I could be 
always scratching it. 

ayakvdhla uje dmahashi alilez'epuz'amanzi, the horses just eat it, 
and then they always drink water. 

315. Ka. literally to cull (flowers) or dip (water), is used 
to express to 'just rcacli, eft'ect, compass,' a tluug, to manage 
to do it, do it a bit, &c. : see bonanza. 

Ex. uke vjambona na ? did you ever see him ? 

kok'eze, ;= koka 'eze he shall (= let him) manage to come. 
m.yakxika ahlale na ? will he just stop a bit ? 

waka v:aya y'ini kua'Zulu no. ? did you ever or not go to Zulu- 
land-' 

uvia ngike ngambona, if I ever saw him. 
us'eza'ukc abone, now he will see it a bit. 

ub'us'uke u-ayizwa Icyo'ndaba y'ini na? did you ever hear 
that story, eh ? 

asikanga size siye kvjoMnuhliwengcnba, y'iloku kwancla ukucangu- 
zisiva, we have never managed anymore to go to Mudhliwe- 
ngcuba's people ever since the marriage-dance (sufficed) 
broke-up. 

vjokani (wokanlni) nihlomele ngesikati sobusuku, continue to 
watch at night time. 



13R AL'XILIART VERBS AND PARTICLES. 

wok'uze ubuyise konke loko oivakudhlayo and'uba uhambe, you 
shall manage to get to return all that you have plundered 
before you go. 

icaka icabvbona nena utshani obutsha ongabonanga vbubona ? 
akona amatshe ongabonanga nwabotia? ungek'ukutole, did you 
ever see new grass which you never saw (before) ? are there 
stones which you never saw ? you can't manage to find it (any 
such thing). 

31G. K'lde, lonsf ago. 

Ex. kade 'muka, he went away long ago. 

kade sikufv.nu, we have been long seeking you. 

kade uhlalele-id kangaka ? why have you stayed so long? 

kade bengikuhlupa, I have been long vexing you. 

kade sikirele inncwadi le, we have been long about this book. 

cansisa lau-o'mazwi okade uivashumayelo , explain those words 

which you were saying long ago. 

ngasikadc (singasikade) sijikile lapa, we ought long ago to have 

arrived here. 

kade ite inkosi Iiamha uyekutata amahashi, long ago the chief 

said go and bring the horses 

kw'esabeka loko pakati kwnbantu bekade betule, it was (fearful) 

surprising that (noise) among the people who had been 

long .silent. 

317. Koh'nit is used for 'generally, usually, commonly.' 

Kx. labo'bnntu bakolisile kakuln uhtzala amawele, those people have 
very commonly produced twin.s. 

asivami ukuhlala kade izinkau zas'eknya, zikolis'ukufa, (kraal- 
monkeys -=) albinos do not usually live long, they com- 
monly die. 

318. Zi/i'/r continually, constantly : sec Uamhu, Itleze, tinge. 
Ex. uUM'usoln, you are constantly scolding. 

ulibi'lf utshaya lowo'mfana. you ar<» continually boatinirthat Ixiy. 

umntwana ulibel'i-kaln i-busuku, the child is i-ontiuually crying 

in the night. 

ngizakwt'nzn iO(t;/o;/o lupa ; ngilibele ugiwucin>a ngakutihltra, 

I will make a tnij) (snuill cuclosiuv) hcn>, I regularly set it 

at fVfuing. 

i>Mtikitznni> lnha balibrlr hfbndnzn nje, MtikaA-ina and his 

people hen^ are continually behind-hand (in this step). 

Tjohle is usctl ill the siune sense with a jui.tt tense. 
Ex. ulohlf uongiaola. 3'ou are continually scolding me (lit. all along 
yuu scolded me). 

31'.'. Mmir is used to express strong entreaty, ' O do.' 
Iv\. jritrt. iii;;finr, i»i<iiif ungipuzinf, do oblige mo, frienil, by giving nie 
a drink. 



AUXILIAET VERBS AND PAETICLES. 139 

mane uhambe, mgone, siza, do go, friend, o'^lige (me). 

sizani, bangane, ekalcai, mane ningishiyele, oblige me, friends, 

(with snuff) for the nostril ; do leave (some) for me. 

320. Nee is used to express ' presently, bye-and-bye.' 

Ex. unce uye lapaya kwoKahinala, go over there bye-and-bye 
to Kabinala's people. 

viance vxi i, kasayikuk^inika innja, after a while he said, he will 
, no longer give you the dog. 

ngiza'unce ngihambe ; naku kungatiti liyaMoma, I will go presently ; 
since it seems it (izulu) is arming, = there will be a storm. 
habence bafi abasayikufinyele'a ku-oMehlu-ana, betsho-ke bebona 
izuhi, presently they said, they will never reach ilehlwana's 
people, saying so seeing the sky. 

engikudhhse. kona uzautshetsha uqede, unce vhambe, let me give 
you some food, then you will be quick and finish, and 
presently be off. 

321. Pinda is used to express the repetition of an action. 
Ex. upind'uhlangane nabo, join with them again. 

musa ukvpinda wenze njalo futi, do not repeat to do so again. 

wapinda w'enza as'ekuzivile, he repeated and did (that) about 

which be had already heard (had been scolded). 

siza'upi'nda siye kona (siza'upindela kona), lapa saka saya kona, 

we will go thither, whither we went once upon a time. 

wapinda v:'emuka-ke, he went away again. 

pind'uyekukn, futi, kona kiizaugcwala Wmbiza, go and di'aw 

(water) again, then this pitcher will be full. 

upinde v.aya kona lapo eb'eyekona izoZo, he went again thither 

whither he had gone yesterday. 

umtsheVapinde ayekuka futi, tell her to go and di'aw (water) 

again. 

ngizaupinde ngibuye, I will return again. 

kukona loku ukuti ' ukupinda,' ngoba esuke epindile ukwenza ;^ 

kepa likona leli'zwi elihleziyo, lok"ii.ti 'ukupinda,' elisiza uku- 

shtimayela liti ukupinda ; njengomunfu ati 'pinda uye kona,' 

engakanga waya (engabonanga eya) kona kuqala, kepa umuntu 

ati-ke 'pinda uye kona,' etsho «gfo6ae/iAi7e, there is this (phrase) ,, 

namely ukupinda, because a person has happened to repeat an 

action ; still there is tliis word in constant use, to- wit ukupinda, 

which helps speech by saying ukujnnda ; as if a man should 

say pinda uye kona, though he has never gone there before; 

yet a man may say piyida uye kona, saying it because he has 

come [i.e. the repetition in this case is in the act of going 

merely, not in going to the particular placel. 

322. Fonsrt or jiosa, 'be on tlic point of doincr somethings 
unintentionally: see cZ/sAc. 



140 ALXILIART VERBS AND PARTICLES. 

Ex. mjipoiisc ukiiua, I was on tho point of falling (lately). 
ngapo)isa ukuminsa, I was on the point of sinking. 

1:523. Qedti is used in the sen.se ' as soon us.' i 

Ex. kute uba basibulale qede, bahamba, as soon as tneyhad killed us, 
they went off. 

inkosi yaiqed'ukiifika, the chief had no sooner ai-rived =^ had 
just arrived (ijais'and'ukufika). 

koRaeyaupcka qede, asipc, then she will cook and end it and 
give us = iis soon as she has cooked, she will give us. 
izaxipuma qede innyoka, ihune omunye, badele, as soon li/ the 
snake comes out, it will bite one (of them), and they will 
leave off. 

bafike qede, kwatshaywa insimbi just after they arrived, the bell 
was struck. 

hafik'i qede, kutsh'iywe insiinbi, the bell was struck as soon as 
they arrived ( - on their account). 

itma enje, fun'aliwe qede, abc ruijanga, ii it (snuff, ugwai) is in 
this state, ( I aui af r.iid) lest, as soon as it is poured (into the 
snuff-ttise), it will be di-y. 

kuliwa abanln bafa qede, boyuqukn izitinyokn, it is said that 
people, as soon as they have died, have l)een liuned into 
.snakes. 

sengizcuku/ahlcla icansi lako, ■iigikii/ahlelc qede, ua'nlukele icena, 
now I will set your mat { - begin it) for you. and, iis soon as I 
have set it for you. you shall weave (if) for youink'lf. 
ungijicclit tigezinkomo sake qinic uti augiyonebciisu iL°iii/eiia,as soon 
as he loads me with his oxen (i.e. with tho ctuv of tliem), he 
says that I am to go and work for him. 

lisayakuba.fwn qcdi- Icli bunga kupume innyoka, as soon aa this 
<lecayed log is kindled, there will come out a snake. 
J'unina lo'mt'nna indnku yake, nyitole qede aye fnkomeHi,hi}\y> ti\tit 
boy to fiad his stick, ami, as soon as he has found it, let him 
go to tile cattle. 

imhiza Ic -yUmbuze qede, uyilnnije yona, ngoba, iyacusa, this pot 
bore it, ami then after that stitch it, Iteuaiise it leaks. 

.■!24. S(i (pcM'f. HI'), is used very nuu-li ju? nh<( and Ua. 

l']x. kwaitt > ' '' ■' ' ■' ■■•>■': . . ••'.in a time. 

usi- (til. he «lid it, 

not h;i . .. ^ : . 

miMi (wahln) irnt.'tliaya witf>ipcta i.' ; ulutthaye 

waliilahla ugornhnha /<iIi('A'<i"i'"! tul,i' '>, > olude. ugijim* 

w'oma (U'jijime k.r'oma, or .t), \u> out lUoug might 

und milin, iind wl)iski>il ul' "lo-hind ; he Htruek and 

'1' iijiuls.- tins t.ill jH>t of Mbuluni^eui, ho 

1 'leath'^. 

N.IJ. 7ii ... .>,,.. ,.i..i... nitUlc, it lUtogetlKT refuHwl, it wanallufno 
use, iVc. ; ho kwu»n yalile, b'alile, fi.c. 



AUXILIARY VERBS AXD PARTICLES. 141 

Ex. sasisate mahloya mahlaya, kwasa l-irolile ! we had said (it's) a 

trifle, a trifle — not a bit of it ! 
In the following expressions, with reference to sometliing left 
■unfinished, sa is the verb .' to davvn.' 

Ex. wati usahula kwatshetshe hwasa, while he was still growing, the 

day broke all of a hurry, = he stopi^ed growing too soon. 

lo'muntu wati esayitunga le'mhenfje, kwatshetshe kwasa, while 

that man was still stitching this basket, the day broke in a 

hu^y, = he never finished it. 

235.''(Sfl/a, sale, or asaJe, (like chle, ahe, &c.), is used in the 
sense, ' it remains that,' &c., ■• tliere is notliing to be clone 
but, &c. 

Ex. ngisale sengiyeka, I must now leave it. 

asale siye eTekwini, we must go to Durban. 

usal'us'uhlala, you had to stop. 

hasale sebebuya, they had to return. 

wasaVus'ugoduka, you had to go home. 

uya'usal'us'iidhla, you will have then to eat. 

besale sebeya kona, they were obliged to go there. 

basale sebehlala, they could not help stopping. 
■usales'ebuya, kwahamba ,mina, he had to return, I went. 

bengiyausale sengiyeka, I shoidd have had then to leave it. 

uyausaV es" egoduka, he would have had then to go home. 

uyausal'us'ugoduka, you would have had then to go home. 

bebeyausale seb'ehla,th.ej would have had thetl to come down. 

ngangiyausale sengigoduka, I should then have had to go home. 

ivauyansale souhamb&, you woidd have had then to go. 

wah'eya'usaVes'esebcnza, he would have had then to Avoi'k. 

salani senihamba, you must now be going. 

sal'us'uhiya wena, you have only now to return. 

kasal'es'ehamba, angisahambi inina, he must now be going, I am 

not going at all. 

kasal'es'ebuya, sokuzauhamba mina, he must now be returning, 

now I will go. 

basale sebeti vs'uyakvdJda kwenu, they would only then suppose 

that j^ou (will) v/oidd cat at your kraal. 

babengasale sebehamha, unia babebona vkuha kasafiki, they could 

have done nothing else but go, if they saw that he comes no 

more. 

ngisale sen giqedehi ; iisaVus'ungincitsheln-ni na? I have had to 

finish it (snuff) off; why must you ( = what made you) treat 

me (so) stingily 'f 

ktisasa ngiyitshelilc leyo'niombazona ngati aisariqandula itshe 

nanti, this morning I told that girl that she was to peck that 

stone there. 

w'epuza iikiizakugitabatn innjo, ivasal'es'etcnga ngayo, you 

delayed to come to take the dog, ho was obliged to sell it. 



142 AUXILIARY VERBS AND rAETICLES. 

locale selibomvu izwe'zinkumbi, the ground was nothing else than 

red with locusts. 

usaVus'ii'situta iije pakati kwabnntu, you are just nothing else 

than a simpleton among the people. 

wati uyililo kasal'es'eya'ugqitshwa, y6ur father said he must be 

buried. 
N.B. Sometimes a is used for asale. 
Ex. asesiyek' (asale sesiytka) ukulua, we must now leave war. 

32(J.' ^'a^i is also used to express tliat ooe event has followed 
another in sequence of time, when there is no reference (as 
when hii)/a find pin da are used) to the agent being the same 
in each case. 

Ex. asale (asisalc) simbulale-ke, then we shall afterwards kill him. 
but asale simbxdala-ke , we must kill him -- akusa/anele ukuba 

simycke, it is not proper that we should let him be. 

kwasale kuaja xnkosi, after that the ohiof died. 

sasale s'cqa, then we ran away. 

ngite mjisekwa' Kibana, sasala sadhla isilo oinunye um/ana nento- 

inbazana, while I was at Kibana's, a leopard ate afterwards 

another boy and a girl. 

asaVamaSicazi ajike ebusiiku, afterwards tlie amaSwazi came by 

night. 

kuti uba basibulale-ke qeilc, bahamba, sasale savuka-kf, so, as 

soon as they had killed us, they went off, afterwards we arose. 

sokuH-kc kusasa-kc kanti loun'mlungu usale walika ; \calshaya-ke 

uMesisi wake, xvati nh'engasipi ngani itinkomo ubeni sihlabe,v>ol\, 

and HO in the morning wliy that whiteman afterwanls arrived ; 

hi! b(«;'t his Missus, and said why did she not give us cattle 

tliat we might killP 

327. SiiiizK, or siiiiuzit, is used likeyJA-»j, liln, tia. 

Ex. usimze wobeka nje wadkhila, he l<K)ked merely and went on. 

timt'utate (-~ta(a or vhl'utate) nje konke, uyohitela etiiaiMini, 

taki- it all, and go and i>our it in the water. 

usims'akuluute (or u/i{'iiA-u{iM)i4-) iijV engaqondile, he talks o>n- 

tinually without having considered. 

uasimza wajika kodva ; ica.^fUj/njii-ndMi.u, he just only arrived; 

he was at once for returning. 

•tiiitf (jioua) uyijuniscle ngetshe tyje, just mivke a shy for it with 

a stone. 

UDiUfWu owabeUiyo yenn, mgabeki, iwiiMi'(i(-im«l« i\je, a libonU 

pen*on he, not looking (to whom ho shall give), he constantly 

shuts his eyes. 

usimz'nngene indaba iijrjiAliiJu, he continually gctsintoa matter 

wifli vioK-nc.' (lit. with long hair as Zulu s..ldiorH). 

be*iyautimie timhleke njc-ke tina, wo should have just laughed 

at liim ourselves. 



AUXILIARY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 143 

ngisimze ngacita (ngihle ngacita) nje ; henging'aziukuha1cukona-ni 

"pakati kwamami, I just threw it away ; I did not know what 

there (is) was amidst the water. 

sisimze satula nje ; wab'esasibuze, satula nje ; siyausimza situle 

nje ; wob'esate, situle nje, we just kept silence ; he had asked us, 

we just kept silence ; we shall just keep silence ; (suppose) he 

shall still have spoken, we shall keep silence. 

wasimza (wahla) tvashiya zonke into zake ; ang'azi uma vjab'eti 

ziyautivalwa ubani na, he just left all his things ; I don't know 

by whom he thought they (will) would be carried. 

328. iS^Aa (perf.s«/i;e), to ' start forth,' is used as below; 

csnlce (plur. ahasuke) may general!}- be rendered ' whosoever ' 

= who happens. 

Ex. u^ik'etanda, (plur. basuke betanda), by reason of his loving. 
ngisuke ngingeko, through my not being present. 
nsuk'ukona, seeing that you were pi'esent. 
asuk'emukile, through their (myiadoda) having departed. 
isuk'igijima, by reason of its running. 
ngisuke nging'azi, because I did not know. 
owab'esuk'eza kumi, whosoever came to me. 
osuk'ehlakanipile, whoever is clever. 

isuk'is'ikatele leyo'nkabi. througli that ox being just now tired. 
osuk'es'endhlini yako, whoever is in thy hut. 
uma kusuke kusey'ikusasa nje, whenever it is morning. 
uma isuke innyanga is'isehva lapa pezulu, isuke Is'indala, when- 
ever the moon is here on high (drunk up) faded, it is through 
its being now old. 

ningambeki lo, uma nisuke nishumayela iudaba, don't mind him, 
whenever you talk over a matter. 

nisuke niti abantu laba b'csase bonke njengani ? do you mean to 
say, venture to say, that all these people exult as you do r' 
usuke ekona, noko umlilo \icitshe nje, ehlezi engawukwezeli , he sits 
there, although the fire is gone out, not keeping it in for (us), 
where suke expresses the habit of doing so: 

basuke bepanga ^inidaka linile ; rnhla ufudumaliswe ilanga 
las'ehlobo, kuishctshe kumilc imbeu, ngoba umhlaba usuk'u/udu- 
mele, they are always eager after the moist ground (-- they 
want to hoe and sow it), it liaving rained ; on the day wlion it 
is warmed by the summer sun, the seed quickly grows, 
because the earth is always warm. 

angisena'kutsho'luto, ngoba kusuk'ekivcnza amakosi ami, 1 have 
not a word more to say, because my masters are constantly 
doing it. 

akufanele ukuba indoda imlshayele ekaya urn/ana, uma cstike 
cyishiyile endhle, it is not right that a man sliould beat a boy 
at home, whenever he has left him (=- outriui the man) 
outside. 



114 AUXILIARY VKEBS AND PARTICLES 

ngicanulwe y'ilo'muntv osuke xikudhla u-alirenza isicanucanu , I 
have been surfeited by that person who happens in respect 
of the food to have made it luscious —who has jjonc and made 
it, &.C. 

bonke alasuke bevela eniDMofi kuhle nkuba xibatsheJe bangahambi 
ngeyenkangala indhleln, inemmamba e'liiqini, whoever are 
coining from the Umdhloti, (it would be) well that j'ou should 
tell them (that) they should not go by the path of the table- 
land, it has an immaniba with its tail cut off (and therefore 
very savage). 

bahesuke bevela eNonoti, behamba-ke bengal' azi' zwe ; baya bazi- 
J'aka obukwini okulu luexihlambo, they happened to be coming 
from the Xonoti, going along not observing the country; 
they went and put themselves into a great lx)g of the low 
meadow-land. 

329. Taiuja, negative of ti, maj- be used a.s foUow.s. 

Ex. angitanga vkivemn vgashiya invcwadl, eyona Tfaiiiak^ijigikniulrisa 
litjja iigiya kona ? wliy, di<l I not as to my doing ler.vt- (l>fhind) 
the note, which would have shown mo where I was going to ? 

330. Tiin-^a and zhigcla are used like /una, to expi-ess, by- 
way of ridicule, a person's seeinino: to do a tliiny on purpose. 

Ex. utand'ukuiva. lovo'tnttntu, or utingel'ukuwa lon'o'muntu, that 
man means to have a fall. 

331. Tslmi/n, to do a thini,' violently, niijflit and main, &c. 
Ex. ntshnye watahantshiila, he went off at full speed. 

utithaye trobcdula unhamba, he walked away with might and 

innin. 

iziiiiliuzi ziyitshaye znyibcbeic imitombo lapa, the goats have 

nibbk'd dean away the malt here. 

332. Vamn or immjiva expresses the fnuiiiencij of an action. 
Ex. Jtin-rtma nknbola osrike kutshabrc lapa kxcttilimo, it i» wont to 

rot, wliatf'ver happens to have been planted here among tho 

vegetables. 

■Hvntui: uktihlalii ; ngako-kc izindiini take kazilingeue tonkc, he 

W(w giv»'n to sitting down -. and so liis furrow.-* an? not even nil 

of them. 

irtiraiiia tikuHma ; iv'>puz<i uhthliPayfUi, lu- did plenty of 

ploughing ; lie loitered in sowing. 

fcrti/a'vuiumo nkuUbal'i, loku bebodwa ujf aba/aha laba, they will 

have plenty of loitering, since these ladi* hen ■ •' 

nisimu yaku-ftv loi'nyii y'lthi. yrivany\ra uL>tt^h 

garden over tliiTc (nfused) did not U-ar. i( ' . ' '> 

Kcorohed witli tlie sun. 

333. Zii (never in the form cza) isuHod, iii couueetion with 
another verb, toexpn»ss a proyrf$$iee * iMTomincr,' or 'eominff 



AUXILIARY VERBS AND PARTICLES. 145 

to do.' what that other verb indicates. Its force may be 
often expressed by ' at length " or ' until.' 

Ex. iminyaka yaza yaba'mashumi'matatu, the years came to be 
thirty. 

uoza uqede nini no. ? when at len^h will you finish ? 
uz'uqede leyo'ndaba, make an end at length of that story. 
ngoza ngifike kona, I shall get there some time or other ."^ 
uyakuz'afe ngaloko'kufa, he will get to die of that disease."" 
uyakuz' enz'-ni ? what will he come to do ': 
uz'ungitshele loko, come now, tell me that. 
v:oz'v.ngitshele loko, you shall come and tell me that. 
waza u-anga angahainbo, he would actually, it seems, have 
gone. 

baza banga bangakala ebakwele, they would have actually cried, 
it seems, he being down upon them. 

ngisabambezele ngiyauze ngibuyc ngifike, lam now busy, I shall 
manage to come afterwards. 

izulu I'pmisa, iminyaka yaza yaba'mitatu (ya'mitatu), the sky 
dried-up (the ground), the years ran on to be three. 
wahlala kona-ke v.aza uafa uDingane, he stayed there till 
Dingane died. 

waza v:anga ungadhla ungakagezi na ? would you actually have 
eaten, it seems, without washing "r" 

az'ang'etuki ngomtwalo nje, that he may not get to be frightened 
with the load. 

balala ubuiongo kvjaza kwasa, they lay asleep till it dawned. 
imibala, engingaze (engingazangej ngingayiboaa, colours which I 
never got (that I may be) to be able to see. 
ngingeze ngatsho ukuti nokuti, 1 cannot say to-wit, (it is) this 
or that. 

bonisisa kahle pela, kungaze kuti (kuze kungati), uma amakosi 
es'ekuxaha, ukale ngami, look carefully, that it may not come 
to pass that, when the gentlemen are cross with you, you 
complain of me. 

wab'enza nje eti abaze bangati (abangaze bait) besihambele ku' 
muniu onge'niuntu, he was doing (it) thinking that they should 
not come to say we came to visit a man who is not a man. 
anokwaka indhlu eqinileyo nize ningafi (ningaze nife) amakaza, 
build ye a stout hut that ye may not get to die of cold. 
wowabeka aniahashi aze angabuyeli (angaz'abuyele) emuva look 
to the horseB, that they may not manage to go back. 
waza wanga \ingahamba unganginiki iinali yami • selo (selokn) 
ufikile ngikuncenga, ngiti nginika imali yami, so you would have 
gone, it seems, without giving me my money ; ever since you 
arrived, I entreat you, saying, give me my money. 
ngaleso'sikati ama/iunu kaz'ababona abantu abamnyama, at that 
time the Boers had (not got to see) never seen black people. 

K 



146 AIXILIAKY VKKHS AND rAKTICXEt*. 

abazd bdkala laho'boutinano, those cliiltli'i'ii never cried. 
aagaza ngapetnlula'luto, I never answered anything. 
leyo'iiipi uyazc yafatiHUKi' itkomo, that impi never found a beast. 
(i.baze hazitolit iziitkoiuo, tliey never found the cattle. 

The foUowius^ idiom deserves especial notice, where the 
Past Tense of the indicative is used jiFter the .Sul)junctivc 
indicatiuLC a Present or Future time. 

ubeka ukamba pezu kn-osungulo hingazc hntiru, he places a pot 

upon a needle that it may not get to fall. 

Ic'uiiyaind iiihivutiro, iiigt'ze ij'epulwa ugole' nkaii, this meat is 

not yet cooked, it cannot be taken off at this moment. 

uhl'ubo.iele imbiza iiiguze yuhila, she is always kindling for this 

pot, it cannot get to boil. 

nngez'mmpuza In'manzi, bongeze baicapuza, he cannot get to 

drink this water, thi-y cannot get to tlrink it. 
N.B. The following idiom is also noticeable. 
Kx. uboza (- - ubi' ovnkuzn or iiz'iizc) natvo umpongolo, come on with 

the box. 
So vbowiiycka (- ubr oicokuwuyvka or uz'uwuyeka), leave it then. 

sibomishela ( sibe abok~u»itshela or size simishele) na f are we 

to tell him 't 

nbomnikit (.— nhc ovoknwiiiko) un '' is he to give him. 
Also I'Ts/iriAvT oxf (Vri'ze) wnfn, Tshaka (at the time) at which hi* 

came to die. 
l»lur. baze (nhtize) bofa ; for wliich might be written, — 

uTshnkii c:«' irnfa (j)lur. bezc baf'ti) or mo trafn (plur. obasf 

bafa). 
N.B. oela is sometimes used lus an expletive in place of ta. 

Ex. bi'itgirrli- lujnyihuiifi (iiiipi) ebnauku, I got to see it (the 

Impi) at night. 

;{;{i. Ziiifjf, is usL'd to i>x|»n'.ss • repoatedly,' ' continually,' 
' hahitually,' «.tc. : see ln'mhi', /ili:i\ liliele. 
Ex. vting'ulobn, you are continually writing. 

uzingr vnnkastika, he is coiitiTiually getting up. 

basiiujf briiuzii, tlicy are for ever asking <|ueHtion8. 

iitinge zihniiibn {iziiikomo), they are ai.-customed to g«). 

Hzitigr Htautala otnaiiunda •'iiliiil'M tom/uiif/if, you will coutinually 

taki' the eggs of the whiteman's fowls. 



PKCri.IAEITIKS OF COXSTRU CTFOX. ]17 



CHAPTER XX. 

i'i:(ii,iAi;iTii:< <.|- coxstructiox. 

835. An oath i.s expressed by the vocative of tlie ix'r.son oi- 
tiling s\Noru by (uuless tlie verb funga i.s introduced): and 
the native.s are accu.storaed to .swear Ijy their chief, if a a-reat 
<me, (as Mpande), f)r hi.s wife, if tliey are undei- her, or, if 
rlieir chief is not famous, then by their ohiest sister. 

Ex. ngimpate yMpnude, I carry (the name of) Mpanrle -= I.v 
Mpande ! "■ 

H,na kungenjalo, Tshaka .' uyal-iihula.wa, if it be not s.. I.v 
Tshaka ! you shall be killed. " ' 

uma uugaseyihtonga namhlonje bnhdu garni, ugifung-oJade 
iretv, nyakuagihona ngamehlo, if you shall not have brouc-ht my 
stafi this very day, I swear by my sister, you shall see iTie with 
your eyes. 

heka, ni/ana ! wotshela uyihlo nonyoko iduba ulahle luukonto 
ivamt; kepa uma ngiagasawuloni ngomuso kusasa, Bantwana 
ka'haha! (or Bant wana .') uyakung lio no , look you, boy' tell 
your father and mother tliat you have lost my asseo-ai - but if 
I do not see it to-morrow morning, by Bantwana "( dau^rliter') 
of my father ! you shall sec me. '^ 

Matomela' Tsh ha Mfitomela ka'Tshisa ,},\ Matomela dau-htor 
of Tshisa I 

XM\. Tt is very coniiiion to eonfirni an as.sertion by a kind 
of oath which iniph'es that the person could be <n- 'has l)een 
o-nilty f)f some outrageous act of indecencv. or that .sometliiiKr 
impos.sible has hap])ened if he is not speaking- the truth. The 
following- are some of the loiTns used in such cases. 
Ex. dade wetu '. =-- nuiy Ilie (I have lain) with my sister ' 

»ne2a7a.' (used by women )r_^ .... my husband's latlicr ' 

omezaia (used by women) -=- ... my husband's father 

and his brothers ! 

hokwekazi^ may I lie (I have lain) witli my wife's muth.n-aud 

her sisters ! 

uguigene, agingene cnkosini, ngingene esigodhlueiii .' mav 1 .-nter 

•-■nter to the king, enter the royal har.-iii ! 

K '^ 



148 PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION. 

siffodhlo ! ulimele wena ' by the king's harem ! you are dead 

(hurt) := I will be the death of vou ! 

ngiyipande inkosi ikva'Dukuzn ! I have disinterred the king at 

Dukuza (Tshaka's kraal) ! 

ngiqete kiva'Monase ! I have luade-myself-at-hcme at Monase's 

(Mpande's chitf wife) ! 

ngafunga ngamhulula okudala, I swore I dugupanold (coii>5e). 

kungahle kitvukc uDingane ahambe ngezinuyatro, Diiigane might 

rise and walk. 

When such words are used bv iiif<i, they are wfjrd.s of 
vlciifunrja ; but, if used by 7't»/-/c/i. they are words of nhnhinn, 
as in the following- instances. 

Ex. anghoazi la'mafnta ; selo ngawabona nje ngamehlo. angibona'iigo 
ngiwnpata ngezika'haba lezi izandhla, omezala ! I know nothing 
about thut fat ; ever since I saw it with my eyes. I have never 
touched it with these (hands of my father ^=) hands of mine, 
I swear. 

angii/azi ngoka'baba louniJotao ; ai-ke ! ngamakala yanginukela : 
ahle kithe omezala ngakn ngayifaka, I know nothing of it 
(iiiiiydiiiii) with this mouth of (uiy father ) mine: no! with 
my nostrils its savour reai.hed me ; it would be omezala (if) 
I put it in (my mouth) at all. 
In the mouth of males nhnhiint is to sjiy somethiug offen- 
sive, either to annoy a man (uhioKialekisa, vJntnitnko), or to 
forbid a tliino; beincf done. 

Ex. lojini/toin'sc kahili cndhlfli'ni 'eqiwe (ci»)ija,he cut him in two-lii 
the patli, having been jumped over by dogs. 
vngabihcki unyou'o lapa; inxa ubcka ungawo uynkitba unyateUi 
(loii'jnknzala, don't you put your foot here ; if you do. you 
will be treading on your father-in-law and his brv>thet b (in their 
graves). 
So certain |)hras(>s aroused toconfirm an assertion (ff/.v/^n'A-rt). 
Ex. inkonio ingazaVumunlu, a cow wovdd brinir forth a man (if that 
is not true). 



J7. Tlie Inlinitive Tense is nfteu used as an Interjection. 
[. uA'i/s/iiii;;<i jticri^-,' .' his raseality ! 



Ex. . , 

ukulia'nhlc kmtlryo'nkabi, bandhla! the beauty of that )X, gOO<l 
people ! 

wo! tnuaa ! rikv'r}xzrt ktrako kule.io'aikaii ! nh I don't Rpenk of 
it ! your action at that time ! 

Tl»c Kubjunctivo mood is often used us ;i' 
Ex. ukuba kit'iudiiUkc knngaka nje u i ti n j/a ir<> . 

(the gniKH) hIiouUI l>e tr*Mldi*n down so iu\;< u «ii n ini-i- ukuiv 

fe»'t I - how iH it that, tVo. 



PECULIARITIES OF COKSTRUCTIOX. 149 

umuiitu uhle asimze ayibumluluze njc inkomo obala ! tliat a person 

should actually come upon an ox in the wilderness ! 

adhle omnnye uniuntu ! that a man should eat ! = how some 

men will eat ! 

omunye umntwana womuntu, ice lake Uhle libe likulu .' that (one 

child of man's =) some person's luck should be great ! 

unomgolo lo'm/aim ; ut'edhla ah'ekala imihla yonke .' that boy is 

greedy; wliile eating, (to think) that he should be cryino- 

every day ! "^ 

338. It is the practice in Zulu, as in English, to assert a 
thing very decidedly, (ironically, vlcullnqa), by denying it. 
Ex. kana'lalaka yeaa .' he is not passionate, he I = he is very 
passionate. 

kana'musa yena nakade .' he has no kindness ever ! 
yamgahlahi leyo' nkunzi! yai uknfa ; anrjibonanga ngiyibona 
inkunzi ihlaba kangakaya, that bull did not push ! it was death ' 
I never saw a bull push like that. 

kakutiyena ! uyabongozela nje, he doesn't grow, he is iust 
shooting up. 

aikulupele leyo' nkomo '. hfesabeka, thai, he&st is not fat! it's 
tremendous ! 

aku'hashi leli .' uknfa .' tlris is no horse ! it is death !— words 
of strong commendation, meaning, perhaps, that it is death to 
vie with it or to try to mount it. 

asiyo nendhlalakitilapa! inkulu, there is not a famine either 
here with us ! it is great— may be said when there is no food 
at all, or none at hand, no utshicala ready, &c. 
uFodo aku'manga kvyena? kuy'esabeko , Fodo— there are no lies 
with him ! it's tremendous. 

389. Frequently a noun, and especially an infinitive verbal • 
noun, with a possessive pronoun, is used in upjwsitiun to the 
pronoun or noun Avhieh marks tlu' subject or object of the 
principal verb, in order to dcvelojie mcjre fully the meaning 
of the said pronoun. '^ 

Ex. war.ibopa amanxeba ngendwaugu, lie boimd him liis wounds witli 
a cloth . 

wangikweza uqobo nabantaharai, lie preserved me, my person and 
my children (including wives, and, indeed, all the pei-sons of a 
kraal, if the head-man is speaking). 

shuuiayela-ke uba izice leli iytkosi yalo kiujauzekube ng'uba'na? 
(speak) say (as to) this land, its cliief, it will come to be wlio ? 
sebezikalela-ke lopo nmaBunu, thereupon they lament them- 
selves (do) the Boers. 

ngihle ngnfika zibutisile nmhlamb'opakati ngapezulu ?apaj/rt,I just 
aiTived (when) tliey had come together, our (herd witliin -^) 
line lierd up aljove there. 



liJn PECULIARITIKS OF OONSTBUCTKjN. 

UiU'iSuiin itiufshinjtt uZiihi Onuicala {e hiacalenl) out"tfi(ii, thi- 
Boers hit him, the Zuhi ( the Zuhisi, (on) three sides. 
u'aiitijqidiHza inhloko etsheni, lie sniiis;he<l hiui. the head. iijMin 
:i stone. 
N.B. The verb in tlie hist case is ugqulmzn. so that with /«i w.- 
should have irobangiivlnim ; but the n eannot be sounded after •». 

;i4". .V noun or iuHnitive may Ik' ivpcated witli na or jj'/c 
in order to incrt-asr the inten.siiy of the expression. 

Ex. vkireuzii kvaliii kunaiuandhla ngamandhl^, their doing is most 
violent. 

nhaniu hezizwe ngezizne, peoph- of different tril>es. 
yeka la'hafana heiaiuriiniyniiin .' fmdhlo lokii ku iigeso na-iuazinya ttf 
namazinyane, kn'burubii nje, how these lx>ys love flesh ! thev 
are eating this being not yoimg binls. but only chicks. 
Hiiiia ugiyeke ukuyiffiign uje, ngibo)itle iihiti aknse'nkotnf' 
nn'nkoino, soku Dulhlekedhln na nje weze. I for my part have given 
nj) l»u\ing it. I saw it was no real ox. only a little old bulhxk. 
kiiiiiiigi I'ngizira kutiico;omok(i*i po ' ong'tizi umn ktihuacla-pi no ; 
nkunyr f'kvna'funnn na'gotiia : izinto (iji-. there are many as t«» 
whom I hear it said (they are) chiefs truly! I don't know 
wherf they reign : somewhat (of them) has n<> name whatever: 
(they are) things merely. 
iizakuj'a nokxifa, you will certiiinly die. 

yeka la'banlii bcgangile .' bncofozehi ninaijiiiuli' vinlhliiti : tibn^if' 
eguh nokun'esulii, how naughty these ]HH>ple are I they sma-sh 
eggs in the hut : they do not wipe them up at all. 
ninnihiihi nrituiebma ngeziri iigingaliboni uo'kulibona, the UH-U 
agi-eed about a (word) matter (1 not seeing it at all ) which 1 
know nothing about. 

kayihtomi nn'knyihinnzo leyo'xdoba, ho di«l n(»t particiihvrly ttin* 
alx>ut that matter. 
kuuqnfeU nn'kufeUi, it n««t being quite enoguli, wher* aln^ftU 

"it i.s not enough (meaning, perhaps, the heartV 
- not died away). 
'-.,,,. .,,,wi:,yo nokubaiieuhlixiyo Inbo'boittu, they Imvo lumrtii 
indei-.! those pi-ople they an* \erj- anxious (said either iu 
pniise or bhime). 

kili /<i^<> iMi'.tiiA/i :i n<;i>il-u>i/<i'<i, here at our place we don't live 
with (pr..],,!) liviiii.' w. liv.- iii\i'..inf.M't;i)>iy. 
nilt u .uld not 

find ,ry if 

we ii.ii Hot iio< n S.I luui^;ry. wc shuuld have I'cen mon' 
fortunate. 
■ ' • ' ' ' ' '' tjami ' ftla« for thi" thinjf it 

I,,) I, lint.., I A^')x^ ..«.»v 



PECULIARITIES OF COXSTRUCTIOX. 151 

bebengellbone (ihash.i) nokuUboiw, thej could not lutve seen the 
hoi-se tlistinctly. 
N.B. In such a case, if a prouoxin is used as the object of the first 
verb, it must be repeated (as above) with the second. 

^341. The following are iustances of Avhat may be called a 
nominative absolute. 

Ex. hati ukvco ha nga, they sa.id (to think) mth this thought. 

bayo.kvhlola kung'tiJadula, they will live (it beinsr peace) in 
peace. 

nangomuso minn iighjakuiukutela umuntu engiqala, and (to- 
morrow) another day I for my part shall be angry when a man 
(begins at) attacks me. 

Or tlie infinitive may be used without a preposition. 
Ex. xvenzile uknenzi. you have done jour best. 

ngibulaleni ukuiigibidala, kill me outright. 

uti uyise uyabona ukuba ukirala uy'alo, says his father you see 

that he positively refuses. 
And so the repetition of a verb implies intensity of action. 
Ex. us'edhle nadhio, he ate away might and main. 

342. When two nonns in the possessive form ai'e dependent 
on the same antecedent noun, the proper relative is prefixed 
to the second noun, if it is desii-ed expressly to draw attention 
to it as dLstinct from the first. 

Ex. inkosikazi yetu. cyoinaNgisinauiaBunu nahaiilu, oiu" Queen, who 

is (Queen) of the English and Dutch and Natives, 
but inkosikazi yamoXgisi, neyama Bunu, r.cyo.hantu fi'ti. Queen of the 
English, and of the Dutch, and of the Natives too. 
ukivenz% ku-enn noMpandc, the doing of you and Mpande. 
kanikwe elinye izwc lihc elake nezizukulwana zake. let him be 
given a piece of land to l>e his own and his descendants'. 
abehlanga vhutongo ngokukala kwezinkahi na nriislndo wompakaii, 
sleep came not down because of the lo\ving of the cattle and 
the noise of the people. 
N.B. Observe na umsindo (and not nomsindo) in the above. 
When one possessive refers to two or more antecedents it 
is used in the form proper for the nearest of them. 
Ex. izinkomo nartiahashi enkosi, cows and horses of the chief. 
amahoshi nezinkomo zenkosi, horses and cows of the chief. 

34.S. Wlien two or more adjectives I'efor to the same noun, 
the copulative, by which they are connected in Knglish, is 
omitted in Zulu. 

Ex. w'aka indhbi enkuUt enhle, he buUt a large and beautiful house. 



152 PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION. 

844'. When a verb has two or more nominatives of the 
same class of nouns, it may take 1 he corresponding' plural 
})ronoun. 

Ex. uyihlo nnnyoko liohlezi kahle, your father and mother, they 
are well. 

leU'hashi na h'liyo nyohnliamba, this hoi'se and that there, 
they will jro. 

When a verb lias two or more nominatives not of the same 
class of nouns, they may be treated (if possible) as persnns, 
and be represi-nted by the pronoun hit ; otherwise the imper- 
sonal form may be used. 

E.x. Icyo'ndoda nomkayo hnbot^hua, that man and his wife were 
^)ound. 
lo'm/atut na le'niijo okwake, this )»oy and this dog are his. 

845. When two or more verbs have the same accusative, 
the accusative pnmoun, if inserted in one. must be in.serted 
in each of them. 

Ex. bambamba, bniut.<hnya, biitiibopa agenlamho, they eau'jht hiai, 
beat him, and hound hiiu with a rope. 

84G. (The verl s iji and :ii, l'o and come, are reifuiarly 
inserted after verbs, expressing the particular kind or cau.se 
of motion in any case, to complete tlie sense where one verb 
would suffice in Kn^-lish. 

Ex. tidkiiimkn vayn kwnmknln, he went up ti> the chief's place. 
Hijitunywc itkuzn' kukutsMa , I have been sent to tell you. 
w'chla waya emoitandhlau, he went «lown to tlu- country. 

So, too, fi la. conu' from, is similarly used. 

Ex. sehcjikil)' bireld etuGuiiguinlhloni . tln-y are now urriveil, cominjf 
from Maritzhurg. 

347. Neuter or passive verbs are often foljowi-d by a noun 
in <hc simple foi-m. wliicli. tliouirli the same in form as the 
nominative case, we nniy regard as somewhat analogous to an 
accusative absolute. ^ 

Ex. iraliilii tibutoiKjo, lu" lay in .><leep. 

ijiii'irwrlr initnnzi. it (I'l/ibisd, jxit ) was full of water. 

hiini'hiktiteli' vkiihiiiHhn, they were now tin»<l with walking. 

irweba lokuuijrii'i imikumlii, a lu^oott tor <'ntvriui; with nhiittt. 

isitulhlfla :nkithaiiih<i itiiui>/o/<i, nxidti for ^oin^ with wu^unH. 

mnnknuihi okuhlitin ninabuto, military kraul.s for living in l>y 

H<.ldi«'i-«. 

'ij<'i-iiiiA'ii udaka ln'mumi, thin water itt now Htinkin>; with uuul. 

nhutonfjo tinn wjibtilnliU, I have hud a Koo<l Hlti'p truly. 



fwiL 



PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION. 153 

jigibHlav:<i izindhlche, zipuma ubovu, I am plagued with my ears, 
they (come out with =) exude matter. 

icahamba {wahoiubela) uynhambela v:o.futi, he went off with a 
perpetual going = for good and all. 
rcalala umlalela ivafuti, he slept ^^-itli a pei^petual sleep. 
cobela ngehau unganeti izinto zal:o lezi, screen (your head) with 
the travelling-shield that you may not get wet with these 
things of yoiu's. 

tival'umntv:aiia lo fun' ot she izinnyaico, carry this child, lest he 
get scorched in Ms feet. 

ngihamba izinncuadi, I am going with the letters = I am carry- 
ing the post. 

348 . Nomi.s expressing length of time or distan ce are n-sed 

in t he accusativi; ^ " 

j PTx. wahlala nati ubusuk u fc^n^f , he stay ed with us the whole night ; 
but baza'ufika ebusuku, th^y wilTctiritb ill nigl 

bafika izv:e lonke, they amvecl throughout the whole land. 
uyauhamba v.ba.la, you will go through the wild-country. 
ulipete nomhlanje ; balihlezi emuva, balihlezi po/mbili ; uyalihamba 
uyalibuquza pakati, he has it (izwe) in hand to-day (= he 
travels fast over it) ; they are sitting all along it behind, they 
are sitting all along it before ; he is going over it and shuffling, 
it (the dust) up between. 

natshona'lukalo, yatshona'lukalo, he went down along the ridge 
it (inkoino) went down along the ridge. 

The use of the nonn with its inflex elided, as in the last 
example, i.>^ veiy common in such ca.ses as the following. 
Ex. uyiyisa kicaba'nkomo' ningi, he takes her to those with many 
cattle. 

intanga yaleyo'ntoviibi is'ibantwaiia ngababili kaloku, the con- 
temporaries of that girl are now by this time (ai-e with) have 
childi'en Vjy twos. 

sasiyozingela ehlanzen'i, kiceU'kubalela'kubi kweli'magcukc'mabi, 

we went to hunt in the bush, to that which has bad heat, to 

that which has bad ycUow-ants = where the heat is great and 

the ants troublesome. 

X.B. ihashi lakica'hashi leli, = these horses are very numerous, for 

which might be said ihashi lika' Nomuntuleli, where uXomuntu is used 

to express a large nuuilutc- 



<349. VeiTSs implying • giving ' or ' taking away,' and 
objf'ctive verbs, take a double accusative] 

Ex. v:apa vXgoza innnrndi, he gave Xgoza a letter. 

has'oiiiukile ukudhla kv:ein, they took away our food from u.s. 
bamambxda izingubo, they stripped off him his clothes. 
icazikipa amehlo izinhloli, he put out the eyes of the spies. 



\'>i I'Kf TI.IAEITIKS OF COXSTRLCTIUN. 

iroliUjiii i^iiiku'o aezinkohe nenny<ii,ia, he jjp^ve them bread ami 
(cooked) mealies and meat. 

inujinike nuuitd aipi nnififatu iioln, lie ifave me three pumpkins 
yesterday. 

vnnitela ibimbi eunxeheui, he iKJured on him the ikambi on the 
wound. 

iinifaiele iziudabn zake, he has (distributed) oharjjed on me 
his S'tory. 

i'-(il,)il(ilo iiiihulu, ivny'ehiila isikinnhu, he killed an iu^uana, and 
took ofi' it the skin. 

kfs\}i\goniholo<ie iziitgonogouo ezindhleheni, let us extract for him 
the wax from his ecirs. 

ikiid iiimiiile inujn uku.dhhi kiretu ; ikiifnke ikala eW niakdzi' , the 
do;if has spoiled our footl : it has put into it his cold nose. 
N.B. Nika may also take a dative of the donee. 

Some vorb.s, :is boayn, linr.o, tehiht, knuzn, luny he used 
either with the iicriisutice ovihiflve of the person thauiked, &v., 
the accusative heiuu* used when th(^ act is done diricthj, with 
reference to actiml jin-A-nial eomnumication with the pe)*son 
acted on. 

Ex. «'tj/>Hsa uSouitseM, he asked Somt«eu. 

wahiiza kn'Somtsni, he asked of Somtseu (perhaps by a mes- 

senjjer). 

babonya uT.ihaku, they tluuiked Tshaka (in person). 

babonga ku'Tshaka, they sent thanks to Tshaka. 

HoO. Y('i'h.s ex]iressino; nmtion to or from a phu'e. nrO' 
o-enenilly used with thr loi-ative. 

Ex. u'fiyii wduijritn endhliui, he went and entered into the hut. 

vndiibuln eiudsiuiini, he went throuj;h the jjanlens. 

u'emiikn kulio 'inViihti iibntshele, he departed from th»'m nji soou 

as he had told them. 

iidyirntslut xiiiijo ry'flhiiyo fknyn, ho clr««vo away from the kmnl 

the do;; that wjis steaiinif. 
N.b. 'I'll!' followiu'.^ aic piMMiliar expressiouH. 

nijihntiihii nuinrnlii ngiliombn iiuihlfhi yamaeala, 1 tun f^oin^; 

to the law-court. 

iiiikHliiiii'i kiihlf. witiigena imro'iuunlu, you Hpokr well, you wont 

into that man. 

.'{.M. I^•l•ij)|•ll(•id verhs (in n,M»). nnd sonu« othei-s. ns »'/i/H/rt, 
• 'ilka, Inii'ia, Ac, are rejfiilarly used with h". 

Kx. t<(ltiit<' nettre, inii/ii wofika ktro'Sijota. he went lUttniv over the 



I'KCULJARITIES OI' COXSTRUCTIOX. 155- 

h-iriteka (bultlahnzeka) nezwelonke, they -were sca,tteved ovor the 
whole land. 

liingo. neziui lami ; kona injnungena kahle ku'Manqondo, (keep 
strait(ht witli my word = ) do as I tell you, then you will ^et in 
well to Manqondo (in ai-tjument). 

b'emuka nendhlelo eya ku.n'Nodtnetigtt, they went off with the 
road which goes to Xotlwengu ^ they thought I meant tliat 
road. 

.b'emuka namanzi bengasizioa'nmntu, they (went away with the 
water =) were carried down the stream, not heing helped by 
anyone. 

The following peculiarity iu the use of Reciprocal Verl)s 
deserves special notice, being- different from the Englisli 
idiom. 

Ex. sabonana nomgani wami, we anw each other, (I) and my friend. 
babelinga.iw. noTJingane, they were of the same size, (he) and 
Dingane. 

sc'sitfindnaa kakida naye, we were very fond of each f>ther. (I) 
and he. 

sodukelananaye, we strayed from each other, (I) and he. 
So si'ntanya' nye naye, we are of the same age, (I) and he. 
ba'ntanga'nye naye, the two are of the same age. 
unitshele uti ngbjavfika nginHldo.nunye vjengaloko sadkidmne 
njcilo naye, do you tell him (and) say (that) I will arrive to-morrow 
as we said, (l) and he. 

The Zulu often inverts the Eugli.sh idiom in such cases. 
Ex. uiiayo impahla, he is with it, goods, — he has goods with him. 
omv.nye um/ana esasihamba naye, another hor^jm-t 
were going, = who was going wifch-ttsr"^ 

y. y<'-"^^- P«««ive verbs, formed from active intnaiticey, are nsed 
. /with an accvsatire. This is some^vhat in accordance with the 
^ I English idiom ; but in Zulu the construction is veiy remark- 
able in the case of ^^xM-bs of the olijective form. 
\ E]c. nrjhp^yhrp iimhin^u iy»nin T Imyc v.^en given this dog by ^ 
^s..^- white juiaJU. 

hal'tHsirr umj'uhi ivonke, they were made to lie along the 

whole river. 

unikwe iinuli yoke, he has been given his money. 

babaselwa umlilo, they Avere kindled for witli a fire, =^ a five was 

kindled for them. 

s'ehlelwa uku/a, we were comedown upon by sickness. 

batvelwa Innqola, they were fallen upon l>y a wagon. 

abaniwana abofelwa oyise, children whose fathers are dead. 

leyo'mija aikotiswe isibih'i, let that dog be made to lick an 

antidote. 



loC} PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION'. 

intKinzdiui engangiw'emelwe umume, the (cbx>p of water =) small 

supply of ntshwala which (I have l>een made for with it) has 

Ijoen maile for me )>y uiy mother. 

botsheluii lezo'ndnba, they were told that story. 

ui/nkwamukiva hyo'ukomo, he will be deprived of that cow. 

hiikohlud nkiniiitn is(<s/i</, they forijot to take a eiip (lit. they 

wei'e slipped in memory by the takinij of a cup). 

lo'mntvitna us'eznukumuka amazinijo, us'eznkumiln auiatsha , thia 

boy is about to (become loose in - ) shed his teeth, he will now 

<^row (with) new ones. 

ngibUelwa nkufo, I am boiled over by sickness = sickness has 

overwhelmed me. 

umilwe ij' into lapa evdenzeni, he has been stuck by sometliin^r 

here in the lef^ - .somethin<^ has struck him in his le^. 

hapelehrii amaviUila okuhanibn, they were come to an end for by 

strength ti walk — strength came to an end for them. 

iiiko nemboxwana 'enzelwe yona ? is there not a drop (of tshicala) 

(that he has been made for with it — ) that has been made 

for him ? 

leyo'nkomn ikithlwi', that cow hits been increased for — a fa?tii8 

lia.s imreased for it, it is in calf. 

nfjikulrlwi' nku/n kii'biintininn Imini, ( I have In-en increased for by 

sickness ) siclcness luus bei'ii rife for me among my children. 

ii/rl'if iniiiitii'inii, (she lias been died for by her child -) her 

cliild has died or she iiaa miscarried 

wtijisii ukufelwa umunfu »i« ? did you wish (to \h> died for by a 

man - ) that a nuin should die, be kille<l. on jour acootint ? 

igamo lami eiigiilifinuju-a tibabn no^nitmr iig'iiMjnkamna, my uaiue 

which (I was struck out with it) was .struck out for me by my 

father and mother is Mfoka/.ana. 

uniloiitii iiijiiriiijiifsbiilistrc \U<>j« kugann »gfsiji»gi, my mouth I 

was heliH'd to r-fresli it by ,b.jo tliis moriiing with inijmgi 

Jojo helped me to refresh it, he gave me some >»ijingi. 

wonginika le'nknino e/vhcryn, you shall give me thin cow which 

]\ IS lost its calf. 

uMoimsi «.«'(•/'< /«•<■ iiiif, Monasi (refuge** wife of Uiupaude) hiw 

now ln'r land dead t<> her she is now iu exile. 

iriib'eniiii/Hin'lii'o j/ini iki Y trtiyflim wacflftini fxinnynngnxi f wan 

he ni>f asked-iiiedicine for? was he not g«>ne-for. lK»Houghl-for, 

to the il<M'tors ? 

luji'iigihitntbn-kf mjilshoutUrf ilntujo, wliy. 1 wati nu uiy Way, but 

(F w:is M<«t for by the siui) the sun set for nu>. 

i<it»hrltce imloda ynke, she hiM b«on rofniied for ky h«r 

Mt'.i. The pa.ssivi' form is oftfii umhI iu Zulu, when* in 
lliiifli.sli the iM'tivr wouUl Ik* «'in|>h>yiHl, noil in nucIi a i-as«», 
t If iiu|H'i*si>iinl form xh freqnrntly usni. 



/ 



PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION. 157 

Ex. ktuffwa ennyangeni yo];vJumel-a, it is gone to the cupping-doctor. 
i.yiwe esililweni, they are gone to the wake. 
hwaza kwahanjiva ngezinnyairo, it came to be walked on foot. 
kwalaliva kwa'Ngoza, it was slept (they slept) at Ngoza's. 
dkusahanjiva namhla, there is no more going to-day. 
kwayiiva'kuzua ohantv. abafayo, it was gone to (listen) consult 
(on account of) sick people. 

icuhleziwe kahle kona '! is it lived (do they live) pleasantly there? 
kvmkuhlalwo kahle kona : kusayakupindelwa kona, it was lived 
there pleasantly (formerly) ; (it will be still returned ^=) we 
shall still return thither. 

kuke kwahlahva, kviiwo uza'utshetsh'ufike, (it was stopped ^) 
we stopped a bit, it being said that you woidd quickly come. 

354. A.s noticed already, tenses, whicli express i)reseiit or 
fv.tnre time, will often be used with reference to time, Avliicli 
is actuall}" past, but Avas present or future at the time 
refeired to in the narrative. This makes it often impossible 
to translate Zulu exj^ressious, word for word, by coiTe.sponding- 
English ones. 

Ex. h'azi ukuba %ikuluma ngabo, they knew that he (is) was speaking 
about them. 

ivab'eng'azi uma uza'uti-ni na, he did not know what he (shall) 
should say. 

yati innyanga ingeze yamnuka kung'eziwe emhlahlweni, the doctor 
said he (can) could not get to smeU him out (it not having been 
gone to a consultation =) without going through the I'egular 
process of enquii-y. 

angi'kvze (angiyikuza) ngakohliva y'inina, ningibulalela abanta. 
bami, I will not get (I forgot) to forget you, you killing for me 
my children. 

ng'azi ukuti iyauti ikwela immini, bengilibona elakona iz^ve, I 
knowing that it will be high day, (I was seeing ^) when I shall 
have been in sight of the land of that (country). 

355. When two verbs are connected in English by either of 
the words, 'and, nor, neither,' the conjunction is usually 
omitted in Zulu, and the second verb put in the subjunctive 
mood — more particularly, if the action expressed by the 
second verb is consequent in time, or dependent in any way, 
on that of the first. ■ 

Ex. yalusa izinkomn, uzibekisise, zingadhli amasimu, herd the cattle, 
and look well after them, that they eat not the mealie- 
grounds. 

gaula izUfonda, wake isanda, cut down poles, and construct an 
isanda (place for keeping grain) . 



ITXULIARITIES OF ( ONSTRUCTION. 

hitiiawo iiimj<iiiifii,kHijt)hiii-<i ( kitycknl:iirii j ihambi, ohc souyapuza, 
tlien (is) will be called the doctor, and then will be gatliered 
mediL-ine. and he will then be for drinking (it). 
citzffiisi le kirn' N I/O II- o susliuba oimnjehe, siw'einhe-ke siv'eme 
i;iiihlo ,i>lnitije lube uganciio, o/ciii/f liihe iigapmnbili, down there 
.itiSyawo's we dug pits, we dug them and made rows (of them), 
one to be on this side, one to be turther on. 

nbafniw hiibaniba ucitiibitwu ; iiayulusinisn bati, ^ Xtetc, atete, 
yi-nz'aitKxyaiii'akini .' ' luw'enze gede, baluycke lundize, the lx>ys 
eauglit a large green locust ; they make it dance, and say, 
' Locust ! Locust ! make the songs of your people,' and so, as 
soon as it had made them, tliey let it go and it Hew away. 
sili tiiiii uina viumifii cboiic ibika, omunye uyatokoza .ati ngizakuba 
iieiihlanhln, katisiiiibe ugizniisutn, oiiiiiuye odabuke, eft ingabe 
.lyixdiitshayiio, witli us (2'.M>), if a man has seen an ibikn (ant 
with wliite spots on tlie abdomen) one rejoices and says. I shall 
liave good fortune, perhaps shall get a belly-full, and another 
is sad and says, perhai)s I shall be beaten. 

niiiakoti ugunu qede, uthluiimbc kudhhde izinnyontio zibe ittbili, aye 
kubo iiyoti'lo aninbeli'. niraijuye, 'eiize iitshii-ala ; lobo'tshtcala 
• nwihhnizi', as soon as a ))ride luarries. jjerhajfs there ptiss two 
uit)nths, an<l she j^foestoher father's. au<l goes and takes o,nt\bele, 
;ind griud.s them, and makes u(slni:ulii ; tliat ntuhwal-t (is ) is 
callt'il iiiiuilihiiizv. 

i'(» .' iHUso, iiigoiie! lukoiiio hiibiini fiuntshani ku'beluDgii ; tiknit- 
jfiiiiii kiVd'Zulu ; koiio izliikoDiit bezij injmi agcuipi ; csUnngn'ini 
lapii innuiitu uhlalnhlolfhlah' ku'mliiiigu ayizuKC, ea'eke icoginga 
iiniuyiiku ngeitiinynko, oh I don't (talk of it), friend I a bejist is 
dugout of the rocks among the wliitenien ; it is not like (what 
it is) in Zululaud : there cattle wei"e obtained by an impi ; 
among tlie white folk liere a man stays and stays and stJiYs 
with a wbittuian ami obtains it. having now managed to 
swallow whole years and years. 

as'i'zikiili'lfi-ke lajiii niiiiilluini nkiitl. 'Hmubu ttnthoshi trnmi ! 
iignfel" kwu'Zulii !' Siiknpcln-kt' njnlo ; sokute xibilili iijeaehelahle 
nezibnmii : sokvkiifn kimbo-kr njnlo lubo ababeuqnmukilc ; 
j<ebrpum>''ki' isirukuhliirnnyinui simjiikn. singosengakunani, $ebe- 
biiiirinii', ge'iekii'eli^ iiijnbnbUi'haslt'nii'Uuye, o.^iiA:*' sokukotrif einkf, 
iini'nle (iiiibcke kire1iiki\ then t\u'y wen- lamenting themstdves, 
were till' HiK'i'8, to wit, ' Go, my ho)*se ! I liave died among the 
Zulus I ■ .\nd so there was an end, tlu-re waa now utter 
••oufusiou ; now they tlnow away even their tuusket« ; now 
there is the death of them continually, tliose who hiul Ikh-u cut 
oil"; now there escjipen a little group, so many, not worth 
naming, tliey being now few, mount<><l two on one horse, 
wlumoever's horse was tiri'<l, (one) took liiui and put him on 
his own. N.H. nmhitiiln unnii a w)iit«man'H bad Zulu for 
tmshi /'I (Ml. I 



PECULIARITIES OF COXSTELCTIOX. 159 

356. But. if tlie tirst verb in such a case is in tlie perfect or 
past tense, the second verb is put in the past tense. 
Ex. siiiijune samfuna uKoti,-we sought and sought for Kati. 

izihlangv ezinetileyo zatamba, nezibomn eziuetileyo zaha'inanzi, 

nezUcoli ezapvkileyo, lezo'zinto zonke z'ohlulel-ile, shields which 

have heen wetted and got soft, and guns which have been 

wetted and have got moist, and weapons which have been 

broken, all these things are done for. 

ngidulele ngadulela aing'ezv:a, I called and called, you not 

heax-ing. 

ngike ngamhona kusasa, I just saw him tills morning. 

inkos! ize yavuma yamnika, the chief got to consent and give (it) 

to him. 

kuitinandi ukudhlo kugayiice kwacolisiva, it is nice to eat when 

it has been ground and made fine. 

umntivona v.kale vxikola vjaza vxi.ba nebsilhigozi ; vjab'esamdundu- 

zele,kazatula ; nokub'eze walalo. ukuba 'eze ivazunyivo, ubutongo 

u-alala, the child cried and cried till he got a fit of sobbing ; 

she was now soothing it, it did not get still ; and that it got to 

sleep, (it was) that it got to be sm-prised bj- sleep and slept. 

ite inka nje tndhhda, ngaseagiye ngatenga eraKonwzi le ngabekelela , 

when the famine was coming, I went and bought at the 

Umkomanzi far-away and stored. 

kuyoJdekwii, kube 'mgidigidi,'scihla.(shii:i' gahliiiznui, it is laiitj-lial.ile 

it is absurd, it being ah-eady killed and skinned. 

uma le'nduku iwile oijabc (ayabo) isocuka, niyakwazi ukuba 

seng'ifile, if tliis staif (has) shall have fallen (it never rose 

again =^) and never rise again, ye will know that now I am 

dead. 

35 7i JJhxiha is often omitted before a subjunctive verb, 
where ' that ' would be expi-essed in English. 

Ex. souluiige sipume kusasa, it is now right (tliat) we should set out 
to-morrow morning. 

betshaya impi leya engapetsheya, b'enzelela kuwele umlomo 
opanibili, thej' hitting the impi there on the other side, doing 
it (that) the (mouth in front) men in advance may cross. 
icati ababutane bonke,he said (that) they were all to assemble. 
ute umntwano kasizomcelela umese, the boy said (that) we were 
come and ask for a knife for him. 

azekuti-ke yena uDingane azekubuza ebuza koMzuzu, ati-ke, 
' Yipose (iponse) kulipi ibandhla ita T bazekuti-ke, ' Iponse em- 
Vokiveni ;' azekuti, ' Yenze njani ukuponsa kicayo na ?' bazekuti- 
ke bona, ' Nkosi, Una asinako ukuk^itshela ukuponsa kwayo ; 
bakona oxjihlo, baifeza, Izinduna, zokutshela ukuba iposile yenze 
njani,' oAi-ke yeno, ' Bengivele ^igayibona ebusuku ima ngilele ; 
ngoyibona ukuti impi ixotshiive, kepa-ke nayo iposile, so he. 



<" PEf ILIARITIKS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Dinfjane, ^ets to ask, asking of Mziizii and liisi pai'ty, so says 
he, ' It (iitipi) struck which troop "r ' So say they, ' It struck 
the Imvokwe (rej^iment) :' so says he, 'How did it do (it), its 
striking r' So say they, ' >ire, we are not able to tell aVx)iit its 
striking; tliere are your fatliers, they are coming, the izinduna, 
to tell about how it struck ;' so says he, I had come (;J52, N.B.) 
to see it at night when I was asleep ; I saw that the impi was 
routed, but it too had struck.' 
/ 

858. In relating a narrative the native.s often use what may 
be called the hlnturlci'l anhjiinctivi.^ 

Ex. iiihlokoseht imila ennya»ie)ti yeso, ii'uvuke, ah'es'eyibona ttmuutu, 
I s'eti (as'eti) lo'mun^u unenhlokoseln, a stye grows on the fleshy 
part of the eye, it swells, and then some one sees it, and so he 
says that person has a stye. 

s'et'uha (as'el'uha } nw'nhe umkumbi, 'erne vgnpakati noDingane, 
then when they {(imabulo) liad made a circle, Dingane also 
stiinds within. 

kcpa-ke hnbuie-ke indhleJn bati ' Ungasihambisa ngendhlela elungi- 
leyo ?' awme-ke, uknbn-ke ts'azi uk~uba impi seiiHikire, yalala 
kuyo yonkf imifuyami Ic axnuvela ngayo ; ahambe-ke ngayo 
iiidhlelii Ic, but they ask about the way, tlieysay 'Can you lead 
us l>y the right path ? ' he assents, because not knowing that 
the iiiipi wiis now posted and lay at all the streams by which 
he (will) would cross : so he goes by that path. 

'A't'.K Tilt! 10 <if tlie nronc^un of tlic Mnl P(^r< >>'py. of th e 
Indieutiv e l^jt.st j.-^ <iff<-ii ^_mnffi'<l in nip id ennneiatio n. 
especuniy after an ad\erl). ^ 

Ex. lap'iivfla koitn, or l<i'vi'I<i kona, lapo vaveUi kotm, whent-e ho 

cauii'. 

seloku (ttalira yena, ever since he was bom. 

kunini afikit 'i when did he arrive 1' 

kas'nbouti'luto, for kazn H-nbnna'luto, he «li«l not soo anything. 

irati iijta ahalekayrt, he said when he fled. 

knd'ajiko Inpn, gnarsiti ut^l'ohtiiiibn ( - usetrahamba or noiro- 
. hnmba), loug ago he arrived here, we had thouglit he (is) 

was now gone. 

knz'cswa (for il'as<i irVjic<i), he di«l not get to hear. 

oiituinjf ui'aza (uMcwittn) traba isiguli, another now |{ot to lio an 

invalid. 

niij/fs'rtA'/ini (nugfzf trnketwa}, ho would not bo chosen. 

tPiii'epumi»<i iwpi-kr, im'tti (was'eti) aibombe no/>iini/>M><i, he was 

now sending forth the iwpi, ho wa» now myini; (let It jfo) UuU 

it should go with Dniubu/n. 

vtti'^mlf uV !:a, nn'ean (wat'fttt) ' ' '" >. Mpande 

now (reman iig)hadtodeitart. hei theuoeri. 



PECULIARITIES OF CONSTEITCTION. 161 

360. The natives also sometimes clip their words by 
leaving out the pronouns, where the sense is plain from 
the context. 

Ex. sokatele (sokuiatele) elalce ihashi, it being now tired, his horse. 
sehambe (sebeharnbe) benqamula nje nganiahashi, they having now 
gone cutting off (the impi) by horses. 
aso (akuso) umkuhlane na ? is it not a feverish cold? 
seze (sebeze) batiice sivaca ukubulav:a, they having now got to be 
seized and dashed down (in) the killing. 

befike {besifike) singene endhlini lapa yomuntu engeko, we 
had come and entered the hut here of a man he not being 
there. 

361. Adverbs such as luna, lapo, loku, kona, mhia, &c., and 
adverbial expressions, are followed by a participle. 

Ex. uma behamba, ngiya'uhamba nabo, if they go, I will go with 

them. 

lapo exa kona, sokwetshicanyiwe, where he goes the xikxcetshwama 

has been performed = new mealies have been already eaten. 

Jtona umuntu eyauzibixizela nabantu ngomuso odakeni, then a 

a man will tramp himself and his people (to-morrrow), 

some time or other in the mud. 

mhla sit/e kwaMatshana, when we had gone to Matshana's. 

wasibulala ngoba eti. See., he killed us because he said, &c. 

y'iloku ehle wabubula njalo, all the while he sighed continually. 
So lo'muti uyatshetsha ukxikula; auna'nsuku umuntu ewunqumile,^ 

this tree hastens to grow ; it has no days (since) a man 

cut it down. 

ngosuku, lobuhlanu efikile, on the fifth day (it was that) he 

arrived. 

362. In the foUowins^ instances, where reference is made to 
past time, the verb is in the subjunctive. 

Ex. wat'uha abubeuna ka'Tshaka, when Tshaka 's mother died. 
sati uba sibuye empini, when we returned from the impi. 
ute um<i avuke kusasa, when he aro.se this morning. 
wat'um'avuke, when he arose (some time ago). 
sat'ube sifike qede, as soon as we arrived. 
sebet'uba babange-ke, so when they had their family quarrel. 



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